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As it is the commendation of a good huntsman to find game in a wide wood, 
so it is no imputation if he hath not caught all. Plato. 





1, 3 and 5 BOND STKEET 

E I7fc 
v, b 

Copyright, 1889, 

o H 5*3.3 
Baacxoit Libr%Jt7 


• '. "Washington, George 


Taylor, Zachary 
Thomas, George Henry 
Tyler, John 
Van Buren, Martin 

\ Waite, Morrison Remick 


I Webster, Daniel 

"Whittier, John Greenleaf 

Winthrop, John 
K Harrison, Benjamin 










Face 51 


























Adams, Charles Kendall, 

President of Cornell University. 
Allibone, S. Austin, 

Author " Dictionary of Authors." 

Amory, Thomas C, 

Author '• Life of General Sullivan." 

Baird, Henry Carey, 

Economist and Publisher. 

Bancroft, George, 

Author " History of the United States." 

Bayard, Thomas F., 

Secretary of State. 

Beehler, William H., 

Lieutenant U. S. Navy. 

Bradley, Joseph P., 

Justice United States Supreme Court. 
Brooks, Phillips, 

Author " Sermons in English Churches." 
Browne, Junius Henri, 

Journalist and Author. 

Buckley, James Monroe, 

Clergyman and Author. 

Butterfield, Daniel, 

Late of the U. S. Army. 

Carter, Franklin, 

President of Williams College. 
Chandler, William E., 

Ex-Secretary of the Navy. 

Conway, Moncure Daniel, 

Author " Edmund Randolph." 

Cooke, John Esten, 

Author " Life of Gen. Robert E. Lee." 

Coppee, Henry, 

Professor in Lehigh University, Pa. 

Coxe, Arthur Cleveland, 

P. E. Bishop of Western New York. 

Cullum, Gen. George W., TJ. S. A., 

Author '• Register of West Point Graduates." 

Curtis, George Ticknor, 

Author '• Life of James Buchanan." 

Curtis, George William, 

Author and Editor. 
Custer, Mrs. Elizabeth B., 

Author •• Tenting on the Plains." 
Davis, Jefferson, 

Late President of Confederate States. 
Dean, John Ward, 

Of New England Historic-Genealogical Society. 
Delafield, Maturin L., 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

De Lancey, Edward F., 

Ex-President Genealogical and Biographical Society. 
Didier, Eugene Lemoine, 

Author " Life of Edgar Allan Poe." 
Dix, Morgan, 

Rector of Trinity Church, New York. 

Doane, William C, 

P. E. Bishop of Albany. 
Draper, Lyman C, 

Secretary of Wisconsin Historical Society. 
Egle, William Henry, 

Author "History of Pennsylvania." 

Ewell, Benjamin Stoddert, 

Late President of William and Mary College. 

Fiske, John, 

Author and Professor. 

Fowler, Joseph Smith, 

Late U. S. Senator. 

Fowler, Robert Ludlow, 

Member of New York Bar. 

Frothingham, Octavius Brooks, 

Author " Life of George Ripley." 

Gayarre, Charles E. A., 

Author " History of Louisiana." 

Gerry, Elbridge T., 

Member of New York Bar. 

Gilman, Daniel C, 

President of Johns Hopkins University. 

Gilmore, James Roberts, 

Author "Rear-Guard of the Revolution." 

Gleig, George Robert, 

Ex-Chaplain-General British Army. 

Greely, Gen. A. W., TJ. S. A., 

Author "Three Years' Arctic Service." 
Green, William Mercer, 

Late P. E. Bishop Mississippi. 

Greene, Capt. Francis Vinton, 

Author " The Vicksburg Campaign." 

Griffis, William Elliot, 

Author " Life of Com. M. C. Perry." 

Guild, Reuben A., 

Librarian of Brown University. 

Hale, Edward Everett, 

Author " Franklin in France." 
Hart, Charles Henry, 

Member of Philadelphia Bar. 

Hay, John, 

Author " Life of Abraham Lincoln." 

Hayne, Paul Hamilton, 

Author and Poet. 

Headley, Joel Tyler, 

Author and Clergyman. 

Henry, William Wirt, 

Of the Virginia Historical Society. 

Higginson, Col. Thomas W., 

Author " History of the United States." 
Holmes, Dr. Oliver Wendell, 

Author and Poet. 

Howe, Mrs. Julia Ward, 

Author "Later Lyrics." 
Huntington, William R., 

Rector of Grace Church, New York. 



Isaacs, Abram S., 


Jay, John, 

Late Minister to Austria. 

Johnson, Bradley Tyler, 

Member of Maryland Bar. 
Johnson, Rossiter, 

Author and Editor. 

Johnston, William Preston, 

President of Tulane University. 
Jones, Charles C, 

Historian of Georgia. 

Jones, Horatio Gates, 

Vice-President of Pennsylvania Historical Society. 
Jones, William Alfred, 

Author " Character and Criticisms." 
Kendrick, James By land, 

Ex-President Vassar College. 

Lamb, Mrs. Martha J., 

Historian of New York City. 

Lathrop, George Parsons, 

Author " A Study of Hawthorne." 
Latrobe, John H. B., 

President Maryland Historical Society. 

Leach, Josiah Granville, 

Member of Philadelphia Bar. 

Lincoln, Robert T., 

Ex-Secretary of War. 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, 

Author '• Life of Hamilton." 
Lowell, James Russell, 

Late Minister to Great Britain. 

McCormick, Richard C, 

Late Governor of Arizona. 
Mathews, William, 

Author " Orators and Oratory." 
McMaster, John Bach, 

Author " History of the People of the United States." 
Mitchell, Donald G., 

Author " Reveries of a Bachelor." 

Mombert, Jacob I., D. D., 

Author " History of Charles the Great." 
Norton, Charles Eliot, 

Professor Harvard University. 

O'Connor, Joseph, 

Editor Rochester, N. Y., " Post-Express." 

Parkman, Francis, 

Author " Frontenac " and " French in Canada." 
Partem, James, 

Author and Essayist. 
Phelan, James, 

Editor Memphis, Tenn., "Avalanche." 
Phelps, William Walter, 

Member of Congress from New Jersey. 
Pierrepont, Edwards, 

Ex-Attorney-Gencral United States. 

Porter, David D., 

Admiral United States Navy. 
Porter, Gen. Horace, 

Formerly of Gen. Grant's Staff. 

Potter, Henry Codman, 

Bishop of Now York. 

Preston, Mrs. Margaret Junkin, 

Author and Poet. 

Read, John Meredith, 

Late Minister to Greece. 

Ricord, Frederick W., 

Of New Jersey Historical Society. 
Robinson, Ezekiel G., 

President of Brown University. 

Rodenbough, Theophilus S., 

Late of the U. S. Army. 

Romero, Mattias, 

Mexican Minister to the United States. 

Scharf, John Thomas, 

Historian of Maryland. 

Schurz, Carl, 

Ex-Secretary of the Interior. 

Schweinitz, Edmund A. de, 

Late Moravian Bishop. 

Sedgwick, Arthur G., 

Member of New York Bar* 
Sherman, William T., 

Late General of the United States Army. 
Smith, Charles Emory, 

Editor Philadelphia " Press." 

Stedman, Edmund C, 

Poet and Critic. 

Stille, Charles Janeway, 

Author " History of the Sanitary Commission." 
Stewart, George, Jr., 

President Quebec Historical Society. 
Stoddard, Richard Henry, 

Author and Poet. 

Stone, William L., 

Author "Life of Red Jacket." 
Strong, William, 

Ex-Justice United States Supreme Court. 
Stryker, William Scudder, 

Adjutant-General of New Jersey. 

Symington, Andrew James, 

Author "Life of William Cullen Bryant." 

Tanner, Benjamin T., 

Editor "African Methodist Episcopal Review." 

Tenner, WiUiam Christian, 

Graduate of the University of Paris. 
Tucker, J. Randolph, 

Member of Congress from Virginia. 

Vinton, Arthur Dudley, 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Wadleigh, Bainbridge, 

Ex-United States Senator. 

Warner, Charles Dudley, 

Author and Journalist. 

Welling, James C, 

President of Columbian University. 
Whittier, John Greenleaf, 

Author and Poet. 

Wilson, James Grant, 

President Genealogical and Biographical Society. 
Wilson, James Harrison, 

Author " Life of Ulysses S. Grant." 
Winslow, WiUiam C, 

Author and Clergyman. 

Winter, William, 

Poet and Theatrical Critic. 
Winthrop, Robert C, 

Ex-United States Senator. 

Wright, Marcus Joseph, 

Late of the Confederate Army. 

Young, John Russell, 

Author and Journalist. 

Among the Contributors to the sixth volume of this work are the following . 

Samuel Austin Allibone, LL. D. 
Ticknor, George. 

Henry Carey Baird. 

Walbach, John de Barth, 
Washington, William. 

Lieut. William H. Beehler, U. S. N. 

Articles on Officers of the U. S. Navy. 

Marcus Benjamin, F. C. S. 
Wyman, -Jeffries, 
Harrison, Benjamin. (In Supplement.) 

Arthur Elmore Eostwick, Ph. D. 
Winthrop, Theodore, 
Fuller, Melville W. (In Supplement.) 

James C. Brogan. 
Thorfinn the Dane, 
Warren, John Collins. 

Junius Henri Browne. 
Thompson, Maurice, 
Watterson, Henry. 

James Monroe Buckley, D. D., LL. D. 

Articles on Methodist Episcopal Bishops. 

Mrs. Isa Carrington Cabell. 
The Van Rensselaer Family, 
Washington, Martha. 

Jefferson Davis. 
Taylor, Zachary. 

John Ward Dean. 
Ward, Nathaniel, 


Edward Floyd De Lancey. 
The Van Cortlandt Family. 

Eugene Lemoine Didier. 
Thompson, Robert Ellis, 
Tiernan, Luke. 

Capt. James W. Dixon. 

Terry, Alfred Howe, 
Wright, Horatio Governeur. 

William Henry Egle, M. D. 
Watts, Frederick, 


Col. Benjamin Stoddert Ewell. 
Stoddert, Benjamin, 
Tucker, Judge St. George. 

Prof. John Fiske. 

Tyler, John, 
Webster, Daniel. 

Octavius Brooks Frothingham. 
Thoreau, Henry David. 

Albert H. Gallatin, M. D. 
Voce, George Leonard, 
Woodhouse, James. 

James Roberts Gilmore. 
Wayne, Anthony, 
Wilkinson, James. 

Daniel Goodwin. 

Blodgett, Henry W. (In Supplement.) 
Lawrence, Charles B. (In Supplement.) 

Andrew H. Green. 

Tilden, Samuel Jones. 

William Elliot Griffis, D. D. 
Van Curler, Arendt, 
Yung Wing. 

Albert David Hager. 
Trumbull, Lyman, 
Yates, Richard. 

Jacob Henry Hager. 
Vallandigham, Clement Laird, 
Wigfall, Louis Trezevant. 

Miss Emma Polk Harris. 
Torbert, Alfred Thomas A., 
Wesley, John. 

Charles Henry Hart. 

Willis, William. 
Prof. Samuel Hart. 

Wheaton, Nathaniel Sheldon, 

Williams, Bishop John. 

Rev. Horace E. Hayden. 
The Van Dyke Family, 
Wood, James. 

George Morgan Hills, D. D. 
Talbot, John, 
Wharton, Charles Henry. 

Prof. James Kendall Hosmer. 

Vane, Sir Henry. 

Cecil H. C. Howard. 

The Waldron Family. 

Frank Huntington. 
Taney, Roger Brooke, 
Whitefield, George. 

Abram S. Isaacs, Ph. D. 

Articles on Jewish Clergymen. 

Gen. Bradley Tyler Johnson. 

Tilghman, Matthew and Lloyd, 
Trimble, Isaac Ridgeway. 

Rossiter Johnson, Ph. D. 

Webster, Noah, 
Worcester, Joseph Emerson. 


Col. William Preston Johnson. 
Tulane, Paul. 

Col. Charles Colcock Jones. 
Ware, Nicholas. 

John "Woolf Jordan. 

Articles on Moravian Clergymen. 
Gen. Thomas Jordan. 
Vogdes, Israel. 

William Linn Keese. 
Tuckerman, Henry Theodore. 

James Ryland Kendrick, D. D. 
The Vassar Family, 
The Wayland Family. 

Rufus King. 
Woodhull, Maxwell. 

Prof. Samuel Archer King. 
Wise, John. 

Mrs. Martha J. Lamb. 

Waite, Morrison Remick. 

John H. B. Latrobe. 

Wilson, Thomas. 

Col. Josiah Granville Leach. 
Articles on Pennsylvanians. 

James Russell Lowell, LL. D. 
Whittier, John Greenleaf. 

Richard Cunningham McCormick. 
Thurman, Allen Granbery. 

William Mathews, LL. D. 
Wirt, William. 
Whipple, Edwin Percy. 

Gen. George A. Porterfleld. 
Terrill, William Rufus. 

Mrs. Margaret Junkin Preston. 

Thompson, John Reuben, 
Timrod, Henry. 

Frederick W. Ricord. 
White, Anthony Walton, 
Winds, William. 

Herman Bitter. 
Articles on South and Central Americans. 

Gen. Theophilus F. Rodenbough., Daniel, 
Upton, Emory. 

Eugene Coleman Savidge. 
V.u x. Roberts and Richard, 
Weight, Charles Barstow. 

Col. John Thomas Scharf. 
Tatnall, Henry Lea, 
Tucker, John Randolph. 

Bishop Edmund de Schweinitz. 
Articles on Moravian Clergymen. 

Prof. Nathaniel Southgate Shaler. 
Winturop, Prof. John. 

Charles W. Shields, D. D. 

Welling, James Clarke. 

Miss Esther Singleton. 
Walters, William T.. 
The Wentworth Family. 

Jesse Ames Spencer, D. D. 
Articles on Protestant Episcopal Clergymen. 

Edmund Clarence Stedman. 
Taylor, Bayard. 

George Stewart, Jr. 

U^her, Brandram Boileau, 
Young, Sir Charles. 

Col. Henry Stone. 
Thomas, George Henry, 
Willich, August. 

William Leete Stone. 
The Walworth Family, 
Wisner, Henry. 

Andrew James Symington, F. S. A. 
Whitman, Walter, 
Wilson, Alexander. 

Bishop Benjamin T. Tanner. 
Articles on African Clergymen. 

William Christian Tenner. 

The Vaudreuil Family, 
volney, constantine francois. 

Bayard Tuckerman. 
The Tuckerman Family. 

John WiUiam Weidemeyer. 
Wallace, James William and Lester, 
Woodford, Stewart Lyndon. 

Frank Weitenkampf. 

Articles on Artists and Musicians. 

James Clarke Welling, LL. D. 
Van Buren, Martin. 

John Greenleaf Whittier. 
Wilson, Henry. 

Gen. James Grant Wilson. 
Warner. Susan and Anna Bartlett, 
Willis, Nathaniel Parker. 

Walter Sibbald Wilson. 
Wilson, William, 
Clark, Emmons. (In Supplement.) 

Rev. William C. Winslow. 
Weed, Stephen Hinsdale, 
The Winslow Family. 

Robert Charles Winthrop, LL. D. 
Winthrop, John. 
Washington, George. 

Robert C. Winthrop, Jr. 
The Winthrop Family. 

Gen. Marcus Joseph Wright. 
Van Dorn, Earl, 
Watterson, Harvey McGee. 




SUNDERLAND, Le Roy, author, b. in Exeter, 
R. I., 18 May, 1802 ; d. in Quincy, Mass., 15 May, 

1885. He was apprenticed to a shoemaker at East 
Greenwich, R. I., was converted to Methodism, be- 
came a preacher at Walpole, Mass., in 1823, and was 
soon known as an orator of great power. He was 
prominent in the temperance and anti-slavery 
movements, presided at the meeting in New York 
city in October, 1834, when the first Methodist anti- 
slavery society was organized, and in December 
wrote the " Appeal " to Methodists against slavery, 
which was signed by ministers of the church in 
New England. He was appointed a delegate to the 
first anti-slavery convention in the west, at Cincin- 
nati, in 1841, and to the World's convention in 
1843, in London. His preaching was attended by 
strange phenomena. Under his first sermon the 
entire audience was " struck down by the power of 
God," as it was then called ; and ever afterward 
when he preached with reference to the awakening 
of sinners such manifestations appeared to a greater 
or less extent. His study of such phenomena had 
doubtless a determinative effect in his subsequent 
denial of Christianity, which he opposed during 
forty years preceding his death. He edited " The 
Watchman" in New York in 1836-'43; "The 
Magnet " in 1842-'3 ; " The Spirit World," at Bos- 
ton, in 1850-2; and was a large contributor to 
various religious periodicals. He published " Bib- 
lical Institutes " (New York, 1834) ; " Appeal on 
the Subject of Slavery " (Boston, 1834) ; " History 
of the United States " (New York, 1834) ; " History 
of South America " (1834) ; " Testimony of God 
against Slavery " (Boston, 1834) ; " Anti-Slavery 
Manual" (New York, 1837); "Mormonism Ex- 
posed " (1842) ; " Pathetism, with Practical Instruc- 
tions " (1843) ; " Book of Health " (1847) ; " Pathet- 
ism : Man considered in Respect to his Soul, Mind, 
Spirit" (1847); "Pathetism: Statement of its 
Philosophy, and its Discovery Defended" (1850); 
" Book of Psychology " (1852) ; " Theory of Nutri- 
tion and Philosophy of Healing without Medicine " ; 
"Book of Human Nature" (1853); and "The 
Trance, and how Introduced " (Boston, 1860). 

SUNDERLAND, Thomas, jurist, b. in Terre 
Haute, Ind., in 1821 ; d. in New York city, 9 Oct., 

1886. He studied law early in life, and went to 
California during the gold excitement of 1849. 
After securing a large fortune, he engaged in the 
practice of his profession, and became chief justice 
of the supreme court of California. He resided in 
Nevada for some time, and was urged ineffectually 

vol. vi. — 1 


to become Democratic candidate for U. S. senator 
from that state. He served for many years in the 
California legislature, and was an active member 
of the Scientific society of San Francisco. 

SUPLEE, Thomas Danly (su-play), educator, 
b. in Philadelphia, 17 April, 1846. He was gradu- 
ated at Princeton in 1870, and studied at Union 
and Princeton theological seminaries and at the 
Protestant Episcopal divinity-school in Philadel- 
phia. He became professor of Latin in Shattuck 
school, Faribault, Minn., in 1876, vice-rector of St. 
Augustine college, Benicia, Cal., in 1877, head- 
master of Trinity school, Tivoli-on-Hudson, N. Y., 
in 1879, head-master of Harcourt place school, 
Gambier, Ohio, in 1882, and rector of Courtlandt 
place school, Lakewood, N. J., in 1885, which post 
he still holds. He has published "Frank Muller, 
or Labor and its Fruits" (Philadelphia, 1869); 
" Pebbles from the Fountain of Castalia," poems 
(1870) ; " Riverside : a Romance " (Princeton, 1871) ; 
" Plain Talks " (Trenton, 1872) ; " Life of Ephraim 
Dod Saunders, D. D., Founder of the Presbyterian 
Hospital in Philadelphia " (Philadelphia, 1873) ; and 
has edited " Trench on the Studv of Words " (New 
York, 1878) ; " Life of Theodore Bland Pryor, First 
Mathematical Fellow of Princeton College " (San 
Francisco, 1879) ; and " Hand-Book of Civil Govern- 
ment under the Constitution of the United States " 
(Philadelphia, 1883). Mr. Suplee is preparing a 
life of Richard Realf (q. v.), and editing his poems. 

SUTCLIFFE, Thomas, British soldier. He 
rose to be a colonel in the army, and was for some 
time governor of the island of Juan Fernandez. 
He published " Sixteen Years in Chili and Peru, 
1822-'39 " (London, 1841), and " Crusoniana, or the 
History of the Island of Juan Fernandez " (1843). 

SUTHERLAND, Alexander, Canadian cler- 
gyman, b. in Guelph, Ont., 17 Sept., 1833. He was 
the son of a Scottish farmer, but, his father dying, 
he received few educational advantages. He learned 
the printing trade, but, uniting with the Methodist 
church, studied for the ministry, and was licensed 
as a preacher in 1859. He was afterward stationed 
at Niagara, but in 1861 removed to Thorold, and. 
till 1874 was settled at Drummondville, Hamilton, 
Yorkville, Toronto, and Montreal. He was secre- 
tary of the conference in 1870-1, delegate to the 
general conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
church at Brooklyn, N. Y., and in .1874, when the 
union of the Methodist churches in Canada was 
consummated, he was appointed secretary and 
treasurer of Methodist missions. In connection 



with this office it has been his duty to visit the 
greater part of the Dominion, and he has won 
everywhere a reputation for eloquence. In 1879 
he made a vigorous effort to clear the church mis- 
sions department of a debt of $75,000, which re- 
sulted in the collection of $116,000. He was sec- 
retary to the conference again in 1878. and in 1879 
received the degree of D. D. from Victoria college. 
He has published " A Summer in Prairie Land " 
(Toronto, 1882). 

SUTHERLAND, Joel B., jurist, b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., in 1791 ; d. there, 15 Nov., 1861. He 
was graduated as a physician at the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1812, served in the war with Great 
Britain in 1813, and subsequently was a member 
of the Pennsylvania legislature. He was a mem- 
ber of congress in 1827-'37, chairman of the com- 
mittee on commerce in 1835-'7, and judge of the 
court of common pleas in Philadelphia. He pub- 
lished " Manual of Legislative Practice and Order 
of Business in Deliberative Bodies " (Philadelphia, 
1830), and " A Congressional Manual " (1839). 

SUTLIFFE, Albert, poet, b. in Meriden, Conn., 
about 1830. After teaching in a private school in 
Kentucky, he removed in 1855 to Minnesota, where 
he has since resided. He first became known as a 
writer of verse for the " National Era," Washing- 
ton, D. C, and in 1854 was a contributor to the 
" Genius of the West," at Cincinnati. He pub- 
lished a volume of poems (Boston, 1859). 

SUTRO, Adolph Heinrich Joseph, mining 
engineer, b. in Aix-la-Chapelle, Rhenish Prussia, 
29 April, 1830. He was educated in his native 
place. His father was a cloth-manufacturer, and 
Adolph learned the details of the business and 
travelled for the factory, but the elder Sutro died 
before the son was old enough to continue the 
business, and the family, consisting of seven sons 
and four daughters, came to New York in 1850. 
During the voyage Adolph had learned of the gold 
fever in California, and, soon after establishing the 
family in Baltimore, he set out for the Pacific coast. 
Having studied mineralogy in the best polytechnic 
schools in Germany, he was much better prepared 
for mining operations than the majority who at 
that time were flocking to the gold-flelds. He vis- 
ited Nevada in 1860, and, after a careful inspection 
of the mining region there, he planned the now 
famous Sutro tunnel through the heart of the 
mountain where lay the Comstock lode. Having 
interested capitalists in the project, he obtained a 
charter from the Nevada legislature on 4 Feb., 

1865, and the authorization of congress on 25 July, 

1866. The mining companies agreed to pay a toll 
of $2 for each ton of ore, from the time when the 
tunnel should reach and benefit their mines. The 
work was begun on 19 Oct., 1869. It proceeded as 
rapidly as its character would permit, and before 
the close of 1871 four vertical shafts were opened 
along the line of the tunnel, one of which was 552 
feet deep. The distance from the mouth of the 
tunnel to the Savage mine, where, at a depth of 
1,650 feet from the surface, it formed the first con- 
nection with the Comstock lode, is 20,000 feet. 
Lateral tunnels connect it with the mines on either 
side of the main bore. In 1879 the great tunnel 
was finished, and its projector became a millionaire 
many times over. Some of the mines at the level 
of the tunnel were flooded with water to the depth 
of one hundred feet or more, and had long been 
abandoned ; others were unworkable on account of 
the heat and noxious gases. The tunnel with its 
shafts effectually ventilated them, and within a 
few days they were rid of the accumulated water, 
which "had a temperature in some mines of 160° 

Fahrenheit. Mr. Sutro has devoted a part of his 
fortune to the collection of a fine library and art 
gallery in San Francisco. In 1887 he presented 
that city with a copy of Frederic A. Bartholdi's 
statue of " Liberty enlightening the World." 

SUTTER, John Augustus, pioneer, b. in Ran- 
dom, Baden, 15 Feb., 1803 ; d. in Washington, D. C, 
17 June, 1880. He was of Swiss parentage, aud 
his familv name was originally Suter. He was 
graduated at the military college at Berne in 1823, 
entered the French service as an officer of the 
Swiss guard, and served in 1823-'4 through the 
Spanish campaign. In 1834 he emigrated to this 
country and settled in St. Louis. Afterward he 
carried on at Santa Fe a profitable trade with In- 
dians and trappers, whose accounts of California 
induced him m 1838 to cross the Rocky moun- 
tains. He first went to Oregon, descended Colum- 
bia river to Foil Vancouver, and thence sailed to 
the Sandwich islands, where he purchased a vessel 
and went to Sitka, Alaska. After disposing of his 
cargo to advantage there, he sailed along the Pa- 
cific coast, and on 2 July, 1839, was stranded in the 
Bay of Yerba Buena (now San Francisco). Pene- 
trating into the interior amid great difficulties, 
he founded in the same year the earliest white set- 
tlement on the site of Sacramento, received a con- 
siderable grant of land from the Mexican gov- 

ernment, and in 1841 built a fort, calling it New 
Helvetia, which was afterward the first settlement 
that was reached by overland emigrants to Cali- 
fornia. The Mexican government appointed him 
governor of the northern frontier country, but. as 
he favored the annexation of California to the 
United States, the Mexicans regarded him with 
suspicion. When Capt. Charles Wilkes's explor- 
ing expedition reached San Francisco, Sutter gave 
him aid and information, and he extended a simi- 
lar welcome to John C. Fremont and his party. 
When California was ceded to the United States in 
February, 1848, Sutter was the owner of a large 
tract of land, many thousands of cattle, and other 
property, but the discovery of gold on his estate 
near Coloma. El Dorado co., at the same time (see 
Marshall, James Wilson), proved his financial 
ruin. His laborers deserted him. his lands were 
overrun by gold-diggers, and the claim he had filed 
for thirty-three square leagues, which had been 
allowed by the commissioners, was decided against 
him on appeal to the supreme court. Despoiled of 
his property and reduced to want, he was granted 
by the California legislature a pension of $ 250 a 
month. In 1864 his homestead was burned, and 
in 1873 he removed to Litiz, Lancaster co.. Pa. 
After California had been annexed to this country 
Sutter was elected first alcalde of his district, and 
a delegate to the convention to form a state con- 
stitution, and he was also an Indian commissioner. 
The illustration shows the mill on Sutter's prop- 
erty, near which gold was first discovered. 



SUYDAM, James Augustus (si'-dam), artist, b. 
in New York, 27 March, 1819 ; d. in North Conway, 
N. H., 15 Sept., 1865. His first instructor was Miner 
K. Kellogg, with whom he travelled through Greece 
and Turkey. Later, after his return to the United 
States, he studied also with Asher B. Durand and 
John P. Kensett. He was elected an honorary 
member of the National academy in 1858, and an 
academician in 1861. When the building of the 
academy was projected he took an active part in 
its construction. He held office in the academy 
until his death, and bequeathed to it the " Suydam 
Collection " of pictures, besides a large sum of 
money. He was quite successful in his coast views. 
Among his works are " View on Long Island " and 
" Hook Mountain on the Hudson " (1863). 

SUYDAM, John Howard, clergyman, b. in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., 1 Oct., 1832. He was graduated 
at Rutgers in 1854, and at the Theological seminary 
of the Reformed church in New Brunswick, N. J., 
in 1857, and was ordained by the classis of Pough- 
keepsie. He was settled as pastor at Pishkill in 
1857-'62, and in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1862-'9, and 
since 1869 has been in Jersey City. He has been 
president of the board of superintendents of the 
New Brunswick theological seminary and of the 
general synod of the Reformed church. He re- 
ceived the degree of D. D. from Rutgers in 1882. 
In addition to sermons, he has published " The 
Cruger Family " (Philadelphia, 1864) ; " Cruel Jim " 
(1870); and" The Wreckmaster" (1871). 

SUZOR, Louis T., Canadian author, b. in Low- 
er Canada in 1834 ; d. in Quebec, 18 Aug., 1866. 
He was a lieutenant-colonel, and had been deputy 
assistant adjutant-general of militia in Canada at 
the time of his death. He published "Aide-memoire 
du carabinier volontaire " (Quebec, 1862) ; " Ta- 
bleaux synoptique des mouvements d'une com- 
pagnie" (1863); "Tableaux synoptic des evolu- 
tions de bataillon " (1863) ; " Exercices et evolu- 
tions d'inf anterie " (1863) ; " Code militaire " (1864) ; 
Maximes, conseils et instructions sur l'art de la 
guerre " (1865) ; " Guide theorique et pratique des 
manoeuvres de l'infanterie " (1865) ; and " Traite 
d'art et d'histoire militaires " (1865). 

SWAIM, David Gaskill, soldier, b. in Salem, 
Columbiana co., Ohio, 22 Dec, 1834. He was edu- 
cated at Salem academy, studied law, and after 
admission to the bar in 1858 began practice in Sa- 
lem. At the beginning of the civil war he left a 
prosperous law-practice and entered the National 
service, being commissioned 2d lieutenant in 1861, 
and 1st lieutenant, 4 Nov., 1861, in the 65th Ohio 
regiment. He was promoted to captain and as- 
sistant adjutant-general, 16 May, 1862, and en- 
gaged in the battles of Shiloh, Murfreesboro', 
and Perryville. He was in Washington, D. C., 
till December, 1862, was assistant adjutant-gen- 
eral on the staff of Gen. William S. Rosecrans and 
Gen. George Thomas till November, 1863, and was 
present at Chickamauga, where he was wounded, 
and at Missionary Ridge. From January till Octo- 
ber, 1864, he was on mustering duty at Wilming- 
ton, Del., and afterward, till September, 1866, was 
assistant adjutant-general, Department of Missouri. 
He was brevetted major, lieutenant-colonel, and 
colonel for faithful and meritorious services during 
the war, and appointed 2d lieutenant in the 34th 
U. S. infantry, 28 July, 1866, was promoted major 
and judge-advocate, 9 Dec, 1869, and became 
judge-advocate-general of the army with the rank 
of brigadier-general, 18 Feb., 1881. In 1884 he 
was court-martialed on various charges and sus- 
pended for ten years. He was the intimate friend 
iind companion of President Garfield. 

SWAIN, David Lowry, governor of North 
Carolina, b. in Asheville, Buncombe co., N. C, 4 
Jan., 1801 ; d. in Chapel Hill, N. C, 3 Sept., 1868. 
After receiving his education at the University of 
North Carolina he studied law, was admitted to 
the bar in 1823, and practised in Raleigh. In 1824 
he was elected to the legislature, and in 1831 he 
was appointed a judge of the state supreme court. 
From 1832 till 1835 he was governor of North 
Carolina, being the youngest man to fill that office. 
He was elected president of the University of North 
Carolina in 1835 and filled this post until his death, 
contributing effectively to the improvement of the 
institution. In 1865 he was invited by President 
Andrew Johnson to advise with him regarding the 
reconstruction of the Union. The degree of LL. D. 
was conferred on him by Princeton in 1841, and 
by Yale in 1842. He wrote many valuable histori- 
cal papers, and published " The British Invasion 
of North Carolina in 1776 " in the " North Carolina 
University Magazine," for May, 1853, which was 
afterward included in a volume of lectures, en- 
titled " Revolutionary History of North Carolina " 
(New York, 1853). 

SWAIN, James Barrett, editor, b. in New 
York city, 30 July, 1820. He learned the printing 
business with Horace Greeley, with whom he was a 
partner in the publication of the " Log Cabin " in 
1840, and in 1838-'9 was private secretary to Henry 
Clay. In 1843-'9 he was editor of the " Hudson 
River Chronicle " in Sing-Sing, serving also as clerk 
of the state-prison there in 1848-'9. He was city 
editor of the New York " Tribune " in 1850, of 
the " Times" in 1851-2, editor of the "American 
Agriculturist " in 1852, a political contributor to 
the " Times " in 1853-9, and its Washington cor- 
respondent in 1860-1. He was also editor of the 
"Free State Advocate" (a campaign paper pub- 
lished in New York in 1856 by the National Repub- 
lican committee), of the Albany " Daily Statesman " 
from 1857 till 1861, and again of the " Hudson River 
Chronicle" from 1876 till 1885. He was a railroad 
commissioner for New York state in 1855-'7, 1st 
lieutenant in the 1st U. S. cavalry and also colo- 
nel of the 1st U. S. volunteer cavalry in 1861-'4, 
engineer-in-chief of the National guard of New 
York in 1865-'6, U. S. weigher in 1867-'70, and 
post-office inspector in 1881-5. Mr. Swain is the 
author of " Life and Speeches of Henry Clay " (2 
vols., New York, 1842 ; 3d ed., 1848) ; " Historical 
Notes to a Collection of the Speeches of Henry 
Clay" (2 vols., 1843); and "Military History of 
the State of New York " (3 vols., 1861-'5). 

SWAINSON, William, English naturalist, b. 
in Liverpool, England, 8 Oct., 1789; d. in New 
Zealand in 1855. He served in the commissary 
department of the British army in 1807-15, trav- 
elled in South America in the latter year, and, re- 
turning to London, devoted himself to the study 
of natural history. In 1841 he emigrated to New 
Zealand, where he published works on the natural 
history and social and political condition of that 
country and Tasmania. He published numerous 
works, including " Ornithologipal Drawings of 
Birds from Mexico and Brazil" (1831-41), and as- 
sisted Sir John Richardson in the account of North 
American birds in his " Fauna Boreali Americana " 
(4 vols., London, 1829-'37). 

SWAN, Caleb, soldier, b. in Maine; d. in Wash- 
ington, D. C, 20 Nov., 1809. He became an ensign 
in the 4th Massachusetts Continental infantry, 26 
Nov., 1779, and was afterward transferred to the 
8th infantry, which in 1784 became part of the 1st 
American regiment of infantry. On 8 May, 1792, 
he was appointed paymaster-general of the U. S. 



army, which post he held until his resignation on 
30 June, 1808. He wrote " Some Account of the 
Northwestern Lakes of America" (1798). 

SWAN, James, soldier, b. in Fifeshire, Scotland, 
in 1754; d. in Paris, France, 18 March, 1831. He 
came to Boston at an early age, was a clerk there, 
and, espousing the patriot cause, was one of the 
" Boston tea-party." He was aide-de-camp to Gen. 
Joseph Warren at Bunker Hill, where he was 
wounded, acted as treasurer and receiver-general, 
became captain in Ebenezer Crafts's regiment of 
artillery, and participated in the expedition that 
drove the British fleet out of Boston harbor. 
He was also secretary to the Massachusetts board 
of war, a member of the legislature in 1778, and 
afterward adjutant-general of the state. Being 
involved in debt, he went to Paris in 1787, and be- 
came known there by the publication of " Causes 
qui sont opposees au progres du commerce entre 
la France et les Etats-Unis de l'Amerique" (1790). 
After acquiring a fortune he returned to the 
United States in 1795 and was noted for his charity 
and munificence. In 1798 he went to Europe 
again and engaged in large commercial operations 
until 1815, when, upon the suit of a German with 
whom he had transactions, he was arrested and 
thrown into the prison of St. Pelagie in Paris, 
where he remained until July, 1830, living in 
luxury and maintaining an unceasing litigation 
in the French courts. He published " Dissuasion 
from the Slave-Trade " (Boston, 1773) ; " On the 
Fisheries " (1784) ; " Fisheries of Massachusetts " 
(1786) ; and " Address on Agriculture, Manu- 
factures, and Commerce " (1817). 

SWAN, Joseph Rockwell, jurist, b. in Western- 
ville, Oneida co., N. Y., 28 Dec, 1802 ; d. in Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, 18 Dec, 1884. He was educated in 
Aurora, N. Y., and in 1824 removed to Columbus, 
Ohio, where he studied law in the office of his 
uncle, Judge Gustavus Swan, was admitted to the 
bar, and practised in Franklin and the adjoining 
counties. In 1830 he was made prosecuting attor- 
ney, and in 1834 he was elected judge of the court 
of common pleas, but he resigned this post in 1845, 
and practised his profession until 1854. In that 
year he was elected judge of the supreme court, 
serving until 1859, when his most important de- 
cision was delivered. The supreme court of the 
state, under a writ of habeas corpus, sought to 
override the judgment of the U. S. district court 
in Ohio in attempting to discharge from jail a 
prisoner that had been sentenced by that court for 
violation of the fugitive-slave law. Judge Swan 
decided that the state could not interfere with the 
action of the U. S. courts, and the discharge of 
the prisoner was refused. At the same time he 
said that if he were appealed to personally he 
would protect any slave from his pursuers. He 
was the author of important statutes that were 
passed by the legislature and a delegate to the 
Constitutional convention of Ohio in 1850. In 
1860 he became president of the Columbus and 
Xenia railroad, and from that time till 1876 he 
acted as solicitor, for several railroads. He pub- 
lished " Treatise on Justices of the Peace and Con- 
stables in Ohio" (Columbus, 1836; 12th ed., 1885); 
" Statutes of Ohio " (1841) ; " Manual for Execu- 
tors and Administrators " (1843) ; " Practice in 
Civil Actions and Proceedings at Law in Ohio and 
Preeerlents in Pleading" (2 vols., 1845); "Swan's 
Pleading and Practice (2 vols., 1851) : " Commen- 
taries on Pleadings under the Ohio Code" (Cin- 
cinnati, 1860); and "Supplement to the Revised 
Statutes of Ohio, etc., in Force August, 1868," with 
notes by Milton Sayler (1869). 

SWAN, Timothy, musician, b. in Worcester, 
Mass., 23 July, 1758; d. in Northfield, Mass., 23 
July, 1842. He began to teach music at the age of 
seventeen, and in 1785 published " Federal Har- 
mony." He resided for some time at Sheffield, and 
while there published. in 1801, "The New England 
Harmony." After this he removed to Vermont, 
but finally settled at Northfield, Mass., where he 
resided until his death. Some of his psalm-tunes, 
among them " China," " Pownal," and " Poland," 
became very popular, and are still to be found in 
collections of church music 

SWAN, William Draper, educator, b. in Dor- 
chester, Mass., 17 Nov., 1809; d. there, 2 Nov., 
1864. He was principal for many years of the 
Mayhew grammar-school in Boston, Mass., and 
afterward a bookseller in that city. In 1862 he 
served in the Massachusetts senate. He published 
a series of readers for schools, and with his brother, 
Robert, principal of Winthrop school in Boston, 
and Daniel Leach, superintendent of schools in 
Providence, R. I., he was the author of a series of 
arithmetics, and also of "The Critic Criticised and 
Worcester Vindicated " (Boston, 1860). 

SWANK, James Moore, statistician, b. in Loyal- 
hanna, Westmoreland co., Pa., 12 July, 1832. He 
was educated at Eldesridge academy and at the pre- 
paratory department of Jefferson college, Pa. In 
1852 he published a weekly Whig newspaper at 
Johnstown, Pa., where, in 1853, he established the 
"Tribune," with which he was connected until 
1870. He was superintendent of public schools in 
Cambria county, Pa., in 1861, and in 1871-'2 was 
chief clerk of the department of agriculture in 
Washington. Since 1873 he has been secretary of 
the American iron and steel association, and in 
1885 he was appointed its general manager, which 
office he now (1888) holds. He is the editor of its 
weekly " Bulletin," compiles its. annual statistical 
reports, is the author of its tariff tracts, and has 
edited nearly all its statistical and miscellaneous 
publications. In 1880 he was appointed agent of 
the U. S. census, to collect the iron and steel statis- 
tics, his report appearing in 1881. He has pub- 
lished a " History of the Department of Agricul- 
ture " (Washington, 1871) ; " Centennial Report of 
the American Iron and Steel Association on the 
American Iron Trade " (Philadelphia, 1876) ; " His- 
torical Account of Iron-Making and Coal-Mining 
in Pennsylvania" (1878): and " History of the 
Manufacture of Iron in all Ages " (1884). 

SWANN, Thomas, governor of Maryland, b. 
in Alexandria, Va., in 1805 ; d. near Leesburg, 
Va., 24 July, 1883. 
His father was 
U. S. district at- 
torney for the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. 
After receiving 
his education at 
Columbian col- 
lege and at the 
University of Vir- 
ginia the son stud- 
ied law with his fa- 
ther, and was made 
secretary to the 
Neapolitan com- 
mission. He set- 
tled in Baltimore 
in 1834, and be- 
came a director of 
the Baltimore and 
Ohio railroad in 1836, of which he was president 
from 1847 till 1853, and he was also president of 

cWo: Ji 




the Northwestern Virginia railroad. After his re- 
turn from Europe he was elected mayor of Balti- 
more in 1856, and re-elected in 1858. Before the 
civil war he emancipated his slaves, and he was 
an earnest supporter of the Union throughout the 
contest. He was elected governor of Maryland in 
1864, and served from 1 Jan., 1865, until 1 Jan., 
1869, refusing to leave the executive chair when 
he was elected U. S. senator in 1866. He was 
afterward chosen to congress as a Democrat for 
five successive terms, serving from 4 March, 1869, 
till 3 March, 1879. 

SWARTWOUT, Robert (swart'-out), soldier, b. 
in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., in 1778 ; d. in New York 
city, 19 July, 1838. He was the son of Abraham, 
a Revolutionary soldier, and became a colonel of 
New York militia. After serving from August till 
November, 1812, in his native state, he was ap- 
pointed quartermaster-general, with the rank of 
brigadier, 21 March, 1813, and had charge of the 
4th brigade in the campaign of 1813 on St. Law- 
rence river, succeeding to the command on the fall 
of Gen. Leonard Covington at the battle of Chrys- 
ler's Field. After the war he resided in New York 
city, where he was a merchant and also agent of 
the navy. As the result of a political quarrel he 
fought a duel with Richard Riker, recorder of New 
York, in which the latter was wounded. — His 
brother, Samuel, b. in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., in 
1783 ; d. in New York city, 21 Nov., 1856, accom- 
panied Aaron Burr in his expedition in 1805, 
fought in the war of 1812, and afterward became a 
merchant in New York. He was captain of a city 
troop called the Iron Grays, celebrated by the poet 
Halleck, and was appointed collector of the port 
of New York by President Jackson, between whom 
and himself a strong personal attachment existed. 
Together with his brothers he owned all the 
meadows that lie between Hoboken and Weehaw- 
ken and all the tract between Hackensack river 
and the approach to Newark. Fitz-Greene Hal- 
leck, in the concluding stanza of one of the 
" Croakers," says : 
" Sam Swartwout ! where are now thy Grays? 

Oh, bid again their banner blaze 
O'er hearts and ranks unbroken ! 

Let drum and fife your slumbers break, 

And bid the devil freely take 
Your meadows at Hoboken." 
— His nephew, Samuel, naval officer, b. in New 
York city, 10 May, 1804 ; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 5 
Feb., 1867, entered the navy as a midshipman, 10 
May, 1820, became passed midshipman, 4 June, 
1831, and in 1834-'5 cruised in the schooner 
" Grampus," suppressing piracy in the West In- 
dies, and in 1836-'7 in the " St. Louis " on the 
same duty. He was promoted to lieutenant, 9 
Feb., 1837, was inspector of provisions and cloth- 
ing at the New York navy-yard in 1841-'5, and 
cruised in the sloop " Vincennes" in the East In- 
dies in 1845-'7, after which he was stationed at the 
New York navy-yard until 1850. In 1851 he served 
on the coast survey. He was promoted to com- 
mander, 14 Sept., 1855, and had the steamer " Mas- 
sachusetts," of the Pacific squadron, in 1855-'7, 
during which time he had several engagements 
with Indians in Puget sound. In 1861-'3 he com- 
manded the sloop " Portsmouth," of the Western 
Gulf blockading squadron, in which he took part 
in the engagements with Forts Jackson and St. 
Philip, on the lower Mississippi river, and the 
consequent capture of New Orleans. He was then 
placed on waiting orders, his health failed, and 
he was retired, 10 May. 1866. His sister, Frances, 
married Admiral Charles II. Bell. 

SWARTZ, Joel, clergyman, b. in Shenandoah 
county, Va.. 18 Aug., 1827. He received his classi- 
cal and theological education in Capitol university, 
Columbus, Ohio, being graduated in the theological 
department in 1854. In 1855 he was ordained to 
the ministry, and in 1868 he received the degree 
of D. D. from Wittenberg college, Springfield, 
Ohio. He has held various pastorates in Virginia, 
Maryland, Ohio, and Pennsylvania, was professor 
of church history, pastoral theology, and homi- 
letics in the theological department of Wittenberg 
college, Springfield, Ohio, in 1865-'8, and has been 
pastor at Gettysburg, Pa., since 1881. Dr. Swartz 
has been a regular correspondent for the " Lutheran 
Observer " for sixteen years, and has published two 
volumes of poetry, " Dreamings of the Waking 
Heart" (Philadelphia, 1877) and " Lyra Lutherana" 
(1883). He was chairman of the committee that 
edited the " Book of Worship " with tunes. 

SWARTZ, Olaus, Swedish botanist, b. in 
Norrkjoping, Sweden, in 1760; d. in Stockholm, 
18 Sept., 1817. After receiving his education at 
Upsala, he travelled in Finland, Lapland, and the 
West Indies, and explored the coasts of South 
America in 1783, returning with a collection of 
rare plants. He was appointed professor of natu- 
ral history in the Medico-chirurgical institute in 
Stockholm, and became one of the most celebrated 
botanists of his time. The genus Swartzia, of 
the order Leguminosas, was named in his honor. 
Among his works are " Icones Plantarum Incog- 
nitarium," illustrating the rare plants of the West 
Indies (Upsala, 1794-1800); "Flora Indite Occi- 
dental " (3 vols., 1797-1806); and " Lichenes 
Americani " (Nuremberg, 1811). 

SWATANE, or SHIKELLIMY, Oneida chief, 
d. in Shamokin, Pa.. 17 Dec, 1748. In 1728 he was 
acting representa- 
tive of the Five 
Nations in busi- 
ness affairs with 
the proprietary 

fowrnment of 
ennsylvania. He 
was appointed its 
viceroy, and in 
this capacity ad- 
ministered its trib- 
utaries within the 
province, with 
Shamokin as his 
seat. Scarcely a 
treaty was made 
between 1728 and 
1748 respecting 
the purchases of 
land but Shikelli- 
my was present. 
At his solicitation 
the Moravians in 
1747 began a mis- 
sion, and erected a smithy in the town. He died a 
few days after his baptism by the missionaries. — 
His eldest son, Tachnachdoarus (spreading oak), 
or John Shikellimy, succeeded him as viceroy. 
His second son, James Logan, was named for Sec. 
James Logan, and his third son, John Petty, for 
a trader. Two sons were killed in battle. 

SWAYNE, Noah Haynes, jurist, b. in Culpeper 
county, Va., 7 Dec, 1804; d. in New York city, 8 
June, 1884. His ancestor, Francis Swayne. came 
to this country with William Penn, and the farm 
on which he settled near Philadelphia is still in 

Jossession of his descendants. Noah's father, 
oshua, removed to Virginia, and the son, after 




receiving a good education in Waterford, Va., 
studied Taw in Warrenton, was admitted to the bar 
in 1823, removed to Ohio, and in 1825 opened an 
office in Coshocton. In 1826-'9 he was prosecuting 
attorney of the county, and he then entered the 
Ohio legislature, to which he was elected as a 
Jefferson Democrat. He was appointed U. S. dis- 
trict attorney for Ohio in 1831, removed to Colum- 
bus, and served un- 
til 1841. In 1833 
he declined the of- 
fice of presiding 
judge of the com- 
mon pleas. Subse- 
quently he prac- 
tised law until he 
was appointed, with 
Alfred Kelly and 
Gustavus Swan, a 
fund commissioner 
to restore the cred- 
it of the state. He 
also served on the 
commission that 
was sent by the 
governor to Wash- 
ington to effect a 
settlement of the 
boundary - line be- 
tween Ohio and Michigan, and in 1840 was a mem- 
ber of the committee to inquire into the condition 
of the blind. The trial of William Rossane and 
others in the U. S. circuit court at Columbus in 
1853 for burning the steamboat " Martha Washing- 
ton," to obtain the insurance, was one of his most 
celebrated cases. He also appeared as counsel in 
fugitive-slave cases, and, owing to his anti-slavery 
opinions, joined the Republican party on its forma- 
tion, liberating at an early date the slaves that he 
received through his marriage in 1832. In 1862 he 
was appointed by President Lincoln a justice of the 
supreme court of the United States, and he served 
until 1881, when he resigned on account of advanced 
age. The degree of LL. D. was conferred on him 
by Dartmouth and Marietta in 1863, and by Yale in 
1865. — His son, Wager, lawyer, b. in Columbus, 
Ohio, 10 Nov., 1834, was graduated at Yale in 1856, 
and at the Cincinnati law-school in 1859. On his 
admission to the bar he practised in Columbus. He 
was appointed major of the 43d Ohio volunteers 
on 31 Aug., 1861, became lieutenant-colonel on 14 
Dec, 1861, colonel on 18 Oct., 1862, served in all the 
marches and battles of the Atlanta campaign, lost a 
leg at Salkahatchie, S. C, and was brevetted briga- 
dier-general, U. S. volunteers, on 5 Feb., 1865, be- 
coming full brigadier-general on 8 March, 1865, and 
major-general on 20 June, 1865. He was made colo- 
nel of the 45th regular infantry on 28 July, 1866, 
and on 2 March, 1867, was brevetted brigadier-gen- 
eral, U. S. army, for gallant and meritorious services 
in the action of Rivers Bridges, S. C, and major- 
general for services during the war. He was mus- 
tered out of the volunteer service on 1 Sept., 1867. 
Gen. Swayne was a commissioner of the freedmen's 
bureau in Alabama, where he commanded the U. S. 
forces, and was also intrusted with the administra- 
tion of the reconstruction acts of congress, organ- 
izing an extensive system of common schools for 
colored children, who had none, and establishing 
at Montgomery, Sol ma. and Mobile important high- 
schools, which still remain, and also Talladega 
college. He retired on 1 July, 1870. and practised 
law in Toledo, Ohio, but in 1880 he removed to 
New York city, where he is counsel for railroad 
and telegraph corporations. 

SWEAT, Margaret Jane Mussey, author, b. 
in Portland, Me., 28 Nov., 1823. She is the daugh- 
ter of John Mussey, was educated in Portland and 
Roxbury, and in 1849 married Lorenzo D. M. 
Sweat, who was elected to congress as a Democrat 
from Maine and served from 7 Dec., 1863, till 3 
March, 1865. Since 1866 she has been vice-regent 
for Maine of the Mount Vernon ladies' association. 
She has contributed to the " North American Re- 
view," her first paper appearing in 1856, and is the 
author of " Ethers Love-Life ? ' (New York, 1859), 
and "Highways of Travel, or a Summer in Eu- 
rope " (Boston, 1859). 

SWEATMAN, Arthur, Canadian Anglican 
bishop, b. in London, England, 19 Nov., 1834. He 
was educated at London university, graduated at 
Cambridge in 1859, and ordained priest in 1860. 
In 1862 he became curate of St. Stephen's, Canon- 
bury, and master of the modern department of the 
Islington proprietary school ; and in 1865, on the 
invitation of Dr. Hellmuth, the bishop of Huron, 
he accepted the head-mastership of Hellmuth boys' 
college, London, Ont. In 1872 he resigned this 
post to become rector of Grace- church, Brantford, 
where he ministered two years, and in 1874 he 
resumed the mastership of Hellmuth college, which 
he held till 1876. He was chaplain to the bishop 
of Huron, and secretary to the synod of the diocese 
of Huron in 1872-'9, secretary to the house of 
bishops of the province of Canada in 1873-9, canon 
of London (Ont.) cathedral in 1875, and soon after- 
ward archdeacon of Brant. He was also acting 
rector of St. Paul's church, Woodstock, in 1876-'9. 
In March, 1879, he was appointed bishop of Toronto 
in succession to Alexander Neil Bethune. He re- 
ceived the degree of D. D. from Cambridge in 
1879, and in 1885 was appointed president of the 
London society for the promotion of Christianity 
among the Jews. 

SWEENY, John, Canadian R. C. bishop, b. in 
Clones, Ireland, in May, 1821. When a boy he 
emigrated with his father to St. John, New Bruns- 
wick. He was educated at St. Dunstan's college, 
Prince Edward island, and at Quebec college, 
where he was graduated in 1844. and ordained a 
priest the same year. He was afterward stationed 
at St. John, Sussex, Chatham, and Barachois, was 
appointed vicar-general, and in 1860 was conse- 
crated bishop of the southern diocese of New Bruns- 
wick, with the seat of his see at St. John. Bishop 
Sweeny visited Rome in 1866, in 1870 (when he 
attended the Vatican council), and again in 1881. 
During his episcopate St. John's cathedral has 
been completed, and the bishop's palace and St. 
Malachi's and St. Joseph's school buildings have 
been erected. He also established the charity hos- 
pital and St. Patrick's industrial school, -and was 
one of the projectors and founders of St. Joseph's 
college, St. John. 

SWEENY, Thomas William, soldier, b. in 
Cork, Ireland, 25 Dec, 1820. He came to the 
United States in 1832, and at an early age was ap- 
prenticed to the printing business. When a young 
man he joined the Baxter blues, a military organi- 
zation in New York city, and in 1846, at the be- 
f inning of the war with Mexico, he became 2d 
ieutenant in Ward B. Burnett's 1st New York vol- 
unteers. He participated in the campaign under 
Gen. Winfield Scott from the siege of Vera Cruz 
to the storming of Churubusco, where he received 
wounds that necessitated the amputation of his 
right arm. On his return to New York city he 
was given a reception ball at Castle Garden by the 
printers of the city, and he received the brevet of 
captain from the governor of the state and a silver 



medal from the city of New York. He was given 
the commission of 2d lieutenant in the 2d U. S. 
infantry, and served in California, in charge of 
Fort Yuma, and elsewhere in the west, being en- 
gaged in frequent actions with hostile Indians. 
While stationed at Port Yuma, the command under 
Maj. Samuel P. Heintzelman was compelled to fall 
back on San Diego for want of supplies, and 
Sweeny was ordered to remain with ten men. The 
Indians besieged his camp from 5 June until 6 
Dec, 1851, but he was finally extricated by a gov- 
ernment exploring expedition under Capt. Lorenzo 
Sitgreaves. After other duties at various posts he 
was promoted captain, 19 Jan., 1861. Soon after 
the beginning of the civil war he was ordered to 
St. Louis and given command of the arsenal, which 
contained immense quantities of munitions of war 
of all kinds, sufficient fully to arm and equip 
60,000 men, together with over forty tons of pow- 
der. Capt. Sweeny had but forty unassigned re- 
cruits under him, while in St. Louis there were 
nearly 3,000 hostile minute-men, fully equipped. 
Advances were made to induce him to surrender 
the arsenal ; but the reply, that if a serious attempt 
should be made to capture the arsenal he would 
blow it to atoms, prevented any action on the part 
of the Confederate sympathizers. He was second 
in command of the Union troops at the surrender 
of the state forces at Camp Jackson, and conducted 
the final negotiations, in consequence of Gen. Na- 
thaniel Lyon's having been disabled. Subsequently 
he was instrumental in the organization of the 
Missouri three-months' volunteers, and he was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general on 20 May, 1861. In the 
campaign that followed he took an active part 
with Gen. Lyon, and was severely wounded at the 
battle of Wilson's Creek, and later he was acting 
assistant adjutant - general under Gen. John C. 
Fremont. He then accepted the command of the 
52d Illinois volunteers, and was attached to the 
army under Gen. Grant, participating in the capture 
of Fort Donelson, after which he took 6,000 pris- 
oners to Alton, 111. At a critical moment toward 
the close of the first day of the battle of Shiloh a 
gap existed between the right flank of Sweeny's 
brigade and Gen. William T. Sherman's left. The 
defence of this position, which was the key of the 
situation, was intrusted to him by Sherman, who 
has since said : " I attach more importance to that 
event than to any of the hundred achievements 
which I have since heard saved the day." His 
commission of brigadier-general of volunteers dates 
from 29 Nov., 1862, and thereafter he commanded 
a division of the 16th army corps and was en- 
gaged in protecting the Memphis and Charleston 
railroad. He was promoted major of the 16th in- 
fantry, 20 Oct., 1863, and in the Atlanta campaign 
had the 2d division of the 16th corps in the Army 
of the Tennessee. At Snake Creek gap his com- 
mand took possession of the gap twenty-four hours 
in advance of the cavalry, and held it in spite of 
every effort of the enemy. He took part in the 
battle of Resaca and forced a passage across Ooste- 
naula river at Lay's Ferry, where he fought a 
successful battle, which action resulted in Gen. 
Joseph E. Johnston's retreat southward. He also 
participated in the battles of Dallas and Kenesaw 
Mountain, and at the battle before Atlanta on 22 
July, 1864, his division drove the enemy back with 
great slaughter, capturing four battle-flags and 
900 prisoners. Subsequently he had command of 
the post of Nashville until July, 1865, and he was 
mustered out of volunteer service on 24 Aug. of 
that year. He participated in the Fenian invasion 
of Canada in 1866, and was present at the battle of 

Limestone Ridge. During this period he was out 
of the National service, but was reinstated by the 
president soon afterward and given posts in the 
southern states. Gen. Sweeny was presented with 
a sword by the city of Brooklyn for services ren- 
dered in the civil war. He was retired on 11 May, 
1870, with the rank of brigadier-general. 

SWEET, Alexander Edwin, editor, b. in St. 
John, New Brunswick, 28 March, 1841. His 
father, James, removed to San Antonio, Tex., in 
1849, and was afterward mayor of that town. He 
also served in the Confederate army as a lieutenant- 
colonel. The son was sent to school in Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y., and in 1859 went to Europe and 
entered the Polytechnic institute, in Carlsruhe. 
Returning to Texas in 1863, he served in the Con- 
federate army in the 33d Texas cavalry. After 
the war he studied law, was admitted to the bar, 
and practised in San Antonio for several years. In 
1879 he became editor of the San Antonio " Ex- 
press," and, still practising law, became city at- 
torney. Afterward he was editor of the San 
Antonio " Herald," and a contributor of humorous 

Earagraphs to the Galveston "News." In May, 1881, 
e removed to Austin, Texas, and formed there a 
partnership for the publication of a weekly journal 
entitled "Texas Siftings," which was removed to 
New York in 1884. With J. Amory Knox he has 
published " On a Mexican Mustang through Texas 
from the Gulf to the Rio Grande" (Hartford, 1883). 
SWEET, Benjamin Jeffrey, soldier, b. in 
Kirkland, Oneida co., N. Y., 24 April, 1832 ; d. in 
Washington, D. C, 1 Jan., 1874. His father was 
a clergyman in poor health, and at nine years of 
age the boy was set at work in a cotton-mill. 
When he was sixteen his father removed to Stock- 
bridge, Wis., and settled upon a piece of wild 
forest land, where the son spent a year in clearing 
a homestead for the family. At the age of seven- 
teen he entered Appleton college, but remained 
only a year, and then returned home, where he 
alternately taught and worked on his father's 
farm. His spare hours he devoted to the study of 
the law. Before he was twenty-seven he was 
elected to the senate of Wisconsin, but at the open- 
ing of the civil war he was commissioned major 
of the 6th Wisconsin regiment. Soon afterward 
he resigned and raised two fresh regiments, the 
21st and 22d Wisconsin, of the first of which he 
became colonel. In the battle of Perry ville, where 
it formed a part of one corps that during all of 
one day sustained an attack from the whole of 
Bragg's army, it lost 300 in killed and wounded. 
Col. Sweet had been for several days confined to 
an ambulance by malarial fever, but when the 
battle began he mounted his horse and took com- 
mand of his regiment. During the battle he re- 
ceived a wound that was supposed to be mortal. 
His life was saved by the careful tending of his 
wife, but his health was permanently shattered. 
He was given a colonelcy in the Veteran reserve 
corps, and stationed at Gallatin, Tenn., building a 
fort there in the winter of 1862-3. In May, 1864, 
he was ordered to take command of the prison at 
Camp Douglas, Chicago, where about 10,000 Con- 
federate soldiers were confined. In June he dis- 
covered that an outbreak had been planned for 
the 4th of July which should liberate and arm 
the prisoners, and result in the sacking and burn- 
ing of Chicago. He quickly strengthened his de- 
fences and re-enforced his garrison, and the attempt 
was thus rendered hopeless. Early in November, 
Col. Sweet received positive information that the 
post was to be attacked on election night, only 
three days following ; 5,000 armed men under com- 




petent leaders were then in Chicago, ready for the 
assault on the camp, and muskets were there in 
abundance to arm the 9,000 prisoners. Chicago 
was to be burned, and its flames were to be the 
signal for a general uprising of 500,000 well-armed 
men throughout the western country. Every avail- 
able soldier had been sent to the front by the gov- 
ernment, and Sweet had in the garrison but 796 
men, most of whom were unfit for active duty. 
Moreover, it was too late to receive re-enforcements. 
His only hope of safety lay in the speedy arrest of 
the Confederate leaders who were then in Chicago. 
In this emergency he called to his aid one of his 
prisoners, a Texas ranger named John T. Shanks, 
who was well acquainted with the Confederate 
officers, and engaged him to ferret them out. To 
gain him confidence with the Confederates, he al- 
lowed Shanks to escape from the prison, and made 
great efforts for his recapture. Col. Sweet thought 
he could trust the man ; but he had him constantly 
shadowed by detectives pledged to take his life in 
case of his treachery. Shanks did his work so well 
that within thirty-six hours the leaders of the in- 
tended assault were in irons, and a large quantity 
of contraband arms was in the possession of the 
government. When Chicago awoke to the danger 
it had escaped, its citizens collected at a mass- 
meeting and publicly thanked Col. Sweet for the 
service he had rendered. For it also the govern- 
ment promoted him to the rank of brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers. When he was mustered out of 
service at the close of the war he resumed the 

Eractice of his profession in Wisconsin, but in 1869 
e was appointed IT. S. pension-agent at Chicago. 
He held this position till April, 1870, when he was 
made supervisor of internal revenue for Illinois. 
This office he held till January, 1872, when he was 
called to Washington to be 1st deputy commis- 
sioner of internal revenue. 

SWEET, Elnathan, civil engineer, b. in Chesh- 
ire, Mass., 20 Nov., 1837. He was graduated in 
the scientific course at Union college in 1859, and 
became a civil engineer, making a specialty of con- 
structing bridges and other engineering work by 
contract. In 1876-'80 he was division engineer 
of New York state canals, and he was elected state 
engineer in 1883, which office he held for four 
years from 1 Jan., 1884. Mr. Sweet's principal con- 
tribution to engineering science consists in. the de- 
termination of the laws that govern the propulsion 
of vessels in narrow channels, an account of which 
he published in 1880 in the " Transactions " of the 
American society of civil engineers, of which or- 
ganization he was elected a member in 1878. His 
writings include annual reports that he issued 
from Albany during the years he held office, and 
various technical papers. 

SWEET, Homer De Lois, engineer, b. in Pom- 
pey, Onondaga co., N. Y., 24 Jan., 1826. He worked 
on his father's farm, attended the district schools, 
and, becoming a civil engineer, built the reservoir of 
the Syracuse water company at Onondaga hill in 
1862-4, and in 1865 designed and superintended 
the erection of the large stone bridge in Syracuse. 
For three years he was employed on " French's Map 
of New York State," for which he surveyed Onon- 
daga county, and he also made a map of the "great 
wilderness " in northern New York in 1867. From 
1864 till 1873 he was secretary of the New York 
state sheep breeders' and wool growers' association, 
and secretary of the Onondaga historical associa- 
tion for nidie than twenty years. At an early age 
he contributed songs, poems, and later essays on 
art, agriculture, and engineering to newspapers un- 
der the pen-name of " Parmenus Smartweed." He 

has also published "Twilight Hours in the Adi- 
rondacks (Syracuse, 1870). and has now (1888) 
ready for the press "The Philosophy of English 
Versification." — His brother, John Edson, inven- 
tor, b. in Pompey, Onondaga co., N. Y., 21 Oct., 
1832, was educated in a district school, and in 
1873-'9 was professor of practical mechanics at 
Cornell university. He was a founder of the Ameri- 
can society of mechanical engineers, of which he 
was president in 1883-'4. He is believed to be the 
first to suggest the use of pipe-lines for transport- 
ing oil from the oil-wells, and is the inventor of the 
straight-line high-speed engine, and one of the first 
to construct a composing-machine to form a matrix 
for casting stereotype-plates directly without the 
use of movable type. He is a contributor to the Lon- 
don " Engineering " and " American Machinist." 

SWEETSER, Henry Edward, journalist, b. in 
New York city, 19 Feb., 1837; d. there, 17 Feb., 
1870. After graduation at Yale in 1858 he devoted 
himself to mercantile pursuits, and then became a 
reporter for the New York "Times." In 1860 he 
was made night editor of the " World," and in 
1863 he founded, with his brother, Charles H. Sweet- 
ser, the " Round Table," from which he withdrew 
in 1866, and, after a short visit to Europe, returned 
to New York and engaged in editorial work until 
his death. — His brother, Charles Humphreys, 
journalist, b. in Athol, Mass., 25 Aug., 1841 ; d. in 
Palatka, Fla., 1 Jan., 1871, after graduation at Am- 
herst in 1862 engaged in journalistic work, aided 
in founding the " Round Table," and became con- 
nected with the New York "Evening Gazette." 
He was an originator of the " Evening Mail " in 
1867, and the " City " in 1869. After the failure 
of the latter enterprise he removed to Minnesota, 
and subsequently to Chicago, where he became lit- 
erary editor of the " Times, but, owing to impaired 
health, he went to Florida. He published " Songs 
of Amherst" (Amherst, 1860); "History of Am- 
herst College " (1860); and "Tourist's and Invalid's 
Guide to the Northwest " (New York, 1867). 

SWEETSER, Moses Foster, author, b. in 
Newburyport, Mass., 22 Sept., 1848. His uncle. 
Andrew J. Sweetser, was a pioneer of Dakota, and 
another uncle, Henry, served under Gen. William 
Walker in Nicaragua. He studied at Beloit and 
Columbian colleges, and travelled in Europe and 
the East. He is the author of " Artist Biogra- 
phies " (15 vols., Boston, 1877-8) ; " Europe for 
$2.00 a Day " (Boston, 1875) ; " Summer Davs Down 
East " (Portland, 1883) ; several guide-books to the 
White mountains, and Osgood's (now Cassell's) 
" Pocket Guide to Europe " (Boston, 1883). 

SWEETSER, William, physician, b. in Bos- 
ton, Mass., 8 Sept., 1797 ; d. in New York city, 14 
Oct., 1875. He was graduated at Harvard in 1815, 
received his medical degree there in 1818, and prac- 
tised in Boston, Burlington, Vt., and New York 
city. From 1825 till 1832 he was professor of medi- 
cine in the University of Vermont, and from 1845 
till 1861 he held the same chair in Bowdoin. He 
also lectured in Jefferson medical college, Phila- 
delphia, and in the medical schools of Castleton, 
Vt., and was professor of medicine in Hobart col- 
lege, Geneva, from 1848 till 1855. Dr. Sweetser 
published "Dissertation on Cynanche Trachealis 
or Croup " and " Dissertation on the Functions of 
the Extreme Capillary Vessels in Health and Dis- 
ease," to which were awarded the Bovlston premi- 
ums for 1820 and 1823 (Boston, 1823); "Disserta- 
tion on Intemperance," to which was awarded a 
premium bv the Massachusetts medical society 
(1829); "Treatise on Consumption" (1823-'6) ; 
"Treatise on Digestion mid its Disorders" (1837); 




" Mental Hygiene " (New York. 1843 ; London, 
1844) ; and " Human Life " (1867). 

SWENEY, John Robson, musician, b. in West 
Chester, Pa., 31 Dec, 1837. He received a common- 
school education, and gave early evidences of mu- 
sical talent. He was leader of a band during the 
civil war, and upon the cessation of hostilities re- 
sumed instruction in music at his native place, 
shortly thereafter essaying his first attempt at the 
composition of Sunday-school music. His songs 
were first brought before the public by his teach- 
ing them to the Sunday-school under his leader- 
ship. The local reputation that he thus acquired 
enabled him to find a publisher to issue them in 
pamphlet-form. A demand for his music was 
created almost immediately, and each year in- 
creased his hold upon public favor. In 1874 the 
degree of M. B. was conferred upon him by the 
Pennsylvania military academy, where he has been 
professor of vocal and instrumental music for eigh- 
teen years. In 1884 he received the degree of 
Mus. D. His Sunday-school songs are used not 
only everywhere in the United States, but in the 
missions in China, Japan, India, and Africa, and 
his name as a composer of this kind of music is 
widely known. He now (1888) has charge of the 
music in Bethany Presbyterian church, Philadel- 
phia. His publications are " Gems of Praise " 
(Philadelphia, 1877); "The Garner" (1878); "Joy 
to the World " (Cincinnati, 1878) ; " The Quiver " 
(Philadelphia, 1880); "The Wells of Salvation" 
(1881) ; "Anthems and Voluntaries " (1881) ; " Songs 
of Redeeming Love " (2 vols., 1882-7) ; " Songs of 
Triumph" (1882); "Our Sabbath Home" (1884); 
"Melodious Sonnets" (1885); "Songs of Jov and 
Gladness" (Boston, 1885); "Joyful Wing" (Phila- 
delphia, 1886) ; " Infant Praises " (1887) ; " Banner 
Anthem Book " (1887) ; " Glad Hallelujahs " (1887) ; 
and " Showers of Blessing " (1888). 

SWENSSON, Carl Aaron, clergyman, b. in 
Sugar Grove, Warren co., Pa., 25 June, 1857. His 
father was one of the pioneers of the Swedish Lu- 
theran church in the United States, and labored 
successfully among the widely scattered Swedes, 
gathering them into congregations and organizing 
them. At his death in 1873 he was president of 
the Swedish Augustana synod. The son received 
his classical and theological training in the Augus- 
tana institutions at Rock Island, 111., being gradu- 
ated at the collegiate department in 1877 and at 
the seminary in 1879. In the same year he was 
ordained to the ministry, and at once assumed 
charge of the Bethany Lutheran congregation, 
Lindsborg, Kan. He was the founder of Bethany 
college and normal institute in that town in 1880, 
and is its president. He was English secretary of 
the general council in 1886, secretary of the synodi- 
cal council of Swedish Augustana synod in 1886-'7, 
and a member of the board of home missions for 
Kansas in 1884-'7. He has been editor of " Ung- 
doms Vaennen " in Chicago, 111., for six years ; of 
" Framat," Lindsborg, Kan., which he founded in 
1885 : " Korsbaneret," an annual (Rock Island, 111., 
1880-'6) ; and " Sondagsskolboken," a Sunday- 
school book (Chicago, 1885). He has published 
" Minnen fran Kyrkan " (Lindsborg, 1888). 

SWETT, John Appleton, phvsician, b. in Bos- 
ton, Mass., 3 Dec, 1808 ; d. in New York city, 18 
Sept., 1854. He was graduated at Harvard in 
1828, received his medical degree there in 1831, 
and after serving in the New York dispensary 
studied in Paris and visited hospitals in Europe. 
From 1842 until his death he was one of the physi- 
cians to the New York hospital, and delivered 
courses of lectures there on diseases of the chest 

and kidneys. In 1853 he was appointed professor 
of the theory and practice of medicine in the 
University of the city of New York. Several 
years before his death he gave particular study to 
Bright's disease. About 1840 he became associated 
with Dr. John Watson as editor of the " New York 
Journal of Medicine." His lectures were published 
in the New York "Lancet," and afterward ap- 
peared in book-form, under the title " Treatise on 
Diseases of the Chest " (New York, 1852). 

SWETT, Josiah, clergyman, b. in Claremont, 
N. H., 4 Aug., 1814. He was graduated at Nor- 
wich university, Vt., in 1837, where he was a pro- 
fessor in 1840-'5, studied theology, took orders in 
the Protestant Episcopal church in 1847, and has 
been rector of churches in Bethel, Jericho, Fair- 
fax, and Highgate, Vt. He was professor of 
systematic theology in the Vermont Episcopal in- 
stitute in 1865-'7, president of Norwich univer- 
sity in 1875-'6, and since 1866 has been presi- 
dent of the standing committee of the diocese of 
Vermont. Trinity gave him the degree of A. M. 
in 1856, and Norwich that of D. D. in 1864. 
Dr. Swett has published "Citizen Soldier " (Nor- 
wich, 1841) ; " English Grammar " (Windsor, 1842 ; 
revised ed., Claremont, 1844) ; " Thomson's ' Sea- 
sons ' and Pope's ' Essav on Man,' with Grammati- 
cal Notes" (1844); "Primary Grammar" (1845); 
" Pastoral Visiting " (1852) ; " Let us Pray, or 
Prayers and Hymns for Family Devotion " (1861); 
"The Firmament in the Midst of the Waters" 
(1862) ; and various sermons. 

SWETT, Leonard, lawyer, b. near Turner, Me., 
11 Aug., 1825. He was educated at North Yar- 
mouth academy and at Waterville (now Colby uni- 
versity), but was not graduated. He read law in 
Portland, enlisted as a soldier in the Mexican war, 
and at its close in 1848 settled in Bloomihgton, 
111. He travelled the circuit in fourteen counties, 
and was an intimate friend of Abraham Lincoln 
and David Davis. In 1865 he removed to Chicago. 
In 1852- : 61 he took an active part in politics, can- 
vassing the state several times, and in 1858, at the 
special request of Mr. Lincoln, was a candidate for 
the legislature on the Republican ticket, and was 
elected by a large majority. This is the only 
official place he has ever held. When Mr. Lincoln 
became president Mr. Swett was employed in the 
trial of government cases, one of the most noted of 
which was that for the acquisition of the Califor- 
nia quicksilver-mines in 1863. In the course of his 
practice Mr. Swett has defended twentv men in- 
dicted for murder, securing the acquittal of nine- 
teen, and a light punishment for the other one. He 
has also been retained in criminal cases in nearly 
every part of the country, though his professional 
work has been mainly devoted to civil suits. His 
success is attributed to his careful personal atten- 
tion to details and his eloquence as an advocate. 
He has rendered much gratuitous service to work- 
ingmen, servants, and other poor clients. He deliv- 
ered the oration at the unveiling of the statue of 
Abraham Lincoln in Chicago, 111., 22 Oct., 1887, and 
at the Chicago Republican convention in June, 1888, 
in an eloquent speech, proposed Walter Q. Gres- 
ham, of Illinois, as a candidate for the presidency. 

SWETT, Samuel, author, b. in Newburyport, 
Mass., 9 June, 1782 ; d. in Boston, Mass., 28 Oct., 
1866. He was graduated at Harvard in 1800, 
studied and practised law, and afterward became 
a merchant. During the war of 1812 he served on 
the northern frontier on the staff of Gen. George 
Izard, with the rank of major. He sat for some 
time in the Massachusetts legislature, and also de- 
voted himself to the study of military history. His 




Sublications are " Abstract of the Baron Joseph de 
loguiat's Considerations on the Art of War, with 
notes (Boston, 1817) ; " Sketch of the Bunker Hill 
Battle " (1818 ; 3d ed., 1827) ; " Sketches of a Few 
Distinguished Men of Newbury and Newburyport " 

SB46) ; " Who was the Commander at Bunker 
ill ? with Remarks on Frothingham's ' History of 
the Battle,' " with an appendix (1850) ; " Defence 
of Col. Timothy Pickering against Bancroft's His- 
tory" (1859); "Original Planning and Construc- 
tion of Bunker Hill Monument," with engravings 
(Albany, 1863) ; and fugitive poems. 

SWETT, William, educator, b. in Henniker, 
N. H., 13 Aug., 1825 ; d. in Beverly, Mass., 25 
March, 1884. He was a deaf-mute, and was gradu- 
ated at the institution for deaf-mutes at Hartford, 
Conn., in 1842, after which he became president of 
the Gallaudet association of deaf-mutes. From 
1879 till his death he was superintendent of the 
New England industrial school for deaf-mutes, 
which he founded in Beverly. He edited the 
" Deaf-Mute's Friend," and was the author of " The 
Adventures of a Deaf-Mute in the White Moun- 
tains " (Henniker, 1874). 

SWIFT, Benjamin, senator, b. in Amenia, N.Y., 
5 April, 1781 ; d. in St. Albans, Vt., 11 Nov., 1847. 
He received an academical education, studied law, 
was admitted to the bar in 1806, and began to 
practise at Bennington, Vt. He removed subse- 
quently to Manchester, and then to St. Albans, 
where he also engaged in farming. He was a mem- 
ber of the state house of representatives in 1813-'14 
and 1825-'6, served in congress from Vermont for 
two terms in 1827-'31, and was elected a U. S. sena- 
tor from the same state, serving from 2 Dec, 1833, 
till 3 March, 1839. 

SWIFT, Ebenezer, surgeon, b. in Wareham, 
Mass., 8 Oct., 1819 ; d. in Hamilton, Bermuda, 24 
Sept., 1885. He was graduated at the medical de- 
partment of the University of the city of New 
York in 1842, and in March, 1847, became acting 
assistant surgeon in the U. S. army. His first 
service was with the army of invasion and occupa- 
tion of Mexico, and he was on duty at Gen. Win- 
field Scott's headquarters until July, 1848. Sub- 
sequently he served at various posts in the east, in 
Texas, and on expeditions against hostile Indians 
until June, 1856. Meanwhile he had been made 
captain and assistant surgeon on 30 Aug., 1852. 
He had command of Fort Chad bourne, Tex., was 
on temporary duty at Fort Columbus in New York 
harbor during the prevalence of the cholera, and 
accompanied the troops under Gen. Albert S. John- 
ston to Utah in May, 1859. After serving' at vari- 
ous stations in Missouri, Kansas, and Dakota, he 
was made full surgeon on 21 May, 1861, and ap- 
pointed medical director of Gen. Ormsby M. Mit- 
chel's division of the Army of the Tennessee. In 
December, 1862, he became medical director of that 
army, and early in 1863 he was transferred to Phila- 
delphia, where he was chief medical officer and 
superintendent of hospitals in and around Phila- 
delphia, and from November, 1863, till June, 1864, 
medical director of the Department of the South. 
He was brevetted lieutenant-colonel and colonel 
on 13 March, 1865, and from February till June, 
1865, held the office of medical director with the 
ranks of lieutenant-colonel and colonel. On 20 
June, 1869, he received the additional brevet of 
brigadier-general for meritorious services volun- 
tarily rendered during the prevalence of cholera 
at Fort Harker, Kan. In 1874 he became medical 
director of the Department of the South, and there- 
after, until his retirement on 8 Oct., 1883, he was 
assistant medical purveyor in New York city. 

SWIFT, Kl Mia Pope, clergyman, b. in Will- 
iamstown, Mass., 12 Aug., 1792 ; d. in Alleghany, 
Pa., 3 April, 1865. He was graduated at Williams 
in 1813, studied two years at Princeton theological 
seminary, was licensed to preach by the presbytery 
of New Brunswick in April, 1816, and ordained as 
a Congregationalism 3 Sept., 1817. After preach- 
ing in Dover and Milford, Del., he became pastor 
of the 2d Presbyterian church at Pittsburg in 
1819, and remained there thirteen years. He was 
secretary of the Western foreign missionary society 
in 1831-'5, and pastor of the 1st Presbyterian 
church, Alleghany, in 1835-'65. He was a member 
of the board of directors of the Western theologi- 
cal seminary from its organization, and president 
of the board from 1861 till his death. He estab- 
lished the " Western Foreign Missionary Chronicle " 
in 1833, and continued it three years. He pub- 
lished " The Sacred Manual " (Pittsburg, 1821), and 
sermons and addresses. 

SWIFT, John White, merchant, b. in Phila- 
delphia. Pa., 30 Jan., 1750 ; d. in Bucks county. Pa. r 
in 1819. His father, John, was a merchant, a 
common councilman in 1757-'76, and then collector 
of the port of Philadelphia from 1762 till 1772. 
John White was graduated at the College of Phila- 
delphia in 1767, and became a merchant at Quebec. 
On the approach of Gen. Richard Montgomery he 
joined his command, serving as captain, and was 
wounded in the assault on that place. On his re- 
covery, Gen. Wooster appointed him inspector of 
accounts and works at Montreal, which post he re- 
signed on the adoption of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. He was purser of the ship " Empress 
of China," the first vessel to enter Canton, China, 
under the American flag. — His son, John, lawver. 
b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 27 June, 1790; d. there, 9 
June, 1873, was admitted to the bar in 1811. He 
was a leader of the Whigs of Philadelphia, and 
was mayor in 1832-'8, 1839-'41, and 1845-'9, win- 
ning applause by the courage with which he quelled 
several riots, leading the police in person. 

SWIFT, Jonathan Williams, naval officer, b. 
in Taunton, Mass., 30 March, 1808 ; d. in Geneva, 
N. Y., 30 July, 1877. He entered the navy as mid- 
shipman, 25 Aug., 1823, and cruised in the sloop 
" Cyane," of the Mediterranean station, in 1823-'5, 
and the frigate " Brandywine," of the Pacific sta- 
tion, in 1826-'9. He became passed midshipman, 
23 March, 1829, and was then on leave for four 
years. He was commissioned a lieutenant, 3 March, 
1831, and the next year made a short cruise in the 
sloop " John Adams " in the Mediterranean. After 
this he was on leave and waiting orders until his 
death, except for a short cruise in the steamer 
" Fulton " on the Home station in 1840, and was 
placed on the reserved list by the action of the 
board of retirement, 14 Sept., 1855. He was pro- 
moted to commodore on the retired list, 4 April, 
1867, and resided at Geneva, N. Y., until his death. 

SWIFT, Joseph Gardner, soldier, b. in Nan- 
tucket, Mass., 31 Dec, 1783; d. in Geneva, N. Y., 
23 July, 1865. He was a descendant of Thomas 
Swift, one of the first settlers of Dorchester, Mass., 
in 1630, and his father, Dr. Foster Swift, was a 
surgeon in the U. S. army. Joseph was educated 
at Bristol academy, Taunton, Mass., and was the 
first graduate of the U. S. military academy, 12 
Oct., 1802. He entered the army as 2d lieutenant 
of engineers, and was promoted captain in October, 
1806, and major, 23 Feb., 1808. He was aide to 
Gen. William Pinckney in 1812, became lieutenant- 
colonel, 6 Julv, 1812, and colonel and principal en- 
gineer, 31 July, 1812. He was chief engineer in 
planning the defences of New York harbor in 




1812-13, and of the army during the campaign of 
1813 on St. Lawrence river. He was brevetted 
brigadier-general, 19 Feb., 1814, for meritorious 
services, and was superintendent of the U. S. mili- 
tary academy from 
November, 1816, till 
January, 1817, but re- 
signed in November, 
1818, with other offi- 
cers, on the appoint- 
ment of the French 
general, Simon Ber- 
nard, to the charge 
of investigating and 
modifying the coast 
defences. He was 
U. S. surveyor of the 
port of New York in 
1818-27, then a civil 
engineer in the U. S. 
service, and superin- 
tendent of harbor im- 
provements on the 
lakes in 1829-'45. In 
the winter of 1830-1 
he constructed the rail- 
way from New Orleans to Lake Pontchartrain 
over an almost impassable swamp, in 1839 he 
was chief engineer of the Harlem railroad in New 
York, and in 1841 he was appointed by President 
Harrison on an embassy of peace to the govern- 
ors of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. 
In 1851-'2, with his son. McRae, he made the tour 
of Europe, and recorded his observations in a 
diary, in which is also a complete history of West 
Point academy. He contributed valuable articles 
to the scientific journals. See Charles B. Stuart's 
" Lives and Works of Civil and Military Engineers 
of America" (New York, 1871). — His brother, 
William Henry, engineer, b. in Taunton, Mass., 6 
Nov., 1800; d. in New York city, 7 April, 1879, was 
graduated at the U. S. military academy in 1819. 
He had previously been ordered, as a cadet, in 1818, 
to join Maj. Stephen H. Long's Rocky mountain 
expedition, with which he served till 1821. He was 
employed in the early surveys for the Chesapeake 
and Ohio canal, and for various railroads, and in 
constructing a map of post-offices and post-roads, 
and in 1832 became brevet captain and assistant 
topographical engineer. For the next, ten years he- 
was employed on the geodetic survey of the Atlan- 
tic coast, being in charge of river and harbor im- 
provements in New England in 1837-'42. and resi- 
dent and constructing engineer of the Massachu- 
setts Western railroad (now part of the Boston and 
Albanv) in 1836-'40, and becoming full captain in 
1838. From 1844 till 1849 he was assistant to the 
chief of topographical engineers, and' during this 
period, with Gov. John Davis, of Massachusetts, he 
made an examination of the Illinois and Michigan 
canal, of whose board of trustees he was president 
from 1845 till 1871, and which he assisted to com- 
plete. In 1847-'9 he was engaged in designing and 
constructing the first Minot's ledge light-house, 
which was swept away in a gale in April, 1851. This 
was the first iron-pile light-house in the United 
States. In 1849 Capt. Swift resigned from the army, 
and he was afterward successively president of the 
Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore, the 
Massachusetts Western, and the Hannibal and St. 
Joseph railroads. During his last fifteen years he 
resided in New York city. — Another brother, John, 
became brigadier-general of New York militia, and 
was killed, 12 July, 1814, after cutting off a picket 
of the enemy near Fort George, Canada. 

SWIFT, Lewis, astronomer, b. in Clarkson, 
N. Y, 29 Feb., 1820. He was educated at Clarkson 
academy, where he completed his course in 1838, 
and then turned his attention to farm work. His 
father died in 1846, and, thrown upon his own re- 
sources, he studied magnetism and electricity, and 
for four years lectured on these subjects in Cana- 
da and the western states. He returned to farm- 
ing in 1850, but soon began again to lecture on the 
wonders of the microscopic world, which he illus- 
trated by means of a calcium light. All of his ap- 
paratus was constructed by himself and parts of it 
were of his own invention/ In 1854 he established 
a hardware-store in Cortland county, N. Y., which 
in 1872 he moved to Rochester, where he has since 
resided. Meanwhile, he became interested in as- 
tronomy, and, building his own telescope, he began 
to make observations. His first work was in 1858, 
on Donati's comet, and his first astronomical paper 
was on this subject. For years he eagerly scanned 
the heavens for new comets, and in 1862 the great 
comet of that year was discovered by him. In 
1869 he observed at Mattoon, 111., a total solar 
eclipse, and, making particular study of the pro- 
tuberances and corona, secured some valuable re- 
sults. Two years later he found another comet, 
but it had been seen earlier in Europe. Three 
times since he has caught brief glimpses of comets 
that no other observer has ever seen. After his 
removal to Rochester he discovered comets in 
1877-'9, for which he thrice received the comet 
prize, a gold medal valued at sixty dollars, from 
the Imperial academy of sciences in Vienna. Hul- 
bert H. Warner of Rochester, knowing under what 
disadvantages Dr. Swift was laboring in pursuing 
his astronomical studies, offered to build for his 
use an observatory, provided the people of the city 
would raise a sum sufficient to get him a refractor 
of sixteen-inch aperture. Nearly $12,000 were 
contributed, and the telescope is doing service in 
the great dome of the 
observatory, which, to- 
gether with the at- 
tached residence for 
the family of the di- 
rector, cost, exclusive 
of the instrument, 
nearly $100,000. In 
1880 Dr. Swift found 
a comet with a period 
of five and a half 
years, and in 1881 he 
discovered two others. 
For the former he re- 
ceived a special prize 
of $500 from Mr. War- 
ner, which is the larg- 
est sum ever awarded 
for the discovery of 
any heavenly body, 
and for the latter in 
1882 he received the Lalande prize of 540 francs 
from the French academy of sciences. Besides the 
foregoing, he independently discovered Winnecke's 
comet in 1871, Coggia's in 1874, and the Brooks- 
Swift comet in 1883, there being in the latter case 
a difference of fifteen minutes in favor of William 
R. Brooks. In 1878 he observed the total eclipse 
of the sun at Denver, Col., and he saw at that time 
what he thinks were two intra-mercurial planets. 
His report of this discovery excited great interest 
and much controversy on both continents. Since 
he assumed in 1882 'the directorship of the War- 
ner observatory, he has found about 700 new 
nebula?, which entitles him to third place as dis- 




coverer of these bodies, the two Hersehels alone 
exceeding him. The degree of Ph. D. was con- 
ferred on him by the Ij niversity of Rochester in 
1879. He has invented a horse hay-rake (1842) ; an 
oxyhydrogen microscope (1858) ; an improvement 
in the construction of domes (1881) ; and an auto- 
matic right-ascension circle (1887). Dr. Swift has 
been elected a fellow of the Royal astronomical 
society of Great Britain, and he is a member of 
various- societies in this country. His writings 
have been confined to cyclopaedia articles and 
papers that have appeared in various astronomical 
journals or as popular articles in the press. 

SWIFT, Robert, conchologist, b. in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., in 1799 ; d. in St. Thomas, W. I., 6 May, 
1872. He went to South America, but in 1831 es- 
tablished himself as a merchant at St. Thomas, 
W. I. In 1866 he retired to Philadelphia, but he 
returned to St. Thomas the following year. His 
collection of shells, said to be the finest in the 
West Indies, was arranged in Denmark, and pre- 
sented to the Smithsonian institution at Washing- 
ton, D. C. The collection was valued at $30,000. 
He was a man of fine culture and great fondness 
for scientific pursuits, and was in constant corre- 
spondence with the ablest conchologists in this 
•country in regard to his favorite study. 

SWIFT, Samuel, jurist, b. in Amenia, N. Y„ 3 
Aug., 1782; d. in Middlebury, Vt., in 1875. He 
was graduated at Dartmouth in 1800, and was a 
tutor in Middlebury college from 1800 till 1802. 
He studied and practised law, was secretary of 
state of Vermont, judge of probate of Addison 
county from 1819 till 1841, and a judge of the 
county court in 1855-'7. Middlebury gave him 
the degree of LL. D. in 1860. During 1812-'13 he 
edited a political paper. He published " History 
of the Town of Middlebury " (Middlebury, 1859) ; 
" Statistical and Historical Account of the County 
of Addison, Vermont " (1859) ; and addresses. 

SWIFT, Zephaniah, jurist, b. in Wareham, 
Mass., in February, 1759 ; d. in Warren, Ohio, 27 
Sept., 1823. He was graduated at Yale in 1778, 
studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began 
practice at Windham, Conn. He was elected to 
congress, serving from 2 Dec, 1793, till 3 March, 
1797, and was appointed in 1800 secretary to Oliver 
Ellsworth, minister to France. In 1801 he was 
Appointed a judge of the state supreme court, and 
he was its chief justice in 1806-'19. He was a 
member of the Hartford convention of New Eng- 
land Federalists, sat in the state house of repre- 
sentatives, and was a member of a commission to 
revise the laws of Connecticut. He published 
" Oration on Domestic Slavery " (Hartford, 1791) ; 
u System of the Laws of Connecticut " (2 vols., 
Windham, 1795-6) ; " Digest of the Laws of Evi- 
dence in Civil and Criminal Cases, and a Treatise 
on Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes" 
(Hartford, 1810) ; and " Digest of the Laws of Con- 
necticut" (2 vols., New Haven, 1822-'3). — His 
daughter, Mary A., published about 1833 " First 
Lessons on Natural Philosophy," which was a popu- 
lar text-book for many years, and was translated 
into Karen (1846) and into Burmese (1848). 

SWINBURNE, John, physician, b. in Deer 
River, Lewis co„ N. Y., 30 May, 1820. He was 
graduated at Albany medical college in 1846. and 
began to practise in that city. In 1861 he was ap- 
pointed chief medical officer on the staff of Gen. 
John F. Rathbone, and placed in charge of the 
depot for recruits at Albany. In May, 1862, he 
was appointed by Gov. Edwin D. Morgan auxiliary 
volunteer surgeon at the front with the rank of 
medical superintendent, and was reappointed by 

Gov. Horatio Seymour on 13 June. He was sub- 
sequently made a surgeon in the U. S. service, and 
assigned to duty at Savage's station. He was tak- 
en prisoner, 29 June, 1862, and offered his liberty 
by his captors, but preferred to remain with his 
patients. He was appointed by Gov. Seymour in 
1864 health officer of the port of New York, re- 
appointed by Gov. Reuben E. Fenton in 1866, and 
held the post six years. He was surgeon-in-chief 
of the American ambulance corps in Paris during 
the siege of that city by the German army in 
1870-'l. In 1882 he was elected mayor of Albany, 
and in 1884 he was chosen to congress and served 
for one term. He has been surgeon-in-chief to the 
Child's hospital and Homoeopathic hospital at Al- 
bany, and has been a frequent contributor to the 
medical journals and reviews. See "A Typical 
American, or Incidents in the Life of Dr. John 
Swinburne" (Albany, 1888).— His son, Louis Jud- 
son, author, b. in Albany, N. Y., 24 Aug., 1855 ; 
d. in Colorado Springs, Col., 9 Dec, 1887, went 
abroad with his family in 1870, and resided in 
Paris during the siege, his observations during 
that period being embodied in his " Paris Sketch- 
es " (Albany, 1875). He was graduated at Yale in 
1879, and afterward resided almost entirely in 
Denver and at Colorado Springs in consequence of 
delicate health. He contributed to magazines, and 
had in press at his death a volume of essays en- 
titled " English Romanticism." 

SWING, David, clergyman, b. in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, 23 Aug., 1830. His father died in 1832, and 
his boyhood was mostly spent upon a farm. He 
was graduated at Miami university, Oxford, Ohio, 
in 1852, and soon began the study of theology, but 
before a year elapsed he was made professor of 
languages at Miami, where he remained twelve 
years, preaching occasionally in addition to his 
regular duties. In 1866 he accepted a call to be- 
come pastor of the 4th Presbyterian church in Chi- 
cago. In the great fire of 1871 his church edifice 
and the homes of most of his parishioners were 
swept away, but arrangements were at once made 
for him to preach in Standard hall and McVicker's 
theatre till a new building could be erected for his 
congregation. This was done in 1874. His au- 
diences were large and appreciative, and his ser- 
mons and essays appeared nearly every week in the 
public press ; but his doctrines were regarded by 
many as heterodox, and Prof. Francis L. Patton 
preferred the charge of heresy against Prof. Swing 
in twenty-eight specifications before the Chicago 
presbytery, 15 April, 1874. A trial of several 
weeks' duration was held, and resulted in an ac- 
quittal, but Prof. Swing withdrew from the Pres- 
byterian church, and his congregation has since 
been independent. McVicker's theatre proving too 
small, Central music hall, the largest in the city, 
was built in 1878, where Prof. Swing has since 
continued to preach to large audiences. 

SWINTON, John, journalist, b. in Salton, Had- 
dingtonshire, Scotland, 12 Dec, 1830. He received 
his early education from his uncle, the Rev. Robert 
Currie, emigrated in 1843 to Canada, and after- 
ward to the United States, with his family, learned 
the printer's trade in Illinois, and practised it for 
some time in New York city. He then received a 
course of classical instruction at Williston semi- 
nary, Mass., and afterward travelled extensively 
through the United StateSi Feeling an abhorrence 
for slavery, he left Charleston, S. C., where he re- 
sided at the time, in order to take an active part 
in the free-state contest in Kansas. He returned 
to New York city in 1857, and began the study of 
medicine. While thus engaged he contributed arti- 




cles to the " Times," afterward accepted an edito- 
rial place on that paper, and soon became manag- 
ing editor. During the absences of Henry J. Ray- 
mond he had the sole control, and wrote a large 
number of the leading articles. He resigned the 
post of managing editor at the close of the war, 
on account of impaired health, but continued his 
connection with the journal as an editorial writer 
till the death of Mr. Raymond. Subsequently he 
was managing editor of the New York " Sun." He 
became a leader in the movement for labor-re- 
forms, and in 1883 severed his connection with the 
"Sun "in order to expound his political and social 
views in a weekly journal that he called "John 
Swinton's Paper," which he ceased to publish in 
1887. Besides other pamphlets, he has published 
"New Issue: the Chinese - American Question" 
(New York, 1870), and also a " Eulogy on Henry 
J. Raymond" (1870); "John Swinton's Travels" 
(1880) ; and an " Oration on John Brown " (1881). 
— His brother, William, author, b. in Salton, Scot- 
land, 23 April, 1833, was educated at Knox college, 
Toronto, and at Amherst, with the intention of be- 
coming a Presbyterian minister, and in 1853 began 
to preach, but adopted the profession of teaching. 
He was professor of ancient and modern languages 
at the Edgeworth female seminary, Greensborough, 
N. C, in 1853-4, and afterward went to New York 
city to take a professorship in Mt. Washington col- 
legiate institute. While in the south he contrib- 
uted to "Putnam's Monthly" some critical and 
philosophical articles, and a series of etymological 
studies that were afterward published under the 
title of " Rambles among Words : their Poetry and 
Wisdom " (New York, 1859 ; London, 1861). Hav- 
ing previously contributed articles to the New York 
" Times," he was taken on the staff of that journal 
in 1858, and in 1862 went to the seat of war as a 
correspondent. He was equipped for this work by 
close study of military art, and he discussed tacti- 
cal movements with such freedom that in 1864 Gen. 
Ambrose E. Burnside, whom he had criticised in his 
letters, procured an order for his exclusion from the 
camps of the army. He also, at a later date, in- 
curred the displeasure of Gen. Grant. In 1867 he 
travelled through the southern states and collected 
material for a history of the war from the military 
and civil leaders of the Confederacy. Returning 
to the office of the " Times," he resumed the work 
of literary criticism, in which province he had 
gained a reputation before he became a war-cor- 
respondent. Before abandoning journalism, he 
published in newspaper articles and in a pamphlet 
an exposure of the machinations of railroad finan- 
ciers to procure subsidies. In 1869 he became pro- 
fessor of belles-lettres in the University of Cali- 
fornia, where he remained for five years. Subse- 
quently he made Brooklyn, N. Y., his residence, 
devoting himself to the composition of educational 
works, most of which were widely adopted in pub- 
lic and private schools. For a series of these, which 
cover most of the studies pursued in schools, he re- 
ceived a gold medal at the Paris exposition of 1867 
" for educational works of remarkable originality 
and value." His principal military works are " The 
' Times's ' Review of McClellan : his Military Ca- 
reer Reviewed and Exposed" (1864); "Campaigns 
of the Army of the Potomac : a Critical History 
of Operations in Virginia, Maryland, and Penn- 
sylvania" (1866; revised ed., 1886) ; "The Twelve 
Decisive Battles of the War : a History of the East- 
ern and Western Campaigns in Relation to the 
Actions that Decided their Issue" (1867); and 
" History of the New York Seventh Regiment dur- 
ing the War of the Rebellion " (Boston, 1870). 

SWISSHELM, Jane Grey, b. near Pittsburg, 
Pa., 6 Sept., 1815 ; d. in Swissvale, Pa., 22 July, 
1884. When she was eight years of age her father, 
James Cannon, died, leaving a family in straitened 
circumstances. The daughter worked at manual 
labor and teaching till she was twenty-one, when 
she married James Swisshelm, who several years 
afterward obtained a divorce on the ground of de- 
sertion. Two years later she removed with her 
husband to Louisville, Ky. In this city she be- 
came an outspoken opponent of slavery, and her 
first written attack upon the system appeared in 
the Louisville " Journal " in 1842. She also wrote 
articles favoring abolition and woman's rights in 
the "Spirit of Liberty," of Pittsburg, for about 
four years. In 1848 she established the Pittsburg 
" Saturday Visitor," a strong abolition and woman's 
rights paper, which, in 1856, was merged with the 
weekly edition of the Pittsburg "Journal." In 
1857 she went to St. Cloud, Minn., and established 
the St. Cloud " Visitor." Her bold utterances 
caused a mob to destroy her office and its con- 
tents, and to throw her printing-press into the 
river. But she soon began to publish the St. 
Cloud " Democrat." When Abraham Lincoln was 
nominated for the presidency, she spoke and wrote 
in his behalf and for the principles of which he 
was the representative. When the civil war began 
and nurses were wanted at the front, she was one 
of the first to respond. After the battle of the 
Wilderness she had charge of 182 badly wounded 
men at Fredericksburg for five days, without sur- 
geon or assistant, and saved them all. She was a 
prolific writer for newspapers and magazines, and 
published " Letters to Country Girls " (New York, 
1853), and an autobiography entitled " Half of a 
Century " (1881). 

SWORD, James Brade, painter, b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 11 Oct., 1839. His early life was spent 
in China, and he subsequently travelled extensive- 
ly in the United States, sketching, and also in the 
service of the government surveys. During 1861-'2 
he studied under Christian Schussele at the Penn- 
sylvania academy. He has been president of the 
Philadelphia society of artists since 1878, and di- 
rector of the art club since 1887. His works in- 
clude " Quail Shooting," " Peep into Lake George," 
" Trenton Falls," " Silver-Thread Falls," " Mystery 
of the Sea," and " Something in the Wind." 

SWORDS, Robert Smith, author, b. in New 
York city, 12 July, 1816 ; d. in Newark, N. J., 15 
Jan., 1881. He was graduated at Columbia in 
1834, and after studying law for three years with 
Daniel Lord was admitted to the bar. Soon after 
this he formed a partnership with Sylvester Ward 
which lasted ten years, when he retired from the 
practice of his profession, in the mean time serving 
during several years as judge-advocate for the city 
of New York. In 1849 he settled on Passaic river, 
opposite Belleville, N. J., and while living there 
was for twelve years a magistrate for Union town- 
ship. Although an earnest Democrat and an op- 
ponent of the administration of President Lincoln, 
he placed his services at the disposal of the govern- 
ment, in August, 1862, was commissioned lieuten- 
ant-colonel of the 13th New Jersey volunteers, and 
was with his regiment in the battles of Antietam 
and South Mountain, being wounded in the former 
engagement. He resigned in 1863 and removed to 
Newark, N. J., where he afterward resided. For 
many years he was secretary of the Board of trade 
of Newark, and he was corresponding secretary of 
the New Jersey state agricultural society, treasurer 
of the New Jersey society for the prevention of 
cruelty to animals, and treasurer of the Board of 




proprietors of East New Jersey. In 1867 he be- 
came treasurer of the New Jersey historical society, 
to whose " Proceedings " he contributed a " Memoir 
of the Life and Character of John Rutherford " 
(1872) ; •' The Bones of Columbus " (1879) ; " The 
Cathedral Church of San Domingo " (1879) ; and 
other similar papers. 

SWORDS, Thomas, soldier, b. in New York city, 
1 Nov., 1806 ; d. there, 20 March, 1886. He was a 
grandson of Capt. Thomas Swords, a British offi- 
cer, who died in New York in 1780, and his father 
was the senior member of the publishing-house of 
T. and J. Swords, of New York city. The son was 
graduated at the U. S. military academy in 1829, 
assigned to the 4th infantry, and served in various 
parts of the southern states for four years, when 
he was appointed 1st lieutenant in the 1st dragoons. 
He was promoted captain, 3 March, 1837, and dur- 
ing nearly the whole of the succeeding twelve years 
was engaged on frontier duty, serving with Gen. 
Henry Leavenworth against the Indians in the 
southwest, and with Gen. Stephen Kearny in the 
conquest of New Mexico and California, and raised 
the first American flag over Santa Fe. When Gen. 
Kearny's force reached San Diego on the Pacific 
coast in January,* 1847, Swords, who was the quar- 
termaster, went to the Sandwich islands and ob- 
tained clothing and supplies for the soldiers. He 
became captain and assistant quartermaster, 7 July, 
1838, major, 21 April, 1846, and lieutenant-colonel 
and deputy quartermaster-general, 3 Aug., 1861. He 
was chief quartermaster of the Army of the West 
in 1846-'7, was engaged at San Pasqual, Cal., 6 Dec, 
1846, and at Vera Cruz, and was bre vetted lieuten- 
ant-colonel, 30 May, 1848, for meritorious services 
in the enemy's country. He was chief quarter- 
master of the Departments of the Cumberland and 
the Ohio in 1861-5. was engaged in the battle of 
Chickamauga, and brevetted brigadier-general and 
major-general, U. S. army, 13 March, 1865. He 
was retired from active service, 22 Feb., 1869. 

SYDENHAM, Charles Edward Poulett 
Thomson, Baron, governor-general of Canada, b. 
at Waverley Abbey, Surrey, England, 13 Sept., 
1799 ; d. in Kingston, Canada, 19 Sept., 1841. He 
was the eldest son of a wealthy merchant, who was 
engaged in trading with Russia. In 1819 he be- 
came a clerk in his father's St. Petersburg house, 
where he was afterward a partner, and subsequent- 
ly he was a partner in the London firm, and sus- 
tained losses in 1825 by investing in Mexican mines. 
He represented Dover in parliament from 1826 till 
1830, when, being elected for that constituency 
and Manchester, he decided to sit for the latter. 
In parliament he was an early and resolute advo- 
cate of the principles of free-trade. In 1830 he 
was appointed vice-president of the board of trade 
and treasurer of the navy, and he became a mem- 
ber of the privy council on 23 Nov. of that year. 
In July, 1834, he was made president of the board 
of trade, but he resigned in the following Novem- 
ber, with the rest of Lord Melbourne's ministry, 
and in April, 1835, when Viscount Melbourne 
formed a new cabinet, he resumed the same port- 
folio, with a seat in the cabinet, which he hela till 
his appointment as governor-general of Canada in 
August, 1839. He arrived in Canada on 19 Oct., 
and soon afterward visited Montreal and other 
parts of the country, and held sessions of the legis- 
latures of Upper and of Lower Canada. He took 
energetic measures to suppress the insurrections of 
Louis J. Papineau and vV illiam L. Mackenzie, but 
sought to remedy the causes of discontent. With 
diplomatic tact he obtained the acquiescence of 
both provinces in the legislative union, which was 

consummated when he took the oath of office on 
10 Feb., 1841, as governor of Canada under the act 
of union that was passed by the British parliament 
in July, 1840. He also exerted himself to complete 
public works. He was raised to the peerage, 10 
Aug., 1840, by the title of Baron Sydenham of To- 
ronto, as a mark of appreciation of the successful 
manner in which he had administered the govern- 
ment of Canada. While riding near Kingston, 5 
Sept., 1841, he fell from his horse and sustained in- 
juries that, though not in themselves fatal, re- 
sulted in death. He was appointed knight grand 
cross of the Order of the Bath, 19 Aug., 1841. His 
" Memoirs " were published by his brother, George 
Poulett Scrope (London, 1843). 

SYKES, George, soldier, b. in Dover, Del., 9 
Oct., 1822; d. in Brownsville, Tex., 9 Feb., 1880. 
He was appointed from Maryland to the U. S. 
military academy, and on his graduation in 1842 
was assigned to 
the 3d infantry, 
with which be 
served in the latter 
part of the Flori- 
da war, and then 
in the west and in 
Texas. He was 
promoted 1st lieu- 
tenant, 21 Sept., 
1846, and during 
the Mexican war 
was engaged at 
Monterey, Vera 
Cruz, Cerro Gor- 
do (where he was 
brevetted captain 
for gallantry), 
Contreras, Churu- 
busco, and the 
capture of the city 
of Mexico. He was 
commissary of Gen. Twiggs's division in Mexico in 
1847-'8, and was then on frontier and garrison duty 
till the civil war, taking part in skirmishes with the 
Apaches in 1854, and in the Navajo expedition of 
1859, and reaching the rank of captain on 30 Sept., 
1855. He became major of the 14th infantry, 14 
May, 1861, was at the battle of Bull Run, and 
then commanded the regular infantry in Washing- 
ton till March, 1862, and was commissioned briga- 
dier-general of volunteers, 28 Sept., 1861. He took 
part in the peninsula campaign at the head of 
the division of regulars in Fitz-John Porter's 
corps, receiving the brevet of colonel for gallantry 
at Gaines's Mills, and in the succeeding operations 
of the Army of the Potomac, becoming major- 
general of volunteers on 29 Nov., 1862, and com- 
manding the 5th corps after the battle of Chancel- 
lorsville. He was at the head of this corps at 
Gettysburg, and so continued till 20 April, 1864, 
when he was ordered to Kansas. At the close of 
the war he received the brevet of brigadier-general, 
U. S. army, for services at Gettysburg, and major- 
general for " gallant and meritorious services in 
the field " during the war. He had reached the 
regular army rank of lieutenant-colonel on 16 Oct., 
1863, and on 12 Jan., 1868, he became colonel of 
the 20th infantry. From this time till his death 
he commanded various posts, and after 1877 he 
was in charge of Fort Brown, Tex. On motion 
of Senator Burnside, congress appropriated $1,000 
for the removal of his remains to the cemetery at 
West Point, where he now lies buried, and where 
a fine monument has been erected to his memory 
by his many friends. 

/-^O Z^^-4 





SYKES, James, physician, b. near Dover, Del., 
27 March, 1761 ; d. there, 18 Oct., 1822. His 
father, James, held several offices in the state 
during and after the Revolution, and was a dele- 
gate to congress in 1777-8. The son studied at 
Williams college, and afterward attended medical 
lectures at Philadelphia. After four years' prac- 
tice at Cambridge, Md., he returned to Dover, 
where he became renowned as a surgeon. Prom 
1814 till 1820 he resided in New York. He was 
often a member of the state senate, over which he 
presided for nearly fifteen years, and he was acting 
governor of Delaware in 1801-'2. 

SYLVESTER, Herbert Milton, author b. in 
Lowell, Mass., 20 Feb., 1849. He was fitted to en- 
ter college at Bridgeton academy, Bridgeton, Me., 
but entered the law-office of William Pitt Fessen- 
den in Portland, and was admitted to the bar in 
April, 1872, and settled in Boston, Mass. He has 
the reputation of being a good landscape artist. 
He has published " Prose Pastorals " (Boston, 1887) 
And " Homestead Highways " (1888), and is now 
(1888) engaged upon a novel descriptive of New 
England country life. He has in press " Purpoo- 
dack," dealing with the early settlement of Casco 
bay, a nature-book entitled " Fallow Fields," and 
a boy's book of adventure. 

SYLVESTER, James Joseph, English author, 
b. in London, England, 3 Sept., 1814. He was 
graduated at Cambridge, became a professor of 
natural philosophy at University college, London, 
and was made a member of the Royal society in 
1839. He came to this country and held the 
chair of mathematics in the University of Virginia 
in 1841-'2, and was appointed to a similar profes- 
sorship at the Royal military academy, Woolwich, 
in 1855. He was professor of mathematics at 
Johns Hopkins university, Baltimore, in 1876-'83, 
and in December, 1883, was elected Savilian pro- 
fessor of geometry at Oxford. He is a member of 
many learned societies both in Europe and this 
country, received the medal of the Royal socie- 
ty in 1860, and the Copley medal in 1880, and 
has been the recipient of honorary degrees from 
various colleges. He was the founder and the 
first editor of the " American Journal of Mathe- 
matics," is the author of a large number of im- 
portant scientific memoirs, 112 of which, published 
previous to 1863, are in the Royal society's index 
of scientific papers. He has given a theory of 
versification in a volume entitled " Laws of Verse " 
(London, 1870) ; has invented the plagrograph, an 
instrument which, in addition to altering the mag- 
nitude of an object, possesses the property of rotat- 
ing its image through any desired angle ; the geo- 
metrical fan, which has been applied to the con- 
struction of a cheap astronomical spectroscope; 
and other geometrico-mechanical instruments. He 
has developed a method of transferring circular 
into rectilinear or parallel motion, based upon the 
discovery of a French engineer, thereby adding 
immensely to the resources of the mechanician. In 
December, 1885, Prof. Sylvester made known his 
theory of reciprocants, which, it is claimed, more 
than doubles the resources of algebra. 

SYLVESTER, Nathaniel Bartlett, author, b. 
in Denmark, Lewis co., N. Y., 22 Feb., 1825. Both 
his grandfathers were soldiers of the Revolution. 
He received his early education at the Denmark 
academy, studied law at Lowville, N. Y., and was 
admitted to the bar at Oswego, N. Y., 5 April, 1852. 
He founded in 1856 and edited for two years a 
newspaper at Lowville, N. Y., which is still pub- 
lished there as the " Lewis County Democrat," and 
in 1866, having been appointed a commissioner of 

the U. S. circuit court, he removed to Troy, N. Y., 
where he now (1888) resides. He is the author of 
" Historical Sketches of Northern New York and 
the Adirondack Wilderness " (Troy, 1877) ; " His- 
tory of Saratoga County, N. Y." (Philadelphia, 
1878) ; " History of Rensselaer County, N. Y." 
(1879); "History of the Connecticut Vallev in 
Massachusetts" (Troy, 1879); "History of Ulster 
County, N. Y." (Philadelphia, 1880); "Indian Le- 
gends of Saratoga and the Upper Hudson Valley " 
(1884) ; and " Historical Narratives of the Upper 
Hudson, Lake George, and Lake Champlain " 
(Philadelphia, ,1888). 

SYLVIE, Edouard (sil-vee), French naturalist, 
b. in Riom, Auvergne, in 1670; d. in Lyons in 
1739. He studied in the College Louis le Grand 
at Paris, entered the church, and was appointed by 
the king to a rich abbey in Lyons. Devoting his 
leisure time to the study of mathematics and natu- 
ral history, he presented several valuable memoirs 
to the Academy of sciences, which induced that 
body to propose him to the king for a mission to 
South America. Louis XIV. placed a man-of-war 
at Sylvie's disposal in order to facilitate his work, 
and from 1701 till 1703 he visited Santo Domingo 
and several ports of the Caribbean sea, prepared 
a chart of the Gulf of Mexico, and made valuable 
observations. In the following year he visited 
Guiana, Brazil, Montevideo, and Buenos Ayres, 
landed on Staten island, and made the ascent of its 
snowy range of mountains. Doubling Cape Horn, 
he coasted Chili and Peru to Callao, and, penetrat- 
ing into the interior, explored the Andes. Sylvie 
afterward returned to the West Indies, and so- 
journed several months in Santo Domingo, occu- 
pied in drawing a map of the French part of the 
island. His vessel arrived at La Roche! le, 15 Oct., 
1710, and Sylvie's valuable collections were pre- 
sented to the Academy of sciences, which elected 
him a corresponding member. His works include 
"Explications de l'herbier et des collections rap- 
portees d'Amerique par l'Abbe Edouard Sylvie " (3 
vols., Paris, 1711-13) ; " Relation d'un voyage de 
la mer du Sud aux cotes de la Guiane, du Bresil, 
de la Terre des Etats, du Chili et du Perou, avec 
une description de la cote septentrionale du detroit 
de Le Maire " (3 vols., 1714-'16) ; " Voyage a travers 
le Golfe du Mexique, suivi d'une description des 
lies Antilles de l'Amerique, et en particulier de 
l'ile de Saint Domingue'' (2 vols., 1720-'l); and 
" Journal des observations d'un voyage au Perou 
et au Chili " (5 vols., 1726-'8). 

SYMINGTON, Andrew James, Scottish au- 
thor, b. in Paisley, Scotland, 27 July, 1825. He 
was educated at the grammar-school of his native 
place, began his literary career at an early age, and 
in 1844 contributed translations of German poetry 
and original verses to Tait's "Edinburgh Maga- 
zine." In 1859 he accompanied President Paul A. 
Chadbourne, of Williams college, on a visit to Ice- 
land, and gave the results of his journey in " Pen 
and Pencil Sketches of Faroe and Iceland " (Lon- 
don, 1861). In 1874-'5 Mr. Symington spent a year 
in this country, and contributed to several Ameri- 
can journals. As author of Blackie and Sons' series 
of " Men of Light and Leading " in 1880, he wrote, 
among other lives, " William Cullen Bryant, with 
Selections from his Poems and other Writings," and 
" William Wordsworth : a Biographical Sketch, with 
Selections from his Writings in Poetry and Prose " 
(2 vols., Glasgow, 1881). In 1881 he prepared selec- 
tions from the speeches of President Garfield for a 
series of works entitled " Talks with the People by 
Men of Mark." He has been an extensive traveller, 
in 1863 was elected a fellow of the Royal society of 




northern antiquaries, Copenhagen, and in 1882 a 
corresponding member of the New York genealogi- 
cal and biographical society. Among other works 
he has published "Harebell Chimes, or Summer 
Memories and Musings" (1848): "The Beautiful 
in Nature, Art. and Life " (1857) ; " The Reason- 
ableness of Faith" (1870) ; " Thomas Chalmers: the 
Man, his Time and Work" (1878): and "Capital 
Hints to Boys " (1884). Several of Mr. Symington's 
books have been republished in this country. 

SYMMES, John Cleves, jurist, b. on Long 
Island, N. Y., 21 July, 1742 ; d. in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, 26 Feb., 1814. He was a delegate from Dela- 
ware to the Continental congress in 1785 and 
1786, a judge of the superior court of New Jersey, 
and afterward chief justice of the same state. In 
1787 he was appointed judge of the Northwest ter- 
ritory. In 1788 he obtained from the government 
a grant of 1,000,000 acres, bounded south by the 
Ohio, and west by the Miami, and was the founder 
of the settlements of North Bend, and Cincinnati 
thereon. His wife was a daughter of Gov. William 
Livingston, and his daughter Anna became the 
wife of William H. Harrison. — His nephew, John 
Cleves, soldier, b. in New Jersey in 1780; d. in 
Hamilton, Ohio, 28 May, 1829, entered the army as 
an ensign in the 1st infantry, 26 March, 1802, was 
a captain in the war of 1812, and served with 
credit at the battle of Niagara and in the sortie 
from Fort Erie. He subsequently resided at New- 
port, Ky., and devoted himself to philosophical 
pursuits. In 1818 he promulgated his theory that 
the earth is a hollow sphere, habitable within, and 
open at the poles for the admission of light, and 
containing within it six or seven concentric hollow 
spheres, also open at the poles. He wrote and 
spoke on the subject of his singular hypothesis, 
and petitioned congress in 1822 and 1823 to fit out 
an expedition to test the truth of his theory. Dur- 
ing the winters of 1826-'7 he lectured on it before 
the students and faculty of Union college ; but it 
was received with general ridicule, and the sup- 
posed aperture at the north pole was popularly 
called "Symmes's hole." He published "Theory 
of Concentric Spheres " (Cincinnati, 1826). An ab- 
stract of Symmes's theory and arguments appeared 
in the " Atlantic Monthly " for April, 1873. In 1876 
Symmes's son, Americus Vespucius, revived his 
theory. — Another nephew of the first John Cleves, 
Peyton Short, poet, b. in Sussex county, N. J., in 
1793 ; d. in Mount Auburn, near Cincinnati, Ohio, 
27 July, 1861, went to Ohio in his childhood as a 
pioneer, became registrar of the land-office at Cin- 
cinnati in 1827, and in 1830-50 was a member of 
the board of health of that city. He was one of the 
trustees of the old Cincinnati college, and a sup- 
porter of the Western college of teachers which 
met annually at Cincinnati from 1833 till 1845. 
He wrote a life of his uncle, not yet published. 

