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Vol. I 









As it is the commendation of a good huntsman to find game in a wide wood, 
so it is no imputation if he hath not caught all. Plato 

Volume I 







3LiOOI5 /\ 

ASTiii;, lem;:^ .*m> \ 

TiUiEN KOr.M'A'iriOS I 

Copyright, 1886, 1804, 1898, 

By d. appleton and company. 


Appletons' Cyclopedia of AMEEicAif Biogkapht is intended to supply a 
want that has long been felt by the nations of the New World, and more par- 
ticularly by the people of the United States. Every scholar and every reader has 
recognized the benefit of the great French Dictionaries of Universal Biography, 
and the utility of the more recent National Biography of Great Britain, now in 
course of publication. Each nation should, if possible, have its own cyclopaedia 
of biography. Tha Belgian, British, and German Dictionaries at present in 
progress are instances of such work in the Old "World. It is proposed to provide 
a Cyclopfedia of Biography for the New World worthy to rank with them. 

The Cyclopsedia will include the names of above twenty thousand prominent 
native and adopted citizens of the United States, including living persons, from 
the earliest settlement of the country; also the names of several thousand emi- 
nent citizens of Canada, Mexico, Brazil, ChiH, Peru, and all the other countries 
of North and South America. The great aim has been to embrace all note- 
worthy persons of the New World, and to give biographies that shall embody 
with sufficient fulness the latest result of historical research, rendering it a refer- 
ence-book of the highest order. The work will also contain the names of nearly 
one thousand men of foreign birth who, like Bishop Berkeley, Braddock, Bur- 
goyne, Cabot, Columbus, Cornwallis, Lafayette, Montcalm, and Whitefield, are 
closely identified with American history. 

The editors have endeavored, in all instances, to obtain the co-operation of the 
most competent students of special periods or departments of history, and they have 
had the assistance of scholarly and experienced associates, together with a well- 
equipped staff of writers. Many articles of importance have been contributed 
by some of the most brilliant names in American literature as well as by many 
of onr most illustrious statesmen, soldiers, and jurists. Much valuable material 
has been obtained from original sources; and in the case of recent lives and 
those "men of light and leading" who are still with us, important aid has been 
afforded by the friends and relatives of the subjects. 

It has been the aim of the editors to render the Cyclopaedia educational as 
well as entertaining and instructive, by making those articles referring to impor- 
tant men and measures full and exhaustive; thus, in the articles on the Presi- 


dents, some two hundred pages will be devoted to a complete and authentic 
account of all their public acts, placing the reader in possession of an accurate 
history of their administrations, covering more than a century of our national an- 
nals. The same statement may be made in respect to the chief colonial and state 
governors; our celebrated judges and statesmen; members of the Cabinets, of the 
Senate, and House ; men distinguished in art, commerce, and Hterature ; leaders 
in the Church ; and those " great heirs of fame " who w^on renown in the late and 
previous wars— thus forming a very full and comprehensive history of the United 
States and those other countries of the New World with which we are bound 
by so many ties, since its first discovery by "the world-seeking Genoese." To 
the above are added numerous notices of persons of the pre-Columbian period, 
now appearing for the first time in the English language. 

Although it is manifestly impossible, within the limits of six octavo vol- 
umes, to supply all the information that might be desired by students of gene- 
alogy, yet it is confidently believed that the data given will be found sufiicient 
and satisfactory. Especial attention is called to the information concerning the 
publications of the New World, which is brought down to the date of publica- 
tion. In the case of the more important notices of men and women, 

" On Fame's eternall bede-roll worthy to be fyled," 
the principal authorities used are mentioned with a view to indicating the 
sources from which additional information may be obtained by those who are 
seeking for it. The projectors of the Cyclopaedia have made use of every 
available source of information, including a special library of several thousand 
volumes, and have utilized the most valuable portion of Francis S. Drake's " Dic- 
tionary of American Biography," together wdth the author's manuscript correc- 
tions and additions, purchased for that purpose, as -well as the unpublished manu- 
scripts of William Cushing, the compiler of " Initials and Pseudonyms," who was 
prej^aring a cyclopaedia of American and other authors. 

The work is complete in six octavo volumes, and is illustrated with about sixty 
full-page portraits of eminent men of the New World, including the twenty-four 
Presidents of the United States, forming altogether a most valuable and attrac- 
tive national portrait-gallery of illustrious Americans. These are supplemented 
by some fifteen hundred smaller vignette portraits from original drawings by 
Jacques Reich, accompanied by fac-simile autographs, and also several hundred 
views of birthplaces, residences, monuments, and tombs famous in history. The 
signatures are for the most part from the collection of 'Some six thousand Ameri- 
can autographs in the possession of the senior editor. In Volume VI will be 
found a supplement completed in December, 1899, containing nearly two thousand 
additional names. A carefully prepared and exhaustive analytical index of one 
hundred and fifteen pages greatly enhances the value of the work. 


Adams, John 
Adams, John Quincy 
Arthur, Chester Alan 
Bancroft, George 
Benton, Thomas ITart 
Bryant, William Cullen 
Buchanan, James 
Calhoun, John Caldwell 
Clay, Henry 
Cleveland, G rover 
Cooper, James Fenimore 














Face 24 


Adams, Charles Kendall, 

President Cornell University. 

Agassiz, Alexander, 

Author and Professor. 
Allibone, S. Austin, 

Author " Dictionary of Authors." 

Amory, Thomas C, 

Author " Life of General Sullivan," etc. 

Bancroft, George, 

Author " History of the United States." 

Barrett, Lawrence, 

Author " Life of Edwin Forrest." 

Bayard, Thomas F., 

Secretary of State. 

Bigelow, John, 

Author " Life of Franklin," etc. 

Boker, George H., 

Poet, late Minister to Russia. 

Botta, Mrs. Vincenzo, 

Author and Poet. 

Bradley, Joseph P., 

Judge United States Supreme Court. 

Brooks, Phillips, 

Author "Sermons in English Churches." 

Carter, Franklin, 

President Williams College. 

Chandler, William E., 

Ex-Secretary of the Navy. 

Clarke, James Freeman, 

Author "Ten Great Religions," etc. 

Cooper, Miss Susan Fenimore, 

Author " Rural Hours," etc. 

Conway, Moncure D,, 

Miscellaneous Writer. 
Coppee, Henry, 

Professor Lehigh University, Pa. 

Coxe, Arthur Cleveland, 

Bishop Western New York. 

Cullum, Gen. George W., 

Author " Register of West Point Graduates," etc. 

Curry, Daniel, D. D., 

Author and Editor. 

Curtis, George Ticknor, 

Author " Life of James Buchanan," etc. 

Curtis, George William, 

Author and Editor. 

De Costa, Rev. B. F., 

Historical Writer. 

De Lancey, Edward F., 

Ex-President Genealogical and Biographical Society. 

Didier, Eugene L., 

Author ■■' Life of Edgar Allan Poe." 

Dix, Morgan, 

Rector Trinity Church, New York. 

Doane, William C, 

Bishop of Albany. 

Drake, Samuel Adams, 

Author " Historic Personages of Boston," etc. 

Draper, Lyman C, 

Secretary Wisconsin Historical Society. 

Fiske, John, 

Author and Professor. 

Frothingham, Octavius B., 

Author " Life of George Ripley." 

Gayarre, C. E. A., 

Author " History of Louisiana." 

Gerry, Elbridge T., 

Member of New York Bar. 

Gilman, Daniel C, 

President Johns Hopkins University. 
Goodwin, Daniel, Jr., 

Member of Illinois Bar. 

Greely, Capt. A. W., XJ. S. A., 

Author " Three Years of Arctic Service." 

Hale, Edward Everett, 

Author "Franklin in France," etc. 

Hay don. Rev. Horace E., 

Author " Pollock Genealogy," etc. 

Henry, William Wirt, 

Of the Virginia Historical Society. 

Higginson, Col. T. W., 

Author " History of the United States," etc. 

Hilliard, Henry W., 

Ex-United States Senator from Georgia. 

Howe, Mrs, Julia Ward, 

Author " Later Lyrics," etc. 

Jay, John, 

Late Minister to Austria. 
Johnson, Gen. Bradley T., 

Member Maryland Bar. 

Johnson, Rossiter, 

Author " History of the War of 1812," etc. 


Johnston, William Preston, 

President Tulane University. 

Jones, Rev. J. William, 

Secretary Soiitliern Historical Society. 

Jones, William Alfred, 

Author " Character and Criticism," etc. 

Kobbe, Gustav, 

Musical Editor of New York "Mail and Express." 

Lathrop, George Parsons, 

Author " A Study of Hawthorne," etc. 

Lincoln, Robert T., 

Ex-Secretary of War. 

Lodge, Henry Cabot, 

Author " Life of Hamilton." 

MacVeagh, Wayne, 

Ex-Attorncy-General, U. S. 

Marble, Manton, 

Late Editor " The World." 

Mathews, William, 

Author " Orators and Oratory," etc. 

McMaster, John Bache, 

Author " History of the People of the United States." 

Mitchell, Donald G., 

Author " Reveries of a Bachelor," etc. 

Mombert, Dr. J. I., 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

O'Neal, Edward A., 

Governor of Alabama. 

Parker, Cortlandt, 

Member of the New Jersey Bar. 

Parkman, Francis, 

Author " Frontenac," " French in Canada," etc. 

Phelps, William Walter, 

Member of Congress from New Jersey. 

Porter, David D., 

Admiral United States Navy. 

Preston, Mrs. Margaret J., 

Author and Poet. 

Puron, Dr. Juan G., 

Spanish Author and Editor. 

Read, Gen. J. Meredith, 

Late Minister to Greece. 

Reid, Whitelaw, 

Editor of New York " Tribune." 

Robinson, E. G,, 

President Brown University. 

Romero, Mattias, 

Mexican Minister to United States. 

Royce, Josiah, 

Professor in Harvard University. 

Sanborn, Miss Kate, 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Schurz, Carl, 

Ex-Secretary of the Interior. 

Shea, John Gilmary, 

Author and Editor. 

Sherman, William T., 

Late General of the Army. 

Smith, Charles Emory, 

Editor Philadelphia " Press." 

Spencer, Jesse Ames, 

Author and Professor. 

Stedman, Edmund C, 

Author " Poets of America," etc. 

Stiles, Henry R., M. D., 

Author " History of Brooklyn, N. Y." 

Stoddard, Richard Henry, 

Author •' Songs of Summer," etc. 

Stone, William L., 

Author " Life of Red Jacket," etc. 

Strong, William, 

Ex-Judge LT. S. Supreme Court. 

Tucker, J. Randolph, 

Member of Congress from Virginia. 

Waite, Morrison R., 

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 

Washburne, E. B., 

Late Minister to France. 

Welling, James C, 

President Columbian University, 

Whitman, Walter, 

Author " Leaves of Grass," etc. 

Wilson, Gen. Jas. Grant, 

President Genealogical and Biographical Society. 

Winter, William, 

Poet and Theatrical Critic. 

Winthrop, Robert C, 

Ex-United States Senator. 

Young, Alexander, * 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Among the Contributors to the first volume of '■'■ Appletons' Cyclopcedia of American Biography ^^ 

are the following : 

Rev. Joseph H. Allen, 

Author "Hebrew Men and Times." 
Channing, William Ellery, 
Channing, William Henry. 

S. Austin AUibone, LL. D., 

Author of "Dictionary of Authors." 
Bancroft, George. 

Thomas C. Amory, 

Author of " Life of Gen. Sullivan." 
Coffin, Admiral Sir Isaac, 
Coffin, Gen. John, 
iind other articles. 

Marcus Benjamin, 

Fellow of the Chemical Society. 
Agassiz, Louis, 
Bache, Alexander Dallas, 
and other articles. 

Arthur E. Bostwick, Ph. D. 

Audubon, John James, 
Colfax, Schuyler, 
and other articles. 

Mrs. Vincenzo Botta, 

Author and Poet. 
Carnegie, Andrew. 

Charles RoUin Brainard, A. M. 

Beecher, Lyman, and his sons, 
Benton, Thomas Hart, 
and other articles. 

James C. Brogan. 

Articles on Catholic Clergymen. 

Franklin Carter, LL. D., 

President of Williams College. 
Chadbourne, Paul Ansel. 

John D. Champlin, Jr., 

Editor of " CyclopiJedia of Painters and Paintings. 
Articles on American Painters. 

William E. Chandler, 

Ex-Secretary of the Navy. 

Arthur. Chester Alan, 
Berry, Nathaniel S. 

John Esten Cooke, 

Late Historian and Novelist. 
Crawford, William Harris. 

Arthur Cleveland Coxe, 

P. E. Bishop of Western New York. 
Cleveland, Aaron, 
Cox, Samuel Hanson. 

Eev. Daniel Curry, D. D., 

Author and Editor. 

Articles on Bishops of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. 

George Ticknor Curtis, LL. D., 

Author of " Life of James Buchanan." 

Buchanan, James, 
Henry Dalby, 

of the Montreal "Star." 

Articles on Canadian Statesmen. 

Lyman C. Draper, LL. D. 

Campbell, Arthur, 
Clark, George Rogers. 

Maurice F. Egan, 

of the "Freeman's Journal." 
CoRRiGAN, Michael Augustus, 
and other articles. 

John Fiske, 

Professor and Author. 
Adams, John, 
Adams, John Quincy, 
Arnold, Benedict, 
Clinton, Sir Henry, 
CoRNWALLis, Lord, 
and other articles. 

Daniel C. Gilman, LL. D., 

President of Johns Hopkins University. 
Berkeley, George, 
Buckingham, William A., 
and other articles. 

Samuel Hart, 

Professor at Trinity College. 
Brownell, Thomas Church. 

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, 

Author of " History of the United States." 

Brown, John, of Osawatomie. 

Henry W. Hilliard, 

Late Minister to BraziL 
Butler, Pierce M., 
and other articles. 

Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, 

Author and Poet. 

Crawford, Thomas. 

Frank Huntington. 

Bolivar, Simon, 
Bradford, William, 
and other articles. 



Rev. Abram S. Isaacs, Ph. D., 

Editor of the "Jewish Messenger." 
BoNDi, Jonas, 

and other articles. 

Gen. Bradley T. Johnson, 

Member Baltimore Bar. 
Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton, 
Claiborne, William. 

Rossiter Johnson, 

Author and Editor. 

Carter, Robert, 
Chase, Salmon Portland, 
and other articles. 

Rev. J. Ryland Kendrick, D. D., 

Ex-President of Vassar College. 
Burr, Aaron, 
and articles on Baptist clergymen. 

Gustav Kobbe, 

Musical Editor. 
Catenhausen, Ernst, 
Chadwiok, George W., 
and other articles. 

Neil Macdonald. 

Brown, Peter, and his sons, 
Blake, William Hume, 
and other articles. 

Frederic G. Mather, 


Church, Sanford Elias, 
Cornell, Ezra, and Alonzo B. 

■William Mathews, LL. D., 

Author of " Orators and Oratory." 
Ames, Fisher. 

' History of the People of 

John Bach McMaster, 

Professor and Author of 
the United States." 

Coxe, Tench, 
and other articles. 

J. I. Mombert, D. D. 

Allen, Ethan, 
Braddock, Edward, 
Boone, Daniel, 
Cartier, Jacques. 

Charles Ledyard Norton. 

BuRNSiDE, Ambrose Everett, 
Cooper, James Fenimore, 
and other articles. 

Edward A. O'Neal, 

Governor of Alabama. 
Chapman, Reuben. 

David D. Porter, 

Admiral of U. S. Navy. 

Bainbridge, William. 
"William Purcell, 

Editor of the Rochester, N. Y., "Union.' 
Butts, Isaac, 
Cassidy, William. 

Dr. Juan G. Puron, 

Spanish Author and Editor. 
Articles on South and Central American 

Prof. Josiah Royce, 

Author of " California," in Commonwealth Series. 
Articles on California Pioneers. 

Miss Kate Sanborn, 

Author and Editor. 

BoTTA, Anne C. Lynch. 

Carl Schurz, 

Ex-Secretary of the Interior. 
Clay, Henry. 

Rev. E. de Schweinitz, D. D., 

Moravian Bishop. 

Articles on Bishops of the Moravian Church. 

Charles Emory Smith, 

Editor of the Philadelphia " Press." 
Blaine, James Gillespie. 

Rev. J. A. Spencer, D. D. 

Articles on Bishops of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church. 

Richard Henry Stoddard, 

Author and Editor. 

Bryant, William Cullen. 

Frederick D. Stone, 

Pennsylvania Historical Society. 
CooMBE, Thomas, 
and other articles. 

William L. Stone, 

Author of " Life of Brant." 

AcLAND, Lady Harriet, 
Brant, Joseph, 
BuRGOYNE, John, 
and other articles. 

William Strong, 

Ex-Justice U. S. Supreme Court. 
BiNNEY, Horace, 
Bradley, Joseph P. 

Charles Burr Todd, 

Author of " Life of Joel Barlow." 
Barlow, Joel. 

J. Randolph Tucker, 

Member of Congress from Virginia. 
Calhoun, John Caldwell. 

James C. "Welling, LL. D., 

President of Columbian University. 
Corcoran. William Wilson. 

Gen. Jas. Grant Wilson, 

Author and Editor. 

Bayard, James Asheton, 
Clarke, McDonald, 
Cogswell, Dr. Jonathan, 
Columbus, Christopher, 
and other articles. 

William Winter, 

Author and Critic. 

Booth, Edwin, 
Brougham, John, 
Burton. William Evans. 



AARON, Samuel, educator, b. in New Britain, 
Bucks CO., Pa., in 1800 ; d. in Mount Holly, N. J., 
11 April, 1805. He was left an orphan at six years 
of age, and became the ward of an uncle, upon 
whose farm he worked for several years, attending 
school only in winter. A small legacy inherited 
from his father enabled him at the age of sixteen 
to enter the Doylestown, Pa., academy, where he 
fitted himself to become a teacher, and at the age 
of twenty was engaged as an assistant instructor in 
the classical and mathematical school in Burling- 
ton, N. J. Here he studied and taught, and soon 
■opened an independent day school at Bridge Point, 
but was presently invited to become principal of 
Doylestown academy. In 1829 he was ordained, 
and became pastor of a Baptist church in New 
Britain. In 1833 he took charge of the Burling- 
ton high school, serving at the same time as pastor 
of the Baptist church in that city. Accepting in 
1841 an invitation from a church in Norristown, 
Pa., he remained there three years, when he opened 
the Treemount seminary near Norristown, which 
under his management soon became . prosperous, 
and won a high reputation for the thoroughness of 
its training and discipline. The financial disasters 
of 1857 found Mr. Aaron with his name pledged as 
security for a friend, and he was obliged to sacrifice 
all his property to the creditors. He was soon 
offered the head-mastership of Mt. Holly, N. J., 
institute, a large, well-established school i'or boys, 
where, in company with his son as joint principal, 
he spent the remainder of his life. During these 
years he was pastor of a church in Mt. Holly. He 
prepared a valuable series of text-books introducing 
certain improvements in methods of instruction, 
which added greatly to his reputation as an educa- 
tor. His only publication in liook form, aside from 
his. text-books, was entitled " Faithful Translation " 
(Philadelphia, 1842). He was among the early ad- 
vocates of temperance, and was an earnest support- 
er of the anti-slavery cause from its beginning. 

ABAD, or ABADIANO, Die^o Jos6, Mexican 
poet, b. near Jiquilj^an, between Michoacan and 
Guadalajara, 1 July, 1727; d. in Italy, 30 Sept., 
1779. He became' a Jesuit in early youth, and 
afterward taught philosophy and civil and canon 
law in Zacatecas and the city of Mexico. When 
forty years old, and while rector of the college of 
Queretaro, he began the study of medicine, in the 
practice of which he was successful. Then he went 
to Italy and published a volume of Latin poetry, 
under the title of " Heroica Deo carmina," to which 

VOL. I. — 1 

he owes his greatest fame. Among other works he 
wrote desci'iptions of the principal rivers of the 
world in a book called " Geografia hidraulica." 
Several editions of the " Heroica Deo carmina " 
were published, in Madrid (1769), Venice (1774), 
Ferrara (1776), and Cecina (1780). 

ABADIE, Eugene Hilarian, surgeon, b. in 
Paris, France, 16 Aug., 1810; d. in St. Louis. 12 
Dec, 1874. He entered the U. S. army in 1836, 
with the rank of assistant surgeon. In 1853 he was 
promoted surgeon, and as such served through the 
civil war, receiving the brevet rank of colonel in 
March, 1865. His first service was with the Creek 
nation, then recently removed from their hereditary 
lands in Georgia, and until the Seminole war he was 
engaged with the migrating tribes. After this ser- 
vice he was stationed at the forts in New York 
harbor, and at various regular posts in the interior 
until the war with Mexico, where he was on duty 
in 1848, but was ordered to Point Isabel, Texas, in 
1849. Changing from station to station as the exi- 
gencies of the service demanded, he was in Texas 
when the U. S. forces in that state were surrendered 
by Gen. Twiggs, and before the close of 1861 he was 
paroled as a prisoner of war and permitted to go 
north. He was stationed at West Point in 1862-'64, 
during which period he was detailed to serve on 
medical boards in Philadelphia and New York. In 
1865 he became chief medical officer of the military 
division of west Mississippi, in 1866 medical direc- 
tor of the department of Missouri, and lastly acting 
assistant medical purveyor at St. Louis. At the 
time of his death he had seen more years of actual 
service than any, save two, of the army surgeons. 

ABAD Y QtlEIPO, Manuel, Spanish bishop, 
b. in Asturias about 1775; d. about 1824. He 
studied theology in Spain, and went to Mexico. 
From Michoacan he was sent to Spain to plead 
against a royal decree affecting the interests of the 
priesthood, and was successful in his mission. In 
1809 he was consecrated bishop of Michoacan. Dur- 
ing the first period of the revolutionary war he 
adhered to the royal party, and went to the city of 
Mexico. After his return to Michoacan, through 
intrigues of his opponents, he was sent to Spain 
and imprisoned. But he obtained an interview 
with King Ferdinand VII., who not only pardoned 
him, but appointed him his minister of justice. 
Yet the Inquisitors imprisoned him again for his 
opposition to the Inquisition. Afterward he was 
bishop of Fortora. but was again in prison in 1823, 
where he died, it is believed, in the following year. 



ABASCAL (ab-as-ca]'), Jose Fernando, Span- 
ish soldier, b. in Oviedo, Asturias, in 1743; d. in 
Madrid in 1821. He entered tiie army in 1702, and 
after serving for twenty years was promoted to the 
rank of colonel, and during the war against the 
French to that of brigadier-general. In 1796 he 
went to Cuba, assumed the command as viceroy, 
and took an active part in the defence of Havana 
when that city was attacked by an English fleet. 
Afterward he was commander in New Galicia, and 
still later viceroy of Peru, his great ability and tact 
being especially beneficial to those countries. He 
also defended Buenos Ayres from the English, and 
at the same time repressed revolts in Lima and in 
Cuzco ; but being unsuccessful in some operations, 
he was recalled in 1816. Four years before he had 
been created Marques de la Concordia, in allusion 
to his conciliatory policy in Peru, which prevented 
trouble between the natives and the Spanish resi- 
dents. See Stevenson's " Twenty Years' Residence 
in South America " (London, 1825). 

ABASOLO, Mariano, Mexican patriot, b. near 
Dolores, Guanajuato, about 1780; executed at Chi- 
huahua, 1 Aug., 1811. He became conspicuous dur- 
ing the Mexican war for independence, and was a 
colonel in the patriot army of Hidalgo, distinguish- 
ing himself during the campaigns that opened the 
war, and was exceptionally humane in his treat- 
ment of prisoners. He took part in the engagement 
at Las Cruces, and fled with Hidalgo after the dis- 
astrous fight at Arce de Calderon ; was captured by 
the government troops, and shot in company with 
his chief. Their bodies were exposed on poles and 
left unhuried until 1822. 

ABBADIE de St. Oermain (ab-bah-dee'), gov- 
ernor, b. about 1710; d. in New Orleans, 4 Feb., 
1765. He was sent to America by Louis XV. of 
Prance, to take charge of certain royal business in- 
terests in New Orleans, and was granted military 
authority over the affairs of the province. His 
administration was marked by great wisdom. Re- 
straining the tendency to brutality on the part of 
masters toward their slaves, he secured the good will 
of the best people in the community. In his dealings 
with the Indians he was equally successful, and his 
memory is piously cherished in the French parishes. 
As the result of the sale of Louisiana to Spain in 
1762, Gov. Abbadie was ordered in 1764 to resign his 
command to a Spanish representative, and he died 
of grief, caused by the necessity of surrendering his 
charge to tliose whom he regarded as enemies. There 
appears to be no record of his Christian name. 

ABBADIE, Antoine Thomson d', explorer, 
b. in Dublin, Ireland, in 1810 : d. in 1896. With 
his younger brother, Arnaud Michel, he was early 
taken to France by his father, a Frenchman. In 
1835 he was sent by the academy of sciences on an 
exploring expedition to Brazil, where he remained 
nearly two years. In 1873 he published " Obser- 
vations relatives a la physique du globe, faites au 
Bresil et en Ethiopie " in four volumes. His other 
works do not relate to South America. 

ABBE, Cleveland, meteorologist, b. in New 
York city, 3 Dec, 1838. He was graduated at the 
New York free academy in 1857, taught mathe- 
matics in Trinity Latin school for a year, and then 
went to Michigan university, where he studied as- 
tronomy under Prof. Briinnow, and taught the 
higher mathematics in the scientific school. From 
1860 to 1864 he lived at Cambridge, Mass., where 
Dr. B. A. Gould, the astronomer, assigned him the 
telegraphic longitude work of the U. S. coast sur- 
vey. The years 1865-'60 he spent mainly at the 
Imperial observatory at Pulkova, near St.' Peters- 
burg, Russia, as the guest of the resident staff of 

observers. After a short sojourn at Washington, 
he was chosen director of the Cincinnati observa- 
tory. This was in 1868, and he soon proposed an 
enlargement of the scope of the institution to in- 
clude terrestrial physics so far as they relate to 
astronomy. Investigation of the subject led him 
to suggest that Cincinnati should be made the head- 
quarters of meteorological observation for the United 
States, for the purpose of collecting and comparing 
telegraphic weather-reports from all parts of the 
land, and making deductions therefrom. The Cin- 
cinnati chamber of commerce saw the value of the 
suggestion, and accepted his proposition. Sept. 1, 
1869, he began the publication of the " Weather 
Bidletin of the Cincinnati Observatory." Prior ta 
this time (1856) the Smithsonian Institution had 
used the telegraph for weather-forecasts, but these 
were not sent out for the benefit of the public at 
large. The favor with which the Cincinnati project 
was received was brought to the attention of con- 
gress through the efforts of H. E. Paine, M. C. (Wis.),, 
and H. L. Dawes (Mass.) [see House Bill 602, Dec. 
19, 1869], and, by a joint resolution of 9 Feb., 1870, 
the secretary of war was directed to provide for 
taking meteorological observations at military posts. 
in the interior of the continent, and on the lakes and 
sea-coasts, with the design of giving warning of the 
approach and probable force of storms. In Janu- 
ary, 1871, Gen. Albert J. Myer, chief of the army 
signal service, was directed to take charge of the 
new weather bureau, and he appointed Prof. Abbe 
his meteorologist, whose duty it was to prepare 
"probabilities" or storm warnings. Prof. Abbe 
became popularly known as "Old Probabilities," 
and under his direction the service soon reached 
the high degree of efficiency that it has since main- 
tained. For about one year, or until competent 
assistants could be trained. Prof. Abbe in person 
did the work of collating and tabulating, which 
had to be done three times a day. The publica- 
tion of the " Monthly Weather Review " and the 
" Bulletin of International Simultaneous Observa- 
tions " was begun under his supervision. His pub- 
lications, astronomical and meteorological, are very 
numerous, and his contributions to current peri- 
odicals, cyclopaedias, and books of reference are 
well known to astronomers. 

ABBEVILLE, Claude d' (dab'-veel), French 
missionary, d. in Paris in 1632. He was connected 
with the mission of 
the Capucin Fathers 
on the island of 
Maragnan, near the 
coastof Brazil,which 
was established in 
1612. In his " His- 
tory " of the mission 
he describes the cus- 
toms of the natives 
of the island and 
of the neighboring 
parts of the Ameri- 
can continent. 

ABBEY, Edwin 
Austin, artist, b. 
in Philadelphia, Pa., 
in 1852. He was a 
pupil of the 
sylvania academy, 
has devoted himself 
chiefly to drawing 
illustrations for books and magazines, but since 1875 
has done excellent work in water-colors. He re- 
moved in 1883 from New York to London, where 

was a ^/\ 
limself / 



his studio now is. He is a member of the New York 
water-color society, and of the London institute of 
water-colors. Among his best pictures are " The 
Stage Office " (1876) ; " The Evil Eye " (1877) ; " Lady 
in a Garden " (1878) ; " Rose in October " (1879) ; 
" The Widower " (1883) ; and " Reading the Bible " 
(1884). Notable among his illustrations are those to 
Robert Herrick's poems and " She Stoops to Con- 
quer." In 1897 he abandoned book illustrations, 
turning his attention to successful oil-painting. 

ABBEY, Henry, author, b. in Rondout, N. Y., 
11 July, 1842. He was educated at Kingston acad- 
emy and the Hudson river institute. His first 
book, " May Dreams," was published in New York 
in 1862. About this time he became assistant edi- 
tor of the Rondout " Courier," and subsequently of 
the Orange " Spectator " (N. J.). " Ralph and other 
Poems " appeared in 1866, " Stories in Verse " in 
1869, and '• Ballads of Good Deeds " in 1872. A 
new edition of the last named appeared in England 
in 1876. " Poems by Henry Abbey" was published 
in 1879, embracing the greater part of the old selec- 
tions and several new pieces. " The City of Success 
and other Poems " appeared in 1883, and a new 
and comprehensive edition of his more important 
poems was published in Kingston in 1886. 

ABBEY, Richard, clergvman, b. in Genesee 
county, N. Y., 16 Nov., 1805; d. in Yazoo City, Miss., 
23 Oct., 1891. In 1825 he removed to Natchez, Miss., 
and became a minister in the Methodist Episcopal 
church in 1844, and was identified with the move- 
ment separating that denomination into its north- 
ern and southern branches. He published " Let- 
ters to Bishop Green on Apostolic Succession " 
and " End of the Apostolic Succession " (1853) ; 
" Creed of All Men " (1855) ; " Ecclesiastical Con- 
stitution " (1856) ; " Church and Ministry " (1859) ; 
" Diuturnitv " (1866) ; " Ecce Ecclesia," an answer 
to "Ecce Homo "(1868); "The City of God and 
the Church-Makers " (1872). In 1858 he was elected 
financial secretary of the Southern Methodist pub- 
lishing house. His other works include " Bap- 
tismal Demonstrations." " Divine Assessment," 
" Strictures on Church Government," and " The 
Divine Call to the Ministry." 

ABBOT, Abiel, clergvman, b. in Wilton, N. H., 
14 Dec, 1765; d. in West Cambridge, Mass., 31 
Jan., 1859. He was graduated at Harvard in 1787, 
taught in Phillips Andover academy until 1789, 
studied theology, and labored as a missionary in 
Maine. In 1794 he was tutor of Greek in Harvard. 
He was ordained minister of the church in Coven- 
try, Conn., in 1795, from which he was dismissed 
in 1811, on account of his theological opinions. He 
taught the Dummer academy until 1819, and then 
cultivated a farm in North Andover until 1827, 
when he was installed as pastor of the church at 
Peterborough, N. H., where he remained until his 
retirement from the ministry in 1848. He pub- 
lished in 1811 an account of his difficulty with the 
Coventry congregation, in 1829 a " History of An- 
dover," Massachusetts, and in 1847 the " Geneal- 
ogy of the Abbot Family." 

ABBOT, Abiel, clergvman, b. in Andover, Mass., 
17 Aug., 1770; d. on Staten Island, N. Y., 7 June, 
1828. He was graduated at Harvard in 1792, be- 
came the Congregational minister at Haverhill, 
Mass., in 1794, and in 1802 took charge of the 
church at Beverly. He wrote a volume of descrip- 
tive " Letters from Cuba " (Boston, 1829) while visit- 
ing that island for his health in 1827, and died of 
yellow fever on his return voyage. Dr. Abbot was 
an eloquent preacher. His sermons, accompanied 
by a memoir by Samuel Everett, were published in 
Boston in 1831. 

ABBOT, Benjamin, educator, b. about 1762 ; d. 
in Exeter, X. IL. 25 Oct., 1849. He was graduated 
at Harvard in 1788, received the degree of LL. D. 
from Dartmouth in 1811, and took charge of Phillips 
academy, Exeter, N. H., which he conducted until 
1838. Among the pupils under his training were 
Daniel Webster, Edward Everett, Lewis Cass, Jared 
Sparks, George Bancroft, and John G. Palfrey. 

ABBOT, Ezra, biblical critic, b. in Jackson, 
Maine, 28 April, 1819; d. in Cambridge, Mass., 
21 March, 1884. It is said that he knew his letters 
at the age of nineteen months. When five years 
old he was promoted to the first class in reading, 
and at seven he expressed the great interest he 
felt in RoUin's " Ancient History." In the sports 
of childhood he manifested the' keenest zest, was 
an expert at catching trout, and was an excel- 
lent story-teller. He studied at Phillips Exeter 
academy, was graduated at Bowdoin college in 
1840, and soon afterward made his home in Cam- 
bridge, Mass. In 1856 he became assistant librari- 
an at Harvard. He made a careful revision, and 
collation with the originals, of the numerous 
learned quotations in Jeremy Taylor's " Holy Liv- 
ing and Dying," and published a new edition (Bos- 
ton, 1864). In 1869 he received the degree of 
LL. D. from Yale college, and in 1872 Harvard 
conferred on him the 
degree of D. D., al- 
though he was a lay- 
man. From 1872 till 
his death he was pro- 
fessor of New Testa- 
ment criticism and 
interpretation in the 
Divinity school at 
Cambridge. He made 
important contribu- 
tions, mostly in the 
department of bibli- 
cal criticism, to peri- 
odicals. As a bibliog- 
rapher his labors were 
very valuable, and he 
furnished a curious 
and extensive cata- 
logue of books on the 
subject, which he pre- 
pared as an appendix to Alger's " Critical History 
of a Future Life," and an invaluable addition to 
the Prolegomena to the 8th edition of Tischendorf 's 
Greek Testament. His most important work, as 
well as his latest, was a small volume on " The Au- 
thorship of the Fourth Gospel " (1880). Mr. Abbot 
was a Unitarian, and contributed largely to the peri- 
odicals of that denomination. He also furnished 
occasional papers for the " North American Re- 
view" and the "Journal of the American Oriental 
Society," and was a member of the American com- 
mittee to revise the New Testament. He left a 
library of 5,000 volumes, containing many rare 
books, including a rich collection of Greek New 
Testaments of various editions. In accordance 
with his desire, this collection was added to the 
library of Harvard university. The remainder of 
his books was given to the library of the Divinity 
school connected with the university, on condition 
that " there shall be secured as soon as possible a 
more adequate and safe place of keeping." Among 
his works are "New Discussions of the Trinity'' 
and " Literature of the Doctrine of a Future Life." 
He also edited Norton's " Statement of the Reasons 
for not Believing the Doctrines of the Trinitarians," 
Lamson's " Church of the First Three Centuries," 
and other controversial works, and contributed to 

^ j4^^^/-^ 



the pronunciation of names in " Worcester's Dic- 
tionary." A memorial of Dr. Abbot was published 
by the alumni of Harvard divinity schdol in 1884. 

ABBOT, Francis Elliiigwood, author, b. in 
Boston, 6 Nov., 1836. He was graduated at Har- 
vard in 1859, and from 1870 to 1880 was editor of 
'• The Index," a Boston journal of free thought. 
He has written much on metaphysical subjects, 
and has published in book form " Scientiiie The- 
ism "( Boston, 1886). 

ABBOT, Henry Larcom, soldier, b. in Bev- 
erly, Mass., 18 Aug., 1831. He was graduated at 
West Point in 1854, and made brevet second lieu- 
tenant of topographical engineers. His first ser- 
vice was in the office of the Pacific railroad surveys 
in Washington, whence in 1855 he was transferred 
to the Pacific railroad survey of the route between 
California and Oregon, and afterward served on 
the hydrograjjhic survey of the delta of the Missis- 
sippi river. During the civil war he was princi- 
pally engaged as a military engineer, and rose by 
successive steps until brevetted brigadier-general, 
U. S. army, 13 March, 1865, and made lieutenant- 
colonel of engineers, 31 March, 1880. He served 
in various actions, and was wounded at Bull Run 
in 1861. Since the close of the war he has been en- 
gaged in superintending the defences of the East 
river ; in command of the engineer post and depot 
at Willet's Point, N. Y., and of the engineer bat- 
talion and the engineer school of application, the 
latter of which he has created. He was a member 
of the expedition to Sicily to observe the solar 
eclipse in 1870, member of the engineer board on 
the U. S. military bridge equipage and drill, of one 
on a plan for the protection of the alluvial region 
of the Mississippi against overflows, and of various 
other boards connected with fortifications and 
river and harbor improvements. He invented 
and developed the U. S. system of submarine 
mines for coast and river defence, 1869 to 1886. 
He has published " Vol. VI., Pacific Railroad Re- 
ports " (Washington, 1857) ; " Physics and Hydrau- 
lics of the Mississippi," jointly with Capt. A. A. 
Humphreys (Philadelphia, 1861) ; " Siege Artillery 
in the Campaign against Richmond " (Washington, 
1867) : " Experiments and Investigations to develop 
a System of Submarine Mines for defending Har- 
bors of the United States " (1881) ; jointly with 
boards and commissioners, " United States Bridge 
Equipage and Drill " (1870) ; " Reclamation of the 
Alluvial Basin of the Mississippi River" (1875); 
" Report of Gun-Foundry Board " (1884) ; and 
" Report of the Board on Fortifications or other 
Defences " (1886). 

ABBOT, Joel, physician, b. in Fairfield, Conn., 
17 March, 1766; d. in Washington. Ga., 19 Nov., 
1826. He received an academic education, and 
then studied medicine, his father's profession. In 
1794 he removed to Washington, Ga., and began 
practice. In 1809 he was elected to the legislature, 
and, after holding various local offices, was elected 
to the fifteenth congress (1816), and successively 
re-elected until 1825. In 1820 he was appointed 
by the Georgia medical society as its rejiresentative 
in preparing the " National Pharmacopoeia." 

ABBOT, Joel, naval officer, b. in Westford, 
Mass., 18 Jan., 1793 ; d. in Hong Kong, China, 14 
Dec, 1855. He was appointed midshipman at the 
outbreak of the second war with England, and 
was ordei%d to the frigate " President " as aid and 
signal officer to Com. Rodgers, who, impressed by 
his zeal and efficiency, recommended him to Com. 
Macdonough, then in command of the naval forces 
on Lake Champlain. Learning that the British 
had accumulated a large supply of spars at Sorel, 

Macdonough sent for Midshipman Abbot and asked 
him if he was willing to die for his country. "Cer- 
tainly, sir ; that is what I came into the service for," 
was the answer. Macdonough then told him what 
he wished done, and young Abbot, disguised as a 
British officer, entered the enemy's lines, taking 
the risk of being hanged as a spy in case of cap- 
ture, discovered where the spars were stored, and 
destroyed them. Such were the hardships and 
dangers encountered during this expedition that 
when he reported to his commanding officer he 
was in a state of prostration, from the effects of 
which he was long in recovering. For this ex- 
ploit and for gallantry in action off Cumberland 
Head, 11 Septem- 
ber, 1814, he was 
promoted lieuten- 
ant, and congress 
voted him a hand- 
some sword. Dur- 
ing the remain- 
der of the war he 
had no further op- 
portunity for dis- 
tinction, though 
at one time he 
quelled a formid- 
able mutiny. In 
December, 1818, 
he was placed in 
charge of a 30- 
gun pirate craft, 
the " Mariana," 
captured by Com. 
Stockton off the 
African coast. On the voyage to Boston part of his 
crew mutinied, and the piratical prisoners succeeded 
in wrenching off their irons, during a terrible gale. 
Notwithstanding this seemingly hopeless state of 
affairs, Lieut. Abbot regained command of his 
crew, kept the mutineers at bay, and brought his 
ship safely into port. In 1838 he was promoted 
commander, serving on the various foreign squad- 
rons, and from 1839 to 1842 was in command at 
the Boston navy-yard. In 1852 he commanded 
the " Macedonian " in the Japan expedition, suc- 
ceeding Com. Perry as flag-officer of the squad- 
ron. During this critical period of our rela- 
tions with China he was often called upon to per- 
form delicate diplomatic duties, discharging them 
to the complete satisfaction of the government. 
He probably shortened his life by devotion to the 
interests of commerce in personally superintend- 
ing the placing of buoys and a light-ship in the har- 
bor of Shanghai, which for the first time then had 
its channels and sailing-courses properly defined. 

ABBOT, Joseph Hale, educator, b. in Wilton, 
N. H., 26 Sept., 1802 ; d. in Cambridge, Mass., 7 
April, 1873. He was graduated at Bowdoin col- 
lege in 1822, was tutor there in 1825-'27, and 
from 1827 to 1833 professor of mathematics and 
teacher of modern languages in Phillips Exeter 
academy. He then taught a school for young 
ladies in Boston, and subsequently became princi- 
pal of the high school in Beverly, Mass. He was a 
member, and for several years recording secretary, 
of the American academy of arts and sciences, to 
whose "Transactions" he contributed numerous 
scientific papers. He paid much attention to the 
solving of pneumatic and hydraulic problems, and 
published ingenious and original speculations on 
these subjects. In the "Ether Controversy" he 
was an advocate of the claims of Dr. Charles T. 
Jackson, and wrote warmly in his behalf. He was 
associated with Dr. Worcester in the preparation of 



his English Dictionary, and furnished many of the 
scientific definitions. 

ABBOT, Samuel, philanthropist, b. in Andover, 
Mass., 25 Feb., 1732 ; d. 12 April, 1812. He was 
a merchant in Boston, and by his perseverance, hon- 
esty, and methodical habits acquired great wealth, 
which he devoted to various religious and charita- 
ble purposes. He interested himself in the estab- 
lishment of Andover theological seminary, and con- 
tributed .f 20,000 for that purpose, which amount 
he increased bv $100,000 on his decease. 

ABBOT, Siiiuuel, inventor, b. in Wilton, N. H., 
30 March, 1786 ; d. there, 2 Jan., 1839. He was 
graduated at Harvard in 1808, studied law, and 
practised his profession, first at Dunstable and 
then at Ipswich, Mass. He was the inventor of a 
process by which starch is made from the potato, 
and was burned to death in his factory. 

ABBOTT, Austin, lawyer, b. in Boston, 18 Dec, 
1831 ; d. in New York city, 19 April, 1896. He was 
graduated at the University of the City of New 
York, and was admitted to the New York bar in 
1852. He entered into partnership with his elder 
brother, Benjamin, and cooperated with him in 
preparing legal compilations of great value to the 
profession. He received the degree of LL. D. from 
the University of the City of New York in 1886. 
As joint author with his brothers Benjamin and 
Lvman, he wrote two novels, " Cone-Cut Corners " 
(1855) and " Matthew Caraby " (1858). Individually 
he had contributed to current publications. The 
titles of his most important law books are " New 
Cases, Mainly New York Decisions " (17 vols.. New 
York, 1877-'86) ; " Official Report of the Trial of 
Henry Ward Beecher" (1875, 2 vols, only pub- 
lished, owing to failure of publisher) ; " Reports 
and Decisions of the New York Court of Appeals " 
(4 vols., 1873-78) ; " Digests of New York Statutes, 
and Reports of United States Courts, and of the 
Laws of Corporations ; Reports of Practice Cases " 
(33 vols., 1873), continued in supplementary and 
annual volumes, and in connection with his brother 
Benjamin's " Digest " ; " Trial Evidence " (1880) ; 
"Trial Brief for Civil Jury Cases "(1885). 

ABBOTT, Benjamin, clergyman, b. on Long 
Island, N. Y., in 1732 ; d. in Salem, N. J., 14 Aug., 
1796. The story of Mr. Abbott's life has for a hun- 
dred years been a typical one for the great denomi- 
nation of which he was an early apostle. His father 
died while he was a lad, providing by will that his 
sons should learn trades. Benjamin was appren- 
ticed to a hatter in Philadelphia, where he fell into 
evil ways and for a time led a wild life. Cutting 
short his apprenticeship, he went to New Jersey 
and joined one of his brothers on a farm, but con- 
tinued his profligate career in spite of his marriage 
with a worthy member of the Presbyterian church. 
During all this time he was kind to his family, and a 
frequent if not regular attendant upon religious ser- 
vices. When he was thirty-three years old he had 
a frightful dream of future punishment, which, 
though it did not lead him at the time to mend his 
ways, came back to him several years afterward un- 
der the influence of an itinerant Methodist preacher, 
and, overwhelmed with terror, he suffered agonies 
of remorse until the preacher returned on his cir- 
cuit, when he was converted and could not rest till 
he himself became a preacher. So earnest was he 
that his wife, long a church member, experienced 
renewed conviction of sin under her husband's 
powerful representations, and his influence over 
her was repeated in thousands of other cases wher- 
ever he went. With his wife and children he 
soon united with the Methodists, and became the 
most popular and successful preacher in the vicin- 

ity. Wonderful conversions of the most hardened 
characters took place wherever he preached, and in 
consequence of his chance appeals to individuals. 
The war for independence interfered with his 
work, as the Methodists were popularly suspected 
of disloyalty, and on several occasions he was 
threatened by excited soldiery. His personal force 
was such that he always preached down his assail- 
ants, and he once reduced to the attitude of peace- 
ful auditors a hundred soldiers who had assembled 
to do him violence. For sixteen years he served 
as a local preacher, and in 1789 he became an itin- 
erant, joining the Dutchess County (N. Y.) circuit. 
In 1791 he was on the Long Island circuit, in 1792 
in Salem, N. J., and in 1793 was made an elder and 
sent to the Cecil circuit, Maryland. After this 
time his usefulness was impaired by ill health, but 
in the intervals of fever he went about as usual 
and performed his pastoral duties whenever his 
strength permitted. His life has ever been a stir- 
ring theme for the exhorters who have succeeded 
him, and in the minutes of conference for 1796 he 
is referred to as " one of the wonders of America, 
no man's copy, an uncommon zealot for the blessed 
work of sanctification, who preached it on all occa- 
sions and in all congregations." 

ABBOTT, Benjamin Vauglian, lawyer, b. m 
Boston, 4 June, 1830 ; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 17 Feb., 
1890. He was graduated at New York university 
in 1850, admitted to the bar in 1851, and, after some 
years of practice, devoted himself mainly to compi- 
lations and digests of law. Some of the more im- 
portant of these are enumerated in the article on 
Austin Abbott, his brother, who was associated 
with him. His earliest independent publication 
was " Reports of Decisions of Circuit and District 
Courts of the U. S." (2 vols., New York, 1870-'71). 
In June, 1870, he was appointed to revise the stat- 
utes of the United States, a work that occupied 
thi'ee years, and resulted in the consolidation of 
sixteen volumes of U. S. laws into one large octavo. 
Charles P. James and Victor C. Barringer were 
associated with Mr. Abbott in this work. On its 
completion he undertook a new edition of the " U 
S. Digest," a work that occupied him until 1879. 
The original digest was comj^ressed into thirteen 
volumes, followed by nine volumes of annual sup- 
plements. In the meantime he had prepared " A 
Digest of Decisions on Corporations from 1860 to 
1870 " (New York, 1872), and " A Treatise on the 
Courts of the United States and their Practice " (2 
vols.. New York, 1877). He next compiled a " Dic- 
tionary of Terms in American and English Juris- 
prudence " (2 vols., 1879) ; a " National Digest " 
(4 vols., 1884-'85), which comprised all important 
acts of congress, and decisions of the U. S. supreme 
court, circuit and district courts, court of claims, 
etc., and the fourth American edition of " Addison 
on Contracts " (1883). " Judge and Jury " (New 
York, 1880) is a collection of articles contributed 
anonymously to periodicals ; " Travelling Law 
School and Famous Trials" (1880) is a juvenile 
publication in the Chautauqua reading-circle series. 
He supplied many articles for the " Medical Refer- 
ence Handbook," and acted as editor for the law- 
yers' cooperative publishing company of Rochester, 
N. Y. His latest work, entitled " The Patent Laws 
of all Nations," was still in preparation. 

ABBOTT, Charles Conrad, naturalist, b. in 
Trenton, N. J., 4 June, 1843. He was educated at 
Trenton academy, and studied medicine at the 
university of Pennsylvania, graduating in 1865, 
Dr. Abbott has very carefully investigated the first 
appearance of pre-historic man in this country, and 
has accumulated a valuable archaeological collec- 




tion containing 20,000 specimens, mainly stone im- 
plements, which is now in the Peabody museum, 
Cambridge, Mass. He is the author of " A Natu- 
ralist's Rambles about Home '' (New York, 1884) ; 
" Upland and Meadow" (188G) ; " Wasteland Wan- 
derings" (1887); "Days Out of Doors" (188!)); 
" Outings at Odd Times " (1890) ; " Recent Ram- 
bles " (Philadelphia, 1892) ; " Travels on a Tree 
Top" (1894); "Birds about Us" (1895): "A Colo- 
nial Wooing"; "Bird- Land Echoes " (1896) ; "Notes 
of the Night" (New York, 1896); and " When the 
Century vvas New" (Philadelphia, 1897). 

ABBOTT, Edward, journalist, b. in Farming- 
ton, Me., 15 July, 1841. He is the fourth son of 
Jacob Abbott, was graduated at the University 
of the City of New York in 1860, and afterward 
studied at Andover theological seminary. In 1862 
and 1863 he was with the U. S. sanitary commis- 
sion of the Army of the Potomac. On 28 July, 
1863, he was ordained to the ministry of the Con- 
gregational church, and until 1865 he was chaplain 
of the city institutions, Boston. He became pas- 
tor of Stearns' chapel (now Pilgrim church) in 
1865, and remained there until 1869, when he be- 
came associate editor of the " Congregationalist," 
retaining the place until 1878. He then trans- 
ferred his ecclesiastical relation to the Protestant 
Episcopal church, and took charge of St. James 
parish, C!ambridge. In the same year he under- 
took the editorship of the " Literary World." He 
has published " The Baby's Things " (New York, 
1871) ; " The Conversations of Jesus " (Boston, 
1875) ; " A Paragraph History of the United 
States " (1875) ; " A Paragraph History of the 
Revolution " and " Revolutionary Times " (1876) ; 
" The Long-Look Books " (3 vols., 1877-'80) ; " Pil- 
grim Lesson Papers " (1872-'74) ; and " Abbott's 
Young Christian," edited with a life of the author 
(New York, 1882), and contributed largely to peri- 
odical literature. 

ABBOTT, (irorham Dummer, educator, b. in 
Hallowell, Me., 3 Sept., 1807 : d. in South Natick, 
Mass., 31 July, 1874. He was a brother of Rev. Jacob 
Abbott, was graduated at Bowdoin College in 1826, 
and studied theology at Andover with the class of 
1831. After receiving ordination as a Congrega- 
tional minister in 1831, he became a teacher in 
New York city, and shortly afterward was settled 
at New Rochelle, N. Y.. where he remained till 
1845, doing at the same time literary work for the 
American Tract Society. On leaving New Ro- 
chelle he assisted his brothers in establishing a 
female seminary, the Abbott institute, in New 
York city. He founded in 1847 a young ladies' 
seminary, known as the Spingler institute, where 
he remained for thirteen years. The high reputa- 
tion of this school necessitated an enlargement, 
and the Townsend mansion on Fifth avenue was 
procured, remodelled, and converted into an annex. 
His seminary held a high rank, not only in New 
York but througliout the country, for more than 
thirty years. He was a successful teacher, and 
possessed of great executive ability. The title of 
LL. D. was conferred on him by Ingham University 
in 1860. He retired from the seminary in 1869 
with a competence, but subsequent unfortunate in- 
vestments caused a material diminution of his 
property. His researches as a biblical student dis- 
played extreme thoroughness. He imported at his 
own expense a set of plates of the "Annotated 
Paragraph Bible" of the London Tract Society, 
and also published several editions of the woi-k, 
which was issued at an extremely low price in 
order to facilitate biblical instruction. He was the 
author of several religious and didactic works, prin- 

cipal among which were the "Family at Home," 
" Nathan W. Dickerman," " Mexico and the United 
States," an<l " Pleasure and Pi'ofit." 

ABBOTT, Horace, numufacturer, b. in Sud- 
bury, Mass., 29 July, 1806 ; d. in Baltimore, Md., 
8 Aug., 1887. He was early engaged in the man- 
ufacture of shafts, cranks, axles, etc., in Balti- 
more, and is said to have made the first large 
steamboat-shaft ever forged in this country. In 
1850 he built his first rolling-mill, which was larger 
than any before attempted in the United States. 
A second mill, tmilt in 1857, contained a pair of 
ten-foot rolls, which were described as being the 
longest plate-rolls ever made in America. In 1858 
a third mill was erected, and in 1861 a fourth. 
In these mills the armor-plates for the " Monitor " 
were made, and subsequently those for nearly all 
the vessels of the monitor class built on the Atlan- 
tic coast, as well as for the " Roanoke," " Agamen- 
ticus," " Monadnock." and other government ves- 
sels. In 1865 an association of capitalists purchased 
the entire works and organized a stock company 
known as the Abbott Iron Company of Baltimore, 
and elected Mr. Abbott president. 

ABBOTT, Jacob, author, b. in Hallowell, Me., 
14 Nov., 1803 ; d. in Farmington, Me., 31 Oct., 1879. 
He was graduated at Bowdoin College, Brunswick, 
Me., in 1820, and studied divinity at Andover 
Mass., receiving ordination as a Congregational 
minister. From 1825 to 1829 he was professor of 
mathematics and natural philosophy m Amherst 
college, and afterward he established the Mount 
Vernon school for girls in Boston. In 1834 he or- 
ganized a new Congregational church in Roxbury 
(the Eliot church) and became its pastor. He re- 
moved to Farmington, Me., in 1839, and subse- 
quently devoted himself almost exclusively to lit- 
erary labor, dividing his time between Farmington 
and New York, and travelling extensively abroad. 
A complete catalogue of his works (which are 
chiefly for the young) would considerably exceed 
200 titles. Many of them are serial, each series 
comprising from 3 to 36 volumes. Among them 
are the " Young Christian " series (4 vols. ; new 
ed., with life of the author, 1882), the "Rollo 
Books " (28 vols.), the " Lucy Books " (6 vols,), 
the " Jonas Books " (6 vols,), the " Franeonia 
Stories " (10 vols.), the " Marco Paul Series " (6 vols,), 
the "Gay Family" series (12 vols,), the "Juno 
Books" (6 vols.), the "Rainbow" series (5 vols.), 
and four or five other series ; " Science for the 
Y'oung " (4 vols., " Heat," " Light," " Water and 
Land," and " Force ") ; " A Summer in Scotland " ; 
" The Teacher " ; more than 20 of the series of illus- 
trated histories to which his brother John S, C, 
contributed, and a separate series of histories of 
America in 8 volumes. He also edited, with addi- 
tions, several historical text-books, and compiled a 
series of school readers. 

ABBOTT, John, entomologist. He was for 
many years a resident of Georgia, and wrote " The 
Natural History of the Rarer Lepidopterous In- 
sects of Georgia," which was edited by Sir J. E, 
Smith, and published in London, with 104 colored 
plates, in 1797, 

ABBOTT, John Joseph Caldwell, Canadian 
statesnuin, b, in St, Andrews, Argenteuil co,, Can- 
ada East, 12 March, 1811 ; d, in Montreal, 30 Oct,, 
1893. He was a son of the first Anglican incum- 
bent of St. Andrews ; was educated there, and 
subsequently at McGill college, Montreal, where 
he was graduated as B. C. L., studied law, and in 
1847 was called to the bar of Lower Canada. In 
1859 he was elected a representative from Argen- 
teuil in the Canadian assembly, and he represented 



this constituency until the union of the provinces, 
when he was returned for the house of commons. 
For a brief period in 1862 Mr. Abbott was solicitor- 
general in the Sandfield Macdonald-Sicotte admin- 
istration. He was subsequently elected to the sen- 
ate, and on the death of Sir John Macdonald he 
became premier. After serving a short period he 
retired, owing to ill-health. Sir John was regarded 
as one of the best authorities in Canada on commer- 
cial law. and he added largely to his reputation by his 
" Jury Law Consolidation Act " for Lower Canada. 
ABBOTT, John Stephens Cabot, author, b. in 
Brunswick, Me., 18 Sept., 1805 ; d. in Fair Haven, 
•Conn., 17 June, 1877. He was a brother of Jacob 
Abbott, and was graduated at Bowdoin College in 
1825, and at Andover Theological Seminary. He 
w^as ordained as a Congregational minister in 1830, 
and successively held pastorates at Worcester, Rox- 
bury, and Nantucket, Mass. Like his elder broth- 
■er, he had the narrative faculty in a remarkable 
degree, and, like him, he was a prolific writer. His 
first published work, " The Mother at Home " 
(1833), commanded a large sale, and was followed 
by " The Child at Home," and at short intervals by 
other books of a semi-religious character. In 1844 
he resigned his pastorate and devoted himself to 
literature, his favorite field of work being profes- 
sedly historical. His principal books are " Prac- 
tical Christianity " ; " Kings and Queens, or Life 

in the Palace " ; 
"The French Rev- 
olution of 1789 " ; 
"The History of 
Napoleon Bona- 
parte " (2 vols.); 
" Napoleon at St. 
Helena " ; " The 
History of Napo- 
leon I'll." (1868); 
10 volumes of il- 
lustrated histo- 
ries ; " A History 
of the Civil War in 
America " (2 vols., 
1863-1866); "Ro- 
mance of Spanish 
History" (1870); 
and " The His- 
tory of Frederick 
the Second, called 
Frederick the Great " (1871). Several of these have 
been translated into foreign languages. 

ABBOTT, Joseph Carter, journalist, b. in 
Concord. N. H.. 15 July, 1825; d. in Wilmington, 
N. C, 8 Oct., 1882. He studied at Phillips An- 
dover academy, and subsequently under private in- 
struction, covering the usual college course. He 
then read law in Concord, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1852, at which time he had already edited 
the " Daily American " for six months. He contin- 
ued to edit this journal until 1857, and in the mean- 
time (1855) he was appointed adjutant-general of 
New Hampshire, and in that capacity effectively 
reorgainzed the State militia. In 1859-'61 he as- 
sumed the editorship of the Boston " Atlas and 
Bee," but continued to discharge his duties as ad- 
jutant-general. He early joined the " Know Noth- 
ing " party, and diiring all these years was a frequent 
contributor to the magazines, being particularly 
interested in historical matters. He was a member 
of the commission for adjusting the boundary be- 
tween New Hampshire and Canada. When the civil 
war broke out he showed great energy and efficiency 
in raising and organizing troops until, yielding to 
the desire for active service, he obtained a commis- 


sion as lieutenant-colonel of the 7th regiment. New 
HampsWre volunteers. On various occasions he dis- 
tinguished himself, but especially at the attack on 
Fort Fisher, N. C, where his brigade stormed suc- 
cessively several positions where the Confederates 
made a stand. He was promoted colonel 23 July, 
1863, and commanded his regiment in active service 
until the summer of 1864, when he was placed in 
charge of a brigade and brevetted brigadier-general. 
After the war he removed to Wilmington, N. C, 
where he was a member of the constitutional con- 
vention, was elected U. S. senator by the Republi- 
cans for a partial term ending in 1871, served as 
collector of the port under President Grant, and 
was inspector of ports under President Hayes. 

ABBOTT, Lyman, clergyman, b. in Roxbury, 
Mass., 18 Dec, 1835. He is the third son of Jacob 
Abbott, was graduated at the University of the City 
of New York in 1853, studied law, was admitted 
to the bar, and went into partnership with his 
brothers, Benjamin V. and Austin, in 1856. Be- 
coming convinced that he was better qualified for 
the pulpit than for the bar, he studied theology 
with his uncle, the Rev. John S. C. Abbott, and en- 
tered the ministry in 1860. His first pastoral 
charge was the CJongregational church in Terre 
Haute, Ind., where he remained until, in 1865, he 
was chosen secretary of the American Union (li'reed- 
men's) Commission. This office called him to New 
York city, and occupied him until 1868. During a 
part of this period he was also pastor of the New 
England church in^New York city, but he resigned 
in 1869 to devote himself to literature and journal- 
ism. He was joint author with his brothers of two 
novels (see Austin Abbott), and for several years 
he edited the " Literary Record " of " Harper's 
Magazine," at the same time conducting the " Il- 
lustrated Christian Weekly." This last-named duty 
he resigned to take charge of the " Christian Union," 
an independent weekly journal, in the editorship 
of which he was associated with Beecher. For 
several years he has been pastor of Plymouth 
church antl editor of " The Outlook." His works 
include " Jesus of Nazareth : His Life and Teach- 
ings " (New York, 1869) ; " Old Testament Shadows 
of New Testament Truths " (1870) ; " A Dictionary 
of Bible Knowledge " (1872) ; " A Layman's Story " 
(1872) ; an " Illustrated Commentary on the New 
Testament," in four volumes (1S75 ct seq.); a Life 
of Henry Ward Beecher (1883) ; " For Family Wor- 
ship," a book of devotions (1883) ; and " In Aid of 
Faith" (1886). He is also the author of several 
pamphlets, the most important being one on " The 
Results of Emancipation in the United States" 
(1867). He has edited two volumes of " Sermons 
by Rev. Henry Ward Beecher," and " Morning and 
Evening Exercises," selected from tiie writings of 
the same author. 

ABBOTT, Robert Osborne, surgeon, b. in 
Pennsylvania in 1824 ; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 16 
June, 1867. He entered the army in 1849 as as- 
sistant surgeon, and in that capacity accompanied 
Magruder's battery to California. He subsequently 
served in the East, and also in Florida and Texas. 
During 1861 he was assistant to the chief medical 
purveyor in New York. In 1862 he was made medi- 
cal director of the fifth army corps, and later in the 
same year was appointed medical director of the 
department of Washington, having charge of all 
the hospitals in and about the capital, together 
with all the hospital transports. The incessant and 
arduous duties of this office, which he held until 
November, 1866, seriously impaired his health. A 
six months' sick-leave failed to restore it, and he 
died a victim of over-work. 




ABEEL, David, missionary, b. in New Bruns- 
wick, N. J., 12 June, 1804 ; d. in Albany, N. Y., 4 
Sept., 1846. He was educated at Rutgers College, 
New Brunswick, N. J., and studied at the Theo- 
logical Seminary of the Reformed church in that 
place. His first pastoral charge was at Athens, 
N. Y., where he remained for two years, and then 
sailed for Canton, China, in October, 1829, under 
the auspices of the Seaman's Friend society, but 
after a year's service placed himself under the di- 
rection of the American board of commissioners 
for foreign missions. He visited Java, Singapore, 
and Siam, studying the Chinese language ; but his 
health failed and he returned home by way of 
Europe in 1883, visiting Holland, Prance, and 
Switzerland, and everywhere urging the claims of 
the heathen upon Christian nations. In England 
he aided in forming a society for promoting the 
education of women in the East. On returning to 
America he published " The Claims of the World to 
the Gospel," " Residence in China," and " The 
Missionary Convention at Jerusalem." In 1839 he 
revisited Malacca, Borneo, and parts of Asia, and 
m 1842 established a mission at Amoy. In 1845 
his health gave way altogether, and he returned 
home to die. He was one of the most successful of 
the early American missionaries, being gifted with 
somid practical sense and energy. See " Memoirs," 
by the Rev. G. R. Williamson (1849). 

ABERCROMBIE, James, British soldier, b. 
in Scotland in 170(5 ; d. 23 April, 1781. He was de- 
scended from a wealthy family, entered the army, 
and reached the gi'ade of colonel in 1746, of major- 
general in 1756, of lieutenant-general in 1759, 
and of general in 1772. He commanded the 
British forces in America after the departure of 
Loudoun in 1758, ordered the disastrous attack 
on Fort Ticonderoga, 8 July, 1758, and then re- 
treated to his intrenched camp south of Lake 
George. Superseded in 1759 by Amherst, he re- 
turned to England and, as a member of parliament, 
supported the coercive policy toward the American 
colonies. His son James died in Boston, 24 June, 
1775, of a wound received at Bunker Hill. He had 
served as aide-de-camp to Gen. Amherst in 1759, 
and was promoted to the grade of lieutenant-colo- 
nel in 1770. In the charge on Bunker Hill he led 
the Grenadier Guards. 

ABERCROMBIE, James, clergvman, b. in 
Philadelphia, 26 Jan., 1758 ; d. there, 26 June, 1841. 
He was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1776, and studied divinity, but, owing to a disease 
of the eyes, followed mercantile pursuits from 1783 
until 1793, when he was ordained and became asso- 
ciate pastor of Christ church. He was principal of 
the Philadelphia academy from 1810 to 1819, and 
retired from the ministry in 1833. He published 
" Lectures on the Catechism " (1807) ; " Lectures on 
Rhetoric " (1810) ; " Lectures on the Liturgy " (1811) ; 
"The Mourner Comforted" (1812); and sermons. 

ABERCROMBIE, John Joseph, soldier, b. in 
Tennessee in 1802; d. in Roslyn, N. Y., 3 Jan., 
1877. He was graduated at West Point in 1822, 
served as adjutant in the 1st Infantry from 1825 to 
1833, and was made captain in 1836. He served in 
the Florida war, and was brevetted major for gal- 
lant conduct at the battle of Okeechobee. He was 
engaged in frontier duty in the west until the 
Mexican war. For gaUantry at the battle of Mon- 
terey, where he was wounded, he received the bre- 
vet rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was at the siege 
of Vera Cruz and at Cerro Gordo, and served in 
1847 as aide-de-camp to Gen. Patterson. When 
the civil war broke out he was stationed in Minne- 
sota. He took part in the Shenandoah campaign 

and was in command at the action of Falling Wa- 
ters. He served through the Peninsular campaign 
as brigadier-general of volunteers, was wounded at 
Fair Oaks, and was present at Malvern Hill and in 
several skirmishes on the retreat to Harrison's 
Landing. He was engaged in the defence of Wash- 
ington in 1862 and 1863, had charge of depots at 
Fredericksburg in May, 1864, and took part in 
the defence against Hampton's Legion in June, 
1864. He was brevetted brigadier-general at the 
close of the war, and retired 12 June, 1865. 

ABERCROMBY, Sir Robert, British soldier, 
b. in October, 1740; d. near Stirling, Scotland, 3 
Nov., 1827. He served in Canada throughout the 
French war, and as colonel of a regiment during 
the war of the revolution. He led the expedition 
that destroyed American shipping in the Delaware 
in May, 1778, surprised Gen. Lacey at Crooked Bil- 
let, Pa., was wounded at Monmouth, and led a sor- 
tie from Yorktown, capturing two batteries. He 
was promoted major-general in 1790, served in 
India, succeeding Cornwallis as commander-in- 
chief in 1793, and was made a general in 1802. 

ABERT, John James, soldier, b. in Shep- 
herdstown, Va., 17 Sept., 1788 ; d. in Washington, 
D. C, 27 Sept., 1863. He was the son of John 
Abert, who came to this country with Rochambeau 
in 1780. Young Abert was graduated at West 
Point in 1811, 
but at once re- 
signed, and was 
then employed 
in the war office. 
Meanwhile he 
studied law, 
and was admit- 
ted to the bar 
in the District 
of Columbia in 
1813. In the 
war of 1812 he 
volunteered as 
a private soldier 
for the defence 
of the capital. 
He was reap- 
pointed to the 
army in 1814 
as topographi- 
cal engineer, with the rank of major. In 1829 he 
succeeded to the charge of the topographical bu- 
reau at Washington, and in 1838 became colonel in 
command of that branch of the engineers. He 
was retired in 1861 after " long and faithful ser- 
vice." Col. Abert was associated in the supervi- 
sion of many of the earlier national works of en- 
gineering, and his reports prepared for the gov- 
ernment are standards of authority. He was a 
member of several scientific societies, and was one of 
the organizers of the national institute of science, 
which was subsequently merged into the Smithso- 
nian institute. His sons served with distinction in 
the U. S. army during the civil war. — James 
William, soldier, b. in Mount Holly, N. J., 18 
Nov., 1820, was graduated at West Point in 1842. 
After service in the infantry he was transferred to 
the topographical engineers, and was engaged on 
the survey of the northern lakes in 1843-'44. 
He then served on the expedition to New Mexico, 
and published a report (Senate doc, 1848). From 
1848 to 1850 he was assistant in drawing at West 
Point, and from 1851 to 1860 he was engaged in 
the improvement of western rivers, except dur- 
ing the Seminole war in 1856-'58, when he was in 
Florida. During the civil war he served on the 

/ / cAt<^- 




staflfs of Gen. Patterson and Gen. Banks in the 
Virginia campaign of 1861-'(j3. He was severely 
injured at Frederick, Md., in 18(52, and subse- 
quently served on Gen. Gillmore's staff, having at- 
tained the rank of major in 1803. He resigned on 
25 June, 1864. For a short time he was an ex- 
a,miner of patents in Washington, and later he be- 
came professor of mathematics and drawing in the 
University of Missouri, at Rolla. He is a contribu- 
tor to current literature in science, art, and history. 
— Silvanus Thayer, civil engineer, b. in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., 22 July, 1828. He was educated at 
Princeton, and in 1848 began his engineering ca- 
reer in the government service on the construction 
of the James river and Kanawha canal. For eleven 
years he was actively engaged on government work 
at various localities. In 1859 he was appointed 
engineer in charge of all the works of construction 
3,t the Pensacola navy-yard. During the civil war 
he served at first on the staff of Gen. Banks in his 
Virginia campaign, and later under Gen. Meade 
with the Army of the Potomac. From 1865 to 
1866 he was engaged on the surveys of the Magda- 
lena river for the Colombian government. On his 
return he again joined the engineering corps, and 
has been occupied on numerous government sur- 
veys. Since 1873 he has been in charge of the 
geographical division extending from Washington, 
D. C, to Wilmington, N. C. Col. Abert is the au- 
thor of numerous valuable reports on his work, and 
has also published " Notes, Historical and Statisti- 
cal, upon the Projected Route for an Interoceanic 
Ship Canal between the Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans" (Cincinnati, 1872). — William Stretch, 
soldier, b. in Washington, D. C, 1 Feb., 1836 ; d. in 
Galveston, Tex., 25 Aug., 1867. He was appointed 
lieutenant in the artillery in 1855, and at the out- 
break of tlie civil war in 1861 was stationed at Fort 
Monroe, Va. He was appointed captain in the 
cavalry in 1861, and fought in the battles of Wil- 
liamsljurg and Hanover Court House. Later he 
joined Gen. McClellan's staff, and was at Antie- 
tam. From November, 1862, to October, 1864, he 
was assistant inspector-general at New Orleans 
under Gen. Baidcs, after which he served in the 
defences of Washington as colonel of the 3d Mas- 
sachusetts artillery. Subsequent to the war he 
was with his regiment in Texas, and became as- 
sistant inspector-general of the district of Texas. 
In June, 1867, he was advanced to the rank of 
major in the 7th U. S. cavalry. He received sev- 
eral brevets, the highest of which was that of lieu- 

ABOVILLE, Francois Marie, Comte d', 
French soldier, b. in Brest, 23 Jan., 1730; d. 1 
Nov., 1817. He distinguished himself as a young 
officer of artillery at the siege of Miinster, came to 
America with the rank of colonel, commanded the 
artillery of Rochambeau's army at the siege of 
Yorktown, and was made a brigadier in 1789. He 
commanded the French army of the north and 
Ardennes in 1792, with the rank of lieutenant-gen- 
eral, and was governor of Brest in 1809. Embrac- 
ing the cause of the Bourbons, he was made a peer 
of France after the restoration in 1814. 

ABRAHAMS, Simeon, physician and pliilan- 
thropist, b. in 1809 : d. in New York, 14 April, 1867. 
He practised medicine in New York with success, 
and bequeathed large sums to Jewish and other 
charities in that city. 

ACAMAPICTLI (ah-kah-mah-petch'-tli). I. An 
Aztec king, d. in 1389. He succeeded to the throne 
in 1352, and consolidated the kingdom, collecting 
the tribes and making new laws. He constructed 
roads and aqueducts, and was the founder of the 
VOL. I. — 2 

eity of Tenochtitlan. IL The third Aztec king, 
second grandson of the preceding. He assisted 
King Quinatzin, of Texeoco, against his two rebel- 
lious sons, and finally routed them. He ruled 
his own country in peace for forty-one years, and 
died in 1402. 

ACCAULT, Michel (ak-ko), explorer. He was 
one of the trusted lieutenants of La Salle, discov- 
erer of the Mississippi, and was sent by him with 
Louis Hennepin during the summer of 1679 to ex- 
plore the upper part of that river. This expedition 
has been fully chronicled by Father Hennepin, who 
represented the church, while Accault and Du Gay 
were the military aids. They ascended the river to 
the falls of St. Anthony, were captured by the Sioux 
Indians, rescued by the gallant French officer Dan- 
iel Duluth, and reached the trading-station at Green 
bay in the autumn. See Hennepin. 

ACLAND, Christina Harriet Caroline Fox, 
daughter of Stephen, first earl of Ilchester, b. 3 
Jan., 1750 ; d. at Tetton, England, 21 July, 1815. 
She married, in September, 1770, Maj. John Dyke 
Acland, accompanied him to America, and shared 
in all the vicissitudes of Burgoyne's campaign, 
which culmniated in the surrender of the British 
army, 17 Oct., 1777. In the second battle of Sara- 
toga, 7 Oct., Maj. Acland was severely wounded 
and carried a prisoner within the American lines. 
On the night of the 9th, accompanied by the chap- 
lain and her maid, she set out from the British 
camp in a frail boat and in the midst of a driving 
storm to rejoin her husband. She was received 
with the utmost cordiality by Gates, shared her 
husband's captivity, and carefully nursed him until 
restored to health. The kindness that had been 
shown to his wife Maj. Acland reciprocated, while 
on parole in New York, by doing all in his power 
to mitigate the sufferings of the American prison- 
ers. The oft-repeated story that after her hus- 
band's death she became insane for a time, and 
finally married Chaplain Brudenell, is totally un- 
true. She died the widow of Maj. Acland, as is 
attested by the burial register. The story that her 
husband was killed in a duel is equally unfounded. 
He received a paralytic stroke on 29 Nov., 1778, 
while directing some improvements about his place, 
and died on 2 Dec. In person Lady Harriet was 
highly graceful and delicate, and her manners were 
elegantly feminine. Mrs. Perez Norton commem- 
orated her sufferings in a touching poem, and 
before she left New York a painting representing 
her standing in a boat, with a white handkerchief 
in her hand as a flag of truce, was exhibited at the 
royal academy, London. There is a striking por- 
trait of her by Sir Joshua Reynolds, at Killerton, 
Exeter, the seat of Sir Thomas Dyke Ackland. 
She suffered for years from cancer, but bore it with 
great fortitude. She is still remembered for her 
numerous charities. 

ACOLHUA I. (ah-kol-hoo'-ah), a king of Azca- 
potzalco. He ascended the throne in 1168. II. 
(also called by some historians Tetzotzomoc), a 
king of Azeapotzaleo. He began to rule in 1239. 

ACOSTA, Cecilio, Venezuelan jurist and writer, 
b. in Caracas in 1831 ; d. there, 8 July, 1881. He 
was the editor of the penal code now in force in 
his country, Venezuela. He was a great Spanish 
and Latin scholar, and had a thorough knowledge 
of the French, English, and Italian literatures. 
Acosta was among tiie first South Americans hon- 
ored with the api>ointment of corresponding mem- 
ber of the Spanish academy. 

ACOSTA, Joaquin, Colombian general and au- 
thor, b. in Guaduas, Colombia, 29 Dec, 1799; d. 
there in 1852. He entered the Colombia army at 




the age of twenty, and rendered distinguished ser- 
■^ices as an officer of engineers. He was a member 
of the convention of New Grenada in 1881, and 
was afterward a representative in congress. In 
1834 he explored the valleys of the Socorro and 
Magdalena rivers, and in 1841 made researches 
relative to the Chibocas and other Indian tribes. 
He was for a time New Grenadan minister to Ecua- 
dor, and from 20 July to 8 Nov., 1842, was charge 
d'affaires at Washington. Subsequently he held 
the office of secretary of state in the New Grenadan 
government. He published in Paris, in 1848, a 
history of the discovery and settlement of New 
Grenada, accompanied by a valuable map made by 
himself, the first one published since Colombian in- 
dependence. He also contributed to the publica- 
tions of the French geographical society. 

ACOSTA, Jose de, Spanish missionary, b. in 
Medina del Campo in 1589; d. in Salamanca, 15 
Feb.. 1599. At the age of fourteen he became a 
member of the Society of Jesus. He was a mis- 
sionary in South America from 1571 until 1576, 
then visited Mexico, where he remained two years. 
After his return to Spain he published " De na- 
tura Novi Orbis et de promulgatione evangelii 
apud Barbaros " (Salamanca, 1588-'9), which he 
translated into Spanish and extended. It was is- 
sued under the title " Historia natui'al y moral de 
las Indias " (1590), attained great popularity, and 
was translated into various languages. He was 
rector of the university of Salamanca at the time 
of ids death. 

ACOSTA, Santos, Colombian statesman, b. in 
Mirafiores, Colombia, in 1880. He became con- 
spicuous in politics when quite young. He has 
been general-in-chief of the Colombian army, repre- 
sentative and senator in several legislatures, secre- 
tary of state, a foreign minister, and president of 
the rcTJublic from May, 1807, to April, 1868. 

ACRELIUS, Israel (jikni'-le-oos), Swedish cler- 
gyman, b. in Osteraker, Sweden. 25 Dec, 1714 ; d. in 
Fellingsbro, 25 April, 1800. He was educated in 
Upsala, ordained in 1743, and sent out as provost 
of the Swedish congregations in New Sweden 
(afterward Delaware), in 1749. He reached Phila- 
delphia in November, and began his work with zeal 
and prudence, successfully superintending the ec- 
clesiastical affairs of the Swedish colonies, which he 
found in great disorder. But ill health obliged 
him to resign in 1756, after a sojourn of seven 
years in America, and on his return to Sweden the 
king gave him a pension and the living of Fell- 
ingsbro. He wrote various articles on America, 
for Swedish journals and for religious papers, and 
published " The Swedish Colonies in America " 
(Stockholm, 1759), which was translated into Eng- 
lish in 1874, and is a work of value and interest. 

ACUALMETZLI, the Indian name of a Mexi- 
can warrior, b. in Coyacan in 1520 : d. in 1542. 
His christian name was Ignacio Alarcon de Roque- 
tilla. When he was a year old his father and 
mother died, the former in battle against the 
Spaniards, and the latter from the effects of pun- 
ishment received because she insulted one of the 
captains of Cortes. A Spaniard took care of the 
orphan, had him christened, and gave him an edu- 
cation. But Acualmetzli, when about twenty years 
of age, learned the cause of his parents' death and 
joined the Chichimecas, then in revolt, in order to 
seek revenge. He fought bravely, and instructed 
the Indians in civilized warfare, until he fell in 
battle with the troops sent against them by the 
viceroy Antonio de Mendoza. 

ACUNA, Cristobal de (ah-koon'-ya), Spanish 
Jesuit missionary, b. in Burgos, Spain, in 1597; 

d. about 1676. He was attached to Texeira's 
Amazon expedition in 1689-41, with the special 
object of reporting the incidents of the explora- 
tion. On his return to Spain he published his 
" Nuevo Descubriiniento del Gran Rio de las Ama- 
zons." All the copies of this work, except ten, 
were unfortunately destroyed, but fr'oin these a. 
translation was made by Gomberville into French 
in 1684. Although great interest was excited by 
the expedition, the distractions in the mother covin- 
try prevented the government from taking any 
marked interest in the colonization of the region 
to which so much energy and talent had been de- 
voted. Aeuna afterward went to the West Indies, 
thence returned to South America, and died while 
on his \vay from Panama to Lima. 

ACUNA, Jiiaii, marquis of Casaferte, 87th 
viceroy of Mexico, b. in Lima, Peru, late in the 
17th century; d. in Mexico, 17 March, 1774. He 
was an officer of artillery in the Spanisli army. 
For twelve years, from 15 Oct., 1722. he governed 
New Spain with great success in all the depart- 
ments of the administration. During that period 
many public buildings were erected, among them 
the custom house, the mint, and the " Newgate "" 
of Vera Cruz, erected 1727, which for many years 
was called " Puerta de Acuiia." ]Mining received a 
great impulse, while commerce with Spain and the 
Philippine islands was increased. Acuiia sent to 
Texas a colony from the Canary islands, who found- 
ed the town of San Fernando. 

ACUNA, Manuel, Mexican poet, b. in the state 
of Coahuila, 27 Aug., 1849 ; d. by his own hand 
6 Dec, 1873. He founded the literary society 
"Netzahual Coyotl," in which he first showed his 
poetical talent. He was the author of a play en- 
titled " El Pasado." His best poems are " Gloria" 
and " A Rosario." Disappointment in love is said 
to have been the cause of his suicide. 

ADAIR, James, Indian trader and author, lived 
in the 18th century. He resided among the In- 
dians (principally the Chickasaws and Cherokees) 
from 1735 to 1775, and in the latter year pub- 
lished his " History of the American Indians." In 
this he attempted to trace the descent of the In- 
dians from the Jews, basing his assumption upon 
supposed resemblances between the customs of the 
two races. At that time such an hypothesis was 
regarded as visionary, but the idea has since found 
many supporters, among them being Boudinot in 
his " Star of the West." Unsatisfactory as are his 
vocabularies of Indian dialects, they are the most 
valuable part of his writings. 

ADAIR, John, general, b. in Chester co., S. C, 
in 1759; d. in Harrisburg, Ky., 19 May, 1840. He 
served in the revolutionary army, and in 1787 re- 
moved to Kentucky, where he was appointed major 
under St. Clair and Wilkinson in their expeditions 
against the Indians of the northwest in 1791. In 
an attack by " Little Turtle," the Miami chief, 6 
Nov., 1792, while in camp near Fort St. Clair, his 
command was defeated and forced to i-etreat. He 
was a member of the convention that framed the 
constitution under which Kentucky was admitted 
into the union, 1 June, 1792. Adair was appointed 
lieutenant-colonel under Gen. Charles Scott in 
1793, was for several years a representative from 
Mercer co. in the Kentucky legislature, of which 
body he was "elected speaker, and was also regis- 
ter of the U. S. land office. In 1805-'6 he was U. S. 
senator. Returning to military life, he became 
volunteer aid to Gen. Shelby at the battle of the 
Thames, 5 Oct., 1813, was made brigadier-general 
of the state militia in November, 1814, and com- 
manded the Kentucky troops with distinction at 




New Orleans under Gen. Jackson. From 1820 to 
1824 he was governor of Kentucky, and in 1831-'33 
a member of congress, serving on the committee 
on military affairs. 

ADAIR, William Penn, second chief of the 
Cherokee nation, b. about 1828 ; d. in Washington, 
D. C, 23 Oct., 1880. During the civil war he com- 
manded a brigade of Indians, which was organized 
by Gen. Albert Pike, in the service of the confed- 
eracy, and fought at the battle of Pea Ridge. At 
the time of his deatii he was at the capital repre- 
senting the interests of his tribe. 

ADAM, GriBiiie Mercer, Canadian author, b. in 
Loanhead, Midlothian, Scotland, in 1839. He was 
educated at Portobello and at Edinburgh, and when 
quite young entered a publishing house in that city, 
and in 1858 was given charge of one of its depart- 
ments. A few months later he accepted a proposal 
by the Blackwoods to take charge of a book store 
in Toronto, Canada. In 18G0 he succeeded to this 
business as a member of the firm of Rollo & 
Adam, who were the publishers of the first of the 
more important Canadian periodicals, the "British 
American Magazine." Mr. Rollo retired in 1866, 
and it then became the firm of Adam, Stevenson, 
& Co. The business not proving successful, in 1876 
it was discontinued, and Mr. Adam went to New 
York, where he helped to found the publishing 
house that has since been developed into the 
John W. Lovell Publishing Company. He re- 
turned to Toronto in 1878; in 1879 he established 
the " Canada Educational Monthly," which he 
edited for five years, and in 1880 assumed the 
editorship of the " Canada Monthly," which he 
and Prof. Goldvvin Smith were instrumental in 
founding in 1872. He also published "The North- 
west, its History and its Troubles" (1885) ; "Out- 
line History of Canadian Literature " ; and, with 
Etlielwvn Wetherald, "An Algonquin Maiden" 
(Toronto, 1887). 

ADAMS, Abigail (Smith), wife of John Ad- 
ams, second president of tlie United States, b. in 
Wevmouth, Mass., 23 Nov., 1744; d. in Quincy, 
Mass., 28 Oct., 1818. Her father, the Rev. WiH- 
iam Smith, was for more than forty years minister 
of the Congregational church in Weymouth. Her 
mother, Elizabeth Quincy, was great-great-grand- 
daughter of the em- 
inent Puritan divine, 
Thomas Shepard. of 
Cambridge, and great- 
grandniece of the Rev. 
John Norton, of Bos- 
ton. She was among 
the most remarkable 
women of the revolu- 
tionary period. Her 
education, so far as 
books were concerned, 
was but scanty. Of 
delicate and nervous 
organization, she was 
so frequently ill dur- 
ing childhood and 
youth that she was 
never sent to any 
school ; but her loss 
in this respect was 
not so great as might appear; for, while the New 
England clergymen at that time were usually 
men of great learning, the education of their 
daughters seldom went further than writing or 
arithmetic, with now and then a smattering of 
what passed current as music. In the course of 
her long life she became extensively acquainted 


with the best English literature, and she wrote in a 
terse, vigorous, and often elegant style. Her ease 
may well be cited by those who protest against the 
exaggerated value commonly ascribed to the rou- 
tine of a school education. Her early years were 
spent in seclusion, but among people of learn- 
ing and political sagacity. On 25 Oct., 1764, she 
was married to John Adams, then a young lawyer 
practising in Boston, and for the next ten years 
her life was quiet and happy, though she shared 
the intense interest of her husband in the fierce 
disputes that were so soon to culminate in war. 
During this period she became the mother of a 
daughter and three sons. Ten years of doubt and 
anxiety followed during which Mrs. Adams was left 
at home in Braintree, while her husband was ab- 
sent, first as a delegate to the continental congress, 
afterward on diplomatic business in Europe. In 
the zeal and determination with which John 
Adams lu'ged on the declaration of independence 
he was staunchly supported by his brave wife, a 
circumstance that used sometimes to be jocosely 
alleged in explanation of his superiority in bold- 
ness to John Dickinson, the women of whose house- 
hold were perpetually conjuring up visions of the 
headsman's block. In 1784 Mrs. Adams joined 
her husband in Prance, and early in the following 
year she accompanied him to London. With the 
recent loss of the American colonies rankling in 
the miiuls of George III. and his queen, it was 
hardly to be expected that much courtesy would be 
shown to the first minister from the United States 
or to his wife. Mrs. Adams was treated with rude- 
ness, which she seems to have remembered vindic- 
tively. " Humiliation for Charlotte," she wrote 
some years later, " is no sorrow for me." From 
1789 to 1801 her residence was at the seat of our 
federal government. The remainder of her life 
was passed in Braintree (in the part called Quincy), 
and her lively interest in public affairs was kept up 
till the day of her death. Mrs. Adams was a wo- 
man of sunny disposition, and great keenness and 
sagacity. Her letters are extremely valuable for 
the light they throw upon the life of the times. 
See " Familiar Letters of John Adams and his Wife, 
Abigail Adams, during the Revolution." with a 
memoir by C. F. Adams (New York, 1876). 

ADAMS, Alviii, expressman, b. in Andover, 
Vt., 16 June, 1804; d. in Watertown, Mass., 2 
Sept., 1877. In 1840 he established an express 
route between New York and Boston, making his 
first trip on 4 May. A few months later, under 
the firm-name of Adams & Co., he associated with 
himself E[)hraim Farnsworth, who took charge of 
the New York office. On the death of the latter, 
soon afterward, William B. Dinsmore succeeded 
to his place, and for sevei-al years subsequently the 
business was limited to New York, New London, 
Norwich, Worcester, and Boston. In 1854 the 
corporation of Adams Express Co. was formed by 
the union of Adams & Co., Harnden & Co., Thomp- 
son & Co., and Kinsley & Co., with Mr. Adams Jis 
president. Its business then rapidly extended 
throughout the south and west, and m 1870 to 
tile far west. Mr. Adams was associated with the 
organization of the pioneer express throughout the 
mining camps of California in 1850 ; but on the 
consolidation of the companies in 1854, Adams & 
Co. disposed of their intei'est to the California Ex- 
press Co. During the civil war the facilities that 
were afforded by Adams Express Co. were of the 
greatest value to the national government. Mr. 
Adams accumulated a large fortune. See " His- 
tory of the Express Business," by A. L. Stimson 
(New York, 1881). 




ADAMS, Amos, clergyman, b. in Mcdfield, 
Mass., 1 Sept., 1728; d. in Dorchester, 5 Oct., 1775. 
He was graduated at Harvard in 1752, and in Sep- 
tember of the following year became pastor of a 
church in Roxbury, which he served until his 
death. He was secretary of the convention of min- 
isters at Watertown, which in May, 1775, recom- 
mended the people to take up arms. Many of his 
sermons were published from 175(5 to 17(59, as well 
as two discourses on " Religious Liberty " (1767). 
The most notable of his writings were two dis- 
courses on the general fast, 6 April, 17(59, in which 
he gave " A Concise Historical View of the Diffi- 
culties, Hardships, and Perils which Attended the 
Planting and Progressive Improvement in New 
England, with a Particular Account of its Long 
and Destructive Wars, Expensive Expeditions,'' 
etc. (republished in London, 1770). 

ADAMS, Andrew, jurist, b. in Stratford, Conn., 
in January, 1736 ; d. in Litchfield, 26 Nov., 1797. 
He was graduated at Yale college in 1760, admitted 
to the bar in Fairfield co., and practised law for a 
time in Stamford, but in 1764 removed to Litch- 
field. He was a member of the legislature in 
1776-81, a delegate to congress in 1777-'80, and 
again in 1781-'82, as well as a member of the coun- 
cil in 1771. In 1789 he received the appointment 
of judge of the supreme court, of which he was 
made chief justice in 1793. He was an adroit and 
able lawyer and a learned judge. 

ADAMS, Benjamin, lawyer, b. in Worcester, 
Mass., in 17(55; d. v.i Uxbridge, 28 March, 1837. 
He was graduated at Brown university in 1788, and 
became a lawyer ; was member of the legislature 
from 1809 to 1814, state senator in 1814-'15, and 
again in 1822-'25, and went to congress in 1816, 
where he I'emained until 1821. 

ADAMS, Cliarles, lawyer, b. in Arlington, Vt., 
12 March, 1785; d. in Burlington, 13 Feb., 1861. 
He prepared himself for college by the light of his 
father's forge, and was a member of the first class 
that was graduated from the university of Ver- 
mont in 1804. He became a prominent lawyer, 
and was a constant contributor to newspapers on 
political questions. He was the friend and adviser 
of Gen. Wool during the Canadian difficulties of 
1838, and wrote a history of the events connected 
with that rebellion under the title of " The Patriot 
War." The work appeared in parts in the local 
press, but was never issued in book form. 

ADAMS, Cliarles Baker, geologist, b. in Dor- 
chester, Mass., 11 Jan., 1814; d. in St. Thomas, W. 
I., 19 Jan., 1853. He was gradnated at Amherst 
college in 1^34, and studied for two years at An- 
dover theological seminary. Later he was associ- 
ated with Prof. Edward Hitchcock in a geologi- 
cal survey of New York. In 1837 he became 
tutor in Amherst college, and in 1838 was made 
professor of chemistry and natural history in IMid- 
dlebury college, Vt. From 1845 to 1848 he was 
state geologist of Vermont, and published annual 
reports of his work. In 1847 he was chosen pro- 
fessor of astronomy and zoology in Amherst col- 
lege. Between 1844 and 1851 he made journeys 
to Panama and the West Indies for scientific pur- 
poses. He was the- author of eleven numbers of 
" Contributions to Conchology," monographs of 
"Stoastoma" and " Vitrinella," "Catalogue of 
Shells Collected in Panama" (New York, 1852), and, 
with Alonzo Gray, " Elements of Geology " (1852). 

ADAMS, Charles Follen, author, b. in Dor- 
chester, Mass., 21 April, 1842. He received a 
common-school education, and at the age of fifteen 
entered into mercantile pursuits. At the age of 
twenty-two he enlisted in the 13th Massachusetts 

infantry ; was in all the battles in which his regi- 
ment participated, was wounded at Gettysburg, 
taken prisoner ; released, and detailed for hospital 
duty. Since 1872 he has been known as a writer 
of German dialect poems, chiefly humorous. The 
first that appeared was " The Puzzled Dutchman " 
in "Our Young Folks" in 1872. This was fol- 
lowed by various others of which " Leedle Yaw- 
cob Strauss" (1876) became immediately a favorite. 
Mr. Adams is a frequent contributor to periodical 
literature, and has published in a volume " Leedle 
Yawcob Strauss and other Poems " (Boston, 1877). 
ADAMS, Charles Francis, diplomatist, son of 
John Quincy Adams, b. in Boston, 18 Aug., 1807 ; 
d. there, 21 Nov., 1886. When two years old he 
was taken by his father to St. Petersburg, where he 
learned German, French, and Russian. Early in 
1815 he travelled all the way from St. Petersburg to 
Paris with his mother in a private carriage, a diffi- 
cult journey at that time, and not unattended with 
danger. His father was soon afterward appointed 
minister to England, and the little boy was placed 
at an English boarding-school. The "feelings be- 
tween British and Americans was then more hostile 
than ever before or since, and young Adams was 
frequently called upon to defend with his fists the 
good name of his country. When he returned after 
two years to America, his father placed him in the 
Boston Latin school, and he was graduated at Har- 
vard college in 1825, shortly after his father's in' 
auguration as 
president of the 
United States, 
He spent two 
years in Wash- 
ington, and 
then returned to 
Boston, where 
he studied law 
in the office of 
Daniel Webster, 
and was admit- 
ted to the Suf- 
folk bar in 
1828. The next 
year he married 
the youngest 
daughter of Pe- 
ter Chardon 
Brooks, whose 
elder daughters 

were married to Edward Everett and Rev. Na- 
thaniel Frothingham. From 1831 to 1836 Mr. 
Adams served in the Massachusetts legislature. 
He was a member of the whig party, but, like all 
the rest of his vigorous and free-thinking family, 
he was extremely independent in politics and in- 
clined to strike out into new paths in advance of 
the public sentiment. After 1836 he came to dif- 
fer more and more widely with the leaders of the 
whig party with whom he had hitherto acted. In 
1848 the newly organized free-soil party, consisting 
largely of democrats, held its convention at Buf- 
falo and nominated Martin Van Buren for presi- 
dent and Charles Francis Adams for vice-president. 
There was no hope of electing these candidates, 
but this little party grew, six years later, into the 
great republican party. In 1858 he was elected to 
congress by the republicans of the 3d district of 
Massachusetts, and in 1860 he was reelected. In 
the spring of 1861 President Lincoln appointed him 
minister to England, a place which both his father 
and his grandfather had filled before him. Mr, 
Adams had now to fight with tongue and pen for 
his country as in school-boy days he had fought 

WfUiA-^ '^re<o-.ct^ J^ayrn4^ 




with fists. It was an exceedingly difficult time for 
an American minister in England. Though there 
was much sympathy for the U. S. government 
on the part of the workmen in the manufact- 
uring districts and of many of the liberal con- 
stituencies, especially in Scotland, on the otlier 
hand the feeling of the governing classes and of 
polite society in London was either actively hostile 
to us or coldly indifferent. Even those students 
of history and politics who were most friendly to us 
failed utterly to comprehend the true character of 
the sublime struggle in which we were engaged — 
as may be seen in reading the introduction to Mr. 
E. A. Freeman's elaborate " History of Federal 
Government, from the Formation of the Acha?an 
League to the Disruption of the United States" 
(London, 1862). Difficult and embarrassing ques- 
tions arose in connection with the capture of the 
confederate commissioners Mason and Slidell, tiie 
negligence of Lord Paimerston's government in 
allowing the "Alabama" and other confederate 
cruisers to sail from British ports to prey upon 
American commerce, and the ever manifest desire 
of Napoleon IIL to persuade Great Britain to join 
him in an acknowledgment of the indej)endence of 
the confederacy. The duties of this diificult diplo- 
matic mission were discharged by Mr. Adams with 
such consummate ability as to win universal admira- 
tion. No more than his father or grandfather did 
he belong to the school of suave and crafty, in- 
triguing diplomats. He pursued his ends with 
dogged determination and little or no attempt at 
concealment, while his demeanor was haughty and 
often defiant. His unflinching firmness bore down 
all opposition, and his perfect self-control made it 
difficult for an antagonist to gain any advantage 
over him. His career in England from 1861 to 
1868 must be cited among the foremost triumphs 
of American diplomacy. In 1873 it was attempted 
to nominate him for the presidency of the United 
States, as the candidate of the liberal republicans, 
but Horace Gi'eeley secured the nomination. He 
was elected in 1869 a member of the board of 
overseers of Harvard college, and was for several 
years president of the board. He has edited the 
works and memoirs of his father and grandfa- 
ther, in 23 octavo volumes, and published many 
of his own addresses and orations. — Jolin Qiiincy, 
lawyer', b. in Boston, 32 Sept., 1833 ; d. in Quincy, 
Mass.. 14 August, 1894. He was graduated at 
Harvard college in 1853, and admitted to the 
Suffolk bar in 1855. During the civil war he 
was on Gov. Andrew's staff. He was elected to 
the legislature by the town of Quincy in 1866, 
but failed to secure a reelection the following 
year because he had declared his approval of An- 
drew Johnson's policy. In 1869 and 1870 he was 
again a member of the legislature. In 1867 and 
1871 he was democratic candidate for governor 
of Massachusetts, and was defeated. In 1877 he 
was chosen a member of the corporation of Har- 
vard. — Charles Francis, Jr., lawyer, second son 
of Charles Francis Adams, b. in Boston, 27 May, 
1835. He was graduated at Harvard in 1856, 
and admitted to the bar in 1858. He served in 
the army throughout the whole of the civil war, 
and was mustered out in July, 1865, with the 
brevet rank of brigadier-general of volunteers. He 
has since devoted his attention chiefly to railroad 
matters, and in 1869 was appointed a member of 
the board of railroad commissioners of Massachu- 
setts. In 1871, in connection with his brother, 
Henry Adams, he published " Chapters of Erie and 
other Essays." He has since published an instruc- 
tive book on railway accidents. He was elected 

in 1883 a member of the board of overseers of 
Harvard college, and in 1884 president of the 
Union Pacific railway, from which he resigned in 
1890. — Henry, author, third son of Charles Fran- 
cis Adams, b. in Boston, 16 Feb., 1838. He was 
graduated at Harvard in 1858, and was his father's 
private secretary in London from 1861 to 1868. 
From 1870 till 1877 he was assistant professor of 
history in Harvard college, and was one of the 
ablest instructors the university has known during 
the present generation, possessing to an extraor- 
dinary degree the power of inciting his pupils to 
original work. He now resides in Washington, 
D. C. Prof. Adams has published "Essays in 
Anglo-Saxon Law" (Boston, 1876); "Documents 
relating to New England Federalism, 1800-1815 " 
(1877) ; " Life of Albert Gallatin " (Philadelphia, 
1879); "Writings of Albert Gallatin," edited (3 
vols., 1879); "John Randolph" (Boston, 1882); 
and " Historv of the United States, 1801-1817 " 
(9 vols., 1889-'91).— Brook.s, lawyer, fourth son of 
Charles Francis Adams, b. in Quincy, Mass., 34 
June, 1848, graduated at Harvard college in 1870, 
admitted to the Suffolk bar in 1873. He has pub- 
lished articles in the "Atlantic Monthly" and 
other periodicals, and is the author of " The Eman- 
cipation of Massachusetts " (Boston, 1886). 

ADAMS, Charles Kendall, educator, b. in 
Derby, Vt., 24 Jan., 1835. When twenty years of 
age he moved to Iowa, and subsequently entered 
the university of Michigan, graduating in 1861. 
He became assistant pi'ofessor there in 1863, and 
five years later was elected to the full professorship 
of history. In 1869 he founded the history semi- 
nary at Ann Arbor. In 1881 he became a non- 
resident professor of history at Cornell university, 
and in 1885 succeeded Andrew D. White as its 
president. He has published papers and pamphlets 
on historical and educational subjects, and is the 
author of " Democracy and Monarchy in France " 
(New York, 1874) and a " Manual of Historical Lit- 
erature" (New York, 1882). He has also edited 
" Representative British Orations " (3 vols.. New 
York, 1884) ; and " Johnson's Cyclopedia " (1895). 

ADAMS, Daniel, author, b. in Townsend, Mass., 
39 Sept., 1773 ; d. in Keene, N. H., 8 June, 1864. 
He was graduated at Dartmouth college in 1797, 
studied medicine, and settled in Leominster to 
practise his profession. Here he published an ora- 
tion on the death of Washington, and began the 
preparation of his school-books, including the 
" Scholar's Arithmetic," " Grammar," and " Under- 
standing Reading," which were issued from his 
own press. In 1806 he removed to Boston and 
opened a select school, and also edited the " Medi- 
cal and Agricultural Register." He settled in 
Mount Vernon in 1813, resumed his practice, and 
revised his arithmetic, which was then published 
as "Adams's New Arithmetic." He also edited a 
newspaper called "The Telescope." In 1846 he 
settled in Keene, N. H., where he spent the re- 
mainder of his life. He was the author of many 
school-books, principally on mathematics. From 
1838 till 1840 he served as a state senator, and he 
was for some time president of the New Hamp- 
shire Bible Society and also of the New Hamp- 
shire Medical Society. 

ADAMS, Edwin, actor, b. m Medlord, Mass., 
3 Feb., 1834; d. in Philadelphia, 35 Oct., 1877. He 
made his debut 39 Aug , 1853, at the National thea- 
tre in Boston, acting Stephen m ' The Hunchback." 
In November he appeared at the Howard athensum 
as Bernardo in " Hamlet," and thence he went to 
Philadelphia, where he appeared, 30 Sept., 1854, as 
Charles Woodley in "The Soldier's Daughter." 




He played also at the St. Charles theatre, Balti- 
more, where he achieved his first great success. 
About 18()0 he appeared in Bufi'alo as Hamlet, and 
subsequently with Miss Kate Bateman and Mr. J. 
W. Wallack at the Winter Garden in New York ; 
and afterward in all the principal cities in the 
United States as a star. In 1866 he returned to 
New York, and in Wallack's old theatre, the Broad- 
way, played Robert Landry in the " Dead Heart," 
and Adrian de Teligny in the "Heretic." At the 
opening of Booth's theatre, 3 Feb., 1867, he ap- 
peared as Mercutio, and shortly afterward enacted 
Narcisse, lago, Raphael, Rover, Claude Melnotte, 
and Enoch Arden, this last character becoming a 
great favorite. He appeared with Edwin Booth 
during the season of 1869-'70 in several of Shake- 
speare's plays, then visited Australia, where his 
health failed, and, returning to San Francisco, re- 
ceived a generous benefit, 27 May, 1876, followed 
by others in New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and 
elsewhere. He possessed a voice of wonderful rich- 
ness, strength, and melody, and was regarded as 
one of the best light comedians on the stage. His 
wife, a clever actress and graceful daiiseuse, retired 
from tlie stage several years ago. 

ADAMS, Eliphalet, clergyman, b. in Dedham, 
Mass., 26 March, 1677; d. in New London, Conn., 4 
Oct., 1753. He was the son of Rev. William Adams, 
the second minister of Dedham, Mass., was graduat- 
ed at Harvard college in 1694, preached in various 
places without settlement for ten years, and in 1709 
was ordained a Congregational minister in New Lon- 
don, Conn. He was a man of learning, and was an 
eminent Hebraist. A diary kept by him for sev- 
eral years is preserved in the " Massachusetts His- 
torical Collection," iv, 1. Slaving become inter- 
ested in the welfare of the Lidians in the region, 
he acquired their language. As a preacher he was 
popular, and various of his sermons were deliv- 
ered before bodies educational and political. Many 
of them were published, the principal ones being, 
one on the death of Rev. James Noyes, of Stoning- 
ton, 1706; election sermons, 1710 and 1713; a dis- 
course occasioned by a storm, 1717; Thanksgiving 
sermon, 1721 ; on the death of Gov. Saltonstail, 
1724; on the ordination of Rev. William Gager, 
1725 ; on the ordination of Thos. Clap, 1726, and a 
discourse before young men, 1727. 

ADAMS, Ezra Eastman, author, b. in Concord, 
N. H., 29 Aug., 1813; d. in Oxford, Pa., 3 Nov., 
1871. He was graduated at Dartmouth college in 
1836, and in 1840 became chaplain to the seamen at 
Havre, France. After ten years of assiduous labor, 
he made an extensive tour in Europe, and then re- 
turned to America. In 1854 he became pastor of 
the Pearl st. Congregational church in Nashua, N. 
H., whence in 1860 he went to Philadelphia and 
entered the service of the foreign evangelical so- 
ciety. Soon afterward he took charge of an enter- 
prise that developed into the Broad st. church of 
that city. From 1867 till his death he was pro- 
fessor of theology in Lincoln university, near Ox- 
ford, Pa., and in 1870 he began editorial work on 
the " Presbyterian." He wrote poems of merit. 

ADAMS, Frederick Whiting, musician, b. in 
Pawlet, Vt., in 1786 ; d. in Montpelier, Vt., 17 Dec, 
1858. He was a good performer on the violin, and 
early turned his attention to violin-making. He 
conceived the opinion that the superior tones of 
the Amati and Stradivarius instruments were due 
to their having been made of old and seasoned 
wood, and accordingly he searched the forests of 
northern Vermont and Canada for maple and pine, 
taking his wood from partially decayed trees, and 
constructed 140 violins, some of which were re- 

markable for their powerful and sweet tones. He 
was the author of " Theological Criticisms " (Mont- 
pelier, 1843). 

ADAMS, Hannah, author, b. in Medfield, Mass., 
in 1755 ; d. in Brookline, 15 Nov., 1832. She was 
the first woman in America who made literature a 
profession. Showing at an early age a fondness 
for study, she acquired a fair knowledge of Greek 
and Latin from divinity students boarding with 
her father, who was himself a man of literary tastes. 
He became bankrupt when she was in her seven- 
teenth year, and she and her brothers and sisters 
were obliged to provide for themselves. During 
the war of the revolution she supported herself by 
making lace, and afterward by teaching. She was 
a woman of varied learning and indomitable perse- 
verance. Her principal work was a " View of Re- 
ligious Opinions " (1784), in which she gave a com- 
prehensive survey of the various religions of the 
world. It was divided into : 1. An Alphabetical 
Compendium of the Denominations among Chris- 
tians ; 2. A Brief Account of Paganism, Moham- 
medanism, Judaism, and Deism ; 3. An Account 
of the Different Religions of the World. The work 
passed through several editions, and was reprinted 
in England. In the fourth edition she changed 
the title to " Dictionary of Religions." She wrote 
also a " History of New England " (1799) and " Evi- 
dences of Christianity " (1801). Her writings 
brought her little pecuniary profit, yet they secured 
her many friends, among them the Abbe Gregoire, 
with whom she carried on an extensive corre- 
spondence, and also received his aid in preparing 
her " History of the Jews " (1812). In 1814 she 
published a " Controversy with Dr. Morse," and in 
1826 '• Letters on the Gospels." She was simple in 
her manners and of rare modesty. A voyage from 
Boston to Nahant, about ten miles, was her only 
journey by water, and a trip to Chelmsford her 
farthest by land. During the closing years of her 
life she enjoyed an annuity provided by friends in 
Boston, and at her death was buried in Mount Au- 
burn, the first person whose body was placed in 
that cemetery. Her autobiography, edited with 
additions by Mrs. Hannah F. Lee, was published 
in Boston in 1832. 

ADAMS, Henry A., Jr., naval officer, b. in 
Pennsylvania in 1833. He entered the naval school 
at Annapolis in 1849, and was graduated in 1851 ; 
became a passed midshipman in 1854, and a master 
the following year, when, while attached to the 
sloop of war " Levant," he took part in the engage- 
ment with the forts at the mouth of Canton river, 
China. He was commissioned as lieutenant in 
1856, and was on the '• Brooklyn " at the passage 
of forts St. Philip and Jackson," and the capture of 
New Orleans in April, 1862. Commissioned as 
lieutenant-commander and transferred to the North 
Atlantic blockading squadron, he participated in 
both the attacks on Fort Fisher, and received the 
encomium from Admiral Porter in his official de- 
spatch of 28 Jan., 1865, " I recommend the promo- 
tion of Lieut.-Com. H. A. Adams, without whose 
aid we should have been brought to a standstill 
more than once. He volunteered for anything and 
everything." After the taking of Richmond he 
was one of the party that accompanied President 
Lincoln on his entry into the city. He was com- 
missioned as commander in July, 1866, and was 
ordered to the store-ship " Guard," of the European 
squadron, where he remained during 1868-9, and 
was afterward assigned to duty in 1870 in the 
navv-vard at Philadelphia. 

ADAMS. Herbert Baxter, educator, b. in Am- 
herst, Mass., 16 April, 1850. His early training 




was in the Amherst schools and in Phillips Exeter 
academy. He was graduated at Amherst in 1872, 
and received the degree of Ph. D. at Heidelberg, 
Germany, in 187G. He was fellow in history in 
Johns Hopkins university from 1876 to 1878, asso- 
ciate from 1878 to 1888, and was appointed asso- 
ciate professor in 1888. He has been secretary of 
the American historical association since its founda- 
tion in 1884. In 1878 he went to Europe and de- 
voted three years to travel and study. His princi- 
pal writings are " The Germanic Origin of the New 
England Towns " ; " Saxon Tithiiig-Men in Ameri- 
ca"; "Norman Constables in America": "Village 
Communities " ; " Methods of Historical Study," 
and " Maryland's Influence upon Land Cessions to 
the United States." All these papers are published 
in the "Johns Hopkins University Studies in His- 
torical and Political Science," edited by Prof. 
Adams, 4 vols. (Baltimore, 1888-86). 

ADAMS, Isaac, inventor, b. in Rochester, N. 
H., in 1808; d. in Sandwich, N. H., 19 July, 1883. 
His education was limited. At an early age he 
was a factory operative, and afterward learned the 
trade of cabinet maker, but in 1824 went to Boston 
and sought work in a machine shop. In 1828 he 
invented the printing-press that bears his name. 
It was introduced in 1880, and came into almost 
universal use, being still so popular as to warrant 
its manufacture in more than thirty different sizes. 
He improved it in 1884, making it substantially 
what it now is. The distinctive feature of his 
pi esses is that the impression is given by lifting a 
fl;:t bed with its form against a stationary platen. 
The sheets are fed by hand. He eiigaged with his 
brother Seth in the manufacture of these and other 
machines, and acquired a competency. He was a 
memlier of the Massachusetts senate in 1840. His 
last years were spent in retirement. 

ADAMS, James Hopkins, statesman, b. in 
South Carolina about 1811; d. near Columbia, S. 
C, 27 July, 1861. He was gi-aduated at Yale in 
1831. In 1832, during the " nullification " excite- 
ment, he strongly opposed the nuUifiers in the leg- 
islature. After serving in the state senate for sev- 
eral sessions, he was elected governor for the term 
of 1855-'57. He was one of the state commission- 
ers that were chosen, after the ordinance of seces- 
sion was passed, to treat with the president con- 
cerning the disposition of United States property 
in South Carolina. 

ADAMS, Jasper, educator, b. in Medway, Mass., 
27 Aug., 171)8; d. in Charleston, S. C, 25 Oct., 
1841. He was graduated at Bi'own university in 
1815, and studied theology at Andover. In 1819 
he was chosen professor of mathematics at Brown 
university, and during tlie same year was ordained 
in the Protestant Episcopal church. He became 
president of the college of Charleston in 1824, and 
of Geneva, N. Y. (now Hobart) college in 1826. 
Again, from 1828 to 1836, he was in chai-ge of the 
college of Charleston. He was chaplain and pro- 
fessor of geography, history, and ethics at West 
Point from 1888 to 1840, and subsequently was in 
charge of a seminary at Pendleton, S. C. He pub- 
lished sermons and addresses, and a " Moral Phi- 
losophy " (New York, 1838). 

ADAMS, John, clergyman, b. 1704; d. in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., 28 Jan.. 1740,, He was graduated at 
Harvard in 1721, became pastor of a church in 
New[)ort, K. I., April 11, 1828, and afterward set- 
tled in Pliiladelphia. He was well known as an 
author and linguist, and is described as " master 
of nine languages, and conversant with Greek, 
Latin, Frenc-li, and Spanish authors." His poems 
CBoston, 1745) include a metrical version of the 

Book of Revelation. A satirical poem on the love 
of money was published separately. 

ADAMS, John, second president of the United 
States, b. in that part of the town of Braintree, 
Mass., which has since been set off as tlie town of 
Quincy, 30 Oct., 1785 ; d. there, 4 July, 1826. His 
great-grandfather, Henry Adams, received a grant 
of about 40 acres of land in Braintree in 1636, and 
soon afterward emigrated from Devonshire, Eng- 
land, with his eight sons. John Adams, the subject 
of this sketch, was the eldest son of John Adams 
and Susanna Boylston, daughter of Peter Boylston, 
of Brookline. His father, one of the selectmen of 
Braintree and a deacon of the church, was a thrif- 
ty farmer, and at his death in 1760 his estate was 
appraised at £1,380 9s. 6d., which in those days 
might have been regarded as a moderate competence. 
It was the custom of the family to send the eldest 

son to college, and accordingly John was graduated 
at Harvard in 1755. Previous to 1773 the gradu- 
ates of Harvard were arranged in lists, not alpha- 
betically or in order of merit, but according to the 
social standing of their parents. In a class of 
twenty-four members John thus stood fourteenth. 
One of his classmates was John Wentworth, after- 
ward royal governor of New Hampshire, and then 
of Nova Scotia. After taking his degree and while 
waiting to make his choice of a profession, Adams 
took charge of the grammar school at Worcester. 
It was the year of Braddock's defeat, when the 
smouldering fires of a century of rivalry between 
France and England broke out in a blaze of war 
which was forever to settle the question of the pri- 
macy of the English race in the modern world. 
Adams took an intense interest in the struggle, and 
predicted that if we could only drive out " these 
turbulent Gallics," our numbers would in another 
century exceed those of the British, and all Eu- 
rope would be unable to subdue us. In sending 
him to college his family seem to have hoped that 
he would become a clergyman ; but he soon found 
himself too much of a free thinker to feel at home 
in the pulpit of that day. When accused of Ar- 
minianism, he cheerfully admitted the charge. 
Later in life he was sometimes called a Unitarian, 
but of dogmatic Christianity he seems to have had 
as little as Franklin or Jefferson, " Where do we 
find," he asks, "a precept in the gospel requiring 
ecclesiastical synods, convocations, councils, de- 
crees, creeds, confessions, oaths, subscriptions, and 
whole cart-loads of other trumpery that we find re- 
ligion encumbered with in these days f " In this 
mood he turned from the ministry and began the 
study of law at Worcester, There was then a 
strong prejudice against lawyers in New England, 
but the profession throve lustily nevertheless, so 
litigious were the peoj)le. In 1758 Adams began 
the practice of his profession in Suffolk co., having 




his residence in Braintree. In 1764 he was married 
to Abigail Smith, of Weymouth, a lady of social 
position higher than his own and endowed with 
most rare and admirable qualities of head and 
heart. In this same year the agitation over the 
proposed stamp act was begun, and on the burn- 
ing questions raised by this ill-considered measure 
Adams had already taken sides. When James 
Otis in 1761 delivered his memorable argument 
against writs of assistance, John Adams was pres- 
ent in the court-room, and the fiery eloquence of 
Otis wrought a wonderful effect upon him. As 
his son afterward said, " it was like the oath of 
Hamilcar administered to Hannibal." In his old 
age John Adams wrote, with reference to this scene, 
"Every man of an immense crowded audience ap- 
peared to me to go away, as I did, ready to take 
arms against writs of assistance. Then and there 

was the first scene 
_, .^..^ of the first act of 

opposition to the 
arbitrary claims 
of Great Britain. 
Then and there 
the child Inde- 
pendence was 
born." When the 
stamp act was 
passed, in 1765, 
Adams took a 
prominent part in 
a town-meeting at 
Braintree, where 
he presented reso- 
lutions which were 
adoj)ted word for 
word by more 
than forty towns 
in Massachusetts. 
The people re- 
fused to make use 
of stamps, and 
the business of the inferior courts was carried 
on without them, judges and lawyers agreeing to 
connive at the absence of the stamps. In the 
supreme court, however, where Thomas Hutchin- 
son was chief justice, the judges refused to trans- 
act any business without stamps. This threatened 
serious interruption to business, and the town of 
Boston addressed a memorial to the governor and 
council, praying that the supreme court might 
overlook the absence of stamps. John Adams was 
unexpectedly chosen, along with Jeremiah Gridley 
and James Otis, as counsel for the town, to argue 
the case in favor of the memorial. Adams deliv- 
ered the opening argument, and took the decisive 
ground that the stamp act was ipso facto null and 
void, since it was a ineasure of taxation which the 
people of the colony had taken no share in passing. 
No such measure, he declared, could be held as 
binding in America, and parliament had no right 
to tax the colonies. The governor and council re- 
fused to act in the matter, but presently the repeal 
of the stamp act put an end to the disturbance for 
a while. About this time Mr. Adams began writ- 
ing articles for the Boston " Gazette." Four of 
these articles, dealing with the constitutional rights 
of the people of New England, were afterward re- 
published under the somewhat curious title of " An 
Essay on the Canon and Feudal Law." After ten 
years of practice, Mr. Adams's business had be- 
come quite extensive, and in 1768 he moved into 
Boston. The attorney - general of Massachusetts, 
Jonathan Sewall, now offered him the lucrative 
office of advocate-general in the court of admiralty. 


