(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Appletons' cyclopædia of American biography"

u ni 



ico 



iJ3 



Ir-q V 






^2^ m \' ■ \ 



'^,. , JS55>.^ 










>i-^-.,-*^^ 



»1^' 



i :-*^:^>. 









mm:-- 



m^ 



.;•; 



I 






.•.•s:-:- 



vr 



•»•': 



•••• 



tlSRARY 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/appletonscyclop05wilsuoft 



APPLETONS' 

CYCLOPAEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY 



VOL. V. 
PICKERING-SUMTER 




.APtLKTLK 3c C 5 



APPLETONS' 



CYCLOPEDIA OF AMERICAN 



BIOGEAPHY 



EDITED BY 

JAMES GRANT WILSON 

AND 

JOHN FISKE 



As it is the commendation of a good huntsman to find game in a wide wood, 
80 it is no imputation if he hath not caught all. Plato. 



VOLUME V. 
PICKERING-SUMTER 




NEW YORK 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 

1, 8 AND 6 BOND STREET 
1891 




Copyright, 1888, 

Bt d. appleton and company. 



LIST OF PORTRAITS ON STEEL. 





ARTIST 


■MORAVER 


PAOB 


Sherman, William Tecumseh 


Sarmiy 


Schleeht 


Frontispiece 


Pierce, Franklin 


Healy 


Hall 


Face 7 


Polk, James Knox 


Poole 


Reich 


50 


Porter, David Dixon 


Bell 


Girach 


75 


Scott, Winfield 


Brady 


Hall 


440 


Seward, William Henry 


Bogardus 


Ritchie 


470 


Sheridan, Philip Henry 


Bell 


Hall 


497 


SIMMS, William Gilmore 


Unknoum 


Oribayedq(f 


588 


Stowe, Harriet Beecher 


Richmond 


Ritchie 


718 


* 
Sumner, Charles 


Warren 


Hall 


744 



SOME OF THE CHIEF CONTRIBUTORS 
TO APPLETONS' CYCLOPAEDIA OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



r 



Adams, Charles Kendall, 

I'lVftiiitMii of lornoll University. 

Allibone, S. Austin, 

Atitliur ■' Dictioimry of Authore." 

Amory, Thomas C, 

Author " Lifi- of (Jcneral Sullivan." etc 

Baird, Henry Carey, 

Kcoiioinlst. 

Bancroft, Gteorge, 

Aiitluir • Hitftory of the United States." 

Bayard, Thomas F., 

Secretary of State. 

Beehler, William H., 

Lieutenant II. S. Navy. 

Bigelow, John, 

Autlior •• Life of Franklin," etc. 

Boker, Gteorge H., 

Poet, late Minister to Russia. 

Bradley, Joseph P., 

Justice I'nited States Supreme Court. 

Brooks, Phillips, 

Author "Sermons in English Churches." 

Browne, Junius Henri, 

Journulist anil .Viithor. 

Buckley, James Monroe, 

Cler!.;yn)ar. aiul Author. 

Carter, Franklin, 

President of Williams College. 

Chandler, William E., 

Kx-Secretary of the Navy. 

Conway, Moncure Daniel, 

Author "Idols and Ideals." 

Cooke, John Esten, 

Author " Life of (Jen. Robert E. Lee." 

Cooper, Miss Susan Fenimore, 

Author " Rural Hours," etc. 

Copp§e, Henry, 

Professor in Lehigh University, Pa. 

Coxe, Arthur Cleveland, 

p. E. Bisho|) of Western New York. 

Cullum, Gen. George W., XJ. S. A., 

Author " Ri'>;ister of West Point Graduates," etc. 

Curtis, George Ticknor, 

Author " Life of James Buchanan," etc. 

Curtis, George William, 

Author and Editor. 

Custer, Mrs. Elizabeth B., 

Author • Tenting on the Plains." 

Davis, Jefferson, 

Ex-President Confederate States of America. 
Delafield, Maturin L., 

Miscellani'ons Writer. 

De Lajicey, Edward F., 

Hx-President (Jenealouical and Biographical Society. 
Didier, Eugene Lemoine, 

Author " Life of Eklgar Allan Poe." 



Dix, Morg^an, 

Rector of Trinity Church, New York. 

Doane, William C, 

p. E. Bishop of Albany. 

Draper, Lyman C, 

Secretary of Wisconsin Historical Society. 

Egle, William Henry, 

Author " History of Pennsylvania." 

Ewell, Benjamin Stoddert, 

President of William and Mary College. 

Fiske, John, 

Author and Professor. 

Frothingham, Octavius Brooks, 

.\uthor " Life of George Ripley." 

Gallatin, Albert H., 

Author and Professor. 

Gayarrd, Chanes E. A., 

Author " History of Louisiana." 

Gerry, Elbridge T., 

Member of New York Bar. 

Gilman, Daniel C, 

President of Jolins Ho|)kin8 LTniverslty. 

Gilmore, James Roberts, 

Author " Rear-Guard of the Revolution." 

Gleig, George Robert, 

Ex-Chaplain-General British Army. 

Greely, Gen. Adolphus W., U. S. A., 

Chief Signal Oftlcer. 

Greene, Capt. Francis Vinton, TJ. S. A., 

Author "The Vicksburg Campaign." 

Griffis, William Elliot, 

Author " Life of Com. .M. C. Perry." 

Hale, Edward Everett, 

Author " Franklin in France." 

Hart, Charles Henry, 

Author " Memoir of William H. Prescott," etc. 

Hay, John, 

Author " Life of Abraham Lincoln." 

Hayne, Paul H., 

Author and Poet. 

Headley, Joel Tyler, 

Author " Washington and his Generals." 

Henry, William Wirt, 

Of the Virginia Historical Society. 

Higginson, Col. Thomas W., 

Author " History of the United States." etc. 

Hills, (George Morgan, 

Author " History of the Church in Burlington, N. J." 

Holmes, Dr. Oliver Wendell, 

Author and Poet. 

Huntingfton, William R., 

Rector of (Jrace Church. New York. 

Isaacs, Abram S., 

Journalist. 

Jay, John, 

Late Minister to Austria. 



VUl 



SOME OP THE CHIEF CONTRIBUTORS. 



Johnson, Bradley Tyler, 

Mtinbir i)f the Maryland Bar. 

Johnson, Rossiter, 

Author and lyiilor. 

Johnston, William Preston, 

Presidi-nt of Tiilane I'uiveniity. 

Jones, Horatio Gates, 

Vice Pnnidi-ni iif Pennsylvania Ilistorical Society. 

Jones, William Alfred, 

AiiMior ■■ C'lmrncti'r and CriticiBin," etc. 

Kendrick, James Ryland, 

Kx-Pri'i*idfnt Vaswir Collt'tje. 

Lathrop, Oeorge Parsons, 

Author •• A Study of Hawthorne," etc. 

Latrobe, John H. B., 

Mt'uibi-r of the .Maryland Bar. 

Ijeach, Josiah Granville, 

Member of the I'hiladclpbia Bar. 
Lewis, William H., 

clergyman and Author. 

Lincoln, B>obert T., 

Ex-Secretary of War. 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, 

Author ■• Life of Hamilton." 

Mackay-Smith, Alexander, 

Archdeacon of New York. 

MacVeagh, Wayne, 

Ex-.\tiorneyGeneral United States. 
Marble, Manton, 

Late Etlitor "The World." 

Mathews, William, 

Aullior '• Orators and Oratory," etc. 

McMaster, John Bach, 

Author •• lli.-itory of the People of the United States." 

Mitchell, Donald G., 

Author ■■ Keveries of a Bachelor," etc. 

Mombert, Dr. Jacob I., 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Ochsenford, S. E., 

Clergyman and Author. 

O'Connor, Joseph, 

Editor Rochester, N. Y., "Poet-Express." 

Parker, Cortlandt, 

Member of the New Jersey Bar. 

Parkmau, Francis, 

Author " Frontenac," " French in Canada," etc. 
Parton, James, 

.\uthor " Life of Andrew Jackson," etc. 

Phelan, Jam.es, 

Editor Memphis, Tenn., "Avalanche." 
Phelps, William Walter, 

Member of Congress from New Jersey. 

Pierrepont, Edwards, 

KxAttorney-(ieneral United States. 

Porter, David D., 

Admiral United States Navy. 

Porter, Gen. Horace, 

Formerly of (ien. Grant's Staff. 

Potter, Henry C, 

p. E. Hishop of New York. 

Preston, Mrs. Margaret J., 

Poet. 



B«ad, John Meredith, 

Ijtte Minister to (ireece. 

Bicord, Frederick W., 

Of New Jersey Ilistorical Society. 

Bobinson, Ezekiel G., 

I'resident of Brown University. 

Bodenbough, Gen. Theophiltis F., 

Author •■ Uncle Sam's Medal of Honor." 

Bomero, Mattias, 

Mexican Minister to the United States. 

Scharf, John Thomas, 

Late of the Confederate Army. 
Schurz, Carl, 

Ex-Secretary of the Interior. 

Schweinitz, Edmund A. de. 

Late Moravian Bishop. 

Sherman, William T., 

Late General of the United States Army. 

Smith, Charles Emory, 

Editor Philadelphia " I'ress." 

Spencer, Jesse Ames, 

Author and Professor. 

Stedman, Edmiind 0., 

Poet and Critic. 

Stills, Charles Janeway, 

Author " History of the Sanitary Commission." 

Stewart, George, Jr., 

President Quebec Historical Society. 

Stoddard, Bichard Henry, 

Author " Songs of Summer." 

Stone, William L., 

Author ' Life of Red Jacket," etc. 

Stowe, Charles Edward, 

Clergyman and Author. 

Strong, William, 

Ex-Justice United States Supreme Court. 

Stryker, William Scudder, 

Adjutant-General of New Jersey. 

Symington, Andrew James, 

Author • Life of William Cullen Bryant." 

Tanner, Benjamin T., 

Editor " African Methodist Episcopal Review." 

Wadleigh, Bainbridge, 

Ex-United States Senator. 

Warner, Charles Dudley, 

Author and Journalist. 

Washbume, Elihu B., 

Late Minister to France. 

Welling, James C, 

President of Columbian University. 
Wilson, Gen. James Grant, 

Author " Bryant and his Friends," etc. 

Wilson, Gen. James Harrison, 

Author " Life of Uly.s8e8 S. Grant." 

Winter, William, 

Poet and Theatrical Critic. 

Winthrop, Bobert C, 

Ex-United States Senator. 

Wright, Marcus Joseph, 

Late of the Confederate Army. 

Young, John Bussell, 

Journalist and Author. 



Among the Contributors to the fifth volume of thu work are the follmDing, 



Samuel Atistin Allibone, LL. D. 

I'rKSCOTT. VVlM.lAM IIlCKLlNU. 

Thomas Coffin Amory. 

Sri.i.ivAX, John. 

Henry Carey Baird. 
Smith. Charlks Ferguson. 

Lieut. William H. Beehler, U. S. N. 

Akticlks ox Okkickrs ok the U. S. Navy. 

Marcus Benjamin, F. C. S. 
TuK Schuyler Family, 
SiLLiMAN, Benjamin, and Family. 

Arthur Elmore Bostwick, Ph. D. 
PoE, Eduar Allan, 
Shays, Daniel. 

James C. Brogan. 

Artk LEs OX Roman Catholic Clergymen. 

Bev. Phillips Brooks, D. D. 
Kiciiarusox, IIexry Hobson. 

Junius Henri Browne. 
. Stoddard, Richard Henry. 

Roberdeau Buchanan. 

'J'he Roberdeau Family, 
Shippex, William. 

Bev. James M. Buckley, D. D., LL. D. 

Articles ON Metikjdist Episcopal Bishops. 

Mrs. Isa Carring^on Cabell. 
Raleuii. Sir Walter, 
The Roosevelt Family. 

Henry W. Cleveland. 

Stephens, Alexaxder Hamilton. 

Moncure Daniel Conway. 

The Raxdolph Family. 

Prof. Henry Copp6e. 
Sheridan, Philip Henry, 
Sherman. William Tecumseh. 

George William Curtis. 
Sumner, Charles. 

Maturin L. Delafield. 

Ross, .James. 

Eugene Lemoine Didier. 
I'ixckxev, William. 

B«v. Morgan Dix, D. D. 
Potter, Horatio. 

William Henry Egle, M. D. 
Rupp. Israel Daniel, 
Steele, John. 



Col. Benjamin Stoddert Ewell. 

Stoddert, Benjamin. 

Prof. John Fiske. 
Putnam, Israel, 
Sumter, Thomas. 

Bobert Ludlow Fowler. 

Pownall, Thomas. 

Octavius Brooks Frothingham. 
Ripley, George. 

James Boberts Gilmore. 

Stark, John. 

Daniel Goodwin. 
The Pitts Family. 
Poole. William Frederick. 

Samuel S. Green. 

RuuGLEs, Timothy. 

Capt. Francis Vinton Greene. 
ScHOFiELD, John McAllister. 

Bev. William Elliot Griffls, D. D. 
Spence, Robert Traill. 

Jacob Henry Hager. 
Polk, James Knox, 
Pope, John. 

Charles Henry Hart. 
Pine, Robert Edge, 
St. Memin, Charles B. J. F. de. 

CoL John Hay. 
Reid, Whitelaw, 
Stone. Amasa. 

Miss Emma Polk Harris. 
Sower, Christopher, and Family, 
Sumner, Edwin Vose. 

Bev. Horace E. Hayden. 

Pollock, Oliver. 

Bev. Joel Tyler Headley. 
Steuben, Baron von. 

Cecil H. C. Howard. 

Sewall*, Samuel, 
Shillaber, Benjamin P. 

Bt, Bev. M. A. de Wolfe Howe. 

Potter, Alonzo. 

Frank Huntington. 
The Rutledge Family, 
Sparks, Jared. 

Abram S. Isaacs, Ph. D. 

Articles on Jewish Cleroymek. 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE FIFTH VOLUME. 



Gen. Bradley Tyler Johnson. 
Pickett, Georoe Edwaru, 
Seduon, James Alexander. 

Bossiter Johnson, Ph. D. 

ReALK, UlCllARl). 

Smith, Peter and Gerrit. 

Horatio Gates Jones. 

PiciH, Ellis. 

John William Jordan. 

Articles on Moravian Cleroymen. 

Bev. James Byland Kendrick, D. D. 
Articles on Baptist Clergymen. 

Samuel Jordan Kirkwood. 

Prick, Hiram. 

Col. Josiah Granville Leach. 

Articles on Noted Pennsylvanians. 

Bev. William H. Lewis. 
Articles on Protestant Episcopal Bishops. 

Bobert Todd Lincoln. 

Stuart, John T. 

Neil Macdonald. 

Articles ox Canadian Statesmen. 

Bev. Alexander Mackay-Smich. 
Smith, Nathan and Perry, 
Stuakt, Robert. 

Luther B. Marsh. 
Stewart, Alvan. 

William Mathews, LL. D. 

Prentiss, Sergeant Smith. 
Story, .Joseph. 

Charles A. Nelson. 

Sibley, John Langdon. 

Bev. S. E. Ochsenford. 

Artk les on Lutheran Clergymen. 

Joseph O'Connor. 

Rochester. Nathaniel. 
Seymour. Horatio. 

Edwards Pierrepont. 
Stanton, Edwin A1cMaster.s. 

Frederick Eugene Pond. 
Pike, Albert. 

Gen. Horace Porter. 

Pullman, (Jeorge Mortimer. 

Mrs. Margaret J. Preston. 
SiMMs, William Gilmore. 

John V. L. Prujoi. 
The Pruyn Family. 

Prof. Thomas Buggies Pynchon. 
The Pvnchon Family. 



Gen. John Meredith Bead. 

Si'AioHT, Richard Dobbs. 

Eugene Coleman Savidge. 
Kawle, William Henry. 

CoL John Thomas Scharf. 

Semmes, Raphael. 

Bev. William Jones Seabury, D. D, 

The Seabury Family. 

Miss Esther Singleton. 
Porter, David, 

STUYVE.SANT, PeTER, 

Dr. Charles Janeway Stills, LL. D. 
Printz, John. 

William Leete Stone. 
The Stone Family. 

Bev. Charles Edward Stowe. 

Stowe, Calvin Ellis and Harriet Beechee. 

Gen. William S. Stryker. 

Stryker, John. 

Andrew James Symington. 

Selkirk, Alexander, 
Stanley, Henry Morton. 

William Christian Tenner. 

ROCHAMBEAU, CoUNT DE. 

Arthiir Dudley Vinton. 

Redpath, James, 

Rice, Allen Thokndike. 

Bainbridge Wadleigh. 

Pierce, Franklin. 

Charles Dudley Warner. 

Smiiii, John. 

John William Weidemeyer. 
Powhatan and Pocahontas, 
Simpson, Edmund. 

Frank Weitenkampf. 

Articles on Artists and Musicians. 

James Clark Welling, LL. D. 

Shields, Charles Woodruff. 

Edward C. Wharton. 

Slidell, John, 
Soule, Pierre. 

Gen. James Grant Wilson. 
Scott, Winkield, 
Stewart, Alexander Turney. 

Gen. James Harrison Wilson. 

Rawlins, John Aakon. 

Gren. Marcus Joseph Wright. 
Pillow, Gideon J., 
Smith, Edmund Kirby. 

John Bussell Young. 
Smalley, George Washburn. 



APPLETONS' 

CYCLOP/EDIA OF AMEKICAN BIOGRAPHY. 



PICKERING 

PICKERING, Charles Whipple, naval officer, 
b. in Portsmouth, N. II.. 23 Dec, 1815; d. in St. 
Aujifiistine. Fla., 29 Feb., 1888. He was appointed 
midshipman on 22 May, 1822, became lieutenant 
on 8 Dec, 1838. and was attached to the Pacific 
squadron. In 1854 he served as executive officer 
of the *' Cyane," which conveyed Lieut. Isaac G. 
Strain {q. v.) and his exploring party to Darien, 
and afterward rescued them and brought them to 
New York. He was at the bombardment of Grey- 
town, Nicaragua, in 1854, which was reduced to 
ashes after four hours' siege. On 14 Sept., 18,55, he 
became commander, and in 1859-'G1 he was inspec- 
tor of a light-house district near Key West, Pla. 
He was commissioned captain on 15 July, 1862. 
commanded the " Kearsarge " in the Mediterranean 
and in the West Indies, and was in charge of the 
" Housatonic" when that vessel was destroyed by a 
submarine torpedo near Charleston on 17 Feb., 
18G5. When he had recovered from his wounds he 
took command of the " Vanderbilt," and in 1865 
he was ordered to Portsmouth navy-yard. He was 
placed on the retired list on 1 Feb., 1867, and 
made commodore on 8 Dec. of the same year. 

PICKERING, John, jurist, b. in Newington. 
N. PI., 22 Sept., 1737: d. in Portsmouth, N. H., 11 
April, 1805. He was graduated at Harvard in 1761, 
studied law, was admitted to the bar. and was a 
member of the New Hampshire constitutional con- 
vention. In 1787 he was elected a member of the 
convention that framed the constitution of the 
United States, but he declined to serve. He was 
judge of the supreme court of New Hampshire in 
1790- '5, and at one time chief justice, and subse- 
quently judge of the U. S. district court for New 
Hampshire; but his mind became impaired, and he 
was removed from office in 1804. Dartmouth gave 
him the degree of LL. D. in 1792. 

PICKERING. Timothy, statesman, b, in Sa- 
lem. Mass., 17 July. 1745; d. there, 29 Jan., 1829. 
He was great-great-grandson of John Pickering, 
who came from England and settled in Salem in 
1642. Timothy was gniduated at Harvard in 1763. 
He studied law. and was admitted to the bar in 
1768, but practised very little, and never attained 
distinction as a lawyer. Pie served for some time as 
register of deeds for Essex county, and at the same 
time showed considerable interest in military stud- 
ies. In 1766 he was commissioned by Gov. Ber- 
nard lieutenant of militia, and in 1775 was elected 
colonel, which office he held until after he had 
joined the Continental array. Twelve days after 

TOL. V. — 1 



PICKERING 

his election be witnessed and peacefully resisted 
Col. Leslie's expedition to Salem. On 19 April he 
marched at the head of 300 men to cut off the re- 
treat of the British from Jjexington, and at sunset 
had reached Winter Hill, in Somerville, a few min- 
utes after the British 
had passed on their 
disorderly retreat to 
Charlestown. In later 
years political ene- 
mies unfairly twitted 
him for failing to ef- 
fect the capture of the 
whole British force on 
this occasion. In the 
course of that year he 
published a small vol- 
ume, illustrated with 
copper-plate engrav- 
ings, entitled " An 
Easy Plan of Disci- 

fline for a Militia." 
t was a useful book, 
and showed consid- 




<^^^^/l^***Vi^- 






erable knowledge of the military art. It was 
adopted by the state of Massachusetts, and was 
generally used in the Continental army until su- 

Eerseded by the excellent manual prepared by 
laron Steuben. In September, 1775, Col. Pickering 
was commissioned justice of the peace, and two 
months later judge of the maritime court for the 
counties of Suffolk, Essex, and Middlesex." In May, 
1776, he was elected representative to the general 
court. On 24 Dec. of that year he set out from 
Salem, at the head of the l5ssex regiment of 700 
men, to join the Continental armv, and after stop- 

?ing for some time, under Gen. fleath's orders, at 
arrytown, reached Morristown, 20 Feb., where he 
made a very favorable impression upon Washington. 
The office of adjutant-general falling vacant by the 
resignation of Col. Reed, Washington at once of- 
fered it to Col. Pickering, who at fii*st declined the 
appointment because he did not consider himself 
fit for it and because it would conflict with the 
discharge of his duty in the place that he already 
held. He afterward reconsidered the matter and 
resigned all his civil offices, and his appointment 
as adjutant-general was announced, 18 June, at 
the headquarters of the army at Middlebrook. He 
then expressed an opinion that the war would not 
and ought not to last longer than a year, and on 
several occasions was inclined to criticise impa- 



PICKERING 



PICKERING 



tiently the superb self-restraint and caution of 
Washington, but for which the war would doubt- 
less have ended that year in the overthrow of the 
American cause. Col. Pickering was present at 
the battles of the Brandywine and Gerinantown, 
and was elected, 7 Nov., a member of the newly 
created board of war. On 5 Aug., 1780, he was 
appointed quartermaster-general of the army, in 
place of Gen. Greene, who had just resigned. He 
joined the army at Peekskill, 27 June, 1781, took 
part in the march to Virginia, and was present at 
the surrender of Cornwallis, of which he gives an 
interesting account in his journal. The tact that 
there was no detention in the course of Washing- 
ton's wonderful march from Hudson river to Chesa- 
peake bay shows with what consummate skill the 
quartermaster's department was managed. At 
every point the different columns found the needed 
supplies and means of transportation in readiness. 
For such a triumph of logistics great credit is due 
to Col. Pickering. He retained the office of quar- 
termaster-general until it was abolished, 28 July, 
1785. He made himself conspicuous, along with 
Alexander Hamilton and Patrick Henry, in oppos- 
ing the harsh and short-sighted vindictive meas- 
ures that drove so many Tories from the country, 
to settle in Nova Scotia and Upper Canada. 

On leaving the army in 1785, he went into business 
in Philadelphia as a commission merchant in part- 
nership with Maj. Samuel Hodgdon, but he did 
not find this a congenial occupation. He was as- 
sured that if he were to return to Massachusetts 
he would be appointed associate justice of the su- 
preme court of that state, but he refused to enter- 
tain the suggestion, because he distrusted his fit- 
ness for that office. He preferred to remove with 
his family, to some new settlement on the frontier, 
and, with some such end in view, had already pur- 
chased extensive tracts of unoccupied land in 
western Pennsylvania and Virginia and in the val- 
ley of the Ohio. In 1787 he settled in Wyoming, 
and there became involved in the disturbances at- 
tendant upon the arrest and imprisonment of John 
Franklin, leader of the insurgent Connecticut set- 
tlers. Col. Pickering's house was attacked by 
rioters, and he would have been seized as a hostage 
for Franklin iiad he not escaped into the woods 
and thereupon made his way to Philadelphia, where 
he was chosen member of the convention for rati- 
fying the new constitution of the United States. 
After his return to Wyoming, toward the end of 
June, 1788, Col. Pickering was taken from his bed 
at midnight by a gang of masked men and carried 
off into the forest. His captors kept him prisoner 
for three weeks, and tried to prevail upon him to 
write to the executive council of the state and have 
P'ranklin set at liberty. When they found their 
threats unavailing, and learned that militia were 
pursuing them, they lost heart, and were glad to 
compound with Col. Pickering and set him free 
on condition that he would intercede for them. 
This affair, the incidents of which are full of ro- 
mantic interest, marked the close of thirty years of 
turbulence in the vale of Wyoming. By the end 
of 1788 complete order was maintainecl, largely 
through the firmness and energy of Col. Pickering. 
In 1789 he was a member of the convention that 
framed the new constitution of Pennsylvania. This 
body did not finish its work till 2 Sept. 1790, and 
the very next day President Washington sent Col. 
Pickering on a mission to the Seneca Indians, who 
had been incensed by the murder of two of their 
tribe by white men at Pine Creek, Pa. The mission 
ended in July, 1791. in the successful negotiation 
of a very important treaty between the United 



States and the Six Nations. Col, Pickering was 
appointed postmaster-general, 14 Aug., 1791, and 
held that office till 1795. In the mean time was 
waged the great war with the Indians of the North- 
western territory, and Col. Pickering was called 
upon several times to negotiate with the chiefs of 
the Six Nations and keep up the alliance with them. 
He knew how to make himself liked and respected 
by the red men, and in these delicate missions was- 
eminently successful. On the resignation of Knox 
he was appointed secretary of war, 2 Jan., 1795. 
The department then included Indian affairs, since 
transferred to the department of the interior. It 
also included the administration of the navy. Id 
these capacities Col. Pickering was instrumental in 
founding the military school at West Point, as 
well as in superintending the building of the three 
noble frigates " Constitution," " United States,"^ 
and " Constellation," that were by and by to win 
imperishable renown. On the resignation of Ran- 
dolph in the autumn of 1795, Col. Pickering for & 
while acted as secretary of state, and after three 
months was appointed to that office. He continued 
as secretary of state, under the administration of 
John Adams, until the difficulties with France, 
growing out of the X. Y. Z. papers, had reached a. 
crisis and led to a serious disagreement between 
Mr. Adams and his cabinet. (See Adams, John.) 
Then Col. Pickering was dismissed from office, 12- 
May, 1800. 

I^rom the department of state to a log-cabin 
on the frontier was a great change indeed. CoL 
Pickering spent the summer and autumn with 
his son Henry and a few hired men in clearing & 
farm in what is now Susquehanna county, near the 
northeastern corner of Pennsylvania, tie had al- 
ways been poor, and was now embarrassed with 
debt. To relieve him of this burden, several citi- 
zens of Boston subscribed f 25,000, and purchased 
from him some of his tracts of unoccupied land. 
After payment of his debts, the balance in cash was 
$14,055.35, and being thus placed "in comfortable 
circumstances he was prevailed upon to return to 
Massachusetts, where he settled iipon a modest 
farm, which he hired, in Danvers. In 1802 he wa& 
appointed chief justice of common pleas, and was a 
candidate for congress for the Essex south district, 
but Jacob Crowninshield was elected over him. 
The next year Col. Pickering was elected to the 
U. S. senate, to fill the vacancy left by Dwight Fos- 
ter's resignation. In 1804 he was elected to the 
senate for six years, and became conspicuous 
among the leaders of the extreme Federalists. He 
disapproved of the Louisiana purchase, and after- 
ward made himself very unpopular in a large part 
of the country by his energetic opposition to- the 
embargo. In 1809 he was hanged in effigy by a 
mob in Philadelphia, and in the following year an 
infamous attempt was made to charge him with 
embezzlement of public funds, but the charge was 
too absurd to gain credence. In 1811 he was for- 
mally censured by the senate for a technical viola- 
tion of the rules in reading certain documents 
communicated by the president before the injunc- 
tion of secrecy ; but as this measure was too plainly 
prompted by vindictiveness, it failed to injure him. 
In 1812, having faile^ of a re-election to the sen- 
ate, he retired to the farm he had purchased some 
time before in Wenham, Mass. ; but he was to return 
to Washington sooner than he expected. In the 
November election he was chosen a member of 
congress by an overwhelming majority. To this 
office he was again elected in 1814, and would have 
been elected a third time had he not declined a 
renomination. During 1817 he was member of 



PICKERING 



PICKERING 



8 



the executive council of Massachusetts, his last 
public office. The last years of his life were !<|>eiit 
in SaU'in, with frequent visits to the WcMihiini farm. 
On Sunday. 4 Jan., 1)^29, sitting in an ill-warnicd 
church, he caught the cold of which he dictl. The 
section of the Fetleralist jmrty to which Col. Pick- 
ering belonged was led by a ^roup of men known 
as the " Essex Junto," comprising Parsons, Cabot, 
Sedgwick, H. G. Otis, and the Lowells, of Massa- 
chusetts, with Griswold and Reeve, of Connecticut. 
In 1804, and again in 1809, the question of a disso- 
lution of the Union and the formation of a sepa- 
rate Eiustern confederacy was seriously discussed 
by thes(> Federalist leaders, and in 1814 thqy were 
foremost in the proceedings that led to the Hart- 
ford convention. Attempts to call such a conven- 
tion had been made in 1808 and 1812. The designs 
of the convention were not clearly understood, but 
the suspicion of disunion tendencies that clung to 
it sufflced to complete the ruin of the Federalist 
partv, which did not survive the election of 1816. 
In the work of the conventionists of 1814 Col. 
Pickering took no direct part, and he was not pres- 
ent at Hartford. Col. Pickering married, 8 April, 
1770, Rebecca White, who was born in Bristol, 
England, 18 July, 1754, and died in Salem, 14 
Aug., 1828. Their wedded life was extremely hap- 
py. Col. Pickering's biography, with copious ex- 
tracts from his correspondence, was begun by his 
son, Octavius Pickering — " Life of Timothy Picker- 
ing " (vol. i., Boston, 1867) — and after the death of 
the latter, was finished by Charles W. Upham 
(vols. ii.-iv., 1873). See also Adams's " Documents 
relating to New England Federalism " (Boston, 
1877) and Schouler's "History of the United 
States " (vols. i. and ii., Washington, 1882). — Timo- 
thy's eldest son, John, philologist, b. in Salem, 
Mass., 7 Feb., 1777; d. in Boston, Mass., 5 May, 
1846, was graduated at Harvard in 1796, and then 
studied law with Edward Tilghman in Philadel- 
phia. In 1797 he became secretary to William 
Smith, on the appointment of the latter as U. S. min- 
ister to Portugal, and two years later he became pri- 
vate secretary to Rufus King, then minister to Great 
Britain. He returned to Salem in 1801, resumed 
his legal studies, and, after being admitted to the 
bar, practised in Salem until 1827. Mr. Pickering 
then removed to Boston, and was appointed city 
solicitor, which office he held until shortly before 
his death. Notwithstanding his large practice, 
he also devoted his attention to politics. He was 
three times in the lower house of the legislature, 
twice a state senator from Essex county and once 
from Suffolk county, and a member of the execu- 
tive council. In 1833 he served on the commission 
for revising and arranging the statutes of Massa- 
chusetts, and the part that is entitled " Of the In- 
ternal Administration of Government " was pre- 
Eared by him. Mr. Pickering became celebrated 
y his philological studies, which gained for him 
the reputation of being the chief founder of Ameri- 
can comparative philology. These he began as a 
young man, when he accompanied his father on 
visits to the Six Nations of central New York, and 
as he grew older they increased by his study abroad 
until, according to Charles Sumner, he was famil- 
iar with the English, French, Portuguese, Italian, 
Spanish, German. Romaic, Greek, and Latin lan- 
guages ; less familiar, but acquainted, with Dutch, 
Swedish, Danish, and Hebrew, and had explored, 
with various degrees of care, Arabic, Turkish, 
Syriac, Persian, Coptic, Sanscrit, Chinese, Cochin- 
Chinese, Russian. Egyptian hieroglvphics, Malay 
in several dialects, and particularly the Indian 
languages of America and the Polynesian islands. 



With this great knowledge at his command, he 
early used it in the preparation of valuable articles 
in reviews, transactions of learne<l WK-ieties, and 
encycloptt'dias. Among these are "On the Adop- 
tion of a Uniform Orthography for the Indian Lan- 
guages of North America (1820); " Remarks on 
the Indian Languages of North America" (1836); 
and " Memoir on the Language and Inhabitants of 
Lord North's Island " (1845) ; also, in book-form, 
*' A Vocabulary or Collection of Words and Phra.ses 
which have been SupfX)sed to be Peculiar to the 
United States of America" (Boston, 1816). and 
" A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Greek Lan- 
guage" (1826). The latter passed through numer- 
ous editions at home and was reprinted aoroad. In 
1806 he was elected Hancock professor of Hebrew 
in Harvard, and later was invited to fill the chair 
of Greek literature in that universitv, both of 
which appointments he declined, as well as that of 
provost of the University of Pennsylvania. He 
was an active member of the board of overseers of 
Harvard from 1818 till 1824. and received the de- 

free of LL. D. from Bowdoin in 1822, and from 
larvard in 1835. Mr, Pickering was one of the 
founders of the American oriental society and its 
president until his death, also president of the 
American academy of arts ana sciences, and a 
member of various learned societies both at home 
and abroad. Besides the works mentioned above, 
he was the author of various legal articles, among 
which are " The Agrarian Laws, " Egyptian Juris- 
prudence," " Lecture on the Alleged Uncertainty 
of Law," and " Review of the International Mc- 
Leod Question " (1825). See "Life of John Pick- 
ering," by his daughter, Mary Ome Pickering (Bos- 
ton, 1887). — Timothy's third son, Henry, poet, b. 
in Newburg, N. Y., 8 Oct., 1781 ; d. in New York 
city, 8 May, 1831, was born in the historic Has- 
brouck house, better known as Washington's head- 
quarters, while his father was with Washington at 
tne siege of Yorktown. He accompanied the fam- 
ily to Boston in 1801, and engaged in business in 
Salem, acquiring in a few years a moderate for- 
tune, from which he contributed largely to the 
support of his father's family and to the education 
of its younger members. In consequence of losses, 
he removed to New York in 1825, and endeavored 
to retrieve his fortune, but without success. He 
then resided at Rondout and other places along 
the Hudson, where he devoted his leisure to read- 
ing, and writing poetry. His writings appeared in 
the "Evening Post," and include "Ruins of Pffs- 
tum " (Salem, 1822) ; " Athens, and other Poems " 
(1824): "Poems" (1830); and "The Buckwheat 
Cake" (1831).— Another son of Timothy, Octa- 
yius, lawyer, b. in Wyoming, Pa., 2 Sept., 1791 ; 
d. in Boston, Mass., 29 Oct., 1868, was graduated 
at Harvard in 1810, and then studied law with his 
brother, John Pickering. In March, 1816. he was 
atlmitted to the bar of Suffolk county, and opened 
an office in Boston. He assisted in reporting the 
debates and proceedings of the Massachusetts con- 
stitutional convention of 1820. In 1822-'40 he 
was reporter of the supreme court of Massachu- 
setts. During these years he prepared the " Re- 
ports of Cases in the Supreme Judicial Court of 
Massachusetts " (24 vols., Boston, 1822-*40). On 
retiring from office he visited Europe and spent 
seven years in England and on the continent. He 
took an active interest in natural history, was a 
fellow of the American academy of arts and sci- 
ences, and one of the founders, in December, 1814, 
of the New England society for the promotion of 
natural history, which subsequentiv became the 
Linna>an society of New England, anil out of which 



PICKERING 



PICKETT 



has grown the Boston society of natural history. 
His literary work included, besides various legal 
i>ai>crs, " A Hept)rt of the Trial by Impeachment of 
James Prescott" with William H. Gardiner (Bos- 
ton, 1821), and he prepared the first volume of 
the " Life of Timothy Pickering by his Son " (4 
vols., 1867-73). of which the remaining volumes 
were issued by Charles W. Upham.— Timothy's 
grandson, Charles, physician, b. in Susquehanna 
county. Pa., 10 Nov., 1805; d, in Boston, Mass., 17 
March, 1878, was graduated at Harvard in 1823, 
and at its medical dejiartment in 182G, after which 
he si'ttk'(l in the jtnK-tice of his profession in Phila- 
delphia. Meanwhile he developed interest in natu- 
ral history and became a member of tlie Philadel- 
phia acjulemy of natural sciences, to whose trans- 
actions he contributed valuable panei^. In 1838-'42 
he was naturalist to the U. S. exploring expedition 
under Capt. Charles Wilkes. On his return he 
was a year in Washington, and then visited east- 
ern Africa, travelling from Egypt to Zanzibar, and 
thence to India for the purpose of more thoroughly 
studving the juM>ple of tliose parts of the world that 
had not been visited by the expedition. Nearly 
two years were occupied in these researches, after 
whicli he devoted himself to the preparation of 
"The Races of Man and their Geographical Dis- 
tribution " (Boston, 1848), which forms the ninth 
volume of the " Reports of the U. S. Exploring 
ExiJcdition," and was republished in " Bonn's Il- 
lustrated Library" (London, 1850). This he fol- 
lowed N\ ith his " (ieographieal Distribution of Ani- 
mals and Man " (1854) and " Geographical Dis- 
tribution of Plants" (1801). Dr. Pickering was a 
member of the American oriental society, the 
American academy of arts and sciences, the Ameri- 
can philosophical society, and other learned bodies, 
to wnose proceedings he contributed. At the time 
of his death he left in manuscript "Chronological 
History of Plants: Man's Record of his own Ex- 
istence illustrated through their Names, Uses, and 
Companionship" (Boston, 1879). — Timothy'sgreat- 
gmndson. Edward Charles, astronomer, b. in 
Boston, Mass.. 19 July, 184G, was graduated in the 
civil engineering course at tlie Lawrence scientific 
school of Harvard in 1865. During the following 
year he was called to the Massachusetts institute of 
technology as assistant instructor of physics, of 
which branch he held the full professorship from 
1868 till 1877. Prof. Pickering devised plans for 
the physical laboratory of the institute, and in- 
troduced the experimental method of teaching 
phvsics at a time when that mode of instruction 
had not been adopted elsewhere. His scientific 
work during these years consisted largely of re- 
searches in physics, notably investigations on the 
polarization of light and the laws of its reflection 
and dispersion. He also described a new form 
of spectrum telescope, and invented in 1870 a tele- 
phone-receiver, which he publicly exhibited. He 
observed the total eclipse of the sun on 7 Aug., 
1869, with the party that was sent out by the Nau- 
tical almanac oflice, at Mount Pleasant,' Iowa, and 
was a memlier of the U. S. coast survey expedition 
to Xeres, Spain, to observe that of 22 Dec, 1870, 
having on that occasion charge of the polariscope. 
In 1876 he was appointed professor of astronomy and 
geodesy, and director of the observatory at Har- 
vard, and under his management this observatory 
has liecome one of the foremost in the United 
States. More than twenty assistants now take part 
in investigations under his direction, and the in- 
vested funds of the observatory have increased from 
$176,000 to 1654.000 during his administration. 
His principal work since he accepted this appoint- 



ment has been the determination of the relative 
brightness of the stars, which is accomplished by 
means of a meridian photometer, an instrument 
which has been specially devised for this purpose, 
and he has prepared a catalogue giving the bright- 
ness of over 4,000 stars. Since 1878 he has also 
made photometric measurements of Jupiter's satel- 
lites while they are undergoing eclipse, and of the 
satellites of Mars and other very faint objects. On 
the death of Henry Draper (q. v.) his widow requested 
Prof. Pickering to continue important researches 
on the application of photography to astronomy, 
!is a Henry Draper memorial, and the study of the 
spectra of the stars by photography has thus been 
undertaken on a scale that was never before at- 
tempted. A fund of $250,000, left by Uriah A, 
Boyden (q. v.) to the observatory, has been utilized 
for the special study of the advantages of veiy ele- 
vated observing stations. Prof. Pickering has also 
devoted attention to such subjects as mountain- 
surveying, the height and velocity of clouds, pa- 
pers on which he has contributed to the Appala- 
chian club, of which he was president in 1877, and 
again in 1882. He is an associate of the Royal 
astronomical society of London, from which in 1886 
he received its gold medal for photometric research- 
es, and, besides membership in other scientific so- 
cieties in the United States and Europe, he was 
elected in 1873 to the National academy of sciences, 
by which body he was further honored in 1887 with 
tiie award of the Henry Draper medal for his work 
on astronomical physics. In 1876 he was elected a 
vice-president of the American association for the 
advancement of science, and presented his retiring 
address before the section of mathematics and 
physics at the Nashville meeting. In addition to 
his many papers, which number about 100, he pre- 

gired annual " Reports on the Department of 
hysics " for the Massachusetts institute of tech- 
nology, and the " Annual Reports of the Director 
of the Astronomical Observatory," likewise editing 
the " Annals of the Astronomical Observatory of 
Harvard College." He has also edited, with notes, 
" The Theory of Color in its Relations to Art and 
Art Industry," by Dr. William von Bezold (Bos- 
ton, 187G), and he is the author of " Elements of 
Physical Manipulation " (2 parts, Boston, 1873-6). 
— Edward Charles's brother. William Henry, 
astronomer, b. in Boston, Mass., 15 Feb., 1858, 
was graduated at the Massachusetts institute of 
technology in 1879, and in 1880-7 was instructor 
of physics in that institution. In March, 1887, 
he was called to the charge of the Boyden depart- 
ment of the Harvard observatory, which place he 
still fills. He founded in 1882, in connection with 
the Institute of technology, the first regular labo- 
ratory where dry-plate photography was systemat- 
ically taught to numerous pupils. Mr. Pickering 
observed the solar eclipse of 1878 from Colorado, 
and in 1886 conducted an expedition to the West 
Indies to observe the total eclipse of that year. In 
1887 he led an expedition to Colorado to make as- 
tronomical observation^ for the purpose of select- 
ing the most suitable site for an astronomical ob- 
servatory. In addition to various articles on pho- 
tography in technical periodicals, and the transac- 
tions of the American academy, he has published 
"Walking Guide to the Mount Washington 
Range " (Boston, 1882). 

PICKETT, Albert James, historian, b. in An- 
son county, N. C, 13 Aug., 1810; d. in Montgom- 
ery, Ala., 28 Oct., 1858. He removed with his 
father to Autauga county, Ala,, in 1818, and stud- 
ied law, but never practised his profession, devot- 
ing his life to literary pursuits and to the care of 



PICKETT 



PICQUET 




his plantation. He served in the Creek war in 
1830. He was the author of a "History of Ala- 
bama" (3 vols., Charleston, 1851), and at the time 
of his death was preparing a comprehensive his- 
tory of the southwest. See "Brief Biographical 
Sketch of Col. Albert J. Pickett," by Crawford M. 
Jackson (Montgomerv, 1859). 

PICKETT, George Edward, soldier, b. in Rich- 
mond, Va., 25 Jan., 1825 ; d. in Norfolk, Va., 30 July, 
1875. His father was a resident of Henrico county, 
Va, The son was appointed to the U. S." military 
academy from Hlinois, 
and graduated in 1846. 
He served in the war 
with Mexico, was made 
2d lieutenant in the 2d 
infantry, 3 March, 1847, 
was at the siege of Vera 
Cruz and was engaged 
in all the battles that 
preceded the assault 
and capture of the city 
of Mexico. He was 
transferred to the 7th 
infantry, 13 July, 1847, 
- and to the 8th infantry, 

./^J^ y. .JL^ 18 J"ly' 1847, and bre- 
'^^Cyy^U^^UyCc' vetted 1st lieutenant, 8 
Sept., 1847, for gallant 
and meritorious con- 
duct at Contrcras and Churubusco, and captain, 
13 Sept., for Chapultepec. He became captain in 
the 9th infantry. 3 March, 1855, after serving in 
garrisons in Texas from 1849, and in 1856 he was 
on frontier duty in the northwest territory at 
Puget sound. Capt. Pickett was ordered, with 
sixty men, to occupy San Juan island then, dur- 
ing the dispute with Great Britain over the north- 
west boundary, and the British governor, Sir 
James Douglas, sent three vessels of war to eject 
Pickett from his position. He forbade the land- 
ing of troops from the vessels, under the threat 
of firing upon them, and an actual collision was 
prevented only by the timely arrival of the Brit- 
ish admiral, by whose order the issue of force 
was postponed. For his conduct on this occasion 
Gen. Harney in his report commended Capt. Pickett 
" for the cool judgment, ability, and gallantry he 
had displayed, and the legislature of Washington 
territory passed resolutions thanking him for it. He 
resigned from the army, 25 June. 1861, and after 
great difficulty and delays reached Virginia, where 
he was at once commissioned colonel in the state 
forces and assigned to duty on Rappahannock river. 
In February, 1862, he was made brigadier-general 
in Gen. James Longstreet's division of the Confed- 
erate army under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, which 
was then called the Army of the Potomac, but af- 
terward became the Army of Northern Virginia. 
His brigade, in the retreat before McClellan up the 
peninsula and in the seven days' battles around 
Richmond, won such a reputation that it was 
known as " the game-cock brigade." At the battle 
of Gaines's Mills, 27 June, 1862, Pickett was severe- 
ly wounded in the shoulder, and he did not rejoin 
his command until after the first Maryland cara- 

Saign. He was then made major-general, with a 
ivision that was composed entirely of Virginians. 
At the battle of Fredericksburg this division held 
the centre of Lee's line. For an account of Pick- 
ett's charge at Gettysburg, 3 July, 1863, see the 
articles Lee, Robert E., and Meade, George G. 
Pickett was afterward placed in command in lower 
Virginia and eastern North Carolina. In May, 
1864, he defended Petersburg and saved it from 



surprise and capture by Gen. Benjamin F. Butler. 
In the attack on Gen. Butler's forces along the line 
of the railroad between Richmond and Petersburg, 
Pickett's division captured the works. Gen. Lee, 
in a letter of thanks and congratulation, dated 17 
June, said : " We tried very hard to stop Pickett's 
men from capturing the breastworks of the ene- 
my, but coulu not do it." At Five Forks his di- 
vision received the brunt of the National attack, 
and was entirely disorganized. After the war Gen. 
Pickett returned to Richmond, where he spent the 
remainder of his life in the life-insurance Vjusiness. 
His biography by Edwartl A. Pollard is in Pol- 
lard's " Life and Times of Robert E. Lee and his 
Companions in Arms" (New York, 1871). See also 
" Pickett's Men," by Walter Harrison (1870). 

PICKETT, James C, commissioner of patents, 
b. in Fauquier countv, Va., 6 Feb., 1793; d. in 
Washington. D. C, 10 July, 1872. He removed 
with his parents to Mason county, Ky., in 1796, 
and received a good education. He became 3d 
lieutenant of U. S. artillery in 1813, and was pro- 
moted 2d lieutenant in 1814, but left the service at 
the close of the war with England. He served again 
as deputy quartermaster-general from 1818 till 1821, 
when he resigned, returned to Mason countv, and 
practised law. He edited the " Maysville Eagle " 
in 1815, was a member of the legislature in 1822, 
secretary of the state from 1825 till 1828, and secre- 
tary of legation in Colombia from 1829 till 1833, 
acting part of the time as charge d'affaires. He 
was commissioner of the L^. S. patent-office in 1835, 
fourth auditor of the treasury in 1835-'8, minister 
to Ecuador in 1838, and charge d'affaires in Peru 
from 1838 till 1845. For a few years he edited 
" The Congressional Globe " in Washington, D. C. 

PICKNELL, WiUiam Lamb, artist, b. in 
Hinesburg, Vt., 23 Oct., 1854. He studied under 
George Inness, in Rome, in 1873-'5, and with Ge- 
rome, in Paris, in 1875-'7. Then for four years 
he lived and worked in Brittany, where he painted 
under Robert Wylie, but in 1882 he returned to 
the United States. He received honorable mention 
at the Paris salon in 1880, and medals in Boston in 
1881 and 1884. He was elected a member of the 
Society of American artists in 1880, and of the So- 
ciety of British artists in 1884. Among his works 
are " Route de Conearneau " (1880) ; " On the Bor- 
ders of the Marsh." in the Academy of fine arts, 
Philadelphia (1880); "A Stormy "Day" (1881); 
"Coast of Ipswich," in Boston art" museum (1882); 
"Sunshine and Drifting Sand" (1883); " A Sultn- 
Day" (1884); "Wintry March" (1885); "Bleak 
December" and "After the Storm" (1886); and 
" November Solitude " (1887). 

PICQUET, Francois, French missionary, b. in 
Bourg en Bresse, 6 Dec, 1708; d. in Verjon, 15 
July, 1781. He was the son of poor laborers, but 
by his intelligence interested the vicar of his par- 
ish, who sent him to school. He was employed in 
missionary work among peasants when he was 
eighteen years old, united with the Congregation 
of St. Sulpice in 1729, and, after being ordained 
priest, was sent at his request to Canada. He ar- 
rived in Montreal in December, 1735, and fixed his 
residence in 1737 among the Indians near Lake 
Temiscaming, founding there a mission, which 
prospered from the outset. He induced the Algon- 
quins and Nipissings to swear allegiance to the 
king of France, and, being much impressed with 
the strategical position of Lake Deux Montagues, 
he induced these tribes to abandon their old quar- 
ters in 1740, and established them in the fertile 
regions around the lake, thus securing Montreal 
from possible invasion from the north. He re- 



6 



PICTON 



PIDANSAT DE MAIROBERT 



ceived 5,000 livres from Louis XV„ and employed 
it to build H limestone fortress, which wjis afterward 
of great value to the colony during the struggle 
with the English. He then induced the Indians to 
cultivate the s(iil, kept up a corresjKjndence with 
the northern anil southern tribes, and was often 
chosen as arltitrator Ijetween the natives and the 
colonial authorities. During the war of 1742 he 
armed and disciplined the Indians of his mission, 
and did good service. He obtained in 1749 from 
Gov. La Galissonniere permission to l)egin a new 
settlement, and built La Presentation (now Kings- 
ton). In 1758 he was summoned to Paris by the 
secretary of the navy to report on his mission, and 
received from the king a present of 3,000 livres 
and some books. Returning to Canada in the 
spring of 1754, he took an active part in the fol- 
lowing war, twice saved Quelwc from invasion, de- 
stroyed the English forts and establishments upon 
the southern shores of Lake Ontario, also partici- 
pating in the defeat of Gen. Braddock. He 
fought under Montcalm, was slightly wounded at 
QuelK'c in 1759, and after the surrender of that 

[)la(;e resolved to return to France, as the English 
lad put a price on his head. Assuming Indian 
dress, he escaped from the citv during a stormy 
night, rejoined his Indians, and, crossing northern 
Cannda and Michigan, went by way of Illinois and 
Mississi{)pi rivers to New Orleans, where he arrived 
in the spring of 1700. Being detained twenty-two 
months in the latter city, he occupied his time in 
studying the natural resources of the country. In 
October, 1702, he landed in Bordeaux after a dan- 
gerous journcv, in which the vessel wjis twice 
chased by English cruisers. The assemblies of the 
clergy of France that met in 1765 and 1770 recom- 
mended him to the king and twice voted him a 
present of 1,200 livres for his labors in Canada. In 
1777 Pope Pius VI. summoned hira to Rome, paid 
the exi>enses of his journey, gave him a public 
audience, appointed him a chamberlain, and made 
him a present of 5,000 livres. Despite these high 
recommendations, Louis XV., who felt that the 
loss of Canada was owing to his neglect of the best 
interests of France, disliked everything that might 
remind him of his former possession, and refused 
to provide for Picquet, who died in great poverty 
at the house of his sister, a peasant-woman of the 
little \ illage of Verjon. 1 he ?]nglish, who had! 
learned to fear and respect him, gave him the sur- 
name of the Great Jesuit of the West, but Picquet 
had never any connection with that company, of 
which he was even an opponent. The astronomer 
Ijalande wrote an account of Picquet's life, which 
was published in the"Lettres edifiantes" (Paris, 
1786). Picouet published " Mt'moire sur I'etat de 
la colonic du lac des Deux Montagues" (1754); 
" Memoire sur les Algonquins et Xipissings " 
(1754); "Histoire du role joue par les Indiens lors 
de rinva.sion du Canada en 1756," which was writ- 
ten at the suggestion of Pope Pius VI. (1778); 
and " Histoire des etablissements de la foi fondes 
par la congregation de Saint Sulpice dans la Nou- 
velle France du Nord ou Canada^' (2 vols., 1780). 

PICTON, John Moore White, physician, b. in 
Woodbury, N. J., 17 Nov., 1804; d. in ^ew Orleans, 
La., 28 Oct., 18.58. His father. Rev. Thomas Pic- 
ton, was chaplain and professor of geography, 
history, and ethics in 1818-25 in the U. S. military 
academy, where the son was graduated in 1824. 
He was jissigned to the 2d artillery, but resigned 
his commission in March, 1832, and in that year 
was gnuluated at the medical department of the 
University of Pennsylvania. He settled in New 
Orleans, where he practised his profession for thirty- 



two years, acquiring reputation as an operator. He 
served for many years as home surgeon in the Nevr 
Orleans charity hospital, and was president of the 
medical department of the University of Louisiana. 
He was a founder of the New Orleans school of 
medicine in 1856, in which he was professor of ob- 
stetrics from 1856 till 1858.— His cousin, Thomas, 
jounialist, b. in New York city, 9 May, 1822 ; d. 
there, 20 Feb., 1891, entered the University of 
New York, where he was graduated in 1840. After 
studying law he was admitted to the bar in 1843. 
Several years later he visited Europe, and, after 
travelling over the continent, resided in the envi- 
rons of Paris, participating in the Revolution of 
1848 as an officer of the 2d legion of the Banlieu. 
Upon his return to New York he began the publi- 
cation of " The Era" in 1850 in conjunction with 
Henry W. Herbert, and in 1851 he became one of 
the editors of " The Sachem," afterward entitled 
the " True American," a vigorous advocate of the 
Associated order of united Americans. A little 
later he edited the '* True National Democrat," the 
organ of the Free-soilers. On the reorganization 
of the " Sunday Mercury " he became one of its 
editors, and contributed to the paper a series of 
popular stories under the name of "Paul Preston." 
These were subsequently published in book-form, 
and had an extensive sale. At the beginning of 
the civil war he raised a battalion, which was 
consolidated with the 38th New York regiment, 
with which he went to the field. During the reign 
of Maximilian in Mexico, Mr. Picton was employed 
in the service of the Liberals, and wrote a " Defence 
of Liberal Mexico," which was printed for distri- 
bution among the statesmen of this country. Gen. 
Rosecrans remarked that this publication had 
" done more for the cause of Mexico than all oth- 
er external influences combined." He translated 
some of the best modern romances from the French, 
and several of his light dramas are popular. He 
was the author of '* Reminiscences of a Sporting 
•Journalist," issued in serial form, and, besides the 
works mentioned, edited "' Frank Forester's Life 
and Writings" (New York, 1881). 

PIDANSAT DE MAIROBERT, Mathien 
Francois, French author, b. in Chaource, Cham- 
pagne, 20 Feb., 1727; d. in Paris, 29 March, 1779. 
He was brought up in the house of Madame Doub- 
let de Persan, was afterward one of the members 
of the literary society that held meetings there, 
and contributed to the manuscript journal of the 
society, which was utilized afterward in the prepa- 
ration of the " Memoires secrets" (1770). Pidan- 
sat became in 1760 royal censor for new publica- 
tions, and was elected an associate member of the 
Academy of Caen, but, having been involved in the 
noted trial of Marquis de Brunoy, he fell into mel- 
ancholy and shot himself. He published many 
works, which enjoyed a great reputation in their 
time. Those that relate to this country are the 
most curious, as the author had access to secret 
documents that were afterward lost during the 
French revolution. They include " Lettres sur les 
veritables limites des possessions Anglaises et 
Frangaises dans I'Amerique " (Bale, 1755) ; " Re- 
ponse aux ecrits des Anglais sur les limites de 
rAmerique Anglaise" (Paris, 1755); "Memoire 
sur I'etat de la Compagnie des Indes Occidentales " 
(Bale, 1756); "Principes sur la marine" (Paris, 
1775); "Discussions soramaires sur les anciennes 
limites de I'Arcadie" (Bale, 1776); " Anedoctes 
sur Madame la Comtesse de Barry " (London, 1776) ; 
"L'Observateur Anglais" (4 vols., Amsterdam, 
1778-'9). which was continued after his death, and 
several times reprinted under the title " L'Espion 





"J i.pp" GllSr, 'I- 



PIEPER 



PIERCE 



Anglais," and many memoirs on the administra- 
tion iiiul commerce of the French colonies in both 
Americas. 

PIKPKR, Franz August Otto, clergyman, b. 
in Carrvitz, Poijieraiiia, (lermany, 27 June, 1852. 
He received his preliiiiiuarv training at the Dom- 
Gymnasium, at Colberg, Pomerania. After his 
settlement in this country he was graduated at 
Northwestern university, Watertown, Wis., in 1872, 
and at Conconlia Lutheran theological seminary, 
St. Louis, Mo., in 1875. In the same year he was 
ordained to the ministry at Centreville, Wis., where 
he remained until 1878. In that year he liecame 
professor of theology in Concordia seminary, St. 
Louis, Mo. This post he held until June, 1887, 
when he was elected president of the institution. 
He is a frequent contributor to denominational 
periotlieals, and has published " Das Grundbekennt- 
niss dor ev.-Lutherischen Kircho, mit einer ge- 
schichtlic'hen Einleitung und kurzen erklSrenden 
Aninorkungen versehen" (St. Louis, 1880). 

PIERCE, Byron Root, soldier, b. in East 
Bloomfleld, Ontario co., N. Y.. 20 Sept., 1829. He 
received an academical education at Rochester, 
N. Y., and, removing to Michigan, early became in- 
terested in military matters. At the beginning of 
the civil war he enlisted in the 3d Michigan volun- 
teers, and was commissioned successively captain, 
major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel of that regi- 
ment, which served throughout the war with the 
Army of the Potomac. He was made brigadier- 
general of volunteers, 7 June, 1864, brevetted major- 
general, 6 April, 1865, and mustered out of the 
service on 24 Au^. At present (1888) he is comman- 
dant of the Soldiers' home at Grand Rapids, Mich. 

FIERCE, FrankHn, fourteenth president of 
the United States, b. in Hillsborough, N. H., 23 
Nov., 1804; d. in Concord, N. H., 8 Oct., 1869. 
His father, Benjamin Pierce (b. in Chelmsford, 
Mass., 25 Dec, 1757; d. in Hillsborough, N. H., 
1 April, 1839), on the da^ of the battle of Lexing- 
ton enlisted in the patriot army and served until 
its disbandment in 1784, attaining the rank of cap- 
tain and brevet major. He had intense political 
convictions, was a Republican of the school of 
Jefiferson, an ardent admirer of Jackson, and the 
leader of his party in New Hampshire, of which he 
was elected governor in 1827 and 1829. He was a 
farmer, and trained his children in his own simple 
and laborious habits. Discerning signs of future 
distinction in his son Franklin, he gave him an 
academical education in well-known institutions at 
Hancock, Francestown, and Exeter, and in 1820 
sent him to Bowdoin college, Brunswick, Me. His 
college-mates there were John P. Hale, his future 

?olitical rival, Prof. Calvin E. Stowe, Sergeant S. 
'rentiss. the distinguished orator, Henry W. Long- 
fellow, and Nathaniel Hawthorne, his future biog- 
rapher and life-long personal friend. His ambition 
was then of a martial cast, and as an officer in a 
company of college students he enthusiastically de- 
voted himself to the study of military tactics. 
This was one reason why he found himself at the 
foot of his class at the end of two years in college. 
Stung by a sense of disgrace, he devotetl the two 
remaining years to hard study, and when he was 
Ifnwluated in 1824 he was third in his class. While 
m college, like many other eminent Americans, he 
taught in winter. After taking his degree he be- 
gan the study of law at Portsmouth, in the office 
of Levi Woodbury, where he remained about a 
year. He afterward spent two years in the law- 
school at Northampton, Mass., and in the office 
of Judge Edmund Parker at Amherst, N. H. 
In 1827 he was admitted to the bar and began 



practice in his native town. Soon afterward he 
argued his first jury cause in the court-hou.se at 
Amherst. This effort (as is often the case with emi- 
nent orators) was a failure. But he was not de- 
spndent. He replied to the sympathetic expres- 
sions of a friend: "I will try nine hundred and 
ninety-nine cases, if clients continue to trust me, 
and if I fail just as I have to-day, I will try the 
thousandth. I shall live to argue cases in this 
court-house in a manner that will mortify neither 
myself nor my friends." 

\Vith his popular (jualities it was inevitable that 
he should talce a prominent part in the sharp politi- 
cal contests of his native state. Ho es|)oused the 
cause of Gen. Jackson with ardor, and in 1829 was 
elected to represent his native town in the legisla- 
ture, where, by three subsequent elections, he served 
four years, the last two as speaker, for which office 
he received three fourths of all the votes of the 
house. In 1833 he was elected to represent his na- 
tive district in the lower house of congress, where 
he remained four years. He serve<l on the judici- 
ary and other important committees, but di(l not 
participate largely in the debates. That could not 
be expected of so young a man in a body contain- 
ing so many veteran politicians and statesmen who 
had already acqiiired a national reputation. But 
in February, 1834, he made a vigorous and sensible 
speech against the Revolutionary claims bill, con- 
demning it as opening the door to fraud. In De- 
cember, 1835, he spoke and voted against receiving 
petitions for the abolition of slavery in the District 
of Columbia. In June, 1836, he spoke against a 
bill making appropriations for the military academy 
at West Point. lie contended that that institution 
was aristocratic in its tendencies, that a profes- 
sional soldiery and standing armies are always 
dangerous to the liberties of the people, and that 
in war the republic must rely upon her citizen 
militia. His experience in the Mexican war after- 
ward convinced him that such an institution is 
necessary, and he frankly acknowledged his error. 
It is hardly necessary to add that while in congress 
Mr. Pierce sustained President Jackson in opposing 
the so-called internal improvement policy. In 
1837 he was elected to the U. S. senate. He was 
the youngest member of that lx)dy, and had barely 
arrived at the legal age for that office when he took 
his seat. In January, 1840, he spoke upon the 
Indian war in Florida, defending the secretary of 
war from the attacks of his political opjwnents. In 
December of the same year he advocated and carried 
through the senate a bill granting a pension to an 
aged woman whose husband, Isaac Davis, hati been 
among the first to fall at Concord bridge on 19 April, 
1775. In July, 1841, he spoke against the fiscal 
bank bill, and in favor of an amendment prohibit- 
ing members of congress from borrowing money of 
the bank. At the same session he made a strong 
speech against the removal of government officials 
for their political opinions, in violation of the 
pledges to the contrary which the Whig leaders 
had given to the country in the canvass of 1840. 
During the five years that he remained in the sen- 
ate it numbered among its members Benton, Bu- 
chanan, Clay, Calhoun, Webster, Woodbury, and 
Silas Wright, an array of veteran statesmen and in- 
tellectual giants who IukI long Ix'en party leaders, 
and who occupied the whole field of debate. Among 
such men the young, modest, and comparatively 
obscure member from New Hampshire could not, 
with what his biographer calls " his exquisite sense 
of propriety," force himself into a conspicuous 
position, t'here is abundant proof, however, that 
ne won the friendship of his eminent associates. 



8 



PIERCE 



PIERCE 



In 1843 he resigned his seat in the senate, with 
the intention of permanently withdrawing from 
public life. He again returned to the practice of 
law, settling in Concord, N. H.. whither he had re- 
movetl his family in 18:^8, and where he ever after- 
ward resided. In 1845 he wjis tendered by the 
governor of New Hampshire, but declined, an ap- 
pointment to the U. 8. senate to fill the vacancy 
occasioned by the appointment of Levi Woodbury 
to the U. S. supreme bench. He also declined the 
nomination for governor tendered to him by the 
Democratic state convention. He declined, too, an 
appointment to the oflice of U. S. attorney-general, 
offered to him in 1845 by President Polk, by a letter 
in which he said that when he left the senate he did 
so '* with the fixed purpose never again to be volun- 
tarily separated from his family for any considerable 
time', except at the call of his country in time of 
war." But while thus evincing his determination 
to remain in private life, he did not lose his interest 
in political affairs. In the councils of his party in 
New Hampshire he exercised a very great influence. 
He zealously advocated the annexation of Texas, 
declaring that. whUe he jircferred it free, he would 
take it with slaverv rather than not have it at all. 
When John P. Hafe. in 1845, accepted a Democratic 
renomination to congress, in a letter denouncing 
annexation, the Democratic loaders called another 
convention, which repudiated him and nominated 
another candidate. Through the long struggle 
that followed. Pierce led the Democrats of his state 
with great skill and unfaltering courage, though 




not always to success. He found in Hale a rival 
worthy of his steel. A debate between the two 
champions, in the old Xorth church at Concord, 
aroused the keenest interest throughout the state. 
Each party was satisfied with its own advocate ; 
but to contend against the rising anti-slavery senti- 
ment of the north was a hopeless struggle. The 
stars in their courses fought against slavery. Hale 
was elected to the U. S. senate in 1840 by a coali- 
tion of Whigs and Free-soilers, and several advo- 
cates of free-soil principles were elected to congress 
from New Hampshire before 1850. 

In 1846 the war with Mexico began, and New 
Hami)shire was called on for a battalion of troops. 
Pierce's military ardor was rekindled. He imme- 
diately enrolled himself as a private in a volunteer 
company that was organized at Concord, enthu- 
siastically began studying tactics and drilling in 
the ranks, and was soon appointed colonel of the 
9th regiment of infantry. On 3 March, 1847, he 
received from President Polk the commission of 
brigadier-general in the volunteer army. On 27 
March, 1847, he embarked at Newport, R. I., in 
the bark " Kepler," with Col. Ransom, three com- 
panies of the 9th regiment of infantry, and the 
officers of that detachment, arriving at Vera Cruz 
on 28 June. Much difficulty was experienced in 
procuring mules for transportation, and the brigade 



was detained in that unhealthful locality, exposed 
to the ravages of yellow fever, until 14 July, when 
it began its march to join the main army under 
Gen. Winfield Scott at Puebla. The junction was 
effected (after a toilsome march and several en- 
counters with guerillas) on 6 Aug., and the next 
day Gen. Scott began his advance on the city of 
Mexico. On 19 Aug. the battle of Contreras was 
fought. The Mexican General Valencia, with 7,000 
troops, occupied a strongly intrenched camp. Gen. 
Scott's plan was to divert the attention of the 
enemy by a feigned attack on his front, while his 
flank could be turned and his retreat cut off. But 
the flanking movement being much delayed, the 
attack in front (in which Gen. Pierce led his brigade) 
became a desperate struggle, in which 4,000 raw 
recruits, who could not use their artillery, fought 
7,000 disciplined soldiers, strongly intrenched and 
raining round shot and shells upon their assailants. 
To reach the enemy, the Americans who attacked 
in front were obliged to cross the pedregal, or lava- 
bed, the crater of an extinct volcano, bristling with 
sharp, jagged, splintered rocks, which afforded 
shelter to the Mexican skirmishers. Gen. Pierce's 
horse stepped into a cleft between two rocks and 
fell, breaking his own leg and throwing his rider, 
whose knee was seriously injured. Though suffer- 
ing severely, and urged by the surgeon to withdraw, 
Gen. Pierce refused to leave his troops. Mounting 
the horse of an officer who had just been mortally 
wounded, he rode forward and remained in the 
saddle until eleven o'clock at night. The next 
morning Gen. Pierce was in the saddle at daylight, 
but the enemy's camp was stormed in the rear by 
the flanking party, and those of its defenders who 
escaped death or capture fled in confusion toward 
Churubusco, where Santa-Anna had concentrated 
his forces. Though Gen. Pierce's injuries were 
intensely painful, and though Gen. Scott advised 
him to leave the field, he insisted on remaining. 
His brigade and that of Gen. James Shields, in 
obeying an order to make a detour and attack the 
eneiny in the rear, struck the Mexican reserves, 
by whom they were largely outnumbered, and a 
bloody and obstinate struggle followed. By this 
diversion Gens. Worth and Pillow were enabled to 
carry the head of the bridge at the front, and 
relieve Pierce and Shields from the pressure of 
overwhelming numbers. In the advance of Pierce's 
brigade his horse was unable to cross a ditch or 
ravine, and he was compelled to dismount and pro- 
ceed on foot. Overcome by the pain of his injured 
knee, he sank to the ground, unable to proceed, but 
refused to be taken from the field, and remained 
under fire until the enemy were routed. After 
these defeats, Santa-Anna, to gain time, opened 
negotiations for peace, and Gen. Scott appointed 
Gen. Pierce one of the commissioners to agree 
upon terms of armistice. The truce lasted a fort- 
night, when Gen. Scott, discovering Santa-Anna's 
insincerity, again began hostilities. The sanguinary 
battles of Molino del Rey and Chapultepec soon 
followed, on 14 Sept., 1847, the city of Mexico ca- 
pitulated, and the war was virtually over. Though 
Gen. Pierce had little opportunity to distinguish 
himself as a general in this brief war, he displayed 
a personal bravery and a regard for the welfare of 
his men that won him the highest credit. He also 
gained the ardent friendship of those with whom 
he came in contact, and that friendship did much 
for his future elevation. On the return of peace in 
December, 1847, Gen. Pierce returned to his home 
and to the practice of his profession. • Soon after 
this the New Hampshire legislature presented him, 
in behalf of the state, with a fine sword. 



PIERCE 



PIERCE 



9 



In 1850 Gen. Pierce was elected to represent the 
city of Concord in a constitutional convention, and 
when that Ixnly met he was chosen its president l»y 
a nearly unanimous vote. Duriiig its session he 
made strenuous and successful efforts to procure 
the adoption of an amendment abolishing the relig- 
ious test that made none but Protestants eligible 
to office. But that amendment failed of adoption 
by the people, though practically and by common 
consent the restriction was disregarded. From 
1847 till 1852 Gen. Pierce was arduously engaged 
in his profession. As an advocate he was never 
surpa.ssed, if ever equalled, at the New Hampshire 
bar. He had the external advantages of an orator, 
a handsome, expressive face, an elegant figure, 
graceful and impressive gesticulation, and a clear, 
musical voice, which kmdled the blood of his 
hearers like the notes of a trumpet, or melted them 
to tears by its pathos. His manner hatl a courtesy 
that sprang from the kindness of his heart and 
contributed much to his political and professional 
success. His perceptions were keen, and his mind 
seized at once the vital points of a case, while his 
rea<ly command of language enabled him to present 
them to an audience so clearly that they could not 
be misunderstood. He had an intuitive knowledge 
of human nature, and the numerous illustrations 
that he drew from the daily lives of his strong- 
minded auditoi"s made his speeches doubly effective. 
He was not a diligent student, nor a reader of 
many books, yet the keenness of his intellect and 
his natural capacity for reasoning often enabled 
him, with but little preparation, to argue success- 
fully intricate questions of law. 

The masses of the Democratic party in the free 
states so strongly favored the exclusion of slavery 
from the territory ceded by Mexico that their leaders 
were compelled to yield, and from 1847 till 1850 their 
resolutions and platforms advocated free-soil prin- 
ciples. This was especially the case in New Hamp- 
shire, and even Gen. Pierce's great popularity could 
not stem the tide. But in 1850 the passage of 
the so-called '* compromise measures " by congress, 
the chief of which were the fugitive-slave law and 
the admission of California as a free state, raised a 
new issue. Adherence to those measures became 
to a great extent a test of party fidelity in both 
the Whig and Democratic parties. Gen. Pierce 
zealously championed them in New Hampshire, 
and at a dinner given to him and other personal 
friends by Daniel Webster at his farm-house in 
Franklin. N. H., Pierce, in an eloquent speech, 
assured the great Whig statesman that if his own 
party rejected him for his 7th of March speech, the 
Democracy would " lift him so high that his feet 
would not touch the stars." Finally the masses of 
both the great parties gave to the compromise meas- 
ures a sullen acquiescence, on the ground that they 
were a final settlement of the slavery question. 
The Democratic national convention met at Balti- 
more, 12 June, 1852. After thirty-five ballotings 
for a candidate for president, in which Gen. Pierce's 
name did not appear, the Virginia delegation 
brought it forward, and on the 49th ballot he was 
nominated by 2H2 votes to 11 for all others. James 
Buchanan, Stephen A. Douglas, Lewis Cass, and 
William L. Marey were his chief rivals. Gen. Win- 
field Scott, the Whig candidate, was unsatisfactory 
botli to the north and to the south. Webster and 
his friends leaned towanl Pierce, and in the elec- 
tion in November, Scott carried only Mair«achu- 
setts, Vermont. Kentucky, and Tennessee, with 42 
votes, while Pierce carried all the other states with 
254 votes. The Whig party had received its death- 
stroke, and dissolved. 



In his inaugural address. 4 March, 1853, President 
Pierce maintained the constitutionality of slavery 
and the fugitive-slave law, denounced slavery agi- 
tation, and hoped that " no sectional or ambitious or 
fanatical excitement might again threaten the 
durability of our institutions, or obscure the light 
of our prosperity." On 7 March he announced as 
his cabinet William L. Marcy, of New York, secre- 
tary of state ; James Guthrie, of Kentucky, secretary 
of the treasury ; Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, 
secretary of war ; James C. Dobbin, of North Caro- 
lina, secretary of the navy ; Robert McClellaTid. of 
Michigan, secretary of the interior ; James Camp- 
bell, of Pennsylvania, postmaster-general ; and 
Caleb Cushing, of Massacnusetts, attorney-general. 
This cabinet wjis one of eminent ability, and is the 
only one in our history that remained unchanged 
for four years. In 1853 a boundary dispute arose 
between the United States and Mexico, which was 
settled by negotiation and resulted in the acquisi- 
tion of a part of the territory, which was organized 
under the name of Arizona in 1803. Proposed 
routes for a railroad to the Pacific were explored, 
and voluminous reports thereon published under 
the direction of the war department. A controversy 
with Great Britain respecting the fisheries was ad- 

i'usted by mutual concessions. The affair of Martin 
^oszta, a Hungarian refugee, who was seized at 
Smyrna by an Austrian vest^el and given up on the 
demand of the captain of an American shi|)-of-war. 
excited great interest in Europe and redounded to 
the credit of our government. (See Inoraham, 
Duncan Nathaniel.) In 1854 a treaty was negoti- 
ated at Washington between the United States and 
Great Britain providing for commercial reciprocity 
for ten years between the former country and the 
Canadian provinces. That treaty and one negoti- 
ated by Com. Perry with Japan, which opened the 
ports of that hitherto unknown country to com- 
merce, were ratified at the same session of the 
senate. In the sfiring of 1854, Greytown in Nicara- 
gua was bombarded and mostly burned by the U. S. 
frigate "Cyane," in retaliation for the refusal of 
the authorities to make reparation for the property 
of American citizens residing there, which had been 
stolen. In the following year William Walker, 
with a party of filibusters, invaded Nicaragua, and 
in the autumn of 1856 won an ephemeral success, 
which induced President Pierce to recognize the 
minister sent by him to Washington. In the win- 
ter of 1854-'5, and in the spring of the latter year, 
by the sanction of Mr. Crampton, the British min- 
ister at Washington, recruits for the British army 
in the Crimea were secretly enlisted in this country. 
President Pierce demanded Mr. Crampton's recall, 
which l)ein^ refused, the president dismissed not 
only the minister, but also the British consuls at 
New York, Philadelphia, and Cincinnati, for their 
complicity in such enlistments. The difficulty was 
finally adjusted by negotiation, and a new British 
legation was sent to Washington. In 1855 Presi- 
dent Pierce signed bills to reorganize the diplo- 
matic and consular system of the United States, 
to organize the court of claims, to provide a retired 
list for the navy, and to confer the title of lieu- 
tenant-general on Winfield Scott. President Pierce 
adhered to that strict construction of the constitu- 
tion which Jefferson and Jackson had insisted on. 
In 1854 he vetoed a bill making appropriations for 
public works, and another granting 10.000.000 acres 
of public lands to the states for relief of indigent 
insane. In February. 1855, he vetoed a bill for 
payment of the French sjx)liation claims, and in 
the following month another increasing the appro- 
priation for the Collins line of steamers. 



10 



PIERCE 



The policy of Pierce's administration ujwn the 
question of slavery evoked an extraordinarj- amount 
of popular excitement, and led to tremendous 
and lastinjr results. That policy was based on the 
theory that the institution of slavery wjis inilx'dded 
in aiid guaranteed by the constitution of the 
United States, and that therefore it was the duty 
of the National government to protect it. The two 
chief measures in support of such a policy, which 
originated with and were suj)iM>rted by Pierce's 
administration, were the conference of American 
diploftiatists that j)romulgated tho " Ostend mani- 
festo." and the opening of the territories of Kansas 
and Nebraska to slavery. Filibustering expeditions 
from the United States to Cuba under Lopez, in 
1850 and 1851, aroused anxiety in Europe as to the 
attitu(ie of our government toward such enterprises. 
In 1852 Great Britain and France proposed to the 
Uniteil States a tripartite treaty by which the three 
powers should disclaim all intention of accjuiring 
Cuba, and discountenance such an attempt by any 
power. On 1 Dec., 1852, Edward Everett, who was 
then secretary of state, declined to act, declaring, 
however, that our government would never question 
Spain's title to the island. On 1(5 Aug., 1854, 
President Pierce directed James Buchanan, John 
Y. Mason, and Pierre Soule, the American ministers 
to Great Britain, France, and Spain, to meet and 
discuss the Cuban question. They met at Ostend, 
9 Oct., and afterward at Aix la Cnapelle, and sent 
to their government that famous despatch known 
as the "Ostend manifesto." It declared that if 
Spain shou!»l obstinately refuse to sell Cuba, self- 

E reservation would make it incumbent on the 
'nited States to wrest it from her and prevent it 
from being Africanized into a second Santo Do- 
mingo. But the hostile attitude of the great 
European jwwers, and the Kansas and Nebraska 
excitement, shelved the Cuban question till 1858, 
when a feeble and abortive attempt was made in 
congress to authorize its purchase lor $30,000,000. 
President Pierce, in his first message to congress, 
Decemljer, 1853, spoke of the repose that had fol- 
lowed the compromises of 1850, and said: "That 
this repose is to suffer no shock during my official 
term if I have power to prevent it, those who 
placed me here may be assured." Doubtless such 
was then his hope and Ijelief. In the following 
January, Mr. Douglas, chairman of the senate com- 
mittee on the territories, introduced a bill to or- 
ganize the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, 
which permitted slavery north of the parallel of 
86° 30' in a region from which it had been forever 
excluded by the Missouri compromise of 1820. 
That bill was Mr. Douglas's bid for the presidency. 
Southern politicians could not reject it and retain 
their intluence at home. Northern politicians who 
opposed it gave up all hope of national preferment, 
which then seemed to depend on southern support. 
The defeat of the bill seemed likely to sever and 
destroy the Democratic organization, a result 
which many believed would lead to civil war and 
the dissolution of the Union. Borne onward by 
the aggressive spirit of slavery, by political ambi- 
tion, by the force of party discipline, and the dread 
of sectional discord, the bill was passed by con- 
gress, and on 31 Mav received the signature of the 
president. Slavery }iad won, but there never was 
a more costly victory. The remainder of Pierce's 
term was embittered by civil war in Kansas and 
the disasters of his party in the free states. In 
1854, with a Democratic majority in both houses 
of the New Hampshire legislature, the influence 
of the national administration could not secure the 
election of a Democratic U. S. senator, and at the 




PIERCE 

next election in 1855 the Democracy lost control 
of the state. The repeal of the Missouri compro- 
mise was soon followed by organized efforts in the 
free states to fill Kansas with anti-slavery settlers. 
To such movements the south responded by armed 
invasions. On 30 March, 1855, a territorial legis- 
lature was elected in Kansas by armed bands from 
Missouri, who crossed the border to vote and then 
returned to their homes. That initiative gave to 
the pro-slavery men a tech- 
nical advantage, which the 
Democratic leaders were 
swift to recognize. The pro- 
slavery legislature thus elect- 
ed met at Pawnee on 2 July, 
1855, and enacted an intol- 
erant and oppressive slave- 
code, which was mainly a 
transcript of the laws of 
M issou n. The free-state set- 
tlers thereupon called a con- 
stitutional convention, which 
met on 23 Oct., 1855, and 
framed a state constitution, 
which was adopted by the 
people by a vote of 1,731 to 
46. A general assembly was 
then elected under such con- 
stitution, which, after passing some preliminary 
acts, appointed a committee to frame a code of 
laws, and took measures to apply to congress for 
the admission of Kansas into the Union as a state. 
Andrew II. Reeder was elected by the free-state 
men their delegate to congress. A majority of the 
actual settlers of Kansas were in favor of her ad- 
mission into the Union as a free state ; but all their 
efforts to that end were treated by their opponents 
in the territory, and by the Democratic national ad- 
ministration, as rebellion against lawful authority. 
This conflict kept the territory in a state of con- 
fusion and bloodshed, and excited party feeling 
throughout the country to fever heat. It remained 
unsettled, to vex Buchanan's administration and 
further develop the germs of disunion and civil war. 

On 2 June, 1856, the National Democratic con- 
vention met at Cincinnati to nominate a can- 
didate for president. On the first ballot James Bu- 
chanan had 135 votes, Pierce 122, Douglas 33, 
Cass 6, Pierce's vote gradually diminished, and 
on the 17th ballot Buchanan was nominated unani- 
mously. In August the house of representa-i 
tives attached to the army appropriation bill a 
proviso that no part of the armv should be em- 
ployed to enforce the laws of the I^ansas territorial 
legislature until congress should have declared its 
validity. The senate refused to concur, and con- 
gress adjourned without passing the bill. It was 
immediately convened by proclamation, and passed 
the bill without the proviso. The president's mes- 
sage in December following was mainly devoted 
to Kansas afl'airs, and was intensely hostile to the 
free-state party. His term ended on 4 March, 1857, 
and he returned to his 'home in Concord. Soon 
afterward he visited Madeira, and extended his 
travels to Great Britain and the continent of Eu- 
rope. He remained abroad nearly three years, re- 
turning to Concord early in 1860. In the presi- 
dentialelection of that year he took no active part, 
but his influence was cast against Douglas and in 
favor of Breckinridge. 

In a letter addressed to Jefferson Davis, under 
date of 6 Jan., 1860, he wrote ; " Without discuss- 
ing the question of right, of abstract power to se- 
cede, I have never believed that actual disruption 
of the Union can occur without bloodshed; and 



PIERCE 



PIERCE 



11 



\ 



if, through the madness of northern Abolitionists, 
that (lire calamity must come, the fighting will 
not be along Mason and Dixon's line merely. It 
will be within our own borders, in our own streets, 
between the two classes of citizens to whom I have 
referred. Those who defy law and scout constitu- 
tional obligations will, if we ever reach the arbitra- 
ment of arms, find occupation enough at home. . . . 
I have tried to impress upon our own people, es- 
pecially in New Hampshire and Connecticut, where 
the only elections are to take place during the 
coming spring, that, while our Union meetings are 
all in the right direction and well enough for the 
present, they will not be worth the paper upon 
which their resolutions are written unless we can 
overthrow abolitionism at the polls and repeal the 
unconstitutional and obnoxious laws which in the 
cause of ' personal liberty ' have been placed upon 
our statute-books." 

On 21 April, 1861, nine days after the disunion- 
ists had begun civil war by firing on Fort Sumter, 
he atldressed a Union mass-meeting at Concord, 
and urged the people to sustain the government 
against the southern Confederacy. Prom that time 
until his death he lived in retirement at Concord. 
To the last he retained his hold upon the hearts 
of his personal friends, and the exquisite urbanity 
of his earlier days. His wife and his three chil- 
dren had preceded him to the tomb. 

Some years after Pierce's death the legislature 
of New riampshire, in behalf of the state, placed 
his portrait beside the speaker's desk in the hall of 
the house of representatives at Concord. Time 
has softened the harsh judgment that his political 
foes passed upon him in the heat of party strife 
and civil war. His generosity and kindness of 
heart are gratefully remembered by those who 
knew him, and particularly by the younger mem- 
bers of his profession, whom he was always ready 
to aid and advise. It is remembered that in his 
professional career he was ever willing, at what- 
ever risk to his fortune or popularity, to shield the 
poor and obscure from oppression and injustice. 
It is remembered, too, that he sought in public life 
no opportunities for personal gain. His integrity 
was above suspicion. After nine years' service in 
congress and in the senate of the United States. 
after a brilliant and successful professional career 
and four years in the presidency, his estate hardly 
amounted to $72,000. In his whole political ca- 
reer he alway^s stood for a strict construction of 
the constitution, for economy and frugality in pub- 
lic affairs, and for a strict accountability^ of public 
officials to their constituents. No political or per- 
sonal influence could induce him to shield those 
whom he believed to have defrauded the govern- 
ment. Pierce had ambition, but greed for public 
office was foreign to his nature. Few, if any, in- 
stances can be found in our history where a man 
of thirty-eight, in the full vigor of health, volun- 
tarily gave up a seat in the U. S. senate, which he 
was apjiarently sure to retain as long jis he wished. 
His refusal at the age of forty-one to leave his law- 
practice for the place of attorney-general in Polk's 
cabinet is almost without a parallel. Franklin 
Pierce, too, was a true patriot and a sincere lover 
of his country. The Revolutionary services of a 
father whom he revered were constantly in his 
thoughts. Two of his brothers, with that father's 
consent, took an honorable part in the war of 1812. 
His only sister was the wife of Gen. John H. Mc- 
Neil, as gallant an officer as ever fought for his 
country. To decline a cabinet appointment and 
enlist jis a private soldier in the army of his coun- 
try were acts which one who knew his early train- 



ing and his chivalrous character might reasonably 
expect of him. But for slavery and the (juestions 
growing out of it, his administration would have 
passed into history as one of the most successful 
in our national life. To judge him justly, his po- 
litical training and the circumstances that envi- 
roned him must be taken into account. Like his 
honored father, he believed that the statesmen of 
the Revolution had agreed to maintain the legal 
rights of the slave-holders, and that without such 
agreement we should have ha<l no Federal qonsti- 
tution or Union. He believed that good faith re- 
quired that agreement to be performed. In that 
belief all or nearly all the leaders of both the great 
parties concurred. However divided on other 
questions, on that the south was a unit. The price 
of its political support was compliance with its de- 
mands, and both the old parties (however reluct- 
antly) paid the price. Political leaders believed 
that, unless it was paid, civil war and disunion 
would result, and their patriotism re-enforced their 
party spirit and personal anibition. Among them 
all there were probably few whose conduct would 
have been essentially different from that of Pierce 
had they been in the same situation. He gave his 
support to the repeal of the Missouri compromise 
with great reluctance, and in the belief that the 
measure would satisfy the south and thus avert 
from the country the doom of civil war and disunion. 
See the lives by Nathaniel Hawthorne (Boston, 
1852) and D. W.'Bartlett (Auburn, 1852), and " Re- 
view of Pierce's Administration," by A. E. Carroll 
(Boston, 1856). The steel plate is from a portrait 
by George P. A. Healey. The vignette on page 8 
is a view of President Pierce's birthplace, and 
that on page 10 represents his grave, which is in 
the cemetery at Concord, N. H. — His wife, Jane 
Means Appleton, b. in Hampton, N, II,, 12 March, 
1806 ; d. in Andover, Mass., 2 Dec, 1863, was a 
daughter of the Rev. 
Jesse Appleton, D. D. 
{q. v.), president of 
Bowdoin college. She 
was brought up in an 
atmosphere of culti- 
vated and refined 
Christian influences, 
was thoroughly edu- 
cated, and grew to 
womanhood sur- 
rounded by most con- 
genial circumstances. 
She was married in 
1834. Public obser- 
vation was extremely 
painful to her, and O 
she always preferred 

the quiet of her New England home to the glare 
and glitter of fashionable life in Washington. A 
friend said of her : " How well she filled her station 
as wife, mother, daughter, sister, and friend, those 
only can tell who knew her in these private rela- 
tions. In this quiet sphere she found her jov, and 
here her gentle nut powerful influence was deeply 
and constantly felt, through wise counsels and 
delicate suggestions, the purest, finest tastes, and 
a devoted life." She was the mother of three 
children, all boys, but none survived her. Two 
died in early youth, and the youngest, Benjamin, 
was killed iii an accident on the Boston and Maine 
railroad while travelling from Andover to Law- 
rence, Mass., on 6 Jan., 1853, only two months be- 
fore his father's inauguration as president. Mr. 
and Mrs. Pierce were with him at the time, and the 
boy, a bright lad of thirteen years, had been amus- 




y^ ^Z^^-* 



^-tt^e^ 



12 



PIERCE 



PIERCE 



ing them with his conversation just before the acci- 
dent. The car was thrown from the tracit and 
dajshed against the rocks, and the lad met his 
death instantly. Both parents were long dconly 
affecte<l by the shock of the accident, and Mrs. 
Pierce never recovered from it. The sudden U'- 
reavement shattered the small remnant of her 
remaining health, yet she pi-rformed her task 
at the White House nobly, and sustained the dig- 
nity of her husband's office. Mrs. Robert E. lice 
wrote in a private letter: "I have known many 
of the ladies of the White House, none more truly 
excellent than the afflictetl wife of President 
Pierce. Her health was a bar to any great effort 
on her part to meet the expectations of the pub- 
lic in ht-r high position, but slie was a refined, 
extrenu-lv religious, and well-educated lady." She 
was buried bv the side of her children, in the 
cemetery at ("'oncord, N. H., where also the re- 
mains of Gen. Pierce now rest. 

PIERCE, Frederick CUfton (purse), author, 
b. in Worcester county, Mass., :}() July, 185(5. He 
receive<l an academic education, was connected 
with the press in Massjuhus<'tts. and in IHHO re- 
moved to Illinois. He has starved in the Illinois 
militia, and now (1888) holds the rank of colonel 
on the staff of (Jov. Kichiird J. Oglesby. Mr. Pierce 
is a meinl)er of the princif)al historical societies in 
this country, and is the author of " I'ierce History 
and Genealogy" (Boston, 1879); "The Hurwood 
Genealogv" (1879); "History of Harre, Mass." 
(1880); ""Historv of Grafton,' Mass." (Worcester, 
1880); "Peirce "Historv and Genealogv" (1880); 
" History of Uockford, 111." (Rockford, 1886) ; and 
" Pearce and Pearse Genealogy " (1888). 

PIERCE, (ieorge Edmond, educator, b. in 
Southbury, Conn., U Sept., 1794; d. in Hudson, 
Ohio. 28 ^Iay, 1871. He was graduated at Yale in 
181(5 an<l at Andover theological seminary in 1821, 
was principal of Fairfield academy in 1816-'18, and 
ordamed pastor of the Congregational church at 
Ilarwinton in 1822. He was president of Western 
Reserve college in 1834-'55. Under his adminis- 
tration- were erected an observatory and three col- 
lege buildings. In 18138 Middlcbury college gave 
him the degree of I). I). 

PIERCE, Henry LHlie, member of congress, 
b. in Stoughton, Mass., 2:5 Aug., 1825. He received 
a go(Kl education, engaged in manufacturing, and 
as earlv as 1848 took an active part in organizing 
the " I^'ree-soil" party in Massachusetts. He was a 
member of the Massachusetts legislature in 1860-'6, 
and in 18(50 was instrumental in setting a bill 
passed by both branches of the legislature remov- 
mg the statutory prohibition upon the formation 
of militia companies composed of colored men. He 
was elected to congress as a Republican to fill the 
vacancy caused by the death of William Whiting, 
was re-elected for the next congressional term, and 
served from 1 Dec, 1878, till 3 March, 1877, when 
he declined a renomination In the presidential 
election of 1884 he was prominent in organizing an 
independent movement in support of Cleveland, 
and has since taken a leading part in the effort to 
revise the tariff legislation and reduce the taxes 
on imfx)rts. He was mayor of Boston in 1873, 
and again in 1878.— His brother, Edward Lillie, 
author, b. in Stoughton, Mass., 29 March, 1829, 
was graduated at Brown in 1850, and at Harvard 
law-school in 1852, receiving the degree of LL. D. 
from Brown in 1882. After leaving the law- 
school. Mr. Pierce was for some time in the of- 
fice of Salmon P. Chase at Cincinnati. He after- 
ward practised law in his native state, and was a 
delegate to the National Republican convention in 



1860. At the beginning of the civil war he enlisted 
as a private in the 3d Massachusetts regiment, and 
served till July, 18(51, when he was detailed to col- 
lect the negroes at Hampton and set them to work 
on the intrenchments of that town. This was the 
beginning of the employment of negroes on U. S. 
military works. In December, 1861, the secretary 
of the" treasury despatched Mr. Pierce to Port 
Royal to examine into the condition of the negroes 
on the sea islands. In February, 1862, he returned 
to Washington and reported to the government, 
and in March was given charge of the freedraen 
and plantations on those islands. He took with 
him nearly sixtv teachers and superintendents, es- 
tablished schools, and suggested the formation of 
freed men's aid societies, by means of which great 
good was accomplished. In June, 1862, Mr. Pierce 
made his second rerx)rt to the government setting 
forth what he had done. These reports were after- 
ward reprinted in the " Rebellion Record," and 
were favorably reviewed both in Europe and the 
United States. The care of the negroes on the 
islands having been transferred to the war depart- 
ment, he was asked to continue in charge under its 
authority, but declined. He was offered the mili- 
tary governorship of South Carolina, but was not 
confirmed. He was collector of internal revenue 
for the 3d Massachusetts district from October, 
1863. till May, 1866, district attorney in 186(>-'9, 
secretary of the board of state charities in 1869-'74, 
and a member of the legislature in 1875-'6. He 
was a member of the Republican national conven- 
tions of 1876 and 1884, and in December, 1878, was 
appointed by President Hayes assistant treasurer 
of the United States, but declined. In 1883 he 
gave to the white and colored people of St. Helena 
island, the scene of his former labors, a library of 
800 volumes. He also originated the public library 
of Milton, Mass., where he has resided, and has 
been a trustee since its organization. He has been 
a lecturer at the Boston law-school since its foun- 
dation. Mr. Pierce has visited Europe several 
times. His second visit was for the inspection of 
European prisons, reformatories and asylums, and 
the result is given in his report for 1873 as secre- 
tary of the board of state charities. He has been a 
frequent contributor to newspapers and periodicals, 
and has published numerous articles and addresses, 
and "American Railroad Law" (New York, 1857); 
" Memoir and Letters of Charles Sumner " (2 vols., 
Boston, 1877, unfinished), and " The Law of Rail- 
roads" (Boston, 1881). He also edited "Walter's 
American Law " (1860), and compiled " Index of the 
Special RailroM Laws of Massachusetts " (1874). 

PIERCE, Henry Niles, P. E. bishop, b. in Paw- 
tucket, R. I., 19 Oct., 1820. He was graduated at 
Brown in 1842, was ordained deacon in Christ 
church, Matagorda, Tex., 23 April, 1843, by Bishop 
Freeman, and priest, in the same church, 8 Jan., 
1849, by the same bishop. He spent the early years 
of his ministry in missionary work in Washington 
county, Tex., held charges in New Orleans and in 
Rahway, N. J., in 1854-'7, and became rector of St. 
John's church. Mobile, Ala., in 1857. He removed 
to Illinois in 1868 and accepted the rectorship of 
St. Paul's church, Springfield. He received the 
degree of D. D. from the University of Alabama in 
1862, and that of LL. D. from William and Mary 
in 1869. He was elected missionary bishop of 
Arkansas and Indian territory, and was consecrated 
in Christ church. Mobile, 25 ^an., 1870. The next 
year Arkansas was erected into a diocese, of which 
Bishop Pierce became diocesan, still retaining 
charge of the Indian territory mission. Bishop 
Pierce has published numerous occasional sermons. 



PIERCE 



PIEROLA 



13 



essays, and addresses, and is author of " The Ag- 
nostic, and other Poems" (New York, 1884). 

PIERCE, John, antiquary, b. in Dorc^hester 
(now part of Boston). Mass., 14 July, 1778; d. in 
Brooliline. Mass., 24 Aug., 1849. Ho was a descend- 
ant in the sixth jjeneration from Robert and Anne 
(Greenway) Pierce, who were among the fij-st settlers 
of Dorchester. lie was graduated at Harvard in 
1793. He taught two years at Leicester academy, 
then studied theology with Rev. Thaddeus Mason 
Harris, of Dorchester, on 3 Dec, 1796, f^ettled at 
Brookline, Mass., and was ordained pastor there, 15 
March, 1797. In 1822 Harvard conferred on him the 
degree of D. D. He continued the sole pastor of the 
church in Bnwkline for fifty years. On his semi- 
centennial, 15 March, 1847. he preached a jubilee 
sermon in which he gave much nistorieal and sta- 
tistical information relating to the church and 
town. In October, 1848, Rev. Frederick N. Knapp 
was settled as his colleague. Dr. Pierce was well 
known for his genealogical and historical researches, 
and he was an authority on these subjects. He was 
a member of various historical societies, for nine- 
teen years secretary and twenty-one years president 
of the Massachusetts Bible society, of which he was 
one of the founders, and was an earnest worker in 
the cause of temperance and all other social re- 
forms. He was devoted to the interests of Harvard, 
of whose board of overseers he was secretary for 
thirty-three years. He was present at sixty-three 
commencements, and for fifty-four vears led the 
singing of the tune of " St. Martin's ^' at the com- 
mencement dinner. In the contest that divided 
the Congregational church of Massachusetts he 
would willingly have avoided taking sides, and 
preferred being called simply a Christian, although 
nis feelings and affiliations were with the Unita- 
rians, with which body his church finally united. 
His published works consist chiefly of sermons and 
addresses, but his memoirs, in eighteen quarto 
manuscript volumes, were bequeathed by him to 
the Massachusetts historical society, and give a full 
and faithful account of the theological history of 
his times, which, from his habits of research, exact- 
ness, and absolute and unquestioned truthfulness, 
may be relied upon as the best authority. They 
can be consulted at the society's library, but restric- 
tions have been placed upon their publication. 

PIERCE, John Davis, clergyman, b. in Chester- 
field, X. H., 18 Feb., 1797 ; d. in Medford, Mass., 5 
April, 1882. He was brought up in Massachusetts, 
where he remained till 1817, and was graduated at 
Brown in 1822. He then became principal of an 
academy in New England, entered the theological 
seminary at Princeton, and in 1824 became pastor 
of a Congregational church in Oneida county, 
X. Y., where he remained till 1830. In that year 
he was principal of Goshen academy. Conn., and in 
1831 he went to reside in Michigan.* In 1847-'8 he 
was a meml>er of the legislature, and of the State 
constitutional convention in 1850. While in the 
legislature he secured the passage of the bill for 
the protection of women in their rights of prop- 
erty, the first of the kind that was passed in any 
state. He was superintendent of public instruction 
for two years, during that time edited and pub- 
lished the " Journal of Education," and also edited 
at one time the " Democratic Expounder " at Mar- 
shall. He is credited with being the author of the 
Michigan free-school system. 

PIERCE, Lorick, clergyman, b. in Halifax 
county, N. C, 17 March, 1785; d. in Sparta, Ga., 
9 Nov., 1879. Early in life his parerits moved to 
Barnwell county, N. C, where, after six months' 
schooling, he entered the ministry of the Methodist 



church in 1804. In 1809 he moved to Greene 
county, Ga., and during the war of 1812 he was a 
chaplain in the army. He then studied medicine, 
was graduated at Philadelphia, and removing to 
Greensborough, practised and j)reafched there for 
several years, lie was a delegate to the general 
conferences of his church in 1836, 1840, and 1844, 
and after the organization of the southern church 
in 1846 sat in its highest court. He took part in 
the Louisville conference of 1874, where he had a 
son and a grandson, and, notwithstanding his great 
age, he preached occasionally until within a few 
months of his death. In 1878 he published a series 
of theological essays. — His son, Georgre Foster, 
M. E. bishop, b. in Greene county, Ga., 3 Feb., 
1811 ; d. near Sparta, Ga., 3 Sept., 1884, was gradu- 
ated at Franklin college, Athens, in 1829, and 
afterward studied law, but, abandoning it for the- 
ology, was received in 1831 into the Georgia con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal churcn. For 
one year he was a member of the South (Carolina 
conference. He soon attained great popularity as 
a public speaker, and was appointed to Augusta, 
Savannah, and Charleston before he had been in 
the ministry five years. In his fifth year he was 
returned to Augusta, and in his sixth, seventh, and 
eighth he was presiding elder of that district. He 
filled various important pastoral and collegiate 
posts, the last of which was the presidency of 
Emory college, Oxford, Ga. While he was there he 
was elected and ordained bishop at Columbus, Ga., 
in 1854. Bishop Pierce was a man of great elo- 
quence, and hatl many friends in all parts of the 
country. Notwithstanding the alienation of the 
two branches of his church, he was frequently in- 
vited to deliver addresses in the north. Ilis con- 
versational powers were remarkable, and in wit he 
had few superiors. On one occasion a young man, 
trying on his hat, rather presumptuously said : 
"bishop, our heads are the same size." "Yes," 
said the bishop, " outside." The degree of D. D. 
was conferred upon him by Transylvania univer- 
sity, and that of LL. D. by Randolph Macon college. 
He was personally the most popular of the bishops 
of his church ; somewhat autocratic and self-com- 
placent, but very kind and persuasive ; an admirer 
of the south and devoted to the church. For sev- 
eral years he was in infirm health, but he often 
made great oratorical efforts at a time when most 
men would have considered themseves too ill to 
venture abroad. He was the author of " Incidents 
of Western Travel " (Nashville, 1857). 

PIERCE, William, statesman, b. in Georgia 
about 1740; d. about 1806. He entered the army 
at the beginning of the Revolution, was aide-de- 
camp to Gen. Xathanael Greene, and was presented 
with a sword by congress in recognition of his gal- 
lant services. He was a delegate from Georgia to 
the Continental congress in 1786-'7, and to the 
convention that framed the constitution of the 
United States, but, being opposed to the plan that 
was adopted, withdrew without signing the docu- 
ment, lie published his impressions of the mem- 
bers of the convention in a Savannah newspaper 
long afterward, and they are now in the Force col- 
lection in the library of congress. 

PIEROLA, Nicolas de (pe-ay-ro'-lah), Peruvian 
naturalist, b. in Camana, department of Arequipa, 
in 1798; d. in Lima, 24 Jan., 1857. He began the 
study of law in the University of Lima, and went 
in 1814 to Madrid, where he was admitted to the 
bar in 1817, and began the practice of his profes- 
sion. He was elected deputy to the cortes for his 
native province in 1820, appointed professor of 
jurisprudence in the Central university of Madrid, 



14 



PIERPONT 



and began the study of natural history. After the 
independence of his country was established he 
resigned his |)08t, retumiKl to Peru, and was elected 
in 1827 deputy to the national con{;ress. In 1828 
he was ap()ointwl direclor-general of mines, but he 
resigned in 183:1 to become the founder of the sci- 
entific weekly " Kl Telografo." He was elected 
director of the National museum of Lima in 184.'), 
and founded in 1847 another scientific and literary 
|)aper, " Kl Ateneo." He was ajjpointed a memlx?r 
of the committee on public instruction, and in 1H52 
called bv President Castilla to his cabinet as secre- 
tary of the treasury ; but in 1854 he resiffned, and 
lived thenceforth entirely for science. He wrote, 
in conjunction with his friend and colleague, Ma- 
riano Kduardo Rivera, who contributed the matter 
on the minenil kingdom, " Memorial de ciencias 
naturales" (Lima, 1850). His name has been given 
to a new species of violet foimd in the Amazon 
vallev, the Viola Pierolana.— His son, Nicolas, b. 
in Camana. 5 Jan.. 1889, was educated in the Col- 
lege of Santo Toribio, in Lima, admitted to the bar 
in 1860, and founded a review, " El Progreso Cato- 
lico." In 1864 he became editor of " El Tiempo," 
in which he defended the administration of Gen. 
Juan A. Pezet. When Priulo's revolution was suc- 
cessful, he went to Europe, where he travelled ex- 
tensively, but in January, 1869, he was appointed 
by President Balta to the ministry of finance, and 
shared with his chief the credit of the great public 
works that were executed by tiie latter, and the 
dis(;redit of the ruinous loans that were contracted 
to [)erform them. After the death of Balta, Pie- 
rola was impeached under Pardo's administration 
for misiippropriation of public funds, and, although 
he wjus honorably acquitted of dishonest practice. 
he came to the Ignited States. In 1874 he prepared 
an expedition to Peru, but was defeated by Admi- 
ral Lizardo Montero at Cuesta de los Angeles. He 
continued to consnire, and in 1877 invaded Peru 
again, but was taVen prisoner and banished to 
Chili. At the lx»ginning of the war between Peru 
and Chili he offered his services to his country, 
and he was allowed by President Prado to return 
to liima in 1879. After the flight of Prado several 
battalions of the garrison revolted, and Pierola, at 
the head of one of them, marched against the gov- 
ernment palace, but was defejited by the minister 
of war, and took possession of Callao on 22 Dec. 
The archbishop of Lima intervened, and on the 
next day Pierola made his entry into the capital, 
and was proclaimed by the masses supreme chief 
of the republic. Ho made strenuous efforts to 
hurry re-enforcements and arms to the front, and 
when the Chilian army appeared before Lima he 
organized the defence, and, assuming the com- 
mand-in-chief, fought at Chorrillos and Miraflores 
in January, 1881. When all was lost, Pierola retired 
to the town of Canta, in the mountains, sending 
Montero to organize the resistance in the northern 
departments. He afterward established his head- 
quarters at Ayacucho, summoned a national assem- 
IJly on 23 July, and was elected provisional presi- 
dent: but, as Chili refused to treat with him, he re- 
signed on 28 Nov., 1881, and embarked for the 
United .States, where he has since resided. He mar- 
ried a granddaughter of the Emperor Iturbide. 

riERPONT, John, poet. b. in Litchfield, Conn., 
6 April. 1785; d. in Medford, Mass., 26 Aug., 1866. 
He was a great-grandson of James, who is noticed 
below. He was graduated at Yale in 1804. and after 
assisting for a short time in the acatlemy at Beth- 
lehem, Conn., in the autuum of 1805 went to South 
Carolina, and passed nearly four yeai*s as a private 
tutor in the family of Col. William Allston. After 




&2^<7W^ 



PIERRE 

his return in 1809 he studied law at Litchfield, was 
admitted to the bar in 1812. and practised for a time 
in Newburyuort, Mass. The profession proving 
injurious to his health, he relinquished it, and en- 
gaged in business as 
a merchant, first in 
Boston, and afterward 
in Baltimore. In 1816 
he abandoned com- 
merce for theology, 
which he studied, first 
at Baltimore, and af- 
terward at Cambridge 
divinity - school. In 
April, 1819, he was or- 
dained pastor of the 
Hollis street church, 
Boston. In 1835 he 
mmle a tour through 
Europe and Asia Mi- 
nor, and on his return 
he resumed his pas- 
toral charge in Boston, 
where he continued till 
10 May. 1845. The freedom with which he ex- 
pressed his opinions, especially in regard to the 
temperance cause, had given rise to some feel- 
ing before his departure for Europe ; and in 1838 
there sprung up between himself and a part of 
his parish a controversy which lasted seven years, 
when, after tri u m phantly sustaining himself against 
the charges of his adversaries, he requested a dis- 
missjd. He then became for four years pastor of a 
Unitarian church in Troy, N. Y., on 1 Aug., 1849, 
was settled over the Congregational church in 
Medford, and resigned, 6 April, 1856. He was a 
zealous reformer, powerfully advocated the temper- 
ance and anti-slavery movements, was the candidate 
of the Liberty party for governor, and in 1850 of 
the Free-soil party for congress. After the civil 
war began, though seventy-six years of age, he went 
into the field as chaplain of a Massachusetts regi- 
ment, but, finding his strength unequal to the dis- 
charge of his duties, he soon afterward resigned, 
and was appointed to a clerkship in the treasury 
department at Washington, which he held till his 
death. Mr. Pierpont was a thorough scholar, a 
graceful and facile speaker, and ranked deservedly 
high as a poet. He published " Airs of Palestine '' 
(Baltimore, 1816); re-issued, with additions, under 
the title "Airs of Palestine, and other Poems" 
(Boston, 1840). One of his best-known poems is 
" Warren's Address at the Battle of Bunker Hill.'*" 
His long poem that he read at the Litchfield county 
centennial in 1851 contains a description of the 
'• Yankee boy " and his ingenuity, which has often 
been qiioted. He also published several sermons 
and addresses. See Wilson's "Bryant and his 
Friends" (New York, 1886).— His cousin, John, 
jurist, b. in Litchfield, Conn., 10 Sept., 1805 ; d. in 
Vergennes, Vt., 6 Jan., 1882, received a common- 
school education, studied law in Litchfield law- 
school, and was graduated in 1827. He began 
practice at Pittsford, Vt^ and in 1832 removed to 
Vergennes. He was representative of his town in 
the legislature in 1841, and state senator in 1855-'7. 
In 1857 he was elected associate judge of the su- 
preme court of the state. In 1865 he became chief 
justice of Vermont, which office he held by con- 
tinuous elections till his death. 

PIERRE, surnamed le Picard (pe-air), French 
buccaneer, b. in Abbeville, France, about the year 
1624; d. in Costa Rica, Central America, in 1679. 
He followed the sea for several years, but in 1652, 
his vessel stopping at the island of Tortuga, he was 



PIERREPONT 



PIERREPOXT 



16 



inducwl to desert and to join the buccaneers. lie 
attached himself to the fortune of Jatjuos Nau, 
called L'Olonnais (q. »■.), in 1(M52, became his most 
trusted lieutenant, participated in the expeditions 
apiinst the Spanish main, and conunanded also a 
division of the fleet under Sir llenrv Morgan that 
pillaged the Isthmus of Panama. When L'Olon- 
nais proposed to attack Guatemala, Pierre refused 
to accompany him, and. going to the coast of 
Costa Rica, ravaged the Spanish establishments on 
Chagres river, took and burned the city of Veragua. 
but in the interior he wf^s defeated and compelled 
to re-emh)ark with little booty. In the following 
year he attacked the coast of Campeche, and in 
1672 landed at Leogone, pillaging the surrounding 
country. In 1674, with Moyse Van Vin, he at- 
tacked Maracailx), but without success, and during 
the following years, either alone or in association 
with other chiefs, he pillaged the Bay of Honduras 
and the coasts of Venezuela and Santo Domingo, 
and amassed enormous riches. He purposed to re- 
turn to France, when in a last cruise he was ship- 
wrecked off the coast of ('osta Rica and perished 
with all his crew. 

PIERREPONT, or PIERPONT, James, cler- 
gvman, b. in Ro^bury, Mass., in 1659 ; d. in New 
riaven. Conn., 14 Nov., 1714. He was the grandson 
of James Pierrepont, of London, who died in Massa- 
chusetts while on a 
visit to his son John, 
who came to this 
country before the 
Revolution and set- 
tled in Roxbury,was 
a representative to 
the general court in 
1672, and died, 30 
Dec, 1690, leav- 
ing James his son. 
James was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 
1681, and in July, 
1685, became pas- 
0, /p_ tor of the church 

^a/^Yyyi4 *^t -fc^^^txvH/^ at New Haven. In 

1698 he was one of 
three ministers that concerted the plan of founding 
a college, which took effect in the establishment of 
Yale in 1700. He was one of the original trustees 
of that institution, and it was principally through 
his influence that p]lihu Yale was induced to make 
the college the object of his liberal benefactions. He 
was a member of the synod at Saybrook in 1708, for 
the purrKJse of forming a system that would l)etter 
secure the ends of church discipline and the Iwneflts 
of communion among the churches, and is reputed 
to have drawn up the articles that were adopted as 
the result of the synod which constitute the " Say- 
brook platform." He was thrice married, and his 
daughter by the third wife married Jonathan Ed- 
wards. Among the clergymen whose names be- 
long to the early history of New England he was 
the most distinguished for nobility of character, the 
purity of his aspirations, and the spirituality of his 
temper, Sereno Edwards Dwight. in his life of 
Jonathan Edwards, says that Mr. Pierrepont reatl 
lectures to the students in Yale college, as profes- 
sor of moral philosophy; but this statement is 
doubted by other authorities. His only publica- 
tion was a sermon that he preached at "bo.^ton. in 
Cotton Mather's pulpit, in 1712, entitled "Sundry 
False Hopes of Heaven Discovered and Decryed.'' 
In 18H7 his portrait, which is shown in the illustra- 
tion, was presented to Yale by his descendant, 
Edwards Pierrepont. — His grandson, Hozckiah 




Beers (Pierrepont), merchant, b. in New Haven, 
Conn., in 1768; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1838, 
was educated for commercial pursuits by his un- 
cle, Isaac Beers, sjxjnt several years in the New 
York custom-house, and then Ix'came agent for 
Mes.srs. Watson and Greenleaf. of Philadelphia, in 
the purchase of the National debt, realizing a for- 
tune thereby. In 1793 he established the commer- 
cial house of Leffingwell and Pierrepont, in New 
York city, and did a large business in shipping 
provisions to France during the Revolution. The 
seizure of American vessels by England led him to 
abandon the shi[)ment of fotnl. In 1802 he mar- 
ried Anna, daughter of William Constable, a mer- 
chant of N^ew York city, who had l)een as.sociated 
with Gen. Alexander Macomb in the purchase of 
over 1,000,000 acres of wild land in the northern 
part of New York from the state in 1787. Through 
this marriage he came into possession of about 
500,000 acres of these lands. In 1804 he bought 
the Benson farm of sixty acres on Brooklyn heights, 
with the house that had been Washington's head- 
quarters during the campaign on Long Island. In 
1819 he gave up all other business and thereafter 
devoted himself wholly to the improvement of his 
vast estate. The city-hall, academy of music, 
Brooklyn library, ftve churches, and many {)ublic 
buildings and residences, now cover his old farm. 
— Hezekiah's eldest son, William Constable, b. 
in New York city, 3 Oct., 1803 ; d. in Pierrepont 
Manor. Jefferson co., N. Y., 20 Dec, 1885, was 
educated in mathematics, surveying, and convey- 
ancing, with a special view to taking the manage- 
ment of his father's property in the northern coun- 
ties. In 1820 he was appointed superintendent and 
director of the agents that were employed in set- 
tling the lands, and opened an office in Jefferson 
county on the site of the present Pierrepont Manor. 
On the death of his father he was given charge by 
will of the lands in Jefferson and Oswego counties, 
and to the day of his death was employed solely in 
their development. He was a profound mathema- 
tician, and numbered among his friends and corre- 
spondents several of the most distinguished schol- 
ars of Europe, including Prof. Piazzi Smyth, as- 
tronomer royal of Scotland, who acknowledged the 
high value of his calculations concerning the great 
pyramid in Egypt. In 1840 Mr. Pierrepont was 
elected a member of the legislature, but he declined 
all other political offices. He was a liberal adher- 
ent of the Protestant Episcopal church, building 
and endowing a church edifice near his residence, 
endowing scholarships in the General theological 
seminary. New York city, and Hobart college, 
Geneva, N. Y., building and endowing a church at 
Canaseraga, N. Y., as a memorial to a son, and aid- 
ing the interests of the church in Minnesota. He 
received the degree of LL. D. from Hobart college in 
1871. — Another son, Henry Evelyn, b. in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., 8 Aug., 1808; d. there. 28 Marc-h, 1888, 
after receiving an academic education, spent several 

fears in assisting in the management of the estates, 
n 1833 he went to Europe. During his absence the 
village of Brooklyn was incorporated as a city, and 
he was appointed one of the commissioners to pre- 
pare plans for laying out public grounds and streets. 
He made a thorough study of the topography of 
all the large cities of Europe, and prepareti plans 
that were in substance adopted by the legislative 
commission in 1835. He also submitted plans for 
converting the Gowanus hills into a rural cemetery. 
On his return he employed Major David B. Doug- 
las to work out the details of his cemetery scheme, 
and in 1838 obtainetl a charter from the legislature 
for the Greenwood cemetery company, with which 



16 



PIERREPONT 



PIERRON 




CS)d[XMS(ih0W(5liJhe'n^y 



he has since been actively identified. By his 
father's will he was charged with the care and de- 
velopment of all the Brooklyn property and the 
wild lands in Franklin. St. Lawrence, and licwis 
counties. On the Brooklyn estate he excavated 
Furman street, built a retaining wall 775 feet in 
length to sustain the heights, and created five acres 
of wharf property bv erecting a new bulkhead on 
the water-front. ' >fr. PierrejK)nt was the first 
pre.«ident of the Brooklyn academy of music, and 
for many yeai*s has been active in various Bn>oklyn 
societiesand financial institutions, also in organiza- 
tions of the Prt)te.«itant Episcopal fhurch.— James's 
great-grundson, Edwards (Pierre[>ont). jurist, b. in 
North Haven. Conn., 4 March. 1817, was graduated 
at Vale in 1H:{7 and at the law-school in 1840. and 
began practice at Columbus, Ohio. In 1845 he re- 
moved to New York 
city, where he l)e- 
cnme eminent at the 
bar. In 1857 he was 
elected a judge of 
the superior court of 
the city of New York, 
in place of Chief-Jus- 
tice Thomas J. Oak- 
ley. A speech that 
he made a year and 
a half before the fall 
of Fort Sumter, in 
wiiich he predicted 
the civil war. attract- 
ed much attention. 
In October. 1860, he 
resigned his seat on 
the bench and re- 
turned to the practice of law, and in 18(53 he 
was appointed by President Lincoln, in conjunc- 
tion with (ron. John A. Dix. to try the [)rlson- 
ers of state that were confined in the various 

Crisons and forts of tlie United States. In 1864 
e was active in organizing the War Democrats 
in favor of the re-election of Abraham Lincoln. 
In April. 1867, he was elected a member of the 
convention for forming a new constitution for the 
state of New York, and one of its judiciary com- 
mittee. He was emi>loyed to conduct the prose- 
cution on the part of the government of John 
II. .Surnitt, indicted for aiding in the murder of 
President Lint-oln. Judge Pierrepont has been en- 
gaged in many celebrated causes, and he was much 
employed i>y railroads aiul other corporations. At 
the beginning of the civil war he was an active 
memln-rof the Union defence committee, and one of 
the three that were appointed to proceed to Wash- 
ington to confer with the government when all com- 
munication was cut off by way of Baltimore after 
the attack upon the Massachusetts troops. In the 
presidential contests of 1868 and 1872 he was an 
ardent supiM)rter of Gen. Grant, by whom he was 
api)ointed in 1869 U. S. attorney for the southern 
district of New York, which oflice he resigned in 
July, 1870. In the autumn of that year he was 
one of the most active members of the committee 
of seventy in opposition to the Tweed ring. In 
May, 187;i, Judge Pierrepont was appointed U. S. 
minister to Russia, but declined, and in April, 
1875, he became attorney-general of the United 
States, remaining in the cabinet of President Grant 
until May, 1876, when he was sent as U. S. minister 
to Great Britain. During his term of oflice as at- 
torney-general he was called upon by the secretary 
of state to give an opinion upon a question of inter- 
national law, in which were discussed the questions 
of natural and acquired nationality. This opinion 



gave him a wide reputation. During Gen. Grant's 
visit to London, Judge Pierrepont urged upon the 
queen's ministers the propriety of according the 
same precedence to him as had been given to the 
ex-ruler of France. This was done, and other gov- 
ernments followed the example of Great Britain. 
Judge Pierrepont devoted large attention to the 
financial system of England. On his return in 1878 
he engaged actively in nis profession, but afterward 
retired and has tafcen especial interest in the finan- 
cial policy of the country, writing several pam- 
phlets upon the subject. In one, issued in 1887, he 
atlvocated an international treaty and claimed that 
l)v convention the commercial value of the silver 
dollar might be restored. He has published various 
orations, including one before the alumni of Yale, 
(1874). Judge Pierrepont received the honoraiy 
degree of LL. D. from Columbian college, Wash- 
ington, D. C, in 1871. In 1873 the same degree was 
conferred upon him by Yale. While he was in 
England Oxford gave him that of D. C. L. — His 
son, Edward, b. in New York city, 30 June, 1860; 
d. in Rome. Italy, 16 April, 1885, entered Christ 
church, Oxford, while his father was minister to 
(ireat Britain, and was graduated in June, 1882. 
After spending a summer in travel upon the con- 
tinent lie returned to the United States and en- 
tered Columbia law-school. In May, 1883, accom- 
panied by his father, he journeyed to the Pacific 
coast, anil travelled far into Alaska, publishing 
on his return " Prom Fifth Avenue to Alaska 
(New York, 1884), for which he was made a fellow 
of the Royal geographical society of England. In 
the sfiring of 1884 he was appointed secretary of 
legation at Rome, and upon the resignation of the 
minister, William W. Astor, he was made charge 
d'affaires, and died while holding this position. 

PIERRON, Jean, French missionary, b. in 
France: d. there toward the end of the 17th cen- 
tury. He belonged to the Society of Jesus, and 
arriving in Canada on 27 June, 1667, devoted him- 
self to the study of the Mohawk language, and was 
soon able to preach in that dialect. He preached 
constantly in the seven Mohawk towns, and his 
success, though temporary, was remarkable. He 
was a skilful artist, and effected more conversions 
by exhibiting vivid pictures, symbolizing the deaths 
and destinies of a Christian and pagan Indian, 
than l)y his sermons. In his efforts to gain con- 
verts he followed the jMohawks everywhere, even 
to battle. He drew pictures on cards symbolizing 
the Christian life from the cradle to the grave, an5 
formed with them games which the Indians learned 
by their camp fires. Once he was ordered from 
the council by a chief who wished to perform a 
superstitious ceremony which he knew the mis- 
sionary would not sanction ; but Pierron turned 
the insult to his advantage, and, by hints of what 
might happen if he left the Mohawk valley, excited 
the fears of the chiefs, who dreaded a rupture with 
the French. On 26 March, 1670, they assembled 
in the chapel, promised to renounce their god, 
Aireskoi. and to abandon their worship of evil 
spirits and their superstitious dances. The medi- 
cine-men burned their turtle-shell rattles and the 
other badges of their office. There were eighty- 
four baptisms during the year. Christianity made 
rapid progress among the tribes. These results 
were not lasting, however, and when Pierron was 
recalled to govern the mission of St. Francis Xavier 
at La Prairie, most of the Mohawks relapsed into 
paganism. He continued his missionary labors up 
to 1679 and perhaps later. He returned to France, 
but nothing is known of his life afterward, or of 
the time of his death. 



PIRRSON 



PIGOT 



17 



PIERSON, Abrtthum, clerfcyinan. b, in York- 
shire. Kiij;laii(i, ill 1(R)H; d. in Newark, N. J„ 9 
Aug., IMTbt. He was graduated at Cainliridgc in 
1632, and ordainetl tt) the ministry of the estab- 
lished ehuri'h, but. becoming a non-con fonnist, 
emigrated to this country in 1(539, and united with 
the church in lioston. He aticompanied a party of 
emigrants to Long Island, N. Y., a short time after- 
ward, and in 1040 liecame ptistor of the church at 
South Hampton. He removed with a small part of 
his congregation to Hranford, Conn., in 1047, or- 
^nizcd a church there, and was its pastor for 
twenty-three years. His ministry was eminently 
successful, especially in his efforts to evangelize 
the Indians, to whom he preached in their own 
language, also preparing a catechism (1600). He 
served as clianlain to the forces that were raised 
against the Dutch in 1654. In the contentions 
between the colonies of Connecticut and New 
Haven in 1002-'5 he opposed their union, antl, 
when it t<H)k place, resolved to remove with his 

g;oplo out of the colony. He accordingly left 
ran ford in June, 1667, and settled in Newark, 
N. J., carrying away the church records, and leav- 
ing the town with scarcely an inhabitant. Mr. 
Pierson exercised a commanding influence in the 
colony. Gov. John Winthrop, who was his per- 
sonal friend, pronounced him a "godly man," and 
Cotton Mather said of him : " Wherever he came, 
he shone." He published "Some Helps for the 
Indians in New Haven Colony, to a Further Ac- 
count of the Progress of the Gospel in New Eng- 
land" (1659). — His son, Abraham, educator, b. in 
Lj'nn, Mass., in 1(541 ; d. in Killingworth, Conn., 7 
March, 1707, was graduated at Harvard in 16(J8, 
ordained to the ministry the next year, and was 
successively pastor in South Hampton, L. I., Bran- 
ford, Conn., Newark, N. J., and Killingworth, 
Conn. He was one of the ten principal clergymen 
who were elected to *' found, form, and govern a 
college in Connecticut" in 1700, and the next year 
was chosen its first president, under the title of 
"rector of Yale," holding office until his death. 
He composed a system of natural philosophy, whicli 
was usea as a manual in that college for years, and 
published an " Election Sermon (New Haven, 
1700). A bronze statue of him, by Launt Thomp- 
son, was erected in the grounds of Yale in 1874. — 
The first Abraham's descendant, Hamilton Wil- 
cox, clergyman, b. in Bergen, N. Y., 22 Sept., 1817, 
was graduated at Union college in 184;^, and at 
Union theological seminary, New York city, in 
1848. and became an agent of the American Bible 
society in the West Indies. He labored in Ken- 
tucky in 1853-'8, then became president of Cum- 
berland college, Ky., and in 1863-'5 taught freed- 
men and colored troops, and was a .secretary of 
the Christian commission. Union college gave him 
the degree of D. D. in 1860. He has published 
** Thomas Jefferson at Monticello, or the Private 
Life of Thomas Jefferson " (New York, 1862) ; " In 
the Brush, or Old-time Social, Political, and Re- 
ligious Life in the Southwest" (1881): edited the 
*' American Missionary Memorial " (1853) ; and con- 
tributed to the religious press. 