SYMMES, Zechariah, clergyman, b. in Canter- 
bury, England, 5 April, 1599 ; d. in Charlestown, 
Mass., 4 Feb., 1671. He came from England in 
1634, and was ordained as teacher in the church at 
Charlestown, Mass., on 22 Dec. of that year, suc- 
ceeding Thomas James as pastor when the latter 
was dismissed on 11 March, 1636. During his min- 
istry the Antinomian controversy culminated in 
the banishment of John Wheelwright and the dis- 
missal of his adherents from the church. See 
" The Symmes Memorial," containing a sketch of 
his life and a genealogy, by John Adams Vinton 
(Boston, 1873). — His grandson, Thomas, clergy- 
man, b. in Bradford, Mass., 1 Feb., 1678 ; d. 6 Oct., 
1725, was graduated at Harvard in 1698, and 
was minister of Boxford from December, 1702, till 

1708, when he succeeded his father, Zechariah, as 
second minister at Bradford. He possessed a strong 
mind and much learning, and, besides occasional 
sermons, published " Joco-Serious Dialogue on 
Singing" (1723); and " Historical Memoirs of the 
Fight at Piggwacket, 9 May, 1725," with a sermon 
on the death of Capt. John Lovewell (1725 ; repub- 
lished with notes by Nathaniel Bouton, Concord, 
N. H., 1861). See an account of his life by Rev. 
John Brown, to which is appended his advice to his 
children and to the members of his church (1726). 

SYMONDS, William Law, author, b. in Ray- 
mond, Cumberland co.. Me., in April, 1833 ; d. in 
New York city, 18 Jan., 1862. He was graduated 
at Bowdoin in 1854, studied theology at Cambridge 
divinity-school for two years, and occupied the. 
pulpit of a Unitarian church in Chicopee, Mass., 
for several months. He then went to New York 
city and engaged in literary pursuits, contributing 
to magazines and newspapers, and producing many 
hundred cyclopaedic articles on philosophical, his- 
torical, and biographical subjects. He also took 
charge temporarily of the Astor librarv. 

SYNGE, Millfngton Henry, British author, 
b. in England about 1820. He was a captain of 
roval engineers, and was employed on the works at 
Ottawa in 1848. He published " Canada in 1848 " 
(London, 1848); "Great Britain One Empire" 
(1852); "The Country vs. The Company" (1861); 
and " The Colony of Rupert's Land " (1863). 

SYPHER, Josiah Rhinehart, journalist, b. in 
Liverpool, Perry co., Pa., 12 April, 1832. He was 
graduated at Union college in 1858, and, after mak- 
ing a tour of the United States, studied law and 
was admitted to the bar at Lancaster, Pa., in 1862. 
While he was travelling he contributed to the Lan- 
caster " Express," and he was its associate editor 
while studying law. In 1862 he was engaged as 
war-correspondent of the New York " Tribune," 
and he was afterward in charge of the correspond- 
ence in the Army of the Potomac. In the winter 
of 1865 he became associate editor of the " Trib- 
une," and in 1870 he established the "Pennsylva- 
nia State Journal " at Harrisburg, but at the end 
of six months he resumed the practice of law in 
Philadelphia. He has advocated public education 
and temperance reform, and, in addition to articles 
for the press and several school-books, has pub- 
lished " History of the Pennsylvania Reserve 
Corps " (Lancaster, 1865), and " School History 
of Pennsylvania " (Philadelphia, 1868). 

SZABAD, Emeric, author, b. in Hungary about 
1822. He was secretary under the Hungarian na- 
tional government in 1849, was a friend of Louis 
Kossuth, and gained his first experience as a sol- 
dier in his native country. He subsequently served 
in Italy under Garibaldi, and at the opening of the 
civil war came to this country and was appointed 
on the staff of Gen. John C. Fremont. He served 
through the war, being on the staff of Gen. Daniel 
E. Sickles at Gettysburg, and afterward on that of 
Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren. He wrote a series 
of letters on the United States army and its man- 
agement for the New York " Tribune," and has 
published " Hungary, Past and Present " (London, 
1854) ; " State Policy of Modern Europe from the 
Beginning of the Sixteenth Century to the Present 
Time " (2 vols., 1857) ; and " Modern War : its The- 
ory and Practice " (New York, 1863). 

SZKOLNY, John, Polish navigator of the 15th 
century. His name was also variously written 
Scolve, Skolnus, and Kolno. He was commander 
of a Danish vessel on which, according to different 
accounts, he reached the northwestern coast of 
Greenland, or the coast of Labrador, in 1476. 




TABARET, Joseph Henry, Canadian educa- 
tor, b. in Saint-Marcellin, department of L'Isere, 
France, 10 April, 1828 ; d. in Ottawa, 28 Feb., 
1886. He studied theology, was ordained a priest 
at Marseilles, came to Canada as a missionary of 
the Oblates in 1851, and in 1853 established a school 
at Ottawa, which, under his superintendence, has 
developed into the University of Ottawa. He was 
president of this institution at his death, and had 
been at its head, both as a school and college, since 
its foundation, except in 1866-'7, when, as provin- 
cial of Oblates of North America, he visited the 
Oblate missions in Canada and the United States. 
In 1854 the governor-general nominated him a 
member of the senate of Toronto university. He 
was a member of the council of public instruction 
of Ontario. In 1862 he was made vicar-general of 
Ottawa, and in 1879 he received the degree of D. D. 
from the pope. He introduced a comprehensive 
system of study into Ottawa university. 

TABOADA, Antonio (tah-bo'-ah-dah), Argen- 
tine soldier, b. in the province of Santiago del Es- 
tero, 31 Aug., 1815. He began life as a journalist, 
and, being persecuted for his liberal tendencies 
by the dictator Rosas, emigrated to Montevideo. 
He served later under Gen. Lavalle, took part in 
the campaign in the province of Entre-Rios, was 
captured after the defeat at Quebracho-Herrado, 
and imprisoned in Buenos Ayres, but escaped in 
disguise to Chili. Later he returned secretly to 
his province, where he lived quietly till Rosas's 
downfall, and in 1852 became its governor. He 
put down an insurrection at Tucuman, and defeat- 
ed with a few hundred men a division of 5,000 
under Gen. Gutierrez. In 1856 he escorted through 
the Chaco desert the U. S. exploring expedition 
under Lieut. Thomas J. Page, and they explored 
the Salado river as far as Santa Fe, Taboada con- 
cluding also in the course of the voyage arrange- 
ments with the principal caciques that assured 
Seace along the borders. In 1861 he supported 
»r. Derqui and contributed to terminate the strife 
between the governors of the provinces and the 
central government. He was elected senator in 
1865, and commanded the army in 1867 against 
the insurgents in the northern provinces, defeat- 
ing Felipe Varela at Pozo de Vargas. In 1868 he 
was a candidate for president, but was defeated. 

TABOR, Horace Austin Warner, senator, b. 
in Holland, Orleans co., Vt., 30 Nov., 1830. He 
received a common-school education, and learned 
the trade of a stone-cutter in Massachusetts, but in 
1855 he removed to Kansas and engaged in farm- 
ing, and was an active member of the Free-soil 
f tarty. In 1856 he was a member of the Topeka 
egislature that was dispersed at the point of the 
bayonet by order of President Pierce. In 1859 he 
removed to Colorado, and the following spring he 
settled in California Gulch (now Leadville). There 
he worked in the mines until 1865, when he en- 
gaged in business, and combined both occupations 
till May, 1878. During the latter month August 
Rische and George F. Hook, to whom he had ad- 
vanced money, discovered what was afterward 
known as the " Little Pittsburg " mine. By the 
terms of his agreement, Mr. Tabor was entitled to 
a one-third interest, which he sold the following 
year for $1,000,000. This capital he invested in 
mines, banking stock, and other remunerative 
property, which greatly increased his wealth. In 
October, 1878, he was elected the first lieutenant- 

fovernor of Colorado, and he held the office until 
anuary, 1884. He was chosen U. S. senator to 
fill the unexpired term of Henry M. Teller, re- 
signed, and served from 2 Feb. till 4 March. Be- 
sides the investments mentioned above, Senator 
Tabor has purchased 175,000 acres of copper lands 
in Texas, and 4,600,000 acres of grazing lands in 
southern Colorado, and is interested in irrigating 
canals and other enterprises that give employment 
to a large number of laborers. He has also ob- 
tained from the republic of Honduras a grant of 
every alternate section of land for 400 miles bor- 
dering on the Patook river. On this tract are 
immense groves of mahogany, ebony, and similar 
valuable woods, orchards of bananas and other 
tropical fruits, together with deposits of gold, sil- 
ver, and coal. In addition to the section-grant, he 
has secured a mineral grant of 150 square miles in 
the interior. Altogether Mr. Tabor is probably 
one of the largest owners of land in the world. 

TAC, Sixtus Le, French missionary, b. in 
France in 1649 ; d. in Canada, 6 July, 1699. He 
belonged to the Recollet Franciscan order, came to 
Canada on 9 July, 1676, and had charge of Charles- 
bourg, near Quebec, till 1678. He then went to 
Three Rivers, where he remained till 13 May, 1683. 
During this time he kept a register of all baptisms, 
marriages, etc., in Three Rivers, as well as of those 
that occurred in settlements that extended over 
a wide tract of country. This register has often 
been found useful in connection with local and 
general Canadian history. In 1684 he was ap- 
pointed director of the third order of St. Francis 
and master of novices in the Convent of Notre 
Dame des Anges near Quebec. In 1689 he took 
part in founding missions at Placentia and other 
places in Newfoundland. He complained that the 
governor of that colony threw every kind of diffi- 
culty in his way, and sailed for France the same 
year to obtain redress, but returned to Canada in 
1690 or 1691. He wrote a history of Canada which 
long remained in manuscript, but it was edited 
and published by Eugene Reveilland with notes 
and appendix. The appendix consists of original 
documents heretofore unpublished, some of which 
are very valuable. The work is entitled "His- 
toire de la Nouvelle France, ou Canada, depuis sa 
decouverte (mil cinq cents quatre) jusqu'en l'an 
mil six cents trente deux " (Paris, 1888). 

TACHE, Sir Etienne Paschal (tah-shay), Ca- 
nadian statesman, b. in St. Thomas, Lower Canada, 
5 Sept., 1795; d. there, 29 July, 1865. He served 
during the war of 1812, and afterward studied 
medicine and practised successfully till 1841, when 
he entered parliament. He was deputy adjutant- 
general in 1847-'8, commissioner of public works 
in 1848-'9, and on 21 April, 1856, was made speaker 
of the legislative council, which post he resigned in 
November, 1857. In November, 1858, in recog- 
nition of his services he was knighted by the queen 
at Windsor castle, and was appointed jointly with 
Sir Allan N. MacNab to the honorary rank of 
colonel in the British army, and aide-de-camp to 
the queen. He published " Du developpement de 
la force physique chez 1'homme " (Montreal, 1829), 
" Reflexions sur l'organisation des volontaires 
(Quebec, 1863), and " Bataille navale du Lac Cham- 
plain en 1814."— His nephew, Joseph Charles, 
Canadian author, b. in Kamouraska, Quebec, 24 
Dec, 1820, studied at the Seminary of Quebec, was 
graduated as a physician in 1844, and was for some 




time attached to the Marine hospital at Rimouski. 
He sat in the legislative assembly from 1847 till 
1857, and represented Canada at the Paris ex- 
hibition of 1855, and at that of London in 1867. He 
was a member of the board of prison-inspectors 
and deputy minister of agriculture and statistics, 
contributed largely to the Canadian press, and was 
editor of the " Courrier du Canada " from 1857 till 
1859. Mr. Tache was British delegate from Canada 
at the International sanitary conference of 1881 at 
Washington, and has been on several important 
commissions in Canada. He received the degree of 
D. L. from Laval universitv in 1883, and the con- 
federation medal in 1886. lie has taken an active 
part in charitable and religious movements in Can- 
ada. While Canadian commissioner at the Paris 
exhibition in 1855, he published " Esquisse sur le 
Canada," a work that deals with the past and present 
condition of the country. Its object was to make 
Canada better known in France, especially as a field 
of emigration, and in this respect it was very suc- 
cessful. His other works are " Notice historio- 
graphique sur la fete celebree a Quebec le 16 juin, 
1859, jour du 200 me anniversaire de Farrivee 
de Mgr. de Laval en Canada" (Quebec, 1859); 
" L'Canada et l'exposition universelle " (1856) ; " La 
pleiade rouge," a political satire (1854) ; " Le de- 
fricheur de langue," a burlesque tragedy in verse ; 
" Tenure seigneuriale en Canada, et projet de com- 
mutation, suivi de tableaux relatifs aux fiefs et 
seigneuries du Bas-Canada " (1854) ; and " Des 
provinces de l'Amerique du Nord et d'une union 
federale " (1858). He was one of the founders of 
the " Soirees Canadiennes," in which he published 
two purely literary works entitled " Trois legendes 
de mon pays, ou l'evangile ignore, l'evangile preche, 
l'evangile accepte," and " Forestiers et voyageurs." 
— Joseph Charles's brother, Alexander A htonine, 
Canadian R. C. archbishop, b. in Riviere-du-Loup, 
Canada, 23 July, 1823, was graduated at the Col- 
lege of St. Hyacinth, and studied theology in the 
Seminary of Montreal. He returned to St. Hya- 
cinth as professor of mathematics, but, after teach- 
ing a few months, went to Montreal and became a 
monk of the Oblate order. He volunteered at once 
for missionary service among the Indians of the 
Red river, and, after a journey of sixty-two days, 
during which he encountered sufferings and priva- 
tions of every kind, reached St. Boniface on 25 Aug., 
1845. He was raised to the priesthood on 12 Oct. 
following, being the first priest ordained on the 
banks of the Red river. In July, 1846, he set out for 
lle-a-la-Crosse, and, after spending a few months at 
this mission, he went to labor among the Indians 
that lived around the lakes, several hundred miles 
to the northwest. On one of his journeys he slept 
for sixty nights in the open air in winter, and he 
often travelled thirty or forty leagues with the 
temperature twenty-five or thirty degrees below 
zero, in the hope of converting a single Indian. 
His zeal and talents became known throughout 
Canada, and, although only twenty-six years old, 
he was recommended for. the post of coadjutor 
bishop of St. Boniface in 1850. lie was summoned 
to France by the superior of the Oblate Fathers, 
and consecrated bishop of Arath in partibus in 
the cathedral of Viviers on 23 Nov., 1851. After 
a visit to Rome he returned to Canada in February, 
1852, and on 10 Sept. reached Ile-a-la-Crosse, which 
he had determined to make the centre of his labors 
in the northwest. He set about founding new 
missions, obtained missionaries, male and female, 
to aid him, and many schools, colleges, convents, 
and chapels were built. Bishop Taehe's efforts 
were directed also to the establishment of a French- 

Canadian population in the northwest, and he has 
done much to develop and strengthen the feel- 
ing of French-Canadian nationality among the in- 
habitants of the 
Red river country. 
He became bishop 
of St. Boniface, 7 
June, 1853. In 
1869 he laid the 
grievances of the 
Metis before the 
Canadian govern- 
ment, and endeav- 
ored, without sue- - "* 
cess, to persuade 
the latter not to 

make any changes W^ i 

in the political sit- HE ! 

uation of the in- j } 

habitants of the * 

Red river without -fL ^& : c^&A.c&l 
consulting them. 
He then sailed for 

Italy in order to <yd 

take part in the 
council of the Vatican at Rome. Meanwhile the 
troubles came to acrisis, and the Canadian ministry, 
alarmed at the attitude of the Metis, and regretting 
too late that they had not followed his advice, begged 
him to come to their assistance. He at once returned 
to Canada, and reached the Red river on 9 March. 
1870, empowered, in the name of the imperial and 
Dominion governments, to offer a full pardon for 
all political offences committed during the insur- 
rection. St. Boniface was erected into a metro- 
politan see on 22 Sept., 1871, and Bishop Tache was 
appointed archbishop. He has written " Vingt an- 
nees de missions dans le nord-ouest de l'Amerique " 
(Montreal, 1866), and " Esquisse sur le nord-ouest 
de l'Amerique" (Montreal, 1869). The latter has 
been translated into English by Capt. D. R. Cam- 
eron, and is considered the most complete work on 
the resources of the Red river, the nature of its 
products, and the different races of men and ani- 
mals that inhabit the country. Archbishop Tache is 
a contributor to the " Annales de la propagation de 
la foi," published by the Oblate Fathers in France. 
TACON, Miguel (tan-cone'), Spanish sold le r, b. 
in Cartagena, Colombia, in 1777 ; d. in Madrid, 
Spain, in 1855. He first served in the navy, but 
in 1806 he entered the army with the commission 
of lieutenant-colonel. He was appointed in 1809 
governor of Popayan. When the Spanish posses- 
sions in South America began to rise against the 
home government, Tacon took the field against the 
patriots, and, having been defeated in Palace, 5 
April, 1811, he fled to Peru, where he remained 
until 1819. He was then made brigadier and sent 
to Spain by the viceroy of Peru to inform the 
Madrid government of the bad condition of the 
struggle against the patriot forces. He was ap- 

F»ointed governor of Malaga, and in 1834 was made 
ieutenant-general and appointed governor-general 
of Cuba. During his administration, from 7 June, 
1834, to 23 April, 1838, he did much that was good 
together with many acts of despotism. He re- 
pressed the criminal classes, reformed the morals 
of the island greatly, and suppressed corruption 
among public officers and servants of the govern- 
ment. He caused the construction of sewers in 
Havana, paved the streets of the city, built a great 
prison, encouraged the construction of a theatre, 
which was named for him, established several pub- 
lic markets, lighted the streets, and erected many 
public buildings. But during his administration 




the slave-trade increased greatly, and more slaves 
weie introduced into Cuba in the four years of his 
rule than in any other equal period. He afterward 
returned to Spain, and was appointed senator for 
Cadiz in 1852, but his failing health did not per- 
mit him to accept office. 

TAFEL, Johann Friedrich Leonhard, educa- 
tor, b. in Sulzbach, WUrtemberg, Germany, 6 Feb., 
1800. He was graduated at Tubingen in 1820, and 
was professor for many years at the gymnasia of 
Stuttgart, Ulm, and Schorndorf, introducing the 
Hamiltonian interlinear method of teaching lan- 
guages, and editing several periodicals, among 
which was the " Beobachter," a daily paper devoted 
to the interests of the Liberal party (1849-'53). He 
came to this country in 1853, was for three years 
professor in Urbana university, Ohio, and then re- 
moved to St. Louis, Mo. He is the author of sev- 
eral text-books of ancient and modern languages, 
translated into German the works of Xenophon 
and Dion Cassius, and select novels of Charles Dick- 
ens, William M. Thackeray, and James Fenimore 
Cooper, and published " Staat und Christenthum " 
(Tubingen, 1851) ; " Der Christ und der Atheist " 
(Philadelphia, 1856) ; and with his son, Ludwig H. 
Tafel. a " German-English and English-German 
Pocket Dictionary" (1870). — His son, Rudolph 
Leonhard, educator, b. in Ulm, Germany, 24 Nov., 
1831, came to the United States in 1847, and in 
1860-1 was teacher of French and German in 
Washington university, St. Louis. Mo. He held 
the chair of modern languages and comparative 
philology there from 1862 till 1868, and since the 
last-named year has been a Swedenborgian minis- 
ter in London, England. He has published " Latin 
Pronunciation and the Latin Alphabet" with his 
father (New York, 1860) ; " Investigation into the 
Laws of English Pronunciation and Orthography " 
(1862); and "Emanuel Swedenborg as a Philoso- 
pher and Man of Science " (Chicago, 1867). 

TAFT, Alphonso, jurist, b. in Townshend, Vt., 5 
Nov., 1810. He was graduated at Yale in 1833, 
was tutor there in 1835-7, studied law, was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1838, and after 1840 practised in 

Cincinnati, Ohio, 
where he won rep- 
utation in his pro- 
fession. He was 
early a member of 
the city council, 
and also for many 
years of the Union 
board of high- 
schools. He was 
a delegate to the 
Republican na- 
tional convention 
in 1856, and in the 
same year a candi- 
date for congress, 
but was defeated 
by George H. Pen- 
dleton. He was 
judge of the su- 
perior court of Cincinnati from 1866 till 1872, 
when he resigned, to associate himself in practice 
■with two of his sons. In 1875 he was a candidate 
for the Republican nomination for the governor- 
ship, biit a dissenting opinion that he had delivered 
on the question of the Bible in the public schools 
was the cause of much opposition to him. The 
opinion that defeated his nomination was unani- 
mously affirmed by the supreme court of Ohio, and 
is now the law of the state. He became secretary 
of war, on 8 March, 1876, on the resignation of 

^£^4«r^^ S^f 

Gen. William W. Belknap, and on 22 May follow- 
ing was transferred to the attorney-generalship, 
serving till the close of President Grant's admin- 
istration. Judge Taft was appointed U. S. min- 
ister to Austria, 26 April, 1882, and in 1884 was 
transferred to Russia, where he served until 1 Aug., 
1885. He has been a trustee of the University of 
Cincinnati since its foundation, and in 1872-82 
served on the corporation of Yale, which gave him 
the degree of LL. D. in 1867. 

TAFT, Lorado, sculptor, b. in Elmwood, Peo- 
ria co., 111., 29 April. 1860. He was graduated at 
Illinois state university, Champaign, 111., in 1879, 
studied at the Ecole des beaux arts, Paris, during 
1880-'3, and afterward with Marius Jean Antoine 
Mercie and others for two years. He hfes exe- 
cuted several busts and medallions, a statue of 
Schuyler Colfax, which was unveiled in Indian- 
apolis in 1888, and reliefs for Michigan regiment- 
al monuments on the Gettysburg battle-field. He 
is engaged on a statue of Gen. Grant for Fort 
Leavenworth, Kansas. Mr. Taft is instructor in 
sculpture at the Chicago art institute. 

TAGGART, Samuel, clergyman, b. in London- 
derry, N. H., 24 March, 1754 ; d. in Colerain, Mass., 
25 April, 1825. His father, James, came from Ire- 
land to this country when he was eleven years old. 
The son entered the junior class in Dartmouth, 
where he was graduated in 1774, was licensed to 
preach in the Presbyterian church in 1776, and on 
19 Feb., 1777, was ordained and installed as pastor 
of a church in Colerain, Mass. In 1802 he per- 
formed in western New York a missionary journey 
of about three months, his manuscript journal of 
which is still preserved. In 1802 he was elected 
to congress as a Federalist, and served, by repeated 
re-election, from 1803 till 1817. His protracted ab- 
sences from his charge caused dissatisfaction, and 
in 1818 he resigned his pastorate, though he after- 
ward preached occasionally. When he entered 
congress, John Randolph of Roanoke, on learning 
that Mr. Taggart was a clergyman, instantly quoted 
to him from I. Samuel, xvii., 28 : " With whom hast 
thou left those few sheep in the wilderness?" Mr. 
Taggart was absent-minded and eccentric, but pos- 
sessed a very retentive and accurate memory. 
While he was in college he was reprimanded for 
inattention by a professor, who had seen him catch- 
ing flies during a lecture, but in his vindication the 
boy immediately repeated a great part of what his 
instructor had said. He published an oration on 
the death of Washington (1800); a Fourth-of-July 
oration at Conway (1804) ; " Scriptural Vindication 
of the Doctrine of the Final Perseverance of all 
True Believers" (1801); a "Treatise on the Evi- 
dences of Christianity " (1811); an address to his 
constituents on the subject of impressments (1813) ; 
and sermons and speeches. 

TAGLIABUE, Giuseppe, instrument - maker, 
b. near Como, Italy, 10 Aug., 1812 ; d. in Mount 
Vernon, N. Y., 7 May, 1878. He was educated at 
the village school, and was sent to Como to learn 
cabinet-making. In 1826 he went to London, where 
he was apprenticed to a firm of meteorological and 
philosophical instrument-makers. He settled in 
New York in 1833, and soon acquired the reputa- 
tion of being one of the most competent instru- 
ment-makers in this country. His hydrometer for 
the proving of whiskey was adopted by the U. S. 
internal revenue department in preference to all 
others, and he made instruments for the U. S. coast 
survey. He made a great variety of hydrometers, 
including original forms and new adaptations to 
meet the requirements of the advancement of sci- 
ence and manufacture. Several of the self-record- 



ing instruments in use in the Central park meteor- 
ological observatory are of his construction. 

TAILFER, Patrick, colonist, lived in the 18th 
century. He was a physician and emigrated to the 
new colony of Georgia, but became dissatisfied 
with the conduct of affairs there, and in September, 
1740, left the province and went to Charleston, S. C. 
Here, with Hugh Anderson, David Douglass, and 
others, he printed " A True and Historical Narra- 
tive of the Colony of Georgia in America from the 
first Settlement thereof until the Present Period " 
(Charles-Town, 1741 ; reprinted, London, 1741). In 
this he accuses Gen. James Oglethorpe of selfish- 
ness, greed, and despotism. Prof. Moses Coit Ty- 
ler says : " As a polemic it is one of the most expert 
pieces of writing to be met with in our early litera- 
ture. It never blusters or scolds. It is always cool, 
poised, polite, and merciless." But many authori- 
ties call it spiteful and scurrilous, and speak of 
Tailfer as " chief of a club of malcontents. 

TAIT, Arthur Fitzwilliam, painter, b. at Live- 
sey Hall, near Liverpool, England, 5 Aug., 1819. 
He studied at the Royal institution, Manchester, 
but is mainly self-taught. In 1850 he came to the 
United States, where he soon attracted attention 
by his pictures of animal life. He was elected an 
associate of the National academy in 1853, and an 
academician in 1858. Mr. Tait has studied and 
sketched much among the Adirondack mountains, 
and several of his hunting scenes are laid in that re- 
gion. His pieces include "'A Duck and her Young " 
(1868) ; " Ruffled Grouse " (1869) ; " Woodcock Shoot- 
ing," " Snowed in," and " Halt on the Carry " 
(1871) ; " Racquette Lake " (1873) ; « There's a Good 
Time coming A (1876); "The Portage"; "Jack in 
Office" (1885); "Thoroughbreds" and " Startled " 
(1887) ; and " A Mother's Solicitude" (1888). His 
" Quail and Young " (1856) is in the Corcoran gal- 
lery at Washington. Many of his works have been 
lithographed or engraved. 

TAIT, Charles, senator, b. in Louisa county, 
Va., in 1768; d. in Wilcox county, Ala., 7 Oct., 
1835. He removed at an early age to Georgia, 
was associated with William H. Crawford in the 
management of Richmond academy, and then, hav- 
ing been admitted to the bar, practised law with 
success. He was judge of the western circuit of 
Georgia from 1803 till 1809, and in the latter year 
was chosen to the U. S. senate as a Democrat in 
place of John Milledge, who had resigned. He 
served from 28 Dec, 1809, till 3 March, 1819, when 
he removed to Wilcox county, Ala., having been 
appointed a judge of the U. S. district court for 
that state. He resigned this office in 1826. Judge 
Tait was an able supporter of the administrations 
of Madison and Monroe. 

TAIT, John Robinson, artist, b. in Cincinnati, 
Ohio, 14 Jan., 1834. He was graduated at Bethany 
college, Va., in 1852, after which he went to Eu- 
rope, remaining for three years. At this time he 
devoted himself mainly to literature, sketching and 

Sainting as an amateur. He published " Dolce Far 
fiente" (Philadelphia, 1859), and " European Life, 
Legend, and Landscape" (1860). In 1859 he went 
abroad again, and studied at Dilsseldorf under Au- 
gust Weber and Andreas Achenbach until about 
1871. ■ He received the first-class medals at the 
Cincinnati industrial exhibition in 1871 and 1872. 
In 1873 he made a third visit to Europe, working 
for several years in the Tyrol and in Munich, un- 
der Adolf Lier and Hermann Baisch. In 1871 he 
returned to the United States, and since 1876 he 
has resided in Baltimore. As a member of the com- 
mittee of the second Cincinnati exposition, he de- 
signed the art hall. His works include " Siebenge- 

birge " (1865) ; " Lake of Wallenstadt " and " Mey- 
ringen " (1866) ; " Lake of Four Cantons " (1866), in 
the Cincinnati art museum ; " Norwegian Waterfall " 
(1869) ; " Solitude " (1871) ; " A Rainy Day " (1874) ; 
" Under the Willows"; " Vesper Hour" and " Tyro- 
lean Cottage," both exhibited at the salon (1876) ; 
and " Noon " (1877). His " Crossing the Brook " 
and " Landscape and Cattle " were at the Centen- 
nial exhibition, Philadelphia. He has contributed 
to magazines, and has written a comedy in German, 
" Ein aufrichtiger Heirathsgesuch." 

TAL AM ANTES, Melchor (tah-lah-man'-tays), 
Peruvian geographer, b. in Lima about 1750; d. 
in Vera Cruz, Mexico, in 1809. He studied theol- 
ogy in the University of San Marcos, Lima, and, 
after receiving the degree of D. D., entered the 
military religious order of Merced, in which he 
soon rose to the rank of superior of his province. 
His favorite study was geography, in which he 
soon became an acknowledged authority, and on 
his way to Spain in 1806 he stopped in Mexico, to 
study documents regarding the colonization of the 
northern provinces. He was commissioned by the 
viceroy, Iturrigaray, to determine the boundary of 
the viceroyalty with the former French possession 
of Louisiana, and between the latter and Florida. 
While occupied in this work, he was implicated in 
Iturrigaray s plans of secession, and on the latter's 
deposition, 15 Sept., 1808, Talamantes was arrest- 
ed and transported to Vera Cruz, where he died of 
yellow fever. His manuscript, " Apuntamientos 
para deslindar los justos limites de las posesiones 
Espanales de la America septentrional con las 
Francesas," came into the possession of his col- 
laborator, Jose Pichardo, who used the notes and 
completed the work. 

TALAVERA Y GARCES, Mariano (tah-lah- 
vay'-rah), Venezuelan R. C. bishop, b. in Coro, 22 
Dec, 1777; d. in Caracas, 23 Dec, 1861. In 1791 
he was sent to the University of Caracas, where he 
studied theology, received the degree of D. D., and 
was ordained in 1797. In 1806 he became secre- 
tary of the bishop of Merida, who sent him as 
vicar to Barinas, and in 1808 he was appointed 
rector of the seminary of Merida. When the war 
for independence opened in 1810, he took part in 
it, and was elected a member of the supreme junta 
of Merida, but in 1812, when the armies of the re- 

Sublic were defeated, he was forced to emigrate to 
few Granada. In 1815 he was imprisoned by the 
Spanish authorities, but pardoned and retired to 
Coro, whence, after the liberation of New Granada, 
he went to Bogota, and in 1822 Gen. Santander ap- 
pointed him dean of the cathedral. In 1826 he 
was elected to congress for Coro, and in 1828 con- 
firmed by the pope as bishop of Tricala and vicar 
of Guayana. From 1830 till 1832 he was exiled, 
having refused to take the unconditional oath to 
support the constitution. In 1842 he resigned the 
bishopric and was appointed councillor of state, 
which place he also resigned, after the attack on 
congress of 24 Jan., 1848, and retired to private 
life. He was considered the greatest pulpit orator 
of Colombia, and one of the most learned men in 
the church of South America. 

TALBOT, Ethelbert, P. E. bishop, b. in Fay- 
ette, Mo., 9 Oct., 1848. His early education was 
received in the schools of his native town. He was 
graduated at Dartmouth in 1870, and at the General 
theological seminary, New York, in 1873, was or- 
dered deacon in the Church of the Transfiguration, 
New York, 29 June, 1873, and ordained priest in 
St. Mary's church, Fayette, Mo., 4 Nov., 1873, both 
by Bishop Robertson. He was at once made rector 
of St. James's church, Macon, Mo., which post he 




held until his election to the episcopate. He opened 
a parish school in Macon in September, 1875, which 
afterward became St. James's military academy, a 
diocesan school for boys. He twice represented 
the diocese of Missouri in general convention, and 
was rural dean and a member of the standing com- 
mittee of the diocese. He was consecrated, 27 May, 
1887, missionary bishop of Wyoming and Idaho. 
He received the degree of LL. D. from the Univer- 
sity of Missouri in 1887, that of S. T. D. from the 
General theological seminary, New York city, in 
1887, and that of D. D. from Dartmouth in 1888. 

TALBOT, 1 sli a in . senator, b. in Bedford county, 
Va., in 1773 ; d. near Frankfort, Ky., 25 Sept., 
1837. He removed with his father to Kentucky in 
his youth, and settled near Harrodsburg, where he 
obtained his early education. He studied law with 
George Nicholas, and began to practise in Versailles, 
Woodford co., but soon removed to Frankfort, 
where he advanced to the front rank of his profes- 
sion. He was chosen to the state senate in 1812, 
and served there till 1815, when he was elected to 
the U. S. senate to fill the unexpired term of Jesse 
Bledsoe, resigned. He retained his seat from 2 
Feb., 1815, till 3 March, 1819, and was chosen again 
on the resignation of William Logan, serving from 
27 Nov., 1820, till 4 March, 1825. 

TALBOT, John, colonial Anglican bishop, b. 
in Wymondham, England, in 1645 ; d. in Burling- 
ton, N. J., 29 Nov., 1727. He was graduated at 
Cambridge in 1663, became a fellow of Peter house 
in 1664, held the rec- 
tory of Freetherne in 
the diocese of Glou- 
cester, and in 1702 
became chaplain of 
the ship " Centurion," 
which brought to this 
country Keith and 
Gordon, the first mis- 
sionaries of the Socie- 
ty for propagating the. 
gospel in foreign parts. 
He was appointed a 
missionary of that society in September of the 
same year, and was associated with Keith as long 
as the latter remained in this country. He con- 
tinued to labor zealously for twenty years, being in 
charge of St. Mary's, Burlington, N. J., from 1703, 
and its rector after 1709, during all which period he 
had been importunate to have a bishop appointed 
for America. Despairing of this, he went to Eng- 
land and was induced to receive consecration clan- 
destinely from Dr. Ralph Taylor and Robert Wel- 
ton, non-juring bishops, and returned to this coun- 
try in 1722. For two years he was unmolested, but 
at the end of that period, being exposed, he was 
discharged from the service of the society, and 
ordered by the governor to " surcease officiating," 
because he refused to take the oath of allegiance 
or use the prayers for the royal family. Affixed to 
his widow's will in the registrar's office in Philadel- 
phia was discovered, in September, 1875, his episco- 
pal seal, a mitre, with flowing ribbons, and beneath 
it, in large script letters, ingeniously wrought into 
a monogram, the full name — John Talbot. Anfen- 
larged photograph of this seal (see illustration) was 
copied in brass, placed on a mural tablet with a 
suitable inscription, and unveiled with religious 
ceremonies by the Rev. George Morgan Hills, D. D., 
in old St. Mary's church, Burlington, N. J., on the 
151st anniversary of Talbot's death. 

TALBOT, John Gunnel, naval officer, b. in 
Danville, Ky., 16 Aug., 1844; d. near Kilihikai, 
Sandwich islands, 19 Dec, 1870. He entered the 

navy as a midshipman, 15 April, 1862, and was 
graduated at the naval academy, 2 June, 1866. He 
was promoted to ensign, 12 March, 1868. to mas- 
ter, 26 March, 1869, and to lieutenant, 21 March, 
1870. Lieut. Talbot was the executive officer of the 
" Saginaw " when she was wrecked on Ocean island, 
French Frigate shoals, on 29 Oct., 1870. There was 
a heavy surf, and the vessel was a total loss. All 
the officers and crew, numbering ninety, escaped 
without loss of life, but the surf prevented them 
from saving sufficient provisions, so that it was 
necessary to put them on quarter rations. The 
strictest discipline was maintained, and fish and 
the eggs of sea-birds contributed to their supplies. 
The captain's gig was fitted out to send to Hono- 
lulu, the nearest port, 1,200 miles distant, for relief, 
since the island is in such an unfrequented part of 
the ocean that there was no hope of rescue by a 
passing vessel. Lieut. Talbot and four men — Peter 
Francis, James Muir, John Andrew, and William 
Halford — volunteered to go in the boat. They left 
the island at noon on 18 Nov., and sighted Kauai, 
the most northwesterly of the Sandwich islands, on 
16 Dec, but, owing to unfavorable winds and bad 
weather, they did not reach the shore until the 
morning of the 19th. They were all so exhausted 
by the prolonged privations and sufferings that 
Lieut. Talbot and two of the crew were drowned in 
the surf. James Muir became insane after he had 
been assisted to the shore by the sole survivor, and 
he died while the latter, William Halford, went to 
get assistance from the natives. Halford met some 
missionaries, and sailed to Honolulu, where he 
communicated with the American minister, who 
promptly sent a chartered steamer to the relief of 
the shipwrecked crew. Talbot's ability in handling 
and navigating his boat has been greatly admired. 
A tablet has been placed in the chapel of the naval 
academy to commemorate his heroic service. 

TALBOT, Joseph Cruikshank, P. E. bishop, 
b. in Alexandria, Va., 5 Sept., 1816 ; d. in Indianapo- 
lis. Ind., 15 Jan., 1883. He was of Quaker parent- 
age and was educated at Pierpont academy, Alex- 
andria. In 1835 he removed to Louisville, Ky., 
where he engaged in business for several years. 
His religious convictions then became so changed 
that he abandoned Quakerism and united with the 
Protestant Episcopal church, being baptized in 
1837. In 1841 he 
became a candidate 
for holy orders, 
studying under the 
direction of the 
bishop. He was 
made deacon in 
Christ church, Lou- 
isville, 5 Sept., 1846, 
by Bishop Smith, 
and ordained priest 
in St. John's church, 
Louisville. 6 Sept., 
1848, by the same 
bishop. During his 
diaconate he or- 
ganized St. John's 
church, and upon 
his ordination to 
the priesthood he 

became its rector. After a service of seven years 
he removed, in 1853. to Indiana, and became rec- 
tor of Christ church, Indianapolis, which post he 
held until he was elected to the episcopate. The 
honorary degree of D. D. was conferred upon him 
by the Western university of Pennsylvania at Al- 
legheny City in 1854, and that of LL. D. by the 





<L//i^ Jl/<!?V/- 

University of Cambridge, England, in 1867. In 
1859 he was elected by the house of bishops mis- 
sionary bishop of the northwest, a newly organized 
jurisdiction, covering nearly 900,000 square miles. 
He was consecrated to that office in Christ church, 
Indianapolis, 15 Feb., 1860. In 1865 he was elected 
assistant bishop of Indiana, and was translated 
to that diocese in October of that year. Upon 
the death of Bishop Upfold in 1872 he became 
bishop of Indiana. His writings include sermons, 
addresses to the convention, pastoral letters, and a 
few articles in periodicals. 

TALBOT, Silas, naval officer, b. in Dighton, 
Bristol co., Mass., in 1751 : d. in New York city, 
30 June, 1813. As a boy he served in coasting 
vessels, and during the excitement before the Revo- 
lutionary war he raised a small company. When 
the news of the battle 
of Lexington reached 
Rhode Island he was 
commissioned by that 
state as a captain, and 
joined the patriot ar- 
my in the siege of Bos- 
ton. After the British 
army had evacuated 
the town, he accom- 
panied the expedition 
to Rhode Island, after 
which he joined the 
army under General 
Washington in 1776. 
He then planned an 
attack by fire-ship on 
the British fleet in 
New York harbor. For 
this purpose he went 
up Hudson river above 
Fort Washington, where he waited three days for 
a favorable opportunity to drift down with the fire- 
ship, which was filled with combustibles and be- 
smeared with turpentine. Talbot and his crew suc- 
ceeded in setting fire to the British ship " Asia," 
and all escaped to the Jersey shore, though he was 
severely burned. The " Asia " was saved from de- 
struction by the assistance of the other vessels. 
On 10 Oct.. 1777, the Continental congress gave 
him a vote of thanks, and he was promoted to the 
rank of major. He was wounded in the hip dur- 
ing an engagement with the British vessels in 
Delaware river below Philadelphia, and in the fol- 
lowing year participated in the operations against 
the British at Newport. On 27 Oct., 1778, he fitted 
out a small sloop and captured the British block- 
ading schooner " Pigot," with eight guns and forty- 
five men. off Newport, R. I., for which he received 
the thanks of congress and was promoted to lieu- 
tenant-colonel. Subsequently he planned similar 
operations against British vessels on the coast, and 
was associated with Gen. Lafayette in one of these 
hazardous attacks. Congress passed a resolution 
promoting him to the grade of captain in the navy, 
17 Sept., 1779, and issued specific orders for him to 
arm a naval force to protect the coast of Long 
Island sound, and to keep open the communica- 
tions for supplies for Gen. Horatio Gates's army. 
He fitted out his former prize, the " Pigot," and 
the sloop " Argo," and sailed in command, under 
orders from Gen. Gates, in May, 1779, from Provi- 
dence, R. I. Soon after clearing the coast he 
captured the British schooner " Lively " and two 
British privateers, which he took to Boston. On 
5 Aug. he captured a schooner of four guns, and 
on 7 Aug. he had a desperate fight with the brig 
"King George," twelve guns, which he won by 

boarding. On 24 Aug. he captured the sloop 
" Adventure," and the next day the brig " El- 
liot." He subsequently captured the British ship 
" Dragon " after a severe fight, in which his speak- 
ing-trumpet was pierced by bullets and the skirts 
of his coat were shot off. Congress again recognized 
his brilliant services, and urged that he be placed 
in command of a naval vessel : but none such was 
available, and, as the owners of the " Argo " claimed 
their ship, he took command of the private armed 
ship '• George Washington," in which he was cap- 
tured by a British fleet when he was becalmed. 
He was confined in the prison-ship at New York, 
and also in the " Old Sugar-house " prison in New 
York city. In November, 1780, he was put on 
board the " Yarmouth," where he was kept in the 
hold, unable to stand upright. In this vessel, sub- 
jected to great cruelties, he made a winter voyage 
of seven weeks to England. Here he made three 
attempts to escape, and after each attempt was 
confined for forty days in a dungeon on half ra- 
tions. Benjamin Franklin and John Jay effected 
his exchange for a British officer in France, and 
he landed at Cherbourg in December, 1781. He 
sailed from France in a French brig which was 
captured by the British privateer " Jupiter " when 
fifteen days out; but the British captain trans- 
ferred him to an English brig on her way from 
Lisbon to New York. Owing to litigation con- 
nected with one. of his prizes, he removed to 
Philadelphia, and soon afterward he went to New 
York, where he bought an estate northwest of Al- 
bany and engaged in agricultural pursuits. He 
served as a representative of this district in con- 
gress in 1793-'4. He was commissioned captain in 
the navy, 11 May, 1798, and took command of one 
of the squadrons in the West Indies during the war 
with France. He commanded the "Constitution " 
as his flag-ship, and from her planned the expedi- 
tion of the "Sally," manned by men from the 
" Constitution," under Lieut. Isaac Hull, to cut out 
the French privateer " Sandwich," at Port Platte, 
Santo Domingo. After the war with France he 
had a dispute with Com. Truxtun in regard to sen- 
iority, which he settled by resigning his commis- 
sion, 21 Sept., 1801. It is said that he was wounded 
thirteen times, and carried five bullets in his body. 
He was buried in Trinity churchyard, New York 
city. See a "Historical Sketch" of his life (New 
York, 1803), and " Life of Silas Talbot," by Henry 
T. Tuckerman (1850). 

TALBOT, Thomas, governor of Massachusetts, 
b. in Cambridge, Washington eo., N. Y., 7 Sept., 
1818 ; d. in Lowell, Mass., 6 Oct., 1886. He was 
a lineal descendant of John Talbot, first Earl of 
Shrewsbury. His grandfather came to this coun- 
try from Ireland in 1807. He was left an orphan 
at the age of six, and in 1825 went to Northampton, 
Mass., with his mother, where after 1830 he worked 
in a woollen-factory. In 1835 he entered the broad- 
cloth-factory of his brother Charles, in Williams- 
burg, and in 1838 became an overseer. In that year 
and 1839 he attended school during the winter 
terms. In 1840 he entered into partnership with 
his brother, in Billerica, Mass., where he afterward 
resided. The business rapidly increased, and the 
brothers accumulated a fortune. Mr. Talbot was 
for many years in the Massachusetts legislature, 
sat in the governor's council in 1864-'9, and in 
1872 was chosen lieutenant-governor, as a Repub- 
lican. On the election of Gov. William B. Wash- 
burne to the U. S. senate in 1873 he became gov- 
ernor. He vetoed the bill to repeal the prohibitory 
law, and approved that to enact the ten-hour law, 
thus arousing prejudices that deprived him of 




his election in 1874, but in 1878 he was chosen, by 
a majority of 15,000, over Benjamin F. Butler and 
Josiah G. Abbott, candidates of the two wings of 
the Democratic party, and served till 1880. Gov. 
Talbot did much to promote the interests of the 
town of Billerica, and gave liberally to churches 
of all denominations, building a fine edifice for the 
Baptist society. 

TALCOTT, John, colonist, b. in Braintree, Es- 
sex co., England, about 1600 ; d. in Hartford, 
Conn., in March, 1660. He came to this country 
with the Rev. Thomas Hooker's company in the 
" Lyon," which arrived in Boston on 16 Sept., 
1632, was admitted a freeman by the general court 
in Boston on 6 Nov., 1632, and in 1634 was a rep- 
resentative in that body for Newtown. He owned 
four houses in the " west end " of the town, which 
he sold to Nicholas Danforth on 1 May, 1636, to 
remove with Mr. Hooker's colony to Connecticut. 
His was the first house that was erected in Hart- 
ford. He was active in all the affairs of the town, 
was one of the committee that was appointed on 1 
May, 1637, to consider the propriety of a war with 
the Pequot Indians, and was a chief magistrate 
of the colony until his death. His name is in- 
scribed on the monument that has been erected by 
the citizens of Hartford to perpetuate the memory 
of the colonists of Connecticut. — His son, John, 
soldier, b. in Braintree, England, about 1630 ; d. 
in Hartford, Conn., 23 July, 1688, came to Boston 
with his father, and removed with him to Hart- 
ford. He was made ensign of colonial troops in 
1650, and became captain in 1660, was elected 
a deputy, or assistant magistrate, of the colony 
of Connecticut before it was joined to New 
Haven, and was made treasurer to succeed his 
father, holding this office from 1660 till 1676. He 
was one of the patentees named in the charter 
granted to Connecticut on 20 April, 1662, by 
Charles I., and the document was intrusted to him 
with Hezekiah Wyllis and John Allyn for safe- 
keeping. At the opening of the Indian war of 
1676 he was appointed to the command of the army 
with the rank of major, and in June of that year 
went into the field at the head of the "standing 
army " of Connecticut accompanied by 200 Mohi- 
cans and Pequots. He scoured the country as far 
as the falls above Deerfield, inflicted severe blows 
upon the hostile tribes, and saved Hadley from 
the attack of 700 Indians. He also performed 
good service among the Narragansetts, and fought 
a successful battle at the Houssatonnuc, killing 
the sachem of Quabaug. Early in the war he was 
promoted lieutenant-colonel, and he was known 
as the " Indian fighter." In March, 1662, the gen- 
eral court granted to him and John Allyn 600 
acres of upland and 100 acres of meadow-land, to 
be laid out in Hammonaset (now Killingsworth). 
Many of his official papers are preserved among 
the state records in Hartford, and contain inter- 
esting notes regarding the war with King Philip. 
— Another son, Samuel, soldier, b. in Newtown 
(now Cambridge). Mass., about 1634 ; d. in Weth- 
ersfield, Conn., 10 Nov., 1691, was graduated at 
Harvard in 1658, and made a freeman in 1662. 
His father settled him upon land that he owned 
in Wethersfield, of which town the son was com- 
missioner from 1669 till 1684. From 1670 till 
1684 he was deputy to the general court, of which 
he was secretary in October, 1684, during the ab- 
sence of Col. John Allyn. On 16 May, 1676, he 
was appointed "one of a standing committee to or- 
der measures and dispose of such affairs as shall 
be necessary to attend to in the intervals of gen- 
eral court." He was made lieutenant of the Weth- 

ersfield trained band on 12 May, 1677, lieutenant of 
the troop, 14 Oct., 1679, and afterward captain of 
the troop of Hartford county. He was an original 
proprietor of the town of Glastonbury, and the 
lot that he purchased in 1643 is still owned by 
his descendants. — The second John's son, Joseph, 
governor of Connecticut, b. in Hartford, Conn., 16 
Nov., 1669; d. there, 11 Oct., 1741, became assist- 
ant in 1711, and in that year was appointed one 
of a committee to lay out "the town of Coventry. 
In 1724 he was made governor of Connecticut, 
serving until his death, and he was the first native 
of Connecticut to hold this office. — Samuel's great- 
great-grandson, George, soldier, b. in Glaston- 
bury, Conn., 6 Dec, 1786 ; d. in Albany, N. Y., 
25 April, 1862, entered the 25th infantry, 10 
July, 1813, and became deputy commissioner of 
ordnance, with rank of captain, 5 Aug., 1813. 
He was made 1st lieutenant, 14 March. 1814, 
transferred to the 2d artillery, 1 June, 1821, be- 
came lieutenant-colonel of ordnance, 30 May, 1832, 
and colonel and chief of ordnance on 25 March, 
1848. He was brevetted major on 5 Aug., 1823, 
for ten years' faithful service in one grade, and 
brigadier-general on 30 May, 1848, for meritorious 
conduct, particularly in performing his duties in 
prosecuting the war with Mexico. On 6 Nov., 
1850, he wrote a letter, without the sanction of the 
secretary of war, containing instructions to Col. 
Benjamin Huger, commandant of the arsenal at 
Fort Monroe, regarding the purchase of ammuni- 
tion. Upon this authority Col. Huger entered into 
a contract with Dr. Edward Carmichael for the 
purchase of a large amount of shot and shells. 
For this offence Gen. Talcott was tried by court- 
martial, found guilty, and dismissed from the 
army, to date from 8 July, 1851. The sentence 
was pronounced illegal and unjust by many well- 
known persons, who endeavored unsuccessfully to 
reinstate him in the army. After the decision of 
the court a " Review " to show the error of the 
judgment was written by Hon. John C. Spencer 
(Albany, 1851). This review contains the follow- 
ing facts, elicited from the evidence given before 
the court : That the letter from Gen. Talcott to 
Col. Huger, of 6 
Nov., 1850, referred 
to above, appears to 
have been the mov- 
ing cause of the dif- 
ficulty between the 
secretary and Gen. 
Talcott. That this 
letter was not in- 
tended by the gen- 
eral to authorize 
Col. Huger to make 
a contract with Dr. 
Carmichael, or any 
other person, but to 
direct Col. Huger to 
procure, by " open 
purchase " — a sys- 
tem known to hav 
been in use for 

many years in all the departments — such an 
amount of shot and shells as he might from time 
to time require for the public service. Huger. mis- 
understanding the authority given in the letter, 
made a contract with Carmichael for a large 
amount of these articles, but did not immediate- 
ly advise the general of what he had done. In 
the mean time the secretary of war, Charles M. 
Conrad, had been informed that a contract had 
been made with Carmichael, who had tried to dis- 





pose of it to the Tredegar iron-works for a large 
amount, and asked the general in a casual way if 
" there were any contracts out for shot and shells," 
to which the general answered in the negative. 
This was before Col. Huger's report had reached 
the ordnance department. The question was re- 
peated at a second interview, still before the recep- 
tion of the report, and was answered in the same 
manner. As soon as Gen. Talcott received the 
report he called upon the secretary, and to the 
question again he answered : " No, sir, none recog- 
nized by the department." Before this last inter- 
view the general had written to Col. Huger, disap- 
proving of what he had done, that he, Huger, had 
misunderstood his instructions. He repudiated 
the transaction and disallowed the contract. Gen. 
Talcott's honesty was not impeached, his faithful 
disbursement of many millions of government 
funds during his long official life of thirty-eight 
years, and his eminent services during the war with 
Mexico, could not be denied, but had no weight in 
the finding of the court. The question probably 
arose from a misunderstanding which might have 
been amicably settled without loss of honor to 
either party. — George's brother, Andrew, engineer, 
b. in Glastonbury, Conn., 20 April, 1797 ; d. in Rich- 
mond, Va., 22 April, 1883, was graduated at the U. S. 
military academy in 1818, became 2d lieutenant in 
the engineer corps, and after serving a year on con- 
struction duty accompanied Gen. Henry Atkinson 
as engineer on an expedition to establish military 

g>sts on upper Missouri and Yellowstone rivers, 
e was appointed 1st lieutenant on 1 Oct., 1820, 
and in 1821-'4 engaged in constructing the de- 
fences of Hampton Roads, Va. Pie was also su- 
perintending engineer of operations preliminary to 
fortifying Brenton's Point (now Fort Adams, R. 
I.) and New Utrecht (now Fort Hamilton, N. Y.), 
and engaged in the construction of Fort Dela- 
ware in 1825-'6. In 1826-'8 he was engineer of 
canals through the Dismal Swamp, Va., and from 
1828 till 1835 he was superintending engineer on 
the forts at Hampton Roads, Va., also acting as 
astronomer in determining the boundary-line be- 
tween Ohio and Michigan. He became captain on 
22 Dec, 1830, and in 1834-'6 was in charge of the 

improvement of 
Hudson river. On 
21 Sept., 1836, he 
resigned his com- 
mission to become 
a civil engineer, 
and surveyed and 
constructed vari- 
ous railroads, ex- 
and marked, the 
northern boundary 
of Iowa. In 1857 
he became engineer 
for a railroad across 
Mexico, which was 
s? ip . organized under 

caudon, and sur- 
veyed the line from Vera Cruz to the city of 
Mexico ; but, owing to political events, the opera- 
tions of this company were suspended, and Col. 
Talcott returned to the United States. In 1861 
he was appointed chief engineer of Virginia, 
but in 1862 he returned to Mexico and resumed 
his office as chief engineer of the railroad from 
Mexico to the Gulf. A new company was formed 
with the aid of British capital and under the im- 

perial government of Mexico, and the work of the 
railroad was prosecuted in 1865-'6, but on the 
change of government in 1867 his direction of the 
work ceased. Needing some supplies for the work, 
he came with the president to New York, where 
he was seized by the government officials and 
confined in Fort Lafayette as a spy, and accused 
of planning and constructing the fortifications 
around Richmond. He was transferred to Fort 
Adams, in Boston harbor, and kept there by the 
order of Gen. John E. Wool until Gen. John A. 
Dix was put in command of the Eastern military 
department. Gen. Dix, who knew him well and 
believed in his loyalty to the U. S. government, 
had him brought to New York, listened to his 
statement, and released him. After a visit to Eu- 
rope he spent the remainder of his life in retire- 
ment in Baltimore and Richmond. He was a fine 
mathematician, and in 1833 devised ''Talcott's 
method " for determining territorial latitudes by 
the observation of stars near the zenith, contriv- 
ing a suitable modification of the zenith instru- 
ment for the purpose. — George's son, George 
Henry, soldier, b. in New York city, 16 July, 
1811; d. in Indian Springs, near Augusta, Ga., 8 
June, 1854, was graduated at the U. S. military 
academy in 1831, assigned to the 3d artillery, and 
was brevetted 1st lieutenant, 1 Dec, 1835, for 
gallant conduct in the war against the Florida 
Indians. He was then transferred to the ord- 
nance corps, in which he was made 1st lieutenant 
on 9 July, 1838. He was appointed captain of in- 
fantry and major of voltigeurs on 9 April, 1847, 
and served at Vera Cruz and Molino del Rev. re- 
ceiving the brevet of lieutenant-colonel for gallant 
and meritorious conduct in the latter battle, where 
he received severe wounds, which hastened his 
death. — Another son of George, Sebastian Vis- 
scher, engineer, b. in New York citv, 24 Nov., 
1812, entered Yale in 1829, but left college in his 
sophomore year, and, becoming a civil engineer, 
was employed by the U. S. government on the sur- 
vey of the boundary between the United States and 
Canada, and on the improvement of Hudson river 
at Albany. He was also engaged in the primary 
surveys of the Erie railroad near its western ter- 
minus at Dunkirk, and also on the survey of the 
northeastern boundary, the improvement of the 
mouth of the Mississippi river, and the coast sur- 
vey. On the election of Horatio Seymour as gov- 
ernor of New York in 1862, Talcott was appointed 
by him quartermaster-general of the state, with the 
rank of brigadier-general, and served through the 
administration. He compiled and published " The 
Talcott Pedigree" (Albany, 1876); and "Genea- 
logical Notes of New York and New England 
Families" (1883). 

TALCOTT, Mancel, merchant, b. in Rome, 
N. Y., 12 Oct., 1817 ; d. in Chicago, 111., 4 June, 
1878. He attended the common schools till he 
was seventeen years old, when he set out for the 
west, travelling on foot from Detroit to Chicago 
and thence to Park Ridge, 111., where he worked at 
farming till 1850. The discovery of gold took him 
to California, where he remained till he had ac- 
cumulated enough to establish himself in business, 
when he returned and formed a life-long partner- 
ship with Horace M. Singer, of Chicago, in the stone 
business. Mr. Talcott contributed freely toward 
public charities and the relief of humanity. — His 
wife, Mary H. (Otis), b. in Watertown, N. Y., 
about 1820; d. in Chicago, 111., 17 April. 1888, 
married Mr. Talcott. 25 Oct., 1841. She was in 
full sympathy with her husband, and after his 
decease carried on his charitable work. Neither 




of them desired to make known what they had 
done in the way of charity, and were careful never 
to allude to favors they had bestowed on those in 
need. During the last ten years of her life she 
distributed at least $300,000 in charity and for 
the support of the Universalist society, of which 
she and her husband were members. During the 
last two years of her life she founded and sup- 

f)orted two homes or day-nurseries where poor 
aboring women could leave their children in care- 
ful hands while they were at work. In making 
her will Mrs. Talcott, after bequeathing a liberal 
part of her estate of $450,000 to her relatives, di- 
rected that the residue be equally divided into 
three parts and placed in trust with her three 
nieces to distribute as each might think best for 
religious, educational, or charitable purposes. 

TALIAFERRO, Benjamin, soldier, b. in Vir- 
ginia in 1750; d. in Wilkes county, Ga., 3 Sept., 

1821. He served in the Revolutionary army in the 
rifle corps commanded by Gen. Daniel Morgan, and 
participated in the battles of Saratoga and Mon- 
mouth and in the siege of Savannah, and was taken 
prisoner by the British at the surrender of Charles- 
ton, 12 May, 1780. Afterward he settled in Geor- 
gia, was a member of the state senate, and a dele- 

fate to the Constitutional convention of 1798. 
Uected to congress, he served from 2 Dec, 1799, 
till his resignation in 1802. Subsequently he was 
judge of the superior court. 

TALIAFERRO, John, member of congress, b. 
in Spottsylvania county, Va., in 1768 ; d. at u Hag- 
ley," King George co., Va., 12 Aug., 1853. He was 
•elected to congress from Virginia as a Democrat, 
serving from 1801 till 1803, and from 1811 till 
1813. He was again chosen to fill a vacancy in 
1824, and served from 8 April of that year till 3 
March, 1831, and again from 1835 till 1843. He 
was a presidential elector in 1805 on the Jefferson 
ticket and in 1821 on the Monroe ticket, and 
served as librarian of the treasury department in 
Washington in 1850-3. 

TALIAFERRO, William Booth (tol-li-ver), 
soldier, b. in Belleville, Gloucester co., Va., 28 Dec, 

1822. He was educated at Harvard and at William 
and Mary college, where he was graduated in 1841. 
He became captain in the 11th U. S. infantry, 9 
April, 1847, major of the 9th infantry, 12 Aug., 
1847, and was mustered out, 26 Aug., 1848. At the 
beginning of the civil war he was made colonel in 
the provisional army of Virgina, 1 May, 1861, 
and he rose to be brigadier-general in the Confed- 
erate service, 4 March, 1862, and major-general, 1 
Jan., 1865. He commanded the Confederate troops 
in 1861 at Gloucester point, Va., took part in 
the engagements at Carrick's Ford, Va., 13 July, 
and in most of the battles of the Army of Northern 
Virginia to March, 1863, when he was placed in 
•charge of the district of Savannah, Ga. In July 
of the same year he commanded the troops anil 
defences on Morris island, S. C, and in August 
following the forces on James island. In February, 
1864, he led a division in Florida, consisting of 
four brigades. In May, 1864, he was put in com- 
mand of the 7th military district of South Carolina, 
and in December following he was assigned to the 
■command of the district of South Carolina. In 
January, 1865, he led a division composed of the 
brigades of Elliott, Rhett, and Anderson. Gen. Tal- 
iaferro was a member of the general assembly of 
Virginia for ten years and Democratic presidential 
•elector in 1856. He was grand-master of Masons 
in Virginia in 1876-'7, and member of the boards 
■of 'visitors of Virginia military institute, of the 
Mechanical and agricultural college of the state, of 



William and Mary college, and of the State normal 
school for the education of women. 

TALLMADGE, Benjamin, soldier, b. in Brook- 
haven, N. Y., 25 Feb., 1754 ; d. in Litchfield, Conn., 
7 March, 1835. His father, Benjamin, was a clergy- 
man. After graduation at Yale in 1773 the son had 
charge of a high- 
school in Wethers- 
field until20 June, 
1776, when he was 
appointed lieuten- 
ant and adjutant 
in a Connecti- 
cut regiment and 
served through- 
out the Revolu- 
tionary war. On 
15 Dec, 1776, he 
was appointed by 
Gen. Washington 
captain in the 2d 
light dragoons, 
and he was pro- 
moted major on 7 
April, 1777. A 
separate detach- 
ment for special 
services was com- 
mitted to him 
several times during the war, and he then received 
his orders directly from the commander-in-chief. 
He participated in the battles of Short Hills and 
Brandywine, and at Germantown his detachment 
was at the head of Gen. John Sullivan's division. 
By order of Gen. Washington, Maj. Tallmadge 
repeatedly threw his dragoons across the principal 
thoroughfare to check the retreat of the infant- 
ry. He was stationed with his troops at Valley 
Forge in 1777, reconnoitred the country between 
Schuylkill and Delaware rivers, and served at 
Monmouth. On 5 Sept., 1779, he became colonel, 
and performed a brilliant exploit in crossing Long 
Island sound to Lloyd's Neck, L. I., where he sur- 
prised and captured 500 Tory marauders without 
the loss of a man. In 1780 he planned and con- 
ducted the expedition that resulted in the taking 
of Fort George at Oyster Bay, L. I., and the de- 
struction of the British stores on the island, for 
which service he received the thanks of congress. 
He was for some time a member of Washington's 
military family and carried on with him an im- 
portant confidential correspondence in 1778-'83. 
Col. Tallmadge had the custody of Maj. John 
Andre until his execution, and walked with him 
to the scaffold, where they bade an affectionate 
farewell. Years afterward Tallmadge wrote : " I 
became so deeply attached to Major Andre that 
I can remember no instance where my affections 
were so fully absorbed in any man. When I saw 
him swinging under the gibbet it seemed for a 
time as if I could not support it." After the war 
he returned to Litchfield, where he engaged suc- 
cessfully in mercantile pursuits. He was elected 
to congress as a Federalist and served from 
7 Dec, 1801, till 3 March, 1817. Col. Tallmadge 
was made the first treasurer and subsequently 
president of the Connecticut Society of the Cin- 
cinnati, and was much esteemed for his social 
qualities and numerous gifts to public and pri- 
vate charities. In 1782 he bought the property 
in Litchfield that is still known as the Tallmadge 
Place, and is now the summer residence of his 
granddaughter, Mrs. William Curtis Noyes. Yale 
gave him the degree of M. A. in 1778. He pre- 

Dared his '* lW"**mr»i»K2 of f Vm RpmiAet r\f hie flVnl- 

Memoirs at the Request of his Chil- 




dren," which were printed privately by his son, 
Frederick Augustus Tallmadge (New York, 1859). 
Col. Tallmadge married the daughter of Gen. 
William Floyd, a signer of the Declaration of In- 
dependence. — His son, Frederick Augustus, 
lawyer, b. in Litchfield, Conn., 29 Aug., 1792 ; d. 
there, 17 Sept., 1869, was graduated at Yale in 
1811, studied law at the Litchfield law-school, was 
admitted to the bar. and began practice in New 
York. During the closing months of the war with 
Great Britain he commanded a troop of volunteer 
cavalry on Long Island. He was made an alder- 
man of New York in 1834, a common councilman 
in 1836. and was a state senator from 1837 till 1840, 
serving as president of that body and at the same 
time as ex-officio judge of the supreme court of 
errors. In 1841-'6 he was recorder of New York, 
and he held this office again from 1848 till 1851. 
He was elected to congress as a Whig and served 
from 6 Dec, 1847, till 3 March, 1849. From 1857 
till 1862 he was general superintendent of the Met- 
ropolitan board of police, and in 1862-'5 he was 
clerk of the court of appeals. Afterward he 
practised law in New York city. He became best 
known for the energy that he displayed while he 
was recorder in suppressing the Astor place riot 
of May, 1849. (See Forrest, Edwin.)— Another 
son, William Smith, served as a colonel in the 
war of 1812. 

TALLMADGE, James, lawver, b. in Stanford, 
Dutchess co., N. Y., 28 Jan., 1778 ; d. in New York 
city, 29 Sept., 1853. His father, Col. James (1744 
to 1821), led a company of volunteers at the cap- 
ture of Gen. John Burgoyne. After graduation at 
Brown in 1798 the son studied law, was admitted 
to the bar, and practised several years in Pough- 
keepsie and New York, and also gave attention to 
agriculture, owning a farm in Dutchess county. 
For some time he was private secretary to Gov. 
George Clinton, and during the war of 1812-'15 
he commanded a company of home-guards in the 
defence of New York. He was elected a repre- 
sentative to congress as a Democrat, and served 
from 1 Dec, 1817, till 3 March, 1819, but declined 
a re-election. In that body he defended Gen. An- 
drew Jackson's course in the Seminole war, and in- 
troduced, as an amendment to the bill authorizing 
the people of Missouri to form a state organiza- 
tion, a proposition to exclude slavery from that 
state when admitted to the Union. In support of 
this amendment Gen. Tallmadge delivered a pow- 
erful speech, 15 Feb., 1819, in opposition to the 
extension of slavery. This was widely circulated, 
and was translated into German. He was a dele- 
gate to the New York constitutional conventions 
of 1821 and 1846, a member of the state assembly 
in 1824, and delivered a speech on 5 Aug., 1824, on 
the bill to provide for the choice by the people of 
presidential electors. In 1825-'6 he was lieuten- 
ant-governor of New York, and while holding this 
office he delivered a speech at the reception of 
Lafayette in New York on 4 July, 1825. In 1836 
he visited Russia, and aided in introducing into 
that country several American mechanical inven- 
tions, especially cotton-spinning machinery. From 
1831 till 1850 he was president of the American 
institute, of which he was a founder. He also 
aided in establishing the University of the city of 
New York, which gave him the degree of LL. D. 
in 1838. and he was president of its council for 
many years. Gen. Tallmadge was a leading expo- 
nent of the Whig doctrine of protection to Ameri- 
can industry, and published numerous speeches 
and addresses which were directed to the encour- 
agement of domestic production. He also deliv- 

ered a eulogium at the memorial ceremonies of 
Lafayette by the corporation and citizens of New 
York, 26 June, 1834. Gen. Tallmadge was an 
eloquent orator and vigorous writer. His only 
daughter was one of the most beautiful women in 
the country, and after her return from Russia, to 
which court she accompanied her father, married 
Philip S. Van Rensselaer, of Albany, third son of 
the patroon. Their only surviving son, James 
Tallmadge Van Rensselaer, is a well-known lawyer 
of New York citv. 

TALLMADGE, Nathaniel Pitcher, senator, 
b. in Chatham, N. Y, 8 Feb., 1795 ; d. in Battle 
Creek, Mich., 2 Nov., 1864. He was graduated at 
Union in 1815, studied law, was admitted to the 
bar in 1818, and served in the lower house of the 
legislature in 1828, and in the state senate in 
1830-'3. He was then elected to the U. S. senate, 
and served from 2 Dec, 1833, till 17 June. 1844, 
when he resigned. In 1844 he was appointed gov- 
ernor of Wisconsin territory, changing his resi- 
dence from Poughkeepsie, N. Y., to Fond du Lac, 
but he was removed in 1846. Mr. Tallmadge be- 
came a convert to spiritualism. He published sev- 
eral speeches and contributed an introduction and 
appendix to Charles Linton's " Healing of the Na- 
tions " (New York, 1855). — His son, Grier, soldier, 
b. in Dutchess county, N. Y, in 1826; d. in Fort 
Monroe, Va., 11 Oct., 1862, was graduated at the 
U. S. military academy in 1848, assigned to the 1st 
artillery, and served on garrison duty in the west. 
In 1861 he was made captain in the quartermas- 
ter's department at Fort Monroe, discharging also 
the duties of assistant adjutant-general. The " con- 
traband " idea put into practice by Gen. Benjamin 
F. Butler is said to have originated with him. 

TALLMAN, Peleg, merchant, b. in Tiverton, 
R. I., 24 July, 1764 ; d. in Bath, Me., 12 March, 
1840. He received a public-school education, and 
at the age of fourteen entered the privateer service 
against Great Britain. He served on the " Trum- 
bull," lost an arm in the engagement between this 
vessel and the " Watt " in 1780, and was captured 
and imprisoned in England and Ireland in 1781-'3. 
Subsequently he became master of a vessel and 
afterward a merchant at Bath, where he acquired 
a fortune. He was elected to congress as a Demo- 
crat, served from 4 Nov., 1811. till 3 Match, 1813, 
but declined a re-election and refused to support 
the war with England. 

TALMADGE, Matthias Burnet, lawyer, b. in 
Stamford, Dutchess co., N. Y., 1 March, 1774; d. in 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y, 7 Oct., 1819. He was gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1795, studied law with Chief-Justice 
Spencer at Hudson, N. Y., and began the practice 
of his profession at Herkimer. While residing 
there he represented his county in the legislature, 
and the western district of New York in the state 
senate. Having been appointed judge of the U. S. 
district court for New York, he removed to New 
York city, where he won distinction as a jurist. In 
1811 he united with the Baptist church in Pough- 
keepsie, and thenceforth became active in the en- 
terprises of that denomination. He married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Gov. George Clinton. 

TALMAGE, John Van Nest, missionary, b. in 
Somerville, N. J., 18 Aug., 1819. He was gradu- 
ated at Rutgers in 1842 and at New Brunswick 
seminary in 1845, in which year he was licensed 
by the classis of Philadelphia. Since 1846 he has 
been a missionary of the Reformed church in 
China. Rutgers gave him the degree of D. D. in 
1867. He has translated several books of the 
Bible into the Amoy colloquial dialect, and is the 
author of a " Chinese-English Dictionary " (1888). 




/T'^e fottr /^/w.^ 

— His brother, Thomas De Witt, clergyman, b. 
in Bound Brook, N. J., 7 Jan., 1832, was educated 
at the University of the city of New York in the 
class of 1853, but was not graduated. After gradu- 
ation at New Brunswick theological seminary in 

1856, he was or- 
dained pastor of the 
Reformed Dutch 
church in Belle- 
ville, N. J. He 
had charge of the 
church in Syracuse, 
N. Y., from 1859 
till 1862, and of 
one in Philadelphia 
in 1862-9. During 
the civil war he was 
chaplain of a Penn- 
sylvania regiment, 
and he is now chap- 
lain of the 13th 
9 ^r New York regi- 
ment. In 1869 he 
was made pastor of the Central Presbyterian church 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., which post he still holds. In 
1870 his congregation erected a new semicircular 
church of wood and iron capable of seating 3,400 

Persons. This building, known as the Brooklyn 
'abernacle, was enlarged in 1871 so as to seat 500 
more, but it was destroyed by fire on 22 Dec, 1872. 
On 22 Feb., 1874, a new Tabernacle was dedicated. 
It is in the Gothic style, with seats for 5,000 per- 
sons, and is the largest Protestant church in this 
country. In 1872 he organized in the building that 
was formerly occupied by his congregation a lay 
college for religious training. He is a popular lec- 
turer, and appears once a week in this capacity. 
He attracts large audiences and his sermons are 
published weekly in nearly 600 religious and secu- 
lar journals in this country and in Europe, being 
translated into various languages. The University 
of the city of New York gave him the degree of 
A. M. in 1862, and he received that of D. D. from 
the University of Tennessee in 1884. In addition 
to numerous lectures and addresses and sketches 
and light essays on moral subjects, which have 
been printed in magazines and weekly papers, he 
has edited " The Christian at Work " (New York, 
1873-'6); "The Advance," of Chicago (1877-8); 
and he now conducts " Frank Leslie's Sunday Maga- 
zine." Dr. Talmage has published " The Almond- 
Tree in Blossom " (Philadelphia, 1870) ; " Crumbs 
swept Up " (1870) ; " Sermons " (4 vols., New York, 
1872-'5) ; " Abominations of Modern Society " (New 
York. 1872 ; 2d ed., 1876) ; " One Thousand Gems, 
or Brilliant Passages and Anecdotes " (1873) ; " Old 
Wells dug Out" (1874); "Around the Tea-Table" 
(Philadelphia, 1874); "Sports that Kill" (New 
York, 1875) ; " Every-Day Religion " (1875) ; " Night 
Sides of Citv Life" (1878); "Masque torn Off" 
(1879) ; " The Brooklyn Tabernacle, a Collection of 
104 Sermons" (1884); and "The Marriage Ring" 
(1886). Two other brothers are ministers — the 
Rev. Dr. James R. of the Congregational, and the 
Rev. Goyn of the Reformed Dutch church. 

TALMAGE, Samuel Kennedy, educator, b. in 
Somerville, N. J., in 1798; d. in Midway, Ga., 2 
Oct., 1865. He was graduated at Princeton in 
1820 and was tutor there in 1822-5. From 1838 
till 1841 he was professor of ancient languages at 
Oglethorpe university, of which he was president 
from 1841 until his death. Princeton gave him 
the degree of D. D. in 1845. He contributed to 
the "Southern Presbyterian Review," and pub- 
lished several sermons and addresses. 

TALON, Indian chief, b. about 1675. He was 
also called Jeax le Blanc and Outoutaga, the 
latter being probably his real name. He was chief 
of the Ottawas du Sable, and an able orator. His 
eloquence gave him great influence, and he was 
spokesman for the Indian allies of the French in 
their conference with Oallieres, the French gov- 
ernor of Canada in 1701. In 1706 the Ottawas 
made an attack on Detroit, and having seized the 
Recollet chaplain of the fort, Father Constantin, 
were about to slay him, when Talon saved him 
from death and begged him to ask the comman- 
dant to stop firing on them, as they had no designs 
on the fort, but only on the Miamis, who were pro- 
tected by it. He retired shortly afterward with 
his tribe to Mackinaw. In June, 1707, he set out 
for Montreal, as the spokesman of the Ottawa 
chiefs. He made a long harangue to Vaudreuil, 
the governor, in which he stated that the trouble 
at Detroit had been occasioned by the comman- 
dant, Bourgmont, who refused him an audience no 
less than seven times. Vaudreuil refused to make 
peace until the surrender of Le Pesant, a chief 
who was supposed to have been principally instru- 
mental in urging the Ottawas to attack the Miamis. 
Le Pesant gave himself up, but, on the entreaty of 
Talon and other chiefs, was pardoned. 

TALON, Edouard (tah-long), Flemish adminis- 
trator, b. in Ghent in 1759; d. in Bruges in 1819. 
He early entered the Portuguese service and held 
for twenty years important offices under the gov- 
ernment of Brazil. In 1810 he was secretary of 
the commission to mark the boundary between the 
Portuguese and Spanish possessions in South 
America, and from 1812 till 1815 he was chief of 
the local administration of French Guiana, which 
had been surrendered to the Portuguese. He re- 
turned to Europe in 1817. and died suddenly at 
Bruges during a journey. His works include " Me- 
morial sobre a administracao das provincias de 
Minas-Geraes e Rio Grande do Sul " (Lisbon, 1804) ; 
" Estatistica politica e commercial do Brazil " (2 
vols., 1805) ; " Historia de Gomez Freire de Andra- 
da eda guerra das sete Missoes" (2 vols., 1808); 
"Expose de l'etat present de la Guiane" (1817); 
and "Memoire sur l'administration du eapitaine 
general Victor Hugues" (1817). 

TALON, Jean-Baptiste, French administrator, 
b. in Picardy in 1625 ; d. in Versailles in 1691. 
He held offices in the intendancies of Bordeaux 
and Lyons, was intendant of Hainaut in 1661-'3, 
and was appointed on 
23 March, 1663, in- 
tendant of justice, 
police, and finance 
of Canada, Acadia 
(Newfoundland), and 
other possessions of 
the crown in North 
America. He was 
the second intendant 
of New France, which 
greatly improved and 
prospered under his 
administration. Af- 
ter compelling the 
company of New 
France to abandon 
its monopoly of 
trade in Canada, he 
endeavored to de- 
velop the resources 
of the country, was 

the first to build ships in the colony, established a 
trade between Canada and the West Indies, cod- 



fisheries along the river St. Lawrence, built the first 
brewery in North America, and tried to open a road 
across the country to Acadia. Under his auspices 
Saint-Simon and Albanel penetrated to Hudson 
bay, and Daumont de Saint-Lusson took possession 
in the king's name of the country of the upper 
lakes, and he prepared the way for the remarkable 
series of explorations that led to the discovery of the 
whole of the great northwest. He urged upon the 
king a measure from which, according to Francis 
Parkraan, had it taken effect, momentous conse- 
quences must have sprung. This was the purchase 
or seizure of New York, involving the isolation of 
New England, the subjection of the Iroquois, and 
the undisputed control for France of half the 
American continent. He also established a military 
aristocracy in Canada, promoted immigration, and 
took special care to provide for the increase of the 
population, laying restrictions and taxes upon the 
unmarried of" both sexes. His health failing in 
1668, he asked for his recall, which Louis XIV. 
granted with strong expressions of regret ; but two 
years later he resumed the intendancy till 1672, 
when he returned to France and obtained a high 
post in the king's household. In 1671 the seigniory 
that he had founded at Des Islets in Canada was 
erected into a barony : in 1675 his two other seignio- 
ries of Ormale and Orsainville were likewise made 
baronies, and he afterward took the title of Count 
d'Orsainville. In 1666 he addressed to the king a 
memoir upon the Indian company, and his " Me- 
moire a Sa Majeste sur l'etat present du Canada " 
(1667), which is preserved in the National library 
at Paris, has always been consulted by the Canadian 
historians, and is greatly praised by Francis Park- 
man in his " Old Regime in Canada." Talon's por- 
trait is preserved in the Hotel -Dieu of Quebec. 

TALON, Pierre, explorer, b. in Canada in the 
second half of the 17th century; d. after 1700. 
His father, Lucien, accompanied by the entire 
family, joined La Salle's expedition in 1684. He 
was also, with a younger brother, a member of the 
party that entered the country of the Illinois in 
1687. After the assassination of La Salle, Pierre 
took refuge among the Cenis Indians, by whom he 
was well treated. On the arrival of a Spanish 
force at the village, he was arrested, but was soon 
released and asked to remain, as interpreter, with 
Franciscan missionaries who accompanied the sol- 
diers. He then told the Spaniards that his three 
brothers and a sister were slaves among the Clam- 
coets or Carancaguaces. and, at his request, a de- 
tachment was sent for them. Two of his brothers 
and his sister were rescued, but the other brother 
remained with the Indians until 1691. They all 
went to Mexico after some time, and were taken 
into the service of the viceroy. Talon wrote an 
account of the death of La Salle, which is pre- 
served in the French depot de la marine, and is 
entitled " Interrogations faites a Pierre et Jean Ta- 
lon, par ordre de Mr. le Comte de Pontchartrain, a 
leur arrivee de la Vera Cruz, le 14 Septembre, 1698." 
Charlevoix made use of this document in his ac- 
count of the death of La Salle. He says that the 
author, who seems strongly prejudiced against La 
Salle, agrees with Joutel as to the manner of the 
murder, but not as to the names of the assassins 
and the attendant circumstances. 

TALTON, Augustus, clergyman, b. in Ralls 
county, Mo., in 1854. He is the first colored Ro- 
man Catholic priest in the United States. He 
was born in slavery and suffered many hardships 
in his childhood, but at length escaped with his 

Earents, reaching Quincy, 111., in 1861. In childhood 
e showed an aptitude for learning, and in his 

days of bondage it was no unusual thing for him 
to sit up half the night painfully spelling his way 
through such books as came within his reach. He 
was employed in a tobacco-factory in Quincy, but 
still continued his night studies under the aus- 
pices of the professors in St. Francis's college. In 
1873, when he left the tobacco-factory, by doing 
odd jobs, he was able to spend part of the day in 
the college. He set out for Rome on 15 Feb., 1880, 
and, entering one of the colleges of the Propagan- 
da on 12 March, spent two years in studying phi- 
losophy and four in going through the theological 
curriculum, and attracted the favorable notice of 
his superiors. He was ordained priest on 24 April, 
1886, and returned to Quincy, 111., where he was 
appointed pastor of a white congregation. 

TAMMANY, Indian chief, lived in the 17th 
century. He was chief of the Delawares, and was 
variously called Temane, Tamenand, Taminent, 
Tameny, and Tammany. According to one ac- 
count, he was the first Indian to welcome William 
Penn to this country, and was a party to Penn's 
famous treaty. Another story places his wigwam 
on the present site of Princeton college, and an- 
other says that he lived in the hills of northeastern 
Pennsylvania, and that he died at an advanced 
age near a spring in Bucks county, Pa. He was a 
sagamore, and belonged to the Lenni Lennape 
confederacy of New York and Pennsylvania, 
which warred perpetually against the Six "Nations 
and the Manhattan Indians. The tradition is that 
the evil spirit sought to gain a share in the ad- 
ministration of his kingdom, but Tammany re- 
fused to hold intercourse with him. The enemy 
then resorted to strategy, and attempted to enter 
his country, but was foiled by the chief, and at 
length determined to destroy him. A duel was 
waged for many moons, during which forests were 
trampled under foot, which have since remained 
prairie lands. Finally Tammany tripped his ad- 
versary, threw him to the ground, and would have 
scalped him, but the evil spirit extricated himself 
and escaped to Manhattan, where he was wel- 
comed by the natives, and afterward made his 
home with them. Tammany appears to have been 
a brave and influential chieftain, and his nation 
reverenced his memory by bestowing his name 
upon those that deserved that honor. He is now 
chiefly known as the patron of a Democratic po- 
litical organization in New York city called the 
Tammany society. 

TANEY, Roger Brooke (taw'-ny), jurist, b. in 
Calvert county, Md., 17 March, 1777; d. in Wash- 
ington, D. C, 12 Oct., 1864. He was the son of a 
Roman Catholic planter, of a family that came to 
Maryland in the early emigration from England, 
who had been educated in St. Omer, France, and 
Bruges, United Netherlands, in the Jesuit college, 
and was frequently elected to the house of dele- 
gates. The son was graduated at Dickinson col- 
lege in 1795. He read law in Annapolis with Jere- 
miah Chase, then a judge of the general court, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1799. His father, who 
was ambitious of political honors for his son, per- 
suaded him to begin practice in his native county, 
where, in the autumn of the same year, he was 
elected to the house of delegates. He was the 
youngest member in that body, yet was distin- 
guished for the maturity of his opinions and his 
dialectic powers. He was defeated at the next 
election by a Republican, and in March, 1801, re- 
moved to Frederick. Although he was unknown 
in that part of the state, his acuteness, thorough- 
ness, and eloquence brought him a lucrative prac- 
tice, and before many years passed he was retained 





sJ>. yyas2*Lje^s, 

in important and intricate cases, and confronted 
the leaders of the Maryland bar. He was a candi- 
date for the house of delegates on the Federalist 
ticket in 1803, but was defeated. On 7 Jan., 1806, 
he married Anne Phebe Charlton Key, sister of 
Francis Scott Key, who had been his fellow law- 
student. In 1811 he defended Gen. James Wilkin- 
son on his trial be- 
fore a court-mar- 
tial, thereby shar- 
ing the odium that 
then attached to 
that officer, yet re- 
fusing to take a fee 
for his services. 
During the war 
with Great Britain 
he led the wing of 
the Federal party 
that upheld the 
policy of the gov- 
ernment, and was a 
candidate for con- 
gress, failing of 
election by a few 
votes. He was sent 
to the state senate 
in 1816, and drew 
up many of the bills 
that were passed 
during his term of service. He endured the dis- 
approbation of his neighbors by courageously ap- 
S earing in 1819 in defence of Jacob Gruber, a 
[ethodist minister from Pennsylvania, who- in a 
camp-meeting had condemned slavery in bitter 
language, and who was indicted as an inciter of 
insurrection among the negroes. In his opening 
argument Taney declared of slavery that " while 
it continues, it is a blot on our national charac- 
ter." In 1821 he was counsel in the important 
case of Brown vs. Kennedy, which involved the 
question of the original proprietary title to lands 
that had been reclaimed from the navigable waters 
of Maryland, and in the following year in one 
connected with the law of charitable trusts. He 
removed in 1823 to Baltimore, where the death 
of William Pinkney, the retirement of Luther 
Martin, and the decease of other eminent lawyers 
left him at the head of the bar until William 
Wirt came in 1829 to divide with him that distinc- 
tion. With many other Federals of the south, 
Taney passed over into the Democratic party, and 
supported the candidacy of Andrew Jackson for 
the presidency in 1824. In 1826 he argued the 
case of Ringgold vs. Ringgold, in which the doc- 
trine of trusts was discussed, and, with Wirt, rep- 
resented the state of Maryland in the Lord Balti- 
more case before the U. S. supreme court. In 1827 
he was appointed attorney-general of Maryland, 
and on 27 Dec, 1831, he succeeded John M. Ber- 
rien as attorney-general of the United States. He 
became President Jackson's most trusted counsel- 
lor, and encouraged and sustained him in his deter- 
mination to remove the government deposits from 
the United States bank. There were only two mem- 
bers of the cabinet that approved this action, and 
when William J. Duane hesitated to carry out the 
president's decree he was removed and Taney was 
appointed secretary of the treasury. He entered 
upon the duties of the office on 24 Sept., 1833, and 
two days afterward issued the order for the re- 
moval of the deposits on 1 Oct. The bank there- 
fore called in its loans and refused accommodation, 
locking up a large part of the currency, and pro- 
ducing a financial stringency that affected all 

classes, for which the president was held respon- 
sible by the opposition. Sec. Taney was a special 
object of vituperation and scorn, because he was 
supposed to have been the " pliant instrument " of 
the president in his arbitrary purpose from mo- 
tives of selfish ambition. His nomination to the 
office was sent to the senate for confirmation on 23 
June, 1834, having been withheld till near the 
close of the session, which, owing to the subject 
most prominently brought up in debate, has been 
known as the "panic session." On 24 June the 
hostile majority rejected the appointment, it being 
the first time that a president's selection of a cabi- 
net officer had not been confirmed. On the fol- 
lowing day Mr. Taney sent in his resignation, 
which was accepted by President Jackson in a let- 
ter expressing gratitude for his patriotic and dis- 
interested aid during the crisis. In January, 1835, 
on the retirement of Gabriel Duval, associate jus- 
tice of the U. S. supreme court, President Jackson 
named Mr. Taney for the vacant judgeship ; but the 
senate refused to ratify the nomination. During 
the ensuing year the political complexion of the 
senate was changed, and when, after the death of 
John Marshall, the president, on 26 Dec, 1835 r 
nominated Mr. Taney to be chief justice of the 
United States, he was confirmed on 15 March, 
1836, by 29 votes against 15, notwithstanding the 
denunciations of Henry Clay and other political 
opponents. He took his seat on the bench as cir- 
cuit judge at Baltimore in April, beginning his 
functions by abolishing the custom of giving pre- 
liminary instructions to the grand jury. In Janu- 
ary, 1837. he presided over the full bench. 

His first decisions showed divergence between 
his view of the constitution and that of his pred- 
ecessor, who had been more and more drawn to 
allow a wide scope to the powers of congress and 
to limit the sphere of state sovereignty. In the 
case of the City of New York vs. Miln, Chief-Jus- 
tice Taney and the majority of the court decided 
that an act of the legislature of New York requir- 
ing masters of vessels to make reports of passen- 
gers on arriving was a police regulation that did not 
interfere with the power of congress to regulate for- 
eign commerce. In the case of Briscoe vs. the Bank 
of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, the court re- 
versed the decision of Marshall, who held that the 
act establishing the bank was a violation of the pro- 
vision of the constitution that restrains states from 
emitting bills of credit. In the Charles-river-bridge 
suit he delivered a judgment under which state 
legislatures were free to authorize bridges, railroads, 
and similar improvements without regard to im- 
plied contracts in former grants and monopolies. 
These decisions almost impelled Justice Joseph 
Story to resign, and caused Chancellor James Kent 
to say that he had lost confidence in the constitu- 
tional guardianship of the supreme court. In the 
case of disputed boundaries between Massachusetts 
and Rhode Island, the chief justice, dissenting from 
the judgment of the court, held that the Federal 
tribunal had no power to decide questions of politi- 
cal jurisdiction between sovereign states. In 1839 he 
delivered the opinion in the case of the Bank of Au- 
gusta vs. Earle, in which he laid down the principle 
that corporations chartered in one state may make 
contracts in others by the comity of nations. The 
claim of the proprietors of East Jersey to the oys- 
ter-fisheries in Raritan river was disallowed on the 
ground that fishery rights had passed with the 
powers of government into the hands of the state. 
In the case of Prigg vs. the Commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania, the chief justice for the first time 
pronounced a state law unconstitutional. Prigg, as 




agent for a Maryland slave-holder, had seized and 
carried back to her master an escaped female slave, 
for which he was indicted under a state law, which 
made it a penal act to carry a negro or mulatto by 
force out of the state. Justice Story delivered the 
opinion, which declared the law unconstitutional 
because the remedy for fugitives from labor is 
vested exclusively in congress. Chief - Justice 
Taney held, however, that states could pass laws 
for the rendition of escaped servants, but not to 
impair the right of the master to seize his fugitive 
slave, which he declared to be the law of each 
state. He concurred with Justice Story and Jus- 
tice John McLean, and protected the rights of the 
Federal government in the Holmes habeas corpus 
case, in which he denied the authority of the gov- 
ernor of Vermont to extradite a fugitive from jus- 
tice, because all foreign intercourse belongs to the 
Federal government. In 1847 the court decided, 
in the Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New 
Hampshire license cases, that a state can regulate 
or prohibit the retail sale of wines or spirits that 
congress has authorized to be imported. In the 
Massachusetts and New York passenger cases the 
chief justice delivered an opinion that the state 
authorities could impose a head-tax on immigrants, 
on the grounds that the power of congress to regu- 
late commerce is not exclusive, and that persons 
are not subjects of commerce. In 1849 he declined 
to pronounce judgment as to which of the con- 
tending governments of Rhode Island was the 
legitimate one, as it belonged to the political and 
not to the judicial department of the government 
to determine that question. In 1845 he upheld 
the constitutionality of the law of congress that 
extended admiralty jurisdiction over the lakes and 
connecting navigable waters, although English 
precedents limited it to tide-water. 

In the midst of the excitement that attended the 
passage of the Kansas- Nebraska bill (30 May, 1854), 
and the strife of free-soilers and slave-holders, the 
Dred Scott case, to which President Buchanan 
alluded in his inaugural message, came before the 
supreme court for decision. It involved the ques- 
tion whether congress had the power to exclude sla- 
very from the territories. The case was presented 
in 1854, and, after being twice argued, was final- 
ly decided in 1857. The opinion of the court was 
written by Chief-Justice laney, who entered into 
an elaborate historical exposition of the status of 
the negro, the other five judges who concurred in 
the decision delivering separate opinions. He held 
that the plaintiff in error, Dred Scott, was debarred 
from seelring a remedy in the U. S. circuit court 
for Missouri, on the ground that he was not a citi- 
zen of that state, and enunciated the general prin- 
ciple that negroes could not become citizens by the 
act of any state or of the United States, since, be- 
fore the adoption of the constitution, the colonies 
had special laws for colored people, whether slave 
or free, and congress had not authorized their 
naturalization or enrolled them in the militia. 
" They had for more than a century before been 
regarded as beings of an inferior order, and alto- 
gether unfit to associate with the white race, either 
in social or political relations, and so far inferior 
that they had no rights which the white man was 
bound to respect, and that the negro might justly 
and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit. 5 ' 
He held, further, that the Missouri compromise 
and other laws of congress inhibiting slavery in 
the territories of the United States were unconsti- 
tutional, and that whatever measure of freedom 
Dred Scott may have acquired by his residence in 
Illinois, he lost by being subsequently removed into 

the territory of Wisconsin, and by his return 
thence to Missouri. This deliverance, made two 
days after the inauguration of President Buchanan, 
produced intense excitement throughout the coun- 
try and a strong reaction in favor of the anti-sla- 
very party. The chief justice replied to the strict- 
ures that it provoked, and especially to a direct 
attack on the supreme court made by William H. 
Seward in the senate, in a supplementary opinion 
explaining and justifying his legal deductions. In 
the following year a case that arose under the fugi- 
tive-slave law of 1850 came before Chief-Justice 
Taney. Sherman M. Booth, who had been sen- 
tenced by the U. S. district court for aiding in the 
escape of a negro from slavery, was released on 
habeas corpus proceedings by the supreme court of 
Wisconsin, which refused to take cognizance of 
the subsequent mandates of the supreme court of 
the United States in the matter. In reviewing the 
case Chief-Justice Taney affirmed the constitution- 
ality of the fugitive-slave law, and declared that 
"so long as this constitution shall endure, this 
tribunal must exist with it, deciding in the peace- 
ful forms of judicial procedure the angry and irri- 
tating controversies between sovereignties which in 
other countries have been decided by the arbitrament 
of force." The reversal of the judgment of the state 
court called forth a declaration of the legislature of 
Wisconsin that the government of the United States 
was not the final judge of the extent of its powers, 
but that the states, as parties to the compact, have 
an equal right to determine infractions of their 
rights and the mode of their redress, and that the 
judgment of the Federal court was " void and of 
no force." The chief question at issue in the presi- 
dential election of 1860 was whether the Dred 
Scott decision, throwing all the territories of the 
United States open to slavery and denying to col- 
ored persons any standing in courts of law, should 
be maintained as the true construction of the con- 
stitution. On 13 March, 1861, Chief-Justice Taney 
delivered the opinion of the court in mandamus 
proceedings brought by the state of Kentucky 
against the governor of Ohio to compel him to 
cause the arrest and delivery of Willis Lago, a free 
man of color who, while under indictment for as- 
sisting a slave to escape, had fled from Kentucky. 
He affirmed the right of Kentucky to demand the 
person of the fugitive, and the obligation of Ohio 
to render him up, yet denied the jurisdiction of 
the U. S. court in the ease. 

When, after the secession of the southern states, 
martial law was proclaimed in Maryland, Chief- 
Justice Taney, on application of John Merryman, 
arrested by order of Gen. George Cadwalader, or- 
dered the release of the prisoner, issued an at- 
tachment against the officer, and filed an opinion, 
to be laid before President Lincoln, in which he 
denied the right of the president to suspend the 
writ of habeas corpus, affirming that such power is 
vested in congress alone. When congress passed 
an act to withhold three per cent, of the salaries of 

fovernment officers, Chief-Justice Taney, on 16 
'eb., 1863, sent a letter to the secretary of the 
treasury, Salmon P. Chase, pointing out the un- 
constitutionality of this law so far as it affected 
the judges of the U. S. courts. In the matter of a 
seizure of contraband goods, he delivered on 3 
June, 1863, an opinion at nisi prius, in which he 
censured the duplicity of the government detecti vas, 
ordered the price of the goods to be restored to the 
smugglers, and mulcted the provost-marshal and 
his assistants in damages and costs. Chief-Justice 
Taney died on the same day on which the state of 
Maryland abolished slavery. His judicial opinions 




and decisions are contained in the " Supreme Court 
Reports " of Benjamin R. Curtis, Benjamin C. 
Howard, and Jeremiah S. Black. His opinions as 
a circuit judge from 1836 till 1861 were reported 
by his son-in-law, James Mason Campbell. He 
wrote Andrew Jackson's farewell address on retir- 
ing from the presidency. At the age of seventy- 
seven he began an autobiography, which he brought 
down to 1801, and which forms the introduction to 
a " Memoir " by Samuel Tyler (Baltimore, 1872). 

TANGUAY, Ciprian, Canadian clergyman, b. 
in Quebec, Canada, 15 Sept., 1819. He was gradu- 
ated at the Seminary of Quebec on 15 Aug., 1839, 
ordained priest in the Roman Catholic church on 
14 May, 1843, and appointed vicar of Rimouski 
the same year. He was made cure of St. Ray- 
mond in 1846 and of Rimouski in 1850, in 1859 
was transferred to St. Michel, and in 1862 ap- 
pointed cure of St. Henedine. Since 1864 he has 
been attached to the department of agriculture at 
Ottawa. He was raised to the rank of domestic 
prelate of the papal household by Leo XIII. in 
1888. He has published " Journal d'un voyage de 
Boston a l'Oregon " (Quebec, 1842) ; " Repertoire 
du clerge Canadien depuis la fondation du Canada " 
(1868) ; '• A travers les registres " (Montreal, 
1886) ; " Monseigneur Pourroy de P Auberiviere, 
5'* me eveque de Quebec " (1886) ; and " Dictionnaire 
genealogique des families Canadiennes" (Mon- 
treal). When it is completed this last work will 
form seven volumes : four have already appeared, 
and the fifth is now in press. It is considered a 
work of national importance in Canada, and the 
author not only has examined the registers of 
every parish in the country, family records, etc., 
but went to Europe in order to make himself ac- 
quainted with the archives of the ministry of 
marine at Paris and those of other institutions. 

TANNEHILL, Adamson, soldier, b. in Freder- 
ick county, Md., in 1752; d. in Pittsburg, Pa., 7 
July, 1817. He received a public-school education, 
served in the Revolutionary war as captain of 
riflemen, removed to Pennsylvania, and cultivated 
a small farm near Pittsburg, where he served as 
justice of the peace. He opposed the whiskey in- 
surrection. From 25 Sept. till 31 Dec, 1812, he 
was brigadier-general of Pennsylvania volunteers. 
He was then elected to congress as a Democrat, 
and served from 24 Mav, 1813, till 3 March. 1815. 

TANNEHILL, Wilkins, journalist, b. in Pitts- 
burg, Pa., 4 March, 1787 ; d. in Nashville, Tenn., 
2 June, 1858. His father, Gen. John, served in 
the Continental army during the Revolution. 
The son removed to Lexington, Ky., at an early 
age, and soon afterward to Nashville, Tenn., where 
he became an editor of the " Whig," and also of 
the " Herald," the first Henry Clay organ in Ten- 
nessee. Subsequently he edited "The Orthopoli- 
tan," a new literary and independent paper, and 
in 1848-'9 the " Portfolio," a journal of Free- 
masonry. He was forced to discontinue this, owing 
to the failure of his eyesight, and in later years be- 
came blind. He was the author of a " Freemason's 
Manual," containing a history of the progress of 
the order ; " Sketches of the History of Literature " 
(Nashville, 1827); and "Sketches of the History of 
Roman Literature " (1846). 

TANNER, Benjamin, engraver, b. in New 
York city, 27 March, 1775 ; d. in Baltimore, Md., 
14 Nov.. 1848. At an early age he manifested a 
talent for drawing and designing, and after re- 
ceiving his education he began to learn the art of 
engraving. In December, 1799, he went to Phila- 
delphia, where he established his business, and 
aided his brother Henry in publishing maps. In 

1816 he formed a bank-note engraving establish- 
ment, under the name of Tanner, Vallance, Kear- 
ny and Co., which he afterward discontinued, and 
in 1835 established a blank check note and draft 
publishing office, which he abandoned in 1845. 
His engravings include portraits of Washington, 
after Savage; Benjamin Franklin, after Charles N. 
Cochin (1822); "Apotheosis of Washington," after J. 
J. Barralet (1802) ; " Perry's Victory on Lake Erie, 
10 Sept., 1813," and " The Launch of the Steam 
Frigate Fulton," after the same artist (1815); 
" Macdonough's Victory on Lake Cham plain, and 
Defeat of the British Army at Plattsburg by Gen. 
McComb, 11 Sept., 1814," after Hugh Reinagle 
(1816); "The Surrender of Cornwallis at York- 
town," after J. F. Renaulty; and "America 
Guided by Wisdom," after J. J. Barralet. — His 
brother, Henry S., geographer, b. in New York in 
1786; d. in New York city in 1858. In early life 
he removed to Philadelphia, where he resided un- 
til 1850, when he returned to New York city. He 
engraved and published many atlases and separate 
maps, contributed geographical and statistical arti- 
cles to various periodicals, and was a member of 
the geographical societies of London and Paris. 
He collected a fine cabinet of shells. His maps in- 
clude the "New American Atlas," with letter- 
press descriptions (Philadelphia, 1817-'23) ; " The 
World," on a globular projection (4 sheets, 1825) ; 
"Map of the United States of Mexico" (1825); 
" Map of Philadelphia " (1826) ; and " Map of the 
United States of America " (1829). He also- pub- 
lished "Memoir on the Recent Surveys in the 
United States " (2d ed., 1830) ; " View of the Val- 
ley of the Mississippi " (1832) ; " American Travel- 
ler " (1836) ; " Central Traveller " (New York, 1840) ; 
" New Picture of Philadelphia " (Philadelphia, 
1840) ; and " Description of the Canals and Rail- 
roads of the United States " (New York, 1840). 

TANNER, Benjamin Tucker, A. M. E. bishop, 
b. in Pittsburg, Pa., 25 Dec, 1835. He is of Afri- 
can descent. After studying at Avery institute 
and Western theological seminary, Alleghany City, 
Pa., he officiated at the 15th street Presbyterian 
church in Washington, D. C, also organizing the 
first school for freedmen in the U. S. navy-yard, 
by permission of Admiral Dahlgren. At the end 
of eighteen months he returned to his own church, 
the African Methodist Episcopal, entering the 
Baltimore conference in April, 1862. He labored 
as a missionary in Alexandria, where he organized 
the first society of his church on Virginia soil. 
He was stationed in 1863 in Georgetown, D. C, in 
1864 in Frederick, Md., and in 1866 in Baltimore, 
but resigned to organize a proposed conference 
school in Frederick, Md., as well as to take charge 
of the schools of the Freedmen's bureau in Fred- 
erick county. He was elected secretary of the 
general conference of 1868, and by this body was 
chosen editor of the " Christian Recorder," being 
continued in this post by three subsequent general 
conferences of 1872, 1876, and 1880. In 1884 he 
was elected managing editor of a new church pub- 
lication, the "A. M. E. Church Review." He re- 
ceived the degree of A. M. from Avery college in 
1870, and that of D. D. from Wilberforce univer- 
sity in 1878, and on 19 May, 1888, was elected a 
bishop. Dr. Tanner has written prose and poetry 
for periodicals, and is the author of " Paul versus 
Pius Ninth" (Baltimore, 1865); "Apology for 
African Methodism" (1867); "The Negro's Origin, 
and Is the Negro Cursed?" (Philadelphia, 1869); 
and " Outline of the History and Government of 
the A. M. E. Church " (1883). He has ready for 
publication " The Negro, African and American." 




TANNER, Henry S.. physician, b. about 1830. 
Early in 1880 much interest was manifested in the 
fasting power of Mollie Fancher, of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
who claimed to have lived fourteen years with- 
out food. Dr. William A. Hammond offered her 
$1,000 if she would allow herself to be watched for 
one month by relays of members of the New York 
neurological society, provided she did not take any 
food voluntarily during that period. Dr. Tanner, at 
that time a practising physician in Minneapolis, 
Minn., saw the challenge in print and offered to per- 
form the experiment under the conditions. To this 
Dr. Hammond agreed, saying : " If he succeeds he 
will get $1,000, and if he dies I will give him a decent 
burial." Dr. Tanner then came to New York city, 
and after some difficulty secured the co-operation 
of the Neurological society in conducting the fast. 
It began at noon on 28 June, 1880, and continued 
until its successful termination on 7 Aug. Dur- 
ing the fast his eyes became slightly dimmed, the 
top of his head, which was thinly covered with gray 
hair, became as white as milk, and he lost ten and 
a half pounds in weight. The outline of his feat- 
ures stood out more clearly, and his lips closed more 
tightly. Dr. Tanner drank eighty ounces of water 
during the first two days, in doses ranging from 
six to eight ounces each, after which, in lieu of 
drinking, he simply gargled his mouth about once 
an hour. He spent the time reclining on his cot 
or sitting in a chair. At bedtime he took a sponge- 
bath and was rubbed down with coarse towels, 
after which he retired. Before he dressed in the 
morning his clothes were examined to ascertain 
that no food was concealed in them. His pulse and 
temperature were frequently taken, and his weight 
every day. Subsequently he lectured on fasting. 
Several persons have since fasted for long periods, 
and exhibitions of fasting have taken place both 
in this country and abroad. In 1888 John Zachar, 
residing near Racine, Wis., went without food for 
fifty-three days, which is the longest fast known. 
His weight was reduced from 160 to 90 pounds. 

TANNER, John, captive, b. in Kentucky about 
1780 ; d. in 1847. His father removed from Ken- 
tucky to the mouth of Big Miami river, Ohio, and 
settled there as a farmer. At the age of six years 
the son was captured in the fields by an Indian, 
who wished to adopt a son in place of his own, 
who had recently died. Tanner was compelled to 
labor for the Indians, and thought to be "good 
for nothing " by his captor, who tomahawked him 
and left him to die in the woods, but he was found 
by his adopted mother, who treated him with 
kindness and affection, and he recovered. After 
two years he was sold to Net-no-kwa, an Ottawa 
Indian, and he remained in captivity for thirty 
years. He became thoroughly accustomed to In- 
dian life, participated in many hunting warlike 
excursions in the region of the great lakes, and 
married Mis-kwa-bun-o-kwa, " the red sky of the 
morning." He afterward fell in with the Hud- 
son bay company, and went to Detroit, where he 
was interviewed by Gov. Lewis Cass, and met his 
brother, with whom he was unable to speak except 
through an interpreter. After visiting his family 
he returned to the Indian settlement for his chil- 
dren, and was then employed as interpreter for 
the Indian agent at Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. He 
wrote a "Narrative of the Captivity and Adven- 
tures of John Tanner during Thirty Years' Resi- 
dence among the Indians," edited by Edwin James, 
M. D. (New York, 1830). His son, James, became 
a Unitarian missionary. 

TAPIN, Richard (tah-pang), Flemish physi- 
cian, b. in the duchy of Luxembourg about 1515 ; d. 

there in 1590. He received his education in Flan- 
ders, and early entered the Portuguese service, 
being employed as surgeon on board ships that 
sailed to the Indies. At the time of the invasion 
of Admiral Villegaignon, he was in Brazil as sur- 
geon of the king, and he practised his profession 
afterward with great success, holding several im- 

Eortant offices in the colony. After his return to 
lurope he published a curious work, " Colloquios 
dos simples e drogas do Brazil " (Coimbra, 1566), 
which enjoyed a great reputation for about a cen- 
tury in a revised and completed French version, 
" Histoire des drogues, espiceries, et de certains 
medicaments et simples qui croissent es Bresil, 
province de l'Amerique " (Paris, 1590). 

TAPPAN, David, clergyman, b. in Manchester, 
Mass., 21 April, 1752; d. in Cambridge, Mass., 27 
April, 1803. The name was originally Topham. 
His ancestor, Abraham, came to this country 
from Yarmouth, England, in 1637, and his father, 
Benjamin, was pastor of a church in Manchester 
in 1720-'90. After graduation at Harvard in 
1771, David studied divinity, and was pastor of 
a Congregational church in Newbury, Mass., from 
1774 till 1792, when he was chosen Hollis professor 
of divinity at Harvard, serving there until his 
death. The degree of D. D. was conferred on him 
by Harvard in 1794. Dr. Tappan published many 
sermons and addresses. After his death appeared 
" Sermons on Important Subjects, with a Bio- 
graphical Sketch of the Author," by Rev. Abiel 
Holmes (Boston, 1807), and " Lectures on Jewish 
Antiquities delivered at Harvard in 1802-'3" 
(1807). — His son, Benjamin, clergyman, b. in 
Newbury, Mass., 7 Nov., 1788 ; d. in Augusta, 
Me., 23 Dec, 1863, was graduated at Harvard in 
1805, and was pastor of a Congregational church in 
Augusta, Me., from 16 Oct., 1811, until his death. 
Bowdoin gave him the degree of D. D. in 1845. — 
David's nephew, Benjamin, jurist, b. in North- 
ampton, Mass., 25 May, 1773; d. in Steubenville, 
Ohio, 12 April, 1857, was the son of Benjamin 
Tappan, who, sacrificing his opportunity of study 
at Harvard for his 
younger brother, 
David, went to 
Boston, became a 
gold- and silver- 
smith, and in 1770 
married Sarah 
Homes, the great- 
niece of Benjamin 
Franklin. After 
receiving a public- 
school education, 
the son was ap- 
prenticed to learn 
copper - plate en- 
graving and print- 
ing, and devoted 
some attention to 
portrait- painting. 
Subsequently he 
studied law, was 
admitted to the bar, and began practice in Steu- 
benville, Ohio, in 1799. In 1803 he was elected 
to the legislature, and after the war of 1812, in 
which he served as aide to Gen. William Wads- 
worth, he was appointed judge in one of the county 
courts, and for seven years was president judge 
of the 5th Ohio circuit. In 1833 he was appoint- 
ed by President Jackson U. S. judjje for the dis- 
trict of Ohio. Being elected to the U. S. senate 
as a Democrat, he served from 2 Dec, 1839, till 3 
March, 1845. He was an active leader of his party, 




but afterward joined in the free-soil movement at 
its inception. He was widely known for his droll- 
ery and wit and for his anti-slavery sentiments. 
Judge Tappan published " Cases decided in the 
Court of Common Pleas," with an appendix (Steu- 
benville, 1831). — The second Benjamin's brother, 
John, philanthropist, b. in Northampton, Mass., 
in December, 1781 ; d. in Boston, Mass., 25 March, 
1871, entered mercantile life in Boston in 1799, be- 
came a partner in his employer's firm in 1803, and 
in 1807 was sole manager of the large house that 
was known by his name, but withdrew in 1825. 
He was president and treasurer of the American 
tract society, and was actively interested in mis- 
sions and in many benevolent associations of Boston. 
— Another brother, Arthur, b. in Northampton, 
Mass., 22 May, 1786 ; d. in New Haven, Conn., 23 
July, 1865, was locked up while an infant in a 
folding bedstead. When he was discovered life 
was almost extinct, and headaches, to which he 
was subject daily through life, were ascribed to 
this accident. He received a common-school edu- 
cation, and served a seven years' apprenticeship in 
the hardware business in Boston, after which he 
established himself in Portland, Me., and subse- 
quently in Montreal, Canada, where he remained 
until the beginning of the war of 1812. In 1814 
he engaged with his brother Lewis in importing 
British dry-goods into New York city, and after 
the partnership was dissolved he successfully con- 
tinued the business alone. Mr. Tappan was known 
for his public spirit and philanthropy. He was a 
founder of the American tract society, the largest 
donor for the erection of its first building, and 
was identified with many charitable and religious 
bodies. He was a founder of Oberlin college, also 
erecting Tappan hall there, and endowed Lane 
seminary in Cincinnati, and a professorship at 
Auburn theological seminary. With his brother 
Lewis he founded the New York "Journal of 
Commerce " in 1828, and established " The Eman- 
cipator" in 1833, paying the salary of the editor 
and all the expenses of its publication. He was 
an ardent Abolitionist, and as the interest in the 
anti-slavery cause deepened he formed, at his own 
rooms, the nucleus of the New York city anti- 
slavery society, which was publicly organized un- 
der his presidency at Clinton hall on 2 Oct., 1833. 
Mr. Tappan was also president of the American 
anti-slavery society, to which he contributed $1,000 
a month for several years, but he withdrew in 
1840 on account of the aggressive spirit that many 
members manifested toward the churches and the 
Union. During the crisis of 1837 he was forced 
to suspend payments, and he became bankrupt in 
1842. During his late years he was connected with 
the mercantile agency that his brother Lewis es- 
tablished. He incurred the hatred of the southern 
slave-holders by his frequent aid to fugitives, and 
by his rescuing William Lloyd Garrison from im- 
prisonment at Baltimore. See his " Life," by Lewis 
Tappan (New York, 1871). — Another brother, 
Lewis, merchant, b. in Northampton, Mass., 23 
May, 1788; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 21 June, 1873, 
received a good education, and at the age of six- 
teen became clerk in a dry-goods house in Boston. 
His employers subsequently aided him in establish- 
ing himself in business, and he became interested 
in calico-print works and in the manufacture of 
cotton. In 1827 he removed to New York and be- 
came a member of the firm of Arthur Tappan and 
Co., and his subsequent career was closely identi- 
fied with that of his brother Arthur. With the 
latter he established in 1828 the" Journal of Com- 
merce," of which he became sole owner in 1829. 
vol. vi. — 3 

In 1833 he entered with vigor into the anti-slavery 
movement, in consequence of which his house was 
sacked and his furniture was destroyed by a mob 
in July, 1834, and at other times he and his brother 
suffered personal violence. He was also involved 
in the crisis of 1837, and afterward withdrew from 
the firm and established the first mercantile agency 
in the country, which he conducted with success. 
He was chief founder of the American missionary 
association, of which he was treasurer and after- 
ward president, and was an early member of 
Plymouth church, Brooklyn. He published the 
life of his brother mentioned above. 

TAPPAN, Henry Philip, clergyman, b. in 
Rhinebeck, N. Y., 23 April, 1805; d. in Vevay, 
Switzerland, 15 Nov., 1881. He was graduated at 
Union college in 1825, and at Auburn theological 
seminary in 1827, and after serving for a year as 
associate pastor of a Dutch Reformed church in 
Schenectady, N. Y., became pastor of a Congrega- 
tional church in Pittsfield, Mass., but resigned, 
owing to impaired health, and visited the West 
Indies. In 1832 he became professor of moral phi- 
losophy in the University of the city of New York, 
which post he resigned in 1838, and opened a pri- 
vate school. In 1852 he was elected first chancel- 
lor of the University of Michigan, and secured 
valuable additions to the literary and scientific re- 
sources of the university, among which were sev- 
eral fine instruments for the observatory. He re- 
tired in 1863, and spent the rest of his life in Europe. 
In 1859 he was elected corresponding member of 
the French imperial institute, and president of the 
American association for the advancement of edu- 
cation. He devoted much attention to the subject 
of university education, and studied the systems of 
England and Germany. Union gave him the de- 
gree of D. D. in 1845, and Columbia that of LL. D. 
in 1853. Dr. Tappan published a " Review of Ed- 
wards's ' Inquiry into the Freedom of the Will ' " 
(New York, 1839) ; " The Doctrine of the Will de- 
termined by an Appeal to Consciousness " (1840) ; 
" The Doctrine of the Will applied to Moral Agency 
and Responsibility " (1841 ; with additions, Glas- 
gow, 1857) ; " Elements of Logic, together with an 
Introductory View of Philosophy in General and a 
Preliminary View of the Reason " (1844) ; " Trea- 
tise on University Education" (1851); "A Step 
from the New World to the Old, and Back Again 
(1852) ; and an " Introduction to Illustrious Per- 
sonages of the Nineteenth Century " (1853). 

TAPPAN, Mason Weare, lawyer, b. in New- 
port, N. H., 20 Oct., 1817; d. in Bradford, N. H., 
24 Oct., 1886. His father, a well-known lawyer, 
settled in Bradford in 1818, and was a pioneer in 
the anti-slavery movement. The son was educated 
at Kimball union academy, studied law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1841, and acquired a large 
practice. He was early identified with the Whig 
party, and afterward was a Free-soiler and served 
in the legislature in 1853-'5. He was elected to 
congress as a Free-soiler, by a combination of the 
Whigs, Free-soilers, Independent Democrats, and 
Americans, at the time of the breaking up of the 
two great parties, Whigs and Democrats. He 
served from 3 Dec, 1855, till 3 March, 1861, and 
was a member of the special committee of thirty- 
three on the rebellious states. On 5 Feb., 1861, 
when a report was submitted recommending that 
the provisions of the constitution should be obeyed 
rather than amended, he made a patriotic speech in 
support of the government. Mr. Tappan was one 
of the earliest to enlist in the volunteer army and 
was colonel of the 1st New Hampshire regiment 
from May till August, 1861. Afterward he re- 




sumed the practice of law, and held the office of 
attorney-general of the state for ten years preceding 
his death. He was a delegate to the Philadelphia 
Loyalists' convention of 1866, and presided over 
the New Hampshire Republican convention on 14 
Sept., 1886. In the presidential election of 1872 
he supported his life-long friend, Horace Greeley. 

TAPPAN, William Bingham, poet, b. in Bev- 
erly, Mass., 29 Oct., 1794 ; d. in West Needham, 
Mass., 18 June, 1849. His early advantages were 
limited, but he acquired a good education and for 
six years taught in Philadelphia. In 1826 he re- 
moved to Boston, where he became general agent 
of the American Sunday-school union, and was en- 
gaged in the same work in Cincinnati and Phila- 
delphia. He was licensed to preach in 1840. His 
publications are " New England, and other Poems" 
(Philadelphia, 1819) ; " Songs of Judah, and other 
Melodies" (1820); " Lyrics" (1822); "Poems" 
(1834); "Memoir of Capt. James Wilson " (1842) ; 
"Poetry of the Heart " (Boston, 1845); "Sacred 
and Miscellaneous Poems " (1846) ; " Poetry of 
Life" (1847); "The Sunday-School, and other 
Poems " (1848) ; and " Late' and Early Poems " 
(Worcester. Mass., 1849). 

TARAVAL, Sigismond, clergyman, b. in Lodi, 
Italy, 26 Oct., 1700 ; d. probably in Italy. He en- 
tered the Jesuit novitiate on 31 Oct., 1718, went to 
Mexico, and thence to California, where he founded 
the mission of Santa Rosa. He discovered the 
islands of Afagua and Amalgua on the Pacific 
coast, afterward known as Los Dolores, and col- 
lected a large number of documents for a history 
of California. His manuscript work, entitled " Re- 
lacion del Martirio de los PP. Tomas Tello y En- 
rique Ruhen, muertos por los Indios Seris," is in 
the Library of Mexico. 