This was intended to operate as an indirect bribe 
by putting Mr. Adams into a position in which he 
could not feel free to oppose the policy of the 
crown ; such insidious methods were systematically 
pursued by Gov. Bernard, and after him by Hutch- 
inson. But Mr. Adams was too wary to swallow the 
bait, and he stubbornly refused the pressing offer. 
In 1770 came the first in the series of great acts 
that made Mr. Adams's career illustrious. In the 
midst of the terrible excitement aroused by the 
" Boston Massacre " he served as counsel for Capt. 
Preston and his seven soldiers when they were 
tried for murder. His friend and kinsman, Josiah 
Quincy, assisted him in this invidious task. The 
trial was judiciously postponed for seven months 
until the popular fury had abated. Preston and 
five soldiers were acquitted ; the other two soldiers 
were found guilty of manslaughter, and were bar- 
barously branded on the hand with a hot iron. 
The verdict seems to have been strictly just accord- 
ing to the evidence presented. For his services to 
his eight clients Mr. Adams received a fee of nine- 
teen guineas, but never got so much as a word of 
thanks from the churlish Preston. An ordinary 
American politician would have shrunk from the 
task of defending these men, for fear of losing fa- 
vor with the people. The course pursued by Mr. 
Adams showed great moral courage ; and the peo- 
ple of Boston proved themselves able to appreciate 
true manliness by electing him as representative to 
the legislature. This was in June, 1770, after he 
had undertaken the case of the soldiers, but before 
the trial. Mr. Adams now speedily became the 
principal legal adviser of the patriot party, and 
among its foremost leaders was only less conspicu- 
ous than Samuel Adams, Hancock, and Warren. 
In all matters of legal controversy between these 
leaders and Gov. Hutchinson his advice proved in- 
valuable. During the next two years there was 
something of a lull in the political excitement ; Mr. 
Adams resigned his place in the legislature and 
moved his residence to Braintree, still keeping his 
office in Boston. In the summer of 1772 the Brit- 
ish government ventured upon an act that went 
further than anything which had yet occurred 
toward driving the colonies into rebellion. It was 
ordered that all the Massachusetts judges holding 
their places during the king's pleasure should 
henceforth have their salaries paid by the crown 
and not by the colony. This act, which aimed di- 
rectly at the independence of the judiciary, aroused 
intense indignation, not only in Massachiisefts, but 
in the other colonies, which felt their liberties 
threatened by such a measure. It called forth from 
Mr. Adams a series of powerful articles, which 
have been republished in the 3d volume of his 
collected works. About this time he was chosen a 
member of the council, but the choice was nega- 
tived by Gov. Hutchinson. The five acts of par- 
liament in April, 1774, including the regulating 
act and the Boston port bill, led to the calling of 
the first continental congress, to which Mr. Adams 
was chosen as one of the five delegates from Massa- 
chusetts. The resolutions passed by this congress 
on the subject of colonial rights were drafted by 
him, and his diary and letters contain a vivid ac- 
count of some of the proceedings. On his return 
to Braintree he was chosen a member of the revo- 
lutionary provincial congress of Massachusetts, 
then assembled at Concord. This revolutionary 
bodj had already seized the revenues of the colony, 
appointed a committee of safety, and begun to or- 
ganize an army and collect arms and ammunition. 
During the following winter the views of the loyal- 
ist party were set forth with great ability and elo- 




quence in a series of newspaper articles by Daniel 
Leonard, under the signature of " Massachusetten- 
sis." He was answered most effectively by Mr. Ad- 
ams, whose articles, signed " Novanglus," appeared 
weekly in the Boston " Gazette " until the battle of 
Lexington. The last of these articles, which was 
actually in type in that wild week, was not pub- 
lished. The series, which has been reprinted in 
the 4th volume of Mr. Adams's works, contains a 
valuable review of the policy of Bernard and 
Hutchinson, and a powerful statement of the rights 
of the colonies. 

In the second continental congress, which assem- 
bled on May 10, Mr. Adams played a very im- 
portant part. Of all the delegates present he was 
probably the only one, except his cousin, Samuel 
Adams, who was convinced that matters had gone 
too far for any reconciliation with the mother 
country, and that there was no use in sending any 
more petitions to the king. As there was a strong 
prejudice against Massachusetts on the part of the 
middle and southern colonies, it was desirable that 
her delegates should avoid all appearance of undue 
haste in precipitating an armed conflict. Never- 
theless, the circumstances under which an army of 
16,000 New England men had been gathered to be- 
siege the British in Boston were such as to make it 
seem advisable for the congress to adopt it as a 
continental army ; and here John Adams did the 
second notable deed of his career. He proposed 
Washington for the chief command of this array, 
and thus, by putting Virginia in the foreground, 
succeeded in committing that great colony to a 
course of action calculated to end in independence. 
This move not only put the army in charge of the 
only commander capable of winning independence 
for the American people in the field, but its politi- 
cal importance was great and obvious. Afterward 
in some dark moments of the revolutionary war, 
Mr. Adams seems almost to have regretted his 
part in this selection of a commander. He under- 
stood little or nothing of military affairs, and was 
incapable of appreciating Washington's transcend- 
ent ability. The results of the war, however, justi- 
fied in every respect his action in the second conti- 
nental congress. 

During the summer recess taken by congress 
Mr. Adams sat as a member of the Massachusetts 
council, which declared the office of governor va- 
cant and assumed executive authority. Under the 
new provisional government of Massachusetts, Mr. 
Adams was made chief justice,' but never took his 
seat, as continental affairs more pressingly de- 
manded his attention. He was always loquacious, 
often too ready to express his opinions, whether 
with tongue or pen, and this trait got him more 
than once into trouble, especially as he was inclined 
to be sharp and censorious. For John Dickinson, 
the leader of the moderate and temporizing party 
in congress, who had just prevailed upon that body 
to send another petition to the king, he seems to 
have entertained at this time no very high regard, 
and he gave vent to some contemptuous expressions 
in a confidential letter, which was captured by the 
British and published. This led to a quarrel with 
Dickinson, and made Mr. Adams very unpopular 
in Philadelphia. When congress reassembled in 
the autumn, Mr. Adams, as member of a commit- 
tee for fitting out cruisers, drew up a body of regu- 
lations, which came to form the basis of the Ameri- 
can naval code. The royal governor. Sir John 
Wentworth, fled from New Hampshire about this 
time, and the people sought the advice of congress 
as to the form of government which it should seem 
most advisable to adopt. Similar applications 

presently came from South Carolina and Virginia. 
Mr. Adams prevailed upon congress to recommend 
to these colonies to form for themselves new gov- 
ernments based entirely upon popular suffrage ; 
and about the same time he published a pamphlet 
entitled " Thoughts on Govei'nment, Applicable to 
the Present State of the American Colonies." By 
the spring of 1776 the popular feeling had become 
so strongly inclined toward independence that, on 
the 15th of May, Mr. Adams was able to carry 
through congress a resolution that all the colonies 
should be invited to form independent govern- 
ments. In the pi'eamble to this resolution it was 
declared that the American people could no longer 
conscientiously take oath to support any govern- 
ment deriving its authority from the crown ; all 
such governments must now be suppressed, since 
the king had withdrawn his protection from the 
inhabitants of the united colonies. Like the fa- 
mous preamble to Townshend's act of 1767, this 
Adams preamble contained within itself the gist of 
the whole matter. To adopt it was to cross the 
Rubicon, and it gave rise to a hot debate in con- 
gress. Against the opposition of most of the dele- 
gates from the middle states the resolution was 
finally carried; "and now," exclaimed Mr. Adams, 
" the Gordian knot is cut." Events came quickly 
to maturity. On the 7th of June the declaration 
of independence was moved by Richard Henry 
Lee, of Virginia, and seconded by John Adams. 
The motion was allowed to lie on the table for 
three weeks, in order to hear from the colonies of 
Comiecticut, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and New York, 
which had not yet declared their position with re- 
gard to independence. Meanwhile three commit- 
tees were appointed, one on a declaration of inde- 
pendence, a second on confederation, and a third 
on foreign relations ; and Mr. Adams was a mem- 
ber of the first and third of these committees. On 
the 1st of July Mr. Lee's motion was taken up by 
congress sitting as a committee of the whole ; and 
as Mr. Lee was absent, the task of defending it de- 
volved upon Mr. Adams, who, as usual, was op- 
posed by Dickinson. Adams's speech on that occa- 
sion was probably the finest he ever delivered. 
Jefferson called him " the colossus of that debate" ; 
and indeed his labors in bringing about the decla- 
ration of independence must be considered as the 
third signal event of his career. 

On the 12th of June congress established a 
board of war and ordnance, with Mr. Adams for its 
chairman, and he discharged the arduous duties of 
this office until after the surrender of Burgoyne. 
After the battle of Long Island, Lord Howe sent 
the captured Gen. Sullivan to Philadelphia, solicit- 
ing a conference with some of the members of the 
congress. Adams opposed the conference, and 
with characteristic petulance alluded to the unfor- 
tunate Sullivan as a decoy duck who had much 
better have been shot in the battle than sent on 
such a business. Congress, however, consented to 
the conference, and Adams was chosen as a com- 
missioner, along with Franklin and Rutledge. 
Toward the end of the year 1777 Mr. Adams was 
appointed to supersede Silas Deane as commissioner 
to France. He sailed 12 Feb., 1778, in the frigate 
" Boston," and after a stormy passage, in which he 
ran no little risk of capture by British cruisers, he 
landed at Bordeaux, and reached Paris on the 8th 
of April. Long before his arrival the alliance with 
France had been consummated. He found a 
wretched state of things in Paris, our three com- 
missioners there at loggerheads, one of them dab- 
bling in the British funds and making a fortune 




by privateering, while the public accounts were 
kept in the laxest manner. All sorts of agents 
were drawing bills upon tlie United States, and 
commanders of war vessels were setting up their 
claims for expenses and supplies that had never 
been ordered. Mr. Adams, whose habits of busi- 
ness were extremely strict and methodical, was 
shocked at this confusion, and he took hold of the 
matter with such vigor as to put an end to it. He 
also recommended that the representation of the 
United States at the French court should be in- 
trusted to a single minister instead of three com- 
missioners. As a result of this advice, Franklin 
was retained at Paris, Arthur Lee was sent to Mad- 
rid, and Adams, being left without any instruc- 
tions, returned to America, reaching Boston 2 
Aug., 1779. He came home with a curious 
theory of the decadence of Great Britain, which 
he had learned in France, and which serves well 
to illustrate the mood in which France had under- 
taken to assist the United States. England, he 
said, " loses every day her consideration, and runs 
toward her ruin. Her riches, in which her power 
consisted, she has lost with us and never can re- 
gain. She resembles the melancholy sj)ectacle of 
a great, wide-spreading tree that has been girdled 
at the root." Such absurd notions were quite 
commonly entertained at that time on the conti- 
nent of Europe, and such calamities were seriously 
dreaded by many Englishman in the event of the 
success of the Americans. 

Immediately on reaching home Mr. Adams was 
chosen delegate from Braintree to the convention 
for framing a new constitvition for Massachusetts ; 
but before the work of the convention was finished 
he was appointed commissioner to treat for peace 
with Great Britain, and sailed for France in the 
same FreTich frigate in which he had come home. 
But Lord North's government was not ready to 
make peace, and, moreover. Count Vergennes con- 
trived to prevent Adams from making any official 
communication to Great Britain of the extent of 
his powers. During Adams's stay in Paris a mu- 
tual dislike and distrust grew up between himself 
and Vergennes. The latter feared that if negotia- 
tions were to begin between the British govern- 
ment and the United States, they might lead to a 
reconciliation and reunion of the two branches 
of the English race, and thus ward off that decad- 
ence of England for which France was so eagerly 
hoping. On the other hand, Adams quite correctly 
believed that it was the intention of Vergennes to 
sacrifice the interests of the Americans, especially 
as concerned with the Newfoundland fisheries and 
the territory between the AUeghanies and the Mis- 
sissippi, in favor of Spain, with which country 
France was then in close alliance. Americans must 
always owe a debt of gratitude to Mr. Adams for 
the clear-sightedness with which he thus read the 
designs of Vergennes and estimated at its true 
value the purely selfish intervention of France in 
behalf of the United States. This clearness of in- 
sight was soon to bear good fruit in the manage- 
ment of the treaty of 1783. For the present, 
Adams found himself uncomfortable in Paris, as 
his too ready tongue wrought uni)leasantness both 
with Vergennes and with Franklin, who was too 
much under the French minister's influence. On 
his first arrival in Paris, society there had been 
greatly excited about him, as it was supposed that 
he was "the famous Mr. Adams" who had ordered 
the British troops out of Boston in March, 1770, 
and had thrown down the glove of defiance to 
George IIL on the great day of the Boston tea- 
party. When he explained that he was only a 

cousin of that grand and picturesque personage, 
he found that fashionable society thenceforth took 
less intciest in him. 

In the summer of 1780 Mr. Adams was charged 
by congress with the business of negotiating a 
Dutch loan. In order to give the good people of 
Holland some correct ideas as to American affairs, 
he published a number of articles in the Leyden 
"Gazette "and in a magazine entitled "La poli- 
tique hoUandaise " ; also " Twenty-six Letters upon 
Interesting Subjects respecting the Revolution in 
America." now reprinted in the 7th volume of his 
works. Soon after Adams's arrival in Holland, 
England dsclared war against the Dutch, ostensi- 
bly because of a proposed treaty of commerce with 
the United States in which the burgomaster of 
Amsterdam was implicated with Henry Laurens, 
but really because Holland had joined the league 
headed by the empress Catharine of Russia, de- 
signed to protect the commerce of neutral nations 
and known as the armed neutrality. Laurens had 
been sent out by congress as minister to Holland ; 
but, as he had been captured by a British cruiser 
and taken to the tower of London, Mr. Adams was 
appointed minister in his place. His first duty 
was to sign, as representing the United States, the 
articles of the armed neutrality. Before he had 
got any further, indeed before he had been recog- 
nized as minister by the Dutch government, he was 
called back to Paris, in July, 1781, in order to be 
ready to enter upon negotiations for peace with 
the British government. Russia and Austria had 
volunteered their services as mediators between 
George III. and the Americans; but Lord North's 
govermnent rejected the offer, so that Mr. Adams 
had his journey for nothing, and presently went 
back to Holland. His first and most arduous task 
was to persuade the Dutch government to recog- 
nize him as minister from the independent United 
States. In this he was covertly opposed by Ver- 
gennes, who wished the Americans to feel exclu- 
sively dependent upon France, and to have no 
other friendships or alliances. From first to last 
the aid extended by France to the Americans in 
the revolutionary war was purely selfish. That 
despotic government wished no good to a people 
struggling to preserve the immemorial principles 
of English liberty, and the policy of Vergennes 
was to extend just enough aid to us to enable us to 
prolong the war. so that colonies and mother coim- 
try might alike be weakened. When he pretended 
to be the disinterested friend of the Americans, he 
professed to be under the influence of sentiments 
that he did not really feel ; and he thus succeeded 
in winning from congress a confldence to which he 
was in no wise entitled. But he could not hood- 
wink John Adams, who wrote home that the duke 
de la Vauguyon, the French ambassador at the 
Hague, was doing everything in his power to ob- 
struct the progress of the negotiations ; and in 
this, Adams correctly inferred, he was acting un- 
der secret instructions from Vergennes. As a di- 
plomatist Adams was in a certain sense Napole- 
onic; he introduced new and strange methods of 
warfare, which disconcerted the perfidious in- 
triguers of the old school, of which Vergennes and 
Talleyrand were typical examples. Instead of 
beating about the biish and seeking to foil trickery 
by trickery (a business in which the wily French- 
man would doubtless have proved more than his 
match), he went straight to the duke de la Vau- 
guyon and bluntly told him that he saw plainly 
what he was up to, and that it was of no use, since 
" no advice of his or of the count de Vergennes, 
nor even a requisition from the king, should re- 




strain me." The duke saw that Adams meant ex- 
actly what he said, and, finding that it was useless 
to oppose the negotiations, " fell in with me, in 
order to give the air of French influence " to them. 
Events worked steadily and rapidly in Adams's 
favor. The plunder of St. Eustatius early in 1781 
had raised the wrath of the Dutch against Great 
Britain to fever heat. In November came tidings 
of the surrender of Lord Cornwallis. By this time 
Adams had published so many articles as to have 
given the Dutch some idea as to what sort of peo- 
ple the Americans were. He had some months 
before presented a petition to the states general, 
asking them to recognize him as minister from an 
independent nation. With his wonted boldness he 
now demanded a plain and unambiguous answer 
to this petition, and followed up the demand by 
visiting the representatives of the several cities in 
person and arguing his case. As the reward of 
this persistent energy, Mr. Adams had the pleasure 
of seeing the independence of the United States 
formally recognized by Holland on the 19th of 
April, 1782. This success was vigorously followed 
up. A Dutch loan of $2,000,000 was soon negoti- 
ated, and on the 7th of October a treaty of amity 
and commerce, the second which was ratified with 
the United States as an independent nation, was 
signed at the Hague. This work in Holland was 
the fourth signal event in John Adams's career, 
and, in view of the many obstacles overcome, he 
was liimself in the habit of referring to it as the 
greatest triumph of his life. " One thing, thank 
God ! is certain," he wrote ; " I have planted the 
American standard at the Hague. There let it wave 
-and fly in triumph over Sir Joseph Yorke and 
Britisli pride. I shall look down upon the flag- 
staff with pleasure from the other world." 

Mr. Adams had hardly time to finish this work 
when his presence was recjuired in Paris. Negoti- 
ations for peace with Great Britain had begun 
some time before in conversations between Fi-ank- 
lin and Richard Oswald, a gentleman whom Lord 
Shelburne had sent to Paris for the purpose. One 
British ministry had already been wrecked through 
these negotiations, and affairs had dragged along 
slowly amid endless difficulties. The situation was 
■one of the most complicated in the history of di- 
plomacy. France was in alliance at once with 
Spain and with the United States, and her treaty 
obligations to the one were in some respects incon- 
sistent with her treaty obligations to the other. 
The feeling of Spain toward the United States was 
intensely hostile, and the French government was 
much more in sympathy with the former than with 
the latter. On the other hand, the new British gov- 
ernment was not ill-disposed toward the Americans, 
and was extremely ready to make liberal conces- 
sions to them for the sake of thwarting the schemes 
of France. In the background stood George III., 
surly and irreconcilable, hoping that the negoti- 
ations would fail ; and amid these difficulties they 
doubtless would have failed had not all the parties 
by this time had a surfeit of bloodshed. The de- 
signs of the French government were first sus- 
pected by John Jay, soon after his arrival in Paris. 
He found that Vergennes was sending a secret 
emissary to Lord Shelburne under an assumed 
name ; he ascertained that the right of the United 
States to the Mississippi valley was to be denied ; 
and he got hold of a despatch from Marbois, the 
French secretary of legation at Philadelphia, to 
Vergennes, opposing the American claim to the 
Newfoundland fisheries. As soon as Jay learned 
these facts he proceeded, without the knowledge 
■of Franklin, to take steps toward a separate nego- 

tiation between Great Britain and the United 
States. When Adams arrived in Paris, Oct. 26, he 
coincided with Jay's views, and the two together 
overruled Franklin. Mr. Adams's behavior at this 
time was quite characteristic. It is said that he 
left Vergennes to learn of his arrival through the 
newspapers. It was certainly some time before he 
called upon him, and he took occasion, besides, to 
express his opinions about republics and monar- 
chies in terms that courtly Frenchman thought very 
rude. Adams agreed with Jay that Vergennes 
should be kept as far as possible in the dark un- 
til everything was completed, and so the negoti- 
ation with Great Britain went on separately. The 
annals of modern diplomacy have afforded few 
stranger spectacles. With the indispensable aid 
of France we had just got the better of England 
in fight, and now we proceeded amicably to divide 
territory and commercial privileges with the ene- 
my, and to make arrangements in which our not 
too friendly ally was virtually ignored. In this 
way the United States secured the Mississippi val- 
ley, and a share in the Newfoundland fisheries, not 
as a privilege but as a right, the latter result be- 
ing mainly due to the persistence of Mr. Adams. 
The point upon which the British commissioners 
most strongly insisted was the compensation of 
the American loyalists for the hardships they had 
suffered during the war; but this the American 
commissioners resolutely refused. The most they 
could be prevailed upon to allow was the insertion 
in the treaty of a clause to the effect that congress 
should recommend to the several state governments 
to reconsider their laws against the tories and to 
give these unfortunate persons a chance to recover 
their property. In the treaty, as finally arranged, 
all the disputed points were settled in favor of the 
Americans : and, the United States being thus vir- 
tually detached from the alliance, the British gov- 
ernment was enabled to turn a deaf ear to the de- 
mands of France and Spain for the surrender of 
Gibraltar. Vergennes was outgeneralled at every 
turn. On the part of the Americans the treaty of 
1783 deserves to be ranked as one of the most brill- 
iant triumphs of modern diplomacy. Its success 
was about equally due to Adams and to Jay, whose 
courage in the affair was equal to their skill, for 
they took it upon themselves to disregard the ex- 
plicit instructions of congress. Ever since March, 
1781, Vergennes had been intriguing with congress 
through his minister at Philadelphia, the chevalier 
de la Luzerne. First he had tried to get Mr. Ad- 
ams recalled to America. Failing in this, he had 
played his part with such dexterous persistence as 
to prevail upon congress to send most pusillani- 
mous instructions to its peace commissioners. 
They were instructed to undertake nothmg what- 
ever in the negotiations without the knowledge and 
concurrence of " the ministers of our generous ally, 
the king of France," that is to say, of the count de 
Vergennes ; and they were to govern themselves 
entirely by his advice and opinion. Franklin 
would have followed these instructions; Adams 
and Jay deliberately disobeyed them, and earned 
the gratitude of their countrymen for all coming 
time. For Adams's share in this grand achieve- 
ment it must certainly be cited as the fifth signal 
event in his career. 

By this time he had become excessively home- 
sick, and as soon as the treaty was arranged he 
asked leave to resign his commissions and return 
to America. He declared he would rather be 
" carting street-dust and marsh-mud " than wait- 
ing where he was. But business would not let him 
go. In September, 1783, he was commissioned, 




alonj? with Franklin and Jay, to negotiate a com- 
mercial treaty with Great Britain. A sudden and 
violent fever prostrated him for several weeks, 
after which he visited London and Bath. Before 
he had fully recovered his health he learned that 
his presence was required in Holland. In those 
days, when we lived under the articles of confedera- 
tion, and congress found it impossible to raise 
money enough to meet its current expenses, it was 
by no means ixnusual for the superintendent of 
finance to draw upon our foreign ministers and 
then sell the drafts for cash. This was done again 
and again, when there was not the smallest ground 
for supposing that the minister upon whom the 
draft was made would have any funds wherewith 
to meet it. It was part of his duty as envoy to go 
and beg the money. Early in the winter Mr. 
Adams learned that drafts upon him had been 
presented to his bankers in Amsterdam to the 
amount of more than a million florins. Less than 
half a million florins were on hand to meet these 
demands, and, unless something were done at once, 
the greater part of this paper would go back to 
America protested. Mr. Adams lost not a moment 
in starting for Holland, but he was delayed by a 
succession of terrible storms on the German ocean, 
and it was only after fifty-four days of difficulty 
and danger that he reached Amsterdam. The 
bankers had contrived to keep the drafts from go- 
ing to protest, but news of the bickerings between 
the thirteen states had reached Holland. It was 
believed that the new nation was going to pieces, 
and the regency of Amsterdam had no money to 
lend it. The promise of the American govern- 
ment was not regarded as valid security for a sum 
equivalent to about $300,000. Adams was obliged 
to apply to professional usurers, from whom, after 
more humiliating perplexity, he succeeded in ob- 
taining a loan at exorbitant interest. In the mean- 
time he had been appointed conunissioner, along 
with Franklin and Jefferson, for the general pur- 
pose of negotiating commercial treaties with for- 
eign powers. As his return to America was thus 
indefinitely postponed, he sent for his wife, with 
their only daughter and youngest son, to come and 
join him in France, where the two elder sons were 
already with him. In the summer of 1784 the 
family was thus re-united, and began house-keep- 
ing at Auteuil, near Paris. A treaty was success- 
fully negotiated with Prussia, but, before it was 
ready to be signed, Mr. Adams was appointed 
minister to the court of St. James, and arrived in 
London in May, 1785. He was at first politely re- 
ceived by George III., upon whom his bluff and 
fearless dignity of manner made a considerable 
impression. His stay in England was, however, 
far from pleasant. The king came to treat him 
with coldness, sometimes with rudeness, and the 
royal example was followed by fashionable soci- 
ety. The American government was losing credit 
at home and abroad. It was unable to fulfil its 
treaty engagements as to the payment of private 
debts due to British creditors, and as to the pro- 
tection of the loyalists. The British government, 
in retaliation, refused to surrender the western 
posts of Ogdensburg, Oswego, Niagara, Erie, 
Sandusky, Detroit, and Mackinaw, which by the 
treaty were to be promptly given up to the United 
States. Still more, it refused to make any treaty of 
commerce with the United States, and neglected to 
send any minister to represent Great Britain in 
this country. It was generally supposed in Europe 
that the American government would presently 
come to an end in general anarchy and bloodshed ; 
and it was believed by George III. and the nar- 

row - minded politicians, such as Lord Sheffield, 
upon whose cooperation he relied, that, if sufficient 
obstacles could be thrown in the way of American 
commerce to cause serious distress in this country, 
the United States would repent of their indepen- 
dence and come straggling back, one after another, 
to their old allegiance. Under such circumstances 
it was impossible for Mr. Adams to accomplish 
much as minister in England. During his stay 
there he wrote his " Defence of the American Con- 
stitutions," a work which afterward subjected him 
at home to ridiculous charges of monarchical and 
anti-republican sympathies. The object of the 
book was to set forth the advantages of a division 
of the powers of government, and especially of 
the legislative body, as opposed to the scheme of 
a single legislative chamber, which was advocated 
by many writers on the continent of Europe. The 
argument is encumbered by needlessly long and 
sometimes hardly relevant discussions on the his- 
tory of the Italian republics. 

Finding the British government utterly stub- 
born and impracticable, Mr. Adams asked to be re- 
called, and his request was granted in February, 
1788. For the " patriotism, perseverance, integrity, 
and diligence " disjilayed in his ten years of service 
abroad he received the public thanks of congress. 
He had no sooner reached home than he was 
elected a delegate from Massachusetts to the mori- 
bund continental congress, but that body expired 
before he had taken his seat in it. During the 
summer the ratification of the new constitution 
was so far completed that it could be put into 
operation, and public attention was absorbed in 
the work of organizing the new government. As 
Washington was unanimously selected for the 
office of president, it was natural that the vice- 
president should be taken from Massachusetts. 
The candidates for the presidency and vice-presi- 
dency were voted for without any separate specifi- 
cation, the second office falling to the candidate 
who obtained the second highest number of votes 
in the electoral college. Of the 09 electoral votes, 
all were registered for Washington, 34 for John 
Adams, who stood second on the list ; the other 35 
votes were scattered among a number of candi- 
dates. Adams was somewhat chagrined at this 
marked preference shown for Washington. His 
chief foible was enormous personal vanity, be- 
sides which he was much better fitted by tempera- 
ment and training to appreciate the kind of work 
that he had himself done than the military work 
by which Washington had won independence for 
the United States. He never could quite under- 
stand how or why the services rendered by Wash- 
ington were so much more important than his 
own. The office of vice-president was then more 
highly esteemed than it afterward came to be, but 
it was hardly suited to a man of Mr. Adams's vig- 
orous and aggressive temper. In one respect, 
however, he performed a more important part 
while holding that office than any of his successors. 
In the earlier sessions of the senate there was hot 
debate over the vigorous measures by which Wash- 
ington's administration was seeking to reestablish 
American credit and enlist the conservative inter- 
ests of the wealthier citizens in behalf of the sta- 
bility of the government. These measures were 
for the most part opposed by the persons who 
were rapidly becoming organized under Jeffer- 
son's leadership into the republican party, the 
opposition being mainly due to dread of the pos- 
sible evil consequences that might fiow from too 
great an increase of power in the federal gov- 
ernment. In these debates the senate was very 




evenly divided, and Mr. Adams, as presiding oifi- 
cer of that body, was often enabled to decide the 
question by his casting vote. In the first con- 
gress he gave as many as twenty casting votes 
upon questions of most vital importance to the 
whole subsequent history of the American people, 
and on all these occasions he supported Washing- 
ton's policy. During Washington's administra- 
tion grew up the division into the two great parties 
which have remained to this day in American poli- 
tics — the one known as federalist, afterward as 
whig, then as republican ; the other known at first 
as republican and afterward as democratic. John 
Adams was by his mental and moral constitution 
a federalist, fie believed in strong government. 
To the opposite party he seemed much less a demo- 
crat than an aristocrat. In one of his essays he 
provoked great popular wrath by using the phrase 
" the well-born."' He knew very well that in point of 
hereditary capacity and advantages men are not 
equal and never will be. His notion of democratic 
equality meant that all men should have equal 
rights in the eye of the law. There was nothing 
of the communist or leveller about him. He be- 
lieved in the rightful existence of a governing 
class, which ought to be kept at the head of affairs ; 
and he was supposed, probably with some truth, to 
have a predilection for etiquette, titles, gentlemen- 
in-waiting, and such things. Such views did not 
make him an aristocrat in the true sense of the 
word, for in nowise did he believe that the right 
to a place in the governing class should be herit- 
able ; it was something to be won by personal 
merit, and should not be withheld by any artificial 
enactments from the lowliest of men, to whom the 
chance of an illustrious career ought to be just as 
much open as to " the well-born." At the same 
time -John Adams differed from Jefferson and 
from his cousin, Samuel Adams, in distrusting the 
masses. All the federalist leaders shared this feel- 
ing more or less, and it presently became the chief 
source of weakness to the party. The disagree- 
ment between John Adams and Jefferson was 
first brought into prominence by the breaking out 
of the French revolution. Mr. Adams expected 
little or no good from this movement, which was 
like the American movement in no respect what- 
ever except in being called a revolution. He set 
forth his views on this subject in his " Discourses 
on Davila," which were published in a Philadelphia 
newspaper. Taking as his text Davila's history of 
the civil wars in Prance in the 16th century, he 
argued powerfully that a pure democracy was not 
the best form of government, but that a certain 
mixture of the aristocratic and monarchical ele- 
ments was necessary to the permanent mainten- 
ance of free government. Such a mixture really 
exists in the constitution of the United States, and, 
in the opinion of many able thinkers, constitutes 
its peculiar excellence and the best guarantee of 
its stability. These views gave great umbrage to 
the extreme democrats, and in the election of 1792 
tiiey set up George Clinton, of New York, as a 
rival candidate for the vice-presidency ; but when 
the votes were counted Adams hacl 77, Clinton 
50, Jefferson 4, and Aaron Burr 1. During this 
administration Adams, by his casting vote, de- 
feated the attempt of the republicans to balk 
Jay's mission to England in advance by a resolu- 
tion entirely prohibiting trade with that country. 
For a time Adams quite forgot his jealousy of 
Washington in admiration for the heroic strength 
of purpose with which he pursued his policy of 
neutrality amid the furious efforts of political par- 
tisans to drag the United States into a rash and 

desperate armed struggle in support either of 
France or of England. 

In 1796, as Washington refused to serve for a 
third term, John Adams seemed clearly marked 
out as federalist candidate for the succession. 
Hamilton and Jay were in a certain sense his ri- 
vals ; but Jay was for the moment unpopular be- 
cause of the famous treaty that he had lately nego- 
tiated with England, and Hamilton, although the 
ablest man in the federalist party, was still not so 
conspicuous in the eyes of the masses of voters as 
Adams, who besides was surer than any one else 
of the indispensable New England vote. Having 
decided upon Adams as first candidate, it seemed 
desirable to take the other from a southern state, 
and the choice fell upon Thomas Pinckney, of 
South Carolina, a younger brother of Charles 
Cotesworth Pinckney. Hamilton now began to 
scheme against Mr. Adams in a manner not at all 
to his credit. He had always been jealous of Ad- 
ams because of his stubborn and independent 
character, which made it impossible for him to be 
subservient to a leader. There was not room 
enough in one political party for two such positive 
and aggressive characters. Already in the election 
of 1788 Hamilton had contrived to diminish 
Adams's vote by persuading some electors of the 
possible danger of a unanimous and therefore 
equal vote for him and Washington. Such advice 
could not have been candid, for there was never 
the smallest possibility of a unanimous vote for 
Mr. Adams. Now in 1796 he resorted to a similar 
stratagem. The federalists were likely to win the 
election, but had not many votes to spare ; the 
contest was evidently going to be close. Hamil- 
ton accordingly urged the federalist electors, espe- 
cially in New England, to cast all their votes alike 
for Adams and Pinckney, lest the loss of a single 
vote by either one should give the victory to Jef- 
ferson, upon whom the opposite party was clearly 
united. Should Adams and Pinckney receive an 
exactly equal number of votes, it woidd remain for 
a federalist congress to decide which should be 
president. The result of the election showed 71 
votes for John Adams, 68 for Jefferson, 59 for 
Pinckney, 30 for Burr, 15 for Samuel Adams, and 
the rest scattering. Two electors obstinately per- 
sisted in voting for Washmgton. When it ap- 
peared that Adams had only three more votes than 
Jefferson, who secured the second place instead of 
Pinckney, it seemed on the surface as if Hamilton's 
advice had been sound. But from the outset it 
had been clear (and no one knew it better than 
Hamilton) that several southern federalists would 
withhold their votes from Adams in order to give 
the pi-csiilcncy to Pinckney, always supposing that 
the New England electors could be depended upon 
to vote equally for both. The purpose of Hamil- 
ton's advice was to make Pinckney president and 
Adams vice-president, in opposition to the wishes 
of their party. This purpose was suspected in 
New England, and while some of the southern 
federalists voted for Pinckney and Jefferson, eight- 
een New Englanders, in voting for Adams, with- 
held their votes from Pinckney. The result was 
the election of a federalist president with a republi- 
can vice-president. In case of the death, disability, 
or removal of the president, the administration 
would fall into the hands of the opposite party. 
Clearly a mode of election that presented such 
temptations to intrigue, and left so much to acci- 
dent, was vicious and could not last long. These 
proceedings gave rise to a violent feud between 
John Adams and Alexander Hamilton, which end- 
ed in breaking up the federalist party, and has left 




a legacy of bitter feelings to the descendants of 
those illustrious men. 

The presidency of John Adams was stormy. 
We were entering upon that period when our 
party strife was determined rather by foreign than 
by American political issues, when England and 
France, engaged in a warfare of Titans, took every 
occasion to browbeat and insult us because we 
were supposed to be too feeble to resent such treat- 
ment. The revolutionary government of France 
had claimed that, in accordance with our treaty 
with that country, we were bound to support her 
against Great Britain, at least so far as concerned 
the defence of the French West Indies. The re- 
publican party went almost far enough in their 
sympathy with the F'rench to concede these claims, 
which, if admitted by our government, would im- 
mediately have got us into war with England. On 
the other hand, the hatred felt toward France by 
the extreme federalists was so bitter that any in- 
sult from that power was enough to incline them 
to advocate war against her and in behalf of Eng- 
land. Washington, in defiance of all popular 
clamor, adhered to a policy of strict neutrality, and 
in this he was resolutely followed by Adams. The 
American government was thus obliged carefully 
and with infinite diflficulty to steer between Scylla 
and Charybdis until the overthrow of Napoleon 
and our naval victories over England in 1812-'14 
put an end to this humiliating state of things. 
Under Washington's administration Gouverneur 
Morris had been for some time minister to France, 
but he was greatly disliked by the anarchical group 
that then misruled that country. To avoid giving 
offence to the B^rench republic, Washington had 
recalled Morris and sent James Monroe in his 
place, with instructions to try to reconcile the 
French to Jay's mission to England. Instead of 
doing this, Monroe encouraged the French to hope 
that Jay's treaty would not be ratified, and Wash- 
ington accordingly recalled him and sent Cotes- 
worth Pinckney in his place. Enraged at the 
ratification of Jay's treaty, the French government 
not only gave a brilliant ovation to Monroe, but 
refused to receive Pinckney, and would not even 
allow him to stay in Paris. At the same time, 
decrees were passed discriminating against Ameri- 
ckn commerce. Mr. Adams was no sooner inaugu- 
rated as president than he called an extra session 
of congress, to consider how war with Prance 
should be avoided. It was decided to send a spe- 
cial commission to France, consisting of Cotes- 
worth Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge 
Gerry. The directory would not acknowledge these 
commissioners and treat with them openly ; but 
Talleyrand, who was then secretary for foreign 
affairs, sent some of his creatures to intrigue with 
them behind the scenes. It was proposed that the 
envoys should pay large sums of money to Talley- 
rand and two or three of the directors, as bribes, 
for dealing politely with the United States and 
refraining from locking up American ships and 
stealing American goods. When the envoys scorn- 
fully rejected this proposal, a new decree was forth- 
with issued against American commerce. The en- 
voys drew up an indignant remonstrance, which 
Gerry hesitated to sign. Wearied with their fruit- 
less efforts, Marshall and Pinckney left Paris. But, 
as Gerry was a republican, Talleyrand thought it 
worth while to persuade him to stay, hoping that 
he might prove more compliant than his colleagues. 
In March, 1798, Mr. Adams aimounced to congress 
the failure of the mission, and advised that the 
preparations already begun should be kept up in 
view of the war that now seemed almost inevitable. 

A furious debate ensued, which was interrupted hj 
amotion from the federalist side, calling on the 
president for full copies of the despatches. Noth- 
ing could have suited Mr. Adams better. He im- 
mediately sent in copies complete in everything 
except that the letters X., Y., and Z. were substi- 
tuted for the names of Talleyrand's emissaries. 
Hence these papers have ever since been known as 
the " X. Y. Z. despatches." On the 8th of April 
the senate voted to publish these despatches, and 
they aroused great excitement both in Europe and 
in America. The British government scattered 
them broadcast over Europe, to stir up indignation 
against France. In America a great storm of 
wrath seemed for the moment to have wrecked the 
republican party. Those who were not converted 
to federalism were for the moment silenced. From 
all quaiters came up the war-ciy, "Millions for 
defence ; not one cent for tribute." A few excel- 
lent frigates were built, the nucleus of the gallant 
little navy that was by and by to win such tri- 
umphs over England. An army was raised, and 
Washington was placed in command, with the 
rank of lieutenant-general. Gerry was recalled 
from France, and the press roundly berated him 
for showing less firmness than his colleagues, 
though indeed he had not done anything dishonor- 
able. During this excitement the song of " Hail, 
Columbia" was published and became popular. 
On the 4th of July the effigy of Talleyrand, who 
had once been bishop of Autun, was arrayed in a 
surplice and burned at the stake. The president 
was authorized to issue letters of marque and re- 
prisal, and for a time war with France actually 
existed, though it was never declared. In Febru- 
ary, 1799, Capt. Truxtun, in the frigate " Constel- 
lation," defeated and captured the French frigate 
" L'Insurgente " near the island of St. Christopher. 
In February, 1800, the same gallant officer in a 
desperate battle destroyed the frigate " La Ven- 
geance," which was much his superior in strength 
of armament. When the directory found that their 
silly and infamous policy was likely to drive the 
United States into alliance with Great Britain, 
they began to change their tactics. Talleyrand 
tried to crawl out by disavowing his emissaries X. 
Y. Z., and pretending that the American envoys 
had been imposed upon by irresponsible adventu- 
rers. He made overtures to Vans Jlurray, the 
American minister at the Hague, tending toward 
reconciliation. Mr. Adams, while sharing the 
federalist indignation at the behavior of France, 
was too clear-headed not to see that the only safe 
policy for the United States was one of strict neu- 
trality. He was resolutely determined to avoid 
war if possible, and to meet France half-way the 
moment she should show symptoms of a return to 
reason. His cabinet were so far under Hamil- 
ton's influence that he could not rely upon them ; 
indeed, he had good reason to suspect them of 
working against him. Accordingly, without con- 
sulting his cabinet, on 18 Feb., 1799, he sent to the 
senate the nomination of Vans Murray as minister 
to France. This bold step precipitated the quar- 
rel between Mr. Adams and his party, and during 
the year it grew fiercer and fiercer. He joined 
Ellsworth, of Connecticut, and Davie, of North 
Carolina, to Vans Murray as commissioners, and 
awaited the assurance of Talleyrand that they 
would be properly received at Paris. On receiving 
this assurance, though it was couched in rather 
insolent language by the baffled Frenchman, the 
commissioners sailed Nov. 5. On reaching Paris,, 
they found the directory overturned by Napoleon, 
with whom as first consul they succeeded in ad- 




justing the difficulties. This French mission com- 
pleted the split in the federalist party, and made 
Mr. Adams's reelection impossible. The quarrel 
with the Hamiltonians had been further embittered 
by Adams's foolish attempt to prevent Hamilton's 
obtaining the rank of senior major-general, for 
which Washington had designated him, and it 
rose to fever-heat in the spring of 1800, when Mr. 
Adams dismissed his cabinet and selected a new 
one. Another affair contributed largely to the 
downfall of the federalist party. In 1798, during 
the height of the popular fury against France, the 
federalists in congress presumed too much upon 
their strength, and passed the famous alien and 
sedition acts. By the first of these acts, aliens 
were rendered liable to summary banishment from 
the United States at the sole discretion of the 
president ; and any alien who should venture to 
return from such banishment was liable to im- 
prisonment at hard labor for life. By the sedition 
act any scandalous or malicious writing against 
the president or either house of congress was liable 
to be dealt with in the United States courts and 
punished by fine and imprisonment. This act con- 
travened the constitutional amendment that for- 
bids all infringement of freedom of speech and of 
the press, and both acts aroused more widespread 
indignation than any others that have ever passed 
in congress. They called forth from the southern 
republicans the famous Kentucky and Virginia 
resolutions of 1798-99, which assert, though in 
language open to some latitude of interpretation, 
the right of a state to " nullify " or impede the 
execution of a law deemed unconstitutional. 

In the election of 1800 the federalist votes were 
given to John Adams and Cotesworth Pinckney, 
and the republican votes to Jefferson and Burr. 
The count showed 65 votes for Adams, (j4 for 
Pinckney, and 1 for Jay, while Jefferson and Burr 
had each 73, and the election was thus thrown into 
the house of representatives. Mr. Adams took no 
part in the intrigues that followed. His last con- 
siderable public act, in appointing John Marshall 
to the chief justiceship of the United States, turned 
out to be of inestimable value to the country, and 
was a worthy end to a great public career. Very 
different, and quite unworthy of such a man as 
John Adams, was the silly and puerile fit of rage 
in which he got up before daybreak of the 4th of 
March and started in his coach for Massachusetts, 
instead of waiting to see the inauguration of his suc- 
cessful rival. On several occasions John Adams's 
career shows us striking examples of the demoraliz- 
ing effects of stupendous personal vanity, but on 
no occasion more strikingly than this. He went 
home with a feeling that he had been disgraced by 
his failure to secure a reelection. Yet in estimat- 
ing his character we must not forget that in his 
resolute insistence upon the French mission of 
1799 he did not stop for a moment to weigh the 
probable effect of his action upon his chances for 
reelection. He acted as a true patriot, ready to 
sacrifice himself for the welfare of his country, 
never regretted the act, and always maintained that 
it was the most meritorious of his life. " I desire," 
he said, " no other inscription over my grave-stone 
than this : Here lies John Adams, who took upon 
himself the responsibility of the peace with France 
in the year 1800." He was entirely right, as all 
disinterested writers now agree. 

After so long and brilliant a career, he now 
passed a quarter of a century in his home at Quincy 
(as that part of Braintree was now called) in peace- 
ful and happy seclusion, devoting himself to liter- 
ary work relating to the history of his times. In 

1820 the aged statesman was chosen delegate to the 
convention for revising the constitution of Massa- 
chusetts, and labored unsuccessfully to obtain an 
acknowledgment of the equal rights, political and 
religious, of others than so-called Christians. His 
friendship with Jefferson, which had been broken 
off by their political differences, was resumed in his 
old age, and an interesting correspondence was kept 
up between the two. As a writer of English, John 
Adams in numy respects surpassed all his Ameri- 
can contemporaries ; his style was crisp, pungent, 
and vivacious. In person he was of middle height, 
vigorous, florid, and somewhat corpulent, quite 
like the typical John Bull. He was always truth- 
ful and outspoken, often vehement and brusque. 
Vanity and loquacity, as he freely admitted, were 
his chief foibles. Without being quarrelsome, he 
had little or none of the tact that avoids quarrels ; 
but he harbored no malice, and his anger, though 
•violent, was short-lived. Among American public 
men there has been none more upright and honora- 
ble. He lived to see his son president of the United 
States, and died on the fiftieth anniversary of the 
declaration of independence and in the ninety-first 
year of his age. His last words were, " Thomas 
Jefferson still survives." But by a remarkable co- 
incidence, Jefferson had died a few hours earlier 
the same day. See " Life and Works of John Ad- 
ams," by C. F. Adams (10 vols., Boston, 1850-56); 
" Life of John Adams," by J. Q. and C. F. Adams 
(2 vols., Philadelphia, 1871); and "John Adams," 
by J. T. Morse, Jr. (Boston, 1885). 

The portrait that forms the frontispiece of this 
volume is from a painting by Gilbert Stuart, which 
was executed while Mr. Adams was president and 
is now in the possession of his grandson. The one 
on page 16 was taken when he was a youth. The 
houses represented on page 15 are those in which 
President John Adams and his son John Quincy 
Adams were born. 

ADAMS, John, educator, son of a revolutionary 
officer of the same name, b. in Canterbury, Conn., 
18 Sept., 1772 ; d. 24 April, 1863. He was gradu- 
ated at Yale in 1795, and taught for three years at 
the academy in his native town. In 1800 he be- 
came rector of Plainfield, N. J., academy, and in 
1803 principal of Bacon academy, ColcheslJer, Conn. 
In June, 1810, he was chosen principal of Phillips 
Andover academy, where he remained for twenty- 
three years, and, in addition to his regular duties, 
took part in the organization of several of the great 
charitable associations that have attained national 
importance. He resigned his office in 1833, and 
went to Illinois, where he established several him- 
dred Sunday-schools. He received the degree of 
LL. D. from Yale in 1854. 

ADAMS, John, sailor, b. in Boston, Mass.. 29 
Nov., 1796 ; d. in Allston, Mass., 17 March, 1886. 
He was the last siuwivor of all who witnessed the 
victory gained by Hull in the " Constitution " over 
Dacres in the " Guerriere," 19 Aug., 1812. He 
was subsequently captured and confined in Dart- 
moor prison till the end of the war. For nearly 
half a century afterward he followed the sea, com- 
numding some of the finest merchantmen that 
sailed from Boston. 

ADAMS, John, soldier, b. in Tennessee in 
1825; killed in the battle of Franklin, Tenn., 30 
Nov., 1864. He was graduated at West Point in 
1846, and joined the 1st dragoons. He was bre- 
vetted 1st lieutenant for gallantry at Santa Cruz 
de Rosales, Mexico, 16 March, 1848, after several 
years of frontier duty was promoted to 1st lieu- 
tenant, 9 Oct., 1851, and in 1853 served as aide to 
the governor of Minnesota with the rank of lieu- 




tenant-colonel. He was promoted captain of 1st 
dragoons, 30 Nov., 1856, but resigned 81 May, 1861, 
and became a confederate brigadier-general. 

ADAMS, John Folsom, clergyman, b. in Strath- 
am, N. H., 28 May, 1790; d. in Greenland, N. H., 11 
June, I'^Sl. lie began to preach in 1812, and joined 
the New England Methodist conference. He served 
as a circuit rider in the backwoods of Maine, and 
so distinguished himself by zeal and ability that he 
was repeatedly assigned as presiding elder to im- 
portant stations at Boston and Lynn, and the 
larger towns of eastern New England. In the 
anti-slavery agitation he took a prominent part in 
favor of emancipation, and he was four times chosen 
as a delegate to the general conference. 

ADAMS, John (^uincy, sixth president of the 
United States, b. in Braintree, Mass., 11 July, 
1767 ; d. in Washington, D. C, 23 Feb., 1848. He 
was named for his mother's grandfather, John 
Quincy. In his eleventh year he accompanied his 
father to France, and was sent to school near Paris, 
where his proficiency in the French language and 
other studies soon became conspicuous. In the 
following year he returned to America, and back 
again to France with his father, whom, in August, 
1780, he accompanied to Holland. After a few 
months at school in Amsterdam, he entered the 
university of Leyden. Two years afterward Joha 
Adams's secretary of legation, Francis Dana, was 
appointed minister to Russia, and the boy accom- 
panied him as i)ri vate secretary. After a stay of four- 
teen montiis, as Catharine's government refused to 
recognize Mr. Dana as minister, young Adams left 
St. Petersburg and travelled alone through Swe- 
den, Denmark, and northern Germany to France, 
spending six months in the journey. Arriving in 
Paris, he found his father busy with the negotia- 
tion of the treaty of peace between Great Britain 
and the United States, and was immediately set to 
work as secretary, and aided in drafting the papers 
that " dispersed all possible doubt of the indepen- 
dence of his country." In 1785, when his father 
was appointed minister to England, he decided not 
to stay with him in London, but to return at once 
to Massachusetts in order to complete his educa- 
tion at Harvard college. For an American career 
he believed an American education to be best fitted. 
Considering the immediate sacrifice of pleasure in- 
volved, it was a remarkably wise decision in a lad 
of eighteen. But Adams's character was already 
fully formed ; he was what he remained through- 
out his life, a Puritan of the sternest and most un- 
compromising sort, who seemed to take a grim en- 
joyment in the performance of duty, especially 
when disagreeable. Returning home, he was grad- 
uated at Harvard college in 1788, and then studied 
law in the office of Theophilus Parsons, afterward 
chief justice of Massachusetts. In 1791 he was ad- 
mitted to the Suffolk bar, and began the practice 
of law, the tedium of which he relieved by writing 
occasional articles for the papers. Under the sig- 
nature of " Publicola " he criticised some positions 
taken by Thomas Paine in his " Rights of Man " ; 
and these articles, when republished in England, 
were generally attributed to his father. In a fur- 
ther series of papers, signed " Marcelli^s," he de- 
fended Washington's policy of neutrality; and in 
a third sc^'ics. signed " Columbus," he discussed the 
extraordinary behavior of Citizen Genet, whom the 
Jacobins had sent over to browbeat the Americans 
into joining France in hurling defiance at the 
world. These writings made him so conspicuous 
that in 1794 Washington appointed him minister 
to Holland, and two years later made an appoint- 
ment transferring him to Portugal. Before he had 

started for the latter country his father became 
president of the United States and asked Washing- 
ton's advice as to the propriety of promoting his 
own son by sending him to Berlin. Washington 
in strong terras recommended the promotion, de- 
claring that in his opinion the young man would 
prove to be the ablest diplomat in the American 
service. In the fall of 1797 Mr. Adams according- 
ly took up his residence at the capital of Prussia. 
Shortly before this he had married Miss Louisa 
Johnson, a niece of Thomas Johnson, of Maryland. 
During his residence at Berlin Mr. Adams trans- 
lated Wieland's " Oberon " into English. In 1798 
he was commissioned to make a commercial treaty 
with Sweden. In 1800 he made a journey through 
Silesia, and wrote an account of it, which was pub- 
lished in London and afterward translated into 
German and French. When Jefferson becamepresi- 
dent, Mr. Adams's mission terminated. He re- 
sumed the practice of law in Boston, but in 1802 
was elected to the Massachusetts senate, and next 
year was chosen to the senate of the United States 
instead of Timothy Pickering. The federalist party 
was then rent in twain by the feud between the 
partisans of JoTin Adams and those of Hamilton, 
and the reception of the younger Adams in the 
senate was far from flattering. Affairs grew worse 
when, at the next vacancy, Pickering was chosen to 
be his uncongenial colleague. Mr. Adams was 
grossly and repeatedly insulted. Any motion he 
might make was sure to be rejected by the com- 
bined votes of republicans and Hamiltonians, 
though frequently the same motion, made soon af- 
terward by somebody else, would be carried by a 
large majority. A committee of which he was a 
member would make and send in its report with- 
out even notifying him of its time and place of 
meeting. At first Mr. Adams was subjected to 
such treatment merely because he was the son of 
his father; but presently he rendered himself more 
and more amenable to it by manifesting the same 
independence of party ties that had made hi? 
father so unpopular, independence in politics has 
always been characteristic of the Adams family, 
and in none has this been more strongly marked 
than in John Quincy Adams. His first serious dif- 
ference with the federalist party was occasioned by 
his qualified approval of Jefferson's purchase of 
Louisiana, a measure that was bitterly opposed and 
fiercely censured by nearly all the federalists, be- 
cause it was feared "it would add too much strength 
to the south. A much more serious difference arose 
somewhat later, on the question of the embargo. 
Questions of foreign rather than of domestic policy 
then furnished the burning subjects of contention 
in the United States. Our neutral commerce on 
the high seas, which had risen to very considerable 
proportions, was plundered in turn by England and 
by France, until its very existence was threatened. 
In May, 1806, the British government declared the 
northern coast of Europe, from Brest to the mouth 
of the Elbe, to be blockaded. By the Russian proc- 
lamation of 1780, which was then accepted by all 
civilized nations except Great Britain, such paper 
blockades were illegal ; but British ships none the 
less seized and confiscated American vessels bound 
to any port on that coast. In November Napoleon 
issued his Berlin decree making a paper blockade 
of the whole British coast, whereupon French cruis- 
ers began seizing and confiscating American vessels 
on their way from British to French ports. Two 
months later England issued an order in council, 
forbidding neutrals to trade between any of her 
enemy's ports ; and this was followed by orders de- 
creeing fines or confiscation to all neutral ships 

<9. SL^ t^Acxy)'YLj> 




daring to violate the edict. In December, 1807, 
Napoleon replied with the Milan decree, threaten- 
ing to confiscate all ships bound to England, or 
which should have paid a fine to the British gov- 
ernment or submitted to search at the hands of a 
British commander. All these decrees and orders 
were in flagrant violation of international law, and 
for a time they made the ocean a pandemonium of 
robbery and murder. Their effect upon American 
commerce was about the same as if both England 
and France had declared war against the United 
States. Their natural and proper effect upon the 
American people would have been seen in an im- 
mediate declaration of war against both England 
and Prance, save that our military weakness was 
• then too manifest to make such a course anything 
but ridiculous. Between the animus of the two 
bullies by whom we were thus tormented there was 
little to choose ; but in two respects England's ca- 
pacity for injuring us was the greater. In the first 
place, she had more ships engaged in this highway 
robbery than France, and stronger ones : in the 
second place, owing to the difficulty of distinguish- 
ing between Americans and Englishmen, she was 
able to add the crowning wickedness of kidnapping 
American seamen. The wrath of the Americans 
was thus turned more against England than against 
France ; and never perhaps in the revolutionary 
war had it waxed stronger than in the summer of 
1807, when, in full sight of the American coast, 
the " Leopard " fired upon the " Chesapeake," killed 
and wounded several of her crew, and violently 
carried away four of them. For this outrage the 
commander of the " Leopard " was promoted in 
the British service. In spite of all these things, 
the hatred of the federalists for France was so 
great that they were ready to put up with insult 
added to injury rather than attack the power that 
was warring against Napoleon. So far did these 
feelings carry them that Mr. John Lowell, a promi- 
nent federalist of Boston, was actually heard to de- 
fend the action of the " Leopard." Such pusilla- 
nimity incensed Mr. Adams. " This was the cause," 
he afterward said. " which alienated me from that 
day and forever from the councils of the federal 
party." He tried to persuade the federalists of Bos- 
ton to hold a meeting and pledge their support to 
the government in any measures, however serious, 
that it might see fit to adopt in order to curb the 
insolence of Great Britain. But these gentlemen 
were too far blinded by party feeling to respond to 
the call ; whereupon Mr. Adams attended a repub- 
lican meeting, at which he was put upon a com- 
mittee to draft and report such resolutions. Pres- 
ently the federalists bowed to the storm of popular 
feeling and held their meeting, at which Mr. Adams 
was also present and drafted resolutions. For his 
share in the proceedings of the republicans it was 
threatened that he should " have his head taken off 
for apostasy." It was never of much use to threaten 
Mr. Adams. An extra session of congress was 
called in October to consider what was to be done. 
Mr. Jefferson's government was averse to war, for 
which the country was ill prepared, and it was 
thought that somewhat milder measures might 
harass England until she would submit to reason. 
For a year and a half a non-importation act had 
been in force ; but it had proved no more effective 
than the non-importation agreements of 1768 and 
1774. Now an embargo was laid upon all the ship- 
ping in American ports. The advantage of such a 
measure was very doubtful ; it was damaging our- 
selves in the hope of damaging the enemy. The 
greatest damage fell upon the maritime states of 
New England, and there the vials of federalist 

wrath were poured forth with terrible fury upon 
Mr. Jefferson and the embargo. But the full 
measure of their ferocity was reserved for Mr. 
Adams, who had actually been a member of the 
committee that reported the bill, and had given it 
his most earnest support. All the choicest epithets 
of abuse were showered upon him ; few men in our 
history have been more fiercely berated and re- 
viled. His term of service in the senate was to ex- 
pire on 3 March, 1809. In the preceding June the 
Massachusetts legislature chose Mr. Lloyd to suc- 
ceed him, a proceeding that was intended and ac- 
cepted as an insult. Mr. Adams instantly resigned, 
and Mr. Lloyd was chosen to fill the remainder of 
his tei'm. In the course of the next month the re- 
publicans of his congressional district wished to 
elect him to the house of representatives, but he re- 
fused. In 1806 Mr. Adams had been appointed 
professor of rhetoric and belles-lettres at Harvard 
college, and in the intervals of his public duties 
had delivered lectures there, which were published 
in 1810, and for a time were held in esteem. 

One of Mr. Madison's first acts on succeeding to 
the presidency in 1809 was to nominate Mr. Adams 
minister to Russia. Since Mr. Dana's failure to 
secure recognition in 1782, the United States had 
had no minister in that covmtry, and the new mis- 
sion was now to be created. The senate at first 
declined to concur in creating the mission, but a 
few months later the objectors yielded, and Mr. 
Adams's nomination was confirmed. He was very 
courteously received by Alexander I., and his four 
years and a half in Russia passed very pleasantly. 
His diary gives us a vivid account of the Napole- 
onic invasion and its disastrous ending. In the 
autumn of 1812 the czar offered his services as me- 
diator between the United States and Great Brit- 
ain. War had only been declared between these 
powers three months before, but the American gov- 
ernment promptly accejated the proposal, and, in the 
height of the popular enthusiasm over the naval 
victories of Hull and Decatur, sent Messrs. Gallatin 
and Bayard to St. Petersburg to act as commission- 
ers with Mr. Adams. The British government re- 
fused to accept the mediation of Russia, but pro- 
posed instead an independent negotiation, to which 
the United States agreed, and the commissioners 
were directed to meet at Ghent. Much time was 
consumed in these arrangements, while we were 
defeating England again and again on the sea, and 
suffering in return some humiliating reverses on 
land, until at last the commissioners met at Ghent, 
in August, 1814. Henry Clay and Jonathan Rus- 
sell were added to the American commission, while 
England was represented by Lord Gambler, Dr. 
Adams, and Mr. Goulburn, After four months of 
bitter wrangling, from which no good result could 
have been expected, terms of peace were suddenly 
agreed upon in December. In warding off the 
British attempts to limit our rights in the fisheries 
Mr. Adams played an important part, as his father 
had done in 1782. The war had been a drawn 
game, neither side was decisively victorious, and 
the treaty apparently left things much as before. 
Nothing was explicitly done to end the pretensions 
of England to the right of search and the impress- 
ment of seamen, yet the naval victories of the 
United States had taught the British a lesson, and 
these pretensions were never renewed. The treaty 
was a great disappointment to the British people, 
who had hoped to obtain some advantages, and 
Mr. Adams, for his share in it, jvas reviled by the 
London press in a tone which could not but be re- 
garded as a compliment to his powers. After the 
conclusion of the treaty he visited Paris and wit- 




nessed the return of Napoleon from Elba and the 
exciting events that followed up to the eve of 
Waterloo. Here his wife and children joined him, 
after a tedious journey from St. Petersburg, not 
without distress and peril by the way. By this 
time Mr. Adams had been appointed commissioner, 
with Clay and Gallatin, to negotiate a new com- 
mercial treaty with England. This treaty was 
completed on 13 July, 1815; but already, on 26 
]\Iay, wlieii Mr. Adams arrived in London, he had 
received the news of his appointment as minister 
to England. The series of double coincidences in 
the Adams family between missions to England 
and treaties with that j)ower is curious. First 
John Adams is minister, just after his share in the 
treaty that concluded the revolutionary war, then 

his son, just after the treaty that concluded the 
war of 1812-'15, and then the grandson is minister 
during the civil war and afterward takes part in 
the treaty that disposed of the Alabama question. 
After an absence of eight years, John Quincy 
Adams was called back to his native land to serve 
as secretary of state under President Monroe. A 
new era in American politics was dawning. The 
war which had just been concluded has sometimes 
been called our second war of independence ; cer- 
tainly the year 1815, which saw the end of the long 
strife between France and England, marks an im- 
portant era in American history. Our politics 
ceased to be concerned mainly with foreign affairs. 
So suddenly were men's bones of political conten- 
tion taken away from them that Monroe's presi- 
dency is traditionally remembered as the " era of 
good feeling." So far as political parties were con- 
cerned, such an epithet is well applied ; but as be- 
tween prominent individuals struggling covertly to 
supplant one another, it was anything rather than 
an era of good feeling. Mr. Adams's principal 
achievement as secretary of state was the treaty 
with Spain, whereby Florida was ceded to the 
United States in consideration of $5,000,000, to be 
applied to the liquidation of outstanding claims of 
American merchants against Spain. By the same 
treaty the boundary between Louisiana and Mexi- 
co was established as running along the Sabine and 
Red rivers, the upper Arkansas, the crest of the 
Rocky mountains, and the 42d parallel. Mr. Ad- 
ams defended the conduct of Gen. Jackson in in- 
vading Spanish Florida and hanging Arbuthnot 
and Ambrister. He supported the policy of recog- 
nizing the independence of the revolted colonies of 
Spanish America, and he was the principal author 
of what is known as the " Monroe Doctrine," that 
the American continent is no longer open to colo- 
nization by Eui'opean powers. His official report 
on weights and measures showed remarkable scien- 
tific knowledge. Toward the close of Monroe's 
first term came up the first great political question 
growing out of the purchase of Louisiana : Should 

Missouri be admitted to the union as a slave-state, 
and should slavery be allowed or prohibited in the 
vast territory beyond? After the Missouri com- 
promise had passed through congress, and been 
submitted to President Monroe for his signature, 
two questions were laid before the cabinet. First, 
had congress the constitutional right to prohibit 
slavery in a territory ? and, secondly, in prohibiting 
slavery " forever " in the territory north of Mason 
and Dixon's line, as prolonged beyond the Missis- 
sippi river, did the Missouri bill refer to this dis- 
trict only so long as it should remain under terri- 
torial government, or did it apply to such states as 
might in future be formed from it 1 To the first 
question the cabinet replied unanimously in the 
affirmative. To the second question Mr. Adams 
replied that the term " forever " really meant for- 
ever; but all his colleagues replied that it only 
meant so long as the district in question should 
remain under territorial government. Here for 
the first time we see Mr. Adams taking that firm 
stand in opposition to slavery which hereafter was 
to make him so famous. 

Mr. Monroe's second term of office had scarcely 
begun when the question of the succession came 
into the foreground. The candidates were John 
Quincy Adams, secretary of state ; William H. 
Crawford, secretary of the treasury ; John C. Cal- 
houn, secretary of war ; and Henry Clay, speaker 
of the house of representatives. Shortly before the 
election Gen. Jackson's strength began to loom up 
as more formidable than the other competitors had 
supposed. Jackson was then at the height of his 
popularity as a military hero, Crawford was the 
most dexterous political manager in the country. 
Clay was perhaps the most persuasive orator. Far 
superior to these three in intelligence and charac- 
ter, Mr. Adams was in no sense a popular favorite. 
His manners were stiff and disagreeable ; he told 
the truth bluntly, whether it hurt or not ; and he 
never took pains to conciliate any one. The best 
of men in his domestic circle, outside of it he had 
few warm friends, but he seemed to have a talent 
for making enemies. When Edward Everett asked 
him if he was "determined to do nothing with a 
view to promote his future election to the presi- 
dency as the successor of Mr. Monroe," he replied 
that he " should do absolutely nothing," and from 
this resolution he never swerved. He desired the 
presidency as much as any one who was ever chosen 
to that high office ; but his nature was such that 
unless it should come to him without scheming of 
his own, and as the unsolicited expression of popu- 
lar trust in him, all its value would be lost. Under 
the cu'cumstances, it was a remarkable evidence of 
the respect felt for his lofty character and distin- 
guished services that he should have obtained the 
presidency at all. The result of the election showed 
99 votes for Jackson. 84 for Adams, 41 for Craw- 
ford, 37 for Clay. Mr. Calhoun, who had with- 
drawn from the contest for the presidency, received 
183 votes for the vice-presidency, and was elected. 
The choice of the president was thrown into the 
house of representatives, and Mr. Clay now used 
his great influence in favor of Mr. Adams, who 
was forthwith elected. When Adams afterward 
made Clay his secretary of state, the disappointed 
partisans of Jackson pretended that there had been 
a bargain between the two, that Adams had secured 
Clay's assistance by promising him the first place 
in the cabinet, and thus, according to a usage that 
seemed to be establishing itself, placing him in the 
line of succession for the next presidency. The pep- 
pery John Randolph characterized this supposed 
bargain as " a coalition between Blifil and Black 




Oeorge, the Puritan and the blackleg." There 
never was a particle of foundation for this reck- 
less charge, and it has long since been disproved. 

During Monroe's administration the Federalist 
party had become extinct. In the course of John 
Quincy Adams's administration the new division 
of parties into Whigs and Democrats began to grow 
up, the Whigs favoring internal improvements, the 
national bank, and a high tariff on importations, 
while the Democrats opposed all such measures 
on the ground that they were incompatible with a 
strict construction of the constitution. In its rela- 
tion to such questions Mr. Adams's administration 
was Whig, and thus arrayed against itself not only 
all the southern planters, but also the ship-owners 
of New England and the importers of New York. 
But a new and powerful tendency now came in to 
overwhelm such an administration as that of 
Adams. The so-called "spoils system" was al- 
ready germinating, and the time had come when it 

could be put into 
operation. Mr. 
Adams would 
have nothing to 
say to such a sys- 
tem. He would 
not reward the 
men who worked 
for him, and he 
would not re- 
move from of- 
fice the men 
who most vig- 
orously opposed 
him. He stood 
on his merits, 
asked no favors 
and granted 
none ; and was, 
on the whole, 
the most inde- 
pendent presi- 
dent we have 
had since Washington. Jackson and his friends 
promised their supporters a share in the govern- 
ment offices, in which a " clean sweep " was to be 
made by turning out the present incumbents. The 
result of the election of 1828 showed that for the 
time Jackson's method was altogether the more 
potent ; since he obtained 178 electoral votes, 
against 88 for Adams. 

The close of his career as president was marked 
by an incident that increased the odium in which 
Mr. Adams was held by so many of the old feder- 
alist families of Boston. In the excitement of the 
election the newspapers devoted to Jackson swarmed 
with mischievous paragraphs designed to injure 
Adams's reputation. Among other things it was 
said that, in 1808, he had suspected some of the 
federalist leaders of entertaining a scheme for car- 
rying New England out of the union, and, fearing 
that such a scheme would be promoted by hatred 
of the embargo, and that in case of its success the 
seceded states would almost inevitably be driven 
into alliance with Great Britain, he communicated 
his suspicions to President Jefferson and other 
leading republicans. These tales, published by un- 
scrupulous newspapers twenty years after the event, 
grossly distorted what Mr. Adams had actually said 
and done ; and thirteen eminent Massachusetts 
federalists addressed to him an open letter, de- 
manding that he should bring in a bill of particu- 
lars supported by evidence. Adams replied by stat- 
ing the substance of what he had really said, but 
declining to mention names or to point out the 


circumstances upon which his suspicion had been 
based. In preserving this reticence he was actu- 
ated mainly by unwillingness to stir up a furious 
controversy under circumstances in which it could 
do no good. But his adversaries made the mistake 
of attributing his forbearance to dread of ill con- 
sequences to himself, a motive by which, it is safe 
to say, Mr. Adams was never influenced on any 
occasion whatever. So the thirteen gentlemen re- 
turned to the attack. Mr. Adams then wrote out a 
full statement of the case, completely vindicating 
himself, and bringing forward more than enough 
evidence to justify any such suspicions as he had 
entertained and guardedly stated. After finishing 
this pamphlet he concluded not to publish it, but 
left it among his papers. It has lately been pub- 
lished by Prof. Henry Adams, in his " Documents 
relating to New England Federalism," and is not 
only of great historical importance, but is one of 
the finest specimens of political writing to be found 
in the English language. 

Although now an ex-president, Mr. Adams did 
not long remain in private life. The greatest part of 
his career still lay before him. Owing to the myste- 
rious disappearance of William Morgan, who had 
betrayed some of the secrets of the Masonic order, 
there was in some of the northern states a sudden 
and violent prejudice against the Freemasons and 
secret societies in general. An " anti-mason par- 
ty" was formed, and by its votes Mr. Adams was, 
in 1831, elected to congress, where he remained, 
representing the same district of Massachusetts, 
until his death in 1848. He was shortly afterward 
nominated by the anti-masons for the governorship 
of Massachusetts, but was defeated in the legisla- 
ture, there being no choice by the people. In con- 
gress he occupied a perfectly independent attitude. 
He was one of those who opposed President Jack- 
son's high-handed treatment of the bank, but he 
supported the president in his firm attitude toward 
the South Carolina nullifiers and toward France. In 
1835, as the French government delayed in paying 
over the indemnity of $5,000,000 which had laeen 
agreed upon by the treaty of 1831 for plunder of 
American shipping in the Napoleonic wars, Jack- 
son threatened, in case payment should be any 
longer deferred, to issue letters of marque and re- 
prisal against French commerce. This bold policy, 
which was successful in obtaining the money, en- 
listed Mr. Adams's hearty support. He defended 
Jackson as he had defended Jefferson on the occa- 
sion of the embargo ; and this time, as before, his 
course was disapproved in Massachusetts, and he 
lost a seat in the U. S. senate. He had been chosen 
to that office by the state senate, but the lower 
house did not concur, and before the question was 
decided the news of his speech in favor of reprisals 
turned his supporters against him. He was thus 
left in the house of representatives more indepen- 
dent of party ties than ever, and was accordingly 
enabled to devote his energies to the aid of the 
abolitionists, who were now beginning to appear 
conspicuously upon the scene. At that time it was 
impossible for the opponents of slavery to effect 
much. The only way in which they could get their 
case before congress was by presenting petitions for 
the abolition of slavery in the District of Colum- 
bia. Unwilling to receive such petitions, or to 
allow any discussion on the dreaded question, con- 
gress in 1836 enacted the cowardly "gag-rule," 
that " all petitions, memorials, resolutions, or pa- 
pers relating in any way or to any extent whatso- 
ever to the subject of slavery or the abolition of 
slavery, shall, without being either printed or re- 
ferred, be laid upon the table ; and that no further 




action whatever shall be had thereon." After the 
yeas and nays had been ordered on this, when Mr. 
Adams's name was called he rose and said : " I 
hold the resolution to be a direct violation of the 
constitution of the United States, the rules of this 
house, and the rights of my constituents." The 
house sought to drown his words with loud shrieks 
and yells of " Order ! " " Order ! " but he raised his 
voice to a shout and defiantly finished his sentence. 
The rule was adopted by a vote of 117 to 68, but it 
did more harm than good to the pro-slavery pai'ty. 
They had put themselves in an untenable position, 
and furnished Mr. Adams witli a powerful weapon 
which he used against them without mercy. As a 
parliamentary debater he has had few if any supe- 
riors ; in knowledge and dexterity there was no 
one in the house who could be compared with him ; 
he was always master of himself, even at the white 
heat of anger to which he often rose ; he was terri- 
ble in invective, matchless at repartee, and insensi- 
ble to fear. A single-handed fight against all the 
slave-holders in the house was something upon 
which he was always ready to enter, and he usually 
came off with the last word. Though the vitupera- 
tive vocabulary of the Englisji language seemed 
inadequate to express the hutfi'd and loathing with 
which the pro-slavery party regarded him, though 
he was more than once threatened with assassina- 
tion, nevertheless his dauntless bearing and bound- 
less resources compelled the respect of his bitterest 
opponents, and members from the south, with true 
chivalry, sometimes confessed it. Every session he 
returned to the assault upon the gag-rule, until 
the disgraceful measure was rescinded in 1845. 
This part of Mr. Adams's career consisted of a vast 
number of small incidents, which make a very in- 
teresting and instructive chapter in American his- 
tory, but can not well be epitomized. He came to 
serve as the rallying-point in congress for the ever- 
growing anti-slavery sentiment, and may be re- 
garded, in a certain sense, as the first founder of the 
new republican party. He seems to have been the 
first to enunciate the doctrine upon which Mr. Lin- 
coln afterward rested his great proclamation of 
emancipation. In a speech in congress in 1836 he 
said : " From the instant that your slave-holding 
states become the theatre of war — civil, servile, or 
foreign — from that instant the war powers of the 
constitution extend to interference with the insti- 
tution of slavery in every way in which it can be 
interfered with." As this principle was attacked 
by the southern members, Mr. Adams from time to 
time reiterated it, especially in his speech of 14 
April, 1842, on the question of war with England 
and Mexico, when he said : " Whether the war be 
civil, servile, or foreign, I lay this down as the 
law of nations : I say that the military authori- 
ty takes for the time the place of all municipal in- 
stitutions, slavery among the rest. Under that 
state of things, so far from its being true that the 
states where slavery exists have the exclusive man- 
agement of the subject, not only the president of 
the United States, but the commander of the army 
has power to order the universal emancipation of 
the slaves." 

After the rescinding of the gag-rule Mr. Adams 
spoke less frequently. In November, 1846, he had 
a shock of paralysis, which kept him at home four 
months. On 21 Feb., 1848, while he was sitting in 
the house of representatives, came the second shock. 
He was carried into the speaker's room, where he 
lay two days, and died on the 28d. His last words 
were : " This is the last of earth ; I am content." 
See " Life and Public Services of John Quincy 
Adams," by William H. Seward (Auburn, 1849); 

" Life of John Quincy Adams," by Josiah Quincy 
(Boston, 1858) ; " Diary of John Quincy Adams," 
edited by Charles F. Adams, 12 vols., 8vo (Phila- 
delphia, 1874-'7) ; and " John Quincy Adams," by 
John T. Morse, Jr. (Boston, 1882). 

The steel portrait of Mr. Adams, facing page 24, 
is from a picture by Marchant, in the possession of 
the New York Historical Society. The mansion 
represented on page 26 is the Adams homestead at 
Quincy, in which the presidents lived, now the 
summer residence of Charles Francis Adams. 

ADAMS, Julius Walker, civil engineer, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 18 Oct., 1812. He entered West 
Point academy in 1830, but was never graduated. 
After acting as assistant engineer of various rail- 
roads, from 1832 to 1844, he was at Cochituate 
water-works, Boston, in 1846, and in the same year 
became superintending engineer of the Erie rail- 
way. He removed to Kentucky in 1852, was chief 
engineer of the Central railroad, and in 1855 of 
the Memphis and Ohio railroad. He had charge 
of the establishment of a system of sewers in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1856, and in 1860 was engineer 
of the water-works at New Haven, Conn. During 
the civil war he was colonel of the 67th New York 
volunteers, and was wounded at Fair Oaks. Since 
then he has been chief engineer of the city works 
of Brooklyn, projector of the East River suspen- 
sion bridge, and for six years consulting engineer 
to the department of public works. New York. He 
has been president of the American society of civil 
engineers, and has published " Sewers and Drains," 
and various scientific papers. — His son, Julius 
W., b. in Westfield, Mass., in April, 1840, d. in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., 15 Nov., 1865, was graduated at 
West Point in 1861. served there as assistant in- 
structor of infantry tactics till June, 1862, was 
wounded and taken prisoner at Gaines's Mills, 
promoted captain in August, 1862, and served 
at Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, 
where he commanded a regiment, and the second 
battle of Cold Harbor, where he received wounds 
that caused his death. 

ADAMS. Nehemiali, clergyman, b. in Salem, 
Mass., 19 Feb., 1806: d. 6 Oct., 1878. He was 
graduated at Harvard in 1826, and at Andover 
theological seminary in 1829. His first pastoral 
charge, beginning immediately after his gradua- 
tion, was the first church of Cambridge, as the col- 
league of the Rev. Abiel Holmes, D. D. On 26 
March, 1834, he became pastor of the Essex st. 
church, Boston, a relation which lasted until his 
death. He took a prominent part in the theologi- 
cal and ecclesiastical controversies of his time, and 
for many years was an officer of the American 
tract society, and of the American board of com- 
missioners for foreign missions. His " South Side 
View of Slavery " (Boston, 1854), and his corre- 
spondence with Governor Wise, of Virginia, on 
kindred topics, the best-known of his works, called 
out many unfavorable comments from the anti- 
slavery press. His " Sable Cloud " (Boston, 1863), 
" a Southern tale with Northern Comments," pro- 
voked similar discussion. He also wrote " The 
Cross in the Cell." " Scriptural Argument for End- 
less Punishment," "Broadcast," and "At Even- 
tide." In 1869, in consequence of his failing health, 
his people procured an associate pastor and gave 
Dr. Adams a long leave of absence. He made a 
voyage round the world and described it in " Un- 
der the Mizzenmast " (1871). 

ADAMS, Robert H., senator, b. in Rockbridge 
CO., Va., in 1792 ; d. in Natchez, Miss., 2 July, 1830. 
He was graduated at Washington college, Lexing- 
ton, Ky., was admitted to the bar, and practised in 




Knoxville, Tenn., and afterward in Natchez, where 
he settled in 1819. He was a member of the legis- 
lature in 1828, and was elected a U. S. senator from 
Mississippi to fill the vacancy that had been caused 
by tlie death of Thomas B. Reed, serving from 8 
Feb. to 31 May, 1830. 

ADAMS, Samuel, b. in Boston, Mass., 27 Sept., 
1722 ; d. there, 2 Oct., 1803. Among the grandsons of 
Henry Adams, the emigrant from Devonshire, were 
Joseph Adams, of Braintree, and John Adams, of 
Boston, a sea-captain. The former was grand- 
father of President John Adams; the latter was 
grandfather of Samuel Adams, the statesman. The 
second son of Capt. John Adams, b. 6 May, 1689, 
was named Samuel, and in 1713 married Mary Fi- 
field. Of their twelve children, only two, besides 
the illustrious Samuel, survived their father. The 
elder Samuel Adams was a man of wealth and in- 
fluence. He owned a large estate on Purchase 
street, with a noble mansion fronting on the har- 
bor, and here the younger Samuel Adams was born. 
The father was always a leader. He was justice of 
the peace, deacon of the old South church, select- 
man, and member of the legislature, where he made 
himself prominent in the quarrels with Gov. Shute. 
About 1724, in company with some friends, mostly 

sea-captains, ship- 
wrights, and per- 
sons otherwise 
connected with 
the shipping in- 
terest, which was 
then very power- 
ful, he founded a 
political club de- 
signed " to lay 
plans for introdu- 
cing certain per- 
sons into places of 
trust and power." 
This institution 
was known as the 
" caulkers' club," 
whence the terra 
^ / ^ " caucus " is sup- 

t^a rrt^X^C^^X^T^r-L^i posed to have been 

derived. It was 
evidently from his 
father that the younger Samuel inherited the politi- 
cal tastes and aptitudes which, displayed amid the 
grand events of the revolution, were to make him on 
the whole the most illustrious citizen that Massachu- 
setts has ever produced. Young Adams was edu- 
cated first at the Boston Latin school, then at Har- 
vard college, where he was graduated in 1740. Very 
little is known of his college life, except that he was 
noted as a diligent student. He was fond of quot- 
ing Greek and Latin, after the pedantic fashion of 
the time. In 1743, being then twenty-one years of 
age and a candidate for the master's degree, he 
chose as the subject for his Latin thesis the ques- 
tion, " Whether it be lawful to resist the supreme 
magistrate if the commonwealth cannot otherwise 
be preserved " ; and this question he answered in 
the affirmative. History has not told us how this 
bold doctrine affected Gov. Shirley and the other 
officers of the crown who sat there on commence- 
ment day and listened to it. It was the wish of 
the elder Samuel that his son should become a 
clergyman ; but the son had no taste for theology 
and preferred the law. In those days, however, the 
law was hardly considered a respectable profession 
by old-fashioned New Englanders ; and after a 
snort time Samuel yielded to his mother's objec- 
tions and entered the counting-house of Thomas 

Gushing, a prominent merchant, father of an emi- 
nent revolutionary leader. Shoi'tly afterward his 
father gave him £1,000 with which to set up in 
business for himself. He lent half of this to a 
friend, who never returned it, and lost the other 
half in bad bargains. Then he became partner 
with his father in a brewery, but the business did 
not prosper. About this time the father lost the 
greater part of his fortune in a wildcat banking 
enterprise. In 1690, at the time of the disastrous 
expedition of Sir William Phips against Quebec, 
Massachusetts had issued paper money, with the 
inevitable results. Coin was driven from circula- 
tion, and there was a great inflation of prices, with 
frequent and disastrous fluctuations. This led to 
complaints from British merchants trading to 
Massachusetts, and the governor was ordered by 
the board of ti'ade to veto any further issue. A 
quarrel ensued between the governor and the legis- 
lature, and, as the governor proved inexorable, two 
joint - stock banking companies were devised to 
meet the emergency. The one known as the " sil- 
ver scheme," and patronized chiefly by merchants, 
undertook to issue £110,000 in notes, to be re- 
deemed in silver at the end of ten years ; the 
other, which was known as the land-bank, or " man- 
ufactory scheme," undertook to issue £150,000, re- 
deemable in produce after twenty years. It was 
with the latter scheme that Mr. Adams's father 
was connected. There were 800 stockholders, and 
they not only controlled the Massachusetts legisla- 
ture, but succeeded in compassing Gov. Belcher's 
removal. Their plans were nipped in the bud, 
however, by an act of parliament extending to the 
colonies an act of the reign of George I. forbidding 
the incorporation of joint-stock companies with 
more than six partners. The two Massachusetts 
companies were thus obliged to suspend operations 
and redeem their scrip ; and, as the partners were 
held individually liable, they were quickly ruined. 
Thus the wealth of the elder Adams melted away 
in a moment. The friends of the bank denounced 
this act of parliament as a violation of the chartered 
rights of the colony ; and the question as to the 
extent of the authority of parliament in America 
began to be agitated. So in a certain sense Samuel 
Adams may be said to have inherited his quarrel 
with the British government. After the death of 
his father in 1748 he carried on the brewery by 
himself, and obtained from his political enemies 
the nickname of " Sammy the maltster." Present- 
ly, when he was made tax-collector for the town 
of Boston, these wits devised for him the epi- 
thet of " Sammy the publican." His office made 
him personally acquainted with everybody in Bos- 
ton, and his qualities soon won for him great in- 
fluence. He had all the courage and indomitable 
perseverance of his cousin, John Adams, but with- 
out his bluntness of manner. As an adroit political 
manager he was not surpassed by Jefferson, whom 
he resembled in his thorough-going democracy. 
He had a genuine sympathy for men with leather 
aprons and hands bi'owned by toil ; he knew how 
to win their confidence, and never abused it, for he 
was in no sense a demagogue. In the town-meet- 
ing he soon became a power, yet it was not until 
his forty-second year that his great public career 
began. In May, 1764, he drafted the instructions 
given by the town of Boston to its newly-chosen 
representatives with reference to Grenville's pro- 
posed stamp-act. These instructions were the first 
public protest in America against the right of par- 
liament to tax the colonies. Next year he was him- 
self elected to the legislature, where he remained 
till 1774, officiating as clerk of the house, and draft' 




ing most of the remarkable state-papers of that 
period of fierce agitation. In the controversies 
first with Gov. Bernard, then with his successor, 
Hutchinson, Samuel Adams was always foremost. 
On the passage of the Townshend acts in 1767, 
Adams wrote the petition of the Massachusetts 
legislature to the king, the letter of instructions to 
their agent in England, and the circular letter ad- 
dressed to the other colonies, inviting their aid in 
the defence of the common rights of Americans. 
The king was especially enraged by this circular 
letter, and Gov. Bernard was directed to order the 
legislature to rescind it under penalty of instant 
dissolution. After several days' discussion the legis- 
lature, by a vote of 93 to 17, refused to rescind. 
This obstinacy had much to do with the decision of 
the British government to send ti'oops to Boston 
in the hope of overawing the people of that town. 
On the morning after the famous " massacre " of 5 
March, 1770, Mr. Adams was appointed chairman 
of a committee to communicate the votes of the 
town-meeting to the governor and council. More 
than 5,000 persons were present at the town-meet- 
ing, which was held in the old South meeting- 
house, and all the neighboring streets were crowded. 
Lieut.-Gov. Hutchinson, with the council, and Col. 
Dalrymple, commander of the two regiments, sat 
in the old state-house at the head of King street. 
When Adams presented the demand of the town- 
meeting that the soldiers should be removed to the 
castle in the harbor, Hutchinson at first disclaimed 
any authority in the matter ; but Adams reminded 
him that as acting governor of Massachusetts he was 
commander-in-chief of all troops within the prov- 
ince. Hutchinson consulted a while with Dalrymple, 
and at length replied that the colonel was willing 
to remove one of the regiments in order to appease 
the indignation of the people. The committee, led 
by Adams, returned to the church with this mes- 
sage, and as they proceeded through the crowded 
street, Adams, bowing to right and left, passed 
along the watchword, " Both regiments or none ! " 
When the question was put to vote in the church, 
5,000 voices shouted, " Both regiments or none ! " 
Armed with this ultimatum, Adams returned to 
the State-house and warned Hutchinson that if he 
failed to remove both regiments before nightfall 
he did so at his peril. Hutchinson was as brave 
and as obstinate as Adams, but two regiments were 
powerless in presence of the angry crowd that filled 
Boston, and before siniset they were removed to 
the castle. These troops were ever afterward known 
in parliament as the " Sam Adams regiments." 

In 1772 the government ventured upon a step 
that went further tlian anything that had yet been 
done toward driving Massachusetts into rebellion. 
It was ordered that the judges, holding their oifices 
at the king's pleasure, should henceforth be paid 
by the crown and not by the colony. This act, 
which aimed directly at the independence of the 
judiciary, aroused intense indignation. The judges 
were threatened with impeachment if they should 
dare to accept a penny from the crown. Mr. Ad- 
ams now had recourse to a measure that organized 
the American revolution. The people of Boston, 
in town-meeting, asked Hutchinson to convene the 
legislature to decide what should be done about the 
judges' salaries. On his refusal, Adams proposed 
that the towns of Massachusetts should appoint 
" committees of correspondence " to consult with 
each other about the conunon welfare. Such a step 
was strictly legal, but it virtually created a revolu- 
tionary legislative body, which the governor could 
neither negative, dissolve, nor prorogue. Within 
a few months eighty towns had chosen their com- 

mittees of correspondence, and the system was in 
full operation. Hutchinson at first scoffed at it. 
for he did not see to what it was leading. The 
next spring Dabney Carr, of Virginia, moved that 
intercolonial committees of correspondence should 
be formed, and this was soon done. But one more 
step was needed. It was only necessary that the 
intercolonial committees should assemble in one 
place, and there would be a continental congress 
speaking in the name of the united colonies, and, 
if need be, superseding the royal governments. By 
such stages was formed the revolutionary govern- 
ment that declared the independence of the United 
States and administered the affairs of the new na- 
tion until 1789. It was Samuel Adams who took 
the first step toward its construction, though the 
idea had been first suggested in 1765 by the great 
preacher Jonathan Mayhew. In order to provoke 
the colonies to assemble in a continental congress^ 
it was only necessary that the British government 
should take the aggressive upon some issue in 
which all the colonies were equally interested. The 
sending of the tea-ships in 1773 was such an act of 
aggression, and forced the issue upon the colonists. 
The management of this delicate and difficult 
affair, down to the day when Massachusetts virtu- 
ally declared war by throwing the tea into the har- 
bor, was entirely in the hands of the committees of 
correspondence of Boston and five neighboring 
towns, with the expressed consent of the other 
Massachusetts committees and the general approv- 
al of the country. In this bold act of defiance 
Samuel Adams was from first to last the leading 
spirit. He had been the first of American states- 
men to come to the conclusion that independence 
was the only remedy for the troubles of the time ; 
and since 1768 he had acted upon tliis conviction 
without publicly avowing it. The " Boston tea- 
party " made war inevitable. In April, 1774, par- 
liament retorted with the acts for closing the port 
of Boston and annulling the charter of Massachu- 
setts. This alarmed all the colonies, and led to 
the first meeting of the continental congress. In 
this matter the other colonies invited Massachu- 
setts to take the lead, and the work was managed 
by Mr. Adams with his accustomed shrewdness 
and daring. When the legislature met at Salem, 
17 June, 1774, in conformity to the new acts of 
parliament, he locked the door, put the key into 
his pocket, and carried through the measures for 
assembling a congress at Philadelphia in Septem- 
ber. A tory member, feigning sudden dlness, was 
allowed to go out, and ran straight to the governor 
with the news. The governor lost no time in 
drawing up the writ dissolving the legislature, but 
when his clerk reached the hall he found the door 
locked and could not serve the writ. When the 
business was accomplished the legislature adjourned 
sine die. It was the last Massacliusetts legislature 
assembled in obedience to the sovereign authority 
of Great Britain. The acts of April were hence- 
forth entirely disregarded in Massachusetts. 

Samuel Adams and his cousin John were dele- 
gates to the first continental congress. They knew 
that Massachusetts was somewhat dreaded and dis- 
trusted by the other colonies, especially by Penn- 
sylvania and New York, on account of her for- 
wardness in opposing the British government. 
While there was genuine sympathy with her situa- 
tion, there was at the same time great reluctance 
to bringing on a war. The rigid puritanism of 
Massachusetts was also held in disrepute. Samuel 
Adams felt it necessary to be conciliatory, and it 
was easy for him to be so, for he was large-minded 
and full of tact. A motion to open the proceedings?^ 




of the congress with prayer was opposed by John 
Jay, on the ground that Episcopalians, Congrega- 
tionalists, Presbyterians, Baptists, and Quakers 
could hardly be expected to unite in formal wor- 
ship. Then Samuel Adams got up and said, with 
perfect sincerity, that " he was no bigot and could 
hear a prayer from a gentleman of piety and vir- 
tue who was at the same time a friend to his coun- 
try. -He was a stranger in Philadelphia, but he 
had heard that Mr. Duche deserved that character, 
and therefore he moved that Mr. Duche, an Epis- 
copal clergyman, might be desired to read prayers 
to the congress." This was a politic move, for it 
pleased the Episcopalians, who were the dominant 
sect in New York, Virginia, and South Carolina ; 
and it produced an excellent impression in Phila- 
delphia, whei-e Duche was the most popular preacher 
of the day. It was thought that the men of New 
England were not so stiff-necked as had been gen- 
erally supposed, and there was a reaction of feel- 
ing in their favor. 

Toward the end of the following winter Gen. 
Gage received peremptory orders from the ministry 
to arrest Samuel Adams and " his willing and ready 
tool." John Hancock, and send them over to Lon- 
don to be tried for high treason. A London news- 
paper predicted that their heads would soon be ex- 
posed on Temple Bar. It was intended to seize 
them at Lexington on the morning of 19 April, 
but, forewarned by Paul Revere, they escaped to 
Woburn and made their way to Philadelphia in 
time for the second session of the continental con- 
gress. For the next eight years Mr. Adams took 
an active and important part in the work of the 
congress. Probably no other man did so much as 
he to bring about the declaration of independence. 
He had a considerable share in framing the state con- 
stitution of Massachusetts adopted in 1780. After 
the close of the war he opposed the strengthening of 
the federal government, through fear of erecting a 
tyranny that might swallow up the local govern- 
ments. Like Patrick Henry, R. H. Lee, and others 
who had been foremost in urging on the revolution, 
he was ranked among the anti-federalists. Unlike 
the two Virginians just mentioned, however, he did 
not actively oppose the new constitution of 1787. 
In the Massachusetts convention of 1788, for con- 
sidering the federal constitution, he was by far the 
most influential member. For two weeks he sat in 
silence listening to the arguments of other mem- 
bers. Then he decided to support the constitution 
and urge its ratification unconditionally, but with 
a general understanding that Massachusetts would 
submit to the new congress sundry amendments 
equivalent in effect to a bill of rights. His decision 
carried the convention in favor of ratification by 
the naiTow majority of 187 yeas to 168 nays. But 
for this ratification on the part of Massachusetts 
the constitution would not have been adopted, and 
of all the great services rendered by Samuel Adams 
to his country none was greater than this. The 
example of Massachusetts in proposing amend- 
ments was followed by other states, and it was thus 
that the first ten amendments, declared in force 15 
Dec, 1791, originated. In 1789 Mr. Adams was 
chosen lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts, Han- 
cock being governor. There were many who urged 
his claims for the vice-presidency under Washing- 
ton, but the preference was given to his cousin as 
more fully in sympathy with the federalist party. 
He was chosen governor of Massachusetts in 1794, 
and served in that capacity till 1797. His political 
opinions resembled those of Jefferson. His last years 
were spent in his house on Winter street, Boston, as 
he had been obliged to part with his paternal man- 

sion on Purchase street. His personal appearance 

is thus described by Mr. Wells : " His stature was 
a little above the medium height. He wore a tie- 
wig, cocked hat, buckled shoes, knee-breeches, and 
a red cloak, and held himself very erect, with the 
ease and address of a polite gentleman. On stop- 
ping to speak with any person in the street his 
salutation was formal yet cordial. His gestures 
were animated, and in conversation there was a 
slight tremulous motion of the head. His com- 
plexion was florid, and his eyes dark blue. The 
eyebrows were heavy, almost to bushiness, and con- 
trasted remarkably with the clear forehead, which, 
at the age of seventy, had but few wrinkles. The 
face had a benignant but careworn expression, 
blended with a native dignity (some have said maj- 
esty) of countenance which never failed to impress 
strangers." In conversation he was entertaining, 
and possessed a great fund of anecdote. He was 
frugal, temperate, and incorruptible. His capacity 
for work, as seems to have been the case with all of 
his illustrious family, was prodigious. In religion, 
unlike his cousin John, he was a strict Calvinist. 
He was twice married, first in 1749 to Elizabeth 
Checkley, daughter of the pastor of the new South 
church. She died m 1757, and in 1764 he married 
Elizabeth Wells, daughter of an English merchant 
who had settled in Boston in 1723. His only son, 
Samuel, was graduated at Harvard college in 1771, 
studied medicine with the famous Dr. Joseph War- 
ren, served as surgeon in the army throughout the 
war, and thereby ruined his health and died in 
1788. Samuel Adams left only female descendants. 
An excellent statue of him in bronze, by Miss 
Whitney, stands in Dock square, and his portrait 
by Copley hangs in Faneuil hall. His life has been 
written by W. V. Wells, " Life and Public Services 
of Samuel Adams " (3 vols., Boston, 1865), and by 
J. K. Hosmer, " Samuel Adams " (Boston, 1885). 

ADAMS, Samuel, military surgeon, b. in Maine ; 
d. in Galveston, Texas. 9 Sept., 1867. He entered 
the national army 16 April, 1863, and, after a year 
spent in the active duties of the permanent hos- 
pitals, joined the army of the Potomac and served 
constantly with it until it was disbanded. During 
his field service he rose from the rank of regimen- 
tal surgeon to that of medical inspector of the 
ninth army corps, receiving also a brevet for " meri- 
torious conduct at the capture of Petersburg." 
During one of the closing battles of the war, at a 
time when the brilliant and rapid series of federal 
successes tended to obscure acts of individual gal- 
lantry. Dr. Adams distinguished himself by riding 
along the advanced line of combatants, and, under 
the fire of the enemy, dressing the wounds of Gen. 
Potter, who could not be removed from the spot 
where he fell, and, but for the action of Surgeon 
Adams, would have lost his life. At the close of 
the war Surgeon Adams received an invitation from 
a wealthy and well-known gentleman to accompany 
his family on a European tour as his physician ; 
but an application for leave of absence was refused 
by the war department, on the ground that his 
services could not be spared. Soon afterward he 
was ordered to Texas, where yellow fever was epi- 
demic, and his last days were spent among the vic- 
tims of the disease, of which he died. He was 
highly esteemed for his Christian character. 

ADAMS, Setli, inventor, b. in Rochester, N. H., 
13 April, 1807 ; d. in Newton, Mass., 7 Dec, 1873. 
He was apprenticed to a cabinet maker, and after 
he had attamed his majority he removed to Boston, 
where he worked in a machine shop. In 1831 he 
established a business for the manufacture of ma- 
chinery, and two years later he became interested 




in the printing-press invented by his brother Isaac, 
and subsequently obtained the exchisive right of 
making it. In 183(3 he enhirged his shops in order 
to produce the famous power presses lately in- 
vented by his brother, the interests of the two 
brothers were united, and the firm of I. & S. 
Adams was established, which continued until 
1856. In 1849 he took charge of the Adams sugar 
refinery, which for many years was the largest but 
one of its kind in the United States. He accumu- 
lated a very large fortune, a portion of which he 
left for the establishment of the Adams nervine 
asylum in West Roxbury, Mass., for hypochon- 
driacs. He also gave a considerable sum of money 
to Bowdoin college. For some time he was a 
member of the city council and of the board of 
public works. A massive monument has been 
erected to his memory in his native town. 

ADAMS, Stephen, senator, b. in Franklin co., 
Tenn.; d. in Memphis, Tenn., 11 May, 1857. He 
was a member of the state senate of Tennessee, 
afterward studied law, and began practice in Mis- 
sissippi, where he took a prominent part in politics. 
He was elected to the state house of representatives, 
was a member of congress in 1845-'7, and became 
a judge of the circuit court in 1848. In 1852, on 
the resignation of Jefferson Davis, who gave up his 
seat to become candidate for governor, he was 
chosen as a state-rights democrat to serve out the 
term in the U. S. senate, which expired in 1857. 

ADAMS, William, clergyman, b. in Colches- 
ter, Conn., 25 Jan., 1807; d. at Orange Mountain, 
N. J., 31 Aug., 1880. His father was John Adams, 
LL. D., principal of the Bacon academy at Colches- 
ter, whence he removed in 1810 to assume charge 
of the Phillips academy at Andover, Mass. His 
mother was Elizabeth Ripley, a lineal descendant 

of Gov. Brad- 
ford. He was 
prepared for col- 
lege at Andover 
and was grad- 
uated at Yale 
in 1827, count- 
ing among his 
classmates Hor- 
ace Bushnell, 
Henry Durant, 
Judges Ed- 
wards, Hoge- 
boom, Gould, 
and Welch, and 
N. P. Willis. 
He studied for 
the ministry at 
Andover theo- 
logical semina- 
ry, under Prof. 
Moses Stuart, 
on whom he de- 
livered a memorial discourse in New York 25 Jan., 
1852. He was graduated in 1830, and in February, 
1831, was ordained pastor of the evangelical Con- 
gregational church in Brighton, Mass., where he re- 
mained until April, 1834. " In August, 1834, he took 
charge of the Central Presbyterian church in Broome 
street, N. Y. He was moderator of the new-school 
general assembly at Washington in 1852. The uni- 
versity of New York gave him the degree of D. D. 
in 1842, and Princeton college that of LL. D. in 
1869. In 1853 his congregation founded the Madi- 
son square Presbyterian church, whose pastorate 
he resigned m October, 1873, after nearly forty 
years of consecutive service m one church, to 
accept the presidency of the Union theological 



seminary in the city of New York, in connection 
with the professorship of sacred rhetoric and pas- 
toral theology. He was instrumental in advanc- 
ing the prosperity of that institution and giving it 
an assured independence. In 1871 he went as a 
delegate from the evangelical alliance to the em- 
peror of Russia to secure liberty of worship to the 
dissenters from the Greek church in the Baltic 
provinces, and succeeded in his mission. In the 
same year he acted as delegate from the general 
assembly of the Presbyterian church of America to 
the general assembly of the Presbyterian church of 
Scotland, and to the Free church assembly. In 
1877 he was a delegate to the general council of the 
Presbyterian church in Edinburgh, responding to 
the address of welcome by the lord provost of that 
city. Dr. Adams's chief characteristic was a broad 
catholicity ; he abhorred dogma and sectarianism. 
It was natural, therefore, to find him, from 1869 to 
1871, a leader of the new-school branch of the 
Presbyterian church, in the efforts to reunite the 
two divisions of that church into one body, and he 
was chosen to address the old-school assembly that 
met in New York in June, 1869, as the representa- 
tive of this new-school branch. In the same spirit 
he delivered the address of welcome to the foreign 
delegates to the evangelical alliance, which met in 
New York, 3 Oct., 1873, and the following passage 
therefrom shows his creed : " We meet to express 
and manifest our Christian unity. Divers are the 
names we bear both as to countries and churches — 
German, French, Swiss, ^Dutch, English, Scotch, 
Irish, Lutheran, Reformed. Anglican, Presbyterian, 
Episcopalian, Methodist, Baptist, Independent — 
but we desire and intend to show that amid all 
this variety of form and circumstance there is a 
real unity of faith and life ; believing, according to 
the familiar expi'ession of our common Christian 
creed, " in the Holy Catholic Church ' and the com- 
munion of saints." On 5 Oct., 1873, was held in his 
church at Madison square a communion service in 
which i-epresentatives from every denomination 
and almost every nation on earth took part. Criti- 
cism having been made on the dean of Canterbury 
for assisting at this service. Dr. Adams published 
a reply that silenced all animadversion. As he 
opened the exercises of this alliance, he was chosen 
to close them at its final meeting in the Academy 
of Music. His last sermon was delivered 6 June, 
1880, before the graduating class at West Point. 
He was a personal friend of Daniel Webster, who 
always attended his church when passing through 
New York. From a conference in his study, 
brought about by a sermon delivered on the duty 
of employers to their employees, sprang the Young 
Men's Christian Association of New York, and the 
many kindred associations. He was prominent in 
the council of the American Bible society, the 
American board of foreign missions, and the Ameri- 
can tract society. He was president of the Pres- 
byterian board of foreign missions, and for fifteen 
years president of the New York institution for the 
instruction of the deaf and dumb, a class of unfor- 
tunates in whom he took great interest. He edited 
the works of Robert Hall (4 vols.. New York, 1830), 
and was the author of " The Three Gardens : Eden, 
Gethsemane, and Paradise" (1859) ; a biographical 
sketch of Isaac Taylor, prefacing the " Spirit of 
Hebrew Poetry" (1861); "Thanksgiving, Memo- 
ries of the Day and Helps to the Habit " (1865); 
" Conversations of Jesus Christ with Representa- 
tive Men " (18()8), and other works. 

ADAMS, William, educator, b. in Monaghan, 
Ireland, 3 July, 1813 ; d. in Nashotah, Wis., 2 Jan., 
1897. He entered Trinity, and became a scholar 




of the house in 1833. He read law and medicine 
each for a year, and was for a time with his uncle at 
Ballyhaise as an accountant. In 1888 he entered 
the (ient'i'al theological seminary in New York, 
graduating in 1841. He was one of the founders 
of Nashotah mission, afterward Nashotah theologi- 
cal seminary, in Wisconsin, where he went in Sep- 
tember, 1841. During the following winter he con- 
tributed to an English publication an article on 
the church's duties to her emigrants, which at- 
tracted much attention. From the foundation of 
the seminary he was the professor of systematic 
divinity. Dr. Adams published " Mercy to Babes" 
(New York, 1847) ; " Christian Science " (Philadel- 
phia, 1850); and " A New Treatise on Baptismal 
Regeneration" (New York, 1871), and contributed 
largely to periodical literature, writing principally 
on theological topics. 

ADAMS, William Forbes, bishop, of the 
American Episcopal church, b. in Ireland, 2 Jan., 
1833. He came to the United States at the age of 
eight, and was ordained deacon 15 Dec. 1859, and 
priest in July of the following year. While rector 
of a parish in the diocese of Louisiana he was 
nominated in the house of bishops, 2 Nov., 1874, 
and elected missionary bishop of New Mexico and 
Arizona. He was consecrated in St. Paul's church, 
New Orleans, 17 Jan., 1875, and entered upon his 
work ; but, in consequence of physical infirmity, his 
resignation was offered and accepted, 15 Oct., 1877. 
He is now (1807) bishop of Easton, Maryland, where 
he was transferred hi 1887. 

ADAMS, William Taylor, author, b. in Med- 
way, Mass., 80 July, 1822; d. in Boston, 27 March, 
1897. He was for twenty years a teacher in the 
public schools of Boston, fourteen years a member 
of the school committee of Dorchester, and one 
year a member of the legislature. He devoted most 
of his life to writing for the young, with whom he 
had a warm sympathy. His career began in 1850, 
and he produced a thousand stories in newspapers, 
exclusive of his books. In eai'lier life he edited 
the •' Student and Schoolmate," and in 1881 " Our 
Little Ones," but he was best known as an editor by 
his " Oliver Optic's Magazine for Boys and Girls." 
He published his first book in 1858, " Hatchie, the 
Guardian Slave, or the Heir of Bellevue." which 
had a large sale, and was followed by "In-doors 
and Out," a collection of stories. The " Riverdale 
Series " (6 vols.) for boys was completed in 1862. 
His other works, mainly in series, include " The 
Boat Club," " Woodvdle." " Young America 
Abroad," " Starry Flag." " Onward and Upward," 
''Yacht Club," and "Great Western." His pub- 
lished works comprise about one hundred volumes. 
He wrote two novels for older readers, " The Way 
of the World " and " Living too Fast." 

ADET, Pierre Aug-uste, French diplomatist, 
b. in Nevers in 1763; d. in 1832. He left the 
artillery service to devote himself to the study of 
chemistry, and afterward engaged in politics and 
became minister to the United States in 1795. In 
1797 he broke off diplomatic relations, presenting 
the note of the Directory declaring that France 
would treat neutrals as they allowed themselves to 
be treated by the English. "Before returning to his 
own country he issued an address to the American 
people, intended to inflame them against the policy 
of their government. 

ADLER, Felix, author, b. in Alzey, Germany, 
13 Aug., 1851. He is the son of a Hebrew rabbi. 
He was graduated at Columbia college in 1870, and 
subsequently studied at Berlin and Heidelberg, ob- 
taining the degree of Ph. D. After his return to 
the United States he was professor of Hebrew and 

VOL. I. — 3 

Oriental literature at Cornell university from 1874 
to May. 1876. when he established a new religious 
society in New York, called the Society of ethical 
culture, to which he speaks regularly on Sundays. 
He ))ublished in 1877 a series of discourses expound- 
ing his views, under the name of " Creed and Deed," 
followed bv a volume entitled " The Moral Instruc- 
tion of Children" (New York, 1891). 

ADLER, George J., philologist, b. in Germany 
in 1821 : d. in New York, 24 Aug., 1868. He was 
brought to New York at the age of twelve, and was 
graduated at the university of New York in 1844, in 
which institution he was professor of German from 
1846 till 1854. He compiled a German-and-Eng- 
lish dictionary, the first edition of which appeared 
in New York in 1848, and also a German gi'ammar 
and other text-books, and published a lecture en- 
titled " Poetry of tlie Arabs of Spain " (New York, 
1868) ; " Wilhelm von Humboldt's Linguistic Stud- 
ies" (1868): and a translation, with notes, of 
Fauriel's " History of Provengal Poetry." He 
was insane, with occasional lucid intervals, for the 
last eight years of his life, and died in Blooming- 
dale asylum. 

ADRAIN, Robert, mathematician, b. in Car- 
rickfergus, Ireland, 30 Sept., 1775 ; d. in New 
Brunswick, N. J., 10 Aug., 1843. He took part in 
the Irish rebellion of 1798, received a severe wound, 
and escaped to America. He taught school in New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania, contributed to scientific 
journals, and from 1810 to 1813 was professor of 
natural philosophy and mathematics in Rutgers 
college, then until 1825 in Columl)ia college, and 
from 1827 to 1884 was professor of mathematics in 
the university of Pennsylvania. He edited Hut- 
ton's " Mathematics," published essays on the figure 
and magnitude of the earth and on gravity, and 
was editor from 1825 to 1829 of the " Mathematical 
Diary." — His son, Uarnett B., lawyer, b. in New 
York city, 20 Dec, 1816 ; d. in New Brunswick, 
N. J., 17 Aug., 1878. He was graduated at Rutgers 
college in 1888, and in 1837 was admitted to the 
bar. He was elected to congress from New Jer- 
sey in 1856, and reelected in 1858, serving in the 
house as chairman of the committee on engraving. 

AtrASSIZ, Alexander, naturalist, b. in Neu- 
chatel, Switzerland, 17 Dec, 1835. He is the only son 
of Louis Agassiz by his first wife, and he followed 
his father to the 
United States in 
1849. His early 
education was 
received abroad, 
and after his 
arrival in this 
country he pre- 
pared for Har- 
vard, graduat- 
ing in 1855. 
Then he studied 
engineering at 
the Lawrence 
scientific school, 
where in 1857 he 
received the de- 
gree of B. S., af- 
ter which he 
took a further 
course in the 
chemical de- 
partment, and also taught in his father's school 
for young ladies. In 1859 he went to California as 
an assistant on the coast survey, and was engaged 
on the northwest boundary. He collected specimens 
for the museum at Cambridge, and visited the prin- 

C^ . d^^o.^^a-^. 




cipiil mines. In IHOO lie returned to Cambridge and 
became assistant in zoology at the museum, taking 
charge of it in 18G5 during his father's absence in 
Brazil. In 1865 he became engaged in coal-mining 
in Pennsylvania, and during the following year in 
the copper mines of Lake Superior, where he was 
engaged until 1809 as superintendent of the Calu- 
met and Hecla mines. He developed these de- 
posits until they became the most successful copper 
mines in the world, and from the. wealth they have 
brought to him he has made gifts to Harvard 
amounting to over $500,000. During 1869-'T0 he 
visited Europe and examined the museums and 
collections of England, France, Grermany, Italy, 
and Scandinavia. On his return in 1870 he re- 
sumed his duties at the museum in Cambridge, of 
which he was made curator, on the death of his 
father in 1874, and remained as such until 1885, 
when he resigned, owing to ill health. During the 
summer of 1873 he acted as director of the Ander- 
son school of natural history, and in 1875 lie visited 
the western coast of South America, examining the 
copper mines of Peru and Chili, and making an 
extended survey of Lake Titicaca and collecting 
for the Peabody museum a great number of Peru- 
vian antiquities. He afterward went to Scotland 
to assist Sir Wyville Thompson in arranging the 
collections made during the exploring expedition 
of the " Challenger," part of which he brought to 
this country. He wrote one of the final reports on 
the zoology of the expedition, that on Ecidni. 
From 1870 to 1881 his winters were spent in deep- 
sea dredging expeditions in connection with the 
coast survey, the steamer " Blake " having been 
placed at his disposal for this purpose. Mr. Agas- 
siz was a fellow of Harvard college till 1885, and 
has served as an overseer. He is a member of the 
national academy of sciences, of the American as- 
sociation for the advancement of science, being its 
vice-president during the Boston meeting of 1880, 
of the American academy of sciences, and of nu- 
merous other scientific societies of this country and 
Europe. Plis publications, in the form of pam- 
phlets, reports, and contributions to scientific peri- 
odicals and the proceedings of societies, are very 
numerous, and are principally on subjects connect- 
ed with marine zoology. Most of these are to be 
found in the bulletins and memoirs of the museum 
at Cambridge. It has been said that he is " the 
best authority in the world on certain forms of 
marine life." He is the author, with Mrs. Eliza- 
beth C. Agassiz, of "Seaside Studies in Natural 
History " (Boston, 1865); of "Marine Animals of 
Massachusetts Bay" (1871), and of the fifth volume 
of " Contributions to the Natural History of the 
United States," left incomplete by his father. 

AGASSIZ, Jean Louis Rudolphe, naturalist, 
b. in Motier, canton Fribourg, Switzerland, 28 
May, 1807; d. in Cambridge, Mass., 14 Dec, 1873. 
His father was pastor of the Protestant parish of 
Motier, a profession which his forefathers had for 
six generations ; his mother, Mile. Rose Mayor, was 
the daughter of a physician residing in Cudrefin, 
canton de Vaud. His first studies at home were 
directed by his mother, who was a woman of high 
endowments and rare culture. At the age of ten 
years he and his younger brother were sent to the 
gymnasium at Biel, in the neighboring canton of 
Bern ; here he acquired the ancient and modern 
languages, which later became so valuable to him 
in his biological investigations. Very early in life 
Agassiz showed a fondness for natural science, and 
in his boyhood days he began collecting specimens. 
His leisure time at the gymnasium was similarly oc- 
cupied, and his first collection of fishes dates from 

this period. During the A'acations spent at Orbe 
(Fribourg), whither his father had been transferred, 
he became intimate with a young clergyman named 
Fivaz, who en- 
couraged his in- 
terest in natural 
history and led 
him to the ac- 
tive study of 
botany. He con- 
tinued his edu- 
cation in the 
college at Lau- 
sanne in 1823, 
and in 1824 be- 
gan the study of 
medicine in Zu- 
rich, in accord- 
ance with the 
earnest washes 
of his parents. 
Thence he went 
to Heidelberg, 
where he de- 
voted his prin- 
cipal attention to anatomy under the famous Tiede- 
maiin, and in 1827 to Munich, where he came under 
the influence of Schelling, Oken, Martins. Dollinger^ 
Wagler, Zuecarini, Fuchs, and von Kobell. Dollin- 
ger, especially, at whose house he occupied a room, 
recognized the high talent of his pupil, and fostered 
his long-cherished jjlan of devoting himself exclu- 
sively to zoology. While at Munich, Agassiz organ- 
ized the club called the " Little Academy." and be- 
came its presiding officer. It was before this society 
that Born, Rudolphi, Michaelis, Schimper, .and 
Braun first disclosed their latest discoveries, and 
even Dollinger made his new ideas known there be- 
fore they were published. Martins, then lately re- 
turned from Brazil, where he had been sent on a 
scientific exploring expedition, intrusted young 
Agassiz, on the death of Spix, with the description 
of the fishes that had been collected. This work, 
completed when he had scarcely reached his twenty- 
first year, was dedicated to Cuvier, and published 
in Latin (Munich, 1829). The brilliant accomplish- 
ment of so arduous an undertaking at once gained 
him a reputation as one of the first ichthyologists. 
His attention was then directed to fossil fishes, 
and those at the museum in Munich, as well as such 
other paleontological collections as were available 
in centra! Germany, were carefully studied. 