PIOAFETTA. Francesco Antonio (jie-gah- 
fet'-Uih), Italian navigator, b. in Vicenza in 1491 ; 
<1. there in 1535. After receiving a good education, 
he was about to enter diplomacy, when he read of 
the e.\j>editions to the New World that had been 
mmle by the Spanish and Portuguese, and deter- 
mined to Ijecome their historian. In 1518 he went 
to Mmlrid andol)tained leave to serve as volunteer 
under Magellan {<j. v.). While awaiting the arrival 
of the navigator in Seville, Pigafetta occupied 
TOL. r. — 2 



his time in studying the exact sciences and the 
theory of navigation. He emlmrked on the ad- 
mirals ship, and kept a diary of events and of his 
i)ersonal observations. He name<l the Pehnelche 
Indians. Patagonians, and is resfwnsible for the 
story that they were a race of giants. On the re- 
turn of the exj)edition in 1522 Pigafetta went im- 
metliately to Valladolid. presented Charles V. with 
a copy of his journal, and received tokens of the 
monarch's satisfaction. He passed afterward to 
Rome, where Pope Clement Vll. appointed him 
an honorary officer in his guanl, and through 
the pontiff's intercession the grand master of 
Rhodes received Pigafetta into the onler on 30 
Oct., 1524. At requests of Clement VII. and the 
grand master, Pigafetta wrote a circumstantial 
relation of Magellan's exjK'dition, of which only 
three copies were made, one for the grand master, 
one for the Lateran library, and one for Louisa of 
Savoy, but this last found its way into the Milan 
library, while the princes received only an abridged 
copy. Pigafetta's narrative is the only account of 
Magellan's expedition, as the history that was 
written by D'Anghiera by order of Charles V. was 
destroyed during the storming of Rome by the 
army of the Constable de Bourbon in 1527. Until 
the beginning of the 19th century Pigafetta's re- 
lation was only known by the abridged copy of 
Louisa of Savoy, which was published by Antoine 
Fabre under the title " Le voyage et navigation 
faiets par les Espagnols es iles Moluques, des iles 

au'ils ont trouve audict voyage, des roys d'icelles, 
e leur gouvernement et maniere de vivre, avec 
plusieurs autres choses " (Paris, about 1540). Ran- 
uesio translated it into Italian, and published it in 
his " Voyages " (1563). For nearly three centuries 
the opinion prevailed that the original manuscript 
was written in French, when, in 1798, Araaretti 
discovered in Milan t>ne of the three original copies 
written in a mixture of French, Italian, and Span- 
ish, which he translated into French as "Relation 
du premier voyage autour du monde, fait par le 
Chevalier Pigafetta sur I'escadre de Magellan jDen- 
dant les annees 1519-1520, 1521, 1522" (Paris, 
1801). The work ends with a dictionary of the 
dialects of the nations that were visited by Piga- 
fetta, and in particular of the inhabitants of 
Philippine and Molucca islands. The remainder 
of Pigafetta's life is unknown, but the date of his 
death is recorded in the archives of Vicenza. He 
left also a treatise on navigation. 

PIGCiOT, Robert, engraver, b. in New York 
city, 20 May, 1795; d. in Sykesville, Md., 23 July, 
1887. An early inclination to drawing determined 
him to study engraving, and with that object he 
went to Philadelnhia and became a student under 
David Edwin, whose manner he closely followed. 
Upon reaching his majority, he entered into a 
business arrangement with a fellow-student, Charles 
Goodman, witli whom he was associated for sev- 
eral vears, and all the plates he worked uiK)n bear 
the drm-name of Goodman and Piggot. Although 
an engraver of no mean ability, and ardent in his 
love for his art, he .soon abandoned it for holy 
orders in the Protestant Episcopal church, and 
was ordained by Bishop White, 30 Nov., 1823. He 
held several charges in Pennsylvania and Mary- 
land, and was called to Sykesville. in the latter 
state, in 1869, as rector of Holy Trinity parish, 
where he remained until his death, attending to 
his parochial duties until within four years of his 
decease, and retaining all of his faculties unim- 
paired. He received the degree of I), D. 

PIOOT, Sir Robert, bart., British soldier, b. in 
Stafford, England, in 1720; d. there, 1 Aug., 1796. 



18 



PIKE 




{!2^i^^^.u: fL4c£. 



He was major of the 10th foot in 1758. and lieu- 
tenant-colonel in 1764. He commanded the left 
wing of the Hrilish force in the battle of Bunker 
Hill, and much of their success in that action was 
due to his braverv and activity. He was promotcil 
colonel of the 88th foot for* that battle, U'cume 
major-pcneral in 1777, hatl a command in llhmle 
Island in 1778, and was commissioned lieutcnant- 
eeneral the same year. He succeeded to the 
baronetcy in 178)1 

PIKE. Albert, lawyer, b. in Boston, Ma.ss., 29 
Dec., 18()9: d. in Washington. D. C, 2 April, 
1891. After a course at Harvard he l)ecamo prin- 
cipal of New- 
buryport grain- 
riiar-school. In 
18:n he set out 
f<ir the i)artially 
explored re;;ions 
of the west, trav- 
el linsj by stage 
toCincinuuti, by 
steamer to Nash- 
ville, thence on 
foot to Puducah, 
then by keel-boat 
down tiie Ohio, 
and by steamer 
up the Mississip- 
pi. In August, 
18;n. he accom- 
panied a caravan 
of ten wagons as 
one of a party of forty men. under ('apt. (Jharles 
Bent, from St. Louis to Santa Fe. He arrived at 
Taos on 10 Nov.. having walked five hundred 
miles from ("imarrou river, where his horse ran off 
in a storm. After resting a few days, he went on 
foot from Taos to Santa Fe, and remained there 
as clerk until Septend)er, 18;12, then joining a 
party of forty-flve, with which he went down the 
Pectis river and into the Staked plain, then to 
the head- waters of the Brazos, part of the time 
without food or water. Finally Pike, with four 
others, left the company, and reached Fort Smith, 
Ark., in I)eceinl)er. The following spring he 
turned his attention to teaching, and in 1883 he 
became associate editor of the " Arkansas Advo- 
cate." In 18)34 he j)urchased entire control, but 
dis[>osed of the pa[)er two years later to engage in 
the priu-tice of law, for which he had fitted himself 
during his editorial career. In 18)39 he contributed 
to " Biackwo(xrs Magazine " the unique produc- 
tions entitled " Hymns to the Gods," which he had 
written several years before while teaching in New 
England, and which at once gave him an honored 
place among American poets. As a lawyer he at- 
tained a high reputation in the southwest, though 
he still devoted part of his time to literary pur- 
suits. During the Mexican war he commanded a 
squadron in the regiment of Arkansas mounted 
volunteers in 184(>-'7, was at Buena Vista, and in 
1847, nxle with fortv-one men from Saltillo to Chi- 
huahua, receiving the surrender of the city of Ma- 
pimi on the way. At the beginning of the civil 
war he became Confederate commissioner, negotiat- 
ing treaties of amity and alliance with several 
Indian tril)es. While thus engaged he was ap- 
iHiinted brigadier-general, and organized bodies of 
Indians, with which he took part in the battles of 
Pea Ridge and Klkhorn. In 180(5 he engaged in 
the prac-tice of law at Memphis. During 1867 he 
Vjecame etlitor of the " Memphis Appeal," but in 
1868 he sold his interest in the paper and removed 
to Washington, D. C, where he practised his pro- 



Pi KE 

fession in the supreme and district courts. He 
retired in 1880, and afterward devoted his atten- 
tion to liteniture and Freemasonry. His works 
incliule "Prose Sketches and Poems" (Boston, 
18)34); "Re[)orts of Cases in the Supreme Court 
of Arkansas" (3 vols.. Little Rock, 1840-'5) ; 
••Nuga>." a collection of poems, including the 
" Hynms to the Gods" (printed privately, Phila- 
delphia, 1854), and two other similar collections 
(187)3 and 1882). He held high office as a Free- 
mason, and prepared for that order about twenty- 
five volumes of ritualistic and other works. 

PIKE, Austin FrankUn, senator, b. in He- 
bron, N. H., 14 Oct., 1819; d. in Franklin, N. H., 
8 Oct , 1886. He was educated in the academies 
of Plymouth, N. H.. and Newbury, Vt., studied 
law under George W, Nesmith in Franklin, was 
admitted to the bar in 1848, and established a- 
large practice. Five years afterward he began 
his political career by a successful candidacy for 
the legislature, was re-elected in 1851-'2, served in 
the state senate in 1857-8, and as its presiding 
officer the latter year, and in 1865-6 was speaker 
of the house. He was a delegate to the National 
Republican conventions in 1856 and 1860, and 
from the former year until his death was an active 
mendier of that party, being chairman of the Re- 
publican state committee in 1858-'60. He was 
elected to congress in 1872, served one term, and 
was defeated as a candidate for the next canvass, 
as he alleged, by frauds. He subsequently devoted 
himself to his profession for many years, and took 
high rank at the state bar. In 1883 the contest 
for the U. S. senatorship in the New Hampshire 
legislature, which continued during more than a 
month's balloting, ended in the election of Mr. 
Pike as a compromise candidate. Dartmouth 
gave him the degree of A. M. in 1858. 

PIKE, Frances West Atherton, author, b. in 
Prospect, Me., 17 March, 1819. She was graduated 
at Free street seminary in Portland. Me., in 1837, 
and married the Rev. Richard Pike in 1843. She 
has published '"Step by Step" (Bo.ston, 1857); 
"Here and Hereafter " (1858) ; "Katherine Mor- 
ris" (1864); "Sunset Stories" (6 vols., 1863-'6); 
"Climbing and Sliding" (1866); and "Striving- 
and Gaining " (1868). 

PIKE, James Shepherd, journalist, b. in 
Calais, Me., 8 Sept., 1811 ; d. there, 24 Nov., 1882. 
He was educated in the schools of his native town, 
entered mercantile life in his fifteenth year, and 
subsequently became a journalist. He was the 
Washington correspondent and associate editor bf 
the New York "Tribune" in 1850-'60, and was 
an able and aggressive writer. He was several 
times a candidate for important offices in Maine, 
and a potent influence in uniting the anti-slavery 
sentiment in that state. In 1861-6 he was U. S. 
minister to the Netherlands. He supported Hor- 
ace Greeley for the presidency in 1872, and about 
that time visited South Carolina and collected 
materials for his principal work, " A Prostrate 
State" (New York, 1876). He also published 
" The Restoration of the Currency " (1868) ; " The 
Financial Crisis, its Evils, and their Ptemedv" 
(1869); "Horace Greelev in 1872" (1873); "The 
New Puritan " (1878) ; and " The First Blows of 
the Civil War" (1879).— His brother, Frederick 
Augnstns, congressman, b. in Calais, Me., 9 Dec, 
1817; d. there, 2 Dec, 1886, spent two years at 
Bowdoin, studied law, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1840. He served eight terms in the Maine legis- 
lature, was its speaker in 1860, and was elected 
to congress as a Republican, retainiug his seat in 
1861-9, and serving for six years as chairman of 



PIKE 



PILE 



19 



the naval committee. He was active in his efforts ' 
for emancipation and for necessary taxation, and 
the olosinp si'iitence of his spei-ch in congress in 
1861 — "Tax, fijjht, emancipate" — became a watch- 
word of his imrty. He was in the legislature in 
18T0-'l. and was defeated as a candidate of the 
Lilwral Kepuhlican party in 1872. In 1875 he was 
a njeml)er of the Maine constitutional convention. 
He retired fn)m the practice of law after his con- 
jjn^ssional service. Mr. Pike was an early and active 
Abolitionist, a friend of education, and for many 
years an eminent mendnT of the bar. — Frederick's 
wife, Mary Haydeii <«reeii, b. in P^astport, Me.. 
30 Nov., 18*25, was |rnuluate<l at Charlestown female 
seminary in 184^^. and married Mr. Pike in 184(5. 
She published her first lK)ok — " Ida May," a novel, 
dealmg with slavery and southern life among the 
wealthier classes (ftoston, 1854) — under the pen- 
name of " Mary Langdon," and 00.000 copies of 
the l)ook were sold in eighteen months. She must 
not be confounded with the writer of a song enti- 
tled "Ida May," published simultaneously with 
the novel, who subsequently issued numerous 
books as the " author of Ida May." Mrs. Pike's 
other works are " Caste," under the pen-name of 
" Sidnev A. Storv, Jr." (1856). and " Agnes " (1858). 
PIKfe, Zebulou Montgoinerv, soldier, b, in 
Lamberton, N, J., 5 Jan., 1779 ; d. in York (now 
Toronto), Canada, 27 April, 1813. His father, 
Zebulon (b. in New Jersey in 1751 ; d. in Lawrence- 
burg, Ind.. 27 July, 1834), was a captain in the 
lievolutionary army, was in Gen. Arthur St. Clair's 
defeat in 1791, and was brevetted lieutenant-colcmel 
in the regular army, 10 July, 1812. While the son 
was a child his father removed with his family to 
Bucks county. Pa., and thence in a few years to 

Easton.where the 
boy was educat- 
ed, lie was ap- 
pointed an en- 
sign in his fa- 
ther's regiment, 
8 March, 1799, 1st 
lieutenant in No- 
vember, and cap- 
tain in August, 
1806. While ad- 
vancing through 
the lower grades 
of his profession 
he supplemented 
the deficiencies 
of his education 
by the study of 
Latin. French, 
and mathemat- 
ics. After the 
purchase of Louisiana from the French, Lieut. Pike 
was apf)ointed to conduct an expedition to trace the 
Mississippi to its source, and, leaving St. Louis. 9 
Aug., 1805, he returned after nearly nine months' ex- 
ploration and constant exposure to hardship, having 
satisfactorily performed this service. In 1806-'7 
he was engaged in geographical explorations in 
Louisiana territory, in the course of which he dis- 
covered " Pike's peak " in the Rocky mountains, 
and reached Rio (Jrande river. Having been foimd 
on Spanish territory, he and his party were taken 
to Santa Fe; but. after a long examination and the 
seizure of his papers, thev were released. He ar- 
rived at Natchitoches, 1 July, 1807, received the 
thanks of the government, and in 1810 published a 
narrative of his two expeditions. He was made 
major in 1808, lieutenant-colonel in 1809, deputy 
quartermaster-general, 8 April, 1812, colonel of the 




15th infantry, 3 July. 1812, and brigadier-general, 
12 March, 1813. Jla'rly in 1813 he was assigned to 
the i)rincipal anny as adjutant- and ins|>ector-gen- 
eral. and selected tf> command an exiMidition against 
York (now Toronto), rpjK'r Canada. On 27 Af>ril 
the fleet conveying the troops for the attack on 
York reached the harlHjr of that town, and measures 
were taken to land them at once. Gen. Pike landed 
with the main lK)dy a-s s<M)n as practicable, and, 
the enemy's mlvanced parties falling l)ack Ix'fore 
him, he tor)k one of the redoubts that had l>een 
constructed for the main defence of the place. 
The column was then halted until arrangements 
were made for the attack on another redoubt. 
While Gen. Pike and many of his soldiers were 
seated on the ground, the magazine of the fort 
exploded, a mass of stone fell u{X)n him, and he 
was fatally injured, surviving but a few hours. 

PILAT. Ignatz Anton, landscape-gardener, b. 
in St. Agatha. Austria. 27 June, 1820; d. in New 
York city, 17 Sept., 1870. He received a collegiate 
education at Vienna, and studied at the botanical 
gardens in that city and Schonbrunn. His first 
work of magnitude was laving out Prince Metter- 
nich's grounds. He remained attached to the im- 
perial botanical gardens in SchOnbrunn from 1843 
till 1853, when he came to this country and became 
chief gardener on Thomas Metcalf's estate near 
Augusta, Ga. He held this post till 1856, when he 
returned to Vienna, and was made director of the 
botanical gardens; but after a short stay in his na- 
tive land he returned to New York, and in 1857 
was appointed chief landscape-gardener in Central 
park. In addition to his personal superintendence 
of the entire park, which continued till his death, 
he planned and superintendetl many improvements 
in the public squares of the city of New York. He 
wrote a work on botany (Vienna), and a small one 
on landscape-gardening (Linz, Austria). 

PILCH ER, EHjah Homes, clergyman, b. in 
Athens. Ohio, 2 June, 1810 ; d. in Brooklyn. N. Y., 
7 April, 1887. He was educated at Ohio univer- 
sity, and, entering the ministry of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, held pastorates both in this 
country and in Canada. He represented his de- 
nomination in Michigan four times in the general 
conference of the Methodist Episcopal church, was 
for four years a meml>er of its book committee, and 
aided in establishing the Michigan "Christian Ad- 
vocate," and in founding Albion college, in which 
he was professor of history and belles-Tattres. He 
was a regent of Michigan university five years, one 
of the originators of the Agricultural college at 
Lansing, and was secretary of the Detroit confer- 
ence nine years. He was the author of " History of 
Protestantism in Michigan " (Detroit, 1878). 

PILE, William A., soldier, b. near Indian- 
apolis, Ind., 11 Feb., 1829; d. in Monrovia, Cal., 
7 July, 1889. He studied theology, and became a 
clergyman of the Methodist Episcopal church and 
a member of the Mis.souri conference. He joined 
the National army as chaplain of a regiment of 
Missouri volunteers in 1861, and took command of 
a light battery in 1862. He was subsequently 
placed at the head of a regiment of infantry, pro- 
moted brigadier- general of volunteers, 26 Dec., 
1863, and served till the close of the war, being 
mustered out, 24 Aug., 1865. He was elected to 
congress from Missouri, and served from 4 March. 
1867, till 3 March, 1869, but was defeated as the 
Republican candidate for the next congress. Mr. 
Pile was appointed by President Grant governor of 
New Mexico, served in 1869-70, and was minister 
resident at Venezuela from 23 May, 1871, till his 
resignation in 1874. 



20 



PILLING 



PILMORE 



PILMNU, James Constantine, philologist, b. 
in WushiriKton, I). C'.. 16 Nov., 184«. He was edu- 
catod nt (lonzaga college, in Washington, and in 
1H72 iKH-ariie connected with the geologicuil survey 
of the K<K-ky mountain region under Maj. John 
W. Powell. " In this relation he continued until 
1879, and was constantly among the Indian triU>s 
of the west, engaged in tabulating the vocabularies 
of their various dialects. He tnen became chief 
clerk of the bureau of ethnology, and in 1881 was 
ap|M)inted to a similar office in the U. S. geological 
survey. Mr. Pilling is a memlK>r of numerous 
scientific societies, and, in addition to memoirs on 
ethnological subjects, is the author of " IJibliogni- 
phy of the Languages of the North American In- 
dians" (Washington, 1885); " Bibliography of the 
Eskimoan Languages" (1887); and " Bibliography 
of the Siouan Languages "(1887). all of which have 
been issued under the auspices of the government. 

PILLOW, (ildeoii Juhiison, soldier, b. in 
Williamson county, Tenn.. H June. 18(Mi: d. in Lee 
county. Ark.. G Oct., 1878. He was graduated at 
the University of Niushville, Tenn., in 1827, prac- 
tisetl law at Columbia, Tenn., was a delegate to 
the National Democratic convention in 1844, and 
aided largelv in the nomination of his neighbor, 
James K. Polk, as the candidate for president. 
In July, 1846, he was appointed brigadier-general 
in command of Tennessee volunteers in the Mexi- 
can war. He served for some time with Gen. 
Zachary Taylor on the Mexican frontier, subse- 
quently joined Gen. Scott at Vera Cruz, and took 
an active j)art in the siege of that city, afterward 
being one of the commissioners that received its 
surrender from the Mexican authorities. At the 
battle of Cerro (lordo he commanded the right 
wing of the American army, and was severely 
wounded. He was promoted to major-general, 18 
April, 1847, was engaged in the battles of Churu- 
busco, Molino del Key. and Chapul tepee, where he 
was wounded. He differed with Gen. Scott in 
regard to the convention of Tacubaya, and the 
differences letl to such results that Gen. Pillow 
requested a court of inquiry to try him on charges 
of insuljordination that were maile by Scott. The 
court was ordered, and he was honorably acquitted. 
After the Mexican war he resumed the j)ractice of 
law in Tennessee, and was also largely engaged in 
planting. In the Nashville southern convention of 
1850 Gen. Pillow took conservative ground, and 
opposed extreme measures. He received twenty- 
five votes for the nomination for the vice-presi- 
dency at the Democratic National convention in 
1852. On 1) May, 1861, he was appointed by Gov. 
Isham G. Harris a major-general in the provisional 
army of the state of Tennessee, and aided largely 
in the organizati(m of its forces. On 9 July, 1861, 
he was made a brigadier-general in the provisional 
Confederate army. He commanded under Gen. 
Leonidas Polk at'the battle of Belmont, Missouri, 
7 Nov.. 1861, and was second in command under 
Gen. John B. Floyd at Fort Donelson in February, 
1862. He declined to assume the chief command 
and to surrender the forces at this fort, so, turning 
the place over to Gen. Simon B. Buckner, he es- 
caped. He was now relieved from command, but 
subsequently led a detachment of cavalrv, and 
served under Beauregard in the southwest. He was 
also chief of conscrripts in the western department. 

PILLSBl'RY, Amos, prison-reformer, b. in 
New Hampshire in 1805; d. in Albany, N. Y., 14 
July, 1878. His father was a soldier in the war of 
1812, and wa.s warden of state prisons in New 
Hampshire and Connecticut for many years. The 
son was appointed warden of the state prison of 



Connecticut at Wethersfield, and held the post for 
manv years. After leaving Wethersfield he was 
warden of prisons in other states for several years, 
and for a short time superintendent of police in 
New York city. The new penitentiary at Albany 
was planned according to his suggestions, and he 
l)ecame its superintendent, and continued there till 
his death. lie was severe and rigorous in his rule, 
but ix)ssessed great organizing ability, and caused 
prisons and penitentiaries under his superintend- 
ence to become sources of revenue to the state. He 
was considered a competent authority on questions 
of moderate prison-reform, and in the summer of 
1872 attended the prison congress in London and 
took part in its discussions. 

PILLSBURY, Parker, reformer, b. in Hamil- 
ton, Mass., 22 Sept., 1809. He removed to Henniker, 
N. II., in 1814, and was employed in farm-work till 
1835, when he entered Gilmanton theological semi- 
nary. He was graduated in 1838, studiea a year at 
Andover, supplied the Congregational church at 
New London, N. IL, for one year, and then aban- 
doned the ministry in order to engage in anti-sla- 
very work. He was a lecturing agent of the New 
Hampshire, Massachusetts, and American anti-sla- 
very societies from 1840 till the abolition of slavery, 
and edited the " Herald of Freedom " at Concord, 
N. H., in 1840 and 1845-'6, and the " National Anti- 
Slavery Standard " in New York city in 1866. In 
1868-'70 he was the editor of the " Revolution," a 
woman suffrage paper in New York city. After- 
ward he was a preacher for Free religious societies 
in Salem and Toledo, Ohio, Battle Creek, Mich., and 
other western towns. Besides pamphlets on reform 
subjects, he has published "Acts of the Anti-Slavery 
Apostles" (Rochester, N. Y., 1883).— His brother, 
Oliver, b. in Henniker, N. H., 16 Feb.. 1817; d. in 
Concord, N. H., 22 Feb., 1888, was educated at Hen- 
niker academy, taught in New Jersey in 1839-'47, 
occupying a prominent place among the educators 
of the state, returned to New Hampshire with im- 
paired health, and was a farmer for the next seven- 
teen years. He served three terms in the legislature, 
was a state councillor in 1862 and 1863, displaying 
executive ability and energy in business connected 
with the New Hampshire quota of troops, and in 
1869 was appointed the first insurance commissioner 
of the state, holding the office till his death. 

PILMORE, Joseph, clergyman, b. in Tadmouth, 
Yorkshire, England, 31 Oct., 1739; d. in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., 24 July, 1825. He obtained his education 
in John Wesley's school at Kingswood, and under- 
took the work of an itinerant or lay preacher under 
Wesley's direction. In 1769 he came to this country 
on a mission to establish Methodism in Philadel- 
phia. He preached from the steps of the state-house 
on Chestnut street, from stands in race-fields, and 
rode the circuits with his library in his saddle-bags, 
holding the first Methodist meeting in Philadelphia 
in a pot-house in Loxley's court, and establishing 
the first church that was owned by the Methodists 
in Philadelphia. It is the present church of St. 
George, and was an unfinished building purchased 
from the Germans, which the British seized, when 
they were in possession of the city, and used as a 
cavalry riding-school. After the war of the Revo- 
lution, Mr. Pilmore sought for orders in the Prot- 
estant Episcopal church. He was ordained deacon, 
27 Nov., 1785, by Bishop Seabury, and priest two 
days later, by the same nishop, and became rector 
of three united parishes in the vicinity of Philadel- 
phia. From 1789 till 1794 he served as assistant 
to Rev. Dr. Samuel Magaw. He was then called to 
Christ church. New York city, where he remained 
ten years. In 1804 he succeeded Dr. Magaw in the 



PIM 



PINCH KIRA 



21 



rectorship of St. Paul's church. Pliilmlelphia. lie 
received the dejfree of 1). I), from the University of 
Petmsvlvanift in 1807. Dr. Pilmore UHiueathed 
half his fortune to the Protestant K|)iscopal ciuircli. 
and half to the Society of St. Cicorj;e, an orpaniza- 
tion for the aid of Kndish eniijrrants. He pub- 
lished "Narrative of IinU)rs in South Wales" 
(Philadelphia, 1825), and h'ft in manuscript an ac- 
count of his "Travels and Trials and Preaching" 
in various American colonies, 

PIM, Bedford Clapnerton Trevelyan, Brit- 
ish naval officer, b. in Bideford, Devon, 12 June, 
1820; d. in London, 1 Oct., 1886. He wa.s the only 
son of a captain in the British navy. He was edu- 
cated at the Royal naval school, went to India in 
the merchant service, and on his return in 1842 
was appointed a volunteer in the royal navy. He 
wa.« employed for several years in the surveying 
service, made a voyage around the world in the 
" Herald " in 1845-'51, and was engaged in the en- 
tire search for Sir John Franklin through Bering 
strait and Baffin bay. He saved the erew of the 
" Investigator," which had been frozen in for three 
years, and was the first man to make his way from 
a ship on the eastern side of the northwest passage 
to one on the western side. He was in active ser- 
vice in the Russian war, and in China, where he was 
wounded six times. He was made a commander, 
19 April, 1858, visite<l the Isthmus of Suez, and 
studied the question of an interoceanic canal in 
1859, was sent to the West Indies in command of 
the " Gorgon " in 1860, and employed on the coast 
of Central America to prevent filibustering at- 
tempts on the part of William Walker against 
Nicaragua. He retired on half-pay in 1H61, visited 
Nicaragiia in 1862 in company with Dr. Berthold 
Seemann, and devoted himself for several years 
to the project of interoceanic railway communi- 
cation across that country and to the promotion of 
mining interests there. He was made a captain, 
16 April, 1868, and was retired in April, 1870. He 
afterward studied law, was called to the bar of the 
Inner Temple. 27 Jan., 1873, electetl to parliament 
as a Conservative in February, 1874, and retained 
his seat till 1880. At the time of his death he was 
the oldest arctic explorer. On the return of 
Lieut. Adolphus W. Greely and his comrades from 
the polar regions, he tendered them a banquet in 
Montreal. He was a member of several scientific 
societies, proprietor of " The Navy," and author of 
"The Gate of the Pacific" (London, 1863); " Dot- 
tings on the Roadside in Panama, Nicaragua, and 
Mosquito," in conjunction with Dr. Berthold See- 
mann (1869) ; "The War Chronicle " (1873) ; "Es- 
say on Feudal Tenure"; and various pamphlets 
and maeazine articles. 

PIMENTEL. Manoel (pe-men-tel), Portuguese 

Geographer, b. in Lisbon in 1650; d. there in 1719. 
[e received a fine education and succeeded his 
father as cosmographer, and became in 1718 pre- 
ceptor of the prince that reigned afterward under 
the name of Joseph I. He went several times to 
South America to collect materials and documents 
for his works, and was also appointed commissioner 
to determine the limits of the colony of Sacra- 
mento on the river Plate, residing three years in 
the country and preparing a map. His principal 
work is "Arte practica de navegar e roteiro djis 
viagensas costas maritimas do Brasil, Guinea, 
Angola, Indias e ilhas orientaes e cxjcidentaes " 
(Lislx)ii, 1699; revised ed., 1712). Navarrette in his 
" Disertacion sobre la historia de la Nautica" and 
Barbosa Machado in his "Bibliotheca Lusitana" 
praise Pimente! as one of the ablest writers of his 
time on the geognipby of South America. 



PI^A. Kain6n (peen'-vah), Cuban author, b. in 
Havana in 1819; d. there' in 1861. He .studied in 
his native city, where he was admitted to the Imr 
and practised liis profession, at the same time cul- 
tivating literature. His comedies. " No quiero ser 
conde," " I^as Fiquivocaciones," and " Dios los jun- 
ta," were i)erformed in Havana with success. In 
1857 he went to Spain, where he published his 
novel, "Geronimo el honrmlo" (Madrid, 1858), and 
" Historia de un brilxin dichoso " (1859), which were 
praised for the purity of their style. His "Com- 
entarios & las leyes Atenienses " (1860) are consid- 
ered remarkable for learning. 

PINCHBACK. Pinckney Benton Stewart, 
governor of Louisiana, b. in Macon, Ga., 10 May, 
18J37. He is of African descent. In 1846 he was 
sent to school in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1848 his 
father died, and he Ix^came a Ijoatman. In 1862 
he ran the (IJoirfederate blockade at Yazoo City and 
reached New Orleans, then in possession of the 
National troops. He enlisted, and was soon de- 
tailed to assist in raising a regiment, but, owing to 
his race, he was compelled to resign, 3 Sept., 1863. 
He was subsequently authorized by Gen. Nathaniel 
P. Banks to raise a company of colored cavalry. 
In 1867 he organized in New Orleans the 4th ward 
Republican club, Iwcame a member of the state 
committee, and was made inspector of customs on 
22 May. He was a member of the Constitutional 
convention of 1867. state senator in \868, and was 
sent to the National Republican convention of the 
last-named year. He was appointed by President 
Grant, in April, 1869, register of the land-office of 
New Orleans, and on 25 Dec, 1870, established the 
New Orleans " liouisianian." The same year he or- 
ganized a company for the purpose of establishing 
a line of steamers on Mississippi river. In March, 
1871, he was appointed by the state board a school 
director for the city of New Orleans, and on 6 
Dec, 1871, he was elected president pro tempore of 
the state senate, and lieutenant-governor to fill the 
vacancy occasioned by the death of Oscar Dunn. 
He was acting governor during the impeachment 
of Gov. Warmoth from 9 Dec, 1872, to 13 Jan., 
1873. He was nominated for governor in 1872, but 
withdrew in the interest of party peace, and was 
elected on the same ticket as congressman. He was 
chosen to the U. S. senate, 15 Jan., 1873, but after 
three years' debate he was disallowed his seat by a 
vote of 32 to 29, although he was given the pay and 
mileage of a senator. On 24 April, 1873, he was ap- 
pointed a commissioner to the Vienna exposition 
from Louisiana, and in 1877 he was appointed a 
member of the state board of education by Gov. 
Francis F. Nichols. On 8 Feb., 1879, he was 
elected a delegate to the Constitutional conven- 
tion of the state. Mr. Pinchback was appointed 
surveyor of customs of New Orleans in 1882. and 
a trustee of Southern university by Gov. McEnery 
in 1883 and 1885. He was gratluated at the law 
department of Straight university. New Orleans, 
and admitted to the bar in April, 1886. 

PINCHEIRA, Jos^ Antonio (pin-tchi -e-rah), 
Chilian guerilla, b. in San Carlos about 1801 ; d. 
in Concepcion about 1850. He formed in early life 
with his two brothers and other adventurers a band 
of robbers, which for many years des<jiated the 
country south of Maule river. In November, 1825, 
Pincheira joined a Spanish force of twentv-flve 
men under an officer named Sent>sain, and un- 
furled the banner of tha royalist cause, so that the 
government sent an army against him. Being hard 
pressed, he passsed the Andes and invaded the 
province of Mendoza, the government of which 
made a regular treaty of peace with him. In 1830 



22 



PINCKNEY 



PINCKNEY 




the Chilian jjoveniment resolved to exterminate 
liu' giuTilhus, and sent Col. Hulnes with iiii army 
against them. The latti'r penetrated into tiie 
mountain regions and began a regular campaign 
against Pinelu-ira, capturing part of his forces at 
Koble Guatho. 11 .Jan.. 1882, and on the 14th de- 
feating him near the lagoon of Palanquin, where 
Pineheira's brother, Pablo, was killed, and the lat- 
ter I'scajH'd with only fifty-two men. At last, sur- 
rounde<I «>n all sides,' he surrendered, on 11 March, 
under capitulation that insured him a pardon. 
This was strictly kept by the government, and 
Pincheira retired to ConceiK-ion. 

PINCKNEY, Charles Cotesworth, statesman, 
b. in Charleston. S. ('.. 2") Feb.. 1746; d. there, 16 
Aug., 1^25. His father, Charles, was chief justice 
of .South Carolina in 1752. The son was sent to 
England to be educated at seven years of age, 

studied at West- 
minster scho()l,and 
wits graduated at 
Christ church, Ox- 
ford, read law in 
the Middle Tem- 
ple, and j)assed 
nine months in 
the Royal military 
acatlemy at Caen, 
PVance. He re- 
turned tothiscoun- 
try in 17G9, settled 
as a barrister in 
Charleston, and be- 
came attorney-gen- 
eral of the prov- 
ince. He was a 
member of the 1st 
Provincial con- 
gress of South 
Carolina in 1775, was appointed by that body a cap- 
tain of infantry, and in December of that year was 
promoted major. He assisted to successfully de- 
fend PVirt Sullivan on 28 June, 1776, became colo- 
nel on 20 Oct., and left the Carolinas to join Wash- 
ington, to whom he was appointed aide-de-camp, 
{)articipating in the battles of the Hrandy wine and 
lermantown. He returned to the south in the 
spring of 1778. and took part in the unsuccessful 
ixpedition to Florida. In .January. 1779, he pre- 
sided over the senate of South Carolina. He dis- 
played resolution and intrepidity in the rapid march 
that saved Charleston from the attack of tne British 
under Gen. Augustine Prevost. and in the invsision 
of (leorgia his regiment formc<l the second column 
in the assaidt on the lines at Savannah, and in the 
secoiul attack on Charleston, in April, 1780, he com- 
manded Fort -Moultrie with a force of 800 men. 
The fleet entered the harbor without engaging the 
fort, and he then returned to the city, and aided in 
sustaining the siege. In the council of war that 
was held in the latter part of the month he voted 
"for the rejection of all terms of capitulation, and 
for continuing hostilities to the la.st extremity." 
Ho became a prisoner of war on the surrender of 
the city in May, 1780, and for two years suffered a 
rigorous confiiienient. But " nothing could shake 
the firmness of his soul." He was ordered into 
closer confinement from the death-lx>d of his' son, 
but he wrote to the commanding British officer: 
" My heart is altogether American, and neither se- 
verity, nor favor, nor poverty, nor affluence can ever 
induce me to swerve from it." He was exchanged 
in February, 1782, and was commissioned brigadier- 
general in 1783, but the war was virtually over, 
and he had no opportunity for further service. He 



L> X=. Q^<n.Jy^^f^^ 



then returnetl to the practice of his profession, in 
which he won great reputation and large profits. 
He was a member of tne convention that iramed 
the constitution of the United States in 1787, took 
an active part in its debates, and was the author of 
the clause in the constitution that "no religious 
test shall ever be required as a qualification to any 
office or public trust under the authority of the 
United States." He also moved to strike out the 
clause that allowed compensation to senatoi-s, on 
the ground that that body should be composed of 
persons of wealth, and consequently above the 
temptations of poverty. He became an ardent 
Federalist on the atloption of the constitution, and 
served in the convention that ratified it on the part 
of South Carolina, and in the State constitutional 
convention of 1790. He declined the office of as- 
sociate justice of the U. S. supreme court in 1791, 
the portfolio of war in 1784, and that of state in 
1795, and in 1796 accepted the office of U.S. minis- 
ter to France, resigning his commission of major- 
general of militia, which he had. held for several 
vears. The Directory refused to receive him, and 
he was reminded that the law forbade any foreigner 
to stay more than thirty days in France without 
permission. On his refusal to apply, he was re- 
quested to quit the republic. He retired to Am- 
sterdam, and subsequently returned to America. 
While on this mission he made the famous reply 
to an intimation that peace might be secured with 
money: "Millions for defence, but not a cent for 
tribute." On his return, war being imminent with 
France, he was commissioned major-general by 
Washington, but second to Alexander Hamilton, 
who had lieen his junior during the Revolution. 
W^hen his attention was directed to that fact, he 
said : " Let us first dispose of our enemies ; we shall 
then have leisure to settle the question of rank." 
He was a Federalist candidate for the vice-presi- 
dency in 1800, and for the presidency in 1804 and 
1808. In 1801 he was elected first president of the 
board of trustees of the College of South Carolina, 
and for more than fifteen years before his death 
he was president of the Charleston Bible society. 
Charles Chauncey said of him that "his love of 
honor was greater than his love of power, and 
deeper than his love of self." He was third presi- 
dent-general of the Cincinnati. He married the 
sister of Arthur Middleton. Their daughter. Ma- 
ria, published a work in the defence of nullifica- 
tion.— Charles's brother, Thomas, diplomatist, b. in 
Charleston, S.C, 
28 Oct., 1750; d. 
there, 2 Nov., 
1828, accompa- 
nied his brotner 
to England in 
1753, and was ed- 
ucated at West- 
minster and Ox- 
ford. He then 
studied law in 
the Temple, was 
admitted to the 
bar in 1770, 
and,returningto 
Charleston in 
1772, practised 
in that city. 
He joined the 
Continental ar- 
my as a lieuten- 
ant in 1775, was 
aide-tie-camp to Gen. Benjamin Lincoln, and served 
in a similar capacity under Count D'Estaing at the 




PINCKNEY 



PINE 



28 



siege ot Savannah. He participated in the battle 
of Stoiio Ferry, and us uule to Gen. Horatio Gates 
was wounded and taken prii^oner at Camden. He 
saw no further service in tl>e llt^volution, and re- 
turned to his profession. Hedeclinetl the appoint- 
ment of U. S. district jud^e in 17HU, Ijecanie gover- 
nor in that year, was a member of the legislature 
in 1791, and drew up the act to esttiblish the South 
Carolina court of etpiity. He was ap|)ointcd by 
Washington LI. S, minister to Great Britain in 1792, 
and on the expiration of his term in 1794 was sent 
on a mission to Spain, where he arrangetl the treaty 
of St. Ildefonso that secured to the United States the 
free navigation of Mississippi river. He returned 
to Charleston in 1790, was tlie Federalist candidate 
in that year for the vice-presidency, and served in 
congri'ss in 1799-1801. At the beginning of the war 
of 1812 he was appointed by President Mjulison 
major-general, with the charge of the Gth military 
■district, and participated in the battle of Horsesh(x> 
Bend, in which the Creek Indians were finally de- 
feated. He then retired to private life, and did 
much to encourage the development of the agricuf- 
tural anil mineral resources of the state. lie suc- 
ceeded his brother as 4th president-general of the 
Cincinnati. — Charles, statesman, b. m Charleston, 
S. C. in 1758: d. there, 29 Oct., 1824, was the 
^andson of William, Charles Cotesworth's imcle. 
His father, Charles, was president of the South 
Carolina convention in 1775, of the senate in 1779, 
and of the council in 1782. The son was etlueateci 
for the bar, and before he was of age was chosen 
to the provincial legislature. He was taken pris- 
oner at the capture of Charleston, and remained 
such until the close of the war, when he resumed 
hip profession. He was elected to the Provincial 
congress in 1785, and subsequently took an active 
part in preparing a plan of government for 
the United States. In 1787 he was a delegate 
to the conventiort that framed the constitution 
of the United States, and offered a diaft of a con- 
stitution, which was referred to the committee of 
detail, submitted, and some of its provisions were 
finally adopted. In 1788 he advocated the ratifica- 
tion of the constitution in the South Carolina 
convention. He was elected governor the next 
year, presided over the state convention by which 
the constitution of South Carolina was adopted in 
1790, was re-elected governor in 1791. and again in 
1790. and in 1798 was chosen to the U. S. senate as 
a ilef)ublican. He was a frequent and able speaker 
in that body, and one of the most active promoters 
of Thomas Jefferson's election to the presidency. 
In 1802-'3 he was U. S. minister to Spain, and 
during his residence in that country he negotiated 
a release from the Spanish government of all right 
or title to the territory that was purchased by the 
United States from France. He became governor 
for the fourth time in 1800, and in 1812 strongly 
atlvocated the war with England. He was a mem- 
ber of congress in 1819-'21, and opposed the Mis- 
souri compromise bill, earnestly warning the south 
of the effects of the measure. This was his last 
public service. Mr. Pinckney was the founder of the 
old Republican party of South Carolina. He pos- 
sessed liberal views on all subjects, advocated the 
abolition of the primogeniture laws, was the prin- 
cipal agent in the removal of the civil and iK)litical 
disal>ilities that had l)een imposed on Jews in South 
Carolina, and was the first governor of the state 
that advocated the establishment of free schools. 
He was an able political writer, and issued a series 
of addresses to the people under the signature of 
" Republican " (Charleston, 18(K)) that were in- 
strumental in the election of Jefferson. He also 



published in the same year s(fveral pajwrs in de- 
nunciation of the alien and seilition laws that were 
enacted during the administration of the elder 
Achims. Prirtcetoti gave him the degree of LL. I), 
in 1787. — Charles's son, Henry LanrenH, con- 
gressman, b. in Charleston, S. ('., 24 Sept.. 1794 ; d. 
there, 3 Feb., 1803, was gra<luated at the College of 
South Carolina in 1812. studie<l law in the office 
of his brother-in-law, RolxTt Y. Hayne. and was 
admitted to the bar. but never practised. He 
served in the legislature in 1810-'32, and was chair- 
man of its commitUie of ways and means for eight 
years. He was three times intendant, and three 
times mayor of Charleston, an<l in 188:i-'7 was a 
member of congress, having l)een elected as a 
Democrat. During the administration of Presi- 
dent Van Buren he was collector of the port of 
Charleston. In 1845-'0;^ he was tax-collector of the 
parishes of St. Philip and St. Michael. Mr. Pinck- 
ney was a constant and laiK>rious writer and work- 
er during his public life. He founded the Charles- 
ton " Mercury," the organ of the State-rights 
party, in 1819, was its sole editor for fifteen years, 
and published many orations and addresses. He 
alsf) wrote memoirs of Jonathan Maxcy, Rolx>rt Y. 
Hayne, and Andrew Jackson. — Thomas's grandson, 
Charles Cotesworth, clergvman. b. in Charles- 
ton, S. C, 31 July, 1812, was graduate*! at the 
College of Charleston in 1831, studied at Alex- 
andria theological seminary, Va.. and was ordained 
to the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal church. 
He has since held charges in South Carolina, is a 
popular divine, active in benevolent and educa- 
tional enterprises, and president of the board of 
trustees of the College of (Charleston. He re- 
ceived the degree of D. D. from the College of 
Charleston, in 18701 

PINDAR, John Hothersall, English colonial 
educator, b. in 1794 ; d. in West jMalvem, Eng- 
land, 10 April, 1868. He was graduated at Cam- 
bridge in 1810, and was nresi<lent of Cotlrington 
college, Barbadoes, W. I., from 1830 till 1835. 
Subsequently he was a canon of Wells cathedral, 
and principal of Wells theological college, which 
latter office he resigned in 1865. He published 
" The Candidate for the Ministry — Lectures on the 
First Epistle to Timothy " (London, 1837); "Ser- 
mons on the Book of Common Prayer " (1837) : 
•' Sermons on the Holy Days of the Church " 
(1850) ; and " Meditations for Priests on the Ordi- 
nation Service " (1853). 

PINDAR, Susan, author, b. near Tarrvtown, 
N. Y., about 1820. Her father, Charies Pindar, a 
Russian by birth, and for a time Russian consul 
to Florida, died in New Orleans. His estate, Pin- 
dar's Vale, adjoined Wolfert's Roost. She con- 
tribute<i numerous poems to the " Knickerbocker 
Magazine." and was the author of " F'ireside Fair- 
ies, or Christmas at Aunt Elsie's " (New York, 1849) 
and " Midsummer Fays, or the Holidays at Wood- 
leigh " (1850), which were republished together as 
"Susan Pindar's Story- Book " (1858), and "Le- 
gends of the Flowers" (1851). 

PINE, Robert Edge, artist, b. in London, 
England, in 1730, or, according to some authorities, 
in 1742; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 19 Nov., 1788. 
The earlier date of birth seems the more probable 
from the fact that in 1700 he gained the first prize 
of £100 from the Society for tlie encouragement 
of the arts for the l)est historical picture that was 
offered, "The Surrender of Calais," with figiires 
as large as life. He was the son of John Pine, 
the skilful artist who published (1733-'7) the beau- 
tiful edition of Honice with the text engraved 
throughout by himself, and embellished with vig- 



24 



PINEDA 



PINELO 



nettes, and whose portrait by Hogarth, in the style 
of Rembrandt, is familiar to students of that 
artist's works. From whom the son j?leaned his 
art instruction is not known, but doubtless the 
rudimentit were instilled by his father. In 1702 
he again took a first prize for his picture of 
" Canute reprr»ving his Courtiers." Both of thest; 
prize pictures have been etigrnved. Between these 
two dates he had for a pupil John Hamilton Mor- 
timer (1741-'<1>). which would hardly have lx;en 
the case had he iH'en only Ix'tween eighteen and 
twenty. Pine devoted himself to historical com- 
{)osition and portraiture, l)ut succeeded l)est in 
the latter bmnch of art. The most familiar por- 
traits of John Wilkes, whose principles he es- 
poused, and of David Garrick. whose friendship 
ne possessed, are from his easel, and have been 
repeatedly engrave<l. He nainted at least four 
different portraits of Garrick, one of which is in 
the National portrait gallery, London. In 1782 
he held an exhibition of a collection of Shake- 
spearian pictures that he hiul painted, some of 
which were engraved afterward, and found their 
way into lioydell's Shakesj)eare. The next year, 
or the early part of the following one, Pine brought 
his family to Philadelphia. His object in coming 
to this country was to paint portraits of the emi- 
nent men of the Revolution, with a view of repre- 
senting in several large paintings the princinal 
events of the war, but he never carried out nis 
project. He brought letters to Francis Hopkin- 
son, ami the first portrait he is said to have namted 
after his arrival is the well-known one of that pa- 
triot. A letter from this gentleman to Wa^^hing- 
ton, explaining Pine's design and asking him to 
sit to the artist for his portrait, drew out the fa- 
mous "In for a penny, in for a pound" letter, 
dated Mt. Vernon, IG May, 1785. Pine's likeness 
of Washington was engraved for Irving's "Life of 
Washington," but is a weak and unsatisfactory 
picture, as are all of Pine's portraits that were 
painted in this country. He was generously pat- 
ronized by well-known people, doubtless owing to 
his friendly dis|)osition toward the land of his 
adoption, and Roliert Morris built a house for him 
in Philadelphia which was adapted for the exhi- 
bition of his pictures and the prosecution of his 
painting. Here he died suddenly of apoplexy. He 
IS descrii)ed as a " very small man, morbidly irri- 
table. His wife and daughters were also very di- 
minutive — thev were indeed a family of pigmies."' 
After his death his wife petitioned the legislature 
of Pennsylvania to Ijc allowed to disjwse of her 
husband's pictures by lottery, which request was 
granted. A large numl)er of them fell into the 
possession of Daniel Bowen, who removed them to 
Boston, where they were destroyed in the burning of 
the Columbian museum. They served before their 
destruction to give to Washington AUston his first 
les.sons in color — Pine's strong \mint as an artist. 
He painted portraits of several of the signers of 
the Declaration of Indei)endence. including the 
familiar ones of Robert Morris, George Read, and 
Thomas Stone. A l)eautiful portrait of Mrs. John 
Jav, by Pine, is in the possession of her grandson, 
John Jav, of New Vork city. 

PIN Si DA, Juan de (pe - nay' - dah), Spanish 
soldier, b. in Seville about 15*20; d. in Nasca, 
Peru, in 1606, He went to Peru at the time of the 
war lietween the younger Diego de Almagro and 
the royalists, and served under the orders of the 
governors Cristobal Vaca de Castro and Pedro de 
la Qasca. He afterward went to Chili, and. under 
.Garcia Hurta<lo de Mendoza (q. v.), participated in 
the heroic deeds that are celebratea by Alonso de 



Ercilla (q. v.) in his famous poem. In the festivi- 
ties to celebrate the accession of King Philip II. 
in 1558, Pineda had a quarrel with Ercilla. which 
ended in a battle between their followers in a 
church. They were imprisoned and condemned to 
death by Mendoza, but, the whole army opposing 
the sentence, it was changed, and both were exiled 
to Callao. During the voyage Pineda resolved to- 
abandon the military career and enter the order 
of San Agustin. which he did after his arrival \n 
Lima, April, 1560. He dedicated himself to th& 
conversion of the Indians, and in 1571 went as- 
vicar to Conchucos, where he worked for the relig- 
ious instruction of the savages. He was president 
of the provincial chapter in 1579, and died in the 
convent of Nasca in Peru. 

PINEL, Jac(|ues (pe-nel'), French buccaneer, 
b. in St. Malo in 1640; d. in Capesterre, Guade- 
loupe, in 1698. He followed the sea in his youth, 
but afterward joined the buccaneers in Tortuga, 
and gained both fortune and reputation by daring- 
expeditions. In 1675, having obtained a land grant 
ih Guadeloupe, he built upon the-seaside a fortified 
castle, and excavated tne harbor of Capesterre, 
which he made the headquarters of his expeditions. 
He was among the founders of the city of Capes- 
terre, on his land, atforded aid and assistance to the- 
colonial authorities, and contributed much toward 
developing the resources of the island. Every sum- 
mer he went on marauding expeditions in the Span- 
ish possessions, and amassed great riches. In leSS- 
he carried off from Santo Domingo a noble lady, 
and, having wed her, received letters of nobility 
from Louis XIV. His estate was created a raar- 
(|uis<ite, and it was the only one that ever existed 
in the French possessions in South America Hi& 
descendants are among the wealthiest land-owners 
of the West Indies, and, through alliance with his- 
torical families, are connected with several royal 
houses of Europe. " Rich as Pinel du Manoir " is- 
still a saying in the French West Indies, and it is 
said that he never knew the number of his slaves. 

PINELO, Antonio de Leon (pe-nay'-lo), Pe- 
ruvian historian, b. in Cordova de Tucuman in 
1589; d. in Seville about 1675. He was educated 
in the College of the Jesuits of Lima, and, going to 
Spain about 1612, became attorney of the council of 
the Indies, and afterward judge of the tribunal of 
La Contratacion in Seville, succeeding Gil Gon- 
zalez Davila {q. v.) in 1637 in the post of histori- 
ographer of the Indies, which he held till his death. 
As early as 1615 he became much impressed with* 
the necessity of collecting methodically all the de- 
crees and ordinances that had been issued either 
by the home government or by the viceroys of 
the American possessions. He communicated his 
scheme to the council, and, receiving encourage- 
ment, began his grand work, of which he published 
the plan in 1628: "Discurso de la importancia, de 
la forma, y de la disposicion de la colleccion de las- 
leyes de Indias" (Seville, 1623). Having obtained 
the king's approbation and authority to search the 
archives of Madrid and Simancas, and even a 
special royal order for having copies made from all 
documents in the offices of the state secretaries of 
Mexico, Lima, and Quito, he was enabled to pro- 
ceed more speedily with his work, and published an 
abridged first part, "Sumario de la recopilacion 
general" (Seville, 1634). By incessant labor Pinelo- 
had completed the work in 1645, but its publication 
was deferred till 1680, when Vicente Gonzaga pub- 
lished it under the title " Recopilaci6n general de 
las leyes de las Indias" (4 vols,, Matlrid, 1680). 
Pinelo's other works are " Epitome de la'Biblioteca 
oriental y occident-al, n&utica y geogrifica " {Mad- 



PI5JEYR0 



I'INKEKTON 



35 



rid. 1629), which, in a reviseil edition (3 vols.. 1787), 
has become the jfr«"»test hibliogriijthy of works, 
either inHnuscript or printed, repinlinfj South 
Amerioii: "Tratado de conflrniaciones reales, que 
«e n><iuieren para hi-s Indias OecidentJiles" (16;J0); 
"Cuestion moral: si el chocolate quehranta el 
ayunoece!esiastico''(lffiW); '*Tablas('r«>noloj;icas"' 
(iw.")); " Aparato politico do las Indias Occiden- 
tnles" (Ktta); " Vida de Santo Torihio arzol)is|)o 
de Iiima"(H)5;{); " Kl Paraiso en el NuevoMundo" 
(16r>0); and " Acuerdos del Concejo de Indias" 
(1658). Pinelo left also several manuscripts, some 
of which have been published since his death. 
These include " Politica de las Indias" (Madrid, 
(1829) ; " Bulario Indico " is a code of the canonical 
laws in force in South America (1829); " Historia 
del Supremo Concejo de las Indias " ; " Las ha- 
zafias de Chile con su historia"; " Fundacion y 
historia de la ciudad de Lima " : '• Descubrimiento 
y historia do Potosi " ; and " Relacion de la pro- 
vincia de Quiche y LacAudon." 

PISEYRO, Enrique (peen-yay'-ro), Cuban au- 
thor, b. in Havana in 1839. He studied in his na- 
tive city, and in 1863 was admitted to the bar. 
After a tour on the European continent he returned 
to Havana, where he founded in 1865 the '* lievista 
del Pueblo," a literary and critical review, and prac- 
tisi'd his profession. In 1869 he emigrated to the 
United States on account of the Cuban insurrection, 
and founded in New York a review under the title 
of " El Mundo Nuevo." He has published " Bio- 
grafia del General San Martin " (New York. 1870) ; 
"Morales Lemus y la Revoluci6n Cubana" (1872); 
" Estudios v Conferencias" (1880); and " Poetas 
famosos defSiglo XIX." (Paris, 1883). 

PINGREE, Samuel Everett, governor of Ver- 
mont, b. in Salisbury, N. H.. 2 Aug., 1832. The 
family name, formerly written Pengrv. was changed 
by his father to Pingrv, and by himself and his 
brothers to Pingree. tie was educated at Dart- 
mouth, in the class of 1857, studiwl law. was ad- 
mitte<l to the bar in 1859, and began practice at 
Hartfonl, Vt. At the beginning of the civil war 
he assisted in recruiting a company, and went to 
the field as 1st lieutenant. He was promoted cap- 
tain in August, 1861, was disabled by wounds that 
he received at Lee's Mills, and after returning to 
his regiment was commissioned as major, 27 Sept., 
1862. On 15 Jan., 18(53, he was promoted lieu- 
tenant-colonel. He took part in the severest fight- 
ing of the Army of the Potomac, and after the 
battle of the Wilderness, where all the field-ofllcers 
of the 2d Vermont infantrv were killed or wounded, 
was placed in commando/ that regiment. He wai- 
mustered out on 27 July. 1864. and returned to the 
practice of law in Hartford. He was state attorney 
for Windsor county in 1867-'8, and a meml)er of 
the Republican national convention in 1868. In 
1882 he was elected lieutenant-governor, and in 
1884 was chosen governor of the state. 

PINHEIRO, Sylvestre Ferreira (neen-yi'-e- 
ro), Maniuis de. Portuguese statesman, b. in Lis- 
bon, 31 Dec, 1769; d. there in Septemlwr, 1847. 
He was destined for the church, and entered the 
Oratorians as a novice, but left the convent on ob- 
taining the chair of philosophy in the University 
of Coimbra. His lilieral ideas soon excited the op- 
position of the cler]E:y, and he fled in 1797 to Eng- 
land, to escape imprisonment. Afterwanl he became 
secretary of the Chevalier de Araujo. Portuguese 
minister to Paris, and in 1802 was promoted charge 
d'affaires in Berlin, but was dismissed in 1807 on 
request of Napoleon. He immediately rejoined the 
royal family in Mrazil, and was appointed a mem- 
ber of the board of trade and assistant secretary of 



state. In 1809 he was sent as minister to Buenos 
Ajres to organize a court of claims and settle the 
boundary between the Spanish and Portuguese 
dominions, but he decline*!. He U'came afterward 
a meml>er of the privy council, and wrote several 
memoirs, advocating the enfranchisement of the 
slaves and a parliamentary government for Brazil 
and Portugal. In 1815 he opposed the return of 
.lo^ VI. to LislKHi, and after the revolution of 
Perto in 1821 became secretary of foreign relations 
antl war. and pro|K)sed to the king a plan to quell 
the relxjllion. In spite of his strenuous efforts, the 
weak monarch determined to return to Lisbon, ap- 

f)ointed Dom Pedro regent, and left Bahia in great 
laste. Pinheiro tried to change the king's reso- 
lution, but, all efforts proving unavailing, he ac- 
companied Joa<i to Lisbon in 1822. and was secre- 
tary of state till the suppression of the constitu- 
tional government in April. 1824, when he resigned 
and resided in Paris, living till 18Ji4, occupied in 
literary laliors. After the expulsion of Dom Mi- 
guel he returned to Lisbon, but continued to re- 
main in private life till his death. Pinheiro's works 
include " Memoria sobre os vicios da administra- 
qSo Portugueza " (Bahia, 1811); "Memoria sobre os 
meios de destniir a escravidSo no Brazil" (1812); 
" Memoria sobre um griverno representativo com- 
mum ao Portugal e ao Brazil " (1814) ; " Synopse de 
codigo do processo civil " (Paris, 1825) ; " Oltserva- 
cOes sobre a carta constitucional do reino de Por- 
tugal, e la constitucSo do imperio do Brazil " (3 
vols., 181:51); " Principes de droit public, constitu- 
tionel, administratif et desgens" (1834); "Ol)ser- 
vations sur la constitution du Bresil, et la charte 
constitutionelle du Portugal" (1835); and " Pro- 
jecto de codigo para la nn(;Jlo portugueza" (1839). 

PINILLOS, Clandio M. de (i)e-neel'-yos). Count 
of Villanueva, Cuban statesman, b. in Havana in 
Octoljer, 1782; d. there in 1853. When very voung 
he went to Spain, entered the army, and took part 
in the war against the French in 1808. He was 
sent to Cuba in 1814, and in 1825 appointed general 
superintendent of the finances of tne island, filling 
this office during twentv-five years. In 1825 the 
income of Cuba was only $2,000,000. but in 1837 it 
had risen to $37,000,006, which was due in great 
part to his wise measures. He built many public 
schools, hospitals, and roads, and in 1834 contrib- 
uted to the construction of the first railroad in a 
Spanish-speaking country. To his efforts was due 
the creation of a nautical college, an extensive 
chemical lalx>ratory, an aqueduct, and many other 
public institutions, for the scientific, literary, and 
industrial development of Cuba. He is considered 
one of the greatest In'nefactors of the island. 

PINKERTON, Allan, detective, b. in Glasgow, 
Scotland, 25 Aug., 1819; d. in Chicago. 111.. 1 July, 
1884. He became a Chartist in early manhood, 
came to this country in 1842 to escar)e imjirison- 
ment. and settled in ("hicago, HI. He wjis made 
deputy sheriff of Kane county in 1846. was subse- 
quently deputy sheriff of Cook county, and in 1850 
was appointed the first detective for Chicago. He 
also established Pinkerton's detective agency in 
that year, and from that date till the emancipa- 
tion was largely engaged in assisting the escape 
of slaves. He was the first special U. S. mail agent 
for northern Illinois and Indiana and southern 
Wisconsin, organized the U. S. secret service di- 
vision of the National army in 1861. was its first 
chief, and subsecjuently organized and was at the 
head of the Secret service department of the Gulf 
till the close of the civil war. He added to his de- 
tective agency in Chicago in 1860 a corps of night- 
watchmen, called Pinkerton's preventive watch. 



26 



PINKHAM 



PINKNEY 



esublishexl offices of both agencies in several other 
citiM, and was sijjnally succ-essful in the discovery 
and suppn-ssion of crime. While in theemploy- 
inenl of the Wilmiiij^ton and Halliniore railroad 
foMipany in 1H(J1. he (Tiscovered a phm to assjis-si- 
nate AJmiliani Lineohi on his way to his inaugura- 
tion in Washington. Among the cases in wliicli 
he successfully traced thieves and recovered money 
are the robk'Vy of the Carljondale, Pa., bank of 
$40,000. and that of the Adams express company 
of i7(H),tK)0. on Jan., 18(M5. from a train on the 
New York, New liaven. and Hartford railroad, 
and the taking of $300,000 from an express-car on 
the IIu(lson Kiver railroad, lie also broke up 
gangs of thieves at Seymour, Ind., and the " Mollie 
Maguires " in Pennsylvania. He published alxuit 
fifteen detective stories, the most popular of \yliich 
are "The Molly Maguires and the Detectives" 
(New York, 1877); "Criminal Reminiscences" 
(1878); "The Spv of the Ket)ellion " (1883); and 
"Thirtv Y.-ars a betoctive" (1884). 

PlNkHAM, William Cyprian, Canadian An- 
glican bishop, b. in St. Johns. Newfoundland, 11 
Nov., 1844. He was graduated at St. Augustine's 
college, Canterburv, England, in 18Gi). ordained 
priest in the established church in 18(59. came to 
Canada, iK'came chief superintendent of the Prot- 
estant schools of Manitoba in 1871, which odice 
he resigned in 1883, and was appointed archdea- 
con of Manitoba in 1882. In 1887 he was nuide 
bishop of Saskatchewan, and in 1888 lie became 
bishon of Saskatchewan and Calgary. 

PINKNEY, William, statesman.' b. in Annapo- 
lis, Md.. 17 March, 17<)4; d. in Washington, 25 
Feb., 1822. His father wjvsan Englishman by birth 
and was a loyalist during the American Revolu- 
tion. Young. Pinkney 
showed his independ- 
ent spirit as a boy by 
joining the patriotic 
side. Owing to the 
troubled state of the 
times, his early edu- 
cation was imperfect, 
but he made up for 
this deficiency by dili- 
gent application as he 
approached manhood. 
lie first chose medi- 
cine as a profession, 
but becomingac({uaint- 
ed with Judge Samuel 
Cluuse. who offered to 
take him as a pupil, he 
began the study of law 
at Haiti more in 1783, 
and three years afterward Wiis admitted to the bar. 
He practised successfully in Harford county. Md., 
for a few years, and was sent from thai district in 
1788 to the State convention that ratified the con- 
stitution of the United States. In the same year 
he was elected to the hous*' of delegates, in which 
he continued to represent Harford county till his 
return to Annapolis in 1792. Ilis speeches in the 
legislature by his natural eloquence and his pure 
and felicitous diction won for him more than a 
local reputation. From 1792 till 1795 he was a 
meml)er of the executive council of Maryland. In 
1796 President Washington appointed him a com- 
missioner on the part of the bniled States, under 
Jay's British treaty of 1794, to determine the claim 
of American merchants to compensation for losses 
and damages by acts of the English government. 
This was the lieginning of his diplomatic career 
abroad. The particular service, involving the con- 




i^yL^/^<PL,£^ 



sideration of many nice questions of admiralty law, 
gave employment to Pinkney's best powers. He 
remained in England until 1804, when he returned 
home and resumed the practice of the law in Balti- 
more. The next year he was appointed attorney- 
general of the state of Maryland. In 1806 he was 
again sent to England as commissioner, jointly 
with James Monroe, to treat with the English gov- 
ernment respecting its continued aggression, in 
violation of the rights of neutrals. When Mr. 
Monroe retired in 1807, Pinkney was left as resi- 
dent minister in London, in which post he remained 
until President Madison recalled him in 1811, at 
his own earnest solicitation. On his return to 
Maryland he was elected a member of the state 
senate, and at the close of the year President Madi- 
son apjiointed him attorney-general of the United 
States. He was an earnest advocate of the war of 
1812, and defended the policy of the government 
both by his pen and sword, being wounded at 
the battle of Bladensburg while leading a com- 
pany of riflemen. In 1814 he resigned his post 
as attorney-general when the law was passed re- 
(juiring that officer to reside at the seat of govern- 
ment. In 1815 he was elected to congress from 
Baltimore, but he resigned the next year on being 
appointed by President Monroe minister to Russia 
and special envoy to Naples. He remained abroad 
two years, but, feeling the want ot his legal income, 
he resigned in 1818, returned to Baltimore, and re- 
sumed the practice of his profession. He was en- 
gaged in most of the chief cases in the supreme 
court of the United States during the next four 
years. In 1820 he was elected to the U. S. senate 
and took an active part in the discussion on the 
admission of Missouri into the Union. He con- 
tinued also his labors in the supreme court, and 
while engaged in his double duties at the bar and 
in the senate he was attacked by the illness that ter- 
minated his life. — William's son, Edward Coate, 
author, b. in London, England, 1 Oct., 1802 ; d. in 
Baltimore, 11 April, 1828, passed the first nine 
years of his life in the British metropolis, at the 
end of which time he was brought by his father to 
the home of the family in Baltimore. Soon after his 
arrival, young Pinkney entered college, but before 
he had completed his studies he was taken away 
and placed in the U. S. navy. After remaining six 
years he resigned on account of a quarrel with 
Com. Ridgely, his superior officer, whom he chal- 
lenged to fight a duel. The commodore treated 
the challenge as the freak of a boy, and declined Jo 
notice it. This roused the anger of the young 
midshipman, and he posted Ridgely in the streets 
of Baltimore. After leaving the navy, Pinkney 
began the study of the law, and in 1824 was ad- 
mitted a member of the Baltimore bar. But he 
was known to be a poet, a character which the wis- 
dom of the world has decided to be incompatible 
with those serious studies necessary for eminence 
at the bar. In 1825 he published his exquisite 
poems in a thin volume of about sixty pages. 
They were written between his twentieth and 
twenty-second year. Of these " The Health " and 
"The Picture Song" are still popular. Extracts 
from them were circulated throughout the United 
States, and established his reputation. As an evi- 
dence of the estimation in which he was held, it is 
sufficient to mention that when it was determined 
to publish biographical sketches of the five greatest 
poets of the country, with their portraits, Edward 
rinkney was requested to sit for his miniature to 
l)e used in the proposed volume. Tired of the law, 
which he found even less profitable >than poetry, 
Pinkney in 1825 embarked for Mexico, with tlie 



PINKNKY 



PINTARD 



27 



intention of joininfj t ho patriots, who wore fightinp 
for the in(lei>en(lence of their country. But the 
Mexienn navy was full, and while waiting for a 
vacancy he became involved in a (juarrel with a 
native.'whoin he kille<l in a duel and was obliged 
to flee the country. He returned to Haltimore dis- 
appointed, (liscouraged. and almost crushed by 
sicKuess and sorrow. The year after his return 
from Mexico, Pinkney was appointed professor of 
rhetoric and l)elles-lettres in the University of 
Maryland. There was no salary attachetl to the 
post, but it was given to him in recognition of his 
Drilliant scholarship. In December, 1827. he was 
chosen editt)r of tlie " Marylander," a political 
newspaper that had lK»en established in the interest 
of John Quincy Adams, at that time president of 
the United States. A few months after taking 
charge of the "Marylander" Pinkney "s health, 
which had l)een declining gradually, failed, and by 
1 April, 1828. he was on his death-bed.— Another 
son. Frederick, b. at sea, 14 Oct., 1804: d. 13 June. 
1871}, was deputy attorney-general of Maryland, 
and assistant editor of the '' Marylander." anJl sub- 
sequently of the " Baltimore Patriot." During the 
civil war he published poems and songs that be- 
came pt)|)ular. — William's brother, Niiiian, au- 
thor, b. HI Baltimore, Md., in 177G; d. there, 16 
Dec., 1825, entere<l the U. S. army as lieutenant of 
infantry in 1799. became captain in 1807, was major 
of the 5th infantry, and aide to Gen. James Wil- 
kinson in 1813. became lieutenant-colonel in 1814, 
and commanded the 5th i-egiment at Lyons' creek, 
for which service he was honorably mentioned in 
the report of the commanding officer. In 1820 
he was promoted colonel. In 1807-'8 he made a 
tour of the south of France, an account of which 
he embodied in a book entitled "Travels in the 
South of Prance and in the Interior of the Prov- 
inces of Provence and Languedoc by a Route never 
before performed " (London, 1809). Leigh Hunt 
said of this book : " It set all the idle world to 
going to France to live on the charming banks of 
the Loire."— Ninian's son, Ninian, surgeon, b. in 
Anna|>olis, Md., 7 June. 1811 ; d. near East on, Md., 
15 Dec, 1877. was graduated at St. John's college, 
Annapolis, Md., in 1829, and at Jefferson medical 
college in 18iS3. He entered the U. S. navy as as- 
sistant surgeon in 1834, became surgeon in 1841. 
was fleet surgeon of the Mississippi squadron in 
1863-'5, and became medical director with the rank 
of commodore in 1871. He received the degree of 
LL. D. from St. John's college in 1873. Dr. Pink- 
ney delivered many addresses, including " Home 
and Foreign Policy of the United States " l)efore 
the house of delegates of Maryland (1855); one on 
the presentation of the American flag that was 
hoisted by Com. Matthew C. Perry in Japan (1853); 
and an address before the societies of St. John's 
college (1873).— William's nephew, William, P. E. 
bishop, b. in Annapolis, Md., 17 April, 1810; d. in 
Cockevsville, Md., 4 July, 1883, was gratluated at 
St. John's college. Annapolis, in 1827, i)renared for 
the ministry, and was ordained deacon ni Christ 
church, CaTnbridge. Md., 12 April, 1835, by Bishop 
Stone, and prifst in All Saints' church, Frederick, 
Md., 27 May, 1830, by the same bishop. For a brief 
period he was in charge of the [)arish in Somer- 
set. From that place he removed to Bladensburg. 
where he became rector of St. Matthias's church. 
Several years later he accepted the rectorship of 
the Church of the Ascension. Washington, I). C. 
which he held when he was called to the episcopate. 
He received the degree of I). I), from St. John's 
college in 185.';, and that of LL. D. from Columbian 
university, Washington, D. C, and from Williain 



and Mary in 1873. Dr. Pinkney wa.« elected assist- 
ant bishJtp of Marvland. and was consecrated in 
the Churcn of the hipiphanv, Washington, D. C, 6 
Oct., 1870. On the death of Bishop Whittingham 
in Octol)er, 1879, he iMH-'amo bishop of the diocese. 
He published a " Life " of his uncle, William Pink- 
ney (New York, 1853). and a " Memoir of John H. 
Alexander, LL. D.." which hereatl lx>forethe Mary- 
land historical so<-iety (Baltimore, 18G7). 

PINNEY, Norman, dergvman, b. in Simsburv, 
Conn., 21 Oct., 18W): d. in" New Orleans, La., 'l 
Oct., 1862. He wjis gra«luated at Yale in 1823, and 
then studied for tlie ministry of the Protestant 
Episcopal church under Bishop Thomas C. Brown- 
ell, by whom he was ordained. In 1824 he became 
tutor at Washington (now Trinity) college, and in 
1826 he was nimle professor of ancient languages, 
which chair he then held for five years. He was 
called to the charge of a church in Mobile in 1831, 
but, Ijecoming a Unitarian, he resigned, and in 
1839 attempted to found a college in that city. 
This project failed on account of his inability to 
secure a satisfactory faculty. In 1852 he was asso- 
ciatetl with Joseph Rindge in establishing a large 
boys' school, which was called the Collegiate insti- 
tute of Mobile. Mr. Pinney was a scholar of no 
mean ability. He contributed poetrv to periodi- 
cals, and was the author of a series of text-books, 
including "First Book in French " (New York); 
" Key to the Same" ; " Progressive French Reader" ; 
and " Practical French Reader." 

PINTARD, Lewis, merchant, b. in New York 
city. 12 Oct., 1732 ; d: in Princeton, N. J., 25 March, 
1818. He was descended from a French Protestant 
family that fled to this country on the revocation 
of the edict of Nantes. At the age of sixteen he 
succeeded his father in a large shipping and com- 
mission business with the East Indies and London. 
During the Revolutionary war he was agent for 
American prisoners, and administered the scanty 
funds that congress wjvs able to supply toward 
mitigating the sufiferings of the captives with 
fidelity and economy, for which he received the 
thanks of Gen. Washington. After the war he was 
the chief importer of Madeira wine into the United 
States, and exporter of flaxseed to Ireland, but, 
owing to the failure of his consignee in Dublin, his 
cargoes were seized and bills drawn to the amount 
of £20,000 were sent back protested. He then en- 
gaged in the importation of sugar and molasses 
from the West Indies, which he carried on with 
much success until the interference with American 
vessels by British cruisers in 1812 led to his re- 
tii-ement. He withdrew to Princeton, N. J., where 
he spent the latter part of his life. Mr. Pintard 
ranked as one of the great merchants of his time, 
and was one of the incorporators of the Chamber 
of commerce, which was established by George III. 
in 1770 and by the New York legislature in 1784. 
He married Susannah Stockton, sister of Richard 
Stockton, and was connected with many of the Itest 
families in this country. — His nephew, Julin, phi- 
lanthropist, b. in New York city, 18 May, 1759: d. 
there, 21 June, 1844. On the arrival of the British 
troops in New York city he left Princeton college 
and joined the patriot forces, but returned in time 
to receive his degree in 1776. Subsequently he 
served on several military ex|M?dit ions and then bo- 
came deputy commissary of American prisoners in 
New York under his uncle. Louis. In tliis capacity 
it was his duty to examine and relieve the wants of 
the prisoners, and he continued so engaged until 
1781. After peace had been est^iblished he turned 
his attention to the shipping business, having in- 
herited a large fortune from his mother, which he 



28 



PINTARD 



PINZON 




subsequently lost by enpajrinjf with William Duer 
in Aloxaniler Hamilton's scheme for funding the 
national debt. In 17H7 he was sent to the legisla- 
ture, and for a time he was also translator of the 
French language for the government. He edited 
the New Yi»rk " Daily Advertiser" in 18()2, but he 
soon relincjuished it and visited New Orleans on 
business. The knowl- 
edge of the province of 
Louisiana tnat he ac- 
quired there led to his 
l»eing called in 1803 by 
Alljeii Gallatin, then 
secretary of the treas- 
ury, toexpress his views 
as to the imtural re- 
sotirces of this colony, 
and he rosjiondod fa- 
vorably. Indeed, his 
exact information con- 
cerning the value of 
the province was Iw- 
yoiid doubt the most 
important considera- 
<7^ ^ yi y tion submitted to the 

./c//>>t ^o€a/:f^£k^U authorities, and the one 
that led to its purchase. 
For many years after 1804 he was first city inspec- 
tor, and during the war of 1813, owing to scarcity 
of change, he was authorized by the corporation to 
issue notes of fractional denominations, lie was 
secretarv of the Mutual assurance company from 
1809 till 1829. and in 1819 he originated the first 
savings bank that was estaljjished in New York 
citv. serving as its second president from 182:} till 
1842. From 1H19 till 1829 he was secretary of the 
New York chamber of commerce, and it was prin- 
cipally through his interest that that body was re- 
established after the war. Mr. Pintard was treas- 
urer of the Sailors' Snug Harbor in ]819-'23, and 
he was instrumental in the purchase of property on 
.Staten island, where the home is now located. ' In 
1H()4 he was active in founding the New York 
historical society, to which he presented many 
valuable works on colonial history, and he was 
likewise instrumental in establishing the Massa- 
chusetts historical society in 1791, winning the 
title of "father of historical societies" in this 
country. Mr. Pintard was also active in the foun- 
dation of the American Bible society, served as its 
secretary and then as its vice-president, and was 
the first sagamore of the Tammany society. He 
was manager of lotteries in New York city when 
such were fa.shionable. and it is believed that Co- 
lumbia college received the grant of the liotanic 
gardens, containing twenty acres, by his interven- 
tion and the aid of De Witt Clinton and David 
llosack. On 19 Feb.. 1805. with others, he liegan 
the efforts that resulted in the present free-school 
system of New York city, and he was also active in 
all the movements that resulted in the building 
and completion of the Eric canal. Mr. Pintard 
pn)jected the plan of streets and avenues that 
IS now in existence in the upper part of New York. 
From 1800 till near the close of his life there were 
few enterprises of public utility that he did not 
further by his pen and purse. Mr. Pintard was 
one of the chief supporters of the General theo- 
logical seminary, devising ways and means for 
its removal from New Haven to New York city, 
and presenting it with many valuable works. In 
1885 Pintard Hall, one of the dormitories of the 
seminary, was erected in his honor. The degree of 
LL. I), was conferred on him by Allegheny college 
in 1822. He published an account of New Orleans 



in the " New York Medical Repository," and a notice 
of "Philip Freneau" in the "New York Mirror" 
(1833), and translated the " Book of Common 
Prayer" into French for the Huguenot church in 
New York city, of which he was a vestryman for 
thirty-four years. His version is still used. 

Pf NTO, 'Bento Teixeira (peen -to), Brazilian 
poet, b. in Pernambuco in the first half of the 16th 
century; d. about 1610. He composed and pub- 
lished a poem in eight-line stanzas entitled " Pro- 
sopopea," dedicated to Jorge de Albuquerque Co- 
elho (Rio Janeiro, 1601), This work, which had 
become extremely rare, was reprinted in 1872 by 
the librarian of the Rio Janeiro national and pulJ^ 
lie library from the original copy, which was dis- 
covered in the library, where it nad lain neglected. 
In 1601 he also published in Rio Janeiro a " Dia- 
logo sobre as grandezas do Brazil " and a " Narra- 
tive de naufragio de Jorge Coelho em su viagem 
de Pernambuco sobre 6 navio Santo Antonio em 
1565," republished in " Historia das tragedias mari- 
timas" (Itio Janeiro. 1852). 

PINTO, Francisco Antonio, Chilian states- 
man, b, in Santiago about 1785 ; d. there in 1858. 
He acquired a good education, and when very 
young was graduated as a lawyer in the University 
of San Felipe. Soon afterward the revolution of 
1810 began, and he took part in the patriotic move- 
ment. The following year he went to Buenos 
Ayres as a diploiiuitic agent, and in 1813 he was 
sent to London with a like commission. He served 
in 1817 in the Argentine Republic under the orders 
of Gen. Manuel Belgrano \q. v.), but in 1821 he 
returned to Chili and went to Peru with the Chilian 
liberating army. On his return to Chili he was 
elected vice-president of the republic : when Gen. 
Freire resigned the presidency in 1827 Pinto as- 
sumed the executive. He accomplished many re- 
forms, promoted public instruction, and enlarged 
the National library. He resigned on 14 July, 1829, 
and, although in the same year he was re-elected, 
he resigned again in 1830. Afterward he lived in 
retirement for several years, but later he occupied 
the offices of senator and councillor of state. — His 
son, Anibal, president of Chili, b. in Santiago in 
1824 ; d. in Valparaiso in 1884, studied in the Uni- 
versity of Chili, in 1845 was appointed attache of 
the Chilian legation in Rome, and in 1848 promoted 
secretary. On his return to Chili he was called to 
the chair of philosophy and the humanities in the 
university. During the government of Jose Joaquin 
Perez {q. v.) in 1862 he was appointed intendant of 
the province of Concepeion, and during his long 
administration he embellished the capital and im- 
proved its hospitals and highways. He was elected 
deputy to congress several times, and in 1869 was 
offered the portfolio of the treasury, which he re- 
fused, not wishing to take part in politics. In 1870 
he was appointed senator, and was one of the prin- 
cipal promoters of the railway that unites the port 
of Talcahuano with the province of Sfuble. When 
Federico Errazuriz (q. v.) occupied the presidency 
of Chili in 1871, he called Pinto to organize a cabi- 
net; but the latter declined, accepting only the 
portfolio of war and the navy, which he occupied 
three years. In 1876 he was' elected president of 
Chili. During his administration the war against 
Peru and Bolivia began in 1879, and V)y his energy 
the means for its prompt prosecution were for- 
warded to the front. On 8 Sept., 1881. he delivered 
the executive to his successor, Domingo Santa 
Maria, and retired into private life. 

PINZON, Martin Alonso (pin-thonr), Spanish 
navigator, b. in Palos de Moguer in 1441 ; d. there 
in 1493. He was descended from a family of sea- 



PINZON 



PINZON 



20 



men, and became an able pilot, but retired from 
active service and was the senior partner of the 
firm of Pinzon Brothers, ship-builders at Palos de 
Mojjiier. According? to Francis Parkman in his 
" Pioneers of France in the New World," Pinzon 
saUed on Iward the vessel of one Cousin, a navi- 
gator of Dieppe, in 14H8, and they were on the 
coast of Africa wiien their vessel was forced by 
storms far to the southwest, where they descried an 
unknown land and dis<!overed the mouth of a 
mighty river. On the return voyage Pinr,bn's con- 
duct became so mutinous that C'ousin made com- 
plaint to the admiralty, and the offender was dis- 
missed from the maritime service of the town, 
communicating on his return to Spain the discovery 
to Columbus. The same fact is cited by Leon 
Guerin in *' Navigateurs Fran9ais," and by Charles 
Estancelin in " Navigateurs Normands." But other 
historians affirm that Pinzon had not navigated for 
vears when, bein^ called to Rome on business, he 
heard of the projects of Columbus, and made in- 

auiries at the holy office. There he learned of the 
imes and tithes that hatl lx>en paid to the holy 
see before the beginning of the 15th century by a 
country named Vinland, and saw charts that had 
been made by the Norman explorers, after which 
he resolved to trust Columbus. On his return to 
Spain he was consulted by Queen Isal)el la's advisers 
on Columbus's schemes, and gave a favorable 
answer, which greatly aided the Genoese navigator, 
and when Columbus obtained permission to arm 
three ships, Pinzon provided an eighth of the ex- 
penses. He took command of the caravel " La 
rinta," but from the first showed his desire to rival 
Columbu.s, always sailing in advance of the other 
ships and refusing to obey the admiral. When 
land was seen. Pinzon nretended to have been the 
first to discover it, ana a Te Deum was sung on 
board his ship. On 21 Nov., 1492, he separated 
from the expedition off Cuba for the purpose of 
taking possession of the treasures that were to be 
found m that island, according to the natives. 
When he again met Columbus, on his return 
voyage in January, 1493, near Cape Monte Cristo, 
he attributed his parting company to stress of 
weather, and the admiral feigned to believe his 
excuses. On the homeward journey he separated 
from Columbus again in a storm off the Azores, 
and made all possible sail for the purpose of ar- 
riving before the admiral and claiming the dis- 
covery ; but he was carried by a hurricane to 
Galicia, where he was detained several days, and 
asked by letter an audience from the king. He 
arrived in Palos on the evening of the same day 
with the admiral and set out immediately for 
Madrid, but was met on his way by a messenger 
who forbade his appearance at court. Anger, envy, 
and resentment shattehed his health, and he died a 
few weeks later in Palos de Moguer. — His brother, 
Vicente Yailez, Spanish navigator, b. in Palos de 
Moguer about 1460; d. there about 1524, provided 
also an eighth of the expenses for the expedition of 
Columbus, and was aptK)inted commander of the 
caravel " La NiAa." Unlike his brother, he was 
always faithful to the atlmiral, and when the flag- 
ship " Santa Maria " was wre<'ked, 24 Dec., 1492, off 
the coast of Hispnniola, he rescued Columbus, who 
emlmrked upon Pinzon's vessel. According to 
Gomara, he accompanied Columbus in his second 
and third voyages to the Now World ; but other his- 
torians dispute this. In 1499. having obtained 
a concession for new discoveries, he armed four 
caravels in partnership with his nephew. Arias 
Martin, and spiled from Palos de Moguer, 13 Nov., 
1499. Steering to the southward, he crowed the 



e(]uinoctial line, lost sight of the north star, and 
on 20 Jan., 1500, descrried land, being thus the first 
to discover Brazil, and naming the Cajw Santa 
Maria de la Consohicion (now Cape St. Agustinho). 
He landed with a notary and witnesses to take pos- 
session of the country for the king of Spain, out, 
ln'ing attacked by warlike Indians, re-embarked, 
and. coasting to the northwest, discovcre<l the 
mouth of the Amazon, which he called Santa Maria 
de la Mar Dulce, and continued to explore thecoa*it 
to the Gulf of Paria. He arrived in Spain on iiO 
Sept. after a disastrous homeward voyage, in which 
he lost two ships and all his fortune. In 150(1 he 
associated himself with Juan Diaz de Solis (a. r.) 
for the discovery of a passage from the Atlantic to 
the Indian ocean, and after landing on the coast of 
Honduras, in the island of Guanaja, they entered 
the Gulf of Mexico an«J discovered Yucatan and 
the Bay of Campeachy, which they called Natividad. 
On his return he was summoned to court to consult 
with Americo Vespucci upon new discoveries to be 
made. Again, in association with Solis, he went 
in 1508 on a new expedition to South America, and 
coasted the shores of Brazil from Cape St. Agus- 
tinho to latitude 40° S. He quarrelled with Solis, 
and on their return to Seville in 1509 they were 
not received with favor. Solis was imprisoned, and 
Pinzon escaped punishment onlv on account of his 
long services. After that time he gave up naviga- 
tion and settled in Palos de Moguer. Pinzon's 
descendants exist in Huelva and Moguer, and they 
have always been navigators. He wrote a relation 
of his explorations, which is preserved among the 
manuscripts in the archives of Siniancas. — Another 
brother, Francisco Martin, b. in Palos de Moguer 
about 1462 ; d. at sea in July, 1500, served as a 
pilot under his brother, Martin Alonso, in the ex- 
pedition of 1492, and was likewise hostile to Co- 
lumbus. After the death of his elder brother he 
became the managing partner of the business firm 
in Moguer, and, having reconciled himself with his 
brother, Vicente Yafiez, he was attached as pilot to 
the expedition of 1499. During the homeward 
journey he commanded one of the two ships that 
went down in a hurricane off Hispaniola, and was 
lost with all his crew. — Their nephew. Arias Mar- 
tin, Spanish navigator, b. in Palos de Moguer in 
1465 ; d. there in 1510, was the only son of an elder 
brother, and was already a pilot of reput* at the 
time of the expedition of Columbus. He embarked 
as such on board " La Nifia," was a stanch supporter 
of Columbus during the voyage, and often took 
the admiral's part against Alartin Alonso, his 
uncle and former guardian. Arias accompanied 
Columbus also in his second and third voyages to 
America, and in 1499 obtained, with his uncle, 
Vicente Yafiez, permission to make new discoveries. 
Stress of weather separat^l him for some time from 
the latter, but they joined again, towanl the close 
of January, 1500, off Cape St. Agustinho, and they 
sailed in companv to the mouth of the Amazon, 
when they parted again, Vicente steering for the 
Guiana coast, while Arias made sail to the south- 
ward along the coast of Brazil. It is prolmble 
that he advanced as far as the present Bay of Rio 
Janeiro. In the Gulf of Paria he fell in again with 
Vicente Yafiez. During the following years he 
established a trade between Moguer and Cuba, His- 
paniola, and the other American possessions, in 
which he made a large fortune. In 1507 an(} 1509 he 
accom|)anied the expeditions of his uncle. Vicente, 
and Solis. which proved unfortunate. Several his- 
torians assert that Arias Pinzon wrote a narrative 
of his travels which is preserved among the manu- 
scripts of the Escorial ; out this has not been proved. 



30 



PIPER 



PISON 



PIFER. Richard I'pton, physician, b. in Stra- 
tham, N. 11.. -i April, 1818. He'was pnuhiated at 
Dartmouth inwlical school in 184(). and now (1888) 
practises his profession in Chicaj^o, 111. Besides 
contributinjj to various njedical jwriodicals, ho has 
publishe<l a treatise on"()|M.'rative Sur^'ery," illus- 
trate<l with alH)ut !2,(XK) drawings by the author 
(Boston, 18.Vi), and " The Trees of America " (4 
(Mirts, 18r)7, incomplete), lie also drew the illus- 
tnitions for Maclise's " Surgical Anatomy." 

PIRES, Francisco ({K'e-rays). Hnt/iiian mis- 
sionary, b. in Celorico, Portugal, alx»ut 1520; d. in 
Bahia. Brazil, in 158H. He l)ecame a Jesuit in 1548, 
afterward went to Bnizil as a missionary, and was 
for several years rector of the College of Bahia. 
He wrote "Cartas Annuasaos Padres da Provincia 
de Portugal escripta.s na Bahia a 17 de Setend)ro, 
1552" (Italian translation, Venice, 1559) and 
"Cartas escriptas da Capitania do p]spirifo Santo 
ao P. ManiH-l de Nobrega em o anno de 1558," also 
published in Italian (15()2). 

PIRTLK, Henry, jurist, b, in Washington 
county, Ky.. 5 Nov., 1798; d. in Louisville, Ky., 28 
March, 1H80. His parents were among the early set- 
tlers in Kent ucky. The son received a good English 
education, working at intervals on his father's 
farm, studied law, and after practising five years 
in llarfonl. Oiiio county, rt^moved in 1825 to Ixniis- 
ville. A few months later he was appointed a 
judge of the general court to till a vacancy, which 
post he resigned in 18152 and engaged in active 
practice. He was again a|)pointed in 1842, but 
again icsigned in a few days, at the close of the 
pending term of court. In 1840 he was elected to 
the state senate, and while chairman of the com- 
mittee on Federal relations ho made a report that 
condemned certain state-rights resolutions of the 
South Carolina and Virginia legislatures. The 
same construction of the constitution that was 
made in this report was laid down several days 
later by the U. S. supreme court. Judge Pirtle 
was chancellor of the Louisville chancery court and 
professor of constitutional law. efpiity, and commer- 
cial law in the University of Louisville in 1846-'G8. 
He published " Digest of the Decisions of the Court 
of Appeals of Kentucky " (2 vols., Louisville, 1832). 

PISE, Charles Constantine, clergyman, b. in 
Annapolis, Md., in 1802; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 26 
May, 18(J(». After graduation at (Georgetown col- 
lege, D. C, he entered the College of the propa- 
gaiula. Rome, but was obliged to leave, owing to 
his father's death, and completed his theological 
course in Mount St. Mary's seminary, Emmetts- 
burg, at the same time teaching classes in rhetoric 
and poetry. He was ordained there in 1825, and 
ap{M)inted to a mission in Frederick, Md., but 
was transferred soon afterward to the cathedral at 
Baltimore. After doing missionary work for sev- 
eral years his health failed, and he went to Italy. 
He had alreatly become recognized as the pioneer 
of Roman Catholic literature in the United States, 
and at Rome received the degree of D. D., and was 
made a knight of the Holy Roman Empire. On 
his return he was attached to St. Patrick^s church 
in Washington. He was aii intimate friend of 
Henry Clay, and, partly through the influence of 
the latter, was appointed chaplain of the U. S. sen- 
ate, being the oidy Iif>man Catholic priest that ever 
held that office. The same statesman offered Dr. 
Pise a chair in Transylvania university ; but he pre- 
ferred active missionary work. He" removed to 
New York on the invitation of Bishop Dubois, and 
was connected with several (rhurches in the city, 
also attaining a reputation »is a lecturer ahd 
preacher. He purchased Emmanuel church, Brook- 



Ivn, which became the Roman Catholic church of 
St. Charles Borromeo, and he assumed the pastor- 
ate of it in 1849. His works are " Father Row- 
land," a tale in answer to " P^ither Clement " (Bal- 
timore, 1829) ; " Indian Cottage, a Unitarian Story " 
(1829); " History of the Church from its Establish- 
ment to the Reformation" (5 vols., 1830); "The 
Pleasures of Religion, and other Poems " (Phila- 
delphia, 18JW) : " Iiorff Vagabund»," an account of 
his travels in Ireland ; " Alethia, or Letters on the 
Truth of the Catholic Doctrines " (New York, 1843) ; 
" The Acts of the Apostles," a poem (1845) : " Zeno- 
sius, or the Pilgrim Convert (1845); " Letters to 
Ada " ; " Lives of St. Ignatius and his First Com- 
panions" (1845); "Notes on a Protestant Cate- 
chism"; "The Catholic Bride." translated from 
the Italian (Baltimore. 1848); and "Christianity 
and the Cniurch " (1850). 

PISKARET, Simon, Algonquin chief, b. in Ot- 
tawa, Caiuula, in 1002; d. near Three Rivers in 
March, 164(5. He was champion of the Algonquins, 
and his marvellous exploits are still recounted 
among the northwestern Indians. At first he was 
an enemy of the Jesuits, but he became a Christian 
in 1642, in the hope of gaining French favor, and 
soon afterward was really a convert. His conver- 
sion aided the French colonization of Canada, and 
secured a momentary f)eace between the French 
and the Indian allies and the Six Nations. This 
was brought about in the following manner, ac- 
cording to Parkman in his "Jesuits in North 
j America " : In the spring of 1645 Piskaret. with 
six other converted Indians, set out on a war- 
party, and, after killing fourteen Iroquois, made 
two prisoners, whom, owing to the instructions of 
his Jesuit teacher, he treated with unexampled for- 
bearance. He led them to Sillery, and presented 
them to Gov. Montmagny, and they were after- 
ward convteyed to Three Rivers, where Champleur, 
the comnuindant, after clothing and equipping 
them, sent thetn home. The >Iohawks felt this 
kindness deeply, and on 5 July following they 
sent an embassy to Three Rivers, led by the chief 
Kiotsatou. The result was that, on 17 Sept., a 

fraud council was held at Three Rivers by Gov, 
lontmagny, the Jesuit superiors, and representa- 
tives of various tribes, at which a general peace was 
concluded, and, although it lasted scarcely a year, 
it had valuable results for the colonization of 
Canada. Piskaret now followed agriculture in 
his domain near Three Rivers. He was killed by 
surprise by a party of Mohawks toward the clo§© 
of March, 1646, when peace was partially broken. 

PISON, Willem (pe-son), Dutch naturalist, b. 
in Leyden in 1596 ; d. there in 1681. He studied 
medicine and practised his profession successively 
in Leyden and Amsterdam. In 1()37 he followed 
Prince Maurice de Nassau-Siegen (q. v.) to Brazil. 
With the help of two German students, one of 
whom was George Marggraff (q. v.), he explored that 
country, and, discovering the ipecacuanha-tree, pop- 
ularized its use in medicine. Returning to Leyden 
in 1645 with a fine collection, which he presented 
to the city, he showed his manuscript to Jean de 
Laet, who inserted in his " Historia naturalis Brasi- 
lisB " (Leyden, 1648) Pison's treatise " De Medi- 
cinaB Bnisiliensi, Libri IV." After the death of 
Prince Maurice, Pison entered the service of the 
Elector of Brandenburg, but, returning later to 
Holland, he published a revised edition of his 
former work with many additions, under the title 
of " De IndiiP utriusque re naturali et medicini, 
Libri XIV " (Amsterdam, 1658). Plumier dedicated 
to Pison a plant of the Nictaginei family, arbor 
spinis horrida Pisonia. 



PITCAIRN 



PITCHLYNN 



31 



PITCAIRN, John, British soldier, b. in Pife- 
shiro. Scotliiiid. alxiut 1740; d. in lioston. Miiss., 17 
June, 1775. Ht< became captain of niarinos on 10 
Jan., 1765, and major in April. 1771, and was 
stationed for several years in Boston, where he is 
said to have l)een the only British olTK-er that dealt 
fairly with the jwople in their disputes with the 
soldiery. He took part in the expeuition that was 
despatched by Gen. Gage to Lexington on the 
morning of 19 April. 177o, and was sent in advance 
with six companies with orders to press on .to Con- 
cord and secure the two bridges there. At Lexing- 
ton he found the Iwal militia drawn u|> an<l 
ordered them to disperse. The skirmish that fol- 
lowed, which is known as the battle of Lexington, 
was begun by the British, according to the received 
account. Tlie statement that Pitcairn began it by 
giving the order to fire is adopted as the true one 
By George Bancroft in his " History of the United 
States," but other accounts say that there was des- 
ultorv firing before the order. Pitcairn insisted 
till his death that the minute-men had fired first. 
Later, in the retreat from Concord to Boston, Pit- 
cairn was obliged to abandon his horse and i)istols. 
At the battle of Bunker Hill he was the first to 
ascend the redoubt in the third and final assault, 
crying, as he did so, " Now for the glory of the 
marines." but he was shot by a negro soldier in the 
last volley that was fired by the provincials. He 
was carried by his son to a boat and conveyed to 
Boston, where he died shortly afterward, his 
widow was given a pension of £200 by the British 
government. Pitcairn left eleven children, of whom 
the eldest, David, became an eminent physician in 
London, and died in 1809. 

PITCHER, Nathaniel, governor of New York, 
b. in Litchfield. Conn., in 1777; d. in Sandy Hill, 
N. Y., 25 May, 1830. He removed early in life to 
Sandy Hill, N. Y., and was a member of the legis- 
lature of that state in 1806 and 1815-'17. and of the 
State constitutional convention in 1821. He was 
elected to congress as a Democrat, holding his seat 
in 1819-'23, was chosen lieutenant-governor of New 
York in 1826. and, by the death of Gov. De Witt 
Clinton, became governor in February, 1828, serv- 
ing till January, 1829. He was afterward again in 
congress in 1831-'3. — His brother, Zina, phvsieian, 
b. in Sandy Hill, N. Y., 12 April. 1797; d.'in De- 
troit, Mich., 5 April, 1872, received an academical 
education, and in 1822 was graduated in medicine 
at Middlebury college, Vt. He was appointed 
assistant surgeon in the U. S. army on 8 May of 
that year, and surgeon with rank of major on 13 
July, 1832, but resigned on 31 Dec, 1830, after see- 
ing service in the south, southeast, and southwest. 
In 1835 he was president of the army medical board, 
and from 2 Feb. till 31 Aug., 1839,' he served again 
as assistant surgeon. Meanwhile he had removed 
to Detroit, where he practised till his death, attain- 
ing note in his profession. He was a regent of the 
University of Michigan in 1837-52. took an active 
part in organizing the medical department of that 
institution, and was afterward given the honorary 
title of emeritus professor there. Dr. Pitcher was 
a member of many professional bodies, and at one 
time served as president of the American medical 
association. He was for several years an editor of 
the "Peninsular Journal," and publishetl various 
addresses, reports, and contributions to profes- 
sional journals. While he was in the army, sta- 
tioned on the northern frontier, he studied the 
habits, diseases, and remedies of the Indians, and 
he was the contributor of an article on practi- 
cal therapeutics among the Indians to Heury E. 
Schoolcraft's work on the aborigines. 



PITCHER. Thomas Gamble, s^ddier, b. in 
RfH'kport, SjK'ncer co.. Ind., 23 Oct., 1824. He was 
graduated at the I'. S. military academy in 1845, 
and assigned to the .5th infantry, with which he 
served in the military occupation of Texa.s. He 
was transferred to the 8th infantry in 1846, and 
during the war with Mexico took part in the en- 
gagements at Vera Cruz. Cerro Gordo, San An- 
tonio. Contreras. and Churubusco, for which he 
was brevetted Ist lieutenant, Molino del Rcy. Cha- 

F'ultepec, and the capture of the city of Slexico. 
le was promoted to 1st lieutenant, 26 June, 1849, 
antl was on duty at posts in Texas and Arkansas 
till the civil war, serving as de[K)t-commis»ary at 
San Antonio in 1857-'9. and receiving his promo- 
tion to a captaincy, 19 Oct., 1858. He served in 
defence of Harf>er'8 Ferry in June, 1862, and in the 
Virginia campaign of that year, being brevetted 
major for services at Cedar Mountain, where he 
was severely wounded. He was commissioned 
brigadier-general of volunteers on 29 Nov., 1862, 
but was disabled by his wound till 10 Jan., 1863. 
He was on duty as commissary and provost-mar- 
shal during the rest of the war, attaining the rank 
of major on 19 Sept., 1863. and receiving all the 
brevets up to and including brigadier-general in 
the regular army on 13 March. 186.5. He was made 
colonel of the 44th infantrv, 28 July, 1866. served 
as superintendent of the tT. S. military academy 
from 28 Aug. of that year till 1 Sept.'. 1871, and 
was governor of the Soldiers' home at Washington, 
1). C, in 1871-'7. Ho was then on special duty or 
leave of absence till his retirement on 28 June, 
1878, " for disabilitv contracted in the line of dutv." 
From 1 March, 1880, till 15 Oct.. 1887, he was 
superintendent of the New York state soldiers' 
and sailors' home. 

PITCHLYNN, Peter P., Choctaw chief, b. in 
Hush-ook-wa (now part of Noxubee county. Miss.). 
30 Jan., 1806; d. in Washington, D. C, in January, 
1881. His father was a white man, liearing Gen. 
Washington's commission as an interpreter, and 
his mother was a Choctaw. He was brought up 
like an Indian boy, but. manifesting a desire to be 
educated, he was sent 200 miles to school in Ten- 
nessee, that being the nearest to his father's log- 
cabin. At the end of the first quarter he returned 
hone to find his people engaged in negotiating a 
treaty with the general government. As he con- 
sidered the terms of this instrument a fraud uijon 
his tribe, he refused to shake hands with Gen. 
Andrew Jackson, who had the matter in charge on 
behalf of the Washington authorities. He after- 
ward attended the Columbia, Tenn., academy, and 
was ultimately graduated at the University of 
Nashville. Although he never changed his opinion 
regarding the treaty, he became a strong friend of 
Gen. Jackson, who was a trustee of the latter in- 
stitution. After graduation he returned to Missis- 
sippi, became a farmer, and married, being the first 
Choctaw to depart from the practice of polygamy. 
He also did good service in the cause of temper- 
ance, in recognition of which he wjis made a mem- 
ber of the national council. His first proposition 
in that body was to establish a schot)!, and, that the 
students might become familiar with the manners 
and customs of white people, it was located near 
Georgetown. Ky., rather than within the limits of 
the Choctaw country. Here it flourished for many 
years, supported by the funds of the nation. In 
1828 he was appointed the leader of an Indian 
delegation sent by the U. S. government into the 
Osage country on a peace-making and exploring 
expedition, preparatory to the removal of the Choc- 
taws, Chickasaws, and Creeks beyond the Missis- 



32 



PITKIN 



PITKIN 



sippi. Six months were occupied in the journey, 
ana the negotiations were every way successful. 
Pitchlyiin displayinj; no little diplomatic skill and 
courape. lie eiiiijfrntod to the new reservation 
with his people and built a cabin on Arkansjis 
river. Ho was an wlmirer of Henry Clay, whom he 
met for the first time in 1840. He was ascending 
the Ohio in a stoamlH)at when Mr. Clay came on 
iKwrd at Maysviile. The Indian went into the 
cal>in and found two farmers earnestly engaged in 
talking al)out their crops. After listening to them 
with great delight for more than an hour, he re- 
turned to his travelling companion, to whom he 
said : " If that old farmer with an ugly face had 
only bt>en educated for the law. he would have 
made one of the greatest men in this country." 
He soon learned that the '* old farmer" was Henry 
Clay. At the Ixjginning of the civil war in 1861 
Pitchlynn was in Washington attending to public 
business for his trilx;, and assured Mr. Lincoln that 
he hoped to keep his jwople neutral ; but lie could 
not prevent three of his own children and many 
others from joining the Confederates. He himself 
remained a Lnion man to the end of the war, not- 
withstanding the fact that the Confederates raided 
his plantati(m of (MK) acres and captured all his 
cattle, while the enuincipation proclamation freed 
his 10() slaves. He was a natural orator, as his ad- 
<lress to the president at the White House in 1805, 
his speeches before the congressional committees 
in 1808, and one delivered before a delegation of 
(Quakers at Washington in 18G9, abundantly prove. 
According to C^haries Dickens, who met him while 
on his first visit to this country, Pitchlynn was a 
haiidsouK! man, with black hair, aquiline nose, 
brojul cheek-lx)iies, sunburnt complexion, and 
bright, keen, dark, and piercing eyes. He was 
buried in the Congressional cemetery at Washing- 
ton with nifisonie honors, the poet, Albert Pike, 
delivering a eulogy over his remains. See Charles 
Dickens's " American Notes " and Charles Lan- 
man's " Recollections of Curious Characters "(Edin- 
burgh. 1881). 

PITKIN, Wniiam, lawyer, b. near London, 
Kngland, in KW"); d. in East Hartford, Conn., 1(5 
Dec, 1094. He received an excellent English edu- 
cation, studied law, and settled in Hartford about 
1659, where he taught, bt^ught a tract of land on 
the east side of Connecticut river, and engaged 
largely 'u planting. On 9 Oct., 1662, he was ad- 
mitted a freeman, and in that year was also made 
prosecutor for the colony, became attorney for the 
colony by appointment of the king in 1664, was 
deputy in 1675 and trejisurer in 1676-'7, and in 
16<6 lie went with Maj. John Talcott to nego- 
tiate peace with the Narragausett and other Indian 
tribes. From 1605 till 1690, with the exception of 
a brief jieriod, he was a member of the general 
court, and occasionally serveil as commissioner 
from this colony to the United Colonies. In 1690 
he was elected a member of the colonial council, 
which office he held until his death. In 169y he 
was appointed with Samuel Chester and Capt. 
William Whiting to a commissioner to run the 
division-line lx?tween Connecticut and the Massa- 
chusetts colonies, and in that year he was sent by 
the colony to Gov. Benjamin Fletcher, of New 
York, to negotiate terms respecting the militia until 
Gov. Winthrop's return from England, whither he 
had gone for the same purpose. He laid out with 
John Crow the first Main and other streets of Hart- 
ford on the ea.st side of the river. He owned a full- 
ing-mill near liurnside, which was burned in 1690. 
and the Kx-ality Ix'came known as Pitkin's falls. 
Many of bis descendants held important places in 



the civil, political, and military affairs of the col- 
ony, lie married Hannah, daughter of Ozias 
(T(K>dwin, the progenitor of the Goodwin family of 
Connecticut, who came to this country with Dr. 
Thomas Hooker. — Their son, William, jurist, b. 
in Hartford. Conn., in 1664; d. there, 5 April, 1728, 
was a member of the committee of war that was 
appointed with plenary power to send troops into 
Massachusetts and the frontier towns of Connecti- 
cut, and that ordered, on 1 Jan., 1704, 400 men to 
\Hi in readiness for any sudden occurrence. He 
studied law with his father, and was judge of the 
county and probate courts and of the court of as- 
sistants from 1702 till 1711 when the superior 
court was established in place of the court of as- 
sistants, and of which he was chief justice in 1713. 
This office was held by four successive generations 
of William Pitkins. He was said to have been apt 
in repartee as well as argument, and once, when a 
lawyer named Eels, in summing up a ease, said, 
" The court will perceive that the pipKin is cracked," 
Mr. Pitkin's reply was: "Not so much cracked, 
your honor, but he will find it will do to stew eels 
In yet." In 1697 he was elected one of the council 
of the colony, serving until his death. He was one 
of the commissioners to receive the Earl of Bello- 
mont on his arrival in New York, was a commis- 
sioner of war in 1706-'7, one of a committee to 
prepare the manuscript laws of the colony in 1709, 
and again to revise the said laws. In 1718 he was 
appointed one of a committee of three to build the 
first state-house in Hartford, and one of a commit- 
tee to |)repare a map of the course of the Connecti- 
cut river from the " mouth of it to the north bounds 
of the colony, to be inserted in the plan of the 
colony now ordered to be drawn." In 1706 he 
built two fulling-mills at Pitkin's falls, in connec- 
tion with which he conducted a large business in 
clothing and woollens, which was continued by his 
sons. — The second William's son, William, gov- 
ernor of Connecticut, b. in Hartford, Conn., 30 
April, 1094; d. in East Hartford, Conn., 1 Oct., 
1769, was chosen town-collector in 1715, served in 
the colonial Jissembly from 1728 till 1734, was made 
captain of a " train band " in 1730, and rose to colo- 
nel in 1739. He was elected to the council in 1734, 
appointed chief justice of the supreme court in 
j 1741, holding this office until 1766. From 1754 
till 1766 he was lieutenant-governor of Connecti- 
cut, and was the first to resist the stamp-act passed 
in 1765. He was one of the delegates to the Colo- 
nial convention in Albany on 19 June. 1754, and 
also one of a committee, of which Benjamin Franlc- 
lin was chairman, to prepare the plan of union that 
was adopted. He was governor of Connecticut 
from 1766 till 1769, being elected by so great a ma- 
jority "that the votes were not counted." His 
urbanity and courtesy of manner were long reraem- 
liered, and a " Satire on the Governors of Connecti- 
cut," published in 1769, mentions him as "bowing, 
and scraping, and continual hand-shaking." — His 
brother, Joseph, b. in 1696; d. in 1762, was justice 
of the peace, represented the town in the general 
assembly for twenty years, and was judge of the 
county court in 1735. He was captain in the 3d 
militia company and became colonel of the 1st regi- 
ment in 1757. He mustered the company raised for 
the expedition against Crown Point, which was led 
there by his brother, John, b. in 1707; d. in 1790, 
who also served in the legislature, and presented 
with others a memorial to incorporate the town of 
East Hartford, which was effected in 1783.— The 
third William's son, William, jurist, b. in Hart- 
ford in 1725; d. there, 12 Dec, 1789, was major of 
the 1st regiment of the colonial forces that were 



PITKIN 



PITOU 



83 



raised for the expo<lition af^in.st Canada under 
Gen. Abercronihie in 175H, and was a nieniljer of 
theroiincil of safety durinj; the pfrcater part of the 
Il«'vc)lutionary war. He was apifointcd colonel in 
17<52 and was a nietnln'r of the council from 17(MJ 
till ITHo. In 1784 he was elected to congress. He 
was chief justice of the state supreme court for 
nineteen years, and was a delejjate to the conven- 
tion for the ratification of the constitution of the 
United States in 178H. He was connected with 
lart^o manufacturing interests in East Hartford, 
and in 1775 began to manufacture gun|K>wder for 
the I{*>volutionary war in the same mills owne<i by 
his grandfather. This wjis the first powder-mill in 
the stAte. — Another son. (iteor^e, b. in 1709; d. in 
1806, was clerk of the sufwrior and supreme courts 
for nmny years, was commissioned captain in 1708, 
lieutenant-colonel in 1774, colonel in 1775, and 
commanded the 4th regiment of minute-men, with 
which he marched t«) Boston on hearing of the 
battles of Conconl and Lexington. — George s broth- 
er, Timothy, clergyman, b. 13 Jan., 1727; d. 8 
July, 1812, was grmluated at Yale in 1747, was tutor 
there in 1750-'l, and a fellow of the corporation 
from 1777 till 1804. He studied theology and was 
installed pastor of the Congregational church in 
farmington, Cotm., in 1752. At the one hun- 
dretlth anniversary of the church in Farmington, 
Rev, Noah Porter said that, while pastor of that 
church and afterward, Rev. Mr. Pitkin "walked 
with dignity up the centre aisle in flowing coat and 
venerable wig, with his three-cornered hat in hand, 
bowing to the people on either side." — The third 
William's grandson, Timothy, lawyer, b. in Farm- 
ington, Conn., 21 Jan., 1760; d. in New Haven, 
Conn., 18 Dec, 1847, was the son of Rev. Timothy 
Pitkin. He graduated at Yale in 1785, devoted 
much time to astronomy, calculating the eclipses 
of 1800, studied law, was admitted to the bar, served 
in the legislature for several years, and was speaker 
of the house during five successive sessions. He was 
elected to congress as a Federalist, serving from 2 
Dec, 1805, till 3 March, 1819, and during his term 
was esteemed good authority on the political his- 
tory of the country. Yale gave him the degree of 
LL. I), in 1829. He was the author of " Statisti- 
cal View of Commerce of the United States of 
America" (Hartford, 1810; 3d ed., New Haven, 
1835) and "A Political and Civil History of the 
United States of America from the Year 1703 to 
the Close of Washington's Administration " (2 vols.. 
New Haven, 1828). He left in manuscript a contin- 
uation of this work to the close of his own political 
life. — The second William's descendant through his 
son Joseph, Fredericli Walker, governor of Colo- 
rado, b. m Manchester, Conn., 31 Aug., 1837; d. in 
Pueblo, Col., 18 Dec. 1880, was graduated at Wes- 
leyan university, Middletown, Conn., in 1858, and 
at Albany law-school in 1859. In 1860 he went to 
the west and began to practise in Milwaukee, Wis. 
His health became impaired. an<l he went to Eu- 
ropo, whence in \STi he was brought home in a 
dying condition, but removed to Colonwlo and en- 
gaged in rough labor in the mines, regaining sufli- 
cient health to resume his practice. He also entered 
politics, and in 1878 was elected governor of Colo- 
nwlo. and re-elected to this office in 1880 as a Re- 
publican. He was prompt and fearless during the 
riots at Ijeadvilio. his energetic action preventing 
the loss of many lives and the destruction of much 
valuable property. He was urged to l>ecome a can- 
didate for U. S. senator in 188;i. but declined. The 
town and county of Pitkin, Col., wore named in his 
honor. A genealogy of the Pitkin familv was pub- 
lished by Albert 1'. Pitkin (Hartford, 1867). 

VOL. T. 3 



PITMAN. Benn. stenographer, b. in Trow- 
bridge, Wiltshire, England, 22 July. 1822. He was 
educated in his native town, and in 1837 assisted 
his brother in fjerfecting the latter'a system of pho- 
nography. From \H4S till 1852 he lectured on the 
system throughout (treat Britain, and ha<i a large 
share in compiling his bn>ther's text-books. At 
Isaacr's request he cauje to the United States in 
January, 1853, to give instruction in phonography, 
and settle<l at Cincinnati, where he has since re- 
sided. In 1855 he discovered the process of pro- 
ducing relief copper-plates of engraved work by 
the galvanic process known as electrotypes, for 
which he wjus awarded a silver medal by the Cin- 
cinnati mechanics' institute in 1856. The follow- 
ing year he succeeded, in connection with Dr. J. B. 
Burns, in prmlucing stereotyfHJ plates bv the gela- 
tine process in photoengraving. From )iis arrival 
in this country until 18'nJ Mr. Pitman was chiefly 
engaged in rejjorting. In 1805-'7 he acte<l as the 
omcial stenographer during the trials of the assas- 
sin of President Lincoln, the " Sons of Liberty," 
the " Ku-Klux Klan," and other similar government 
prosecutions. He also e<lited and comi)iled the 

Srinted reports of these trials. In 187J^ he aban- 
oned reporting and Ixjcame connected with the 
school of design, now the art acmlemy, of the Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati. His object was to secure the 
development of American decorative art and to 
open up a new profession for women. The display 
of wood-carving and painting on china sent to the 
Phila<lelphia centennial exhibition was the first 
attempt to give the public an idea of what had 
been accomplished. Over one hundred pieces were 
exhibited, including elalxirately decorated cabinets, 
base-lx)ards, bedsteads, doors, casings, mantels, pic- 
ture-frames, and book-cases — all the work of girls 
and women. Mr. Pitman still (1888) lectures and 
teaf^hes in the same institution. Besides many ele- 
mentary books of instruction on phonography, he 
has published " The Reporter's Companion " (Cin- 
cinnati, 1854); "The Manual of Phonography," 
of which 250,000 copies have been issued (1855); 
"Trials for Treason at Indianapolis" and "The 
Assassination of President Lincoln, and the Trial 
of the Conspirators " (1805); and, with Jerome B. 
Howard, "The Phonographic Dictionary" (1883). 
PITMAN, Marie J., author, b. in'Hartwick, 
N. Y., 17 March, 1850; d. in Paris. France, 30 Nov., 
1888. She was the daughter of Lucius D, Davis, of 
the Newport, R. I.. " Daily News." was educate<l by 

firivate tutors, and in 1800 m'arried Theophilus T. 
Mtman. Her pen-name was " Margery Deane," and 
she wrote many children's stories and sketches of 
travel, was the Newptirt correspondent of the Bos- 
ton " Transcript " and other journals, and the au- 
thor of " Wonder World," translations (New York, 
1878), and "European Breezes" (Boston, 1880). 

PITOU, Louis Ange, French author, b. in Ch«- 
teaudun, France, in 1709 ; d. in France about 1828. 
He entered the priesthood, but after the beginning 
of the French revolution he abandoned his profes- 
sion. He was a zealous royalist, was arrested six- 
teen times, and finally transported to Guiana under 
the Directory. Shortly after his arrival at Cayenne 
he escaped, and after manv adventures among the 
natives he returned to t^rance. He engagetl in 
new conspiracies under the consulate, and was a 
few years in prison. He published "Relation de 
mon voyage A Cayenne et chez les anthropo- 
phages' (Paris, 1805). This work, although full of 
inaccuracies, excited the public curiosity, and a 
second enlarged etlition was published (2 vols., 
1808). After the return of the Bourbons, Pitou re- 
ceived a small pension. 



84 



PITT 



PITTS 




PITT, William, English statesman, b. in 
Hav«<, Kent, 28 May. 1759 ; d. in Putney. Surrey, 
23 Jan., 1806. He was the second son of the Earl 
of Chathmn (q. v.), and was e<lucttted at Cambridge. 
His entire training was directed toward making 
him a parliamentary orator. He studied hiw at 
Lincohi's Inn, and in 1780 became a meml)er of 
imrliament for the Iwrough of Appleby. His first 
speech, on 20 Feb., 1781, was in favor of Edmund 
Burke's plan of economical reform, and made a 
great impression. When explaining the principles 
and conduct of his father on American affairs, and 
referring to Lord Westcote, he said : " A noble lord 
has called the American war a liolv war. I alTirm 
that it is a most accursed war, wiclvwl, barbarous, 
cruel, and unnatural ; 
conceived in.injustice, 
it was brought forth 
and nurtured in f<»l- 
ly; its footsteps are 
marked with slaugh- 
ter and devastation, 
while it meditates de- 
struction to the mis- 
erable people who are 
the devoted objects 
of the resentments 
which produced it. 
Where is the English- 
man who can refrain 
from wcepingon what- 
ever side victory may 
be declared ? " The 
voice was listened to 
as that of Chiitliam 
"again living in his son with all his virtues and 
all his talents." In the next session Pitt distin- 
guished himself more brilliantly, and on the rise 
of the liockinglmin ministry he wa-s offered the 
oflice of vice-treasurer of Ireland, which he de- 
clined. At the age of twenty-three he was the 
only memlMT of his party in the house of commons 
that had the courage and eloquence to confront 
Burke, Fox. and the other great orators of the op- 
lK)sition. He became chancellor of the exchequer, 
and in 178J3 prime minister. He secured the pas- 
sage of imfK)rtant bills, and negotiated the treaty 
of peace with the United States, but enforced the 
navigation acts of England against America with 
much severity. Owing to current events, his min- 
istry l)ecame enfeebjed, and yet, notwithstanding 
his failure in foreign expeditions, Pitt's extraordi- 
nary genius as a parliamentary leader gave him 
absolute control of the house of commons and over- 
came opjxisition. He resigned his office in March, 
1801, and lived in retirement. In May, 1803, when 
the ambitious designs of Napoleon forced England 
to break the peace of Amiens, he appeared in par- 
liament to deliver a speech in favor of the war. In 
the next year he wjvs recalled to the ministry. He 
Iwcame ill with anxiety and grief at the success of 
Napoleon, and the surrender of the Austrian army 
at Ulm gave him a shock from which he never re- 
covered. He died soon after hearing of the battle 
of Austerlitz, 2 Dec, 1805. Parliament gave him 
the honor of a public funeral, and buried nim near 
his father's remains in Westminster abbey. See 
" Life of William Pitt," bv Lord Stanhope (4 vols., 
London, 1861-'2). 

PITTA, Sebastlao da Rocha (pit -tah), Bra- 
zilian historian, b. in Bahia, 3 May, 16«0; d. in 
Paraguassu, 2 Nov., 1738. He studied in the Jesuit 
college of Bahia, and there took the degree of 
master of arts. At the age of sixteen he went 
to Portugal, and was graduated in theology at 



Coimbra university. On his return to Brazil he 
wrote in Castilian a romance in imitation of the 
"Palmeirim de Inglaterra," and comiwsed verses 
of some merit. He resolved to write the history of 
Brazil, and went to Lisbon to obtain further data, 
where, in ortler to secure more material, he studied 
French, Italian, and Dutch. After devoting half 
of his life to the work, he published his " Historia 
da America Portugueza desde su descobriraento 
ate 1724" (Kio .Janeiro. 1730). 

PITTENtlER, William, soldier, b. in Knox- 
ville. Jefferson co., Ohio, 31 Jan., 1840. He stud- 
ied in the county schools until he had reached the 
age of sixteen, and enlisted as a private in the 2d 
Ohio volunteer infantry on 17 April, 1861. He 
served in the battle of fiull Run, and took jjart in 
the noted Andrews railroad raid which began on 
7 April, 1862. He escaped execution as a spy, wa* 
imprisoned until 18 March, 1863, received a medal 
of nonor, was promoted lieutenant, and returned 
to the army, in which he served until impaired 
health forced him to resign in August, 1863. In 
1864 he entered the Pittsburg conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, and in 1870 was trans- 
ferred to the New Jersey conference, in which he now 
(1888) labors. Since 1878 he has been a professor 
in the National school of elocution and oratory in 
Philadelphia. He is the author of " Daring and 
Suffering, a History of the Great Railroad Adven- 
turers" (Philadelphia, 1863; enlarged ed.. New 
York, 1887) ; " Oratory, Sacred and Secular " (Phila- 
delphia. 1881); and "Extempore Speech" (1882). 

PITTS, Edmund Levi, lawyer, b. in Yates, 
Orleans co., N. Y^, 23 May, 1839. After receiving 
an education at Yates academy he was graduated at 
the State and national law-school in Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y., in 1860. He was a member of the assembly 
from 1864 till 1868, its speaker in 1867, and from 
1869 till 1873 was U. S. assessor of internal reve- 
nue. He was a state senator fi'om 1880 till 1887, 
serving as })rcsident jaro tempore in 1886-'7. 

PITTS, John, merchant, b. in England in 1668. 
His father, Baruth Pitts, was mayor of Lyme 
Regis. England. The son emigrated to Boston in 
1694, became a merchant, and held several offices 
under the city. Smibcrt painted portraits of him 
and his wife. — His son, James, b. in Boston in 
1712; d. in 1776. was graduated at Harvard in 
1731, and succeeded to his fathers business and 
fortune. He married Elizabeth Bowdoin, sister of 
Gov. James Bow- 
doin, in 1732, and 
was a member of 
the king's council 
from 1766 till 1775. 
On the death of 
Gov. Bowdoin, Mr. 
Pitts became his ex- 
ecutor. He and his 
wife and their six 
sons took an active 
part in the Revolu- 
tion. His house, 
which stood on the 
spot that is now oc- 
cupied by the How- 
ard athenaeum, was 
a resort of the 
Adamses and other 
patriots. In 1770, 
with Royal Tyler 

and Samuel Dexter, he was instrumental in persuad- 
ing Gov. Hutchinson to comply with the popular 
demand for the removal of the troops from Boston. 
He was for many years treasurer of the Society for 




PITZER 



PIZARRO 



85 



pnipagtttinff Christian knowledjje among tlie In- 
dians. UlackWurn painted portraits of Ixtth Jainvs 
and his wife. — James's eldest son, John, b. in Bos- 
ton in 1738; d. in Tynjfsboro in IMlo, was cfradu- 
ateil at Harvard in ITn?, was selectman of Hoston 
from 1773 till 1778, represented the city in several 
provincial conjjresses, was sfieakerof the houst* in 
177H. and afterward state senator. — Another son, 
Lendall, b. in Boston in 1737; d. in 1787, wjisa pa- 
triot and princijial lemler of the Boston " tea party." 
— .James's j^^randson, Thomas, soldier, b. in Bos- 
ton in 177U; d. in 1830, was commissioned lieuten- 
ant of lipht artillery in 18(>8, and captain in 1809, 
and s<«rv(>d through the war of 1812. 

PITZER, Alexander White, clergyman, b. in 
Salem, Roanoke co., Va., 14 Sept., 1834. lie was 
graduated at Hamixlen Sidney in 1854, and at 
Danville theological seminary, Ky., in 1857, after 
which he was pastor of Presbyterian churches in 
Ix'Avenworth, Kan., Sparta, Ga., and Liljerty, Va., 
and in 1868 organized in Washington, D. C, the 
Central Presbyterian church, of which he is now 
(1888) pastor. Since 1875 he has been also professor 
of biblical history and literature in Howard uni- 
versity in that city. He was a member of the 
Prophetic convention in New York city in 1878, 
and assisted in drafting and rept)rted the doctrinal 
testimony adopted by the conference. He has 
taken an active part in promoting the union of the 
northern and southern divisions of his church. He 
received the degree of D. D. from Arkansas college 
in 1876. In addition to numerous contributions 
to denominational literature, he is the author of 
" Ecce Deus Homo," published anonymously (Phila- 
delphia, 1867); '• Christ, Teacher of Men "(1877); 
and "The New Life not the Higher Life" (1878). 

