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Vou VII 


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IVIicrosoft Corporation 

■.Appleton &,CO(np<jry, 






As H IS the commefulation of a good huntsman to find game in a wide wood, 
!« It is no imputation if he hath not caught alL Plato 

Volume VII 









Copyright, 1900, 

bt i>. appleton and company. 



In this volame will be found nearly two thousand notices of Americans of the 
army and navy who won renown in the recent war with Spain and the Philippine 
Islands, also of persons of the New World who have in various ways become 
prominent in the peaceful activities of life durinjf the decade that has jwissed since 
the first ap[>earunce of " Appletons' Cyclopoediii of Ameri<*an Biography," in six 
octavo volumes. In this new volume is included complete lists of Pen-names, 
Nicknames, and Sobriquets mentioned in the complete work ; also of persons who 
have <liefl since the publication of the original six volumes in 1887-'8, together 
with lij<ts «>f the signers of the Declanition of Independence, of the Presidents of 
the Continental Congress and of the Congress of the Confederation, 177;)-'S8, 
and of the Presidents of the United States, Vice-Presidents, and Cabinet officers 
from the adoption of the Constitution to the year 1900. This additional volume 
includes an exhaustive Index, and numerous small |K)rtraits, e.xecutetl by the same 
^kilful artist who, through his fifteen hundrc<l admirable vignettes, added so much 
to the value of the original work, together with twelve full-page steel portraits 
and other illustrations. 

New You, December, IS99. 






Dbwkt, Okouk 




Bkrhkb, IIkskv Wabo 



Face 13 

Booth, Eowi.i 




Brooks, Pbilups 








Dui, PoBKimo 








Uabeuos, Besjamisi 




HoLMca, OuTEK Wesoei.i. 




IIvoBE*, John 








McKiXLEY, William 




Apxibil Dewey's Plao-«bip "Oltkpia" 


The Libbabt or Coxobbm, WABHutoTOii 

. 222 

Trb Ukited States Battle-sbip ■* 

Oreoox " 

. 238 

Ukited States Natal AcADsiir, A 

HSAPOLU, Maryland 


. 277 

DErTED States Miutabt Academy 

We« Pourr o» TBE 


. 388 



Adams, Charles Kendall, 
Agassiz, Alexander, 

Auibur anil Pn^frattor. 

Allan, CoL William, 

Aldo-de-c'UDp to " .StuocmiU " JaclcMO. 

Allibone, B. Austin, 

Author " Ulctiunary of AoUion." 

Amory, Thomas 0., 

ADLhor " UU at 0«Mnl SalllTta." ale. 

Bancroft, Oeorg*, 

Author " IlUtorr of the t'olted 8Ut«." 

Barrett, lAwrenoe, 

Author " Life of £d«in Furmt.** 

Bayard, Thomas F., 

Lata SrcretMrj of Sutc 

Bigelow, /ohn. 

Author " Life of PnakUn," etc 

Boker, Oeorge H., 

Poet. Ulc U. 8. Minliler lo Baais. 

Botta, Kra. Vincenzo, 

Author an<] I'oet. 

Bradley, Joseph P., 

I Air Junlire I'. 8. Sapmae Coarl 

Brooks, Phillips, 

Uie p. K. BUbop Of Ml— rhniifW. 

Carter, Praaklia, 

PiMldcnl of WllllsB* Collide. 

Chadwiok, Pranch B., V. 8. V., 

Captain Fl«( (hip " New York." 

Champlln, John Denison, 

Kdilor "Cyclopedia uf Palnten awl t*aiiiliiiKa " 

Chandler, William X., 

r. 8. Senator fmn New Hampahlrt. 

Clarke, James Prvanaa, 

Aulhur " Ten lircat Ball(ioa*,'* ale. 

Conway, Monoare D., 

Mltrellaneoo* Writer. 

Cooper, Kiss Susan Fenimore, 

Author ■' Rural U-jun," etc. 

Copi>to, Henry, 

I ji<- I'rwiilfiit of lyrblgh I'nlTeraltjr. 

Courtenay, William A., 

Kx Mavor of Charl.-«ton. S. C. 

Coze, Arthur Cleveland, 

Utr P. E Ill.hoi. of \Vr.ti-ni Raw Toft 

Cullum, Oen. Oeorge W., 

Author " Rrciatrr of Weat Point Uradnalea," etr 

Curry, Dr. Daniel, 

Author anfl K'litor. 

Curtis, Oeorge Ticknor, 

Author " Life of Jamea Burhaium," etc. 

Curtis, Oeorge William, 

Author and Kditor. 

Custer, Mrs. Elizabeth B., 

Author " B-x>u and Saddle*. " 

Daniel, John W., 

U. 8. Seiuitor from Vlriliiis. 

De Costa, Benjamin P., 

Illatoncal Writrr. 

Didier, Eugene L., 

Author " Life uf Edgar Allan Poa." 

Dix, Korgan, 

Rector of Trinltjr Church, New Toik. 

Doana, William C, 

P. K-BUtoporAlbany. 

Drake, Samuel Adams, 

Author " Illatoric Petaoaagaa of Boatoo," ale. 

Draper, Lyman C, 

Late SecreUrjr of WiM-onaIn Hbtorical SocMr. 

Dnpont, CoL Henry A., 

or Uelawaic, late V. 3. Armjr. 

Eggleston, Oeorge Cary, 

Author and Editor. 

Fiske, John, 

Author and Prnfeaaor. 

Prothingham, Octavius B., 

Author " Life of rjeorse Riplejr." 

OayarrA, Charles B. A., 

Author " Bialory of LottlaiauL" 

Oilman, Daniel 0., 

Prv-aidml of Johiia UopUna I'niirenltj. 

Ooodwin, Daniel, 

Member of llllnoia Bar. 

Oreely, Oen. Adolphus W., 

Author "ThTM Yeara of Arctic Serrlca.'* 
Oreen, William Mercer, 

Late ■■ K Ili^Lop of MlaaiaalppL 

Orsane, Oen. Francis Vinton, 

Late 1°. 8. Vulunlit-re. 

Hale, Edward Everett, 

Author " Franklin In Fiance," ale. 

Hay, CoL John, 

tk'cretary of Slate. 

Henry, William Wirt, 

Of the Virciiila Ilintoriral Socletjr. 

Higginson, Col. T. W., 

Author " llintor; of the I'Dlted Slatea," etc 

Hilliard. Henry W., 

Ijitc r. 8. Mlnliitrr to Drazit 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 

Author and Poet. 

Howe, Mrs. Julia Ward, 

Author " Later Ljrrlca," etc. 



Huntingdon, William R., 

Rector of Gnict: tlhiircli, New York. 

Jay, John, 

Late U. S. Minister to Austria. 

Johnson, Gen. Bradley T., 

Membor of Manlaud Bar. 

Johnson, Rossiter, 

Author •' History of tlu" War of 1812," etc. 

Johnston, William Preston, 

Late President of Tulaiie I'uiversity. 

Jones, Horatio Gates, 

Late of Pennsylvania Historical Society. 

Jones, John William, 

Si-cretary of Southern Historical Socic-ly. 

Jones, William Alfred, 

Author "Character and Criticism," etc. 

Lathrop, George Parsons, 

Author " A Study of Uawtliorne," etc. 

Latrobe, John H. B., 

Late Member of Maryland liar. 

Lincoln, Robert T., 

Ex -Secretary of War. 
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 

V. S. Senator from Massaehusettfl. 

Long, Col. Charles Chaille, 

Late of the Egyptian Army. 
Lowell, James Russell, 

Late U. S. Minister at Court of St. James, 

Lydenberg, Henry M., 

Of the Aster Library, New York. 

Mathews, William, 

Author " Orators and Oratoiy," etc. 

McHaster, John Bach, 

Autlior " History of the People of the United States." 

Mitchell, Donald G., 

Author "Reveries of a Bachelor," etc. 

Morgan, Henry James, 

Member of the Canadian Bur. 

Norton, Charles Eliot, 

Professor in Harvard University. 

O'Neal, Edward A., 

Late (iovernor of Alabama. 

Paltsits, Victor H., 

Of the Lenox Library, New Y'ork. 
Parker, Cortlandt, 

Member of New Jersey Bar. 

Parkman, Francis, 

Author " Frontenac," " French in Canada," etc. 

Parton, James, 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Phelps, William Walter, 

Late Member of Congress from New .Jersey. 
Pierrepont, Edwards, 

Ijitc Attorney-Ceneral United States. 

Porter, David D., 

Late Admiral U. S. Navy. 

Potter, Henry Codman, 

I'. E. Bishop of New York. 

Preston, Mrs. Margaret J., 

Author and Poi-t. 

Puron, Dr. Juan G., 

Si»anish Author and Editor. 

Read, Gen. J. Meredith, 

Lale V. S. Minister to Greece. 

Reid, Whitelaw, 

Erlitor New York " Tribune." 

Romero, Mattias, 

Late Mexican Minister to the TTuited States. 

Russell, William Eustis, 

Late Governor of Massachusetts. 

Sanborn, Miss Kate, 

Miscellaneous Writer. 

Schurz, Gen. Carl, 

Ex-Seeretary of the Interior. 

Sherman, William T., 

Late General of U. S. Army. 

Smith, Charles Emory, 

Editor Philadelidiia " Press." 

Stedman, Edmtind C, 

Author " Poets of America," etc. 

Stewart, George, 

Late President Quebec Historical Society. 
StUes, Dr. Henry R., 

Author "History of Brooklyn, N. Y'." 

Stoddard, Richard Henry, 

Author " Songs of Summer," etc. 

Stone, William L., 

Author "Life of Red Jacket," etc. 

Strong, William, 

Late Justice U. S. Supreme Court. 

Stryker, Gen. William S., 

President New Jersey Historical Society. 

Tucker, J. Randolph, 

Late Member of Congress from Virgiuia. 
TXpson, Anson Judd, 

Chancellor of New Y'ork State University. 

Waite, Morrison R., 

Late Chief Justice U. S. Supreme Court. 

Warner, Charles Dudley, 

Author and Editor. 

Washbume, Elihu B., 

Late I'. S. Minister to Frnuce. 

Welling, James C, 

Late President of Columbian Uni\ersily. 

Whittier, John Greenleaf, 

.\nthor and Poet. 

Wilssn, Gen. Jas. Grant, 

President Genealogical and Biographical Society. 
Winter, William, 

Poet and Theatrical Critic. 

Winthrop, Robert C, 

Late U. S. Senator from Massachusetts. 
Wright, Gen. Marcus J., 

Author " Life of General Scott." etc. 

Young, John Russell, 

Miscellaneous Writer. 



A nBKTT, Lwm, jurist, b. in Philadplphia. Pa., ' 
8 ' .). in JenK-T Cily. N. J.. 4 Ih-c.. t«M. 

II' >w, ami <u>tt|n| in Pliilatli'lpliin, l>iit 

siii ■■ ''.'rk fity and en- 

tor. ; nn J. A. Fuller. 