Meanwhile he had not neglected his medical 
studies, and in 1829 he received the doctor's degree 
in medicine from Munich, and in philosophy from 
Erlangen in 1830. His second great undertaking 
was the " Natural History, of the Fresh-water Fishes 
of Europe," in the preparation of which he was as- 
sisted pecuniarily by the publisher, Cotta, of Stutt' 
gart. It was never completed, but was partially 
published in 1839-'40. After receiving his de- 
grees, he spent some time in Vienna, attending 
the hospitals, and pursuing his studies of the fos- 
sil fishes by examining the collections in the im- 
perial museum. By the liberality of his uncle, 
FrauQois Mayor, and of Christinat, a friend of Agas- 
siz's father, he was enabled to continue his studies, 
and spent two years (1831-'2) in Paris. This city 
was then the great scientific centre of Europe, and 
its collections were the richest and most celebrated 
on the continent. Men who were eminent as spe- 
cialists were attracted to the capital, and formed 
part 01 the brilliant circle under the leadership 
of the distinguished Humboldt. Cuvier, the great 
Pi-ench naturalist, received the young Agassiz with 




enthusiasm. The valuable treasures of the Paris 
museum were at his service, and the material col- 
lected for years by Cuvier for his work on fishes 
was freely transferred to the young naturalist. 
The development theory of Geoffroy, then recently 
advanced, was opposed by Cuvier with all the 
power of his science and detailed knowledge. 
Agassiz accepted the ideas of his master, and firndy 
adhered to them tliroughout his life, and in later 
years, when the development theory advanced by 
"Darwin came into prominence, he was uncompro- 
mising in his efforts against its promulgation. 
Humboldt also became his firm friend and patron, 
aiding him materially in the publication of his 
work. Among his associates were Owen, Milne- 
Edwards, Rud. Wagner, and Johannes Miiller. 

In 1832, shortly after the death of Cuvier, he 
returned to Switzerland and became professor of 
natural history in the college at Neuchatel. His 
labors on the fossil fishes were gradually approach- 
ing completion, the first of the five quarto volumes, 
" liecherches sur les poissons fossiles," appearing 
in 1833 and the last in 1843. This was undoubt- 
edly Agassiz's most important contribution to 
science, and forms, with Cuvier's, Valenciennes', 
and Johannes Miiller's works, the foundation of 
our present knowledge of fishes. In this book one 
thousand species wei'e completely, and seven hun- 
dred partially, figured and described. At Neuf- 
chatel he gathered around him young and talented 
pupils, and the little city became one of the chief 
seats of science in Switzerland. He created the 
natural history museum, and was the chief founder 
of the scientific society, which issued the first vol- 
ume of its memoirs in 1835. During the summers 
frequent scientific excursions were made in the 
Jura and the Alps. These expeditions led to his 
study of the glaciers, and in 1840 he published his 
first " Etudes sur les glaciers," which gave there- 
suits of his observations during the eight preced- 
ing summers. He had erected a station on the 
middle of the Aar glacier at a height of 8,000 feet 
above the sea and twelve miles from any human 
habitation, and from this now celebrated Hotel des 
Neufciiiltelois he conducted his experiments. In 
1847 he published his " Systeme glaciaire," in which 
he thoroughly discussed the chief phenomena of 
glaciers and more fully developed his views on 
their earlier extension. In the mean while he had 
also devoted considerable attention to the echi- 
noderms, and in 1836 and 1837 published special 
memoirs on them. His monograph on living and 
fossil echinoderms, published in parts, was first 
issued in 1839 ; portions of this work were prepared 
by Desor and by Valentin. In 1834. Iti 1835, and 
in 1840, Agassiz visited England to obtain materi- 
al for his work on fossil fishes, and as a result he 
published monographs on the " Fossil Fishes of the 
Devonian System " (1844), and on the " B'ishes of 
the London Clay" (1845). 

In 1846 he came to the United States, partly to 
make himself familiar with the geology and natural 
history of this country, in fulfilment of a mission 
suggested to the king of Prussia by Humboldt, and 
partly to deliver a series of lectures on " Compara- 
tive Embryology," at the Lowell institute, Boston, 
The lectures met with a most cordial reception, 
and by special request he delivered an additional 
course on glacial phenomena. He then visited 
New York, Philadelphia, Charleston, and other 
cities, in search of material for his report. In 1847 
Supt. A. D. Bache placed at his disposal the use of 
the steamer " Bibb," belonging to the coast survey. 
This led to a scientific cruise along the coast of 
iVIassachusetts, and some years later (1850-'l) to a 

more extended trip to the coral reefs of Florida. 
In this manner ho became thoroughly familiar with 
the marine life along our shores. The liberality of 
this ofi'er affording him such valuable facilities for 
the continuation of his studies, and the enthusiasm 
with whicli he was everywhere greeted, induced 
him to make the United States his home. The 
Prussian government released him from his scien- 
tific mission, and he accepted, in 1848, the chair of 
zoology and geology in the Lawrence scientific 
school at Cambridge, Mass., a professorship spe- 
cially created for him by Mr. Lawrence. At Cam- 
bridge, as abroad, he attracted brilliant young men, 
enthusiasts in science, many of whom to-day are 
among the leading naturalists in this country. Of 
these, besides his son Alexander, may be mentioned 
Bickmoi'e, Clark, Hartt, Hyatt, Lyman, Morse, 
Miles, Packard, Putnam, Scudder, Shaler, Stimp- 
son, Tenney, Verrill, Wilder, and Ward. He pre- 
pared during 1848, with Dr. A. A. Gould, " Prin- 
ciples of Zoology," a text-book for the use of 
schools and colleges. In the summer of the same 
year, with twelve of his pupils, he made an explor- 
ing expedition to Lake Superior, and the results 
were published in a volume entitled " Lake Supe- 
rior ; its Physical Characteristics," etc. (1850). 

In succeeding years he traversed the entire 
country, lecturing in all the larger cities and accu- 
mulating vast collections of specimens, which con- 
stituted the foundation of the natural history mu- 
seum in Cambridge. From 1851 to 1854 he was 
professor of comparative anatomy and zoology in 
the medical college in Charleston, S. C, and dur- 
ing this time he studied the marine animals of the 
southern coast, also visiting the adjoining states ; 
but, as the climate did not agree with him, he re- 
turned to Cambridge. In 1854 he brought to a 
successful termination, by the publication of a 
fourth volume, the " Bibliographia Zoologife et 
Geologiae," which he had begun in 1848 with H. E. 
Strickland. This work contains a full list of all 
the periodicals devoted to zoology and geology, 
and an alphabetical list of authors and their works 
in the same departments. It was the complement 
of his " Nomenclator Zoologicus," which appeared 
in 1842-'46. Agassiz next began to collect mate- 
rial for the publication of a magnificent work to 
be called " Contributions to the Natural History 
of the United States." In 1857 the first volume 
appeared, containing as an introduction his well- 
known " Essay on Classification," in which the 
question of development was considered in a man- 
ner directly in opposition to the now generally ac- 
cepted theory of descent. Of this work, projected 
on a gigantic scale, only four volumes ever ap- 
peared during his life; the fifth, left incomplete, 
was issued by his son. His attention was then 
turned to his collections, which had accumulated 
in great bulk, and, unclassified, were stored wher- 
ever available accommodation could be obtained. 
In June, 1859, the museum of comparative zoology 
was founded, with Agassiz as its curator, and until 
his death much of his time was devoted to the 
classification and arrangement of the specimens. 

In 1865, his health having become somewhat im- 
paired by constant work, he was enabled, by the 
liberality of Mr. Nathaniel Thayer, a Boston mer- 
chant, to visit Brazil. Here again he made great 
collections, which now enrich the museum at Cam- 
bridge, and a journal of his trip was published in 
1867. He was ai)pointed in 1868 a non-resident 
professor of natural history in Cornell university, 
Ithaca, N. Y.. and there delivered a course of lec- 
tures. In 1871, the coast survey, having occasion 
to send the new war steamer " Hassler " around 




Cape Horn to operate on the Pacific coast, extend- 
ed to Agassiz an invitation to maive the voyage in 
the interest of science. The expedition, with a 
competent corps of assistants, sailed in December 
and reached San Francisco late in August. Much 
valuable scientific information was accumulated, 
new facts concerning the glacial phenomena of 
South America were obtained, careful observations 
of the temperature of the water and deep-sea 
soundings were regularly made, and great collec- 
tions of fishes, reptiles, mollusks, and other speci- 
mens of natural history were gathered, a large 
portion of which were added to his museum in 
Cambridge. The gift of Penikese island and 
money for its endowment, by John Anderson, of 
New York, in 1873, made possible the establish- 
ment of the Penikese island school of natural 
history. This summer school, affording opportu- 
nities for the study of specimens direct from nature 
without the intervention of text-books, was the 
accomplishment of a long-cherished project of 
Agnssiz's. The first season was enthusiastically 
|i;i"((l. and at its end the pupils bade farewell to 
\\\f master, who, a few months later, after a short 
illness, died in Cambridge. His grave in Mt. 
Auburn is marked by a boulder from the glacier 
of the Aar, and shaded by pine-trees brought from 

Agassiz received the degree of LL. D. from the 
imiversities of Edinburgh and Dublin before he 
was thirty years of age. In 1836 he was elected to 
the French academy of sciences, and in the same 
year he was made a fellow of the royal society of 
London. He was also a member of nearly all the 
learned and scientific societies in Europe. In the 
United States, he was a member of the American 
association for the advancement of science, of the 
American academy of arts and sciences, of the 
Boston natural history society, and of many other 
scientific organizations. He was also an original 
member of the national academy of sciences. 

In addition to the works already enumerated, 
there appeared, under the title of " The Structure 
of Animal Life " (Boston, 1852), a collection of 
newspaper extracts of lectures delivered extempo- 
raneously. This book was never revised by him, 
and contains numerous errors. Agassiz also pub- 
lished " Methods of Study in Natural History " 
(Boston, 1863) ; " Geological Studies " (two series, 
Boston, 1866-'76) ; and " Journal in Brazil " (Bos- 
ton, 1868), in conjunction with Mrs. Elizabeth Gary 
Agassiz, who has edited '' Louis Agassiz : His Life 
and Correspondence " (Boston, 1886). His contri- 
butions of scientific memoirs to transactions and 
proceedings of various societies were numerous. A 
complete list of them may be found in the cata- 
logue of scientific papers published by the royal 
society of London. 

AGNEW, Cornelius Ilea, physician, b. in New 
York city, 8 Aug., 1830; d. there, 18 April, 1888. 
He was graduated at Columbia College in 1849, 
studied medicine at the college of physicians and 
surgeons, and received his degree in 1852. Dur- 
ing the following year he was house surgeon, and 
subsequently curator, at the New York hospital. 
After studying in Europe, he was surgeon to the 
New York eye and ear infirmary until 1864. In 
1858 he was appointed surgeon - general of the 
state of New York, and at the outbreak of the 
■civil war he became medical director of the New 
York state volunteer hospital, in which capacity 
he performed most efficient service. He was a 
prominent member of the U. S. sanitary commis- 
sion, and much of its success must be attributed to 
his laboi-s. In 1868 he established an ophthalmic 

clinic in the college of physicians and surgeons, 
and during the following year he was elected clini- 
cal professor of diseases of the eye and ear in the 
same institution. He founded in 1868 the Bi'ook- 
lyn eye and ear hospital, and in 1869 the Man- 
hattan eye and ear hospital. For several years 
he was one of the managers of the New York state 
hospital for the insane, at Poughkeepsie. Dr. 
Agnew exhibited considerable interest m the edu- 
cational institutions of New York city. In 1859 
he was elected a trustee of the public schools, and 
subsequently he was president of the board. In 
1864 he was associated in the establishment of the 
Columbia college school of mines, and in 1874 be- 
came one of the trustees of the college. In 1872 
he was elected president of the State medical so- 
ciety. He contributed numerous papers to the 
current medical journals, most of which are de- 
voted to diseases of the eye and ear, and he also 
published brief monographs and a " Series of 
American Clinical Lectures," edited by E. C. Se- 
guin, M. D. (New York, 1875). 

A(xNEW, James, British soldier, killed in the 
battle of German town, 4 Oct., 1777. He came to 
Boston in the latter part of 1775, holding the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel. He commanded a brigade 
in 1776, and was engaged at Brooklyn heights, in 
the Danbury expedition, and at Brandywine, where 
he was wounded. 

A(irRAMONTE, Ignacio, Cuban revolutionist, 
b. in Puerto Principe, Cuba, in 1841 ; d. 11 May, 
1873. lie studied law in Havana, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1867. When the insurrection 
against Spanish rule broke out in the eastern part 
of the island in 1868, Agramonte took a promi- 
nent part in the uprising of the Camagiiey district 
in November, and in February, 1869, he was ap- 
pointed secretary to the provisional government of 
the insurrectionists. He was also a member of the 
Cuban congress, and one of the signers of the act 
freeing the slaves in the island. Finally he took 
the field, and held a commission as major-general 
of the forces operating in the Camagiiey district, 
where he distinguished himself in many bloody 
contests with the Spanish troops. He fell in the 
battle of Jimaguayu. 

AtrUADO, Pedro (ah-goo-ah'-do), Spanish Fran- 
ciscan monk, b. in Valdemoro, near Madrid, in 
the 16th century. He went to South America, 
where he wrote an interesting book that was pub- 
lished under the title of " Descubrimiento pacifiea- 
cion y poblacion de la provincia de Santa Marta y 
Nuevq.reino de Granada." 

ACjiJERO, Joaquin de, Cuban revolutionist, 
b. in Puerto Principe, Cuba, in 1816 ; d. thei'e 12 
Aug., 1851. In 1843 he freed all his slaves. In 
1851 he headed an insurrection against the Spanish 
government,' in the central part of the island, was 
defeated after a desperate contest, and was cap- 
tured and shot, together with his principal followers. 

AGiJEYNABA (ahg-way-nah'-ba). I. Sachem of 
the island of Porto Rico when the Spaniards, under 
command of Juan Ponce de Leon, took possession 
of that part of the West Indies. He was friendly 
to Ponce, and accompanied him in an expedition 
to Santo Domingo. Soon after returning to his 
native land he died, in 1510. II. Sachem, brother 
of the preceding, whom he succeeded early in 1511. 
He promoted rebellion among his fellow-Indians, 
who attacked the Spaniards and killed many of 
them. At first the Indians refused to follow him, 
fearing the result of a war, as they believed the 
Europeans to be immortal ; but he convinced them 
of the contrary by having a young Spaniard kept 
under water until dead, and then preserved until 




maxks of decomposition became visible. Thus en- 
couraged, the natives rebelled, but they were de- 
feated, and the sachem fell in battle. 

AGUILAR, Maria, Mexican author, b. in At- 
lixco, near Puebla, 8 March, 1695 ; d. 25 Feb., 1756. 
She entered the nunnery of Santa Rosa, of Puebla, 
at the age of nineteen, and in 1740 was elected, 
abbess of her convent. Her conventional name 
was Sor Maria Agueda de San Ignacio, and she 
was highly esteemed for her scholarship and zeal. 
She wrote several religions books, which were 
printed in Puebla and in the city of Mexico. 

A(t}UIRRE, Jose Maria (ah-geer'-rhe), Mexi- 
can lawyer, b. in the city of Mexico in 1778 ; d. in 
1852. He was a priest, but the authorities gave 
him permission to practise law, which he had stud- 
ied thorouglily. His extraordinary ability as a 
lawyer was such that, in fifty-two years of continu- 
ous practice at the bar, he only lost half a dozen 
cases. He distinguished himself specially in de- 
fending persons accused by the Inquisition. 

AGUIRRE, Lope de, Spanish adventurer, b. in 
Oiiate : d. in Venezuela in October, 1561. He ac- 
companied Ursua in the search for Eldorado on the 
American continent, instigated him to seize upon 
the supreme command, and then murdered him and 
succeeded to his place. He committed a series of 
crimes, and finally met with a violent death. 

AHUIZOTL (ah-we-sut'-l), king of the Aztecs, 
reigned toward the end of the 15th century ; d. 
in 1502. He is reputed to have enlarged the em- 
pire, and built many canals and important build- 
ings. He was constantly at war, and conquered 
Guatemala. According to tradition, 72,344 prison- 
ers were immolated by his order in four days at the 
consecration of a temple in 1486. 

AHUMADA Y VILLALON, A^ustin tie (ah- 
oo-mah'-dah), marquis of Las Amarillas, 42d viceroy 
of Mexico, d. 5 Feb., 1760. He assumed the office 
of viceroy 10 Nov., 1755, and distinguished him- 
self by his honesty and zeal in eradicating abuses 
and introducing reforms. In his time happened 
the sudden eruption of a new volcano at Jorullo, 
Hear Patzcuaro, when its ashes spread in large 
quantities and caused a great panic among the 
population of Queretaro. Tie died in Cuernavaca. 

AIKEN, Charles Aug'ustus, educator, b. in 
Manchester, Vt.. 30 Oct., 1827: d. in Princeton, 
N. J., 14 Jan., 1892. He was graduated at Dart- 
mouth college in 1846 and at Andover theological 
seminary in 1853. From 1859 to 1866 he was pro- 
fessor of Latin at Dartmouth, and from 1866 to 
1869 at Princeton college. From 1869 to 1871 he 
was president of Union college. Subsequently he 
held the chair of Christian ethics and apologetics 
in Princeton theological seminary. 

AIKEN, William, statesman, b. in Charleston, 
S. C, in 1806 ; d. in Flat Rock, N. C, 7 Sept., 1887. 
He was graduated at the college of South Carolina 
in 1825, and became an extensive rice-planter On 
Jehosse island, near Charleston. He was a mem- 
ber of the legislature from 1838 to 1840, state 
senator in 1842, governor of South Carolina in 
1844, and representative in congress from 1851 to 
1857. He contributed liberally to charitable and 
educational institutions. He took no part in se- 
cession, and was elected again to congress in 1866, 
but was not admitted to a seat. 

AIKINS, James Cox, Canadian senator, b. in 
the township of Toronto, 30 March, 1823. He was 
educated at Victoria college, represented the coun- 
ty of Peel in the Canadian house of assembly from 
1854 until 1861, was a member of the legislative 
council of Canada from 1862 until the union; be- 
came a memher of the privy council 9 Dec, 1869; 

was secretary of state of Canada from 1869 until 
the resignation of the Macdonald government, 5 
Nov., 1873 ; was appointed secretary of state a sec- 
ond time 19 Oct., 1878, and was called to the senate 
in May, 1897. Mr. Aikins is a liberal conservative. 

AIKMAN, Alexander, journalist, b. in Scot- 
land in 1755 ; d. at Prospect Pen, St. Andrews, 
Jamaica, in July, 1838. He came to Charleston, 
S. C, and learned the trade of a printer. When 
the American colonies revolted he left the country 
and established in Jamaica a loyalist newspaper, 
the " Jamaica Mercury," afterward called the 
" Royal Gazette." He was public printer in that 
colony, and sat for many years in the assembly. 

AILLEBOUT, Louis d', French governor of 
Canada, d. in Quebec in 1660. He brought a com- 
pany of colonists for the island of Montreal, and, 
after administering that province in the absence 
of Maisonneuve, was nominated governor of Three 
Rivers. From 1647 to 1651 he was governor of 
Canada. He negotiated unsuccessfully with the 
governors of the New England provinces for a 
white league against the Iroquois chiefs. 

AINSLIE, Hew, Scottish-American poet, b. in 
Bargeny Mains, Ayrshire, 5 April, 1792; d. in 
Louisville. Ky., 11 March, 1878. He was sent to 
the Ayr academy to complete his education, but 
was compelled to leave that institution when four- 
teen years of age, in consequence of ill-health. 
Three years afterward he went to Glasgow and en- 
gaged in the study of law with a relative, but, as it 
proved uncongenial, he returned to Roslin, where 
his parents then resided, and engaged in landscape 
gardening. Soon afterward he was appointed a 
clerk in the register house, Edinburgh, and at in- 
tervals while so employed acted as amanuensis for 
Prof. Dugald Stewart, the last of whose works he 
copied for the press. He married in 1812, and emi- 
grated to the United States in July, 1822. Three 
years after his arrival he was attracted by Robert 
Owen's peculiar social system as exemplified at New 
Harmony, Ind., but after a trial of it for a year he 
gave it up. He subsequently removed to Cincinnati 
and became partner in a brewery. A branch that 
he established in 1829 in Louisville was destroyed 
by an inundation of the Ohio in 1832, and a similar 
establishment erected by him the same year at New 
Albany was burned in 1834. Subsequently, till his 
retirement from business, he was employed in super- 
intending the erection of mills, factories, and brew- 
eries in the western states. Ainslie's best-known 
book, " A Pilgrimage to the Land of Burns " (1820), 
consists of a narrative embodying a number of 
sparkling lyrics. A collection of his Scottish songs 
and ballads, edited by his friend William Wilson, 
was issued in New York in 1855. Ainslie is one of 
the minor Scottish poets represented in " Whistle 
Binkie " (Glasgow, 1853) and in Wilson's " Poets 
and Poetry of Scotland" (New York, 1876). In 
1864 he visited his native land and received grati- 
fying evidences of esteem and friendship from 
literary men. His best-known poems are " The 
Ingle Side " and " On wi' the Tartan," which were 
much admired by Sir Walter Scott, who by mis- 
take handed Ainslie, at the register house, several 
pages of the MS. of one of his early novels in place 
of a legal document. Sir Walter's confidence was 
never betrayed. Another circumstance that Ainslie 
recalled with pleasure was related by him on the 
one hundred and twelfth anniversary of the birth 
of Robert Burns, to a large company assembled in 
Louisville, over which he presided, to celebrate the 
day so dear to all Scotchmen — the circumstance of 
his having had the honor of kissing " Bonnie Jean." 
widow of the great poet. 




AINSWORTH, Lallan, fler-vman, b. in Wood- 
stock, Conn., 19 July, 1757; d. in Jattrey, N. H., 17 
March, 1858. Pie was graduated at Dartmouth 
college in 1778, and was ordained pastor of the 
church at Jaffrey in 1782, where he remained until 
his death, seventy-six years. This is probably the 
longest pastorate on record. 

AITKEN, Robert, publisher, b. in Scotland in 
1784; d. in Philadelphia in July, 1802. He settled 
in Philadelphia in 17t!i), and published the " Penn- 
sylvania Magazine, or American Monthly Museum," 
from January, 1775, till June, 1776, having Hop- 
kinson and Withei'spoon for contributors, and was 
imprisoned in 1777 for his attachment to the cause 
of independence. lie printed the first American 
bible in 1782, losing money on the venture, and is 
reputed to have been the author of " An Inquiry 
Concerning the Pi-inciples of a Commercial Sys- 
tem for the United States " (1787). 

AKERLY, Samuel, physician, b. in 1785; d. 
on Staten Island, 6 July, 1845. He was graduated 
at Columbia college in 1804. He contributed to 
medical and scientific periodicals, was active in es- 
tablishing institutions for deaf mutes, and published 
an "Essay on the Geology of the Hudson River" 
(1820) and "Observations on Deafness" (1821). 

AKERMAN, Amos Tappan, lawyer, b. in 
Portsmouth. N. II.. 23 Feb., 1821 ; d. in Cartersville, 
Ga., 21 Dec, 1880. He was graduated at Dart- 
mouth college in 1842, was admitted to the bar in 
1841, and settled in Elberton, Ga., in 1850. He 
followed his state in secession in 1861, and served 
the confederate government in the quartermaster's 
department ; but after the war he was a republican 
and reconstructionist. He was appointed district 
attorney for Georgia in 1866 and attorney-general 
of the United States in 1870, remaining in that 
office until 1872, when he resigned. 

AKERS, Benjamin Paul (a-kers), sculptor, b. 
in Saccarappa, Westbrook, Me., 10 July. 1825 ; d. 
in Philadelphia, Pa., 21 May, 1861. No genius 
was ever more a special gift than his, since there 
could hardly be less congenial soil for the growth 
of an artist than a 
small Maine village 
seventy years ago. He 
had never seen an art- 
ist, nor even a statue or 
a bust when he began 
modelling. He had 
previously attempted 
painting, which di(l not 
satisfy him, and the 
first plaster cast that 
he ever saw was, he 
said, " a revelation " 
to him. In 1849 he 
went to Boston and 
took lessons in plaster 
casting from Carew, 
and returning home to 
Hollis, where his fami- 
ly then lived, he ob- 
tained some clay from 
a pottery and began 
modelling, space for the work being "given him in 
the office of the village physician, who believed in 
his genius. His first work was a head of Christ, 
which was i-emarkably original and impressive, and 
was afterward ordered in marble by the United 
States minister to the Hague. Akers next made 
the bust of a respected townsman, of which in after 
years he said : " It was as ugly as Fra Angelico's 
devil, and was a remarkably faithful likeness.'^' The 
aext summer he took a studio in Portland, and for 



over two years labored diligently and conscientiously 
at what he now felt to be his real life-work. He made 
many portrait busts, among them being that of Gov. 
Gilman, of New Hampshire, Rev. Dr. Nichols, of 
Poitland, Prof. Sheppard, John Neal, Prof. Cleave- 
land, Samuel Appleton, of Boston, Henry W. Long- 
fellow, and others of less note. He also produced 
several ideal works, among them a head of " Char- 
lotte Corday " and a bas-relief of " Evening." In the 
autumn of 1852 he sailed for Europe, reaching Italy 
in December. He remained studying a year in Flor- 
ence, making several busts, and a " Morning " as 
companion to his " Evening," and putting in mar- 
ble several of his previous works. In the autunm 
of 1858 he returned to Portland, and that winter 
modelled the statue of " Benjamin in Egypt," which 
was exhibited at the World's Fair in New York, 
and was destroyed at the burning of the Portland 
custom-house the next year. Among his portrait 
busts at this time was a head of Judge Shepley. 
In October, 1854. he went to Washington, where 
he modelled busts of many of the noted men of the 
time, among them that of Hon. Linn Boyd, of 
Kentucky, speaker of the house, Judge McLean, of 
Cincinnati, Edward Everett, Sam Houston, and 
Gerrit Smith. In January, 1855, he again visited 
Europe, residing at times in Rome, Venice, Na- 
ples, Switzerland, Paris, and England, crossing the 
Alps on foot, and in the following two or three 
years produced his best-known works. These in- 
clude " Peace," " Una and the Lion," " Girl Press- 
ing Grapes," " Isaiah," Schiller's " Diver," " Rein- 
deer," "Saint Elizabeth of Hungary," "Diana and 
Endymion," " Paul and Francesca," " Milton," and 
the " Dead Pearl-Diver." The last two works are 
described in Hawthorne's " Marble Faun." Dur- 
ing this time he also made many busts of Ameri- 
cans visiting Rome, and executed very many cop- 
ies of antique busts and statues for the galleries of 
American and English patrons of art. The amount 
of labor which he crowded into a little more than 
two years was amazing ; in fact, his constant toil on 
wet clay in a damp, sunless Roman studio, under- 
mined a constitution naturally delicate, and he re- 
turned home in the summer of 1857 with his health 
seriously broken. He was unable to accomplish 
much in his art during the next two years, and in 
1859 made another visit to Italy to recruit his failing 
strength, but returned the next year, without im- 
provement, to Portland. Medical advice sent him 
to Philadelphia for the winter, but the change was 
not beneficial, and he died at thirty-six years of 
age, with his work, as he said, "just begun." He 
had much literary ability, and contributed papers 
on art and artists to the " Atlantic Monthly." 

AKIN, Thomas Beamish, Canadian jurist, b. 
in Liverpool, Nova Scotia, 1 Feb., 1809; d. in Hali- 
fax, 6 May, 1891. He studied law with the late 
Beamish Murdoch, author of the " History of Nova 
Scotia," was admitted to the bar in 1831, and prac- 
tised as a solicitor at Halifax. Pie was appointed 
a commissioner in 1857 for arranging and preserv- 
ing the ancient records and documents illustrative 
of the history of the province of Nova Scotia, and 
was twice elected a govei-nor of King's college, 
Windsor, Nova Scotia. He was the author of 
several pamphlets, including "History of Halifax, 
N. S." (1847) ; " Rise and Progress of the Church of 
England in the British North American Provinces " 
(1849) ; and " Selections from the Public Docu- 
ments of the Province of Nova Scotia" (1869). 

ALAMAN, Lucas (ah-la-man'), Mexican states- 
man, b. in the state of Guanajuato, 18 Oct., 1792; 
d. in Mexico, 2 June, 1858. lie was educated at; 
the college of La Concepcion and at the school of 



mines of Mexico, and afterward travelled all over 
Europe. After the fall of Iturbide lie became min- 
ister of foreign affairs, retiring when Iturbide re- 
turned to power in 1825. At this period he found- 
ed the museum of antiquities and natural history. 
Under Bustamente, Alaman became foreign minis- 
ter again in 1830 and in 1887. He introduced Eu- 
ropean machinery and established a bank for the 
encouragement of industrial undertakings. He 
allied himself with Santa Anna when the latter re- 
turned to power in 1853, and became minister for 
foreign affairs and the chief instrument in the re- 
actionary policy of fettering the press, restoring 
the property of the Jesuits and imposing insup- 
portable burdens on the people. He was" the au- 
thor of the famous " Historia de Mejico"' (1849-'52). 

ALAMINOS, Antonio (ah-lah-mee'-nos), first 
naval officer of the Spanish fleet that discovered 
the peninsula of Yucatan in 1517. He distin- 
guished himself by his services under the com- 
mands of Grijalba and Hernan Cortes, and was the 
first to pass^the Bahama channel. 

ALARCON, Hernando d' (ah-lar-kon'), Spanish 
navigator, b. early in the KJth century. He sailed 
from New Spain in May, 1540, with two ships and a 
tender along the western coast of America, under in- 
structions from Mendoza, the viceroy, to aid the land 
expedition of Coronado, which set out at the same 
time, in search of the seven cities of Cibola. He 
made a careful survey of the shore-line of the Cali- 
fornian peninsula, previously supposed to be an isl- 
and, and returned to New Spain in 1541, having 
failed to meet the land expedition according to the 
plan. He also discovered the Colorado river, as- 
cended that difficult stream for 100 miles, and took 
possession of the country in the name of Charles 
v., distributing crosses among the natives as a mis- 
sionary of the church, telling them that he was the 
" messenger of the sun." His charts and observa- 
tions, supplementing those of Ulloa, accurately 
represented the configuration of California. 

Mexican dramatist, b. in Tasco, Mexico, about 
1580; d. in Spain, 4 Aug., 1(539. Pie was educated 
in Spain, and in 1609 became a lawyer in his native 
country. In KilO he was appointed teniente corre- 
gidor of the city of Mexico, and later president of 
the royal council of the Indies. In 1028 he pub- 
lished eight dramas, and in 1634 twelve more. 
*' La verdad sospechosa," of which Corneille's 
" Menteur " was an adaptation, and " Las paredes 
oyen," which still keeps the stage in Spain, are his 
most famous plays. A new edition of his works 
was printed in Madrid in 1848-'52. 

ALBA, Fernando d'. See Ixtlilxochitl. 

ALBANI, Marie Emma Lajeunesse, singer, 
b. at Chambly, near Montreal, in 1851. Her par- 
ents were French -Canadians. She was educated 
with her sisters in the convent of the Sacred Heart 
in Montreal, and was left motherless at an early 
age. Her first musical training came from her 
father, a skilful musician. In 1864 he removed to 
Albany, N. Y., where her singing in the cathedi-al 
attracted much attention. A concert was given 
for her benefit, and with the proceeds she was sent 
to Europe to complete her musical education. 
After studying two years in Paris, where she found 
a patroness in Baroness Lafitte. inider the tuition 
of Duprez, and then in Milan under Lamperti, she 
made her debut as an opera-singer in Messina in 
1870. The name Albani was adopted out of com- 
pliment to the city where her musical promise was 
recognized and generously encouraged. She sang 
at Malta, and then, during the winter of 1871-'72, 
in the theatre of La Pergola at Florence. Am- 

broise Thomas's " Mignon," which had been damned 
in four Italian theatres, became a success with her, 
as were all the parts with which she identified her- 
self. When her fame was established in Italy she 
appeared in the royal Italian opera in London. 
She sang in St. Petersburg with great success, and 
became a favorite in Paris and in the United States, 
as well as in London. She married Ernest Gye, 
the manager, in 1878. In 1883 she made a tour" of 
the United States, and in May, 1886, sang the ode 
written by Tennyson for the opening of the colo- 
nial exhibition in London. 

ALBEAR, Francisco, general, b. in Havana, 
Cuba, in 1816, He distinguished himself as an en- 
gineer by the construction of several remarkable 
public works in Cuba, specially the Vento aque- 
duct, which supplies the city of Havana with 
water. He is the author of several memoirs on 
scientific subjects, among them one on the convey- 
ance of water to supply large cities, which was 
awarded a first prize at the centennial exhibition 
in Philadelphia in 1876. 

ALBEMARLE, Duke of (George Moxck), sol- 
dier, b. in Potheridge. Devonshire, 6 Dec, 1608 ; d. 
in London, 3 Jan., 1670. He was one of the propri- 
etaries of Carolina, and afterward became palatine 
by appointment of Charles II. He was a success- 
ful general in Great Britain and on the continent. 
The early settlements along the coast of South 
Carolina were at first named in his honor; but 
Albemarle sound is all that now perpetuates the 
name in America. The family became extinct 
with the death of his son. Moiick, or Monk, dis- 
played ability in civil government as well as in 
military affairs, and he was never checked by 
principle in selecting his methods. He possessed 
strong nerves, common sense, and an imperturb- 
able temper. His life has been written by Frangois 
P. G. Guizot, Thomas Skinner, and others. 

ALBRIGHT, Jacol), clergyman, b. near Potts- 
town i\a., 1 May, 1759; d.'in 1808. He was of 
German parentage (the name originally being Al- 
brecht), and was brought up as a tile-burner. Be- 
ginning a religious life in 1790, and being success- 
ful as an exhorter, he soon became a Methodist 
minister. He made many converts, almost exclu- 
sively Germans, and in 1800 a separate church or- 
ganization was created for them, Albright being 
their first presiding elder. He was appointed 
bishop in 1807. His denomination is now known 
as the " Evangelical Association," but in many 
places its ^adherents are named " Albrights." 

ALCALA, (ialiano Dionisio (al-kah-lah'), a 
brigadier-general of the Spanish naval troops, b, 
in Cabra, Spain, in 1762; d. in the battle of Trafal- 
gar, 21 Oct., 1805. He made several exploring 
expeditions by order of the Spanish government, 
among them one to the straits of Magellan in 
1785, and another to find a new passage from the 
Pacific to the Atlantic ocean. Commanding the 
ship " Bahama," in 1805, he fought bravely against 
the Fnglish in Trafalgar until a cannon-ball killed 
him. His professional writings were many, the 
best known being his treatise called " Metodo de 
hallar la^ latitud en el mar por las atturas del sol." 

ALCANTARA, Francisco Linares (al-can- 
tah'-rah). Venezuelan statesman, b. in Furmero in 
1830 ; d. 30 Nov., 1879. After attaining the high- 
est rank in the army, he was appointed governor 
of the state of Aragua, and a few years later, in 1877, 
he was elected president of Venezuela. The period 
of his administration is generally known in that 
country under the name of El Bienio (the two years). 

ALCEDO, Antonio (ahl-thay'-do), soldier, b. in 
Quito, Ecuador, in 1735 ; d. in Madrid in 1812. He 




received a military education in Spain, and in 1793 
had become a bri,<i:adier-general. He wrote a v;ilua- 
ble work entitled " Diccionario geografico liistorieo 
de las Indias Occideutales 6 America " (Madrid, 1 786). 
ALCIBAR, Jose, the last of the painters be- 
longing to the old Mexican school. Very little is 
known" about his life, but he executed many works 
of merit, especially two large paintings in the cathe- 
dral of Mexico, dated 1779. He must have lived 
to an old age, as he was already an artist work- 
ing with Carrera fifty years before that time. 

ALCOCER, Vidiil," Mexican philanthropist, b. 
in the city of Mexico, 8 April, 1801 ; d. there 22 
Nov., 1800. When very young he worked as a 
bookbinder, and then as a gunsmith, until he en- 
tered the army. He fought in the war of inde- 
pendence, at tlie end of which he retired, but after- 
ward took part in the organization of troops for 
the war against the I^rench, and then as a soldier 
in operations to defend his native city from the 
American army. His chief aim in life was to pro- 
mote education among destitute children, in pur- 
suit of which he oi'ganized, in 1846, an association 
which, in August, 1853, had established twenty 
schools for poor children in the city of Mexico, and 
from 1854 to 1858 the number of these schools 
was increased to thirty-three, with 7.000 boys and 
girls receiving a good elementary education. 

ALCORN,"James Lusk, statesman, b. near Gol- 
conda, 111., 4 Nov., 1816; d. in Coahoma co.. Miss., 
20 Dec, 1894. He was educated at Cumberland 
college. For five years he was deputy sheriff ol 
Livingston co., Ky., and in 1843 was elected to the 

legislature. In 
1844 he removed 
to Mississippi and 
began the practice 
of law. From 1846 
to 1865 he served 
in one branch or 
the other of the 
legislature. In 
1853 he was cho- 
sen elector - at - 
large on the Scott 
ticket, and in 1857 
was nominated as 
governor by the 
whigs. This he 
declined, and was 
a candidate for 
congress in that 
year, but was de- 
feated by L. Q. C. 
Lamar. He was 
the founder of 
the levee system in his state, and in 1858 he be- 
came president of the levee board of the Missis- 
sippi-Yazoo Delta. In 1861 he was elected briga- 
dier-general by the state convention, of which he 
was a member, but his commission was refused by 
Jefferson Davis on account of old political differ- 
ences. He was elected to the U. S. senate in 1865, 
but was not allowed to take his seat. He was 
elected governor in 1869 on the republican ticket. 
Irom which oflRce he resigned on being elected to 
the U. S. senate, where he served for six years, 
from 4 Dec, 1871. In 1873 he was defeated as in- 
dependent candidate for governor of his state. 

ALCOTT, Amos Bronsoii. educator, b. in Wol- 
cott, Conn., 39 Nov., 1790; d. in Boston, 4 March, 
1888. While yet a boy he was provided with a trunk 
of various merchandise, and set out to make his 
way in the south. Me landed at Norfolk, Va., and 
went among the plantations, talking with the peo- 

ple and reading their books. They liked him as a 
companion, and were glad to hold discussions with 
him on intellectual subjects. They would keep 
him under their roofs for weeks, reading and con- 
versing, while he forgot all about his commercial 
duties. But when he returned to the north his 
employer discovered he had not sold five dollars' 
worth'of his stock. He relinquished his trade in 
1833, and established an infant school, which im- 
mediately attracted attention. His method of 
teaching was by conversation, not by books. In 
1838 he went to Boston and established another 
school, showing singular skill and sympathy in his 
methods of teaching young children. His success 
caused him to be widely known, and a sketch of 
him and his methods, under the title of " A liecord 

of Mr. Alcott's School," by E. P. Peabody, was 
published in Boston in 1834 (3d ed., revised, 1874). 
This was followed in 1836 by a transcript of the 
colloquies of the children with their teacher, in 
" Conversations with Children on the Gospel." His 
school was so far in advance of the thought of the 
day that it was denounced by the press, and as a 
result he gave it up and removed to Concord, 
Mass., where he devoted himself to the study of nat- 
ural theology, reform in education, diet, and civil 
and social institutions. In order to disseminate 
his reformatory views more thoroughly, he went 
upon the lecture platform, where he was an attrac- 
tive speaker, and his personal worth and originality 
of thought always secured him a respectful hear- 
ing. In 1843 he went to England, on the invitation 
of James P. Greaves, of London, the friend and 
fellow-laborer of Pestalozzi in Switzerland. Be- 
fore his arrival Mr. Greaves died, but Mr. Alcott 
was cordially received by Mr. Greaves's friends, 
who had given the name of " Alcott House " to 
their school at Ham, near London. On his return 
to America, he brought with him two English 
friends, Charles Lane and H. G. Wright. Mr. Lane 
bought an estate near Harvard, in Worcester co., 
Mass., which he named '• Fruitlands," and thera 
all went for the purpose of founding a community, 
but the enterprise was a failui'e. Messrs. Lane and 
Wright soon returned to England, and the prop- 
erty was sold. Mr. Alcott removed to Boston, 
and soon after returned to Concord. He after- 
ward led the life of a peripatetic philosopher, con- 
versing in cities and villages, wherever invited, on 
divinity, human nature, ethics, dietetics, and a 
wide range of practical questions. These conver- 
sations, which wei-e at first casual, gradually as- 
sumed a more formal character. The topics were 
printed on cards, the company met at a fixed 
time and place, and for a while they attracted 
much attention. Mr. Alcott throughout his life 
attached great importance to diet and govern- 
ment of the body, and still more to race and 




complexion. He was regarded as a leader in the 
transcendental style of thought, but in later years 
was claimed as a convert to orthodox Christian- 
ity. He published " Tablets " (1868) ; " Concord 
Days," personal reminiscences of the town (1872) ; 
*' Table Talk " (1877) ; and "' Sonnets and Canzo- 
nets" (1877), besides numerous contributions to 
periodical literature, including papers entitled 
" Orphic Sayings " in " The Dial " (Boston, 1839- 
'43). After taking up his residence in Concord, 
he allowed the peculiarities of his mind to find 
expression in quaint and curious arrangement of 
his grounds. The fence enclosing them, built en- 
tirely by himself, is made wholly of pine boughs, 
knotted, gnarled, and twisted in every conceivable 
shape, no two pieces being alike. They seem to 
be the result of many years of fragmentary collec- 
tion in his walks. The engraving presented on 
the previous page is a view of Mr. Alcott's home 
in Concord. His life has been written by Sanborn 
and Harris (Boston, 1893). — His daughter, Louisa 
May, author, b. in Germantown, Pa., 39 Nov., 1832 ; 
d. in Boston, Mass., 6 March, 1888. When she was 
about two years of age her parents removed to 
Boston, and in her eighth year to Concord, Mass. 
At the age of eleven she was brought under the in- 
fluence of the community that endeavored to estab- 
lish itself near Harvard, in Worcester co. Thoreau 
was for a time her teacher; but she was instructed 

mainly by her fa- 
ther. She began to 
write for publica- 
tion at the age of 
sixteen, but with 
no marked success 
for fifteen years. 
During that time 
she devoted ten 
years to teaching. 

jrfHf ^^^ y to Washmgton as 

a volunteer nurse, 
and for many 
months labored in 
the military hospi- 
tals. At this time 
she wrote to her 
mother and sisters 
letters containing 
sketches of hospital 
life and experience, 
which on her return were revised and published 
in book form (Boston, 1863), and attracted much 
attention. In 1866 she went to Europe to re- 
cuperate her health, which had been seriously im- 
paired by her hospital work, and on her return 
in 1867 she wrote " Little Women," which was 
published the following year, and made her fa- 
mous. The sales in less than three years amount- 
ed to 87,000 copies. Her characters were drawn 
from life, and are full of the buoyant, free, hope- 
ful New England spirit which marked her own 
enthusiastic love for nature, freedom, and life. 
Her other stories were conceived in the same vein, 
and have been almost equallv popular. They are: 
"Flower Fables or Fairy Tales" (Boston, 1855); 
" Hospital Sketches," her first book, now out of 
print, reissued with other stories (1869); "An Old- 
Fashioned Girl" (1869); "Little Men" (1871); a 
series called "Aunt Jo's Scrap Bag" (1871-82), 
containing " My Boys." " Shawl Straps," " Cupid 
and Chow-Chow," " My Girls," " Jimmy's Cruise 
in the Pinafore," and " An Old- Fashioned Thanks- 
giving " ; " Work, A Story of Experience " (1873) : 
" Eight Cousins " (1874) ; " Rose in Bloom " (1876) ; 

VOL. I. 4 


X- -^5^. >^— ^<.S3<: 

"Silver Pitchers" (1876); "Under the Lilacs" 
(1878); "Jack and Gill" (1880); " Moods " (1864), 
reissued in a revised edition (1881) ; " Proverlj 
Stories " (1882) ; " Spinning- Wheel Stories " (1884) ; 
" Lulu's Library," the first of a new series (1885). 
Ednah D. Cheney wrote her life (Boston, 1889).— 
Another daughter, May, artist (Mrs. Ernest Nie- 
RiKER), b. in Concord, Mass., in 1840: d. in Decem- 
ber, 1879. At the school of design in Boston, and 
in the studios of Krug, Rimmer, Hunt, Vautier, 
Johnston, and Muller she received the best attain- 
able instruction, and subsequently divided her time 
between Boston, London, and Paris. After her 
marriage she lived mainly in Paris. Her strength 
was as a copyist and as a painter of still life, either 
in oils or water-colors. Her success as a copyist of 
Turner was such as to command the praise of Mr. 
Ruskin, and secure the adoption of some of her 
work for the pupils to copy at the South Kensing- 
ton schools in London. In these branches of work 
she had few equals. She published " Concord 
Sketches " (Boston, 1869). 

ALCOTT, William Alexander, author, b. in 
Wolcott, Conn., 6 Aug., 1798 ; d. in Auburndale, 
Mass., 29 March, 1859": He supported himself in 
youth by working on a farm in summer and 
teaching in winter, studied medicine at Yale, and 
practised for several years. In 1832 he associated 
himself with William Woodbridge in the prepara- 
tion of school geographies and atlases, and in edit- 
ing the " Annals of Education " and the " Juvenile 
Rambles," the fii'st weekly periodical for children 
published in America. His interest in improving 
the condition of the public schools led to his writ- 
ing numerous articles on the subject, published in 
the Hartford and New Haven journals. For his 
paper "On the Construction of School-houses" he 
was awarded a premium from the American insti- 
tute of instruction. About 1832 he removed to 
Boston, and there published the " Young Man's 
Guide," a book that exerted great influence by dis- 
seminating correct physiological principles. Up- 
ward of 100 books and pamphlets were published 
by him, including "The House I live in," "The 
Young Housekeeper," " The Library of Health " (6 
vols.), " Moral Reform," " My Progress in Error," 
and a 'Prize Essay on Tobacco.'" He spent his 
winters in travel, visiting school-houses, more than 
20,000 of which he is said to have inspected, and 
lecturing. His name is identified with some of the 
most valuable reforms in education, morals, and 
physical training of the present century. 

ALDAMA, lisriiacio, Mexican patriot, b. in San 
Miguel el GraTide, Guanajuato ; d. in Monclova, 20 
June, 1811. He was a lawyer, but devoted him- 
self to commercial projects with marked success. 
From the beginning of the revolutionary war he 
joined Hidalgo, was soon promoted to the rank of 
general, and was then appointed minister to the 
United States, in hope of obtaining help from this 
nation. But, on reaching Bejar, he found that 
some insurgents, led by Zambrano, were preparing 
a revolt against the revolutionary authorities. 
These being overpowered by the new insurgents, 
1 March, 1811, Aldama was arrested and sent to 
Monclova, where he was executed. 

ALDANA, Rainoii, IMexican poet, b. in Merida 
de Yucatan, 30 June, 1833 ; d. in tlie city of Mexi- 
co, 16 Aug., 1882. He studied philosophy and law 
in his native city, but soon devoted himself to 
journalism and politics. He produced four dramas, 
which bear the titles " Honor y felicidad," " No- 
bleza de corazon," " Una prenda de venganza," 
and " La cubeza y el coi-azon." besides lyric poems, 
sonnets, and numerous literary articles. 




ALDEN, Ebenezer, physician, b. in Randolph, 
Mass., 17 March, 1788; d. there 26 Jan., 1881. He 
was of tlie seventh generation from John Alden of 
Mayflower memory, and was graduated at Harvard 
in 1808. He was the last survivor of his class, 
whicli included his friends Richard Henry Dana, 
and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, of South Caro- 
lina. He studied medicine at Dartmouth and at 
the university of Pennsylvania, where he received 
his degree in 1812, and followed his profession 
throughout his life in his native town. He published 
" Historical Sketch of the Massachusetts Medi- 
cal Society " (Boston, 1888); "Memoir of Mrs. M. 
A. 0. Clark" (Boston, 1844); and the "Alden Me- 
morial " (Boston, 1867). In October, 1881, a me- 
morial brochure was published, containing a bio- 
graphical sketch, with a portrait, of Dr. Alden, 
together with the funeral addresses. 

ALDEN, Henry Mills, editor, b. in Mt. Tabor, 
Vt., 11 Nov., 1836. He was graduated at Williams 
college in 1857, and at Andover theological seminary 
in 1860. In the winter of 1863-'4 he delivei-e& 
before the Lowell institute of Boston a series of 
twelve lectTires on " The Structure of Paganism." 
In 1869 he became managing editor of " Harper's 
Magazine." He is the author of "The Ancient 
Lady of Sorrow," a poem (1872), and, jointly with 
A. li. Guernsey, " Harper's Pictorial History of 
the Great Rebellion" (New York, 1862-'65), Mr. 
Guernsey writing the eastern campaigns and Mr. 
Alden the western. 

ALDEN. Ichabod, soldier, b. in Duxbury, Mass., 
11 Aug.. 17;J9; d. 10 Nov., 1778. He was a great- 
grandson of John Alden of the original Plymouth 
colony. Before the revolution he was lieutenant- 
colonel of the Plymouth regiment, and he held 
the same rank in Baldwin's regiment at the siege 
of Boston. Subsequently he was promoted to the 
colonelcy of the 7th Massachusetts regiment. He 
was killed by Indians at Cherry Valley, N. Y. 

ALDEN, Isabella, author, b. in New York in 
1841. Her maiden name was McDonald. She is 
the author of a popular juvenile series called the 
" Pansy Books," embracing nearly 60 titles, most 
of which are adapted to the use of Sunday-school 
libraries. Among the most popular of these are 
" An Endless Chain," " The King's Daughter," 
" Mary Burton Abroad," " Chautauqua Girls at 
Home," " Four Girls at Chautauqua," " New Year's 
Tangles," and " Six Little Girls." Mrs. Alden has 
from the beginning been identified with the Chau- 
tauqua system of instruction, and has also edited 
" Pansy," a juvenile publication. 

ALDEN, James, naval officer, b. in Portland, 
Me., 31 March, 1810 ; d. in San Francisco, Cal., 6 
Feb., 1877. He was appointed midshipman in 1828, 
and in that capacity accompanied the Wilkes explor- 
ing expedition around the world in 1838-'42. He 
was commissioned lieutenant in 1841, and served 
during the Mexican war, being present at the capture 
of Vera Cruz, Tuxpan, and Tabasco. In 1855-56 
he was actively engaged in the Indian war on Pu- 
get's sound. At the outbreak of the civil war he 
was in command of the steamer " South Carolina," 
reenforced Fort Pickens, Fla., and was in an en- 
gagement at Galveston, Texas. He commanded 
the sloop of war " Richmond " at the passage of 
forts Jackson and St. Philip and the capture of 
New Orleans (April, 1862). and was also at Port 
Hudson. He was made captain in 1863, and com- 
manded the " Brooklyn," participating in the cap- 
ture of Mobile bay (August, 1864) and in the two 
attacks on Port Fisher. He was commissioned 
commodore in 1866, and two years later was placed 
in charge of the navy-yard at Mare island, Cal. 

In 1869 he was appointed chief of the bureau of 
navigation and detail in the navy department. He 
was promoted to the rank of rear admiral in 1871, 
and assigned command of the European squadron. 
ALDEN, Joliu, magistrate of the Plymouth 
colony, b. in England in 1599 : d. in Duxbury, Mass., 
12 Sept., 1687. He was hired as a cooper at South- 
ampton, where the " Mayflower " was undergoing 
repairs, and signed the compact in her cabin in 

1620. He married Priscilla Mullens in 1621, and 
the incident of his courtship has been made the- 
subject of one of Longfellow's longer poems. His 
wisdom, integrity, and decision won for him the con- 
fidence of his associates, and, although the youngest 
of the pilgrims, he became one of the most important 
members of the colony. The " Mayflower," shown 
in the engraving, was a vessel of 180 tons. 

ALDEN, Joseph, educator, b. in Cairo, N. Y., 
4 Jan., 1807 ; d. in New York, 30 Aug., 1885. At 
the age of fourteen he began teaching in a public 
school and showed great ability in this direction. 
He was graduated at Union college in 1829, and 
studied at Princeton theological seminary, where 
for two years he was tutor. In 1834 he was or- 
dained pastor of the Congregational church in 
Williamstown, Mass., and subsequently (1835-'52).' 
became professor of Latin, and then of rhetoric and 
political economy, in Williams college. From 1852 
to 1857 he was professor of mental and moral phi- 
losophy at Lafayette college. In 1857 he became 
president of Jefferson college, and from 1867 to 1872 
he was principal of the Albany, N. Y., normal 
school. He was a prolific writer, and prepared 
more than 70 volumes, mostly Sunday-school litera- 
ture. Among his works are "The Example of 
Washington," " Citizen's Manual," " Christian Eth- 
ics," " The Science of Government," " Elements 
of Intellectual Philosophy," and "First Steps in 
Political Economy." He was also a constant 
contributor to periodical literature and for some 
time editor of the New York " Observer " and of 
the Philadelphia "Christian Library."— His son,. 
William Liviiiarstoii, author, b. in Williams- 
town, Mass., 9 Oct., 1837, was educated at Lafay- 
ette and Jefferson colleges, graduating in 1858, 
and then studied law. He was for several years 
a contributor to the magazines, but has achieved 
his reputation principally by humorous editorials, 
of which those in the New York "Times" are 
the most famous. In 1885 he was appointed U. 
S. consul-general at Rome. To him is due the 
credit of introducing canoeing as a recreation into 
the United States, and in 1870 he founded thp 




■* New York Canoe Club." His published works 
include "Domestic Explosives" (1878); "Shoot- 
ing Stars" (1879); "Canoe and Plying Proa" 
(1880); "The Moral Pirates" (1881); "Life of 
Christopher Columbus " (1882) ; " The Cruise of the 
Ghost " (1882); "The Cruise of the Canoe Club" 
(1888) ; and " Adventures of Jimmy Brown " (1885). 

ALDEN, Roger, soldier, b. in "Lebanon, Conn., 
11 Feb., 1754; d. in West Point, N. Y., 5 Nov., 
1836. He was graduated at Yale in 1773, and 
served in the revolutionary war as aide to Gen. 
Greene. Subsequently he became agent of the 
Holland Land Co., and resided at Meadville, Pa., 
from 1795 to 1825. He was appointed ordnance 
storekeeper at West Point, 20 Jan., 1825, and re- 
mained as such until his death. He was a gi'eat- 
grandson of John Alden. — His son, Bradford 
Ripley, soldier, b. in Meadville, Pa., in 1800; d. in 
Newport, R. L, 10 Sept., 1870. After graduation 
at West Point in 1831 he passed through the usual 
experiences of young officers in camp and garri- 
son life with the 4th Lifantry. He was an in- 
structor at West Point in 1833-'40, and then served 
for nearly two years as aide to Gen. Scott. After 
three years of garrison duty he was appointed 
commandant at West Point, 14 Dec, 1845, and 
remained there until 1 Nov., 1852. In the fron- 
tier service that followed, he led an important 
expedition against the Rouge river Indians, was 
severely wounded in action, 24 Aug., 1853, and re- 
signed in consequence on the 29th of September 
in the same year. He never fully recovered from 
his wound, and was unable to serve in the civil 
war. He was a man of fine literary taste and 
culture, and passed several years of his civil life 
in Europe. 

ALDEN, Timothy, clergvman, b. in Yarmouth, 
Mass., 28 Aug., 1771 ; d. in Pittsburg, 5 July, 1839. 
He studied at Harvard, distinguishing himself by 
his knowledge of oriental languages, and was 
graduated in 1794. From 1799 to 1805 he was 
pastor to the Congregational church in Portsmouth, 
N. II., where from 1800 to 1808 he taught school. 
Subsequently he conducted schools for young ladies 
in Boston, Newark, Cincinnati, an I East Liberty, 
Pa. In 1817 he founded Alleghany college, Mead- 
ville, Pa., and became its first president, retiring 
in 1831. He published a collection of epitaphs 
and inscriptions (5 vols., 1814) ; "An Account of 
Sundry Missions among the Senecas" (1827); and 
other works, and prepared a valuable catalogue of 
the lil)rary of the New York historical society. 

ALDEN, Timothy, inventor, b. in Barnstable, 
Mass., in 1819; d. in New York, 4 Dec, 1858. He 
was the sixth in descent from John Alden, of 
"Mayflower" fame. When very young, setting 
type in his brother's printing office, he said: "If I 
live, I will invent a machine to do this tiresome 
work." He labored steadily, devoted his leisure 
to study, and jn 1846 began the construction of a 
composing and distributing machine. His idea 
was to arrange the type in cells around the circum- 
ference of a horizontal wheel. By the rotation of 
the wheel, several receivers are also made to ro- 
tate, and these pick up the proper types from 
their respective cells. His brother. Henry W. 
Alden, made many improvements after the death 
of the inventor. 

ALDRICH, James, poet, b. in Suffolk co., N. 
Y., in 1810; d. in October. 1856. He entered 
early into mercantile life, but at twenty-six years 
of age, having had some success as a writer, he 
abandoned business for literature. Several popu- 
lar pei-iodicals were conducted by him, and in 1840 
he established the " Literary (gazette," in which 

appeared many of his poems, which pleased the 
popular taste. Of these " A Death-Bed " is the best 
known, particular attention being called to it by 
Edgar A. Poe, who pointed out its striking resem- 
blance to a poem by Plood on the same subject. In 
the latter part of his life he resumed his business 
pursuits. See Rufus W. Griswold's " Poets and 
Poetry of Am.erica." 

ALDRICH, Nelson Wilmarth, senator, b. in 
Foster, R. I., 6 Nov., 1841. He received an aca- 
demic education, and engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits. He was president of the Providence common 
council in 1872-3, a member of the Rhode Island 
general assembly in 1875-'G. serving in 1876 as 
speaker of the house of representatives, and was 
elected to congress in 1878 and 1880. He was 
elected to the IJ. S. senate as a republican, to suc- 
ceed Gen. Burnside, and took his seat 5 Dec, 1881. 

ALDRICH. Thomas Bailey, author, b. in 
Portsmouth, N. H., 11 Nov., 1836. His early 
youth was i)assed In Louisiana. He began a course 
of study preparator}' to entering college, but, on 
the death of his fa- 
ther, he abandoned 
it to enter the 
counting-room of 
his uncle, a mer- 
chant in New York 
city. Here he re- 
mained three years, 
and here he began 
to contribute prose 
and verse to vari- 
ous journals. His 
" Ballad of Babie 
Bell" (1856) won 
immediate and uni- 
versal favor, and 
this, with other 
successes, induced 
him to enter upon a 
literary career. At 
first he was a proof- 
reader, then a 

"reader" for a publishing-house. He became a 
frequent contributor to " Putnam's Magazine," the 
" Knickerbocker." and the weekly papers, and af- 
terward to the New York " Evening Mirror." In 
1856 he joined the staff of the New York " Home 
Journal," then under the management of Willis 
and Morris, with whom he remained three years. 
He was editor of " Every Saturday," Boston, so 
long as it was published, 1870-'4. For several 
years he had written almost exclusively for the 
"Atlantic Monthly," when in March, 1881, he 
became its editor. His published volumes of poet- 
ry are "The Dells" (1855); "The Ballad of Babie 
Bell" and other poems (1856); "The Course of 
True Love never did run Smooth " (1858) ; " Pam- 
pinea and other Poems" (1861); two collections 
of "Poems" (1863 and 1865); "Cloth of Gold 
and other Poems " (1874); "Flower and Thorn; 
Later Poems" (1876); an edition de luxe of his 
Lyrics and Sonnets ( 1880) ; and " Friar Jerome's 
Beautiful Book " (1881). His prose works are 
"Daisy's Necklace" (1856); "Out of his Head, a 
Romance in Prose " (1862) ; " Story of a Bad Boy." 
which is in some degree autobiographical (1870) ; 
" Marjorie Daw and other People," short stories 
(1873); " Prudence Palfrey," a novel (1874); "The 
Queen of Sheba." a romance of travel (1877) ; " The 
Stillwater Tragedv" (1880); " From Ponkapog to 
Pesth" (1883); and "Mercedes" (1883). He has 
translated from the French, Bedollierre's " Story of 
a Cat." Complete collections of his prose writings 





are published in England, France, and Germany, 
and translations of two of his novels and several 
of his short stories have appeared in the " Revue 
des deux Moiides." 

ALDRIIXxE, Ira, negro tragedian, known as the 
" African Roscius," d. in Lodez, Poland, 7 Aug., 
1867. The place and date of his birth are un- 
known. Some biographers say he was born in 
Bellair, near Baltimore, about 1810 ; that he was a 
mulatto, apprenticed to a ship-carpenter ; acquired 
a knowledge of German from German immigrants; 
accompanied Edmiuid Kean to England as his 
servant, where his natural talent for the stage was 
cultivated; and subsequently returned to the 
United States, where, in 1880-31, he appeared 
on the stage m Baltimore, but was not successful ; 
then returned to England and began a career of 
fame. Other biographers, claiming to be better 
informed, say that he was born in New York city 
about 1805, that his fathei- was a full-blooded ne- 
gro, a native chieftain of Senegal, who came to the 
United States, was converted and educated, and 
became the pastor of a colored church in New 
York. He intended that his son Ira should follow 
the same profession, but the boy had a passion for 
the stage, and demonstrated his ability in success- 
ful amateur performances. His father disapproved 
of his coui'se, and sent him to England to be edu- 
cated for the ministry. The son obeyed for a time, 
but his fondness for the stage soon took him away 
from his books. After some time spent in prefiara- 
tion, he made his debjit at the Royalty theatre in 
London as Othello, where he met with immediate 
success. In England he was generally preferred in 
those plays to which his color was ajipropriate. 
He was highly appreciated by Edmund Kean, and 
appeared at Belfast as Othello to Kean's lago. As 
an interpreter of Shakespeare he was very generally 
regarded as one of the be-t and most faithful. He 
appeared at Co vent Garden as Othello in 1833, and 
at the Surrey theatre in 1848. In 1852 he visited 
Germany, where he played three years, and in 1857 
the king of Sweden invited him to visit Stock- 
holm. On the continent he ranked as one of the 
ablest tragedians of his time. Honors were show- 
ered upon him wherever he appeared. He was 
presented by the king of Prussia with the first- 
class medal of arts and sciences, accompanied by 
an autograph letter from the emperor of Austria ; 
the Grand Cross of Leopold ; a similar decoi'ation 
from the emperor of Russia; and a magnificent 
Maltese cross, with the medal of merit, from the 
city of Berne. Similar honors were conferi-ed on 
him by other crowned heads of Europe. He was 
made a member of the Prussian academy of arts 
and sciences, and holder of the large gold medal; 
member of tlie imperial and arch-ducal institution 
of our lady of the manger in Austria; of the Rus- 
sian hof-versamlung of Riga; honorary member of 
the imperial academy of arts and sciences in St. 
Petersburg, and many others. His head was of 
uncommon size, measuring twenty-three and a 
half inches in circumference. He left a widow, an 
English lady, in London. At the time of his death 
he was on his way to fill a professional engage- 
ment in St. Petersburg. 

ALE(t}RE, Francisco J., Mexican author, b. 
in Vera Cruz, 13 Nov.. 1729 ; d. 16 Aug., 1788. He 
was a Jesuit priest, and taught [)hilosophy in Ha- 
vana for seven years, and afterward canon law in 
Yucatan. And after finishing the " Historia de la 
Provincia de la Compania de Jesiis en la Nueva 
Espaiia," which Father Francisco Florencia had 
left incomplete, he went to Bologna, Italy, where 
he was in charge of a school for young Mexican 

Jesuits until his death. Alegre was author oi 
twenty-three works, most of them in Latin, on 
rhetoric, mathematics, theology, history, and the 
Latin and Greek classics. Besides the Spanish and 
Mexican languages, he knew to perfection Latin, 
Gi'eek, ?]nglish, French, and Italian. 

ALEMANY, Joseph Sadoc, archbishop, b. in 
Vich, in Catalonia, Spain, in 1814. He entered the 
Dominican order at the age of fifteen, and studied 
in the convents of Trumpt and Garona. He was 
ordained at Viterbo, Italy, in 1837, remained a 
year and a half at Viterbo as sub-master of novices, 
and was then a])pointed assistant pastor of the 
church of Minerva, in Rome, which office he con- 
tinued to discharge up to 1841, when he volun- 
teered for the American mission. After perform- 
ing missionary duties in Nashville and Memphis, 
he was made provincial of the order in the state 
of Ohio in 1847. He attended the general chap- 
ter of the Dominicans in Italy in 1850, when his 
abilities attracted the attention of the papal court, 
and he was apponited bishop of Monterey the same 
year, and was consecrated in the church of San 
Carlo by Cardinal Franzoni. He at once left Rome, 
bringing with him some members of his oi'der of 
both sexes, through whose agency he has founded 
several educational institutions in California. He 
was translated to the see of San Fr'ancisco in 1853, 
being its first archbishop. He resigned his archi- 
episcopal office in 1883, with the object of devoting 
the rest of his life to the reorganization of his 
order in Spain, and went to reside in a Dominican 
convent in Valencia. He is the author of a " Life 
of Saint Dominick." 

ALEN(^)A, Jose Martiniano d' (ah-lane'-sa), 
Br'azilian jurist, b. in Ceai'a in 1829 ; d. in Rio de 
Janeiro, 12 Dec, 1877. His law studies were pur- 
sued at Sao Paulo, and on their completion he went 
to Rio, where he became a frequent contributor to 
the journals of that city. He also wrote dramas 
and romances, some of which are based upon the 
Indian legends current in Brazil, and rank among 
the finest literary productions of the empire. In 
1868 he was elected deputy for Ceara to I'epresent 
the conservative party, and entered the cabinet as 
minister of justice. Two years later, when a can- 
didate for senator, he was returned as one of the 
"triple list," but was not confirmed by the em- 
peror. His reputation at the bar is one of the most 
brilliant in the history of liis country. His poem 
" Iracema," and his romances of "Guarany"and 
" Urabijara," are the best known of his literary 

nando (ah-len-kas'-tra), duke of Linares, 35th 
viceroy of Mexico, where he assumed command, 15 
Jan., 1711. The same year snow fell for the first 
time recorded in Mexico, and thei'e was a destruc- 
tive eaithquake. Alencasti'e showed himself most 
lil)('ial and charitable toward the sufferei's by the 
earthquake, as well as during the terrible famine 
and epidemic that scourged the country four years 
later. He established in Nuevo Leon a colony 
called San Felipe de Linares, and soon after this 
he left Mexico, 16 Aug., 1716. 

ALEXANDER, Abraham, statesman, b. in 
North Carolina in 1718; d. near Charlotte, 23 
April, 1786. He represented ]\Iecklenburg co. in 
the colonial legislature prior to 1775, and when, 
early in 1775, Joseph Martin, the royalist governor, 
attempted to prevent a free expression of opinion, 
the people of the county met in the court-house at 
Charlotte, at the summons of Col. Thos. Polk, and 
elected Mr. Alexander permanent chairman. The 
dates of the preliminary meetings are not known 




On 31 May they unanimously adopted the Mecklen- 
burg declaration of independence, substantially re- 
nouncing allegiance to the British crown and pro- 
viding for a civil government upon a republican 
basis. This document, antedated by more than a 
year the formal declaration of 1776, and vi^as itself 
preceded by several others, notably that of Men- 
don, Mass. It was in due form signed, was read 
to mass meetings of the people of North Carolina, 
and in August, 1775, was transmitted to Philadel- 
phia by the hand of a special messenger. 

ALEXANDER, Archer, freedman, b. near 
Richmond, Va., about 1810 ; d. in St. Louis, Mo., 
8 Dec, 1879. He was a slave, and fled to St. Louis, 
then under martial law, in 1863, and was formally 
liberated the same year. He served as the model 
for " the freedman " in the bronze group by Thom- 
as Ball, standing in the capitol grounds in Wash- 
ington, and known as " Freedom's Memorial." In 
1831 he was taken to Missouri by his young mas- 
ter. During the reign of terror in that state at the 
outbreak of the war he learned that the pi'o-slavery 
party had cut the timbers of a certain bridge so 
that it should break down inider a tram carrying a 
detachment of national troops about to pass over 
it. At the risk of his life he conveyed the informa- 
tion to a well-known union man, and the detach- 
ment was saved. Alexander was suspected as the 
informant and arrested by a pro-slavery committee. 
He made his escape to and secured employment in 
St. Louis under a provost marsh.d's certificate. 
Until the emancipation proclamation assured his 
permanent freedom he was in constant danger 
from kidnappers. Although almost wholly illiter- 
ate, he had a shrewd intelligence and was a skilled 
and efficient workman. A stone commemorating 
his capture as a fugitive slave has been raised on 
tlie spot where he was taken when making his es- 
cape from slavery. See " The Story of Archer Al- 
exander" (Boston, 1886). 

ALEXANDER, Archibald, educator, b. in 
Rockbridge co., Va., 17 April, 1772: d. in Prince- 
ton, N. J.", 22 Oct., 1851. His grandfather, of Scot- 
tish descent, came from Ireland to Pennsylvania in 
1736, and after a residence of two years removed to 
Virginia. William, father of Archibald, was a farmer 

and trader. At 
the age of ten Ar- 
chibald was sent 
to the academy of 
Rev. William Gra- 
ham at Timber 
Ridge meeting- 
house (since de- 
veloped into 
Washington and 
Lee university), 
at Lexington. At 
the age of seven- 
teen he became a 
tutor in the fami- 
Iv of Gen. John 
Posey, of The Wil- 
derness, twelve 
miles westofB'red- 
ei'icksburg, but 
after a few months 
resumed his stud- 
ies with his former teacher. At this time his mind 
became influenced by a remarkable movement, still 
spoken of as " the great revival," and he turned his 
attention to the study of divinity. He was licensed 
to preach 1 Oct., 1701, ordained by the presbytery of 
Hanover 9 .June, 1794, and for seven years was an 
itinerant pastor in Charlotte and Prince Edward cos. 


In 1796 he became president of Hampden Sydney 
college, Va,. but in 1801 resigned, and visited New 
York and New England. During his tour he went 
to see the Rev. Dr. Waddel, the celebrated blincl 
preacher mentioned by Wirt in his " British Spy." 
The result of this visit was his marriage to Dr. 
Waddel's daughter Janetta. Immediately after he 
resumed his pi'esidency, but, owing to insubordina- 
tion among the students, retired, and became in 
1807 pastor of the Pine st. Presbyterian church in 
Philadelphia. The degree of D. D. was conferred 
on him by the college of New Jersey in 1810, and 
in the same year he was elected president of Union 
college in Georgia, a fact which remained unknown 
even to his family until after his death. On the 
organization of the theological seminary at Prince- 
ton in 1812 Dr. Alexander was unanimously 
chosen as the leading professor. As the number 
of students increased and other professors were 
added to the faculty, he was enabled to direct his 
attention more particularly to the department of 
pastoral and polemic theology, in promoting which, 
with the gcTieral interests of the institution, he la- 
bored with zeal and success till his death, a period 
of nearly forty years. His powers both for pulpit 
oratory and polemic disquisition were extraordi- 
nary. He was always busy, and from 1829 to 1850 
scarcely a number of the " Princeton Review " ap- 
peared without an article from his pen. His style 
was idiomatic and forcible. With the exception of 
occasional sermons and contributions to periodi- 
cals, he published nothing until he had entered his 
fifty-second year. His first work was " Outlines of 
the Evidences of Christianity " (1823), which has 
been translated into various foreign languages and 
is used as a text-book in colleges. It was reprinted 
in London in 1828, and again with a new edition 
in 1833, accompanied with introductory notes by 
Rev. John Morison, D. D. This was followed by a 
" Treatise on the Canqn of the Old and New Tes- 
taments " (1826) ; " Lives of the Patriarchs " (1835) ; 
" Essays on Religious Experiences " (1840) ; " His- 
tory of African Colonization " (1846) ; " History of 
the Log College " (1846) ; " History of the Israelit- 
ish Nation " (1852), and other works. He also con- 
tributed largely to periodicals. Pie left several works 
in manuscript, of which the " Outlines of Moral 
Science " (1852) was pronounced by the " Westmin- 
ster Review " to be a " calm, clear stream of ab- 
stract reasoning, flowing from a thoughtful, well- 
instructed mind, witliout any parade of logic, but 
with an intuitive simplicity and directness which 
gives an almost axiomatic force." Other posthu- 
mous works were " Duties and Consolations of the 
Christian " ; " Patriarchal Theology " ; " History of 
the Presbyterian Church in Virginia " ; " Biographi- 
cal Sketches of Distinguished American Clergymen 
and Alunmi of the College of New Jersey " ; and 
" Church Polity and Discipline." He left five sons, 
of whom three became ministers, and one daugh- 
ter. The eldest son wrote the life of his father, 
and edited his posthumous works (New York, 1854). 
— His son, James Waddel, clergyman, b. near 
Gordonsville, Louisa co., Va., 13 March, 1804 ; d. at 
the Red Sweet Springs, Va., 31 July, 1859. He re- 
ceived his academical training at Philadelphia, was 
graduated at Princeton in 1820, and studied the- 
ology in Princeton seminary. In 1824 he was 
appointed a tutor, and during the same year he was 
licensed to preach by the Presbytery of New Bruns- 
wick, N. J. During 1825-'28 he was in charge of a 
church in Charlotte co., Va., and from 1828 to 
1830 was pastor of the first Presbyterian church 
in Trenton, N. J. His health failing, he resigned 
this charge and became editor of " The Presbji;e- 




rian," in Pliiladelphia. He was professor of rhet- 
oric and belles lettres in Princeton college from 
1833 till 1844, when he assumed charge of the 
Duane st. church in New York city. Prom 1844 
to 1851 he was professor of ecclesiastical history 
and church government in Princeton theological 
seminary, and in 1851 he was called to the pas- 
torate of the Fifth ave. Presbyterian chui-ch, where 
he remained until his death. Among his pub- 
lished works are "Consolation"; "Thoughts on 
Family Worship " ; " Plain Words to a Young Com- 
municant " ; a series of essays entitled " The Ameri- 
can Mechanic and Workingman " ; " Discourses on 
Christian Faith and l^ractice " (New York, 1858) ; 
" Gift to the Afflicted " ; a biography of Dr. Archi- 
bald Alexander (New York, 1854); and more than 
thirty volumes for the American Sunday-school 
union. He was also a frequent contributor to the 
" Princeton Review " and the " Biblical Repository." 
" Forty Years' Familiar Letters of James W. Al- 
exander," was published by the surviving corre- 
spondent, the Rev. John Hall, D. D., of Trenton, 
N. J. (2 vols.. New York, 1880).— His son, AVilliam 
Cowper, lawyer, b. in Virginia in 180G ; d. in New 
York city, 23 Aug., 1874, was graduated at Prince- 
ton in 1824. He was admitted to the bar in 1827, 
and soon gained a reputation for legal knowledge 
and eloquence and took part in political affairs. 
For several years he was president of the New 
Jersey state senate. He was nominated for gov- 
ernor, and lacked but a few votes of election. 
After being a member of the peace congress of 
1861, over which he was frequently called to pre- 
side, he withdrew from politics and devoted him- 
self entirely to the business of insurance, having 
been elected president of the Equitable Life In- 
surance Company when it was organized in 1859, 
of which he was president at the time of his 
death. — J lis son, Joseph Addison, clergyman, b. 
in Philadelphia, Pa., 24 April, 1809 ; d. in Prince- 
ton, N. J., 28 Jan., 1860, was graduated at Prince- 
ton, with the first honor in his class, in 1826, 
and associated himself with R. B. Patton in the 
establishment of Edgehill seminary at Princeton. 
From 1830 to 1833 he was adjunct professor of 
ancient languages at Princeton, after which he 
spent some time abroad studying languages. In 
1838 he was made professor of oriental literature 
in Princeton Theological Seminary, and in 1852 
Avas transferred to the chair oi biblical and ecclesi- 
astical history, which he held until his death. He 
was master of almost all of the modern languages 
of Europe, and as an orientalist had few superiors. 
This great lingviistic knowledge is shown in his 
numerous exegetical works, which include " The 
Earlier Prophecies of Isaiah " (1846), " The Later 
Prophecies of Isaiah " (1847). " Isaiah illustrated 
and explained " (1851), " The Psalms translated and 
explained " (1850), " Commentary on Acts " (1857), 
and " Commentary on Mark " (1858). He also pub- 
lished a series of "Essays on the Primitive Church 
Offices" (1851), and numerous articles in the " Bib- 
lical Repertory " and " Princeton Review." Since 
his death his " Sermons " have been published 
(1860), and also a "Commentary on Matthew" (1861), 
and " Notes on New Testament Literature," pre- 
pared in conjunction with Dr. Charles Hodge (2 
vols., 1861). His biography, by his nephew, Henry 
Carrington Alexander, was published in 1869. — 
His son, Samuel Davies, clergyman, b. in Prince- 
ton, N. J., 3 May, 1819; d. in New York city, 26 
Oct., 1894, studied theology in Princeton seminary. 
He preached in various places, and in 1855 was 
settled over the Phillips Presbyterian Church in 
New York city. He had contributed numerous 

papers to the " Princeton Review," and published 
" Princeton College during the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury " (1872) : and a " History of the Presbyterian 
Church in Ireland." An appreciative memorial 
tablet was placed in Phillips Church in May, 1895. 

ALEXANDER, Barton Stone, soldier, b. in 
Kentucky in 1819; d. in San Francisco, Cal., 15 
Dec, 1878. He was appointed to the U. S. military 
academy from Kentucky, was graduated in 1842, 
and became lieutenant in the corps of engineers. 
He superintended the repairs at various fortifica- 
tions, and also in the erection of Minot's ledge 
lighthouse, at the entrance of Boston harbor. Dur- 
ing the civil war he served as engineer in the con- 
struction of the defences of Washington, took part 
in the Manassas campaign of 1861, and was bre- 
vetted major for gallant^ and meritorious services 
in the battle of Bull Run. He continued with the 
army of the Potomac, rendering important aid at 
the siege of Yorktown, for which he was brevetted 
lieutenant-colonel in 1862. In 1864 he was con- 
sulting engineer with Gen. Sheridan's army, and 
in 1865 was made brevet brigadier-general for meri- 
torious services during the war. For the next two 
years he had charge of the construction of most of 
the public works in Maine, when he became senior 
engineer with the rank of lieutenant-colonel and 
member of the Pacific board of engineers. 

ALEXANDER, Caleb, clergyman, b. in North- 
field, Mass., 22 Julv, 1775; d. in Onondaga, N. Y., 
12 April, 1828. After graduation at Yale in 1777, 
he studied for the ministry and was ordained pas- 
tor of the Presbyterian church at New Marlboro, 
N. Y., in 1781-'82. In April, 1786, he took charge 
of a church at Mendon, N. Y., but left it the 
same year. He next became principal of an acade- 
my at Onondaga, where he remained during the 
rest of his life. His published works include Latin 
and English grammars, an " Essay on the Deity of 
Christ" (1796), "Grammar Elements," a literal 
translation of Virgil into English prose (Worcester, 
1796), the "Columbian Dictionary" (1800), and 
" Young Ladies' and Gentleman's Instructor." 

ALEXANDER, Edmund Brooke, soldier, b. 
in Hay Market, Prince William co., Va., 2 Oct., 
1802 ; d. in Washington, D. C, 3 Jan., 1888. He 
was graduated at the U. S. military academy in 
1823. After twenty years of frontier and garrison 
duty he had an opportunity for service in Mexico, 
where he won a major's brevet at Cerro Gordo (18 
April, 1847), and a lieutenant-colonel's at Contreras 
and Churubusco (20 Aug., 1847). He became major 
of the 8th infantry, IO'Nov., 1851, and colonel of 
the 10th infantry, a new regiment, 3 March, 1855. 
In 1857-"58 he commanded the Utah expedition 
until relieved by Gen. Johnston. During the civil 
war he was retained at St. Louis on provost-mar- 
shal's duty, involving delicate and responsible 
administration of important matters. He was also 
superintendent of the volunteer recruiting service, 
and chief mustering and disbursing officer for Mis- 
souri. He was brevetted brigadier-general, 13 March, 
1865, and commanded his regiment at Fort Snelling 
till retirement, 22 Feb., 1869, by operation of law. 

ALEXANDER, Francis, artist, b. in Connecti- 
cut in 1800. When eighteen years of age he began 
painting in water-color without an instructor. 
About 1820 he went to New Yoi'k and prosecuted 
his art studies, as a pui)il of Alexander Robertson. 
He worked for a few months in Providence, R. I., 
and subsequently opened a studio in Boston, where 
he gained great popularity as a portrait-painter. 
He went to Europe in 1831, finally taking up his 
residence in Florence. During the later years of 
his life he has not been active in his profession. 




ALEXANDER, George, Canadian senator, b. 
in Banffshire, Scotland, 21 May, 1814. He was 
■educated at Aberdeen iniiversity, emigrated to 
Canada, became president of the provincial agri- 
cultural association of Upper Canada in 1857, and 
-continued a member of the board of arts and manu- 
factures until 1867. He represented Core divis- 
ion in the legislative council of Canada from 1858 
until the union of the provinces, and was called to 
the senate 30 May, 1873. He is a conservative. 

ALEXANDER, James, lawyer, b. in Scotland 
about 1690 ; d. in New York, 2 April, 1756. His 
American career began in 1715, wlien he was 
obliged to leave England on account of his active 
partisanship with the pretender in his vain at- 
tempt to seize the English crown. He became 
the first official recorder of the town of Perth Am- 
boy, N. J., in 1718, but, having served as an officer 
of engineers in Scotland, he was appointed survey- 
or-general of New York and New Jersey. In his 
intervals of leisure he studied law and became emi- 
nent at the colonial bar. He was a constant con- 
tributor, with Chief Justice Morris, to the " New 
York Weekly Journal," established in 1733. In 
1735 he was temporarily disbarred because he 
served as counsel for Peter Zenger, a popular 
printer of that day, who was accused of sedition, 
but he was reinstated on a change of administra- 
tion two years later. He held many public offices, 
served for several years in the colonial legislature 
and council, and was attorney-general in 1721-'23, 
and secretary of the province of New York. He 
■acquired large wealth, and was among the staunch- 
est of the pre-revolutionary friends of civil liberty. 
In company with Franklin and others, he founded 
the American philosophical society. His son Will- 
iam was the " Lord Stirling " of revolutionary 
fame. In 1756 a ministerial project threatening 
the rights of the colony was proposed, and, when it 
•came up for consideration at Albany, Sec. Alex- 
ander undertook the journey from New York to 
oppose the measure, although he was suffering from 
severe illness. His death resulted from the fatigue 
and exposure then incident to the trip. 

ALEXANDER, John Henry, scientist, b. in 
Annapolis, Md., 26 June, 1812; d. in Baltimore, 
Md., 2 Marcli, 1867. He was graduated at St. 
John's college in 1826, and studied law, but turned 
his attention to science. His first work was in 
engineering, and having submitted to the legisla- 
ture a plan tor the survey of Maryland, in con- 
nection with the geological survey, he became in 
1834 the topographicarengineer of his state. As 
•such he was engaged until 1841, and during the in- 
tervening years he regularly prepared the annual 
reports. The opening of various iron and coal de- 
posits was promoted "by these reports, and by his 
•efforts capital was enlisted in the working of the 
mines. As an authority on standards of weight 
■and measure, his opinion was highly regarded, and 
he was associated in much of the work conducted 
under the direction of the coast survey during the 
■superintendency of Hassler and Bache. In 1857 
he was sent to England by the national govern- 
ment as delegate to the British commission on deci- 
•mal coinage. His views on this subject were 
highly appreciated in this country, and he was 
about to be appointed director of the mint in 
Philadelphia when he died. He served on various 
government commissions, and his numerous re- 
ports are of great value. At various times he was 
professor of physics in St. James's college, Md., in 
the university of Pennsylvania, and in the universi- 
ty of Maryland. He was a member of many sci- 
entific societies, among them the American philo- 

sophical society of Philadelphia and the American 
association for the advancement of science, and he 
was one of the incorporators of the national academy 
of sciences. His published papers appeared prin- 
cipally in the " American Journal of Science and 
Arts." He edited three editions of Simms's " Treatise 
on Mathematical Instruments used in Surveying, 
Levelling, and Astronomy " (Baltimore, 1835, 1839, 
and 1848), and also Simms's " Treatise on Level- 
ling " (1838). Among his larger works are " History 
of the Metallurgy of Iron," Parts 1 and 2 (1840-42), 
and " Universal Dictionary of Weights and Meas- 
ures, Ancient and Modern " (1850). He also wrote 
several collections of religious verse, of which " In- 
troits " (Philadel])hia, 1844) and " Catena Dominica" 
(1854) were published. Several works in manu- 
script remained unpublished at the time of his death, 
of whicii the most important was " A Dictionary 
of English Surnames" (12 vols., 8vo). See "Bio- 
graphical Memoir of John H. Alexander," by J. E. 
Hilgard, in vol. i of the "Biographical Memoirs" 
of the national academy of sciences ; also " Life 
of J. H. Alexander," byWilliam Pinkney (1867). 

ALEXANDER, Nathaniel, physician, b. in 
Mecklenburg, N. C. in 1756; d. in Salisbury, 8 
March, 1808. In 1776 he was graduated at Prince- 
ton. After studying medicine he entered the army 
and served througli the latter part of the revolu- 
tionary war. At its close he began the practice of 
his profession in the high hills of Santee, whence 
he removed to Mecklenburg. He was for several 
years a member of the state legislature, was a mem- 
ber of congress in 1803-'5, and was elected by the 
legislature governor of North Carolina in 1805. 

ALEXANDER, Stephen, astronomer, b. in 
Schenectady, N. Y., 1 Sept., 1806 ; d. in Princeton, 
N. J., 25 June, 1883. He was graduated at Union 
in 1824 and at Princeton Theological Seminary in 
1832, was a tutor at Princeton in 1833, and became 
adjunct professor of mathematics in 1834, and pro- 
fessor of astronomy in 1840. From 1845 to 1854 
he occupied the chair of mathematics, and after- 
ward that of astronomy and mechanics until he 
retired in 1878. He has written a great number of 
scientific papers, some of which have been trans- 
lated into other languages. He was chief of the 
expedition that went to the coast of Labrador to 
observe the solar eclipse of 18 July, 1860, and was 
the leader also of that sent to the west to observe 
the eclipse of August, 1869. His principal writings 
are "Physical Phenomena attendant upon Solar 
Eclipses," read before the American philosophical 
society in 1843; a paper on the "Fundamental 
Principles of Mathematics," read before the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of Science in 
1848 ; another on the " Origin of the Forms and 
the Present Condition of some of the Clusters of 
Stars and several of the Nebul;?," read before the 
American Association in 1850; others on the 
" Form and Equatorial Diameter of the Asteroid 
Planets " and " Harmonies in the Arrangement of 
the Solar System wiiich seem to be Confirmatory 
of the Nebular Hypothesis of Laplace," presented 
to the National Academy of Science ; a " Statement 
and Exposition of Certain Harmonies of the Solar 
System," which was published by the Smithsonian 
Institute in 1875. 

ALEXANDER, Thomas, earl of Selkirk, b. in 
1774 ; d. in Pan, France, 6 April, 1820. He was the 
founder of the Red river settlement, and wrote a 
volume on " Emigration." containing a statement 
respecting that attempt at colonization of the west- 
ern territorv of Canada (London, 1817). 

ALEXANDER. Sir WiHiam, earl of Stirling, 
b. in 1580; d. in London, 12 Sept., 1640. When a 




young man he was appointed tutor to the earl of 
Argyll and accompanied him abroad. At a later 
date he received the place of gentleman usher to 
Prince Charles, son of James VI. of Scotland, and 
continued in favor at court after the king became 
James I. of England. He attained reputation as 
a poet and writer of rhymed tragedies, and as- 
sisted the king in preparing the metrical version 
known as " The Psalms of King David, translated 
by King James," and published by authority of 
Charles!., in 1631, after his father's death. Sir 
William held a copyright of this version, but it 
was never remunerative. In view of the successful 
result in Ireland of the establishment of baronets 
of Ulster, Sir William proposed to the king that 
the system should be extended to North America. 
On 21 Sept., 1621, a charter was issued, granting to 
him, " his heirs and assigns, whomsoever, . . . the 
continent, lands, and islands situate and lying in 
America within the cape or promontory commonly 
called Cape de Sable ... to the river called by the 
name of Santa Cruz, . . . and thence northward 
to 'the great river of Canada' [i. e., the St. Law- 
rence] ... to the aforesaid Cape Sable, where the 
circuit began." In other words, the king made a 
present to the ambitious poet of what are now the 
provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. 
The magnificent grant was subsequently extended 
to include a large section of the present northern 
United States and the Dominion of Canada — an 
empire larger than all the rest of the British pos- 
sessions. Charles, on his accession to the throne 
in 1625, not only confirmed his father's charter, 
but, in July of that year, gave full powers to use 
the " mines and forests, erect cities, appoint fairs, 
hold courts, grant lands, and coin money." As 
portions of the domain had already been granted 
by Henry IV. of France, and occupied by his sub- 
jects, wars among the rival claimants followed in 
due time as a matter of course ; but first the new 
American baronetcies were offered for sale at £150 
each, for which sum a grant of land three miles 
long by two miles broad was certified to the pur- 
chaser. Sir William speedily became involved in 
troublesome disputes, and was the object of bitterly 
sarcastic attacks on the part of his envious con- 
temporaries; but he and his sons persevered in 
their efforts to turn their prodigious possessions 
to some practical accoiuit. That they failed is 
evident from the " noble poverty," as one of his 
biographers terms it, of his last years. He was 
appointed secretary of state for Scotland in 1626, 
and held the office until his death, representing 
the king with remarkable ability and faithfulness, 
and receiving his earldom in 1630 as a reward 
for his services. During his last years he became 
involved in debt, and he died insolvent. There are 
various editions of his poems and tragedies. A 
complete edition of his works was published at 
Glasgow in 1870, in three octavo volumes, entitled 
" The Poetical Works of Sir William Alexander, 
Earl of Stirling, etc., now first collected and ed- 
ited, with Memoir and Notes." See Walpole's 
" Royal and Noble Authors," Wilson's " Poets and 
Poetry of Scotland," Irving's " Lives and History," 
Anderson's " Scottish Nation," " A Mapp and de- 
scription of New England, together with a Dis- 
course of Plantations and Colonies" (1630), and 
Rogers's " Memorials of the Earl of Stirling and 
the House of Alexander." 

ALEXANDER, William, called Lord Stirling, 
soldier, b. in New York city in 1726 ; d. in Albany, 
15 Jan., 1 783. He engaged in the provision busi- 
ness with his mother, the widow of David Provost. 
In connection with his business young Alexander 

subsequently joined the British army in the com- 
missariat department, and became aide-de-camp to- 
Gov. Shirley. In 1757 he prosecuted his claim to 
the earldom of Stirling before the house of lords, 
witliout success. After his return in 1761 he mar- 
ried the daughter of Philip Livingston. He held 
the office of surveyor-general, and was also a mem- 
ber of the provincial council. The former office 
had belonged to his father, James Alexander, who, 
formerly an adherent of the pretender, had come 
to America, risen to be colonial secretary in New 
York, and died in 1756, leaving a large fortune. He 
was an ardent patriot, and entered the revolution- 
ary army as colonel of the battalion of east New 
Jersey in October, 1775. He distinguished himself 
by the capture of a British armed transport, for 
which exploit congress, in March, 1776, appointed 
him a brigadier-general. At the battle of Long 
Island, 26 Aug., 1776, his brigade, ordered by Gen. 
Putnam to attack a greatly superior force, was 
nearly cut to pieces, and he himself was taken pris- 
oner. He was soon exchanged, and in February, 
1777, was promoted a major-general. When Lee 
marched to succor Philadelphia in December, 1776, 
Stirling was left in command at New York. At 
Trenton he received the surrender of a Hessian 
regiment. On 24 June, 1777, at Matouchin (now 
called Metuchin), he awaited an attack, contrary to 
Washington's orders ; his position was turned and 
his division defeated, losing two guns and 150 
men. At the battle of Brandywine and German- 
town he acted with bravery and discretion. At 
the battle of Monmouth he displayed tactical 
judgment in posting his batteries, and repelled 
with heavy loss an attempt to turn his flank. In 
1779, when in command in New Jersey, he sur- 
prised a British force at Paulus' Hook. In 1781 
he commanded at Albany. He died of gout, five 
days after the preliminaries of peace were agreed 
upon. Lord Stirling was one of the founders of 
Columbia college, called King's college before the 
revolution, and became its first governor. His 
journey to England in 1756 was undertaken in 
order to give testimony in behalf of Gen. Shir- 
ley, who was charged with neglect of duty. He 
wrote " The Conduct of Major-General Shirley, 
briefly stated," a pamphlet published about the 
time of the investigation ; and " An Account of 
the Comet of June and July, 1770." He was pro- 
ficient in the sciences of mathematics and astrono- 
my. See " Life of William Alexander, Earl of 
Stirling," by his grandson, William Alexander 
Duer, in the collections of the New Jersey His- 
torical Society (1847) ; and Charles Rogers's " House 
of Alexander " (1877). 

ALCrER, Cyrus, inventor, b. in West Bridge- 
water, Mass., 11 Nov., 1781 ; d. in Boston, 4 Feb., 
1856. Early in life he became an iron-founder, and 
established "his business in Easton, Mass. In 1809 
he removed to South Boston, where he founded the 
works that since 1817 have been known as the South 
Boston iron company. He supplied the government 
with large numbers of cannon-balls during the war 
of 1812, and his works became famed for the ex- 
cellent ordnance there manufactured. He was 
one of the best practical metallurgists of his time, 
and his numerous patents of improved processes 
show continued advance in the art practised by 
him. The first gun ever rifled in America was 
made at his works in 1834, and the first perfect 
bronze cannon was made at his foundry for the 
U. S. ordnance department. The mortar " Colum- 
biad," the largest gun of cast iron that had then 
been made in the United States, was cast under 
his personal supervision. Mr. Alger also devised 




numerous improvements in the construction of 
time fuses for bomb-shells and grenades. In 1811 
he patented a method of making cast-iron chilled 
rolls, and in 1832 iirst designed cylinder stoves. 
Mr. Alger served as a member of the city council 
during the first year of its existence, and was 
elected alderman in 1824 and 1827. 

AL(j}ER, Horatio, Jr., author, b. in Revere, 
Mass., IB Jan., 1834; d. in Natick, Mass., 18 July. 
1899. He was graduated at Harvard, engaged in 
journalism and teaching, and in 1864 was ordained 
pastor over the Unitarian church in Brewster, IMass. 
Taking up his residence in New York in 1866, he 
became interested in the condition of the street 
boys, and this experience gave form to many of 
his later writings. He has published in book- 
form " Bertha's Christmas Vision " (Boston, 1855) ; 
" Nothing to Do ; a Tilt at our Best Society," a 
poem (1857) ; " Prank's Campaign, or What a Boy 
can do " (Boston, 1864) ; several series of books for 
the young ; " Helen Ford," a novel (1866) ; and a 
volume of poems. "Ragged Dick," " Luck and 
Pluck," and " Tattered Tom " are the most popu- 
lar of his series for boys. 

ALGER, Russell Alexander, governor of Mich- 
igan, b. in Lafayette, Medina co., Ohio, 27 Feb., 
1836. He was left an 
orphan at eleven years 
of age, worked on a 
farm till he was eigh- 
teen, attending school 
in the winters, and 
then, after teaching, 
studied law and was 
admitted to the bar in 
1859. He began to 
practise in Cleveland, 
but was forced by im- 
paired health to re- 
move to Grand Rap- 
ids, Mich., where he en- 
gaged in the lumber 
business. He became 
captain in the 2d Mich- 
igan cavalry at the be- 
ginning of the civil 
war, and at Boones- 
ville. Miss., 1 July, 1862, was sent by Philip H. 
Sheridan, then colonel of that regiment, to attack 
the enemy's rear with ninety picked men. The Con- 
federates were routed, but Capt. Alger was wounded 
and taken prisoner. He escaped on the same day, 
and on 16 Oct. was made lieutenant-colonel of the 
6th Michigan cavalry. On 28 Feb., 1863, he became 
colonel of the 5th Michigan cavalry, and on 28 
June his command was the first to enter the town 
of Gettysburg. He was specially mentioned in 
Gen. Custer's report of the cavalry operations there, 
and in the pursuit of the enemy he was severely 
wounded at Boonesborough, Md., on 8 July. He 
was with Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley in 
1864, and on 11 June, at Trevillian station, by a 
brilliant charge, he captured a large force of Con- 
federates. On 11 June, 1865, he was given the 
brevets of brigadier-general and major-general of 
volunteers. He then resumed the lumber business 
in Detroit, Mich., and has acquired a fortune, serv- 
ing also as president or director of various corpora- 
tions. His great pine forest on Lake Huron com- 
prises more than 100 square miles and produces 
annually more than 75,000,000 feet of lumber. In 
1884 he was the successful Republican candidate 
for governor of the state, serving from 1885 till 
1887. In March, 1897, Gen. Alger was appointed 
secretary of war in President McKinley's cabinet. 

ALtrER, William Rounseville, clergyman, b. 
in Freetown, Mass., 30 Dec, 1822. He studied for 
the ministry, was graduated at Harvard theologi- 
cal school in 1847, and received the degree of A. M. 
from Harvard in 1852. Immediately on his ordi- 
nation he became pastor of a Unitarian church in 
Roxbury, and in 1855 removed to Boston, where he 
became pastor of the Bulfinch street church, and 
finally united with Theodore Parker's congregation 
in 1868, whom he succeeded as pastor, then wor- 
shipping in Music Hall. In 1874 he removed to 
New York, and in 1875 became pastor of the Uni- 
tarian church of the Messiah in that city until 
1878, when he moved to Denver, thence to Chicago 
in 1880, to Portland in 1881, and returned to Bos- 
ton. His published works comprise " The Poetry 
of the Orient ; or Metrical Specimens of the 
Thought, Sentiment, and Fancy of the East," pref- 
aced by an elaborate dissertation (Boston, 1856 ; 
new ed., 1861) : an edition, with an introduction, 
of James Martineau's " Studies of Christianity " 
(1858) ; " A Critical History of the Doctrine of a 
Future Life," with a bibliography by Ezra Abbot, 
containing 5.000 titles (1861) ; " The Genius of Soli- 
tude ; or The Loneliness of Human Life " (1861) ; 
" Friendships of Women " (1867) ; " Prayers offered 
in the Massachusetts House of Representatives 
during the Session of 1868 " (1869) ; " The End of 
the World and the Day of Judgment," and "The 
Sword, the Pen, and the Pulpit ; a Tribute to Charles 
Dickens" (two pamphlets, 1870); " Life of Edwin 
Forrest, with a Critical History of the Dramatic 
Art" (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1877); "The School 
of Life " (Boston, 1881) ; and " A Symbolic History 
of the Cross of Christ " (1881). 

ALLAN, Oeorge William, Canadian senator, 
b. in Toronto, 9 Jan., 1822. He was graduated at 
Upper Canada college, Toronto, in 1839, studied 
law, and was called to the bar in 1846, after which 
he travelled extensively. He was elected mayor 
of Toronto in 1855, and has been president of the 
Canadian institute of the same city. In 1869 he was 
appointed government trustee for municipal bond 
fund of the Toronto and Nipissing railway. He 
sat in the legislative council of Canada for York 
division from 1858 until the union, and was called 
to the senate in May, 1867. Mr. Allan was elected 
chancellor of Trinity college in 1876. 

ALLAN, Sir Hugii, ship-owner, b. in Saltcoats, 
Ayrshire, Scotland, 29 Sept., 1810 ; d. in Edinburgh, 
8 Dec, 1882. After receiving a limited educa- 
tion, he entered a 
counting-house in 
Greenock in 1823, 
and in 1824 sailed 
on his father's ship, 
" Favorite," for 
Canada. For three 
years he was clerk 
in a dry - goods 
store in Montreal, 
and afterward was 
in the shipping- 
house of James 
Miller. He served 
during the rebel- 
lion of 1837 as a 
volunteer, rising 
finally to the rank 
of captain. Mr. 
Miller died in 1838. 
and was succeeded 
in business by the firm of Edmonston and Al- 
lan. In 1853 this firm began the construction 
of iron screw steamships, and the " Canadian," 




their first vessel, made her first voyage in 1855. 
During the Crimean war two of the company's 
steamers were employed as transport ships, be- 
tween Portsmouth and Marseilles and the Levant, 
by Great Britain and France and in 1874 two 
were employed in a similar service between Eng- 
land and the western coast of Africa. The Allan 
line of royal mail steamships has contributed great- 
ly to the prosperity of Montreal and of Canadian 
commerce. Sir Hugh was a director of the Mon- 
treal telegraph company, the Montreal warehous- 
ing company, the merchants' bank of Canada, the 
Mulgrave gold mining company, and for a short 
time of the Pacific railway. His name gained a 
place in the political history of Canada through 
his alleged questionable connection with the " Pa- 
cific Scandal." He was knighted in 1871, as Sir 
Hugh Allan of Ravenscraig, in recognition of his 
hospitality to the prince of Wales, and his services 
to Canadian and British commerce. He had a 
beautiful residence at Ravenscraig, Montreal, and 
a villa at Belmere, on Lake Memphremagog. 

ALLAN, John, soldier, b. at the castle of Edin- 
burgli, Scotland, VS Jan., 1746; d. in Lubec, Me., 
7 Feb., 1805. His father was a retired British offi- 
cer, who emigrated to Nova Scotia in 1749. John 
was brought up in agricultural and mercantile pur- 
suits. He became a justice of the peace, and then 
clerk of the supreme court, and from 1770 to 1776 
was a member of tiie provincial assembly. When 
the American colonies engaged in the struggle for 
independence he gave them active and efficient 
aid, securing the alliance of the Indian tribes of 
that region. Congress nominated him superin- 
tendent of the eastern Indians, and gave him a 
colonel's commission in January, 1777, and with 
his Indians he protected the otherwise exposed line 
of the northeastern frontier. The Nova Scotian 
authorities offered a price for his apprehension, 
while his house was burned and his wife thrown 
into prison. In 1784 Col. Allan settled in Maine. 
The government of Massachusetts in 1792 granted 
him a tract of 22,000 acres, on which the town of 
Whiting now stands, and in 1801 congress gave 
him 2,000 acres in Ohio in compensation for the 
losses he sustained for the patriot cause. 

ALLAN, John, antiquarian, b. in Kilbirnie, 
Ayrshire, Scotland, 26 Feb., 1777 ; d. in New York, 
19 Nov., 1863. His father was a tenant farmer, 

and sent his 
mar school. 
After leav- 
ing school he 
worked on 
the farm, but, 
finding this 
labor uncon- 
genial, he em- 
igrated to 
New York in 
1794, secured 
as a clerk or 
book - keeper, 
and speedily 
acquired a 
high reputa- 
tion for in- 
dustry and 
ness. He was 
book - keeper 
to Rich & Distrow, merchant tailors, for many 
years, and to his clerkship he added also the busi- 

ness of commission agent, and was at one time 
mu,ch employed as a house agent and collector of 
rents. By these various employments he secured 
a moderate independence. Pie married early in 
life, and occupied for a quarter of a century a 
house in Pearl st. opposite Centre, the site of 
which is now part of the public street. In 18-37 he 
removed to 17 Vande water st., where he resided 
until his death, and there found leisure for grati- 
fying his taste for antiquarian research. In a room 
at his house his valuable and unique collection of 
pictures, books, autographs, and rare and curious 
articles, especially attractive to the antiquary and 
virtuoso, was frequently viewed by visitors to the 
city and by others. In this room, so garnished, he 
died. Mr. Allan's collection was sold at auction a 
short time after his death, and the total receipts 
amounted to $87,689.26. At that time but one of 
his children, a Mrs. Stewart, was living, and he had 
appointed her sole executrix of his estate. One of 
Mr. Allan's hobbies was a fancy for snuff-boxes, of 
which he had gathered a large and valuable collec- 
tion. Another was illustrating such works as Wash- 
ington's Life and Burns's Poems, which brought 
extremely high prices at his celebrated sale. See 
Duyekinck's " Memorial of John Allan," issued by 
the Bradford Club (New York, 1864). 

ALLEN, Alexander Viets (iJrisivold, author, 
b. in Otis, Mass., 4 May, 1841. He was graduated 
at Kenyon college in 1862, and at Andover theo- 
logical seminary in 1865, was ordained a priest in 
the Protestant Episcopal church in that year, and 
in 1867 became professor of church history in the 
Episcopalian divinity school at Cambridge. He has 
published " The Greek Theology, and the Renais- 
sance of the Nineteenth Century," constituting 
the Bohlen lectures for 1884, and " Continuity of 
Christian Thought " (1884). 

ALLEN, Andrew, b. in Philadelphia in 1740; 
d. in London, Eng., 7 March, 1825. He received a 
classical education, studied law with his father, 
William Allen, chief justice of Pennsylvania, was 
admitted to the bar, and practised in Philadelphia. 
He was appointed attorney-general in 1766, became 
a member of the Philadelphia committee of safety, 
was one of the committee of three appointed by the 
colonial congress to go to New York and advise 
with the council of safety of the colony and with 
Gen. Lee respecting the immediate defence of the 
city of New York, and was a strong advocate for 
congressional measures, until the royalist army had 
taken New York and compelled Washington, with 
the broken remains -of his troops, to cross the Dela- 
ware. Terrified by the position of affairs, he went 
into the British lines, took the oaths of allegiance 
to the king, renouncing those he had taken to 
congress, and went to England. As a result, he 
was attainted and his landed estate forfeited under 
the confiscation act. On his return to England he 
was compensated with a pension by the British 
government of £400 per annum. 

ALLEN, Benjamin, clergyman, b. in Hudson, 
N. Y., 29 Sept., 1789 ; d. at. sea, 13 Jan., 1829. He 
was educated a Presbyterian, but united with the 
Episcopal church and became a lay reader, labor- 
ing among the colored people of Charleston, Va. ; 
then a deacon, and in 1818 a priest. He published 
in 1815 the weekly "Layman's Magazine," and m 
1820 an abridgment of Burnet's " History of the 
Reformation." In 1821 lie was chosen rector of 
St. Paul's church, Philadelphia. In 1827 he estab- 
lished a printmg-house for the publication of tracts 
and printing of prayer-books. He published 
"Christ and Plim Crucified." and "Living Man- 
ners," a tale (1822); "History of the Cliurch of 




■Christ" (1823-'24); "The Parent's Counsellor, a 
Narrative of the Newton Family," and a " Sketch 
■of the Life of Dr. Pilmore," his predecessor in St. 
Paul's church (1825). See Memoirs by his brother 
.(Philadel})hia, 1832). 

ALLEN, Cliarles, jurist, b. in Worcester, Mass., 
9 Aug., 1797; d. tliere, 6 Aug., 18G9. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1821. He was elected to the 
legislature in 1829, 1834, 1836, and 1840. In 1835, 
1838, and 1839 he sat in the state senate. He was 
a commissioner to negotiate the Ashburton treaty 
in 1842, and judge of the court of common pleas 
from 1842 to 1844. He was active in the free- 
soil movement, and was elected to congress in 1848 
and reelected in 1850. In 1849 he edited the Bos- 
ton " Whig," afterward called the " Republican." 
He was appointed chief justice of the superior 
■court of Suffolk county in 1858, which office he 
resigned in 1807. 

ALLEN, David Olivei*. missionarv. b. in Barre, 
Mass., 14 Sept., 1791); d. in Lowell, 17 July, 1863. 
He was graduated at Amherst college in 1823, 
taught in Lawrence academy, and then entered 
Andover theological seminary, wliich he left in 
1827 to go as a missionary to Bombay. He estab- 
lished schools and preached in that province, and 
made extensive tours in western India. In 1844 
he took charge of the Bombay printing establish- 
ment. He wrote tracts in Mahratta, and super- 
vised a new translation of the Bible in that lan- 
guage. Injured in health by the Indian climate, 
he returned to America in 1853. After his return 
he published a " History of India, Ancient and 
Modern, Geographical, Historical, Political, Social, 
and Religious " (Boston, 1856). 

ALLEN, Ebenezer, soldier, b. in Northamp- 
ton, Mass., 17 Oct., 1743; d. in Burlington, Vt., 
26 March, 1806. In 1771 he emigrated to Poult- 
ney, Vt.. and became a lieutenant in Col. Warner's 
regiment of Green Mountain boys. He removed 
to Tinmouth in 1775, and was a delegate from that 
town to the several conventions in the New Hamp- 
shire grants in 1776, and to tliose that declared the 
state independent and formed the state constitu- 
tion during the following year. He was appointed 
a captain in Col. Herrick's battalion of rangers in 
July, 1777, and distinguished himself at the battle 
of Bennington. In September of the same year he 
captured Mt. Defiance by assault, and on the re- 
treat of the enemy from Port Ticonderoga made 
fifty of them prisoners. Subsequently he was made 
major in the rangers, and showed himself a brave 
and successful partisan leader. In 1783 he re- 
moved to South Hero, where he resided until 1800, 
when he went to Burlington and remained there 
until his death. 

ALLEN, Elisha Hunt, statesman, b. in New 
Salem, Mass., 28 Jan., 1804 ; d. in Washington, D. 
C, 1 Jan., 1883. He was graduated at Williams 
college in 1823, and studied law under his father, 
Samuel C. Allen, and Charles Adams. In 1826 he 
was admitted to the bar, and began to practise 
at Brattleboro, but he soon removed to Bangor, 
Me., where he was elected to the state legislature 
and served continuously from 1834 to 1841, being 
speaker in 1838. In 1841 he was elected a rep- 
resentative to congress, but he was defeated by 
Hannibal Hamlin when a candidate for reelection. 
He removed to Boston in 1847, where he practised 
law, and in 1849 was elected to the legislature. 
During the same year he was appointed consul at 
Honolulu, and subsequently he became prominent 
in the affairs of the Hawaiian government. He 
was minister of finance, and for twenty years was 
.chief justice of the kingdom. In 1856, 1864, 1870, 

and 1875 he was the accredited minister to the 
United States. At the time of his death he was 
dean of the diplomatic corps. 

ALLEN, Elizabeth Akers, author, b. in Strong, 
Me., 9 Oct., 1832. Her maiden name was Chase. 
She married Paul Akers, the sculptor (see Akers), 
who died in 1861, and in 1865 she married E. M. 
Allen, of New York. She began to write at the 
age of fifteen, under the pen name of " Florence 
Percy," and in 1855 published under that name a 
volume of poems entitled " Forest Buds." In 1858 
she became a contributor to the " Atlantic Month- 
ly," and in 1866 a collection of her poems was pub- 
lished in Boston. It included the poem " Rock me 
to Sleep, Mother," which has been set to music as 
a song by thirty composers. A dispute as to the 
authorship of the words attracted wide attention. 
Mrs. Allen wrote them in Portland, l\le., early in 
1859, and sent them from Rome in May, 1860, to 
the Philadelphia " Saturday Evening Post." That 
she was the author was shown by William D. O'Con- 
nor in a long article in the New York " Times " of 
27 May. 1867. She was for several years literary 
editor'of the Portland, Me., "Advertiser." Mrs. 
Allen is a frequent contributor to periodical litera- 
ture, and the author of "Queen Catharine's Rose" 
(Dublin, 1885); "The Silver Bridge, and Other 
Poems " (Boston, 1886) ; " The Triangular Societv " 
(Portland, 1886); "Two Saints" (1888); "The 
High-Top Sweeting " (New York, 1891) ; and " The 
Proud Lady of Stavoren " (1897). 

ALLEN, Ethan, soldier, b. in Litchfield, Conn., 
10 Jan., 1737; d. in Burlington, Vt., 13 Feb., 1789. 
In early life he removed to Bennington, Vt., which 
at that time was disputed territory, known as the 
New Hampshire grants, claimed by the colonies of 
New York and New Hampshire. In 1770 he was 
appointed agent to represent the settlers at Albany, 
where litigation on the claims was pending. A 
decision adverse to them was rendered, and resist- 
ance to the New York authorities followed. Allen 
was made colonel of an armed force known as the 
" Green Mountain boys," raised in order to protect 
holders of land granted by New Hampshire. He 
was declared an outlaw, and £150 was offered for 
his ca{)ture by Gov. Tryon, of New York. When 
hostilities with Great Britain began, after the Green 
Mountain boys had proved their patriotism and 
efficiency by the capture of Ticonderoga and Crown 
Point, the continental congress granted them the 
same pay that was received by the soldiers of the 
continental army, and, after consulting Gen. Schuy- 
ler, recommended to the New York convention that 
they should be employed in the army to be raised 
in defence of America under such officers as they 
(the Green Mountain boys) should choose. Allen 
and Warner went where the New York assembly 
was in session, and requested an audience. jNIany 
members objected to holding a public conference 
with proclaimed felons. Yet there was a large 
majority in favor of admitting Ethan Allen to the 
floor of the house, on the motion of Capt. Sears. 
The assembly resolved, in accordance with the 
recommendation of congress, that a regiment of 
Green Mountain boys should be raised, not to exceed 
500 men ; and Allen, in a letter of thanks to the 
assembly, pledged his word that they would re- 
ciprocate the favor by boldly hazarding their lives 
in the common cause of America. In seizing the 
British fortresses the Green Mountain boys fore- 
stalled the action of congress, who ordered Arnold 
to i-aise troops for the purpose; but before mat 
a force was collected at Castleton, Vt., and placed 
under the command of Allen. At daybreak. May 
10, he effected the capture of the entire British 




forces, who were called upon to surrender " in the 
name of the great Jehovah and of the continental 
congress." The subsequent capture of Skenesbor- 
ough and of Crown Point by forces detached from 
Allen's command placed valuable military stores at 

the disposal 
icans, and 
gave them 
the mastery 
of Lake 
The inva- 
sion of Can- 
ada was pro- 
posed by Al- 
len to the 
New York 
but was re- 
jected, lie 
then joined 
Gen. Schuy- 
ler's forces 
as a volun- 
teer, and 
P ^y^ ^vas sent to 

;/7^:^^>^^ .^--^^^^^^t,^ Canada on 

^ ^ several se- 

cret mis- 
sions to ascertain the views of the Canadians. 
While on his last trip he was met by Col. Brown, 
and a joint expedition for the capture of Montreal 
was proposed and eagerly accepted. The project 
proved unsuccessful, and Allen was captured on 
25 Sept. and sent as a prisoner to England, lie 
was very cruelly treated at first, and for a time 
was confined in Pendennis castle, near Falmouth ; 
then he was sent to Halifax, N. S., and later to 
New York, where, 6 May, 1778, he was exchanged 
for Col. Campbell. On his return to Vermont he 
was placed in command of the state militia, and 
he further received from congress the commission 
of lieutenant-colonel in the continental army. An 
unsuccessful attempt to bribe him was made by 
the British, through Beverly Robinson, for his in- 
fluence toward effecting a union between Vermont 
and Canada ; and, by temporizing with this offer, 
he was able to prevent any active demonstration 
by the British in that part of the country. Toward 
the close of the war he settled in Bennington, and 
subsequently in Burlington. He was a member of 
the state legislature, and also a speciiil delegate to 
congress, where he ultimately succeeded in obtain- 
ing the recognition of Vermont as an independent 
ctate. He was the author of a history of the con- 
troversy between New York and Vermont, a nar- 
rative of his captivity, and several political pam- 
phlets, and published also " Reason the only Oracle 
of Man" (Bennington, 1784). Sketches of his life 
were written by Jared Sparks (Boston, 1834), by 
Hugh Moore (Plattsburg, N. Y., 1834), and by PL 
W. Dii Puy (Buffalo, 1853). It is believed that no 
portrait of Allen was ever made. The one given 
is copied for this work by our artist, from the ideal 
heroic statue at Montpelier, Vt. 

ALLEN, Creorge, educator, b. in Milton, Vt., 
17 Dec, 1808 ; d. in Worcester, Mass., 28 May, 1876. 
He was graduated at the univei'sity of Vermont 
in 1827, studied law, and was admitted to prac- 
tice in 1831. Subsequently he studied theology, 
and from 1834 to 1837 was rector of an Episcopal 
church at St. Albans, Vt. In 1837 he became pro- 
fessor of ancient languages in Delaware college, 
Newark, Del, and in 1845 professor of ancient lan- 

guages, and then of Greek alone, in the university 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Prof. Allen pub- 
lished a " Life of Philidor," the chess-player (Phila- 
delphia, 1863). In 1847 he became a Catholic. 