PIZARRO, Francisco (pe-thar -ro), Spanish 
soldier, b. in Trujillo, Estremadura, in 1476; d. in 
Lima, Peru, 20 June, 1541, He was a natural son 
of Gonzalo Pizarro, a colonel of infantry, and, al- 
though he was afterward recoo^nized by his father, 
he received no education, and was unable to write 
his own name. According to Francisco Gomara. 
he was in his youth a swineherd, until he ran away 
and joined some adventurers that were going to 
Hispaniola, while Garcilaso and Pizarro's descend- 
ants, in a memorial to the king, afTirtn that he 
served with his father in Italy. Although it is 
said that in later years he learned to reail imper- 
fectly, he never was able to write, and was author- 
ized by a special imperial decree to sign his name 
with a stamp. In Hispaniola he joined in Novem- 
ber, 1509, the expedition of Alonso de Ojeda {q. v.) 
to Nueva Andalucia, and, when the latter went in 

?uest of re-enforceraents and provisions, he left 
izarro in command of the new colony of San Se- 
bastian, promising to return in fifty days. At the 
expiration of that time Pizarro, forced by neces- 
sity, killed the horses for provisions and abandonee! 
the colony, but in Carthagena met the expedition 
of Martin Fernandez de Eneiso {q. r.\ with whom 
he returned to Darien, and took j)art in the foun- 
dation of the colony of Santa Maria de la Antigua. 
He also accompanied Vasco Nufiez dti BallK)a in 
the expedition on which they discovered the Pacific 
ocean. Pedrarias-Davila sent him in 1515 with an 
ex|)c<lition across the isthmus to ex[)lore the Pearl 
islands, and in 1517 ordered him to arrest Balboa. 
Later he accomi)anied the governor on his ex- 
pedition to Venigua, and served crcelitably in the 
campaign against the cacique Urraca. In recom- 
pense he received a grant of land and Indians near 
the site of Panama, and settle<l on his possessions, 
which he cultivated with his Indian slaves. The 
expedition of Pascual de Andagoya brought the 




first news of a rich empire to the south, and 
Pizarro conceived the project of conipiering it 
He forme<l a |>artnership with Diego de Almagro 
and Fernando de Luque, and, by lending Pedrarias 
some money for his 
exiK^dition to Nica- 
ragua, the [Mirtners 
obtained jK'rmis- 
sion to form an 
expedition. In No- 
vember, 1524, Pi- 
zarro left Panama 
with eighty adven- 
turers, and some 
time afterward 
Almagro followed 
with sixty men. 
Both continued 
along the coast to 
the southward, but 
in their attempts to 
penetrate to the in- 
terior they met with a detennined resistance, lost 
many men, and, after sustaining terrible hardshijis, 
returned to Panama with news of the riches of Peru. 
Pedrarias, after much difficulty, permitted them to 
arrange for another exf>edition ; l)Ut the mishaps of 
the first voyage frightened many adventurers, and 
thev could enlist only 100 men. They sailed again 
in March, 1526, and, entering San Juan river, cap- 
tured an Indian town with abundant provisions 
and $15,000 in gold, with which Almagro returned 
to Panama, while Pizarro remainetl, and sent his 
pilot, Bartoloine Ruiz, to explore the southern 
coast. Pedro de los Rios, who had succeeded Pe- 
drarias as governor, refused to permit any further 
enlistment, and sent a vessel to bring the expedi- 
tion bactk. But Pizarro, who, with the small rem- 
nant of his force, had retired before the warlike 
Indians to the island of El Gallo, refused to obey, 
and. drawing a line in the sand with his sword, in- 
vited those that wished to follow him to glory and 
riches to pass the line. Only thirteen followetl 
him, and with these he remained till he was joined 
by a force under Bartoloine Ruiz, which liad been 
despatched by his associates under the pretext of 
obliging him to return to Panama. He now en- 
tered u|x)n an exploration of the coast farther 
south, landed in Tuml)ez, Paita, and Sana, obtained 
presents of gold. llama.s, silver tankards, and other 
samples of tno productions of Peru, and hearing of 
the death of Huaina Capac, and seeing the insuffi- 
ciency of his small forces to subdue this immense 
empire, returned to Panama toward the end of the 
year 1527. As the governor still refused to permit 
another expedition to set sail, the associates rest)lved 
to send Pizarro to Spain, and in 1528 he left Nom- 
bre de Dios, carrying some Indians that he had 
brought from Peru, together with llamas, gold and 
silver plate, and other presents for the court. On 
his arrival in Seville he was arrested for a debt on 
request of Eneiso ; but he was set at lilierty by ordei 
of the emperor, and ordered to appear at court in 
the city of Toledo, where he was well received. On 
20 July, 1529, he obtained from the oueeii-regent a 
commission that granted him the right of conquest 
of Peru, with the title of governor and captain- 
general for life of all the country to be discovered, 
and a salary of 725,000 marave<lis on condition 
that he should raise a force of 250 men for the 
conquest. Hernan Cortes, whom he met at court, 
gave him some aid, but without Imnp able to raise 
the whole force that was named in his commission. 
Pizarro sailed in January, 1530, with a few adven- 
turers and four of his' brothers, for Nombre de 



36 



PIZARRO 



Dios. After a disaereement with Almajjro, who 
thought himself neglocted, Pizarro yielded him the 
title of adelantado; hut after nine months of un- 
ceasing efforts lie could gather only IHO men and 
27 horses, with which he sailed in "January. 1581, 
for Tuml>ez. while Almagro renuiined to collect 
further forces. Ho wjls joined iti Tumlx'Z by 130 
men, with whom came Hernando de Soto and 
Sebastian de Velalcazar {q. v.). In June, 1532, he 
founded in the valley of Piura the town of San 
Miguel, and, after leaving a garrison, he continued 
his march southward, on 24 S<'pt., with 110 infantry 
and t«) cavalry, and on 15 Nov. they entered the 
beautiful valley of C'ajamarca. Next day they met 
the emperor Atahualpa, whom they made a captive 
by surfirise. and the Peruvian army lied in dismay, 
'fhe inca offered as a ransom to fill with gold the 
apartment in which he was confined, and the orna- 
ments of the temples and palaces were brought and 
melted so that, after separating one fifth for the 
em|>eror and two large amounts for the garrison 
of San Miguel and for Ahnagro's followers, every 
one of Pizarro's cavalrymen obtained for his share 
302 nuirks of silver and 8,8(X) weights of gold, and 
every foot-soldier half that amount. The total 
was "more than $17,000,000. Notwithstanding this, 
Atahualpa was kept a prisoner, and, under pretext 
of having killed his brother Iluascar, he was con- 
demned to death and executed on 29 Aug., 1533. 
Pizarro now marched on Cuzco, the ancient capital 
of the incas. and entered it on 15 Nov., procilaim- 
ing Manco Yupanqui {(). r.) inca. lie determined 
to build the new capital of his jiossessions near the 
sea, and selected the beautiful valley of the river Ri- 
niac, where, on 6 Jan., 1535, he founded Los Reyes, 
now called Lima, probably a corruption of the 
name of the river. Shortly afterward disputes be- 
tween Pizarro and Almagro began over their re- 
.spective powers ; but they were amicably arranged, 
and, to avoid further difficulties, Almagro set out 
on 3 July, 1535, for the conquest of Chili. During 
the latter's absence the Indians rose and besieged 
Cuzco for a long time, but on his return they 
retired. Meanwhile a royal decree had arrived ap- 
pointing Almagro governor of the southern part 
of the country under the name of Nueva Toledo, 
and there were new differences between the two 
conquerors about the possession of Cuzco, which 
both l>elieved to be included in the limits of their 
respective governments. Almagro was finally de- 
feated and captured by Hernando Pizarro, and 
executed on 8 July, 1538, it is said with the secret 
acquiescence of his former partner. When these 
occurrences were reported at court by two commis- 
sioners, wlio had been sent by Almagro's partisans, 
the emperor decided in 1540 to send out Cristoval 
Vaca de Castro as a commissioner to investigate 
Pizarro's cf)nduct ; but l)efore his arrival the feud 
between Pizarro and Almagro's followers had cul- 
minated. On a Sunday morning twenty-one of 
Almagro's partisans, who were called Chilenos in 
Lima, penetrated into the governor's palace, and. 
after a desperate affray, in which Pizarro killed 
three of their numl>er, assassinated him and pro- 
claimed Almagro's son governor. When the con- 
spirators returned to drag Pizarro's body tlirough 
the streets, it had already been removed and se- 
cretly buried by a friend, and later, by King Phil- 
ip's orders, it was buried in the cathedral of Lima. 
Pizarro was not married, but had two children by 
the Indian princess Ines Huayllas Siusta, Atahual- 
pa's sister, a son, who died in infancy, and a daugh- 
ter, Beatriz, who married her uncle, Hernando, in 
1551, and whose descendants inherited her father's 
riches and his title of marquis of the conquest. 



PIZARRO 

Pizarro was tall and of commanding presence, pos- 
sessing extreme coumge and fortitude, but cruel, 
cunning, and perfidious. He was grasping in the 
acquisition of money, yet liberal in its use, and he 
nr)t only gave largely to' his followers, but spent part 
of the Vast treasure, of which he robbed the incas, 
in public buildings and improvements. — His half- 
brother, Oonzalo, b. in Irujillo in 1506; d. in 
Cuzco, Peru, 10 April, 1548, served in boyhood 
with his father in the Italian war in 1521-'5, and, 
although wholly uneducated, was thoroughly con- 
versant with the art of war. He went to Peru with 
his brother in 1531, and did good service in the 
conquest, esj)ecially in the campaign of Charcas, in 
the siege of Cuzco by Manco Yupanqui, and in the 
defence of that city against Almagro, by whom he 
was taken prisoner, but escaped a few days after 
the latter's march from Cuzco. In 1539' he was 
appointed governor of Quito, and he soon resolved 
to explore the eastern slope of the Andes, where 
the popular belief located the famous " El Dorado " 
and the country of the cinnamon-tree. Early in 
1540 he left Quito with an army of 250 soldiers and 
4,000 auxiliary Indians, and, after innumerable 
hardships, reached Napo river, whence he de- 
spatched Francisco de Orellana (q. v.) on an explora- 
tion which resulted in the discovery of Amazon 
river. Having awaited in vain the return of Orel- 
lana, he began the homeward journey, and after 
terrible privations reached Quito in June, 1543, 
with only eighty half-starved Spaniards on foot 
and less than half of his Indians. There he re- 
ceived the news of his brother's assassination, and 
retired to his commandery of Charcas, not taking 
part in public life during the short administration 
of Vaca de Castro. But when, in 1544, the viceroy 
Blasco Nunez- Vela {q. v.) appeared with the im- 
perial decree that forbade the personal servitude 
of the Indians, Gonzalo, fearing to lose the advan- 
tages of the conquest, went to Cuzco and was pro- 
claimed by the Spanish colonists supreme justice 
and captain-general of Peru. At the head of the 
army he marched against the viceroy, who aban- 
doned Lima, and the city was occupied by Gon- 
zalo, 24 Oct., 1544. After various encounters he 
met the royalist troops at Afiaquito, near Quito, 
where Nuilez was defeated and slain, 18 Jan., 1546, 
and for a time Pizarro was undisputed master of 
Peru, until the new royal commissioner, Pedro de 
la Grasca (q. v.), appeared in June, 1547, when, by 
suspension of the royal decree regarding the In- 
dians and a general amnesty, Gasca succeeded.in 
causing the defection of many of Gonzalez's fol- 
lowers. When the two armies met at last in Xa- 
quixaguana, 8 April, 1548, Garcilaso de la Vega, the 
elder, and many others went over to the royalists, 
who gained an easy victory. Gonzalo was taken 
prisoner, condemned to death, and beheaded in 
Cuzco two days afterward. — Another brother, Her- 
nando, the only legitimate son of Col. Pizarro and 
his wife, Isabel de Vargas, b. in Trujillo in 1474 ; 
d. there in 1578, received a fair education, and 
served with his father in Italy under Gonzalo de 
Cordova in 1502-'3, arfd in 1512 in Navarre under 
the Duke of Najera. In 1530 he came to Peru with 
his brother Francisco and took an important part 
in the conquest ; but from the first he showed great 
hatred of Almagro, so that his brother sent him. in 
1533, to Spain with the royal share of the booty. He 
was well received, made a knight of Santiago, and 
empowered to equip an expedition in Seville, with 
which he returned early in 1535 to Peru. There he 
was appointed governor of Cuzco. which he de- 
fended from March till August, 1536,' against Man- 
co Yupanqui and his warriors. When the city was 



PIZARRO 



PLACIDE 



87 



au)tured by Aimagro, 8 April, 1587, Hernando was 
talccn prisoner; but he was released a few months 
afterward on conditions which he broke as siHjn as 
lie was at liberty, and t(N)lc the command of the 
troops against Almagro, whom ho defeated at Sa- 
linas andordercd his execution. liut he was ac- 
cused at court, and, in order to obtain his justifica- 
tion, sailed in the lx>ginning of 1539 with a large 
quantity of gold as a gift for the crown to Spain. 
He was coldly received at court, and, although the 
council of the Indies did not pronounce" a final 
sentence regarding his accusation by Almagro's 
executor, Diego de Alvarado, he was imprisoned in 
1540 in the lortr&ss of Medina del Cani|Kj, where 
he was kept till 15(58, although not in rigid seclu- 
sion, so that he married his niece in 1551. After 
his release he retired to his native city, where he 
died at the age of 104 years. — Another brother, 
Juan, a natural son of Col. Pizarro by the same 
mother as Gonzalo, b. in Trujillo about 1500; d. in 
Cuzco in July, 1530, came with his brothers to Peru 
in 1531, and even in Panama began to show enmity 
to Almagro. When the army, after the death of 
Atahualpa, penetrated into the interior, Juan com- 
manded the van-guard, and was the first to discover 
the rich valley of Jauja. When Francisco Pizarro 
despatched Almagro against Alvarado in 1534, and 
marched with re-enforcements toward the coast, he 
left Juan as commander of the garrison in Cuzco, 
where, by his oppression of Manco Yupanqui, for 
the purpose of obtaining gold from him, he gave 
the first cause for the rebellion of that chieftain, 
who fled to the mountains, but was captured again 
by Juan and imprisoned. In 1535 he marched 
against the Indians of Condesuyos, who had assas- 
sinated some Spaniards. While he was on this ex- 
pedition his brother Hernando returned, and was 
api^Miinted by Francisco vice-governor and chief 
justice of Cuzco, and Juan served under him. Her- 
nando, against the advice of his brothers, set Man- 
co Yupanqui at liberty, and the inca soon rose in 
rebellion and besieged Cuzco. When the supreme 
priest, Villac-Uma, had captured the citadel, wnence 
ne seriously interfered with the safety of the Span- 
ish headquarters, Juan, whose dauntless courage 
was generally acknowledged, was ordered by Her- 
nando to the assault of the fortress, and in the at- 
tack he was mortally wounded by a stone. He was 
buried in the Church of Santo Domingo, which 
had been principally endowed by him and built on 
the site of the Temple of the Sun, which was as- 
signed to him after the capture of Cuzco. 

PIZARRO, Jos6 Alfonso, Marc^uis of Villar, 
Spanish naval officer, b. in Murcia m 1G89 ; d. in 
Madrid in 1762. He entered, in his youth, the 
naval service of the knights of Malta, and after- 
ward served in the Spanish navy, attaining the 
rank of rear-admiral. When the government 
heard of the expedition of the English admiral, 
George Anson, to the Pacific, a fleet of two ships 
of the line and four frigates, with a regiment of 
infantry for Chili, was despatched under Pizarro's 
command in October. 1740, and arrived, 5 Jan.. 
1741, in the river Plate. Hearing that Anson wa» 
refitting in Santa Catharina for entering the Pa- 
cific by the Strait of Lemaire, Pizarrf) sailed at once 
to intercept him, iiut lost one ship and one frigate 
in a storm, was obliged to put baclc for repairs, and 
on the second attempt, with two vessels, was again 
dismasted, and returned to Montevideo. Thence 
he despatched the frigate "Esperanza" to the Pa- 
cific, and passed across the Andes to Peru, where 
for some time he exercised the functions of naval 
commander-in-chief. After the peace with Eng- 
land, Pizarro left the frigate on the Pacific station 




and returned overland to Montevideo, where he 
found his flag-ship, the " Asia," refitted, and sailed 
in her for Kiirojie in November, 1745. Part of the 
crew consisted of Indians from the pampas, who one 
night rose on the Spaniards, and, after killing the 
watch on deck, had gained possession of the vessel, 
when Pizarro sucwxjded in killing the ringleader, 
and in the confusion drove the nmtine(>rs uito the 
sea. On his arrival at Ca<liz in January, 1740, he 
was promoted vice-a<inural, and in 1749 was ap- 
pointed viceroy of New Granaila; but he resigned 
m 1753 and returned to Spain. 

PLACIDE, Henry, ac-tor, b. in Charleston, 
S. C, 8 Sept., 1799; d. near liabylon, L. I., 23 Jan., 
1870. His father, Alexander, "was a French va- 
riety performer, who appeared at SaiUer's Weils 
theatre, London, 
and came to this 
country in 1782. 
For many years he 
was a professional 
itinerant, but he 
became lessee of 
the playhouse in 
Charleston, S. C, 
and in 1811 was one 
of the managers of 
the Richmond, Va., 
theatre,when it was 
destroyed by fire, 
with the loss of 
man y 1 i ves. H en ry 
appeared as a child, 
under his father's 
direction, at the '^/^ ^~\OP 'J 

Charleston theatre, ^0/V\A.u jf CclCJOUL 

and in 1814 was J 

seen at the Anthony street playhouse in Now York 
city. Thereafter he became attached to various 
travelling companies, playing occasionally iti some 
of the southern cities. On 2 Sept., 1823. he appeared 
at the New York Park theatre as Zekiel Homespun 
in " The Heir at Law," and for about twenty-five 
years, with slight interruptions, he remained at- 
tached to that establishment. He made a few 
brief visits to other cities, and in 1838 played at 
the Havmarket theatre in London. Being disap- 
pointed by his reception, he soon returned, and 
after the destruction of the Park theatre by fire in 
1848 played only occasionally at Burton's theatre 
and tne Winter garden. His final performances 
were in 1865, after which he retired to his country 
home. There was never a more conscientious 
American actor, nor one who filled a wider range 
of characters. Besides being a comedian, Placiue 
was also a good buffo singer; but his manner was 
somewhat hard, and his Shakespearian interi)reta- 
tions often lacked unction and racinoss. He was 
an artist of remarkably good average performances 
and the greatest of New York favorites, but never 
rose to distinction in any particular character. 
The portrait of Placide represents him as Dromio 
in the " Comedy of Errors.' — His brother, Thonia.'), 
actor, b. in Charleston, S. C, in 1808; d. in Tom's 
River, N. J., 20 July, 1877, was attached in his 
youth to several minor playhouses in suliordinate 
parts, but his real dtbut was made at the Chatham 

f:arden theatre in New York city in 1828 as Andrew 
iang in "Love, Law. and Physic." For several 
years he was connected with the Park theatre, and 
he afterward led a roving life. From 1850 until 
1854 he managed the Varieties theatre in New Or- 
leans, La., and in 1855 he joined the company at 
Wallack's theatre. New York city. A little later 
he retired from the stage. Thoilias Placide was a 



38 



PLAISTED 



PLATT 



boisterous performer, who never rose to prominence. 
His lx»st parts were servants and footmen. In voice, 
look, anti action the brothers were much alike, but 
«s artists they were widely distinct. This was 
stronely n»anifeste<l when thev appeared as the 
two I)ri)mi<)s in the "Comedy of Errors." 

PLAISTKD. HarriH Merrill, soldier, b. in 
Jefftrson, N. H.. 2 Nov.. 1828. lie worked on a 
farm and tnucht during his early raanh(K>d. and 
wa-s jrraduatod at Waterville collefje (now Colby 
university) in 1853, and at Albany law-school in 
1855. He wjis then admitted to the bar and bepin 

Kractice in Bangor, Me., in 1850. He entered the 
lational volunteer service in 1801 as lieutenant- 
colonel, WHS commissionetl colonel in 18(i2, partici- 
pated in McClellan's peninsular campaign, com- 
manded a brigmle before Charleston, an<l served 
with Grant In'fore Richmond. He received the 
brevet of l)rigadier-geiieml of volunteers in F'elv 
ruary. 18(55, and that of major-goneral of volunteers 
in >iarch of the same year. He resumed his i)r(v 
fession after the peace, was a delegate to the Na- 
tional Republican convention in 1808, and attorney- 
general of Maine in 187;J-'5. He went to congress 
as a Rei)ublican in 1874 to fill a vivcancy, served one 
t*rm, (iedined re-election, and was governor of 
Maine in 1881-3. Since 1884 he has edited and 
published "The New Age," in Augusta, Me. 

PLASSMANN, Ernst, artist, b. in Sondern, 
Westphalia, 14 June, 1823; d. in New York city, 
28 Nov., 1877. At the age of twenty he began 
to study art under JSIiinsternuinn, and he con- 
tinued liis studies at Aix-la-Chanelle, Cologne, and 
Paris. In tin- last-named place ne remained about 
four years, lieing employed most of the time in the 
studil) of Michi'l Licnard. In 1853 he went to New 
York. wluM-c. the following year, he opened " Plass- 
mannV Sehool of Art," which he carried on until 
his death. The " Verein fiir Kunst und Wissen- 
schaft ' was founded by him in 1858. His princi- 
pal works in sculpture, all in New York city, are 
the figure of Tammany on Tammany hall (1809); 
the group on the freight-depot of the New York 
Central railroad (1870); the statue of Benjamin 
Franklin in Printing-House square (1870-'l); and 
the figures of Franklin and Guttenberg on the 
"Staats-Zeitung" building, modelled about 1873. 
He executed also many models for statuettes and 
ornamental metal-work, and gained several medals 
at the American institute for his work in wood- 
carving and j>hister models. He published " Mod- 
ern Gothic Ornaments," with 33 plates (New York, 
1875), and " Designs for Furniture " (1877). Of the 
latter, onlv three parts were i)ublished. 

PLATfiR, Georgre, statesman, b. in St. Mary's 
county, Md., in 1730; d. in Annapolis, Md., 10 
Feb., 17!»2. He was graduated at William and 
Mary in 1753, studied law. and won reputation at 
the bar of Maryland. When the troubles with the 
mother country began he took an early and active 
part in resisting the encroachments of the British 
government upon the rights of the colonies. He 
was chosen a member of the Marvland convention 
that assembled at Annapolis, 8 May, 1770, and one 
of whost! first public acts was the election of a com- 
mittee, on 24 May, for the purpose of inviting 
Robert Eden, the royal governor, to vacate. On 20 
May Plater was apjjointedoneofthecouncil of safety, 
a Ijiuly created for the express purpose of preparing 
the stiite for the conflict that was every day grow- 
ing more imminent. He represented St. Mary's 
county in the Maryland convention at Annapolis, 
14 Aug., 1776, and on the 17th of the same month 
was chosen one of the committee " to prepare a 
declaration and charter of rights and a form of 



government " for the state of Maryland. Prom 
1778 till 1781 he was a member of the Continental 
congress from Maryland, and he was president of 
the Maryland convention that, on 28 April, 1788, 
ratified the constitution of the United States. In 
1792 he was elected governor of Maryland. 

PLATT, Charles Adams, artist, b. in New York 
city, 16 Oct., 1801. He studied at the Art league 
and the National academy. New York, during 
1878-'80, and in 1884-'5 under Boulanger and Le- 
febvre in Paris. He has given much attention to 
etching, in which branch of art he has been very 
successful. His works include " Interior of Fish- 
houses," " Fishing Boats," and " Provincial Fishing 
Village "(1882): "Old Houses near Bruges "(1883); 
"Deventer. Holland" (1885); "Quai des Orfevres, 
Paris" (1880); and "Dieppe" (1887). He paints 
also in oil and in water-color, and has exhibited at 
the Salon, the National academy, New York, and 
the American water-color society. 

PLATT, Franklin, geologist, b. in Philadel- 

fhia. Pa., 19 Nov., 1844. He was educated at the 
Iniversity of Pennsylvania, but left in 1862, before 
graduation, and in 1803 served in the 82d Pennsyl- 
vania Gray reserve regiment. In 1864 he was ap- 
pointed to the U. S. coast survey, and assigned to 
surveying work with the North Atlantic squadron 
during that year. He then was appointed on the 
staff of Gen. Orlando M. Poe, chief engineer of the 
military division of the Mi-ssissippi, and was en- 
gaged in this duty until thesurrender of Gen. Joseph 
E. Johnston's army in April, 1805. Subsequently, 
in July, 1874, he was appointed assistant geologist 
of Pennsylvania, which post he held until May, 
1881, after which he became president of the Roch- 
ester and Pittsburg coal and iron company. Mr. 
Piatt is a member of scientific societies, to whose 
transactions he has contributed frequent papers on 
geology and kindred subjects. He prepared nine 
volumes of the reports of the geological survey of 
Pennsylvania. Those that were his exclusive work 
are " On Clearfield and Jefferson Counties " (Har- 
risburg, 1875); "Coke Manufacture" (1876); "On 
Blair County " (1880) ; and " The Causes, Kinds, and 
Amount of Waste in Mining Anthracite " (1881). 

PLATT,Orville Hitchcock,senator,b. inWash- 
ington, Conn., 19 July, 1827. He was educated in the 

Eublic schools, was admitted to the bar in 1849, and 
egan practice in Meriden, Conn. He was clerk of 
the state senate in 1855-'0, secretary of state in 
1857, state senator in 1801-'2, and a member of the 
legislature in 1804-'9, serving as speaker in the lat- 
ter year. He was elected to the U. h. senate as a VCe- 
publican in 1878, and was re-elected in 1884 for the 
term that will end in March, 1891. Mr. Piatt has 
been an earnest advocate of the abolition of secret 
executive sessions of the senate. Yale gave him 
the degree of LL. D. in 1887. 

PLATT, Thomas Collier, senator, b. in Owego, 
N. Y., 15 July, 1833. He left Yale in his sophomore 
year in 1853 on account of failing health, but re- 
ceived the honorary degree of M. A. in 1870 from 
that college. He entered mercantile life, became 
president of the Tioga, N. Y., National bank, and 
engaged in the lumber business in Michigan. He 
was elected to congress as a Republican in 1872. re- 
elected in 1874, and on 18 Jan.. 1881, was chosen U. S. 
senator to succeed Francis Kernan. but resigned, 
10 May of the same year, with his colleague, R^sc^oe 
Conkhng (q. v.), on account of a disagreement with 
the executive regarding New York apjwintments. 
He returned home, was a candidate for re-election, 
and after an exciting canvass was defeated. He be- 
came secretary and a director of the United States 
express company in 1879, and since 1880 has been 



PLATT 



PLEASONTON 



89 



I 



it« president. lie whm appointed commissioner of 
quanintine of Xew York city in 18H(), lx'o«me 
president of the Ixwrd. and held office till 14 Jan.. 
1888, when he was removed by proceedinjrs insti- 
tuted on account of his alleged non-residence in 
New York city. He was a member of the National 
Renublican conventions in 1876. 1880. and 1884. 
ana for several years of the Republican national 
committee. He is now (1888) president of the 
Southern Central railroa*!. 

PLATT, William Henry, clerjrvman, b. in 
Amenia, Dutchess co.. N. Y.. 10 Annl. 1821. He 
received a f^Knl education, was admitted to the 
bar in 1840, and for four years practised in Ala- 
bama. He was ordained deacon in the Protestant 
Episcopal church in 1851, and priest in 1852. held 
rectorships in Selma, Ala.. Petersburg, Va.. Ijouis- 
ville, Ky.. and San Francisco, Cal., and U'came 
rector of St. Paul's church, Rochester, N. Y., in 
1882. William and Mary gave him the degree of 
D. D. in 1878, and also that of LL. D. Dr. Piatt's 
publications include "Art Culture" (New York, 
1873) ; " Influence of Religion in the Development 
of Jurisprudence" (1877); "After Death, what!" 
<San Francisco, 1878) ; " Unity of Law or Legal 
Morality" (1879); "God out. and Man in." a reply 
to Robert G. Ingersoll (Rochester. 1883) ; and " The 
Philosophy of the Supernatural." 

PLATT, Zephaniah, member of the Continental 
congress, b. in Dutchess county, N. Y., in 1740; d. 
in Plattsburg, N. Y., 12 Sept.. 1807. He received a 
classical education, studied law, and practised. He 
was a delegate from New York to the Continental 
congress in 1784-'6, and was judge of the circuit 
court for many years. He was one of the origina- 
tors of the Erie canal, and founded the town of 
Plattsburg. — His son. Jonas, jurist, b. in Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y., 30 June, 1769; d. in Peru, Clinton 
CO., N. Y.. 22 Feb.. 1834, was educated in the public 
schools, admitted to the bar in 1790, and the next 
year settled in Whitesboro, N. Y. He was a mem- 
ber of the assembly in 1790. of congress in 1796- 
1801, and of the state senate in 181^'13. He was 
an unsuccessful candidate for governor in 1810, a 
member of the council in 1813, and in 1814-'23 a 
justice of the New York supreme court. He then 
engaged in practice in Utica, and subsequently in 
New York city. — Another son. Zephaniah, jurist, 
b. in Plattsburg, N. Y., in 1796; d. in Aiken, S. C, 
20 April, 1871, removed to Michigan in early life, 
studietl and subsequently practised law, and was 
appointed by the U. S. government its attorney to 
settle its claims on the Pacific coast. He was state 
attorney-general for several years, and took high 
rank at the bar. He removed to South Carolina at 
the close of the civil war. and from 1808 until his 
death was judge of the 2d circuit. 

PLAZA, Manuel (plah'-thah), Peruvian mis- 
sionary, b. in Riobamba, 1 Jan., 1772 ; d. in Lima 
about 1845. He entered the Franciscan convent of 
Quito, was ordained priest at the age of twenty- 
three years, and immediately afterward set out as a 
missionary for the river JJapo. After a year he 
went to the missions of Ucayali and settled in 
Sarayacu, where he soon gained the esteem of the 
Indians and founded two new villages. There he 
remained till 1814, when the viceroy, Jose de Abas- 
cal, fearing the success of the revolution, appointed 
him to open another outlet to Europe by way of 
Comas and Chanehamayo. He explored the coun- 
try three months, and, after giving an account of 
his commission to the viceroy, returned to Sarayacu 
and continued his missions till 1821, w^hen the 
Spanish missionaries fled to Brazil, and he was left 
alone among the savages. He suffered greatly till 



1828, when he found his way to Quito, and was 
well received by the bishop and Gen. liolivar, who 
provided him with abundant means, and ordere<l 
nim to return to his missions. After an explora- 
tion of the rivers of the interior by a Peruvian 
commission, the government resolved to assist the 
efforts of F'ather Plaza, and the latter came to 
Lima in 1845. Congress, on 24 May. pa.s.sed an act 
that provided a yearly subvention for the missions, 
and Plaza planned to return in 1846. but dietl Xte- 
fore he could make the journey, and his manu- 
scripts were lost. 

PLAZA, Nlcanor (plah'-thah). Chilian sculptor, 
b. in Santiago in 1844. He entered the academy 
of sculpture of the University of Chili in 1858. and 
in 1863 the government sent him to Europe 
to study. In 1800 he openetl a studio in Pans, 
where he exhibited his " Susannah." " Hercules," 
and " Caupolican " in 1867. In 1871 he was ap- 
pointed director of the Academy of sculpture of 
Santiago. In that city he executed many works 
that relate to the history of his country, some of 
which are erected in the public places of Santiago. 
In 1872, at the exposition of Santiago, he received 
a gold medal. In 1874 he was sent to Europe on 
an artistic mission, and during the first months of 
his stay there he executed a statue of Andres Bello, 
which was erected in 1882 in Santiago, in the 
square of the national congress. He also made a 
statue of Domingo Eyzaguirre. 

PLEASANTS, James, senator, b. in Gooch- 
land county, Va., 24 Oct., 1769 ; d. at his residence, 
" Contention," Goochland county, Va.. 9 Nov.. 1839. 
He was a first cousin of Thomas Jefferson. He 
was educated by private tutors, studied law. was 
admitted to the bar of his native county, and en- 
joyed an extensive practice, especially as an advo- 
cate. He was a member of the legislature in 1796, 
having been elected as a Republican, clerk of the 
house in 1803-'ll, and from the latter date till 
1819 was in congress. He then became U.S. sena- 
tor, served in 1819-'22, when he resigned, and was 
S)vemor of Virginia for the succeeding three years, 
uring his terra of office, in 1824, Lafayette visited 
Virginia. He was a delegate to the Virginia con- 
stitutional convention in 1829-'30, and subse- 
quently declined the appointment of judge of the 
circuit court and of the Virginia court of appeals. 
The county of Pleasants, now W. Va., is named in 
his honor. John Randolph of Roanoke said of 
him : "James Pleasants never made an enemy nor 
lost a friend." — His son, John Hampden, jour- 
nalist, b. in Goochland county, Va., 4 Jan., 1797; 
d. in Richtnond, Va.. 27 Feb.. 1846. was educated 
at William and Mary college, and was admitted to 
the bar at an early age. out abandoned law for 
journalism, and founded and became editor of the 
Lynchburg " Virginian." He subsequently re- 
moved to Richmond, Va.. and in 1824 founded the 
"Constitutional Whig and Public Advertiser." and 
was its chief editor for twenty-two years. He was 
killed in a duel with Thomas Ritchie. Jr., of the 
" Richmond Enquirer," a Democratic organ. Mr. 
Pleasants was a brilliant editor and paragraphist, 
and his journal was the principal exponent of the 
Whig party in Virginia. His brother Whigs 
erected a monument to his memorj-, on which his 
gallant and s€>lf-sacrificing patriotism is recortled. 

PLEASONTON, Augustus James, s<ildier, b. in 
Washington. D. C. 18 Aug., 1808. He was gradu- 
ated at tlie U. S. military academy in 1826. and then 
served on garrison duty at the Artillery school for 

Sractice in Fortress Monroe, and on topographical 
uty until 30 June, 1830, when he resigned from 
the army. After studying law, he was admitted to 



40 



PLEASONTON 



PLESSIS 



the har, and he has since practised in Philadelphia. 
He has served in the Pennsylvania militia, holding 
the rank of brigmle-inajor in 18;W, and U'coining 
eo.onel in 1835, and he wjis wounded during the 
conflict with armed rioters in Southwark, Pa., on 
7 July, 1844. During the |X)litical disturbances in 
Harrisburg, Pa., in 18;i8-'9, he was assistant adju- 
lant-general and j)ay master-general of the state. 
On 10 May. 18(51, he was apjMjinted brigiulier-gen- 
eral of Pennsylvania militia, and charged with the 
organization and sul>se»iuent command during the 
civil war of a home-guard of 10,000 men, including 
cavalrv, artillerv, and infantry, for the defence of 
Philtulelphia. In 1839-40 he" whs president of the 
Harrisburg, Portsmouth, Mountjoy, and Lancaster 
railroad company. He hiis devoted his leisure to 
the cultivation of a farm near Philadelphia, where, 
as early as 1801, he began to experiment on the 
action of different colored rays upon vegetable and 
animal life. He claimed to have demonstrated 
that the blue rays of the sun were especially stimu- 
lating to vegetation. His experiments were subse- 
quently anplied to animals, and afterward to in- 
valids, anu wonderful cures were said to have been 
wrought. The public became interested in his ex- 
periments, and for a time a so-called " blue-glass 
craze" prevailed, culminating in 1877-'8. Gen. 
Pleasonton published many papers in advocacy of 
his theories, and a book entitleu " Influence of the 
Blue Itav of the Sunlight and of the Blue Color 
of the sky in Developing Animal and Vegetable 
Life, in Arresting Disease" (Philadelphia, 1876). 
— His brother, Alfred, soldier, b. in VVashington. 
D. v., 7 June. 1824, wjis gnuluated at the U. S. 
military academy in 1844, served in the ^Mexican 

war, and was bre- 
vetted 1st lieuten- 
ant for " gallant 
and meritorious 
conduct in the bat- 
tles of Palo Alto 
and Resaca de la 
Palma." He sub- 
sequently was on 
frontier duty with 
his company, and 
was commissioned 
1st lieutenant in 
1849, and captain 
in 1855. He was 
acting assistant ad- 
«y J^ ^ y ^ — jutant - general to 
,,^yn^--*CrM^^*i^a-yi>-C^ri^ Q^^ William S. 

Harney during the 
Sioux expedition, and his adjutant-general from 
1856 till 1860 in the campaign against the Seminoles 
in Florida, and the operations in Kansas, Oregon, 
and Washington territory. He commanded his 
regiment in its march from Utah to Washington 
in the autumn of 1861, was commissioned major of 
the 2d cavalry in February, 1862, served through 
the Virginia peninsular campaign, became briga- 
dier-general of volunteers in July of that year, and 
commanded the division of cavalry of theArmy of 
the Potomac that followed Lee's invading army 
into Maryland. He was engaged at Boonesborougli, 
South Mountain, Antietau), and the subsequent 
pursuit, engaged the enemy frequently at Freder- 
icksburg, and stayed the further advance of the 
enemy at Chancelloniville. On 2 May, when Jack- 
son's Confederate corps was coming down upon the 
right flank of Hooker's array, and had alremly 
routed Howard's corps. Gen. ' Pleasonton, by his 
quick and skilful action, saved the army from a 
serious disaster. Ordering the 8th Pennsylvania 




cavalry to charge boldly into the woods in the face 
of the advancing host (see Keenan, Peter), he de- 
layed Jackson's progress a few minutes — just long 
enough to throw into position all the artillery that 
was within reach. He ordered the guns loaded 
with gra()e and canister, and depressed enough to 
make the shot strike the ground half way between 
their line and the edge of the woods. When the 
Confederate column emerged, it met such a storm 
of iron as no troops could pass through. About 
this time Jackson fell, and before any new manoeu- 
vres could h& undertaken darkness put an end to 
the day's work. He received the brevet of lieu- 
tenant-colonel for Antietam in 1862, was promoted 
major-general of volunteers in June, 1863, partici- 
pated in the numerous actions that preceded the 
battle of Gettysburg, was commander-in-chief of 
cavalry in that action, and was brevetted colonel, 
3 July, 1863. He was transferred to Missouri in 
1804, drove the forces under Gen. Sterling Price 
from the state, and in March, 1865, was brevetted 
brigadier-general in the U. S. army for gallant and 
meritorious conduct in that campaign, and major- 
general for services throughout the civil war. He 
resigned in 1808, was U. S. collector of revenue for 
several years, and subsequently president of the 
Terre Ilaute and Cincinnati railroad. In May, 
1888, he was placed on the retired list, with the 
rank oi colonel, U, S. A. 

PLEE, Aiigiiste, French botanist, b. in Pointe 
i\ Pitre, Guadeloupe, in 1787 : d. in Fort Royal, 
Martinique, 17 Aug., 1825. He occupied a high 
ofiicial post, but was devoted to natural history, 
and embarked in 1819 for South America, charged 
by the government with the mission of exploring 
the continent as a botanist. After travelling ex- 
tensively, and forming numerous collections of 
f hints, he fell sick and returned to Martinique, 
lis principal works are " Le jeune botaniste, ou 
entretiens d'un pere avec son fils sur la botanique 
et la physiologic vegetale, etc." (2 vols., Paris, 
1812); and a "Journal de voyage du botaniste 
Auguste Plee, a travers les Antilles, les Guyanes et 
le Bresil " (2 vols., Paris, 1828). The administra- 
tion of the Paris museum published in 1830 a 
catalogue of Pice's collection m 3 vols. 

PLESSIS. Francis Xavier, Canadian clergy- 
man, b. in Quebec, 15 J'an., 1694. He became & 
member of the Society of Jesus, and was engaged 
on the Indian missions. He wrote " Avis et pra- 
tiques pour profiter de la mission et en conserver le 
fruit a I'usage des missions du Pere du Plessisde la 
(Jompagnie de Jesus" (3 vols., Paris, 1742) and 
" Lettre au sujet des calomnies publiees par I'au- 
teur des nouvelles ecclesiastiques (1745). 

PLESSIS, Joseph Octave, Canadian R. C. 
bishop, b. near Montreal, Canada, in 1763 ; d. in 
Quebec, 4 Dec, 1825. He studied classics in the 
C^ollege of Montreal, but refused to continue hia 
education, and his father, who was a blacksmith, 
set him to work at the forge. After a short experi- 
ence at manual labor, he consented to enter the 
Petit seminaire of Quebec in 1780. On finishing 
his course he taught belles-lettres and rhetoric in 
the College of Montreal, and, notwithstanding his 
youth, became secretary to Bishop Briand. He was 
ordained priest on 29 Nov., 1786. Shortly after his 
ordination he was made secretary to Bishop Hubert, 
and he exercis«d so much influence over this prel- 
ate that he rejiUy filled the functions of coadjutor- 
bishop. In 1792 he was appointed cure of Quebec. 
Bishop Denault named him his grand vicar in 1797, 
and at the sjime time announced his intention of 
choosing him for coadjutor. The popularity of 
Plessis with the French Canadians excited the hos- 



PLESSYS 



PLUMB 



41 



tility of the English party, and Gpti. Prpscott, the 
ffovenior of the provinco, opixjsed the api)<»intment, 
but he firmlly yielded to the demaiuis of public 
opinion. Plessis was conseerated bishop in the 
cathedral of QucIkjc on 25 Jan.. 18()1, in presence 
of the povenior and oflicials of the province. The 
death of iiishof) Denault raise<l him U> the episcopal 
see of QiielK'o in 180(J, HelK'fjan his administration 
under dinicult circumstances. Efforts were made 
to appropriate the property of the Jesuits and of 
the Seminary of Montreal to the uses of the state, 
to orjjanize an exclusively Protestant system of 
public instniction, and to jfive a jKJwer of veto on 
the nomination of nriests and the erection of par- 
ishes to the Enpish crown. An unsuccessful 
attempt was nuule to prevent him from takinp: 
the oath of allegiance in his capacity of bishop 
of Quebec. In 1810 Gov. Craij; sent a messenger 
to England to complain of the bishop's conduct ; 
but the authorities atlopted a conciliatory i>olicy, 
Craig was recalled, and Sir George Prevost was 
sent to replace him. The new governor hatl 
several interviews with the bishop, who refused to 
make any concessions, and finally all his demands 
in behalf of the Roman Catholic church in Canada 
were conceded. The part that he took during the 
war of 1813 in exciting the loyalty^ and warlike 
spirit of the French Canivdians gamed him the 
good-will of England. He received letters from the 
government recognizing his title and jurisdiction 
as Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec, and granting 
him a pension of a thousand louis a year with a 
seat in the legislative council. Bishop Plessis was 
the first to introduce the gospel into the vast terri- 
tory of Red river, and founded religious and edu- 
cational institutions in Upper Canada and the 
provinces along the Gulf of St. Lawrence. His 
great work was the organization of his church in 
Canada. In 1818 he was nominated archbishop of 
Quebec, and the rest of British America was formed 
into four suffragan sees. In the legislative council 
he was an ardent defender of the religious and civil 
rights of his co-religionists, and in 1822, when the 
English government tried to force a union between 
Upper and Lower Canada, his energetic resistance 
counted for much in the failure of the plan. The 
reformation and development of Canadian educa- 
tion formed the great end of his life. He resisted 
successfully efforts to weaken the force of French- 
Canadian nationality through the medium of a 
system of popular education. The colleges of 
Nicolet and St. Hyacinth were founded through 
his encouragement, and schools and acatlemicswere 
established in every direction. He spent his time and 
income in searching out young men and educating 
them at his own expense. Some of the most emi- 
nent men of Canada owed their training to him. 
The passage of the education law of 1824 was to a 

Ereat extent his work, and his correspondence with 
ord Bathurst on this subject proves him a man of 
great cliplomatic fone. 

PLESSYS, or PLESSIS, Paciflcus du, French 
missionary, b. in France in the latter part of the 
10th century ; d. in Quebec in the first part of the 
17th. He was one of the four RecoUet mission- 
aries that accompanied Champlain to Canada in 
1615, and was employed to instruct the children of 
the French and Indians that had st'ttled at Three 
Rivers. His influence over the Indians enabled 
him to render a great service to the French colony. 
In 1618 a conspinuy was formed to cut off all the 
French, and 80() Indians assembled near Three 
Rivers to carry out the plot. Brother Pacificus 
was warned by a friendly savage. He gaine<I over 
some of the chiefs, and with their help prevailed 



on the others to agree to a treaty of peace, which 
he undertook to negotiate with ('hamplain. He 
sailetl with the latter for France the same year, but 
afterward returned to Canada. His Ixnly was dis- 
covered near the vault of Champlain in 1HG({. 

PL<^:VILLE LE PELEY,(Jeorges Kenf (nlay- 
veel). French naval oflicer. b. in (iranville, 20 June, 
1726; d. in Paris, 2 Oct.. 18()5. He ran away from 
school when he was twelve years ol«l, and enlisted 
as a cabin-boy at Havre, under the name of Du 
Vivier, on a ship bound for the Newfoundland 
fisheries. At the beginning of the war of 1742 he 
joined a privateer as lieutenant, and did good ser- 
vice off tne coast of Canada. In 1746 he was taken 
prisoner by the English near Louisburg, but he 
was soon released and entered the royal navv as 
sub-lieutenant under his uncle, (Commander 'filly 
Le Peley. During the war of 1755 he was again 
employed in Canadian waters, and, as commander 
of the brig " Hirondelle," forced three ships to sur- 
render in 1759, after a desperate action. In 1770, 
l)eing stationed in Marseilles, he saved an English 
frigate which had grounded on a sand-bank in a 
hurricane. The English admiralty presented him 
with a purse of $10,000. and when afterward, dur- 
ing the war of American indeiK'ndence, his two 
sons were captured by the English, the admiralty 
issued orders to release them, In 1778 he became 
second captain of the " Languedoc," the flag-ship of 
Admiral d'Estaing, and during the gale that dis- 
persed the French fleet off Newport he saved his 
vessel. After serving creditably in the attack on 
St. Lucia, and participating in the caf)ture of St. 
Vincent and Grenada in the West Indies, he urged 
D'Estaing, whose confidence he had gained, to 
utilize the momentary French superiority on the 
sea in undertaking some great enterprise for the 
American cause, and was charged with convoying 
captured English vessels to the United States. The 
Baltimore merchants were so satisfied with their 
dealings with him that, after the siege of Savan- 
nah, when D'Estaing opened negotiations for a loan 
of f 60,000 to repair his vessels, they consented to 
advance the sum upon the personal security of 
Pleville le Peley. This conduct is the more mem- 
orable when it is rememl)ered that Lafayette, the 
acknowledged owner of a large fortune, was able 
to raise only $10,000 in 1781 from those same mer- 
chants. In the assault on Savannah, 9 Oct., 1779, 
he commanded a company, and was conspicuous 
in his efforts to reform the column when it lost 
its way in a swamp and became exposed to the 
British batteries. In 1780 he served under De 
Guichen, and he fought also at Yorktown under 
De Grasse in October. 1781. After the defeat 
of that admiral. 12 April, 1782. he rejoined Vau- 
dreuilles. and served under him till the conclusion 
of the campaign. He was [)romoted commodore in 
1783, and employed in several cruises in North 
America. Adopting in 1789 the principles of the 
French revolution, he was appointed minister 
plenipotentiary to Ancona in 1795, and afterward 
given a like mission to Corfu. In 1797 he was pro- 
moted rear-admiral, and in March, 1798, vice- 
admiral. He held also the naval p<irtfolio from 
April till July. 1798, was created a senator in 1799, 
and given the grand cross of the order of the Legion 
of honor bv Napoleon in 1804. 

PLUMfi, Joseph, pioneer, b. in Paris, Oneida 
CO., N. Y., 27 June, 1791 ; d. in Cattaraugus. N. Y., 
25 May, 1870. He settled in Fredonia. N. Y., in 
1816, and after removing- to New York city, and 
subsequently to Ithaca and Geneva, he finally 
established himself in Gowanda, Erie co., N. Y., on 
the border of the Cattaraugus reservation of Seneca 



42 



PLUMB 



Indians. He was active in benevolent and educa- 
tional enterprises in Iwhalf of this tril»e, and 
orRnnizi-ii the first scht>ols and church in that 
coniinunity. He wjis a founder of the Liljerty 
iiarty in 1840, and its candidate for lieutenant- 
governor in 1844. He owned the land u\wn which 
the town of ('attaraugiis was built, and disjwsed of 
it on condition that no intoxicatin^j li<|uors should 
l)e sold thereon. In one case the matter was carried 
to the court of appeals, and, after years of litigation, 
was diH-idcd in i8(H) in favor of Mr. Plumb, the 
court sustaining the temperance restriction. He 
was an early men>ljer of the anti-slavery party, 
and «leclined'a nomination to congress in 18.W, and 
the oJHce of circuit judge. See his "Memorial" 
(i)rintetl privately, 1870).— His son. Edward Lee, 
diplomatist, b. in Gowanda. N. Y., 17 .Iu.lv, 1827, 
has been secretary of legation and charge d affaires 
in Mexico, ccmsul-general at Havana, and was the 
agent in procuring the charter of the International 
railwav of Mexico. 

PLt'MB, Josiah Bnrr, Canadian statesman, b. 
in Kast Haven, Conn., 25 March, 1810: d. in Niag- 
ara, Out., 12 March, 1888. His father was rector 
of the Episcopal church at East Haven. The son 
was for many years nninager of the State bank at 
All>any. N. V., and a director in several banks in 
Buffalo and Oswego. He was one of a committee 
that was apjM)inted by the Democnits of New York 
state to confer with the slave states on the north- 
ern l)order, with a view to prevent the civil war. 
He subsequentlv removed to Canada, and was 
elected U> the Oominion parliament for Niagara 
in 1874. iH'ing an active debater on the Conserva- 
tive side. He was unseated on petition the same 
year, and re-elected shortly afterward for the same 
constituency. Through the disfpiaiification of his 
opponent, who received the majority of votes, he 
was declared elected again in 1878. In 1877-'8 
he accompanied Sir John Macdonald during his na- 
tional iM)lity campaign, rendering efficient service 
to his party. He was an unsuccessful candidate for 
North Wellington in 1882, and was called to the 
senate, 6 Feb., 1883. He presided over the senate 
during most of the session of 1886, owing to the 
illness of Sir Alexander Campbell, and was ap- 
fKiinted sjieaker of that Ixxly in April, 1887, which 
office he held at the time of his death. 

PLl'.MB, Preston B., senator, b. in Delaware 
county. Oliio, 12 Oct., 1837. After receiving a 
c<)mmoti-sfh(H»l education he became a printer, and 
in 18o<) removed to Kansjis. He studied law. was 
admitted to the bar in 1861, was a member of the 
legislature in 1862, subsequently reporter of the 
Kansa.s supreme court, and in the latter part of 
that year entered the National army as a lieuten- 
ant. He served throughout the civil war, and at- 
tainetl the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was 
again in the legislature in 1867-'8, was its speaker 
the latter vear, and in 1876 was elected U. S. sena- 
tor as a Republican. He was re-elected for the 
term that will end in 1889. Mr. Plumb has edited 
and adapted a work entitled " Practice Ix'fore Jus- 
tice Courts in Kansjis " (New York, 1875). 

PLUMER, WUHain (plum'-mer). senator, b. in 
Newburjport, Mass.. 25 June, 1759; d. in Kpping, 
N. H., 22 June, 1850. His ancestor. Francis, emi- 
grated from England in 1634, and was one of the 
original grantees of Newbury. William removed 
to Epping, N. H., at eight years of age, received an 
academical education, was admitte<I to the bar in 
1787, and soon established a reputation as an ml- 
vocate. He also took an active part in state poli- 
tics, was solicitor for RfK;kingham county for many 
years, served in the legislature for eight terms, dur- 



PLUMER 

ing two of which he was speaker, and was president 
of the state senate in 1810-'ll. In 1792 lie was a 
member of the New Hampshire constitutional con- 
vention, and was active in the revision of the stat- 
utes. He was elected U. S. senator in 1802 to fill 
the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of James 
Sheaf e, served till 1807, and was g'overnor of New 
Hampshire in 1812-'16, and again in 1817-'18. He 
was a presidential elector in 1820, casting the only 
vote in opposition to the re-election of President 
Monroe, to whom he objected on account of his 
financial embarrassments. This was his last pub- 
lic service. For the remaining thirty years of his 
life he devoted himself to literary nursuit.s, and 
contributed regularly to the press under the signa- 
ture of "Cincinnatus." He published "Appeal to 
the Old Whigs" (Washington, 1805) and " Address 
to the Clergy " (1814), and left valuable historical 
and biographical manuscripts. See his life, by his 
son, witli a memoir of the latter, edited by Andrew 
P. Peabody (Boston, 1857).— His son, William, 
congressman, b, in Epping, N. H., 9 Oct., 1789; d. 
there, 18 Sept., 1854, was graduated at Harvard in 
180J), studied law under his father, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1812. He was U, S. commis- 
sioner of loans in 181()-'17. a member of the legis- 
lature in 1818, and was elected to congress as a 
Democrat, serving by re-election from 1819 till 
1825. He was an ardent Abolitionist, and delivered 
several speeches in congress in opposition to the 
admission of Missouri into the Union as a slave 
state. He was in the New Hampshire senate in 
1827-'8, and declined a re-election in 1830, and the 
appointment of district attorney. He subsequently 
devoted himself to literary pursuits, and his last 
public service was as a member of the State consti- 
tutional convention in 1850. Mr. Plumer was an 
accomplished speaker and writer. He gave much 
time to historical and biographical research, and 
was an active member of the New England historic- 
genealogical society. Two volumes of his poems 
were printed privately (Boston, 1841 and 1843), and 
he published " Lyrica Sacra" (1845) and "Pas- 
toral on the Story of Ruth " (1847), and, in part, 
edited the life of his father, mentioned above. 

PLUMlR, William Swan, clergyman, b. in 
Griersburer (now Darlington), Beaver co., Pa., 25 
July, 1802; d. in Baltimore, Md., 22 Oct., 1880. 
He was graduated at Washington college, Va., in 

1825, studied at Princeton theological seminary in 

1826, was ordained the next year, and organized 
the first Presbyterian church in Danville, Va., in 

1827, He then removed to Warrenton, N. CL 
where he also organized a church, and afterward 

S reached in Raleigh, Washington, and New Berne, 
I. C, and in Prince Edward and Charlotte coun- 
ties, Va. He was pastor of a church in Petersburg, 
: Va., in 1831-4. and in Richmond in 1835-'46. He 
founded the " Watchman of the South," a religious 
weekly, in 1837, and for eight years was its sole 
editor. In 1838 he was instrumental in establish- 
ing the Deaf, dumb, and blind institution in 
Staunton. Va. He was pastor of churches in Bal- 
timore. Md., in 1847-54, and in Alleghany, Pa., in 
1855-'62, at the same tfrae serving as professor of 
didactic and pastoral theology in Western theologi- 
cal seminary there. He resided in Philadelphia for 
the next three years, was in charge of a Presbyte- 
rian church in Pottsville, Pa,, in 1865-6, and at 
that date became professor of didactic and polemic 
theology in the Theological seminary in Columbia, 
S. C. lie was transferred to the chair of historic, 
casuistic, and pastoral theology in 1875, and held 
that office until a few months previous to his 
death. He was moderator of the general assembly 



PLUMIER 



PLUMSTED 



48 



of the Presbyterian church in 1838, and of the 
soulliern branch of that b«xly in 1S71. He received 
the decree of 1). I), from Princeton, Ijjifayette, and 
Washinjjton collejfes in IWW, ami that of LL. I), 
from the University of Mississippi in IHo?. Dr. 
Plunier was an interesting flijure in the history of 
the Prest)yterian church. lie was not an orator, 
but he exercised a strong personal inJUienco over 
his audiences, and possesse<l a gift for teaching. 
Ilis writings were practical, didactic, and of the 
extreme Calvinistic .school. They inchide "Sub- 
stance of an Argument against the Indiscrilninate 
Incorporation of Chun-hes and Religious Societies" 
(New York, 1847): "The Bible True, and Infidelity 
Wicked "(1848); "Plain Thoughts for Children'' 
(Philadelphia. 184'.)); "Short Sermons to Little 
Chiltlren^' (1*50); "Thoughts Worth Rememljer- 
ing" (New York, 18.50); "The Saint and the Sin- 
ner" (Philadelphia, 1851); "The Grace of Christ" 
(185.3); "Rome against the Bible, and the Bible 
against liome" (1854); "Christ our Theme and 
Glory" (18.5.5); "The Church and her Enemies" 
(1856) ; " The Ijaw of God as contained in the Ten 
Commandments " (1864) ; " Vital Godliness " (New 
York. 1865) ; " Jehovah Jireh " (Philadelphia, 1866) ; 
"Studies in the Book of Psalms" (1866); "The 
Rock of Our Salvation " (1867) ; " Words of Truth 
and Love" (18(58); "Commentaries on the P^pistle 
to the Romans" (1870); "Commentaries on the 
Epistle to the Hebrews" (1870); more than fifty 
tracts that were published by religious societies ; 
and many occasional sermons. 

PLUMlER, Charles, French botanist, b. in 
Marseilles, France, in 1646; d. in Santa Maria, near 
Cadiz. .Spain, in 1704. He entered the order of 
Minimes in 1662, and devoted himself to the phys- 
ical sciences, mathematics, and painting. He at- 
tended botanical lectures in Rome, and was 
selected by the government in 1689 to accompany 
Surian to the French possessions in the Antilles. 
The two botanists quarrelled at the end of eighteen 
months, and Plumier published his results sepa- 
rately on his return to France. Owing to the inter- 
est that was excited among scientists, the king sent 
him on a second mission to the same colonies. Its 
success induced him to make a third voyage, on 
which he visited Guadeloupe and Santo Domingo, 
as well as Martinique. He also went to the neigh- 
boring coast of the main-land, where he made many 
valuable collections. He sailed for Santa Maria, 
intending to embark at that port for Peru, but was 
attacked by pleurisy shortly after landing. Plumier 
renderinl great services to the natural sciences, and 
particularly to botany. His works are " D&serip- 
tion des plantes de rAmcrique" (Paris. 1693); 
" Nova plantarum Americanarum genera " (1703); 
and"Traite des fougeres de I'Ameriques" (170.5). 
Plumier also published some other works, and left 
an immense collection of manuscripts, which are in 
the library of Paris and in that of the Jardin des 
Plantes. Among them are ' Botanographia Ameri- 
cana," " Descriptiones plantarum ex America," 
" De naturalibus Antillarum," " Solum, salum 
Americanum. sen plantarum. piscium, volucrum- 
que insnlis Antillis et San-Dominicana naturalium 
icones et descriptiones," " Poissons de I'Ame- 
rique." and "Ornithographia Americana, quadru- 
pedia et volatilia continens." There are altogether 
more than 4,300 designs of plants and more than 
1,200 of other objects in natural history, drawn by 
Plumier. probably a larger number than were exe- 
cuted by any other artist. Sevend dissertations by 
Plumier were published in scientific periodicals. 
In the "Journal des savants" of 1694, and in the 
"M^moires de Trevoux" of September, 1703, he 



gave the first correct accounts of the origin of 
cochineal. The name Pluineria was given by 
Tournefort to a class nf trees in the West Indies. 

PLUMLEY, Ueiijamin Rush, author, b. in 
Newton. Bucks CO., Pa.. 10 March, 1816; d. in Gal- 
veston. Tex., 9 DiH'., 1887. He was earlv a«s<K'iated 
with William Lloyd Garrison in alxtlition move- 
ments. sul)se«|uently engaged in literary pursuits, 
and contribute*! ^)rose and poetical sketches to the 
marazines. During the civd war he serve<l on the 
staff of Gen. John C. Fremont, and suljsequently 
he was on that of Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks. He 
afterward settled iti Galveston, Tex. His works in 
manuscript, to Iks issued in book -form, include 
" Kathaleen Mc Kin ley, the Kerry Girl," " liachel 
Lockwoo<l," " Lavs of the Quakers," which ap- 

B?ared in the " Knickerbocker " ; and " Oriental 
allads," in the " Atlantic Monthly." 

PLUMMER, Joseph B, soldier, b. in Barre. 
Mass., 10 Aug., 1820; d. near Corinth, Miss., 9 
Aug., 1862. He was graduated at the U. S. mili- 
tary academy in 1841, served in Florida, on the 
western frontier, and in the Mexican war, became 
lieutenant in 1848, and captain in 1852. He ren- 
dered imjjortant service to Gen. Nathaniel Lyon 
in the capture of Camp Jackson, Mo., and was 
severely wounded at Wilson's Creek in August, 
1861. He became colonel of the 11th Missouri vol- 
unteers in September of that year, defeated the 
Confederates at Fredericktown. Mo., on 12 Oct., 
and was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers 
the next day. He sub«;quentTv participated in the 
battles of New Madrid and Island No. 10. He Ije- 
came major of infantry in April, 1862, served in 
the Mississippi camjmign. at tne siege and battle 
of Corinth, and in pursuit of the enemy to Boon- 
ville from 1 till 11 June. His death was the re- 
sult of exposure in camp. 

PLUMSTED, Clement, mavor of Philadelphia, 
b. in 1680; d. in Philadelphia, 26 May. 1745. He 
is believed to have been a native of Norfolk, Eng- 
land, and this belief is supported by the fact that 
his son William had marked on his silver the crest 
that was granted to Nathaniel Plumsted, of that 
county, in the 15th year of Queen Elizabeth. He 
was no doubt a kinsman, perhaps a son, of Clement 
Plumsted, citizen and dra[)er of London, who was 
among the proprietors of East Jersey, associated 
with William Penn. He came to Philadelphia 
about the time he attained his majority, became a 
merchant, and was nearly all his life one of the 
wealthiest citizens. He was made a common 
councilman in 1712. afterward became an alder- 
man, and in 1723 succeeded James Logan as mayor, 
to which ofllce he wjvs again chosen in 1736 and in 
1741. He was commissioned in 1717 one of the 
justices of the court of common pleas, quarter 
sessions, and orphans' court, and was continued by 
subsequent appointments utitil his death. From 
1727 till his death he was an active member of the 
provincial council, and in 1730 l)ecame a master in 
chancery. In company with David French and 
two gentlemen from Maryland, he was commis- 
sioned by the English court of chancery in 1740 to 
examine witnesses in Pennsylvania and the Lower 
counties in the case of Penn vs. Lortl Baltimore. 
He was the intimate friend of Andrew Hamilton, 
and was concerned with him in extensive and prof- 
itable land speculations, and, no doubt, through 
Hamilton's infiuence. Plumsted. although a Quak- 
er, came to show little sympathy with the " Norris 
party," as the stricter Friends came to be calle<l, in 
the bitter contests between this party and the 
governor. In 1727 he was one of those that pur- 
chased the Durham tract in Bucks county, Pa., 



44 



PLYMPTON 



FOE 



formed a stock-company for the manufacture of 
iron, and built the Durham funuice, where the 
mnnufjK-ture has since U-en continued. The prop- 
erty was purchjised in 1WJ4 by Eilwanl Cooj»erand 
Abnun S, Hewitt. By his will he left £50 to be 
divided between ten ptHjr housekee[)ers. five of 
them to be Friends and five of other denomina- 
tions, lie also gave five shillin|ip« to everj' poor ])er- 
son in the almshouse. — His son, ^Villiain, mavor 
of Philadelphia, b. in Philadelphia, 7 Nov., 1708: 
d. there, 10 Auk., 17Go, became his father's partner 
in business, and continued in trade after the lat- 
ter's death. In 1739 he was chosen to the city 
council. In 1741, on his return from a voyajre to 
England, it being suggested that he should be 
called to the provincial council, (lov. Thomas 
wrote to William Penn : " Will Phimsted is a very 
worthy young man, but as his father is in the coun- 
cil he will be always looked upon as under his in- 
fluence, and so can give no reputation to the board. 
Besi<les, it is lx)th your brother's opinion and mine 
that he would not accept of it." On the death of 
Peter Evans, a lawyer of the Inner Temple, in 
1745, the office of register-general for the nrovince 
became vacant, and, at Clement Plumsted s solici- 
tation, it was given to William, who held the of- 
fice until his death. He was also many years a 
county judge. When about middle age he re- 
nounced (Quakerism. In 174H he was a subscriber 
to the Dancing assembly, the first that was held in 
Phila4lelphia. Subsetjuently he became one of the 
founders of St. Peter's church, and in 1701, when 
its housi' for worship was finished, he was elected 
a vestryman, and Wcame the first accounting 
warden. He was one of the original trustees of the 
college that has since grown to be the University of 
Pennsylvania. He was three times chosen mayor 
of Philadeljihia — in 1750, 1754, and 1755 — and at 
the end of the first term gave to the city £75 in- 
stead of giving the entertainment that was expected 
from a retiring mayor. In 1757, although he re- 
sided at that time in the city of Philadelphia, he 
was chosen a member of the assembly from North- 
ampton county. Ilisdaughter, Elizabeth, a lady of 
noted l)eauty, became the wife of Andrew Elliott, 
and his granddaughter, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Andrew and Elizabeth (Plumsted) Elliott, became 
lady of the bed-chaml)er to the queen of P^ngland, 
antl wife of William Schaw Cathcart, who was cre- 
ated Earl Cathcart in 1814. 

PLYMPTON, (ieorge Washington, civil en- 
gineer, b. in Walt ham, Mass., 18 Nov., 1827. He 
learned the machinist's trade, and then wjis gradu- 
ated with the degree of C. E. at Rensselaer 
polvtechnic institute in 1847. For a time he re- 
mamed at the institute as instructor in mathemat- 
ics, but in 1850 he turned his attention to profes- 
sional work in New York state, and later in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, and in 1852 he held the chair of 
engineering and architecture in Cleveland univer- 
sity. In 1853-'5 he taught mathematics in the 
St-ate normal sc1kx)1 in Albany, N. Y., and in 
1857-9 he had charge of physics and engineering 
in the Normal sch(K>l in Trenton, N. J. He was 
called in 1803 to the chair of physical science in 
the Brooklyn polytechnic institute, and in 1809 
was appointed to that of physics and engineering 
at Cooper Union, New York' city, from which he 
was advanced in 1879 to the post of director of the 
Cooper Union night-school. In 1844-'5 he was 
nrofessor of chemistry and toxicology in the Long 
Island college hospital, and in 1867-8 he was chief 
engineer of the water board of Bergen, N. J., hav- 
ing charge of the drainage of that place. Prof. 
Plympton was appointed commissioner of electrical 



subways of Brooklyn, and has been very prompt 
in placing the wires underground. He received 
the honorary degree of A. M. in 1854 from Hamil- 
ton college,' and in 1877 that of M, D. from the 
Long Island college hospital. He is a member of 
the American society of civil engineers, and of 
other scientific associations. From 1870 till 1886 
he edited " Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine," 
and he has |jublished " The Blowpipe, a Guide to 
its Use in the Determination of Salts and Minerals " 
(Cincinnati, 1858) : " The Star Finder, or Plani- 
sphere with a Movable Horizon " (New York, 1878) ; 
" The Aneroid, and how to use it " (1880) ; and a 
translation of Jannettaz's " Guide to the Determi- 
nation of Rocks" (1877). 

PLYMPTON, Joseph, soldier, b. in Sudbury, 
Mass.. 24 March, 1787; d. on Staten island, N. Y., 
5 June, 1800. He was appointed lieutenant in the 
4th infantrj^ at the begmning of the war with 
Great Britain in 1812, and served on the northern 
frontier until 1815. He became captain in 1821, 
major in 1840, and in 1842 commandea during an at- 
tack on the Seminole Indians near Dunn's lake, Fla. 
He became lieutenant-colonel in 1846, led his regi- 
ment through the campaign under Gen. Winfleld 
Scott in Mexico, received the brevet of colonel for 
gallant service at the battle of Cerro Gordo, and 
was mentioned in the official report for bravery at 
that of Contrcras. In 1853 he was promoted colo- 
nel of the 1st U. S. infantry. 

POE, Edgar Allan, author, b. in Boston, Mass., 
19 Jan., 1809; d. in Baltimore, Md., 7 Oct., 1849. 
His great-grandfather, John, who came from the 
north of Ireland to Pennsylvania about 1745, was 
a descendant of one of Cromwell's officers. John's 
son, David, was an ar- 
dent patriot, served in 
the Revolution and the 
war of 1812, and was 
commonly given the 
title of general. His 
son, of the same name, 
was educated for the 
law, but went upon the 
stage, and in 1805 mar- 
ried Elizabeth Arnold, 
an actress. Edgar was 
born while his parents 
were regular members 
of the company at the 
Federal street theatre, 
Boston. He was left 
an orphan in early 
childhood, and adopt- 
ed by John Allan, a 
wealthy tobacco merchant in Richmond, Va., whose 
young childless wife had taken a fancy to the 
boy. In Mr. Allan's house he was brought up in 
luxury. He was precocious, and could read, draw, 
dance, and declaim poetry at six years of age. In 
1815 he accompanied the Allans "to England, and 
was placed at a school in Stoke Newington, which 
he afterward described in his tale of " William 
Wilson." Here he remained five years. On his 
return to Richmond he attended a private school 
in that city, where he was a bright student and 
active in out-door sports, one of his feats being a 
swim of six miles against the tide and in a not 
June sun. But he had few companions, and kept 
much to himself. In his fifteentn year he became 
warmly attached to the mother of one of his school- 
mates. She was his confidant and friend, and 
when she died a few months later the boy visited 
her grave nightly for a long time. '£o this inci- 
dent Poe was wont to ascribe much influence over 




POE 



POE 



45 



his mind. On 14 Fob.. 1K2(1. ho was matriculato<l 
at thp Univprsity of Virpinin, whoro, thoujjh a fair 
st mien t. lie s|K>nt niueli tiine at tin* pamiuff-taMo, 
but he wjis not expelled by the faculty. as has U'en 
said, nor was he even a<imonish«l by them. He 
had incurred heavy pimbliii^ d»'bts, which his fos- 
ter-father refused to jmy. and takin;; the l)oy from 
collejre at the end of the first year, ho placed him 
in his own countinfr-room ; but shortly afterward 
Poe left Hichmond to seek his fortune. He first 
went to lioston. when>, alH)ut midsummer i)f 1H27, 
he made his first literary ventun*. the publication 
of " Tamerlane and other P<K'ms." which he said in 
the pri'face had been written in 1821-'2. But his 
means were soon exhaustwl. and on 20 May, 182S, 
he enlisted as a private in the U. S. army, under 
the name of Kdfjar A. Perry. He won the pood- 
will of his superiors, and on 1 Jan.. 1820. was pro- 
moteti serjroant -major for merit, but a little later 
he made his whereal)outs known to Mr. Allan, who, 
with others, procured his discharjre and appoint- 
ment to a cadetship at the U. S. military aca<lemy. 
Before the latter had been obtained Poe published 
a new edition of his poems with some additions, 
entitled " Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems " 
(Baltimore, 1829), which, like the first, possessed 
little merit, and met with no favor. On 1 Jjily, 
1830, he enteretl on his cadetship at West Point. 
And at the end of the first half-vear stood third in 
French and seventeenth in matliematics in a class 
of eighty-seven, but he became dissatisfied, and, as 
his foster-father refused to sanction his resigna- 
tion, he purposely neglected his duties and was 
cashiered early in 1831. Before this he had ob- 
tained the subscriptions of his fellow-students to a 
third collection of "Poems" (New York, 1831), 
which met with nothing but ridicule. 

Ue now sought literary employment in Baltimore, 
but with little success till in 1833 he was awarded 
a, prize of $100, which had been oflferetl by the Bal- 
timore "Saturday Visitor," for his tale " A Manu- 
script found in a Bottle," the judges being Dr. 
James H. Miller, John H. B, Latrobe, and John P. 
Kennedy. A prize of $50 for the best poem was 
also won by his "Coliseuu)," but it was ruled out 
as Iteing by the author of the successful tale. Poe 
had been in destitution, but he was relieved by 
Mr. Kennedy, who also procured him literary work, 
and on Kennedy's recommendation he was engaged 
as editor of the " Southern Literary Messenger " at 
Richmond. Here he wrote some of his liest tales, 
developing the gloomy and mystical vein for which 
he afterwani became noted, but he gained more 
attention by his trenchant criticisms, which made 
him unpopular. es[)ecially in New York. While 
here he als<j became engaged to his cousin. Virginia 
Clemm, then a girl of thirteen years, and on 22 
Sept., 1835, he obtained a marriage license in Bal- 
timore, but the ceremony was not performed pub- 
lii^ly till the following year. His prospects were 
now excellent, but in January. 1837, he re.signe<l 
his post and went to New York. This, as well as 
the sudden termination of Poe's other editorial 
engagements, has l)cen the subject of much con- 
troversy, some authorities saying that his dissipated 
habits were the cause, and others ascribing it to 
feeble health or to an invitation that he received 
from Dr. Francis L. Hawks to become a contribu- 
tor to the newly established •' New York Review." 
He furnished only one article for this, a review of 
a book of travels, and then worked on his " Narra- 
tive of Arthur (tordon Pvm," a tnle of adventure 
in antarctic regions, which hml been partially pub- 
lished in the "Messenger" (New York, 1838). At 
this time the principal income of the family was 



obtained from the Iwanlers that Mn«. Clemm, Poe's 
mother-in-law, rweive<l. Among these was Will- 
iam Gowans, the bibliophile, who has testifie<l to 
Poe's uniformly solM»r and courteous ilemeanor. 
In the summer of 1838 he went to Philadelphia 
and compiled the "Conchologist's First B<K»k " 
(Philadelphia, IKMI), which has raised against him 
many charges of plagiarism. It was said during 
his lifetime that the text-liook was a sinifde reprint 
of t'apt. Thomas Brown's " (^onchology," an Kng- 
lish work; but this is untrue. It has recently be- 
come known that it was condensed and otherwise 
altered from Thomas Wvatfs " Manual of Con- 
chology." at the desire of the author, whose pub- 
lishers decline<l to issue a smaller edition of his 
work. In July. 18JJ9, he l)ecame associate e<litor 
of William E. Burton's " (}entleman's Magazine" 
in Phila<lelphia, and shortly afterward he issued a 
collection of his prose stories, entitled "Tales of 
the Grotesfjue and the Aratestjue" (2 vols.. lioston, 
\HiHt). Though these contain some of his finest 
work, he received nothing from them but the copy- 
right and twenty copies for private distribution, 
and the sale was small. His connection with the 
"Gentleman's Magazine " lasted until the follow- 
ing year, when he quarrelled with Burton. Poe 
had previously issued the prospe<'tus of a new 
perio<lical, " I'he Penn Magazine." but it was at 
first postponed temporarily by his illness, and 
then mdefinitely by liis engagement as etlitor-in- 
chief of "Graham's Magazine," which ha<l Ix'en 
formed bv the purchase of the "Gentleman's" by 
George ft. Graham and its consolidation with 
Graham's " Casket." About this time he beean to 
take an interest in unravelling difilcult problems. 
He had asserted in an article on " Cryptography " 
that human ingenuity could constnict no crj-pto- 
graph that could not Ijc solved. The result was 
that compositions of this kind were sent to him 
from all parts of the country, and he solved all 
that he received, to the numl)er of more than 100. 
Not long afterward he wrote his tale " The Gold- 
Bug," which was founded on the solution of a 
cryptograph, and for which he obtained a prize of 
$100 that had been offered by the " Dollar Maga- 
zine." In May, 1841, he publishe<l a prediction of 
the plot of "bamaby Rudge" from the intro<luc- 
tory chapters, which is said to have caused Dickens 
to ask Poe if he was the devil. In April he had 
published his "Murders in the Rue Morgue," the 
motlel of many subsequent detective stories. The 
tale was afterward stolen by two rival French 
journals, and a libel suit followed, in the course of 
which the true author was discovered. This was 
the beginning of Po<>'s popularity in France, which 
became wide and lasting. Meanwhile he cf)ntinued 
his critical articles, which, if not always correct, 
and often apparently spiteful and cok)red by Poe's 
peculiar ideas concerning the literary art, were 
certainly independent. 

During his stay in Philatlelphia. Poe's wife, who 
had l)een alwavs delicate, ruptured a blootl-vessel 
in singing, and she never fully recovered. To his 
anxiety for her Poe attributed his failure to with- 
stand his appetite for stimulants. However this 
may be, his habits grew more and more irreeular, 
and in the snring of 1842 he lost the eilitorship of 
" Graham's. lie had not abandoned the scheme 
of issuing a magazine of his own, and early in 1843 
appeared the prospectus of " The Stylus." in which 
Poe was to be associated with Thomas C. Clarke. 
This was .subsequently alwindoned. and, after doing 
some desultory literary work, delivering a few lec- 
tures, and suffering much from poverty, Poe re- 
turned with his wife and her mother to New York 



46 



POE 



POE 



in April, 1844. His first publication here was his 
" Balloon-Hoax," a circumstantial account of a 
ballooii-voyajje over the Atlantic, which appeared 
in the news columns of the "Sun." He soon be- 
came connected with the "Evening Mirror," in 
which, on 29 Jan., 1845. first appeared his poem of 
"The Haven," from the advance sheets of the 
" Whig Review " for Fei)ruary. The iMjpularity of 
this was immediate and wide-spread. In April, 
Ixjcoming dissatisfied with work on a daily paper, 
ho wiihdrew, and soon afterward was associated 
with ciiarles F. Uriggs in the management of the 
" Hroa<lway Journal," a newly f stablished weekly. 
His connection with this was marked by a series 
of harsh criticisms of the poet Longfellow, whom 
he accused of gross plagiarism. Poe afterward be- 
came solo editor of tne " Journal," and was endeav- 
oring to get it entirely under his control when 
financial troubles caused its suspension in Decem- 
ber, 1845. In Octoljer of that year he was invited 
to deliver an original poem before the Boston 
lyceum. and in resjK)nse read "Al Aarajif," one of 
his earliest efforts. There was much dissatisfaction, 
and Poe on his return to New York asserted in his 
"Journal" that his action had been intentional, 
and that he had thought that the poem " would 
answer suflficientlv well for an audience of tran- 
scendentalists." 'The incident was the cause of 
much unfavorable comment. At the close of this 
year Poe issued a new collection of his poems, 
"The Raven and other Poems" (New York, 1845). 
Early in 184G he removed to a cottage in Fordham, 
now a part of New York city. His chief work at 
this time was a series of papers in "Godey's Lady's 
Book ■' on " The Literati of New York." One of 
these, on Dr. Thomas Dunn English, provoked a 
reply of such a nature that Poe sued the " Mirror," 
in which it appejired, and recovered $225 and costs. 
For several weeks Ijefore this he had lx>en ill. His 
constitution had teen shattered by overwork, dis- 
appointment, and the use of stimulants, and before 
the end of the year the family was reduced to such 

()overtv that a public appeal was made in its be- 
mlf. On 30 Jan., 1847. Mrs. Poe died, but, after 
his life had been endangered, Poe partially re- 
covered before the following summer. He tried to 
revive his plan of a new magazine, this time to be 
called " Literary America," and to aid it lectured, 
on 3 Feb., 1848, in the New York society library 
on the "'Cosmogony of the Universe." a subject on 
which he had speculated during his recovery. The 
lecture was elaborated into " Eureka, a Prose 
Poem" (New York, 1848), which he considered his 
greatest work, but this judgment was not that of 
the public nor of his critics. Its physical and 
metaphysical speculations have little value, and its 
theology is a mixture of materialism and pantheism. 
Shortly after this Poe entered into a conditional 
engagement of marriage with Mrs. Sarah Helen 
Whitman, of Providence, R. I., but it was broken 
off. His health was still feeble, but he now pre- 
pared for a southeni trip, durine: which he lectured 
several times and canvassed for his proposed maga- 
zine. While he was in Richmond he offered mar- 
riage to a widow of whom he had been enamore*! in 
youth, and was accepted. Shortly afterward, prob- 
ably on 30 Sept., 1849, he set out for the north to 
make arrangements for the wedding. Of his move- 
ments after this nothing is known with certainty. 
On 3 Oct., the day of a municipal election, he was 
found unconscious in Baltimore in a liquor-saloon 
that had been used as a polling-place, and was 
removed to a hospital, where he died of delirium 
tremens. It has been reported that he had dined 
with some old military friends, became intoxicated. 



and in this state was fonnd by politicians, who 
drugged him and made him vote at several places. 

Poe's personal apfwarance was striking. He was 
erect, with a pale face, and an expression of melan- 
choly. His conversation is said to have been fas- 
cinating. His tales and poems, though the ability 
and power that they display are universally ac- 
knowledged, have been very differently estimated. 
The former have been praised for their artistic 
construction, their subtle analysis, and their vivid 
descriptions, and condemned for their morbid sub- 
jects and absence of moral feeling. The poems are 
admired for melody and for ingenious versification, 
and objected to because they appeal to the imagina- 
tion and not to the intellect. The author's theory 
of poetry, which he finally formulated in his lec- 
ture on " The Poetic Principle," was peculiar, inas- 
much as he contended that beauty was its sole 
object. He asserted that a " long poem is a con- 
tradiction in terms." Says his latest biographer : 
" In his prose tales he declares repeatedly that he 
meant not to tell a story, but to produce an effect. 
In poetry he aimed not to convey an idea, but to 
make an impression. He was not a philosopher nor 
a lover ; he never served truth nor knew passion ; 
he was a dreamer, and his life was, warp and woof, 
mood and sentiment, instead of act and thought." 

The first collection of Poe's works was that by 
Rufus W. Griswold, preceded by a memoir (3 vols., 
New York, 1850; 4 vols., 1856). There are also 
several British editions, of which two of the latest 
are those with memoirs by Richard Henry Stod- 
dard (London, 1873) and John H. Ingram (4 vols., 
Edinburgh, 1874). There is a later American edi- 
tion with the sketch by Ingram (4 vols., New York, 
187G) ; a " Diamond " "edition in one volume, with 
a sketch by William Fearing Gill (Boston, 1874); 
and a limited edition with the memoir by Stoddard 
(8 vols., New Y'ork, 1884). Several volumes of his 
tales have been translated into French by Charles 
Baudelaire and William Hughes. There have ap- 
peared also collections of his poems, with memoirs, 
respectively, by James Hannay (London, 1852) ; Ed- 
mund F. Blanchard (1857) ; and Charles F. Briggs 
(New York, 1858) ; and many illustrated editions 
of single poems, notably of " The Raven." The 
memoir by Griswold contains errors of fact, and is 
written in a hostile spirit. Its accusations have 
been replied to by Mrs. Sarah Helen Whitman in 
" Edgar A. Poe and his Critics " (New York, 1859) 
and by William Fearing Gill in his " Life of Edgar 
Allan Poe " (1877). There is also a life by Eugene 
L. Didier (1876), and various magazine articles, in- 
cluding one in " Scribner's Monthly " for October, 
1875, by Francis G. Fairfield, in which he attempts 
to show that Poe's peculiarities were due to epilepsy. 
The latest and most impartial biography is that by 
George E. Woodberry in the " American Men of 
Letters " series (Boston, 1885). 

On 17 Nov., 1875, a monument, erected by the 
school-teachers of Baltimore, was publicly dedicated 
to Poe's memory in that city. It is of Italian mar- 
ble in the form of a pedestal eight feet in height, 
and bears a medallion' of the poet. A memorial 
volume containing an account of the dedication 
ceremonies was issued by Sarah S. Rice and Will- 
iam Hand Browne (Baltimore, 1877). In May, 
1885, the actors of the United States erected in the 
Metropolitan museum, New York city, a memorial 
to Poe, at whose dedication an address was made 
bv Edwin Booth, and William Winter read a poem. 
Inhere has recently been discovered a large amount 
of manuscript material relating to Poe, including 
a life by Dr. Thomas HoUev Chi vers, "which may be 
published at some future time. 



POE 



POEY 



47 



POE, Orlando Mt'tcalfe, widier, b. in Navarre. 
Stark CO., Ohio, 7 Marcii, 18J<2. Ho was cnnluated 
at tho U.S. military m-adi'iny in IbfllJ, ana assijrneil 
to tlje topographical engineers. He U'canie 1st 
lieutenant in 18(K), and wa.s on lake survey duty 
till the iH'ginning of tho civil war, when he en- 
gaged in the organization of Ohio volunteers. He 
was chief to|Kjgraphical engineer of the Depart- 
ment of the Ohio from 18 May till 15 June, 1801, 
being engaged in reconnoissances in northeni Ken- 
tucky and western Virginia, participated- in the 
battle of Rich Mountain, on the statf of (ten. 
George B. McC'lellan. He became colonel of the 
2d Michigan volunteers in SeptemU'r, IHOl. was in 
comman<l of his regiment in the defences of Wash- 
ington, and took part in the princinal Iwttles of the 
Virginia jH'ninsuiar campaign, lie was appointed 
brigadier-general of volunteers, 29 Nov., 1802. was 
engaged at Fredericksburg, commanded a divis- 
ion of tiie JHh army corps from February to 
March. 1803. and Inicame captain of U. S. engi- 
neers in that month, and subsequently chief enj-i- 
neer of the 23d corps of the Army of the Ohio. 
He occupied a similar post in the army of Gen. 
William T. Sherman in the invasion of Georgia, 
the march to the sea, and through the Carolinas, 
until the surrender of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. 
He receivetl the brevet of major for gallant service 
at the siege of Knoxville on 6 July, 1804, that of 
lieuteruint-colonel for the capture of Atlanta on 
1 Sept., 18(J4, and that of colonel for Savannah on 
21 Dec. 1864. In March. 1865, he was brevet ted 
brigadier-general for " gallant and meritorious ser- 
vice in the campaign terminating in the surrender 
of the insurgent army under Gen. Joseph E. John- 
ston." He was engineer secretary of the U. S. 
light-house board in 1865-'70, commissicmed major 
in the latter year, constructed the light-house on 
Spectacle reef. Lake Huron, in 1870-'3, and be- 
came a member of the light-house lx)ard in 1874. 
He was aide-de-camp to Gen. William T. Sherman 
in 1873-'84, and at the same time was iji charge of 
the river and harlxir works from Lake Erie to 
Lake .Superior. In 1882 he was commissioned lieu- 
tenant-colonel of engineers. 

POEPPIG. Eduard (pup-pig), German natu- 
ralist, b. in Plauen, Saxony, 10 July. 1797; d. in 
Leipsic, 4 S«'pt., 18(58. He received his education 
in Leipsic, and, after obtaining a medical degree, 
was given by the rector of the university a botani- 
cal mission to North and South America. He re- 
turned to Germany toward the close of 1832 with 
valuable collections in zoology and botany, and 
was appointed in the following year professor of 
zoology in the University of Leipsic, which post he 
held till his death. He also contributed to the es- 
tablishment of a scientific museum in the latter 
city, and liequeathed to it his collections. He i)ub- 
lished " Ileise naeh Chili, Peru, und auf dem 
Amazonen-Flusse " (2 vols., Leipsic, 1835): "Nova 
genera ac Species plantarum quas in regno, Chi- 
fiensi, Peruviano, ac Terra Amazonica. anni 1827- 
18:« lectarunj " (3 vols., 1835-45) ; " Reise nach den 
Vereinigten Staaten " (1837): and " Landschaft- 
liche Ansichtcn und erlHuternde Darstellungen " 
(18^30). Poeppig also wrote most of the American 
articles for the " AUgeraeine Encyclopaedie," edited 
by Ersch and Grlll)er. 

POEY, FeHpc (|)o'-ay), Cuban naturalist, b. in 
Havana, 26 May, 1799. He is of French and Span- 
ish parentage. He made his preparatory studies in 
his native city, and concludeA them in the Univer- 
sity of Madrid, where he w»is graduated in law. 
Having a taste for natund history, he gradually 
abandoned his practice &s a lawyer, and began the 




study of mollusks, insects, and flshes. In 182A he 
sailed for Cul»a, and thence, with a collection of 
s|H?cimens, f«)r I'aris. There he aideil in found- 
ing, in 1827. tho "Soci^'t<5 entomologique," and 
contribute<l notes and drawings to the " Histoitu 
naturelle des jM»isson»." 
In 1833 he returned to 
Havana and devoted him- 
s4'lf to the study of natu- 
ral history, making draw- 
ings of specimens with 
his associate, Juan (iund- 
lach (q. v.), and discover- 
ing many new s|>ecies 
which are included in 
Pfeiffer's " Monographia 
Heliceorum Viventium." 
In 1842 P{)ey was appoint- 
ed professor of compjira- 
tive anatomy and zMngy 
in the University of ifii- 
vana, and from 1851 till 
1800 he published at in- 
tervals his " Historia Na- 
tural de la Isla de Cuba " 
(2 vols.. 1800). In 1863 he was appointed to the 
chair of botany, mineralogv. and geologv. and from 
1868 till 1875 he publislied in the ""ReiH-rtorio 
Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba." and reprinted in 
the *' Anales de la Sociedad de Historia Natural de 
Madrid," his great work under the title "Synoiwis 
Piscicum Cubensium," or "Catalogo razona<lo do 
los Peces Cubanos," an atlas of 10 volumes with 
more than 1,(XK) illustrations drawn by himself, and 
the description of alxiut 800 tropical American 
fishes. This work was purchased by the Sjianish 
government, placed in the *' Biblioteca de Ciencias 
Naturales"at Madrid, and exhibitetl by the gov- 
ernment in the exposition of Amsterdam in 188;J, 
receiving a gold medal and honomble mention. In 
1873 I\>ey was appointed professor of philosophy 
and belles-lettres, and he has held all his chairs in 
the university till the present time (1888), notwith- 
standing his advanced age. He is a member of 
almost every scientific soc-iety in Eurojie and 
America, anil many of his new specimens in life- 
size drawings are to be found in the U. S. national 
museum, the U. S. museum of comparative zoiilogy, 
and the Spanish museum of Madrid. His other 
works, besides the two mentioned above, are 
" Centurie des Ijcpidopteres de I'ile de Cuba " (Paris, 
1832); "Geografia Universal" (Havana, 1836); 
"Corona Poeyana " (1844) ; "Geografia de Culia" 
(19 editions); "Cartilla de (leografia" (1855); 
and "Cartilla de Mineralogia" (1878). He has 
contributed for more than sixty years many 
papers on natural history to the French. Spanish, 
and Culwin scientific press, and some of his paj>ers 
occur in the proceedings of the Academy of natu- 
ral science of Philadelphia, the annals of the New 
York lyceum, and other American scientific publi- 
cations. He also wrote poems, of which " hi Ar- 
royo" and "A Silvia" are best known. — His son, 
Andres, meteorologist, b. in Havana in 182(). was 
educated in his native city and in Paris. In 1848 
he began to contribute to scientific tmblications. 
especially on meteorology and natural philosophy. 
To his efforts was due the creation of a meteoro- 
logical observatory at Havana, and during the 
reign of Maximilian he was director of an estab- 
lishment of the same kind in Mexico. He has 
written much in Spanish, French, and English on 
scientific subjects. Among his writings are "Tra- 
tado de Meteorolocia," " Memoria sobre los hura- 
canes de las Antulas," and " Memoria sobre las 



48 



POHL 



POINSETT 



grranizmlas en Cuba " (Havana, 1860-2); "Cuban 
Antiquities." read before the American ethnolojfical 
society ; *' Tableau chronolofi:i(jiie ties treniblemonts 
do terre," "Travaux sur la mctwrologie et la phi- 
sique du globe," " Memoires t<ur Ics tenipetes elec- 
triques," and " I^e f>ositivisnie " (Paris, 1876). The 
last is an exposition of the principles of Auguste 
Comte's philosophical system, of which the author 
is an ardent follower. 

POHL, Johann Emannel, Austrian botanist, 
b. in Vienna, Austria, in 1784; d. there. 22 May, 
\8ii4. He was educated as a physician, and then 
devoted his attention to Ijotany. In 1817 he ac- 
companie<l the Archduchess Leopoldine to Brazil on 
the (K'casion of her marriage to Dom Pedro I., and 
then sfjent four years in exploring thiU country 
un<ier onlers from his government. On his return 
to Vienna he was appointed curator of the Brazil- 
ian museum. His works include "Tentamen florae 
Bohemica^" (2 vols.. Prague, 1814); " Kxpositio 
anatomica organi auditus per classes animalium " 
(Vienna, 181{>); •• Plantarum Brasilia? icones et 
desoriptiones " (2 vols., 1827-31); "Beitrilge zur 
(lebirgskunde Brasiliens" (1832); " Brasiliens vor- 
zQglichste Insekten " (1832) ; and " Reise ins innere 
Bnu^ilien " (1832). 

POIN DEXTER, Geoi^e, senator, b. in Louisa 
county. Va., in 1779; d. in Jackson, Miss., 5 Sept., 
1853. He was of Huguenot ancestry. He was left 
an orphan early in life, and became a lawyer in 
Milton. Va., but in 1802 removed to Mississippi 
territory, where he soon attained note, both at the 
bar and as a leader of the Jeffersonian party. In 
1803 he was appointed attorney-general of the ter- 
ritory, and in this capacity he conducted the prose- 
cution of Aaron Burr when the latter was arrested 
bvthe authorities in his first descent to New Orleans. 
llis violent denunciations of Federalists resulted in 
a challenge from Abijah Hunt, one of the largest 
merchants in the southwest, whom Poindexter 
killed in the duel that followed. Poindexter was 
accused by his enemies of firing before the word 
was given, and bitter and prolonged controvei'sies 
followed, but the charge was never substantiated. 
He l>ecame a memlier of the territorial legislature 
in 1805. and in 1807 was chosen delegate to con- 

gress, where he won reputation as an orator. Here 
e remained till 1813, when, notwithstanding the 
remonstrance of the majority of the territorial bar, 
he was appointed U. S. judge for the district of 
Mississippi. This office, contrary to gejieral expec- 
tation, he administered firmly and impartially, do- 
ing much to settle the controversies that had arisen 
from conflicting land grants, and to repress the 
criminal classes. He had assisted to prepare the 
people of the territory for the war of 1812, and 
when the British invaded Louisiana he joined 
Jackson and served as a volunteer aide at the bat- 
tle of New Orleans. During this service a soldier 
brought to him a pieceof paper bearing the British 
countersign " Beauty anil Bo<ity," which he had 
found on the field. Poindexter took it to Jackson, 
and it was the cause of much excitement through 
the country. The Federalists subsequently claimed 
that the paper had been forged by Poindexter. He 
was active m the Mississippi constitutional conven- 
tion of 1817, being chairman of the committee that 
was appointe<l to draft a constitution for the new 
state, and, on its admission to the Union in that 
year, was elected its first representative in congress, 
serving one term. Here, in 1819, he made his best- 
known speech, defending Gen. Jackson's conduct 
in the execution of Arbuthnot and Ambrister. and 
in the occupation of the Spanish ports in Florida 
(see Jackso.v), and it was largely due to his efforts 



that Jackson was not censured by congress. At 
the end of his term he was elected governor of 
Mississippi, notwithstanding attempts to show that 
he had been guilty of gro.ss cowardice at New 
Orleans. While he held this office the legislature 
authorized him to revise and amend the statutes, 
and the result was the code that was completed in 
1822 and published as " Revised Code of the Laws 
of Mississippi" (Natchez, 1824). In 1821 he re- 
sumed his practice at the bar, which he continued 
till his appointment to the U. S. senate in Novem- 
l)er, 1830. in place of Robert H. Adams, deceased. 
He was subsequently elected to fill out the term, 
and served till 1835. Here he gradually became 
estranged from Jackson, occupying, as he con- 
tended, a middle ground between Henry Clay and 
John C. Calhoun, but his views were practically 
those of the latter. He especially resisted the ap- 
fKiintment of the president's personal friends to 
office in Mississippi, and he also voted for Clay's 
resolution of censure. The breach widened, and 
Jjvckson finally suspected Poindexter of complicity 
in the attempt that was made on his life at the 
capitol. In 1835 he removed to Louisville, Ky., 
but was disappointed in his hopes of political pro- 
motion there, and, after being commissioned by 
President Tyler to investigate frauds in the New 
York custom-house, returned to Mississippi, where 
he affiliated with his old political friends. Poin- 
dexter had more than ordinary ability, but his 
career was marred by violent personal controver- 
sies and by dissipation, and he was embittered by 
domestic troubles and by the unpopularity that his 
opposition to Jackson aroused against him in Mis- 
sissippi. See a " Biographical Sketch " of him 
(Washington. 1835). 

POINSETT, Joel Roberts, statesman, b. in 
Charleston. S. C, 2 March, 1779; d. in Statesburg, 
S. C, 12 Dec, 1851. He was of Huguenot de- 
scent, and the last of his family. He was educated 
at Timothy Dwight's school in Greenfield, Conn., 
and in England, and 
then studied medicine 
at Edinburgh uni- 
versity, and military 
science at Woolwich 
academy. His father 
induced him to aban- 
don his intention of 
entering the army and 
become a student of 
law. but feeble health 
obliged him to go 
abroad again, and he 
travelled widely in 
Europe and Asia 
While he was in St. 
Petersburg the czar 
offered him a commis- 
sion in the Russian 

army. On his return to the United States in 1809 
he asked President Madison for military employ- 
ment, and the latter was about to make him quar- 
termaster-general of the army, but the secretary of 
war objected, and Mr. Poinsett was sent by the 
government to South America to inquire into the 
condition of the inhabitants of that continent and 
their prospects of success in their struggle with 
Spain for independence. While he was in Chili the 
Spanish authorities of Peru, hearing that war had 
begun between Spain and the United States, seized 
several American merchant vessels, and then, in- 
vading Chilian territory, captured others at Tal- 
cahuano. Poinsett put himself at th<* head of a con- 
siderable force that was placed at his disposal by the 




Cyy^. /^tk^i^^ 



POINTIS 



POLAND 



49 



Republican government of Chili, and, attacking the ' 
Spaniards, retook the ships. He was at V'alfiaraiso I 
during the fight between the "Kssex" and the 
"Phcebe" and "Cherub" (see Porter, David), and 
wished to return home at once to enter the army, 
but the British ttaval authorities refused to let him 
go by sea, and, after crossing the Andes in April 
and meeting with various delays, he rt^ached the 
United States after the declaration of iKnice. On 
his return he was electwi to the South Carolina 
legislaturt>, where he interested himself in projects 
of internal improvement, and secured the construc- 
tion of a road over the Saluda mountain. He was 
afterward chosen to congress as a Federalist, and 
servetl two terms in 1821-'5, advocating the cause 
of the South American republics and that of 
Greek indejKsndence. In 1832 he discharged an 
important special mission to Mexico during the 
reign of Iturbide, and in 1825 he returned to that 
country as U. S. minister. During his term of 
office, which lasted till 1829, he negotiated a treaty 
of commerce, and maintained his independence 
with spirit and courage in the midst of many revo- 
lutionary outbreaks. He was accused by the Church 
party of interfering against them, but justified his 
course in a pamphlet after his return. At the 
request of Freemasons in Mexico he sent for char- 
ters for their lodges to the Grand lodge of New 
York, and he was consequently accused of intro- 
ducing Masonry into the country. On his return 
to his native state he became the leader of the 
Union party there in the struggle against nullifi- 
cation, opposing it by his speecnes and in the pub- 
lic press, and has been cre<lited with the military 
organization of the supporters of the National gov- 
ernment in Charleston. He was authorized by 
President Jackson to obtain arms and ammunition 
from the government supplies in the harbor, and it 
was said by some that he had been secretly com- 
missioned a colonel. During Van Buren's admin- 
istration he held the portfolio of war in the cabi- 
net. In this office he improved the field-artillery 
of the army, and in 1840 strongly recommended 
that congress should aid the states in reorganiz- 
ing their militia. This was his last public office, and 
he afterward lived in retirement. He was an ear- 
nest opponent of the Mexican war. Poinsett was the 
author of various essays and orations on manufac- 
turing and agricultural topics, and of a discourse 
on the " Promotion of Science " (in 1841) at the 
first anniversary of the National institution, to 
which he gave a valuable museum. He took much 
interest in botany, and the " Poinsettia Pulcher- 
rina," a Mexican flower, which he introduced into 
this country, was named for him. He was also the 
founder of an academy of fine arts at Charleston, 
which existed for several years, and published 
" Notes on Mexico, made in 1822. with an Histori- 
cal Sketch of the Revolution " (Philadelphia, 1824). 
He left a mass of correspondence and otner papers, 
which remain unpublished. Columbia gave him 
the degree of LL. D. in 1825. A portrait of Poin- 
sett, bv John Wesley Jarvis, w^as presented to the 
citv of Charleston by William Courtcnav in 1887. 

POINTIS, Jean Bernard Louis Desjean 
(pwan-tee). Baron de, French naval officer, b. in 
Brittany in 1645 ; d. in Champigny, near Paris, 24 
April. 1707. He entered the navy when he was 
sixteen years old, and was promoted chef d'escadre 
in 1893. In 169() he presentetl a memoir to Louis 
XIV., in which he proposed an attack on Cartha- 
gena, and was nutliorized to form a company which 
should provide for the exj)enses of the ex|)edition 
in consideration of receiving half the profits. He i 
sailed from Bresr. 9 Jan., 1697, and was joined in | 



Santo Domingo by Ducasse, the governor of Tor- 
ttiga, at the head of 600 buccaneers. He arrived 
off Carthagena on 12 April, and, landing three 
miles from the city, summoned it to surrender; but 
the Spaniards refused, and the P'rench were driven 
back in several attacks. But, after the storming of 
the fort of B<K;aChica and several other im|K)rtant 
points of defence, the city capitulated on condition 
that the buccaneers shoulu not enter. Booty 
amounting to f 15,0(X),(XX) was secured by Pointis, 
who also im|K>sed U{K)n the city a ransom' of $600,- 
(XX). Duca8.se, b«>ing appouited governor, left the 
buccaneers in garrison at Boca Chica; but they 
learned that Pointis tried to keen them out of 
their share of the plunder, and, altnough Ducasse 
restrained them for some time, they finally entered 
Carthagena, ajid pillaged and burned for three 
days, committing all kinds of atrocities. After de- 
stroying the fortifications of the place, the F'rench 
re-embarked on 1 June, and, defeating two English 
fleets, anchored in Brest, 29 Aug., 1697. A medal 
was struck in commemoration of the expedition. 
Pointis afterward commanded a fleet, and besieged 
Gibraltar in 1704-'5, but retired from active service 
toward the close of the latter vear. He published 
" Relation de I'expedition de (^'arthagene faite par 
les Francois en 1697" (Amsterdam, 1698). The 
historian of the filibusters, Charlevoix, speaks with 

E raise of Pointis as a humane and just commander, 
ut he deplores his severity with the buccaneers, as 
it caused the latter to distrust France, which had 
often checked their tendency to commit useless 
cruelties, but was thenceforth unable to do so. 

POIRIER, Pascal, Canadian senator, b. in 
Shediae, New Brunswick, 14 Feb., 1852. He is of 
Acadian descent. He completed his course of 
studies at St. Joseph's college, Memramcook, 
studied law, and was admitted to the l>ar of Que- 
bec in 1876. In 1872 Mr. Poirier was appointed 
postmaster of the Dominion parliament, which 
post he held till his appointment to the senate, 9 
March, 1885. At an early age he contributed to 
the press, Iwth French and English, and he has pub- 
lished "L'Origine des Acadiens" (Montreal, 1874). 

P0I8S0N, Modest Jules Adolplie, Canadian 
author, b. in Gentilly. province of Quebec, 14 March, 
1849. He was educated at the Seminarv of Quel)ec, 
studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1873. 
Since thatv-earhe has been registrar of Arthabasca 
county. Pie is the author of " Chants Canadiens " 
(Quebec, 1880), and has frequently contributed to 
French Canadian periodicals. 

POLAND, John Scroggs, soldier, b. in Prince- 
ton, Ind., 14 Oct., 1836. He was graduated at the 
U. S. military academy in 1861, and appointed 1st 
lieutenant of the 2d infantry on 6 July. 1861. Sub- 
sequently he served with the Army of the Poto- 
mac, engaging in the battle of Bull Run, and with 
that army in the following campaigns, until after 
the battle of Gettysburg, when tie was on duty in 
the defences of Washington. Meanwhile he nad 
been promoted captain, and had received the bre- 
vets of major and lieutenant-colonel. In 18(55 he 
was assigned to the U. S, military academy, where 
he remained for four years as assistant professor of 
geography, history, ethics, and drawing. During 
the ten years that followed he served principally 
on frontier duty, becoming, on 15 Dec., 1880, major 
of the 18th infantry, and in 1881-'6, he was chief 
of the department of law at the U. .S. infantry and 
cavalry school in Leavenworth, Kansiis, where he 
was also in charge in 1881-'3 of the department of 
military drawing. On 1 March, 1886. tie was pro- 
moted lieutenant-colonel of the 21st infantry. Col. 
Poland has published "■ Digest of the Military Laws 



50 



POLAND 



POLK 




of the United States from 1861 to 1868" (Boston, 
1868) and "The Conventions of Geneva of 1864 
and 1H(>H, nnd St. Petersburg International Com- 
missitm " (Leavenworth. 1886). 

POLAND, Liike Potter, jtirist. b. in Westford, 
Vt.. 1 Nov.. 1815: d. in Waterville, Vt., 2 July, 
1887. He attended the common schools, was em- 
ploved in a country store and on a farm, taught 
at Morristown, Vt., studied law, and was mlmitted 
to the bar in 1*}6. He was a meinlxr of the State 
constitutional convention in 184;3. and prosecuting 
at tornev for the comity in 1844-'5. In 1848 he was 
soil eWMpla'te for lieutenant-governor, 
iio^^r he was elected a judge of the 
iino court. He was re-elected each 
Incoming chief justice in 1800, un- 
stinted in Novemlier, 1865, on the 
'oUamer, to serve out his unexpired 
S. senate. On its conclusion he en- 
of representatives, and served from 
_^^__ Whde in the senate he secured 

tlicTpassage of the bankrupt law, besides originat- 
ing a l)ill for the revision and consolidation of the 
statutes of the United States. As chairman of the 
committee on revision in the house, he superin- 
tended the execution of his scheme of codification. 
He was chairman of the committee to investigate 
the outmgcs of the Ki-Klux Klan, and of the in- 
vestigation committee on the Credit mobilier trans- 
actions; also of one on the reconstruction of the 
Arkansas state government. Several times, while 
st>rving on the committee on elections, he came into 
confliLt with other Republicans on questions re- 
garding the admission of Democratic members 
from the south. He was chairman of the Vermont 
delegation to the Republican national convention 
of 1876, and presented the name of William A. 
Wheeler for the vice-presidency, for which office he 
himself ha(l been brought forward as a candidate. 
Air. Poland was a representative in the state legis- 
lature in 187H. He was elected to congress again 
in 1882, and served from 1883 till 3 March, 1885. 

POLETTE, Antoine, Canadian jurist, b. in 
Pointe-aux-Trembles, Quebec, 25 Aug., 1807; d. in 
Three Rivers, 6 Jan., 1887. He studied law. be- 
cime an advocate in 1828, entered parliament in 
1848, and was appointed queen's counsel in 1854. 
He was made a commissioner for consolidating the 
laws in 1856, and in 1860 puisne judge of the su- 
preme court of Quetec, which post he held till he 
retired in 1880. He was a royal commissioner in 
the Canadian Pacific railway inquiry of 1873. 
POLHEMUS, Abraham, clergyman, b. in As- 
toria, Ijong Island, 
N. Y., in 1812; d. in 
Newburg, N. Y., in 
October. 1857. His an- 
cestor. Rev. Johannes 
T. Polhemus, a native 
of Holland, c;ime to 
this country in 1654. 
Abraham was gradu- 
ated at Rutgers in 
1831, and at New 
Brunswick theologi- 
cal seminary in 1835, 
and was pastor in 
Hopewell, N. Y., till 
1857. and in Newark, 
N. J., from May of 
that year till * his 
death. Mr. Polhemus 
was very popular in 
the community in which he lived, and was clear 
and logical as' a pulpit orator. He published an 




^!<^^i!p7^^^u>^ 



" Address before the Alumni of Rutgers College" 
(1852). A " Memorial," containing twelve of his 
sermons, the address at his installation in Newark, 
bv Dr. David H. Riddle, and his funeral discourse, 
bV Dr. John Forsyth, chaplain, U. S. A., was print- 
etl after his death. 

POLICiNAC. Camllle Armand Jules Marie 
(po-leen-vak). Count de, soldier, b. in France, 6 Feb., 
1832. rie is a descendant of the Duchess of Poli- 
gnac, a favorite of Marie Antoinette. At the begin- 
ning of the civil war he came to this country, offered 
his services to the Confederate government, and 
was made brigadier-general on 10 Jan., 1862, and 
attached to the Army of Tennessee. Subsequently 
he was given command of a division and commis- 
sioned major-general on 13 June, 1864. During the 
Franco-Prussian war of 1870-'l he served with his 
countrvmen, and he has since been engaged in 
journalism and in civil engineering. On several 
occasions he has been sent to Algiers in charge of 
surveying expeditions by the French government, 
and his work has received special recognition. 

POLK, James Knox, eleventh president of the 
United States, b. in Mecklenburg county, N. C, 3 
■Nov., 1795; d. in Nashville, Tenn., 15 June, 1849. 
He was a son of Samuel Polk, whose father, Eze- 
kiel, was a brother of Col. Thomas {q. v.\ grandson 
of Robert Polk, or Pollock, who was born in Ire- 
land and emigrated to the United States. His 
mother was Jane, daughter of James Knox, a resi- 
dent of Iredell county, N. C, and a captain in the 
war of the Revolution. His father, Samuel, a 
farmer, removed in the autumn of 1806 to the rich 
valley of Duck river, a tributary of the Tennessee, 
and made a new home in a section that was erected 
the following year into the county of Maury. Be- 
sides cultivating the tract of land he had pur- 
chased, Samuel at intervals followed the occupa- 
tion of a surveyor, acquired a fortune equal to his 
wants, and lived until 1827. His son James was 
brought up on the farm, and not only assisted in 
its management, but frequently accompanied his 
father in his surveying expeditions, duiing which 
they were often absent for weeks. He was in- 
clined to study, often busied himself with his fa- 
ther's mathematical calculations, and was fond of 
reading. He was sent to school, and had succeeded 
in mastering the English branches when ill health 
compelled his removal. He was then placed with a 
merchant, but having a strong dislike to commer- 
cial pursuits, he obtained permission to return home 
after a few weeks' trial, and in July, 1813. was given 
in charge of a private tutor. In 1815 he entered 
the sophomore class at the University of North 
Carolina, of which institution his cousin, William 
{q.v.\ was a trustee. As a student young Polk was 
correct, punctual, and industrious. At his gradua- 
tion in 1818 he was officially acknowledged to be 
the best scholar in both the classics and mathemat- 
ics, and delivered the Latin salutatory. In 1847 
the university conferred upon him the degree of 
LL. D. In 1819 he entered the law-office of Felix 
Grundy, who was then at the head of the Tennessee 
bar. While pursuing'his legal studies he attracted 
the attention of Andrew Jackson, who soon after- 
ward was appointed governor of the territory of 
Florida. An mtimacy was thus begun between the 
two men that in after-years greatlv influenced the 
course of at least one of them. In 1820 Mr. Polk 
was admitted to the bar. and established himself at 
Columbia, the county-seat of Maury county. Here 
he attained such immediate success as falls to the 
lot of few, his career at the bar only ending with 
his election to the governorship in kJ39. At times 
he practised alone, while at others he was associated 



/■;..;li*^ 




Qy,^^(^'tyux^^eyy ^CV- .J^c^--^i^ 



D APV'.KTOJi &C? 
\ 



POLK 



POLK 



61 



succewively with several of the leadinf^ practition- 
ers of the state. Anionjf the latter mav lie inen- 
tione<l Aaron V. Brown and (Jideon J. Pillow. 

Hrought up lus a Jeflfersonian, and early taking 
an interest in iKilitics, Mr. Polk w>us frequently 
heard in public as an exinment of the views of his 
partv. So popular was his style of oratory that his 
services soon came to be in great demand, and he 
was not lonjr in earning the title of the " Napoleon 
of the Stump." He wa.s. however, an argumenta- 
tive rather than a rhetorical sjwaker, and convinced 
his hearers by plainness of statement and aptness 
of illustration, ignoring the ad-cavtamliim effects 
usually resorted to in political harangues. His 
first juiblic employment was that of chief clerk to 
the Tennessee house of representatives, and in 182tJ 
he canvassed the district to secure his own election 
to that body. During his two years in the legisla- 
ture he was' regarded as one of its most promising 
memlwrs. His ability and shrewdness m debate, 
his business tju-t, combined with his firmness and 
industry, secured for him a high reputation. While 
a ineml)er of the general assembly he obtained the 
passage of a law to prevent the then common prac- 
tice of duelling, ami, although he resided in a com- 
munity where that mode of settling disputes was 
generally approvetl, he was never concerned in an 
•' affair of honor," either as principal or as second. 
In August. 1825, he was elected to congress from 
the Duck river district, in which he resided, by a 
flattering majority, and re-elected at every succeed- 
ing election until 1839, when he withdrew from the 
contest to liecome a candidate for governor. On 
taking his seat as a member of the 19th congress, 
he found himself, with one or two exceptions, the 
youngest member of that botly. The same habits 
of latorious application that had previously charac- 
terized him were now displayed on the floor of the 
house and in the committee-room. He was promi- 
nently connected with evety leading question, and 
U|)on all he struck what proved to be the key- 
note for the action of his party. During the whole 
period of President JacKson's administration he 
was one of its leading supporters, and at times, on 
certain Issues of paramount importance, its chief 
reliance. His maiden speech was made in defence 
of the proposed amendment to the constitution, 

fiving the choice of president and vice-president 
irectly to the people. It was distinguished bv 
clearness and force, copiousness of research, wealth 
of illustration, and cogency of argument, and at 
once placed its author in the front rank of con- 

fressional debaters. During the same session Mr. 
oik attracted attention by his vigorous opposi- 
tion to the appropriation for the Panama mission. 
President Aaains had appointed commissioners to 
attend a congress proposed to be held at Panama 
by delegates appointed by different Spanish-Ameri- 
can states, which, although they had virtually 
achieved their independence, were still at war with 
the mother-country. Mr. Polk, and those who 
thought with him, contended that such action on 
the part of this government would tend to involve 
us in a war with Spain, and establish an unfor- 
tunate precedent for the future. In Deceml)er, 
1827, he was placed on the committee on foreign 
affairs, and some time afterward was also ap- 
p(Mnte<l chairman of the select committee to which 
was referred that portion of the message of Presi- 
dent Adams calling the attention of congress to 
the probable accumulation of a surplus in the 
treasury after the anticipated extinguishment of 
the national debt. As the head of the latter com- 
mittee, he made a re|>ort denying the constitu- 
tional pyower of congress to collect from the people 



for distribution a surplus beyond the wantfl of the 
government, and maintaining that the revenue 
should Ui reduce<l to the requirements of the pub- 
lic service. F]arly in 18JW, as a member of the 
ways and means committee, he made a minority re- 
port unfavorable to the Hank of the United States, 
which aroused a storm of op(x)sition, a meetinf? of 
the friends of the l)ank being held at Nashville. 
During the entire contest lietween the bank and 
President Jackson, caused by the removal of the 
deposits in Octol)er, 1833, Mr. Polk, now chairman 
of the committee, supported the executive. His 
s|)eech in of)ening the debate summari/.(>d the 
material facts and arguments on the Democratic 
side of the question. George McDuflle, lemier of 
the opposition, bore testimony in his c<mcluding 
remarks to the boldness and manliness with which 
Mr. Polk had assumed the only position that could 
he judiciously taken. Mr. Polk was elected .speaker 
of the house of representatives in Deceml)er, 1835, 
and held that office till 1839. He gave to the ad- 
ministration of Martin Van liureii the same un- 
hesitating support he had accorded to that of 
President JacKson, and, though taking no part in 
the discussions, he approved of the leading meas- 
ures recommended by the former, including the 
cession of the public lands to the states, the pre- 
emption law, and the proposal to establish an in- 
dependent treasury, and exerted his influence to 
secure their adoption. He was the speaker during 
five sessions, ana it was his fortune to preside over 
the house at a period when partv feelings were 
excited to an unusual degree. Notwithstanding 
the fact that during the first session more apf)eals 
were taken from his decisions than were ever known 
before, he was uniformly sustained by the house, 
and frequently by leading members of the Whig 
party. Although he was opposed to the doctrines 
of the anti-slavery reformers, we have the testimony 
of their leader in the house, John Quincy Adams, 
to the effect that Speaker Polk uniformly extended 
to him "every kindness and courtesy imaginable." 
On leaving congress Mr. Polk became the candidate 
of the Democrats of Tennessee for governor. They 
had become disheartened bv a series of disasters 
and defeats caused primarily by the defection of 
John Bell and Judge Hugh L. White. Under 
these circumstances it was evident that no one but 
the strongest man in the party could enter the 
canvass with the slightest prospect of success, and 
it was doubtful whether even he could carry off 
the prize. On being asked, Mr. Polk at once cheer- 
fully consente<l to allow his name to be used. He 
was nominated in the autumn of 1838. but, owing 
to his congressional duties, was unable fairly to 
enter upon the canvass until the spring of i839. 
His opi)onent was Newton Cannon, also a Demo- 
crat, who then held the office. The contest was 
spirited, and Mr. Polk was elected by over 2.500 
majority. On 14 Oct. he took the oath of office. 
In his inaugural address he touched upon the rela- 
tions of the state and Federal governments, de- 
clared that the latter had no constitutional |)ower 
to incorporate a national bank, took strong ground 
against the creation of a surplus Federal revenue 
by taxation, asserted that "the agitation of the 
Abolitionists can bv no iwssibility pnKluce goofl to 
any portion of the iJnion, but must, if itersisttni in, 
lea[d to incalculable mischief," and discussed at 
length other topics, especially l)earing uyon the 
internal policy of Tennessee. In 1841 Mr. Polk 
was again a candidate for the governorship, al- 
though his defeat was a foregone conclusion in 
view of the political whirlwind that had swept over 
the country in 1840 and n-sulted in the election of 



52 



POLK 



POLK 



William Henry Harrison to the presidency. In 
Tennessee the Harrison electoral ticket had re- 
ceive<l more than 12.0()0 majority. Althouph to 
overconu' this was injpossible, Mr, Polk euteri'd 
njKjn the canvass with his usual energy and ear- 
nestness. Uv could not secure the defeat of .James 
C. Jones, the op|)osinjr Whij; candidate, one of the 
most popular meml)ers of his party in the state, 
hut he did succeed in cutting down the opposition 
majority to about 3,000. In 1848 Mr. Polk was 
once more a candidate : but this time Gov. Jones's 
majority was nearly 4,000. 

In 1K}» Mr. Polk hatl been nominated by the 
legislature of Tennessee as its candidate for vice- 
president on the ticket with Martin Van Buren, 
and other states hiul followed the example: but 
Richanl ^i. Johnson, of Kentucky, seemed to be 
the choice of the great IkxIv of the Democratic 
party, and he was accordingly nominated. From 
the (iate of Van Buren's defeat in 1840 until within 
a few weeks of the nieeting of the National Demo- 
cratic convention at Baltimore in 1844, public 
opinion in the party undoubtedly pointed to his 
renomination, but when in April of the latter year 
Presitlent Tyler concluded a treaty between the 
government of the United States and the republic 
of Texas, providing for the annexation of tne lat- 
ter to the Union, a new issue was introduced into 
American politics that was destined to change 
not only the platforms of parties, but the future 
history and topography of the country itself. On 
the question whether Texivs should be admitted, 
the greatest divergence of opinion among public 
men prevailed. The Whig party at the north on- 
iM>sed annexation, on the grounds that it would 
be an act of bml faith to Mexico, that it would in- 
volve the necessity of assuming the debt of the 
f'oung republic, amounting to ten or twelve rail- 
ions of dollars, and that it would further increase 
the area of slave territory. At the south the 
Whigs were divided, one section advocating the 
new policy, while the other concurred with their 
party friends at the north on the first two grounds 
of objection. The Democrats generally favored 
annexation, but a {wrtion of the party at the north, 
and a few of its members residing in the slave- 
states, opposed it. Mr. Van Buren and Mr. Clay 
agreed very nearly in their opinions, teing in favor 
of annexation if the American people desired it, 
provided that the consent of Mexico could be ob- 
tained, or at least that efforts should be made to 
obtain it. In this crisis Mr. Polk declared his 
views in no uncertain tones. It being understood 
that he would l)e a candidate for vice-president, a 
letter was addressed to him by a committee of the 
citizens of Cincinnati, asking for an expression of 
his sentiments on the subject. In his reply, dated 
22 April, 1844, he said : " I have no hesitation in 
declaring that I am in favor of the immediate re- 
annexation of Texas to the government and terri- 
tory of the United States. The proof is fair and 
satisfactory to my own mind that Texas once con- 
stituted a part of the territory of the United 
States, the title to which I regard to have been as 
indisputable as that to any portion of our territory." 
He also added that " the country west of the Sabine, 
and now calle<l Texas, was [in 1819] most unwisely 
cede<l away " ; that the people and government of 
the republic were most anxious for annexation, and 
that, if their prayer was rejected, there was danger 
that she might become "a dependency if not a 
colony of Great Britain." This letter, strongly in 
contra-st with the hesitating phnuses contained in 
that of ex- President Van Buren of 20 April on the 
same subject, elevated its author to the presi- 



dency. When the Baltimore convention met on 
27 May, it was found that, while Mr. Van Buren 
could not secure the necessary two-third vote, his 
friends nuinlx^red more than one third of the dele- 
gates present, and were thus in a position to dictate 
the name of the successful candidate. As it was 
also found that they were inflexibly opposed to 
Messrs. Cass, Johnson, Buchanan, and the others 
whose names had been presented, Mr. Polk was in- 
troduced as the candidate of conciliation, and 
nominated with alacrity and unanimity. George 
M. Dallas was nominated for vice-president. In 
his letter of acrceptance, Mr. Polk declared that, if 
elected, he should enter upon " the discharge of 
the high and solemn duties of the office with the 
settletf purpose of not being a candidate for re- 
election." After an exciting canvass, Mr. Polk was 
elected over his distinguished opponent, Henry 
Clay, by about 40.000 majority, on the popular 
vote, exclusive of that of South Carolina, whose 
electors were chosen by the legislature of the state ; 
while in the electoral college he received 175 votes 
to 105 that were cast for Mr. Clay. 

On 4 March, 1845, Mr. Polk was inau^i rated. 
In his inaugural address, after recounting the 
blessings conferred upon the nation by the Federal 
Union, he said : " To perpetuate them, it is our 
sacred duty to preserve it. Who shall assign limits 
to the achievements of free minds and free hands 
under the protection of this glorious Union t No 
treason to mankind, since the organization of so- 
ciety, would be equal in atrocity to that of him 
who would lift his hand to destroy it. He would 
overthrow the noblest structure of human wisdom 
which protects himself and his fellow-man. He 
would stop the progress of free government and 
involve his country either in anarchy or in despo- 
tism." In selecting his cabinet, the new president 
was singularly fortunate. It comprised several of 
the most distinguished* members of the Democratic 
party, and all sections of the Union were repre- 
sented. James Buchanan, fresh from his long ex- 
perience in the senate, was named secretary of state ; 
Kobert J. Walker, also an ex-senator and one of the 
best authorities on the national finances, was secre- 
tary of the treasury ; to William L. Marcy, ex- 
governor of New York, was confided the war port- 
folio ; literature was honored in the appointment 
of George Bancroft as secretary of the navy ; Cave 
Johnson, an honored son of Tennessee, was made 
postmaster-general ; and John Y. Mason, who had 
been a member of President Tyler's cabinet, was 
first attorney-general and afterward secretary of 
the n&vy. When congress met in the following 
December there was a Democratic majority in both 
branches. In his message the president condemned 
all anti-slavery agitation, recommended a sub- 
treasury and a tariff for revenue, and declared that 
the annexation of Texas was a matter that con- 
cerned only the latter and the United States, no 
foreign country having any right to interfere. 
Congress was also informed that the American 
army under Gen. Zachary Taylor had been ordered 
to occupy, and had occupied, the western bank of 
Nueces river, beyond which Texas had never 
hitherto exercised jurisdiction. On 29 Dec, Texas 
was admitted into the Union, and two days later 
an act was passed extending the United States 
revenue system over the doubtful territory beyond 
the Nueces. Even these measures did not elicit a 
declaration of war from the Mexican authorities, 
who still declared their willingness to negotiate 
concerning the disputed territory between the 
Nueces and the Rio Grande. These aegotiations, 
however, came to nothing, and the president, in 



POLK 



POLK 



08 



aceonlanoe with Gen. Taylor's sugjrestion, oniered 
a forwiinl moveinent, in olnHlienct' to which thnt 
onicfi' ii<lvHiic<>(i from his camp at Corpus Christ i 
toward thu Hio (initide, aiul occupietl the district 
in dolMitf. Thus brought fa<'e t«-fuce with Mexican 
troops, he was attticked early in May with O.tMX) 
men by (ten. Arista, who was liadly Iwaten at Palo 
Alto with less tiian half that numU>r. The next 
day Taylor attacke<l Arista at U4?saca de la Palnia, 
anil drove him across the Kio (Jrande. 

On n-ceijit of the news of these events in VV'ashinjj- 
ton. President Polk sent a messjij^e to coiijjress. in 
which he «leclared that Mexican tnjops hml at last 
shed the bloo<l of American citizens on American 
soil, and asked for a formal declaration of war. A 
bill was accordingly introduced and passed by 
both houses, recognizing the fact that hostilities 
had been tn^gun, and appropriating 1 10,000,000 for 
its i>ros»H'Ution. Its preamble read as follows: 
" Wnereas, by the act of tlie republic of Mexico, a 
state of war exists l)etween that government and the 
United States." The Whigs protested against this 
statement a» untrue, alleging that the president 
had provoked retaliatory action by ordering the 
army into Mexican territory, and Abraham Lincoln 
introduced in the house of representatives what be- 
came known as the " spot resolutions," calling upon 
the president to designate the spot of American 
territory whereon the outrage hatl been committed. 
Nevertheless, the Whigs voted for the bill and gen- 
erally supwrted the war until its conclusion. On 
8 Aug. a second message was received from the 
presiclent, asking for money with which to pur- 
chase territory from Mexico, that the dispute might 
be settknl by negotiation. A bill appropriating 
$2,000,000 for this purpose at once brought up the 
question of slavery extension into new territory, 
and David Wilmo't, of Pennsylvania, in behalf of 
many northern Democrats, otferetl an amendment 
applying to any newly acquired territory the pro- 
vision of the ordinance of 1781, to the efifect that 
"neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall 
ever exist in any part of said territory except for 
crime, whereof the party shall first be duly con- 
victed." The Whigs and northern Democrats 
united secured its passage, but it was sent to the 
senate too lat« to be acted upon. 