II. -';•• ' -"-I ■■■ 

til .n- in IW. 

bi'i „ III- was . ' 

l)pmixT»tic state convent iun in 1S«h, |ire>i<lenl of 

the state iNianI of e<Ju('alion in XHOO, a nicnilicr of 

the jitate wnate in 18T.V7, and pretiident of the 

senate in 1HT7. lie was pjvernor of New Jeritey 


and wa.H eliainnan of the 
nntional DenuMTHtic coii- 

,.t tssit uii.l 111 i'.<^'<~*lMie 
I wert> 

'IIM of 
r the 
li, l^!':i. i'riiicjtlun con- 
of ]A.. I). 

• - l». in Chicago, 111., in 

I'tah. 5 Jan.. INUI. 

-ion by her father, a 

Her tir>l enintKement wa» 

Ill's ehurcli, N'ew York, the 

;t »l>i. Ii prejienteil her with a |>iirM> 

ith whit'h to riiinplete her muxii-al 

'■ ' 'T' ' ■ iliniail 

. I ance 

. „. ,'...._ ...nt." 

Ith her sf<<>ii<l lnll^ i her 

inliroken. a|i|M-arin}; < .wded 

hoiix-?! Ill Kiiro|>e an<l America up to tin- lime of 
her fatal illiiP!«i. She ."iirrivt^l her hu!<l>nni|, VaI- 
win Wetherell, two yi'ars, leaviin; a larue e>tate, 
which wn.<< nearly eri'iily ilivided between her fmn- 
ilr and various charilirs. 

AitBOTT. JoHiah (tarilnpr. lawver, b. in 
flielni-f.ird, .Miis.'i., 1 Nov.. isi.j; d. in W.H.-ln 
illlU. .Mass., 3 June. 1K91. He wa.s |.r r 

••■illcifc by Kalph Waldo Kmenum, wa« i 

at Harvard in XXfi, and admitted to llie bur iii 
IKt.'!. Mr. .\l.lxitt .ferved in the legislature in 
1"" ■ '~ ' '..r in IH4I. and frmii 

1-' j.itc-iit-lftrjre to every 

ii:i- ■■ ;iiin. lie " ■■- ■■ '■■'■■■■ 

(if the suiHTior ciiiirt of Suffolk coiinl 
IM-Vi-'M: removed to Ifo^ilon, where he r< 
profession, and in lM74wasa I)einocralic caiidnlaie 
for congress. After succeswfully contesting the 
election of his opponent, he served from 38 July, 
vou vu.— I 

the Irmler-i of I In 
New Jer««-y. II.. 

sill ' 


IS-'iO: d. in 

She U»K I. 'I 


c. ■ 


1876, till 3 March. 1877, but declined renominatioti, 
and resumed practice. In 1870 he was a meinlwr 
of the elei'toral conimi8!<ion. In 1H7.5 and 1877 
Judge .MilHitt wa.s the unsuc«'ssful Deuux-ratic 
candiilate for the V. S. seiiale. and in 1878 wb.s the 

ii.inte for giivernor of .Mnss»cliu.sett.s. W'ill- 

■■ liiiii the ilegree of 1,1,. 1). in iNtW. 
VIII. I, l„ Arimah Shppardiutii, journulist, b. 
in l-:a.'<t I'nnidence, K. 1., 10 Aug., 1806; d. in 
Halliniore, Md., 10 April, 1888. lie a<lopted the 
prii le in early youth, iKH'ame foreman of 

a I lisliment in Itoston, and in 18<'<A re- 

ni<i>..i I.I I'liilailelphia, I'a.. where he was a found- 
er and proprietor <if Ihe " Public I>eilger." hiscon- 
iie<'tion with that |iiii..r imiPiiiuing till lSfi4, when 
he sold his inter. rge W. C'hilds. Mr, 

AIh-11 licgan the i ii of the Haltimore 

".Sun "on 17 May. 1N17. continuing its wile frro- 
iirielor until Ihe year liefore his death. The pub- 
liei. lie " Sun " was e«: ' iust bi-fore 

til. on of the clectr li. and .Mr. 

A I 

i>.^ i.. isonallv as.sorial< 

II .^iiiiiiiel K. B. 
Morse in it.s promotion. The "Sun" publishwl 
the first message st-nt over the wires In-lween 
Washington and Italtimore, and also the flrst 
presidential iiiessnjrp ,.x-pr re<'eive<l in that wav. 

ABKKBKKN. Sir John ('Hnipbell liMinllton 
(fonlon. seviiith carl of, goverimr-general of Can- 
ada, b. in h',din- 
burgh. .Scotland, 
3 \u., IK47. 

II. ..-d 

at < ' lire 

he re«MVCTl his 
B. A. in 1871, 
and an M. A. in 
1877. While at 

■' vfrsity he 

• 1 to'lhe 
1 seventh 
earl, owing to 
the death of his 
eldest brother, ' 
whose career as 
a M'Uiiiaii before 
till' mast is well 
L...,. ,, Thenn- 



mull was stTvtng ^^^^^ 

on the American ship " Hero," on a voyage from 
Boston to Melbourne, when he was accidentally 




washed overboard and drowned, in January, 1870. 
Their grandfather, the fourth earl of Aberdeen, 
was an eminent statesman, long associated with 
Sir Robert Peel, and prime-minister in 1853. 
Lord Aberdeen entered the house of commons as 
a Conservative, but, disagreeing with Disraeli's 
government on a question of policy, has since be- 
come identified with the Liberal party. For many 
years he held the office of high commissioner of 
the Church of Scotland ; but it was as lord lieuten- 
ant of Ireland, during Gladstone's previous gov- 
ernment of Great Britain, that lie became so well 
known. The earl has been ably seconded in his 
political career as well as in his various philan- 
thropic and religious efforts by his energetic wife, 
Isabel Maria, youngest daugliter of Dudley Coutts 
Marjoribanks," first Lord Tweedniouth, to wliom 
he was married in 1877. They have resided in 
Canada, where the earl owns large tracts of land. 
He was appointed governor-general, 3 .lune, 1893, 
soon after the death of the earl of Derby, who, 
being childless, was succeeded in the title and es- 
tates by his younger brother. Lord Stanley, of 
Preston, late governor-general, who, however, did 
not surrender the office to his successor until tlie 
middle of July. In 1897 Lord Aberdeen received 
the degree of LL. D. from Princeton university. 

ACAXITLI, Francisco de Sandoval (ah-cash- 
e'et-lee), Mexican historian; lived in the 16th cen- 
tury. He was an Aztec warrior and cacique of the 
town of Tlalmanalco, but submitted to the Span- 
iards ; was baptized and appointed captain of the 
native auxiliary forces that accompanied the ex- 
pedition against the wild Chichimec Indians in 
1540. On his return he wrote " Relacion de la 
Jornada que hizo el virey, Don Antonio de Men- 
doza, a tierra de los Chichimecos de Xuchipila," 
the manuscript of which existed in the archives of 
the Franciscan province of Slexico, and is now in 
the National library. It was published by Joaquin 
Garcia Icazbalceta in the second volume of his 
" Coleecion de Documentos " (Mexico, 1858-'66). 

ACTON, Thomas Coxon, banker, b. in New 
York city, 33 Feb., 1823 ; d. in Saybrook, Conn., 1 
May, 1898. He was educated in his native city, 
was clerk for three years, and then was in the sur- 
rogate's office, afterward deputy register for six 
years, in 18()0 became commissioner of the New 
York metropolitan police, and two years later was 
president of that board, where he remained for 
seven years, in which office he did good service in 
suppressing the draft riots. In 1870 he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of the U. S. assay office, 
which post he held for twelve years. He became 
U. S. assistant treasurer at New York in 1882, and 
in 1887 president of the bank of New Amsterdam 
in that city. In 1894 Mr. Acton resigned, but he 
remained a director of the bank. 

ADAMS, Charles Coffin, clergyman, b. in 
Newburyport, Mass.. 25 Aug., 1810; d. in New 
York city, 24 Feb., 1888. He was educated in his 
native town, ordained to the ministry of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal church, and was rector of par- 
ishes in Florida and in Baltimore, and from 1862 
until his death was in charge of St. Mary's parish. 
Manhattanville, N. Y. He was a successful pas- 
tor and a popular writer. His publications in- 
clude many pamphlets and magazine articles and 
" Ijife of our Lord Jesus Christ " (New York, 
1878) ; " Creation, a Recent Work of God " (1881) ; 
and "The Hible a Scientific Study" (1883). He 
also edited a book of '• poems " by " Astarte " (1865), 
and "Journal of the Life and Labors of John J. 
Audubon," which was published in London, but 
for some reason not issued in this country. 

ADAMS, David, soldier, b. in Waxaw, S. C, 28 
Jan., 1706; d. in Jasper county, Ga.. 17 May, 1847. 
He served in the lievolutionary army during the 
latter part of the war, subsequently removed to 
Georgia, and settled in Jasper county, where he 
engaged in Indian warfare as a scout, and was 
major of militia for ten years. He afterward be- 
came brigadier-general and major-general of mi- 
litia, and during the Creek war in 1813 served 
under Gen. John Lloyd, commanding an expedi- 
tion against the towns on the Talla[>oosa river, 
and defeating a greatly superior Indian force. He 
subsequently held various appointments under the 
state government, was a commissioner on the part 
of Georgia when the lands lying between the Oc- 
mulgee and Flint rivers were obtained, ser%'ed 
twenty-five years in the legislature, and was fre- 
quently speaker of the house. 

ADAMS, Joseph Alexander, wood-engraver, 
b. in Morristown, X. J., 24 June, 1803 ; d. in Eu- 
rope in 1875. He received a common-school edu- 
cation, adopted the profession of wood-engraving, 
and although he was self-taught became an ex- 
pert in that art. He was one of the earliest ama- 
teur experimenters in eleetrotyping, and was suc- 
cessful in its use in duplicating his work on hard 
metal. He became an associate of the National 
academy in 1833, and illustrated several valuable 
books. The most imjiortant of his works was his 
engraving of John G. Chapman's designs in Har- 
per's illustrated Bible. He accompanied Mr. Chap- 
man to Europe in 1848, remaining abroad : his later 
life being passed in retirement, and it is probable 
that his death occurred in Italy, where lie spent 
many years. See Woodbury's " Noted Engravers." 

ADLER, Cyrus, librarian, b. in Van Buren, Ark., 
13 Sept., 1863. He was graduated at the University 
of Pennsylvania in 1883 and then entered Johns 
Hopkins, where he was successively a fellow, in- 
structor, and associate in Semitic languages, receiv- 
ing in 1887 the degree of Ph. D. in course. In 1888 
he became honorary assistant curator of oriental 
antiquities in the National museum and arranged 
the collections there. Since 1895 he has l>een cus- 
todian of the collection of oriental antiquities and 
religious ceremonials, which department was de- 
veloped by him, and in 1893 he was made librarian 
of the Smithsonian institution. Besides his regular 
reports as curator and librarian. Dr. Adler has con- 
tributed " Progress of Oriental Science in America 
during 1888 " and " The Shofar, its Use and Origin " 
to the Smithsonian publications. He has also con- 
tributed numerous papers to the proceedings of 
the American oriental society, the American philo- 
logical society, and the Jewish historical society. 