ALLEN, Charles (x rant, author, b. in Kingston, 
Canada, 24 Feb., 1848 ; d. in London, 25 Oct., 1899. 
He studied at Oxford, and was graduated in 1871. 
In 1873 he was appointed professor of logic and 
philosophy in QuecTi's college, Spanish Town, Ja- 
maica, and from 1874 to 1877 was its principal. 
Since then he has resided in England, where his 
graceful articles on popular scientific subjects con- 
stantly appear in the current magazines. His pub- 
lished works include " Phvsiological ^Esthetics" 
(1877) ; " The Color Sense "' (1879) ; " Anglo-Saxon 
Britain " (1880) ; " Vignettes from Nature " (1881) ; 
" The Colors of Flowers " (1882) ; " Strange Stories " 
(1884) ; " Flowers and their Pedigrees " (New York, 
1884) ; " (;:harles Darwin " (1885) ; " Philistia " 
(1885) ; " For Mamie's Sake " (1886) ; " Babylon " 
(1886). and "In All Shades" (1886), the last four 
being novels. He has used the pen-names of J. 
Arbuthnot Wilson and Cecil Power. 

ALLEN, Harrison, phvsician, b. in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., 17 April, 1841 ; d. there, 14 Nov., 1897. 
He was graduated at the university of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1861, in 1862 became assistant surgeon in 
the U. S. army, and served with the army of the 
Potomac until IMarch, 1863, when he was trans- 
ferred to hos[)ital duty at Washington, where he 
remained until his resignation in December, 1865, 
and attained the brevet rank of major. From 
1865 to 1878 he was professor of comparative anat- 
omy and medical zoiilogy in the university of Penn- 
sylvania, and since then he has filled the chair of 
physiology. In 1867 he was elected professor of 
anatomy and surgery in the Philadelphia dental 
college, and in 1870 surgeon to the Philadelphia 
hospital and secretary of its medical board. He is 
a member of numerous medical societies, and was 
a delegate from the centennial commission to the 
international medical congress. His contributions 
to the various medical journals relate chiefly to 
osteomyelitis, human anatomy, and morbid anato- 
my, lie has published "Outlines of Comparative 
Anatomy and Medical Zoology" (Philadelphia, 
1867), " Studies in the Facial Region " (1874), and 
"An Analysis of the Life-form in Art" (1875). 

ALLEN, Hem an, lawyer, b. in Poultney, Vt., 
23 Feb., 1779; d. in Highgate, Vt., 9 April, 1852. 
He was graduated at Dartmouth college in 1795, 
and then studied law. During 1808-'9 he was 
sheriff of Chittenden co., Vt., and from 1811 to 
1814 chief justice of the county court. From 1812 
to 1817 he was an active member of the state legis- 
lature, during which time he was appointed quar- 
termaster of militia with the title of brigadier-gen- 
eral. He was elected to congress in 1817, but 
resigned in 1818 to accept the appointment of U. S. 
marshal for the district of Vei-mont. lie was ap- 
pointed minister to Chili in 1823. Wiien he called 
on Com. Hull to make his arrangements to sail with 
him in the frigate " United States " he met Mrs. 
Hull's sister Elizabetli, one of the "seven graces of 
Stratford," as the Misses Hart were called, and in 
two weeks they were married and sailed in the frig- 
ate with the gallant commodore and IMi's. Hull and 
Miss Jeannefte Hart, who soon afterward made a 
conquest of Gen. Bolivar, but refused his repeated 
offers of marriage. Mr. Allen continued in Chili 
as minister until 1827. In 1830 he was made presi- 
dent of the Burlington branch of the United States 
bank, which office he fillcHl until tlie expiration of 
its charter in 1836. He then settled in Highgate, 
and resided there until his death. 




ALLEN, Henry, founder of a sect, b. in New- 
port, R. L, 14 June, 1748 ; d. in Northampton, N. 
H., 2 Feb., 1784. In 1774 and succeeding years he 
made many converts in Nova Scotia to his peculiar 
mystical religious ideas. He believed that human 
souls are emanations from a single great spirit, and 
that the Bible is to be interpreted not literally, but 
in a spiritual sense. He published a book of hymns 
and several treatises and sermons. The Allenites 
became numerous under his eloquent preaching, 
but declined after his death. 

ALLEN, Henry Watkins, soldier and states- 
man, b. in Prince Edward co., Va., 29 April, 1820; 
d. in the city of Mexico, 22 April, 1860. His father, 
a physician of note, removed to Lexington, Mo., 
while Henry was young. The latter, at his solicita- 
tion, was taken from the shop where he was em- 
ployed and placed in Marion college, Mo., but, in 
consequence of a dispute with his father, he ran 
away and became a teacher in Grand Gulf, Miss. 
Then he studied law, and was in successful practice 
in 1842 when President Houston called for volun- 
teers in the Texan war against Mexico. He raised 
a company, and acquitted himself well during the 
campaign, then resumed his practice in Grand 
Gulf, and was elected to the legislature in 1846. 
He settled a few years later on an estate in West 
Baton Rouge, and was elected to the Louisiana 
legislature in 1853. A year later he went to Cam- 
bridge university to pursue a course of legal studies. 
In 1859 he went to Europe with the intention of 
taking part in the Italian struggle for indepen- 
dence, but arrived too late. He made a tour through 
Europe, the incidents of which are recounted in 
" Travels of a Sugar Planter." He was elected to 
the legislature during his absence, and on returning 
took a prominent part in the business of that body. 
He had been a whig in politics, but had joined the 
democratic party when Buchanan was nominated 
for president in 1856. When the civil war broke 
out he volunteered in the confederate service, was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel, and was stationed 
for some time at Ship island. He was subsequently 
made colonel of the 4th Louisiana regiment, and 
was appointed military governor of Jackson. He 
fought gallantly at Shiloh, where he was wounded. 
At Vicksburg he rendered important service in the 
construction of fortifications, a part of the time 
under fire. At the battle of Baton Rouge he com- 
manded a brigade, where he was badly wounded in 
both legs by a shell. On his recovery he was com- 
missioned a brigadier-general, in September, 1864, 
and almost immediately afterv/ard was elected gov- 
ernor of Louisiana. He arranged to have the cot- 
ton tax to the confederate government paid in 
kind, and opened a route by which cotton was ex- 
ported through Texas to Mexico, and medicine, 
clothing, and other articles introduced into the 
state. These necessities were sold at moderate 
prices and given to the poor. In the suppression 
of the manufacture of liquor and other similar 
measures Gov. Allen exercised dictatorial powers. 
After the war he settled in Mexico and established 
an English paper, the " Mexican Times." See 
* Recollections of Henry W. Allen," by Sarah A. 
Dorsev (New York, 1867). 

ALLEN, Ira, soldier, b. in Cornwall, Conn., 21 
April, 1751 ; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 7 Jan., 1814. 
He was a younge; brother of Ethan Allen, and was 
associated" with him in the dispute between New 
York and New Hampshire over the land grants. 
He was a member of the Vermont legislature in 
1776-77. and also of the constitutional convention 
of Vermont. He was the first secretary of the 
state, then treasurer, and surveyor-general. During 

the revolution he served in the militia and partici- 
pated in the battle of Bennington. In 1780-81 he 
was a commissioner to congress in behalf of Ver- 
mont, in opposition to the claims of adjoining 
states. In 1789 he framed the memorial that 
led to the organization of the university of Ver- 
mont. He was a delegate to the convention that 
in 1792 ratified the constitution of the United 
States. In 1795, having become senior major- 
general of the militia, he went to France and pur- 
chased arms, which he expected to sell to the state 
of Vermont , but on his return voyage he was 
seized and carried to England, where he was 
charged with furnishing arms to the Irish rebels, 
and litigation in the court of admiralty followed, 
where, after eight years, a decision was finally ren- 
dered in his favor. He suffered imprisonment in 
France in 1798, and returned home to the United 
States m 1801. He was the author of " The Natu- 
ral and Political History of Vermont " (London, 
1798), and also of "Statements Appended to the 
Olive Branch " (1807). 

ALLEN, Isaac, Canadian jurist, b. in 1741 ; d. 
in 1806. He was a loyalist officer of the i-evolu- 
tion, who at the close of the war held the rank of 
colonel and commanded the 2d battalion of New 
Jersey volunteers. He was deported to New Bruns- 
wick with other tories, and obtained a grant of 
2,000 acres above Fredericton. He was one of the 
first judges appointed in the province, having been 
made an assistant justice in 1784. In a test case to 
determine the right to hold slaves, tried at Fred- 
ericton in 1800, he decided with Judge Saunders 
against the master, while the chief justice and an- 
other judge upheld the master's right. As a result 
of this trial, he i-eceived a challenge to a duel from 
an officer in the rangers. His grandson, John C. 
Allen, became chief justice of New Brunswick. 

ALLEN, James, clergyman, b. in Roxbury, 
Mass., in 1692; d. in Brookline, Mass., 18 Feb., 
1747. He was ordained in 1718 and became the 
first minister of Brookline, remaining in that 
charge until his death. His remarks concerning 
the religious revival of 1743 drew upon him severe 
animadversion. He published a Thanksgiving ser- 
mon (1722); a discourse on Providence (1727); a 
discourse entitled " The Doctrine of Merit Ex- 
ploded, and Humility Recommended" (1727); a 
" Fast Sermon f)n the Earthquake " (1727) ; etc. 

ALLEN, Joel Asaph, naturalist, b. in Spring- 
field, Mass., 19 July, 1838. He studied first at the 
Wilbraham academy, and then at the Lawrence 
scientific school under Agassiz, where he devoted 
special attention to zoology, and was one of the as- 
sistants that accompanied Agassiz on the expedi- 
tion to Brazil in 1865. He visited Florida in 1869, 
and the Rocky mountain region in 1871, with sci- 
entific exploring parties, and in 1873 was the chief 
of an expedition sent out by the Northern Pacific 
railroad. In 1870 he became assistant in ornitholo- 
gy at the museum of comparative zoology at Cam- 
bridge, and in 1871 received the Humboldt scholar- 
ship. Since 1885 he has been curator of the de- 
partment of mammals and birds in the American 
museum of natural history. New York. In 1871 he 
was made a fellow of the American academy of arts 
and sciences, and in 1876 a fellow of the national 
academy of sciences. He is also a member of the 
American association for the advancement of 
science, and of the American philosophical society. 
From 1883 to 1886 he was president of the Ameri- 
can ornithologists' union. He is the author of nu- 
merous reports and scientific papers, among which 
are " On Geographical Variation in Color among 
North American Squirrels " (1874) ; " Notes on the 




Mammals of Portions of Kansas, Colorado, "Wyo- 
ming, and Utah " (1874): "Geographical Variation 
in North American Birds" (1874) ; and " Notes on 
the Natural History of Portions of Montana and 
Dakota " (1875). He has also written " Mammals 
and Winter Birds of East Florida" (Cambridge, 
1871) ; " The American Bison, Living and Extinct " 
(1872) ; " Monographs of North American Rodentia," 
with Dr. Elliott Coues (1876); " History of North 
American Pinnipeds, a Monograph of the Wal- 
ruses, Sea Lions, Sea Bears, and Seals of North 
America" (1880). From 1876 to 1883 he edited 
the " Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club," 
and since then (1884-'6) he has had charge of 
" The Auk," a quarterly journal of ornithology. 

ALLEN, John, soldier, b. in Rockbridge co., Va., 
30 Dec, 1771 ; killed in the battle of the river Raisin, 
22 Jan., 1813. He was the son of an early settler in 
Kentucky, and began the practice of law at Shelby- 
ville in 1795. In 1812 he raised a regiment of rifle- 
men which was engaged in the battle of Browns- 
town and formed the left wing at the river Raisin. 

ALLEN, Joseph, merchant, b. in Boston, 2 
Sept., 1749 ; d. in Worcester, Mass., 2 Sept., 1827. 
He was a nephew of Samuel Adams, and was en- 
gaged in trade at Leicester, JMass., where he con- 
tributed to the endowment of the acaden^y. Re- 
moving to Worcester in 1776, he was clerk of Wor- 
cester CO. court from 1776 to 1810, a member of 
the state constitutional convention in 1778, a dele- 
gate to congress from 1811 to 1813. and councillor 
from 1815 to 1818. 

ALLEN, Josepli, clergyman, b. in Medfield, 
Mass., 15 Aug., 1790; d. in Northborough, Mass., 23 
Feb., 1873. He was graduated at Harvard in 1811, 
and was ordained pastor of the Congregational 
church at Northborough in 1816, which relation he 
sustained until his death. He was a delegate to the 
peace congress of Paris in 1849. His published 
works include " Historical Account of North- 
borough " (1826) ; " History of the Worcester Asso- 
ciation " (1868) ; and " Allen Genealogy " (1869), be- 
sides sermons, text-books, and Sunday-school books. 
— His son. Joseph Henry, author, b. in Northbor- 
ough, Mass., in 1821 ; d. iii 1898. He issued "Ten 
Discourses on Orthodoxy" (Boston, 1849). setting 
forth Unitarian doctrines in theology, " Hebrew 
Men and Times" (Boston, 1861), and' " Christian 
History in Three Gi-eat Periods" (3 vols., 1880- 
'82) ; also of a number of classical text-books, of 
the " Memoirs of the Rev. Hiram Withington," 
and a " Manual of Devotion " (Boston, 1852). — 
His son, WiUiani Francis, educator, b. in North- 
borough, Mass., 5 Sept., 1830 ; d. 9 Dec. 1889. He 
was graduated at Harvard, became professor of 
ancient languages, and afterward of the Latin 
language and literature, in the university of Wis- 
consin. He has published a number of text-books 
and a collection of " Slave Songs " (1867). 

ALLEN, Moses, clergvman, b. in Northampton, 
Mass., 14 Sept., 1748 : d. Feb. 8, 1779. He was 
graduated at Princeton in 1772, was licensed to 
preach in 1774, and was ordained at Christ's church 
parish, south of Charleston, S. C, in 1775. In 1777 
he took charge of the church at Midway, Ga. The 
British force under Gen. Prevost burned his church 
and devastated the district in 1778. He officiated 
as chaplain to the Georgia brigade, and was cap- 
tured when Savannah was reduced by the British 
in December. His eloquent patriotic appeals and 
energetic exertions in the field had rendered him 
obnoxious to the British, and they refused to re- 
lease him on parole with the officers. He was con- 
fined in a loathsome prison-ship, and was drowned 
in attempting to escape. 

ALLEN, Natlian, physician, b. in Princeton, 
Mass., 13 April, 1813; d. "ni Lowell, Mass., 1 Jan., 
1888. He was graduated at Amherst college in 
1836, after which he studied at the Pennsylvania 
medical college and received his degree there in 
1841. He then settled in Lowell, Mass., and ac- 
quired a large practice. Dr. Allen was a member 
of the state board of charities of Massachusetts, and 
after 1862 was examining supervisor of pensions. 
In 1857 he was elected a trustee of Amherst college 
He was tlie author of " The Opium Trade " (Lowell, 
1853), and of numerous pamphlets on social and 
physiological subjects, the most important of 
which are " Medical Problems of the Day" (1874);. 
"State Medicine and Insanity" (1876); and "Nor- 
mal Standard of Women for Propagation " (1876)^ 

ALLEN, Oscar Dana, chemist, b. in Hebron,. 
Me., 25 Feb., 1836. He was graduated at the Shef- 
field scientific school in 186i, and ten years later 
he received the degree of doctor of philosophy for 
original investigations, having in the mean time 
been an assistant professor there. In 1871 he be- 
came professor of metallurgy and assaying, and in 
1873 was appointed to the chair of analytical chem- 
istry and metallurgy. Prof. Allen's researches 
have been chiefly on the rare elements ciesium 
and rubidium. These investigations and his other 
scientific papers have appeared principally in the 
" American Journal of Science." The latest 
American edition of " Fresenius's Quantitative 
Analysis" (New York, 1881) was edited and re- 
vised by him. He is a member of numerous scien- 
tific societies. 

ALLEN, Paul, editor, b. in Providence, R. T., 
15 Feb., 1775 ; d. in Baltimore, 18 Aug., 1826. He 
was graduated at Brown university in 1796, stud- 
ied law, and became a newspaper writer in Phila- 
delphia. He prepared the " Travels " of Lewis and 
Clarke for the press, and was afterward one of the 
editors of the " Federal Republican " at Baltimore. 
He suffered the hardships of poverty and was for a 
time confinetl in jail for a small debt. He wrote 
for a magazine called the " Portico," in association 
with Pierpont and Neal, and subsequently edited 
the "Journal of the Times" and the "Morning 
Chronicle," the latter of which had a wide circula- 
tion. He projected a " History of the Revolution," 
and obtained a large list of subscriptions. The 
work, whicli appeared under his name in 1819, was 
i-eally written by his friends John Neal and Wat- 
kins, as he was too indolent to fulfil his engage- 
ments either on this or on a " Life of Washing- 
ton," which was extensively advertised and sub- 
scribed for. He published in 1821 a poem called 
" Noah," originally in twenty-five cantos, but cut 
down by the advice of Neal to five. He published 
a small volume of poems in 1801, and a " Life of 
Alexander I. " in 1818. 

ALLEN, Pliillp, statesman, b. in Providence, 
R. I., 1 Sept., 1785 ; d. there, 16 Dec, 1865. He was 
graduated at Rhode Island college in 1803, and 
engaged in mercantile business, chiefly in the 
West India trade established by his father, who died 
in 1803. Pie began the manufacture of cotton at 
Smithfield about 1812, and in 1831 established the 
print works at Providence. In 1819 he was elected 
to the legislature, and served also as one of the 
commissioners for the settlement of the state debt. 
In 1851 he was elected, as the candidate of the 
democratic party, governor of Rhode Island, and 
again in 1852 an'd 1853. From 1853 and 1859 he 
was U. S. senator, serving in the committees on 
commerce and naval affairs. 

ALLEN, Richard, clergyman, b. in 1760; d. in 
Philadelphia, 26 March, 1831. He became a local 




Methodist preacher about 1782, and in 1798, at 
Philadelphia, organized the first church for colored 
people in the United States. He was ordained in 
the Methodist ministry in 1799, and was elected 
bishop of the newly formed African Methodist 
Episcopal church in 1810. 

ALLEN, Richard L., agricultural writer, b. in 
Hampton co., Mass., in October, 1803 ; d. in Stock- 
holm, Sweden, 22 Sept., 1869. He abandoned 
mercantile business in New York and followed lit- 
erary pursuits, then studied law in Baltimore, but 
was obliged to seek a more active life on account 
of his health, and settled on a farm on Niagara 
river in 1832. In 1842 he started, in partnership 
with his brother, the " American Agriculturist." 
In 1856 the brothers opened a warehouse for sup- 
plying improved agricultural implements. He 
published •' History and Description of Domes- 
tic Animals " (New York, 1848) ; " The Ameri- 
can Farm Book" (1849); a valuable treatise on 
" The Diseases of Domestic Animals " (1848) ; 
" American Agriculture " ; and " American Farm- 
er's Muck-Book." 

ALLEN, Robert, soldier, b. in Augusta co., 
Va., in 1777 ; d. near Carthage, Tenn., 19 Aug., 
1844. He was a merchant, and after settling in 
Carthage about 1804 became clerk of the county 
court. In the war of 1812 he served with distinc- 
tion as a colonel under Jackson. From 1819 till 
1827 he was a' member of congress. 

ALLEN, Robert, soldier, b. in Ohio about 1815 ; 
d. in Geneva, Switzerland, 6 Aug., 1886. He was 
graduated at West Point in 1836, and was 2d lieu- 
tenant in the Seminole war. In the Mexican war 
he served on the march to Monterey as assistant 
quartermaster, and was present at the siege of 
Vera Cruz. For gallant conduct at the battle of 
Cerro Gordo he received the brevet rank of major. 
He was present at the battles of Contreras and 
Churubusco, and at the taking of Mexico. After 
the Mexican war he was ciiief cjuartermaster of the 
Pacific division, and, after the breaking out of the 
civil war, of the department of Missouri, with 
headquarters at St. Louis, where he had charge of 
supplies and transportation for the various armies 
in the Mississippi valley. He was promoted major 
in 1861, colonel in 1862, brigadier-general of volun- 
teers in 1863, and was brevetted brigadier-general 
in the regular army in 1864. From November, 
1863, to 1866 he was chief quartermaster of the 
Mississippi valley, with headquarters at Louisville, 
and furnished transportation and supplies to Gen. 
Sherman's command for the march across the 
country to join Gen. Grant at Chattanooga, and he 
fitted out the Kentucky, Virginia, and North Caro- 
lina expeditions. He received the brevet rank of 
major-general in 1865. After the war he served 
again as chief quartermaster of the Pacific, and 
was retired 21 March, 1878. 

ALLEN, Samuel, patentee of New Hampshire, 
b. in England in 1636 ; d. in Newcastle, N. H., 5 
May, 1705. He was a London merchant, and in 
1091 purchased from the heirs of John Mason 
their grant of land from the English crown. The 
purchase included Portsmouth and Dover, and ex- 
tended sixty miles from the sea-coast. The origi- 
nal settlers", whose titles had not been disputed by 
the Mason heirs, resisted Allen's claim, as governor 
and proprietor, under the royal commission, and 
litigation followed, before the conclusion of which 
Mr. Allen died, leaving his heirs a legacy of suits, 
which were carried through the courts with all 
sorts of incidental chicanery — records destroyed, 
forged Indian deeds, and the like— until in 1715, 
on the death of his son Thomas, the heirs aban- 

doned their claim in despair. Mr. Allen's personal 
character is recorded as above reproach. See 
Allen vs. Waldron, Belknap's New Hampshire, and 
Savage's Winthroji, New Hampshire collections. 

ALLEN, Solomon, preacher, b. in Northampton, 
Mass., 23 Feb., 1751 ; d. in New York, 28 Jan., 
1821. He was a brother of Moses and Thomas 
Allen, who were chaplains in the revolutionary 
army, while he fought as a soldier and rose to the 
rank of major. As lieutenant he commanded the 
guard that took Major Andre to West Point. 
After the war he was engaged in suppressing 
Shays's rebellion. At the age of forty he became a 
religious convert, and at fifty began the life of 
a missionary preacher. For twenty years he cir- 
culated among the new settlements of western New 
York, where he was greatly respected for his zeal- 
ous devotion and self-sacrifice. A " Sketch of the 
Last Hours of Solomon Allen " was written by J. 
N. Danforth. 

ALLEN, Tliomas, clergyman, b. in Northamp- 
ton, Mass., 17 Jan., 1743; d. in Pittsfield, Mass., 
11 Feb., 1810. He was a brother of Moses Allen, 
was graduated at Harvard in 1762, and became the 
first "minister of Pittsfield, where he was ordained 
in 1764. He went as a volunteer chaplain twice 
during the revolutionary war, and participated as a 
combatant in the battle of Bennington. His min- 
istry at Pittsfield lasted forty-six years. 

ALLEN, Timothy Field, physician, b. in 
Westminster, Vt., 24 April, 1837. He was gradu- 
ated at Amherst college in 1858 and at the medi- 
cal school of the university of the city of New York 
in 1861. From 1861 to 1863 he practised in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., and during 1802 was acting assistant 
surgeon in the U. S. army. Since 1863 he has fol- 
lowed his profession in New York. He became 
professor of materia medica in the New York Ho- 
moeopathic medical college in 1867, and since 1882 
has been its dean. He is also surgeon to the New 
York ophthalmic hospital. He has published 
" Encvclopanlia of Materia Medica" (10 vols.. New 
York,' 1874-'79); "Index" to the same (1881); 
" Ophthalmic Therapeutics " (1878), and '■ Characeie 
Americana?" (Boston, 1880). 

ALLEN,, jurist, b. in Philadelphia 
about 1710; d. in England in September, 1780. 
He succeeded his father-in-law, Andrew Hamilton, 
as recorder of Philadelphia in 1741, and from 1750' 
to 1774 he was chief justice of Pennsylvania. Ben- 
jamin West was aided by him, and Dr. Franklin 
was enabled to establish the college of Philadelphia 
with his cooperation. He was a loyalist, and in 
1774 went to England, where he published "The 
American Crisis," setting forth a plan for restoring 
the dependence of the American colonies. His son 
Andrew became attorney-general, and was after- 
ward a member of congress and of the committee 
of safety, but deserted the national cause in 1776. 
Williani, another son, served as lieutenant-colonel 
in the continental army, but raised a regiment of 
loyalists in 1778. 

ALLEN, William, clergyman and author, b. in 
Pittsfield, Mass., 2 Jan.. 1784; d. in Northampton, 
Mass., 16 July, 1868. He was a son of the Rev. 
Thomas Allen, and was graduated at Harvard in 
1802, and licensed to preach in 1804. He preached 
in westei'u New York for some time, and was then 
elected a regent and assistant librarian of Harvard 
college. At Cambridge he prepared the first edi- 
tion of the " American Biographical and Historical 
Dictionary," containing sketches of about 700- 
Americans (1809). A second edition was printed 
in 1832 with 1,800 names, and a third in Boston in 
1857 containing nearly 7,000. In 1807 he wrote- 




the notices of American clergymen contained in 
Bogue's " History of the Dissenters." In 1810 he 
succeeded his father as pastor of the cliurch in 
Pittsfield. He was chosen president of Dartmouth 
college in 1817, and in 1820 went to Bowdoin col- 
lege, over which institution he presided until 1839, 
when he resigned and devoted himself to literary 
studies. He collected 10,000 words not contained 
in standard dictionaries, and published them as a 
supplement to Webster's " Dictionary.'" He wrote 
" Junius Unmasked," in which he sought to prove 
that Lord Sackville was the author of the Junius 
letters (Boston, 1828) ; " Psalms and Plymns " 
(1835) ; " Memoirs of Dr. Eleazer Wheelock and of 
Dr. John Codman " (1853) ; " A Discourse at the 
Close of the Second Century of the Settlement at 
Northampton, Mass." (1854) ; " Wunnissoo, or the 
Vale of Housatonnuck," a poem (Boston, 1856): 
a Dudleian lecture at Cambridge : a book of " Chris- 
tian Sonnets " (Northampton, I860) ; " Poems of 
Nazareth and the Cross" (1866); "Sacred Songs" 
(1867) ; and numerous pamphlets, and contributed 
biographical articles to Sprague's " Annals of the 
American Pulpit." See his " Life, with Selections 
from his Correspondence " (Philadelphia, 1847). 

ALLEN, William, statesman, b. in Edenton, 
N. C, in 1806; d. 11 July, 1879. He passed part 
of his early life at Lynchburg, Va., and in the win- 
ter of 1822 made his way on foot to Chillicothe, 0., 
where his half-sister, the mother of Allen G. Thur- 
man, was living. He attended Chillicothe academy 

for two years, 
then studied 
law for the bar 
in the office of 
Judge Scott, 
and afterward 
in that of Col. 
King, and was 
admitted to the 
bar at the age 
of twenty-one. 
He became the 
yf^ 'I " "\ dissociate in 

/ ^. . I X L business of Col. 

King, an elo- 
•pient pleader, 
but an indolent 
lawyer, who left 
to his young 
partner the la- 
bor of prepar- 
ing cases for tri- 
al. When twenty-four years of age, Allen, who 
was recognized as one of the most promising young 
lawyers in Ohio, gained a wide reputation by suc- 
cessfully defending a prisoner charged with" mur- 
der. The notoriety of that trial gained him in 
1832 the democratic nomination for repre^^enta- 
tive in the 23d congress, and. although Duncan 
McArthur. then governor of the state, was the 
whig candidate, Allen obtained enough votes to 
give him the election by a majority of one. The 
whigs contested the result, but he took his seat 
22 Dec, 1833, the youngest member of the house. 
In 1834 he was defeated after a sharp canvass 
by William K. Bond. In congress he was recog- 
nized as a leading orator on the democratic side, 
particularly after a strong speech against J. Q. 
Adams's position on the Ohio boundary-line ques- 
tion. President Jackson offered to confer an 
office upon him, but he said he would accept no 
appointment, and wished to remain in public life 
only in an office to which the people should elect 
him. He worked energetically for democratic 

success in the Van Buren canvass, 1836, and an 
address at a political dinner in Columbus, which 
he accidentally attended, gave him unexpectedly 
the nomination of the democratic caucus for sen- 
ator. He was elected by the democratic major- 
ity in the legislature, and took his seat in March, 
1837, at an earlier age than any other U. S. 
senator was ever elected. Just before the close 
of his term he canvassed the state for reelec- 
tion, and secured the return of a democratic ma- 
jority to the legislature pledged to vote for him. 
He was consequently reelected in 1843. In 1848, 
when the Baltimore convention was unable to 
agree upon either Cass or Van Buren as the demo- 
cratic candidate for president, a committee, com- 
posed of supporters of both the rival candidates, 
waited upon Senator Allen in Washington and 
urged him to accept the nomination for the sake 
of harmony. Though formally offered the nomi- 
nation with the assurance that the convention 
would ratify the action of the committee, he re- 
fused, for the reason that he had been the sup- 
porter and personal friend and adviser of Lewis 
Cass, and could not honorably abandon his can- 
vass. He accompanied Mr. Cass on his election- 
eering tour in New York and Pennsylvania, when 
he appealed vainly for the suffrages of the dis- 
affeclcil partisans of Van Buren. After the defeat 
of Cass and the termination of his senatorship Mr. 
Allen took no part in public affairs until he was 
elected governor of Ohio in 1873. He was the 
democratic nominee again in 1875, but was defeated 
on the greenback issue by Rutherford B. Hayes, 
afterward president. Gov. Allen was the foremost 
representative and advocate of the policy of an 
irredeemable paper currency, and therefore the 
"Ohio idea" was peculiarly associated with his 
name. During his career in the senate he was 
nicknamed " Earthquake Allen," because in 1841, 
in a speech directed against the bill to distribute the 
proceeds of the public lands among the states, he 
declared that its passage would produce " an earth- 
quake of indignation from one end of the union to 
the other." The nickname of "petticoat Alien" 
was attached to him during the Harrison " hard 
eider '' canvass of 1840, owing to his assertion that 
the petticoat of the election banners was given to 
Gen. Harrison by an old woman to symbolize his 
lack of courage. In Washington he was known as 
the " Ohio gong," so powerful was his voice and so 
penetrating its tones. He is said to have originated 
the celebrated political catch-word of 1844, " Fifty- 
four forty, or fight ! " referring to the Oregon 
boundary question. 

ALLEN, William Henry, naval officer, b. in 
Providence, R. I., 21 Oct., 1784; d. 15 Aug., 1813. 
He entered the navy as midshipman in 1800, was 
3d lieutenant of the " Chesapeake " when she struck 
her colors to the British frigate " Leopard " in 
1807, and drew up the letter of the officers to the 
secretary of the navy urging the trial of Capt. 
James Barron for neglect of duty. He became 
1st lieutenant of the frigate " United States " in 
1809. and gained distinction in the action with the 
"Macedonian," 25 Oct., 1812. In 1813 he was 
made master-commandant, and carried Mr. Craw- 
foi-d to France in the " Argus," and then harassed 
Bi-itish commerce until he encountered the brig 
"Pelican," of the British navy, 14 Aug.. 1818. 
In the ensuing severe combat he was mortally 
wounded and his vessel captured. Allen street, 
New York, was named in his honor. 

ALLEN, William Henry, educator, b. in Read- 
field (now Manchester), Me., 27 March, 1808 : d. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 29 Aug., 1882. He studied at 




the Maine conference seminary, and was graduated 
at Bowdoin college in IS'd'S. From 1833 to 1836 
he taught Latin and Greek in Cazenovia, N. Y. 
seminary, and in 1836 he became principal of the 
high school at Augusta, Me. The same year he 
was elected professor of natural philosophy and 
chemistry in Dickinson college, Carlisle, Pa., where 
in 1846 lie assumed the duties of the professorship 
of philosophy and English literature, and in 1847- 
'48 was acting president. He was appointed presi- 
dent of Girard college in 1850, which place he held 
until 1863 and again from 1867 until his death. 
During 1865-66 he was president of Pennsylvania 
agricultural college. In 1872 he was chosen presi- 
dent of the American Bible society. He contrib- 
uted largely to periodical literatui-e, and published 
several valuable reports on education. 

ALLEN, William Howard, naval officer, b. in 
Hudson, N. Y., 8 July, 1790 ; killed in action 9 Nov., 
1822. He entered the navy as midshipman 1 Jan., 
1808, and was promoted lieutenant 24 July, 1813. 
He was 2d lieutenant of the " Argus," and com- 
manded in the fight with the " P'elican " off the 
coast of England after Captain Allen and the 
first officer were disabled. He was killed in at- 
tempting to board piratical vessels with boats near 
Matanzas, in the island of Cuba. His friend Hal- 
leck made his early death the subject of a tender 
and touching poem. 

ALLEN, Zachariah, inventor, b. in Providence, 
R. I., 15 Sept.. 1795; d. 17 March, 1882. He was 
descended from one of the early settlers of Provi- 
dence and was son and lieu- of a wealthy merchant. 
He was graduated at Brown in 1815, was admitted 
to the bar in 1817, and in 1822 engaged in manu- 
facturing. He did much as a capitalist to promote 
the industries of Rhode Island, and was the in- 
ventor of the automatic cut-off valve for the steam- 
engine, extension rollers, an improved fire-engine, 
and a hot-air furnace. He also devised a storage 
reservoir for water-power, and first suggested the 
system of mutual insurance adopted by New Eng- 
land mill-owners. He was for many years presi- 
dent of the Rhode Island Historical Society. He 
published, on returning from Europe in 1825, the 
" Practical Tourist," a treatise on " Practical Me- 
chanics." speculative works on physical science en- 
titled " Philosophy of the Mechanics of Nature " 
(1851), and "Solar Light and Heat" (1879), and 
articles on the history of Rhode Island. See " Me- 
morial " of Mr. Allen by Amos Perry (1883). 

ALLENDE, Ignacio (al-yen'-de), Mexican patri- 
ot, b. 20 Jan., 1779 ; shot at Chihuahua, 1 Aug., 1811. 
He was a captain in the Spanish army, but joined the 
rebellion of Hidalgo in 1810, and rendered efficient 
services by reason of his military knowledge and 
his influence over the natives, with whose aid he 
transported heavy artillery across the mountains. 
When Hidalgo lost the battle with the Spanish 
troops, AUende conducted the retreat, but was be- 
trayed into the hands of the Spaniards near Sal- 
tillo and executed. In 1824 his remains were 
buried in the vault reserved for the viceroys and 
presidents in the cathedral of Mexico. 

ALLERTON, Isaac, pilgrim, b. about 1583 : d. 
in New Haven in 1659. He went from England to 
Leyden in 1608, and came to America in 1620 in the 
first voyage of the " Mayfiower." He was a wealthy 
and enterprising member of the colony, and took a 
leading part in its affairs. He treated with Massa- 
soit, and made several trips to England as the 
agent of the colony to purchase the rights of the 
adventurers, to secure patents for lands, and to 
bring over the rest of the congregation at Leyden. 
In 1631 he had a dispute with the colony and was 


O - UyU/?VU<. OCCc^ir^t 


dismissed from its service. He then took up his 
residence at Marblehead, and established trading- 
stations on Kennebec river, at Penobscot, and 
other places. Two coasting vessels owned by him 
were wrecked, and two of his trading-houses were 
destroyed by the French and Indians. In 1635 he 
was warned by the Plymouth authorities to depart 
from Marblehead. He was a burgher of New Am- 
sterdam, and was chosen a member of the council 
in 1643, but resided, after he left Marblehead, at 
New Haven. His daughter Mary, who died in 1699, 
was the last survivor of the "Mayflower" company. 

ALLIBONE, Samuel Austin, author, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 17 April, 1816; d. in Lucerne, 
Switzerland, 3 
Sept.. 1889. He 
gained a high rep- 
utation in early 
life for his fa- 
miliar knowledge 
of English and 
American litera- 
ture. He applied 
his learning to the 
preparation of a 
great work enti- 
tled " A Critical 
Dictionary of 
English Litera- 
ture and British 
and American Au- 
thors," the first 
volume of which 
appeared in 1854, 
and the second 
and third in 1871. 
This laborious 

compilation, exhibiting careful exactness and criti- 
cal judgment, contains notices of 46,499 authors, 
with 40 classified indexes of subjects. Before the 
appearance of tiiis " Dictionary of Authors," Dr. 
Ailibone had published " A Review by a Layman of 
a Work entitled ' New Themes for the Protestant 
Clergy'" (Philadelphia, 1853). and "'New Themes' 
Condemned" (1853). In 1868 he published "An 
Alphabetical Index to the New Testament," and in 
1871 the " Union Bible Companion," the first part 
of which work was published separately under the 
title of " The Divine Origin of the Holy Scriptures." 
In 1873 appeared his " Poetical Quotations, from 
Chaucer to Tennyson," with copious indexes, con- 
taining 13,600 passages taken from 550 authors, 
classified under 435 subjects. This was followed 
by " Prose Quotations, from Socrates to Macau- 
lay," with indexes to the 8,810 quotations, contain- 
ing the names of 544 authors and 571 subjects 
(1876). In 1880 he published " Great Authors of 
All Ages ; being Selections from the Prose Works 
of Eminent Writers from the time of Pericles to 
the Present Day," with indexes. He published also 
" Explanatory Questions on the Gospels and the 
Acts" (1869). and was the author of numerous re- 
ligious tracts and articles in periodicals. The in- 
dexes to Edward Everett's "Orations and Speeches " 
(1850-"59), and Washington Irving's " Life and 
Letters" (1861-'64), were from his hand. He was 
book editor and corresponding secretary of the 
American Sunday-school union from 1867 till 1873, 
and from 1877 till 1879, when he became librarian 
of the Lenox library, resigning in 1888. 

ALLIN, John, clergyman, b. in England in 
1596; d. in Dedham, Mass., 36 Aug., 1671. He 
was a Puritan scholar, who emigrated from Eng- 
land in 1637 and became the first minister of 
Dedham. He published a " Defence of the Nine 




Propositions " of church discipline, in which he 
had the assistance of Mr. Shepherd, of Cambridge, 
and also a " Defence of the Synod of 1GG2 against 
President Chauncey," besides a large number of 
sermons and addresses. 

ALLISON, Burgess, clergyman, b. in Borden- 
town, N. J., 17 Aug., 1753: d. in Washington. 20 
Feb., 1827. He became a convert to the Baptist 
faith early in life, and began to preach when he 
was sixteen years old. He studied at Rhode Isl- 
and college "(now Brown university) in 1777, and 
subsequently had charge of a small congregation 
at Bordentown, N. J., where he established a classi- 
cal boarding-school, which attained great reputa- 
tion. In 1790 he withdrew from his teaching and 
devoted his time for several years to inventing. 
Some improvements in the steam-engine and its 
application to navigation are due to his efforts. 
In 1801 he resumed his school, and soon afterward 
his pastorate, but ill health compelled him to re- 
linquish both. He was elected chaplain of the 
house of representatives in 1816, and later became 
chaplain at the navy-yard, Washington, where he 
remained until his death. Dr. Allison had consid- 
erable mechanical and artistical ability. He was 
for some time one of the secretaries of the Ameri- 
can philosophical society, and was a constant con- 
tributor to periodical literature. 

ALLISON, William Boyd, senator, b. in Perry, 
0., 2 March, 1829. He spent his early years on 
a farm, and was educated at Alleghany college, 
Pennsylvania, and Western Reserve college, Ohio. 
He studied law, and practised in Ohio until 1857, 
when he went to Dubuque, Iowa. He was a dele- 
gate to the Chicago convention of 1860, a mem- 
ber of the governor's st'iff in 1861, and rendered 
valuable service in raising troops for the war. 
He was elected in 1862 to the 38th congress, as a 
republican, and returned for the three succeeding 
congresses, serving in the house of representatives 
from 7 Dec, 1863, till 3 March, 1871. In 1873 he 
was elected to the U. S. senate, as a republican, 
and he has been re-elected four times. His term 
of service will. expire in March. 1903. 

ALLOUEZ, Claude Jean, explorer, b. in France, 
in 1620 ; d. near St. Joseph's river, in the state 
of Indiana, 27 Aug., 1689. He went to Quebec 
from France in 1658. As a Jesuit missionary he 
traversed the regions of Lake Superior and parts 
of the Mississippi valley, and left interesting rec- 
ords of his experiences and observations. He 
founded a mission at Chemorniegon, on Lake Su- 
perior, in 1665, and in 1676 reestablished perma- 
nently at Kaskaskia, 111., the mission that was be- 
gun by Marquette but abandoned on the approach 
of La Salle. His observations on the Indians were 
printed in the Jesuit " Relations." 

ALLSTON, Robert Francis Withers, states- 
man, b. in All Saints' parish, S. C, 21 April, 1801 ; 
d. near Georgetown, S. C, 7 April, 1864. In 1821 
he was graduated at West Point, ranking so high 
in his class as to be assigned to the artillery ; but 
after a year's service he i-esigned, and became a 
rice-planter, civil engineer, and surveyor in South 
Carolina. From 1823 to 1827 he was state sur- 
veyor-general. In 1828 he was elected to the legis- 
lature, and in 1832 to the senate, of which he be- 
came successively acting president and president 
(1847-'56). He was deputy adjutant-general in 
1831-38, trustee of South Carolina college, Colum- 
bia, 1841-64, and governor of the state in 1856-'58. 
He was a progressive agriculturist, an active 
member of various societies, and the author of a 
"' Memoir on Rice" (1843); "Report on Public 
Schools " (1847) ; and " Essav on Sea-Coast Crops " 

',^^i::>,^i.,.r7^y?:^^ (Z^^i^z^i^^. 

(1854). In politics he advocated state sovereignty. 
His study of rice-culture was of much advantage 
to that industry. 

ALLSTON, Washingrton, painter, b. in Wac- 
cauiaw, S. C, 5 Nov., 1779 ; d. in Cambi-idge, Mass., 
9 July, 1843. In early boyhood he removed to 
Newport, R. I., 
and there attend- 
ed school. He 
then studied at 
Harvard college, 
and was gradu- 
ated in 1800. In 
the following year 
he went abroad 
and became a stu- 
dent at the Roy- 
al academy, and 
three years later 
he removed to 
Rome and there 
studied the works 
of the old masters, 
meanwhile gain- 
ing for himself a 
high reputation as 

a colorist. He returned to the United States in 
1809 and married a sister of Dr. William Ellery 
Channing. His second wife was a sister of R. H. 
Dana. From 1811 to 1818 he resided in England, 
and during these years produced some of his best 
pictures. Of these, " The Dead Man Revived " 
gained a prize of 200 guineas from the British insti- 
tute. His " Uriel in the Sun," " Jacob's Feast," 
and other smaller pictures, now owned in Eng- 
land, were produced at this time. In 1818 he 
opened a studio in Boston. His best -known 
works in the United States are " Jeremiah," " The 
Witch of Endor," " Miriam," " Rosalie," " Madon- 
na," "Spanish Girl," " Spalatro's Vision of the 
Bloody Hand," and " Belshazzar's Feast," an un- 
finished composition now in the Boston athen«um. 
Among the portraits painted by him are those of 
Benjamin West, Coleridge the poet, and one of 
himself. His works show a high imaginative 
power, and his ability as a colorist earned for him 
the name of the " American Titian." He was also 
a man of fine literary tastes, and in 1809 he deliv- 
ered a poem before the Phi Beta Kappa Society at 
Cambridge. " The Sylphs of the Seasons," which 
was published in London in 1813, and later " The 
Paint King " and " The Two Painters," appeared. 
In 1841 he published " Monaldi," a romance il- 
lustrating Italian life, and in 1850 a volume of 
his " Lectures on Art, and Poems." See Ware's 
" Lectures on the Works and Genius of Washing- 
ton Allston " (Boston, 1852), and " Artist Biogra- 
phies, Allston" (1879). 

ALLSTON, William, soldier, b. in 1757; d. in 
Charleston, S. C, 26 June, 1839. He was a captain 
during the revolutionary war under Marion, the 
famous partisan leader. After the return of peace 
he married the daughter of Rebecca Motte, and 
became a successful planter and a large slave- 
owner. He was for many years a member of the 
South Carolina senate.— His son, Josev)h, states- 
man, b. in South Carolina in 1778; d. 10 Sept., 
1816. He was for several years a prominent mem- 
ber of the South Carolina state legislature, and 
governor in 1812-'14. He married Theodosia, 
daughter of Aaron Burr, and from this fact arose 
unjust suspicions regarding his patriotism. Dur- 
ing his term as governor his wife, a charming and 
accomplished woman, was lost at sea during a voy- 
age from New York to Charleston. 




ALMAGRO, Diego (al-mah'-gro), soldier, b. 
about 14(J8 ; killed in July, 1588. He was one of 
the Spanish conquerors of Peru, who, in company 
with Francisco Pizarro, overthrew the magnificent 
empire of the Incas, which at the time was rent by 
civil war. His energy in forwarding supplies to 
Pizarro, who had penetrated to the interior of the 
country, was such that the latter was enabled to 
prosecute the campaign to a successful issue. In 
1535 he stormed Cuzco, the ancient capital of the 
Incas. He was extremely severe with his captives. 
Nevertheless, his habitual manners were so winning 
and courteous that he was very popular with his own 
soldiers. He had a quarrel with Pizarro about the 
rich spoil of the Incas' palaces, and Almagro was 
defeated, captured, and strangled to death. — His 
son, Dieg'O, vvas born in 1520, and died in Peru 
in 1543. His mother was an Indian of Panama, 
but Charles V. had him legitimated in 1528, and 
placed iiim under the care and protection of an old 
officer named Juan Herrada. After his father's 
death young Almagro was imprisoned for some 
time, and as soon as liberated he resolved to avenge 
his father's execution. In company with Herrada 
and others, he attacked the house of Pizarro and 
killed him, 25 June, 1541. Then Almagro was pro- 
claimed governor of Peru, and went with troops to 
subdue some towns that would not recognize his 
authority ; but Vaca de Castro routed him in the 
plain of Chupas and took many prisoners, among 
them Almagro, with all the principal promoters of 
the plot, who were court-martialed and executed. 

ALMOGUERA, Fray Juan <Ie (al-mo-gay'-ra), 
seventh archbishop of Lima, b. in Cordova, Spain, 
18 Feb., 1005 ; d. in Lima, Peru, in 1076. He was 
the confessor of King Philip IV., who proposed him, 
on 17 Feb., 1059, for archbishop of ^^^requipa, Peru. 
The recommendation was adopted by the pope, and 
F'ray Juan de Almoguera was consecrated in Feb- 
ruary, 1001. He promoted many useful undertak- 
ings, and remained in Arequipa for some years, till 
he was translated to Lima, where he died. He is 
the author of " Instruceion de Sacerdotes " (1071), 
which tlie inquisition attemiited to suppress. 

ALMON, Jolin, English journalist, b. in Liver- 
pool, 17 Dec, 1737; d. in Boxmoor, 12 Dec, 1805. 
lie became a printer and pamphleteer, and was en- 
gaged in 1761 as a writer for the " Gazetteer," and, 
after the production of " A Review of Mr. Pitt's 
Administration," he enjoyed the favor of the lead- 
ers of the opposition and established himself as a 
publisher. He was the confidant of John Wilkes, 
wrote or edited many political tracts, and in 1784 
established in London a newspaper called the 
" General Advertiser," which proved unsuccessful. 
He was tried in 1770 for selling a reprint of a let- 
ter of "Junius," and in 1786 for a libel. Among 
his numerous publications was " The Remem- 
brancer," a monthly collection of papers relating 
to American independence (London, 1775-'83), 
which is one of the chief sources of historical in- 
formation regarding the revolution. His last pub- 
lished works were " Biographical, Literary, and 
Political Anecdotes " (1797), and the " Correspond- 
ence of the late John Wilkes," with memoirs of his 
life (1805). 

ALMONTE, Juan Neponiuceno (al-mau'n-te), 
Mexican statesman, b. in Valadolid, Mexico, in 
1804; d. in Paris, 20 March, 1869. He was the 
reputed son of the priest Morelos, the famous 
partisan chief, who was shot in 1813. His youth 
was spent in the United States, where he secured 
an excellent education, supporting himself the 
while. Returning to Mexico he entmvd upon a 
military career, and was chosen by Santa Anna one 

of his aides-de-camp, in v/hich capacity he served 
in the Texan campaign against Gen. Houston, 
being made prisoner with his chief at the battle of 
San Jacinto (1830). On regaining his liberty he 
was made secretary of state by the Mexican presi- 
dent, Bustamente. In 1840 he showed great cour- 
age in quelling a revolt in the province of Urrea, 
but was deprived of office by a revolution that fol- 
lowed, and forced to support himself by lecturing. 
He was subsequently appointed minister at Wash- 
ington ; but when the annexation of Texas was re- 
sotved upon he demanded his passports, protesting 
at the same time against that measure. In 1845 he 
was a candidate for tlie presidency of the republic 
of Mexico, but failed ; and afterward, on the eleva- 
tion of Paredes to power, lie was appointed, first, 
minister of war, and then ambassador to Paris, 
He was on his way to France when he heard, at 
Havana, of the return of Santa Anna to power, up- 
on which he immediately returned to Mexico, and, 
joining Santa Anna, took part in the war against 
the United States, distinguishing himself at the 
battles of Buena Vista. Cerro Gordo, and Churubus- 
co. After the war he entered the ranks of the 
liberal opposition, and for the second time became 
a candidate for the pi-esidency, but again without 
success. He was, however, appointed Mexican 
minister at Paris, which office he held at the period 
when President Miramon was overthrown by 
Juarez (1800). He returned to Mexico with the 
French expedition in 1802. Juarez protested 
against his presence in the French camp, and de- 
manded that Almonte should be delivered up to 
him ; but the French commander refused, and 
shortly afterward a proclamation was issued by 
Gen. Taboada, declaring Juarez deposed, and Al- 
monte invested with supreme power in his place. 
He found himself, however, unable to organize a 
government ; and Gen. Forey, on his arrival in 
Mexico, annulled Taboada's decree, and announced 
to the Mexicans that they were free to choose a 
new government. After the decisive victory of 
the French arms. Almonte became one of the tri- 
umvirate to whom they intrusted the management 
of affairs in Mexico, assigning him the foreign de- 
partment and the finances. He was appointed 
lieutenant of the empire by Maximilian in April, 
1804, and some weeks later marshal of the empire. 
He adhered to the fortunes of his imperial patron 
throughout his short reign, and, when Maximilian 
was executed, he fled to Europe, spending his last 
days in exile. 

ALMY, John Jay, naval officer, b. in Newport, 
R. I., 25 April, 1814; d. in W^ashington, D. C, 16 
May, 1895. He entered the navy as a midshipman 
in 1829, and rose to be commodore, 30 Dec, 1809, 
and rear-admiral 24 Aug., 1873. He was retired in 
July, 1870, after fifty-six years and eleven months of 
service. As midshipman and lieutenant he cruised 
all over the world in the old sailing navy, was at 
the surrender of Walker and his filibusters, com- 
manded the "Fulton " in the expedition to Paraguay, 
was at the siege of Vera Cruz and the capture of 
Tuxpan during the Mexican war, and at the navy- 
yard, Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1861-62. As commander 
he had charge successively of the gunboats " South 
Carolina," " Connecticut," and " Juniata." While 
in command of the " Connecticut " he captured 
four noted blockade-runners with valuable cargoes, 
and ran ashore and destroyed four others. As cap- 
tain he commanded the "Juniata" which was in 
the South Atlantic squadron, until 1867, and was 
then assigned to the Brooklyn navy-yard, then the 
signal corps, and after a cruise in the Pacific was 
retired, 24 April, 1877. 




ALMT, William, philanthropist, b. in Provi- 
dence, R. I., 17 Feb., 17G1 ; d. 5 Feb., 1830. He 
was a teacher and a member of the society of 
Friends, and became wealthy through marriage 
with the only daughter of Moses Brown and result- 
ing business arrangements for the manufacture of 
cotton goods. One of his most important charities 
was the establishment of the New England yearly 
meeting boarding-house in Providence, where he 
educated at his own expense eighty young persons 
selected by him. He devoted large sums to other 
charitable objects. 

ALOFSEN, Solomon, historian, b. in Amster- 
dam, Netherlands, 22 Nov., 1808 ; d. in Arnheim, 
Holland, 10 Oct., 1876. He was born of a good 
Dutch family and came to the United States in 
early manhood as secretary of legation, and, liking 
the country, settled in Jersey City. Here he mar- 
ried and went into the railroad business, being for 
a time secretary of the Illinois Central railroad, 
and dealing largely in investments. His favorite 
studies were historical and ethnological, and he 
became a prominent member of the societies of 
New York and vicinity. He read many papers at 
the meetings of the New York historical society 
and made valuable contributions to its collections. 
After forty years' residence in the United States 
he returned to Holland, where he was made a 
member of the royal antiquarian society. His li- 
brary consisted mainly of Amei'icana, and was es- 
pecially full in the department of the civil war. It 
was carefully catalogued and sold in Utrecht in 
June, 1S76. , 

ALPUCHE E INFANTE, Jose Maria, Mexi- 
can patriot, b. in Campeehe, Yucatan, S) Oct., 1780. 
He studied in the Seminario Concilia de Merida, 
and became a priest. He was one of the founders 
and organizers of the " Logias Yorkinas," an ad- 
vanced section of the liberal party, and helped 
Guerrero to the presidency of the republic. His 
opposition to military power and influence, which 
in his time pervaded every branch of the adminis- 
tration, was the cause of his banishment to New 
Orleans. Afterward Alpuche, having returned to 
Mexico, endured great hardships as a prisoner in 
the castle of San Juan de Ulua. The rest of his 
life was full of disappointment and sufferings, un- 
til he died in the convent of Santo Domingo. 

ALPUCHE, Wenceslao (al-poo'-che), 'Mexican 
poet, b. in Tihosuco, Yucatan, 28 Sept., 1804 ; d. in 
Tekax, 2 Sept., 1841. He took as models the works 
of the Spanish playwrights and lyric poets, Calde- 
ron. Lope de Vega, Moreto, and Quintana, whom he 
tried to follow. His best poems are " Hidalgo," 
" La Independencia," and " La Fama." 

ALRICKS, Hermanns, lawyer, b. at Lost Creek 
Mill, Juniata co., Pa., in 1804; d. in Harrisburg, 
Pa., 28 Jan., 1874. In 1814 his parents removed to 
Harrisburg. He received his early education in the 
academy of that city, and read law there until he 
was prepared for admission to the bar. He soon 
attained a lucrative practice, and gained a high 
reputation for the close reasoning requisite in ar- 
guing before the orphan's and registrar's courts. 
He made it a rule not to undertake a cause unless 
he was satisfied of its justice. As a collector of 
historical traditions he was well known to culti- 
vated people throughout the state, and his extraor- 
dinarily tenacious memory enabled him to hold his 
store of niformation with dates and authorities at 
the mstant service of inquirers. The only public 
office he ever held was that of deputy attorney- 
general in 1829, an appointment that involved him 
in such an unpleasant political fracas that he be- 
came very averse to office-seeking. 

ALSINA, Adolfo (al-see'-na), Argentine states- 
miin, b. in Ikienos Ayres in 1829: d. there in 1878. 
He first attracted public notice by a series of lec- 
tures and contributions to the periodical publica- 
tions of Buenos Ayres. He became deputy to the 
provincial chambers, and was highly distinguished 
for eloquence and general ability. He was gover- 
nor of the province from 1866 till 1868, and vice- 
president of the Argentine republic from 1868 to 
1874. He several times commanded a body of na- 
tional guards during civil disturbances. 

ALSOP, (ieorge, author, b. in England in 1638. 
He was a Londmi apprentice in his youth, but re- 
sided in Maryland in 1658-'62. He published a 
book with this quaint title: "A Character of the 
Province of Maryland, also a Small Treatise on the 
Wild and Naked "Indians or Susquehanokesof Mary- 
land, their Customs, jNIanners, Absurdities, and Re- 
ligion, together with a collection of historical let- 
ters " (London, 1666). This was republished, with 
introduction and notes, by J. G. Shea (New York, 
1869), and again in Baltimore in 1880. 

ALSOP, John, of the continental congress, b, 
in Middletown, Conn. ; cl. in Newtown, Long Isl- 
and, 22 Nov., 1794. He was a prosperous merchant 
of unquestioned patriotism and integrity, and was 
a worthy member of the first American congress 
in 1774^'70. On the occupation of New York by 
the British forces he withdrew to Middletown, 
Conn., remaining there until peace was concluded. 
— His son, Richard, author, b. in Middletown, 
Conn., 23 Jan., 1761 ; d. in Flatbush, Long Island, 
20 Aug., 1815, studied at Yale college, but did 
not complete the course, preferring to devote him- 
self exclusively to languages and literature. Al- 
though he was brought up to a mercantile life, it 
proved so irksome that he soon devoted himself to 
letters, and formed a kind of literary league, popu- 
larly known as the " Hartford Wits." These in- 
cluded Theodore Dwight, Lemuel Hopkins, and 
Benjamin Trumbull. The association, informal as 
it was, made a notaljle literary hit, all of its mem- 
bers being among the intellectual lights of the 
time. Alsop was the leading spirit and the princi- 
pal writer of the " Echo," a series of burlesque 
essays (1791-'95). It comprised travesties and ex- 
aggerations of current publications, state papers, 
and the like, making a target of anything, in fact, 
that offered a mark for the active wits of its edi- 
tors. These papers were mostly done into polished 
pentameters, somewhat ponderous but instinct with 
fun, and not without latent wisdom. Most of the 
" Wits " were federalists, and the " Echo " soon be- 
came bitterly anti-democratic. The whole series 
was published in a volume in 1807. Alsop's other 
works include a " Monody on the Death of Wash- 
ington," in heroic verse (Hartford, 1800); "The 
Enchanted Lake of the Fairy Morgana" (1808); 
" The Natural and Civil History of Chili," from 
the Italian of Molina, and fugitive pieces. In 1815 
he edited the " Captivity and Adventures of J. R. 
Jewett among the Savages of Nootka Sound." 
He was an accomplished linguist, acquiring lan- 
guages, as it seemed, by a sort of intuition, and 
made a distinct impression on the drift of pub- 
lic thought. — Another son, Jolin (poet, b. in Mid- 
dletown, Conn., 5 Feb., 1776; d. in Middletown, 1 
Nov., 1841), was a pupil of Dr. Dwight. He studied 
in the law school of Judge Reeve at Litchfield, was 
admitted to the bar, and began practice in New 
London. He afterward became a bookseller in 
Hartford, and still later in New York. The latter 
part of his life was spent in retirement in Middle- 
town. His poems were never issued in hook form, 
but appeared in various periodicals and collections- 




ALSTON, Willis, statesman, b. in Halif:-ix co., 
N. C. He first appears in the colonial records of 
the Halifax district, N. C, in 1776, was a member of 
the provincial house of commons 1791-'93, and 
meml)er of congress from 1799-1803. — His son, 
Willis, Ji"v d. 10 April, 1837, was a member of the 
state legislature in 1794 and afterward, and a 
member of congress in 1803-15 and in 1825-'31. 
During the war of 1812-'15 with Great Britain, he 
was chairman of the ways and means committee 
of the house of representatives. 

ALTAMIRANO, Igiiacio M. (al-tah-me-rah'- 
no), Mexican jurist, b. of pure Indian parentage, in 
the state of Guerrero. He studied law under the 
protection of a Spanish gentleman, was graduated 
with distinction, devoted himself to politics, and 
soon became noted for his brilliant and fiery ora- 
tory against his opponents of the conservative 
party, he belonging to the extreme radical faction. 
During the French invasion and the empire of 
Maximilian, Altamirano fought bravely against the 
foreign troops, but at the end of the war he retired 
from the army. Since that time he has filled 
with success many high offices in different depart- 
ments, and has been a member of the congress 
several times. He is considered the first of Mexi- 
can orators, and a great Oriental, Greek, German, 
English, French, and Italian scholar. He has pub- 
lished much, both in prose and verse. 

ALTHAM, John, missionary, d. in 1641. He 
was one of the two Jesuits who accompanied Leon- 
ard Calvert to Maryland in 1633. On landing he 
obtained a hut from its Indian owner, which he 
fitted up for religious service, and it was after- 
ward known as "the first chapel in Maryland." 
He studied the Indian dialects at St. Mary's, and 
then preached the gospel throughout the common- 
wealth, travelling as far as the mouth of the Sus- 
quehanna. He converted several chiefs, and by his 
nifluence with the Indians did much to strengthen 
the infant settlement. 

ALVARADO, Aloiizo d', Spanish soldier, b. in 
Burgos, Spain; d. in 1553. As an officer under 
Cortes, he participated in the conquest of Mexico 
(1519), and went thence to Peru, where he served 
as one of Pizarro's subordinates in the subjugation 
of the Incas. In 1537 he was sent with 500 men 
to reenforce the Pizarros who were fighting their 
brother Spaniards under Almagro in Peru. He was 
intercepted, defeated, and made prisoner by Al- 
magro before he could join the opposing force. 
Pizarro and Almagro were soon killed by their 
soldiers, and the strange warfare proceeded be- 
tween the survivors, Alvarado joining De Castro 
to crush Almagro the younger. He was lieuten- 
ant-general of the force"that suppressed the rebel- 
lion of Gonzalo Pizarro in 1548, and was made 
captain-general of Peru, but was vanquished in 
1553, and did not long survive the mortification 
of his defeat. 

ALVARADO, Juan Bautista, governor of Cali- 
fornia from 1836 till 1842. He was the leader of 
the Californian revolt against Mexican authority. 
Figueroa, the legitimate governor of the province, 
died in Septeraber,1835, and Chico, a very obnoxious 
person in the eyes of Californians, was appointed 
in his stead by the Mexican government. His rule 
was so unpopular that he was forced to retire, upon 
which Alvarado. in November, 1836, rallied a force, 
including sundry adventurers from the United 
States, and other foreigners, seized Monterey, and 
sent the deputy, whom Chico had left, to Mexico. 
Independence was formally declared, and the 
legislature elected Alvarado governor ad interim. 
Southern California remained loyal for a time ; but 

Alvarado, partly by a show of force, and parti ]> 
through shrewd diplomacy, won over Santa Bar- 
bara Hiul Los Angelos, and in January, 1837, pro- 
claimed the whole of California free and united. 
In June of the same year a Mexican commissioner 
was sent to negotiate with the revolted provinces, 
but the self-made governor, with characteristic ad- 
dress, won him over and sent him back to plead 
his (Alvarado's) cause. In the meantime the 
Mexican government had appointed a new and 
somewhat warlike governor for California, without 
consulting Alvarado, and hostilities forthwith be- 
gan. A single " battle " took place at San Buena- 
ventura, in which one man was killed, the Mexican 
forces were routed, and Alvarado was soon recog- 
nized by the central government as governor of 
what was then designated as the •• Department of 
California." For two years his jurisdiction was not 
seriously disputed, but in 1842 the Mexican gov- 
ernment sent a new military representative, and 
Alvarado was deposed. He appeared subsequently 
as an intriguer of some ability, but never came to 
the front again in the character of a successful 
leader. The conquest by the United States fol- 
lowed in time to prevent further instances of the 
local tendency to revolution. 

ALVARADO, Pedro de (al-vah-rah'-do), one 
of the conquerors of Spanish America, b. in Bada- 
joz, Spain, about 1485; d. in Guadalajara, New 
Galicia, 4 Julv, 
1541. In 1518 he 
sailed with his 
four brothers for 
Cuba, whence he 
accompanied Gri- 
jalva in his ex- 
ploring expedi- 
tion along the 
coast of the Amer- 
ican continent. 
Grijalva was so 
delighted with 
the aspect of the 
country that he 
called it New 
Spain, and sent 
Alvarado back to 
Cuba to report to 
Gov. Velasquez 
what they had 
seen and heard, 
for the first time, 
about the im- 
mense empire of 
Montezuma. In 
February, 1519, he 
accompanied Cor- 
tes, and took an 
active part in all 

the incidents of the conquest of Mexico. Cortes, 
while engaged in the battle against Narvaez, left 
the city of Mexico under charge of Alvarado, who 
by his "cruelty and rapacity caused an insurrec- 
tion, and narrowly escaped 'with his life. In the 
famous retreat of the night of 1 July, 1520 {La 
noche triste), Alvarado distinguished himself, and 
to commemorate his bravery an enormous ditch 
over which he leaped to escape from the hands of 
the enemy is called to this day " El salto de Alva- 
rado." On his return to Spain he was received 
with great honor by Charles V. and appointed 
governor of Guatemala, which he had conquered 
in 1523. He married a daughter of the illustrious 
house of La Cueva, from which the dukes of Albu- 
querque are descended, and returned to America 




accompanied by a host of adventurers. Guatemala 
became highly prosperous under his government. 
Having authority to extend his conquests, he 
headed an expedition of 500 men to capture 
Quito, and landed near Cape San Francisco, 
whence he marched into the interior ; but among 
the Andes he met the forces of Pizarro, prepared 
to resist his advance. Disclaiming any intention 
to interfere with his countryman's rights, he re- 
ceived 120,000 pieces of eight as an indeuniificution 
for his outlay and losses, and returned peaceably to 
Guatemala. Visiting Spain soon afterwai'd, he 
appeased the emperor's displeasure at this affair, 
obtained the governorship of Honduras, and then 
fitted out from Guatemala a new expedition of dis- 
covery, consisting of 12 large ships, two galleys, 
800 soldiei's, 150 horses, and a large retinue of In- 
dians. Sailing W. and N. W. along the Mexican 
coast, he was driven by stress of weather into the 

S)rt of Los Pueblos de Avalos, in Michoacan. 
ere a messenger from the Spaniards of the in- 
terior asked his assistance in putting down a re- 
volt of the Chichimecas of New Galicia. He 
landed with a portion of his force, made a rapid 
march to the encampm.ent of his countrymen, and 
with them attacked the Indians, who were strongly 
posted in the mountaiis. The Spaniards were de- 
feated and put to flight, and Alvarado was killed 
by the falling of his horse. The expedition was 
then abandoned. 

ALVARENGA, Manoel Ignacio da Silva 
(ahl-va-rayn'-gah), Brazilian poet. He was pro- 
fessor of rhetoric in Rio Janeiro. His poems, 
which are graceful and full of local color, were 
published in Lisbon in 179!). 

ALVAREZ, Bernardino (al'-vah-reth), Span- 
ish adventurer, b. in Seville in 1514; d. in Mexico 
in 1584. He joined the army in his boyhood, but 
was dismissed for misconduct and transported to a 
penal colony in the Philippine islands. He escaped 
thence and went to Peru, where he amassed a large 
fortune, after the manner of the adventurers of the 
time. But, unlike most of them, he devoted this 
wealth to charitable objects. He founded the be- 
nevolent order of St. Bernardine, and in Mexico, 
Vera Cruz. Acapulco, and other cities of New Spain, 
established hospitals, which are served by an asso- 
ciation named for St. Ilippolite. His philanthropy 
made iiim famous among the people who have been 
beneflted by his gifts. 

ALVAREZ, Dieg-o d', Mexican priest, b. in 
Guadalajara about 1750; d. in 1824. At the age of 
sixteen he had finished his studies in philosophy, 
theological sciences, and canon and civil law, which 
he then taught in the seminario conciliar of the 
city of Mexico. He was also learned in medicine, 
mathematics, oratory, architecture, music, chemis- 
try, and agriculture. He wrote on a wide range of 
subjects, his works making twenty-three large vol- 
umes in manuscript, but only one of them, " Prac- 
tiea de la teologia mistiea," was published. 

jCLVAREZ, Juan, Mexican soldier, b. about 
1790 ; d. in 1867. He was of Indian blood, and ex- 
ercised extraordinary influence over the Indians of 
southern Mexico. He was governor of Guerrero in 
1858, and had little difficulty in rousing his moun- 
taineers to insurrection. The outbreak took place at 
Acapulco, at the beginning of tjie following year. 
In the decree promulgated by Alvarez, in March, 
1854, which became noted as the plan of Ayutla, 
Santa Anna's deposition was officially announced, 
and republican institutions were proposed. Santa 
Anna's power was overthrown in the battle of 
Saltillo, 22 July, 1855, and Gen. Carrera was in- 
trusted with the government, which he relinquished 

in September in favor of Alvarez, whose nomina- 
tion as president of Mexico was ratified by the 
assembly of Cuernavaea, which for that purjjose 
he had convoked himself, 4 Oct., 1855. On 15 Nov> 
he made his entry into Mexico, escorted by a 
body-guard of Indians. His abolition of the priv- 
ileges of the clergy and the army met with such 
opposition that he tendered his resignation, sub- 
stituting in his place his former minister Comon- 
fort, 11 Dec; and after procuring $200,000 from 
the national exchequer, and what arms and muni- 
tions he could get, he returned to southern Mexico. 

ALVARO, or ALBO, Francisco, Spanish sailor, 
lived in the Kith century. He accompanied Ma- 
gellan's expedition that sailed from Spain on 10 
Aug., 1519, and kept a log-book, which recounts 
the fortunes of the fleet from the time they sighted 
the cape of Santo Agostinho on the coast of Brazil. 
The original is preserved in Simancas, Spain, and 
a copy is in the British museum. It was printed 
in the " Coleccion " of Navarrete, and is included 
in the documents given in the volume of the Hak- 
luyt society, containing Lord Stanley's transla- 
tions of Pigafetta and other records of Magel- 
lan's voyage. 

ALVORD, Bonjaniin, soldier, b. in Rutland, 
Vt., 18 Aug., 1813 ; d. in Washington, D. C. 16 
Oct., 1884. He was graduated at the U. S. military 
academy in 1883, served in the Seminole war 
(1885-7), was instructor in mathematics at West 
Point until 1889, and was on frontier, garrison, and 
engineer duty until 1846, when he participated in 
the military occupation of Texas, and subsequently 
in the war with Mexico. He received the successive 
brevets of captain and major for gallantry in sev- 
eral of the more important engagements, and was 
chief of staff to Maj. Daily's column on the inarch 
from Vera Cruz to Mexico in 1847. He was made 
paymaster 22 June, 1854, and served as such until 
1862, when he became a brigadier-general of volun- 
teers, which grade he resigned 8 Aug., 1865. He 
was brevetted brigadier in the regular army in 
April, 1865. From 1872 till his retirement from ac- 
tive service in 1881 he was chief of the pay depart- 
ment with the rank of brigadier-general. He is the 
author of treatises on mathematics and many essays. 

ALVORD, Corydon Alexis, printer, b. in Win- 
chester, Conn., in 1812; d. in Hartford, Conn., 28 
Nov., 1874. He learned his trade in Hartford, 
and in 1845 removed to New York, where he 
made a specialty of printing illustrated books, 
gaining a high reputation. His establishment on 
Vandewater st. was one of the most extensive in 
the country. Among its features were fonts of 
ancient and oriental letter, together with fonts'of 
old-style type, which enabled him to make reprints 
or fac-si miles of old books and newspapers. There 
were monster vaults deep iinder ground, and ex- 
tending under adjacent buildings, forming a series 
of immense storage-rooms guarded by thick walls 
and iron door? as thoroughly protected as the 
treasury vaults. These were for the storage of 
stereotype plates and valuable engravings. He be- 
gan a reprint of the old records of the city of New 
York, but the work was not finished, owing to 
changes in the recorder's office. In the reproduc- 
tion of old books and papers he succeeded in copy- 
ing the discolorations made by age, in a remarkable 
degree. He was an active member of the typo- 
gi'aphical society, and president of the typothetse. 
He acquired a competence, which was subsequently 
lost through the misconduct of others. In 1871 he 
retired from business, went to Hartford, and de- 
voted his remaining years to the preparation of a 
local history of llartiford and Winchester, 




ALVORD, Henry Elijah, educator, b. in Green- 
field. Mass., 11 March, 1844. He was educated in 
the Massachusetts public schools, and subsequently 
studied in the Norwich university, where in 1863 
he received the degrees of C. E. and B. S. He en- 
listed as a private in 1862, and passed through 
every grade to that of major, reaching that rank 
in tiie 2d Massachusetts cavalry in 1865. At the 
close of the war he was appointed to the regular 
army with the rank of captain of cavalry, and re- 
mained as such until 1872, when he became a spe- 
cial Indian courier. He then lectured for a time at 
Williston seminary, Easthampton, Mass., and later 
became manager of the Houghton farm. Orange co., 
N. Y. In 1886 he was elected professor of agricul- 
ture at the Massachusetts agricultural college, Am- 
herst. Prof. Alvord has been a frequent contribu- 
tor to the agricultural journals of this country and 
Great Britain, and is the author of the American 
sections of "Dairy Farming" (London, 1881). 

ALVORD. Thomas Gold, politician, b. hi Onon- 
daga, N. Y.. 20 Dec, 1810 ; d. in Svracuse, N. Y., 
26 Oct., 18i»7. He was graduated at Yale in 1828, 
in 1832 admitted to the New York bar. and in 
1844 sent to the legislature, where he remained for 
ten consecutive terms. He was elected speaker of 
the house in 1858 and in 1864, was lieutenant-gov- 
ernor in 1865-'6, and a member of the New York 
state constitutional convention in 1867-'8. He was 
the proprietor of extensive salt mines in centi'al 
New York, and was populai'lv known as "Old Salt." 
ALZATE Y RAMIREZ, Jose Antonio, Mexi- 
can scientist, b. in Ozumba in 1729; d. in the city 
of Mexico, 2 Feb., 1790. He was a corresponding 
member of the French and Spanish academies of 
science, and one of the earliest trustworthy ob- 
servers of Mexican meteorology. He attained a 
high reputation as a zoologist and botanist, and 
his researches led the way for modern exploration 
of Mexican antiquities. He published the " Gaceta 
de Literatura," and an essay entitled " La limite 
des nioges perpetuelles en Volcan Popocatepetl." 

VESPLICIO) (ves-putch'-ee), Italian navigator, b. 
in Florence, Italy, 9 March, 1451 ; d. in Seville, 
Spain, 22 Feb., 1512. He was of a wealthy family 

of merchants, and 
received his educa- 
tion from his uncle, 
Giorgi Antonio Ves- 
pucci, a Dominican 
friar, a friend and 
colleague of Savona- 
rola. He engaged 
in business, first in 
Florence and after- 
ward in Seville, 
wliere he met Co- 
lumbus, perhaps as 
early as 1493, and 
where in 1497 he 
equipped the fleet 
with which that nav- 
igator sailed on his 
third voyage. He 
had previously, in 
1496, had charge of 
fitting out a fleet for 
the Spanish government. Amerigo sailed from 
Spain in 1499 in an expedition that visited the 
neighborhood of Cape Paria and several hundred 
miles of coast, and returned in June, 1500. In 
May, 1501, he entered the service of Emanuel, of 
Portugal, and participated in an expedition that 
visited the coast of Brazil. In May, 1503, he com- 

manded a caravel in a squadron that sailed for the 
discovery of Malacca, but parted company from 
the rest, and finally made his way to the coast of 
Brazil, where he discovered the bay of All Saints, 
remained tliere two moiitlis, then ran 260 leagues 
farther south, where he built a fort, somewhere 
near Cape Frio, and, leaving a colony there, re- 
turned to Lisbon in June, 1504. Early in 1505 he 
obtained from King Ferdinand of Spain letters of 
naturalization, and on 22 Mai'ch, 1508, was ap- 
pointed pilot-major of the kingdom, an office that 
he held until his death, taking charge of the prepa- 
ration of a general description of coasts and ac- 
counts of new discoveries, and also superintending 
the construction of charts and the examination of 
pilots. The controversy as to whether Vespucci 
took precedence both of the Cabots and of Columbus 
in the discovery of the mainland of America has 
been for centuries a matter of dispute. None of 
the original letters of Amerigo bearing on the sub- 
ject are extant, except in translations, and these 
differ greatly among themselves and contain incon- 
sistencies of fact and date. It is not even known 
in what language the letters were written. An ac- 
count by Amerigo of his voyage of 1499, said to 
have been written 18 July, 1500, was published by 
Bandini in 1745. A letter of his to Lorenzo Piero 
de Medici, a cousin of Lorenzo the Magnificent, 
describing the voyage of 1501, was published in 
various editions, some in Latin, others in German, 
and in 1789 a new text, in Italian, was discovered 
by Bartolozzi. The Strasburg edition of 1505 bears 
the title " De Ora Antarctica." In 1507 a " C'osmo- 
graphise Introductio " was published at the little 
college of St. Die in Lorraine, and to it was ap- 
pended an account by Amerigo of his voyages, pur- 
porting to be addressed to Rene II., duke of Lor- 
raine. Here it is asserted that four voyages were 
made, the date of the first being fixed at May, 
1497. Amerigo would thus have reached the main- 
land a week or two earlier than Cabot, and about 
14 months earlier than Columbus. It was also 
suggested in this book that Amerigo should give 
his name to the continent he had discovered. The 
best authorities now consider the evidence incon- 
trovertible that this date of 1497 is incorrect, and 
doubt has thus been thrown upon the rest of Am- 
erigo's narrative. He has been charged by many 
with deliberate falsification, and most of his apolo- 
gists have contented themselves with defending 
his character, rather than the truth of his narra- 
tive, ascribing the inconsistencies of the latter to 
the errors of translators and copyists. Santarem, 
in his " Researches," says he could find no men- 
tion at all of Vespucci in the royal archi^'es .of 
Portugal, nor in the diplomatic records, wliere all 
new discoveries were mentioned, and the fact that 
his reputed discovery of the mainland was not 
used as evidence by the Spanish government in an 
action at law in 1512, where it would have been in 
their favor, seems to show that it was not given 
credence at that day. The name of America, how- 
ever, suggested by the " Cosmographi;e Introduc- 
tio," began soon to be generally used, and it was 
not until the publication of Schoner's " Opuseulum 
Geographicum " (1533) that doubt began to be 
thrown on its propriety. See " Life and Voyages 
of Americus Vespucius," by C. E. Lester (New 
York, 1846) ; Santarem's " Vespucius and his Voy- 
ages," translated by E. V. Childe (Boston, 1850); 
and Winsor's "Narrative and Critical History of 
America" (Boston, 1884). 

AlUES, Adelbert, soldier, b. in Rockland, Me., 
31 Oct., 1835. He was graduated at West Point m 
1861, and assigned to the 5th artillery. He was 




wounded at the battle of Bull Run and brevetted 
for tj^allantry in that act ion, and was present at the 
sie.n'c of Yorktowii, and the battlesof Gaines's Mills, 
Malvern Hill, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, 
Antietam, and Gettysburg, besides many of the 
minor engagements in Virginia throughout the 
civil war. He was brevetted colonel for gallantry, 
and commanded a brigade, and at times a division 
in the army of the Potomac, and in the operation 
before Petersburg in 1864. He was brevetted ma- 
jor-general of volunteers for his conduct at the 
(capture of Fort Fisher, 13 March, 1865, and bre- 
vetted major-general, U. S. army, for " gallant and 
meritorious conduct in the field during the re- 
bellion," and on 80 April, 1866, mustered out of 
the volunteer service. On 28 July, 1866, he was 
promoted to the full rank of lieutenant-colonel, 24th 
infantry. On 15 July, 1868, he was appointed pro- 
visional governor of Mississippi, under acts of con- 
gress providing for such temporary government, 
and on 17 March, 1869, his command extended to 
include the 4th military district. The lately in- 
surrectionary states were at the time divided into 
five such districts, each with a general officer in 
command, and a military force at his disposal. 
Mississippi was among the last of the states to 
comply with the conditions of reconstruction, and 
in the interval the connnunity drifted into a state 
bordering upon anarchy, the provisional governor 
at times interfering in the interest of order. Un- 
der his direction an election was held 30 Nov., 1869, 
and on 11 Jan., 1870, the legislature was convened 
by his direction. Gen. Ames was elected U. S. 
senator for the unexpired term from 4 March, 
1869. In 1873 he was chosen governor of Missis- 
sippi by a popular vote, and resigned his seat in 
the senate. His administration was so repugnant 
to the democrats — or, in other words, to the white 
population — that between them and the republi- 
cans, mostly blacks, a feeling of hostility arose so 
bitter that it culminated in a serious riot in Vicks- 
burg, 7 Dec, 1873, and this was followed by atroci- 
ties all over the state, consisting for the most part 
in the punishment, often in the murder, of obnox- 
ious republicans, white and black. The civil offi- 
cers were unable to enforce the laws, and Gov. 
Ames appealed to the general government for aid. 
Upon this, despatches of the most contradictory 
character were forwarded to Washington by the 
opposing parties, and, pending an investigation by 
congress, affairs were in a deplorable state of disor- 
ganization. An election held in November resulted 
in a general defeat of the republicans, both branches 
of the legislature becoming distinctly democratic. 
Gov. Ames held that this election was largely car- 
ried by intimidation and fraud, and vainly sought 
to secure congressional interference. Soon after 
the legislature convened in January, 1876, articles 
of impeachment were prepared against all the execu- 
tive officers, and, pending the trials, the machinery 
of state government was nearly at a standstill. 
Gov. Ames, seeing that conviction was inevitable, 
offei'ed through his counsel to resign, provided the 
articles of impeachment were withdrawn. This 
was done, and ne resigned at once and settled in 
Minnesota. Later he removed to Ijowell, Mass. 

AMES, Edward Rayiuoiid, bishop, b. in Athens, 
Ohio, 20 May, 1806 ; d. 'in Baltimore, 25 April, 1879. 
He studied for two years at the Ohio State Uni- 
versity, and m 1828 opened a high school at Leb- 
anon, 111., which in time grew into McKendree 
College, Here he remained until 1830, when he 
joined the Indiana Methodist Episcopal conference 
and became an itinerant minister. At the general 
conference for 1840 he was chosen corresponding 

secretary of the missionary society, and rode 
through the South and West and among the Indian 
tribes, a distance of more than 25,000 miles. He 
was a presiding elder from 1844 to 1852, and was 
then chosen bishop. He was the first Methodist 
bishop to visit the Pacific coast. During the civil 
war he rendered important service as a member of 
several commissions. 

AMES, Fisher, statesman, b. in Dedham, Mass., 
9 April, 1758 ; d. there. 4 July, 1808. His father, 
a physician, died when Fisher was but six years 
old, but his mother resolved, in spite of her limited 
income, to give the boy a classical education. At 
the age of six he 
began the study 
of Latin, and at 
the age of twelve 
he was sent to 
Harvard, where he 
was graduated in 
1774. Owing to 
his extreme youth 
and the sti-ait- 
ened circumstan- 
ces of the family, 
he was obliged to 
spend some years 
in teaching before 
studying law, and 
during this period 
he devoted him- 
self with indefat- 
igable zeal to 

sell-culture. Often in after-life he spoke of the 
ravenous appetite with which he had devoured the 
books within his reach. He read the leading Eng- 
lish poets, dwelling for hours on their beauties, and 
fixing the most striking passages in his memory. 
He admired Virgil, and could repeat considerable 
portions of the Eclogues and Georgics, and most of 
the fine passages of the ^neid. He was a pro- 
found student of the Scriptixres, and declared that 
no man could become ti'uly eloquent " without be- 
ing a constant reader of the Bible and an admirer 
of the purity and sid)limity of its language." Mr, 
Ames studied law in the office of William Tudor, 
and began practice in his native village in 1781. 
His abtlities were first made known by several po- 
litical essays, contributed to Boston journals under 
the signatures of " Brutus " and " Camillus." In 
1788 he was elected representative in the state leg- 
islature, where he distinguished hnnself so highly 
that he was elected to the convention that met in 
Massachusetts the same year to ratify the federal 
constitution. In this convention he urged the 
adoption of the constitution, and made also a 
speech on biennial elections, which manifested ex- 
traordinary eloquence and power. Joining the fed- 
eral party, he was elected to congress in December 
of the same year for the district that then included 
Boston. He served in congress for eight years, 
supporting Washington's administration, and when 
upon Washington's retirement congress voted an 
address to him, Mr. Ames was chosen to pronounce 
it. On 28 April, 1796, Mr. Ames advocated the 
appropriation required for the execution of Jay's 
treaty with Great' Britain m the most eloquent and 
powerful speech of his life. A member of the op- 
position objected to the taking of a vote at that 
time, on the ground that the house was too excited 
to come to a just decision. Declining health now 
compelled Mr. Ames to withdraw from public life, 
and he returned to his farm ni Dedham. In 1798 
he wrote " Laocoon " and other essays to rouse the 
fedei-alists to more strenuous opposition to the ag ■ 




gressions of France. On tlie death of Washington 
he ])r()nonnced his eulogy before the legislature of 
Massachusetts. He was elected president of Har- 
vard college in 1804, but declined the honor on 
account of his health, and spent his last years in 
retirement. Though not a deliberate artist in 
words, his diction is highly pictorial, and he 
abounds in verbal felicities, in condensed, epigram- 
matic sentences and illuminated sayings that lin- 
ger long in the memory. He rarely wrote out be- 
forehand any part of his speeches, but jotted down 
a few heads only, on which he studied till he had 
gained a complete mastery of his theme, and trust- 
ed for the rest to the inspiration and resources of 
the hour. In person Mr. Ames was somewhat 
above the average stature, well-proportioned, and 
very erect. His face had none of the strong and 
rugged lines that mark the highest type of great- 
ness, but had a peculiarly benignant expression. 
His disposition was amiable, his manners gentle 
and winning, and his character without a blemish. 
He was a brilliant talker, and one of the wittiest 
and most sparkling of letter-writers. A collection 
of his works, with a life by Rev. J. T. Kirkland, 
was published in Boston in 1809 ; and his son, Seth 
Ames, published an enlarged edition (2 vols., 1854). 
In 1871 his grandson, Pelham W. Ames, published 
a selection from his congressional speeches, four of 
which are not contained in the former collections. 

AMES, Joseph, painter, b. in Roxbury, N. H., 
in 1810 ; d. in New York, 30 Oct., 1872. He early 
began portrait painting, and, having attained mod- 
erate success in his own state, opened a studio in 
Boston, and soon established a reputation, painting 
the portraits of several prominent citizens. He 
was wholly self-taught, and it is thought that some 
of his best work was done in this first period of his 
career. As soon as he could save the means he 
went to Rome and studied there, painting a fine 
portrait of Pius IX. On his return to the United 
States he settled in Boston, but removed to Balti- 
more on account of his health in 1870. The change 
did him no good, and he soon removed to New 
York. He was elected a member of the national 
academy of design in 1870. His success in New 
York in genre work, as well as in portraiture, was 
extremely flattering, and he soon had more orders 
than he could fill. His best-known pictures are 
portraits of Ristori, Prescott, Emerson, Rachel, 
and President Felton,of Harvard, and "Gazzaniga." 
Among his ideal paintings are " Miranda," " Night," 
" Morning," " The Death of Webster," and " Maud 
MuUer." The annual exhibition of 1872 contained 
his last works, a portrait of Ross Winans and one 
of a young lady of Baltimore, while in his studio he 
left a finished picture of Madame Ristori as Medea. 
He died of brain fever after a brief illness. His 
widow has executed meritorious busts of Abraham 
Lincoln and Gov. John A. Andrew, of Massachusetts. 

AMES, Mary Clemmer (Mrs. Hudson), author, 
b. in Utica, N. Y., in 1839 ; d. in Washington, D. 
C, 18 Aug., 1884. She was educated at Westfield 
(Mass.) academy, and when very young began to 
write for the '" Springfield Republican." After- 
ward she became a correspondent of the New 
York " Independent," to which, under the title of 
'• A Woman's Letter from Washington," she regu- 
larly contributed for many years. Through these 
letters she was best known" in the literary world. 
At an early age she married the Rev. Daniel Ames, 
from whom she was afterward divorced. She was 
intimate with Alice and Phoebe Gary, whose biog- 
raphies she wrote. She also published monographs 
on Charles Sumner, Margaret Fuller, George Eliot, 
Emerson, and Longfellow. She wrote three novels. 

"Victoria" (New York, 1864), "Eirene" (1870), and 
"His Two Wives" (1874); "Ten Years in Wash- 
ington" (1871), "Outlines of Men, Women, and 
Things" (1873), and a volume of poems (Boston, 
1882). With the earnings of her pen she bought a 
house in Washington, which was a social as well as 
a literary centre for many years, and in 1883 she 
married Edmund Hudson, editor and proprietor of 
the " Army and Navy Register." She was thrown 
from a carriage in 1878, and received injuries from 
which she never wholly recovered. A complete 
edition of her works, in four volumes, was pub- 
lished in Boston in 1885, and a memorial by her 
husband in 1886. She was an earnest and' con- 
scientious writer, and exercised a powerful and 
healthful influence upon public affairs. 

AMES, Natliiin Peabody, manufacturer, b. in 
Chelmsford, Mass., 1 Sept., 1803 ; d. in Chicopee, 
Mass., 23 April, 1847. He began business in 1829, 
and became known as a skilful sword-maker, fur- 
nishing large numbers by contract to the U. S. 
government. His business having increased, he 
removed to Cabotville, Mass., and with his as- 
sociates incorporated in 1834 the Ames Manu- 
facturing Company. In 1836 the works were sup- 
plemented by the addition of a foundery for cast- 
ing bronze cannon and church-bells. This estab- 
lishment soon became famous, and furnished most 
of the brass cannon for the U. S. army. The 
statues of De Witt Clinton, in Greenwood ceme- 
tery, Brooklyn, N. Y., of Washington, in Union sq., 
New York, and of Franklin, in School st., Boston, 
Mass., were cast at this foundery. In 1840 ]Mr. 
Ames visited Europe for the purpose of inspecting 
the various armories and of acquiring the latest 
information in regard to improved processes. In 
1844 he received an important order from the Brit- 
ish government for machines used in the manufac- 
ture of muskets. 

AMES, Nathaniel, mathematician, b. in Bridge- 
water, Mass., in 1708; d. in Dedham, 11 July, 1764. 
He was a physician, but, inheriting a love of as- 
tronomy from his father, he began the publication 
in 1725 of a series of almanacs that won great suc- 
cess. In 1735 he removed to Dedham and kept a 
tavern. Here he married Mary Fisher, and two 
sons were born to them — Fisher Ames (g. r.)and 
Nathaniel, who continued the publication of his 
father's almanacs until 1775, when he became a 
surgeon in the patriot army. He made several sea 
voyages, and published stories of nautical adven- 
ture, including "Mariner's Sketches" (1830) and 
"Nautical Reminiscences" (1832). He died in 
Providence, R. I., 18 Jan.. 1835. • 

AMES, Oakes, manufacturer, b. in Easton, 
Mass., 10 Jan., 1804; d. in North Easton, Mass., 8 
May, 1873. He was the eldest son of Oliver Ames, 
a blacksmith, who had acquired considerable repu- 
tation in the making of shovels and picks. After 
obtaining a public-school education, he entered his 
father's workshops and made himself familiar with 
every step of the manufacture. He became a part- 
ner "in the business, and with his brother, Oliver, 
Jr., established the firm of Oliver Ames & Sons. 
This house carried on an enormous trade during 
the gold excitement in California, and again a few 
years later in Australia. During the civil war they 
furnished extensive supplies of swords and shovels 
to the government. In the building of the Union 
Pacific railroad they were directly interested, and 
obtained large contracts, which were subsequently 
transferred to the Credit Mobilier of America, a 
corporation in which Oakes Ames was one of the 
largest stockholders. In 1861 he was called into 
the executive council of Massachusetts. He served 




continuously in congress from 1862 to 1873 as 
representative from the 2d Massachusetts district. 
His rehitions with the Credit Mobilier led to an in- 
vestigation, which resulted in his being censured 
by a vote of the house of representatives. Subse- 
quent to his withdrawal from political life he re- 
sided at North East on, where he died of apoplexy. 
— His brother. Oliver, niaiuifacturer, b. in Plym- 
outh, Mass., 5 Nov., 1807; d. in North Easton, 
Mass., 9 March, 1877, was a member of the Mas- 
sachusetts state senate during 1852 and 1857. He 
was largely interested with his brother in the de- 
velopment of the Union Pacific railroad, and was 
its president pro tern, from 1866 until 1868. He 
was formally elected president of the company on 
12 March, 1868, and continued as such until 8 
March, 1871. He was connected with the Credit 
Mobilier, and in 1873 succeeded his brother as the 
head of the firm. — Oakes's second son, Oliver, 
financier, b. in Nortli Easton, Mass., 4 Feb., 1831 ; 
d. there, 22 Oct., 1895. He was apprenticed in his 
father's shovel-manufactory, was later educated at 
Brown university, and in 1863 became a partner 
in Ames & Sons. For ten years he superintended 
the mechanical business of the establishment, and 
on his father's death assumed control of his nu- 
merous financial trusts, including shares in the 
Union Pacific railroad. By judicious management 
he paid debts and about $1,000,000 in legacies 
under his father's will. He was a member of the 
state senate in 1880-'l, and in 1882 he received 
the republican nomination for lieutenant-governor, 
being re-elected in 1883, 1884, and 1885. In 1886 
he was governor of Massachusetts, and was re- 
elected in 1887 and 1888. 

AMES, Samuel, jurist, b. in Providence, K.. I., 
6 Sept., 1806 ; d. there, 20 Dec, 1865. He was pre- 
pared for college at Phillips Andover academy, and 
was graduated at Brown in 1823. After gradua- 
tion he attended the law lectures of Judge Gould 
at Litchfield, Conn., and became a member of the 
Rhode Island bar in 1826. He served in the Provi- 
dence city council, was for many years in the state 
assembly, and was elected speaker of that body in 
1844 and 1845. In 1839 he married Mary Throop 
Dorr, a niece of Thomas Wilson Dorr, famous as 
the leader of the rebellion in 1842. But this did 
not prevent Mr. ^Vmes from taking a stand on 
the side of law and order, and he served as quar- 
termaster of the state troops during the whole 
period of disturbance. In 1853 he was appointed 
by the legislature to represent the state in adjust- 
ing the boundary between Rhode Island and Mas- 
sachusetts. In 1855 he was one of the commis- 
sioners to revise the statutes of Rhode Island, a 
work that was completed in 1857 mainly under his 
supervision. He was elected chief justice of the 
state supreme court in May, 1856, and resigned the 
office in November, 1865, because of failing health. 
He was a delegate to the peace convention in 1861. 
The law books of which he was author or edi- 
tor are " Agnell and Ames on Corporations " and 
" Rhode Island Reports " (vols. iv. to vii.). 

AMHERST, Jeffrey, soldier, b. in Riverhead, 
Kent, England, 29 .Jan., 1717 ; d. 3 Aug., 1797. His 
American career began in 1758, when he was com- 
missioned major-general at the instance of William 
Pitt, and sent to cooperate with Prideaux in wrest- 
ing Canada from the French. From boyhood he 
had been a soldier serving in Flanders and winning 
distinction under the duke of Marlborough. For 
his services in reducing the French strongholds he 
received the thanks of the house of commons and 
the order of the bath. In 1760 he was appointed 
governor-general of the British possessions in 

America, but proved unable to deal with the In- 
dians under such a leader as Pontiac. In 1763 he 
was made governor of Virginia, his last American 
service. In England, Pontiac's conspiracy was 
generally unknown, and as Amherst was a favorite 
with the king, honors were heaped upon him, 
largely because he steadily favored the American 
war. In 1776 he was raised to the peerage as Lord 
Amherst, and in 1787 received a patent as Baron 
Amherst of Montreal, this being the name of his 
seat in Kent. See the " Gentleman's Magazine " 
for September, 1797 ; Parkman's " Conspiracy of 
Pontiac " ; and Bancroft's " History of the United 
States," vol. iii. A fine portrait of Gen. Amiierst 
by Gainsborough is in the national portrait gallery. 

AMI, Henry Mark, Canadian scientist, b. in 
Belle-Riviere, 23 Nov., 1858. He was graduated 
at McGill college in 1882, and in June of the .same 
year was appointed on the paleontological staff of 
the geological survey of Canada. In 1886 he was 
assistant paleontologist, and during the same year 
was engaged in the determination, identification, 
and classification of the fossil remains of Canada, 
in connection with the museum and geological 
survey at Ottawa. His first paper on geology 
was read at Ottawa in 1881, and in 1882 his work 
on " The Utica Formation in Canada " was pub- 
lished. Then followed " Notes on Triarthrus spi- 
nosus, Billings," and various reports on the stratig- 
raphy and paleontology of Ottawa and vicinity, and 
a catalogue of fossils. In June, 1883, he became 
a permanent civil service officer in the department 
of the interior, geological survey branch. 

AMIDAS, or AMADAS, Philip, navigator, b. 
in Hull, England, in 1550 ; d. there in 1618. He 
was the son of a Breton family who had for a cent- 
tury resided in England. He commanded one of 
the two ships in Arthur Barlow's voyage of dis- 
covery to the coast of North Carolina "in 1584, un- 
dertaken with a view to establishing a permanent 
colony. They explored New Inlet, and returned 
with glowing accounts of the grapes, cedars, and 
other products of the country and of its people. 
Amidas was in charge of an expedition to New- 
foundland a few years later. 

AaiMEN, Daniel, naval officer, b. in Ohio, 15 
May, 1820; d. in Washington, D. C, 11 July, 1898. 
He was appointed midshipman, and served in the 
Wilkes exploring expedition, in the Mediterranean, 
in the East India squadron, and on the coast sur- 
vey. As lieutenant (from 4 Nov., 1849) he was at- 
tached to a commission to select a naval station on 
the Pacific coast, accompanied the expedition to 
Paraguav river in 1853-'54, and was on the steam 
frigate " Merrimac " in 1859-60. In 1861. at the out- 
break of the civil war, he was executive officer of 
the North Atlantic blockading squadron. At the 
reduction of Port Royal, 7 Nov., 1861, he com- 
manded the " Seneca," and was sent ashore to hoist 
the flag over the surrendered forts, and hold them 
till the army took possession. He was promoted 
to be commander 21 Feb., 1863, was assigned to the 
monitor " Patapsco," and participated in the attack 
on Fort Macallister, 3 March, 1863. In May, 1864, 
he was despatched to the Pacific in command of 
220 seamen as passengers on board a California 
steamer. Two days out from New York a well- 
organized attempt at mutiny was suppressed by 
Com. Ammen and Boatswain Bell, aided by Capt. 
Tinklepaugh, of the steamer, and a few volunteers 
from among the passengers. He participated in 
the two attacks on Fort Fisher in the winter of 
1864-'65, was commissioned captain 26 July, 1866, 
and was on special and sea service until 1 1 Dec., 
1877, when he was made rear-admiral and was 




placed on the retired list after forty-nine years and 
six months of service. He is the author of " The 
Atlantic Coast " (New York, 1883) and " The Old 
Navy and the New" (Philadelphia, 1891). — His 
brother, Jacob, soldier, b. in Botetourt co., Va., 7 
Jan., 1806; d. in Lockland, Ohio, 6 Feb., 1894. 
He WHS graduated at West Point in 1881, and 
served there as assistant instructor until yeptem- 
ber, 1833. During the threatened "'nullification" 
of South Carolina he was on duty in C'harleston 
harbor. From 4 Oct., 1834, to 5" Nov., 1837, he 
was again at West Point as an instructor, and 
he resigned from the army, 30 Nov., 1837, to ac- 
cept a professorship of mathematics at Bacon col- 
lege, Georgetown, Ky. Thence he went to Jef- 
ferson college, Washington. Miss., in 1839, to the 
university of Indiana in 1840, to Jefferson col- 
lege again in 1843, and returned to Bacon col- 
lege in 1848. From 1855 to 1861 he was a civil en- 
gineer at Ripley, Ohio, and on April 18 of that 
year became captain in the 12th Ohio volunteers. 
He was promoted lieutenant-colonel 2 May, and 
participated in the West Virginia campaign (June 
and July) under McClellan. where the first consid- 
erable federal successes of the war were gained. 
After the campaigns in Tennessee and Mississippi 
he was promoted to be brigadier-general of volun- 
teers 16 July, 1862. and was in command of camps 
of instruction in Ohio and Illinois until 16 Dec, 
1863. From 10 April, 1864, to 14 Jan., 1865, when 
he resigned, he was in command of the district of 
east Tennessee. 

AMOllY, Robert, physician, b. in Boston, 2 
May, 1842. He was graduated at Harvard in 1863, 
and received his degree from tiie medical depart- 
ment in 1866. After studying in Paris and Dublin 
for a year, he settled in Longwood (Brookline), 
Mass. In addition to the practice of his profession 
he has taken a warm interest in town affairs, filling 
several important positions. He was appointed in 
1869 lecturer at Harvard college on the physiologi- 
cal action of drugs, and was afterward professor of 
physiology in the medical school at Bowdoin col- 
lege, but resigned this chair in 1874. He is a mem- 
ber of several societies of medical science, and has 
published " Bromides of Potassium and Ammo- 
nium " (Boston, 1872), and "Action of Nitrous 
Oxide " (1870) ; and has contributed to periodicals 
important papers on " Chloral Hydrates : Experi- 
ments Disproving Evolution of Chloroform in 
Organism," " Pathological Action of Prussic Acid," 
" Poisons," etc. He has also translated and edited 
" Lectures on Physiology," by Prof. Russ, of the 
Strasburg university medical school (Boston, 
1875). His " Photography of the Spectrum " was 
published in the proceedings of the American 
academy. He was appointed assistant surgeon in 
the Massachusetts volunteer militia in 1875, surgeon 
in 1876, and medical director of the 1st brigade 
a few months later. 

AMORY, Thomas Coffin, lawyer, b. in Boston, 
Mass., 16 Oct., 1812; d. there, 20 Aug., 1889. He 
was graduated at Harvard, and became a member 
of the bar. For many years he was connected with 
the municipal government of Boston, serving as 
alderman and in important positions in the educa- 
tional departments. During this period he con- 
tributed to various periodicals, and published many 
reports and addresses regarding his official duties. 
In 1858 he published a " Life of James Sullivan," 
governor of Massachusetts, and in 1868 " The Mili- 
tary Services of Major-General John Sullivan." 
This was followed by numerous pamphlets and con- 
tributions to the historical magazines on subjects 
connected with the revolutionary war, among which 

were " Old Cambridge and New," " Our English 
Ancestors," "Homes of the Olden Times," "Old 
Homes of New England," " The Transfer of Erin," 
and " The Acquisition of Ireland by England." In 
1886 he published "A Life of Sir Isaac Coffin : His 
English and American Ancestors." He wrote nu- 
merous poems, the best-known of which is, perhaps, 
" William Blaxton, Sole Inhabitant of Boston." 
This was written at a time when it was proposed to 
pull down the old South church, and was followed by 
" The Siege of Boston " (Cambridge, 1888), " Charles 
River" (1888), and " Miscellaneous Poems" (1888). 

AMORY, Thomas Isaac Coffin, b. in Boston, 
3 Nov., 1830; d. of yellow fever in Beaufort, 
N. C, 8 Oct., 1864. He was graduated at West 
Point in 1851, and served on garrison and frontier 
duty in the Utah expedition (1858-'60), and on re- 
cruiting service imtil 1861, when he became colonel 
of the 17th Massachusetts volunteers. He was sta- 
tioned at Baltimore with his regiment until March, 
1862, when he was ordered to North Carolina and 
took part in the operations about Newbern, Beau- 
fort, Goldsboro, and Kinston, until 1 March, 1864, 
when he was assigned to a general command of the 
forces south of the Trent river, and on 5 July to 
the sub-district of Beaufort. He was promoted to 
be major 19 September, and was brevetted briga- 
dier-general of volunteers 1 October. 

AMPUDIA, Pedro tie, Mexican soldier. He 
was made a general by Santa Anna in 1840, led a 
foray on the Texas frontier under the command of 
Gen. Woil in 1842, took a prominent part in the 
conflicts with the Texan forces under Summerville, 
and in December, 1842, commanded the land forces 
in the siege of Campeachy, Yucatan. He was com- 
pelled to retreat by Com. Moore on 26 June, 1843, 
and went to Tabasco, where in 1844 he aroused 
great indignation by his cruel execution of Gen. 
Sentmanat, wlio had attacked the town. He was 
dismissed from his command, but on 11 April, 1846, 
appeared before Matamoras as a general in the 
army under Arista. He was given command of 
Monterey, but, after a spirited defence, surrendered 
to Gen. Taylor. 24 Sept., 1846. 

ANACA'ONA, also called the Golden Flower, 
was an Indian queen, wife of Caonabo, one of the 
five caciques who possessed the island of Santo 
Domingo when the Spaniards discovered it and 
settled "there in 1492. She was celebrated as a com- 
poser of ballads and narrative poems, called areiYos. 
The Indians, being ill-treated by the conquerors, 
revolted, and made a long war against them ; and 
during a feast organized to honor the queen of 
Jaragua, who was friendly to the Spaniards, Gov. 
Nicolas de Ovando ordered the arrest of Anacaona 
and her Indian noblemen, all of whom, being sus- 
pected of conspiracy, were executed. 

ANASCO, Juan de (an-yas'-co), Spanish trav- 
eller, lived in Seville in the first part of the 16th 
century. He was one of the most active of the 
officers that accompanied Hernando de Soto dur- 
ing his famous expedition to Florida and the re- 
gions along the Mississippi river, from 1539 to 
1543, and the successful return of the expedition 
was largely due to him, who was their guide in de- 
scending the Mississipj)i. 

ANAYA, Pedro Maria (ah-nay'-ya), Mexican 
soldier. He took part in the operations against the 
American army of occupation, and was twice presi- 
dent of Mexico ad interim : while President Santa 
Anna was absent from the capital (2 April to 20 
May, 1847), and then in the absence of President 
Peiia V Pena (12 Nov., 1847. to 8 Jan., 1848). 

ANiDHIETA, Jose de (an-chee-ay'-ta). Portu- 
guese missionary, b. at Laguna, in Teneriffe, Ca- 




nary islands, in 1533 ; d. in Brazil, 9 June, 1597. 
He was a relative of Loyola's. In 1553 he went 
from Coimbra, where he had been stationed, as a 
missionary to Brazil, where he founded a college 
for the conversion of natives, and was appointed 
governor of the converted Indians. His life was 

gassed in danger, privation, and arduous labor, 
[e was believed by both whites and Indians to 
have the power of working miracles, and was com- 
monly called the " Apostle of Brazil." The acad- 
emy of sciences at Madrid has published a treatise 
by him on " The Natural Productions of Brazil." 
See " Vida do Padre Joseph de Anchieta," by Vas- 
concellos, and an earlier biography by Rodriguez. 

ANDAGOYA, Pascual de, Spanish traveller, b. 
in the province of Alava, Spain ; d. in Cuzco, Peru, 
18 June, 1548. In 1514, when very young, he went 
out to Darien with the governor, Pedro Arias. 
He was made inspector-general of the Indians on 
the isthmus in 1523, and in the same year, hear- 
ing of a province farther south called Biru (Peru), 
set out on an expedition thither. Several chiefs of 
the country made their submission to him, and 
told him of the great empire of the Incas ; but 
when he attempted to make further discoveries, a 
severe illness forced him to return to Panama, 
where he reported the information he had gained. 
The governor then handed over the enterprise to 
three partnei's, one of whom was Francisco Pizarro, 
afterward conqueror of Peru. Andagoya now 
lived at Panama till 1529, when he was banished 
by the governor to Santo Domingo, but returned 
in a few years as lieutenant to the new governor, 
Barrionuevo. He acted as agent to Pizarro and 
the other conquerors of Peru until 1536, when he 
was sent back to Spain. In 1540 he became gover- 
nor of the country around the San Juan river, and 
founded the town of Buenaventura ; but, owing to 
a dispute with a neighboring governor, he went 
back to Spain, where he spent five years, returning 
to Peru to die. Oviedo, who knew him well, 
speaks of him as noble minded and virtuous, and 
says his treatment of the Indians was humane. He 
wrote an interesting narrative, which remained 
long in manuscript, but was finally published by 
Navarrete. An English translation by Clements 
R. Markham has been published by the Hakluyt 
society (London, 1865), 

ANDERS, John Daniel, Moravian bishop, b. 
in Germany, 9 Aug., 1771 ; d. in Herrnhut, Saxo- 
ny, 6 Nov ," 1847. "He was graduated at the Mo- 
ravian college and the theological seminary at 
Herrnhut, became a professor in the latter, and 
subsequently took charge of the Moravian church 
in Berlin. There his learning and eloquence at- 
tracted no little attention among the professors 
of the university and otliers. The celebrated Dr. 
Neander was his intimate friend. In 1827 Anders 
was appointed to preside over the northern district 
of the American Moravian church, and accordingly 
received consecration as a bishop on 16 Sept. of 
that year, at Herrnhut. He filled this office until 
1836, when he attended a general synod of the 
Moravian church convened in Germany, and that 
body elected him to the supi-eme executive board of 
the Unitas Fratrum. For this reason he did not 
return to the United States. 

ANDERSON, Alexander, wood engraver, b. in 
New York city, 21 April, 1775; d. in Jersey City, 
N. J.. 17 Jan., 1870. At the age of twelve years he 
made his first attempts at engraving on copper, fre- 
quently using pennies rolled out, and on type-metal 
plates. He received no instruction, and his knowl- 
edge was acquired by watching jewellers and other 
workmen. Some of his earliest efforts were copies of 

C^^X- V ^<J^o(c^SOy^ 

anatomical figures in medical works. In deference 
to his father's wishes, he studied in the medical de- 
partment of Columbia college, and was graduated 
in 1796; but at the same time he continued his in- 
terest in engraving 
and produced the 
illustrations for a 
little book entitled 
" Looking Glass for 
the Mind." Short- 
ly afterward, on be- 
ing informed that 
it was possible to 
engrave on wood, 
he obtained blocks 
of box - wood, de- 
signed his own 
tools, and produced 
the first wood en- 
gravings ever made 
in the United 
States. About 1798 
he abandoned the 
practice of medi- 
cine, and devoted 

his attention thenceforth exclusively to engraving. 
At first he used Ijoth wood and metal as occasion 
required, but from about 1820 his illustrations were 
usually cut in wood, and for some time he was the 
only artist in that line in New York. His best- 
known productions include the illustrations in 
Webster's " Elementary Spelling-Book," a series of 
forty plates for Shakespeare's plays, and engravings 
of Bewick's " Birds," and of Sir Charles Bell's 
" Anatomy." For many years he was employed by 
the American tract society and engraved the illus- 
trations for their publications. A memorial address 
on this pioneer engraver, by Benson J. Lossing, 
was published by the New York Historical Society, 
with 38 illustrations, many of them engraved by 
Anderson himself. 

ANDERSON, Alexander, senator, b. in Jef- 
ferson CO., Tenn., 10 Nov., 1794 ; d. in Knoxville, 
Tenn., 23 ilay, 1869. He was elected by the demo- 
crats U. S. senator from Tennessee in 1840, and 
was afterward a legislator and judge in California, 
and fi-amed the state constitution. 

ANDERSON, Oalusha, educator, b. in Bergen, 
N. Y., 7 March, 1832. He was graduated at Ro- 
chester university in 1854, and at the theological 
seminary in Rochester in 1856. He became distin- 
guished as a preacher of the Baptist denomination, 
and was called in 1866 from his church in St. 
Louis to the professorship of homiletics, church 
polity, and pastoral duties, in Newton theological 
institute. From 1873 to 1878 he preached in Brook- 
lyn, and then in Chicago, and in the latter year was 
chosen president of Chicago university, in which 
post he continued till September, 1885. 

ANDERSON, George Burgwin, soldier, b. in 
Wilmington, N. C, 12 April, 1831 ; d. in Raleigh, 
N. C, 16 Oct., 1862. He was graduated at West 
Point in 1852, and was appointed to the 2d dra- 
goons, promoted to be 1st lieutenant in 1855, and 
in 1858 appointed adjutant of his regiment. He 
resigned in April, 1861, and entered the confed- 
erate army, where he was soon appointed brigadier- 
general and given direction of coast defences in 
North Carolina. At the battle of Antietam, where 
he commanded a brigade, he received a wound in 
the foot, which eventually proved fatal. 

ANDERSON, Henry" James, educator, b. in 
New York, 6 Feb., 1799; d. in Lahore, northern 
Hindostan, 19 Oct., 1875. He was graduated at 
Columbia college with highest honors in 1818. 




studied medicine, and received in 1823 his degree 
from the college of physicians and surgeons. He 
devoted his leisure time to mathematical investi- 
gations, and in 1825 was appointed professor of 
mathematics and astronomy in Columbia college. 
Alter twenty-five years of successful teaching "he 
resigned his professorship to go abroad in hopes of 
restornig the health of his wife, but to no avail. 
While in France he became intimately acquainted 
with the astronomer Arago, and about the same 
time he became a convert to the Catholic faith. 
He spent many years in wandering over Europe, 
Asia, and Africa, and during a visit to the Holy 
Land he acted as geologist to the Dead sea expe- 
dition under command of Lieut. Lynch. The re- 
sults were collected and published by the U. 
S. government in 1848, with the titles of "Ge- 
ology of Lieutenant Lynch's Expedition to the 
Dead Sea," and " Geological Reconnoissance of 
Part of the Holy Land." In 1851 he was elected 
a trustee of Columbia college, and in 1866 emeritus 
professor of mathematics and astronomy. In 1874 
he was one of the band of pilgrims that left the 
United States on a visit to Lourdes, Prance, and 
was received by Pius IX. with special marks of 
favor. He then joined as a volunteer the Ameri- 
can scientific expedition sent out to observe the 
transit of Venus, and proceeded to Australia, hav- 
ing procured the necessary instruments at his own 
expense. On his return, he visited India, and, 
while exploring the Himalayas, he was stricken 
with the disease that caused his death. He was 
active in advancing the interests of the Catholic 
church in New York, for many years was president 
of the society of St. Vincent de Paul, was promi- 
nent in the originating of the Catholic union of 
New York, and was also one of the founders of the 
Catholic Protectory in Westchester, N. Y. 

ANDERSON, Henry T., clergyman, b. 27 Jan., 
1812 ; d. 19 Sept., 1872. He was a minister of the 
denomination known as Campbellites or Disciples, 
and was the author of an interlinear translation of 
the New Testament, and during the last five years 
of his life was engaged in its revision, taking for 
his basis the text of Tischendorf. This work was 
nearly comj^leted at his death. 

ANDERSON, Isasic, clergyman, b. in Rock- 
bridge CO., Va., 26 March, 1780; d. in Roekford, 
Tenn., 28 Jan., 1857. He studied at liberty hall 
academy (afterward Washington college), and then 
fitted himself for a preacher. After his family 
had removed to Union, Tenn., he was licensed to 
preach in 1802, and was the Presbyterian pastor in 
that place for nine years, and subsequently in 
JMaryville, where the southwestern theological 
seminary was established through his eft'orts. 

ANDERSON, James Pattoii, soldier, b. in Ten- 
nessee about 1820: d. in Menqihis in 1873. He 
served in Mexico, commanding Mississippi volun- 
teers, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He after- 
ward settled at Olympia, Washington territory, and 
sat in tlie house of representatives as a delegate 
from that territory in 1855-57. He held the rank 
of brigadier-general in the confederate army, dis- 
tinguished himself at Shiloh and Stone river, and 
was promoted to major-general 17 Feb., 1864, was 
assigned to the command of the district of Florida, 
and subsequently commanded a division in Polk's 
corps. Army of the Tennessee. 

ANDERSON, John Henry, juggler, b. in Aber- 
deenshire, Scotland, about 1810. He apfjcared on 
the stage with a travelling dramatic comi)auy in 
1830, and was known as a conjurer in Scotland be- 
fore he came to America in 1851. In New York 
he appeared in Jrama at the Broadway theatre and 

at Castle Garden, and then opened an exhibition 
of sleight-of-hand at Tripier Hall, taking the pro- 
fessional name of " Prof. Anderson, the Wizard of 
the North." He attained a high reputation as a 
magician, and travelled extensively in the United 
States and in other countries. 

ANDERSON, John Jacob, educator, b. in New 
York city in 1821. He was the master of a large 
ptiblic school in New York for twenty years, and 
is the author of several text -books of history. 
These include " Introductory School History of 
the United States " (New York, 1865) ; " Pictorial 
School History of the United States " (1863) 
" Common School History of the United States " 
" Grammar School History of the United States " 
"A Manual of General History"; "A School His- 
tory of England " (1870) ; " The Historical Reader " 
(1871); "the United States Reader" (1872); "A 
New Manual of General History" (1869); "A Pic- 
torial School History " ; "A School History of 
France"; "The Historical Reader"; and "A 
School H istory of Greece." 

ANDERSON, Joseph, statesman, b. near Phila- 
delphia, 5 Nov., 1757; d. in Washington. D. C, 17 
April, 1837. He studied law, and at the beginning 
of the revolution was appointed an ensign in the 
New Jersey line. At the battle of Monmouth he 
served as a captain. He was with Sullivan in 
the expedition against the Iroquois, and was pres- 
ent at Valley Forge and at the siege of Yorktown, 
retiring after the war with the brevet rank of 
major. He began the practice of law in Delaware. 
Washington appointed him in 1791 territorial judge 
of the region south of the Ohio river, and he took 
part m drawing up the constitution of Tennessee. 
He was U. S. senator from that state from 1797 to 
1815, serving on important committees and twice 
acting as president joro tempore. He was first comp- 
troller of the treasury from 1815 till 1836. 