During the same session wtfr with England re- 
garding the Oregon question seemed imminent. 
By the treaties of 1803 with Prance, and of 1819 
with Spain, the United States had acquired the 
rights of those powers on the Pacific coast north 
of California. The northern boundary of the ceded 
territory was unsettled. The United States claimed 
that the line of 54° 40' north latitude was such 
boundary, while Great Britain maintained that it 
followed the Columbia river. By the convention 
of 1827 the disputed territory hacf been held joint- 
ly by both countries, the arrangement being ter- 
minable by either country on twelve months' no- 
tice. The Democratic convention of 1844 had de- 
manded the reoccupation of the whole of Oregon 
up to .54° 40', " with or without war with Eng- 
land," a demand ix>pularly summarized in the 
campaign rallying-cry of " F'ifty -four -forty or 
fight ! " The annexation of Texas having been ac- 
comj)lished, tlu^ Whigs now began to urge the 
Denxxrats to carry out their promise regarding 
Oregon, and, against the votes of the extreme 
soutrieni Democrats, the president was directed to 
give the requisito twelve months' notice. Further 
negotiations ensue<l. which resulted in the offer by 
Great Britain to yield her claim to the uncx'cupied 
territory Ixitween the 49th parallel and Columbia 
river, and acknowledge that parallel aa the north- 



em boundary. As the president ha<l sub«cril»ed to 
the platform of the Baltimore convention, he threw 
upon the senate the res|)onsibility of deciding 
whether the claim <»f the Unitetl Status t<» the 
whole of Oreg<»n should Ifc insisted ujx)n, or the 
compromise proposed by her majesty's govemnicnt 
accepted. 'Fne senate, by a vote of 41 to 14, de- 
cided in favor of the latter alternative, and on 15 
June, 184(5, the treaty was signed. 

Two other im[K)rtant (juestions were acted u[K>n 
at the first session of the UtilU congress, the tarifT 
and internal imj)rovements. The fornier hml lK?en 
a leading issue in the presidential contest of 1844. 
The act of 1842 ha<l violated the principles of 
the compromise bill of 18:^^, and the opinions of 
the two candidates for the presidency, on this 
issue, were supposed to Ix" well defined previous to 
the termination of their congressif)nal career. Mr. 
Polk was committed to the policy of a tariff for 




revenue, and Mr. Clay, when the compromise act 
was under discussion, had ple<lged the party favor- 
able to pn)tection to a reiluction of the im|)orts 
to a revenue standard. Previous to his nomina- 
tion, Mr. Clay made a speech at Raleigh, N. C.. in 
which he advocated discriminating duties for the 

f)rotection of domestic industry. This was fol- 
owed by his letter in September, 1844. in which 
he gave in his adhesion to the tariff of 1842. 
Probably alarmed at the prospect of losing votes 
at the south through his opposition to the annexa- 
tion of Texas, and seeing defeat certain unless he 
could rally to his support the people of the north, 
Mr. Clay made one concession after another, until 
he had virtually abandoned the ground he occu- 
pied in 1833, and made himself amenable to his 
own rebuke uttered at that time: "Whatman," 
he ha<i then asked, *' who is entitled to deserve the 
character of an American statesman, would stand 
up in his place in either house of congress and 
disturb the treaty of peace and amity f" Mr. 
Polk, on the other hann. had courted criticism by 
his Kane letter, dated 19 June, 1844, which was 
so ambiguously worded as to give ground for the 
charge that his position was identical with that 
held by Henry Clay. In his first .innual message, 
however, he explained his views with precision and 
ability. The principles that would govern his a«l- 
ministration were proclaime*! with great lx)ldness, 
and the objectionable featun^s of the tariff of 1842 
were investigated and exj>osed, while congress was 
urged to substitute ad valorem for s|)ecific and 
minimum duties. " The terms ' protection to 
American industrj'.' " he went on to say, " are of 
popular import, but they should apply under a 
^ust system to all the various brunches of industry' 
in our country. The farmer, or planter, who toils 
yearly in his fields, is engaged in 'domestic indus- 
try,' and is as much entitlwl to have his laljor 
'protected' as the nranufucturer, the man of com- 
merce, the navigator, or the mechanic, who are 



64 



POLK 



POLK 



Pngajjed also in * domestic industry ' in their dif- 
ferent piirsuitii. The joint lalxjiij of all these 
classes constitute the aggregate of the ' domestic 
industry' of the nation, and they are equally en- 
titled to the nation's ' protection.' Nooneof them 
can justly claim to be the exclusive recipients of 
• jimtection,' which can only Xh* aflfortled by increas- 
ing burdens on the 'domestic industry ' of others." 
In accordance with the president's views, a bill 
providing for a purely reveime tariff, and based on 
a plan prepare*! by Sec. Walker, was introduced in 
the house of representatives on 15 June. After an 
unusually able discussion, a vote was reached on H 
July, when the measure wasatlopted by 114 ayes to 
95 nays. liut it was nearly defeated in the senate, 
where the vote was tied, and only the decision of 
Vice-President Dallas in its favor saved the bill. 
The occasion was memorable, party spirit ran high, 
and a cmwdwl .senate-chamber hung on the lips of 
that official as he announced the reasons for his 
course. In conclusion he sjiid : " If by thus acting 
it be my misfortune to offend any pf)rtion of those 
who honored me with their suffrages, 1 have only 
to say to them, and to my whole country, that I 
prefer the dee|)est obscurity of private life, with an 
unwounded conscience, to the glare of official emi- 
nence spotteii by a s^>nse of moral delinquency !" 

Itt'ganlinK the (luestion of internal improve- 
ments, Mr. Polk's administration was signalized by 
the struggle Ijetween the advocates of that {>olicv 
and the executive. A large majority in both 
houses of congress, including members of both 
parties, were in favor of a lavish expenditure of 
the public money. On 24 July, 1846. the senate 
passed the bill known as the river-and-harbor im- 
provenient bill precisely as it had passed the house 
the previous March, but it was vetoed by the presi- 
dent in a message of unusual power. The au- 
thority of the general government to make internal 
improvements within the states was thoroughly 
examined, and reference was made to the corrup- 
tions of the system that expended money in par- 
ticular sections, leaving other parts of the country 
without government assistance. Undaunted by the 
opposition of the executive, the house of representa- 
tives, on 20 Feb., 1H47, passed, by a vote of 89 to 
72, a second bill making ap[)ropriatioiis amounting 
to $600,000 for the same j)Ui"pose. It was carried 
through the senate on the hist day of the second 
session. Although the president could have de- 
feated the objectionable measure by a " t)ocket veto," 
in spite of the denunciations with which he was 
assailed by the j)oliticians and the press, he again 
boldly met the f|uestion, and sent in a message 
that, for thoroughness of investigation, breadth of 
thought, clearness and cogency of argument, far 
excels any of the state papers to which he has put 
his name. 

The conflict Ijetween the friends and opponents 
of slavery was also a prominent feature of Presi- 
dent Polk's administration, and was being con- 
stantly waged on the floor of congress. During 
the second session of the 39th congress the house 
attached the Wilrnot proviso to a bill aj)propriat- 
ing $3.(X)0.000 for the purchase of territory from 
Mexico, as it ha<l l)een appended to one appro- 
priating $2,000,000 for the same purpose at the 
pi-evious session. The senate passed the bill with- 
out the amendment, and the house was compelled 
to concur. A bill to organize the territory of Ore- 
gon, with the proviso attached, passed by the latter 
IxKly.was not acted upon by the senate.' A motion 
made in the house of represenUitives by a southern 
meml)er to extend the Mis.souri compromise-line 
of 36' 30' to the Pacific was lost by a sectional 



vote, north against south, 81 to 104. A treaty 
of peace having been signed with Mexico, 2 Feb., 
1848, after a series of victories, a bill was passed 
by the senate during the first session of the SOih 
congress, establishing territorial governments in 
Oregon, New Mexico, and California, with a pro- 
vision that all questions concerning slavery in those 
territories sliould l)e referred to the U. S. supreme 
court for decision. It rec-eived the votes of the 
members from the slave-states, but was lost in 
the house. A bill was finally passed organizing 
the territory of Oregon without slavery. During 
the second session a bill to organize the territories 
of New Mexico and California with the Wilmot 
proviso was passed by the house, but the senate 
refused to consider it. Late in the session the 
latter body attached a bill permitting such organi- 
zation with slavery to the general appropriation 
bill as a " rider." but, as the house objected, was 
compelled to strike it off. In his message to con- 

fress approving the Oregon territorial bill Mr. 
oik said : " I have an abiding confidence that the 
sober reflection and sound patriotism of all the 
states will bring them to the conclusion that the 
dictate of wisdom is to follow the example of those 
who have gone before us, and settle this dangerous 
question on the Missouri comj)romiseorsome other 
e(|uitable compromise which would respect the 
rights of all, and prove satisfactory to the different 
portions of the Union." President Polk was not 
a slavery propagandist, and consequently had no 
pro-slavery policy. On the contrary, in the settle- 
ment of the Oregon question, he did all in his 
power to secure the exclusion of slavery from that 
territory, and, although the final vote was not 
taken until within a few days after his retirement, 
the battle was fought and the decision virtually 
reached during his administration. 

Mr. Polk, in a letter dated 19 May. 1848, reiterated 
his decision not to become a candidate again for 
the presidency, and retired at the close of his term 
of office to his home in Nashville with the inten- 
tion not to re-enter public life. His health, never 
robust, had been seriously impaired by the un- 
avoidable cares of office and his habit of devoting 
too much time and strength to the execution of 
details. Within a few weeks after his permanent 
return to Tennessee he fell a prey to a disease that 
would probably have only slightly affected a man 
in ordinary health, and a few hours sufficed to 
bring the attack to a fatal termination. Thus 
ended the life of one of whose public career it may 
still be too soon to judge with entire impartiality: 
Some of the questions on which he was called 
upon to act are still, nearly forty rears after his 
death, party issues. Mr. Polk evidently believed 
with Mr. Clay that a Union all slave or all free 
was an impossible Utopia, and that there was no 
good reason why the north and the south should 
not continue to live for many years to corneas they 
had lived since the adoption of the constitution. 
He deprecated agitation of the slavery question by 
the Abolitionists, and believed that the safety of 
the commonwealth lay in respecting the compro- 
mises that had hitherto lurnished a modus invendi 
between the slave and the free states. As to the 
annexation of Texas and the war with Mexico, his 
policy was undoubtedly the result of conviction, 
sincerity, and good faith. He believed, with John 
Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson, that Texas 
had been unwisely ceded to Spain in 1819, and that 
it wa.s desirable, from a geographical point of view, 
that it should be re-annexed, seeing that it formed 
a most valuable part of the valley of .the Missis- 
sippi. He was also of opinion that in' a military 



POLK 



POLK 



05 



[K)int of view its acquisition was desirable for the 
proteftion of New Orleans, the ^reat eoinincrcial 
mart of the southwestt^rn stK-tion of the Union, 
which in time of war would be endangered by the 
close proxiujity of a hostile {)ower having control 
of the upi)er waters of Ited river. Holding these 
views and having been elevated to the iiresidency 
on a platform that expressly deinHnde<I that they 
should l)e embodied in rnrtion, and Texas again 
made apart of the national donuiin, he would have 
indeed U>en recreant to his trust had he att(;mpted 
to carry out as president any policy antagonistic 
to that he had advocated when a canilidate for that 
office. The war in which he became involved in 
carrying out these views was a detail that the 
nation was com|X!lled to leave largely to his judg- 
ment. The president believed that the representa- 
tions and promises of the Mexican authorities 
could not l)e trusted, and that the only argument 
to which they would pay attention was that of 
force. Regarding his famous order to Uen. Taylor 
to march toward the Kio Grande, it was suggested 
by that officer himself, and for his gallant action 
in the war the latter was elected the successor of 
President Polk. TM settlement of the Oregon 
boundary-line was made equally obligatory upon 
the new president on taking office. He offered 
Great Britain the line that was finally accepted; 
but when the British minister hjvstily rejected the 
offer, the entire country applauded his suggestion 
to that jK>wer of what the boundary might pos- 
sibly be m case of war. 

But whatever the motives of the executive as to 
Texas and Oregon, the results of the administra- 
tion of .lames K. Polk were brilliant in the extreme. 
He was loyally upheld by the votes of all parties in 
congress, abundantly supplied with the sinews of 
war, and seconded by gallant and comjietent offi- 
cers in the field. For |15,000,(XX), in addition to 
the direct war expenses, the southwestern boundary 
of the country was carried to the Rio Grande, while 
the provinces of New Mexico and Upper California 
were added to the national domain. What that 
cession meant in increased wealth it is perhaps 
even yet too soon to compute. Among the less 
dazzling but still solid advantages conferred upon 
the nation during Mr. Polk's term of office was the 
adoption by congress, on his recommendation, of 
the public warehousing system that has since 
proved so valuable an aid to the commerce of the 
country ; the negotiation of the 35th article of the 
treaty with Grenada, ratified 10 June, 1848, which 
secured for our citizens the right of way across the 
Isthmus of Panama; the postal treaty of 15 Dec., 
1848, with Great Britain, and the negotiation of 
commercial treaties with the secondary states of 
the Germanic confederation by which reciprocal 
relations were established and growing markets 
reached upon favorable terras. 

Mr. Bancroft, the only surviving member of 
Polk's cabinet, who has revised this article, in a 
communication to the senior editor of the "Cyclo- 
pa>dia," dated Washington, 8 Marc;h, 1888, says: 
"One of the special qualities of Mr. Polk's mind 
was his clear perception of the character and doc- 
trines of the two great parties that then divided 
the country. Of all our public men — I say, dis- 
tinctly, of all — Polk was the most thoroughly con- 
sistent representative of his party. He had no 
equal. Time and Again his enemies sought for 
grounds on which to convict him of inconsistency, 
but so consistent liad been his public career that 
the charge was never even made. Never fanciful 
or extreme, he was ever solid, firm, and consistent. 
His administration, viewed from the standpoint of 



results, was perhaps the greatest in our national 
history, certandy one of the greatest. He succeetled 
Ix'causo ho insistinl on Iteing its centre, and in over- 
ruling and guiding all his secretaries to act so as 
to pr«Mluce unity and harmony. Those who study 
his administration will acknowledge how sincere 
and successful were his efforts, as did those who 
were contemjiorary with him." 

Mr. Polk, who wtis a patient student and a clear 
thinker, steadfast to opinions once formed, and not 
ea.sily moved by |>o|)ular o|>inion, laln^red faithfully, 
from his entrance into public life until the day when 
he left the White House, to di.sseminate the iK>litical 
opini(ms in which he had been educated, and which 
commended themselves to his judgment. His pri- 
vate life was upright and blameless. Simple in his 
habits to abstetniousness, he found his greatest 
happiness in the pleasures of the home circle rather 
than in the gay round of public annisemeiits. A 
fiank and sincere friend, courteous and affable in 
his demeanor with strangers, generous and benevo- 
lent, the esteem in which he was held as a man and 
a citizen was quite as high as his official reputation. 
In the words of his friend and associate in office, 
Vice-President Dallas, he was " temperate but not 
unsocial, industrious but accessible, punctual but 
patient, moral without austerity, and devotional 
though not bigoted." See " Eulogy on the Life and 
C'haracter of the Late James K. Polk," by George 
M. Dallas (Philadel|)liia, 1849) ; " Eulogy on the Life 
and Character of James Knox Polk,'' by A. 0. P. 
Nicholson (Nashville, 1849); "James Knox Polk," 
by John S. Jenkins (Buffalo, 1850) ; and "History 
of the Administration of James K. Polk," by Lu- 
cien B. Chase (New York, 1850). — His wife, Sarah 
Childress, b. near Murfreesl^oro, Rutherford to., 
Tenn., 4 Sent., 1803, is the daughter of J(k>I and 
Elizabeth Childress. Her father, a farmer in easy 
circumstances, sent 
her to the Moravian 
institute at Salem, 
N. C, where she 
was educated. On 
returning home she 
married Mr. Polk, 
who was then a 
member of t he legis- 
lature of Tennessee. 
The following year 
he was elected to 
congress, and dur- 
ing his fourteen ses- 
sions in Washing- 
ton Mrs. Polk's \'ti-J' 
courteous manners, 

sound judgment, / . n (^ jj 

and many attain- jBi/AA^cLy^ ^. ^/^-^%1- 
ments gave her a 

high place in society. On her return as the wife 
of the president, having no children, Mrs. Polk 
devoted herself entirely to her duties as mistress 
of the White House. She held weekly rweptions, 
and abolished the custonj of giving refreshments 
j to the guests. She also forbade dancing, as out of 
keeping with the character of these entei-tain- 
ments. In spite of her n'forms. Mrs. Polk was 
extremely popular. " Madam." said a prominent 
South Carolinian, at one of her receptions, "there 
is a woe pronounced against you in the Bible." On 
her inquiring his meaning, he added : "The Bible 
says, ' Woe unto vou when all men shall speak well 
of you.'" An English lady visiting Washington 
thus descril)e'l the president's wife: "Mrs. Polk 
is a very handsome woman. Her hair is very 
black, and her dark eyes and complexion remind 





66 



POLK 



POLK 



one of the Spanish donnas. She is well read, has 
much talent for conversation, and is highly popu- 
lar. Hor excellent tai*te in dress presi'rves the 
siilxhu'd thouK'h elegant costume that characterizes 
the lady." Mrs. I'olk Ix'came a communicant of 
the Pri'shyterian church in 1I<J4, and hits main- 
tained her connection with that denomination un- 
til the present tin>e (188«). Since the death of her 
inishand she ha-s resided at Nashville, in the house 
»Oi'u in the illustration and known as " Polk Phwe." 
In the foregniund is seen the tomh of her huslmnd. 
—President Polk's brother, William Hawkins. 
lawver, I), in Maury countv, Teun.. 24 May, 1H15; 
d. in Nashville, Tenn., 1«' Dec, 1H«2, was gnidu- 
ated at the University of Tennes.see, admitte<l to 
the \mr in IKJl), and Wean to practise at Colum- 
bia, Maurv co., Tenn. He was elected to the legis- 
lature in'lH41 and again in 184^1 In 1845 he 
wjis appointed minister to Naples, holding the 
office fn)ui V.i March of that year till 31 Aug.. 
1847. when he was commissioned major of the 3d 
dragoons, and sjiw service in Mexico. He resigned. 
20 July, 1848. He was a delegate to the Nashville 
convention of \H!W, and was chosen a member of 
the 32d congress as a Democrat, serving from 1 
Dee., 1851, till 3 March, 1853. Maj. Polk was a 
strong opponent of secession in 18G1. 

POLK, Thomas, patriot, b. alwut 1732; d. in 
Charlotte, N. C, in 1793. He was the great-grand- 
son of Robert Polk, or Pollock, who emigrated to 
this country from Ireland and settled in Maryland. 
Thomas's father, William, removed from Maryland 
to Pennsylvania, while the former, in 1753, left his 
parents, and, travelling through Maryland and Vir- 
ginia, made his home in Mecklenburg county, N. C. 
By enterprise and industry he acquired a large 
tract of land, which enabled him to keep his family 
in comfort. Personal qualities made Polk a lender 
in the S<'otch-Irish settlement in which he lived, 
and in 1769 he was chosen a member of the pro- 
vincial assembly, where he procured the passage of 
an act to establish Queen's college in the town of 
Charlotte. In 1771 he was again a member of the 
assembly, and thenceforward he took an active 
part in the movements that resulted in the Revolu- 
tion. At the date of the Mecklenburg convention 
in May, 1775, he was delegated to issue a call for 
the convention whenever, in his opinion, such ac- 
tion was necessary. After the resolutions had been 
adopted, Polk read them from the steps of the 
court-house to the people. He was subsequently a 
member of the committee that on 24 Aug., 1775, 
prepared a plan for securing the internal peace and 
safety of the provinces. A few months later he 
was appointed colonel of the second of two bat- 
talions of minute-men in the Salisbury district. 
Soon afterward the South Carolina Tories attacked 
Gen. Andrew Williamson and drove him into a 
.stockatle fort at Ninety-Six, but were defeated, 
with the assistance of 700 militia from North Caro- 
lina under Col. Polk and Col. Griffith-Rutherford. 
By the Provincial congress held at Halifax, N. C, 
4 April, 1776, Polk was made colonel of the 4th 
regiment, which formetl part of a force that under 
Brig. -Gen. Nash joined the army under W^ashing- 
ton. In November, 1779, the North Carolina 
troops were sent to re-enforce the southern army 
under Gen. Benjamin Lincoln at Charleston. Af- 
ter the fall of the latter city Gen. Horatio Gates 
offered Polk the double office of commissary-general 
for North Carolina and commissary of purchase 
for the army, which he accepted. His mities as 
comnus.sHry brought him into antagonism with 
Gates, on a question of supplying the militia with 
rations. Gen. Gates suggested that he be onlered 



to Salisbury to answer for his conduct. Polk of- 
tered his resignation, but it was not at first accepted. 
Afterward he ix'came district commissary. After 
the action at Cowan's Ford, Gen. Greene otfered the 
command of the militia of Salisbury district to Col. 
Polk, with the commission of brigadier-general, 
but, in spite of a j)ersonal request by Gen. Greene, 
the latter was not confirmed by the governor and 
council, and Col. Polk was superse<led in May, 
1781. After the Revolution he engaged in the 
purchase, from the disbanded soldiers, of land 
warrants that had been issued to them by the state 
for their services, and died possessed of "princely 
estates," which his sons inherited but did not im- 
prove. — His son, William, patriot, b. in Mecklen- 
burg county, N. C., 9 July, 1758; d. in Raleigh, N. C, 
4 Jan., 1834, entered Queen's college, CTiarlotte, 
N. C, where he remained until the beginning of 
the Revolutionary war. In April, 1775, while he 
was yet a student, he was appointed a 2d lieuten- 
ant and assigned to the 3d South Carolina regi- 
ment. His company and another were at once or- 
dered to South Carolina to keep the Tories in 
check, and Polk afterward commanded several ex- 
peditions. During one of these he made Col. 
Thomas Fletcher, a noted Tory leader, a prisoner, 
and subsequently, in attempting to capture a party 
of loyalists in December, 1775, he was severely 
wounded. On 26 Nov., 1776, he was elected ma^or 
of the 9th regiment of North Carolina troops, with 
which he joined the army under Washington. 
Maj. Polk was in the battles of the Brandywine 
and Germantown. Near the close of the latter ac- 
tion, October, 1777, he was again wounded. The 
following March, through the consolidation of the 
nine North Carolina regiments into four, Polk lost 
his command. Returning to the south, he was 
given a position on the staff of Gen. Richard 
Caswell, and was present at the battle of Camden. 
He next fought under Gen. William Davidson, and 
was sent as an envoy to Gov. Thomas Jefferson, of 
Virginia On his return he joined Gen. Andrew 
Pickens, was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 
4th South Carolina cavalry, attached to the com- 
mand of Gen. Thomas Sumter, and saw much 
active service, notably at the battle of Eutaw 
Springs. He remained on duty in that section 
until the end of the war. In 1783 Col. Polk was 
appointed by the legislature surveyor-general of 
the " middle district, now a part of I'ennessee. and 
took up his residence at French Lick fort, which 
occupied the site of the city of Nashville. He re- 
mained there until 1786, and was twice chosen a 
member of the house of commons from Davidson 
county. During this period all field operations by 
the surveyors were rendered impracticable by the 
hostile attitude of the Indians. The following 
year he was elected to the general a'^sembly from 
his native county, which he continued to represent 
until he became supervisor for the district of North 
Carolina. This office he retained for seventeen 
years, until the internal revenue laws were repealed. 
From 1811 till 1819 he served first as director and 
subsequently as president of the State bank of 
North Carolina, and then resigned in order to de- 
vote more of his time and personal attention to his 
lands in Tennessee, which comprised an area of 
100,000 acres. On 25 :\Iarch, 1812. he was ap- 
pointed by President Madison, with the consent of 
the senate, a brigadier-general in the regular army. 
This commission he declined on personal and politi- 
cal grounds, being a Federalist and not approving 
the policy of the administration. When Lafayette 
returned" to the United States in l«i24, Polk was 
named one of the commissioners to receive him in 



POLK 



POLK 



57 



behalf of his native sUto. Referring to William 
Polk's influenro on the rii^ine fortunes of the slate 
of Tennessee, it has Ix'oii saio thiit as "the personal 
friend and assofiale of Andrew Jackson he j;reatlv 
a«lvaiiL'tHl the interests and enhan(;e<l the wealth 
of the hero of New Orleans by furnishing him 
information, taken fn)m his ftefd notes as a sur- 
veyor, that enabled Jackson to secure valuable 
tracts of land in the state of Tennessee; that 
to Samuel P«)lk, father of the president, he gave 
the agi'iicy for renting and selling portions of his 
(William's) estate; and that, »is first president of 
the Bank of North Carolina, he miule Jacob John- 
son, the father of President Andrew Johnson, its 
first {Kirter : so that of the three native North Caro- 
linians who entereil the White House through the 
gate of Tennessee, all were indebted for benefac- 
tions and promotion to the same individual." At 
his death Col. Polk was the last surviving field- 
officer of the North Carolina line. — William's son, 
Leoiiidas, P. E. bishop, b. in Raleigh, N. C, 10 
April, 180G; d. on Pine mountain. Ga., 14 June, 
1864, was educated at the University of North Caro- 
lina, and at the 
U. S. military 
academy, where 
he was gradu- 
ated in 1827,and 
at once brevet- 
ted 2d lieuten- 
ant of artillery. 
Having, in the 
mean time, been 
induced bv Rev. 
(afterward Bish- 
op) Charles P. 
Mcllvaine, then 
chaplain at the 
acatiemy, to 
study for the 
ministry, he re- 
signed his com- 
mission the fol- 
lowing Decem- 
ber, was made 
deacon in the Protestant Episcopal church in 1830, 
and ordained priest in 1831. He served in the Mon- 
umental church. Richmond, Va., as assistant for a 
year, when, his health failing, he went to Europe 
to recujx'rate. Soon after his return he removed 
to Tennessee, and Ix'came rector of St. Peter's 
church. Columbia, in 1833. In 1834 he was clerical 
deputy to the general convention of the Episcopal 
church, and in 1835 a member of the standmg 
committee of the diocese. In 1838 he received the 
degree of S. T. D. from Columbia, and the same 
year he was elected and consecrated missionary 
bishop of Arkansas and the Indian territory south 
of 3(5'' 30'. with provisional charge of the dioceses 
of Alabama. Mississippi, and Louisiana, and the 
missions in the republic of Texas. These charges 
he held until 1841, when he resigned all of them 
with the exception of the diocese of Louisiana, of 
which he remained bishop until his death, intend- 
ing to resume his duties after he had been released 
from service in the field. In 1850 he initiated the 
movement to establish the University of the South, 
and until 1860 was engaged with Bishop Stephen 
FJUiott, and other southern bishops, in perfe<-ting 
plans that resulted in the opening of that institu- 
tion at Sewanee. Tenn. At the beginning of the 
civil war he was a strong sympathizer with the 
doctrine of secession. His birth, education, and 
associations were alike southern, and his property, 
which was very considerable in land and slaves. 




o^nC^ 



aided to identify him with the project of establish- 
ing a southern (^onfederiK-y. His familiarity with 
the vallev of the .Mississippi prompted him to urge 
u|»on Jefterson Ihivis and the Confe<lerateauthori- 
tie,s the impt)rtance of fortifying and hohling its 
strategical {x>ints, and amid the excitement of the 
time tne influence of his ohi military training be- 
came u|)[)ermost in his mind. Under these cir- 
cum.stances the ofTer of a major-generalship by 
Davis was regarde<l not unfavorably. He applieil 
for advice to Bishop William Mcwle. of Virginia, 
who replied that, his Ijcing an exceptional case, he 
could not advisi' against its acceptance. His first 
command extended from the mouth of Red river, 
on both sides of the Mississippi, to Paducah on the 
Ohio, his headquarters being at Memphis. Under 
his general direction the extensive works at New 
Madrid and Fort Pillow. Columbus, Ky.. Island No. 
10, Memphis, and other points, were constructed. 
On 4 Sept.. Gen. Polk transferre<l his headquarters 
to Columbus, where the Confederates had massed 
a large force of infantry, six field batteries, a siege- 
battery, three battalions of cavalrv, and three 
steamboats. Opposite this place, at belmont. Mo., 
on 7 Nov., 1861, the Iwittle of Belmont was fought. 
Gen. Polk being in command of the Confederate 
and Gen. Grant of the National troops. The Con- 
federates claimed a victory. Gen. Polk remained 
at Columbus until March, 1862, when he was or- 
dered to join Johnston's and Beauregard's army at 
Corinth, Miss. As commander of the 1st corps, he 
took part in the battle of Shiloh. Tenn.. and m the 
subsequent operations that ended with the evacua- 
tion of Corinth. In SepteniV)er and October he 
commanded the Army of Mississippi, and fought 
at the battle of Perryville, during the Confederate 
invasion of Kentucky. In the latter part of Octo- 
l)er and Novemlxjr he was in command of the 
armies of Kentucky and Mississippi and conducted 
the Confederate retreat from the former state. In 
October he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant- 
general, and commanded the right wing of the 
Army of Tennessee at the battle of Stone river. 
In the Chickamauga campaign, he also led the right 
wing. According to the official report of Gen. 
Braxton Bragg, it was only through Polk's disobe- 
dience of orders at Chickamauga that the National 
army was saved from annihilation. He was ac- 
cordingly relieved from his command, and ordered 
to Atlanta. Subsequently Jefferson Davis, with 
Gen. Bragg's approval, offered to reinstate him, 
but he declined. He was then appointed to take 
charge of the camp of Confederate prisoners that 
h«ul Deen paroled at Vicksburg and Port Hudson. 
In December, 1803, he was assigned to the Depart- 
ment of Alabama, Mississippi, and YmsX, Ijouisiana, 
in place of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, who was as- 
signeti to the Army of Tennessee. By skilful dis- 
positions of his troops he prevented the junction 
of the National cavalry column under Gen. William 
Sooy Smith with Gen, Sherman's army in southern 
Mississippi. Gen. Polk's prestige being restored, 
he was ordered to unite his command (the Army 
of Mississippi) with the army of Gen. Joseph K 
Johnston, who opposed the march of .Sherman to 
Atlanta. After taking part in the principal en- 

fagements that occurred pn>vious to the middle of 
une, he was killed by a caimon-shot while recon- 
noitring on Pine mountain, near Marietta, Ga. 
His biography is in course of preparation (1888) 
by his son, I)r. William M, Polk, of New York. 
— Ijeonidas's son, William Merklenbnrgr, physi- 
cian, b. in Ashwoo<l, Maury co., Tenn.. 15 Aug., 
1844. was graduated at Virginia military institute, 
Lexington, Va., 4 J»dy. 1804, and at theNew York 



58 



POLK 



POLLARD 



collejje of physiciHns and surjreons in 1809. lie 
entered the C'onfe<lerate army in April. 1861. as u 
cadet of the military institute, was commissioned 
1st lieutenant in Scott's lottery of artillery in 1802, 
and in 1803 was promoted assistant chief of artil- 
lery in his father's cor|)8. Army of the Tennessee. 
In March, 18tio, he was nuide captain and a«ljutant 
in the ins|)ector-generars department. After his 
graduation as a physician he practised in New Vork 
city, and froui ISo^i till 187J> he was professor of 
thera|)eutics and clinical medicine in liellevue col- 
lege. He then accepted the chair of obstetrics and 
the diseases of women in the medical dei)artmcnt 
of the University of the city of New York, which 
he still (1888) holds. He is als<i surgeon in the 
department of obstetrics in Bellevue hospital. Dr. 
Polk has contributed to medical literature "Origi- 
nal Obsi^rvations upon the Anatomy of the Female 
Pelvic Organs," " On the Gnivid and Non-Gravid 
Uterus," and "Original Observations upon the 
Causes and Pathology of the Pelvic Inflammations 
of Women." — Leonidas's brother, Thomas GH- 
Christ, lawver. b. in Mecklenburg countv, N. C, 
22 Feb.. 17!K): d. in Holly Springs, iMiss., in 18G9, 
was graduated at the Univeitsity of North Caro- 
lina in 1810, and at the law-school at Litchfield, 
Conn., in 1813. He soon after began to practise 
his profession, and for several years was a mem- 
ber of the lower branch of the North Carolina 
legislature. He was also at one time in command 
of the militia. In 18^39 he reinoved to Tennessee, 
where he purchased a large plantation. Being a 
stanch Whig in politics, he took an active part in 
the presidential campaign of 1844 in support of 
Ilenrv Clay, and against his relative, .Tames K. Polk. 
— William's grandson, Lucius Eugene, soldier, b. 
in Salisburv, N. C, 10 July, 1833, was the son of 
William J. t*olk. He was gratluated at the Uni- 
versity of Virginia in 1852. At the beginning of 
the civil war he entered the Confederate army as a 
private under Gen. Patrick 11. Cleburne, but was 
soon commis^^ioned 1st lieutenant, and as such 
fought at Shiloh. where he was wounded. He was 
rapidly promoted until he was made brigadier- 
general in December. 18G2, and joined his brigade 
in time to take part in the battle of Murfrecsboro, 
where his command made a charge, for which he 
was complimented by Gen. Braxton Bragg in his 
report of the engagement. Gen. Polk Wfus also 
present at Ringgold gap. Ga., in 18G3. and at 
many other actions. At Kenesaw mountain, Ga., 
in the summer of 18G4, he was severely wounded 
bv a cannon-ball and disabled for further service. 
He then retired to a {)lantation in Maury county, 
Tenn., where he has since resided. In 1884 he was 
a delegate to the National Democratic convention 
at Chicago, and he is at present (1888) a member of 
the senate of the state of Tennessee, having been 
elected on 1 Jan.. 1887. 

POLK, Trusten, senator, b. in Sussex countv, 
Del., 29 May, 1811 ; d. in St. Louis, Mo.. 16 April, 
1870. He was graduated at Yale in 1831, and then 
began the study of law in the olfice of the attorney- 

feneral of Delaware, but completed his course at 
'ale law-schof)l. In 1835 he removed to .St. Louis, 
Mo., and, establishing himself there in the practice 
of his profession, soon rose to a high place at the 
bar. He was a member of the State constitutional 
convention in 1845, and in 1848 a i)residential 
elector. He was elected governor of Missouri as a 
Democrat in 18.56, and soon after his accession to 
office was chosen U. S. senator, serving from 4 
Marcli, 1857, until his expulsion for disloyalty on 
10 Jan., 1802. McAnwliile he had joined the Con- 
federate government and tilled various offices of 



responsibility within its jurisdiction. In 1864 he 
was taken prisoner, and after his exchange held 
the office of military judge of the Department of 
Mississippi. At the close of the war lie returned 
to St. Louis, and there devoted himself to the prac- 
tice of his profession until his death. 

POLLAKI), Edward Albert, journalist, b. in 
Nelson county, Va., 27 Feb., 1828; u. in Lynch- 
burg, Va., 12 Dec, 1872. He was graduated at the 
University of Virginia in 1849, and studied law at 
William and Mary, but finished his course in Balti- 
more. Mr. Pollard then emigrated to California 
and took part in the wild life of that country as a 
journalist until 1855, after which he spent some time 
in northern Mexico and Nicaragua, and then re- 
turned to the eastern states. Subsequently he 
went to Europe, and also travelled in China' and 
Japan. During President Buchanan's adminis- 
tration he became clerk of the judiciary commit- 
tee in the house of representatives, and he was 
an open advocate of secession in 18(50. At the be- 
ginning of the civil war he was without political 
employment, and was studying for the Protestant 
Episco[)al niinistrv, having been admitted a candi- 
date for holy ordei-s by Bishop William Meade. 
From 1861 till 1807 he was principal editor of the 
" Richmond Examiner," and, while an earnest ad- 
vocate of the Confederate cause during the war, he 
was nevertheless a merciless critic of Jefferson 
Davis. Toward the close of the war he went to 
England in order to further the sale of his works, 
and was then captured, but, after a confinement of 
eight months at Fort Warren and Fortress Monroe, 
was released on parole. In 1807 he began the pub- 
lication in Richmond of "Southern Opinion," 
which he continued for two vears, and also in 1868 
established " The Political t'amphlet," which ran 
for a short time during the presidential canvass of 
that year. Mr. Pollard then made his residence in 
New York and Brooklyn for several years, often 
contributing to current literature. His books in- 
clude '' Black Diamonds Gathered in the Darkey 
Homes of the South " (New York, 1859) ; " Letters 
of the Southern Spy in Washington and Else- 
where" (Baltimore, 1*861); "Southern Historv of 
the War" (3 vols., Richmond, 1862-'4; 4th vol., 
New York, 1806) ; " Observations in the North : 
Eight Months in Prison and on Parole" (Rich- 
mond, 1805) ; " The Lost Cause : A New Southern 
History of the War of the Confederates" (New 
York, 1806 ; written also in French for Louisiana, 
1807); "Lee and his Lieutenants" (1807); "The 
Lost Cause Regained " (1808) ; " Life of Jeflersort 
Davis, with the Secret History of the Southern 
Confederacy " (1869) ; and " The Virginia Tourist " 
(Philadelphia, 1870).— His wife, Marie Antoinette 
Nathalie Graiiier-Dowell,b. in Norfolk, Va.. mar- 
ried James R. Dowell, from whom she separated 
during the civil war on account of political differ- 
ences. She then made her way. with great diffi- 
culty, through the lines of the armies, to her broth- 
er's residence in New Orleans, and later returned 
to Richmond, where she met Mr. Pollard, whom she 
married after the war. Subsequent to the death of 
Mr. Pollard, she became a public speaker, and in 
this capacity she canvassed California for the Demo- 
cratic presidential ticket in 1876. She has also 
lectured on the Irish and Chinese questions, advo- 
cating greater liberty to these people, and has been 
active in the temperance movement, holding the 
office of deputy grand worthy patriarch of the 
states of New York and New Jersey. Besides con- 
tributions to the newspapers, she has published oc- 
casional poems. — His brother, Henry Rives, edi- 
tor, b. in Nelson county, Va., 29 Aug., 1833 ; d. in 



POLLARD 



POLVEREL 



69 



Richmond, Va., 24 Nov., 1868, was educatwl at 
Virginia military institute, and at the University 
of Virjrinia. lijiter he publishetl a new|ia|)er in 
Ijeavenworth, Kansas, during the troubles in tliat 
territory, and thence went to Wasliin>fton, where 
he was employed in the post-olllee de|>artrncnt. 
At the bejrinninj; of the civU war he was news edi- 
tor of the ** IJaltimore Sun," hut remove<l to Kich- 
mond, where he iMK'anje one of the editors of the 
" Richmond Kxaminer." After the war he wasasw)- 
ciatwl in the founding of "The Uichmond Times," 
and for a time was one of its staff. In iHtJO he re- 
viveil the " Richmond Kxaminer," and control le<l 
its editorial columns until 18C7, when he disposed 
of his interest. He then established, with his 
brother, "Southern Opinion," of which he contin- 
ued until his death one of the editors and proprie- 
tors. Mr. Pollard was shot at and killed from an 
upper window on the op|>osite side of the street by 
James Grant, who felt himself aggrieved by an ar- 
ticle that WHS published in Pollani's pa|)er. 

POLLARD, Josephine,author, b. in New York 
city alK)ut 1840. She was educated in her native 
city, early devoted herself to literature, and ac- 
quiretl reputation as a ^ymn-writer, her best-known 
pnnluction being " Outside the date." Her prose 
writings include sketches that have l)een published 
in " Hari)er's Magazine" and other f)erio<Jic4ils. 
Miss Pollard has written "The Gipsv Books" (6 
vols.. New York, 1873-'4) and "A Piece of Silver" 
(1876). She has contributed the text to " Decora- 
tive Sisters" (New York, 1881); "Elfin Land" 
(1882) ; " Boston Teapartv " (1882) ; " Songs of Bird 
Life " (188")) ; " Vagrant Verses " (1886) ; and, with 
John n. Vincent, "The Home Book" (1887). 

POLLOCK, JaiiiCH, b. in Milton. Pa., 11 Sept., 
1810; d. in Lock Haven. Pa., 19 April, 1890. lie 
was graduated at Princeton, and, after studying 
law, was tulmitted to the bar in 1833, and or)ened 
an office in Milton. In 1835 he was chosen district 
attorney for his county, after which he held vari- 
ous minor offices. He was elected to congress as a 
Whig, and served from 23 April, 1844, to 3 March, 
1849. during which time he was an active member 
of several coitimittees. On 23 June, 1848, he in- 
troduced a resolution calling for the appointment 
of a special committee to inquire into the neces- 
sity and practicability of building a railroad to 
the Pacific coast. As chairman of that committee 
he made a report in favor of the construction of 
such a road. This was the first favorable official 
act on this subject on the part of congress. In 
1850 he was appointed president-judge of the 8th 
judicial district of Pennsylvania, and in 1854 he 
was elected governor of Pennsylvania as a Union- 
Republican. During his administration the whole 
line of the public works between Philadelphia and 
Pittsburg was transferred to the Pennsylvania 
railroad companv. By this and other means he 
reduced the state debt by nearly $10,000,000, and 
this s<K)n le<l to the removal of state taxation. He 
convened the legislature in extraordinary session 
during the financial crisis of 1857, and. acting on 
his wise suggestions, laws were enacted whereby 
public confitlence was restored and the community 
was saved from bankruptcy. On the exftiration of 
his term of office he resumed his law-practice in 
Milton. He was a delegate from his state to the 
Peace convention in Washington in 1H61, and after 
the inauguration of President Lincoln he was aj)- 
pointe<l director of the U. S. mint in Philadelphia, 
which place he then held until Octolwr, 1866. By 
his efforts, with the approval of Sjilnion P. Chase, 
then secretary of the treasury, the motto " In God 
we trust " was phRH*d on the National coins. In 



1869 he was reinst«t«Hl as director of the mint, 
which place he then filled for manv vears. In 1880 
he wa.H appointed naval officer of Pfiiitulelphia, but 
resigne<l in 1884, ancl resumed the practice of his 
profession. Gov. Pollock was very active in vari- 
ous movements (ending to promote educational 
and religious reforms. Ho received the honorary 
degree of LL, I), from Princeton in 1855, and from 
Jefferson college. Pa., in 1857. 

POLLOCK, OMver, merchant, b. in Ireland in 
1737; d. in Mississippi, 17 Dec, 1823. He came to 
this country with his father, and settled in Cum- 
Ix^rland county. Pa. He cngageil in business in 
1762 at Havana, Cuba, where he l>ecame intimate 
with Gov.-Gen. O'lieillv. and, when the latter was 
made governor of Ijouisiana by the king of Spain, 
Pollock moved to New Orleans. By a wise and 
generous action, during the scarcity of pn)vision3 
in that city, he gained a reputati(m that iiuide him 
able to be of great use to the Americans in New 
Orleans. When the Revolutionary war o|)ened, 
Pollock was in possession of large wealth and much 
political influence. In 1777 the secret committee 
of the Unite<l States appointed him "commercial 
agent of the United States at New Orleans." which 
post he held until the close of the war with great 
credit to himself and greater good to the United 
States. He became to the west what Rot)ert Mor- 
ris was to the east. His fortune was pledged to 
his country. To his financial aid the United States 
owes the success of Gen. George Rogers Clarke in 
the Illinois campaign of 1778. During that vear 
he Iwrrowed from the royal treasury, thmugh Oov. 
Galvey, $70,000, which he spent for Clarke's e\[)e- 
dition and the defence of the frontier. But the 
poverty of the United States involved him, as it 
did Morris, in severe losses. In 1783 he was ap- 
pointed U. S. agent at Havana, where lie was im- 
prisoned in 1784 for the debts of the United .States, 
amounting to $150,000. Being released on parole, 
he returned to this country in 1785. In 1791 con- 
gress discharged this debt, but failed to remunerate 
Pollock for his services. He retired to Cuml>erland 
county. Pa., in 1791, impoverished. In 1797, 1804, 
and 1806 he was nominate<l for congress; but, al- 
though he received the {xipular vote of his county, 
he was not elected. In 1800 he was an inmate of 
the debtors' prison in Philadelphia, but within a 
few years he accumulated pro|)erty again, and in 
1815 he moved to Mississippi, where he died. He 
was a member of the Friendly S^ms of St. Patrick 
and the Hiliernian society of Philadelphia, See a 
sketch of him bv Rev. Horace E. Havden (1883). 

POLVEREL,'^tIenne, French revolutionist, b. 
in Beam. France in 1742; d. in Paris, 6 April, 1795. 
He was a lawyer,and was sent as deputy to t he states- 
^jeneral in 1789. He belonged to the extreme party 
in the revolution, and was appointed public prose- 
cutor in 1791. In 1792 he was sent, with two other 
commissioners, to Santo Domingo to reorganize 
the colony. The three commissioners were invested 
with arbitrary power, and soon atlopted measures 
that led toa war of extermination lx»t we«Mi the whites 
and negroes. The French colonists that escaped 
from the island accused the commissioners of cruel 
and arbitrary acts, while they in turn accused the 
whites of conspiring to deliver Santo Domingo to 
the English. The jicquittal by the revolutionary 
tribunal of Gen. d'Estwrbes, whom they had sent 
to France as a criminal, created nu)re enemies, who 
accused them of being friends of the Girondists. 
An order for the arrest of Polverel was sent out 
in 1793, but, owing to the distance of the island 
and the difficulty of communications, he was not 
brought to Paris until after the fall of Robespierre. 



60 



POM BO 



Although he was set at liberty, the opposition of 
the colonists prevented him from obtftininp a bill 
of indemnity for his ac-titms in Sjinto Domingo. 

POM BO, Manuel de (pom -bo), Colombian 
patriot, b. in Po|)ayan in 1769: d. there in 1829. 
He studiwl in the 'College of Rosario, in Bogota, 
and was graduated there in law in 1790. In the 
next year he went to S|jain to practise, and in 1799 
he returned to ('olombia as judge of the tribunal 
of commerce of Carthagena. In 1807 he was a{)- 
pointe<l superintendent of the mint of Bogota, and 
when the revolution began in 1810 he was elected 
by the people on 20 June a member of the munici- 
pal cor{)oratio]i. He was an ardent natriot, de- 
fended his ideas in the press, and published in 1812 
his '• Carta & Jos^ Maria Blanco, satisfaciendo a los 
principios sobre que imnugna la indep-ndencia ab- 
solutade Venezuela," wnich liecame famous. After 
the arrival of (Jen. Pablo Morillo (</. r.) in 1815. 
Pomlx> was imprisoned, and, on account of his 
revolutionary writings, condemned to death by the 
militiirv tribunal. The influence of his wife, who 
l)elonged to a powerful family of Spain, saved his 
life, and he was sent as a prisoner to the peninsula. 
The constitutional revolution in 1820 liberated him, 
and in 1822 he returnetl to Colombia and w-as ap- 
pointed inspector of the mint in Popayan, in which 
em|)loy he died. Pombo was an excellent linguist 
and geographer. He wrote "Gramatica Latina" 
(Bogota, 182(5) ; " Compendio de Geografia " (1827) ; 
and an exhaustive " Historia de los paises, que for- 
maron el antiguo virevnato de Nueva Granada," 
the manuscript of which disappeared shortly after 
his death, and has not vet Ixjen recovered. 

POMEROY, Benjamin, clergyman, b. in Suf- 
field. Conn.. 19 Nov., 1704 ; d. in Hebron, Conn., 
22 Dec, 1784. He was graduated at the head of 
his class at Yale in 1733, and he and his classmate, 
Eleazer Wheelock, who l)ecame his brother-in-law, 
were the first to remain there after graduation 
as recipients of the scholarships that had l)een 
founded by Bishop Berkeley for superior attain- 
ments in the classics. In the meantime he studied 
theology, and in 1734 began to preach in Hebron, 
where he was ordained pastor on 16 Dec, 1735. He 
identified himself with the great revival of 1740, 
and labored earnestly to promote it. In June, 
1742, ho was accused before the general assembly 
of disorderly conduct, and with James Davenport 
(q. r.) was tried in Hartford ; but he was dismissed 
as "comparatively blameless." He was again called 
to answer charges of violating the law that had been 
passed to correct disorders in preaching, was found 
guilty, and compelled tobear tne costs of the prose- 
cution. About this time he preached in the parish 
of Colchester without the permission of the resi- 
dent minister, and was in consequence deprived of 
his salary for seven years. During the French 
and Indian war he was chaplain to the American 
army, and he filled a like omce during the Revo- 
lutionary war. He was active in the movement 
that led to the founding of Dartmouth college, 
becoming one of its first trustees, and in 1774 he 
received the degree of D. D. from that college. 

POMEROY, John Norton, lawyer, b. in 
Rochester, N. Y., 12 April, 1828 ; d. in" San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., 15 Feb., 1885. He was graduated at 
Hamilton college in 1847, and, after studying law, 
was admitted in 1851 to the bar. For several years 
thereafter he followed his profession in Rochester, 
but in 1864 he came to New York city and accepted 
the chair of law in the University of the city of 
New York, becoming dean of the legal faculty, and 
also for a time delivering lectures f)n political sci- 
ence. In 1869 he returned to Rochester and con- 



POMEROY 

tinued the practice of law until 1878, when he was 
called to the professorship of law in the University 
of California, which chair he held until his death. 
In 1865 he received the degree of LL. D. from 
Hamilton. Prof. Pomeroy was a frequent con- 
tributor to "The Nation,'' the "North American 
Review." and the "American Law Review" on 
topics connected with international law, general 
jurisprudence, and social science, and in 1884-'5 he 
edited the " West Coast Reporter." He prepared 
editions, with notes, of "Sedgwick's Statutory 
and Constitutional Law" (New York, 1874) and 
"Archlx)ld's Criminal Law" (1876). and was the 
author of "An Introduction to Municipal Law" 
(1865); "An Introduction to the Constitutional 
Law of the United States," which is used a.s a text- 
Ixjok at the U. S. military academy and other col- 
leges (Boston. 1868) ; " Remedies and Remedial 
Rights according to the Reformed American Pro- 
cedure " (Boston, 1876) ; " A Treatise on the Spe- 
cific Performance of Contract " (New York, 1879) ; 
" A Treatise on Equity Jurisprudence " (San Fran- 
cisco, 1883) ; and " A Treatise on Riparian Rights " 
(St. Paul. 1884). 

POMEROY, Marcns Mills, journalist, b. in 
Elmira, N. Y., 25 Dec, 1833. He early determined 
to be a printer, and subsequently turned his atten- 
tion to journalism, founding his first paper in Com- 
ing. N. v., in 1854. From 1857 till 1864 he resided 
in Wisconsin, and there published the " La Crosse 
Democrat." He removed to New York in 1868, 
and founded " Brick Poraeroy's Democrat," which 
gained a large circulation by its sensational char- 
acter. In 1875 he settled in Chicago, but later re- 
turned to New York, where, in 1887, he merged the 
" Democrat " into " Poraeroy's Advance Thought," 
which he now (1888) edits. He has published 
"Sense" (New York, 1868); "Nonsense" (1868); 
" Gold Dust " (1872) ; " Brick Dust " (1872) ; " Our 
Saturday Night " (1873) ; " Home Harmonies " 
(1874) : and " Perpetual Money " (1878). 

POMEROY, Samuel Clarke, senator, b. in 
Southampton, Mass., 3 Jan., 1816. He was edu- 
cated at Amherst, and then spent some time in 
New York. Subsequently he returned to South- 
ampton, and, besides holding various local offices, 
was a member of the Massachusetts legislature in 
1852-'3. He was active in organizing the New 
England emigrant aid company, of which he was 
financial agent. In 1854 he conducted a colony to 
Kansas, and located in Lawrence, making the first 
settlement for that territory. Afterward he re- 
moved to Atchison, where he was mayor in 1859. 
He was conspicuous in the organization of the ter- 
ritorial government, and participated in the Free- 
state convention that met in Lawrence in 1859. 
During the famine in Kansas in 1860-'l he was 
president of the relief committee. Mr. Pomeroy 
was a delegate to the National Republican conven- 
tions of 1856 and 1860. He was elected as a Re- 
publican to the U. S. senate in 1861, and re-elected 
in 1867. He was candidate for a third term in 
1873, but charges of bribery were suddenly pre- 
sented before the Kansas legislature, and in conse- 
quence he failed of election. A committee chosen 
by the legislature reported the matter to the U. S. 
senate, wnich investigated the case, and a majority 
report found the charges not sustained. The mat- 
ter then came before the courts of Kansas, and 
after some months' delay the district attorney en- 
tered a nolle prosequi, stating to the court that he 
had no evidence upon which he could secure con- 
viction. Mr. Pomeroy then made Washington his 
place of residence. He is the autho|- of numerous 
speeches and pQlitical pamphlets. 



-^ 



POMEROY 



PONCE DE LEON 



01 



POMEROY, Spth, soldier, b. in Northampton, 
Mass., 2() Mhv. 171MJ; d. in Peekskill. N. Y., 19 
Feb.. 1777. Ilo was an infjonious and skilful me- 
chanic, and followed the tra<le of a (gunsmith. 
Early in life he enterwl the military service of the 
colony, and in 1744 he held the rank of captain. 
At the canturo of Louisburg in 174r) he wa.s a 
mapor, and had charj^i of more than twenty 
smiths, who wen> enjfajjetl in drilling captured 
cannon. In 1755 he was lieutenant -colonel in 
Ephniim Williams's regiment. On the .latter's 
death he succeedwl to the command of the force 
that defeated the French and Indians under liuron 
Dieskau, and his rt>giment was the one that suf- 
fered most in gaining the victory of Lake George. 
Col. Pomen)v was an ardent patriot, and in 1774-'5 
served as a delegate to the Provincial congress, by 
which he was elected a general olFicer in October, 
1774. and brigadier-genenU in February, 1775. At 
the beginning of the Revolutionary war he pre- 
sented himself as a volunteer in the camp of Gen. 
Artemas Ward at Cambridge, Mass., from whom he 
borrowed a horse, on hearing the artillery at Bun- 
ker Hill, and, taking a musket, set oil at full 
speed for Charlestown. Reaching the Neck, and 
finding it enfiladed by a heavy fire from the " Glas- 
gow" ship-of-war, he began to be alarmed, not for 
his own safety, but for that of Gen. Ward's horse. 
Too honest to expose the borrowed steed to the 
'* pelting of this pitiless storm," and too bold to 
shrink from it, he deliveretl the horse to a sentry, 
shouldered his gun, and marched on foot across the 
Neck. On reaching the hill, he took a station at 
the rail-fence in the hott&st of the battle. He was 
soon recognized by the soldiers, and his name rang 
with shouts along the line. A few days later he 
received the ap|x>intment of senior brigadier-gen- 
eral among the eight that were named by congress, 
but as this action caused some difficulty in the ad- 
justment of rank, he declined it, and soon after- 
ward retired to his fann. During 1776, when New 
Jersey was overrun by the British, he headed a 
force of militia from his neighborhood, and marched 
to the rescue of Washington. He reached the 
Hudson river, but never returned. 

POMEROY, Theodore Medad, lawyer, b. in 
Cavuga, N. Y., 31 Dec, 1834. He was graduafe<i 
at "Hamilton in 1842, and then studied law. Set- 
tling in Auburn, he practised his profession in that 
city, and was in 1850-'6 district attorney for Ca- 
yuga county. In 1857 he was elected a m'enjber of 
the lower branch of the New York legislature. He 
was then sent to congress as a Republican, and 
served, with re-elections, from 4 March, 1801, till 
3 March, 1869. On the resignation of Schuyler 
Colfax from the speakership Mr. Pomeroy was 
elected on 3 March, 1869, to fill the vacancy. Sub- 
sequently he resumed the practice of his profession 
in Auburn, and engaged in banking business. 

POMROY, Rebecca Rossignol, nurse, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 16 July, 1817; d. in Newton. Mass., 
24 Jan., 1884 She was the daughter of Samuel 
Holliday, and on 12 Sept., 18Ji6, married Daniel F. 
Pomroy. Sickness in ner own family for nearly 
twenty years made her an accomplished nurse, and 
when her only surviving son enlisted in the National 
army she offered her services to Dorothea L. Dix 
{q. v.). She was at once called to Wiishington, and 
in September, 1861, assigned to duty in George- 
town Hospital, but was soon transferred to the hos- 
pital at Columbian university. J^jirly in 1862 she 
was called to the White House at the' time of the 
death of Willie Lincoln, and nurstnl "Tad." the 
youngest s<in, then very ill, and Mrs. Lincoln, un- 
til both were restored to health. President Lincoln 



said to her at that time : " Tell your ^grandchildren 
how indebte<l the nation was Ut you in holding up 
my hands in time of trouble." Mrs. Pomroy re- 
turne<l to the hospit-til and continue<l in her work, 
gaining a high reputation. In 1864. when the 
president's life was threatened and Mrs. Lincoln 
was suffering from injuries that she had received 
in a fall from her carriage, Mrs. Pomroy again went 
to the White House. Later in the year she spent 
some time at the West hospital in Baltimore, but 
ultimately returned to the hospital at Columbian 
university. Itefusing advantage<^us offers to go 
elsewhere, she remained at her pnist until the close 
of the war, and then, stricken with tynhoid fever, 
was an invalid for several years. She oecame ma- 
tron in 1867 of a reformatory home for girls at 
Newton Centre, Mass., and then of the Newton 
home for orphans and destitute girls, which, since 
her death, has become the Rebecca Pomroy home. 
See " F]choes from Hospital and White House," by 
Anna L. Boyden (Boston. 1884). 

PONCE 1)E LEON, Jaan (pon'-thay-day-lay'- 
one). Spanish officer, b. in San Servas. province of 
Campos, in 1460 ; d. in Cuba in July, 1521. He was 
descended from an ancient family oj Aragon, was in 
his youth page of the infante, afterward rerdinand 
VII.. and served with credit against the Moors of 
Granada. According to some authorities, he accom- 
panied Columbus in his second voyage to Hispaui- 
ola in 1493, but 
Washington Ir- 
ving and other 
modern histo- 
rians .say that 
he only sailed 
in 1503 with 
Nicolas de 

Ovando (q. v.), 
who was ap- 
pointed govern- 
or of that isl- 
and. He took 
an active part 
in the pacifica- 
tion of the 
country, and 
became govern- 
or of the east- 
em part, or pro- 
vince of Hi- 
guey, where the 
natives had fre- 
quent inter- 
course with 
those of the isl- 
and of Borin- 
quen (Porto Rico). Prom them he acquiretl infor- 
mation about that island, and hearing that it con- 
tained abundance of gold, he obtained |>ermission to 
conquer it. In 1508 he sailed with eighty Spanish 
adventurers and some auxiliary Indians, and in a 
few days he landed in Borinquen, where he was well 
received by the natives. The principal cacique, 
Aguainaba {q. c), accompanied him to all parts of 
the island, and Ponce collectetl many samples of 

fold, and was astonished at the fertility of the soil, 
n 1509 he returne<l to Hispaniola to re|)ort, and in 
quest of re-enforceraents, but the new 'governor, 
Diego Columbus, gave the command of the expedi- 
tion to Diego Ceron, and sent Ponce as his lieuten- 
ant The latter, through his protector. Ovando, in 
the court of Spain, claimed the appointment of 

fovemor of Borinouen. and in 1510 ne obtained it. 
le sent Ceron to Hispaniola. began the construc- 
tion of the first city, calling it Caparra, and sent his 




62 



POND 



POND 



lieutenant, Cristoval de Sotomayor. to found an- 
other citv in the southwest near the Bay of Guanica. 
Soon he"befran to distribute the Indians amonpr his 
odlccrs, iLs had been done in Ilispaniola, and Ajju- 
ainalMi's brother and successor, of the same name, 
l)epan a war of extermination against the invaders. 
He wius defeated in successive encounters, and the 
natives calle«l the Caribs of the lesser Antilles to 
their help, but Ponce conquered the whole island. 
In the Iwginning of 1513 Ponce was deprived of 
his government, and, broken in health by wounds, 
resolved to go in search of the fountain of eternal 
youth, which, according to the reports of the na- 
tives, existed in an island called Bimini. Ilegath- 
ere<l manv of his former followers and other adven- 
turers, sailed on 3 March, 1512, with three caravels 
from the port of San German, and visited several 
of the Bahama islands, but was told that the land 
in ouestion lay farther west. On 27 March he 
landed in latitude 80° N., a little to the north of 
the present city of St. Augustine, on a coast which, 
on account of the abundant vegetation, he called 
Florida island. He sailed along the coast to a 
cape, which he called C'orrientes, but. disappointed 
in his search for the fountain of youth, returned to 
Porto Rico on 5 Oct. and sailed for Spain, where 
he obtained for himself and his successors the title 
of adelantado of Bimini and Florida. In 1515 he 
returned with three camvels from Seville and 
touched at Porto Rico, where, finding that the 
Caribs had nearly overpowered the Spanish garri- 
son, ho remained to expel them, and founded in the 
south of the island the city of Ponce. In March, 
1521, he made a second attempt to conquer Florida, 
and. sailing with two ships from San German, 
reached a point alwut fifty miles to the south of his 
former iiinding-nlace. He began to explore the in- 
terior, but found a warlike people, and, after many 
encounters with the natives, was obliged to re-em- 
bark, with the loss of nearly all his followers. Not 
desiring to return after his defeat to Porto Rico, he 
retired to the island of Cuba, where he died shortly 
afterward, in consequence of a wound from a poi- 
soned arrow. His remains weresuVjsequently trans- 
ported to the city of San Juan de Porto Rico, and 
rest in the church of San Jose. A monument has 
been erected to his memory recently in that city. 
His autograph, which it is believed has never be- 
fore appeared in America, was obtained from Spain 
through tlie courtesy of Gen. Meredith Read. 

POND, Enoch, clergyman, b. in Wrentham, 
Norfolk CO., Mass., 29 July, 1791 ; d. in Bangor, 
Me., 21 Jan., 1882. He was graduated at Brown in 
1813, studied theology with Dr. Nathaniel Emmons, 
was licensed to preach in June, 1814, and ordained 
pastor of the Congregational church in Ward (now 
Auburn). Mass., 1 March, 1815. There he remained 
until 1828, when he was dismissed at his own re- 

Juest, to become the editor of " The Spirit of the 
ilgrims," a monthly publication that had just 
been established at Boston in the interest of ortho- 
dox Congregationalism. After editing five volumes, 
he became, in September, 1882, professor of syste- 
matic theology in the seminary at Bangor, Me. In 
185(5 he resiifued to become president, professor of 
ecclesiastical history, and lecturer on pastoral 
duties in the same" institution. In 1870 he was 
made emeritus professor, retaining the presidency. 
In 18J15 he received the degree of I). D. from Dart- 
mouth college. Dr. Pond's first publication was a 
review of a sermon against " Conference Meetings," 
issued by Dr. Aaron Bancroft, of Worcester, Mass. 
(1818), which led to a reply and rejoinder. The 
same year he reviewed " Judson on Baptism." He 
published a volume of "Monthly Concert Lec- 



tures" (1824); a "Memoir of President Samnel 
Davies " (1829); "Memoir of Susanna Anthony" 
(1830): "Murray's Grammar Improved" (Wor- 
cester, 1882): "Memoir of Count Zinzendorf" 
(18:i9); "Wickliffe and his Times" (Philadelphia, 
1841); "Morning of the Reformation" (1842); 
" No Fellowship with Romanism " and " Review of 
Second Advent Publications "(1843); "The Mather 
Family" 1844); "Young Pastor's Guide" (Port- 
land, 1844): "The World's Salvation" (1845); 
" Pope and Pagan " (1846) ; " Probation " ; " Sweden- 
borgianism Reviewed" (1846; new ed., entitled 
" Swedenborgianism Examined," New York, 1861) ; 
" Plato, His Life, Works, Opinions, and Influence" 
(1846) ; " Life of Increase Mather and Sir William 
Phipps" (1847); "The Church" (1848; 2d ed.. 
1860); "Review of Bushnell's 'God in Christ'" 
(1849); "The Ancient Church" (1851); "Memoir 
of John Knox " (1856); " The Wreck and the Res- 
cue, a Memoir of Rev. Harrison Fairfield " (1858) ; 
" Prize Essay on Congregationalism " (1867) : and 
"Sketches of the Theological History of New Eng- 
land " (1880). His college lectures have been nrint- 
cd under the titles " Pastoral Theology "(Anaover, 
1860); "Christian Theology " (Boston, 1868); and 
" History of God's Church '' (1871). He edited John 
Norton's " Life of John Cotton " (Boston, 1832). 

POND, Frederick Eugene, author, b. in Pack- 
waukee, Marquette co., Wis., 8 April, 1856. He 
received a common-school education, and early 
turned his attention to sporting matters. He wan 
among the first to urge the organization of a Na- 
tional sportsman's association, and in 1874 was the 
prime mover in forming the Wisconsin sportsman's 
association for the protection of fish and game 
From 1881 till 1886 he was field-editor of the New 
York " Turf, Field, and Farm," with the exception 
of six months in 1888, when he was associate editor 
of the "American Field," of Chicago, 111., and he 
is now (1888) editor of " Wildwood's Magazine " in 
the latter city. On 31 Jan., 1882, he nearly lost his 
life in the fire that destroyed the "World" build- 
ing in New York city, tinder the pen-name of 
" Will Wildwood " he has published " Handlxwk 
for Y^oung Sportsmen" (Milwaukee, 1876): "Me- 
moirs of Eminent Sportsmen " (New York, 1878) ; 
and " The Gun Trial and Field Trial Records of 
America" (1885). He has edited Frank Forester's 
" Fugitive Sporting Sketches " (Milwaukee, 1879); 
the same author's " Sporting Scenes and Charac- 
ters" (Philadelphia, 1880); and Isaac McLellan's 
"Poems of the Rod and Gun" (New York. 1886). 
He has also written an introduction to " Frank 
Forester's Poems," edited by Morgan Herbert (1887). 

POND, Oeor^e Edward, journalist, b. in Bos- 
ton, Mass., 11 March, 1837. He was graduated at 
Harvard in 1858, and served in the National army 
in 1862-'3. From early in 1864 till 1868, and sub- 
sequently, he was associate editor of the New York 
" Army and Navy Journal." He was afterward an 
editorial writer on the New York "Times," and 
edited the Philadelphia " Record " from 1870 till 
1877. Since the latter date he has been engaged 
in writing for the press. For nearly ten years he 
wrote the " Driftwood " essays, which were pub- 
lished in the " Galaxy " magazine under the signa- 
ture of "Philip Quilibet." They were begun in 
May, 1868. He contributed the account of the en- 
gagement between the " Monitor " and the " Merri- 
mac" to William Swinton's "Twelve Decisive 
Battles," and also wrote " The Shenandoah Valley 
in 1864" (New York, 1883) in the series of " Cam- 
paigns of the Civil War." 

POND, Hamnel William, mi^ionarv, b. in 
Washington, Litchfield co., Conn.. 10 April, 1808. 



POND 



PONTGRAVfi 



68 



H«» rt»ocivpd a common-school pclucation, and in 
1831 Ixvamoa profossinp Christian. In May. 1834, 
in advanco of all other ortraniz*Ml effort on the part 
of the churfhes. and having no connection with 
any wK'iety, he and his hn>ther, Oidkox IIoi.mster 
(b.'in June, 1810; d. in .January, 1878), entered the 
Dakota country, now the state of Minnesota, and 
l)cpin to laljor as missionaries to the Indians of 
that tril)e and the pirrison at Fort Snellinjr. Re- 
turning to Connecticut, Sjimuel was ordained a 
minister of the Conjrrefrational church, 7 March. 
18;}?. and the following OcIoIkt became connected 
with the American lK)ard. Ho was subsequently 
stationed in Minnes<4a at Lake Harriet. Fort Knell- 
ing, Oak (trove, and Prarieville. Inking relejised from 
the service of the board in September, 1854. He 
has since held pastorates in various parts of the 
same state, where he still (1888) resides. The Pond 
brothers were the first to reduce the Dakota lan- 
guage to writing. They also collated the majority 
of the words contained in the Dakota dictionary 
by Kev. Stephen R. Riggs (o. v.). They had pre- 
viously studuHl Hebrew. OreeK, Ijatin, French, and 
German. He has published, in connection with his 
brother. "The History of .Joseph in the Language 
of the Dakota, or Sioux. Indians, from Genesis" 
(Cincinnati. 18Ji9); "Wowapi Inonpa, the Second 
Dakota Reading Book " (Boston, 1842) ; and other 
translations into the same language. He is also the 
author of " Indian Warfare in Minnesota" in the 
" Collections " of the historical society of that state. 

POND, William Adams, music-publisher, b. in 
Albany, N. Y., G Oct., 1824 ; d. in New York city, 
12 Aug., 1885. He was educated in private schools 
in New York city, and at an early age entered his 
father's music business. He became well known as 
a publisher, and at the time of his death was presi- 
dent of the United States music publishers' asso- 
ciation. Col. Pond performed some military ser- 
vice as an oflicer during the civil war, and was 
for many years colonel of the veteran corps of the 
7th New York regiment. 

PONS, Frainjois Raymond Joseph de, Fi-ench 
traveller, b. in Souston, Santo Domingo, in 1751 ; 
d. in Paris about 1812. He studietl in Paris, be- 
came a lawyer, and was electetl member of the 
Academic society of sciences. He went to Caracas, 
in South America, where he acted as agent of the 
French government till the revolution, and then to 
England, where he spent several years in preparing 
his works for publication. He appears to have 
paid a second visit to America during this time, 
lie returned to France in 1804, and. although he 
was not employed by the imperial government, his 
advice was constantly sought in matters relating 
to the colonial possessions of Fmnce. He wrote 
" Ijcs colonies f ranijaises " ; "Observations sur la 
situation politique de St. Domingue"(1702); " Voy- 
age k la partie orientale de la terre ferine, daiis 
r.\m^rique meridionale, fait pendant les annees 
18()1, 1803. 1804 " (1806) ; and "Perspective des rap- 
ixirts politifiues et comnierciaux de la France dans 
les deux In«ies. sous la dvnastie regnante" (1807). 

PONTBRIAND, Hchrv Mary Da Broil de 
(pom-bre-ong). Canadian bishop, b. in Vannes, 
France, in 17()!»: d. in Montreal. Canada, in 1700. 
He was consecrated bishop of C^iU'l)ec in Paris in 
1741, and arrived in Canada the same year, with 
several priests. After entering QucIhh?, he found 
himself engaged in a lawsuit with the nuns of 
the general hospital, who claimed the episcopal 
palace as |iart of the legm-y that Saint- Valicr, sec- 
ond bishop of Quel)ec, had left them. He ob- 
tained a royal de<^ree confirming the possession of 
the palace to the bishops of (Quebec, which was 



followed by another prohibiting religious congre- 
gations from holding huuls in mortmain, and in 
1744 by a letter fn)m the minister. .Maurejuus. en- 
joining him U) suppH'ss a |N>rtion of the holiday." 
ol)served by the Canadian iH-ople; but he paid no 
attention to either. After tlie captun* of Queltec l>v 
the P^nglish in 1759. he regulatwl the aflfairs of his 
church as far a.s possible, appointed a vicar-general, 
recommended his clergy to submit to the new order 
of things and observe the terms of the capitulation, 
and then retired to Montreal. He was not able to 
survive the grief which the captun» of Quel)ec 
caused him. and died after a few davs' illness. 

PONTEVftS-<aEN, Henry Jean Baptiste 
(pont-vay). Viscount de. commonly known as 
Count de PoNXEvfes. Fi-ench naval' officer, b. in 
Aix, Provence, in 1740; d. in Fort Royal. Martin- 
ique#23 July, 175K). He entere<l the navy as a mid- 
shipman in 1755, and served in Canada during the 
war of 1756-'6JJ. He was attache<l afterward to 
the station of Martinique, and in 1770 employed to 
make soundings along the Newfoundland banks 
and the coast of St. Pierre and Mi(jiieIon islands, 
preparing charts of those regions. When France 
took part in the war for American independence 
he was on duty at Brest, but, requesting to be em- 
ployed in more active service, he was appointed to 
the command of a division, with which he de- 
stroyed the English establishments and forts on 
the coast of Guinea t)etwcen the river Gambia and 
Sierra Leone. Upon his return he was promoted 
"chef d'escadre," and charged with escorting a 
convoy of eighty sail to the United States. After- 
ward he participated in the engagements with Lord 
Byron, assisted Bouille at the ca|)ture of Tobago, 
was with De Grasse at Yorktown in October, 1781, 
and served under De Vaudreuilles till the con- 
clusion of the campaign. He commanded the sta- 
tion of the Leeward islands in 1784-'90. became in 
January. 1790. governor pro tempore of Martin- 
ique, and during his short administration not only 
promoted the best interests of the colony, but ap- 
peased all'the troubles that had lx»en provoke<l by 
the French revolution, leaving Martinique at his 
death in a state of perfect tranquillity, while all the 
other French possessions in the West Indies were 
in insurrection. By public subscription his statue 
was erected in one of the scjuares of Fort Roval. 

PONTGRAVfi, Sieurde(pong-grali-vay), JVnch 
sailor, b. in St. Malo. France, in the latter half ot 
the 16th century; d. there probably in the first half 
of the 17th. He was one of the most enterprising 
merchants in St. Malo, and a skilful navigator. 
He had made several voyages to Tadousac. C'ana- 
da. and believed that the development of the fur- 
trade would lead to great wealth, especially if it 
were under the control of a single jxTson. With 
this object he proposed to Chauvin, a sea-captain, 
to obtain exclusive privileges from the court in con- 
nection with this branch of commerce, and. on the 
latter's success. Pontgrave equipped several vessels 
and sailed with him for Canada in 1599. He wished 
to form a settlement at Three Rivers, but, Chauvin 
objecting, he retunied to France in 1000. In 1603 
the king granted him lettei*s-patent to continue his 
discf)veries in Canada and establish colonies, and 
the merchants of Rouen fitted out an exjHHlition 
under his direction. He sailed on 15 March, Sam- 
uel Champlain lieing on Ixiard one of his ships, 
and he accompanied Champlain in his voyage up 
St. Ijawrence river. He s»iile«l again to Canada the 
same year, commanding a ship under De Monts, 
and later was appointed to. transfer the latter colo- 
ny to Port Royal in Acadia. Pontgrav^ devoted 
hmiself to the welfare of the new settlement, and 



64 



PONTIAC 



POOK 



did much to render it successful, thouch he was 
displaced in his office. He returned to h ranee, but 
was sent out in 1008 to establish a tradinij-post at 
Tadousiac in conjunction with Chaniplain. He 
retunuHl with the latter in Septeml)er, 1609, and 
two vess<'ls were fittetl out, one of which was con- 
fided to Pontjfrave, who reached Canada in April. 
He was apiin in France early in 1613, and com- 
manded the vessel in which Champlain sailed from 
France in March. After reaching Montreal he 
separatwl from the latter, and descended to Quebec. 
He is sjiitl by Charlevoix to have returne<l to 
France in the following year, but this is doubtful. 
He had charge of the interests of the Sieur de Caen 
for some time in Quebec, but ill health obliged him 
to go to France in 1623. " This was a real loss to 
New France," says Charlevoix, " which owes much 
to him." He wits in Quebec in 1628 in the interest 
of De Monts and his society, and counselled resist- 
ance to the English. 

PONTIAC, chief of the Ottawas, b. on Ottawa 
river about 1720; d. in Cahokia, 111., in 1769. He 
was the son of an Ojibway woman, and, as the Ot- 
tawas were in alliance with the Ojiljways and Pot- 
tawattamies, he became the principal chief of the 
three triU>s. In 1746, with his warriors, he de- 
fended the French at Detroit against an attack by 
s<5me of the northern tribes, and in 1755 he is be- 
lieved to have led the Ottawas at Braddock's de- 
feat. After the surrender of Quebec, Maj. Robert 
Rogers, of New Hampshire, was sent to take pos- 
session of the western forts, under the treaty of 
Paris, but in Novemlx?r, 1760, while encamped at 
the place where the city of Cleveland now stands, 
he was visited by Pontiac, who objected to his fur- 
ther invasion of the territory. Finding, however, 
that the French hjul been driven from Canada, he 
acquiesced in the surrender of Detroit, and per- 
suaded 400 Detroit Indians, who were lying in am- 
bush, to relinquish their design of cutting off the 
English. While this action was doubtless in good 
faith, still he hated the English and soon began to 
plan their extermination. In 1762 he sent messen- 
gers with a red-stained tomahawk and a wampum 
war-belt, who visited everj^ tribe between the Otta- 
wa and the lower Mississippi, all of whom joined 
in the conspiracy The end of May was deter- 
mined upon as the time when each trite was to 
dispose of the garrison of the nearest fort, and 
then ali were to attack the settlements. A great 
council was held near Detroit on 27 April, 1763, 
when Pontiac delivered an oration, in which the 
wrongs and indignities that the Indians had suf- 
fered at the hands of the English were recounted, 
and their own extermination was prophesied. He 
also told them of a tradition, which he could hard- 
ly have invented, that a Delaware Indian had been 
admitted into the presence of the Great Spirit, who 
told him his race must return to the customs and 
weapons of their ancestors, throw away the imple- 
ments they hatl acquired from the white man, ab- 
stain from whiskey, and take up the hatchet 
against the English, " these dogs dressed in red, 
who have come to rob you of your hunting-grounds 
and drive away the game." ^rhe taking of Detroit 
was to lie his special task, and the 7th of May was 
appointed for the attack ; but the plot was disclosed 
to the commander of the post by an Indian girl, 
and in consec|uence Pontiac found the garrison 
prepared. Foiled in his original intention, on 12 
May he surrounded Detroit with his Indians; but 
he was unable to keep a close siege, and the garri- 
son received food from the Canadian settlers. The 
latter likewise supj)lied the Indians, in return for 
which they received promissory notes drawn on 



birch-bark and signed with the figure of an otter, 
all of which it is said were subsequently redeemed. 
Supplies and re-enforcements were sent to Detroit 
by way of Lake Erie, in schooners ; but these were 
captured by the Indians, who compelled the pris- 
oners to row them to Detroit in ho{)e of taking the 
garrison by stratagem, but the Indians, concealed 
in the bottom of the boat, were discovered before a 
landing could be effected. Subsequently another 
schooner, filled with supplies and ammunition, 
succeeded in reaching the fort, and this vessel the 
Indians repeatedly tried to destroy by means of 
fire-rafts. The English now believed themselves 
sufficiently strong to make an attack upon the In- 
dian camp, and 250 men, on the night of 31 July, 
set out for that purpose ; but Pontiac had been ad- 
vised of this intention by the Canadians, and, wait- 
ing until the English had advanced sufficiently, 
opened fire on them from all sides. In this fight, 
which is known as that of Bloody Bridge, 59 of the 
English were killed or wounded. A desultory 
warfare continued until 12 Oct., when the siege 
was raised and Pontiac retired into the country 
that borders Maumee river, where he vainly en- 
deavored to organize another movement. Although 
Pontiac failed in the most important action of the 
conspiracy, still Fort Sanduslcy, Fort St. Joseph, 
Fort Miami, Port Ouatanon, Mackinaw, Presque 
Isle, Fort Le Boeuf. and Fort Venango were taken 
and their garrisons were massacred, while unsuc- 
cessful attacks were made elsewhere. The English 
soon sent troops against the Indians, and succeeded 
in pacifying most of the tribes, so that, during the 
summer of 1766, a meeting of Indian chiefs, includ- 
ing Pontiac, was held in Oswego, where a treaty 
was concluded with Sir William Johnson. Al- 
though Pontiac's conspiracy failed in its grand ob- 
ject, still it had resulted in the capture and de- 
struction of eight out of the twelve fortified posts 
that were attacked, generally by the massacre of 
their garrisons, it had destroyed several costly 
English expeditions, and had carried terror and 
desolation into some of the most fertile valleys on 
the frontiers of civilization. In 1769 a Kaskaskia 
Indian, being bribed with a barrel of liquor and 
promise of additional reward, followed Pontiac 
into the forest and there murdered him. See Fran- 
cis Parkman's " History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac 
and the War of the North American Tribes against 
the English Colonies after the Conquest of Can- 
ada" (Boston, 1851), also Franklin B. Hough's 
" Diary of the Siege of Detroit in the W^ar with 
Pontiac" (Albany, 1860). 

POOK, Samuel Moore, naval constructor, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 15 Aug., 1804; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
2 Dec, 1878. He was educated in the Boston pub- 
lic schools, and from 1841 till his retirement, 15 
Aug., 1866, was naval constructor in the U. S. navy. 
Among other vessels, he built the sloops-of-war 
"Preble" and ''Saratoga," the frigates "Congress" 
and " Franklin," and the steamers " Merrimack " 
and "Princeton." He was also active in fitting 
out the fleet of Admiral Dupont and others during 
the civil war. Mr. Podk was tlie inventor of nu- 
merous devices connected with his profession, and 
wrote "A Method of comparing the Lines, and 
Draughting Vessels propelled by Sail or Steam," 
with diagrams (New York, 1866). — His son, Samnel 
Hartt, naval constructor, b. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 17 
Jan., 1827, was graduated at Portsmouth academy, 
N. H., in 1842, became a naval architect, and on 17 
May, 1866, was appointed constructor in the U. S. 
navy. He has built many merchant ships, includ- 
ing the well-known clip{)er " Red Jacket." When 
the introduction of iron-clad vessels into the navy 



POOL 



POOR 



e» 



was proposed he was one of the party that railed on 
Se<'. (fitleon Welles to advocate them, and he was 
nmih' sii|K'rintfndent of the first that was built. 

POOI>, John, senator b. in Pas4{Uotank c-ountv, 
N. C, 1« June, 1826; d. in Washington, I). C, 18 
Aug., 1884. He was graduated at the University 
of North Carolina in 1847. and adniitteil to the 
bar in the ^sanle vear. He was chosen to the state 
senate in 18r>« and 1858, and in 1800 was the Whig 
candidate for governor of the state. After being 
returned to the state senate in 1864 as a peace can- 
didate, and again in 186.'), he was a member of the 
State constitutional convention of the latter year, 
and was chosen to the U. S. senate, but not ad- 
mitte<l. In 1808 he was re-elected, and he then 
served till the extdration of his term in 1873. 

POOLE, Fitch, journalist, b. in Danvers, Mass., 
13 June. 1803; d. in Peabody, Mass., 10 Aug., 
1873. He received a common-school education, 
was connected with the press for many years, and 
edited the Danvers " Wizard " from its establish- 
ment in 1859 till 1868. Mr. Poole was the founder 
of the Mechanics' institute library, which afterward 
be<-«me the Peabody institute, and he was its li- 
brarian from 1856 till his death. He was in the 
legislature in 1841-'2, and held several local offices. 
He was the author of numerous .satirical ballads 
that attained popularity, the best known of which 
was " Giles Corev's Dream." 

POOLE, William Frederick, librarian, b. in 
Salem. Mass., 24 Dec., 1821. He is descended in 
the eighth generation from John Poole, who came 
from Reading, England, was in Cambridge, Mass., 
in 1632, and became 
the chief proprietor 
of Reading, Mass., in 
1635. He was gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1849, 
and while in college 
was librarian of the 
"Brothers in Unity" 
literary society, and 
prepared an index to 
periodical literature 
containing 154 pages, 
which was published 
in 1848. During his 
senior year he pre- 
pared a new edition of 
021 pages, which was 
published in 1853, and 
followed in 1882 by 
a third edition of 1,469 pages, prepared with the 
co-operation of the American librarv association 
and the Library association of the United King- 
dom. He was assistant librarian of the Boston 
athena?um in 1851, and in 1852 became librarian of 
the Boston mercantile library, where he remained 
four years, and printed a dictionary catalogue of the 
library on the " title-a-line " principle, which has 
since been followed widely. From 1856 till 1869 
he was librarian of the Boston athenaeum. He or- 
ganized the Bronson library. Waterbury. Conn., in 
1869, the Athena'um library at St. Johnsburv, Vt.," 
and did similar work at Kewton and East flamj)- 
ton, Mass.. and in the library of the U. S. naval 
academy at Anna]X)lis. He began, in October. 1869, 
as librarian, the organization of the public library 
of Cincinnati, and in Januar}', 1874, t he organizat ion 
of the Chicago public library. lie resigned this 
position in August, 1887, and is now (1888) en- 
gaged in the organization of the library in Chi- 
cago founded by Walter L. NewlK-rry. Mr. Poole 
has devoted much attention to the study of Ameri- 
can history, and is president of the American his- 

VOL. T. — 5 




/^?779^ 



torical association, and a member of many other 
similar societies. He was president from 1885 till 
1887 of the American library aswx-iation, and vice- 
president of the international conference of libra- 
rians in Ijondon in 1877. He has published many 
pai)ers on library and historical topics, including 
the construction of buildings and the or^nization 
and management of public libraries. These in- 
clude "Cotton Mather and Salem Witchcraft." the 
chapter on " Witchcraft" in the "'Memorial History 
of Boston," " The I\)pham Colony," " The Ordi- 
nance of 1787," and "Anti-Slavery Opinions Ije- 
fore 1800." He edited " The Owl," a literary month- 
ly, in 1874-'5 in Chicago, and since 1880 has been 
a con.stant contributor to " The Dial." 

POOLEY, JameH Henry, physician, b. in Cha- 
teris, Cambridgeshire, England, 17 Nov., 1839. He 
was brought to this countrv in early childhood, 
and graduated at the New Vork college of phy- 
sicians and surgeons in 1860. After service as an 
assistant surgeon in the regular army in 1861-'3 he 
practised in Yonkers, N. \., till 1875, when he re- 
moved to Columbus, Ohio. He is a member of 
many professional societies, was a delegate to the 
International medical congress of 1876, and pro- 
fessor of surgery in Starling medical college, Onio, 
from 1875 till 1880. Since 1883 he has held the 
chair of surgery in Toledo medical college. He 
has edited the "Ohio Medical and Surgical Jour- 
nal " since 1876, and has been a voluminous con- 
tributor to surgical literature. Several of his arti- 
cles have been reprinted in pamphlet-form, includ- 
ing " Three Cases of Imperforate Anus " (1870) : 
"Remarks on the Surgery of Childhood" (1872); 
and "Gastrotomy and Gastrostomy" (1875). 

POOR, Charles Henry, naval officer, b. in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., 11 June, 1808; d. in Washington, 
D. C, 5 Nov., 1882. He entered the navy as a 
midshipman, 1 March, 1825, and was promoted 
lieutenant, 22 Dec, 1835, commander, 14 Sept., 
1855, captain, 16 July, 1862, and commodore, 2 
Jan., 1863. After serving with dififerent squadrons, 
and in the Washington and Norfolk navy-yards, 
he was given command of the "St. Louis, of the 
home squadron, in 1860-'l, and in the latter year 
had charge of an expedition that was sent to re- 
enforce Port Pickens. During 1861-'2 he was in 
command of the frigate " Roanoke," of the North 
Atlantic blockading squadron. He was ordered to 
use the steamer "Illinois" as a ram against the 
" Merrimac," but did not have an opportunity to 
test its strength. He subsequently passed the 
Confederate batteries under fire in the " Roanoke," 
while proceeding from Hampton Roads toward New- 
port News, to assist the "Congress" and "Cumber- 
land." From 1863 till 1865 he was in command of 
the sloop-of-war " Saranac," of the Pacific Siiuadron, 
and comj>elled the authorities at Aspinwall to re- 
lease a U. S. mail-steamer that had been detained 
there until she should pay certain illegal dues. He 
also obliged the authorities at Rio Hacha, New 
Granada, to hoist and salute the American flag 
after it had l)een insulted. In 1866-*8 he was in 
charge of the naval station at Mound City, 111., and 
he was made rear-atlmiral, 20 Sept.. 1868. After 
serving as commandant of the Washington navy- 
yard in 1869, and commanding the North Atlantic 
squadron in 1869-70. he was retired on 9 June, 
1870. In 1871-2 he was a member of the retiring- 
board. Admiral Poor saw twenty-three years and 
six months of sea-service, and was employed four- 
teen years and five months in shore duty. 

POOR, Daniel, missionary, b. in Danvers, Essex 
CO., Mass., 27 June, 1789 ; d.'in Manepy, Ceylon, 3 
Feb., 1855. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 



POOR 



POORE 



1811, and »t Andover theolopcal seminary in 1814. 
He wa-s ordained in the Presbyterian church at 
Newburvfwrt. Mjiss.. in June, 1815, and in the fol- 
lowing ("H'tolwr sailed with his wife and four other 
missionaries for t'eylon, where he arrived in March, 
181 K, and organized a mission-school. He went 
to Matura, southern India, in 18:J«, organized thirty- 
seven M'hools. whii'h he visited in succession, and 
frequent Iv addresse<l fmni horse-biu-k crowds of 
adult natives. Imi)aire<l health compelled his re- 
turn to the UnitcHl States in 1849, where he spent 
two years in addressing meetings on missionary 
work. Returning to Ceylon in 1851, he settled at 
Manepy, and lal)ored incessantly until an epidemic 
of cholera terminated his labors. Dr. Poor took 
high rank as a scholar, and he was peculiarly quali- 
fied to lalwr among the religious sects of Jndiaand 
Ceylon. He was given the degree of D. D. by 
Dartmouth in 1835. He published numerous re- 
ligious, temperance, and other tnicts in the Tamil 
and English languages, and was a contributor to 
the " Bibliotheca Sacra." — His son. Daniel War- 
ren, clergyman, b. in Tillipally, Ceylon, 21 Aug., 
1818, was grmiuated at Amherst in 1837, and at 
Andover tneological seminary in 1842. He was 
pastor of Presbyterian churches at Fairhaven, 
Mass., in 184;V8. Newark, N. J., in 1849-'69, and 
Oakland, Cal., in 1869-'72. In 1871 he was ap- 
pointed professor of ecclesiastical history and church 
government in San Francisco theological seminary, 
and he held the chair until 1876. when he became 
corresponding secretary of the Presbyterian board 
of education at Philadelphia. Dr. Poor organized 
the church of which he was pastor in Newark, 
and was also instrumental in building up three 
German churches within the bounds of his presby- 
tery, and in organizing one in Philadelphia. lie 
was also active in founding the German theologi- 
cal school at Bloomfield, N. J. He received the 
degree of I). D. from Princeton in 1857. Besides 
occasional sermons and pamphlets, he has published 
" Select Discourses from the French and German," 
with Rev. Henry C. Fish (New York, 1858), and, 
with Rev. Conway P. Wing, " The Epistles to the 
Corinthians," from the German of Lange (1868). 

POOR, Enoch, soldier, b. in Andover, Mass., 21 
June, 1736 ; d. near Ilackensack, N. J., 8 Sept., 
1780. He was educated in his native place, and 
removing to Exeter, N. H., engaged in business 

there until the bat- 
tle of Lexington, 
when the New 
Hampshire assem- 
bly resolved to 
raise 2,000 men. 
Three regiments 
were formed, and 
the command of 
one of them was 
given to Poor. Af- 
ter the evacuation 
of Boston he was 
sent to New York, 
and was afterward 
ordered to join the 
disastrous Cana- 
dian expedition 
with his regiment. 
Ontheretreatfrom 
Canada the Americans concentrated near Crown 
Point, and Co\. Pof)r was actively occupied in 
strengthening the defences of that post until a 
council of general officers advised its evacuation, 
which was accordingly ordered by Gen. Philip 
Schuyler. Against this step twenty-one of the 




^ O'LCf-C^ c/c7-C 



^^T^^ 



field-officers, headed by Poor, John Stark, and 
William Maxwell, sent in a written remonstrance. 
Gen. Washington, on being appealed to, while re- 
fusing to overrule Gen. Schuyler's action, concurred 
distinctly in the views of the remonstrants as to 
the impolicy of the measure. On 21 Feb.. 1777, 
Poor was commissioned brigadier-general, and he 
held a command in the campaign against Bur- 
goyne. In the hard-fought but indecisive engage- 
ment at Stillwater. Gen. Poor's brigade sustained 
more than two thirds of the whole American loss 
in killed, wounded, and missing. At the battle of 
Saratoga, Poor led the attack. The vigor and gal- 
lantry of the charge, supported by an adroit and 
furious onslaught from Col. Daniel Morgan, could 
not be resisted, and the British line was broken. 
After the surrender of Burgoyne, Poor joined 
Washington in Pennsylvania, and subsequently 
shared in the hardships and sufferings of the army 
at Valley Forge. During the dreary winter that 
was spent by the Revolutionarj^ army in that en- 
campment, no officer exerted himself with gi-eater 
earnestness to obtain relief. He wrote urgently 
to the legislature of New Hampshire: " I am every 
day," he said, referring to his men, "beholding 
their sufferings, and am every morning awakened 
by the lamentable tale of their distresses. ... If 
they desert, how can I punish them, when they 
plead in justification that the contract on your 
part is broken ? " Gen. Poor was among the first to 
set out with his brigade in pursuit of the British 
across New Jersey in the summer of 1778, and 
fought gallantly under Lafayette at the battle of 
Monmouth. In 1779 he commanded the second 
or New Hampshire brigade, in the expedition of 
Gen. John Sullivan against the Indians of the Six 
Nations. When, in August, 1780, a corps of light 
infantry was formed composed of two brigades, the 
command of one of them was given, at the request 
of Lafayette, to Gen. Poor ; but he survived his ap- 

E ointment only a few weeks, being stricken down 
y fever. In announcing his death, Gen. Washing- 
ton declared him to be '• an officer of distinguished 
merit, who, as a citizen and a soldier, had every 
claim to the esteem of his country." In 1824, when 
Lafayette visited New Hampshire, at a banquet in 
his honor, he was called upon by a gray-haired 
veteran for a sentiment. Lifting his glass to his 
lips, and after a few explanatory words, he gave : 
"Light-infantry Poor and Yorktown Scammel." 
He had seen the latter mortally wounded at the 
battle of Yorktown. Both men were New Eng- 
enders. Gen. Poor was buried in Hackensack, 
where a fine monument marks his grave. 

POOR, John Alfred, journalist, b. in Andover, 
Oxford CO.. Me., 8 Jan., 1808 ; d. in Portland, Me., 
5 Sept., 1871. He studied law, was admitted to 
the bar, and practised at Bangor, but afterward re- 
moved to Portland. In the latter city he was for 
several years editor of the " State of Maine," a 
daily paper, and he subsequently served in the 
legislature. He was the first active promoter of 
the present railroad system of his native state, 
originated the European and North American line, 
and was president of tKe proposed Portland, Rut- 
land and Oswego road. He was an active member 
of the Maine historical society, under whose au- 
spices he published " A Vindication of the Claims 
of Sir Ferdinando Gorges as the Founder of English 
Colonization in America " (New York, 1862). He 
also delivered the address at the commemoration, 
on 15 Aug., 1853, of the founding of the Popham 
colony at the mouth of the Kennebec (1863). 

POORE, Benjamin Perley, ioumalist, b. near 
Newburyport, Mass., 2 Nov., 1820 ; d.'in Washing- 



POPE 



popf: 



m 



ton, D, ('., !W) Mnv, 1887. He wa« di««cende<l from 
John P<H>r»>, an hlnfjlish yeoman, wlu) came to this 
coiintrv and, in UVW, niir(.-ha>e<I "hxlian Hill 
Farm,'' the homest*'a<l, wnich still rtMnains in the 
family. When Perley vrns eleven years of age he 
wa.*> taken by his father to England, and there saw 
Sir Waher Jv-ott, Ijafayette. and other notable neo- 
ple. I^avinp school after his return, he servea an 
apprenticeship in a printiiijr-oflflce at Worc-ester, 
Mass., and had edited the Athens, (ia.. "Southern 
Whig," which his father purchased for him, for two 
years before he was twenty. In 1841 he" visitetl 
Europe again as attach(^> of the American legation 
at IJnissels, remaining abroad until 1848. During 
this ix'rio<l ho actcnl in 1844-'8 as the historical 
agent of Mii.'vsachusetts in France, in which capacity 
ho filled ten folio volumes with copies of im{X)rt«nt 
documents, bearing date 1493-1780. illustrating 
them by engraved maps and water-color sketches. 
Ho was also the foreign correspondent of the Bos- 
ton " Atlas" during his entire stay abroad. After 
editing the Bosttm "Bee" and "Sunday Sentinel," 
Mr. Poore finally entered in 1854 upon his life- 
work, that of Washington correspondent. His let- 
ters to the Boston "Journal " over the signature of 
♦* Perley," and to other papers, gained him a 
national reputation by their trustworthy character. 
For several years he also served as clerk of the 
committee of the U. S. senate on printing records. 
He was interested in military matters, had studied 
tactics, and during his editorial career in Boston 
held several staff appointments. About the same 
time he organized a oattalidn of riflemen at New- 
bury that formed the nucleus of a company in the 
8th Massachusetts volunteers, of which organiza- 
tion Mr. Poore served as major for a short time 
during the civil war. He was also in 1874 com- 
mander of the Ancient and honorable artillery 
company of Boston, and had made a collection of 
materials for its projected history. Maj. Poore's 
vacations were spent at Indian Hill, where the 
farm-house contamed sixt^' rooms filletl with his- 
torical material, of which its owner was an indus- 
trious collector. During thirty years of Washing- 
ton life he made the acquaintance of many emi- 
nent men, and his fund of reminiscences was large 
and entertaining. He told good stories, spoke well 
after dinner, and was much admired in society. 
Among his publications were " Campaign Life of 
Gen. Zachary Taylor," of which 800,000 copies 
were circulated, and "Rise and Fall of Louis 
Philippe " (lioston, 1848) ; " Early Life of Napoleon 
Bonapirte" (1851); "Agricultural Historv of Es- 
sex County, Mass."; "The Conspiracy T^rial for 
the Murder of Abraham Lincoln " (1^65) ; "Fed- 
eral and State Charters" (2 vols., 1877}; "The 
Political Register and Congressional Directory" 
(1878) ; " Life of Bumside " (1882) ; and " Perlev's 
Reminiscences of Sixty Years in the National Me- 
tropolis" (Philadelphia, 1886). As secretary of 
the U. S. agricultural society, he became the editor 
of its " Journal " in 1857. He began to edit the 
Congressional directory in 1867, supervised the 
indices to the " ( 'ongressional Record," and brought 
out the annual abridgment of the public docu- 
ments of the United States for many years. By 
order of congress he compiled " A r)escriptiv'e 
Catalogiie of the Government Publications of the 
United SUtes, 1774-1881" (WashiniBcton, 1885), 
and also made a compilation of the various treaties 
negotiated by the United States government with 
different countries. 

POPE, Albert Augustas, manufacturer, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 20 .May, 184a. He was educated at 
public schools, but even as a boy was compelled to 



earn his own living. In 1882 he was commissioned 
2d lieutenant in the :)5th Masraohusetts regiment, 
with which he continued until the close of tlie war. 
when he was must^-nnl out with the brevet rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. S<K)n afterward he became head 
of a shoe-finding business. In 1877 he began to 
take an interest in Iticycles, and during that year 
onlered eight from Manchester, England. Subse- 
quently he became a<'tiv('lv cngaginl in their manu- 
facture, and it is chiefly due to his enterprise that 
most of the improvements of the bicycle in this 
country have been brought about. Cdl. Pf){K' was 
instrumental in founding " Outing," a journal that 
for several years was published by him. — His twin 
sisters, Tmily Frances and Caroline AurniiU, 
physicians, b, in Boston, Mass., 18 Feb.. 1846. were 

Srtuluated at the BrfHikline high-school, and at the 
ew England medical college in 1870. .Subse- 
quently they devotetl some time to hospital study 
in London and Paris, and on their return l)ecain*e 
attached to the New England hospital for women 
and children. In 1873 the^ established themselves 
in general practice, in which they have l)een suc- 
cessful. Both are members of tne New England 
hospital medical society, and of the Ma.ssachusetts 
medical society, and, with Emily L. Call, they pre- 
pared "The Practice of Medicine in the Cnitcd 
States " (Boston, 1881). 

POPE, Charles Alexander, surgeon, b. in 
Huntsville, Ala.. 15 March, 1H18; d. in I»aris, Mon- 
roe CO., Mo., 6 July, 1870. He was educated at the 
University of Alabama, and studied medicine at 
Cincinnati medical college and at the University 
of Pennsylvania, where he was graduated in 1839. 
He spent the next two years in study in France 
and (iermany, and on his return began to practise 
in St. Louis, Mo., where he soon took hign rank. 
He became professor of anatomy, and afterward of 
surgery, in .St. Louis university, aided in organiz- 
ing St. Louis medical college, and wa.s president of 
the American medical association in 1853. He also 
took an active part in promoting the cause of edu- 
cation generally. Soon after the close of the civil 
war he gave up practice and retired to Paris, Mo., 
where he resided until his death. 

POPE, Franklin Leonard, electrical engineer, 
b. in Great Barrington, Mass., 2 Dec, 1840. He 
was educated in his native town, l)ecame a tele- 
graph ojierator in 1857, in 1862 was made as- 
sistant engineer of the American telegraph com- 
Sany, and in 1864 filled a similar office in the 
lusso- American telegraph company. In associa- 
tion with George Blenkmsop, of Victoria, British 
Columbia, he made, while in that service in 1866, 
the first exploration of the extensive region be- 
tween British Columbia and Alaska. alx)ut the 
sources of Skeena, Stickeen. and Yukon rivers. 
Subsequently he settled in New York city, where 
he has since been engaged chiefly as an electrical 
engineer and expert. With Thomas A. Edison he 
invented in 1870 the one-wire printing telegraph, 
known as the " ticker," which is employed in large 
cities for telegraphing exchange quotations. He also 
invented in 1872 the rail-circuit for automatically 
controlling electric block signals, now used on the 
princi]>al railroa<ls of the United States, and he 
nas patented other improvements relating to rail- 
way and telegraphic service. In 1885 he was 
elected president of the American institute of 
electrical engineers. Mr. Po|ie has since 1884 been 
the editor of " The Electrical Engineer," and, be- 
sides articles in the tec-hnical, historical, and popu- 
lar perioilicals, is the author of " Mo<lem Practice 
of the Electric Telegraph " (New York, 1871) and 
" Life and Work of Joseph Henry " (1879). 



68 



POPE 



POPE 



POPE, James Colledre, Canadian statesman, 
b. in liwleque. Prince Kuward island, 11 June, 
1826; d. in Summerside. Prince Edward island, 18 
Mav, 1885. He was educatwl in his native i>lace 
and in England, engaged in business in early man- 
htxMl. and Ix'cauie successful as a inercliant, ship- 
builder, and shi[>-owuer. In 1857 Mr. 1*<)|k' Ix'came 
a niemU'r of the Prince Edwani island assembly, 
and, except <lurinj; a few months in 1873, when he 
sat in tlie Dominion jmrliament, held his seat un- 
til August, 1876. when he was defeate<l. He became 
a nieml>er of the executive council of Prince Ed- 
ward island in 1857, and was premier of that 
Erovince in 18«5-'7. 1870-'l. and from April till 
pntemlKT. 1878. The construction of the' Prince 
Edward island railway, and the negotiations that 
resulted in securing better terms to the colony on 
its entering the Dominion, were achievements of 
his administration. lie was elected to the C'ana- 
(lian parliament in Noveml)er, 1876, re-elected in 
1878, and Ijecame minister of marine and fisheries 
in Octol)er of the latter year. He held this port- 
folio till Mav. 1882. when he resigned in conse- 
quence of failing health. 

POPE, John, senator, b. in Prince William 
county, ^'Jl., in 1770 ; d. in Springfield, Washing- 
ton co'., Ky.. 12 July, 1845. He was brought to 
Kentucky in V)oyhood, and, having lost his arm 
through an accident, was compelled to abandon 
farm work, and after studying law was admitted to 
the bar. He first settled in Shelby county, but 
afterward removed to Lexington, Ky. He was for 
several years a memlwr of the state house of repre- 
sentatives, and in 1801 was a presidential elector on 
the Jefferson ticket. He was elected to the U. S. 
senate as a Democrat, and served from 26 Oct., 1807, 
till 3 March, 1813. acting as president pro tempore 
in 1811. From 1829 till 1835 he was territorial 
governor of Arkansas. On his return to Ken- 
tucky he practised his profession at Springfield 
until he was elected to congress, and twice re-elect- 
ed, serving from 4 Sept., 1837, till 3 March, 1843. 
He was an independent candidate for a seat in the 
succeeding congress, but was defeated. 

POPE, John, naval officer, b. in Sandwich, 
Mass., 17 Dec. 1798; d. in Dorchester, Mass., 14 
Jan., 1876. He was appointed from Maine to the 
navy as midshipman, 30 May, 1816, and was pro- 
moted lieutenant, 28 April, 1826, commander, 15 
Feb., 184^3, and captain, 14 Sept., 1855. As lieuten- 
ant he saw service in the frigate " Constitution," 
of the Mediterranean squadron, and subsequently 
in the West India and Brazil squadrons. He com- 
manded the brig " Dolphin " on the coast of Africa 
in 184(>-'7, and the " \ andalia" in the East Indies 
in 1853-'6. He had charge of the Boston navy- 
yard in 1850, and of the Portsmouth navy-yard in 
1858-"60. In 1861 he commanded the steam-sloop 
" Richmond," of the Gulf squadron. He was a 

1)rize-commissioner in Boston in 1864-'5, and light- 
louse insnec-tor in 1866-'9. On 21 Dec, 1861, he 
was placeu on the retired list, and he was promoted 
commodore, 16 July, 1862. Com. Pope passed 
twenty-one years at sea, and was for seventeen 
years and eleven months engaged in shore duty. 

POPE, John Henry, Canadian statesman, b. in 
the Eastern Townsliins, Quebec, in 1824; d. in Ot- 
tawa, Canada, 1 April, 1889. He was educated in 
Compton, and then engaged in farming. He repre- 
sented Compton in the Canada assembly from 1857 
till the union, and was elected in 1867, 1872, 1874, 
and 1878 for that constituency, by acclamation, 
to the Dominion parliament. He "was re-elected 
in 1882 and in February, 1887. Mr. Pope became 
a member of the privy council of Canada, and was 



minister of agriculture from October, 1871, till 
November, 1873, when he retired with the govern- 
ment on the Pacific railway question. He was re- 
appointed minister of agriculture in 1878, and 
minister of railways and canals in September, 
1885. During the summer of 1880 he visited Eng- 
land in company with Sir John A. Macdonald and 
Sir Charles Tupper, and took an active part in the 
negotiations that resulted in the Pacific railway 
contract, which was afterward ratified bv the Cana- 
dian parliament. Mr. Pope was president of the 
International railway of Maine and of the Comp- 
ton colonization society. 

POPE, John Hnnter, physician, b. in Wash- 
ington, Wilkes CO., Ga., 12 Feb., 1845. He received 
his medical education at the universities of Lou- 
isiana and Virginia, and was graduated at the lat- 
ter institution in 1868. He began to practise at 
Milford, Ellis co., Tex., in 1869, but in 1870 re- 
moved to Marshall, in the same state, where he 
has since resided. Previous to studying medicine 
he was a private soldier in the Confederate army 
from 1861 till 1865. From 1874 till 1875 he was 
secretary of the Harrison county medical associa- 
tion, and in 1879-'80 he was president of the Texas 
state medical association. In 1877 he was appoint- 
ed a member of the State board of medical exam- 
iners for the 2d judicial district. He has published 
a " History of Epidemic of Yellow Fever at Mar- 
shall, Texas" (1874) ; "Report on Climatology and 
Epidemics of Texas " (1874) ; and " Report on the 
Science and Progress of Medicine " (1876). 

POPE, Nathaniel, jurist, b. in Louisville, Ky., 
5 Jan., 1784; d. in St. Louis, Mo., 33 Jan., 1850. He 
was graduated at Transylvania college, Ky., in 
1806, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and be- 
gan to practise at St. Genevieve, Mo. He removed 
to Vandalia, and afterward to Springfield, 111. He 
was made secretary of the territory, 23 Feb., 1809, 
and subsequently he was chosen delegate to the 
14th congress, taking his seat, 2 Dec, 1816. He was 
re-elected, and served until 4 Dec, 1818. He was 
register of the land-office at Edwardsville, 111., in 
1818, and the same year was appointed U. S. judge 
for the district of Illinois, which office he held un- 
til his death. It was due to the action of Judge 
Pope in congress that the northern boundary of 
Illinois was moved from the southern extremity of 
Lake Michigan to 42° 30', thus adding the terri- 
tory now included in the thirteen northern coun- 
ties, and giving the new state its greatest lake 
port and the site of its most populous city. Pope 
county was named after him. — His son, John, 
soldier, b. in Louisville, Ky., 16 March, 18^, 
was graduated at the U. S. military academy 
in 1842, and made brevet 2d lieutenant of en- 
gineers. He served in Florida in 1842-'4, and 
assisted in the survey of the northeast boundary- 
line between the United States and the British 
provinces. He was made 2d lieutenant, 9 May, 
1846, and took part in the Mexican war, being 
brevetted 1st lieutenant for gallantry at Monte- 
rey, and captain for his services in the battle of 
Buena Vista. In 1849 he conducted the Minnesota 
exploring expedition,' which demonstrated the 
practicability of the navigation of the Red river 
of the north by steamers, and in 1851-'3 he was 
engaged in topographical engineering service in 
New Mexico. The six years following he had 
charge of the survey of the route for the Pacific 
railroad, near the 32d parallel, and in making ex- 
periments to procure water on the Llano Estacado, 
or " Staked Plain," stretching between Texas and 
New Mexico, by means of artesian wells. On 1 
July, 1856, he was commissioned captain for four- 



POPE 



POPKIN 




At.C<7^^yA^ 



u>on years' continuous service. In the political 
fampiiign of 1800 ('apt. Pope ByinpathijMMl with 
the kopuhliciiiis, and in an audresH on the subject 
of " Fortifications," rend In-fore a literary society 
at Cincinnati, he t-riticised tlie jxilicy of President 
Buchanan in unsparing terms. For this he was 
court-martialed, but, 
uix)n the recommen- 
dation of Post master- 
General Joseph Holt, 
further proceedinijs 
were dropped. lie 
was still a captain of 
engineers when Sum- 
ter was fired uiK)n, 
and he was one of the 
officers detailed by 
the war de{)artment 
to escort Abraham 
Lincoln to Washing- 
ton, lie was made 
brigadier - general of 
volunteers, 17 May, 
1861, and placed in 
command first of the 
district of northern, and afterward of southwestern 
and central, Missouri. Gen. Pope's operations in 
that state in protecting railway communication and 
driving out guerillas were highly successful. His 
most important engagement was that of the Black- 
water, 18 Dec. 1861, where he captured 1,300 pris- 
oners, 1,000 stand of arms, 1,000 horses, 65 wagons, 
two tons of gunpowder, and a large quantity of 
tents, baggage, and supplies. This victory forced 
Gen. Sterling Price to retreat below the Osage 
river, which he never again crossed. He was next 
intruste<i by Gen. Henry W. Halleck with the com- 
mand of the land forces that co-operated with Ad- 
miral Andrew H. Foote's flotilla in the expedi- 
tion against New Madrid and Island No. 10. He 
succeeded in occupying the former place, 14 March, 
1802, while the latter surrendered on the 8th of 
the fcillowing month, when 6,500 prisoners, 125 
cannon, and 7,0(X) small arms, fell into his hands. 
He was rewarded for the capture of New Madrid 
by a commission as major-general of volunteers. 
As commander of the Armv of the Mississippi, he 
advanced from Pittsburg landing upon Corinth, 
the operations against that place occupying the 
perioti from 22 April till 30 May. After its evacu- 
ation he pursued the enemy to Baldwin, Lee co., 
Miss. At the end of June he was suionioned to 
Washington, and assigned to the command of the 
Army of Virginia, comprise<l of Fremont's (after- 
ward Sigel's), Banks's, and McDowell's corps. On 
14 July Tie was commissioned brigadier-general in 
the regular army. On 9 Aug. a division of his 
army, under Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks, had a severe 
engagement with the Confederates, commanded by 
Gen. Thomas J. Jackson, at Cedar mountain. For 
the next fifteen days Gen. Pope, who had lK?en re- 
enforced by a portion of the Army of the Potomac, 
fought continuouslv a greatly superior force of the 
enemy under Gen. ftobert E. Lee, on the line of the 
Rappahannock, at Bristow station, at Groveton, at 
Manassas junction, at Gainesville, and at German- 
town, near Chantillv. Gen. Pope then withdrew 
his force l)ehind Difficult creek, between Flint hill 
and the Warrenton turnpike, whence he fell bjvck 
within the fortifications of Washington, and on 3 
Sept. was. at his own request, relieved of the com- 
mand of the Army of Virginia, and was assigned 
to that of the Department of the Northwest, where 
in a short time h^ completelv che<-ked the outrages 
of the Minnesota Indians, lie retained this com- 



mand until 80 Jan., 186S, when he was given 
charge of the military division of the Missouri, 
which, in June following, was maile the Deiwrtment 
of the Miswjuri, including all the nortliwestern 
states and territories. From this he was relieved 
Jan., 1800. He has since ha<l command suc- 
cessively of the 3d military district, comprising 
(ieorgia, Alabama, and Florida, under the first 
Reconstruction act, 1807-'8 ; the Department of 
the Ijakes, 1868-'70; the Department of the Mis- 
souri, headquarters at Fort Ijcavenworth, Kan.sas, 
1870-'84; and the Military Department of the Pa- 
cific from 1884 until he wjus retired. 10 March, 1886, 
In Washington, in DecemU'r, 1802, he testified be- 
fore a court-martial, calle<l for the trial of Gen. 
Fitz-John Porter (o. t'.), who had l)een accused by 
him of misconduct before the enemy at the seconi 
battle of Manassas or Bull Run. Gen. Pope was brc- 
vetted major-general, 13 March, 1805, " for gallant 
and meritorious services" in the capture of Island 
No. 10, and advanced to the full rank, 20 Oct., 
1882. The fullest account of his northern Virginia 
campaign is to be found in the rei)ort of the con- 
gressional committee on the conuuct of the war 
(Supplement, part xi., 1805). Gen. Pope is the au- 
thor of " Explorations from the Red River to the 
Rio Grande, in " Pacific Railroad Reports," vol. 
iii., and the "Campaign of Virginia, of July and 
August, 1862 " (Washington, 1805). 

POPE, Richard, Canadian author, b. in Toronto, 
19 Oct., 1827. He was called to the bar of Ijower 
Canatla in 1855, and was assistant editor of the 
Lower Canada " Law Reports " in 1855-'60. After 
serving as commissioner for the Chaudiere gold- 
mining association from 1866 till 1871 he was clerk 
in the department of public works, and private 
secretary to the minister from 1872 till 1873, when 
he was appointed clerk of the crown in chancery. 
He is a major in the Canadian militia, and organ- 
ized the Quebec volunteer rifle a.ssociation. Mr. 
Pope won the first prize medal of the Literary and 
historical society of Quebec for the best " Essay on 
f 'anada " (Quebec, 1853), and is also the author of 
"Canadian Minerals and Mining Interest " (1857); 
" Gold Fields of Canada " (1858) ; and " Notes on 
Emigration and Mining and Agricultural Labor 
inCanmla"(1859). 

POPHAM, (ieorgre, colonist, b. in Somerset- 
shire, England, about 1550 ; d. in Maine, 5 Feb., 
1608. He bec4ime as.sociated with Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges (y. r.) as one of the patentees of an exten- 
sive territory in what is now the state of Maine, 
and sailed from Plymouth, 31 Mav, 1607, with two 
ships and one hundred men, Popham was in com- 
mand of one ship, and Raleigh Gilbert, a nephew 
of Sir Walter Raleigh, of the other. On 15 Aug., 
1607, they landed at the mouth of the Saga<laht)c 
or Kennebec river. After listening to a sermon, 
and the patent laws, the company jiroceeded to 
build a storehouse, with a fort, which they called 
Fort George. This was the first English settlement 
in New England. The ships sailed on the home 
voyage on 5 Dec., leaving a colony of forty-five 
persons, Popham being president and GilU'rt ad- 
miral. Aft«r Popham'saeath the cohmists, having 
become discourage<l, returned to England. — His 
brother. Sir John, b. in Somersetshire in 1531 : d. 
10 June, 1607, became lord chief justice al)Out 1592, 
and was active in colonization schemes. — Sir Fran- 
cis, su|)posed to be a son of Sir John, and named 
as a patentee of New England, was a memljer of 
parliament in 1620. 

POPKIN, John Snellingr, clergyman, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 19 June, 1771 ; d. in Cambridge, 
Mass., 2 March, 1852. His ancestors, of Welsh 



70 



PORCALLO DE PIGUEROA 



PORTALES 



descent, came to this country from Ireland, and 
his father. John, was a lieutenant-colonel in the 
Revolutionary army. He was graduated in 1792, 
with the first honors, at Harvard, where he was 
tutor in (Jreek in 171»5-'8. after teacliiiiK in Wolmrn 
and C'ainbridj,'e. He had also studied theolojry, 
was licensed to preach in 1708. and on 10 July, 
1799, was ordained pastor of the Federal street 
church in lioston. where ho remained till 1802. He 
was jmsfor at Newbury in 1804-'15. then professor 
of (Jreek at Harvard on the college foundation till 
182<5, and Kliot professor of (treck literature, to 
succwd Kdward Everett, till 18JJM. From the latter 
date till his death he lived in retirement in Cam- 
bridge. Harvard gave him the degree of I). I), in 
181.'). and he was a member of the American acade- 
my of arts and sciences. Dr. Popkin left the Uni- 
tarian faith for the orthmlox Congregational, and 
finally IxHrjune an Episcopalian. He whs a profound 
Greek scholar. He edited the fourth American 
edition of Andrew Dalzel's "Collectanea Graeca 
Majoni " (2 vols.. Cambridge. 1824), and was the 
autnor of various wcasional sermons, a Greek gram- 
mar (1828). and "Three Lectures on Literal Edu- 
cation " (181^0). These last, with selections from 
other lectures, extracts from his sermons, and 
a memoir bv Cornelius C. Felton, appeared after 
his death (1852). 

PORCALLO »E FIGIEROA, Vasco (por-cal - 
yo). Spanish s<5ldier, b. in Caceres. Spain, in 1494; 
d. in Puerto Principe. Cuba, in 1550. He went to 
Cuba when very young and served under Diego 
Vela>*fiuez, the conqueror and first governor of the 
island. He was the founder of several cities, among 
others Remedios and Puerto Princi{>e. Velasquez 
selected him to command the expedition that he 
intended to send against Cortes, but Porcallo de- 
clined. In 1539 he accompanied Fernando de Soto 
in his expedition to Florida, but he soon returned 
to Cuba, and afterward resided in Puerto Principe. 

PORCHER, FrancLs Peyre, phvsician. b. in 
St. John's. Berkeley, S. C, 14 Dec. 1825. He was 
graduated at South Carolina college in 1844 and at 
the Medical college of the state of South Carolina 
in 1847. where he now holds the chair of materia 
medica and thera[>euties. On graduating he settled 
in Charleston, where he has since continued in the 
active practice of his profession, also holding the 
appointments of surgeon and physician to the ma- 
rine and city hospitals. During the civil war he was 
surgeon in charge of Confederate hospitals at Nor- 
folk and Petersburg, Va. Dr. Porcher was president 
of the South Carolina medical association in 1872, 
and, Ijesides holding memberships in other societies, 
is an associate fellow of the Philadelphia college of 
physicians. He was one of the editors of the 
" Charleston Medical Journal and Review," having 
charge of the publication of five volumes of the 
first series (185()-'5). and more recently of four vol- 
unu's of the second series (1873-'6). ' Dr. Porcher 
was an enthusiastic botanist and has devoted con- 
siderable attention to that subject. Beside* numer- 
ous fugitive contributions to the medical journals, 
and articles in medical works, he has published " A 
Medico- Botanical Catalogue of the Plants and Ferns 
of St. John's, i^'rkeley. South Carolina " (Charleston, 
1847) ; " A Sketch of the Medical Botanv of South 
Carolina" (Philatlelphia, 1849); "The 'Medicinal, 
Poisonous, and Dietetic Properties of the Crvpto- 
gamic Plants of the United States " (New 1f ork, 
1854); "Illustrations of Disease with the Micro- 
scope, and Clinical Investigations aided by the 
Microscope and by Chemical Reagents" (Charleston. 
18C1) ; and " Resources of the Southern Fields and 
Forests, Medical, Economical, and Agricultural," 



published by order of the surgeon-general of the 
Confed«Tate states (Richmond, 1863 ; new and re- 
vised ed.. Charieston. 18f59). 
PORET »E BLOSSEYILLE, Jules Alphonse 

Ren^ (jt)o-ray). Baron, French navigator, b. in 
Rouen, 29 July, 1802; d. in the Arctic ocean about 
February, 18JM. lie entered the navy as a volun- 
teer in 1818, served in the West Indies and South 
America, and in 1833 was appointed commander 
of the brig "La Liloise" and sent to the Arctic 
ocean. Sailing from Brest in May. 1833, he visited 
Iceland and Greeidand, where he made astronomi- 
cal observations, and prepared a valuable chart of 
the western coast of the latter country. He had 
rea(!hed latitude 83° N. when he was imprisoned by 
the ice-fields, and sent news to France by a whaler. 
This was the last that was heard of him, and several 
French and English expeditions failed to find traces 
of him. The expedition of " La Recherche et I'A ven- 
ture" ascertained through Esouimaux that Poret 
advanced farther than latitude 84° N., and it is 
supposed that his death was similar to that of Sir 
John Franklin. His works include " Histoire des 
decouvertes faites k divenses epoques par les navi- 
gateurs" (Paris, 1826). and "Histoire des explora- 
tions de I'Amerique du Sud " (1832). — His brother. 
Viscount B^nique Ernest, b. in Rouen, 19 Jan.. 
1799; d. in 1882; was the author or translator of 
several American novels, including " John Tanner, 
on 30 annees dans les deserts de PAraerique du 
Nord " (Paris, 1839). 

PORREZ, Martin de, clergyman, b. in Lima 
in 1579 ; d. there in 1639. He was an illegitimate 
son, his father being a nobleman and his mother a 
negress. His youth was neglected, but he gave 
evidence of so many virtues that his father deter- 
mined to recognize him. He was then educated, and, 
as his tastes lay in the direction of surgery, was 
enabled to study that profession. He was noted 
for his care of the poor, whom he attended without 
fee ; but the respect that this gained him in Lima 
alarmed his humility, and he determined to retire 
from the world, fie joined the Dominicans in 
1602, taking the lowest rank in the order — that of 
oblate brother. He was charged with the care of 
the sick after his reception, and when a plague 
broke out in Lima he was constant in his attend- 
ance on its victims. The ravages of this epidemic 
in one of the suburbs obliged his superiors to 
send hira thither, and he set out at once. Some 
of the cures he performed were considered miracu- 
lous, and he was summoned back to Lima. The 
rest of his life was spent in caring for the sick. 
It was believed in Peru that he had restored 
many to life by supernatural agencies. After his 
death, the chapter, university, and religious com- 
munities of Lima demanded that he should be 
honored on the altars of the church, and, after an 
examination that lasted during the reign of Cle- 
ment X.. he was teatified under Gregory XVI. 

PORRO, Francis, clergyman, d. about 1802. He 
was a member of the order of Franciscans, and be- 
longed to the convent of the Holy Apostles in Rome. 
Bishop Portier, when he was at Rome in 1829, saw 
a portrait of Porro as bishop of New Orleans. It 
was supposed that he was consecrated in 1802, and 
died on the eve of his departure for Louisiana. It 
is now Ijclieved that he was never consecrated, as it 
was known at Rome that the Spanish government 
was not likely to retain possession of Louisiana, in 
which case it was doubtful whether the diocese 
could support a bishop. See Archbisiiop Spalding's 
" Life of Bishop Flaget." 

PORTALES, Diego Jo8§ TictorKpor-tah'-les), 
Chilian soldier, b. in Santiago in June, 1793 ; d. in 



PORTKR 



PORTER 



71 



V'al(>unU80, 6 June. 1887. He acquired his educa- 
tion in the College of San Carlos, and in 1817 ob- 
taintnl the place of atutayer of the mint, but went to 
Peru in l&hl and entere<l commerce. Jle returne<l 
to Chili in 1H34, and, Iteinjj discontented onact^ount 
of heavy losses in a contract with the Chilian gov- 
ernment, fnun whom he hatl obtaineil the mono{H)ly 
of tobacco, joined the oppcKiition, attacking the 
government in the )>a|>er "El Hambriento" in 
1827. In April. IHJJO, he was appointed by the 
general junta minister of the ulterior, . foreign 
affairs, war, and the navy ; but. on lU'count of p«iliti- 
cal disturbances, he resigned his charges in IKH, 
an<l retired to Valimraiso, where he engaged again 
in business. On 17 Aug.. 1833, he was elected vice- 
president of the republic, and at the end of the 
same year he wasapiM)inte<l governor of Valparaiso, 
whert^he organized tne civic militia. In Septend)er, 
1835, President Prieto appointed him again min- 
ister of war. When in 18;i0 the Peru-Bolivian con- 
federation was established, Portales stronglv op- 
posetl it. Owing to his efforts, in Octol>er of that 
year a Chilian fleet left Valparaiso for Callao under 
Admiral Blanco Encalada {q. v.), to protest against 
the confederation, and, not receiving a satisfactory 
answer, the Chilian government declared war on 
11 Nov., 1836. Meanwhile, Portales was organizing 
an expeditionary force in Quillota, giving the com- 
mand of one of the best regiments to Col. Jose 
Antonio Vidaurre, who was his special favorite. 
S<K)n afterward a mutiny, led by Vidaurre and 
other officers, was organized, while Portales was at 
Valparaiso, and when the latter returned to Quillota 
and was reviewing his troops, he was made a pris- 
oner by Vidaurre. The mutineers marched on 
Valparaiso, but they encountered a determined 
resistance from the civic militia. Portales was left 
under custody of a lieutenant, who, .seeing the de- 
feat of his party, ordered him to be shot. In Sep- 
tember, 1861, a statue of Portales was erected in 
front of the mint in Santiago. 

PORTER, Albert (J, governor of Indiana, b. 
in Lawrenceburg, Ind., 20 April, 1824. He was 
gra<luated at Asbury university, Ind., in 184^3, 
studied law, was admitted to the l)ar in 1845, and 
began to practise in Indianapolis, where he was 
councilman and corj)oration attorney. In 1853 he 
was appointed reporter of the supreme court of 
Indiana. He was elected to congress as a Republi- 
can, holding his seat from 5 Dee.. 1859, till 3 >Iarch. 
1863, and serving on the judiciary committee and 
on that on manufactures. He was a nominee for 

g residential elector on the Hayes ticket in 1876. 
'n 5 March, 1878, he was appointed first comp- 
tniller of the U. S. treasury, but he resigned to 
l)ecome governor of Indiana, which office lie held 
from 1881 till 1884 He has published " Decisions 
<)t the Supreme Court of Indiana" (5 vols, Indian- 
a|K>lis, 1853-'6). and ha.s now (1888) in pre|)aration 
a historv of Indiana. 