AtrNEW, David Hayes, surgeon, b. in Ijancas- 
ter county. Pa., 24 Nov., 1818; d. in Philadelphia, 
22 March, 1893. His education was received at two 
colleges. He was graduated in medicine at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1838, and began to 
practise in Chester county, but removed to Phila- 
delphia and became a lecturer in the School of 
anatomy, also establishing the Philadelphia school 
of operative surgery. In 18.54 he was elected one 
of the surgeons of the Philadelphia hospital, where 
he founded a pathological museum, and was also 
surgeon to the Pennsylvania hospital. In 1863 he 
was appointed demonstrator of anatomy and assist- 
ant lecturer on clinical surgery in the medical de- 
partment of the University of Pennsylvania, in 
1870 he was chosen to the chair of clinical surgery, 
and in 1871 he became [irofessor of the principles 
and practice of surgery there, and of clinical sur- 
gery in the University hospital. For several years 
he was one of the surgeons at Wills ophthalmic 



hospital, and also one of the surgeons to the ortho- 
pedic surgery. He attained wide reputation as a 
surgeon, and was a rapid and sliilful oiierator in 

every department. 
In his capai^ity of 
efficient .surgeon as 
well as of oonsult- 
ing physician, he 
had many cases of 
great public and 
scientific impor- 
tance, the oest 
known being that 
of Presiilent Gar- 
field. He made 
many valuable con- 
tributions to the 
literature of his 
profession, among 
which are works on 
" Practical Anat- 
omy " (Philadel- 
phia, 1867) and 
'• La<-frations of t he 
Female Perina-um and Vcsico-vagiiial Fistula" 
(1867), a series of sixty pafHTs on •' .Aiiiitoniy and 
its Kelation to .Medii'ine uiiil .Surgery" : and an ex- 
haustive work on the •' Principles mid Practice of 
Surgery "(3 vols.. 1MT8), which has been translated 
into the Ja|>anese language, and was his chief work. 
AWNl'S, Kflix. solijier, b. in Lyons. Franc-e, 4 
July. ixnt. lie »a< eiliicateU at College Jolie Hair, 
near Paris, and in \K>i set out on a voyage around 
the world. sj>eniling four years in that manner. 
In 1860 he came til the L'ni'ted States, and at the 
beginning of the civil war enli.sted in Duryea's.'ilh 
New York zouaves. At the battle of Big Itethel 
he saved the life of Gen. Judsim Kil|>atrick, and 
was promoted to 2«l lieutenant. He aide<l in rais- 
ing the IBSth New York volunteers, in whic^h he 
was given the color com[>any. In the autumn of 
1862 his regiment was s»'nt to liouisiana. and he 
took part in the siege of Port Ilud.s<iii. where he 
was primiotetl major and for a time ha<l command 
of his regiment. Sulist-ipiently he served in Texa-s, 
and, after attaining the rank of lieutenant-colonel, 
was onJered to the U»th corjMi. and s«'rve<l under 
Oen. Philip II. Sheridan, taking rutrt in the battles 
of (Joerpiam, Fisher's Hill. Winchester, and Cedar 
Cre<>K. His last service was in the de|>artment 
of the South, where he was commissioned to dis- 
mantle the old Confederate forlsin S>utli Carolina, 
Georgia, and Florida, and turn all the i>ro[H'rty over 
to the U.S. government. He received the brevet of 
brigadier-general of volunteers on 13 March, IHftH, 
and was mustere<l out of service on 22 Aug., IXtVi. 
On resuming civil life he was given charge of the 
business department of the Baltimore "Ameri- 
can." and he lia.s sin<-e Ijeoome its publisher. 

AUL'AUO, Pedro (ah-goo-'ah-Uo). Spanish his- 
torian, b. in Valdemoro; d. in Yucatan alniut the 
enil of the 161 h century. Ho entere<l the Fran- 
ciscan ooler in the province of Tohnlo, ami after 
passing many years in the missions of South 
Anu-rica was elected jirovincial of Yucatan. He 
wrote " Historin ilel Nuevo Ueino de (iraniula en 
10 libros," a manuscriiit in two volumes, which 
probably may l>e found in the archives of the In- 
«jie8. It was mentioned and extensivciv used by 
Father Pedro Simim in his"Noticia8 Ilistorialc^ 
de Tierrafirme" (Cuenca. 1627). 

AGIJINALDO Y FAMY. Kmilin, s.Mdier. b. in 
the Philippine islamls in Wi'i. He was educated 
at a private college under the dire<'tion of Dr. 
Cipriano Oourzalez. a Filipino. He then engaged 

in agriculture. _ In 1896 he became mayor of the 
town of Cavite. He first became prominent in 
the rebellion that broke out in 1896, the result of 
a conspiracy that had been in preparation for 
seven years in the Catipunan, the niner circle cre- 
ated for i>olitical purpfwes by the natives in the 
Masonic lodges into which the Spaniards had ini- 
tiated them. The outbreak came in August, 1896. 
After fierce fighting in the later months of the 
year, in January, 1897. Aguinaldo advanced from 
Cavite into the province of Manila with about 
8.000 troops, intending to carry the rebellion into 
sections tnat had not yet risen, and also to join 
forces with the insurgent general, Dimaluga. He 
was unsuccessful, however: the Sfianish cleared 
the province by the middle of January, and forced 
Aguinaldo back into Cavity again. The Spanianls, 
(m I heir part, were not able to carry successfully 
the campaign into the rebel strongholds, and the 
rebellion daily assumed more formidable pn)por- 
tions. The canii>aign was carried on with varying 
fortunes until the rainy seastm. when operations 
practically came to an end. When hostilities re- 
0|K-ncd in August, Aguinaldo had a force of aitout 
4,0(K) men, and the other chiefs had forces ranging 
from 3,000 to smaller bands. He adopted the plan 
of exhausting the resources of the S|ianiards rather 
than daring pitched Uittles. Under orders from 
Sagasta at Madrid, a more energetic policy was 
adopted by the S{>aiiiard.s, so that toward the end 
of November Aguinaldo enterwi into negotiations 
for surrender. After some discussion, he onlered 
his [>eople to a8.senilile on 2.5 l>ec.. 1897, and lay 
down their arms. Before this date he and Lla- 
nera had been conveyed to Hong-Kong. When 
war became imminent between .Spain and the 
United States in the winter and spnng of 1898 he 
returned to the islands, the insurrection breaking 
out once more. After the ilefeat of the Spanish 
fli"et in the harlmr of Manila by .Admiral Dewey, 
on 1 May, 1898, the in.surgents l>ecame more active, 
and surrounde^l Manila itself. Fairly in June it 
was announced that .Vguinaldo had Issued a proc- 
lamation indicating his intention to set up a na- 
tive a<lministration under American protection. 
He issued a decree for inde|iendeiice on 12 June. 
1898. and on 13 July following the Philippine 
republic was pn>claime<l. with Aguinaldo as presi- 
dent of the council ; Baldimiro Aguinaldo. his 
nephew, secretary of war; heundro Ibaira. secre- 
tary of the interior; and Mariano Trias, seeretary 
of state. They took their oath of office on 17 July. 
On ;10 Aug. he askeil the powers to recognize the 
republic. Aguinaldo called an assembly of the 
Filipinos, which met at Maloles on 1.5 Sept.. and 
ralined on ;J0 Sept. the declaration of inde|>end- 
ence, to which there is much op|K)sition. 

Tension lielween the .American forces and the 
Filipinos grew more .strained as the year advanced. 
In Dwenilier (ien. Otis, who had succeeded in 
commaiKl after Gen. Merritt hail been called to 
advise the American iwace commissioners at Paris, 
was orilered by the W ashington authorities to take 
Iloilo; he sent (Jen. Caqn-nter upon the errand at 
once. i)ut before the latter arrived the Filipinos 
had driven out the Spanish garrison, and were in 
jKjssession. In January. IKiM). .Aguinaldo put forth 
a proclamation protesting against the American 
occupation and tne.\nierican pretensions to sover- 
eignty, denouncing the course of President Mc- 
Kinley, and calling upon the Filipinos to continue 
their struggle for liljerty and independence. Dur- 
ing the month the rebels concentrated about 
Manila. On the night of 4 Feb. the long-expected 
conflict licgan; after fourteen hours of continuous 



flgliting, in wliioh two vessels of Dewey's fleet took 
part, the Filipinos were driven back at all points 
with heavv loss. On 8 Feb. Aguinaldo asked for 
a truce, which was of course not granted. The 
campaign went on vigorously, the insurgents being 
driven back steadily, maintaining a guerrilla war- 
fare. Late in the month Aguinaldo issued another 
manifesto lamenting the outbreak of hostilities, 
defending the course of the insurgents, and alleg- 
ing that the people would "perish rather than 
accept the odious American dominion." Caloocan 
had been captured on 10 Feb., Pasig fell on 13 March, 
and Malolos, the capital of the insurgents, on 31 
March. Two officers were sent to confer with 
Gen. Otis concerning peace on 28 April : uncon- 
ditional surrender was the only terms offered, and 
they returned to their lines without success. 
Fighting was renewed, and carried on vigorously. 
The Filipinos made a brave but fruitless resist- 
ance, for a struggle against the overwhelming re- 
sources of the American republic could have but 
one outcome. In August Aguinaldo issued another 
address, appealing to the European powers for 
recognition of Filipino independence, to which no 
attention was paid, and also called a meeting of 
the revolutionary congress at Tarlac. 

AHUMADA, Miguel, Mexican governor, b. in 
Colima in May, 1844. He abandoned his studies in 
the schools of Guadalajara to take part in the war 
named " La Reforma," and after that fought cour- 
ageously against the invading French and attained 
the rank of colonel. When the republican army 
triumphed Mr. Ahumada went to Colima, and was 
elected a member of the state legislature. In 1869 
he took part in the camimign of Tamaulipas under 
Gen. Diaz, and later filled several important posts. 
While living in the state of Chihuahua he was 
elected governor, and at present fills this place. 
Wishing to introduce in Chihuahua all possible 
improvements besides those already planned. Gov- 
ernor Ahumada visited the United States, where 
he was very hosfutably received. 

AINSWORTH, Frederick Crayton, soldier, b. 
in Woodstock, Vt., 11 Sept., 1853 ; appointed assist- 
ant surgeon, U. S. army, 10 Nov., 1874 ; promoted 
surgeon, 27 Feb., 1891 ; appointed colonel and chief 
of the record and pension office, 27 May, 1893. He 
enjoys the distinction of being the only officer of 
the army promoted from the rank of major to 
colonel by the direct action of congress. From 
1876 to 1886 there was a large arrearage of work 
in the office of the surgeon-general, and congress 
was regularly appealed to for more clerks, as there 
were over 9,000 cases in arrears. Col. Ainsworth 
cleared up all this arrearage, and instituted such 
a .sy.stem that since that time all calls for medical 
histories of soldiers have been answered without 
delay. The hospital records of all soldiers of the 
volunteer armies are now contained on nearly 
7,000,000 index record-cards, which are filed in the 
war department, and so convenient to reach that 
20 clerks do nuich more work now than the 380 
clerks formerly did. A like condition existed in 
the adjutant-general's office until the 400,000 vol- 
unteer muster-rolls and 100,000 record-books of 
that department were transferred to the record 
and pension office. In 1899 he was made briga- 
dier-general, and |)laced in charge of the publica- 
tion of the " Official War Records." 