ANDERSON, Martin Brewer, educator, b. in 
Brunswick, Me., 12 Feb., 1815 ; d. at Lake Helen, 
Fla., 26 Feb., 1890. 
He was graduated 
at Waterville college 
in 1840, and then 
studied for a year at 
Newton, Mass. In 
the following year 
he was appointed tu- 
tor of Latin, Greek, 
and mathematics at 
Waterville, and sub- 
sequently professor 
of rhetoric. He also 
organized and taught 
the course in modern 
history. In 1850 he 
resigned his profess- 
orship and became 
proprietor and editor 
of the " New York 
Recorder," a weekly Baptist journal. In 1858 he 
accepted the presidency of the university of Roch- 
ester, which office he occupied until 1889, teach- 
ing the departments of psychology and political 
economy. He travelled in Europe in 1862-'63. 
He published numerous literary and philosophical 
articles. He was a powerful public speaker, and 
during the civil war rendered notable service in 
arousing and sustaining the sentiment of loyalty 
to the government and the determination to carry 
the struggle through to a successful close. He 
was a member of the New York state board of 
charities for thirteen years, also one of the com- 
missioners of the state reservation at Niagara Falls. 


yLc-/K!) ^cU-o-^^n^ 





ANDERSON, Mar.v» actress, b. in Sacramento, 
Cal., 28 July, 1859. She was brought to Louis- 
ville, Ky., when an infant, and was left fathei'less 
at three years of age. She was educated in the 

Ursuline convent 
of that city, and, 
when thirteen 
years old, resolved 
to enter the dra- 
matic profession. 
She received a 
training in music, 
dancing, and lit- 
erature to that 
end, and, after 
taking a course 
of dr-amatic les- 
sons in New York, 
on the advice of 
Charlotte Cush- 
man, and pursu- 
ing elocutionary 
studies at home 
for a year longer, 
she appeared as 
Juliet at Macau- 
ley's theatre, in 
Louisville, 27 
Nov., 1875, and 
subsequently in other parts. She played then in 
St. Louis, and next in New Orleans, where she was 
received with enthusiasm. She became a favorite 
actress in the principal cities of the United States, 
playing Lady Macbeth, Parthenia in " Ingomar," 
Pauline in " The Lady of Lyons," Galatea, and 
other characters. She played in 1888 and the fol- 
lowing seasons in England, where she was greatly 
admired for her beauty and refined acting. See 
" The Stage Life of Mary Anderson," by William 
Winter (New York, 1886). She married in 1890. 

ANDERSON, Ophelia Brown, actress, b. in 
Boston, 24 Julv, 1818; d. in Jamaica Plain, Mass., 
27 Jan., 1852. 'She was the daugliter of Mrs. Pel- 
by, an actress, and appeared on the stage in Boston, 
when two years old, as Cora's child in " Pizarro." 
She became a favorite with the American public, 
and was the chief attraction in the Tremont and 
National theatres, of which successively her' father 
was the manager. Her father, William Pelby, 
b. in Boston, Mass., 16 March, 1793; d. 28 May, 
1850, managed the Tremont, built the Warren 
theatre, and appeared in London as Hamlet and 
Brutus in Payne's play. 

ANDERSON, Rasmus Bjorn, author, b. in Al- 
bion, Wis., 12 Jan., 1846. His parents were Nor- 
wegians, and he was educated at the Norwegian 
Lutheran college, at Decorah, Iowa. He was profes- 
sor of Scandinavian languages in the university of 
Wisconsin from 1875 to 1884. In 1885 he was ap- 
pointed U. S. minister to Denmark. He has pub- 
lished " Julegrave " (1872) : " Den Norske Maalsag " 
(1874) ; " America not Discovered by Christopher 
Columbus " (Chicago, 1874) ; " Norse Mythologv " 
(1875); "Viking Tales of the North" (1877); 
"The Younger Edda" (1880); a translation of 
Horn's " History of the Literature of the Scan- 
dinavian North " (1885) ; and Bjorson's works. 

ANDERSON, Richard Cloii^h, soldier, b. in 
Hanover co., Va., 12 Jan., 1750; d. near Louis- 
ville, Ky., 16 Oct., 1826. As captain in the 5th 
Virginia continentals, he led the advance of the 
Americans at the battle of Trenton (24 Dec, 1776), 
crossing the Delaware river in the first boat, and 
drivmg in the Hessian outposts several hours be- 
fore the main attack was delivered. He was at 

the battles of Brandywine and Germantown, and 
was a daring leader wherever dash and resolution 
were needed. He was at the death-bed of Pulaski, 
and the dying Pole gave him his sword as a me- 
mento. After the war he removed to the wilder- 
ness of Kentucky, near Louisville, and led the life 
of a pioneer and Indian fighter until advancing 
civilization pushed the frontier so far westward 
that he was too old to follow. Before the close of 
the last century he superintended the building of 
a two-masted vessel, which he sent to London 
laden with Kentucky produce. See biographical 
sketch by E. L. Anderson (New York, 1879). — His 
son, Richard Cloilgh, Jr., lawyer (b. in Louisville, 
Ky., 4 Aug., 1788; d. in Tubaco, 24 July, 1826), 
was graduated at William and Mary college in 
1804. and studied law with Judge Tucker. He 
practised with success at the Kentucky bar, and, 
after sitting in the legislature, was elected to con- 
gress in 1817 and again the following term. In 
1822 he was again returned to the legislature, and 
was chosen speaker. He was appointed minister 
to Colombia in 1823 and in 1826, when, proceeding 
to the Panama congress as envoy extraordinary, he 
died on the journey. 

ANDERSON, Richard Herron, soldier, b. near 
Statesburgh, S. C, 7 Oct., 1821 ; d. in Beaufort. 26 
June, 1879. He was graduated at the U. S. military 
academy in 1842, assigned to the 2d dragoons, and 
served on frontier duty until 1845, when he joined 
the expedition for the military occupation of Texas. 
In the war with Mexico he took part in the siege 
of Vera Cruz and the various operations preceding 
and including the capture of the city of Mexico, 
12-14 Sept., 1847. He became first lieutenant of 
the 2d dragoons 13 July, 1848, and captain 3 
March, 1855, served frequently at the cavalry 
school for practice at Carlisle barracks, and was on 
duty in Kansas during the border troubles of 1856- 
'57. He was on duty at Fort Kearney, Nebraska, 
from 1859 to 1861, when he resigned, 3 March, to 
accept a brigadier's commission from the confeder- 
ate government. He was promoted to major-gen- 
eral in August, 1862, and given the command of 
the 5th division of Bragg's army in Tennessee, but 
was soon ordered to the army of Virginia, and was 
wounded at Antietam. He commanded a division 
at Gettysburg 1-3 July. 1863, and was promoted to 
lieutenant-general in May, 1864. It was his unex- 
pected night march (because he could not find a 
suitable place to encamp) that took the van of 
Lee's army to the defences of Spottsylvania before 
Grant could reach that place, and thus prolonged a 
campaign that might otherwise have ended there 
with a decisive battle. Gen. Anderson took a 
prominent part in the defence of Petersburg, and 
in the closing engagements that preceded the sur- 
render, commanded the 4th corps of the confeder- 
ate army under Lee. After the war he remained 
in pri\'ate life. 

ANDERSON, Robert, soldier, b. at "Soldier's 
Retreat," near Louisville, Ky., 14 June, 1805 ; d. in 
Nice, France. 27 Oct., 1871. He graduated at 
West Point in 1825, and was appointed second 
lieutenant in the 3d artillery. He served in the 
Black Hawk war of 1832 as colonel of the Illinois 
volunteers. In 1835-'37 he was instructor of artil- 
lery at West Point, and in 1837-38 he served in 
the Florida war, and was brevetted captain. Sub- 
sequently he was attached to the staff of Gen. 
Scott as assistant adjutant-general, and was pro- 
moted to captain in 1841. He served in the Mexi- 
can war, and was severely wounded at INIolino del 
Rey. In 1857 he was appointed major of the 1st 
artillery, and on 20 Nov., 1860, he assumed com- 





fU/jc^^i^ - 

mand of the troops in Charleston harbor, with 
headquarters at Fort Moultrie. Owing to threat- 
ened assaults, he 
withdrew his com- 
mand, on the night 
of 2G Dee., to Fort 
Sumter, where he 
was soon closely in- 
vested by the confed- 
erate forces. On 13 
April, 1861, he evac- 
uated the fort, after 
a bombardment of 
nearly thirty - six 
hours from batteries 
to which he replied 
as long as his guns 
could be worked. 
He marched out, 
with his seventy 
men, with the hon- 
ors of war, on the 
14th, saluting his flag as it was hauled down, and 
sailed for New York on the following day. In 
recognition of this service he was appointed briga- 
dier-general in the U. S. army by President Lin- 
coln, and was assigned to the command of the de- 
partment of Kentucky, and subsequently to that 
of the Cumberland. In consequence of failing 
health, he was relieved from duty in October, 1861. 
He was retired from active service 27 Oct., 1863, 
and on 3 Feb., 1865, he was brevetted major-gen- 
eral. He sailed for Europe in 1869 for his health, 
but died there. He translated and adapted from 
the French " Instructions for Field Artillery, 
Horse and Foot " (1840), and " Evolutions of Field 
Batteries" (1860), both of which have been used by 
the war department. It was largely owing to his 
personal efforts that the initial steps were taken 
organizing the Soldiers' Home in Washington, 
which now harbors about 2,000 veterans of the 
regular army. — His brother, Larz, capitalist, b, 
near Louisville, Ky., 9 April. 1803; d. in Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, 27 Feb., 1878, was graduated at Har- 
vard in 1822. He was a son-in-law of Nicholas 
Longworth, of Cincinnati, in which city he resided 
and was respected for his profuse charities and 
public .'<i)irit. 

ANDERSON, Robert Honstoun, soldier, b. in 
Savannah. Ga., 1 Oct., 1835 ; d. there. 8 Feb., 1888. 
He was graduated at West Point in 1857, and served 
in the 9th infantry at Fort Columbus, New York 
harbor, and at Fort Walla-walla, Washington ter- 
ritory, until 1861, when he obtained a leave of 
absence, but subsequently resigned (3 May, 1861), 
entered the confederate service as major, and was 
commissioiii'd brigadier-general in 1864. In 1867 
he becaii.c chief of police in Savannah, Ga. 

ANDERSON, Rufus, author, b. in North Yar- 
mouth, Me.. 17 Aug., 1796 ; d. 30 May, 1880. He 
was graduated at Bowdoin college in 1818, and at 
Andover theological seminary in 1822, and was 
ordained as a minister in i826. From 1824 to 
1832 he was assistant secretary of the American 
board of foreign missions, and in 1832 he became 
secretary, in which office he remained until 1866, 
receiving on that occasion a testimonial of |20,000 
Irom New York and Boston merchants, most of 
which he turned over to the board. From 1867 to 
1869 he lectured on foreign missions at Andover 
seminary. He visited the Mediterranean missions 
in 1843,'the Indian missions in 1854, and those in 
the Sandwich islands in 1863. He published 
"Foreign Missions, their Relations and Claims": 
* Memoir of Catharine Brown " (1825) ; " Observa- 

tions upon the Peloponnesus and Greek Islands " 
(Boston, 1830) ; " The Hawaiian Islands, their Prog- 
ress and Condition under Missionary Labors" 
(1864) ; " A Heathen Nation Civilized," containing 
a history of the Sandwich island mission (1870) ; 
and " History of the Missions of the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions to 
the Oriental Churches " (1872). 

ANDERSON, William, soldier, b. in Chester 
CO., Pa., in 1763 ; d. there 14 Dec, 1829. He fought 
through the revolutionary war, served at the bat- 
tle of Brandywine on the staff of Gen. Lafayette 
as colonel, and was present at Valley Forge, Ger- 
mantown, and Yorktown. He was a Jeffersonian 
democrat and held many public offices. From 
1809 to 1815 he sat in congress, and again in 1817- 
'19. He was subsequently county court judge in 
Delaware co., and after that a collector of customs. 
His daughter Evelina, who became the wife of Com- 
modore Porter, was author of the popular song 
" Thou hast wounded the Spirit that loved Thee." 

ANDRADA E SYLVA, Bonifacio Jos6 d' 
(an-drah'-da), Brazilian statesman, b. in Santos, 13 
June, 1763; d. near Rio de Janeiro, 6 April, 1838. 
Under the patronage of the Lisbon royal academy 
he travelled in Europe, studying in Paris under 
Lavoisier, at the mining school of Frieberg under 
Werner, and at Pavia under Volta. In 1800 he 
became professor of metallurgy and geognosy at 
Coimbra, and soon afterward general intendant of 
the Portuguese mines. He took an active part in 
the construction of canals and public works, and 
in 1812 was named perpetual secretary of the Lis- 
bon academy of sciences. He returned to Brazil in 
1819, and became one of the champions of national 
independence. As vice-president of the provincial 
junta (24 Dec, 1821) he urged Dom Pedro I. to 
remain in Brazil, became his minister of the in- 
terior (16 Jan., 1822), was removed from his office 
25 Oct., but reinstated 30 Oct., at the request of 
the people, and was finally displaced 17 July, 1823, 
on account of his liberalism. In the constituent 
assembly his opposition became so bitter that after 
its dissolution (12 Nov., 1823) he was banished to 
France, and lived in Bordeaux till 1829, when he 
returned tb Brazil. Dom Pedro I., abdicating 7 
April, 1831, in favor of Dom Pedro II., selected 
Andrada as the latter's guardian and tutor. In 
1833 he was tried on a charge of intriguing for the 
restoration of Dom Pedro I., was acquitted, but 
was deprived of his place and restrained of his 
liberty. He wrote on mineralogy, and published 
" Poesias d'America Elysea " (Bordeaux, 1825). 
His brothers, Antonio Carlo and Martim Francisco 
d'Andrada, were prominent in Brazilian politics 
and shared his fate. The latter, b. in Santos in 
1776, d. there 23 Feb., 1844, left two sons : Joze 
Bonifacio, author of " Rosas e goivos " (Sao Paulo, 
1849); and Martim Francisco, author of "Lugri- 
mas e sorrisos " (Rio, 1847), and of the drama 
"Januariq, Garcia" (1849). 

ANDRE, John, soldier, b. in London in 1751, 
of Swiss parents ; d. at Tappan, N. Y., 2 Oct., 1780. 
In the autumn of 1775 he was taken prisoner at 
St. John's by Gen. Jlontgomery. He afterward 
served on the staff of Gen. Gray, and then on that 
of Sir Henry Clinton, who, in 1779, made him ad- 
jutant-general of the British army in America. 
Under the name of "John Anderson" he eon- 
ducted the treacherous negotiations with Benedict 
Arnold for the surrender of West Point. On the 
night of 21 Sept., 1780, he had an interview with 
Arnold in the woods near Stony Point, and took 
breakfast with him in the house of Joshua Smith, 
who was not privy to the plot. On leaving him. 




^^^a^tr?^ <^^^a!^^r-0 

Arnold gave him six papers containing full infor- 
mation as to the state of the defences at West 
Point, and also passes enabling him to return either 
by land or by water to New York. Smith per- 
suaded him to take the journey by land, and ac- 
companied him 
part of the way. 
Contrary to Clin- 
ton's positive in- 
structions, Andre 
adopted a disguise, 
and, contrary to 
Arnold's positive 
instructions, Smith 
left him before he 
had reached the 
British lines. Soon 
after Smith left 
him he was stopped 
by three young 
men whom he sup- 
posed to be tories, 
and incautiously 
let them know that 
he was a British 
officer. The young 
men, who were pa- 
triotic Americans, searched his person, and, finding 
the treasonable documents in his stockings, ar- 
rested him. He was tried by a board of six major- 
generals and eight brigadiers, found guilty of act- 
ing as a spy, and condemned to the gallows. His 
remains were buried on the spot where he suffered, 
but in 1821 they were taken to England and in- 
terred in Westminster Abbey. His hard fate has 
been much commiserated on account of his enga- 
ging personal qualities, but the justice of his sen- 
tence is generally conceded by British writers as 
well as American. Each of Andre's captors — John 
Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac Van Wart — 
received from congress a silver medal and an 
annuity of $200. His life has been written by 
Sparks, in his " American Biographies," and much 
more fully by Wintlirop Sargent, " Life and Career 
of Major John Andre" (Boston, 1801). 

ANDREE, Karl Theodor, German geographer, 
b. in Brunswick. 20 Oct., 1808; d. in Waldeck, 10 
Aug., 1875. After studying at Jena, Gottingen, 
and Berlin, he published, in 1850-'51, at Brunswick, 
a work entitled " Nordamerika in geographischen 
und geschichtlichen Umrissen." Among his other 
works are " Buenos Ayres vind die argentinische 
Republik" (Leipsic, 1856); " Geogi'a])liisclie Wan- 
derungen" (Dresden, 1859); and "Geographic des 
Welthandels " (Stuttgart, 18()3). In 1861 he began 
the publication of the geographical magazine 
" Globus." During the American civil war he ad- 
vocated the cause of the secessionists. 

ANDREW, James Osgood, M. E. bishop, b. in 
Wilkes CO., near Washington, Ga., 3 May, 1794; 
d. in Mobile, Ala., 1 March, 1871. He was the son 
of a Methodist minister who was a partisan ranger 
in the revolution. He entered the South Carolina 
conference in 1812, was ordained deacon in 1814, 
received full ordination in 1816, preached on cir- 
cuits in Georgia and North Carolina, was stationed 
at Savannah, Charleston, Greensljoi'ough, and 
Athens, was presiding elder for several years, and 
in 1832 was chosen bishop by the general confer- 
ence that met at Philadelphia. After Emory col- 
lege was established in 1841, he resided at Oxford, 
Ga. In 1844 he married for his second wife Mrs. 
Leonora Greenwood, of Greensborough, who pos- 
sessed a few slaves, and after marriage he conveyed 
to his wife all the rights in her property that the 

law gave him. He was himself the legal owner of 
a negro woman, who had been left in his charge 
by a deceased parishioner, with the request that she 
might be sent to Liberia or remain with him, at her 
option, and also of a boy who had been bequeathed 
to his former wife. At the general conference, held 
in New York in 1844, the fact that Bishop Andrew- 
was a slave-holder was the subject of a heated dis- 
cussion, ending with the adoption of a resolution, 
by a vote of 111 to 69, requesting him to desist 
from performing the offices of bishop so long as he 
remained a slave-owner. When he became aware 
of the excitement caused by the fact that one of 
the bishops of the church was interested in slave 
property, he decided to resign his episcopal office, 
but was deterred by a formal request from the 
southern delegates to the conference. The repre- 
sentatives of thirteen southern conferences pro- 
tested against this action and repudiated the juris- 
diction of the general convention, and in May, 
1846, the Methodist Episcopal church, south, was 
organized as an independent body, in a general 
conference held at Petersburg, Va. Bishop An- 
drew presided as senior bishop over this organiza- 
tion until his death. After a visit to California in 
1855, to look after the interests of the struggling 
southern Methodist church there, he took up his 
residence in Summerfield, Ala. The New Orleans 
conference of 1866 granted him a retired relation at 
his own request. He published a volume of " Mis- 
cellanies " and a work on " Family Government." 

ANDREW, John Albion, statesman, b. in 
Windham, Me., 31 May, 1818 ; d. in Boston, Mass., 
30 Oct., 1867. His "father, descended from an 
early settler of Boxford, Mass., was a prosperous 
merchant in Windham. John Albion was gradu- 
ated at Bowdoin in 1837. He was a negligent stu- 
dent, though fond of reading, and in his profes- 
sional life always felt the lack of training in the 
habit of close application. He immediately en- 
tered on the study of the law in the office of Henry 
H. Fuller, in Boston, where in 1840 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar. Until the outbreak of the war 
he practised his profession in that city, attaining 
special distinction in the fugitive-slave cases of 
Shadrach Burns and Sims, which arose under the 
fugitive-slave law of 1850. He became interested 
in the slavery question in early youth, and was at- 
tracted toward many of the reform movements of 
the day. After his admission to the bar he took 
an active interest in politics and frequently spoke 
on the stump on behalf of the whig party, of 
which he was an enthusiastic member. From the 
year 1848 he was closely identified with the anti- 
slavery party of Massachusetts, but held no office 
until i858, when he was elected a member of the 
state legislature from Boston, and at once took a 
leading position in that body. In 1860 he was a 
delegate to the Chicago republican convention, 
and, after ^■oting for Mr. Seward on the early bal- 
lots, announced the change of the vote of part of the 
Massachusetts delegation to Mr. Lincoln. In the 
same year he was nominated for governor by a 
popular impulse. Many feared that the radicalism 
of his opinions would render him unsafe in action, 
and the political managers regarded him as an in- 
truder and opposed his nomination ; yet he was 
elected the twenty-first governor of Massachusetts 
since the adoption of the constitution of 1780 by 
the largest popular vote ever cast for any candidate. 
He was energetic in placing the militia of Massa- 
chusetts on a war footing, in anticipation of the 
impending conflict between the government and 
the seceded states. He had announced this pur- 
pose in his inaugural address in 1861, and, upon 




being inducted into office, he sent a confidential 
message to the governors of Maine and New Hamp- 
shire, inviting their cooperation in preparing the 
militia for service and providing supplies of war 
material. This course of action was not regarded 

with favor at the 
time by a majority 
of the legislature, 
although his oppo- 
nents refrained 
from a direct colli- 
sion. On receiv- 
ing the president's 
proclamation of 15 
April, 1861, he de- 
spatched five regi- 
ments of infantry, 
a battalion of rifle- 
men, and a battery 
of artillery to the 
defence of the capi- 
tal. Of these, the 
Massachusetts 6th 
was the first to 
tread southern soil, 
passing through New York while the regiments of 
that .state were mustering, and shedding the first 
blood of the war in the streets of Baltimore, where 
it was assailed by the mob. Gov. Andrew sent a 
telegram to Mayor Brown, praying him to have the 
bodies of the slain carefully sent forward to him at 
the expense of the commonwealth of Massachusetts. 
He was equally active in raising the Massachusetts 
contingent of three years' volunteers, and was labo- 
rious in his efEorts to aid every provision for the com- 
fort of the sick and wounded soldiers. He was four 
times reelected governor, holding that office till 
January, 1866, and was only then released by his 
positive declination of another renomination, in or- 
der to attend to his private business, as the pecuniary 
sacrifice involved in holding the office was more than 
he was able to sustain, and his health was seriously 
affected by his arduous labors. In 1862 he was 
one of the most urgent of the northern governors 
in impressing upon the administration at Washing- 
ton the necessity of adopting the emancipation poli- 
cy, and of accepting the services of colored troops. 
In September, 1862, he took the most prominent 
part in the meeting of governors of the northern 
states, held at Altoona, Penn., to devise ways and 
means to encourage and strengthen the hands of 
the government. The address of the governors to 
the people of the north was prepared by him. Gov. 
Andrew interfered on various occasions to prevent 
the federal authorities from making arbitrary ar- 
rests among southern sympathizers in Massachusetts 
previous to the suspension of the habeas-corpus act. 
In January, 1868, he obtained from the secretary 
of war the first authorization for raising colored 
troops, and the first colored regiment (54th Massa- 
chusetts infantry) was despatched from Boston in 
May of that year. Gov. Andrew was particular in 
selecting the best officers for the black troops and 
in providing them with the most complete equip- 
ment. Though famous as the war governor of 
Massachusetts, he also bestowed proper attention 
on the domestic affairs of the commonwealth. In 
his first message he recommended that the provi- 
sion in the law preventing a person against whom 
a decree of divorce has been granted from marry- 
ing agam, should be modified; but the proposi- 
tion met with strong opposition in the legisla- 
ture, especially from clergymen, and it was not till 
1864 that an act was passed conferring power upon 
the supreme court to remove the penalty resting 
VOL. I. — 6 

upon divorced persons. He also recommended a 
reform in the usury laws, such as was finally 
effected by an act passed in 1867. He was strong- 
ly opposed to capital punishment, and recom- 
mended its repeal. A law requiring representa- 
tives in congress to be residents of the districts 
from which they are elected was vetoed by him on 
the ground that it was both unconstitutional and 
inexpedient, but was passed over his veto. Of the 
twelve veto messages sent by Gov. Andrew during 
his incumbency, only one other, in the case of a 
resolve to grant additional pay to members, was 
followed by the passage of the act over the veto. 
His final term as governor expired 5 Jan., 1866. In 
a valedictory address to the legislature he advo- 
cated a generous and conciliatory policy toward 
the southern states, " demanding no attitude of 
humiliation ; inflicting no acts of humiliation." 
Gov. Andrew was modest and simjile in his habits 
and manner of life, emotional and quick in sympa- 
thy for the wronged or the unfortunate, exceed- 
ingly joyous and mirthful in temperament, and 
companionable with all classes of persons. The 
distinguished ability that shone out in his admin- 
istration as governor of Massachusetts, the many 
sterling qualities that were summed up in his 
character, his social address, and the charm of his 
conversational powers, together with his clear and 
forcible style as an orator, combined to render him 
conspicuous among the state governors of the war 
period, and one of the most influential persons in 
civil life not connected with the federal adminis- 
tration. Soon after the expiration of his last term 
as governor he was tendered, but declined, the 
presidency of Antioch college, Ohio. He presided 
over the first national Unitarian convention, held 
in 1865, and was a leader of the conservative wing 
of that denomination — those who believed with 
Channing and the early Unitarians in the super- 
naturalism of Christ's birth and mission, as opposed 
to Theodore Parker and his disciples. After retir- 
ing from public life Mr. Andrew entered upon a 
lucrative legal practice. In January, 1867. he rep- 
resented before the general court about 30,000 pe- 
titioners for a license law, and delivered an argu- 
ment against the principle of total prohibition. 
His death, which occurred suddenly from apoplexy, 
was noticed by public meetings in various cities. 
He married, 25 Dec, 1848, Miss Eliza Jane Hersey, 
of Hingham, Mass., who with their four children 
survived him. See " Memoir of Gov. Andrew, with 
Personal Reminiscences," by Peleg W. Chandler 
(Boston, 1880), " Discourse on the Life and Char- 
acter of Gov. Andrew." by Rev. E. Nason (Boston, 
1868), and "Men of Our times," by Harriet Beech- 
er Stowe. A life of Gov. Andrew, by Edwin P. 
Whipple, was left unfinished at the time of Mr. 
Whipple's death in 1886.— His son, John F., d. in 
Boston, 30 May, 1895. He was graduated from 
Harvard in 1872, and thi-ee years later from the 
Harvard law school. He served three terms as a 
Massachusetts representative and two terms as 
state senator. In 1888 he was elected to congress 
as a democrat, and reelected two years later, but 
was defeated in 1892. 

ANDREWS, Christopher Columbus, lawyer, 
b. in Hillsborough, N. II., 27 Oct., 1829. He was 
a farmer's son and attended school during the 
winter until 1843, when he went to Boston. Later 
he attended the Francestown academy, studied law 
in 1848 at Cambridge, and in 1850 was admitted to 
the bar. He followed his profession in Newton, 
and was also a member of the school board during 
1851-52. In 1853 he settled in Boston, but in the 
following year removed to Kansas, and later went 




to Washington to further the interests of Kansas 
during a session of congress. After two years' 
service in the treasury department as law clerk, he 
settled in St. Cloud, Minn., and in 1859 was elected 
state senator. During the presidential canvass of 
1860 he actively supported Douglas and was nomi- 
nated as elector on that ticket. In 1801 he assisted 
in bringing out the " Minnesota Union " in support 
of the administration, and for a time edited that 
paper. Soon after the beginning of the civil war 
he enlisted as a private, but was commissioned 
captain in the 3d Minnesota infantry. He was 
surrendered in a fight near Murfreesboro, and from 
July to October, 1862, was a prisoner. After his 
exchange he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of 
his regiment, and was present in the operations 
around Vicksburg. He became colonel in July, 
1863, and served in the campaign that resulted in 
the capture of Little Rock, Ark., where he was 
placed in command with a brigade. Here he was 
very active in fostering the union element, and 
his influence went far in the movement that in 
January, 1864, resulted in the reorganization of 
Arkansas as a free state, for which he received the 
thanks of the constitutional convention. During 
1864 he was in command of the forces near Au- 
gusta, Ark., fortified Devall's Bluff, Gen. Steele's 
base of supplies, and organized numerous success- 
ful scouting parties. He was promoted to briga- 
dier-general, and assigned to the command of the 
2d division, 13th corps, and participated in the 
siege and storming of Port Blakely, Ala. On 9 
March, 1865, he was commissioned brevet major- 
general. Subsequently he commanded the district 
of Mobile, and later that of Houston, Texas. In 
the reconsLruction of that state Gen. Andrews 
showed much interest, and made speeches at Hous- 
ton and elsewhere which produced a better public 
opinion. Afterward he was ordered to accompany 
Gov. A. J. Hamilton to Austin on his reinstatement 
to civil authority. He returned to St. Cloud, Minn,, 
during the autumn of 1865, and was mustered out 
of service 15 Jan., 1860. He was appointed minis- 
ter resident to Sweden and Norway in 1869, and 
continued there until 1877, furnishing the U. S. 
government with frequent valuable reports on im- 
portant subjects, which have been published in the 
" Commercial Relations of the United States." He 
was supervisor of the U. S. census in the 3d dis- 
trict of Minnesota during 1880, and from 1882 till 
1885 was consul-general to Brazil. Gen. Andrews 
has also been a frequent contributor to current 
literature, and is the author of " Minnesota and 
Dacotah " (Washington, 1850) ; " Practical Treatise 
on the Revenue Laws of the United States " (Bos- 
ton, 1858) ; " Hints to Company 01!icers on their 
Military Duties " (New York, 1803) ; " Digest of the 
Opinions of the Attornevs-General of the United 
States " (Washington, 1807) ; and " History of the 
Campaign of Mobile " (1807). 

ANDREWS, Ebenezer Baldwin, geologist, b. 
in Danbury, Conn., 29 April, 1821 ; d. in Lancaster, 
Ohio, 14 Aug., 1880. He was educated at Williams 
college and then at Marietta college, where he was 
graduated in 1842. Then, after graduation at 
Princeton theological seminary m 1844, he became 
pastor of the Congregational church in Housatonic, 
Mass., 1846-'50, and from 1850 to 1851 he had 
charge of a parish in New Britain, Conn. From 
1851 to 1809 he was professor of geology in Mari- 
etta college, and then became assistant geologist to 
the Ohio state survey. He contributed papers on 
geological subjects to the " American Journal of 
Science," and the record of his work is given in 
the annual reports of the Ohio survey. He was 

also the author of a text-book on " Elementary 
Geology " (Cincinnati, 1878). In 1870 he was made 
LL. D. by Marietta college. 

ANDREWS, Edimmd, surgeon, b. in Putney. 
Vt., 22 April, 1824. He was graduated at the uni- 
versity of Michigan in 1849 ; then, studying medi- 
cine, he received his degree from the medical de- 
partment of the university in 1852. He settled in 
Ann Arbor and became demonstrator of anatomy 
and professor of comparative anatomy in the uni- 
versity, but in 1850 removed to Chicago, where he 
has since resided. Here he has filled the phice of 
demonstrator of anatomy at the Rush medical col- 
lege, and subsequently the chairs of the principles 
and practices of surgery and of clinical and mili- 
tary surgery in the Chicago medical college, of 
which institution he is one of the founders. In 
1859 he became surgeon to the Mercy hospital, and 
during the civil war he served in a similar capacity 
with the 1st Illinois light artillery. He is a mem- 
ber of numerous medical and scientific societies, 
and is president of the Illinois state medical society 
and of the Chicago academy of sciences. Dr. 
Andrews was one of the founders of the Michigan 
state medical society, and is a trustee of the North- 
western university. He is the author of a great 
number of articles in different branches of surgery 
which have been published in medical journals and 
proceedings of the societies to which he belongs. 
Numerous improvements in surgical apparatus and 
operations have been made by him ; among them is 
the practical demonstration of the value of free in- 
cision, digital exploration, and disinfection of lum- 
bar abscesses, a treatment previouslv forbidden. 

ANDREWS, Edward Gayer, M. E. bishop, b. 
in New Hartford, N. Y., 7 Aug., 1825. He was 
graduated in 
1847 at the Wes- 
leyan university 
at Middletown, 
Conn., and, en- 
tering the Meth- 
odist ministry 
the following 
year, became in 
1855 a teacher 
in Cazenovia, 
N. Y., seminary, 
of which he was 
chosen president 
in 1855. In 1850 
he was ordained 
an elder, and 
in 1864 became 
a preacher in 
the New York 
east conference. 
Dr. Andrews was 

elected a bishop in 1872. He has published semi 
centennial addresses delivered in 1875 and 1881. 

ANDREWS, Elisha, clergvman, b. in Middle- 
town, Conn., 29 Sept., 1768; d. 3 Feb., 1840. He 
made the most of slight opportunities of education, 
and was occupied as a teacher and a surveyor until 
1793. when he was ordained as a Baptist minister 
at Fairfax, Vt. He preached in various places in 
New Hampshire and Massachusetts, and published, 
besides sermons and tracts, " The Moral Tendencies 
of Universalisin " ; " Review of Winchester's Dia- 
logues on Universal Restoration " ; and a " Vindi- 
cation of the Distinguishing Sentiments of the 
Baptists," all published in Bciston before 1805; "A 
Brief Reply to James Bickerstaff's ' Short Epistle 
to the Baptists ' " (1810), and " Strictures on the Rev, 
Mr. Brooks's ' Terms of Communion ' " (1823). 




ANDREWS, Ethan Allen, educator, b. in New 
Britain, Conn., 7 April, 1787; d. tliere, 4 March, 
1858. He was graduated at Yale in 1810, studied 
law in Farinington, was admitted to the bar, and 
spent several years in practice. In 1822 he was ap- 
pointed professor of ancient languages in the uni- 
versity of Nortli Carolina at Chapel Hill. He re- 
turned in 1828 to teach ancient languages in the 
New Haven gymnasium, and a year later estab- 
lished the New Haven young ladies' institute. In 
1833 he was called to Boston to succeed Jacob 
Abbott as principal of a young ladies' school, and 
also became senior editor of the " Religious Maga- 
zine," in which work he wa? associated with the 
Abbott brothers. In 1839 he returned to his native 
town and began the publication of his series of 
Latin text-books. These include " First Latin 
Book " ; •' Latin Reader " ; " Viri Romae " ; " Latin 
Lessons " ; " Andrews' and Stoddard's Latin Gram- 
mar " ; " Synopsis of Latin Grammar " ; " Questions 
on the Latin Grammar " ; " Latin Exercises " ; 
" Key to Latin Exercises " ; " Exercises in Latin 
Etymology " ; " Caesar's Commentaries " ; " Sal- 
lust " ; " Ovid " ; and " Latin Dictionary." His 
most important work was the " Latin-English 
Lexicon," which is a condensed translation, with 
alterations, of Dr. Wilhelm Freund's " Worterbuch 
der Lateinischen Sprache." He -was at work on a 
revised edition of this book at the time of his death, 
and it has since been published. For several years 
he was judge of probate, and in 1851 he was a mem- 
ber of the state legislature. 

ANDREWS, fieorg-e Leonard, soldier, b. in 
Bridgewater, JMass., 31 Aug., 1828; d. in Brookline, 
Mass., 4 April, 1899. He was graduated at the U. S. 
military academy, superintended the erection of 
fi'i-titications in Boston harljor, and was assistant 
pnjfessor of engineering at West Point. Resigning 
1 Sept., 1855, he was employed as a civil engineer 
until the beginning of the civil war. He served as 
lieutenant-colonel, and subsequently as colonel of 
the 2d Massachusetts regiment in the Shenandoah 
valley, and conducted the rear-guard in the retreat 
at Cedar Mountain. He fought through Pope's 
campaign, and was at Antietam. For distin- 
guished bravery he was promoted brigadier-gen- 
eral, 10 Nov., 1862, and in Banks's expedition led 
a brigade. From July, 1863, to 13 Feb., 1865, he 
commanded the Corps d'Afrique. For his services 
at the capture of Mobile he was brevetted major- 
general of volunteers, 26 March, 1865. On 8 April, 
1867, he was appointed U. S. marshal for Massa- 
chusetts, and on 27 Feb., 1871, went to West Point 
as professor of the French language. 

ANDREWS, John, clergyman, b. in Cecil co., 
Md., 4 April, 1746; d. in Philadelphia, 29 March, 
1813. He was educated at the Philadelphia college, 
and was ordained in London in February, 1767. 
He left his parish in Queen Anne co., Md., on ac- 
count of his loyalist sentiments, and taught a school 
in Yorktown, laecame principal of the Philadelphia 
Episcopal academy in 1785, and then professor of 
moral philosophy m the university of Pennsyl- 
vania, of which institution he was vice-provost un- 
til December, 1810, and after that provost until his 
death. He was author of " Elements of Logic." 

ANDREWS, Joseph, engraver, b. in Hingham, 
Mass., 17 Aug., 1806; d. there, 9 May, 1873. He 
was apprenticed to Abel Bowen, a wood-engraver 
of Boston, in 1821, and learned copper-plate en- 
graving from Hoogland. He went into business 
with his brother, a printer, at Lancaster, in 1827, 
but in 1835 went to London and studied under 
Joseph Goodyear. There he executed the plate of 
" Annette de I'Arbre," alter West, and in Paris en- 

graved the head of Franklin, painted by Duplessis. 
In 1840 he visited Paris a second time, and en- 
graved six portraits for the historical gallery at 
Versailles, published under the auspices of Louis 
Philippe. After that he went to Florence and be- 
gan the plate of the " Duke of Urbino," after Titian. 
His best-known engravings made in America are 
from Stuart's head of Washington and Rothermel's 
" Plymouth Rock in 1620." He engraved portraits 
from paintings by Trumbull, G. P. A. Healy, and 
others, of Oliver Wolcott, John Q. Adams, Zachary 
Taylor, Jared Sparks, Amos Lawrence, and James 
Graham, and scveial ideal scenes after representa- 
tive Amei'ic.-m ])aint('rs. 

ANDREWS, Loren, educator, b. in Ashland co., 
Ohio, 1 April, 1819 ; d. in Gambler, Ohio, 18 Sept., 
1861. He was educated at Kenyon college, de- 
voted himself to teaching, and the excellence of 
the present common-school system of Ohio is 
largely due to his labors. He filled various impor- 
tant educational places until 1854, when he was 
elected president of Kenyon college. During his 
administration the affairs of the college flourished 
greatly; additions were made to the faculty, new 
buildings were erected, and the number of students 
increased from thirty to more than two hundred. 
On the outbreak of the civil war, in 1861, President 
Andrews raised a company in Knox co., of which 
he was made captain. Later he was elected colonel 
of the 4th Ohio volunteers, and, after service at 
Camp Dennison, he was ordered to Virginia. He 
was in the field a short time, where he was 
subjected to fatiguing service, and was afterward 
stationed at Oakland, remaining until he was 
taken home ill at the end of August, the severe 
exposure having brought on an attack of camp 
fever, from the effects of which he died a few 
weeks later. 

ANDREWS, Lorrin, missionary, b. in East 
Windsor, Conn., 29 April, 1795; d. in Honolulu, 
Sandwich islands, 29 Sept., 1868. He was edu- 
cated at Jefferson college. Pa., and Princeton theo- 
logical seminary ; sailed for the Hawaiian islands 
in November, 1827, and preached at Lahaina. In 
1831 he established Lahainaluna seminary, which 
subsequently became the Hawaii university, in 
which he was a professor for ten years. He trans- 
lated a part of the Bible into Hawaii. Resigning 
his connection with the American board, in 1840, 
from anti-slavery scruples, he was for some time 
seamen's chaplain at Lahaina. In 1845 he was ap- 
pointed judge under the Hawaiian government, 
and was also secretary of the privy council. These 
offices he held for ten years. He prepared a Ha- 
waiian dictionary and several works on the litera- 
ture and antiquities of the Hawaiians. 

ANDREWS, Samuel James, clergyman, b. in 
Danbuiy, Conn., 21 July, 1817. He was graduated 
at Williams college in 1889, and became a lawyer. 
Subsequently he was ordained in the Congrega- 
tional ministry, was afterward a tutor at Trinity 
college, Hartford, and at last adopted the Irvingite 
doctrines, and became, in 1868, a pastor of the 
Catholic apostolic church in Hartford, Conn. 
He published " The Life of Our Lord Upon Earth " 
(New York, 1863). 

ANDREWS, Sherlock James, jurist, b. in 
Wallingford, Conn., 17 Nov., 1801 : d. in Cleveland, 
Ohio, 11 Feb., 1880. He was graduated at Union 
college in 1821, after which he continued his stud- 
ies at Yale, where he followed the lectures on sci- 
ence as assistant to Prof. Sillinian, and also the 
lectures on law. In 1825 he removed to Ohio, and 
from that time devoted himself to the profession 
of law, and was constantly engaged in important 




litigation before the state and federal courts. He 
was elected to congress in 1840 as a whig, and 
served for a single term. He became in 1848 a 
judge of the superior court of Ohio, and he was a 
member of the constitutional conventions of 1849 
and 1873, where his influence was felt upon impor- 
tant committees. He was urged at one time to 
allow himself to be a candidate for governor, but 
declined this distinction, as well as others for which 
his name was mentioned, because he preferred to 
remain in private life. For a time he shared 
with Thomas Corwin the leadership of the Ohio 
bar. His wit, his eloquence, his sympathy, his 
good sense, and his integrity gave him great power 
before a jury or before the pulDlic. 

ANDREWS, Stephen Pearl, author, b. in Tem- 
pleton, Mass., 22 March, 1812 ; d. in New York city, 
21 May, 1886. He studied at Amherst college, and 
then, removing to New Orleans, became a lawyer. 
He was the first counsel of Mrs. Myra Clark Gaines 
in her celebrated suits. He was an ardent aboli- 
tionist, and in 1839 removed to Texas, where he 
converted many of the slave-owners, who were also 
large land-owners, by showing them that they 
would become rapidly rich from the sale of land 
if immigration were induced by throwing the coun- 
try open to free labor. Here he acquired consid- 
erable wealth in the practice of his profession. His 
impetuous and logical eloquence gained him a 
wide repute and great personal popularity ; but, 
on the other hand, his seemingly reckless and fa- 
natical opposition to slavery aroused an intense 
feeling of opposition, and his life was seriously en- 
dangered. In 1843 he went to England in the 
hope that, with the aid of the British anti-slavery 
society, he might raise sufficient money there to 
pay for the slaves and make Texas a free state. 
He was well received, and the scheme was taken 
up and favorably considered by the British gov- 
ernment ; but, after some months of consultation, 
the project was abandoned through fear that it 
would lead to war with the United States, as the 
knowledge of it was already being used to strength- 
en the movement that ultimately led to the annex- 
ation of Texas and to the Mexican war. Mr. An- 
drews went to Boston and became a leader in the 
anti-slaveiy movement there. While in England 
he learned of phonography, and during seven years 
after his return he devoted his attention to its in- 
troduction, and was the founder of the present sys- 
tem of phonographic reporting. He removed to 
New York in 1847, and published a series of pho- 
nographic instruction-books and edited two jour- 
nals m the interest of phonography and spelling 
reform, which were printed in phonetic type, the 
" Anglo-Saxon " and the " Propagandist." He 
spoke several languages, and is said to have been 
familiar with thirty. Among his works are one on 
the Chinese language, and one entitled " New 
French Instructor," embodying a new method. 
He was a tireless student and an incessant worker ; 
but his mental labor was performed without effort 
or fatigue. While yet a young man he announced 
the discovery of the unity of law in the universe, 
and to the development of this theory he devoted 
the last thirty-five years of his life. The elements 
of this science are contained in his " Basic Outline 
of Universology " (New York, 1872). He asserted 
that there is a science of language, as exact as that 
of mathematics or of chemistry, forming a domain 
of universology ; and by the application of this 
science he evolved a " scientific " language, des- 
tined, he believed, to become " the universal lan- 
guage." This scientific universal language he called 
''' Alwato " (ahl-wah'-to). It was so far elaborated 

that for some years before his death he conversed 
and corresponded in it with several of his pupils, and 
was preparing a dictionary of Alwato, a portion 
of which was in type at the time of his decease. 
The philosophy evolved from universology he called 
" Integralism." In it he believad would be found 
the ultimate reconciliation of the great thinkers of 
all schools and the scientific adjustment of freedom 
and order, not by a superficial eclecticism, but by a 
radical adjustment of all the possible forms of 
thought, belief, and idea. In 1882 he instituted 
a series of conferences known as the " Colloquium," 
for the interchange of ideas between men of the 
utmost diversity of religious, philosophical, and 
political views. Among those associated with him 
in this were Prof. Louis Elsberg, Rev. Dr. Rylance, 
Rev. Di'. Newman, Rabbi Gottheil, Rev. Dr. Samp- 
son, Rev. Dr. CoUyer, Prof. J. S. Sedgwick, T. B. 
Wakeman, and Rabbi Huebsch. Mr. Andrews was 
a prominent member of the Liberal club of New 
York, and for some time was its vice-president. 
His contributions to periodicals are numerous. 
He was a member of the American academy of 
Arts and Sciences and of the American Ethnologi- 
cal Society. His works include " Comparison of the 
Common Law with the Roman, French, or Span- 
ish Civil Law on Entails and other Limited Prop- 
erty in Real Estate " (New Orleans, 1839) ; " Cost the 
Limit of Price " (New York, 1851) ; "The Consti- 
tution of Government in the Sovereignty of the 
Individual " (1851) ; " Love, Marriage, and Divorce, 
and the Sovereignty of the Individual : a Discus- 
sion by Henry James, Horace Greeley, and Stephen 
Pearl Andrews," edited by Stephen Pearl An- 
drews (1853); "Discoveries in Chinese; or. The 
Symbolism of the Primitive Characters of the Chi- 
nese System of Writing as a Contribution to Phi- 
lology and Ethnology and a Practical Aid in the 
Acquisition of the Chinese Language" (1854); 
" Constitution or Organic Basis of the New Catho- 
lic Church " (1860) ; " The Great American Crisis," 
a series of papers published in the " Continental 
Monthlv " (1863-64) ; "A Universal Language" 
("Continental Monthly," 1864); "The Primary 
Synopsis of Universology and Alwato " (1871) ; 
" Primarv Grammar of Alwato" (Boston, 1877); 
"The Labor Dollar" (1881); "Elements of Uni- 
versology " (New York, 1881) ; " Ideological Ety- 
mology " (1881) ; " Transactions of the Colloquium, 
with Documents and Exhibits " (vols, i and ii. New 
York, 1882-83) ; " The Church and Religion of the 
Future," a series of tracts (1886) ; and text-books 
of phonography. Plis dictionary of Alwato was 
published posthumously by his sons. 

ANDREWS, Timothy Patrick, soldier, b. in 
Ireland in 1794; d. 11 March, 1868. During the 
war of 1812, when Barney's flotilla, in Patuxent 
river, was confronting the enemy, he tendered his 
services without the knowledge of his father, was 
employed by the commodore as his aide, and ren- 
dered "important services. He subsequently was in 
active service in the field, and in 1822 appoint- 
ed paymaster in the army. In 1847 he resigned 
to take command of the" regiment of voltigeurs 
raised for the Mexican war. He was distinguished 
in the battle of Molino del Rey, and brevetted a 
brigadier-general for gallant and meritorious con- 
duct in the battle of Chapultepec. On the close 
of the war and the disbandment of the voltigeurs, 
he was reinstated, by act of congress, as pay- 
master, and in 1851 was made deputy paymaster- 
general. During the civil war, on the death of 
Gen. Larned, Col. Andrews succeeded him as 
paymaster-general of the army. He was retired 
20 Nov., 1864. 




ANDREWS, William Draper, inventor, b. in 
Grafton, Mass., 28 May, 1818. In 1828 tiie family 
removed to Neeilham. Me was in a country store 
at Newton Lower b'alls for a year, and then re- 
moved to New York, wliere he was variously em- 
ployed until 1840, when he became connected with 
a wrecking company. While he was thus engaged 
his attention was directed to pumping apparatus, 
and in 1844 he invented the pioneer centrifugal 
pump, which was patented in 1846. By this inven- 
tion the saving of imperishable goods from aban- 
doned wrecks was made possible. Its mode of action 
consisted in forming channels through sand-bars on 
ocean coasts, and in making earth excavations in 
and under water. This pump was subsequently 
introduced and extensively manufactured in Eng- 
land as the Gwyniie pump. A few years later he 
invented aiul patented the anti-friction centrifugal 
pump, which has been used all over the world. He 
also invented three other distinct styles and various 
modifications of centrifugal pumps, of which that 
known as the " Cataract " is the most valuable. In 
all, Mr. Andrews has received twenty-five United 
States and nine foreign patents on pumps, oscil- 
lating steam-engines, boilers, friction and differ- 
ential power-gearing, siphon gang- wells and at- 
tachments, balanced valves, safety elevators, and 
other similar inventions. During the civil war 
each of the U. S. monitors was provided with cen- 
trifugal pumps and engines. These were made to 
discharge thirty tons of water a minute, and ar- 
ranged to fill compartments, thereby partially sub- 
merging the monitor, so that in case of grounding 
in dangerous proximity ic an enemy they could be 
lightened by pumping, backed off, and resubmerged 
in a few miiuites. The pumps made by Mr. An- 
drews have been used in creating channels through 
the sand-bars at the mouth of St. John's river, Pla., 
Cape Fear river, N. C, and the Mississippi river. 
The system of gangs of tube-wells patented by him 
has been extensively used in cities. During the 
unprecedented drought of the summer and autumn 
of 1885, a series of four plants of gang-wells, fur- 
nished by Mr. Andrews to the city of Brooklyn, 
yielded for some time a daily average supply of 
25,000,000 gallons of water, reaching as high as 
27,000.000 gallons in a single day. 18,400,000 gal- 
lons being their contracted delivery. Mr. Andrews 
has received numerous medals and diplomas for his 
inventions, both in this country and abroad. 

ANDROS, Sir Edmund, colonial governor, b. 
in London, England, G Dec, 16;J7; d. there, 24 
Feb., 1714. His father was an officer in the royal 
household, and young Andros was brought up at 
court. He early became a soldier, and served in 
the regiment of foot sent to America in 1666. In 
1672 he was made major in Rupert's dragoons, 
and two years later succeeded his father as bailiff' 
of Guernsey. From 1674 to 1681 he was governor 
of the province of New York, appointed by James, 
duke of York, and in this capacity he became m- 
volved in numerous disputes with the adjoining 
colonies on account of his extensive claims to juris- 
diction. In 1680 he deposed Philip Carteret and 
seized the government of New Jersey, and in the 
following year he was recalled and accused of 
maladministration. He was successful in clearing 
himself of all charges, and then retired to Guern- 
sey. In 1686, on the accession of James II., he 
was appointed governor of the dominion of New 
England, which included all the English North 
American settlements between Maryland and Cana- 
da, except Pennsylvania. He arrived in Boston on 
21 Dec, 1686, and at once put into execution a 
number of measures that were extremely obnoxious 

to the colonists. Although proclaiming religious 
freedom, he restrained the liberty of the press, ar- 
bitrarily levied enormous taxes, and compelled 
land-owners to procure new titles to their property, 
for which exorbitant charges were made. These 
and similar actions, 
performed in ac- 
cordance with in- 
structions received 
in England, gave 
great offence. In 
October, 1687, at 
the head of an 
armed force, he 
demanded the sur- 
render of the char- 
ter of Connecticut, 
but its sudden re- 
moval and conceal- 
ment in the " char- 
ter oak " prevented 
the accomplish- 
ment of this pur- 
pose. The occur- 
rence of this inci- 
dent has since been 
disputed, and his- 
torical data have 
been accumulated 
to show its impos- 
sibility. (See Brodhead's '• History of New York," 
vol. ii., p. 472.) By his aggressions on the ter- 
ritory of the Penobscot Indians he brought on 
the Indian war of 1688. The people of Boston, 
unable to endure the severity of his administra- 
tion, revolted, and on 18 April, 1689, he was de- 
fiosed and imprisoned with fifty of his followers, 
n the following year he was sent to England, and 
charges were preferred against him by a committee 
of colonists ; but the home authorities deemed it 
unadvisable to bring the matter to a judicial deci- 
sion, and he was never tried. In 1692 he again re- 
turned to America as governor of Virginia, and re- 
mained until 1698, gaining the esteem of the people 
by his efforts to promote manufactures and agricul- 
ture. He was associated in the founding of William 
and Mary college, which, next to Harvard, is the 
oldest seat of learning in the United States. His 
quarrels with the church authorities, and the influ- 
ence of Dr. Blair, commissary of the bishop of Lon- 
don, led to his recall. From 1704 to 1706 he was 
governor of the island of Jersey, and subsequently 
he lived in London. See Whitmore's " Andros 
Tracts," with notes and a memoir of Sir Edmund 
Andros (Boston. 1868) ; " A Narrative of the Pro- 
ceedings of Sir Edmund Andros " (Boston, 1691 and 
1773); ■'Collections of the Boston Historical Socie- 
ty " (3d series, vii., 150) ; Brodhead's " Government 
of Sir Edmund Andros in New England" (Mor- 
risania, 1867), and his " History of New York " ; in- 
dex to " O'Callaghan's New York Colonial Docu- 
ments " ; Palfrey's " History of New England " (iii., 
127) ; and Bancroft's " History of the United States " 
(vol. i.. New Y(n-k, 1882). 

ANDROS, Thomas, clergyman, b. in Norwich, 
Conn., 1 May, 1759; d. in Berkley, Mass., 30 Dec, 
1845. He joined the revolutionary army at the 
age of sixteen, and was in the battles of Long 
Island and White Plains. In 1781 he enlisted on 
a privateer in New London, but was captured and 
confined in the Jersey prison-ship in New York. 
A few months later he escaped, and on the resto- 
ration of his health studied theology with Dr. 
Benedict in Plainfield, Conn. He was ordained at 
Berkley in 1788, and for forty-six years remained 




in charge of the church at this place. He pub- 
lished sermons, and also a narrative of his impris- 
onment and escape from the Jersey prison-ship. 
An account of his life, prepared by his son, is 
given ill Emerv's "Ministry of Taunton." — His 
son, Ricliard Salter Storrs, b. in Berkeley, Mass., 
37 Oct., 1817 ; d. there, 3 Aug., 1868. He edited 
several newspapers, was deputy collector in Boston 
for some years, and subsequently, as special agent 
of the treasury department, was engaged in re- 
organizing custom-houses in the south. He was 
the author of the " Customs Guide," a codification 
of the revenue laws, contributed poems to the 
" Democratic Review," and published " Chocoruna 
and other Sketches " (1838). 

ANtiEL, Benjamin Franklin, diplomatist, b. 
in Burlington. Otsego co., N. Y., 28 Nov., 1815; d. 
in Genese'o, N. Y., 11 Sept., 1894. He was prepared 
for college by Cornelius C. Felton, but did not en- 
ter, owing to trouble 
with his eyes. He 
taught school until he 
recovered their use, 
studied law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and 
began practice in 
Geneseo in partner- 
ship with his former 
preceptor, at the same 
time writing edito- 
rials for the demo- 
cratic county paper. 
He was appointed sur- 
rogate in 1838, and 
served in that office 
for four years, after 
which he was appoint- 
ed master in chancery 
and supreme court 
commissioner, a judi- 
cial office conferring 
concurrent jurisdiction with the judges of the su- 
preme court sitting in chambers. He was again 
surrogate from 1844 till 1847. He was a member 
of the democratic national convention at Balti- 
more in 1852. In 1853, his health having become 
impaired, he went to Honolulu, Sandwich islands, 
as U. S. consul. In 1855 he was sent by President 
Pierce to China as special commissioner to settle 
a dispute between some American merchants and 
the Chinese government in regard to the exaction 
of export duties. This mission was successful, 
and he returned to the United States by way of 
the East Indies, Egypt, and Europe. His letters 
from Asia were published in the newspapers at the 
time. On his return, against his protest, he was 
placed in nomination for congress, but was de- 
feated. On the accession of Mr. Buchanan to the 
presidency he was appointed minister to Norway 
and Sweden. He returned to the United States in 
the autumn of 1862, and, with the exception of 
being a delegate to the Chicago convention that 
nominated Gen. McClellan for the presidency in 
1864, he did not again take an active part in poli- 
tics, but devoted himself to agriculture at Geneseo, 
N. Y. He was president of the state agricultural 
society in 1873-74. 

ANQELL, Henry Clay, oculist, b. in Provi- 
dence, R. I., 27 Jan.. 1829. He was graduated at 
the Hahnemann medical college of Philadelphia, 
and subsequently spent four years in study at the 
hospitals of London, Paris, Vienna, and Berlin, 
after which he settled in Boston, where he still re- 
sides. On the foundation of the Boston university 
school of medicine he became its professor of oph- 

thalmology, which chair he continues to occupy. 
He is president of the Philharmonic society of 
Boston, and is an honorary memhei' of the New 
Hampshire Historical Society. His technical writ- 
ings include "Diseases of the Eye" (6th ed., 
Boston, 1882), and " How to Take Care of Our 
Eyes " (Boston, 1880). Dr. Angell has also written 
papers on art subjects for the " Atlantic Monthly " 
and the "American Art Review," and is the author 
of " The Records of Wni. M. Hunt " (Boston, 1879). 

ANGELL, Israel, soldier, b. in 1741; d. in 
Smithfield, R. I., in May, 1832. He was major of 
Hitchcock's regiment at the siege of Boston, was 
promoted colonel 18 Jan., 1777, and commanded 
the 1st Rhode Island regiment during the re- 
mainder of the war, distinguishing himself in the 
action at Springfield, N. J., 23 June, 1780. 

ANOELL, James Bnrrill, educator, b. in Scit- 
uate, R. I., 7 Jan., 1829. He was graduated at 
Brown university in 1849, and spent some time in 
Europe studying and travelling. On his return in 
1853 he was appointed professor of modern lan- 
guages and literature in the university at which he 
was graduated. In 1860 he succeeded the recently 
elected senator, Henry B. Anthony, as editor of the 
Providence " Daily Journal," which place he occu- 
pied until 1866, when he was called to the presidency 
of the university of Vermont. In 1871 he became 
president of the university of Michigan, an office 
he has since continued to fill except during the 
years 1880-'81, which he spent in China as minister 
from the United States, and also as chairman of a 
special commission appointed to negotiate a treaty 
with China. This commission procured a treaty 
in commercial matters, and also one on Chinese 
immigration. He has contributed many articles 
to periodical literature. 

AN(xELL, Joseph Kinnlcut, legal writer, b. in 
Providence, R. I., 30 April, 1794; d. in Boston, 1 
May, 1857. He was graduated at Brown univer- 
sity in 1813, was admitted to the bar in 1816, and 
in 1820 prosecuted in England, but without success, 
a claim to a large property. From 1829 to 1831 
he was editor of the " Law Intelligenoer and Re- 
view." As reporter to the Rhode Island supreme 
court, he prepared the first published reports of 
that state. In association with Samuel Ames, he 
wrote a " Treatise on Corporations " (3d ed., Boston, 
1846). His other works, most of which were sev- 
eral times revised and reissued, were " Treatise on 
the Right of Property in Tide Waters" (1826); 
" Inquiry Relative to an Incorporeal Heredita^ 
ment" (1827); "A Practical Summary of the Law 
of Assignment " (1835) ; " On Adverse Enjoyment " 
(1837) ; " Treatise on the Common Ijaw in Relation 
to Water-Courses " (1840); "Treatise on the Law 
concei'ning the Liabilities and Rights of Common 
Carriers " ; "A Treatise on the Law of Fire and 
Life Insurance " ; " Treatise on the Limitations of 
Actions at Law and Suits in Equity and Admiral- 
ty " (2d ed., 1846) ; and a " Treatise on the Law 
of Highwavs," left incomplete and finished by 
Thomas DuVfee (2d ed., by Choate, 1868). 

ANGERS, Real, Canadian author, b. in 1823; 
d. in April, 1860. He studied law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar of Lower Canada. Together 
with Mr. Aubin he reported and published the pro- 
ceedings of the lower house in 1857-'60. In addi- 
tion to being the author of a number of political 
essays, he wrote and published, "Revelations du 
Crime," and a treatise on stenography. 

ANGHIERA, Pietro Martire d' (called in 
English Peter Martyr), Italian historian, b. in 
Arona, on Lake Maggiore, in 1455 ; d. in the city 
of Granada, Spain, in 1526. After completing his 




education at Rome he served in the Milanese army, 
then accompanied the Spanish ambassador to Spain, 
and fought in the wars against the Moors, after- 
ward entered the church, and opened a school. In 
1501 he was sent by King Ferdinand as his ambas- 
sador to Egypt, and in 1505 he became prior of the 
church at Granada. His " Opus Epistolarum " re- 
counts all the important events that occurred be- 
tween 1488 and 1525. He wrote also a history of 
the New World, entitled " De Rebus Oceanicis et 
Orbe Novo," based upon original documents sup- 
plied by Christopher Columbus, and on the trans- 
actions of the council of the Indies, of which he 
was a member. His other works are an account of 
newly discovered islands and their inhabitants, and 
a narrative of his visit to Egypt and of explora- 
tions of the pvramids. See " Petrus Martyr," by 
PI. A. Schumacher (New York, 1879). 

ANCtLIN, Timothy Warren, Canadian states- 
man, b. in Clonakilty co., Cork, Ireland, 31 Aug., 
1822. Emigrated to St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1849, where the same year he established the 
"Weekly Freeman." He established the "Morn- 
ing Freeman," a tri-weekly paper, liberal in poli- 
tics, the organ of the Roman Catholics of New 
Brunswick, in 1851, and was its editor and proprie- 
tor until 1877. On the government permitting a 
prohibitory liquor bill to pass, Mr. Anglin went 
into opposition, and he has since been a conserva- 
tive. In 1860 he was elected to the New Bruns- 
wick house of assembly by the ?ity and county of 
St. John, which he represented until 1866, being 
the first Roman Catholic to represent that con- 
stituency. He was a leader of the opponents of 
confederation. In 1867 he was elected to the Do- 
minion house of commons for Gloucester co., and 
on 26 March, 1874, was elected speaker of the 
house. He retained this office until the end of the 
session of 1877, when he resigned, his seat having 
been declared vacant through a breach of the inde- 
pendence of parliament act. He was reelected 
speaker 7 Feb., 1878, and held the place till par- 
liament was dissolved. 

ANGULO Y HEREDIA, Antonio, Cuban au- 
thor, b. in Havana in 1837. He studied law and was 
admitted to the bar in 1863. In 1864 he edited in 
Madrid the " Revista Hispano-Amerieana." He 
has published " Estudios sol)re los Estados Uni- 
dos," embodying the results of his travels through 
the United States ; and " Schiller y Goethe," a 
series of lectures on German literature delivered 
in the Ateneo of Madrid with great success. An- 
gulo lost his reason and died a, few years ago. 

ANtrllLO, Pedro de, missionary, b. in Burgos, 
Spain, about 1500 ; d. in 1563. After finishing his 
■studies he set out for America in 1524, in company 
with some other young men of noble birth. He 
rapidly acquired wealth and military fame, but was 
so much affected by the sight of the cruelties with 
which the Spaniards treated the Indians that he 
resolved to devote himself entirely to the service 
of the natives. With this object he entered a Do- 
minican convent and took the habit of the order in 
Mexico in 1528. After studying for some years ho 
was ordained a priest, and was then placed under 
the direction of Las Casas, whom he accompanied 
into Peru and other places where the protection of 
the Indians rendered their presence necessary. In 
1541 he was sent to Guatemala to carry on the 
work among the Indians which had been begun 
ten years before. He was so successful that ten 
years afterward the number of Christians was so 
large, and the convents of the Dominicans so nu- 
merous, as to require the erection of the country 
into a new province of the order. His next efforts 

were directed to the conversion of the people that 
lived north of Guatemala. These Indians were so 
fierce and warlike that the Spaniards, who had 
been repelled in every attempt to subdue them, 
called their country " the land of war." In com- 
pany with two other missionaries. Father de An- 
gulo went among them, and, although at first re- 
ceived with distrust, finally succeeded in converting, 
the entire nation. He next devoted himself to the 
task of persuading the Indians to abandon their 
nomadic life, succeeded in forming them into vil- 
lage communities, and drew up a code of laws 
suited to their character and needs. The Indians 
offered to place their country under the protection 
of the crown of Castile and pay an annual tribute, 
provided no attempt was made on their liberty, 
and a treaty to this effect was ratified by the Span- 
ish court, which also expressed a wish that the 
name of the country should be changed to Vera- 
Pax, in memory of the event. A city of the same 
name was built a few years afterward, and Father 
de Angulo was chosen its first bishop ; but before 
the bulls arrived from Rome he died. 

ANGUS, Joseph, English clergyman, b. in 
Bolam. Northumberland. 16 Jan., 1816. He was 
educated at Edinburgh university, is president of 
Regent's park college, London (Baptist), author of 
several hand-books, and editor of Butler's " Anal- 
ogy" (1855). He was one of the revisers of the 
English New Testament for the American Bible 
imion. and visited the United States in 1873 as a 
delegate of the Evangelical alliance. 

ANGUS, Samuel, naval officer, b. in Philadel- 
phia in 1784 ; d. in Geneva, N. Y., 29 May, 1840. 
He entered tlie service in 1799 as midshipman, and 
became lieutenant in 1807, master-commandant in 
1813, and captain in 1816, Pie was severely 
wounded in the action between the "Constella- 
tion " and the French frigate " La Vengeance," 
1 Feb., 1800, and again in the encounter between 
the " Enterprise " and a French lugger. In the war 
of 1812 he was badly wounded in the attack on the 
English at Black Rock, and while commanding a 
flotilla in Delaware bay. He commanded the ship 
that carried Adams and Clay to Ghent to arrange 
the peace with Great Britain. Owing to injuries 
received in the service, his mind became impaired, 
and he was dismissed, 21 June, 1824. 

ANNANU, WiUiam, Canadian statesman, b. in 
Halifax. Nova Scotia, in 1808; d. in London, 13 Oct., 
1887. He was elected to the assembly, and allied 
himself with the old reform party that was led by 
Joseph Howe, which established responsible gov- 
ernment in the province and introduced various 
other reforms. He was a inember of the executive 
council and financial secretary of Nova Scotia from 
1859 to 1863, and was called upon to form an ad- 
ministration for that province in November, 1867, 
a duty which he accomplished most successfully, 
and ill which he held consecutively the offices of 
provincial treasurer and president of the council, 
the latter being held conjointly with the premier- 
ship until his resignation in May, 1875. On U 
May, 1875. he was appointed agent in London for 
the" promotion of immigration, and for represent^ 
ing the interests of Nova Scotia and New Bruns. 
wick more effectually in the United Kingdom and 
on the continent of Europe. He was also a repeal 
delegate to Great Britain with Mr. Howe and 
others in 1866 and 1868. Mr. Annand was a con- 
tributor to the Nova Scotia press, edited the 
"Speeches and Public Letters of Joseph Howe" 
(Boston, 1858), and was the author of a pamphlet 
on confederation (London. 1866). He held the 
office of queen's printer for several years. . 




ANSCHtJTZ, Karl, musician, b. in Coblentz, 
Germany, in February, 1813 ; d. in New Yorli city, 
30 Dec, 1870. His father was an eminent musi- 
cian and was in charge of a school for vocal and 
instrumental instruction. His early musical stud- 
ies were made under his father, and in 1837 he was 
sent to study under Fredericlc Schneider, of Dessau, 
whose daughter he married. He then returned to 
Coblentz, where he became conductor of the royal 
musical institution and of the orchestra at the 
theatre, with the title of royal musical director. 
In 1848 he led the orchestra at Nuremburg, and in 
1849 was conductor of the German opera at Am- 
sterdam. During the same year he went to Lon- 
don with a German opera troupe, and subsequently 
he became leader of the orchestra at Drury Lane 
theatre. He conducted great concerts in Exeter 
hall, at one of which he gave Beethoven's ninth 
symphony with an orchestra of 250 musicians and 
a chorus of 500 singers. He also conducted the 
Italian opera at Dublin, Edinburgh, Glasgow, and 
elsewhere in Great Britain. In 1857 he came to the 
United States with Ullman's Italian opera troupe, 
which he conducted until 1860. He founded in 
1802 the German opera in New York, and was 
active in the establishment of the New York con- 
servatory of music. In 1869 he served as musical 
director of the New York section of the mass 
choruses at the Baltimore singing festival. He 
was also a composer of some ability, and wrote out 
for brass instruments the nine symphonies of Beet- 
hoven, of which two were perforined. 

ANSELME, Jacques Bernard Modeste d', 
French general, b. in Apt, 22 July, 1740; d. in 
September, 1814. As lieutenant-colonel of the 
Soissons regiment, he fought through the Ameri- 
can revolution. As lieutenant-general he took 
Nice and the fortresses of Montalban and Ville- 
franche in 1792, but was defeated at Sospello and 
im])risnned until the revolution of Thermidor. 

ANSORGE, Charles, musician, b. in Spiller, 
Silesia, Germany, in 1817 ; d. in Chicago, 28 Oct., 
1866. He was educated in Breslau, where he re- 
ceived high honors, and also obtained a thorough 
musical training. For some years after his gradu- 
ation he devoted his attention to teaching, and was 
further occupied in editing a public newspaper. 
Imbued with the liberal ideas prevalent in Ger- 
many in 1848-49, he published articles offensive 
to the authorities, for which he was tried and sen- 
tenced to three years' imprisonment. But he es- 
caped to England, where he was joined by his 
family, and sailed for the United States. He set- 
tled in Boston, and became organist and chorister 
of the first church in Dorchester, where he re- 
mained for thirteen years. He was also a teacher 
of music in the asylum for the blind in South 
Boston for four years. For some time he was a 
resident editor of the " Massachusetts Teacher," 
and he took an active part in the state teachers' 
association. In 1863 he removed to Chicago. 

ANSPACH, Frederick Rineliart, clergyman, 
b. in central Pennsylvania in January, 1815; d. in 
Baltimore, Md., 16 Sept., 1867. He was graduated 
at the Pennsylvania college, Gettysburg, in 1839, 
and at the Lutheran theological seminary in 1841. 
He was pastor for nine years of the churches of 
Barren Hill and White Marsh, and subsequently 
at Hagerstown, Md. A sermon delivered on the 
occasion of the death of Henry Clay was his first 
publication. His "Sons of the Sires," "Sepul- 
chres of our Departed" (Philadelphia, 1854), 
" The Two Pilgrims " (1857), and other works ap- 
peared in rapid succession. In 1857 he removed 
to Baltimore, where he became a contributor to the 

"Lutheran Observer," and in 1858 its principal 
editor, in which office he continued till 1861. 

ANTES, Henry, colonist, b. in Germany in 
1701; d. in Fredericktown, Pa., 20 July, 1755. 
The name Antes is a Greek paraphrase of the Ger- 
man Blume, adopted as a disguise during the Ro- 
manist persecutions of 1620. Henry Antes emi- 
grated with his father's family to Pennsylvania 
about 1720, and built a paper-mill on the Wissa- 
hickon near Philadelphia. Here he married 
Christina, daughter of William Dewees, and be- 
came a leader in the civil and religious affairs of 
the colony. He was the friend of Whitefield and 
Zinzendorf, and, after consultation with the latter, 
assumed the leadership of the religious organization 
founded in 1741, and known as " Unitas F'ratrum," 
or Moravians. He was one of the founders of Beth- 
lehem. — His son, Philip Frederick, b. 2 Julv, 
1730; d. in Lancaster, Pa., 20 Sept., 1801, held 
several public offices, was a member of the provin- 
cial council and of the general and state assemblies, 
judge of the court of common pleas, and a colonel 
of state militia. He was so conspicuous and ardent 
a patriot during the revolution that the British 
offered a reward for his head. In 1776, in company 
with a Mr. Potts at Warwick furnace, he success- 
fully cast an eighteen-pounder, the first cannon ever 
made in America. See " A German Hero," by Rev. 
Edwin McMinn (Moorestown, N. J., 1886). 

ANTHON, John, jurist, b. in Detroit, 14 May, 
1784; d. in New York city, 5 March, 1863. He 
was the second son of Dr. G. C. Anthon, was gradu- 
ated at Columbia college in 1801 at the head of his 
class, studied law, and, upon attaining his majority, 
was admitted to practice in the supreme court. 
During the war of 1812 he was in command of a 
company of militia, and served in the defence of 
New York city. He was also frequently employed 
during this period as judge-advocate. The estab- 
lishment of the supreme court of the city of New 
York is largely due to his efforts, he having suc- 
cessfully urged its necessity upon the state legisla- 
ture. He was one of the founders of the New York 
Law Institute, and at the time of his death was its 
president. He published " Digested Index to the 
Reports of the United States Courts" (5 vols., 
1813) ; " Reports of Cases at Nisi Prius in the New 
York Supreme Court " (1820) ; " An Analytical 
Abridgment of Blackstone's Commentaries," with 
a prefatory essay " On the Study of Law " (2d ed., 
1832) ; and " Anthon's Law Student " and " Ameri- 
can Precedents " (1810). — His brother, Henry, cler- 
gyman, b. in New York city, 11 March, 1795; d. 
there, 5 Jan., 1861, was graduated at Columbia 
in 1813, after which he studied theology under 
Bishop Hobart and took orders in the Protestant 
Episcopal church. In 1816, while still a deacon, 
he had charge of the parish of St. Paul's church 
in Tivoli-on-Hudson, N. Y. ; but, his health fail- 
ing, he removed to South Carolina, where he re- 
mained from 1819 to 1822. During the latter 
year he became rector of Trinity church, Utica, 
where he remained till 1829, when he took charge 
of St. Stephen's church. New York. This pastor- 
ate he resigned in 1837 and became rector of St. 
Mark's in the Bowery, continuing there till his 
death. All Souls' church, originally a chapel of 
St. Mark's, was completed afterward, and was 
made a memorial by his late congregation. A 
memorial tablet has been erected near the chan- 
cel by the vestry of St. Mark's. Dr. Anthon pub- 
lished " Historical Notices of St. Mark's Church 
from 1795 to 1845" (New York, 1845).— Another 
brother, Cliarles, educator, b. in New York city, 
19 Nov., 1797; d. there, 29 July, 1867, was gradu- 




ated at Columbia college in 1815, studied law in the 
office of his brother John, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1819, but never practised. In 1820 he was 
appointed adjunct professor of Greek and Latin at 
Columbia college, and ten years later he succeeded 
to the full professorship, and at the same time was 
made head master of the grammar school attached 
to the college. The latter post he occupied until 
1864, when he was retired. In 1857 he was trans- 
ferred to the Jay chair of Grreek language and lit- 
erature. He devoted considerable attention to the 
preparation of text-books for colleges, and in 1822 
published a new edition of Lempriere's " Classical 
Dictionary." Later appeared an edition of Horace, 
with notes (1830) ; a " Dictionary of Greek and 
Roman Antiquities" (1843); a "Classical Diction- 
ary " (1841), and nearly fifty other volumes of 
classical school-books, many of which were repub- 
lished in Europe. A biographical sketch of Charles 
Anthon appeared in " The Galaxy " in 1867. — Their 
father. George Christian, a German physician, 
served in the British army until the surrender of 
Detroit in 1788, attaining the rank of surgeon-gen- 
eral, resigned, married the daughter of a Fi'ench 
officer, and settled in New York city. — Charles Ed- 
ward, numismatist, b. in New York city, 6 Dec, 
1822 ; d. there, 7 June, 1883, was a son of John 
Anthon, was graduated at Columbia college in 1839, 
and from 1853 until 1883 he held the chair of his- 
tory and belles-lettres in the College of the City of 
New York. He was an enthusiastic collector of 
coins, and owned one of the mostvaluable collections 
ever gathered in the United States. For some time 
he was president of the American Numismatic So- 
ciety. — Another son of John, William Henry, 
lawyer, b. in New York city, 2 Aug., 1827 ; d. there, 
7 Nov., 1875, was admitted to the bar in 1848, and 
soon became distinguished in its practice. He was 
counsel in the Brinckly divorce case, and in 1858 
defended the rioters who burned the quarantine 
buildings on Staten Island. In 1851 he served as 
member of the state legislature, and during the civil 
war he was judge-advocate-general on Gov. E. D. 
Morgan's staff.— George Christian, educator, b. 
in Red Hook, N. Y., 19 March, 1820 ; d. in Yon- 
kers, N. Y., 11 Aug., 1877, the eldest son of the 
Rev. Henry Anthon, was graduated at Columbia 
college in 1839, studied law, and was admitted to 
practice at the New York bar. He removed to 
New Orleans and there began teaching, but re- 
turned to New York and was appointed professor 
of Greek in the university of the city of New York. 
He established the Anthon grammar school in 
1854, and was its principal until his death. 

ANTHONY, Andrew Variclc Stout, artist, b. 
in New York city in 1835. He studied drawing 
and engraving under the best teachers in New 
York, and was one of the original members of the 
American water-color society. His most conspicu- 
ous success has been achieved in the line of epgrav- 
ing. Among his best-known works are the illus- 
trations for Whittier's " Snow Bound " (1867), 
"Ballads of New England" (1870), and "Mabel 
Martin " (1876) ; Longfellow's " Skeleton in Armor " 
(1877), and Hawthorne's " Scarlet Letter " (1878). 
He has passed part of his professional life in New 
York and California, but settled in Boston in 1878. 

ANTHONY, Henry Bowen, statesman, b. of 
Quaker parents, in Coventry, R. I., 1 April, 1815 ; 
d. in Providence, 2 Sept., 1884. He was descended 
in a direct line from John Anthony, who came 
from England about 1640 and settled on the island 
of Rhode Island. He was graduated at Brown 
university in 1833, and devoted himself to literary 
pursuits. He became editor of the Providence 

"Journal " in 1838, and in 1840 was admitted into 
partnership, the paper being published under the 
name of Knowles, Vose & Anthony till the death 
of Mr. Vose in 1848, when it was continued under 
the name of Knowles & Anthony till 1 Jan., 1863, 
when it became Knowles, Anthony & Danielson. 
Mr. Anthony gave himself up to his newspaper with 
all the energy and enthusiasm of his nature. No 
amount of work staggered him ; early and late he 
was in his office, and for many years he had around 
him a brilliant circle of young men. He early de- 
veloped poetical taste, 
and there are several 
pieces of merit that 
bear his name. His 
mind was quick and 
accurate, and he had 
a wonderful mem- 
ory; and his edito- 
rial labors contributed 
largely to the growth 
of the art of journal- 
ism in New England. 
He had many offers to 
go to other cities and 
take charge of news- 
papers, but declined 
them all. In 1837 he 
married Sally Rhodes 
(daughter of the late 
Christopher Rhodes, 
of Pawtuxet), who 
died in 1854. In 1849, 
and again in 1850, he was elected governor of Rhode 
Island. As a whig at the first election he had a 
majority of 1,556; at the second, fewer than 1,000 
votes were cast against him. He declined a third 
election, and gave himself once more entirely to 
his editorial work. This continued till 1859, when 
he was elected, as a republican, to the U. S. senate, 
where he remained by reflections till his death. 
During his service in the senate he still contributed 
largely to his paper. Three times he was elected 
president pro tern, of the senate — in March, 1863, in 
March. 1871, and in January, 1884; but the last 
time his failing health prevented him from accept- 
ing. He was exceedingly popular in Washington, 
and often spoken of as " the handsome senator." 
He served on many important committees, and was 
twice the chairman of the committee on printing, 
his practical knowledge of that subject enabling him 
to introduce many reforms in the government print- 
ing. He was at different times a member of the 
committees on claims, on naval affairs, on mines and 
mining, and on post-offices and post-roads. On the 
trial of President Johnson he voted for impeach- 
ment. He was not a frequent or brilliant speaker 
in the senate, but always talked to the point, and 
commanded attention. He shone more as a writer 
than as a speaker. His memorial and historical ad- 
dresses were models of composition. A volume of 
these addresses, printed privately in 1875, contains 
a tribute to Stephen A. Douglas, delivered 9 July. 
1861 ; one to John R. Thompson, 4 Dec, 1862 ; one 
to William P. Fessenden, 14 Dec, 1869 ; and three 
different addresses on Charles Sumner — the first on 
the announcement of his death in the senate ; the 
second when Mr. Anthony, as one of the commit- 
tee appointed by the senate, gave up the body of 
Mr. Sumner to the governor of Massachusetts ; and 
the third when Mr. Boutwell presented in the sen- 
ate resolutions of respect for Mr. Sumner's mem- 
ory. Mr. Anthony also spoke in the senate on the 
death of William A. Buckingham, and on 21 Jan., 
1876, delivered a short address on the death of 




Henry Wilson, vice-president of the United States. 
When the statues of Gen. Greene and Roger Will- 
iams were presented to congress by the state 
of lihode Island, Mr. Anthony made the addresses, 
and he also made a short address at the presenta- 
tion of the statues of Trumbull and Sherman. 
One of his best efforts was when he introduced the 
bill providing for repairing and protecting the 
monument erected in Newport, R. I., to the mem- 
ory of the chevalier de Tiernay, commander of the 
French naval forces sent out in 1780 to aid the 
American revolution. Mr. Anthony had a warm 
and affectionate nature, genial manner, a com- 
manding figure, and was a perfect specimen of a 
man. In his last days, with manly courage, he 
calmly waited for the end. As soon as his death 
was known. Gov. Bourn and Mayor Doyle issued 
proclamations to that effect, and called upon the 
people to attend the funeral, which took place from 
the first Congregational church in Providence on 
Saturday, 6 Sept. It was the largest funeral ever 
known in Rhode Island. Mr. Anthony bequeathed 
a portion of his library, known as tiie " Harris Col- 
lection of American Poetry," to Brown university. 
It consists of about 6,000 volumes, mostly small 
books, and many of them exceedingly rare. It was 
begun half a century ago by the late Albert G. 
Greene, continued by Caleb Fiske Harris, and, 
after his death, completed by his kinsman, the late 
senator. The Rev. Dr. J. C. Stockbridge, a mem- 
ber of the board of trustees of the university, is 
preparing an annotated catalogue of the collection. 

ANTHONY, John Gould, naturalist, b. in 
Providence, R. I., 17 May, 1804; d. in Cambridge, 
Mass., 16 Oct., 1877. His school education was 
slight, and was entirely discontinued when he 
became twelve years of age. Business pursuits 
then occupied his attention, and, settling in Cin- 
cinnati, he continued there for thirty-five years, 
actively engaged in commercial occupations. Mean- 
while his interest in natural history had developed, 
his publications attracted the attention of Prof. 
Agassiz, and in 1863 he was asked to take charge 
of the conchological department of the museum of 
comparative zoology, \.here he remained until his 
death. He accompanied Agassiz on the Thayer 
expedition to Brazil in 1865. His writings include 
the following papers : " A New Trilobite (Cerato- 
cephala ceralepta.) " (1888) ; " Fossil Encrinite " 
(1888) ; " Description of a New Fossil (Calymene 
Bucklandii) " (1839) ; " Descriptions of Three New 
Species of Shells" (1889); "Description of Two 
New Species of Anculotus " (1839) ; with G. Graham 
and W. P. James, " Two Species of Fossil Asterias 
in the Blue Limestone of Cincinnati" (1846); "De- 
scription of New Fluviate Shells of the Genus Me- 
lania, Lam., from the Western States of North 
America" (1854); "Descriptions of New Species of 
American Fluviate Gasteropods " (1861) ; " Descrip- 
tions of Two New Species of Monocondytoca " 
(1865); "Description of a New Exotic Meiania" 
(1865); "Description of a New Species of Shells" 
(1865); and " Descriptions of New American Fresh- 
Water Shells" (1866). Mr. Anthony was recog- 
nized as an authority on the American land and 
fresh-water moUusca. 

ANTHONY, Susan IJrownell, reformer, b. in 
South Adams, Mass., 15 Feb., 1820. Daniel An- 
thony, her father, a cotton manufacturer, was a 
liberal Quaker, who educated his daughters with 
the idea of self-support, and employed skilful 
teachers in his own house. After completing her 
education at a Friends' boarding-school in Phila- 
delphia, she taught in New York state from 1885 
to 1850. Her father removed in 1826 to Washing- 

ton CO., N. Y., and in 1846 settled at Rochester. 
Miss Anthony first spoke in public in 1847, and 
from that time took part in the temperance move- 
ment, organizing societies and lecturing. In 1851 
she called a temperance convention in Albany, after 
being refused admission to a previous convention 
on account of her sex. In 1852 the Woman's New 
York State Temperance Society was organized. 
Through her exertions, and those of Mrs. E. C. 
Stanton, women came to be admitted to educational 
and other conventions with the right to speak, vote, 
and serve on committees. About 1857 she became 
prominent among the agitators for the abolition of 
slavery. In 1858 she made a report, in a teachers' 
convention at Troy, in favor of the co-education of 
the sexes. Her energies have been chiefly directed 
to securing equal civil rights for women. In 
1854-'55 she held conventions in each county of 
New York in the cause of female suffrage, and 
since then she has addressed annual appeals and 
petitions to the legislature. She was active in se- 
curing the passage of the act of the New York 
legislature of 1860, giving to married women the 
possession of their earnings, the guardianship of 
their children, etc. During the war she devoted her- 
self to the women's loyal league, which petitioned 
congress in favor 
of the 13th amend- 
ment. In 1860 
she started a peti- 
tion in favor of 
leaving out the 
word " male " in 
the 14th amend- 
ment, and worked 
with the national 
woman suffrage 
association to in- 
duce congress to 
secure to her sex 
the right of voting. 
In 1867 she went 
to Kansas with 
Elizabeth Cady 
Stanton and Lucy 
Stone, and there t=i 
obtained 9,000 
votes in favor of woman suffrage. In 1868, with 
the cooperation of Mrs. Stanton aiid Parker Pills- 
bury, and with the assistance of George F. Train, 
she began, in New York city, the publication of a 
weekly paper called " The Revolutionist," devoted 
to the emancipation of women. In 1872 Miss An- 
thony cast ballots at the state and congressional 
election in Rochester, in order to test the applica- 
tion of the 14th and 15th amendments of the U. S. 
constitution. She was indicted for illegal voting, 
and was fined by Justice Hunt, but, in accordance 
with her defiant'declaration, never paid the penalty. 
Between 1870 and 1880 she lectured in all the 
northern and several of the southern states more 
than one hundred times a year. In 1881 she wrote, 
with the assistance of her co-editors, Elizabeth Cady 
Stanton and Matilda Joslyn Gage, " The History of 
Woman Suffrage," in two volumes. 

ANTHONY, Susanna, author, b. in Rhode Isl- 
and in 1726; d. in Newport, 23 July, 1791. Ex- 
tracts from her writings on religious subjects were 
published, with a memoir bv Di-. Hopkins, in 1739. 

ANTHONY, William ArnoM, physicist, b. in 
Coventry, R. I., 17 Nov., 1885. He was educated 
at the Yale (nov/ Sheffield) scientific school, and 
received his degree in 1860. From 1857 to 1860 he 
was principal of a graded school in Crompton, R. I. 
During 1860-'61 he taught the sciences in the Pi'ovi- 

^. ^' 




dence Conference Seminary, East Greenwich, R. I., 
after whicii, from 1861 to 1868, he followed his pro- 
fession in various capacities and in different locali- 
ties. Again, from 1868 to 1867, he taught the 
sciences in Franklin, N. Y., and in 1867 he became 
professor of physics and chemistry in Antioch Col- 
lege, where he remained until 1870, when he was 
called to occupy a similar chair in Iowa Agricul- 
tural College. During 1872 he accepted the pro- 
fessorship of physics in the then recently estab- 
lished Cornell University, which he still occupies. 
Although his work has been principally that of 
teaching, he has found time to gratify his fondness 
for mechanics. He designed- and constructed, dur- 
ing the years 1857-61, two turbines, one of which 
gave an efficiency of 81 per cent., whose floats were 
carefully formed to curves deduced from a mathe- 
matical investigation of the flow of fluids. In 1875 
he constructed a Gramme dynamo-electric machine 
for 25 amperes and 250 volts. This was built at a 
time when only the most general descriptions of 
such machines were at hand. He has also made a 
large tangent galvanometer which measures accu- 
rately currents from -fo to 250 amperes. Prof. An- 
thony is a member of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science, and of the American 
Institute of Electrical Engineers. His published 
papers include contributions read before these so- 
cieties, and other numerous scientiflc articles which 
have appeared in the " American Journal of Sci- 
ence," "Journal of the "Franklin Institute," the 
" Popular Science Monthly," and several electrical 
journals. He is joint author with Prof. C. F. 
Brackett of an '• Elementary Text-book on Phys- 
ics " (New York, 1885). 

ANTONELLI, Juan, engineer, b. in Gaeta, Italy, 
about the middle of the 16th century ; d. in Spain 
in 1616. He went to Cuba in 1584, where he made 
the plan and superintended the construction of the 
Morro Castle and Punta Fortress in Havana, in 
1589. Before they were finished he went to Vera 
Cruz, Mexico, and plainied the famous fortress of 
San Juan de Ulua. He retui-ned to Cuba, and af- 
terward went to Spain, where he died. 

ANTONIO DE SEDILLA, better known as 
" Pere Antoine," clergyman, b. in Spain about 
1730 ; d. in New Orleans in 1829. He was sent to 
Louisiana as commissary of the inquisition, with 
power to put it in force in that colony, and ar- 
rived there, with five other Capuchin friars, in 1779. 
The governor, Miro, fearing a revolution if the 
Spanish laws against heretics were applied, forci- 
bly seized Fra Antonio and the other monks and 
sent them back to Spain. Four years later Pere 
Antoine, as he came to be called, returned to New 
Orleans in the capacity of priest of St. Louis cathe- 
dral, the only church 'in the city, and his goodness 
and charity made him the idol of the French popu- 
lation during his long pastorate. He gave all that 
he had to the poor and lived a life of the greatest 
abstemiousness, sleeping on hard boards in a rude 
hut that he constructed under a date-palm tree 
that stood in his garden. When the United States 
purchased Louisiana, Claiborne wrote to Jefferson 
that no opposition to the new dominion need be 
feared if Pere Antoine could be won over. The 
president solicited his interest ; but the old priest 
took no part in the crisis, refusing to meddle with 
politics. The palm-tree under which he lived and 
died became, in memory of the good father, a famous 
landmark in New Orleans. It was said to have 
been planted by a Turk in 1727; but Sir Charles 
Lyell, in his " Second Visit to New Orleans," as- 
serts that Pere Antoine planted it himself. The 
tree was made the subject of Aldrich's story of 

" Pere Antoine's Date Palm," and of romances by 
Dimitry and Lafcadro Hearn. Many traditions 
associated with the tree are given in Gayarre's 
" History of Louisiana." It bloomed for the last 
time in 1858, but retained some life and verdure 
until in July, 1886, it was entirely dead. 

ANZOjCTEUUI, Jose Antonio (an-tho-ah'ta- 
gee), Venezuelan soldier, b. in Barcelona, Venezuela, 
in 1789 : d. 15 Nov., 1819. When the revolutionary 
war began he was twenty-one years old, and at 
once entered the ranks of the revolutionist army. 
Promotion followed rapidly, and he soon became 
one of the chief commanders, and as such took part 
in the victories won against the royal troops in San 
Felix and Boyaca. 

APES, William, author, b. about 1800. He 
was an Indian preacher of the Pequot tribe, and 
published " A Son of the Forest " (Boston, 1831) ; 
" Experiences of Five Christian Indians of the Pe- 
quot Tribe " (1833) ; " Indian Nullification " (1835) ; 
and a " Eulogy on King Philip " (1836). 

APODACA, Juan Ruiz (ah-po-dah'-ka), Span- 
ish naval officer, b. about 1770; d. in 1835. He 
entered the service in 1770, and distinguished him- 
self in several encounters with the English. In 
1807 he was given the command of a fleet, and the 
next year he captured the French fleet in Cadiz. 
About 1810 he was appointed captain-general of 
Cuba and Florida, and in 1816 he was transferred 
to Mexico as viceroy of New Spain. While in Mexi- 
co he suppressed several strong bands of insur- 
gents, and for this and other services he was re- 
warded by his government with the title of Count 
of Venadito. He returned to Spain in 1822, and 
was subsequently promoted to the rank of captain- 
general of the navy. 

APPEL, Theodore, clergyman, b. in Easton, 
Pa., 30 April, 1823. He was graduated at Marshall 
college, Mercersburg, Pa., in 1842, was ordained in 
the Reformed church, and held pastoral charges 
in Waynesboro, Pa., and Cavetown, Md. He be- 
came in 1851 professor of mathematics, physics, and 
astronomy in Marshall college, at the same time 
acting as pastor of the Reformed church in Mer- 
cersburg and editing the Mercersburg " Review," 
and from 1853 to 1877 he filled the same chair in 
Franklin and Marshall college, Lancaster, Pa. From 
1877 to 1886 he was general superintendent of home 
missions for the eastern part of the Reformed 
church, and travelled on business connected with 
that office through Pennsylvania, Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, and North Carolina. From 1881 to 1886 he 
edited the " Reformed Missionary Herald." He 
has published " Recollections of College Life " 
(Reading, Pa., 1886). 

APPLE. Thomas (lilmore, educator, b. in 
Easton, Pa., 14 Nov., 1829 ; d. in Lancaster, Pa., 17 
Sept., 1898. He was graduated at Marshall college, 
and was a pastor of the German Reformed church 
from 1853 to 1865. In the latter year he was 
chosen president of Mercersburg college, which he 
left in 1871, and became a professor in the Lancas- 
ter theological seminary. In 1878 he was elected 
president of Franklin and Marshall college. He 
edited for several years the " Mercersburg Review " 
and the " Reformed Quarterly Review." 

APPLETON, Daniel, founder of the publish- 
ing house of D. Appleton & Co., New York, b. in 
Haverhill, Mass., 10 Dec, 1785; d. in New York, 
27 March, 1849. He began business as a dry-goods 
merchant in his native place, but subsequent iy went 
to Boston, and in 1825 removed to New York, 
where he began the importation of English books 
in conjunction with his dry-goods business. The 
book department was placed in charge of William 




(of^^^i^^"?^.^^ i^^/^iY/^^TU' 

Henry Appleton, his eldest son (b. 27 Jan., 1814 : d. 
in Riverdale, N. Y., 19 Oct., 1899). He soon aban- 
doned the sale of dry-goods, and removed to Clinton 
Hall, Beekman street, and there gave his attention 
solely to the importation and sale of books. In 1835 
W. H. Appleton was sent to represent the house in 
London, and in the following year the father vis- 
ited Europe and founded a permanent agency at 
16 Little Britain. His first publishing venture 
was a collection of religious extracts entitled 
" Daily Crumbs from the Master's Table," a 32mo 

volume, of which 
2,000 copies were 
sold. This was 
followed by an- 
other book of the 
same size and 
character, and in 
1832, the cholera 
year, by " A Ref- 
uge in Time of 
Plague and Pesti- 
lence." In Janu- 
ary, 1838, W. H. 
Appleton was ta- 
ken into partner- 
ship, and the firm 
removed to 200 
Broadwav. In 

1848 the father re- 
tired, and W. H. 
Appleton then 
formed a copart- 
nership with his brother, John Adams Appleton (b. 
in Boston, Mass., 9 Jan., 1817 ; d. at his residence on 
Staten Island, 13 July, 1881). Three other sons be- 
came partners. Daniel Sidney, the fourth son, b. 
in Boston, 9 April, 1824, d. in New York, 12 Nov., 
1890 ; (tEGRGE Swett, b. in Andover, Mass., 11 Aug., 
1821. d. at Riverdale, N. Y., 7 July, 1878 ; Samuel 
Francis, the voungest son, b. in Boston, 26 April. 
1826, d. in New York, 25 Oct.. 1883. The busi- 
ness was removed from 200 Broadway to the old 
Society library building, corner of Leonard street 
and Broadway, and subsequently the growth of the 
city necessitated many removals farther up-town. 
In 1881 the retail, jobbing, and importing depart- 
ments were abandoned, in order that sole attention 
might be given to the publications of the house, 
and the business was removed subsequently to its 
present location, 72 Fifth avenue. In 1853 a print- 
ing-office and bindery were established in Franklin 
street. New York ; but the publishing business in- 
creased to such an extent that in 1868 the manufact- 
uring department was removed to Brooklyn, where 
buildings were erected that cover nearly a whole 
square. The publications of the house extend over 
the entire field of literature. Its "American Cyclo- 
pajdia " is the largest and most widely circulated 
work of its kind ever produced in this country. The 
first edition was issued in 1857-63 ; and a revised 
edition, which was practically a re-writing of the en- 
tire work, with the insertion of thousands of illus- 
trations and other improvements, in 1873-'76, addi- 
tions and cori'ections 1 leing ailded from time to time. 
The " Annual Cyelopa'dia," published in similar 
style and forming an appropriate continuation of 
the greater work, is now in its thirty-sixth year. Its 
illustrated books include '* Picturesque America," 
" Picturesque Europe," and " Picturesque Pales- 
tine," besides valuable art collections. Its text- 
books embrace every subject taught in American 
schools ; medical books form a special department, 
and books in Spanish for the South and Central 
American markets form another. Nearly all the 

noted scientists of Europe and the United States 
are represented in the list, which also in general 
literature includes the names of Bancroft, Bryant, 
Cooper, Dickens, Disraeli, Scott, and other stand- 
ard authors. The literature of the civil war is rep- 
resented on both sides, by Generals Sherman, Sheri- 
dan, and J. E. Johnston, Admirals Farragut and 
Porter, Jefferson Davis, William H. Seward, and 
biographies of Lee, Chase, " Stonewall " Jackson, 
A. S. Johnston, and other distinguished partici- 
pants. The business is conducted by a company 
incorporated in 1897, consisting of William W. 
Appleton, president; Daniel Appleton, 1st vice- 
president; Edward D..Appleton, 2d vice-president; 
D. Sidney Appleton, secretary and treasurer. The 
above, with Charles A. and Robert Appleton, con- 
stitute the board of directors of the company. 

APPLETON, James, temperance reformer, b. 
in Ipswich, Mass., 14 Feb., 1786; d. there, 25 Aug., 
1862. When a young man he was elected to the 
legislature of his native state, and during the war 
with Great Britain he served as a colonel of Massa- 
chusetts militia, and after the close of the war was 
made a brigadier-general. During his subsequent 
residence at Portland, Me., he was elected to the 
legislature in 1836-'37, but he returned finally to his 
native town, where he died. By his speeches and 
publications he exercised great infiuence upon pub- 
lic sentiment in favor of total abstinence. In his re- 
port to the Maine legislature in 1837 he was the first 
to expound the principle embodied in the Maine 
law. See his " Life," by Sydney Howard Gay. 

APPLETON, Jesse, educator, b. in New Ips- 
wich. N. H., 17 Nov., 1772; d. in Bninswick, Me., 
12 Nov., 1819. After graduation at Dartmouth 
college he spent two years in teaching at Dover 
and Amherst, then studied theology, and was or- 
dained pastor at Hampton, N. H., in February, 
1797, notwithstanding his Arminian tendencies, 
which were considered heretical at that time. At 
his suggestion the " Piscataqua Evangelical Maga- 
zine " was published, and while at Hampton he 
served as trustee of Phillips Exeter academy, and 
was a member of the academy of arts and sciences. 
His daughter married President Franklin Pierce. 
He was in great demand as a preacher on occasions 
of importance. A volume of his addresses, with a 
biographical sketch by the Rev. Dr. Nichols, of 
Portland, was published in 1820. Two years later 
his lectures and occasional sermons were published, 
with a memoir by the Rev. B. Tappan. These 
and other writings were collected in a two-volume 
edition, entitled "The Works of Jesse Appleton, 
D.D." (Andover, 1836). 

APPLETON, John, lawyer, b. in Beverly, Mass., 
11 Feb., 1815: d. in Portland, Me., 22 Aug., 1864. 
He was graduated at Bowdoin college in 1834, in 
1837 began the practice of law in Portland, and 
soon afterward became editor of the " Eastern Ar- 
gus." At this time he was register of probate for 
Cumberland co. In 1845 he was appointed chief 
clerk of the navy department, subsequently chief 
clerk of the state department, and in 1848 was sent 
out to Bolivia as charge d'affaires for the United 
States. On his return in 1849 he resumed his law 
practice in Portland, and he was elected to congress 
in 1850. In 1855-'56 he was secretary of legation 
in London, in 1857 assistant secretary of state, and 
in 1860 became minister to Russia. 

APPLETON, John Howard, chemist, b. in 
Portland, Me., 3 Feb., 1844. He was graduated at 
Brown University in 1863, the following year be- 
came instructor in chemistry there, and in 1868 
was elected professor of chemistry and applied arts. 
Since 1872 he has filled the chair of chemistry only. 




Prof. Appleton has written a series of chemical 
text-booiis that have had an extensive sale. They 
are "The Young Chemist" (Philadelphia, 1878); 
" Qualitative Analysis " (1878) ; " Quantitative Anal- 
ysis" (1881); and "Chemistry of Non-Metals" 
(Providence, 1884). 

APPLETON, John James, diplomatist, b. in 
France about 1789 ; d. in Rennes, France, 4 March, 
1864. His father was John Appleton, some time 
U. S. consul at Calais. John James studied at 
Phillips Andover academy, and was graduated at 
Harvard in 1813. During President Monroe's ad- 
ministration he was appointed secretary of lega- 
tion at Brazil, and afterward chai-ge d'affaires for 
the United States at Madrid and at Stockholm. 
At the latter post he negotiated the commercial 
treaty that still serves as the basis of intercourse 
between the United States and Sweden. He also 
served as a diplomatic representative of the United 
States at Naples. Inheriting from his father a 
valuable estate in France, he spent the greater 
part of his life there, making only occasional vis- 
its to America. 

APPLETON, Nathaniel, clergyman, b. in Ips- 
wich, Mass., 9 Dec, 1693 ; d. in Cambridge, Mass.. 
9 Feb., 1784. He was educated at Harvard, taking 
his degree in 1712, studied theology, and was or- 
dained 9 Oct., 1717, succeeding Mr.^Brattle as Con- 
gregational minister. From 1717 to 1779 he was 
one of the corporation of Harvard university. He 
published sermons and occasional discourses. 

APPLETON, Samnel, merchant, b. in New 
Ipswich, N. 11., 22 June, 1766; d. in Boston, 12 
July, 1853. His youth was spent on a farm and 
in teaching. For a time he kept a store in Ips- 
wich, but he removed to Boston in 1794 and went 
into the importing business in partnei'ship with 
his brother Nathan. He also established cotton 
mills at Waltham and Lowell. After 1799 he 
passed much of his time abroad, until he retired 
from business in 1823. He was at this time liter- 
ally a merchant prince, and, with true nobility of 
character, devoted a large part of his income to 
charitable purposes. He made it a rule to spend 
annually his whole income, and to this end often 
placed large sums for distribution in the hands of 
those who were likely to meet cases of destitution. 
At his death the sum of |200,000 was distributed 
among charities. See menioii', by I. A. Jewett 
(Boston, 1850). — His brother. Nathan, merchant, 
b. in New Ipswich, N. H., 6 Oct., 1779 ; d. in Bos- 
ton, 14 July, 1861. He entered Dartmouth college 
in 1794, but soon left to engage in business with 
Samuel in Boston. When he became of age he 
was admitted into partnership, and the firm was 
known as S. & N. Appleton. In 1813 he was as- 
sociated with Francis C. Lowell, Patrick T. Jack- 
son, Paul Moody, and others, in establishing the 
Waltham cotton manufactory, in which the first 
power loom ever used in the United States was set 
up. This proving successful, he and others pur- 
chased the water-power at Pawtucket Falls, and he 
was one of the founders of the Merrimac Manu- 
facturing Company. The settlement that grew 
around these factories developed into the city of 
Lowell, of which in 1821 Mr. Appleton was one 
of the three founders. He was also the projector 
and chief proprietor of the Hamilton Company. 
He was elected to the state legislature in 1815, 
served during several terms, and was elected 
to congress in 1830 and again in 1842. Pie was 
the author of several speeches and essays on cur- 
rency, banking, and the tariff, of which his " Re- 
marks on Currency and Banking " (enlarged ed., 
1858) is the most celebrated. An account of the 

introduction of the power loom and of the origin 
of Lowell was pul)lished by him. He was a mem- 
ber of the Academy of Science and Arts, and of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society. He accumulated 
great wealth, and was noted for his benevolence. 
A memoir of his life has been written by Robert 
C. Winthrop of Boston. 

APPLETON, Thomas Gold, author, b. in Bos- 
ton, Mass., 31 March, 1812; d. in New York, 17 
April, 1884. His early training was received at 
the Boston Latin school, where he was prepared to 
enter Harvard in the class of 1831. Among his 
classmates were J. L. Motley, Wendell Phillips, 
and other distin- 
guished men. Mr. 
Appleton spent 
much of his time 
abroad. He was a 
liberal patron of the 
fine arts, and gave 
elRcient aid to va- 
rious institutions, 
including the pub- 
lic library, the insti- 
tute of technology, 
and the museums at 
Boston and Cam- 
bridge. He was 
an amateur painter 
of superior merit, 
and his water-color 
sketches of scenes 
on the river Nile 
are exceptionally 
good. He was the 
author of several 

books in prose and verse. In poetry his " Faded 
Leaves " was well received by the reading public. 
In prose he published his " Nile Journal " (Boston, 
1876), " Syrian Sunshine " (1877), " Windfalls," and 
other works. He was the founder of the Boston 
literary club, was highly esteemed for his genial 
temper and courteous manners, and was looked 
upon by those who knew him as unrivalled for wit 
and humor. A volume of his " Life and Letters," 
prepared by Susan Hale, was published in New 
York in 1885. 

APPLETON, William, merchant, b. in Brook- 
field, Mass., 16 Nov., 1786; d. in Longwood, near 
Boston, 20 Feb., 1862. He was a son of the Rev. 
Joseph Appleton, of Brookfield, received an aca- 
demical education, and at the age of fifteen became 
a clerk in a country store at Temple. In 1807 he 
went to Boston, where for over fifty years he was 
a successful merchant, giving also much attention 
to banking and financial operations. He was presi- 
dent of the U. S. branch bank from 1832 to 1836, 
and was also president of the provident institution 
for savings and the Massachusetts general hospital. 
He gave $30,000 to the last-named institution, and 
was noted for his benevolence. He was elected as 
a whig to congress, serving from 1851 to 1855. and 
again was a member in the special session from 4 
July to 6 Aug., 1861, after which he resigned. 

APPLING, Daniel, soldier, b. in Columbia 
CO., Ga., 25 Aug., 1787; d. at Foi't Montgomery, 
Ala., 18 March, 1817. He entered the armv as 
lieutenant in 1808. On 19 May, 1814, being then 
a major, he commanded a detachment of 130 rifie- 
men on board a flotilla bearing cannon and naval 
stores from Oswego, N. Y., to the unfinished ship 
" Superior " at Sackett's Harbor, then blockaded by 
the British. Finding it impossible to run the 
blockade, Woolsey, the commander of the flotilla, 
landed tlie stores by night at Sandy creek. Here 



the party were attacked by the British, who ex- 
pected an easy victory, but were completely sur- 
prised by Appling and his men, concealed in the 
bushes on the banks. The British squadron, with 
170 officers and men, fell into the hands of the 
Americans, and the naval stores were delivered 
safely at Sa,ckett's Harbor. F'or his conduct in 
this engagement Appling was brevetted lieuten- 
ant-colonel. He distinguished himself afterward 
at Plattsburg, and was brevetted colonel in 1814. 
On 1 June, 1810. lie resigned from the army. 

ARACENA, Domingo, scholar, b. in Santiago, 
Chili, in 1810 ; d. there in 1874. He was educated 
at the school of the Dominicans in Santiago, and 
entered the novitiate of the order at the age of fif- 
teen. He afterward learned Hebrew, Greek, and the 
principal modern languages, and attracted so much 
attention in his public discussions that he was known 
as the Pico de la Mirandola of Chili. During the 
twenty years that he was itrofcssor in his convent 
his knowledge of jurispi-udciici' was so highly es- 
teemed that he was constantly visited by lawyers 
and statesmen, as well as by successive presidents, 
who consulted him on difficult points of constitu- 
tional law. It is said by his biographers that several 
changes in the laws of Chili were brought about by 
his advice. He wrote several works, one of which, 
" Vindicacion de la nota de Inquisidores," has been 
translated into French by Lacordaire. 

ARAGfO, Jean (ali-ra'-go), Mexican general, b. 
in France in 1788 ; d. in 1836. From Perpignan, 
where he had held a public office, he went to New 
Orleans, and, having joined the expedition of young 
Mina. he rendered efficient service in the war of in- 
dependence. In many of Santa Anna's campaigns 
the principal part was that taken by Arago. 

ARANGO ¥ PARRENO, Francisco de, Cu- 
ban statesman, 1). in Havana in May, 1765 ; d. there 
in 1837. He went to Spain in 1787, was admitted 
to the bar in 1789, and in 1813 was elected a rep- 
resentative for Cuba in the Spanish cortes, where 
he advocated the abolition of slavery. In 1818 he 
returned to Havana. He was one of the founders 
of the Soeiedad Patriotica de Aniigos del Pais, 
which has conferred many benefits upon Cuba. To 
his exertions were due the opening of the ports of 
the island to foreign commerce, and also the aboli- 
tion of the tobacco monopoly. These measures were 
the origin of the commercial progress and pros- 
perity of Cuba. Agriculture also owes much to 
Arango, who introduced new methods of cultivat- 
ing the land, and also the Othaiti sugar cane, which 
supplanted the creole cane and has been a source of 
immense wealth. Arango wrote numerous pam- 
phlets and memoirs, some of which have been trans- 
lated into French and English. Humboldt called 
him " one of the first of the Spanish statesmen." 

ARANGO, Rafael de, soldier, b. in Havana in 
1788; d. there in 1850. He took part in the upris- 
ing in Madrid on 2 May, 1808, against the French 
invasion, under Napoleon I. This was the begin- 
ning of the peninsular war for independence, so 
fatal to the French armies. Arango retired from 
active military service in 1821 as a colonel of cav- 
alry, went to Cuba, where he wrote an historical 
sketch with the title of " El dos de Mayo," and pub- 
lished also a " Prontuario de Agricultura " (1828). 

ARANGO Y ESCAND6n, Alejandro (ah- 
ran'-go e es-kah-oo-don'), Mexican author, b. in 
Puebla, 8 July, 1821. He was educated in Madrid 
and Paris, and has filled several high offices, but 
declined to accept any compensation for his public 
services. His library is one of the richest in Mexi- 
co. A volume of poems and the excellent " Ensayo 
historico sobre Fray Luis de Leon " are among his 

best works. The last named won him membership 
in both the Royal Spanish academy and the acad- 
emy of history of Spain. 

ARANZAZU, Juan de Dios (ar-an-thah'-thoo), 
Colombian statesman, 1). in Antioquia near the 
cl(»e of the 18tii century ; d. in 1845. He began 
his political career when very young, and filled 
high offices since 1823 until 1841, then taking 
charge of the executive. He distinguished himself 
for his ability, great learning, and spirit of justice in 
his public dealings. 

ARAUJO Y RIO, Jos6, Spanish governor of 
Guatemala, under Kings Philip V. and Ferdinand 
VI., from 1742 until 1751. He succeeded Gen. 
Rivera y Villalon, and was replaced by Gen. Vaz- 
quez Priego. 

ARBOiiEDA, Julio (ar-bo-lay'-dah), Colombian 
poet, d. in 1872. He received his education in Eu- 
rope, and wrote in French, English, and Italian, as' 
well as in his own langiiage. His poems, entitled 
" Dios y la virtud," " Estoy en la careel," " Me au- 
sento," " Te quiero," and the long one called " Gon- 
zalo de Oyon," deserve especial notice. He was as- 
sassinated, it is supposed, by political enemies. A 
collection of his poetry was republished in New 
York in 1884. 

ARBUCKLE, Matthew, soldier, b. in Green- 
brier CO.. Va., in 1776; d. at Fort Smith, Ark., 11 
June, 1851. He entered the army as an ensign in 
1799, became a captain in 1806, major in 1812, lieu- 
tenant-colonel in 1814, colonel of the 7th infantry 
in 1820, and brevet brigadier-general in 1830. In 
1817 he was successful in an expedition against the 
Fowltoun Indians, and in 1846-'47 served in the 
Mexican war. He commanded at New Orleans, 
Fort Gibson, and Fort Smith. During much of his 
life he was brought constantly in contact with the 
Indians of the frontier, and, by his knowledge of 
their character, alwavs kept their confidence. 

ARBUTHNOT, Marriot, British admiral, b. 
in 1711 ; d. in London, 31 Jan., 1794. He was a 
nephew of Dr. John Arbuthnot, the poet. Pie be- 
came post-captain in 1747, and in 1775 was made 
naval commissioner at Halifax, where he resided 
until 1778. He returned to England a rear admiral, 
and in 1779 was made vice admiral, and command- 
er-in-chief on the American station. Soon after 
arriving at his destination he was blockaded in New 
York harbor by the French fleet under D'Estaing. 
In December, 1779, he conveyed the troops of Sir 
Henry Clinton to Charleston, and cooperated with 
him in laying siege to that city. The fleet appeared 
off the harbor on 9 March, 1780, and entered it on 
9 April. After a short siege the city surrendered 
on 12 May, and was given up to pillage. For this 
success Arbuthnot received the thanks of parlia- 
ment. On 16 March, 1781, Arbuthnot obtained 
some advantage over the French fleet in an engage- 
ment off the capes of Virginia. In 1793 he was 
made admiral of the blue. At the time of his ser- 
vice in America, Arbuthnot was old and inefficient, 
and Sir Henry Clinton complained bitterly to the 
home government of his incapacity. 

ARCE, Francisco, pioneer, b. in Lower Cali- 
fornia in 1822 ; d. in 1878. From the age of eleven 
he lived in Alta California. At the time of the 
American conquest in 1846 he was a military officer, 
and was secretary to Gen. Jose Castro, commander 
of the Californian forces. His name is known from 
his connection with a party of men who, in June, 
1846, were bringing horses, generally supposed to 
belong to the Californian government, from Sono- 
ma to the south. Capt. John C. Fremont, then in 
command of an American surveying party in the 
territory, incited American settlers to assail the 




party, seize upon the horses, and begin hostilities 
against tlie Californian government. From this 
Arce-affair of 6 June dates the beginning of the 
" Bear Flag " revolt and of the seizure of Califor- 
nia by the Americans. 

ARCE, Manuel, Mexican priest, b. in Aguasca- 
lientes, 5 April, 1725 ; d. in Bologna, Italy, 28 June, 
1785. He was a Jesuit, was distinguished for his 
learning, and was in succession rector of the col- 
leges belonging to his order in Puebla. Zacatecas, 
and Guadalajara, and then took charge of the Jes- 
uit missions among the Chichimecan Indians. When 
Charles III. of Spain expelled the Jesuits from his 
dominions, 25 June. 1767, Father Arce went to 
Bologna, Italy, and, with funds furnished mostly 
by other Jesuits belonging to rich Mexican fami- 
lies, he founded a benevolent institution for the 
old and needy, called the Hospital for Septua- 
genarians. There he personally attended to every- 
thing concerning the care of the inmates, even to 
cleaning their rooms and cooking their food, un- 
til his death. 

ARCH BOLD, (Jeorge, chemist, b. in Ford Flod- 
den Field, Scotland, 4 May, 1848. He studied 
chemistry in Berwick-on-Tweed, Edinburgh, Lon- 
don, and Bei-lin, and has published many papers 
on chemical subjects. He came to the Dnited 
States in 1881, and has since devoted his attention 
principally to the manufacture of starch, in which 
he has made important investigations. Dr. Arch- 
bold is a member of numerous scientific societies. 