PORTER, Alexander jurist, b. near Armagh, 
County Tyrone, Ireland, in 1796; d. in Attakapas, 
Ija., 13 Jan., 1844. His father, an Irissh Presbyte- 
rian clergyman and chemist, while lecturing in 
Ireland during the insurrection of 1798, fell under 
suspicion of lieing an insurgent spy, and was seized 
aiul executed. His son winie to this country in 
18()1 with his uncle, and settle<l in Na.shville, Tenn., 
where, after serving as clerk, he studietl law, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1807, By the advice 
of Gen. Andrew Jackson, he removed to St. Mar- 
tinsville. La., and was elected to the Stat^? consti- 
tutional convention of 1811. In 1821-'33 he was 
judge of the state supreme court, and rendered 
■service by establishing with others a jiew system 



of jurispnidence. He was elected a U. S. senator 
as a Whig, in place of Jos«'ph .S. Johnston, detwajmd, 
serving from 6 Jan., 18JJ4, till 5 Jan., 1837, and 
during his term voted to censure President Jack- 
son for the removal of the dejMJsits from the C S. 
bank, and favored John C. Calhoun's motion to 
reject [letitions for the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia. In March, 18:^6, he made 
an elaborate reply to a s{M>ech of Thomas H. Ben- 
ton ui)on the intro<luction of his " expunging 
resolutions." He also opposed Benton's bill for 
com[)^lling payments for public lands to Im> made 
in sj)ecie, and advocated the division of surplus 
revenue among the states, and the recognition of 
the independence of Texas. He was again elected 
to the senate in 1843, and served till his death. 
For many years before his death he resided on his 
estate, " OaK Lawn," of 5,000 acres, on Bavou Teche, 
and the large mansion, where Henry Olav was a 
frequent visitor, is still (1888) standing in tlie cen- 
tre of an extensive park. 

PORTER, Andrew, soldier, b. in Worcester. 
Montgomery co.. Pa., 24 Sept., 1743; d. in Harris- 
burg, Pa, 16 Nov., 1813. His father, Rolx>rt, emi- 
grated to this country from Londonderry, Ireland, 
in 1720, settled 
in Londonderrv, 
N. H., and af- 
terward bought 
land in Mont- 

f:omery countv, 
*a. In early 
years the son 
manifested a tal- 
ent for mathe- 
matics, and un- 
der the advice of 
Dr. David Rit- 
tenhouseopened. 
in 1767. an Eng- 
lish and mathe- 
matical school in 
Philadelphia, in 
which he taught 
until 19 June, 
1776, when he 
was appointed by congress a captain of marines 
and oraered to the frigate " Effingham." He was 
soon transferred to tlie artillery, in which he 
served with efficiency. He was captain until 13 
March, 1782, and then became major, lieutenant- 
colonel, and colonel of the 4th Pennsylvania artil- 
lery, which post he held at the disbanding of the 
army. He participated in the Imttlesof Newton, 
Princeton, Brandywine, and Germantown, where 
nearly all his company were killed or taken prisf>n- 
ers, and where he received on the field i)ers<nial 
commendation from Gen. Washington f«)r liis con- 
duct in the action, and at his request he was sent 
to Philadelphia to prepare material for the siege 
of Yorktown. In April. 1779, he was detached 
with his company to join Gen. John Sullivan's 
expedition against the Indians, and suggested to 
Gen. James Clinton the idea of damming the out- 
let of Otsego lake, by which means the water was 
raised sufficiently to convey the tnKins by boatii to 
Tioga {wint. In 1783 he retired to the cultivation 
of his farm, and declined the chair of mathematics 
in the University of Pennsylvania saying that "as 
long as he commanded men he would not return 
to flogging lx)ys." In 1784-'7 he was engaged as 
commissioner to run the boundary-lines of Penn- 
sylvania, and he was also interested in the com- 
pletion of the western termination of the Mason 
and Dixon line, although he was not a commis- 




* — ^^<^*^*<^'^-ty>>^^^^ 



72 



PORTER 



PORTER 



sioner. He was made brigadier-^neral of Penn- 
sylvania militia in 1801, was suljsequently major- 
general, and in 180}) apiK)inted surveyor-general, 
and held this jKist until his death. Owing to the 
inflrnuties of Hgt> he deelinwl the ofTlces of brijja- 
dier- general in the U. S. anny and secretary of 
war in President Monroe's cabinet, which were 
offereil him in 1812-'13.— His son, David Kitten- 
hoiise, governor of Pennsylvania, b. near Norris- 
town. Montgomery co., Pa.. 31 Oct., 1788; d. in 
Harrisburg, Pa., Aug., 18G7, was etlucated at 
Norristown academy, and, when his father was ap- 
IM)inted surveyor-general, became the latter's sec- 
retary. He studied law, but abandoned it, owing 
to impaired health, and removed to Huntingdon 
county, where he engaged in the manufacture of 
iron, was interested in agriculture, and intnxluced 
a fine stock of cattle and horses into the country. 
He served in the legislature in 1819, was made 
prothonotary in 1821, state senator in 1836, and 
governor of Pennsylvania in 1S38, under the new 
organization that went into effect in that year, 
and held this oflice until 1845. During his term 
the first great discussion u|K)n the intro<luction of 
railroads tf»ok place in the state. He was active 
in suppressing riots in Philadelphia in 1844, and 
received a resolution of thanks from the city. 
Afterward he engaged in the manufacture of iron, 
and erected in Harrisburg the first anthracite fur- 
nace in that jmrt of the state. — Another son, 
George Bryan, governor of Michigan, b, in Nor- 
ristown. Pa., 9 Feb., 1791 ; <1. in Detroit. Mich., 18 
July, 1S»4, was graduated at the Litchfield law- 
school, ("onn, jiractised law in Lancaster, Pa., 
served in the legislature, and was appointed in 
1K^2 governor of Michigan teiTitory. which office 
he held until his death. — Another son, James 
Madison, jurist, b. in St^lma, Pa., 6 Jan.. 1793; d. 
in Easton, Pa.. 11 Nov., 1862, served as a volunteer 
in the war of 1812, studied law, was admitted to 
the bar in 1813, aiul settled in Easton, where he 
practised with success. He was a member of the 
Constitutional convention of Pennsylvania in 1838, 
and took an active [)art in its proceedings. He 
wjis apnointed secretary of war in 1843, but was 
rejected by the senate, and returned to the practice 
of law in Easton. Mr. Porter was a founder of 
Lafavette college, Easton, in 1826, president of its 
board of trustees for twentv-five years, and lectured 
there oii jurispruilence and political economy. He 
served as presulent judge of the judicial districts 
in his county. — David Rittenhouse's son, WiUiani 
Augustus, jurist, I), in Huntingdon county. Pa., 
24 May, 1821; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 28' June, 
1886, wjis graduated at Lafayette college in 1839, 
studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1842, and 
became district attorney of Philadelphia. He was 
sheriff of that city in 1843, and solicitor in 1856. In 
1858 he was appointed judge of the supreme court 
of Pennsylvania, and in 1874 he became a judge of 
the court of Alabama claims in Washington, D. C. 
Jefferson college gave him the degree of LL, D. in 
1871. He was a contributor to the "American 
Ijaw Magazine " and " Law Journal," and published 
an " Essay on the Law pertaining to the Sheriff's 
Office " (1849) ; and the " Life of Chief-Justice John 
B. (}d)son" (Philadelphia, 1855).— Another son of 
David Rittenhouse, Horace, soldier b. in Hunting- 
don, Pa., 15 April, 1837, was educated in his native 
state, and afterward entered the Lawrence scien- 
tific school of Harvard, and while there was ap- 
pointed to the U. S. military academy, and gradu- 
ated in 1860. He was several months instructor of 
artillery at West Point, and was ordered to duty 
in the south at the beginning of the civil war. 



He was chief of artillery, and had charge of the 
batteries at the capture of Fort Pulaski, and par- 
ticipated in the assault on Secession vi lie, where he 
received a slight wound in the first attempt to 
take Charleston. He was on the staff of Gen. Mc- 
Clellan in July, 1862, and served with the Army of 
the Potomac until after the engagement at Aiitie- 
tam. In the beginning of the next year he was 
chief of ordnance on Gen. Rosecrans s staff, and 
went through the Chickamauga camimign with 
the Army of the Cumberland. When Grant had 
taken command in the east. Porter became aide- 
de-camp on his staff, with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel, and later as colonel. He accompanied him 
through the Wilderness campaign and the siege of 
Richmond and Petersburg, and was present at the 
surrender at Appomattox, Afterward he made a 
series of tours of inspection, by Grant's direction, 
in the south and on the Pacific coast. He was 
brevetted captain, major, and lieutenant-colonel 
for gallant and meritorious services at the siege 
of tort Pulaski, the Wilderness, and Newmarket 
Heights respectively, and colonel and brigadier- 
general, U. S. army, for gallant and meritorious 
services during the war. He was assistant secre- 
tary of war while Grant was secretary ad interim, 
served as secretary to Grant during his first presi- 
dential term, and continued to Itx; his intimate 
friend till the latter's death. He resigned from 
the army in 1873, and has since been interested in 
railroad affairs, acting as manager of the Pullman 
paliice-car company and as president and director 
of several corporations. He was largely interested 
in building tne West Shore railroad, of which he 
was the first president. Gen. Porter is the inventor 
of a water-gauge for steam-boilers and of the 
ticket-cancelling boxes that are used on the ele- 
vated railways in New York city. He has de- 
livered numerous lectures and addresses, made a 
wide reputation as an after-dinner speaker, has 
contributed frequently to magazines, and is the 
author of a book on "West Point Life" (New 
York, 1866). — George Bryan's son, Andrew, sol- 
dier, b. in Lancaster, Pa., 10 July, 1820; d. in 
Paris, France, 3 Jan., 1872, entered the U. .S. mili- 
tary academy in 1836, but left in the following 
year. He was appointed 1st lieutenant of mounted 
rifles on 27 May, 1846, and served in the Mexican 
war. becoming captain on 15 May, 1847, and re- 
ceiving the brevet of major for gallant and meri- 
torious conduct at Contreras and Churubusco, and 
that of lieutenant - colonel for Chapultepec, 13 
Sept.. 1847. Afterward he served in Texas and in 
the southwest, and in 1860 was in command of 
Fort Craig, Va. At the opening of the civil war 
he wfis ordered to Washington, and promoted to 
command the 16th infantry. He had charge of a 
brigade at Bull Run, and, when Col. David Hun- 
ter was wounded, succeeded him in the command 
of the 2d division. On 17 May, 1861, he was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers. Subse- 
quently he was provost-niarshal-general for the 
Army of the Potomac, but after Gen. George B. 
McCiellan's retreat from the Chickahominy to 
James river he was relieved from duty with this 
army. In the autumn of 1862 he was' ordered to 
Harrisburg, Pa., to assist in organizing and for- 
warding troops, and in November of that year he 
was assigned to command in Pennsylvania, and 
charged with the duties of provost-marshal-gen- 
eral of Washington, where he was active in restor- 
ing order in the city and surrounding district. He 
was mustered out on 4 April, 1864, and, owing to 
impaired health, resigned his cornmfssion on 20- 
April, after which he travelled in Europe. 



PORTKR 



PORTKR 



78 



PORTER. Benjamin Curtix, artist, b. in Mel- 
rtiHc, MasN., 27 Auk. 1^^* He ha.s ha<l no rt'^ular 
nrt instruction. For some yean* he k^^c inueh 
Htlention to fipirc-fMinlinK, Hrconiiiiishing some 
notal>le work in that line, hut sui>senuently lie 
(levoted himself entirely to fH)rtniiture. In 1W17 he 
first exhibite«lHf the Acwlemy of design, New York, 
and he was elected an ass*K'iate in 1H78 and acade- 
mician in 1880. He has matie several trips to 
Europe, visiting and studying in England, Hol- 
land, France, and Italy. Besides his studio in 
Boston, he has ha<I another for several years in 
New York during the winter. His works include 
"HenrvV. and the Princess Kate"(18(W); "The 
Mandolin-Player" and " t'upid with Butterflies" 
(1874); "The Hour-Glass" (187W; "Portrait of 
Ladv, with Dog," in the t'orconin gallery, Wash- 
ington (1876): " Portrjiitof Boy with Dog" (1884): 
and numerous other portraits. 

PORTER. Benjamin Fielding, lawyer, b. in 
Chnrli'ston. 8. C, in 1808. He was self-educated, 
and was admitted to the bar of Charleston at an 
early age, but afterward studietl medicine, and 

1)ractised in Alal)ama, where he removed in 1830. 
le returned to the law, was chosen to the legisla- 
ture in 18^32, and became reporter of the state in 
1835. In 1840 he was elected to the bench, but 
doubted the constitutionality of his election and 
declined the office. He was frequently an orator 
on public occasions, contributed to jseriodicals, 
translated the " Elements of the Institutes " of 
Heineccius, and published " Reports of Supreme 
Court of Alabama" (9 vols., Tuscaloosa, 18:i5-'40); 
"Office of Executors and Administrators" (1842); 
and a collection of poems (Charleston). 

PORTER, David, clergyman, b. in Hebron, 
Conn., 27 May, 1701 ; d. in Catskill, N. Y., 7 Jan., 
1851. He served ten months in the Revolutionary 
army, was graduated at Dartmouth in 1784, and 
taught in Portsmouth, N. II., where he studied 
theology, and was licensed to preach. From 
1787 till 1803 he was pastor of a Congrega- 
tional church in Spencertown, N. Y., and from 
1803 till 1831 he had charge of the 1st Presby- 
terian church in Catskill, N. Y. Williams gave 
him the degree of D. D. in 1811. Dr. Porter pul>- 
lished nine sermons (1801-'28), and " A Dissertation 
on Christian Baptism" (1809). 

PORTER, David, naval officer, b. in Boston, 
Mass., 1 Feb., 1780; d. in Pera, near Constan- 
tinople, Turkey. 3 
March. 1843. Five 
generations of this 
family have served 
in the navy. His 
grandfather, Alex- 
ander, commanded 
a lioston merchant- 
ship, giving his aid 
to the colonies, and 
his father, Capt. Da- 
vid, with his brother 
Samuel, command- 
e<i vessels commis- 
sioned by Gen. Wa.sh- 
ington in the Conti- 
nental navy for the 
capture of ships car- 
rymg stores to the 
liritish army, which 
was a perilous ser- 
vice, the patriots 
often fighting their 
way to escape fn)m the foe. In 1778 Capt. David 
Porter commande<l the sloop " Delight," of 6 guns. 




fitted out in Maryland, and was active against the 
enemy, and in 1780 commande<l the " Aurora," of 10 
guns. efiuipj)ed in Mjissiuhu setts, but wan captureti 
I by the British and cuiifiiicd in the "Jersey" prison- 
, ship, where he suffered many hardships. Escaping, 
he fought thn)ugh<>ut the Uevolutionary war, after 
I which lie residiHl in lioston until he was ap|K>inted 
by (len. Washington a sailing-master in the navy, 
having charge of the signal-station on Fe<IerHl 
Hill, Baltimore, Md. One of his two sons, John, 
entered the naval service in 1800, and died in IWJl, 
having attained the rank of commander. His other 
Sim, David, made voyages to the West Indies, and 
was twice impressed by British shij)s-of-war, but 
escaped and worked his passage home. On 16 
April, 1798, he wa.s appointed midshipman in the 
U. S. frigate "Constellation," and participated in 
her action with the P>ench frigate " Insurgente," 
on 9 Feb., 1799, receiving a prize for his service. 
He became lieutenant on 8 Oct., 1799, and served 
on the West India station. In January, 1800, his 
schooner, the " Experiment," while Ijccalmed off 
the coast of Santo Domingo, with several merchant- 
men under her protection, was attacked by ten pic- 
aroon barges, but after a conflict of seven hours, 
in which Lieut. Porter was wounded, they with- 
drew. Subsequently this vessel had several suc- 
cessful affairs with privateers and captured the 
French schooner " Diane," of 14 guns and 60 
men. In August, 1801, the schooner " Enter- 
prise." of 12 guns, to which Porter was attached, 
fell in, off Malta, with a Tripolitan cruiser of 14 
guns, which surrendered after an engagement of 
three hours. While attached to the frigate " New 
York " he commanded a Ixjat expedition which 
destroyed several feluccas in the harbor of Tripoli, 
and was again wounded. In October, 1803, he was 
captured in the frigate " Philadelphia" and im- 
prisoned in Tripoli until peace was proclaimed. 
On 20 April. 1806, he became master-commandant, 
and he was matle captain on 2 July, 1812. At the 
beginning of the war of 1812 he sailed from New 
York in command of the frigate " Essex," of 32 
gains, carryinjj a flag with the words " Free- 
Trade and Sailors' Rights," and in a short cruise 
captured several British merchantmen and a 
transjxirt that was bearing troops to Halifax. On 
13 Aug., 1812, he was attacked by the British 
armed ship " Alert," which, after an action of eight 
minutes, surrendered in a sinking condition. This 
was the first British war- vessel that wa.s captureti 
in the conflict. On 11 Dec. he also t<X)k. near the 
ef{uator, the British government iiacket " Nwton," 
with foO.CKK) in specie on board. He cruised in 
the South Atlantic and upon the coast of Brazil 
until January, 1813. when he determine<l to destroy 
the English whale-fishery in the Pacific, and saileti 
for Val[)araiso, where he' learned that Chili had be- 
come an independent state, and that the viceroy 
of Peru had sent out cruisers against those of the 
Americans. After refitting he went to sea, and on 
25 March captured the Peruvian privateer " Nere>'- 
da," of 19 guns, which hatl taken two American 
whale-ships and had their crews on board as pris- 
oners. The latter were transferred to the " Essex," 
and the armament and ammunition of the " Nerey- 
da " were thrown overboanl. when she was relea.«ed. 
One of her prizes was ret-apturetl shortly afterward 
and restored to her commander. After this Capt. 
Porter cruised about ten months in the Pacific, 
capturing a large number of British whaling-shii)s. 
The British loss was about $2.500,00(J, with 400 
prisoners, and for the time the British whale-fish- 
eries in the Pacific were destroyed. The captured 
" Georgiana " was converted into a vessel of war 



74 



PORTER 



PORTER 



called the "Essex Jr.." and cruised with the " Es- 
sex," under the command of Lieut. John Downes. 
Having hoard that the British government had 
sent out vessels under Capt. James Hillyar, with 
orders to take the " Es.sex," Capt. Porter sailed to 
the Marquesas islands U) reflt, and on his way c;ap- 
tured ottuT English vessels. He anchored in the 
Bay of Nukuhivah, where the "Essex" was the 
first to carry the American flag, and named it 
Massjwhusetts bay. He assisted in subduing the 
hostile natives, and on 19 Nov., 1813, took posses- 
sion of the island in the name of the United States. 
On 3 Feb., 1814, the "Essex" and the " Es>^ex Jr." 
arrived at Valparaiso. On 8 Feb. the British frig- 
ate " Phtt'lH>," commanded by Capt. James Hillyar, 
a |H»rsonal friend of Capt. Porter, and her consort 
the "Cherub," also arrived and anchored near the 
" Essex," and, after obtaining sjipplies, cruised otT 
Valparaiso for six weeks. Porter determined to es- 
ca|x>, and made sail for the open sea ; but a heavy 
squall disabled the " Essex," which was forced to 
return to harbor. The enemy, disregarding the 
neutrality of the harbor, followed, took position 
under her stern, and opened fire on 28 March, 1814. 
The " Essex " was of 800 tons, mounting 32 guns, 
with a crew of 255, while the " Phoebe "' was of 900 
tons, mounting 53 guns, and had a crew of 320, and 
her consort, the "Cherub," which attacked the 
" Essex " on her starl)oard l>ow, carried 28 guns, 
18 thirty-two-pound carronades, and 2 long nines 
on the quarter-deck and forecastle, and a crew of 
180. Hoth ships had picked crews and were sent 
to the Pacific to destroy the " Essex." Their flags 
bore the motto "God and country, British sailors' 
best rights; traitors offend Iwth." In reply Capt. 
Porter wrote at his mizzen, " God, our country, and 
lil)erty ; tyrants offend them." The "Essex Jr." 
took no part in the action, her armament being 
too liglit to be of service. The engagement, which 
wjis one of the most desperate and remarkable in 
naval history, lasted two hours and thirty minutes, 
and, excei)t the few minutes they were repairing 
damages, the firing was incessant. The " Essex " 
ran out three long gnus at the stern ports, which 
in half an hour forced her antagonist to retire for 
rejiaii-s. The " Plicebe " was armed with guns of 
long range, while those of the " Essex " were mostly 
carronatles. Capt. Hillyar therefore drew off to a 
distance where he w>us beyond the fire of the " Es- 
sex," and then kept his guns stea<lily at work till the 
" Essex " became a helpless wreck and surrendered, 
having suffered a heavy loss of men. Capt. Porter 
and Lieut. Stephen Decatur MacKnight were the 
oidy commissioned oflicers that remained unhurt. 
The latter, who was exchanged with others for a 
jiart of the "Sir Andrew Hammond's" crew, sailed 
in a Swedish brig, bound for England, and was lost 
at sell. Porter wrote to the secretary of the naw : 
" We have Ijeen unfortunate, but not disgraced." 
From the "Tagus," which arrived a few days after 
Porter's capture, he learned that other ships were 
cruising in search of the " Essex," to possess which 
coft the British government nearly $2,000,000. 
The "Essex Jr." brought the survivors to the 
United States. At Sandv Hook thev fell in with 
the British ship-of-war "The Saturn,'' under Capt. 
Nash, who at first treated the crew with civility, 
but afterward examined their passport and de- 
tainetl the "Essex Jr.," declaring Capt. Porter 
a prisoner and no longer under parole to Capt. 
Hillyar. Early on the following day Capt. Por- 
ter escaped, leaving a message that "most Brit- 
ish officers were not only destitute of honor, but 
regardless of the honor of each other; that he was 
armed, and prepared to defend himself against his 



boats, if sent in pursuit of him ; and that he must 
be met, if met at all, by an enemy." With much 
difllcultv he reached Babylon, L. 1., and on arriv- 
ing in N'ew York was received with distinction, and 
wiLs given the thanks of congress and of several 
state legislatures. The " i^ssex Jr." was condemned 
and sold on her arrival in New York. From April, 
1815, till December, 1823, Capt. Porter was a mem- 
ber of the board of navy commissioners, which post 
he resigned to command the expedition called the 
Mosquito fleet that was fitted out against pirates in 
the West Indies. A depot was established at Thomp- 
son island, near Key West, and a system of cruising 
was arranged. In Octt)ber, 1824, upon evidence 
that valuable goods had been stored by pirates at 
Foxardo, Porto Rico, Com. Porter despatched the 
"Beagle" to investigate the matter; but the com- 
manding officer, on landing, was arrested and 
thrown into j)rison on the charge of being a pirate. 
Com. Porter then sailed for the island, landed a force 
of 200 men, and demanded an apology, which was 
promptly given. The government, deeming that 
he had exceeded his powei*s, brought him before a 
court-martial, and he was sentenced to suspension 
for six months. He resigned his commission on 18 
Aug., 1820, and entered the service of Mexico as com- 
mander-in-chief of the naval forces of that country. 
He remained in this service until 1829, when he re- 
turned to the United States, having been treated 
treacherously by the Mexican officials. He was 
afterward appointed consul-general to the Barbary 
states, from which post he was transferred to Con- 
stantinople as charge d'affaires, and was made min- 
ister resident there in 1831, which office he held un- 
til his death. He was buried in the grounds of the 
naval asylum in Philadelphia. It is a singular fact 
that the two most distinguished officers of the U.S. 
navy fought their first battles under his command 
— his son, David D., and David G. Farragut {q. v.), 
the latter of whom he adopted in 1809. Com. Por- 
ter was the author of " Journal of a Cruise made to 
the Pacifick Ocean in the U. S. Frigate ' Essex ' in 
1812-'13-'14." illusti'ated with his own drawings 
(2 vols., Philadelphia, 1815 ; 2d ed.. New York, 1822), 
and " Constantinople and its Environs," by an 
American long resident (2 vols., 1835). See " Trial 
of Commodore David Porter before a Court-Mar- 
tial " (Washington, 1825). His life was written by 
his son (Albany, 1875). — His son, William Uavid, 
b. in New Orleans, La., 10 March, 1809 ; d. in New 
York city, 1 May, 1864, was educated in Phila- 
delphia, and ap}X)inted to the U. S. navy from 
Massjichusetts as midshipman on 1 Jan., 1823. He 
became lieutenant on 31 Dec., 1833, served on the 
" F'ranklin," " Brandywine," " Natchez," " Experi- 
ment," " United States," and " Mississippi," and in 
1843 was assigned to the home squadron. He com- 
manded the store-ship " Erie " in 1849, and, in 
1851, the " Waterwitch." On 13 Sept., 1855, he was 
placed on the reserved list, but he was restored to 
active duty as commander on 14 Sept., 1859. At 
the beginning of the civil war he was serving on 
the U. S. sloop " St. Mary's," in the Pacific. He was 
ordered to the Mississippi to assist in fitting out 
the gun-boat flotilla with which he accompanied 
Com. Andrew H. Foote up Tennessee river, and 
commanded the "Essex," which he had named for 
his father's ship, in the attack on Fort Henry, 6 
Feb., 1862, during which engagement he was scalded 
and temporarily blinded by steam from a boiler 
that had been pierced by shot. He also commanded 
the "Essex" in the battle of Fort Donelson, 14 
Feb., 1802, and fought in the same vessel past the 
batteries on the Mississippi to jofh the fleet at 
Vicksburg. lie attacked the Confederate ram 



\ 




( J~' Cr.a'l:^:^^ (J^c^^^TcX^ 



A 



D. Appleton &Co 



PORTER 



PORTER 



75 



"Arkansas" above Baton Rouge, 15 Julv, 1862, 
and disjiblwl her, and her mn^zino shortly after- 
ward t'X{>l(KU>d. He yf&» made cninmo<lure on 16 
Julv, 1M(]2. niul then Ixuiiltartled Natcht'/. and at- 
tacked tlie Vifksburu btittt-ries and Port Hudson. 
Sub8i>qui'titly lie servwl hut little, owin^ to impaired 
health. He hml two .sons in the Confederate ser- 
vice.— Another son, David Dixon, naval ofllcer, 
b. in Chester, Delaware eo,. Pa., 8 June, 1813; d. 
in Washintrton, I). C, 13 Feb., 18U1, in 1824, 
accompanied his father in the "John Adanis" to 
8um)ress piracy in the West Indies, was apiH>inted 
midshipman in the Mexican navv, and served un- 
der his cousin, Capt. David if. Porter, in the 
"Guerrero," which sailed fn)m Vera Cruz in 1837, 
and had a rouch experience with a Snanish frigate, 
" La ljealta<l, Capt. Porter Iwing killed in the ac- 
tion. David D. enteretl the U. S. navy as midship- 
man on 3 Feb., 1839, cruised in the Mediterranean, 
and then served on the coast survev until he was 
promoleil to lieutenant, 27 Feb., 1841. He was in 
the Metliterranean and I3razilian waters until 1845, 
when he was ap|)ointed to the naval observatory in 
Washington, and in 1840 he was sent by the gov- 
ernment on a secret mission to Hayti, and reported 
on the condition of affairs there. He serveu dur- 
ing the entire Mexican war, had charge of the na- 
val rendezvous in New Orleans, and was engaged 
in everj' action on the coast, first as lieutenant and 
afterward as commanding officer of the •' Spitfire." 
Subsequently he returned to the coast survey, and, 
on the discovery of gold in California, obtained a 
furlough and commanded the California mail- 
steamers " I*anama" and "Georgia" between New 
York and the Isthmus of Panama. At the l)egin- 
ning of the civil war he was ordered to command 
the steam fri^te "Powhatan," which was de- 
snatched to join the Gulf blockatling squadron at 
Pensacola, and to aid in re-enforcing Fort Pickens. 
On 32 April, 18G1, he was appointed commander, 
and subsecjuently he was placed in command of the 
mortar fleet, consisting of 31 schooners, each car- 
rying a 13-inch mortar, and, with 5 steamers as 
convoys, joined Farragut's fleet in March, 1863, 
and lx)mbarded Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip, 
below New Orleans, from 18 till 24 April, 1862, dur- 
ing which engagement 20,000 Iwmbs were exploded 
in the Confetlerate works. Farragut, having de- 
stroyed the enemy's fleet of fifteen vessels, left the 
reduction of these forts to Porter, and they sur- 
rendered on 28 April, 1862. He assisted Farragut 
in all the latter's operations between New Orleans 
and Vicksburg, where he effectively boml>arded the 
forts and enabled the fleet to pass in safety. In- 
forming the secretary of the navy of the surrender 
of Vicksburg, Admiral Porter writes : " The navy 
has necessarily performetl a less conspicuous part 
in the capture of Vicksburg than the army; still it 
has l)een employed in a manner highly creditable 
to all concerned. The gun-lwats have been con- 
stantly below Vicksburg in shelling the works, and 
with success co-o[)erating heartilv with the left 
wing of the army. The mortar-boats have been 
at worlc for forty-two days without intermission, 
throwing shells into all parts of the city, even 
reaching the works in the n'ar of Vicksburg and in 
front of our trfH)ps, a distance of three miles. . • . 
I stationed the smaller class of gun-boats to keep 
the lianks of the Mississippi clear of guerillas, who 
were assembling in force and with a large number 
of cannon to block up the river and cut off the 
tran8|)orts bringing down supplies, re-enforcements, 
and ammunition for the army. Though the rebels 
on several wcasiom- built batteries, and with a large 
foroe attempted to sink or capture the transports, 



they never succeeded, but were defeated by the gun- 
boats with severe loss on all occasions." While 
the Confe<lerales were making efforts to repair the 
" Indianola," which they had captured. Com. Porter 
fltted an old scow to look like one of his "turtle" 
gun-ljoats, with two catKXfs for (juarter-boats, a 
smoke-stack of (X)rk-lMirrels, and mud furnatres in 
which fire was kindUnl. This wa^ called the " Tur- 
retetl Monster" and set adrift with no one on 
Ixmrd. A tremendous cannonade from the Con- 
fixlerate batteries failed to stop her, and the au- 
thorities at Vicksinirg hastily uestroyed the "In- 
dianola," while the supjKJsed monitor drifted for an 
hour amid a niin of shot Ix-fore the enemy discov- 
ered the trick. In July, Commander Porter was 
ordered with his mortar flotilla to Fort Monroe, 
where he resigned charge of it, and was ordered to 
command the Mississippi squadron, as acting rear- 
atlmiral, in September, 1862. He improvised a 
navy-yard at Mound City, increased the numljerof 
his stjuadron, which consisted of 125 vessels, and, in 
co-operation with Gen. Sherman's army, captured 
Arkansas Post in January, 186^1 For his services at 
Vicksburg Porter received the thanks of congrass 
and the commissian of rear-admiral, dated 4 July, 

1863. Soon afterward he ran past the batteries 
of Vicksburg and captured the Confederate forts 
at Grand Gulf, which put him into communication 
with Gen. Grant, who, on 18 May, bv means of the 
fleet, placed himself in the rear of Vicksburg, and 
from that time the energies of the army aiul navy 
were united to capture that stronghold, which was 
accoinnlished on 4 July, 1863. On 1 Au^., 1863, he 
arrived in New Orleans in his flag-ship " Black 
Hawk," accompanied by the gun-lx)at "Tuscum- 
bia," and during the remainder of 1863 his squad- 
ron was employed to keep the Mississippi river 
open. In the spring of 1864 he co-operated with 
Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks in the unsuccessful Red 
river expedition, and through the skill of Lieut.- 
Col. Jose[)h liailey (q. v.) the fleet was saved. In 
October, 1864, he was transferred to the Nortli At- 
lantic squadron, which embracetl within its limits 
the Cape Fear river and the port of Wilmington, 
N. C. He appeared at Fort Fisher on 24 Dec., 

1864, with 35 regular cruisers, 5 iron-clads, and a 
reserve of 19 vessels, and began to bombard the 
forts at the mouth of Cape Fear river. "In one 
hour and fifteen minutes after the first shot was 
fired," says Admiral Porter. " not a shot came from 
the fort. Two magazines had been blown up by 
our shells, and the fort set on fire in several places, 
and such a torrent of missiles was falling into and 
bursting over it that it was impossible for any 
human lieing to stand it. Finding that the lot- 
teries were silenced completelv. I directed the ships 
to keep up a moderate fire. In hope of attracting 
the attention of the tmnsjxtrts and bringing them 
in." After a rec<mnoissance. Gen. Benjamin F. 
Butler, who commanded the military force, decided 
that Fort Fisher was sul)stantially uninjureil and 
could not be taken by assault, and returned with 
his command to Hampton lioads, Va. Admiral 
Porter reouested that the enterprise should not be 
abandoneii, anil a second military force of al>out 
8.500 men, commanded bv Gen. Alfred H.Terry 
(o. J*.), arrived off Fort Fisher on 13 Jan., 1865. 
This fleet was increase*! during the bombardment 
by additional land an<l naval forces, and, after seven 
hours of desperate fighting, the works were cap- 
tured on 15 Jan., 186.5, by a combinetl body of sol- 
diers, sailors, and marines. According "to Gen. 
Grant, "this was the most formidable armada ever 
collecte<l for concentration upon one given point." 
Rear-Admiral Porter received a vote of thanks 



76 



PORTER 



PORTER 



from congress, which was the fourth that he re- 
ceived during the war, including the general one 
for the capture of New Orleans, He was promoted 
vice-adrninil on 2^) July, 1806. and served as super- 
intendent of the U. S. naval academy till 1869, 
when he was detailed for duty in the navv depart- 
ment in Washington, On 15 Aug., 1H76, he wjis 
appointed admiral, which rank he held for two 
decades. lie was the author of a " Life of Com- 
mtxlore David Porter" (Albany. 1875): a romance 
entitled "Allan Dare and Roljort le Diablc" (New 
York, 1885), which has been dramatized, and was 
prtMluce<l in New York in 1887 ; " Incidents and 
Anecdotes of the Civil War"(lM85); "Harry Mar- 
line " (1886) ; and " History of the Navy in the War 
of the Rebellion " (New York, 1887).— Another son. 
Tlieodoric Henry, soldier, b. in Wjishington, D. C, 
10 Aug., 1817; d. in Texas in March, 184«>, was ap- 
pointed a catlet at West Point, resigning after two 
years. He was api>ointed by President Jackson 2d 
lieutenant in the 4th infantry, served under Gen. 
Zachary Taylor at the beginning of the war with 
Mexico, and was the first American officer killed in 
the conflict, having been sent with twelve men on 
a scouting ex|K>(lition near Fort Brown on the Rio 
Grande, where he was surrounded by a large force 
of Mexican cavalry. Tlie commanding officer called 
upon Lieut. Porter to surrender, which he refused, 
and was cut to {)ieces. only one of his escort escap- 
ing.— Another son, Henry Ogden, naval officer, b. 
in Washington, I). C. in 1823 ; d. in Baltimore, Md., 
in 1872. was appointed midshipman in 1840, resign- 
ing in 1847. He served in one of Walker's expedi- 
tions to Central America, where he fought bravely, 
and W!is wounded several times. Afterward he was 
appointed lieutenant in the U. S. revenue marine, 
and during the civil war was made acting master in 
the navy. 24 April, 1862, serving as executive officer 
on the " Hattenis *' when that vessel was sunk by the 
Confederate steamer " Alabama." He died from the 
effect of his wounds.— Com. David's nephew, David 
H., naval officer, b. in New Castle. Del., in 1804 ; d. 
near Havana, Cuba, in March, 1828, entered the U. S. 
navy as midshipman on 4 Aug., 1814, became lieu- 
tenant on 13 .Jan.. 1825, and resigned on 26 July, 
1826. He joined his uncle while commander-in- 
chief of the Mexican navy, and in 1827 sailed in 
command of the brig " Guerrero," built by Henry 
Eckford. of New York, taking this vessel to Vera 
<'ruz. He fell in with a fleet of 50 merchant ves- 
sels, fifteen miles below Havana, sailing under con- 
voy of two Spanish war-vessels, carrying together 
29 guns. Driving them into the port of Little 
.Mariel, after a conflict of two hours he silenced the 
fire of the two brigs, cutting them severely, and 
sunk a number of the convoy. A twenty-four- 
pound shot from a battery on shore cut the cable 
of the "Guerrero." and the vessel drifted on shore, 
and went afterward to sea to repair damages. In 
the mean tinu- she was attacked by the " Lealtad," 
of 64 guns, and after a very severe engagement, 
lasting two hours and a quarter, in which Capt. 
Porter was killed, eighty of his officers and men 
being either killed or wounded, the masts and sails 
of the " Guerrero " all shot away and the hull rid- 
dled, the "Guerrero" was surrendered and taken 
into Havana. — David Dixon's cousin, Fitz-John, 
soldier, b. in Portsmouth, N. H., 13 June, 1822, is the 
son of Commander John Porter, of the U. S. navy. 
He studied at Phillips Exeter academy, was gradu- 
ated at the U. S. military academy in 1845, and as- 
signed to the 4th artillery, in which he became 2d 
lieutenant, 18 June, 1846. He served in the Mexi- 
can war, was commissioned 1st lieutenant on 29 May, 
and received the brevet of captain on 8 Sept., 1847, 



cavalry 
1 May, 1854, till 




for services at Molino del Rey, and that of major 
for Chapultepec. During the assault on the city of 
Mexico ne was wounded at lielen gate. Afterward 
he was on garrison duty until 9 July, 1849, when 
he was appointed assistant instructor of artillery at 
West Point. He became adjutant there in 1853-'4, 
and was instructor of 
artillery and 
from 

11 Sept., 185.5. In 1856 
he was appointed as- 
sistant aajutant- gen- 
eral with the rank of 
captain, and he served 
under Gen. Albert Sid- 
ney Johnston in the 
Utah expedition of 
1857-'60. In 1860 he 
became assistant in- 
spector - general, with 
headquarters in New 
York city, and super- 
intended the protec- 
tion of the railroad be- 
tween Baltimore and 
Harrisburg during the 
Baltimore riots. When 
communication was in- 
terrupted with Washington at the breaking out of 
the civil war, he assumed the responsibility of reply- 
ing in the affirmative to telegrams from Missouri 
asking permission to muster troops for the protec- 
tion of that state. His act was approved by the war 
department. During this period he also organized 
volunteers in Pennsylvania. On 14 May, 1861, he 
became colonel of the 15th infantry, a new regiment, 
and on 17 May, 1861, he was made brigadier-general 
of volunteers, and assigned to duty in Washington, 
In 1862 he participated in the Virginia peninsular 
campaign, served during the siege of Yorktown 
from 5 April till 4 May, 1862, and upon its evacua- 
tion was governor of that place for a short time. 
He was given command of the 5th corps, which 
formed the right wing of the army and fought the 
battles of Mechanicsville, 26 June, 1862, and Gaines's 
Mills, 27 June, 1862. At Malvern Hill, 1 July, 
1862, he commanded the left flank, which mainly 
resisted the assaults of that day. He received the 
brevet of brigadier-general in the regular army 
for gallant and meritorious conduct at the bat- 
tle of Chickahominy, Va., 27 June, 1862. He was 
made major-general of volunteers, 4 July, 1862. and 
temporarily attached to Gen. John Pope's Army of 
Virginia. His corps, although ordered to advance, 
was unable to move forward at the second bat- 
tle of Bull Run, 29 Aug., 1862, but in the afternoon 
of the 30th it was actively engaged, and to its 
obstinate resistance it is mainly due that the de- 
feat was not a total rout. Charges were brought 
against him for his inaction on the first day. and 
he was deprived of his command, but was restored 
to duty at the request of Gen. George B. McClellan, 
and took part in the Maryland campaign. On 27 
Nov., 1862, Gen. Porter was arraigned before a 
court-martial in Washington, charged with dis- 
obeying orders at the second battle of Bull Run, 
and on 21 Jan., 1863, he was cashiered, "and for- 
ever disqualified from holding any office of trust 
or profit under the government of the United 
States, for violation of the 9th and 52d articles of 
war." The justice of this verdict has been the sub- 
ject of much controversy. Gen. Porter made sev- 
eral appeals for a reversal of the decision of the 
court-martial, and numerous petitioift to open the 
case were addressed to the president during the 



PORTER 



PORTER 



77 



8uccee<ling eighteen years, as well as memorials 
from various legislatures, and on 28 Dec, 1^W2, a 
bill for his relief was presented in the stMiate, under 
the action of an advisory lx)ard appointed bv Presi- 
dent Haves, eonsisting of (Jen, .John M. Sc^iofleld, 
Gen. Alfred II. Terry, and (ten. George VV. (letty. 
On 4 May, 1882, the president remitted so much of 
the sentenc* of the court-martial as forever dis- 
qualified (ten. Porter from holding any oflice of 
trust or profit under the government ; but the bill 
for his relief failetl in its )>assage. A technical ob- 

{'ection caused President Arthur to veto a 'similar 
till that was passed by the 48th congress, but 
another was passed sul)sequently wlTich was signed 
by President Cleveland, and he was restored to the 
U. S. army as colonel on 7 Aug., 1880. Gen. Grant, 
after his term of service as president hati ended, 
though he had refused many |X!titions to open the 
case, studied it more thoroughly, and published his 
conclusions in December, 1882, in an article en- 
titled "An Undeserved Stigma," in which he said 
that he was convinced of Gjen. Porter's innocence. 
After leaving the army, Gen. Porter engaged in 
business in New York citv, was subsequently 
superintendent of the New .Tersey asylum for the 
insane, and in Februaiy, 1875, was mmle commis- 
sioner of public works. lie was police commis- 
sioner in 1884-'8, and then became commissioner of 
the fire department. In 18G9 the khedive of Egypt 
offered him the post of commander of his army, 
with the rank of major-general, which he declined. 

PORTER, Ellphalet, clergyman, b. in North 
Bridgewater, Ma«s., 11 June, 1758; d. in Roxburv, 
Mass., 7 Dec, 1833. His father. John (1715-1802), 
was graduated at Harvard in 1736, was pastor of 
the 1st Congregational church of North Bridge- 
water from 1 740 till his de«th, and published sev- 
eral controversial pamphlets in defence of Calvin- 
ism. The son was graduated at Harvard in 1777, 
studied theology with his father, and was ordained 
over the Congregational society of Roxbury on 2 
Oct., 1782, where he continued until his death. In 
1830 Rev. George Putnam was associated with him 
in his pastorate. He was a member of the Academy 
of arts and sciences, an overseer of Harvard and a 
member of its corporation, an original trustee of 
the Massachusetts Bible society, and a founder of 
the State temperance society. Harvard gave him 
the degree «f I). D. in 1807.' He published several 
sermons, and a " Eulogv on Washington " (18(X)). 

PORTER, George W., soldier, b. about 1806; 
d. in Memphis, Tenn., 7 Nov., 1856. He was a 
lieutenant m the 38th U. S. infantry from May. 
1814. till June, 1815, and made many valuable in- 
ventions, including the Porter rifle. 

PORTER, James, clergyman, b. in Middle- 
borough, Mass., 21 March, 1808; d. in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., 16 April, 1888. At the age of sixteen "lie 
entered a cotton-factory in his native town with 
the intention of learning the business of a manu- 
facturer, but three years later he determined to 
study for the ministry. He attended the Kent's 
Hill seminary at Readfleld, Me., and at the age of 
twenty-two was admitted a member of the New 
England conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. During the early period of his ministry 
Dr. Porter held many pastorates in and near Bos- 
ton. For several years he was a presiding elder 
of the conference, and from 1844 till 1872 ne was 
a delegate to the general conference. From 1852 
till 18.55 he was a memlier of the board of over- 
seers of Harvard, being the first Methotlist clergy- 
man to hold that office. From 18.55 till 1871 he 
was trustee of Wesleyan university, which con- 
ferred upon him the degree of A. M. In 1856 he 



was elected one of the l)ook agents in New York 
city, having in charge the Meth<xlist book concern, 
which oflice he held for twelve years. From 18(J8 
till 1882 he was secretary of the National temi)er- 
ance society, and he was also one of the earlier 
memljers of the New England anti-slavery s<x;iety. 
He was closely connected with the alK>lition move- 
ment, and was at one time in danger from the mob 
while delivering a speech in lioston U|X)n the sub- 
ject. He was a preacher of the old schfxil, collo- 
?uial in manner, but of commanding presence, 
n 1856 he received the degreee of I). I), from 
McKendrick college. Illinois. Besides contributing 
fre<iuently to various periodicals. Dr. Porter pul> 
lished "(Jamp Meetings Considered" (New York, 
1849) ; " Chart of Life " (1^55) ; " True Evangelist " 
(1860); "The Winning Worker; or the Possibili- 
ties, Duty, and Methods of Doing Good to Men " 
(1874); "Compendium of Methodism" (1875); 
" History of Metho<lism " (1876); " Revival of Re- 
ligion" (1877); " Hints to Self-educatetl Ministers, 
etc." (1879); "Christianity Demonstrated by Ex- 
perience, etc." (1882); " Self- Reliance Encouraged, 
etc" (1887); and " Commonplace Book." 

PORTER, James Bavis, governor of Tennes- 
see, b. in Paris, Henry co., Tenn., 7 Dec, 1828. He 
was graduated at the University of Nashville in 
1846, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1851, 
and practised his profession. He was elected to the 
legislature in 18.59, and served through the civil 
war in the Confederate army as adjutant on the 
staff of Gen. Benjamin F. Cheatham, after which he 
resumed the practice of law, was a delegate to the 
Constitutional con venti<m of Tennessee in 1870, and 
in that year was elected circuit judge for the 12th 
judicial circuit of the state, which f)ost he resigned 
in 1874. From 1874 till 1879 he was governor of 
Tennessee. In 1880 he was chairman of the Tennes- 
see delegation to the Democratic national conven- 
tion, and from that year till 1884 he was president of 
the Nashville, Chattanooga, and St. Louis railroad 
company. In 1885-'7 he was assistant secretary of 
state. Gov. Porter is vice-president of the Tennes- 
see historical society for west Tennessee, a trustee 
of the Peabody fund, and is president of the board 
of trustees of the University of Nashville, from 
which he received the degree of LL. D. in 1879. 

PORTER, John Addison, chemist, b. in Cats- 
kill, N. Y., 15 March, 1822 ; d. in New Haven, 
Conn., 25 Aug.. 18(>G. He was graduated at Yale 
in 1842. and after further study in Philadelphia 
l)ec}ime in 1844 tutor and then professor of rhetoric 
at Delaware college in Newark, Del. In 1847 he 
went abroad and studied agricultural chemistry for 
three years under Liebig. at the University of 
Giessen. On his return to the United States he 
was assistant at the Lawrence scientific school of 
Harvard for a few months, but in 1850 he was a|)- 
pointed professor of chemistrj' applied to the arts 
at Brown, and in 1852 he wa-^ called to succeed 
Prof. John P. Norton in the chair of agricultural 
chemistry in Yale (now Sheffield) scientific school. 
In 18.56 he was given charge of the department of 
organic chemistry, and so continued until 1864, 
when failing health led to his resignation. Prof. 
Porter was particularly interested in the welfare of 
the scientific school, and did much to ensure it« 
success. He married a daughter of Joseph E. 
Sheffield (q. v.\ and his influence and efforts were 
potent toward securing the generous donation from 
the latter that resulted in placing the school on a 
firm financial basis. The present great interest in 
obtiiining a knowledge of scientific agriculture is 
largely the outcome of his work. Prof. Porter was 
a member of scientific societies, and contributed va- 



78 



PORTER 



PORTER 



rious papers to the " American Journal of Science." 
Ho also estal)lislie(l the "Connecticut War Record," 
a monthly |)i>ri«xlical, devoted to the publication of 
news from the Connecticut regiments at the front 
during; the civil war. Prof. Porter published 
" Princioles of Chemistry" (New York, lH5fi); 
"First ii<K)k of Chemistry and Allied Sciences" 
(IH.")?); and "Selections from the Kalevala, the 
Great Finnish Epic" (18<J8). In 1H71 the Scroll 
and key society of Yale, of which he was a founder 
in 1H42, established in his memory the John A, 
Porter university prize of $250, which is awarded 
annually for the best essjiy on a given sui)ject, and 
is the only prize o|>en to all the membi-rs of Yale 
university. — His s<^m. John Addison, journalist, 
b. in New Haven, Conn., 17 April, 185(5, was gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1878, and has l)een connected with 
various journals. He has contributed to ]>eriodi- 
cals, and publisheti monographs on "The Corpora- 
tion of Yale College " (Washington, 1885), and 
" Administration of Citv of Washington " (1885) ; 
and a volume of "Sketches of Yale Life" (1886). 

PORTER, Joshna, physician, b. in Lebanon, 
Conn., in 1730; d. in Salisbury, Conn., 12 Sept., 
1825. He was graduated at Yale in 1754, studied 
medicine, and practised in Salisbury. He served 
in the state assembly before the Revolution, and 
was one of the committee of the pay table, and 
colonel of state militia. He was agent to super- 
intend the manufac^ture of the first home-made 
cannon-balls that were used during the war. At 
the battle of Saratoga, owing to the scarcity of offi- 
cers, he led a regiment as a volunteer, and he at- 
tended the wounded after the fight. For more 
than fifty years he held local offices of trust in 
Connecticut. — His son. Peter Bnel, soldier, b. in 
Salisbury, C(mn., 4 Aug., 1773; d. in Niagara Falls, 
N. Y., 20 March, 1844, was graduated at Yale in 
1791, and, after studying at Litchfield law-.school, 
began jtractiee at ('anandaigua, N. Y., in 1795, 
and afterward removed to Black Rock, Niagara 
county. He was elected to congress in 1808 as a 
Democrat, and as chairman of the committee on 
foreign relations prepared and introduced the cele- 
brated rej)ort in 1811 that recommended war with 
Great Britain. Upon the opening of hostilities he 
resigned his seat in congress, and became an active 
participant in the contest. He declined a general's 
commission, and subsequently accepted the com- 
mand of a l)ody of volunteer troops from Penn- 
sylvania and New York, in connection with In- 
dian warriors from the Six Nations. His operations 
were chieflv in west- 
em New York and 
on the Canada side of 
the Niagara. When 
Black Rock, after- 
ward part of Buffalo, 
fell into the hands of 
the British in 1813, 
Gen. Porter's house 
becamethe headquar- 
ters of the enemy, 
and he rallied a force 
and expelled them, 
^j - ^A^gp-. * mortally wounding 

/^T'r^^'^iP^^ Col. Bishop, the com- 

n — wF^ \ mander. He was en- 

gaged in Gen. Alex- 
ander Smyth's at- 
tempt to invade Can- 
a«la, and his remarks 
on its conduct led to 
a duel between him and Smyth. He exhibited 
"great personal gallantry" at the battle of Chip- 



> f 







pewa, and led the volunteers in the successful en- 
gagement at Lundy's I^ane, 25 July, 1814, where 
Gen, Scott was itj command. At the siege of Fort 
Erie he led a brilliant sortie. For his military 
services he received a gold medal from congress, 
and a sword from the legislature of New York. In 
1815 President Madison appointed him commander- 
in-chief of the army ; but he declined, and he 
served again in congress from December, 1815, till 
his resignation in the following year. He was one 
of the earliest projectors of the firie canal, and was 
appointed, with Gouverneur Morris and De Witt 
Chnton, on the commission to explore the route. 
In 1816 he was appointed a commissioner for de- 
termining the northwestern l)oundary, and in 1828 
he was made secretary of war by President Adams. 
— Peter Buel's grandson, Peter Augustus, soldier, 
b. in Black Rock, N. Y., in 1827; killed in the bat- 
tle of Cold Harbor, Va., 3 June, 1864, was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1845, and subsequently studied 
in the universities of Heidelberg and Berlin. He 
was a member of the New York legislature in 1862. 
and in that year he raised a regiment, afterward 
consolidated with the 8th New York artillery, was 
placed in command, and served on garrison duty. 
When he was oflfered the nomination for secretary 
of state of New York on the Republican ticket in 
1863, he declined t« leave the army. He was or- 
dered to the field in May. 1864, participated in the 
battles of Spottsylvania and Totopotomoy, and 
fell while storming a breastwork at Cold Harbor. — 
Peter Buel's nephew, Augustus Steele, senator, b. 
in Canandaigua, N. Y., 18 Jan., 1798 ; d. in Niag- 
ara Falls, N. Y., 18 Sept., 1872, was graduated at 
Union college in 1818, studied law in Canandaigua, 
and settled in Black Rock, N. Y., and afterwanJ in 
Detroit, Mich. He became mayor of that city in 
1836, was elected to the U. S. senate as a Whig in 
1838, served one term, and in 1848 removed to 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. He was a delegate to the 
Union convention in 1866. 

PORTER, Lvdia Ann Emerson, author, b. in 
Newburyport, Mass., 14 Oct., 1816, She is a second 
cousin of Ralph W. Emerson, and was educated at 
the Ipswich female academy from 1829 till 1832, 
then taught in Royalton, Vt., and in 1834 estab- 
lished a school in Springfield, Vt. In 1836 she be- 
came principal of Putnam female seminary, in 
Zanesville, Ohio, and she subsequently took charge 
of the female department of Delaware academy, 
Newark, Ohio. In 1841 she married Charles E. 
Porter, of Springfield, Vt., and she has since re- 
sided in that tovm. Mrs. Porter is the author-of 
" Uncle Jerry's Letters to Young Mothers " (Bos- 
ton. 1854) and " The Lost Will" (1860), and several 
Sunday-school books. 

PORTER, Moses, soldier, b. in Danvers, Mass., 
in 1755; d. in Cambridge, Mass., 14 April, 1822. 
He entered the Revolutionary army as a lieuten- 
ant in Capt. Samuel R. Trevett's artillery, 19 May, 
1775, served at Bunker Hill and through the war, 
and was one of the few old officers that were se- 
lected for the peace establishment in 1794. He be- 
came lieutenant of artillery, 29 Sept., 1789, and 
captain in November, I'VOl, and served under Gen. 
Anthony Wayne in the expedition against the 
northwestern Indians in 1794. He was appointed 
major of the 1st artillery on 26 May, 1800, colonel 
of light artillery 12 March, 1812, accompanied Gen. 
James Wilkinson's army to Canada, commanded 
the artillery, and served with cretlit at the capture 
of Fort George, 27 May, 1813. He was brevetted 
brigadier-general on lO'Sept., 1813, and ordered to 
the defence of Norfolk, Va., in 1814. He became 
colonel of the 1st artillery in May, 1^1. 



PORTER 



PORTER 



79 



POKTKR, Noah, clcrf^yinan, b. in Parmington, 
Conn., in Ik-conibtT, 17«1 ; (l.thort'. 24 St'pt.. imH. 
His ancestors, Robert and Tiioinas Porter, settled 
in KHrminjfton in m40. He was ffnulimted at 
Yale with the highest honor in lH(Ki, and wa8 
ordained jiastor of the C'onjjrejrational church in 
his native town, which charge he held until his 
death. For many years he was a nienilK^r of the 
corjtoration of Yalo. Dartmouth gave him the de- 
gree of S. T. I), in 1828. He published cx-casion- 
al sermons in the " National Preacher," a "Half- 
Century Discourse," in the fiftieth year bf his 
ministry, and contributed to the " Christian Spec- 
tator." His "Memoir" was written by his sxm, 
Noah, — His son, SamiU'l, etlucatx)r of the deaf 
and dumb, b. in Farmiiigton, Conn., 12 Jan., 
1810, was graduated at Yale in 182U. He was in- 
stnictt)rof the deaf and dumb in the Hartford in- 
stitutiim from 18;{2 till MHiii, and again from 1846 
till 18tK), also holding the same oftice in the New 
York institution in 1843-'6. Vnnn 18«« till 1884 he 
was professor of mental science and English phi- 
lology in the National deaf-mute college in Wash- 
ington, D. C, and is now (1888) professor emeri- 
tus, lie has made a 
8|)ecial study of pho- 
netics, was editor of 
the "American An- 
nals of the Deaf and 
Dumb" from 1854 till 
1860, and has pub- 
lished " The Vowel 
Elements in Speech, a 
Phonological and Phi- 
lological Essay " (New 
York, 1867), and nu- 
merous articles, includ- 
ing "Is Thought pos- 
sible without Lan- 
guage," in the "Prince- 
ton Review "(1881).— 
Another son, Noah, 
educator, b. in Far- 
mington, Conn., 14 
Dec, 1811. was gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1831, became master of Hopkins 
grammar-school in New Haven, and was tutor at 
Yale in 1833-'5. during which time he studied the- 
ology. He was pastor of Congregational churches 
in New Milford, Conn., from 1836 till 1843, and in 
Springfield, Ma.ss., from 1843 till 1846. Mr. Porter 
was then apjiointed professor of moral philosophy 
and metaphysics at \ ale, which chair he still (1888) 
holds. In 1871 he succeede<l Theodore I). Woolsey 
as president of Yale, which post he held till his 
resignation in 1886. During President Porter's ad- 
ministration the progress of the college was marked. 
Some of its finest buildings were erected in this 
period, including the art-school, the Pealx>dy mu- 
seum, the new theological halls, the Sloane physi- 
cal lalK)ratory, the Battell chajx'l, and one of "the 
largest dormitories. The curriculum was also con- 
siderably enlarged, especially by the introduction 
of new elective studies, although Dr. Porter has 
been an earnest champion of a recjuired course, 
as opposed to the elective system as it has been 
recently elal)orated at Harvard. He has also ably 
maintained the claims of the classics to a chief 
place in a liberal course of education. As an 
ni-stnictor, and in his personal relations with the 
students, he was one of the most jKipular presidents 
of Yale. He is prolvibly the last to hold the presi- 
dency and a professor's chair at the same time, as 
his successor, Timothy Dwight, expressly stipu- 
lated on accepting the office that the duties of a 




tAa^iX\yficr)^&f~. 



teacher should not attach to it. Ho receive<l the 
degree of D. D. from the University of the city of 
New York in 18.'>8, and that of LIj.'D. from l<xlin- 
burgh in 1886. and also from Western I{<t»erve col- 
lege, Ohio, in 1870, and fn)m Trinity in 1871. He is 
the author of an " Historical Discourse at Farming- 
ton, Nov. 4, 1840," commemorating the 200th an- 
niversary of its settlement (Hartford, 1841); "The 
Educational Systems of the Puritans ami Jesuits 
('om|)ared." a prize essay (New York. 18r)l); ""The 
Human Intellect." which is used as a text-ljook of 
metaphysics at Yale and elsewhere (1868; many 
new e<l'itions); "Books and Remling " (1870); 
" American Colleges and the American Public" 
(New Haven, 1871); "Sciences of Nature versus 
the Science of Man," a review of the philosophy of 
Herbert Sjjencer (1871) ; "Evangeline; the Place, 
the Story, and the Poem "(1882); "Science and 
Sentiment" (1882); "The Elements of Moral 
Science, Theoretical and Practical " (188.")) ; "Life 
of Bishop Berkeley" (1885); and "Kant's Ethics, 
a Critical Exposition " (Chicago, 1886). Dr. Por- 
ter is one of the most scholarly metaphysicians in 
this country. He was the principal editor of the 
revised editions of Noah Webster's " Unabridged 
Dictionary " (Springfield, Mass., 1864 and 1880). — 
The first Noah's daughter, Sarah, wlucator, b. in 
Farmington, Conn., 17 Aug., 1813. oj)ened a small 
day-school for girls in Farmington, which is now 
(1888) a large seminary, and attracts students from 
all parts of the United States. In 1885 a fine 
building was erected and presented to Miss Porter 
by some of her former pupils for an art studio. 
* PORTER, Kiifus, inventor, b. in West Box- 
ford, Mass.. 1 May, 1792 ; d. in New Haven, Conn., 
13 Aug., 1884. He early showed mechanical genius. 
In 1807 his parents apprenticed him to a shoe- 
maker, but he soon gave up this trade, and occu- 
pied himself by playing the fife for military com- 
panies, and the violin lor dancing parties. " Three 
years later he was apprenticed to a house-painter. 
During the war of 1812 he was occupied in paint- 
ing gun-boats, and as flfer to the Portland light 
infantry. In 1813 he painted sleighs at Denmark, 
Me., beat the drum for the soldiers, taught others 
to do the same, and wrote a book on the art of 
drumming, and he then enlisted in the militia for 
several months. Subsequently he was a teacher, 
but was unable to remain in one place, and so led 
a wandering life. In 1820 he made a camera-ol>- 
scura with a lens and a mirror so arranged that 
with its aid be could draw a satisfactory portrait 
in fifteen minutes. With this apparatus he trav- 
elle<l through the country until he invented a re- 
volving almanac, when he at once stopped his 
painting in order to introduce his latest device. 
His next project was a twin boat to be propelled 
by horse- power, but it proved unsuccessful, and he 
turned to portrait-painting again. In 1824 he 
began landscape-painting, but relinquished it to 
build a horse flat-boat. He invented a success- 
ful cord-making machine in 1825, and thereafter 
Kroduced a clock, a steam carriage, a jtortable 
orse-power, corn-sheller, churn, a washing-ma- 
chine, signal telegraph, fire-alarm, and numer- 
ous other articles. In 1840 he became e<litor of 
the " New York Mechanic," which prospered, and 
in the following year he moved it to Boston, where 
he called it the " American Mechanic." The new 
art of electrotyping there attracted his attention, 
and he gave up editorial work in order to occupy 
himself with the new invention. He devised at 
this period a revolving rifle, which he sold to Col. 
Samuel Colt for f 100. In 1845 he returned to New 
York and engaged in electrotyping, and about this 



80 



PORTER 



PORTER 



time he founded the " Scientific American," the first 
issue of which bears the date 28 Aug., 1845. At 
the end of six months he was glad to dispose of 
his interest in the |)U|>er, and then occui)ie<l him- 
self with his inventions. These included a liy- 
ing-ship, trip-hammer, fog-whistle, engine-lathe, 
balanced valve, rotary plough, reaction wind-wheel. 
fK)rtai)le house, thermo-engine, rotary engine, and 
scores of others. 

PORTER, Samuel, clergyman, h. in Ireland, 
11 June, 17«R): d. in Congruily. Pa., 23 Sept., 1825. 
He learned the trade of a weaver, and came to 
this country in 178J1 settling in Pennsylvania. lie 
studied theology, was licenseil to nreach by the 
presbytery of Redstone in 1790, una held charge 
of the united congregations of Poke Run and 
Congruity, Pa., from 1790 till 1798, and then of 
Congruity alone until his death. He published 
several sermons, and two dialogues between " Death 
and the Believer "and " Death and the Hypocrite," 
which were republished, with a biography of the 
author, bv Rev. David Elliott. D. 1). in 1853. 

PORTTER, Thomas, jurist, b. in Farmin^ton, 
Conn., in May, 1734; d. in Granville, N. \., in 
August, 1833. His ancestor, Thomas, emigrated 
from England in 1640, and was an original proprie- 
tor of Farmington. He served in the British army 
at Lake George in 1755. and was captain of a com- 
pany of minute-men. About 1757 he removed to 
Cornwall, Conn., and in 1779 he went to Tin- 
mouth, V't., in both of which towns he held loci\\ 
offices. For ten years he wjvs judge of the su- 
preme and county courts of Vermont, and he was a 
meml)er of the legislatures of Connecticut and 
Vermont for thirty-five years. — His son, Eben- 
ezer, educator, b. in Cornwall. Conn., 5 Oct., 1772; 
d. in Andover, Mass., 8 April, 1834, was gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth in 1792, studied theology 
in Bethlehem. Conn., wjis pai?tor of a Congre- 
gational church in Washington, Conn., from 1796 
until 1812, and from that year until 1832 was 
professor of sacred rhetoric at Andover theological 
seminary, of which he was president from 1827 
till his death. Yale gave him the degree of A. M. 
in 1795, and Dartmouth that of D. D. in 1814. He 
contrii)uted to the " Quarterly Register," and pub- 
lished sixteen sermons, two fast sermons (1831), 
and abridgments of Owen on " Spiritual Minded- 
ness " and on the " 130th Psalm " (1833) ; and was 
the author of " The Young Preacher's Manual " 
(Boston. 1819) ; " Lecture on the Analysis of Vocal 
Inflections" (Andover, 1824); "An Analysis of 
the Principles of Rhetorical Delivery " (1827) ; 
"Syllabus of Lectures" (1829); ""Rhetorical 
Reader" (1831, enlarged by James N. MacEUigott, 
New York, 1855) ; " Lectures on the Revivals of 
Religion " (Andover, 1832) ; " Lectures on the 
Cultivation of Spiritual Habits and Progress in 
Study " (18^33) ; " Lectures on Homiletics, Preach- 
ing, and Public Prayer, with Sermons and Let- 
ters " (Andover and ^ew York, 1834: 2d ed., with 
notes and appendix by the Rev. J. Jones, of Liver- 
pool, London, 1835) ; and •' Lectures on Eloquence 
and Style," revised by Rev. Lyman Matthews (An- 
dover, 1836). See " 5lemoir of Ebenezer Porter," 
D. D., by Rev. Lyman Matthews (Boston, 1837). 

PORtER, Thomas Conrad, botanist, b. in 
Alexandria, Huntingdon co.. Pa., 22 Jan.. 1822. 
He was gmduated at Lafayette college, Easton, 
Pa., in 1840, and at Princeton theological semi- 
nary in 1843, and was licensed to preach in 1844. 
In 1846 he was pastor of a Presbyterian church 
in Monticello, Ga., and in 1848 he took charge 
of the newly organized 2d German Reformed 
church in Reading, Pa., and was ordained by the 



classis of Lebanon. In 1849 he resigned to be- 
come professor of natural sciences in Marshall 
college, Mercersburg, Pa., held the same chair 
when the institution was removed to Lancaster 
and consolidated with Franklin college in 1858, 
and was secretary of the board of trustees until 
1866, when he resigned to bt>come professor of 
botany and zoology in Lafayette, which office he 
now (1888) holds. In 1877 he became pastor of the 
Third street Reformed church of that town, which 
charge he resigned in 1884. Rutgers gave him the 
degree of D. D. in 1865, and Franklin and Mar- 
shall that of LL. D. in 1880. He is a member of 
various scientific societies, and was a founder and 
ftrst president of the Linnaean society of Lan- 
caster county, Pa. His extensive herbarium is in 
the possession of Lafayette college. His reports in 
connection with Dr, Ferdinand V. Hayden's col- 
lections in the Rocky mountains in l670-'4 were 
published by the government, and one of these, 
" A Synopsis of the Flora of Colorado," prepared 
with Prof. John M. Coulter, has been issued in 
a separate volume (Washington, 1874). He also 
furnished a summary of the flora of the state to 
" Gray's Topographical Atlas of Pennsylvania " 
(Philadelphia, 1872), and to " Gray's Topographical 
Atlas of the United States" (18*73). In addition 
to contributions to the " Mercersburg Review," he 
has published a prose version of Goethe's " Her- 
mann und Dorothea " (New York, 1854) ; trans- 
lated " The Life and Labors of St. Augustine," 
from the German of Dr. Philip Schaff (New York, 
1854-'5), and " The Life and Times of Ulric Zwing- 
li," from the German of Hottinger (Harrisburg, 
1857) ; and contributed several hymns from the 
German and Latin to Dr. Philip Schaff's " Christ 
in Song" (New York, 1868). He was an active 
member of the committee that framed in 1867 the 
order of worship that is now (1888) used in the 
German Reformed church in the United States. 

PORTER, William Trotter, journalist, b. in 
Newbury, Vt., 24 Dec, 1800 ; d. in New York city, 
20 July, 1858. He was educated at Dartmouth, but 
was not graduated. In 1829 he became connected 
with the " Farmer's Herald " at St. Johnsbury, 
Vt., and the following year he became associate 
editor of " The Enquirer " at Norwich. His am- 
bition for a wider field of action led him to New 
York city, where he first found employment as 
foreman in a printing-office. He engaged as a 
compositor Horace Greeley, who had recently ar- 
rived in the city, and a life-long friendship ensued. 
Mr. Porter's cherished project was put into effect 
on 10 Dec, 1831, when he issued the initial num- 
ber of the " Spirit of the Times," the first sport- 
ing journal in the United States. It was a novel 
undertaking, and was not at first successful. In a 
few months it was merged with " The Traveller," 
with Mr. Porter in charge of the sporting depart- 
ment. The following year he resigned and took 
charge of " The New Yorker " for a short time, and 
then of "The Constellation." As these journals 
gave only a subordinate place to sporting topics, 
he purchased " The Traveller, and Spirit of the 
Times" from C. J. B. "Fisher, who had united the 
two, and on 3 Jan., 1835, the paper was issued 
again under its original name. At this period 
the sports of the turf and field were held in dis- 
repute, especially in the New England states, and 
the task of correcting deep-rooted prejudices called 
into play all the perseverance, tact, and talent of 
the editor, who was thoroughly imbued with love 
of the work. The paper was progressive, and was 
soon supported by a host of wealthy patrons and 
versatile contributors. Among the fatter were Al- 



PORTERFIELD 



POKTIER 



81 



bert Pike, Thomas B. ThomN " Frank Foroster," 
(fporp! Wilkins Kendall, Charles (i. Ijolanil, and 
Thomais Picton. The |»o|MiIarity <>f Mr. Porter wan 
ereat. Nearly all his wirresjKmdents, antl the nia- 

Iority of his 8id»seril>er», wert^ personal friends, 
lis sol>ri(iuot of " York's Tall Son " wa.s be-stowitl 
not le.ss in rei-o>;nition of his s<»eial qualities than 
of his lofty stature — six feet and four inches. A 
writer saysof him : " His mind wa.s comprehensive, 
his |H>rcej)tion keen, his (knluctions clear and con- 
cise, whilst his judgment and decisions in all s|)ort- 
injf matters were more reliable and more resi>ected 
than any other man's in this country. He was the 
father of a school of American s[H>rtinff literature, 
which is no less a credit to his name than it is an 
honor to the land that gave him birth. Many of 
his decisions and spt>rtinjtj rejwrts will l)e quoted 
as authority for jjenerations to come. He {K>Si$essed 
ft fund of sporting statistics uno({ualled by any 
other nuiii in Americji." In February, 1839, he 
purt!hase<l the "American Turf Register and 
Sporting Magazine" froTn John S. Skinner, of 
Baltimore, and the periodical wa.s thenceforth pub- 
lished in New York until it was finally suspended 
in 1844. After conducting the old "Spirit" — as 
it was familiarly termed — for nearly twenty-five 
years, he withdrew from the editorial manage- 
ment, and with George Wilkes established " l*or- 
ter's Spirit of the Times " in Septeml)er, 1856. 
Failing health prevented close application to the 
new field of lalwr. He edited three collections of 
tales that had appeared in his journal, entitled 
" The Big liear or Arkansaw, and Other Tales " 
(Philadelphia, 1835) ; " A Quarter Race in Ken- 
tucky, and Other Sketches" (1846); and " Major 
T. B. Thorpe's Scenes in Arkansaw, and Other 
Sketches" (1859): and also issued an American 
edition, with additions, of Col. Peter Hawker's " In- 
structions to Young Sportsmen " (1846). At the 
time of his death he was engaged in preparing a 
biography of Henry William Herbert ("Frank For- 
ester "). See " Life of William T. Porter," by Fran- 
cis Brinlev (New York, 1860). 

PORTERFIELD, Charles, soldier, b. in Fred- 
erick county, Va., in 1750; (^ on Santee river, S. 
C, in October, 1780. He l)ecame a member of the 
first company that was raised in Frederick county 
in 1775 for service in the Revolutionary war. of 
which Daniel Morgan was elected captain, marched 
to Cambridge, near Boston, and soon afterward 
joined in the expedition against Quebec, and wiis 
made prisoner in the attempt on that fortress. The 
assailing column, to which he belonged, was under 
the command of Col. Arnold. When that officer 
was wounded and carried from the ground. Porter- 
field, with Morgan, rushing forwanl, jmssed the 
first and second barriers. After being exchanged 
he re-entered the service as captain in the rifle- 
corps of Col. Morgan and participated in all the 
battles in which it was engaged uuring the cam- 
paigns of 1777-'8. In 1779 he was appoinletl by 
Gov. .Jefferson lieutenant-colonel of a Virginia 
regiment that had l)een equipjwd mainly at hisown 
expense, with which, in the spring of 1780, he 
marched to the relief of Charleston, S. C. He re- 
mained in South Carolina and joined the army of 
Gen. Gat^s a few days before the bjittle of Camden. 
His command formed part of the julvanced guard 
of Gates's army, and unexpectedly met that of the 
enemy alK)ut one o'clock a. m. on 1(5 Aug., a moon- 
light night. While making a gallant resistance 
and holding the enemy in check, he received a 
mortal wound, his left leg l»eing shattered just Ih?- 
low the knee. He was earned from the field, re- 
mained ten days without surgical attention, and 



was then taken in a cart twelve mil«>s to Camden 
where the re(juin'<l amputation was |>erformed. 
While a prisoner in Camden he was tn-ated with 
great kindness and attention by both Ix)rd Corn- 
wallis and liord Rawdon, who supplie<l all his 
wants. He was jwroled, but «lie<I from the effects 
of his wound. — His brother, Robert, sohlier. b. in 
Fre«lerick county, Va., 22 Vvh., 1752: d. in Au- 
gusta county, Va., 13 Feb., 1843, was apfK>inted a 
lieutenant in Capt. Peter B. Bruin's company of 
Continental troops in Winchester, Va., in 1*776, 
serve<l in Col. Daniel Morgan's regiment through 
the campaigns of 1777-'9, the last vear was aide Ut 
Oen. William Woodford, and was I'n the battles of 
the Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth. 
He acconifianied Gen. Wrxxlford to the south in 
Deceml)er, 1779, and participatetl in the siege of 
Charleston, S. C, where he was surrenderetl a pris- 
oner of war in Mav. 1780. He was apf>ointed a 
brigadier-general of Virginia militia during the 
war of 1812, and commande<l at Camp Holly, Va. 
Gen. Porterfleld was a county magistrate for more 
than fifty years, and wa.s twice high-sherifT. 

PORtlER, Michel, R. C. bishop, b. in Mont- 
brison, France, 7 Sept., 1795 ; d. in Mobile, Ala., 14 
May, 1859. He entered the Seminary of Lyons, 
but before completing his theological studies he 
met with Bishop I)ul)ourg. of Louisiana, who had 
come to France in search of missionaries for his 
diocese. Young Portier consented to follow the 

ftrelate to the Lnited States, and reached Annapo- 
is, 4 Sept., 1817. After a visit of several months 
to the home of Charles Carroll, of Carrollton. he 
finished his studies in St. Mar}''s seminary, Balti- 
more, and was ordainwl j)riest in St. Louis by 
Bishop Dulwurg in 1818. Shortly afterward there 
was an epidemic of yellow fever in the country, 
during wnich he was unceasing in his attendance 
on the sick and dying. He was finally attacked by 
the disease, and on his recovery was summoned to 
New Orleans, where he established a school on the 
Lancasterian system. He was shortly afterward 
appointed vicar-general of the diocese. The rapid 
increase in the number of Roman Catholics ren- 
dered a division of the see of Louisiana necessary, 
and in 1825 Alabama, Florida, and Arkansas were 
created a vicariate. Dr. Portier was nominated 
vicar-apostolic the same year. He was consecrated 
bishop of Olena iw part thus by Bishop Rosati in St. 
Louis on 5 Nov., 1826. There were only two churches 
in his vicariate — one in Pensacola and the other in 
St. Augustine — and the three priests, who were the 
sole missionaries in thisextensive territon*, belonged 
toother dioceses, to which they were recalled shortly 
after his consecration. His poverty was so great 
that he was unable to purchase the insignia appro- 
priate to his rank. He remained in Mobile until 
the summer of 1827. when he l)egan his episcopal 
visitation, travelling on horseback to Pensacola, 
Tallahassee, and St. Augustine. Owing to the heat 
that prevailed during his journey, he was attacked 
by a fever at the latter town and narrowly escaped 
death. When he had partially recovered he re- 
sumetl his lalwrs in St. Augustine and its neigh- 
borhood. The absence of priests for some years 
had resulted in a total neglect of religious obliga- 
tions among the Spanish population, and he found 
it necessary to instruct even the adults in the rudi- 
ments of Ohristian doctrine. He remained until 
the end of September, constantly pi-eachingand in- 
stnicting in Spanish and English, except when 
stricken by fever, and wrought an extraonlinarv 
change in the habits of the people. His Knglish 
sermons were attended by the members of all de- 
nominations, and he received substantial aid also 



82 



PORTILLO 



PORTUONDO 



from thosp who differed with him in belief during 
his stay in St. Augustine. In 1829 he prevailed on 
Hishop Kngland to station a priest of his di<x;ese in 
East V'iorida. He then sailed for Kuro[K', and, 
after sfRMiding several months in France, where he 
obt4iined money, Iwsides the services of two priests, 
four sul)-dt'acons, and two ecclesiastical students, 
he returned the sjime year. While he was in Eu- 
rofH' the bishopric of Mobile hiul Iwen formed out 
of his vicariate, and he was installed bishop of the 
new see after his arrival. He iH'gan at once to or- 

fanize parishes, and built churches at Tuscaloosa, 
.lontpomcry, Florence, Huntsville, and Moulton. 
lie next founded Sjiring Hill college, near Mobile, 
and also built the ecclesiastical seminary that was 
atUwhed to it. The funds he had obtained from 
abroad enabled him to employ teachers. He intro- 
duced the Nuns of the Visitation order into his dio- 
cese in 18;J2, and in the following year built a con- 
vent and ivcailemy for them in Summerville. He 
began the eret^tion of the cathedral of the Im- 
maculate Conception in 18JW, a fine structure, 
which he completed in 1850. Nearly all the great 
charities of the diocese owed their origin to Bishop 
Portier. A large number of children having been 
rendered orphans by the cholera epidemic of 1839, 
he introduced a colony of Sisters of Charity and a 
body of Brothers of Christian Instruction from 
France, who took charge of the asylums that he 
founded. To these institutions he attached labor 
and free schools. He organized a girls' school in 
St. Augustine, introduced the Jesuits, and added 
largely to the number of churches and missions. 
He paid a second visit to Europe in 1849. After 
his return he took part in the different councils of 
his church in this country and wjis active in their 
deliberations. His last great work was the erection 
of Providence infirmary in Mobile, to which he re- 
tired when he felt his end approaching. Bishop 
Portier may be said to have created the Roman 
Catholic church in his vicariate, which, before 
his death, was divided into three extensive dio- 
ceses. He left twenty-seven priests, a splendid 
cathedral, fourteen churches, a college and ecclesias- 
tical seminary, fourteen schools, three academies 
for boys and three for girls, two orphan asylums, 
an infirmary, and many free schools. He was for 
some time l^efore his death the senior bishop of the 
American hierarchv. 

PORTILLO, Jacinto de (por-tee'-yo), later 
known as Fray Cixto, Spanish soldier, b. in Spain 
about 1490; d. in Nombre do Dios, Mexico, 20 
Sept., 150(5. He went to Cuba as a soldier with 
Diego de Velazquez, and took part in the explora- 
tion of the coast of Mexico under Juan de Grijalva 
in 1519. He also particijiated in the conquest of 
Mexico, afterward went with eight of his comrades 
to explore the northwest coast, and, having suffered 
great hardships, reached the South sea, taking pos- 
session of it in the name of the emperor, as he re- 
lates in a letter to Philip II., dated Mexico, 20 July, 
1561. As a reward for his services, the emperor 
gave him the Indian commanderies of Huitzitlapan 
and Tlatanquitepec, where he acquired a great for- 
tune. AlK)ut 1563 he abandoned his adventurous 
life for a life of penitence, distributed his riches 
among the poor, and as a priest devoted himself 
to the conversion of the natives in the province of 
Zacatecas. Fray Cinto disnlayed much zeal in his 
new vocation and met with great success. With 
Friar Pedro de Espinadera he founded the town of 
Nombre de Dios, and many Christian congrega- 
tions. He died, after a residence in New Spain of 
nearly half a century, in the convent of the town 
that he had founded. 



PORTLOCK, Nathaniel, English navigator, 
lived in the 18th century. He served with Capt. 
Cot)k in his last voyage to the Pacific ocean, and 
was given command in 1785 of the " King George," 
which was sent out from London by the King 
George's Sound company, a corporation that had 
been formed for traduig in furs from the west coast 
of North America to CTiina. After various expe- 
riences in the Pacific, Capt. Portlock brought his 
vessel back to England in 1788 after making a 
voyage around the world. Subsequently he wrote 
"Voyage Around the World: but More Particu- 
larlyto the Northwest Coast of America " (London, 
1789; abridged ed., 1789). His convoy on this ex- 
pedition was commanded by George Dixon {q. v.), 

PORTOCARRERO LASO DE LA VEGA, 
Melchor de (por-to-car-ray'-ro). Count of Mon- 
clova, viceroy of Mexico and Peru, b. in Madrid, 
Spam, 4 June, 1636 ; d. in Lima, Peru, 22 Sept., 
1705. During his youth he was page of Queen 
Elizabeth of Bourbon, and he served in the armies 
of Flanders, Sici- 
ly, Catalonia, and 
Portugal, from 
1658 till 1662. 
He lost an arm 
in the battle of 
the Downs of 
Dunkirk, and 
used a silver one 
till his death. In 
1665 he took part 
in the siege and 
battle of Villavi- 
ciosa, where he 
was taken pris- 
oner, and on his 
liberation he was 
promoted lieu- 
tenant - general. 
He was appoint- 
ed viceroy of 
Mexico in 1685, 
and arrived there 
30 Nov., 1686. During his administration there 
was a destructive eruption of the volcano of Ori- 
zaba (1687), the Indians of Coahuila were con- 
quered, the city of Monclova was founded, and the 
aqueduct from Chapultepec to the Salto de Agua 
was constructed at his private expense. In 1688 
he was appointed viceroy of Peru, and he entered 
Lima, 15 Aug., 1689. He introduced many re- 
forms and rebuilt the city of Lima, which he fouild 
almost entirely destroyed by the earthquake of 
20 Oct., 1687. He also reconstructed the church 
of Copacabana and the hospital of the Bethlemi- 
tas. Another important work was the reconstruc- 
tion of the dock of Callao, which he began in 1694, 
and the repairing of the cathedral of Lima. Dur- 
ing his government several destructive earthquakes 
occurred ; in 1698 the cities of Tacunga and Ambato 
were destroyed, and in 1701 a great flood inundated 
Trujillo. He ordered the construction of three 
ships, and appointed the admiral, Antonio fieas, 
to explore the islands of Juan Fernandez. I(i 1698 
a Scottish colony occupied the Isthmus of Darien 
(see Paterson, William), and the king ordered 
the viceroy to attack them ; but the Scotch soon 
abandoned the isthmus, and, although they re- 
turned next year, before the viceroy could leave 
Lima with an expedition, he received advice from 
Gen. Pimienta, the governor of Carthagena, that he 
had expelled them. 

PORTUONDO, Bernardo (por-tw(jn'-do),Cuban 
soldier, b. in Santiago de Cuba in 1840. He went 




PORY 



POST 



83 



to Spain when very younjr, was et1ucate<l in Madrid, 
entertMl tlu> army as a military engineer, and t<M)k 
part in the war apiinsl Moroeco. In 1802 he was 
ap[)<>iiited profesMjr in the College of military engi- 
niHsrs. In 1804 the government sent him to Den- 
mark tx> re|Kirt on the war Iwtween that country 
and Germany and Austria. In 18(W he returneti 
to Cuba, where ho superintended the construction 
of S4! vend im|)ortant public works. Ho went back 
to SjMiin in 1874, in 1871) he was elected to repre- 
sent his native city in the Spanish cortes, antl he 
has since been an active member of the Culian 
Liberal homo-rule party in that lx>dy. He also 
assiste<l to bring alx)Ut the alxdition of slavery In 
the S(>anish West Indies. He has published 
••Tratado de Arquiteotura";' "Estudios de Or- 
ganizaciones militares extranjeras " ; " Descripcion 
(le varias plazas de |;uerra ; and " Empleo del 
hierro en Ins fortificaciones." 

PORY, John, pioneer, b. in England about 
1570; d. in Virginia before 1035. He was educated 
at Caml)ridge, and in 1012 was a resident of Paris. 
During 1019-*21 he was secretary of the Virginia 
colony, and he was elected speaker of the first 
representative assembly that was ever held in this 
country, which convened in Jamestown on 30 July, 
1619. He visited Plvmouth, Mass., shortly after 
its settlement by the Pilgrims from Leyden, but in 
1623 returned to Virginia as one of the commis- 
sioners of the privy council, and died in Virginia. 
He assisted Ilakluyt in his geographical work, 
and was considered a man of great learning. His 
account of excursions among the Indians is given 
in Smith's "Generall Historie," and he translated 
and published " A Geographical Historie of Africa 
by John Leo. a More, borne in Granada and brought 
up in Barbaric" (London, 1000). 

POS.\D.\S, Gerva.sio Antonio, Argentine 
statesman, b. in Buenos Ayres, 19 June, 1757; d. 
there, 2 July, 1832. He studied law, and for several 
years was employed in the Spanish administration, 
but when independence was proclaimed, 25 May, 
1810. he took an active part in the patriotic move- 
ment. Soon he became the chief of tJie Centraliza- 
tion party in opposition to the Federal, and when in 
1813 the constituent assembly abolished the execu- 
tive junta, he was appointed. 26 Jan., 1814, supreme 
director of the Argentine Republic. He created the 
provinces of ?]ntrerios, Tucuman, and Salta, and 
was active in forwartling re-enforcements to the 
army in the Banda Oriental, and, on 22 June, Monte- 
video was captured by Gen. Alvear. His conserva- 
tive ideas caused him to send, in December of that 
year, a secret mission to Europe, for the purpose of 
obtaining a protectorate or a monarch from Eng- 
land or some other European nation, as he did not 
think his country ripe for a republic. His inten- 
tions became known, and there were several insur- 
rections. Posadas, not feeling himself strong 
enough to resist, resigned, 9 Jan., 1815, and after 
the accession of Rosas and the adoption of the Fed- 
eral system he was often persecuted. 

POSEY, Carnot, soldier, b. in Wilkinson coun- 
ty. Miss., 5 Aug., 1818 ; d. in Charlottesville, Va., 
13 Nov., 1863. He served in the Mexican war as a 
lieutenant of rifles under Jefferson Davis, and was 
wounded at Buena V^ista. He liecame colonel of 
the 16th Mississippi regiment on 4 June. 1801, and 
was appointed brigadier-general in the Confederate 
army, 1 Nov., 1862. His brigade was composed of 
four Mississippi regiments of infantry, and formed 
part of Anderson's division of Ambrose P. Hill's 
corps in the Army of Northern Virginia. Gen. 
Posey received wounds at Bristoe Station, Va., 14 
Oct., 1863, from the effects of which he died. 



POSEY, ThomaM, soldier, b. in Virginia, on the 
banks uf Potonuw river, 9 July, 1750; d. in Shaw- 
neetown, III., 19 March, 1818. He received a eom- 
mon-schiM>l eilucation, and in 1769 removed to 
western Virginia. In 1774 he became quarter- 
master of Andrew Ix'wis's division of I>ml Dun- 
more's armv, and to<jk part in the battle with the 
Indians at Point Ple^usant on 10 Oct. of that year. 
A year later he was one of the committee of'cor- 
ri'spondence, and was commissioned captain in the 
7th Virginia Continental ri'giment. In this capaci- 
ty he was present at the engagement at Gwynn's 
island on 8 July, 1776, where Lorti Dunmore (q. v.} 
was defeated. He joined the Continental army at 
Middlebrook, N. J., early in 1777, an<l was trans- 
ferred, with his company, to Daniel Morgan's cele- 
brated rifle-corps, with which he t«Mik part in the 
action with the British light troops at riscataway, 
N. J. Cant. Posey was then sent to Gen. Horatio 
Gates, and rendered efficient service in the two 
battles of Bemis Heights and in that of .Stillwater. 
In 1778 he was commissioned major, and led the 
expedition against the Indians in Wyoming vallev 
in October of that year. He was given the 11th 
Virginia regiment early in 1779, but soon was 
transferred to the command of a battalion in Col. 
Christian Febiger's regiment un«ler Gen. Anthony 
Wayne; and, at the assault of Stony Point, he was 
one of the first to enter the enemy's works. Sub- 
sequently he served in Sotith Carolina, and was 
present at the surrender of Yorktown. He then 
organized a new regiment, of which he took com- 
mand with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and 
served under Gen. Wayne in Georgia until the sur- 
render of Savannah. When he was surprised by 
the Indians under Gueristersigo on the night of 23 
June, 1782, he rallied his men and led them to the 
charge with great bravery and skill, defeating the 
enemy with loss. At the close of the war he settled 
in Spottsylvania county, Va., and in 1785 he was 
made colonel of the county militia, becoming also 
county lieutenant and magistrate in 1786. These 
offices he held until 1793. when, on 14 Feb., he 
was commissioned brigadier-general, and served 
under Gen. Wayne in his campaigns against the 
Indians in the northwest, resigning on 28 Feb., 
1794. He then settletl in Kentucky, where he was 
elected a member of the state senate, and chosen 
speaker in 1805-'6, becoming thereby ejc-officio lieu- 
tenant-governor of the state. In 1809, when war 
was threatening between France and England and 
the United States, Gen. Posey was commissioned 
major-general and given charge of the organization 
and equipment of the Kentucky forces. Soon after- 
ward he removed to Louisiana, and during the 
second war with England he raised a company of 
infantry in Baton Rouge, and was for some time 
its captain. He was appointed U. S. senator from 
Louisiana, and served from 7 Dec., 1812, till 5 Feb., 
1813. On the completion of his term he was-aj)- 
pointed governor of Indiana territory, and con- 
tinued as such until its admission into the Union, 
when he became a candidate for the governorship, 
but was defeated. His last office was that of In- 
dian agent, which he held at the time of his death. 

POST, Christian Frederick, missionary, b. in 
Polish Prussia in 1710; d. in Germantown, Pa., 29 
April, 1785. He came to Pennsylvania in 1742, 
and between 1743 and 1749 was a missionary to 
the Moravian Indians in New York and Connecti- 
cut. He returned to Europe in 1751, and thence 
was sent to Labrador, but afterwani he came again 
to Pennsylvania, and was again employed in the 
Indian missions. In 1758 he undertook an embas- 
sy in behalf of the province to the Delawares and 



84 



POST 



POST 



Shawnees in Ohio. He established an independent 
mission in Ohio in 1761. where he was joined in 
17(52 l)V John Ilockewelder; but the Poiitiivc war 
forced them to alwndon the project. In January, 
17(M, he sailed for the Mosquito cojust, where he 
laborcfl two years, and he ina<ie a second visit there 
in 1707. He afterward united with the Protestant 
Episcopal church. 

POST, Isaac, jihilanthropist. b. in Westbury, 
Queens co.. N. Y.. 2(5 Feb., 1798; d. in KrK-hcstcr, 
X. Y., 9 May, 1H72. lieing the son of Quaker 
parents, he was educated at the Westl)ury P>iends' 
school. He engapiHl in the drug btisiness, and re- 
moved to Scipio, N. Y., in 1823. and to Rochester, 
N. Y., in 1880, where he spent the remainder of his 
life. He was a warm adherent of William Lloyd 
(larrison, and one of the earliest laborers in the 
anti-slavery cause. His door was ever open to 
those who had escaped from bondage, and his hos- 
tility to the fugitive-slave law was bitter and un- 
coni promising. He was a member of the Hieksite 
branch of the Quakers, but left that body Iwcause, 
in his opinion, it showed itself subservient to the 
slave power. Mr. Post resided in Rochester when 

fiublic attention was first attracted to the inani- 
estations by the Fox sisters, and became one of 
the earliest converts to Spiritualism. He was the 
author of " Voices from the Spirit World, lieing 
Communicjitions from Many Spirits, by the Hand 
of Isaa<^! Post, Medium" (ftochester, 1852). — His 
brother. Joseph, b. in Westbury, L. I., 30 Nov., 
18(W ; (1. there. 17 Jan., 1888, resembled Isaac in his 
profession of abolition principles. He was at one 
time proscribed and persecuted within his own sect, 
but lived long enough to witness a complete revolu- 
tion of sentiment, and to be the recipient of many 
expressions of confidence and esteem from his co- 
religionists. When Isaac T. Hopper, Charles Mar- 
riot, and James S. Gibbons were disowned by the So- 
ciety of Friends, on account of their outspoken oppo- 
sition to slavery, they received encouragement and 
support frotn Joseph Post. Mr. Post passed his life 
in the same house in which he was born and died. 
POST, Mintnrn, physician, b. in New York citv, 
28 June. 1808; d. there, 20 April, 1869. He was 
graduated at Columbia in 1827, and, after studying 
medicine under Dr. Valentine Mott, received his 
degree at the medical department of the Univer- 
sity of Virginia in 1832. Subsequently he studied 
in Paris, and, settling in New York city on his 
return, he accpiired a large practice, and became 
recognized as an authority on diseases of the chest. 
In 1843 he was called to be medical examiner of 
the New York life insurance company. He trans- 
lated and added notes to Raciborski's " Ausculta- 
tion and Percussion " (New York. 1839). 

POST, Philip Sidney, soldier, b. in Florida, 
Orange co., N. Y.. 19 March, 1833. He was graduate(l 
at Union college in 1855, studied law. and was ad- 
mitted to the bar. He then travelled through the 
northwest, his [)arents having meanwhile removed 
to Illinois, and took up his abode in Kansas, where 
he practised his profession, and also established 
and edited a newspaper. At the opening of the 
civil war he was chosen 2d lieutenant in the 59th 
Illinois infantry, and in 1802 he became its colo- 
nel. He was severely wounded at the battle of Pea 
Ridge, and miule his way with much suffering, and 
under many difficulties.'to St. Louis. Before fully 
recovering, he joined his regiment in front of Cor- 
inth, Miss., and was assigned to the command of 
a brigade. From May, 1862, till the close of the 
war he was c(mstantly at the front. In the Army 
of the Cuml)erland, as first organized, he com- 
manded the 1st brigade, 1st division, of the 20th 



army corps from its formation to its dissolution. 
He tegan the battle of Stone River, drove back the 
enemy several miles, and captured Leetown. Dur- 
ing the Atlanta campaign he was transferred to 
Wood's division of the 4th army corps, and when 
that general was wounded at Lovejoy's station, 
Post took charge of the division, and with it op- 
posed the progress of the Confederates toward the 
north. On 16 Nov., 1804, in a charge on Overton 
Hill, a grape-sttot crushed through his hip, making 
what was for some days thought to be a mortal 
wound. On 16 Dec, 1864, he was brevetted briga- 
dier-general of volunteers. After the surrender at 
Appomattox he was appointed to the command of 
the western district pf Texas, where there was then 
a concentration of troops on the Mexican border. 
He remained there until 1866, when the with- 
drawal of the French from Mexico removed all 
danger of military complications. He was then 
earnestly recommended by Gen. George H. Thomas 
and others, under whom he had served, for the ap- 
pointment of colonel in the regular army; but he 
did not wish to remain in the army. In 1866 he was 
appointed U. S. consul at Vienna, and in 1874 he be- 
came consul-general. His official reports have been 
quoted as authority. In 1878 he tendered his resigna- 
tion, which, however, was not accepted till the year 
following. He then resided at Galesburg, 111., and 
in 1886 he was elected to congress as a Republican. 

POST, Trnnian Marcellns, clergyman, b. in 
Middlebury, Vt., 3 June, 1810 ; d. in St. Louis, Mo., 
31 Dec, 1886. He was graduated at Middlebury col- 
lege in 1829, and then was principal of an academy 
at Castleton, Vt., for a year. In 1830 he returned to 
Middlebury as tutor, and remained for two years, 
also studying law. He spent the winter of 1832-'3 
at Washington, D. C. listening to debates in con- 
gress and at the supreme court. After spending a 
short time in St. Louis, Mo., he settled in Jackson- 
ville, 111., and was admitted to the bar. In 1833 he 
became professor of languages in Illinois college, 
and later he took the chair of history. He studied 
theology, and was ordained minister of the Con- 
gregational church in Jacksonville in 1840. He 
was called in 1847 to the 3d Presbyterian church in 
St. Louis, and in 1851 to the newly organized 1st 
Congregational church in that city, serving until 
his death. Dr. Post held the place of university 
professor of ancient and modern history at Wash- 
ington university, and in 1873-'5 was Southworth 
lecturer on Congregationalism at Andover theo- 
logical seminary, and was professor of ecclesiasti- 
cal history in Northwestern theological seminary 
in Chicago. In 1855 he received the degree of D. D. 
from Middleburj- college. He contributed to the 
" Biblical Repository " and other religious periodi- 
cals, and, besides various pamphlets, addresses, and 
sermons, was the author of " The Skeptical Era in 
Modern History " (New York, 1850). 

POST, Wright, surgeon, b. in North Hemp- 
stead, N. Y., 19 Feb., 1700; d. in Throg's Neck, 
N. Y., 14 June, 1828. He studied medicine under 
Dr. Richard Bayley, and then for two years under 
Dr. John Sheldon in London. On his return in 
1786 he began to practise in New York, and in 1787 
delivered lectures on anatomy at the New York 
hospital. These efforts were interrupted by the 
"doctor's mob," which broke into the building and 
destroyed the valuable anatomical specimens that 
had been collected. In 1792 he was appointed 
professor of surgery in the medical department of 
Columbia college, and he then visited the great 
schools of Europe, collecting a splendid anatomical 
cabinet, and returning to New \ork,in 1793, after 
which he held the chair of anatomy until 1813. 



POST 



POTANOU 



85 




I 



Dr. Post took rank a» onoof the ablpHt of operative 
surirtHHis, and his skill >rainp<l for him eelebrity 
iKdli (It home ami abrmwl. He wa.^ the first in the 
Unite*! States to perform an operation fur a case 

of fal!<<^ aneurism 
of the femoral ar- 
torv. Sub8e<}uent- 
ly The o|K>rated in 
two cases for caro- 
tid aneurism, and 
in all three cases 
was successful. 
One of his great- 
est feats was the 
successful opera- 
tion of tying the 
subc^lavian artery 
above the clavicle 
on the scH[)ular 
side of the scalene 
muscles /or briwli- 
ial aneurism situ- 
y^^ ^ OPD / ated so high in the 

■^X^y/C/- -€^t^^—-> axilla as to make 

it inexpetlient to 
tie this artery. The accomplishment of this ojHjr- 
ation was es|)ecially noteworthy from the fat^t that 
Dr. John Abernethy, Sir Astley Cooper, and other 
English surgeons had been unsuccessful in its jier- 
formance. In 1813, on the union of the medical 
facility of Columbia and that of the College of 
physicians and surgeons. Dr. Post was appointed 
professor of anatomy and phvsiology in tne new 
facultv, of which he wiis president in 1821-'6. In 
1814 lie received the honorary degree of M. D. 
from the regents of the University of the state of 
New York, and in 1816 he wa.« chosen a trustee 
of Columbia college. Dr. Post was a member of 
various me<lical societies both at home and abroad. 
For more than thirty -five years he was one of 
the surgeons and consulting surgeons of the New 
York hospit^il. His publications include papers 
in medical journals and lectures. — His nephew. 
Alfred Charles, surgeon, b. in New York citv, 13 
Jan., 18(K{; d. there, 7 Feb., 1880, was the son of 
Joel Post, a merchant of New York, whose place of 
business was on Hanover square, and who owned 
as his country-seat the prof)erty known tis Clare- 
mont, which is now included in ftiverside park and 
embraces the site of Gen. Grant's tomb. Young 
Post was graduated at Columbia in 1822. and after 
studying medicine under his uncle, Wright Post, 
received his degree at the College of physicians and 
surgeons in 1827. After jiassing two years at the 
medical schools of Europe, he established himself 
in 182» in New York city, and devoted his atten- 
tion chiefly to surgery. During 1831-'5 he was 
demonstrator of anatomy at the College of phy- 
sicians and surgeons, and in the latter year he 
moved to Brooklyn, but two years later he retume<l 
to Now York, where he remained until his death. 
He was chosen professor of ophthalmic surgery at 
Castleton medical college, Vt., in 1843, and a year 
later was appointed to the chair of surgery. From 
18.51 till 1875 he was professor of surgery in the 
m(Hlical flepartment of the University of the city 
of New York, serving also as presi<lent of the medi- 
cal faculty from 1873 until his <leath. Dr. Post 
held consulting relations to various institutions, 
notably to the New York hospital from 18Ji6, to 
St. Luke's hospital from its beginning, and to the 
Presbyterian hospital. His ^reat fame was acrhieved 
in surgery, and liis operations wt>re marked with 

grecision and dexterity. He was the first in the 
I^nited States to operate for stammering, and in 



184() devi»e<l a new methoil of |icrforming bilateral 
lithotomy. He alsft showe*] mechanical ingenuity 
in devising instruments and appliances, and in the 
latter part of his life lal)ored much in plastic sur- 
ger)', making important re|M>rt» of o{terationH in 
that line. He was a memlM>r of medical sf>cietie8 
Ixith at home and abroad, and was president of the 
New York acmlemv of me<licine in 18(57-'8. In 
1872 he receivetl the degree of LL. I), from the 
University of the city of New York. Dr. Post was 
also active in various religious and charitable or- 
gan izati<ms, and at the time of his death was {iresi- 
dent of the New York metlical mission, and one of 
the ilirectors of Union theological seminary. His 
literary contributions consisted entirely of techni- 
cal |>ai»ers in professional journals, with the single 
exception of his "Strabismus and .Stammering" 
(New York. 1840). 

POSTELI^ Benjamin, soldier, b. in 1760; d. 
in Charleston, S. C, in January, 1801. He was a 
resident of St. Bartholomew's parish, S. C. In 1775 
he Ijecame a lieutenant in the 1st regiment of his 
state, and on the capture of Charleston in 1780 he 
was sent as a prisoner to .St. Augustine, where he 
remained eleven months, sufTering many hardships. 
Subsequently he was a meml)er of the legislature, 
and colonel of the Colleton county regiment. He 
did got)d service in the Revolution under Gea. 
Francis Marion. His brothers, Maj. Jonx and Col. 
Jamks. also won reputation in the jiartisan warfare 
under Marion. The former captured forty British 
regulars near Monk's Comer on 29 Jan., 1781. 

POTANOU, Indian chief, b. in P'lorida about 
1525 ; d. there alxiut 1570. He was the king of the 
most potent of the three great Indian confederacies 
that existed in lower Florida at the time of the 
landing of Jean Kibaut {q. v.) in 1562, and his do- 
mains extended seventy miles westward and north- 
westward of St. John's river. The Florida Indians 
were more advanced in civilization than the more 
northern tribes, and were chiefly an agricultural 
people. Potanou was a legislator, and endeavored 
to promote civilization among his subjects. The 
villages under his rule had wooden buildings that 
were constructed according to his plans, and aston- 
ished both the early French and .Spanish adven- 
turers. But he failed in his attempts to unite the 
Indians of lower Florida in a single great confed- 
eracy, of which it was his ambition to be the chief, 
and "at the time of Ribaut's landing in 15G2 there 
was a war among the three kings, Satouriona, 
Outina {q. r.), and Potanou, in which the last seeme<l 
to have the atlvantage. He was also the first to 
oi)en intercourse witli Ribaut, and receive*! from 
him a present of a n)lx' of blue cloth, worked with 
the regal fleur-de-lis. The difllculties that the 
French under Rene de Laudonniere (^. r.) met in 
their attempts to colonize Florida were due chiefly 
to the rivalry among the three kings, who aske<l 
Ijaudonniere's aid against their neighbors, and, iK'ing 
refused, became his enemies. They afforded assist- 
ance to the Spaniards under Menendez de Aviles 
{q. f.). esi)ecially Potanou, who complaiiunl of a 
raid that had been made on his villages by Outina. 
aided by a [mrty of French under Arlac. a lieuten- 
ant of ' Laudonniere. But the haughtiness and 
cruelties of the Spaniartls soon occasionetl hostilities 
with the Indians, and a war l)egan against the in- 
truders. Menendez de Aviles endeavonnl in vain 
to conciliate Potanou, but the prudent king could 
not be decoyed, and ordered that all missionaries 
and SfMiniards trespassing on his domains should 
l)e put to death. This enmity, which laste<l till 
Potanou's death. prove<l a severe check to the 
Spanish colonization of Florida. 



86 



POTTER 



POTTER 




0^^yir-^?^Sir 



POTTER. Alonzo, P. E. bishop, b. in Beekman 
(now liH (irnripi'). Dutchess co., N. Y..« .July, 1800: 
d. in Sun Francist-o, Cal.. 4 July, 18(55. His father 
was .losojih potter, a fanner, of the Society of 
Friends, an eniijjrant from Cranston, R. I., in which 
state other brandies of the family are still livinpj. 
Alonzo first attended the district - school of his 

native place, which 
was then taught by 
a Mr. Thompson, to 
wliose influence in 
arousing and di- 
recting the activi- 
ties of his mind he 
never forgot that 
he was greatly in- 
debted. At twelve 
years of age he was 
sent to an academy 
in Poughkeepsie, 
and he was gradu- 
ated at Union col- 
lege in 1818 with 
the highest honors. 
Soon after his grad- 
uation he went to 
Philadelphia, was attracted to the Episcopal church, 
and entered its communion His thoughts were 
soon turned to the ministry, and he was directed in 
his theological studies by the Rev. Dr. Samuel H. 
Turner. lie was presently recalled to Union college 
as a tutor, and at twenty-one he was made professor 
of mathematics and natural philosophy. Meantime 
he pursued his studies, and was admitted deacon by 
Bishop Hot)art, and in 1824 advanced to the priest- 
hood l>y Bishop Brownell. In the same year he mar- 
ried the only daughter of President Nott, of Union 
college. In 182(5 Prof. Potter was called to the 
rectorship of St. Paul's church, Boston. After 
five years of earnest and successful labor he felt 
constrained, despite the protestations of his peo- 
ple, to resign his rectorship. In 1832 he was re- 
called to Union college to fill the chair of moral and 
intellectual philosophy and political economy. His 
official position and his personal relationship natu- 
rally made him the friend and counsellor of the 
president in the administration of the college. In 
1838 he was formally elected its vice-president, and 
continued to be practically its controlling head 
until he resigned to become bishop of Pennsyl- 
vania, 23 Sept., 1845. From his boyhood, owing 
perhaps in part to his Quaker origin^ he cherished 
a deep sympathy for the oppressed, and through 
life, in every ofliice, he befriended the negro race. 
He took great interest in the organization of young 
men's institutes throughout the state of New 
York, and immediately on his settlement in Phila- 
delphia, invoking the help of energetic laymen, 
established four such fraternities in that city, and 
gave iiis personal services as a lecturer before them. 
When he was called to the episcopate he was al- 
ready under engagement to deliver in five consecu- 
tive years before the Lowell institute in Boston 
courses of lectures on " Natural Theology and 
Christian Evidences," beginning in 1845 and end- 
ing in 1849. They were given on an open plat- 
form, without even a brief before him, and the 
largest public hall in Boston was filled throughout 
the entire series. This was the intellectual triumph 
of his life. As a bishop he was most distinguished 
for his executive abilitj^. He had a genius for ad- 
ministration. He devised large plans of benefi- 
cence, which it was costly to consummate, but they 
were so well considered before he communicated 
them to others that men of business and wealth 



were found ready to co-operate and to contribute 
for their realization. In his time the Episcopal 
hospital was founded, built, and endowed with 
nearly half a million dollars ; the Episcopal acade- 
my, which for half a century had had no sign of 
its existence but its charter, was revived, its com- 
modious building was reared and filled with pupils, 
and its reputation for thorough instruction was 
made equal to that of any preparatory school in 
the city : the Philadelphia uivinity-school was es- 
tal)lished, a valuable property for its occupancy 
was bought and fitted, and an endowment of sev- 
eral hundred thousand dollars was secured for its 
support. These institutions, still developing for 
the benefit of the present and future generations, 
owe their inception to Bishop Potter, In the 
twenty years of his episcopate thirty - five new 
churches were built in the city of Philadelphia, 
The growth of the diocese was such that in the 
vear of his death it became necessary to divide it. 
Sis vigorous constitution succumbed under the 
pressure of care and labor that he took upon him- 
self. In 1859 he was partially relieved by an assist- 
ant, but it was too late. He died in the harbor of 
San Francisco, where he had just arrived after a 
voyage around Cane Horn in search of health. lie 
had received the aegree of D. D. from Harvard in 
1846, and that of LL. D. from Union in the same 
year. Bishop Potter was the auther of treatises 
on logarithms and descriptive geometiy, which 
were printed for the use of his classes in Union 
college (1822-'6) ; " Political Economy, its Objects, 
Uses, and Principles " (New York, 1840) ; '' The 
Principles of Science applied to the Domestic and 
Mechanic Arts, and to Manufactures and Agricul- 
ture "(Boston, 1841 ; revised ed.. New York, 1850); 
" The School and the Schoolmaster," with George 
B. Emerson (1842) ; " Hand-Book for Readers and 
Students " (1843) ; " Discourses, Charges, Addresses, 
Pastoral Letters, etc. " (1858) ; and " Religious 
Philosophy" (1870). He edited seven volumes of 
" Harpers' Family Library," with introductory 
essays; Rev. Samuel Wilks's "Christian Essays^' 
(Boston. 1829) ; Maria James'3 " Poems " (Is''ew 
York, 1839) : and " Lectures on the Evidences of 
Christianity, delivered in Philadelphia by Clergy- 
men of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1853-^" 
(Philadelphia, 1855). See "Memoirs of the Life 
and Services of Rt. Rev. A. Potter, D. D.. LL. D.," 
by Bishop M. A. De Wolfe Howe (Philadelphia, 
1870).— His son, Clarkson Nott, legislator, b. in 
Schenectady, N. Y., 25 April, 1825 ; d. in New York 
city, 23 Jan., 1882, was graduated at Union college 
in 1842, studied civil engineering at Rensselaer 
polytechnic institute, and in 1843 went to Milwau- 
kee, Wis. After being employed as an engineer, 
he studied law, and in 1848 returned to New York, 
where he began to practise. In 1868 he was elected 
to congress, from the 12th district of that state, 
as a Democrat, and he was twice re-elected, sitting 
in that body from 4 March, 1869, till 3 March, 
1875. He declined a nomination to the 44th con- 
gress, but was again chosen for the two succeeding 
terms, and served from'lo Oct., 1877, till 4 March, 
1881. During his congressional career Mr. Potter 
was a member of important committees, and took 
an active part in the discussion of the disputed 
electoral votes of Louisiana and Florida in the 
presidential election of 1876. In 1879 he received 
the Democratic nomination for lieutenant-governor 
of New York, but was defeated, Mr. Potter served 
as president of the American bar association, and 
received the decree of LL. D. — Another son, 
Robert B., soldier, b. in Schenectafly, N. Y,, 16 
July, 1829 ; d. in Newport, R. I., 19 Feb., 1887, spent 



POTTER 



POTTER 



87 



some time at Union college, hut wa« not gnwluiitod. 
He studied law, wiu« admitttvl to the bar. and at 
the Invsinniuj; of I ho civil war was in successful 
practice in New York city. He was comuiissionod 
major of the Slst New York voluntwrs, KmI the 
asstiuit at Roanoke island, was woundtMl at New 
Berne, commandtnl his re;fiment at Ctnlar Moun- 
tain. Mana.ssas, and ("hantilly. and carried thestcme 
brid^re at Antietam. where he was af;ain wounded. 
He was also enpa>fe<l in the Ixittle of Fre«lericks- 
burj; in DeoemlHT. 18({2. and was made brjpidier- 
ffeneral of volunteers. V.] March. \H(')H. He had i>re- 
viously Ixien commissionwl lieuteiumt-colonel and 
colonel. He led a division at Vieksburjr, and ttKik 
part in the siejje of Knoxville, Tenn. He was bre- 
vetted major-preneral of volunteers in June, 1864. 
In the Wilderness oampaifrn. his division wa.«s con- 
stantly under fire, an<l in the final assault on Pe- 
tersburg^, 2 April, 1865. he was severely injured. 
After the war ne was assigned to the command of 
the Connecticut and Rhode Island district of the 
Demrtment of the East, and on his weddinp-day his 
wife was presented by Sec. Stanton with his com- 
mission as full major-peneral of volunteers, dated 
29 Sept., 1865. He was mustered out of the army in 
January, 186(J, and acted for three years as receiver 
of the Atlantic and Great Western railroa<l. After 
spending some time in P'ngland for his health, he 
returnea to Newport, R. I., where he resided until 
his death. Gen. Grant refers to Gen. Potter in 
flatterin}; terms in his " Memoirs," and Gen. Win- 
fleld S. Hancock said of him that he was one of 
the twelve liest officers, including both the regular 
and volunteer services, in the army. — Another son, 
Henry Codman, P. E. bishop, b.'in Schenectady, 
N. Y., 25 May, 1835, after being educated chierfy 
at the Episcopal academy in Philadelphia, was 
graduated at the Theological seminary or Virginia 
in 1857, received deacon's orders the same year, 
and was ordained, 15 Oct., 1858. From July, 1857, 
till May, 1859, he was rector of Christ church, 
Greensburgh, Pa., and for the next seven years he 
had charge of St. John's, Troy, N. Y. He then be- 
came assistant minister of Trinity church, Boston, 
where he remained two years. From May, 1868, 
till January, 1884, he was rector of Grace church. 
New York "city. In 1863 he was chosen president 
of Kenyon college, Ohio, and in 1875 he was elected 
bishop of Iowa, but he declined both offices. In 
1883 liishop Horatio Potter, of New York, having j 
asked for an assistant, the convention of that year j 
unanimously elected his nephew. Dr. Henry C. 
Potter, assistant bishop. He was consecrated on 
20 Oct.. in the presence of forty-three bishops and 
300 of the clergy, the General convention Ix'ing i 
then in session in Philadelphia. By formal instru- 
ments, that were executed soon afterward, the aged 
bishop resigned the entire charge and responsibility | 
of the work of the diocese into the hands of his 
assistant. These duties the latter continued to dis- 
charge until the death of Bishop Horatio Potter, 
on 2 Jan., 1887, ma«le him his successor. Dr. Pot- 
ter was secretary of the House of bishops from 1866 
till 188:1, and for many years he was a manager of 
the Board of missions. He received from Union 
the degrees of A. M., D. D., and LL. D. in 186:1, 
1865. and 1877, respectively, and that of D. D. from 
Trinity in 1884. Bishop Potter has published 
" Sisterho<Hls and Deaconesses at Home and 
Abroad : A History of their Rise and Growth in 
the Protestant FJpiscopjal Church, together with 
Rules for their Organization and Government " 
(View York, 1872); "The Gates of the East: A 
Winter in Egypt and Syria" (1876); and "Ser- 
mons of the city" (1877). — Another son, Edvtard 



Tnrkornian, architect, b. in Schenectady, N. Y., 
25 S«-pt., WW. was graduated at Union In IRM, 
studie<l architecture under Richard M. Upjr)hn. and 
has nractis«'d in New York, giving attention jjrin- 
cipally to collegiate and ecclesiastical architecture. 
His work (as ilhistrated in the Church of the 
Heavenly Rest, New York; the Church of the 
(food Shepherd fColt Memorial]. Hartford: and 
Memorial Hall, Schenectady) is distinguished by 
marked freshness and originality of conception, 
felicity of onuimentation, and delicacy of feeling. 
He has resided largely abroad, and is known as a 
musical com|>oser of much merit. — Another son, 
Elinhalet Nott, clergyman, b. in Schenectady, 
N. v., 20 Sept., 1836, was graduateil at Union in 
1861, and at Berkeley divinity-school in 1862. He 
to<ik orders as an Episcopalian clergyman, and was 
rector of the Church of the Nativity in South Beth- 
lehem, Pa., from 1862 till 1869. From 1866 till 1871 
he was secretary and professor of ethics at Lehigh 
university, and from 1869 till 1871 he was associate 
rector of St. Paul's. Troy. N. Y. At Bethlehem 
Dr. Potter was instrumental in building three 
churches, and in Troy two cha|iels. In 1871 he 
was elected president of Union college, and he was 
chosen to the same office when the college l)ecame 
a university in 187:^. In 1872 he was elected 
trustee. Resigning from the presidency in 1884, 
he was chosen bishop of Nebraska, but declined, 
and accepted instead a prior call to l)ecome presi- 
dent of Hobart college. He received the tlegree 
of D. D. from Union in 1869. — Alonzo's brother, 
Horatio, P. E. bishop, b. in Beekman, Dutchess 
CO., N. Y., 9 Feb., \m : d. in New York city, 2 
Jan., 1887. He was gratluated at Union college in 
1826. ordained deacon in July, 1827, and became 
priest the following year. His first charge was at 
Saco, Me. In 1828 he was elected professor of 
mathematics and natural philosophy in Washing- 
ton (now Trinity) college, and took an active part 
in plans for the enlargement of the college. In 
18:33 he became rector of St. Peter's church, Al- 
Imny, N. Y., and held that post till 1854, when he 
was elected provisional bisnop of the diocese of 
New York, and consecrated in Trinity church on 
22 Nov. of that year. On the death of Bishop On- 
derdonk in 1861, he became bishop of the dioce.se. 
The 25th anniversary of his consecration was cele- 
brated on Saturday.'22 Nov., 1879, by services in 
Trinity church, and 
on the following 
Tuesday by a recep- 
tion in the Academy 
of music, at which 
deputations from 
the other dioceses in 
the state of New 
York were present, 
and addresses were 
made by William M. 
Evarts and John 
Jay. The bishop's 
last public service 
was held, 3 May, 
188:1, at the end of 
a long an«l fatigu- 
ing visitation, after 
which he was pros- 
trated by an attack 
of pneumonia from 

which he never rallied. He died at his residence, 
after being confined to his room three years and 
eight months. When Bishop Potter came to his 
diocese it was in a state of great depression and 
disquiet, owing to the controversies that resulted 




AvicCtt^ ^fir^^tC- 



88 



POTTER 



POTTER 



from the trial and suspension of liis predecessor. 
(See O.VDKRDONK, Hknjamin T.) His administration 
resulted in the restoration of order, quietness, and 
peace, and in great development and prosjierity. 
Among the notable events in his episcopate was 
the sulxlivision in 1868, when the dioceses of Long 
Island and Albany were set off. He was among 
the chief members of the house of bishops, and 
took an active part in the Lanibeth conferences in 
September, 18(57, and July, 1878. He entered zeal- 
ously into the measures that had for their object 
the reunion of the dioceses that had been separated 
temporarily from each other during the civil war, 
and was among the prominent figures in the gen- 
eral convention at Philmlelphia in 1805, at which 
the southern bishops, appearing in the persons of 
two representatives, were received with general and 
enthusiastic rejoicings, and without conditions or 
(piestions, or allusion to the past. Bishop Potter 
was a man of remarkable good sense and tiict, calm, 
wise, and patient, an able administrator, one whose 
judgment wai» rarely if ever at fault, always temper- 
ate and conciliatory ; and to these qualities were 
due the good order, peace, and prosperity of his dio- 
cese. He was a uuin of unusual literary culture. 
Among his personal friends and correspondents 
outsi(le f)f his own country were such men as Bish- 
ops Wilberforce, Selwyn, .Jac^kson, of London, Ham- 
ilton and Moberly, of Salisbury, and Medley, of 
Fredericton, Stanhope. Archdeacon Sinclair, and 
the Rt. Hon. Sir J. T. Coleridge. The growth of 
the diocese of New York under his administra- 
tion may be inferred from the statistics taken from 
the convention journals, though they are imper- 
fect. In 18r)4 the diocese reported 290" clergy, 2,700 
confirmations, 4,482 baptisms, 19, 730 communicants, 
and |!207.341.85 in contributions. In 1868 there 
were reported 446 clergy, 3,930 confirmations, 6,314 
Imptisms, 33.000 communicants, and $1,005,138.21 
in contributions. Bishop Potter took a lively in- 
terest in city mission work among the laboring 
classes and the poor, and devoted to that subject a 
great part of his annual addresses to the conven- 
tion. His publications are limited to pastoral let- 
ters, addresses to the clergy and laity of the dio- 
cese, and occasional sermons. In person Bishop Pot- 
ter was tall and of a dignified and noble presence ; 
he belonged to the old high-church school, of which 
Keble, Pusey, and Isaac Williams were among the 
liest illustrations, yet his sympathies went out free- 
ly toward all Christian people. He was buried in 
the cemetery at Poughkeepsie, where an appropri- 
ate monumental stone marks the place of his rest. 
— Horatio's son, WUIiam Bleeclier, mining engi- 
neer, b. in Schenectady, N. Y., 23 March, 1846, was 
graduated at Columbia in 1866, and then, entering 
the school of mines of that college, received the 
degree of E. M. in 1869. He continued for two 
years as assistant in geology at the school, and also 
served under Dr. John S. Newberry (q. v.) on the 
geological survey of Ohio. In 1871 he was called 
to the chair of mining and metallurgy at Wash- 
ington university, St. Louis, Mo., which place he 
has since held, buring these years he has built up 
an extensive professional practice in the line of 
examining mineral deposits and mining processes, 
with reports on the same. Prof. Potter is a mem- 
ber of scientific societies, and in 1888 he was elected 
president of the American institute of mining en- 
gineers. His scientific papers have been confined 
to proceedings of societies to which he belongs. 

POTTER, Chandler Eastman, author, b. in 
Concord, N. H., 7 March, 1807; d. in Flint, Mich., 
3 Aug., 1868. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 
1831, and was principal of Portsmouth high-school 



in 1832-'8, except during 1834-'5, when he was a 
member of the legislature. Mr. Potter then studied 
law in Concord, and began to practise in East Con- 
cord, but in 1844 removed to Manchester, and for 
four years edited and published the Manchester 
" Democrat." He edited the " Farmer's Month- 
ly Visitor" in 1852-'4, "The Granite Farmer and 
^'lonthlv Visitor " in 1854-'5, and was co-editor of 
the " Weekly Mirror " and the " Mirror and Farm- 
er" in 1864-'5. He was colonel of the Amoskeag 
veterans of Manchester until his decease, and had 
command of the regiment at the time of its visit 
to Baltimore and Washington during the admin- 
istration of F'ranklin Pierce. He was active in the 
New Hampshire historical society, and its president 
in 1855-'7. Col. Potter was well known as an agri- 
cultural, historical, and general newspaper writer, 
and also devoted much of his time to the study of 
Indian languages, in which he was more competent 
than any other scholar in New Hampshire. He 
edited and compiled all that part of the adjutant- 
general's report of New Hampshire that included 
the military history of the state from the beginning 
of the Revolution down to the civil war (1866-'8). 
His other publications include a " History of Man- 
chester, N. II." (Manchester, 1856), and articles on 
the Penobscot and other eastern Indians in Henry 
R. Schoolcraft's " History of the Indians," and he 

{lartially prepared for the press a new edition of 
Jel knap's " History of New Hampshire, with Notes 
and a (Jontinuation to 1860." 

POTTER, Edward Eells, naval officer, b. in 
Medina, N. Y., 9 May, 1833. He entered the U. S. 
navy as a midshipman on 5 Feb., 1850, and after 
service in the Home and African squadrons during 
1850-'5, spent a year at the U. S. naval academy. 
On 9 July, 1858, he was commissioned lieutenant, 
in 1861 he was attached to the " Niagara," of the 
Western Gulf squadron,and in 1861-'2 he was execu- 
tive officer of the " Wissahiekon," of that squadron, 
during the bombardment and passage of Fort Jack- 
son and Fort St. Philip and the capture of New 
Orleans. He also passed the Vicksburg batteries 
twice and participated in the engagement with the 
ram "Arkansas." On 16 July, 1862, he was promot- 
ed lieutenant-commander and attached to the " De 
Soto," of the Eastern Gulf squadron, then passed 
to the " Wabash," of the North Atlantic squadron, 
and in 1864-'5 he had command of the iron-clad 
" Mahopac." He was given the " Chippewa," of the 
North Atlantic squadron, in 1865, and took part in 
the engagement at Fort Fisher and in the bom- 
bardment of Fort Anderson, after which he was 
executive officer of the " Rhode Island " in 1865-'7, 
and was executive officer of the " Franklin," Ad- 
miral Farragut's flagship, in 1867-'8, on the ad- 
miral's last cruise. Subsequently he was on shore 
duty until 1871, having in the meanwhile been 

Eromoted commander on 3 June, 1869. He then 
ad the " Shawmut," of the North Atlantic squad- 
ron, during 1871-2. and then until 1879 was on 
shore duty. In 1880 he commanded the "Constel- 
lation," oh her voyage to Ireland, carrying supplies 
to the sufferers, and he, was commissioned captain 
on 11 July, 1880. He then served at the Brooklyn 
navy-yard in 1881-3, and commanded the " Lan- 
caster," of the European station, until September, 
1886. Capt. Potter was made commandant of the 
navy-yard at League island, Pa., in December, 
1886, and now (1888) fills that place. 

POTTER, Edward Elmer, soldier, b. in New 
York city, 20 June, 1823; d. there, 1 June, 1889. 
He was graduated at Columbia in 1842, studied law, 
went to California, but he returned Jio New York 
and turned his attention to farming. Early during 



POTTKIl 



porrER 



the civil war he was ai)|K>inted captain and com- 
tnissary «>f subsistence from New York, which coni- 
inissioii he held from February to Ot-toU'r. 1802. 
Sul»st<iuently he nH;ruite«l a regiment of North 
Carolina trixSps, of whicli he was made colonel, and 
wasenpijfed chiefly in the ojH'rations in North and 
South Carolina aiid east Tennessee, receivinjj the 

Sromotion of hricmlier-peneral of volunteers on 
'i Nov., 18(52. lie resigned on 24 July. IWi-J. and 
was hrevetted major-general of volunteers on i;{ 
March. IHO."). After the war Gen. Potter resided 
in .MikIIsuii. N. J., and New Vork city. 