ALBERT, Aristides E. P., clergyman, b. in 
St. Charles parish. La., in 1853. He is of French- 
Negro extraction, and was educated as a Roman 
Catholic, but at thirteen years of age was con- 
verted to Protestantism 'in New Orleans. He 
studied at Clark university, and was graduated in 

theology at Straight university, New Orleans; 
was licensed to preach in 1868, became a member 
of the Lfiuisiana conference in 1878, and after- 
ward was pastor at Houma and New Orleans, and 
presiding elder of La Teche di-strict for four years. 
He has been a member of several Methodist con- 
ferences, and from 1881 till 1884 was assistant 
editor of the " .Southwestern Christian Advocate," 
succeeding to the editorsliip in September, 1887. 
He was the orator of the colored people of Louisi- 
ana at the Worhi's exposition at New Orleans in 
1885, and soon afterward received the degree of 
D. D. from Straight university. 

ALBRIGHT, Andrew, inventor, b. in Drydcn, 
N. Y., 23 June. 1831. He was brought up in the 
country, received a district-school education, and 
remained a farmer until 1866. In 1867 he went to 
New Brunswick, N. J., and began experimenting 
at the factory of the Novelty rubber company, in 
that city. After many months of opposili<jn and 
hard work, he obtained a patent for hard-rubber 
coated harness and carriage mountings. He .soon 
established a plant for the manufacture of these 
goods, which have had a rapid sale not onlv in the 
United States, but also in England, Australia, and 
the South American states. 

ALDEX, Isabella Macdnnald, author, b. in 
Rochester, N. V.. 3 Nov., 1841. After completing 
her education. Miss Macdonald married, in 1866, 
the Rev. Dr. O. R. Alden. author of many Sunday- 
school books and "'The Prince of Peace," a popu- 
lar life of Christ. Mrs. Alden has written numer- 
ous juvenile books under the pen-name of " Pansy." 
and edited a iieriotlical with that title from 1873 
to 1896. For several years she has been an edito- 
rial contributor to Boston, Cincinnati, and New 
York religious journals, and also to magazines. 

ALDEN, William Liviiigrstone, author, b. in 
Williamstown, Mass., 9 Oct., 1837. He was grad- 
uated at .Jefferson, studied law and practised at 
the New York bar for several years. In 1865 he 
entered upon a literarv career, writing leaders for 
the '■ World," "Times,'' and "Graphic " for twenty 
years, when he was appointed consul-general at 
Rome, where he remained from 1885-"9, receiving 
a year later decoration of the crown of Italy. Since 
then he has been a resident of London, continuing 
a literarv career, and contributing weekly letters 
to the " i^ew York Times." Mr. Allien is the au- 
thor of " Adventures of Jimmy Brown " (New 
York, 1885) ; " Loss of the Swansea " (Bo.ston, 
1889); "Told by the Colonel" (New York, 1893); 
" Among the Turks " (1895) ; and several juveniles. 
ALDRICH, Charles, journalist, b. in Ellington, 
Chautauqua Co., N. Y.. 2 Oct., 1828. He received 
a common-school education, and spent one year in 
Jamestown academy. In 1857 he went to Iowa 
and established the " Freeman " in Webster City. 
He served as chief clirk of the Iowa house of rep- 
resentatives in 1860-'2. 1866, and 1870. ami was a 
member of that body in 1883-'3. Mr. Aldrich is 
the author of many of the important laws of Iowa, 
including that changing the system of county gov- 
ernment from dictatorship of a single county judge 
to a board of supervisors, for the protection of 
birds, and for the preservation of the public dtx'u- 
ments of the state. He originated the agitation in 
the public press that resulted in the repeal in Iowa 
of the so-called granger laws for the regulation of 
the transportation on the railways and the adoption 
of acommission system. In 1882 he became wide- 
ly known through his efforts to secure legislation 
prohibiting the issue of railroad passes to public 
officers. His speeches and articles in the "North 
American Review" and elsewhere were circulated 



extensively in the United States and Europe. This 
agitation was largely instrumental in promoting 
the passage of the interstate commerce act. He 
presente<l to the state of Iowa, in 1884, his large 
and valuable collection of manu.scripts, (lortraits, 
and interestiiiK autosniph letters. 

ALKXAMtKK. James Waddell. president, b. 
in Princeton, X. J., 19 July, 1839. His father, 
whose name he Ix'ars, was a prominent Presbyte- 
rian clergyman, and the son was graduated from 
Princeton in 1860. He was a member of the New 
York bar until 1866, when he entered the Equita- 
ble life insurance society of the Unite<l Slates, with 
which he haslieen since connected, and on the death 
of Henry B. Hyde, 2 May, 1899. succeeiled to the 
office of president. Mr. .\lexandcr is presi- 
dent of the I'niversitv club, of the Princeton 
alumni club, and a director in the Mercantile 
trust comiiany. the Delaware and Hudson com|)any, 
and in other financial institutions. He is known 
as a public speaker, and is the author of " Prince- 
ton, Old and .N'cw ' (New York. 1898). 

ALEXANDER. Robert. mcm(>erof the Conti- 
nental congress, b. in Haltiiuore, Md.. about 1740; 
d. proliably in p^nglund after 1790. He was elect- 
ed a member of the jieople's committee, 13 Nov., 
1774, and of the provincial convention of Mary- 
land in 1775. and chosen a deputy to the Conti- 
nental congress, 9 Dec., 1775, i)eing re-elected, 4 
July, 1776. out noon aft«r the promulgation of the 
Dei'Ianitioii r' ■ ' ' - he .laiiol for England 

wit h othrr I '. -. Mr. A'eXBiider was 

afti'rwiinl u|.j 

ir Maryland luvaiists 

to pn-r^vnt and nr<>s<'<;iit(> their numerous claims 
befon' thf ltriti4i government. 

ALFARU, I'rndencio (al-far-o), vice-president 
of San Salvatlor. b. in (iuatemala about 1860. He 
studied in Atic|ui7.aya, and was admilte*! to the 
bar at San SalvwUir in 1884. The following year 
he was elected as a representative in the national 
assembly. Owing to |>olitical [x'PMK-ution he left 
San Salvador; returned afterwanl, taking u pnnn- 
inent part, in 1889, in the revolution that tormi- 
natcd the rule of tien. Ezeta. During that time he 
acti-il a.-* secretary to the provisional government. 
Under the [m'^idpncy <>t Scflor Zutiessez he was 
appointed ^. ".and soon afterward 

was fleeted ; Sun Salvador. 

M.FOVSK, i I'll. 11 iiii> luator, b. in Saintonge, 
II' , about 1.500. His real name was J KAN 

i'l.. . u common fninilv name in that li>cal- 

ity: Atfonse he took from tfio name of his wife, 
\ alentine .\lfonse, probably a I'ortiiguese. We 
know little of his younger years, but it is proljable 
that he followed the sea from an early agi-. We 
know that in l%nhema<le a vovage to Newfounil- 
lunil. Four years later he made pn'paratioiis for 
a voyage to (ruinea in the " MarU- dc Jard." from 
Uo<'helle. If he actually made this voyagi- it must 
have been extremely short, fur on 22 Aug., 1541, 
lie served as pilot to the two ships that HulM>rval 
trtok to Canaua from llonfleur on his expedition 
with Cartier. Alfonse sp<-nt a year and nine 
months in Canailn. returning to Kochelle by 25 
June, 1543. During the latter part of this year 
and the first part of l.'>44 he was engage<l on a 
work entitled " CoMiiographie universelle," in 
which heemtmdied the geographical experience of 
Ills many years at sea. In •lune, 1544, he fitted out 
an arme<l cruising ex|>edilion, and it was while 
upon this cruise that he was taken and killed by 
the Spanianls. Of Ills '• Cw*inographic " there 
seems Iti l)e little doubt now that the whole is his 
own work : the part taken in it by liaulin LeTail- 
lois. called Seealart, whose name is usually joined 

with Alfonse in connection with the work, seems 
to have been little more than changing a few pas- 
sages, enough to make pretension to a collabora- 
tion. Alfonse was also the inventor of the fore- 
top-gallant-mast, its vard,and its sail, the Spanish 
and Portuguese words for the mast, yi(a»»'/a and 
Joaiiete, probably coming from the name Jean, of 
the inventor. See " Bulletin de geographic histo- 
rique et desiTiptive." 1895. 

ALLEN. Charles Herbert, .statesman, b. in 
Lowell, Mass., 15 April, 1848. He studied in the 
common schools of his native town and at Am- 
herst college, where he was graduated in 1869. lie 
waselecte<l a member of the Lowell school commit- 
tee in 1874, and he served until 1881. In that year 
he was elected a member of the lower house of the 
Mas-sm-husctts legislature; he was re-elected in 1882. 
In 188;j he was elected state senator; he served 
for a year, and was apjiointed colonel on the staff 
of Gov. Robinson. He was then elected to the 
49th congress as a Republican, and was re-elected 
to the 50th congress, tieclining a renominution to 
the 51st congress, and in 1891 was the Republican 
candidate for governor of the state, but was de- 
feate«l by William E. Rus<iell. On the resigiuition 
of TheiMlore Roosevelt, assistant secretary of the 
navy, at the outbreak of war with Spain, he was 
appointo<l to the vacancv. 9 Slav, 1898. 

ALLEN. Edward I'lilrlek.'R. C. bishon, b. at 
I»well, Ma.<s., 17 March, I8.W. He attended the 
I^iwell CMinmercial college, and thence went to 
Mount St. Mary's college, Kmmettsburg. Md., 
and graduat(!d there in 1878. He made his theo- 
logical course there in the seminary, and was or- 
dained a priest in 1881 by Bishoii Becker. After 
filling a professor's chair in nis alma mater, 
Archiiishop Williams, of Boston, called him to 
assist in [mrochial work at his cathe<lral. After- 
ward he was assistant |iastor at .South Framing- 
ham. Three years after his ordination he was 
called to Mount .St. Mary's college, first as pro- 
fessor, then as vice-oresident, and subsecpiently as 
its president. The neavy indebtedness of the col- 
lege rendered his task a difficult one, but he had 
not only the courage to undertake it, but he suc- 
ceetle<l by his energy, labors, and business ability 
ill paying the debts of the in.stitiitlon. He also 
improved and enlarged the buildings of the col- 
lege, enlarged the cnaptd, and increa.scil the fac- 
ultv. Dr. Allen wius appointed bishop of Mobile, 
and was coiiMi-rated by Canlinal Gibbons at the 
cathedral of Baltimore in 1897. 