TARBELL, John Adams, physician, b. in Bos- 
ton, Mass., 31 March, 1810; d. there, 21 Jan., 1864. 
He was graduated at Harvard in 1832, and studied 
medicine in Paris for three years, receiving his de- 
gree from Bowdoin in 1836. He began practice in 
Boston, and in 1843 became a homoeopathist. He 
was associate editor of the " Quarterly Homoeopath- 
ic Review " (Boston, 1853-'4), edited John Epos's 
" Domestic Homoeopathy " and " The Pocket Ho- 
moeopathist " (Boston, 1849) ; and was the author 
of " Sources of Health " (1850) and " Homoeopathy 
Simplified " (1856-'62). 

TARBELL, Joseph, naval officer, b. about 1780 ; 
d. in Norfolk, Va., 24 Nov., 1815. He entered the 
navy as a midshipman, 5 Dec, 1798, was promoted 
to lieutenant, 25 Aug., 1800, and served in Preble's 
squadron during the Tripolitan war. He was in- 
cluded in the vote of thanks to Preble and his 
officers by act of congress, 3 March, 1805, was pro- 
moted to master-commandant, 25 April, 1808, and 
commanded the frigate " John Adams " in 1811— '14. 
He was commissioned a captain, 24 July, 1813, and 
rendered good service in the defence of Craney 
island and James river in June, 1813, capturing 
three barges and forty prisoners when the British 
were repelled in this attack. He was then stationed 
at Norfolk, Va., where he died. 

TARBOX, Increase Niles, author, b. in East 
Windsor, Conn., 11 Feb., 1815; d. in West New- 
ton, Mass., 3 May, 1888. He was graduated at 
Yale in 1839, studied theology while acting as 
tutor there in 1842-'4, and from 1844 till 1851 was 

Siastorof a Congregational church in Framingham, 
dass., which he left to become secretary of the 
American education society, later the American 
college and education society, in Boston, Mass. 
This office he filled till 1884. He received the de- 
gree of D.D. from Yale and from Iowa college in 

1869. He wrote extensively on historical and re- 
ligious subjects for the " New Englander," " Bib- 
liotheca Sacra," " Historic-Genealogical Register," 
and other periodicals, was in 1849-'51 associate 
editor of the " Congregationalist," contributed 
many poems and hymns to that and other journals, 
and from 1881 till his death was historiographer 
for the New England historic-genealogical society. 
Dr. Tarbox published juvenile books entitled the 
"Winnie and Walter Stories" (4 vols., Boston, 
1860) and " When I was a Boy" (1862) ; " Nineveh, 
or the Buried City" (1864); "The Curse, or the 
Position occupied in History by the Race of Ham " 
(1865); "Tyre and Alexandria the Chief Commer- 
cial Cities of Scripture Times " (1865) ; " Missionary 
Patriots: James H. and Edward M. Schneider" 
(1867) ; " Uncle George's Stories " (1868) ; " Life of 
Israel Putnam (Old Put), Major-General in the Con- 
tinental Army " (1876) ; " Sir Walter Raleigh and 
his Colony in America " (1884) ; " Songs and Hymns 
for Common Life" (1885); and "Diarv of Thomas 
Robbins, D. D." (2 vols., 1886-'7). 

TARDIVAL, Julius Paul, Canadian journal- 
ist, b. in Covington, Ky., 2 Sept., 1851. He re- 
moved to Canada in 1868, was educated at St. 
Hyacinth college, in the province of Quebec, was 
assistant editor of " Le Canadien " in 1874, and is 
editor of " La verite," in Quebec, which he founded 
in 1881. He was assistant government translator 
at Ottawa from 1879 till 1881. Mr. Tardival has 
published " Vie du Pape Pie IX.. ses ceuvres et ses 
douleurs " (Quebec, 1878) ; " Borrowed and Stolen 
Feathers, or a Glance through Mr. James M. 
Lemoine's Latest Work, ' The Chronicles of the St. 
Lawrence ' " (1878) ; " L'Anglicisme, voila l'en- 
nemie" (1879); and "Melanges" (1887). 

ree-uh), Canadian statesman, b. in Canada in 1744; 
d. there in 1841. At the age of sixteen he took 
part in the battle of Saint Foye, as an officer in the 
regiment de la Sarre, and was severely wounded. 
He went to France with his regiment after the sur- 
render of Montreal, visited the principal courts of 
Europe, and married shortly after his return to 
Canada. In 1775 he held a command in the Cana- 
dian militia, and was taken prisoner by the Ameri- 
cans in a skirmish on the frontier. He was instru- 
mental in saving Gen. Carleton from capture when 
Benedict Arnold reached Montreal, escorting the 
English leader to Quebec at the head of three hun- 
dred Canadians. He was made aide-de-camp on 
Carleton's staff, and several years later master 
of the waters and forests. Tarieu made frequent 
journeys to Europe, the expenses of which impaired 
his fortune. When he returned to Canada in 1787 
he endeavored to turn his influence with the Cana- 
dian government to account, in order to obtain a 
change in the system of seignorial tenures, and 
presented a petition to this effect in January, 1788. 
The result of the changes he asked for would 
enable the Canadian seigneurs to draw larger 
revenues from their fiefs by throwing them open 
to American and English settlers. The measure 
was opposed by most of the other great proprie- 
tors, and the agitation that then began was not 
settled until 1854, when the question of land-ten- 
ure in Canada received a definitive solution. In 
1792 he was created a member of the legislative 
council, which post he held till his death, and in 
which his talents, combined with his influence over 
successive governors, gave him great power. 

TARLETON, Sir Banastre, bart., British sol- 
dier, b. in Liverpool, 21 Aug., 1754; d. in England, 
23 Jan., 1833. He came to America with Lord 
Cornwallis in Sir Peter Parker's squadron in May, 




1776. He was major in Col. Harcourt's regiment 
of dragoons, and accompanied Harcourt in the 
raid upon Baskingridge, N. J., which resulted in 
the capture of Gen. Charles Lee, 13 Dec. Little is 

heard of him dur- 
ing the next three 
years. In Decem- 
ber, 1779, he accom- 
panied the expedi- 
tion of Sir Henry 
Clinton to South 
Carolina with the 
rank of lieutenant- 
colonel. He raised 
and organized a 
troop known as the 
"British legion," 
or sometimes as 
" Tarleton's le- 
gion." It com- 
prised both light 
infantry and cav- 
alry, with a few 
field - pieces, and 
was thus a minia- 
ture army in itself. 
It was made up 
partly of British 
regulars, partly of 
New York loyalists, and was further recruited by 
loyalists of South Carolina. At the head of this 
legion Tarleton soon made himself formidable in 
partisan warfare. In the difficult country of the 
Carolinas, with poor roads, frequent swamps or 
pine-barrens, and scant forage, he could move far 
more rapidly than the regular army, and his blows 
were delivered with sudden and crushing effect. 
After Clinton's capture of Charleston, 12 May, 1780, 
Col. Buford's regiment, which had been "march- 
ing toward Charleston, began its retreat to Vir- 
ginia, but Tarleton, giving chase, overtook and 
overwhelmed it at Waxhaw Creek, near the border 
between the two Carolinas. Nearly all Buford's 
men were slaughtered, and thenceforth the phrase 
" Tarleton's quarter " was employed to denote 
wholesale butchery. At Camden, 15 Aug., Tarle- 
ton completed the ruin of Gen. Gates's left wing. 
At Fishing Creek, 18 Aug., he surprised Gen. 
Thomas Sumter, and utterly routed and dispersed 
his force; but at Blackstock's Hill, 20 Nov., Sum- 
ter returned the compliment, and severely defeated 
Tarleton. Early in January, 1781, Lord Corn- 
wallis sent Tarleton, with 1,100 men, westward to 
the mountain country to look after Gen. Daniel 
Morgan, who was threatening the British inland 
posts. At the Cowpens, 17 Jan., Morgan, with 900 
men, awaited his attack and almost annihilated his 
force of 1,100 men in one of the most brilliant 
battles of the war. Tarleton accompanied Corn- 
wallis during his campaigns in North Carolina and 
Virginia. In June, 1781, he made a raid upon 
Gov. Jefferson's house at Monticello : but the gov- 
ernor, forewarned, had escaped to the mountains a 
few minutes before Tarleton s arrival. He remained 
with Cornwallis until the surrender at Yorktown. 
On returning to England he was promoted colonel. 
In 1790 he was elected to parliament from Liver- 
pool, and was so popular that all the expenses of 
the election were borne by his friends. He was 
member of parliament in 1790-1800, and again in 
1807-12. In 1817 he reached the grade of lieu- 
tenant-general, and was made a baronet, 6 Nov., 
1818. Ross, the editor of Cornwallis's "Corre- 
spondence," says (p. 44) that, in the house of com- 
mons, Tarleton " was notorious for his criticisms 

on military affairs, the value of which may be esti- 
mated from the fact that he almost uniformly con- 
demned the Duke of Wellington." He published 
a " History of the Campaigns of 1780 and 1781 in 
the Southern Provinces of North America " (Lon- 
don, 1787). This book has value in so far as it 
contains many documents that cannot elsewhere 
be obtained except with great labor. As a narra- 
tive it is spoiled by the vanity of the author, who 
distorts events for his self-glorification to a degree 
that is seldom paralleled in books of this charac- 
ter. The work was severely criticised by Col. Rod- 
erick Mackenzie, "Strictures on Lieutenant-Colonel 
Tarleton's History " (London, 1787). Mackenzie in 
turn was answered by Tarleton's second in com- 
mand, Major George Hanger, afterward Lord Cole- 
rain, " Address to the Army in Reply to Colonel 
Mackenzie's Strictures " (London, 1787). The best- 
known portrait of Tarleton is the one by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds (1782), representing him in full uniform, 
with his foot on a cannon, from which the accom- 
panying vignette is copied. Among the English 
colonel's American friends was Israel Halleck, a 
loyalist, father of Fitz-Greene, who was for a time a 
member of his military family, and between whom 
and Tarleton there was an enduring friendship. 

(tash-ah - ), Chevalier, French soldier, b. in the 
castle of La Pagerie, near Blois. in 1701 ; d. in 
Trois Islets, Martinique, in 1762. He was descended 
from a family of German origin that settled in 
Blaisois about the 12th century, and whose mem- 
bers served with credit in the army and in the 
magistracy. In 1726 he settled in Martinique, 
where he married a wealthy Creole, Aymer de la 
Chevalerie, and held for several years the office of 
lieutenant of the king in Saint Pierre. During the 
English invasion in 1756 he armed his slaves, led 
them to the front, and was dangerously wounded 
at the attack on Grande Savane. — His son, Joseph 
Gaspard, Chevalier, and afterward Baron, b. in 
Carbet, Martinique, 5 July, 1735 ; d. in Trois 
Islets, 6 Nov., 1790, became, when seventeen years 
old, a page to the Dauphine Marie Josephe, served 
afterward as lieutenant in the marines, and fought 
against the English when they invaded Martinique 
in 1756. After the conclusion of peace in 1763 he 
was retired with the brevet of captain, made a 
knight of Saint Louis, and devoted himself to 
agricultural pursuits on his large estate at Trois 
Islets. He published several treatises on colonial 
methods of culture. — By his wife, Rose Claire 
des Vergers de Sannois (b. in Saint Pierre, 
Martinique, 27 Aug., 1736; d. in Trois Islets, 2 
June, 1807), he had three daughters, the eldest of 
whom was Marie Josephine Rose, who became the 
Empress Josephine. 

Pierre Claude, Count and afterward Duke, 
West Indian soldier, b. in Fort de France, Mar- 
tinique, 1 April, 1787 ; d. in Paris, France, 3 
March, 1861. He was a first cousin to Empress 
Josephine, and received his early education in 
Martinique. Napoleon Bonaparte summoned him 
to France in 1802, and placed him at the military 
school of Fontainebleau. He was promoted lieu- 
tenant in 1806, assisted in the battle of Eylau, 
was aide-de-camp to Napoleon at the battle of 
Friedland, served under Junot in Portugal in 
1808, was afterward aide-de-camp to Prince Eu- 
gene de Beauharnais, son of Empress Josephine, 
and, accompanying him to Bavaria in 1815, be- 
came a major-general in the Bavarian army. He 
was created a senator of the empire on 31 Dec, 
1852, and made on 27 Jan., 1853, grand-master of 




the Empress Eugenie's household, which post he 
retained till his death. By his marriage with 
Princess Marie de Leyen, he had several sons, "one 
of whom was for some years French consul-gen- 
eral in New Orleans, Porto Rico, and Havana. 

TASCHEREAU, Elzear Alexandre (tash- 
er-o), Canadian cardinal, b. in Sainte Marie de la 
Beauce, province of Quebec, 17 Feb., 1820. His 
great-grandfather, Thomas Jacques Taschereau, 
emigrated from Touraine, France, and in 1746 
was granted the seigniory of Sainte Marie de la 

Beauce. When he 
was eight years of 
age Elzear was en- 
tered as a pupil at 
the Seminary of 
Quebec, and when 
he was seventeen 
he went to Rome, 
where a year later 
he received the 
tonsure. The same 
year he returned 
to Quebec, resum- 
ing his theological 
studies, and on 13 
Sept., 1842, was 
ordained a priest. 
Soon afterward he 
was appointed to 
the chair of moral 
philosophy in the 
Seminary of Quebec, which he filled for twelve years, 
and during this period displayed liberal tendencies, 
opposing the ultramontane element in the church 
to which he belonged. In 1847, during the prev- 
alence of a fatal fever among the emigrants at 
Grosse island, he volunteered to assist the chaplain 
at that place in ministering to the sick and dying, 
and labored untiringly among them until he was 
stricken by the pestilence. In 1854 he was sent to 
Rome by the second provincial council of Quebec 
to present its decrees for ratification to Pius IX., 
and he remained two years in the city, studying 
canon law. In July, 1856, the degree of doctor 
of canon law was conferred on him by the Roman 
seminary. Soon afterward he returned to Quebec, 
and became director of the Petit seminaire, which 
post he held till 1859, when he was appointed 
director of the Grande seminaire, and a member 
of the council of public instruction for Lower 
Canada. In 1860 he became superior of the semi- 
nary and rector of Laval university, and in 1862 
he accompanied Archbishop Baillargeon on a visit 
to Rome, and, returning toward the end of the same 
year, was appointed vicar-general of the diocese 
of Quebec. In 1865 he again went to Rome on 
business connected witli the university, in 1866 (his 
term of office as superior having expired) ho was 
again made director of the Grande seminaire, and 
three years later he was re-elected superior. He 
attended the ecumenical council at Rome in 1870, 
and on the death of the archbishop of Quebec in 
October of the same year he became an adminis- 
trator of the archdiocese conjointly with Vicar- 
General Cazeau. In February, 1871, he was ap- 
pointed archbishop of Quebec, and he was conse- 
crated on 19 March by Archbishop Lynch, of 
Toronto. Subsequently he visited Rome several 
times on business of importance, and in 1886 he 
became the first Canadian cardinal, the beretta 
being conferred upon him with great ceremony on 
21 July at Quebec. Immediately after his eleva- 
tion Cardinal Taschereau issued a circular letter 
forbidding the use of spirituous and fermented 

liquors at bazaars, and also prohibiting the holding 
of such sales on Sundav. 

TASCHEREAU, Jean Thomas, Canadian ju- 
rist, b. in Quebec, 12 Dec, 1814. He studied law, 
was admitted as an advocate in 1836, appointed 
professor of commercial law in Laval university in 
1855, and was assistant judge of the superior court 
of Quebec m 1850, 1855, and 1858. He became 
queen's counsel in 1860, puisne judge of the supe- 
rior court of Quebec in 1865, and judge of the court 
of queen's bench in 1873, and he was puisne judge of 
the supreme court of Canada in 1875-'8. — His son, 
Henri Thomas, Canadian jurist, b. in Quebec, 6 
Oct., 1841, was graduated in law in 1861, admitted 
as an advocate in 1863, entered parliament in 1872, 
and was appointed puisne judge of the supreme 
court of Lower Canada in 1878. He edited " Les 
debats" in 1862 and "La tribune" in 1863.— 
Jean Thomas's cousin, Henri Elzear, Canadian 
jurist, b. in St. Mary's, Beauce, Canada East, 7 
Oct., 1836. He was educated at the Seminary of 
Quebec, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 
1867, and practised in the city of Quebec. He 
represented Beauce in the Canadian assembly from 
1861 till 1867, when he was defeated as a candi- 
date for the Dominion parliament. He was ap- 
pointed clerk of the peace for the district of Que- 
bec in 1868, but soon resigned and became puisne 
judge of the superior court of the province of Que- 
bec, 12 Jan., 1871, and of the supreme court of the 
Dominion in October, 1878, in succession to Jean 
Thomas Taschereau. He is a cousin of Cardinal 
Taschereau. He has published " The Criminal Law 
for the Dominion of Canada, with Notes, Commen- 
taries, Precedents of Indictments, etc." (2 vols., 
Montreal and Toronto, 1874-'8 ; 2d ed., enlarged, 
Toronto, 1888) ; and " Code de procedure civile du 
Bas Canada," with annotations (Quebec, 1876). 

TASISTRO, Louis Fitzgerald, author, b. in 
Ireland about 1808 ; d. about 1868. He received a 
liberal education, travelled in various countries, and 
while yet a young man came to the United States. 
He edited a paper in New York city, and afterward 
one in Boston, wrote for periodicals, and essayed 
the dramatic profession, making his appearance as 
Zanga, in " The Slave," at the Park theatre, New 
York city, and afterward as Hamlet, at the Chest- 
nut street theatre, Philadelphia, 31 Aug., 1831. 
Subsequently he settled in Washington, D. C, 
where he was for several years translator for the 
department of state. Afterward he engaged in 
lecturing and literary work. He was the author of 
" Travels in the Southern States : Random Shots 
and Southern Breezes " (New York, 1842). 

TASSE, Joseph, Canadian author, b. in Mon- 
treal, 23 Oct., 1848. He was educated at Bourget's 
college, and afterward connected himself with the 
press. In 1867 he became editor of " Le Canada " 
at Ottawa, and from 1869 till 1872 he was associate 
editor of "La Minerve " in Montreal, and at the 
same time a director of "Le revue Canadienne," 
to which he contributed essays on history, literature, 
and political economy. He was afterward employed 
as assistant French translator of the house of com- 
mons, and in 1873 visited Europe, publishing a de- 
tailed account of his travels. He was elected presi- 
dent of the French Canadian institute of Ottawa 
in 1872 and 1873, was a delegate to the French 
national convention at Montreal in 1874, and took 
an active part in its deliberations regarding the 
return of expatriated Canadians from the United 
States. He declined to become a candidate for the 
Canadian parliament in 1874, was elected to that 
body for Ottawa in 1878, and was re-elected in 1882. 
He was chosen president of the Quebec press asso- 




ciation in 1883, and has been a frequent lecturer 
before national and literary societies in Canada and 
the United States. Among other works he has 
published the pamphlets " Philemon Wright, ou 
colonisation et commerce de bois " (Montreal. 1871); 
" Le chemin de fer Canadien Paciflque " (1872) ; 
and " Le vallee de l'Outawais " (1872) ; and, in 
book-form, " Les Canadiens de . l'ouest " (2 vols., 
1878). The purport of the last work is to demon- 
strate that French Canadians have been chiefly 
the pioneers and discoverers of the United States 
and also the Canadian northwest. It has been 
partly translated in the collections of the Histori- 
cal societv of Wisconsin. 

Peter, clergyman, b. in Holland about 1650; d. 
in Schenectady, N. Y., 8 Feb., 1690. He was edu- 
cated at the University of Utrecht, came to King- 
ston, N. Y., in 1675, where he preached in both Eng- 
lish and Dutch, and then spent two years in Dutch 
Guiana. Gov. Edmund Andros, on 30 Sept., 1679, 
authorized the Dutch clergymen to examine and 
ordain him for the church at New Amstel, Del. 
The assembling of this body constituted the first 
American classis or ecclesiastical gathering of the 
Reformed church that was held on this continent, 
as well as the first ordination of a domine. He 
preached on Staten island in 1679-'82, and then lived 
at Schenectady, N. Y., until 1690, when he was slain 
in the massacre. Orders had been given to spare his 
life and obtain his papers, but these the Indians dis- 
regarded. His farm of eighty acres on Staten island 
was claimed, 2 Nov., 1692, for the poor fund. 

TASS1N, Charles Stanislas (tas-sang), South 
American artist, b. in Berbice, Guiana, in 1751 ; 
d. in Paris in October, 1812. He studied with 
Watteau, and became one of his best pupils. In 
1773 he exhibited a " Christ in the Cradle," which 
attracted much attention, and procured for the 
artist a prize of $600 from Louis XV. Later he 
produced " Venus and Cupid " (1777) ; several pas- 
toral pictures ; " A Runaway Match " (1784) ; " Over 
the Wall" (1786); "Peasants Dancing" (1788); 
" Marchioness as Shepherdess " (1790), and other 
pictures; and obtained the title of royal painter. 
He also decorated several panels in the castles of 
Trianon, Sceaux, and Luciennes, painted portraits 
of Madame du Barry, Duke de la Vauguyon, Ad- 
miral d'Estaing, Bailly de Suffren, and Duchess 
Jules and Countess Diane de Polignac. In 1791 
he went to England and executed portraits of Will- 
iam Pitt, Charles James Fox, and Edmund Burke, 
and, having inherited a large estate in Guiana, re- 
turned to his native land in 1795, remaining there 
till the peace of Amiens, when he returned to Paris 
in 1802. His later works include "Sunset in 
Guiana " (1799) ; " Fish- Vender at Berbice " (1802) ; 
" A Creole " (1803) ; and " Love Victorious " (1805). 

TASTER A, Jacques (le (tah-stay-rah), French 
missionary, b. in Bayonne in 1480; d. in Mexico, 8 
Aug., 1544. He served a few years in the army, but, 
despite fair prospects of advancement, became a 
Franciscan friar at Seville in 1508, and soon attained 
to the highest ranks in the order. After preaching 
with success at Seville he was appointed court chap- 
lain of Ferdinand of Aragon, and later he became a 
favorite with Charles V., who offered him a bishop- 
ric ; but he declined, and in 1529 went to New Spain. 
From Mexico he went to Champoton in Yucatan, 
where he founded a convent, and for years he 
travelled alone in the country, accompanied only 
by one interpreter, evangelizing the Indians and 
preaching the gospel with success. In 1533 he was 
appointed prior of the Convent of Santo Evangelio 
at Mexico, and, continuing to interest himself in 

the welfare of the Indians, summoned and presided 
over councils of Franciscan missionaries at Michoa- 
can and Guatemala in 1535 and 1537, where means 
for the protection of the conquered nation were 
devised, an embassy being sent to the holy see to 
obtain its ratification of the measures. In 1541 he 
went to Milan and took part in the general coun- 
cil of the Franciscan order in that city, and before 
returning to Mexico obtained from the pontiff an 
encyclical letter to the Spanish officials, advising 
them to show leniency toward the Indians. In 
1542 he was appointed commissary-general of the 
Franciscan friars in the New World, which post he 
held until his death. He is the author of " Arte 
de la lengua Mexicana " (Seville, 1555), and " Lit- 
ters? annuae Mexicans " (1571). The recent pub- 
lication, " Cartas de Indias," prepared by the Span- 
ish government from manuscripts in the state 
archives, contains several letters of Tastera. 

TATHAM, William, engineer, b. in Hutton, 
England, in 1752 ; d. in Richmond, Va., 22 Feb.. 
1819. He emigrated to this country in 1769, entered 
a mercantile establishment on James river, Va., 
and served as adjutant of militia against the In- 
dians. He studied the character and customs of 
the red men, and wrote biographical accounts of 
Atakullakulla, Oconistoto, Cornstalk, and other 
warriors. During the Revolutionary war he served 
as a colonel in the Virginia cavalry under Gen. 
Thomas Nelson, and was a volunteer in the party 
that stormed the redoubt at Yorktown. In 1780. 
with Col. John Todd, he compiled the first exact 
and comprehensive account of the western country. 
After the Revolution he studied law, was admitted 
to the bar in 1784. removed to North Carolina, and 
in 1786 founded the settlement of Lumberton. He 
was a member of the North Carolina legislature in 
1787. Tatham went back to England in 1796, and 
in 1801 became superintendent of the London 
docks, but returned to the United States in 1805, 
and became poor in his old age. He was given the 
office of military store-keeper in the Richmond 
arsenal in 1817, and while there committed suicide 
by throwing himself before a cannon at the moment 
of discharge. His publications include " Memorial 
on the Civil and Military Government of the Ten- 
nessee Colony"; "An Analysis of the State of 
Virginia" (Philadelphia, 1790-'l); "Two Tracts 
relating to the Canal between Norfolk and North 
Carolina " ; " Plan for Insulating the Metropolis 
by Means of a Navigable Canal" (London, 1797): 
"Remarks on Inland Canals" (1798); "Polit- 
ical Economy of Inland Navigation, Irrigation, 
and Drainage" (1799); "Communications on the 
Agriculture and Commerce of the United States " 
(1800) ; " Historical and Practical Essay on the 
Culture and Commerce of Tobacco " (1800) ; "Na- 
tional Irrigation" (1801); "Oxen for Tillage" 
(1801) ; and two reports " On the Navigation of the 
Thames " (1803). 

TATNALL, Henry Lea, artist, b. in Brandy- 
wine Village, Del.. 31 Dec, 1829 ; d. in Wilmington, 
Del, 26 Sept., 1885. After being educated at the 
Friends' Westtown boarding-school, Chester co., 
Pa., he entered the flour-mills of Tatnall and Lea 
as a clerk, but afterward turned his attention to 
agriculture. In 1856 he removed to Wilmington 
and began the lumber business, and at the same 
time cultivated his musical and artistic talent, 
which showed itself in early life. He could play 
on almost every instrument, and composed and 
set to music many popular songs. His friends 
induced him to fit up a studio over his count- 
ing-house, where the intervals of business were 
devoted to the study and practice of marine and 




landscape painting. His success was rapid and 
extraordinary, and in a few years his orders were 
so numerous that he turned the lumber business 
over to his sons, opened a larger studio, and de- 
voted the remainder of his life to his adopted pro- 
fession. He was called the father of Wilmington 
art, and on the formation of the Delaware artists' 
association he was elected its president. 

TATTNALL, Josiah, statesman, b. in Bonaven- 
ture, near Savannah, Ga., in 1762 ; d. in Nassau, 
New Providence, 6 June, 1803. Upon the revolt of 
the American colonies he and his brother were 
obliged to go to England with their father and 
grandfather, who remained loyal to the British 
crown but refused service in the army to coerce the 
colonies. The family estates in Georgia were con- 
fiscated by the Americans because of their absence 
in England. In 1780 Josiah ran away from his 
parents in England and returned to this country, 
where he joined Gen. Nathanael Greene's army and 
served against the British until the close of the 
war. In recognition of this service the state of 
Georgia restored a part of the confiscated estates 
to him. He was the third captain of the Chatham 
artillery, colonel of the 1st Georgia regiment, and 
brigadier-general commanding the 1st division of 
the Georgia state militia. He was a member of 
the Georgia legislature, a U. S. senator in 1796-'9, 
and governor of Georgia in 1800. He served in 
the general assembly at Louisville in 1796, when 
the Yazoo act of 1795 was rescinded. His remains 
were brought from Nassau and are buried at Bona- 
venture, which estate has been converted into a 
cemetery. — His son, Josiah, naval officer, b. in 
Bonaventure, near Savannah, Ga., 9 Nov., 1795 ; d. 
in Savannah, Ga., 14 June, 1871, was educated in 

England under 
the supervision 
of his grandfa- 
ther in 1805- 
'11. He returned 
to the United 
States in 1811 
and entered the 
navy as a mid- 
shipman, 1 Jan., 
1812. He served 
in the war of 
1812 in the sea- 
men's battery on 
Craney island, 
and with a force 
of navy - yard 
workmen in the 

ing the Algerine 
war he participated in the engagements of De- 
catur's squadron. He returned to the United 
States in September, 1817, was promoted to lieu- 
tenant, 1 April, 1818, and served in the frigate 
" Macedonian,"' on the Pacific station, in 1818-'21. 
In 1823-'4 he served in the schooner "Jackal," one 
of Porter's " Mosquito fleet," in the suppression of 
piracy in the West Indies. In October, 1828, he 
was appointed 1st lieutenant of the sloop " Erie," 
in the West Indies, where he cut out the Spanish 
cruiser " Federal," which had confiscated American 
property at sea during the wars of the Spanish- 
American republics for independence. In August, 
1829, he took charge of the surveys of the Tortugas 
reefs off the coast of Florida, which surveys proved 
to be of great value for the location of fortifications 
at Dry Tortugas. In March, 1831, he took com- 
mand of the schooner "Grampus" in the West 

Indies, and in August, 1832, he captured the Mexi- 
can war-schooner " Montezuma " for illegal acts 
against an American vessel. His services with the 
" Grampus " in protecting American commerce 
elicited letters of thanks from the merchants and 
insurance companies at Vera Cruz and New Orleans, 
from whom he also received a service of silver. In 
December, 1832, he was relieved of his command 
at his own request, and he subsequently served on 
duty in making experiments in ordnance and in 
the conduct of the coast tidal survey. In Novem- 
ber, 1835, in command of the bark " Pioneer," he 
took Gen. Santa- Anna to Mexico after he had been 
captured in a battle with the Texans and surren- 
dered to the United States. Upon their arrival at 
Vera Cruz, Tattnall personally prevented an attack 
on Santa- Anna by an excited mob of his opponents. 
He was promoted to commander, 25 Feb., 1838, and 
placed in charge of the Boston navy-yard. While 
on his way to the African station in the " Saratoga " 
in 1843 he encountered a hurricane off Cape Ann, 
Mass., and won a brilliant professional reputation 
by the skill he displayed in cutting away the masts 
and anchoring when almost on the rocks off the 
cape. When war was declared with Mexico he 
was assigned to command the steamer " Spitfire," 
joined the squadron at Vera Cruz, and was given 
command of the Mosquito division. With this he 
covered the landing of Gen. Winfield Scott's army, 
and assisted in the bombardment of the citv. After 
the fall of Vera Cruz he led in the attack on the 
forts at Tuspan and was severely wounded in the 
arm by grape-shot. The legislature of Georgia 
gave him a vote of thanks and a sword. He was 
promoted to captain, 5 Feb., 1850, and in command 
of the steamer "Saranac" contributed much to 
preserve peace between the United States and Spain 
during the Cuban insurrection. On 15 Oct., 1857, 
he was appointed flag-officer of the Asiatic station. 
He found China at war with the allied English and 
French fleets, and went to the scene of operations 
at Pei-ho. Shortly before an engagement his flag- 
ship grounded and was towed off by the English 
boats. This service was taken as an excuse for 
subsequent active participation in the attack on 
the Chinese. In explanation of his violation of 
neutrality, Tattnall exclaimed that "blood was 
thicker than water." He was sustained in his course 
by public opinion at the time and also by the gov- 
ernment. On 20 Feb., 1861, he resigned his com- 
mission as captain in the navy, and offered his 
services to the governor of Georgia. He was com- 
missioned senior flag-officer of the Georgia navy, 28 
Feb., 1861, and in March, 1861, he became a captain 
in the Confederate navy, and was ordered to com- 
mand the naval defences of Georgia and South 
Carolina. On 7 Nov., 1861, he led an improvised 
naval force against the attack on Port Royal. He 
conducted attacks on the blockading fleet at the 
mouth of the Savannah, constructed batteries for 
the defence of that river, and materially delayed 
the operations of the National forces. In March, 
1862, he was ordered to relieve Franklin Buchanan, 
who was wounded in the engagement with the 
" Monitor," and took command of the " Merrimac " 
and the naval defences of the waters of Virginia. 
He set out for Hampton Roads on 11 April, 1862, 
accompanied by the gun-boats, which cut out three 
merchant vessels, but the "Merrimac" did not 
venture to lose communication with Norfolk. 
When the Confederates were forced to abandon the 
peninsula, Norfolk and the navy-yard were also 
surrendered, and on 11 May, 1862, Tattnall de- 
stroyed the " Merrimac " off Craney island in order 
to prevent her capture. He was then ordered to 




resume command of the naval defences of Georgia. 
At his request a court of inquiry was ordered to 
investigate the destruction of the •' Merrimac," and 
he was censured for destroying the vessel without 
attacking the enemy's fleet, and for not taking her 
to Hog island to defend the James river. He then 
demanded a regular court-martial, which met at 
Richmond, 5 July, 18(52, and, after a thorough in- 
vestigation, honorably acquitted him. He was 
indefatigable in his efforts to defend Savannah 
river, but in January, 1865, he was obliged to de- 
stroy all the vessels he had collected. He then went 
to Augusta, where he was included in the parole of 
the surrender of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston's army. 
He remained there until 12 June, 1866, when he 
took his family to Nova Scotia, after first obtaining 
permission from the war department to leave the 
country. He resided near Halifax, but his pecun- 
iary resources became nearly exhausted, and in 
1870 he returned to his home in quest of employ- 
ment. On 5 Jan., 1870, the mayor and city council 
appointed him inspector of the port of Savannah. 
He held this office, which had been created for 
him, for seventeen months, when it was abolished 
by his death. See " The Life of Commodore Tatt- 
nall," by Charles C. Jones, assisted by J. R. F. 
Tattnall, the commodore's son (Savannah, 1878). 

TAUSTE, Francisco (tah-oo'-stay), Spanish 
missionary,!), in Tauste, Aragon, about 1630; d. 
in Venezuela toward the end of the 17th century. 
He entered the Capuchin order in Spain, and was 
sent as a missionary to the coast of Cumana, where 
he soon became proficient in the Indian languages 
of that province, and evangelized numerous tribes. 
He wrote " Arte y Diccionario de la Lengua de 
Cumana" (Madrid, 1680), and, according to Juan 
de San Antonio, in his " Biblioteca Franciscana," 
left in manuscript " Doctrina Cristiana para in- 
struccion de los Indios Chaimas, Cumanagotas, 
Cores y Parias, en sus respectivos Idiomas." 

TAVARES-BASTOS, Aureliano Candido 
(tah-vah'-ravs), Brazilian lawyer, b. in Pernambuco 
in 1840 ; d.* in Nice, France, 3 Dec, 1875. After 
finishing his studies he was admitted to the bar of 
his native city, and soon attained prominence as 
an able and eloquent orator. He was counsel for 
several political prisoners, advocated religious free- 
dom with great vehemence, and participated in the 
movement that led to the abolition of slavery 
throughout the empire. He was a member of the 
Brazilian parliament in 1872, but his health failing 
he went to Nice, where he died. His works in- 
clude " Cartas de um solitario " (Rio Janeiro, 1865) ; 
" O valle do rio Amazonas " (1869) ; " Estudos sobre 
algumas reformacOes legislativas " (1870) ; and sev- 
eral political pamphlets. 

TAYERNIER, Jacques (tah-vair-ne-ay), called 
Le Lyonnais, French buccaneer, b. in Lyons, 
France, about 1625 ; d. in Havana, Cuba, in 1673. 
He early followed the sea, served on privateers in 
the Gulf of Mexico, and later joined the buccaneers 
in Tortugas. He took part in most of the expe- 
ditions under the leadership of Laurent van Graaf, 
Grand mount, Jacques Nau, Pierre le Pieard, Henry 
Morgan, and other famous chiefs, but never com- 
manded a strong following, as he was unable to 
read and write. After 1664, however, he was the 
owner of the ship " La Perle," carrying twelve can- 
nons, and he made some daring inroads on the coasts 
of Venezuela, Panama, Cuba, and even Mexico. He 
assisted at the capture of Maracaibo in 1666, and 
of Porto Cabello in 1667, was with Morgan at 
Panama in 1671, and later ravaged with Bradley 
the Bay of Honduras. On returning from the last 
expedition he fell in with two Spanish men-of-war ; 

a desperate battle ensued, and one of the Spanish 
ships took fire and was obliged to head for the 
coast. Tavernier and his buccaneers boarded the 
other vessel and had nearly captured it, when a 
sudden storm parted the cables that lashed the two 
vessels together. The buccaneers retreated in great 
haste to their ship, but a few, including the chief, 
were unable to regain it, as the two vessels parted. 
The fight continued, nevertheless, for some time on 
board the Spanish vessel, but Tavernier being 
severely wounded, the buccaneers, deprived of their 
chief, lost courage and were finally overcome. 
Tavernier was brought nearly dying to Havana, 
where he was immediately executed before the 
palace of the audiencia. 

TAYLOR, Alexander Smith, ethnologist, b. in 
Charleston, S. C, 16 April, 1817 ; d. near Santa Bar- 
bara. Cal., 27 July, 1876. He received a limited 
education, left Charleston in 1837, travelled for 
several years in the West Indies and in India and 
China, went to California from Hong Kong in 1848, 
and lived at Monterey till 1860, where he was clerk 
of the U. S. district court in 1853, and afterward 
on a ranch near Santa Barbara. He has written for 
magazines and newspapers articles on the Indian 
races, the history of California, and natural history. 
He published a translation of the diary of Juan 
Rodriguez Cabrillo, under the title of " The First 
Voyage to the Coast of California " (San Francisco, 
1853) ; a " History of Grasshoppers and Locusts of 
America" in the "Report" of the Smithsonian 
institution for 1858 ; " The Indianology of Cali- 
fornia" in the "California Farmer" (1860-'4); 
and " Bibliographia Californica " in the Sacramento 
" Union " (1863-6). 

TAYLOR, Alfred, naval officer, b. in Fairfax 
county, Va., 23 May, 1810. He entered the navy 
as a midshipman, 1 Nov., 1826, became a passed 
midshipman, 4 June, 1831, and was commissioned a 
lieutenant, 9 Feb., 1837. During the Mexican war 
he was attached to the frigate " Cumberland " in 
the blockade of Vera Cruz and in some of the 
operations on the coast. He served at the Wash- 
ington navy-yard in 1848-'51, and in the steamer 
" Mississippi " with Perry's expedition to Japan in 
1853-'5, was commissioned commander, 14 Sept., 
1855, and commanded the sloop " Saratoga " on the 
coa§t of Africa when the civil war opened in 1861. 
He was commissioned captain, 16 July, 1862, and 
was attached to the navy-yard at Boston in 1862-'5. 
He commanded the flag-ship "Susquehanna" on 
the Brazil station in 1866, and was promoted to 
commodore, 27 Sept., 1866. He was then on wait- 
ing orders until February, 1869, when he was ap- 
pointed light-house inspector. He was promoted 
to rear-admiral, 29 Jan., 1872, and was retired by 
operation of law, 23 May, 1872. He has been a resi- 
dent of New York city since his retirement. 

TAYLOR, Alfred, clergyman, b. in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., in 1831. He was pastor of Presbyterian 
churches at Bristol and Williamsport, Pa. He has 
exerted himself for the improvement of Sunday- 
school teaching, and in 1870-'l conducted a weekly 
called the " Sunday-School Workman." His pub- 
lications include "Union Praver-Meeting Hymn- 
Book " (Philadelphia, 1858) ; " Sunday-School Pho- 
tographs" (Boston and Edinburgh, 1864); "Extra 
Hvmn-Book" (Philadelphia, 1864); and "Hints 
about Sunday-School Work " (1869). 

TAYLOR, Archibald Alexander Edward, 
educator, b. in Springfield, Ohio, 27 Aug., 1834. 
He was graduated at Princeton in 1854, and at the 
theological seminary there in 1857. He was pastor 
of a Presbyterian church at Portland, Ky., in 
1857-'9, then at Dubuque, Iowa, till 1865, for the 




next four years at Georgetown, D. C, and at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, from 1869 till 1873. In 1870-'2 he 
was co-editor of " Our Monthly," published in Cin- 
cinnati. From 1873 till 1883 he was president of 
Wooster university, Ohio. He continued to be con- 
nected with the institution as professor of logic 
and political economy and dean of the post-gradu- 
ate department for Ave years longer, editing in 
1886-'8 " The Post-Graduate," a quarterly journal 
of philosophy. He then became editor of "The 
Mid-Continent," the organ of the Presbyterian 
church in the southwest, published in St. Louis, 
Mo. He received the degree of D. D. from Wooster 
in 1872, and that of LL. D. when he retired from 
the presidency in 1883. 

TAYLOR, Bayard, author, b. in Kennett 
Square, Chester co., Pa., 11 Jan.. 1825; d. in Ber- 
lin, Germany, 19 Dec, 1878. He was the son of 
Joseph and Rebecca (Way) Taylor, and was of 
Quaker and South German descent. His first 
American ancestor, Robert Taylor, was a rich 

Quaker, who came 
over with Penn in 
1681, and whose 
eldest son inherit- 
ed land that now 
includes " Cedar- 
croft," the poet's 
recent estate. His 
grandfather mar- 
ried a Lutheran 
of pure German 
blood, and was ex- 
communicated by 
the Quakers. The 
poet's mother, al- 
though a Luther- 
an, was attached 
to the Quaker doc- 
trines, and the 
Quaker speech and 
manners prevailed 
in her household. Bayard was named after James 
A. Bayard, of Delaware, and his first book bore on 
its title-page, through a mistake of Griswold, its 
editor, the name of " James Bayard Taylor." After 
reaching his majority he always signed his name 
Bayard Taylor. His boyhood was passed near Ken- 
nett on a farm. He learned to read at four, began 
to write early, and from his twelfth year wrote 
"poems, novels, historical essays, but chiefly po- 
ems." At the age of fourteen he studied Latin and 
French, and Spanish not long afterward. In 1837 
the family removed to West Chester. There, and at 
Unionville, the youth had five years of high-school 
training. His first printed poem was contributed in 
1841 to the " Saturday Evening Post," Philadelphia. 
In 1842 he was apprenticed to a printer of West 
Chester. His contributions to the " Post " led to 
a friendship with Rufus W. Griswold, who was 
then connected with that paper and was also edi- 
tor of " Graham's Magazine." Griswold advised 
him concerning the publication of "Ximena, and 
other Poems " (Philadelphia, 1844), which was dedi- 
cated to his adviser and sold by subscription. By 
this time he found a trade distasteful, and, to 
gratify his desire for travel and study in Europe, 
he bought his time of his employer. The " Post " 
and the " United States Gazette " each agreed to 
pay him fifty dollars in advance for twelve foreign 
letters. Graham bought some of his poems, and 
with one hundred and forty dollars thus collected 
he sailed for Liverpool, 1 July, 1844. Horace Gree- 
ley gave him a conditional order for letters to the 
" Tribune," of which he afterward wrote eighteen 

/J&yasuL Jcc^La^ 

from Germany. His experiences abroad are well 
condensed in his own language : " After landing 
in Liverpool, I spent three weeks in a walk through 
Scotland and the north of England, and then trav- 
elled through Belgium and up the Rhine to Heidel- 
berg, where I arrived in September, 1844. The 
winter of 1844-'5 1 spent in Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
and by May I was so good a German that I was 
often not suspected of being a foreigner. I started 
off again on foot, a knapsack on my back, and vis- 
ited the Brocken, Leipsic, Dresden, Prague, Vien- 
na, Salzburg, and Munich, returning to Frankfort 
in July. A further walk over the Alps and through 
northern Italy took me to Florence, where I spent 
four months learning Italian. Thence I wandered, 
still on foot, to Rome and Civita Vecchia, where I 
bought a ticket as deck-passenger to Marseilles, and 
then tramped on to Paris through the cold winter 
rains. I arrived there in February, 1846, and re- 
turned to America after a stay of three months in 
Paris and London. I had been abroad for two 
years, and had supported myself entirely during 
the whole time by my literary correspondence. 
The remuneration which I received was in all five 
hundred dollars, and only by continual economy 
and occasional self-denial was I able to carry out 
my plan." His letters were widely read, and shortly 
after his return were collected in " Views Afoot, or 
Europe seen with Knapsack and Staff " (New York, 
1846). Six editions were sold within the year. In 
December, 1846, Taylor bought, with a friend as 
partner, a printing-office in his native county, and 
began to publish the Phoenixville " Pioneer.' 5 But 
after a year he sold his newspaper and obtained a 
place on the New York " Tribune " in the literary 
department and as man-of-all-work. In Decem- 
ber, 1848, he published " Rhymes of Travel, Bal- 
lads, and Poems," which gave him repute as a 
poet. In 1849-'50 he was sent by the " Tribune " 
to California to report on the gold discoveries, 
and his letters were collected in " Eldorado, or 
Adventures in the Path of Empire " (1850). The 
same year he delivered the ♦ B K poem at Har- 
vard. On 24 Oct., 1850, Taylor married, at Ken- 
nett, Mary Agnew, a Quaker girl of exquisite char- 
acter, to whom he had long been betrothed, but 
who was now in an incurable decline, and she died 
within two months. He obtained an interest in 
the " Tribune," and also issued " A Book of Ro- 
mances, Lyrics, and Songs " (1851). In the autumn 
he again visited Europe as a correspondent, went 
to Egypt, and thence to Syria, Palestine, and Asia 
Minor, and reached London in October, 1852. His 
instructions next led him to join Com. Perry's ex- 
pedition to Japan. Travelling through Spain, he 
proceeded to Bombay via Cairo and Suez, jour- 
neyed through India to Delhi and Calcutta, thence, 
to the Himalayas and back, and finally voyaged to 
Hong Kong, China, which he reached in March, 
1853, joining Perry's flag-ship in May, and obtain- 
ing the nominal appointment of master's mate. 
He remained with the expedition until September, 
sharing its visit to Japan, and transmitting graphic 
accounts thereof to the " Tribune," besides furnish- 
ing valuable notes to Perry for the latter's report 
to the U. S. government. After his return home 
he was in demand as a lecturer, and made lecturing 
a vocation throughout much of his after career. In 
1854 he published " A Journey to Central Africa " 
and " The Land of the Saracen." " A Visit to In- 
dia, China, and Japan " appeared in 1855. In 1854 
he also brought out his " Poems of the Orient," 
perhaps his freshest, most glowing and character- 
istic book of verse. The next year or two were oc- 
cupied with lecturing, travelling in this country, 




and authorship. " Poems of Home and Travel," a 
collective edition of his verse, and a revised edition 
of " Views Afoot," came out in 1855. His income 
grew large from copyrights, lecture-fees, and the 
" Tribune " stock. He edited a " Cyclopaedia of 
Modern Travel " (New York, 1856). In July, 1855, 
he revisited Germany, and then made a journey to 
Norway and Lapland. His letters to the "Trib- 
une " composed the volume " Northern Travel " 
(1858). He married in October, 1857, Marie Han- 
sen, of Gotha, and spent the winter of 1857-'8 in 
Greece. In October, 1858, they returned to Ken- 
nett Square, bringing with them a daughter, Lilian 
Bayard, who now resides at Halle with her hus- 
band, Dr. Kiliani. Taylor laid the corner-stone 
of his country-home, " Cedarcrof t," upon a gener- 
ous tract of 
land which he 
had purchased 
near Kennett 
Square. In 
1861 the house 
was completed 
and became 
his residence. 
It is represent- 
ed in the ac- 
lustration. At 
the beginning 
of the civil war 
he spoke and 
wrote for the 
National cause, and in May, 1862, he was appoint- 
ed secretary of legation. Gen. Simon Cameron be- 
ing minister, at St. Petersburg. When left for 
a time in sole charge, he was influential, as the 
files of the state department show, in determining 
Russia to extend her sympathy and active friend- 
ship to the U. S. government. Resigning his 
office in 1863, he visited Gotha, where he obtained 
unusual facilities for his study of the life and 
writings of Goethe. After the loss of a brother, 
Col. Frederic Taylor, at Gettysburg, he went home 
in the autumn of 1863 and resumed his professional 
labors. In 1867 the Taylors revisited Switzerland 
and Italy, and the poet was brought near to death 
by an attack of Roman fever. He made a trip to 
Corsica in 1868. Two years were now devoted to 
his translation of " Faust," which was published 
in the United States, England, and Germany. In 
1870 he delivered a course of lectures, as professor 
of German literature, at Cornell university. He 
went again to Weimar in search of materials for 
biographies of Goethe and Schiller, and in Febru- 
ary, 1874, revisited Italy and Egypt. Midsummer 
found him at the Millennial celebration of Iceland, 
which he described for the " Tribune," and reached 
home in the autumn. In 1876 he once more occu- 
pied a desk in the " Tribune " office. On 4 July, 
1876, he delivered the stately National ode at the 
Centennial celebration in Philadelphia. In 1877 
his health failed, and after a partial recuperation 
he was nominated by President Hayes as minister 
to Berlin. His confirmation was followed by a 
notable series of popular testimonials, culminating 
with a banquet in New York, at which the poet 
Bryant presided, 4 April, 1878. He entered upon 
his official duties in May. His books of travel, sub- 
sequent to those heretofore named, were " Trav- 
els in Greece and Rome " (New York, 1859) ; " At 
Home and Abroad " (2 vols., 1859-'62) ; " Colorado : 
a Summer Trip " (1867) ; " Bvways of Europe " 
(1869); "Travels in Arabia" (1872); and "Egypt 
and Iceland" (1874). Among his miscellaneous 

works are a " Masque," for the golden wedding of 
his parents (printed privately, 1868) ; a " School 
Historv of Germany to 1871 " (1874) ; " The Boys 
of other Countries " (1876) ; and " The Echo Club " 
(1876). The last-named is a book of talk upon 
modern poets, with burlesque imitations of their 
verse, for which sparkling by-play Taylor had a 
native readiness. He also edited, with George Rip- 
ley, a " Handbook of Literature and Fine Arts " 
(1852), and, alone, the " Illustrated Library of Trav- 
el" (8 vols., 1871-4), besides various translations. 
He began with much zest, in 1863, his career as a 
novelist, laying his plots and scenes in his own coun- 
try. " Hannah Thurston " (1863), whose heroine is 
a Pennsylvania Quakeress, was followed bv " John 
Godfrey's Fortunes " (1864) ; "The Storv'of Ken- 
nett " (1866) ; " Joseph and his Friend " (1870) ; and 
" Beauty and the Beast, and Tales of Home " (1872). 
" The Story of Kennett " is the most complete as a 
work of art. But it was as a poet that Taylor 
exerted all his powers and hoped to be remem- 
bered, and some of his verse reflects his highest 
creative mood. His later books of poetrv comprise 
"The Poet's Journal" (Boston, 1862) ;'" Poems " 
(1865) ; " The Picture of St. John," a romantic art- 
poem (1869) ; " Ballad of Abraham Lincoln " (1869);. 
" The Masque of the Gods " (1872) ; " Lars : a Pas- 
toral of Norway " (1873) ; " The Prophet : a Trage- 
dy " (1874) ; " Home-Pastorals " (1875) ; "The Na- 
tional Ode " (1876) ; and " Prince Deukalion : a 
Lyrical Drama" (1878). His poetry is striking for 
qualities that appeal to the ear and eye, finished, 
sonorous in diction and rhythm, at times' too rhetori- 
cal, but rich in sound, color, and metrical effects. 
His early models were Byron and Shelley, and 
his more ambitious lyrics and dramas exhibit the 
latter's peculiar, often vague, spirituality. " Lars," 
somewhat after the manner of Tennyson^ is his long- 
est and most attractive narrative poem. " Prince 
Deukalion" was designed for a masterpiece; its 
blank verse and choric interludes are noble in spirit 
and mould. Some of Taylor's songs, oriental idyls, 
and the true and tender Pennsylvanian ballads, 
have passed into lasting favor, and show the native 
quality of his- poetic gift. His fame rests securely 
upon his unequalled rendering of " Faust " in the 
original metres, of which the first and second parts 
appeared in 1870 and 1871. His commentary upon 
Part II. for the first time interpreted the motive 
and allegory of that unique structure. During his 
one summer in Germany he was able only to revise 
the proofs of " Prince Deukalion " and to write an 
" Epicedium " on the death of Bryant. Tributes 
were paid to his memory at Berlin, Berthold Auer- 
bach pronouncing an eloquent address. His re- 
mains, on arriving at New York, were honored 
with a solemn reception by the German societies 
and an oration by Algernon S. Sullivan. The body 
lay in state at the city-hall, was then removed to 
Kennett, and there interred, 15 March, 1879. Post- 
humous collections of Taylor's miscellanies, "Stud- 
ies in German Literature " (1879), and " Essays and 
Notes " (1880), were edited by George H. Boker and 
Mrs. Taylor. In person he was of a handsome 
and commanding figure, with an oriental yet frank 
countenance, a rich voice, and engaging smile and 
manner. — His wife, Marie Hansen, b. in Gotha, 
Germany, 2 June. 1829, is the daughter of the late 
Prof. Peter A. Hansen, founder of the Erfurt ob- 
servatory. She zealously promoted her husband's 
literary career, and translated into German his 
"Greece" (Leipsic, 1858); "Hannah Thurston" 
(Hamburg, 1863); " Storv of Kennett" (Gotha, 
1868); "Tales of Home " '(Berlin, 1879); "Studies 
in German Literature " (Leipsic, 1880) ; and notes 




to "Faust," both parts (Leipsic, 1881). After her 
husband's death she edited, with notes, his " Dra- 
matic Works" (1880), and in the same year his 
" Poems " in a " Household Edition," and brought 
together his " Critical Essays and Literary Notes." 
In 1885 she prepared a school edition of " Lars," 
with notes and a sketch of its author's life. After 
six years' labor in collecting and arranging the 
poet s extensive private correspondence, she com- 

Eleted, with Horace E. Scudder, the "Life and 
letters of Bayard Taylor" (2 vols., Boston, 1884). 
TAYLOR, Benjamin Cook, clergvman, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 24 Feb., 1801 ; d. in Bergen, N. J., 
2 Feb., 1881. He was graduated at Princeton in 1819 
and at the New Brunswick theological seminary 
in 1822, held various pastorates between 1825 and 
1828, and from the latter year till the time of his 
death was pastor of the Reformed church at Ber- 
gen, the 200th anniversary of which he commemo- 
rated in a sermon in 1861. Besides this and other 
discourses, he published " Annals of the Classis 
and Township of Bergen " (1856). He received the 
degree of D. D. from Hobart in 1843. — His brother, 
Isaac Ebenezer, physician, b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 
25 April, 1812, was educated at Rutgers, and gradu- 
ated at the medical department of the University 
of Pennsylvania in 1834. He was engaged in mer- 
cantile business in New York city from 1835 till 
1839, then began practice, travelled and studied in 
Europe in 1840-'l, and after his return had charge 
for seven years, as attending physician, of cases of 
diseases of women in the Eastern, City. Northern, 
and Demilt dispensaries, in which he introduced a 
system of clinical instruction in his department. 
In 1851 he was elected physician to Bellevue hos- 
pital. In 1860 he suggested the establishment of 
a medical college in connection with the hospital, 
and in the following year Bellevue hospital medical 
college was incorporated and went into operation, 
with Dr. Taylor as its president and treasurer. In 
1863, at his suggestion, an out-door department 
was organized in connection with the hospital. He 
resigned his professorship of obstetrics in 1867, 
but was elected emeritus professor, and continued 
in the presidency of the faculty. He was presi- 
dent of the medical board of Bellevue hospital 
from 1868 till 1876, when he ceased his labors as 
attending obstetrical physician. From 1860 till 
1874 he was attending physician to Charity hospi- 
tal, and for the first two years was president of its 
medical board. As consulting physician, he is still 
connected with both hospitals. Since 1876 he has 
been obstetrical physician to the Maternity hospi- 
tal. He is vice-president of the American gyne- 
cological society. He was one of the originators 
of the " New York Medical Journal " and president 
of its association in 1869-'70. As early as 1839 
Dr. Taylor suggested the hypodermic method of 
treatment by morphia and strychnia. He was the 
earliest American physician to use the speculum 
in diseases of women, publishing a paper on the 
subject in 1841. He was also the first to intro- 
duce the subject of uterine auscultation, and in 
1843 edited Dr. Evory Kennedy's work on that 
diagnostic method. He has published original 
monographs on the symptoms and treatment of 
Addison's disease, the inhalation of chloroform 
as a remedy for regurgitation of the stomach, 
the non-shortening of the cervix uteri during 
gestation, the nature of placenta previa, the seat 
of disease in procidentia uteri, the mechanism of 
spontaneous inversion of the uterus, and on con- 
tracted and faulty pelves, and various other sub- 
jects connected with midwifery. — A son of Ben- 
jamin C, William James Romeyn, clergyman, 

b. in Schodack, Rensselaer co., N. Y., 31 July, 1828, 
was graduated at Rutgers in 1841, and at the 
theological seminary at New Brunswick in 1844, 
and licensed by the classis of Bergen in the latter 
year. He was pastor of the Reformed church at 
New Durham, N. J., in 1844-'6, then in Jersey City 
for three years, in Schenectady, N. Y., for about 
the same length of time, then of another church 
in Jersey City in 1852-'4, and after that of the 3d 
Reformed church of Philadelphia till 1862, when 
he became corresponding secretary of the American 
Bible society. He resumed the active work of the 
ministry in 1869, and from that year has had charge 
of a church in Newark, N. J. He presided over the 
general synod in 1871. From 1872 till 1876 he 
edited the " Christian Intelligencer," and attended 
the Presbyterian councils held in Philadelphia, 
Belfast, and London. The degree of D. D. was con- 
ferred on him by Rutgers in 1860. Dr. Taylor has 
written much for the religious press and published 
hymns, addresses, sermons, and tracts. He is the 
author of " Louisa, a Pastor's Memorial " (Phila- 
delphia, 1860) ; " The Bible in the Last Hundred 
Years " (1876) ; " Church Extension in Large 
Cities " (1880) ; and " On Co-operation in Foreign 
Missions " (1884). 

TAYLOR, Bushrod Bust, naval officer, b. in 
Madison, Ind., 31 March, 1832 ; d. in Washington, 
D. C, 22 April, 1883. He entered the navy as an 
acting midshipman, 3 April, 1849, and was gradu- 
ated at the naval academy. 12 June, 1855. He was 
promoted to master on 16 Sept., lieutenant, 31 July, 
1856, and served in the Paraguay expedition of 
1859. He went to the naval academy as an in- 
structor in October, 1860, and assisted in the re- 
moval of the academy from Annapolis to Newport. 
From May to August, 1861, he served in the flag- 
ship "Colorado," in the Gulf squadron, on the 
blockade. He was in the supply and despatch 
steamer " Connecticut " in 1861-2, and was execu- 
tive of the steamer " Cimmerone " in James river and 
the South Atlantic blockade in 1862-3. He was 
promoted to lieutenant-commander, 16 July, 1862, 
served in the steamer " Ticonderoga," flag-ship of 
the West India squadron, in 1863, and commanded 
the steamer " Kanawha," in the Western Gulf squad- 
ron, until 28 Sept., 1865. He next served at the 
Philadelphia navy-yard in 1865-'6, and at the naval 
academy as an instructor in 1866-'9. He was com- 
missioned commander, 14 March, 1868, and had the 
steamer " Idaho," of the Asiatic squadron, in 1869. 
In this vessel he encountered the centre of a terrible 
typhoon, in which she was completely dismantled 
and became almost a total wreck. This was one of 
the worst storms, that was ever survived by any 
ship. He next commanded the " Ashuelot " on the 
same station, until January, 1872, served at the 
Philadelphia navy-yard in 1872, and in the bureau 
of yards and docks at Washington in 1872-4. He 
commanded the steamer " Wachusett " during the 
threatened war with Spain in 1874, was a member 
of the board of inspection in 1876, and at the Bos- 
ton navy-yard in 1876-'9. He was commissioned 
captain, 27 Oct., 1869, and had special duty at Wash- 
ington in 1880. 

TAYLOR, Christopher, Quaker preacher, b. 
near Skipton, Yorkshire, England, about 1620 ; d. 
in Philadelphia, Pa., in April, 1686. He was a 
Puritan minister until he was converted to Quaker 
doctrines by the teachings of George Fox. He was 
a man of learning, and expounded his belief in dif- 
ferent parts of England while pursuing the voca- 
tion of a teacher of the classics. After suffering 
Eersecution and imprisonment for his convictions 
e left his school at Edmonton, Middlesex, and 




emigrated to Pennsylvania. He settled in Bucks 
county, which he represented in the first assembly 
of the province, and after the arrival of William 
Penn he became a member of the council, and con- 
tinued a councillor till the time of his death. He 
also held the office of registrar-general, removing 
to Philadelphia from Chester county, where he had 
for some time resided and held a commission as 
justice of the peace. He published " Compendium 
trium linguarum" (1679). 

TAYLOR, Edward, clergyman, b. in England 
in 1642 ; d. in Westfield, Mass., 29 June, 1729. 
He began his education in England with the in- 
tention of following the ministry, left that country 
on account of measures that were taken against 
non-conformists, and on his arrival in Massachu- 
setts in 1668 entered Harvard, where he was 
graduated in 1671. He was invited to become 
minister to the people of Westfield, and arrived 
there on 3 Dec, 1671, but, owing to the insecu- 
rity of that frontier settlement and the small 
nuniber of its inhabitants, the church was not or- 
ganized till 27 Aug., 1679. He performed the 
duties of minister there, and for much of the time 
those of physician also, until his death. He left 
several manuscript volumes, including a "Com- 
mentary on the Four Gospels," " Christographia. 
or a Discourse on the Virtues and Character of 
Christ," and poems in English and in Latin. 

TAYLOR, Edward Thompson, missionary, b. 
in Richmond, Va., 25 Dec, 1793 ; d. in Boston, 
Mass., 6 April, 1871. He was left an orphan in 
infancy, taken away by a sea-captain when seven 
years old, and trained as a sailor, in which call- 
ing he passed his early life. In 1819 he became 
a minister of the Methodist Episcopal church. 
About 1830 he became a Bethel missionary in Bos- 
ton. He served as chaplain on the frigate " Mace- 
donian," which took supplies to the famishing 
Irish in 1827, and delivered addresses in Cork and 
Glasgow. "Father Taylor," as he was called, 
mingled nautical terms and figures in his dis- 
courses, and by his wit, pathos, and imagination 
controlled the moods and wrought upon the feel- 
ings of his hearers in a remarkable degree. 

TAYLOR, George, signer of the Declaration of 
Independence, b. in Ireland in 1716 ; d. in Easton, 
Pa., 23 Feb., 1781. He is said to have been the son 
of a clergyman and to have received a liberal edu- 
cation and begun the 
study of medicine, 
which he abandoned 
in order to emigrate 
to this country in 
1736. Leaving his 
home clandestinely 
and without money, 
he took passage as a 
redemptioner, and on 
his arrival at Phila- 
delphia was bound to 
an iron-manufacturer 
at Durham, Pa., for a 
term of years. He 
worked as a clerk, in- 
stead of at common 
labor, and when his 
employer died, several 
years later, he married 
the widow, and be- 
came proprietor of the works, which prospered un- 
der his direction. Removing to Northampton coun- 
ty, where he established a large iron-mill, he was 
soon called to take part in public affairs as a mem- 
ber of the provincial assembly that met at Philadel- 


phia on 15 Oct., 1764. He was appointed on the com- 
mittee on grievances, and engaged effectively in the 
debate on the revision of the charter. He was re- 
elected for each year till 1770, taking an active part 
in the discussions, and after that applied himself to 
his business, which proved unprofitable in the new 
situation, holding only the offices of county judge 
and colonel of militia. Returning to Durham, he 
was again sent to the provincial assembly in 1775, 
and was placed on the committee of safety. He 
was a member also of committees on grants of the 
crown and military preparations and of the one 
that was appointed to draw up instructions for the 
delegates to the Continental congress. These in- 
structions, forbidding them to vote for separation, 
were revoked in June, 1776, and because five of the 
delegates from Pennsylvania hesitated to agree to 
the Declaration of Independence, others were chosen 
in their place on 20 July. George Taylor was one 
of the new delegates. He took his seat in congress 
on the day of his election, and signed his name to 
the declaration with the other members when the 
engrossed copy of the instrument was ready, 2 
Aug. He made a treaty in behalf of congress with 
several Indian tribes of the Susquehanna border at 
Easton, where he had resided in the neighborhood of 
his estates in Northampton county, and in March, 
1777, he retired from congress. 

TAYLOR, George H., physician, b. in Willis- 
ton, Vt., in 1821. He was graduated at the New 
York medical college in 1852, studied the Swedish 
treatment, developed the massage-cure for nervous, 
gynecological, and other classes of diseases, and 
invented mechanical massage, with apparatus for 
expanding the chest, lifting the contents of the pel- 
vis, kneading the abdomen, and transmitting mo- 
tor energy. Dr. Taylor is the author of " Exposi- 
tion of the Swedish Movement-Cure " (New York, 
1860) ; " Paralysis and Diseases of the Nerves, and 
the Remedial Use of Transmitted Motor Energy " 
(1872); "Health for Women " (1880): "Massage" 
(1884) ; " Pelvic and Hernial Therapeutics " (1884) ; 
and " Massage ; Mechanical Processes " (1887). — His 
brother, Charles Fayette, surgeon, b. in Williston, 
Vt., 25 April, 1827, was graduated at the medical 
department of the University of Vermont in 1856, 
and settled in New York city, devoting himself to 
the specialty of orthopedy. He founded the New 
York orthopedic dispensary and hospital in 1866, 
and was surgeon there till 1876. In 1867 he was 
appointed consulting orthopedic surgeon to St. 
Luke's hospital. Dr. Taylor is the inventor of an 
antero-posterior spinal apparatus, and other con- 
trivances for the correction of spinal deviations 
consequent upon Pott's disease and angular and 
lateral curvature of the spine ; a long counter-ex- 
tension hip-splint for disease of the hip-joint; a 
jointed supporting splint for the recovering stage 
of hip-disease and for other purposes; and various 
apparatus for the correction of club-foot and other 
deformities of the feet and legs, and others for 
promoting the development of certain muscles or 
groups of muscles by means of local exercise ; also 
of an osteoclast and a genuclast. He received 
medals for his inventions at the international ex- 
hibitions of 1873 and 1876 at Vienna and Philadel- 
phia, and was elected a corresponding member of 
the Royal society of physicians at Vienna. Besides 
monographs on the Swedish treatment in the New 
York medical journals, he published a volume on 
the " Theory and Practice of the Movement-Cure " 
(Philadelphia, 1861). He is the author of many 
medical papers,' the chief of which are those on 
" Synovitis of the Knee-Joint," " Emotional Prodi- 
gality," and " Bodily Conditions as related to Men- 




tal States," and of volumes on " Spinal Irritation, 
or Causes of Backache in American Women" (New 
York, 18G4); "Mechanical Treatment of Angular 
Curvature of the Spine " (New York, 1864 ; German 
translation, Berlin, 1873) ; " Infantile Paralysis and 
its Attendant Deformities" (Philadelphia, 1867); 
" Mechanical Treatment of Disease of the Hip- 
Joint " (New York, 1873 ; German ed., Berlin, 1873) ; 
and "Sensation and Pain " (New York, 1881). 

TAYLOR, George Lansing, clergyman, b. in 
Skaneateles, N. Y., 13 Feb., 1835. He removed to 
Ohio in 1847, studied for two years at Ohio Wes- 
leyan university, Delaware, Ohio, and for two years 
more at Columbia, where he was graduated in 1861, 
was assistant editor of the "Christian Advocate" 
in New York city in 1861-2, entered the itinerant 
ministry of the Methodist Episcopal church in 
April, 1862, and has since held pastorates in the 
New York east conference. He married, in 1861, 
Eliza M., a daughter of the Rev. Mansfield French. 
During the civil war he served in the Christian 
commission in Virginia and Maryland. He has 
been actively connected with the National temper- 
ance society, and has frequently preached at camp- 
meetings. He received the degree of D. D. from 
Syracuse university in 1876, and that of L. H. D. 
from Columbia in 1887. Besides numerous ser- 
mons, pamphlets, addresses, fugitive poems, and 
magazine articles, Dr. Taylor is the author of 
" Elijah, the Reformer, a Ballad-Epic, and other 
Sacred and Religious Poems " (New York, 1885) ; 
" Ulysses S. Grant, Conqueror, Patriot, Hero ; an 
Elegy, and other Poems ''(1885) ; " What Shall We 
Do with the Sunday-School?" (New York, 1886); 
" The Progress of Learning, a Poem delivered at 
the Celebration of the Centennial of Columbia 
College " (1887) ; and " The New Africa: its Dis- 
coverv and Destiny," with maps (1888). 

TAYLOR, George William, soldier, b. in Hun- 
terdon county, N. J., 22 Nov., 1808 ; d. in Alexan- 
dria, Va., 1 Sept., 1862. He was graduated at the 
military academy of Alden Partridge, Middletown, 
Conn., and received a midshipman's warrant in the 
navy in 1827, but resigned at the end of four years 
and engaged in mercantile pursuits. In the be- 
ginning of the Mexican war he assisted in raising 
a company in New Jersey, being commissioned as 
lieutenant on 8 March, 1847, and as captain in the 
following September, and served through Gen. 
Zachary Taylor's campaigns. After the war he 
went to California, remaining there three years. 
Returning then to New Jersey, he occupied him- 
self in mining and iron-manufacturing. When the 
civil war began he was made colonel of the 3d New 
Jersey infantry, which left for the field on 28 June, 

1861, assisted in guarding Long Bridge, formed 
part of the reserve division at Bull Run, and par- 
ticipated in the occupation of Manassas in March, 

1862, being the first to perceive the enemy retreat- 
ing. When Gen. Philip Kearny was promoted, 
Col. Taylor succeeded to the command of the bri- 
gade, which he led in the advance on Richmond 
and the seven days' battles, receiving his commis- 
sion as brigadier-general of volunteers on 9 May, 
1862. At Gaines's Mills his command was subject- 
ed to the hottest fire. At the second battle of Bull 
Run he fought with distinguished courage, and 
received wounds from which he soon after died. 

TAYLOR, Jacob, mathematician, d. in Phila- 
delphia after 1736. He was a school-master in 
Philadelphia, holding the appointment of surveyor- 
general of the commonwealth, and published alma- 
nacs, for which he composed poetical pieces. He 
also practised medicine. One of his poems is en- 
titled "Pennsylvania" (1728). 

TAYLOR, James, pioneer, b. in Midway, Va., 19 
April, 1769 ; d. in Newport, Ky., 8 Nov., 1848. His 
father was a first cousin of Gen. Zachary Taylor. 
The son emigrated to Kentucky in 1792. During 
the second war with Great Britain he used his 
money and credit to pay the troops, took the field 
as brigadier-general of Kentucky militia, served as 
quartermaster-general of the northwestern army 
under Gen. William Hull, and was active in con- 
certing a plan to displace Hull and confide the 
command of the fortress at Detroit to Gen. Dun- 
can McArthur. When Gen. Hull ordered him to 
act with Col. James Miller and the British officers 
in drawing up articles of capitulation, he refused 
to have any participation in the surrender. He 
became one of the largest land-owners in the west. 

TAYLOR, James Barnett, clergyman, b. in 
Barton-on-Humber, England, 19 March, 1819 ; d. 
in Richmond, Va., 22 Dec, 1871. He was brought 
in his infancy to the United States, and received 
his early education in New York city, whence his 
parents removed about 1818 to Mecklenburg county, 
Va. After passing through an academical course, he 
became a Baptist home missionary, and in 1826 
was chosen pastor of a church in Richmond, Va., 
where he soon acquired a high reputation as a 
preacher. In 1839-'40 he officiated as chaplain of 
the University of Virginia. Returning to Rich- 
mond, he served as a pastor there for five years 
longer. He labored also as a missionary, and in 
1845, soon after the organization of the Southern 
Baptist convention, became its corresponding sec- 
retary. This office he filled till within a few 
weeks of his death, travelling constantly, preach- 
ing throughout the south, and editing the "Re- 
ligious Herald" for a short time, and subsequently 
the "Southern Baptist Missionary Journal" and 
the " Home and Foreign Journal." both of which 
he founded, and the " Foreign Mission Journal." 
He was pastor also of the Baptist church at Tay- 
lorsville, Hanover co., Va., till the civil war began. 
During the war he labored as a colporteur in camps 
and hospitals, and for three years as Confederate 
post-chaplain. After its close he exerted himself 
to revive the missions of the Southern Baptist con- 
vention, and took much interest in the education 
of the freedmen, preaching often to colored con- 
gregations, and conferring with the secretary of 
the Freedmen's bureau with regard to the best 
plans for assisting the emancipated slaves. He was 
one of the originators of the Virginia Baptist edu- 
cation society, and a founder of Richmond college. 
His chief published works were " Life of Lot Cary " 
(Baltimore, 1837) ; " Lives of Virginia Baptist Min- 
isters " (Richmond. 1837) ; and "Memoir of Luther 
Rice, one of the First Missionaries in the East" 
(1841). He had nearly completed before his death 
a " History of Virginia Baptists." See "Life and 
Times of James B. Taylor, by his son, George B. 
Taylor (Philadelphia, 1872). His wife was a 
daughter of Elisha Scott Williams. — Their son, 
George Boardman, clergyman, b. in Richmond t 
Va., 27 Dec, 1832, was graduated at Richmond 
college, taught for a short time, and then studied 
three years at the University of Virginia, at the 
same time serving as pastor of two Baptist churches 
in the vicinity. He was graduated in most of the 
schools in the university, was pastor for two years 
in Baltimore, Md., then for twelve years at Staun- 
ton, Va., leaving his church during the campaign 
of 1862 to act as chaplain to Stonewall Jackson's 
corps. Subsequently, till the close of hostilities, 
he officiated as post-chaplain in conjunction with 
his pastorate. In 1869 he was chosen chaplain of 
the University of Virginia for the usual period of 




two years, after which he returned to his former 
church at Staunton, of which he again took leave 
in 1873, on being appointed by the mission board 
of the Southern Baptist convention missionary to 
Rome, Italy. Pie was co-editor of the " Christian 
Review " for two years, and since 1876 he has been 
one of the editors of " II Seminatore," a monthly 
Baptist magazine published in Rome. The degree 
of D. D. was given him by Richmond college and 
the University of Chicago in 1872. His publica- 
tions include "Oakland Stories" (4 vols., New 
York, 1859-65); "Costar Grew" (Philadelphia, 
1869) ; " Roger Bernard, the Pastor's Son " (1870) ; 
and " Walter Ennis," a tale of the early Virginia 
Baptists (1870). 

TAYLOR, James Brainerd, clergyman, b. in 
Middle Haddam, Conn., 15 April, 1801; d. in 
Hampden Sidney, Va., 29 March, 1829. He be- 
came a merchant's clerk in New York city after 
receiving a common-school education, but at the 
age of eighteen determined to become a minister, 
and entered the preparatory academy at Lawrence- 
ville, N. J. He engaged in missionary work while 
in school and college, and gained many converts. 
After his graduation at Princeton in 1826 he 
studied at Yale divinity-school, taking an active 
part in the revivals in the neighborhood and in the 
south, whither he removed on account of failing 
health. His faith and ardor are commemorated 
in a " Memoir " by John H. and Benjamin H. Rice, 
who were hear him in his last days at the Theo- 
logical seminary of Virginia (New York, 1833). — 
His brother. Fitch Waterman, author, b. in 
Middle Haddam, Conn., 4 Aug., 1803 ; d. in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., 23 July, 1865, went to New York city 
at the age of fifteen with the intention of fol- 
lowing a mercantile career, but afterward decided 
to enter upon the Christian ministry. He was 

fraduated at Yale in 1828, received orders in the 
rotestant Episcopal church, and was minister of 
a parish in Maryland till 1841, when he was ap- 
pointed to a chaplaincy in the navy. At the time 
of his death he was the senior chaplain in the 
service. He published, under the title of " The 
Flag-Ship" (New York, 1840), a narrative of a 
voyage around the world in the frigate " Colum- 
bia," and under that of " The Broad Pennant " 
(1848) an account of a cruise in the M Cumberland " 
and of naval operations in the Mexican war. 

TAYLOR, James Wickes, author, b. in Starkey, 
Yates co., X. Y., 6 Nov., 1819. He was educated 
there and in Ohio, and in 1838 was graduated at 
Hamilton college. He was admitted to the bar of 
New York and Ohio, practised in both those states, 
and resided in the latter from 1842 till 1856, when 
he removed to St. Paul, Minn. He was a member 
of the Ohio constitutional convention of 1849-'50, 
secretary of the commission to revise the judicial 
code of that state in 1851-2, and was librarian of 
Ohio in 1852-6. During the civil war, and for 
several years afterward, Mr. Taylor was special 
agent of the U. S. treasury, being charged with 
making inquiries into the reciprocal relations of 
trade and transportation between the United States 
and Canada. He was appointed U. S. consul at 
Winnipeg, Manitoba, 14 Sept., 1870, which post he 
has held ever since. He has engaged largely in 
journalism, published the Cincinnati " Signal " in 
1847, and is the author of " History of the State of 
Ohio : First Period, 1620-1787 " (Cincinnati, 1854) ; 
" Manual of the Ohio School System " (1857) ; 
" Railroad System of Minnesota and Northwestern 
Connections " (St. Paul, 1859) ; " Reports to Treas- 
urv Department on Commercial Relations with 
Canada " (Washington, 1860, 1862, and 1868) ; " Al- 

leghania, or the Strength of the Union and the 
Weakness of Slavery in the Highlands of the 
South " (St. Paul, 1862); "Forest and Fruit Cul- 
ture in Manitoba" (Winnipeg, 1882); pamphlets 
relating to the Indian question in relation to the 
Sioux war of 1862-'3 (St. Paul); and, with John R. 
Browne, " Mineral Resources of the United States " 
(Washington, 1867). 

TAYLOR, John, senator, b. in Orange county, 
Va., in 1750 ; d. in Caroline county, Va., 20 Aug., 
1824. He was graduated at William and Mary 
college in 1770, became a planter, and did much to 
improve methods of cultivation and extend the 
knowledge of agriculture. When Richard Henry 
Lee resigned from the U. S. senate, Taylor was ap- 
pointed to the vacant seat. He entered the senate 
on 12 Dec, 1792, and was elected for the term that 
began in the following March, but resigned in 1794. 
He was a presidential elector in 1797, and in 1803 
again served in the senate for the two months that 
elapsed between the death of Stevens T. Mason and 
the election of his successor. He was elected a 
senator two years before his death, taking his seat 
on 30 Dec, 1824. He shared the political opinions 
of Thomas Jefferson, and was the mover in the 
Virginia house of delegates of the resolutions of 
1798. He published " An Inquiry into the Princi- 
ples and Policy of the Government of the United 
States " (Fredericksburg, 1814) ; " Arator ; being a 
Series of Agricultural Essays, Practical and Politi- 
cal " (6th ed., Petersburg, 1818) ; " Construction 
Construed and the Constitution Vindicated " 
(Richmond, 1820) ; " Tyranny Unmasked " (Wash- 
ington, 1822) ; and " New Views of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States" (Washington, 1823). 

TAYLOR, John, Baptist preacher, b. in Fau- 
quier county, Va., in 1752 ; d. in Forks of Elkhorn, 
Franklin co., Ky., in 1833. He became an itiner- 
ant missionary of the Baptist church in western 
Virginia at the age of twenty, and in 1783 removed 
to Kentucky. He resided at Clear Creek, where 
for three years, he was pastor of the church, till 
1795, when he settled in Boone county. He 
preached frequently and took part in revivals of 
religion while devoting himself to clearing and 
cultivating land, and in his last years, though he 
declined the pastoral relation, he officiated in a 
church that he had assisted in organizing at Forks 
of Elkhorn. He published an account of his re- 
ligious labors and of the churches that he had 
aided in founding, under the title of " A History of 
Ten Baptist Missions " (Bloomfield, 1826). 

TAYLOR, John, senator, b. near the present 
site of Columbia, S. O, 4 May, 1770; d. in Colum- 
bia, S. C, 16 April, 1832. Pie was graduated at 
Princeton in 1790, studied law, was admitted to the 
bar in 1793, and practised for a few years in Co- 
lumbia, but made planting his chief business. He 
was a representative and senator in the legislature 
of South Carolina for many years, was elected to 
congress in 1806, and re-elected in 1808. On 3 
Dec, 1810, he took his place in the U. S. senate, 
having been chosen to supply the vacancy that was 
caused by the resignation of Thomas Sumter. In 
1816 he resigned his seat and was returned to the 
National house of representatives. He was again 
elected to the state senate in 1822, and in Decem- 
ber, 1826, after being defeated as a candidate for 
re-election by Wade Hampton, was elected gov- 
ernor by thelegislature, serving till 1828. 

TAYLOR, John, president of the Mormon 
church, b. in Winthrop, England, 1 Nov., 1808; 
d. 25 July, 1887. He united with the Methodist 
church in England, and in 1832 emigrated to To- 
ronto, Canada. In 1836 Parley P. Pratt, a Mor- 




raon elder, preached in Toronto, and John Taylor 
was converted and baptized. The next year he 
went to reside in Kirtland, Ohio, and in 1838 he 
was made one of the twelve apostles, and removed 
to Missouri. For twenty years he did mission- 
ary work for the Mormons in Great Britain and 
France, and while there published the " Book of 
Mormon " in French, and also a German transla- 
tion in Hamburg. In 1852 he returned to this 
country, and in April, 1853, assisted in laving tho 
corner-stone of the Temple in Salt Lake City. In 
1854 he went to New York city, where he issued a 
paper called "The Mormon," and was editor of 
numerous other church publications. He was by 
the side of Joseph Smith when the latter was as- 
sassinated in Carthage jail, and received four shots 
in his body ; a fifth lodged in his watch, which 
probably saved his life. He was a delegate to con- 
gress to ask for the admission of Utah into the 
Union. On the death of Brigham Young, in 1877, 
he succeeded to the presidency of the church, and 
in 1880 was made president and prophet of the 
portion of the Mormon church that indorsed and 
practised polygamy He was an early advocate 
and adherent of polygamy, and in March, 1885, 
was indicted for that crime. His last appear- 
ance in public was on 1 Feb., 1885, after which, 
to avoid arrest, he went into exile and remained 
hidden until his death. 

TAYLOR, John Glanville, author, b. in Eng- 
land in 1823 ; d. in Batticaloa, Ceylon, about Janu- 
ary, 1851. He came to the United States in 1841, 
and after engaging in a mining enterprise, becom- 
ing a planter in 1843, and afterward serving as an 
overseer in Cuba, he returned to England in the 
latter part of 1845. A narrative of his adventures 
was published under the title of " Eight Years of 
Change and Travel " (London, 1851). 

TAYLOR, John Louis, jurist, b. in London, 
England, 1 March, 1769 ; d. in Raleigh, N. C, 29 
Jan., 1829 He was brought to the United States 
at the age of twelve by a brother, his father having 
died. He was for two years at William and Mary 
college, then removed to North Carolina, studied 
law. and, after being admitted to the bar, settled 
in Fayetteville, which he represented in the legis- 
lature in 1792-'4. He removed to New Berne in 
1796, and in 1798 was elected a judge of the supe- 
rior court. In 1808 he was chosen by his colleagues 
to preside over the supreme court, which was then 
composed of judges of the superior court who met 
at Raleigh to review questions that arose on the 
circuits. When a new tribunal was instituted in 
1818 he was appointed one of the judges, and con- 
tinued as chief justice till his death. In 1817 he 
was appointed a commissioner to revise the statute 
laws of North Carolina. The work was completed 
and published in 1821, and a continuation by Judge 
Taylor appeared in 1825. He began to take notes 
of cases that came before him soon after he was 
elevated to the bench. His publications include 
" Cases in the Superior Courts of Law and Equity 
of the State of North Carolina " (New Berne, 1802) ; 
" The North Carolina Law Repository " (2 vols., 
1814-'16); "Charge to the Grand Jury of Edge- 
combe, exhibiting a View of the Criminal Law" 
(1817); "Term Reports" (Raleigh, 1818): and a 
treatise " On the Duties of Executors and Admin- 
istrators " (1825). 

TAYLOR, John Neilson, lawyer, b. in New 
Brunswick, N. J., 24 July, 1805 ; d. there, 6 Feb., 
1878. He was graduated at Princeton in 1824, 
studied law, was admitted to the bar in New York 
city in 1825, and practised there and in Brooklyn, 
N. Y. He was the author of a " Treatise on the 

American Law of Landlord and Tenant " (New 
York, 1844), and " The Law of Executors and Ad- 
ministrators in New York " (1851). 

TAYLOR, John W., speaker of the house of 
representatives, b. in Charlton, Saratoga co., X. Y., 
26 March, 1784; d. in Cleveland, Ohio, 8 Sept., 
1854. He was graduated at Union in 1803, or- 
ganized the Ballston Centre academy in that year. 
studied law in Albany, was admitted to the" bar 
in 1807, and practised in Ballston, becoming a 
justice of the peace in 1808, then state commis- 
sioner of loans, and in 1811-'12 a member of the 
legislature. He was elected to congress as a Demo- 
crat and a supporter of the war with Great Britain, 
and was re-elected nine times in succession, serving 
altogether from 24 May, 1813, till 2 March, 1833. 
On 20 Nov., 1820, owing to the absence of Henry 
Clay, Taylor was chosen in his place as speaker, 
and served till the end of the second session, dur- 
ing which the Missouri compromise was passed. 
On the question of the admission of Missouri to 
the Union he delivered the first speech in congress 
that plainly opposed the extension of slaver)'. He 
was again elected speaker on the organization of 
the 19th congress, serving from 5 Dec, 1825, till 3 
March, 1827. He was one of the organizers of the 
National Republican, and afterward of the Whig, 

{>arty. After retiring from congress he practised 
aw at Ballston, and was a member of the state 
senate in 1840-'l, but resigned in consequence of a 
paralytic stroke, and from 1843 till his death lived 
with a daughter in Cleveland. He was the orator 
of the Phi Beta Kappa society at Harvard in 1827. 
and frequently spoke in public on literary as well 
as on national topics. — His nephew, John Orville, 
educator, b. in Charlton, N. Y., 14 May, 1807, was 
graduated at Union college in 1830, and entered 
Princeton seminary, but soon left to become a 
teacher in Philadelphia, where he remained two 
years. Thenceforth for many years he engaged in 
the work of educational reform. He published a 
book pointing out the deficiencies of the common 
schools, entitled " The District School, or Popular 
Education " (New York, 1835), which was publicly 
commended by statesmen and thinkers both in the 
United States and in Great Britain. In January, 
1836, he began the publication at Albany, N. Y., of 
a monthly educational magazine called the " Com- 
mon-School Assistant," which was also successful. 
Public-spirited citizens sent large subscriptions for 
gratuitous circulation of the periodical, and after 
four years the New York state legislature estab- 
lished a paper of the same character and intent. 
Mr. Taylor published, with a long introduction, a 
translation of Victor Cousin's " Report of the Prus- 
sian School System " (New York, 1836). and for the 
succeeding fifteen years lectured on the improve- 
ment of common-school education in the principal 
cities of the country. In 1837, in connection with 
James Wadsworth, he induced the New York legis- 
lature to pass a law establishing school libraries. 
In that year he was elected professor of popular 
education in the University of the city of New 
York, and lectured during one season to a class of 
seventy prospective teachers of both sexes. On 13 
Dec, 1838, he gave a lecture, at the invitation of 
congress, in the hall of the house of representa- 
tives. After fifteen years of fruitful exertions for 
educational progress, he engaged in mercantile 
business in New York city, but, having met with 
reverses, retired to New Brunswick, N. J., in 1879, 
and has since then contributed to various journals. 
— Another nephew, Klisha Ephraim Leech, cler- 
gyman, b. in Pompey, N. Y., 25 Sept., 1815 ; d. in 
Marlborough, N. Y.,"l8 Aug., 1874, was graduated 




at Madison university in 1837 and at the theo- 
logical seminary at Hamilton, N. Y., in 1839. He 
organized a Baptist church in Brooklyn, N. Y., and 
after a nine-years' pastorate resigned and founded 
in the southern part of the city a mission church 
which became a nourishing society. In 1864 he 
retired from the pulpit on account of failing 
health, and two years later he became secretary of 
the Baptist church-edifice fund, obtaining $250,000 
for the construction of church buildings in the 
west.— A son of Elisha E. L., James Monroe, 
educator, b. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 5 Aug., 1848, was 

graduated at the University of Rochester in 1868. 
and at Rochester theological seminary in 1871. He 
travelled and studied in Europe in 1871-2, and 
was pastor of a Baptist church at South Norwalk, 
Conn., in 1873-'81, and of one at Providence, R. I., 
in 1882-'6. He received the degree of D. D. from 
Rochester in 1886. Dr. Taylor has contributed to 
religious reviews, and was an active member of 
school-boards in both Connecticut and Rhode 
Island. Since June, 1886, he has been president 
of Vassar college. (See illustration.) 

TAYLOR, Lachlan, Canadian clergyman, b. in 
Killean, Argyllshire, Scotland, 18 June, 1815 ; d. in 
Brackley Point, Prince Edward island, 4 Sept., 
1881. He received his early education in Glas- 
gow, and in 1832 came with his father's family to 
Canada, where he engaged in teaching. In 1843 
he was ordained a minister of the Wesleyan Meth- 
odist church, ministered successively at Bytown 
(now Ottawa), Kingston, Hamilton, Toronto, and 
Montreal, and, after visiting Great Britain, was ap- 
pointed in 1851 agent of the Upper Canada Bible 
society. In 1857 he was a delegate to the meeting 
of the Evangelical alliance at Berlin, and he sub- 
sequently represented Canada at the annual meet- 
ing of the British and foreign Bible society. In 
1863-'4, in connection with the work of the society, 
he traversed British Columbia, California, New 
Mexico, and Central America, and on his return 
was appointed secretary and treasurer of the mis- 
sionary society. From 1874 till 1877 Dr. Taylor 
was employed by the Dominion government to 
stimulate emigration from Great Britain to Cana- 
da. He visited at one time Egypt, Palestine, Asia 
Minor, Turkey, Greece, and Italy, and lectured on 
those countries. He recei ved the degree of D. D. 

TAYLOR, Marshall William, clergyman, b. 
in Lexington, Ky., 1 July, 1846 ; d. in Louisville, 
Ky., 11 Sept., 1887. He was the child of free 
colored parents, was instructed in a school for ne- 
groes at Louisville, Ky., followed the occupation 
of a steamboat-cook for three years before the be- 
ginning of the civil war, and served as a soldier 
with the Army of the Cumberland from 1862 till 
1865. He became a teacher at Hardinsburg, Ky., 
in 1866, preached at Litchfield, Ky., in 1871, en- 
tered the Lexington Methodist conference in 1872, 
and was stationed at Louisville, Ky., Indianapolis, 
Ind., and Cincinnati, Ohio. He was presiding 

elder in Ohio in 1878-83, preached in Louisville 
again during the following year, and then went to 
New Orleans, La., to assume the editorship of the 
" Southwestern Christian Advocate." The degree 
of D. D. was given to him by Central Tennessee 
college. He published "Handbook for Schools" 
(Louisville, 1871) ; •' Life of Rev. George W. Down- 
ing " (1878) ; several editions of " Plantation Melo- 
dies and Revival Songs of the Negroes " ; " Life 
and Travels of Amanda Smith" (1886) ; and " The 
Negro in Methodism " (1887). 

TAYLOR, Mary Cecilia, actress, b. in New 
York city, 13 March, 1827; d. there, 10 Nov., 1866. 
She began her career as chorus-singer at the New 
York National and Park theatres, and gradually 
won her way to the representation of small parts 
and soubrette and burlesque performances, until 
she attained a respectable rank as a comedian 
and opera-singer. On a few occasions she appeared 
in Brooklyn, Albany, and Boston, but during most 
of her career was connected with the Olympic, 
Brougham's, and Burton's theatres, of New York 
city. Several years before her death Miss Taylor 
married William O. Ewen, a merchant, and re- 
tired from the stage. She was personally attract- 
ive and her voice, though small, was agreeable, but 
her style suffered from want of refinement. She 
had winning ways, which charmed the public and 
for years rendered M Our Mary," as she was called, 
a very general favorite. 

TAYLOR, Moses, merchant, b. in New York 
city, 11 Jan., 1806. He received a common-school 
education, became a merchant's clerk at the age of 
fifteen, and when ten years older embarked in 
business on his own account. He acquired a large 
trade with Cuba, and was an extensive ship-owner. 
In 1855 he became president of the City bank. 
During the civil war he was one of the original 
members of the Union defence committee, and, as 
chairman of the loan committee of the associated 
banks, he was instrumental in obtaining sub- 
scribers for more than $200,000,000 of govern- 
ment securities. He was one of the originators 
of submarine telegraphy, and has been an active 
promoter of important railway lines. Among his 
charitable gifts was one of $250,000 in 1882 for 
a hospital for employes of the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna and Western railroad, and coal and iron 
companies at Scranton. Pa. 

TAYLOR, Nathaniel William, theologian, b. 
in New Milford, Conn., 23 June, 1786; d. in New 
Haven, Conn., 10 March, 1858. He was graduated 
at Yale in 1807, studied theology, and on 8 April, 
1812, was installed as pastor of the 1st Congrega- 
tional church in New Haven. In November, 1822, 
he resigned this office on being appointed professor 
of didactic theology at Yale. His theological sys- 
tem was in some respects a development of that of 
Timothy Dwight, whose pupil and amanuensis he 
was for two years after leaving college. His views 
on total depravity and other dogmas, which he first 
enunciated in the annual discourse to the clergy in 
1828, and afterward defended in the " Christian 
Spectator," were earnestly controverted by Bennett 
Tyler, Leonard Woods, and other clergymen. His 
other essays and doctrinal sermons that were pub- 
lished during the Unitarian controversy excited 
attention and discussion. He was the leader of the 
New Haven school of theology, and exercised a 
powerful influence on the religious thought of his 
time. He received the degree of D. D. from Union 
college in 1823. After his death his son-in-law, 
Noah Porter, published his " Practical Sermons " 
(New York, 1858) ; " Lectures on the Moral Gov- 
ernment of God" (2 vols., 1859); and "Essays 




and Lectures upon Select Topics in Revealed The- 
ology " (1859). See " Memorial of Nathaniel W. 
Taylor" (New Haven, 1858). 

TAYLOR, Nelson, soldier, b. in South Norwalk, 
Conn., 8 June, 1821. He received a common-school 
education. At the beginning of the war with Mexi- 
co he joined the army as captain of the 1st New 
York volunteers on 1 Aug., 1846, served through 
the war, and at its close settled in Stockton, San 
Joaquin co., Cal., where he was elected a state 
senator in 1849 and sheriff in 1855. He was also 
president of the board of trustees of the State in- 
sane asylum from 1850 till 1856. Returning to 
New York city, he studied law, taking his degree 
at the Harvard law-school in 1860. He was an 
unsuccessful Democratic candidate for congress in 
1860. At the beginning of the civil war he en- 
tered the volunteer service as colonel of the 72d 
New York infantry. He commanded this regiment, 
which formed a part of Gen. Daniel E. Sicklos's 
brigade, during the Chickahominy campaign. He 
had command of the brigade at Williamsburg and 
in Gen. John Pope's Virginia campaign, and was 
appointed brigadier-general of volunteers, in recog- 
nition of his services, on 7 Sept., 1862. He resigned 
on 19 Jan., 1863, resumed practice in New York 
city, and was elected as a Democrat to congress, 
serving from 4 Dec, 1865, till 3 March, 1867. He 
was a member of the select committees on freed- 
men and invalid pensions. 

TAYLOR, Oliver Alden, clergyman, b. in Yar- 
mouth, Mass., 18 Aug., 1801 ; d. in Manchester, 
Mass., 18 Dec, 1851. He was graduated at Union 
in 1825, and at Andover theological seminary in 
1829, made German translations, and assisted Prof. 
Moses Stuart in teaching Hebrew at Andover for 
several years, and on 18 Sept., 1839, was installed 
as pastor of the Congregational church in Man- 
chester. He published many articles in the " Bib- 
lical Repository " and other periodicals, and was a 
frequent contributor of poetry to magazines be- 
tween 1820 and 1828. He translated Franz V. 
Reinhard's " Plan of the Founder of Christianity " 
(New York, 1831), and his " Memoirs and Confes- 
sions" (Boston, 1832), wrote two books for the young, 
entitled " Brief Views of the Saviour " (Andover, 
1835) and "Life of Jesus " (1840), made a catalogue 
of the library of Andover seminary (1838), and pub- 
lished a memoir of Andrew Lee under the title of 
" Piety in Humble Life " (Boston, 1844) and a ser- 
mon on " The Ministerial Office " (Andover, 1848). 
See a " Memoir " of him by his brother, Rev. Timo- 
thy Alden Taylor (Boston, 1853).— His brother, 
Riifns. clergyman, b. in Hawley, Mass., 24 March, 
1811, was graduated at Amherst in 1837, and at 
Princeton theological seminary in 1840. He was 
pastor of the Presbyterian church at Shrewsbury, 
N. J., till 1852, when he went to Manchester, Mass., 
as his brother's successor, remaining six years. Af- 
ter a pastorate of four years more at Hightstown, 
N. J., he became district secretary of the American 
and foreign Christian union. This office he held 
for a period of ten years, after which he preached 
in New Jersey and Massachusetts till 1878, and 
afterward confined himself to literary work, resid- 
ing at Beverly, N. J. He received the degree of 
D. D. from Lafayette college in 1863. Dr. Taylor is 
the author of " Union to Christ " (New York, 1846) ; 
" Love to God " (New York, 1848) : " Thoughts on 
Prayer " (Boston, 1854) ; and " Cottage Piety Ex- 
emplified" (Philadelphia, 1869): also of a series 
of interesting letters from northern Europe, and 
numerous pamphlets. 

TAYLOR, Oliver Swalne, educator, b. near 
New Ipswich, N. H., 17 Dec, 1784; d. in Auburn, 

N. Y., 19 April, 1885. He prepared himself for 
college in the intervals of farm-work, was gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth in 1809, taught for some time, 
then studied medicine, received the degree of M. D. 
from Dartmouth in 1813, and practised till 1817, 
when he resumed teaching. For a brief period he 
was associated with Jeremiah Evarts in editing tho 
"Panoplist." In 1826 he took charge of the 
academy at Homer, N. Y., and in 1830 removed 
to Auburn, which has since been his home. He 
taught there and elsewhere, numbering among his 
pupils many who attained eminence. He engaged 
earnestly in Sunday-school work, teaching the 
prisoners in Auburn penitentiary for seventeen 
years, and at the age of ninety still conducting 
three classes each Sunday. He also preached fre- 
quently, being licensed on 17 June, 1840, and 
ordained as an evangelist on 8 Dec, 1848. His 
hundredth birthday was publicly celebrated at 
Auburn. — His son, Charles, missionary, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 15 Sept., 1819, was educated at the 
academy of his father and at the University of 
the city of New York, where he was graduated in 
1840. He taught ancient languages in the high- 
school of the South Carolina conference, and, 
after joining the conference in 1844, studied medi- 
cine in Philadelphia, preparatory to engaging in 
missionary work in China, obtaining his degree in 
1848. He departed for his field of Tabor the same 
year, being the first missionary to China that was 
appointed by the Methodist Episcopal church, 
south. He returned to the United States in 1854 
on account of the failure of his wife's health, be- 
came a professor in Spartanburg female college, and 
in 1857 was its president. In 1858 he was elected 

feneral Sunday-school secretary of the Methodist 
Ipiscopal church, south, for four years. In 1866 
he was elected president of Kentucky Wesleyan 
college at Millersburg, which post he resigned in 
1870, in order to resume the active work of the 
ministry. The degree di D. D. was conferred on 
him by the University of the city of New York in 
1869. Dr. Taylor, while in China, with the assist- 
ance of a native teacher, prepared several tracts, 
a catechism, and a " Harmony of the Gospels " in 
the Shanghai dialect. He has published "Five 
Years in China" (New York, 1860) and "Baptism 
in a Nutshell " (Nashville, 1874). 

TAYLOR, Richard Cowling, geologist, b. in 
Hinton, Suffolk, England, 18 Jan., 1789; d. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 26 Nov., 1851. He was educated 
as a mining engineer and geologist, partly under 
the direction of William Smith, the " father of Brit- 
ish geology," and in the early part of his career 
was engaged in the ordnance survey of England. 
Subsequently he devoted his attention to investi- 
gating and reporting on mining property in various 
parts of England, including that of the British 
iron company in Wales, his plaster model of which 
received the Isis medal of the Society of arts. In 
1830 he removed to the United States, and, after 
surveying the Blossburg coal region in Pennsyl- 
vania, gave three years to the exploration of the 
coal- and iron-veins of Dauphin county in the same 
state, concerning which he published an elaborate 
report with maps. He continued occupied with 
similar work in the United States, and also made 
surveys of mining lands in Cuba and the British 
provinces. Mr. Taylor's knowledge of theoretical 
geology led him to refer the old red sandstone that 
underlies the Pennsylvania coal-fields to its true 
place, corresponding with its location in the series 
of European rocks. He was the first to point out 
this fact. Prior to his arrival in this country he 
devoted much attention to archaeology, and pub- 




lished " Index Monasticus, or the Abbeys, Monas- 
teries, etc., formerly established in the City of Nor- 
wich and the Ancient Kingdom of East Anglia " 
(London, 1821); "The Geology of East Anglia" 
(1827) ; and a very complete " General Index to 
Dugdale's ' Monasticon Anglicanum ' " (1830). He 
was a member of scientific societies, and contributed 
to their transactions. Among his publications are 
"The Geology and Natural History of the North- 
east Extremity of the Alleghany Mountains " ; "A 
Supplement to the Natural History of the Birds of 
the Alleghany Range " ; " History and Description 
of Fossil Fuel " (London, 1841) ; and " Statistics of 
Coal " (Philadelphia, 1848). 

TAYLOR, Robert Barraud, lawyer, b. in Nor- 
folk, Va., 24 March, 1774 ; d. there, 13 April, 1834. 
He was graduated at William and Mary in 1793, 
studied law, was admitted to the bar, and became 
an eminent advocate. He was a member of the 
Virginia assembly in 1798-'9. As brigadier-gen- 
eral of Virginia militia he served in the defence of 
Norfolk in 1813-'14, and he was appointed to the 
same rank in the U. S. army on 19 July, 1813, but 
declined. He was a member of the State constitu- 
tional convention of 1829-30, and judge of the 
general court of Virginia from 1831 till his death. 

TAYLOR, Robert William, physician, b. in 
London, England, 11 Aug., 1842. He was gradu- 
ated at the College of physicians and surgeons, 
New York, in 1868, and has made a specialty of the 
treatment of syphilis, skin diseases, and genito- 
urinary diseases. For three years he was professor 
of diseases of the skin in the Women's medical col- 
lege in New York city, and then he was called to a 
similar chair in the medical department of the 
University of Vermont. He is one of the surgeons 
of the venereal department of the Charity hospital, 
and physician to the department of skin diseases in 
Bellevue hospital dispensary, and for six years he 
was surgeon to the department of venereal and 
skin diseases of the New York dispensary. Dr. 
Taylor is a member of medical societies at home 
and abroad, was president of the Dermatological 
society of New York, and has been vice-president 
of the American dermatological association. His 
contributions to medical journals, chiefly in the 
line of his specialty, include about twenty papers. 

TAYLOR, Samuel Harvey, educator, b. in 
Derry, N. H., 3 Oct., 1807 ; d. in Andover, Mass., 
29 Jan., 1871. He was graduated at Dartmouth 
in 1832, and at Andover theological seminary in 
1837, when he took charge of Phillips Andover 
academy, having been a tutor in Dartmouth col- 
lege during the last two years of his theological 
course. He was principal of the academy till his 
death, holding a high position among the classical 
scholars and instructors of the country. In 1852 he 
became associate editor of the " Bibliotheca Sacra," 
succeeding Bela B. Edwards. The degree of LL. D. 
was conferred on him in 1854 by Brown. He was 
the translator and editor of text-books of Greek 
and Latin philology from the German, the author 
of "Method of Classical Study" (Boston, 1861), 
and the compiler of " Classical Study : its Value 
Illustrated by Extracts from the Writings of Emi- 
nent Scholars " (Andover, 1870). 

TAYLOR, Samuel Priestly, musician, b. in 
London, England, in 1779 ; d. in New York city 
in 1874. He was the eldest son of Rev. James Tay- 
lor. In early childhood he was regarded as a mu- 
sical prodigy, and was placed under the instruction 
of Dr. William Russell, of Oxford. When twenty- 
one years old he became organist of Silver street 
chapel, and afterward of Islington church. He 
came to this country in 1806, and soon after his 

arrival in New York was appointed organist of 
St. Ann's church, where he introduced the custom 
of chanting. He was afterward organist of Grace 
church, New York, then of St. Ann's church, 
Brooklyn, and later at St. George's, New York, and 
conducted the music at the funeral services of 
Gen. Richard Montgomery at St. Paul's, New York. 
In 1818 he removed to Boston, where he was organ- 
ist of the Old South church, but in 1826 he re- 
turned to Brooklyn and resumed his former post 
at St. Ann's. In 1834 he was appointed organist 
of St. Paul's, New York. His last performance on 
the organ was in 1871. 

TAYLOR, Stephen William, educator, b. in 
Adams, Mass., 23 Oct., 1791 ; d. in Hamilton, N. 
Y., 7 Jan., 1856. He was graduated at Hamilton 
college, Clinton, N. Y., in 1817, and became prin- 
cipal of Black River academy at Lowville, N. Y., 
which place he filled until 1831. In 1834 he as- 
sumed charge of the preparatory department of 
what is now Madison university at Hamilton, N. Y., 
and from 1838 till 1845 was professor of mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy. He then became 
one of the founders of a Baptist university at 
Lewisburg, Pa., of which he was president for 
five years. From 1851 till his death he was 
president of Madison university. He was some- 
what eccentric, but a man of great executive abil- 
ity, and during his presidency the last-named 
institution was brought from a very depressed to a 
highly prosperous condition. He was the author 
of a history of the university, and a series of essays 
on the theory of education, published posthu- 
mously. — His son, Benjamin Franklin, author, 
b. in Lowville, Lewis co„ N. Y., 19 July, 1819 ; d. 
in Cleveland, Ohio, 24 Feb., 1887, was graduated 
at Madison uni- 
versity in 1839. 
A year later he 
became literary 
editor of the Chi- 
cago " Evening 
Journal,"and dur- 
ing the civil war, 
1861-'5, he was its 
correspondent in 
the field, follow- 
ing the western 
armies. His war 
letters were very 
picturesque, and 
many of them 
were translated 
and republished 
in Europe. The 
London " Times " 
called him " the 
Oliver Goldsmith of America." Mr. Taylor trav- 
elled in Mexico and the islands of the Pacific, and 
was for many years a public lecturer. The Uni- 
versity of California gave him the degree of LL. D. 
His publications in book-form are "Attractions 
of Language" (New York, 1845); "January and 
June" (Chicago, 1853); "Pictures in Camp and 
Field" (1871): "The World on Wheels" (1873); 
" Old-Time Pictures and Sheaves of Rhyme " (1874) ; 
" Songs of Yesterday " (1877) ; " Summer Savory, 
gleaned from Rural Nooks " (1879) ; " Between the 
Gates," pictures of California life (1881) ; " Dulce 
Doraum, the Burden of Song " (1884) ; a complete 
edition of his poems in a single volume (1887): 
and "Theophilus Trent, or Old Times in the Oak 
Openings," a novel (1887). His most successful 
poems are "The Isle of the Long Ago," "The Old 
Village Choir," and " Rhymes of the River." 





TAYLOR, Thomas Honse, b. in Georgetown, 
S. C, 18 Oct., 1799; d. in West Park, N. Y., 9 
Sept., 1867. He was graduated at South Carolina 
college in 1818, received deacon's orders in the 
Protestant Episcopal church in 1821, had a charge 
at North Santee, S. C, was ordained priest at St. 
John's, Colleton. John's island, S. C, on 16 March, 
. 1826, and was rector of the church in that place 
until he was called to succeed Dr. Jonathan M. 
Wainwright in Grace church, New York city, in 
April, 1834, of which he was rector from that time 
until his death. He was distinguished as a writer 
and debater, and in the controversy over the ritual 
and liturgy which divided his church he was a 
representative of the Low-church party. A volume 
of his " Sermons preached in Grace Church " was 
published after his death (New York, 1869). 

TAYLOR, Virgil Corydon, musician, b. in 
Barkhamstead, Conn., in 1817. He was long an 
organist at Hartford, Conn., where he wrote arti- 
cles on political subjects for the newspapers. He 
endeavored to introduce in musical notation an in- 
dex-staff in which the key-note occupies a heavier 
line or a wider space. He published collections of 
sacred and secular songs, containing many compo- 
sitions by himself. Their titles are " Sacred Min- 
strel " (1846) ; " The Lute, or Musical Instructor " 
(1847); "Choral Anthems" (1850); "The Golden 
Lyre " (1850) ; " Concordia " (1851) ; " The Chime " 
(1854); "The Celestina" (1856); "The Song Fes- 
tival " (1858) ; "The Enchanter "(1861): " The Con- 
certina " (1864) ; and " The Praise Offering " (1868). 

TAYLOR, Waller, senator, b. in Lunenburg 
county, Va., before 1786 ; d. in Lunenburg, Va., 26 
Aug., 1826. He received a common-school educa- 
tion, studied law, served one or two terms in the 
Virginia legislature as the representative of Lunen- 
burg county, and settled in Vincennes, Ind., in 
1805, having been appointed a territorial judge. 
He served as aide-de-camp to Gen. William H. 
Harrison at the battle of Tippecanoe, and in the 
war of 1812-'15. On the admission of Indiana as 
a state he was elected U. S. senator, and at the 
close of his term was re-elected, serving from 12 
Dec, 1816, till 3 March, 1825. 

TAYLOR, Walter Herron, soldier, b. in Nor- 
folk, Va., 13 June, 1838. He was educated at the 
Virginia military institute, and became a mer- 
chant and banker. He joined the Confederate 
army on the secession of Virginia, and was on the 
staff of Gen. Robert E. Lee during the entire period 
of the civil war, and from the time that Gen. Lee 
assumed command of the Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia, served as adjutant-general of that army, 
with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. After the 
war he resumed the banking business at Norfolk, 
Va., where he has held municipal offices, and was 
elected to the state senate, of which he was a mem- 
ber from 1869 till 1873. He is the author of " Four 
Years with Gen. Lee " (New York, 1878). 

TAYLOR, William, M. E. bishop, b. in Rock- 
bridge county, Va., 2 May, 1821. He was brought 
up as a farmer and tanner, became a Methodist 
preacher in 1842, was admitted on trial to the Bal- 
timore conference in March, 1843, and was an itin- 
erant till 1849, when he was sent to California as a 
missionary by the missionary society of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal church. After laboring there for 
seven years and for five years in Canada and the 
eastern states, he went to Europe in 1862, spending 
seven months in evangelistic work in the British 
islands, and then travelling over the continent and 
in Egypt and the Holy Land. For the next three 
years he conducted missionary services throughout 
Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. He after- 

//L^Cc^ec^i^. a^/^u^uc/y- 

ward visited South Africa, and converted many of 
the Kaffirs to Christianity, going thence to Great 
Britain, where he conducted special services for 
about a year. He next made the tour of the Meth- 
odist missions in the West Indies, visited Austra- 
lia a second time, and then spent some time in 
Ceylon, crossing 
over in 1872 to In- 
dia, where within 
four years he suc- 
ceeded in estab- 
lishing self-sup- 
porting churches 
in Bombay, Poo- 
nah, Jubbulpore, 
Agra, Calcutta, 
Madras, Banga- 
lore, Secundera- 
bad, and else- 
where. As a re- 
sult of his labors 
the South India 
conference and 
the Madras con- 
ference have been 
organized. He 
devoted himself 
afterward to educational and evangelistic work in 
Central America and in Brazil, Chili, and Peru, 
and there also he founded independent mission 
churches. These self-supporting missions, which 
he began to establish in 1878, now occupy as cen- 
tres Aspinwall, Callao, Iquique, Coquimbo, San- 
tiago, Concepcion, Pernambuco, and Para. On 22 
May, 1884, he was elevated to the episcopal office 
under the title of missionary bishop in Africa. Go- 
ing to Central Africa, he established a chain of 
thirty-six mission stations on the Congo, extending 
1,200 miles and 390 miles along the west coast, and 
employing seventy missionaries, who are supported 
by voluntary contributions of American Methodists 
until self-support can be developed from school- 
farms. In 1888 Bishop Taylor revisited the United 
States on the occasion of the general conference held 
in New York in May. He has published " Seven 
Years' Street Preaching in San Francisco " (New 
York, 1856; London, 1863); "Address to Young 
America, and a Word to the Old Folks" (1857); 
"California Life Illustrated" (New York, 1858; 
London, 1863) ; " The Model Preacher " (Cincinnati, 
1860 ; London, 1865) ; " Reconciliation, or How to be 
Saved " (1867) : " Infancy and Manhood of Christian 
Life " (1867) ; " The Election of Grace " (Cincinnati, 
1868); "Christian Adventures in South Africa" 
(1867) ; " Four Years' Campaign in India " (1875) ; 
" Our South American Cousins" (1878) ; "Letters 
to a Quaker Friend on Baptism" (1880); "Ten 
Years of Self-Supporting Missions in India " (1882) ; 
and " Pauline Methods of Missionary Work " (1889). 
TAYLOR, William Bower, physicist, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 23 May, 1821. He was gradu- 
ated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1840, 
and after studying law was admitted to the Phila- 
delphia bar in 1844. Subsequently he studied 
civil engineering, but he has always been more 
attracted to literary pursuits or scientific investi- 

fations. In 1854 he was made an examiner in the 
T. S. patent-office in Washington, where he re- 
mained until 1877. He was appointed editor of 
the publications of the Smithsonian institution in 
1878, which place he has since held. Mr. Taylor 
is a member of the Philosophical societies of Phila- 
delphia and Washington, and, in addition to re- 
views and magazine articles, has published, through 
the medium of the Smithsonian reports, memoirs 

S*Sk»! ; 





on " Thoughts on the Nature and Origin of Force " 
(1870); "On the Refraction of Sound" (1875): 
"Kinetic Theories of Gravitation" (1876); "Re- 
cent Researches in Sound " (1876) ; " History of the 
Electro-Magnetic Telegraph " (1878) ; " The Scien- 
tific Work of Joseph Henry " (1878) ; " Physics and 
Occult Qualities" (1882) ; and " On the Crumpling 
of the Earth's Crust " (1882) ; also a discussion 
with the Rev. J. Newton Brown " On the Obliga- 
tion of the Sabbath " (Philadelphia, 1853). 

TAYLOR, William Mackergo, clergyman, b. 
in Kilmarnock, Scotland, 23 Oct., 1829. He was 
graduated at the University of Glasgow in 1849, 
and at the theological seminary of the United Pres- 
byterian church in Edinburgh in 1852, and after 
officiating for two years as pastor of the small par- 
ish of Kilmaurs, Ayrshire, removed in 1855 to Liv- 
erpool, England, to form a new Presbyterian con- 
gregation. There he gathered a large congrega- 
tion of merchants, mechanics, and tradespeople. 
He visited the United States in 1871, and preached 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., with such effectiveness that in 
the following year he was called to occupy the pul- 
pit of the Broadway Tabernacle in New York city, 
as the successor of the Rev. Joseph P. Thompson. 
He received the degree of D. D. from both Yale and 
Amherst in 1872, and that of LL. D. from Prince- 
ton in 1883. He was lecturer at Yale seminary in 
1876 and 1886, and at Princeton seminary in 1880. 
In 1876-'80 Dr. Taylor edited the "Christian at 
Work." He is the author of " Life Truths," a vol- 
ume of sermons (Liverpool, 1862) ; " The Miracles : 
Helps to Faith, not Hindrances " (Edinburgh, 1865) : 
" The Lost Found and the Wanderer Welcomed " 
(1870); "Memoir of the Rev. Matthew Dickie" 
(Bristol, 1872) ; " Prayer and Business " (New York, 
1873) ; " David, King of Israel " (1875) ; " Elijah, 
the Prophet " (1876) ; " The Ministry of the Word," 
containing lectures delivered at Yale (1876): 
" Songs in the Night " (1877) ; " Peter, the Apos- 
tle " (1877) ; " Daniel, the Beloved " (1878) ; " Moses, 
the Lawgiver" (1879); "The Gospel Miracles in 
their Relation to Christ and Christianity," consist- 
ing of his Princeton lectures (1880) : " The Limita- 
tions of Life, and other Sermons " (1880) ; " Paul, 
the Missionary" (1882); "Contrary Winds, and 
other Sermons " (1883) ; " Jesus at the Well " 
(1884); "John Knox: a Biography " (1885) ; "Jo- 
seph, the Prime Minister " (1886) ; "The Parables 
of Our Saviour Expounded and Illustrated " (1886) ; 
and " The Scottish Pulpit " (1887). 