ARCHDALE, John, English governor of North 
Carolina. He was a son of Thomas Archdale of 
Loaks, in Chipping Wycomb, Bucks co., England, 
and came to New England in 1(K)4 as agent of his 
brother-in-law, Gov. Gorges of Maine. He visited 
North Carolina in March, 1686, and was commis- 
sioner for Gorges in Maine in 1687-88. He be- 
came governor of North Carolina in 1695, and held 
the office for about two years. He was sagacious, 
prudent, and moderate, and under his administra- 
tion the province made great progress in internal 
improvements. He introduced rice culture into 
Carolina by distributing among some friends a 
bag of seed rice brought by the captain of a vessel 
from Madagascar. Archdale was formerly a mem- 
ber of the society of Friends, and, while enforcing 
a militia law, exempted all Friends from service. 
By his moderation he quieted the troubles between 
the colonists and their feudal sovereigns, and, by 
establishing a special board for deciding contests 
between white men and Indians, he won the friend- 
ship of the latter. His conscientious scruples con- 
cerning the required oaths prevented his taking a 
seat in parliament, to which he was elected in 1698. 
Archdale published "A New Description of the 
Fertile and Pleasant Province of Carolina, with a 
Brief Account of its Discovery, Settling, and Gov- 
ernment up to this Time, with several Remarkable 
Passages during My Time" (London, 1707). See 
He watt's "Historical Account of the Rise and 
Progress of the Colonies of South Carolina and 
Georgia" (London, 1779); Holmes's "Annals of 
America " (Cambridge, 1829) ; and Bancroft's " His- 
torv of the United States " (New York, 1884). 

ARCHER, Branch T., Texan revolutionist, b. 
in Virginia in 1790; d. in Brazoria co.. Texas, 22 
Sept., 1856. He studied medicine in Philadelphia, 
and was for many years a physician and politician 
in his native state, being a member of the legisla- 
ture several times. In 1831 he removed to Texas, 
and became a prominent actor in the movements 
preliminary to the revolution. On 3 Nov., 1835, he 
presided over the famous " consultation " held by 
the American settlers, and with Col. Stephen Aus- 

tin and N. H. Wharton formed a board of three 
commissioners to solicit aid from the United States 
in the struggle for Texan independence. He was 
a member of the first Texan congress in 1836, be- 
came speaker of the house of representatives, and 
was secretary of war of Texas from 1839 to 1842, 
when by reason of declining health he was com- 
pelled to retire to private lite. 

ARCHER, John, physician, b. in Harford co., 
Md., 6 June, 1741 : d. there in 1810. He was gradu- 
ated at Princeton in 1760, and studied theology, 
but relinquished this on account of a throat trouble, 
and, after studying medicine, received in 1768, from 
the Philadelphia medical college, the first medical 
diploma issued on this continent. He raised and 
commanded a military company at the beginning 
of the revolution, was for several years a member 
of the legislature, and was chosen presidential elec- 
tor in 1801. From 1801 to 1807 he was a member 
of congress from Maryland. He made several dis- 
coveries in medicine, which have been adopted by 
the profession. — His son, Stevenson, jurist, b. in 
Harford co., Md. ; d. 5 June, 1848, was graduated 
at Princeton in 1805, and studied law. He be- 
came a judge of the court of appeals, and was ap- 
pointed chief justice in 1845, holding the office 
until his death. He served in congress from 4 
Nov., 1811, to 3 March, 1817, and from 6 Dec, 
1819, to 3 March, 1821. During his last term he 
was a member of- the committee on foreign af- 
fairs. In the interval from 1817 to 1819 he was 
U. S. judge for the territory of Mississippi. In 
politics he was a democi'at. 

ARCHER, Samuel B., soldier, b. about 1790; 
d. in Philadelphia, 11 Dec, 1825. He was ap- 
pointed to the army from Virginia, 12 March, 
1812, as captain in "the 2d artillery, and, on 27 
May, 1813, was brevetted major " for gallantry and 
good conduct in the cannonade and bombardment 
of Fort George, on 26 and 27 May, 1813." He was 
distinguished at Stony Creek, 6 June, 1813, and, on 
10 Nov., 1821, became inspector-general, with the 
rank of colonel. 

ARCHER, William Seg-ar, b. in Amelia coun- 
ty, Va., 5 March, 1789; d. there, 28 March, 1855. 
His family was of Welsh origin, and his father and 
grandfather both served with honor in the revolu- 
tion. The former, Maj. John Archer, was aide to 
Gen. Wayne, and acquitted himself with gallantry 
at the capture of Stony Point ; the latter. Col. Will- 
iam Archer, died on a British prison-ship. William 
S. was graduated at William and Mary in 1806, 
and studied law. He served in the legislature, 
with the exception of one year, from 1812 to 1819. 
From 1820 till 1835 he was" a representative in con- 
gress, where, as chairman of the committee on for- 
eign relations, and member of the committee on 
the Missoin-i compromise, he exerted great influ- 
ence. From 1841 till 1847 he was a member of the 
U. S. senate, and in this body also was at the head 
of the committee on foreign relations. 

ARCHIBALD, sir Adams George, Canadian 
jurist, b. in Truro. N. S.. 3 May. 1814 ; d. in Hali- 
fax, 14 Dec, 1892. He was the grandson of the late 
James Archibald, judge of the court of common 
pleas. N. S. He was educated at Pictou academy, 
and was called to the bar of Prince Edward island 
in 1838, and to that of Nova Scotia in 1839. ^ He 
was a member of the executive council of Nova 
Scotia, first, as solicitor-general, from 14 Aug., 1856, 
until 14 Feb., 1857 ; secondly, as attorney-general, 
from 10 Feb., 1860, until 11 llune, 1863. He was a 
delegate to England in 1857 to arrange terras of 
settlement with the British government and the 
general mining association in respect to Nova Sco- 




tian mines, and also to ascertain the views of the 
government relative to the projected union of the 
British-Amei'ican provinces. He was a delegate to 
Quebec, on the subject of the Intercolonial railway, 
in 1801 ; to the Charlottetown union conference, 
1864 ; and to the final conference, 18(iO-'G7, in Lon- 
don to complete the terras of union. He was 
sworn of the pi'ivy council 1 July, 1867, and was 
secretary of state for the provinces from 1 July, 
1867, until his resignation in 1868 ; was lieutenant- 
governor of Manitoba and the northwest territories 
from 20 May, 1870, until May, 1873, when he re- 
signed and was a judge in equity of Nova Scotia 
from 24 June, 1873, until 4 July of the same year, 
when he was appointed lieutenant-governor of Nova 
Scotia. He was one of the directors of the Canadian 
Pacific railway, under Sir Hugh Allan, in 1873, and 
in 1885 was knighted. He represented Colchester 
in the Nova Scotia assembly from 1851 to 1859, and 
when that county was divided was elected for 
South Colchester, of which he was the representa- 
tive until the union of the provinces in 1867 ; and 
sat for Colchester in the house of commons until 
appointed lieutenant-governor of Manitoba. 

ARCHIBALD, Thomas Dickson, Canadian 
senator, b. in Onslow, Nova Scotia, in 1813 ; d. 
there, 18 Oct., 1890. In 1832 he entered into 
partnership with his brother in a general business 
in connection with the Sydney mines. He was con- 
sular agent of the United States at Sydney until 
he was called to the senate, was a member of the 
executive council of Nova Scotia from 1860 to 1863, 
and sat in the legislative council of Nova Scotia 
from 1856 until the date of the union of the prov- 
inces. 1867, when he was called to the senate. 

ARCOS Y MORENO, Alonso, Spanish general. 
He was the governor of Guatemala from 1754 to 
1760, under Kings Ferdinand VI. and Charles III. 
He replaced governor Juan de Velarde y Cienfu- 
gos, who again held office after Arcos was recalled. 

ARI^CHACtA, Juan de, Cuban jurist, b. in Ha- 
vana in the first half of tlie lOtii century. He 
studied in his native city, and went to Spain, was 
graduated as LL. D. at Salamanca in 1662, and be- 
came a professor there. In the same year he pub- 
lished in that city his " Arechaga Comentaria Juris 
Civilis," and in 1666 his " Extemporaneas Comen- 
tationes." Arechaga went in 1671 to Mexico, where 
he filled important offices, being finally appointed 
governor and captain-general of the province of 
Yucatan. The date of his death is not known. 

ARENALES, Jose (ah-reh-nah'-les), Argentine 
geographer, b. in Buenos Ayres about 1790. He 
entered the army when quite young, was promoted 
to the rank of lieutenant-colonel of artillery about 
1825, and in 1833 took charge of the topographical 
department of Buenos Ayres, and then travelled 
through almost every portion of South America. 
His highly interesting report of some of these 
travels was published under the title of " Noticias 
historicas y descriptivas sobre el gran pais del 
Chaco y Rio Bermejo, con observaciones relativas a 
un plan de navegacion y de colonizaeion." 

ARENTS. Albeit, metallurgist, b. in Clausthal, 
Germany, 14 March, 1840. He was educated at the 
mining schools in Clausthal and Berlin, study- 
ing also at the university of Berlin. After coming 
to the United States he was variously occupied as 
mining superintendent and also in charge of met- 
allurgical mills and smelting works in Arizona, 
California, Colorado, Nevada, and Utah. He has 
contributed valuable technical papers to the " Trans- 
actions of the American Institute of Mining Engi- 
neers," having been elected a member of that so- 
ciety in 1882. Among his inventions are the siphon 

tap, now everywhere used on lead furnaces, the Eu- 
reka lead furnace, extensively employed throughout 
Colorado and Utah, and the well-known roasting 
furnace that bears his name. 

AREY, Harriet Ellen (Grannis), author, b. in 
Cavendish, Vt., 14 April, 1819. Her father, John 
Grannis, was a member of the Canadian parliament 
at the breaking out of the rebellion of 1837, and 
was obliged to flee to the United States, where he 
afterward held positions of trust. The daughter 
became a school-teacher in Cleveland, and a con- 
tributor to periodicals. She married Oliver Arey 
in 1848, and edited the "Youth's Casket" and the 
" Home Monthly." Her principal work is " House- 
hold Songs and other Poems " (New York, 1854). 

ARGALL, Sir Samuel, English deputy gov- 
ernor of Virginia, b. in Bristol, England, in 1572; 
d. in 1639. He was otie of the early adventurers 
to Virginia, his first public exploit being the ab- 
duction of Pocahontas. By the present of a copper 
kettle, Argall induced the Indian in charge of the 
girl to entice her on board his vessel, hoping to re- 
ceive a large ransom from her father ; but this 
Powhatan refused to give. When Sir Thomas 
Dale was governor of Virginia, in 1613, Argall with 
his sanction commanded an expedition that de- 
stroyed the French settlements of St. Croix and 
Port Royal in Nova Scotia, and that of St. Saviour 
on Mt. Desert island. As deputy governor of Vir- 
ginia from 1617 to 1619 he distinguished himself 
by many acts of tyranny and rapacity, so that he 
was recalled to England in 1619. He had amassed 
a fortune by trading in violation of law, but was 
shielded from punishment by his partner, the earl 
of Warwick. He was hated by the colonists for 
his enactment of severe sumptuary laws, and for 
his arbitrary conduct in general. Argall took part 
in the expedition against the Algerines in 1620, 
was knighted in 1623, and in 1625 joined an expe- 
dition against the Spanish. Purehas gives an ac- 
count of his voyage from Jamestown in 1610, and 
has also preserved his letter, written in 1618, about 
his voyage to Virginia. After the death of Lord 
Delaware, Capt. Argall took charge of his estate, 
and was accused by Lady Delaware, in letters still 
in existence, of the grossest peculation. See 
Beverley's " History of the Present State of Vir- 
ginia " (London, 1705); Abiel Holmes's "Annals 
of America" (Cambridge, 1829); Marshall's " Life 
of Washington " ; Bancroft's " History of the Unit- 
ed States " (New York, 1884) ; and " Virginia Ve- 
tusta " (Albanv, 1885). 

AROENSON D', Pierre de Voyer, viscount, 
French governor of Canada, b. in 1626 ; d. in France 
about 1709. He came of a noble family of Tour- 
aine, and distinguished himself in several military 
engagements. He became governor of Canada on 
27 Jan., I(i57, and held the office until 1661. Un- 
der his administration Canada was not only occu- 
pied in repelling Indian incursions, but was torn 
by internal quarrels. He made some progress, 
however, in discovery in the region on Hudson bay 
and beyond Lake Superior. 

ARGrtJELLO, Luis Antonio, governor of Cali- 
fornia, b. in San Francisco, Cal., in 1784 ; d. there 
in 1830. He was a member of a large and infiuen- 
tial family, was governor of California from No- 
vember, 1822, till November, 1825, and had been 
military officer under the Spanish government. He 
was the first governor under the Mexican rule, and 
the only one under the Mexican empire. He was 
also the first native of California called to serve in 
this capacity. While in office he was led into nu- 
merous dealings with the Russians, who had founded 
a colony in the northern part of the territory, and 




his policy toward them was highly liberal, even dan- 
gerously so. Before he became" governor he had 
acquired some note by an exploring expedition into 
the unknown northern parts of California. — His sis- 
ter, Coiicepcion (b. in San Francisco, Cal., in 1790 ; 
d. in Benecia in 1857), was noted for her romance 
with Rezanof, the first Russian explorer that showed 
definite designs upon any part of California. In 
180G Rezanof, in the interests of the Russian col- 
ony at Sitka, had resolved to open trade with the 
Calitornians, and to establish, if possible, a Russian 
colony in the territory. To further his ends, he 
became betrothed to the young Concepcion, hoping 
for personal aid from the influential Argiiello fam- 
ily. He returned to Russia to get further govern- 
ment approval for his projects, and suddenly died 
while alisent. Concepcion never married, and died, 
a nun, half a century later. Her social position 
gave her story prominence, and it has been used 
by Bret Harte in one of his best-known poems. 

ARIAS, Francisco (xabino, Argentine trav- 
eller, b. in Salto, Buenos Ayres ; d. about 1808. In 
1774, when a colonel in the army, he explored the 
desert known as " Gran Chaco." On 3 June, 1780, 
he undertook an expedition having for its object 
the pacification of the Indians, which lasted until 
31 Jan., 1781, and in 1782 he explored the river 
Bermejo, and proved that it flowed into the Para- 
guay and not into the Parana, as had formerly been 
supposed. He also gave valuable information about 
the navigability of the river and the character of 
the tribes living near it. His narrative of this ex- 
pedition was published by his son, Dr. Jose Anto- 
nio Arias, bv order of the government. 

ARIAS DE BENAVIDES, Pedro (ah -ree-as 
day ben-ah-vee'-des), Spanish physician of the 16th 
century, b. in Toro. He travelled extensively in 
western America, and made curious and interest- 
ing studies about the remedies used by the Indians 
for wounds, ulcers, and some specific diseases. His 
observations were published in Spain under the 
title of " Secretos de chirurgia especial de las enfer- 
medades de morbo gallico y lamparones, y la ma- 
nera como se curan los indios de llagas y heridas, 
con otros secretos hasta agora no escritos." The 
dates of his birth and death are not known. 

ARILLAGA, Basilio Manuel, Mexican scholar, 
b. about 1785 ; d. in August, 1867. Dr. Arillaga 
was probably the most ervulite scholar that Mex- 
ico has ever produced, and at various times had 
under his tutorship the most eminent men of his 
country. In 1865 the Abbe Testory, head chaplain 
of the French forces, wrote a pamphlet in defence 
of the nationalization of church property, in the 
course of which he characterized the Mexican clergy 
as ignorant and corrupt. Dr. Arillaga replied to 
this attack in three pamphlets, which are master- 
pieces of learning, statistics, wit, and sarcasm. Dr. 
Arillaga was superior of the Jesuits in Mexico, and 
rector of the college of San Ildefonso. He was ar- 
rested by the liberal authorities, together with 
Bishop Ormaechea, of Vera Cruz, and thrown into 
the prison of San Ildefonso, where he died. 

ARISMENDI, Juan Bautista, Venezuelan 
general, b. in the island of ^largarita in 1786. He 
was a captain when the revolution broke out. and 
took command of the patriots and drove the Span- 
ish Gen. Morillo from the island after a long con- 
flict. He was one of the leaders that assembled a 
provincial congress at Angostura on 20 July, 1817, 
and put at the head of the government a trium- 
virate of which Bolivar was a member. In 1819 
he assisted Bolivar and Paez to drive Morillo from 
New Granada and from the greater part of Vene- 
zuela. In Bolivar's absence the Angostura congress 


forced Zea, whom he had appointed vice-president, 
to resign, and chose Arismendi in his place. On 
his return Bolivar restored Zea and exiled Aris- 
mendi to Margarita. Notwithstanding this, Aris- 
mendi espoused the cause of Bolivar during the 
insurrection headed by Paez, in 1826, and rendered 
great service to the nation. 

ARISTA, Mariano (ah-rees'-tah), Mexican gen- 
eral, b. in the state of San Luis Potosi, 26 July, 
1802 ; d. on board the English steamer " Tagus " 
going from Lisbon to France, 7 Aug., 1855. Hav- 
ing distinguished himself in the successive wars 
that established first the independence of Mexico 
and afterward the republican form of government, 
he attained a 
high position in 
the Mexican ar- 
my, and in 1836 
was second in 
command to 
Santa Anna, 
then general-in- 
chief. By the 
revolutions that 
continually agi- 
tated Mexico he 
was twice de- 
prived of his 
command ; but 
his military 

knowledge was 
indispensable to 
every dominant 
party, and he 
was quickly re- 
stored and pro- 
moted. In the 
war with the 
United States 
he connnanded 
at Palo Alto 

and Resaca de la Palma; and after its close was 
appointed in June, 1848, minister of war under 
President Herrera. In 1850 he was elected presi- 
dent of Mexico, but he resigned that office 6 
Jan., 1853, and retired to his farm, and was ban- 
ished soon afterward. In 1881 his remains were 
sent home to Mexico. 

ARISTIZABAL, Gabriel de, Spanish admiral, 
b. in Madrid in 1743 ; d. in 1805. In 1795 he con- 
ceived and carried out the idea of transferring to 
Havana the remains of Christopher Columbus, 
which, with those of his son Diego, had been in the 
cathedral of the city of Santo Domingo, in the 
island of Santo Domingo, since 1536. Doubts 
have arisen about the genuineness of these remains 
through the alleged discovery, in 1877, in the same 
cathedral, of what have been claimed to be the true 
remains of Columbus. 

ARMAND, Charles Treiin, Marquis de la Rou- 
aire, Fi-ench soldier, b. in Fouc^eres, France, 14 April, 
1751 ; d. near Lambelle, 30 Jan.. 1793. At an early 
age he entered the Garde du Corps in Paris, but 
fought a duel about an actress, was dismissed 
from the service, and in consequence left France. 
Coming to the American colonies, he volunteered 
in the cause of the revolution, 10 May, 1777, and 
received from congress a commission as colonel 
under the name of Charles Armand. He partici- 
pated in the engagement at Reil Bank, was with 
Lafayette in New Jersey, and was active in West- 
chester CO., N. Y., opposing the forces of Simcoe, 
Emmerick, and Baremore, the latter of whom he 
captured near Kingsbridge, 8 Nov., 1770. The 
following year his corps was incorporated with 




Pulaski's. In 1781, becoming dissatisfied with the 
promotions in the army, and seeing no chance of 
advancement, he returned to France, procured 
clothing and accoutrements from his own means, 
and crossed the Atlantic again in time to partici- 
pate in the victory at Yorktown. March 26, 1783, 
congress conferred on him the rank of brigadier- 
general. He was very severe in his denunciation 
of Gen. Gates on account of the defeat at Cam- 
den. In 1783 he returned to France and became 
an actor in the French revolution, taking part 
with the royalists of La Vendee. Five years later 
he was appointed one of twelve deputies sent to 
Paris by Brittany to demand the preservation of 
the privileges of that province, and in 1791 became 
the leader of a secret organization whose ramifica- 
tions extended throughout Brittany, Anjou, and 
Poitou, its purpose being to act with the army of 
the allies. But the design was betrayed, and he be- 
came a fugitive. From various retreats he directed 
for several months the preparations for revolt, but 
the execution of Louis XVI. gave his system such a 
shock that he rapidly sank under a nervous malady. 
He was urbane and polished in manner, an eloquent 
and persuasive speaker, a gallant leader, and a man 
greatly beloved. 

ARMENDARIZ, Lope Diaz de (arr-men -dah - 
reeth), marquis of Caldereita, 16th Spanish viceroy 
of Mexico. His administration began 16 Sept., 
1635. He promoted public works and organized a 
special fleet to check smuggling. After founding 
the colony of Caldereita in Nuevo Leon, he pro- 
jected other settlements, but was recalled to Spain. 

ARMISTEAD, Georgre, soldier, b. in Newmar- 
ket. Va., 10 April, 1780 ; d. in Baltimore, 25 April, 
1818. The name is derived from Hesse Darm- 
stadt, whence came the ancestor of the family. 
Five brothers took part in the war of 1812 — three in 
the regular army, and two in the militia. George 
was appointed second lieutenant 8 Jan., 1779, pro- 
moted first lieutenant in April, captain 6 Nov., 1806, 
and major of the 3d artillery 3 March, 1813. He 
distinguished himself at the capture of Fort George 
from the British, near the mouth of Niagara river 
in Canada, 27 May, 1813, and was brevetted lieu- 
tenant-colonel for his successful defence of Fort 
McHenry, near Baltimore, against the British fleet, 
under Admiral Cochrane, 14 Sept., 1814. His 
steadfast bravery on this occasion no doubt saved 
Baltimore from capture, and the citizens presented 
him with a handsome service of silver, the centre- 
piece being in the form of a bomb-shell. 

ARMISTEAD, Lewis Addison, soldier, b. in 
Newbern, N. C, 18 Feb., 1817 ; d. at Gettysburg, 
Pa., 3 July, 1863. He was a son of Gen. Walker 
Keith Annistead. He entered West Point in 1834, 
but left it in 1836. He was appointed second lieu- 
tenant in the 6th infantry 10 July, 1839, became 
first lieutenant in March, 1844, and received bre- 
vets for gallantry at Contreras, Churubusco, Molino 
del Rey, and. Chapultepee in 1847, Promoted to be 
captain 3 March, 1855, he rendered good service in 
Indian warfare, but resigned at the beginning of 
the civil war, and with much reluctance entered 
the confederate service, receiving a brigadier-gen- 
eral's commission in 1862. He was wounded at 
Antietam, 17 Sept. of that year. At Gettysburg 
he was one of the few in Pickett's division who 
nearly reached the federal lines in the desperate 
charge made on the third day, was mortally wound- 
ed, and died a prisoner. 

ARMISTEAD, Walker Keith, soldier, brother 
of George, b. in Virginia about 1785 ; d. in Upper- 
ville, Va., 13 Oct., 1845. Ilis name stands third on 
the consecutively numbered list of West Point 

graduates, and at the head of the class of 1803, 
the second class that was graduated. This of itself 
was no especial distinction, since there were only 
three men in the class, but Annistead proved him- 
self an excellent engineer, and superintended the 
defences of Norfolk, Va., in 1808-11. At this time 
he ranked as captain, and was promoted to be major 
of engineers 10 July, 1810. In 1811 he was on duty 
ai, the military academy. During the war of 1812 
he was chief engineer, with the rank of lieutenant- 
colonel of the army on the Niagara frontier. He 
was superintendent of the defences of Norfolk and 
the Chesapeake in 1813-'18, when he was pro- 
moted to be colonel of engineers and chief engineer 
of the army, Nov. 18. In the reorganization of the 
army, 1 June, 1821, he became colonel of the 3d ar- 
tillery, and, remaining in that grade for ten years, 
was brevetted brigadier. He served in the Flor- 
ida war, and was appointed on various important 
boards and commissions, and in command of the 
3d artillery at Fort Moultrie, S. C, in 1844, when 
he was granted sick leave, from which he was never 
able to return to duty. 

ARMITACtE, Tltbiuas, clergyman, b. in Ponte- 
fract, England, 2 Aug., 1819; d.'in Yonkers, N. Y., 
20 Jan., 1896. Coming to New York in 1838, he 
entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal 
church. In 1848 he embraced the doctrine of the 
Baptist church, and as a pastor in New York at- 
tained prominence as one of the leading writers 
and pulpit orators of that denomination. He in- 
terested himself in the movement for Bible revision, 
especially in regard to what he believed to be the 
correct translation of the Greek word for baptism, 
and was one of the founders in 1850 of the Ameri- 
can Bible Union, of which society he afterward 
became president. After 1848 he was the pastor 
of the Fifth avenue Baptist church. New York city. 
He published " Lectures on Preaching, its Ideal 
and Inner Life" (Philadelphia, 1880), and '"A His- 
tory of the Baptists " (New York, 1886). 

ARMITAGE, William Edmond, bishop of 
the Protestant Episcopal diocese of Wisconsin, b. 
in New York city, 6 Sept., 1830 ; d. in St. Luke's 
Hospital, New York, 7 Dec, 1873. He was gradu- 
ated at Columbia college in 1849, studied in the 
General Theological Seminary, was ordained in 
1852, spent seven years of his ministry in New 
Hampshire and Augusta, Me., then became rec- 
tor of St. John's church, Detroit. In 1866 he went 
to the Holy Land, and during his absence was 
elected assistant bishop of Wisconsin, receiving 
consecration to the office 6 Dec, 1866, soon after 
his return. He took up his residence in Milwaukee, 
and began the necessary steps for the founding of 
a cathedral chapter. The death of the venerable 
Bishop Kemper in May, 1870, caused his elevation to 
the vacant see. A tumor at the base of the spinal 
column gave him much suffering during the latter 
years of his life, and in 1873 he went to St. Luke's 
hospital. New York, for relief. An examination by 
eminent surgeons caused them to inform him that 
it was impossible for him to survive more than a 
week without an operation, and at the same time 
they told him that if it should prove unsuccessful, 
his system would receive such a shock that he would 
not probably live more than a few hours. The opera- 
tion was performed on Fridav, and he lived till 3 
A. 31. of Sunday. 

ARMSBY, James Harris, phvsician, b. in 
Sutton, Mass., 31 Dec, 1809 ; d. in Albany, N. Y., 
3 Dec, 1875. His early years were spent on his fa- 
ther's farm and in the common school, with a short 
time in the Worcester and Monson academies. He 
studied with Dr. Alden March in Albany, and was 




graduated in 1833 at the Vermont academy of 
medicine. He tauglit for a year in a private medi- 
cal school, and from 1834 to 1840 was professor of 
anatomy and physiology in the Vermont academy 
of medicine. He conceived the idea of founding a 
university in Albany, raised $10,000 for the object, 
and delivered in that city the first American course 
of medical lectures illustrated with dissections of 
the human body. He made two visits to Europe, 
one in 1839 and one in 1845, for the purpose of in- 
specting the principal schools of the old world, and 
went to Naples in 1861 as U. S. consul. He was 
one of the originators of the Young Men's Christian 
association, and was also instrumental in founding 
the Dudley observatory. 

ARMSTRONG, David Hartley, senator, b. in 
Nova Scotia. 21 Oct., 1812 ; d. in St. Louis, Mo., 18 
March, 1893. He received an academic education, 
and, having removed to St. Louis, Mo., 16 Sept., 
1837, opened and taught the first public school in 
the state, 1 April, 1838. He was comptroller of St. 
Louis from 1847 to 1850, and member of the board 
of police commissioners from 1873 to 1875 and 
again in 1877, serving as its vice-president and fill- 
ing other local offices. He was chosen U. S. sena- 
tor from Missouri as a democrat in October, 1877, 
to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Lewis 
V. Bogy, and served until 1879. 

ARMSTRONG, David Maitland, artist, b. in 
Newburg, N. Y., about 1837. He was graduated 
at Trinity college, Hartford, in 1858, studied law 
in New York, and practised that profession for 
a short time. It soon became evident to him that 
his choice of the law was a mistake, and he turned 
his attention to art. He studied in Rome and 
Paris under the best teachers, and divided his 
time mainly between Italy and New York. For 
four years he was U. S. consul-general for Italy, resi- 
dent at Rome, and was director of the American 
art department at the Paris exposition of 1878, when 
he received the decoration of the legion of honor. 

ARMSTRONG}, fieorsre Dodd, author, b. in 
Mendham, N. J., 15 Sept., 1813 ; d. in Norfolk, Va., 
12 May, 1899. He was graduated at Princeton in 
1832, was a teacher, and then entered the union 
theological seminary, Prince Edward co., Va. Two 
years later he became professor of chemistry and 
"mechanics in Washington college, now Washington 
and Lee university, Lexington. In 1851 he re- 
signed his professorship and took pastoral charge 
of a church in Norfolk. The degree of S. T. D. 
was conferred on him by the college of William 
and Mary in 1854. He has contributed from an 
early age to periodicals, and published "The Chris- 
tian Doctrine of Slavery " (New York, 1857) ; 
*' Scriptural Examination of the Doctrine of Bap- 
tism,'' and "The Theology of Christian Experi- 
ence " (1857) ; " The Summer of the Pestilence : a 
History of the Ravages of the Yellow Fever in 
Norfolk, Va., in 1855 '* (Philadelphia, 1857) : " Sac- 
raments of the New Testament " (1880); and "The 
Books of Nature and Revelation collated" (1886). 

ARMSTRON(t}, James, naval officer, b. in Shel- 
byville, Ky., 17 Jan., 1794; d. 27 Aug., 1868. He 
joined the navy as midshipman in 1809, and was 
assigned to the sloop of war " Frolic," which was 
captured by the British 20 April, 1814, her guns 
having been thrown overboard during the chase in 
the hope of escaping from a superior enemy. He 
rose by the regular steps of promotion to be a 
captain in 1841. He commanded the East India 
squadron in 1855, and assisted at the capture of the 
barrier torts near Canton, China, in 1857. He was 
in command of the navy-yard at Pensacola, Fla.. 
when that state seceded in 1861, and surrendered 

without resistance when a greatly superior military 
force demanded possession. In 1866 he was pro- 
moted to be commodore. 

ARMSTRONG, James, soldier, b. in Pennsyl- 
vania in the early part of the 18th century; d. 
in Carlisle, Pa.. 3 March, 1795. Of his_ early life 
little is known. He served as a colonel in the suc- 
cessful defence of Fort Moultrie, Charleston har- 
bor, in the summer of 1776, and commanded the 
Pennsylvania militia in the defence of German- 
town in October. 1777. He was a member of con- 
gress from 2 Dec, 1793, till the day of his death. 

ARMSTRONG, James, Canadian jurist, b. in 
Berthier, province of Quebec, 27 April, 1821. He 
was called to the bar in 1844, became queen's coun- 
sel in 1867, was nominated crown prosecutor for the 
district of Richelieu in 1864, and was appointed 
chief justice of St. Lucia, West Indies, by the im- 
perial government in 1871. Subsequently he was 
appointed chief justice of Tobago, West Indies, 
which office he held conjointly with the chief jus- 
ticeship of St. Lucia until his resignation in 1882. 
St. Lucia was one of the French colonies acquired 
by Great Britain by conquest in 1795, and the 
French laws were allowed to remain in force. 
Some unimportant changes were afterward made, 
but as far back as 1845 the chief justice made a re- 
port upon the laws, in which he said that no one 
knew what the law of the colony really was. Such 
was the state of the law when Mr. Armstrong be- 
came judge, partly owing to the appointment of 
judges who knew nothing of French jurisprudence, 
and particularly of that of ante-revolutionary 
France. The criminal law of France before the 
revolution was in force in St. Lucia for many years, 
portions of the English law being from time to 
time introduced. Chief justice Armstrong con- 
vinced the imperial government of the absolute 
necessity of introducing the English criminal law 
into the colony, subject to the enactments of the 
colonial legislature. A code of civil law, based in 
great measure upon the civil code of Quebec, was 
compiled by Mr. Armstrong and the governor of 
St. Lucia. Mr. Armstrong afterward prepared a 
code of civil procedure, which the legislature 
adopted, and passed resolutions thanking him for 
his labors. He was created a companion of the 
order of St. Michael and St. George in 1857. He 
is the author of a treatise on the law of marriage 
in the province of Quebec, written before the civil 
code came into force, and a treatise on the laws of 
intestacy in the different provinces and northwest 
territories of the dominion (1886). He is president 
of the Montreal and Sorel railway. 

ARMSTRONG, James F., naval officer, b. in 
New Jersey. 20 Nov., 1817 ; d. in New Haven, Conn., 
19 April, 1873. He was appointed midshipman 
from Connecticut in 1832. His first service was on 
the sailing frigate " Delaware " in the Mediterra- 
nean, whence he was transferred to the sloop " Bos- 
ton" in the West India squadron, in 1837. He 
became passed midshipman 23 June, 1838, and lieu- 
tenant 8 Dec, 1842, and in this grade was alter- 
nately on sea and shore duty until the civil war, 
when he was placed in command of the steamer 
" Sumpter " on the blockading squadron. As com- 
mander, dating from 27 April, 1861, he continued 
on the blockading service, took part in the capture 
of Fort Macon, 25 April, 1862. and was subse- 
quently commissioned captain 16 July, 1862. His 
last cruise was in 1864, after which he was on the 
reserve list until 1871, when he was reinstated and 
was detailed for shore duty on the Pacific coast. 

ARMSTRONG, John, soldier, b. in the north of 
Ireland in 1725 ; d. in Carlisle, Pa., 9 March, 1795, 




He served with distinction in tlie war with France 
in 1755-'6, commandintf an cxiu'dition a,i,^aiiist the 
Indians at Kittannin,i,^ destroy ini;- thfir .settlement 
and taking the stores sent to them by the French. 
For this service the corporation of Philadelphia 
gave him a vote of thanks, a medal, and a piece of 
plate. He was commissioned as a brigadier-general 
in the continental army 1 March, 1776, served at 
Fort Moultrie, and commanded the Pennsylvania 
militia at the battles of Brandywine and German- 
town, but left the army 4 April, 1777, on account 
of dissatisfaction in regard to rank. He was sent 
to congress in 1778-'80, and again in 1787-'8, and 
held many local public offices. — His youngest 
son, John, soldier, b. in Carlisle, Pa., 25 Nov., 
1758; d. in Red Hook, N. Y., 1 April, 1843. 
He served in the war of the revolution, en- 
listing in 1775 while yet a student at Princeton. 
His first training was in the Potter Pennsylvania 
regiment, from which he went as aide-de-camp 
to Gen. Mercer, whom, when fatally wounded, he 
carried in his arms from the Princeton battle- 
field. He then became an aide on the staff of Gen. 
Gates, and served with him through the campaign 
against Burgoyne, which closed at Saratoga. In 
1780 he received the appointment of adjutant-gen- 
eral of the southern army, but, in consequence of 
illness, retired before the battle of Camden. He 
afterward resumed his place on Gen. Gates's staff, 
with the rank of major, which he held until the 
close of the war. While in camp at Newburg, N. 
Y., 10 March, 1783, he wrote the first of the two 
celebrated " Newburg Letters." The communica- 
tion, which was anonymous, set forth the services 
and destitution of the soldiers, and called a meet- 
ing of the officers of the army for the considera- 
tion of measures to redress the army grievances, 
being intended to arouse congress to a sense of jus- 
tice to the army then about to be disbanded. Wash- 
ington, who was in camp at the time, met the in- 
flammatory document by issuing general orders 
forbidding the meeting, when suddenly the second 
address appeared. This also was anonymous, but 
Washington overruled the threatened embarrass- 
ment by attending the meeting in person. He 
shrewdly quieted Gates by making him chair- 
man, and then rallied his faithful brother officers 
to his support. In calm and dignified tones he 
answered the argument of the "anonymous ad- 
dresser," but intimated that he " was an insidious 
foe, some emissary perhaps from New York, sow- 
ing the seeds of discord and separation between 
the civil and military powers of the continent." At 
the time of making this address Washington did 
not know the anonymous author, but a private 
letter afterward written by him expressed his con- 
fidence in the good motives that had dictated the 
letters, "though the means suggested were cer- 
tainly liable to much misunderstanding and abuse." 
The " addresses " were pointed and vigorous, writ- 
ten in pure English, and for the purpose for which 
they were designed — a direct appeal to feeling 
^they showed the hand of a master. After the 
war, Maj. Armstrong was made secretary of state, 
and also adjutant-general of Pennsylvania, under 
Dickenson and Franklin. In 1787 he was sent as 
member to the old congress, and was also appointed 
one of the judges for the western territory, but the 
latter honor was declined, as well as all other pub- 
lic offices, for a period of about eleven years. In 
1789 he married a sister of Chancellor Livingston, 
and, purchasing a farm in New York, devoted him- 
self to agriculture. He was a U. S. senator in 
1800-'2, and again in 1803-4. In 1804-'10 he was 
minister to France, and filled the position with 

distinguished ability, also acting after 1806 as 
minister to Spain. The commission of briga- 
dier-general was conferred on him 6 July, 1813, 
and he was assigned to the district including the 
city and harbor of New York. In 1813-'14 he was 
secretary of war, and effected many salutary changes 
in the army. But his lack of success in the opera- 
tions against Canada, and the sack of Washington 
city by the British in August, 1814, rendered him 
unpopular. He was censured, and obliged to resign 
in September, 1814. In his subsequent retirement 
at Red Hook, N. Y., he prepared and published the 
following works: "Notices of the War of 1812" 
(New York, 1836; new ed., 1840); "Memoirs of 
Gens. Montgomery and Wayne " ; " Treatise on Ag- 
riculture " ; " Treatise on Gardening " ; and a 
" Review of Gen. Wilkinson's Memoirs." He also 
partially prepared a "Notices of the American 
Revolution," and several biographical notices. — His 
son, Heury Beekman, soldier, b. in New York 
city, 9 May, 1791 ; d. in Red Hook, N. Y., 10 Nov., 
1884. His early years were spent in France, where 
his father was American minister to the court of the 
first Napoleon, and his education was received at a 
French military school, where he went bare-headed 
for years, hats of all kinds being considered effemi- 
nate. Before leaving France, in 1811, young Arm- 
strong frequently saw Napoleon and many of his 
marshals. At the beginning of the second war 
with Great Britain in 1812, he entered the army as 
captain in the 13th infantry, and served through- 
out the war with great gallantry and distinction. 
He was severely wounded at the assault upon 
Queenstown heights, 13 Oct., 1812, and shared in 
the capture of Fort George, 27 May, 1813, the battle 
of Stony Creek, 5 June, 1813, and the sortie from 
Fort Erie, 15 Aug., 1814. On the return of peace 
in 1815 he retired from the army with the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel of the 1st regiment of rifles. 
For nearly seventy years Col. Armstrong lived the 
life of a country gentleman on his estate on the 
banks of the Hudson. His mind was richly stored 
with reminiscences of the many eminent persons 
whom he had met during his long life. 

ARMSTRONG, Moses Kimball, politician, b. 
in Milan, Ohio, 19 Sept., 1832. He was educated 
at Huron institute and Western Reserve college, 
Ohio, went to Minnesota in 1856, was elected sur- 
veyor of Mower county, and in 1858 was appointed 
surveyor of U. S. lands. On the admission of 
Minnesota as a state he removed to Yankton, then 
an Indian village on the Missouri river ; and, on 
the organization of Dakota in 1861, he was elected 
to the legislature of the territory, being reelected 
in 1861 and 1862, and acting the last year as speaker. 
He became editor of the " Dakota Union " in 1864, 
was elected territorial treasurer, appointed clerk 
of the supreme court in 1865, elected to the terri- 
torial senate in 1866, and in 1867 was chosen its 
president, publishing the same year his history of 
Dakota. He acted as secretary of the peace com- 
mission to the Sioux ; was employed from 1866 to 
1869 in establishing the great meridian and stand- 
ard lines for U. S. surveys in southern Dakota and 
the northern Red river valley, detecting the errors 
of locating the international boundary-line near 
Pembina since 1823 ; in 1869 was elected again to 
the territorial senate. In 1872 he was chosen presi- 
dent of the flrst national bank of the territory, 
and he was elected to the 42d and 43d congresses, 
as a democrat. He established the first democratic 
newspaper in the territory. 

ARMSTRONG, Richard, British soldier, b. 
about the middle of the 18th century; d. about 
1833. He entered the Queen's rangers as cap- 




tain, afterward became niajor, and at all times 
showed the greatest efficiency as a partisan officer 
on the royalist side during the war of the revo- 
lution. In 1783 he was appointed with Capt. Saun- 
ders to prepare a parting address for Col. John 
Gr. Simcoe, the intrepid leader of the rangers. He 
was advanced, 26 Jan., 1797, to a colonelcy ; 25 Sept., 
1803, to a major-generalship ; and 25 Oct., 1809, to 
a lieutenant-generalship. 

ARMSTRONGr, Richard, missionary, b. in 
Northumberland co.. Pa., 19 Sept., 1805; d. in 
Honolulu. Sandwich islands, 23 Sept., 1860. He was 
graduated at Dickinson college, Pa., and, after a 
course of theology in Princeton seminary, went in 
1832 to the Sandwich islands. For eight months 
he was in charge of the mission at Nukahiva, in the 
Marquesas gi'oup; then went to Walluka, whence 
after five years he returned to Honolulu to take 
the station made vacant by the return of Mr. Bing- 
ham to the United States. In December, 1847, the 
king made him minister of instruction and presi- 
dent of the board of education, and he was also 
appointed to a seat in the house of nobles, and to 
a membership in the privy council. His death was 
caused bv the kick of a vicious horse. 

ARMSTRONG, Robert, soldier, b. in east 
Tennessee in 1790 ; d. in Washington, D. C, 23 
Feb., 1854. He connnanded a company of Tennes- 
see artillery under Jackson in the Creek war of 
1813-'14 with distinguished bravery. At the battle 
of Talladega, Ala., 24 Jan., 1814, he was danger- 
ously wounded, but recovered, and again distin- 
guished himself at the battle of New Orleans, and 
in 1836, as brigadier-general, commanded the Ten- 
nessee mounted volunteers at the battle of Wahoo 
swamp. He was postmaster at Nashville from 
1829 to 1845, when he was sent as consul to Liver- 
pool, remaining until 1852. He subsequently became 
the proprietor and editor of the " Washington 
Union," and was the confidential adviser of Mr. 
Polk during his presidency. Gen. Jackson be- 
queathed to him his sword. 

ARMSTRONGr, Samuel Tiirell, governor of 
Massachusetts, b. in Dorchester, Mass., 29 April, 
1784; d. in Boston, 26 March, 1850. He was a book- 
seller in Boston, and among other works published 
a stereotype edition of Scott's family Bible, which 
was widely circulated. He became mayor of Bos- 
ton and lieutenant-governor of Massachusetts, and 
in 1835 the election of Gov. Davis to the U. S. sen- 
ate made him acting governor for the remainder 
of the term. He made a fortune in his business, 
and, as he had no children, it was reported that he 
intended to leave large amounts to charitable insti- 
tutions ; but if so, his designs were frustrated by his 
sudden death. Gov. Armstrong served in the state 
house of rcpi'cseutatives, and in the senate in 1839. 

ARMSTRONU, WiUiam Jessup, clergyman, 
b. in Mendliam, N. J., 29 Oct., 1796; lost at sea, 
27 Nov., 1846. He was graduated at Princeton in 
1816, and studied in the theological school (Presby- 
terian) of that college. He was licensed to preach 
in 1818, and went to Albemarle co., Va., as a mis- 
sionary, but returned to Trenton to take charge of 
a congregation. Here he remained three years, and 
then accepted an invitation from the first Presby- 
terian church in Richmond, Va., where he remained 
until 1834. He then became secretary of the Pres- 
byterian board of foreign missions for Virginia and 
North Carolina, and at the same time agent for the 
American board ot commissioners for foreign mis- 
sions for the same district. In September of the same 
year he became secretary to the last-named society. 
After a residence of two years and a half in Boston, 
he removed to New York. In 1840 he received the 

degree of S. T. D. from Princeton. He was lost in 
the wreck of the steamer "Atlantic." A memoir by 
Henry Read, with a selection of Dr. Armstrong's 
sermons, was published in 1853. 

ARNOLD, Aaron, merchant, b. in the Isle of 
Wight in 1794 ; d. in New York city, 18 March, 
1876. He was the son of a farmer, but early 
showed a fondness for mercantile pursuits, and in 
1823 emigrated to Philadelphia, where he lived for 
three years, studying carefully the comparative 
business advantages of the different cities of the 
country. He finally selected New York as the 
most desirable place, and with his nephew, George 
A. Hearn, established there, in 1827, a wholesale 
and retail dry-goods store, under the firm name of 
Arnold & Hearn. In 1842 Mr. Hearn was stic- 
ceeded by Mr. Arnold's son-in-law, James M. Con- 
stable, and the name of the firm was changed to 
Aaron Arnold & Co. In 1853 Mr. Arnold's son 
Richard and J. P. Baker were admitted to the firm, 
which then became known by its present title, 
Arnold, Constable & Co. In 1869 Mr. Arnold left 
the active management of the btisiness, and for 
some time before his death was confined to his 
house. His success is ascribed, by those who 
knew him well, to his sterling honesty, his saga- 
city, and his steadfast adherence to his friends. 

ARNOLD, Albert Nicholas, clergyman, b. in 
Cranston, R I., 12 Feb., 1814; d. in Cranston, R. I., 
11 Oct., 1883. He was graduated at Brown in 1838, 
studied at Newton theological seminary, and on 
14 Sept., 1841, was ordained pastor of the Bap- 
tist church at Newburyport, Mass. From 1844 
to 1854 he was a missionary to Greece, from 1855 
to 1857 he was professor of church history at 
Newton seminary, and in 1858 he became pastor at 
Westborough, Mass., where he remained until 1864. 
He was then chosen professor of biblical interpre- 
tation and pastoral theology in the Baptist semi- 
nary at Hamilton, N. Y., and from 1869 to 1873 
held the professorship of New Testament Greek in 
Baptist theological seminary at Chicago. Dr. Ar- 
nold published, in 1860, " Prerequisites to Commun- 
ion," and in 1871 "One Woman's Mission." 

ARNOLD, Benedict, governor of Rhode Island, 
b. in England, 21 Dec, 1615 ; d. 20 June, 1678. 
He lived for some time in Providence, and in 1637 
was one of thirteen who signed a compact agreeing 
to subject themselves to any agreements made by a 
majority of the masters of families. In 1645 his 
knowledge of the native tongues gained him the 
office of messenger to negotiate with the Indians, 
and on one occasion they accused him of misrepre- 
sentation. In 1653 he moved to Newport, and in 
1654 was elected assistant for that town. In 1657 
he was one of the purchasers of the island of Con- 
anicut. On 19 May, 1657, Roger Williams having 
retired from the presidency of the colony, Arnold 
was elected to the office, and he was again assist- 
ant in 1660. On 22 May, 1662, he was again 
elected president, and under the royal charter 
given in 1663 he was the first governor of the col- 
ony. To this office he was reelected in May, 1664, 
and in 1669, 1677, and 1678. Gov. Arnold was in- 
striimental in bringing about the reconciliation and 
union of the two colonies of Rhode Island and 
Providence plantations. 

ARNOLD, Benedict, soldier, b. in Norwich, 
Conn., 14 Jan., 1741 ; d. in London, England, 14 
June, 1801. His ancestor, William Arnold (b. in 
Leamington, Warwickshire, in 1587), came to Prov- 
idence in 1636, and was associated with Roger 
Williams as one of the fifty-four proprietors in the 
first settlement of Rhode island. His son Bene- 
dict moved to Newport, and was governor of the 




colony from 1G63 to 1G66, 1069 to 1672, 1677 to 
1678, when he died. His son Benedict was a mem- 
ber of the assembly in 1695. His son Benedict, 
third of that name, moved to Norwich in 1730 ; 
was cooper, ship-owner, and sea-captain, town sur- 
veyor, collector, assessor, and selectman. He mar- 
ried, 8 Nov., 1783, Hannah, daughter of John Wa- 
terman, widow of Absalom King. 01 their six 
ehihlren, only Benedict and Hannah lived to grow 
up. Benedict received a respectable school educa- 
tion, including some knowledge of Latin. He was 
romantic and adventurous, excessively proud and 
sensitive, governed rather by impulse than by 
principle. He was noted for physical strength and 
beauty, as well as for bravery. He possessed im- 
mense capacity both for good and for evil, and cir- 
cumstances developed him in both directions. At 
the age of fifteen he ran away from home and en- 
listed in the Connecticut army, marching to Albany 
and Lake George to resist the French invasion ; 
but, getting weary of discipline, he deserted and 
made his way home alone through the wilderness. 
He was employed in 
a drug shop at Nor- 
wich until 1763, when 
he removed to New 
Haven and established 
himself in business as 
druggist and book- 
seller, lie acquired 
a considerable prop- 
erty, and engaged in 
the West India trade, 
sometimes command- 
ing his own ships, as 
his father had done. 
He also carried on 
trade with Canada, 
and often visited Que- 
bec. On 22 Feb., 1767, 
he married Margaret, 
daughter of Samuel 
Mansfield. They had three sons, Benedict, Richard, 
and Henry. She died 19 June, 1775. On one of 
his voyages, being at Honduras, he fought a duel 
with a British sea-captain who called him a " d — d 
Yankee " ; the captain was wounded and apolo- 
gized. He occasionally visited England. At noon 
of 20 April, 1775, the news of the battle of Lexing- 
ton reached New Haven, and Arnold, who was cap- 
tain of the governor's guards, about 60 in number, 
assembled them on the college green and offered 
to lead them to Boston. Gen. Wooster thought he 
had better wait for regular orders, and the select- 
men refused to supply ammunition ; but, upon Ar- 
nold's threatening to break into the magazine, the 
selectmen yielded and furnished the ammunition, 
and the company marched to Cambridge. Arnold 
immediately proposed the capture of Ticonderoga 
and Crown Point, and the plan was approved by 
Dr. Warren, chairman of the committee of safety. 
Arnold was commissioned as colonel by the pro- 
vincial congress of Massachusetts, and directed to 
raise 400 men in the western counties and surprise 
the forts. The same scheme had been entertained 
in Connecticut, and troops from that colony and 
from Berkshire, with a number of " Green moun- 
tain boys," had already started for the lakes under 
command of Ethan Allen. On meeting them Ar- 
nold claimed the command, but when it was re- 
fused he joined the expedition as a volunteer and 
entered Ticonderoga side by side with Allen. A 
few days later Arnold captured St. John's. Massa- 
chusetts asked Connecticut to put him in command 
of these posts, but Connecticut preferred Allen. 

<:^<^, c-=''7>7'Z.£7't<Z^ 

Arnold returned to Cambridge early in July, pro- 
posed to Washington the expedition against Que- 
bec by way of the Kennebec and Chaudiere rivers, 
and was placed in command of 1,100 men and 
started from Cambridge 11 Sept. The enterprise, 
which was as difficult and dangerous as Hannibal's 
crossing of the Alps, was conducted with consum- 
mate ability, but was nearly ruined by the miscon- 
duct of Col. Enos, who deserted and returned to 
Massachusetts with 200 men and the greater part 
of the provisions. After frightful hardships, to 
which 200 more men succumbed, on 13 Nov., the 
little army climbed the heights of Abraham. As 
Arnold's force was insufficient to storm the city, 
and the garrison would not come out to fight, he 
was obliged to await the arrival of Montgomery, 
who had just taken Montreal. In the great assault 
of 31 Dec, in which Montgomery was slain, Arnold 
received a wound in the leg. For his gallantry he 
was now made brigadier-general. He kept up the 
siege of Quebec till the following April, when 
Wooster arrived and took command. Arnold was 
put in command of Montreal. The British, being 
now heavily reenforced, were able to drive the 
Americans from Canada, and early in June Arnold 
effected a junction with Gates at Ticonderoga. 
During the summer he was busily occupied in 
building a fleet with which to oppose and delay 
the advance of the British up Lake Champlain. 
On 11 Oct. he fought a terrible naval battle near 
Valeour island, in which he was defeated by the 
overwhelming superiority of the enemy in number 
of ships and men ; but he brought away part 
of his flotilla and all his surviving troops in safety 
to Ticonderoga, and his resistance had been so ob- 
stinate that it discouraged Gen. Carleton, who re- 
tired to Montreal for the winter. This relief of 
Ticonderoga made it possible to send 3,000 men 
from the northern army to the aid of Washington, 
and thus enabled that commander to strike his 
great blows at Trenton and Princeton. 

Among Allen's men concerned in the capture of 
Ticonderoga in the preceding year was Lieut. John 
Brown, of Pittsfleld, who on that occasion had 
some difficulty with Arnold. Brown now brought 
charges against Arnold of malfeasance while in 
command at Montreal, with reference to exactions 
of private property for the use of the army. The 
charges were investigated by the board of war, 
which pronounced them " cruel and groundless " 
and entirely exonerated Arnold, and the report 
was confirmed by congress. Nevertheless, a party 
hostile to Arnold had begun to grow up in that 
body. Gates had already begun to intrigue against 
Schuyler, and Charles Lee had done his best to ruin 
Washington. The cabal or faction that afterward 
took its name from Conway was already forming. 
Arnold was conspicuous as an intimate friend of 
Schuyler and Washington, and their enemies be- 
gan by striking at him. This petty persecution of 
the commander-in-chief by slighting and insulting 
his favorite officers was kept up until the last year 
of the war, and such men as Greene, Morgan, and 
Stark were almost driven from the service by it. 
On 19 Feb., 1777, congress appointed five new 
major-generals — Stirling, Mifflin, St. Clair, Stephen, 
and Lincoln— thus passing over Arnold, who was 
the senior brigadier. None of these officers had 
rendered servictes at all comparable to his, and, com- 
ing as it did so soon after his heroic conduct on 
Lake Champlain, this action of congress naturally 
incensed him. He behaved very well, however, and 
expressed his willingness to serve under the men 
lately his juniors, while at the same time he re- 
quested congress to restore him to his relative rank. 




The last week in April 2,000 British troops under 
Gov. Tryon invaded Connecticut and destroyed 
the military stores at Danbury. They were opposed 
by Wooster with 600 men, and a skirmish ensued, 
in which that general was slain. By this time 
Arnold, who was at New Haven, on a visit to his 
family, arrived on the scene with several hundred 
militia, and there was a desperate fight at Ridge- 
field, in which Arnold had two horses shot from un- 
der him. The British were driven to their ships, 
and narrowly escaped capture. Arnold was now pro- 
moted to the rank of major-general and presented 
by congress with a fine horse, but his relative rank 
was not restored. While he was at Philadelphia 
inquiring into the reasons for the injustice that had 
been done him, the country was thrown into con- 
sternation by the news of Burgoyne's advance and 
the fall of Ticonderoga. At Washington's sug- 
gestion, Arnold again joined the northern army, 
and by a brilliant stratagem dispersed the army of 
St. Leger, which, in cooperation with Burgoyne, 
was coming down the Mohawk valley, and had laid 
siege to Fort Stanwix. After Schuyler had been 
superseded by Gates, Arnold was placed in com- 
mand of the left wing of the army on Bemis 
heights. In the battle of 19 Sept., at Freeman's 
farm, he frustrated Burgoyne's attempt to turn the 
American left, and held the enemy at bay till night- 
fall. If properly reenforced by Gates, he would 
probably have inflicted a crushing defeat upon Bur- 
goyne. But Gates, who had already begun to dis- 
like him as a friend of Schuyler," was enraged by 
his criticisms on the battle of Freeman's farm, and 
sought to wreak his spite by withdrawing from his 
division some of its best troops. This gave rise to 
a fierce quarrel. Arnold asked permission to return 
to Philadelphia, and Gates granted it. But many 
officers, knowing that a decisive battle was immi- 
nent, and feeling no confidence in Gates, entreated 
Arnold to remain, and he did so. Gates issued no 
order directly superseding him, but took command 
of the left wing in person, giving the right wing 
to Lincoln. At the critical moment of the decisive 
battle of 70ct., Arnold rushed upon the field with- 
out orders, and in a series of magnificent charges 
broke through the British lines and put them to 
flight. The'credit of this great victory, which se- 
cured for us the alliance with France, is due chiefly 
to Arnold, and in a less degree to Morgan. Gates 
was not on the field, and deserves no credit what- 
ever. Just at the close of the battle Arnold was 
severely wounded in the leg that had been hurt at 
Quebec. He was carried on a litter to Albany, and 
remained there disabled until spring. On 20 Jan., 
1778, he received from congress an antedated com- 
mission restoring him to his original seniority in the 
army. On 19 June, as he was still too lame for field 
service, Washington put him in command of Phila- 
delphia, which the British had just evacuated. The 
tory sentiment in that city was strong, and had 
been strengthened by disgust at the alliance with 
France, a feeling which Arnold seems to have 
shared. He soon became engaged to a tory lady, 
Margaret, daughter of Edward Shippen, afterward 
chief justice of Pennsylvania. She was celebrated 
for her beauty, wit, and nobility of character. Dur- 
ing the next two years Arnold associated much with 
the tories, and his views of public affairs were no 
doubt influenced by this association. He lived ex- 
travagantly, and became involved in debt. He got 
into quarrels with many persons, especially with 
Joseph Reed, president of the executive council of 
the state. These troubles wrought upon him until 
he made up his mind to resign his commission, ob- 
tain a grant of land in central New York, settle it 

with some of his old soldiers, and end his days in 
rural seclusion. His request was favorably enter- 
tained by the New York legislature, but a long list 
of charges now brought against him by Reed drove 
the scheme from his mind. The charges were in- 
vestigated by a committee of congress, and on all 
those that affected his integrity he was acquitted. 
Two charges — first, of having once in a hurry grant- 
ed a pass in which some due forms were overlooked, 
and, secondly, of having once used some public 
wagons, which were standing idle, for saving private 
property in danger from the enemy — were proved 
against him ; but the committee thought these 
things too trivial to notice, and recommended au 
unqualified verdict of acquittal. Arnold then, 
considering himself vindicated, resigned his com- 
mand of Philadelphia. But as Reed now repre- 
sented that further evidence was forthcoming, con- 
gress referred the matter to another committee, 
which shirked the responsibility through fear of 
offending Pennsylvania, and handed the affair 
over to a court-martial. Arnold clamored for a 
speedy trial, but Reed succeeded in delaying it 
several months under pretence of collecting evi- 
dence. On 2(j Jan., 1780, the court-martial ren- 
dered its verdict, which agreed in every particular 
with that of the committee of congress; but for 

the two trivial charges proved against Arnold, it was 
decided that he should receive a reprimand from 
the commander-in-chief. Washington, who con- 
sidered Arnold the victim of persecution, couched 
the reprimand in such terms as to convert it into 
eulogy, and soon afterward offered Arnold the 
highest command under himself in the northern 
army for the next campaign. But Arnold in an 
evil "hour had allowed himself to be persuaded into 
the course that has blackened his name forever. 
Three years had elapsed since Saratoga, and the 
fortunes of the Americans, instead of improving, 
had grown worse and worse. France had as yet 
done but little for us. our southern army had been 
annihilated, our paper money had become worth- 
less, our credit abroad had hardly begun to exist. 
Even Washington wrote that " he had almost ceased 
to hope." The army, clad in rags, half-starved and 
unpaid, was nearly ripe for the mutniy that broke 
out a few months later, and desertions to the Brit- 
ish lines averaged more than 100 a month. The 
spirit of desertion now seized upon Arnold, with 
whom the British commander had for some time 
tampered through the mediation of John Andr6 and 
an American lovalist, Beverley Robinson. Stung 
by the injustice' he had suffered, and influenced by 
his tory surroundings, Arnold made up his mind 
to play a part like that which Gen. Monk had 
played" in the restoration of Charles II. to the Brit- 
ish throne. By putting the British in possession 
of the Hudson river, he would give them all that 
they had sought to obtain by the campaigns of 



1776-'77 ; and the American cause would thus be- 
come so hopeless that an opportunity would be 
offered for negotiation. Arnold was assured that 
Lord North would renew the liberal terms already 
offered in 1778, which conceded everything that 
the Americans had demanded in 1775. By render- 
ing a cardinal service to the British, he might hope 
to attain a position of such eminence as to conduct 
these negotiations, end the war, and restore Amer- 
ica to her old allegiance, with her freedom from 
parliamentary control guaranteed. In order to 
realize these ambitious dreams, Arnold resorted to 
the blackest treachery. In July, 1780, he sought 
and obtained command of West Point in order to 
surrender it to the enemy. When his scheme was 
detected by the timely capture of Andre, he fled to 
the British at New York, a disgraced and hated 
traitor. Instead of getting control of affairs, like 
Gen. Monk, he had sold himself cheap, receiving a 
brigadier-general's place in the British army and a 
paltry sum of money. In the spring of 1781 he 
conducted a plundering expedition into Virginia ; 
in September of the same year he was sent to at- 
tack New London, in order to divert Washington 
from his southward march against Cornwallis. In 
the following winter he went with his wife to Lon- 
don, where he was well received by the king and 
the tories, but frowned upon by the whigs. In 
1787 he removed to St. John's, New Brunswick, 
and entered into mercantile business with his sons 
Richard and Henry. In 17"Jl he returned to Lon- 
don and settled there permanently. In 1792 he 
fought a bloodless duel with the earl of Lauder- 
dale, for a remark which the latter had made about 
him in the house of lords. His last years were em- 
bittered by remorse. The illustration on page 95 
is a view of Col. Beverley Robinson's house, oppo- 
site West Point, which was occupied by Arnold as 
his headquarters. It is now the property of Hon. 
Hamilton Fish. His life has been written by 
Sparks in vol. iii. of his " American Biographies," 
and more fully by Isaac Newton Arnold, " Life 
of Benedict Arnold, his Patriotism and his Trea- 
son" (Chicago, 1880).— His fifth son, Sir James 
Robertson, British soldier, b. in Philadelphia in 
1780 ; d. in London, England, 27 Dec, 1854. He 
entered the royal engineers in 1798, and attained 
the rank of colonel. From 1816 to 1823 he was at 
the head of the engineers in Nova Scotia and New 
Brunswick. In 1841 he was transferred from the 
engineers, and in 1851 was made lieutenant-general. 
He served with credit in various parts of the world, 
displaying especial courage in the attack on Suri- 
nam, where he received a severe wound. He was 
aide-de-camp to both William IV. and Victoria. 
He bore a strong personal resemblance to his father. 
— Benedict's seventh son, William Fitch, the only 
one that left issue, b. 25 June, 1794, was a captain in 
the British army. His son, Edwin Gladwin, rec- 
tor of Barrow in Cheshire, inherited the family seat 
of Little Missenden Abbey, Buckinghamshire, and 
the grant of land near Toronto, now of great value. 
ARNOLD, George, author, b. in New York 
city, 24 June, 1834 ; d. at Strawberry Farms, N. J., 
3 Nov., 1865. While he was still an infant his 
parents removed to Illinois, but in 1849 returned 
to the east and settled at Strawberry Farms. As 
he showed a talent for drawing, he was placed m 
the studio of a portrait painter in New York ; but 
he soon abandoned the idea of becoming an artist, 
and adopted literature as a profession. He became 
a contributor to " Vanity Fair," the " Leader," and 
other periodicals, writing stories, poems, sketches, 
and art criticisms. Some of his poems are of re- 
markable sweetness. He was best known during 

his lifetime as the author of the " McArone " pa- 
pers, which established his reputation as a humor- 
ist. These were begun in " Vanity Pair " in 18G0, 
and continued there and in other papers until his 
death. He was also the author of several bio- 
graphical works. During the civil war Mr. Arnold 
did military duty for a long time at one of the 
forts on Staten Island. His poems were collected 
and edited, with a memoir, by William Winter, 
appearing in two volumes (1 867-' 68), afterward 
consolidated in one. The " Jolly Old Pedagogue " 
is his best-known poem. 

ARNOLD, Isaac Newton, lawyer, b. in Hart- 
wick, Otsego CO., N. Y., 30 Nov., 1815 ; d. in Chi- 
cago, 24 April, 1884. His father, Dr. George W. 
Arnold, was a native of Rhode Island, whence he 
removed to western New York in 1800. After 
attending the district and select schools, Isaac 
Arnold was thrown on his own resources at the 
age of fifteen. For several years he taught school 
a part of each year, earning enough to study law, 
and at the age of twenty was admitted to the bar. 
In 1836 he -emoved to Chicago, where he spent the 
rest of his life, and was prominent as a lawyer and 
in politics. He was elected city clerk of Chicago 
in 1837, and, beginning in 1843, served several 
terms in the legislature. The state was then 
heavily in debt, and Mr. Arnold became the ac- 
knowledged champion of those who were opposed 
to repudiation. In 1844 he was a presidential 
elector, and in 1860 was elected to congress as a 
republican, serving two terms. At the battle of 
Bull Run he acted as volunteer aide to Col. 
Hunter, and did good service in caring for the 
wounded. While in congress he was chairman of 
the committee on the defences and fortifications of 
the great lakes and rivers, and afterward chairman 
of the committee on manufactures, serving also as 
member of the committee on roads and canals. 
He voted for the bill abolishing slavery in the dis- 
trict of Columbia, and in March, 1862, he intro- 
duced a bill prohibiting slavery in every place un- 
der national control. This bill was passed on 19 
June. 1862, after much resistance, and on 15 Feb., 
1864, Mr. Arnold introduced in the house of rep- 
resentatives a resolution, which was passed, declar- 
ing that the constitution of the United States should 
be so amended as to abolish slavery. His ablest 
speech in congress was on the confiscation bill, and 
was made 2 May, 1862. In 1865 President John- 
son appointed him sixth auditor to the U. S. 
treasury. Mr. Arnold was an admirable public 
speaker, and delivered addresses before various 
literary societies, both at home and abroad. He 
had been intimate with Abraham Lincoln for 
many years before Mr. Lincoln's election to the 
presidency, and in 1866 he published a biogra- 
phy of him (new ed., rewritten and enlarged, 
Chicago, 1885). This was followed in 1879 by a 
" Life of Benedict Arnold," which, while acknowl- 
edging the enormity of Arnold's treason, vindicates 
and praises him in other respects. The author 
claimed no relationship with the subject of his 
work. His life of Lincoln is valuable for the clear- 
ness with which it shows the historical relations of 
the president to the great events of his adminis- 
tration ; and the author's death is said to have 
been caused, m part, by his persistent labor in com- 
pleting his last revision of this work. Mr. Arnold 
was for many years president of the Chicago his- 
torical society, and Hon. E. B. Washburne deliv- 
ered an address on his life before the society, 21 
Oct., 1884 (Chicago, 1884). 

ARNOLD, Jonathan, statesman, b. in Provi- 
dence, R. I., 14 Dec, 1741 ; d. in St. Johnsbury, 




Vt., 2 Feb., 1798. He studied medicine, and began 
practice. In 1774 he was a charter member of the 
Providence grenadiers. He was a member of the 
general assembly in 1776, and author of the act of 
May, 1776, repealing the law providing lor the 
oath of allegiance to England. During the revo- 
hitionary war he was a surgeon in the army, and 
director of the army hospital at Providence. After 
the war he removecl to St. Johnsbury, Vt.. where in 
1782 he was appointed judge of the Orange co. 
■court, an office which he held until his death. 
From 1782 to 1784 he was a member of the con- 
tinental congress. — His son, Lemuel Hastings, 
statesman, b. in St. Johnsbury, Vt., 29 Jan., 1792; 
d. in Kingston, R. I., 27 June. 1852, was graduated 
at Dartmouth in 1811, studied law, and practised 
in Providence from 1814 to 1821, after which he 
engaged in manufactures. From 1826 to 1831 he 
was a member of the general assembly of his state. 
He was elected governor of Rhode Island in 1881 
and again in 1832. During the Dorr rebellion of 
1842, he was a member of the executive council. 
He was a representative in congress from 1 Dec, 
1845, till 3 March, 1847.— Richard, son of Lem- 
uel Hastings, soldier, b. in Providence, R. I., 12 
April, 1828; d. on Governor's Island, New York 
harbor, 8 Nov., 1882. He was a son of Gov. L. 
H. Arnold, was graduated at West Point in 1850. 
He took part in the Northern Pacific railroad 
•exploration in 1853, and was aide to Gen. Wool 
in California from 1855 to 1861. At the begin- 
ning of the civil war he was made captain in 
the 5th artillery, and served at Bull Run and 
through the peninsular campaign. On 29 June, 
1862, "he was brevetted major for services at the 
battle of Savage Station, Va., and on 29 Nov. he 
was made brigadier-general of volunteers. On 8 
July, 1863, he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel in 
the regular army for services at the siege of Port 
Hudson. He commanded a cavalry division in 
Gen. Banks's Red river expedition in 1864, and later 
in the same year rendered important services at 
the reduction of Fort Morgan, Mobile bay, for 
which, on 22 Aug., 1865, he was made brevet major- 
general of volunteers. For his services through 
the war he was, on 13 March, 1865, brevetted colo- 
nel, brigadier-general, and major-general in the 
regular army. After the close of the war he com- 
manded various posts, and on 5 Dec, 1877, was 
made acting assistant inspector-general of the de- 
partment of the east. At the time of his death 
he was major in the 5th artillery. 

ARNOLD, Lewis G., soldier, b. in New Jersey 
in December. 1815 ; d. in South Boston, 22 Sept., 
1871. He was graduated at West Point in 1837. 
He served as second lieutenant in the Florida war of 
1837-38 with the 2d artillery, and as first lieuten- 
ant in the same regiment, on the Canada fron- 
tier, at Detroit, in 1838-39. In 1846 he accom- 
panied his regiment to Mexico, and was engaged 
on the southern line of operations under Gen. 
Scott, being present at the siege of Vera Cruz, in 
which he was slightly wounded ; in the battles of 
Cerro Gordo antl Araozoque ; the capture of San 
Antonio, and the battle of Churubusco. In the 
last-named battle he led his company with con- 
spicuous gallantry, and in the storming of the tete 
■de pont was severely wounded. He was brevetted 
captain 20 Aug.. 1847, for gallant conduct at Con- 
treras and Churubusco, and major, 13 Sept., for 
gallant conduct at Chapultepec. He served again 
in Florida in 1856, and commanded a detachment 
in a conflict with a large force of Seminoles at Big 
Cypress on 7 April of that year. The breaking 
■out of the war in 1861 found" Maj. Arnold at the 

VOL. I. — 7 

Dry Tortugas, whence he was transferred to Fort 
Pickens on 2 Aug. He remained there until 9 
May, 1862, being in command after 25 Feb. On 

9 Oct., 1861, he aided in repelling the attack of the 
confederates on Santa Rosa island, and command- 
ed a detachment sent the next morning to pursue 
them to the mainland. In the successive bombard- 
ments of Fort Pickens, which followed in Novem- 
ber, January, and May, Maj. Arnold, as executive 
officer of the work, distinguished himself by his 
energy, judgment, and gallantry. In recognition 
of the value of his services on these occasions he 
was brevetted a lieutenant-colonel, to date from 22 
Nov., 1861 ; appointed a brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers, to date from 24 Jan., 1862 ; and assigned 
to the command of the department of Florida, with 
his headquarters first at Fort Pickens and after- 
ward at Pensacola. On 1 Oct., 1862, he was placed 
in command of the forces at New Orleans and Al- 
giers, Louisiana, which command he retained until 

10 Nov., when he was disabled by a stroke of pa- 
ralysis, from which he never recovered. In Febru- 
ary, 1864, all hope of his restoration to active life 
having been abandoned. Gen. Arnold was retired. 

ARNOLD, Peleg-, jurist, b. in Smithfield, R. I., 
in 1752; d. there, 13 Feb., 1820. He received a 
liberal education, studied law, and was admitted to 
the Rhode Island bar. He was a member of the 
general assembly of his state, and from 9 April, 
1787, to 1 Nov., 1789, was a delegate to congress 
under the confederation. In October, 1788, he re- 
turned to Rhode Island especially to represent to 
the assembly the importance of immediate action 
on the federal constitution. He was afterward 
chief justice of the Rhode Island supreme court. 

ARNOLD, Samuel Greene, historian, b. in 
Providence, R. I., 12 April, 1821; d. there, 12 
Feb., 1880. He was graduated at Brown in 1841, 
spent two yeai's in a Providence counting-house, 
and visited Europe. On his return he studied 
law, being graduated at Harvard law school in 
1845, and was admitted to the Rhode Island bar ; 
but before practising he again travelled extensively 
in Europe, the east, and South America. In 1852 
he was chosen lieutenant-governor of his state, 
being the only man elected on the whig ticket, 
and he again occupied that office in 1861 and 1862. 
On the breaking out of the civil war he was for a 
few weeks in command of a battery of artillery and 
aide to Gov. Sprague. From 1 Dec, 1862, to 3 
March, 1863, he served in the U. S. senate, hav- 
ing been chosen to fill out the term of J. F. Sim- 
mons, resigned. He published a valuable " His- 
toi-y of the State of Rhode Island and Providence 
Plantations " (2 vols.. New York, 1860). He was 
the author of " The Spirit of Rhode Island His- 
tory," a discourse delivered on 17 Jan., 1853, be- 
fore the Rhode Island historical society, of which 
he was for some time the president, an address be- 
fore the American institute in New York in Octo- 
ber, 1850, and numerous other addresses, and arti- 
cles in periodicals. 

ARNOLD, Thomas Dicltens, lawyer, b. m 
Spottsylvania co., Va., 3 May, 1798; d. in Jones- 
boro', Tenn., 26 May, 1870. He was a farmer boy, 
and his education was obtained almost entirely by 
his own efforts, and, to stimulate himself, he taught 
the farmer's children. When war was declared in 
1812, his strong physique and sturdy appearance 
permitted his enlistment, although he was but 
fourteen years of age. During the march to Mo- 
bile a young soldier, the only son of a poor widow, 
was tried by court-martial and shot by order of 
Gen. Jackson for the offence of straggling, and the 
circumstances of the execution made a deep im- 




pression on the mind of young Arnold, ■vrho de- 
nounced the act as unwarranted tyranny, and in 
after years remembered and acted upon his con- 
victions in his hostility to President Jackson. He 
was admitted to the bar in Knoxville, Tenn., in 
March, 1822, and, quickly attaining distinction in 
his profession, was elected to congress in 1831 
on the whig ticket after he had been twice de- 
feated. Taking a prominent stand on the political 
issues of the day, he was fearless in his criticism, 
and generally opposed the administration. On 14 
May, 1832, he made a speech against Senator Hous- 
ton and a certain Maj. Morgan A. Heard, who had 
had some connection with the western army. In 
this speech he used the expression " capable of any 
crime," and indulged in severe personalities. On 
leaving the capitol, and while yet in the midst of 
more than 200 senators and members, he was as- 
saulted by Heard, who fired upon him with a 
horse pistol, wounding him in the arm, and then 
struck him with a cane. Arnold knocked his as- 
sailant down, wrenched away the pistol, and car- 
ried it off as a trophy, while Heard was left for 
several hours where he fell. The admirers of Mr. 
Arnold presented him the next day with a highly 
wrought sword-cane with the inscription, " Pre- 
sented to Thomas D. Arnold for his brave defence 
against the attack of Morgan A. Heard." In 1836 
he was elected brigadier-general of Tennessee mili- 
tia, and in 1841 was returned to congress, serving 
from 31 May, 1841, till 3 March, 1843. when he re- 
tired from political life and devoted himself to the 
practice of law. He had a notable controversy with 
William 0. Brownlow. 

AROSEMENA, Jiisto, Colombian jurist, b. in 
Panama in 1817 ; d. in Panama, 24 Feb.. 1896. He 
was secretary of state several times, president of 
the congress, and Colombian minister successively 
to Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia, Chili, Central Amer- 
ica, France, England, and the United States. 

AKPIN, Paul, journalist, b. in France in 1811 ; 
d. in New York city, 18 May, 1865. He was the 
oldest French journalist in the United States. For 
many years he edited the " New Orleans Bee," and 
after that took charge of the New York " Courrier 
des Etats Unis." He wrote largely for the " Amer- 
ican Cyclopaedia," contributing biographical notices 
of eminent Frenchmen, including Lavoisier, La 
Harpe, Necker, Pascal, and Palissy. 

ARRASCAETA, Enrique de (ahr-ras-ah-a'-ta), 
Uruguayan poet, b. in Montevideo in 1819. He 
has been a journalist, deputy, and minister of the 
republic of Uruguay ; but his highest reputation 
comes from his numerous elegant poems. 

ARRATE, Jose Felix de, Cuban author, b. 
in Havana in 1697 ; d. in 176G. He studied law 
in Mexico, where he was admitted to the bar, and 
returned to his native city, where he filled some im- 
portant offices. In 1761 wrote a history of Ha- 
vana, the first historical work on a Cuban subject, 
to which he gave the title of " Llave del Nuevo 
Mundo y Antenmral de las Indias Occidentales," 
alluding to the important geographical and stra- 
tegical situation of the capital of Cuba. This work 
remained unedited until 1830, when it was pub- 
lished by the real sociedad economica of Havana. 
A new edition was brought out m 1876, forming 
part of the collection entitled " Los tres primeros 
historiadores de Cuba." Arrate wrote also poems 
and a comedy, which are lost. 

ARRIACxA, Pablo Jose (ahr-ree-ah-ga), Span- 
ish author, b. in Vergara, Spain, in 1562. He was 
sent to Peru, and there founded several Jesuit col- 
leges, being afterward prefect of Arequipa and 
Lima. He perished in a shipwreck in 1622, Of 

the works that he left finished at his death, those 
entitled " Extirpacion de la idolatria de los indios 
del Peru" (Lima, 1621) and " Directorio espiritual " 
(1628) are the most important. 

ARRILLAOA, Jose Joaquin, b. in Aya, prov- 
ince of Guipuzcoa, Spain, in 1750 ; d. at Soledad 
Mission, C!alifornia, 24 July, 1814. In his youth 
Arrillaga was a volunteer in Mexico, rose in the 
service, became captain in 1783, and in the same 
year took office as lieutenant-governor of the two 
Californias. In 1792, on the death of Romeu, he 
was appointed governor, and after an interval 
passed once more as lieutenant-governor, from 
1794 to 1804, he received a permanent appointment 
as governor of Alta California, 26 March, 1804, 
and retained the office initil his death. Of all the 
Spanish governors of the newly settled land, he 
was the most uniformly successful in winning the 
approval of both civilians and the Catholic clergv. 

ARRINUTON, Alfred W., lawyer, b. in Ire- 
dell CO., N. C, 28 Sept., 1810; d. in Chicago, 111., 
31 Dec, 1867. He was the son of Archibald Ar- 
rington, a whig member of congress from North 
Carolina from 1841 to 1845. In 1829 young Ar- 
rington, who had received a good education in his 
native state, was received on trial as a Methodist 
circuit preacher in Indiana, and in 1832-'33 he 
preached as an itinerant in Missouri, his remarka- 
ble mental powers and his eloquence everywhere 
drawing crowds to hear him. In 1834 he aban- 
doned the ministry and studied law, being admitted 
soon after to the Missouri bar. He removed in 
1835 or 1836 to Arkansas, attained distinction in 
his profession, and was sent to the legislature. In 
1844 he was nominated an elector on the whig tick- 
et, but withdrew his name, and avowed himself a 
democrat. Soon afterward he removed to Texas, 
and in 1850 was elected judge of the 12th district 
court, over which he presided till 1856. His health 
failing, he was compelled to seek a more northern 
climate and removed to Madison, Wis., where he 
remained but a short time. In 1857 he went to 
Chicago, which thenceforward was his home. In 
that city he soon won a very high reputation as a 
constitiitional lawyer, practising constantly before 
the U. S. district and circuit courts and the su- 
preme court at Washington. His death was hast- 
ened by overvvork. He wrote much under the sig- 
nature of " Charles Summerfleld," and was the au- 
thor of an " Apostrophe to Water," which he puts 
into the mouth of an itinerant Methodist preacher, 
and which was often quoted with great effect by 
John B. Gough. A volume of his poems, with a 
sketch of his character and a memoir, was published 
in Chicago in 1869. His works in book form include 
"Sketches of the Southwest," and "The Rangers 
and Regulators of the Tanaha " (New York, 1857). 

ARTAOUIETTE, Diron d', French soldier, 
came to Louisiana as intendant commissary of the 
colony in 1708. Until he took charge of affairs and 
introduced order, the settlement could not be called 
a colony. He had a part in the government of 
Louisiana, acting as Bienville's principal coadjutor 
until 1711, when he returned to France, later be- 
coming a director in Law's Mississippi company.— 
Diron d'Artaguiette, probably the son, was ap- 
pointed inspector-general of the French troops in 
Louisiana, and from 1718 to 1742 rendered impor- 
tant services in the wars with the Indians and in 
civil affairs. He died at Cape Francois, St. Do- 
mingo, where he filled the position of king's lieu- 
tenant.— Pierre d'Artaguiette, a younger broth- 
er, distinguished himself in the Natchez war, and 
as a recognition of his merit was in 1734 appoint- 
ed governor of the Illinois country, with post at 




Fort Chartres. He administered the affairs of this '■ 
coniinand for two years, when he was ordered to 
collect troops to lead against the Chickasaws. The 
expedition sailed in February, 1734, and the vil- 
lages were reached in May. The expected forces 
from Louisiana under Bienville had not appeared, 
and D'Artaguiette attacked the Indians alone. The 
French were at first successful, but were finally 
overpowered, and with Vincennes and others he 
was made prisoner and burnt at the stake. 

ARTEAUA, Jos6 Maria (ar-tay-ah'-ga), Mexi- 
can soldier, b. in Aguas Calientes in 1833 ; d. in 
Uruapan, 13 Oct., 1886. He had but little edu- 
cation, his parents being very poor, and at once be- 
gan to learn the trade of a tailor ; but when nine- 
teen years old he entered the army as a sergeant. 
He took an active part in military operations dur- 
ing the long strifes between the different parties 
before the French invasion, and then he fought the 
invaders bravely. By successive promotions he at- 
tained the rank of general. The troops of Maxi- 
milian captured him in the battle of Amatlan and 
took him to Uruapan, where he was executed. 

ARTEACtA, Sebastian de, Mexican painter, 
flourished about 1G43. He was one of the best art- 
ists of the old Mexican school. Among his best 
works are the " Apostle St. Thomas " and the 
" Marriage of the Virgin Mary," the former being 
in the museum of paintings of the city of Mexico. 
He was a high officer of the inquisition. 

ARTHUR, Cliester Alan, twenty-first presi- 
dent of the United States, b. in Fairfield, Franklin 
CO., Vt., 5 Oct., 1830 ; d. in New York city, 18 Nov., 
1886. His father was Rev. William Arthur (given 
below). His mother was Malvina Stone. Her 
grandfather, Uriah Stone, was a New Hampshire 
pioneer, who about 1763 migrated from Hampstead 
to Connecticut river, and made his home in Pier- 
mont, where he died in 1810, leaving twelve chil- 
dren. Her father was George Wasliingtim Stone. 
She died 16 Jan., 1869, and her husband died 27 Oct., 
1875, at Newtonville, N. Y. Their children were 
three sons and six daughters, all of whom, except 
one son and one daughter, were alive in 1886. 

Chester A. Arthur, the eldest son, prepared for 
college at Union Village in Greenwich, and at 
Schenectady, and in 1845 he entered the sopho- 
more class of Union. While in his sophomore 
year he taught school for a term at Schaghticoke, 
Rensselaer co., and a second tertn at the same 
place during his last year in college. He joined 
the Psi-Upsilon society, and was one of six in a 
class of one hundred who were elected members 
of the Phi Beta Kappa society, the condition 
of admission being high scholarship. He was 
graduated at eighteen years of age, in the class 
of 1848. While at college he decided to become 
a lawyer, and after graduation attended for several 
months a law school at Ballston Spa, returned to 
Lansingburg, where his father then resided, and 
continued his legal studies. During this period 
he fitted boys for college, and in 1851 he was prin- 
cipal of an academy at North Pownal, Bennington 
CO., Vt. In 1854, James A. Garfield, then a student 
in Williams college, taught penmanship in this 
academy during his winter vacation. 

In 1853, Arthur, having accumulated a small 
sum of money, decided to go to New York city. 
He there entered the law office of Erastus D. Cul- 
ver as a student, was admitted to the bar during 
the same year, and at once became a member of 
the firm of Culver, Parker & Arthur. Mr. Culver 
had been an anti-slavery member of congress from 
Washington county when Dr. Arthur was pastor 
of the Baptist church in Greenwich in that county. 

Dr. Arthur had also enjoyed the friendship of 
Gerrit Smith, who had often been his guest and 
spoken from his pulpit. Together they had taken 
part in the meeting convened at Utica, 21 Oct., 
1835, to form a New York anti-slavery society. 
This meeting was broken up by a committee of pro- 
slavery citizens ; but the members repaired to Mr. 
Smith's home in Peterborough, and there completed 
the organization. On the same day in Boston a 
women's anti-slavery society, while its president 
was at prayer, was dispersed by a mob, and William 
Lloyd Garrison was dragged through the streets 
with a rope around his body, threatened with tar and 
feathers, and for his protection lodged in jail by the 
mayor. From these early associations Arthur natu- 
rally formed sentiments of hostility to slavery, and 
he first gave them public expression in the Lemmon 
slave case. In 1852 Jonathan Lemmon, a Virginia 
slave-holder, determined to take eight of the slaves 
of his wife, Juliet — one man, two women, and five 
children — to Texas, and brought them by steamer 
from Norfolk to New York, intending to re-ship 
them from New York to Texas. On the petition 
of Louis Napoleon, a free colored man, on 6 Nov., 
a writ of habeas corpus was issued by Judge Elijah 
Paine, of the superior court of New York city, and 
after arguments by Mr. Culver and John Jay for 
the slaves, and H. D. Lapaugh and Henry L. Clin- 
ton for the slave-holder. Judge Paine, on 13 Nov., 
released the slaves on the ground that they had 
been made free by being brought by their master 
into a free state. The decision created great ex- 
citement at the south, and the legislature of Vir- 
ginia directed its attorney-general to appeal to the 
higher courts of New York. The legislature of 
New York passed a resolution directing its gov- 
ernor to defend the slaves. In December, 1857, the 
supreme court, in which a certiorari had been 
sued out, affirmed Judge Paine's decision (People 
V. Lemmon, 5 Sandf., 681), and it was still further 
sustained by the court of appeals at the March 
term, 1860 (Lemmon v. People, 20 N. Y. Rep., 
562). Arthur, as a law student, and after his ad- 
mission to the bar, became an earnest advocate for 
the slaves. He went to Albany to secure the in- 
tervention in their behalf of the legislature and 
the governor, and he acted as their counsel in ad- 
dition to attorney-general Ogden Hoffman, E. D. 
Culver, Joseph Blunt, and (after Mr. Hoffman's 
death) William M. Evarts. Charles O'Conor was 
employed as further counsel for the slave-holder, 
and argued his side before the court of appeals, 
while Mr. Blunt and Mr. Evarts argued for the 
slaves. Until 1855 the street-car companies of New 
York city excluded colored persons from riding 
with the whites, and made no adequate provision for 
their separate transportation. One Sunday in that 
year a colored woman named Lizzie Jennings, a Sab- 
bath-school superintendent, on the way home from 
her school, was ejected from a car on the Fourth 
avenue line. Culver, Parker & Arthur brought a 
suit in her behalf against the company in the su- 
preme court in Brooklyn, the plaintiff recovered a 
judgment, and the right of colored persons to ride in 
any of the city cars was thus secured. The Colored 
People's Legal Rights Association for years cele- 
brated the anniversary of their success in t<iiis case. 
Mr. Arthur became a Henry Clay whig, and cast 
his first vote in 1852 for Winfield Scott for presi- 
dent. He participated in the first republican state 
convention at Saratoga, and took an active part in 
the Fremont campaign of 1856. On 1 Jan., 1861, 
Gov. Edwin D. Morgan, who on that date entered 
upon his second term, and between whom and ]Mr. 
Arthur a warm friendship had grown up, appointed 





him on his staff as engineer-in-chief, with the rank 
of brigadier-general. He had previously taken 
part in the organization of the state militia, and 
had been judge-advocate of the second brigade. 
When the civil war began, in April, 1861, his active 
services were required by Gov. Morgan, and he be- 
came acting quartermaster-general, and as such be- 
gan in New York city the work of preparing and 
forwarding the state's quota of troops. In Decem- 
ber he was called to Albany for consultation con- 
cerning the defences of New York harbor. On 24 
Dec. he summoned a board of engineers, of which 
he became a member ; and on 18 Jan., 1862, he sub- 
mitted an elaborate report on the condition of the 
national forts both on the sea-coast and on the in- 
land border of the state. On 10 Feb., 1862, he was 
appointed inspector-general, with the rank of briga- 
dier-general, and in May he inspected the New 
York troops at Fredericksburg and on the Chicka- 
hominy. In June, 1862, Gov. Morgan ordered his 
return from the Army of the Potomac, and he acted 
as secretary of the meeting of the governors of the 
loyal states, which was held at the Astor House, 
New York city, 28 June. Tlie governors advised 
President Lincoln to call for more troops ; and on 
1 July he called for 300,000 volunteers. At Gov. 
Morgan's request, Gen. Arthur resumed his former 
work, resigned as inspector-general, and 10 July 
was appointed quartermaster-general. In his 
annual report, dated 27 Jan., 1863, he said : 
" Through the single office and clothing depart- 
ment of this department in the city of New York, 
from 1 Aug. to 1 Dec, the space of four months, 
there were completely clothed, uniformed, and 
equipped, supplied with camp and garrison equi- 
page, and transported from this state to the seat of 
war, sixty-eight regiments of infantry, two battal- 
ions of cavalry, and four battalions of artillery." 
He went out of office 31 Dec, 1862, when Horatio 
Seymour succeeded Gov. Jlorgan, and his succes- 
sor, Quartermaster-General S. V. Talcott, in his re- 
port of 31 Dec, 1863, spoke of the previous admin- 
istration as follows : " I found, on entering on the 
discharge of my duties, a well-organized system of 
labor and accountability, for which the state is 
chiefly indebted to my jaredecessor, Gen. Chester 
A. Arthur, who by his practical good sense and 
unremitting exertion, at a period when everything 
was in confusion, reduced the operations of the 
department to a matured plan, by which large 
amounts of money were saved to the government, 
and great economy of time secured in carrying out 
the details of the same." 

Between 1862 and 1872 Gen. Arthur was engaged 
in continuous and active law practice — in partner- 
ship with Henry G. Gardner from 1862 till 1867, 
then for five years alone, and on 1 Jan., 1872, he 
formed the firm of Arthur, Phelps & Knevals. 
He was for a short time counsel for the depart- 
ment of assessments and taxes, but resigned the 
place. During all this period he continued to take 
an active interest in politics ; was chairman in 1868 
of the central Grant club of New York ; and became 
c'hairman of the executive committee of the repub- 
lican state committee in 1879. 

On 20 Nov., 1871, he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Grant collector of the port of New York, 
and assumed the office on 1 Dec. ; was nomi- 
nated to the senate 6 Dec, confirmed 12 Dec, and 
commissioned for four years 16 Dec. On 17 Dec, 
1875, he was nominated for another term, and by 
the senate confirmed the same day, without ref- 
erence to a committee — a courtesy never before ex- 
tended to an appointee who had not been a sena- 
tor. He was commissioned 18 Dec, and retained 

the office until 11 July, 1878, making his service 
about six and two thirds years. 

The New York republican state convention, held 
at Syracuse, 22 March, 1876, elected delegates to 
the national convention in favor of the nomination 
of Senator Conkling for president. The friends of 
Mr. Conkling in the state convention were led by 
Alonzo B. Cornell, then naval officer in the New 
York custom-house. A minority, calling them- 
selves reform republicans, and favoring Benjamin 
H. Bristow for president, were led by George Will- 
iam Curtis. At the national convention at Cincin- 
nati, 14 June, sixty-nine of the New York delegates, 
headed by Mr. Cornell, voted for Mr. Conkling, and 
one delegate, Mr. Curtis, voted for Mr. Bristow. 
At the critical seventh ballot, however, Mr. Conk- 
ling's name was withdrawn, and from New York 
sixty-one votes were given for Rutherford B. Hayes, 
against nine for James G. Blaine ; and the former's 
nomination was thus secured. At the New York 
republican state convention to nominate a gov- 
ernor, held at Saratoga, 23 Aug., Mr. Cornell and 
ex-Gov. Morgan were candidates, and also William 
M. Evarts, supported by the i-eform republicans 
led by Mr. Curtis. Mr. Cornell's name was with- 
drawn, and Gov. Morgan was nominated. In the 
close state and presidential canvass that ensued, 
Messrs. Arthur and Cornell made greater exertions 
to carry New York for the republicans than they had 
ever made in any other campaign ; and subsequent- 
ly Gen. Arthur's activity in connection with the 
contested countings in the southern states was of 
vital importance. Nevertheless, President Hayes, 
in making up his cabinet, selected Mr. Evarts as 
his secretary of state, and determined to remove 
Messrs. Arthur and Cornell, and to transfer the 
power and patronage of their offices to the use of a 
minority faction in the republican party. The 
president had, however, in his inaugural of 5 
March, 1877, declared in favor of civil service re- 
form — " a change in the system of apijointment it- 
self ; a reform that shall be thorough, radical, and 
complete ; that the officer should be secure in his 
tenure so long as his personal character remained 
untarnished, and the performance of his duties 
satisfactory." In his letter of acceptance of 8 
July, 1876, he had used the same words, and 
added : *' If elected, I shall conduct the admin- 
istration of the government upon these princi- 
ples, and all constitutional powers vested in the 
executive will be employed to establish this re- 
form." It became necessary, therefore, before re- 
moving Arthur and Cornell, that some foundation 
should be laid for a claim that the custom-house 
was not well administered. A series of investiga- 
tions was thereupon instituted. The Jay commis- 
sion was appointed 14 April, 1877, and during the 
ensuing summer made four reports criticising the 
management of the custom-house. In September, 
Sec. Sherman requested the collector to resign, ac- 
companying the request with the offer of a foreign 
mission. The newspapers of the previous day 
announced that at a cabinet meeting it had been 
determined to remove the collector. The latter 
declined to resign, and the investigations were con- 
tinued by commissions and special agents. To the 
reports of the Jay commission Collector Arthur 
replied in detail, in a letter to Sec. Sherman, dated 
28 Nov. On 6 Dec, Theodore Roosevelt was nomi- 
nated to the senate for collector, and L. Bradford 
Prince for naval officer; but they were rejected 
12 Dec, and no other nominations were made, al- 
though the senate remained in session for more 
than six months. On 11 July, 1878, after its ad- 
journment, Messrs. Arthur and Cornell were sus- 




pended from office, and Edwin A. Merritt was 
designated as collector, and Silas W. Burt as naval 
officer, and they took possession of the offices. 
Their nominations were sent to the senate 3 Dec, 
1878. On 15 Jan., 1879, Sec. Sherman communi- 
cated to the senate a full statement of the causes 
that led to these suspensions, mainly criticisms of 
the management of the custom-house, closing with 
the declaration that the restoration of the sus- 
pended officers would create discord and conten- 
tion, be unjust to the president, and personally em- 
embarrassing to the secretary, and saying that, as 
Collector Arthur's term of service would expire 17 
Dec, 1879, his restoration would be temporary, as 
the president would send in another name, or sus- 
pend him again after the adjournment of the senate. 
On 21 Jan., 1879, Collector Arthur, in a letter to 
Senator Conkling, chairman of the committee on 
commerce, before which the nominations were 
pending, made an elaborate reply to Sec Sher- 
man's criticisms, completely demonstrating the 
honesty and efficiency with which the custom-house 
had been managed, and the good faith with which 
the policy and instructions of the president had 
been carried out. A fair summary of the merits 
of the ostensible issue is contained in Collector Ar- 
thur's letter of 28 Nov., 1877, from which the fol- 
lowing extract is taken : " The essential elements 
of a correct civil service I understand to be : first, 
permanence in office, which of course prevents re- 
movals except for cause ; second, promotion from 
the lower to the higher grades, based upon good 
conduct and efficiency; third, prompt and thor- 
ough investigation of .all complaints, and prompt 
punishment of all misconduct. In this respect I 
challenge comparison with any department of the 
government under the present, or under any past, 
national administration. I am prepared to demon- 
strate the truth of this statement on any fair in- 
vestigation." In a table appended to this letter Col- 
lector Arthur showed that during the six years he 
had managed the office the yearly percentage of 
removals for all causes had been only 2f per cent, 
as against an annual average of 28 per cent, under 
his three immediate predecessors, and an annual 
average of about 24 per cent, since 1857, when Col- 
lector Schell took office. Out of 923 persons who 
held office when he became collector, on 1 Dec, 
1871, there were 531 still in office on 1 May, 1877, 
having been retained during his entire term. In 
making promotions, the uniform practice was to 
advance men from the lower to the higher grades, 
and all the appointments except two, to the one 
hundred positions of $2,000 salary, or over, were 
made in this method. The expense of collecting 
the revenue was also kept low ; it had been, under 
his predecessors, between 1857 and 1861, -^ of one 
per cent, of the receipts ; between 1861 and 1864, 
-iVo; in 1864 and 1865, l-j^Ji, ; between 1866 and 
1869, fn%; in 1869 and 1870, ,^0 ; in 1870 and 
1871, T^; and under him, from 1871 to 1877, it 
was -^^ of one per cent. The influence of the ad- 
ministration, however, was sufficient to secure the 
confirmation of Mr. Merritt and Mr. Burt on 3 
Feb., 1879, and the controversy was remitted to 
the republicans of New York for their opinion. 
Mr. Cornell was nominated for governor of New 
York 3 Sept., 1879, and elected on 4 Nov.; and 
Mr. Arthur was considered a candidate for U. S. 
senator for the term to begin 4 March, 1881. 

On retiring from the office of collector. Gen. Ar- 
thur resumed law practice with the firm of Arthur, 
Phelps, Knevals & Ransom. But he continued to 
be active in politics, and, in 1880, advocated the 
nomination of Gen. Grant to succeed President 

Hayes. He was a delegate at large to the Chicago 
convention, which met 2 June, and during the 
heated preliminary contest before the republican 
national committee, which threatened to result in 
the organization of two independent conventions, 
he conducted for his own side the conferences with 
the controlling anti-third term delegates relative 
to the choice of a temporary presiding officer, and 
the arrangement of the preliminary roll of dele- 
gates in the cases to be contested in the con- 
vention. The result of the conferences was an 
agreement by which all danger was avoided, and 
when, upon the opening of the convention, an at- 
tempt was made, in consequence of a misunder- 
standing on the part of certain Grant delegates, to 
violate this agreement, he resolutely adhered to 
it, and insisted upon and secured its observance. 
After the nomination, 10 June, of Gen. Garfield 
for president, by a combination of the anti-third 
term delegates, a general desire arose in the con- 
vention to nominate for vice-president some advo- 
cate of Grant and a resident of New York state. 
The New York delegation at once indicated their 
preference for Gen. Arthur, and before the roll- 
call began the foregone conclusion was evident : 
he received 468 votes against 283 for all others, 
and the nomination was made unanimous. In 
his letter of acceptance of 5 July, 1880, he em- 
phasized the right and the paramount duty of the 
nation to protect the colored citizens, who were 
enfranchised as a result of the southern rebellion, 
in the full enjoyment of their civil and political 
rights, including honesty and order, and excluding 
fraud and force, in popular elections. He also 
approved such reforms in the public service as 
would base original appointments to office upon 
ascertained fitness, fill positions of responsibility 
by the promotion of worthy and efficient officers, 
and make the tenure of office stable, while not al- 
lowing the acceptance of public office to impair 
the liberty or diminish the responsibility of the 
citizen. He also advocated a sound currency, popu- 
lar education, such changes in tariff and taxation 
as would " relieve any overburdened industry or 
class, and enable our manufacturers and artisans 
to compete successfully with those of other lands," 
national works of internal improvement, and the 
development of our water-courses and harbors 
wherever required by the general interests of com- 
merce. During the canvass he remained chair- 
man of the New York republican state commit- 
tee. The result was a plurality for Garfield and 
Arthur of 21,000 in the state, against a plurality 
of 32,000 in 1876 for Tilclen and Hendricks, the 
democratic candidates against Hayes and Wheeler. 
Vice-President Arthur took tlie oath of office 
4 March, 1881, and presided over the extra session 
of the senate that then began, which continued un- 
til 20 May. The senate contained 37 republicans and 
37 democrats, while Senators Mahone, of Virginia, 
and Davis, of Illinois, who were rated as independ- 
ents, generally voted, the former with the repub- 
licans and the latter with the democrats, thus 
making a tie, and giving the vice-president the 
right to cast the controlling vote, which he several 
times had occasion to exercise. The session was 
exciting, and was prolonged by the efforts of the 
republicans to elect their nominees for secretary 
and sergeant-at-arms, against dilatory tactics em- 
ployed by the democrats, and by the controversy 
over President Garfield's nomination, on 23 March, 
for collector of the port of New York, of William 
H. Robertson, who had been the leader of the New 
York anti-third term delegates at the Chicago con- 
vention. During this controversy the vice-presi- 




dent supported Senators Conkling and Piatt in 
their opposition to the confirmation. On 28 March 
he headed a remonstrance, signed also by the sen- 
ators and by Postmaster-General James, addressed 
to the president, condemning the appointment, 
and asking that the nomination be withdrawn. 
When the two senators hastily resigned and made 
their unsuccessful contest for a reelection by the 
legislature of New York, then in session at Albany, 
he exerted himself actively in their behalf during 
May and June. 

President Garfield was shot 2 July, 1881, and 
died 19 Sept. His cabinet announced his death to 
the vice-president, then in New York, and, at their 
suggestion, he took the oath as president on the 
20th, at his residence, 123 Lexington avenue, before 
Judge John R. Brady, of the New York supreme 
court. On the 22d the oath was formally admin- 
istered again in the vice-president's room in the 
capitol at Washington by Chief-Justice Waite, and 
President Arthur delivered the following inaugu- 
ral address : 

" For the fourth time in the history of the re- 
public its chief magistrate has been removed by 
death. All hearts are filled with grief and horror 
at the hideous crime which has darkened our land ; 
and the memory of the murdered president, his 
protracted sufferings, his unyielding fortitude, the 
example and achievements of his life, and the 
pathos of his death, will forever illumine the pages 
of our history. For the fourth time the officer 
elected by the people and ordained by the constitu- 
tion to fill a vacancy so created is called to assume 
the executive chair. The wisdom of our fathers, 
foreseeing even the most dire possibilities, made 
sure that the government should never be imper- 
illed because of the uncertainty of human life. 
Men may die, but the fabrics of our free institu- 
tions remam unshaken. No higher or more assur- 
ing proof could exist of the strength and perma- 
nence of popular government than the fact that, 
though the chosen of the people be str'' jk down, 
his constitutional successor is peacefully installed 
without shock or strain, except the sorrow which 
mourns the bereavement. All the noble aspirations 
of my lamented predecessor which found expres- 
sion in his life, the measures devised and suggested 
during his brief administration to correct abuses 
and enforce economy, to advance prosperity and 
promote the general welfare, to insure domestic se- 
curity and maintain friendly and honorable rela- 
tions with the nations of the earth, will be gar- 
nered in the hearts of the people, and it will be my 
earnest endeavor to profit and to see that the na- 
tion shall profit by his example and experience. 
Prosperity blesses our country, our fiscal policy is 
fixed by law, is well grounded and generally ap- 
proved. No threatening issue mars our foreign in- 
tercourse, and the wisdom, integrity, and thrift of 
our people may be trusted to continue undisturbed 
the present assured career of peace, tranquillity, 
and welfare. The gloom and anxiety which have 
enshrouded the country must make repose espe- 
cially welcome now. No demand for speedy legisla- 
tion has been heard ; no adequate occasion is ap- 
parent for an unusual session of congress. The 
constitution defines the functions and powers of the 
executive as clearly as those of either of the other 
two departments of the government, and he must 
answer for the just exercise of the discretion it per- 
mits and the performance of the duties it imposes. 
Summoned to these high duties and responsibili- 
ties, and profoundly conscious of their magnitude 
and gravity, I assume the trust imposed by the 
constitution, relying for aid on Divine guidance 

and the virtue, patriotism, and intelligence of the 
American people." 

Pie also on the same day appointed Monday, 26 
Sept., as a day of mourning for the late president. 
On 23 Sept. he issued a proclamation convening 
the senate in extraordinary session, to meet 10 Oct., 
in order that a president pro tern, of that body 
might be elected. The members of the cabinet 
were requested to retain their places until the regu- 
lar meeting of congress in December, and did re- 
main until their successors were appointed, except 
Sec. Windom, who, desiring to become a candidate 
for senator from Minnesota, resigned from the 
treasury 24 Oct. Edwin D. Morgan was nomi- 
nated and confirmed secretary of the treasury, but 
declined the api)ointment ; and Cliarles J. Folger, 
of New York, was then nominated and confirmed, 
was commissioned 27 Oct., and qualified 14 Nov. 
He died in office, 4 Sept., 1884. The other mem- 
bers of the cabinet of President Arthur, and the 
dates of their commissions, were as follows : State 
department, Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, of New 
Jersey, 12 Dec, 1881 ; treasury, Walter Q. Gresham, 
of Indiana, 24 Sept., 1884; Hugh McCulloch, of 
Maryland, 28 Oct., 1884; war, Robert T. Lincoln, 
of Illinois, 5 March, 1881 (retained from Garfield's 
cabinet); navy, William E. Chandler, of Nevv' 
Hampshire, 12 April, 1882; interior, Henry M. 
Teller, of Colorado, 6 April, 1882; attorney-gen- 
eral, Benjamin H. Brewster, of Pennsylvania, 19 
Dec, 1881 ; postmaster-general, Timothy 0. Howe, 
of Wisconsin, 20 Dec, 1881 (died in office, 25 March, 
1883); Walter Q. Gresham, 3 April, 1883; Frank 
Hatton, of Iowa, 14 Oct., 1884. Messrs. Freling- 
huysen, McCulloch, Lincoln, Chandler, Teller, 
Brewster, and Hatton remained in office until the 
end of the presidential term, 4 March, 1885. 

The prominent events of President Arthur's ad- 
ministration, including his most important recom- 
mendations to congress, may be here summarized : 
Shortly after his accession to the presidency he 
participated in the dedication of the monument 
erected at Yorktown, Va., to commemorate the 
surrender of Lord Cornwallis at that place, 19 Oct., 
1781. Representatives of our French allies and of 
the German participants were present. At the 
close of the celebration the president felicitously 
directed a salute to be fired in honor of the British 
flag, " in recognition of the friendly relations so 
long and so happily subsisting between Great 
Britain and the United States, in the trust and 
confidence of peace and good-will between the two 
countries for all the centuries to come, and espe- 
cially as a mark of the profound respect enter- 
tained by the American people for the illustrious 
sovereign and gracious lady who sits upon the 
British'throne." On 29 Nov., 1881, an invitation 
was extended to all the independent countries of 
North and South America to participate in a 
peace congress, to be convened at Washington 22 
Nov., 1882. The president, m a special message, 
18 April, 1882, asked the opinion of congress as to 
the expediency of the project. No response being 
elicited, he concluded, 9 Aug., 1882, to postpone 
indefinitely the proposed convocation, believing 
that so important a step should not be taken with- 
out the express authority of congress; or while 
three of the nations to be invited were at war ; or 
still, again, until a programme should have been 
prepared explicitly indicating the oV)jects and 
limiting the powers of the congress. Efl'orts were 
made, however, to strengthen the relations of the 
United States with the other American nationali- 
ties. Representations were made by the adminis- 
tration with a view to bringing to a close the de- 




vastating war between Chili and the allied states 
of Peru and Bolivia. Its friendly counsel was 
offered in aid of the settlement of the disputed 
boundary-line between Mexico and Guatemala, and 
was probably influential in averting a war between 
those countries. On 29 July, 1882, a convention 
was made with Mexico for relocating the boundary 
between that country and the United States from 
the Rio Grande to the Pacific, and on the same day 
an agreement was also effected permitting the 
armed forces of either country to cross the frontier 
in pursuit of hostile Indians. A series of recipro- 
cal commercial treaties with the cou, .tries of Amer- 
ica to foster an unhampered movement of trade 
was recommended. Such a treaty was made with 
Mexico, 20 Jan., 1883, Gen. U. S. Grant and Mr. 
Wm. H. Trescott being the U. S. commissioners, 
and was ratified by the senate 11 March, 1884. 
Similar treaties were made with Santo Domingo 
4 Dec, 1884 ; and 18 Nov., 1884, with Spain, rela- 
tive to the trade of Cuba and Porto Rico, both of 
which, before action by the senate, were withdrawn 
by President Cleveland, who, in his message of 8 
Dec, 1885, pronounced them inexpedient. In con- 
nection with commercial treaties President Arthur 
advised the establishment of a monetary union of 
the American countries to secure the adoption of 
a uniform currency basis, and as a step toward the 
general remonetization of silver. Provision for in- 
creased and improved consular representation in 
the Central American states was urged, and the 
recommendation was accepted and acted upon by 
congress. A Central and South American commis- 
sion was appointed, under the act of congress of 7 
July, 1884, and proceeded on its mission, guided 
by instructions containing a statement of the gen- 
eral policy of the government for enlarging its com- 
mercial intercourse with American states. Reports 
from the commission were submitted to congress 
in a message of 13 Feb., 1885. Negotiations were 
conducted with the republic of Colombia for the 
purpose of renewing and strengthening the obliga- 
tions of the United States as the sole guarantor of 
the integrity of Colombian territory, and of the 
neutrality of any interoceanic canal to be con- 
structed across the isthmus of Panama. By cor- 
respondence upon this subject, carried on with the 
British government, it was shown that the provi- 
sions of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty of 19 April, 
1850, can not be urged, and do not continue in 
force in justification of interference by any Euro- 
pean power, with the right of the United States 
to exercise exclusive control over any route of isth- 
mus transit, in accordance with the spirit and pur- 
pose of the so-called " Monroe doctrine." As the 
best and most practicable means of securing a canal, 
and at the same time protecting the paramount in- 
terests of the United States, a treaty was made with 
the republic of Nicaragua, 1 Dec, 1884, which au- 
thorized the United States to construct a canal, 
railway, and telegraph line across Nicaraguan ter- 
ritory by way of San Juan river and Lake Nica- 
ragua. This treaty was rejected by the senate, but 
a motion was made to reconsider the vote. Before 
final action had been taken it was withdrawn, 12 
March, 1885, by President Cleveland, who withheld 
it from re-submission to the senate, and in his mes- 
sage of 8 Dec, 1885, expressed his unwillingness to 
assert for the United States any claim of paramount 
privilege of ownership or control of any canal 
across the isthmus. Satisfaction was obtained 
from Spain of the old claim on account of the 
"Masonic," an American vessel, which had been 
seized at Manila unjustly, and under circumstances 
of peculiar severity. From the same government 

was also secured a recognition of the conclusive- 
ness of the judgments of the U. S. courts natural- 
izing citizens of Spanish nativity. From the 
British government a full recognition of the rights 
and immunities of naturalized American citizens 
of Irish origin was obtained, and all such that were 
under arrest in England or Ireland, as suspects, 
were liberated. Notice was given to England, un- 
der the joint resolution of congress of 3 March, 
1883, of the termination of the fishery clauses of 
the treaty of Washington. A complete scheme 
for re-organizing the extra-territorial jurisdiction 
of American consuls in China and Japan, and an- 
other for re-organizing the whole consular service, 
were submitted to congress. The former recom- 
mendation was adopted by the senate. The bal- 
ance of the Japanese indemnity fund was returned 
to Japan by act of 22 Feb., 1883, and the balance 
of the Chinese fund to China by act of 3 March, 
1885. A bill that was passed by congress prohibit- 
ing the immigration of Chinese laborers for a term 
of twenty years was vetoed, 4 April, 1882, as being 
a violation of the treaty of 1880 with China, which 
permitted the limitation or suspension of immigra- 
tion, but forbade its absolute prohibition. The 
veto was sustained and a modified bill, suspend- 
ing immigration for ten years, was passed 6 May, 
1882, which i-eceived executive approval, and also 
an amendatory act of 5 July, 1884. Outstand- 
ing claims with China were settled, and addition- 
al regulations of the opium traffic established. 
Friendly and commercial intercourse with Corea 
was opened under the most favorable auspices, in 
pursuance of the treaty negotiated on 22 May, 
1882, through the agency of Com. R. W. Shufeldt, 
U. S. N. The friendly offices of the United States 
were extended to Liberia in aid of a settlement, 
favorable to that republic, of the dispute concern- 
ing its boundary-line, with the British possession 
of Sierra Leone. The flag of the international as- 
sociation of the Congo was, on 22 April, 1884, rec- 
ognized first by the United States. A commercial 
agent was appointed to visit the Congo basin, and 
the government was represented at an international 
conference at Berlin, called by the emperor of 
Germany, for the promotion of trade and the es- 
tablishment of commercial rights in the Congo 
region. The renewal of the reciprocity treaty with 
Hawaii was advised. Remonstrances were ad- 
dressed to Russia against any proscriptive treat- 
ment of the Hebrew race in that country. The 
international prime meridian of Greenwich was es- 
tablished as the result of a conference of nations, 
initiated by the U. S. government, and held at 
Washington. 1 Oct. to 1 Nov., 1884. In response 
to the appeal of C'ardinal John McCloskey, of New 
York, the Italian government, on 4 March, 1884, 
was urged to exempt from the sale of the property 
of the propaganda the American college in Rome, 
established mainly by contributions from the Unit- 
ed States, and in consequence of this interposition 
the college was saved from sale and virtual confis- 
cation. On 3 Aug., 1882, a law was passed for 
returning convicts to Europe, and on 26 Feb.. 1885, 
importation of contract-laborers was forbidden. 

The suspension of the coinage of standard silver 
dollars, and the redemption of the trade dollars, 
were repeatedly recommended. The repeal of the 
stamp taxes on matches, proprietary articles, play- 
ing-cards, bank checks and drafts, and of the tax 
on surplus bank capital and deposits, was recom- 
mended. These taxes were repealed by act of 
congress of 3 March, 1883 ; and by executive order 
of 25 June, 1883, the number of internal revenue col- 
lection districts was reduced from 126 to 83, The 




tax on tobacco was reduced by the same act of con- 
gress ; and in his last annual message, of 5 Dec, 
1884, the president advised the repeal of all internal 
revenue taxes except those on distilled spirits and 
fermented liquors. Congress was advised to under- 
take the revision of the tariff, but " without the 
abandonment of the policy of so discriminating in 
the adjustment of details as to afford aid and pro- 
tection to American labor." The course advised 
was the organization of a tariff commission, which 
was authorized by act of congress of 15 May, 1882. 
The report of the commission submitted to con- 
gress 4 Dec. was made the basis of the tariff revis- 
ion act of 3 March, 1883. On 13 July, 1882, an act 
became a law enabling the national banks, which 
were then completing their twenty-year terms, to 
extend their corporate existence. Overdue five per 
cent, bonds to the amoimt of $469,651,050, and 
six per cent, bonds to the amount of .$203,573,750, 
were continued (except about $56,000,000 which 
were paid) at the rate of 3^ per cent, interest. The 
interest-bearing public debt was reduced $478,785,- 
950, and the annual interest charge $29,831,880 
during the presidential term. On 1 July, 1882, 
" An act to regulate the carriage of passengers by 
sea" was vetoed because not correctly or accurately 
phrased, although the object was admitted to be 
meritorious and philanthropic. A modified bill 
passed congress, and was approved 2 Aug. The 
attention of congress was frequently called, to the 
decline of the American merchant marine, and 
legislation was recommended for its restoration, 
and the construction and maintenance of ocean 
steamships under the U. S. flag. In compliance 
with these recommendations, the following laws 
were enacted: 26 June, 1884, an act to remove 
certain burdens from American shipping; 5 July, 
1884, an act creating a bureau of navigation, under 
charge of a commissioner, in the treasury depart- 
ment ; and 3 March, 1885, an amendment to the 
postal appropriation bill appropriating $800,000 
for contmeting with American steamship lines for 
the transportation of foreign mails. Reasonable 
national regulation of the railways of the country 
was favored, and the opinion was expressed that 
congress should protect the people at large in their 
inter-state traffic against acts of injustice that the 
state governments might be powerless to prevent. 