POTTKK, Ellsha Reynolds, lawyer, b. in 
South Kingston, R. I., 5 Nov., 1704; d. there, 2« 
Sept., 1835. He Wgan life as a blacksmith's an- 

Erentice, and was also a soldier, but subseciuently 
e studie<l law, and practised with considenible 
success. From ITDS till his<leath he was a memiwr 
of the Rhode Island assembly, except during the 
years of his congre.>*sional servii-e, and he was for 
five years its s|>eaker. In 1790 he was elected as a 
Fe«Ieralist to congress and servinl from 19 Dec, 
1790, until his resignation in 1797. He was again 
sent to congress and serveil from 22 May, 1809, till 
2 March. 1815, acting on important committees. 
In 1818 he was a candidate for governor. It is said 
of him that " few political men in Rhode Island 
ever acquire<l or maintained a more commanding 
influence." — His son. Elisha Reynolds, lawyer, b. 
in South Kingston, R. I., 20 June. 1811 : d. there, 
10 April, 1882, was graduated at Harvard in 1830, 
and. after studying Taw, became a member of the 
Rhode Island legislature. In 1835-'7 he was atlju- 
tant-general of the state. He was elected to con- 

Sress as a Whig, serving from 4 Dec, 1843, till 3 
[arch, 1845. and was state commissioner of public 
sc-hools from May, 1849, till October, 1854. Subse- 
(|Uently he devoted himself to the practice of his 
profession, was chosen a judge of the supreme 
court of the state. Judge Potter was an active 
memljcrof the Rhode Island historical society, and 
published in its collections •' A Brief Account of the 
Emissions of Paper Money made by the Colony of 
Rhode Island" (1837), also various addresses. In 
addition to his "Report on the Condition and Im- 
provement of the Public Schools of Rhode Island " 
(1852), "The Bible and Prayer in Public Schools" 
(1854), and other "Reports and Documents upon 
Public Schools and Education in the State of 
Rhode Island," he was the author of "Early His- 
tory of Narragansett, with an Appendix of Original 
Documents '" (Pmvidence, 1835). 

POTTER, Hazard Arnold, surgeon, b. in Pot- 
ter township, Ontario (now Yates) co., N. Y., 21 
Dec, 1810; d. in Geneva, N. Y., 2 Dec, 1809. He 
was graduated at the metlical department of Bow- 
doin in 1835, and began the practice of his profes- 
sion in Rhode Island, but soon returnwl to his 
native town. In 1835 he settled in Geneva, where 
he performed successfully many critical surgical 
operations, and in 1837 he called attention to the 
presence of arterial blood in the veins of parts that 
had Ix-en paralvzed in conseciuence of injury to the 
spinal cord. lie trephined tne spine for depressed 
fracture of the arches of the fifth and sixth verte- 
brae in 1844. and subsequently he |)erformed the 
same operation four times, twice successfully. Later 
he performed ligature of the carotid artery five 
times, four times successfully, and removed the 
upper jaw six times and the lower Ave times. Dr. 
Potter was early convinced of the safety of opera- 
tions within the alxlominal cavity, and in 184;J |>er- 
formed gastrotomy for the relief of intussusception 
of the bowels witJi perfect success. He removed 
fibrous tumors of the uterus from within the ab- 



I 



dominal cavity five times, in three cases micoen- 
fuUy. He extirpated by ovariotomy twenty-two 
ovarian tumors, fourteen of them successfully, and 
in one of the succ-essful cases Inith ovaries were re- 
moved at the same time. In another case, also 
successful, the operation was repeated upon the 
same patient twice with an interval of seventeen 
months. Dr. Potter serve<l as regimental surgeon 
of the 50th New York engineers in 1802. 

POTTER, Henry, jurist, b. in Granville county, 
N. C, in 1705; d. in Fayetteville, N. Y., 20 Dec, 
1857. He was educatc<l as a lawyer, and was aj>- 
pointed in 1801 U. S. ^udge of the fifth circuit. In 
1802 he became U. S. judge of the district of North 
Carolina, and he was on the l)ench for more than 
half a century. Ho was a trustee of the University 
of North Carolina from 175)9 till his death. Judge 
Potter published " Duties of a Just ice of the Peace " 
(Raleign. 1810), and was jissot-iated with John L. 
Taylor and Bartlett Yancey in the compilation of 
a revision of the " Law of the State of North Caro- 
lina "(2 vols., 1821). 

POTTER, Israel Ralph, patriot, b. in Crans- 
ton. R. I., 1 Aug.. 1744; d. there about 1820. He 
early left home and became a farmer in New Hamp- 
shire, after which he was ass<K-iated with a party of 
surveyors as assistant chain-l)earer. He next be- 
came a sailor on a ship that was burned at sea, but 
he was rescued by a Dutch vessel and continued 
his roving career for nearly two years. In 1774 he 
returned home, and after working on a farm for 
several months enlisted in a regiment that was 
raised by Col. John Patterson. Tne battle of Lex- 
ington found him ploughing, and, after deliberately 
finishing the work, he joined his regiment at 
Charlestown. He fought with bravery at the battle 
of Bunker Hill, and, when his ammunition wiis ex- 
haustetl, seized a sword from a wounded officer and 
continued the contest until the close, when, having 
received two musket-ball wounds, he found his way 
to the hospital. On his recovery he volunteered 
as a seaman on the " Washington," one of the 
blockatling fleet in front of Boston. Soon after- 
ward his vessel was captured, and he was sent to 
England. On the voyage he formed a seheme to 
take the frigate, but was betrayed and put in irons. 
When he arrived in England he was conveyed to 
Spithead and put on board of a hulk, but he escaped, 
and, in the garb of a lx»ggar, found his way to Lon- 
don, where he engaged in gardening and at one 
time was employed in Kew gardens, where the 
king held a conversation with him. After various 
experiences he was sent on a mission by friends of 
the colonies to Paris, where he met Benjamin 
Franklin, by whom he was sent l»ack with replies. 
On reaching England he sought employment in 
Ijondon, where he was married and gained a bare 
livelihood until 182J3, when, through the influence 
of the American consul, he was able to return to 
Boston. He visited his former home, but the mem- 
ory of his name had long since faded away. His 
application for a pension was refused, owing to his 
aosence from the country when the pension law 
was (Missed; and so, after dictating an account of 
his ex|)eriences, he passed away. His memoirs, 
published in Providence, in 1824, were sold by ped- 
lers, and finally were entirelv lost until a tattered 
copy fell into the hands of tierman Melville and 
was made the basis of his " Israel Potter : His Fifty 
Yeai-s of Exile " (New York. 1855). 

POTTER, James, Revolutionary soldier, b. in 
Tyrone. Ireland, in 1729 ; d. in Centre county. Pa., in 
N"oveml)er. 1789. He came to this country with his 
father. John Potter, in 1741, and the family settled 
in Cumberland county, Pa., of which the father 



90 



POTTER 



POTTER 



became hijfh sheriff in IT-W. At the ape of twenty- 
five the son wu.-* a lieutenant in the border militia, 
and in IT.W he was aoaptain under (Jen. Armstrong 
in the victorious Kittanninf;cam|wign, after which 
Armstronjj and Potter were attached friends. In 
1703-'4 he served in the militia Jis major and lieu- 
tenant-colonel. He sympathized ardently with the 
colonies in their contest with the mother country, 
in 1775 was ma<le a colonel, and in the following 
yearwiis a memln'rof the Provincial convention, of 
which Benjamin Franklin was president. In April. 
1777. he was made a brigadier-general of Pennsyl- 
vania troops, and he remained in almost continuous 
service until the close of the wur. In 1777, with 
the troops under his command in the counties of 
Philadelphia, Chester, and Delaware, he obtained 
important information for Washington, and |)re- 
vented supplies reat;hing the enemy. On 11 Dec. 
while the army under Washington was on its way 
to Valley Forge, after part of it hafl crossed the 
Schuylkill at Mats<m's ford, it was found that the 
enemy under t'ornwallis were in force on the other 
side. " They were met." writes Washington, " by 
Oen. Potter, with part of the Pennsylvania militia, 
who iK'haved with great bravcrv, and gave them 
every possible opposition until he was obliged to 
retreat from their superior numbers." In the spring 
of 1778 Wjishington wrote from Valley Forge: " If 
the state of Gen. Potter's affairs will admit of his 
returning to the armv, I shall be exceedingly glad 
to see him, as his activity and vigilance have been 
much wanted during the winter." He was chosen 
a member of the supreme executive council of 
Pennsylvania in 1780, in 1781 became its vice-pres- 
ident, and in 1782 was a candidate for the presi- 
dency against John Dickinson, receiving thirty-two 
votes to Dickinson's forty-one. He became a mem- 
ber of the council of censors in 1784, and in 1785 
one of the commissioners of rivers and streams. 
He was a farmer, and he left at his death large and 
valuable landed estates. 

POTTER, John Fox, lawyer, b. in Augusta, 
Me.. 11 May, 1817. He was educated at Phillips 
Exeter academy, and. after studying law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1837. Settling in East Troy, 
Wis., in 1838, he began the practice of his profes- 
sion, and during 1842-'6 he was judge of Walworth 
county. In 1856 he was a member of the legisla- 
ture of Wisconsin, and he was then elected as a 
Republican to congress, serving from 7 Dec, 1857, 
till 4 :March, 1863. In 1860, after Owen Lovejoy's 
speech in congress, concerning the assassination of 
his brother, Elijah P. Lovejoy (g. v.), Mr. Potter, 
at the close of an an<;ry discussion with Roger A. 
Pryor, was challenged to a duel by the latter. Mr. 
Potter chose bowie-knives as the weapons, which 
were promptly objected to by the other side, and 
in consequence the matter was dropped. Consid- 
erable newspaper discussion followed. It is said 
that at the roll-call of congress at the time of the 
proposed meeting, when Potter's name was reached, 
the response came : •' He is keeping a Pryor en- 
gagement." When Pryor's name was called, the 
answer was : " He has gone to be made into Pot- 
ter's clay." In 1861 Mr. Potter was a delegate to 
the Peace congress, and on his defeat for re-election 
to congress he was tendered the governorship of 
Dakota. This offer he declined, and he received 
in 1863 the apprjintment of consul-general to Brit- 
ish North America at Montreal, which he held 
until 1866. He has since resided in Wisconsin. 

POTTER, John S., actor, b. in Philadelphia, 
Pa., in 1809; d. in Morris, 111., 21 Feb., 1869. He 
was early apprenticed as a printer in the office of 
the Philadelphia " Gazette," but began to frequent 



the theatres, and soon joined the Boothenian dra- 
matic club. He made his first appearance at the 
Washington circus in 1827, and then went to Pitts- 
burg, where he played under the name of John 
Sharp. For several years he acted in various parts 
throughout the United States, but ultimately he 
became a manager, in which vocation he continued 
until his death. Mr. Potter built the first theatre 
in Natchez, Miss., and also those in Fort (iibson 
in 1*^6; in Grand Gulf in 1836; in Natchitoches 
in 1837; in Jack.son, Miss., in 1837; in Dubuque, 
Iowa, in 1839 : in Chicago, 111., in 1841 ; in Roches- 
ter, N. Y., in 1846 ; and in Cleveland, O., in 1848. 
He sailed foi* California in 1855, and remained on 
the Pacific coast until 1865, building theatres in 
California, Oregon, and Vancouver's island. 

POTTER, Joseph Haydn, soldier, b. in Con- 
cord. N, II., 12 Oct., 1822. He was graduated at 
the U. S, military academy in 1843, standing next 
below Gen. Grant in class rank. In 1843-'5 he 
was engaged in garrison duty, and he then par- 
ticipated in the military occupation of Texas and 
the war with Mexico, lie was engaged in the de- 
fence of Fort Brown, and was wounded in the 
battle of Monterey. Subsequently he was employed 
on recruiting service, was promoted 1st lieutenant 
in the 7th infantry on 30 Oct., 1847, and served 
on garrison duty until 1856, becoming captain on 
9 Jan. of that year. He accompanied the Utah 
expedition in 1858-'60, and at the beginning of the 
civil war was on duty in Texas, where he was cap- 
tured by the Confederates at St. Augustine Springs 
on 27 July, 1861, but was exchanged on 2 Aug., 
1862. The command of the 12th New Hampshire 
volunteers was given him, and he took part in the 
Maryland and Rappahannock campaigns with the 
Army of the Potomac, receiving his promotion of 
major in the regular army on 4 July, 1863. He 
took part in the battle of Fredericksburg, and at 
Chancellorsville was wounded and captured. His 
services in these two battles gained for him the 
brevets of lieutenant-colonel and colonel respect- 
ively. He was exchanged in October, 1863, and 
was assistant provost-marshal-general of Ohio un- 
til September, 1864, when he was assigned a brigade 
in the 18th corps of the Army of the James, with 
command of the Bermuda Hundred front during 
the attack on Fort Harrison. He afterward was 
assigned to command of brigade in the 24th corps 
and continued at the front as chief of staff of the 
24th corps from January, 1865, until the surrender of 
Gen. Lee, receiving the brevet of brigadier-general 
in the U. S. army on 13 March, 1865, and pronio- 
tion to brigadier-general of volunteers on 1 May, 
1865. He was mustered out of the volunteer ser- 
vice on 15 Jan., 1866, and appointed lieutenant-colo- 
nel of the 30th infantry, 28 July same year. After 
holding various posts in the west he received his 
promotion as colonel on 11 Dec, 1873, and then 
continued with his regiment, with the exception of 
four years, from 1 July, 1877, to 1 July, 1881, when 
he was governor of the soldiers' home, Washington, 
D. C, until 1 April, 1886, when he was made briga- 
dier-general in the regular armv. He then had 
command of the Department of Missouri until his 
retirement on 12 Oct.. 1886. 

POTTER, Nathaniel, physician, b. in Carolina 
county, Md., in 1770; d. in Baltimore, Md., 2 Jan., 
1843. He was graduated at the medical depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania in 1796, 
and settled in Baltimore, where he practised until 
his death. In 1807 he was associated with Dr. 
John B. Davidge and others in founding the College 
of medicine of Maryland, which in, 1812 liecame 
the medical department of the University of Mary- 



POTTER 



POTTS 



01 



land, and he was it« professor of the theory and 

f tract iff <»f iiuHlieine until his donth, and its (Iran 
n 1814. Dr. Potti-r whs physii-iiin to tho Halti- 
niorp jjononil ilisiH-nsjiry in 1S(K{, and stK-ri'tary «»f 
the medical anti chinirjrical fafulty in 1H02-'1). lie 
was a eollalxjrator of the " Aineriran Journal of 
the Medical Sciences," in 1811 edited the " IJal- 
timore Mwlical and Philosonhical Lyceum." a 
quarterly jiericxlical. and in 18:{9-'48 was co-e<litor 
of the "Maryland Me<lic4il and Surpical Journal." 
Besides numerous medical {)a|)«'rs. he issued ** Me<li- 
cal I'rorH'rties and Deleterious (Qualities of Ar- 
senic" (Maltimons ISOT)); "A Memoir on (V»nta- 
fion, more es|H'cially as it res|)ects the Yellow 
'ever" (181H); and "On the Lwusta Septentrio- 
nalis" (1889); and he edite«l, with notej*. critical 
and explanatory, John Armstrong's "Prat^tical 
Illustrations of' the Typhus Fever" (Baltinjon*, 
1821). also, with Samuel t'alhoun, two e<liti(ms of 
Georp' (trejjorv's " Klement,s of Theory and Prac- 
tice of M.'dicine" (2 vols., Philadelphia, lb2«5-'»). 

POTTER, Piatt, jurist, b. in Galway, N. Y., 6 
April, 18(X), Ho was graduated at Schenecta4ly 
aca<lemy in 1820, and, after stiidying law under 
Alonzo C Paige, wa.s admittwl in 1824 to the l)ar. 
Settling in Minorville, he followed his profession 
there until 1883, when he removed to Schenectady 
and entered into partnership with his former pre- 
ceptor. Meanwhde he had l)een elected to the 
a.sseinhly in IWiO, and attnictcil attention by his 
speech in favor of the bill to alMtlish imprisonment 
for debt. From 1«39 till 1847 he was district at- 
torney for Schenectady county, and at the same 
time ma.ster and examiner in chancery, having lieen 
appointed to those offices in 1828, and continuing 
to exercise their functions till the alxilishment of 
the court in chancery about 1847. He was elected 
justice of the supreme court in 1857, and re-elected 
m 1800 without opposition, also serving as judge 
of the court of appeals. His judicial services dur- 
ing the civil war were of the utmost value to the 
government, and his written opinions and judg- 
ments l)ear testimony to his abundant legal knowl- 
edge. In 1870 he caused the arrest of Henry Ray, 
a memljer of the assembly, for refusing to answer 
a subpoena, and for this action Judge Potter was 
brought l)efore that body on an accusation of " high 
bn»ach of privilege"; but he conipletelj vindicate<l 
his course, and was discharge<l. His argument was 
issued by the l)ar in pamphlet-form (Albany, 1870), 
and he received numerous voluntary letters of con- 
eratulation from eminent jurists throughout the 
United States. During the same year he was 
chosen president of the State judicial convention 
in Rochester. At present (1888) he is president 
of the Mohawk national l)ank of Schenecta<ly. In 
1805 he was electe<l a trustee of Tnion college. 
which office he filled for twenty years, and in 1807 
the degree of LL. D. was conferred on him by that 
institution. Judge Potter has published a general 
treatise on the construction of statutes, entitled 
" Potter's Dwarris " (Albany, 1871): "Equity Juris- 

Jnidence." compiled and enlarged from the work of 
ohn Willard (1875) ; and " Potter on Cor|>orations" 
(2 vols., 1879). In 1880 he pn-sented to the New 
York historical society six volumes of the "State 
Trials of England." published in 1742, that origi- 
nally l)elonge«l Ut Sir William Johnson, bart. The 
books, when they were issued, were valued at £0(X). 
POTTER, Sainnol John, .senator, b. in Kings- 
ton. R. I., 2!> June, 1789; d. in Washington, I). ('., 
20 Sept.. 1H(M. He was elected deputy governor of 
RhcKle Islaml in May, 1790. serving until February, 
1799, when the title of the office was changed to 
lieutenant-governor, and as such he remained until 



I May, 1709. He was again elected in May, 1800, and 

! w'rviHl for thriH! years. (Jov. Potter wax also a 
' nn'sidential elector in 171>2 and 179(J, and in 1806 
lie was chosen to the l'. S. senate, serving from 8 
Oct.. 1H()8, until his death. 
I POTTER, ThoniaM J., railnmd-manatrer, b. in 
I Burlington, I«»wa, 10 Aug., 1840; d. in Washing- 
] ton, I).('„ 9 March. 1888, He receive<l a lilteral 
e<lucation, and in 1802 enten**! the service of the 
Burlington and Missouri railroad as a lineman of 
I the engineer corps. In 1800 he was apjMiinteil 
I agent of the same coriK)ration at Burlington, Iowa. 
' In 1878 the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy com- 
I [Miny secured his services. He wa« first agent, then 
I as.sistant superintendent, afterward general mana- 
I ger, antl finally ceneral numager and vice-presi- 
dent. He was chosen vice-president of the St. 
j liouisand Keokuk, of the C'hicairo, Burlington, and 
I Kansas City, of the Chicjigo and Iowa, of the Han- 
I niltal and St. Joseph, and of the Burlington, and 
Missouri River tojmIs, respectively. Great efforts 
I were constantly made to mduce him to leave the 
I Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy and accept tempt- 
ing salaries on rival roads, but it was not until 
May, 1887, that he decided to accede to the request 
of its president, Charles Francis Adams, an(I be- 
come general manager and vice-president of the 
Union Pacific roa<l. In this capacity he labored 
until he was compelled to stop from illness cause<I 
by overwork. On hearing of his early death, an 
official of the road said: "Mr. Potter was the 
leader of practical railroad-managers. His judg- 
ment was n-markable for its accuracy, and his will 
was indomitable." 

POTTS, Georgre, clergyman, b. in Philadelphia, 
Pa, 15 March, 1802 ; d. in" New York city, 15 Sept., 
1804. He was graduated at the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1819. and at Princeton theological 
seminary in 1822. He was pastor of the Presliv- 
terian church in Xatchez, Miss., in 1828-'8.5. of the 
Duane street church. New York city, in 18;^0-'44, 
and of the University place church from its com- 
pletion in the latter year until his death. He en- 
gaged in a once celebrated controversy with Bishop 
Wainwright, of the Protestant Episcopal church, in 
1844, on the subject of enisco|)al ordination, which 
was published under tne title of "No Church 
without a Bishop" (New York, 1845). He als<i 
published pamphlets and sermons. — His daughter, 
Mary Uncles, d. in Natchez, Miss., in 1827; d. in 
New York city in 1858, translated from the Swedish 
of Lewis F. Bungener "The Preacher and the 
King" (Boston, 1853) and " Priest and Huguenot" 
(1854). See her " Memorial " (New York, ISW). 

POTTS, James Henrj-, clergyman, b. in Wood- 
house, Norfolk CO.. Ontario, Canada, 12 June. 1848. 
He was educated in the public sc1i(K)1s of Canada 
and Michigan, and graduated at Mayhew's com- 
mercial college in 1800. He afterwanl stutlied 
theology, and was a pastor in the Meth()«list Epis- 
copal church in 1809-'77. Ho was ass<x'iate editor 
of the " Michigan Christian Advocate " in 1877-'84, 
and has been editor-in-chief since the latter year. 
Mr. Potts received the degree of .M. A. from North- 
western university in 1882, and that of D. D. 
from Albion college in 18^. He is the author of 
"Methodism in the F'ield. or Pastor and People" 
(New York, 1809); "Golden Dawn, or Light on 
the Great Future" (Phila<lelphia 1880);^ "Spirit- 
ual Life, its Nature and Excellence" (New York. 
1884); "Our Thorns and Crowns" (Philadelphia 
1884); "Perrine's Principles of Church Goveni- 
ment," with additions (New York, 1887); and 
" Faith made Vmsv, or what to Believe and Why " 
(Cincinnati, 1888)." 



92 



POTTS 



POULSON 



POTTS, John, Caniulian clergyman, b. in Ma- 
guire's Hridge, County Fennanagh, Ireland, in 
18JW. He emigrated to Canada at an early age. 
and engaged in mercantile pursuits in Kingston 
and Hamilton, but after a course in Victoria col- 
lege he was ordained as a Methodist minister in 
1801. After l)eing stationed at London and York- 
ville he was chosen, in 1866, as the first pastor of 
a church that had been erected in Hamilton to 
comuK'niorate the centenary of American Method- 
ism. He afterward was i)astor of churches at 
Montreal and Toronto. He is an eloquent preacher, 
and one of the best-known clergymen of his de- 
nomination in Canada. He is a member of the 
board and senate of Victoria university and the 
Montreal theological college. In 1878 the' Wesleyan 
university of Oliio gave him the degree of D. D. 

POTTS, Jonathan, surgeon, b. in Ponodiekon, 
Berks co.. Pa., 1 April, 1745 ; d. in Reading, Pa., 
in October, 1781. He was a son of John Potts, 
the founder of Pottstown, Pa. After receiving a 
classical education, he went with Dr. Benjamin 
Rush to Edinburgh, Scotland, for medical study, 
and after his return he was graduated, in 1768, a 
bachelor of j)hysic at the College of Philadelphia, 
at the first granting of medical degrees in this 
country, and in 1771 received the degree of M. D. 
His Latin thesis on the latter occasion, " De Febri- 
bus Intermitteiitibuspotentissimum Tertianis" was 
published (Philadelphia, 1771). From 1768 till his 
death he was a member of the American philo- 
sophical society. He began the practice of medi- 
cine at Heading. Dr. Potts early identified him- 
self with the struggle for independence, and was 
secretary of the Herks county committee of safety, 
and a member of the Provincial convention at 
Philadelphia, 2'-i Jan., 1775. In 1776 he was ap- 
pointed surgeon for Canada and Lake George, 
and returned with Gen. Gates to Pennsylvania. 
In general orders, dated 12 Dec, 1776, Gen. Put- 
nam directed that all offlcers that were in charge 
of any sick soldiers should "make return to Dr. 
Jonathan Potts, at Mr. John Biddle's, in Market 
street." Soon after this order was issued Dr. 
Potts was in service at the battle of Princeton. 
Dr. Potts was appointed in April, 1777, medical 
director-general of the northern department, and 
as such joined the army at Albany, N. Y. In 
November, 1777, he returned to Reading, having 
been ftirloughed, and while there was appointed 
by congress director-general of the hospitals of 
the middle department. He was subsequently 
surgeon of the first city troop of Philadelphia. — 
His brother, Thomas, was one of the original 
members of the American philosophical society, 
and in 1776 was commissioned colonel of one of 
the Pennsylvania battalions. — Another brother, 
Jon.N, studied law at the Temple, London, became 
a judge in the city of Philadelphia, and, sympa- 
thizing with the mother country, went to Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, but returned after the war. — Another 
brother, Isaac, is said to have been the person that 
discovered Washington at prayer in the woods at 
Valley Forge ; and the country-seat of David, an- 
other brother, was Wa.shingto"n's lieadquarters at 
the latter place. See " Potts Memorial," by Mrs. 
Thomas Potts James. 

POTTS, Richard, member of the Continental 
congress, b. in Upper Marlborough, Prince George 
CO., Md., in July, 1753; d. in Frederick county, 
Md., 26 Nov., 1808. He studied law at Annapolis, 
and afterward removed to Frederick county, where 
he practised till his death. He was clerk of the 
county committee of observation in 1776, clerk 
of the county court in 1777, and member of the 



house of delegates in 1779-'80 and 1787-'8. He 
was a delegate to the Continental congress in 1781, 
became state attorney for Frederick, Alontgomery, 
and Washington counties, Md., in 1784, was a mem- 
ber of the Maryland convention of 1788 that rati- 
fied the constitution of the United States, and in 
1789 was commissioned by Gen. Washington U. S. 
attorney for Maryland. He became chief justice 
of the county courts o* the 5th judicial aistrict 
in 1791, and "was U. S. senator in 1793-6. From 
1801 till 1804 he was associate justice of the Mary- 
land court of appeals. Princeton gave him the 
degree of LL. D. in 1805. 

POTTS, Stacy Gardner, jurist, bom in Harris- 
burg. Pa., 9 Nov., 1799: d. in Trenton, N.J., 9 
April, 1865. He became editor of the "Empo- 
rium," a weekly newspaper, in Trenton, N. J., in 
1821, was atlmitted to the bar in 1827, and was in 
the legislature in 1828-'9. He became clerk of the 
New Jersey chancery court in 1821, held oflRce ten 
vears, and then retired on account of delicate 
health. He was a commissioner to reviss the laws 
of New Jersey in 1845, became judge of the court 
of appeals in 1852, and retired in 1859. Princeton 
gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1844. He was 
active in the affairs of the Presbyterian church, 
and in 1851, was chairman of the finance com- 
mittee of that body. After leaving the bench he 
devoted himself to literary pursuits. His publica- 
tions include " Village Tales " (Philadelphia, 1827) 
and " Precedents and Notes of Practice m the New 
Jersey Chancery Court " (1841). and he left in manu- 
script a work entitled " The Christ of Revelation." 
— His brother, William Stephens, clergyman, b. 
in Northumberland county. Pa., 13 Oct., 1802 ; d. in 
St. Louis, Mo., 27 March, i852, learned the printer's 
I rade, subsequently studied under Rev. Ezra S. Ely 
in Philadelphia, and was a student at Princeton 
theological seminary in 1825-'7. He was pastor of 
the 1st Presbyterian church of St. Louis, Mo., in 
1828-'35, president of Marion college for the sub- 
sequent four years, founded the 2d Presbyterian 
church of St. Louis in 1838, and was its pastor till 
his death. Marion gave him the degree of D. D. 
in 1845. He published several sermons. 

POUCHOT, M. (poo-sho), soldier, b. in Greno- 
ble, France, in 1712 ; d. in Corsica, 8 May, 1769. 
He entered the engineer corps of the French army 
in 1733, and subsequently served in Corsica. Flan- 
ders, and Germany, He accompanied the Marquis 
de Montcalm to Canada, and assisted in the defence 
of Forts Niagara and Levis. He is the author of 
" Memoirs of the War of 1755-'60 in North 
America" (Paris. 3 vols., 1781), which has been 
translated into English, and edited by Franklin 
B. Hough (2 vols., New York. 1866). In this work 
he speaks of observing oil-springs in northwestern 
Pennsylvania, probably the first mention of that 
petroleum field on record. 

POULSON, Zachariah, publisher, b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 5 Sept., 1761 ; d. there, 31 July, 1844. 
His father, of the same name, was brought from 
Denmark to Philadelphia in infancy, and became 
a printer. The son was a pupil of Christopher 
Sower, in whose printing establishment at German- 
town, Pa., was printed, in German, the first edition 
of the Bil)le published in the United States. For 
many years he was printer to the senate of Penn- 
sylvania. On 1 Oct., 1800. he began the publica- 
tion of the "American Daily Advertiser," the 
first daily in the United 'States, which he had 
purchased from David C. Claypoole, and he con- 
tinued as its editor and proprietor till its discon- 
tinuance, 28 Dec, 1839. He issued " Poulson's 
Town and Country Almanac" (1789-1801), and 



POUNDMAKER 



POUTRINCOURT 



98 



wjLs f ho publisher of HolxTt Proud's "History of 
I'umisylvRijin " (1797-'8), the inystifal works of 
Williuni Gerar de Bram, and other valuable books. 
He was a founder and president of the Phila«lel- 
phia s<H!iety for alleviating the miseries of public 
pris<ins, and a menilwr and iK-nefaetor of various 
other IxMiovolent ass<K'iations. Me was also for 
twenty-one years librarian of the Library company 
of Philadelphia, six years its treasurer, and thirty- 
two years a director, and his fwirtrait, by Thomas 
Sullv. hanfjs in its hall in that citv. 

POrNDMAKER, Indian chief, b. near Battle- 
ford, Northwest territory, British America, in 
1820: d. at Gleiehen, near Calvary, 4 July, 1886. 
As chief of the Cree nation, he first came into 
public notice in connection with the tour of the 
Marquis of Lome, governor - fjeneral of Canada, 
and his party through the northwest in 1881, when 
he acte(l as their guide from Battleford to Calgary. 
Believing that the Canadian government was false 
to its promise of relief to the Indians, he was in- 
duced by Louis Riel {q. v.) to take the field with 
the warriors of his nation. At the battle of Cut 
Knife Creek, thirty -five miles from Battleford, 
with 850 Indian warriors, he displayed great bra- 
very in holding the regular troops under Lieut.-Col. 
Otter at bay for more than four hours. Though 
the fight was indecisive and the losses about equal, 
Lieut.-Col. Otter thought it expedient to retire 
to Battleford. On another occasion Poundmaker 
surprised and captured a supply-train that was 
carrving provisions to the troops. After the battle 
of tiatache and the capture of Riel, Poundmaker, 
aft«r giving up the prisoners that he held, surren- 
dered himself to Gen. Middlcton. He was subse- 
quently sent to Regina, tried for the part he took 
in the rebellion, and sentenced on 18 Aug., 1885, 
to three years' imprisonment in the Stony Moun- 
tain penitentiary. In reply to a question by the 
judge, Poundmaker said : " I am a man, do as you 
like. I am in your power. I gave myself up ; you 
could not catch me." After sentence was pro- 
nounced, he asked to be hanged at once, as he pre- 
ferred death to imprisonment. He was released 
after a year's confinement, and died while on a 
visit to C'rowfoot, chief of the Blackfoot Indians, 
his relative by marriage. He was of genial dispo- 
sition, possessed considerable intellectual force 
and keenness of perception, and wius devotedly at- 
tached to his race and people. 

POURTALfiS, Louis FraiKjois de (poor-tah- 
lays), naturalist, b. in Xeuchatel, Switzerland. 4 
March, 1824 ; d. in Beverly Farms, Mass., 19 July, 
1880. He was educated as an engineer, but an early 
predilection for natural science led to his becoming 
a favorite pupil of Louis Agassiz, whom he accompa- 
nied in 1840 on his glacial explorations among the 
Alps. In 1847 he came with Agassiz to the United 
States and made his home in East Boston, and then 
in Cambridge, Mass. Pourtales entered the U. S. 
coast survey in 1848, and continued attached to that 
service until 1873. In 1851 he served in the tri- 
angulation of the Florida reef, and at that time 
collected numerous ge[)hyreans and holothurians, 
which led to his special study of the bed of the 
ocean. He was the pioneer of deep-sea dredging 
in this country, and he lived to see that he hjul 
pave<l the way for similar researches both here and 
abroad. On the Hassler expedition from Massa- 
chusetts bay through the Straits of Magellan to 
California he hatl entire charge of the dredging 
operations. In 1854 he was placed in speci»u 
charge of the field and office work of the tidal 
division of the coast survey, where he remained 
until his resignation. His most valuable work 



was in connection with marine zoology, and the 
large collections that he made were deposited in 
the Museum of comparative zoology in Cambridge. 
Their examination has resulted in s|>ecial rejK)rts 
upon echinoderms, corals, crinoids, foraminifera, 
sf>ongea, annelids, hydroids, bryozoa, mollusks, 
and Crustacea, by the most eminent investigators 
of America and Europe, which were published 
principally in the bulletins of the museum. Pour- 
tales Ix'came a.ssistant in zo^^Iogy at the museum in 
1878, and on the death of Louis Agassiz became 
its keeper. His name has been given to the genus 
Pourtalesia, a variety of sea-urchins. He was a 
member of various scientific societies, and had 
V)een elected to memWrship in the National acad- 
emy of scienc&s. His writings are largely con- 
tained in the reports of the coa.st survey, but, in 
addition to valuable scientific papers in the " Pro- 
ceetlings of the American Ass<x-iation for the Ad- 
vancement of Science" and the "American Jour- 
nal of Science," he published, under the direction 
of the Museum of comparative zo^Uogy, " Contribu- 
tions to the Fauna of the Gulf Stream at Great 
Depths " (part i., 1867 ; part ii.. 1868) ; " List of 
the Crinoids obtained on the Coasts of Florida 
and Cuba in 1867-9" (1869); " List of Holothu- 
ridte from the Deep-Sea Dredgings of the U. S. 
Coast Survey " (1869) ; " Deep-Sea Corals " (1871) ; 
"The Zoological Results of the Hassler Expe- 
dition," with Alexander Agassiz (1874) ; " Reports 
on the Dredging Operations of the U. S. Coast- 
Survey Steamer * Blake '" ; " Corals and Crinoids " 
(1878) ; and " Report on the Corals and Antipa- 
tharia"(1880). 

POUSSIN, Gnillanrae Tell Lavall^e (poos- 
sang), French soldier, b. in France alxjut 1795; d. 
after 1850. He accomjmnied Gen. Simon Bernard 
to the United States after the fall of Napoleon, and 
on 6 March, 1817, became assistant tojwgraphical 
engineer in the U. S. army, with rank of ca{)tain, 
and aide to Gen. Bernard. He was promoted topo- 
graphical engineer, with rank of major, 15 Jan., 
1829, but resigned, 31 July. 1832. He had tecome 
a naturalized citizen of this country, but returned 
to France, where he took an active part in the estab- 
lishment of the republic of 1848, and in 1848-'9 he 
was its minister to the United States. Among other 
works he published "Travaux d'ameliorations in- 
terieures projetes ou executes par le gouvernement 
general des fitats-Unis d'Amerique de 1824 k 1831 " 
(Paris, 1834) ; " Considerations sur le principe demo- 
cratique qui regit I'Union Americaine, et de la pos- 
sibilite de son application k d'autres fitats "(1841) ; 
and " De la puissance Americaine : origine, institu- 
tions, esprit, politique, ressources des fitats-Unis " 
(2 vols., 1843 ; English translation by E. L. Du 
Barrv, M. D., Philadelphia, 1851). 

POUTRINCOURT, Jean de Bienconrt (poo- 
trang-koor), Sieur de, French soldier, b. in France 
in 1557; d. in Mery-sur-Seine in 1615. He followed 
De Monts to Canada in 1()03. and was subsequently 
made lieutenant by the latter. He obtained a grant 
of Port Roval in 1604, but gave his principal atten- 
tion to tratling with the Indians, and neglected the 
colony that he had established there. He returned 
to France in the following year, and, in pursuance 
of an agreement with De Monts, e(piit>ped a vessel 
with supplies for the settlers, and sailed from La 
Rochelle on 13 May, KMM). After fortifying Port 
Royal, he accompanied Champlain on an exploring 
expedition as far as Port Fortune (Chatham), which 
was not productive of many useful results. He 
returned to F'rance. his grant of Port Royal was 
confirmed by the king in 1(K)7, and he was de- 
sired at the same time to work for the conver- 



94 



POVEDA 



POWELL 



sion of the Indians, and to receive the Jesuits as 
missionaries. He felt a stroti:; dislike for that 
ortler, and. on the ground that Port Koyal was in 
no condition to n'ceive the missionaries. bej;f;e<l 
them to iKJstjMjne their departure, and then sailed 
for Aeauia in HM)8, He afterward wrote letters 
to the |)ofH> and the F'reneheourtdeseribitifj whole- 
sale conversions that hrnl been mmle by himself, 
and deprecating the necessity of sending out Jesu- 
its. In 1(510 Madame de Guercheviile formed a 
jiartnei-ship with him, according to the terms of 
which Jesuit missionaries that she should send out 
were to be sup|iorted from the proceeds ()f the 
fishery and fur-trade. They were badly received 
on their arrival, and the suspicions that Poutrin- 
court entertainetl of their designs consideral)ly 
haniiK>re<i them. He returned to France in 1612, 
had a serious (juarrel with Madame de (Juercheville 
on this subject, and ap|>enrs to have Ix'en im- 
prisoned for some time alK)ut this period. Pou- 
trincourt sailed for Acatlia after the Knglish aban- 
doned it in 1(J14, but made no effort to rebuild Port 
Royal, returned home, and entered the French 
service. — His s<m, Hik-Ncourt, afterward called 
Poutrincourt, remained in Acadia, and died there 
in lf;2:{or lt>24. 

P<)VEI).\, Francisco (po-vay'-dah), Cuban poet, 
b. in Huviina in October. 179(1; d. in Sagua in 1881. 
When very young he went to Sagua la (Jrande, a 
small inland town, where he sj»ent his life, becoming 
successively a shepherd, a ploughman, an actor, and 
a teacher. He has published several collections 
of noems. incluiling "Guirnalda Habanera."" Ra- 
millete I'octico," and " El tiple campesino," which 
are known by heart throughout the island by 
the country people; " Las Rosas de Amor" (1831); 
" Leyendas ("ubanjis" (1846); a complete collec- 
tion of his songs and poems (1863 ; 2d ed., 1879) ; 
and " El peon de Bayamo." a drama, which was 
performed in 1879. Poveda was known under the 
name of the " Trovador C'ubano," or the Cuban 
troubailour. on account of his popularity and the 
nature of his poems. 

FOWEL, Samuel, mavor of Philadelphia, b. in 
Philadelphia in 1739; d". there, 29 Sept., 1793. 
He was graduated in 1759 at the College of Phila- 
delphia (now University of Pennsylvania), served 
several years in the city council, was a justice of 
the common pleas and quarter scssiotis courts, and 
in 1775 was chosen mayor. iK'ingthe last under the 
charter of 1701, He continued in office until the 
military authorities took municipal matters into 
their own hands, and after the Revolution, under 
the new charter, he was, in 1789, again chosen 
mayor. In 1780 he subscribed £5,(X)0 for the pro- 
visioning of the army. He was the speaker of the 
Pennsylvania senate in 1792, one of the early mera- 
liers of the American philosophical society, from 
1773 till his death a trustee of the University of 
Pennsylvania, one of the founders, and, in 1785, first 
president of the Philadelphia society for promoting 
agriculture, and a manager of the Pennsylvania hos- 
pital.— His wife, EHzabeth Willing:, "was a sister 
of Thomas Willing, the j)artner of Robert Morris. 
—Her nephew, John Hare, agriculturist, b. in 
Philadelphia, 22 April, 1786; d. in Newport, R. I., 
14 June, 1850, was originally named John Powel 
Hare, and he was own brother to Dr. Robert Hare 
{q. v.), but he was adopted by his aunt, Mrs. Powel, 
and at his majority assumed her name by act of 
legislature. He was educated at the College of 
Philadelphia, became a successful merchant, and, 

foing abroad for pleasure, became secretary of the 
N S. legation in London, under William Pinck- 
ney. While there, according to Charles Greville in 



his memoirs, he was "the handsomest man ever 
seen." He returned in I)eceinl)er, 1811, served as 
brigade-majctr of volunteers under (len. Thomas 
Cadwalader, an<l from December, 1814, till June, 
1815, wiis insjH'ctor-general with the rank of colonel 
in the regular army. He subsequently, at the de- 
sire of his family, refused a brigadier-general's 
commission in the Colombian service, and passed 
the remainder of his life in efforts to develop agri- 
culture and improve the breed of domestic ani- 
mals in the United States. He was one of the 
founders of the Pennsylvania agricultural society 
in 1823, and its secretary till 1824, corresftondeii 
actively with English agriculturists, and imported 
many valuable animals. Col. Powel was a good 
speaker and debater, and a patron of the fine arts. 
He was a member of the Pennsylvania senate in 
1827-'30. and a delegate to the Free-trade conven- 
tion of 1832. He published many paf)ers in the 
" Memoirs of the Pennsylvania Agricultural So- 
ciety " ; "Hints for American Husbandmen" 
(Philadelphia, 1827); pamphlets entitled "Reply 
to Pickering's Attack ujkju a Pennsylvania Farm- 
er" (1825), and " Remarks on the Prof)er Termina- 
tion of the Columbia Railroad" (1830); and many 
essjiys in agricultural periodicals. 

POWELL, Aaron Macy, reformer, b. in Clinton, 
Dutchess CO., N. Y., 26 March, 1832. He was edu- 
cated in public schools and in the state normal 
school, but left before graduation to take part in 
the anti-slavery movement. He was lecturing- 
agent for the American anti-slavery society from 
1852 till 1865, editor of the " National Anti-Slavery 
Standard " from that time till 1870, and then of 
the " National Standard " till 1872, and since that 
year has been secretary of the National temper- 
ance society and editor of the " National Temper- 
ance Advocate." In 1886 he also took charge of 
the " Philanthropist." Mr. Powell was a delegate 
to the International prison congress in London in 
1872, and to those for the abolition of state regula- 
tion of vice, in Geneva in 1877, the Hague in 
1883, and London in 1886. He is the author of 
" State Regulation of Vice " (New York, 1878). 

POWELL, Henry Watson, British soldier, b. 
in England in 1733; d. in Lyme, England, 14 
July, 1814. He became a captain in the 64th foot 
in 1756, served in the West Indies in 1759, and was 
stationed in this country in 1768. He became 
lieutenant-colonel in 1771, participated in Gen. 
John Burgoyne's expedition in 1777, with the 
rank of brigadier-general, and in July of the latter 
year, after the evacuation of Fort Ticonderogjk, 
was placed in command of that post, and success- 
fully defended it against New Hampshire and Con- 
necticut militia In 1801 he became a general. 

POWELL, John Wesley, geologist, b. in Mount 
Morris, N. Y.. 24 March, 1834. He is the son of a 
Methodist clergyman, andpassed his early life in 
various places in Ohio, W^isconsin. and Illinois. 
For a time he studied in Illinois college, and he 
subsequently entered Wheaton college, but in 1854 
he followed a special course at Oberlin, also teach- 
ing at intervals in public schools. His first incli- 
nations were toward the natural sciences, particu- 
larly natural history and geology, and he spent 
much of his time in making collections, which he 
placed in various institutions of learning in Illinois. 
The Illinois state natural history society elected 
him its secretary and extended to him facilities for 
prosecuting his researches. At the beginning of 
the civil war he enlisted as a private in the 20th 
Illinois volunteers, and he rose to be lieutenant- 
colonel of the 2d Illinois artillery. He lost his 
right arm at the battle of Shiloh, but soon after- 



POWELL 



POWELL 



00 




](XYW^ 



wnnl ho roturno<l to his rt>jrimpnt and continued 
in jw-tivo MTvifo until tho vUms of the war. In 
IWW he Un-ann' nrofesjior of ff«*oio}fy and ourator 
of the nuis«>utn in Illinois Wesleyan university, 
Blooinington, but he resigned to accent a similar 

|>ost in Illinois nor- 
mal university. Dur- 
ing tho summer of 
1H«7 he visite«l the 
mountains of ('olo- 
rado with his class 
for the purpose of 
studying geology, 
and s»> iR'gan a [irac- 
tico that luis Uvn 
continued by emi- 
nent teachers els«»- 
where. On this ex- 
petlition he formed 
the idea of explor- 
ing the Gallon of the 
Colorado, and a year 
later he organized a 
party for that pur- 
pose. The journey 
lasted more than 
three months and 
they pa.ssod through numerous perilous exj»eri- 
en«!es, liviiiff for part of the time on half rations. 
Maj. Powell's success in this undertaking resulted 
in the establishment by congress in 1870 of a topo- 
graphical and geological survey of the Colorado 
river of the West and its tributaries, which was 
placed under his direction. During the following 
years a systematic survey was conducted, until the 
physical features of the Colorado valley, embracing 
an area of nearly 100,000 square miles, had been 
thoroughly explored. This expe<lition, at first con- 
ducted under the auspices of the Smithsonian insti- 
tution, was transferred to the department of the in- 
terior, and given the title of the Geographical and 
geological survey of the Rocky mountain region. 
In 1874 four separate surveys were in the field, and 
in 1879, after much agitation, the National ac-jidemy 
of sciences recommended the establishment under 
the department of the interior of an indepen(lent 
organization to be known as the U. S. geological 
survey. Action to this eflfect was at once taken by 
congress, and Clarence King {q. v.) was appointed 
diivctor. From the beginning of the controversy 
Maj. Powell was the leading advocate of consoli- 
dation. Meanwhile he had devoted more attention 
to American ethnology in the prosecution of his 
work than the other surveys had done. lie had 
collected material on this subject which he hiul 
deposited with the Smithsonian institution, and 
had already issued three volumes as "Contribu- 
tions to North American Ethnology." In order 
to prevent the discontinuance of this work, a 
bureau of ethnology, which has become the recog- 
nized centre of ethnographic operations in the Unit- 
ed States, was established under the direction of 
the Smithsonian institution. Maj. Powell wa^ given 
charge of the work, and has since contiiuuHl at its 
head, issuing annual reports and bulletins. In 
1881 Mr. King resigne<i the office of director of the 
U. S. geological survey, and Mai. Powell was a\y- 
pointed his successor. Since that time he has 
ably mlministered the work of this great enter- 
prise, which includes, besides special investigations 
ifi geology, the general study of economic geology, 
paleontology, and geography. In connection with 
the survey there is als«) a chemical division, where 
the necessary analytical work is conducted. Maj. 
Powell received the degree of Ph. D. from the 



University of HeidellxTg in 1886, and also during 
the same year that of LL. D. from Harvard, and he 
is a member of many scientific s<x'ietie8. In 1^0 
he was ele<'te<l to the National acmlemy of sciences, 
and he was president of tho Anthro|M>logical soci- 
ety of Washington from its organization in 187W 
till 1888. He Itecame a fellow of tho American 
association for the a<lvancemeiit of science in 1875, 
vice-president in 187U, when he dcliverwl his retir- 
ing; address on "Mythologic Philosophy," and in 
1887 was eUn-ted to the presidency. His publica- 
tions include many scientific papers and afldresses, 
and numerous government volumes that b<'ar his 
name, including the reports of the various surveys, 
the bureau of ethnology, and the U. S. geolr)gieal 
survey. The special volumes that b«>ar his own 
name are " Exploration of the Colorado Kiver of 
the West and its Tributaries explored in 18(50-'72 " 
(Washington, 1875); "Report, on the (Jeology of 
the Eastern Portion of the Uinta Moiintains'and 
a Region of Country Adjacent Thereto" (1876); 
"Report on the Ijands of the Arid Region of the 
United States" (1879); and "Introduction to the 
Study of Indian Languages, with Words. Phrases, 
and Aentences to Iw collected " (1880). 

POWELIi, LazariiH Whit<>hend, senator, b. 
in Henderson county, Ky., Oct., 1812; d. there, 3 
July, 1867. He was graduated at St. .loscoh's col- 
lege, Bardstown, Ky., in 18J13, attended law lec- 
tures at Transylvania university, and was admitted 
to the bar in 18:35. He then practis«'d his profes- 
sion, and at the same time engagetl in planting. 
Mr. Powell served one term in the legislature in 
ISSa, was a presidential elector in 1844, on the Polk 
and Dallas ticket, and was governor of Kentucky 
in 1851-'5. He was appt)inted by President Polk 
one of the peace comnnssionei-s to Utah in 1857, 
and issued the proclamation thatofferetl pardon to 
all Mormons that would submit to the U. S. gov- 
ernment. He was elected to the U. S. senate as a 
Democrat in 1858. served till 1865, and was a presi- 
dential elector in 1864. Mr. Powell was a clear and 
forcible debater and an excellent working mem- 
ber of the senate. 

POWELL, Leyin, soldier, b. in Loudoun 
county. Va., in 1738; d. in Bedford, I'a., 6 Aug., 
1810. He served throughout the Revolution as an 
officer of the Virginia line, rising to the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel. He was a memljer of the Vir- 
ginia convention of 1788 that ratified the U.S. 
constitution, and in 1798 was elected to congress 
as a Federalist, declining re-ciecti<in for a second 
term. It is reconled in the newsi)aj)ers of that 
date that " Gen. Washington, on the day of elec- 
tion, mounted his old iron-gray charger and rode 
ten miles to the county court-house to vote 
for his brave fellow-soldier, Lieut.-Col. Powell, 
who is happily elected." — His son. Levin Myne, 
naval officer, b. in Loudoun county, Va., in 1800; 
d. in Washington, D. C, 15 Jan., 188.5, was ap- 
pointed midshipman in the U. S. navy in 1817, lie- 
came lieutenant in 1826, was in )*evenil engage- 
ments against the Seminole Indians in 1836-'7, 
was wounded on Jupiter river in January of the 
latter year, and receivtnl the thanks of congress 
for his services during that campaign. He became 
commander in 1843, was on ordnance duty till 
1849, and was executive officer of the Washington 
navy-yard in 1851-'4. He became captain in 1855, 
was retired in 1861. commissione<i coinmotlore in 
18(»'2. and rear-admiral in 1869. 

POWELL, TliomaH, e<litor. b. in Ixindon, Eng- 
land, 3 Sept., 1809 ; d. in Newark, N. J., 13 Jan., 
1887. He was a successful playwright, and en- 
gaged in various literary pursuits in London for 



96 



POWELL 



POWER 



many years, aiding Leigh Hunt, William Words- 
worth, and Richartl li. florno in their" Moderniza- 
tion of Chaucer," and Home in his new " Spirit of 
the Age" (London, 1844). He came to this coun- 
try in 1H49, and from that date till his death was 
connecte«l with Frank Leslie's publications. Ho 
was the first editor of " Frank Ijeslie's Weekly." 
which he establisheti in 1855, and of " Frank 
Leslie's Ijadies' iMagazine " in 1857. He was sul)- 
stHpiently connecteil also with various short-lived 
journals in New York city, and wrote several plays 
that were successfully produced in New York and 
London. His publications in this country include 
''The Ijiving Authors in Great Britain" (New 
York, 1849); "Living Authors in America" 
(1850); and "Pictures of the Living Authors of 
Great Britain " (1851). 

POWELL, Walker, Canadian legislator, b. in 
Norfolk county, Ont.. 20 May, 1828. His paternal 
grandfather, a loyalist, was born in the province 
of New York in 1703 and died in Norfolk in 1849, 
and his father (1801-'52) was a warden of Norfolk 
county, a lieutenant-colonel of militia, and repre- 
sented Norfolk county in the legislative assemblv 
of Canada from 1840 till 1847. Walker Powell 
was educated at Victoria college, and afterward 
engaged in commercial enterprises. In 1856 he 
was warden of Norfolk county, and its representa- 
tive in the Canaila assemblyfrom 1857 till 1861. 
After a long previous connection with the Cana- 
dian militia Mr. Powell was appointed deputy 
adjutant-general of Upper Canada, 19 Aug.. 1862 ; 
deputy adjutant-general for the Dominion at head- 
quarters, 1 Oct.. 1868 ; acting adjutant-general, 22 
Aug., 1873 : and adjutant-general, 21 April, 1875. 
which appointment he now (1888) holds. 

POWELL, WiUiam Byrd, physician, b. in 
Bourlwn county. Ky., 8 Jan., 1799 ; d. in Hender- 
son. Ky., 3 July, 1867. He wa,s graduated at 
Transylvania university in 1820, and at the medi- 
cal department there in 1823, devoted himself to 
the study of the physiology of the brain, and prose- 
cuted his investigations among the Indian tribes, 
professing to read the temperament from an ex- 
amination of the cranium alone. He became pro- 
fessor of chemistry in the Medical college of Louisi- 
ana in 1835. and in 1849 organized the Memphis 
medical institute, taking the criair of cerebral physi- 
ology. He was professor of a similar branch in 
the ('incinnati eclectic medical institute in 1856-'9, 
and lectured there two or three years. In 18(55 he 
was chosen professor emeritus of cerebral physiol- 
ogy in the New York eclectic medical college, but 
he did not lecture in that institution. His collec- 
tion of skulls numbered 500, and was probably the 
next in value and variety to that of Dr. Samuel 6. 
Morton {q. v.). Dr. Powell professed to have dis- 
covered a measurement that indicated infallibly 
the vital force, and the signs ot vital tenacity. He 
was a member of numerous domestic and foreign 
scientific societies, and a frequent contributor to 

firofessional literature. He published " Natural 
listory of the Hunuin Temperament " (Cincinnati, 
Ohio, 1856) ; and, with Dr. llobert S. Newton, " The 
Eclectic Practice of Medicine " (1 857) ; and an " Ec- 
lectic Treatise on the Diseases of Children " (1857). 
POWELL, WilUani Henry, artist, b. in New 
York city, 14 Feb., 1823; d. there, 6 Oct., 1879. 
He began' the study of art at the age of nineteen 
under Henry Inman, in New York, and after- 
ward studied in Paris and Florence. He exhibited 
first at the Academy of design, N. Y., in 1838, and 
was elected an associate in 1839. His name was 
erasetl from the list in 1845 " for non-compliance 
with the terms of election," but he was re-elected 



in 1854. His historical paintings include " DeSoto 
discovering the Mississippi," at the capitol, Wash- 
ington (1848-'53) ; " Perry s Victory on Lake Erie," 
painted for the state of Ohio (1863 ; and again on 
an enlarged scale for the capitol, completed in 
1873); " Siege of Vera Cruz"; "Battle of Buena 
Vista " ; " Landing of the Pilgrims " ; " Scott's 
Entry into the City of Mexico " ; " Washington at 
Valley Forge " ; and " Christopher Columbus be- 
fore the Court of Salamanca." He also executed 
numerous portraits, among them those of Albert 
Gallatin (1843) and Erastus C. Benedict (1855) ; Pe- 
ter Cooper (1855) ; Washington Irving, Maj. Rob- 
ert Anderson, and Gen. George B. McCTellan, in the 
city-hall, N. Y. ; Lamartine, Eugene Sue (1853); 
Abd el Kader, Gen. Robert Schenck, Peter Stuyve- 
sant, Edward Delafield. and Emma Abbott. Many 
of his naintings have been engraved. 

POWELL, William Henry, soldier, b. in Pon- 
typool, South Wales, 10 May, 1825. He came to 
this country in 1830, received a common-school 
education in Nashville, Tenn., and from 1856 till 
1861 was general manager of a manufacturing 
company at Ironton, Ohio. In August, 1861, he 
became captain in the 2d West Virginia volunteer 
cavalry, and he was promoted to major and lieu- 
tenant-colonel in 1862, and to colonel, 18 May, 
1863. He was wounded in leading a charge at 
Wytheville, Va., on 18 July, and left on the field, 
whence he was taken to Libby prison and confined 
for six months. After his exchange he led a cav- 
alry division in the Army of the Shenandoah, be- 
ing made brigadier-general of volunteers in Octo- 
ber, 1864. After the war he settled in West Vir- 
ginia, declined a nomination for congress in 1865, 
and was a Republican presidential elector in 1868. 
Gen. Powell is now (1888) president of a manufac- 
turing company in Belleville, 111. 

POWER, Frederick Beldin^, chemist, b. in 
Hudson, N. Y., 4 March, 1853. He was graduated 
at the Philadelphia college of pharmacy in 1874, 
and then studied at Strasburg, receiving the de- 
gree of Ph. D. in 1880, and serving in 1879-'80 as 
assistant to the professor of materia medica. In 
1881-'3 he was professor of analytical chemistry 
at Philadelphia college of pharmacy, and he then 
was called to the chair of pharmacy and materia 
medica in the University of Wisconsin, with charge 
of the newly established department of pharmacy. 
Dr. Power is a fellow of the American association 
for the advancement of science, and a member of 
the chemical society of Berlin, and other scientific 
associations. Besides writing chemical papers in 
professional journals, he was associated in the au- 
thorship of " Manual of Chemical Analysis " (Phila- 
delphia, 1883); translated and edited FlQckiger's 
" Cinchona Barks " (1884), and an American edi- 
tion of Fluckiger's and Tschich's " Principles of 
Pharmacognosy " (New York, 1887) ; and has now 
(1888) in preparation an American edition of 
FlQckiger's '• Pharmaceutical Chemistry." 

POWER, Lawrence Geoffrey, Canadian sena- 
tor, b. in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in August, 184t 
His father, Patrick Power, represented Halifax 
county in the Dominion parliament in 1867-72 
and in 1874-'8. The son was educated at St. MarVs 
college, Halifax, Carlow college, and the Catholic 
university, Ireland, and at Harvard law-school, 
where he was graduated in 1866. He was for ten 
years a member of the board of school commission- 
ers of Halifax, and is a member of the senate of 
the University of Halifax, and an examiner in law 
in that institution. He is a Reformer in politics, 
and was called to the Dominion senate, 2 Feb., 1877. 
Mr. Power was actively engaged in preparing " The 



POWER 



POWERS 



97 




-/7 



.^^^ 



Rerixed Statutes of Nova Scotia, Fourth Series" 
(1874). and " liHWs and Ordinances relating to the 
Citv of Hiilifax" (1HT({). 

I^OWKU, Michael. Cana4liHn U. ('. hishop, b. in 
Halifax, 17 Oct.. 18(14; d. in Toronto in 1848. He 
was cun- of Ija I'niirit' till 1841. when he accom- 
panieil Bishop Bourifct to Kuro|>c. In the same 
year the ditjceso of Kinjcrston was divided, and I)r. 
rower was nominated bishop of the we«itern jmrt on 
17 May. He was pennittoa to di»sitjiiate the limits 
of his see, and to take his episco|>al title from the 
city in which he judjfwl it most advantageous to 
reside. He was consecrated on 8 May, 1842, and 
took the title of bishop of Toronto. He restore<l to 
the Jesuits the missions they had formerly hehl in 
Upper Canada, and, owing to his constant support, 
thev established many others. 

?OWER, Tyrone, actor, b. in Kilmm'thomas, 
Ireland, 2 Nov., 1797; d. at sea in March, 1841. 

He ma<le his first ap- 
pearance on the stage 
at Newport, Isle of 
Wight, in 1815, as 
Alonzo.in Kotzebue's 
playof "I'izarro." In 
1817 Power nuirrie<l 
a latly of means, 
and after playing for 
alxnit a year in Edin- 
burgh, Dublin, and 
>| -^fcij,"*^-*^^^^ the provinces, he re- 

'^^ ^>- ^^ tired from the stage. 

Two years later ne 
joined an African ex- 
ploring expedition 
y ^ that set out irom the 

syt^nmZ' J- (/yy^A/" Cape of Good Hoi>e 
toward the equator, 
and sacrificed all his means in this unsuccessful en- 
terprise. Eventually he returned home to resume 
his connection with the theatre, and for several years 
filled subordinate parts at different London play- 
houses. At this time he proffered his services to 
several American managers as a leading performer 
in juvenile tragedy. Some years afterward, while 
playing with tlie Covent ganlen company, he was 
given the Irish character of O'Shaughnessv in the 
farce of " The £1(X) Note," and rendered 'it with 
such perfection that it marked out his true line of 
characters. During his last engagement at the 
Haymarket theatre, Power's salary was advanced 
to £150 per week. He visited tHe United States 
on two occasions, from 1833 until 1835. and from 
1839 until 1841, and met with extraonlinary suc- 
cess. He made his American lUhnt at the Park 
theatre in New York city on 28 Aug., IWW, in the 
j>laysof " The Irish Ambassador" and '* Teddy the 
Tiler." His last api)earance was at the same house 
on 9 March, 1841. Among the dramas in which 
he nerformed were " The Nervous Man and Man 
of Nerve," " Pa<ldv Carev." " St. Patrick's Eve," 
"The Irish Tutor.'* "The'White Horse of the Pep- 
tx-rs." •' Ilory O'More." and '• O'Flannigan and the 
Fairies." Slome of these were written for him ; 
others were dramatized by himself. He left New 
York for Liverpool on the steamer " President" on 
21 March. 1841. Three days later the vessel was 
met on the ocean, but it was never heard of after- 
ward. Power was an easy actor, eruloweil with 
wit and humor, set off by vocal altiiity and a rich 
Irish brogue. He was the intinuite friend of Fitz- 
Greene Halleck and other well-known literary men. 
His publications include " Impressions of Amer- 
ica " (2 vols., Ixjndon. 1835) ; " The King's Secret " ; 
and "The Ix)st Heir." 

VOL. T. — 7 



POWERS, EHza Howard, philanthropist, h. 
in 18()2: d. in Washington, D. ('., 25 Aug., 1887. 
During the civil war she was distinguishe<l for 
ileeds of charity, and for her unselfish devotion to 
the sick and wounded. From Noveml^er. 1862, till 
August, 18tW, she was asstK-iate manager of the 
U. S. sanitary commission of New Jersey, and act- 
ing presiilent of the Florence Nightingale relief 
a-iMK'iation of Paterson, N. J. She collectwl $8.(KX), 
and 2().(KX) articles for the S4^ildier8' hospitals, and 
contributed f 2,5(X) of her own money to the same 
purfM)st', without receiving any com{K>'nsation. The 
48th congress voted her a |K<nsion. The commit- 
tee favoring her claims said in their report that 
from 28 April, 1861, till 14 Aug.. 1864. she devoted 
her whole time, energy, and means to the service 
of the soldiers of the National army and for the 
success of the Union cause. 

P<) W ERS, (irant, clergvman, b. in Hollis, N. H., 
31 May, 1784; d. in Goshen. Conn., 10 April, 
1841. He was gratluated at Dartmouth in 1810. 
studied theologv, and was minister at Haverhill, 
N. H., in 1815-^29, and at Goshen, Conn., from 27 
Auff., 1829. till his death. He publishtnl "Essay 
on False Hope in Religion " (Andover, 1828) : *' Cen- 
tennial Address "(Dunstable, 1830); and " Histori- 
cal Sketches of the Settlement of the Coos Country, 
1784-'5" (Haverhill, 1841). 

POWERS, Hiram, sculptor, b. in Woodstock, 
Windsor co., Vt., 29 July, 1805; d. in Florence, 
Italy, 27 June, 1873. He passed his youth on his 
father's farm, and in 1819 emigrated to Ohio with 
the family. On his father's (Feath he settled in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, where he was in turn a clerk, a 
commercial traveller, and a dockmaker's appren- 
tice. Having acquired from a German sculptor a 
knowledge of the art of modelling in clay, he exe- 
cuted several busts and medallions of some merit. 
Later he took charge of the wax-work dej)artment 
in the Western museum at Cincinnati, which post 
he held for seven years. In 18;W he went to Wash- 
ington, where, for some time, he was employed in 
modelling busts of well-known men. Owinif jwrt- 
ly to the assistance of Gen. John Preston, ne was 
enabled to go abroad in 18J17, and he established 
himself in Florence, where he thereafter rt>sided. 
For some time hedevotetl himself chieflv to model- 
ling busts, but within a year prothiced his statue 
" Eve Tempted," which was pronouncitl a niaster- 
|)iece by 1 horwaldsen. Another statue with the 
same title was exe- 
cuted in 1850. In 
1843 he- produced 
the "GreeK Slave," 
the most widely 
known of all his 
works. Of this stat- 
ue six duplicates in 
marble have been 
made, l>esides innu- 
merable casts and 
reduced copies in 
Parian. It wasex- 
hibite<l in England 
in 1845, and again 
at the Crystal jial- 
acein 1851,andalso 
in this country. 
1 1 isotherstatues in- 
dude "The F'isher- 
Boy " (1846), which 

was three times repeated in marble: "America" 
(1854). desitrned for the top of the capitol at Wash- 
ington, and destrove<l by fire in 18(J6; "II Pense- 
roso" (1856); "California" (1858); and "The Last 



J^. 




98 



POWERS 



POWHATAN 



of the Tribe," also known as "The Indian Girl" 
(1872). Of his ideal busts the best known are 
"Ginevra" (1840; ISO.")); " Proserpine " (lf^-'>): 
" Psvche " (1840) ; " Diana *' (1852) ; " Christ " {18««) ; 
"Faith" (1807); "Clytie" (1808); " lioiH*" (18«9): 
and " Charity '* (1871). The greater part of his work 
consists of busts of distinguished men, including 
John Quincv Adams, Andrew Jackson. Daniel Web- 
ster. John ('. Calhoun, John Marshall, ami Martin 
Van Huren (183.')) ; Edward Kverett and John Pres- 
t<in(lH4r)); and Henry W. Longfellow and Philip 
H. Sheridan (18(55). 'He executed also statues of 
Washington for Louisiana, of Daniel Webster for 
Massachusetts, of John C.Calh<»un for South Caro- 
lina (1850), and of Benjamin Franklin (1862) and 
Thomas Jefferson (18();i). Powers had nnich me- 
chanical skill, and wtis the author of several useful 
inventions, among which is a process of modelling 
in pljister which greatly expedites the labors of 
the sculptor by doing away with the necessity of 
making a clay model.— His son, Preston, b. in 
Florence, Italv, 3 April, 1843, studied modelling 
under his father in 18(>7-'73. His first important 
work was the statue of JacoljCoilamer (1875), which 
was originally ordered of his father. It was placed 
in the old hiiil of representatives in Washington. 
He executed also, in 1881, a statue of Reuben 
Springer for Music Hall, Cincinnati. Like his fa- 
ther, he works principally in portraiture, and has 
made numerous busts, including those of Louis 
Agassiz, in the museum at Cambridge; John G. 
Whit tier, in the Public lil)rary, Haverhill, and a 
replica in the Boston public library; Emanuel Swe- 
denborg, four times repeated : Charles Sumner, 
owned by Bowdoin college ; Ulysses S. Grant, in 
the war department, Washington ; and Langdon 
Clieves. Of his ideal works the figure "Maud Mul- 
ler " and the busts " Evangeline " and " Peasant- 
Girl" are best known. His professional life has 
been spent in Florence and m the United States. 

POWERS. Horntio Nelson, author, b. in Ame- 
nia, N. Y., 30 April. 1826; d. in Piermont, N. Y., 
6 Sept., 1890. He was graduated at Union college 
in 1850, at the (Jeneral theological seminary of the 
Protestant Episcopal church. New York city, and 
was ordained a deacon in Trinity church. New 
York. He was assistant at Lancaster, Pa., till 
April, 1857 : rector of St. Ijuke's church, Daven- 
jKirt, Iowa, in 1857-'(52 : of St. John's church, 
Chicago, in 18f)8-'74; of Christ church, Bridge- 
port. (Jonn., in 1875-'84; and became rector of 
Christ church, Piermont. N. Y., in 1886. He was 
president of Griswold college in 1864-'7, and presi- 
dent of the P\iundlings' home, Chicago, in 1872-'4. 
He received the degree of I). D. from Union col- 
lege in 1867. Dr. Powers published " Through the 
Year" (Boston. 1875); "Poems, Early and Late" 
(Chicago. 1876); and "Ten Years of Song" (Bos- 
ton, 1887) ; and was one of the authors of " Homes 
and Haunts of our Elder Poets" (New York. 1881). 
— His brother, Edward, civil engineer, b. in Ame- 
nia, Dutchess co., N. Y., 1 Sept., 1830. was edu- 
cated in the public schools. He served as a civilian 
clerk in the quartermaster's department during the 
civil war, afterward taught for a time, and then 
l)ecame a civil engineer. In 1872 and 1874 he un- 
successfully petitioned congress that an experiment 
might l)e performed with the powder and cannon 
of the United States to determine the influence of 
explosions on rainfall, with a view to the preven- 
tion of droughts. He has published " War and the 
Weather, or the Artificial Production of Rain" 
(Chicago. 1871). 

POWHATAN, Indian sachem, .b. about 1550; 
d. in Virginia in April, 1618. His true name was 



Wahunsonacook. The name Powhatan is derived 
from his early home at the falls of James river, 
near tho site of Richmond. By his prowess and 
ability he rose frgm an ordinary chief to the com- 
mand of thirty tribes, that numbered 8,000 per- 
sons, and occupied the lands between James and 
York rivers. The site of his principal village is 
now occupied by the town of Shelby, on the north 
side of York river, about fifteen miles from James- 
town, in the county of Gloucester. He had a 
guard of forty warriors, and was always attended 
by a sentinel at night. In 1(M)9, when Capt. New- 
port and Cant. John Smith, with thirty of the colo- 
nists, visitea him, to treat for a supply of food, 
he received them with hospitality, lie was then 
stalwart, gray-haired, and .seemingly about sixty 
years old, with several wives, and a family of twen- 
ty sons and ten daughters. In the intercourse be- 
tween the whites and Indians, lx)th parties endeav- 
ored to overreach each other. One of Smith's 
trades was the exchange of two pounds of blue 
glass l>eads for 300 bushels of Indian corn. When 
Capt. Newport returned to Virginia from England, 
he brought with hiui a gilded crown for the great 
sachem, and at the ceremony of coronation Powha- 
tan was declared " Emperor of the Indies." As an 
acknowledgment of the honor conferred, Newport 
was decked with a worn mantle, and received a 
pair of cast-off moccasins. About a year later 
Capt. Smith made an attempt to capture the wary 
emperor, in order to obtain a fresh supply of In- 
dian corn. In retaliation, Powhatan prepared to 
destroy the English settlement: but his purpose 
was frustrated by the timely warning that was 
given the colonists by his daughter Pocahontas. 
He never trusted the white settlers, never visited 
Jamestown, and on the occasion of the marriage of 
his daughter sent his consent by an Indian repre- 
sentative. — His daughter, Pocahontas, Indian 
princess, b. about 1595 ; d. in Gravesend, Eng- 
land, 21 March. 1617, was partial to the white peo- 
ple, and, it is lie- 
lieved, in 1607, 
when she was 
twelve years of 
age, saved the life 
of Capt. John 
Smith. He had 
been taken pris- 
oner by some of 
the tribe under 
Opechancanough, 
wno sent him to 
his brother, Pow- 
hatan. On the 
trial of Smith, 
Powhatan was 
seated in an ar- 
bor of boughs, 
with a daughter 
on each side of 
him. There were 
present about 200 

warriors and many women. When he was about 
to be executed. Pocahontas threw herself over 
Smith's prostrate body, to shield him from de- 
struction, and her subsequent intercession with 
Powhatan saved his life. This event is said to 
have taken place at Shelby, in Gloucester county. 
Smith's account, given in his "General History of 
Virginia," is discredited by Charles Deane, LL. D., 
in his edition of Smith's "True Relation," and by 
the Rev. Edward D. Neill, in his " History of the 
Virginia Company of London," on ike ^^round that 
the incident is not mentioned in Smith's earlier 




POWHATAN 



POWNALL 



99 



narrutivf, but only in hU "New England Trials" 
(1U22), uftiT tlu' lu-oininonco Pm-HlKintas hml al- 
laintHl in Kugland. On tho otluT hand, Mr. Will- 
iam Wirt llonry, in an mUlresw lH<foru the Virginia 
historical soc-ie'ty, 24 Ki'lt., 1HH2, points out that 
a |»art of Smith's original narrative wjis suppn'sstnl, 
the prefwe, signed "J. 11.." saying: *' Soniewhat 
mon» was by him written, which In-ing (as 1 thought) 
fit to Ih' private. I would not adventure to make 
it publicke." Other parts of the preface shuwthat 
the design of the publication was to encourage 
cmigraticm to Virginia, which might have been 
prevented by rejKirt of the hostile action by Pow- 
iiatan. Mr. Henry has shown that the grammati- 
cal confusion of the original narrative at tho jKjint 
where the incident, if true, should have ai)|)eared, 
a(ids probability that it was suppresse«l. That Po- 
calKHitas saved Smith and the colony from peril 
is attested by the so-called "Oxford Tract" ("The 
Procetnlings" of the English Colonic") printed in 
1(J12. four years l)efore her prominence in England. 
" Very oft,^' it says, " she came to our fort with 
what she could get for Capt. Smith, that ever loved 
and \ised all the country well, but her es[)ecially he 
nmch respectetl, and sfie so well requited it that 
when her father intended to have surprised him, 
she, by stealth in the dark night, came through the 
wild woo«ls and told him of it. If he would, he 
might have married her." This was in 1609, after 
Smith's release, when he returned to Jamestown, and 
sent presents to Pocahontas and her father. The 
Indians had been for some weeks friendlier, and the 
child Pocahontas was often seen dancing and caper- 
ing, much to the amusement of the colonists, among 
whom she was a general favorite. In 1612 Poca- 
honta.-; dwelt away from her father, with one of his 
tributary bands, when Capt. Samuel Argall brilwd 
their leader, for a copper kettle, to betray her into 
his hands, that he mignt treat atlvantageously with 
Powhatan for her release. But nothing came of 
this nefarious transaction. During Pocahontas's 
captivity in Jamestown an attachment arose be- 
tween her and a young widower, John Rolfe. She 
was baptized in the small village chapel, on 5 April, 
1613, and not long afterward, in 1614, they were 
married by the Rev. Alexander Whittaker. The 
ceremony was witnessed by the colonists, her broth- 
ers, and other Indians, and Powhatan sent his con- 
sent. Pocahontas wore a tunic of white muslin, 
over which hung a handsome robe, embroidered by 
herself, her forehead was decked with a glittering 
band, her hair with feathers, and she wore the 
white bridal veil. This event prcwluced a peace of 
many years' duration. Pocahontas's Indian name 
was >fatoaka ; at her l>aptism she was christene<l 
Reliecca. In 1616. at the end of April, Mr. and Mrs. 
John Rt)lfe bmle farewell to the colony, and. under 
the care of the governor. Sir Thoma.s t)ale, in com- 

S>any with several Indian men and women, sailed 
or England. On their arrival, on 12 June, the 
" Jjady I{el)ecca," as she was called, was entertained 
by the bishop of London, visited by Sir Walter Ka- 
leigh, and j)resented by Lady I)e la Warr. as an 
Indian princess, at the court of King James. She 
was graciously received and royally enterUiined ; 
but his majesty found great fault with his subject. 
Rolfe, for venturing to marry " the daughter of an 
emjx^ror " b«'fore obtaining the royal consent. The 
"Lady ReU-cca" appi'are<i at the London theatres 
and other public plm-es, an<l was an object of much 
interest with the people. " La Belle Sauvage " Ije- 
came a favorite name for taverns. On the eve of 
her return to this country she was suddenly at- 
tacked by small-}K)\, and died. Her remains were 
buried in Gravesend. The church register describes 




her erroneously as tho "wife of Thomas Rolfe." 
She hwl never learned to write. Among the nmny 
memorials of Pocahontas is a stained-glass window 
placinl by her descendant)} in St. Luke's Episcopal 
church.SmithJiehi, 
Va., represi'Utetl in 
the (ur(>«m|>anying 
illustration. It is 
the oldest Protest- 
ant edifice on this 
continent, having 
been built of im- 
ported brick in 
16:^2. Since the 
destruction of the 
cathetlral at St. 
Augustine, Fla., it 
is, with the excep- 
tion of the adotje 
cathedral at Santa 
Fe, the most an- 
cient Christian 
monument in this 
country. John 
Rolfe, her husband, had been advanced to the office 
of secretary and recorder-general of Virginia, and 
as such returned to the colony. Pocahontas had 
one son, Thomas, Ixjrn in ICngland, who was edu- 
cated by his uncle, Henry, a London merchant. 
On attaining manhof)d. ho followed his father to 
Virginia, as a tobacco-i)lanter, and l>ecame opulent 
and distinguished. He left an only daughter, 
from whom sprang the Virginian families of Boi- 
ling, Fleming, Murray, Guy, Robertson, Whittle, 
and Elbridge, and the branch of Randolphs from 
which John Randolph, of Roanoke, was descende<l. 
John Randolph was proud of his direct descent 
from the Indian princess, and some of his traits are 
ascribed to this origin. Among Rolfe's descend- 
ants is the present bishop of Virginia, Dr. Francis 
M. Whittle, who lately confirmed a class of Indian 
youth at Hampton (formerly Kecongtau), where 
t'ochino, brother of Pocahontas, was commander. 
See a critical judgment in the introduction to 
"Cai)tain John Smith's Works." edited by Edward 
Archer (Birmingham, 1884) ; and " Pocahontas and 
her Descendants," by Wyndham Robertson (Rich- 
mond, Va., 1887). 

POWNALL, Thomas, statesman, b. in Lincoln, 
England, in 1720; d. in Bath, 25 Feb., 180.5. His 
father had l)een connected with the English civil 
service in India, and 
his brother John was 
long the secretary to 
the lords of trade and 
plantations. Thomas 
first came to this coun- 
try in October, 1753, as 
Private secretary to Sir 
)anvers Osborne, royal 
governor of New York. 
In 1754 he attended 
the Albany congress, in 
what capacity is not 
understood, but it is 
presumed that he was 
{)riyate agent of the 
colonial authoritias in 
London. While in Al- 
l)any he first [xrceiveil, 
JUS if by inspiration, the 
drift of American political tendencies. He next 
advocated the delimitation of the French and 
English possessions in .Vmerica, and a neutral In- 
dian territory between them. In 1755 he was ap- 




I 



100 



POWNALL 



PR A DO 



pointed commissioner for Massachusetts, in nego- 
tiations with the colonial authorities in New York, 
oonceming military operations apainst the French, 
and in the same year ne was made iieutenant-pov- 
ernor of New Jersey. lie was present at the meet- 
ing of the colonial povernor with Gen. Edward 
Braildcxk at Alexandria. In 1756 Pownall was 
made jjovenior of Massachusetts, to succeed Shir- 
ley. The accompanyins: enKravinjf re|)r(»sents the 
old Province house, liis residence in Hoston. While 
conducting the government of that province, he 
built the fort that was named after him. on Penob- 
scot river, and was active in the military camnaign 
against the French. In 1700 ho was appoiiitetl gov- 
ernor of South t'arolina, but he never assumed the 
government of that colony, as he returned to Eng- 
land an«l was almost immediately elected to parlia- 
ment. He was next made " director-general of con- 
trol," and joined the English force in Germany. 
After the peace of Paris he was again returned to 
parliament, where he sjit almost continuously till 
1781. lie was the firm and consistent friend of the 
American idea. In 1767 he op|X)sed parliamentary 
taxation of the colonies. In 1777, six years before 
the peace, he was the first to announce that Eng- 
land's "sovereignty over America was gone for- 
ever," and he then advocate<l a commercial treaty 
in order to frustrate French influence. He was 
the first memlKT of parliament to bring in a bill 
for j)eace with the colonies. Soon after the Al- 
bany congress Pownall formulated a plan for an 

English-speaking 
empire whose seat 
of authority was 
ultimately to be 
in this country. 
He believed that 
theAmerieanshad 
equal constitu- 
tional rights with 
the English in 
England, and his 
wonderful saga- 
city, f)enetrating 
thefuture so clear- 
ly as to make him 

_^^ ^ _ seem somewhat 

' "^ visionary to con- 

temporary " practical politicians," made him an- 
ticipate the political preponderance of the English 
race in America. Because he was wedded neither 
to the American plan for independence of England 
nor to the English jtian for colonial subordination 
to the political emporium in London, he failed to 
exert on his contemporaries all the influence that 
his singular ability warranted. Yet he always was 
considered in parliament the chief authority on all 
exact questions of American affairs, whether relat- 
ing to South or North America. He was the first 
Englishman of note that made politics in America 
a profound study. When the United States be- 
came independent he proclaimed that he regarded 
the future iK)litical supremacy of England as doubt- 
ful, and a<lmitted that the aim of his life — a con- 
solidated English-speaking empire — was frustrated. 
As a scientist, Pownall was much esteemed by Ben- 
jamin Franklin, whose close friend he was. even 
during the trying ordeal of the Revolutionary war. 
As an antiauary, scientist, and man of letters, Pow- 
nall st<jod nigh in England. He wrote extensively 
on Roman antiquities and published many papere 
in the " Gentleman's Magazine " on widely dififer- 
ent subjects. But his great literary efifort was one 
on the "Colonial Constitutions" (London, 1764). 
Though somewhat deformed by classical quota- 




tions, it works out in detail the first comprehen- 
sive argument for the equal political status of Eng- 
lish freemen in America. In one aspect this book 
and its views entitle Pownall to be regarded as al- 
most the first American statesman. Certainly he 
merits renown for Xmng the first Englishman of 
eilucation and influence that devoted his entire 
life to the amelioration of American political con- 
ditions. Pownall was a member of tne Society of 
antiquaries, and a fellow of the Roval society. 
By some he wjis thought to be "Junius." Pow- 
nall's political history is yet to be written. When 
it is written, if just to him, it will magnify the 

[)lace that is commonly accorded to him by those 
listorians that have treated the entire epoch in 
which he lived. He was the author of many works, 
including " Principles of Polity " (1752) : " The Ad- 
ministration of the Colonies " (1764) ; " Description 
of the Middle States of America" (1776); "A Me- 
morial to the Sovereigns of Europe on the State of 
Affairs l)etween the Old and tne New World" 
(1780); " Memorial to the Sovereigns of America" 
(1783); "Notices and Descriptions of the Antiqui- 
ties of the Provincia Romana of Gaul" (1788); 
"Intellectual Physics" (1795); "Letters advocat- 
ing Free-Trade" (1795); an antiquarian romance; 
and a treatise on " Old Age." 

POYAS, Catharine Oendron, author, b. in 
Charieston, S. C, 27 April, 1813 ; d. there, 7 Feb., 
1882. Her mother, Elizabeth Anne, published, 
under the title of "The Ancient Lady," several 
small books and pamphlets relating to the homes 
and genealogies of families in Carolina. Her 
daughter was educated in Charleston, wrote verses 
at an early age, and is the author of " Huguenot 
Daughters, and other Poems" (Charleston, 1849) 
and " Year of Grief" (1870). 

POYl)RAS,Jullen, philanthropist, b.in Nantes, 
France, 3 April, 1746; d. in Point Coupee, La., 25 
June, 1824. He was fii-st delegate to congress from 
the territory of Orleans, from 31 Mav, 1809. till 3 
March. 1811 He gave $100,000 for the founding 
of the Poydras orphan iusylum at New Orleans, and 
left $200,000 for a college at Point Coupee. 

PR A DO, Juan de, Spanish soldier, b. in Leon, 
Spain, in 1716; d, about 1770. He entered the 
army, took part in some of the wars of Spain in 
Africa, and was appointed governor-general of 
Cuba in 1760, but did not take possession of his 
office until February, 1761. On 6 July, 1762, an 
English force under Lord Albemarle began the 
siege of Havana, which was finally taken on 13 
Aug. On Prado's return to Spain, the Madrid 
government caused him to be tried by a court-mar- 
tial. Pie was convicted of incompetency and lack 
of energy in the defence of Havana, and was sen- 
tenced to death, but the sentence was commuted 
to ten years' imprisonment. He died in prison. 

PR A DO, Mariano Ignacio (prah'-do), presi- 
dent of Peru, b. in Huanuco in 1826. He entered 
the army early and served in the provinces of the 
south, but was in Lima on leave of absence when 
Gen. Castilla's revolution against Echenique's gov- 
ernment began in 18^4, in which he participated. 
He was taken prisoner and banished to Chili, but 
soon returned, joined Castilla in the mountains, 
and marched with him against the capital as chief 
of the " Columna sagrada." He was political gov- 
ernor of Tacna when Admiral Pinzon occupied 
the Chinchas islands, 14 April, 1864, issued a 
proclamation for the defence of the country, and 
Decame prefect of Arequipa. But when the Vi- 
vanco-Pareja treaty was signed, Prado. on 28 Feb., 
1865, marched against Lima, and eijtered the capi- 
tal on 6 Nov. at the head of a victonoos army, and 



PRAT 



PRATT 



101 



on the 2fith deoIan»d hiiii<«clf ilurtator. Ho si^rned 
at once n treaty of alliaiu-t* with Chili, and when, 
aftor the l)oml»anlinent of Val|«r8J»o, the Spanish 
fleet apjM'artHl Ijofore Caliao, Priwlo dirwto<l the de- 
fentM'of 2 May. 1H<K5. At the In'^'inninR of 18«7 he 
assombleilfonpre!*'. >»'fii<"h elect «h1 him constitution- 
al president, but his nile was not Hpprove<i hy the 
country. Castilla nist* in arms shortly afterward 
in Tarajmoa, but died on the march to Lima, and 
on 27 Sept., 1807, the vice-^)resident, Canseco, j)ut 
hims«'If at the head of a risinj; in Ar«iui|ja, and 
<'ol. Jose Balta (q. v.) pronounced afjainst Prado at 
Chiclayo. Prado attempted to take Annpiipa by 
assault on 7 Jan., 1808, but was n>pelled. and re- 
tired to Chili. Under Pardo's government he 
returne<l, and was ele<-ted president, 2 Aug., 1876. 
He ma<le several ineffectual attempts to come to 
an arrangemetjt with foreign lx»nd-holders, and 
when the quarrel between Bolivia and Chili liegan, 
aceonling to the secret defensive treaty with the 
former republic, he espoused its cause, and war was 
declared by Chili, 5 April, 1879. Prado took active 
measures to prepare for defence, and on 16 May 
left Callao to take command of the army then 
assinnbling at Tacna. He proceeded at once to 
ins|H»ct the allie<l army at Tarapaca. where he was 
j<jined by the Bolivian president. Hilarion Daza 
(^. f.). After the battles of Jermania, San P'ran- 
cisco. and Tarapaca. Pratlo seemed to despair of 
success, and on 26 Nov. left for Lima, ostensibly 
to prepare and hurry forward new re-enforcements, 
but on 18 Dec. left the vice-president. La Puerta, 
in charge of the executive, and embarketi secretly 
on a British mail-steamer, according to a manifesto 
that was nublished the day after his departure, to 
obtain help in money and material from Europe 
or thf United States.' He retunied in 1888. 

PRAT. Agrii^tin Arturo, Chilian naval of- 
ficer, b. near Quirihue, Itata, 3 April, 1848; d. at 
sea, 21 May, 1879. He received his education in 
the College of Santiago, and in August, 1858, en- 
tered the naval academy of Valparaiso. In Janu- 
ary', 1860, he shipjx'd as apprentice on board the 
" Esmeralda," passing his examination a.s midship- 
man, 15 June, 1862, and he served on the same ves- 
sel as sub -lieutenant during the capture of the 
Spanish gun-boat '* Covadonga." 26 Nov.. 1865. and 
the engagement of Abtao in February. 1866. After 
serving in Valdivia, the Chiloe sound, and the 
Strait of Magellan, he studied law, and in 1878 
was admitted to the bar of the supreme court. 
Soon afterward he was sent by the government on 
a mission to Uruguay and the Argentine Republic, 
but, on hearing of the war against Peru and Bo- 
livia, returned to his country, and during April. 
1879. in command of the " Covadonga." assisted in 
the blockade of Iquique. When Admiral Juan 
Williams Rebolledo {q. v.) left with the fleet for 
Callao on 16 Mav. Prat was promoted to the com- 
mand of the " t<3smeraUla." and with the '"Cova- 
donda." also under his orders, left to sustain the 
bUn-kjule of Iquique. On this cruise he was at- 
tacked early on 21 May by the Peruvian iron-clads 
' Huascar and *• Independencia " under Admiral 
Miguel Orau(9. f.). During the engagenient one 
of his boilers burst, and he fell an easy prey to the 
" Huascar." the " Inde|»endencia," in chase of the 
" Covadonga," having struck on a reef. The turret- 
ship, to bring matters to an issue, rammed the 
" Ksmeralda," and Jis the latter was struck behind 
the mizzen-nuist, Capt. Prat, with sword and re- 
volver in hand, jumjxHl on board the " Huasc-ar." 
calling on his men to follow him. but the two ves- 
sels imme<liately separated, leaving all but one man 
behind. As Prat refused to obey 6rau*'8 summons 



to furronder. and killed the signal officer on de<-k. 
he was shot down fn)m the turret, (i rau, who had 
highly esteemiHl Prat for his courage, colIecte<l his 
nenM)hal efre<>ts and sent them to the widow with a 
letter of regret. Prat's country has honore«l his 
memory by erecting a granite pyramid with his 
bust at Atacama in Octolx-r. 1879, and bronze stat- 
ues at his native town of Quirihue in 1880, and in 
Valpaniisf). 21 Mav. 1886. 

PRATT, Benjamin, jurist, b. in Cohasset, 
Mass.. i;j March. 1710; d. 5 Jan.. 17«:i The loss 
of a limb in early life led him to study. He was 
graduated at Harvanl in 1737. studied law. and 
soon l>ecame known for his learning and eloquence. 
He was a representative of Boston in 1737-'50, and 
was a zealous lover of freedom. The friendship of 
Gov. Thomas Pownall pr«x'ure<l him the appoint- 
ment of chief ju.stice of New York. He was a man 
of great research and learning, wrote some fugi- 
tive verses, and had made extensive collections 
with the intention of writing a history of New 
England, but his death prevented the execution of 
his design. His wife was the daughter of Judg^ 
RolK'rt Auchmuty. 

PRATT, CalVin Edward, soldier, b. in Prince- 
ton, Worcester co., Mass., 23 Jan., 1828. He 
studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1852, and 
practised for several years in Worcester. He was 
a meml)er of the Cincinnati convention which 
nominated James Buchanan for president. In 
1859 he removed to New York city and practisetl 
till 1861, when he raised the 31st regiment of New 
York volunteers, and commanded it at the first 
battle of Bull Bun. With his regiment he after- 
ward took part in the battles on the [)eninsula. the 
second battle of Bull Run, and the battle of Anti- 
etam. On 10 Sept., 1862, he was appointed briga- 
dier-general of volunteers, and he resigned, 25 
April. 1863. After the war he held the post of 
collector of internal revenue in the Brooklyn dis- 
trict, which he resigne<l to resume his law-practice. 
In the autumn of 1869 he was electetl a judge of 
the supreme court of the state of New York, and 
he was re-elected in 1877 for fourteen years. 

PRATT, 
town, 

1891. He was educated at the Wilbraham acad- 
emy, and in 1850 came to New York city, where 
he engaged in the oil and paint business. In 1867 
he established the firm of Charles Pratt and Co., 
which was merged into the Standard oil company, 
of which he was an officer. Mr. Pratt displaye<l 
great interest in educational matters, and founded 
in Brooklyn the Pratt industrial institute. This 
receives its support from the Astral flats, which 
were built by him, and conveyed to the institute. 

PRATT, Daniel, vagrant, b. in Prattville, 
Chelsea. Mass., al>out 1809; d. in Boston, Mass.. 21 
June. 1887. He was a carpenter, but did little 
work, and. his mind becoming affected, he spent his 
time in wandering al)out the country, living on 
charity. He was widely known as the "great 
American traveller," which was the name by which 
he called himself. For many years he made the 
tour of the New England colleges annually, until 
his visits came to be regarded almost as a regular 
feature of college life. His addresses, which were 
sometimes delivered to hundnnls of students, and 
receive<l with great applause, were remarkable for 
their long words. l)oml)astic phrases, and curious 
figures of speech; and the same was tnie of his 
"proclamations" and other contributions that oi-- 
casionally found their way into print. One of his 
delusions was that he hat! I)een elected president 
of the United States but defrauded of the office. 



as re-eiecie<i iii iom ior lourieeii years. 

RATT, Charles, philanthropist, h. in Water- 
1, Mjiss., 2 Oct.. miO ; d. in New York, 4 May. 



102 



PRATT 



PRATT 



PRATT, Daniel Darwin, senator, h. in Paler- 
mo, Me., 20 Uct., l«ia; d. in Ix>pin8port, Intl., 17 
June, 1877. When he was a child his iwrents re- 
niove<l to New York. lie was (fruduateu at Hamil- 
ton collepe in 1831, and in 1832 enj;age<l in teach- 
ing in Indiana. In 1834 he went to Indiana{x)lis 
and wa.H einploveil in the office of the secretary of 
state, studied law, and in 1836 settled in Lojjans- 
port, wliere he iK'pin the practice of his profession. 
In 18.J1 and lHr)3 he was elected to the iejrislature, 
and he was a delegate to the Chicago National Re- 
publican convention of 1860, also a(;ting as its 
principal secretary. He was elected to congress 
from Indiana in 1868, but before taking his seat 
was chosen U. S. senator from that state to suc- 
ceed Thomas A. Hendricks, and served from 4 
March, 1869. till 3 March, 187"). In 187") he was 
apj)ointed commissioner of internal revenue, which 
oflice he resigned in July, 1876. 

PRATT, Daniel Jolinson, educator, b. in 
Westmon-land, Oneida co., N. Y., 8 March, 1827; 
d. in Albany, N. Y., 12 Sept., 1884. He was gradu- 
ated at Hamilton college in 1851, and was for ten 
years principal of Kredonia academy. He after- 
ward iH'came assistant secretary of the regents of 
the I'niversity of the state of }^ew York. He wa.s 
one of the originators of the annual convocation of 
the professors in the colleges and academies of New 
YorK. In addition to many reports upon educa- 
tional subjects, he published " Biographical No- 
tice of Peter Wraxall" (Albany, 1870), and "An- 
nals of Public Education in the State of New 
York, ir)2t)-1746" (Albany, 1882), and was the au- 
thor of the greater part of the "History of the 
Boundaries of the State of New York " (2 vols.), 
presented to the legislature as a report by the re- 
gents of the university. 

PRATT, Enoch, clergyman, b. in Middlebor- 
ough, Mass., in 1781 ; d. in Hrewster, Mass., 2 Feb., 
18(50. He was graduated at Brown universitv in 
1803, and ordained. 28 Oct., 1807, as pastor of" the 
church at Barnstable. Mass., where he remained till 
his resignation in 1837. He was author of a " His- 
tory of East ham, Wellfleet, and Orleans, Mass., 
1644-1844 " (Yarmouth. 1844). 

PRATT, Enocli, philanthropist, b. in North 
Midillel)orough, Mass., 10 Sept., 1808. He was 
graduated at Bridgewater academy at the age of 
fifttH'ii, and soon afterward secured a place in a 
commercial house in Boston. In 1831 Mr. Pratt re- 
moved to Bal- 
timore and es- 
tablished him- 
self as a com- 
mission mer- 
chant. He af- 
terward found- 
ed the whole- 
sale iron house 
of Pratt and 
Keith, and la- 
ter that of 
Enoch Pratt 
and Brother, 
but gave much 
of his time to 
financial enter- 

f)rises of a pub- 
ic nature. He 
has been direc- 
tor and president of various corporations, presi- 
dent of the House of reformation and instruc- 
tion for colored children at Cheltenham, which he 
founded, and to which he gave 730 acres of his 
farm as a site, and president of the Maryland school 




for the deaf and dumb at Frederick, which he es- 
tablished. In 1877 he was elected by the city 
councils of Baltimore as finance commissioner. lii 
1867 Mr. Pratt had endowed an academy in North 
Middlelxjrough, his native city, in the sum of $30,- 
000. On 21 Jan., 1882, Mr. Pratt gave notice to the 
government of the city of Baltimore of his purpose 
to establish a free cireulating library, to be called 
the Enoch Pratt free library of the city of Balti- 
more, on certain conditions of co-operation on the 
fiart of the city, which were promptly accepted, 
le proceeded immediately to erect fire-proof build- 
ings for the library (see illustration) and four 
branches, which were completed and conveyed to 
the city, 2 July, 1883. Mr, Pratt intended to* spend 
|!1,000",000, but the amount had reached $1,145,- 
833.33 at the completion of the buildings. The 
library was formally opened on 4 Jan., 1886. 

PRATT, Matthew, artist, b. in Philadelphia, 23 
Sept., 1734; d. there, 9 Jan., 1805. He received a 
common-school education, and at the age of fifteen 
was apprenticed to his uncle, James Claypoole, 
from whom he learned "all the different branches 
of the painting business, particularly portrait- 
painting." He remained m Philadelphia until 
1757, when he embarked for Jamaica on some mer- 
cantile enterprise. The following year he returned 
home, and began to pursue regularly the profes- 
sion of a portrait-painter. About i764 he went 
to England and became the pupil of Benjamin 
West. Four years were spent there in study and 
the practice of his profession, after which he re- 
turned to Philadelphia. He made another trip 
abroad in 1770, visiting Ireland and England, and 
after that did not leave his native city again. His 
portraits, in the execution of which he proved him- 
self an artist of undoubted talent, include those of 
Rev. Archdeacon Mann, of Dublin, the Duke of 
Portland, the Duchess of Manchester, Gov, Andrew 
Hamilton, and Gov. Cadwalader Golden, of New 
York (1772). He painted also " The London School 
of Artists," which Thomas Sully pronounced well 
executed. Pratt, probably finding portrait-painting 
not sufficiently remunerative, occupied himself at 
intervals with the painting of signs. Many of his 
contemporaries have attested the fine execution of 
these sign-boards. 

PRATT, Parley Parker, Mormon apostle, b. 
in Burlington, N. Y., 12 April, 1807; d. near Van 
Buren, Ark., 13 May, 1857. He joined the Mormon 
church in 1830. and was a member, in 1835, of the 
first quorum of the twelve apostles, Mr. Pratt was 
one of the earliest Mormon missionaries that trav- 
elled from the Atlantic seaboard to the western 
frontiers of Missouri, and among his converts was 
John Taylor. In 1840 he was sent on a mission to 
England, and again in 1846. He was one of the 
pioneers to the valley of the Great Salt Lake, and 
in 1847 explored Utah lake and valley ; also Ce<lar 
and Tooede valleys, and Parley's Caflon and Par- 
ley's Peak, east of Salt Lake valley, were named 
after him, as he explored them in 1849 and worked 
a road up the cafion. He visited the Pacific coast 
in 1851 and 1854 on missions, and set out on a 
similar expedition to the eastern states in Sep- 
tember, 1856, but was assassinated while passing 
through Arkansas. Some of Mr. Pratt's writings 
were pronounced by Joseph Smith to be standard 
works of the church. He established the "Mil- 
lennial Star" in Manchester, England, and was 
its editor during 1840. It is still published. Mr. 
Pratt was the author of numerous pamphlets, 
among which are " An Appeal to the State of New 
York." " Immortality of the Body," '; Fountain of 
Knowledge," "Intelligence and Affection," "The 



PRATT 



PRATT 



106 



\ 



Anjjfl of the Prairk's," uiul was the author of 
*• Voice of Warning ami Instruction to all Pc<>ple, 
or an IntrtMltiction to the Faith and Doctrine of 
the ljatter-l)av Saints" (New York, 18:^7); "His- 
tory of the Persecutions in Missouri" (I)ctroit. 
IHIJi)) : an«l " Kev to the Science «)f Theology " (Liv- 
er|MM>l, 1854). llis niarkc«l Ilebniic chanu-ter and 
tone led to his beinjjf cullwl the Isaiah of his peo- 

t)le. — 11 is brother. Orson, Mormon a|H)stle, b. in 
lartford. X. Y.. 11) Sept.. 1811 ; d. in Salt l^akeCitv, 
3 Oct.. 1881. He was educated in common schcK>ls 
in Columbia county, and acouired an extensive 
knowltnlge of Hebrew and the ni);her mathematics. 
In Septeujber, 1830, he joined the Mormon church, 
which he followed in its travels to Missouri, and 
became an eUler in 18JJ1, a high-priest in 18iJ2. and 
one of the twelve apostles in 18Ji5. Sckju after his 
connection with the church he was stuit on numer- 
ous preaching missions, extending from the New 
England and other eastern states and Canada to 
western Missouri. He and Krastus Snow were the 
first Mormons to enter the valley of the Gi-eat Salt 
Ijake. and he was the first to stand upon the site 
where Salt Ijake City was afterward built. Mr. 
Pratt went on successfid missions to Great Britain 
in 1840. 1848. 1850, 1853, 185«. 1864. 1877, and 1878, 
and was twice president of the British and Euro- 
pean missions, and in 1865 he went on a mission 
to Austria. In 1852 he went on a mission to Wa-^h- 
ington, D. C, where he edited and published " The 
Seer." eighteen monthly numbers, at the same time 
presiding over the churches on the Atlantic slope 
and in Canada. He was a member of the legisla- 
tive assembly of Utah during the first session, and 
also of every other session when he was in the ter- 
ritory, and was seven times its speaker. For some 
time he held the professorship of mathematics in 
Deseret university and in 1874 was appointe*! church 
historian and general church recorder. Mr. Pratt 
entered into theological controversies in England, 
and in 1870 discusseil polygamy with Dr. John P. 
Newman before nearly 15.000 people in the great 
tabernacle in Salt Lake City. These discussions 
were published in pamphlet-form and in many 

Ea{)ers in the United States. His mathematic 
nowknlge was applied in his discovery of the *' Law 
of Planetary Rotation," showing that the cubic 
roots of the densities of the planets are as the 
square roots of their periods of rotation, which he 
announcetl in November, 1854. In 1845 he wrote 
and puiilished "The Prophetic Almanac." which 
he calculated for the latitude and meridian of 
Nauvoo and the principal cities of the United 
States. His publications include " Divine Authen- 
ticity of the Book of Mormon " (0 parts) ; " Series 
of Pamphlets on Mormonism. with Two Discus- 
sions" (Liverpool, 1851); "Patriarchal Order, or 
Plurality of Wives " (1853); "Cubic and Bicjuad- 
ratic Equations " (London, 18(>(i) : " Key to the 
Universe" (Liverpool, 1879); "The Great First 
Cause"; "The Absunlities of Immaterialism "; 
and several volumes of sermons. Mr. Pratt left 
in manuscript " Lectures on Astronomy " ami a 
treatise on " Differential Calculus." 

PRATT, Peter, lawyer, d. in New London, 
Conn., in Noveml)er. 1730. He was eminent as a 
lawyer and publishe<l " The Prey tnken from the 
Strong, or an Historical Acctmnt of the Recovery 
of One from the Dangerous Errors of (Quakerism " 
(New London. 1?25). 

PRATT, Phinehas, pioneer, b. in England in 
1590; d. in Charlestown, Mass.. 19 April, 1(580. 
He came to Massachusetts with ('apt. Thomas Wes- 
ton's colony in June, 1G22, and settled at Wessa- 
guiiset, afterward called Weymouth. On the fail- 



' lire of the colony, he fled from the place in Febru- 
ary, 1623, and made his way alone through the 
forest, pursued by Indians, to Plymouth, tliirty 
miles (tistant. lie sul>se<|uently resided many 
years in Plymouth colony, and then removed to 
Charlestown. Ma.ss. He wrote a " lX*claration of 
the Affairs of the English Pecjple that First inhab- 
ited New England," publishetl in the " Ma.ssachu- 
setts Historicjil Collections" (Boston, 1858). 

PRATT, Robert M., artist, b. in Binghamton. 
N. Y., in 1811; d. in New York city. 31 Aug., 
1880. He studied under Samuel F. B. Morse and 
Charles C. Ingham, and became well known as a 
figure- and flower-painter. Among his numerous 
IM)rtraits are those of Aaron D. Shattuck (1859) 
and George H. Smillie (18(i5), both in the jmjsscs- 
sion of the Academy of design. He was elected an 
associate of the National academy in 1849, and an 
academician in 1851. 

PRATT, Samuel Wheeler, clergyman, b. in 
Livonia, Livingston co., N. Y., 9 Sept., 1838. He 
was graduate<l at Williams in 1860, and at Auburn 
theological seminary in l8(Ki. He was ordaine<l a 
minister of the Presbyterian church in July, 18ffii, 
and preached at Brasher Falls, N. Y., in 1863-'7 ; 
at Hammonton, N. J., in 1867-'71 ; at Pratts- 
burg, N. Y., in 1872-'7 ; and at Campbell. N. Y., 
in 1877-'83. He is now (1888) stationed at Monroe, 
Mich. He has written much for the {K'riodical 
press, published historical discourses, and is author 
of " A Summer at Peace Cottage, or Talks on 
Home Life" (New York, 1880), and "The Gospel 
of the Holv Soirit " (1888). 

PRATT, Tnomas Georare, governor of Mary- 
land, b. in Georgetown, I). C., 18 Feb., 1804 ; d. In 
Baltimore, Md., 9 Nov.. 1869. He was educated in 
his native place, studied law, and in 1823 removed 
to Upper Marlborough, Md., where he engaged in 
practice. He was in the legislature in 1832- 5, and 
in 1837 was chosen president of the last executive 
council that was held under the state constitution 
of 1776. In 1838-'42 he was in the state senate, 
and in 1844 he was the Whig candidate for gover- 
nor on a platform that opjKJsed the repudiation of 
the state debt. He was successful after one of the 
fiercest political contests that was ever waged in 
Maryland, and during his term the finances of the 
state were placed on a solid ba.>;is. On the expira- 
tion of his service he practised his profession in 
Annapolis till 1849, when he was elected to the 
U. S. senate in place of Reverdy Johnson, who had 
resigne<l on being apfMinted attorney-general. He 
was re-elected, and held his seat from 14 Jan., 1850, 
till 3 March, 1857. During his term he l)eaime an 
intimate friend of Daniel Weltster, and he often 
entertained Wel>ster and Henry Clay at his home 
in Annapolis. Subsequently he remove<l to Balti- 
more. At the beginning of the civil war Gov. 
Pratt was a strong advocate of secession, and was 
confineil for a few weeks in Fort Monn»e. Va. He 
was a delegate to the National Democratic conven- 
tion at Chicago in 18(>4. and to the Philadelphia 
Union convention of 18(>6. 

PRATT, Zadock, manufacturer, b. in Stephens- 
town. Rensselaer co.. N. Y., iH) Oct.. 1790; d. in 
Bergen, N. J., 6 April, 1871. His father, of the 
same name, had served in the Rev«>lutionary army, 
and was a tanner and sh(K>maker. The son was 
employed in his father's tan-yard, and, while he 
was a\K)y, invente<l an impn)ved pump for raising 
liquid from the vats, which is still in use. He was 
apprenticed to a saddler in 1810, U'gan business on 
his own account a year later, and in 1815 forme<l a 
partnership with his brothers in the tanning busi- 
ness, in which he was very successful. In 1824 he 



104 



PRAY 



PREBLE 



built whnt he intended to be the largest tannery in 
the world, around which grew the jtresent town of 
Prattsville, X. Y. Ik' was also iiiUTi'stod in eleven 
similar establishments. In 18137 he received from 
the New York institute the first silver medal that 
was ever awanknl for heml<K'k sole-leather. He 
was el(H'ted to congresiis a.s a Democrat in 18136 and 
in 1843, servinjf one term each time. During his 
congressional career he was active in his efforts for 
the ri'duction of postage, estai)lished the National 
bureau of statistics, and as one of the committee on 
public buildings advocated the usp of granite or 
marble in their construction, instead of saiulstone. 
The post-otTlce buildings in Washington were 
erected according to his plans. He was also one of 
the earliest advocates of a Pacific railroad, and in 
1845 offered a resolution for the distribution of en- 
gmvings of patent devices through the country for 
the IxMiefit of mechanics and the stimulation of in- 
vention. In 18;3(j and 1852 he was a presidential 
elector. He founded a bank in Prattsville, and 
contributed largely toward the growth of that town. 
He was a colonel of militia in 1828, and was gen- 
erally known bv his title.— His sou, (ieorge nat- 
80n,"soldier, i). in Prattsville. N. Y., 18 April, 18:30; 
d. near Manassjvs, Va., 21 July, 18()1, was educated 
in Poughkeepsie, X. Y., and in Europe, receiving 
the degree of Pii. I), at the University of Erlangen, 
Bavaria. He engaged in business, took an active 
interest in politics, and served in the state senate. 
At the Ix'ginning of the civil war he became colo- 
nel of the 20th New York regiment, and at the 
time of his death, at the battle of Hull Run, he was 
acting brigadier-general. Col. Pratt was the au- 
thor of an elaborate review of Gen. George 13. 
McClellan's report on the Crimean war. 

PRAY, Isaac Clark, journalist, b. in Boston, 
Mass., 15 May, 1813 ; d. in New York city. 28 Nov., 
1869. He was the son of a Boston merchant, and 
was educated at Harvard and Amherst, where he 
was gra<luated in 18:33. He edited the Boston 
" Pe^rl "' in 1834, and the Boston " Daily Herald " 
in 1835-'7, and was also connected with the '"Jour- 
nal of Commerce " in New York. In 1836 he be- 
came manager of the National theatre in the latter 
city, where he produced his original tragedy of 
" Giulietta Gordoni " (1836), and he also m-oduced 
at the Park theatre a farce entitled "The Old 
Clock, or Here She Goes and There She Goes," 
dramatized from his story written for the "Sunday 
Morning News," of which he was the editor. He 
was also editor of the " Dramatic Guardian " and 
the " Ladies' Companion." He was in England in 
1846-'7 and acted the parts of Hamlet, Othello, Sir 
Giles Overreach, and otlier characters, at the Queen's 
theatre, London, and at the Royal theatres in Liver- 
pool and (.'ork. In 1850 he was engaged on the 
editorial staff of the New York " Herald " as 
musical and dramatic critic, and subsequently he 
became a theatrical manager, and translated and 
wrote several plavs, including " Paetus Coecinna" 
(1847) and " The Hermit of Malta " (1856). He 
was the author of " Prose and Verse " (Boston, 
1835); "Poems" (1837): "Book of the Drama" 
(New York. 1851); "Memoirs of James Gordon 
Bennett" (1855); and numerous contributions to 
magazines and reviews. 

PRAY, Lewis Glover, philanthropist, b. in 
Quincy, Mass., 15 Aug., 1793 ; d. in Roxbury, Mass., 
7 Oct., 1882. He received a common-school educa- 
tion and went to Boston in 1807, where he became 
a shoe-dealer in 1815. He was a member of the 
primary-school committee in 1823, its secretary in 
1834-'5, and organized a model school, but resigned 
in 1842. He was a member of the common council 



in 1827-'8. and served in the legislature in 1833 and 
1840. Mr. Pray retired from business in 18:38, and 
removed to Roxbury in 1853. He was connected 
with the principal charitable, religious, and tem- 
jwrance societies in Boston and Roxburv. and pub- 
lished " Boston Sunday-School Hvmn-lWk" (Bos- 
ton. 18:3:3); "The Chikl's First Book of Thought" 
(18:39); "History of Sundav-Schools and of Relig- 
ious Education from the tiarliest Times" (1847); 
" The Svlphid's Sch<x)l and Other Pieces in Verse " 
(1862); "and "Historical Sketch of the Twelfth 
Congregational Society in Boston" (1863). 

PRAY, Piibliiis Kntlling Rufiis, jurist, b. in 
Maine in 1795; d. in Pearlington, Miss., 11 Jan., 
1840. He removed to the south, practised law in 
Hancock county. Miss., served in the legislature in 
1828, and was president of the convention that 
adopted the revised constitution of 1832. In 1833 
he was appointed by the legislature to revise the 
laws of the state, which work he completed after 
great labor. Prom November, 1887, till his death 
he was judge of the high court of errors and aj>- 
peals. He published " Revised Statutes of the 
State of Mississippi " (Jackson, 1836). 

PREBLE, Jedediah, soldier, b. in Wells, Me., 
in 1707; d. in Portland, Me., 11 March, 1784. He 
began life as a sailor, and in 1746 became captain 
in a provincial regiment, settling in Portland about 
1748. He was a lieutenant-colonel under Gen. John 
Winslow in Acadia in 1755, became colonel, 13 
March, 1758. and brigadier-general, 12 March, 1759. 
He was for twelve' years a representative in the 
general court, and became a councillor in 1773. On 
27 Oct., 1774, he was commissioned brigadier-gen- 
eral by the Provincial congress of Massachusetts, 
and he was afterward made major-general, but re- 
fused on account of age. Gen. Preble was judge 
of the court of common pleas in 1778, and a mem- 
ber of the state senate in 1780. — His son, Edward, 
naval officer, b. in Portland, Me., 15 Aug., 1761 ; d. 
there, 25 Aug., 1807. When he was seventeen years 
old he ran away 
and shipped in 
a privateer, and 
on his return 
was appointed 
midshmman in 
the Massachu- 
setts state ma- 
rine, participat- 
ing in the "Pro- 
tector" in a gal- 
lant attack on 
the British pri- 
vateer "Admi- 
ral Duff," which 
took fire and 
blew up. In 
1779 he was 
captured in 
the " Protec- 
tor" and sent 

to the " Jersey " prison-ship in New York. After 
his release he served in tne state cruiser "Win- 
throp," and took a British armed brig. After the 
peace of 1783 he cruised around the world in the 
merchant marine. Upon the organization of the 
navy he was one of the first five that were commis- 
sioned as lieutenants, 9 Feb., 1798, served as acting 
captain of the brig " Pickering," and was commis- 
sioned captain, 15 May, 1799, commanding the 
" Essex " on a cruise to China, whence he convoyed a 
fleet of fourteen merchantmen, valued at many mill- 
ions. He married Mary Deering in 1^01. In May, 
1803, he commanded the " Constitution." and the 




C't>^u^a/rd ty-^^2^e'^'€e^ 



PREBLE 



PREBLR 



106 



8(iUH(ln>n to oiKTute afn^inst the Barlmrv states, 
with the " Philailolphia," C'apt. Baiiibrufcre : the 
"Argus," under Lieut. Iltill ; the "Siren, Lieut. 
Stewart; the "Enterprise." Lieut. Deeaturjthe 
" Nautihis," Lieut. Somers ; an<l the " Vixen," Lieut. 
Smith. On 6 Oct., 1H(XJ. the fleet arrive«l off Tan- 
jfiers, where, by display of force and Ann demands, 
ne com|)elie«l the sultan of Mohk-co to renew the 
treaty of 17H6. The " PhilH<lelphia" was sent to 
blo<-ka<le Tripoli, and. while <'hasinjj Tri|Hilitan j;un- 
boats, ran f>n a reef and was captured, after the >funs 
had l)een thrown ovcrUmnl iti vain efforts to float 
the shin. Subsetjuently the Trijujlitans removed 
her to tne inner harltor Preble arrived off Trijx)Ii. 
17 Dec, 180y. reconnoitred the harljor, received 
letters from Bainbridge in prison, and matured a 
plan for the destruction of the " Philadelphia " that 
nad been suggested by Bainbridge. He sailed to 
Syracuse, whore he detailed Decatur with volun- 
teers in the cjii)turetl Tripolitan ketch re-named 
"Intrepid," to destroy the " Phila<lolphia." Deca- 
tur {q, r.) accomplished the feat and rejoined Preble 
at Syracuse, 19 Feb., 1804. Preble cruised along 
the fiarbary coast, blockade<l Tripoli, and collected 
a force of .small vessels, until 25 July, 1804, when 
he arrived off Trijx)li with a frigate, three brigs, 
three sch«x>ners, two bomb-vessels, and six gun- 
boats. The town was defended by forts with 45,- 
000 Arabs, l)esides two schooners, a brig, and nine- 
teen gun-lwats. Preble conducted six spirited 
attacks, in which three Tripolitan vessels were cap- 
tured and three were sunk. The pacha sued for 
peace, offering to waive all claim for future tribute, 
and reduce the ransom of American prisoners from 
$1,000 to |500 each. Preble insisted on equal ex- 
change, and continued operations. The relief 
squadron arrived on 10 Sept., 1804. under Com. 
Barron, Preble's senior, and the latter, being re- 
lieved, sailed home after settling negotiations with 
Italian authorities for the vessels and supplies that 
had been furnished. Preble's strict discipline, pru- 
dent and energetic measures, and perseverance are 
demonstrated by the details of this series of the 
most gallant attacks that are recorded in naval 
history. No gun was fired against Tripoli after he 
left. His or)erations resulted in the peace signed 
8 June, 1805, bv which the tribute that European 
nations had paid for centuries, and the slavery of 
Christian captives, were abolished. His officers 
wrote a letter expressing their esteem and affection, 
he was given an enthusia.stic welcome on his return, 
and congress gave him a vote of thanks and an 
emblematical gold medal. He was the first officer 
to receive a vote of thanks after the adoption of 
the constitution. In 180<5 Jefferson offered him a 
seat in the cabinet as the head of the navy depart- 
ment, but feeble health prevented his acceptance : 
he returned to Portland, where hedie<l of consump- 
tion.— Ekiward's nephew, (jeorge Henry, naval 
officer, b. in Portland, Me.. 25 Feb., 181«5: d. in 
Boston, Mass., 1 March, 1885. entered the navy as 
midshipman, 10 Oct., 18;i5. cruised in the Mediter- 
ranean in the frigate " United States" in 183(>-'8, 
l)ecame iwissed midshipman 22 June, 1841, served 
in the Florida war in 1841-'2, and circumnavigated 
the world in the " St. Louis " in 184S-'5, when he 
took ashore the first American force that landed 
in China. In the Mexican war, in 184ft-'7, he par- 
ticipated in the capture of Alvarado, Vera Cruz, 
and Tuxpan. He became a master. 15 July, 1847, 
and lieutenant. 5 Feb.. 1848, 8erve<l in the frigate 
"St. liawrence " in 1853-'6, took g<iods to the Ijon- 
don exhibition, joined Com. Matthew C. Perrv's 
expetlition to China, and fought Chinese pirates, for 
which the English authorities gave him their thanks. 



He Biirveyed the harlMirs of Keelung. Formosa, 
Jeddo. and HakiKladi. Japan, and prepare<l sailing 
directions for Siipjapore, which wen- published ex- 
tensively. In 185(1-7 he was light-house instx'ctor, 
in 1857-'9 he served at the navy-yard at Charles- 
town, Ma.ss., and in 1851>-'fll he was executive of 
the steamer " Narragansett " in the Pacific. In 
January. 1802, he took command of the steamer 
" Katahdin," in which he participated under P'arra- 
gut in the capture of New Orleans, and substHpient 
oiH'rations in the Mississii»pi and (Jrand gulf. He 
was commissioned commander. 10 July, 1802. For 
failure to capture the Confederate cruis<>r " Florida" 
on the blockade he was summarily dismisse<l the 
navy, but the captain of the "'Florida" testified 
that his su[>erior 8()eed alone saved him, and the 
dismissal was revoked, he was restored to his rank, 
and given command of the " St. Louis." which he 
joined at Lisl)on, cruising after Confederate rf)vers. 
riie " Florida " again escaped him at Madeira while 
he was becalmed. He next commanded the fleet 
brigade from 24 Nov., 1804, till April, 1805, and 
co-operated with Gen. William T. Snerman. With 
the steamer " State of Georgia," in 1805, he rescued 
six hundred passengers from the wreckwl steamer 
"Golden Rule," near Aspinwall. He became cap- 
tain on 10 March, 1807, was at the Boston navv- 
yard in 1805-'8, and served as chief of staff and in 
command of the flag-ship " Pensacola" in 1808-'70 
in the Paciflc. After being commissioned commo- 
dore, 2 Nov., 1871. he was commandant of the navy- 
yard at Philadelphia in 1873-'5, was promoted to 
rear-admiral. 30 Sept., 1870, and on 25 Feb., 1878, 
was retired by law, being sixty-two years old. Ad- 
miral Preble constantly contributed to the profes- 
sional periodical press, and was a member of vari- 
ous historical societies. A collection of navy 
registers, naval tracts, and other works from his 
library constitute the rarest sets of U. S. naval 
publications in existence. They are now in the 
navy department, serving in many cases to supply 
information for the biographies of naval ofllicers 
that is not otherwise obtainable. His writings, 
many of which were printe<l privately and in small 
editions, include " Cna.se of the Rebel Steamer of 
War 'Oreto'" (Cambridge, 1802): "The Preble 
Family in America" (Boston. 1808); " First Cruise 
of the'U. S. Frigate ' Essex ' " (Salem, 1870) ; " His- 
tory of the American Flaj?" (Albany, 1872); and 
" riistory of Steam Navigation " (Philadelphia, 
1883).— Jedidiah's granddaughter, Harriet, trans- 
lator, b. in Lewes, England, in 1795; d. in West 
Manchester, near IMttsburg, Pa., 4 Feb., 1854, was 
the daughter of Henry Preble, who l)ecame a mer- 
chant in Paris, France. She was e<lucated at the 
school of Madame Campan in St.Germain-en-Laye, 
came to the United States with her mother in 1830, 
and in 1832 established a school in Pittsburg, which 
feeble health compelle<l her to alHindon in 1830, 
She published translations into French prose of 
Bulwer's poem "The Rebel," with an historical in- 
troduction (Paris, 1827), and of James Fonimore 
Cooper's " Notions of the Americans " (4 vols., 1828), 
and left several works in manusc-ript. See " Me- 
moir of Harriet Preble, containing Portions of her 
Correspondence. Journal, and other Writings," by 
Prof. Richard H. Lee (New York, 1850). 

PREBLE, WilUani Pitt, jurist, b. in York, 
Me., 27 Nov., 178;i : d. in Portland, Me., 11 Oct.. 
1857. He was gnwluated at Harvard in 1800, and 
was tutor in mathematics there in 1809-'ll. In 
1813 he was apjK>inted U. S. district attorney and 
Ix^came a leader of the Democratic party. In 1818 
he removetl to Portland, which he represented in 
the State coDstitutionai convention of 1810, and 



106 



PRftFONTAINE 



PRENTISS 



WRs one of its most influential members. On the 
inauguration of the new state government of 1820 
he was ap]>ointc(l a judge of the supreme court. 
In 1829 he was made U. S. minister to the Nether- 
lands, and he subsefjuently held other public ofTices. 
He was the first president of the Atlantic and St. 
Lawrence railroau company in 1847, and publislied 
pamphlets relating to this corjx)ration (lK45-'7). 
liowdoin gave him the degree of LIj. I), in 1829. 

PKftFONTAINE, Ayiiiery, Chevalier dc (pray- 
fon-tane). French 8<ildier, b. in Coutances in 1720; 
d. in Cayenne in 1767. He entered the army very 
early, and served all his life in the French posses- 
sions of South America, holding the post of police 
lieutenantof Cayenne from 1759 till his death. He 
contributed much to the imj)rovement of the col- 
ony, promoted emigration, and presented several 
papers to the king's councils in advocation of the 
scheme of " France eouiuoxiaie." He published 
several works, incluuing " Maison rustique h 
I'usage des habitants de la partie de la Ji ranee 
equinoxiale connue sous le nom de Cayenne " 
(Paris, 17&3). to which is prefixed a dictionary of 
the (talibi dialect and a grammatical essay, which 
was afterward reprinted by Lesueur. and is yet con- 
sidered as one of the Ixjst treatises on the language 
of the (luiana Indians. 

FRENCE, or PRINCE, Thomas, governor of 
Plvmouth colony, b. in England in 1001 ; d. in 
Plvmouth, Mass.. 29 March, 1678. He sailed for 
this country on the " Mayflower," and was a signer 
of the first coiuiMKt that was drawn up by the pas- 
sengers of the vessel before their landing, under 
date of 11 Nov., 1620. He was one of the first 
settlers of Nansett, or Eastham, was chosen gover- 
nor of Plymouth colony in 16;M, serving until 1688, 
and again from 16.57 till 1678, and was an assistant 
in l()8.')-'7 and l(i89-'57. He was an impartial 
magistrate, was distinguished for his religious 
zeal, and opposed those that he believed to be 
heretics, particularly the Quakers. In opposition 
to the clamors of the ignorant he procured revenue 
for the support of grammar-schools in the colony. 
Gov. Prence gave to Wamsutta and Pometacom. 
the sons of Massasoit, the names of Alexander and 
Philif) as a compliment to their warlike character. 
PRENTICE, Oeorge Denison, journalist, b. 
in Preston, Coim., 18 Dec, 1802 ; d. in Louisville, 
Ky., 22 Jan., 1870. Before the age of fifteen he 
was principal of a public school. He was gradu- 
ated at Brown in 1828, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar 
in 1829, but never 
practised his pro- 
le-ssion. In 1825 
he was the editor 
of the " Connecti- 
cut Mirror," and 
in 1828 he took 
charge of the "New 
England Weekly 
Review," which he 
conducted for two 
years, and then re- 
moved to Louis- 
ville, Ky. In 1831 
he became editor 
of the Louisville 
" Journal." a daily 
paper, which he 
made the principal advocate of the Whig party 
in that region, and won a reputation for political 
ability, wit, and satire. In 1860 he sustained the 
Union party, but although maintaining its cause 
during the civil war he was not a zealous sup- 




'U^-^'Tr^l^-eyvCtz^CjO' 



porter of President Lincoln's administration. He 
resigned his oflflce, but contributed to this journal 
until its consolidation with the " Courier under 
the name of the "Courier Journal." He also fur- 
nished a column of wit and humor \a) the " New 
York Ledger " for several years. He wrote numer- 
ous poems, which have been collected in book-form 
and publishetl, with a biography, by John James 
Piatt (Cincinnati, 1875). Mr. Prentice was the 
author of a " Life of Henry Clay " (Hartford, 1831). 
A selec'tion of his writings was published under 
the title of " Prenticeana ; or. Wit and Humor " 
(New York, 1859; 2d ed., with biographical 
sketch by Gilderoy W. Griffin, Philadelphia, 1870). 
See also a " Memorial Address " by his successor, 
Ilenrv Watterson (Cincinnati, 1870). 