TAYLOR, William Vigneron, naval officer, 
b. in Newport, R. I., in 1781 ; d. there, 11 Feb., 
1858. He went to sea before the mast, became a 
captain in the merchant marine, and entered the 
navy as a sailing-master, 28 April, 1813. He was 
attached to Com. Oliver H. Perry's flag-ship, the 
" Lawrence," in the battle of Lake Erie, where he 
was severely wounded, afterward receiving a vote 
of thanks and a sword for his services. He was 
commissioned a lieutenant, 9 Dec, 1814, cruised in 
the "Java" on the Mediterranean station in 
1815-16, and was on leave at Newport on account 
of his wound in 1816-'23, after which he served in 
the ship " Ontario," of the Mediterranean squadron, 
in 1824-6, at the Boston navy-yard in 1827-'8, and 
in the frigate "Hudson," on the Brazil station, in 
1829-30. He was promoted to master-comman- 
dant, 3 March, 1831, was in charge of the receiving- 
ship at Boston in 1833-'4, and the sloop " Warren " 
in 1835. In 1839-'41 he had the store-ship " Erie." 
He was promoted to captain, 8 Sept., 1841, and 
commanded the Pacific squadron in the " Ohio " in 
1847-'8. After this he was on leave at Newport 
until his death. — His son, William Rogers, naval 

officer, b. in Newport, R. I., 7 Nov., 1811, entered 
the navy as a midshipman, 1 April, 1828, became a 
passed midshipman, 14 June, 1834, and cruised in 
the "Peacock" in the East Indies in 1835-6. 
When the " Peacock " was stranded on the island 
of Massera in 1836, he was sent to take the U. S. 
diplomatic agent, Edmund Roberts, to Muscat to 
arrange treaties. This voyage lasted five days in 
an open boat, and upon arrival at Muscat the sul- 
tan offered him the sloop "Sultane " to go to the 
relief of the " Peacock " ; but the latter had got off, 
and he rejoined her at sea. He served as acting 
lieutenant on the same station and in the Pacific 
in the schooner "Enterprise" and ship "North 
Carolina" in 1836-8. He was commissioned a 
lieutenant, 10 Feb., 1840, and was engaged in the 
survey of Tampa bay, Fla., in 1842-3, during 
which he at times had command of the steamer 
" Poinsett " and the brig " Oregon." He served on 
the Brazil station in the brig " Perry " and the ship 
'•Columbus" in 1843-4. During the Mexican war 
he was on the sloop " St. Mary's " in the engage- 
ment with batteries at Tampico, where he com- 
manded the launch in the expedition that captured 
that port and five Mexican schooners, 14 Nov., 
1846. During the siege and bombardment of Vera 
Cruz he commanded the eight-inch gun in the 
naval battery on shore for thirty-six hours. He 
was promoted to commander, 14 Sept., 1855, and 
was on ordnance duty at Washington in 1857-'9. 
In 1861 he was ordered to command the steamer 
" Housatonic," and he was promoted to captain, 16 
July, 1862. While senior officer in the blockade 
off Charleston he engaged the Confederate rams 
" Chicora " and " Palmetto " in the " Housatonic " 
when they attacked the squadron in January. 1863. 
When Dahlgren took command he was appointed 
fleet-captain, and participated in the actions against 
Morris island in July, 1863. On 16 July he was in 
the battle on board the monitor " Catskill," and on 
18 July in the monitor " Montauk." He command- 
ed the steamer " Juniata " in both attacks on Fort 
Fisher. He was president of the board to revise 
the navy regulations, was in charge of the ordnance- 
yard at Washington in 1866-'7, and was promoted 
to commodore, 25 July, 1866. He was a member 
of the examining board in 1868, commanded the 
northern squadron of the Pacific fleet in 1869-'71, 
was promoted to rear-admiral, 19 Jan., 1871. and 
was president of the examining board in 1871— '2, 
and commanded the South Atlantic squadron from 
22 May, 1872, till 7 Nov., 1873, when he was retired. 
TAYLOR, Zachary, twelfth president of the' 
United States, b. in Orange county, Va., 24 Sept., 
1784; d. in the executive mansion, Washington, 
D. C, 9 July, 1850. His father, Col. Richard Tay- 
lor, an officer in the war of the Revolution, was 
conspicuous for zeal and daring among men in 
whom personal gallantry was the rule. After the 
war he retired to private life, and in 1785 removed 
to Kentucky, then a sparsely occupied county of 
Virginia, and made his home near the present city 
of Louisville, where he died. Zachary was the 
third son. Brought up on a farm in a new settle- 
ment, he had few scholastic opportunities ; but in 
the thrift, industry, self-denial, and forethought 
required by the circumstances, he learned such les- 
sons as were well adapted to form the character 
illustrated by his eventful career. Yet he had also 
another form of education. The liberal grants of 
land that Virginia made to her soldiers caused 
many of them, after the peace of 1783, to remove 
to the west ; thus Col. Taylor's neighbors included 
many who had been his fellow-soldiers, and these 
often met around las wide hearth. Their corner- 




sation would naturally be reminiscences of their 
military life, and all the sons of Col. Taylor, save 
one, Hancock, entered the U. S. army. The rapid 
extension of settlements on the border was pro- 
ductive of frequent collision with the Indians, and 
required the protection of a military force. 

In 1808, on the recommendation of President 
Jefferson, congress authorized the raising of five 
regiments of infantry, one of riflemen, one of light 
artillery, and one of light dragoons. From the 
terms of the act it was understood that this was 
not to be a permanent increase of the U. S. army, 
and many of the officers of the " old army " de- 
clined to seek promotion in the new regiments. At 
this period questions had arisen between the United 
States and Great Britain which caused serious an- 
ticipations of a war with that power, and led many 
to regard the additional force authorized as a pre- 
liminary step in preparation for such a war. Zach- 
ary Taylor, then in his twenty-fourth year, applied 
for a commission and was appointed a 1st lieu- 
tenant in the 7th infantry, one of the new regi- 
ments, and in 1810 was promoted to the grade of 
captain in the same regiment, according to the 
regulations of the service. He was happily mar- 
ried in 1810 to Miss Margaret Smith, of Calvert 
county, Md., who shared with him the privations 
and dangers of his many years of frontier service, 
and survived him but a short time. The troubles 
on the frontier continued to increase until 1811, 
when* Gen. William H. Harrison, afterward presi- 
dent of the United States, marched against the 
stronghold of the Shawnees and fought the battle 
of Tippecanoe. 

In June, 1812, war was declared against Eng- 
land, and this increased the widespread and not 
unfounded fears of Indian invasion in the valley 
of the Wabash. To protect Vincennes from sudden 
assault, Capt. Taylor was ordered to Fort Harri- 
son, a stockade on the river above Vincennes, and 
with his company of infantry, about fifty strong, 
made preparations to defend the place. He had 
not long to wait. A large body of Indians, know- 
ing the smallness of the garrison, came, confidently 
counting on its capture ; but as it is a rule in their 
warfare to seek by stratagem to avoid equal risk and 
probable loss, they tried various expedients, which 
were foiled by the judgment, vigilance, and courage 
of the commander, and when the final attack was 
made, the brave little garrison repelled it with such 
loss to the assailants that when, in the following Oc- 
tober. Gen. Hopkins came to support Fort Harrison, 
no 'Indians were to be found thereabout. For the 
defence of Fort Harrison, Capt. Taylor received 
the brevet of major, an honor that had seldom, if 
ever before, been conferred for service in Indian 
war. In the following November, Maj. Taylor, 
with a battalion of regulars, formed a part of the 
command of Gen. Hopkins in the expedition 
against the hostile Indians at the head-waters of 
the Wabash. In 1814, with his separate command, 
he being then a maior by commission, he made a 
campaign against the hostile Indians and their 
British allies on Rock river, which was so suc- 
cessful as to give subsequent security to that im- 
mediate frontier. In such service, not the less 
hazardous or indicative of merit because on a small 
scale, he passed the period of his employment on 
that frontier until the treaty of peace with Great 
Britain disposed the Indians to be quiet. 

After the war, 3 March, 1815, a law was enacted 
to fix the military peace establishment of the 
United States. By this act the whole force was 
to be reduced to 10,000 men, with such proportions 
of artillery, infantry, and riflemen as the presi- 

dent should judge proper. The president was to 
cause the officers and men of the existing army to 
be arranged, by unrestricted transfers, so as to 
form the corps authorized by the recent act, and 
the supernumeraries were to be discharged. Maj. 
Taylor had borne the responsibilities and per- 
formed the duties of a battalion commander so 
long and successfully that when the arranging 
board reduced him to the rank of captain in the 
new organization he felt the injustice, but resigned 
from the army without complaint, returned home, 
and proceeded, as he said in after-years, " to make 
a crop of corn." Influences that were certainly 
not employed by him, and are unknown to the 
writer of this sketch, caused his restoration to the 
grade of major, and he resumed his place in the 
army, there to continue until the voice of the peo- 
ple called him to the highest office within their 
gift. Under the rules that governed promotion in 
the army, Maj. Taylor became lieutenant - colonel 
of the 1st infantry, and commanded at Fort 
Snelling, then the advanced post in the northwest. 

In 1832 he became colonel of the 1st infantry, 
with headquarters at Fort Crawford, Prairie du 
Chien. The barracks were unfinished, and his 
practical mind and conscientious attention to every 
duty were manifest in the progress and completion 
of the work. The second Black Hawk campaign 
occurred this year, and Col. Taylor, with the 
greater part of his regiment, joined the army com- 
manded by Gen. Henry Atkinson, and with it 
moved from Rock Island up the valley of Rock 
river, following Black Hawk, who had gone to 
make a junction with the Pottawattamie band of 
the Prophet, a nephew of Black Hawk. This was 
in violation of the treaty he had made with Gen. 
Edmund P. Gaines in 1831, by which he was re- 
quired to remove to the west of the Mississippi, 
relinquishing all claim to the Rock river villages. 
It was assumed that his purpose in returning to 
the east side of the river was hostile, and, from 
the defenceless condition of the settlers and the 
horror of savage atrocity, great excitement was 
created, due rather to his fame as a warrior than 
to the number of his followers. If, as he subse- 
quently declared, his design was to go and live 
peaceably with his nephew, the Prophet, rather 
than with the Foxes, of whom Keokuk was the 
chief, that design may have been frustrated by the 
lamentable mistake of some mounted volunteers 
in hastening forward in pursuit of Black Hawk, 
who, with his band — men, women, and children — 
was going up on the south side of the Rock river. 
The pursuers fell into an ambuscade, and were 
routed with some loss and in great confusion. The 
event will be remembered by the men of that day 
as " Stillman's run." 

The vanity of the young Indians was inflated 
by their success, as was shown by some exultant 
messages ; and the sagacious old chief, whatever he 
may have previously calculated upon, now saw that 
war was inevitable and immediate. With his band 
recruited by warriors from the Prophet's band, he 
crossed to the north side of Rock river, and. pa-s- 
ing through the swamp Koshkenong, fled over the 
prairies west of the Four Lakes, toward Wiscon- 
sin river. Gen. Henry Dodge, with a battalion of 
mounted miners, overtook the Indians while they 
were crossing the Wisconsin and attacked their 
rear-guard, which, when the main body had crossed, 
swam the river and joined the retreat over the 
Kickapoo hills toward the Mississippi. Gen. At- 
kinson, with his whole army, continued the pur- 
suit, and, after a toilsome march, overtook the 
Indians north of Prairie du Chien, on the bank of 




the Mississippi, to the west side of which they 
were preparing to cross in bark canoes made on the 
spot. That purpose was foiled by the accidental 
arrival of a steamboat with a small gun on board. 
The Indians took cover in a willow marsh, and there 
was fought the battle of the Bad Axe. The Indians 
were defeated, and dispersed, and the campaign 
ended. In the mean time, Gen. Winfield bcott, 
with troops from the east, took chief command and 
established his headquarters at Rock Island, and 
thither Gen. Atkinson went with the regular troops, 
except that part of the 1st infantry which consti- 
tuted the garrison of Fort Crawford. With these 
Col. Taylor returned to Prairie du Chien. When 
it was reported that the Indians were on an island 
above the prairie, he sent a lieutenant with an 
appropriate command to explore the island, where 
unmistakable evidence was found of the recent 

fresence of the Indians and of their departure, 
mmediately thereafter a group of Indians ap- 
peared on the east bank of the river under a 
white flag, who proved to be Black Hawk, with a 
remnant of his band and a few friendly Winne- 
bagoes. The lieutenant went with them to the 
fort, where Col. Taylor received them, except the 
Winnebagoes, as prisoners. A lieutenant and a 
guard were sent with them, sixty in number — men, 
women, and children — by steamboat, to Rock Isl- 
and, there to report to Gen. Scott for orders in 
regard to the prisoners. Col. Taylor actively par- 
ticipated in the campaign up to its close, and to 
him was surrendered the chief who had most illus- 
trated the warlike instincts of the Indian race, to 
whom history must fairly accord the credit of 
having done much under the most disadvantageous 
circumstances. In 183G Col. Taylor was ordered 
to Florida for service in the Seminole war, and the 
next year he defeated the Indians in the decisive 
battle of Okechobee, for which he received the 
brevet of brigadier-general, and in 1838 was ap- 
pointed to the chief command in Florida. In 
1840 he was assigned to command the southern 
division of the western department of the army. 
Though Gen. Taylor had for many years been a 
cotton-planter, his family had lived with him at 
his military station, but, when ordered for an in- 
definite time on field service, he made his family 
home at Baton Rouge, La. 

Texas having been annexed to the United States 
in 1845, Mexico threatened to invade Texas with 
the avowed purpose to recover the territory, and 
Gen. Taylor was ordered to defend it as a part of 
the United States. He proceeded with all his 
available force, about 1.500 men, to Corpus Christi, 
where he was joined by re-enforcements of regu- 
lars and volunteers. Discussion had arisen as to 
whether the Nueces or the Rio Grande was the 
proper boundary of Texas. His political opinions, 
whatever they might be, were subordinate to the 
duty of a soldier to execute the orders of his gov- 
ernment, and, without uttering it, he acted on the 
apophthegm of Decatur : " My country, right or 
wrong, my country." Texas claimed protection 
for her frontier, the president recognized the fact 
that Texas had been admitted to the Union with 
the Rio Grande as her boundary, and Gen. Taylor 
was instructed to advance to that river. His 
force had been increased to about 4,000, when, 
on 8 March, 1846, he marched from Corpus 
Christi. He was of course conscious of the inade- 
quacy of his division to resist such an army as 
Mexico might send against it, but when ordered 
by superior authority it was not his to remon- 
strate. Gen. Gaines, commanding the western 
department, had made requisitions for a sufficient 

number of volunteers to join Taylor, but the sec- 
retary of war countermanded them, except as to 
such as had already joined. Gen. Taylor, with a 
main depot at Point Isabel, advanced to the bank 
of the Rio Grande, opposite to Matamoras, and 
there made provision for defence of the place 
called Fort Brown. Soon after his arrival, Am- 
pudia, the Mexican general at Matamoras, made 
a threatening demand that Gen. Taylor should 
withdraw his troops beyond the Nueces, to which 
he replied that his position had been taken by order 
of his government, and would be maintained. 
Having completed the intrenchment, and being 
short of supplies, he left a garrison to hold it, and 
marched with an aggregate force of 2,288 men to 
obtain additional supplies from Point Isabel, about 
thirty miles distant. Gen. Arista, the new Mexican 
commander, availing himself of the opportunity to 
interpose, crossed the river below Fort Brown with 
a force estimated at 6,000 regular troops, 10 pieces 
of artillery,and a considerable amount of auxiliaries. 
In the afternoon of the second day's march from 
Point Isabel these were reported by Gen. Taylor's 
cavalry to be in his front, and he halted to allow 
the command to rest and for the needful disposi- 
tions for battle. In the evening a request was made 
that a council of war should be held, to which Gen. 
Taylor assented. The prevalent opinion was in 
favor of falling back to Point Isabel, there to in- 
trench and wait for re-enforcements. After listen- 
ing to a full expression of views, the general an- 
nounced : " I shall go to Fort Brown or stay in my 
shoes," a western expression equivalent to " or die 
in the attempt." He then notified the officers to 
prepare to attack the enemy at dawn of day. In 
the morning of 8 May the advance was made by 
columns until the enemy's batteries opened, when 
line of battle was formed and Taylor's artillery, 
inferior in number but otherwise superior, was 
brought fully into action and soon dispersed the 
mass of the enemy's cavalry. The chaparral, dense ' 
copses of thorn-bushes, served both to conceal the 
position of the enemy and to impede the move- 
ments of the attacking force. The action closed at 
night, when the enemy retired, and Gen. Taylor 
bivouacked on the field. Early in the morning of 
9 May he resumed his march, and in the afternoon 
encountered Gen. Arista in a strong position with 
artillery advantageously posted. Taylor's infantry 
pushed through the chaparral lining both sides of 
the road, and drove the enemy's infantry before 
them ; but the batteries held their position, and 
were so fatally used that it was an absolute neces- 
sity to capture them. For this purpose the general 
ordered a squadron of dragoons to charge them. 
The enemy's gunners were cut down at their pieces, 
the commanding officer was captured, and the 
infantry soon made the victory complete. The 
Mexican loss in the two battles was estimated at 
a thousand ; the American, killed, forty-nine. The 
enemy precipitately recrossed the Rio Grande, 
leaving the usual evidence of a routed army. Gen. 
Taylor then proceeded to Fort Brown. During 
his absence it had been heavily bombarded, and 
the commander, Maj. Brown, had been killed. The 
Mexicans evacuated Matamoras, and Gen. Taylor 
took peaceable possession, 18 May. 

The Rio Grande, except at time of flood, offered 
little obstacle to predatory incursions, and it was 
obviously sound policy to press the enemy back 
from the border. Gen. Taylor, therefore, moved 
forward to Camargo, on the San Juan, a tributary 
of the Rio Grande. This last-named river rose so 
as to enable steamboats to transport troops and 
supplies, and by September a sufficiently large 




force of volunteers had reported at Gen. Taylor's 
headquarters to justify a further march into the 
interior, but the move must be by land, and for 
that there was far from adequate transportation. 
Hiring Mexican packers to supplement the little 
transportation on hand, he was able to add one 
division of volunteers to the regulars of his com- 
mand, and with a force of 6,625 men of all arms 
he marched against Monterey, a fortified town of 
great natural strength, garrisoned by 10,000 men 
under Gen. Ampudia. On 19 Sept. he encamped 
before the town, and on the 21st began the attack. 
On the third day Gen. Ampudia proposed to sur- 
render, commissioners were appointed, and terms 
of capitulation agreed upon, by which the enemy 
were to retire beyond a specified line, and the 
United States forces were not to advance beyond 
that line during the next eight weeks or until the 
pleasure of the respective governments should be 
known. By some strange misconception, the U. S. 
government disapproved the arrangement, and 
ordered that the armistice should be terminated, 
by which we lost whatever had been gained in the 
interests of peace by the generous terms of the 
capitulation, and got nothing, for, during the short 
time that remained unexpired, no provision had 
been or could be made to enable Gen. Taylor to 
advance into the heart of Mexico. Presuming that 
such must be the purpose of the government, he 
assiduously strove to collect the means for that 
object. When his preparations were well-nigh per- 
fected, Gen. Scott was sent to Mexico with orders 
that enabled him at discretion to strip Gen. Taylor 
of both troops and material of war, to be used on 
another line of operations. The projected campaign 
against the capital of Mexico was to be from Vera 
Cruz, up the steppes, and against the fortifications 
that had been built to resist any probable invasion, 
instead of from Saltillo, across the plains to the 
comparatively undefended capital. The difficulty 
on tnis route was the waterless space to be crossed, 
and against that Gen. Taylor had ingeniously pro- 
vided. According to instructions, he went to Vic- 
toria, Mexico, turned over his troops, except a 
proper escort to return through a country of hos- 
tiles to Monterey, and then went to Agua Nueva, 
beyond Saltillo, wltere he was joined by Gen. John 
E. Wool with his command from Chihuahua. 

Gen. Santa-Anna saw the invitation offered by 
the withdrawal of Gen. Taylor's troops, and with a 
well-appointed army, 20,000 strong, marched with 
the assurance of easily recovering their lost terri- 
tory. Gen. Taylor fell back to the narrow pass in 
front of the hacienda of Buena Vista, and here 
stood on the defensive. His force was 5,400 of all 
arms ; but of these, only three batteries of artillery, 
one squadron of dragoons, one mounted company 
of Texans, and one regiment of Mississippi riflemen, 
had ever been under fire. Some skirmishing oc- 
curred on 22 Feb., and a general assault along the 
whole line was made on the morning of the 23d. 
The battle, with varying fortune, continued through- 
out the day; at evening the enemy retired, and 
during the night retreated by the route on which 
he had advanced, having suffered much by the 
casualties of battle, but still more by desertions. 
So Santa-Anna returned with but a remnant of the 
regular army of Mexico, on which reliance had 
been placed to repel invasion, and thenceforward 
peace was undisturbed in the valley of the Rio 
Grande. At that time Gen. Taylor's capacity was 
not justly estimated, his golden silence being often 
misunderstood. His reply to Sec. Marcy's strict- 
ures in regard to the capitulation of Monterey 
exhibited such vigor of thought and grace of ex- 

pression that many attributed it to a member of 
his staff who had a literary reputation. It was 
written by Gen. Taylor's own hand, in the open air, 
by his camp-fire at Victoria, Mexico. 

Many years of military routine had not dulled 
his desire for knowledge; he had extensively studied 
both ancient and modern history, especially the 
English. Unpretending, meditative, observant, 
and conclusive, he was best understood and most 
appreciated by those who had known him long and 
intimately. In a campaign he gathered information 
from all .who approached him, however sinister 
their motive might be. By comparison and elimi- 
nation he gained a knowledge that was often sur- 
? rising as to the position and designs of the enemy, 
n battle he was vigilantly active, though quiet in 
bearing ; calm and considerate, though stern and 
inflexible ; but when the excitement of danger and 
strife had subsided, he had a father's tenderness 
and care for the wounded, and none more sincerely 
mourned for those who had bravely fallen in the 
line of their duty. 

Before his nomination for the presidency Gen. 
Taylor had no political aspirations and looked for- 
ward to the time when he should retire from the 
army as the beginning of a farmer's life. He had 

Jlanned for his retreat a stock-farm in the hills of 
efferson county, behind his cotton-plantation on 
the Mississippi river. In his case, as in some other 
notable instances, the fact of not desiring office 
rather increased than diminished popular confi- 
dence, so that unseeking he was sought. From 
early manhood he had served continually in the 
U. S. army. His duties had led him to consider 
the welfare of the country as one and indivisible, 
and his opinions were free from party or sectional 
intensity. Conscious of his want of knowledge of 
the machinery of the civil service, he formed his 
cabinet to supplement his own information. They 
were men well known to the public by the eminent 
civil stations they had occupied, and were only 
thus known to Gen. Taylor, who as president had 
literally no friends to reward and no enemies to 
punish. The cabinet was constituted as follows: 
John M. Clayton, of Delaware, secretary of state ; 
William M. Meredith, of Pennsylvania, secretary 
of the treasury ; George W. Crawford, of Georgia, 
secretary of war ; W. Ballard Preston, of Virginia, 
secretary of the navy ; Reverdy Johnson, of Mary- 
land, attorney-general; Alexander H. H. Stuart, 
of Virginia, secretary of the interior. All these 
had served in the U. S. senate or the house of rep- 
resentatives, and all were lawyers. Taylor was the 
popular hero of a foreign war which had been vic- 
toriously ended, bringing to the United States a 
large acquisition of territory with an alluring har- 
vest of gold, but, all unheeded, bringing also a 
large addition to the elements of sectional conten- 
tion. These were soon developed, and while the 
upper air was calm and the sun of prosperity shone 
brightly on the land, the attentive listener could 
hear the rumbling sound of approaching convul- 
sion. President Taylor, with the keen watchful- 
ness and intuitive perception that had character- 
ized him as a commander in the field, easily saw 
and appreciated the danger; but before it had 
reached the stage for official action he died. His 
partv and local relations, being a Whig and a 
southern planter, gave him the vantage-ground for 
the exercise of a restraining influence in the threat- 
ened contest. His views, matured under former 
responsibilities, were tersely given to confidential 
friends, and as none of his cabinet (except Attor- 
ney-General Stuart) survive, their consultations 
cannot be learned unless from preserved manu- 




script. During the brief period of his administra- 
tion the rules that would govern it were made 
manifest, and no law for civil-service reform was 
needful for his guidance. With him the bestowal 
of office was a trust held for the people ; it was 
not to be gained by proof of party zeal and labor. 
The fact of holding Democratic opinions was not 
a disqualification for the office. Nepotism had 
with him no quarter. So stiict was he in this 
that to be a relative was an obstacle to appoint- 
ment. Gen. Winfield Scott related to the writer 
an anecdote that may appropriately close this 
sketch. He said he had remarked to his wife that 
Gen. Taylor was an upright man, to which she re- 
plied : " He is not " ; that he insisted his long ac- 
quaintance should enable him to judge better than 
she. But she persisted in her denial, and he asked : 
"Then what manner of man is he?" When she 
responded : " He is a downright man." 

As president he had purity, patriotism, and dis- 
cretion to guide him in his new field of duty, and 
had he lived long enough to stamp his character 
on his administration, it would have been found 
that the great soldier was equally fitted to be the 
head of a government. Gen. Taylor's life was 
written by Joseph R. Fry and Robert T. Conrad 
(Philadelphia, 1848) and by John Frost (New York, 
1848). — His wife, Margaret, b. in Calvert county, 
Md., about 1790 ; d. near Pascagoula, La., 18 Aug., 
1852, was the daughter of Walter Smith, a Maryland 
planter. She received a home education, married 
early in life, and, until her husband's election to 
the presidency, resided with him chiefly in garri- 
sons or on the frontier. During the Florida war she 
established herself at Tampa bay, and did good 
service among the sick and wounded in the hos- 
pitals there. Mrs. Taylor was without social 
ambition, and when Gen. Taylor became president 
she reluctantly accepted her responsibilities, regard- 
ing the office as a " plot to deprive her of her hus- 
band's society and to shorten his life by unnecessary 
care." She surrendered to her youngest daughter 
the superintendence of the household, and took no 
part in social duties. — Her eldest daughter, Sarah, 
became the wife of Jefferson Davis. — Another 
daughter, Elizabeth, b. in 1826, was educated in 
Philadelphia, married Maj. William W. S. Bliss in 
her nineteenth year, and, on her father's inaugura-. 
tion, became mistress of the White House. Mrs. 
Bliss, or Miss Betty, as she was popularly called, 
was a graceful and accomplished hostess, and, it 
is said, " did the honors of the establishment with 
the artlessness of a rustic belle and the grace of a 
duchess." After the death of her father in 1850, 
and her husband in 1853, she spent several years 
in retirement, subsequently marrying Philip Dan- 
dridge, of Winchester. Va., whom she survives. — 
His onlv son, Richard, soldier, b. in New Orleans, 
27 Jan., 1826 ; d. in New York city, 12 April. 1879, 
was sent to Edinburgh, Scotland, when thirteen 
years old, where he spent three years in studying 
the classics, and then a year in France. He entered 
the junior class at Yale in 1843, and was graduated 
there in 1845. He was a wide and voracious 
though a desultory reader. From college he went 
to his father's camp on the Rio Grande, and he 
was present at Palo Alto, and Resaca de la Pal ma. 
His health then became impaired, and he returned 
home. He resided on a cotton-plantation in Jeffer- 
son county, Miss., until 1849, when he removed to 
a sugar-estate in St. Charles parish, Louisiana, 
about twenty miles above New Orleans, where he 
was residing when the civil war began. He was in 
the state senate from 1856 to 1860, was a delegate 
to the Charleston Democratic convention in 1860. 

and afterward to that at Baltimore, and was a 
member of the Secession convention of Louisiana. 
As a member of the military committee, he aided 
the governor in organizing troops, and in June, 
1861, went to Virginia as colonel of the 9th Louisi- 
ana volunteers. The day he reached Richmond 
he left for Manassas, arriving there at dusk on the 
day of the battle. In the autumn he was made a 
brigadier-general, and in the spring of 1862 he led 
his brigade in the valley campaign under " Stone- 
wall " Jackson. He distinguished himself at Front 
Royal, Middletown, Winchester, Strasburg, Cross 
Keys, and Port Republic, and Jackson recommended 
him for promotion. Taylor was also with Jackson 
in the seven days' battles before Richmond. He 
was promoted to major-general, and assigned to 
the command of Louisiana. The fatigues and ex- 
posures of his campaigns there brought on a partial 
and temporary paralysis of the lower limbs ; but in 
August he assumed command. The only com- 
munication across the Mississippi retained by the 
Confederates was between Vicksburg and Port 
Hudson ; but Taylor showed great ability in raising, 
organizing, supplying, and handling an army, and 
he gradually won back the state west of the Missis- 
sippi from the National forces. He had reclaimed 
the whole of this when Vicksburg fell, 4 July, 
1863, and was then compelled to fall back west of 
Berwick's bay. Gen. Taylor's principal achieve- 
ment during the war was his defeat of Gen. 
Nathaniel P. Banks at Sabine Cross-Roads, near 
Mansfield, De Soto parish, La., 8 April, 1864. With 
8,000 men he attacked the advance of the northern 
army and routed it, capturing twenty-two guns and 
a large number of prisoners. He followed Banks, 
who fell back to Pleasant hill, and on the next 
day again attacked him, when Taylor was defeated, 
losing the fruits of the first day's victory. These 
two days' fighting have been frequently compared 
to that of Shiloh — a surprise and defeat on the first 
day, followed by a substantial victory of theNational 
forces on the second. In the summer of 1864 Tay- 
lor was promoted to be a lieutenant-general, and 
ordered to the command of the Department of 
Alabama, Mississippi, etc. Here he was able merely 
to protract the contest, while the great armies de- 
cided it. After Lee and Johnston capitulated there 
was nothing for him, and he surrendered to Gen. 
Edward R. S. Canby, at Citronelle, 8 May, 1865. 
The war left Taylor ruined in fortune, and he soon 
went abroad. Returning home, he took part in 
politics as an adviser, and his counsel was held in 
special esteem by Samuel J. Tilden in his presi- 
dential canvass. During this period he wrote his 
memoir of the war, entitled " Destruction and Re- 
construction " (New York, 1879). — His' brother, 
Joseph Pannel, soldier, b. near Louisville, Ky., 
4 May, 1796 ; d. in Washington, D. C, 29 June, 1864, 
served in the ranks on the Canadian frontier dur- 
ing the war of 1812, was appointed a lieutenant of 
U. S. infantry on 20 May, 1813, served through the 
war with Great Britain, and was retained on the 
peace establishment as lieutenant of artillery, be- 
coming a captain in July, 1825. He was appointed 
commissary of subsistence in 1829, and thenceforth 
served in that department, becoming assistant com- 
missary-general, with the rank of lieutenant-colo- 
nel, in 1841. On 30 May, 1848, he was brevetted 
colonel for his services in prosecuting the war 
with Mexico, during which he was chief commis- 
sary of the army on the upper line of operations. 
In September, 1861, he was made colonel and 
commissary-general, and on 9 Feb., 1863, was pro- 
moted brigadier-general. His wife was a daugh- 
ter of Justice John McLean.— Their son, John 




McLean, soldier, b. in Washington, D. C, 21 Nov., 
1828 ; d. in Baltimore, Md., 21 Nov., 1875, entered 
the U. S. army as 2d lieutenant in the 3d artillery 
on 3 March, 1848, and was promoted 1st lieutenant 
on 30 June, 1851, and captain and commissary of 
subsistence on 11 May, 1851. He served faithfully 
in his department during the civil war, becoming 
major on 9 Feb., 1863, and receiving the brevets 
of lieutenant-colonel and colonel to date from 13 
March, 1865. — Another son, Joseph Hancock, sol- 
dier, b. in Kentucky, 26 Jan., 1836 ; d. in Omaha, 
Neb., 13 March, 1885, was graduated at the U. S. 
military academy in 1856, and commissioned 2d 
lieutenant of cavalry on 16 Jan., 1857. He served 
in Kansas, in the Utah expedition, and in a cam- 

faign in 1860 against the Kiowa and Comanche 
ndians of Colorado. He was promoted 1st lieu- 
tenant on 22 April, 1861, and captain on 14 May, 
and was appointed acting adjutant-general of Gen. 
Edwin V. Sumner's division on 27 Nov., 1861. 
During the peninsula campaign, and subsequently 
in the Maryland campaign, he served as acting as- 
sistant adjutant-general of the 2d corps, winning 
the brevet of major at Fair Oaks, and that of lieu- 
tenant-colonel at the Antietam. He was assistant 
adjutant-general at Fredericksburg, and assistant 
inspector-general of cavalry in Stoneman's raid. 
On 1 June, 1863, he was assigned to duty as assist- 
ant adjutant-general of the department at Wash- 
ington. He was appointed a major on the staff on 
30 March, 1866, and on 13 Aug. was brevetted 
colonel for faithful services during the war. He 
was on duty in different military departments till 
his death, which was due to disease that he had 
contracted in the line of duty. 

TAZEWELL, Henry, senator, b. in Brunswick, 
county, Va., in 1753 ; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 24 
Jan., 1799. He was educated at William and 
Mary, studied law with his uncle, John, was ad- 
mitted to practice, and in 1775 was elected to the 
house of burgesses. In the convention of 1776 he 
was placed on the committee that reported the 
declaration of rights and the constitution. He 
continued a member of the legislature, taking an 
active part in its deliberations till 1785, when he 
was appointed to a seat on the supreme bench of 
Virginia. He served as a member of the court of 
appeals, and in 1793, when a separate appellate 
court was constituted, he was chosen one of the 
judges. In the following year he resigned in order 
to take his seat in the U. S. senate, of which he 
was a member till his death. In 1795 he was 
elected president, pro tempore. During the discus- 
sion of John Jay's English treaty he was the leader 
of the Republican opposition. — His son, Littleton 
Waller, statesman, b. in Williamsburg, Va., 17 
Dec, 1774; d. in Norfolk, Va., 6 March, 1860, was 
graduated at William and Mary in 1792, studied 
law, was admitted to the Richmond bar in 1796, 
and entered on the practice of his profession in 
James City county. He was elected in 1796 a 
member of the Virginia house of delegates and 
served in that body, by re-election, for four years. 
As an adherent of the Jefferson party he support- 
ed the famous resolutions of 1798, and James Madi- 
son's report of 1799. In 1800 he was elected to 
succeed John Marshall as a member of the U. S. 
house of representatives, and participating in the 
presidential election that devolved on that body he 
supported Thomas Jefferson against Aaron Burr. 
Declining a re-election to congress he removed 
in 1802 to Norfolk, where he soon took rank among 
the foremost lawyers of that commercial port, then 
noted for its able bar. He gained special distinc- 
tion in criminal and in admiralty law. Though 



sharing, in politics, the general views and consti- 
tutional opinions of Jefferson, he frankly dissent- 
ed from the chief measures of the administration — 
its gun-boat system of defence, its non-intercourse 
act, and the em- 
bargo. He was 
equally opposed 
to the wrongs that 
were committed 
by England and 
by France against 
our commerce 
during the Napo- 
leonic wars, and, 
favoring at an 
early stage a dec- 
laration of war 
against both alike, 
he avowed his 
readiness to make 
the attack of the 
"Leopard" on the 
cruiser " Chesa- 
peake " in 1807 a cause of immediate war against 
Great Britain, and offered his military services at 
the head of a cavalry troop. But he finally 
broke with the administration at all points on the 
ground of its incapacity for either war or peace, 
and in 1808 opposed the election of Madison as 
president for a like reason. In 1809 he supported 
the Federalist candidate for congress in the Nor- 
folk district, and, on grounds of public policy, con- 
tinued in steadfast opposition to war with Eng- 
land ; but when war was declared in 1812 he gave 
to it his hearty support. The close of the war left 
Norfolk to deal with a new set of economical 
and fiscal questions, and, as Mr. Tazewell was 
known to be specially versed in such matters, he 
was elected a member of the Virginia legislature 
in 1816, and took an active part in its deliberations. 
He was appointed by President Monroe as one of 
the commissioners of the United States under the 
treaty with Spain for the purchase of Florida in 
1819. In 1824 he was elected to the U. S. senate, 
and he was re-elected in 1830. As a member of the 
committee on foreign relations, of which for sev- 
eral years he was chairman, he wrote the celebrated 
report on the Panama mission, while his speeches 
on the piracy act, the bankrupt act, the preroga- 
tives of the president in the appointment of for- 
eign ministers, and the tariff, were greatly admired. 
Though antagonizing the general policy of the ad- 
ministration of John Quincy Adams, he soon ar- 
rayed himself, with equal independence, against 
the financial measures of President Jackson. In 
1832 he favored a reduction of the tariff of 1828. 
While showing himself no zealot of the Bank of 
the United States, when the question of its rechar- 
ter arose in 1832, he publicly denounced the act of 
the president in removing the deposits. He op- 
posed the nullification measures of South Carolina, 
but at the same time dissented from the high Fed- 
eral doctrines of Jackson's proclamation. When 
he was elected president of the senate in 1831, he 
refused to accept the honor, and in 1833 resigned 
his seat in that body from pure disgust of Federal 
politics. In the following year he was chosen gov- 
ernor of the state, and after his term of office had 
expired he withdrew entirely "from all connection 
with politics. While serving in the U. S. senate, 
he was elected a member of the convention that 
was called in 1829 to revise the constitution of Vir- 
ginia, and distinguished himself in that body 
among men like Madison, Monroe, and Marshall 
by the solidity of his counsels, and the weight of 




his influence. In standard English literature 
Tazewell was deeply read ; in familiarity with Eng- 
lish and American history he had few equals ; in 
knowledge of law he had no superior ; in politics 
he exhibited the traits of a Cato as much by the 
impracticability of his principles as by the severity 
of his virtues. The character of " Sidney," in 
William Wirt's " Old Bachelor," is a sketch of 
Tazewell drawn from life by his friend and com- 
peer at the bar. He was the author of " Review 
of the Negotiations between the United States and 
Great Britain respecting the Commerce of the Two 
Countries " (London, 1829), and contributed under 
the pen-name of Senex to the Norfolk " Herald " 
in 1827. See a discourse on his life by Hugh Blair 
Grigsby, LL. D. (Norfolk, 1860). 

TEALL, Francis Augustus, editor, b. in Fort 
Anne, Washington co., N. Y., 16 Aug., 1822. He 
entered a printing-office in 1836, afterward sup- 
plemented his common-school education by the 
study of languages, and in 1841 went to New York 
city. Here he worked at the case, with Walt Whit- 
man as a fellow-compositor, and was soon advanced 
to the place of proof-reader. In this capacity he 
has rendered much critical service of an editorial 
character on a large variety of works. Among other 
interesting things that received his attention were 
the original proofs of Edgar A. Poe's " Raven " and 
"Bells." He assisted Ephraim G. Squier in pre- 
paring his " Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi 
Valley " (Washington, 1848), and John R. Bartlett 
in the first edition of his " Dictionary of Ameri- 
canisms," and made the analytical index to the 
American edition of Napier's " Peninsular War." 
For some time he was on the editorial staff of the 
" American Whig Review," and in 1853 succeeded 
Mr. Whitman as editor of a newspaper at Hunt- 
ington, L. I. He acted as proof-reader, contribu- 
tor, and associate editor on the different editions 
of the "American Cyclopaedia," and noted the 
pronunciation of the titles in the volume of index 
to the second edition and in the text of the con- 
densed edition. Since 1882 he has been employed 
in the compilation of the "Century Dictionary." 
The Universitv of Rochester gave him the degree 
of A. M. in 1875. 

_ TECHOTLALATZIN (tetch-ot-lah-lah-tseen'), 
king of Texcoco, d. in 1409. He was the youngest 
son of King Quinatzin, whom he succeeded on the 
throne in 1357. During his reign one of his de- 
pendent chiefs, Tzompan, cacique of Xaltocan, re- 
volted against his rule ; but he asked assistance 
from King Huitzilihuitl of Mexico, and with his 
aid routed the rebel. From that date a mutual 
alliance began between the monarchies of Texcoco, 
Tlaltelolco, and Chapultepec. He was succeeded 
by his son Ixtlilxochitl I. 

TECTO, Juan de, Flemish missionary, b. in 
Ghent in 1468; d. in Honduras in 1526. He was 
graduated as D. D. in Paris, and was for several 
years professor of theology in the Sorbonne uni- 
versity, and afterward chaplain of Emperor 
Charles V., and guardian of a convent of Francis- 
cans at Ghent. In 1522 he obtained from Charles 
V., who was much attached to him, permission to 
go to the New World, and fixed his residence at 
Texcoco, where he founded missions for the Indi- 
ans and learned their language. He accompanied 
Cortes in his expedition to Hibueras in 1525, and 
as, owing to the rebellion of Cristobal de Olid, no 
provisions were obtainable, Tecto, exhausted, fell 
behind the army, and was found later by a patrol 
leaning against a tree, where he had died of hun- 
ger. According to Bernal Diaz del Castillo, he was 
sent by Cortes to report to the emperor about the 

conquest of Hibueras, and died at sea, off the coast 
of Spain. Tecto is the author of two valuable 
works : " Primeros rudimentos de la doctrina Cris- 
tiana en lengua Mexicana," a manuscript which 
was utilized by Fray Pedro de Gante for his 
" Catecismo Mexicano " ; and " Apologia del bau- 
tismo administrado a los gentiles Mexicanos con 
sola el agua y la forma Sacramental," which is 
cited by Torquemada in his " Monarquia Indiana." 
TECUMSEH, or TECUMTHA, Shawnee chief, 
b. near the site of Springfield, Ohio, about 1768; 
killed in the battle of the Thames, Canada, 5 Oct., 
1813. His father, Puckeshinwa, or Pukeesheno, 
a Shawnee brave, fell in battle when the son was 
a child. The latter first appears in a fight with 
Kentucky troops on Mad river when he was about 
twenty years old, and is said to have run at the 
first fire, yet in the campaign that ended in the 
treaty of Greenville in 1795 he was a bold and 
active warrior. About 1805, with his brother, 
Ellskwatawa, the " prophet," he projected the 
union of all the western tribes of Indians against 
the whites. He claimed that the treaties by which 
large tracts of Indian land had been ceded to set- 
tlers were illegal, as the land was the common 
property of all the tribes, and therefore could be 
alienated only by common consent. The general 
discontent was increased by the action of specu- 
lators in ejecting Indians from lands, and by 
British emissaries ; and the brothers soon had a 
large following. They visited the tribes from the 
Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, and, in spite of the 
warnings of Gen. William Henry Harrison, who 
was then governor of the Northwest territory, they 
continued to follow out their scheme. In August, 
1810, in response to an invitation to a " quiet talk " 
with the governor, Tecumseh, with 400 fully 
armed warriors, encamped in a grove near Vin- 
cennes, Ind. He was invited to the portico of the 
governor's house, but replied : " Houses were built 
for you to hold councils in ; Indians hold theirs in 
the open air." He opened the conference in a speech 
of great eloquence, and at its close, being invited 
to sit near his "father," Gen. Harrison, said, boast- 
ingly : " The sun is my father, and the earth is my 
mother ; on her bosom I will repose," suiting the 
action to the word. In the discussion that followed 
he boldly demanded the return of treaty lands, 
and his violent and threatening manner put an 
end to the coun- 
cil. On the next 
day Tecumseh ex- 
pressed regret for 
his violence, and 
the conference 
was resumed, but 
was productive of 
no results. Will- 
iam Clark, of 
Clarksville, Pa., is 
probably the only 
survivor of those 
that were present 
at this interview 

between Harrison j^<k» : 1 J&-i ' .\ /V \ 
and Tecumseh. In ^%^. ■ Xs^' / 

the following year 
Indian depreda- 
tions increased, 
and another con- 
ference was held, at which Tecumseh, awed by a 
militia force, professed peaceful intentions, while 
insisting on the vacation of ceded lands ; yet a few 
days later he set out on a journey to secure the 
Creeks, Choctaws, and Cherokees for his proposed 




league. He was not in the battle of Tippecanoe. 
(See Harrison, William Henry.) That defeat 
ruined his plans, yet he continued his efforts among 
the southern tribes, and in the autumn of 1812 at- 
tended a great council at Toockabatcha, Ala., which 
had been called by the U. S. Indian agent, Col. 
Hawkins. Here he made a passionate speech, 
telling the Creeks that they would know when to 
begin war on the whites by the appearance of the 
arm of Tecumseh stretching across the heavens 
like pale fire. He had been told by the British 
that a comet would soon appear. To the chief 
Tustinugee-Thlucco, who opposed him, he said : 
" You do not believe that the Great Spirit has 
sent me. You shall believe it. I will go straight 
to Detroit, and when I get there I will stamp my 
foot upon the ground and shake down every house 
in Toockabatcha." In the following December 
there was an earthquake shock, and the affrighted 
Creeks ran from their dwellings shouting : " Tecum- 
seh is at Detroit ! " This, and the appearance of 
the promised sign in the heavens, caused the Creek 
nation to rise in arms, and brought about their 
speedy ruin. Tecumseh now joined the English, 
and commanded the Indian allies in the cam- 
paigns of 1812-'13. He refused to meet the Amer- 
ican commanders in council, was in the action on 
Raisin river, and, after being wounded at Magua- 
ga, was made a brigadier -general in the royal 
army. He led 2,000 warriors in the siege of Fort 
Meigs, where he saved American prisoners from 
massacre. After the battle of Lake Erie he urged 
Gen. Henry Proctor to engage Gen. William Henry 
Harrison when he landed, but took part in the 
British retreat, and was wounded while holding 
the passage of a stream. He aided Proctor in 
selecting the battle-ground at the Thames, and 
commanded the right wing, laying aside his sword 
and uniform and putting on his hunting-dress, in 
the conviction that he must fall. His Indians 
were driven back, and he fought desperately till 
he was killed. His death was unknown to the 
Americans for several days. Afterward it was 
claimed for Col. Richard Malcolm Johnston, who 
had killed a powerful Indian in hand-to-hand 
combat, that his antagonist was Tecumseh, and 
the claim occasioned a long controversy, but the 
fact has not been established satisfactorily. Tecum- 
seh possessed great executive ability, and with prop- 
er training would have been distinguished as a gen- 
eral. Says a Canadian historian : " No one can 
fully calculate the inestimable value of those de- 
voted red men, led on by the brave Tecumseh 
during the struggle of 1812. But for them it is 
probable that we should not now have a Canada ; 
and if we had we would not enjoy the liberty and 
privileges which we possess in so eminent a de- 
gree." See " Life of Tecumseh, and his Broth- 
er, the Prophet, with an Historical Sketch of 
the Shawnee Indians," based on the accounts of 
various persons that knew the chief personally 
(Cincinnati, 1841), and "Tecumseh and the Shawnee 
Prophet," by Edward Eggleston (New York, 1878). 
TECUM-UMAN (tay-coom), last king of Quiche, 
d. near Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, in 1524. He 
was the son of King Kicab-Tanub, who died dur- 
ing a war with his neighbors the Zutuhiles and 
Mames, and Tecum-Uman, hearing of the approach 
of the Spaniards, tried to form an alliance with his 
former enemies against the invaders. Only the 
Mames accepted his offer, and with their auxiliary 
troops Tecum-Uman is said, by the Spanish chron- 
iclers, to have gathered an army of 230,000 war- 
riors ; but they could not resist the superior arms 
and discipline of Alvarado's army of 450 Spaniards 

and about 5,000 auxiliary Mexican Indians. The 
first battle, in the ford of the river Tilapa, 24 Feb., 
1524, was sharp and not decisive, but a few days 
afterward Tecum-Uman was totally defeated on 
Olintepeque river, and it was afterward called 
Xequigel, or river of blood. Tecum-Uman retired 
with the rest of his army, but was overtaken in a 
valley between Quezaltenango and Totonicapan, 
where he made the last desperate stand, and was 
killed by the lance of Alvarado. 

TEEDYUSCUNG, Delaware chief, b. near Tren- 
ton, N. J., about 1700; d. in Wyoming vallev, Pa., 
16 April, 1763. He was also known as Honest 
John and War Trumpet. His father, " Old Cap- 
tain Harris," and his brothers and half-brothers, 
"Captain John," "Young Captain Harris," "Tom," 
"Joe," and "Sam Evans" (names given them by 
the English), were all high-spirited men. In 1730 he 
settled in the forks of the Delaware, and he united 
in 1749 with the Moravian Indian mission at Gna- 
denhuetten, Carbon co., Pa., where, on 12 March, 
1750, he was baptized by Bishop Cammerhoff, re- 
ceiving the name of Gideon. Aware of how his 
countrymen were being injured by the whites and 
oppressed by the Six Nations, in 1754, when the 
Delawares and their allies appealed. to him to lead 
them and be their king, he deserted the Moravian 
mission. Henceforward his name is conspicuous 
in the provincial history of Pennsylvania. After 
the repulse of Braddock in July, 1755, he assem- 
bled the Delawares, Mohicans, and Shawnees in the 
Wyoming valley, and in the winter began to wage 
war among the whites that resided within the 
" Walking Purchase." In 1756 the government 
sought the pacification of the Delaware king, which, 
through treaties at Easton in July and November, 
1756, and November, 1757, was accomplished. In 
the following spring, agreeably to his request and 
the conditions of the treaty, a town was built for 
him and his followers in the Wyoming valley. 
One of the objects of his life was to recover for 
the Lenni Lenape that dignity which the Iroquois 
had treacherously wrested from them in 1742. He 
was burned to death with his house while asleep 
under the influence of liquor, the incendiary being 
instigated by his enemies. Teedyuscung was a fine- 
looking man, endowed with good sense, quick of 
comprehension, ambitious, and a patriot. 

TEFFT, Benjamin Franklin, clergyman, b. 
in Floyd, Oneida co., N. Y., 20 Aug., 1813 ; d. in 
Brewer, Penobscot co., Me., 16 Sept., 1885. He 
was graduated at Wesleyan university in 1835, 
taught four years in Maine Wesleyan seminary, 
and then, entering the ministry of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, was pastor at Bangor, Me., in 
1839-'41. He then taught in East Greenwich, R. 
I., and in 1842 accepted a charge in Boston, but 
his health failed in 1843, and after travelling in 
the south and west he was for three years profes- 
sor of Greek and Hebrew in Indiana Asbury (now 
De Pauw) university. In 1846 he became editor of 
the books and magazines of the Methodist book 
concern in Cincinnati, where he conducted the 
" Ladies' Repository " in 1846-'52, and in 1851-4 
he was president of Genesee college, Lima, N. Y., 
also editing in 1852-'4 the " Northern New Yorker," 
published at Canandaigua. He was pastor of dif- 
ferent churches in Bangor, Me., from 1858 till 
1861, when he was made U. S. consul at Stockholm 
and acting minister to Sweden, and in 1864 he was 
commissioner of immigration from the north of 
Europe for the state of Maine. In 1866 he became 
pastor of a church in Portland, and from 1873 till 
1878 he edited " The Northern Border," published 
at Bangor, Me. During the last two years of his 




life he was in feeble health. Ohio Wesleyan uni- 
versity gave him the degree of D. D. in 1846, and 
Madison university that of LL. D in 1852. Besides 
pamphlets, lectures, addresses, and contributions 
to current literature, Dr. Tefft was the author of 
"Prison Life," based on data furnished by Rev. 
James B. Finley (Cincinnati, 1847) ; " The Shoul- 
der-Knot, a Story of the Seventeenth Century" 
(New York, 1850) ; " Hungary and Kossuth " (Phila- 
delphia, 1852); "Webster and his Masterpieces" 
(2 vols., Auburn, N. Y., 1854) ; " Methodism Suc- 
cessful, and the Internal Causes of its Success," 
with an introductory letter by Bishop Janes (New 
York, 1860): "Our Political Parties" (Boston, 
1880); and "Evolution and Christianity" (1885). 
He edited Erwin House's " Sketches, Literary and 
Religious " (Cincinnati, 1847), and Dr. Charles 
Elliott's " Sinfulness of American Slavery " (1850). 

TEFFT, Thomas Alexander, architect, b. in 
Richmond, R. I., 3 Aug., 1826; d. in Florence, 
Italy, 12 Dec, 1859. He was graduated in the 
scientific course at Brown in 1851, and after study- 
ing architecture in Providence furnished designs 
for many private and public buildings. In 1856 
he went to Europe in order to study art and to 
announce his ideas of a uniform currency for all 
nations, on which subject he read a paper before 
the British institute of social science. After his 
death the principal features of his scheme were 
incorporated in the plan that was agreed upon by 
an international conference at Paris in 1867, at 
which nineteen nations were represented. He con- 
tributed papers on architecture to the " New York 
Crayon," and " Letters from Europe ". to the " New 
York Times " in 1857-'8, and published " Our De- 
ficiency in Art Education" (Providence, 1852), 
and " Universal Currency : a Plan for obtaining a 
Common Currency in France, England, and Ameri- 
ca, based on the Decimal System " (London, 1858). 
See " Memoir " by the Rev. Edwin Martin Stone 
(Boston, 1869). 

TEGAKOUITA, Catharine, Indian convert, b. 
in Gandahouague, or Gandawague, in northern 
New York, in 1656 ; d. in Caughnawaga, Canada, 
17 April, 1680. The name Tegakouita means " who 
puts things in order," and is still in use at Caugh- 
nawaga. Her father was a heathen Iroquois, and 
her mother a Christian Algonquin. Her parents 
died when she was a child, and she was brought up 
by her uncle, who was a chief. Her first knowl- 
edge of Christianity appears to have been obtained 
from Jacques Fremin and two other missionaries, 
whom she entertained in her cabin. She embraced 
the new creed with fervor, resolved to remain single, 
and suffered much ill treatment from her relatives 
because of her refusal to marry ; but she was not 
baptized until 1676. Her refusal to work on Sun- 
days increased the hostility of her tribe toward 
her, and she had on one occasion a narrow escape 
from death. Calumnies were spread about her 
character, and she finally resolved to escape to the 
Christian village of La Prairie, which she reached 
in October, 1677, after many dangers. The rest of 
her life was spent in prayer, labor, and mortifica- 
tions of the severest kind. She enrolled herseif in 
the Confraternity of the Holy Family, and began 
to be regarded both by the French and Indians as 
a great saint. After death her grave became a 
place of pilgrimage, and, although an effort was 
made by the priests of the neighboring parishes to 
check devotion to her, she was invoked as a saint 
throughout Canada. Numerous miracles are said 
to have been wrought at her tomb, or by her relics. 
The third plenary council of Baltimore petitioned 
the holy see to take steps toward her canoniza- 

tion in 1884. See " Life of Catharine Tegakouita," 
by Father Claude Chauchetiere (New York, 1886) ; 
her life by Cholonek, in vol. xii. of " Lettres edi- 
fiantes" (Paris, 1727); and Kipp's "Jesuit Mis- 
sions " (New York, 1847). 

TEG AN A KO A, Stephen, Indian convert, d. in 
Onondaga, N. Y., in 1690. While still a pagan he 
was noted for the innocence of his life and manners 
and his attachment to his wife and children. He 
went with his family to the mission of Caughna- 
waga, or Sault Ste. Louis, when he was about thirty- 
five years old, applied for baptism, and after the 
usual probation was received with his wife and six 
children. He was afterward considered a model of 
every virtue. In August, 1790, he went on a hunt- 
ing expedition with his wife and another Indian. 
In the following September the party was attacked 
by a band of seventeen Cayugas and brought to 
Onondaga. One of his captors said to Stephen that 
he might attribute his death to his having left his 
tribe to live among " the dogs of Christians at the 
Sault." Stephen replied : " Do what you will with 
me, 1 fear neither your outrages nor your fires. I 
willingly give my life for a God who shed his blood 
for me." The savages then put him to death with 
slow tortures. He bore his sufferings calmly, and 
died praving for his murderers. 

TEGANISSORENS, Indian chief, b. in Onon- 
daga, N. Y. ; d. in Sault St. Louis, or Caughna- 
waga, on Lake Champlain, after 1711. He was 
strongly attached to the French, and in 1682 was 
placed at the head of a deputation of Iroquois 
chiefs that was sent to Montreal to make terms 
with Frontenac and his Indian allies. It was soon 
discovered that the Iroquois had sent Teganis- 
sorens as a blind, and were taking the field against 
the Illinois, while pretending to wish for peace. 
But the French governor dismissed him with honor, 
knowing that his influence did not extend to all 
the Iroquois tribes. He set out on a similar mis- 
sion in 1688, and the preliminaries for a treaty 
were arranged between Denonville, the Canadian 
governor, and the Iroquois deputies. The Hurons 
were dissatisfied with the proposed treaty, and, on 
the return of Teganissorens and his party, they 
were attacked by Kondiaronk, a Huron chief. 
Some were killed and others taken prisoners, 
among the latter Teganissorens, who, on complain- 
ing of this attack on an ambassador and a friend 
of the French, was told by Kondiaronk that the 
latter themselves had sent him. To show that he 
spoke sincerely, he at once released the Iroquois 
ambassador. Teganissorens, however, remained 
loyal, and continued to render such services that 
he ranked with Oureouhare and Garaconthie as 
one of the three Indians to whom the French col- 
ony in Canada was most indebted. He became a 
Christian in 1693, and in May, 1694, arrived in 
Quebec with eight deputies. He was received with 
kindness by Frontenac, the governor, who gave 
him many presents. He proposed the restoration 
of Fort Catarocouy (Kingston), and that it should 
be strengthened and made the bulwark of the 
colony. The suggestion was eagerly adopted by 
Frontenac, who prepared a large escort which was 
to conduct to that port a garrison, mechanics, and 
all necessary stores, but he was obliged to counter- 
mand the expedition, owing to an order from the 
French court. He excited the displeasure of the 
governor afterward by not returning to Montreal 
at a fixed date with the submission of some of the 
Iroquois tribes who were holding back. But the 
reason of his delay was that he found his efforts to 
bring about a general reconciliation between the 
Iroquois and the French abortive. He remained 




at Onondaga, where he received three French am- 
bassadors that had been sent to make a treaty with 
the Iroquois on 10 Aug., 1700. He afterward re- 
ceived both French and English agents and de- 
clared his intention of remaining neutral. Hear- 
ing in 1703 that some of the Iroquois were concert- 
ing with Vaudreuil (who had then succeeded Cal- 
lieres in the government of the colony) an attack 
on the English settlements, Teganissorens went 
to Montreal and protested angrily against this 
breach of neutrality and declared that his tribe 
would take part for neither side. As the neutrali- 
ty of the Iroquois was what the French governor 
wanted, he assured the chief that he would not 
send any parties against the English in New York. 
Teganissorens, on his part, pledged himself to re- 
tain the missionaries that were in his country. In 
1711 he informed Vaudreuil that preparations were 
made at New York, Albany, and Boston for an in- 
vasion of Canada. 

TEJEDA, Juan de (teh-hay'-dah), Spanish sol- 
dier, lived in the second half of the 16th century. 
In 1589 he held the rank of major-general, and 
was sent to govern the island of Cuba, being the 
first ruler that had the title of captain-general. 
Under his government the three fortresses that 
protect Havana were built under the direction of 
the engineer Juan Antonelli, the aqueduct, convey- 
ing water from Chorrera to Havana, was finished, 
and in 1592 Havana received the title of city and 
a coat of arms. In 1595 he returned to Spain, be- 
ing superseded by Maldonado Barnuevo. 

TELFAIR, Edward, statesman, b. in Scotland 
ha 1735 ; d. in Savannah, Ga., 17 Sept., 1807. He 
was educated at Kirkcudbright grammar-school, 
came to this country in 1758 as agent of a com- 
mercial house, and resided for some time in Vir- 
ginia, but removed to Halifax, N. C, and in 1766 
to Savannah, where he engaged in business. He 
actively espoused the patriot cause at the opening 
of the Revolution, served on many committees, and 
was one of the party that broke open the magazine 
at Savannah and removed the powder. He was a 
delegate to the Continental congress in 1778 and 
1780-'3, and in the latter year was a commissioner 
to treat with the Cherokee's. In 1786, and again in 
1790-3, he was governor of Georgia. — His son, 
Thomas, was graduated at Princeton in 1805, 
served in the National house of representatives in 
1813-'17, and died in 1818. 

TELLER, Henry Moore, senator, b. in Granger, 
Allegany co., N. Y., 23 May, 1830. He was educated 
at Alfred university, N. Y., studied law, was admit- 
ted to the bar in Binghamton, N. Y., in 1858, and 
removed to Illinois in the same year, and to Colo- 
rado in 1861. He was major-general of Colorado 
militia in 1862-'4, but held no political office till, 
on the admission of Colorado as a state in 1876, he 
was chosen U. S. senator as a Republican, and took 
his seat, 4 Dec, 1876. He was re-elected for the 
term that ended in 1883. and in 1877-'8 served as 
chairman of a special committee on election frauds, 
that was known as the Teller committee. On 17 
April, 1882, he resigned, on his appointment by 
President Arthur to the portfolio or the interior, 
which he held till the close of the latter's adminis- 
tration. He was then re-elected to the senate for 
the term that will end in 1891. Alfred university 
gave him the degree of LL. D. in 1886. 

TELLIER, Remigins Joseph, Canadian cler- 
gyman, b. in Soissons, France, in 1796 ; d. in Mon- 
treal, Canada, 7 Jan., 1866. He entered the Society 
of Jesus on 11 Oct., 1818, and became rector of the 
College of Chambery, and in 1842 was sent with 
five colleagues to Canada, where the Roman Catho- 

lic bishop of Montreal had requested the pope to 
send members of the order. From the death of 
the last of the native Canadian Jesuits, Father 
Cazot, in 1800, there had been no establishment of 
the order in that country until the arrival of these 
six priests. For eight years after their arrival they 
had charge of the parish of La Prairie, where 
Father Tellier officiated for two years. Afterward 
he was employed among the Irish emigrants at St. 
Charles Point during the prevalence of ship-fever. 
He founded the Church of St. Patrick in Montreal, 
for three years was stationed in Upper Canada, and 
subsequently was sent to the United States, where 
he was at first prefect of studies and president of 
St. Francis Xavier college, and afterward at St. 
John's college, Fordham, N. Y. He was made 
superior of his order in 1859, and returned to Mon- 
treal, where he passed the remainder of his life. 

TELLKAMPF, Johann Ludwig, German 
scholar, b. in Germany, 28 Jan., 1808; d. there, 10 
Feb., 1876. He came to the United States in 1838, 
engaged in teaching, and in 1843-'7 was professor 
of the German language and literature in Colum- 
bia. He then returned to Germany as professor in 
Breslau. In 1848 he was elected to the Frankfort 
parliament, in 1849 to the Prussian chamber of 
deputies, in 1855 to the herrenhaus, and in 1871 
to the first German reichstag. He wrote " Politi- 
cal Economy" with Alonzo Potter (New York, 
1840); " Ueber die Besserungsgefangnisse in Nord- 
Amerika und England " (1844) ; with his brother, 
Theodore, "Essays on Law Reform and Commercial 
Policy " (London, 1859) ; " Ueber Arbeiterverhalt- 
nisse und Erwerbsgenossenschaften in England 
und Nord-Amerika " (1870) ; and " Selbstverwal- 
tung und Reforme der Gemeinde und Kreisord- 
nungen in Preussen, und Self-Government in Eng- 
land und Nord-Amerika" (1872). 

TELLO DE PORTUGAL, Jose de Espinosa, 
Spanish geographer, b. in Seville in March, 1763 ; 
d.. in Madrid, 6 Sept., 1815. He was a younger son 
of Count del Aguila, entered the navy as a cadet 
in 1778, served in the West Indies, and assisted in 
the capture of Yorktown in October, 1781, and in 
the expedition to Tobago under Bouille. After 
the conclusion of peace in 1783 he was employed 
in the naval observatory at Cadiz, and made charts 
of the Spanish coast from Fuenterrabia to Ferrol. 
In 1790 he joined the expedition of Alejandro 
Malaspina, determined the geographical position 
of Acapulco and other points, and with Malaspina 
explored the Straits of Nootka on the northwest 
coast of California. He afterward made astronom- 
ical observations in the Chilian Andes, and trav- 
elled through Peru and the La Plata provinces in 
1792-4. On his return to Spain he was promoted 
adjutant of Gen. Mazarredo, and in 1796 was made 
secretary of the board of hydrography, in which 
capacity he was charged in 1797 with the correc- 
tion of the plates of the great naval atlas of Spain 
that had been prepared under the direction of 
Vicente Tofiilo. He was promoted commodore 
and president of the board of hydrography in 1800, 
and secretary to the admiralty, with the rank of 
minister, in 1807. At the accession of Joseph 
Bonaparte he retired to London, where he lived 
till the restoration of Ferdinand VII. in 1814, 
when he returned to Spain. His works include 
" Carta esf erica que comprende las Costas del Seno 
Mejicano" (Madrid, 1799; revised ed., 1805); " Me- 
morias sobre las observaciones astronomicas, hechas 
por los navegantes Espafioles en distintos lugares 
del Globo " (2 vols., 1809) ; " Carta de las Antillas 
y de Tierra Firme" (London, 1811); and "Carta 
del Oceano Athlntico" (1812). 




TEMBLEQUE, Francisco (tem-blay'-keh), 
Spanish architect, b. in Tembleque, province of 
Toledo, in the first half of the 16th century; d. 
in Puebla, Mexico, near the end of that century. 
He entered the Franciscan order, came to New 
Spain about 1550, and soon learned the Aztec 
language, being venerated by the natives as their 
best friend. Having studied architecture and hy- 
draulics in Spain, he made use of his knowledge to 
remedy the want of potable water in the towns of 
Otumba and Cempoala, and constructed an aque- 
duct that carried the water of a mountain-stream 
for the distance of fifty miles to Otumba. Not- 
withstanding the opposition of experts, who de- 
clared the work impossible, Tembleque persisted in 
his course, and at the end of sixteen years finished 
the work, which contains more than thirty miles 
of solid masonry and crosses three valleys on 
bridges, of which the longest has sixty-seven arches, 
the middle one being 128 feet in height and 70 feet 
span. This work, called the Arches of Cempoala, 
is still the admiration of engineers. 

TEMPLE, Daniel, missionary, b. in Reading, 
Mass., 23 Dec, 1789 ; d. there, 9 Aug., 1851. He 
learned the shoemaker's trade, and labored at it in 
his native place till he had attained his majority, 
but afterward entered Dartmouth, was graduated 
there in 1817, and at Andover theological seminary 
in 1820. He was ordained as an evangelist in 1821, 
and went to Malta as a missionary in 1822 where 
he labored till his return to this country in Septem- 
ber, 1828. He sailed again for Malta in 1830, and 
from 1833 till 1844 was stationed at Smyrna. After 
this he was an agent for the American board in 
this country, and in 1847 assumed a pastoral charge 
at Phelps, N. Y., which failing health obliged him 
to relinquish in 1849. He published many works 
in modern Greek, Italian, and Armenian, including 
several biographies of Bible characters, and edited 
a monthly magazine in Greek. See his " Life and 
Letters " by his son, the Rev. Daniel H. Temple, 
with an introduction by the Rev. Richard S. Storrs, 
D. D. (Boston, 1855). 

TEMPLE, Jackson, jurist, b. in Heath, Frank- 
lin co., Mass., 11 Aug., 1827. He was graduated 
at Williams in 1851. studied law, and, removing to 
California, practised there with success. He was 
appointed to the bench of the state supreme court 
to fill a vacancy in 1887, and then continued in his 
seat by re-election. He has also served as district 
judge and judge of the superior court of Sonoma 
county. While occupying the last-named post, 
Judge Temple was selected to try the " debris suits," 
and by his decision of the first case prevented 
hydraulic mining from injuring farming lands. 

"TEMPLE, William tirenville, naval officer, 
b. in Rutland, Vt., 23 March, 1824. He entered 
the navy as a midshipman, 18 April, 1840, was 
graduated at the naval academy in 1846, and was 
attached to the " Boston " when she wao wrecked at 
Eleuthera, Bahama islands, 15 March, 1846, taking 
charge of the sick men from the wreck in the 
schooner "Volant." In February, 1847, he was 
ordered to the steamer "Scourge," in which he 
participated in the bombardment and capture of 
Vera Cruz and in the engagements at Alvarado, 
Tuspan, and Tabasco, sometimes having command 
of batteries and landing parties in operations on 
shore against the Mexicans. He assisted in the 
survey of the interoceanic canal and railroad across 
the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in 1850-'2, was pro- 
moted to master, 21 July, 1854, and to lieutenant, 
18 April, 1855. After cruising in the frigate 
"Lancaster" on the Pacific station in 1 859— '6 1 , he 
commanded the steamer " Flambeau " at New 


York for one month, and was on duty as ordnance- 
officer there for seven months. He was promoted 
to lieutenant-commander, 16 July, 1862, and com- 
manded the gun-boat " Pembina," in the Western 
Gulf blockading 
squadron. From 
November, 1862, he 
was fleet-captain of 
the Eastern Gulf 
blockading squad- 
ron until 19 Sept., 
1864. While he was 
fleet-captain he at 
times commanded 
the " San Jacinto " 
on special service, 
and in July, 1864, 
he led a force of 
sailors in defence 
of the approaches 
to Washington. He 
commanded the 
steamer " Pontoo- 
suc " from Novem- 
ber, 1864, till May, 1865, participating in both at- 
tacks on Fort Fisher, in the capture of Wilming- 
ton, N. C, in the bombardment of forts on James 
river, at Dutch gap, and at the capture of Peters- 
burg and Richmond. He was promoted to com- 
mander, 3 March, 1865, had the steamer " Tacony " 
in the North Atlantic squadron in 1865-6, and 
was on ordnance duty in 1866-'70. He was made 
captain, 28 Aug., 1870, and in December, 1884, was 
delegated to escort King Kalakaua, of the Sandwich 
islands, in his visit to this country, for which ser- 
vice congress allowed him to accept the decoration 
of knight commander of the royal order of Kanie- 
hameha I. He was promoted to commodore, 5 
June, 1878, was a member of the examining and 
retiring board in 1879-'81, and became its presi- 
dent in June, 1881. He was promoted to rear- 
admiral, 22 Feb., 1884, and voluntarily retired from 
active service on 29 Feb., 1884. 

TEN BROECK, Abraham, soldier, b. in Al- 
bany, N. Y., 13 May, 1734; d. there, 19 Jan., 1810. 
His father, Dirck, was for many years recorder of 
Albany, and its mayor in 1746-'8. The son be- 
came a merchant in 1753, and married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Gen. Stephen Van Rensselaer. From 
1760 till 1765 he was in the colonial assembly, 
where he was an active upholder of popular rights. 
In 1775 he sat in the Provincial congress, and in 
1776 he presided over the convention that organ- 
ized a state government. He was made a colonel 
of militia early in the Revolution, and on 25 June, 
1778, became brigadier -general of militia, (Com- 
manding the forces in Dutchess and Ulster coun- 
ties, and to the north and west. He did good 
service during Burgoyne's invasion, and led a bri- 
gade at the battle of Bemis Heights in October, 
1777. He was mayor of Albany in 1779-'83, a 
member of the state senate in 1780-'3, and judge 
of the court of common pleas in 1781-'4. Gen. 
Ten Broeck was also for several years a director 
and president of the Albany bank. 

TEN EYCK, Abraham S., naval officer, b. in 
New Jersey in 1785 ; d. in New Brunswick, N. J., 
28 March, 1844. He entered the navy as a mid- 
shipman, 1 Sept., 1811, and served in the "Wasp" 
when she captured the British sloop " Frolic," 18 
Oct., 1812. The British ship " Poictiers " recap- 
tured the prize the same day, and he was taken to 
Bermuda, where he was paroled. He was included 
in the vote of thanks and received a silver medal 
from congress by act of 29 Jan., 1813, for the vie- 




tory over the " Frolic." After the war he served 
in the frigate " United States" in 1815-'17 in the 
Mediterranean. He was promoted to lieutenant, 
27 April, 1816, served at the. New York navy- 
yard in 1818, in the "Ontario," in the Mediterra- 
nean and West Indies, in 1819-'24, in the receiving- 
ship at New York in 1825, and in the " Delaware " 
in 1827-30 in the Mediterranean. He was pro- 
moted master-commandant, 9 Feb., 1837, command- 
ed the store-ship " Erie " in the West Indies in 1838, 
and was commissioned captain, 10 Dec, 1843. 

TEN EYCK, Henry James, journalist, b. in 
Albany, N. Y., 25 July, 1856 ; d. there. 29 Nov., 
1887. He was graduated at Yale in 1879, third in 
a class of 131, and entered the office of the Albany 
" Evening Journal," where he remained until his 
death. In October, 1883, he became its managing 
editor, and in 1885 city editor. He was an occa- 
sional contributor to the magazines, more particu- 
larly the ." Century " and the " Popular Science 
Monthly," an article from his pen in the latter 
magazine in 1886 on " Some Tendencies in Taxa- 
tion " having attracted much attention. 

TEN EYCK, John Conover, senator, b. in Free- 
hold, N. J., 12 March, 1814 ; d. in Mount Holly, 
N. J., 24 Aug., 1879. He received his education from 

Erivate tutors, studied law, was admitted to the 
ar in 1835, and practised in Mount Holly, N. J. 
He served as prosecuting attorney for Burlington 
county in 1839-'49, and was a delegate to the State 
constitutional convention in 1844. Mr. Ten Eyck 
was a Whig till 1856, when he joined the Republi- 
can party, and he was afterward chosen to the U. S. 
senate, where he held his seat from 5 Dec, 1859, till 
3 March, 1865. In the senate Mr. Ten Eyck took 
part in various debates, including that on the elect- 
oral vote of Louisiana in 1865, but his principal 
services were performed on the judiciary and other 
committees. On 24 April, 1875, he was appointed 
a member of a commission to revise the New 
Jersey constitution, and on the death of Abram O. 
Zabriskie he became its president. 

TENNENT, William, educator, b. in Ireland 
in 1673 ; d. in Neshaminy, Pa., 6 May, 1746. He 
received a liberal education in his native country, 
being graduated probably at Trinity college, Dub- 
lin, entered the ministry of the Episcopal church 
of Ireland in 1704, and became chaplain to an Irish 
nobleman. Wishing for more liberty of conscience, 
he came to this country with his family in 1718, 
and on application was received as a minister of 
the Presbyterian church by the svnod of Philadel- 
phia. After brief pastorates in Westchester coun- 
ty, N. Y., and in Bucks county, Pa., he was called 
in 1726 to Neshaminy, Pa., where he remained till 
the^lose of his life. Here, on land that was given 
him by his kinsman, James Logan, in 1728, he 
erected a small building, and opened a school for 
the instruction of candidates for the ministry. In 
this academy, which became known as the Log col- 
lege, were trained many that became eminent in 
the Presbyterian church. The name was probably 
bestowed at first in contempt by its opponents. 
It was the first literary institution higher than a 
common school within the bounds of the Presby- 
terian church in this country, and is regarded as 
the germ from which sprang Princeton college and 
several lesser institutions of learning. Tennent 
had a rare gift of attracting youths of genius and 
imbuing them with his own zealous spirit. About 
1742 he withdrew from active labor. The "Log 
college " has long since disappeared. It is de- 
scribed by George Whitefield, who visited it in 
1739, as "a log-house about twenty feet long, and 
near as many broad, and to me it seemed to re- 

semble the school of the old prophets, for their 
habitations were mean." About 1840 part of one 
of the logs that formed the building was discov- 
ered, and from it a cane was made, which was pre- 
sented to Rev. Dr. Samuel Miller, then one of the 
oldest professors in Princeton seminary. See Rev. 
Dr. Archibald Alexander's "History of the Log 
College " (1846).— William's eldest son, Gilbert, 
clergyman, b. in County Armagh, Ireland, 5 Feb., 
1703; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 23 July, 1764, came 
to this country with his father, was educated by 
him, and taught for some time in the Log college. 
After studying medicine for a year, he abandoned 
it for divinity, and in May, 1725, was licensed to 
preach by the Philadelphia presbytery. In the 
same vear he received the honorary degree of A. M. 
from Yale. After preaching at New Castle, Del., 
and receiving a call there, he left so abruptly that 
he was rebuked by the synod, and in 1726 was or- 
dained as pastor at New Brunswick, N. J. He was 
much admired as a preacher, and in 1740-'l made 
a tour with George Whitefield at the latter's re- 
quest. He had much to do with the division in 
the Presbyterian church in 1741 by his indiscretion 
in denouncing those that were opposed to revivals, 
but seventeen years later he was no less active in 
healing the breach. In 1744 he became pastor of 
a new church in Philadelphia that had been formed 
by admirers of Whitefield. Shortly afterward he 
asked Benjamin Franklin's advice as to whom he 
should call upon for funds to erect a new church 
edifice. Franklin told him to "call on everybody," 
and, taking the sage at his word, Tennent soon ob- 
tained money for an expensive building. In 1753, 
at the request of the trustees of Princeton, he 
went abroad, with Rev. Samuel Davies, to secure 
funds for that institution. Mr. Tennent was one 
of the most conspicuous ministers of his day. He 
affected eccentricity in his pulpit, but his sermons 
were marked both by forcible reasoning and by pas- 
sionate appeal. The controversies in which he en- 
gaged made him many enemies, and he was even 
accused of immorality. His published volumes 
are " XXIII. Sermons " (Philadelphia, 1744) ; " Dis- 
courses on Several Subjects" (1745); and "Ser- 
mons on Important Subjects adapted to the Peril- 
ous State of the British Nation (1758). Among 
his many separate published discourses are " The 
Necessity of studying to be Quiet and doing our 
own Business" (1744); several on the lawfulness of 
defensive war (1747 et seq.); and "A Persuasive to 
the Right Use of the Passions in Religion " (1760). 
Mr. Tennent also wrote an " Account of a Revival 
of Religion " in Prince's " Christian History " 
(1744). See also a volume of " Sermons and Essays 
by the Tennents and their Contemporaries " (1855). 
President Samuel Finley, of Princeton, delivered 
his funeral sermon, which was published with an 
appendix and a "Funeral Eulogy" by a young 
gentleman in Philadelphia (1764). — Another son, 
William, clergyman, b. in County Antrim, Ire- 
land, 3 Jan., 170*5 ; d. in Freehold, N. J., 8 March, 
1777, also came to this country with his father, 
with whom he followed a preparatory course, and 
then studied theology under his brother Gilbert 
in New Brunswick. "He had nearly finished his 
course there when he fell into a remarkable trance 
or cataleptic fit, continuing for several days as if 
dead. His physician refused to permit his burial, 
and efforts to resuscitate him were finally success- 
ful, though his life was despaired of for weeks. 
He was obliged to learn anew to read and write, 
and had no recollection of his former life till on 
one occasion he felt a " shock in his head," after 
which his former knowledge began slowly to re- 




turn. He subsequently asserted that during his 
trance he had thought himself to be in heaven, 
and that afterward the recollection of the glories 
that he had witnessed and heard was so intense as 
to blot out for a long time all interest in earthly 
things. Mr. Tennent was ordained at Freehold, 
N. J., 25 Oct., 1733, as successor to his brother 
John, and was pastor there forty-four years. He 

Eublished several sermons. See a memoir of him 
y Elias Boudinot, with a detailed account of his 
trance (New York, 1847). — Another son, John, 
clergyman, b. in County Antrim, Ireland, 12 Nov., 
1706; d. in Freehold, N. J., 23 April, 1732, also 
came to this country with his father, was educated 
at the Log college, and licensed to preach, 18 Sept., 
1729, and from 1730 till his death was pastor at 
Freehold. A memoir of him was published by 
his brother Gilbert, with a discourse on " Regen- 
eration" (1735), which warrants the belief that, 
had he lived, he would have become as eminent as 
his brother. — The second William's son, William 
(1740-'77), was graduated at Princeton in 1758 with 
Jeremias Van Rensselaer, and from 1772 till his 
death was pastor of a church in Charleston, S. C, 
where he was elected to the Provincial congress. 

TENNEY, Samuel, physician, b. in Byfieid, 
Mass., 27 Nov., 1748; d. in Exeter, N. H., 6 Feb., 
1816. He was graduated at Harvard in 1772, 
taught one year at Andover, Mass., and then, after 
studying medicine, went to practise at Exeter, 
N. H., but on the day of the battle of Bunker 
Hill joined the patriot army as a surgeon. After 
serving one year with Massachusetts troops, he 
entered the Rhode Island forces. At the battle of 
Red Bank he dressed the wounds of Count von 
Donop, the Hessian commander. Dr. Tenney 
served through the war, and at its close returned 
to Exeter, where he married, but did not resume 
practice. He was a delegate to the State constitu- 
tional convention in 1788, and judge of probate 
from 1793 till 1800, when he was elected to con- 
gress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation 
of William Gordon, and taking his seat on 8 Dec, 
served till 1807. Dr. Tenney wrote much for the 
press on political subjects, especially in 1788, in 
favor of the adoption of the constitution of the 
United States. To the " Memoirs " of the Ameri- 
can academy, of which he was a member, he con- 
tributed an account of the mineral waters of Sara- 
toga and a " Theory of Prismatic Colors " ; to the 
Massachusetts historical society a notice of the 
so-called " dark day," 19 May, 1780, and an account 
of Exeter ; and to the State agricultural society a 
treatise on orcharding, which was highly esteemed. 
He also wrote for the " New York Medical Reposi- 
tory " " An Explanation of Certain Curious Phe- 
nomena in the Heating of Water" (1811)., — His 
wife, Tabitha, author, b. in Exeter, N. H., in 
1762 ;d. there, 2 May, 1837, was the daughter of 
Samuel Gilman, who died in her infancy. She 
was educated by her mother, early began to take 
pleasure in reading, and became known for her 
facility and grace in conversation. She married 
Mr. Tenny in 1788. Mrs. Tenney was the author 
of " Female Quixotism : exhibited in the Romantic 
Opinions and Extravagant Adventures of Dor- 
easina Sheldon " (2d ed., Newburyport, 1807 ; 2 
vols., Boston, 1829; many other editions). She 
also compiled " The new Pleasing Instructor," a 
selection from the poets and other classical writ- 
ers, for the use of voung ladies. 

TENNEY, Sanborn, naturalist, b. in Stoddard, 
N. H., 13 Jan., 1827 ; d. in Buchanan, Mich., 9 
July, 1877. He was graduated at Amherst in 


1858, and then taught natural history in the New 

England normal institute in Lancaster, Mass., for 
two years. In 1855 he became lecturer before the 
Massachusetts state teachers' institute, meanwhile 
studying natural history under Louis Agassiz, in 
Cambridge, and delivering courses of lectures in 
various parts of the country. He was appointed 
professor of natural history in Vassar college in 
1865, and continued there until 1868, when he ac- 
cepted a similar chair in Williams. In 1873 he 
delivered a course of lectures on " Physical Struc- 
ture and Natural Resources of the United States " 
before the Lowell institute in Boston, and two years 
later a course on " Geology " before the same insti- 
tute. At the time of his death, Prof. Tenney was 
on his way west to act as leader of the Williams 
Rocky mountain expedition. Besides contributions 
to " The Popular Science Monthly " and other simi- 
lar periodicals, he published " Geology for Teach- 
ers, Classes, and Private Students " (Philadelphia, 
1859) ; " A Manual of Zoology " (New York. 1865) ; 
" Elements of Zoology " (1875) ; and, with Mrs. 
Tenney, " Natural History of Animals " (1866). — 
His wife, Abby Amy Gove, was the author of 
" Pictures and Stories of Animals for the Little 
Ones at Home " (6 vols., New York, 1868), and 
a " New Game of Natural History " (Philadelphia, 
1870). She also contributed to scientific journals. 

TENNEY, William Jewett, author, b. in New- 
port, R. I., in 1814 ; d. in Newark, N. J., 20 Sept., 
1883. He was graduated at Yale in 1832, and 
studied medicine in Boston, but abandoned it for 
law, which he studied in New Haven, Conn. After 
his admission to the bar he opened an office in New 
York city, but was connected with the " Journal of 
Commerce " in 1841 and with the " Evening Post " 
in 1842-'3 and 1847-'8. In 1853 he edited the 
u Mining Magazine," and in the same year entered 
the employ of the firm of D. Appleton and Co., 
whose "Annual Cyclopaedia" he edited from its 
inception till his death (1861-'82). He resided for 
a long time in Elizabeth, N. J., where he was sev- 
eral times chosen a freeholder, and was for fourteen 
years in the city council. He prepared the plan 
for organizing the public-school system there, was 
president of the school board, and during Bu- 
chanan's administration collector of the port. For 
two years he was presiding judge of one of the 
criminal courts in Brooklyn, N. Y., and he was 
usually known as Judge Tenney. He became a 
convert to Roman Catholicism. He added a six- 
teenth volume to Thomas H. Benton's "Abridg- 
ment of the Debates of Congress," and indexed 
the work (16 vols., New York, 1857-'60), edited 
"The Queens of England" (1852), and was the 
author of a " Military and Naval History of the 
Rebellion in the United States" (1865) and a 
work on " Grammatical Analysis " (1866). — His 
wife, Sarah Brownson, author, b. in Chelsea, 
Mass., 7 June, 1839 ; d. in Elizabeth, N. J., 30 Oct., 
1876, was the only daughter of Dr. Orestes A. 
Brownson, and* inherited much of her father's 
power of analysis. She was the author of " Marian 
Elwood, or How Girls Live" (New York, 1859); 
"At Anchor" (1865); and "Life of Demetrius 
Augustine Gallitzin, Prince and Priest" (1873). 

TENOCH, or TENOX (ten-oss'). Aztec priest, 
lived in the 14th century. When the Aztecs set- 
tled in Chapultepec and were subdued by the king 
of Culhuacan, Tenoch was the high-priest of his 
nation. Later the Culhuas were defeated in a war 
with their neighbors of Xochimilco and solicited 
the aid of their slaves, the Mexicans. By the ad- 
vice of Tenoch the Mexicans consented, and under 
the former's leadership showed themselves so brave 
that the Culhuas, partly from gratitude, partly 




from fear, gave them freedom. Looking for a safe 
place of retreat until the nation should become 
stronger, Tenoch led them to a small island in the 
lake of Texcoco, where, according to his prediction, 
they found an eagle on a nopal-tree devouring a 
snake. There they laid in 1327, or, according to 
others, in 1325, the foundation of a city called 
Tenoch-titlan, and Tenoch built a hut as a temple 
for their god Huitzilopochtli, dedicating it by the 
sacrifice of some Culhua prisoners. 

TEPANCALTZIN (tay-pan-cal-tseen'), Mexican 
king, d. in 1103. lie was the ninth monarch of 
Tollan, becoming the successor on the throne of 
Queen Xiutlatzin in 1042. During his reign the 
national beverage of " pulque," prepared from the 
fermented sap of the maguey-plant, was discovered 
by the Princess Xochitl, whom lie afterward mar- 
ried. His son and successor was Topiltzin, to 
whom he ceded the crown in 1092, as, according to 
a Toltec superstition, a reign of more than fifty 
years would bring misfortune to the nation. Not- 
withstanding this change of ruler, continued 
drought caused famine and pestilence, followed by 
internal commotions. Both rulers died in a battle 
against the insurgents, and the kingdom remained 
in a state of anarchy till it was conquered by 
Xolotl the Great, king of the Chichimecs. 

TERHUNE, Edward Payson, clergyman, b. in 
New Brunswick. N. J., about 1825. He was gradu- 
ated at Rutgers in 1850, and, after the completion of 
his theological studies at New Brunswick seminary 
in 1854, was ordained to the ministry of the Pres- 
byterian church in Virginia, becoming pastor of 
the congregation at Charlotte Court-House (now 
Smithville). In 1859 he removed to Newark, N. J., 
and took charge of the 1st Reformed church. He 
was the American chaplain at Rome, Italy, in 
1876-7, returned to the United States in 1878, 
and was pastor of a Congregational church in 
Springfield, Mass., from 1879 till 1884, when he 
took charge of a Reformed church in Brooklyn, 
N. Y. Rutgers gave him the degree of D. D. in 
1869. — His wife, Mary Virginia, author, b. in 
Amelia county, Va., about 1830, is a daughter of 
Samuel P. nawes, a native of Massachusetts, who 
became a merchant in Virginia. She began to con- 
tribute to a weekly paper in Richmond at the age 
of fourteen, and two years later sent to a magazine 
a sketch entitled " Marrying through Prudential 
Motives," which was reprinted in 'England, trans- 
lated for a French journal, retranslated into Eng- 
lish for a London magazine, and then reproduced 
in its altered form in this country. In 1856 she 

married Mr. Ter- 
hune. She has 
been a large con- 
tributor of tales, 
sketches, and es- 
says to magazines, 
edited a month- 
ly called "Baby- 
hood " for two 
years, besides con- 
ducting special 
departments in 
" Wide Awake " 
and "St. Nicho- 
las," and in 1888 
established a mag- 
azine called the 
" Home - Maker." 
Her first novel was 
"Alone: a Tale of Southern Life and Manners" 
(Richmond, 1853), which was issued under the pen- 
name of "Marian Harland," and attained great 

tMv, KiAJrtrvtXI, 


popularity. Her other works of fiction, some of 
which were also very successful, bear the titles of 
"The Hidden Path" (New York. 1855); "Moss 
Side " (1857) ; " Miriam " (1860) ; " Nemesis " (1860) ; 
" Husks " (1863) ; " Husbands and Homes," a series 
of stories (1865) ; " Sunnybank " (1866) ; " Helen 
Gardner's Wedding-Day " (1867) ; " The Christmas 
Hollv " (1868) ; " Ruby's Husband " (1868) ; " Phe- 
mie's Temptation " (1869) ; " At Last " (1870) ; " The 
Empty Heart " (1871) ; " Eve's Daughters " (1881) ; 
" Judith " (1883) ; and " A Gallant Fight " (1888). 
She is the author also of a popular manual of do- 
mestic economy entitled " Common Sense in the 
Household" (1871): "Breakfast, Luncheon, and 
Tea" (1875); "The Dinner Year-Book" (1878); 
" Our Daughters, and What Shall We Do with 
Them : a Talk with Mothers " (1880) ; and " Loit- 
erings in Pleasant Paths," containing sketches of 
travel in Europe (1880). — Their daughter, Chris- 
tine, b. in Newark, N. J., 13 June, 1859, was edu- 
cated abroad and at Smith college, and married 
James F. Herrick in 1884. She has published 
"Housekeeping Made Easv" (New York, 1888). 

TERNANT, Jean Baptiste, Chevalier de (tair- 
nong), French soldier, b. in Sez, Normandy, in 
1750; d. in Couches in 1816. He was a lieuten- 
ant in the French army, but, resigning his com- 
mission, came to the United States with Baron 
Steuben, and offered his sword to congress. In 
April, 1778, he was commissioned major, and ap- 
pointed sub-inspector in Steuben's division, serving 
under that general till 25 Sept., 1778, when he was 
made lieutenant-colonel and inspector of the ar- 
mies in Georgia and South Carolina. He was 
taken prisoner at Charleston in 1780, but was 
soon exchanged, and assumed command of Col. 
Armand de la Rouarie's regiment when the latter 
went to France in search of supplies. After the 
return of Col. La Rouarie, he was again sent to the 
south, where he served to the end of the campaign. 
Before returning to France after the conclusion 
of peace, he travelled for two years through the 
United States. Re-entering the French army in 
1786 he rose to the rank of colonel, was in the bat- 
tle of Valmy, and served in Germany under the 
Marquis de Custines. He was minister to the 
United States in 1790-'3, and showed ability in the 
difficult negotiations that almost culminated in a 
war with France in 1798. After the coup d'etat 
of 18 Brumaire, 1799, he settled at Conches, and 
refused Napoleon's offer of another commission. 

TERNAUX, Henry (tair-no), better known as 
Ternaux-Compans, French historian, b. in Paris 
in 1807; d. there in December. 1864. After fin- 
ishing his studies in Paris, he entered the diplo- 
matic service and was secretary of the embassies at 
Madrid and Lisbon, and charge d'affaires in Brazil, 
but resigned, and devoted several years to travel 
through Spain and South America, making re- 
searches in the state libraries. Toward the close of 
Louis Philippe's reign he was elected deputy, but 
he soon returned to his studies. Ternaux-Com- 
pans collected and published a valuable series of 
works concerning the discovery and early history 
of South America. They include " Bibliotheque 
Americaine, ou catalogue des ouvrages relatifs & 
l'Amerique depuis sa decouverte en 1493, jusqu'en 
l'an 1700" (Paris, 1836); "Voyages, relations et 
memoires originaux pour servir a l'histoire de la 
decouverte de l'Amerique " (10 vols., 1836-'8; 2d 
series, 10 vols., 1839-'40) ; " Archives des voyages, 
ou collection d'anciennes relations inedites " (2 vols., 
1840-1); "Recueil de documents et memoires 
originaux sur l'histoire des possessions Espagnoles 
dans l'Amerique k diverses epoques de la conquete " 




(1840) ; " Essai sur la theogonie Mexicaine " (1840) ; 
"Essai sur l'ancien Cundinamarca" (1862); "No- 
tice historique sur la Guyane Francaise " (1863) ; 
and " Histoire du Mexique par Don Alvaro Tezozo- 
mac " (2 vols., 1849). 

TERNAY, Charles Louis d'Arsae, Chevalier 
de, French naval officer ; b. in the castle of Ternay, 
near Laudun, in 1722 ; died in Newport, R. I., 10 
July, 1780. He was descended from an ancient 
family of Brittany, many of whose members had 
served with credit in the French navy. He entered 
the naval school in 1738, was in the siege of Louis- 
burg in 1757, and commanded afterward a division 
of gun-boats on St. Lawrence. After his promo- 
tion to captain, he was sent with two frigates to 
Newfoundland in 1762, and, landing at St. John on 
2 June, reduced the place, captured several British 
merchant- vessels, and ruined the cod-fisheries along 
the coast. He was attached after the conclusion 
of peace to the station of the Leeward islands, and 
later was promoted brigadier-general of the naval 
forces, retiring in 1772 with the brevet of chef 
d'escadre. He was appointed governor - general 
of the island of Bourbon, which post he held till 
1779, when he re-entered active service. Early in 
1780 he armed a division in Brest, and was charged 
with conveying Rochambeau's army to the United 
States. After defeating a British force in the 
West Indies he arrived safely at Newport on 10 
July, and died there a few days later. 

TERR AZ AS, Francisco de (ter-rah'-thas), Mex- 
ican poet, b. in Mexico about 1520 ; d. there in 1575. 
He was the son of a companion of Cortes, and 
served for several years in the army. Afterward 
he secured a post in the household of the arch- 
bishop of Mexico, and later retired to his estate, 
devoting himself to poetry. He composed elegies 
and cantatas, deriving inspiration from ancient 
Indian recitatives, and gained great popularity not 
only in the New World, but also in Europe. His 

Soems were never published, but the Spanish poet, 
[iguel Cervantes, has inserted with words of high 
praise some of Terrazas's verses in his " Galatea." 
TERRELL, William, congressman, b. in Fair- 
fax county, Va., about 1778; d. in Sparta, Ga., 4 
July, 1855. During his infancy his parents re- 
moved to Wilkes county, Ga. He received a good 
English education, studied medicine in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., and practised in Sparta, Ga. He served 
in the legislature for several terms, and in 1816 
and 1818 was elected to congress, but declined re- 
election in 1820. About 1819 he abandoned the 
practice of his profession, and henceforth was much 
interested in cotton-culture. He took much inter- 
est in the promotion of agricultural science, and 
in 1853 gave $20,000 for the establishment of the 
agricultural professorship that bears his name in 
the University of Georgia. 

TERRILL, William Rufus, soldier, b. in Cov- 
ington, Va., 21 April, 1834; d. near Perry ville, 
Ky., 8 Oct., 1862. He was graduated at the U. S. 
military academy in 1853, assigned to the 3d artil- 
lery, was assistant professor of mathematics there 
in 1853-'4, on duty in Kansas in 1854-'5, and as- 
sistant in the U. S. coast survey from 1855 till 
1861. He was appointed captain in the 5th artil- 
lery, 14 Aug., 1861, and took part with great credit 
in the battle of Shiloh. He was appointed briga- 
dier-general of volunteers, 9 Sept., 1862, and was 
killed in the battle of Perryville in the following 
month. — His brother. J allies Barbour, soldier, 
b. in Warm Springs, Bath co., Va., 20 Feb., 1838 ; 
d. near Bethesda Church, Va., 31 May. 1864, was 
graduated at Virginia military institute, Lexing- 
ton, in 1858, and after attending the law-school 
vol. vi. — 5 

of Judge Brockenborough began practice in the 
courts of his native county in 1860. In May, 1861, he 
was appointed major of the 13th Virginia infantry. 
He was promoted to the colonelcy, and was with 
his regiment at the first and second battles of Bull 
Run, Fredericksburg, Cross Keys, Port Republic, 
Cedar Run, the Wilderness, andSpottsylvania, and 
was killed at Bethesda Church. His commanding 
general said his regiment, "the 13th, was never 
required to take a position that they did not take 
it, nor to hold one that they did not'hold it." His 
nomination as brigadier-general was confirmed by 
the Confederate senate on the day of his death. 

TERRY, Adrian Russell, physician, b. in Hart- 
ford, Conn., 29 Sept., 1808 ; d. in Chicago, 111., 3 
Dec, 1864. He was graduated at the medical de- 
partment of Yale in 1831, and subsequently settled 
in Hartford. For several years he held the chair 
of chemistry and natural philosophy in Bristol 
college, Pa. The degree of A. M. was conferred on 
him by Trinity in 1836. Dr. Terry published 
"Travels in the Equatorial Regions of South 
America in 1832 " (Hartford, 1834). 

TERRY, Alfred Howe, soldier, b. in Hartford, 
Conn., 10 Nov., 1827. He was educated in the 
schools of New Haven and at the Yale law-school, 
but, having been already admitted to the bar, he 
was not graduated. 
He began the prac- 
tice of his profes- 
sion in 1849, and 
was clerk of the 
superior and su- 
preme courts of 
Connecticut from 
1854 till 1860. He 
had been an active 
member of the 
Connecticut mili- 
tia, and was in 
command of the 
2d regiment of 
state troops when 
the civil war be- 
gan. In response 
to President Lin- 
coln's call for three 
months' troops, he 
wasappointed colo- 
nel of the 2d Connecticut volunteers, and with that 
regiment was present at the first battle of Bull Run, 
At the expiration of the term of service he returned 
to Connecticut, organized the 7th Connecticut vol- 
unteers, of which he was appointed colonel, and on 
17 Sept. was again mustered into the National ser- 
vice. He was present in command of his regiment 
at the capture of Port Royal, S. C, and also at the 
siege of Fort Pulaski, of which he was placed in 
charge after its capitulation. On 25 April, 1862, he 
was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, and 
he served as such at the battle of Pocotaligo and in 
the operations against Charleston. He command- 
ed the successful demonstration up Stono river 
during the descent on Morris island, and at the 
action on James island. His force was then with- 
drawn, and he was assigned by Gen. Quincy A. 
Gillmore to the command of the troops on Mor- 
ris island, which post he held during the siege of 
Forts Wagner and Sumter. After the reduction 
of Fort Wagner he was assigned to the command 
of the northern district of the Department of the 
South, including the islands from which opera- 
tions against Charleston had been carried on. 
Gen. Terry commanded the 1st division of the 
10th army corps, Army of the James, during the 





Virginia campaign of 1864, and at times the corps 
itself. He was brevetted major-general of volun- 
teers on 20 Aug., 1864, became permanent com- 
mander of the 10th corps in October, and held 
that place until the corps was merged in the 24th 
in the following December, when he was assigned 
to lead the 1st division of the new corps. He com- 
manded at the action of Chester Station, and was 
engaged at the battle of Drewry's Bluff, the various 
combats in front of the Bermuda Hundred lines, 
the battle of Fussell's Mills, the action at Deep 
Bottom, the siege of Petersburg, the actions at 
Newmarket heights on the Newmarket road, the 
Darbytown road, and the Williamsburg road. On 
2 Jan., 1865, after the failure of the first attempt 
to take Fort Fisher, which commanded the sea- 
approaches to Wilmington, N. C, Gen. Terry was 
ordered to renew the attack with a force number- 
ing a little over 8,000 men. On the 13th he de- 
barked his troops about five miles above the fort, 
and, finding himself confronted by Gen. Robert F. 
Hoke's Confederate division, proceeded to throw a 
line of strong intrenchments across the peninsula 
between the sea and Cape Fear river, facing toward 
Wilmington, and about two miles north of the fort. 
After the landing of the troops, the co-operating 
fleet, under Admiral David D. Porter, numbering 
44 vessels and mounting upward of 500 guns, 
opened fire upon the work, and from 4.30 to 6 p. m. 
four shots a second, or 20,000 in all, were fired. 
This was the heaviest bombardment of the war. 
On the 14th the line of intrenchment was com- 
pleted, and Gen. Charles J. Paine's division of in- 
fantry was placed upon it. While this was in 
progress. Gen. Terry made a reconnoissance of the 
fort, and, in view of the difficulty of landing sup- 
plies for his troops and the materials for a siege 
upon an open, unprotected beach in midwinter, he 
determined to carry the work by assault the next 
day, and the plan of attack was arranged with Ad- 
miral Porter. At 11 a. m. on the 15th tiie entire 
fleet opened fire, silencing nearly every gun in the 
fort. Gen. Newton M. Curtis's brigade of Gen. 
Adelbert Ames's division was then pushed forward 
by regiments to a point 200 yards from the fort, 
where it sheltered itself in shallow trenches, and 
the remainder of the division was brought up with- 
in supporting distance. Admiral Porter had landed 
2,000 sailors and marines, and their commander 
pushed a line of skirmishers up within 200 yards 
of the eastern extremity of the northern face of 
the work, the attack of the troops being upon the 
western extremity of that face. At 3.30 p. m., on 
a signal from Gen. Terry to Admiral Porter, the 
fire of the fleet was diverted from the points of 
attack, and the leading brigade rushed upon the 
work and gained a foothold upon the parapet. The 
column of sailors and marines followed the exam- 
ple of the troops, but. having to advance for a dis- 
tance of about 600 yards along the open beach, they 
were unable to stem the fire of the work. Some of 
them reached the foot of the parapet, but the mass 
of them, after a display of great gallantry, was 
forced to fall back. After Gen. Curtis had gained 
the parapet, Gen. Ames ordered forward in succes- 
sion the second and third brigades of his division, 
and they entered the fort. This was constructed 
with a series of traverses, each of which was stub- 
bornly held. Hand-to-hand fighting of the most 
obstinate character ensued, the traverses being used 
successively as breastworks, over the tops of which 
the opposing parties fired into one another's faces. 
By five o'clock nine of these traverses had been car- 
ried. Gen. Terry then ordered up re-enforcements, 
consisting of a brigade and an additional regiment 

from the intrenched line, the sailors and marines 
taking their places there ; by nine o'clock two more 
traverses were carried, and an hour later the occu- 
pation of the work was complete. The Confeder- 
ate force fell back disorganized to a small work 
near the point of the peninsula, where, being- im- 
mediately pursued, it surrendered unconditionally. 
The garrison originally numbered 2,500 men, of 
whom 1,971 men, with 112 officers, were captured; 
the others were killed or wounded. The fall of 
the fort was followed by the abandonment of Fort 
Caswell and the other defences of the Cape Fear 
river. In these works were captured 169 pieces of 
artillery, 2,000 small arms, and a considerable quan- 
tity of ammunition and commissary stores. The 
National loss was 681 men, of whom 88 were killed. 
For this Gen. Terry was promoted to be brigadier- 
general in the regular army and major-general of 
volunteers, and congress passed a vote of thanks 
" to Brevet Maj.-Gen. A. H. Terry and the officers 
and soldiers under his command for the unsur- 
passed gallantry and skill exhibited by them in the 
attack upon Fort Fisher, and the brilliant and de- 
cisive victory by which that important work has 
been captured from the rebel forces and placed 
in the possession and under the authority of the 
United States, and for their long and faithful ser- 
vice and unwavering devotion to the cause of the 
country in the midst of the greatest difficulties and 
dangers." Gen. Terry was engaged in the capture 
of Wilmington, N. C, and commanded at the com- 
bat at Northeast creek, which followed. In April, 
1865, the 10th army corps was reconstituted, and 
Gen. Terry was assigned to its command, and with 
it took part in the subsequent operations under 
Gen. William T. Sherman in North Carolina. He 
was brevetted major-general in the regular army 
on 13 March, 1865, for his services at the capture 
of Wilmington. Since the close of the war he has 
commanded in succession the Departments of Vir- 
ginia, Dakota, and the South, and again the De- 
partment of Dakota. He was promoted to the 
rank of major-general, 3 March, 1886, and was in 
charge of the division of the Missouri, with head- 
quarters at Chicago, until his voluntary retirement 
from the armv in April, 1888. 

TERRY, Eli, clock-maker, b. in East Windsor, 
Conn., 13 April, 1772 ; d. in Terryville, Conn., 24 
Feb., 1852. He was apprenticed to Thomas Har- 
land, a maker of brass clocks in Norwich, Conn., 
and there acquired the rudiments of his trade. In 
1792 he made his first wooden clock, which is still 
preserved in the family, and is one of the first that 
was made in this country. A year later he settled 
in Plymouth, Conn., and there began the manufac- 
ture of wooden and brass clocks, but soon ceased 
to make the latter, as the former, being much 
cheaper than the metal ones and quite as good 
time - keepers, proved far more salable. About 
1797 Mr. Terry invented a clock that registered the 
difference between mean and apparent time, but 
its cost prevented it from becoming popular. Mr. 
Terry worked alone until 1800, when he hired two 
men to assist him, and then for several years fre- 
quently travelled on horseback through the coun- 
try selling his clocks. The business increased, 
and in 1807 he contracted to deliver 4,000 move- 
ments to a Waterbury firm, which order took him 
three years to complete. The success of this under- 
taking marks the beginning of the making of 
wooden clocks as an industry. Mr. Terry had in 
his employ at this time Silas Hoadley and Seth 
Thomas, who in 1810 purchased his business, then 
the largest of its kind in the United States. In 
1814 he produced the Terry shelf-clock, also of 




wood, features of which are retained in clocks that 
are now made, and in 1816 he began the manufac- 
ture of this clock, in which he was successful. He 
continued active as an inventor, and made many 
new designs, including a peculiar form of gravity- 
escapement (1830). 

TERRY, Henry Dwight, soldier, b. in Hart- 
ford, Conn., 16 March, 1812; d. in Washington, 
D. C, in June, 1869. He early settled in Michigan, 
where he entered the legal profession, and settled 
in Detroit. Although he was in active practice, he 
had for many years devoted considerable attention 
to military matters, and when the first call was 
made for troops in June, 1861, at the beginning of 
the civil war, he raised the 5th Michigan infantry, 
of which he was appointed colonel. The regiment 
was mustered into service on 28 Aug., 1861, and 
ordered to the Army of the Potomac. He soon 
gained the command of a brigade, and on 17 July, 
1862, was commissioned brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers. He served through the war in the Army 
of the Potomac, and when he was mustered out of 
service, in 1865, resumed the practice of his profes- 
sion in Washington, D. C. 

TERRY, John Orville, poet. b. in Orient, N. Y., 
13 Aug., 1796 ; d. in Greenport, N. Y., 7 April, 1869. 
He was educated in Orient, and then studied medi- 
cine, but never practised. In early manhood he 
made several voyages to South America and taught 
for b time after his return. His life was passed 
chiefly in farming, and his rural experiences were 
put into verse as " The Poems of J. 0. T., consisting 
of Song, Satire, and Pastoral Descriptions, chiefly 
depicting the Scenery and illustrating the Manners 
and Customs of the Ancient and Present Inhabi- 
tants of Long Island " (New York, 1850). 

TERRY, Luther, painter, b. in Enfield, Conn., 
18 July, 1813. He studied for a short time under 
a portrait-painter in Hartford, and in 1838 went 
to Italy. He spent a year at the Academia delle 
belle Arti in Florence, and in 1839 went to Rome, 
where he has since resided. At first he devoted 
much time to making copies from the works of 
Raphael. The first important work from his easel 
was one that had for its subject Christ disputing 
with the doctors in the temple, which is now in 
the Wadsworth athenaeum, Hartford, Conn. Other 
paintings bv Mr. Terry are " The Loves of the An- 
gels," from Byron's " Heaven and Earth " (1843-4) ; 
" Columbus before Ferdinand and Isabella " ; " Ja- 
cob's Dream," several times repeated ; " Angel an- 
nouncing the Birth of Christ to the Shepherds" 
(1853) ; several subjects from Shakespeare ; " Toby 
and the Angel " ; and " Solomon's Choice." In 
1846 he was made an honorary member of the Na- 
tional academy, and like honors were conferred 
upon him by the academies of Philadelphia, and 
Providence, R. I. He married in 1861 Louisa, 
widow of Thomas Crawford, the sculptor. 

TERRY, Milton Spenser, clergyman, b. in 
Coeymans, N. Y., 22 Feb., 1840. He was gradu- 
ated at the Charlotteville, N. Y., seminary in 1859, 
and at Yale divinity-school in 1862. After being 
ordained a clergyman in the Methodist Episcopal 
church he held various pastorates from 1863 till 
1884, when he was elected to the chair of Hebrew 
and Old Testament exegesis in Garrett biblical 
institution, Evanston, 111. The degree of S. T. D. 
was conferred on him in 1879 by Wesleyan univer- 
sity, and he was elected to the American Oriental 
society in 1871, and in 1883 to the Society of bibli- 
cal literature and exegesis. Dr. Terry has written 
articles for the " Methodist Quarterly Review," and 
has published tracts on " Swedenborgianism " (New 
York, 1872) ; and " Man's Antiquity and Language " 

(1881) ; " Commentaries on the Historical Books of 
the Old Testament " (2 vols., 1873-5) ; and " Bibli- 
cal Hermeneutics " (1883). 

TERRY, William, soldier, b. in Amherst coun- 
ty, Va., 14 Aug., 1824; d. near Wytheville, Va., 5 
Sept., 1888. He was graduated at" the University 
of Virginia in 1848, studied law, and in 1851 was 
admitted to the bar. Settling in Wytheville, he 
practised his profession and was one of the editors 
and owners of " The Telegraph," published in that 
place. In April, 1861, he became a lieutenant in 
the 4th Virginia infantry, in Gen. Thomas J. Jack- 
son's brigade. In 1862 he was promoted major, 
and in February, 1864, became colonel. He was 
commissioned brigadier-general on 20 May, 1864. 
At the close of the civil war he returned to prac- 
tice in Wytheville, and in 1868 was nominated for 
congress, but, being under political disabilities, 
withdrew. He was afterward elected to congress 
from Virginia as a Conservative, and served from 
4 March, 1871, till 3 March, 1873, and again from 
6 Dec, 1875, till 3 March, 1877. Subsequently he 
resumed his legal business. He was drowned while 
trying to ford Reed creek, near his home. 

TERRY, William Richard, soldier, b. in Lib- 
erty, Va., 12 March, 1827. He was graduated at 
the Virginia military institute in 1850, and then 
turned his attention to commercial pursuits. At 
the beginning of the civil war he entered the Con- 
federate service as captain of Virginia cavalry, 
and was soon promoted and given command of the 
24th Virginia regiment. On 20 May, 1864, he was 
made brigadier-general, and given 'a command in 
Gen. George E. Pickett's division in the Army of 
Northern Virginia, which was known as Kemper's 
brigade. After the war he served as a member of 
the Virginia senate for eight years, and for some 
time was superintendent of the penitentiary in Rich- 
mond. At present he is superintendent of the Lee 
camp soldiers' home in Richmond. 

TESCHEMACHER, James Englebert, scien- 
tist, b. in Nottingham, England, 11 June, 1790; d. 
near Boston, Mass., 9 Nov., 1853. He began a com- 
mercial career in 1804 by entering a foreign mer- 
cantile house in London, where he showed business 
talents of a high order. In 1830 he accepted a lu- 
crative offer to go to Cuba, but it proved unsatis- 
factory when he reached Havana, and he returned 
to England. He then determined to come to the 
United States, and reached New York in February, 
1832, after which he settled in Boston, where he 
engaged in commercial pursuits until his death. 
Mr. Teschemacher devoted his leisure to science, 
and during his residence in this country published 
about thirty papers on various subjects in chemis- 
try, mineralogy, geology, and botany. These ap- 
peared chiefly in the transactions of scientific so- 
cieties of which he was a member. Besides several 
addresses, he published " Concise Application of 
the Principles of Structural Botany to Horticul- 
ture " (Boston, 1840); "Essay on Guano " (1845) ; 
and a translation of Julius A. &tockhardt's " Chemi- 
cal Field Lectures " (Cambridge, 1852). 

TESSIER, Ulric Joseph, Canadian jurist, b. 
in Quebec, 4 May, 1817. He was admitted to the 
bar as an advocate in 1839. was mayor of Quebec 
in 1851, entered the parliament of Canada the 
same year, became a member of the legislative 
council in 1858, and was its speaker in 1863. He 
was appointed a member of the executive council 
in 1862. was senator in 1867, puisne judge of the 
supreme court of the province of Quebec in 1873, 
and in 1875 of the court of queen's bench. He 
founded " La banque nationale " in 1859, and is 
dean of the faculty of law in Laval university.— 




His son, Jules, b. in Quebec, 16 April, 1852, was 
educated at the Quebec seminary and at the Jesuit 
college, Montreal. He was admitted to the bar in 
1874, is one of the editors of the " Quebec Law 
Reports," was secretary of the National conven- 
tion in 1880, is president of the Quebec liberal 
club, and in 1887 was elected to the legislative 
assembly of the province. 

TESTE, Lncien Auguste (test), Swiss geologist, 
b. in the canton of Valois in 1765: d. in Rome, 
Italy, in 1817. He was attached to the expeditions 
around the world under command of Capt. Malas- 
pina in 1789-'95, during which time he studied 
everywhere the geological formations and formed 
valuable collections. After his return to Vienna 
he became an assistant professor of geology in the 
university, and subsequently a corresponding mem- 
ber of the Academy of sciences. He was appointed 
in 1805 professor in the University of Milan, and 
in 1815 was sent to Brazil, where great geological 
discoveries had been made. He explored the en- 
virons of Rio Janeiro and visited Bahia ; but his 
health failed, and he returned to Europe. His 
works include " Observations geologiques faites en 
Asie et en Amerique par un des membres de l'ex- 
pedition autour du monde du Capitaine Malaspina, 
1789-1795" (2 vols., Geneva, 1798); " Geologischer 
Atlas der ganzen Erde" (Vienna, 1800); "Dialoge 
und kleine Aufsatze iiber die Geologie und Geog- 
nostie " (1802) ; " Bemerkungen fiber die Geologie 
von Siidamerika" (2 vols.. 1805); and "Entwurf 
eines Systems der geognostischen und geologischen 
Beschreibun<? der Erde " (1815). 

TETINCHOUA, Miami chief, lived in the 17th 
century. He is described by Nicolas Perrot, who 
met him in 1671 at Chicago, as being the most 

Sowerful of Indian chiefs. According to the 
'rench traveller, he could control four or five 
thousand warriors, never marched without a guard 
of forty men, who patrolled night and day around 
his tent when he camped, and seldom held any 
direct communication with his subjects, but con- 
veyed his orders to them by subordinates. Perrot 
was received with great honor as an envoy from 
the French governor. Tetinchoua sent out a de- 
tachment to meet him, which, after performing 
some remarkable military evolutions, escorted Per- 
rot and his Pottawattamie guard into the principal 
town of the Miamis. Tetinchoua then assigned 
him a guard of fifty men, regaled him splendidly 
after the manner of the country, and ordered a 
game of ball to be played for his diversion. He 
was unable, owing to his age and infirmities, to 
accompany Perrot to Sault Ste. Marie, at the 
mouth of Lake Superior, where the French took 
formal possession of all the country on the lakes. 
He did not even send deputies to the assembly 
that was held on the occasion, but he gave the 
Pottawattamies power to act in his name. In 1672 
Father Claude Dablon is said to have met him with 
his army of 3,000 Miamis. But, although the mis- 
sionary was received with marks of friendship, he 
did not succeed in making any conversions. 

TETLEP ANQU ETZ AL (tet-lay-pan - ket - sal'), 
Mexican king, d. in 1525. He was the fourth Tec- 
panec king of Tlacopan, and reigned after 1503 as 
a tributary of the Mexican emperor Montezuma II., 
whom he assisted in the first defence of Mexico. 
Afterward he was one of the principal auxiliaries 
of Cuauhtemotzin (q. v.), and when the city was 
finally taken, 13 Aug., 1521, he was made prisoner 
and tortured, together with the emperor, by the 
Spaniards that he might reveal the hiding-place of 
the imperial treasure. When Cortes marched in 
1525 to Honduras to subdue the revolt of Cristobal 

de Olid, he carried the emperor and three kings 
with him, and, under the pretext that he had dis- 
covered a conspiracy, all four were strangled. 

TETU, Louis David Henri (tay-tew), Canadian 
clergyman, b. in Riviere Ouelle, province of Quebec, 
24 Oct., 1849. He was educated at the College of 
Sainte Anne de la Pocatiere and at the Seminary 
of Quebec, was assistant secretary to the arch- 
bishop of Quebec from 1870 till 1878, and in the 
latter year became almoner. He was named cham- 
berlain and domestic prelate to the pope in 1887. 
He has published "Notice biographique ; Mon- 
seigneur de Laval, premier eveque de Quebec " 
(Quebec, 1887), and " Mandaments, lettres, pas- 
torals et circulaires des eveques de Quebec" (3 
vols., 1888, to be completed in seven volumes). 

TETZOTZOMOC (tet-so-tso-mok), king of Atz- 
capotzalco, d. in 1427. He ascended the throne in 
1353 and exercised suzerainty over the monarchs 
of Mexico, but approved the choice of King Huit- 
zilihuitl II. in 1403 and gave him his daughter 
Miahuaxochitl in marriage, notwithstanding the op- 
position of his son Maxtla. He declared war against 
the king of Texcoco, Techotlalatzin, and being de- 
feated sued for peace ; but after the latter's death 
he continued the war against his successor, Ixtlil- 
xochitl I., whom he defeated and assassinated in 
1419, usurping the crown of Texcoco. 

THACHER, George, jurist, b. in Yarmouth, 
Me., 12 April, 1754; d. in Biddeford, Me., 6 April, 
1824. Ho was graduated at Harvard in 1776, and 
afterward studied law, being admitted to the bar 
in 1778. He was a delegate from Massachusetts 
to the Continental congress in 1787-'8, and from 
4 March, 1789, to 3 March, 1801, he represented the 
Maine district of Massachusetts in congress. He 
served as judge of the supreme court of Massa- 
chusetts, and afterward of that of Maine, from 
1800 till 1824, and was a delegate to the Maine 
constitutional convention in 1819. 

THACHER, .1 sillies, physician, b. in Barnsta- 
ble, Mass., 14 Feb., 1754 ; d. in Plymouth, Mass., 26 
May, 1844. He began the study of medicine under 
Dr. Abner Hersey, in his native town, about 1771, 
applied for a place in 
the medical depart- 
ment of the Continen- 
tal army in 1775, and 
was appointed sur- 
geon's mate in the hos- 
pital at Cambridge, 
of which Dr. John 
Warren was the seni- 
or attending surgeon. 
In February, 1776, he 
was made surgeon's 
mate in one of the 
regiments that occu- 
pied Prospect Hill. 
He marched with his 
regiment to Ticon- 
deroga, and was sur- 
geon s mate in the 
general hospital of 
that fort as long as it was held by the Continental 
army. He then retired with the sick and wounded 
to Fort Edward, and subsequently to Albany. He 
was transferred from the hospital to the field ser- 
vice by his own desire, was appointed chief sur- 
geon to the 1st Virginia regiment in 1778, and 
to a New England regiment in 1779. Dr. Thacher 
was present sit nearly all the important movements 
of the Continental army until the surrender of 
Cornwallis, ami became known for his patriotism 
and self-sacrificing devotion to his patients, as 





much as for his skill in his profession. After his 
retirement from the army he practised in Plym- 
outh, at the same time engaging in literary and 
scientific pursuits. He was a member of the Pil- 
grim society of Plymouth, and of the Massachu- 
setts medical society. Besides publishing works 
of a purely professional or scientific character, he 
wrote extensively on generai literature, especially 
on that of his profession. He published " Amer- 
ican New Dispensatory " (Boston, 1810) ; " Observa- 
tions on Hydrophobia " (Plymouth, 1812) ; " Amer- 
ican Modern Practice" (Boston, 1817); "Military 
Journal during the American Revolutionary War/' 
which is one of the most, reliable authorities on 
the Revolution, and completely vindicates the 
conduct of Washington toward Andre, from the 
aspersions of contemporary English writers (1823); 
'• Practical Treatise on the Management of Bees " 
(1829); "American Medical Biography" (2 vols., 
1828) ; " Essay on Demonology, Ghosts, Appari- 
tions, and Popular Superstitions "(1831); "History 
of the Town of Plymouth " (1832) ; and "Obser- 
vations relative to the Execution of Major John 
Andre as a Spy in 1780 " (1834). 