The attention of eongi'ess was often called to 
the necessity of modern provisions for coast de- 
fence. By special message of 11 April, 1884, an 
annual appropriation of $1,500,000 for the arma- 
ment of fortillcations was recommended. In the last 
annual message an expenditure of $60,000,000, one 
tenth to be appropriated annually, was recommend- 
ed. In consequence, the fortifications board was 
created by act of 3 March, 1885, which made an 
elaborate report to the 49th congress, recommend- 
ing a complete system of coast defence at an ulti- 
mate cost estimated at $126,377,800. The gun- 
^'oundry board, consisting of army and navy officers, 
appointed under the act of 3 March, 1883, visited 
Europe and made full reports, advising large con- 
tracts for terms of years with American manufac- 
turers to produce the steel necessary for heavy can- 
non, and recommending the establishment of one 
army and one navy gun factory for the fabrication 
of modern ordnance. This plan was commended 
to congress in a special message 26 March, 1884, 
and in the above-mentioned message of 11 April ; 
also in the annual message of that year. In the 
annual message of 1881 the improvement of Missis- 
sippi river was recommended. On 17 April, 1882, 
by special message, congress was urged to provide 
for " closing existing gaps in levees," and to adopt 

a system for the permanent improvement of the 
navigation of the river and for the security of the 
valley. Special messages on this subject were also 
sent 8 Jail, and 2 April, 1884. Appropriations were 
made of $8,500,000 for permanent work ; and in 
1882 of $350,000, and in 1884 of over $150,000, for 
the relief of the sufferers from floods, the amount in 
the latter year being the balance left from $500,000 
appropriated on account of the floods in the Ohio. 
Tiiesc i-i'licf appropriations were expended under the 
personal supervision of the secretary of war. On 1 
Aug., 1882, the president vetoed a river-and-harbor 
bill making appropriations of $18,743,875, on the 
gi'ound that the amount greatly exceeded " the 
needs of the country" for the then current fiscal 
year, and because it contained " appropriations for 
purposes not for the common defence or general 
welfare," which did not " promote commerce 
among the states, but were, on the contrary, entire- 
ly for the benefit of the particular localities " where 
it was "proposed to make the improvements." 
The bill, on 2 Aug., passed congress over the veto 
by 122 yeas to 59 nays in the house, and 41 yeas to 
16 nays in the senate. In connection with this 
subject it was suggested to congress, in the annual 
messages of 1882, 1883, and 1884, that it would be 
wise to adopt a constitutional amendment allow- 
ing the president to veto in part only any bill ap- 
propriating moneys. A special message of 8 Jan., 
1884, commended to congress, as a matter of great 
public interest, the cession to the United States of 
the Illinois and Michigan canal in order to secure 
the construction of the Hennepin canal to connect 
Lake Michigan by way of Illinois river with the 
Mississippi. Unlawful intrusions of armed settlers 
into the Indian territory for the purpose of locat- 
ing upon lands set apart for the Indians were pre- 
vented, or the intruders were expelled by the army. 
On 2 July, 1884, the president vetoed the bill to 
restore to the army and place on the retired list 
Maj.-Gen. Fitz-John Porter, who, on the sentence 
of a court-martial, approved by President Lincoln 
27 Jan., 1863, had been dismissed for disobedience 
of orders to march to attack the enemy in his- 
front during the second battle of Bull Run. The 
reasons assigned for the veto were, (1) that the con- 
gi'ess had no right " to impose upon the president 
the duty of nominating or appointing to office any 
particular individual of its own selection," and (2)- 
that the bill was in effect an annulment of a final 
judgment of a court of last resort, after the lapse 
of many years, and on insufficient evidence. The 
veto was overruled in the house by 168 yeas to 78 
nays, but was sustained in the senate by 27 to 27. 

A new naval policy was adopted prescribing a 
reduction in the number of oificers, the elimina- 
tion of drunkards, great strictness and impartiality 
in discipline, the discontinuance of extensive re- 
pairs of old wooden ships, the diminution of navy- 
yard expenses, and the beginning of the construc- 
tion of a new navy of modern steel ships and guns 
according to the plans of a skilful naval ad- 
visory board. The first of such vessels, the cruis- 
ers •' Chicago," " Boston," and " Atlanta," and a 
steel despatch-boat, " Dolphin," with tlieir arma- 
ments, were designed in this country and built in 
American workshops. The gun foundry board re- 
ferred to above was originated, and its reports were 
printed with tliat of the department for 1884. A 
special message of 26 March, 1884, urged continued 
progress in the reconstruction of the navy, the 
granting of authority for at least three additional 
steel cruisers and foiir gun-boats, and the finishing 
of the four double-turreted monitors. Two cruis- 
ers and two gun-boats were authorized by the act 




of 3 March, 1885. An Arctic expedition, consist- 
ing of the steam whalers " Thetis " and " Bear," 
together with the ship " Alert," given by the Brit- 
ish admiralty, was fitted out and despatched under 
the command of Commander Winfield Scott Schley 
for the relief of Lieut. A. W. Greely, of the U. S. 
army, who with his party had been engaged since 
1881 in scientific exploration at Lady Franklin 
bay, in Grinnell Land ; and that officer and the 
few other survivors were rescued at Cape Sabine 
22 June, 1884. On recommendation of the presi- 
dent, an act of congress was passed directing the 
return of the " Alert " to the English government. 

The reduction of letter postage from three to 
two cents a half ounce was recommended, and was 
effected by the act of 3 March, 1883 : the unit of 
weight was on 8 March, 1885, made one ounce, 
instead of a half ounce ; the rate on transient 
newspapers and periodicals was reduced, 9 June, 
1884, to one cent for four ounces, and the rate on 
similar matter, when sent by the publisher or from 
a news agency to actual subscribers or to other 
news agents, including sample copies, was on 8 
March, 1885, reduced to one cent a pound. The 
fast-mail and free-delivery systems were largely 
extended ; and also, on 3 March, 1883, the money- 
order system. Special letter deliveries were estafj- 
lished 3 March, 1885. The star service at the west 
was increased at reduced cost. The foreign mail 
service was improved, the appropriation of $800,- 
000, already alluded to, was made, and various 
postal conventions were negotiated. 

Recommendations were made for the revision of 
the laws fixing the fees of jurors and witnesses, 
and for prescribing by salaries the compensation 
of district attorneys and marshals. The prosecu- 
tion of persons charged with frauds in connection 
with the star-route mail service was pressed with 
vigor (the attorney-general appearing in person at 
the principal trial), and resulted in completely 
breaking up the vicious and corrupt practices that 
had previously flourished in connection with that 
service. Two vacancies on the bench of the su- 
preme court were filled — one on the death of 
Nathan Clifford, of Maine, by Horace Gray, of 
Massachusetts, commissioned on 20 Dec, 1881. 
For the vacancy occasioned by the retirement of 
Ward Hunt, of New York, Roscoe Conkling was 
nominated 24 Feb., 1882, and he was confirmed by 
the senate ; but on 3 March he declined the office, 
and Samuel Blatchford, of New York, was ap- 
pointed and commissioned 23 March, 1882. 

Measures were recommended for breaking up 
tribal relations of the Indians by allotting to them 
land in severalty, and by extending to them the 
laws applicable to other citizens ; and liberal ap- 
propriations for the education of Lidian children 
were advised. Peace with all the tribes was pre- 
served during the whole term of the administra- 
tion. Stringent legislation against polygamy in 
Utah was recommended, and under the law en- 
acted 22 March, 1882, many polygamists were 
indicted, convicted, and punished. The Utah 
commission, to aid in the better government of 
the territory, was appointed under the same act. 
The final recommendation of the president in his 
messages of 1883 and 1884 was, that congress 
should assume the entire political control ot the 
territory, and govern it through comnnssioners. 
Legislation was" urged for the preservation of the 
valuable forests remaining upon the public do- 
main. National aid to education was repeatedly 
urged, preferably through setting apart the pro- 
ceeds of the sales of public lands. 

A law for the adjudication of the French spolia- 

tion claims was passed 20 Jan., 1885, and prepara- 
tion was made for carrying it into effect. Con- 
gress was urged in every annual message to pass 
laws establishing safe and certain methods of as- 
certaining the result of a presidential election, and 
fully providing for all cases of removal, death, res- 
ignation, or inability of the president, or any of- 
ficer acting as such. In view of certain decisions 
of the supreme court, additional legislation was 
urged in the annual message of 1883 to supple- 
ment and enforce the 14th amendment to the con- 
stitution in its special purpose to insure to mem- 
bers of the colored race the full enjoyment of civil 
and political rights. The subject of reform in the 
methods of ';he public service, which had been dis- 
cussed by the president in his letter of 23 Nov., 
1877, while collector, to Sec. Sherman, and in his 
letter of 15 July, 1880, accepting the nomination for 
vice-president, was fully treated in all his annual 
messages, and in special messages of 29 Feb., 1884, 
and 11 Feb., 1885. The "act to regulate and im- 
prove the civil service of the United States" was 
passed 16 Jan., 1883, and under it a series of rules 
was established by the president, and the law and 
rules at all times received his unqualified support, 
and that of the heads of the several departments. 
The final distribution of the moneys derived from 
the Geneva award among meritorious sufferers on 
account of the rebel cruisers fitted out or harbored 
in British ports was provided for by the act of 5 
June, 1882. In the annual message of 1884 a 
suitable pension to Gen. Grant was recommended, 
and, upon his announcement that he would not 
accept a pension, a special message of 3 Feb., 1885, 
urged the passage of a bill creating the office of 
general of the army on the retired list, to enable 
the president in his discretion to appoint Gen. 
Grant. Such a bill was passed 8 March, 1885, and 
the president on that day made the nomination, 
and it was confirmed in open session amid demon- 
strations of approval, in a crowded senate-chamber, 
a few minutes before the expiration of the session. 

The president attended, as the guest of the city 
of Boston, the celebration of the Webster Histori- 
cal society at Marshfield, Mass., and made brief 
addresses in Faneuil Hall, 11 Oct., 1882, and at 
Marshfield, 13 Oct. He commended the Southern 
Exposition at Louisville, Ky., by a letter of 9 
June, 1883, attended its opening, and delivered an 
address on 2 Aug. He aided in many ways the 
World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Expo- 
sition at New Orleans ; and on 16 Dec, 1884, in an 
address sent by telegraph from the executive man- 
sion in Washington, he opened the exposition, and 
set in motion the machinery by the electric current. 
On 25 Sept., 1883, he was present at the unveil- 
ing of the Burnside monument at Bristol, R. I. 
On 26 Nov., 1883, he attended the unveiling of the 
statue of Washington on the steps of the sub- 
treasury building in New York city ; and 21 Feb., 
1885, he made an address at the dedication, at the 
national capital, of the Washington monument, 
which had been completed during his term. 

President Arthur's name was presented to the 
republican presidential convention that met at 
Chicago 8 June, 1884, by delegates from New York, 
Pennsylvania, Mississippi, North Carolina, and 
Louisiana. On the first ballot he received 278 
votes against 540 for all others, 276 on the second, 
274 on the third, and 207 on the fourth, which re- 
sulted in the nomination of James G. Blaine. 
He at once telegraphed to Mr. Blaine, " As the can- 
didate of the republican party you will have my 
earnest and cordial support," and in the canvass 
which ensued he rendered all possible assistance 




to the republican cause and candidates. The 
national convention, in its resolutions, declared 
that " in the administration of President Arthur 
we recognize a wise, conservative, and patriotic 
policy, under which the country has been blessed 
with remarkable prosperity, and we believe his 
eminent services are entitled to and will receive the 
hearty approval of every citizen." The conven- 
tions in all the states had also unanimously passed 
resolutions commendatory of the adiniiiist ration. 

Mr. Arthur married, 29 Oct., 18.j9, Ellen Lewis 
Herndon, of Fredericksburg, Va., who died 12 
Jan., 1880, leaving two children, Chester Alan 
Arthur, b. 25 July, 1865, and Ellen Herndon Ar- 
thur, b. 21 Nov., 1871. Their first child, William 
L. H. Arthur, was b. 10 Dec, 1800, and d. 8 July, 
1863. Mrs. Arthur was the daughter of Command- 
er William Lewis Herndon, of the U. S. navy, who, 
in 1851-'2, explored the Amazon river under or- 
ders of the government. He perished in a gale 
at sea, 12 Sept., 1857, on the way from Havana to 
New York, while in command of the merchant- 
steamer, " Central America." (See Herndon.) 

In person, Mr. Arthur was tall, large, well-projDor- 
tioned, and of distinguished presence. His man- 
ners were always affable. He was genial in domestic 
and social life, and warmly beloved by his personal 
friends. He conducted his official intercourse with 
unvarying courtesy, and dispensed the liberal hos- 
pitalities of the executive mansion with ease and 
dignity, and in such a way as to meet universal 
commendation from citizens and foreigners alike. 
He had a full and strong mind, literary taste and 
culture, a retentive memory, and was apt in il- 
lustration by analogy and anecdote. He reasoned 
coolly and logically, and was never one-sided. The 
style of his state papers is snnple and direct. He 
was eminently conscientious, wise, and just in pur- 
pose and act as a public official ; had always the 
courage to follow his deliberate convictions, and 
remained unmoved by importunity or attack. He 
succeeded to the presidency under peculiarly dis- 
tressing circumstances. The factional feeling in 
the Republican party, which the year before had 
resulted in the nomination of Gen. Garfield for 
president as the representative of one faction, and 
of himself for vice-president as the representative 
of the other, had measurably subsided during the 
canvass and the following winter, only to break out 
anew immediately after the inauguration of the 
new administration, and a fierce controversy was 
raging when the assassination of President Gar- 
field convulsed the nation and created the gravest 
apprehensions. Cruel misjudgments were formed 
and expressed by men who would now hesitate to 
admit them. The long weeks of alternating hope 
and fear that preceded the president's death left 
the public mind perturbed and restless. Doubt 
and uneasiness were everywhere apparent. The 
delicacy and discretion displayed by the vice-presi- 
dent had compelled approval, but had not served 
wholly to disarm prejudice, and when he took the 
murdered president's place the whole people were 
in a state of tense and anxious expectancy, of 
which, doubtless, he was most painfully conscious. 
All fears, however, were speedily and happily dis- 
pelled. The new president's inaugural was ex- 
plicit, judicious, and reassuring, and his purpose 
not to administer his high office in the spirit of 
former faction, although by it he lost some friend- 
ships, did much toward healing the dissensions 
within the dominant party. His conservative ad- 
ministration of the government commanded uni- 
versal confidence, preserved public ordei% and 
promoted business activity. If his conduct of 

affairs be criticised as lacking aggressiveness, it 
may confidently be replied that aggressiveness 
would have been unfortunate, if not disastrous. 
Rarely has there been a time when an indiscreet 
president could have wrought more mischief. It 
was not a time for showy exploits or brilliant ex- 
perimentation. Above all else, the people needed 
rest from the strain and excitement into which 
the assassination of their president had plunged 
them. The course chosen by President Arthur 
was the wisest and most desirable that was possible. 
If apparently negative in itself, it was positive, 
far-reaching, and most salutary in its results. The 
service which at this crisis in public affairs he thus 
rendered to the coimtry must be accounted the 
greatest of his personal achievements, and the 
most important result of his administration. As 
such, it should be placed in its true light before 
the reader of the future ; and in this spirit, for the 
purpose of historical accuracy only, it is here given 
the prominence it deserves. His administration, 
considered as a whole, was responsive to every 
national demand, and stands in all its departments 
substantially without assatilt or criticism. 

He died suddenly, of apoplexy, at his residence, 
No. 128 Lexington avenue, New York, Thursday 
morning, 18 Nov., 1886. The funeral services were 
held on the following Monday, at the Church of 
the Heavenly Rest. President Cleveland and his 
cabinet, Chief-Justice Waite, ex-President Hayes, 
James G. Blaine, Gens. Sherman, Sheridan, and 
Schofield, and the surviving members of Presi- 
dent Arthur's cabinet, were in attendance. On the 
same day a special train conveyed his remains to 
Albany, where they were placed by the side of his 
wife in the family burial-place in Rural cemetery. 

ARTHUR, Sii- GeorgT, Bart., British states- 
man, b. in Plymouth, England, 21 June, 1784 ; d. 
19 Sept., 1854. He entered the army in 1804, and 
served in Sir James Craig's expedition to Italy in 
1806. The following year he went to Egypt, and 
was severely wounded in the attack upon Rosetta. 
He served as a captain under Sir James Kempt in 
Sicily in 1808, and in the Walcheren expedition in 
1809, in which latter he so greatly distinguished 
himself that he was thanked in general orders, was 
appointed a deputy assistant adjutant-general on 
the field, and upon his return to England had the 
freedom of the city of London conferred upon him 
and received a sword of honor. He was afterward 
military secretary to Sir George Don, governor of 
Jersey,"and in 1812, having attained his majority 
in the 7th West India regiment, he joined it in 
Jamaica, and within a short time was appointed 
assistant quartermaster-general of the forces in 
that island. In 1814 he was appointed lieutenant- 
governor of British Honduras, holding at the saine 
time the rank of colonel on the staff, thus exercis- 
ing the military command as well as the civil gov- 
ernment. While acting in this capacity Col. Ar- 
thur suppressed a serious outbreak of the slave 
population of Honduras. His despatches relative 
to the revolt and the subject of slavery in the West 
Indies attracted the attention of Mr. Wilberforce 
and other philanthropists, and contributed in no 
slight degree to the subsequent abolition of slavery 
within the British empire^ In 1822 he left Hon- 
duras for England, and in 1823 was appointed 
lieutenant-governor of Van Dieman's Land (then 
the principal British penal colony), having com- 
mand of the military forces as well. His attempts 
at introducing reforms in the transportation system 
were not successful, as the colonists and their 
friends at home, who were determined to put an 
end to the system altogether, never allowed his 




plans a fair trial. He returned to England in 
March, 1837, was knighted, and at the close of that 
year was appointed lieutenant-governor of Upper 
Canada, having also the rank of inajoi'-general on 
the staff. The state of Canada at this time was 
critical, as in both Upper and Lower Canada at- 
tempts had been made, a few months before Col. 
Arthur's arrival, to subvert the British authority, 
and, shortly after he had taken charge of the gov- 
ernment. Upper Canada was invaded by a band of 
American sympathizers. The invasion was no 
more successful than the preceding attempts at re- 
volt, and much credit was awarded to Sir George 
Arthur for his successful arrangements for the de- 
fence of the colony. The union of Upper and 
Lower Canada took place in 1841, Lord Sydenham 
being the first governor-general, and at his request 
Sir George Arthur continued for a time to conduct 
the administration of Upper Canada as deputy gov- 
ernor, it being specially stipulated by him that he 
would receive no remuneration for his services. He 
returned to England in 1841, and was created a 
baronet in recognition of his services in Canada. 
On 8 June, 1842, he assumed the office of governor 
of the Indian presidency of Bombay, which he re- 
tained until 1846. During this period (a most 
critical one in the history of India) he displayed 
great tact and ability, and assisted very materi- 
ally in extending and strengthening British rule 
in that country. The suppression of the insurrec- 
tion in Kolapun was largely due to his judicious 
and prompt measures, and he was appointed pro- 
visional governor-general, but did not assume office, 
as he was compelled by ill-health to leave India be- 
fore Lord flardinge vacated the governor-general- 
ship. Sir George Arthur, during his administra- 
tion of the affairs of the presidency, perfected the 
Deccan survey, the object of which was to equalize 
and decrease the pressure of the land assessment on 
the cultivators of the Deccan ; and gave his hearty 
support to the project of a railway line from Bom- 
bay to Callian, which may be regarded as the germ 
of the great Indian peninsular railway, while during 
his administration the reclamation of the foreshore 
of the island of Bombay was projected. On his re- 
turn to England in 1846 he was made a privy 
councillor, and in 1853 he received the colonelcy of 
the 50th Queen's own regiment. 

ARTHUR, Timothy Shay, author, b. near 
Newburg, N. Y., in 1809; d. in Philadelphia, 6 
March, 1885. When he was about eight years of 
age his parents moved to Baltimore, Md., where he 
received a little education, was apprenticed to a 
trade, and was a clerk for several years. In 1833 
he visited the west as the agent of a banking con- 
cern. He had meantime eclueated himself by read- 
ing and study, and when he returned to Baltimore 
he became editor of " The Athenteum." In 1841 
he removed to Philadelphia, where the rest of his 
life was passed, and where, in 1852, he founded 
" Arthur's Home Magazine," of which he was edi- 
tor until within a few weeks of his death. He was 
a voluminous writer of tales of domestic life, and 
also prepared, with the aid of W. H. Carpenter, a 
series of histories of the different states of the 
union. The entire number of volumes of Mr. Ar- 
thur's works exceeds one hundred, and of these 
more than half have been republished in England, 
where his writings have had a large circulation. 
Among his books are "Lights and Shadows of 
Real Life," " Tales for Rich and Poor " (6 vols.), 
"Library for the Household" (12 vols.), "Ten 
Nights in a Bar-Room," and " Steps to Heaven." 
His stories all have some moral end in view, many 
of them being devoted to the support of the tem- 

perance cause. Although they do not possess great 
merit as literature, they have been widely read and 
gained him much popidarity. His book, " The 
Good Time Coming" (1855), was accused of "verg- 
ing on spiritualism and Swedenborgianism." 

ARTHUR, William, clergyman, b. in Antrim, 
Ireland, in 1796; d. in Newtonville, near Albany, 
N. Y., 27 Oct., 1875. He was graduated at Belfast 
college, came to the United States, studied law for 
a short time, and was then called to the Baptist 
ministry. After preaching in Vermont and west- 
ern New York, he was settled as pastor of the Cal- 
vary Baptist church of Albany, N. Y., where he re- 
mained from 1855 to 1863. He afterward removed 
to Schenectady, where he published a magazine 
called the " Antiquarian," to whose pages he con- 
tributed much curious learning on a variety of 
topics. He published an " Etymological Diction- 
ary of Family and Christian Names " (New York, 
1857), which was favorably received both in this 
country and in Europe. During the last ten years 
of his life he lived in retirement, preaching occa- 
sionally, and giving much time to literary pursuits. 
Dr. Arthur was noted for his attainments in the 
classics and in history, both sacred and profane. 
His son, Chester Alan Arthur, was twenty-first 
president of the United States. 

ARTKtAS. Jose (ar-tee'-gas), a South American 
soldier, b. in Montevideo, 19 June, 1764 ; d. in Para- 
guay, 23 Sept., 1850. He was the son of a wealthy 
landed proprietor, and for a time led an adventur- 
ous life as a gmicho, and then served as captain in 
the light cavalry of the provinces, but on account 
of some difficulty with the governor passed in 1811 
into the service of the junta of Buenos Ayres, then 
in insurrection against Spain. At the head of a 
band of gauchos he defeated the Spaniards in sev- 
eral encounters, and vigorously supported the re- 
publican army that besieged the Portuguese troops 
from Brazil, who then occupied Montevideo. But, 
being passionate and scheming, he soon acted in- 
dependently, and finally detached his men from 
the besieging army, whereupon Posadas, director 
of the junta, outlawed him and set a price upon 
his head. But the gauchos flocked to his standard, 
and Artigas, having defeated the troops sent against 
him, oblTged his enemies to cede to him the whole 
of Uruguay (1814). He then compelled the Portu- 
guese to abandon their attempt to regain possession 
of Montevideo, which had surrendered. He now 
acted as dictator in Uruguay, and in 1815 made an 
unsuccessful attempt against Buenos Ayres. After 
various contests he was twice defeated, in 1819 and 
1820, and fled to Paraguay, where Dr. Francia, the 
dictator, banished him to Candelaria. Here he de- 
voted himself to husljandrvand philanthropic work. 

ARVELO, Rafael (arr-va'-lo), Venezuelan 
statesman, b. in Valencia, 1 June, 1784; d. 16 
Oct., 1862. While quite young he went to Bogotii. 
where he finished his education. After returning 
to his own country he soon became noted for his 
political and literary abilities. He was provincial 
governor, minister of foreign affairs, and president 
of the republic of Venezuela, ad interim. But his 
greatest fame in that country he owed to his satiri- 
cal poems and epigrams, which are very popular. 

ARZAO, Antonio Rodrignez (ar-thah'-o), 
Brazilian traveller, who in company with Antonio 
Suarez explored in 1714 the deserts of Sao Paulo, 
where they discovered a large region rich in gold 
and diamonds, which the Indians called Hyvi-turuy 
(" place beaten by winds "), but the discoverers gave 
it the name of Cerro do Frio. Several other mem- 
bers of Arzao's family made similar expeditions and 
discoveries m the interior of Brazil. 




ASBOTH, Alexander Sandor, soldier, b. in 
Keszthely, Hungary, 18 Dec, 1811 ; d. in Buenos 
Ayres, S. A., 21 Jan., 1868. He was educated in 
Oldenburg, and served for some time as a cuirassier 
in the Austrian army. SuhsiMiucntly he studied law 
at Presburg, and then, turning his attention to en- 
gineering, was employed upon various important 
works in the Banat. He served with Kossuth in 
the Hungarian war of 1848-'9, and participated in 
the battles of Tomasovacz, Kapolna, and Nagy 
Sarlo. He followed Kossuth to Turkey, shared his 
confinement at Kutaieh, and on his release came 
with him to the United States in 1851, where he 
soon became a citizen. He pursued various occu- 
pations, and on the outbreak of the civil war in 
1801 offered his services to the government. In 
July he was sent to Missouri as chief of staff to 
Gen. Fremont, and on 20 Sept. was appointed 
brigadier-general and commanded the 4th division 
in Fremont's western campaign. He was next as- 
signed to the command of a division in Gen. Cur- 
tis's army, and during the Arkansas campaign oc- 
cupied Bentonville and Fayetteville. He partici- 
pated in the battles of Pea Ridge, and was severely 
wounded. In 1803 he was placed in command of 
Columbus, Ky., and in August of the same year was 
assigned to the district of west Florida, with head- 
quarters at Fort Pickens. He was badly wounded 
in the battle of Marianna, 27 Sept., 1864, his left 
cheek-bone being broken and his left arm fractured 
in two places. For his services in Florida he was 
brevetted major-general 13 March, 1865, and re- 
signed in the following August. In 1866 he was 
sent as U. S. minister to the Argentine Republic 
and Uruguay, where he died in consequence of the 
wounds in his face. 

ASBURY, Francis, M. E. missionary bishop, b. 
in Ilandsworth, Staffordshire, England, 20 Aug., 
1745; d. in Spottsylvania, Va., 21 March, 1816. 
His parents, devout Methodists, must have been 
among the earlier disciples of Wesley. Hands- 
worth was hardly 
a day's ride from 
Oxford, where the 
Wesleys organ- 
ized their " Holy 
Band." and the 
lad nriist have im- 
bil)ed Wesleyan- 
isin from the time 
when he first saw 
the light. He was 
converted at the 
age of thirteen, 
through the influ- 
ence of the " itin- 
erants," who were 
a) ready beginning 
their labors. He 
received the rudi- 
ments of an edu- 
cation at the vil- 
lage school of 
Barre, and was indentured to a maker of " buckle 
chapes," or tongues, at the age of fourteen. At this 
time the Wesleys, John and Charles, had well in 
hand the movement out of which grew the great reli- 
gious denomination that bears their name. Method- 
ist chapels were being founded all over the United 
Kingdom, and the inspired idea of " itinerant preach- 
ers," or " circuit riders," was making its power felt. 
Under such conditions the latent talents of young 
Asbury speedily developed. At sixteen he was a 
local preacher, and at twenty-two he was regularly 
^.nroUed among the itinerants by Wesley himself. 



This was in 1707, almost before the spirit of politi- 
cal discontent was making itself felt in the Ameri- 
can colonies, where Wesleyanism had already been 
planted in a congenial soil. In 1771 Asbury, who 
by that time had begun to show his qualities as an 
executive as well as a preacher, was designated by 
Wesley as a missionary to America, and, with the 
Rev. Richard Wright as his companion, he landed 
at Philadelphia 27""Oct., 1771. The first Methodist 
meeting-house in America was only three years 
old, and altogether there were only about 300 com- 
municants in the country, these being mainly in 
New York and Philadelphia. During the follow- 
ing year Asbury was appointed " general assistant 
in America," with power of supervision over all the 
preachers and societies, but was superseded in 1773 
by an older minister, Mr. Thomas Rankin. By this 
time the spirit of revolution was abroad, and Mr. 
Rankin, unequal to the crisis, returned to England 
as soon as the storm broke. Asbury, however, with 
the true spirit of an apostle, remained at his post. 
With prophetic vision he recognized the opportu- 
nity of his chosen church, and determined to stand 
by it during a period that threatened its founda- 
tions. His political sympathies were fully with 
the patriot cause, but he. in common with many 
other Methodists, fell under suspicion of toryism, 
because of their refusal to take the prescribed oath 
of allegiance, they being conscientiously opposed to 
all oaths. Several writs were served upon Method- 
ist preachers ; but Mr. Asbury's prudence and ad- 
dress were such that he avoided trouble until 1770, 
when he was arrested and fined five pounds. In 
March, 1778, he considered himself in such danger 
that he took refuge in the he use of Judge Thomas 
White, of Delaware, and there remained practically 
a prisoner for two years befoi'e he ventured freely 
to resume his labors. To use his own words, it was 
" a season of the most active, the most useful, and 
the most suffering part of my life." At last the 
authorities became convinced that the " non- 
jurors," as they called themselves, were acting 
from religious, not political, motives, and the itin- 
erants were permitted to resmne their circuits. 

On the restoration of peace it became evident to 
the American JMethodists that the organization of 
an independent church was necessary. Until this 
time Wesley, an ordained priest of the English 
church, had loyally maintained his ecclesiastical re- 
lations and recognized only the bishops of the " es- 
tablishment " as authorized to administer the sac- 
rament. He became convinced, however, that his 
American disciples would not long submit to such 
leading-strings, and proceeded wisely to study the 
question of presbyter and bishop, reaching the con- 
clusion that in the primitive church the two offices 
were identical. He therefore assumed the office of 
bishop, formally consecrated the Rev. Thomas Coke, 
LL. D., of Oxford, and sent him to America to 
perpetuate the apostolic succession in its Wesleyan 
aspect on this side of the water. At a conference 
held in 1784, Dr. Coke appeared in his robes of 
office and, pursuant to Wesley's instructions, con- 
secrated Francis Asbury joint bishop with hnnself 
over the American church, which forthwith 
adopted as its official designation " The Method- 
ist Episcopal Church in the United States of Amer- 
ica." From this time until he was no longer able 
to travel. Bishop Asbury's labors were incessant, 
and he deserves to rank with the great evangelists 
of all time. The civil history of tlie United States 
might have been very different had Asbury failed 
to be on the ground to assume the office. Like a 
good general, he even kept his skirmishers — that is, 
his "circuit riders " — abreast with the leading 




pioneers, and he himself, frequently under escort 
of a score or two of frontiersmen to guard against 
Indians, rode to and fro, often in the advance and 
always near enough to see what was going on. The 
first ordination in the Mississippi valley was per- 
formed by him. Rude, unlettered men most of 
these itinerants were, and the bishop himself had 
but a slender equipment of scholastic knowledge. 
Nevertheless, they largely shaped the destiny of the 
west. There is nothing authentic in frontier litera- 
ture more romantic than " Asbury's Journals " (3 
vols.. New York, 1853), with their unconscious rec- 
ord of a zeal and self-sacrifice that rivals anything 
in history. In spite of his defective early educa- 
tion, he managed to acquire a knowledge of Greek 
and Hebrew, and, contrary to the usual impression, 
laid during the first year of his episcopate the foun- 
dation of the first Methodist college, that at Abing- 
don, Md. Annually he rode on horseback or by 
primitive conveyances about 6,000 miles, and this, 
for the most part, over the rough roads and 
through the nearly trackless forests that covered 
the continent beyond the narrow belt of sea-coast 
settlements. In character and temperament he 
was bold, aggressive, enthusiastic, gentle in man- 
ners, but of unfiinching firmness. His native wis- 
dom and intuitive perceptions made good the lack 
of artificial training, and lent him an insight that 
was well-nigh infallible. Wesley could never have 
done what Asbury did. Indeed, he tried to do 
it, and failed, not comprehending the spirit of 
freedom that was abroad in the American air. 
Asbury was instantly in sympathy with that 
spirit, and two million American Methodists attest 
the ability with which he fulfilled his mission. The 
noblest monument to his memory is the great church, 
which grew under his personal leadership from a 
scattered band of 316 members and four preachers 
to a powerful denomination 214,000 strong, con- 
trolled by bishops, 2,000 local preachers, and 700 
itinerants. See "Asbury's .lournals" (New York, 
1852) ; Bangs's " History of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church " (1839) ; Strickland's " Life of Asbury " 
(1858); Wakely's " Heroes of Methodism " (1859) ; 
Stevens's " Memorials of Methodism " ; " Centenary 
of Methodism" (1866); and Larrabee's "Asbury 
and his Co-laborers " (2 vols., Cincinnati, 1853). 

ASlxILL, Sir Cli.arles, soldier, b. in England, 
7 April, 1762; d. there, 23 July, 1823. He was a 
son of Sir Charles Asgill, a London alderman, first 
baronet of that name. When sixteen years of age 
he entered the 1st foot guards, and in i781 became 
a captain. He served in the United States under 
Cornwallis, and was included in the surrender at 
Yorktown. Particular interest is attached to this 
young officer on account of his narrow escape 
from death. Capt. Joseph Huddy, of the New Jer- 
sey line, had been captured, falsely charged with 
having been concerned in the death of Philip 
White, a desperate tory, who was killed while try- 
ing to escape from his guard, and then hanged 
by" the British troops. In retaliation, Washington 
was authorized by congress to select by lot from 
among his prisoners an officer of equal rank to be 
executed immediately, and Asgill was chosen, but 
his death was postponed while an investigation as 
to the exact cause of Capt. Huddy's execution was 
being made in the British army. Meanwhile six 
months elapsed, and, in response to an appeal made 
by the queen, Marie Antoinette of Prance, con- 
gress directed that Capt. Asgill be set at liberty. 
After his return to England, he served in Flanders, 
and later was in command of the garrison in Dub- 
lin during the rebellion in Ireland. He became 
colonel of the 11th regiment, and in 1807 was 

made general in the British army. On the death 
of his father he succeeded to the estate and the 
baronetcy. His story was made the ground-work 
of a tragic drama by Madame de Sevigne. 

ASHBURN, deorge W., soldier, b. in Geor- 
gia ; d. 1 April, 1868. During the civil war he 
was a strong opponent of secession, and raised a 
company of southern loyalists, subsequently en- 
larged to a regiment, of which he was colonel. On 
his return home after the war he boldly advocat- 
ed the congressional plan of reconstruction. He 
was chosen a delegate to the Georgia constitutional 
convention of 1867, and did much toward perfect- 
ing the constitution of his state. His political ene- 
mies, unsuccessful in provoking him to violence, 
caused his death. This crime was investigated by 
Gen. Meade, and it was shown conclusively by 
whom the mui'der was committed. 

ASHBURNER, Charles Albert, geologist, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., 9 Feb., 1854 ; d. in Pittsburg, Pa., 
24 Dec, 1889. He was graduated at the University 
of Pennsylvania in 1874. During the summer of 
1872 he was engaged on the survey of Delaware 
river, and on his graduation he accepted a place 
in the light-house survey service. In 1874 the 
geological survey of Pennsylvania was reorganized 
with the appointment of Prof. J. P. Lesley as state 
geologist, and Mr. Ashburner at once resigned from 
the U. S. service to become an assistant on the sur- 
vey. He was actively employed during the latter 
part of 1874 in the surveys of Mifflin and Juniata 
COS., and in 1875 was appointed assistant geologist, 
with charge of the surveys in McKean, Elk, Forest, 
and Cameron cos. In 1880 he was appointed geolo- 
gist in charge of the survey of the anthracite coal 
fields, where he originated a method for surveying 
and representing the geology of this great coal-bed 
which has received the approbation of mining en- 
gineers and geologists both in the United States 
and in Europe. The ability and skill with which 
this undertaking was performed led to his being 
appointed in 1885 geologist in charge of all the 
office and field work of the survey. Mr. Ashburner 
was a member of the American Philosophical So- 
ciety, the American Institute of Mining Engineers, 
and other scientific societies, to whose proceedings 
he contributed valuable papers. He also contrib- 
uted to the scientific and technical journals, and 
prepared more than twenty of the reports of the 
geological survey. In 1889 he was made Sc. D. 

ASHBURTON, Lord, Alexander Baring, 
statesman, b. in England, 27 Oct., 1774; d. at 
Longleat, the seat of the marquis of Bath, 13 May, 
1848. He was the second son of Sir Francis Bar- 
ing, described by Lord Erskine as " the first mer- 
chant in the world," and was educated with a view 
to succeeding his father in the great mercantile 
house of Baring Brother's & Co. Sir Francis, fore- 
seeing the vast commercial interests involved, sent 
Alexander to America to study the commercial out- 
look and enlarge the business relations of the house. 
In 1798 he married the daughter of senator Will- 
iam Bingham, of Philadelphia, and shortly after- 
ward returned to England and became the head 
of the house when his father died, in 1810. Two 
years before this he had published a tract entitled 
" An Inquiry into the Causes and Consequences of 
the Orders in Council, and an Examination of the 
Conduct of Great Britain toward the Neutral Com- 
merce of America," this passed rapidly through 
several editions, but failed to prevent the war of 
1812. Throughout that war the Barings, as the 
bankers of the United States government, con- 
tinued to pay the interest on the debt as held 
abroad, without remittances, and without instruc- 




tions. Mr. Baring was raised to the peerage as 
Lord Ashburton in 1S'S5, and in 1842 he was sent 
as special minister to the United States to negoti- 
ate a treaty adjusting the northeastern boundary. 
Da,niel Webster was at that time secretary of state. 
The two countries were on the vei'ge of war, but 
through tlie friendly consultations of these two 
statesmen an amicable arrangement was reached, 
which was ratified 9 Aug., 1842, and is known 
as the "Ashburton Treaty." See Broughham's 
" Speech in the House of Lords on the Ashbur- 
ton Treaty" (London, 1843); Featherstonhaugh's 
" Observations upon tiie Treaty of Washington " 
(London, 1843); and Lord Palmerston's "Speech 
in the House of Commons on the Ashburton 
Treaty," quoted in Daniel Webster's works. 

A8HBY, Turner, soldier, b. at Rose Hill, 
Fauquier co., Va., in 1824 ; killed in action near 
Harrisonburg, 6 June, 1862. He was a grandson 
of Capt. Jack Ashby, who commanded a company 
in the 3d Virginia regiment in the revolutionary 
war. During early life lie was a grain-dealer in 
Markham, Va., and afterward a planter and local 
politician. On the breaking out of the civil war he 
raised a regiment of cavalry, and, being a fine horse- 
man, a soldier by nature, and possessed of i-emark- 
able personal daring, he soon distinguished himself. 
He was made a brigadier-general in the confeder- 
ate provisional army in 1862, but met his death 
shortly afterward in a skirmish preceding the bat- 
tle of Cross Keys, Va. 

ASHE, John, soldier, b. in Grovelv, Brunswick 
CO., N. C, in 1720 ; d. in Sampson co., 24 Oct., 1781. 
He was a member of the colonial assembly for sev- 
eral years, and its speaker from 1762 to 1765. He 
warmly opposed the stamp-act, and by the aid of 
an armed force compelled the stamp-inaster to re- 
sign. In 1771 he assisted Gov. Tryon in suppressing 
the outbreak of the regulators, although afterward 
he became a zealous whig. Ho warmly espoused 
the cause of the colonists at the beginning of the 
war, and in 1775, at the head of 500 men, partici- 
pated in tlie attack and destruction of Fort John- 
son, for which he was publicly denounced as a rebel. 
He was a member of the first provincial congress 
of North Carolina, and subsequently raised and 
equipped a regiment at his own expense. On 23 
April, 1776, he was appointed brigadier-general of 
the Wilmington district, and in the latter part of 
1778 joined Gen. Lincoln's army in South Carolina. 
Early in the following year he was sent to drive the 
British from Augusta, but on 4 March, at Brier 
creek, he was surprised and totally defeated by the 
enemy under Gen. Prevost. He then returned to 
Wilmington, but was captured by the British when, 
in 1781, that town fell into their hands. Both he 
and his family were cruelly treated, and he died 
from the effects of sroall-pox contracted while in 
prison. — His brother, Samuel, jurist, b. on Cape 
Fear river, N. C, in 1725 ; d. in Rocky Point, 3 
Feb., 1813. He was the brother of Gen. John Ashe, 
and a lawyer by profession. He was a member of 
the council of safety and of the provincial congress 
of North Carolina during 1774-'6, and in 1777 
was appointed chief justice, which office he held 
till 1796, when he became governor of the state. 
Although principally employed in civil capacities, 
yet in some of the emergencies of the times he 
served as a soldier. — Samuel's son, John Baptista, 
soldier, b. in Rocky Point, N. C, in 1748 ;d. in 
Halifax, N. C, 27 Nov., 1802, became a captam in 
the continental army at the outbreak of the revo- 
lutionary war, and served continuously iintil the 
battle of Eutaw. where he especially distinguished 
himself and received the rank of colonel. He was 

a member of the house of commons of North 
Carolina in 1786, and also of the state senate in 
1789 and 1795. He was a delegate to the last con- 
tinental congress in 1787-'8, and member of the 
first and of the second congress, 1789-'93. In 
1802 he was elected governor of North Carolina, 
but died before his inauguration. 

ASHE, Thomas, author. He is supposed to be 
the " T. A., gent.," who visited this country as a 
clerk on board his majesty's ship " Richmond," and 
on his return to England, in 1682, published " Caro- 
lina; or a Description of the Present State of that 
Country, and the Natural Excellencies thereof: 
namely, the Healthfulness of the Air, Pleasantness 
of the Place, Advantages and Usefulness of those 
Rich Commodities there, Plentifully Abounding, 
which much Increase and Flourish by the Industry 
of the Planters that Daily Enlarge that Colony." 
This description is reprinted in " Historical Collec- 
tions of South Carolina" (New York, 1836). 

ASHE, Tliomas, author, b. near Dublin, Ire- 
land, 15 July, 1770; d. in Bath, England, 17 Dec, 
1835. For a short while he served in the English 
army, and then filled a clerical position in Dublin. 
He spent several years in foreign travel, and pub- 
lished accounts of his experiences, among wliicli, 
besides his "Memoirs and Confessions" (3 v(,)ls., 
1815). are " Memoirs of Mammoth and other Bones 
found in the Vicinity of the Ohio" (1806); "Travels 
in America in 1806 " (1808) ; and " A Commercial 
and Geographical Sketch of Brazil and Madeira " 
(1812). He also wrote several novels. 

ASHLEY, Cliester, senator, b. in Westfield, 
Mass., 1 June, 1790 ; d. in Washington, D. C, 27 
April, 1848. At an early age he was removed to 
New York and settled in Hudson, where he re- 
ceived a liberal education, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to its practice. In 1817 he went to Illinois, 
and after two years he settled in Little Rock, then 
a mere landing, in the territory of Arkansas. On 
the death of William S. Fullerton he was elected 
to fill the vacancy in the U. S. senate, and took his 
seat 4 Dec. 1844. He was reelected in 1846. 

ASHLEY, James Monroe, congressman, b. 
near Pittsburg. Pa., 14 Nov., 1824; d. in Alma, 
Mich., 16 Sept., 1896. His education was acquired 
while a clerk on boats. Later he worked in print- 
ing-offices, and became editor of the " Dispatch," 
and afterward of the " Democrat," at Portsmouth, 
Ohio. He then studied law, and was admitted to 
the bar of Ohio in 1849, but never practised. Sub- 
sequently he settled in Toledo, where he became 
interested in the wholesale drug business. He was 
elected to congress as a republican in 1859, and 
was reelected four times, serving continuously from 
5 Dec, 1859, till 3 March, 1869. He was for four 
terms chairman of the committee on territories, 
and it was under his supervision that the terri- 
tories of Arizona, Idaho, and Montana were organ- 
ized. He was nominated for the 41st congress, 
but was defeated, and in 1869 was appointed gov- 
ernor of Montana. In 1866 he was a delegate to 
the loyalist convention held in Philadelphia. 

ASHLEY, WilHam H., congressman, b. in 
Powhatan co., Va., about 1778; d. near Booneville, 
Mo., 26 March. 1838. He received a public-school 
education, and in 1808 migrated to Upper Louisi- 
ana (now Missouri), where he became a brigadier- 
general of militia. He was an enterprising fur- 
trader, and in 1822 organized a company, 300 
strong, which peneti'ated to the Rocky mountains 
and formed trading relations with the Indian tribes. 
He realized a handsome fortune from this venture. 
He was lieiitenant-governor of Illinois in 1820. and 
he represented Missouri in congresses in 1831-'7. 




ASHMEAD, Isaac, printer, b. in Germantown, 
Pa., 22 Dec, 1790; d. in Pliiladelphia, 1 March, 1870. 
He was apprenticed to William llradt'ord, andin 1821 
founded what isnowtheoldestjinntingestablishment 
in Philadelphia. He set up the first power-presses 
ever used in that city, and introduced composition 
rollers. He was one of the founders of the American 
Sunday-School Union, and printed its publications. 
He also aided in establishing the " American Pres- 
byterian " and the " Presbyterian Quarterly." 

'ASHMUN, eh Porter, senator, b. in Bland- 
ford, Mass., 24 June, 1770; d. in Northampton, 
Mass., 10 May, 1819. He received a classical edu- 
cation, and the honorary degree of A. M. was con- 
ferred upon him by Middlebury college (1807) and 
by Harvard (1809). He studied law, and practised 
at Blandford several years. For some time he was 
a member of the state legislature, serving on vari- 
ous occasions in the upper and lower branches. 
He was U. S. senator from Massachusetts from 
December, 181(), till May, 1818, when he resigned. 

ASHMUN, Georg-e, statesman, b. in Blandford, 
Mass., 25 Dec, 1804 ; d. in Springfield, Mass., 17 
July, 1870. He was graduated at Yale in 1823, 
studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1828 at 
Springfield, Mass. In 1833, 1835, 1836, and 1841 he 

was elected a 
member of the 
lower branch of 
the Massachu- 
setts legisla- 
ture, and dur- 
ing the last 
term he was 
speaker of the 
house. He was a 
state senator in 
'38-'9. He was 
elected to con- 
gress in 1845, 
and served con- 
tinuously until 
1851, being a 
member of the 
committees on 
the Jtuliciary, 
Indian affairs, 
and rules. He 
was a great ad- 
mirer of Daniel Webster, and although he did not 
follow the latter in his abandonment of the Wil- 
mot proviso, defended him in the ensuing quarrels ; 
his replies to Charles J. Ingersoll, of Pennsylvania, 
and Charles Allen, of Massachusetts, when they 
assailed Webster with personal and political bitter- 
ness, were among the strongest efforts of his career 
in congress. Subsequent to his retirement from 
political life he devoted his attention to the prac- 
tice of his profession. In 1860 he was president of 
the Chicago convention that nominated Lincoln 
for president. It is said to have been through his 
influence that in 1861 Senator Douglas, of Illinois, 
was won over to the support of the administration, 
and the results of a subsequent interview at the 
White house between Lincoln, Douglas, and Ash- 
mun, were of great importance to the country. In 
1866 he was chosen a delegate to the national union 
convention, held in Philadelphia, but he took no 
part in its deliberations. He was also for some 
time a director of the Union Pacific railroad. 

ASHMUN, Jehudi, missionary, b. in Cham- 
plain, N. Y., in April, 1794; d. in Boston, Mass., 
25 Aug., 1828. He was graduated at the univer- 
sity of Vermont in 1816, taught for a short time 
in the Maine charity school, prepared for the Con- 


gregational ministry, and became a professor in 
the Bangor theological seminary. Removing to 
the District of Columbia, he united with the Prot- 
estant Episcopal church and became editor of the 
" Theological Repertory," a monthly magazine 
published in the interest of that church. His true 
mission was inaugurated when he became agent 
of the colonization society, and took charge of a 
reenforcement for the colony at Liberia, on the 
western coast of Africa. He sailed 19 June, 1822, 
and found the colony in a wretched state of disor- 
der and demoralization, and apparently on the 
point of extinction through incursions of the 
neighboring savages. With extraordinary energy 
and ability he undertook the task of reorganiza- 
tion. In November he was attacked by a force of 
savages, whose numbers he estimated at 800. With 
only 35 men and boys to help him, he repelled the 
attack, which was renewed by still greater num- 
bers a few days later, with a like result. He dis- 
played remarkable personal valor throughout these 
encounters, and when, six years later, his health 
compelled him to leave Africa, he had established 
a comparatively prosperous colony 1,200 strong. 
He died almost immediately after his arrival in 
the United States. He was author of " Memoirs of 
Samuel Bacon " (Washington, 1822), and of many 
contributions to tlie " African Repository." His 
life was written by R. R. Gurley (New Yorlv, 1839). 

ASHMUN, John Hooker, jurist, b. in Bland- 
ford, Mass., 3 July, 1800 ; d. in Cambridge, 1 
April, 1833. He was the son of Senator Eli P. 
Ashmun, was graduated at Harvard in 1818, and, 
on the establishment of the law department of that 
university, appointed its first professor, under the 
endowment of Isaac Royall. Prior to this he was 
associated with Judge Howe and Elijah J. Mills in 
establishing a law school in Northampton. Judge 
Story pronounced his funeral discourse, and spoke 
highly of his professional attainments. 

ASPER, Joel F., journalist, b. in Adams co., 
Pa., 20 April, 1822 ; d. in Chillicothe, Mo., 1 Oct., 
1872. He was admitted to the bar in 1844, elected 
a justice of the peace in 1846, and prosecuting at- 
torney for the county in 1847. In 1849 he edited 
the " Western Reserve Chronicle," and in 1850 be- 
came editor of the "Chardon Democrat." In 1861 
he raised a company and was commissioned a 
captain. He was wounded in the battle of Win- 
chester, and, after being promoted lieutenant- 
colonel in 1862, was mustered out in 1863 on ac- 
count of wounds. In 1864 he removed to Missouri 
and founded the Chillicothe " Spectator." He was 
elected to congress in 1868, and served on the com- 
mittee on military affairs. 

ASPINWALL, Thomas, soldier, b. in Brook- 
line, Mass., 23 May, 1786; d. 11 Aug., 1876. He 
was graduated at Harvard in 1804, and studied law 
with William Sullivan. He was major of the 9th 
U. S. infantry in the war of 1812, and for gallant 
conduct at Sackett's Harbor received the brevet of 
lieutenant-colonel, and that of colonel for the 
sortie from' Fort Erie, in which he lost an arm. 
From 1815 to 1853 he was U. S. consul at London. 

ASPINWALL. William, phvsician, b. in 
Brookline, Mass., 23 Mav, 1743; d. there, 16 April, 
1823. He was graduated at Harvard in 1764, stud- 
ied medicine in Philadelphia, and practised in 
Brookline. He fought as a volunteer at Lexing- 
ton, and afterward, became a surgeon in the revo- 
lutionary army, and had partial charge of a 
military hospital at Jamaica Plain. After the war 
he interested himself in vaccination, built a small- 
pox hospital at Brookline, and succeeded in estab- 
lishing that remedy into American practice. He 




was a prominent Jeffersonian republican, and a 
member of the Massachusetts legislature, and also 
of the executive council. 

ASPINWALL, William Henry, merchant, b. 
in New York city, IG Dec, 1807 ; d. there, 18 Jan., 
1875. He was trained in the house of G. G. & S. 
Howland, his uncles, and taken into the firm in 
1832. In 18i37 the new firm of Ilowland & Asi)inwall 
was established. This house had the largest Pacific 
trade of any firm in New York, besides doing an 
extensive business with the East and West Indies, 
England, and the Mediterranean. In 1850 he re- 
tired from the active management of the firm, and 
secured the contract for a line of mail steamers 
from the isthmus of Panama to California, and a 
concession from the government of New Granada 
for the construction of a railroad across the isth- 
mus. The road was completed after many diffi- 
culties, and opened on 17 Feb., 1855, the eastern 
terminus being named Aspinwall. Mr. Aspinwall 
was president of the Pacific mail steamship com- 
pany until 1856. He travelled much in the last 
twenty years of his life, and made an important 
collection of paintings, which were sold by his fam- 
ily. — His son, Lloyd, b. in New York citv, 12 Dec, 
1834 ; d. in Bristol, R. I., 4 Sept., 1886, commanded 
the 22d N. Y. militia in its three months' service 
before Gettysburg, had charge of the purchase of 
vessels for the Newbern expedition, was president 
of a board to revise army regulations, was Gen. 
Burnside's aide at Fredericksburg, and after the 
war was a brigadier-general in the national guard. 
ASTOK, John Jacob, merchant, b. in Waldorf, 
near Heidelberg, Germany, 17 July, 1763; d. in 
New York, 29 March, 1848. He was the fourth son 
of a butcher in Waldorf, and until he was sixteen 

years of age he 
worked with his 
father. He then 
joined an elder 
brother in Lon- 
don, who was 
employed in the 
piano and flute 
factory of their 
uncle, of the 
firm of Astor 
& Broad wood, 
widely known 
afterward as 
Broadwood & 
Co. His broth- 
er Henry had 
settled in New 
York, and his 
intention was 
to emigrate to 
the United States as soon as he could save enough 
money. In 1783 he sailed for Baltimore with a 
small invoice of musical instruments to sell on 
commission. On shipboard he met with a furriei, 
who told him of the profits to be made in buyint, 
furs from the Indians and frontiersman and sell 
ing them to the large dealers, and, in order to 
become familiar with the fur business, he enteied 
into the employ of a Quaker furrier in New Yoik 
and, when he had mastered the numerous details 
of the trade, began business on his own account, 
opening a shop in Water street, in which he worked 
early and late, except when absent on his pui- 
chasing trips. Soon after he established himself 
in New York he visited London, formed connec- 
tions with houses in the fur trade, and made ar- 
rangements with Astor & Broadwood to become 
their agent in America. After his return to New 

York he opened a wareroom for the sale of musical 
instruments, becoming the first regular dealer in 
such articles in the United States. He married 
Sarah Todd, who brought him a dowry of only 
$300, but who possessed a frugal mind and a busi- 
ness judgment that he declared to be better than 
that of most merchants, and she assisted him in the 
practical details of his business. Before the close of 
the century Astor possessed, as the result of fifteen 
years of constant work, a fortune of $250,000. He 
then for the first time took a house separate from 
his store. With sagacious management the busi- 
ness prospered to such an extent that he was able to 
ship furs in his own vessels and bring back Euro- 
pean goods. He made frequent voyages up the 
Mohawk, to buy directly from the Indians, and also 
dealt largely with the great English fur companies. 
About 1809 he conceived a national scheme to ren- 
der American trade independent of the Hudson 
bay company, and to carry civilization into the 
wilderness, for which he asked the aid of congress. 
His project was to establish a chain of trading- 
posts from the lakes to the Pacific, to plant a cen- 
tral depot at the mouth of Columbia river, and to 
acquire one of the Sandwich islands and establish a 
line of vessels between the western coast of America 
and the ports of China and India. Two expeditions 
were sent, one by land and the other by sea, to open 
up intercourse with the Indians of the Pacific coast. 
In 1811 the settlement of Astoria was planted at 
the mouth of the Columbia river, but the war of 
1812 interfered with Astors gigantic enterprise and 
caused its abandonment. The story of this far- 
reaching scheme has been well told in Irving's 
" Astoria." At this time Astor bought American 
government securities at GO or 70cents, which after 
the war doubled in value. After the conclusion of 
peace he carried on his operations without govern- 
ment support, and established a trade with many 
countries, particularly China, but never realized the 
project of founding settlements in the northwest. 
He invested his gains in real estate outside the 
compact portion of the city of New York, and as 
the city extended he erected many handsome build- 
ings. His judgment in business was remarkably 
sagacious; his habits industrious and methodical, 
and his memory exceedingly tenacious, retaining 
the slightest details. For the last twenty-five years 
of his life he lived in quiet retirement. In this 
period, in consultation with literary and practical 
men, he matured a plan for establishing a public 
library in New York, the first suggestion of which 
had come from Washington Irving. He left, 
" 1,000 for founding the Astor library, which pro- 

>' ..i/ji^TTf 

Tif^iY' r h^ »^^<'^ (' 

■vision was c n 1 1 d ( ut b-v his son, William B Astoi. 
He made other bequests for benevolent objects, in 
addition to liberal gifts during his lifetime, one of 
which was $50,000 to found the Astor House in 
Waldorf, his birthplace, an institute for the edu- 




cation of poor children, combined witli an asylum 
for the a£^ed and needv. His fortune at the time 
of his death was estimated at 120,000,000. Fitz- 
Greene Halleck, the poet, who was his secretary 
for seventeen years, expressed the opinion that Mr. 
Astor would have been eminently successful in any 
profession. — His eldest son, William Backliouse, 
capitalist, b. in New York, li) Sept., 1792; d. in 
that city, 24 Nov,, 1875. Until he was sixteen he 

went to the 
public schools, 
employing his 
spare hours and 
vacations in 
assisting his 
father in the 
store. He was 
then sent 

to Heidelberg, 
and after two 
years went to 
Gottingen in 
1810, and chose 
as his tutor a 
student, after- 
ward known as 
the Chevalier 
Bunsen, with 
whom he also 
travelled. On 
his return to 
New York at the age of twenty-three, his father 
engaged in the China trade, and took him into 
partnership. The house was known as John Jacob 
Astor & Son from 1815 till 1827. In the hitter year 
the firm, which was one of the largest in tlie China 
trade, was dissolved, the Astors retired from the 
Canton trade, and the American fur company was 
formed, with William B. Astor as its president, 
though the father took the more active part in tlie 
business, which for several years yielded large pro- 
fits. Finally tlie elder Astor withdrew, and was soon 
followed by his son, and from that time forth neither 
of them engaged again in commerce. When John 
Jacob Astor died in 1848, he made his eldest son his 
sole heir, although he provided well for his other 
relatives. William was already rich, having been 
successful in business, and having received from 
his uncle, Henry, a fortune of $500,000, and 
from his father the title to the Astor House prop- 
erty as a gift. William B. Astor, then fifty-six 
years of age, gave himself to the preservation and 
growth of the vast property. He added to the be- 
quest of his father for the Astor library the sum of 
$250,000, of which he 'paid during his lifetime 
$201,000 in land, books, and money. The edifice 
was completed under his directions in May, 1853. 
In 1855 he presented to the trustees the adjoining 
lot, and erected thereon a similar structure, which 
was completed in 1859. He next gave $50,000 for 
the purchase of books. He gave much patient atten- 
tion for many years to the administration of the 
library. Following the example of his father, he 
invested in real estate, principally situated below 
Central park, between 4th and 7th avenues, which 
rapidly increased in value. For about thirteen 
years prior to 1873 he was largely engaged in build- 
ing, until much of his hitlierto unoccupied land 
was covered by houses, mostly of the first class. 
He was said to own in 1867 as many as 720 houses, 
and he was also heavily interested in railroad, coal, 
and insurance companies. Besides other charitable 
gifts, he gave $50,000 to St. Luke's hospital, and in 
his will he left $200,000 to the Astor library, in ad- 
dition to $49,000, the unexpended balance of his 

earlier donation. His estate, estimated at 
000,000, was divided by his will between his two 
sons, John Jacob and William Astor, who were 
given only a life interest in the residuary estate, 
which descends to their children. The gifts and 
bequests of William B. Astor to the Astor library 
amounted altogether to about $550,000. In 1879 
his eldest son, John Jacob, presented three lots 
adjoining the library building, and erected on them 
a third structure similar to the others, and added 
a story to the central building. The edifice is 
represented on page 112. His outlay, exclusive of 
land, was about $250,000, making the entire gift 
of the Astor family more than $1.000,000.— Will- 
iam Waldorf, son of John Jacob, was graduated 
at Columbia law school in 1875. He served one 
term in the New York state senate, and was an un- 
successful candidate for congress. He was U. S. 
minister to Italy from 1882 till 1885, and has pub- 
lished " Valentino," an Italian romance (New York, 
1886), and " Sforza,, a Story of Milan " (1889). 

ATAHUALPA, or ATABALIPA (ah -ta oo-al - 
pa), inca of Peru at the time of the invasion of the 
Spaniards, d. 29 Aug., 1533. He was the son of 
Huayna Capac. The laws of Peru required that 
the principal wives of the incas should be blood 
relatives, and that no children of other parentage 
should be legitimate. Atahualpa's mother had 
been a princess of Quito ; nevertheless, at the re- 
quest of his father, the heir to the throne, Huascar, 
consented to divide the kingdom with Atahualpa, 
on condition only that he should render homage to 
him, and not make conquests beyond his own do- 
minions. This liberal conduct was infamously re- 
quited by Atahualpa, who, having secretly got 
together a large army, attacked Huascar in Cuzco, 
took him prisoner, and exterminated all his adhe- 
rents, putting his family and immediate depend- 
ents to death in the most atrocious tortures. Such 
is the stoi-y told by Spanish annalists, whose testi- 
mony is doubtful, 
seeing that the 
murder of Huas- 
car, their pseudo- 
ally, and the tyr- 
anny of Atahu- 
alpa were among 
the causes of his 
own execution. 
Pizarro and his 
followers were 
now in Peru, 
and Atahualpa 
opened negotia- 
tions with them. 
His proposals 
were received in 
a friendly man- 
ner by Pizarro, 
and an interview 
was arranged 

(1532), which Atahualpa attended, followed by a 
large number of unarmed subjects. Father Vicente 
de Valverde explained to him, through an interpre- 
ter, the mysteries of religion, and that, on account of 
their heathenism, the pope had granted his kingdom 
to the Spaniards. Atahualpa professed not to un- 
derstand the tenor of this discourse, and would not 
resign his kingdom, whereupon a massacre of the 
assembled crowd was at once begun by the Span- 
ish soldiers, who seized Atahualpa and threw him 
into prison. On the arrival of Almagro the cupid- 
ity of the adventurers was excited by the magnifi- 
cent proposals that Atahualpa made for his ran- 
som, and with a desire of seizing the whole it was 

_«^. Pi 

X f^^I\ 




determined to put him to death. During his im- 
prisonment Atahualpa gave orders for the execu- 
tion of his brother Huascar, which were obeyed. 
This was one of the charges against him on the 
court martial by which he was tried, and, being 
found guilty, was sentenced to be burned, a penalty 
commuted for strangulation by the garrote on his 
accepting baptism at the hands of the priests ac- 
C(jm])anving the invaders. 

ATCHISON. Djivhl II., senator, b. in Frogtown, 
Ky., 11 Aug., 1807; d. in Clinton co.. Mo., 2(3 Jan., 
1886. He studied law and began practice in Lib- 
erty CO., Mo. In 1834 and 1838 he sat in the Mis- 
souri legislature. In 1841 he was appointed judge 
of the Platte county circuit court, and in 1843 
appointed U. S. senator in the place of Lewis 
F. Linn, deceased, and was subsequently elected 
and reelected, sitting until 1855. He was prom- 
inent in the legislation on the organization of the 
territories of Kansas and Nebraska, and was a 
leader of the pro-slavery faction in the Kansas 
troubles of 1856-"7. 

ATEMPANECATL (ah-tem-pah_-na-ka'tl), one 
of the two famous generals and advisers of Mocte- 
ZAima I., king of Mexico. While the latter was at- 
tending to the wants of his people during a great 
famine, AtempanecatI and CihuacoatI continued 
the pendinii- wars with the utmost success. 

ATHERTON, Charles Gordon, senator, b. in 
Amherst, N. H., 4 July, 1804; d. in Manchester, 
N. H., 15 Nov., 1853. He was graduated at Har- 
vard in 1822, and admitted to the bar in 1825. 
He practised at first in Nashua and then in Dun- 
stable. After being a democratic mendier of the 
legislature for five years, and for four years speaker 
of the house, he was elected to congress in 1837 
and sat in the lower house until 1843. He intro- 
duced in 1838 the resolution, which remained in 
force imtil 1845, declaring that all bills or peti- 
tions, of whatever kind, on the subject of slavery, 
should be tabled without debate, and should not be 
taken again from the table. This was called " the 
Atherton gag." From 1843 to 1849 he was a sena- 
tor from New Hampshire, and in 1852 he was again 
elected to the senate and served as chairman of the 
finance committee. 

ATHERTON, Charles Humphrey, lawyer, b. 
in Amherst, N. IL, 14 Aug., 1773; d. in Amherst, 
8 Jan., 1853. He was graduated at Harvard in 
1794, studied law, admitted to the bar, and entered 
on the practice of his profession in his native town. 
His reputation for solid attainments and exact 
habits of investigation kept him at the head of the 
Hillsborough co. bar for years. He filled the office 
of register of probate for thirty-nine years (1798- 
1837), served in congress from 15 Dec, 1815, to 3 
March, 1817, and was a representative in the legis- 
lature in 1823, 1838, and 1839. He prepared vari- 
ous papers for the state historical society. 

ATHERTON, Humphrey, soldier, d." in Boston, 
17 Sept., 1601. He emigrated from England about 
1636, settled at Dorchester, and was a deputy to 
the general court. In 1654 he succeeded Robert 
Sedgwick as commander of the military forces, 
with the title of major-general, and was much em- 
ployed in negotiations with the Indians. He was 
killed by falling from his horse while he was re- 
viewing the militia on Boston common. 

ATHERTON, Joshua, lawver, b. in Harvard, 
Mass., 20 June, 1737; d. in Andierst, N. H., 3 April, 
1809. He was graduated at Harvard in 1762, stud- 
ied law, and began practice in Petersham. Shortly 
afterward he removed to Litchfield, and in 1773, 
having been appointed register of probate in Hills- 
borough CO., he settled in Amherst. Here he ac- 

cumulated much property and was successful in 
his profession. During the revolutionary war he 
was a firm loyalist, and suffered in consequence 
both from loss of property and from cruel indig- 
nities. In 1779 he took the oath of allegiance to 
New Hampshire, and was admitted to practice in 
the supreme court. Later he became a member of 
the convention appointed to consider the federal 
constitution, and opposed its adoption on account 
of the provisions concerning slaves and slavery. 
Subsequently he was elected to the New Hamp- 
shire legislature, and in 1793 he was made attorney- 
general of the state. He was also for a time com- 
missioner for the U. S. direct tax. 

ATKINS, Henry, navigator of the 18th cen- 
tury. He made numerous trading voyages to Da- 
vis straits, and also cx})l()i'cd nuich of the coasts of 
Labrador between the years 1729 and 1758. An 
account of his experiences has been published in 
the " Massachusetts Historical Collections." 

ATKINSON, Edward, economist, b. in Brook- 
line, Mass., 10 Feb., 1827. His education was ob- 
tained principally at private schools, and his repu- 
tation has been made by the numerous pamphlets 
and papers that he has contributed to current lit- 
erature on economic topics. The subjects treated 
embrace such general topics as banking, competi- 
tion, cotton, free trade, mechanical arts, and pro- 
tection. The most important of his addresses are 
"Banking," delivered at Saratoga in 1880 before 
the American Bankers' Association ; " Insufficiency 
of Economic Legislation," delivered before the 
American Social Science Association ; " What makes 
the Rate of Wages," before the British Association 
for the Advancement of Science ; address to the 
chief of the Bureau of Labor Statistics at their con- 
vention in Boston in 1885 ; vice-presidential ad- 
dress on the " Application of Science to the Pro- 
duction and Consumption of Food," before the 
American association for the advancement of sci- 
ence, in 1885 ; and " Prevention of Loss by Fire," 
before the millers of the west, in 1885. His pam- 
phlets and books include the following : " Cheap Cot- 
ton by Free Labor " (Boston, 1801) ; " The Collection 
of Revenue " (1860) ; "Argument for the Conditional 
Reform of the Legal-Tender Act " (1874) ; " Our 
National Domain" (1879); "Labor and C'apital — 
Allies, not Enemies " (New York, 1880) ; " The Fire 
Engineer, the Architect, and the Underwriter" 
(Boston, 1880); "The Railroads of the United 
States " (1880) ; " Cotton Manufacturers of the 
United States " (1880) ; " Addresses at Atlanta, Ga., 
on the International Exposition " (New York, 1881) ; 
"What is a Bank?" (1881): " Right Methods of 
Preventing Fires in Mill? " (Boston, 1881) ; " The 
Railway and the Farmer" (New York, 1881); "The 
Influence of Boston Capital upon Manufactures," 
in " Memorial History of Boston " (Boston, 1882) ; 
and " The Distribution of Products " (New York, 
1885). In 1886 he began the preparation of a series 
of monographs on economic questions for periodi- 
cal publication. Through his efforts was estab- 
lished the Boston manufacturers' mutual fire in- 
surance company, an association consisting of a 
number of manufacturers who, for their mutual 
protection, adopted rules and i-egulations for the 
economical and judicious management of their 
plants. He has invented an improved cooking- 
stove, called the "Aladdin Cooker." 

ATKINSON, Henry, soldier, b. in 1782; d. at 
Jeft'erson Barracks, Mo.', 14 June, 1842. At the age 
of twenty-six he was appomted, from North Caro- 
lina, captain in the 3d infantry. On 25 April, 1813, 
he was made inspector-general, and during the fol- 
lowing year he became colonel of the 45th infantr'/. 




He was advanced to the grade of brigadiei -general 
13 May. 1821, and was made adjutant-general 21 
June. " He served with distinction in the Black 
Hawk war, and was in command of the U. S. forces 
in the engagements on Bad Axe river, 1 and 2 
Aug.. 1832, where the Indians were defeated. 

ATKINSON, John, clergyman, b. in Deerfield, 
N. J., 6 Sept.. 1835; d. in Haverstraw, N. Y., 8 
Dec. 1897. He was admitted to the ministry in 
the New Jersey Methodist Episcopal conference 
in 1853, and was pastor of churches in Paterson, 
Newark, and Jersey City, N. J. ; in Chicago, 111. ; 
Bay City and Adrian, Mich. ; and in Haverstraw. 
Illinois Wesleyan university gave him the degree 
of D. D. in 1878. He was the author of the well- 
known hvmn " We Shall Meet Beyond the River." 
Dr. Atkinson for more than thirty years contrib- 
uted to the periodical press, especially that of his 
•own denomination. He published "The Living 
Way " (New York, 1856) : " Memorials of Method- 
ism' in New Jersey" (Philadelphia, 1860): "The 
Garden of Sorrows " (New York, 1868) ; " The Class 
Leader " (1874) ; " The Centennial History of Amer- 
ican Methodism" (New York, 1884): and "The 
Wesleyan Movement in America " (1896). 

ATKINSON, Thomas, bishop of tlie Episcopal 
church, b. in Mansfield. Va., 6 Aug.. 1807 ; d. in 
Wilmington, N. C, 4 Jan., 1881. He entered Yale 

college, but left 
before completing 
the course, and 
wentto Hampdeii- 
Sidney college, 
Virginia, where 
he graduated in 
1825. He studied 
law, was admitted 
to the bar, and 
practised for nine 
yens. He was or- 
dained deacon in 
Ndrtolk, 18 Nov., 
1836, and priest in 
Dr. Atkinson held 
several rector- 
ships in Virginia, 
and was rector of 
St. Peter's church, 
Baltimore, Md., 
at the time of his election to the episcopate of 
North Carolina, 26 May, 1853. He was consecrat- 
ed bishop in St. John's chapel. New York, 17 Oct., 
1853. Bishop Atkinson was an able and efficient 
administrator of his diocese and prominent in the 
councils of the church. In 1873 he was given an 
assistant. Dr. Theodore Benedict Lyman, who suc- 
ceeded liim in 1881. 

ATLEE, John Light, physician, b. in Lancas- 
ter, Pa., 2 Nov., 1799 ; d. there, 1 Oct., 1885. He 
was a son of Col. W. P. Atlee, and grandson of 
Judge W. A. Atlee. He studied medicine with Dr. 
Samuel Humes in Philadelphia, and was graduated 
at the university of Pennsylvania in 1820. He re- 
turned to his native city, began practice, and soon 
became successful, especially in surgical cases. Dr. 
Atlee's operation for double ovariotomy, in 1843, 
*was the first in the history of medicine. He was 
one of the founders of the Lancaster city and 
county medical society in 1843, and twice served 
as its president. He assisted in organizing the 
Pennsylvania medical society in 1848, and became 
its president in 1857, and was also one of the or- 
ganizers of the American medical association in 
Philadelphia, and was elected vice-president in 


1865, and president in 1882. At the union of 
Franklin and Marshall colleges, in 1853, he became 
professor of anatomy and physiology, and con- 
tinued there until 1869. He was a school director 
for forty years, was president of the board of trus- 
tees of the Pennsylvania state lunatic asylum at 
Harrisburg, was elected honorary fellow of the 
American gynaecological society in 1877, and was 
a trustee of numerous public institutions. — His 
brother, Washington Lemuel, surgeon and au- 
thor, b. in Lancaster, Pa., 22 Feb., 1808; d. 6 
Sept., 1878. At the age of fourteen he was placed 
in a store, where he remained but eighteen months, 
when he entered the office of his brother. After 
studying there and with Dr. George McClellan, 
of Philadelphia, he received his diploma, in 1829, 
from the Jefferson medical college, in that city. 
Soon afterwaixl he married, and settled in the vil- 
lage of Mount Joy, where he practised until 1834. 
During the next ten years he practised in his na- 
tive place, and while there suggested the remark- 
able series of experiments on the body of an 
executed criminal, which are described in the 
" American Journal of the Medical Sciences " for 
1840. In 1845 he became professor of medical 
chemistry in the medical department of Pennsyl- 
vania college at Philadelphia, but resigned his 
chair in 1853 and devoted himself to his private 
practice, which became very large. He was presi- 
dent of the Philadelphia county medical association 
in 1874, and of the state association in 1875, and 
was also vice-president of the American medica. 
association. Dr. Atlee was noted for his advocacy 
of the difficult operation of ovariotomy, which he 
was one of the first to practise. He ably defended 
its propriety when it was in universal disrepute, 
and, by his great skill in over 300 cases, he aided 
in making it one of the legitimate operations of 
surgery. When he first performed this operation 
in Philadelphia he was denounced by medical 
men on all sides as a dangerous man. Few sur- 
geons dared to be present at his operations, and 
there was even talk of having him arrested. Dr. 
Atlee was also noted for his skill in the remov- 
al of uterine 'fibroid tumors. He was a brilliant 
speaker and debater, and a copious writer on medi- 
cine, chemistry, and botany, having published over 
eighty articles in various journals. Among his 
writings are "Ovarian Tumors" (Philadelphia, 
1873) ; an address before the Philadelphia county 
medical association, 1 Feb., 1875, on "Struggles 
and Triumphs of Ovariotomy " ; a paper on " Fi- 
broid Tumors of the Uterus," read before the in- 
ternational medical congress in Philadelphia in 
September, 1876 ; and a prize essay on the same 
subject. , 

ATONDO Y ANTILLON, Isidore, Spanish 
navigator, lived in the latter part of the 17th cen- 
tury. He was placed in charge of an expedition 
sent to California, in 1678, to establish colonies 
in that part of the continent. After exploring the 
coast, he founded the town of San Bruno, and 
took possession of Lower California in the name of 
the king of Spain. 

ATTA-CULLA-CULLA, Indian chief, lived in 
the 18th century. About 1738 he was chosen vice- 
king under Oconostota, their archimagus. In 1755, 
three years after the outbreak of hostilities between 
the French and the English, he was party to a 
treaty that ceded to the English a site for forts. 
The tribe, having been attacked by white settlers in 
retaliation for thefts committed in the Fort Du- 
quesne expedition, made war upon the English, and 
reduced to famine, and finally massacred, the gar- 
rison of Fort Loudon. Capt. Stuart was saved by 




Atta-Culla-CuUa and conducted secretly to the 
British headquarters on the frontier of Virginia. 
Through Atta-Culla-CuUa's influence Capt. Stuart 
was received by the Cherokees, after peace was re- 
stored, as the British agent and superintendent of 
Indian affairs at the south. 

ATTUCKS, Crispus, a mulatto, or half-breed 
Indian, killed 5 March, 1770, in what is known as 
the Boston massacre. He was a resident of Fram- 
ingham. On the day of the massacre he was promi- 
nent in a crowd of people who were jeering at the 
soldiers and annoying them in every possible way. 
Finally Preston, the captain of the day, ordered his 
men to fire, and Attucks was the first to fall. 
Preston and six of his men were tried and acquitted 
by a Boston jury. John Adams, wlio defended 
them, charged Attucks with having " undertaken 
to be the hero of the night," and with having pre- 
cipitated a conflict by his " mad behavior." He is 
praised by others for his courage, and is said to 
have been leaning quietly on a stick at the moment 
he was killed. He was about fifty years of age at 
the time of the affair. His body, together with 
those of the other victims, was borne in great pomp 
through the streets of Boston, and all were de- 
posited in one common vaidt. All the shops were 
closed, and the bells of the city and neighboring 
towns were tolled. See Bancroft's " History of the 
United States," and also an article on Attucks in 
the " American Historical Record " for 1872. 

ATWATER, Caleb, lawyer, b. in North Adams. 
Mass., 25 Dec, 1778; d. in Circleville, Ohio, 18 
March, 1867. He was graduated at Williams college 
in 1804, studied law, and became a successful prac- 
titioner. He moved to Ohio in 1811, where for 
some years he was a member of the state legisla- 
ture, and postmaster of Circleville. He was also 
Indian commissioner under Jackson. He published 
"A Tour to Prairie du Chien " (1831); "Western 
Antiquities " (1838) ; " Writings of Caleb Atwater " 
(1833) ; " History of Ohio " (1838) ; and an " Essay 
on Education " (1841). An article on the " Writing's 
of Caleb Atwater " is to be found in the Cincinnati 
" Western Monthlv Magazine " for 1884. 

ATWATER, Lyman Hotchkiss, scholar, b. 
in New Haven, Conn., 20 Feb., 1818 ; d. in Prince- 
ton. N. J., 17 Feb., 1888. He was graduated at 
Yale in 1831, and at the theological seminary in 
1884. In 1833 he was a tutor in Yale college," and 
in 1835 became pastor of the Congregational 
church at Fairfield, Conn., where he remained un- 
til 1854, contributing meanwhile to various re- 
ligious periodicals. In 1854 he was appointed pro- 
fessor of mental and moral philosophy in Princeton, 
and in 1869 he became professor of logic and of 
moral and political science, and editor of the 
" Princeton Review." He was also acting president 
of the college for several years. He published a 
" Manual of Elementary Logic " (1867). 

ATWATER, AVilbur Oliii, chemist, b. in 
Johnsburg, N. Y., 3 May, 1844. He was gradu- 
ated at Wesleyan university, Middletown, Conn., 
in 1865. then studied chemistry at New Haven, and 
received the degree of Ph. D. from Yale in 1869, 
after which he spent some time at the universities 
of Leipsic and Berlin, Germany. Subsequent to 
his return to the United States, during 1871-2, 
he held the chair of chemistry in East Tennessee 
university, and in 1873 he was called to fill a simi- 
lar appointment in the Maine state college. In the 
same year he returned to Wesleyan university as 
professor of chemistry. From 1875 to 1877 he was 
director of the Connecticut agricultural experi- 
mental station. His published papers are very 
numerous, and have appeared in the scientific 

journals of Germany and France, as well as in 
those of the United States. In conjunction with 
G. B. Goode he is the author of " The American 
Menhaden " (New York, 1879). He has made a 
special study of the composition of food material, 
and constructed charts to show the relative values. 
See "Annual Cyclopaedia" for 1883. 

AUBER, Pierre Alexandre, French natural- 
ist, b. in Havre in 1784; d. in Cuba in 1843. He 
went to Cuba in 1883, and was appointed pro- 
fessor of botany in the university of Havana and 
director of the botanic garden. He projected the 
first railway in Cuba, which was built in 1885, the 
first in any Spanish-speaking country. 

AUBER, Virginia Felicia, Cuban author, b. 
in Coruiia, Spain, in 1825. She went to Cuba in 
1883 and resided there until 1878, when she re- 
turned to Europe. She wrote much under the pen 
name "Felicia," and published several novels, the 
best of which are " Perseverancia," " Otros tiempos," 
" Un amor misterioso," and " Una habanera." 

AUBREY, Lady Letitia, of Worminghurst, Sus- 
sex, England, was the daughter of William Penn, 
and was made owner and ruler of the " Barony 
of Nazareth," a tract of 5,000 acres in the heart of 
Northampton co.. Pa. Her title was confirmed by 
deed of her half brothers, under date of September, 
1781, "on yielding and paying therefor, to the said 
John Penn, Thomas Penn, and Richard Penn, their 
heirs and assigns. One Red Rose, on the 24th day of 
June yearly, if the same shall be demanded, in full 
for all services, customs, and rents." Authentic 
copies of the deed are in existence, and according 
to tradition the rent was formally paid with due 
ceremony by Ijady Letitia. The " Red Rose Tav- 
ern " was until 1783 the princiiDal inn of the barony. 
The land was sold to the Moravians in 1741. 

AUBREY, Capt. d', knight of St. Louis, d. 24 
Feb., 1770. He was an officer in the French army. 
On 14 Sept., 1758, he defeated Maj. Grant at 
Fort Duquesne. In 1759 he was taken prisoner by 
Sir William Johnson at Niagara. In New Orleans 
he was commandant, and on 4 Feb., 1765, succeeded 
to the government. He surrendered the colony to 
Ulloa in March, 1766; but, after the expulsion of 
that governor in 1768, he resumed the administra- 
tion until Gen. O'Reilly came in July, 1769. On 
his return voyage to France he was wrecked and 
drowned in the Garonne. 

AUCHMUTY, Robert (ok-mu'-te), lawyer, b. in 
Scotland; d. in Boston, Mass., m April, 1750. He 
was descended from a family settled in Fife, Scot- 
land, in the 14th century. His father removed to 
Ireland in 1699, and the son emigrated to America 
and settled in Boston, where he practised law with 
success. He was appointed to the court of admi- 
ralty in 1703, which office he resigned shortly after- 
ward ; but he was reappointed in 1733. He was in 
England in 1741 as agent for the colony, and in 
that year published in London a pamphlet entitled 
" The Importance of Cape Breton to the British 
Nation, and a Plan for Taking the Place." — His 
son, Robert, b. in Boston ; d. in Marylebone, Eng- 
land, in December, 1788. He was an eloquent and 
successful advocate in Boston, was one of the coun- 
sel for the soldiers engaged in the Boston massacre, 
and became a judge of adinii'alty in 1769, but in 1776, 
being a zealous loyalist, withdrew to England. His 
and Hutchinson's letters from Boston, sent over by 
Franklin, in 1778, caused great excitement. — Anoth- 
er son, Samuel, clergyman, b. in Boston, 16 Jan., 
1722; d. in New York, 6 March, 1777, was grad- 
uated at Harvard in 1742, studied theology in 
England, and was appointed assistant niinister of 
Trinity church in New York. In 1764 he becam& 




c'ector, and had charge of all the churches in the 
city. He continued to read prayers for the king 
during the revohition, until Loi-d Stirling, in com- 
majid at New York, compelled him to desist ; where- 
upon he locked the churches and withdrew to New 
Jersey, ordering that no services should be held 
until the prayers could be read without abridg- 
ment. When the British captured New York he 
passed the American lines amid great hardships. 
He found his church and parsonage burned and 
the church records destroyed. The exposure that 
he underwent in order to evade the American sen- 
tries caused his death. — Sir Samuel, British gen- 
eral, son of the Rev. Dr. Samuel, b. in New York, 
22 June, 1758 : d. in Dublin, Ireland, 11 Aug., 1822, 
was graduated at King's college in 1775, and volun- 
teered in the British army in August, 1776 ; was 
commissioned for gallant conduct at the battle of 
Long Island, and served in three campaigns against 
the Americans. He obtained a captaincy, and 
served in India from 1783 to 1796. In 1800 he was 
adjutant-general in Abererombie's Egyptian expe- 
dition, in 1803 was made a knight of the bath went 
in 1806 to South America as a brigadier-general, and 
in February, 1807, captured Montevideo. In 1810 
he was in command in the Carnatic, and in 1811 he 
reduced Java. Returning to England in 1813, he 
was made a lieutenant-general, and in 1822 was 
appointed commander-in-chief in Ireland. 

AUDENRIED, Joseph Craiii, soldier, b. in 
Pottsville, Pa., 6 Nov., 1839 ; d. in Washington, 3 
J une, 1880. He was graduated at West Point in 1861, 
was brevetted second lieutenant, 4th cavalry, and 
assisted in organizing and drilling the troops then 
assembled in Washington. He took piwt in the 
first campaign as aide-de-camp to Gen. Tyler, and 
served with the 2d artillery till March, 1862. Dur- 
ing the peninsular campaign he was acting assist- 
ant adjutant-general to Gen. Emory's cavalry com- 
mand. In July, 1862, he became aide-de-camp to 
Gen. Sumner, commanding 2d army corps, and 
acted in tliis capacity until the death of Gen. Sum- 
ner in March, 1863. He was wounded at Antietara, 
and brevetted captain. He reported as aide-de- 
camp to Gen. Grant in June, 1863, and witnessed 
the surrender of Vicksburg. He joined the staff 
of Gen. Sherman at Memphis on 1 Oct., 1863, and 
shared in the Chattanooga and Knoxville cam- 
paign, that to Meridian, the Atlanta campaign, the 
march to the sea, and that through the Carolinas. 
He accompanied Gen. Sherman during his several 
tours through the great west, among the Indians, 
and through Europe, and continued to discharge 
the duties of aide-de-camp to the general of the 
army until his death. 

AUDUBON, John James, naturalist, b. near 
New Orleans, La., 4 May, 1780 ; d. near New York 
city, 27 Jan., 1851. His grandfather was a fisher- 
man of La Vendee, in France, and his father, who 
had worked his way up to the command of a 
French man-of-war, and had acquired a plantation 
in Louisiana, inarried there a lady of Spanish de- 
scent, named Anne Moynette. When very young, 
Audubon lived for a short time on a plantation be- 
longing to his father in Santo Domingo, and, after 
his mother's death in a negro insurrection, was 
taken to France to be educated. His parents had 
encouraged in him a love of nature almost before 
he was able'to walk, and he had long amused him- 
self by trying to transfer to paper the graceful 
forms of the tropical birds with which he was fa- 
miliar. Although his efforts fell so far short of 
his ideal that he was accustomed to make a bonfire 
of them on each birthday, they nevertheless showed 
talent, and his father placed him in the studio of 


the celebrated painter David. Here he was set to 
drawing horses' heads and the limbs of giants, in- 
stead of his favorite birds. He persevered, how- 
ever, in this one study, while he neglected all the 
others, preferring to spend his time in excursions 
through the woods, gathering specimens and mak- 
ing drawings of 
birds. Seeing 
his tastes, his 
father, who had 
designed him for 
the navy, gave 
up his plan, and 
sent the boy, 
then seventeen 
years old, to a 
farm belonging 
to him at Mill 
Grove, near Phil- 
adelphia. Here 
young Audubon 
spent his time in 
hunting, fishing, 
drawing, and 
collecting speci- 
mens of natural 
history. A visit 
to France, made to lay before his father some griev- 
ances against the agent who had charge of the prop- 
erty, enabled Audubon to add largely to his collec- 
tions. His house at Mill Grove became a museum, 
filled with stuffed animals, and decorated with fes- 
toons of birds' eggs, and with drawings of birds 
and beasts. He became an excellent marksman, 
and was also at this time quite a dandy, if we may 
credit his own account. While at Mill Grove he 
fell in love with Lucy Bake well, daughter of an 
Englishman who had come to America a few years 
before, and whose property adjoined that of Audu- 
bon. At the desire of Mr. Bakewell, who thought 
him somewhat unpractical, he entered the employ 
of a firm in New York, where he soon demon- 
strated his lack of interest in anything but natural 
history, collecting specimens with his usual earnest- 
ness, and letting business take care of itself. It is 
related that his neighbors at one time made a legal 
complaint against him on account of the disagree- 
able odor from the drying bird-skins in his room. 
He soon returned to his home, and, thinking he 
might be more successful in the west, formed a 
partnership with Ferdinand Rosier, a friend, and, 
having sold his farm, started, in 1808, for Louis- 
ville, Ky., with a stock of goods bought with the 
proceeds. Before setting out he married IMiss 
Bakewell, and the journey to Louisville, part of 
which was made in a flat-boat, was their l^ridal 
tour. In Louisville, Audubon left business to Ro- 
sier, and spent his time in the more congenial oc- 
cupation of tramping the woods in search of birds 
and in drawing pictures of them. In his store at 
Louisville he met Alexander Wilson, the celebrated 
ornithologist, who had come to solicit' Audubon's 
subscription to his book on American birds, and 
was naturally astonished when he was shown draw- 
ings superior to his own, some of them represent- 
ing birds he had never seen. Audubon relates 
that he gave Wilson considerable aid in his search 
for specimens, but the latter seems to have been 
somewhat jealous of the rival he had so unex])ect- 
edly discovered, and afterward wrote dispaiagingly 
of his visit to Louisville. Audubon's business did 
not prosper, and, after two removals in a vain search 
for better success, the partnership was dissolved in 
1812, and Audubon settled with his wife and their 
son Victor at Hendersonville, where his second son. 




John, was afterward born. He embarked in a busi- 
ness venture with his brother-in-law at New Or- 
leans, and was again unsuccessful. During this 
time he was still devoting himself completely to 
natural history, making long excursions into the 
surrounding country, sometimes tramping for days 
through pathless thickets with only dog and gun 
for companions, and all the time adding new draw- 
ings to his collection. Some birds he was obliged 
to shoot, afterward ingeniously supporting them m 
natural positions while he painted them ; others he 
drew with the aid of a telescope, representing them 
amid their natural surroundings. 

Audubon's appearance was now veiy different 
from that of the young proprietor of Mill Gi'ove. 
After some of his long tramps through the forests, 
unshaven and unshorn, his rifle on his shoulder and 
his color-box strapped on his Vjack, he looked the 
veritable " American woodsman " he was afterward 
so fond of styling himself. He seems to have done 
all this with no incentive but the love of nature ; 
the idea of publication had not yet entered his 
mind. About this time his father died, leaving 
him an estate in France and the sum of $17,000. 
The latter was held in trust by a friend in Rich- 
mond, Va., who failed shoi'tly afterward, and Au- 
dubon received not a penny. Plis devotion to his 
favorite pursuit continued to bring him into finan- 
cial trouble, and he was obliged to earn money by 
giving drawing lessons and taking crayon portraits 
in Louisville and Cincinnati. His friends not un- 
naturally looked on him as a madman, but his wife 
encouraged and assisted him in every way. To ob- 
tain money for the education of her children, she 
became a governess in New Orleans, whither her 
husband went in 1820, and where she joined him a 
year later, and again in Natchez, where they went 
in 1822. She afterward established a school at 
Bayou Sara, to help him in the publication of his 
work, and in this school he aided her, for some 
time, by teaching music and dancing. 

The idea of giving his collection of drawings to 
the world was first suggested to him by Prince 
Canino, son of Lucien Bonaparte, whom he met in 
Philadelphia. Audubon had gone to that city in 
1824, after earning the necessary money in various 
ways, on one occasion by painting the interior of a 
steamboat. About this time two hundred drawings, 
the labor of years, were destroyed in a single night 
by rats, and the fact that, after a day or two of 
natural despondency, he went bravely to work to 
replace his loss, illustrates Audubon's energy and 
perseverance. In Philadelphia he met several noted 
artists, but the idea of publication seems to have 
had little encouragement. After returning to 
Bayou Sara, where he had left his wife, he sailed 
from New Orleans, in 1826, for England, intending 
to seek aid there, thovigh he had not a friend in the 
country. On his arrival he began to exhibit his 
drawings in public, and, though at first he met with 
discouragements, the value and merit of his work 
was soon recognized by European naturalists. The 
friends that he made during this visit included 
Herschel, Sir Walter Scott, and " Christopher 
North " in Great Britain, and Cuvier, Humboldt, and 
St. Hilaire in Prance. In 1827 he issued the pros- 
pectus of his famous work, " The Birds of America," 
which was published in numbers, each containing 
five plates. The whole book consisted of four folio 
volumes of plates, and -f 1,000 was the price of each 
copy. The entire cost of the work exceeded $100,- 
000, and, at the time when the prospectus was is- 
sued, Audubon had not enough money to ]iay for 
the first number. The influence of Sir Thomas 
Lawrence, the painter, enabled the naturalist to 

sell several pictures at fair prices, and with the 
proceeds he paid the engraver's first bill of £60. 
After this Audubon painted frequently, often sup- 
porting himself entirely in this way. He was 
obliged not only to be his own publisher, but to 
keep the book constantly before the public by per- 
sonal solicitation. In 1828 he spent two months in 
Paris canvassing for subscribers, and in 1829 re- 
turned to America for the same purpose ; never- 
theless, owing to the price of the book, people were 
slow to give him their names, and many of those 
who did so did not scruple to witlidraw them. In 
this way he lost fifty subscribers during the prepa- 
ration of the first volume. But, notwithstanding 
all drawbacks, the work went steadily forward. 
The first volume was issued in London in 1830, 
and the last in 1839. Immediately after the pub- 
lication of the first volume Audubon began to write 
his " Ornithological Biographies," consisting of the 
letter-press to the " Birds," together with reminis- 
cences of personal adventure and descriptions of 
scenery and character. The work consisted of 
five octavo volumes (Edinburgh, 1831-'9). During- 
this time Audubon continued the collection of ma- 
terial in the United States, and, although sea- 
voyages were misery to him, made several trips to 
England, where he wrote ratich of the text of his 
work. On two of these journeys he was accom- 
panied by his wife, and she frecpiently travelled 
with him while he obtained subscribers. In 1840 
he left England for the last time, and thence- 
forward lived with his two sons and their families 
at his house on Hudson river. The place, which 
he named Minniesland, is now within the New York 
city limits, in what is known as " Audubon Park." 
From 1840 to 1844 he was occupied with the pub- 
lication of a smaller edition of his work, which was 
completed in seven octavo volumes. The classi- 
fication of the matter in this edition adds to its 
scientific value. In the folio edition the method 
of publication of course prevented any attempt at 
orderly arrangement, and the only effort had been 
to make the numbers uniform in interest. Before 
tiie publication of the last volume of the " Birds," 
Audubon had projected a similar work on the 
" Quadrupeds of America," and with the help of 
his sons, Victor Gifford and John Woodhouse, and 
of Rev. John Bachman, of Charleston, S. C, had 
gathered much material. He had planned an ex- 
tensive trip to the Rocky mountains in pursuance 
of his design, but was persuaded by his friends to 
give it up, as he was now an old man. Much of 
the work on the " Quadrupeds of America " was 
done by his sons. A large number of the animals 
was secured and painted by John, while nearly all 
the landscapes are the work of Victor. The first 
volume was issued in 1846, and the last in 1854, 
after Audubon's death, under the superintendence 
of his son John. After he had reached his sixty- 
seventh year Audubon's mind began to weaken, 
and during the last four years of his life he was 
able to do little work. He was buried in Trinity 
church cemeterv, which adjoined his property. His 
son, John Woodhouse, died 21 Feb.. 1802, while pre- 
paring a third edition of the " Birds of America." 
Mrs, Audubon survived her husband many years, 
and prepared from his diary a biography, which 
was published in New York in 1868. Mrs. Audu- 
bon died at the home of her sister-in-law, in Shelby- 
ville. Ky., 19 June, 1874. Audubon was a man of 
fine personal appearance. He seems to have been 
attached to his family, and to have been happy in 
his home, yet he chafed under the confinement of 
domestic life, and longed to be continually in the 
woods. After the recognition of his genius, honors 




were showered upon him. At the time of his death 
he was a fellow of the Limuean and zoological so- 
cieties of London, of the natural history society of 
Paris, of the Wernerian society of Edinburgh, of 
the lyceuin of natural history of New York, and an 
honorary member of the society of natural history 
at Manchester, of the royal Scottish academy of 
painting, sculpture, and architecture, and of many 
other scientific bodies. See, besides works already 
mentioned, Dunlap's " History of the Rise and 
Progress of the Arts of Design " (New York, 1884); 
Griswold's " Prose Writers of America" (Philadel- 
phia, 1847); Mrs. Horace St. John's "Audubon, 
the Naturalist, in the New World" (New York, 
1856) ; Samuel Smiles's " Brief Biographies " (Bos- 
ton, 1861); and "Audubon and his Journals," by 
Maria R. Audubon (2 vols., New York, 1897). 

AUER, John (xOttHeb, missionary bishop of 
the Protestant Episcopal church, b. in Wiirtem- 
berg, Germany, 18 Nov., 1832 ; d. 16 Feb., 1874. He 
was a Lutheran minister, but applied for and took 
orders in the Episcopal church, being ordained at 
Cavalla, Africa, in 1862. At a special meeting of 
the general convention, in October, 1872, Dr. Auer 
was elected missionary bishop of Cape Palmas, in 
Africa. He was consecrated 17 April, 1873. but 
was stricken down with fever, and his term of 
service was less than one year. 

AU(xUR, Christopher Colon, soldier, b. in New 
York. 28 Dec, 1821; d. in Washington, D. C, 16 
Jan., 1898. He was graduated at the U. S. military 
academy in 1843. During the Mexican war he was 
aide-de-camp to Gen. Enos D. Hopping and, after 
his death, to Gen. Caleb Cashing. He was promot- 
ed in 1852, 
and served 
with distinc- 
tion in a cam- 
paign against 
the Indians 
in Oregon in 
1856. On 

14 May, 1861, 
he was ap- 
pointed ma- 
jor in the 
13th infant- 
ry, and was 
for a time 
of cadets at 
West Point. 
In November 
of that year 
he was com- 
missioned a 
brigadier-general of volunteers, and jonied McDow- 
ell's corps. In July, 1862, he was assigned to a di- 
vision under Gen. Banks, and in the battle of Cedar 
Mountain, 9 Aug., was severely wounded. He sat 
on the military court that investigated the sur- 
render of Harper's Perry. He was promoted major- 
general 9 Aug., 1862, and in November joined his 
corps and took part in the Louisiana campaign. At 
the siege of Port Hudson he commanded the left 
wing of the army, and for meritorious services on 
that occasion he was brevetted brigadier-general in 
the U. S. army, 13 March, 1865, receiving on the 
same date the brevet of major-general for services 
in the field during the rebellion. From 13 Oct., 
1863, to 13 Aug., 1866, he was commandant of the 
Department of Washington ; from 15 Jan., 1867, to 
13 Nov., 1871, of the Department of the Platte ; then 
of the Department of Texas until March, 1875; of 
the Department of the Gulf until 1 July, 1878, and 




subsequently of the Department of the South and 
the Department of the Missouri, and in 1885 was 
retired. On 15 Aug., 1886, he was shot and dan- 
gerously wounded by a negro whom he attempted 
to chastise for using coarse language in front of his 
house in Washington. — Plis son, Jacob Arnold, is 
a major in the otli U. S. cavalry. 

AUGUR, Hezekiah, sculptor, b. in New Haven, 
Conn., 21 Feb., 1791 ; d. there, 10 Jan., 1858. He was 
unsuccessful in business, and turned his attention to 
sculpture and mechanical inventions. He was al- 
most wholly self-taught, but was possessed of con- 
siderable native talent. His best work, " Jephtha 
and his Daughter," is in the Trumbull gallery, Yale 
college. His most important invention was a ma- 
chine for carving wood, which came into general 
use. He was given the degree of A. M. by Yale 
in 1833, though he was not a graduate. 

AUGUSTUS, John, philanthropist, b. in 1785; 
d. in Boston, 21 June, 1859. He was a shoemaker, 
doing business in Boston, and devoted his means 
and his labors to aiding and reclaiming the poor 
and the vicious. For more than twenty years he 
was a constant visitor to the police courts, seeking 
subjects for his charitable efforts. 

AULICK, John Henry, naval oflTicer, b. in Win- 
chester, Va., in 1789; d. at Washington. D. C, 27 
April, 1873. He entered the navy as midshipman, 
and in 1812 served on the " Enterprise " in all the . 
engagements of that vessel, carrying into port the 
British ship " Boxer " and the privateers " Fly " 
and " Mars," which the " Enterprise " captured. 
He afterward served on the " Saranac," " Ontario," 
" Constitution," and " Brandywine," and was in 
command of the Washington navy-yard from 1843 
to 1846. He commanded the " Vincennes " in 1847, 
and the East India squadron, making his last cruise 
in 1853. In 1861 he retired with the rank of cap- 
tain, and in July, 1862, was made a commodore on 
the retired list. 


AURELIO I., Antonio, the name assumed by 
M. de Founens, a French adventurer, b. about 
1830. He lived among the Araucanians, in Chili, 
and was elected king by them. He formed a con- 
stitution, and his movements at first created merri- 
ment in Chili, but the government found it neces- 
sary to get rid of him. Early in 1862 disguised 
Chilians were sent to Araucania, and, when they 
reached the place where the so-called king held his 
court, a policeman seized him, put him upon 
his horse, and succeeded in escaping with him from 
the pursuing Indians. The adventurer v/as im- 
prisoned for some time. 

AURY, Louis de, New Grenadian naval officer, 
b. about 1780. He became a lieutenant in the 
navy of his native country in 1813, and command- 
ed the naval force of New Grenada at the siege of 
Cartagena. In 1816 he went to Texas with Herrero 
as commander of the united fleets, and was ap- 
pointed governor of Texas and Galveston island. 
In July, 1817, he took part in McGregor's expedi- 
tion to Florida, and afterward he was engaged in 
the campaigns of the revolted South American re- 
publics. He resided some time in New Orleans, 
and subsequently went to Havana. 

AU-STEN, Peter Townsend, chemist, b. in 
Clifton, Staten Island, N. Y., 10 Sept., 1852. He 
was graduated at C-olumbia school of mines, in the 
course in analytical and applied chemistry, in 
1873. He then studied for three years under Prof. 
Ilofmann in the university of Berlin, and received 
the degree of Ph. D., for original work, trom the 
university of Zurich. On his return from Europe 
he became in 1876 instructor in chemistry at Dart- 




mouth college, and in 1877 professor of general 
and applied chemistry in Rutger's college, New 
Brunswick, N. J. In 1872 he was chemist to the 
Richmond co., N. Y., board of health, and in 1885 
was chemist to the Newark board of health. Pie 
became a member of the New Brunswick board of 
health in 1885. Since 1884 he has been president 
of the Union Paint Company, Newark, N. J. He is 
a member of the London, Paris, Berlin, St. Peters- 
burg, and other chemical societies, and also a fel- 
low of the American association for the advance- 
ment of science. Dr. Austen has been an industri- 
ous worker, and while much of his investigation 
has been for industrial purposes, he has found time 
to devote some attention to purely scientific re- 
search. His papers, which inchute nearly fifty 
titles, have appeared principally in the proceedings 
of the Berlin chemical society, and in the " Ameri- 
can Chemical Journal." He is a regular contribu- 
tor to the " Textile Colorist " of Philadelphia, and 
to the " Druggists' Circular " of New York, and he 
has published " Kurze Einleitung zu den Nitrover- 
bindungen " (Leipsic, 1876). " Pinner's Organic 
Chemistry" was translated and revised by him 
(New York, 1883), and he has lectured on " Science- 
teaching in Schools," "Scientific Speculations," 
and " The Chemical Factor in History." 

AUSTIN, Beiijaiuiii, merchant, b. in Boston, 
18 Nov., 1753; d. there, 4 May, 1820. He was 
a merchant in Boston, and was a political writer 
before the revolution. In the controversy that 
raged during the administration of John Adams 
he wrote fierce newspaper articles, filled with per- 
sonalities, in advocacy of republican views, and 
was bitterly assailed in turn. After the triumph 
of the republican party President Jefferson ap- 
pointed him commissioner of loans for Massachu- 
setts. He was a member at different times of both 
houses of the Massachusetts legislature. He wrote 
a series of articles for the " Independent Chroni- 
cle," under the name of " Honestus," and another 
series signed " Old South." The latter were print- 
ed in a volume in 1803. His son, Charles Austin, 
in 1806 assailed Thomas 0. Selfridge in State street, 
Boston, for slandering his father, and was killed 
by Selfridge, who was tried and acquitted. A re- 
port of the trial was published in Boston in 1807. 

AUSTIN, Coe Finch, botanist, b. in Finch- 
Tille, Orange co., N. Y., 20 June, 1831 ; d. in Clos- 
ter, N. J., 18 March, 1880. He was educated 
chiefly at Rankin's academy, Deckertown, N. J. 
Subsequent to his graduation he devoted some 
time to lecturing on chemistry and botany, but 
afterward settled in Closter, where he resided dur- 
ing the latter part of his life. For many years he 
was curator of the herbarium at Columbia college. 
He was recognized as an authority on mosses, both 
in this country and in Europe. His published 
work includes " Musci Appalachiani " (1870), a val- 
uable description of American mosses, for the 
preparation of which he made numerous journeys 
through the eastern, middle, and southern states. 

AUSTIN, David, clergyman, b. in New Haven, 
Conn., in 1760; d. in Norwich, Conn., 5 Feb., 1831. 
He was graduated at Yale college in 1779, and in 
1788 was settled as the Presbyterian minister in 
Elizabethtown, N. J. In 1795* after his recovery 
from a fever, he began to preach the second advent 
of Christ, which he prophesied would occur in May, 
1796. When the day passed by he renewed his 
predictions, which created great excitement, and in 
1797 he was dismissed from his church. After re- 
covering from his delusion he was installed, in 
1815, as pastor at Bozrah, Conn., where he offici- 
ated until his death. He published " The Ameri- 

can Preacher," by various ministers ; " The Down- 
fall of Bal)ylon": a " Commentary on the Bible," 
and several millennial pamphlets and sermons. 

AUSTIN, James Trecothic, lawyer, b. in 
Boston, 7 Jan., 1784; d. there, 8 May, 1870. He 
was the son of Jonathan L. Austin, and was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1802. In 1806 he married the 
daughter of Elbridge Gerry. He was town ad- 
vocate in 1809, member of the state legislature and 
attorney for the county of Suffolk in 1812-32, and 
attorney-general of Massachusetts in 1882-'43. He 
delivered an oration at Lexington on the 4th of 
July, 1815, and subsequently was called upon for 
like services on other public occasions. Many of 
these orations were published, and he published a 
"Life of Elbridge Gerry " (Boston, 1828). In [xili- 
tics he was an anti-federalist, and was a pronounced 
opponent of the abolition movement. 

AUSTIN, Jonathan Loring, patriot, b. in Bos- 
ton, 2 Jan., 1748; d. there, 10 May, 1826. He was 
graduated at Harvard college in 1766, and became 
a merchant in Portsmouth, N. H, When Lang- 
don's regiment was raised he became its major, and 
subsequently was aide to Gen. Sullivan. He was 
secretary to the Massachusetts board of war until 
October, 1777, and was sent to France with des- 
patches to Dr. Franklin announcing the defeat of 
Burgoyne and asking for clothing and stores for 
the army. He remained with Dr. Franklin as his 
private secretary, being sent as his agent to Lon- 
don. In May, 1779, he arrived in Philadelphia with 
despatches from the commissioners to congress. 
Fle was sent to Europe again in January, 1780, to 
negotiate a loan for the state of Massachusetts, and 
was captured on the way, but was set free in Eng- 
land. He failed to secure the loan, and returned 
in the autumn of 1781. In 1786 he delivered the 
4th of July oration in Boston. He was a state 
senator for several terms, and elected state treas- 
urer, and subsequently secretary of state. 

AUSTIN, Jonathan Williams, soldier, b. in 
Boston, 18 April, 1751 ; d. in tlie south in the sum- 
mer of 1778. He was graduated at Harvard in 
1769, studied law in the office of John Adams, 
and admitted to the bar in 1772. In the Middle- 
sex convention in 1774 he was chairman of the 
committee that drew up the resolutions. He 
served as a major in the revolutionary war, and 
was commandant at Castle William in 1776. 

AUSTIN, Moses, Texan pioneer, b. in Durham, 
Conn. ; d. in Louisiana, 10 June, 1821. He re- 
moved to the west in 1798, and engaged in lead- 
mining. In 1820 he went to Texas, and from Bex- 
ar forwarded to the Mexican commandant at Mon- 
terey a petition for permission to colonize 800 
American families in that section. Returning to 
Missouri in search of emigrants, he was robbed and 
exposed to hardships that caused his death. The 
Mexican authorities granted a tract of land for a 
colony, and his son, Stephen P. Austin, founded 
the settlement. 

AUSTIN, Samuel, clergyman, b. in New Haven, 
Conn., 7 Oct., 1760; d. in Glastonbury, Conn., 4 
Dec, 1830. He was graduated at Yale in 1783, 
studied theology, was ordained, and settled for 
three years m Fair Haven, Conn. He was dis- 
missed 19 Jan., 1790, and became pastor of the 
First Congregational church in Worcester, Mass., 
where he remained until 1815. In 1807 he re- 
ceived the degree of S. T. D. from Williams college. 
After leaving Worcester he was chosen president 
of the university of Vermont, where he remained 
until 1821, when he resigned on account of ill 
health and removed to Newport, and there preached 
for several years. His published writings include 




a treatise on baptism, a number of controversial 
letters (1805-'G), and occasional sermons. 

AUSTIN, Steplien F., pioneer, b. about 1790 ; 
d. in Texas, 27 Dec, 1836. He was the son of 
Moses Austin, an enterprising pioneer from Con- 
necticut, who in 1830 obtained from Mexico au- 
thority to colonize 300 families in Texas, but died 
before the project could be accomplished. Stephen 
obtained a confirmation of the grant, and, hav- 
ing already selected the present site of Austin, he 
founded what soon grew into a thriving settlement. 
He was entitled to a large tract for each 200 fami- 
lies induced to settle, and proved himself an able 
diplomatist by inducing unmarried young men to 
pair off together and call themselves families. In 
this way he soon acquired a large tract of fertile 
land, and, being clothed with almost absolute au- 
thority, he practically ruled the whole connnunity, 
and successfully fought the warlike tribes of In- 
dians in the vicinity. In 1833 the American set- 
tlers, were so powerful that they became uneasy 
under Mexican rule, and Austin went so far that 
he was arrested and imprisoned for several months. 
On his liberation in 1835 he took jjart with the revo- 
lutionists, was appointed commander-in-chief, and 
straightway undertook to expel the Mexicans, send- 
ing for Gen. Sam. Houston to lend his aid. In 
November of that year he was sent as commission- 
er to the United States to secure recognition from 
the government at Washington. In this capacity 
he acted with prudence and patience, and in his 
opinion could even then have obtained recognition 
of Texan independence had he been properly pro- 
vided with credentials. In July, 1830, he returned 
to Texas to prosecute the work, but died without 
witnessing the result of his labors. 

AUSTIN, William, author, b. in Charlestown, 
Mass., 2 March, 1778 ; d. there, 27 June, 1841. He 
was graduated at Harvard in 1798, and studied 
law. His published works are " Oration on the An- 
niversary of the Battle of Bunker Hill " (Charles- 
town, 1801) ; '• Letters from London " (Boston, 
1804) ; " Essav on the Human Character of Jesus 
Christ " (1807) ; " Peter Rugg, the Missing Man," 
in the " New England Galaxy," and " The Late 
Joseph Natterstone," in the "New Englander." 
The most successful of these was " Peter Rugg," a 
legendary tale, which made a great sensation. 
About 1805 he was wounded in a duel with James 
H. Elliott, caused by a political quarrel. 

AVELEDO, Ag'ustin (ah-va-lay'-do), Venezue- 
lan scientist, b. in Caracas, 31 Aug., 1836. He 
founded a meteorological observatory and an or- 
phan asylum, and later became the director of the 
Colegio de Santa Maria. He has published articles 
on meteorological subjects, and is a corresponding 
member of several European societies. 

AYELLANEDA, Gertrndis Gomez de (ah- 
vail-yahn-ay'-da), Spanish author, b. in Puerto 
Principe, Cuba, in 1816 ; d. in Madrid, Spain, 1 Feb., 
1876. Her father was a Spanish naval officer, and 
after his death she went to Spain, where her first 
drama, " Leoncia," was favorably received at Ma- 
drid in 1840. In 1845 she was crowned with laurel 
in the presence of the court and received a prize, 
for a poem exalting the clemency of the queen. 
In 1846 she married Pedro Sabador, a young Span- 
ish politician, who died in the same year, and she 
afterward lived in retirement at Madrid and Se- 
ville. She wrote lyrical poetry (2 vols., 2d ed., 
Mexico, 1852), sixteen dramas, and eight volumes 
of prose, which gave her a high reputation. 

AYELLANEDA, Nicolas, Argentine presi- 
dent, b, 1 Oct., 1836. When only twenty-five 
years of age he was made professor of political 

economy in the university of Buenos Ayres, where 
he had studied law, as he had studied also at Cor- 
doba. Not long afterward President Sarmiento 
appointed him a member of his cabinet, and in 
1874 Avellaneda himself became president of the 
republic. His administration was prosperous, not- 
withstanding some internal troubles, like those 
which gave cause for a campaign against the In- 
dians in 1876. Avellaneda was president until 2 
Oct., 1880, when his minister of war. Gen. Roca, 
succeeded him. Avellaneda gained considerable 
fame by his radical reform in the system of divis- 
ion of public lands ; and he is the author of an 
important work on that subject, entitled " Estudios 
sobre tierras publicas." 

AYERELL, William Woods, soldier, b. in 
Cameron, N. Y., 5 Nov., 1832; d. in Bath, N. Y., 3 
Feb., 1900. His grandfather was a captain in the 
revolutionary army under Sullivan. Y''oung Aver- 
ell was graduated at the U. S. Military Academy 
in June, 1855, and assigned to the mounted riflemen. 
He served in garrison and at the school for practice 
at Carlisle, Pa., until 1857, when he was ordered 
to frontier duty, 
and saw a great 
deal of Indian 
fighting, mainly 
against the Kio- 
was and Nava- 
jos. He was se- 
verely wounded 
in a night attack 
by the Navajos 
in 1859, and was 
on sick-leave un- 
til the outbreak 
of the civil war 
in 1861. He was 
promoted to be 
first lieutenant 
of the mounted 
riflemen 14 May, 
1861, and was on 
staff duty in the 

neighborhood of Washington, participating in the 
battle of Bull Run and other engagements until 23 
Aug., 1861, when he was appointed colonel of the 
3d Pennsylvania cavalry, and commanded the cav- 
alry defences in front of Washington. He was en- 
gaged with the army of the Potomac in its most im- 
portant campaigns. In March, 1863, he began the 
series of cavalry raids in western Virginia that made 
his name famous. The first notable one was on the 
16th, 17th, and 18th of March, and included the 
battle of Kelly's Ford, on the upper Rappahannock. 
In August he drove a confederate force over the 
Warm Spring mountains, passed through several 
southern comities, and near White Sulphur Springs 
attacked a force posted in Rocky Gap, for the pos- 
session of which a fight ensued, lasting two days 
(26 and 27 Aug.). Averell was repulsed with heavy 
loss, but made his way back to the union lines 
with 150 prisoners. On 5 Nov. he started with 
a force of 5,000 men and drove the confeder- 
ates out of Greenbrier co., capturing three guns 
and about 100 prisoners. In December he was 
again in motion, advancing with a strong force 
into southwestern Virginia. On 16 Dec. he struck 
the Virginia and Tennessee railroad at Salem, 
Gen. Longstreet's base of supplies. He destroyed 
the railroad, severing an important line of commu- 
nication between the confederate generals Lee and 
Bragg, and burned a large quantity of provisions, 
clothing, and military equipuients. When he be- 
gan his retreat the alarm had been given, and all 





the mountain passes were held by the confederates. 
He captured a bearer of despatches, learned the 
enemy's plans, and forced the |»isitiiin defended by 
Gen. W. S. Jackson (" Mudvvall," as he was called, 
to distinguish him from his more famous name- 
sake). A second line concentrated to cut off his 
retreat, but he led his command over a road sup- 
posed to be impassable, and reached the federal 
lines with 200 prisoners and 150 horses, having 
lost 11 men killed or drowned and 90 missing. 
" My command," he said in his report (21 Dec, 
1863), " has marched, climbed, slid, and swum 
three hundred and forty miles since the 8th inst." 
After the exposure and hardships of this raid he 
was obliged to ask for sick-leave, extending to 
February. On his return to duty he was placed in 
command of the 2d cavalry division, and from that 
time until September, 1864, the fighting was al- 
most continuous. He was wounded in a skirmish 
near Wytheville, but was in the saddle and under 
fire again two days afterward, destroying a section 
of the Tennessee railroad. In June he crossed the 
Alleghany mountains, in July he was fighting in 
the Shenandoah valley and at Winchester. In 
August he was in fights at Moorfield, Bunker Hill, 
Martinsburg, and elsewhere, and ended the cam- 
paign with the battles of Opequan (19 Sept.), Fish- 
er's Hill (22 Sept.), and Mount Jackson (23 Sept). 
In the meantime he had been brevetted through 
the different grades of his regular army rank until 
he was brevet major-general. On 18 May, 1865, 
he resigned. He was consul-general of the United 
States in the British provinces of North America 
from 1866 till 1869, when he became president of a 
large manufacturing company. He discovered a 
process for the manufacture of cast-steel directly 
from the ore in one operation (1869-'70), invented 
the American asphalt pavement (Jan., 1879), and 
the Averell insulating conduits for wires and con- 
ductors (1884-'5), and also a machine for laying 
electric conductors underground (1885). 

AYERILL. John Thomas, b. in Alna, Maine, 
1 March, 1825 ; d. in St. Paul, Minn., 4 Oct., 1889. 
He was educated at Maine Wesleyan university, 
settled in St. Paul, Minn., aiul engaged in manu- 
facturing. In August, 1862, he entered the army 
as lieutenant-colonel of the 6th Minnesota infantry. 
The brevet of brigadier-general was conferred on 
him when he was mustered out of service. He was 
elected to congress as a republican in 1871, by a 
close vote, ajid reelected by a large majority. 