PRENTISS, Benjamin Muyberry, soldier, b. 
in Belleville, Wood co., Va., 28 Nov., 1819. He 
removed with his parents to Missouri in 1835, and 
in 1841 settled in Quincy, 111., where he learned 
rope-making, and subsequently engaged in the 
commission business. In 1844-'5 he was 1st lieu- 
tenant of a company that was sent against the 
Mormons in Hancock. 111. He served in the Mexi- 
can war as captain of volunteers, and on his re- 
turn was an unsuccessful Republican candidate for 
congress in 1860. At the beginning of the civil 
war he reorganized his old company, was ap- 

Eointed colonel of the 7th Illinois regiment, and 
ecame brigadier-general of volunteers. 17 May, 
1861 He was placed in command of Cairo, after- 
ward served in southern Missouri, routed a large 
body of Confederates at Mount Zion on 28 Dec, 
1861, and joined Gen. Grant three days before the 
battle of Shiloh, on the first day of which he was 
taken prisoner with most of his command. He 
was released in October, 1862, and appointed ma- 
jor-general of volunteers on 29 Nov. He was a 
member of the court-martial that tried Gen. Fitz- 
John Porter (q. r.). He commanded at the post of 
Helena, Ark., and on 3 July, 1863, defeated Gen. 
Theophilus H. Holmes and Gen. Sterling Price, 
who attacked him there. Gen. Prentiss resigned 
his commission on 28 Oct., 1863. 

PRENTISS, Charles, editor, b. in Reading, 
Mass., 8 Oct., 1774; d. in Brimfield, Mass., 20 Oct., 
1820. His father, Caleb, was pastor of a church in 
Reading. The son was graduated at Harvard in 
1795, and in that year became editor of the 
" Rural Repository," a short-lived weekly journal, 
at Leominster, Mass. Subsequently he edited " The 
Political Focus," which was afterward called the 
" Washington Federalist," in Georgetown, D. G., 
the " Anti- Democrat," and a literary paper called 
" The Child of Pallas " in Baltimore. In 1804 he 
visited England, in 1809 he published "The 
Thistle," a theatrical paper of brief duration, and 
after 1810 he reported the congressional proceed- 
ings in Washington, where he edited " The Inde- 
pendent American." He was the author of "A 
Collection of Fugitive Essays in Prose and Verse " 
(Leominster, 1797) ; " Life of Robert Treat Paine " 
(Boston, 1812); "Life of Gen. William Eaton," 
printed anopvmouslv (Brookfield. 1813) ; "Poems" 
(1813); a " History o'f the United States"; and the 
"Trial of Calvin and Hopkins" (1819). 

PRENTISS, George Aldrich, naval officer, b. 
in Keene, N. H.. in 1809 ; d. near Charleston, S. C, 
8 April, 1868. His father, John (1777-1873), served 
in the New Hampshire legislature, established the 
" New Hampshire Sentinel," which he conducted 
for forty-nine years, and at his death was the oldest 
editor in New England. The son entered the U. S. 
navy as midshipman on 1 March, 1825, was on duty 
at the Portsmouth navy-yard. served*iu the sloop- 



PRENTISS 



PRENTISS 



107 



in 



of-war "Ijexinpton" in 1827, imd. after a three- 
years' cruise, rcturiKHl to this country, lie v/u» 
on the sl«K>j)-of-war " lioston " in the Weditermnean. 
was nroinoted lieutenant on 9 Fell., lKi7, and was 
attaened to the reeeivinjf-ship "Ohio" at lioston. 
Mass., in IS-iH. On 14 Sept., 184.5, he iKKranic com- 
niaiider, and un Kt July, 18(K), he was made coin- 
in<Hl()n» on the retin*d list, 

PRENTISS, Samuel, jihysician, b. in Ston 
ton. Conn., in 175}»; d. m Northfleld, Muss. 
1818. He was the s<m of Col. Samuel l'renti.ss, 
who served in the Revolutionary war. After re- 
ceiving; a ^ood education, he studied medicine, and 
entered the Revolutionary army as assistant sur- 
geon. After the war he went to Worcester, Ma.ss., 
and afterward to Northfleld, where he gained a 
large practice, and for many years was the princi- 
pal operator in the vicinity. He was ma<le a fel- 
low of the Massjichusetts medical stK-iety in 1810. 
— His s<m, Samuel, jurist, b. in Stonington, Conn., 
31 March, 1783; d. in Montpelier, Vt., 15 Jan., 
1857, studietl law, was admitted to the bar in 1802, 
and began to practise in Montpelier in 180!^, soon 
acquiring a reputation for eloquence and integrity. 
He served in the legislature in 1824-'5, and in 1829 
was elected chief justice of the supreme court of 
V'ermont. He was then chosen to tne U. S. senate 
as a Whig, serving from 5 Dec, 1831, till 11 April, 
1842, when he resigned. During his term he ef- 
fected the passage of a bill against duelling in the 
District of Columbia. In 1842 he was appointed 
judge of the U. S. district court of Vermont, which 
office he held until his death. — Another son, John 
Holmes, journalist, b. in Worcester, Mass., 17 
April, 1784: d. in Cooperstown, N. Y., 26 June, 
1861. learned the printer's trade, and, settling in 
Cooperstown, N. Y., established there, in 1808, 
"The F'reeman's Journal," which he conducted 
until 1849. He was elected a representative to 
congress as a Democrat, serving from 4 Sept., 
1837, till 3 March, 1841. — The second Samuel's son, 
Theodore, lawyer, b. in Montpelier, Vt., 10 Sept., 
1815, entered the University of Vermont in 1838, 
but, owing to impaired health, left in the same 
year, and travelled in the south. He studied law 
under his father, was admitted to the bar in 1844, 
and in 1845 removed to Watertown, Wis. He was 
a member of the convention of 1846, acting as 
chairman of the committee on the acts of congress 
for the admission of the state, and reported the 
article upon that subject, which, after a single 
amendment that he suggested, was mlopted. He 
was also a member of the State constitutional con- 
vention of 1847-'8. Mr. Prentiss served in the 
Wisconsin legislature, and was three times elected 
raavor of Watertown. 

PRENTISS, Sergeant Smith, orator, b. in 
Portland, Me., 30 Sept., 1808; d. at Longwood, 
near Natchez, Miss., 1 July, 1850. In his Inivhood 
he was remarkable for his mental sprightliness, 
and for the keen appetite with which he devoure(l 
all the books on which he could lav his hand. He 
was a cripple all his life, and could walk until his 
ninth year only with crutches; but afterward he 
required but a cane. At the age of fifteen he en- 
tered the junior class of Bowdoin, where he was 
graduated in 1826. In 1827 he went to Natchez, 
Miss., in the vicinity of which he taught in a pri- 
vate family, and read law. In 1829 he was ad- 
mitted to the l)ar, and removed to V^icksburg. 
where he rose to the front rank in reputation and 
the extent of his practice. In 1835 Mr. Prentiss 
was elected as a representative to the legislature of 
Mississippi, in which he made several speechets that 
were remarkable for wit, sarcasm, and argumenta- 




^<^.<^ c::^i^2^i^ 



tive power. In 1837 he wa» ele<!ted to the lower 
house of congress, and, finding his seat precK-cu- 
pied by Col. Claibionte, the Dt-mocratic candidate 
at the election, he vindicated his claim in a speech 
nearly three days long, which established his repu- 
tation as one of the 
ablest (larliameiitary 
orators in the coun- 
try. His claim hav- 
ing been rejected by 
the casting vote of 
the speaker, James 
K. Polk, he went 
back to Mississippi, 
and after a vigorous 
canvass of the state 
was again elected 
bv a large majority, 
ilis principal sj)eech 
at this session was 
made against the 
sub-treasury bill. In 
1838 he visited his 
nativecity,and while 
there accepted an invitation to attend the public 
dinner to be given in July to Daniel Webster in 
Faneuil hall. His speech on this occasion was de- 
clared many years afterward by Edward Everett 
to have been " the most wonderful siwH-imen of a 
sententious fluency which I have ever witnessetl." 
Mr. Webster, when asked b^ Mr. Everett if he had 
ever heard anything like it, replied, " Never, ex- 
cept from Mr." Prentiss himself. In 1839. on his 
way home from Washington, he stayed a week in 
Kentucky, and defended his friend. Judge Wilkin- 
son, who had been charged with murder, in a speech 
that was a masterpiece of forensic eloquence. In 
1840 he canvasse<l the state of Mississippi as can- 
didate for presidential elector, making a series of 
speeches that severely taxed his physical strength. 
During the next four years he delivered many 
speeches, marked by extraordinary energy and ele- 
vation of tone, against the repudiation by that 
state of its bonded debt. In 1845. regarding the 
state as "disgraced and degraded" bv that act, he 
began the study of the civil law. and removed to 
New Orleans, La., where, in 1850, a fatal disease 
closed his brilliant and brief career. As an orator 
Mr. Prentiss had a gift akin to that of the Italian 
improvisatore. When addressing a large assem- 
blage of men, he experienced an electrical excite- 
ment, at times " almost maddening," and he seemed 
to himself to be rather spoken from than speak- 
ing. New thoughts came rushing into his mind 
unbidden, which surprised himself as much as his 
hearers, and which, he said, " he could no more re- 
produce when the excitement was over than he 
could make a world." The printed reports of his 
speeches are hardly more than skeletons, giving lit- 
tle idea of his eloquence. His manner of sjieakinff 
was at once natural and dramatic, and he combined 
in a remarkable degree logical power with intense 
passion, keen wit. pathos, and a vivid imagination. 
At the bar his chief characteristics were his mas- 
tery of his subject, his readiness, adroitness, fer- 
tility of resources, and absolute command of all his 
mental stores. In a jury trial, to give him the 
concluding address was nearly equivalent to giving 
him the verdict. With all' his readiness he was 
indefatigable in his legal studies, ami spared no 
lal>or on his cases. A legal acquaintance who knew 
him well said that his forte was Ix'st seen in the 
analysis of a {Ktint of law. or the discussion of a 
constitutional question. "His style then became 
terse, simple, severe, exhibiting a mental discipline 



108 



PRRSCOTT 



PRESCOTT 



and a faculty of concentration in striking contrast 
with tlio natural exulierance of his fancy." Mr. 
Proiitiss had fiuo social (jualitios, and his conversa- 
tion snarklwl with the shrewd sense, wit, and bril- 
liant fancy that characterized his si)eeche.s. See a 
memoir by his brother, Rev. George L. Prentiss 
(2 vols.. New York, IBST), new ed., 1870).— His broth- 
er, Oeorxe Lewis, clergyman, b. in Gorham. Me., 
12 May, IHIO. after graduation at Howdoin in 1835. 
was a.ssistant in Gorham academy in 183G-'7, and 
studied th»Milogy at Halle and IJerlin universities 
from WW tiir 1841. He l)ecame pastor of the 
South Trinitarian church, New Bedford, Mass., in 
April, 1845, and in 1851 was made pastor of the 
Mercer street Presbyterian church in New York 
city, but owing to impaired health he resigned and 
travelled in Eurone. On his return he established 
the " Church of the Covenant," New York city, of 
which he was pastor from 18G2 till 1873, when he 
resigned to become professor of pastoral theology, 
church jjolity, and missionary work in Union theo- 
logical seminary. Bowdoin" gave him the degree 
of D. D. in 1854! In atldition to sermons, address- 
es, and contributions to periodicals, he has pub- 
lished, l)esides the memoir of his brother men- 
tioned above, " Discourse in Memorv of Thomas 
Harvey Skinner, I). I).. LL. D." (1871). and "Life 
and Letters of J^lizabeth Prentiss " (1882 ; new ed., 
1887).— George Lewis's wife, EHzabeth Pajrson, 
author, b. in Portland, Me.. 26 Oct., 1818; d. in 
Dorset, Vt., 13 Aug., 1878, was a daughter of the 
Rev. Edward Payson {q. v.). She was educated in 
Portland and Ipswich, and taught in Portland and 
Richmond in 1840-'3. In 1845 she married Mr. 
Prentiss, and after the loss of her two children de- 
voted herself to writing. She was the author of 
numerous books, which include the " Little Susy 
Series" (New York, 1853-'6); " The Flower of the 
Familv " (1854) ; " Only a Dandelion, and Other 
Stories" (1854): "Fred, Maria, and Me" (1868); 
" The Percys " (1870) ; " The Home at Greylock " 
(1876); " Peraaquid ; a Story of Old Times in New 
England " (1877) ; and " Avis Benson, with Other 
Sketches " (1879). Her chief work, " Stepping 
Heavenward." which was first published in the 
"Chicago Advance" (1869), has been translated 
into various languages, and it is estimated that 
100.000 copies have been sold. 

PRESCOTT, Albert Benjamin, chemist, b. in 
Hastings, N. Y., 12 Dec, 1832. He was graduated 
at the medical department of the University of 
Michigan in 1864, and at once entered the iT. S. 
volunteer service as assistant surgeon, with charge 
successively of hospitals in Louisville, Ky., and in 
Jeffersonville, Ind.. also serving as a member of 
the medical examining board in Louisville, Ky. In 
1865 he returned to the University of Michigan as 
assistant professor of chemistry, and lecturer on 
organic chemistry, and in 1870 was made professor 
of organic and applied chemistry and of pharmacy. 
He was a member of the committee of revision of 
the " U. S. Pharmacopoeia " in 1880. Since 1876 he 
has served as dean of the school of pharmacy, and 
since 1884 as director of the chemical laboratory in 
the same university. Prof. Prescott is a member of 
many scientific societies, and was elected in 1876 a 
fellow of the London chemical society, in 1886 presi- 
dent of the American chemical society, and in the 
same year vice-president of the American associa- 
tion for the advancement of science, delivering, in 
1887, a retiring address on " The Chemistry of Nitro- 

f:en as disclosed in the Constitution of the Alka- 
oids." He has been a contributor to the periodical 
liteniture of chemistry from 1869. his work includ- 
ing reports of scientific work under his direction in 



the chemical laboratory of the University of Michi- 
gan, and his various chemical investigations, chiefly 
in analytical organic chemistry. Prof. Prescott has 
published " Qualitative Chemical Analysis," with 
Silas H. Douglas (Ann Arbor, 1874; 4tn ed., with 
Otis C. Johnson. New York, 1888) ; " Outlines of 
Proximate Organic Analysis" (New York, 1875); 
"Chemical Examination of Alcoholic Liquors" 
(1875) ; " First Book in Qualitative Chemistry " 
(1879); and "Organic Analysis; a Manual of the 
Descriptive and Analytical Chemistry of Certain 
Carbon Compounds in Common Use " (1887). 

PRESCOTT, Benjamin, clergyman, b. in Con- 
cord, Mass., 16 Sept., 1687 ; d. in Danvers, Mass., 
28 May, 1777. He was the son of Capt. Jonathan 
Prescott, of Concord, was graduated at Harvard in 
1709, and ordained minister of Danvers, 23 Sept., 
1713. He resigned his charge, 16 Nov., 1756. Mr. 
Pre-scott was the author of " Examination of Cer- 
tain Remarks " (Boston, 1735); " Letter to Joshua 
Gee " (1743) ; " Letter to Rev. George Whitcfleld " 
(1745) ; and "A Free and a Calm Consideration of 
the Unhappy Misunderstandings and Debates be- 
tween Great Britain and the American Colonies " 
(Salem, 1768). 

PRESCOTT, George Bartlett, electrician, b. in 
Kingston, N. H., 16 Sept., 1830. He was educated 
at private schools in Portland, Me., and from 1847 
till 1858 was manager of telegraph offices. He be- 
came in 1858 sujterintendent of the American and 
in 1866 of the Western union telegraph companies' 
lines, and in 1869 electrician of the Western union 
telegraph company. Mr. Prescott was also electri- 
cian of the International ocean telegraph company 
from 1873 till 1880. In 1873 he visited Europe in 
the interest of the Western union telegraph com- 
pany for the purpose of investigating the various 
systems of telegraphy in operation there, with a view 
of incorfjorating any improvement that he might 
discover into the system in the United States. He 
found many important objects of recommendation, 
and among others that were adopted was the sys- 
tem of transmitting messages in cities by pneu- 
matic tubes, which he introduced in New York in 
1876. Mr. Prescott also introduced the duplex and 
quadruplex telegraphs in 1870 and 1874. He was 
vice-president, director, and member of the execu- 
tive and finance committee of the Gold and stock 
telegraph company in 1873-'81, and president of 
the American speaking telephone company in 
1879-'82, also director and member of the execu- 
tive committee of the Metropolitan telephone and 
telegraph company, and of the Bell telephone com- 
pany 01 Philadelphia. His inventions include an 
nnprovement in telegraph insulators (1872) and 
an improvement in quadruplex telegraphs (1876), 
which he patented in the United States and Great 
Britain. Mr, Prescott has contributed many ar- 
ticles to periodicals, and has published " History, 
Theory, and Practice of the Electric Telegraph " 
(Boston, 1860); " The Proposed Union of the Tele- 
graph and Postal Systems " (New York, 1869) ; 
" The Government and the Telegraph " (18?2) ; 
" Electricity and the Electric Telegraph " (1877) ; 
"The Speaking Telephone, Talking Phonograph, 
and other Novelties" (1878) ; "The Speaking Tele- 

fhone. Electric Light, and other Recent Electrical 
nventions " (1879) ; " Dynamo-Electricity ; its Gen- 
eration, Application, Transmission, Storage, and 
Measurement " (1884) ; and " Bell's Electric Speak- 
ing Telephone ; its Invention, Construction, Ap- 
plication, Modification, and History " (1884). 

PRESCOTT, Mary Newmarcn, author, b. in 
Calais, Me., 2 Aug., 1849; d. near Newburvport, 
Mass., 14 June, 1888. She afterward temo veil with 



PRBSCOTT 



PRKSCOTT 



109 



her pHrontu tn Xewbury|H>rt. Mans., where she was 
iHliicMttHl. partly under the «linH-tion of her xister, 
Harrift l*n'«<-«tt, afterward Mrs. S|)«iffi>rtl. She 
bepiii to write prose aiul vers«« tunm after leav- 
ing wh<M>'.. Her first story, printed in " Harper's 
Monthly." was written for'a st-hool exercist>. She 
wrote iiiuch for children, and niany of her mature 
stori<*s and jKjems have U'en widely ooiiied. Iler 
first l»ook for children was '• Matt's' P'ollies" (lios- 
ton. 1S73). She never matle a collection of her niis- 
cellrtniH)us writing's. She spent 18H5 and part of 
lyyO in Kunme, hut her honje was in Newbul-yport. 

PRKSCOTT, Richard, British officer, b. in 
Knjjland in l?2o; d. there in Octol)er. 1788. He 
was ap|K>inte<l a major of the 3;W fiM)t, 20 Dec., 
175(J, and in May, 1702, lx»came lieutenant-colonel 
of the ."iOth f(X)t. with which n'jjinuMit he served in 
Germany during the seven years' war. He w»is 
afterward brevette<l colonel of the 7th foot, with 
which he came to Canada in 1773. On the reduc- 
tion of Montn?al by the Americans in 1775, Col. 
Prescotr, who hatl the local rank of brigadier-gen- 
eral, attempted to descend to Quebec with the 
British tnwps and the military stores, but was 
obliged to surrender to the Americans on 17 Nov. 
In Septemlier, 1776, he w^as exchanged for Gen. 
John Sullivan, in Novemlx'r he Injcame colonel of 
his regiment, and in Decenjber he was third in 
command of the expedition against Rhode Island, 
where he reniaineu in command of the British 
forces until he was made prisoner, 10 July, 1777, by 
Lieut.-Col. William Barton (q. v.). He wjus final- 
ly exchanged for Gen. Charles Lee, and resumed 
riis comnuind at Rhode Island, but was almost im- 
me<liately superseded by Sir Robert Pigot. He be- 
came a major-general, 29 Aug., 1777, and lieutenant- 
general. 2G Nov.. 1782. His treatment of American 
prisoners was harsh and cruel. See " The Capture 
of Prescott by Lieut.-Col. William Barton," an ad- 
dress at the centennial celebration of the exploit, 
by Jeremiah Lewis Diman (Providence, 1877). 

PRESCOTT, Robert, British soldier, b. in Un- 
cashire, England, in 1725; d. near Battle, Sussex, 
21 Dec., 181(5. He l)ecame captain of the 15th f<x)t, 
83 Jan., 1755, and served in theexf)editions against 
Rochefort in 1757, and Louisburg in 1758. He 
actixi as aide-tie-camp to Gen. Amherst in 1759. 
and afterward joined the army under Gen. James 
Wolfe. On 22 March. 1761. he was apfminted ma- 
jf)r of the 95th foot, which formed part of the force 
that was sent under Gen. Robert Monckton to re- 
duce Martinieo. He became lieutenant-colonel of 
the 28th regiment, 8 Sept., 1775, and was present at 
the l)attle of Long Island, the several engagements 
in Westchester county, and the storming of Fort 
Washington in November, 1775. He was attached 
to the ex[)edition against Philadelphia in 1777, ap- 
point«il colonel by brevet on 29 Aug., and engaged 
m the battle of the Brandywine. In 1778 he was 
apjxiinted first brigadier-general in the expedition 
under Gen. James Grant against the French West 
Indies. He iKt-ame colonel, 13 Oct., 1780; major- 
general. 19 Oct., 1781 ; was appointinl colonel of 
the 28th regiment, 6 July, 178l>; and lieutenant- 
general. 12 Oct., 1793. In Octol)er, 1793. he was or- 
aered to Barbadoes to take command there, and in 
February, 1794, he sailed with the troops to Marti- 
nique, where he lande<l without opposition. He 
effected the complete reduction of the island and 
forts, which capitulatinl on 22 Man-h. and was after- 
ward ap|)ointi'd civil governor of the island. His 
wise ami judicious management of affairs prevented 
an ui)rising of the natives. From Martinique he was 
sent to Guadalou[>e, where he pursued the same firm 
and conciliatory policy, and at this time he refused 



the proffett'd g(»vernorship of .St. Lucia. Finding it 
impossible to effect much at (iuadalou|ic, he with- 
drew the British tr<M)ps there, and sent some to 
Antigua and Dominica, ami the rest to Martinique, 
where he retunietl. His health failing, he applied 
for leave to return to England, where he arnved, 
10 Feb.. 1795. On 12 July. 17WK he succeeded 
Ix)rd Dorchester as governor of Canada, and on 
his arrival in Quel)ec he began strengthening the 
fortifications of that city. In 1797 he was also 
ap[N>inte<l governor of Nova Scotia, and he remaine<l 
at the head of the government of that colony. an«I 
of Canada and New Brunswick, til! ITJMi, when he 
was recalleil and succeedwl bv Sir R<»bert .Shore 
Milnes. The nrincifuil event oi his administration, 
during which he was ma<le full general, was rtie at- 
tempt of David McLean to excite the [K^ople to in- 
surrection, and to capture the city of Queliec, in 
which attempt McLean lost his life. (Jen. Pres- 
cott retunu»d to England, and settled at liose 
Green, near Battle, where he died. 

PRESCOTT, William, soldier, b. in Groton, 
Mass., 20 Feb., 1726; d. in PepiH>rell. Mass., 13 
Oct., 1795. His father. Judge Benjamin Prescott, 
was the grandson of John, of Lincolnshire, Eng- 
land, an early settler of Lancaster. Ma.ss. The son 
inherited a large estate and residwl at Pepperell. 
In 1755 he served successively as lieutenant and 
captain in the provincial army under Gen. John 
Winslow during the expedition against Nova Sco- 
tia. His conduct in that campaign attracte<l the 
attention of the British general, who offered him a 
commission in the regular army, which he declined, 
and after the war he retired to his estate at Pep- 
perell. In 1774 he was ap|iointed to command a 
regiment of minute-men, with which he marched, 
on 19 April, 1775, to Lexington, to opjKjse the ex- 

Sedition that was sent out bv (Jen. Thomas Gage, 
efore Prescott arrived the liritish had retreated, 
and he then proceeded to Cambridge, where he en- 
tered the provincial army, the majority of his 
officers ana men 
volunteering to 
serve with him 
during his first 
cami>aign. On 
16 June. 1775, he 
was ordered to 
Charlestown with 
1,000 men. and di- 
rected to throw 
up works on 
Bunker Hill. On 
arriving at the 
ground,it was per- 
ceived that tilt' 
neighboring ele- 
vation, called 
Breed's Ilill, was 
a more suitable 
station, and on it 
the defences, con- 
sisting of a re- 
doubt and breast - 
work, were erect- 
ed during the 

night. The following day a large British force 
commanded by Gen. William Howe attacked the 
Americans, and, after the latter had re|>elUHl two 
assaults, and had exhauste<l their ammunition, suc- 
ceeded in dislodging them. In this twttle. which 
owes its im|)ortance to the fact that it demon- 
strated the ability of the provincials successfully 
to oppose British regulars, Bancroft says that 
" no one appeared to have any command but CoL 




110 



PRESCOTT 



PRESGOTT 



Prescott." and that "his bravery could never be 
enotif^h Hcknowlodge<l and applaudod." lie was 
one of the lju*t to leave the intronchments when 
he fomid it ncfcssary to order a retreat, and im- 
mediately oflferi'd to retake the |M)sition if the 
commander-in-chief would jjive him three regi- 
ments. Ik'fore the attack Gage. re<'onnoitrinjj the 
works, saw Prescott walking on the paraf)et, and 
asked Counsellor Willard who he was. and if he 
would flphtt The latter replied. "That is Col. 
Pn'scott — he is an old soldier, and will fight as 
long as a drop of bl<x>d remains in his veins." 
Karly in 1777 he resigned and returned honu', but 
in autumn of that year he joined the northern 
army under (len. Horatio Gates as a volunteer, and 
was pfesent at Saratoga. After this battle he re- 
turne<l home and sat in the legislature of Massa- 
chusetts for several years. He wrote "A Letter 
from a Veteran to the OfTicers of the Army en- 
camped at Boston" (Boston. 1774). See Samuel 
Swett's " History of Bunker Hill Battles" (Boston, 
1S27 ; new ed.. with notes. 1835). The illustration on 

{lage 109 represents the statue by Story erected on 
binker Hill in 1881. on which occasion an oration 
was delivered by Robert C. Winthron. — His broth- 
er. Oliver, soldier, b. in Groton. Mass.. 27 Anril. 
1731 ; (1. there. 17 Nov.. 1804. was graduateu at 
Harvard in 17."»0, and practised medicine in his na- 
tive town. Before the Kevoluticm he was succes- 
sively major, lieutenant-colonel, and colonel in the 
militia, early in 1776 he was appointed a brigadier- 
general of militia for the county of Middlesex, and 
U'came a member of the board of war. In 1777 he 
wa,s elected a nuMnlier of the supreme executive 
council of the state, in 1778 he was appointed third 
major-general of militia in the commonwealth, and 
in 1781 he became second major-general, but soon 
afterward he resigned. In this year he was com- 
missioned by the government to cause the arrest 
and committal of any perscm whose liberty he con- 
sidered dangerous to the commonwealth. From 
1775) till his death he was judge of probate for 
Middlesex county. He was very influential in 
suppressing Sliays's rebellion. In 1780 he became 
a fellow of the Academy of arts and sciences, and 
he was a trustee. j)atron, and benefactor of Groton 
acatlemy. — Olivers son, Oliver, phvsician, b. in 
Groton, Mass., 4 April. 1702; d. in S'ewburyport, 
26 Sept., 1827. was gradiuited at Harvard in 1783, 
studied medicine with his father, and was surgeon 
of the forces that suppressed the Shays insurrec- 
tion in 1787. Leaving a large practice in Groton, 
he removed to Newburyport in 1811. practising 
successfully there till his death. He was often a 
representative in the legislature, and was a founder, 
trustee, and treasurer of Groton academy. He 
contributed valuable articles to the New England 
•'Journal of Medicine and Surgery," but is l)est 
known by the annual discourse before the Massa- 
chusetts medical society in 1813, entitled a "Dis- 
sertation on the Natural History and Medicinal 
Effects of Secalc Cornutum. or Ergot." which was 
republished in London, and translated into French 
and German. — William's son. William, jurist, b. 
in Pepperell. Ma.ss., 19 Aug., 1702; d. in Boston, 8 
Dec, 1844, was graduated at Harvard in 1783, and 
taught first at Bnwklvn, Conn., and afterward at 
Beverly, Mass., where he studied law with Nathan 
Dane, and practised successfully from 1787 till 
1789. In the latter year he removed to Salem, and 
after representing that town for several years in 
the legislature, he was elected a state senator by 
the Federal party for Essex countv, first in 1806, 
and again in 1813. He twice declined a seat on 
the bench of the supreme court of Massachusetts. 




In 1808 he removed to Boston, and was for .several 
years a memWr of the governor's council. He 
was a delegate to the Hartford convention in 1814. 
in 1818 was appointed a judge of the court of 
common pleas for Suffolk, which post he soon re- 
signed, and in 1820 was a delegate to the State 
constitutional convention. He was a meml)er of 
the American academy of arts and sciences. — 
The second William's son, William Hicklin^, 
historian, b. in Salem, Mass., 4 May. 1796; d. ni 
Boston. Mass., 28 Jan., 1859, was graduated at 
Harvard in 1814, and would have devoted him- 
self to the law but for the results of an act of 
folly on the part of an undergraduate, who threw 
at random a large, 
hard piece of bread, 
which struck one 
of Prescott's eyes 
and practically de- 
stroyed it. His 
other eve was soon 
sympathetically af- 
fected, and the 
youthful student 
was now obliged to 
turn his back upon 
the sun, and at a 
later period for 
many months to re- 
main in a darkened 
room. " In all that ^y 
trying season," said CT/Z ^''^ /^ 
his mother, " I nev- //^ (y/. Or^^tc^ccrti. — 
er groped my way 

across the apartment to take my place by his side 
that he did not greet me with some hearty expres- 
sion of good cheer, as if we were the patients and 
it was his place to comfort us." His literary as- 
pirations were not subdued by the sad results of 
this misfortune. " I had early conceived," he 
wrote to the Rev. George E. Ellis, "a strong 
passion for historical writing, to which perhaps 
the reading of Gibbon's autobiography contrib- 
uted not a little. I proposed to make myself a 
historian in the best sense of the term, and hoped 
to produce something which posterity would not 
willingly let die. In a memorandum-book, as far 
beck as the year 1819, I find the desire intimated ; 
and I proposed to devote ten years of my life to 
the study of ancient and modern literatures, chiefly 
the latter, and to eive ten years more to some his- 
torical work. I have had the good fortune to 
accomplish this design pretty nearly within th6 
limits assigned. In the Christmas of 1837 my first 
work, the ' History of Ferdinand and Isabella,' was 
given to the world. I obtained the services of a 
reader who knew no language but his own. I 
taught him to pronounce the Castilian in a manner 
suited. I suspect, much more to my ear than to 
that of a Spaniard, and we liegan our wearisome 
journey through Mariana's noble history. I cannot 
even now call to mind without a smile the tedious 
houi"s in which, seated under some old trees in my 
country residence, we puj^sued our slow and melan- 
choly way over pages which afforded no glimmer- 
ing of light to him. and from which the light came 
dimly struggling to me through a half-intelligible 
vocabulary. But in a few weeks the light became 
stronger, and I was cheered by the consciousness of 
my own improvement, and when we had toiled our 
way through seven quartos. I found I could under- 
stand the book when read about two thirds as fast 
as ordinary English. i\ly reader's office required 
the more patience; he had not even tjjis result to 
cheer him in his labor. I now felt that the great 



PRESCOTT 



PRESCOTT 



111 



difflciilty couM l»e overpome, mul I obf«tne<l the 
sorviros'of a n-niler whoso iicqimintAnoe with mrxl- 
crn Hiid Riifii'nt tonjriu's .supplitHl, as far as it could 
1)0 sujtplioil. tho «U>floiom'v of oycsijjht on my fwirt. 
But. though in thi« way 1 could examine various 
authorities, it was not easy to arranvre in mv mind 
the ri'sults of my reading, drawn from different 
and often contradictory accounts. To do this. I 
<lictated ctipious notes as I went alonj;. and when I 
had read enoujjh for a chapter (from thirty to forty, 
and sometimes fifty, pap>s \n lenf^h), 1 had a mass 
of memoranda in mrown languaf^e, which would 
easily brinjj lH>fore me at one view the fruit of my 
res«'arches. These notes were can'fully ri'ad to me, 
an«l while my rwent studies were fresh in my rec- 
ollection I ran over the whole of my intended 
chapter in my mind. This pnx'ess I rejx'ated at 
least half a d«>7.en times, wi thiU when I finally put 
my pen to pajwr it ran off pretty fflil>Iy, for it was 
an effort of memorv rather than composition. This 
meth(Hl had the a<l vantage of saving me from the 
perplexity of frequently referring to the scattered 
fMiges in the originals, and it enabled me to make 
the corrections in my own mind which are usually 
made in the manuscript, and which with my mode 
of writing, as I shall explain, would have much 
embarrassed me. Yet I must admit that this 
methtnl of composition, when the chapter was very 
long, was somewhat too heavy a burden on the 
memory to be altogether recommended. Writing 
presentetl me a difficulty even greater than read- 
ing. Thierry, the famous blind historian of the 
Norman conquest, advised me to cultivate dicta- 
tion : but I have usually preferred a substitute 
that 1 found in a writing-case matle for the blind, 
which I procured in London forty years since. It 
is a .-Jimple apparatus, often described by me for 
the benefit of persons whose vision is imperfect. 
It consists of a frame of the size of a sheet of pa- 
per, traversed by brass wires as many as lines are 
wanted on the page, and with a sheet of carbon- 
ated paper, such as is use<l for getting duplicates, 
pasted on the reverse side. With an ivory or agate 
stvlus the writer traces his characters between the 
wires on the carbonated sheet, making indelible 
marks, which he cannot see, on the white page 
l)elow. This treadmill operation has its defects; 
and I have repeatedly supjMjsed I had accomplished 
a gootl page, and was proceeding in all the glow of 
corapf)sition to go ahead, when I found I had for- 
gotten to insert a sheet of writing-paper below, 
that my labor had all been thrown away, and that 
the leaf liM)ked as blank as mysi'lf. Notwithstand- 
ing these and other whimsical distresses of the 
kind. I have found my writing-case my liest friend 
in my lonely hours, and with it have written nearly 
all that 1 have sent into the world the last forty 
years." 

The success of the history of the " Reign of Fer- 
dinand and Isabella the Catholic " (3 vols.. Boston. 
18;W) was great and immediate. It was published 
in France. Germany, and Spain in the languages 
of those countries, appeare<l in an Italian version 
at Florence (3 vols.. 1847-'8), and early in 1858 a 
translation was announced in Russia. Thus en- 
couragetl. Mr. Prescott again resumed his lal)ors, 
and in 184ii published a "History of the Conquest 
of Mexico," and in 1847 a " History of the Con- 
quest of Peru." These works, the' fruits of the 
most painstaking investigation into manuscrii)t 
authorities. procure<i from Spain, proved that the 
critics had nfit l)een too hasty in assigning a high 
place to Mr. Prescott from the day of the publica- 
tion of the •* Ilistorv of the Reign of Ferdinand 
and Isabella." At least one of the Mexican edi- 



tions of the "Conquest of Mexico" was garbled bjr 
the translator to suit the [ioliti(ral and religious at- 
mosphere of the count r>'. The Madrid e<lition is 
comj)leto. To the French translation, by M. Am^- 
(h'-o Pichot, a reference by Mr. Prescott will be 
found in the prefju-e to the "Conquest of Pern." 
Mr. Prescott wrote memoirs of John Pickering and 
Abbott Ijawrence, and in 184.1 published, under 
the title of "Biographical and t'ritical Miscella- 
nies." a sele<'tion «>f twelve pa|)ors frr»m his articles 
contribute*! to the "North American Review" Ik"- 
tween 1821 and 184J}, and a " Memoir of Charles 
Brockden Brown." originally published in Sj)arks's 
"American Biography" in i8Ji4. In the edition of 
the "Miscellanies' issue<l since MVA will be found 
a valuable paper entitlc<l "Spanish Literature." a 
criticism published in the "North American Re- 
view" for January. 18.W, of (Jcorge Ticknor's ad- 
mirable " History of Spanish Literature." In the 
summer of 1850 Mr. Prescott visite<l England, an<I 
in the autumn sjient a short time in Scotland and 
on the continent. In 1855 he publisheti the first 
two volumes, and in December. 1858, the third, of 
what would have proved, had it been completed, 
his greatest work. "The History of the Reign of 
Philip II., King of Spain." A translation of the 
first two volumes api)eared in Russia in 1858. In 
1857 Mr. Prescott added to a new e<lition of Rob- 
ertson's " History of the Reign of Charles V." 
(3 vols.. Boston) a supplement (vol. iii.) entitled 
"The Life of Charles V. after his Abdication." 
Early in 1858 he exj)erienced a slight stroke of 
paralysis, from the eftects of which he never en- 
tirely recovered, although he was soon able to 
resume his usual walks, and to devote some hours 
daily to his books and papers. On 28 Jan.. 1859, 
he received a second stroke, which terminate<l 
his life about two o'clock in the afternoon. Mr. 
Prescott left a widow, two sons, and a daughter. 

It is not to be denied that the portion of history 
selected by Prescott for illustration in his "Reign 
of Ferdinand and Isabella" had been neglected bv 
the scholars of Germany. France, and England, 
and only superficially touched by Italian writers; 
it is equally certain that at an earlier date no faith- 
ful narration of the events of this reign could have 
l)een given to the world. Prescott had the advan- 
tage of the tragic annals of Llorente, the political 
disqiiisitions of Mariana, Sempere, and Capmany. 
the literal version of the Snanish-Arab chronicles 
by Conde, the invaluable illustration of Isabella's 
reign by Mr. Secretary Clemencin, many rare works 
and curious manuscripts purchased bv his friend 
George Ticknor. in Spain, for his own librarv, and. 
unpublished documcnt,s of priceless value, collecte<l 
from all available quarters, under the directions of 
the historian by the zealous agency of Alexander 
H. Everett, Arthur ]\Iiddleton. and the learned 
bibliophile, Olwdiah Rich. His " Histor>' of the 
Conquest of Mexico" is founded upon alniut eight 
thousand folio pages of unpublishe<l duplicate of 
manuscripts in the collections of Don Martin Fer- 
nandez de NavarettA. other original authorities. 
an<l such printed works on the subjects discussed 
as had previously been given to the world. 

In the preparation of his " History of the Con- 
quest of Peru " Prescott used a ixirtion of the 
manuscript collections that were useu for the " Con- 
quest of Mexico," a part of the unpublished docu- 
ments formerly in the possession of Ix)rd Kings- 
l)orough. and other original materials collecteii at 

freat ex|>ense in England and on the continent, 
n the preparation of the " History of the Reign 
of Philip ll." he is said to have employed six 
years. A letter written by him from Brussels in 



112 



PRESCOTT 



PRESTON 



the summer of 1850 shows the enthusiasm with 
which he entered into the spirit of the age of 
Charles V., uiui will prolwbly remiml the reader of 
the "musin^js" of the historian of the "Decline 
and Fall of the Roman Empire amidst the Ruins 
of the Capitol, while the BareffMjietl Friars were 
sinking Ves|)ers in the Temple of Jupiter." Vol- 
umes i. and ii. bring down the story to the execu- 
tion of Counts Egmont atid lloorn in 1568, and to 




iprisi 

the colkftion of materials for this history Mr. 
Prescott spared neither time. cost. |)ersonal labor, 
nor the s<>rviees of willing friends. Public and 
private collections were freely opened to his use, 
and the long-closed doors of the ancient archives 
of Simancjis and of other secret depositories flew 
open at the name of the magician whose genius 
had reanimated the glories of the Old World, and 
depicttnl with a vivid pencil the sorrows and deso- 
lation of the Xew. The reign of Charles V. is the 
interme<liate link between the reigns of Ferdinand 
and Isal)ella and Philip II., and completes an un- 
broken period of 150 years of the Spanish annals. 
To the life of the emperor subsequent to his ab- 
dication six or seven pages only are devoted by 
Dr. Roberts<in, and these contain many errors. 
Robertson was unable to obtain the information 
then locked up in the archives of Simancas. Of 
this information and of the labors of his predeces- 
sors, Stirling, Pichot. Gachard, and Mignet, Mr. 
Prescott freely availed himself. 

Prosper Merimee sjiys of Prescott : " Of a just 
and upright spirit, he hml a horror of paradox. He 
never allowe<i himself to be drawn away by it, and 
often condemned himself to long investigation to 
refute even the most audacious assertions. His 
criticism, full at once of good sense and acuteness, 
wjis never deceived in the choice of documents, and 
his discernment is as remarkable as his good faith. 
If he may lie reproached with often hesitating, 
even after a long investigation, to pronounce a defi- 
nite judgment, we must at least acknowledge that 
he omitted nothing to prepare the way for it, and 
that the author, too timid perhaps to decide, al- 
ways leaves his reader sufnciently instructed to 
need no other guide." Prof. Cornelius C. Felton 
wrote: " It is a saying that the style is the man ; 
and of no great author in the literature of the 
world is that saying more true than of him whose 
loss we mourn. For in the transparent simplicity 
and undimmed beauty and candor of his style were 
read the endearing qualities of his soul, so that his 

1>ersonal friends are found wherever literature is 
:nown, and the love for him is co-extensive with 
the world of letters, not limited to those who speak 
our Anglo-Saxon mother language, to the litera- 
ture of which he has contributed such splendid 
works, but co-extensive with the civilize<l lan- 
guages of the human race." The illustration on 
this page represents Prescott's birthplace. 



PRESCOTT, William, physician, b. in Gil- 
manton, N. II., 2» Dec., 1788; d. there, 18 Oct., 
1875. He was indentured to a farmer at sixteen 
years of age, received few educational advantages, 
taught, studied medicine, and in 1815 was gr^u- 
ated at Dartmouth medical college. He practised 
in Uilmanton ahd Lynn, and served in both 
branches of the legislature. Dr. Prescott was an 
enthusiastic collector of minerals and shells, and 
was a member of many literary and scientific so- 
cieties. He wrote the " Prescott Memorial " (Bos- 
ton. 1870). 

PRESSTMAN, Stephen Wilson, clergyman, 
b. in Charleston, S. C, 1 Oct.. 1794; d. in New- 
castle, Del., in 1843. He obtained a good educa- 
tion in Baltimore, Md. When the war of 1812 was 
declared he applied for and received a commission 
in the U. S. Army, becoming ensign in the 5th 
infantry on 14 April, 1812, and 2d lieutenant in 
July. He was in active service on the Canada 
frontier, gained credit on several occasions in bat- 
tle, especially at Lvon's Creek, and was wounded 
in the attac^k on La Cole mill, 30 March, 1814. 
He engaged in business for several years, but, hav- 
ing a desire to enter the nunistry of the Episcopal 
church, he studied for orders under a clergyman 
in Baltimore. He was ordained deacon, 11 July, 
1822, by Bishop Richard C. Moore, and priest, 15 
June, 1823, by the same bishop. While a deacon 
he served the church in Dumfries, Va., and in 1823 
he was called to the rectorship of Immanuel church, 
Newcastle. Del. This post he held during the re- 
mainder of his life. Mr. Presstman, though pub- 
lishing no contributions to theological or general 
literature, was very active and useful in various 
departments of church work. He was for many 
years president of the standing committee of the 
diocese of Delaware, and was uniformly elected a 
clerical deputy to the triennial general convention 
of the Protestant Episcopal church. 

PRESTON, Ann, physician, b. in West Grove, 
Pa., 1 Dec, 1813; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 18 April, 
1872. She was the daughter of Amos Preston, 
a Quaker, and, owing to the delicate condition of 
her mother's health, the family was early placed 
under her care. Meanwhile she received her edu- 
cation in the local school, and evinced more than a 
usual fondness for her books. In 1850 the Wom- 
an's medical college of Philadelphia was founded, 
and she studied there until her graduation in 1852. 
Settling in Philadelphia, she began the practice 
of her profession, in which she achieved deserved 
success. In 1854 she was electe<l professor of 
physiology and hygiene in the college where she was 
graduated, and in 1866 to the office of dean, which 
places she held until her death. Her lectures and 
addresses were filled with striking thoughts and 
practical knowledge. Dr. Preston was active in 
the establishment of the Woman's hospital of 
Philadelphia, and was from its beginning one of 
the managers, its corresponding secretary, and its 
consulting physician. The Philadelphia county 
medical society in 1867 made public objections to 
the practice of metlicine by women, and Dr. Pres- 
ton at once defended the claims of her sex so ably 
that much of the adverse criticism was disarmed ; 
indeed her infiuence in removing prejudices against 
female physicians was very extended. She pub- 
lished various essays on the medical education of 
women, and was the author of a book of poems en- 
titled " Cousin Ann's Stories for Children " (Phila- 
delphia, 1848). 

PRESTON, Charles Finney, missionary, b. in 
Antwerp. N. Y., 36 Julv. 182»: d. in Jlong Kong, 
China, 17 July, 1877. lie was graduated at Union 



PRESTON 



PRESTON 



118 



in 1850, an<l at Princoton theological sominarv in 
185;J. In .liint< of (hat year ho wiut liirnsiMl to 
prt'ach by the Pri'sbytery of Albany, ami ho was 
onlainod by the sanjo prcsbvl<'ry on 14 Nov. lie 
wattthen roinn>issione«l niisMionary to (,'hina by the 
Presbyterian Inianl of foreign missions, and n»ach«d 
Hong Kong in May. Ib54. PriMfe«ling U) Canton 
he s|H'nt two years in that city studying the lan- 

fuage. and during the Chinese war was in Macat). 
n NoveiiiU'r, IH.X, he returned to Canton, and 
soon built a cIiu|m>I from funds raised chiefly by 
his own I'lTorts. where ho prem-hed until his last 
illness. lie was also the stated supply of the 2d 
native Presbyterian church in Cantt)n from 1872. 
«nd likewise preache«l regularly in the cha()el of 
the Medical missionary society. Mr. Prtsston de- 
vote<l much time to the translation of the New 
Testament into the Canton vernm-ular; he i)re- 
pared a hymn-l)ook in Chinese, and wrote many 
valual)lc articles and treatises, besides giving theo- 
logical instructicm to native evangelists. 

PRESTON, David, banker, b. in Harmony, 
N. Y., 2() Sent., 182«: d. in Detroit, Mich., 24 
April, 1887. lie was e<lucated at common schools, 
and at the jicatlomy in Westfleld, N. Y.. meanwhile 
teaching during the winters. In 1848 he move<l to 
Detroit, where he Ix^came clerk in a Imnking-house. 
Four years later he established himself as a banker 
in Detroit and Chicago. Mr. Preston gave about 
f 200.000 to charities, and pledged himself to raise 
from the {)eople of Michigan $60,000. giving him- 
self nearly one half this sum, for Albion college, 
of which he was a trustee from 1862 till his death. 
During the civil war ho was active in the Christian 
commission, and he was president of the Young 
men's Christian a'^sociation of Detroit in 1869-'70. 
He was the candidate of the Proiiibition party for 
governor in 1884. Besides being a delegate to the 
general conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
church in 1876, and delegate to the Centenary 
conference of Methodism in Baltimore in 1884, he 
was active in other matters pertaining to his de- 
nomination, and was regarded at the time of his 
death as the foremost memlxjr of the Methodist 
chiirch in the state of Michigan. 

PRESTON. Harriet Waters, author, b. in 
Danvers, Mass., about 1843. She was educated 
chiefly at home, and l)egan her literary lal)ors 
about 1865 as a translator from the French, her 
first work being "The I^ife of Mme. Swetchine." 
Then followed "The Writings of Mme. Swetch- 
ine"; a selection from Sainte Beuve, " Portraits de 
femmes'' (first series), under the title of "Cele- 
brated Women"; "Mme. Deslmnles- Valmorc." 
from the sjime author; and the "Life of Alfred 
de Musset," by his brother. Paul de Musset. She 
has also published " Aspendale" (Boston, 1872); a 
translation of Mistral's "Mireio" (Boston, 1873); 
" Ix)ve in the Nineteenth Century" (Boston, 1874); 
*' Troidmilours and Trouveres " (fioston, 1876) ; " Is 
That All f" in the "No Name "series (Ikiston, 1876); 
a translation of the "Georgics of Virgil" (Boston, 
IHH\) : and " A Year in Eden " (1886). She has con- 
tributed freauent critical napers to the " Atlantic 
Monthly." Miss Preston has reside<l abroad for 
some time, mostly in France and Great Brittiin. 

PRESTON, Jonas, philanthropist, b. in Che«5ter 
county. Pa., 25 Jan., 1764; d. in Philadelphia, 4 
Jan.. 1*56. His father, of the same name, was a 
physician. His grandfather, William Preston, a 
Ouaker. in 1718 emignited from Huddersfield. 
?ingland. and settled in Pennsylvania. Jonas en- 
tere<l on the study of me<licine' under Dr. Thomas 
Bond, of Philadefiihia, and cnncludiMl hisstudiesin 
the medical schools ot Edinburgh and Paris, being 
vol.. V. — 8 



graduated from the former alxjut 1785. On his 
return he settle<l in \Vilmingt<m. Del., afterward 
removed for a time to Georgia, but returning to 
Chester. Pa., suifotnliHl in establishing an exten- 
sive practice, particularly in otxitetricti, in which 
he was celebrate*!. At the |>eriod of the whiskey 
insurrection he volunteere<l his medical aid, and 
served with the troops. He wa« for manv years a 
memlx'r of the legislature, serving in Imth the as- 
sembly and the senate. Alxiut 1812 he removed 
to Philmlelphia, when* he tiKik an active interest 
in several benevolent and other institutions, such 
as the Pennsylvania hospital. Friend's asylum, 
Penn l)ank, and Schuylkdl navigation company. 
His extensive observation in the jiractice of his 
profession le<i him to form the opinion. exi>res8ed 
m his will, " that there ought to t)e a Iving-in ho«- 
|)ital in the city of Philadelphia for indigent mar- 
ried women of good chanwter," and he U-queathed 
alxiut $4(X),000 for the founding of such an insti- 
tution. Within a few months after his deatli the 
legislature of Pennsylvania passed an act incorpo- 
rating " The Preston Retreat." The corner-stone 
of the hospital building was laid, 17 July, 1837, and 
the institution is one of the noted charities in 
Philadelphia. 

PRESTON, Margaret Jnnkln, poet, b. in 
Philadel|)hia, Pa.. alK)Ut 1K25. She is a daughter 
of Kev. George Junkin, and the wife of Prof. John 
T. L. Preston, of the Virginia military institute. 
Her first contributions to the press appeared in 
" Sartain's Magazine " in 1849-'50, and she »ubse- 
ouently published a novel entitle<l "Silverwood " 
(New York, 1856), but she has since devote<i herself 
to poetical composition. She was an ardent sympa- 
thizer with the south, and her most sustained vol- 
ume of verse. " Beechen brook." a |)oem of the civil 
war. enjoyed a wide {>opularity, and contains the 
familiar lines on "Stonewall Jackson's (Jrave"and 
the lyric " Slain in Battle "(New York, 1866). Her 
other works include many fugitive poems, " Old 
Song and New," the dedication of which has been 
much admired (1870), " Cartoons " (1875), and " For 
Love's Sake "(1887). Her writings are vigorous, 
suggestive, and full of religious feeling. Her 
translation of the " Dies Iras" which ap{>eared in 
1855. has been highly praised. 

PRESTON, Samuel, b. in Patuxent, Md., in 
1665; d. in Philadeli.hia, 10 Sept., 174^1 He was 
brought up as a QuaKer. Removing from Mary- 
land to Sussex county on the Delaware, hcwjis sent 
to the legislature from the latter place in 1693, 
and again in 1701, and was chosen sheriflf in 1695. 
Alxiut 170Ji he took up his residence in Philadel- 
phia, where he Ixx-ame a merchant, and stcKid 
among the most influential of the Quakers of his 
day. In 1708 he was unanimously electe<l ahler- 
man. During the same year James Logan, desir- 
ing Penn to consider whom to mid to the property 
commission, wrote to him, saying: "Samuel Pres- 
ton is also a very good man. and now makes a figure, 
and. indee<l, Rachel's husband ought particularly 
to l)e taken notice of. for it has too long lx>en neg- 
lected, even for thy own interest." (His wife was 
daughter of Thomas Lloyd, president of Penn's 
council.) Almost imme<liately afterwanl Preston 
was called to the council, and^je continued a mem- 
lier until he died. He was chosen nmyor of Phila- 
delphia in 1711. and in 1714 Un^nme the treasurer 
of the province, retaining theolTice until his death. 
In 1726 he l)ecame a justice of the jieace and of 
the court of common pleas and in 1?28 one of the 
commissioners of pro|H>rty. which ofllce he held 
many years. He was also one of the trustees under 
William Penn's will. 



114 



PRESTON 



PRESTON 



PRESTON, Thomas Scott, clerpyman, b. in 
Ilartfoni, Conn., 23 July. 1824. He was jjradu- 
atiHl at Trinity in 184J). and at the jjencral theo- 
logical seminary of the Protestant Episcopal 
church in 1840, after which he was assistant rec- 
tor of the Church of the Annunciation, and subse- 
quently of St. Luke's, in New York city, until 
1849. Acceptinji the Roman Catholic faith, he 
then went to St. Joseph's theological seminary in 
Fordham. and was ordained to the priesthood in 
18v)0. After serving as an assistant in the cathe- 
dral in New York citv, and as pastor of St. Mary's 
church in Yonkers, ^^ Y., he was in 185;i appoint- 
ed chancellor of the archdiocese of New York, and 
in ISTii l)ecanie vicar-general in connection with 
the duties of the chancellorship. Since 1861 he 
has been pastor of St. Ann's church, and in 1881 
he was appointed a domestic prelate of the pojw's 
household, with the title of monsignor. The de- 
rec of S. T. I), was conferred on him by Seton 
lall college. N. J., in 1880. He has published 
Ark of the Coverumt. or Life of the Blessed Vir- 
in Mary "(New York. 1860); "Life of St. Mary 
lagdalene" (18()0); "Sermons for the Principal 
Sejisons of the Sacred Year" (1864); "Life of St. 
Vincent de Paul and its Lessons" (1866); "Lec- 
tures on Christian Unity, Advent, 1806" (1867); 
"The Purgatorian Manual, or a Selection of Pray- 
ers and Devotions" (1867); "Lectures on Reason 
and Revelation" (1868); "The Vicar of Christ" 
(1871); "The Divine Sanctuary: Series of Medi- 
tations upon the Most Sa^-red Heart of Jesus" 
(1878) ; •• Divine Paraclete " (1880) ; " Protestantism 
and the Bible" (1880); "Protestantism and the 
Church" (1882); "God and Reason" (1884); and 
" Watch on Caivarv " (1885). 

PRESTON. William, soldier, b. in County 
Donegal, Ireland, 25 Dec, 1729; d. in Montgomery 
county. Va., 28 July, 1783. His father, John, emi- 
grated to this country in 1735, and settled in Au- 
gusta county. William received a classical educa- 
tion, and in early life acquired a taste for litera- 
ture. Ho became deputy sheriff of Augusta coun- 
ty in 1750, was elected to the house of burgesses a 
short time afterward, and accompanied Gen. Wash- 
ington on several exploring expeditions in the 
west. This led to a correspondence and a friend- 
ship between them, which continued till Preston's 
death. He was appointed one of two commission- 
ers to make a treaty with the Shawnee and Dela- 
ware Indians in 1757, and, by negotiations with 
Cornstalk, secured peace along the western fron- 
tiers for several years. The privations that the 
party suffered on their return journey compelled 
them to eat the "tugs" or straps of rawhide with 
which their packs were fastened, and Preston, in 
memory of the event, called that branch of the 
Big Sandy river "Tug Fork," which name it still 
retains. He became surveyor of the new county 
of Montgomery in 1771, was early engaged in the 
organization of troops for the lievolutionary war, 
l>ecame colonel in 1775, and led his regiment at 
Guilford Court-House, S. C, where he received in- 
juries that caused his death in the following July. 
— His son. Francis, congressman, b. at his resi- 
dence in Greenfield, near Amsterdam, Botetourt 
CO., Va., 2 Aug., 1765; d. in Columbia, S. C, 25 
May, 1835, was graduated at William and Mary in 
178:3, studied law under George Wythe, practised 
with success in Montgomery, Washington, and 
other counties, and in 1792 was elected to congress, 
serving two terms. He then declined re-election 
and removed to Abingdon, Va., where he subse- 
quently resided. At the beginning of the second war 
•with Great Britain he enlisted with the appoint- 



ment of colonel of volunteers, and marched with 
his regiment to Norfolk, and subsequently he was 
appointed brigadier-general and major-general of 
militia. He was frequently a member of the Vir- 
ginia house of delegati>s and of the state senate^ 
where his ability in debate and graceful elocution 
gave him high rank. He was the personal friend 
of Matlison, Jefferson, Monroe, anu Chief-Ju.xtice 
Marshall. He married in 1792 Sarah, the daugh- 
ter of William CamjdK'll, the hero of King's Moun- 
tain. — Their son, >\illiam Campbell, senator, b. 
in Philiulelphia, Pa., 27 Dec, 1794; d. in CoUimbia, 
S. C, 22 May, 1860, l)egan his education at Wash- 
ington college, Va., but was sent to the south on 
account of his delicate lungs, and was graduated 
at the College of South Carolina in 1812. On his 
return to Virginia he studied law under William 
Wirt, and was admitted to the bar, but failing 
health again compelled him to seek a change of 
climate, and, after an extensive tour of the west on 
horseback, he went abroad, where on his arrival 
he formed the. beginning of a life-long intimacy 
with Washington Irving. Through Mr. Irving he- 
was placed on terms of intimacy at Abbotsford, 
and in the intervals of his law studies at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, where Hugh S. Legare was- 
his fellow-student, he made several pedestrian 
tours with Irving through Scotland, northern 
England, and Wales. Together they witnessed 
many of the scenes of the " Sketch-Book." He re- 
turned to Virginia in 1820, and settled in South 
Carolina in 1822, where he at once won a brilliant 
reputation as an advocate and orator. He was 
in the legislature in 
1828-'32, was an ar- 
dent advocate of free- 
trade and state rights, 
became a leader of the 
nullification party, 
and in 1836 was elect- 
ed to the U. S. senate 
as a Calhoun Demo- 
crat. Among the most 
carefully prepared 
and eloquent of his 
speeches in the senat* 
wasthaton the French 
spoliation claims, 
which was praised by 
Henry Clay, Daniel 
Webster, and states- 
men of all parties. 
Differing with nis col- 
league, John C. Cal- 
houn, and also with his constituents, in regard to 
the support of President Van Buren's policy, he 
resigne<I his seat and resumed his law-practice in 
1842. He was president of the College of South 
Carolina from 1845 till his retirement in 1851. 
When he accepted the office the institution had lost 
many memliers, but under his guidance it rose to a 
prosjierity that it had never liefore enjoyed, and 
became the most popular educational institution in 
the south. He also established the Columbia Ivce- 
um, and gave it a large and valuable library, flar- 
vard gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1846. As 
a popular orator Mr. Preston was the peer of his 
maternal uncle, Patrick Henry, in many instances 
arousing his audiences to enthusiasm and the next 
moment moving them to tears. His style has l)een 
descrilied as florid, but his vocabulary was large, 
and the illustrations and classical allusions that 
ornamented his speeches were as naturally em- 
ployed in his familiar conversation. He was a 
profound classical scholar, and it w'as universally 




PRESTON 



PRESTON 



110 



I 



mlniitte<l that he was the most flnishiHl omtor tho 
south has over |»ro(luce<l. His distrt'ss nt the wt-os- 
sioii of the southern Democrulic party in IWM) hiij«- 
tcnwl his I'lul, When he wa.s ilvinj;. his frien(l, 
James L. Petijiru, saitl to him : " i envy you, Pres- 
ton ; you are Icnviiif; it, an«l I slmll have to stay 
and see it all." Preston 8if;nifie<l. with a si|;h of 
relief, that the words were true. He left no chil- 
dren. — Another son of Fniiicis. John Smith, 
soldier, b. at the Sidt Works, near Abinirdon, Va., 
20 April. ISOft; d. in t'olumhia. S. C, 1 .Mav, IKHI, 
was ^niduatiHl at Ilam(Mlen .Sidney college in 1H24, 
attended lectures at the University of Virjfinia in 
lH2i'>-'t{, and read law at Harvard. He marrie<l 
Caroline. dau);hter of (ten. Wade Hampton, in 
18^iO, and setthnl first in Ahinmlon. Va., and sub- 
8»'C|uently in Columbia, S. C. He en>;afjed for sev- 
eral years in su^ar-plantinj; in Louisiana, but also 
devoted much time to literary pursuits and to the 
collection of paintinjjs and sc-ulptures. He aidctl 
strufjj^linfj artists lil)erally, notably Hiram Powers, 
whose genius had been recognized by hi*, brother 
William. Mr. Powers, as a token of his apprecia- 
tion, gave him the first renlica of the "Greek 
Slave." He also became widely known as an ora- 
tor, delivering, among other addresses, the speech 
of welcome to the Palmetto rr-giment on its re- 
turn from the Mexican war in 1848, which gained 
him a national reputation. This wjis increased by 
his orations before the "Seventy-sixth associa- 
tion of Charleston " and the literary societies of 
St>uth Carolina college, and those at tfie 7oth anni- 
versary of the battle of King's Mountain and at 
the laying of the corner-stone of the University of 
the south at Sewanee, Tenn. He was an ardent 
secessionist, and in May, 1800, was chairman of 
the South Carolina delegation to the Democratic 
convention that met at Charleston, S. C. After 
the election of President Lincoln he was chosen a 
commissioner to Virginia, and in February, 1861, 
made an elal)orate plea in favor of the withdrawal 
of that state fn)m the Union, which was regaixled 
as his greatest eflfort. He was on the staff of Gen. 
Beauregard in 18(51-"2, participated in the first 
battle of Bull Run, and was subsequently trans- 
ferred to the conscript department with the rank 
of brigadier-general. He went to England shortly 
after the close of the war, and remained abroad 
several years. After his return he delivered an 
address at a commencement of the Universitj^ of 
Virginia, which, as a fervent assertion of the right 
of secession, incurred the criticism of the conserva- 
tive press throughout the country. His last pub- 
lic ap[K»an»nce was at the unveiling of the Confed- 
erate monument at Columbia, S. C, when he was 
the orator of the otrcasion. Gen. Preston was more 
than six feet in height, and of a |xiwerful and 
symmetrical frame. — Another son of Francis, 
Thomas LewiH, planter, b. in Botetourt county, 
Va.. 28 Nov., 1812, was educated at the University 
of Virginia, studied law, but never practised, and 
for many years engaged m Washington and Smith 
counties, Va., in the manufacture of salt, in which 
he ma«le material improvements. He was twicre a 
meml)er of the legislature, for many years a visitor 
of the University of Virginia and twice its rector. 
He was on the staff of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston 
during the first year of the civil war. and his aide- 
de-camp at the "first Iwttle of Bull Run. He has 
published " Life of ElizaU'th Russell. Wife of Gen. 
William Camplx>ll of King's Mountain" (Univer- 
sity of Virginui. 1880). — PVancis's brother. James 
Patton, statesman, b. in Montgomery countv, Va, 
in 1774; d. in Smithfield. Va., 4 May, 184i^, was 
graduated at William and Mary in itOO, and set- 




tled as a planter in Montgomery countv, Va Hft 
iHH-ame lieutenant-colonel of the I2th V.S. infant- 
ry in 1812, colonel, 5 Aug.. 181H, and receive*! at 
Chrystler's field a wound that crij»ple«l him for 
life. He was governor of Virginia m 18HJ-'iy, and 
subsequently served frecjuently in the state senate. 
He married Ann, daughter of (Jen. ItolM-rt Tavlor, 
of Norfolk, Va— Their wm. WilUum liaMard, 
secretary of war, b. in Smithfield. Montgrunerv co., 
Va, 2r)'Nov.. 180.'); d. then-, 1(5 Nov.. 18«2,' was 
educatcnl at the University of Virginia, a4lopted 
law as a |)rofes- 
sion,andachieyc<l 
signal success in 
its practice. He 
servetl several 
times in the Vir- 
ginia house of 
delegates and sen- 
ate, and was nev- 
er throughout his 
career defeated in 
any popular elec 
tion. He was 
chosen to con- 
press as a Whig 
in 1846, and on 
the accession of 
Gen.Zachary Tay- 
lor to the presi- 
dency he held the 
[Kirtfolio of the navy until Gen. Taylor's death, 
when he retired to private life, but was several 
times presidential elector on the Whig ticket. He 
was sent by the government on a mission to 
France in 18.'>8-'J), the object of which was to es- 
tablish a line of steamers between that country 
and Virginia and a more extended commercial 
relation between the two countries. The scheme 
failed on account of the approaching civil war. 
He was a niemljer of the \ irginia se<'ession con- 
vention in 1861, and resiste<l all efforts toward 
the dis.solution of the Union till he was satisfied 
that war was inevitable. In 1861-'2 he was a 
member of the Confederate senate, in which he 
siTved until his death. — Francis's nephew. Will- 
iam, lawyer, b. near Louisville, Ky.. 16 Oct., 1806; 
d. in Lexington, Kv., 21 Sept., 1887. His edu- 
cati(m was under the direction of the Jesuits at 
liardstown. Ky. He afterward studied at Vale, and 
then attended the law-school at Harvanl, where he 
was graduated in 1838. He then Ijcgan the prac- 
tice of law, also taking an active part in |>olitics. 
He served in the Mexican war as lieutenant-colonel 
of the 4th Kentucky volunteers. In 1851 he was 
elected to the Kentucky house of representatives as 
a Whig, and in the following year he was chosen to 
congress to fill the vacancy caused by Gen. Hum- 
phrey Marshall's resignation, serving from 6 Dec., 
1852, till 3 March, 18rM. He was again a candidate 
in 1854, but was defeated by his predecessor. Gen. 
Marshall, the Kn»w-Nothing candidate, after a 
violent campaign. He then IxK-ame a D«'mfH>rat, 
and was a delegate to the Cincinnati convention of 
1856, which nominateil Buchanan and Breckin- 
ridge. He was api>oinled U. S. minister to S[>ain 
under the Buchanan administration, at the close 
of which he returneil to Kentucky and warmly es- 
poused the cause of the south. He joinwl Gen. 
Simon B. Buckner at Bowling Green in 18(51. and 
was made colonel on the staff of his brother-in-law, 
(ien. AlU'rt .Sidney Johnston, when that officer as- 
sume«l comman<l. He S4'rved through the Ken- 
tucky campaign, was at the fall of Fort Donel.son, 
the battle of Shiloh, where Uen. Johnston died in 



116 



PRfeVALAYE 



PR^VOST-PARADOL 



his arms, and the siege of Corinth. He was also 
in many hanl-foujfht Imttles, especially at Mur- 
freoslK)n). At the close of the war ho returne<l to 
his home in lioxinjrtun, Ky.. in 1H(»7 ho wiis olect- 
e<l to tho lopislaturo, and in 18S() ho wjis a dolo- 
gato to t ho convention that nominated Gen, Han- 
cock for tho prosidoncy. — William Ballard's cousin, 
Isaac Trimble, jurist, h. in Il(X'khridi;e county, 
Va.. in ITJW : d. on Ijake Pontchartrain, La.. 5 July, 
1852. was graduated at Yale in 1812, and studio<l at 
Litchfield law-seh<x»l, but resigno<l his profession 
in 1K1;{ to servo as captain of a vohmteer company 
in tho war with (Jivat Britain. He resumed his 
legal studios under William Wirt in 1H1(5, was ad- 
mitted to tho bar. and ri'inovcd to New Orlojins, 
where ho practised with success. At the time of 
his death he was a judge of the supreme court of 
Louisiana. His death was the result of a steam- 
ix)at <iisastor. 

PRfiVALAYE, Pierre Dimas (pray-vah-lay). 
Marquis do, French naval oflicer, h. in tho castle of 
Pn'valave. near Brest, in 174.5; d. there, 28 July, 
1810. lie was descended from a family that was dis- 
tinguished in the annals of tho French navy. His 
father. Pierre Bernardin (1 714-'8(5.) served in Canada 
in 1742 and 175.5. In^came "chef d'escadre," com- 
manded tho station of the Antilles, and as gover- 
nor of Brest in 1778 was charged to superintend 
tho armament of the Hoot that was sent to the suc- 
cor of the American patriots. The son became a 
midshipman in 17(K), and took jmrt as lieutenant, 
and afterward as commander, in the war for 
Amerii an independence. He served under d'Es- 
taing at Newport in 1778, participated in the 
operations against 8t. Lucia and Grenada, directed 
the batteries at the siege of Savannah, in October, 

1779. was attached to the fleet of De Guichen in 

1780. and served under De Grasse at Yorktown, in 
October, 1781, and under De Verdun, De Borda, 
and Vaudreuiiies in the West Indies. In 1783 he 
was sent to carry to congress the treaty of peace 
that acknowledged the independence of the United 
Stales, and was promoted commodore. He was 
afterward appointed a member of the board of ad- 
miralty, emigrated in 1790, served in the army of 
Condo. and, returning to France in 1801, lived 
quietly in his ancestral castle, which the neighbor- 
ing peasants, l)eing much attached to his family, 
had preserved from destruction. Refusing the 
offers of Napoleon of a commission in the navy, 
he devoted his last years to science, founded an 
astronomical observatory in Brest, and became a 
member of the Academy of marine of that city. 
Louis XVIII. made him a rear-admiral in 1815. 
Ue published " Memoiro sur la campagne de Bos- 
ton en 1778" (Brest, 1784); " Memoire sur les ope- 
rations navales de rarmee du Comte d'Estaing pen- 
dant la guerre d'Amerique" (Paris, 1778); •' Me- 
moire sur une machine propre a faire connoitre h 
tout moment le tirant d'oau dcs naviros " (Brest. 
1807); and several treatises on naval architecture. 

PREVOST, Augustine, British soldier, b. in 
Geneva, Switzerland, about 1725; d. in Bernett, 
England. 5 May. 1786. His father was an officer 
in tho English army. The son also entered the 
army, became a lieutenant-colonel in March. 1701, 
colonel, 29 Aug., 1777. and major-general. 27 Feb., 
1779. He served as captain of the 60th regiment 
or Royal Americans under Wolfe at t^uolwc, cap- 
tured the fort at Sunbury, Ga., in Docendwr, 1778, 
and defeated Gen. John Ashe at Brier creek in 
March, 1779, but was foiled in an attempt to cap- 
ture Charleston in May, 1779. In OctoWr, 1779, 
he successfully defended Savannah against the 
Americans. Gen. Prevost's widow married Aaron 



Burr.— His son. Sir (jeorge, bart,, British soldier, 
b, in New York, 19 May. 1767: d. in London, Eng- 
land, 5 Jan.. 1816, entered the army in his youth, 
served with credit at St. Vincent, where He was 
severely wounded, and was also at Dominica and 
St. Lucia. He was created a baronet, 6 Dec., 1805, 
and apfKiinted major-general in January of the 
sjimo year, and lieutenant-general in June, 1811. 
Soon after his return from the West Indies he was 
appointed lieutenant-governor of Portsniouth, with 
the command of the trfK){)s in that district. In 
IHOH he became lieutenant - governor of Nova 
Scotia, and in the autumn of that year he pro- 
ceeded with a division of troops from Halifax to 
the West Indies, and was second in command at 
the capture of Martinique. He afterward re- 
turned to his government in Nova Scotia, and in 
June, 1811, he succeeded Sir James Craig as gov- 
ernor-in-chief and commander of the forces in all 
British North America. During the war of 1812 
he rendered important services in the defence of 
Canada against the armies of the United States. 
His attempt to penetrate into the state of New 
York was rendered alwrtive by his engagement 
with the Americans under Gen. Macomb at Platts- 
bnrg, 11 Sept., 1814, which forced him to retreat 
into Canada. He soon afterward returned to Eng- 
land, and demanded an investigation of charges 
that had l^een made against him for the disaster at 
Plattsburg. He died before this was completed, 
but the result vindicated his character. 

PREVOST, Ciiarles Mallet, soldier, b. in Bal- 
timore, Md., 19 Sept., 1818; d. in Philmlelphia, 5 
Nov., 1887. His father. Gen. Andrew M. Prevost, 
who commanded the first regiment of Pennsylvania 
artillery in the war of 1812, was born in 6eneva, 
Switzerland, of Huguenot ancestry, and his grand- 
father, Paul Henry Mallet Prevost, a Geneva 
banker, came to the United States in 1794 and 
purchased an estate at Alexandria (since called 
Prenchtown), Hunterdon co., N. J. Charles M. 
Prevost studied law and was admitted to the bar, 
and shortly afterward was appointed U.S. marshal 
for the territory of Wisconsin, and he was subse- 
quently deputy collector of the port of Philadel- 
phia. He was an active memlwr of the militia, 
and at the l)eginning of the civil war had com- 
mand of a company. Soon afterward he was ap- 
pointed assistant adjutant-general on the staflf of 
Gen. Frank Patterson. He was engaged in the 
peninsular campaign, later was appointed colonel 
of the 118th (Corn exchange) regiment of Pennsyl- 
vania volunteers, and commanded it at Antietom. 
The severity of the attack comf)elled his regiment 
to fall back, and Col. Prevost seized the colors and 
ran to the front to rally his men. While encour- 
aging them, he was struck in the shoulder by a 
Minie ball, and also by a fragment of shell, and 
so severely wounded that he never recovered. The 
brevet of brigadier-general of volunteer was con- 
ferred on him on 13 March, 1865. for his bmvery 
in this action. After his partial recovery he re- 
turned to the command of his regiment, and took 
part in the battle oj Chaneellorsville with his 
arm strapped to his body. After this engagement 
he was ordered to take charge of a camp at Harris- 
burg for the organization of the Veteran reserve 
corps, and, finding that his health would not per- 
mit him to engage in active service, he entered 
that corps, as colonel of the 16th regiment, and 
served in it through the war. On his return home 
he was appointed major-general of the 1st division 
of the Pennsylvania national guard. 

PRfcVOSt-PARADOI^ Lucl^n Anatole, 
French author, b. in Paris, 8 July, 1829 ; d. in 



PRICE 



I'UICK 



117 



Washinjrton, 0.0.. 11 Aujf.. 1870. He wah the only 
8«m of the notn^w Lii(>inila l'n»vost-I'ani«lo|, hikI 
early show«Ml liti-ntry talfiit. He rwcivinl his edu- 
cation in Paris, >Hyaine in 1H54 alitor of " Im Kevue 
d'histoin* universelle," was ^radiiatctl in tiie follow- 
ing year as LL. I)., and a|>point4-<l professor of litera- 
ture' in the University of Aix in Provence. In IKVl 
he iHH-anie chief wlitor of the Paris "Journal des 
iKUmts," and from that time till his death he was 
one of the most brilliant journalists of his time. 
He was a formidahle adversary to Xapokntn III., 
and his witty criticisms wen' lutrticularly ob- 
noxious to that monarch, who trieu in vain to con- 
ciliate him. In IWK), after a short service as editor 
of " La Presse," he retununl to " l^es Di'liats," where 
he oppose<l the French intervention in Mexico in a 
series of articles which, by arousiii^j public indi^;- 
nation, cause«l the emixTor first to nMluco the i)n>- 
powMl invading army, and ultimately to recall his 
tr(K)ps in IHOO. Three times, at Paris in IHOJJ and 
1803, and at Nantes in 1S69. Prt'vost-Paradol was 
a candidate for the corps legislatif, but failed, 
owing to the opposition of the a<lministration. 
Aft«r the promulpition of the liberal amend- 
ment to the constitution in 18()9, and the accession 
of the j^mile (.)llivier cabinet, he became reconciled 
to the empire, and accepted the appointment of 
minister to the United States, 13 June, 1870. He 
arrivetl in Washington towani the middle of July, 
but was coldly received in society, owing to the 
Franco-German war, which public opinion dis- 
approved. He complaine<l bitterly of this, espe- 
cially of the attitude of President Grant. In the 
night of 11 Aug., 1870, he rose, and, after putting 
his papers in order, took position before a mirror 
and delil)eratelv shot hitnself through the brcjist. 
Prevost-Paradol was a remarkable writer, and his 
editorials are vet considered models for journalists. 
His works include " Kssais de ]>olitique et de littc- 
rature" (Paris, 1859); " Du gouvernement parle- 
Dientaire" (1860); and " Nouveaux essais de poli- 
tiaue et de littt'rature " (18G5). 

PRICE, Bruce, architect, b. in Cumberland, 
Md., 13 Dec., 1845. He studied his profession 
with James Crawford and with John Rudolph 
Niernsee in Baltimore, after which he spent a vear 
abroad. In 1809 he settled in Haltimore ancf l)e- 
gan bis professional career. Soon afterward he 
moved to Wilkesbarre, Pa., where he remained 
five years, and in 1877 he established himself in 
New York. His work has included designs for 
the cathetlral in Siivannah, (Ja., the Methmlist 
church in Wilkeslwrre. Pa., and the Lee Memorial 
churc-h in I>'xington, Va.. which are considered ex- 
cellent exam|>les of nxxlern American ecclesiasti- 
cal architecture. He designetl the cottages and 
club-house at Tuxe<lo Park, N. J., the West Kncl 
botel at Bar Harlwr, Me., and the Ix)ng Beach 
hotel. N. Y. The hotel at Long Beach was built 
by him in sixty days. Mr. Price invented, pat- 
ented, and built the parlor bay-window cars for 
the Pennsylvania, and Boston and Albany rail- 
roa<ls. He is the author of " A Large C'ountry 
House" (New York. 1880). 

PRICE, David Edward, Canadian senator, b. 
In guelM'c in 1H2«: d. there, 22 Aug., 1883. He 
was the son of William Price, a native of En'gland, 
and a merchant of the city of Quel)ec. He re- 
ceiv»Ml a classical e(lucation. and l)ecame senior 
member of a firm of lumlwr merchants in Quelnx-. 
He was a candidate for Chicoutimi and Ta<lousac 
in 1854, but withdn-w in favor of the commis- 
sioner of crown land, and repres<'ntefl those con- 
stituencies in the Canada assembly from 1855 till 
1857. From the Utter date be represented Chi- 



coutimi and Saguenay until he waA elected to the 
legislative council in W14 for the Ijaurentiilm 
(livision. and h**ld his seat till he was calltnl to the 
senate in Mav. 1H07. He is colonel of the 2d l»at- 
talion of Chicoutimi militia, and vice-consul at 
Saguenay for Denmark, Swwlen, Norway, ami the 
Argentine, Chilian, and Penivian republics, and 
consular agent for the United States. 

PRICE, Ell Kirk, lawyer, b. in Bradfonl, 
Chester co.. Pa., 20 Julv, 1797 ; d. in Philadelphia, 
Pa., 14 Nov., 1884. His ancestor. Philio, a Welsh 
Quaker, came to this coimtry with William Penn, 
and settled on a tract of 1,000 acres in Montgomery 
county. Pa. Kli was educate*! in his native coun- 
ty, and entered the shinping-house of Thomas P. 
Coke in 1815, but abanclonwl merchandise for law, 
and l)ecame a student in the oflice of John Ser- 
geant. He was admitted to the \mr in 1822. and 
soon established a reputation as a chancery and 
realn-state lawyer. It is said that no other mem- 
ber of the Philadelphia bar was ever intrusted 
with so large a numU'r of valuable estates. He 
was in active practice for sixty years, and had lit- 
tle to do with politics, except as a memU-r of the 
state senate in 1854-'7. During this service he 
was the author of several acts for the l)etter secu- 
rity of real-estate titles and the rights of married 
women, and originated and secured the passage of 
the "Consolidation Act," by which the towns that 
are included in the present city of Philadelpliia 
were united in one municipal government. The 
year before his election to the senate he framed 
and succeefled in making a law that is known as 
the " Price Act," relating to the sale and convey- 
ance of real estate. He was an originator of Fair- 
mount park, and a commissioner from its founda- 
tion in 1807, and as chairman of its committee on 
the purchase of real estate examined all the titles 
of lands that were inclosed within its Inirders 
and acquired by the city of Philadelphia. He was 
an active memlwr of i)\e American philos<inhical 
society and a constant contributor to its " Trans- 
actions," a member of sevenil foreign s<"ientific and 
litemry societies, president of the University hos- 
jtital, of the Pre^iton retreat, of the Pennsylvania 
colonization society, and of the Numismatic and 
antiquarian society, a vice-president of the Ameri- 
can philosophical society, and a trustee of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. He published " I^aw of 
Limitations and Ijiens against Real Estate "(Phila- 
delphia, 1851); several treatises that were contrib- 
uted to the American phiU)sophical society ; and 
the memorial volumes " Philip and Rachel Price " 
(printed privately, 1852); " Re»)ecca " (18<)2): and 
tlie "Centennial Meeting of the Descendants of 
Philip and Rachel Price ' (1804). See a " Memoir " 
by James T. Rothrock (Philadelphia, 1880), and 
" Address on the late Eli K. Price," deliverpd by 
Benjamin H. Brewster before the Bar association 
of Philadelphia (1880). 

PRICE, Hiram, congressman, b. in Washing- 
ton county. Pa.. 10 Jan.. 1814. He received a com- 
mon-school e<lucation, was for a few years a farmer, 
and then a merchant. He removeil to Davenport, 
Iowa, in 1844, was sch(M>l-fund commissi<mer of 
Scott county for eight years, and as such hail the 
school lands allotteil and appraised. He was col- 
lector, treasurer, and reconler of the county dur- 
ing seven years of the time when he was school- 
fund commissioner, and was president of the State 
l»ank of Iowa during its existence, except for the first 
year. When the civil war U-gan. the state of Iowa 
had no availal>le fumls. and he funiishtnl from his 
individual means quarters and subsistence for sev- 
eral months for about 5.000 men. infantry and 



118 



PRICE 



PRICE 



cavalry. With Ezekiel Clark he advanced about 
$25.(XK) to pay to the 1st, 2(1. and 'M Iowa ri'jji- 
mcnts their "state pay," and carried the same to 
them, at much jicrsonal risk from the " bush- 
whackers "in northern Missouri. Mr. Price was 
elected to congress as a Republican, serving in 
IStKVO. He declined to Ui a candidate again, and 
spent some time al)road. He was again elected in 
1S7(5 and 187H. and then again declined re-election. 
He was appointed commissioner of Indian affairs 
in 1881. and served in that office until shortly 
after the inauguration of President C'leveland. 

PRICE, John, soldier, b. in England; d. in 
Maryland in KJfJl. He emigrated to Maryland, 
and represented St. Michael's hundred in the 
general assembly of Wi9. He servinl with cre<lit 
as a soldier, received the public thanks of Lord 
Baltimore, and was a[)pointed muster-master- 
general in 1648. He was made a privy councillor 
the same year, and was an ardent supporter of 
the toleration act of 1649. He took an active 

Fart in the rebellions of 1645, and commanded St. 
nigo's fort at a critical moment, and it was in a 
freat mea.'^ure owing to his exertions that Gov. 
iconard Calvert recovered his authority. 
PRICE, Richard, clergyman, b. 'in Tynton, 
Glamorganshire, Wales, 23 Feb., 1723; d. in Lon- 
don, England, 10 March, 1791. He was the son of 
a dissenting Calvinistic minister, was educated at a 
dissenting academy, and held several appointments 
in and alwut London. Of his " Observatitms on 
Civil Liberty and the Justice and Policy of the War 
with America" (London and Boston, 1776) 60,000 
co{)ies were soon distributed. For this work he re- 
ceived the thanks of the corporation of London 
and the freedom of the city, besides being invited, 
in 1778, by the congress of the United States, to 
become a citizen of this country. This request he 
declined, but referred to the infant republic as "the 
hope and the future refuge of mankina." His other 
works refer to religion, ethics, politics, and finance. 
He received the degree of I). I), from the Univer- 
sity of Aberdeen in 1769, and that of LL. I), from 
Yale in 1781. His biography was written by his 
nephew, William Morgan. IX D. (London, 1815). 

PRICE, Rodman McCamley, governor of New 
Jersey, b. in Sussex county, X. J., 5 May, 1816. At 
an early age he became a student at Princeton, but 
before completing the course was obliged to leave 
on account of his health. He afterward pursued for 
some time the study of the law, and finally, in 
1840, was appointed jiurser in the U. S. navy. For 
ten years he was connected with this branch of the 

service, and in 1848 
he was made navy 
agent for the Pacific 
coast. When the 
American flag was 
raised in this re- 
gion, he was the 
first to exercise judi- 
cial functions under 
it as alcalde. On 
returning to his 
home in 1850, he 
was elected a mem- 
ber of congress, and 
served from 1851 
11111853. On 8 Nov. 
of the latter year 
he was elected gov- 
ernor of New Jer- 
sey, which office he filled for three years. Through 
his instrumentality mainly the normal school of 
that state was established, and the militia system 




.y^. i:^e< 



greatly improved. In 1861 he was a delegate to 
the Peace congress. 

PRICE. Roger, clergyman, b. in f>ngland 
alK)ut 1696; d. in Leigh, Essex, 8. Dec, 1762. He 
was educated at Oxford, and admitte<l to orders 
in the Church of England in 1720. Prom 1725 
onward he held several livings in England. On 
the death of the Rev. Samuel Myles, in 1728, Mr. 
Price was sent, the year following, by the bishop 
of London, to succeed Mr. Myles in the rector- 
ship of King's chapel, Boston, Mass. The next 
vear he was appointed the bishop's commissary. 
In April, 1734, he laid the comer-stone of Trinity 
church, Boston, and in August, 1735, he delivered 
the first sermon in it. Although an able preacher, 
he appears to have had various difficulties and dis- 
|)utes with his parishioners, and became quite 
dissjitisfied with the state of affairs in general. 
Alx)ut 1744 he purchased a tract of land in Hop- 
kinton, Mass., did missionary duty for two or 
three years, built a church at his own expense, 
and devised it, with a glebe of 180 acres of land, to 
the Society for propagating the gospel, in trust 
for supjjorting a minister of the Church of Eng- 
land. In 1753 he went to England, where he spent 
the rest of his life as "incumbent of the parish of 
Leigh, in the deanery of Broughing, and archdea- 
conry of St. Albans." Mr. Price published two 
sermons, delivered on special occasions in Boston, 
one on the death of John Jekyll, Esq., collector 
of customs (1733), the other, on the death of the 
queen, wife of George II. (1738). 

PRICE, Samnel, senator, b. in Fauquier county, 
Va., 18 Aug., 1805; d. in Leesburg, W.Va.,25Feb., 
1884. He removed to Preston county, Va. (now 
W. Va.), at twelve years of age, received a common- 
school education, and settled in the practice of law 
in Nicholas county. After serving two terms in 
the legislature he removed to Wheeling, and sub- 
sequently to Lewisburg, and represented Green- 
brier county for many years in the legislature. He 
was a leader in all schemes for internal improve- 
ment west of the Blue Ridge, and an originator 
of the proposition to establish a railroad from 
Tidewater, Va., to Ohio river. He was a member 
of the State constitutional convention in 1851, and 
of the Secession convention in 1861, and earnest- 
ly opposed disunion in the latter body, but, on 
the passage of the ordinance of secession, sup- 
ported the measures that followed. He was elected 
lieutenant-governor in 1863, and served as presi- 
dent of the state senate till the close of the war. 
He was api)ointe<l a circuit judge in 1865, but de- 
clined to take the test oath and did not serve. 
He was an unsuccessful candidate for the U. S. 
senate in 1876, was president of the West Virginia 
constitution convention in 1872, and in 1876 was 
appointed by the governor to fill out the un- 
expired term of Allen T. Caperton, deceased, in 
the U. S. senate, serving four months. 

PRICE, Sterling, soldier, b. in Prince Ed- 
ward county, Va., 11 Sept., 1809; d. in St. Louis, 
Mo., 29 Sept., 1867. He was a student at Hamp- 
den Sidney college, read law, moved to Chariton 
county. Mo., in 1831, and was speaker of the Mis- 
souri house of representatives in 1840-'4. He was 
elected to congress in the latter year as a Demo- 
crat, but resigned in 1846, and raised the 2d Mis- 
souri cavalry regiment for the Mexican war, l>e- 
coming its colonel. He moved his regiment with 
that of Col. Doniphan, both under command of 
Gen. Stephen W. Kearny, from Fort Leaven- 
worth to Santa Fe, more than 1,000 miles, the 
march occupying more than fifty ^ays, and the 
army subsisting mainly on the country. Col. Price, 



PRICE 



PRIDE A UX 



119 




with al>otit 2,000 men. was left in chnrjrfl of Now 
Mexico, (u»n. Keanjy niovinjr with tho remainder 
of th«> coiniuHnil to (.'alifoniia. An inxurroction 
oct'urnHl in Santa Ft'*, t«) which (lov. Hront an<l 
several of his oflU-crs fell vi<-tinis iliirin); their al>- 
s<'nre from the town. ("ol. Price now attacktMl the 
Mixiciiiis, (•oini)lete<l the comjuest of the province 
ill -<\(nil lirillinnt actions, and after iironiof ion 
t«i liri;.'ii<lier-t.'enenil of volunteers, 20 July, 1H47, 
marched to Chihuahua, of which he was ma<h' 
military jrovernor. He defeated the .Mexicans 
at Santa Cruz de Rosales, Ki March, 1848. (ten. 
Price was jjovernor of Missouri from 1853 till 
IH.*)?. Iwnk commissioner of the state fnim IHTil 
till 18(51, and presitlent of the State convention 
on 4 Mari'h, 18<J1. Ho was ap|)ointed niajor-jjen- 
«ral of the Missouri state guard on 18 May, and 

after he had lKH>n 
ioinetl by (Sen. Ben 
McCulloch and Gen. 
Pearco with Confetl- 
erate troops and Ar- 
kansas muitia, they 
defeate<l Gen. Na- 
thaniel Lvon at Wil- 
son's crook, in s<^)uth- 
wostern Missouri, 10 
Aug., 18(51. Price 
then advance<l north- 
ward and invested 
Lexington, on Mis- 
souri river. 12 Sept., 
18«1. He captured 
the place, with 3,500 
men, on 21 Sept., but 
fell back southward 
before Gen. John C. 
Fremont, and went 
into winter-quarters near Springfield, whence he was 
■driven bv Gen. Samuel It. Curtis, 12 PVb., 18(52, and 
retreated toward Fort Smith. Ark. Gen. Earl Van 
Dorn assumed command of Price's and McCullo<'h's 
armies, att>u'ko<l Curtis at Pea Ridge. 7 March. 18()2, 
and wa« defeated. Van Dorn was now ordered to 
Tennessee. Price participated in the engagements 
around Corinth, retreated under Beauregard to 
Tuf>elo, was assigned to the command of the Army 
of the West in >larch, 1862, and then t<.) the district 
of Tennessee. He moved toward Nashville, and 
met and fought with Gen. William S. Rosecrans, in 
command of Grant's right, at luka, 19 Sept., 18(52, 
but was ordered to report to Van Dorn, and by his 
direction almndoned luka and joined him near 
Biildwyn. He participate<l in Van Dorn's dis- 
jistrous attack uj)on Corinth in Octol)er, 18(V2, and 
in the operations under Gen. John C. Pemlwrton 
in northern Mississippi during the winter of 
1862-'3. He was then ordered to the Trans-Mis- 
sissippi department, took part in the unsuccessful 
attack \i\w\\ Helena, 21 July, \S(Vi, and "was as- 
signtnl tf» the command of the district of Arkansas. 
He was driven from Little Itock by Gen. Frederic 
Steele, but successfully resisted Steele's advance 
towanl Red river in March, 1864, and forced him 
to retreat. He ma<le a raid into Missouri in Sep- 
teml>er, 18(54, had many engagements with the 
National forces, and reached Miss<iuri river, but 
was «lriven out of the state and into southwest- 
ern Arkansas. After the surrender of the Con- 
federate armies he went to Mexico, but he re- 
tunird to Missouri in 1805. 

PKICK, Theophiliis Townsend, physician, b. 
in CaiH? May county, N. J., 21 May. 1828. He re- 
ceivetl an aca<lemical education, taught school for 
a time, then studied medicine, was graduated in 



J^Ce^^y'^-vC^^^ «^ 



IRW at Pennsylvania medical c<illcg\\ and set- 
tle«l in practice at Tiickerton. N. J. In 1H(W he 
.^er^•cH^ an a volunteer surgeon in the army. Since 
1879 he has lieen acting assistant surgeon in the 
L'. S. marine hospital seo'ice, thefln<t an<l only ap- 
pointment of the kind in New Jersey, the govern- 
ment medical S4«rvice on the entire New .lersej 
coast l)eing under his charge. He is one of the pro- 
jectors of the Tuckerton railroad. an<l since 1871 
has been the se<'retary. He luis si-rvtvl in the New 
Jersey legislature, is one «if the trustees of the 
New .lorsey reform schof)] for Ijoys. and of the 
.South Jersey institute, and a memlter of the State 
me«lical and historical societies. He has contributed 
to nie<lical journals, and iKith in ^)rose and p«M»try 
to various fu'ritKlicals. Many of his war songs have 
iKK'ome widely known. He is the author of the 
entire historical an<l descriptive part of the " His- 
torical an<l Biographical Atlas of the New Jersey 
Coast" (Philadelphia. 1877). 

PRICE. ThoniBH Lanson. contractor, b. near 
Danville, Va., 19 Jan.. 1805); d. in Jefferson City, 
Mo., 16 July, 1870. His father was a wealthy to- 
bacco-planter. In 1831 the son setthnl in Jefferson 
Citv. Mo. He first engage<l in mercantile jtursuits, 
and afterward lM>ught and sold real estate. In 
18i^H he obtained the contract for carrying the 
mail lM>tween St. Louis and Jefferson City, and es- 
tablished the first stage-line connecting those 
places, ritimately he gained control of all the 
stage-routes in the state, and l)ecame lessee of the 
State penitentiary. He was chosen the first mayor 
of Jefferson City in 18;W, and was n'-electe<l. In 
1847 he was appointed brevet major-general of the 
6th division of Missouri militia, and in 1849 he 
was elected lieutenant-governor on the Democratic 
ticket. In 1856 Gen. Price headed a Benton dele- 
gation to the Democratic national convention that 
nominated James Buchanan, but was not admitted. 
In 18(50 he was olec-ted to the state legislature, and 
on 21 Sept.. 1861, was appointed by Gen. John C. 
Fremont brigadier-general of volunteers. The ap- 
pointment expired by limitation, 17 July, 1862. lie 
was ele<'ted to congress in place of John W. Reid, 
expelletl, and served from 21 Jan., 1862. till 3 March, 
18(>3. In 18(>4 he was nominated by the I'nion 
men for governor, although there was no hojx! of 
his election. About this time his health liegan to 
fail, and his only syjasequent apftearance in public 
life was as delegate to the Democratic national 
convention in 1868, where he acted as vice-presi- 
dent when Horatio Seymour was nominattnl. Dur- 
ing the greater part of his career Cien. Price was 
connected with railroads, lM)th as contractor and 
officer. When a meml)er of the legislature he was 
largely instrumental in inducing the state to lend 
its aid to the construction of the Iron Mountain 
and Hannibal and St. Joseph roads. He was also 
i<lentified with the construction of the Missouri 
Pacific ami the Kansas Pacific. Of the former he 
was one of the first and largest contractors. lie- 
sides building the greater part of the Kansas Pa- 
cific, he was also a fund commissioner and dirwtor 
of that road, and unito<l with other capitalists in 
extending the line from Denver to Chevcnne. 

PRIDEAl'X, John, British soldier, b. in Dev- 
onshire. England, in 1718; d. near Fort Niagara, 
19 July, 1759. He was the stvond son of Sir 
John Prideaux, l»art.. and early entere«l the army, 
serving in the battle of Dellingen in 1743. Hebe- 
came captain in the 3d foot-guanls, 24 Feb., 1745, 
colonel of the 55th foot. 28 Oct.. 1758, and brigatlior- 
general, 5May, 1759. In 1759 he was intruste<l by 
William Pitt with the command of one of the four 
diyisioDs of the army that was to conquer Canada, 



120 



PRIEST 



PRIESTLEY 



the others bein^ given to Wolfe. Amherst, and 
Stanwix. lie opened his campaiprn by a move- 
ment on F'ort Niagara, which was then one of the 
most formi(lal)k' French posts. A landing was 
etTccted on 7 July, notwithstanding a harassing 
fire, and after a summons to surrender had been 
refus»>d by Pouchot, the French commander, who 
had sent secretly for re-enforcements, Prideaux 
opened fire with his artillery. He reju'lled a sortie 
on 11 July, and on the lS)th princnted a French 
schooner from landing re-en furcements that had 
l)eensentby Frontenac. On the eveningof the same 
day, while he was busy in the trenches, he was killed 
by the bursting of a coehorn, owing to the careless- 
ness of an artillervman. He was succeeded in the 
command by Sir\VilIiam Johnson. As the elder 
brother had lieen killed at Carthagena in 1741. 
Prideaux was his father's heir, an<l his son, John 
Wilmot, succeeded to the baronetcy in 17(i(5. 

PRIEST, Joslah, author, b. arj<.ut 1790; d. in 
western New York about IMO. lie was unedu- 
cated, and was a harness-maker by trade, but pub- 
lished several books, including " Woiidei*s of Na- 
ture" (Albany. 1820); "View of the Millennium" 
(1828) ; " Stones of the Revolution " (183(;) ; " Amer- 
ican Anti(iuities" (1888); and "Slavery in the 
Light of History and Sc-ripture" (1848). 

PRIESTLEV, Joseph, scientist, b. in Field- 
head, near Leeds, Yorkshire, England, 24 March, 
1738; d. in Northumberland, Pa., 6 Feb., 1804, 
He wjis the eldest son of a cloth-dresser, and his 
mother dying when the boy was six years old, he 

was adoj)ted Ijy his 
aunt, ^Irs. Keigh- 
ley. The youth was 
sent to a free gram- 
mar-school, and at 
the age of sixteen 
had made consider- 
able progress in the 
ancient languages. 
He had determined 
to become a ciergy- 
man.and in 1752-'5 
he was at the dis- 
senting academy at 
Daventry, in North- 
amptonshire, where 
he wrote some of 
his earliest tracts. 
On attempting to 
enter the ministry 
he was rejected on 
account of his views on original sin, the atone- 
ment, and eternal damnation, which he main- 
tained openly. In 17o.5 he became an assistant in 
an obscure meeting-house at Noedham market in 
Suffolk, but he faihxl to become nopular. Three 
years later he went to Nantwich, in Cheshire, 
where he taught twelve hours a day. At this time 
he wrote his first book, "Rudiments of English 
Grammar" (London, 1761), and his "Course of 
Lectures on the Theory of Language and Univer- 
sal Grammar" (Warrington, 17(i2). In 1701 he 
removed to Warrington, in Lancashire, where the 
dissenters had established an academy, and for six 
years he was tutor there in the languages and 
belles-lettres. He preached continually during his 
residence in that place, and was ordained there. 
During one of his visits to London he met Benja- 
min Franklin, and through his assistance under- 
took the prepamtion of his "History and Present 
State of Electricity, with Original ^experiments" 
(London, 1767). He received the degree of LL. D. 
from the University of Edinburgh, and was elected 




to the Royal society in 1766. In 1767 he removed 
to Ixjeds, where he was given charge of the Mill 
Hill chapel. He devoted himself closely to th& 
study of theology, and began his investigations on 
gases, also publishing a fragmentary work on the 
I " History and Present State of Discoveries reiating- 
to Vision, Light, and Colors" (2 vols., London, 
1772). In 17(50 he came into conflict with Sir Will- 
iam Blackstone, author of the "Commentaries," 
pointing out inaccurate statements of historical 
facts in his work. Blackstone promised to cancel 
the offensive paragraphs in the future editions of 
his work, and the controversy cAme to an amicable 
conclusion. From 1773 till 1780 he wjis librarian 
or literary comj)anion to the Earl of Shelburne, 
with whom he travelled on the continent, and 
si)ent some time in Paris; on his return he had 
nmch leisure for scientific research, and was active 
in prosecuting his experiments. During these 
years he made his great discoveries in chemistry, 
and renewed his investigations on gases. Priestley 
was unacquainted with chemistry ; he had no appa- 
ratus, and knew nothing of chemical experiment- 
ing, but these adverse conditions may have been 
serviceable as he entered ii\)on a new field where 
apparatus had to Im? invented, and the arrange- 
ments that he devised for the manipulation of 
gases are unsurpassed in simplicity and have been 
used ever since. The first of these discoveries was 
that of nitric oxide in 1772, the properties of which 
he ascertained and applied to the analysis of air. 
In 1774, by heating the red oxide of mercury, he 
made his discovery of oxygen, to which he gave 
the name of dephlogiscated air. He also showed 
its power of supporting combustion better, and 
animal life longer, than the same volume of com- 
mon air. By means of mercury which he used 
with the pneumatic trough to collect gases that 
are soluble in water, he further made known hy- 
drochloric acid and ammonia in 1774, and sulphur 
dioxide and silicon tetrafluoride in 1775, ana in- 
troduced easy methods for their preparation, de- 
scribing with exactness the most remarkable prop- 
erties of each. He likewise pointed out the exist- 
ence of carburetted hydrogen gas. Priestley dis- 
covered nitrous oxide in 1776, and, after he came 
to the United States, carbon monoxide in 1779. 
To him we owe the knowledge of the fact that an 
acid is formed when electric sparks are made to 
pass for some time through a given bulk of com- 
mon air, which afterward led to Cavendish's dis- 
covery of the composition of nitric acid. These 
facts are described in his " Experiments and Ob- 
servation Relating to Natural Philosophy, with a 
Continuation of the Observations on Air (3 vols., 
London, 1779-'86). Meanwhile he wrote numerous 
theological works, and it has been said of Priestley 
that " he was fond of controversy, yet he neWr 
sought it, and if he participated in it. it was gen- 
erally because it was thrust upon him, and he 
became the defendant rather than the assailant." 
In 1780 he took up his residence in Birmingham, 
where he had charge of an independent congrega- 
tion. His collection of^apparatus had increased, 
and his income was now so good that he could 
prosecute his researches with freedom. In 1790 he 
enraged the people by his "Familiar Letters to the 
Inhabitants of Birmingham" (Birmingham, 1790), 
and these were soon followed by "Letters to Rt. 
Hon. E. Burke, occasioned by his Reflections on 
the Revolution in France" (1791). He now be- 
came the recognized champion of liberal thought, 
which made him the subject of severe condemna- 
tion at home. This feeling culminated on 14 Jul^, 
1791, the anniversary of the French revolution, in 



PRIESTLEY 



PRIME 



121 



a rint in Rirmiufrhain. duriiif; which his mootiii);- 
house and his dwellin^f-housv wi>n> hunitMl. and his 
littniry and appanitiis wcrp (ii>stri>V(>d. and many 
manitscriitts, the fruits of yoars t>( industry, tn'r- 
ishwl in tlio flanios. I'riesth'V I'scafH'd to lionuon. 
Whvn thi'|M)|tuhiri*xcitom(>nt Iwul soiufwhatfcaM'il 
in Birinin;;;hHni hi> sou);ht i*oni|M-nsation in the 
courts for the destruction of his pro|)erty, and 
presente«l a claim for JtS.UlW. hut. durinj; a trial of 
nine years, it was cut down to .t'2.'>(»2. He sailed 
from London on 7 April. 1794, and on 4 June 
land(Hl in New York, where he was received by 
delepitions from scientific s<K'ieties and invitetl 
to give a course of lectun»s on ex|H>riniental phi- 
losophy, for which a hundred subscriptions at flO 
each were s<)on obtained. lUit he refused, and 
prooeedwl at once to PhilH<h-lphia. where he re- 
ceivwl a complimentary address from the Ameri- 
can philosophical sm-iety. He was otTered the 
firofessorshiji of chemistry in the University of 
Vnnsylvania with a ^(kkI salary, but (lecUnwl the 
aj){K>intment. preferrinij to choose his own occupa- 
tions in retirenjcnt. Iiis sons had previously set- 
tle<l in Xorthuml)erland, Pa., whither he followeil. 
making his home in the midst of a garden over- 
looking one of the finest views of the Susquehanna. 
A laltoratorv was built for him. which was finished 
in 171>7. an(( he was able to arrange his lK)oks and 
renew his ex|H»rinients with every |K)ssible facility. 
Thomas JefTerson consulted him m regard to the 
founding of the University of Virginia, and he wjus 
oflfered the presidency of the University of North 
Carolina. In the spring of 17i)6 he delivered a 
series of '• Discourses relating to the Evidences of 
Revealetl Religion" (Philadelphia, 1790). which 
were attended by crowded audiences, including 
many memlwrs of congress and the executive of- 
ficers of the government, and in 1797 he delivere<l 
a second series, which were less favonibly received. 
The first of these, when published, wasdtnlicated to 
John Adams, who was then his hearer and admirer, 
but later, when Adams (q. v.) became president, 
Priestley onj)osed the administration, and it wjus 
intimated that the " alien law " was directed against 
him. His time wa.s chiefly spent in literarv work, 
and he wrote the continuation of his '•General 
History of the Christian Church to the Fall of 
the Western Empire" (4 vols.. Northuml>erland, 
1803-'3), which he dedicated to Thomas Jefferson : 
also "Answer to Mr. Paine's Ageof Reason " (1795); 
"Comivirison of the Institutions of Moses with 
those of the Hindoos and other Nations " (1799): 
"Notes on all the Books of Scri^nure" (180;}); and 
"The Doctrines of Heathen Philosophy compared 
with those of lievelation " (1804). There are many 
memoirs of his life, of which the most im|>ortan"t 
are John Corry's "Life of J. Priestley" (Birming- 
ham. 1805) and " Memoirs of Dr. Joseph Priestley 
to the Year 1795. written bv Himself; with a Con- 
tinuation to the Time of fiis Decease, by his Son, 
Joseph Priestley" (2 vols., London, 1806-'7). His 
"Theological and Miscellaneous Works" (exclud- 
ing the scientific) were collected by John T. Rutt 
and^ ^mblished in twenty-six volumes (Hackney, 
1817-32). His old congregation in Birmingham 
erecte<l a monument to his memory in their place 
of worship after his death, and a marble statue was 
placed in 18<J0 in the corridor of the museum at 
Oxfonl. The centennial of the discovery of oxygen 
was celebratcMl on 1 Aug., 1874, by the unveiling 
of a statue to his memory in Birmingham, an ad- 
dress in Paris, and in this country l)y a gjithering 
of chemists at his grave in Northunilterland. Pa., 
where appropriate exercises were lield, including 
addresses by T. Sterry Hunt, Benjamin Silliman, 



and other scientists. Dr. H. Carringtcm Bolton, 
who «lelivere<l an address on Priestley liefore the 
New York genc>alogical and biographical socMety in 
April. IHMH, has in preparation " The Scientific Cor- 
respondence of the Rev. Joseph Priet*tlev.'' 

PRIKTO. Joaquin ({fre-av -to). Chilian soldier, 
b. in Conce()cion, 20 Aug.. ifwO; d. in Valitaraiso, 
22 Nov.. IKVt. In August, 180.5. he enlistee! in the 
militia of Concencion. and in April, IWHl, he ao- 
companied Gen. Luis de la Cruz acro>s the Andes. 
In 1811. as captain of dragcKins, he formed jmrt of 
an auxiliary army that went to aid the jiatriotic 
movement of Buenos Ayres. On his return he 
served in the southern camfiaign of Chili, and in 
1814 was governor of Talca. After the defeat of 
Rancagua he went to the Argentine Rcftublic ami 
established himself in Buenos Ayres. He joinecl 
the Chilian-Argentine army, in 1817 was oresent at 
the battle of C'hacabuco. and afterwanl was ap- 
pointed commander of Santiago and <lirector of 
the arsenal. He equipped the army and took part 
in the battle of Maypu as commander of the re- 
serve. In 1821 he was sent to the south, which 
had revolted under Benavides, and defeated the 
latter in the battle of Vegas de Stildias. He was 
elected deputy to congress and senator in 1823, 
took an active part in the civil war of 1821>-'30, 
and after the l)attle of Lircoy he was ap[>ointed 
provisional president of the republic. Six months 
afterward, 18 Sept., 1831, he was elected constitu- 
tional president. On 25 May, 1833, the new con- 
stitution of the country was promulgated. He 
was re-elected in I8ii(i, and, after retiring in 1841, 
became councillor of state, senator, and command- 
er of Valparaiso. 

PRIME, Ebenezer. clergymen, b. in Milfonl, 
Conn., 21 July. 1700: d. in Huntington, L, I., 25 
Sept., 1779. lie was the grandson of James, who, 
with his brother. Mark Prime, came from England 
to escajHJ religious persecution about KhiH. El)ene- 
zer was graduated at Yale in 1718, studicil divinity, 
and the following year was called to Huntington, 
L. I., where he became an assistant to Rev. Elipha- 
let Jones. On 5 June. 1723, he was ordained pas- 
tor of the same church, which office he continued 
to hold until his death. A register of the sermons 
that he preached, with texts, dates, and places of 
delivery, shows-that he prepared more than 3.000, 
many of which are still preserved. Although he 
was educated as a Congregationalist, in 1747 his 
own church and the others in the county of Suf- 
folk formed themselves into a presbytery and 
adopted the Presbyterian form of government, Mr. 
Prime being chosen the first moderator. In the 
war of the Revolution Mr. Prime's church was 
turned into a military de{K)t by the British, and the 
pulpit and pews were burnt for fuel. The parson- 
age was cx-cupied by troops : the pastor's valuable 
library was used for lighting fires, and otherwise 
mutilated. Driven from home in his seventy- 
seventh year, an obj«»ct of s|>ecial hostility on ac- 
count of his decided patriotic opinions, he retired 
to a quiet part of the parish and preached in private 
houses, or wherever he could gather his peonle to- 
gether. Toward the close of the war Col. Ik-nja- 
min Thompson, afterward Count Ruinford. was or- 
dered to cx;cupy the village. He tore <lown the 
church, and used the materiids in buil<iing bar- 
nu-ksand b|cx;k-houses in the graveyanl. Ascer- 
taining where the venerable piustor lay buried, he 
directed that his own tent should be pitched at the 
head of the grave, that, as he expres-ied it, he 
might have the satisfaction of treading on the 

"d old rebel "every time he entered and left iU 

Mr. Prime is described by a contemporary as "a 



122 



PRIME 



PRIME 



S 



man of sterlinff character, of powerful intellect, 
who rMtssessed tne reputation of un able and faith- 
ful divine." His published discourses inclii<le 
" The Pastor at Ijargo Vindicated " and " The Di- 
vine Institution of Preaching the GosjkjI Consid- 
ered " (New York, 1758), and "The Imp(»rtanee of 
the Divine Presence with the Armiesof God's Peo- 
ple in their Martial Enterprises" (1759). He also 
published a sermon, deliveretl in 1754, on " Ordi- 
nation to the Gospel Ministry," reparding which he 
held i)eculiar views.— His st)n, Beujainiii Young, 

)hvsician, b. in Huntington, L. 1., 20 Dec, 17;5;i; 

i. there, 31 Oct., 171)1, was gnidiiated at Princeton 
in 1751, studied medicine under Dr. Jacob Ogden, 
and began to practisi' at Easthampton, L. I. In 
1756-'7 he was tutor at Princeton. His accjuire- 
ments jus a linguist were luuisual. Among his pa- 
pers were found, after his death, Latin versifica- 
tions of one of the Psalms written in ail the dif- 
ferent metres of the odes of Horace. He was also 
ma.ster of wneral modern languages, which he 
spoke fluently. In .lune, 1702. he sailed for Eng- 
land to visit medical schools abroad, and he was 
graduated at the University of Leyden in July, 
17()4. After visiting Moscow he returned to New 
York city and resumed practice there. On the 
passage of the stamp-act he wrote "A Song for 
the Sons of Liberty m New York." At the open- 
ing of the Revolutionary war. Dr. Prime, who had 
meantime given up practice in New York and re- 
tired to Huntington, was compelled to flee to Con- 
nectioit, but at the end of the war he returned 
to Huntington, and remained thereuntil his death. 
Besides his songs and ballads, which circulated 
widely during the war,' Dr. Prime published " The 
Patriot Muse, or Poems on some of the Principal 
Events of the Late War, etc., by an American Gen- 
tleman, referring to the French War " (London, 
17(54), and "Columbia's Glory, or British Pride 
Humbled, a Poem on the American Revolution" 
(New York, 1791). In addition to these, there was 
published in New York city, in 1840, " Muscipula: 
Sive Cambromyomachia. The Mouse-Trap ; or. the 
Battle of the Welsh and the Mice: in Latin and Eng- 
lish. With Other Poems in different Languages. 
By an American." The princinal Latin poem in 
this volume is probably not by l)r. Prime, but the 
translation of the " Muscipula " is undoubtedly his 
work. — Benjamin Young's son, Nathaniel Scud- 
der. clergvman. b. in Huntington, L. I., 21 April, 
1785; d. in Mamaroneck, N. Y., 27 March, 185(5, 
was graduated at Princeton in 1804, licensed to 
preach by the j)resbytery of Long Island, 10 Oct., 
1805, and ordained in 1809. After preaching at 
Sag Harbor, Fresh Pond, and Smithtown, L. I., 
he was called, in 1813, to the Presbyterian church 
at Cambridge, Washington co., N. Y.. where he 
remained for seventeen years. For several years 
after 1821 he was also principal of the county 
academy. In 18^J1 he established a seminary for 
young women in Sing Sing, under the charge of 
his daughter, and on its being destroyed by fire in 
1835, he removed it to Newburg, N. Y., where he 
remained eight years. On retiring at the end of 
that period, he did not again accept a pastoral 
charge. Dr. Prime was an earnest advocate of all 
moral reforms, and is believed to have preached 
in 1811 one of the first temperance sermons that 
was ever delivered. He was an enthusiastic elec- 
trician, and was instrumental in intrfjducing Prof. 
Joseph Henry to public notice. He received the 
degree of D.D. from Princeton in 1848. Besides 
" A Collection of Hymns " (Sag Harbor. 1809). " A 
Familiar Illustration of Christian Baptism "(Salem, 
1818), and '* A History of Long Island " (New York, 







1845), Dr. Prime published sermons entitled "The 
Pernicious Effects of Intemperance" (Brooklyn, 
1812); "Divine Truth the Established Means of 
Sanctification " (Salem, 1817); and "The Year of 
Jubilee, but not to Africans " (1825). — Another son, 
Samuel Irenseus, editor, b. in I^illston, N. Y., 4 
Nov., 1812; d, in Manchester, Vt., 18 July, 1885, 
was graduated at Williams in 1829, taught three 
years at Cambridge and Sing Sing, N. Y., and en- 
tered Princeton tneological seminary, but before 
cotnpleting his first year he was attacked by a se- 
vere illness, and 
was never able to 
resume his stud- 
ies. He was li- 
censed to preach 
in 1833, and held 

{>astorates at 
iailston Spa in 
1833-'5, and at 
Matteawan, N. 
Y., in 1837-40. 
In the spring of 
the latter year he 
was compelled to 
abandon the pul- 

Eit, owing to a 
ronchial affec- 
tion, from which 
he never entirely 

recovered. Thereafter, till his death, he was editor 
of the " New York Observer," except during 1849, 
when he acted as secretary of the American Bible 
society, and a few months in 1850, when he edited 
" The Presbyterian." In 1853 he visited P^urope, 
Palestine, and Egypt, for his health, writing a 
series of letters to the "Observer" under the sig- 
nature of " Irentpus." He went abroad again in 
18G(5-'7 and in 1876-'7. Dr. Prime was closely 
identified with the Evangelical alliance of Ameri- 
ca, founded in 1866, attending the 5th general 
conference at Amsterdam in 1867, and inviting 
the European alliances to hold the 6th conference 
in New \ (irk city, which invitation was accepted. 
On his return from Europe he was elected a cor- 
responding secretary of the American alliance, 
and he held the office until 28 Jan., 1884. In his 
hands the " Observer " acquired a wide reputa- 
tion. His " Irena^us " articles appeared in it 
weekly until the end of his life. He received the 
degree of D. D. from Hampden Sidney college, Va., 
in 1854. During his career as an editor he found 
time to write more than forty volumes, besides 
pamphlets, addresses, and articles for various peri- 
odicals. In 1854, while his first book of travels was 
passing through the press, he was asked by its pub- 
lishers. Harper Brothers, to contribute to their 
magazine. From this source he received for the 
next twelve years more than $1,000 annually, and 
he was thus enabled to purchase an interest in the 
"Observer" in 1858. Dr. Prime was vice-president 
and director of the American tract society and of 
the American and foreign Christian union, presi- 
dent of the New York Association for the advance- 
ment of science and art, president and trustee of 
Wells college for women, a trustee of Williams 
college, and member of a large number of other 
religious, benevolent, and literary socfieties. Among 
his publications are "The Old White Meeting- 
House" and "Life in New York" (New YorK, 
1845): "Annals of the English Bible" (1849); 
"Thoughts on the Death of Little Children" 
(1852) : "Travels in Europe and the East " (1855); 
"The Power of Prayer" (1858); "THfe Bible in the 
Levant " and " American Wit and Humor " (1859) ; 



PRIME 



PRIN'CK 



138 



"Ijettern from Switzerland" (1860); "Memoirs of 
Rev. Nichoiiis Murray. I). I).." " Kirwan " (18«2) ; 
•' Mfinoirs of Mrs. Joiiiina lJt'thun«'" (IWW); " Kif- 
tot'ii Vi-urs (if I'rayer " and " Walking with (»t»<l " 
<lN7Ji; "The Alhambraand the Kremlin " (IHrJ); 
••.S.iij,'s of the Soul" (1874); "Life of S. F. H. 
Morse, LL. D." (1875); " irenauis Letters" (Ist 
.series, 1H80; 2d series, 1885); and " Prayer and its 
Answer" (1882). Of the " Power of Praver " more 
than 175.()(X) were sold— 100,000 in this country 
and Gi-eat Britain, while two e«litions ap^telirefl in 
France, and one in the TaMiil lan^ua^e in India. 
— Anothtr son. Edward Dorr (triiliii, clerjjyman, 
b. in Cambridge, N. Y., 2 Nov., 1814; d. in New 
York, 7 April. 1891, was graduated at L'nion in 
1832, and at Princeton thinjloifical seminary, and 
was pastor of a Presbyterian church in New York 
city. In April, 185Ji, to allow his brother, Irena'us, 
to go abroad for his health, he took his place as 
editor of the "Observer," with which he had cor- 
resjMiiided for several years under the signature of 
" husebius." He continued his connection with 
that journal until his brother's death in 1885, act- 
ing as associate editor, but siwiit the winter of 
1854-'5 in Rome as chaplain or the American em- 
bassy. On the death of his brother, he became 
editor of the " Observer," but he was compelled by 
illness to resign in 1886. Dr. Prime received the 
degree of I>. D. from Jefferson college, Pa., in 
1857. liesides contributing anonymously to si'V- 
eral volumes, he published " Around the World : 
Travel Through >lanv Lands and Over Many Seas " 
(New York, 1872); "Forty Years in the turkish 
Empire, or Memoirs of Rev. William Goodell, D. D." 
(1876) ; and " Notes, Genealogical, Biographical, and 
Bibliographical, of the Prime Family ' (printed pri- 
vately. New York, 1888). — Another son, William 
C'owper, journalist, b. in Cambridge, N. Y., 31 Oct., 
182."). was graduated at Princeton in 1843, studied 
law, and was admitted to the bar in 1846. He con- 
tinued to practise in the city of New York until 
1861, when he Ijecame an owner and manager of 
the New York " Journal of Commerce," with 
whi(;h he is still connected. He acte<l as its editor- 
in-chief from 1861 till 1869. Mr. Prime visited 
Egypt and the Holy Land in 1855- '6, and again in 
1869-'70. In his leisure hours he has devoted 
himself to the study of the art of Injok illustration, 
and has made a valuable collection of the wood- 
cutsof artists of the 15th and 16th centuries. Fmm 
its establishment he has taken an active interest 
in the New York metropolitan museum of art, and 
since 1874 he hjis been its first vice-president. He 
also induced the trustees of Princeton to establish a 
systematic course of instruction in art history, and 
in 1884 he was chosen as the occupant of that chair. 
The college had previously, in 1875. conferred ujion 
him the degree of LL. I). Besides a series of let- 
ters in the "Journal " begun in 1846 and continued 
to the present time, more than forty years. Dr. 
Prime has published "The Owl-Creek" Letters" 
(New York, 1848) : " The t)ld House by the River" 
(18.-)3); "Later Years" (1854); "Boat Life in 
Egypt an<l Nubia" and "Tent Life in the Holy 
Land" (1857); "Coins, Medals, and Seals. Ancient 
and .Mfxlern" (1861); the hymn "O Mother. Dear. 
Jerusalem." with notes (1865); " I go A-Fishing" 
(1873): "Holy Cross" (1877) ; and "Pottery and 
Porcelain of All Times and Nations" (1878). As 
literary exwutor of Gen. George B. .McClellau, he 
e<lited " McClellan's Own Story " (188<i), and wrote 
a biographical sketch for that volume. 

PRIME. Frederick, geologist, b. in Phila«lel- 
nhia, I'a.. 1 March, 1846. He was graduated at 
Columbia in 1865, and after a year at the School of 



mines, studied for three years at the Royal mining- 
M-luM)! in Fn'ilH-rg. Saxony. On his n'tuni in IWJO 
he U'came assistant in assaying at Columbia school 
of mines, and also assistant on the geological sur- 
vey of Ohio, In 1870 he wjus elected professfjr of 
mi'ning and metallurgy at l^fayeHe. and in 1874 
he Ijecame assistant geologist on the geological 
survey of Pennsylvania, l*oth of which places he 
fille<l until 1879. Meanwhile he has lieen profes- 
sionally consulted very fretiuently by various inm 
and coal companies. Of laU; years he ha-s de- 
voted himself exclusively to pnift'ssional practice, 
and became in 1881 president of the Allentown ir<in 
comjwny. At the World's fair of 1876 he was judge 
of the group (m mining and metallurgy, filling the 
office of secretary to the board. In 1880 Lafay- 
ette conferred on him the degree of Ph. D. Prof. 
l*rime has been active in the management of the 
American institute of mining engineers, and has 
contributed to its transactions. He has also tran.s- 
lated from the German and etlited Von Cotta's 
"Treatise on Ore Defiosits" (New Y'ork, 1870^. 

PRIME, KnfuH, merchant, b. in New York city 
in 1805 ; d. in Huntington. L. I., 15 Oct., 1885. He 
was a son of Nr.thaniel Prime, a descendant of 
Mark Prime, who emigrated from England about 
1640. and joineti the colony that foundt'd the town 
of liowley, Mass. Nathaniel was the head of the 
firm of I'rime, Ward, and King, in its day the chief 
banking-house in New York city. liufus receivtnl 
a classical education, and on its completion en- 
gaged in business. On his father's death in 1843 
he devoted himself entirely to the care of his large 
estate. Mr. Prime was familiar with several lan- 

fuages, and was fond of literarv pursuits. — Hisstm, 
redericli Edward, soldier, b. in Florence. Italy, 
24 Sept., 1829, was graduated at the U. S. milit-ary 
academy in 1850. and employed on fortifications 
in New York, California, and the south. In 1861 
he was taken prisoner at I'ensacola, Fla., while he 
was on his way to Fort Pickens. Having been com- 
missioned captain of engineers, he served during the 
Manassas campaign, and the following six months 
he was successively chief engineer of the deiMirt- 
mentsof Kentucky, the Cumlterland, and the Ohio. 
After being wouniied and taken prisoner while on 
a reconnoissance. he occupied the same post during 
Gen. Grant's Mississippi campaign in 1862- '3. He 
was brevetted major for gallantry at the Imttle of 
C'orinth, and took part in the siege of Vicksburg. 
He was also promotinl major. 1 June. 1863, bre- 
vetted lieutenant-colonel the following month for 
meritorious services before Vicksburg. and colonel 
and brigadier-general. 13 March. 1865, for gallant 
condu'jt throughout the war. The commission of 
brevet brigatlier-geiieral was decline<l. On 5 Sept., 
1871, Maj. Prime was retired through disability 
from wounds that he received " in line of duty." 

PRINCE, Henry, soldier, b. in East port.' Me., 
19 June, 1811. He was graduated at the U. S. 
military academy in 1835. assigntnl to the 4th in- 
fantry, and served in the Seminole war in 18:16-7. 
He became 1st lieutenant. 7 July, 18;J8. assisted in 
removing the Creek Indians to the west, and then 
served on frontier duty, in the Florida war of 
1841-2, and in the war with Mexi<-o, in which he 
n'ceived the brevet of captain for services at Con- 
treras and Chunibusco, and that of major for Mo- 
lino del Rey, where he was severely wounded. On 
26 Sept., 1847, he was made capiaiii. and on 23 
May, 1855, he was a|)|K>inttHl major and served on 
the'pjiy department in the west, participating in 
the Utah campaign in 185H-'9. In the civil war he 
took part in the northern Virginia cam|)aign, was 
made briga«lier-general of volunteers on 28 April, 



124 



PRINCE 



PRINCE 



1862. and received the brevet of lieut«nant-oolonel 
for services at Cedar Mountain, 9 Aiij;.. 18()2. where 
he was captiinvl. After his release in DecenilK-r 
he participated in the North Carolina operations 
from 11 Jan. till 24 June, 18(KJ, coininanded the 
district of Pamlico from 1 May till 24 June, 18(>3, 
pursued the Confederate army in its retreat from 
Maryland, served in the Rapidan campaign from 
Octolwr till I)eceml)er, 18GJJ, pursued Gen. Nathan 
B. Forrest's raiders in Tennessee and Alabama in 
18(54, and conunanded on the coast of South Caro- 
lina from January till May, 1H<>.5. He was bre- 
vetted colonel and brigadier-general, U. S. army, on 
I'S March, 1805. He served on courts-martial in 
Washington, I). C, in 18ft>-'6, and was mustered 
out of volunteer .service on 30 April, 1806. He 
then served as [mymasler in Boston till 1800, as 
chief paymaster of the Department of the Knst till 
1871. and as paymaster ni New York city until 
1875. He was assigned to the Division of the Pa- 
cific on 28 June, 1875, iKX-ame lieutenant-colonel 
on 3 March, 1877, an»l retired on 31 Dec. 1879. 