THACHER, John Marshall, commissioner of 
patents, b. in Barre, Vt., 1 July, 1836. He was 
graduated at the University of Vermont in 1859, 
and studied law. At the beginning of the civil 
war he entered the National forces and served as 
captain in the 13th Vermont regiment. He was 
appointed assistant examiner in the patent-office in 
1864, and was promoted through the different grades 
until 1 Nov., 1874, when he became commissioner, 
which office he held until 1 Oct., 1875. Meanwhile, 
in 1870, he had been admitted to the bar in Vir- 
ginia, and on his resignation he removed to Chicago, 
where he has since practised his profession. 

THACHER, Thomas, clergyman, b. in Salis- 
bury, England, 1 May, 1620 ; d. in Boston, Mass., 
15 Oct., 1678. He was carefully educated by his 
father, a minister at Salisbury, who prepared him 
for entrance to one of the English umversities,.but 
the son declined to subscribe to the religious tests 
that were then a condition of matriculation, and 
resolved on settling in New England. He reached 
Boston on 4 June, 1635, and soon afterward entered 
the family of Rev. Charles Chauncy at Scituate, 
under whose guidance he studied mental philoso- 
phy and theology, and attained a remarkable 
knowledge of the oriental languages. He was es- 
pecially noted for the great beauty of his transcrip- 
tions of Syriac and other oriental characters, and 
also acquired a knowledge of medicine, practising 
occasionally with success. He was ordained at 
Weymouth on 2 Jan., 1644, and shortly afterward 
took charge of the congregation of that village. 
Here he remained till 1664, when he removed to 
Boston, possibly because the relatives of his second 
wife resided there, although he is said to have been 
dismissed by his congregation in Weymouth a little 
before that time. He practised as a physician in 
Boston for the next two years, but preached occa- 
sionally. On 16 Feb., 1699, he was installed pastor 
of the Old South church. He is mentioned in 
terms of high praise by Cotton Mather in the 
" Magnalia," who quotes an elegy, written partly 
in Latin and partly in Greek by Eleazar, an Indian 
student at Harvard, in which the virtues of Mr. 
Thacher are celebrated. He wrote " A Brief Rule 
to Guide the Common People of New England how 
to order Themselves and Theirs in the Small Pocks 
or Measels," which is supposed to have been the 
first work on medicine that was published in Massa- 
chusetts (Boston, 1677; 2d ed., 1702), and "A Fast 
of God's Chusing; Fast Sermon " (1674). — His son, 

Peter, clergyman, b. in Salem, Mass., in 1651 ; d. 
in Milton, Mass., 17 Dec, 1727, was graduated at 
Harvard in 1671, and was tutor there for several 
years afterward, having Cotton Mather as one of 
his pupils. He spent some time in England, where 
ineffectual efforts were made to induce him to con- 
form to the established church. After his return 
he was ordained pastor of the church in Milton in 
1681, and labored there for the remainder of his 
life. He attained note as a preacher and was called 
on to speak on many important public occasions. 
His "Convention Sermon" (1711) is preserved in 
manuscript in the library of the Massachusetts 
historical society. He published " Unbelief De- 
tected and Condemned, to which is added the 
Treasures of the Fathers Inheritable by their 
Posterity" (1708); "Election Sermon" (1711); 
" Christ's Forgiveness a Pattern : A Sermon " 
(1712) ; " A Sermon on the Death of Samuel Man " 
(1719); "A Divine Riddle: He that is Weak is 
Strong " (1723) ; and " The Perpetual Covenant." 
— Peter's grandson, Oxenbridge, lawyer, b. in 
Milton, Mass., in 1720; d. in Boston, Mass., 8 July, 
1765, was graduated at Harvard in 1738, and after- 
ward studied divinity, but abandoned it for law on 
account of his health. He was successful at the 
bar, and took an active part in opposition to the 
English government during the early stages of the 
Revolution, being at that time one of the four rep- 
resentatives of Boston in the general court. He 
published " Considerations upon reducing the Value 
of the Gold Coins within the Province" (1760) 
and " Sentiments of a British-American, occasioned 
by an Act to lay Certain Duties in the British 
Colonies and Plantations" (Boston, 1764). In the 
latter pamphlet he assailed the navigation act with 
great vigor. — Peter, eldest son of Oxenbridge, 
clergyman, b. in Milton, Mass., 21 March, 1752 ; d. 
in Savannah, Ga., 16 Dec, 1802, was graduated at 
Harvard in 1769, and, after serving as principal of 
a grammar-school for a few months, was ordained 
pastor of Maiden on 19 Sept., 1770. His gifts as 
an orator at once made him popular, and his active 

Eatriotism during the Revolution was of great 
enefit to the cause of American liberty. He pub- 
lished a "Narrative of the Battle of Bunker Hill," 
at the request of the Massachusetts committee of 
safety, and delivered at Watertown an oration 
against standing armies, which has been frequently 
republished. He was a delegate in 1780 to the 
convention that met at Cambridge and Boston to 
frame a constitution for Massachusetts, supported 
a motion for abolishing the office of governor, and 
took an active part in all the deliberations of the as- 
sembly. He was called to the Brattle street church 
on 12 Jan., 1785, and continued in this pastorate 
for the rest of his life. In 1791 he received the 
degree of D. D. from the University of Edinburgh. 
Dr. Thacher was for some time secretary of the 
Society for propagating the gospel among the In- 
dians of North America. He was one of the earli- 
est members of the Massachusetts historical soci- 
ety, a member of the American academy of arts 
and sciences, and actively engaged in humanitarian 
and religious movements. He was chaplain to one 
or both branches of the general court for fifteen 
years. He published about twenty-two of his 
sermons between 1776 and 1800. Dr. Thacher 
preached funeral sermons for three governors of 
the state of Massachusetts— Bowdoin, Hancock, 
and Sumner, all of whom belonged to his congre- 
gation during the seventeen years of his pastorate. 
He published a work entitled " Observations on the 
State of the Clergy in New England, with Strict- 
ures on the Power of dismissing them, Usurped by 




some Churches" (Boston, 1783), and "Memoirs of 
Dr. Boylston" (1789). — Thomas, another son of 
Oxenbridge, b. in Boston, Mass., 24 Oct., 1756 ; d. 
in Dedham, Mass., 19 Oct., 1812, was graduated at 
Harvard in 1775, and ordained minister of the 3d 
church in Dedham, 7 June, 1780. In 1788 he was 
elected a member of the convention that ratified 
the Federal constitution, of which he was an ear- 
nest supporter. He was a member of the Academy 
of arts and sciences, and published several dis- 
courses between 1804 and 1811. — The second Peter's 
son, Samuel Cooper, clergyman, b. in Boston, 
Mass., 14 Dec, 1785 ; d. in Moulins, France, 2 Jan., 
1818, was graduated at Harvard in 1804, and began 
his preparation for the ministry under William 
Ellery Channing. In 1805 he acted for a time as 
head-master of the Boston Latin-school, and he 
subsequently conducted a private school of his 
own. In 1807 he was appointed librarian of Har- 
vard, entering on the duties of the office in the 
following year. He was ordained and installed 
minister of the New South church (Unitarian), 
at Boston, on 15 May, 1811, but his health failed 
rapidly, and in 1815 he went to England, where he 
was advised to winter in the Cape of Good Hope. 
He resided for some time at Cape Town, but his 
health improved very slowly, and he returned to 
England and subsequently went to the south of 
France, where he died. Dr. Thacher was a mem- 
ber of the Anthology club, and he published arti- 
cles in nearly all the volumes of its magazine, the 
M Monthly Anthology." Many of his lectures and 
sermons were devoted to the exposition of the Uni- 
tarian system, and were considered to embody a 
more vigorous and formal defence of Unitarianism 
than any that had appeared previously. His works 
are " Apology for Rational and Evangelican Chris- 
tianity " (Boston, 1815); "Unity of God " (Liver- 
pool, 1810; Worcester, Mass., 1817); "Sermons, 
with a Memoir by Rev. Francis W. P. Greenwood " 
(Boston, 1824) ; and " Evidences necessary to estab- 
lish the Doctrine of the Trinity " (1828). He also 
published a volume of sermons of Rev. Joseph 
S. Buckminster, to which he prefixed a memoir 
(1814). — Samuel Cooper's brother, Thomas Cushing 
(1771-1837), was graduated from Harvard in 1790, 
and was pastor at Lynn in 1794-1813. He pub- 
lished " Eulogy on Washington " (Boston, 1800), 
and sermons (1794-1801). — The first Thomas's 
grandson, Peter, clergyman, b. in Boston, Mass., 
in 1677; d. there, 26 Feb., 1738, was graduated at 
Harvard in 1696, and for some time afterward 
taught at Hatfield, Mass. He was ordained pastor 
of the church at Weymouth on 26 Nov., 1707, 
where he remained until 1720, when he was called 
to the pastorate of the New North church, Boston. 
He was a noted preacher, and published several 
sermons, etc., between 1711 and 1730. 

THACHER, Thomas Antony, educator, b. in 
Hartford, Conn., 11 Jan., 1815; d. in New Haven, 
Conn., 7 April, 1886. He was graduated at Yale 
in 1835, and after teaching for three years in Con- 
necticut and Georgia was appointed tutor there in 
1838, and professor of Latin in 1842, which post he 
retained to the end of his life. He went to Germany 
in the following year, and for some time taught 
English to the crown prince of Prussia and nis 
cousin, Prince Frederick Charles. He returned in 
1845, and, although often in feeble health, was 
actively interested in the management of Yale 
until his death, at which time he was the member 
of the faculty that had been longest in continuous 
. service. He was a fine classical scholar, and con- 
tributed many articles to periodicals on classical 
subjects, especially to the " New Englander." He 

also assisted in the compilation of Webster's Dic- 
tionary. He edited many classical works, among 
others Cicero's " De Officiis," with notes (New York, 
1850), and an English translation and adaptation 
of Madvig's " Latin Grammar," which was long in 
use at Yale. In his introduction to this work he 
earnestly upholds the English system of pronounc- 
ing Latin. He also wrote " Sketch of the Life of 
Edward C. Herrick " (New Haven, 1862). 

THARIN, Robert Seymour Symmes (tha- 
rin). lawyer, b. at Magnolia, near Charleston, S. C, 
10 Jan., 1830. The family-seat at Magnolia was 
also the birthplace of Robert's father, William Cun- 
nington Tharin. grandson of its founder, Col. Will- 
iam Cunnington, an officer on Gen. Francis Mar- 
ion's staff. Robert was graduated at the College 
of Charleston in 1857 and at the law-school of the 
University of New York in 1863. He began prac- 
tice in Wetumpka, Ala., in 1859. During the po- 
litical excitement of this time, he became known 
for his Union sentiments and his sympathy with 
non -slaveholders. He advocated the establishment 
of small farms and factories, the emigration of 
the blacks to Africa, the representation of non- 
slaveholders, who were in the majority, in legisla- 
tures, conventions, and congress, and the repeal of 
the ordinance of secession. His Union sentiments 
led to an attack on him by a mob in 1861, and he 
fled to Cincinnati, Ohio. Mr. Tharin then settled 
in Richmond, Ind., and enlisted as a private in the 
Indiana volunteers, but was mustered out in 1862. 
While he was in the service he wrote a letter to 
the London " Daily News," denouncing his former 
law-partner, William L. Yancey, who was then 
commissioner from the southern Confederacy to 
England. This letter, Mr. Yancey afterward con- 
fessed, was worth an army corps to the Union, as it 
defeated recognition. He returned to the south 
after the war, and in 1884 was corporation counsel 
of Charleston, S. C. In February, 1888, he was tend- 
ered, by the Industrial conference at Washington, 
a nomination for president of the United States, 
but declined on the ground that the body was not 
a convention, and that presidential conventions 
are dangerous to the people who are not repre- 
sented therein. He is now employed in the au- 
ditor's office in Washington. He is the author 
of "Arbitrary Arrests in the South " (New York, 
1863), and " Letters on the Political Situation " 
(Charleston, S. C, 1871). 

THATCHER, Benjamin Bussey, author, b. in 
Warren, Me., 8 Oct., 1809; d. in Boston, 14 July, 
1840. His father, Samuel, a graduate of Harvard 
in 1793 and a lawyer, represented Massachusetts 
in congress in 1802-'5, serving afterward eleven 
years in the legislature. He was a trustee of Har- 
vard and a founder of Warren academy. The son, 
upon his graduation at Bowdoin in 1826, studied 
law and was admitted to the bar in Boston, but 
devoted himself to literature. In 1836-'8 he trav- 
elled in Europe for his health, contributing during 
the time to British and American periodicals. He 
wrote for the " North American Review " in 1831, 
and contributed to the " Essayist " several critiques 
on American poets which attracted notice. He 
edited the " Boston Book " in 1837, the " Colon iza- 
tionist," a periodical in the interests of the Liberian 
cause, which he further aided by eloquent speeches, 
and a volume of Mrs. Hemans's poems, to which he 
contributed a preface. He left in manuscript an 
account of his residence in Europe. His poems, 
some of which are in Griswold's " Poets and Poetry 
of America" (1842), and his reviews and essays, 
have never been collected. He published " Biog- 
raphy of North American Indians" (2 vols., New 





York, 1832 ; new ed., 1842) ; " Memoir of Phillis 
Wheatley " (Boston. 1834) ; " Memoir of S. Osgood 
Wright " (1834) ; " Traits of the Boston Tea-Party " 
(1835); "Traits of Indian Manners, etc." (1835); 
and " Tales of the American Revolution " (1846). 

THATCHER, Henry Knox, naval officer, b. in 
Thomaston, Me., 26 May, 1806 ; d. in Boston, Mass., 
5 April, 1880. He was a grandson of Gen. Henry 
Knox, fie received his early education in the 

schools of Boston, 
and in 1822 was 
admitted as a cadet 
at the U. S. mili- 
tary academy. The 
records of the acad- 
emy show that he 
was absent on sick- 
leave from 28 Nov., 

1822, till April, 

1823, when his res- 
ignation is record- 
ed. He had ex- 
changed his cadet- 
ship for the ap- 
pointment in the 
navy, which he en- 

',. yfoWc^J^ 'era 1 as a mid- 
shipman, 4 March, 
1823. He became 
a passed midshipman, 23 March, 1829, and was 
commissioned lieutenant, 28 Feb., 1833. After 
serving in various parts of the world, he was pro- 
moted to commander by action of the naval re- 
tiring board, 14 Sept., 1855. He commanded the 
sloop " Decatur," Pacific station. Early in 1862 
he was ordered to command the sailing-sloop " Con- 
stellation " on the Mediterranean station, and he 
was thereby prevented from engaging in active 
operations during the first years of the civil war. 
He was promoted to the grade of commodore, 16 
July, 1862, without having had any commission as 
a captain. In July, 1863, he returned from the Medi- 
terranean and took charge of the steam frigate 
" Colorado " on the North Atlantic blockade, and 
in her commanded the first division of Com. David 
D. Porter's fleet in both attacks on Fort Fisher. 
He was then appointed acting rear-admiral in ad- 
vance of his regular promotion to that grade, and 
was ordered to succeed Vice-Admiral Farragut in 
command of the Western Gulf squadron at Mobile. 
There he conducted combined operations with Gen. 
Edward R. S. Can by which resulted in the sur- 
render of the city and the Confederate fleet after 
its flight and pursuit up Tombigbee river. The 
navy department sent him congratulations on the 
successful results at Mobile. Other points on the 
Gulf were quietly surrendered, and on 2 June, 
1865, Galveston, Tex., was occupied by Thatcher's 
squadron without opposition, and the entire coast 
was restored to the Union. He was placed in 
command of the consolidated Gulf squadrons until 
May, 1866, after which he commanded the North 
Pacific squadron until August, 1868. He was 
commissioned rear-admiral, 25 July. 1866. and was 
placed on the retired list, 26 May, 1868. After his 
return home he was port-admiral at Portsmouth, 
N. H., in 1869-'71, after which he was unemployed 
until his death. Upon his death the secretary of 
the navy published an obituary order and directed 
salutes of thirteen minute-guns to be fired in his 
honor, and flags to be displayed at half-mast. He 
was a member of the Massachusetts Society of the 
Cincinnati and the military order of the Loyal le- 
gion. While in command of the North Pacific 
squadron he was presented with a medal and made 

a knight of the order of Kamehameha I. by the 
king of the Hawaiian islands, which honors he was 
allowed to accept by act of congress. 

THAXTER, Adam Wallace, journalist, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 16 Jan.. 1832 ; d. there. 8 June, 1861. . 
He was graduated at Harvard in 1852, and at the 
law-school in 1854. Devoting himself to literature, 
he was for seven years dramatic and literary critic 
of the M Boston Evening Gazette," from which his 
health finally compelled him to withdraw, and he 
contributed to many periodicals. He was the au- 
thor of a poem that he read before a Harvard 
society (Cambridge, 1850) and "The Grotto 
Nymph " (Boston, 1859), and produced some suc- 
cessful plays, among which are " Olympia," " The 
Sculptor," " The Painter of Naples," " The Regi- 
cide," " Mary Tudor," and " Birds of a Feather." 

THAXTER, Celia, poet, b. in Portsmouth, 
N. H., 29 June, 1836. Her father, Thomas B. 
Laighton, took her when she was a child to the 
Isles of Shoals, where she has spent most of her 
life at Appledore. She married there Levi Lincoln 
Thaxter, of Watertown, Mass.. in 1851. She has pub- 
lished " Among the Isles of Shoals " (Boston, 1873);, 
" Poems " (1871) : " Driftweed " (1878) ; " Poems for 
Children " (1884) ; and " The Cruise of the Mystery, 
and other Poems" (1886). Among the finest of, 
her single poems are " Courage," " Kitterv Church-, 
Yard," "The Spaniards' Graves," "The "Watch of 
Boon Island," and " The Sandpiper." 

THAYER, Abbott Henderson, artist, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 12 Aug., 1849. He studied in the 
Brooklyn academy of design and the National 
academy, under Lemuel E. Wilmarth. In 1875 he 
went^to Paris, where for a year he was a student at 
the Ecole des beaux arts under Charles E. R. H. 
Lehmann, and three years with Jean L. Gerome* 
He painted chiefly animals until he had been two 
years abroad. Since that time he has devoted him-j 
self principally to figure-painting. He has also 
essayed landscapes with success. At the Paris; 
salon of 1877 he exhibited "Le sommeil," and in. 
the following year he sent a portrait. He is a 
member of the Society of American artists, to whose 
exhibitions he has contributed, besides several por- 
traits, "Child and Cats" (1884); "Woman and 
Swan " (1886) ; and " An Angel " (1888). ; 

THAYER, Alexander Wheelock, author, b. 
in South Natick, Mass., 22 Oct., 1817. He was 
graduated at Harvard in 1843. and at the law- 
school in 1848. He contributed musical and other 
letters to the Boston "Courier" in 1857-'8 under 
the pen-name of " A Quiet Man," and to " Dwight's 
Journal of Music " under the name of " A Diarist," 
wrote many articles for Grove's "Dictionary of 
Music and Musicians," and was musical critic of 
the New York "Tribune." In 1859-'82 he was. 
U. S. consul at Trieste, where he still resides. He 
has published " Signor Masoni, and other Papers 
of the Late J. Brown," a collection of his own con- 
tributions (Berlin, 1862); "The Hebrews and the. 
Red Sea " (Andover, 1883) ; and " Life of Beetho- 
ven," which is valued for its accuracy and extent 
of research (3 vols., Berlin, 1866-87). 

THAYER, Eli, educator, b. in Mendon. Mass., 
11 June, 1819. He was graduated at Brown in 
1845, was subsequently principal of the Worcester 
academy, and in 1848 founded the Oread institute, 
a collegiate school for young ladies, in Worcester,* 
Mass., of which he is treasurer. He was for several 
years a member of the school board of Worcester, 
and in 1853 an alderman of the city. In 1853-'4 
he was a representative in the legislature, and . 
while there originated and organized the Emigrant 
aid company, laboring till 1857 to combine the 




northern states in support of his plan to send anti- 
slavery settlers into Kansas. Lawrence, Topeka, 
Manhattan, and Ossawatomie were settled under 
the auspices of his company. Gov. Charles Robin- 
son, at the quarter-centennial celebration of Kan- 
sas, at Topeka, said : " Without these settlements 
Kansas would have been a slave state without a 
struggle; without the Aid society these towns 
would never have existed ; and that society was 
born of the brain of Eli Thayer." Charles Sum- 
ner also said that he would rather have the credit 
that is due to Eli Thayer for his Kansas work 
than be the hero of the battle of New Orleans. In 
1857-61 Mr. Thayer sat in congress as a Republi- 
can, serving on the committee on militia, and as 
chairman of the committee on public lands. In 
1860 he was a delegate for Oregon to the National 
Republican convention at Chicago and labored for 
the nomination of Lincoln. He has patented many 
inventions, which cover a wide field. Among these 
are a hydraulic elevator in use in this country and 
in Europe, a sectional safety steam boiler, and an 
automatic boiler-cleaner, or sediment-extractor. 
He has published a volume of congressional 
speeches (Boston, 1860) ; several lectures (Worces- 
ter, 1886); and is now writing a history of the 
Emigrant aid company that he organized and its 
influence on our national history. 

THAYER, Elihu, clergyman, b. in Braintree, 
Mass., 29 March, 1747; d. "in Kingston, N. H., 3 
April, 1812. He was graduated at Princeton in 
1769, and after a private theological course was 
settled in 1776 over a Congregational church in 
Kingston, N. H., where he continued until his 
death. At the organization of the New Hampshire 
missionary society he was elected its president, 
holding office till 1811. The degree of D. D. was 
conferred upon him in 1807 by Dartmouth. He 

Eublished a sermon at the funeral of Gov. Josiah 
iartlett (1795), and a "Summary of Christian 
Doctrines and Duties," by request of the New 
Hampshire missionary society. A volume of his 
sermons was published in 1813. 

THAYER, Eugene, musician, b. in Mendon, 
Mass., 1 1 Dec, 1838. He began the study of the 
organ at the age of fourteen, and, settling in Bos- 
ton, soon gained a reputation as an excellent 
organist. In 1865-'6 he studied in Europe under 
Carl Haupt and others. While in Boston he edited 
the " Organist's Journal " and the •' Choir Journal," 
and was director of the Boston choral union, the 
New England church-music association, and other 
societies. He has given organ recitals in the United 
States and Europe. Since 1881 he has resided in 
New York, following his profession as an organist 
and teacher. The degree of Mus. Doc. was con- 
ferred on him by Wooster university, Ohio, in 1883. 
THAYER, John, clergyman, b. in Boston, 
Mass., about 1755 ; d. in Limerick, Ireland, 5 Feb., 
1815. He was the minister of a Protestant church 
in Boston, when, in 1781, he went to Europe, where, 
after visiting France, England, and Italy- he 
united with the Roman Catholic church in 1783. 
He studied for the priesthood in Paris, was or- 
dained in 1784, and returned to Boston, where he 
held weekly conferences on the doctrines of the 
Roman Catholic church, attracting crowds by his 
learning and eloquence. He was sent to Kentucky 
in 1799, and remained there till 1803, when he went 
to England and engaged in missionary work for 
about a year. He spent the last years of his life in 
Limerick. Ireland, and devoted his time aud fortune 
to the welfare of the poor. His works are " Con- 
troversy between the Rev. John Thayer, Catholic 
Missionary of Boston, and the Rev. George Leslie, 

Pastor of a Church in Washington, N. H." (Bos- 
ton. 1793), and "An Account of the Conversion 
of the Rev. Mr. John Thayer, lately a Protestant 
Minister at Boston in North America, who em- 
braced the Roman Catholic Religion at Rome, on 
the 25th of May, 1783, written by Himself " (5th 
ed., reprinted from the London edition, Baltimore, 
1788; French translation, Paris 1788; Spanish 
translation, from the French, Valencia, 1788). It 
was also translated into Italian. The work pro- 
voked several replies and rejoinders. 

THAYER, John Milton, governor of Nebraska, 
b. in Bellingham, Mass., 24 Jan., 1820. After his 
graduation at Brown in 1841 he studied and prac- 
tised law, and in 1854 removed to Nebraska, where 
he was a member in 1860 of the territorial legisla- 
ture, and in 1866 of the Constitutional convention. 
Previous to his civil appointments he had been 
made brigadier-general of militia, and organized 
and commanded several expeditions against the 
Indians. In the civil war, as colonel of the 1st 
regiment of Nebraska infantry, he led a brigade at 
Donelson and Shiloh, and was made brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers, 4 Oct., 1862. His appointment 
expired on 4 March, 1863, but he was reappointed 
on 13 March. He commanded a brigade and divis- 
ion at Vicksburg and Jackson, and led a storm- 
ing column at Chickasaw bayou, for which and 
for his services at Vicksburg he was brevetted ma- 
jor-general of volunteers, 13 March, 1865. He re- 
signed, 19 July, 1865, and, returning to Nebraska, 
he served as U. S. senator in 1867-'71, having been 
chosen as a Republican, and was then appointed 
by Gen. Grant governor of Wyoming territory. 
In 1886 he was elected governor of Nebraska by a 
majority of about 25,000, which office he still holds 
(1888). He was department commander of the 
Grand army of the republic in the state of Nebras- 
ka in 1886. 

THAYER, Joseph Henry, biblical scholar, b. 
in Boston, Mass., 7 Nov., 1828. He was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1850, and at Andover theologi- 
cal seminary in 1857, and was pastor of a church 
in Salem, Mass., from 1859 till 1864. when he was 
appointed professor of sacred literature in Ando- 
ver theological seminary. He resigned in 1882, 
and since 1884 has been professor of criticism and 
interpretation of the New Testament in the divin- 
ity-school of Harvard. In the mean time he was 
chaplain to the 40th Massachusetts regiment in 
1862-'3, secretary of the New Testament company 
of the American revision committee, and a mem- 
ber of the corporation of Harvard in 1877-'84 
The degree of D. D. was conferred on him by Yale 
in 1873 and by Harvard in 1884. He has pub- 
lished occasional sermons and reviews, and con- 
tributed to the American edition of Smith's " Bible 
Dictionary." His works include "A Grammar of 
the Idiom of the New Testament," a translation of 
Lunemann's enlarged and improved edition of 
Winer's well-known work (Andover, 1869) ; a trans- 
lation, with additions, of Alexander Buttmann's 
" Grammar of the New Testament Greek " (1873) ; 
and " A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testa- 
ment, being Grimm's Wilke's ' Clavis Novi Testa- 
menti,' translated, revised, and enlarged" (New 
York and Edinburgh, 1886). He has edited "Notes 
on Scrivener's Plain Introduction to the Criticism 
of the New Testament," by Prof. Ezra Abbot (Bos- 
ton, 1885). and has carried through the press a new 
edition of Prof. Evangelinus A. Sophocles's "Greek 
Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods" 
(New York, 1887) and a volume of " Critical Es- 
says," selected from the published writings of Prof. 
Ezra Abbot (Boston, 1888). 




THAYER, Nathaniel, clergyman, b. in Hamp- 
ton. N. H., 11 July, 17G9 ; d. in Rochester, N, Y., 
23 June, 1840. His father, Rev. Ebenezer Thayer, 
was pastor in Hampton for many years. The son 
was graduated at Harvard in 1789, studied the- 
ology, and became a pastor at Wilkesbarre, Pa. In 
1795 he was installed over the Unitarian society at 
Lancaster, Mass., where he remained for nearly 
fifty years. He received of D. D. from 
Harvard in 1817. On account of Dr. Thayer's tact 
and sagacity he was. perhaps more than any other 
man of his day, selected for the settlement of eccle- 
siastical difficulties, and he frequently drew up the 
decisions of church councils. He died while on a 
journey foi the benefit of his health. He pub- 
lished twenty-three occasional sermons in 1795- 
1831. — His son, Nathaniel, capitalist, b. in Lan- 
caster, Mass., 11 Sept., 1808; d. in Boston, Mass., 
7 March. 1883, for many years constituted, with 
his deceased brother, the firm of John E. Thayer 
and Brother, in Boston, which was active in the 
development of railroads in the west, of several of 
which he was a director. He was a fellow of 
Harvard in 1868-'75, and one of its largest bene- 
factors. He contributed to a Commons hall, erected 
Thayer hall in 1870 as a memorial of his father and 
brother, bore the expenses of Prof. Louis Agassiz's 
expedition to South America, which was known as 
the Thayer expedition, built a fire-proof herbarium 
at the Botanic garden, and gave much in aid of 
poor students of the college, and was one of the 
most generous citizens of Boston. 

THAYER, Simeon, soldier, b. in Mendon, Mass., 
30 April, 1737; d. in Cumberland, R. I., 14 Oct., 
1800. He removed to Rhode Island in his youth, 
became an apprentice, served in the French war in 
1756 with the Rhode Island troops and with Maj. 
Robert Rogers's rangers, and in 1757 was taken 
prisoner at Fort William Henry. In May, 1775, he 
was appointed captain by the Rhode Island assem- 
bly, and accompanied Benedict Arnold's expedi- 
tion against Quebec, where he was made prisoner. 
He was promoted major, 1 Jan., 1777, and served 
with great credit in the defence of Red Bank and 
at Fort Mifflin, receiving for the latter a sword 
from the Rhode Island assembly in July. He was 
wounded in the battle of Monmouth, and retired 
from the service, 1 Jan., 1781. His " Journal of 
the Invasion of Canada in 1775 " has been edited 
by Edwin M. Stone (Providence, 1867). 

THAYER, Sylvanus, soldier, b. in Braintree, 
Mass., 9 June, 1785; d. in South Braintree, Mass., 
7 Sept., 1872. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 
1807, at the U. S. military academy in 1808, and 
assigned to the corps of engineers. During the 
next four years he was employed on engineer ser- 
vice on the eastern coast, and as instructor of 
mathematics at the academy, receiving promotion 
as 1st lieutenant, 1 July, 1812. Being called to the 
field in the latter year, he served as chief engineer 
under Gen. Henry Dearborn, on the Niagara fron- 
tier ; in 1813 under Gen. Wade Hampton's division 
on Lake Champlain, receiving promotion to cap- 
tain of engineers, 13 Oct., 1813, and in 1814 under 
Gen. Moses Porter's forces in defence of Norfolk, 
Va., being brevetted major, 20 Feb., 1815, for dis- 
tinguished services. In 1815 he was sent to Europe 
to examine military works and schools, and study 
the operations of the allied armies before Paris, but 
he was recalled in 1817 to the superintendency of 
the academy at West Point, which he assumed on 
28 July of that year, and held till his resignation, 
1 July, 1833. During the sixteen years of his ad- 
ministration he organized the school on its present 
basis, and raised it from an elementary condition 

to the same grade with the best military schools in 
the world. During his term of office he was bre- 
vetted lieutenant-colonel, 3 March, 1823, made 
major, 24 May, 1828, and brevetted colonel, 3 
March, 1833. Five years after his resignation he 
was again offered the 
charge of the academy, 
with almost absolute 
control, but he did not 
accept. On leaving West 
Point he was made a 
member of the board of 
engineers, of which he 
was president from 7 
Dec, 1838. and for thirty 
years following he was 
engaged in the construc- 
tion of defences in and 
about Boston harbor, 
which are models of his 
engineering skill and 
standards of economy 
and stability of construc- 
tion. On 7 July, 1838, 
he was made lieutenant- 
colonel of engineers, and 
he became colonel, 3 
March, 1863. On 1 June, 
1863, he was retired from 
active service, after receiving the brevet of briga- 
dier-general the day before. The degree of A. M. 
was conferred on him by Dartmouth in 1810, and 
by Harvard in 1825, and that of LL. D. by St. 
John's college, Md.. in 1830, by Kenyon and Dart- 
mouth in 1846, and by Harvard in 1857. He was 
also a member of various scientific associations. 
Gen. Thayer gave about $300,000 for the endow- 
ment of an academy, and $32,000 for a free li- 
brary, at Braintree, and $70,000 for a school of 
architecture and civil engineering at Dartmouth. 
His body was reinterred at West Point, 8 Nov., 
1877, and his statue was unveiled there, 11 June, 
1883, Gen. George W. Cullum making the presen- 
tation. It bears the inscription. " Colonel Thayer, 
Father of the United States Military Academy," 
and is represented in the accompanying illustra- 
tion. A fine full-length portrait by Robert W. Weir 
is in the library at West Point. He was the au- 
thor of " Papers on Practical Engineering" (1844). 
— His cousin, Martin Russell, jurist, b. in Peters- 
burg, Va.. 27 Jan., 1819, was graduated at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1840, admitted to the 
Philadelphia bar in 1842, and began to practise in 
that city. In 1862-'7 he sat in congress, having 
been elected as a Republican, serving in the com- 
mittee on the bankrupt law and as chairman of the 
committee on private land claims. In 1862 he was 
appointed a commissioner to revise the revenue 
laws of Pennsylvania, and in 1867, declining re- 
election to congress, he was appointed one of the 
judges of the district court of the county of Phila- 
delphia, and he has recently been re-elected. In 
1873 he was appointed on the board of visitors to 
West Point, and wrote the report. In the succeed- 
ing year he became president- judge of the court of 
common pleas of Philadelphia. He is the author 
of "The Duties of Citizenship" (Philadelphia, 1862) ; 
"The Great Victory: its Cost and Value" (1865): 
"The Law considered as a Progressive Science" 
(1870); "On Libraries" (1871); "The Life and 
Works of Francis Lieber" (1873); and "The Bat- 
tle of Germantown " (1878). 

THAYER, Thomas Baldwin, clergyman, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 10 Sept., 1812 ; d. in Roxbury, Mass., 
12 Feb., 1886. He entered Harvard at an early 




age, but left after the first year and began to teach, 
at the same time studying divinity He was or- 
dained in 1832, and in 1833-45 was pastor of the 
1st Universalist society in Lowell, where his min- 
istry was important in the history of Universalism 
in New England. During the crusade against 
Universalism, in 1840-'2, he. established and edit- 
ed in its defence the "Star of Bethlehem," and 
with his co-worker, Rev. Abel C. Thomas, wrote 
the "Lowell Tracts" in the same interest. Mr. 
Thayer was called to a pastorate in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., in 1845, where he edited the " Golden Rule " 
in the interest of the fraternity of Odd-FelloWs. 
After six years he returned to his old parish in 
Lowell. In 1859 he became pastor of the Shaw- 
mut avenue church, Boston, which charge he re- 
signed in 1867. In 1862 Dr. Thayer assumed the 
editorship of the " Universalist Quarterly," which 
contains some of his most important literary 
work. He continued these labors, with an inter- 
val of travel in Europe and the East, until his 
last illness. He received the degree of D. D. from 
Tufts college in 1865, and he was for many years 
on the board of overseers of Harvard. Dr. Thayer 
was a biblical scholar of rare breadth, and a pioneer 
in Universalist literature. He wrote much verse 
that has never been collected, and published 
" Christianity against Infidelity " (Boston, 1833 ; 
enlarged, Cincinnati, 1849); "Bible Class Assist- 
ant" (Boston, 1840); "History of the Origin of 
Endless Punishment " (1855) ; " Theology of Uni- 
versalism" (1862); and "Over the River" (1864). 

THAYER, William Makepeace, author, b. in 
Franklin, Mass., 23 Feb., 1820. He was gradu- 
ated at Brown in 1843, studied theology, and was 
settled over the orthodox Congregational church 
at Ashland, Mass., in 1849-'57. In consequence of 
a throat trouble he relinquished his pastorate, and 
on his return to Franklin in 1858 devoted himself to 
literary work. In 1857 and 1863 he was a member 
of the legislature, and in 1860-'76 he was secretary 
of the Massachusetts temperance alliance. He has 
written many religious and juvenile books, the first 
of which was published in 1852. In "The Bobbin 
Boy" (Boston, 1859) he originated the conversa- 
tional style, and its success was so great that he 
wrote his succeeding biographies in dialogue. 
After "The Pioneer Boy" (1863) was published, 
the same style was adopted by other writers. His 
most popular works are a series of biographies (10 
vols., Boston, 1859-63) ; ".Youth's History of the 
Rebellion "(4 vols., 1863-'5); "White House Se- 
ries " (1880-5) ; and " Marvels of the New West " 
(Norwich, 1887). Nearly 1,000,000 copies of his 
works have been sold, " From Log-Cabin to the 
White House " exceeding 300,000 copies, two thirds 
of them being sold in Europe. " The Poor Boy 
and Merchant Prince " (Boston, 1858), " The Good 
Girl and True Woman" (1859), "The Pioneer 
Boy," " Tact, Push, and Principle " (Boston, 1880). 
" From Pioneer Home to the White House " (Nor- 
wich, 1882), and "From Tannery to the White 
House " (Boston, 1885), have each reached 50,000 
copies. Many have been republished in England, 
and some have been translated into German, French, 
Italian, Greek, Swedish, and Hawaiian. Mr. Thayer 
has also edited the " Home Monthly "and " Moth- 
er's Assistant " (Boston). 

THEAKER, Thomas Clarke, commissioner of 
patents, b. in York county, Pa., 1 Feb., 1812; d. 
in Oakland, Md., 16 July, 1883. He received a 
good English education, removed to Bridgeport, 
Ohio, in 1830, and was principally occupied as a 
machinist and millwright. He served in congress 
as a Republican in 1859-'61, and was an unsuccess- 

ful candidate for the ensuing congress. He was 
made a member of a board of commissioners who 
were appointed to investigate the workings of the 
patent-office, and was afterward made by Presi- 
dent Johnson commissioner of patents, serving 
from 17 Aug., 1865, till 6 June, 1868. 

THEBAUD, Augustine J. (tay-bo), clergy- 
man, b. in Brittany in 1807; d. in Fordham, X. Y, 
17 Dec, 1885. He studied for the priesthood, and 
after his ordination was for several years engaged 
in missionary work in Brittany. He afterward 
went to Rome and entered the Society of Jesus. 
In 1838 he came to the United States and was ap- 
pointed professor in St. Mary's college, Ky., where 
he remained until that institution passed from the 
control of the Jesuits in 1845. He then taught 
physics and mathematics in St. John's college, 
Fordham, of which he was president in 1846-'52. 
He was then made pastor of St. Joseph's church, 
Troy, where he began his investigations in Irish 
history. He was afterward transferred to New 
York, where he continued the same line of research, 
the result of which was the publication of " The 
Irish Race," a work that placed him in the first 
rank as a philosophic historian, and of which Dr. 
Orestes A. Brownson wrote that it had caused him 
to change life-long opinions on questions of para- 
mount importance in the philosophy of history. 
Father Thebaud went to Canada, where he re- 
mained a year, and then returned to New York. 
The rest of his life was spent in missionary labors 
and literary pursuits. He was a frequent con- 
tributor to Roman Catholic periodicals. Besides 
the work already mentioned he published "Gen- 
tilism"; "The Church and the Moral World"; 
and " Twit-Twatso." 

THEKAKISQUI, Iroquois chief, b. in central 
New York in 1756; d. in 1802. Owing to his 
bravery and skill in the use of arms and in hunt- 
ing, he became a chief at the age of twenty. He 
made several raids ou the Spanish colonies, and 
rendered considerable assistance to the English in 
the wars of the Revolution. He led a body of In- 
dians into the Carolinas, devastated the country 
with fire and sword, and brought back numerous 
slaves into the Iroquois territory. He gave up part 
of the lands of his tribe to the government of the 
United States in 1794. Under his sway his people 
turned their attention to agriculture, and made 
some advances in civilization. 

THELLER, Edward Alexander, journalist, b. 
in Canada East about 1810; d. in Honitas, Cal., 
in 1859. He was graduated as a physician, and, 
having actively participated in the Canadian re- 
bellion of 1837, was arrested, tried, convicted, and 
sentenced to death. Escaping from prison, he 
came to this country, and, after residing in New 
York in 1841-2, went to California in 1853, and 
was editor of several newspapers. He was at one 
time superintendent of public schools in San Fran- 
cisco. He published "Canada in 1837-'8: Show- 
ing the Causes of the Late Attempted Revolution 
and its Failure " (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1841). 

THEONDECHOREN, Joseph, Indian convert, 
d. near Tadoussac, Canada, 26 June, 1652. Pre- 
vious to his conversion it is related that he could 
take live coals and red-hot pebbles in his hands and 
mouth without sustaining any injury, and plunge 
his arm into boiling water, and he attributed this 
power to satanic influence. He became a Christian 
in 1641, and endeavored to imitate the missionaries 
in everything and conform to their mode of life. 
The Jesuit relations contain extracts from sermons 
that he preached, which are remarkable for fervor 
and rude eloquence. He went with Father Jogues 




in 1643, accompanied by his two brothers and his 
son. One of his brothers and his son were killed, 
but he escaped, during a hunting expedition of the 
Iroquois, and reached Three Rivers, where he 
preached some remarkable discourses to his coun- 
trymen, who had come to congratulate him on 
his escape. After his return to his own coun- 
try he formed one of a convoy of 100 warriors 
who went down to Quebec. He was wounded in 
an attack that was made on the town by the Iro- 
quois, but succeeded in escaping to the woods. He 
was discovered by a band of hostile Indians, who 
were so touched by his discourse that they saved 
his life and nursed him. When the Hurons were 
driven from their country in 1649 he went to live 
in St. Joseph's island, and afterward took a large 
part of his tribe to Quebec. They formed a settle- 
ment close to the city, where Theondechoren edified 
both the Indians and French by the sanctity of his 
life, and astonished the latter by his eloquence. 

THEVENARD, Antoine jean Marie (tay- 
veh-nar), Count, French naval officer, b. in Saint 
Malo, 7 Dec, 1733; d. in Paris, 9 Feb., 1815. He 
entered the service of the East India company as 
a cabin-boy in 1747, assisted in three combats with 
the English, and rose rapidly in rank. In 1754 
he was sent with a sloop-of-war to Newfoundland, 
and destroyed all the establishments and fisheries 
along the northern coast of that colony. After the 
conclusion of peace, he became a naval engineer. He 
was a commodore in the East India fleet in 1767, but 
in 1769 joined the royal navy, was made captain of 
a frigate in 1770. and promoted first captain and 
knight of Saint Louis in 1773. When France sent 
aid to the United States in 1778, he was given 
command of a squadron, and carried troops and 
supplies to the Antilles and to this country. He 
made successful cruises along the coast of New 
England, and for his services was promoted briga- 
dier-general of the naval forces in 1782, and chef 
d'escadre in 1784. Assuming command of the 
station of South America in 1785, he was made 
vice-admiral in 1792, and he was successively mari- 
time prefect at Brest, Toulon, and Rochefort in 
1792-3, and again at Toulon in 1801. He was 
created a senator and a count in 1810, and made a 
peer of France, 4 June, 1814. He was a member 
of several learned societies of Europe and America, 
of the Royal academy of marine in 1773, and of 
the Paris academy of sciences after 1785. He pub- 
lished " Memoires relatifs a la marine " (4 vols., 
Paris. 1800), which is still a standard work. 

THEVENAU, Charles Etienne (tay-vay-no), 
West Indian naturalist, b. in St. Lucia in 1758 ; d. 
in Paris in 1820. He took part as an ensign in the 
war of 1778-83 in the West Indies, and after the 
conclusion of peace held an office in the magistracy 
of St. Lucia. At the beginning of the French 
revolution he went to Paris, where he became noted 
as a journalist; but he strongly opposed the en- 
franchisement of the slaves, and for his attacks 
against the club called " Les amis des noirs " was 
imprisoned during the reign of terror. Being re- 
leased after the reaction of 1794, he returned to St. 
Lucia and devoted himself to agriculture and sci- 
ence. After the restoration of Louis XVIII. he 
settled in Paris. His works include " Observations 
sur des poissons recueillis dans un voyage a la Baie 
de Samana, et description des especes nouvelles et 
peu connues " (St. Lucia, 1788) ; " Monographie des 
ignames " (Paris, 1790) : " Historia naturalis plan- 
tarum quas in insula Santa Lucia crescent " (3 vols., 
1802 -'9); " Enumeratio plantarum cellularium 
quas in insula Santa Lucia a Thevenau collectas de- 
scribit" (3 vols., 1807-12) ; " Fasciculus plantarum 

rariarum et exoticarum" (1813); "Essai sur les 
simples veneneux des Antilles " (1814) ; and " Traite 
des arbres fruitiers des Antilles" (2 vols., 1816). 

THEVET, Andre" (tay-vay), French historian, 
b. in Angouleme in 1502; d. in Paris, 23 Nov., 
1590. He united with the Gray Friars, and in 1555 
accompanied Admiral Villegaignon to Brazil, but 
returned to France in the following year and was 
appointed in 1558 chaplain to Queen Catherine de 
Medicis and historian and cosmographer to the 
king. He enjoyed royal favor under Charles IX. 
and his successors, and composed for their amuse- 
ment several works which have since been held in 
high esteem. They include " Les singularitez de 
la France antarctique, autrement nomme Ame- 
rique, et de plusieurs terres et isles decouvertes de 
notre temps" (Paris, 1558); " Cosmographie uni- 
verselle, illustree de diverses figures des choses plus 
remarquables vues par l'auteur" (2 vols., 1771); 
and "Vrais portraits et vies des homines illus- 
tres, Grecs, Latins et Paiens " (2 vols., 1584). The 
last is a curious work, containing the biography 
and portraits of several Indian caciques, emperors 
of Mexico, and incas of Peru, and, although some 
doubts have been expressed as to their authenticity, 
they have never been proved spurious. The vet's 
work had many editions and has been translated 
into several languages. He wrote also " Histoire 
naturelle et generale des Indes Occidentales " and 
•' Voyage dans les Indes australes," which are pre- 
served among the manuscripts in the National li- 

[)!**! T*V fit" rMVIS 

THIBAUD, Pierre (tee-bo), French scientist, 
b. in Pithiviers in 1739 ; d. there in 1804. He was 
for many years a professor in Paris, and was also 
employed by the French academy of literature in 
making linguistic researches. In 1788 he was 
elected secretary of the Academy of Caen, but re- 
tired to his native city during the revolution. Thi- 
baud devoted himself principally to the study of 
the migrations of men, to the descent of nations, 
and their travels through the world ; he was also 
the first to advance the theory that the Indians of 
America migrated from Asia in remote antiquity, 
and through patient research was enabled to give 
a nearly complete history of the Aztec nation since 
their first appearance in the basin of Mexico about 
500 b. c. Thibaud's works contain some errors, but 
he was a pioneer in the field of Indian history. He 

Sublished " Origine des Indiens de l'Amerique du 
ord, contenant une description de leurs manieres, 
avec une etude sur lour religion, lour langage, et 
leur maniere de se vetir" (Caen, 1787); "Histoire 
et migrations de la nation Aztec ou Mexicaine 
depuis le cinquieme siecle de notre ere jusqu' a la 
chute de la dynastie de Montezuma" (1796); and 
" Origine des Indiens de l'Amerique du Sud " 
(Pithiviers, 1801). 

THIBAUDIN, Gaston Louis (tee-ho-dang), 
French explorer, b. in Dunkirk in 1727; d. in Lima, 
Peru, in 1796. He studied botany in Paris under 
Buffon, was employed afterward by the Academy 
of sciences, and at the request of that body was 
given by Louis XVI. in 1776 a mission to South 
America. His instructions were to collect in Chili, 
Peru, and Cuba specimens of medicinal plants 
that could be naturalized in France. He landed in 
Concepcion early in February, 1777, journeyed for 
months through the pampas and the mountains, and 
formed a rich herbarium. After visiting Santiago 
and the large cities, he went to Callao, making also 
a voyage to the island of Juan Fernandez. Toward 
the end of 1780 his herbarium numbered about 
1,500 specimens, including many new ones, when 
he left for the West Indies, but, owing to the war 




that then raged in the Gulf of Mexico between 
France and England, he remained at Carthagena 
occupied in arranging his collections till the truce 
of 1782. Then he resumed his voyage and went to 
Havana, where he formed a nearly complete collec- 
tion of the flora of the island. On his return to 
France in 1785 he was elected a corresponding 
member of the Academy of sciences, and that body 
undertook also the publication of his works. He 
had made many friends in Peru, and, feeling inse- 
cure in Paris during the revolution, he returned in 
1792 to Lima, where he taught mathematics till his 
death. Thibaudin's works include " Description 
des plantes recueillir dans un voyage au Perou et 
au Chili " (2 vols., Paris, 1786) ; " Memoire sur la 
flore de l'ile de Cuba" (1786); " Prodome de la 
flore du Chili avec herbier explicatif" (4 vols, 
1788) ; and " Prodome de la flore du Perou avec 
herbier explicatif " (4 vols., 1790). 

THIENPONT, Emanuel, clergyman, b. in Bel- 
gium in 1803 ; d. in Logan, Hocking co., Ohio, 19 
Oct., 1873. He came to the United States at an 
early age, studied for the priesthood, and was 
ordained in Cincinnati oh 20 Jan., 1833. He 
spent the following year in preparing candidates 
for the priesthood, was then sent to take charge of 
the missions along the Miami canal, and for some 
time had entire charge of all the Roman Catholics 
in the state of Ohio. He was appointed pastor of 
St. Mary's, Tiffin, in 1835, and afterward of the 
German Catholics of Dayton, and then had charge 
of congregations at Portsmouth, Steubenville, and 
other places. He was afterward sent to Logan, and 
formed a new congregation in the neighborhood 
at Straitville. Father Thienpont was the pioneer 
secular priest of Ohio, and was the first to build 
Roman Catholic churches in Dayton, Portsmouth, 
Steubenville, and other places in the state. 

seph, French botanist, b. in Saint-Mihiel, France, 
18 June, 1739 ; d. in Port au Prince, Santo Domingo, 
in 1780. He studied law, and for some time prac- 
tised his profession in his native city, but he soon 
abandoned the bar for botany, of which he was 
passionately fond. He formed a plan to naturalize 
the cochineal insect in the Franco-American colo- 
nies, and after landing in Santo Domingo in 1776, 
in order to learn how to cultivate it, he penetrated 
to Mexico in the disguise of a Catalonian physician, 
at great personal risk, as the Spaniards kept the 
knowledge of this branch of commerce jealously 
from strangers. With great difficulty he reached 
Oaxaca, which, he had learned, produced a finer 
specimen of cochineal than could be found else- 
where, learned the art of planting and raising the 
nopal on which the insect feeds, bought a large 
quantity of branches and insects, filling eight 
chests with them, and succeeded in forwarding 
them by different routes to Santo Domingo. He 
sent a part of his cochineals to France, and was 
successful in rearing and multiplying those that 
he retained, in the Jardin du roi, which he founded 
at Port au Prince. He received the title of botan- 
ist of the king soon after his return to Mexico. 
Shortly after his death the cochineal insect disap- 

? eared from Santo Domingo. The club of " The 
'hiladelphes" at Cape Francais published a manu- 
script that he left, entitled " Traite de la culture 
du nopal et de l'education de la cochenille dans les 
colonies franchises de l'Amerique, precede d'un 
voyage a Oaxaca" (Cape Francais. 1786). 

THOBURN, James Mills, M. E. bishop, b. in 
St. Clairsville, Ohio, 7 March, 1836. He was 
graduated at Alleghany college. Pa., in 1857, and 
began preaching in Ohio as a Methodist minister 

^Jt. JjurUisi^ 

in the same year. In 1859 he went to India as a 
missionary, where he was stationed successively at 
Nynee Tal, Moradabad, Lucknow, and Calcutta. 
He preached in 

both the native ^_^^ 

and European lan- 
guages, and built 
the largest church 
in India. He was 
presiding elder of 
the Indian confer- 
ence, preached for 
some time at Simla, 
the summer capi- 
tal of India, and 
was for five years 
editor of the " In- 
dian Witness." In 
consequence of an 
injury that result- 
ed from an acci- 
dent, he returned 
to this country in 
1886. At the gen- 
eral conference of 
the Methodist Episcopal church in New York city 
in 1888 he was elected missionary bishop of India 
and Malaysia. He has published " My Missionary 
Apprenticeship," being a history of twenty-five 
years' experience in India (New York, 1884), and 
'• Missionary Sermons " (1888). 

THOM, (George (torn), soldier, b. in Derrv, N. H., 
21 Feb., 1819. He was graduated at the U. S. 
military academy in 1839, assigned to the topo- 
graphical engineers, and became 2d lieutenant in 
1840. He served in connection with the survey of 
the boundary between the United States and the 
British provinces under the treaty of Washington, 
in 1842-'7 and on the staff of Gen. Franklin 
Pierce in the war with Mexico. He became 1st 
lieutenant in 1849, and captain for fourteen years' 
service in July, 1853. In 18.53-'6 he served in con- 
nection with the survey of the boundary between 
the United States and Mexico. At the opening of 
the civil war he was a major, but was appointed 
colonel and additional aide-de-camp in November, 
1861. Col. Thoin was continuously employed on 
engineer and other duty on the staff of Gen. Henry 
W. Halleck till April, 1865, being present during 
the siege of Corinth. He was also present at the 
battle of Cedar Creek, Va. He was promoted lieu- 
tenant-colonel of engineers in 1866, and was there- 
after in charge of river and harbor improvements 
in the New England states till 20 Feb., 1883, when, 
having been forty years in service, he was, at his 
own request, retired from active service. He be- 
came colonel of engineers in 1880, and was bre- 
vetted brigadier-general U. S. army, " for faithful 
and meritorious services during the rebellion." 

THOM, James Crawford, artist, b. in New 
York, 22 March, 1835. He studied at the National 
academy, and, in 1859 went abroad, where he 
studied with Edouard Frere, and then with Henri 
Pierre Picou and Jean Baptiste Camille Corot. 
His works were frequently exhibited in London, 
where he gained several medals and other honors 
at various times. Since his return to the United 
States in 1872 many of his pictures have found 
their way into private galleries in this country. 
Among the paintings that he executed while abroad 
are " By the River-Side." " Returning from the 
Wood," " Tired of Waiting." " Going to School." 
and " The Monk's Walk." The last three were ex- 
hibited at the Royal academy, London. He has 
shown more recently at the Academy of design, 




New York, " Forgotten Cares " (1877) ; " Song of 
the Sea " (1881) ; " The Old Farm-House " (1884) ; 
" The Pets " (1885) ; and several landscapes at the 
Mechanics' fair, Boston, in 1878. 

THOMAS, Abel Charles, clergyman, b. in Exe- 
ter, Pa., 11 June, 1807; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 28 
Sept., 1880. His grandfather, Abel Thomas, was a 
Quaker preacher. The grandson was educated at 
Lancaster, Pa., and at an early age entered the 
ministry of the Universalist church. He was first 
established for ten years over the Lombard street 
church in Philadelphia, to which, after a few years 
in Lowell, Mass., Brooklyn, N. Y., and Cincinnati, 
Ohio, he returned, remaining for seventeen years. 
With the Rev. Thomas B. Thayer he wrote the 
" Lowell Tracts," in 1840-42, during the crusade 
against Universalism in Lowell, and organized 
" The Lowell Offering," whose sole conti'ibutors 
and editors were the mill-operatives. He was the 
author of "Allegories and Divers Day-Dreams" 
(Lowell, 1841); an "Autobiography" (Boston, 1852) ; 
and " A Centenary of Universalism " (Philadelphia, 
1872). He prepared " Hymns of Zion," with music 
(Philadelphia. 1839) ; " The Gospel Liturgy " (1857) ; 
and " The Christian Helper, or Gospel Sermons " 
(1857). He published also many tracts, sermons, 
and discussions, among the last, " Discussions on 
Universalism," with Rev. Dr. Ezra S. Ely (New 
York, 1835), and he was connected editorially with 
many papers of his denomination. — His wife, M. 
Louise Palmer, b. in Mount Holly, N. J., about 
1830, is a daughter of Judge Strange N. Palmer, 
of Pennsylvania. She received a classical educa- 
tion and read Blackstone with her brother, Robert 
M. Palmer, who was U. S. minister to the Argen- 
tine Republic in 1861-'2. For many years, owing 
to the failing health of her husband, Mrs. Thomas 
managed a large estate near Philadelphia. This 
gave her an opportunity to educate eighteen chil- 
dren, eleven being taken from the colored orphan 
asylum of New York city. She has been president 
of the Woman's centenary association of the Uni- 
versalist church since 1880, and in 1886 was elected 
president of Sorosis, a woman's club in New York. 
She is also treasurer of the national council of 
women. Since 1873 she has been editor and pub- 
lisher of the tract department of the Universalist 
church, in Philadelphia, Pa. 

THOMAS, Amos Russell, physician, b. in 
Watertown, N. Y., 3 Oct., 182G. He acquired his 
education while working on a farm, taught school, 
and was graduated at Syracuse medical college in 
1854. He removed to Philadelphia, was appoint- 
ed to the chair of anatomy in the Penn medi- 
cal university, and also was lecturer on artistic 
anatomy in the Pennsylvania academy of fine arts 
for fifteen years. In 1863 he received a similar 
appointment in the School of design for women. 
During the civil war he volunteered and served as 
army surgeon. In 1867 he connected himself with 
the Hahnemann medical college of Philadelphia, of 
which he is now the dean. He has contributed 
numerous papers to medical literature, is the author 
of " Post-mortem Examinations and Morbid Anat- 
omy" (Philadelphia, 1870), and general editor of 
the " Homoeopathic Materia Medica." 

THOMAS, Charles, soldier, b. in Pennsylvania 
about 1800 ; d. in Washington, D. C, 1 Feb., 1878. 
He entered the army and became a lieutenant of 
ordnance, 13 Aug., 1819, assistant quartermaster in 
May, 1826, captain in April, 1833, quartermaster 
with the rank of major in July, 1838, and brevet 
lieutenant-colonel for meritorious-services in Mexi- 
co, 30 May, 1848. He was promoted lieutenant- 
colonel and deputy quartermaster-general, U. S. 

army, in May, 1850, colonel and assistant quarter- 
master-general in August, 1856, and brevet major- 
general, 13 March, 1865, for meritorious services 
during the civil war. He was retired from active 
service in July, 1866, after having been in the army 
for more than forty-five years. 

THOMAS, Cyrus, ethnologist, b. in Kingsport, 
Tenn., 27 July, 1825. He studied law, and fol- 
lowed that profession until 1865, holding in 1850-'3 
the office of county clerk of Jackson county, 111. 
In 1865 he entered the ministry of the Evangelical 
Lutheran church, but in 1869 he joined the scien- 
tific corps of the geological and geographical sur- 
veys of the territories under Ferdinand V. Hayden. 
He was elected professor of natural sciences in the 
Southern Illinois normal university in 1873, and 
in 1876 was appointed state entomologist of Illi- 
nois. A year later he became a member of the 
U. S. entomological commission, and since 1882 he 
has been archaeologist to the U. S. bureau of eth- 
nology. He is a member of scientific societies, and 
has contributed to the " Evangelical Quarterly Re- 
view," " American Antiquarian," and other jour- 
nals. His work for the government has appeared 
in the reports of the survey, the entomological 
commission, and the ethnological bureau, and in- 
cludes "Synopsis of the Acridida> of North Ameri- 
ca" (Washington, 1873); "Reports of the State 
Entomologist on the Noxious and Beneficial In- 
sects of Illinois'' (5 vols., 1876-'80); in part "Re- 
ports on the Rocky Mountain Locust" (2 vols., 
1878-'80); "Study of the Manuscript Troano" 
(1882) ; " Notes on Certain Maya and Mexican 
Manuscripts " (1884) ; and " Burial Mounds of the 
Northern Sections of the United States " (1888). 

THOMAS, David, engineer, b. in Montgomery 
county, Pa., in 1776 ; d. in Cayuga county, N. Y., 
in 1859. He was of Quaker parentage. Removing 
to the vicinity of Aurora, Cayuga co., in 1805, he 
was appointed chief engineer of the Erie canal 
west of Rochester, and subsequently he became 
principal engineer of the Welland canal, Canada, 
He was distinguished as a florist and pomologist, 
and by his writings rendered great services to sci- 
entific agriculture. He contributed extensively to 
the " Genesee Farmer " and published " Travels in 
the West " (Auburn, 1819). — His son, John J., 
agriculturist, b. near Aurora, Cayuga co., N. Y., 8 
Jan., 1810, was almost entirely self-taught. He 
studied the botany of the neighborhood in boy- 
hood, making an herbarium of 1.300 species, in 1834 
became associate editor of the " Genesee Farmer " 
at Rochester, and when that journal was merged 
in 1853 in the " Country Gentleman," at Albany, 
he became connected with the latter, where he still 
continues (1888). He was horticultural editor of 
the " Albany Cultivator" in 1841-'53, contributed 
to the " Transactions " of the New York state 
agricultural society in 1841-7, and to " The Farm " 
(New York, 1858), and edited the "Illustrated 
Annual Register of Rural Affairs " (9 vols., Albany, 
1855-'81). He has published " The American Fruit 
Culturist" (Albany, 1845); "Farm Implements, 
and the Principles of their Construction and Use" 
(New York, 1854); and "Farm Implements and 
Farm Machinery" (1869). He received the de- 
gree of A. M. from Haverford college, Pa., in 1876. 
— Another son, Joseph, b. in Cayuga county, N. Y., 
23 Sept., 1811, was educated at Yale and at Rens-. 
selaer polytechnic institute, Troy, N. Y., and was 
graduated as a physician in Philadelphia, engaging 
in practice in that city. He was for some time 

Professor of Latin and Greek in Haverford college, 
a., and also taught privately. In 1857 Dr. 
Thomas visited India, and spent fourteen months 




in the study of Sanscrit. Persian, and other orien- 
tal languages, and in 1858 he passed four months 
in Egypt in the study of Arabic. He has con- 
tributed to journals, and is the author of the sys- 
tem of pronouncing geographical names in " Bald- 
win's Pronouncing Gazetteer " (Philadelphia, 1845) ; 
the geographical and biographical vocabularies 
in several editions of Webster's Dictionary ; and 
* Travels in Egypt and Palestine " (Philadelphia, 
1853). With Thomas Baldwin he edited " A New 
and Complete Gazetteer of the United States" 
(1854) and " Lippineott's Pronouncing Gazetteer 
of the World " (1855), and he edited alone a " Com- 
prehensive Medical Dictionary " (1864) and a 
" Universal Pronouncing Dictionary of Biography 
and Mythology " (2 vols., 1870-'l). 

THOMAS, David, manufacturer, b. near Neath, 
Glamorganshire, Wales, 3 Nov., 1794 : d. in Cata- 
sauqua, Lehigh co., Pa., 20 June, 1882. He was 
employed in the business of manufacturing iron 
after 1812, and in 1839 came to this country and 
built the first of the furnaces of the Lehigh Crane 
iron company. He remained with this company 
till 1854, when, with his sons and others, he or- 
ganized the Thomas iron company, and built two 
blast-furnaces at Hokendauqua. They were at 
the time the largest and most productive anthra- 
cite blast-furnaces in the country. Afterward 
other furnaces were built by the company, and 
successfully operated. He was one of the proprie- 
tors of the Catasauqua manufacturing company 
which was organized to roll plate- and bar-iron, 
for many years served as its president, and was 
an owner of the Lehigh fire-brick works at Cata- 
sauqua. Mr. Thomas was the first in this country 
to make the manufacture of anthracite pig-iron 
commercially successful, and was the first person 
in the world fully to realize the value of powerful 
blowing engines in the working of blast-furnaces. 
He supported the cause of the Union during the 
civil war. In 1866 he was an unsuccessful Repub- 
lican candidate for congress. 

THOMAS, Edith Matilda, author, b. in Chat- 
ham, Medina co., Ohio, 12 Aug., 1854. She was 
educated at Geneva (Ohio) normal institute, has 
contributed largely to periodicals, and has pub- 
lished in book-form " A New Year's Masque, and 
other Poems" (Boston, 1885); "The Round Year" 
(1886) ; and " Lyrics and Sonnets" (1887). 

THOMAS, Edward Harper, clergyman, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 11 April, 1811 ; d. in Lancaster, 
Pa., 18 Sept., 1869. He was apprenticed at the age 
of nine years, but succeeded by self-application un- 
der great difficulties in his early life in securing a 
good education. In 1830, having become a mem- 
ber of the Church of God, a religious denomina- 
tion organized by Rev. John Winebrenner, he 
was ordained to the work of the ministry, and for 
more than twenty years served as an itinerant. 
In 1854 he took editorial charge of the " Church 
Advocate," the official paper of his church, and 
removed to Lancaster, Pa., where he resided until 
his death. — His son, Robert Harper, journal- 
ist, b. in Philadelphia, 28 Jan., 1834, received a 
good English education, served as aide with the 
rank of colonel on the staff of Gov. Andrew G. 
Curtin, and was commissioner of internal revenue 
from 1862 till 1866. In 1870 he purchased the 
." Valley Democrat," of Mechanicsburg, changing 
the name to the " Independent Journal," and sub- 
sequently to the "Farmer's Friend and Grange 
Advocate." He was commissioner from Pennsyl- 
vania to the World's industrial and cotton centen- 
nial exhibition at New Orleans in 1884-'5, and also 
to the American exposition at London in 1887. 

THOMAS, Elisha Smith, P. E. Bishop, b. in 
Wickham, Mass., 2 March, 1834. He was gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1858, and at Berkeley divinity- 
school, Middletown, Conn., in 1861, was ordered 
deacon in June, 1861, and priest soon afterward. 
He was at once put in charge of St. Paul's church, 
New Haven, where he remained three years. In 
1864 he was elected rector of Seabury Hall, Fari- 
bault, Minn., and professor of Old and New Tes- 
tament exegesis there. On the resignation and 
removal of Dr. James L. Breck, he succeeded him 
in the secretaryship of the Seabury mission. He 
spent the year 1869 abroad, studying the Se- 
mitic languages and attending lectures on New 
Testament exegesis. On his return he was elected 
rector of St. Mark's church, Minneapolis, Minn., 
where he remained five years. On 1 July, 1876, h~ 
became rector of St. Paul's church, St. Paul, Minn. 
He was deputy from the diocese to three succes- 
sive general conventions, and also a member, and 
for several years president, of the diocesan stand- 
ing committee, trustee of the Bishop Seabury 
mission, and of St Mary's Hall and the Breck 
mission and farm. He was instrumental in found- 
ing two missions in connection with his own parish, 
and built mission churches at Warsaw and Morris- 
town. He was consecrated assistant bishop of 
Kansas, in St. Paul's church. St. Paul, Minn., 4 
May, 1887, and received the degree of D. D. from 
Yale the same year. 

THOMAS, Francis, governor of Maryland, b. 
in Frederick county, Md., 3 Feb., 1799 ; d. near 
Frankville, Md., 22 Jan., 1876. He was graduated 
at St. John's college, Annapolis, studied law, was 
admitted to the bar in 1820, and began practice in 
Frankville. He was a member of the state house 
of representatives in 1822, 1827, and 1829, being 
speaker the last year, was elected to five consecu- 
tive congresses, serving from 5 Dec, 1831, till 3 
March, 1841, was president of the Chesapeake and 
Ohio canal company in 1839-'40, and governor 
of Maryland in 1841-'4. During his canvass for 
the governorship he fought a duel with William 
Price. He was a member of the State constitutional 
convention in 1850, and was instrumental in hav- 
ing a measure adopted that weakened the power of 
the slave-holding counties. He was again in eon- 

fress from 1861 till 1869. During the civil war 
[r. Thomas supported the Union cause, raised a 
volunteer brigade of 3,000 men, but he refused a 
command. He was a delegate to the Loyalist con- 
vention of 1866, and subsequently opposed Presi- 
dent Johnson. He was appointed collector of in- 
ternal revenue for the Cumberland district, and 
served from April, 1870, till he was appointed min- 
ister to Peru, 25 March, 1872. He held this post 
till 9 July, 1875, and afterward retired to his farm 
near Frankland, where he was killed by a locomo- 
tive while walking on the railroad-track. 

THOMAS, Gabriel, author, lived in the 17th 
century. He was a member of the Society of 
Friends, and resided in Pennsylvania and western 
New Jersey from 1682 till 1697. He wrote "An 
Historical and Geographical Account of the Prov- 
ince and County of Pennsylvania and of West New 
Jersey" (London, 1698). A lithographed fac-simile 
of the book was printed privately by James Austin 
Brady (New York, 1848). 

THOMAS, Sir George, bart.. royal governor of 
Pennsylvania, b. in England about 1705; d. in 
London, England, 11 Jan., 1775. He was a wealthy 
planter of Antigua and a member of the council 
of that island, and in 1737 was appointed governor 
of Pennsylvania. He was detained in England in 
defending the proprietary rights against the claims 

"by H S Hall 5 "NV*- York 





that were raised by Lord Baltimore to the juris- 
diction over the lower counties of the province, 
and did not assume the governorship till 1738. 
The territorial dispute with Maryland was pro- 
visionally arranged by each governor's assuming 
jurisdiction over the people from his own province 
who were settled in the debatable district until the 
boundary-line should be drawn. At first he was 
unpopular in consequence of his arbitrary admin- 
istration, especially when he attempted to use his 
authority to organize the militia at the beginning 
of the Spanish war, although the legislature had 
refused to vote supplies for the purpose. He 
roused the intense opposition of the Quakers by 
refusing to sign bills, but afterward he adopted a 
conciliatory policy, and in the end became very 
popular, and his resignation of the office in 1747 was 
received with general regret. From 1752 till 1766 
he was captain-general and governor-in-chief of 
the Leeward and Caribbee islands. He was cre- 
ated a baronet, 6 Sept., 1766. 

THOMAS, George Henry, soldier, b. in South- 
ampton county, Va., 31 July, 1816 ; d. in San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., 28 March, 1870. He was descended, 
on his father's side, from Welsh ancestry, and, on 
his mother's, from a French Huguenot family. 
Not much is known of his youth. He was eariy 
distinguished for the thoroughness with which 
he mastered everything he undertook. His home 
life was pleasant and genial, and he was carefully 
educated in the best schools and academies of the 
region. At the age of nineteen he began the study 
of law, but the next year he received an appoint- 
ment as cadet at the U. S. military academy. At 
the academy he rose steadily in rank, from 26th 
at the end of the first year to 12th at graduation. 
He was nicknamed, after the fashion of the place, 
" George Washington," from a fancied resemblance 
in appearance and character to the great patriot. 
He was graduated and commissioned 2d lieu- 
tenant in the 3d artillery, 1 July, 1840, and en- 
tered upon duty at New York, but was soon sent 
to Florida to take part in the Indian war, where, 
in 1841, he gained a brevet for gallantry. After a 
short stay at various posts on the south Atlantic 
coast, he was, in the autumn of 1845, sent to 
Texas. When the Mexican war began, he accom- 
panied the column under Gen. Zachary Taylor, 
distinguishing himself at Monterey, where he was 
brevetted captain, and at Buena Vista, 22 and 23 
Feb., 1847. bore a more decisive part. The success 
of that battle was largely due to the artillery. 
" Without it," says Gen. John E. Wool in his re- 
port, " we would not have maintained our position 
a single hour." Capt. Thomas W. Sherman said : 
" Lieut. Thomas more than sustained the reputation 
he has long enjoyed as an accurate and scientific 
artillerist." He was again brevetted for gallantry, 
thus earning three brevets in a little more than six 
years after entering the service. The citizens of 
his native county in the following July presented 
him with a superb sword. He remained on duty in 
Mexico and Texas till 1849, and was again sent to 
Florida. In 1851 he Was detailed as instructor of 
artillery and cavalry at the military academy, where 
he remained until 1 May, 1854. Soon afterward 
two cavalry regiments were added to the army, 
and of one of them, the 2d, brevet Maj. Thomas 
was, on 12 May, 1855, appointed junior major. In 
the composition of this new regiment unusual 
care was taken in the selection of officers. Jeffer- 
son Davis was secretary of war, and the choice was 
dictated not merely by ability but also by locality. 
Of the fifty-one officers that served in it prior to 
the beginning of the civil war, thirty-one were 

from the south, and of these twenty-four entered 
the Confederate service, twelve of whom became 
general officers. Among these were Albert Sid- 
ney Johnston, Robert E. Lee, William J. Hardee, 
Earl Van Dorn, E. Kirby Smith, John B. Hood, 
and Fitzhugh Lee. 

In the seclusion of garrison life in Texas during 
the exciting period from 1855 to 1861, Major 
Thomas watched with increasing apprehension the 
gradual approach of the inevitable conflict. In 
affection for and pride in his native state he was a 
Virginian of the Virginians ; but he never for a 
moment doubted where his duty lay. Early in 
November, 1860, he left Texas on a long leave of ab- 
sence. Before its expiration he was ordered, 11 
April, 1861, to take charge of his regiment, which 
had been treacherously surrendered in Texas, and 
was now arriving in New York. He obeyed the or- 
der with alacrity and conducted the regiment to 
Carlisle, Pa., barracks. On his way there, he heard 
of the assault on Fort Sumter, and on reaching the 
place he renewed his oath of allegiance to the 
United States. On the 17th the Virginia conven- 
tion adopted the ordinance of secession, and Robert 
E. Lee, colonel of his regiment, tendered his resig- 
nation on the 20th. Hardee, Van Dorn, Kirby 
Smith, and Hood had already resigned. Thomas, 
unmoved, continued with ardor the preparations 
necessary to sustain the cause of his country. At 
the head of a brigade he soon crossed the Potomac 
into Virginia, where, on 2 July, he met and put to 
flight an insurgent militia force of his own state, 
under command of Col. Thomas J. Jackson, drawn 
up to resist his movements. From that day till 
the end of the war he did not have or seek a single 
hour's respite from exacting labors in the field. 
He led the advance of Patterson's column to- 
ward Winchester prior to the battle of Bull Run, 
and at the close of that campaign he was appointed, 
17 Aug., 1861, brigadier-general of volunteers, and 
assigned to duty in the Department of the Cum- 
berland, which included Kentucky and Tennessee. 
He found the whole of Kentucky in a turmoil, 
when, on 10 Sept., he entered upon his work at 
Camp Dick Robinson, 100 miles south of Cincin- 
nati. The Confederate army had occupied Colum- 
bus in spite of the formal protest of legislature 
and governor, and Thomas was menaced with per- 
sonal violence. The camp was swarming with un- 
organized Kentucky regiments and crowds of 
refugees from east Tennessee, eager to be armed 
and led back to drive the enemy from their homes. 
For the first few months Gen. Thomas was fully 
occupied in instructing the raw recruits. It re- 
quired infinite patience to work over these inde- 
pendent backwoodsmen into any semblance to 
soldiers. Little by little the task was accomplished, 
and the troops so organized became the first bri- 
gade of the Army of the Cumberland. 

Gen. Robert Anderson was soon relieved from 
duty on account of failing health, and, after a 
short interregnum, Gen. Don Carlos Buell was 
placed in command of the department. Under 
his orders, Gen. Thomas continued his preparations 
for a movement in east Tennessee. Early in 
January, 1862, he placed the head of his column 
at Somerset, fifty miles south of Camp Dick Rob- 
inson, and on the night of the 18th encamped at 
Logan's Cross- Roads, ten miles from the enemy's 
position, with seven regiments of infantry, one 
squadron of cavalry, and two batteries. At early 
dawn the next morning he was attacked by a force 
consisting of nine regiments of infantry, two squad- 
rons and two companies of cavalry, and two bat- 
teries. After a stout resistance Gen. Thomas sue- 




ceeded in placing one of his regiments on the flank 
of the enemy's line, when a charge was ordered, 
and the whole Confederate force was driven in eon- 
fusion from 
the field, with 
the loss of its 
leader. Gen. 
Felix K. Zol- 
licoffer. Pur- 
suit was con- 
tinued till 
dark, when 
the enemy's 
works were 
reached. Dur- 
ing the night 
that follow- 
ed, most of 
the Confed- 
erate army escaped across the river, leaving guns, 
small-arms, and other spoils. This contest, which 
is known as the battle of Mill Springs, was the first 
real victory for the National cause since the dis- 
aster at Bull Run, six months before. The loss 
was 39 killed and 207 wounded on the National 
side, against 125 Confederates killed and 5309 
wounded. Immediately afterward the whole army 
entered upon the movements that culminated in 
the battle of Shiloh and the expulsion of the Con- 
federate armies from the entire region between the 
Cumberland mountains and the Mississippi, Gen. 
Thomas shared in all these operations. On 25 
April, 1862, he was made major-general, and was 
assigned to the command of Gen. Grant's army, the 
latter being made second in general command un- 
der Halleck, and thus virtually retired from active 
command for the time being. Soon after the oc- 
cupation of Corinth, Gen. Thomas returned to his 
old command, and with it went through the ex- 
hausting campaign by which, at the end of Sep- 
tember, Gen. Buell's whole army, save the isolated 
garrison at Nashville, was concentrated at Louis- 
ville, prepared to give battle to Gen. Bragg, who 
had audaciously led his army from Chattanooga to 
the Ohio river. At Louisville, on 29 Sept., the 
command of the National army was offered to Gen. 
Thomas, but he declined it. On 30 Oct. Gen. 
Buell was superseded by Gen. William S. Rose- 
crans, and Gen. Thomas wa^ placed in command 
of five divisions, forming the centre of the army. 
On 31 Dec, 1862, the contending forces, under 
Roseerans and Bragg, met in bloody conflict on 
the banks of Stone river, near Murfreesboro, Tenn. 
By an impetuous and overwhelming charge of the 
enemy at dawn, the whole right wing of the Na- 
tional army was swept back three miles, and its 
very existence was imperilled. But the centre, 
under Thomas, firmly held its ground and repelled 
every assault till nightfall. The contest was re- 
newed on 2 Jan., 1863, when, by a bold and fiery 
attack of a part of Thomas's force on the enemy's 
right, the Confederate position was endangered, 
and Bragg, in the night of the 3d, retreated. The 
National army lay nearly motionless until June, 
when it entered on that series of brilliant flanking 
movements which, without any serious conflict, 
drove the enemy from Tennessee and compelled 
the abandonment of Chattanooga on 8 Sept. The 
terrible battle of Chickamauga followed, when, on 
19 and 20 Sept., the Confederate army, re-enforced 
by Longstreet's corps from Virginia and some 
troops from Mississippi, put forth almost super- 
human efforts to overwhelm the National forces in 
detail, and thus secure, once more, the prize of 
Chattanooga, the gateway to the heart of the Con- 

federacy. Again, as at Stone river, the right was 
swept away, carrying with it the commander of 
the army and two corps commanders. Gen. Thomas 
was thus left with but little more than six out of 
thirteen divisions to maintain his ground against 
five corps flushed with seeming victory and eager 
with the hope of making him an easy prey. From 
noon till night the battle raged. Every assault of 
the enemy had been repelled, the National troops 
were full of confidence and ardor, and the final 
assault of the day was made by a National brigade 
following up with the bayonet a retreating Con- 
federate division. In the night, by orders of the 
army commander, Gen. Thomas fell back to Ross- 
ville, five miles, and there awaited all the next day 
the expected attack; but the enemy was in no 
condition to make it. For the only time in its his- 
tory, the Army of the Cumberland left the enemy 
to bury its dead. Gen. Daniel II. Hill, command- 
ing a Confederate corps in that battle, who had 
served in both eastern and western armies, said : 
"It seems tome the Hanoi the southern soldier 
was never seen after Chickamauga. That barren 
victory sealed the fate of the southern Confederacy." 

Following this great battle, Gen. Thomas on 19 
Oct. was placed in command of the Army of the 
Cumberland. Its affairs were in a most critical con- 
dition. All communication with its base of supplies 
was cut off. an almost impassable river was in its 
rear, from the heights of Lookout mountain and 
Mission ridge the enemy looked down on the be- 
leaguered force, slowly starving in its stronghold. 
Immediate measures were taken for its relief, and 
from every quarter troops were hurried toward 
Chattanooga, both to open communications and to 
re-enforce the army for active operations. Two 
corps from the Potomac and two from Mississippi 
were speedily forwarded, and all were placed under 
command of Gen. Grant. To his almost despair- 
ing message to Gen. Thomas to hold the place, 
came the cheering reply, "We will hold the town 
till we starve." Thomas had then in store six days' 
supply for 50,000 men. Preparations were at last 
completed, and on 23 Nov. the forces from Missis- 
sippi, aided by a division from Thomas, attacked 
the northern end of Mission ridge, and gained 
some ground. On the 24th Lookout mountain was 
captured by the forces from the Potomac, strength- 
ened by two of Thomas's brigades. On the 25th, 
under Thomas's leadership, the Army of the Cum- 
berland, released from its long imprisonment, 
stormed and carried the three lines of rifle-pits 
at the base, midway, and on the summit of Mis- 
sion ridge, and drove the Confederate army, in 
utter rout, from the fortified position it had held 
so confidently for two months. As the jubilant 
National troops reached the summit of the ridge, 
the whistle of the first steamboat, loaded with sup- 
plies, told that the siege was indeed ended. 

In the spring of 1864 Gen. Thomas entered upon 
the Atlanta campaign, at the head of 65.000 veter- 
ans, being two thirds of the grand army com- 
manded by Gen. Sherman. He occupied the centre 
of the line. From Chattanooga to Atlanta it was 
an almost continuous battle of a hundred days. 
The relative amount of work done by each of the 
three armies is indicated by the losses. The Army 
of the Cumberland lost, in killed and wounded, 32 
per cent., the Army of the Tennessee 26 per cent., 
the Army of the Ohio 16 per cent. On 1 Sept., at 
Jonesboro', the 14th army corps of Thomas's army 
made a successful assault, completely driving from 
the field the enemy's right, and on the 2d the 20th 
corps, also of Thomas's command, entered Atlanta, 
and the campaign was ended. 




When Gen. Hood placed his whole force across 
the railroad north of Atlanta, and, turning his 
cavalry loose in Tennessee, threatened to cut off 
supplies from Sherman's army, Gen. Thomas was 
sent to Nashville, while Gen. Sherman prepared 
for his march to the sea. At the end of October 
the 4th and 23d corps were sent to Tennessee, with 
instructions to Gen. Thomas to use them in guard- 
ing the line of the river during Sherman's ab- 
sence. It was supposed that Hood would follow 
Sherman's army through Georgia, but it was soon 
found that the entire force that had confronted 
Sherman on his way to Atlanta was now threaten- 
ing Thomas. All the available troops were concen- 
trated, and Hood's advance was resisted to the ut- 
most. After a series of escapes from desperate 
hazards, a part of the two National corps under 
<xen. John M. Schofield, on the afternoon of 30 
Nov., 1864, at Franklin, Tenn., signally defeated 
the repeated assaults of Hood's army, inflicting 
upon it irreparable losses, including six generals 
killed and a large number wounded. That night 
the National force retired to Nashville, where it 
was re-enforced by a corps from Missouri and a 
division from Chattanooga. Hood boldly advanced 
to the vicinity and fortified himself. Nearly all 
Thomas's mounted force had accompanied Sher- 
man, leaving all the remaining cavalry to be re- 
mounted. The troops from Missouri and Chatta- 
nooga were destitute of transportation. Thus in 
midwinter, at 200 miles from the main base of 
supplies, and in the presence of a bold and active 
enemy, he had thrust upon him a task that at any 
time was almost overwhelming. Some called him 
"slow," yet, within two weeks from the day when 
his unsupplied and dismounted army reached 
Nashville, it was ready to take the field. But 
Gen. Grant at City Point grew so impatient over 
what he considered needless delay, that he issued 
an order dismissing Gen. Thomas from command, 
and directing him to report to one of the corps 
commanders. After a fuller explanation of the 
causes of the delay, this unexampled order was sus- 
pended, but Gen. Grant himself set out for the scene 
of operations. A terrible storm of sleet and rain, 
freezing as it fell, came up on 9 Dec, rendering all 
movement impossible. On the 14th a thaw began. 
On the loth and 16th, in exact accordance with 
the detailed order of battle, the confident troops 
of Gen. Thomas, who had never lost faith in their 
leader, by skilful and energetic movements, com- 
pletely overthrew the last organized Confederate 
army in the southwest. A feeble remnant, de- 
spoiled of guns and transportation, came together 
some weeks later at Tupelo, Miss., nearly 250 miles 
distant. As an army it never again took the field. 

What Gen. Thomas accomplished in this cam- 
paign, and with what means, cannot be better told 
than in the words of his despatch to Gen. Halleck 
on 21 Dec: "I fought the battles of the 15th and 
16th with the troops but partially equipped ; and 
notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather 
and the partial equipment, have been enabled to 
drive the enemy beyond Duck river, crossing two 
streams with my troops without the aid of pon- 
toons, and with but little transportation to bring 
up supplies of provisions and ammunition. . . . 
Too much must not be expected of troops that 
have to be reorganized, especially when they have 
the task of destroying a force, in a winter cam- 
paign, which was enabled to make an obstinate 
resistance to twice its numbers in spring and sum- 
mer." Following this great victory came the opera- 
tions of the cavalry as organized by Gen. Thomas 
in Alabama and Georgia, resulting in the taking of 
vol. vi. — 6 

Selma and the capture of Jefferson Davis. But 
the battle of Nashville was substantially the end 
of the rebellion in that quarter. For it he received 
the appointment of major - general in the U. S. 
army, accompanied by the assurance of the secre- 
tary of war that " no commander has more justly 
earned promotion by devoted, disinterested, and 
valuable services to his country." He also received 
the thanks of congress and of the legislature of 
Tennessee, together with a gold medal presented 
to him by the latter body on the first anniversary 
of the battle. 

With the close of the war, Gen. Thomas bent all 
his energies to the restoration of peace and order 
throughout his command. In May, 1869, he was 
placed in command of the military "division of the 
Pacific, and held it until his death. Though he 
had seen more continuous, varied, and active ser- 
vice than any officer of his age and rank in the 
army, Gen. Thomas was emphatically a lover of 
peace. His whole nature and disposition were 
orderly, gentle, and kindly. He abhorred war, not 
merely because of its cruelty, but also because of 
the turmoil and disorder it occasioned. Though a 
lover of home life, he never was allowed to remain 
long in one place, the average length of time that 
he was stationed at any one post being less than 
five months. He enjoyed the calm and peaceful 
life of nature, 
loving treesand 
flowers and the 
open air. His 
range of read- 
ing was not 
very wide, but 
he was well ac- 
quainted with 
natural science, 
was a good ge- 
ologist, expert 
in woodcraft, 
and well versed 
in botany. The 
museums of the 
Smithsonian in- 
stitution con- 
tain rare and 

curious specimens contributed by him. In his own 
profession he was thoroughly trained in all depart- 
ments, so that, when he was placed in command of 
a corps, he had had personal experience of every 
arm of the service. When the war ended he was 
the only general officer of high rank and distinc- 
tion (except Sheridan and Hancock) who had 
served uninterruptedly in the army. He had care- 
fully studied military and international law, and 
especially the constitution of the United States, 
and was a thorough believer in the ideas on which 
the government was based. No man was ever 
more scrupulous to subordinate the military to the 
civil power. The general of the army, his class- 
mate and life-long friend, in announcing his death, 
said : " The very impersonation of honesty, integ- 
rity, and honor, he will stand to posterity as the 
beau-ideal of the soldier and gentleman. Though 
he leaves no child to bear his name, the old Army 
of the Cumberland, numbered by tens of thousands, 
called him father, and will weep for him in tears of 
manly grief." He was buried with all the honors 
of his rank at Troy, X. Y., on !S April, 1870. A 
fine equestrian statue, in bronze, by J. Q. A. Ward, 
erected by the soldiers of his old army, perpetuates 
his appearance and features in the capital of the 
country. (See illustration.) His biography has been 
written by Thomas B. Van Home (New York, 1882). 




See also John W. De Peyster's " Sketch of G. H. 
Thomas" (1870) and James A. Garfield's " Oration 
before the Society of the Army of the Cumber- 
land," 25 Nov., 1870 (Cincinnati, 1871). 

THOMAS, Henry Goddard, soldier, b. in Port- 
land, Me., 5 April, 1837. He was graduated at 
Amherst in 1858, studied law, and was admitted to 
the bar. He enlisted as a private in the 5th Maine 
volunteers in April, 1861, and was captain in that 
regiment from June till August, when he was given 
that rank in the 11th regular infantry. He was 
present at the first battle of Bull Run and the ac- 
tion at Snicker's Gap, Va., was appointed colonel 
of the 2d U. S. colored regiment in February, 1863, 
and engaged in the actions of Bristol Station, Rap- 
pahannock Station, and Mine Run, Va. He then 
organized the 19th U. S. colored regiment, and be- 
came its colonel in December, 1863. In February, 
1864, he was in command at Camp Birney, Md., 
and he led a brigade in the 9th corps, Army of the 
Potomac, from May, 1864, till November, being 
engaged at the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsyl- 
vania, Petersburg, and Hatcher's Run. He was 
made brigadier-general of volunteers, 30 Nov., 
1864, transferred to the Army of the James, led a 
brigade and division in the 25th corps of that 
army, and temporarily commanded the corps. 
During the war he received the brevets of major, 
12 May, 1864, for gallant and meritorious services 
in the battle of Spottsylvania ; lieutenant-colonel, 
30 July, 1864, for services at Petersburg ; and colo- 
nel, brigadier-general, and major-general of vol- 
unteers, 13 March, 1865, for services during the 
war. He was honorably mustered out of the vol- 
unteer service in 1866, but remained in the Unit- 
ed States army, and is now paymaster, with the 
rank of major. Gen. Thomas was the first regu- 
lar officer to accept a colonelcy of colored troops. 
— His brother, William Widgery, diplomatist, b. 
in Portland, Me., 26 Aug., 1839, was graduated at 
Bowdoin in 1860. He studied law, was admitted 
to the bar, appointed in 1862 U. S. vice-consul at 
Galatz, Moldavia, and the same year U. S. consul 
at Gothenburg, Sweden, where he remained in 
charge till 1865. He was one of the board of com- 
missioners for the settlement of the public lands of 
Maine in 1869, and in 1870, as commissioner of 
emigration for Maine, went to Sweden to recruit a 
colony. On his return he founded New Sweden in 
the forests of northern Maine, which is now one 
of the most flourishing agricultural settlements of 
New England. He was a member of the house of 
representatives of the Maine legislature in 1873-'5, 
and its speaker in 1874-'5, became a member of 
the state senate in 1879, and was U. S. minister to 
Sweden and Norway in 1883-'5. On the occasion 
of his presentation he addressed the king in a 
speech in the Swedish language. He has published 
•' The Last Athenian," translated from the Swedish 
of Victor Rydborg (Philadelphia, 1869), and ha« 
now almost completed " Sweden and the Swedes," 
which is to be issued simultaneously in New York 
and Stockholm, Sweden. 

THOMAS, Isaac, scout, b. in Virginia about 
1735; d. in Sevierville, Tenn., in 1819. He early 
engaged in trading with the Indians, and about 
1755 located among the Cherokees, in the vicinity 
of Fort Loudon. He was a man of immense 
strength and courage, and these qualities secured 
him great respect among the Indians. It is related 
that he once interfered in a feud between two 
Cherokee braves who had drawn their tomahawks 
to hew each other in pieces. He wrenched the 
weapons from their hands, when both set upon him 
at once, and he cooled their heated valor by lifting 

one after the other into the air and tossing them 
into Tellico river. One of these braves subse- 
quently saved his life at the Fort Loudon massa- 
cre, of which it is said that he and two others 
were the sole survivors. When peace returned he 
again settled among the Cherokees, having his 
home at their capital, Echota, where, in a log- 
cabin, he kept the trader's usual stock of powder 
and lead, guns, traps, and other articles of value 
to the Indians. He was in high favor with Nancy 
Ward, the Cherokee prophetess, who was very 
friendly to the white settlers. She informed him 
early in 1776 of the hostile designs of the Indians, 
and on the 30th of May said to him : " Send my 
white brothers word to be ready, for the bolt will 
fall very soon, and at midnight." He sent off at 
once a trusty messenger to John Sevier and James 
Robertson at Watauga, but remained behind till 
the actual outbreak of hostilities. At midnight 
on 7 July, 1776, Nancy Ward came again to his 
cabin to urge his immediate departure for the set- 
tlements. At the imminent risk of his life he made 
the journey, and a few days later was with the lit- 
tle garrison of forty that . repelled the attack of 
Oconostota on the fort at Watauga. It is ques- 
tionable if Sevier could have resisted the overpow- 
ering force that was brought against him if he 
had not received timely warning through Isaac 
Thomas. Soon afterward he piloted the expedi- 
tion that laid waste the Indian country, and sub- 
sequently, for twenty years, he acted as guide to 
Gen. Sevier in nearly all of his many campaigns 
against the Creeks and Cherokees. Soon after the 
Revolution he relinquished trade with the Indians, 
and settled upon an extensive farm in Sevier coun- 
ty. He called the settlement which grew up about 
his station Sevierville, in honor of his general, and 
the place is now one of the most beautiful locali- 
ties in the state of Tennessee. 

THOMAS, Isaiah, printer, b. in Boston, Mass., 
19 Jan., 1749 ; d. in Worcester, Mass., 4 April, 1831. 
At the age of six years he was apprenticed to Zach- 
ariah Fowles, a ballad-printer, and was employed 
setting type. Af- 
ter eleven years' 
apprenticeship he 
travelled from the 
West Indies to 
Nova Scotia, and, 
returning to Bos- 
ton, entered in 
1770 into part- 
nership with his 
former master in 
the publication of 
the " Massachu- 
setts Spy." In 
three months this 
relationship was 
dissolved, and he 
continued the pa- 
per alone, choos- 
ing for his motto 
"Open to all par- 
ties, but influ- 
enced by none." As he was a Whig, the policy of 
the paper gradually changed, and it became the 
organ of that party, publishing many spirited at- 
tacks on the British government. In 1771 Gov. 
Thomas Hutchinson ordered the attorney-general 
to prosecute Thomas ; but the grand jury failed to 
find cause for indictment. As the Tories became 
more incensed against the independence of the 
" Spy," a few days before the battle of Lexington, 
in which he participated, he packed his press and 




types and took them by night to Worcester. His 
other property was destroyed. On 18 April he en- 
gaged with Paul Revere and his associates in giv- 
ing information of the march of the British, and he 
afterward resumed the publication of the " Spy " in 
Worcester, where it is still (1888) published. In the 
year 1776-'7 it was issued in Boston. Mr. Thomas 
was connected with the paper until 1801. In 1786 
he procured from Europe the first font of music- 
type that was brought to this country, and he was 
the first printer here to use such type. He was en- 
gaged at Walpole, N. H., in book-publishing and 
printing the " Farmer's Museum," and in 1788 
opened a book-store in Boston under the firm-name 
of Thomas and Andrews, also establishing branches 
of his publishing business in several parts of the 
United States. The " Massachusetts Magazine " 
was published by the firm in eight volumes, from 
1789 till 1796. He printed at Worcester a folio 
edition of the Bible (1791), Watts's "Psalms and 
Hymns," and most of the Bibles and school-books 
that were used in this country at that date. In 1812 
he founded the Antiquarian society of Worcester, 
of which he was president and a liberal patron. He 
gave from his important collection nearly 8,000 vol- 
umes to its library, besides tracts, and one of the 
most valuable files of newspapers in the country, 
and he presented land and a hall, with a provision 
equal to $24,000 for its maintenance. The library 
now contains about 90.000 volumes, including the 
Mather collection. William Lincoln, in his " His- 
tory of Worcester " (1837), says of him : " His repu- 
tation in future time will rest, as a patriot, on the 
manly independence which gave — through the in- 
itiatory stage and progress of the Revolution — the 
strong influence of the press he directed toward the 
cause of freedom, when royal flattery would have 
seduced and the power of government subdued its 
action." Thomas also published the " New Eng- 
land Almanac," which had something of the flavor 
of Benjamin Franklin's "Poor Richard." It ap- 
peared in 1775, and was continued under several 
titles until 1817. Alleghany college, Pa., gave him 
the degree of LL. D. in 1818. He was the author of 
a valuable " History of Printing " (2 vols., Worces- 
ter, Mass.). See a memoir of him by his grandson, 
Benjamin F. Thomas (Boston, 1874). — His nephew, 
Ebenezer Smith, journalist, b. in Lancaster, Mass., 
in June, 1780 ; d. in Cincinnati, Ohio, in August, 
1844. learned printing with his uncle in Worcester, 
and in 1795 established himself as a bookseller in 
Charleston, S. C, where, from 1810 till 1816, he 
edited the " City Gazette." He removed to Balti- 
more in 1816, served in the Maryland legislature in 
1818-'19, and went in 1829 to Cincinnati, where he 
edited the " Daily Advertiser " from that year till 
1835, and then the " Evening Post " till 1839. He 
was the author of " Reminiscences of the Last Sixty- 
five Years, commencing with the Battle of Lexing- 
ton, etc., and Sketches of his own Life and Times " 
(2 vols., Hartford, 1840), and " Reminiscences of 
South Carolina " (2 vols., 1840). — Isaiah's grandson, 
Benjamin Franklin, jurist, b. in Boston, Mass., 
12 Feb., 1813 ; d. in Salem, Mass., 27 Sept., 1878, 
was graduated at . Brown in 1830, studied law in 
Cambridge, and was admitted to the bar in 1833. 
He served in the legislature in 1842, and was pro- 
bate judge for Worcester county from 1844 till 
1848, in which year he was a presidential elector on 
the Whig ticket. He was a judge of the supreme 
court of Massachusetts from 1853 till 1859, when 
he resigned and resumed his practice. He was in 
congress from 4 July, 1861, till 3 March, 1863, serv- 
ing on the judiciary committee and the special 
committee on the bankrupt law. In 1868 he 

was nominated by the governor for chief justice 
of Massachusetts, but the nomination was not 
confirmed by the council. He was president of 
the American antiquarian society, and received 
the degree of LL. 1). from Brown in 1853 and 
from Harvard in 1854. Judge Thomas pub- 
lished a "Digest of the Laws of Massachusetts 
in Relation to the Powers, Duties, and Liabilities 
of Towns and of Town Officers" (Worcester, 
1845), and several pamphlets, including, besides 
the memoir of his grandfather mentioned above, 
" A Few Suggestions upon the Personal Liberty 
Law and ' Secession,' in a Letter to a Friend " 
(1861).— Ebenezer Smith's son, Frederick Will- 
iam, journalist, b. in Charleston, S. C., in 1811 ; 
d. in Washington, D. C, 30 Sept., 1866, became a 
cripple at the age of four years. He was educated 
in Baltimore, Md., where he studied law, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1828. In 1830 he removed 
to Cincinnati and assisted his father in editing the 
" Advertiser," in which appeared his song, " 'Tis 
said that absence conquers love." He became an 
associate editor of the " Democratic Intelligencer " 
in 1834, and of the " Evening Post " in 1835. From 
1841 till 1850 he was a clerk in the treasury de- 
partment in Washington, D. C, for which he se- 
lected a library. In 1850 he returned to Cincin- 
nati, entered the ministry of the Methodist Episco- 
pal church and preached in that city. Subsequently 
he was professor of rhetoric and English literature 
in the University of Alabama, and in 1858 re- 
sumed the practice of law in Cambridge, Md. In 
1860 he took charge of the literary department of 
the Richmond " Enquirer," and afterward became 
editorially connected with the " South Carolinian " 
of Columbia. He travelled extensively through 
the southern states, was a successful lecturer, and 
occasionally took part in politics. In addition to 
contributions to magazines, in prose and verse, he 
was the author of " The Emigrant, or Reflections 
when descending the Ohio, a Poem " (Cincinnati, 
1833); "Clinton Bradshaw. a Tale" (Philadelphia, 
1835) ; " East and West, a Novel " (1836) ; " Howard 
Pinckney, a Novel " (1840) ; " The Beechen Tree, a 
Tale told in Rhyme, and other Poems " (New York, 
1844); " Sketches of Character, and Tales founded 
on Fact" (Louisville, 1849); and "John Randolph 
of Roanoke, and other Sketches of Character, in- 
cluding William Wirt ; together with Tales of Real 
Life " (Philadelphia, 1853). — Another son of Ebe- 
nezer Smith, Lewis Foulke, poet, b. in Baltimore 
county, Md., in 1815 ; d. in Washington, D. C, 26 
May, 1868, assisted his brother in conducting the 
" Commercial Advertiser," and the " Evening Post," 
in Cincinnati, and, after the latter was discontinued 
in 1838, studied law. He then edited the " Daily 
Herald " in Louisville, Ky., removed in 1841 to St. 
Louis, Mo., and subsequently to Washington, D. C, 
where he practised law until his death. He was 
the author of " Inda, and other Poems," the first 
book of poetry that was published west of the Mis- 
sissippi (St. Louis, 1842) and two tragedies — " Os- 
ceola, which was successfully performed in Cin- 
cinnati, St. Louis, and New Orleans (1838), and 
" Cortez, the Conqueror" (Washington, 1857).— 
Ebenezer Smith's daughter, Martha McCannon, 
author, b. in Baltimore, Md., 15 Nov., 1823, is the 
author of " Life's Lesson " (New York, 1846), and 
"Capt. Phil, a Story of the Civil War" (1882).— 
Another daughter, Mary von Erden, author, b. 
in Charleston, S. C, 8 Dec, 1825, has been a com- 
puter in the office of the U. S. coast and geodetic 
survey in Washington, D. C. since 1854. She is 
the author of a novel entitled " Winning the Bat- 
tle " (Philadelphia, 1882). 




THOMAS, James, governor of Maryland, b. in 
St. Mary's county, Md., 11 March, 178o ; d. there, 
25 Dec, 1845. His father, William, served as a 
private in the " Maryland line," and was for many 
years president of the state senate. The son was 
educated at Charlotte Hall academy, and was 
graduated at the Philadelphia medical college in 
1807. In April, 1812, he was commissioned major 
of the 4th volunteer cavalry, and he afterward 
became major-general of Maryland militia. Sub- 
sequently he served in the state senate, and in 
1833-'6 was governor of Maryland. 

THOMAS, Jane, heroine, b. in, Chester county, 
Pa., in the 18th century. She was the wife of 
John Thomas, colonel of the Spartan regiment of 
South Carolina. On hearing that a large party 
was approaching to seize the ammunition that 
Gov. John Rutledge had intrusted to his keeping, 
Col. Thomas fled with his band of twenty-five men, 
taking with him a part of the powder. Two men 
and two women were left in charge of the house, 
which was attacked by the Tories. Mrs. Thomas 
and her companion loaded the guns for the men, 
and a continual firing was kept up until the assail- 
ants withdrew. It is said that the ammunition 
that she saved through her courage was the main 
supply for Sumter's command in the skirmishes at 
Rocky Mount and Hanging Rock. 

THOMAS, Jesse Burgess, senator, b. in Hagers- 
town, Md., in 1777; d. in Mount Vernon, Ohio, 4 
May, 1853. He was a descendant of Lord Balti- 
more. He removed to the west in 1779, studied 
law with his brother, Richard Symmes Thomas, 
in Bracken county, Ky., went to Lawrenceburg, Ind., 
in March, 1803, and practised his profession. In 
January, 1805, he was elected delegate to the legis- 
lature of Indiana territory at Vincennes, and he 
was speaker of the house in 1805-'8. He was ter- 
ritorial delegate to congress in 1808-'9, then moved 
to Kaskaskia, and, upon the organization of the 
territory of Illinois, 7 March, 1809, was appointed 
by President Madison one of the judges of the 
U. S. court. In July, 1818, he was a delegate from 
St. Clair county to the convention that framed 
the state constitution, and was' its president. At 
the first session of the legislature he was elected 
XJ. S. senator, and held that post from 4 Dec, 
1818, till 3 March, 1829. In 1820 he introduced 
the " Missouri Compromise " and secured its adop- 
tion. In 1824 he strongly advocated the nomina- 
tion of William H. Crawford for president, and 
was delegate to the convention at Columbus in 
1840 that nominated his friend, William Henry 
Harrison. He afterward removed to Mount Ver- 
non. Ohio, where he committed suicide. — His great- 
nephew, Jesse Burgess, clergyman, b. in Edwards- 
vilie, 111., 29 July, 1832, is the son of Jesse Burgess 
Thomas (1806-1850), who was for many years a 
judge of the circuit and supreme courts of Illinois. 
After graduation at Kenyon college, Gambier, 
Ohio, in 1850, the son studied law, and was admitted 
to the bar of Illinois in 1852. In 1853-'4 he studied 
in Rochester theological seminary, but was forced 
to leave, owing to impaired health, and engaged in 
mercantile pursuits in Chicago. He entered the 
Baptist ministry in 1862, and was pastor of a church 
in Waukegan, 111., in 1862-'4, of the Pierrepont 
street church in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1864-'8, of the 
1st church in San Francisco, Cal., in 1868-'9, and 
of the Michigan avenue church in Chicago from 
1869 till 1874, when he became pastor of the 1st 
Bapl ist church in Brooklyn, N. Y. In 1887 he ac- 
cepted a professorship in the theological seminary 
at Newton Centre, Mass. The ' University of Chi- 
cago gave him the degree of D. D. in 1866. He is 

the author of " The Old Bible and the New Sci- 
ence " (New York, 1877), and " The Mould of Doc- 
trine " (Philadelphia, 1883). 

THOMAS, John, soldier, b. in Marshfield, Mass., 
in 1725; d. in Chambly, near Montreal, Canada, 2 
June, 1776. He was educated in his native town, 
studied medicine under Dr. Cotton Tufts, of Med- 
ford, and practised in his native town and after- 
ward at Kingston, Mass., where he attained note 
in his profession. In 1746 he was appointed surgeon 
to a regiment that was sent to Annapolis Royal, 
Nova Scotia, and in 1747 he served on the medical 
staff of Gen. William Shirley's regiment, but 
changed this post for that of lieutenant. In 1759 
he became a colonel of provincials, and was em- 
ployed with his corps in Nova Scotia. In 1760 he 
commanded a regiment under Gen. Jeffrey Amherst 
at Crown Point, headed the left wing of the detach- 
ment that Amherst sent under Col. William Havi- 
land from Lake Champlain in August, 1760, to co- 
operate with the other division of the army moving 
against Montreal, and was present at the capture 
of that city. He then returned to his practice in 
Kingston, where he remained until the beginning 
of the Revolution. He joined the Sons of liberty, 
raised a regiment of volunteers, and on 9 Feb., 
1775, was appointed a brigadier-general by the 
Provincial congress. Being overlooked in promo- 
tion, he withdrew, but, on the receipt of letters 
from Gen. Charles Lee and Gen. Washington and 
a resolution from congress that he should have 
precedence of all brigadiers in the army, Gen. 
Thomas returned to his command. Gen. Washing- 
ton in his letter to congress, under date of 10 July, 

1775, said : " Gen. Thomas is much esteemed, and 
most earnestly desired to continue in the service ; 
and, as far as my opportunities have enabled me to 
judge, I must join in the general opinion that he 
is an able, good officer, and his resignation would 
be a public loss." During the siege of Boston he 
commanded a brigade on the Roxbury side, nearest 
the British lines. On the evening of 4 March, 

1776, with 3.000 men and a supply of intrenching 
tools, he took possession of Dorchester heights, 
and before dawn formidable works had been thrown 
up, which movement caused the British to evacuate 
the town on 17 March, 1776. On 6 March, 1776, he 
was appointed major-general. After the death of 
Gen. James Montgomery he was intrusted with 
the command in Canada, and joined the army be- 
fore Quebec on 1 May ; but as he found the force 
less than 1,000 men, 300 of whom, being entitled 
to discharge, refused to serve, and as the small-pox 
was raging among the troops, and the enemy had 
been re-enforced, he determined that they were not 
in a condition to risk an assault. The disabled 
soldiers were removed to Three Rivers, and the 
American troops retreated from one post to another 
until by 18 June they had evacuated Canada. Be- 
fore reaching Chambly, on the river Sorel, Gen. 
Thomas was fatally attacked by small-pox. 

THOMAS, John, founder of a sect, b. in Lon- 
don, England, 12 April, 1805; d. in Jersey < iiy, 
N. J., 5 March, 1871. He was educated in Lon- 
don, and became demonstrator of anatomy at St. 
Thomas's hospital in that city. In 1850 he came 
to this country and joined the Campbellite Bap- 
tists, but left this sect to found another, whose 
members he called Christadelphians. In 1860 he 
returned to England, where he delivered lectures, 
gaining many converts to his theories there as 
well as in this country. He edited the " Apostolic 
Advocate" from 1832 till 1837, in 1845-7 the 
"Herald of the Future Age," and from 1851 till 
1861 the '• Herald of the Kingdom." In addition 




to numerous pamphlets, he published "Elpis 
Israel" (Loudon, 1848), and "Eureka," an exposi- 
tion of the Apocalypse (3 vols., 1860). Robert 
Roberts, of Birmingham, England, whom he ap- 
pointed to be his successor, visited this country in 
1888, and delivered lectures in various towns. 

THOMAS, John Addison, soldier, b. in Ten- 
nessee in 1811 ; d. in Paris, France, 26 March, 1858. 
He was graduated at the U. S. military academy 
in 1833, assigned to the 3d artillery, served in 
garrison and as assistant instructor of infantry 
tactics, and became 2d lieutenant on 1 Dec, 1835, 
and 1st lieutenant, 30 June, 1837. In 1840-1 he 
was assistant professor of geography, history, and 
ethics at West Point, and in 1842-'5 he was com- 
mandant of cadets and instructor of infantry 
tactics. He was made captain on 19 Nov., 1843, 
and resigned on 28 May, 1846, to practise law in 
New York city. On 23 July, 1846, he became 
colonel of the 4th New York regiment, which had 
been raised for the war with Mexico, but was not 
mustered into service. He was chief engineer of 
New York state in 1853-'4, and from 19 April, 
1853, to 15 Jan., 1854, was advocate of the United 
States in London, England, under the convention 
of 8 Feb., 1853, with Great Britain for the adjust- 
ment of American claims. From 1 Nov., 1855, till 
4 April, 1857, he was assistant U. S. secretary of 
state in Washington, D. C. He gained reputation 
by his report of the convention with Great Britain, 
and by other state papers. 

THOMAS, John R., song-writer, b. in Newport, 
Wales, in 1830. He came to this country at an 
early age, and for several years taught music in 
Brooklyn and New York city and frequently sang 
in oratorios. About 1852 he appeared with the 
Seguin opera company, and afterward he joined a 
troupe of negro minstrels. Pie has composed many 
songs that have become popular, including " The 
Cottage by the Sea," "Happy be thy Dreams," 
"Some One to Love," "'Tis but a Little Faded 
Flower," " Mother Kissed me in my Dreams," 
" Beautiful Isle of the Sea," " Angel Voices," " Land 
of Dreams," " Flag of the Free," " The Mother's 
Prayer," "The Voice of Effie Moore," "Eileen 
Alanna," "Seek, and Ye shall Find," "No Crown 
without the Cross." 

THOMAS, Lorenzo, soldier, b. in New Castle, 
Del., 26 Oct., 1804; d. in Washington, D. C, 2 
March, 1875. His father, Evan, was of Welsh ex- 
traction, and served in the militia during the war of 

1812, and one of his 
uncles was a favor- 
ite officer of Gen. 
Washington. He 
was at first des- 
tined for mercan- 
tile pursuits, but 
received an ap- 
pointment to the 
U. S. military acad- 
emy, and was grad- 
uated there in 1823. 
He served in the 
4th infantry in 
Florida till '1831, 
and again in the 
Florida war of 
1836 -'7, and as 
chief of staff of the 
army in that state 
in 1839-40, becom- 
ing captain, 23 Sept., 1836, and major on the staff 
and assistant adjutant-general, 7 July, 1838. He 
there did duty in the last-named office at Washing- 

ton till the Mexican war, in which he was chief of 
staff of Gen. William O. Butler in 1846-'8, and of 
the Army of Mexico till June, 1848, and received 
the brevet of lieutenant-colonel for gallantry at 
Monterey. He was then adjutant-general at army 
headquarters, Washington, till 1853, and chief of 
staff to Gen. Winfield Scott till 1861, when he was 
brevetted brigadier-general on 7 May, and made 
adjutant-general of the army on 3 Aug., with the 
full rank of brigadier-general. Here he served till 
1863, when he was intrusted for two years with 
the organization of colored troops in the southern 
states. When President Johnson removed Edwin 
M. Stanton from his post as secretary of war he 
appointed Gen. Thomas secretary ad interim, 21 
Feb., 1868, but, owing to Stanton's refusal to va- 
cate, Thomas did not enter on the office. He was 
brevetted major-general, United States army, on 
13 March, 1865, for services during the civil war, 
and on 22 Feb., 1869, he was retired. 

THOMAS, Philemon, soldier, b. in North 
Carolina in 1764; d. in Baton Rouge, La., 18 Nov., 
1847. He received a public - school education, 
served in the war of the Revolution, and removed 
to Kentucky, where he was sent to the legislature. 
Afterward he settled in Louisiana, and headed the 
insurrection in West Florida against the Spanish 
government in 1810— '11. He was major-general of 
Louisiana militia in 1814-'15, and was afterward 
elected to congress, serving from 5 Dec, 1831, till 
3 March, 1835. 

THOMAS, Philip Evan, merchant, b. in 
Mount Radnor, Montgomery co., Md., 11 Nov., 
1776; d. in Yonkers, N. Y., 1 Sept., 1861. His 
ancestor, Philip, came to this country from Wales 
in 1651, and was a member of the Society of 
Friends. The son settled in Baltimore, Md., and 
in 1800 established himself in the hardware busi- 
ness. He was president of the Mechanics' bank 
for many years, and president of the Maryland 
Bible society. He was a member of the Indian 
committee from the Baltimore yearly meeting of 
Quakers to the Indians at Fort Wayne, Ind., in 
1804, and through his efforts the intrigues of the 
Ogden land company with the chiefs to dispossess 
the remnant of the Six Nations of their reserva- 
tions in western New York were defeated, the chiefs 
were deposed, and a republican form of govern- 
ment was established. Mr. Thomas was an origi- 
nator of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, resigning 
his post as director of the Chesapeake and Ohio 
canal to give his attention to this enterprise. He 
was the first president of the company, which office 
he resigned in 1836. 

THOMAS, Philip Francis, governor of Mary- 
land, b. in Easton, Talbot co., Md., 12 Sept., 1810. 
He is a connection of Sir Philip Francis, the sup- 

Eosed author of the " Junius Letters," for whom 
e is named. After receiving his education at the 
academy in Easton and at Dickinson college, Car- 
lisle, Pa., he studied law, was admitted to the bar 
in 1831, and practised in his native town. He was 
a member of the State constitutional convention 
in 1836, and served in the legislature in 1838, and 
again in 1843-5. Being elected to congress as a 
Democrat, he served from 2 Dec, 1839, till 3 March, 
1841, and declined a renomination to the 28th 
congress, and resumed the practice of law. He 
was governor of the state from 1848 till 1851. He 
was "judge of the land-office of the eastern shore 
of Maryland, and in 1851 was made comptroller of 
the treasury, an office that was created by the con- 
stitution adopted in that year, but resigned in 1853 
and accepted the place of collector of the port of 
Baltimore. "During the Mormon war he was of- 





fered the governorship of the territory, which he 
declined, and he also declined the post of treasurer 
of the United States which was tendered him by 
President Buchanan. On 16 Feb., 1860. he was 

appointed commis- 
sioner of patents, 
and in December, 
1860, he succeeded 
Howell Cobb as 
secretary of the 
treasury in Bu- 
chanan's cabinet, 
serving until 11 
Jan., 1861. He was 
elected a member 
of the house of 
delegates of Mary- 
land in 1866, and 
during the session 
was elected to the 
U. S. senate, but 
was refused a seat 
on 19 Feb., 1868, 
on the ground of 
" having given aid 
and comfort to the rebellion," but in 1874 he was 
chosen to the house of representatives as a Demo- 
crat, and served from 6 Dec, 1875, till 3 March, 1877. 
In 1878 he was again elected to the legislature, and 
after serving one term resumed the practice of his 
profession in Easton, where he still resides. 

THOMAS, Robert Daily, editor, b. in West 
Boylston, Mass., 24 April, 1766 ; d. there, 19 May, 
1846. Annually he prepared for the press the 
" Farmer's Almanac" (Boston, 1793-1846), which 
was exceedingly popular and has been continued 
since his death, attaining a circulation of 225,000. 
THOMAS, Seth, manufacturer, b. in Plymouth 
Hollow (now Thomaston), Conn.. 1 Dec, 1816; d. 
in Thomaston, Conn., 28 April, 1888. His father, 
Seth (1786-1859), for whom Thomaston was named, 
was employed as a joiner in the clock-factory of 
Eli Terry (q. v.) in Plymouth, and afterward began 
the manufacture of metal-movement clocks. The 
son enlarged the factory at Thomaston and intro- 
duced his clocks into all parts of the world, includ- 
ing China and Japan. His boast was that he had 
manufactured every kind of time-piece, from a 
delicate watch to a tower-clock. 

THOMAS, Stephen, soldier, b. in Bethel, Wind- 
sor co., Vt., 6 Dec, 1809. He received a common- 
school education, and was apprenticed to the trade 
of woollen manufacturing. He served in the legis- 
lature in 1838-9, 1845-'6, and 1860-'l, was a dele- 
gate to the State constitutional conventions of 
1844 and 1851, state senator in 1848-'9, register of 
the probate court of Orange county in 1842-'6,and 
judge of the same in 1847-9. On 12 Nov., 1861, 
he was appointed colonel of volunteers, and en- 
listed a regiment of infantry and two batteries. 
He was mustered into the U. S. service on 21 Jan., 
1862, commanding the 8th Vermont regiment, and 
was mustered out on 21 Jan., 1865. On 1 Feb., 
1865, he was appointed brigadier-general of volun- 
teers and served until 24 Aug., 1865. In 1867-'8 
he was lieutenant-governor of Vermont. From 
1870 till 1877 he was U. S. pension-agent, and since 
then has engaged in farming in Vermont. 