ALLEN, Sir John CampbeU, jurist, b. in Kin^ 
lear. New Brunswick, Oct., 1817; d. in Fredenc- 
ton. New Brunswick. 27 Sept., 1898. He was edu- 
cated at the grammar-school. Fre<lericton,and was 
admitted as an atlorncy-at-law in 1838. Two years 
later he became a liarrisler. and in 1845-'7 was 
aji|M)inted one of the commissioners for settling 
the claims to lands under the fourth article of the 
treaty of Washington, 1842. He was a member of 
the hous«' of as,sembly of New Brunswick. 1856- 
'65: solicitor-general, 1856-'7; sjwaker, 1863-'5; 
attorney-general. 1H0.5. Sir John was a consist- 
ent opi'xmeiit of the scheme of confederation of 
the maritime provinces and old Caniula, and in 
June of the lust-nameil year he was sent by the 
provincial government as a delegate to the British 
government to urge the objections of New Bruns- 
wick to the prop<ised union. In 1865 he retiretl 
from political life and accepte<l a judgeship in the 
supreme court. He became chief justice in 1875, 
and retired through ill-health in 1896. Allen's 
" Law Refiorts," in six volumes, and his work on 
the rules of the supreme court and the acts of as- 




sembly relating to the practice of the courts, are 
valuable. In 1883 he received the degree of LL. D. 
from the New Brunswick university, and in 1889 
he was made a knight bv the queen. 

ALLEN, William Viuceiit, senator, b. in 
Jlidway, Madison eo., Ohio, 28 Jan., 1847. He 
removed with his family to Iowa, where he was 
educated in the common schools, and attended for 
a time the Upper Iowa university, but was not 
gra*iuated. lie served in the rebellion as a pri- 
vate, and during the last five months of the war as 
a member of the staff of Gen. James I. Gilbert. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1869, practising in 
Iowa and Nebraska, to which place he removed in 
1884. Some years later Mr. Allen was elected 
judge of the ninth judicial district, and in 1893 
he was president of the Nebraska Populist state 
convention. He succeeded Algernon Sidney Pol- 
lock as U. S. senator for the full term of six years. 

ALLEYN, Cliarles, (Janadian lawyer, b. in 
SIvrus Wood, County Cork, Ireland, in Septem- 
ber, 1817; (1. in Quebec, 4 April, 1890. His father 
was a commander in the British navy. The son 
was educated at Pcrmoy school and Clongowes col- 
lege, and settled in Quebec in 1834. He studied 
law, and was called to the bar in 1840. He began 
early to identify himself with politics, and in 1854 
he was elected mayor of Quebec, and a member of 
parliament. Three years later he was created a 
queen's counsel, and invited by Sir John A. Mae- 
donald to enter the government of Canada as 
commissioner of public works. This otiice he held 
for a year, and on the reconstruction of the cabinet 
he was sworn in as provincial secretary. He ad- 
ministered the affairs of this department with ef- 
ficiency during a critical period. On the fall of 
the government he resigned with his colleagues, 
and though he sat in parliament until 1866 he did 
not again enter the ministry. In 1866 he was ap- 
pointed sheriff of the district of Quebec. In 1883, 
on the reconstruction of the shrievalty, he was ap- 
pointed, with fitienne Paquet, joint sheriff of the 
district. — His brother, Ricliard, Canadian jurist, 
b. at Trabolgan, County Cork, Ireland, in 1836 ; d. 
in St. Germain de Riraouski, Quebec, 16 Aug., 1883. 
He went to Canada at an early age, and was gradu- 
ated in law at Laval university in 1856. In the 
following year he became a member of the bar of 
Lower Canada and entered into partnership with 
his brother Charles. For many years he was crown 
prosecutor at the court of queen's bench, and in 
1873 he was made a queen s counsel. He early 
connected himself with the militia and volunteers, 
and in 1861, at the time of the "Trent" affair, he 
joined the active force. Two years afterward, as 
commander of the Victoria rifles, he was sent to 
the western frontier of Ontario, and he remained in 
that capacity until 1865. Soon after this he was 
promoted to the majority of the 8th royal rifles, 
and in due time he became colonel of the regiment, 
which post he continued to hold until he accepted 
a seat on the bench. He was chosen to the Quebec 
house of assembly in 1877, but in 1878. on the 
famous Letellier question, he was defeated, and in 
1881 he was raised to the bench. He was granted 
the degree of LL. D. by Laval university, and 
named professor of criminal law in that col'lege. 

ALLINSON, David, publisher, b. in Woodbury, 
N. J., in 1774; d. in Burlington, N. J., in 1858. 
His father, Samuel Allinson, a prominent New 
Jersey lawyer and a member of the Society of 
Friends, compiled the as.seml)lv laws of that state 
from 1703 till 1776, a vaUiable'compilation, which 
is known as " Allinson 's Laws." The son was for 
many years a printer and publisher at Burlington, 

and edited several periodicals, among them the 
" Rural Visitor." He published many valualile 
legal, literary, and theological works, a small dic- 
tionary, and a large English and classical diction- 
ary, which is regarded as valuable (1813). — His 
nephew, Samuel, reformer, b. in New York city, 
24 Dec., 1808; d. near Yardville, N. J., 5 Dec, 
1883, was educated at the Friends' boarding- 
school at Westtown, Chester co.. Pa., and estab- 
lished himself, at the age of twenty-one, on a 
farm near Yardville, where he continued to reside 
till his death. He was instrumental in founding 
the reform school for boys at Jamesburg and the 
industrial school for girls near Trenton. He was 
one of three commissioners that were apjMjinted in 
1868 to consider better methods of discipline and 
government in the state prison, and was the au- 
thor of the commutation law of New Jersey. He 
read a paper on " Discharged Prisoners " before 
the prison reform congress in 1873, and one on 
"Scholastic and Industrial Education in Reform 
Schools " at the meeting in 1876. 

ALMON, IVilliam Johnson, Canadian senator, 
b. in Halifax, Nova Scotia, 27 Jan., 1816. He was 
the son of William Almon, M. D., a member of the 
legislative council of Nova Scotia, and grand.son of 
William James Almon, who was appointed assist- 
ant surgeon to the royal artillery in New York in 
June, 1776, and after serving till thecloseof the war 
settled as a surgeon in Halifax, Nova Strotia. The 
son was graduated at King's college, Windsor, in 
1834, studied medicine at the universities of Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow, and in 1838 was graduated at 
the latter. In 1872 he waselectetl to the Dominion 
parliament for the county of Halifax, and he was 
called to the senate in 1879. He is a governor of 
King's college, Windsor, consulting physician to 
the Halifax hospital and dispensary, and surgeon 
of the Halifax field artillery. He is a Conservative, 
and in favor of strengthening the connection be- 
tween Canada and the mother country. 

ALTGELD, Jolin Peter, lawyer, b. near Ber- 
lin, Germany, 30 Dec, 1847. He was brought to 
this country in childhood by his parents, who lived 
on a farm in Richland county, Ohio. After a 
limited elementary education he enlisted in the 
volunteer army in 1864, and afterward taught for 
several years. In 1*^69 he went to St. Louis, a great 
part of the way on foot, and later taught and studied 
law in northwestern Missouri, being admitted to 
the bar in 1872. In 1875 he removed to Chicago, 
where he built una large practice. In 1884 he was 
an unsuccessful Democratic candidate for congress. 
In 1886 he was chosen judge of the Cook county 
superior court, and in 1890 he became its chief jus- 
tice. After serving as judge for five years he re- 
signed, giving as his reason the necessity of devot- 
ing all his time to his private business. In 1892 he 
was nominated by the Democrats f or go vernor, and 
during his canvass visited all parts of the state, 
seeking to meet voters perscmallv as well as by 
holding public meetings. He was elected bv a 
plurality of 33,000 over Joseph W. Fifer. his Re- 
publican predecessor. The most striking incident 
of his administration was his protest against the 
sending of federal troops to Chicago during the 
railway strikes (see Cleveland, Grover). In 1896 
he was a candidate for re-election, but was defeated 
by his Republican opponent, John R. Tanner, by a 
plurality of more than 100,000. 

AMBLER, James Markhani Marsliall, sur- 
geon, b. in Fauquier county, Va.. 30 Dec, 1848; d. 
in the Lena delta, Siberia, 31 Oct., 1881. He was 
educated at Washington and Lee university, ^'ir- 
ginia, and at the medical college of the University 



of Maryland. After his graduation, in 1870, he 
practise<l iiiedifiiie in Baltimore until he entered 
the navy as an a.«.-<istant surgeon, 1 April, 1874. 
He became a iwissed assistant surgeon, 6 Nov., 
1877, and served at the naval hospital, Norfolk, 
Va., until 23 May, 1879, when he was selected a.s a 
volunteer for the ^x>st of surgeon to the"Jean- 
nette "arctic expedition (see I)E Ix)xo, George W.). 
When the oniecrs and crew made their escape in 
three lH>ats from the sinking vessel, 13 June, 1881, 
Ambler waj* in the first cutter with l)e Long and 
twelve of the crew. He accompanied De Long 
along the banks of Lena river, anil was alive at the 
date of the last entry in De Long's journal, 30 
Oct., 1881, but it is probable that he die<l the next 
day. His remains were found near those of De 
Long and Ah Sam by Chief Engineer Melville on 
23 March, 1882, and buried on Mimument Hill, on 
the Lena delta, the sjxit being marked by a pyram- 
idal structure of stone and timtx'r surmounted 
by a cross. Memorunda were found on his b<Hly 
on " Ice formeti by Sea Water" and "Stmie Re- 
marks on Snow Crvstals, etc.," which an- published 
with De ling's "' Journal" (Boston, 1883). The 
me<lical ollicers of the navy have lia<l a bronze 
memorial tablet niailc to commemorate Ambler's 
arctic services and death in the interest of s<nen- 
tific research. This tablet is now in the naval 
niu.-oiiiii of hygiene at Washington. D. (.'. 

AMES, Seth, jurist, b. in Dedham, Mas.s., lU 
Apr., 180,5; d. in BnK)kliiie. Mass., 15 Aug.. 1881. 
He was the sixth of the seven children of Fisher 
Ames and Frances, daughter of ful. .John Wortli- 
ington, of Springfield. He was graduateil from 
Harvard in is2.'),stuilied al the Harvanl law-8chiH)l, 
and law in the oflU-e of (ieorge Blis.*, of Si)ring- 
fielil, and from January, 1828, in that of Lemuel 
Shaw, of Boston. In Se[)lemlMfr of that year he 
was admitted to the bar at Dedham, ami he o|>ene<i 
an oni(« in Lowell. He was sent as a representa- 
tive from Ixiwell to the general court in 1K52. and 
in 1841 was elected xtate senator from ^' 
county. He serred M city alderman in : 
and 1840, and as city solicitor from 1842 !■■ i-i.>. m 
which year he married a second time and removed 
to Cambridge. He was amxiinled judge of the 
gU[>erior court in 1K')9. chief justice of the court in 
1867, and judge of the supreme judicial court 
in 1869, which position he held until he rpsigne<l 
in 1881. In 18-54 he publishe<l an enlarge<l e<lilion, 
in two volumes, of the works of his father, Fisher 
Ames, which hail Ih-cii collecteil previously by 
President Kirkland.of Harvard. an<i piilili.shed at 
Boston, with ft ^iki-lch of his life, in ISOil. 