PRINCE, Jean Charles, Canadian R. C. 
bishop, b. in St. Cregoire, Three liivcrs, Quebec, 
13 Feb., 1804 ; d. in St. Hyacinthe. Qu«-i)ec, 5 May, 
1800. He was educated at Nicolet college, in the 
village of that name, and, while studying the- 
ology, taught in Nicolet college and afterward 
in the seminary at St. Hyacinthe. After his ordi- 
nation as priest in 1820 he was director of the 
Grand senniuiire of St. Jacques, at Montreal, until 
1830, and of the College of St. Ilvacinthe until 
1840. The death of Monsignor Lartigue, first 
bishop of Montreal, having nuide a change in the 
bishopric necessary, he was called by Ignace Bour- 
get, the second bishop, to assist in tlie administra- 
tion of that diocese. Early in 1841 the chapter of 
St. Jacfiues was established, and Abbe Prince was 
installed titulary canon of the cathedral of Mon- 
treal on 21 Jan. The same year he issued the first 
number of '"Melanges reiigieux." a periodical 
which at first only published tl\e sermons of Mon- 
signor de Forbin .Janson, but subsequently com- 
prised general religious intelligence. It was issued 
until 1852. when its ollices and material were 
destroyeil l)y fire. At this period the city of 
Kingston was without any religious institution 
connected with the Roman Catholic church. 
Bishop Gaulin, having no assistants save a few 
l>riests who were overburdenetl with work, asked 
the bishop of Montreal to send him several Sisters 
of Charitv and a priest competent to take charge of 
them. M. Prince accordingly went to Kingston, 
established the Convent of the Sisters of the Congre- 
gation for the education of young girls, and pre- 
pared the way for the organization of the "Soeurs 
de I'Hotel-Dieu " for the care of the sick poor. On 
returning to Montreal he assisted in founding Provi- 
dence House, and became its first director. He was 
also connected with the Convent of the Good Pastor 
and other institutions. He was appointed Viy Greg- 
ory XIV, coadjutor to the bishop of Montreal and 
bishop of Martyropolis, 5 July, 1844. The see of 
Montreal was at that time very large. Many new 
enterprises were calling for assistance, and bishop 
and coadjutor found all their energies taxed to 
the utmost. In 1851 Bishop Prince visited Rome 
on an ecclesiastical mission, and while he was there 
Pius IX., at the request of the delegates to the 
first council of Quebec, transferreti him to the see 
of St. Hyacinthe, 8 June, 1852. He was the first 
bishop of that diocese. The old college that he 
had purchaseti and transformed into a cathedral 
and episcopal palace was burned, 17 Mav, 1854, 
but he undertook the immediate construction of a 



cathedral chapel, besides laying the foundations of 
a more elaln^rate ecclesiastical edifice, which has 
since l)een comnleted. During his residence at St. 
Hyacinthe, Bishop Prince organized twenty par- 
ishes, established several missions, and ordamed 
thirtv-one priests. 

PftlNCE, John, clergyman, b. in Boston, 
Ma.ss., 11 July, 1751 ; d. in Salem, Mass., 7 June, 
1830. He was the son of a mechanic, and wa.s ap- 
prenticed to a tinman, but prepared himself for 
college, and was graduated at Harvard in 1770, 
after which he studied theology, and from 1779 
till 1836 was pastor of the 1st Unitarian church in 
Salem, Mass. He was a friend of Count Rumford, 
joined in many of the latter's inventions and ex- 
periments, and constructed an improved air-pump, 
which gave him a wide reputation. Brown gave 
him the degree of LL. D. in 1795. He nublished 
several sermons. A " Memoir " by Rev. Charles W. 
Upham, who liecame his associate in 1824, is print- 
ed in the Massa<-hu setts historical collections. 

PRINCE, Oliver Hillhouse, senator, b. in 
Connecticut about 1787; d. at sea, 9 Oct., 1837. 
He removed to Georgia in early years, studied law, 
was admitted to the bar in 1806, and began to 
practise in Macon, of which he was a settler, and 
one of the five commissioners that laid out the 
town. He was elected a U. S. senator in place of 
Thomas W. CobV), serving from 1 Dec, 1828, till 3 
March, 1829. Mr. Prince was the author of many 
humorous sketches, one of which, giving an ac- 
count of a Georgia militia muster, was translated 
into several languages. He also published " Di- 
gest of the Laws of Georgia to December, 1820 " 
(Milledgeville, 1822; 2d etl., Athens, 1837). He 
perished in the wreck of the steamer " Home " on 
the coast of North Carolina. 

PRINCE, Thomas, clergyman, b. in Sandwich, 
Mass., 15 May, 1687; d. in feoston, Mass., 22 Oct., 
1758. He was the grandson of John Prince, of Hull, 
England, who emigrated to this country in 1033. 
After graduation at 
Harvard in 1707, he 
visited the West In- 
dies and the island 
of Madeira, went to 
England in 1709, and 
preached in ('oombs, 
Suflfolk, and else- 
where. In 1717 he 
returned to Boston, 
and on 1 Oct., 1718, 
was ordained col- 
league of his class- 
mate. Dr. Josenh 
Sewall, pastor of tne 
Old South church in 
Boston, where he 
continued until his 
death, and became 

eminent as a preacher, linguist, and scholar. He 
began, in 1703, and continued through his life, to 
collect manuscript documents relating to the his- 
tory of New England, which he left to the care of 
the Old South church. They were deposited in the 
tower, which also contained a valuable library of 
the writings of the early New England divines that 
had been gathered by Mr. Prince, These were part- 
ly destroyed by the British in 1775-"0, and much 
important matter relating to the history of New 
England was thus lost. The remainder of the man- 
uscripts, with his books, which are of value, form 
part of the Boston piiblic library, and of these a 
catalogue was published by William il. Whitmore 
(Boston, 1808), and a later one with his portrait 




f ('v uyt e t 



PRINCE 



PRINGLE 



126 



(1870). He nublishcHl twenty-nine single sermons 
lietwcen 1717 and 1756; "An At-eountof the First 
Auroni llorealis" (1717); "Account of the Kng- 
lish Ministers at Martha's Vineyard," aofH'nded 
to KxiHTienc-e Mayhew's " Indian Converts ' (1727) : 
"A S-nnon on the Death of Cotton M«ther" 
(173M); "Memoirs "of Koeer Clap, of Dorchester 
(1731); an e«iitionof John ^lason's " History of the 
Pequot War," with intrutluttion and notes (1780); 
" A Thanlvsjjivinp Sermon iK-cjisioiied by the Caj)- 
ture of liOiushurj;" (174.")) ; " Karthcjiiakes yf New 
Knp:laud." with an ap|H»ndix on Franklin's discov- 
eries in eh'c-tricity (1755); and "The New Kngiand 
Psalm- B(X)k, Revised and Improve«l " (1758). Sev- 
eral of his sermons are contained in the publica- 
tions of the Massacliusetts historical society, and 
six of his nianuscrii)t discourses were published 
after his death by Dr. John Krskine (Kdinbur^ih, 
1785). He also left a diary and other manuscrii)ts. 
Mr. Prince began a work entitle<l "The Chrono- 
logical History of Kngiand" in the form of an- 
nals, the first volume of which was published in 
1736, and two numliers of the second in 1755. It 
is publishetl in the collections of the Massachusetts 
historical society, and was edited by Xathan Hale, 
who published it in book-form (Boston, 1826). 
Dr. Charles Chauncy said that Mr. Prince was 
"the most learned scholar, with the exception of 
Cotton Mather, in New England." The Prince 
society, a printing association, was established in 
Boston in 1858. — His brother. Nathan, scholar, 
b. in Sjindwich, Mass., 30 Nov., 1698; d. in the 
island of Ruatan. Honduras, 25 July, 1748, was 
graduate<l at Harvard in 1718, where lie was tutor 
from 1723 till 1742, and of which he became a 
fellow in 1727. Subsequently he took orders in the 
Church of England, and was sent as a missionary 
to the Mosijuito Indians in Central America. He 
published an " Essay to solve the DiflRculties at- 
tending the Several Accounts given of the Resur- 
rection " (Boston, 1734), and an "Account of the 
Constitution and Government of Harvard Col- 
lege from 1636 to 1742" (1742).— Thomas's son, 
Tiioiuas, editor, b. in Boston, Mass., 27 Feb., 
1722; d. there 30 Sept., 1748, was graduated at 
Harvard in 1740. He edite<i the earliest American 
periodical, which was entitled "Christian History," 
and contained accounts of the revival and propa- 

f Ration of religion in Great Britain and America 
or 1743 (2 vols., 1744-'6). 

PRINCE. William, horticulturist, b. in Flush- 
ing, L. I., 10 Nov., 1766; d. there, 9 April, 1842. 
In 1793 he bought eighty acres of land and extend- 
ed the nurseries of his father in Flushing. He 
brought many varieties of fruits into the United 
States, sent many trees and plants from this coun- 
try to Eurone, and systematized the nomenclature 
of the best-Known fruits, such as the Bartlettr pear 
and the Isabella grape. The London horticultural 
societv named for him the "William Prince "ap- 
ple, lie was a memter of the horticultural so- 
cieties of London and Paris, of the Imperial socie- 
ty of Georgofili of Florence, and of the principal 
American societies, and the meeting of horticultu- 
rists in 182:1, at which De Witt Clinton delivered 
an address, was held at his residence. He pub- 
lishetl " A Treatise on Horticulture," the first com- 
pri'hensive liook that was written in the United 
States uiKjn this subject (New York, 1828).— His 
son, William Robert, horticulturist, b. in Flush- 
ing, L. I., 6 Nov., 1795; d. there. 28 March, 1869, 
was educated at Jamaica academy, L. I., and at 
Boucherville. Canada. He imjxjrteil the first me- 
rino sheep into this country in 1816, continued 
the " Linna'an nureeries " of bis father, and was 



the first to introduce silk-culture and the mortu 
multicaulis for silk-worms in 18517, but hwt a large 
fortune by this enlorprise, owing to the change in 
the tariff, which destroyetl this industr>- for several 
years. In 1849 he went to California, was a found- 
er of Sacramento, and in 1851 travelled through 
Mexico. He intro<luced the culture of osiers and 
sorghum in 1854-'5, and the Chinese yam in 1854. 
With his father, he wrote a " History of the Vine" 
(New York, 18:{0) ; and, in addition to numerous 
pamphlets on the mullierry, the stniwl»erry diosco- 
rea. medical botany, etc., he publishetl a " Pomo- 
logical Manual "(2 "vols., 1832): " Manual of Roses" 
(184<)); and about two hundred descriptive cata- 
logues of trees, shrubs, vines, plants, bulbs, etc. 
—William Rolwrt's son, I^ Baron Bradford, au- 
thor, b. in Flushing, L. I.. 3 July, 1840, is (K's<-end- 
ed through his maternal ancestors from William 
Bradford, of the " Mayflower." He was ethicated 
in Flushing, and was gniduated at Columbia law- 
school in 1866. In 1871-'5 he was a member of 
the assembly for Queens county, and in 1872 was 
chairman of the judiciary committee which in- 
vestigated the corrupt judiciary of New York city. 
He was a member of the National Republican con- 
ventions of 1868 and 1876. In 1876-'7 he was a 
memlier of the state senate. From 1879 1 ill 1882 he 
was chief justice of New Mexico, and in 1880-'2 he 
was president of the bureau of immigration of that 
territory. He was a memljcr of the Protestant Ej)is- 
copal general conventions iK'tween 1877 and 1886, 
and since 1877 has Ijcen a trustee of the Long 
Island cathedral. Since 1880 he has lx?en chancel- 
lor of the jurisdiction of New Mexico and Arizo- 
na. He is the author of "Agricultural History of 
Queens County" (New York, 1861); "E Plurlbus 
L num, or American Nationality" (1868); "A Na- 
tion, or a League " (Chicago. 1880); "General I^aws 
of New Mexico" (Albany. 1881); "History of New 
Mexico" (New York, 1883); and "The American 
Church and its Name " (New York. 1887). 

PRIN(», Daniel, British naval officer, b. in 
England in 1780; d. in Port Royal, Jamaica, 29 
Nov., 1847. He entered the navy at an early age, 
and was midshipman on the Jamaica station. He 
became lieutenant in 1807, at the l>eginning of 
the war of 1812 was in command of the Halifax 
station, and was subsequently assigned by Sir 
George Prevost to the charge of the provincial 
navy on the lakes. He was promoted commander 
in 1813, and while in charge of the " Linnet," a 
brig of sixteen guns and 100 men. in the s<|uad- 
ron of Com. George Downie on Lake Champlain, 
participate*! in the battle of Plattsburg Bay. Dur- 
ing a greater part of the fight the "Linnet" en- 
gaged the " Eagle," an American brig of twenty 
guns and 150 men, and forced her out of the line, 
but was subsequently compelled to strike her own 
colors. He was promoted j)ost-captain in 1815 
for bravery in that affair, and the next year was 
in command on Lake P>ie. He became commo- 
dore in January. 1846. 

PRIN(iLE. 'Benjamin, jurist, b. in Richfield, 
N. Y., 9 Nov.. 1807. He received a go<xl etlucation 
and studied law, but gave up practice to become 
president of a bank at Batavia. N. Y. He was 
judge of Genesee county court,s for one year, served 
two terms in congress in 185:i-'7, having been 
elected as a Whig, and in 1863 was in the legisla- 
ture. Subsequently he was ap|>ointe<l by Presi- 
dent Lincoln a judge of the court of arbitration at 
Cape Town under the treaty of 18<52 with Great 
Britain for the suppression of the slave-trade. 

PRINdiLE, John Julins, lawyer, b. in Charles- 
ton, S. C, 22 July, 1753; d. there, 17 Mardi, 



126 



PRINTZ 



PROCTOR 



1843. His father, Robert (1702-'76), came from 
Sootlaiul to South Carolina about 1 730, l>ec-ame a 
merchant in Charleston, and in 1760-'9 was a jus- 
tice of the court of common pleas. The s<m was 
graduated at the College of Philadelithia in 1771, 
and read law with John Kutledge ancl in Kngland, 
where his published articles in defence of colonial 
rights attracte<l attention. At the beginning of 
the American Revolution he went to France, and 
in 1778 he liec^me secretary to Ralph Izard, U. S. 
commissioner in Tuscany. Returning home by 
way of Holland and the West Indies, he was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1781, and attained high rank 
in his profession. In 1787-'9 he wa.s sj)eakerof the 
state assembly, and in the latter year ne served for 
a short time as U. S. district attorney, by special 
remiest of Gen. Washington. In 1800 Thomas 
Jcilerson, then secretary of state, appointed him 
to rep<irt on any infractions of the treaty with 
(ireat Britain that might occur in his state, and 
from 1792 till 1808 he served jis attorney-general 
of South Caroliiui. In 1805 President Jefferson 
tendered him the attorney -generalship of the 
United States, but family reasons induced him to 
de<'line. Mr. Pringle wius for four years president 
of the trustees of the College of Charleston. 

PRINTZ, Johaii, colonial governor, b. in 
Bottneryd, Sweden, alx)ut 1000; d. in 1663. He 
was the third governor of the Swedish colony on 
Delaware river that hatl been projected by Gus- 
tavus Adolphus and established by his daughter, 
Christina, in 1638. (See Minuit, Peter.) Print/ 
had Ikcu a lieutenant-colonel of artillery in the 
Swedish army in Germany, and was deprived of 
his rank for surrendering the Saxon town of 
Chemnitz, but was afterward restored to favor. 
He was governor from 1641 to 1654. During these 
thirteen years he maintained, with little assistance 
from home, the supremacy of the Swedish crown on 
the Delaware against the Dutch, against the New 
Haven emigrants under Lamberton, and against 
the followers of Sir Edmund Plowden, the so-called 
lord of New Albion. He established forts at New 
Castle, at Wilmington, at Tinicum (a short dis- 
tance above the present town of Chester, where he 
resided), at the mouth of the Schuylkill, and on 
the eastern shore of the Delaware. He thus se- 
cured a monopoly of trade with the Indians that 
inhabited both sides of the bay and river as far 
north as Trenton. During his tenure of office 
seven expeditions, containing more than 300 emi- 
grants, sailed from Sweden. They were excellent 
farmers, devoted to the Lutheran church, and 
extremely just in their dealings with the Indians, 
whom they prepared, by their kind treatment, to 
receive William Penn and his followers in a friend- 
ly manner. In 1654 Printz, dissatisfied with the 
condition and prospects of the colony, returned. 
In the next year the Dutch captured Fort Chris- 
tina, and the Swedish domination was soon at an 
end. Little is known of Printz after his return to 
Sweden, but it is recorded that he was made a gen- 
eral and l)ecame governor of JonkOping in 1658. — 
His daughter, Ariiia^ot, accompanied her father 
to this countrv, and in 1644 married Lieut. John 
Pap{>egoya, who was in temporary charge of the 
province after Printz's departure till the arrival of 
the new governor. Pappegoya returned to Sweden 
in 1654, but his wife remained in the province, 
where she lived secluded in the mansion built by 
her father on Tinicum island. The royal govern- 
ment made large grants of land to father and 
daughter, but none of their descendants became 
inhabitants of the colony. See "Songs of New 
Sweden," by Arthur Peterson (Philadelphia, 1887). 



PRIOLEAIT, Sainnel, jurist, b. in Charleston, 
S. C, 4 Sept., 1784 ; d. in Pendleton. S. C, 10 Aug., 
1840. His ancestors, who were French Huguenots, 
emigrated to this country immediately after the 
revcK-ation of the e<lict of Nantes. Samuel was 
educated at the University of Pennsylvania, but 
was not graduated, was admitted to the bar of 
Charlest(m in 1808, and established a reputation as 
a lawyer. He was a member of the legislature for 
many years, chairman of the judiciary committee 
for several terms, and was active in 1820 in the 
preparation of the acts to "revise and amend the 
judiciary system of the state." The next year he 
made a report in favor of the constitutionality of 
internal improvements by the United States. He 
became intendant of Charleston in 1824, and re- 
corder in 1825, and held office until 1886. He 
aided in establishing the Medical college of South 
Carolina, was one of its trustees, and was an or- 
ganizer of the Charleston literarv club. 

PRIVAT D'ANGLEMOXT, Alexandre, West 
Indian author, b. in St. Rose, Guadelou|)e, in 1815; 
d. in Paris, France, 18 July, 1859. He was a mu- 
latto, and, after receiving his early education in 
Basse Terre, went to Paris to study medicine, but 
abandoned it for literature. In 1846 he published 
a volume on the Prado palace, which showed wit, 
elegance, and simplicity. Soon afterward he made 
a voyage to Guadeloupe, and, in a sojourn of three 
days, settled all his interests there, and, carrying 
his small fortune in a bag, returned to Paris, where 
he became a contributor to magazines. It was his 
custom to wander at night through the streets, 
studying the habits of the poorest classes, and he 
discovered some extraordinary trades, such as those 
of killer of cats and dealer in the tongues of 
rats and mice, which he revealed to the world in 
a volume that caused a great sensation, "Paris 
Anecdote" (Paris, 1854). After his death from 
consumption, Alfred Delvau collected his articles 
and published them under the title "Paris in- 
connu " (1861). 

PROCTOR, Edna Dean, poet, b. in Henniker, 
N. II., 10 Oct., 1838. She received her early edu- 
cation in Concord, N. II., and subsequently removed 
to Brooklyn, N. Y., where she has since resided. 
She has travelled extensively abroad, and con- 
tributed largely to magazine literature. She has 
edited " Extracts from Henry Ward Beecher's 
Sermons" (New York, 1858), and has published 
" Poems " (Boston, 1866) and " A Russian Journey " 
(1872), and is now (1888) compiling a genealogy of 
the Storrs family. Her best-known poems aTe 
" Heroes " and " Bv the Shenandoah." 

PROCTOR, Henry A., British soldier, b. in 
Wales in 1787; d. in Liverpool, England, in 1859. 
At the beginning of the war between Great Britain 
and the United States he came to Canada as colo- 
nel of the 42d regiment. He was despatched by 
Gen. Sir Isaac Brock to Amherstburg to prevent 
the landing of Gen. William Hull, whom he drove 
back, and subsequently gained the victory of 
Brownston, which exploits contributed much to 
the fall of Detroit am} the capitulation of Hull. 
He opened the campaign of 1813 by defeating Gen. 
James Winchester near Frenchtown, on River 
Raisin, for which service he was promoted a briga- 
dier-general. He was repelled from Fort Meigs oy 
Gen. William Henry Harrison (q. v.) in May, 1813, 
from Fort Stephenson (Lower Sandusky, Ohio), by 
Maj. Croghan on 2 Aug., and was defeated bv Har- 
rison at the battle of the Thames, 5 Oct., 1813. He 
was tried and sentenced to be suspended from rank 
and pay for sis months. He was reinstated, and 
rose to the rank of lieutenant-generaL 



PROCTOR 



PROCTOR 



127 



PROCTOR. I.iiolon Brock, mithor, b. in Hario- 
viT. N. II., a Marcli, 1H20. Ht> wils j;ru(luBttHl ut 
Hamilton ('oll(>>;u in \H44, twlniitted to the Imr in 
1847, unci, aflt-r prm-tisinji for two years at Port 
Byn)n, N. Y., n'inov«Hl to Dansville. Amid his nr<»- 
fciuional duties he oontiniieil his classic-Ml stuuieis, 
and contribute*! artieles to nia^'tizines. In 1H0}> he 
bocume a retfular contributftr to the AlUiny " Law 
Journal." Alxiut 1H(K{ he abandoned his profes- 
sion and devoted liis time entirely to leeal litera- 
ture. In 1H84 he removed to Albany, N. V. His 
works ineludo " The Hench and IJar of th6 State 
of New York "(2 vols.. New York, 1870); "Lives 
of the New York Stale Chancellors" (1875); "The 
Life an<l Times of Thomas Addis Knimet " (1S7«) ; 
" Lawyer and Client, or the Trials and Triumphs 
of the liar" (1H7S»); "The Ik'uch and Harof Kitip* 
C(mntv, includinfj the Le^al History of Brooklyn" 
(188^i); "The Lepil History of AUJany and Sohc- 
necta<ly Counties" (1884); " Karly History of the 
Board of Regents and University of the .State of 
New York" (1880); a revised and annotated edi- 
tion of Jabez I). Hammond's " Political History 
of the State of New York," continued from 1844 to 
the close of the legislative session of 1887 (1887) ; 
and addressees, including " Aaron Burr's Political 
Career Defended" (188,5), and " Review of John C. 
Spt'tuer's Lepil and Political Career" (188(5). 

PROCTOR. Redfield, cabinet officer, b. in 
Proctorvillt', V't., 1 June, 1831. The town was 
founded by his grandfather. He was gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth in 18.51, and at Albany law^- 
school in 18.59. For two years he nractised law 
in Bost<m. In June, 1861, he entereu the army as 
lieutenant in the 3d Vermont volunteers ; in Octo- 
ber ho was made major of the 5th Vermont regi- 
ment, and in 1802 became colonel of the 15th. 
After leaving the army in 18(J3, he again practised 
law in Rutland, Vt. ; in 1807 and ISfe was a mem- 
ber of the legislature ; in 1809 he was appointed 
manager of the Sutherland Falls marble company. 
In 1880 this company was united with another, 
under the title of the Vermont marble company, 
and Mr. Proctor became its president. In the in- 
terval he had been state senator, and in 1870 became 
lieutenant-governor; and in 1878 he was elected 
governor. In 1884 he was a delegate to the national 
Republican convention, and in 1888 he was chair- 
man of the Vermont delegation to the Chicago 
convention, and cast the votes of his state for Gerv 
Harrison for presiilent. Later the legislature of 
Vermont, by unanimous vote, recommended Gov. 
Prix?tor for a place in the cabinet, and on 5 March, 
1889. the president appointe<l him secretary of war. 

PROCTOR, Richard Anthony, astronomer, b. 
in Chelsea, England, 23 March, 18ii7 ; d. in New 
York city, 12 Sept., 1888. He entered King's col- 
lege, London, in 18.55. and a year later went to 
Cambridge, where in 1800 he received his bachelor's 
degree. A fondness for mathematics led to his 
studying astronomy, on which subject he became 
the most fertile tHjpular writer of his time. His 
original work ineluuwl numenms rasearches on the 
stellar system, the law of distribution of stars, their 
motions, the relations l)etween the stars and the 
nebula*, and the general constitution of the heav- 
ens. In 1809 ho a<lvance«I,on theoretical grounds, 
a thcorv of the sf)lar con)na that has since been 
generally jiccepted, and also that of the inner com- 

Clex solar atmosphere that was afterward advanced 
y Prof. Charles A. Young. He was active in the 
transit-of- Venus expe<litions of 1874 and 1882, and 
became involved in a dispute with the astronomer 
royal of England as to the best methfMls of observa- 
tion. In 1873-'4 and in 1875-'6 he lectured in the 



Erincipal cities of the Unitetl .States, and in 1879 
e left Kngland for Australasia, and liH-ture*! in all 
of the larger towns of Victoria. New South Wales. 
S<iuth Australia, Tasmania, and New Z<'aland. He 
visiti*d the Unite«I .States again in 1884, and. after 
U'cturing in the lemling cities, sett le<l in St. Joseph. 
Mo. In 18(M» he was eltH-te<l a fellow of the Royal 
astronomical s<K-i('ty. and in 1873 he was appointed 
an honorary fellow of King's college, Loiidtm. He 
was honorary secri'tary of the Royal astronomical 
society and eilitor of its j)r(K'eedings in 18?2-'3. 
Mr. PnK'torestabli.she«l " Knowletlge" as a weekly 
journal in 1881, but changed it to a monthly in 
188.5. His literary work l>egan in 1863, when he 
publishe<l in the"Conihill Magazine" an article 
on " Double Stars." Among his numerous tiooks 
are "Saturn and its System" (Ixjndon, 18<W); 
"(jrnomonic Star Atlas "(1806); " Half- Hours with 
the Telescot)e " (1808) ; "Half-Hours with Stars" 
(1809); "Other Worlds than Ours "(1870); "Light 
Science for Leisure Hours" (3 series, 1871, 1873, 
and 188J3); "Klementar)- Astronomy"(1871); " Bor- 
der Land of Science " (1873); "Transits of Venus 
— Past, Present. and Future " and "The Kx|>anse 
of Heaven" (1874); and "Myths and Marvels of 
Astronomy" (1877). He editeil "The Knowledge 
Library," consisting of a series of works made up 
of pa|)ers that apiK'ared in his journal, among 
which were several of his own. notablv " How to 
Play Whist " and " Home Whist " (188.5). After be- 
coming an American citizen he published "Chance 
and Luck " (New York, 1887) ; " F'irst Steps in Ge- 
ometry " (1887) ; " P^asy Lesstms in Differential Cal- 
culus" (1887); and "Old and New Astronomy," 
which at the time of his death was lieing issued. 

PROCTOR, Thoma.H, soldier, b. in Ireland in 
1739; d. in Philmlelphia, Pa, 16 March, 180<;. He 
emigrated to Philadelphia with his father, Francis 
Proctor, and was by trade a carpenter. On 27 Oct., 
1775, he applied t<i the committee of safety to be 
commissioned captain of an artillery company to 
be raised for garrisoning Fort island, and was im- 
mediately commissioneil with authority to raise 
his company. In August, 1770, his command was 
raised to a battalion, and he was appointed major. 
The regiment was under Wayne at Brandywine, 
and engage<l in the artillery duel with Kiiyphausen 
at Chadd's Ford. Proctor's horse was shot under 
him, and he lost his guns and caissons when Sulli- 
van was routed. One of his guns, un<ler Lieut. Bar- 
ker, was brought up to batter the Chew house at 
Germantown. In September, 1778, his regiment 
became a part of the Continental army, aiul he re- 
ceived his commission as colonel of artillery, 18 
May, 1779, and inarched to Wyoming. His bat- 
teries did good service at the laattle of Newtown, 
He was in Wavne's Bergen Neck exj>edition, and 
was satirized t»y Andre in the " Cow Chase." He 
resigned in 1781 on account of differences with 
Joseph Reed, president of the Pennsylvania coun- 
cil, and in 178:3 was chosen high sheriff of Phila- 
delphia, which office he held three years. In 1790 
he was made city lieutenant, in 1791 a commis- 
sioner to treat with the Miami Indians. In 1793 
he became brigadier-general of the Pennsylvania 
troops, and marched against the Whiskey insur- 
gents at the head of the first bripide. After this 
he U'came major-general of the Philadelphia 
militia, and when war was threatened with France 
he assure<l Gov. Miffiin of his cordial sup|K>rt in 
the event of hostilities. He was one of the found- 
ers of the St. Tammany society in Phila«lelphia. of 
which he was a sjichem. A part of (^il. Pnx-tor's 
regiment of artillery has maintained its organiza- 
tion to the present time as the 2d U. S. artillery. 



128 



PROUD 



PROVOOST 



PROrD, Robert, historian, b. in Yorkshire, 
Enjrlan.l. 10 May. 1728: <1. in Philadelphia, Pa., 7 
July. IHl.'}. He emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1759, 
and taught Latin and Greek in a Friends* acjideiny 
in Philadelphia until the Itevolution. Charles 
KriH'kden Hn>wn was one of his pupils. He was 
firm in his attachment to the crown, and believed 
that the Revolution would cause the decline of 
virtue and prosperity in this country. " Dominie " 
Proud was a famUiar figure for rnany years in his 
adopted city. He was tall, with a Roman nose, 
and " most impending brows." and in his curle<l wig 
and cocked hat is described as the " perfect model of 
a gentleman." His " History of Pennsylvania," 
which is full of valuable information, although de- 
ficient in well-sustained narrative, wjis his pecun- 
iarv ruin (Philadelphia, 17v)7-'8). 

PROUDFIT, Alexander Moiicrlef, elerp- 
man. b. in Petpiea. Pa., 10 Nov., 1770; d. in Xew 
Brunswick, N. J.. 23 Nov., \H4'-i. lie was gradu- 
ated at Columbia in 1792, studied theology under 
Dr. John H. Livingston, and was p!U>tor of the 
Associate Reformed church in Salem. N. Y., from 
1794 till 1WJ5. He lx»came secretary of the New 
York colonizjvtion society in the latter vear. and 
held office till his resigiuition in 1841. \Villiams 
gave him the degree of D. I), in 1812. For a short 
time during his pastorate he was professor of pas.- 
toral theology in the Associate Reformed seminary 
in Newburg, N. Y. He published numerous ser- 
mons and mldresses, including "The One Thing 
Needful " (New York, 1804) ; " Ruin and Recovery 
of Man" (180(5): "Theological Works" (4 vols., 
1815); and a work on the " Parables" (1820). See 
a memoir of him by l{ev. John Forsyth (New York, 
1844). — His son, John >VilIiams, clcrgvman, b. in 
Salem. N. Y., 22 Sept., 180:3; d. in New lirunswick, 
N. J., 9 ^lurch. 1870, was graduated at Union in 
182;J and at Princeton theological seminary in 1824, 
and wa,s pastor of the Reformed church in New- 
buryport in 1827-'33. At the latter date he became 
professor of Latin in the L^niversity of New York, 
and in 1840-'G4 he occupied the chair of Greek in 
Rutgers. Union college gave him the degree of 
D. D. in 1841. Dr. Proudfit wrote much for eccle- 
siastical literature, and edited the "New Bruns- 
wick Review." He published several sermons, and 
" Man's Twofold Life" (1862), and edited " A Com- 
edv of Plautus, with English Notes" (1843). 

tROLDFIT, David Law, author, b. in New- 
burg, N. Y., 27 Oct., 1842. He was educated in 
the common schools, and at fifteen years of age 
went to New York city to engage in business. In 
1862 he enlisted as a private in the 1st New York 
mounted rifles. In tne following year he was ap- 
pointed a 2d lieutenant in the 22d U. S. colored 
troops. His regiment accompanied (ien. Butler in 
his advance up James river, and took part in vari- 
ous engagements, and at the close of the war he 
had attained the rank of major. Later he engaged 
in business, and a few yeiirs ago he became inter- 
esttnl in pneumatic tubes, and he is now (1888) 
president of the Meteor despatch company of New 
York. His poems have be«n extensively used in 
public recitations. He has published in book-form 
" Love among the Gamins," poems (New York, 1877) 
and " Mask and Domino" (1888). 

PROVANCHER, Leon, Canadian author, b. in 
Becancour, Quebec, 10 March, 1820. He wjis grad- 
uated at the Nicolet seminary, ordained priest in 
1844 in the Roman Catholic church, and neld sev- 
eral p.istorat«s. Owing to feeble health he withdrew 
from the ministry in 1869 and engaged in literary 
work and the stuiiy of natural history, and has de- 
scribed more than two hundred new species of in- 



sects, particularly the Hymenoptera. He founded 
" Ijc naturaliste Cana<Uen " in 18(58, and received 
the degree of D. Sc. in IHHO. Dr. Provancher is the 
author of " Traite clementaire de lx)tanique "(Que- 
bec, 1858) ; " Flore Canadienne " (1862); " Le ver- 
ger Canadien" (1865); " De Quebec? k Jenisalera " 
(1882); "Petite histoire du Canada" (1887), and 
other works on botany and natural history. He 
now (1888) has in preparation " Les hemipteres." 

PROVENCHER, Jean Norbert, Canadian 
R. C. bishop, b. in Nicolet, Quebec, 12 Feb., 1787; 
d. in St. Boniface. Manitoba, 7 June, 1853. He was 
ordained in 1811, and in 1818. at the suggestion of 
the Earl of Selkirk, was sent to take charge of the 
Roman Catholic settlers on Red river, with the 
title of grand vicar. He resided at La Fourche 
(now St. Boniface), Manitoba. The Canadians, 
who formed the settlement, had married Indian 
women, and hjid lost almost all sense of religion, 
but he was well received, and in a short time suc- 
ceeded in reviving the Roman Catholic faith. He 
also labored among the wild Indians, and estab- 
lished missions in the interior. In 1822 he was 
nominated vicar apostolic of the northwest and 
auxiliary to the bishop of Quebec, and he was con- 
secrated under the title of bishop of Juliopolis in 
parfibus. He returned from Quebec with a few 
priests, but he did not find them sufficient for the 
needs of the population that was scattered over his 
immense vicariate. He afterward obtained the aid 
of the (Jblate fathers, whom he stationed among 
the Indian tribes, and established schools under 
the direction of the Grey Sisters, The results of his 
administration extended to the Pacific ocean, and 

Fctitions came in 1835 from the Canadians and 
ndians of Oregon, asking for missionaries. He 
could not spare any from his vicariate, but he an- 
swered them that he would go to Europe to procure 
aid. He obtained there considerable sums from 
the Society for the propagation of the faith, and, 
after his return to Canada, was able to send two 
missionaries to Columbia river in 1838. In 1848 
the Red river was erected into a bishopric, and 
Bishop Provencher took the title of l)ishop of St. 
Boniface. He founded the College of St. Boniface 
in 1818, and also a convent. 

PROVOOST, Samuel, first P. E. bishop of New 
York, b. in New York city, 24 Feb., 1742; d. 
there, 6 Sept., 1815. The Provoosts were of Hugue- 
not origin and settled in the New World in 1638. 
John, fourth in 
descent from Da^ 
vid Provoost, the 
first settler and 
father of the fu- 
ture bishop, was 
a wealthy New 
York merchant, 
and for many 
years one of 
the governors of 
King's college. 
PI is wife. Eve, was 
a daughter of 
Hermann Bleeck- 
er. Samuel, their 
eldest son, was 
one of the sev- 
en graduates of 
King's (now Co- 
lumbia) college at 

its first commencement in 1758, winning the honors, 
although the youngest but one of his class. In the 
summer of 1761 he sailed for England, and in the 
same year entered St. Peter's college, Cambridge, 




Q^UlU S^tn/trt^ 



\ 



PROVOOST 

•enjoyinjj wliilo lhon> iIm* H(IvHnln(;p of a tutor in 
the (M'rsoii of Dr. John .k*hh, a nmn of pntfound 
Uvirninf; arul h zpuIous ailvocato of civil nnil relijf- 
ious iilnTtv, with whom ho oorn^s[>on<le<l till the 
ilcxtor's death in 17««, In March. 17(M5, Mr. I'ro- 
V(H>»t. haviri)? j>rt>viously tntMi admitted to the onler 
of dem-on l)y the bishop of London, was ordaine«l 
at Kinj;'scha|H'l,Whitehali.hy the hishop of Chester. 
In June of the sa>ne year he marri«'d Maria, daugh- 
ter of Thomas lioustield.a rich Irish Imnker, resid- 
ing «>n liis estate near Cork, and sister of )iis favor- 
ite classmate, afterward a memlK»r of parliament. 
The vouni; clerfjvman, with his accom|)lished wife, 
fiaiie*! in Septemlier for New York, an<l in Decem- 
ber he IxH'ame an assistant minister of Trinity par- 
ish, which t lien embraced St. Georjje's and St. Paul's, 
the Rev. Samuel Auchmuty rector, the Rev. John 
Ogilvie and the l{t»v. Charles Inglis assistant min- 
isters. During the summer of 17(J0 Mr. and Mrs. 
Provoost visiteil Mrs. Ik)usfleld and her son in Ire- 
land, and spent several months in England and on 
the continent. 

Karlv in 1774 Provoost severed his connection 
with 'frinity, the reason a.ssigned being that his 
patriotic views of the then approaching contest 
with the mother-country were not in accord with 
those of a majority of the parish, and removed to a 
small estate in Dutchess (now Columbia) county, 
where he occupied him.self with literary pursuits 
and in the cultivation of his farm and garden. He 
was an ardent disciple of the Swedish Linnapus. 
and he possessed, for that period, a large and 
valuable library. (See book-plate on page 130.) 
Provoost was perhaps the earliest of American 
bibliophiles. W hile far away from " the clangor of 
resounding arms," he occa.sionally filled the pulpits 
of churches then existing at Albany, Catskill, Hud- 
son, and Poughkeepsie. He was proposed as a 
delegate to the Provincial congress, but ueclined, as 
also an invitation to become chaplain of the con- 
vention which met in 1777 and framed the present 
■constitution of the state of New York. After the 
British burned E-sopus, on the Hud.son, he ioined 
his friends the Livingstons, and other neighlxjrs. 
in their pursuit. Mr. Provoost was profiFered the 
rectorship of St. Michael's church, Charleston, 
S. C. in 1777, and five years later that of King's 
chai>el, Boston, where his patriotic principles and 
pnictice were strong recommendations ; but he de- 
clined both calls. When the colonics had gained 
their independence and New York was evacuated 
by the British, he was unanimously elected rector 
oi Trinity church, 13 Jan., 1784, immediately re- 
moved with his family to the city, and entered 
upon the duties of his office. Before the close of 
the year he was made a meml)er of the Board of re- 
gents of the university, and when the Continental 
congress removed from Trenton, N. J., to New 
YorK. he was, in Noveml)er. 1785, chosen as their 
chaplain. In the summer of 1786 he was elected first 
bishop of New York, and three weeks later received 
from the University of Pennsylvania the degree 
of I). D. In NovemWr of the same year he sailed 
for England in company with Dr. William White, 
where they were consecrated in I^mbeth palace. 4 
Feb., 1787, by the archbishops of Canterbury and 
York, and the bishops of Petersborough and' Bath 
and Wells. The centennial anniversary of this 
event was appropriately celebratwl in 'Laml)eth 
pala4:'e. London, in Chri.st church, Philadelphia, and 
in the Chicago cathinlral. 

On his return. Bishop Provoost resumefl his du- 
ties as rector of Trinity, the two [M^sitions being 
then filled bv the same i)erson. He was one of the 
trustees of Columbia college, and ander the present 
TOL. T. — 9 



PROVOOST 



129 




constitution was ele<'te<l chaplain of the U. S. 
wnate. After his inauguration as president, Wash- 
ington, with many other distinguishe<l men, pro- 
ciM'de<l on foot to St. Paul's church (s<'e illustra- 
tion), where Bishop Provoost rewl prayers suited, 
to the occasion. The first con.s<H:rat ion in which 
he took |iart was that of the Hev. John Thomas 
Claggett, for the 
difK-ese of Mary- 
land, l>eiiig the 
earliest of that or- 
der of the minis- 
try consecratnl in 
the United States. 
It occurre<l at 
Trinity church, 17 
Sept., 1792. dur- 
ing a session of 
the general con- 
vention. As the 
B residing bishop 
•r. Provoost was 
the consecrator. 
Bishops White, 
of Pennsylvania. 
Seabury. of Con- 
necticut.and Mad- 
ison, of Virginia, 
ioining in the 
historic ceremony 

and uniting the succession of the Anglican and Scot- 
tish episcopate. Mrs. Provoost died, 18 Aug.. 1799, 
which, with other domestic bereavements and de- 
clining health, induced the bishop to r»>sign the rec- 
torship of Trinity, 28 Sept. of the following year, and 
his bishopric, 3 Sept., 1801. His resignation was 
not accepted by the liouse of bishops, l»y whom, how- 
ever, consent was given to the consecration as as- 
sistant bishop of Dr. Benjamin M(M)re. Provoost 
was subject to apoplectic attacks, and from one of 
these he died suddenly at his residence in Green- 
wich street. His funeral at Trinity was attended 
by the leading citizens of New York, and his re- 
mains were placed in the family vault in Trinity 
church-yard. In person Bishop Prov(X)8t was above 
medium height. His countenance wiuj round and 
full and highly intellectual, as may be seen in the 
accompanying vignette, copied from the original 
by Benjamin West. He was stately and dignified 
in manner, presenting, in the picturesque dress of 
that day, an imposing appearance. He was a fine 
clas.sical scholar and the master of several modern 
languages. He conversed freely witU Steuben and 
Lafayette in their own tongues, and had several 
Italian correspondents, including Count Clau<lio 
Kagone. He translated Ta.sso's "Jerusalem De- 
livered," but it was never piven to the world, nor 
any of his occasional poems m English, French, and 
German. His sermons were characterize<l by force 
and felicity of diction. He was leanied and 
l)enevolent and inflexibly conscientious, fond of 
society and social life. L*nder his administration 
as rector of Trinity for seventeen years, the churi'h 
was ii'built on the same site. 1)uring his epis- 
copate of fourteen years the church did not ad- 
vance as rapidly as 'during the same perifnl under 
some of his successors. It must not, however. l)e 
forgotten that those were days of difficulties and 
<lei>ression in the chun.*h. and that the {teople of 
Pennsylvania threatene<l to thmw their bishop into 
the Delaware river when he returned from Eng- 
land in 17H7. The Episcopal church was only tm- 
erated, and many Protestants fiercely opjH)se<l prel- 
acy, having but recently "est-ajied from kings 
and bishops." While it cannot be claimed that 



130 



PRUD'IIOMME 



PRUYN 




Provoost is among those " upon the adamant of 
whose fame the river of Time l»eats without injury." 
or that lie should nmk witli those eminent found- 
ers of the American ehureh, Si-abury and Wiiite, 
or with the ejttK'h-makers llithart an<l W'hitting- 
imm, it may be asserted 
that for elejfant scliolar- 
ship he liad no peer 
among his American 
contemporaries. He was 
so inditferent to literary 
reputation that not even 
u sermon of iiis apjK'ars 
to ha^ e been printed, al- 
though his accomplish- 
ments in U'Ues-lettres 
were many and admira- 
l)le, as may be inferred 
from Dr. llobart's re- 
. . - . marks at the first mect- 

\iidt4n^' «^^Uw<**^. ' iiig of tlie diocesan con- 
vention after the bish- 
op's deatli : " The character of Bishop Provoost is 
one which the eidightened Christian will estimate 
at no ordinary standard. The generous sympa- 
thies of his natizre created in him a cordial concern 
in whatever affected the interests of his fellow- 
creatures. Hence his beneficence was called into 
almost daily exercise, a>ul his private charities were 
often beyond what was justified by his actual 
means. As a patriot he wjus exceeded by none. 
As a scholar he was deeply versed in classical lore 
and in the records of ecclesiastical history and 
church polity. To a very a<'curate knowledge of the 
Hebrew he added a profound acquaintance with the 
Greek. Latin. French. German, Italian, and other 
languages. He made considerable progress also in 
the natural and physical sciences, of which botany 
was his favorite branch." See " The Centennial 
History of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the 
Diocese of New York " (New York, 1880), and an 
address on " Samuel Provoost, First Bishop of New 
York," bv Gen. Jas. Grant Wilson (1887). 

PRUD'HOMME, John Francis Eugene, en- 
graver, b. on the island of St. Thomas, W. I., 4 
Oct., 1800. His parents were French. The son 
came to this country in 1807 with his family, who 
settled in New York in the spring of 1809. When 
about fourteen years old he turned his attention to 
engraving, and was a pupil of Thomas Gimbrede, 
his brother-in-law, but the latter shortly afterward 
became teacher of drawing at the U. S. military 
acjulemy, which left Mr. Prud'homme to pursue his 
own course. At the age of seventeen he essayed en- 
graving portraits, and produced several fine plates 
for Longacre and Herring's " National Portrait Gal- 
lery of Distinguished Americans." He also engraved 
some plates for the annuals that were fashionable 
at that time, notably " Friar Puck," after John G. 
Chai)man ; " The Velvet Hat," after Joseph In- 
skeep; and " Oberon," after a miniature by Miss 
Anne E. Hall. In 1852 Mr. Prud'homme entered 
a bank-note engraving establishment in New York, 
and from 1809 till 1885 he was employed as an orna- 
mental designer and engraver at the bureau of en- 
graving and printing in Washington. He was early 
elected memlwr of the National academy of de- 
sign, became academician in 1840, and in 1834-'53 
was its curator. Mr. Prud'honmie is a ta'<teful de- 
signer, a good draughtsman, and excellent en- 
graver, in the very fine stipple manner introduced 
by Caroline Watson towanl the end of the 18th 
century. He resides in Georgetown, D. ('., and 
still (1888) pursues his profession. He is the old- 
est living American engraver. 



PRUYN, John Van Schaick Lansing, lawyer, 

b. in Albany, N. Y., 22 June, 1811 ; d. in Clifton 
Springs, N.Y.. 21 Nov., 1877. He was graduated 
at AlUmy acatlemy in 1820, became a student in 
the ottice'of James King, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1832. At once he took high rank in his 
profession as one of the attorneys in the once-cele- 
brated James will case. In 1835 he became a direc- 
tor of the Mohawk and Hudson railroad and its 
counsel, and in 1853, when the railroads Ix'tween 
Albany and Buffalo were united, forming the nres- 
ent New York Central, he conducted the proceedings 
and drew up the consolidation agreement, in some 
respects the most important business instrument 
that was ever executed in the state of New York, 
lie was associated in the Hudson river bridge 
case, finally arguing it alone, was sole trustee of 
the estate of Harmanns Bleecker, and was the 
financial officer of the Sault Ste. Marie canal, 
which he carried through many difficulties. In 
1801 he was elected state senator as a Democrat, 
having accepted the nomination on condition that 
no money should be used in the election. At the 
close of his term he gave the year's salary to the 
poor of Albany. He was a new capitol commis- 
sioner from 1805 till 1870, and in 1809 laid the first 
stone of the new 
building. He 
was a member of 
congress in 1803- 
'5 and 1807-9, 
serving upon sev- 
eral important 
committees, and 
as a regent of the 
Smithsonian in- 
stitution. At the 
first election of 
General Grant to 
the presidency he 
was one of the tel- 
lers of the house 
of representa- 
tives and sug- 
gested such legislation as would have remedied the 
existing difficulties in counting the presidential 
vote. He was a regent of the University of the 
state of New York for thirty-three years, during 
the last fifteen of which he was chancellor. The 
establishment of the university convocation and 
the regents' examinations were largely if not 
almost wholly due to his efforts. The regents are 
trustees of the State museum of natural history 
and the State library, and the present value of 
these collections is largely owing to Mr. Pruyn's 
personal interest and supervision. Mr. Pruvn 
was also president of the board of trustees of St. 
Stephen's college, Annandale, of the State board of 
charities, of the State survey, and of the AHwiny 
institute. He was also a member of various his- 
torical and other societies, and of the Association 
for the codification of the law of nations. Mr. 
Pruyn received the degree of M. A. from Rutgers 
in 1835. and from Unign college in 1845, and that 
of LL. D. in 1852. from the University of Rochester, 
— His cousin. Robert Hewson, diplomatist, b. in 
Albany, N. Y., 14 P'eb.. 1815; d. in Albanv, N. Y., 
20 Feb., 1882, was graduated at Rutgers "in 1833, 
studied law with Abraham Van Vechten, and in 
18;J0 was admitted to the bar. He was corporation 
counsel of Albany, a member of the city govern- 
ment, and in 1855 became adjutant-general of the 
state. He was a Whig in politics, and served in 
the assembly in 1848-'50, and again ^n 1854, when 
he was elected speaker. It is said that no appeal 




^::r__.-' 1'\^\,.>/1C j£ . u^i-t^c^y^^i^ 



PRYOR 



PUKRTA 



131 



w*s rniulo from any of his rulin>04 in the chair. In 
18(51 lie wiw H|>|M>iiitc'(l by Ptvsidcnt Lincoln U. S. 
minister to Ju|iun as successor to Townscntl Harris. 
As there were then no telejfnijiiiic facilities, months 
often ela(>se«l before the minister could rec-eive his 
instructions, and when they did arrive they were fre- 

auently inapplicable.circumstunceshavinfjchanffed. 
lur vessels of war then in Japanese waters were 
placed at the disiMisHl of the minister with instrue- 
tions prescrilx'd by the U. S. jfovernment. In 1803 
Mr. I'ruyn took the ground that he should n^irard the 
tycoon \o be the real ruler of Japan, as oUierwise 
forei^cn intercourse could never l>e j^uaranteed un- 
less treaties were rati(ii«d by the mikado. Two 
naval cx|>editions were undertaken against the 
transfjressing daimio of Chosu, whose vessels had 
firwl on the American merchant steamer " Pem- 
broke." In the first the U.S. man-of-war " Wvo- 
ming," Com. McDougall, sank the brig '• Laurick " 
and blew up the steamer " Lanccfield, ' at the same 
time running the gauntlet of shore batteries of 
eighty guns in the Straits of Simonisaki. In the 
second exjMHlition the forces of Great Britain, 
France, and Holland (the daimio having previ- 
ously firetl upon the P rench and English vessels) 
tot)k part, the United States l)eing rej>resente<l by 
the cnartered steamer" Takiang," having on board 
a |>art of the crew and guns of the " Jamestown." 
which had U-en left at \ okohama for the defence 
of that place. The allies demolished the fortifica- 
tions of Chosu and captured the guns. Although 
it was (]uestioned, this proceeding postponed the 
dethronement of the tycoon for several years, and 
enable<l him to observe his treaty stipulations which 
he had not been able to do, owing to the hostility 
of the daimio of Chosu. An indemnity was paiti 
by Japan and intercourse was gmiranteetl. Mr. 
Pruyn played an important nart in securing Amer- 
ican rights in the East. Mr. Pruyn's last public 
post was that of presiding officer of the State con- 
stitutional convention of 1872. For the last years 
of his life he was not greatly identified with public 
afTairs, but was deeply interested in various enter- 
prises, and at the time of his death was president 
of the National commercial Iwink of Albany. He 
was a tnistt-e of Rutgers college, to which he gave 
f 10,()0(). and was president of the l)oard of directors 
of the Dudlev ol)servatorv. He received the degree 
of M. A. from Rutgers in' 1836, and in 1805 that of 
LL. I), from Williams. 

PRYOR, Roger Atkinson, lawyer, b. near 
Petersburg, Va.. 19- July, 1828. He was graduated 
at Hampden Sidney college in 184"), and at the 
University of Virginia, three years later, stiidied 
law, and was admitted to the \mr, but entered 
journalism. He joined the staff of the Wa.shing- 
ton " Union," and was afterward editor of the 
Richmond " Enquirer." He was sent at twenty- 
seven on a special mission to Greece by President 
Pierce. In 1850 he opposed William \j. Yancey's 
prf>position to reopen tne slave-trade. He was an 
ardent advocate of state-rights, and establish«'d a 
daily papwr, the "South," at Richmond, in which 
he ivpresented the extreme views of the Virginia 
Democracy. His aggressive course and the intense 
utterance of his convictions led to several duels. 
He was electe<l to congress in 18.'>9 to fill a vacancy, 
and was re-elected in 1800, but did not take his seat. 
While in that IkhIv he made various fiery speeches, 
and in the excite<l condition of the public mind 
preceding the civil war was often invo|ve<l in |>as- 
sionate <liscussions with his northern opiH)nents. 
One of thi'se. John F. Potter (q. r.). replied to him 
with similar acriinonv, and was challengeil. Mr. 
Potter named bowie-knives as the weapons, and 



the Virginian's seconds refused to allow their prin- 
cipal t«> figlit with arms which they pronounced 
barl>arous. This challenge created an uiirrtar 
throughout the country, and was accomiHinie«I with 
severe and characteristic com men t« on the princi- 
luils from the northern and southern press. Mr. 
Pryor was eager for war, and visite<l Charleston t<) 
witness the firing on Sumter, and its surrender. 
He was sent to the provisional Confederate con- 
gress at Richmond, and elected to the first regular 
congress. So<m afterward he enter»'d the Confed- 
erate army as a colonel, and was made a briga<lier- 
general after the Iwttle of Williamsburg. He re- 
signed, 20 Aug., 1808, wa.s taken j)risoner in 1864, 
and confined for some time in Fttrt I^fayette. 
After the surrender of the Confederate armies, he 
ur^ed on the south the adoption of a [xilicy of ac- 
quiescence and loyalty to the government. He went 
to New York in 1805, sett Ie<l there as a lawyer, and 
is still practising. He has taken no part in r)oli- 
tics since the war. confining himself exclusively to 
his profession. He is the author of many si)eeche9 
and literary addresses, and has l)een given the de- 
gree of LL. D. by Hampden Sidney college. 

PUENTE, Jiian Eligrio (|)oo-ain -toy), Spanish 
author, b. in Aslurias a>x>ut 1720; d. in Mexico 
al>out 1780. Very little is known of his life, ex- 
cei)t that he was employetl as chief clerk in the 
office of the secretarj* of the viceroyalty of Mexico, 
Melchor de Peramas, and probably was' sent by him 
on several missions to Florida. His manusc-ripts 
were found in the library of the secretary, after the 
evacuation of Mexico by the Spanianis, and include 
" Noticias de la Provincia de la Florida y el Cayo 
de los Mdrtires. con su Piano v Mapa "(date«l 1709), 
the accompanying map of which is remarkably cor- 
rect for that time; " Informe de los Pescados (lue 
se crian en las Costas de la Florida y Cam|)ecne, 
v de los l^eneficios que pueden resultar de tales 
I'esquerias" (1770); ana "Noticia exacta de las 
Familias, que por la entrega de la Flori«la & la 
Corona Rritanica, se retiraron A la Habana, y modo 
con que fueron recibidas" (1770). 

PlJERTA, Cristobal Martinez (poo-air'-t«h), 
Spanish inissionarN', b. in Andalusia in 1580; d. in 
Hondunis. Central America, in .St>ptemlK'r, 1623. 
He was a soldier in his youth, came in HKX) to 
America with Juan Monasterios, and lande<l in 
Tnijillo. Honduras. He starved in the exfHnlition 
to Costa Rica, and while there resolvetl to abandon 
the army and undertake the conversion of the 
Indians of the province of Teguzgalpa. In 1«K)2 
he retired to Guatemala, entenvl the F'ranciscan 
order. 17 Oct., and in the newly founded seminary 
studied theology and the principal ln<lian dialects. 
Afterward he was professor of Latin grammar in 
Chiapa. and master of novices in the convent of 
Guatemala, but he continued in his desire to con- 
vert the natives, and after many difficulties ob- 
tained from his superiors jiermission to undertake 
the task. With another friar and four (iuanajuan 
Indians as interpreters he land»Hl at Ca|M' (iracias 
a Dios, penetrated into the interior, and was fairly 
1 successful with the Paye ami (fuazncalpa triU% 
where he founded the mission of Concepcion near 
\ Junia river. He afterward receive<l a vessel with 
auxiliaries and another priest, and un<lertook the 
I conversion of the Guava and Jicaijue tril)es. where 
! he founded seven other missions. While camping 
t on Guam|)o river, he was invited by the ferocious 
, .\lbatuino tribe to preach to them, and, notwith- 
'■ standing the opposition of his Jica(]ue converts, he 
; enten'd their country and was inunlertHl by them 
i towani the end of ScptemU^r, 1023. His btxly was 
I recovered later by Juan de Miranda, the governor of 



132 



PUEYRREDON 



PUGH 



Tftijillo, and buried in the chspel of San Antonio 
in the Francist-an convent of Guatemala. He wrote 
"C'artJis al Proviut-ial de Guatemala K^bre la VjX- 
jwlicit'm li Tcjjuzfjalpa " and '• Satisfaccion d las 
nizuiies ali'pulas contra la ex[H>dicion & Te>fuz- 
galpa, etc.," which are preserved in manuscript in 
the Franciscan convent of (iuatcmala. 

PIKYRREDON, Juan Martin de(poo-air'-ray- 
don), Argentine statesman, b. in liuenos Ayres 
alH)Ut 1775 ; d. there about 1840. lie received his 
education in Spain, but returned in the first years 
of the 19th century. When the English general. 
Sir William Heresford, occupied Buenos Ayres, 27 
June, 1806, Pueyrredon refused to recognize the 
English authorities, and, leaving the city, liegan to 
organize resistance. On 31 .luly, with a force of 
armed jw^usants, he attacked the English outworks, 
and was driven back, but his troops surrounded 
the city, which capitulated on 11 Aug. In the 
second invasion of the English he took a principal 

Cart in the heroic defence of the citv, which ended 
v the capitulation of Gen. Whitelocke, 7 July, 1807. 
rie was active in the movement for independence 
in 1810, and, after the resignation of the director, 
Alvarez, was elected by the congress of Tucuman, 
of which he was a member, supreme director of the 
Argentine Republic, 3 May, 181(5. Together with 
San Martin and Hcigrano he favored in that con- 
gress the election of a monarch, fearing that a re- 
publican form of government would continue the 
anarchy that existed at that time. During his ad- 
ministration he did his utmost to assist San Martin, 
governor of Cuyo, in the preparation of his expedi- 
tion for the liberation of Chili, and. after the latter's 
departure, 17 Jan., 1817, forwarded re-enforceraents 
and resources to him. In the same year he obtained 
the transfer of the congress to Buenos Ayres, inorder 
to have it more under his influence. On 13 May 
that body began its sessions there, and in 1818 it 
decreed the new constitution, which caused general 
discontent and several revolts. Pueyrredon sent 
forces from Buenos Ayres against the rel^ellious 
provinces, and ordered the army of the north 
against them, but the insurgents were victorious, 
and Pueyrredon was forced to resign, 10 June, 1819, 
taking refuge in Montevideo. After a few years 
he returned, but he did not again take part in pub- 
lic life, ending his days in retirement on his estate, 
Bosque IIernios<i, near Buenos Ayr&s. 

PUFFER, Reuben, clergyman, b. in Sudburjr, 
Mass., 7 Jan.. 1756; d. in Berlin, Mass., 9 April, 
1829. He was graduated at Harvard in 1778, 
taught in East Sudbury (now Wayland), Mass., 
studied theology, and became in 178i pastor of the 
Congregational church in Bolton (now Berlin), 
which charge he held till bis death. Harvard gave 
him the degree of I). D. in 1810. He published an 
election sermon (1802) ; " Dudleian Lecture at Har- 
vard " (1808) ; an Address (4 Julv, 1810) ; " Conven- 
tion Sermon" (1811); and " Two' Sermons " (1826). 

PUOH, Eliza Lofton (pew), author, b. in Bay- 
ou Lafourche, La., in 1841. Her father, Col. 
George Phillips, served in the legislature, and 
her mother was a daughter of Judge John Rhea. 
After graduation at a seminary in New Orleans in 
1858, she married William W. Pugh, a planter of 
Assumption parish. La. She has written under 
the pen-name of " Arria," and is the author of two 
novels, " Not a Hero " (New Vork, 1867), and " In 
a Crucible" (Philadelphia, 1871). 

PUGH, Ellia, Quaker preacher, b. in the parish 
of Dolgellau, Meirioethshire, North Wales, in Au- 
gust, 1()56: d. in Gwynedd, Pa., 3 Dec, 1718. His 
father died before his birth, and his mother soon af- 
terward. In his eighteenth year he was converted, 



under the preaching of John ap John, a Quaker, 
and in 1680 he was approved as a minister. In 
1(587 he and his family, with many of his acquaint- 
ance, settled near the township of Gwynedd, in 
Philadelphia (now Montgomery) county. Pa., 
where he found hundreds of his countrymen, whose 
worship was performed in Welsh. He was able to 
support his family as a fanner, but his heart was 
engaged in the ministry and he was always warmly 
welcomed in the various meetings of his society in 
Philadelphia, Chester, and Bucks counties. In 
1706 a religious "concern " led him back to Wales, 
where he remained until 1708, when he returned to 
his family and resumed his ministerial labors. He 
wrote, for the most part in his last sickness, a book 
entitled " Anerch i'r Cymru " — that is, " A saluta- 
tion to the Britains, to call them from the many 
things to the one thing needful, for the saving of 
their souls." This book was afterward printed by 
Andrew Bradford (Philadelphia, 1721), and is the 
first Welsh book that is known to have been 
printed in this country. So popular and well re- 
ceived wa.s this dying testimony that in 1727 an 
f^nglish edition was published, the translation hav- 
ing lieen made by Rowland Ellis (1727). 

PUGH, Evan, chemist, b. in East Nottingham, 
Pa., 29 Feb., 1828 ; d. in Bellefonte, Pa., 29 April, 
1864. He was early apprenticed to the black- 
smith's trade, but at the age of nineteen bought 
out the residue of his time and studied at the 
Whitestown, N. Y., seminary, meanwhile supporting 
himself by manual labor. Falling heir to a smaU 
property in his native town, including a school, he 
taught there successfully for several years. In 
1853 he disposed of these interests and went abroad, 
where for four years he studied natural science 
and mathematics in the universities of Leipsic, 
GOttingen, Heidelberg, and Paris, receiving in 
1856 the degree of Ph. D. at the University of 
GOttingen. After this he devoted attention to 
agricultural chemistry, and made in England a 
series of valuable determinations of nitrogen, show- 
ing that plants do not assimilate free nitrogen. In 
1859 he returned to the United States and accepted 
the presidency of Pennsylvania agricultural col- 
lege. He at once organized a new scheme of in- 
struction, planned and superintended the erection 
of the college buildings, secured endowments, and, 
besides taking the general guidance of the institu- 
tion, had special charge of the practical investiga- 
tions of the students in chemistry, scientific agri- 
culture, mineralogy, and geology. This office he 
held until his death. Dr. Pugh was a fellow of the 
London chemical society, a member of scientific 
societies in the United States, and contributed to 
scientific literature. 

PUGH, George Ellis, senator, b. in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, 28 Nov., 1822 ; d. there, 19 July, 1876. After 
his graduation at Miami university in 1840 he 
practised law until the beginning of the Mexican 
war, in which he took part as captain in the 4th 
Ohio regiment, and also as aide to Gen. Joseph 
Lane. In 1848-'9 he sers'ed in the legislature, and 
he was city solicitor gf Cincinnati in 1850, and 
attomev-general of Ohio in 1851. He was elected 
to the C S. senate as a Democrat, serving from 3 
Dec., 1855, till 3 March, 1861, and was a member of 
the committees on public lands, and the judiciary. 
He was a delegate to the National Democratic con- 
vention in Charleston. S. C, in 1860, and matle a 
speech in reply to William L. Yancey. One of his 
ablest efforts was his appeal in behalf of Clement 
L. Vallandigham (q. v.) in 1863, in the habeas cor- 
pus proceeding involving the quest^n as to the 
power and duty of the judge to relieve Mr. Vallan- 



PUOH 



PULASKI 



133 



dif^ham from miliUiry confinement. He was de- 
feat nl ti.s the Di'mocratic oanditiute for lieutenant- 
j:..v«'riit»r in 1808, ami for i,'oiij;rfs.s in l^t04. In 
1H7;{ lii> was olwttHl to tho State constitutional t-on- 
vi-iitioii. I>ul (ItK-lincd to ^«<'rvt•. 

I'lMfH, Jumps l^awrence, senator, b. in Burke 
count V, Ua,, 12 Iki-., 1820. In early years he re- 
moveil with his family to Alal>ania, where he re- 
ceived a colleiriate education, studied law, and was 
adniitteil to tiie liar. He U'tan to practise in Eu- 
faula, Ala., wius a presidential ele<-tor in 1848 and 
IHTM, and was then electeil to congress as a Demo- 
crat. serviuK from 5 Dec, IWO, till 21 Jan., 18«1, 
when he retired, on the secession of his state. He 
was a deleffato fnjm Alal>aina to the house of rep- 
resentatives in the 1st and 2d t'onfederate con- 
gresses, serving from 22 Feb., 18(J2, till the sur- 
render in 1805. He also served as a private in the 
ConftHlerate armv, and after the war again prac- 
tised law. Mr. r*ugh was president of the Demo- 
cratic state c<»nvention of 1874, a member of the 
Constitutional convention of 1875, and a presiden- 
tial elector again in 187G. He was elected a U. S. 
senator from Alabama for the term ending in 1885, 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death oi George 
S. Houston, and was re-elected for the term ending 
3 March. IHIM. 

PI LASKI, Kaziniierz (or Casiniir), Polish 
8<jl«lier, b. in Podolia, 4 March, 1748; d. near 
Savannah, Ga., 11 Oct., 1779. He was the eldest 
son of Joseph Pulaski, founder of the confedera- 
tion of Barr. He 
received a thorough 
education and served 
in the guard of Duke 
Charles, of Cour- 
land. In 1767 he 
returned to Poland 
and joined his father 
as one of the eight 
original associates of 
the confederation of 
Barr, 29 Feb., 1768. 
He continued to car- 
ry on a partisan war- 
fare after the arrest 
and death of his fa- 
ther. He raised a 
revolt in Lithuania 
in 1769, and, al- 
though he was driven 
into the fortified 
monastery of Czen- 
stochova, he finally compelled the liesieging Rus- 
sian army to withdraw. He hel()ed to drive the 
Russians across the Vistula, but oppost^l the plans 
of the French commis!«ioner, Francois Dumouriez. 
and refusetl to join the main army, thus causing 
the loss of the Iwittle of Landskron in 1770. He 
was then electe<l commander-in-chief, but was de- 
feate<l, and returned to Czenstochova. He has 
been accused of planning the abduction of King 
Stanislas Poniatowski from Warsaw, but modern 
historians have cleare<l him of all participation in 
it. The plot hml for its ri'sult the intervention of 
Pnissia and Austria, and led ultimately to the par- 
tition of Poland in 1773. Pulaski's estates were 
confiscated, he was outlawed, and a price was set 
on his hea<l. He escaped to Turkey, but, failing 
to obtain succor fn.m the sultan, went to Paris 
towanl the close of 1775. He had there several in- 
terviews with Benjamin Franklin, and, becoming 
interested in the American struggle for independ- 
ence, came to this country in March, 1777. lie 
procee<led immediately to Philadelphia, and was 





attached to the staff of WaMhington. The first 
action in which he t«M)k {lart was at the Brandy wine. 
When the Continental tnM>i>s Ix'gan to vield. he 
made a n-connoissance with the general's body- 
guard, and n'i)orte«l that 
t he enemy were endeav- 
oring to cut off the line 
of retreat. He was au- 
thorized to collect as 
many of the scattered 
troops as came in his 
way. and employ them 
according to ins discre- 
tion, which he did in a 
manner so prompt as to 
effect important aid in 
the retreat of the army. 
Four days later, on rec- 
ommendation of Wash- 
ington, he was conmus- 
sioned brigadier-general, 
and placed in charge of 
the cavalry. He saved 
the armv from a sur- 
prise at tV'arren tavern, 
near Philadelphia, took 
part in the battle of Ger- 
mantown, and in the winter of 1777-'8 engaged 
in the operations of Gen. Anthony Wayne, con- 
tributing to the defeat of a British division at 
Haddonficld, N. J. The cavalry oflleers could not 
be reconciled to the orders of a foreigner who could 
scarcely speak English and whose idc^Ls of disci- 
pline and tactics differed widely frf»m those to 
which they had been accustomed, and these circum- 
stances induced Pulaski to resign his command in 
March. 1778, and return to Valley Forge, where 
he was assigned to siwcial dutv. At his suggestion, 
which was adopted by Washington, congress 
authorized the formation of a corps of lancers and 
light infantry, in which even deserters and prison- 
ers of war might enlist. This corps, which liecame 
famous under the name of Pulaski's legion, was 
recruiteil mainly in Baltimore. In September 
it numbered about 350 men, divided into three 
companies of cavalry and three of infantry. The 
poet Ijongfellow has commemorated in verse this 
episode of Pulaski's life. In the autumn he was 
ordered to Little Egg Harbor with his legion, a 
company of artillery, and a party of militia. A 
German deserter named Gustav Juliet, who held a 
sul)ordinate command in the legion and who enter- 
tained a grudge against Col. de Bosen. the leader 
of the infantry, betrayed their whei-eal)outs to the 
British, who made a night attack u|M)n De Bosen's 
camp. Pulaski heard the tumult and, ass<Mnbling 
his cavalrv, repelled the enemy, but the legion 
suffered a loss of forty men. During the following 
winter he was stationed at Mini.sink, N. J. He 
was dissatisfied with his petty command, and in- 
tended to leave the service and retuni to Europe, 
but was dissuaded by Gen. Washington. He was 
ortlered to South Carolina, and entered Charleston 
on 8 May. 1779. The city wa.s investe<l on the 11th 
by 900 British from the army of (Jen. Prevost. 
Pulaski ma<le a furious assault upon them, but was 
ref»elle<l. The governor and the city council were 
incline<l to surrender, but Pulaski held the city till 
the arrival of support on 13 May. Prevost re- 
treated in the night of the same day across Ashley 
river, and Pulaski, hovering upon the enemy s 
flanks, harassi'd them till they evacuateil .South 
Carolina. Although he had frequent attacks of 
malarial fever, he remained in active service, and 
toward the beginning of September received orders 



134 



PULITZER 



PULSIFER 



to join Oen. John Mcintosh at Au/rnsta, and to 
move with him towanl Savannah in atlvnnoeof the 
army of Cicn. Beniamin Linoohi. B«'fore the 
eneiiiy was aware of his presence he captured an 
out[)ost, ami, after several skirmishes, established 
permanent communications with the PVench fleet 
at lioaufort. He n'ndered great services during 
the siege of Savannah, and in the assault of 9 Oct. 
commanded the whole cavalry, lioth French and 
American. Toward the close of the action he re- 
ceived a shot in the upj)er part of his right thigh, 
and was taken to the U. S. brig " Wasp." lie dietVas 
the vessel was leaving the river, llis body was 
buried at sea, but his funeral ceremony took i)ljice 
afterward in Charleston. Congress voted a monu- 
ment to his memory, which has never l)cen erected, 
but one was raistnl by the citizens of Savannah, of 
which Lafayette laid the corner-stone during his 
visit to the' United States in 1824. It was com- 
pleted on tt Jan.. 1855. and is represented in the 
accomnanving illustration. 

PULITZER, Joseph (pul-it-zer), journalist, b. 
in Huda-IVsth. Hungary. 10 April, 1847. He wa.s 
educated in his native city ancl came to this coun- 
try in early youth. So<in after arriving in New 
York he went to St. Louis, where he quickly ac- 
quired a knowledge of p]nglish. became interested 
in politics, and was elected to the Missouri legisla- 
ture in 18(>!). and to the State constitutional con- 
vention in 1874. He entered journalism at twenty 
as a rei>orter on the St. Louis " Westliche Post," 
a Germtiii Republican newspaper, then under the 
editorial control of Carl Schurz. He subsequently 
became its managing editor, and obtained a pro- 
prietary interest. In 1878 he founded the " Post- 
Dispatch " in that city by buying the " Dispatch '" 
and uniting it with the " Evening Post," and he 
still retains control of the journal. In 1872 he was 
a delegate to the Cincinnati convention whicli 
nominated Horace (Jreeley for the presidency, and 
in 188() he was a delegate to the Democratic National 
convention, and a member of its platform commit- 
tee from Missouri. In 1883 he purchased the New 
York •• World." which, after twenty-tiiree years 
of existence under various managers, had achieved 
no permanent success, and he has greatly increased 
its circulation He is at present its editor and sole 

F)roprietor. He was elected to congress in 1884, 
>ut resigned a few months after taking his seat, 
on account of the pressure of journalistic duties. 

PULLMAN, (Jeorg'e Mortimer, inventor, b. 
in Chautauqua county, N. Y., 3 March. 1831. At 
fourteen he entered the employment of a country 
merchant, and at seventeen joined an elder brother 
in the caV)inet-making business in Albion, N. Y. 
At twenty-two he successfully undertook a con- 
tract for moving warehouses and other buildings, 
along the line of the Erie canal, then being widtiued 
by the state. In 185J) he removed to Chicago and 
engaged extensively in the then novel task of rais- 
ing entire blocks of brick and stone buildings. In 
1858 his attention was first directed to the discom- 
fort of long-distance railway travelling, and he de- 
termined, if jxjssible, to offer the public something 
tetter. In 1859 he remo<lelled two old day-coaches 
of the Chicago and Alton roatl into sleeping-cars, 
which at once found favor and established a de- 
mand for improved travelling accommodation. 
In 1863 he l)egan the construction at Chicago of a 
sleeping-car ujMjn the now well-known mwlel, which 
was destined to associate his name inseparably witli 
progress in railway equipment. It was named the 
" Pi<jneer," and cost al>out $18,000. From this small 
beginning he continued to develop his ideas for 
comfort and safety in railway travel, till Pullman 




cars are now known all over the world. The Pull- 
man palace-car com|>any, of which he is president, 
was organized in 1867, and it now operates over 
1,400 cars on more than 100,000 miles of railway. 
In 1887 he designed and establishe<l the system of 
" vestibuled trains," which virtually makes of an 
entire train a sin- 
gle car. They 
were first put 
in service upon 
the Pennsylvania 
trunk lines, and 
are now to be 
found on many 
other railroads. 
In 1880, in obedi- 
ence to the im- 
perative demand 
of the Pullman 
company for in- 
creased shop-facil- 
ities, and to ^ive 
effect to an idea 
he had long cher- 
ished of improv- 
ing the social 
surroundings of 
the workmen, he 
founded near Chi- 
cago the industrial town of Pullman, which now 
contains over 11,000 inhabitants, 5,000 of whom 
are employed in the company's shops. Archi- 
tecturally the town is picturesque, with broad 
streets, handsome public buildings, and attrac- 
tive houses, supplied with every modern conveni- 
ence, for the employes. According to mortality 
statistics, it is one of the most healthful places 
in the world. Mr. Pullman has been identified 
with various public enterprises, among them the 
Metropolitan elevated railway system of New York, 
which was constructed and opened to the public 
by a corporation of which he was president. — His 
brother. Jaiiies Minton, clerg}-man, b. in Port- 
laud, Chautauqua co., N. Y., 21 Au":., 1836, was 
graduated at St. Lawrence divinity-school, Canton, 
N. Y., in 1860. He was pastor of the 1st Univer- 
salist church, Troy, N. Y.. from 1861 till 1868, 
when he was called to the 6th Universalist church. 
New York city, where he remained until 1885. He 
organized and was first president of the Young 
men's Universalist association of New York city 
in 1869, was secretary of the Universalist general 
convention in 1868-"77, and chairman of the pub- 
lication board of the New York state convention 
in 1869-'74. From 1870 till 1885 he was a trustee 
of St. Lawrence university, which gave him the de- 
gree of I). I), in 1879. Since 1885 he has been pas- 
tor of the 1st Universalist church in Lynn, Mass.. 
and he is president of the associated charities of 
that city. His standpoint is the ethical as op- 

fosed to the magical interpretation of Christianity, 
le edited the "Christian Leader" several years, 
and has published reviews and lectures, 

PULSIFER, David, antiquary, b. in Ipswich, 
Mass., 22 Sept., 1802. He studied in the district 
schools until he was fifteen years of age, and then 
went to Salem to learn bookbinding, where, in 
handling old records, his taste for antiquarian re- 
search was first developed. Subsequently he served 
as clerk in county courts, and transcrilied several 
ancient books of reconls. In 1853 the governor 
of Massachusetts called the attention of the ex- 
ecutive council to the perishing condition of the 
early records and recommended that* the two old- 
est volumes of the general court records should 



PULTB 



PUMPEMiY 



135 



bo priii(«Hl fit the ox|)onH<> of the stnto. E[»hrnlm I 
M. Wrijfht and NatliHuioI H. Sliurtli>IT wero iip- 
i)()inti'«l to tiikc clmrpre of thu print iiii;, an<l Dnvul I 
riilsifiT. who WHit iU'knowle<l>;e<l to Im' osiH>cinllv [ 
skilful in d»'<'ii»herinK the chirofcnipliy of tlie ITtli | 
century, was c-harffcHl with th«' t-opyinj;. lie ha<l ] 
previously i-onied the first volume for the Amcri- 
niu anti<|uarian siK'iety. Of his work, Sanuiel F. 
Haven, in his intnKluetion to the printe<l re<-or<ls 
in the" An-haNtlopia," says: " He unites the quali- 
ties of an eX|K'rt in ehiroifraphy with a )it'<»uine an- j 
ti(|uarian tasto and much familiarity with ancient j 
records." Mr. Pulsifer has e<lite<l the " Records of i 
the Colony of New Plymouth in New Kiifjland " 
(vo\». ix. to xii., lioston. lHol>-'01); "The Simple 
Cobhlerof Apjrawam in .Xmerica" (1H4^}) ; " A Poeti- 
cal Kpistle tt»(itH)r);e Washinjfton, P's4|., Command- 
er-in-Chief of the Armicvs of the Unite<l States of 
America, by liev. Charles H. Wharton, D. I).," 
which was "first published anonvmously in An- 
napolis in 1779 (1881); and "The Christiiin's A. B. 
C. ' an onginal manuscript, written in the 18th 
century by an unknown author (1883). He is the 
author of " Inscriptions from the Burying-(irounds 
in Salem, Mass." (Ik)ston, 1837); "Guide to Boston 
and Vicinity" (18(5(1); and an "Account of the 
Battle of Bimker Hill, with General John Bur- 
govne's Account" (1872). 

i*riiTE, Joseph Hippolyt, physician, b. in 
Meschwle, Westphalia, Germany, 6 Oct., 1811; d. 
in Cincinnati, Oliio, 24 Feb., 1884, He was e<Iu- 
cate«I in the fjymnasium of Siist and received his 
roe4licnl degree at the University of Hamburg. He 
followed his brother, Dr. Hermann Pulte, to this 
country in 18;J4, and practised in Cherrytown. Pa., 
but U'came a convert to homoeopathy, and took an 
active interest in forming the homoeopathic acade- 
my in AUeiitown, Pa., which was closed in 1840, 
He then removed to ('incinnati, Ohio. In 1844 he 
founded, with others, the American institute of 
homu'otMithy in New York city, and in 1872 he 
established in Cincinnati the medical college that 
bears his name, where he was profes.sor of the sci- 
ence of clinical medicine. In 1852 he was made 
profeasor of the same bninch at the Homa-opathic 
college of Cleveland, an«l he serve<l as professor of 
obstetrics in 1853-'5. He contributed to various 
homaH)|>athic journals, was an editor of the 
"Amencan Magazine of Homa*opathy and Hy- 
dropathv"in 1852-'4, and of the "Quarterlv Ho- 
ma'o[uitiiic Magazine" in 1854; edited Teste's 
" I)iM'as«'s of Children." translated by Kmma II. 
Cote (2d ed., Cincinnati, 1857): and was the author 
of "Organcm der Weltgeschichte" (Cincinnati, 
1846: English e<l., 1859); "The Homa?op»ithic lh>- 
mestic Phvsiciap" (1850); "A Replv to Dr. Met- 
calf" (1851); "The Science of Medicine" (Cleve- 
land, 1852) ; " The Woman's Medical Guide " (Cin- 
cinnati, 1853): and "Civilization and its Heroes: 
an Oration" (1H.").5). 

PrMACAHl'A, Mat^o (^)oo-mah-cah-wah), 
Peruvian insurgent, b. in Chmchero alxiut 17(K); 
d. in Sicuani, 17 March, 1815. He was cacique of 
his native trilje, but served with the royalists and 
aided in suppressing the revolution of 1780, headed 
by Jose (iabriel Condorcancpii. For his services 
he w-as aiiiK>inted colonel of militia, and soon after- 
ward heobtaineil the same rank in the army. At 
thelH'ginning of the struggle for indejx'udence he 
servotl the royalists, and was api»ointed by the 
viceroy .\l>ascal to maintain order in the province 
of Cuzc< •. With 3,5(K) men and the forces of anot h- 
er caci<iue, Manuel Chotiuehuanca, he j)acifie<l the 
whole territory, and Abascal recommended him to 
the king, whoapiwinted him brig^ier in 1811. In 



1812, during an nl>s«>nco of Gen. Ooyeneche, the 
viceroy apiMtinted Pumacahua tem|»or8ry govenior 
of upf)er Peru an<I presi«lent f»f the rovalaudien* 
cia. A suilden change now to«ik i)lact» in his opin- 
ions, and when the revolution in Cuzco under Jr»se 
an«l Vicente Angulo iM'gan. 3 Aug.. 1814, Pumwn- 
hiia took |Mirt in it. and was apjiointed a memiNT 
of the governing junta. On U 5»ov., in commaml 
of a division, he attacked and defeate<l the forces 
that defende*! the province of Arequipa. and took 
|M)ss«'ssion of the city. But on the 30th of the 
sjime month he left that place an«l went to Cuzoo, 
and meanwhile (ten. Ramirez occnpiwi the city. 
.\fter two months' sojourn, fx-ciinied in organizing 
his forces and casting cannon, Pumacahua, at the 
approach of Ramirez. t«M)k un a strongly fortified 
iM>sition near Uma<hiri. whicn was stormed on 11 
March, 1HI.5. Pumacahua was totally defr-ated, 
and sfxm afterward hanged bv order of Ramirez. 

Pl'MPKLLY, Mary Hollonhack YieWta 
(]nim-\H'\'-\\). ]HH't, b. in Athens. Pa.. 6 May, 
1803; d. in Paris. France, 4 De<'., 1879. She wrote 
religious historical poems, including " B<'lshaz- 
zar's Feast," " Pilate's Wife's Dream," " HenHl's 
Feast," and " An Ode to Shakespeare." Some of 
these were collected and iniblislied in a volume 
(New York, 1852). — Her s<^)n. Raphael, geologist, 
b. in Owego, N. Y., 8 Sept., 1887, was educated at 
the polytechnic school in Hanover, and at the 
Roval mining school in Freilx-rg, Saxony, after 
which he travelled extensively through the mining 
districts of Euror)e for the purpose of studying 
geology and metallurgy by direct observation. In 
18(50 he was engaged in mining operations in Ari- 
zona, and during 18(]l-'3 he was emi)loved bv the 
goveniment of Japan to explore the island of Yesso. 
after which he was engaged by the Chinese authori- 
ties to examine the coal-fields of nort hen China, and 
returned to the Unitetl States in 186(1. after cross- 
ing Mongolia, central Asia. and> Sil>eria. thus com- 
pleting a geological journey around the world in 
the north temperate zone. During 1806-'75 he 
was professor of mining at the School of min- 
ing and practical geology at Harvard, and in 
1870-'l he conducted the gefilogical survey of the 
copjH-r region of Michigan, for which he prepared 
" Copj)er- Bearing Rocks," lieing part ii. of vol- 
ume I. of the "Geological Survey of Michigan" 
(New York, 1873). He was called ujhui in 1871 to 
conduct the geological survey of Missouri, and for 
three years devoted his energies to that task, pre- 
paring " A Preliminary Rejwrt on the Iron Ores 
and Coal Fields," with an atlas for the rej^ort of 
the "Geological Survey of Missouri" (New York, 
1873). When the U. S. geological survey was es- 
tablished in 1879. Prof. Pumpelly organized the 
division of economic gefdogy. and asa sjK'cial agent 
of the 10th census he planned and directed the in- 
vestigations on the mining industries, exclusive of 
the precious metals, and prepared volume xv. of 
the " Census Rejvorts" on " The Mining Industries 
of the United States '" (Washington, 188(i). During 
1879-'80 he conducted at Newport, R. I., an elaU)- 
rate investigation for the i»fati<iiial Ixianl of 
health as to the abilitv of various soils to filter 
sjwres from liquids an<( from air. In 1881 he or- 
ganizal the Northern transc<mtinental survey, with 
reference to collecting information conceniing the 
to(K>graphical and economic features of Dakota, 
Montana, and Washingt<m territories, and had 
charge of the work until its cessation in 1884. also 
editing the rejiorts of the survey. He then re-en- 
tereil the national survey as geologist of thearchip- 
an division of geology, on which service he is now 
(18^) engagea. Prof. Pumpelly is a member of 



136 



PUNCHARD 



PURMAN 



various sc'ientiflc societies, and in 1872 was elected 
to membership in the National academy of sci- 
ences, lie has contributed papers to the literature 
of his profession, many of which have appeared 
in the " American Journal of Science " or in the 
transactions of learned societies. His books in- 
clude " (Jeolopical Researches in China, Monjjolia, 
and Japan duriiijj the Years 18G2-'5," issued by the 
Smithsotiinn institution (Washington, 18(iU). and 
"Across America and Asia" (New York, ISGU). 

Pl'NCHARD, Oeorge, e<litor, b. in Salem, 
Mass.. 7 June, 1806; d. in Boston, Mass., 2 April, 
1880. His father, John (1763-1857), served in the 
Revolutionary army and was probabljr the last sur- 
vivor of the regiments that were stationed at West 
Point at the time of Arnold's treasf)n. The son 
was graduated at Dartmouth in 1826, and at An- 
dover theological seminary in 1829. From 1830 
till 1844 he was pastor of a Congregational church 
in Plymouth, N. H. Mr. Punehurd was associate 
editor and proprietor of the "Boston Traveler," 
of which he was also a founder, from 1845 till 
1857, and again from 1867 till 1871. He was sec- 
retary of the New p]ngland branch of the Ameri- 
can tract society, and the author of a "View of 
Congregationalism " (Andover, 1850), and a " His- 
tory of Congregationalism from A. D. 250 to 1616 " 
(1841 : 2d ed., d vols., New York, 186.V7). 

PURCELL, John Baptist, R. C. archbishop, 
b. in Mallow, County Cork, Ireland, 26 Feb., 1800; 
d. in Brown county, Ohio, 4 July, 1883. He emi- 
grated to the United States in 1818, and entered 
Ashbury college, Baltimore, where he taught. In 
1820 he was admitted to Mount St. Mary's, Em- 
mettsburg, and, after receiving minor orders, fin- 
ished his theological course in the Sulpitian col- 
lege, Paris. He was ordained a priest in the cathe- 
dral of Notre Dame in 1826. and in 1827 was ajj- 
f)ointed professor of philosophy in St. Mary's col- 
ege, becoming president in 1828. The progress 
that this institution made during his presidency 
attracted the notice of the American hierarchy, 
and he was nominated bishop of Cincinnati. lie 
was consecrated on 13 Oct., 1833. At the time of 
his appointment there was only one small frame 
Roman Catholic church in the city, and not more 
than 16 in the diocese, while the church property 
was valued at about |12,000. He founded acade- 
mies and schools, organized German congrega- 
tions, and built a convent for the Ursulines. The 
number of Roman Catholics had increased from 
6,000 to 70,000 in 1846, with 70 churches and 73 
priests. In 1847 the diocese of Cleveland was 
formed out of that of Cincinnati, and placed under 
the jurisdiction of another prelate at his request. 
He was made an archbishop in 1850, with four 
suffragan bishops attached to his see, and being 
in Rome in 1851, he received the pallium from the 
pope's own hands. He at once set about found- 
mg what was to be one of the chief theological 
seminaries of the country. Mount St. Mary's of the 
West. He presided over his first provincial coun- 
cil in 1855, and held a second in 1858. It was 
impossible to meet the wants of the new congre- 
gations with the resources at hand, and this led 
to the financial embarrassments that shadowed 
the closing years of the archbishop's life. In 1868 
the creation of new sees had limited his diocese 
to that part of Ohio south of latitude 40° 41', but 
this stiU contained nearly 140,000 Roman Catho- 
lics. In 1869 he attended the Vatican council, 
was active in its del il)erat ions, and, although he 
opposed the declaration of the infallibility of the 
pope, he at once subscril)ed to the doctrine on its 
aennition. His golden jubilee was celebrated in 



1876 with great splendor. A crisis in his financial 
affairs came in 1879. Several years before this he 
had permitted his brother, Edward Purcell, who 
was vicar-general of the diocese, to receive deposits 
of money. Neither of them knew anything of the 
nrinciples on which business should he conducted. 
When the crash came. Edward Purcell died of a 
broken heart. It was discovered that the indebted- 
ness reached nearly $4,000,000. The folly of the 
financial operations that led to it was widely com- 
mented on, but no one thought of charging the arch- 
bishop with dishonesty or evil intent. The sal- 
ary of a bishop known as the " cathedraticum "^ 
amounts to $4,000 or $5,000 a year, but he was- 
twenty-five years a bishop lief ore he could be pre- 
vailed on to accept any part of the sum. He was. 
given $800 one morning, and by evening he had 
parted with the whole. His priests gave him $3,400' 
at his golden jubilee; the next day he divided it 
among charitable institutions. He offered his resig- 
nation in 1880, but it was felt that its acceptance 
would imply some reproach. He was given a co- 
adjutor instead, and retired to a house in Brown 
county. At his death the number of Roman Catho- 
lics in the diotrese that he originally held was more 
than half a million, the priests numWred 480, and 
the churches 500. Archbishop Purcell in 18S7 held 
a seven days' discussion with Alexander Campbell, 
and in 1870 publicly defended Christianity against 
an infidel orator. Both discussions were printed 
and widely circulated ; the latter as " The Roman 
Clergy and Free Thought" (1870). His other pub- 
lications were "Lectures and Pastoral Letters," 
" Diocesan Statutes, Acts, and Decrees of Three 
Provincial Councils held in Cincinnati," and a se- 
ries of school-books for use in Roman Catholic 
schools in his diocese. 

PURCHAS, Samuel, English clergyman, b. in 
Thaxted, Essex, England, in 1577 ; d. in London 
in 1628. He was educated at St. John's college, 
Cambridge, and in 1604 became vicar of Eastwood,. 
Essex. Removing to London, he compiled from 
more than 1,300 authorities a work entitled " Pur- 
chas, his Pilgrimage; or, Relations of the World 
and the Religions observed in all Ages and Place* 
discovered from the Creation unto this Present "' 
(4 parts, folio, London, 1613; 4th cd., 1626), and 
" Ilakluvt's Posthumus : or, Purchas, his Pil- 
grimes,'' for which he used Hakluyt's manuscript 
collections, and which preserves the original narra- 
tives of the early English navigators and explorers 
of the western world (5 vols., folio, 1625-'6). He 
also published " The King's Tower and Triumphal 
Arch of London" (1623) and " Microcosmus, or 
the Historic of Man," which is sometimes called 
Purchas's " Funeral Sermon " (1627). 

PURDON, John, lawyer, b. in Philadelphia, 
Pa., in 1784 ; d. there, 3 Oct., 1835. He was gradu- 
ated at Princeton in 1802, and was atlmitted to the 
bar in 1806, served in the legislature, and was ac- 
tive in public affairs. He published an "Abridg- 
ment of the Laws of Pennsylvania from 1700" 
(Philadelphia. 1811). Frederick C. Brightly etlited 
the 8th and 9th editions (1858 and 1862), with an- 
nual supplements to 1869!, 

PURMAN, William J., jurist, b. in Centre 
county, Pa., 11 April, 1840. He received a liberal 
education, studied law, and was admitted to the 
bar, but entered the National army as a private, 
serving on special duty in the war department and 
in Florida. He was a member of the Constitu- 
tional convention of Florida in 1868, and also of 
the state senate, judge of Jackson county court in 
1868-'9, and U. b. assessor of internal /e venue for 
Florida in 1870. In 1872 he was chairman of the 



PURPLE 



PUSEY 



137 



Ri^publican state executive C()inmitt««, and was 
eliHTtiHl to con^rrcss a» a Uopublican, »crving from 
1 l)e<-.. IHTa. till his rt-si^Mmtion on 10 Kfl)., 1875. 
lie was afruin elwted, st-rvinff from H Dec, 1875, 
till 3 Mnn-h, 1877, and re-ele<'te<l, but his seat was 
8UCc-esHfully contested by UoJR'rt II. M. Davidson. 
Pl'RPLE, Norman HiKricinH, jurist, b. in Exe- 
ter, N. Y.. •-»» Mnnh, 1K(W; d. in Chicujjo, 111.. 
Auff., 1H«;{. After atteixiiii^ the district sch(K)ls, 
he studiinl law, wa.s tulniitted to the l>ar in Tiof^ 
countv, I'a., in IKM), and in 1837 R'moved to I'eoria, 
III. fn 184t)-*2 he was state's attorney for the Wth 

t'udicial circuit of Illinois, and from 1845 till 1848 
le was asvMX'iate iudi^e of the supreme cotirt. He 
was once a candidate for V. S. senator, and in 1860 
was a delcfjate to the Democratic national conven- 
tion in Charleston, S. ('. He published ".Stntutes 
of Illinois relatinjf to Real Estate" (yuincy, 1849) 
and " A Compilation of the Statutes of Illinois of 
a (ien(>ral Nature in Force, Jan. 1, 1850" (2 vols., 
Chicajro. 18.*>C). These works were adopted by the 
geneml assembly. 

PURPLE, Samuel Smith, physician, b. in Leb- 
anon, Mmlison co., N. Y.. 24 June, 1822. He re- 
ceived a common-sch<K)l education and was gradu- 
ated at the medical department of the University 
of the city of New York in 1844. In 184G-'8 he 
was physician to the New York city disi)ensary, 
and he was ward physician in the board of health 
during the cholera epidemic of 1849. He was vice- 
president of the New York academv of medicine in 
1872-'5, its president from 1876 til'l 1880, and was 
made second vice-president of the New York gene- 
alogical and biogranhical society in 1888. His 
publications are " The Corpus Luteum " (1846) ; 
" Menstruation " (New York, 1846) ; " Contributions 
to the Practice of Midwifery " (1853); " Observa- 
tions on the Remedial Properties of SimabaCedron" 
(1K54); "Observations on Wounds of the Heart" 
(1855) ; " Genealogical Memorials of William Brad- 
ford, First Printer of New York " (1873) ; " In Me- 
moriam: Edwin R. Purple" (1881); and "Memoir 
of the Life and Writings of Hon. Teunis G. Bergen " 
(1881).— His brother, Edwin Ruthven, lawyer, b. 
in Sherburne, N. Y., 30 June, 1831 ; d. in New York 
city, 20 Jan., 1879, was educated at Earl ville acade- 
my. In 1850 he emigrated to California, studied 
law, was admitted to the bar in 1855, and served as 
county supervisor and justice of the fifth township 
in Calaveras county. In the autumn of 1862 he 
discovered, in connection with John White and five 
others, the first gold in Montana, on Willard's 
creek, a tributary of Beaver Hernl river. He con- 
tributed to the " New York Genealogical and Bio- 
graphical Reconl," and published " Genealogical 
Notes on the Golden Family in America " (New 
York, 1873) ; " Biographical and Genealogical Notes 
of the Provoost Family in New York" (1875); 
" Genealogical Notes relating to Lieut.-Gov. Jacob 
Leisler and his Family Connections in New York " 

il877); "Contributions to the History of the Kip 
•"amily of New York and New Jersey " (1877) ; and 
"Contributions to the History of Ancient Families 
of New Netherland and New York." which were 
coUectefl and published by his brother, with a me- 
moir (New York, 1881). 

PrRSH, Frederick, botanist, b. in Tobolsk, 
Siberia, in 1774; d, in Montreal, Canada, 11 June, 
1820. He was educated at Dresden, came to this 
country in 1799. and spent twelve years in botani- 
cal explorations in the I'nitwl States. He visited 
England in 1811, and published " Flora America* 
Septentrionalis, or a Systematic Arrangement and 
Description of the Plants of North America" (2 
voU^ ovo, London, 1814). He then returned, and 



died while he was coIle<;ting materials for a flora 
of Canada. His manuscript journal still exists. 
L'ntil su|)crse<Ie<l by Torrey and (iray's " Flom of 
North America," Pursh's wctrk was the nujst im- 
[xirtant <ni the l)<>tany of North America. 

Pl'RVIANCE. Hiigli Yuiin^, naval ofllcer, b. 
in Baltimon\ Md., 22 March, 1799: d. there. 21 
Oct., 188^1 He was wlucated at St. Mary's college 
in his native city, and in 1818 was ap[Niinied a mid- 
shipman in the U. S. navy. He served for two 
years on the East India station, in 1821 -'4 on the 
Pacific, and in 1824-'7 in the Mediterranean. In 
the last year he wa.s commissioned a lieutenant, and 
he served on the West India squadron in 1828-'30, 
and the Brazil squadron in 1837-'8. command- 
ing the brig "Dolphin." Ho relieved an American 
schooner from the F'rench blockade of the river 
Plate, and rec-eived a complimentar)' recfignition 
from the U. S. government for his services on the 
occasion. In 1846 he commanded the frigate " Con- 
stitution," of the blockading squadron in the Mexi- 
can war. On 7 March, 1849. he was commissioned 
commander, and assigned to the sloop-of-war " Ma- 
rion," on the coast of Africa, where he remained 
in 1852-'5. He received his commission as raptain, 
28 Jan., 1856, commanded the frigate "St. Ijiiw- 
renee," of the Charleston bhxikatling squadron, in 
1801, and captured the privateer " Petrel " oflF that 
port, the first prize of the civil war. He took jmrt 
m the fight with the "Merrimac" and in the at- 
tack on Sewall's point, Hampton Roads. He was 
retired, 21 Dec, 1861, commissioned commodore, 16 
July, 1862, and in 1863-'5 was light-house inspector. 

PURVIS, Robert, benefactor, b. in Charleston, 
S. C, 4 Aug.. 1810. His father, William Purvis, 
was a native of Northumlxsrland. England, and 
his mother was a free-lx)rn woman of Charleston, 
of Moorish descent. Robert was brought to the 
north in 1819. His father, though residing in a 
slave state, was never a slave-houler. but was an 
Abolitionist in principle. Before Rol)ert attained 
the age of manhood he formed the acquaintance 
of Benjamin Lundy. and in conjunction with him 
was an early laborer in the anti-slavery cause. Mr. 
Purvis was a memljcr of the Philadelphia conven- 
tion of 1833 which formed the American anti- 
slavery society, was its vice-president for many 
years, and signed its declaration of sentiments. He 
was also an active member of the Pennsylvania 
society, and its president for many years. His 
house was a well-known station on the " Under- 
ground railroad," and his horses, carriages, and his 
personal attendance were always at the service of 
fugitive slaves. His son, Charles Burlkigh, is 
surgi>on-in-chief of the Freedmen's hospital at 
Washington, D. C, and a professor in the medical 
department of Howard university. 

PUSEY, Caleb, colonist, b. in Berkshire, Eng- 
land, al)out 1650; d. in Chester county, Pa., 25 
Feb., 1727. He was educated as a Baptist, but 
subsequently became a Quaker, and was of Penn's 
company that came to Pennsylvania in 1682. lie- 
fore leaving England he united with Penn and 
a few others in formin^^ a "joint concern" for 
the " setting up " of mills in the new province, 
of which concern Pusey was chosen the mana- 
ger. He caused the framework to be prepar»>d and 
shipped in the " Welcome," and in 1683 en'cted 
on Chester creek, near what is now Upland. Pa., 
the famous mills known as the "Chester Mills." 
which were the first in the province under Penn's 
goveniment. Penn himself attended at the laying 
of the corner-stone. Pusey nuinaged the mills for 
many years, and came finally to own them, con- 
ducting an extensive milling business until hU 



138 



PUSHMATAHAW 



PUTNAM 



death. He held a high place in civil affairs, was 
eiipaged in liiyinp out roads and neeotiatinjf with 
the Indians, and for two years wius sheriff of Ches- 
ter eounty. Kor many years he wjis a jusliee of 
the iH>aee and of the county courts, and an associ- 
ate justice of the supreme court, serving also for 
ten years ()r more in the assembly, and for more 
tiian a quarter of a century in the supreme or pro- 
vincial council. His name constantly appears in 
the minutes of the Society of Friends among those 
who were most active in settling dilTiculties and in 
promoting deeds of iKmevolence. He frecjuently 
appeared in the mmistry. and jus a controversialist 
and a writer was one of the ablest and most noted 
of his sect in his day. His reply to Daniel Leeds 
was lilterally subscribed for by the meetings, and 
widely circulated. He was an intimate friend of 
George Keith, but. when the latter attacked the 
Quaker doctrines, Pusey was active among those 
who pronounced against him. From I*usey. Smith, 
the early hist<irian, obtained much of the material 
from which he made up his manuscript history, 
which formed the basis of l{()l>ert Proud's *• His- 
tory of Pennsylvania.'' In Hi})7 Pusey wjvs chosen 
by "the Quakers to l)e one of the committee to ex- 
amine all iMwks that the society proposed to pub- 
lish, wiiich post he held till his deatii. Among his 
published writings are "A Serious and Seasonable 
Warning unto all People occasioned by two most 
Dangerous Epistles to a late Hook of John Fall- 
doe's," addressed to the people called Anthony 
Palmer's Church (London, KiT;')); "A Modest Ac- 
count from Pennsylvania of the Principal Differ- 
ences in Point of Doctrine between (Jeorge Keith 
and those of the People called Quakers" (KJHtJ); 
'•Satan's Harbinger encountered ; His False News 
of a Strumpet detected," etc., a reply to Daniel 
Leeds's "News of a Strumpet" (Philadelphia, 
1700); "Daniel Leeds justly rebuked for abus- 
ing William Penn, and his Folly and Fals-Hoods 
contained in his Two Printed Challenges to Caleb 
Pusey made Manifest" (1702); "George Keith 
once more brought to the Test, and i)roved a Pre- 
varicator " (1708); "Proteus Ecclesiasticus, or 
George Keith varied in Fundamentals" (1703); 
" The Bond) searched and found stuff'd with False 
Ingredients, being a Just Confutation of an Abus- 
ive Printed Half-Sheet, call'd a Bomb, originally 
published against the Quakers, by Francis Bugg 
(1705); "Some Remarks upon a Late Pamphlet 
signed part by John Talbot and part by Daniel 
Leeds, called the Great Mystery of Fox-Craft " 
(1705); and "Some Brief Ol)scrvations made on 
Daniel Leeds, his Book, entitidcd ' The Second Part 
of the Mystery of Fox-Craft ' " (1706). For a fuller 
account of the titles of these works see " Issues of 
the Pennsylvania Press, 1685-1784," by Charles R. 
Hildeburn (1885). The imprint of Pusey's works, 
excepting the first two and the last, bear the name 
of Revnier Jansen. 

PUSHMATAHAW, Choctaw chief, b. in what 
is now Mississippi, in 1765; d. in Washington, D. C, 
24 Dec, 1824. He had distinguished himself on 
the war-path before he was twenty years old. He 
joined an expedition against the Osages west of the 
jlississippi, and was laughed at by the older mem- 
bers of the party because of his youth and a propen- 
.sity for talking. The Osages were defeated in a 
desjM'rate conflict that lasted an entire day. The 
lM)y disappeared early in the fight, and when he re- 
turned at midnight he was jeered at and openly ac- 
cusetl of cowardice. "Let those laugh," was his 
reply, "who can show more scalps than I can"; 
whereupon he took five from his pouch and threw 
them on the ground. They were the result of an 



onslaught he had made single-hande<l on the ene~ 
mv's rear. 'I'his feat gained for him the title of 
"iThe Kagle." After spending several years in 
Mexico, he went alone in the night to a I'orauqua 
village, killed seven men with his own hand, set 
fire to several tents, and made good his retreat un- 
injured. During the next two years he made three 
additional expeditions into the Torauqua country, 
and added eight fresh scalps to his war costume. 
For fifteen years nothing is known of his history, 
but in 1810 he was living on Tombigljee river, and 
enjoyed the reputation of lieing an expert at In- 
dian ball-playing. He also boasted that his name 
was Pushmatahaw, which means " The-warrior's- 
seat-is-finished." During the war of 1812 he 
promptly took sides with the United States. The 
council that decided the course of the Choctaws 
histed ten days. All the warriors counselled neu- 
trality, excepting John Pitchlynn, the interpreter, 
and t*ushmatahaw. Until the last day he kept 
silence, but then, rising, said : " The Creeks were 
once our friends. They have joined the English, 
and we must now follow different trails. When 
our fathers took the hand of Washington, they 
told him the Choctaws would always Imj the friends 
of his nation, and Pushmatahaw cannot be false to 
their promises. I am now ready to fight against 
both the English and the Creeks. ... I and my 
warriors are going to Tuscaloosa, and when you 
hear from us again the Creek fort will be in ashes." 
This prophecy was duly fulfilled. The Creeks and 
Seminoles allied themselves with the British, and 
Pushmatahaw made war on both tribes with such 
energy and success that the whites called him 
" The Indian General." In 1824 he went to Wash- 
ington in order, according to his own phraseology, 
to brighten the chain of peace between the Ameri- 
cans and the Choctaws. He was treated with great 
consideration by President Monroe and John C. 
Calhoun, secretary of war, and a record of his com- 
munications is to be found in the state archives. 
After a visit to Gen. Lafayette he was taken seri- 
ously ill. Finding that he was near his end, he ex- 
pressed the wish that he might he buried with 
military honors and that "big guns" might be 
fired over his grave. These requests were complied 
with, and a procession more than a mile in length 
followed him to his resting-place in the Congres- 
sional cemetery. Andrew Jackson frequently ex- 
pressed the opinion that Pushmatahaw was " the 
freatest and the bravest Indian he had ever 
nown " ; while John Randolph, of Roanoke, in 
Sronouncing a eulogy on him in the U. S. senate, 
eclared that he was " wise in counsel, eloquent in 
an extraordinary degi-ee and on all occasions, and 
under all circumstances the white man's friend." 

PUTNAM, Frederick Ward, anthropologist, 
b. in Salem, Mass., 16 April, 1839. He received an 
election to the Essex institute in 1855, and in 1856 
he entered the Lawrence scientific school as a special 
student under Louis Agassiz, who soon made him 
assistant in charge of the collection of fishes at the 
Harvard museum of comparative zoology, where 
he remained until 1864. Returning to Salem in 
the latter year, he was' given charge of the museum 
of the Essex institute, and in 1867 he was a|>- 

fointed superintendent of the museum of the East 
ndia marine society. These two collections were 
incornorate<i as the Peabody academy of sciences, 
and Prof. Putnam wjis made its director, which 
post he held until 1876. He was called to the 
charge of the collections of the Peabody museum 
of American archaeology and ethnology of Har- 
vard on the death of Jeffries Wyman in Septem- 
ber, 1874, and in 1886, in accordaifte with the ob- 



PUTNAM 



PUTNAM 



139 



ject of Oeorpp PouImmIv's trust, ho w»s appointwl 
nrrjfo.KSMir of Ann'ricmi un-hnK>|o>ry »n<l <«tlinolnjfy 
In Unrvanl. M<>niiwhilo. in 1H74. h« wjim an in- 
ntnjrlor lit tlu> S«'h(M)l of ntitunil history on Peni- 
ketR' i>iaii«l. hixI diirin); the wMio year ho wa« ap- 
iNiintHl an n>«.Histunt on the p:oolojji<'al survey of 
Kentucky. In 1H75 the engineer depart ment of 
the V. 'f>. army ap|)oint<?<l liini to examine and 
rejKirt on the arehjiHilojjieal eolleetions of the 

g>olo^'ieal and jreojjniplueal survey under Lieut, 
eorpe Si. Wheeler, and in 1H70-''H he was also 
assistant in charge of the collection of flslics in 
the .>lusouin of comparative zoology at Harvanl. 
Prof. Putnam has held the ofllco of state comniis- 
tiioner of Massiu-husetts on iidand fisheries, and 
in 1887 l)eciime commissioner of flsh and eame. 
His earliest jiaptir was a " Catalojfue of the iMrds 
of Kssex C't)unty, Massachusetts," which he fol- 
lowwi with various res«^arches in zoology, l)«it since 
1805 his work has been principally in American ar- 
chaH)loKj', or anthro|X)logv, and his accjuaintance 
with this subject is proijably unexcelled in the 
United States. His papers on this science exceetl 
200, and embrace descriptions of many mounds, 
burial-places, and shell-heaps and of the objects 
fouml in them. Prof. Putnam is a meml)er of 
manv historical and scientific soi-ieties here and 
in I^urojx'. and wjis elected to memlwrshii) in 1880 
in the National academy of sciences. He is also 
widely known by his office of pt»rmanent secretary 
of the American association for the advancement 
of science, which he ha.s held since 1873. At that 
time the memlwrship of the aasociation was barely 
500, and it now exceeds 2,000, a result which is at- 
tributed largely to his executive ability. Prof. 
Putnam has also l)een vice-president of the Essex 
institute since 1871, and was elected president of 
the Boston society of natural history in 1887. He 
was associated with Alpheus Hyatt, Edward S. 
Morse, and Alpheus S. Packard in the founding of 
the "American Naturalist" in 1867. and was one 
of its e<litors until 1875. He has also edited many 
• volumes of the " Proceedings of the Essex Insti- 
tute'," the " Annual Ileports of the Trustees of the 
PealKHly Academy of Science," and the " Proceed- 
ings of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science " since 1873, and the "Annual He- 
ports of the Peatx)dv Museum of Archaeology and 
Ethnology " since 1§74. He has also publishetl his 
rejK)rt to' the engineer department as volume vii. 
of the " I{ejM>rt upon Geographical and (xeological 
Explorations and Surveys West of the 100th Me- 
ri<luiii " (Washington, 1879). 

Pl'TNAM, Haldiniand Snmner. soldier, b. in 
Cornish, N. H., 15 Oct., 1835: d. near Fort Wag- 
ner, S. C, 18 July, 18(>J. He was graduated at the 
U. S. military academy in 1857, and entered the 
army in July as brevet 5d lieutenant of to|>ographi- 
cal engineers. From that time till a few months 
previous to the civil war he was engaged in explo- 
rations and surveys in the west, when the war 
began he was summoned to Washington and in- 
trusted with important despatches for Fort Pickens. 
He accomplished his mission, but, while returning 
to the north, was seized by the Confederates at 
Montgomery, Ala., and imprisoneti for sevend 
days. On his n-lease he was placed on Gen. Irvin 
McDowell's staff, partici|)ated in the battle of Bull 
Run, and gained the brevet of major for gallantry. 
In OctolHT he went to his native state and organ- 
ize<l the 7tli New Hampshire regiment, of which 
he Ijecame colonel in l)eceml)er, 18(51. It was sta- 
tioned during the first year of its si'nMce at F'ort 
Jefferson, on Tortugas island, and afterwanl at St. 
' Augustine, Fla., and in South Carolina. In 1863 




^''^c/^H^^;^ 



Col. Putnam comman«le«l a brigade in the Stono 
inlet ex|)e<lition. and in the capture <»f Morris 
island. In the assault on Fort Wagner, 18 July. 
1863. wliere he led the second storming cr)lunin, he 
was kille<l on the parap<>t of the work while rally- 
ing his men. Ho was made bre\et colonel. U. 8. 
army, 18 July, 18<W. Vnr about four months pre- 
ceding his death he was acting brigadier- general. 
Pl'TNAM, Israel, soldier, b. in that partof the 
town of Sidem, Mass.. which has since In'on set off 
as tlie town of Danvers. 7 Jan., 1718; d. in Bnnik- 
Ivn, Conn., 19 May, 1790. His great-gnindfather, 
John Putnam, with his wife, PriM-illa. came from 
England in 1(534, and settle<l in Salem. Thev 
brought with them three sons. Thonuis. Nathanael, 
and John. All three acquire<l large estates, and 
were men of much 
consideration. In 
1681, of the total 
tax levied in Sa- 
lem village, raised 
fmm ninetj-four 
tax-payers, for the 
support of the lo- 
cal church, the 
three Putnams 

raid one seventh, 
n 1666 Thomas 
Putnam married, 
for hissecond wife, 
the widow of Na- 
thanael Veren. a 
wealthy merchant 
and ship-owner. 
By this marriage 
heacquired wealth 
in Jamaica and Barbadoes. Joseph, the son of 
this marriage, was born in 1670, and at the age 
of twenty married Elizabeth, daughter of Israel 
Porter, in the witchcraft frenzy of 1692, Joseph's 
sister was one of the accused, and only saved her- 
self by fleeing to the wilderness and hiding till the 
search was given up. The Putnam family has 
always been prominent in the history of Salem and 
its neighlx)rnood. Of the 74 reconling clerks of 
the parish of Danvers. 24 have l)een Putnams; and 
this family has furnished 15 of the 2S deacons, 12 
of the 26 treasurers, and 7 of the 18 superintendents 
of the Sabbath-school. In 1867, of the 800 voters 
in Danvers. 50 were Putnams. 

Israel Putnam, son of Joseph and Elizabeth, was 
the tenth of eleven children. At the age of twenty 
he married Hannah, daughter of Josi-ph Po|)e, of 
Salem village. In 1739 Israel and his brother-in- 
law, John Pope, bought of (iov. Belcher 514 acres 
in Mortlake manor, in what is now Windham 
county. Conn. By 1741 Israel had lK)ught out his 
brother-in-law and become owner of the whole 
tnw't. The Mortlake manor formed part of the 
township of Pomfret. but as early as 1734 it was 
formed into a distinct parish, known as Mortlake 
parish. In 1754 its name was change«l to Brooklyn 
parish, and in 1786 it was set off as a s«'parate town- 
ship under the name of Brooklyn. The old Putnam 
farm is on the top of the high hill between the 
villages of Pomfret and Brooklyn. For many years 
Israel Putnam devoted himself to the cultivation 
of this farm, and it was considered one of the finest 
in New England. He gave especial attention to 
sheep-raising and to fruits, especially winter apples. 
In 1733 the town siistaiiMHl four public scIkhiIs: in 
1739 there was a public circulating library: and in 
the class of 1759. at Yale college, ten of the gnul- 
uates were from Pomfret. These symptoms of 
high civilization were found in a community not 



140 



PUTNAM 



PUTNAM 



yet entirely freed from the assaults of wild beasts. 
By 1735 all the wolves of the neighborhood seem 
to have l)een slain save one old female that for 
some scasfnis more went on ravapinj; the farm-yards. 
Her lair was not far from Putnam's farm, and one 
night she slew sixty or seventy of his fine sheep. 
Perhaps no incident in Putnam's career is so often 

auoteti a.s his share in the wolf-hunt, ending in his 
escending into the dark, narrow cave, shooting 
his enemy at short range, and dragging her forth 
in triumph. It was the one picturesfjue event in 
his life previous to 1755, when Connecticut was 
called upon for 1.000 men to defend the northern 
approacnes to New York against the anticipated 
French invjision. This force was commanded by 
Maj.-Gen. Phinejis Lyman, and one of its companies 
was assigned to Putnam, with the mnk of captain. 
Putnam was t)resent at the battle of Lake George, 
in which William Johnson won his baronetcy by 
defeating Dieskau. lie l)ecame one of the loa<ling 
memlK'rs of the famous bund of Hangers that did 
so much to annoy and embarniss the enemy during 
the next two years. In 1757 he was promoted 
major. Among the incidents illustrating his per- 
sonal bravery, those most often quoted are — first, 
his rescue of a party of soldiers from the Indians 
by steering them in a bateau down the dangerous 
rapids of tTie Hudson near Fort Miller ; and, second- 
ly, his saving Fort Edward from destruction by 
fire, at the imminent risk of losing his life in the 
flames. In a still more terrible way he was brought 
into peril from fire. In August, 1758, he was taken 
prisoner in a sharp skirmish near Wood creek, and 
after some prelimniary tortures, his savage captors 
decided to burn him alive. He had been stripped 
and bound to the tree, and the flames were searing 
his flesh, when a French officer, Capt. Molang, came 
rushing through the crowd, scattered the firebrands, 
cuffed and upbraided the Indians, and released 
their victim. Putnam was carried to Montreal, 
and presently freed by exchange. In 1759 he was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel, and put in command 
of a regiment. In 1760 he accompanied Gen. Am- 
herst in his march from Oswego to Montreal. In 
descending the St. Lawrence it became desirable to 
dislodge the French garrison from Fort Oswe- 
gatchie ; but the approach to this place was guarded 
by two schooners, the larger of which mounted 
twelve guns, and was capable of making serious 
havoc among the English boats. " I wish there 
were some way of taking that infernal schooner," 
said Amherst. "All right," said Putnam; "just 
give me some wedges and a mallet, and half-a-dozen 
men of my own choosing, and I'll soon take her for 
vou." The British general smiled incredulously, 
but presently authorized the adventurous Yankee 
to proceed. In the night Putnam's little party, in 
a light boat with muffled oars, rowed under the 
schooner's stern and drove the wedges between the 
rudder and the stern-post so firmly »is to render the 
helm unmanageable. Then going around under 
the bow, they cut the vessel's cable, and theti rowed 
softly away. Before morning the helpless schooner 
had drifted ashore, where she struck her colors ; the 
other French vessel then surrendered, thus uncov- 
ering the fort, which Amherst soon captured. In 
1762 Col. Putnam accompanied Gen. Lyman in the 
expedition to the West Indies, which, after frightful 
sufferings, ended in the capture of Havana. In 1764 
he commanded the Connecticut regiment in Brad- 
street's little army, sent to relieve Detroit, which 
Pontiac was besieging. At the end of the year he 
returned home, after nearly ten years of rough cam- 
paigning, with the full rank of colonel. In 1765 his 
wife died, leaving the youngest of their ten children 



an infant about a year old. In 1767 Col. Putnam 
married Delxirah, widow of John Gardiner, with 
whom he lived happily until her death in 1777. 
There were no children by this second marriage. 
Col. Putnam united with the church in Brooklyn, 
19 May, 1765. For the next ten years his life was 
uneventful. During this period lie used his house 
as an inn, swinging before the door a sign-Vward 
on which were depicted the features of Gen. Wolfe. 
This sign is now m the possession of the Connecti- 
cut historical society at Hartford. In the winter 
of 1772-'3 heacc(mipanied Gen. Lyman in a voyage 
to the mouth of the Mississippi, and up that river 
to Natchez, where the British government had 
granted some territory to the Connecticut troops 
who had survived the dreadful West India cam- 
paign. In the course of this voyage they visited 
Jamaica and Pensacola. After 1765 Col. Putnam 
was conspicuous among the " .Sons of Liberty " in 
Connecticut. In August, 1774. before Gen. Gage 
had quite shut up the approaches to Boston, and 
while provisions iromall the colonies were pouring 
into tnat town, Putnam rode over the Neck with 
130 sheep as a gift from the parish of Brooklyn. 
During his stay in Boston he was the guest of Dr. 
Warren. On 20 April following, early in the after- 
noon, a despatch irom the committee of safety at 
Watertown reached Pomfretwith news of the fight 
at Concord. The news found Putnam ploughing a 
field. Leaving his plough in the furrow, and with- 
out waiting to don his uniform, he mounted a 
horse, and at sunrise of the 21st galloped into 
Cambridge. Later in the same day he was at Con- 
cord, whence he sent a despatch to Poraf ret, with 
directions about the bringing up of the militia. He 
was soon summoned to Hartford, to consult with 
the legislature of Connecticut, and, after a week, 
returned to ("ambridge. with the chief command of 
the forces of that colony, and the rank of brigadier. 
There has been a great deal of controversy as to 
who commanded the American troops at Bunker 
Hill, and there is apparently no reason why the 
controversy should not be kept up, as long as the 
question is at bottom one of rivalry between Con- 
necticut and Massachusetts. The difficulty in set- 
tling it points to the true conclusion, that the work 
of that battle was largely the work of distinct 
bodies of men hardly organized as vet into an 
array. • It is even open to question how far the 
troops of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, and Connecticut, then engaged in besieg- 
ing Boston, are to be regarded as four armies or.a8 
one army. From the nature of the situation, 
rather tlian by any right of seniority. Gen. Ward, 
of Ma-ssachusetts, exercised practically the com- 
mand over the whole. On the day of Bunker Hill, 
it would seem that the actual command was exer- 
cised by Prescott at the redoubt and by Stark at 
the rail-fence. Warren was the ranking officer on 
the field ; but as he expressly declined the com- 
mand, it left Putnam tne ranking officer, and in 
that capacity he withdrew men with intrenching 
tools from Prescott's party, undertook to throw up 
earthworks on the crest of Bunker Hill in the rear, 
and toward the close of the day conducted the re- 
treat and directed the fortifying of Prospect Hill. 
Putnam was, therefore, no doubt the rauKing offi- 
cer at Bunker Hill, though it does not appear that 
the work of Prescott and Stark was in any wise 
done under his direct i<m. The question would be 
more important had the battle of Bunker Hill been 
characterized by any grand tactics. As no special 
generalship was involved, and the significance of 
the battle lay in its moral effects, th* question has 
little interest except for local patriots. 



PUTNAM 



PUTNAM 



141 



Tli«' work nf nrffAiiixiiif; a Continental army i)e- 
gan in Jinn*. ITTS, wlu-n confrn'ss assuuK'd control 
of till' tnH>|M nl>oiit Itoston, and, aftor u|>|>ointinf; 
Watthinirton to tlit> chief command. a|>|>oint(Hl 
Wanl. Lee, Schuyler, and Putnam lu* the four 
major-penerals. In his newcajwicity (Jen. Putnam 
commniide<l the centre of the army at Cambridge, 
while Ward commandinl the ri;rht wiiijj at H<>x- 
bury. and Ltv the left winj; stretching to the .Mys- 
tic river. After the ca|>ture of Hoston, (Jen. 
Washin>jt<m sent Putnam to New York, where he 
took command. 5 April, 1776. On 25 Aufj., wf 
Gen. Greene, who commanded the works on Bniok- 
Ivn heiKht-H, had been seized with a fever, Gen. 
Putnam was placed in command there. For the 
disastrous defeat of the Americans, two days after- 




ward, he can in no wise be held responsible. He 
was blamed at the time for not posting on the 
Jamaica road a force sufficient to check Corn- 
wallis's flanking march: but, as Chief-Justice Mar- 
shall long ago ])ointed out, this criticism was sim- 
ply silly, since the flanking force on the Jamaica 
road outnumbered the whole American army. In- 
deed there is no need of blaming any one in order 
to account for the defeat of 5,(X)0 half-trained sol- 
diers by 20.000 veterans. The wonder is, not that 
the Americans were defeated on Long Island, but 
that they should have given Gen. Howe a good day's 
work in defeating them, thus leading the British 
general to pause, and giving Wjushington time to 
plan the withdrawal of the army from its exposeti 
situation. As Putnam deserves no blame for the 
defeat, so he deserves no special credit for this obsti- 
nate resistance, which was chiefly the work of Stir- 
ling and Smallwood, and the Maryland " macaro- 
nis," in their heroic defence of the Gowanus road. 
After the armv had crossed to New York, Putnam 
commanded the rear division, which held the city 
until the landing of the British at Kip's bav obliged 
it to fall back upon Bloomingdale. In the action 
at Harlem heights, part of Putnam's force, under 
Col. Knowlton, was especially distinguished. The 
futile device of barring the ascent of the Hudson 
river, l)etween Forts Washington and Lee, by che- 
i<aujr (le frise, is generally as<Tibed to Putnam. In 
the affair at Chatterton hill, Putnam marched to 
the assistance of Gen. McDougall. but arrived too 
late. In the disastrous iK'riod that followed the 
capture of Fort Washington and the treachery of 
Charles Lee, Putnam was put in command of Phila- 
delphia. After the retreat of the enemy upon New 
Brunswick, 4 Jan., 1777, he brought forward the 
American right wing to Princeton, where he re- 
nmine<l in command till the middle of May. He 
was then intniste<l with the defence of the high- 
lands of the Hudson river with headcjuarters at 
Peekskill. His command there was marked by a 
characteristic incident. Kdround Palmer, lieuten- 
ant in a loyalist regiment, was caught lurking in 
the American camp, and was condemned to death 



as a spy. There seeme«l to 1m» a tacit assumption, 
on the part of the British, that, while American 
spies were punishable with death, this did not hold 
true of British spies: that American commanders, 
as not representing anv acknowl«'dg«'d H4)vereignty, 
could not |K»s8ess any legal authority for inflicting 
the death-iK>nalty. This assumption jn'rvades sf»me 
British opinions upon the cas*- of Andre. In reli- 
ance ufK)n some such assumotion, .Sir Henrj' Clin- 
ton s<!nt up from New York a flag of truce, and 
threatencnl Putnam with signal vengeance, should 
he dare to injure the {wrson of the king's Mege 
subject, E<imund Palmer. The old general's reply 
was brief and to the point : " Heiulquarters. 7 Aug.. 
1777. — Edmund Palmer, an officer in the enemy's 
service, was taken as a spy lurking within our lines ; 
he ha8l)een tried as a spy, condemned as a spy, and 
shall lie executed as a spv, and the flag is ordered 
to de