THOMAS, Theodore, musician, b. in Esens, 
Hanover, Germany, 11 Oct., 1835. He received 
his musical education principally from his fa- 
ther, who was a violinist of ability, and at the 
age of six years he played the violin in public 
concerts. In 1845 he came to this country with 
his parents, and for two years played violin solos 

at concerts in New York city. Subsequently he 
joined the orchestra of an Italian opera company, 
and visited most of the large cities of the country. 
He then became first violin in the orchestra that 
accompanied Jenny Lind in 1850. Henrietta Son- 
tag in 1852, and Giulietta Grisi and Giuseppi Mario 
in 1854, and finally became conductor of both Ger- 
man and Italian operas. Mr. Thomas also led the 
orchestras that accompanied La Grange, Piccolo- 
mini, and Thalberg through the country. Mean- 
while, in 1855, with himself as first violin, Joseph 
Mosenthal, second violin, George Matzka, viola, 
Carl Bergmann, violoncello, and William Mason as 
pianist, he began a series of chamber music soirees 
which were given at Dodworth's academy, and 
continued for several years. After 1861 he de- 
voted himself to the organization of his own or- 
chestra, and began at Irving hall in 1864 a series 
of symphony concerts that came to be regarded as 
among the musical institutions of New York city, 
and were continued until 1878. In 1866 he began 
his summer - night concerts in Terrace garden, 
which were continued at the Central park garden. 
In order to keep his orchestra together, he trav- 
elled with it during the winter season. At these 
concerts he introduced Wagner's music to the 
American people, and to him, more than to any one 
else in this country, is due the present appreciation 
of the modern school of German music. In 1872 
he was the leading spirit in founding the New York 
Wagner union, which was established for the pur- 
pose of aiding in the festival performance of the 
" Nibelungen Ring " at Baireuth in 1875, and he or- 
ganized the chorus society which gave the Wagner 
memorial concert after the death of the composer. 
Mr. Thomas accepted in 1878 the directorship of 
the newly established College of music in Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, but he resigned that post in 1881. He 
joined the Philharmonic society in 1853, but in 
1858 resigned his membership. Soon after the 
death of Carl Bergmann in 1876 he was chosen con- 
ductor of the society, which office he has since 
held, except during his absence in Cincinnati. 
Under his leadership the Philharmonic has had an 
unbroken record 
of prosperity and 
has steadily pro- 
gressed in furnish- 
ing a higher class 
of music to its pa- 
trons. The Brook- 
lyn Philharmonic 
society has also 
been under his di- 
rection almost con- 
tinuously since 
1862. Mr. Thomas 
has conducted all 
of the Cincinnati 
May festivals since 
1873, also that of 
Chicago in 1882, 
and the great fes- 
tival of New York 

that was held in the 7th regiment armory in 1882. 
He was conductor of the American opera company 
in 1885-'7, and in the same years organized a series 
of popular concerts in New York city, which are 
still continued. During the summer of 1888 he 
gave a series of concerts in Chicago, at the close 
of which he disbanded his orchestra, saying that, 
as New York city failed to provide a suitable hall, 
a permanent orchestra was impossible. 

THOMAS, Theodore Gaillard, physician, b. 
on Edisto island, S. C, 21 Nov., 1831. He was 

/ -no-mas}^ 




educated at Charleston college, received his medi- 
cal degree there in 1852, and removed to New York 
city in that year, and served at Bellevue hospital. 
He has also been professor of obstetrics and dis- 
eases of women in the College of physicians and 
surgeons in New York city, surgeon to the Wom- 
en's hospital in New York, and consulting physi- 
cian to the Nursery and child's hospital and St. 
Mary's hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y. In 1879 he was 
president of the American gynecological society, 
and he is an honorary member of the obstetrical 
society of London and a corresponding secretary 
of that of Berlin. Dr. Thomas has contributed 
largely to medical literature, and is the author of 
a " Practical Treatise on Diseases of Women," 
which has been translated into several foreign lan- 
guages (Philadelphia, 1868). 

THOMAS, Thomas, soldier, b. in 1755 ; d. in 
Harrison, Westchester co., N. Y, 29 May, 1824. 
He commanded a regiment in 1776, and partici- 

fiated in the battles of Harlem and White Plains, 
n the autumn of 1776 the enemy burned his house, 
took his aged father a prisoner to New York, and 
confined him in the provost jail, where he died 
through their inhuman treatment. Col. Thomas 
was an active partisan officer till the peace, except 
during a brief term of captivity ; and was after- 
ward frequently a member of the legislature. 

THOMES, William Henry, author, b. in Port- 
land, Me., 5 May, 1824. He was educated in the 
public schools of Boston, worked in a printing- 
office, and was afterward connected with various 
journals as reporter and editor. He went to Cali- 
fornia in 1843, and again in 1849, subsequently 
visiting Honolulu, the East Indies, and Australia, 
and contributing articles upon his travels to vari- 
ous magazines. Mr. Thomes was the first presi- 
dent of the New England society of California pio- 
neers. He is the author of " The Gold-Hunters 
of Australia" (Boston, 1869); "Life in the East 
Indies" (1870); "A Whaleman's Adventures" 
(1871); "The Gold-Hunters in Europe" (1872); 
" A Slaver's Adventures " (1873) ; " Running the 
Blockade" (1874); "The Belle of Australia" 
(1885); "On Land and Sea "(1886); and"Lewey 
and I" (1887). 

THOMPSON, Albert, artist, b. in Woburn, 
Mass.. 18 March,. 1853. He became a pupil of 
William E. Norton in 1873, and in 1872 and 1875 
travelled in Europe. During 1880-'l he studied 
in Paris under Jules J. Lefebvre and Gustave R. C. 
Boulanger, at Julien's academy, and also anatomy 
at the Ecole des beaux arts. Among his works, 
mainly landscapes and cattle-pieces, are " After the 
Shower " (1876) ; " Clearing up " (1877) ; " More 
Wind than Rain," in Woburn public library (1885) ; 
and " Changing Pasture " and " An October After- 
noon " (1886). He is the author of " Principles of 
Perspective" (Boston, 1878). 

THOMPSON, Alexander Ramsay, soldier, b. 
in 1794; d. in Manatee county, Pla., 25 Dec. 1837. 
His father was Alexander Thompson, who served 
in the artillery during the Revolutionary war, was 
retained as captain in the peace establishment, and 
attached in 1794 to the artillery and engineer 
corps, and after his discharge in 1802 till his death, 
28 Sept., 1809, was military store-keeper at West 
Point. The son was graduated at the U. S. mili- 
tary academy in 1812, and during the war with 
Great Britain took part in Gen. James Wilkinson's 
expedition down the St. Lawrence and in the de- 
fence of Plattsburg and other operations on Lake 
Champlain, being promoted captain of infantry on 
1 May, 1814. He was retained on the reduction of 
the army, promoted major on 4 April, 1832, served 

in the Black Hawk expedition, became lieutenant- 
colonel on 6 Sept., 1837, and in the war with the 
Seminole Indians was killed at the battle of Okee- 
chobee while leading his regiment in a desperate 
charge. — His nephew, Alexander Ramsay, cler- 
gyman, b. in New York city, 16 Oct., 1822, was 
graduated at the University of the city of New 
York in 1842, and at Princeton theological semi- 
nary in 1845, and was ordained, and after holding 
various charges became pastor of the Presbyterian 
church in Stapleton, Staten island, in 1851-9, the 
Reformed Dutch church, 21st street, New York 
city, in 1862-73, first as colleague of the Rev. 
George W. Bethune, then as his successor, and the 
North Reformed Dutch church in Brooklyn, N. Y„ 
from the latter date to 1884. In 1885 he became 
acting pastor of Bethany chapel in Brooklyn. He 
was chaplain of the New England hospital in 
1863-'5 and of the Roosevelt hospital in New York 
from 1873 till 1884. The degree of D. D. was con- 
ferred on him by the University of the city of New 
York in 1865, which made him a member of its 
council in 1872. Among various sermons he pub- 
lished " Tribute to the Memory of the Rev. George 
W. Bethune " ; " Casting down Imaginations," a 
sermon (1874) ; " Christian Patriotism : the Points 
of Similarity between the Struggle for Independ- 
ence in America and that of our Holland Ances-' 
tors," in " Centennial Discourses " (1876). He also 
assisted in compiling " Hymns of the Church " 
(New York, 1869), and " Hymns of Prayer and 
Praise " (1874). 

THOMPSON, Alfred Wordsworth, artist, b. 
in Baltimore, Md„ 27 May, 1840. During 1862-4 
he studied in Paris, first under Charles Gleyre, and 
later with Albert Pasini and in the Ecole des 
beaux arts. He first exhibited at the salon in 1865, 
and in 1 868 returned to the United States, settling 
in New York. He was elected an associate mem- 
ber of the National academy in 1873, and an 
academician two years later, and in 1877 became a 
membeivof the Society of American artists. He 
has travelled at various times in all parts of Eu- 
rope, Asia Minor, and northern Africa, and his 
pictures cover a wide range of subjects, Oriental 
and American, including landscapes, genre pieces 
and military scenes. They include " Desolation " 
and " Lost in the Forest " (1872) ; " Annapolis in 
1776," owned by the Buffalo fine arts academy, 
and "A Twilight in Corsica" (1875) : " Review at 
Philadelphia, 1777 " (1878) ; " The Market-Place in 
Biskra " (1884) ; " The Hour of Prayer " ; " Re- 
turning from a Boar Hunt, Tangier " ; " The Ad- 
vance of the Enemy " (1885) ; " The Departure for 
the War, 1776"; and "A Sabbath-Day in Troublous 
Times." To the Paris exposition of 1878 he sent 
" The School-House on the Hill." 

THOMPSON. Augustus Charles, clergyman, 
b. in Goshen, Conn., 30 April, 1812. He entered 
Yale with the class of 1835, but feeble health com- 
pelled him to leave before graduation. The col- 
lege gave him the honorary degree of A. M. in 
1841. He was graduated at the Hartford theo- 
logical seminary in 1838, studied in the University 
of Berlin in 1838-'9, and on 27 July, 1842, was or- 
dained pastor of a Congregational church at Rox- 
bury, Mass., where he still remains. He was as- 
sociated with Rev. Dr. Rufus Anderson in a 
deputation to the missions of the American board 
in India in 1854-'5, and was a delegate to the 
London missionary conference of 1878. Am- 
herst gave him the degree of D.D. in 1860. Dr. 
Thompson has lectured on foreign missions at An- 
dover seminary in 1877-80, at Boston university 
in 1882, and at Hartford theological seminary in 




1885-'6, and has published "Songs in the Night" 
(Boston, 1845) ; " Young Martyrs " (2d ed., 1848) ; 
"Lambs Fed'' (1849; translation into Mahrathi, 
Bombay, 1853) ; " Last Hours " (1851) ; " The Poor 
Widow, a Memorial of Mrs. Anna J. Waters" 
(1854 ; translation into Tamil, Jaffua, Cevlon, 
1855) ; " The Better Land " (1854) ; " The Yoke in 
Youth : a Memorial of H. M. Hill " (1856) ; " Gath- 
ered Lilies" (1858); "Eliot Sabbath-School Me- 
morial " (1859) ; " Morning Hours in Patmos " 
(1860) ; "Lyra Ccelestis " (1863) ; " The Mercy-Seat " 
(1863) ; " Our Little Ones " (1867) ; " Christus Con- 
solator" (1867); "Seeds and Sheaves" (1868); 
" Discourse Commemorative of Rev. iiufus Ander- 
son, D. D. " (1880) ; " Moravian Missions " (New 
York, 1882); "Happy New Year" (1883); and 
" Future Probation and Foreign Missions." 

THOMPSON, Cephas artist, b. in Middlebor- 
ough, Mass., 1 July, 1775; d. there, 6 Nov., 1856. His 
profession was that of a portrait-painter, and he 
made yearly tours in the south, painting in all the 
cities from Philadelphia to New Orleans. When 
about fifty years of age, he settled in his home in 
Middleborough. Among his portraits were those 
of John Marshall, Stephen Decatur, David Ramsay 
of South Carolina, John Howard Payne, and George 
Washington Parke Custis, who was his pupil. — 
His son, Cephas Giovanni, artist, b. in Middle- 
borough, Mass., 3 Aug., 1809; d. in New York 
city, 5 Jan., 1888, had some instruction from his 
father, but was comparatively self-taught. At the 
age of nineteen he began to paint portraits in Plym- 
outh, Mass., and two years later he was working 
in Boston. During 1837-'47 he was in New York, 
and in 1852 he went to Europe, where he spent 
seven years in Rome. During this period he painted 
numerous Italian subjects, and executed some ad- 
mirable copies of the old masters, notably one of 
" Beatrice Cenci." While in Italy he was intimate 
with Nathaniel Hawthorne, who complimented him 
in the " Marble Faun." In 1860 he settled in New 
York, and he was elected an associate of ^he Na- 
tional academy the following year. Before going 
abroad he painted the portraits of Henry W. Long- 
fellow, Charles Fenno Hoffman (owned by the New 
York historical society), William Cullen Bryant, 
and other well-known authors. His portrait of 
Hawthorne has been engraved. Other works by 
him are " The Guardian Angels." " Prospero and 
Miranda," " St. Peter delivered from Prison," and 
" Spring and Autumn." — His two sons, who died 
before him, were Hubert Ogden, commissioner 
of public works, New York city, and Edmund 
Francis, captain in the U. S. army. — Another son 
of Cephas, Jerome, b. in Middleborough, Mass., 30 
Jan., 1814; d. in Glen Gardner, N. J., 1 May, 1886, 
had also little or no regular instruction in art. He 
displayed artistic tastes at an early age, painted 
portraits for several years at Cape Cod, and at the 
age of seventeen went to New York, where he after- 
ward lived and always had his studio. In 1852 he 
went to Europe, where he remained two years. He 

Eainted both landscapes and figures with success, 
is best -known works being "Reminiscences of 
Mount Mansfield," "The Old Oaken Bucket," 
" Home, Sweet Home," " Woodman, spare that 
Tree," " Hiawatha's Homeward Journey with 
Minnehaha," "The Home of My Childhood," "Com- 
in' thro' the Rye," "The Land of Beulah," and 
"The Voice of the Great Spirit." Most of his 
works were never exhibited by him, but several 
of them have become well known to the public 
through engravings and chromos. Some of the 
finest of his latest works are in Paris, and others 
are in England. 

THOMPSON, Charles C. B., naval officer, b. 
in Virginia in 1786 ; d. in Hot Springs, Va., 2 Sept., 
1832. He entered the navy as a midshipman, 22 
Dec, 1802, and was promoted to lieutenant, 15 Feb.,. 
1809. During the war of 1812 he rendered distin- 
guished service in the defence of New Orleans,, 
where he commanded the ship " Louisiana," 8 Jan.,. 
1815. He was promoted to master-commandant, 27 
April, 1816, served at Philadelphia navy-yard in 
1816-'17, commanded the frigate " Guerriere " in the 
Mediterranean squadron in 1818-'20, and was on 
shore duty at Philadelphia and Boston in 1821-'6. 
He was promoted captain, 3 March. 1825, and com- 
manded the Pacific squadron in 1828-'31. 

THOMPSON, Charles Lemuel, clergyman, b. 
in Cooperstown, Lehigh co., Pa., 18 Aug., 1839. 
He was graduated at Carroll college, Wis., in 1858,. 
and at McCormick theological seminary, Chicago, 
in 1861, after spending two years (1859-'60) in 
Princeton seminary. He then entered the Pres- 
byterian ministry, and after holding pastorates in 
Juneau and Janesville, Wis., Cincinnati, Ohio,. 
Chicago, 111., Pittsburg, Pa., and Kansas City, Mo. r 
was called in 1888 to the Madison avenue church 
in New York city. He received the degree of D. D. 
from Monmouth college, 111., in 1876, and in May, 
1888, was moderator of the general assembly of his 
church in Philadelphia. Dr. Thompson was editor 
of " Our Monthly " in Cincinnati in 1870-'l, and 
in 1879-'82 of "The Interior" at Chicago, with 
which he is still connected as an editorial writer. 
Besides contributions in prose and verse to current 
literature, he has published " Times of Refreshing: 
a History of American Revivals " (Chicago, 1877). 

THOMPSON, Charles Oliver, educator, b. in 
East Windsor Hill, Conn., 25 Sept., 1836; d. in 
Terre Haute, Ind., 17 March, 1885. He was gradu- 
ated at Dartmouth in 1858, and then taught in the 
Peacham academy for six years except during a- 
part of 1860-'l, when he devoted himself to prac- 
tical work as a surveyor and civil engineer in 
Piermont, N. Y. Tn 1864 he became principal of 
the Cotting public high-school in Arlington, Mass. 
He was chosen principal of the Worcester free in- 
stitute of industrial science in 1868. and, besides 
holding the chair of chemistry, was charged with 
the development of a scientific and practical course 
of instruction which had no recognized type in 
this country. After spending eight months in 
Europe in visiting similar institutions he returned 
to Worcester and established the course that has 
since prevailed in that institution. In founding 
the Rose polytechnic institute, the different tech- 
nical schools of the country were carefully studied 
by its founder, Chauncey Rose, and the plan of the 
Worcester institute was given the preference. Ac- 
cordingly, in 1883 Mr. Thompson was called to the 
presidency of the new institute, and continued to 
hold that place until his death. The degree of 
Ph. D. was conferred on him in 1870 by Dartmouth, 
and he was a member of scientific societies, includ- 
ing the American association for the advancement 
of science and the American institute of mining 
engineers. He was the author of numerous papers 
on technical instruction. 

THOMPSON, Daniel Pierce, author, b. in 
Charlestown (now a part of Boston), Mass., 1 Oct., 
1793 ; d. in Montpelier, Vt., 6 June, 1868. He was 
the grandson of Daniel, who was a cousin of Ben- 
jamin Thompson, Count Rumford, and was killed 
at the battle of Lexington. He was brought up 
on a farm, prepared himself for college under 
difficulties, taught for one winter, and then en- 
tered Middlebury college, where he was graduated 
in 1820. Going to Virginia as a family tutor, he 




studied law there, and was admitted to the bar in 
1823, after which he returned to Vermont and 
settled in Montpelier. He was register of probate 
in 1824, and clerk of the legislature in 1830-'3, and 
was then appointed to compile the "Laws of 
Vermont from 1824 down to and including the 
Year 1834 " (Montpelier, 1835). He was judge of 
probate from 1837 till 1840, from 1843 till 1845 
clerk of the supreme and county courts, and from 
1853 till 1855 secretary of state. From 1849 till 
1856 he edited a weekly political paper called the 
" Green Mountain Freeman." He was a popular 
lecturer before lyceums and orator on public occa- 
sions. Mr. Thompson began to contribute poems 
and sketches to periodicals while he was in college, 
and continued to write frequently for the news- 
papers and magazines, besides publishing political 
pamphlets. He took part in the anti - Masonic 
controversy, and published a satirical novel on the 
subject, entitled " The Adventures of Timothy 
Peacock, Esq., or Freemasonry Practically Illus- 
trated," which appeared under the pen-name of " A 
Member of the Vermont Bar " (Middlebury, 1835). 
In 1835 he wrote for the " New England Galaxy," 
of Boston, a prize tale called " May Martin, or the 
Money-Diggers," which was issued in book-form 
(Montpelier. 1835), and reprinted in London. Next 
appeared " The Green Mountain Boys," a romance, 
in which the principal men connected with the his- 
tory of Vermont in the Revolutionary period are 
brought into the plot (Montpelier, 1840; repub- 
lished in Boston and London) ; " Locke Amsden, or 
the Schoolmaster " (Boston. 1845); "Lucy Hosmer, 
or the Guardian and the Ghost " (1848) ; and " The 
Rangers, or the Tory's Daughter " (1851). His later 
romances are " Tales of the Green Mountains " 
(1852); "Gaut Gurlev, or the Trappers of Lake 
Umbagog" (1857); "The Doomed Chief, or Two 
Hundred Years Ago," based on the story of King 
Philip (Philadelphia, 1860) ; and " Centeola, and 
other Tales " (New York, 1864^. He was also the 
author of a " History of Montpelier, 1781-1860, 
with Biographical Sketches" (Montpelier, 1860). 
In later life he published monographs on topics 
of American history and on biographical subjects 
in various magazines. A novel, with the title of 
" The Honest Lawyer, or the Fair Castaway," was 
left unfinished. 

THOMPSON, David, Canadian explorer, b. in 
the parish of St. John, Westminster, England, 30 
April, 1770; d. in Longueil, near Montreal, 16 Feb., 
1857. He was educated at Christ's hospital school, 
London, and at Oxford, and when he was nineteen 
years old entered the service of the Hudson bay 
company. He was afterward employed in explora- 
tion, and on 27 April, 1798, discovered Turtle lake, 
which he claimed to be the source of the Missis- 
sippi, as it is from this spot that the river takes its 
most direct course to the sea. His course in reach- 
ing the head-waters of this river is well delineated 
on his " Map of the Northwest Territory of the 
Province of Canada, made for the Northwest Com- 
pany in 1813-14." He also surveyed the south 
shore of Lake Superior in 1798, in June, 1807, 
crossed the Rocky mountains by what is now known 
as the Howse pass, and in the spring of 1811 as- 
cended Columbia river from the junction of Canoe 
river to its source, and then descended it to its 
mouth, where he arrived on 16 July the same year. 
On 27 May, 1812, he reached Red Deer lake, or Lac 
la Biehe, which Schoolcraft, who visited it in 1832, 
claimed to be the true source of the Mississippi, 
and the same year resurveyed the north shore of 
Lake Superior to Sault Ste. Marie. He left the 
service of the Hudson bay company, 23 May, 1797, 

and entered that of the Northwest company, in 
which he was for many subsequent years a partner. 
From 1816 till 1826 he was engaged in surveying 
and defining the boundary-line on the part of Great 
Britain between Canada and the United States, 
being employed in 1817 on the St. Lawrence. Pro- 
ceeding westward around the shores of the great 
lakes, he reached the Lake of the Woods in 1825. 
In 1834 he surveyed Lake Francis, in 1837 he made 
a survey of the canoe route from Lake Huron to 
Ottawa river, and a few years later a survey of 
Lake St. Peter. His last years were spent either 
in Glengarry county, Ont., or in Longueil. Of the 
early explorers, few rendered more valuable services 
or estimated their achievements more modestly. 

THOMPSON, David, Canadian member of par- 
liament, b. in Wainfleet, Welland co., Ont., 7 Dec, 
1836. His father, the son of a Scotchman, repre- 
sented Haldiinand from 1841 till 1851. The son 
was educated at Upper Canada college, and became 
a flour and grain merchant. He represented Hal- 
dimand in the Canada assembly from 1863 till the 
union, was elected to the Dominion parliament in 
1867, re-elected by acclamation in 1872 and 1874, 
and chosen again in 1878 and 1882. He is actively 
connected with various financial and industrial or- 
ganizations, is major of volunteers, a Liberal in 
politics, and favors a prohibitory liquor law. 

THOMPSON, Edward R., naval officer, b. in 
Pennsylvania about 1808 ; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 
12 Feb., 1879. He entered the navy as a midship- 
man on 1 Dec, 1826, became a lieutenant on 8 
March, 1837, served during the Mexican war on 
the brig " Porpoise " and the frigate "Potomac" 
in the Gulf of Mexico, cruised on the coast of 
Africa in the " Porpoise " in 1851-'2, and in com- 
mand of the " Dolphin " in 1856-'7, having been 
promoted commander on 14 Sept., 1855. He had 
charge of the steamer " Seminole " in the early 
part of the civil war, but, being unfit for further 
active service, was placed on the retired list on 3 
Dec, 1861. On 4 April, 1867, his rank was raised 
to that of commodore. 

THOMPSON, Edwin, reformer, b. in Lynn. 
Mass., in July, 1809 ; d. in East Walpole, Mass., 22 
May, 1888. He was of Quaker descent, and early 
interested himself in the anti-slavery movement. 
At the suggestion of Wendell Phillips, he became 
a public speaker in its furtherance, travelling 
through the state, often on foot,, lecturing in 
churches and school-houses, and winning a reputa- 
tion as an orator by his fluency and great fund of 
anecdotes. While speaking in New Bedford, he 
roused Frederick Douglass to take up active work 
in behalf of his race. He was also interested from 
an early period in the temperance reform, which he 
did much to promote. Mr. Thompson was ordained 
as a Universalist clergyman in 1840, and afterward 
resided at East Walpole. 

THOMPSON, Egbert, naval officer, b. in New 
York city, 6 June, 1820 ; d. in Washington, D. C, 
5 Jan., 1881. He entered the navy as a midship- 
man, 13 March, 1837, served in Com. Charles 
Wilkes's exploring expedition in 1838-'42, and be- 
came a passed midshipman, 29 June, 1843. As ex- 
ecutive officer of the schooner " Bonita," in the. 
Gulf squadron during the Mexican war, he partici- 
pated in the expedition against Frontera, and the 
capture of Tobasco, Tampico, Vera Cruz, and Tus- 
pan. His vessel covered the landing of Gen. Win- 
field Scott's army at Vera Cruz, and captured sev- 
eral prizes during the war. He served in the 
steamer " Michigan " on the lakes in 1847-50, and 
at Philadelphia navy-yard in 1850-1. He was 
commissioned a lieutenant, 27 Sept., 1850, and was 




in the steamer " Fulton " in 1859 when she was 
wrecked. When the civil war began he was at- 
tached to the steamer " Powhatan," which went to 
Pensacola navy-yard, and contributed to the relief 
of Fort Pickens. He commanded the river iron- 
clad steamer " Pittsburg," in the Mississippi flotilla, 
in which he participated in the battle of Fort 
Donelson, when he was obliged to run her ashore 
to keep from sinking. He was commended for 
gallantry in running the batteries of Island No. 10, 
for which he received the thanks of the navy de- 
partment, and he took part in the attacks on Fort 
Madrid and Fort Pillow, and the battle with the 
Confederate rams. He was commissioned a com- 
mander, 16 July, 1862, served at the rendezvous 
at Philadelphia" in 1863-'4, and commanded the 
steamer " McDonough " in the South Atlantic 
blockade in 1864-'5, and the steamer '• Dacotah," 
of the South Pacific squadron, in 1866-'7. He was 
commissioned captain, 26 July, 1867, and was com- 
mandant of the naval station at Mound City, 111., 
in 1869-'71. He commanded the steam sloop 
" Canandaigua," of the North Atlantic squadron, 
in 1871-2, and was retired on 6 Jan., 1874. 

THOMPSON, Elizabeth, philanthropist, b. hi 
Lyndon, Vt., 21 Feb., 1821. She is the daughter 
of Samuel Rowell, a poor farmer, and at the age 
of nine went to aid in the household duties of 
a neighbor's family as a maid of all work, receiv- 
ing as wages twenty-five cents a week. Her edu- 
cation was chiefly self-acquired, but she was re- 
markably handsome, and, while on a visit to Bos- 
ton in 1843, so impressed Thomas Thompson, a 
well-known millionaire of that city, that he sought 
her acquaintance. Early in 1844 they were mar- 
ried, and until his death in 1869 spent much of 
their income for charitable purposes. The use of 
the entire income of his immense estate was then 
left to Mrs. Thompson. She has given large sums 
to the cause of temperance, and " Figures of Hell," 
a tract written by her and filled with much sta- 
tistical information, has been widely circulated. 

Mrs. Thompson 
has given more 
than $100,000 to- 
ward providing 
with business pur- 
suits the heads of 
families, hundreds 
of whom have 
been enabled to 
establish them- 
selves by her boun- 
ty. Among her 
many charities is 
the gift of $10,000 
which was expend- 
ed by a commis- 
sion authorized by 
-€^ <?€£L~>^Ll*s congress to inves- 
tigate the yellow 
fever. She found- 
ed the town of Long Mont, at the foot of the 
Rocky mountains, and gave 640 acres of land with 
$300 to each colonist in Saline county, Kan. Mrs. 
Thompson contributed largely to the purchase of 
the Vassar college telescope, and gave to the Con- 
cord school of philosophy the building in which its 
summer assemblies are held. She suggested the 
idea of a song-service for the poor, and incurred 
large expense in putting it into practical operation 
in many of the large cities of this country. Fran- 
cis B. Carpenter's painting of the " Signing of the 
Emancipation Proclamation by Lincoln in the Pres- 
ence of his Cabinet " was purchased by her and 

presented to congress. In consequence of this she 
was granted the freedom of the floor of the house, 
a right which no other woman, not even the presi- 
dent's wife, possesses. She gave $1,000 to the 
American association for the advancement of sci- 
ence in 1883, and was made its first "patron. In 
1885 she placed in the hands of a board of trustees, 
chosen for that purpose, $25,000, to be devoted to 
the advancement and prosecution of scientific re- 
search in its broadest sense. This trust, known as 
the "Elizabeth Thompson science fund," is to be 
controlled by the International scientific congress. 
Mrs. Thompson has agitated the question of the 
possibility of an international republic, or a world 
governed by laws emanating from an intelligent 
community. The value of this idea has been rec- 
ognized by statesmen at home and abroad. The 
publication of a journal in England advocating her 
views has been announced by George J. Holyoake. 

THOMPSON, George, English reformer, b. in 
Liverpool, England, 18 June, 1804; d. in Leeds, 
England, 7 Oct., 1878. He entered actively into the 
agitation against slavery in the British colonies, 
and contributed largely to its downfall, and subse- 
quently to that of the apprentice system. After- 
ward he joined the Anti-corn-law league, and also 
took an active part in forming the India associ- 
ation. In 1834, at the request of William Lloyd 
Garrison and others, he came to the United States 
to speak in behalf of the abolition of slavery. He 
addressed meetings in various parts of the north- 
ern states, and his efforts led to the formation of 
more than 150 anti-slavery societies ; but he was 
often threatened by mobs, and finally in Boston, 
Mass., escaped death only by fleeing in a small 
row-boat to an English vessel and going to St. 
John, New Brunswick, whence he sailed for Eng- 
land in November, 1835. Mr. Thompson's visit 
created such excitement that President Jackson 
denounced him in a message to congress. He made 
a second visit to this country in 1851, and another 
during the civil war, when a public reception was 
given to him in the house of representatives, at 
which President Lincoln and his cabinet were pres- 
ent. He aided greatly in preventing the recogni- 
tion of the southern Confederacy by the British 
government. Mr. Thompson was also concerned 
in the work of the National parliamentary reform 
association. In 1847 he was chosen a member of 
parliament for the Tower Hamlets. About 1870 a 
testimonial fund was raised for him by his ad- 
mirers in this country and England. 

THOMPSON, George Washington, lawver, 
b. in St. Clairsville, Ohio, 14 May, 1806 ; d. near 
Wheeling, W. Va., 24 Feb., 1888. He was gradu- 
ated at Jefferson college, Pa., in 1824, studied law 
in Richmond, Va., was admitted to the bar, and 
began practice in his native town, but afterward re- 
moved to western Virginia. He was U. S. district 
attorney in 1849, and was elected to congress as a 
Democrat in the following year, serving from 1 
Dec, 1851, till 30 July, 1852, when he resigned to 
accept a seat on the bench of the circuit court of 
his state. He was re-elected in 1860, but, declining 
to take the test oaths that were required by the 
reorganized government of Virginia, retired from 
public life. He had previously served on the com- 
mission that was appointed to determine the boun- 
dary between Virginia and Ohio. He was a fre- 
quent contributor to the Boston "Quarterly Re- 
view" in 1839-'42, and, besides numerous legal, 
political, and educational addresses, has published 
"Dissertation on the Historical Right of Virginia 
to the Territory Northwest of the Ohio " : " Life of 
Linn Boyd"; "The Living Forces of the Universe" 




frtodi Jht£&>r i//L<my/i*t 

(Philadelphia, 1866) ; and " Deus Semper." When 
he was eighty years old he wrote " The Song of 
Eighty," a poem (printed privately, 1886). 

THOMPSON, Hugh Miller, P. E. bishop, b. 
in County Londonderry, Ireland, 5 June, 1830. 
While he was yet a child his parents removed to 
the United States and settled in Ohio. He re- 
ceived his aca- 
demical education 
in the schools of 
Cleveland, and his 
theological course 
was taken at Nash- 
otah House, Wis. 
He was ordered 
deacon at Nasho- 
tah, 6 June, 1852, 
by Bishop Kem- 
per, and priest, in 
St. John's church, 
Portage, Wis., 31 
Aug., 1856. Dur- 
ing his diacon- 
ate he had charge 
of Grace church. 
Madison, Wis. He 
removed in 1853 
to Maysville, Ky., 
but remained only one year. In August, 1854, he 
took charge of mission work in Portage and Bara- 
boo, Wis., and immediately on his ordination to 
the priesthood he became rector of St. John's 
church,- Portage. At Easter, 1857, he engaged in 
mission work in the city of Milwaukee, and organ- 
ized the Church of the Atonement. In 1858 he 
was elected rector of St. Matthew's church, Keno- 
sha, and after one year removed to Galena, 111., and 
became rector of Grace church. In 1860 he was 
made professor of ecclesiastical history at Nasho- 
tah, and founded Kemper hall. In the same year he 
became editor-in-chief of " The American Church- 
man " at Chicago, and he continued in this office 
until the paper was merged into " The Church- 
man" at Hartford, Conn. In 1871 he became 
rector of St. James's church, Chicago, which was 
burned in the great fire. In January, 1872, he re- 
moved to New York and took the rectorship of 
Christ church and the editorship of " The Church 
Journal and Gospel Messenger." In 1875 he be- 
came rector of Trinity church, New Orleans, La., 
where he remained until he was consecrated assist- 
ant bishop of Mississippi, 24 Feb., 1883. Four years 
later, on the death of Bishop Green, he succeeded 
to his office. Bishop Thompson attended the third 
Pan-Anglican conference in London in 1888, and 
in August of that year delivered in Westminster 
Abbey the funeral sermon of Bishop Harris of 
Michigan. Hobart conferred upon him the degree 
of S. T. D. in 1863. He is the author of " Unity and 
its Restoration " (New York, 1860) ; " Sin and its 
Penalty" (1862); " First Principles" (1868); "Ab- 
solution " (1872) ; •" Copy " (1872) ; " Is Romanism 
the Best Religion for the Republic V (1873); 
"The Kingdom of God" (1873) ; "The World and 
the Logos," a volume of lectures (1885) ; and " The 
World and the Kingdom " (1888). 

THOMPSON, Jacob, cabinet officer, b. in Cas- 
well county, N. C, 15 May, 1810 ; d. in Memphis, 
Tenn., 24 March, 1885. He was graduated at the 
University of North Carolina in 1831, admitted 
to the bar in 1834, and settled in the Chickasaw 
country, Miss., where he practised law with success. 
In 1838 he was chosen to congress as a Democrat, 
and he served by continued re-election from 1839 
till 1857, advocating the repudiation by Missis- 

sippi of part of the state bonds and opposing the 
compromise measures of 1850, on the ground that 
they were not favorable enough to the south. 
While he was in congress he held for some time 
the chairmanship of the committee on Indian 
affairs, and in 1845 he refused an appointment 
that was tendered him by the governor of Missis- 
sippi to a vacancy in the U. S. senate. President 
Buchanan made him secretary of the interior in 
1857, and he held that office till 8 Jan., 1861, when 
he resigned, giving as his reason that troops had 
been ordered to re-enforce Fort Sumter contrary 
to an agreement that this should not be done 
without the consent of the cabinet. In acknowl- 
edging his letter the president reminded him that 
the matter had been decided in a cabinet meeting 
six days before. In December, 1860, while still in 
office, he had been appointed by the legislature of 
Mississippi a commissioner to urge on North Caro- 
lina the adoption of an ordinance of secession. 
In 1862-'4 he was governor of Mississippi, and 
afterward he served as aide-de-camp to Gen. Beau- 
regard. In the summer of 1864 he was sent as a 
Confederate commissioner to Canada, where he 
promoted the plan to release the prisoners of war 
at Camp Douglas, near Chicago, and to seize that 
city. He has also been charged with instigating 
plots to burn northern cities and commit other 
outrages. After the war he returned to the United 
States. At his death an order of Sec. Lucius Q. C. 
Lamar to fly the National flag at half-mast over 
the buildings of the interior department caused 
much excitement at the north. 

THOMPSON, James, jurist, b. in Middlesex, 
Butler co., Pa., 1 Oct., 1806; d. in Philadelphia, 
28 Jan., 1874. After receiving a good education, 
he began life as a printer, subsequently studied 
law, and in 1829 was admitted to the bar. He 
was chosen to the legislature in 1832, 1833, and 
1834, during the latter year serving as speaker of 
the house, although he was the youngest member. 
He was a presidential elector in 1836, voting for 
Martin Van Buren, in 1838 a delegate to the Con- 
stitutional convention of Pennsylvania, and in 
1839 was appointed president-judge of the 6th 
judicial district of the state, in which office he 
served until 1844. when he was elected by the 
Democrats to congress, being re-elected in 1846 
and 1848. In 1855, against his desire, he was 
again elected to the legislature, where he remained 
one term, and after that declined nominations for 
both the legislature and congress. In 1857 he 
was elected to the supreme court of the state, and 
served nine years as justice and six years as chief 
justice. On the expiration of his term he was re- 
nominated by the Democrats, but failed of an elec- 
tion, though running ahead of his ticket. He 
mingled with his judicial qualities warm affections 
and genial manners. His judicial opinions are 
found in the supreme court reports, from vol. xxx. 
to vol. lxxii. inclusive. After his retirement he re- 
sumed the practice of law in Philadelphia, and his 
death occurred suddenly while he was engaged in 
arguing a cause before the same court over which 
he had so recently presided, his opponent in the 
cause being his predecessor in the office of chief 
justice, George W. Woodward. 

THOMPSON, John, political writer, b. in 
1777; d. in Petersburg, Va., in 1799. He was the 
author of articles signed " Casca " and " Gracchus " 
in the Petersburg " Gazette," in which he attacked 
John Adams's administration, and also of letters 
signed "Curtius," addressed to Chief-Justice John 
Marshall in 1798, which were issued in book-form 
(1804). His life was written by George Hay. 




THOMPSON, John Burton, senator, b. near 
Harrodsburg, Ky., 14 Dec, 1810; d. in Harrods- 
burg, 7 Jan., 1874. His ancestor came to Virginia 
from England as a captain in the royal navy. 
John was educated at private schools, studied law 
under his father, and succeeded to his extensive 
practice at Harrodsburg. He served as common- 
wealth's attorney, was chosen to the legislature in 
1835 and 1836, and in 1840 was elected to congress 
as a Whig to fill a vacancy, serving from 7 Dec, 
1840, till 3 March, 1843. He raised a company of 
cavalry for the Mexican war, but more than the 
necessary number of volunteers from his state 
offered themselves, and it was not accepted. He 
served again 4n congress in 1847-'51, and in the 
latter year, when Archibald Dixon was nominated 
by the Whigs for governor, Thompson, who had 
been a candidate for the office, was given second 
place on the ticket. Dixon was defeated, but 
Thompson was elected by a large majority, and in 
1853 was sent to the U. S. senate, where he served 
a full term. In that body he was a member of 
the committees on private land-claims and pen- 
sions. Mr. Thompson was especially eminent as a 
jury lawyer, and was also a successful orator. His 
most noted political speech was that on the Cuban 
question. He was a man of broad culture, quiet 
and even reserved in manner. In politics he was 
a Clay Whig till the disruption of the party just 
before the civil war, when he became a Unionist. 

THOMPSON, John Reuben, author, b. in 
Richmond, Va., 23 Oct., 1823; d. in New York 
city, 30 April, 1873. He was graduated at the Uni- 
versity of Virginia in 1844, afterward studied law 
there, and settled in Richmond, with everv pros- 
pect of success in his profession. But he had al- 
ways been a lover of literature and a keen student 
of it, and these proclivities became more domi- 
nating after he had completed his education. Ac- 
cordingly, in 1847, he accepted the editorship of 
the " Southern Literary Messenger." This maga- 
zine was a power in its day, and did no little to 
foster a literary spirit among the younger race of 
southern men. Mr. Thompson brought a great 

deal of zeal and 
energy into the ed- 
itorial chair, and 
during the twelve 
years in which he 
successfully car- 
ried forward his 
literary work in 
connection with 
this monthly he 
imparted to it such 
a character as no 
southern maga- 
zine has ever had 
before or since. 
He did much to 
bring southern tal- 
ent to light, and 
in the pages of the 
" Southern Mes- 
senger" Donald G. Mitchell first published his 
" Reveries of a Bachelor " and " Dream Life." 
Here too appeared the early writings of John 
Esten Cooke. Philip Pendleton Cooke, Paul H. 
Hayne, and Henry Timrod. In 1854 Mr. Thomp- 
son went to Europe in search of health. During 
this absence he wrote papers for the " Southern 
Messenger," which long afterward he collected in 
book-form. One copy had been sent to the author, 
and the edition, except this, was burned in the pub- 
lishing-house. His health continued so delicate 



that in 1859 he resigned his editorship in Rich- 
mond and went to Augusta, Ga., where he edited 
the "Southern Field and Fireside." In 1863 he 
went abroad again in such delicate health that his 
friends did not expect him to reach the farther 
shore alive ; but the sea-voyage revived him, and he 
rapidly improved. He chose London as his resi- 
dence, where he was regularly engaged on the 
staff of the " London Index," and contributed to 
" Blackwood's Magazine." Some time after the 
civil war he returned home in broken health and 
dispirited. Finding it impossible to do anything 
in the way of literature in the south, he became 
literary editor of the " -New York Evening Post," 
continuing as such for several years, until his health 
failed again. He made a last effort to restore it by 
going to Colorado in 1872, where he spent the 
winter, returning in the spring, only to die. Mr. 
Thompson was a polished and graceful writer, both 
of prose and verse, but he did his most effective 
work as a literary editor. Many of his lyrics are 
household words in the south, especially in his 
native state, and his influence in fostering the tal- 
ents of writers that have since distinguished them- 
selves was decided. He was greatly beloved for 
his genial and refined nature. Among his most 
admired poems are " The Burial of Latane," " The 
Death of Stuart," and " The Battle Rainbow." 

THOMPSON, Sir John Sparrow David, Cana- 
dian jurist, b. in Halifax, Nova Scotia, 10 Nov., 
1844. His father was a native of Waterford, Ireland, 
for some time queen's printer, and subsequently 
superintendent of the money-order system of Nova 
Scotia. The son was educated at the common 
school and at Free-church academy, Halifax, stud- 
ied law, was called to the bar in July, 1865, and 
appointed a queen's counsel in May, 1879. He 
was counsel on behalf of the U. S. government, 
acting with the American lawyers before the fish- 
ery commission at Halifax under the Washington 
treaty. He was made a member of the executive 
council and attorney-general of Nova Scotia on 
22 Oct., 1878, and was premier and attorney-gen- 
eral of the same province from 25 May until 25 
July, 1882, when he was appointed a judge of the 
supreme court. He resigned on 25 Sept., 1885, 
and was made minister of justice and attorney-gen- 
eral of Canada. He was a member of the house of 
assembly of Nova Scotia from December, 1877, un- 
til July, 1882. Mr. Thompson was elected to the 
Dominion parliament on 16 Oct., 1885, and re- 
elected in February, 1887. He was attached to the 
British commission, which arranged the fishery 
treaty at Washington, D. C, in 1888, and was 
knighted for his services on that occasion. 

THOMPSON, Jonathan, merchant, b. in Sag- 
tikos Manor, Long Island, N. Y., 7 Dec, 1773 ; d 
in New York city, 30 Dec, 1846. He was the 
eldest son of Judge Isaac Thompson and Mary, 
daughter of Col. Abraham Gardiner. He was a 
merchant in the city of New York in 1795, of the 
firm of Gardiner, Thompson and Co., in partnership 
with his cousin, Nathaniel Gardiner, an officer in 
the Revolutionary army. They were engaged in 
the West India business, and had extensive ware- 
houses in Brooklyn. Mr. Thompson had great in- 
fluence in the councils of the Democratic party, 
being the chairman of its general committee for 
ten years. He was collector of direct taxes and 
internal revenue for the state of New York during 
the war of 1812-'15, and afterward, when that 
office was abolished, was appointed collector of cus- 
toms of the port of New York, and served from 
1820 to 1829. At the time of his death he was 
president of the Bank of the Manhattan company. 




He was widely known socially, and numbered 
among his friends nearly all the statesmen and 
politicians of the country. 

THOMPSON, Joseph Parrish, scholar, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 7 Aug., 1819; d. in Berlin, 
•Germany, 20 Sept., 1879. He was graduated at 
Yale in 1838, studied theology for a few months in 
Andover seminary, and then at Yale from 1839 till 
1840, when he was ordained as a Congregational 
minister. He was pastor of the Chapel street 
church in New Haven from that time till 1845, 
and during this period was one of the founders of 
the '• New Englander." From 1845 till his resig- 
nation in 1871 he had charge of the Broadway 
tabernacle in New York city. Dr. Thompson de- 
voted much time to the study of Egyptology, in 
which he attained high rank. In 1852-'3 he visited 
Palestine, Egypt, and other eastern countries, and 
from that time he published continual Contribu- 
tions to this branch of learning in periodicals, the 
transactions of societies, and cyclopaedias. He 
lectured on Egyptology in Andover seminary in 
1871, and in 1872-9 resided in Berlin, Germany, 
occupied in oriental studies, took an active part in 
the social, political, and scientific discussions, and 
was a member of various foreign societies, before 
which he delivered addresses, and contributed es- 
says to their publications. These have been issued 
under the title of " American Comments on Euro- 
pean Questions" (New York, 1884). In 1875 Dr. 
Thompson went to England to explain at public 
meetings "the attitude of Germany in regard to 
Ultramontanism," for which service he was re- 
warded by the thanks of the German government, 
■expressed in person by Prince Bismarck, and Dr. 
Thompson originated the plan of the Albany Con- 
gregationalist convention in 1852, and was a mana- 
ger of the American Congregational union and the 
American home missionary society. He also aided 
in establishing the New York " Independent." 
Harvard gave him the degree of D. D. in 1856, 
•and the University of New York that of LL. D. 
in 1868. He published "Memoir of Timothy 
Dwight " (New Haven, 1844) ; " Lectures to Young 
Men " (New York, 1846) : " Hints to Employers 
(1847) ; " Memoir of David Hale " (1850) ; " Foster 
•on Missions, with a Preliminary Essay " (1850) ; 
" Stray Meditations " (1852 ; revised ed., entitled 
" The Believer's Refuge," 1857) ; " The Invaluable 
Possession " (1856) ; " Egypt, Past and Present " 
•(Boston, 1856): "The Early Witnesses" (1857); 
"Memoir of Rev. David T. Stoddard" (New York, 
1858) ; " The Christian Graces " (1859) ; " The Col- 
lege as a Religious Institution " (1859) ; " Love 
and Penalty" (1860); "Bryant Gray" (1863); 
"Christianity and Emancipation" (1863); "The 
Holy Comforter " (1866) ; " Man in Genesis and 
Geology" (1869); "Theology of Christ, from His 
Own Words" (1870); "Home Worship" (1871); 
" Church and State in the United States " (1874) ; 
"Jesus of Nazareth: His Life, for the Young" 
•(1875) ; " The United States as a Nation," lectures 
(1877); and "The Workman: his False Friends 
•and his True Friends " (1879). 

THOMPSON, Joseph Peter, A. M. E. Zion 
bishop, b. in Winchester, Va., 20 Dec, 1818. He 
acquired a common-school education, and at the 
age of twenty was licensed as a local preacher. In 
1843 he joined the New York annual conference of 
the African Methodist Episcopal Zion church, and 
he was ordained deacon in 1845 and elder in 1847. 
After serving as a missionary in Nova Scotia and 
holding pastorates in and near New York city, he 
was elected and ordained a bishop on 4 July, 1876, 
.in the general conference in Louisville, Ky. Bish- 

op Thompson organized a conference in the Baha- 
ma islands in 1878, and in 1882 was a delegate to 
the Methodist ecumenical council in London. He 
has studied and practised medicine successfully, 
having received his medical degree from Jefferson 
university in Philadelphia in 1858. 

THOMPSON, Launt, sculptor, b. in Abbeyleix. 
Queen's co., Ireland, 8 Feb., 1833. At the age of 
fourteen he went to Albany, N. Y., and there 
entered the office of a professor of anatomy. 
While there he occupied his leisure hours with 
drawing, but later entered a 
medical college. When Eras- 
tus D. Palmer, the sculptor, 
offered to receive him as his 
pupil, he gladly availed him- 
self of the opportunity, and 
abandoned medicine for art. 
He worked in Palmer's studio 
for nine years, producing sev- 
eral portrait-busts and ideal 
heads of some merit, and in 
1858 removed to New York 
city. Here, having shown a 
remarkable talent for medal- 
lion portraits, he found ample 
employment. He became an 
associate of the Academy of 
design in 1859, and three years 
later his bust, " The Trapper," 
secured his election as an acade- 
mician. In 1868-'9 he was in 
Rome, and in 1875 he went again to Italy, remain- 
ing until 1881, in which year he returned to New 
York. In 1874 he was vice-president of the Nation- 
al academy. Among his works are "Elaine," a 
bust ; " Morning Glory," a medallion ; statues of 
Abraham Pierson, at Yale college (1874), repre- 
sented in the accompanying illustration ; Napoleon 
I., at Milford, Pa. ; Gen. John Sedgwick, at West 
Point (1869) ; Winfleld Scott, at the Soldiers' home, 
Washington, D. C. ; Charles Morgan, in Clinton, 
Conn, (about 1871) ; and Ambrose E. Burnside. an 
equestrian statue, at Providence, R. I. (1887) ; " The 
Color- Bearer," at Pittsfield, Mass. ; a medallion por- 
trait of John A. Dix, made for the sanitary fair ; 
and portrait-busts of William C. Bryant, in the 
Metropolitan museum. New York ; James Gordon 
Bennett, the elder ; Robert B. Minturn ; Capt. 
Charles H. Marshall ; Edwin Booth as " Hamlet " ; 
Stephen H. Tyng (1870); and Charles L. Elliott 
and Samuel F. B. Morse (1871). Yale conferred on 
him the honorary degree of M. A. in 1874. 

THOMPSON; Lewis 0, clergyman, b. in 
Bergen, Norway, 13 March, 1839; d. in Henry, 
111., 16 July, 1887. He came with his parents in 
boyhood to Chicago, 111., was graduated at Beloit 
in 1863, and at Union theological seminary, New 
York city, in 1866, and after being licensed to 

8 reach, and becoming, in 1866, a professor at 
orthwestern university, Watertown, Wis., he was 
ordained to the ministry of the Presbyterian 
church, 28 Jan., 1869. In the spring of that year 
he became president of Northwestern university, 
and in 1875 he became pastor of a church in Pe- 
oria, 111., but in July, 1882, failing health forced 
him to resign. After 1886 he was in charge of a 
church at Henry, 111., till his death by drowning. 
He published " The Presidents and their Admin- 
istrations" (Indianapolis, Ind.. 1873); "Nothing 
Lost" (New York, 1876): "The Prayer-Meeting 
and its Improvement" (Chicago, 1878): "How to 
conduct Prayer-Meetings"' (Boston. 1879); and 
"Nineteen Christian Centuries in Outline" (Chica- 
go, 1882) ; and left several uncompleted works. 




THOMPSON, Maurice, author, b. in Fairfield, 
Ind., 9 Sept., 1844. His parents, who were south- 
erners, removed to Kentucky, and thence to the 
hill-region of northern Georgia. The son was edu- 
cated by private tutors, and early became interested 
in the study of out-door life. He served through 
the civil war in the Confederate army, and at its 
close went to Indiana, became a civil engineer on 
a railway survey, and in due season rose to be chief 
engineer. He "then studied law, and opened an 
office at Crawfordsville. He was elected in 1879 to 
the legislature, and appointed in 1885 state geolo- 
gist of Indiana and chief of the department of natu- 
ral history. He has written much for periodicals, 
and has published in book-form " Hoosier Mosaics " 
(New York, 1875) ; " The Witchery of Archery " 
(1878) ; " A Tallahassee Girl " (Boston, 1882) ; " His 
Second Campaign " (1882) ; " Songs of Fair Weath- 
er" (1883); "At Love's Extremes" (1885); "By- 
ways and Bird Notes" (1885); "The Boys' Book 
of 'Sports " (1886) ; " A Banker of Bankersville " 
(1886); "Sylvan Secrets" (1887); "The Story of 
Louisiana," in the " Commonwealth Series " (1888) ; 
and "A Fortnight of Folly" (New York, 1888). 

THOMPSON, Merriwether Jeff, soldier, b. in 
Harper's Ferry, Va., 22 Jan., 1826 ; d. in St. Joseph, 
Mo., in July, 1876. He was educated in the com- 
mon schools, was mayor of the city of St. Joseph, 
Mo., in 1859, and was appointed brigadier-general 
in the Missouri state guards early in 1861, and in 
the Confederate army in October of that year. He 
was a most successful scout and partisan officer, 
and achieved frequent successes by strategy and 
daring against greatly superior forces. He was 
held in high regard by Gen. Sterling Price and 
Gen. Leonidas Polk, under both of whom he served. 
He recruited his command personally, and, as a 
rule, clothed, armed, and subsisted them without 
expense to the Confederate government. He was 
the inventor of a hemp-break, which is now in gen- 
eral use, and an improved pistol-lock. He sur- 
veyed, as civil engineer, the greater part of the 
Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad and parts of the 
Kansas and Nebraska road. 

THOMPSON, Richard Wigginton, secretary 
of the navy, b. in Culpeper county, Va., 9 June, 
1809. He received a good education, and removed 
in 1831 to Kentucky, whence, after serving as a 

store-keeper's clerk 
in Louisville, he 
went to Lawrence 
county, Ind. There 
he taught for a few 
months, and then 
returned to mer- 
cantile business, at 
the same time stud- 
ying law at night. 
He was admitted 
to the bar in 1834, 
began to practise 
in Bedford, Ind., 
and served in the 
lower house of the 
legislature in 1834- 
'6, and in the upper 
house in 1836-'8. 
He was for a short 
time president, pro 
tempore, of the state 
senate, and acting 
lieutenant-governor. He was a presidential elector 
on the Harrison ticket in 1840, zealouslv supporting 
Gen. Harrison in public speeches and by his pen, 
served in congress in 1841-'3, having been chosen 


as a Whig, and was a defeated candidate for elec- 
tor on the Clay ticket in 1844. He served again in 
congress in 1847-'9, declining a renomination, and 
also refused the Austrian mission, which was of- 
fered him by President Taylor, the recordership of 
the land-office, which Fillmore tendered him, and 
a seat on the bench of the court of claims, which 
President Lincoln urged him to accept. He was 
again a presidential elector, on the Republican 
ticket, in 1864, and delegate to the National con- 
ventions of that party in 1868 and 1876. In the 
latter he nominated Oliver P. Morton for the presi- 
dency. In 1867-9 he was judge of the 18th circuit 
of the state. On 12 March, 1877, Mr. Thompson 
entered President Hayes's cabinet as secretary of 
the navy, and he served nearly through the admin- 
istration, resigning in 1881 to become chairman of 
the American committee of the Panama canal com- 
pany. He is also a director of the Panama rail- 
road. He has written many political platforms, 
and obtained a reputation for his ability in formu- 
lating party-principles. He has published " The 
Papacy and the Civil Power" (New York, 1876), 
and a " History of the Tariff" (Chicago, 1888). 

THOMPSON, Robert Ellis, educator, b. in 
Lurgan, Ireland, in the spring of 1844. Coming to 
this country in his thirteenth year, he settled with 
his parents in Philadelphia, and. entering the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, was graduated in 1865, 
and in 1868 received the degree of A. M. In 1867 
he was licensed to preach by the Reformed presby- 
tery of Philadelphia, and in 1868 was chosen pro- 
fessor of Latin and mathematics in the University 
of Pennsylvania. He became professor of social 
science in 1871, and in 1881 professor of history 
and English literature, which chair he still holds. 
Since 1870 he has given instruction in political 
economy, and he is well known as an advocate of 
protection to home industry. In 1884-'5 he lec- 
tured at Harvard on protection and the tariff, and 
in 1886-'7 he delivered a similar course at Yale. 
In 1870 he became editor of the " Penn Monthly," 
then newly established, and continued such for ten 
years. In 1880 a weekly supplement of notes on 
current events was begun, which in October of that 
year was expanded into " The American," a weekly 
journal of literature, science, the arts, and public 
affairs, which is still published in Philadelphia un- 
der his editorship. In 1883-'5 he edited the first 
two volumes of the " Encyclopaedia Americana," a 
supplement to the ninth edition of the " Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica," but, his health failing, he was 
obliged to resign the remaining two volumes to 
other hands. In 1870 Hamilton college conferred 
on him the degree of Ph. D., and in 1887 he re- 
ceived that of S. T. D. from the University of Penn- 
sylvania. Prof. Thompson is the author of " Social 
Science and National Economy " (Philadelphia, 
1875 ; revised ed., 1876 ; partly rewritten, under the 
title of "Elements of Political Economy," 1882), 
and " Protection to Home Industry," his Harvard 
lectures (New York, 1886). 

THOMPSON, Smith, jurist, b. in Stanford, 
Dutchess co., N. Y., 17 Jan., 1768; d. in Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y., 18 Dec, 1843. He was graduated at 
Princeton in 1788, studied law with Chancellor 
James Kent in Poughkeepsie, teaching part of the 
time, and was admitted to the bar in 1792. He 
practised for some time in Troy, but, on the re- 
moval of Chancellor Kent from Poughkeepsie to 
New York, Mr. Thompson returned to the former 
place. In 1800 he was chosen to the legislature, 
and in 1801 he was a delegate to the State consti- 
tutional convention. In the latter year he was 
appointed attorney for the middle district of New 





York, but declined. From 1802 till 1814 he was 
associate justice of the state supreme court, mean- 
while declining the mayoralty of New York city, 
and in the latter year 
he became chief jus- 
tice, which post he 
held till he was called 
in 1818 to the port- 
folio of the navy in 
President Monroe's 
cabinet. In 1823 he 
was raised to the 
bench of the U. S. 
supreme court, to 
succeed Judge Brock- 
hoist Livingston, 
where he remained 
till his death. Judge 
Thompson was inter- 
ested in many benev- 
olent enterprises, and 
at the time of his 
death was the oldest 
vice-president of the 
American Bible society. He made a reputation for 
sound legal learning on the bench of his native 
state, which he sustained in the U. S. supreme 
court. His funeral sermon, which was delivered by 
Rev. A. M. Mann, in the Reformed Dutch church, 
Poughkeepsie, was published in pamphlet-form 
(Poughkeepsie, 1844). The vignette of Judge 
Thompson is copied from the original painting by 
Asher B. Durand. Yale and Princeton gave him 
the degree of LL. D. in 1824 and Harvard in 1835. 
THOMPSON, Thomas, philanthropist, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 27 Aug., 1798 ; d. in New York city, 
28 March, 1869. He was graduated at Harvard in 
1817, and studied divinity under William Ellery 
Channing, but abandoned it to devote himself to 
the fine arts. His first collection of pictures, which 
was said to be the finest in Boston at that time and 
valued at $92,000, was destroyed in the burning of 
Tremont Temple in 1852. He gathered another 
collection worth $500,000, and, besides this, pos- 
sessed property valued at nearly $1,000,000. He 
had bequeathed this to form a fund the income of 
which should be used to aid poor needle-women of 
Boston, but because his property was taxed in that 
city at what he thought an exorbitant rate, he re- 
moved to New York about 1860, cancelled his will, 
and made another in favor of the needle-women 
of Brattleboro', Vt., and Rhinebeck, N. Y. Mr. 
Thompson's mode of life was eccentric, and it is 
said that before his removal from Boston he had 
never travelled on a steamboat or a railroad. 

THOMPSON, Thomas W, senator, b. in Bos- 
ton, Mass., 15 March, 1766 ; d. in Concord, N. H., 
1 Oct., 1821. He was graduated at Harvard in 
1786, studied law, was admitted to the bar, and 
practised in Salisbury from 1790 till 1810, when 
he removed to Concord. He was a member of the 
state house of representatives, and its speaker in 
1813— '14, served in congress in 1805-'7, and was 
treasurer of his state in 1809. He was appointed 
U. S. senator to fill the unexpired term of Nicholas 
Oilman, deceased, and served from 19 Sept., 1814, 
till 3 March, 1817. — His grandson, John Leverett, 
soldier, b. in Plymouth, N. H., 2 Feb., 1835 ; d. in 
Chicago, 111., 31 Jan., 1888, was the son of William 
C. Thompson. He studied at Dartmouth and 
Williams, and read law in Worcester, Mass., and 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and then at Harvard law- 
school, where he was graduated in 1858. He was 
admitted to the bar at Worcester, and continued 
his studies in Berlin, Munich, and Paris. In 1860 

he settled in Chicago, and at the opening of the 
civil war enlisted as a private of artillery. He rose 
to be corporal, and was made lieutenant in the 1st 
Rhode Island cavalry, in which he was commis- 
sioned captain, 3 Dec, 1861 ; major, 3 July, 1862 ; 
lieutenant-colonel on 11 July; and colonel on 4 
Jan., 1863. In March, 1864, he took command of 
the 1st New Hampshire cavalry. He served first 
with the Army of the Potomac, and in 1864 with 
Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley, taking part in 
many engagements, and at the close of the war re- 
ceived the brevet of brigadier-general of volunteers. 
In 1866 he formed a law-partnership with Norman 
Williams. Gen. Thompson was connected with 
the work of the Citizens' association, and was presi- 
dent of the Union league club of Chicago. 

THOMPSON, Waddy, lawyer, b. in Pickens- 
ville, S. C, 8 Sept., 1798 ; d. in Tallahassee, Fla., 
23 Nov., 1868. He was graduated at South Caro- 
lina college in 1814 and admitted to the bar in 
1819. He was a member of the legislature from 
1826 till 1830, when he became solicitor of the west- 
ern circuit. During the nullification excitement 
in 1835 he was elected by the legislature brigadier- 
general of militia. From 1835 till 1841 he was a 
member of congress, and was active in debate as a 
leader of the Whig party, and serving in 1840 as 
chairman of the committee on military affairs. In 
1842 he was appointed minister to Mexico. Dur- 
ing his mission, he made two important treaties, 
and procured the liberation of more than 200 
Texan prisoners, many of whom were sent home 
at his own charge. On his return he published 
" Recollections of Mexico," which is valuable as a 
calm estimate of that country written on the eve 
of the war with the United States (New York, 1846). 
He was a cotton-planter in Florida, but spent most 
of his time after his return from Mexico on his 
estate near Greenville, S. C. 

THOMPSON, William, soldier, b. in Ireland 
about 1725; d. near Carlisle, Pa., 4 Sept.. 1781. 
He emigrated to Pennsylvania, and in the French 
and Indian war was captain of a troop of mounted 
militia. When a battalion of eight companies was 
recruited in Pennsylvania, after the fight at Lex- 
ington, he was placed in command, with the rank 
of colonel. They were the first troops that were 
raised on the demand of the Continental congress, 
and they arrived at the camp in Cambridge, Mass., 
before 14 Aug., 1775. On 10 Nov. this regiment 
drove back a British landing-party at Lechmere 
point. Thompson was made a brigadier-general 
on 1 March, 1776, and on 19 March he relieved 
Gen. Charles Lee of the command of the forces at 
New York. In April he was ordered to Canada to 
re-enforce Gen. John Thomas with four regiments, 
which were afterward increased to ten. He met 
the remnant of the Northern army on its retreat 
from Quebec, and assumed the chief command 
while Gen. Thomas was sick, yielding it up on 4 
June to Gen. John Sullivan, by whose orders, two 
days later, he made a disastrous attack on the 
enemy at Trois Rivieres. He was there taken pris- 
oner, and in August returned to Philadelphia on 
parole, but was not exchanged for two years. 

THOMPSON, William Tappan, humorist, b. 
in Ravenna, Ohio, 31 Aug., 1812; d. in Savannah, 
Ga., 24 March, 1882. His father was a Virginian 
and his mother a native of Dublin, Ireland, and 
the son was the first white child that was born in 
the Western Reserve. He lost his mother at the 
age of eleven, and removed to Philadelphia with 
his father, who died soon afterward, and the lad 
entered the office of the Philadelphia " Chronicle." 
This he left to become secretary to James D. Wes- 




■cott, territorial governor of Florida, with whom he 
.also studied law, but in 1835 he went to Augusta, 
■Ga„ and became associated with Judge Augustus 
B. Longstreet in editing the " States Rights Senti- 
aiel." He served as a volunteer against the Semi- 
noles in 1835-'6, and in the autumn of the latter 
year established at Augusta the " Mirror," the first 
purely literary paper in the state. It was not a 
financial success, and was merged in the " Family 
Companion " at Macon, whither Mr. Thompson 
Temoved. Afterward he conducted the "Miscel- 
lany" in Madison, Ga., to which he contributed his 
•" Major Jones Letters," which first won him a repu- 
tation, and which were afterward collected in book- 
form as "Major Jones's Courtship" (Philadelphia, 
1840 ; unauthorized ed., entitled " Rancy Cottem's 
•Courtship, by Major Joseph Jones "). In 1845 he 
became associated with Park Benjamin in the pub- 
lication at Baltimore of the "Western Continent," 
& weekly, of which he was afterward sole editor and 
proprietor, but he sold it in 1850, and, removing to 
Savannah, founded the "Morning News," with 
which he remained connected till his death. Dur- 
ing the civil war he was aide to Gov. Joseph E. 
Brown, and in 1864 he served in the ranks as a vol- 
unteer He was at one time one of the wardens of 
the port of Savannah, sat in the State constitu- 
tional convention of 1877, and was a delegate to the 
National Democratic convention of 1868. His po- 
litical editorials were forcible and often bitter, but 
in private life he was simple and genial. His hu- 
morous works at one time were widely popular. 
Besides the one mentioned above, they include 
"Major Jones's Chronicles of Pineville" (1843: 
new and unauthorized ed., entitled " Major Jones's 
■Georgia Scenes ") ; " Major Jones's Sketches of 
Travel " (1848) ; " The Live Indian," a farce ; and a 
dramatization of " The Vicar of Wakefield," which 
was produced with success in this country and 
abroad. He also edited " Hotchkiss's Codification 
of the Statute Laws of Georgia" (1845). After his 
death another collection of his sketches was pub- 
lished by his daughter, Mrs. May A. Wade, with 
the title " John's Alive, or the Bride of a Ghost, 
.and other Sketches" (Philadelphia, 1883). 

THOMPSON, Zadoc, naturalist, b. in Bridge- 
water, Vt., 23 May, 1796 ; d. in Burlington, Vt., 19 
Jan., 1856. He was graduated at the University 
-of Vermont in 1823, and became a tutor there in 
1825. In addition to his teaching, he edited in 
1828 the " Iris and Burlington Literary Gazette," 
and in 1832 " The Green Mountain Repository." 
He issued an almanac as early as - 1819, and subse- 
quently made the astronomical calculations for the 
"Vermont Registers," also for thirty-four years 
those of " Walton's Registers." He removed in 
1833 to Hatley, Canada, and then to Sherbrooke, 
where he taught, and, after studying theology, was 
in 1835 made a deacon in the Protestant Episcopal 
church. He returned to Burlington, Vt., in 1837, 
and was given a chair in the Vermont Episcopal 
seminary. Subsequently in 1845-'8 he held the of- 
fice of state geologist of Vermont and gathered in 
Burlington a collection of more than 3.000 speci- 
mens of the productions of the state, which on his 
death became the property of the university. In 
1851 he was called to the professorship of chemis- 
try and natural history in the University of Ver- 
mont, and in 1853 he was directed to make a survey 
of the state, including its physical geography, 
geology, mineralogy, botany, and general zoology. 
upon which he was engaged at the time of his 
•death. He was sent as a commissioner from Ver- 
mont to the World's fair in London in 1851, and 
-exhibited a collection of American woods, classified 

according to their useful properties, for which he 
received a bronze medal. In June, 1850, he deliv- 
ered the annual address before the Boston society 
of natural history on the " Geology of Vermont." 
Besides several text-books, Prof. Thompson pub- 
lished " Gazetteer of the State of Vermont " (Mont- 
pelier, 1824) ; " History of the State of Vermont to 
1832 " (Burlington, 1833); "History of Vermont, 
Natural, Civil, and Statistical " (1841-'53) ; " Guide 
to Lake George, Lake Champlain, Montreal, and 
Quebec " (1845) ; and the " Geography and Geology 
of Vermont " (1848). 

THOMSON, Alexander, jurist, b. in Frank- 
lin county. Pa., 12 Jan., 1788 ; d. in Chambersburg, 
Pa., 2 Aug., 1848. He was the son of Archibald 
Thomson, a soldier in the war of the Revolution. 
His parents having died when he was a child, he 
was apprenticed at the age of fifteen to his uncle, 
Andrew Thomson, a sickle-maker. Meanwhile he 
found time for private study, and at the end of his 
apprenticeship had a fair knowledge of Latin and 
Greek, and English literature. His attainments 
came under the notice of the Rev. Mr. Grier, father 
of Justice Robert C. Grier of the U. S. supreme 
court, whose family he entered as tutor, at the same 
time pursuing his own studies. At the end of three 
years he left Northumberland for Bedford, where 
he taught, and studied law. After his admission 
to the bar he rose rapidly in his profession, was 
elected to the Pennsylvania house of representa- 
tives, and afterward chosen to congress to fill a va- 
cancy, serving from December, 1824, till his resig- 
nation in May, 1826. During his term he gave 
much attention to the interests of the District of 
Columbia, in recognition of which his portrait was 
placed in the Washington city-hall. After his res- 
ignation he was appointed city judge of Lancas- 
ter, and soon afterward president-judge of the 
16th judicial district, which post he occupied un- 
til 1838. Judge Thomson was also professor in 
the law-school of Marshall college, Lancaster, Pa. 
— His son, William, surgeon, b. in Chambersburg, 
Pa., 28 Jan., 1833, was educated in the Academy 
of Chambersburg and under private tutors, and 
was graduated at Jefferson medical college in 1855. 
Soon afterward he had a lucrative practice at Lower 
Merion, near Philadelphia, which he relinquished 
in 1861 in order to enter the regular army as assist- 
ant surgeon. He was with the Army of the Poto- 
mac throughout the civil war, either in the field or 
at Washington. For his services after the battle of. 
South Mountain he received the thanks of Presi- 
dent Lincoln. He originated two reforms for im- 
proving the medical field service: the system of 
brigade supplies, and the division hospital system. 
Both these reforms were extended to all the armies 
by the war department. He was raised to the post 
of medical inspector of the Department of Wash- 
ington in 1864, received two brevets, and after the 
war was sent to Louisiana, but he resigned from the 
army, 25 Feb., 1866. Dr. Thomson introduced the 
local use of carbolic acid as a disinfectant in the 
treatment of wounds, published an article on the 
treatment of hospital gangrene by bromine, and 
was the first, in conjunction with Dr. William F. 
N orris, successfully to apply the negative process 
of photography by wet collodion in clinical micros- 
copy. The Army medical museum has been large- 
ly indebted to Dr. Thomson for its success, and in 
its catalogue he is mentioned as the largest con- 
tributor both of papers and specimens. Since his re- 
tirement from the armv Dr. Thomson has practised 
his profession in Philadelphia. He was elected vice- 

? resident of the ophthalmological section of the 
international medical congress that met in Philadel- 




phia in 1876, has lectured at Wills hospital on dis- 
eases of the eye for many years, and was elected 
its emeritus surgeon in 1877. He has been clinical 
lecturer on diseases of the eye and ear in Jefferson 
medical college since 1873, and ophthalmic sur- 
geon to the college hospital since 1877. Among 
his important contributions to medical literature 
are a series of papers published in the " American 
Journal of the Medical Sciences," in conjunction 
with Dr. S. Weir Mitchell, on the use of the ophthal- 
moscope in the diagnosis of intracranial tumors, 
and clinical reports of cases of severe and pro- 
longed headache, dependent upon astigmatism, 
which have been relieved by the correction of opti- 
■cal defects. He revised the section on diseases and 
injuries of the eye in Dr. Samuel D. Gross's "Sys- 
tem of Surgery," and has invented a new method 
•of diagnosing and correcting ametropia by means 
of a simple instrument, which is now in general 
use among ophthalmological surgeons in this coun- 
try and Europe. — Alexander's youngest son, Frank, 
railway superintendent, b. in Chambersburg, Pa., 
5 July, 1841, was educated at Chambersburg acad- 
emy, and in 1858 began to learn the railway busi- 
ness in the Pennsylvania railroad company's shops 
at Altoona. Col. Thomas A. Scott appointed him 
to a responsible position in the U. S. military rail- 
way system early in 1861, and he was sent to Alex- 
andria, Va., where he assisted in rebuilding bridges 
and restoring shops, machinery, and rolling stock. 
On 1 July, 1862, he was transferred to Gen. Don 
Carlos Buell's army, but, after accompanying it 
during its march through Kentucky, he returned 
to the Army of the Potomac. He was then en- 
gaged in directing the lines of railroad that played 
an important part in the Antietam campaign, and 
was subsequently made assistant superintendent of 
the lines south of Acquia creek. He co-operated 
with Col. Scott in removing the 11th and 12th 
corps, with their full equipment of artillery and 
wagons, to Chattanooga, and was afterward given 
control of the lines south of Nashville, which he 
rendered capable of transmitting sufficient re-en- 
forcements and supplies to relieve the National 
army from its embarrassments, and enable it to 
assume the offensive. He resigned from the mili- 
tary service in 1864, and on 1 June of that year 
became superintendent of the eastern division of 
the Philadelphia and Erie railroad. While hold- 
ing this office he organized a system of track-in- 
spection which was adopted by the entire road, 
and made improvements in the construction of the 
roadway. In 1873 he was made superintendent of 
motive power on the Pennsylvania railroad, and in 
1874 became its general manager. 

THOMSON, Charles, patriot, b. in Maghera, 
County Derry, Ireland, 29 Nov., 1729 ; d. in Lower 
Merion, Montgomery co., Pa., 16 Aug., 1824. He 
was brought to . this country with three other 
brothers by his father in 1740. The father died 
just in sight of land, and the young Thomsons 
were thrown on their own resources when they 
landed at New Castle, Del. An elder brother, who 
had emigrated before them, gave them such aid as 
he could, and persuaded a countryman. Dr. Francis 
Allison, to take Charles into his seminary in New 
London, Pa. Here he made rapid progress, and while 
yet little more than a boy he was chosen to con- 
duct a Friends' academy at New Castle. He often 
visited Philadelphia, met Benjamin Franklin there, 
and was brought to the notice of many other emi- 
nent men. His reputation for veracity was spread 
even among the Indian tribes, and when the Dela- 
wares adopted him into their nation in 1756 they 
called him in their tongue "man of truth." Rev. 

vol. vi. — 7 



Ashbel Green, in his autobiography, says that it 
was common to say that a statement was " as true 
as if Charles Thomson's name was to it." He was 
one of the first to take his stand with the colonists, 
and he exercised immense influence, owing to the 
confidence of the peo- 
ple in his ability and 
integrity. He travel- 
led through the coun- 
try ascertaining the 
wishes of the farmers, 
and trying to learn 
whether they would 
be equal to the ap- 
proaching crisis. "He 
was the Sam Adams 
of Philadelphia," said 
John Adams, " the life 
of the cause of liber- 
ty." He had just come 
to Philadelphia in 
September, 1774, with 
his bride, a daughter of 
Richard Harrison, of 
Pennsylvania, when 
he learned that he 
had been unanimously 

chosen secretary of the 1st Continental congress. 
" He was the soul of that political body," says 
Abbe Robin, the chaplain of Rochambeau. He 
would receive no pay for his first year's services, 
and congress presented his wife with a silver urn, 
which is still preserved in the family. He remained 
in this post under every congress up to 1789, not 
only keeping the records but taking copious notes 
of its proceedings and of the progress of the Revo- 
lution. When he retired into private life he made 
these notes the basis of a history of the Revolution, 
but he destroyed the manuscript some time before 
his death, as he feared that a description of the 
unpatriotic conduct of some of the colonists at that 
period would give pain to their descendants. Mr. 
Thomson wrote "An Enquiry into the Causes of 
the Alienation of the Delaware and Shawaneese 
Indians, etc.. with Notes by the Editor on Indian 
Customs" (London, 1759), and "The Holy Bible, 
containing the Old and New Covenant, commonly 
called the Old and New Testament; translated 
from the Greek [the Old Covenant from the Septu- 
agint] " (4 vols., Philadelphia, 1808). This work is 
now very rare. It contained the first English ver- 
sion of the Septuagint that had been published at 
the time, and was considered by biblical scholars 
in Great Britain to have reflected high honor on 
American scholarship His own copy of this trans- 
lation, with his last manuscript corrections, is in 
the Philadelphia library. He also published "A 
Synopsis of the Four Evangelists, or a Regular 
History of the Conception, Birth, Doctrine, Mira- 
cles, Death, Resurrection, and Ascension of Jesus 
Christ, in the Words of the Evangelists" (Phila- 
delphia, 1815), and left in manuscript "Critical 
Annotations on Gilbert Wakefield's Works," which 
were presented in 1832 by John F. Watson to the 
Massachusetts historical society. — His relative, 
William, soldier, b. in Pennsylvania in 1727; d. 
in Sweet Springs, Va., 22 Nov., 1796, is said in 
some Irish biographies to be the brother of Charles, 
to have been born in Maghera, Ireland, about 1726, 
and about fourteen years old when he arrived in 
this country. He was taken to South Carolina by 
some friends of his family, was brought up as a 
frontiersman, and became famous in the district 
for his skill with the rifle. He fought against the 
Regulators in 1771, at the head of a regiment under 




Gov. William Tryon. He was sheriff of Orange- 
burg in 1772, and was elected a member of the first 
provincial legislature, and the first state conven- 
tion. He was appointed colonel in 1775 of the 3d 
South Carolina regiment, which was known as the 
Rangers. His soldiers were all skilful marksmen, 
and he dispersed the guerillas of Gen. Robert 
Cunningham, the Tory leader. He fought at its 
head at Charleston in 1776, driving the English 
back from the eastern side of Sullivan's island, and 
was formally thanked for this service by Gov. John 
Rutledge and congress. He also served with Gen. 
Robert Howe in Georgia, was engaged with his 
command in the attack on Savannah under Count 
d'Estaing and Gen. Benjamin Lincoln, and was 
taken prisoner after the capture of Charleston. He 
served afterward under the command of Gen. 
Nathanael Greene. He displayed the greatest 
bravery during the war, and at the end of it was 
broken both in health and fortunes. He was elected 
sheriff of Orangeburg a second time, and was a 
member of the State constitutional convention. 
Thomson was engaged in the occupation of an 
indigo-planter until 1786, when, seeking to benefit 
his declining health, he visited the mineral springs 
in Virginia, where he died. 

THOMSON, Charles West, poet, b. in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., in 1798; d. in York, Pa., 17 April, 1879. 
He was of Quaker parentage, but became a minis- 
ter of the Protestant Episcopal church, and in 
1849 he was appointed rector of the church in 
York, Pa., which post he resigned in 1866. His 
principal works are " The Limner," prose sketches 
(Philadelphia, 1822); "The Phantom Barge, and 
other Poems " (1822) ; " Ellinor, and other Poems " 
(1826); "The Sylph, and other Poems "(1828); and 
" The Love of Home, and other Poems " (1845). 
He was also a contributor to periodicals. 

THOMSON, Edward, M. E. bishop, b. in Portsea, 
part of Portsmouth, England, 12 Oct., 1810 ; d. in 
Wheeling, W. Va., 21 March, 1870. When he was 
seven years old his parents emigrated to the United 
States and settled in Wooster, Ohio. His father 
was a druggist, and this directed Edward's atten- 
tion to the study of medicine, which he pursued at 
the University of Pennsylvania. He united with 
the Methodist church, 29 April, 1832, the next 
year was licensed to exhort, and in the following 
July was recommended for admission into the an- 
nual conference. He was received in September 
and united with his former pastor upon the Nor- 
walk circuit. From the first his great abilities 
were apparent. In 1836 he was stationed at De- 
troit, where Lewis Cass, governor of the state, 
though a Presbyterian, was among his hearers. 
While there he married a daughter of Mordecai 
Bartley, member of congress, and afterward gov- 
ernor of the state. In 1837 he became principal 
of a seminary at Norwalk, where his success was 
so great that in 1843 he was offered the chancellor- 
ship of Michigan university, and the presidency 
of Transylvania college. In 1844 he was elected 
editor of the " Ladies' Repository " by the general 
conference. He was re-elected to this post in 1848. 
but was immediately called to the presidency of 
Ohio university, where he remained until 1860, 
when he was elected editor of the " Christian Advo- 
cate." Here he remained for four years, success- 
ful in spite of much opposition. In 1864 he was 
elected bishop, which office he filled until his death. 
He attained high rank as a lecturer and editor, 
and wrote much for periodicals and papers. He p 
was a profound student, very absent-minded, and 
preferred the seclusion of a college to the episcopal 
office; but, notwithstanding this, he was among 

the most eminent of those that have filled it. 
Indiana Asbury (now De Pauw) university gave 
him the degree of D. D. in 1846, and Wesleyan 
that of LL. D. in 1855. Bishop Thomson pub- 
lished " Educational Essavs " (new ed., Cincinnati, 
1856); "Moral and Religious Essays" (1856); 
"Biographical and Incidental Sketches" (1856); 
" Letters from Europe " (1856) ; and " Letters from 
India, China, and Turkey " (2 vols., 1870). 

THOMSON, Elihu, electrician, b. in Manches- 
ter, England, 29 March, 1853. He came to this 
country in 1858, and was graduated at the Central 
high-school in Philadelphia in 1870. He studied 
chemistry in an analytical laboratory, but was 
soon called to assist in the chemical department of 
the high-school, which place he held until 1876, 
when he was made full professor of chemistry and 
physics in that institution. Meanwhile, in 1875, he 
had been chosen professor of chemistry in the Ar- 
tisan's night-school in Philadelphia, and during 
the winter of 1876-7 he began a series of lectures 
on electricity at the Franklin institute. For sev- 
eral years he studied very closely the subject of 
electricity, with its special. application to artificial 
illumination, and in 1880 he was appointed elec- 
trician to the American electric company of New 
Britain, Conn. He at once devoted himself to in- 
venting, and nearly 200 patents relating to arc 
lighting, incandescent lighting, motor work, induc- 
tion systems, and similar applications have resulted. 
For the development of these inventions the Thom- 
son-Houston electric company was organized, and 
located its plant in Lynn, Mass. Prof. Thomson 
has also invented the system of electric welding, 
which he placed in the hands of a corporation, and 
it has now become an established industry. He is 
a member of the American philosophical society 
and the American academy of arts and sciences, 
and vice-president of the American institute of 
electrical engineers, and has contributed technical 
papers to the societies of which he is a member. 

THOMSON, Frederick Bordine, missionary, 
b. in New Brunswick, N. J., 5 Nov., 1809 ; d. in 
Berne. Switzerland, 3 March, 1847. He was gradu- 
ated at Rutgers in 1831, and at New Brunswick 
theological seminary in 1834, and in 1837 sailed 
for Singapore as a missionary of the Dutch Re- 
formed church. He remained there till 1839, was 
then in Batavia, Java, till 1841, and afterward in 
Karangan, Borneo, till 1846, when feeble health 
forced him to leave his post. He published a 
" Dyak Hymn-Book," the first printed book in that 
language (1844), and "Brown's Catechism " in Dyak 
(1845), and translated into the same tongue the 
gospel of St. Matthew and the first twenty chap- 
ters of Genesis. He left an unfinished work on 
" The Economy of Missions." 

THOMSON, James Bates, educator, b. in 
Springfield, Vt., 21 May, 1808; d. in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., 22 June, 1883. He worked on his father's 
farm in summer, attending a district school in 
winter, till 1824, when he began to teach. He was 
graduated at Yale in 1834, and was principal of an 
academy at Nantucket, Mass., from 1835 to 1842. 
He then went to Auburn, N. Y., and at the request 
of President Day, of Yale, published an abridg- 
ment of Day's algebra for the use of schools. He 
began in 1843 to organize and extend teachers' 
institutes and similar gatherings, and was actively 
engaged in this work for the next four or five 
years. In 1845 he assisted in the organization of 
the New York state teachers' association, and was 
elected its president. He removed to the city of 
New York in 1846, and resided there and in Brook- 
lyn till 1868, when he took up his permanent resi- 




dence in the latter city. ITe received the degree 
of LL. D. from Hamilton college in 1853, and from 
the University of Tennessee inj.882. Mr. Thomson 
attained considerable reputation as a conchologist. 
He published a very successful series of mathemati- 
cal works, his arithmetical works alone having a 
sale of about 100,000 copies annually. His books 
include '• School Algebra " (New Haven, 1843) ; a 
series of arithmetics (New York, 1845-52); and 
" Arithmetical Analysis " (1854). 

THOMSON, John Edgar, civil engineer, b. in 
Springfield, Delaware co., Pa., 10 Feb., 1808 ; d. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 27 May, 1874. He was the son 
of John Thomson, the engineer who planned the 
first experimental railroad in the United States, and 
was thoroughly trained and educated in the pro- 
fession by his father. In 1827 he began his own 
career in the engineering corps that was employed 
upon the original surveys of the Philadelphia and 
Columbia railroad, having received his appoint- 
ment from the secretary of the board of canal com- 
missioners of Pennsylvania, and three years later 
he entered the service of the Camden and Amboy 
railroad as principal assistant engineer of the east- 
ern division. In 1832 he was appointed chief en- 
gineer of the Georgia railroad, which then con- 
trolled the longest line under a single company in 
this country, and later he was its general manager. 
In 1847 he became chief engineer of the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad, and in 1852 he was made its presi- 
dent, which office he held until his death. Mr. 
Thomson took chief charge of the road before it 
was finished, and during the twenty-eight years of 
his administration dividends were regularly paid 
on the stock with the exception of a single semi- 
annual dividend in 1857. When his presidency 
began, the Pennsylvania company owned 246 miles 
of road and had a capital of $13,000,000; and it 
has since become a corporation controlling 2,346 
miles of railroad and 66 miles of canal, with a capi- 
tal of $150,000,000. Mr. Thomson possessed re- 
markable engineering ability and executive skill. 
He was connected with other railroad enterprises in 
various parts of the country, and was a director in 
many companies. 

THOMSON, John Renshaw, senator, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 25 Sept., 1800; d. in Princeton, 
N. J., 13 Sept., 1862. He studied for some time at 
Princeton, but left without taking his degree, in 
order to pursue a commercial career. He went to 
China in 1817, and in 1820 had regularly estab- 
lished himself in the Chinese trade, and opened a 
house in Canton, where President Monroe appoint- 
ed him U. S. consul in 1823. He returned to the 
United States in 1825, married a sister of Com. 
Robert F. Stockton, and resided at Princeton. He 
was appointed a director of the Camden and Am- 
boy railroad in 1835, which office he held during 
his lifetime. He canvassed the state in 1842 in 
support of the Constitutional convention that met 
in 1844, and was nbminated the same year for gov- 
ernor by the Democratic party, but was defeated. 
On the resignation of Com. Stockton as U. S. sena- 
tor in 1853, Mr. Thomson was elected for the re- 
mainder of the term, and he was re-elected in 1857 
for six years. His second wife was a daughter of 
Gen. Aaron Ward, and after Mr. Thomson's death 
she married Gov. Thomas Swann of Maryland. 

THOMSON, Mortimer, humorist, b." in Riga, 
Monroe co., N. Y., 2 Sept., 1832 ; d. in New York 
city, 25 June, 1875. He was taken to Ann Arbor, 
Mich., by his parents in childhood, and entered the 
University of Michigan, but was expelled, with 
about forty others, for belonging to college secret 
societies. After going on the stage, and then travel- 

ling as a salesman for a New York firm, he adopted 
journalism as a profession. He was first brought 
into notice by his letters from Niagara Falls, in the 
New York " Tribune," and he also wrote rhymed 
police-court reports, and a series of sketches of New 
York fortune-tellers, which was afterward pub- 
lished in book-form as " The Witches of New 
York " (New York, 1859). His report of the Pierce- 
Butler sale of slaves at Savannah, Ga., about 1859, 
occupied several pages of the " Tribune," and was 
reprinted in the other daily papers, translated into 
several foreign languages, and circulated by the 
Anti-slavery society as a tract. During about eight 
years he delivered many popular lectures, includ- 
ing one in rhyme on " Pluck " and one on " Cheek " 
in prose. His wife was a daughter of Mrs. Parton, 
" Fanny Fern." Thomson's books, as well as most 
of his fugitive writings, appeared under the pen- 
name of " Q. K. Philander Doesticks, P. B.," which 
had been given him by the editor of a university 
magazine to which his earliest contributions were 
made. Thomson afterward asserted that it signi- 
fied " Queer Kritter, Philander Doesticks, Perfect 
Brick." His works include " Doesticks — What he 
Says " (New York, 1855) ; " Plu-ri-bus-tah : a Song 
that's by No Author," a travesty of Longfellow's 
" Hiawatha " (1856) ; " History and Records of the 
Elephant Club," with "Knight Russ Ockside, 
M. D." (Edward F. Underhill) ; " Nothing to Say, 
being a Satire on Snobbery " (1857) ; and several 
smaller humorous collections. 

THOMSON, Samuel, phvsician, b. in Alstead, 
N. H., 9 Feb., 1769; d. in Boston, Mass., in 1843. 
He was the originator of the so-called Thomso- 
nian system of medicine. He published " Materia 
Medica and Family Physician " (Albany) ; " New 
Guide to Health, and Family Physician " (new ed., 
London, 1849) ; and his " Life and Medical Dis- 
coveries " (Boston, 1825 ; enlarged ed., 1832). 

THOMSON, William McClnre, clergyman, b. 
in Springfield (now Spring Dale) near Cincinnati, 
Ohio, 31 Dec, 1806. He was graduated at Miami 
university, Ohio, in 1826, studied at Princeton theo- 
logical seminary in 1826-'7, and was ordained as 
an evangelist by the presbytery of Cincinnati on 
12 Oct., 1831. He was sent as a missionary to 
Syria and Palestine in 1833, remained there until 
1849, and was afterward again in the Holy Land 
from 1850 till 1857 and from 1859 till 1876. He 
is at present a resident of New York city. Dr. 
Thomson is accepted as an authority in the de- 
partment of archaeological research, to which he has 
devoted himself. His works, besides being great 
aids to the verification of facts that are related in 
the Scriptures, and giving evidence of profound 
learning and critical acumen, have a decided liter- 
ary value from his skill in reproducing the local 
color and types and working them into artistic 

Eictures of the past and present life of the Holy 
iand. He has written u The Land and the Book, 
or Biblical Illustrations drawn from the Manners 
and Customs, the Scenes and Scenery of the Holy 
Land" (2 vols., New York, 1859; London, 1860; 
new ed., with the results of recent explorations, 3 
vols., 1880-6), and " The Land of Promise : Travels 
in Modern Palestine, illustrative of Biblical His- 
tory, Manners, and Customs " (New York, 1865), 
and has contributed articles to the " Bibliotheca 
Sacra " and the " American Biblical Repository." 
—His cousin, Samuel Harrison, clergyman, b. 
in Nicholas countv, Kv., 26 Aug., 1813; d. in 
Pasedena, Cal., 2 'Sept., 1882, was graduated at 
Hanover college, Ind., in 1837, and was elected 
professor of mathematics there in 1844. In 1857 
he was ordained a minister in the Presbyterian 




church, and the rest of his life was devoted to 
teaching in the colleges of his denomination or to 
literary pursuits. He published " The Mosaic Ac- 
count of the Creation" (1852); "Geology an Inter- 
Ereter of Scripture"; and pamphlets on "Human 
•epravitv " (1874) and " Our Fall in Adam " (1876). 

THORBURN, Grant, merchant, b. in Dalkeith, 
near Edinburgh, Scotland, 18 Feb., 1773; d. in 
New Haven, Conn., 21 Jan., 1863. He early en- 
tered his father's business of nail-making, and be- 
came so expert that he is said to have made with 
his own hands in a single day. between 6 a. m. 
and 9 p. m., 3,221 nails. In 1792 he became in- 
volved in a political movement concerning parlia- 
mentary reforms, and was charged with treason, 
but he was released on bail and soon afterward 
emigrated to New York, where he arrived on 16 
June, 1794. At first he continued his old trade of 
nail-making, but in 1801 he engaged in the grocery 
trade, and he finally established himself in the seed 
business in Newark, N. J. This proved unsuccess- 
ful, but, on removing his business to New York 
city, he acquired a handsome fortune. In 1854 he 
retired from active trade and settled at first in 
Astoria, N. Y., and then in Winsted, Conn. The 
house he founded is continued under the style of 
James M. Thorburn and Co. He was noted for 
his charity, and during the epidemic of yellow 
fever in 1798 he and his wife remained in the city, 
devoting themselves to the care of the victims. Un- 
der the pen-name of Lawrie Todd he contributed 
to the " Knickerbocker Magazine," the " New York 
Mirror," and more than twenty other papers, prin- 
cipally concerning his reminiscences of New York 
city at the beginning of the present century. His 
publications in book-form included " Forty Years' 
Residence in America " (Boston, 1834) ; " Men and 
Manners in Great Britain" (New York, 1834); 
" Fifty Years' Reminiscences of New York " (1845) ; 
" Lawrie Todd's Hints to Merchants, Married Men, 
and Bachelors " (1847) ; " Lawrie Todd's Notes on 
Virginia, with a Chapter on Puritans, Witches, and 
Friends" (1848); "Life and Writings of Grant 
Thorburn " (1852) ; and " Supplement to the Life 
of Grant Thorburn " (1853). His experiences fur- 
nished the novelist John Gait with the incidents 
described in his " Lawrie Todd, or Settlers in the 
New World" (London, 1830). See "A Bone to 
Gnaw for Grant Thorburn," by William Carver 
(New York, 1836). 

THORBURN, James, Canadian physician, b. 
in Queenston, Ont., 21 Nov., 1830. His father 
was for many years a member of the Dominion 
parliament. The son was educated at Toronto 
university and at Edinburgh university, where he 
was graduated as a physician in 1855. He has 
practised in Toronto, where he is surgeon-major 
of the Queen's own rifles, and professor of phar- 
macology and therapeutics in Toronto university. 
He is also consulting surgeon of Toronto general 
hospital, physician of the boys' hospital, and con- 
nected with other institutions, both charitable and 
financial, in his capacity as a physician. He has 
contributed articles on medical and other subjects 
to journals, and published "Manual of Life In- 
surance Examination " (Toronto, 1887). 

THORBURN, John, educator, b. near Biggar, 
Lanarkshire, Scotland, 10 Oct., 1830. He was edu- 
cated at Edinburgh university in 1855, became 
classical master in the Western institution in that 
city, and came to Canada in 1856. In 1860 he was 
appointed principal of St. Francis college, Rich- 
mond, and its professor of classics, and in 1862 he 
became head master of the grammar-school (now 
the collegiate institution) at Ottawa, which post he 

s&ewuy *& 57^&T€cL4es. 

held for about twenty years. In 1882 he was ap- 
pointed librarian to the geological and natural 
history survey of Canada, and the same year he 
was appointed by the government a member of the 
board of civil-service examiners. He was president 
of the Ottawa literary and scientific society, pre- 
pared for the department of militia a scheme for 
entrance examination into the military college at 
Kingston, and has been active in other respects as 
an educator. He received the degree of M. A. from 
McGill university in 1860, and that of LL. D. from 
Queen's universitv, Kingston, in 1880. 

THOREAU, Henry David, author, b. in Con- 
cord, Mass., 12 July, 1817: d. there, 6 May, 1862. 
His grandfather, John Thoreau, came from St. 
Helier, a parish in the island of Jersey, about 1773, 
and moved from 
Boston to Concord 
in 1800. Henry, 
the third of four 
children, went to 
school in Boston 
for a little more 
thana year, then at- 
tended the schools 
in Concord, fitted 
for college at a 
private school, en- 
tered Harvard in 
1833, and was grad- 
uated in 1837, a 
fair scholar but 
not eminent. The 
family being in 
humble circum- 
stances, the father 
was assisted in paying his small expenses by the 
boy's aunts, his elder sister, who was then teaching, 
the beneficiary fund of the college, and Henry's 
own exertions at school-keeping. Thoreau after- 
ward led a literary life, writing, lecturing, reading, 
and meeting his modest physical needs by surveying, 
pencil-making, engineering, and carpentering. He 
was never married, and never left Concord except 
for a lecturing-tour, or a pedestrian excursion. 
Cities he disliked ; civilization he did not believe in. 
Nature was his passion, and the wilder it was the 
more he loved it. He was a fine scholar, especially 
in Greek, translated two of the tragedies of .JSschy- 
lus, was intimate with the Greek anthology, and 
knew Pindar, Simonides, and all the great lyric 
poets. In English poetry he preferred Milton to 
Shakespeare, and was more familiar with the writers 
of the 17th century than with modern men. He 
was no mean poet himself; in fact, he possessed 
the essential quality of the poet — a soaring imagi- 
nation. He possessed an eye and an ear for 
beauty, and had he been gifted with the power of 
musical expression, would have been distinguished. 
No complete collection of his pieces has ever been 
made or could be, but fragments are exquisite. 
Emerson said that his poem on " Smoke " sur- 
passed any by Simonides. That Thoreau was a 
man of aspiration, a pure idealist, reverent, spirit- 
ual, is plain from his intimacy with Bronson Al- 
cot and Emerson, the latter of whom spoke these 
words at his funeral : " His soul was made for the 
noblest society ; he had in a short life exhausted 
the capabilities of this world ; wherever there is 
knowledge, wherever there is virtue, wherever there 
is beauty, he will find a home." His religion was 
that of the transcendentalists. The element of 
negation in it was large, and. in his case conspicu- 
ous and acrid. Horace Greeley found fault with his 
" defiant pantheism," and an editor struck out the 




following passage from a contribution: "It [the 
pine-tree] is as immortal as I am, and, perchance, 
will go to as high a heaven, there to tower above 
me still." His doctrine was that of individualism. 
Therein he differed from Emerson, who was sympa- 
thetic and began at the divine end. Thoreau began 
with the ground and reasoned up. H e sa w beauty in 
ashes, and " never chanced to meet with any man 
so cheering and elevating and encouraging, so in- 
finitely suggestive, as the stillness and solitude of 
the Well-meadow field." He aimed at becoming 
elemental and spontaneous. He wrote hymns to 
the night quite in the pagan fashion. His very 
aptitudes brought him in contact with the earth. 
His aspect suggested a faun, one who was in the 
secret of the wilderness. Mr. Sanborn, his friend 
and biographer, thus describes him : " He is a little 
under size, with a huge Emersonian nose, bluish- 
gray eyes, brown hair, and a ruddy weather-beaten 
face, which reminds one of some shrewd and hon- 
est animal's — some retired philosophical woodchuck 
or magnanimous fox." Another friend mentions 
his sloping shoulders, his long arms, his large hands 
and feet. " I fancy," he wrote, " the saying that 
man was created a little lower than the angels 
should have been a little lower than the animals." 
He built a hut on the shore of Walden pond in 1845, 
and lived there, with occasional absences, about two 
years and a half. He built on Emerson's land, 
though he had wished to build elsewhere. The house 
had no lock to the door, no curtain to the window. 
It belonged to nature as much as to man, and to 
all men as much as to any one. When Thoreau 
left it, it was bought by a Scotch gardener, who 
carried it off a little way and used it as a cottage. 
Then a farmer bought it, moved it still farther 
away, and converted it into a tool-house. A pile of 
stones marks the site of Thoreau's hut. He went 
into the woods, not because he wished to avoid his 
fellow-men, as a misanthrope, but because he want- 
ed to confront Nature, to deal with her at first 
hand, to lead his own life, to meet primitive con- 
ditions ; and having done this, he abandoned the 
enterprise, recommending no one to try it who had 
not " a pretty good supply of internal sunshine. 
... To live alone comfortably, he must have that 
self-comfort which rays out of Nature — a portion 
of it at least." At Walden he labored, studied, 
meditated, edited his first book, the " Week," and 
gauged his genius. He redeemed and consecrated 
the spot. The refusal to pay taxes, and his conse- 
quent imprisonment, were due to a more specific 
cause — namely, his dissent from the theory of 
human government and from the practice of the 
American state, which supported slavery. He stood 
simply and plainly on the rights and duty of the 
individual. The act was heroic as he performed 
it, and, when read by the light of his philosophy, 
was consistent. Thoreau was anything but sour, 
surly, or morose. He could sing, and even dance, 
on occasion. He was sweet with children ; fond of 
kittens ; a sunbeam at home : the best of brothers, 
gentle, patient, helpful. Those he loved he gave 
his heart to, and if they were few it was perhaps 
because his affections were not as expansive as they 
were deep. But he showed little emotion, having 
learned, like the Indian, to control his feelings. 
He cultivated stoicism. He had the pride as well 
as the conceit of egotism, and while the latter gave 
most offence to those who did not know him well, 
the former was the real cause of his conduct. Tho- 
reau had no zeal of authorship, yet he wrote a great 
deal, and left a mass of manuscripts, mostly in 
prose, for he produced very few verses after he was 
thirty years old. The " Dial," the " Democratic Re- 

view," " Graham's Magazine," " The Union Maga- 
zine," " Putnam's Magazine," the " Atlantic Month- 
ly," the "Tribune," all contained contributions 
from him. Every volume of the " Dial " had some- 
thing ; the third volume many articles. The essay 
on " Resistance to Civil Government " was printed 
in " ^Esthetic Papers." Only two of the seven vol- 
umes of his printed works appeared in his lifetime — 
" A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers " 
(Boston, 1849) and " Walden, or Life in the Woods" 
(1854). The others are " Excursions in Field and 
Forest," with a memoir by Ralph Waldo Emerson 
(1863) ; " The Maine Woods " (1864) ; » Cape Cod " 
(1865) ; " Letters to Various Persons," with nine 
poems (1865) : and " A Yankee in Canada," with 
anti-slavery and reform papers (1866). His life 
has been written by William Ellery Channing un- 
der the title " The Poet-Naturalist " (1873), and by 
Franklin B. Sanborn in the " American Men of 
Letters " series (1882). The former is a rhapsody 
rather than a biography, and is largely composed 
of extracts from Thoreau's journals, which had 
never seen the light before. It also contains a full 
list of his publications. 

THORFINN, Scandinavian navigator, b. in 
Norway: d. in Glcembceland, Iceland, after 1016. 
He was surnamed Karlsefn, which signifies one 
that is destined to become a great man. He was 
one of the wealthiest and most powerful nobles of 
the three northern kingdoms, and several of his 
ancestors had been kings. He went to Greenland 
from Norway in 1006, bringing with him two ves- 
sels. Here he married Gudrida, the widow of 
Thorstein, who persuaded him to organize an ex- 
pedition to Vinland. With three ships and 160 
men and women, besides a supply of cattle, Thor- 
finn and his companions set sail from Ericsfiord 
in the spring of 1007, and finally were driven by 
the polar current and a north wind toward Hel- 
luland (probably Newfoundland). They next came 
in sight of Markland (Nova Scotia), and then of 
an island (probably Anticosti), on which some 
of them landed and killed a bear. Therefore they 
called it Bjarnar, or Bearsland. The sagas are 
somewhat vague as to the route that they fol- 
lowed afterward, but it is probable that in their 
search after the grave of Thorvald they sailed 
along the New England coast. They touched at 
Cape Kjalarnes, for mention is made of the keel 
which was set up there three years before ; but 
they did not discover the tomb of the son of Eric, 
although some of his companions must have been 
among the crew of Thorfinn. After leaving 
Kjalarnes they sailed past Cape Cod, which they 
called Furdustrandir, or Wonderstrands, becaup. 
they saw there sand-hills and long and narrow 
shores, and it was " long to sail by." Thorfinn 
soon put two scouts on shore, who were ordered to 
explore the country to the southwest. They re- 
turned after three days, bringing some bunches of 
grapes and ears of wheat. Next the Northmen 
anchored in a deep bay, which they called Straumf- 
jord, on account of "its currents, and they then 
reached an island frequented by eider-ducks in 
great numbers. They named it Straumey, and it 
is supposed to be either Martha's Vineyard or Nan- 
tucket. They wintered at Straumfjord, and, re- 
solving to plant their settlement on its shores, 
landed their flocks, built booths, and spent the 
spring in cultivating the land, fishing, and explor- 
ing the country. But when the next winter came 
their resources were nearly exhausted, and Thor- 
finn was deserted by some of his companions. 
With his two remaining vessels he sailed for Leifs- 
budir, probably in Mount Hope bay, and estab- 




lished there the settlement of Thorfinnsbudir. One 
morning, about a fortnight afterward, lie saw the 
bay crowded with little boats, containing men of a 
blackish color, with flat faces and big eyes. They 
were the Skraelings (Esquimaux), say the sagas. 
They raised aloft long poles with which they made 
a hissing sound by moving them rapidly in the 
air. '• What do you think of this f " said Thorfinn 
to Snorre. " I think it means peace, and the 
white shield should be held up. So the white 
shield of peace was raised. The Esquimaux ap- 
proached, gazed curiously a moment on the North- 
men, and then disappeared behind the promon- 
tory. But they returned in the spring of 1009 
in such numbers that the bay looked to their 
eyes as if covered with lumps of coal. The whites 
traded with the natives, bartering red cloth for 
skins and furs, and, when the cloth was gone, 
Thorfinn directed the women to offer the savages 
milk porridge, which pleased them so well that 
they no longer wished for any other food, "and 
so, says the saga of Thorfinn, '"they carried in 
their bellies the results of a barter that the Scan- 
dinavians put carefully aside to load their ships 
with." Meanwhile, to be ready for a surprise, he 
surrounded the little colony with a palisade. In 
the autumn there was born to Thorfinn a son, who 
was named Snorre, and was in all probability the 
first child of European parentage born within the 
limits of the present United States. The Skrae- 
lings did not return until the beginning of winter, 
but they came then in larger numbers than usual, 
and laid down their merchandise before receiving 
the price of it, contrary to their custom. As soon 
as the milk porridge was brought to them they 

took up their 
bundles and 
flung them 
over the pali- 
sade. Profit- 
ing by the con- 
fusion that 
ensued, they 
rushed in and 
attempted to 
seize the arms 
of the Scandi- 
navians ; but 
as soon as they 
saw one of 
their number slain they took to flight, abandon- 
ing both merchandise and porridge. They re- 
turned in still larger numbers soon afterward, and 
the Northmen raised the red shield of war in reply 
to their fierce cries. There was trouble with the 
natives in the ensuing winter, hostilities began, and 
the Northmen, after fighting bravely for a time, 
fled, believing that they saw a host m their rear. 
They soon recognized that they had been the vic- 
tims of mirage, which, according to Prof. Edward 
Hitchcock, in his " Report on the Geology of Mas- 
sachusetts" (Amherst, 1833), still occurs on that 
coast ; but Thorfinn resolved to leave the country. 
First he explored the coast in the neighborhood of 
Mount Hope bay, visiting several harbors and 
making inquiries as to the productions of the soil. 
He is believed by some to have ascended the Poto- 
mac. He then passed the winter in Straurafjord, 
when the turbulence of his followers forced him to 
sail homeward. One ship was lost, so that of the 
three vessels that left Encsfjord in 1007 only that 
of Thorfinn returned in 1011. He carried his mer- 
chandise to Norway, where he was received with 
great distinction, but in 1016 he sailed for Glcem- 
bceland, in Iceland, where he spent the rest of his 

days. The illustration represents a ship of that 
period. The remains of such a ship were discov- 
ered in 1880 in a mound at Gogstad, Norway, and 
are now to be seen in a good state of preservation 
at Christiania. The erection of the tumulus is 
ascribed by antiquarians to the most ancient iron 
age, or the 10th century of our era — most proba- 
bly to the age of Harold the haired, founder of the 
Norwegian state. 

THORN, Frank Manly, superintendent of the 
coast survey, b. in Collins (now North Collins), 
N. Y., 7 Dec, 1836. He was educated at common 
schools in Erie county and at the Fredonia acade- 
my. After studying law he held the office of clerk 
of the surrogate's court in Erie county, N. Y., in 
1857-'60. Subsequently he was occupied with pro- 
fessional work and as a journalist until 1871, when 
he was chosen a member of the county board of 
supervisors, continuing as such until 1880, except 
during 1876. In July, 1885, he was appointed chief 
clerk in the bureau of internal revenue in Wash- 
ington, and a few weeks later was made superin- 
tendent of the U. S. coast and geodetic survey, 
which office he still fills. 

THORNBOROUGH, Sir Edward, English na- 
val officer, b. in England in 1758; d. 3 April, 1834. 
He held the rank of 1st lieutenant on board " The 
Falcon," one of the vessels that took part in the 
attack on Bunker Hill in 1775. He afterward en- 
deavored to take a schooner out of Cape Ann har- 
bor, but was wounded in the attempt. He was on the 
" Flora " frigate, which captured " La Nymphe " in 
1780, was promoted to the rank of commander for 
his gallantry on the occasion, and became post-cap- 
tain in the following year. He was wrecked in 
1782 in the "Blonde" while bringing a captured 
vessel into Halifax. He distinguished himself in 
subsequent campaigns, was thanked by the British 
parliament, and became admiral of the white. 

THORNBURGH, Thomas T., soldier, b. hi 
Tennessee about 1843 ; d. near White river agency, 
Wyoming, 29 Sept., 1879. He was graduated at 
the U. S. military academy, and promoted 2d lieu- 
tenant in the 2d artillery in 1867. At the open- 
ing of the civil war and prior to his admission to 
West Point he enlisted in the 6th east Tennes- 
see volunteers in 1861, and passed rapidly through 
the grades of private, sergeant-major, lieutenant, 
and adjutant. He took part in the battle of Mill 
Spring, Morgan's retreat to the Ohio, and of Stone 
River. As an officer of artillery he served in gar- 
rison in California (excepting a tour of duty at the 
artillery-school) until 1870, and as professor of 
military science at East Tennessee university till 
1873, having been promoted 1st lieutenant in April, 
1870. In April, 1875, he was appointed paymaster 
with rank of major, serving in that department 
until May, 1878, when he exchanged into the 4th 
U. S. infantry, with the same rank. He command- 
ed the post of Fort Fred Steele, Wyoming, until 
1879, when he was killed while in command of an 
expedition against the Ute Indians. 

THORNDIKE, George Quincy, artist, b. in 
Boston, Mass., about 1825 : d. there in December, 
1886. He was graduated at Harvard in 1847, and 
then went abroad, studying for some time in Paris. 
After his return to the United States he settled in 
Newport, R. I. He was made an associate of the 
National academy in 1861. His landscapes showed 
many of the characteristics of the French school, 
and James J. Jarves wrote of him : " Thorndike is 
so thoroughly French in style and motive that his 
pictures require naturalization before being popu- 
larly welcomed at home." His better-known works 
include " The Wayside Inn," " Swans in Central 




Park," " The Lily Pond." " The Dumplings, New- 
port," and " View near Stockbridge, Mass." 

THORNDIKE, Israel, merchant, b. in Bever- 
ly. Mass., in 1757; d. in Boston, Mass., 10 May, 
1832. He was educated in the common schools, 
on 30 Oct., 1776, was appointed captain of the 
privateer " Warren " by the government of Massa- 
chusetts, and made several captures during the 
Revolutionary war. When peace was concluded 
he engaged extensively in commerce with China 
and the East Indies, and also in manufacturing. 
His enterprises were all skilfully planned, and he 
soon became wealthy. He was elected to the 
Massachusetts convention that ratified the consti- 
tution of the United States, and for many years 
sat in the Massachusetts legislature. He settled 
in Boston in 1810, and in 1818 purchased for the 
use of Harvard the library of Prof. Christoph 
Daniel Ebeling, of Hamburg, which consists of 
4,000 volumes, and is remarkably rich in works on 
American history and antiquities. 

THORNE, Charles R., actor, b. in New York 
city, 11 June, 1840; d. there, 10 Feb., 1883. When 
a child he made journeys with his father and 
mother, who were popular actors, and managed 
travelling theatrical companies. The son made 
his first appearance on the stage in San Francisco 
at the age of twelve. He was afterward sent to 
learn a trade, but soon returned to the stage, and 
in 1862 began to acquire popularity. He was 
in China subsequently, and erected a theatre at 
Shanghai, which was moderately successful. Af- 
ter a visit to Egypt and a tour thence round the 
world, he returned to New York in 1873 and be- 
came a member of the Union square company. 
One of his best characters was Daniel Rochat, in 
Sardou's play of that name. 

THORNTON, Anthony, soldier, b. in the fam- 
ily homestead, Ormsby, Caroline co., Va., 1 Feb., 
1748; d. in Paris, Bourbon co., Ky., 21 Dec, 
1828. He was a thorough patriot during the 
Revolutionary war, and commanded a regiment 
of minute-men in the contest, being present at 
the head of his regiment at the siege of Yorktown. 
His brother Presley commanded a company of 
horsemen, and another brother was an aide to 
Gen. Washington. Col. Anthony raised a large 
family, whose descendants are scattered through- 
out the United States. His sword which he used 
during the Revolutionary war is still preserved 
by his grandchildren at Paris, Bourbon co., Ky., 
to which place he moved with his family in 1808 
and engaged in agriculture. — His grandson, James 
Bankhead, b. in Mount Zephyr, Caroline co., Va., 
28 Aug., 1806; d. in Memphis, Tenn., 12 Oct., 
1867, was the son of James B. Thornton. He rep- 
resented his district in the Virginia senate in 
1838-'40, and was one of the prime movers in the 
establishment of the Military institute at Lexing- 
ton, Va. He was educated at William and Mary 
college, and subsequently studied law, located at 
Warrenton, Fauquier co., afterward at Bowling 
Green, Caroline co., and in 1847 in Memphis, Tenn., 
where he continued to practise his profession. He 
was the author of a " Digest of the Conveyancing, 
Testamentary, and Registry Laws of the States of 
the Union " (Philadelphia, 1847), and a work on "As- 
signments," the manuscript of which was burned 
accidentally before its publication. While engaged 
in active practice he contributed to current litera- 
ture. In politics he was a Democrat, and in the 
civil war he was identified with the southern cause. 
— James Bankhead's son, Gustavus Brown, sani- 
tarian, b. in Bowling Green, Va., 22 Feb., 1835, 
was graduated at the Memphis medical college in 

1858, and at the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of New York in 1860. At the beginning 
of the civil war he served as a surgeon in the Con- 
federate army, and in 1862-'5 was chief surgeon of 
a division. In 1868 he was appointed physician in 
charge of the Memphis city hospital, and continued 
so until in 1879, when he became president of the 
Memphis board of health ; also since 1880 he has 
been a member of the Tennessee state board of 
health, both of which appointments he still holds. 
Dr. Thornton acquired reputation by his heroism 
and skill during the three great yellow-fever epi- 
demics in Memphis in 1873-8 and 1879. He is a 
member of various sanitary and medical societies, 
and was in 1882 president of the Tennessee state 
medical society. In addition to his official reports 
as president of the Memphis board of health, he 
has contributed numerous memoirs on sanitary 
subjects to the " Proceedings of the American 
Public Health Association " and to the transactions 
of other societies of which he is a member. These 
include "Yellow Fever, Pathology and Treatment " 
(1880) ; " Memphis Sanitation and Quarantine in 
1879 and 1880*' (1880); "The Negro Mortality of 
Memphis " (1882) ; " Sanitation of the Mississippi 
Valley " (1884) ; " Gulf Coast Quarantine " (1884) ; 
and " Six Years' Sanitary Work in Memphis " (1886). 

THORNTON, Sir Edward, British diplomatist, 
b. in London, England, 17 July, 1817. He is the 
son of Sir Edward Thornton, minister to Portugal, 
who was created Count de Cassilhas by the Portu- 
guese monarch, John VI. The son was graduated 
at Cambridge in 1840, and became an honorary 
fellow of Pembroke college, became a member of 
the diplomatic service in 1842 at Turin, was paid 
attache in Mexico in 1845, succeeded to the Portu- 
guese title in 1850, and in 1851 was appointed sec- 
retary of legation to the republic of Mexico. He 
was secretary to the special mission to the river 
Plate, under the late Sir Charles Ilotham, from 
April, 1852, till October, 1853, and in May, 1854, 
became charge d'affaires and consul-general in 
New Grenada, but was transferred to Uruguay in 
September following. He became minister to the 
Argentine Confederation in 1859, and was engaged 
on a special mission to the court of Brazil in July, 
1865, wher.e he was appointed minister in the Au- 
gust ensuing. In September, 1867, he was selected 
to represent England at the court of Portugal, but 
before he could take possession of the office he was 
transferred in December to Washington. He was 
made a companion of the Bath (civil division) on 
9 Feb.. 1863, knight commander on 9 Aug., 1870, 
and a privy councillor, 19 Aug., 1871. He was a 
member of the joint high commission on the " Ala- 
bama" claims in 1871, and an arbitrator of the 
American and Mexican claims commission in 1873, 
also of the boundaries of Ontario in 1878. He was 
transferred as ambassador to St. Petersburg, in 
May, 1881, and to Turkey in December, 1884, and 
was made a G. C. B. on 21 Aug., 1883. The degree 
of D. C. L. was conferred upon him by Oxford in 
1877, and that of LL. D. by Harvard in 1879. On 
1 Jan., 1887, he was retired with a pension. 

THORNTON, Eliza B, poet. b. in North 
Hampton, N. H., 23 July. 1795; d. in Saco, Me., 
27 July, 1854. She was a direct descendant of Gen. 
Daniel Gookin, and married James B. Thornton, of 
Scarboro. Me., on 20 Jan., 1817. Mrs. Thornton 
was for manv vears a contributor of poetry to the 
"Southern Literary Messenger," the "Christian 
Mirror," and other periodicals. Her best-known 
piece is "The Mayflower."— Her son. John Win- 
gate, historian, b.'in Saco, Me., 12 Aug., 1818; d. 
there, 6 June, 1878, was graduated at the Harvard 




law-school in 1840, and practised in Boston, Mass. 
He was a founder of the New England historic- 
genealogical society, and has been vice-president of 
the American statistic association and of the Prince 

{mblication society. He is the author of " Genea- 
ogical Memoir of the Gilbert Family in both Old 
and New England " (printed privately, Boston, 
1850) ; " Lives of Isaac Heath and John Bowles, 
and of Rev. John Eliot, Jr." (printed privately, 
Roxbury, 1850) ; " Mementoes of the Swett Family " 
(printed privately, 1851) ; " The Landing at Cape 
Anne, or the Charter of the First Permanent Colony 
on the Territory of the Massachusetts Company, 
now Discovered and first Published from the Origi- 
nal Manuscript, with an Inquiry into its Authority, 
and a History of the Colony, 1624-1628 " (Boston, 
1854) ; " Ancient Pemaquid : an Historical Review " 
(printed privately, Portland, 1857) ; " Peter Oliver's 
' Puritan Commonwealth ' Reviewed " (Boston, 
1857) ; " The First Records of Anglo-American 
Colonization: their History" (printed privately, 
Boston, 1859) ; " The Pulpit of the American Revo- 
lution, or the Political Sermons of the Period of 
1776, with an Historical Introduction, Notes, and 
Illustrations " (Boston, 1860) ; " Colonial Schemes 
of Popham and Gorges," being a speech at the 
Popham celebration (Boston, 1863); and "The His- 
torical Relation of New England to the English 
Commonwealth " (printed privately, Boston, 1874). 