AML'N.4TR(iri, .Migiipl LnU (ah-moo-na I- 
BV-gbee), Chilian author, b. in Santiago, 11 Jan., 
iteS; d. there in 1888. In 1840 he entered the 
National institute, where in April, 1847, he wasa|>- 
|>ointed a iirofessor. He was also a writer in the 
•• Rcvista lie .Siiitiago," was emjiloveil in the oHice 
of statistics, and in 1849 united with the new 
moilerate party. In the next year the university 
openetl a com|ietition for the best history on the 
Spanish reci>n(|uest of 181 4-' 1 7, and he was awarded 
the pn>inium. lie waselccteil a member of the fac- 
ulty of |ihili>soi>hy of the univeniit v in IH.51. and sec- 
retary of the latier ImhIv in ISfiOi nnil in 1882 was 
ajipointeil assistant se<Telary of state and the inte- 
rior. In 1864 he founded the " Iiiile|K>ndiente" us 
an organ of the liberal-ci>ns4'rvativc fusion, but 
when the clerical juirty gnineil control of the pa[M-r 
he resigneil, being in the .same year elcctwl to 
congress for the department of Caupolican, and in 
186< vice-president of the chainl>er of deputies. 
President IVtcz callc<l him to the cabinet in 1868 

as secretary of state and the interior, and during 
his administration of two years he introduced the 
|>ostal order system and authorized the construc- 
tion of numerous railroads. In 1875 he was offered 
a nomination for the presidency, but declineil, and 
in the same year founded the "Revista Chilena." 
In 1876 he was minister of public instruction and 
greatly promoted education, bul resigned next 
year, anil afterward f<ccupie<i himself in literary 
labors, also representing the department of Val- 
paraiso in congress. He was a member of the 
.'Vcademia Chilena, had been editorand collaborator 
of several journals, and was author of " La Recon- 
quisla Espailola 1814 A 1817" (Santiago, 1850; 
" Los tres primeros aflos de la Revoluci6n de Chile 
1811 & 1813" (1851); " Ixjs tilulos de Chile a laso- 
berania de la extreinidad austral del continente 
Americano "(18.53); "I^a DictadiiradeO'IIiggins" 
(1854) : " Hiografias .\ mericana.-^ " (1855) ; •' La ins- 
truccion primaria en Chile" (18.56); "Compendio 
de Historia Politiea y Kcclcsiastica ♦n Chile" 
(1856) ; " Desi-ubrimiento y Conquista de Chile " 
(1862): "Cuestion de Limites entre Chile y Bo- 
livia " (1863) ; •' Ix>8 Precursores de la Indejienden- 
ciade Chile" (3 vols., 1870-'2) : "CrAnicas Ilistori- 
cas" (1877): and lives of several eminent Chilians. 
— His brother, (jregorio Victor, b. in Santiago 
in 1830. has lieen oollalxirator in the greater |)art 
of the works of Miguel Luis, and is judge of the 
court of iipiH>«ls of Santiago. 

ANOERSON. Daviil, Canadian Anglican bish- 
op, b. in London. England. 10 Feb.. 1814; d. in 
Bristol. England, 5 Nov., 188,5. He wasgradiiated 
at Oxfonl in 1836, was vice-principal of .St. Bee's 
college, Cuml>erland. in 1841 -'7. an incuinl>ent of 
.Ml Saints'. Derbv. in 1848-'9. From 1849 till 1864 
he was bishop ot Prince Rujiert's Land, Canaila, 
and n|)on his resignation he returned to England 
anil was appointed vic«r of Clifton, and made chan- 
cellor of St. Paul's cathedral. liondon. Bishop 
Anderson receiveil the degree of D. I>. in 1849. 
He was the author of "Notes on the Flood," 
" Net in the Bav," and other works. 

ANDERSON, lunar, congressman, b. in Charles- 
town, Chester CO., Pa.. 23 Nov., 1760; d. 27 Oct., 
WiH. In the autumn of 1777 he commande<I a 
company of Pennsylvania militia, serving with 
Washington's army, then in the Chester valley. 
While the American army was at Valley Forge he 
carrieil des{)atches u|>on horseback l)etween Wash- 
ington at heailipiarters and congressat York. He 
was a member of congress for two successive terms, 
.serving from 17 Oct., 180;t, till 3 March, 1807, was 
a presidential elector in 1816, and was prominently 
nanieil for the governorship. Bishop .\sbury de- 
scritjes him as one of the founders of the Methodist 
church in this country, with which he became asso- 
ciateil ill 1780. He wrote an historical description 
of Charli'stown (Philadelphia. 1875). 

ANHERSON. Jooeph Roid, manufacturer, b. 
at Walnut Hill. Va., Feb.. 1813: d. in the Isles 
of Shoals. N. H.. 7 Sept.. 1892. He was grailuated 
at the r. S. military academy and a-ssigned to the 
engineer corps. Besiguing from I he army, he leawd 
the Tredegar ironworks of Hichmond, soon after 
purchasing the projierty. A large iiort ion of the 
machinery for the sugar-mills of the south were 
manufactured by .Vmlersoii. also ordnance for the 
fedenil government. He wasap|"iiiiteil abrigadier- 
ceneral in I he Confederate army, 3 Sept.. 1 861. which 
hcresigned. 19 July. 1862. His brigade was com- 
posed of the 14th. 35th, 45th, anil 49lh regiments 
of Georgia infantry, and thel^d Louisiana battal- 
ion infantry. Army of nortlieni Virginia. Soon 
after the close of the war the property was released 




by the government, and a new company was formed, 
with Gen. Anderson as president. After passing 
through some financial difficulties, in 1876 he was 
appointed receiver of the works. The original com- 

Sany was again given possession in 1878, Gen. An- 
erson being active in its management till within 
a short period of his death. 

ANDERSON, Samuel, engineer, b. in London, 
England, 15 Nov., 1839; d. in Scotland, 11 Sept., 
1881. He was a surveyor on the eoinmission for 
marking the boundary line between British 
Columbia and the United States and chief astrono- 
mer under Major D. R. Cameron for defining 900 
miles of the American frontier from the Lake of 
the Woods to the summit of the Rocky moun- 
tains. As a result of the labors of this commis- 
sion the whole boundary along the 49th parallel 
was marked by stone cairns or earthen mounds at 
intervals of three miles across the plains, and by 
iron pillars at intervals of one mile along the 
southern boundary of Manitoba for 18.5 miles. 
For this service Major Anderson was made a com- 
panion of the order of St. Michael and St. George 
m 1877. A memorial of him was erected in 
Rochester cathedral, England. 

ANDERSON, Thomas McArtlinr, soldier, b. in 
Chillicothe, Ohio, 22 Jan.. 18o6. He was graduated 
from .St. Mary's college. Maryland, in ISo.'i. studied 
law at Cincinnati, and began practice in Newport, 
Ky. He entered the volunteers as a private in 
April, 1861, and a month later was appointed a 
lieutenant in regular army. He saw much service 
in the civil war and afterward, and in April. 1886, 
having been captain, major, and lieutenant-colonel, 
he became colonel of the 14th infantry. In the 
war with Spain he was ap|iointed brigadier-general 
of volunteers. May, 1898, major-general in August. 
and in March, 1899, he was commissioned briga- 
dier-general in the regular army. Gen. Anderson 
in the first expedition to the Philippine islands 
commanded a division, and in Jlay, 1899, he was 
assigned to the department of the Lakes, with head- 
quarters in Giiicago. He retires in June, 1900. 

ANDRADE, Josfi (an-dra-day), Venezuelan dip- 
lomat, b. in Merida, state of Los Andes, 6 May. 1838. 
He is a son of Gen. Jose Escolastico Andrade. He 
studied law in Colombia, became a member of the 
municipal council of Maraeaibo, and successively 
secretary and governor of the state of Zulia, repre- 
senting the same state in national house of repre- 
senlatives, and becoming speaker in 1888. lie re\>- 
resented Venezuela at Washington during years 
1889-'90 as commissioner in the United States and 
Venezuela claims commission, and later was a dele- 
gate to the Pan-American congress. In 1897 lie 
signed a treaty of arbitration between Great Britain 
and his country to settle Venezuela boundary dis- 
pute, and ill 1899 he was appointed minister to the 
court of St. James. — His lirother, Ignacio, presi- 
dent of Venezuela, b. in Merida. 31 July, 1839. He 
entered the military school, and in 1871 began ser- 
vice in the array, taking a command in the cam- 
paign of 1873. Later his native state made him 
repi-esentative to the national congress, and after- 
ward this state and that of Falcon elected him 
constitutional president. These two states after- 
ward elected him representative to congress. Be- 
fore this he had been api>ointed bv the president 
of the republic national delegate of the state of 
Lara, a post which he filled with political tact. 
In the following four years he abancioned polities, 
and devoted himself to the management of his 
property. He took part in the revolution of 1892 
and when the loyalist army entered Caracas Gen. 
Crespo appointed him governor of that citv. Some 

time afterward the pre.sident placed Gen. Andrade 
in the ministry of public works. Soon after he 
was appointed president of the state of Miranda, 
the richest and largest in the republic. Later he 
was elected president of Venezuela, taking pos- 
session of the office in March, 1898. Gen. Andrade 
has travelled in Europe and the United States, 
and under his wise administration Venezuela has 
advanced greatly in prosperity. 

ANDREWS, EHhii Benjamin, educator, b. in 
Hinsdale. N. II.. 10 Jan., 1844. He served through 
the civil war, losing an eye at Petersburg, was 
graduated from Brown in 1870, and from Newton 
theological seminary four years later. He was 
pastor of the First Baptist church of Beverly,, in 1874-'5. when he became president of 
Denison university. Ijater he held several pro- 
fessorships in Cornell and elsewhere until 18H9, 
when he was elected president of Brown. He re- 
signed from the university in 1898, and accepted 
the position of superintendent of the Chicago 
public schools. Dr. Andrews is the author of •' In- 
stitutes of General History" (Boston, 1887); " In- 
stitutes of Economics" (1892); "Brief Institutes 
of our Economical Historv" and "An Honest 
Dollar" (Hartford, 1894): "Historv of the United 
States" (2 vols.. New York. 1894); "Wealth and 
Moral Law" (Hartford. 1894); and "History of 
the Last (Quarter Centurv in the United States" 
(2 vols.. New York. 1896)." 

ANGO, Jean, Norman merchant and naviga- 
tor, b. at Dieppe, France, about 1480 ; d. there in 
15.51. Breard .says : " En 1506, coniraenc^nt avec les 
Normandes les expeditions authentiques, et ce sont 
les capitaines de la grande inaison des Ango qui 
ouvrent la scrie." Jean Denis's voyage of 1.506 was 
made in one of Ango's ships, and Aubert, in 1.508, 
was sent out by Ango. Verrazzano was subsidized 
by him. lie aided in fitting out the fleet of Fran- 
cis 1. against England, but, speculating too freely, 
became fliianciallv ruined and died of grief. 