AVERT, Benjamin Park, journalist, b. in New 
York city in 1829; d. in Pekin, China, 8 Nov., 
1875. After receiving a good English education 
and learning wood-engraving, he went to Califor- 
nia with the " Argonauts of '49," and engaged for 
a time in gold-mining. In 1856 he established at 
North San Juan a weekly paper called the " Hy- 
draulic Press." In 1860 he became assistant editor 
on the " Marysville Appeal," in 1861 was chosen 
state printer, afterward served on the staff of the 
" San Francisco Bulletin," and in 1872 imdertook 
the editorship of the " Overland Monthly." He 
was appointed minister to China in 1874. 

AVERY, Waightstill or Waitstill, lawyer, b. 
in Groton, Conn., 3 May, 1745 ; d. in Burke co., 
N. C, in 1821. He was graduated at Princeton in 
1776, and went to Mecklenburg, N. C, where he 
became a lawyer. In 1775 he took part in the con- 
vention and signed the paper known as the 
*' Mecklenburg Declaration," and in the same year 
he was sent to the Hillsborough congress. In 1776 
he was a member of the state congress, and in 
1777 the first attorney-general of the state. In 
1779 he was a colonel of militia in active service. 

AVEZAC, Augiiste Genevieve Valentin d'» 

lawyer, b. in Santo Domingo in 1777 ; d. 15 Feb., 
1851. He belonged to a French family settled in 
Hayti, who were driven from the island and took 
refuge in the United States in consequence of the 
uprising of the blacks. He was educated at a 
military school in France, and afterward studied 
medicine in North Carolina and practised in Acco- 
mac CO., Va. Following the advice of his brother- 
in-law, Edward Livingston, he obtained admission 
to the Louisiana bar, after that state was received 
into the union, and became a successful advo- 
cate, especially in criminal cases. In the war of 
1812 he served as judge-advocate when Gen. Jack- 
son was in Louisiana, and acted as aide to that 
general at the battle of New Orleans. In 1829 he 
received from President Jackson the appointment 
of secretary of legation at the Hague, and in 1831 
acted as charge d'affaires. On returning home he 
took up his residence in New York, and was elected 
to the legislature of that state in 1841 and in 1843. 
From 1845 to 1849 he was again charge d'affaires 
at the Hague. He wrote " Reminiscences of Ed- 
ward Livingstone."— His uncle, Pierre Valentin 
Dominique Julian d'Avezac, son of Pierre Valen- 
tin, a Frencli lawyer, who l)ecame an enterprising 
planter in Santo Domingo, was born in Santo Do- 
mingo in 1769. and remoA^ed to New Orleans, where 
he devoted himself to literary pursuits. He trans- 
lated Scott's " Marmion " into French, and made 
the French translation of the penal code of Louisi- 
ana. He became president of a college established 
in New Orleans, and died in 1831.— Jean Pierre 
Valentin (b. in 1756, d. in Santo Domingo in 
1803), another son of Pierre Valentin d'Avezac, 
was a deputy sent from the colony to France in 
1790 to oppose the revolutionary movement. 

AVEZZANA, Giuseppe, soldier, b. in Chieri, 
Piedmont, 19 Feb., 1797. His American career be- 
gan soon after the restoration of Ferdinand VII. to 
the Spanish throne, September, 1823. Avezzana 
fought agiiinst the restoration, was captured and 
held for several weeks as a prisoner, and sailed for 
America on being set free. Prior to this time he 
served under Napoleon I. from 1813 until the fall 
of the empire, and then, joining the Sardinian 
army, found himself in 1815 arrayed against his 
old leader, who had made his escape from Elba. 
Wherever there was a chance to fight for liberty, 
Avezzana was at hand, and hardly was he fairly es- 
tablished on American soil when he found himself 
called upon to defend the state of Tamaulipas 
against his old enemies the Spaniards, who invaded 
the territory under Gen. Barradas in June, 1827. 
He was obliged to retire at first before superior 
numbers, but soon rallied a force sufficient to over- 
throw the invaders, and afterward resumed his 
peaceful vocations. In 1832 a revolution was or- 
ganized by Santa Anna against the government of 
President Bustamente, and Avezzana was, as al- 
ways, ready to lead the revolt. Left in command 
at Tampico by Gen. Montezuma, who went to stir 
up the revolutionists elsewhere, he manoeuvred so 
successfully with a small force that they captured 
three times their number of government troops at 
Ciudad Victoria, with artillery and supplies. From 
this time he gave the enemy no rest, but retrieved the 
disasters that had befallen Santa Anna and Monte- 
zuma, and mainly through his able military lead- 
ership the liberal cause triumphed. Avezzana im- 
mediately resigned his command, and in 1834 went 
into business in New York city, where he married 
an Irish lady and led a quiet mercantile life until 
the revolution of 1848 fired his patriot blood 
again, and he promptly responded to the call of 




Italy. He was absent just a year, and only returned 
to America after he had fought the Austrians and 
Sardinians at Genoa, and with a few thousand fol- 
lowers had defended Rome for two months against 
the allied armies, 100,000 strong. Once he sought 
refuge on board an American and once on board a 
British man-of-war, and at last, when the cause of 
freedom was hopelessly crushed, escaped with his 
usual good luck to America and resumed his mer- 
cantile life in New York, 

AVILES, Pedro Menendez de (ah-vee-les ), 
Spanish sailor, b. in 1523 ; d. in 1574. He rendered 
good services to Emperors Maximilian and Charles 
V. when fighting under letters of marque against 
the French fleets. He was appointed captain-gen- 
eral of the route to the West Indies, and conquered 
Florida, of which he became both military and 
civil governor. He died while making prepara- 
tions to join the armada that was sent by Philip 
II. against England. 

AXAYACATL _(ah-sha-ya-ka'-tl), the eighth 
Mexican kiug, d. in 1477. He effected the con- 
quest of Tehuantepec as far as Huatulco. The 
Tlaltelolcans and other people attacked the Mexi- 
cans again, but were repulsed, their king, Moqui- 
huix, was killed, and the Tlaltelolco country re- 
mained under Mexican nUe. Axayacatl, having 
thus united the two kingdoms, began a campaign 
against the inhabitants of the Tolocan and Txtla- 
huaca valleys, but it was ended by his death. 

AXICOAT, a Zutuhil king, one of the sons of the 
Quiche king, Axopil, flourished in the 11th century. 
Axicoat, being ambitious, declared war against his 
brother Jintemal, the Oakchiquel king, and their 
father had to mediate between them to restore 
peace. But just before Axopil died he gave his Quiche 
kingdom to Jintemal, which caused a new and ter- 
rible war with Axicoat, both wishing to possess all 
the tei-ritories near the borders of Lake Atitlan. 

AXOPIL, son and successor of Nima-Quiche (or 
Oreat-Qniche), king of the Quiche tribes that went 
to Centi'al America after the fall of the Mexican 
empire of Tula, about 1052. Axopil was an able 
chieftain, who extended the limits of his nation 
and promoted its civilization and prosperity. In 
his old age he divided his dominions, giving the 
Cakchiquel kingdom to his son Jintemal, and that 
of Zutuhil, or Atitlan, to his son Axicoat, keeping 
for himself the kingdom of Quiche. 

AYALA, Juaii Bautista de, explorer, known 
only in connection with the early exploration of 
San Francisco bay in 1775. The bay had been 
discovered only six years before. Ayala was a 
Spanish lieutenant, in command of the transport 
" San Carlos," and his was the flrst European ves- 
sel to enter the Golden Gate. He i-emained about 
forty days, making surveys, and on his return to 
Monterey reportecl concerning the excellent char- 
acter of the harbor. The visit of Sir Francis Drake 
in the Kith century can not have been actually 
made to the bay of San Francisco, hence the as- 
sured priority of Ayala as explorer in this place. 

AVER, James Cook, manufacturer, b. in Gro- 
ton. Conn., 5 May, 1818 ; d. in Winchendon, Mass., 
3 July, 1878. At the age of thirteen he removed 
to Lowell, and there resided with his uncle. His 
education was obtained at the public schools, where 
at one time he was a classmate of Gen. Butler, and 
subsequently at the Westford academy, after which 
he was apprenticed to James C. Robbins, a drug- 
gist in Lowell. While there he studied medicine, 
and later he was graduated at the medical depart- 
ment of the university of Pennsylvania. He never 
practised, but devoted his principal attention to 
pharmaceutical chemistry and the compounding of 

medicines. His success in this line was very great, 
and soon led him to establish in Lowell a factory 
for the manufacture of his medicinal preparations, 
which became one of the largest of its kind in the 
world, and was magnificently equipped. He accu- 
mulated a fortune estimated at $20,000,000. Much 
of his success was due to his advertising, and he 
published annually an almanac, 5,000,000 copies of 
which were gratuitously distributed each year. 
Editions in English, French, German, Portuguese, 
and Spanish, were regularly issued. In 1874 he 
accepted the republican nomination for congress in 
the 7th Massachusetts district, but was defeated. 
Anxiety and care brought about a brain difficulty, 
and for some time prior to his death he was con- 
fined in an asylum. His willow died 3 Jan., 1898. 

AYLLON, Lucas Vazquez de (ah-eel-yon), 
Spanish adventurer, d. in Virginia, 18 Oct., 152(j. 
He was appointed a member of the superior court 
in Santo Domingo. Cortes sent him to negotiate 
an agreement with Velazquez, but he did not suc- 
ceed in effecting it either with Velazquez or with 
Narvaez, who commanded the fleet of the latter. 
Ayllon sent an expedition to Florida in 1520, under 
Gordillo, who, in 1521, landed in lat. 33° 30', and 
carried oft' into slavery seventy Indians. Ayllon 
obtained a grant of the new country, fitted out an- 
other vessel, which restored the captives, and in 
1526 sailed himself with 500 colonists, landed at 
the mouth of the Santee; sailed northward to the 
Chesapeake, and on the site of Jamestown founded 
the settlement of San Miguel de Guandape, which, 
after his death from swamp fever, was abandoned 
by the colonists, only 150 of whom reached San 
Domingo alive. 

AYLMER, Mathew, soldier, b. in England, 24 
May, 1775 ; d. in London, 23 Feb., 1850. On the 
death of his father, he became fifth lord Ayliner m 
1785, and two years later he became ensign of the 
49th foot. He served at the siege of Copenhagen 
in 1807, and in Portugal in 1809. He was colonel 
of the 18th foot, and on 25 May, 1827, was raised 
to the rank of general. From 1830 to 1833 he was 
governor-general of Canada, and became exceed- 
ingly popular. During his administration he 
caused suitable monuments to be erected to Wolfe 
and Montcalm in Quebec. In 1825 he assumed the 
additional surname of Whitworth. 

A YOLAS, Juau de (ay-o'-las), Spanish governor 
of Paraguay, d. in 1538.* He was a companion of 
Pedro de Mendoza in the conquests along the bor- 
ders of Plata river. He ascended the Parana and 
Paraguay rivers, routed the Indians, and founded 
both the colony and the city of Asuncion. Then 
he crossed the continent with 200 men, as far as 
to the borders of Peru, and was killed by savages. 

AYRES. Roiueyn Beck, soldier, b. at East 
Creek, N. Y., 20 Dec. 1825 ; d. in Fort Hamilton, 
N. Y., 4 Dec, 1888. He was graduated at West 
Point in 1847, going at once to Mexico as lieuten- 
ant in the 3d artillerv. and remaining in garrison 
at Fort Preble, Mexico, until 1850. From that 
time till the outbreak of the civil war he was on 
frontier and garrison duty in various parts of 
the country. In 1859-'61 he was at the artillery 
school for "practice at Fortress Monroe. In May, 
1861, he was promoted to be captain in the 3d ar- 
tillery, and he was present at all the early engage- 
ments of the war about the defences of Washing- 
ton. After serving as chief of artillery in W. F. 
Smith's division and of the 6th army corps, he ac- 
companied the army of the Potomac in the Penin- 
sular campaign of 1862, and thence to the jMary- 
land campaign, ending with the battle of Antietam. 
He was obliged to take a sick-leave of nearly three 




months, but was in the saddle again in December 
and engaging in the winter campaign on the Rap- 
pahannock. He was at Fredericksburg, Chancel- 
lorsvile, and the intervening engagements of less 
moment. As brigadier-general of volunteers from 
29 Nov., 1862, he commanded a division of the 5th 
corps at Gettysburg, and was then ordered to New 
York city to suppress the draft riots. In 1864 he 
was with his command in the movement against 
Richmond, beginning with the battles of the Wil- 
derness (May, 1864). He was wounded at the siege 
of Petersburg in June, returned to duty in August, 
and was present at the final engagements, ending 
with the surrender of Lee's army at Appomattox, 
9 April, 1865. During this period he received 
successive promotions and brevets in his regular 
army grade until he was lietitenant-colonel of the 
28th infantry and brevet major-general. He was 
mustered out of the volunteer service as major- 
general 30 April, 1866. Since the war he had 
served on various important commissions and 
boards. He was promoted in regular course to the 
colonelcy of the 3d artillery, 18 July, 1879. 

AZANZA, Mig'uel Jose (ah-than'-thah), the 
54th viceroy of Mexico, b. in Navarre in 1746 ; d. in 
1826. After service to Spain as a diplomatist and 
soldier, he was appointed viceroy of New Spain and 
took command at Orizaba, 31 May, 1798. Under 
his rule Mexican commerce and industries, espe- 
cially silk, cotton, and woollen manufacturing, were 
very much promoted, notwithstanding several 
public calamities like the hurricane that almost 
destroyed the city of Acapulco in July, 1799, and 
the terrible earthquake of March, 1800. In Novem- 
ber of the previous year a great conspiracy to 
assassinate the wealthy Spaniards was discovered. 
Azanza was recalled to Spain in May, 1800. 

AZARA, Felix de (ath'-a-ra), Spanish natural- 
ist, b. in Aragon, 18 May, 1746; d. there in 1811. 
He became a brigadier-general in the Spanish army, 
and was wounded in the war against the Algerine 
pirates (1775). In 1781 he went to South America 
as one of the commissioners to settle the boundary 
between the Spanish and Portuguese possessions ; 
and his researches, prosecuted for twenty years, 
made him an authority on the natural and political 
history of Paraguay and the Plata region. His 
" Essai sur I'histoire naturelle des quadrupedes de 
la province du Paraguay" was first published in 
French (Paris, 1801), and afterward in Spanish 
(Madrid, 1802), under the auspices of his brother, 
the Chevalier Jose Nicolas de Azara (b. in 1731, d. 
in Paris in 1804), Spanish ambassador to France, 
who made a Spanish translation of Middleton's 
Cicero. Felix de Azara's masterpiece, " Voyage 
dans TAmerique meridionale depuis 1781 jusqu'en 
1801 " (4 vols., Paris, 1809), translated by Sonnini, 
was edited by Walckenaer, the French naturalist, 
whose commentaries, as well as those of Sonnini 
and Cuvier, give additional value to the work. It 
contains a narrative of the discovery and conquest 
of Paraguay and the Plata river, and ornitho- 
logical descriptions. A Spanish translation by 
Varela was published in Montevideo. 

AZEVEDO. Antonio Aranjo de (ah-thay-vay- 
do), count of Barca. Portuguese statesman, b. in 
1784; died in 1817. After cooperating in the estab- 
lishment of the academy of sciences at Lisbon, he 
represented his government in Holland, France, 
Prussia, and Russia. He was first minister of John 
VI., whom he followed to Brazil in 1807. There he 
was minister of the navy and of foreign affairs, and 
took great interest in promoting education and in- 
dustry. He taught the Brazilians how to manufac- 
ture porcelain, made special studies and experi- 

ments in his own splendid botanical garden, as well 
as the first trials for the acclimatization and culture 
of the tea-plant in Brazil, and was the founder of 
a school of fine arts. His works include two trage- 
dies and a translation of Virgil's pastorals. 

AZEVEDO COUTINHO, Joze Joaquim da 
Cunha (ah-thay-vay'-do cu-teen'-yo), Portuguese 
bishop, the last inquisitor-general of Portugal and 
Brazil, b. in Campos dos Goitacazes, Brazil, 8 Sept., 
1742; d. 12 Sept., 1821. He studied at Coimbrain 
Portugal, received orders, and soon became promi- 
nent both in the church and in politics. In 1794 
he was made bishop of Pernambuco. In 1818 he 
was appointed inquisitor-general, and shortly be- 
foi"e his death he was elected to the cortes. He 
published " Ensaio economico sobre o commercio 
de Portugal e suas colonias " (1792); a pamphlet 
against the proposed abolition of the slave-trade 
(1788); and a memoir on the conquest of Rio de 
Janeiro by Duguay-Trouin in 1711. 

AZEVEDO, Igiiacius, Portuguese Jesuit, b. in 
Oporto in 1527 ; killed at sea in 1570. He was th& 
eldest son of one of the noblest houses in Portugal, 
but relinquished his rights of primogeniture in fa- 
vor of his brother Francis, and entered the society 
of the Jesuits at Coimbi-a in 1548. Here his absti- 
nences and mortifications were so excessive that his; 
superiors had to compel him to moderate them. 
Before he was twenty years old he was appointed 
rector of the new college of St. Antony at Lisbon. 
Being wearied with the honors paid him and the 
marks of veneration that he attracted, he asked to 
be sent on a mission to the Indians ; he embarked 
for Brazil, and he remained there three years. His- 
labors in civilizing the savages were very success- 
ful. Being recalled by his superiors, he returned 
to Lisbon, 'but had hardly reached the city when he 
planned another voyage to America. He went to 
Rome to give an account of his journey, obtained 
the approval of the pope for his new projects, and 
received permission to select suitable companions 
in Spain and Portugal. A large number of young 
Jesuits agreed to follow him to Brazil, and he em- 
barked with thirty-nine of them on board a mer- 
chant vessel at Lisbon, leaving the others to follow. 
The Portuguese vessel was attacked near the island 
of Palma by Jacques Sourie, of La Rochelle, vice- 
admiral of the queen of Navarre, and a fierce 
Calvinist. The Portuguese captain, not thinking 
his crew suffieient for the defence of the ship, 
wanted to arm the Jesuits, but was opposed by 
Azevedo, who exhorted the sailors, however, to 
fight, and ordered his followers to attend to the 
other needs of the ship, which was now surrounded 
by the boats of Sourie. Three Frenchmen attempt- 
ed to board the Portuguese vessel, but, not being 
seconded by their companions, they were taken by 
the Portuguese, decapitated, and thrown into the 
sea. Sourie, rendered ftirious by this, attacked the 
vessel with greater violence than ever, and the cap- 
tain and several of the sailors were killed, and the 
rest surrendered. Sourie, who regarded Azevedo 
and his Jesuits as the authors of the death of his 
three sailors, massacred them with every circum- 
stance of crueltv, and threw them into the sea. 

AZPILCUETA, Jnan (ath-peel-que-tah). Span- 
ish missionary, b. in Navarre in 1515. He was a 
member of both the families to which Loyola and 
Xavier belonged, and became a Jesuit in 1544. He 
was sent to Brazil, where, after learning the lan- 
guage of the Indians, he surpassed all other mission- 
aries in effecting conversions. He wrote prayers 
and religious songs in that language, made impor- 
tant geograpliical discoveries in Brazil, and accom- 
paniexl the first expedition to the Minas territory. 





BABBITT, Eihviu Burr, soldier, b. in Con- 
necticut about ISO'3; d. at Fort Monroe, 10 Dec, 
1881. He was appointed to West Point from In- 
diana, and was graduated in 1826. He became 
first lieutenant. 3d infantry, 31 March, 1834, as- 
sistant quartermaster, 10 March, 1836, and cap- 
toin, 3d infantry, 1 July, 1839. He served in the 
Florida war of 1837-'8, and in the Mexican war 
during 1847-8. On 30 May, 1848, he was bre- 
vetted major " for meritorious conduct while serv- 
ing in the enemy's country." He was made chief 
quartermaster of the department of Oregon 14 
Nov., 1800, and of the department of the Pacific 
13 Sept., 1861, serving there until 29 July, 1866, 
when he was retired from active service, being over 
sixty-two years old. He was brevetted brigadier- 
general for his services on 13 March, 1865. G-en. 
Babbitt, notwithstanding his retirement, served as 
chief quartermaster of the department of the Co- 
lumbia from 1866 till 1867, and had charge of the 
clothing depot of the division of the Pacific from 
1867 till 1869. 

BABBITT, Isaac, inventor, b. in Taunton, 
Mass., 26 July, 1799; d. in Somerville, Mass., 26 
May, 1862. He was a goldsmith by trade, and 
early turned his attention to the production of 
alloys, and in 1824 made in Taunton the first 
britannia ware raanufactui-ed in the United States. 
As this proved financially unsuccessful, he with- 
drew, and in 1834 removed to Boston, where he 
engaged with the South Boston Iron Company, bet- 
ter known as Alger's foundries. While there em- 
ployed, in 1839, he discovered the now well-known 
anti-friction metal that bears his name and is so 
extensively used in lining boxes for axles and gud- 
geons. For this invention he received in 1841 a 
gold medal from the Massachusetts charitable me- 
chanic's association, and afterward congress granted 
him .f20,000. He subsequently patented this ma- 
terial in England (1844) and in Russia (1847). 
For some time he devoted his attention to the 
production of the metal, and he was also engaged 
in the manufacture of soap. 

BABCOCK, Charles A., naval officer, b. in 
New York city, 12 June, 1833; d. in New Or- 
leans, 29 June, 1876. He was appointed from 
Michigan, as a midshipman, 8 April, 1850, became 
passed midshipman in 1856, lieutenant in 1859, 
lieutenant-commander in 1862, and commander in 
liS69. From 1862 to 1864 he commanded the 
steamer " Morse," of the North Atlantic blockad- 
ing squadron. While co-operating with the array 
on the James, York, and Pamunkey rivers, he de- 
feated the confederates in several actions, and was 
highly commended by Rear- Admiral Lee, who in 

1864, when commanding the Mississippi squadron, 
selected Babcock as his fleet-captain. In June, 

1865, he superintended the erection of an ord- 
nance depot at Jefferson barracks, Missouri. He 
was afterward attached to the Pensacola navy- 
yard, and in 1868-'9 commanded the steamer 
" Nyack," of the South Pacific squadron. 

BABCOCK, Henry, soldier, b. in Rhode Island 
in 1736 : d. in 1800. He was a son of Chief Justice 
Babcock, of Rhode Island, was graduated at Yale 
in 1752, entered the army, became a captain at 
eighteen years of age, and at nineteen served un- 
der Col. Williams at Lake George. He was major 
in 1756, lieutenant-colonel in 1757, and in 1758 
colonel of a Rhode Island regiment that took part 
in the unsuccessful attempt to capture Ticondero- 

ga. Here he was wounded in the knee. He was 
afterward present at the capture of the place by 
Sir Jeffrey Amherst, in 1759. He settled at Ston- 
ington. Conn., rmd in February, 1776, was made 
commander of the troops at Newport, R. I., but 
in May was removed on account of insanity. 

BABCOCK, James F., journalist, b. inConneo- 
ticut in 1809 ; d. in New Haven, Conn., 18 June, 
1874. He began newspaper work at an early age, 
and in 1830 became editor of the New Haven 
" Palladium," which soon began to issue a daily 
edition and which he conducted for thirty-one 
years. He controlled the nominations of the whig 
party for many years, and, though hostile to the 
free-soil party at its inception, he finally gave it a 
hearty welcome in 1854. He retained his prestige 
with the republican party for some years, took an 
active part in furthering the national cause during 
the war, and, shortly after his resignation as editor 
of the " Palladium," was appointed, by President 
Lincoln, collector of the port of New Haven. He 
retained that office under President Johnson, whose 
policy he supported ; and, after the rupture between 
the president and the republicans, Mr. Babcock 
acted with the democratic party, and, after an an- 
gry and excited contest, was nominated by them 
for congress, but was defeated by the republican 
nominee. He was elected bv the democrats to the 
state legislature in 1873. The legislature of 1874 
elected him judge of the police court of New Haven. 

BABCOCK, James Francis, chemist, b. in 
Boston, 23 Feb., 1844; d. in Dorchester, Mass., 19 
July, 1897. He was educated at Lawrence scien- 
tific school, studying chemistry. Subsequently 
he opened a laboratory in Boston, and he has since 
been occupied as an analytical chemist, also testify- 
ing as a chemical expert in important capital and 
patent cases. For five years he was professor of 
chemistry in the Boston university, and in 1881 he 
accepted that chair in the Massachusetts college of 
pharmacy. In 1870 he was inspector of milk in the 
city of Boston, and for ten years he filled the place 
of state assayer of liquors. His publications have 
been principally official reports relating to the 
chemistry of food and on sanitary topics. He is 
well known as the inventor of a fire-extinguisher. 

BABCOCK, Orville Elias, soldier, b. in E'rank- 
lin, Vt., 25 Dec, 1835 ; drowned in Mosquito Inlet, 
Fla., 2 June, 1884. He graduated at West Point, 
and entered the engineer corps as 2d lieutenant 
6 May, 1861. Promoted, 17 Nov., 1861, to a first 
lieutenancy, he constructed, in February, 1862, a 
pontoon bridge at Harper's Ferry for Banks's move- 
ment to Winchester. He was made a captain in 
the engineer corps on 1 June, 1863, and was with 
the 9th corps at the surrender of Vicksburg, and 
in the east Tennessee campaign, taking part in the 
battle of Blue Lick Springs and subsequent ac- 
tions, and at the siege of Knoxville. On 29 March, 
1864, he was promoted lieutenant-colonel and ap- 
pointed aide-de-camp to Gen. Grant, in which ca- 
pacity he served in the battles of the Wilderness 
and subsequent operations of the army of the Po- 
tomac. On 13 March, 1865, he was brevetted 
brigadier-general of volunteers. At the surrender 
of Lee at Appomattox he selected the place where 
the generals met. Pie was promoted a colonel in 
the regular army on 25 July, 1866, and served as 
aide-de-camp to the general-in- chief until Gen. 
Grant was inaugurated president, when he was as- 
signed to duty with the president and acted as his 




secretary. He was appointed superintending engi- 
neer of public buildings and grounds in 1871, and 
supervised tiie construction of Washington aque- 
duct, the chain bridge across the Potomac, Ana- 
costa bridge, and the east wing of the department 
offices, and also the plans for the improvement of 
Washington and treorgetown harbors, in Janu- 
ary, 1876, he was indicted by the grand jury of St. 
Louis for complicity in revenue frauds. He de- 
manded a court martial, but was brought to trial 
in the civil court in February and acquitted, with 
the aid of a deposition by President Grant. 

BABCOCK, Rufus, clergyman, b. in North 
Colebrook, Conn., 18 Sept., 1798 ; d. in Salem, 
Mass., 4 May, 1875. He was graduated at Brown 
in 1831, and acted as tutor in Columbian college 
(now university), D. C. for two years. He was 
ordained pastor of the Baptist church in Pough- 
keepsie in 1823, and became associate pastor with 
Dr. Bolles, of the first Baptist church in Salem, 
Mass., in 1826. He was elected president of Wa- 
terville college, Me. (now Colby university), in 
1833 ; but in 1836, his health failing, he resigned 
and soon returned to ministerial duties, first as 
pastor of the Spruce street church in Philadelphia, 
where he remained three years and a half, then of 
his former charge in Poughkeepsie, and finally 
as pastor of the first Baptist church in Paterson, 
N. J. For many years he took a leading part in 
the great movements of the Baptist denomination 
in the United States. He was three times elected 
corresponding secretary of the American and For- 
eign Bible society. He was also corresponding 
secretary of the Sunday-school union of Philadel- 
phia, and of the American colonization society, and 
district secretary of the Baptist publication society, 
Philadelpliia. Dr. Babcock founded, and for five 
years edited, the " Baptist Memorial," a monthly 
magazine of biography and current religious in- 
telligence. He published " Claims of Education 
Societies " (1829) ; " Review of Beckwith on Bap- 
tism" (1829); "Making Light of Christ" (1830); 
" Memoirs " of Andrew Fuller (1830), George 
Learned (1832), Abraham Booth, and Isaac Back- 
us ; " History of Waterville College " (1836) ; " Tales 
of Truth for the Young " (1837) ; " Personal Recol- 
lections of Dr. John M. Peck " (1858) ; and " The 
Emigrant's Mother " (1859). He likewise contrib- 
uted to Sprague's " Annals of the American Pulpit." 

BABY, Francois, Canadian engineer, d. 5 Aug., 
1864. He did much toward improving the naviga- 
tion of the lower St. Lawrence by building wharves, 
providing for a new system of light-houses, and 
introducing steam tugs. He was a member of the 
executive and legislative council, and adjutant- 
general for the province of Quebec. — His grandson, 
Louis Francois G-eor^e, Canadian statesman, b. 
in Montreal, 26 Aug., 1834. He is descended from 
Jacques Baby de Ranville, an officer in the cele- 
brated regiment Carignan SaUieres, which came 
to Canada in 1662. He was educated at St. Sulpice 
college, Montreal, and at the college of Joilette ; 
studied law. and was called to the bar of Lower 
Canada in 1857. He was elected a representative 
for Joliette in 1872, re-elected in 1874. and again in 
1878, and on 28 Oct. of the latter year was sworn 
of the privy council as minister of inland revenue. 
He is a conservative in politics. 

BACA, Luis (bah'-cah), Mexican composer, b. in 
Durango, 15 Dec, 1826; d. in 1855. He received 
his fii'st education in Mexico, and then went to 
Paris to study medicine, but devoted himself en- 
tirely to music. In Paris, where he made the ac- 
quaintance of Donizetti, he composed two operas, 
" Leonor " and " Giovanna di Castiglia," a cele- 

brated " Ave Maria," and other popu'ar pieces. He 
soon returned to Mexico, and died t'lere. 

BACHE, Theopliylact (baitch), merchant, b. in 
Settle, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 
17 Jan., 1734; d. in New York, 30 Oct., 1807. He 
landed in New York 17 Sept., 1751, took charge of 
the business of Paul Richard, who died in 1756, be- 
came the owner of merchant vessels, and engaged 
in privateering. He was identified with the resist- 
ance to the crown in 1765, and in 1770 was one of 
the committee to carry out the resolutions of non- 
intercourse. In 1774 he was one of the committee 
of correspondence appointed when the port of Bos- 
ton was closed. He supported the first continental 
congress ; but when hostilities actually began he 
remained so far neutral as to incur the suspicions 
of the committee of safety. He remained in New 
York during the British occupation of the city, 
and befriended American officers held there as pris- 
oners of war. In 1777 he was chosen the fifth pres- 
ident of the New York chamber of commerce. — 
His brother, Richard, b. in Settle, 12 Sept., 1737, 
d. in Berks co., Pa., 29 July, 1811, was the eigh- 
teenth child, and followed Theopliylact to the colo- 
nies. He went to Philadelphia in 1770, and estab- 
lished himself in business as his brother's agent, 
underwriting marine insurance risks, and accumu- 
lating a handsome fortune. At the beginning of 
the revolution he was chairman of the Republican 
Society in Philadelphia. Pie married Sarah, the 
only daughter of Benjamin Franklin, 3 Oct., 1767. 
Franklin appointed him secretary, comptroller, and 
register-general, to date from 29 Sept., 1775 ; and 
this office he held until November, 1776, when he 
became postmaster-general, and continued as such 
till 1782. He was an earnest patriot during the 
revolutionary struggle. — Sarah, philanthropist, b. 
in Philadelphia, 11 Sept., 1744, d. 5 Oct., 1808, 
was the only daughter 
of Benjamin Franklin 
and the wife of Richard 
Bache, who succeeded 
Dr. Franklin as postmas- 
ter-general. She was the 
chief of the patriotic 
l)and of ladies who made 
clothing for the half -clad 
soldiers and sought to 
mitigate their suiTerings 
during the severe win- 
ter of 1780. More than 
2,200 women were at one 
time employed under her 
direction in sewing for 
the army. For this work 
she collected large sums, 
Morris and other patri- 
ots being among the contributors. The Marquis 
de Chastellux, then visiting Philadelphia, was 
charmed with the appearance of Mrs. Bache, and 
recommended her to the ladies of Europe as a 
model of domestic virtues and feminine patriotism. 
On other occasions she collected medicines and 
delicacies for the soldiers in the hospitals, and 
nursed the sick and wounded with her own hands. 
She had eight children. — Benjainiii FrankHn, 
son of Richard, journalist, b. in Philadelphia, 12 
Aug., 1769; d. there, 10 Sept., 1798. He accom- 
panied his grandfather, Benjamin Franklin, to 
Paris, and received his education in France and 
Geneva. While in Paris he learned printing and 
type-founding at the publishing house of the liroth- 
ers Didot. He returned to the United States in 
1785, and studied for a time in the college of Phila- 
delphia. In 1790 he began publishing the " General 





Advertiser," afterward known as the " Aurora," 
which violently opposed the administrations of 
both Washington and Adams, and was one of the 
ablest and most influential journals of the time. 
— Alexander Dallas, grandson of Richard, b. 
in Philadelpliia, Pa., 19 July, 1806; d. in New- 
port, R. I., 17 Feb., 1867. lie early showed an 
unusual aptitude for learning, and his first in- 
struction was received at a classical school in 
Philadelphia. At the age of fourteen he was ap- 
pointed to the U. S. military academy, where, al- 
though the youngest member of his class, he was 
at its head when graduated in 1825. His failure 
to receive a demerit during the four years is cited 
as one of the few instances of that character in 
the history of the academy, so noted for its rigid 
discipline. On his graduation he was appointed 
lieutenant in the corps of engineers, but was re- 
tained at the academy as assistant professor of en- 
gineering during 1826, when, until 1829, he served 
as assistant engineer in the construction of Fort 
Adams, at Newport, R. I., under Col. J. G. Totten. 
Here he met Miss Nancy Clarke Fowler, who after- 
ward became his wife and also his associate in the 
preparation of much of his published material. In 
1838 he was called to the chair of natural phi- 
losophy and chemistry at the University of Penn- 
sylvania, which 
he occupied un- 
til 1841. His 
resignation from 
the army is dated 
1 June, 1829. 
Soon after his 
arrival in Phila- 
delphia he be- 
came a member 
of the Frank- 
lin Institute, and 
at once actively 
participated in 
its work, as its 
" Journal " be- 
tween 1826 and 
1886 abundant- 
ly testifies. His 
most important 
labor at this time was undoubtedly the investi- 
gations relating to the bursting of steam boilers. 
His valuable researches in various branches of 
physics and chemistry, published in the "Trans- 
actions of the American Philosophical Society," 
of which he was a prominent member, belong to 
these years, and his first meteorological investiga- 
tions date from this period. In 1886 he was in- 
trusted with the organization of Girard College, 
Philadelphia, became its first president, and was 
sent to Europe to study the systems of education 
and methods of instruction and discipline adopted 
there. On his return in 1889 the results were em- 
bodied in a report made to the trustees, which did 
much to improve the theory and art of education 
in this country. Owing to the unfinished condi- 
tion of the college, and in consequence of some 
delay in the adjustment of its funds, it was not 
deemed advisable to organize it at once for active 
operations ; therefore Prof. Bache offered his ser- 
• vices to the municipal government. He became 
principal of the high school, and during 1841-2 
was superintendent" of the public schools. The 
system developed by him while in office has smce 
been generally regarded as a model, and has been 
introduced in several cities of the union. While 
in Philadelphia he established, and for some years 
directed, a magnetical and meteorological observa- 

tory, -which was largely supported by the American 
Philosophical Society. In 1842, having satisfac- 
torily completed his labors in tlie cause of public 
instruction, he returned to his chair at the univer- 
sity, where he remained until November, 1848, 
when he was appointed to succeed the late P. 
R. Hassler as superintendent of the coast survey, 
which place he held until his death. The survey 
originally recommended to congress by President 
Jefferson in 1807 was not definitely established 
until ten years later, when, by the appointment of 
Mr. Hassler as superintendent, its actual existence 
began. Under his direction it flourished at times, 
and the work, though limited in scope, continued 
until his death ; but with the advent of Prof. 
Bache the undertaking assumed larger propor- 
tions, and improved plans for extended operations 
were put into execution. During his able admin- 
istration the practical value of the survey was thor- 
oughly demonstrated. In the accomplishment of 
his designs he was not only aided by congress, but 
his efforts were likewise greatly encouraged by the 
approval of scientific societies and their leaders. 
During the civil war he greatly assisted the naval 
and military forces by placing the resources of the 
coast survey at their disposal, and from June to 
December, 1868, he was chief engineer for devising 
and constructing the defences of Philadelphia, 
when it was threatened by the invasion of Penn- 
sylvania. In addition to his work on the coast 
survey, he was ex-officio superintendent of weights 
and measures, and served, until his death, on the 
light-house board. He was one of the incorpora- 
tors of the Smithsonian Institute, 1846, and an- 
nually during his life was reelected by congress. 
He was active in its direction and in the shaping of 
its policy. During the civil war he was elected a 
vice-president of the U. S. Sanitary Commission, 
and rendered efficient aid in its work. The Uni- 
versity of New York in 1886, the University of 
Pennsylvania in 1837, and Harvard in 1851, con- 
ferred upon him the degree of LL. D. He served 
as president of the American Philosophical Society, 
and of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, and was the first presiding officer 
of the National Academy of Sciences, as well as one 
of its incorporators and most active members. The 
Royal Society of London, the Institute of France, 
the Royal Academy of Turin, the Imperial Geo- 
graphical Society of Vienna, and many similar or- 
ganizations, included him among their honorary 
members. The excellence of his work on the coast 
survey was acknowledged by different foreign gov- 
ernments, and he was the recipient of several med- 
als for his prommence in the field of science. His 
published papers include more than 150 titles and 
include various topics in physics, chemistry, and 
engineering. His most extensive work was the 
" Observations at the Magnetic and Meteorological 
Observatory at the Girard College " (3 vols., 1840- 
'7). His property, to the extent of $42,000, was 
left in trust to the National Academy of Sciences; 
the income is to be devoted to physical research. 
See the " Memoir of Alexander Dallas Bache," by 
Joseph Henry, with a list of his papers published 
in Volume I. of the " Biogi-aphieal Memoirs" of 
the National Academy of Sciences. This memoir 
appears in the Smithsonian Report for 1870, and 
also as a special issue in the publications of the 
Smithsonian Institute.— Franklin, son of Benja- 
min Franklin Bache, physician, b. in Philadel- 
phia, 25 Oct., 1792; d. there, 19 March. 1864. He 
was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1810, and received his medical diploma from 
the same university in 1814. In 1813 he entereU 




the army as assistant surgeon, and in 1814 was 
appointed surgeon. In 1816 he resigned, and be- 
g:an the practice of his profession in Philadelphia. 
From 1824 to 1836 he was physician to the Walnut 
street prison ; from 1826 to 1832, professor of 
chemistry in the Franklin Institute ; from 1829 
to 1836, physician to the Eastern penitentiary; 
from 1831 to 1841, professor of chemistry in the 
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy ; and from 
1841 to his decease was professor of chemistry in 
Jefferson Medical College. In 1854 and 1855 he 
was president of the American Philosophical So- 
ciety, and at the time of his death president of the 
deaf and dumb asylum corporation. In 1819 he 
published a " System of Chemistry for the Use of 
Students of Medicine," and in connection with Dr. 
George Wood he prepared, in 1830, a " Pharma- 
copojia " that was adopted by a national conven- 
tion of physicians, and became the basis of the 
present U. S. Pharmacopoeia and U. S. Dispensa- 
tory. Of the latter work he was the editor, with 
Dr. Wood, from 1833 till his death. He published 
a " Supplement to Henry's Chemistry " (1823) ; 
" Letters on Separate Confinement of Prisoiiers " 
(1829-'30) ; and " Introductory Lectures on Chem- 
istry" (1841-'52). He also edited several works, 
from 1823 to 1832 was one of the editors of the 
" North American Medical and Surgical Journal," 
and contributed largely to scientific journals. A 
memoir of him was published by Dr. George B. 
Wood (Philadelphia, 1865). — Hartman, another 
son of Benjamin Franklin Bache, engineer, b. in 
Philadelphia, Pa., in 1797; d. there, 8 Oct., 1872. 
He was graduated at West Point in 1818, and made 
brevet captain of staff, and assistant topographical 
engineer. For forty-seven years he was constantly 
employed on topographical surveys and works of 
hydrographic and civil engineering, under the di- 
rection of the war department, till 7 March, 1867, 
when he was placed on the retired list. He became 
brevet major of engineers, 24 July, 1828; major, 7 
July, 1838 ; lieutenant-colonel, 6 Aug., 1861 ; colo- 
nel, 3 March, 1863 ; and on 13 March, 1865, he re- 
ceived the brevet of brigadier-general, the highest 
grade in the engineer corps, for long, faithful, 
and meritorious services. Among his engineering 
works of conspicuous merit were the construction 
of the Delaware breakwater and the successful 
application of iron-sci'ew piles for the foundation 
of light-houses upon sandy shoals and coral-reefs. 
He was engineer of the 4th light-house district 
from 1859, and a member of the light-house board 
from 1862 to 1870. — Benjamin Franklin, great- 
grandson of Benjamin Franklin, surgeon, b. in 
Monticello. Va., 7 Feb., 1801 ; d. in New York city, 
2 Nov., 1881. He was graduated at Princeton in 
1819, and at the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1823, entered the navy 
as assistant surgeon in 1824, and became surgeon 
in 1828. From 1832 to 1836 he was stationed at 
Pensacola navy-yard, and, while on leave from 1838 
to 1841, he was professor of natural science and 
natural religion in Kenyon College, Ohio. He was 
fleet-surgeon of the Mediterranean squadron in 
1841-'4, and of the Brazil squadron in 1847-50. 
From 1850 to 1854 he was at the New York naval 
hospital, and then organized at New York the 
laboratory that furnishes all medical supplies to 
the navy. He was director of this from 1853 to 
1871, and in 1861 did great service to the govern- 
ment by restocking the laboratory on his own re- 
sponsibility. In 1863 he was placed on the retired 
list, but continued to act as superintendent of the 
laboratory until 1871, when he was appointed medi- 
cal director, with the relative rank of commodore, 

and retired from active service. — Henry W., en- 
gineer, b. in 1839 ; d. in Bristol, R. I., 7 Nov., 1878. 
He was a descendant of Sarah Bache, and a son of 
Prof. Henry Bache, of the U. S. coast survey. He 
was engaged in the same work, and while on duty 
in Floi'ida contracted a malarial fever which re- 
sulted in his death. 

BACHI, Pietro, educator, b. in Sicily in 1787; 
d. in Boston, Mass., 22 Aug., 1853. He was a gradu- 
ate of the university of Padua and a lawyer by pro- 
fession, was implicated in Murat's attempt to seize 
the throne of the two Sicilies, and was obliged in 
consequence to flee from Italy in 1815. He resided 
in England till 1825, and then came to the United 
States. From 1826 to 1846 he was teacher of Italian, 
and Spanish in Harvard college. He was the au- 
thor of several grammars and phrase-books and a 
book of fables for learning Italian, and of " A Com- 
parative View of Spanish and Portuguese Lan- 
guage " (Cambridge). 

cheel'-yer-e-mo-ral'-les), Cutian author, b. in Havana 
in 1812. He was admitted to the bar in 1839. He 
edited various newspapers and reviews, filled suc- 
cessively several chaii's in the university of Havana, 
has been director of the institute of higher educa- 
tion, and held important public offices. He is a 
corresponding member of the Society of Antiquaries 
of northern Europe, and also of the historical soci- 
eties of New York and Pennsylvania. His princi- 
pal works are " Prontuario General de Agricultura," 
" Filosofia del Derecho," "Tradiciones Americanas " 
(1845) ; " Antigiiedades Americanas," " Apuntes 
para la Historia de las Letras en la Isla de Cuba" 
(3 vols., 1862); "Cuba Primitiva," on the origin, 
languages, traditions, and history of the Greater 
Antilles and the Bahama islands ; and " Cuba : 
Monografia Historica." 

BACHMAN, Jolin, naturalist, b. in Dutchess 
CO., N. Y., 4 P'eb., 1790; d. in Charleston, S. C, 25 
Feb., 1874. He was associated with Audubon in 
the pi-eparation of his work on ornithology, and 
was the principal author of the " Quadrupeds of 
North America," which the Audubons illustrated. 
He also wrote " Two Letters on Plybridity " 
(1850) ; " Defence of Luther and the Reformation " 
(Charleston, 1853) ; " Characteristics of Genera and 
Species, as Applicable to the Doctrine of the Unity 
of the Human Race " (1854) ; " Notice of the Tvpes 
of Mankind by Nott and Gliddon" (1854); "and 
" Examination of Prof. Agassiz's Sketch of the 
Natural Provinces of the Animal World," etc. 
(1855), and was a contributor to the " Medical 
Journal " of South Carolina. In 1813 he was li- 
censed to preach, and from 1815 until his death 
was pastor of the Lutheran church in Charles- 

BACK, Sir George, explorer, b. in Stockport, 
England, 6 Nov., 1796; d. in London, 23 June, 
1878. He entered the British navy in 1808, and in 
1817 accompanied the Buchan expedition to Spitz- 
bergen. In 1819 he accompanied Sir John Frank- 
lin's expedition to the Arctic regions, and again in 
1825. In 1833 he commanded a search party sent 
out for Sir John Ross, then in the polar seas, and 
in 1836 he made his final voyage to the north in 
command of the " Terror." He showed gi-eat sa- 
gacity in his management, and the ultimate return 
of the first two expeditions was credited to the 
ability with which he directed the forces under his 
charge. He received a gold medal from the geo- 
graphical society in 1837, and two years later was 
knighted. He was made rear admiral in 1857, and 
admii'al in 1867. He is the author of a " Narrative 
of the Arctic Land Expedition," etc. (London. 




1836), and of a " Narrative of the Expedition in 
H. M. Ship ' Terror ' " (1838). 

BACKUS, Azel, educator, b. in Norwich, Conn., 
13 Oct., 17G5; d. 9 Dec, 1817. His parents were 
Conc^rcgationalists, but while at Yale he imbiljed 
deistical ojiinions. He was graduated in 1787 
with a high reputation for scholarship, and taught 
school for a time at Wethersfield, Conn. Under 
the influence of his uncle, the Rev. Charles Back- 
us, he became a Christian and entered the minis- 
try, although at one time he was on the point of 
joining the array. He was licensed to preach in 
1789, and in 179i became the successor of Dr. Bel- 
lamy at Bethlehem, Conn., where he also carried on a 
successful school. Here he remained until, at the 
foundation of Hamilton college, Clinton, N. Y., in 
1812, he was chosen its first president, and was in- 
augurated on 3 Dec. of that year. Princeton gave 
him the degree of S. T. D. in 1810. He took great 
interest in the political questions of the day, and 
published a number of sermons (1797-1813), among 
which are the annual " election sermon," delivered 
in 1798 before the Connecticut legislature, and one 
on the death of Gov. Wolcott (1797). 

BACKUS, Charles, theologian, b. in Franklin, 
Conn.. 9 Nov., 1749; d. in Somers, Conn., 30 Dec, 
1803. He lost his parents early in childhood, and 
was educated by his friends. After his graduation 
at Yale in 1709 he studied theology under Dr. 
Hart, of Preston, was licensed to preach in 1773, 
and on 10 Aug., 1774, became pastor of the Con- 
gregational church in Somers, where he remained 
until his deatii. Here he established a sort of 
divinity school, receiving theological students into 
his family. Nearly fifty were thus trained, among 
them Dr. Woods, of Andover, President Moore, 
of Amherst, President Davis, of Hamilton, and 
other eminent divines. Dr. Backus was invited to 
fill the chair of theology at Dartmouth, and after- 
ward that at Yale, but declined in both cases. He' 
was a plain but impressive speaker, and a fervent 
extemporaneous preacher. He published a large 
number of sermons (1795-1801), including one to 
freemasons (1795) ; " Five Discourses on the Truth 
of the Bible " (1797), and an historical discourse on 
the town of Somers (1801). He also published a 
volume on regeneration. An article on his divin- 
ity school, by J. Vaill, appeared in the " Congrega- 
tional Quarterly " for 1864. 

BACKUS, Electiis, soldier, d. 7 June, 1813. 
He was appointed major of light dragoons 7 Oct., 
1808, and lieutenant-colonel 15 Feb., 1804. He 
•was in command of the American forces at Sack- 
ett's Harbor in 1813, when, hearing of a projected 
attack by the British, he summoned Gen. Brown, 
who gathered as many militia as possible and took 
cnief command. The attack was made on 29 May, 
and, although the militia behaved badly, the British 
were finally defeated. Col. Backus fell mortally 
•wounded while fighting bravely at the head of his 
men. — His son Electiis (b. in New York in 1804 ; d. 
ill Detroit, Mich., 7 June, 1862) was graduated at 
West Point in 1824. He was aide to Gen. Hugh 
Brady from 1828 to 1837, and became captain 17 
Oct., 1837. In 1838-'40 he served in the Seminole 
war, and afterward in the Mexican war, being 
brevetted major on 23 Sept., 1846, " for gallant and 
meritorious conduct at Monterey." In 1847 he 
was in command of the fortress of San Juan 
d'UUoa. He became major in the 3d infantry on 
10 June, 1850. served in the Navajo expedition in 
1858, was made lieutenant-colonel 19 Jan., 1859, and 
colonel 6th infantry 20 Feb., 1862. Just before his 
death, in the early part of the civil war, he was 
mustering and disbursing officer at Detroit. 

VOL. I. — 9 

BACKUS, Franklin Thomas, lawyer, b. in 
Lee, Mass., 6 May, 1813 ; d. in Cleveland, Ohio, 
14 May, 1870. He lived on a farm near Lansing, 
N. Y., was graduated at Yale in 1836, studied 
law in Cleveland, and was admitted to the bar in 
1839. He was elected prosecuting attorney of the 
county in 1841, and was sent to the Ohio house 
of representatives in 1846, and to the state senate 
in 1848. He was a delegate to the peace congress 
at Washington in 1861. He supported McClellan 
for president in 1864, and was a delegate to the 
national convention that met at Philadelphia in 
1866 to form a new party. He gained especial dis- 
tinction in the early part of his career as prose- 
cuting attorney at the trial of Brooks, who was 
sentenced to life-long imprisonment for wrecking 
a train, and as attorney for the Oberlin rescuers, 
who had assisted in the escape of a slave. In his 
latter years he was much consulted in railroad 
cases, and was influential in settling the principles 
governing the Ohio courts regarding railroads. 

BACKUS, Isaac, clergyman, b. in Norwich, 
Conn., 9 Jan., 1724; d. 20 Nov., 1806. He became 
identified with the " Separatist " movement, began 
to preach in 1746, was ordained in Middleborough, 
Mass., 13 April, 1748, and became pastoral Titicut, 
in that town, of a new Congregational society, 
which had been formed in consequence of a dis- 
pute regarding the settlement of a minister. In 
1749 some of his congregation began to sympathize 
with the Baptists, and he finally united with these 
and formed a Baptist church in Middleborough in 
1756, having been immersed in 1751. He held 
open communion for some years, but at length 
abandoned it. Throughout his life he was an ear- 
nest and consistent advocate of the utmost relig- 
ious freedom. In 1774 he was sent as the agent of 
the Warren association of Baptist churches to 
claim from congress, for the Baptists, the same 
rights as those accorded other churches. He vin- 
dicated his course by a paper in the " Boston 
Chronicle," 2 Dec, 1779, arguing against a pro- 
posed article in the Massachusetts bill of rights. 
In 1788 he was a delegate to the convention that 
adopted the federal constitution, and made a speech 
in its favor. Dr. Backus was for. thirty-four years 
a trustee of Rhode Island college, now Brown uni- 
versity. He was a voluminous writer, his most im- 
portant work being a " History of New England, 
with Special Reference to the Baptists " (3 vols., 
1777-'96), with an abridgment, bringing the work 
down to 1804. A new edition, carefully edited by 
Rev. David Weston, of Madison university, was 
published under the auspices of the Backus histori- 
cal society of Newton Centre, Mass. (2 vols., 1871). 
This work, though partisan, is still valuable to the 
student of New England history. Dr. Backus also 
wrote a history of Middleborough in the 3d volume 
of the Massachusetts historical collections. See 
Sprague's " Annals of the American Pulpit." 

BACON, David, missionary, b. in Woodstock, 
Conn., in 1771 ; d. in Hartford, Conn., 27 Aug., 
1817. His labors and sufferings as missionary to 
the Ojibbewa Indians in the territory of Michigan, 
and afterward as founder of a Christian to'wn at 
Tallmadge, Ohio, have been narrated in a " Sketch 
of the Rev. David Bacon," by Rev. Leonard Ba- 
con, D. D. (Boston, 1876). — His son, Leonard, 
clergyman, b. in Detroit, Mich., 19 Feb., 1802 ; d. 
in New Haven, Conn., 24 Dec, 1881. He was 
graduated at Yale in 1820, and studied theology at 
Andover. In March, 1825, he was ordained pastor 
of the 1st church in New Haven, and continued 
in this office until his death — fifty-seven years. 
From 1866, being relieved of the main burden of 




pastoral work, he occupied the chair of didactic 
theology in Yale until 1871, and thereafter was 
lecturer on ecclesiastical polity and American 
church history. He was a representative of the 
liberal orthodoxy and historic polity of the ancient 
New England churches. His life was incessantly 
occupied in the discussion of questions bearing on 
the interests of humanity and religion. Probably 
no subject of serious importance that came into 
general notice during his long career escaped his 
earnest and active attention. A public question 
which absorbed much of his thought after 1823 
was that of slavery. His constant position was 
that of resistance to slavery on the one hand, and 
of resistance to the extravagances of certain abo- 
litionists on the other; and he thought himself 
well rewarded for forty years of debate, in which, 
as he was wont to say of himself, quoting the lan- 
guage of Baxter, that, " where others had had one 
enemy he had had two," when he learned that 
Abraham Lincoln referred to his volume on slavery 
as the source of his own clear and sober convictions 
on that subject. He was a strong supporter of the 
union throughout the civil war, and took active 

part in the va- 
rious constitu- 
tional, econom- 
ical, and moral 
discussions to 
which it gave 
rise. He was in- 
fluential in se- 
curing the re- 
peal of the "om- 
nibus clause " 
in the Connec- 
ticut divorce 
law. In March, 
1874, he was 
moderator of 
the council that 
rebuked Henry 
Ward Beecher s 
society for ir- 
regularly expel- 
ling Theodore Tilton, and in February, 1876, of the 
advisory council called by the Plymouth society. 
During his later years he was, by general consent, 
regarded as the foremost man among American 
Congregationalists. He became known in oral de- 
bate, in which he excelled, by his books, and pre- 
eminently by his contributions to the periodical 
press. From 1826 till 1838 he was one of' the edi- 
tors of the " Christian Spectator." In 1843 he aided 
in establishing " The New Englander " review, to 
which he continued to contribute copiously until 
his death. In that publication appeared many 
articles from his pen denouncing, on religious and 
political grounds, the policy of the government in 
respect to slavery. With Drs. Storrs and Thompson 
he founded the " Independent " in 1847, and contin- 
ued with them in the editorship of it for sixteen 
years. He had great delight in historical studies, 
especially in the history of the Puritans, both in 
England and in America. Besides innumerable 
pamphlets and reviews, he published " Select 
Works of Richard Baxter," with a biography 
(1830); "Manual for Young Church-Members" 
(1833) ; " Thirteen Historical Discourses " on the 
200th anniversary of the beginning of the 1st 
church in New Plaven (1839) ; " Views and Re- 
views ; an Appeal against Division " (1840) ; " Sla- 
very Discussed in Occasional Essays " (1846) ; 
" Christian Self-Culture " (1862) ; ""Four Com- 
memorative Discourses " (1866) ; " Genesis of the 

New England Churches" (1874); "Sketch of Rev. 
David Bacon " (1876) ; and " Three Civic Orations 
for New Haven" (1879).— Delia, daughter of 
Daviil, author, b. in Tallniadge, Ohio, 2 Feb., 1811 ; 
d. in Hartford, Coim., 2 Sept., 1859. She was a 
teacher, resided for some time in Boston, and there 
delivered a course of lectures. She published anony- 
mously " Tales of the Puritans " (New Haven), and 
" The Bride of Fort Edward," a drama (New York, 
1839). Later she published in London and Boston 
" Philosophy of the Plays of Shakespeare Unfold- 
ed" (1857), with a preface by Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne, in which she sought to prove that Lord 
Bacon, conjointly with other writers, was the 
author of the Shakespearean plays. See Haw- 
thorne's " Recollections of a Grif ted "Woman " in his 
"Our Old Home." and Mrs. Farrar's "Recollec- 
tions of Seventy Years." — Leonard's son, Leonard 
Woolsey, clergyman, b. in New Haven, Conn., 1 
Jan., 1830. He was graduated at Yale in 1850, 
then studied theology at Andover and Yale, and 
medicine at Yale, receiving his degree in 1855. 
He served as pastor of Congregational or Presby- 
terian churches in Rochester, N. Y., Litchfield and 
Stamford, Conn., Brooklyn, N. Y., and Baltimore, 
Md., and then spent five years in Europe, chiefly 
at Geneva. Returning in 1877, he served as pastor 
in Norwich, Conn., and Philadelphia, Pa. He has 
written much for the periodical press, and pub- 
lished, besides pamphlets and musical composi- 
tions, " The Vatican Council " (1872) ; " Church 
Papers " (1876) ; " A Life worth Living : Life of 
Emily Bliss Gould " (1878) ; " Sunday Observance 
and Sunday Law," including six sermons on the 
Sabbath question, by his brother, George Blagdon 
Bacon (1882) ; " The Simplicity that is in Christ " 
(1886) ; and sundry translations from the French 
and German, and compilations of psalmody. — An- 
other son, Theodore, lawyer, and his five brothers, 
"have won professional and literary distinction. — A 
daughter, Rebecca Taylor, became distinguished 
by her philanthropic labors in the founding of the 
Hampton, Va., institute and the New Haven school 
of nursing. 

BACON, David Francis, physician, b. in Pros- 
pect, Conn., 30 Nov., 1813; d. in New York, 23 
Jan., 1866. He was graduated at Yale in 1831, 
and at the medical school in 1836. Soon after the 
completion of his studies he was sent as principal 
colonial physician to Liberia by the American 
colonization society. During the greater part of 
his life he resided in New York, and was actively 
interested in politics. He was a frecpient contrib- 
utor to periodical literature, and published " Lives 
of the Apostles " (New York, 1835), and also " Wan- 
derings on the Seas and Shores of Africa " (1843). 

BACON, David William, Catholic bishop, b. 
in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1814; d. in New York, 5 
Nov., 1874. He received a classical training in the 
New York Roman Catholic schools, whence he 
proceeded to Mount St. Mary's college and semi- 
nary, Emmettsburg, Md., and having completed 
his course returned to New York, where he was or- 
dained in 1838, and soon afterward became pastor of 
the church of the Assumption in Brooklyn. He was 
unwearied in his efforts for the extension of the 
Roman Catholic church in that city, and, though 
his own congregation was the largest in Brooklyn, 
he was not satisfied until he had purchased the 
land and erected the church of St. Mary, Star of the 
Sea, at the corner of Court and Luqueer streets, 
the largest church edifice in the city, where he was 
pastor during the last years of his residence in 
Brooklyn. In 1855 he was consecrated bishop of 
the newly created diocese of Portland, Me., which 




embraced the states of Maine and New Hampshire. 
His labors here were unremitting, and were at- 
tended with great success. In August, 1874, he made 
a voyage to Europe for his health, which had been 
impiiired by his labors, but it was too late for him 
to be benefited. On his arrival in France he was 
obliged to go immediately into the hospital at 
Brest, where he remained until he was carried on 
board ship to return, and, on his arrival in New 
York, was carried to St. Vincent's hospital, where 
he died the next evening. He was a man of fine 
personal presence and an accomplished scholar. 

BACON, Edmund, lawyer, b. in Virginia in 
January, 1776; d. in Edgefield, S. C, 2 Feb., 1826. 
While quite young he was chosen by the citizens 
of Augusta, Ga., where he was at school, to wel- 
come Washington, then on an official tour through 
the south as president. " This delicate and honor- 
able task," says a contemporary historian. Judge 
O'Neall, " he accomplished in an address so fortu- 
nate as to have attracted not only the attention of 
that great man, but to have procured from him, 
for the orator, a present of several law books." He 
was graduated at the Litchfield, Conn., law school 
and settled in Savannah, where he acquired a for- 
tune at tiie bar before attaining the age of thirty- 
three. He was retained in the settlement of the 
estate of Gen. Nathaniel Greene, near Savannah, 
and it is a curious coincidence that a quotation 
from one of the law books presented to Mr. Bacon 
by Gen. Washington enabled him to gain a mooted 
point for the succession to the estate of the second 
general of the revolution. Owing to ill health, he 
removed in search of a more healthful location to 
Edgefield, where he soon became a leading practi- 
tioner. He is the "Ned Brace "of Judge Long- 
street's " Georgia Scenes," and as a wit and humor- 
ist was conspicuous among his contemporaries. He 
displayed a lavish hospitality, and was the acknowl- 
edged autocrat of the table, insomuch that on a 
certain occasion, when the learned Dr. Jonathan 
Maxcy, president of South Carolina college, was 
present as a guest, no sooner had Mr. Bacon left 
the room than Dr. Maxcy enthusiastically ex- 
claimed, " A perfect Garrick, sir ! A living, breath- 
ing, acting Garrick ! " 

BACON, Edwin Munroe, journalist, b. in 
Providence, R. I., 20 Oct., 1844. He was educated 
in private schools, finishing his studies in the 
academy at Foxboro, Mass. At the age of nine- 
teen he was appointed on the staff of the Boston 
" Advertiser," and has since been connected as re- 
porter, correspondent, managing editor, and edi- 
tor-in-chief with various journals. He was chief 
editor of the Boston " Globe " during its career as 
an independent paper. In May, 1866, he assumed 
the editorial control of the Boston " Post." The 
degree of A. M. was conferred on him by Dart- 
mouth in 1879. He has edited several works, 
among them " King's Hand-Book of Boston " and 
" Boston Illustrated," and written a " Dictionary 
of Boston " (Boston, 1883, new ed., 1886). 

BACON, Ezekiel, jurist, b. in Boston, Mass., 1 
Sept., 1776 ; d. in Utica, N. Y., 18 Oct., 1870. He 
was graduated at Yale college in 1794, studied law 
in the Litchfield, Conn., law school, and began 
practice at Stockbridge, Mass. He was a member 
of the legislature in 1806-'7 ; a representative in 
congress from 1807 to 1813 ; chief justice of the 
court of common pleas for the western district of 
Massachusetts in 1813, and from that year till 1815 
first comptroller of the U. S. treasury. He re- 
moved to Utica, N. Y., in 1816 ; was a member of 
the legislature of that state, judge of the court of 
common pleas, and a member of the state constitu- 

tional convention of 1821. In 1824 he was a demo- 
cratic candidate for congress, but was defeated. 
He published " Recollections of Fifty Years " (1843). 

BACON, Henry, artist, b. in Haverhill, Mass., 
in 1840. He volunteered in the 13th Massachusetts 
infantry for the civil war, and was wounded. In 
1864 he went to Paris and entered the Ecole des 
beaux arts, studying also under Cabanel and Ed- 
ward Prere. His best-known work is " Boston Boys 
and General Gage," which was first exhibited in 
the Paris salon of 1875 and at the Philadelphia 
centennial in 1876. His favorite subjects are fig- 
ures so treated as to tell a story, historical or im- 
aginative, in the most effective manner. His pro- 
fessional residence is for the most part in Paris, 
and he is a frequent exhibitor at the salon. The 
titles of some of his more important pictures are 
"Paying the Scot" (1870); "Franklin at Home" 
(1876) ; " Les Adieux " and " Land ! Land ! " (1878) ; 
" In Normandy " (Paris salon, 1878) ; " The Luck 
of Roaring Camp " (1881) ; and " Lover's Quarrel " 
(1882) ; " Le Plainariste." 

BACON, John Edmund, lawyer, b. in Edge- 
field C. H., S. C., 3 March, 1832. He was a grand- 
son of Edmund Bacon, was graduated at South 
Carolina college in 1851, and studied afterward at 
Leipsic, Germany. He read law at Litchfield, 
Conn., and soon won distinction at the bar. His 
aptitude for the languages, ancient and modern, 
led to his appointment as secretary of legation to 
St. Petersburg in 1858, and he acted as charge 
d'affaires until the arrival of the Hon. F. W. Pickens 
as U. S. minister. In 1859 he married at St. Peters- 
burg Rebecca Calhoun, youngest daughter of Gov. 
Pickens. While on his wedding tour he heard of 
the election of Mr. Lmcoln and sent his resignation 
to the department of state. In 1861 he returned to 
South Carolina, entered the confederate army as a 
private, and rose to the rank of major. In 1866 
he was sent with Gov. James L. Orr to arrange with 
President Johnson for the restoration of South 
Carolina to the union. In 1867 he was elected dis- 
trict judge, but was soon afterward deposed by the 
federal general then in command of that depart- 
ment. In 1872 he was a democratic nominee for 
congress, but was defeated by R. B. Elliott, the 
able negro politician. Judge Bacon has travelled 
extensively in Russia, and has occupied his leisure 
time in the collection and preparation of materials 
for a future history of that country. In 1886 he 
was appointed charge d'affaires for the United 
States in Uruguaj and Paraguay. 

BACON, Nathaniel, " the Virginia rebel," a co- 
lonial leader, b. in Suffolk, England, 2 Jan., 1647 ; 
d. in October, 1676. He was educated in the inns 
of court, London, and settled on a large estate near 
the head of James river in Virginia. He became a 
member of the council in 1672, and gained great 
popularity by his winning manners and eloquent 
speech. The' Virginians were dissatisfied with the 
measures taken by Gov. Berkeley for defence 
against the Indians, and chose Bacon, on the out- 
break of a fresh Indian war, to lead the colonial 
military forces. Although the governor refused to 
commission him, a force collected and defeated the 
Indians. On 29 May, 1676. Gov. Berkeley pro- 
claimed Bacon a rebel, and sent a force against 
him. He was captured and tried before the gov- 
ernor and council on 10 June, when he was ac- 
quitted, restored to his seat in the council, and 
promised a commission as general for the Indian 
war. But the governor refused to issue the prom- 
ised commission. The high rates of taxation, the 
attempts of the governor to curtail the franchise, 
and other unpopular measures, in conjunction with 




his inefficient Indian policy, fed the popular dis- 
content. Upon compulsion of the rebels, Gov. 
Berkeley in July dismantled the obnoxious forts, 
dissolved the assembly, and issued writs for a new 
election. When he failed to carry out his prom- 
ises, Bacon returned at the head of 500 men and 
compelled Berkeley to issue the promised commis- 
sion. He then prosecuted the operations against 
the Indians with vigor; but, being again pro- 
claimed a rebel, he issued a counter-manifesto, 6 
Aug., and, marching upon Williamsburg, drove the 
governor across the bay to Accomac. In Septem- 
ber he again routed the governor's forces and 
burned Jamestown, while Gov. Berkeley was obliged 
to take refuge on board an English ship. A num- 
ber of women, wives of the governor's adher- 
ents, were seized and held as hostages by the rebels. 
Bacon died before carrying out his plans for at- 
tacking the governor at Accomac, and Ingram, who 
succeeded in the command of the colonial forces, 
was won over by the governor, and, after the execu- 
tion of a number of Bacon's principal adherents, 
the rebellion was extinguished. His career fur- 
nished the subject for a novel by William Car- 
ruthers, of Virginia. See Force's " Tracts Relating 
to the Origin, Settlement, and Progress of the Colo- 
nies " ; also Sparks's " American Biography." 

BACON, Samuel, clergyman, b. in Stui-ljridge, 
Mass., 23 July, 1781 ; d. in Kent, Cape Shilling, 
Africa, 8 May, 1820. He was graduated at Har- 
vard in 1808, and then studied law, which he sub- 
sequently practised in Pennsylvania. For a time 
he edited the " Worcester Mgis" and later the 
Lancaster, Pa., " Hive." and then was ordained 
in the Protestant Episcopal ministry. In 1819 he 
was appointed by the U. S. government one of three 
agents to colonize Africa with negroes, under the 
auspices of the American colonization society. 
The expedition sailed for Sierra Leone, reaching 
that port on 9 March, 1820, and a settlement was 
made at Campelar, on the Sherboro river. Here 
his two associates died, and he in declining health 
was removed to Kent, where his last days were 
spent. See " Memoirs of Rev. Samuel Bacon," by 
Jehudi Ashmun (1822). 

BACON, William Thompson, clergyman, b. 
in Woodbury, Conn., 24 Aug., 1814 ; d. in Derby, 
Conn., 18 May, 1881. He was graduated at Yale 
in 1837, delivering the valedictory poem. Then he 
studied at the Yale divinity school, and from 1842 
to 1845 was pastor of the Congregational church 
in Trumbull, Conn. For some time he was one of 
the editors of the " New Englander," and during 
several years editor and proprietor of the " Journal 
and Courier," of New Haven. He then resumed 
his ministerial labors, and was in charge of parishes 
in Kent and in Derby, Conn. Two volumes of 
poems written by him were published in Cam- 
bridge, the first in 1837 and the second in 1848. 

BADEAU, Adam, author, b. in New York city, 
29 Dec, 1831 ; d. in Ridgewood, N. J., 20 March, 1895. 
His education was received at a boarding-school in 
Tarrytown, N. Y. He volunteered in the military ser- 
vice of tlie United States in 1802, and was appoint- 
ed aide on the staff of Brig.-Gen. Thomas W. Sher- 
man. In that capacity he served in Louisiana until 
27 May, 1863, when he was severely wounded, al- 
most at the same time with his commanding offi- 
cer, in leading an assault on the confederate works 
at Port Hudson. In March, 1864, he was appoint- 
ed military secretary to Gen. Grant, with the rank, 
first of lieutenant-colonel and afterward of colonel. 
On this duty he accompanied the general in the 
Wilderness and Appomattox campaigns, and re- 
mained on his staff until March, 1869, when he was 

retired from the army with the full rank of cap- 
tain and the brevet rank of brigadier-general, 17. 
S. A. He also received a similar brevet in the vol- 
unteer service. From May to December, 1869, he 
was secretary of legation at London. During 1870 
he was sent to Madrid as a bearer of government 
despatches, and in May returned to London as con- 
sul-general, retaining that office until September, 
1881. In 1877 and 1878 he was given leave of ab- 
sence by the state department to accompany Gen. 
Grant on his tour round the world. He was con- 
sul-general at Havana from May, 1882, until April, 
1884, and then resigned because he was not permit- 
ted by the state department to substantiate charges 
of coiTuption of which he accused its administra- 
tion. He had been appointed U. S. minister to Brus- 
sels in 1875, and to Copenhagen in 1881, but declined 
both appointments. He published " The Vaga- 
bond," a collection of essays (New York. 1859) ; 
" Military History of Ulysses S. Grant " (3 vols., 
1867-'81) ; " Conspii'acy : a Cuban Romance " (1885) ; 
" Aristocracy in England " (1886) ; and " Grant in 
Peace " (1886). 

BADtrER, George Edmund, statesman, b. in 
Newbern, N. C, 13 April, 1795; d. in Raleigh, 
N. C, 11 May, 1866. He was graduated at Yale 
in 1813, and studied law in Raleigh. In 1816 he 
was elected to the state legislature, and devoted 
the next four years of his life to law and legisla- 
tion. From 1820 to 1825 he was judge of the 
North Carolina superior court at Raleigh. In 1840 
he was a prominent advocate of the election of 
Gen. Harrison to the presidency, and in March, 
1841, was appointed secretary of the navy. On the 
death of President Harrison, and the separation of 
Mr. Tyler from the whig party, Mr. Badger re- 
signed, giving the veto of President Tyler on the 
second bank bill as his reason. The whigs of 
North Carolina returned him at the fli'st opportu- 
nity to the senate. He was elected to fill a vacan- 
cy in 1846, and in 1848 reelected for a full term. 
In 1853 President Fillmore nominated him as a 
judge of the U. S. supreme court, but the senate 
refused to confirm the nomination. At the expi- 
ration of his senatorial term he retired from pub- 
lic life and devoted himself wholly to his profes- 
sion. In February, 1861, when the proposition to 
hold a convention for the purpose of seceding from 
the union was submitted to the people of his state, 
he consented to serve as a union candidate if the 
convention should be called. The proposition was 
defeated by the people ; but when, in May, 1861, 
the convention was finally called, he served in it 
as a representative from Wake co. He spoke ably 
in defence of the union, and after the ordinance of 
secession was passed was known as a member of 
the conservative party. Mr. Badger was a vigor- 
ous speaker, but wrote little. He excelled in de- 
bate and was a man of profound research. 

BADGER, Joseph, soldier, b. in Haverhill, 
Mass., 11 Jan, 1722; d. 4 April, 1803. He held 
several civil and military offices in his native place, 
but removed to Oilman ton, N. H., in 1763. He be- 
came a colonel in the revolutionary army in 1771, 
and was mustering officer of troops in his part of 
the state, and a member of the provincial congress. 
He was appointed brigadier-general in 1780, was 
judge of probate from 1784 to 1797, and in 1788 
wasa member of the convention that adopted the 
federal constitution. In 1784 and 1790-'l he was 
a member of the state council. He was one of the 
founders of Gilmanton academy. 

BADGER, Joseph, missionary, b. in Wilbra- 
hain, Mass., 28 Feb., 1757; d. in Perrysburg, Oliio, 
5 May, 1846. His early education was obtained 




entirely from his parents. At eighteen ;>ears of 
age he joined the revolutionary army. Four years 
later he entered the family of Rev. Mr. Day, father 
of President Day of Yale, and began study with 
boys of eight or nine years. Soon afterward he 
determined to become a clergyman, and entered 
Yale college in 1781. He at first supported him- 
self by manual labor and afterward by teaching 
school, the sum of $200, in continental money, 
which he had saved, scarcely serving to buy him a 
coat. He was graduated in 1785, studied divinity, 
and in 1787 became pastor at Blandford, Mass., 
where he remained until 1800. In that year the 
missionary society sent him to the unsettled part 
of the country northwest of the Ohio river. Here 
he endured great hardships for thirty years, going 
from settlement to settlement, over a country where 
there were neither roads nor bridges, and often 
passing the night in the branches of a tree. This 
mode of life gave him great familiarity with the 
country , which was of use to the American army 
during the war of 1813, when he served as chap- 
lain. He became an intimate friend of Gen. Har- 
rison, who gave him his appointment. In 1835 he 
retired and lived with a daughter until his death. 
See an autobiographical letter in the " American 
Quarterly Register" (vol. xiii., Andover). 

BAIXtER, Joseph, clergyman, b. in Gilman- 
ton, N. H., 16 Aug., 1792; d. 12 May, 1852. • His 
father, revolting against the Calvinism in which he 
had been educated, had become a deist, and Josejjh 
was given no religious ti'aining. When he was 
ten years old his family removed to Crompton, 
Canada, then almost a wilderness. He was con- 
verted in 1811 while visiting his native place, and 
in 1812 was baptized and began preaching without 
connecting himself with any regular church. He 
travelled for a time with a young man named 
Adams, who shortly afterward united with the 
jMethodists ; but Badger determined to " go forth 
and preach a free salvation to all who would hear." 
After laboring for two years in Lower Canada with 
great success. Badger received ordination at the 
hands of the Free-will Baptists, but maintained his 
independent position. In 1814 he returned to 
New Hampshire and preached with remarkable 
success, though his methods made him unpopular 
with the Calvinists. In 1817 he preached as an 
itinerant in the state of New York, and the churches 
that he founded joined the denomination known as 
Christians. After a preaching tour through the 
west in 1825 and a visit to Boston, Mr. Badger re- 
turned to New York, where he edited the " Palla- 
dium," a+ that time the organ of the Christian de- 
nomination. A stroke of paralysis forced him to 
give up work, but he preached again for some 
tinie before the final shock. See " Life of Joseph 
Badger," by E. G. Holland (New York, 1854). 

BADGER, Milton, clergyman, b. in Coventry, 
Conn., 6 May, 1800 ; d. in Madison, Conn., 1 March, 
1878. He was grad".ated at Yale with honor in 
1823. After spending a year in teaching in New 
Canaan, Conn., he began his theological studies at 
Andover theological seminary, but in 1826 removed 
to New Haven to become a tutor in Yale college, 
and finished his preparation for the ministry there. 
He was ordained 3 Jan., 1828, as pastor of the 
South Congregational church in Andover, Mass., 
and remained there until 1835, when he became 
associate secretary of the American home mission- 
ary society. He was soon, by the resignation of 
Dr. Peters, placed in the position of senior secre- 
tary, and for thirty-four years he performed the 
duties of his office with great faithfulness and skill. 
He possessed a vigorous constitution, but the con- 

stant pressure of his work proved too jnuch for 
him, and in 1869 he was compelled, by the mani- 
festations of the disease that finally ended his life, 
to withdraw from active duties. 

BADGER, Oscar C, naval officer, b. in Wind- 
ham, Conn., 12 Aug., 1823 ; d. in Concord, Mass., 20 
June, 1899. He entered the navy as a midshipman, 
served on the steamer " Mississippi " on the eastern 
coast of Mexico during the war with that country, 
and participated in the attack on Alvarado in 1846. 
He was made passed midshipman 10 Aug., 1847, 
from that time until 1852 was on various ships of 
the Pacific sqtiadron, and in 1853-'4 at the naval 
observatory. On 15 Sept., 1855, he was made lieu- 
tenant, and, while attached to the sloop " John 
Adams " in 1855-'6, he commanded a party that 
attacked and destroyed the village of Vutia, Feejee 
islands. In 1861-'2 he commanded the steamer 
"Anacostia," of the Potomac flotilla, and Lieut, 
Wyman, the commander of the flotilla, often men- 
tioned in his reports the precision of fire of Bad- 
ger's vessel. He was made lieutenant-commander 
on 16 July, 1862, and commanded the iron-clads 
" Patapsco " and " Montauk " in the engagements 
with the forts and batteries in Charleston harbor 
in 1863. In the night attack on Fort Sumter, 1 
Sept., 1863, he was on the flag-ship " Weehawken," 
as acting fleet captain, when he was severely 
wounded in the leg by a metallic splinter. After 
this he was on shore duty until 1866, and on 23 
July of that year was made commander. From 
1866 to 1867 he commanded the '' Peoria," of the 
North Atlantic squadron, and received a vote of 
thanks from the legislatures of the islands of An- 
tigua and St. Kitts for services rendered to the 
authorities. From 1868 to 1870 he was at the 
Portsmouth navy-yard. In 1872 he was made cap- 
tain, and on 15 Nov., 1881, commodore. In 1885 
he was placed on the retired list. 

BADGER, William, governor of New Hamp- 
shire, b. in Gilmanton, N. H., 13 Jan., 1779 ; d. 
there, 21 Sept., 1852. In his youth he devoted him- 
self to business. He was in the lower house of the 
state legislature from 1810 to 1812, and from 1814 
to 1816 in the state senate, of which he was the 
president in 1816. He was associate justice of the 
court of common pleas from 1816 to 1821, and from 
1822 to 1832 high sheriflf of Strafford co. He was 
governor from 1834 to 1836. 

BADIN, Etienne TIi6odore, clergyman, b. in 
Orleans, F'rance, in 1768; d. in Cincinnati in 1853. 
His pai-ents regarded the mental qualities that he 
developed in his boyhood as extraordinary, and, al- 
though very poor, gave him a classical education. 
He was sent for three years to the college Mon- 
tagti in Paris, where he acquired a thorough classi- 
cal training, and entered the Sulpician seminary 
at Tours in 1789, with the object of becoming a 
priest. He immigrated to the United States in 1792 
and was ordained by Bishop Carroll in the old ca- 
thedral of Baltimore in 1793, being the first priest 
ordained in the United States. He went to George- 
town college soon afterward to perfect himself in 
the knowledge of the English language, and was 
then appointed to do missionary work in Ken- 
tucky, which at that period formed a part of the 
diocese of Baltimore. He took up his residence in 
Scott CO., occasionally making excursions to the 
Catholic settlements in other parts of the territory. 
His mission extended over hundreds of miles, and 
he was obliged to be almost constantly on horse- 
back, in which way he travelled more than 100,000 
miles. In 1796, when his sufferings and hardships 
were greatest, he was offered the rectorship of St. 
Genevieve by the Spanish governor of the town. 




but did not even return an answer. Father Badin 
was for about three years the only priest in Ken- 
tucky. In 1797 Bishop Carroll appointed him 
vicar-general, and sent him an assistant, who died 
in the following year. The death or withdrawal of 
other priests, who had been assigned to the same 
mission, left Father Badin alone again in Kentucky 
in 1803, and as, through emigration from Mary- 
land, the Catholic population was rapidly increas- 
ing, his missionary duties were of a very exhaust- 
ing nature. In 1805 he published his " Principles 
of Catholics," the first Catholic work printed in the 
west. He organized a mission at Louisville in 1806, 
and in 1811 built the church of St. Louis in that 
city. In 1812 he erected the church of St. Peter in 
Lexington, principally through the aid of his Prot- 
estant friends. Owing to a misunderstanding 
between him and Bishop Flaget as to the settle- 
ment of title to certain properties that had been 
acquired by Father Badin for the church before 
the creation of the diocese of Bardstown, the latter 
left Kentucky in 1819, and spent nine years travel- 
ling through Europe. On his return he took 
charge of the Monroe mission, Michigan territory, 
for a year and a half. From 1830 to 1836 he 
was connected with the Pottawattamie Indians on 
St. Joseph's river, Indiana. He was successful, not 
only in converting them to Christianity, but in 
forming them to the habits of civilized life. He 
established schools among them, and in a few years 
all the young people of the tribe had learned to 
read English. The last three years of Father Ba- 
din's life were spent in Cincinnati as the guest of 
Archbishop Purcell. Father Badin was the author 
of several Latin poems in hexameter verse. The 
principal are " Carmen Sacrum," a translation of 
which was printed at Frankfort; the "Epice- 
dium," written on the death of Col. Joe Daviess at 
the battle of Tippecanoe, translated by Dr. Mitch- 
ell, of New York ; and " Sanctissimge Trinitatis 
Laudes et Invocatis " (Louisville, 1843). 

BADLAM, Ezra, soldier, b. in Milton, Mass., 25 
May, 1746; d. in Dorchester, Mass., 5 April, 1788. 
He was a brother of Gen. Stephen Badlam, was a 
captain in Grilley's artillery regiment at the siege 
of Boston in 1775, was in L. Baldwin's regi- 
ment in 1776, was present at Trenton and Prince- 
ton, and from 7 July, 1777, to 31 Dec, 1780, 
was lieutenant-colonel of Bailey's regiment, the 2d 
Massachusetts. He was in M. Jackson's regiment 
from 1780 to 1782, and was taken prisoner by the 
British Col. Norton at White Plains, 3 Feb., 1780. 
He afterward served as a colonel in the suppression 
of Shays's rebellion. — His brother, Stephen, sol- 
dier, b. in Milton, Mass., 25 March, 1748; d. in 
Dorchester, Mass., 25 Aug., 1815. He entered the 
army in 1775, became lieutenant of artillery, and 
soon rose to the rank of major, commanding the 
artillery in the department of Canada. In July, 
1776, he took possession of the eminence opposite 
Ticonderoga, naming it Mount Independence on 
the 18th of that month, on receipt of the news that 
the declaration had been adopted by congress. In 
August, 1777, he did good service at Fort Stanwix 
under Willet, and in 1799 was made brigadier-gen- 
eral of militia. When a captain in New York he 
became acquainted with Alexander Hamilton, who 
frequently asked his advice in matters of tactics. 
He was throughout his life a great admirer and 
supporter of Gen. Washington, by whom he was 
much esteemed. His later years were passed in 
Dorchester, Mass., where he was prominent in local 
affairs and in the church. 

BAENA, Antonio Lartislao Monteiro (bah- 
ay'-na), Portuguese hislorian, d. about 1851, He 

went to Brazil, and was for many years in the mili- 
tary service of that empire. He made explora- 
tions in the province of Para, and published a full 
description of it, in a book entitled " Ensaio Coro- 
grafico sobi'e a Provinzia do Para" (1839), and 
other valual)le works. 

BAERLE, or BARL^US, Gaspard van, 
Dutch author, b. in Antwerp in 1584 ; d. in 1648. He 
was professor of philosophy and theology in Ley- 
den (1617) and Amsterdam (1631). His works are : 
" Poemata Epistolae " (2 vols.), and " Rerum in 
Brasijia gestarom Historia" (Amsterdam. 1647). 

BAEZ, Bnenaventura (bah'-eth), president of 
the Dominican republic, b. in Azua, Santo Do- 
mingo, early in the 19th century. He inherited a 
large fortune from his father, a mulatto, who was 
prominent in the revolution of 1808; cooperated 
with Santana in the establishment of Dominican 
independence; and was president from 1849 till 
1853, when he was supplanted by Santana, who ex- 
pelled him from the country. After the deposi- 
tion of Santana in May, 1856, Baez, who had spent 
the interval in New York, resumed the presidency, 
6 Oct., 1856 ; but was again supplanted by San- 
tana, 11 June, 1858, and obliged to remain abroad 
till after the evacuation of Dominica by the Span- 
iards in 1865. In December of that year he was 
elected for a third term. This was interrupted in 
March, 1866, by an insurrection led by Gen. Pimen- 
tel in favor of Cabral, in consequence of which 
Baez was banished to St. Thomas. A new revolu- 
tion in December, 1867, drove Cabral from power 
and restored Baez. After various direct and indi- 
rect negotiations, he signed, 29 Nov., 1869, two 
treaties with President Grant, one for the cession 
of the bay of Samana, and the other for the annex- 
ation of the Dominican republic to the United 
States, subject to the approval of the people of the 
republic, which was ostensibly obtained in an elec- 
tion (decreed by Baez, 16 Feb., 1870) held under the 
protection of American men-of-war. The U. S. 
senate, however, refused to ratify the treaty. A 
commission, ai^pointed by President Grant, under 
authority of congress, to visit and examine the 
island, reported in April, 1871, in favor of annexa- 
tion ; but the measure was pressed no further. Its 
failure encouraged Cabral and Pimentel to renew 
the civil war. 

BAFFIN, William, navigator, supposed to have 
been born in London about 1584 ; d. in Kishm, Per- 
sia, 23 Jan., 1622. He is first mentioned in 1612 as 
pilot of the " Patience," one of the vessels that ac- 
companied James Hall in his voyage of discovery 
to Greenland. An account of the expedition was 
written by him on his return, part of which,, pub- 
lished by Purehas, has been preserved. In 1613, 
having entered the service of the Muscovy Com- 
pany, he became chief pilot of seven vessels, and 
visited the Spitzbergen coast for fishing. Purehas 
also preserved an account of this voyage, written 
by Baffin. Again, in 1614, he made a similar trip. 
In 1615 he piloted the " Discovery,"' commanded by 
Robert Bylot, in her search for the northwest pas- 
sage. His original manuscript description of this 
voyage, containing much valuable information, is 
preserved in the British museum. In 1616 he again 
sailed with the "Discovery," passed up through 
Davis strait, reaching as far as 78° N. latitude, and 
cruised around the open sea now known as Baffin's 
bay. His narrative of this voyage was published 
by" Purehas, probably in an iinperfect form, and 
his opinion is there recorded against the existence 
of a northwest passage. He then joined the East 
India Company and made voyages to the east un- 
der Capt. Shilling in 1617 "and 1620. His final 




voyage was made as master of the " London " in 
1021, sent out for the purpose of driving the Portu- 
guese from Ormuz. During the siege, while en- 
gaged in making measurements, he was shot, and 
died almost immediately. Baffin was the first to 
determine longitude by observing the time of the 
moon's eulmination. See " Tlie Voyages of William 
Baffin, l(il2-'22," edited, with notes and an intro- 
duction, by Clements R. Marlvham, C. B., F. R. S., 
publislicd by the Hakluyt society (London, 1881). 

BAUBY, Arthur Pendleton, governor of Ala- 
bama, b. in Virginia in 1794; d. in Mobile, Ala., 
21 Sept., 1858. He received a liberal education, 
and settled in Alabama in 1818. He soon gained 
a reputation as a criminal lawyer, and in 1820-'2 
was sent to the legislature, where he was chosen 
speaker of the house. He was governor from 1837 
to 1841, when he was sent as a democrat to the U. 
S. senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resigna- 
tion of Clement C. Clay. Here he served until 16 
June, 1848, when he accepted the office of minister 
to Russia. On 14 May, 1849, he withdrew and re- 
turned home. He was afterward one of the com- 
mission appointed to codify the laws of Alabama. 

BACxBY, treorg-e William, author, b. in Buck- 
ingham CO., Va., 13 Aug., 1828 ; d. in Richmond, 
Va., 29 Nov., 1883. He was educated at Edgehill 
school, Princeton, N. J., and at Delaware college, 
Newark, Del., leaving the latter at the end of his 
sophomore year. Subsequently he studied medi- 
cine and was graduated at the medical department 
of the University of Pennsylvania. In 1853 he be- 
came editor of the Lynchburg (Va.) daily " Ex- 
press," and was for some time the Washington 
correspondent of the New Orleans " Crescent," 
Charleston " Mercury," and Richmond " Dispatch." 
Prom 1859 he was, until its suspension near the 
end of the war, editor of the " Southern Literary 
Messenger," and at the same time associate editor 
of the Richmond " Whig," and a frequent contribu- 
tor to the " Southern Illustrated News." From 1 
Jan., 1870, to 1 July, 1878, he was state librarian of 
Virginia. He lectured frequently, and met with 
success as a humorist in many parts of Virginia 
and Maryland. He was the author of many hu- 
morous articles published under the pen name of 
^' Mozis Addums." His sketches were collected and 
publislicd V)y Mrs. Bagby, as "The Writings of 
Dr. Bagby ""(3 vols. Richmond, 1884-'6). 

BA(tI()LI, Antonio, musician, b. in Bologna, 
Italy, in 1795 ; d. in New York, 11 Feb., 1871. He be- 
gan the study of music early in life, and, after a pre- 
paratory course in several schools, entered the con- 
servatory at Naples, and remained there for several 
years under Zingarelli. In 1832 he arrived in New 
York as musical director of the Montresor troupe, 
the first Italian opera company that ever visited 
the United States. After a successful season the 
opera troupe went to Havana; but Bagioli re- 
mained in New York and established himself as a 
teacher of music, attaining a success probably un- 
surjyassed by any professor in this country. He 
published "One Hour of Daily Study for the Ac- 
quirement of a Correct Pronunciation of the Vow- 
els, which is the only Method to become a Perfect 
Vocalist " (New York, 1864). — His only daughter, 
Theresa, married Gen. Daniel E. Sickles. 

BA(tLEY, John Judson, politician, b. in Me- 
dina, N. Y., 24 July, 1832 ; d. in San Francisco, 
Cal., 27 July, 1881, He received a common-school 
education in Loekport, N. Y., and in early life emi- 
grated with his father, settling in Constantine, 
Mich. At the age of fifteen he went to Detroit and 
secured employment in a tobacco factory. On at- 
taining his majority he began a business of his own 

in the same line, and was continuously engaged 
with it until his death, accumulating a large 
property. He held numerous positions of public 
trust in the Detroit city government, and in 1868- 
'9 was chairman of the republican state central 
committee, gaining great credit for the ability with 
which he conducted the presidential canvass of 
1868. In 1872 he was the republican candidate for 
governor, and was elected by a majority exceeding 
that of the Grant electors. He was reelected in 
1874. His administrations were marked by his in- 
terest in all measures tending to the public good. 
The educational and charitable institutions were 
benefited by the judicious legislation urged by 
him, and the status of the liquor traffic owes its im- 
proved condition to his recommendations. In 1881 
he was prominently mentioned as a candidate for 
the U. S. senate, but lost the nomination in the re- 
publican caucus by a single vote. He was actively 
identified with the Unitarian church in Detroit, 
and his donations to various charitable institutions 
were large and numerous. 

BAtrOT, Sir Charles, British diplomatist, b. in 
Blithfield, Stafford co., England, 23 Sept., 1781 ; d. 
in Kingston, Canada, 18 May, 1843. He was the 
second son of William, first Lord Bagot. In 1807 
he was made under foreign secretary of state ; in 
1814 was sent on a special mission to Paris ; was 
minister-plenipotentiary at Washington from 1816 
to 1819 ; in 1820 was appointed ambassador to 
Russia; in 1824 was sent on a similar mission to 
Holland ; and in 1834 was sent as a special ambas- 
sador to Austria. On 10 June, 1842, after the 
death of Lord Sydenham, he became governor-gen- 
eral of British North America, which office he re- 
tained until his death. 

BAHNSON, Georg-e Frederick, Moravian 
bishop, b. in Christiansfeld, Denmark, 16 Sept., 
1805; d. in Salem, N. C, 11 Sept., 18G9. He was 
educated at the Moravian college and the theologi- 
cal seminary in Germany, and in 1829 emigrated to 
the United States and entered the boarding-school 
at Nazareth, Pa., as a tutor. Five years later he 
began his ministerial career. The two churches in 
which he labored longest and with most success 
were those at Lancaster, Pa., and Salem, N. C. He 
was consecrated to the episcopacy at Bethlehem, 
13 May, 1860, and presided over the southern dis- 
trict. In 1869 he went to Europe to attend the 
general synod of the Moravian church, and in the 
course of the journey his health failed, and he died 
a few weeks after his return. Bishop Bahnson was 
a man of commanding presence, a powerful preach- 
er, and a ripe scholar. 

BAILEY, Ann, scout, d. in Harrison township, 
Gallia co., Ohio, 23 Nov., 1825. She was reputed 
to have been born in Liverpool, England, about 
1725, to have been kidnapped at the age of nine- 
teen, carried off to Virginia and sold, and to have 
married a man named Trotter when thirty years of 
age. Trotter was a member of Col. Lewis's regi- 
ment, and was killed by the Indians in the battle 
of Point Pleasant on 10 Oct., 1774. His widow, 
moved by revenge, assumed male clothing and 
adopted the life of a scout and spy, and was often 
employed to convey information to the command- 
ants of forts. In 1790 she married a soldier named 
John Bailey, stationed at Fort Clendenin, on Kana- 
wha river. She was exceedingly expert with the 
rifle, possessed a black horse of remarkable intelli- 
gence, and made many perilous journeys from the 
settlements on the James and Potomac rivers to 
Fort Clendenin and other distant outposts. On 
one occasion she rescued the garrison of the fort 
from destruction by bringing a supply of ammu- 




nition from Fort L^nion, now Lewisburg. After 
the Indian war, during which her second husband 
was killed, she lived with her son, William Trot- 
ter, on Kanawha river, and removed with hitn in 
1818 to Ohio, where, in old age, she taught school, 
displaying great mental and physical vigor. 

BAILEY, Anna Warner, known as " Mother 
Bailey," patriot, b. in Groton, Conn., 11 Oct., 1758 ; 
d. there in 1850. She was the wife of Capt. Elijah 
Bailey, of Groton. She witnessed the massacre at 
Fort Griswold on 6 Sept., 1781, and on 7 Sept. 
walked to the scene of carnage, three miles, to 
search for an uncle, whom she found fatally 
wounded. At his request to see his wife and child 
she ran home, saddled a horse for the feeble 
mother, and carried the child herself to the dying 
patriot. In July, 1818, when the British threat- 
ened to attack New London, Mother Bailey ren- 
dered great aid to its defenders by tearing up flan- 
nel garments for cartridges. 

BAILEY, Ebenezer, educator, b. in West New- 
bury, Mass., 25 June, 1795 ; d. in Lynn, Mass., 5 
Aug., 1839. He was graduated at Yale in 1817, 
after which he taught school, and also entered his 
name as a law student. Afterward he became a 
tutor in Virginia, biit in 1819 returned to New- 
buryport, and there opened a private school for 
young ladies. In 1823 he was appointed master of 
the Franklin grammar school, and in 1825 teacher 
of the Boston high school for girls. This school 
proved unsuccessful, and Josiah Quincy, then 
mayor, pronounced it an entire failure. Mr. Bailey 
at once replied with vigor in a " Review of the 
Mayor's Report upon the High School for Girls " 
(Boston, 1828). Subsequently he had charge of the 
young ladies' high school, and in 1830 was active 
in the establishment of the American Institute of 
Education, afterward filling various offices in that 
body. In 1838 he establislied a boys' school at 
Roxlniry, which, in 1839, was moved to Lynn. 
Mr. Bailey was the successful competitor for the 
prize ode delivered at the Boston theatre in com- 
memoration of Washington's death. Afterward 
he was on several occasions poet at the * B K an- 
niversaries of Harvard. Mr. Bailey was at various 
times a member of the city council of Boston, di- 
rector of the home of reform, president of the Bos- 
ton lyeeum, and director of the Boston mechanics' 
institute. He was a frequent contributor to the 
Boston " Courier " and other periodicals, and edited 
" The Young Ladies' Class-Book " (Boston, 1831) ; 
" Blakewell's Philosophical Conversations " (1832) ; 
and " First Lessons on Algebra " (1833). 

BAILEY, (xamaliel, journalist, b. in Mount 
Holly, N. J., 3 Dec, 1807; d. at sea, 5 June, 
1859. He studied medicine in Philadelphia, and 
after obtaining his degree in 1828 sailed as a ship's 
doctor to China. He began his editorial career in 
the office of the " Methodist Protestant " in Balti- 
more, but in 1831 he removed to Cincinnati, where 
he served as hospitid physician during the cholera 
epidemic. His sympathies being excited on the oc- 
casion of the expulsion of a number of students on 
account of anti-slavery views from Lane seminary, 
he became an active agitator against slavery, and 
in 1836 he associated himself with James G. Birney 
in the conduct of the " Cincinnati Philanthropist," 
the earliest anti-slavery newspaper in the west, of 
which in 1837 he became sole editor. Twice in that 
year, and again in 1841, the printing-office was 
sacked by a mob. He issued the paper regularly 
until after the presidential election of 1844, when 
he was selected to direct the publication of a new 
abolitionist organ at Washington. The first num- 
ber of the "National Era," published under the 

auspices of the American and foreign anti-slavery 
society, appeared 1 Jan., 1847. In 1848 an angry 
mob laid siege to the office for three days, and 
finally separated under the influence of an elo- 
quent harangue by the editor. The " Era," in 
which " Uncle Tom's Cabin " originally appeared, 
ably presented the opinions of the anti-slavery 
party. Dr. Bailey died while on a voyage to Eu- 
rope for his health. 

BAILEY, (irilbert Stephen, clergyman, b. in 
Dalton, Pa., 17 Oct., 1822. He was educated at 
Oberlin, and, after studying theology, became a Bap- 
tist clergyman, holding pastorates in various places 
in New York and Illinois till 1863, when he was 
made superintendent of the Baptist missions in 
Illinois, and from 1867 till 1875 was secretary of the 
Baptist Theological Union in Chicago. The system 
of " minister's institutes," now prevalent in the 
Baptist denomination, was originated by him in 
1864, and they were subsequently conducted by 
him in Chicago, Upper Alton, and Bloomingdale, 
111. He resumed his preaching and had charge of 
churches in Pennsylvania, Michig.-n, and Iowa, 
was a secretary of the Italian Bilile ;iiid Sunday- 
school mission in 1880-'l, and missionary in 
southern California in 1885-'6. Besides numerous 
tracts and uncollected poems, he has published a 
" History of the Illinois River Baptist Association " 
(New York, 1857) ; " Caverns of Kentucky '" (Chi- 
cago, 1863) ; *' Manual of Baptism " (Philadelphia, 
1863) ; " The Trials and Victories of Religious 
Liberty in America " (1876) ; " Three Discourses on 
the History, Wonders, and Excellence of the Bible '' 
(Ottumwa, 1882) ; " The Word and Works of God " 
(Philadelphia, 1883) ; " Prize Discourse on Slander " 
(Washington, 1884) ; and " Ingersollism Exposed " 
(Ottumw^i, 1884). 

BAILEY, tlnilford Dndley, soldier, b. in Mar- 
tinsburg, N. Y., 4 June, 1834; killed in action, 
31 May, 1862. He was graduated at West Point 
in 1856, and assigned to the 2d artillery. He served 
on frontier and garrison duty, was at Fort Leaven- 
worth during the Kansas disturbances of 1857-'9, 
and at West Point as instructor for a short time in 
1859. When the civil war began he was stationed 
at Fort Brown, Texas, but, with his immediate 
superior, Capt. Stoneman, refused to surrender 
when Gen. Twiggs attempted to give up his en- 
tire command to the confederates, and effected his 
escape into Mexico. Reporting for duty as soon as 
he could reach the north, he was sent with Hunt's 
battery to the relief of Fort Pickens, Fla. Re- 
turning on account of sickness, he oi'ganized and 
was appointed colonel of the 1st N. Y. light artil- 
lery volunteers (25 Sept., 1861), joined the Army of 
the Potomac, was detailed as chief of artillery in 
Gen. Casey's division during the Peninsular cam- 
paign, and was killed among his guns at the battle 
of Seven Pines. A monument has been raised to 
his memory in the cemetery at Poughkeepsie. 

BAILEY, Jacob, soldier, b. in Newburv, Mass., 
2 Julv, 1728: d. in Newbury, Vt., 1 March, 1816. 
He settled in Ilampstead in 1745. and served as a 
captain during the French war in 1756. He was 
with Col. Munroe in the siege of Fort William 
Henry, and was among those who escaped the 
subsequent massacre on 7 Aug., 1757. He was also 
present at the capture of Ticonderoga and Crown 
Point in 1759. In 1764 he removed to Vermont, 
and there oljtained a township. Later he was ap- 
pointed Ijrigadier-general of militia by the state 
of New York. During the revolutionary war he 
was commissary-general of the northern depart- 
ment, and in tliat capacity did much in benefiting 
the cause of the Americans. 




BAILEY, Jacob, clergymiin, b. in Rowley, Mass., 
16 April, 1731 ; d. in Annapolis. N. 8.. 2(3 July, 1808. 
He was graduated at Harvai-d in 1755, after which 
he visited England, was ordained a priest in the 
<3hui-ch of England, and became a missionary in 
Pownalborough, now Wiseasset, Maine. During 
the revolutionary war he was a loyalist, and in 
1779 he retired to Nova Scotia. He was called to 
the rectorship of St. Luke's church in Annapolis, 
where he remained until his death. See " Memoir 
of tlie Life of tlie Kev. -Jacob Bailey, A. M.," by 
William S. Bartlet (Boston, 1854). 

BAILEY, Jacob Whitman, naturalist, b. in 
Ward (now Auburn), Mass., 29 April, 1811 ; d. in 
West Point, N. Y., 26 Feb., 1857. He received a 
common-school education at Providence, R. I., and 
then studied at West Point, where he was gradu- 
ated in 1832. He was appointed lieutenant in the 
artillery, and during the following six years served 
at various military stations in South Carolina and 
Virginia. From 1834 until his death he was succes- 
.sively assistant, acting, and full professor of chem- 
istry, mmeralogy, and geology, at the military acad- 
emy. His scientific reputation was achieved princi- 
pally by his researches in microscopy, and he may 
be regarded as the pioneer in this means of investi- 
gation in the United States. The indicator bear- 
ing his name, and other improvements in the con- 
struction of the microscope, were devised by him. 
He made numerous collections ; that of microscopic 
objects containing over 3,000 slides, and his collec- 
tion of algfe about 4,500 specimens. These, to- 
gether with his books and papers, were bequeathed 
to the Boston society of natural history. In 1856 
he was elected president of the American associa- 
tion of the advancement of science, and he was a 
member of many other scientific bodies both in this 
country and Europe. He was the author of more 
than fifty papers, which appeared in the " Ameri- 
can Journal of Science and Arts," " Ti-ansaetions 
of the Association of Geologists and Naturalists," 
"The Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge," 
and "Journal of Microscopic Science," and also of 
a volume of " Microscopic Sketches," which con- 
tained about 3,000 original figures, and a paper on 
infusorial fossils in California in the reports of 
the Pacific railway survey. See the sketch of 
his life and scientific labors given in the "Ameri- 
can Journal of Science and Arts "(2d series, voL 
XXV.)— His son, Loriiig' Woart, chemist and 
geologist, b. in West Pohit, N. Y., 28 Sept., 1839, 
studied at Brown university and then at Harvard, 
where he was graduated in 1859. In 1861 he was 
appointed professor of chemistry and natural his- 
tory in the university of New Brunswick, at Fred- 
ericton. For many years he has been connected 
with the geological survey of Canada, to whose 
reports he has regularly contributed accounts of 
his work. He has written scientific papers for 
the " Canadian Naturalist " and " Canadian Rec- 
ord," and has published " Mines and Minerals of 
New Brunswick " (1864) and the " Geology of 
Southern New Brunswick " (1865). — Another son, 
William Whitman, botanist, b. in West Point, 
N. Y., 22 Feb., 1843, was graduated at Brown in 
1864, after which he devoted special attention to 
botany at Harvard under tha direction of Prof. 
Asa Gray and Prof. G. L. Goodale. In 1867 he 
served as botanist to the U. S. geological survey 
of the 40th parallel, and from 1869 to 1871 was 
assistant librarian of the Providence athena?um. 
In 1877 he became instructor of botany at Brown, 
and in 1881 professor. He is a contributor of prose 
and verse to periodicals, and has published a " Bo- 
tanical Collector's Hand-Book " (Boston, 1881). 

VOL. I. — 10 

BAILEY, James E., senator, b. in Montgomery 
CO., Tenn., 15 Aug., 1822; d. in Clarksville, Tenn., 

29 Dec, 1885. He was educated at the university 
of Nashville, was admitted to the bar, and began 
the practice of law at Clarksville in 1843. In 1853 
he was elected to the Tennessee house of represen- 
tatives. He served in the confederate army, though 
not an original secessionist. He was a member of 
the court of arbitration in 1874, by appointment of 
the governor of Tennessee, and was elected U. S. 
senator from Tennessee in place of Andrew John- 
son, serving from 29 Jan., 1877, till 3 March, 1881. 

BAILEY, James Montg'omery, author, b. in 
Albany, N. Y., 25 Sept., 1841 ; d. in Danbury, Conn., 
4 March, 1894. He early became a carpenter, and 
in 1860 he removed to Danbury, Conn., where he 
worked at his trade for two years, occasionally con- 
tributing to the newspapers, and then enlisted in the 
17th Connecticut regiment, with which he served 
until the end of the war. After his return he 
purchased, in 1865, the Danbury " Times," which 
he afterward consolidated with the " Jeffersonian," 
acquired in 1870, under the name of the Danbury 
" News." For this paper he wrote short, humorous 
articles, generally descriptive of every-day mishaps, 
which were reprinted in other journals throughout 
the country. In 1873 a demand for his paper was 
found outside of Danbury, and its circulation rose 
to 30,000 copies. His first printed book was " Life 
in Danbury " (Boston, 1873), a collection of articles 
from his newspaper. The same year he published 
" The Danbury News Man's Almanac." In 1874 
he visited Europe for his health, and after his re- 
turn delivered a lecture which was published in a 
volume in 1878, with the title " England from a 
Back Window." He published in 1877 " They All 
do it," in 1879 " Mr. Phillips's Goneness," and in 
1880 " The Danbury Boom." 

BAILEY, John, soldier, b. in Hanover, Mass., 

30 Oct., 1730; d. there. 27 Oct., 1810. He was 
lieutenant-colonel of the Plymouth regiment at the 
beginning of the revolutionary war, and succeeded 
Col. John Thomas in its command. When the 
continental army was organized he became colonel 
of the 2d Massachusetts, in which command he re- 
mained during the war, earning distinction, espe- 
cially in the campaign against Burgoyne. 

BAILEY, Joseph, farmer, b. in Salem, Ohio. 28 
April, 1827 ; killed near Nevada, Newton co.. Mo., 
21 March, 1867. He entered the military service 
of the United States 2 July, 1861, as captain in the 
4th Wisconsin infantry. The regiment was or- 
dered to Maryland and assigned to the expedition 
under Gen. B. F. Butler, which occupied New Or- 
leans after its reduction by Farragut's fleet, in 
April, 1862. Bailey was appointed acting engi- 
neer of the defences of New Orleans in December, 
1862, and while so detailed was promoted to be 
major (30 May, 1863). A month later (June 24) he 
became lieutenant-colonel. In August. 1863, the 
regiment was changed from infantry to cavalry, 
and Lieut.-Col. Bailey was sent home on recruiting 
service, retui'uing to duty with his regiment in 
February, 1864, in time to accompany the army of 
Gen. N. P. Banks in the Red river campaign. 
Here occurred the opportunity that enabled Lieut.- 
Col. Bailey to achieve one of the most brilliant 
feats ever accomplished in military engineering. 
The expedition had been carefully timed to co- 
incide with the regular annual spring rise in Red 
river, in order that the navy might cooperate 
and the river serve as a base of supplies. The 
army, under Gen. Banks, advanced south of the 
river, accompanied and supported by a fleet of 
twelve gun-boats and thirty transports. The ad- 




vance suffered a defeat at Sabine Cross Roads on 
8 April, and retreated to Alexandria, where it 
was found that the water had fallen so much that 
it was impossible for the fleet to pass below the 
falls. Kear-Admiral Porter, commanding the 
squadron, was reluctantly making preparations to 
save what stores he could and to destroy his gun- 
boats, preparatory to retreating with the army, as 
he was advised that the land position was not ten- 
able, when Lieut.-Col. Bailey proposed to build a 
dam and deepen the water in mid-channel so that 
the gun-boats could pass. The regular engineers 
condemned the project as impracticable ; but 
Lieut.-Col. Bailey persevered, and, in the face' of 
discouraging opposition and indifference on the 
part of the navy, finally, on 30 April, procured the 
necessary authority from Gen. Banks. When the 
work was actually begun, there was no lack of men 
or of zeal. Gen. Jas. Grant Wilson, then a mem- 
ber of Gen. Banks's staff, strongly advocated the 
scheme, and aided in the construction of the dam. 
Details of 3,000 soldiers wei-e kept at work night 
and day, and several hundred lumbermen from 
Maine regiments did good service in felling and 
moving trees. The fatigue parties relieved one an- 
other at regular intervals, all working with re- 
markable endurance, often up to their necks in 
water, and under a semi-tropical sun. The rapids 
to be deepened were about a mile long and from 
700 to more than 1,000 feet wide, with a current 
of ten miles an hour. On the north bank a ti'ee 
dam was built, while on the south side, there being 
no timber, a series of heavy cribs were con- 
structed from material obtained by demolishing 
several old mills, while the brick, iron, and stone 
required to sink and hold them in place were pro- 
cured by tearing down two sugar-houses and tak- 
ing up a quantity of railroad iron buried in the 
vicinity. The dams, thus built on both sides of 
the river, left an opening of sixty-six feet. So en- 
ergetically and systematically was the work pushed 
that on the morning of 12 May the whole fleet 
passed safely down the falls without loss. The 
Mississippi squadron was saved through the native 
engineering skill of a Wisconsin farmer. His ser- 
vices received prompt recognition, and on 7 June 
he was brevetted brigadier-general, and on 30 June 
was promoted to the full grade of colonel, and 
subsequently received the formal thanks of con- 
gress. The officers of the fleet presented him with 
a sword and a purse of $3,000. After this feat 
Gen. Bailey's military record was highly creditable. 
In November, 1864, he was promoted brigadier- 
general of volunteers, and had command of the 
engineer brigade of the military division of the 
west Mississippi and of different cavalry brigades 
until he resigned, 7 July. 18(55. After leaving the 
army he settled as a farmer in Newton co., jMo., 
and was elected sheriff, an office which he filled 
with his accustomed firmness and daring. He 
met his death at the hands of two desperadoes, 
upon whom he had personally served warrants, 
and whom, with characteristic fearlessness, he was 
escorting to the county-seat without assistance. It 
is interestmg to know that che main portion of the 
dam, constructed under such haste, was in place 
twenty-two years afterward, and bade fair to last 
indefinitely. It is still known as " Bailey's Dam." 
BAILEY, Joseph Mead, jurist, b. in Middle- 
bury, Vt., 23 June, 1833 ; d. in Preeport, 111., 15 
Dec, 1895. He was graduated in 1854, and in 
1856 began the practice of law at Freeport, 111. 
He was a member of the Illinois legislature in 
1866-70 and presidential elector of the same state 
in 1876. He was chosen a judge in the 13th judi- 

cial circuit, Illinois, in 1877. judge of the first 
division appellate court in 1878. and chief justice 
of that court in 1879. He became a trustee of the 
university of Chicago in 1878. 

BAILEY, Riifus William, educator, b. in 
North Yarmouth, Me., 13 April, 1793 ; d. in Hunts- 
ville, Tex., 25 April, 1863. He was graduated at 
Dartmouth college in 1813, and taught in the 
academies at Salisbury, N. H., and Blue Hill, Me., 
then studied law with Daniel Webster, but at the 
end of a year entered Andover theological semi- 
nary, and on the completion of his studies was li- 
censed, and began preaching at Norwich Plain, at 
the same time filling the place of teacher of moral 
philosophy in the military school. In 1824 he was 
installed pastor of the church in Pittsfield, Mass., 
where he remained four years. He was then 
obliged to remove to the south for the sake of his 
health, and subsequently taught for more than 
twenty years in North Carolina, South Carolina, 
and Virginia, in the latter state travelling at one 
time extensively as agent of the colonization so- 
ciety. In 1854 he was elected professor of languages 
in Austin college, at Huntsville, Texas, and in 
1858 became its president. He was the author of 
a series of newspaper letters on slavery, subse- 
quently published in a volume under the title of 
" The Issue " ; also of a volume of sermons entitled 
" The Family Preacher " ; of letters to daughters,^ 
entitled " The Mother's Request " ; of a " Primary 
Grammar," and of a " Manual of English Gram- 
mar," used extensively in southern schools. 

BAILEY, Silas, clergyman, b. in Massachusetts 
about 1812; d. in Paris, France, 11 June, 1874. 
He was graduated at Brown in 1834, studied at 
Newton theological seminary, and was for a time a. 
pastor in Massachusetts. He became principal of 
Worcester academy about 1840, and, after several 
years, was elected president of Granville college, 
afterward Dennison university, Granville, Ohio, 
where he remained for ten years. He then became 
president of the newly established college at Frank- 
lin, Ind., where he remained until his health failed. 
After filling a pastorate at Lafayette for three 
years he accepted the professorship of theology 
at Kalamazoo college. Mich. He bequeathed his 
library to Franklin college. Dr. Bailey published 
sermons, addresses, and reviews. 

BAILEY, Theodorus, senator, b. in Dutchess 
CO., N. Y., 12 Oct., 1758; d. in New York city, 6 
Sept., 1828. He was a representative in congress 
from New York from 1793 to 1797, and from 1799 
to 1803. In 1803 he was chosen a senator from 
New Y^ork, but resigned in the following year and 
accepted the postmastership of New York city, 
whicii office he held until his death. — His nephew, 
Tlieodorus, naval officer (b. in Chateaugay, N. Y., 
12 April, 1805; d. in Washington, D. C, 10 Feb., 
1877), was appointed a midshipman from New 
York, 1 Jan., 1818, and received his commission as 
lieutenant 3 March, 1827. His first cruise was on 
board the " Cyane," Capt. Trenchard, which cap- 
tured several slavers on the coast of Africa in 
1820-'l. He then made a three years' cruise in 
tlie Pacific on the " Franklin." ' In 1833-'6 he 
sailed on a cruise round the world on board the 
" Vincennes." After serving on the frigate " Con- 
stellation," in which he again sailed round the 
-world, he was placed in command of the store- 
ship " Lexington " in 1846, in which, on the break- 
ing out of the Mexican war, he conveyed to Cali- 
fornia, by way ot Cape Horn, an artillery company 
and several officers who afterward became famous, 
including Henrv W. Halleck, William T. Sherman, 
and E. O. C. Orel. Lieut. Bailey rendered efficient 




J^^jL^Trc^Sl^aAXJiA^ y 

aid to the Pacific squadron by fitting out and lead- 
ing numerous expeditions. He made use of iiis 
vessel, an old razee, as an armed cruiser, and, after 
landing the troops at Monterey, blockaded and 
captured San Bias, and was actively employed 
with the land forces in the conquest of California. 
He was commissioned as commander 6 March, 
1849, and as captain 15 Dec, 1855. On 6 Sept., 
1853, he was assigned to the command of the " St. 
Mary's," of the Pacific squadron, and cruised for 

three years. Ar- 
I'iving oppor- 
tunely at Pana- 
ma during the 
riots, he took 
steps to sup- 
press them that 
were success- 
ful and satis- 
factory alike 
to the citizens 
and the gov- 
ernment. On 
the same cruise 
he was instru- 
mental in re-