THORNTON, James Shepard, naval officer, b. 
in Merrimack, N. H., 25 Feb., 1826 ; d. in German- 
town, Pa., 14 May, 1875. He entered the navy as 
a midshipman, 15 Jan., 1841, served in the sloop 
" John Adams " in the Gulf squadron during the 
Mexican war, and became a passed midshipman, 10 
Aug., 1846. He resigned from the navy, 9 May, 
1850, but was reinstated in 1854, promoted to 
master, 14 Sept., 1855, and to lieutenant the next 
day. During the civil war he served in the brig 
" Bainbridge " on the Atlantic coast in 1861, was 
executive officer of the flag-ship " Hartford " at the 
passage of the forts and batteries below New Or- 
leans, and in the engagement with the Confederate 
fleet, with the ram " Arkansas " and the batteries 
at Vicksburg, during which he served with great 
credit. He was promoted to lieutenant-commander, 
16 July, 1862, and had charge of the steam gun- 
boat " Winona " in engagements at Mobile, where 
he made a reconnaissance of Fort Gaines in sound- 
ing approaches under fire, and destroyed several 
Confederate steamers. He was the executive 
officer of the " Kearsarge " in the fight with the 
" Alabama," off Cherbourg, and was given a vote 
of thanks, and advanced thirty numbers in his 
grade for his gallantry in this victory. He served 
at the navy-yard at Portsmouth, N. H., in 1866-'7, 
was promoted to commander, 25 July, 1866, and 
commissioned captain, 24 May, 1872. 

THORNTON, Matthew, signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, b. in Ireland about 1714; d. 
in Newburyport, Mass., 24 June, 1803. When he 
was two or three years old his father, James, emi- 
grated to New England, residing for a few years 
at Wiscasset, Me., and afterward at Worcester, 
Mass., where the son received a classical education. 
He studied medicine in Leicester, practised in 
Londonderry, N. H., and soon became wealthy. He 
accompanied the New Hampshire troops in the ex- 
pedition against Louisburg in the capacity of sur- 
geon. He was appointed a justice of the peace, 
and before the Revolution was a colonel. Taking 
an active part in the overthrow of the royal govern- 
ment in New Hampshire, Dr. Thornton was chosen 
president of the Provincial convention when it as- 
sembled in 1775. He was chief justice of the court 

of common pleas, and from 1776 till 1782 a judge 
of the superior court of New Hampshire. He was 
elected speaker of the assembly on 5 Jan., 1776, 
and on 12 Sept. the legislature chose him as a 
delegate to the 
Continental con- 
gress. As in the 
case of the dele- 
gates from Penn- 
sylvania, he was 
allowed to affix 
his name to the 
engrossed copy 
of the Declara- 
tion of Indepen- 
dence, although 
he was elected 
after its passage, 
and did not take 
his seat till 4 
Nov., 1776. In 
December he was 
again chosen to 
represent New 
Hampshire in congress for another year. He re- 
moved to Exeter in 1779, and shortly afterward 
settled on a farm at Merrimack, relinquishing 
medical practice. He was elected a member of 
the general court, then a state senator, and in 1785 
was appointed a member of the council. From 
the adoption of the state constitution till his death 
he was a justice of the peace. He wrote political 
articles for the newspapers, even after the age of 
eighty, and in his last days composed a meta- 
physical work on the origin of sin, which was 
never published. In 1887 the legislature of New 
Hampshire voted $1,000 for a monument to be 
placed over his grave in Merrimack. 

THORNTON, Seth Barton, soldier, b. near 
Fredericksburg, Va., in 1814 ; d. in San Augustin, 
Mexico, 18 June, 1847. He was educated at the 
common schools, was of an active and adventurous 
nature, and after a narrow escape from death by 
shipwreck was appointed in June, 1836, 2d lieu- 
tenant in the 2d U. S. dragoons, serving with credit 
in Florida against the Seminoles, becoming 1st lieu- 
tenant in 1837 and captain in 1841. In command 
of his squadron he exchanged the first shots with 
the enemy in the Mexican war at La Rosia, 25 
April, 1846, and was severely wounded and cap- 
tured with the greater part of his force after a gal- 
lant resistance by 40 dragoons against 500 lancers. 
At the close of Gen. Winfield Scott's campaign, 
while at the head of his squadron in advance of 
Worth's division at the village of San Augustin, 
near the city of Mexico, Thornton was struck in 
the breast by a round shot and instantly killed. 

THORNTON, Thomas C, clergyman, b. in 
Dumfries, Va., 12 Oct., 1794; d. in Mississippi, 23 
March, 1860. He was educated in his native place, 
became an exhorter in the Methodist Episcopal 
church at the age of sixteen, and was received into 
the Baltimore conference three years later. In 
1841 he was appointed president of a college in 
Mississippi. He left the Methodist church in 1845, 
and attached himself to the Protestant Episcopal 
church, but returned to his former connection in 
1850, and in 1853 was readmitted to the Mississippi 
conference. He was the author of "Inquiry into 
the History of Slavery in the United States" 
(Washington, 1841), in which he replied to the anti- 
slavery arguments of William E. Channing, and of 
" Theological Colloquies." 

THORNTON, William, superintendent of the 
patent-office, b. in Tortola, W. I. ; d. in Washing- 




ton, D. C, in 1827. He was educated as a physi- 
cian, and lived for many years in Philadelphia, 
where he was well known in the circle of scientific 
men, being chosen a member of the American 
philosophical society on 19 Jan., 1787. He was a 
skilled architect, and designed the Philadelphia 
library building, which was completed in 1790. 
He removed to Washington, D. C, when the seat 
of government was transferred to that place, and 
drew the plans and superintended the erection of 
the first capitol building in its early stages. He 
was one of the first to act as commissioner of pub- 
lic buildings, and was the first head of the patent- 
office, being appointed superintendent in 1802, and 
serving till the time of his death. He published 
" Cadmus, or the Elements of Written Language " 
(Philadelphia, 1793). 

THORNTON, Sir William, English soldier, b. 
in England about 1775 ; d. near Han well, Eng- 
land, 6 April, 1840. He was commissioned as 
ensign in the British army on 21 March, 1796, 
and had risen to the rank of major in August, 
1807, when he was appointed military secretary to 
Sir James H. Craig, lieutenant-governor of Lower 
Canada. He returned to England in 1811, and in 
1813 was assigned to the command of the 85th 
regiment. He served in Spain and southern France, 
took part in the battle of the Nive, was afterward 
sent to this country, in May, 1814, commanded the 
brigade of light infantry that formed the advance- 
guard of Gen. Robert Ross's expedition up the 
Chesapeake, and was seriously wounded and made 
prisoner at Bladensburg. Being exchanged for 
Com. Joshua Barney, he went with the army that 
was sent against New Orleans in the following 
October, commanded the advance on the landing 
of the troops, took part in the chief operations, and 
in the general attack on the American lines com- 
manded a detached force on the west bank of the 
Mississippi, and was severely wounded. He at- 
tained the rank of lieutenant-general in 1838. 

THORNTON, William A., soldier, b. in New 
York state in 1803 ; d. on Governor's island, New 
York harbor, 6 April, 1866. He was graduated at 
the U. S. military academy in 1825, and assigned 
to the artillery. He was made captain of ordnance 
on 7 July, 1838, commanded the ordnance depot in 
New York and the Watervliet and St. Louis ar- 
senals, served on boards for the trial of small arms 
and cannon, and was inspector of contract arms in 
1858-'61. He was promoted major on 28 May, 1861, 
and was commander of Watervliet arsenal till 1863, 
and subsequently inspector of contract arms and 
ordnance till his death, being promoted lieutenant- 
colonel of ordnance on 3 March, 1863, colonel on 
15 Sept., 1863, and brigadier-general by brevet on 
13 March, 1865. During the last year of his life 
he was commandant of the New York arsenal on 
Governor's island. 

THORN WELL, James Henley, clergyman, b. 
in Marlborough district, S. C, in 1812 ; d. in Char- 
lotte, N. C, 1 Aug., 1862. He was graduated at 
South Carolina college in 1829, and entered upon 
the study of the law. which he soon abandoned to 
devote himself to the ministry in the Presbyterian 
church. He was chosen, in 1836, professor of logic 
and belles-lettres in South Carolina college, in 
1842 professor of the evidences of Christianity and 
chaplain, and in 1852 its president. In 1856 he 
became a professor in the Presbyterian theological 
seminary at Columbia. For a short time he was 
pastor of the Globe street Presbyterian church in 
Charleston. Dr. Thornwell was one of the ablest 
men that the south has ever produced. To logical 
and metaphysical faculties of a high order he 

added a fine literary style, and an easy and effect- 
ive address. He was an uncompromising cham- 
pion of the old-school Presbyterian theology, and 
in politics advocated extreme southern views. He 
was the author of several published sermons and 
addresses, "Arguments of Romanists Discussed 
and Refuted " (New York, 1845) ; " Discourses on 
Truth " (1854) ; " Rights and Duties of Masters " 
(1861) ; " The State of the Country " (1861) ; and 
numerous articles in defence of slavery and seces- 
sion in the " Southern Presbyterian Review." His 
collected works were edited by Rev. John B. Adger 
(2 vols., Richmond, 1874). 

THORPE, Rose Hartwick, poet. b. in Misha- 
waka, Ind., 18 July, 1850. When she was ten 
years old her parents settled in Litchfield, Mich., 
where she received a common-school education. 
Her most popular poem, the ballad entitled " Cur- 
few Must not Ring To-Night," was written while 
she was a school-girl. When it was published in 
a Detroit paper in 1870 it obtained a wide cir- 
culation. An illustrated edition has been issued 
(Boston, 1882). She married Edmund C. Thorpe 
in September, 1871. In 1881 she edited three Sun- 
day-school papers in Chicago, 111. Subsequently 
she settled with her family in Pacific Beach, San 
Diego co., Cal. Mrs. Thorpe has been a contribu- 
tor to journals and magazines since 1880. She has 
written " The Station-Agent's Story," " Remember 
the Alamo," and other popular poems. Her pub- 
lications include " Fred's Dark Days," a story for 
children (Chicago, 1881) ; " The Yule Log," a book 
of poems (1881) ; " The Fenton Family " (Philadel- 
phia, 1884) ; " Nina Bruce " (1886) ; " The Chester 
Girls " (1887) ; " Temperance Poems " (Pent Water, 
Mich., 1887) ; and " Ringing Ballads " (Boston, 1887). 

THORPE, Thomas Bangs, author, b. in West- 
field, Mass., 1 March, 1815 ; d. in New York city in 
October, 1878. He was for three years at Wesley- 
an university, and 
while at college 
gave evidence of 
literary and artis- 
tic talent. One of 
his earlv paint- 
ings, "The Bold 
Dragoon ."adapted 
from Washington 
lrving's story, was 
highly commend- 
ed. After leaving 
college on account 
of his health, Mr. 
Thorpe made a 
tour of the south- 
west, and finally 
settled in Louisi- 
ana in 1836. His 
first literary production of note, "Tom Owen, the 
Bee-Hunter," was widely quoted, and his next 
contribution to periodical literature — the mirth- 
provoking sketch entitled " The Big Bear of Ar- 
kansas "—placed him in the foremost rank of 
early American humorists. He was for a time 
editor of a Whig newspaper in New Orleans. In 
1844 he edited the " Concordia Intelligencer," and 
in 1846 established " The Conservator " at Baton 
Rouge, but sold the paper a few years later, and 
in 1859 became the editor and publisher of the 
New York "Spirit of the Times." Mr. Thorpe 
served in the Mexican war, and attained the rank 
of colonel. His contributions to periodical litera- 
ture, particularly " Blackwood's.' the " Knicker- 
bocker," and " Harper's Magazine," show versa- 
tile talent of a high order, and several of his 

c^Ccr^ yC/. c/z£oy£e. 




paintings, notably " Niagara as it Is," display 
ability. His published works include " Our Army 
of the Rio Grande" (Philadelphia, 1846); "Mys- 
teries of the Backwoods " (1846) ; " Our Army 
at Monterey" (1847); "Lynde Weiss, an Autobi- 
ography" (1854); "The Hive of the Bee-Hunter" 
(New York, 1854); "A Voice to America" (1855); 
"Scenes in Arkansaw" (1858); and "Reminis- 
cences of Charles L. Elliott." 

THORVALD. Ericsson, Scandinavian navi- 
gator, d. in Massachusetts in 1004. He was the 
brother of Leif, the son of Eric the Red, who per- 
suaded him to visit Vinland, giving him the ship 
that he had bought from Biarn Hermlfson, and 
many wise directions as to his course. Thorvald 
selected thirty men, and sailed westward in 1002. 
He reached what has been thought to be the coast 
of Rhode Island, and passed the winter in Leifs- 
budir (Leif's house), some wooden huts which Leif 
is supposed to have built at the mouth of Pocasset 
river, near the present site of Providence. In the 
spring of 1003 he went on a voyage of discovery 
along the southern coast. His men saw a lovely 
country covered with forests, which were separated 
from the shore only by a thin border of white sand. 
The sea was enaAelled with little islands, in one of 
which they discovered a wooden barn. The others 
appeared without any trace of men or animals. 
After obtaining a glimpse of an island that lay 
toward the west, supposed to be Long Island, they 
returned in the autumn to Leifsbudir. In the fol- 
lowing summer Thorvald determined to explore 
the northern coast, but a violent storm damaged 
the keel of his ship. He stopped for some time, 
refitting in the neighborhood, and when about to 
put to sea he said to his companions: "Let us 
raise on this point of land the keel of a ship, and 
let us call it Kialarnes " (Keel cape). Rafn, Kohl, 
and other scholars that are interested in the ante- 
Columbian discovery of the American continent, 
think that the Kialarnes of Thorvald is Cape Cod. 
Then Thorvald sailed westward and anchored near 
a promontory, which has been supposed to be 
Gurnet point or Cape Alderton. The country ap- 
peared so beautiful that after landing he said : 
" This country is very fine ; I would like to build 
my house here." After returning to the vessel, the 
Northmen saw three dark points on the beach that 
looked like hillocks. They were three " carabos " 
(canoes of wickerwork, covered with skins), each 
containing three men. The Northmen seized and 
killed eight of the savages, but the ninth escaped. 
Thorvald then landed, explored the promontory, 
and discovered elevations, which he took for hu- 
man habitations. The Northmen returned to their 
vessel at nightfall, but they were soon awakened 
from their sleep by cries of vengeance. The vessel 
was surrounded by a crowd of canoes that came 
to exact reparation for the assassinations of the 
morning. They were manned by the Skrsellings, 
or Esquimaux, who appear to have dwelt at that 
time farther south than they did in the 16th cen- 
tury. These savages discharged a shower of ar- 
rows on the Northmen, and fled. Thorvald asked 
his companions if they were wounded, and all re- 
plied in the negative. " But I am," he said ; " this 
arrow, after rebounding from my buckler, entered 
under the armpit. I advise you to depart quickly 
from this land and leave me on the promontory 
where I wished to build my house. I have pro- 
phesied my destiny, for there shall I dwell. You 
shall bury me in this place, and put two crosses 
on my tomb, one at my head and the other at my 
feet, so that henceforward this promontory shall 
be called Krossarnes " (Promontory of the Crosses). 

A skeleton was discovered late in the 18th cen- 
tury on Rainsford island, and with it the hilt of 
an iron sword. Some antiquarians have conclud- 
ed that the skeleton was that of an ancient Scan- 
dinavian, and that the workmanship of the hi!t 
proved it to be not later than the 15th century. 
After the burial of Thorvald, the Northmen re- 
turned to Leifsbudir, and in 1005 sailed for Green- 
land. See " Decouverte de 1'Amerique par les Nor- 
mands au X e siecle," by Gabriel Gravier (Paris, 
1874) ; " Antiquitates Americana?," by Carl Chris- 
tian Rafn (Copenhagen,' 1837); " Denkmaler Gron- 
lands," by the same (3 vols., 1838-'45) ; " Etude sur 
les rapports de 1'Amerique et de l'ancien continent 
avant Christophe Colomb," by M. Gaffarel (Paris, 
1869) ; " Historia Vinlandiae Antiquae," by Th. 
Torfaeus (Copenhagen, 1711); " The Heimskringla 
of Snorre Sturlesons, or Chronicles of the Kings of 
Norway," translated into English by Samuel Laing 
(London, 1844) ; and " Discovery of America by 
Northmen," by Eben N. Horsford (Boston, 1888). 

THRASHER, John S., journalist, b. in Port- 
land, Me,, in 1817; d. in Galveston, Tex., 10 Nov., 
1879. While he was a youth his parents removed 
to Havana, Cuba, where he followed for some time 
a successful mercantile career, but abandoned it 
for journalism, purchasing, in 1849, the " Faro In- 
dustrial," which was then the only Liberal news- 
paper. In September, 1851, his paper was sup- 
pressed, and he was condemned by court-martial to 
ten years' imprisonment with hard labor at Ceuta 
and perpetual banishment from Cuba. After sev- 
eral months the U. S. minister at Madrid secured 
his release. He afterward established in New Or- 
leans a Sunday journal called the " Beacon of Cuba," 
and in 1853-'5 was an active member of the junta 
that organized a filibustering expedition to be led 
by Gen. John A. Quitman. When the U. S. au- 
thorities prevented the departure of this expedi- 
tion, Thrasher went to New York city. For sev- 
eral years he travelled in Central and South Ameri- 
ca as a newspaper correspondent, and edited the 
" Noticioso de Nuevo York," a journal devoted to 
the interests of Spanish- American countries. Mar- 
rying a lady whose property was in Texas, he re- 
moved to the south, and remained there during 
the civil war, acting as agent for the associated 
press at Atlanta. After the war he edited for 
several years Frank Leslie's " Ilustracion Ameri- 
cana " in New York city, and afterward resided in 
Galveston. He published a translation of Alexan- 
der von Humboldt's " Personal Narrative of Trav- 
els," with notes and an introductory essay (New 
York, 1856), also many essays on the social, com- 
mercial, and political conditions of Cuba. 

THROCKMORTON, James Webb, governor 
of Texas, b. in Sparta, Tenn., 1 Feb., 1825. He 
accompanied his father to Texas in 1841, became 
a lawyer, and entered the legislature in 1851, serv- 
ing continuously in one branch or the other till 
the beginning of the civil war. He was a member 
of the convention that passed the ordinance of se- 
cession, against which he voted, with six others, 
but he joined the Confederate army in the spring 
of 1861, and served as a captain, and afterward as 
a major till November, 1863, when he resigned in 
order to take his seat again in the state senate. In 
1864 he was appointed a brigadier-general of state 
troops, and in May, 1864, was placed by the state 
military authorities in command on the north- 
western border of Texas, where he made treaties 
with the Comanches, Cheyennes, and other tribes, 
returning from the plains in June, 1865, after Lee's 
surrender at Appomattox. He was a member of 
the Constitutional convention that was called in 




accordance with President. Johnson's proclamation 
in 1865, and was elected its president. In 1866 he 
was chosen governor for four years, but in 1867 
he was removed from office by Gen. Philip H. 
Sheridan's orders. He was elected to congress, 
taking his seat on 6 Dec, 1875, and served through 
two terms. On 3 Dec, 1883, he re-entered the 
house, and in 1885 he was re-elected. 

THROOP, Enos Thompson (troop), governor 
of New York, b. in Johnstown, Montgomery co., 
N. Y., 21 Aug., 1784 ; d. on his estate of Willow- 
brook, near Auburn. N. Y*., 1 Nov., 1874. lie re- 
ceived a classical education, studied law at Al- 
bany, and was admitted to the bar in 1806. Dur- 
ing his residence at 
Albany, he became 
acquainted with Mar- 
tin Van Buren, then 
also a law-student, 
and this acquaint- 
ance ripened into 
friendship. After ad- 
mission tothe bar, Mr. 
Throop began prac- 
tice at Auburn, soon 
became active in poli- 
tics as a member of 
the Republican par- 
ty, and was appoint- 
ed postmaster of the 
village, and in 1811 
county clerk of Ca- 
yuga county. In 1814 
he was elected a mem- 
ber of congress, as a 
supporter of the war measures of the administra- 
tion. He took part in the debates upon the impor- 
tant measures to which the close of the war and the 
grostration of public and private credit gave rise. 
[e also supported and voted for the act changing 
the compensation of congressmen from six dollars a 
day to $1,800 per annum, a course which temporari- 
ly clouded his political fortunes. Popular dissatis- 
faction with his action was such that he was defeated 
at the election of 1816, which was held in April of 
that year, and thereupon resigned his seat for the 
remainder of his unexpired term. In April, 1823, 
he was appointed one of the eight circuit judges 
for which the constitution of 1821 provided. In 

1828, induced chiefly by the solicitation of Martin 
Van Buren, Judge Throop consented to be placed 
upon the state ticket, as the Democratic candidate 
for lieutenant-governor, with Mr. Van Buren as 
the candidate for governor, a step which rendered 
it necessary for him to resign his judicial office. It 
was expected that Andrew Jackson would be elect- 
ed president at the same election, in which event 
Van Buren would be made secretary of state ; and 
the latter desired to leave the office of governor and 
the leadership of the party in the hands of a friend. 
These expectations were fulfilled, and Mr. Throop 
succeeded to the office of governor on 12 March, 

1829. He was re-elected governor in 1830. Dur- 
ing his first term the construction of the Chenango 
canal became one of the chief questions of state 
policy. He declared himself, in his message to the 
legislature, unalterably opposed to the plan. This 
step raised such a vehement opposition to him in 
the localities through which the proposed canal 
would pass, that in 1832 he declined to be present- 
ed as a candidate for a third term. In 1833 he 
was appointed by President Jackson naval officer 
at the port of New York, which office he held un- 
til 1838, when President Van Buren appointed him 
charge d'affaires of the United States to the king- 

dom of the Two Sicilies (Naples), where he remained 
until he was superseded in 1842. After spend- 
ing two years in Paris, he returned to the United 
States, and resided upon an estate on the banks of 
Owasco lake near Auburn, N. Y. In 1847 he 
removed to Michigan, where he purchased a farm 
of 800 acres, and became noted among agricul- 
turists. Advancing years compelled him to give 
up farming, and in 1857 he returned to his former 
home, removing in 1868 to New York city, but a 
few years later again returning to his residence 
near Auburn.— His nephew, Montgomery Hunt, 
lawyer, b. in Auburn, N. Y., 26 Jan., 1827, was 
educated in Geneva, Switzerland, and Naples, Italy, 
and at Hobart college ; studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1848. He practised in Utica, 
N. Y., from 1851 till 1864, first in partnership with 
his uncle, Ward Hunt, and after 1856 with Roscoe 
Conkling, then in New York city till 1870, when 
he was appointed a commissioner to revise the 
statutes of the state. He acted as chairman of 
the commission, which prepared the New York 
code of civil procedure that was enacted partly in 
1877 and partly in 1880. Since 1878, when the 
codification was ended, Mr. Throop has devoted 
himself to legal authorship, changing his residence 
in 1880 from New York city to Albany. He has 
published " The Future : a Political Essay " (New 
York, 1864) ; " Treatise on the Validity of Verbal 
Agreements " (Albany. 1870) ; " Annotated Code of 
Civil Procedure " (1880) ; " The New York Justice's 
Manual " (1880) ; " Digest of the Decisions of the 
Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts " (1887) ; 
and " Revised Statutes of the State of New York " 
(8th ed., 1888). 

THRUSTON, Charles Mynn (throo'-ston), sol- 
dier, b. in Gloucester county, Va., in 1738; d. near 
New Orleans, La., in 1812. He was educated at 
William and Mary college, and after prosecuting 
his theological studies in England was ordained to 
the ministry of the Episcopal church in Gloucester 
county. Subsequently he removed to Clarke coun- 
ty, and officiated in a church, near Shenandoah 
river, that is still standing. At the beginning of 
the Revolution he raised a company, was commis- 
sioned as captain, and badly wounded at Trenton. 
On his recovery he was appointed colonel, being 
known as the " warrior parson." After the war he 
was a judge and a member of the legislature, and 
in 1808 removed to Louisiana. — His son, Buckner, 
jurist, b. near Winchester, Va., in 1763 : d. in Wash- 
ington, D. C, 30 Aug., 1845, received a classical 
education, emigrated in early life to Kentucky, 
and there studied law and was admitted to the bar. 
He practised in Frankfort, taking an active part 
in public affairs, and was elected U. S. senator in 
1805, declining the post of U. S. judge of the terri- 
tory of Orleans, to which he had been appointed 
immediately before. On 1 July, 1809, he resigned 
his seat in the senate to accept the appointment 
of U. S. judge for the District of Columbia, which 
office he held until his death. — Buckner's son, 
Charles Mynn, soldier, b. in Lexington, Ky., 22 
Feb., 1789; d. in Cumberland, Md., 18 Feb., 1873, 
entered the U. S. military academy in 1813, and in 
July, 1814, was commissioned as lieutenant of ar- 
tillery, and assigned to duty on Governor's island, 
New York harbor, where he was engaged in erect- 
ing fortifications till the close of the war with 
Great Britain. He became adjutant of his regi- 
ment in 1821, and during the Florida war in 1835-6 
was acting adjutant-general of the Florida army. 
Resigning on 31 Aug., 1836, he settled on a farm 
at Cumberland, Md. He became president of a bank 
in 1838, and mayor in 1861. At the beginning of 




the civil war he entered the volunteer service as 
brigadier-general, and served in guarding the Bal- 
timore and Ohio railroad till April, 1862, when he 
resigned. — Buckner's grandson, dates Phillips, 
soldier, b. in Dayton, Ohio, 11 June, 1835, was 
graduated at Miami university in 1855, studied 
law, and began practice in Dayton, where he en- 
tered the volunteer service at the beginning of the 
civil war as a captain in the 1st Ohio infantry. He 
was promoted major and assistant adjutant-general 
on 4 Sept., 1863, and subsequently lieutenant-colo- 
nel, for special acts of gallantry at Shiloh and 
Stone River, and was brevetted colonel and briga- 
dier-general of volunteers for gallantry at Chicka- 
mauga. Since the war he has followed his profes- 
sion at Xashville, Tenn. He is corresponding sec- 
retary of the Tennessee historical society, has con- 
tributed articles on military history and other 
subjects to northern and southern magazines, and 
has in preparation an illustrated work on the 
mound-builders, describing recent discoveries in 
the vicinity of Xashville and elsewhere. 

THURMAN, Allen Granbery, statesman, b. 
in Lynchburg, Va., 13 Xov., 1813. His father was 
the Rev. Pleasant Thurman, a minister of the 
Methodist church, and his mother the only daugh- 
ter of Col. Xathan- 
iel Allen, nephew 
and adopted son of 
Joseph Hewes, one 
of the signers of the 
Declaration of In- 
dependence. His 
parents removed to 
Chillicothe in 1819, 
and he made that 

Elace his home until 
e settled in Colum- 
bus, in 1853, where 
he has since resided. 
His education was 
in the Chillicothe 
academy, and at the 
hands of his mother. 
At the age of eight- 
een he assisted in 
land-surveying and 
at twenty-one he was private secretary* to Gov. 
Lucas, studied law with his uncle, Gov. William 
Allen, afterward was admitted to the bar in 1835, 
and in a few years was employed in almost every 
litigated case in Ross county. In 1844 he was 
elected by the Democrats to congress, and he en- 
tered that body, 1 Dec, 1845, as its youngest mem- 
ber. Preferring the practice of the law, he de- 
clined a renomination to congress, and remained 
at the bar until 1851, when he was elected to the 
supreme bench in Ohio. From December, 1854, 
till February, 1856, he served as chief justice, and 
on the expiration of his term he refused a re- 
nomination. His opinions, contained in the first 
five volumes of the state reports, are remarkable 
for the clear and forcible expression of his views 
and the accuracy of his statements of the law. 
In 1867 he was the choice of his party for gov- 
ernor of Ohio. Rutherford B. Hayes, his oppo- 
nent, was elected by a majority of fewer than 
3,000 votes, though the Republican majority in 
1866 was more than 43,000. Mr. Thurman was 
then elected to the senate to succeed Benjamin F. 
Wade. He took his seat, 4 March, 1869, and from 
the first was recognized as the leader of the Demo- 
cratic minority. He was a member of the commit- 
tee on the judiciary and on the accession of his 
party to power, in the 46th congress, he was made 



its chairman, and also chosen president, pro tem- 
pore, of the senate, owing to the illness of Vice- 
President Wheeler. In 1874 he was elected to the 
senate for a second term, and in his twelve years 
of service, ending 4 March, 1881, he won a reputa- 
tion for judicial fairness and readiness, dignity and 
power in debate, especially upon questions of con- 
stitutional law. Besides" his labor in the judi- 
ciary committee he rendered valuable service in 
the committee on private land claims. He was 
the author of the act to compel the Pacific rail- 
road corporations to fulfil their obligations to the 
government, since known as the " Thurman act," 
the passage of which he forced in spite of the 
combined influence of those companies. His ar- 
guments against the constitutionality of the civil- 
rights bills have since been sustained by the U. S. 
supreme court in language that is almost identical 
with that of his speeches. Efforts to secure for 
the rebellious states the most favorable recon- 
struction legislation, in which he vigorously per- 
sisted while in the senate, led to a charge that he 
had disapproved the war for the integrity of the 
Union. His true position he thus defined in a 
letter to a friend : " I did all I could to help to 
preserve the Union without a war, but after it be- 
gan I thought there was but one thing to do, and 
that was to fight it out. I therefore sustained all 
constitutional measures that tended, in my judg- 
ment, to put down the rebellion. I never believed 
in the doctrine of secession." Mr. Thurman re- 
tired from the senate not alone with the high re- 
spect of his partisan associates, but also with that 
of senators of opposite political views, one of 
whom, James O. Blaine, with whom he often con- 
tended in debate, says, in his " Twenty Years of 
Congress " : " Mr. Thurman's rank in the senate 
was established from the day he took his seat, and 
was never lowered during the period of his service. 
He was an admirably disciplined debater, was fair 
in his method of statement, logical in his argument, 
honest in his conclusions. He had no tricks in 
discussion, no catch-phrases to secure attention, but 
was always direct and manly. . . . His retire- 
ment from the senate was a serious loss to his par- 
ty — a loss, indeed, to the body." Gen. Garfield, 
before his election to the presidency, had been 
chosen to succeed Mr. Thurman in the senate; 
but the contest had not interrupted friendly rela- 
tions of many years' standing, and, as a mark of 
his regard, the new president, soon after his inau- 
guration, associated Mr. Thurman with William 
M. Evarts, of Xew York, and Timothy O. Howe, 
of Wisconsin, on the commission to the Interna- 
tional monetary conference to be held in Paris. In 
the Democratic national convention of 1876 Mr. 
Thurman received some votes as a presidential 
candidate. In 1880 the first ballot gave him the 
entire vote of the Ohio delegation, with consider- 
able support from other states. In 1884 he was a 
delegate-at-large to the Xational convention, was 
again put in nomination for the presidency, and 
stood next to Cleveland and Bayard upon the first 
ballot. In the convention of 1888 he was nominat- 
ed for vice-president by acclamation. See " Lives 
and Public Services of Grover Cleveland and Allen 
G. Thurman," by W. U. Hensel and George F. 
Parker (Xew York, 1888). 

THURSBY, Emma Cecilia, singer, b. in Brook- 
lyn, X. Y.. 21 Feb., 1857. She had her first in- 
struction of Julius Meyer, and subsequently studied 
with Achille Errani and Erminia Rudersdorff. 
In 1873 she went to Italy, where she studied for a 
short time under Francesco Lamperti and San 
Giovanni. On her return she sang in the Broad- 




way tabernacle, New York. In 1876 she made her 
first concert-tour with Patrick S. Gilmore's orches- 
tra, and in 1877 she travelled with Theodore 
Thomas. In the same year Maurice Strakosch 
signed a six-years' engagement with her, and un- 
der his management she made several tours in the 
United States and in Europe, meeting with great 
success. Miss Thursby has appeared only in con- 
cert and oratorio, and has rejected the most flat- 
tering offers that were made her while abroad to 
appear in opera. Her forte is sacred music, and 
in rendering the soprano parts of Handel's and 
Havdn's oratorios she is unexcelled. 

THURSTON, Asa, missionary, b. in Fitchburg, 
Mass., 12 Oct., 1787; d. in Honolulu, Hawaii, 11 
March, 1868. He worked at the trade of scythe- 
making till he was twenty-two years old, then fit- 
ted himself for college, was graduated at Yale in 
1816, and passed through the course of theological 
instruction at Andover seminary. On his gradua- 
tion in 1819 he was ordained as a missionary, and 
on 23 Oct. sailed with his wife for the Sand- 
wich islands. He established himself at Kailua, 
Hawaii, where he resided for more than forty years, 
retiring to Honolulu when incapacitated by paraly- 
sis for continued active work. He was a pioneer 
among the missionaries to the Sandwich islands, and 
instructed two of the kings while they still resided 
at Kailua. He also translated a large part of the 
Bible into the Hawaiian language. — His wife, Lucy 
Ooodale, b. in Marlborough, Mass., 29 Oct., 1795 ; 
d. in Honolulu, Hawaii, 13 Oct., 1876, was edu- 
cated at the academy in Bradford, Mass., and 
taught until she married and went to the Sand- 
wich islands. She left an autobiography which 
was completed by Persis G. Taylor, her daughter, 
and Rev. Walter Freer, and published under the 
title of " Life and Times of Mrs. Lucy G. Thurston " 
{Ann Arbor, 1876). — Their son. Thomas Gairdner, 
was graduated at Yale in 1862, studied theology, 
and returned to Hawaii, where he preached until 
the time of his death in 1884. 

THURSTON, John Mellen, lawyer, b. in 
Montpelier, Vt., 21 Aug., 1847. In 1854 his family 
removed to Madison, and two years later to Beaver 
Dam, Wis. He was graduated at Wayland uni- 
versity in 1867, studied law, was admitted to the 
bar in 1869, and in the same year removed to 
Omaha, Nebraska. He was appointed city attor- 
ney in 1874, and, while holding that office, was 
elected in 1875 to the legislature, in which he acted 
as chairman of the judiciary committee. He re- 
signed the attorneyship in 1877 to become assist- 
ant attorney of the Union Pacific railroad company, 
of which he became general attorney in 1888. In 
1875 he was defeated as a candidate for the district 
judgeship. He was a presidential elector in 1880, 
and in 1884 chairman of the delegation to the Na- 
tional Republican convention. , He was again at 
the head of the delegation in 1888, and was select- 
ed by the convention at Chicago for temporary 
chairman. His address in calling that body to or- 
der won him a national reputation as an orator. 

THURSTON, Laura M., poet, b. in Norfolk, 
Litchfield co., Conn., in December, 1812 ; d. in 
New Albany, Ind., 21 July, 1842. Her maiden 
name was Hawley. She was educated for the pro- 
fession of teaching at the Hartford female semi- 
nary, and taught in Philadelphia, Pa., and New 
Milfo'rd and Hartford, Conn., removed to New Al- 
bany in order to take charge of an academy, and 
in September, 1839, married Franklin Thurston, a 
merchant of that place. She contributed to news- 

{>apers and magazines over the signature of " Yio- 
a." Her poems, some of which were descriptive 

of nature and some didactic, were highly esteemed, 
and many of them are preserved in Rufus W. Gris- 
wold's and other collections of American poetrv. 

THURSTON, Robert Lawton, mechanical* en- 
gineer, b. in Portsmouth, R. I., 13 Dec, 1800 ; d. 
in Providence, R. I., 13 Jan., 1874. He early de- 
veloped talent as a mechanic, and on attaining his 
majority began to learn the trade of a machinist. 
His skill attracted the attention of John Babcock, 
who invited his assistance in the manufacture of 
an experimental steam-engine which was placed 
in a small ferry-boat for use near Fall River. Its 
success led to the construction of engines for the 
" Rushlight " and the " Babcock," which ran be- 
tween Providence and New York. He then en- 
tered the iron business in Fall River, but in 1830 
returned to Providence, where, with the son of 
John Babcock, he founded in 1834 the first steam- 
engine building establishment in New England, 
known as the Providence steam-engine company. 
They purchased the Sickles patent for the " drop 
cut-off" for steam-engines, and were the first either 
in America or in Europe to manufacture a stand- 
ard form of expansion steam-engine. For a series 
of years they were engaged in litigation with George 
H. Corliss, against whom they brought suit for in- 
fringement of the Sickles patent. This case, which 
was one of the most noted patent suits that was 
ever tried, called for the services of several of the 
most eminent lawyers and mechanical experts of 
the time. The Greene engine, which they intro- 
duced, is now claimed by many engineers to be 
one of the best of modern steam-engines. In 1863 
the unsettled condition of affairs resulting from 
the civil war, with incidental lack of business, led 
to Mr. Thurston's withdrawal. — His son, Robert 
Henry, mechanical engineer, b. in Providence, 
R. I., 25 Oct., 1839, received his early training in 
the workshops of his father and was graduated in 
the scientific course at Brown in 1859. After two 
years' experience with his father's company, he en- 
tered the U. S. navy as third assistant engineer, 
and served on various vessels during the civil war. 
He was present at the battle of Port Royal and at 
the siege of Charleston, and was attached to the 
North and South Atlantic squadrons until 1865, 
when he was detailed as assistant professor of natu- 
ral and experimental philosophy at the U. S. na- 
val academy in Annapolis, where he also lectured 
on chemistry. In 1870 he visited Europe for the 
purpose of studying the British iron manufactur- 
ing districts, and on 1 April, 1872, he resigned 
from the navy, after attaining the rank of 1st as- 
sistant engineer. Meanwhile, in 1871, he had been 
called to the chair of mechanical engineering at 
the Stevens institute of technology, where he re- 
mained until 1885, when he was appointed director 
of the Sibley college of Cornell university with the 
professorship of mechanical engineering. In 1871, 
on behalf of a committee of the American insti- 
tute, he made a series of experiments on steam- 
boilers, in whicih for the first time all losses of heat 
were noted, and. by condensing all the steam that 
was generated, the" quantity of water "entrained " 
by the steam was measured. Prof. Thurston was 
appointed a member of the U. S. commission to 
the World's fair in Vienna in 1873. and. besides 
serving on the international jury, edited the " Re- 
ports of the United States Commissioners to the In- 
ternational Exhibition, Vienna, 1873" (4 vols., 
Washington, 1875-'6), which includes his own spe- 
cial "Report on Machinery and Manufactures." 
He was a member of the U. S. commission on the 
causes of boiler-explosions, and of the U. S. board 
to test iron, steel, and other metals. His exten- 




sive knowledge of matters connected with mechan- 
ical engineering has led to his being called upon 
frequently to testify in court on disputed points as 
an expert. The degree of doctor of engineering 
was conferred on him by Stevens institute of tech- 
nology in 1885, and he is a regular, honorary, or 
corresponding member of various scientific and 
technical societies at home and abroad. He was 
vice-president of the American association for the 
advancement of science in 1877-'8 and 1884, vice- 
president of the American institute of mining en- 
gineers in 1878-9, and president of the American 
society of mechanical engineers in 1880-'3. Prof. 
Thurston has invented a magnesium burning-lamp, 
an autographic-recording testing-machine, a new 
form of steam-engine governor, an apparatus for 
determining the value of lubricants, and various 
other devices. He is the author of about 250 pa- 
pers, including contributions to " The Popular Sci- 
ence Monthly," " Journal of the Franklin Institute," 
"Van Nostrand's Magazine," "Science," "The 
Forum," and like periodicals, and addresses before 
scientific and other societies. His books are " His- 
tory of the Growth of the Steam-Engine " (New 
York, 1878) ; " Friction and Lubrication " (1879) ; 
"Materials of Engineering" (3 vols., 1884-'6); 
" Friction and Lost Work in Machinery and Mill 
Work " (1884) ; " Text-Book of the Materials of 
Construction " (1885) : " Stationary Steam-Engines 
for Electric Lighting Purposes " (1884) ; " Steam- 
Boiler Explosions in Theory and in Practice" 
(1887); and "A Manual of Steam Boilers: their 
Design, Construction, and Management " (1888). 

THURY, Pierre (tu-ry), French missionary, b. 
in BayeiiXj France, about 1650 ; d. in the Penob- 
scot mission. Me., or in Nova Scotia, 3 June, 1699. 
He studied for the priesthood in France, and, hav- 
ing volunteered for the American missions, went 
to Quebec, where he was ordained on 21 Dec, 1677. 
In 1684 he was sent by Bishop Laval to labor 
among the Indians of Acadia. After devoting a 
year to the exploration of the country, he founded 
the mission of St. Croix in 1685. In 1688 he was 
transferred to the Penobscot, where he gathered 
together an Indian colony at Panawaniske. His 
converts became noted for the fervor of their piety 
and devotion to the French, and in 1689 did the 
latter good service at the attack on Fort Pemaquid. 
He prepared prayers and hymns for their use in 
the Abnaki language. He was afterward sent to 
instruct the Indians of Nova Scotia. He returned 
to Maine and died there, according to some ac- 
counts, but others assert that he spent the rest 
of his life in Nova Scotia. See John G. Shea's 
"American Catholic Missions" (New York, 1854); 
Shea's " The Church in the Colonies " (1887) ; and 
Diereville's " Voyage " (Paris, 1708). 

THWAITES, Reuben Gold, antiquary, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 15 May, 1853. In 1866 he removed 
to Oshkosh, Wis., where he studied in the intervals 
of farm-work, and, after teaching for a year, be- 
came editor of a newspaper in 1872. Subsequently 
he took a post-graduate course at Yale. From 
1877 till 1886 he was connected with the " Wiscon- 
sin State Journal " as associate and afterward as 
managing editor, and conducted a news bureau at 
Madison. Having given much attention to the 
study of western history, especially that of Wis- 
consin, he was elected in 1887 corresponding secre- 
tary of the Wisconsin historical society, and editor 
of its publications. He is the author of " Historic 
Waterways: Six Hundred Miles of Canoeing down 
Rock, Fox, and Wisconsin Rivers" (Chicago, 1888). 

THWING, Charles Franklin (twing), clergy- 
man, b. in New Sharon, Me., 9 Nov., 1853. He was 

graduated at Harvard in 1876 and at Andover theo- 
logical seminary in 1879, and was pastor of a Congre- 
gational church in Cambridge, Mass., till 1886. when 
he took charge of the Plymouth church in Minneap- 
olis, Minn. He received the degree of D. D. from 
Chicago theological seminary in 1888. Dr. Thwing, 
who is associate editor of the " Bibliotheca Sacra," 
has been a contributor to magazines, and has pub- 
lished many sermons, and, in book-form, " Ameri- 
can Colleges : their Students and Work " (New 
York, 1878); "Reading of Books: its Pleasures, 
Profits, and Perils" (Boston, 1883) ; in collaboration 
with Mrs. Carrie F. Butler-Thwing, " The Familv : 
an Historical and Social Study " (1886) ; and " The 
Working Church" (New York, 1888). 

T1BBITS, George, merchant, b. in Warwick, 
R. I., 14 Jan., 1763; d. in Troy, N. Y., 19 July, 
1849. He established himself in business at Lan- 
singburg, N. Y., at the age of twenty-one, and in 
1797 removed to Troy. He was a member of the 
legislature in 1800, and two years later was 
elected to congress, serving from 17 Oct., 1803, till 
3 March, 1805. From 1815 till 1818 he sat in the 
state senate, and he was the author of the financial 
plan that was adopted for raising means to build 
the Erie canal. In 1816 he was defeated as the 
Federalist candidate for lieutenant-governor. In 
1824 he was a member of a commission on state 
prisons which reported in favor of the Auburn sys- 
tem, and during the next five years he acted on the 
commission that had charge of the construction 
of Sing Sing prison, and remedied abuses in the 
management of penitentiaries. From 1830 till 1836 
he was mayor of Troy. He delivered addresses on 
agricultural subjects, and was one of the earliest 
American advocates of the economical policy of 
protection in essays that appeared in the Philadel- 

Bhia "Inquirer" over the signature of "Cato." 
[e published also "Memoir on Home Markets" 
(Philadelphia, 1827) and "Finances of the Canal 
Fund of the State of New York Examined " (Al- 
bany, 1829). — His grandson, William Badger, 
soldier, b. in Hoosick, N. Y., 31 March, 1837; d. in 
Troy, N. Y., 10 Feb., 1880, was graduated at Union 
in 1859, began the study of law, and engaged in 
manufacturing. At President Lincoln's first call 
for troops he recruited a company, and was mus- 
tered into the service as captain on 14 May, 1861. 
He was engaged at Big Bethel, Fair Oaks, Malvern 
Hill, Bristow Station, and the second battle of Bull 
Run, was promoted major of the 2d New York vol- 
unteer infantry on 13 Oct., 1862, participated in 
the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, 
and, when his term of service expired, raised a regi- 
ment that was called the Griswold light cavalry, of 
which he was made colonel, his commission dating 
from 20 Nov., 1863. He served under Gen. Julius 
Stahel, first encountering the enemy at New Mar- 
ket on 15 May, 1864. He was present at Piedmont 
on 5 June, was constantly engaged during the 
following three months, taking part in numerous 
actions, and was brevetted brigadier-general of 
volunteers on 17 Nov. At the close of the war he 
was ordered to the west with his command. He 
was brevetted major-general of volunteers on 13 
March, 1865, commissioned as brigadier-general on 
18 Oct., 1865, and mustered out on 15 Jan., 1866, 
returning to Troy with health impaired by injuries 
received in the service. 

TICHENOR, Isaac, jurist, b. in Newark, N. J., 
8 Feb., 1754 ; d. in Bennington, Vt, 11 Dec, 1838. 
He was graduated at Princeton in 1775, began the 
study of law in Schenectady, N. Y., and in 1777 
was appointed assistant commissary-general and 
stationed at Bennington. He remained there, was 




admitted to the bar, practised law, and took an 
active part in public affairs, serving as a member 
of the Vermont house of representatives in 1781-'4, 
agent of the state to congress in 1782, a state coun- 
cillor in 1787-'92, a commissioner for the arrange- 
ment of the territorial dispute with New York in 
1791, and a member of the state board of censors 
from 1792 till 1813. In 1791 he was appointed a 
judge of the supreme court of Vermont, becoming 
chief justice in 1795. In the following year he re- 
signed to take his seat in the United States senate 
on 6 Dec, 1796. He was elected governor of Ver- 
mont, retiring from the senate on 10 Nov.. 1797, 
and was continued in that office by re-election till 
1807. In 1808 he was again elected governor and 
served one more term. In 1815 he was sent to the 
United States senate a second time, taking his seat 
on 4 Dec. of that year and serving till 3 March, 
1821. The degree of LL. D. was conferred on him 
by Dartmouth in 1789. 

TICKNOR, Caleb B., physician, b. in Salisbury, 
Conn., in 1805 ; d. in New York city, 19 Sept., 1840, 
He was educated for his profession in the Berk- 
shire medical institution, and adopted the homoeo- 
pathic system of medicine. In addition to many 
medical papers, he published " The Philosophy of 
Living, or the Way to Enjoy Life and its Comforts " 
(New York, 1836) ; " Popular Treatise on Medical 
Philosophy " (Andover, 1838) ; and " Guide to 
Mothers and Nurses " (1839). — His brother, Bena- 
jah, also studied medicine, and was a surgeon in 
the U. S. navy from 10 July, 1824, till his death, 
which occurred 20 Sept., 1857. 

TICKNOR, Elisha, educator, b. in Lebanon, 
Conn., 25 March, 1757; d. in Hanover, N. H., 22 
June, 1821. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 
1783, and was connected with various schools, be- 
coming in 1788 head master of Franklin grammar- 
school, Boston. After filling this post for several 
years, he resigned on account of his health. He 
made one of the earliest efforts to improve female 
education in Massachusetts, and originated the 
scheme for primary schools in Boston, proposing 
them at a town-meeting in 1818. He became a 
successful merchant in Boston, and founded the 
first insurance company and the first savings-bank 
in the city. In 1818 he presented a plan to pre- 
vent the causes and perfect the cure of pauperism 
in Boston. — His son, George, author, b. in Boston, 
Mass., 1 Aug., 1791 ; d. there, 26 Jan., 1871. From 
a very early age he 
showed a passion for 
reading, which, under 
the judicious nurture 
that he received at 
home, became still 
stronger as he grew in 
years. While yet a 
boy he passed his ex- 
amination for admis- 
sion into Dartmouth, 
where he took his de- 
gree in 1807. On re- 
turning home he gave 
three years more to 
his favorite studies. 

When he was nineteen 

\^r h? r~«. years old, Mr. Ticknor 
. O vQ/tVvAcnQ entered the office of a 
lawyer in Boston, and 
after the usual term of preparation was admitted 
to the bar in 1813. But he was satisfied that his 
vocation, or at least his taste, lay in the direction 
of letters rather than of law. His father's circum- 
stances were, fortunately, such as to enable the 

young student to consult his taste in the selection 
of his profession. In 1815 he went to Europe for 
study. Two years he passed at Gottingen, attend- 
ing the lectures of the university and devoting 
himself to philological studies, especially to the 
ancient classics. Two years longer he remained 
in Europe, chiefly on the continent, passing most 
of his time in the capitals, as affording obvious 
advantages for a critical study of the national 
literatures. During his absence he was, in 1817, 
appointed to fill the chair of modern languages 
and literature in Harvard. In 1819 he returned 
to the United States, bringing with him a valu- 
able library. This in time grew to be one of the 
largest private collections in the country, and, for 
the rarity and importance of the books, was unsur- 
passed, in some of its departments. This is espe- 
cially true of the collection of Spanish literature, 
which rivalled the best private ones in Europe. 
Mr. Ticknor, during his connection with the univer- 
sity, gave long and elaborate courses of lectures on 
French and Spanish literature. He also entered 
into a critical analysis of such writers as Dante. 
Goethe, Milton, and Shakespeare. The audience of 
the lectures, instead of being confined to students, 
was increased by persons without the walls of the 
college, who were attracted not merely by the in- 
terest of the subject, but by the skill of the critic, 
his luminous and often eloquent diction, and his 
impressive delivery. After holding his office for 
fifteen years, Mr. Ticknor resigned it in 1835, pre- 
paratory to another visit to Europe, where he pro- 
posed to spend several years with his family. His 
labors had been attended with signal benefit to 
the university. He was the first professor on the 
Smith foundation, and the duty devolved on him 
of giving a complete organization to the depart- 
ment, which includes several teachers. Moreover, 
during his connection with Harvard, he suggested 
valuable improvements in the system of discipline, 
for which he had derived the hints from the Ger- 
man universities. Finally, he had greatly extend- 
ed the range of intellectual culture among the 
students at the university, where literary instruc- 
tion had hitherto been confined to the classics. 
Mr. Ticknor was a founder of the Boston public 
library, and president of its board of trustees in 
1864-'6, and gave to it his Spanish library. Mr. 
Ticknor spent three years in his second visit to 
Europe, and after his return set about the prepa- 
ration of his great work. At the close of 1849 the 
" History of Spanish Literature " made its appear- 
ance in England and the United States. Hum- 
boldt, in a letter dated 19 June, 1850, shortly after 
its publication, pronounced its panegyric in a sin- 
gle sentence, declaring it " a masterly work." The 
judgment of the illustrious German was speedily 
confirmed both in Europe and in this country. 
The nature of the subject, it might be thought, 
would have restricted the demand for the book to 
a comparatively small number of readers. But 
the extent of the sales proved the contrary, con- 
firming the remark of the "Edinburgh Keview" 
(October, 1850), that, perhaps of all compositions of 
the kind, Mr. Ticknor's work has the most success- 
fully combined popularity of style with sound 
criticism and extensive research within its own 
department. The edition that was published in 
England met with the most cordial reception from 
the scholars of that country, while in Germany 
and in Spain translations soon appeared, under the 
auspices of eminent men of letters, who have added 
to the value of their labors by their own annota- 
tions. Although purporting to be simply a history 
of literature, the work exhibits vividly the social 




civilization of the peninsula; and, independently 
of its stores of bibliographical information for the 
use of the scholar, it will be no less serviceable 
to the student of history who would acquaint 
himself with the character and condition of the 
Spaniard, and see in what manner they have been 
affected by the peculiar institutions of the country. 
The first edition of the " History of Spanish Litera- 
ture" (3 vols., New York and* London, 1849) was 
followed by a second (3 vols., 1854) and by a third 
American edition, corrected and enlarged (3 vols., 
Boston, 1863). A fourth edition, containing Mr. 
Ticknor's last revisions, has appeared since his 
death. To these are to be added the following 
translations : " Historia de la Literatura Espa- 
fiola, por M. G. Ticknor; traducida al Castellano, 
con Adiciones y Notas criticas, por Don Pascual de 
Gayangos y Don Enrique de Vedia" (4 vols., Mad- 
rid, 1851-'7); *' Geschichte der schonen Literatur 
in Spanien, von Georg Ticknor ; Deutsch mit 
Zusatzen, herausgegeben von Nicholaus Heinrich 
Julius" (2 vols., Leipsic, 1852). Mr. Ticknor's 
great work was preceded by several minor publica- 
tions, including "Syllabus of a Course of Lectures 
on the History and Criticism of Spanish Litera- 
ture " (Cambridge, 1823) ; " Outline of the Principal 
Events in the Life of General Lafayette " (Boston, 
1825 ; London, 1826 ; in French, Paris, 1825) ; " Re- 
marks on Changes lately proposed or adopted 
in Harvard University " (Cambridge, 1825); "Re- 
port of the Board of Visitors on the United States 
Military Academy at West Point for 1826 " ; " The 
Remains of Nathan Appleton Haven, with a Me- 
moir of his Life " (1827) ; and other publications. 
He also published a "Life of William Hickling 
Prescott (Boston, 1864). See his " Life, Letters, 
and Journals" (2 vols., Boston, 1876). 

TICKNOR, George, journalist, b. in Boston, 
Mass., 14 April, 1822 : d. in Keene, N. H., 25 Dec, 
1866. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1847, 
studied law in Franklin, N. H., was admitted to 
the bar in 1850, and began practice in Hanover, 
but in the following year removed to Claremont. 
He was solicitor for Sullivan county from 1855 till 
1859, and about 1860 settled in Keene and pur- 
chased a large interest in the "New Hampshire 
Sentinel," which he edited during the remainder 
of his days. He published "Gazetteer and Bio- 
graphical Sketches of New Hampshire." 

TICKNOR, William Davis, publisher, b. in 
Lebanon, N. H., 6 Aug., 1810 : d. in Philadelphia, 
Pa., 10 April, 1864. In youth he was employed in 
the office of his uncle, Benjamin, a money-broker, 
and he afterward became teller in the old Colum- 
bian bank of Boston. He began the business of a 
Sublisher in Boston in 1832, in connection with 
ohn Allen, under the firm-name of Allen and 
Ticknor, successors of the old publishing-house of 
Carter, Hendee, and Co. In the following year Mr. 
Allen retired, leaving Mr. Ticknor to carry on the 
business for twelve years. This he did under his 
own name, which will be found on the title-pages 
of the early American editions of Tennyson and 
many New England authors. In 1845 John Reed 
and James T. Fields became his partners, and the 
imprint was changed to Ticknor, Reed, and Fields, 
but the legal firm-name remained William D. 
Ticknor and Co. during Mr. Ticknor's lifetime. 
On the retirement of Mr. Reed, in 1854, the style 
became Ticknor and Fields, continuing as such for 
about ten years. During this period the last-named 
firm purchased and continued to publish the "At- 
lantic Monthly" and the "North American Re- 
view." On the death of Mr. Ticknor his interest 
was continued in behalf of his son, Howard M., and 

James R. Osgood. Among the important events 
of this epoch were the establishment of "Our 
Young Folks " (1864), edited by Howard M. Tick- 
nor, and of "Every Saturday" (1866), edited by 
Thomas Bailey Aldrich. In 1868 the younger 
Ticknor retired, and a new copartnership was 
formed among the other members, under the firm- 
name of Fields, Osgood, and Co. In 1870 Benja- 
min H. Tick- 
nor was ad- 
mitted, and 
in 1871 Mr. 
Fields with- 
drew, when 
the firm be- 
came James 
R.Osgood and 
Co. In 1885 
it became 
Ticknor and 
Co., consist- 
ing of Benja- 
min H. and 
Thomas B. 

Ticknor and George F. Godfrey. From the be- 
ginning the publications of the house were char- 
acterized by intrinsic merit and by the neatness 
and correctness of their typography. The interests 
of American writers met with unusual considera- 
tion, and it became a mark of distinction for young 
writers to have secured them as publishers. Will- 
iam D. Ticknor was one of the first of American 
publishers to make payment for the works of for- 
eign authors, beginning with £100 to Tennyson in 
1842. The house always continued this custom, 
and it is probably not too much to say that its ex- 
ample did more than any other one thing to estab- 
lish a principle that is now so generally recognized 
and acted upon. For three decades the curtained 
office of their establishment in the quaint old build- 
ing at the corner of Washington and School streets, 
seen in the illustration, was the resort of Dickens, 
Emerson, Hawthorne, Holmes, Longfellow, Lowell, 
Sumner, Thackeray, Whipple, and Whittier. This 
building (the oldest but one now standing in Bos- 
ton), one of the landmarks of the city, was built 
immediately after the great fire of 1711, and was 
occupied for various domestic and mercantile pur- 
poses, at one time being an apothecary-shop kept 
by the father of James Freeman Clarke, until in 
1828 it became the book-store of Carter, Hendee, 
and Co., from whom it passed to Allen and Tick- 
nor. It remained in the hands of William D. 
Ticknor and his immediate successors until 1866, 
when increasing business required their removal to 
Tremont street ; but it is still a book-store. 

TIDBALL, John Caldwell, soldier, b. in Ohio 
county. Va. (now W. Va.), 25 Jan., 1825. He was 
graduated at the U. S. military academy in 1848, 
being assigned to the 3d artillery. He served at 
the various stations of his regiment until 1861, 
when, having attained the rank of captain, he was 
placed in command of a battery, and engaged in 
the principal actions of the Army of the Potomac 
from the battle of Bull Run until and including 
the battle of Gettysburg in 1863. During the lat- 
ter part of the campaign in Pennsylvania Capt. 
Tidball commanded a brigade of horse artillery. 
He was appointed colonel of the 4th New York 
volunteer artillery, 28 Aug., 1863, and commanded 
the artillery of the 2d corps of the Army of the 
Potomac during the Richmond campaign, includ- 
ing the battles of the Wilderness and the siege of 
Petersburg. He was commandant of cadets at 
West Point from 10 July till 22 Sept., 1864, and 




led the artillery of the 9th corps from 9 Oct., 1864, 
till 2 April, 1865, in the operations that terminated 
in the surrender of Lee at Appomattox. After he 
was mustered out of the volunteer service he com- 
manded his battery at the presidio of San Fran- 
cisco until his promotion in February, 1867, to 
major of the 2d artillery, thence serving in com- 
mand of the district of Astoria and Alaska, and 
the post of Raleigh, N. C, and as superintendent 
of artillery instruction at the U. S. artillery-school 
at Fort Monroe, Va., till January. 1880. He was 
then appointed aide-de-camp to the general of the 
army, with rank of colonel, serving until 8 Feb., 
1884. He became lieutenant-colonel of the 3d ar- 
tillery, 30 June, 1882, and colonel of the 1st artil- 
lery, 22 March, 1885, and has commanded the ar- 
tillery-school and post of Fort Monroe since 1 Nov., 
1883. In 1889 he will be retired from active service. 
He has received the brevets of brigadier-general of 
volunteers for gallant and distinguished services 
at Spottsylvania, major-general of volunteers for 
services at Fort Sedgwick, major in the regular 
army for Gaines's Mills, lieutenant-colonel for An- 
tietam, colonel for gallantry at Fort Stedman, and 
brigadier-general, 13 March, 1865, for gallant and 
meritorious services during the rebellion. Gen. 
Tidball is the author of a " Manual of Heavy Ar- 
tillery Service " which has been adopted by the 
war department (Washington, 1880). 

TIEBOUT, Cornelius, engraver, b. in New 
York in 1777 ; d. in Kentucky about 1830. At an 
early age he exhibited a taste for drawing, and 
while an apprentice with a silver-smith made some 
attempts at engraving on copper. In 1794 he en- 
graved several heads for William Duidap's " Ger- 
man Theatre." The next year he went to London 
to receive instruction in the art from James Heath, 
being the first American to go abroad to study 
engraving, and returned at the end of two years 
very much improved. He chose Philadelphia for 
his residence, and there he published his chief 
works. He worked in the stipple or chalk man- 
ner, and was an artist of no mean merit. Among 
his folio plates are portraits of Washington, Gen. 
Horatio Gates, John Jay, and Bishop White, after 
Gilbert Stuart ; and Thomas Jefferson, after Rem- 
brandt Peale. After accumulating some property, 
Tiebout engaged in business ventures for which 
he was not fitted by experience or education, and 
lost all. He then removed to Kentucky. 

TIERNAN, Luke, merchant, b. in County 
Meath, Ireland, in 1757 ; d. in Baltimore, Md., 10 
Nov., 1839. He came in 1787 to the United States, 
and settled first at Hagerstown, Md., but soon re- 
moved to Baltimore, where he engaged in the 
shipping business, being the first in that city to 
engage in the direct trade between Baltimore and 
Liverpool. He took a deep interest in the pros- 
perity of his adopted city and in politics. He was 
a Whig, and a warm personal friend of Henry 
Clay, who frequently visited his house, and spoke 
of him as the patriarch of the Whig party in Mary- 
land. He was a presidential elector, voting for 
John Quincy Adams in 1824, and one of the found- 
ers of the Hibernian society of Maryland, and for 
many years its president. In 1826-'7 he was one 
of a committee to urge upon the legislature of 
Maryland the incorporation of the Baltimore and 
Ohio railroad company, the first railroad company 
incorporated in this country, and he was also a 
member of the committee of the Washington 
monument of Baltimore. 

TIFFANY, Alexander Ralston, jurist, b. in 
Niagara. Upper Canada, 16 Oct., 1796; d. in Pal- 
myra, Mich., 14 Jan., 1868. He learned the print- 
vol. vi. — 8 

er's trade in the office of the " Canadian Constella- 
tion." published by his father, Sylvester, and re- 
moved with him to Canandaigua, N. Y., previous 
to the war of 1812. He studied law. was admitted 
to the bar, and practised at Palmyra, Wayne co.. 
N. Y., and became associate judge of the 'county. 
He removed to Palmyra, Mich., in 1832, became 
prosecuting attorney of Lenawee county in 1834, 
was elected judge of probate in 1836 and in 1840, 
county judge of Lenawee county in 1844, re-elected 
in 1848, and served until this court was abolished 
by the constitution of 1850. He was a member of 
the Constitutional convention of 1850, and of the 
legislature, where he was chairman of the judiciary 
committee in 1855. He published "The Justice's 
Guide" (Detroit, 1855); "Criminal Law" (1860); 
and " Form-Book for Attorneys in Michigan" (1860). 
TIFFANY, Charles Louis, jeweler, b. in Kil- 
lingly, Conn., 15 Feb., 1812. He received an aca- 
demic education, and then entered the cotton-mill 
of his father. In 1837 he came to New York city 
without means, and established with John B. Young 
a fancy-goods and stationery store at 259 Broad- 
way. The capital for the enterprise, $1,000, was 
lent to the 
voung men by 
Mr. Tiffany's 
father. They 
invested their 
money in va- 
rious novel 
goods, in- 
cluding Chi- 
nese curiosi- 
ties. Success 
favored the 
new house, 
and in 1841 
the firm be- 
came Tiffany, 
Young, and 
Ellis, by the 

admission of the latter as a partner. During the 
same year Mr. Young was sent abroad to select 
novelties and establish closer relations with Euro- 
pean houses. The firm moved to 271 Broadway 
in 1847, and then began the manufacture of gold 
jewelry. During the disturbances in Europe in 
1848, diamonds declined fifty per cent, in Paris, 
and, taking advantage of this, they made large 
purchases. In 1851 they began the manufacture 
of sterling silver ware. Various changes in the 
firm resulted in the establishment of a Paris 
branch, and the firm-name in New York became 
Tiffany and Co. The salesrooms were moved to 
550 Broadway in 1851, and during the civil war a 
large business was carried on in the manufacture 
of swords and similar articles. At the World's 
fair in Paris in 1867 their exhibit received the 
first award. The building which they now occupy 
on Union square was erected for their accommo- 
dation in 1867, and the firm was incorporated as 
a stock company in 1868. The products of their 
manufacture received the highest honors at the 
World's fairs in Philadelphia in 1876, and again 
in Paris in 1878. Mr. Tiffany has been honored 
with testimonials by foreign powers, and he has 
been decorated by the French and Russian gov- 
ernments. He is active in the affairs of New 
York city, and is a liberal patron of art. His resi- 
dence, among the finest in the country, is situ- 
ated on Madison avenue near Central park, and 
is represented in the accompanying illustration. 
—His son. Louis Comfort, artist, b. in New 
York, 18 Feb., 1848, studied under George Inness. 




and Samuel Colman, subsequently under Leon 
Bailly in Paris, and during five years travelled and 
sketched in Europe and Africa. In 1870 he be- 
came a member of the Water-color society ; the 
following year he was elected an associate of the 
National academy, and he became an academician 
in 1880. He is also a member of the Society of 
American artists. Among his works in oil are 
" Fruit- Vender, under the Sea- Wall at Nassau" 
(1870); "Market -Day, Morlaix," and " Duane 
Street, New York" (1878); and "Bow-Zarea, Al- 
giers." His water - colors include " Meditation " 
(1872): "Shop in Switzerland," "Old and New 
Mosques at Cairo," and " Lazy Life in the East " 
(1876); " Algiers " (1877) ; and "Cobblers at Bori- 
farik " (1878). He devotes much time to decora- 
tive work, and has furnished many cartoons and 
designs for windows for the Tiffany glass company, 
of which he is the founder. The interior work of 
his father's house in New York was executed under 
his supervision. 

TIFFANY, Osmond, author, b. in Baltimore, 
Md., 16 July, 1823. He was educated at Baltimore 
and studied at Harvard in 1840-'2, but was not 
graduated. He afterward engaged in mercantile 
and literary work, was ordnance clerk at the U. S. 
armory in Springfield, Mass., in 1862-'3, and pay- 
master's clerk in the U. S. army in 1863-'4, and 
has been custom-house liquidating clerk at Balti- 
more since 1869. He has contributed to periodi- 
cals and published "The Canton Chinese, or the 
Americans' Sojourn in the Celestial Empire " (Bos- 
ton, 1849) ; " Brandon, a Tale of the American 
Colonies " (New York, 1851) ; and " Sketch of the 
Life of Gen. Otho H. Williams " (Baltimore, 1851). 
He has edited " Patriarchs and Prophets of Bibli- 
cal Story " (Springfield, Mass., I860). 

TIFFIN, Edward, statesman, b. in Carlisle, 
England, 19 June, 1766 ; d. in Chillicothe, Ohio, 
9 Aug., 1829. After receiving an ordinary Eng- 
lish education, he began the study of medicine, 
and continued it after his removal to Charlestown, 
Va., in 1784, receiving his degree at the University 
;>f Pennsylvania in 1789. In the same year he 
married Mary, sister of Gov. Thomas Worthington. 
In 1790 he united with the Methodist church, and 
soon afterward he became a local preacher, being 
ordained deacon, by Bishop Asbury, 19 Nov., 1792. 
In 1796 he removed to Chillicothe, Ohio, where he 
continued both to preach and to practise medicine. 
At Deer Creek, twelve miles distant, he organized 
a flourishing congregation, long before that part 
of the country was visited by travelling preachers. 
In 1799 he was chosen to the legislature of the 
Northwest territory, of which he was elected 
speaker, and in 1802 he was president of the con- 
vention that formed the constitution of the state 
of Ohio. He was elected the first governor of the 
state in 1803, and re-elected two years later. Dur- 
ing his second term he arrested' the expedition of 
Aaron Burr, near Marietta, Ohio. After the ex- 
piration of his service he was chosen U. S. senator, 
to succeed his brother-in-law, Thomas Worthing- 
ton. and took his seat in December, 1807, but early 
in the following, year his wife died, and on 3 March, 
1809, he resigned from the senate and retired to 
private life. Shortly afterward he married again, 
and was elected to the legislature, serving two 
terms as speaker. In the autumn of 1810 he re- 
sumed the practice of medicine at Chillicothe, and 
in 1812, on the creation by act of congress of a com- 
missionership of the general land-office, he was 
appointed by President Madison as its first incum- 
bent. He removed to Washington, organized the 
system that has continued in the land-office till the 

present time, and in 1814 was active in the removal 
of his papers to Virginia, whereby the entire con- 
tents of his office were saved from destruction by 
the British. Wishing to return to the west, he 
proposed to Josiah Meigs, surveyor-general of pub- 
lic lands northwest of Ohio river, that they should 
exchange offices, which was done, after the con- 
sent of the president and senate had been obtained. 
This post he held till 1 July, 1829, when he re- 
ceived, on his death-bed, an order from President 
Jackson to deliver the office to a successor. Dr. 
Tiffin continued to preach occasionally in his later 
years. Three of his sermons were published in the 
" Ohio Conference Offering " in 1851. In a letter 
of introduction to Gen. Arthur St. Clair, Gen. 
Washington speaks of Dr. Tiffin as being " very 
familiar with law." 

TILDEN, , poet, b. in 1686 ; d. about 

1766. He was the author of " Tilden's Miscellane- 
ous Poems on Divers Occasions, chiefly to animate 
and rouse the Soldiers" (1756). This little volume 
of thirty pages was one of the first of the produc- 
tions that were written with a view to stimulate 
the soldiers in the French war. A copy of this 
rare book was in the library of George Ticknor, of 
Boston, and the whole of it appeared in the New 
York "Historical Magazine" for November and 
December, 1859, and January, 1860. 

TILDEN, Samuel Jones, statesman, b. in New 
Lebanon, N. Y., 9 Feb., 1814; d. at his country- 
house, Graystone, Westchester co., N. Y., 4 Aug., 
1886. The name of an ancestor, Nathaniel Tilden 
of Tenterden, yeoman, and that of Lydia, his wife, 
with seven chil- 
dren and seven 
servants, head the 
list of " such per- 
sons as embarked 
themselves in the 
good ship called 
the ' Hercules,' 
... to be therein 
transported to the 
plantation called 
New England in 
America," from 
the port of Sand- 
wich, England, in 
March, 1634. This 
Nathaniel Tilden 
had been mayor 
of Tenterden, as 

had been his uncle John before him. and as was his 
cousin John after him. He settled with his family 
at Scituate, whence the second generation of Til- 
dens migrated to Lebanon, Conn. To Isaac Til- 
den, the great-grandfather of Samuel J., was born 
at this place, in 1729, a son named John, who set- 
tled in what was afterward called New Lebanon, 
Columbia co., N. Y. Samuel J.'s father, Elam, the 
youngest of John Tilden's seven children, was born 
in 1781, and in 1802 married Polly Y. Jones, a de- 
scendant of William Jones, lieutenant-governor of 
the colony of New Haven. Eight children were 
born of this union, of whom Samuel J. was the fifth. 
The boy early developed great activity of mind and 
a remarkable command of language. His father, 
a farmer, who also carried on a mercantile business, 
was an intimate friend of Martin Van Buren, and 
the political controversy of the time was part of the 
very atmosphere of the Tilden household. In his 
eighteenth year Samuel prepared an address, which 
was adopted as a party manifesto by the Demo- 
crats, in regard to the issues of the pending state 
election. In the same year he entered Yale col- 

(yLn^l Q.jZo&zle^ 




lege, but almost at the outset his studies were 
interrupted by feeble health. He resumed them 
in 1834, when he entered the University of New 
York. Here he completed his academic educa- 
tion, and devoted himself to the study of law. 
While in college he wrote a series of papers in 
defence of President Van Buren's policy in re- 
gard to the United States bank. He made a more 
elaborate plea for the independent treasury sys- 
tem, as opposed to the union of bank and state, in 
a speech delivered to his neighbors at New Leban- 
on in October, 1840. 

On his admission to the bar, Mr. Tilden began 
practice in New York city, but continued to take 
an active part in politics. He was elected to the 
assembly in 1845, and while there was chairman 
of a committee appointed to inquire into the causes 
of the anti-rent disorders, and the masterly report 
on the whole subject of the great leasehold estates 
and their tenants was almost entirely his work. 
He was a member of the Constitutional convention 
of 1846. The three most memorable cases in which 
he was employed as a lawyer were the trial of the 
contested election of his friend, Azariah C. Flagg, 
as comptroller of New York city, the opposition 
on the part of the heirs of the murdered Dr. Bur- 
dell to Mrs. Cunningham's application for letters 
of administration on his estate, and the defence of 
the Pennsylvania coal company to the claim of the 
Delaware and Hudson canal company for payment 
of extra tolls. The hearing of the last-named con- 
sumed seventy days, and Mr. Tilden's argument in 
the case was a marvel of analytical ingenuity and 
constructive ability. Prom 1855, more than half of 
the great railway corporations north of the Ohio and 
between the Hudson and Missouri rivers were at 
some time clients of Mr. Tilden's. He was the 
author of many of the plans of reorganization 
that were rendered necessary by the early financial 
necessities of these companies. He took part in 
the Free-soil revolt within the Democratic party 
in 1848. In 1851 he made a strong plea for respect 
to the constitution in dealing with the question 
of improvements on the state canals. In 1855 he 
was the candidate for attorney-general on the 
ticket of the " Soft-Shell " Democrats. Through- 
out the civil war he maintained that the struggle 
against the Confederacy could be successfully 
waged without resorting to extra-constitutional 
modes of action. By 1868 Mr. Tilden had definite- 
ly assumed the leadership of the Democratic party 
in New York state. To the enactment of what 
was known as " the Tweed charter " of 1870, which 
confirmed the control of a corrupt ring over the 
government and revenues of New York city, Mr. 
Tilden offered the most determined opposition. 
To the side-partners of Tweed, the almost equally 
notorious persons who were engaged, by the aid of 
courts, in plundering the stockholders of the Erie 
railway, Mr. Tilden had made himself similarly 
obnoxious. He was one of the founders of the Bar 
association, which was an organized protest against 
the perversion of the machinery of justice accom- 
plished by judges George G. Barnard and Albert 
Cardozo and their allies. In the impeachment 
proceedings against these judges in 1872 Mr. Til- 
den's was the directing mind, and it was mainly 
for this purpose that he agreed to serve as a member 
of the assembly. On the exposure of the methods 
of plunder of the Tweed ring, which was made in 
the columns of the New York " Times " in July, 
1871, Mr. Tilden undertook, through an examina- 
tion of the bank-accounts of the chief members of 
the combination, a legal demonstration of the share 
of the spoil received by each, and the tables pre- 

sented with his affidavit furnished the basis of the 
civil and criminal proceedings brought against the 
ring and its agents. He threw all his energy into 
the prosecution of suits in the name of the state 

against the men who had seized the machinery of 
local justice, and he resisted successfully the efforts 
of the ring and the politicians in its service to re- 
tain their hold on the state Democratic organiza- 
tion in the autumn of 1871. In 1874 he was the 
Democratic candidate for governor, and was elect- 
ed by a plurality of 50,000 over Gov. John A. Dix. 
His special message to the legislature on the ex- 
travagance and dishonesty that had characterized 
the management of the canals made a deep im- 
pression. During his administration the new capi- 
tol building at Albany was begun (see illustration), 
which has cost $17,000,000, but is not finished. 

In June, 1876, the National Democratic conven- 
tion, assembled at St. Louis, nominated him for the 
presidency. (For an account of the election and 
its results, see Hayes, Rutherford B.) As finally 
declared, the electoral vote was 185 for Mr. Hayes 
and 184 for Mr. Tilden. The popular vote, as 
counted, gave Tilden 4,284.265 ; Hayes, 4,033,295 ; 
Cooper, 81,737 ; Smith, 9,522. Mr. Tilden was op- 
posed to the electoral commission, declaring his 
belief in " the exclusive jurisdiction of the two 
houses to count the electoral votes by their own 
servants and under such instruction as they might 
deem proper to give." From that time till the end 
of his life he was first among the leaders of the 
national Democracy, and the pressure for his re- 
nomination in 1880 became so great that his friends, 
who knew his fixed determination not to be a can- 
didate, appealed to him for a formal announce- 
ment of his resolution, addressed to the delegates 
from his own state. Four years later this declara- 
tion had to be repeated. His last important con- 
tribution to the history of his time was a commu- 
nication addressed to John G. Carlisle, speaker of 
the house of representatives, in regard to the ur- 
gent necessity of liberal appropriations for such a 
system of coast defences as would place the United 
States in a position of comparative safety against 
naval attack. Under the provisions of Mr. Til- 
den's will, the greater portion of his fortune (which 
was estimated at $5,000,000) was devoted to public 
uses, the chief of which was the establishment and 
endowment in the city of New York of a free pub- 
lic library; but the will was contested by his rela- 
tives, lie never married. His life was written 
by Theodore P. Cook (New York, 1876), and his 
writings edited by John Bigelow (2 vols., 1885). — 
Mr. Tilden's elder brother, Moses Y. (1812-76), 




was a member of the legislature in 1869, and be- 
came known by his persistent opposition to the 
Tweed ring. With his brother he built the Lebanon 
Springs railroad. 

TILGHMAN, James, lawyer, the Hermit- 
age, his family-seat, on Chester river, Bid., 6 Dec, 
1716; d. in Chestertown, Md., 24 Aug., 1793. He 
was the grandson of Richard Tilghman, an eminent 
surgeon of London, who was one of those that peti- 
tioned for the life of King Charles I. and who emi- 
grated to Maryland in 1660 and settled the Hermit- 
age, which has ever since remained in the posses- 
sion of his descendants. James studied law and 
entered on its practice at Annapolis, Md., whence 
he removed to Philadelphia about 1760. He was 
asked by John Penn in 1765 to become secretary 
of the land-office of Pennsylvania. Stipulating 
for a salary of £300 besides certain fees, he ac- 
cepted the post and held it until the Revolution. 
He was chosen a common councilman of Philadel- 
phia in 1764, and in 1767 became a member of the 
provincial council, which office he also held until 
the Revolution. At its beginning his views were 
liberal. He wished a repeal of the obnoxious acts 
of parliament, and thought the Boston port bill an 
outrage, but condemned the "Boston tea-party," 
and finally came to be regarded as a loyalist. On 
the approach of the British toward Philadelphia, 
he among others was placed under arrest by the 
authorities of the state and gave his parole. Per- 
mission was granted him, 31 Aug., 1777. to visit 
his family in Maryland and return within a month, 
before the end of which the British occupied Phila- 
delphia, so he remained in Maryland. On 16 May, 
1778. he was discharged from parole. — James's 
brother, Matthew, patriot, b. at the Hermitage, 
Queen Anne county, Md., 17 Feb., 1718; d. there, 4 
May, 1790, in 1741 married his cousin. Anne Lloyd, 
and was commissioned commander of a troop of 
horse for protecting the outlying settlements from 
the Indians, and also one " of the worshipful, the 
commissioners and justices of the peace for Talbot 
county." He was elected delegate to the general 
assembly of Maryland in 1751, and continued to be 
a member of the house of delegates until the pro- 
vincial government was superseded by the state 
organization. 5 Feb.. 1777. He was a member of 
the committee that was appointed in May, 1768, 
by the general assembly oi Maryland to draft an 
address to the king protesting against the stamp- 
act. He was speaker of the house of delegates in 

1 773-'5 and presi- 
dent of the Revo- 
lutionary conven- 
tion which from 
1774 till 1777 con- 
trolled the prov- 
ince and directed 
its government. 
He was the chair- 
man of the com- 
mittee on cor- 
respondence that 
was appointed in 
December, 1774, 
and of the coun- 
cil of safety of 
July, 1775, and 
/ * — 7^-— -^zZ was chairman of 

'^A>^2^ TO" delegation 
~/ J that was sent by 

the convention of 
Maryland to the Continental congress. In June, 
1776, he was summoned from his seat in congress 
to attend the convention at Annapolis, and was 

president of the convention that framed the first 
constitution for the new state of Maryland. This 
circumstance alone prevented him from attaching 
his name to the Declaration of Independence, 
which he advocated both at Philadelphia and at 
Annapolis. He continued to represent his state 
in congress until 1777. when he resigned to accept 
the post to which he had been elected as senator 
from Talbot county in the senate of Maryland. 
He was re-elected in 1781, but resigned before his 
term had expired. His wisdom, courage, purity 
of character, and ability won for him the name 
of the patriarch of Maryland, and his influence 
was second to that of no man in forming the in- 
stitutions and organizing the government of the 
new state. By his contemporaries he was consid- 
ered one of the firmest and ablest advocates of civil 
and religious liberty of his time. — James's son, 
William, jurist, b. in Talbot countv, Md., 12 Aug., 
1756; d. in Philadelphia, 30 April*, 1827, studied 
law under Benjamin Chew, after the family had 
removed to Philadelphia, and was admitted to. the 
Maryland bar in 1783 and sat in the legislature for 
several years after 1788. He began to practise in 
Philadelphia in 1793. was appointed chief judge of 
the U. S. circuit court, 3 March, 1801, but resumed 
practice when the law establishing the office was 
repealed in the following year. In July, 1805, he 
was appointed president of the court of common 
pleas in the first district, and in February, 1806, he 
became chief justice of the state supreme court. 
He was elected president of the American philo- 
sophical society in 1824. By direction of the legis- 
lature he prepared in 1809 a report of the English 
statutes in force in Pennsylvania. He published 
" Eulogium in Commemoration of Dr. Caspar Wis- 
tar," delivered before the Philosophical society of 
Philadelphia (1818), and "Address before the 
Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture " 
(1820). — Another son of James, Tench, soldier, 
b. in Talbot county, Md., 25 Dec, 1744; d. in Bal- 
timore, Md., 18 April, 1786, began life as a mer- 
chant in Philadelphia, but at the beginning of 
the Revolution became lieutenant in a company 
from Philadelphia that was known as the Ladies' 
light infantry. He was appointed secretary and 
treasurer to the commission that was sent by con- 
gress, 13 July, 1775, to treat with the Six Nations 
and other northern Indians, joined the army under 
Washington early in 1776 as captain of a company 
of infantry from Pennsylvania, and in August, 
1776, became military secretary and aide upon the 
commander-in-chief's staff. He served in this post 
to the end of the war, participating in all the 
principal battles, in which the army was engaged. 
On 30 May, 1781, he was commissioned lieutenant- 
colonel, to take rank from 1 April, 1777, having, 
with great delicacy, declined to rank from an ear- 
lier date to which he was entitled, because he 
would thereby take precedence of his seniors in the 
service. On the surrender of Cornwallis he was 
selected by Washington to bear his despatch to 
congress announcing that event. Leaving York- 
town, 19 Oct., he reached Philadelphia at midnight 
on 23 Oct., when his news that "Cornwallis is 
taken " was immediately proclaimed by the watch- 
man. He was voted the thanks of congress, a sword, 
and a horse with accoutrements, for this service. 
After the war he became a merchant in Baltimore. 
He married Anna Maria, daughter of his uncle 
Matthew. — William's cousin, Edward, lawyer, b. 
in Wye, Md., 11 Dec, 1750; d. 1 Nov., 1815, was 
educated in Philadelphia and studied in the Mid- 
dle Temple, London, in 1772-'4. He was for many 
years a successful practitioner at the Philadelphia 




bar, and on the death of Chief-Justice Edward 
Shippen the office was tendered to him. He de- 
clined it, but. recommended for the office his kins- 
man. William. — Matthew's great-grandson, Lloyd, 
soldier, b. in Talbot county, Md., in 1816; d. near 
Vicksburg, Miss., 16 May, 1863, entered the U. S. 
military academy, was graduated in 1836, and as- 
signed to the 1st dragoons. He became full 2d 
lieutenant, 4 July. 1836, but resigned on 30 Sept. 
and entered on the business of a civil engineer. He 
was division engineer of the Baltimore and Sus- 
quehanna railroad in 1836-7, of the Norfolk and 
Wilmington canal in 1837-'8, the Eastern Shore 
railroad of Maryland in 1838-'9. and the Baltimore 
and Ohio railroad in 1839-'40. He served in the 
war with Mexico as volunteer aide to Gen. David 
E. Twiggs at the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca 
de la Palma, and was captain of the Maryland and 
District of Columbia battalion of volunteers from 
14 Aug., 1847, until it was disbanded, 13 July, 1848. 
He then served as principal assistant engineer of 
the Panama division of the Isthmus railroad, and 
was engineer on southern railroads till 1859. He 
joined the Confederate array in 1861, was commis- 
sioned brigadier-general in 1862, and surrendered 
at Fort Henry in February of that year. He was 
exchanged in July, and killed at the battle of 
Champion Hill. — Tench, soldier, great-grandson of 
James's brother Richard, b. in Plimhimraon, Talbot 
co., Md., 25 March. 1810: d. in Baltimore, Md., 22 
Dec, 1874, was graduated at the U. S. military 
academy in 1832, and was assigned to the 4th artil- 
lery, but resigned, 30 Nov., 1833, and was a farmer 
at Oxford, Md., till his death. He was brigadier- 
general of Maryland militia in 1837-'60 and major- 
general in 1860-'l, state commissioner of public 
works in 1841-51, and superintendent of the mili- 
tary department of the Maryland military acade- 
my, Oxford, in 1847-'57. In 1849-'50 he was U. S. 
consul at Mayaguez, Porto Rico. He projected the 
Maryland and Delaware railroad, was unwearied in 
his efforts to build it, and served as its president in 
1855-'61. In 1858-'60 he was president of the Na- 
tional agricultural society. Gen. Tilghman was 
for many years at the head of the Maryland Society 
of the Cincinnati, and at his death he was also 
treasurer-general of the order in the United States. 
From 1857 till 1860 he was collector of customs for 
the port of Oxford, Md. — His kinsman, Richard 
Lloyd, naval officer, great-grandson of James's 
brother, William, b. in Kent county, Md., 20 April, 
1810; d. in 1867, entered the IT. S. navy as a mid- 
shipman. 27 Oct., 1830, promoted to lieutenant, 8 
Sept., 1841, and during the Mexican war served 
with Com. Robert F. Stockton in the Pacific in the 
" Congress " and " Cyane," and participating in the 
conquest of California, the capture of Mazatian, 
Guaymas, and La Paz, and in the operations inci- 
dent to these victories. He commanded the brig 
" Perry" on the Brazil station from 1857 till 1860, 
during the Paraguayan war. H e returned home 
during the excitement before the civil war, on 23 
April, 1861, resigned from the navy, and died soon 
after the close of the war. 

TILLEY, Jean Le Gardeur, Chevalier de, 
French naval officer; b. in Quebec, Canada, in 
1740; d. in Canada after 1792. His family were 
Canadian pioneers, and had served with credit in 
the wars against the Iroquois and the English. A 
Le Gardeur de Tilley was a missionary among the 
Illinois in 1660, and another was a member of the 
council of Bishop Laval Montmorency. A mem- 
ber of another branch. Le Gardeur de Saint Pierre 
(q. v.) was on Ohio river in 1753. Tilley entered 
the navy early in life and rose rapidly in the ser- 

vice, being a commander at the beginning of the 
war for independence. He served from 1778 till 
1783 under De Guichen, De Grasse, La Motte-Pic- 
quet and Vaudreuil, and commanded in a cruise 
along the Canadian coast, securing many prizes. 
In 1781 he was in command of the squadron that 
pursued Benedict Arnold in Chesapeake bay, and 
he took the " Romulus " and several transports. 
He was promoted knight of Saint Louis and 
brigadier-general of the naval forces after the con- 
clusion of peace, and rose afterward to the rank of 
chef d'escadre, commanding in 1789 the squad- 
ron at Rochefort. In 1791 he left France and re- 
turned to Canada, where he died. 

TILLEY, Sir Samuel Leonard, Canadian 
statesman, b. in Gagetown, Queen's co., New Bruns- 
wick, 8 May, 1818. His father was Thomas Mor- 
gan Tilley, and his grandfather, Samuel, was a 
loyalist, who, at the 
close of the American 
Re volution, left Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., and settled 
in New Brunswick, 
becoming a grantee of 
the city of St. John. 
The family is of Dutch 
extraction. Young 
Tilley was educated at 
the county grammar- 
school, but at the age 
of twelve he was 
obliged to leave his 
home and seek em- 
ployment. He went 
to St. John and en- 
tered a drug-store as ^"^ / 
an apprentice. After (^y^^P^'y 
duly serving his time v> 
he went into business 
on his own account with Thomas W. Peters. He 
joined a debating society, and became a warm and 
uncompromising exponent of the temperance cause. 
Throughout his life he has remained a total ab- 
stainer. In 1849 Mr. Tillev's name first appears in 
connection with the politics of his native province, 
when, espousing the side of the protectionists of 
that day, he nominated and aided in electing a 
candidate for the legislature. Toward the close 
of the year he took an active part in forming the 
New Brunswick railway league, which had for its 
object the construction of a line of railway from 
St. John to Shediac. At the general election of 
1850 he was nominated a candidate for St. John 
in the reform interest. In June he was elected to 
a seat in the house of assembly. In 1851, however, 
the Liberals experienced a serious reverse, two of 
the leading members of their party having desert- 
ed to the other side. Mr. Tilley and two of his 
friends resigned, and he did not return to public 
life until 1854, when his old constituency re-elected 
him. In November he entered the cabinet of the 
Liberal administration, and from that day to the 
present time (1888) he has enjoyed, save in two 
periods of a few months' duration, uninterrupted 
power as minister or governor. In 1856 he was 
beaten at the polls on the prohibitory liquor-law 
question, when his ministry made the subject a 
direct issue. The new government repealed the 
act, but was unable to maintain itself in office 
longer than a year, when, a dissolution occurring, 
the Liberals we're again returned to power, ami Mr. 
Tillev was reinstated in his old post as provincial 
secretary. Shortlv afterward he became premier. 
From June, 1857,' till March, 1865. Mr. Tilley re- 
mained leader. In 1864 he went to Charlottetown, 




Prince Edward island, to attend the conference of 
maritime parliamentarians, with a view to forming 
a legislative union of the three provinces by the 
sea — Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince 
Edward island. Several members of the Canadian 
government, among whom was Sir John A. Mac- 
donald, being on a visit to the lower provinces and 
hearing of the proposed meeting, expressed a de- 
sire to be present. Invitations were sent to them ; 
they attended, and succeeded in inducing the dele- 
gates to abandon the smaller scheme and meet later 
in the year at Quebec, where a grander union would 
be proposed and discussed. The greater assembly 
accordingly met on 10 Oct., and sat with closed 
doors until the 27th of the month, when the famous 
" Quebec scheme " was completed. In the framing 
of those resolutions, which now form the basis of 
the British North America act, Mr. Tilley took an 
active part. In March, at the general elections, 
Mr. Tilley submitted the question to the people ; 
but he and his party suffered defeat. Notwith- 
standing the premier's strong personal popularity 
in his own constituency, the majority of votes cast 
against him in 1865 was very large, but in the fol- 
lowing year the new government resigned, and 
the majority was reversed. Delegates from Onta- 
rio, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were 
sent to London to complete the terms of union, 
and at this conference Mr. Tilley ably represented 
his province. For his services he was made a com- 
panion of the Bath (civil) by the queen, and on 
resigning his seat in the New Brunswick house of 
assembly for a seat in the house of commons at 
Ottawa he was sworn in as a member of the Cana- 
dian privy council, and appointed minister of cus- 
toms in the first cabinet of the Dominion. From 
November, 1868, till April, 1869, he was acting 
minister of public works, and on 22 Feb., 1873, he 
was made minister of finance in succession to Sir 
Francis Hincks. This important portfolio he held 
until the fall of the Macdonald government on 5 
Nov. of the same year. Before leaving office Sir 
John Macdonald appointed his colleague lieutenant- 
governor of New Brunswick, which office he filled 
with great acceptance until 11 July, 1878, and 
though it is said a second term was offered to him 
by the MacKenzie administration, he declined it, 
and accepted the nomination of the Conservative 
party for a seat in the house of commons. He ran 
in his old constituency, St. John, and narrowly 
escaped defeat, his majority being but nine votes. 
This was doubtless due to the stand that he took 
on the tariff question, which was declared to be a 
high protective one, and framed to protect the 
Canadian manufactures. The platform of the Con- 
servatives obtained throughout the country, and 
Sir John Macdonald, on being asked to form a gov- 
ernment, invited Mr. Tilley to resume his old post. 
On presenting himself for re-election, he was re- 
turned by acclamation. In due time he formulated 
the national policy of the ministry on the floor of 
the house in one of the ablest speeches that he had 
ever made. Though the measure was hotly dis- 
cussed, it finally passed, and has ever since been 
the policy of the country. On 24 May, Mr. Tilley 
was created a knight commander of St. Michael 
and St. George by the Marquis of Lome, then 
governor-general of Canada He also holds a pat- 
ent of rank and precedence from the queen as an 
ex-councillor of New Brunswick. He held the 
office of finance minister of the Dominion until 
October, 1885, when his health failed, and he re- 
tired from parliament and the ministry to accept, 
for a second term, the less laborious office of lieu- 
tenant-governor of New Brunswick, which post he 

still holds. As a speaker he is fluent and elo- 
quent. Many important public measures owe their 
inception to him, chief of which, however, is the 
act dealing with the readjustment and reorgani- 
zation of the customs tariff. 

TILLINGHAST, Nicholas, educator, b. in 
Taunton, Mass., 22 Sept., 1804; d. in Bridgewater, 
Mass., 10 April, 1856. He was the son of Nicholas 
Tillinghast, who was several times representative 
to the general court of Massachusetts between 1795 
and 1816. The son was graduated at the U. S. 
military academy in 1824, and entering the U. S. 
army as 2d lieutenant in the 7th infantry, served 
for two years on garrison duty at Fort Gibson in 
the Indian territory. Afterward he returned to 
the military academy, where, in 1827-34 he was 
successively assistant professor of chemistry, min- 
eralogy, and geology, and of geography, history, 
and ethics. He was promoted captain on 1 June, 
1835, and joined his regiment at Fort Gibson, but 
resigned on 31 July, 1836. Capt. Tillinghast then 
settled in Boston, where he received pupils in 
mathematics. In 1840 he was appointed principal 
of the state normal school at Bridgwater, and he 
continued to fill this post until failing health com- 
pelled his resignation in July, 1853. His only 
publications were " Elements of Plane Geometry " 
(Concord, N. H, 1841) and " Prayers for Schools " 
(Boston, 1852). — His son, William Hopkins, b. 20 
March, 1854, was graduated at Harvard in 1877, 
and since 1882 has been an assistant in the li- 
brary of Harvard university. He has published 
a translation, with additions, of Carl Ploetz's " Epit- 
ome of Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modern History " 
(Boston, 1884). 

TILLINGHAST, Pardon, clergyman, b. in 
Seven Cliffs, near Beachy Head (now Eastborn), 
Sussex, England, in 1622 : d. in Providence, R. I., 
19 Jan., 1718. He was a soldier under Cromwell, 
and a participant in the battle of Marston Moor. 
He settled in Providence, R. I., 19 Nov., 1645, was 
admitted a resident of the town with a quarter in- 
terest of the original proprietors of the Providence 
purchase, and founded a numerous family, whose 
members are now found in nearly every state and 
territory of the United States. He was pastor of 
the 1st Baptist church in Providence from 1678 
till his death, preaching and officiating in that ca- 
pacity for about forty years without remuneration. 
At his own expense, in 1700, he built the first meet- 
ing-house of this religious society, the oldest in 
America of its denomination. Mr. Tillinghast in 
1711, " for and in consideration of the love and good- 
will " he bore the church over which he was then 
pastor, executed " to them and their successors in 
the same faith and order " a deed of the meeting- 
house and the lot on which it stood. In the deed 
of conveyance he describes the faith and order of 
the church by quoting Hebrews vi., 1, 2, showing it 
to be the same as that now held by the Six Princi- 
ple Baptists. In addition to his pastoral duties 
and his occupation of a merchant, he found time 
to serve the infant colony many times as member 
of the house of deputies, and the town of Provi- 
dence twenty-five years, in various posts of honor 
and trust. — His great-grandson, Thomas, jurist, 
b. in East Greenwich, R. I., 21 Aug., 1742; d. 
in East Greenwich, L. I., 26 Aug., 1821, was a 
member of the legislature from 1772 till 1780, and 
one of the committee that it appointed in 1777 to 
estimate the damage done by the British soldiers 
on the islands of Conanicut and Rhode Island dur- 
ing the war of the Revolution. In 1779 he was 
elected judge of the court of common pleas for 
Kent county, and a member of the council of war. 




In September, 1780, he was chosen associate justice of 
the supreme court, which post he held by annual elec- 
tions until 1787, sitting in the famous paper-money 
case of Trevett vs. Weeden. His firmness and de- 
cision in this case, notwithstanding its unpopularity 
in the state at the time, ought, says a writer, " to 
cause his name to be inscribed in letters of gold." 
He was again a judge of the supreme court from 
1791 until his resignation in December, 1797, in 
which year he was elected a member of congress, 
serving from 13 Nov., 1797, till 4 March, 1799, and 
in 1801-3. — Joseph Leonard, lawyer, fifth in 
descent from Pardon, b. in Taunton, Mass., in 1790 ; 
d. in Providence, R. I., 30 Dec, 1844, studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1811. In 1819 he 
received the honorary degree of A. M. from Brown, 
of which he was elected a trustee in 1833. He 
filled many other public stations, was for many 
years a member of the general assembly, and was 
repeatedly elected speaker of the house, where he 
was the earnest advocate of public instruction and 
judicial reform. Elected to congress as a Whig, 
he served from 4 Sept., 1837, till 3 March, 1843. 
In congress he was one of the most useful mem- 
bers, few men equalling him in the extent of his 
political information. At the age of eighteen he 
published in the Providence "Gazette," over the 
signature " Dion," a series of political essays that 
attracted wide attention ; and he also contributed 
poetry to journals over the signature of " Carroll." 

TILLMAN, Samuel Dyer, lawyer, b. in Utica, 
N. Y., 1 April, 1815 ; d. in New York city, 4 Sept., 
1875. He was graduated at Union in 1834, and then 
studied law in Canandaigua, where he was admit- 
ted to the bar. Several years later he settled in 
Seneca Palls, N. Y.. where he continued in the prac- 
tice of his profession, and also was repeatedly elect- 
ed president of the town council. About 1850 he 
retired from legal practice and settled in New York 
city. He was soon elected a member of the Ameri- 
can institute, by which organization he was made 
professor of science and mechanics. Later he be- 
came its corresponding secretary and edited the 
" Transactions " of the institute, published by the 
state. Prof. Tillman's knowledge in every depart- 
ment of science was extensive. He invented a ro- 
tating planisphere to serve as a substitute for the 
artificial globe, for the use of schools, and also a 
revolving musical scale, called the tonometer, de- 
signed to illustrate the theory of temperament and 
exhibiting visibly the relations between the true 
and tempered notes in every key. The degree of 
Ph. D. was conferred on him by Union college in 
1875, and he was a member of various scientific 
societies, including the American association for 
the advancement of science. His writings were 
chiefly essays on technical subjects, and included 
" A Treatise on Musical Sounds and an Explana- 
tion of the Tonometer " (New York, 1860). 

TILLSON, Davis, soldier, b. in Rockland. Me., 
14 April, 1830. He entered the U. S. military 
academy in 1849, but two years later, having in- 
jured his foot so that it required amputation, he 
resigned. In 1857 he was elected to the Maine 
legislature, and in 1858 became adjutant-general 
of the state. On the inauguration of President 
Lincoln he was appointed collector of customs of 
the Waldoboro district, which place he resigned in 
1861 to become captain of the 2d Maine battery. 
He went to Washington in April, 1862 (having 
been detained in Maine during the winter, owing 
to the threatened difficulty with England on ac- 
count of the " Trent " affair), and was assigned to 
the Army of the Rappahannock under Gen. Irvin 
McDowell. On 22 May he was promoted major 

and made chief of artillery in Gen. Edward O. C. 
Ord's division. After the battle of Cedar Moun- 
tain, 9 Aug., 1862, he was assigned to Gen. McDow- 
ell's staff as chief of artillery, in which capacity he 
served during the three days' artillery fight at 
Rappahannock Station, and then at the second bat- 
tle of Bull Run. Subsequently, until April. 1863. 
he was inspector of artillery, and in January was 
made lieutenant-colonel, and on 29 March was or- 
dered to Cincinnati, having been commissioned 
brigadier-general to date from 29 Nov., 1862, and 
made chief of artillery for fortifications in the De- 
partment of the Ohio. He had charge of the de- 
fences of Cincinnati and the works on the Louis- 
ville and Nashville railroad, and raised and organ- 
ized two regiments of heavy artillery. In Decem- 
ber, 1863, he was ordered to Knoxville, Tenn., 
where he supervised various works and was given 
a brigade in the 23d army corps, which he com- 
manded in several engagements with Confederate 
cavalry and irregular troops during the winter of 
1863-'4. He continued in charge of the works in 
this district, which were officially commended as 
the best in the military division of the Mississippi, 
and also organized the 1st U. S. heavy artillery of 
colored troops and the 3d North Carolina mounted 
infantry. Subsequently he had command of the 
District of East Tennessee until early in 1865, when 
he was transferred to the 4th division of the De- 
partment of the Cumberland, and held that com- 
mand until the close of the war. He then offered 
his resignation ; but his services were retained, and 
he remained on duty until 1 Dec, 1866, in charge 
of the freedmen's bureau at Memphis, and subse- 
quently in Georgia. For a year he remained in 
Georgia after his resignation, engaged in cotton- 
planting, but then disposed of his interests there 
and returned to Rockland, Me., where he has since 
been engaged in the granite business. 

TILTON, James, physician, b. in Kent county, 
Del., 1 June, 1745; d. near Wilmington, Del., 14 
May, 1822. He received a classical education at 
Nottingham academy, Md., under Rev. Samuel 
Finley, who was afterward president of Princeton. 
On leaving school, he entered the medical depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania, where he 
was graduated in 1771, six years after its organiza- 
tion. He at once settled at Dover, Del., where he 
remained until the beginning of the Revolutionary 
war. His sympathies being warmly enlisted in 
the patriot cause, he abandoned a lucrative prac- 
tice to enlist, and became 1st lieutenant in a com- 
pany of light infantry. Subsequently he was ap- 
pointed surgeon in a Delaware regiment, and served 
in the battles of Long Island and White Plains, 
accompanying the army in its retreat to the Dela- 
ware river. In 1777 he was in charge of the mili- 
tary hospital at Princeton, N. J., where there was 
much suffering among the troops in consequence 
of the system of placing all the sick in one hospital. 
Dr. Tilton himself narrowly escaped death from 
an attack of fever that he contracted there. In 
the winter of 1779-80 the sufferings of the sick in 
the tent hospitals was very great. To Dr. Tilton, 
then stationed at Trenton, ^. J., has been ascribed 
the suggestion of the erection of the new buildings 
that were ordered by the authorities with the hap- 
piest results. These were log huts, roughly built 
so as to admit of free ventilation through the crev- 
ices, with floors of hardened clay, each being in- 
tended to accommodate not more than six patients. 
In September, 1781, chiefly through the exertions 
of Dr. Tilton, an act was passed by congress pro- 
viding for promotion by seniority in the medical 
corps. He was soon afterward elected a professor 




in the University of Pennsylvania, but declined, 
being unwilling to leave the service. In 1782, af- 
ter the surrender of Cornwallis, he began to prac- 
tise again in Dover. In 1783-'5 he was a delegate 
to the Continental congress, and he sat for several 
sessions in the legislature. He removed to Wil- 
mington for his health, from 1785 till 1801 was 
government commissioner of loans, and on the 
declaration of war with Great Britain was appoint- 
ed surgeon-general of the army. He found the 
hospitals on the northern frontier, and especially 
the one at Sackett's Harbor, filthy and neglected. 
He moved the latter to Watertown, X. Y., intro- 
duced better regulations into all of them, and was 
rewarded by an immediate improvement in the 
health of the army. Purchasing a farm near Wil- 
mington, he devoted his time thereafter chiefly to 
its cultivation. In 1857 his remains were disin- 
terred, and now lie in the Wilmington and Brandy- 
wine cemetery beneath a monument erected by the 
Delaware state medical society. Dr. Tilton pub- 
lished his graduation essay, " De Hydrope " (Phila- 
delphia, 1771), and an elaborate plan for hospital 
organization, entitled " Economical Observations 
on Military Hospitals, and the Prevention and Cure 
of Diseases incident to the Army" (Wilmington, 
1813). His papers include " Observations on the 
Yellow Fever," " Letter to Dr. Duncan on Several 
Cases of Rabies Canina," "Observations on the 
Curculio," " On the Peach-Tree and its Diseases," 
" A Letter to Dr. Rush approving of Bleeding in 
Yellow Fever," and an oration in 1790 as presi- 
dent of the Delaware Society of the Cincinnati. 

TILTON, John Rollin, artist, b. in Loudon, 
X. H., in 1833; d. in Rome, Italy, 22 March. 1888. 
His professional life was spent in Italy, and he was 
a close student of the Venetian school of paint- 
ing. Many of his landscapes are in private col- 
lections in England and the United States. 
Among his paintings are " The Palace of Thebes," 
which was shown at the Royal academy, London, 
in 1873 ; " Como " ; " Venice " ; and " Venetian 
Fishing- Boats " and " Rome from Mount Aven- 
tine," both of which are in the Corcoran gallery, 
Washington. His "Lagoons of Venice," and 
" Komombo " were at the Philadelphia exhibition 
of 1876 Henry T. Tuckerman says of him that 
" while some critics compare him with Claude and 
Turner, others, like Jarves, unjustly declare him 
a ' weak sentimentalist in color, having no solid 
foundation of knowledge or inventive force. ' " 

TILTON, Theodore, journalist, b. in Xew York 
city, 2 Oct., 1835. He was graduated at the Col- 
lege of the city of Xew York in 1855, was em- 
ployed for a year on the Xew York " Observer," 
and then became an editor of the " Independent," 
continuing on the staff from 1856 till 1871, the 
latter part of the time as editor-in-chief. He edited 
also, about six months of the last year, the Brook- 
lyn " Union." He then established the " Golden 
Age," an independent political and literary weeklv, 
but retired from it at the end of two years, fn 
1874 he charged Henry Ward Beecher with crimi- 
nal intimacy with his wife (see Beecher), and the 
case, tried by Plymouth church and the public 
courts, attracted wide attention. Mr. Tilton has 
written many political and reformatory articles, 
which have been reprinted in pamphlets. He has 
gained much reputation as an orator, being a con- 
stant and eloquent speaker in behalf of woman's 
rights, and, before the civil war, in opposition to 
slavery. For twenty years he was a lyceum lec- 
turer, "speaking in nearly every northern state and 
territory. He went abroad in 1883, and has since 
remained there. Among his works are " The Sex- 

ton's Tale, and other Poems" (Xew York, 1867); 
" Sancta Sanctorum, or Proof -Sheets from an Edi- 
tor's Table" (1869); " Tempest Tossed," a romance 
(1873 ; republished in 1883) ; " Thou and I," poem& 
(1880) : and " Suabian Stories," ballads (1882). 

TIMBY, Theodore Ruggles, inventor, b. in 
Dover, X. Y., 5 April, 1822. He received a common- 
school education, and spent his youth on a farm. 
At an early age he developed inventive faculty, and 
in 1836 made a practicable working model of a float- 
ing dry-dock, which was condemned by nautical 
experts as impracticable in tidal waters. " The first 
sight of the circular form of Castle Williams on 
Governor's island, in the harbor of Xew York, sug- 
gested to him the idea of the revolving plan for de- 
fensive works, and in April, 1841, he went to Wash- 
ington and exhibited a model and plans of a revolv- 
ing battery, to be constructed of iron, to the chief of 
engineers and chief of ordnance of the U. S. army. 
This model and plans were also submitted to John 
C. Calhoun and other officials in Washington. In 
January, 1843, he made a model of a marine tur- 
ret, and at that time filed a caveat in the U. S. 
patent-office for a metallic revolving fort, to be 
used on land or water, and to be revolved by pro- 
pelling engines located within the same, acting 
upon suitable mechanism. From January, 1841, 
till 1861 Mr. Timby urged the importance of his 
plans upon the proper authorities at Washington 
and elsewhere, but without satisfactory results, 
although in 1848 a favorable report was made to- 
the secretary of war and indorsed by the chief of 
the ordnance bureau. Meanwhile, in 1856, he ex- 
hibited his plans to Xapoleon III., and received 
some encouragement, but without practical result. 
In September, 1862, after developing many modifi- 
cations of his original idea, he took out letters-pat- 
ent covering the broad claim for " a revolving 
tower for defensive and offensive warfare, whether 
placed on land or water," and in the same year he 
entered into a written agreement with the con- 
tractors and builders of the original " Monitor " 
for the use of his patents, covering the revolving 
turret, by which they agreed to pay him a royal- 
ty of $5,000 on each turret that they constructed. 
These facts show beyond a doubt that Mr. Timby 
is the original patentee of the revolving turrets, 
and that he was recognized as such by John Erics- 
son, the designer of the "Monitor" and similar 
iron-clad vessels. Among the elaborations and de- 
velopments of the original idea of the revolving 
tower which he has perfected from time to time 
are the cordon of revolving towers across a chan- 
nel (1861); a mole and tower system of defence 
(1880); the planetary system of revolving towers- 
(1880) ; the subterranean system of defence (1881) ; 
and the revolving tower and shield system (1884), 
all of which he has patented in this and other 
countries. Mr. Timby invented and patented in 
1844 the American turbine water-wheel, which was 
a success, and in 1861 he devised the method, now 
in universal use, of firing heavy guns by electricity, 
as well as other inventions of practical utility. 
The degree of A. M. was conferred on him by 
Madison university in 1866. and that of S. D. by the 
L'niversity of Wooster, Ohio, in 1882. Mr. Timby 
founded in February, 1888. " Congress." a monthly 
journal, in Washington, D. C, and has prepared 
for the press a collection of didactic and philo- 
sophical prose and verse entitled "Beyond." 

TIMM, Henry C, musician, b. in Hamburg, 
Germany, 11 July, 1811. He was baptized as 
Christian Heinrich. but, on coming to the United 
States, he adopted his present name. He had some 
instruction on the piano from Albert Gottlieb 




Methfessel, and Jacob Schmitt, and came to this 
country in 1835. In the same year he appeared 
at the Park theatre. New York, as a pianist, and 
obtained an engagement to play second horn in 
the orchestra, and occasional piano solos. Dur- 
ing this time he was also organist at Grace church. 
About a year later he became musical director of 
an opera troupe at the Charleston theatre. In 
1838 he returned to New York, where he settled 
permanently. When the National opera-house was 
built he became chorus-master and trombone- 
player; but the theatre was soon burned. In 1843 
he became president of the Philharmonic society, 
which post he held for sixteen years. During his 
presidency he frequently appeared as the piano 
soloist at the society's concerts, and for eight years 
was trombone-player in the orchestra. He became 
well known as an excellent piano-teacher, and his 
services as an accompanist were much in demand. 
His published compositions are few, the most nota- 
ble being the second piano part for Johann B. 
Cramer's eighty-four '• Etudes." 

TIMON, John, R. C. bishop, b. in Conewago, 
Pa., 12 Feb., 1797; d. in Buffalo, N. Y., 16 April, 
1867. In 1802 he removed with his family to Balti- 
more. He assisted his father, who was a merchant, 
in his business, and was engaged in trade in Balti- 
more, Louisville, and St. Louis till 1823, when he 
entered the Lazarist seminary at the Barrens near 
St. Louis. He was ordained a sub-deacon in 1824, 
and accompanied Father (afterward Archbishop) 
Odin in a missionary journey through Texas. He 
was raised to the priesthood the following year, 
appointed professor in the Barrens, and became a 
member of the Lazarist order. He also did mis- 
sionary work throughout a large district, and be- 
came famous as a controversialist, sometimes meet- 
ing as many as six clergymen of other creeds in 
public debate. But his great achievement was es- 
tablishing his order in the United States. Serious 
differences had arisen between Bishop Rosati and 
the Lazarists with regard to the tenure of property, 
and Father Timon showed great tact in bringing 
about a settlement. In 1835, at the assembly of 
Lazarist deputies in Paris, it was decided to erect 
the American mission into a province of the order, 
and Father Timon was elected its first visitor. He 
relieved the order from financial embarrassment, 
reduced to submission many members who had be- 
come disaffected, prevailed on others who had left 
the community to return, and acquired property 
of great value in St. Louis and other cities. In 
1838, at the request of Bishop Rosati, he took 
charge of the missions in Texas. He offered the 
first mass in G-alveston. and erected the first altar 
in Houston. In 1839 he was appointed coadjutor 
bishop of St. Louis, but earnestly asked the court 
to be allowed to decline, and the nomination was 
cancelled. In 1840 Texas was separated from the 
Mexican diocese of Monterey, and Father Timon 
was appointed prefect apostolic of the republic, 
where.he took measures to secure the restoration of 
the church property that had been confiscated by 
the Mexican government. He went to Paris in 
1841 on business connected with the Lazarists of 
the United States. His energy appeared to increase 
with advancing years. Seminaries were given into 
his charge in every part of the United States, which 
he supplied with professors from the members of 
his community. A narrative of the length of the 
journeys that "be undertook in many western and 
southern states, and of the difficulties that he over- 
came, would seem incredible. The career of Father 
Timon was marked by many acts of courage as well 
as personal sacrifice and charity. His rescue of the 

Sisters of the Visitation from a flood in Kaskaskia 
had all the elements of romantic bravery. When 
he was appointed bishop of Buffalo in 1847 he 
showed reluctance to accept the office, but he 
yielded to the pressure that was brought to bear 
on him, and was consecrated by Bishop Hughes 
in the cathedral of New York on 17 Oct., 1847. 
At the beginning of his administration he de- 
manded the transfer of the title of the property 
of St. Louis's church, Buffalo, to himself. This 
being refused by the trustees, they were excom- 
municated, and he laid the church under an in- 
terdict. The controversy, after being the subject 
of discussion in the legislature, was finally settled 
by his submission to the trustees in 1855. He in- 
troduced the Sisters of Charity in 1848, began St. 
Joseph's boys' orphan asylum in 1851, and after- 
ward the New Catholic reformatory for boys. He 
began the Foundling asylum in 1853, and subse- 
quently founded the Deaf and dumb asylum, St. 
Mary's German orphan asylum, the Providence 
lunatic asylum, and many other charities. Among 
the educational and religious institutions that he 
founded or aided in establishing are the Seminary 
at Suspension Bridge, the College and convent of 
the Franciscan Fathers, the College of St. Joseph, 
the Redemptorist convent of St. Mary, the Commu- 
nity of missionary Oblate Fathers, and several sis- 
terhoods. See his life bv C E. Deuther (1868). ' 
TIMROD, Henry, poet. b. in Charleston, S. C. r 
8 Dec, 1829 ; d. in Columbia, S. C, 6 Oct., 1867. 
His grandfather was a German, who emigrated to 
this country before the Revolutionary war and 
settled in Charleston. His father, William (1792- 
1838), was a me- 
chanic, but a man 
of very poetic 
wrote some fine 
lyrics. He com- 
manded a corps 
in the Seminole 
war, composed of 
Germans and men 
of German de- 
scent residing in 
Charleston, and 
from the exposure 
and hardships of 
the service con- 
tracted a disease 
that resulted final- 
ly in his death. 
Henry was edu- 
cated at the Uni- 
versity of Georgia, but took no degree. He was of 
scholarly tastes, and was a writer of verses from his 
childhood. After leaving the university he studied 
law in the office of James L. Petigru, but his enthu- 
siasm for literature interfered with his studies, and 
he finally abandoned them and fitted himself for a 
college professor. William Gilmore Simms. who 
was then in the height of his fame, was in the habit 
of gathering round him those of the young men 
of Charleston that had literary proclivities, and lie 
did much to foster the genius of Timrod, Paul II. 
Havne, and other voting southern writers. Tim- 
rod's first volume 'of poems (Boston, 1860) con- 
tained such fine work that it was hailed as an 
earnest of great excellence. In 1861 he began to 
write that series of war lyrics which made his 
name popular throughout the south. In 1862 a 
project was formed for having a volume of Tim- 
rod's poems brought out in London : but the 
pressure of great events interrupted this scheme, 

/ l/iswsv-ir&i. 




and it was never put into execution. His deli- 
cate health forbade active service in the field, but 
his pen was never idle. He was at the battle of 
Shiloh as war-correspondent of the Charleston 
" Mercury." In 1864 he went to Columbia, the 
capital of the. state, where he edited the " South 
Carolinian." He lost everything when the city 
of Columbia was burned in February, 1865. He 
said of himself that he and his family were brought 
to beggary, starvation, and almost death' — that 
they had eaten up all the family silver and nearly 
all "their furniture, and were reduced to despair. 
He writes in 1865 : " I would consign every line I 
have written to eternal oblivion, for one hundred 
dollars in hand." But the struggle against such 
fearful odds, with his failing health, proved too 
much for him ; life perceptibly ebbed away, and 
early in October, 1867, he died. His brother-poet 
and life-long friend, Paul H. Hayne, afterward 
published a volume of his collected works, pref- 
aced by a very pathetic sketch of his life (New 
York, 1873). The south has probably never pro- 
duced a poet of more delicate imagination, of 
greater rhythmic sweetness, of purer sentiment, 
and more tender emotion than this young man, 
who passed away before he had time or opportu- 
nity to attain that high standard of excellence 
which his undoubted genius fitted him to reach. 
His best-known poem is a short ode written for 
Memorial-day, 1867. 

TIMS, Thomas Dillon, Canadian official, b. in 
Castle Pollard, Ireland, 6 Jan., 1825. He engaged 
for many years in commercial pursuits, entered 
the civil service of Canada in 1858, in 1863 was ap- 
pointed a commissioner to inquire into prison-man- 
agement at Montreal, and in 1865 became govern- 
ment superintendent of the engraving and print- 
ing of the first issue of legal-tender notes. He vis- 
ited Washington the same year on official business, 
and in 1867 reported to the government upon a 
financial system for the province of Quebec, and 
was placed in charge of Dominion affairs at Hali- 
fax. With other commissioners he was appointed 
in 1868 to inquire into the management of govern- 
ment railways in Nova Scotia. From 1868 till 1872 
he was engaged in the organization of the financial 
department and savings banks in Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick, and in 1872-'3 established branches 
of the finance department and savings banks in 
British Columbia and Manitoba. He was appoint- 
ed financial inspector for the Dominion in 1870, 
and is inspector of Dominion savings banks, and 
sub-treasurer and auditor of government railways. 