APPLETON, John, jurist, b. in New Ipswich, 
N. II., 12 July, 1804; d. in Bangor, Me., 7- Feb., 
1891. After his graduation at Bowdoin college in 
1822, he taught, studied law, was admitted to the 
bar, and in 1832 settled in Bangor, Me. He was 
reporter of decisions in 1841, in 18.52 wa.s appointed 
a justice of the state supreme court, and in 1862- 
'83 was chief justice. Bowdoin gave him the de- 
gree of LL. D. in 1860. Judge Applet on published 
two volumes of " Reports " (llallowcll. 1841) and 
"The Rules of Evidence. .Stated and Discussed" 
(Philadelphia, 1860). — His son. John Francis, sol- 
dier, b. in Bangor. Me.. 29 Aug., 1839: d. there, 31 
Aug., 1871 ; was graduated at Bowdoin in 1860, 
and at the beginning of the civil war raiseil an<l 
commanded a company in the 12th JIaine volun- 
teers. He was commissioned colonel of the 81st 
U. S. colored troo|is, served in the department of 
the Gulf, and was brevetted brigadier-general of 
volunteers on 13 March. 1865. Subsequently he 
studied law. was admitted to the bar of Maine, 
and appointed U. S. judge for the district of east- 
ern Texas, but declined the office. 

ARCOS. Josf Ki-iinetti Gayoso de los Cobos, 
duke of, Spanish diplomatist, b. in Madrid, 6 Feb.. 
1839. He is a representative of an ancient Spanish 
family which has long been prominent in the affairs 
of Spain, and which, because of its services to the 
church, is favored by certain perpetual immunities, 
such as exemption from the P^'iday flesh fast. etc. 
After he had studied at the University at Madrid, 
Brunetti took up the profession of the law. and se- 
cured his admission to the bar in 1862. In the 
year following he entered the diplomatic service. 




He was secretary of legation in Austria in 1864, 
was transferred to Italy in 1866, to Switzerland in 
1875, and totlic L'niteJ States in 18T7. At Wash- 
ington at this time the SiMiiiish minister was Seizor 
Don Peli[)e Mendez de Vigo, the third secretary 
(Bmnetti Ijeing first secretary) was Don Luis Polo 
V Bemabe. who afterward was minister at Wash- 
ington at the outbreak of the war with Sjiaiii in 
1(h8, and the naval attaehi was Comandante Don 
Jnan Montojo, who afterward was in command of 
the Spanish fleet destroyed bv Admiral Dewev in 
Manila harlmr, 1 May, 1898. 'in 1882 the duke of 
Arcos was sent as minister to Bolivia. He was 
transferred to Uruguay in 1890, to Chili in 1891. 
and to Mexico in 1895. While minister to Mexico 
he married at Washington, in 1895, Virginia 
Woodbury Lowery, whom he ha<l met when he 
was first secretary of legation at Wiisihington. 
He was umpire between Mexico and (tuatemala 
for the settlement of claims iii 1897-'8. Just 
before war broke out between Spain and t he United 
.States he was recalled from Mexico to a position 
in the foreign office at Madrid. When diplomatic 
relations were resumed by the two countries after 
the treaty of Paris, he was appointed minister at 
W',.^i,i.,,.t..,i andas such wasrcceiTe<l by President 
M :i 3 June, 1809. He is a grandee of 

S]> ~ al.i<> chamberlain of the king of Spain. 

AKMOL'R, Philip Danfortli. merchant, b. in 
Stockbridge, Madison co., N. V., 16 May. 18:t3. lie 

receivixl a com- 
mon-school educa- 
tion in his native 
place, and in 1852 
went to California 
during the gold 
fever, but retume<l 
in 1856 and en- 
tered business in 
Milwaukee, Wis. 
In 1863 he formed 
a [lartnership with 
John PlanKintiiii 
in the pork-|>a<'k- 
ing business. This 
and its related 
bouses grew, till in 
1870, with head- 
quarters in Chica- 
go, thej already controlleil an enormous business 
in stock and grain. The distributive sales of the 
Chicago house alone are said to exceed the gross 
receipts of any railroad in the world. In 1881 
Mr. Armour's brother. Joseph, die<l, leaving $100.- 
000 to found a charitable institution, to which he 
has xlded until the Armour mission and the 
Annonr institute of ti>ohnology now represent an 
investment i)f $2..')0<».000. .Air. Armour has also 
given freelv tn othiT rharities. 

AKMSTRONtJ, David Maltland. artist, b. near 
Newburg, N. V.. 12 June, 1887. He was gradu- 
ated at Trinity college, and later practised law for 
a few years. He then studied art in Paris and 
Itome, and was for four years consul-general in 
Italy. He was a director of the American art de- 
partment at the Paris exposition of 1878. receiving 
the decoration of the Legion of honor. P'or many 
years Mr. Annstronghas been the head of a suc- 
cessful decorative-glass establishment in New York 
city. He is a member of the .Society of American 
artists, of the Architectural league, and of the 
National sfx-ietv of rniirnl paiiitirs. 

AitMSTROS'ti. Samuel 4'hniiman, soldier, b. 
in Hawaiian islands. 30 Jan.. 18^9: d. in Hamf>- 
ton, Va., 12 May, 1893. His parents were mission- 



J* ^^{Vf^**.^ 

aries to the Hawaiian islands, where he resided un- 
til 1860. After graduation at Williams in 1862 he 
entered the volunteer array as a captain in the 
125th New York regiment, and in 1863 was made 
lieutenant-colonel of the 9th U. S. colorc<l infantry. 
Subsequently he was colonel of the 8th U. S. col- 
ored regiment. He was brevetted brigadier-general 
of volunteers on 13 March, 1865, and after the war 
went to Hampton, Ya., to work among the frced- 
men. Gen. Armstrong was a founder of the Hamp- 
ton normal and agricultural institute for negroes 
in 1868, and since that date until his death served 
as its principal. In 1878 Indians were admitted. 
He was succeeded as princifial by the Kev. Ilollis 
B. Frissell, for many years connected with the in- 
stitution as his assistant. The Hampton institute 
has l)een a great Ix-neftt to the Indians and negroes, 
and is now abundantly endoweil. 

ARNOLD, Abraham Kerns soldier, h. in Bed- 
ford, Pa., 24 March. 1837. He entered the U. S. 
military aca<lemy in July, 1854. was graduated 
July, 1859. and appointed brevet 2d lieutenant in 
the 2d cavalry; he was commissioned 2«l lieuten- 
ant 28 June, 1860. In April. 1861. he was pro- 
moted 1st lieutenant, and in August following 
was transferred to the 5th cavalry. From June, 
1861, to May, 1862. he serveil as regimental ail- 
jutant. He was brevetted captain in June, 1862, 
for gallant and meritorious service in the battle 
of Gaines's Mill, and received his commission as 
captain in July following. In May. 1864. he was 
brevetted major for gallant and meritorious ser- 
vice in the battle of To«Id's Taveni, Va. He was 
firomoted major of the 6th cavalry in June, 1889, 
ieutenant-colonel of the 1st cavalry in June, 1886, 
and colonel in February, 1891. At the outbreak 
of war with Spain in 1898 he was ap|H)inte<l briga- 
dier-^neral, and assigned to the commaml of the 
2d division of the 7th armv-corps. with which he 
served in ('ul)a. He publistied " Notes on Horses 
for Cavalry Service" (New York, 1869). 

ASCENiCION. Antonio de ia(ahs-fh?n-theo n), 
S|>anish navigator, b. in Salamanca in 1560; d. in 
I'uebla, Mexico, in 1623. He studied mathematics 
in the university of his native city, and navigation 
in the college of pilots of Seville. About the end 
of the 16th century he went to Mexico, where, in 
1600, he entered the order of barefooted Carmelites, 
and when the viceroy, the Count de Monterey, 
despatched the second expedition under Sebastian 
Vizcaino to California in 1602, hearing of Ascen- 
ci^n's geographical knowledge, he obtained from 
bis su|>eriorB [lermission to send him as cosmog- 
rapher with the expedition. On Vizcaino's return, 
Ascencion retire<l to the convent of Puebla. where 
he died. He wrote " Viaje del nuevodescubrimien- 
to. que sc hizo en la N. K. [wrel mar del Sur. desde 
el puerto do Acapulco hasta el capo Mendozino en 
1602. ycndo [lor general .Sebastian Vizcaino," the 
manuscript of which existed in the library of 
Ramirez de Prado. according to Nicolas Antonio, 
who extracted i>art of it in his " Bibliotheca His- 
|iana Nova" (linme. 1672). 

ASHItrRNKR. Wniiam, mining engineer, b. 
in StfK'kbriflge, Mass.. 2S March. 1831 ; d. in San 
Francisco. ( 'nl.. 28 .March. 1888. He was educated 
in his native town until 1849, when he entered the 
Lawrence scientiflc school of Harvard, and after 
two years went to Paris, where he studieil min- 
ing engineering at the Ecole des mines. Return- 
ing to this country, he was employed in making 
examinations of various mining properties in the 
Lake Superior region In the interest of a French 
enterprise. In 1859 he explored a part of New- 
foundland for a telegraph company. In 1860 he 




went to California as an assistant in the state 

feological survey under Prof. Josiah I). Whitney. 
'rom 1862 till 1883. in the practice of his pro- 
fession, he was constantly travelling throughout 
the mining districts of "the United States and 
Mexico, his journeys sometimes extending to South 
America and Asia. Prom 1864 till 1880 he was a 
state commissioner to manage the Vosemite valley 
and the Jlariposa grove. In 1874 he was appointed 
professor of mining in the University of Califor- 
nia, but his professional engagements not permit- 
ting him to fully discharge his duties, he was in 
1876 made honorary professor. In 1880 he became 
a regent of the university. He was also a trustee 
of the California school of mechanical arts, and of 
the Leland Stanford, Jr., university. Prof. Ash- 
burner was a trustee of the California academy of 
sciences, president of the Microscopical society, a 
member of the Historical and Geographical soci- 
eties of the same state, und a founder of the Har- 
vard club of San Francisco. 

ASHHURST, John, surgeon, b. in Philadelphia, 
Pa., 23 Aug., 1839. He was graduated at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania in 1857, and at the medi- 
cal department in 1860. and from 1862 till 1865 he 
served as active assistant surgeon in the U. S. army. 
Since 1877 he has been professor of clinical surgery 
in the University of Pennsylvania, and he has been 
connected with several hospitals. He is the author 
of " Injuries of the Spine " (Philadelphia. 1867) and 
" Principles and Practice of Surgery" (1871), and 
the editor of "Transactions of the International 
Medical Congress" (1877) and the " International 
Kncyclopaedia of Surgery" (6 vols.. New York, 
1881-6 ; 2d ed., 1888). 

ASPIBOL, Manuel de, Mexican minister, b. in 
Puebla, 9 June, 1836. He was educated in his na- 
tive city, and adopted the profession of law. He 
served in the army from 1862 to 1866, attaining 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and twice filled the 
office of under-secretary of state. For two years 
he was the Mexican consul at San Francisco, and 
in 1875 was elected to the senate. For three years 
he was treasurer of the state of Puebla, and from 
1883 to 1890 professor of municipal law in the 
College of Puebla. In March, 1899, he was re- 
ceived by President McKinley as ambassador from 
Mexico. He is a member of various learned so- 
cieties and the author of "Causa de Fernando 
Maximiliano de Hapsburgo, que se hatitulado Em- 
peradorde Mexico, y de sus genorales Miguel Mira- 
mon y Tomas Jlejia " (Mexico, 1807) ; " Codigo de 
Extranjeria de los Estados Unidos Mexieanos" 
(1876); Los Derechos del Hombre " (periodical) 
(1878-'80); and " La Libertad civil como base del 
Dereeho internacional privado" (1896). 