TINCKER, Mary Agnes, author, b. in Ells- 
worth, Me., 18 July, 1833. She was educated at 
the high-school in Ellsworth, and at Blue Hill 
academy, embraced the Catholic faith at the age of 
twenty, and during the civil war nursed the sick 
and wounded in one of the military hospitals at 
Washington, D. C. Since 1873 she has lived in 
Italy. She has published novels entitled "The 
House of Yorke" (New York, 1872); " A Winged 
Word "(1873); "Grapes and Thorns" (1874): "Six 
Sunny Months" (1878); "Signor Monaldini's 
Niece." in the " No-Name Series " (Boston, 1879) ; 
" By the Tiber " (1881) ; " The Jewel in the Lotus " 
(1884); and " Aurora*' (1885). 

TINGEY, Thomas (pronounced with g soft), 
naval officer, b. in London, England, 11 Sept., 1750 ; 
d. in Washington, D. C, 23 Feb., 1829. He served 
in the British navy, but came to this country be- 
fore the Revolutionary war, and owned ships that 
were engaged in the East India trade. During 
the war he served in the Continental navy. He 
was selected as one of the six captains that were 


appointed on the organization of the U. S. navy on 
3 Sept., 1798, and given the ship " Ganges," twenty- 
four guns, with the " Pinckney " and " South Caro- 
lina, forming a squadron, 'to guard the Mona 
fassage in the West 
ndies during the 
war with France. 
During July, 1799, 
he captured the 
French ships " Le 
Vainqueur," " Le 
Rabateuse," " L'Eu- 
gene," and " L'Espe- 
rance." In the same 
year, while off Cape 
Nicola Mole, he was 
boarded by a boat 
from the British frig- 
ate "Surprise," and 
all the Englishmen 
on board were de- 
manded and also per- 
mission to examine 
the protections of the 
American seamen. Capt. Tingey answered : " A 
public ship carries no protection for her men but 
her flag. I do not expect to succeed in the con- 
test with you; but I will die at my quarters before 
a man shall be taken from the ship." The crew 
gave three hearty cheers, hastened with alacrity 
to their guns, and called for " Yankee Doodle.'' 
The captain of the "Surprise," on hearing the 
determination of the Americans, chose rather to 
pursue his course than to battle for dead men. 
Capt. Tingey was discharged under the permanent 
naval-establishment act, but was reinstated on 23 
Nov., 1804, after which he had command of the 
navy-yard at Washington until his death. When 
the capital was captured by the British, in the 
summer of 1814, the secretary of the navy ordered 
Com. Tingey to fire the navy-yard, which, with the 
sloop-of-war " Argus," five armed barges, two gun- 
boats, and all the naval stores, was consigned to 
the flames. In this connection he writes to his 
daughter, under date of 17 Sept., 1814 : " I was the 
last officer who quitted the city after the enemy 
had possession of it, having fully performed all 
the orders received, in which was included that of 
myself retiring, and not to fall into their posses- 
sion. I was also the first who returned and the 
only one who ventured in on the day on which 
they were peaceably masters of it." For fifty years 
he was connected with the navy of this country and 
for nearly thirty years had command of the Wash- 
ington navy-yard. 

TINKER, Reuhen, clergyman, b. in Chester, 
Mass., 6 Aug., 1799; d. in Westfield, Chautauqua 
co., N. Y., 26 Oct., 1854. He entered a mercantile 
house in his native town in 1813, but afterward en- 
tered Amherst and was graduated in 1827, having 
supported himself during his college career by 
teaching and manual labor. He became a student 
in Auburn theological seminary the same year, and 
was ordained a minister of the Presbyterian church 
at Chester in 1830. Resolving to devote himself 
to foreign missions, he sailed for the Sandwich isl- 
ands in December, 1830, and reached Honolulu on 
28 June, 1831. He was chaplain for seamen at La- 
haina until June, 1832, when he went with other 
missionaries on an exploring expedition to the 
Marquesas islands, with the view to founding mis- 
sions. In 1834 he was appointed to edit a semi- 
monthly religious journal in the native language, 
which he did up to 1838. In 1840 he returned to 
the United States, where he had charge of a con- 




gregation in Madison, Ohio, for four years, and 
then of one in Westfield, N. Y., till his death. See 
" Sermons by Rev. Reuben Tinker, Missionary at 
the Sandwich Islands; with a Biographical 
Sketch " (Buffalo, 1856). 

TIPTON, John, senator, b. in Sevier county, 
Tenn., 14 Aug., 1786; d. in Logansport, Ind., 5 
April, 1830. His father, Joshua, removed from 
Maryland to eastern Tennessee, where he was mur- 
dered by Indians on 18 April, 1793. The duty of 
supporting the family was thus thrown on John's 
shoulders at an age when he should have been at 
school. At the same time he began to be known 
as an Indian fighter, believing that to avenge his 
father's murder was a sacred duty. In 1807 he 
removed with his family to Indiana, settling on a 
farm of fifty acres on Brinley's Perry, Harrison co., 
which he paid for out of money that he earned by 
splitting rails at fifty cents a hundred. The dis- 
trict was infested by counterfeiters and horse- 
thieves, but Tipton inspired them with such fear 
that they abandoned the neighborhood. In 1809 
he joined the " Yellow Jackets," a military com- 
pany commanded by Capt. Spier Spencer, and soon 
afterward became ensign, serving through the cam- 
paign that terminated with the battle of Tippecanoe, 
7 Nov., 1811. He kept a journal of his campaign 
of seventy-four days, which, notwithstanding its 
singular method of spelling, is said to be the fullest 
and most vivid narrative of those operations. The 
" Yellow Jackets " lost their captain and their two 
lieutenants at Tippecanoe, and Tipton took com- 
mand of the company. After this he reached the 
rank of brigadier-general of militia. In 1815 he 
was elected sheriff of Harrison county, and held 
this office by re-election until 1819, when he was 
sent to the legislature. He was one of the com- 
missioners that were appointed by that body in 
1820 to select a site for a new capital for Indiana, 
and it was on his motion that Fall Creek was 
chosen. He wrote a journal describing minutely 
his trips to different points in search of a suitable 
locality, and it shows a marked advance in spell- 
ing and style over the one in which he relates Har- 
rison's campaign. He was re-elected in 1821. and 
soon afterward appointed a commissioner to deter- 
mine with another commissioner from Illinois the 
boundary-line between the two states. He was ap- 
pointed U. S. Indian agent for the Pottawattamie 
and Miami tribes in March, 1823, and in 1826 made 
arrangements with them by which valuable public 
lands were thrown open to settlers. In 1831 he 
was elected U. S. senator, to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of Gen. James Noble, and he was re- 
elected for a full term in 1833. Although his po- - 
litical opinions were, on the whole, similar to those 
of Gen. Jackson, he was his strenuous opponent on 
the U. S. bank question. He was specially inter- 
ested in the progress of Indiana, organized the Eel 
river seminary society at Logansport, raised money 
for teachers, built school-houses, and constructed 
mills. He made extensive purchases of land in 
Bartholomew county, sixty acres of which he gave 
for the erection of public buildings. The city of 
Columbus was built on this property, and for a 
time was called Tiptonia in his honor. It received 
its present name when his political opponents were 
elected to office in the county. Gen. Tipton held 
high office in the Masonic fraternity, becoming 
finally grand-master. 

TIPTON, Thomas W., senator, b. in Cadiz, 
Ohio, 5 Aug., 1817. He was graduated at Madison 
college, Pa., became a lawyer, and was elected to the 
legislature of Ohio in 1845, but, after some time, 
settled in Nebraska. He was elected a delegate to 

the Constitutional convention there, and became in 
1860 a member of the territorial council. Subse- 
quently he studied for the ministry, was appointed 
chaplain in the National army, and served during 
the civil war. He was U. S. senator from Nebraska 
from 4 March, 1867. till 3 March, 1875. 

TITCOMB, Jonathan, soldier, b. in Newburv, 
Mass., in 1728 ; d. there in 1817. He was a mem- 
ber of the committee of safety and the Provincial 
congress in 1774-'5, colonel of a regiment in the 
Rhode Island expedition in 1778, and a member of 
the State convention in 1780. Some time afterward 
he was appointed brigadier-general of militia. He 
was naval officer of the port of Newburyport, Mass., 
from 1789 till 1812. 

TIZOC, Mexican king, d. in 1482. He suc- 
ceeded his brother Axayacatl on the throne in 
1477, having been general of his predecessor's 
armies. According to the historical paintings of 
his time, he conquered during his brief reign four- 
teen cities, some in the valley of Toluca, and as- 
sisted King Netzahualpitl, of Texcoco, to subdue 
the revolution of his brothers allied with the re- 
public of Huexotzingo. Tizoe began the magnifi- 
cent temple in honor of Huitzilopochtli, the god 
of war, but before its conclusion was poisoned by 
instigation of Techotlalla, cacique of Ixtapalapan, 
who was afterward executed in the public square 
of Mexico in presence of the allied kings. 

TLALHUICOLE (tlal-we-co'-lay), Tlaxcaltec 
warrior, d. in 1518. He was regarded as the most 
formidable hero of his country, and commanded 
the Tlaxcaltec forces in the civil war in 1516 be- 
tween the partisans of Cacamatzin and Ixtlilxo- 
chitl. He was taken prisoner by stratagem by 
Tlaxpanquizqui and brought to the city of Mexico ; 
but his bravery and character had made such an im- 
pression on Montezuma that he ordered the cap- 
tive's release, an act that had no precedent in Mexi- 
can history. But Tlalhuicole refused to profit by 
the monarch's generosity. He said to Montezuma 
that it would be infamous for him to return to his 
country after being conquered, and insisted on 
undergoing the fate of the other prisoners. Monte- 
zuma, wishing, at any cost, to save his life, offered 
him the command of an armv about to be sent to 
drive back the Tarascos, who had invaded his 
frontiers. Tlalhuicole accepted, hoping to meet a 
glorious death in the ensuing battle. He advanced 
at the head of the Mexican troops to the city, 
Tangimoroa, called by the Mexicans Tlaximaloyan, 
cut through the Tarascan army, which made a 
desperate resistance, and defeated them several 
times. He returned to Mexico, laden with spoils and 
accompanied by a long train of captives. Monte- 
zuma lavished fresh honors on him, but failed to 
persuade him to accept the perpetual office of 
commander-in-chief or to return to his native 
country. He refused constantly, alleging that to 
do the first would be treason to his country, and 
to do the second would be a stain on his glory. 
At last Montezuma consented to satisfy the desire 
of his general, and ordered him to be tied to the 
stone of the gladiators. He was armed in the usual 
fashion, and Montezuma, with all his court, was 
present at the spectacle. Eight famous warriors 
of Anahuac attacked him one after the other, and 
were all disabled: the ninth, however, stunned him 
with a blovv, and he was then put to death, with 
the customary ceremonies. See " Histoire des na- 
tions civilisees du Mexique et de l'Amerique Cen- 
trale durant les siecles anterieurs a Christophe 
Colomb," by the Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg (4 
vols., Paris, 1859), and " Monarquia Indiana," by 
Juan de Torquemada (Seville, 1615). 




TLAXPAXQUIZQUI (tlas - pan - keeth' - kee), 
Mexican soldier. He lived in the latter half of 
the loth and the first half of the 16th century. 
During the struggle between Cacamatzin and 
Ixtlilxochitl for the kingdom of Texcoco, which 
began in 1516, he commanded the troops of his 
native state, Huexotzingo, now in support of one 
claimant, now of another. He had been convicted 
of adultery with the wives of two other chiefs of 
high rank. This was an almost unknown crime 
in the annals of the Aztecs, and was punishable 
with death. But as the culprit was very power- 
ful, the husbands appealed to Montezuma, who 
promised to take the matter in hand. This oc- 
curred at the time when the republic of Huexot- 
zingo, which was then in alliance with Montezuma 
and Cacamatzin, was invaded by the Tlaxcal- 
tecs, who favored Ixtlilxochitl. The Tlaxcaltecs 
were commanded by Tlalhuicole, their greatest 
hero. Tlaxpanquizqui profited by the occasion to 
efface the stain of his crime by a glorious feat of 
arms. He succeeded in drawing Tlalhuicole into 
an ambuscade and made him prisoner. The Tlax- 
caltecs fled in a panic, and the victory of the 
Huexotzingos was complete. Their leader led his 
captive to Mexico and presented him to Monte- 
zuma, who not only pardoned the conqueror, but 
loaded him with favors. See "Histoire des na- 
tions civilisees du Mexique et de l'Amerique Cen- 
trale durant les sieeles anterieurs a Christophe 
Colomb," by the Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg (4 
vols., Paris, 1859), and " Monarquia Indiana," by 
Juan de Torquemada (Seville, 1615). 

TOBAR, Juan, clergyman, b. in Tezcoco, Mexi- 
co, in 1543 : d. in Mexico in 1623. He was canon 
of that country when the first Jesuits landed in 
the kingdom, and entered their order soon after 
their arrival. He spent more than fifty-three years 
in efforts to convert the Indians. He wrote, by 
order of the viceroy, Martin Enriquez de Almansa, 
" Historia antigua de los Reinos de Mexico, Acol- 
huacan, y Tlacopan." Jose de Acosta acknowledges 
in his "Historia natural y moral de las Indias" 
(Seville, 1590) that a considerable part of his ma- 
terial was derived from the work of Tobar. 

TOCORXAL Y GREZ, Manuel Antonio (to- 
cor-nal), Chilian statesman, b. in Santiago, 12 June, 
1817 : U there in 1867. He studied law in the 
Xational institute, and in 1839 was admitted to the 
bar. In 1841 he was one of the founders of the 
University of Chili, and he became in the same 
year editor of " El Conservador," but in 1842 re- 
tired from the press. In 1844 he travelled through 
Europe, and in the last year was elected deputy 
to congress, where he forced the government to 
recognize ministerial responsibility. In 1848 he 
opposed the severe press law, and in 1849 was 
elected deputy by the opposition for Valparaiso, 
and called to form part of the new cabinet as sec- 
retary of justice. In 1851 he accompanied Gen. 
liulnes in the campaign of the south as jiidge-ad- 
vocate-general ; but on the accession of President 
Manuel Montt he retired, refusing a nomination 
as minister to the United States, a seat on the 
supreme bench, and the presidency of the com- 
mission to revise the criminal code. He continued 
his opposition in congress, but in 1857 was defeat- 
ed in the election for Santiago. From 1862 till 
1863 he was secretary of the interior under Gen. 
Perez, but he resigned when war began between 
Peru and Spain. From 1865 till liis death he was 
rector of the university. 

TOCQUEVILLE, "Alexis Charles Henri 
C16rel, Count de, French statesman, b. in Paris, 29 
July. 1805 ; d. in Cannes, 16 April, 1859. He passed 

his early youth at his father's castle of Verneuil, 
near Mantes, received his education in the College 
of Metz, and studied law in Paris in 1823-6, being 
graduated as licencie in the latter year. Through 
the influence of his family he was named, 5 April, 
1827, judge auditor at the tribunal of Versailles, 
and soon afterward assistant judge. Later he be- 
came deputy assistant district attorney of the same 
city, and made the acquaintance of Gustave de 
Beaumont, with whom he was sent in 1831 to the 
United States by the secretary of the interior to 
study the penitentiary system of the country. They 
landed at Boston on 12 May, and remained in the 
United States till March, 1832, visiting the princi- 
pal prisons. They returned to France with six 
folio volumes of documents. Toequeville published 
a few weeks later " Xote sur le systeme peniten- 
tiaire et sur la mission confiee par M. le Ministre 
de l'interieur a MM. de Beaumont et de Toeque- 
ville" (Paris, 1832), which attracted considerable 
attention. Toequeville, becoming dissatisfied with 
his legal duties, resigned on 21 May, 1832, and 
opened an attornev's office. His " Du systeme 
penitentiaire aux Etats-Unis et de son application 
en France" (Paris, 1832; 2d ed., with additions, 
2 vols., 1836) was written in association with Gus- 
tave de Beaumont, and translated into several 
languages, including an English version by Francis 
Lieber (Philadelphia, 1833). The authors approved 
the solitary system as practised in the penitentiary 
of Cherry hill, in Philadelphia, and they caused the 
penitentiary system of France, and eventually of 
the continent, to be entirely remodelled. The 
French academy awarded them a Montyon prize, 
and the success of their work was then considered 
as unprecedented in the annals of literature. He 
then visited England, married there in 1835, and 
in January of the latter year published the first 
part of his " De la Democrat ie en Amerique " (2 
vols., Paris. 1835), which procured for the author 
an extraordinary prize of eight thousand francs 
from the French academy. In the report of award 
it is called " one of the most remarkable works pub- 
lished in the nineteenth century, and such as the 
academy has seldom been called upon to crown." 
It was followed by the second part early in 1840. 
The work was translated into several languages, 
including an English version by Henry Reeve, en- 
titled '• Democracy in America, with a preface and 
notes by John Spencer (4 vols.. Xew York, 1839-'40). 
Reeve's translation has been edited by Francis 
Bowen (2 vols., Cambridge, 1862), and there is also 
an abridgment, entitled "American Institutions 
and their Influence " (Xew York, 1856). The au- 
thor was created a knight of the Legion of honor, 
6 June, 1837, elected a member of the French 
academy of moral sciences, 6 Jan., 1838, and given 
a seat in the Academie Francaise, 23 Dec, 1841. 
In parliament, where he served in 1839-'48, Toeque- 
ville advocated the abolition of slavery, and urged 
the colonization of Algiers, which he visited in 1841 
and 1846. Being returned to the constituent assem- 
bly after the revolution of 1848, he was chosen a 
member of the committee on legislation, elected 
vice-president of the assembly in 1849, and, after 
attending the diplomatic conferences in Brussels 
upon Italian affairs, was secretary of foreign rela- 
tions from 2 June till 31 Oct., 1849, and strongly 
supported the French expedition to Rome. He was 
arrested at the coup d'etat of 2 Dec, 1851, and 
afterward retired to private life. Besides those 
already cited, his works include "Etat social et 
politique de la France," written at the invitation 
of John Stuart Mill, who translated and published 
it in the " Westminster Review " for April, 1836 ; 




<• Memoire sur le pauperisme " (Cherbourg, 1836) ; 
" Lettre sur le svsteme penitentiaire " (Paris, 1838) ; 
" Lettre a Lord Brougham sur le droit de visite " 
(1843) ; " Le droit au travail " (1843) ; and " L'aneien 
regime et la revolution " (1856 ; translated into 
English, New York, 1856). Tocqueville's inedited 
works and correspondence were published by his 
friend, Gustave de Beaumont (2 vols., Paris, 1861 ; 
2 vols., English translation, Boston, 1861) ; and the 
latter also published a complete edition of Tocque- 
ville's works (9 vols., Paris, 1861-5). 

TOD, George, lawyer, b. in Suffield, Conn., 11 
Dec, 1773; d. in Warren county, Ohio, 11 April, 
1841. He was graduated at Yale in 1795, and 
settled in Georgetown, Ohio, in 1800. He was 
■elected state senator in 1804, served as judge of 
the state supreme court from 1806 till 1809, was 
presiding judge of the 3d judicial circuit of Ohio 
from 1815 till 1834, and was afterward prosecuting 
attorney for Warren county. He was appointed 
lieutenant-colonel in the war of 1812. and served 
with credit at the defence of Fort Meigs in May, 
1813. — His son, David, statesman, b. in Youngs- 
town, Mahoning co., Ohio, 21 Feb., 1805 ; d. there, 
13 Nov., 1868, was educated by his father, and 
admitted to the bar in 1827. He practised his pro- 
fession in Warren for fifteen years, was elected to 
the state senate in 1838, and canvassed the state 
for Martin Van Buren in 1840. He was nominated 
for governor in 1844, but was defeated by 1,000 
votes. He was appointed by President Polk min- 
ister to Brazil in 1847, and represented the United 
States there till 1852, when he returned, and took 
part in the canvass which resulted in the election 
of Franklin Pierce. In 1860 he was elected a dele- 
gate to the Charleston convention, was made first 
vice-president of that body, and presided over it 
when the southern wing of the Democratic party 
withdrew. He was an advocate of compromise at 
the opening of the civil war, but was a firm sup- 
porter of the government, and in 1861 was nomi- 
nated for governor of Ohio by the Republicans, and 
elected by a majority of 55,000. During his term 
of two years, beginning 1 Jan., 1862, he gave much 
aid to the National administration. 

TODD, Alpheus, Canadian author, b. in Eng- 
land in 1821 ; d. in Ottawa, Canada, 22 Jan., 1884. 
He removed to Canada in 1833, and prior to the 
union of Upper and Lower Canada was assistant 
librarian to the legislative assembly of the former 
province. He was continued in this office by the 
legislature of the united provinces till 1858, when 
he was appointed chief librarian. When he became 
librarian there were but 1,000 volumes in the libra- 
ry ; now (1888) there are more than 200,000, most 
of which were collected, arranged, and classified 
under his supervision. He published " The Prac- 
tice and Privileges of the Two Houses of Parlia- 
ment" (Toronto, 1839); "Brief Suggestions in 
Regard to the Formation of Local Governments 
for Upper and Lower Canada, in Connection with 
a Federal Union of the British North American 
Provinces," a pamphlet (Ottawa, 1866) ; and " Par- 
liamentary Government in England: its Origin, 
Development, and Practical Operation" (2 vols., 
London, 1867-9).— His brother, Alfred, b. in Eng- 
land in 1821 ; d. in Ottawa, 6 June, 1874, came to 
Canada in 1833, and became chief clerk of the pri- 
vate-bill office of the legislative assembly of Cana- 
da. He published " A Treatise on the Proceedings 
to be adopted in conducting or opposing Private 
Bills in the Parliament of Canada*' (Quebec, 1862). 

TODD, Charles Bnrr, author, b. in Redding, 
Conn., 9 Jan., 1849. He was educated at the com- 
mon schools, and was fitted for college, but failure 

of eyesight prevented him from entering. After 
teaching for some time, he devoted himself to lit- 
erary pursuits, and has contributed to American 
magazines. He was appointed in May, 1877, com- 
missioner for erecting a monument on the winter 
quarters of Gen. Israel Putnam's division of Con- 
tinentals in Redding, Conn., which was authorized 
by act of the Connecticut legislature. He is the 
author of "A General History of the Burr Family 
in America " (New York, 1878) : " A History of 
Redding, Conn." (1880); "Life and Letters of 
Joel Barlow " (1886) ; and " The Story of the City 
of New York " (1888). 

TODD, David Peck, astronomer, b. in Lake 
Ridge, N. Y., 19 March, 1855. He entered Colum- 
bia, but was graduated at Amherst in 1875, and 
appointed chief assistant to the U. S. transit of 
Venus commission in Washington. For three 
years he was engaged in reducing the observations 
of the transit of 1874. and his result for the paral- 
lax of the sun — 8".883 — was the first that was de- 
rived from the American photographs of that 
transit. When at Amherst he began a series of 
observations of the satellites of Jupiter, which was 
assiduously maintained for twelve years, or during 
an entire revolution of the planet. His observa- 
tions on those bodies led him to begin theoretical 
researches on their orbits, and he published "A 
Continuation of De Damoiseau's Tables of the Sat- 
ellites of Jupiter to the Year 1900 " (Washington, 
1876). These are now used in the preparation of 
the "American Ephemeris," the "Berliner astro- 
nomisches Jahrbuch," and elsewhere, and they were 
also extended backward by him to 1665. In 1877 
he began to study the possibility of an extra-Nep- 
tunian planet, from the discrepancies in the motion 
of Uranus ; after which he spent several months 
in the optical search for it, and he is at present 
examining the photographic evidence of its exist- 
ence. In 1878 he was sent to Texas in charge of 
the U. S. government expedition to observe the 
total eclipse of the sun on 29 July, and on his re- 
turn was appointed assistant to Simon Newcomb 
in the preparation of the " American Ephemeris 
and Nautical Almanac," remaining in that office 
until 1881. He then accepted the chair of as- 
tronomy at Amherst, with the directorship of the 
observatory, which appointment he still 'holds, 
and in 1881-7 he was professor of astronomy and 
higher mathematics at Smith college, where in 
1885-7 he was intrusted with the planning and 
construction of the new observatory. Prof. Todd 
was invited by the trustees of the James Lick es- 
tate to direct" the observations of the transit of 
Venus in 1882 from the Lick observatory, and in 
1887 he was placed in charge of the expedition to 
Japan under the auspices of the National academy 
of sciences and the U. S. navy department to ob- 
serve the total solar eclipse of 19 Aug. After that 
event he organized an expedition to the summit of 
Fujiyama, the sacred mountain of Japan, 12,500 
feet in elevation. Astronomical and meteorologi- 
cal observations were made from the summit, which 
have an important bearing on the occupation of 
such peaks for scientific purposes. The degree of 
Ph. D. was conferred on him by Washington and 
Jefferson college in 1888, and he is member of sci- 
entific societies both at home and abroad. His 
writings include contributions to the transactions 
of societies of which he is a member and reports 
to the government. 

TODD, Eli, physician, b. in New Haven, Conn., 
22 July, 1769; d. in Hartford, Conn., 17 Nov., 1833. 
He was graduated at Yale in 1787. and sailed for 
the West Indies shortly afterward, intending to 




travel in Europe and Asia, but was prevented by 
sickness at Trinidad. Having lost the fortune left 
him by his father, he was obliged to prepare for a 
profession, and, selecting that of medicine, he be- 
gan to practise, after the required course of medi- 
cal study, in Farmington, Conn. He removed to 
New York about 1810, but returned to Farming- 
ton, and remained there until 1819, when he went 
to Hartford, where he soon became the chief con- 
sulting physician. In 1821 there was a notable 
increase in the number of insane persons in Hart- 
ford and the neighborhood. Dr. Todd appreciated 
the difficulty of treating them in private practice, 
and it was principally due to him that the atten- 
tion of the profession and public was awakened to 
the necessity of having a special institution for 
their care. He was principally instrumental in 
founding the Retreat for the insane at Hartford, 
one of the earliest of the kind, was elected its 
superintendent, and presided over it till his death. 
Under him it became one of the best-managed in- 
stitutions either in this country or Europe. Dr. 
Todd was repeatedly elected president and vice- 

g resident of the Medical society of Connecticut. 
Le was the author of several professional mono- 
graphs and some occasional addresses. 

TODD, John, soldier, b. in Montgomery county, 
Pa., in 1750 ; d. at the Blue Licks, Ky., 19 Aug., 
1782. He took part in the battle of Point Pleasant, 
Va., in 1774, as adjutant-general to Gen. Andrew 
Lewis. He settled as a lawyer in Fincastle, Va., 
but, with his brothers, emigrated to Fayette coun- 
ty, Ky., in 1775, took part in the organization of 
the Transylvania colonial legislature that year with 
Daniel Boone, and penetrated southwest as far as 
Bowling Green, Ky. In 1776 he settled near Lex- 
ington and was elected a burgess to the Virginia 
legislature, being one of the first two representa- 
tives from Kentucky county, where he served as 
county lieutenant and colonel of militia. He ac- 
companied Gen. George Rogers Clark to Vineennes 
and Kaskaskia, and succeeded him in command of 
the latter place. In 1777 he was commissioned by 
Gov. Patrick Henry, of Virginia, to be colonel and 
commandant of Illinois county, and served two 
years. He organized the civil government of this 
county, which afterward became the state of Illi- 
nois. *Col. Todd went to Virginia in 1779, and was 
a member of the legislature in 1780, where he pro- 
cured land-grants for public schools, and intro- 
duced a bill for negro emancipation. Afterward 
he returned to his family in Kentucky. While 
there he, as senior colonel, commanded the forces 
against the Indians in the battle of Blue Licks, 
where he was killed. — Levi, brother of John, was a 
lieutenant under George Rogers Clark in the expe- 
dition of 1778, and one of the few survivors of the 
Blue Licks; and Levi's son, Robert S., was the 
father of Mrs. Abraham Lincoln. 

TODD, John, author, b. in Rutland, Vt., 9 Oct., 
1800; d. in Pittsfield, Mass., 24 Aug., 1873. His 
boyhood was passed in poverty, but he fitted him- 
self for college, and was graduated at Yale in 1822. 
He spent the following year in teaching, then en- 
tered Andover theological seminary, and in 1827 
was ordained a minister of the Congregational 
church in Groton, Mass. He became pastor of the 
church in Northampton in 1883, of the 1st Con- 
gregational church in Philadelphia in 1836, and of 
the 1st Congregational church in Pittsfield in 1842. 
Here he remained as pastor until May, 1872, when 
his strength was impaired by old age. In 1845 he 
received the degree of D. D. from Williams. Dr. 
Todd took a warm interest in the progress of edu- 
cation, and the Holyoke female seminary partly 

Jfovo. Jcdd 

owes its existence to him. He was a voluminous 
and popular writer. Besides his contributions to 
the " Congregationalist " and other religious peri- 
odicals, and his ser- 
mons, lectures, and 
orations, he pub- 
lished about thirty 
volumes,all of which 
were re - issued in 
England, and sever- 
al of them have been 
translated into Ger- 
man, French, mod- 
ern Greek, Dutch, 
Danish, Italian, Ara- 
bic, Armenian,Turk- 
ish, and Tamil. His 
'■ Lectures to Chil- 
dren " have been 
printed in raised 
letters for the blind, 
and used as a school- 
book in the colony 
of Sierra Leone ; of 
someof hisbooks sev- 
eral hundred thou- 
sand copies have 
been sold, and several of his shorter pieces, notably 
f Hafed's Dream," were for many years favorites 
for school readers. His publications include " Lec- 
tures to Children" (Northampton, 1834; 2d series, 
1858); "Student's Manual" (1835; revised ed., un- 
der the title "Student's Guide," with preface by 
Rev. Thomas Binnev, London, last ed., 1869) ; " In- 
dex Rerum" (1835);*" Truth made Simple" (1839); 
" Great Cities " (1841) ; " The Lost Sister of Wyo- 
ming" (1841); "Hints to Young Men" (1843); 
"Simple Sketches" (Pittsfield, 1843); "Summer 
Gleanings " (London, 1852) ; " Daughter at School " 
(Northampton, 1854) ; " The Angel of the Iceberg, 
and other Stories" (1859) ; " Future Punishment " 
(New York, 1863) ; " Mountain Gems " (4 vols., 
Boston, 1864) ; " The Water- Dove, and other Gems " 
(Edinburgh, 1868); "Sketches and Incidents, or 
Summer Gleanings " (1866) ; " Nuts for Boys to 
Crack" (New York, 1866); "Polished Diamonds" 
(Boston, 1866) ; " Hints and Thoughts for Chris- 
tians " (New York, 1867) : " Serpents in the Dove's 
Nest " (Boston, 1867) ;" Woman's Rights" (1867), 
which elicited from Gail Hamilton a reply entitled 
" Woman's Wrongs : a Counter-irritant " (1868) ; 
" Hints and Thoughts for Christians " (London, 
1869); "The Sunset Land, or the Great Pacific 
Slope" (Boston, 1869): "Missions" (1869); and 
"Old-Fashioned Lives" (1870). 

TODD, John Blair Smith, soldier, b. in Lex- 
ington, Ky., 4 April, 1814 ; d. in Yankton, Dakota, 
5 Jan., 1872. He went with his parents to Illinois 
in 1827, and from that state to the U. S. military 
academy, where he was graduated in 1837 and as- 
signed to the 6th infantry. He was made 1st lieu- 
tenant on 25 Dec, served with his regiment in the 
Florida war from 1837 till 1840, was on recruiting 
service during part of 1841, and in active service 
in the Florida war during the remainder of that 
year and part of 1842. He was made captain in 
1843, and was on frontier dutv in Indian territory 
and Arkansas until 1846. lie served in the war 
with Mexico in 1847, taking part in the siege of 
Vera Cruz and the battles of Cerro Gordo and 
Amazoque. He was on garrison and frontier duty 
till 1855, when he was engaged in the action of 
Blue Water against the Sioux Indians. He re- 
signed on 16 Sept., 1856, and was an Indian trader 
at Fort Randall, Dakota, from that date till 1861, 




when he took his seat as a delegate to congress, 
having been chosen as a Democrat. He served in 
the civil war as brigadier-general of volunteers 
from 19 Sept., 1861, till 17 July, 1802, and was in 
command of the North Missouri district from 15 
Oct. to 1 Dec, 1861. He was again a delegate in 
congress in 1863-5, was elected speaker of the 
house of representatives of Dakota in 1867, and 
was governor of the territory in 1869-'71. 

TODD, Thomas, jurist, b. in King and Queen 
county, Va., 23 Jan., 1765 ; d. in Frankfort, Ky., 7 
Feb., 1826. His father died when he was an in- 
fant, and he had some difficulty in obtaining an 
education. He abandoned his studies to serve in 
the army in the latter part of the Revolution, and 
entered the Manchester troop of cavalry during 
the invasion of Virginia by Arnold and Phillips. 
In 1786 he was tutor in the family of a cousin in 
Danville, Ky., studying law at night. He began 
the practice of his profession toward the end of the 
year, took part in the agitation that had for its ob- 
ject the admission of Kentucky as a state, and 
was appointed clerk of all the conventions that 
preceded that event. He was made clerk of the 
U. S. court for the district of Kentucky, and when 
it became a state in 1799 he was appointed clerk 
of the court of appeals. He was made fourth 
judge of the same court in 1801, and chief justice 
in 1806. He was appointed an associate of the U. S. 
supreme court on 7 Feb., 1826. While he was an 
appellate judge of Kentucky he gave great atten- 
tion to its peculiar system of land laws, originally 
an act of the assembly of Virginia, and his labors, 
both in the state court and the supreme court, were 
instrumental in establishing them on principles of 
law and equity. — His son, Charles Scott, soldier, 
b. near Danville, Ky., 22 Jan., 1791 ; d. in Baton 
Rouge, La., 14 May, 1871, was graduated at Will- 
iam and Mary, Va., in 1809, began the study of 
law under his father, and afterward attended lec- 
tures at Litchfield, Conn. He opened a law-office 
in Lexington in 1811, but volunteered in June, 
1812, for military service. In December he be- 
came division judge -advocate of the Kentucky 
troops, and in this capacity was sent by Gen. Will- 
iam Henry Harrison with private instructions to 
Gen. James Winchester. On his return to Ken- 
tucky he was recommended for a captaincy in the 
regular army by Gen. Harrison, and was appointed 
to a vacancy in the 17th regiment of infantry in 
May. 1813. He was soon afterward transferred to 
the 28th infantry, and appointed aide to Gen. Har- 
rison. He was mentioned in the report of the 
campaign of 1813 as one of the four aides that had 
rendered Harrison "the most important services 
from the opening of the campaign." He was made 
deputy inspector of the 8th military district on 1 
Nov., 1813, and he also acted as adjutant-general in 
the summer of 1814 under Gen. Duncan McArthur, 
who in his report of the expedition into Canada 
attributed much of its fortunate issue " to the mili- 
tary talents, activity, and intelligence of Major 
Todd." He was appointed inspector-general on 2 
March, 1815, with the rank of colonel, but resigned 
in June, and opened a law-office in Frankfort, Ky. 
He was appointed secretary of state by Gov. Madi- 
son in 1817, but resigned and sat in the legislature 
in 1817-'18. In 1820 he was sent on a confidential 
mission to the republic of Colombia. He returned 
to the United States in 1821. but resumed his du- 
ties in South America in 1822, taking with him the 
recognition of its independence by his government. 
Declining several offices, he retired for a time to 
his farm in Shelby county. He was a delegate to 
the Presbyterian general assembly at Philadelphia 

in 1837-'8, and for several years vice-president of 
the State agricultural society. He was a friend of 
Henry Clay, and sustained his claims to the presi- 
dency, but on his withdrawal as a candidate in 
1835 he supported Harrison : and in 1840, on the 
invitations of the states of Ohio and Kentucky, he 
prepared, in conjunction with Benjamin Drake, of 
Cincinnati, a sketch of his civil and military career 
(Cincinnati, 1840). To support Harrison's candi- 
dature he soon afterward took charge of the " Cin- 
cinnati Republican." His relations with Harrison, 
who designed him for the mission to Vienna, were 
confidential. He was sent as U. S. minister to 
Russia by President Tyler, and reached St. Peters- 
burg in November, 1841. He was popular with 
the court and people, and was elected a member of 
the Imperial agricultural society, from which for- 
eigners had heretofore been carefully excluded. 

TOEBBE, Augustus Mary, R. C. bishop, b. in 
Meppen. Hanover, 17 Jan., 1829 ; d. in Covington, 
Ky., 2 May, 1884. He was educated in the gym- 
nasium of Meppen, and, after completing his col- 
legiate course, was for several years engaged in 
mercantile pursuits. He emigrated to the United 
States in 1851, entered the theological seminary 
of Mount St. Mary's, Cincinnati, in 1852, was or- 
dained priest in 1854, and in the following year 
became pastor successively at New Richmond and 
Cumminsville, Ohio. He was appointed in 1857 
assistant pastor of St. Philomena's church, Cin- 
cinnati, and in 1865 pastor. In 1866 he was a 
member of the council of theologians in Baltimore 
to prepare matters for discussion in the second ple- 
nary council. He was consecrated bishop of Cov- 
ington, 9 Jan., 1870. Bishop Toebbe found the 
finances of his diocese in a state of disorder, but 
he showed great administrative ability, and gradu- 
ally raised the debt that had been contracted dur- 
ing the episcopate of his predecessor. He intro- 
duced the Sisters of the Good Shepherd and the 
Sisters of Notre Dame. His death was owing to an 
ailment that he contracted while he was engaged in 
ministerial labors among the workingmen on the 
Cincinnati Southern railroad. During his episco- 
pate the number of churches increased from thirty- 
eight to fifty-two, and the priests from thirty- 
three to fifty-five. He founded several parochial 
schools, which were attended by 6,225 children at 
the time of his death. 

TOICT, Nicolas (twat), clergyman, b. in Lille, 
France, in 1611 ; d. in Paraguay in 1680. He is 
called Del Techo by Spanish writers on the latter 
country. He became a Jesuit in 1630, went to 
Paraguay in 1649, and, on account of his zeal and 
ability, was made superior of the Jesuits in that 
province. He wrote " Nicolai del Techo Societatis 
Jesu Historia Provincial Paraguaria?" and " Re- 
latio Triplex de Rebus Indicis" (Antwerp, 1654). 

TOLEDO, Antonio Sehastian de (to-lay -do), 
Marquis de Mancera, viceroy of Mexico. He was 
a grandee of Spain and chamberlain to the queen, 
and had been ambassador in Venice and Germany, 
when in 1664 he was appointed viceroy of Mexico, 
and took possession of the government on 15 Oct. 
of that year. In the following year St. Augustine, 
of Florida, then depending from the viceroyalty 
of Mexico, was sacked by buccaneers and the 
depredations of Sir Henrv Morgan on the Spanish 
colonies began, and Toledo hastened to send means 
to Florida for providing fortifications and to re- 
enforce the fleet. He sent two expeditions to Cali- 
fornia, but did not obtain any noteworthy results. 
In 1667 some English privateers presented them- 
selves in front of Vera Cruz, but, finding strong 
fortifications, entered Alvarado river and com- 




mitted depreciations. In the same year the interior 
of the cathedral was finished after ninety-five years 
■of work, and the building was consecrated a second 
time. Tired of the responsibilities of his office. 
Toledo solicited his relief after the conclusion of 
his usual term of office in 1670, but the measures 
that he had adopted during his government found 
such approval that the queen regent insisted in 
prolonging his term for three years. In this, time 
the final subjugation of the Tai'ahumaro Indians 
by the capture of the principal caciques took place. 
•On his way to Spain in 1673 Toledo lost his wife in 
Tepeaca, near Mexico. 

TOLEDO, Fernando Alvarez de, Spanish 
soldier and author, lived in the last half of the 16th 
century and the first half of the 17th. He was a 
private soldier, but by feats of daring rose to the 
rank of captain in Chili. He wrote a poem called 
" Puren Indomito," which, after having been lost 
for more than two centuries, was discovered by 
Diego Barros Arana and published by him, forming 
the first series of the " Bibliotheque Americaine " 
(Paris, 1862). The work deserves attention not for 
its literary qualities, but for being a history of the 
Spanish soldiers who conquered Chili, by one of 
themselves. The author is very candid in his pic- 
tures of the corruption and cruelty of his country- 
men. Alfonso de Ovalle, in his " Historica Relacion 
•del Reyno de Chile " (Rome, 1646), quotes the poem 
.as an authority. He adds that Diego Rosales, au- 
thor of a voluminous history of Chili, written 
about 1650, has followed the narrative of Toledo 
page by page. Gonzalez Barcia, in his " Histori- 
. adores primitivos de Indias," quotes the " Puren 
Indomito " in the chapter that is devoted to the 
histories of Chili ; but it afterward sank into oblivi- 
on until it was discovered in the library of Madrid. 

TOLEDO, Francisco de, viceroy of Peru, b. in 
Andalusia about 1520; d. in Seville about 1583. 
He belonged to the noble family of Oropesa, and 
in 1569 was appointed viceroy of Peru, taking 
-charge of the government in Lima on 26 Nov. of 
that year. When the grandson of Huaina-Capac, 
Tupac- Amaru, who, after the death of his brother, 
Sayri-Tupac, was considered by the natives as the 
heir to the crown, refused to surrender, Toledo, 
under the pretext of forwarding re-enforcements 
to Chili, sent in 1572 an expedition of 250 men into 
the mountains of Vilcabamba, where the young 
inca was in hiding with some followers. Martin 
-de Loyola, with a small force, surprised the prince, 
who was carried prisoner to Cuzco, and, after a mock 
trial by the judge, Loarte, was judicially murdered 
by order of the viceroy. Toledo was a legislator and 
statesman of considerable ability and industry, and 
future viceroys referred to his enactments as au- 
thority. He arranged that the Indians should be 
governed by chiefs of their own race, and fixed the 
tribute to be paid by them, exempting all men 
under the age of eighteen and over fifty, thus 
putting a stop to arbitrary demands. He virtually 
abolished the old system of mita, or forced native 
labor, although, in deference to the demands of the 
colonists, he enacted that a seventh part of the 
.adult male population of every village should still 
be obliged to work for the Spaniards, but limiting 
the distance they might be taken from their homes 
and fixing a reward for their services. The Indians 
admitted that the country had not been so well 
governed since the time of Inca Yupanqui. He 
was recalled in 1581, and on 23 Sept. of that year 
delivered the government to his successor, Martin 
Enriquez de Almansa, returning to Spain, where 
he was arrested on the charge of malversation of 
public funds, and died in prison. 

TOLEDO, Garcia de, Spanish missionary. 1>. in 
Oropesa, Spain, about 1510; d. in Talavera, Spain, 
about 1583. He accompanied the viceroy, Mendoza, 
to Mexico in 1535. After a short but brilliant ca- 
reer as statesman, he entered the convent of St. 
Dominick in Mexico. On the demand of his fami- 
ly he was sent back to Spain, where he became the 
spiritual director of St. Teresa, and his frequent 
conversations with this eminent woman only made 
him more anxious to devote his life to the service of 
the Indians. In 1569 his cousin, Francisco de To- 
ledo, was named viceroy of Peru, and invited the 
Dominican to accompany him as spiritual adviser. 
He was beginning to exercise his ministry in Lima 
when the viceroy asked him to be his confidential 
adviser on a tour of the provinces. This journey 
was followed by several others, during one of which 
he converted a tribe of Indians, among whom he 
founded a city to which he gave the name of Oropesa. 
Among the advantages that the Peruvians drew 
from these visits were a number of ordinances ap- 
proved by the great council of the Indies. These 
ordinances were drawn up by him, and for a long 
time formed the basis of (he civil law and the rule 
of Peruvian society. In 1577 he was elected provin- 
cial of Peru. In spite of his great age and infirm- 
ities, he visited every part of his province, founded 
several convents, and repaired old ones. He was in 
a certain sense the second founder of the University 
of Lima. He obtained from his cousin the funds 
needed for the construction of new buildings, as the 
old ones had become too small for the increasing 
number, of students. In 1581 he returned to Spain. 

TOLON, Miguel Teurbe (to-lone), Cuban au- 
thor, b. in Pensacola, Fla., in 1820 ; d. in Havana, 
Cuba, in 1858. When he was a child his parents 
went to Matanzas, Cuba, where he received his 
education and passed a great part of his life. In 
1847 his comedy " Una >i oticia " was performed at 
Matanzas, and in the following year he produced 
another, " Un Caserio.'" In 1848 he was forced to 
emigrate to New York, his political opinions being 
in opposition to the Spanish government. In 
New York he devoted his time to teaching and to 
literary labors, contributing to several newspa- 
pers. He returned to Cuba in 1857, where he died 
soon afterward. He is the author of " Preludios," 
a collection of poems (Matanzas. 1841) ; " Aguinal- 
des Matanzeros " (1847) ; " El Laud del Desterra- 
do " (New York, 1852) ; " Elementary Spanish 
Reader and Translator " (1852) ; " Leyendas Cu- 
banas " (1856) ; and " Flores y Espinas," poems 
(Havana, 1858). 

TOLSA, Manuel, Spanish engineer and sculptor, 
b. in Enguera, Valencia, about 1750; d. in Mexico 
about 1810. He studied architecture and sculpture 
in the Academy of San Carlos of Madrid, and became 
a member of the Academy of fine arts of San Fer- 
nando. In 1781 he went to Mexico as government 
architect, and as such he has left numerous marks of 
his genius in various public buildings, directing the 
erection of the towers of the cathedral in 1787-'91, 
and of the College of mines, for which he made the 
plans and began the building in 1797; but after- 
ward he had to modify the plan, to add a second 
story, which was begun in 1799. In 1798 he be- 
came director of the Academy of San Carlos ; but 
his chief fame rests on the equestrian statue of 
Charles IV., ordered in 1795 by the viceroy, Mar- 
quis de Branciforte, of which a temporary model 
in plaster was erected in 1796. After the working 
model was completed by Tolsa, the statue was cast, 
under his own direction, on 4 Aug.. 1802, with- 
out an accident, notwithstanding that it contains 
thirty tons of bronze. The statue is 15J feet high, 




and was erected on a 2(H-foot stone pedestal, on 
the queen's birthday, 9 Dec, 1803, in the main 

square of Mexico. 
In 1822 it was re- 
moved to the uni- 
versity, and since 
1852 it has stood 
on the Paseo de 
Bucareli, at the 
crossing of the 
Calzada de la Re- 
forma. It is one 
of the finest in 
America, and, ac- 
cording to Hum- 
boldt, second only 
to the statue of 
Marcus Aurelius 
in Rome. When 
England declared 
war againstFrance 
and Spain in 1803, 
Tolsa established a 
foundry in Mexico where many cannon for coast 
defence were successfully cast. 

TOM (known as Blind Tom), musical prodi- 
gy, b. near Columbus, Muscogee co., Ga., 25 May, 
1849. He is of pure negro blood. His parents 
were slaves, and called him by the name of a mem- 
ber of their former owner's family, Thomas Greene 
Bethune. He was born blind, and the only sign 
■of intelligence he gave in infancy was the interest 
he showed in sounds, such as the cries of animals, 
the moaning of the wind, the rushing of waters, 
and the pattering of rain. He could speak at an 
earlier age than other children, and with greater 
distinctness; but his words had no meaning for 
him, and while he was able to repeat entire conver- 
sations, he expressed his own wants by inarticulate 
sounds. When he was four years old a piano was 
brought to his master's house for the use of the 
young ladies of the family, and one night they 
were awakened by hearing him play one of their 
pieces. This was his first effort, yet he played 
with both hands, using the black and white keys. 
After this he was allowed the use of the instru- 
ment, and in a short time he was able to render 
with accuracy all the airs he heard. He also made 
some essays in original, or rather imitative, compo- 
sition. He would run about the yard or fields, re- 
turn to the piano, and, when asked what he was 
playing, would reply : " What the birds said to 
me," or " What the trees said to me." He has 
sometimes been compared to Mozart in childhood, 
but there is no instance recorded in musical his- 
tory comparable to Blind Tom's attainments in 
phonetics and the power of reproduction and re- 
tention of sound at the same early age. Tom was 
brought to the north by his master, and made his 
first appearance in New York, at Hope chapel, 15 
■Jan., 1861, since which time he has travelled widely 
in this country and Europe. His musical feats, 
whether they are the result of mnemonic and imi- 
tative powers, or a genius for music, are astonish- 
ing. He plays one air with his right hand, accom- 
panies it by another air in another key with his 
left, and sings a third air in a third key at the 
same time ; and he can name any combination of 
notes that he hears struck on the piano, no matter 
how disconnected and puzzling the intervals. Not 
only can he play from memory any piece of music, 
however elaborate, after a single hearing, but he 
imitates the improvisation of another, note by 
note, then gives his own idea of it, and accompa- 
nies that with variations. His capacity for the 
vol. vi. — 9 

most difficult musical performances since he was 
first brought to the north by his master has been 
subjected to the severest tests. He can only play 
what he hears or improvises ; but he has about 5,000 
pieces at the disposal of his memory, embracing 
the most difficult selections from Bach, Beethoven, 
Chopin, Gottschalk, and Thalberg. During his per- 
formances he indulges in curious antics, and he ap- 
plauds himself at the end by clapping his hands. 
He recites with ease in Greek, Latin, French, and 
German, besides imitating numberless musical in- 
struments and all sorts of sounds. He has par- 
tially acquired the power of vision, and can now 
see a luminous object within a very small space. 
But while Tom's powers of memory, manual dex- 
terity, and imitative faculties are great, his render- 
ings are devoid of color and individuality. 

TOMES, Robert, physician, b. in New York 
city, 27 March, 1817; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 28 
Aug., 1882. He was graduated at Washington 
(now Trinity) college in 1835, and, after spending 
some time in the medical schools of Philadelphia, 
went to the University of Edinburgh, where he 
received the degree of M. D. in 1840. He then 
studied in Paris, and on his return to the United 
States settled in the practice of his profession in 
New York, but after a few years was appointed 
surgeon on a vessel belonging to the Pacific mail 
steamship company, and made several voyages be- 
tween Panama and San Francisco. In 1865 he was 
appointed U. S. consul at Rheims, France, which 
office he filled until 1867. Returning to the United 
States, he spent most of his life in literary occupa- 
tion. He wrote for journals and magazines, and 
his series of papers in "Harper's Magazine" on 
American manners and society were widely popu- 
lar. He published " The Bourbon Prince " (New 
York, 1853) ; " Richard the Lion-Hearted " (1854) ; 
"Oliver Cromwell" (1855); "Panama in 1855" 
(1855) ; " The Americans in Japan " (1857) ; " The 
Battles of America by Sea and Land" (3 vols., 
1861) ; " The Champagne Country " (1867) ; and 
" The War with the South : a History of the Great 
American Rebellion" (3 vols., 1864-'7; German 
translation, 2 vols., 1864-'7). Dr. Tomes also trans- 
lated works from the French and German. 

TOMLINSON, Gideon, senator, b. in Strat- 
ford, Conn., 31 Dec, 1780 ; d. in Fairfield, Conn., 
8 Oct., 1854. His grandfather was an officer at 
the capture of Ticonderoga. He was graduated 
at Yale in 1802, became a lawyer, and practised at 
Fairfield. He was elected a member of congress 
in 1818, serving from 1819 till 1827. He was chosen 
governor of Connecticut in that year, and con- 
tinued in this office till 1831, when he resigned 
and was elected U. S. senator, serving till 1837. 

TO-MO-CHI-CHI, Indian chief, b. in Georgia 
about 1642; d. there, 5 Oct., 1739. He was the 
chief of a tribe of Creeks that dwelt near Yama- 
craw bluff, the site of Savannah. He met Gen. 
James Oglethorpe in 1733 at the fort that the lat- 
ter built on Savannah river, and with the aid of an 
interpreter satisfactory arrangements were made 
with the neighboring tribes by which the English 
acquired sovereignty over the country that lies be- 
tween Savannah and Altamaha rivers and extends 
westward as far as the tide-waters. The Creek 
chief is represented as ninety-one years old at the 
time, dignified and grave in manner. Although 
he had been expelled by the lower Creeks, he was 
still very influential throughout the confederacy, 
and this influence he exercised then, and during 
the remainder of his life, in favor of the English 
settlers. He presented Oglethorpe with a buffalo- 
skin on which the head and feathers of an eagle 




were painted, and explained that these symbols 
were significant of the swiftness, strength, love for 
the Indian, and power to protect him, which were 
English characteristics. He visited England in 

1734 in company 
with Oglethorpe, 
five other chiefs, 
and members of 
his family. As 
they were the first 
Indians in Lon- 
don since the ap- 
fearance of the 
roquois chiefs 
with Peter Schuy- 
ler in 1710, they 
were objects of 
wonder and admi- 
ration, and were 
treated with great 
distinction. To- 
mo - chi - chi and 
his queen were robed in scarlet and gold, and were 
conveyed to an audience with King George in a 
coach drawn by six horses. He was received gra- 
ciously, and assured of the friendship and protec- 
tion of the English monarch. After a stay of four 
months, during which he received many costly 
presents, he was conveyed with his family in royal 
carriages to the ship on which he embarked for 
Savannah. His funeral ceremonies were very im- 
posing. His body was accompanied to the tomb 
by a long train of Indians, magistrates, and inhab- 
itants of Savannah amid discharges of musketry. 
A pyramid of stone was ordered to be erected over 
his grave in the centre of the city by Oglethorpe. 

TOMPKINS, Daniel D., vice-president of the 
United States, b. in Fox Meadows (now Scarsdale), 
Westchester co., N. Y., 21 June, 1774 ; d. on Staten 
island, N. Y., 11 June, 1825. His father was Jona- 
than G. Tompkins, a farmer, who performed ser- 
vices useful to his country during the Revolution- 
ary conflict. The son was graduated at Columbia 
in 1795, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 
New York city in 1797, gained rapid success in his 

Erofession, and soon began to take part in politics, 
eing elected to the State constitutional conven- 
tion of 1801, and in the same year to the assembly. 
He was a leader of the Republican party in his 
state, and in 1804 was elected to the National house 
of representatives, but resigned on 2 July, before 
the meeting of congress, in order to take his seat 
on the bench of the supreme court of New York, 
having been nominated an associate justice on the 
promotion of James Kent to the chief justiceship. 
On 9 June, 1807, he resigned in order to become 
the candidate for governor of the Democratic wing 
of his party in opposition to Morgan Lewis. He 
was elected by a majority of 4,000 votes, and found 
himself in accord with the legislature in his sup- 
port of the foreign policy of the Jefferson admin- 
istration. He was continued in the office by the 
reunited Republican factions at the elections of 
1809 and 1811. In 1812, in order to prevent the 
establishment of the Bank of North America in 
New York city as the successor to the defunct 
United States bank of Philadelphia, he resorted to 
the extraordinary power of proroguing the legisla- 
ture that the constitution then gave him. which 
no governor ever used except himself in this in- 
stance. The charter of the bank had been approved 
by the house, a part of the Republicans voting with 
the Federalists, and when the legislature reassern- 
bled it was at once passed. In the election of 1813 
his majority was reduced from 10,000 to 4,000, and 

there was a hostile lower house in the next legisla- 
ture. Nevertheless, his bold act made him very 
popular with the common people, and his active- 
patriotism during the war with Great Britain in- 
creased their admiration. He placed the militia 
in the field, and did more than the Federal gov- 
ernment for the success of the operations on the 
Canadian border, pledging his personal and official 
credit when the New York banks refused to lend 
money on the security of the U. S. treasury notes- 
without his indorsement. He advanced the means^ 
to maintain the military school at West Point, to 
continue the recruiting service in Connecticut, and 
to pay the workmen that were employed in the 
manufactory of arms at Springfield. He bought 
the weapons of private citizens that were delivered 
at the arsenal in New York city, and in a short 
time 40,000 militia were mustered and equipped 
for the defence of New York, Plattsburg, Sackett's 
Harboivand Buffalo. When Gen. John Armstrong 
retired from the secretaryship of war after the 
sacking of Washington, President Madison invited 
Tompkins to enter the cabinet as secretary of state 
in the. place of James Monroe, who assumed charge 
of the war department; but he declined on the 
ground that he could be of more service to the 
country as governor of New York. He was re- 
elected in 1815, and in April, 1816, was nominated 
for the vice-presidency of the United States. His 
talents and public services were more conspicuous- 
than those of James Monroe, but the northern 
Democrats were not strong enough to command 
the first place on the ticket. Before resigning the 
governorship and entering on the office of vice- 
president, to which he was elected by 183 out of 
217 votes, he sent a message to the legislature, dated 
28 Jan., 1817, recommending that a day be fixed 
for the abolition of slavery within the bounds of 
the state, and the assembly, acting on his sugges- 
tion, decreed that all slaves should be free on and 
after 4 July, 1827. He was re-elected vice-presi- 
dent by 215 of the 228 votes that were cast in 1820, 
and in the same 
year was proposed 
by his friends as a 
candidate for gov- 
ernor ; but his pop- 
ularity had dimin- 
ished, and charges 
of dishonesty were 
made in connection 
with his large dis- 
bursements during 
the war with Great 
Britain. He was 
a delegate to the 
State constitution- 
al convention of 
1821. The suspi- 
cion of embezzle- 
ment, which were 
due to a confusion 
in his accounts, un- 
balanced his mind 
and brought on a 
melancholy from which he sought escape in intoxi- 
cating drinks, thereby shortening his life. He was 
one of the founders of the New York historical 
society, one of the corporators of the city schools, 
and a regent of the State university. — Daniel's 
nephew, Daniel D., soldier, b. in New York in 
1799; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 26 Feb., 1863, was 
graduated at the U. S. military academy in 1820, 
entered the ordnance corps, and on the reorgani- 
zation of the array was made 2d lieutenant of 




artillery, the ordnance department being at that 
time merged in the artillery, with commission dat- 
ing from 1 July, 1821 He was promoted 1st lieu- 
tenant on 1 March, 1825, and captain on 31 Dec, 
1835, and in the Florida war against the Seminole 
Indians distinguished himself in the skirmish at 
San Velasco, in the battle of Wahoo Swamp, and 
in other actions, and was brevetted major on 11 
Sept., 1836. He was appointed captain and assist- 
ant quartermaster on 7 July, 1838, became a major 
on the staff on 22 July, 1842, and during the Mexi- 
can war had charge of the forwarding of supplies 
from Philadelphia, receiving the brevet of lieuten- 
ant-colonel on 30 May, 1848, for meritorious per- 
formance of duties connected with the prosecution 
of the war. He was made a full lieutenant-colonel 
on 16 Sept., 1851, and colonel and assistant quar- 
termaster-general on 22 Dec, 1856, and from the 
beginning of the civil war till the time of his 
death he served as depot quartermaster 'in New 
York city, furnishing supplies to the armies in the 
field. — A son of the second Daniel D., Charles 
H., soldier, b. in Fort Monroe, Va., 12 Sept., 1830, 
was educated at Kinsley's school at West Point, 
N. Y., and for two years at the U. S. military acad- 
emy, but resigned without completing the course. 
He entered the service in 1856 in the dragoons, and 
after an enlistment of three years on the frontier, 
during which he passed through the principal non- 
commissioned grades, he was appointed 2d lieuten- 
ant in the 2d U. S. cavalry, 23 March-, 1861, and 
was promoted 1st lieutenant in April of the same 
year. While commanding a squadron of his regi- 
ment, the 5th cavalry, within the defences of Wash- 
ington, he made a dashing reconnoissance in the 
direction of Fairfax Court-House, Va., 31 May, 
1861. It was at night and resulted in the capture 
of two outposts of the enemy, with an estimated 
loss of twenty-five Confederates. Lieut. Tompkins 
charged three times through the town, losing sev- 
eral men and horses, including two chargers which 
were shot under him. As one of the first cavalry 
affairs of the war, it attracted wide attention. Sub- 
sequently he served in the battle of Bull Run and 
upon the staff of Gen. George Stoneman. He was 
appointed captain and assistant quartermaster, 
served for a few months as colonel of the 1st Ver- 
mont cavalry, as lieutenant-colonel and quarter- 
master of volunteers in 1865-'6, and colonel and 
quartermaster in 1866-'7. He was made deputy 
quartermaster-general in the regular army in 1866, 
and assistant quartermaster-general with rank of 
colonel, 24 Jan., 1881. He participated in the 
operations of Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks and Gen. 
John Pope in the Shenandoah campaign, and was 
recommended for the appointment of brigadier- 
general of volunteers for conspicuous services at 
the battle of Cedar Creek, Va. He has served from 
1865 till 1888 as chief quartermaster of the prin- 
cipal military divisions of the army, and was at the 
last-named date chief quartermaster of the divis- 
ion of the Atlantic. He was brevetted major for 
Fairfax Court-House, lieutenant-colonel for the 
Shenandoah campaign, and colonel and brigadier- 
general, 13 March, 1865, for meritorious services 
during the war. 

TOMPSON, William, clergyman, b. in Lan- 
cashire, England, in 1598 ; d. in Braintree, Mass., 
10 Dec, 1666. He emigrated to this country about 
1634, and became first pastor of the church at 
Braintree (now Quincy). He went on a mission to 
Virginia in 1642, but was silenced for non-conform- 
ity and compelled to return to New England. He 
was an acceptable preacher, and described by Cot- 
ton Mather as a "pillar of the American church " ; 

but he was subject to fits of depression, and in one 
of them committed suicide. His contemporaries 
describe him as "an author of reputation," but, 
with the exception of several prefaces to the books 
of others, his publications have all perished. — His 
son, Benjamin, educator, b. in Braintree, Mass., 
14 July, 1642 ; d. 13 April, 1714, was graduated at 
Harvard in 1662, became master of the Boston 
Latin-school in 1667, and three years later took 
charge of the Cambridge school, preparatory to 
Harvard, which post he held for nearly forty years. 
He probably died in Cambridge, but is buried in 
Roxbury. The inscription on his tombstone de- 
scribes him as " a learned school-master and phy- 
sician, and y e renowned poet of New England." 
He wrote an " Elegy on the Rev. Samuel Whit- 
ing, of Lynn, Mass.," which is printed in Cotton 
Mather's " Magnalia," and a poem of some merit 
descriptive of King Philip's war, entitled " New 
England's Crisis " (Cambridge, 1675). — Benjamin's 
son, Edward, clergyman, b. in Boston, Mass., 20 
April, 1665 ; d. in Marshfield, Mass., 10 March, 
1705, was graduated at Harvard in 1684, taught 
for several years at Newbury, and from 14 Oct., 
1696, until his death was pastor of the church at 
Marshfield, Mass. On his tombstone is inscribed : 
" Here in a tyrant's hand doth captive lie 
A rare synopsis of divinity." 
His last sermons, entitled " Heaven the Best Coun- 
try," were published (1712). 

TONE, William Theobald Wolfe, soldier, b. 
in Dublin, Ireland, 29 April, 1791 ; d. in New York 
city, 10 Oct., 1828. He was the eldest son of the 
Irish patriot and French general, Theobald Wolfe 
Tone. After the tragic death of his father he 
was declared an adopted child of the French re- 
public by the Directory, and educated with his 
younger brother in the Prytaneum and Imperial 
lyceum at the national expense. During this 
period he wrote a work on the legislation of the 
Goths in Italy, which was favorably noticed by 
the institute. He was appointed a cadet in the 
Imperial school of cavalry on 3 Nov., 1810, and 
remained there until January, 1813, when he was 
promoted to be sub-lieutenant in the 8th regiment 
of chasseurs. He distinguished himself in the 
engagements of that year, and received six lance 
wounds at the battle of Leipsic He was then 
made lieutenant on the staff, aide-de-camp to Gen. 
Bagneres, and member of the Legion of honor. 
After the fall of Napoleon he gave himself to 
literary and antiquarian studies. But, when Louis 
XVIII. left the kingdom, he considered himself ab- 
solved from his allegiance, and served again under 
Napoleon, and was employed by him in organizing 
defensive forces on the Rhine and on the Spanish 
frontier. He left the French army after the battle 
of Waterloo, and came to the United States in 
1816. He studied law for some time, and wrote 
papers on military tactics. He was appointed 2d 
lieutenant of light artillery on 12 July, 1820, and 
was transferred to the 1st artillery on 1 June, 
1821, but resigned on 31 Dec, 1826, and mar- 
ried a daughter of William Sampson. He pub- 
lished "L'Etat civil et politique de l'ltalie sous 
la domination des Goths v (Paris, 1813) ; " Life of 
Theobald Wolfe Tone, written by Himself and con- 
tinued by his Son : with his Political Writings, 
etc. ; edited bv his Son, William Theobald Wolfe 
Tone, with a Brief Account of his own Education 
and Campaigns under the Emperor Napoleon" 
(2 vols., Washington, 1826; London, 1827); and 
" School of Cavalry, or a System for Instruction, 
etc., proposed for the Cavalry of the United States " 
(Georgetown, D. C, 1824). 




TONER, Joseph Meredith, physician, b. in 
Pittsburg, Pa., 30 April, 1825. He received his clas- 
sical education at Western Pennsylvania university 
and Mount St. Mary's college, was graduated at 
Vermont medical college in 1850 and Jefferson 
medical college in 1853, and, after a short resi- 
dence in Summitsville, Pa., and Harper's Ferry, 
Va., settled in Washington, D. C, in 1855. He was 
a founder of Providence hospital and of St. Ann's 
infant asylum, to which he is a visiting physician, 
and since 1856 has been the attending physician to 
St. Joseph's orphan asylum. Aware of the per- 
ishable character of much of the early medical lit- 
erature of this country, he devised a scheme for a 
repository of medical works that should be under 
the control of that profession in the United States 
and located at Washington, D. C. His resolution 
on that subject was adopted by the American medi- 
cal association in 1868, and resulted in the estab- 
lishment of the library of the American medical 
association. The collection is placed in the Smith- 
sonian institution, and has reached the number of 
6,000 volumes, including pamphlets. In 1871 he 
founded the Toner lectures by placing $3,000 (which 
has grown to $5,000) in the hands of trustees, who 
are charged with the duty of annually procuring 
two lectures that contain some new fact valuable 
to medical science, the interest on the fund, save 
ten per cent, which is added to the permanent 
fund, being paid to the authors of the essays. 
These lectures are included in the regular list of 
the publications of the Smithsonian institution. It 
is the first attempt that has been made in this 
country to endow a course of lectures on such con- 
ditions. He gave in 1875 and three subsequent 
years the Toner medal at Jefferson medical college, 
to be awarded to the best thesis that embodies the 
results of original investigation. For many years 
he has given a similar medal to the University of 
Georgetown. He was president of the American 
medical association in 1873 and of the American 
health association in 1874, a vice-president of the 
International medical congress in 1876, and a vice- 
president and registrar of the International medi- 
cal congress in 1887. Dr. Toner has devoted much 
time and research to early American medical litera- 
ture, and has collected over 1,000 treatises pub- 
lished before 1800, and, besides publishing numer- 
ous monographs, has in preparation a " Biographi- 
cal Dictionary of Deceased American Physicians," 
of which more than 4,000 sketches are completed. 
He is an authority in the medical, biographical, 
and local history of the District of Columbia, and 
has devised a system of symbols of geographical 
localities, which has been adopted by the U. S. 
post-office department. In 1882 he gave his entire 
library, including manuscripts, to the U. S. gov- 
ernment. It consisted of 26,000 books and 18,000 
pamphlets. He is a member of numerous medical, 
historical, and philosophical associations, has pub- 
lished more than fifty pamphlets, which include 
" Maternal Instinct " (Baltimore, 1864) ; " Compul- 
sory Vaccination " (1865) ; " Medical Register of the 
District of Columbia " (1867) ; " Necrological No- 
tices of Deceased Surgeons in the Rebellion " (Wash- 
ington, 1870) ; " Medical Register of the United 
States " (Philadelphia, 1874) ; " Dictionary of Ele- 
vations and Climatic Register of the United States " 
(New York, 1874); "Annals of Medical Progress 
and Medical Education in the United States " 
(1874); "Medical Men of the Revolution " (Phila- 
delphia, 1876) ; " Rocky Mountain Medical Associa- 
tion " (1877) ; and " Memorial Volume, with a Biog- 
raphy of its Members" (Washington, 1877). See 
life by Thomas Antisell (Washington, 1878). 

TONTY, or TONTI, Chevalier Henry de, Ital- 
ian explorer, b. in Gaeta, Italy, about 1650 : d. in Mo- 
bile, La. (now Ala.), in September, 1 704. His father, 
Lorenzo, was the inventor of the system of annui- 
ties that is called the Tontine. Henry took part 
in several naval and military engagements when 
quite young, in one of which he lost a hand. Its 
place was supplied by an iron one, which he used 
skilfully. On the recommendation of the Prince 
de Conti, the Sieur de La Salle took him into his 
service, and he embarked with the latter for Que- 
bec on 14 July, 1678. He completed the fort at 
Niagara, which had been designed by La Salle, and 
garrisoned it with thirty men. In 1679 he visited 
several of the Indian tribes, went to Detroit in ad- 
vance of La Salle, having first taken steps to 
strengthen and provision his garrison, and ad- 
vanced into the country of the Illinois, whom he 
won to the side of the French ; but this alliance 
proved unfortunate for the Illinois, who were at- 
tacked by the Iroquois on account of it and de- 
feated with loss almost under the eyes of Tonti. 
In 1680 he was ordered by La Salle to build a fort 
on the river of the Illinois,' but, learning that Fort 
Crevecceur was threatened by the Iroquois, he 
marched to its aid. There he met the Indians and 
had some parleying with them, during which he 
was wounded by an Onondaga warrior. Believing 
that the fort was not defensible, he retired in Sep- 
tember with the five men that constituted its gar- 
rison. He sailed up the Illinois, experiencing some 
losses in the voyage, and wintered in the Bay of 
Lake Michigan (Green bay) in 1681. He was sent 
by La Salle the same year to finish the fort on the 
Illinois which was begun the preceding year, to 
which he gave the name of St. Louis. He de- 
scended the Mississippi with La Salle, but on 15 
May, 1682, was despatched by the latter, who had 
fallen sick, to Mackinaw for assistance. In 1684 
he was at Fort St. Louis and repelled an attack of 
the Iroquois. In 1686 he went to the mouth of 
Mississippi river by way of Chicago and Fort Louis 
to seek tidings of La Salle, and on his return to 
Montreal he was sent to the Illinois country to col- 
lect a large force of Illinois Indians for the Seneca 
campaign. He was able to bring only eighty to 
Detroit, with whom he took part in the expedition 
of Denonville. Disheartened by the death of La 
Salle and of almost all the companions of his early 
adventures, he spent the last years of his life 
among the Illinois, who became much attached to 
him. He was discovered there by Iberville in 1700, 
supporting himself by hunting and trading in furs. 
A work purporting to be Tonti's memoirs was pub- 
lished in Paris in 1697, entitled "Dernieres de- 
couvertes de la Salle dans l'Amerique septentri- 
onale " (English translation, London, 1698 ; New 
York, 1814). Tonti declared to Iberville as well as 
to Father Marest that he had no hand in this work, 
which is full of errors and exaggerations. The 
real memoirs of Tonti have been published by Pierre 
Margry in " Origines Francaises des pays d'outre- 
mer ' (Paris, 1877-9). Vol. i. contains "Voyages 
et etat des Francs sur les lacs et le Mississippi 
sous les ordres de MM. de la Salle et de Tonty ae 
1678 a 1684," and vol. iii. " Lettres de Henri de 
Tonty sur ce qu'il a appris de M. de la Salle, le 
voyage qu'il a fait pour l'aller chercher et son de- 
part prochain pour marcher contre les Iroquois, 
1686-1689." Tonti wrote in 1693 a memoir ad- 
dressed to Count de Pontchartrain, which is also 
published in Margry's " Origines " (1867). 

TONYN, Patrick, British soldier, b. in 1725; 
d. in London, England, 30 Dec, 1804. He became a 
captain in the 6th dragoons in 1751, with which regi- 


ment he served in Germany in 1758, was made 
lieutenant-colonel of the 104th regiment in 1761, 
and in 1775-'83 was governor of East Florida. On 
1 Jan., 1798, he became general. 

TOOKE, John Home, English politician, b. in 
Westminster, England, 25 June, 1736 ; d. in Wim- 
bledon, England, 18 March, 1812. He changed his 
name from Home to take an estate that was be- 
queathed him by William Tooke in 1782. He was 
a minister of the established church, a follower of 
John Wilkes, and in 1768 a founder of the Society 
for the support of the bill of rights. He bitterly 
opposed the coercion of the American colonies, and, 
after the battles of Lexington and Concord, adver- 
tised for a subscription for " the widows and or- 
phans of the American soldiers who were murdered 
by the king's troops." The ministry prosecuted 
him for libel, and he was tried at Guilford hall in 
July, 1777. He conducted his own defence, that he 
might personally attack the government, and was 
condemned to one year's imprisonment, and to pay 
a fine of £200. While in jail he published his cele- 
brated " Letter to Mr. Dunning," in which he criti- 
cally explained the case of the King vs. Lawley, 
which had been used as a precedent against him- 
self on his trial. He served in parliament in 1801-'2, 
and was an important factor in the Liberal party. 
His numerous publications are included in " Me- 
moirs of John Home Tooke, together with his valu- 
able Speeches and Writings, by John A. Graham 
(New York, 1828). See " Memoirs of John Home 
Tooke, with Original Documents," by Alexander 
Stephens (2 vols., 1813). 

TOOMBS, Robert, senator, b. in Wilkes countv, 
Ga., 2 July, 1810 ; d. in Washington, Ga., 15 Dec., 
1885. He studied at the University of Georgia, 
was graduated at Union college in 1828, attended 

lectures in the law 
department of the 
University of Vir- 
ginia the next year, 
and in 1830, by a 
special act of the 
legislature, was ad- 
mitted to the bar 
before he had at- 
tained his majority. 
He then settled in 
his native county, 
subsequently attain- 
as few lawyers ever 
enjoyed in the state. 
When the war with 
the Creek Indians 
began in 1836 he 
raised a company of 
volunteers, led them 
as their captain, and served under Gen. Winfield 
Scott until the close of hostilities. He was in the 
legislature in 1837-40, and in 1842-'3 took an ac- 
tive part in politics, and was a leader of the so-called 
" State-rights Whigs." He supported William H. 
Harrison for the presidency in 1840, and Henry 
Clay in 1844, and in the latter year was chosen to 
congress as a Southern Whig. His first speech in 
the house of representatives was on the Oregon 
question, and placed him among the first debaters 
and orators in that body. He was active in the 
compromise measures in 1850, and greatly con- 
tributed to their passage. After eight years' ser- 
vice in the house he took his seat in the U. S. senate 
in March, 1853, holding office by re-election till 
1861. As a senator he was intolerant, dogmatic, 
and extreme, but able and eloquent. He believed 



in the absolute sovereignty of the states, and that 
it was a necessity for the south both to maintain 
and extend slavery. He advocated disunion with 
all the force of his oratory, and after the election 
of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency made a series 
of speeches in Georgia in which he asserted that 
the north would no longer respect the constitu- 
tional rights of the south, and that secession was 
the only remedy. When the State convention met 
in 1861, he was mainly instrumental in securing 
the majority of votes on the resolution to secede. 
He resigned his seat in the U. S. senate in January, 
1861, and in March was formally expelled from that 
body. He was a member of the Confederate con- 
gress at its first session, and but for a misunder- 
standing might have been chosen president of the 
Confederacy. After the election of Jefferson Davis 
he became secretary of state, but resigned in a few 
weeks to take the commission of brigadier-general 
in the army. He fought at the second battle of 
Bull Run and at the Antietam, but resigned and 
returned to Georgia. In 1864 he commanded the 
militia, of which he was brigadier-general. After 
the war he eluded arrest as a political prisoner, and 
passed two years in Cuba, France, and England, 
but returned on the restoration in 1867 of the privi- 
lege of habeas corpus, resumed practice, and ac- 
cumulated an estate that was estimated at about 
% 500,000. As he refused to take the oath of alle- 
giance to the U. S. government, he was debarred 
from all the rights and privileges of citizenship. 
He was a member of the Georgia Democratic 
state convention in 1872, and advocated Horace 
Greeley as a candidate for the presidency. In 1874 
he began the railroad war, to which he devoted his 
energies until his death. The legislature of that 
year had passed a law taxing railroads as all other 
property was taxed. The railroads resisted, and 
Gen. Toombs, in behalf of the state, took the mat- 
ter into court, established the principle that they 
should pay the same taxes as other property, and 
collected $300,000, including some arrears of taxes. 
In the State convention of 1877 he introduced a 
resolution providing for the appointment of three 
commissioners who should have the power to over- 
see the business of the roads, to make and unmake 
rates, and to order improvements. In accordance 
with this provision, the next legislature adopted 
what is known as the commission railroad law. He 
continued his hostility to the United States govern- 
ment until his death. 

TOPETE, Juan Bautista (to-pay'-tay), Span- 
ish naval officer, b. in Tlacotalpan, Mexico, 24 
May, 1821. His parents retired to Spain after the 
country had won its independence, and he entered 
the Spanish navy as a midshipman. In 1865 he 
was post-captain, commanding one of the ships of 
the Spanish fleet in the Pacific, and after the sui- 
cide of Admiral Jose de Pareja, when Admiral 
Mendez Nufiez assumed command, Topete became 
second commander of the expedition with the rank 
of commodore, and participated in the bombard- 
ment of Valparaiso, 31 March, 1866, and in the 
attack on Callao, 2 May, 1866, where he was danger- 
ously wounded. When Admiral Nunez sailed in 
the "Numancia" on a voyage round the world, 
Topete assumed command of the rest of the fleet, 
which he brought back to Spain in 1867. He was 
promoted rear-admiral and commander of the iron- 
clad squadron at Cadiz, and pronounced against 
the government, 17 Sept., 1868, with Gen. Prim, 
who arrived on board the fleet on 19 Sept. He 
became a member of the provisional government 
as secretary of the navy on 8 Oct., and was later 
returned to the constituent cortes by the city of 




Madrid. During his administration he took vigor- 
ous measures against the insurgents in Cuba, and 
obtained, in April, 1869, supplementary credits for 
that purpose. He was a stanch supporter of the 
candidacy of Montpensier, left the cabinet in No- 
vember, 1869, to become vice - president of the 
cortes, was again secretary of the navy, 10 Jan., 
1870. and secretary for the colonies in Sagasta's 
cabinet in December, 1871. Under Serrano's re- 
gency he was provisional president of the cabinet 
till 3 June, 1872, secretary of the navy and war till 
the suspension of constitutional guarantees, 24 
June, 1872, and during the republic retired from 
service. After the virtual fall of the republic he 
held again, from 3 Jan. till 12 May, 1874, the port- 
folio of the navy under Serrano, and accompanied 
him to the seat of war, taking part in the relief of 
Bilbao, 25-27 March, 1874, where he was severely 
wounded. After the accession of Alfonso XII., 12 
Dec, 1874, he retired to private life. 

TOPP, Alexander, Canadian clergyman, b. near 
Elgin, Morayshire, Scotland, in 1815 ; d. in Toronto, 
Canada, 6 Oct., 1879. He was educated at Elgin 
academy and King's college, Aberdeen, and was 
licensed to preach in 1836. He was pastor of Elgin 
church in 1836-'52; of Roxburgh church, Edin- 
burgh, in 1852-'8; and in 1858 took charge of 
Knox church, Toronto, Canada, where he remained 
until his death. In 1868 he was elected moderator 
of the general assembly, was one of the chief agents 
in consummating the union of the Presbyterian 
churches in Canada in 1875, and was again elected 
moderator of the general assembly in 1876. In 1877 
he attended the Pan-Presbyterian council at Edin- 
burgh. In 1870 he received the degree of D. D. 
from the University of Aberdeen. 

TOPPAN, Robert Noxon, author, b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 17 Oct., 1836. He was graduated at 
Harvard in 1858 and at Columbia law-school in 
1861, and became a practising lawyer, afterward 
removing to Cambridge, Mass. He is a member 
of various historical and antiquarian societies, 
served on the international coinage committee of 
the American social science association, and was a 
delegate in 1878 to the International congress for 
the nullification of weights, measures, and money. 
He has translated Theodore Simon Jouffroy's 
" Ethics " (New York, 1862), and is the author of 
" Historical Succession of Monetary Metallic Stand- 
ards," a pamphlet (1877) ; li Some Modern Monetary 
Questions," a pamphlet (Philadelphia, 1881) ; " His- 
torical Summary of Metallic Money" (Boston, 
1884) ; and " Biographical Sketches of Old New- 
bury" (Newburyport, 1885). 

TORAL, Francisco de, Mexican R. C. bishop, 
b. in Ubeda, Spain, in 1502 ; d. in Mexico, 20 April, 
1571. He received his education at Seville, and 
when nineteen years old became a Franciscan friar. 
In 1525 he went to Santo Domingo, and later he 
was sent to New Spain, where he learned Aztec and 
the difficult Totonaca language, and became pro- 
fessor of Indian dialects in the convent of his or- 
der at Mexico. After years of labor he invented 
a new method of teaching the Indian dialects, and 
afforded aid to the conquerors. Later he was sent 
to Yucatan, where he founded large and prosper- 
ous missions and gained the confidence of the 
Indians to such an extent that he became their 
legislator. He was appointed in 1549 superior of 
the convent of Tecamachalco, assisted in the gen- 
eral assembly of the Franciscan order at Salamanca 
in 1558, returning to Mexico in the following year 
with thirty-six new missionaries, and was appointed 
provincial of the province of Tlaxcala. Early in 
1562 he was made first bishop of Yucatan, and 

being consecrated at Mexico, 15 Aug., 1562, fixed 
his residence at Merida. During the following years 
he did much to improve and organize his diocese, 
founded benevolent institutions for the benefit of 
the Indians, and built at Merida a cathedral, a 
seminary, and a hospital. In 1565 he assisted at 
Mexico in the synod of the Mexican bishops under 
Archbishop Montufar. He died suddenly in Mexi- 
co during a journey that he undertook' to confer 
with the archbishop. Toral's works include " Arte 
y Vocabulario de la lengua Totonaca" (Salamanca, 
1553) and " Tratado de la lengua Mexicana " (1554). 
The " Cartas de Indias," a recent state publication, 
contains letters and memoirs of Bishop Toral. 

TORBERT, Alfred Thomas Archimedes, sol- 
dier, b. in Georgetown, Del., 1 July. 1833 ; d. at 
sea, 30 Sept., 1880. He was graduated at the U. S. 
military academy in 1855, assigned to the 5th in- 
fantry, served on frontier duty during the next 
five years in Tex- 
as and Florida, 
on the Utah ex- 

8 edition, and in 
Tew Mexico, be- 
ing promoted 1st 
lieutenant, 25 
Feb., 1861. In 
April, 1861, he 
was sent to mus- 
ter in New Jer- 
sey volunteers, 
and was made 
colonel, on 16 
Sept., of the 1st 
New Jersey regi- 
ment. On 25 
Sept., 1861, he 
was promoted to 
captain in the 
5th U. S. infantry. Col. Torbert served through 
the peninsula campaign, was given a brigade in 
the 6th corps on 28 Aug., 1862, and fought in the 
battle of Manassas on the two following days. 
He also took part in the Maryland campaign, 
and was wounded at the battle of Crampton's 
Gap, 14 Sept., where he made a brilliant bayonet 
charge. He was commissioned brigadier-general 
of volunteers on 29 Nov., 1862, and was at Gettys- 
burg. He fought his last battle in the infantry 
at Rappahannock station, 7 Nov., 1863, and in 
April, 1864, was placed in command of the 1st 
division of cavalry of the Army of the Potomac, 
participating in the skirmishes at Milford station 
and North Anna river. He commanded .at Hano- 
vertown, and then participated in the cavalry bat- 
tle at Hawes's shop, 28 May, 1864, for which he 
was brevetted lieutenant-colonel, U. S. army. He 
also repelled the enemy at Matadequin creek, 30 
May, and drove them close to Cold Harbor. He 
took that place on the 31st with cavalry alone, 
after a severe fight, before the arrival of the infant- 
ry, and held it the next day against repeated as- 
saults. He was now ordered by Gen. Sheridan, with 
another division, to make a raid to Charlottesville, 
had the advance, and commanded at Trevillian 
station on 11 June. On 8 Aug., 1864, Gen. Torbert 
was made chief of cavalry of the middle military 
division, and given command of three divisions 
when Gen. Sheridan took command of the Army 
of the Shenandoah. When Sheridan was closely 
pressed at Winchester, Torbert was specially active 
with the cavalry and aided in putting the enemy 
to flight, for which he was brevetted colonel on 19 
Sept., 1864. He had been brevetted major-general 
of volunteers on the previous 9 Sept. Returning 




♦through the valley, he halted after several actions 
«t the command of Gen. Sheridan, and fought the 
cavalry battle at Tom's river on 9 Oct., completely 
routing Gen. Thomas L. Rosser's command, and 
pursuing it many miles. On 19 Oct., at Cedar 
Creek, Gen. Torbert assisted the 6th corps in hold- 
ing the pike to Winchester against desperate as- 
saults. He commanded at Liberty Mills and Gor- 
donsville on 22-23 Dec, 1864, when his active ser- 
vice ended. After his return from a leave of ab- 
.sence on 27 Feb., 1865, he was in command of the 
Army of the Shenandoah, 22 April till 12 July, 
1865, of the district of Winchester till 1 Sept., and 
of southeastern Virginia till 81 Dec. On 13 March, 

1865, he was brevetted brigadier -general, U. S. 
.army, for Cedar Creek, and major-general for gal- 
lant and meritorious services during the war. He 
was mustered out of the volunteer service, 15 Jan., 
•1866, and resigned from the regular army, 31 Oct., 

1866. He was appointed in 1869 minister to San 
iSalvador, transferred as consul-general to Havana 
•two years later, and filled the same post at Paris 
from 1873 till his resignation in 1878. He lost his 
life, while on his way to Mexico as president of a 
■mining company, on the steamer "Vera Cruz," 
which foundered off the coast of Florida. 

bio Alfonso, Spanish - American archbishop, b. 
in Mayorga, Spain, 6 Nov., 1538 ; d. in Sana, Peru, 
:23 March, 1606. After finishing his studies in 
Valladolid, he led a life of the severest asceticism, 
•until he was summoned to a professorship in the 
•College of San Salvador in 1575. He became a 
favorite with Philip II., and, after occupying many 
important offices, was made chief magistrate of 
•Granada. In 1580 the Spanish monarch nominated 
him to the vacant see of Lima, although he was 
.at the time a layman. At first he refused, but it 
was believed that Toribio was needed in America 
to bring about a reformation in the lives of the 
: Spanish colonists, whose profligacy was making the 
.conversion of the natives almost impossible. He 
received, therefore, all the holy orders requisite 
for a priest on four successive Sundays, was af- 
terward consecrated bishop, sailed for Peru, by 
way of Panama, entered Lima on 24 May, 1581, 
;and soon afterward made a formal visitation of 
his immense diocese, which extended along the 
coast for nearly 400 miles, and was almost desti- 
tute of means of communication. He proclaimed 
himself the protector of the natives, and resumed 
■the contest with their persecutors, from which 
Las Casas had retired in despair. In 1583 he 
held a provisional council at Lima, in which the 
plans that he suggested for the reformation of 
morals and for the amelioration of the condition of 
the Indians met with violent opposition from sev- 
eral of his suffragan bishops. He had also serious 
■ difficulties with Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, vice- 
roy of Peru, and his conduct was censured by 
Philip II. Nevertheless he continued to befriend 
the Indians. His charity was without bounds, and 
not only his money, silver plate, etc., were devoted 
to the relief of the needy, but he was often known 
to take the shirt from his back and bestow it on 
a native. He learned at an advanced age several 
of • the Indian idioms, and spoke Quechua, the 
language of the incas, as it has been called. He 
established missions in the most remote and inac- 
cessible places, and founded several churches, semi- 
naries, and institutions for the poor and sick. He 
was on his third diocesan visitation when he learned 
that part of his diocese, several hundred miles from 
Lima, was devastated by the plague. Hurrying 
.thither to give the sufferers spiritual and physical 

aid, he over-exerted himself, and fell a victim to 
exhaustion in Sana. His body was taken to Lima, 
he was beatified in 1679 by Pope Innocent XL, and 
canonized by Benedict XIII. in 1726. His life was 
written by Antonio Leon Pinelo (Madrid, 1653). 

TORICES, Manuel Rodriguez (to-re'-thays), 
Colombian patriot, b. in Cartagena, 24 May, 1788 ; 
d. in Bogota, 5 Oct., 1816. He received his edu- 
cation in the College of Rosario in Bogota, where 
he was graduated in law, but, being fond of scien- 
tific investigations, he did not practise his profes- 
sion, and, retiring to his native city, devoted himself 
to meteorological observations. When the revo- 
lution of 1810 began, the governing junta com- 
missioned him, with Fernandez Madrid, to edit 
the patriotic paper " Argos Americano." He was 
elected a member of the municipal council in 1811, 
and in 1812 president of the constituent assembly 
of the state, and, in consequence of the governor's 
resignation, was elected by the assembly, 25 March, 
1812, to the executive, with dictatorial powers. 
When Santa Marta declared in favor of the Span- 
iards, Torices sent state troops, under command of 
the French adventurer Labatout, to retake the 
city, which was occupied on 6 Jan., 1813 ; but on 
5 March a counter-revolution put the place again in 
the hands of the Spaniards. Torices now marched 
at the head of re-enforcements against Santa 
Marta, but was defeated on 10 and 11 May. Af- 
ter the defeat and capture of Nariiio by the Span- 
iards in 1814, the Federal congress of Tunja re- 
solved to confide the national executive to a trium- 
virate, consisting of Restrepo, Rovira, and Tori- 
ces, and in January, 1815, the last-named went to 
Bogota, and was elected to the presidency of the 
triumvirate. He commissioned Bolivar to march 
against Santa Marta ; but, the state government of 
Cartagena refusing to co-operate, the expedition 
was prevented, and Bolivar sailed for Jamaica on 
8 May, the royalists obtaining great advantages 
for want of combined action by the patriot chiefs. 
In November of that year the triumvirate was su- 
perseded by the election of Dr. Camilo Torres as 
president ; but Torices, as vice-president, remained 
one of his principal advisers, and when, after the 
defeat of Garcia Rovira at Cachiri, and the ap- 
proach of the royalist troops, the evacuation of the 
capital was decided upon, Torices fled with Torres 
and others, was captured at Buenaventura, taken 
to Bogota, and shot by order of Gen. Morillo. 

TORNOS, Alberto de, educator, b. in Carinena, 
Aragon, Spain, 9 April, 1821 ; d. in New York city, 
22 March, 1887. His father, Andres de Tornos y 
Beltran, was a well-known lawyer. The son became 
a teacher, and, after holding several offices in Spain, 
went to Porto Rico in 1845, where he was appointed 
by royal order director of the seminary of teachers 
of the island. On 19 May, 1845, he received his 
diploma as a graduate of the normal school at Mad- 
rid, with the title of professor and director of nor- 
mal schools of the kingdom of Spain. As director 
of the Central military academy of Porto Rico he 
was given the title of captain. After occupying 
many posts in Porto Rico, Cuba, and Mexico, he 
came to the United States about 1848. He held 
the office of professor of languages at Spring Hill 
college, Ala., for three vears, and a similar post at 
the University of Louisiana, where he remained 
for many years. He wrote for Hie press on educa- 
tional topics, and did much to promote publicin- 
struction. He was professor of Spanish at the New 
York evening high-school about twenty years, lie 
published "De Tornos'sCombined Spanish Method," 
and of which more than 20.000 copies have been 
sold (New York, 1867), wrote a book of Spanish 




and English correspondence, as well as two novels 
in Spanish, and several text-books for acquiring 
foreign languages. — His son, Manuel Alberto, b. 
in New York city, 2 June, 1862, was educated in 
the public schools, and since 1881 has been secre- 
tary of the Spanish consulate-general in New York 
city. Having rendered important services to the 
Spanish representatives in this country, in 1888 he 
was decorated by the queen regent of Spain with 
the cross of the order of Caballero de la Real orden 
de Isabel la Catolica. He has published " Spanish 
Tariffs, with Extracts from the Custom-House 
Regulations" (New York, 1888). 

TORO, Fermin, Venezuelan statesman, b. in 
Caracas in 1807 ; d. there in 1865. He received an 
excellent private education, but was never gradu- 
ated. After being employed in his early years in 
the national treasury, he was promoted collector of 
the island of Margarita, and in 1831 was elected, 
before the legal age, to congress, where he soon be- 
came known as an orator. He was also a member 
of the constituent congress, and was called to the 
cabinet by Gen. Soublette as secretary of state and 
provisionally of the treasury, also representing his 
country as minister in Bogota and Madrid. In 
1845-6, with Juan M. Cajigal, he edited " El Correo 
de Caracas." In 1858 he was one of the intimate ad- 
visers of Gen. Castro, and under Gen. Paez formed 
part of his cabinet. He published " Los Martires," 
a romance (Caracas, 1834) ; " Disertacion sobre la 
ley de 10 de Abril de 1834" (1835); "America y 
Europa" (1836); and many poems published by 
his friend, Manuel Caflete, under the pen-name of 
Emiro Kastos (Paris, 1847). He left in manuscript 
" La Sibila de los Andes," a novel, and " La Heca- 
tonfonia " and " El veinticuatro de Enero," poems. 

TORO ZAMBRANO, Mat§0 de, president of 
Chili, b. in Santiago in 1724; d. there, 26 Feb., 
1811. During the Spanish reign he occupied sev- 
eral public offices, and contributed to the construc- 
tion of the breakwater in Santiago, and of a bridge 
across Mapocho river. He equipped at his own ex- 
pense a company against the Araucanian revolt, 
the command of which he gave to his son, Jose 
Gregorio. In 1762 he was appointed acting presi- 
dent during the absence of Juan Balmaeeda, and. 
when President Manuel Amat went to Peru as 
viceroy in 1768, Toro Zambrano occupied his place 

{>rovisionally. Charles III. created him Count de 
a Conquista in 1771, and in 1809 the central junta 
of Seville gave him the rank of brigadier. When 
in 1810 the opposition against President Carrasco 
began, the audiencia, alarmed by the popular dem- 
onstrations, caused the latter to resign, and ap- 
pointed in his stead Toro Zambrano on 16 July. 
But the excitement continued, and on 18 Sept. 
Toro convoked a meeting of the authorities and 
citizens, before whom he resigned the presidency, 
and was elected again president of the new popular 
junta, of which Juan Martinez Rozas was the chief 
spirit. Toro Zambrano's age and feeble character 
prevented him from taking an active part in the 
government, and he died before the complete sepa- 
ration of the country from Spain. 

TORQUEMADA, Juan de (tor-kay-mah'-dah), 
Spanish historian, b. in Valladolid about 1550 ; d. 
in Mexico about 1625. He went to Mexico in his 
youth as an officer, but assumed there the habit of 
St. Francis, and, besides studying theology, took 
a course in the Aztec language, history, and an- 
tiquities under the direction of the Indian cacique, 
Antonio Valeriano, who was one of the teachers at 
the College of Santiago de Tlaltelolco. He became 
a professor in Tlaltelolco, and finally superior of 
the college, meanwhile continuing assiduously his 

studies in ancient history, and after twenty years 
of labor published his great historical work. In 
1614 he was elected provincial of his order at the^ 
general chapter in Xochimilco, and during his ad- 
ministration he constructed one of the great cause- 
ways that leads to the city of Mexico, which is now 
called San Cristobal. Besides some ecclesiastical 
biographies, he wrote " Monarquia Indiana, com- 
puesta de 22 Libros" (3 vols., Seville, 1615; Mad- 
rid, 1723), which, notwithstanding his ecclesiasti- 
cal prejudices, is considered fairly impartial and 
truthful, although it has been greatly improved by 
Carlos de Sigiienza's " Anotaciones." 

TORRANCE, Frederick William, Canadian 
jurist, b. in Montreal in July, 1823. He was the 
son of a Scotch merchant of Montreal, and was 
educated at Paris and at Edinburgh university, 
where he received the degree of M. A. in 1844. On 
his return to Canada he studied law, was called to 
the bar in 1848, became professor of Roman law 
in McGill university in 1854, and was appointed 
puisne judge of the superior court in 1868. He 
aided in establishing the "Lower Canada Jurist," 
and managed it several years. McGill university 
gave him the degree of B. C. L. in 1856, and since 
1870 he has been one of its governors. 

TORRE, Jos6 Maria de la (tor-ray), Cuban 
archaeologist, b. in Havana in 1815 ; d. there in 
1873. He studied law in his native city, and was 
admitted to the bar in 1841, but he never practised 
as a lawyer, devoting himself instead to teaching. 
He published a remarkable map showing the dis- 
tricts into which the island was divided before its 
discovery by Columbus, accompanied by learned 
researches and notes on the history of Cuba, and 
made numerous contributions to the geography, 
history, and archaeology of the island. In 1848 he 
was commissioned to travel in the United States 
and Europe to study improvements in agriculture 
and the industrial arts, and to introduce them 
into Cuba. The results of this journey were very 
useful. He was a member of the Royal academy 
of history of Madrid, and other scientific and anti- 
quarian societies. His works are "Mapa an- 
tiguo de Cuba" (Havana, 1837); "Gran Cuadro- 
Sinoptico de la Monarquia Espafiola " (1845); " Lo 
que fuimos y lo que somos," a history of Havana 
(1857) ; " El Robinson Cubano " (I860) ; and nu- 
merous text-books for schools. 

TORRE, Tomas de la, Spanish missionary, b. 
in Salamanca about 1510; d. in Chiapa, Mexico, in 
1567. He studied at the Dominican college of San 
Esteban, in Salamanca, and when twenty years of 
age entered the order and was attached to the mis- 
sions of Santo Domingo. He became there one of 
the most trusted assistants of Bishop Bartolome 
de Las Casas in his exertions in behalf of the con- 
quered Indians, and incurred the hostility of tho 
Spanish authorities by his fearless denunciation of 
their cruelties. Las Casas therefore ordered him 
to Guatemala in 1544, and he travelled for three 
vears through the country preaching the gospel. 
He became in 1547 vicar of Cinacautlan, prior of 
the convent of Guatemala in 1550, and provincial 
of the order in 1553. He founded the convents of 
Chiapa and Copanabaxtla and schools for the In- 
dians, and built churches and colleges. He left a 
valuable manuscript, " Ilistoria de los principios 
de la Provincia de Chiapa y Guatemala, del orden 
de Santo Domingo," which was used by Fathrr 
Antonio de Remesal in his " Ilistoria de las Pro- 
vincias de Chiapa y Guatemala" (Madrid. 1619). 

TORRES, Ca in i In (tor'-rays), Colombian states- 
man, b. in Popayan, 22 Nov.. 1766; d. in Bogota, 
5 Oct., 1816. He received his education in his 




native city, where he studied Latin, Greek, and 
philosophy, and was graduated in law. He served 
on several commissions for his government, and 
was considered at that time the first jurist of New 
Granada. On 20 July, 1810, he joined the patriot 
cause. The congress of Leiva nominated him, 4 
Oct., 1812, president of the federation, but Anto- 
nio Narino did not acknowledge the authority of 
congress, and refused to enter the confederacy. In 

1814, during the triumvirate, he was president of 
congress, and as such assisted Bolivar to subdue 
the unitarian government of Bogota and to prepare 
an expedition against Santa Marta and Venezuela. 
After the landing of Gen. Pablo Morillo in July, 

1815, congress elected Torres supreme chief of the 
nation on 15 Nov., but, on the approach of Morillo 
and Calzada, he saw the hopelessness of resistance, 
and resigning, 14 March, 1816, fled to the south. 
He was captured by the Spaniards in Buenaventura, 
whence he was expecting to sail for Buenos Ayres, 
transported to Bogota, and, with three other lead- 
ers, shot by order of Morillo. 

TORRES, Diego de, Spanish missionary, b. in 
Spain in 1551 ; d. in La Plata, South America, in 
1688. He was a Spanish nobleman who became a 
Jesuit in Valladolid in 1571, and spent most of his 
life in Peru, where he governed several colleges 
and convents. He was also the founder of the mis- 
sions of Paraguay. Torres was sent to Rome as 
procurator of his province in 1602, and availed 
himself of this circumstance to publish his work 
entitled " Relatione Breve del P. Diego de Torres 
della Compagnia di Giesu, procurator della Pro- 
vincia del Peru circa il frutto che si raccoglie con 
gli Indiani di quel Regno " (Rome, 1603 ; Spanish 
translation, 1603 ; Latin, 1604 ; French, Paris, 1604 ; 
Polish, Dantzic, 1603). 

TORRES CAICEDO, Jose Maria, South Amer- 
ican publicist, b. in Bogota, New Granada, 30 
March, 1830. He began, when seventeen years 
old, to compose verses and to write for newspa- 

?ers, and was afterward managing editor of " El 
'rogreso " and " El Dia " in opposition to the gov- 
ernment, which retaliated by inciting a riot, in the 
course of which his printing-office was broken 
open and the type destroyed. Later he was elected 
to the Colombian congress, was afterward secretary 
of legation at London and Paris, intendant for the 
states of Bolivar and Magdalena, secretary of an 
embassy to Washington, and Venezuelan consul- 
general and charge d'affaires in France and the 
Netherlands, but he retired in 1864 to devote him- 
self exclusively to literature, and has since lived 
in Paris. In January, 1872, he became charge 
d'affaires of the republic of San Salvador in France 
and Belgium. Torres Caicedo was elected on 4 
May, 1872, a corresponding member of the Paris 
academy of moral and political sciences. He has 
been for years a contributor to European journals, 
and has published " Religion, Patria y Amor," a 
collection of poems (Paris, 1862) ; " Ensayos Bio- 
graficos y de Critica Literaria " (2 vols., 1863) ; 
" Union Latino-Americana " (1864) ; " Mis Ideas y 
mis Principios " (3 vols., 1865) ; and " Les prin- 
cipes de 1789 en Amerique" (1869). 

TORRES RUBIO, Diego de, South American 
educator, b. in Valencia, Spain, in 1547; d. in 
Chuquisaca, Bolivia, 13 April, 1638. He entered 
the Society of Jesus, and went to Peru in 1579. 
He devoted himself almost entirely to the study 
of the native dialects, which he taught in Chuqui- 
saca for thirty years. He published " Grammatica 
et Vocabularium linguarum Aymarae, et Quichiue, 
quarum est usus in Peruvio " (Rome, 1603) ; "Arte 
de la lengua Aymara," which is very rare and 

commands a high price (Lima, 1616) ; and " Arte 
de la lengua Quechua " (1619). 

TORRES Y AYALA, Lanreano, Marquis of 
Casa-Torres, Spanish soldier, b. in Havana, Cuba, 
in 1645 ; d. in Spain in 1722. He went as a boy to 
Spain, where he entered the armv, and in 1693 was 
appointed governor of Florida. After a few years 
he returned to Spain, and from 1704 till 1707 took 
part in the first war of the succession. In the last- 
named year he was appointed governor-general of 
the island of Cuba. He filled this office until 1711 r 
when he was suspended during an investigation of 
his acts that was ordered by the Madrid govern- 
ment; but he was appointed again to the same post 
in 1713, his administration lasting till 1716. Un- 
der his rule the tobacco industry was developed 
greatly, and the plant began to be cultivated ex- 
tensively in the district that is known as " Vuelta 
Abajo." He founded the city of Santiago del 
Bejucal, and established a foundling-hospital at 
Havana, and other charitable institutions. 

TORRES Y RUEDA, Marcos de, viceroy of 
Mexico, b. in Almanza, Spain, in 1591 ; d. in Mexi- 
co, 22 April, 1649. He was graduated at the 
University of Alcala, and, after obtaining holy or- 
ders, was professor of theology in Osma and Val- 
ladolid. Later he became canon of the cathedral 
of Burgos and rector of the College of San Nicolas 
in the same city, when in 1644 he was presented 
by Philip IV. to the bishopric of Yucatan, and 
confirmed in the same year by Pope Innocent X. 
He was consecrated by the bishop of Puebla, and 
in November, 1646, arrived in Campeche, taking 

gossession of his see in Merida in the next month, 
[e was scrupulous 
in his visitations 
of his diocese, es- 
pecially in the in- 
vestigation of the 
irregularities of 
the clergy, who in 
consequence clam- 
ored against him 
at court. There- 
fore, in 1647, on 
the promotion of 
the Count of Sal- 
vatierratothe vice- 
royalty of Peru, 
he received orders 
to take charge of 
the viceroyalty of 
Mexico, with the 
title of governor 
and president of 
the royal audien- 
cia. He left Merida in December of that year, and, 
the outgoing viceroy being detained for some time, 
he took charge of the government, 13 May, 1648. 
He finished the cathedral of Puebla, sent re-en- 
forcements to Porto Rico, and recommended the 
erection of a university in Guatemala ; but his ad- 
ministration was chiefly noteworthy for the " auto 
da fe" that was celebrated by his orders, 11 April, 
1649. It was one of the largest that was ever cele- 
brated by the Inquisition of Mexico, 13 persons be- 
ing burned and 107 flogged and otherwise punished ; 
but the governor had already been stricken with 
the sickness of which he died a few days afterward. 
TORRE-TAGLE, Jos6 Bernardo, Marquis de, 
president of Peru, b. in Lima, 21 March, 1779; d. 
m Callao in 1825. He belonged to one of the best 
families of Spain, attained the rank of colonel of 
the armv, and, being elected deputy to the cortes, 
was sent to Spain in 1813 with special recommen- 





elation for his good services. Being promoted 
brigadier, he was appointed inspector of the army 
of Peru and intendant of the department of Trujil- 
lo. When Gen. San Martin landed in Peru, Torre- 
Tagle was the first Peruvian officer to hoist the 
national flag in the north, and on 24 Dec, 1820, 
proclaimed independence in Trujillo. On 26 July, 

1822, he was appointed provisional president by 
San Martin when the latter went to meet Bolivar 
in Guavaquil. After the departure of San Martin 
for Chili, on 20 Sept., Torre-Tagle was elected mem- 
ber of the triumvirate under La Mar. In January, 

1823, congress appointed him president ; but a mili- 
tary mutiny deposed him and proclaimed Riva 
Agiiero on 28 Feb. After the deposition of the 
latter and his retreat to Trujillo, Torre-Tagle was 
appointed president by Sucre on 20 July, and 
elected by congress on 16 Aug., and Bolivar, who 
on his arrival, 1 Sept., had been proclaimed dicta- 
tor, left him in charge of the government. When 
the garrison of Ca]Jao revolted, 5 Feb., 1824, for 
arrears of pay, and, Torre-Tagle failing to provide 
the necessary means, pronounced for Spain, Boli- 
var sent Gen. Necochea to arrest him, and congress 
deposed him on 10 Feb. Fearing to be shot by 
order of a court-martial, he fled to Callao, where 
the rebels kept him a prisoner, and on the reoccu- 
pation of Lima by the Spaniards, he was offered 
the place as governor of the capital, but declined, 

E referring to remain a prisoner of war. After the 
eginning of the siege of Callao, he tried several 
times to be admitted on board the blockading 
Chilian fleet, but Admiral Blanco Encalada refused 
to receive him except as a prisoner, and he perished 
with his whole family by the disease that was 
caused by the famine due to the protracted siege. 
Although he was not a traitor to his country, as 
charged by his enemies, he caused great misfor- 
tunes bv his want of energy and vacillating policy. 
TORREY, Bradford, essayist, b. in Weymouth, 
Mass., 9 Oct., 1843. He was educated in the pub- 
lic schools of his native town, taught for two years, 
and subsequently engaged in business in Boston. 
Since 1886 he has been an assistant editor of the 
" Youth's Companion," and a frequent contributor 
to periodicals. Mr. Torrey has devoted much time 
to the study of birds, their habits, peculiarities, and 
domestic traits. He has written numerous papers 
on this subject, and published " Birds in the Bush " 
(Boston, 1885). 

TORREY, Charles Turner, reformer, b. in 
Scituate, Mass., in 1813 ; d. in Baltimore, Md., 9 
May, 1846. His ancestor, James, was an early set- 
tler of Scituate. (See Torrey, William.) Charles 
was graduated at Yale in 1830, studied theology, 
and occupied Congregational pastorates in Prince- 
ton, N. J., and Salem, Mass., but soon relinquished 
his professional duties to devote himself to anti- 
slavery labors in Maryland. Ih 1843 he attended a 
slaveholders' convention in Baltimore, reported its 
proceedings, and was arrested and put in jail. In 
1844, having been detected in his attempt to aid in 
the escape of several slaves, he was tried, convicted, 
and sentenced to a long imprisonment in the state 
penitentiary, where he died of consumption that 
was brought on by ill usage. His body was taken 
to Boston, and his funeral attended from Tremont 
temple by an immense concourse of people. The 
story of his sufferings and death excited eager in- 
terest both in this country and in Europe, and 
" Torrey's blood crieth out became a watch-word 
of the Abolition party, giving new impetus to the 
anti-slavery cause. He published a "Memoir of 
William It. Sax ton " (Boston, 1838), and "Home, 
or the Pilgrim's Faith Revived," a volume of 

sketches of life in Massachusetts, which he pre- 
pared in prison (1846). See " Memoir of the Martyr 
Torrey " (1847). 

TORREY, John, botanist, b. in New York city, 
15 Aug., 1796 ; d. there, 10 March, 1873. His father, 
Capt. William Torrey, served during the Revo- 
lutionary war. The son received his early edu- 
cation in public schools in New York city. In his 
youth he showed a fondness for mechanics, and at 
one time determined to become a machinist, but, 
coming under the influence of Amos Eaton, he was 
taught the structure of flowers with the rudiments 
of botany, and a knowledge of mineralogy and 
chemistry. In 1815 he began the study of medi- 
cine with Dr. Wright Post, and was graduated at 
the College of physicians and surgeons. He opened 
an office in New York city, and engaged in the 

Eractice of medicine, at the same time devoting 
is leisure to botany and other scientific pursuits. 
The medical profession was not congenial to him, 
and on 5 Aug., 1824, he entered the U. S. army as 
assistant surgeon, serving at the U. S. military 
academy as acting professor of chemistry, mineral- 
ogy, and geology until his resignation, 31 Aug., 
1828. In 1827 he was chosen professor of chemis- 
try and botany in the College of physicians and 
surgeons in New York city, and he continued in 
that place until 1855, when he was made professor 
emeritus. He was also professor of chemistry at 
Princeton in 1830-'54, and of chemistry, mineral- 
ogy, and botany at the University of the citv of 
New York in 1832-'3. In 1853, on the establish- 
ment of the U. S. assay-office in New York city, 
Dr. Torrey was appointed assayer, which office he 
continued to fill until his death. He was frequent- 
ly consulted by the treasury department on mat- 
ters pertaining to the coinage and currency, and 
was sent on special missions at various times to 
visit the different mints. In 1856 he was chosen a 
trustee of Columbia, and in 1860, having presented 
the college with his herbarium, numbering about 
50,000 specimens, he was made emerittes professor 
of chemistry and 
botany. On the con- 
solidation of the 
College of physi- 
cians and surgeons 
with Columbia in 
1860, he was chosen 
one of its trustees, 
and his emeritus 
professorships con- 
tinued. His ad- 
vice was frequently 
sought on scientific 
subjects by various 
corporations. Dr. 
Torrey's earliest 
publications in the 
" American Journal 
of Science " treat of 
mineralogy. In 1817 
he became one of 
the founders of the 
New York lyceum 
of natural history (now the New York academy of 
science), and one of his first contributions to this 
body is a " Catalogue of Plants growing spontane- 
ously within Thirty Miles of the City of New York " 
(Albany, 1819). Its publication gained for him the 
recognition of foreign and native botanists. He 
undertook in 1820 the examination of the plants 
that had been collected around the head-waters 
of the Mississippi by Prof. David B. Douglass, 
and during the same year the collections made 

GSlfA^ C^O^TT-eyJ 




by Dr. Edwin James, while with the expedition 
that was sent out to the Rocky mountains under 
Maj. Stephen H. Long, were submitted to him. 
His report was the earliest treatise of its kind in 
this country that was arranged on the natural sys- 
tem. Dr. Torrey, in the mean time, had planned 
"A Flora of the Northern and Middle United 
States, or a Systematic Arrangement and Descrip- 
tion of all the Plants heretofore discovered in 
the United States North of Virginia," and in 1824 
began its publication in parts, but it was soon 
•suspended owing to the general adoption of the 
natural system of Jussieu in place of that of Lin- 
naeus. In 1836, on the organization of the geologi- 
cal survey of New York, he was appointed bota- 
nist, and required to prepare a flora of the state. 
His report, consisting of two quarto volumes, was 
issued in 1843, and no other state in the Union has 
yet produced a flora to compare with it. He be- 
gan in 1838, with Asa Gray, " The Flora of North 
America," which was issued in numbers irregu- 
larly until 1843, when they had completed the 
" Composite, " but new botanical material accumu- 
lated at such a rapid rate that it was deemed best 
to discontinue it. Subsequently Dr. Torrey pub- 
lished reports on the plants that were collected by 
John C. Fremont in the expedition to the Rocky 
mountains (1845); those gathered by Maj. William 
H. Emory on the reconnoissance from Fort Leaven- 
worth, Mo., to San Diego, Cal. (1848) ; the speci- 
mens secured by Capt. Howard Stansbury on his 
•expedition to the Great Salt Lake of Utah (1852) ; 
the plants collected by John C. Fremont in Cali- 
fornia (1853); those brought back from the Red 
river of Louisiana by Capt. Randolph B. Marcy 
(1853) ; and the botany of Capt. Lorenzo Sitgreaves's 
expedition to the Zuni and Colorado rivers (1854); 
also memoirs on the botany of the various ex- 
peditions for the purpose of determining the most 
practicable route for a Pacific railroad (1855-'60). 
He also reported on the " Botany of the Mexican 
Boundary Survey " (1859), that of the expedition 
upon the Colorado river of the West under Lieut. 
Joseph C. Ives (1861), and, in association with Asa 
Gray, the botanical collections of the Wilkes ex- 
ploring expedition. The last was in his hands at 
the time of his death, its publication having been 
delayed by the civil war. The Torreya taxifolia, 
an ornamental shade-tree in the southern states, 
was named in his honor, and the Torreya Califor- 
nica of California, the Torreya nucifera of Japan, 
and the Torreya grandis of northern China, bear 
his name. The association of botanists that origi- 
nally met at his residence were chartered as the 
Torrey botanical club, and he was its first presi- 
dent. Besides being the last surviving charter- 
member of the Lyceum of natural history, he held 
its vice-presidency for several years, and was presi- 
dent in 1824-'6 and 1838, holding the same office 
in the American association for the advancement 
•of science in 1855, and he was one of the original 
members of the National academy of science, being 
named as such by act of congress in 1863. The 
degree of A. M. was conferred on him by Yale in 
1823, and that of LL D. by Amherst in 1845. His 
bibliography is extensive, including contributions 
on botanical subjects to scientific periodicals and 
to the transactions of the societies of which he 
was a member. A sketch of his life by his pupil 
and life-long associate, Asa Gray, was contributed 
to the "Biographical Memoirs" of the National 
academy of sciences (Washington, 1877). 

TORREY, Joseph, clergyman, b. in Rowley, 
Mass., 2 Feb., 1797 ; d. in Burlington, Vt., 26 Nov., 
1867. He was graduated at Dartmouth in 1816, 

and at Andover theological seminary in 1819, and 
was pastor of a Congregational church in Royal- 
ton, Vt., in 1824-7. He was professor of Greek and 
Latin in the University of Vermont in 1827-42, of 
intellectual and moral philosophy in 1842-'67, and 
its president in 1862-6. (See illustration below.) 
Harvard gave him the degree of D. D. in 1850. He 
is the author of a posthumous volume of lectures 
entitled " A Theory of Fine Art " (New York, 1874) ; 
edited " Remains of President James Marsh " (1843) 
and "Select Sermons of President Worthington 

Smith " (1861), to both of which he prefixed me- 
moirs ; and translated Neander's " General History 
of the Christian Religion and Church," which may 
be considered the principal work of his life (5 vols., 
Boston, 1854). — His daughter, Mary Cutler, au- 
thor, b. in Burlington, Vt., 28 May, 1831, was edu- 
cated in private schools and by her father. She is 
the author of " America," a dramatic poem (New 
York, 1863), and has edited Joseph Torrey's " The- 
ory of Fine Art " and his revised edition of Nean- 
der's "Church History" (Boston, 1872), herself 
preparing the index volume (1881). 

TORREY, Joseph William, rajah of Amboy 
and Mavoodu, Borneo, b. in Bath, Me., 22 April, 
1828 ; d. near Boston, Mass., in March, 1884. He 
was educated in Roxbury, became a reporter on the 
Boston " Times," and was subsequently connected 
with Benjamin P. Shillaber in the publication of 
the " Carpet-Bag." He became a clerk in a com- 
mercial house in Melbourne, Australia, in 1853, 
and went to Hong Kong in 1857, where he was a 
partner in the firm of Montgomery, Parker and 
Co., and editor and manager of the " Hong Kong 
Times" and the "China Mail." He was subse- 
quently appointed vice-consul in Siam, and prac- 
tised law with success in that country. He founded 
the American trading company of Borneo in 1864. 
At that time the whole of Borneo was under the 
absolute sway of the sultan, but the Trading com- 
pany settled upon about 20,000 square miles in the 
provinces of Amboy and Mavoodu. In 1865, the 
sultan's power being threatened by the encroach- 
ment of foreign nations, he made an ally of the 
company by recognizing Mr. Torrey as rajah or 
governor of all the territory that it occupied, the 
company paying him a small yearly tribute. As 
chief executive of the provinces, Torrey exercised 
the rights of an absolute sovereign, with power of 
retaining his office for life and of naming his suc- 
cessor. He occupied that post for fourteen years, 
and then became secretary to the U. S. legation in 
Siam. He returned to this country in 1883, and a 
few weeks before his death was appointed by the 
king of Siam his chief adviser, but died before de- 
ciding whether to accept or decline that office. 

TORREY, William, colonist, b. in Combe, St. 
Nicholas, Somersetshire, England, in 1590; d. in 
Wevmouth, Mass., about 1075. He was descended 
from an eminent English family, and carefully 
educated. He emigrated to this country in 1632 




with his brother James, who settled in Scituate. 
William went to Weymouth, took an active part in 
the affairs of the colony, became a magistrate, and 
captain of the train-band, which at that time was 
the highest local military office, and for many 
years represented the town in the general court, 
where, owing to his accomplishments as a penman, 
he was always eithe