ASTIfi, Jean Fr6<16ric (ahs-te-ay), French 
clergyman, b. in Nerae, department of Lot-et- 
Garonne, in 1822. He was pastor of the French 
Protestant church in New York from 1849 till 
1855, when he returned to Europe and was ap- 
pointed professor of philosophy in the University 
of Lausanne, Switzerland, which post he still re- 
tains. His works include " Le Ueveil religieux 
des Etats-Unis " (2 vols., Lausaime, 1857-8) ; "Les 
deux theologies nouvelles dans le protestantisme 
Frangais" (1862): " Histoire de la Kepublique des 
Etat,s-Unis, de 1620 k 1860 " (2 vols., 1865) ; and 
" Theologie Allemaiide contemporaine " (1874). 

ASTOB, John Jacoh, capitalist, b. in New York 
city, 10 June, 1822; d. there, 22 Feb., 1890. He 
was graduated at Columbia, stiulied at Gottingen 
university, Germany, and afterward took the full 
course at Harvard law-school. After one year's 
practice he undertook, in 1847, to aid in the man- 

agement of the Astor estate, which occupied most 
of his future life. He served in Virginia on the 
staff of Gen. MeClellan with the rank of colonel, 
and later was brevettcd brigadier-general of vol- 
unteers. He took an active interest in the Astor 
library, was treas- 
urer of its board of 
trustees, and in 1879 
deeded to it the 
three lots on which 
the northern wing 
of the present build- 
ing was afterward 
erected by him. He 
also gave liberally 
to the library, anil 
presented his collec- 
tion of early books 
and rare manu- 
scripts. To Trinity 
church, of which he 
was a member, he 
and his brother pre- 
sented as a memo- 
rial to their father 
a sculptured reredos 
and altar costing ^80,000. Mr. Astor also gave 
freely to the Cancer hospital, the Woman's hos- 
pital, and the Children's aid society, and in 1887 he 
presented to the Metropolitan museum of art his 
wife's collection of costly laces. He left bequests 
to St. Luke's hospital of $100,000, to the Metro- 
politan museum |50,000, to tlie Cancer hospital 
$100,000, and to the Astor library $450,000, bring- 
ing the family benefactions to the institution 
up to about to $1,500,000. By his father's will he 
received one half of the Astor estate, variously 
estimated to be worth from $100,000,000 to $150,- 
000,000, and this share, with its large accumula- 
tions, he in turn bequeathed to his only son, Will- 
iam Waldorf Astor, who thus became the head of 
the family, and who has resided in England for 
several years. See address on " Mr, J. J. Astor and 
his American Ancestry," by the Rev. Blorgan Dix, 
S. T. D., in " The New York Genealogical and 
Biographical Record " for July. 1891. — His wife, 
Charlotte Angnsta, b. in New York city. 27 Feb., 
1825 ; d. there, 12 Dec, 1887, was the daughter of 
Thomas S. Gibbs, a southern merchant, who had 
removed to New York. She was married to Mr. 
Astor on 9 Dec, 1846. Mrs. Astor was an active 
friend of tlie Children's aid society, and gave $225,- 
000 to found the Cancer hospital. For twenty 
years she supported a German industrial school, 
and from 1872 till her death she was a manager 
of the Woman's hospital, besides taking an active 
part in the Niobrara league to aid the Indians and 
in many other charities. She bequeathed $150,000 
to charitable organizations. — His nephew, John 
Jacob, b. in Rhinebeck, N. Y., 13 July, lb64. was 
graduated at Harvard in 1888, and in 1894-'6 
served on the staff of Gov. Levi P. Morton with 
the rank of colonel. He is a member of numerous 
social and scientific organizations, and a director 
of various commercial and financial institutions. 
In 1897 he completed on Fifth avenue. New York, 
one of the largest, and probably the most costly 
hotel in the world, which he named the Astoria, 
after the settlement established at the mouth of 
the Columbia river by his great-grandfather in 
1811 (q. V.) It is erected on the site of the resi- 
dence of his father. William Astor (1830-'92), and 
adjoining the Waldorf hotel, erected by his cousin, 
William Waldorf, now a British subject, residing 
in London. Col. Astor served as a staff officer in 




t'uba (luring the Spanish-American war. Fie has 
invented a bicycle brake and a pneumatic roatl- 
iinprover. and is the author of "A Journey in 
Other Worhis" (N'ew York, 1894). 

ATHEKTON, Gertrude Franklin, author, 
b. in San Franei^^o about 18.50. She is a daugh- 
ter of Thomas \j. Home, was educated at Sayrc 
institute, and marrieil George H. B. Atherton. 
of Menio Park. Cal. Since his death she has 
pursiie«l a liicrury career, and since 1894 has re- 
sideil in Knglaii<l'. Mrs. Atherton is the author of 
" Wliat Dreams raav come " (New York, 1888) ; 
'• Hermia Suydam " (1889) ; " I^ Cerritos " (1890) ; 
"Mrs. Pendleton's Four-in-Hand" (1891); "A 
(Question of Time "(1892); "The Dof.mswoman" 
(1893): "Before the Gringos came" (1894); "A 
Whirl Asunder" (1896); "His Fortunate Grace" 
and " Patience .Sparhawk and her Times" (1897); 
"The ("alifomians," "Valiant Runaways," and 
" American Wives and English Husbands" (1898); 
and " A DauL'liter of the Vine " (1899). 

ATKINSON, Kilnard, economist, b. in Brook- 
line, Mavs., 10 Fet).. 18"27. He was ctlucated in 
private schools, is presirlcnt of the Boston manu- 
facturers' mutual insurance company, and has in- 
7ente<l an iuiprove<l kitchen stove, known a.s the 
" Ala<idin cooker." He has receive<l the degrees 
of Ph. I), from Dartmouth college and that of 
LL. D. from the I'niversity of South Carolina. 
For nearly four ilecailes Mr. .Atkinson has Ix-en 
a<-tively ei'igaginl in the distribution of brochures 
of which he is the authoron banking, competition, 
cottr>n manufacture, economic legislation, fire pre- 
vention, industrial education, the money (jucstion, 
and the tariff. He is an anti-expansionist, op|H<>ing 
war in the Phili[>iiinos, and during 1899 published 
a series of [lamplilets. which he sent broa<U'a»l over 
the lanil. entitled " The .\nli-lmiierialist." He hiis 
also issueil "The Distribution of Products" (N'ew 
York, 1885); "Margin of Proflt^s" (18H7): and 
" Industrial Progress of the Nation " (1889). 

ATKINSON, Wnilaiu Vate^ governor, b. in 
Oakland. (fH.. '.2)1 .lime. IH.).*); il. in Newman, Ga., 
8 Aug., 1K99. lie wa* grailualed at the L'niversity 
of Georgia in 1877. and was admitted to the bar 
the next vuar. lie entered ixilitics, and was a 
memlwro^ the state legislature fr..m IHHH to 1894, 
and sjK'akcr in 1890-'4. His proMiinen<-e in the 
legislature was gained through his efforts to ilefeat 
the moveTuent for i>lacing the Home fort 'onfederate 
veterans among the U-neflciary institutions of the 
state. His election as governor in 1894 was ■ pro- 
test against the old rer/imr, in <lefeating Gen. 
Evans,aConfe<leratesol<lier,in the nominating con- 
vention. (Sov. Atkinson was re-elected forasccond 
term, which ex|>ired in 1886. He was several times 
chairman of the Democratic state committee, was 
a trustee of the University of Georgia, and the 
founder and president of the board of trustees 
of the State nonnal and industrial college. 

ATLEK, Saninel John, soldier, b. in Pennsyl- 
vania in 17:)U: <l. in Philailelohia, Pa.. 'Z!i Nov., 
1786. He was a brother of Willlnm .\ugustus At- 
lee. the grandfather of I)r..Iohn L. Alice (ij. i\\. He 
commanded a Pennsylvania company in theF ren<'h 
war, and in 177<>U'd an advanceil Utttalionon I<ong 
Island, but was captured by the Brilish, and re- 
mained for some time in prison. Afterward he 
was a commissioner to treat with the Indians. 
Captain Alice was a ilelceate to the Continental 
congress from 1778 till 1783. and was a prominent 
raemlH'r of the committee on the mutiny of the 
Pennsvlvania tro.i|>s in 1781. 

ATfrlLU Edward Robert, P. E bishop, b. in 
Red Hook, Duchess CO., N. V., 18 Feb., 1840. He 

was graduated from Columbia in 1862, and from 
the General theological seminary two years later. 
He was in charge of St. Paul's church, Burlington, 
Vt., and afterward of Trinity parish, Toledo, Ohio. 
He was electe<l first bishop of west Missouri, and 
consecrated 14 Oct.. 1890. He received the degree 
of D. D. from the University of Vermont. 

ATWOOD, Isaac Morgan, clergyman, b. in 
Pembroke, Genesee co., N. Y., 24 March. 1838. He 
was educated at Lockport, N. Y., entered the Uni- 
Tersalist ministry in 1859, and was pastor of 
churches in New York, Maine, and Massachusetts. 
Since 1879 he has been president of Canton theo- 
logical seminary. St. liawrence university, where 
he is also professor of theology and ethics. The 
degree of A. M. was conferred on him by St. Ijiw- 
rence university in 1872. and that of I). D. by Tufts 
in 1879. He was editor of the " Boston Universal- 
ist " in 1867-'72, and of the " Christian leader " in 
187S-'5,and has been associate eilitor of the latter 
journal since 187.5. Dr. Atwood is the author of 
" Have We Outgrown Chri.stianity " (Boston. l.HiO) ; 
"Glance at the Religious Progress of the United 
States" (1874); "latest Woril of Universalism " 
(1878); "Walks alwut Zion " (1881): and "The 
Manual of Revelation " (New York, 1888). 

Al'BRY, Auguste Engine. Canadian educator, 
b. in Tuffc, France, 14 July, 1819. He studied at 
Laval college and theology in the Seminary of 
Mans, and was appointe*! professor of rhetoric in 
the Lyceum of \ eiidome. He was subsei|Uently 
admitted to the bar of Paris, and liecame one of 
its leaders. In 1848 he commanded a company 
of the National guard, and took an active part in 
suppressing the socialist revolt. He resumiMl his 
practice, but on being selected, in 18.56, to fill the 
chair of Roman law in I^aval university, Quebec, 
he removed to Canada. His lectures on history 
and Roman law in this institution .soim made him 
known throughout Canada, and he also liecame 
noted as a defender of the teiniH>ral power of the 
pope, especially in the columns of tlie "Courricr 
du Canada," of which he Ixvame wlitor-in-chief in 
18.59. His "cours d'hi.storie gi'n^rale" of that 
year was attended by many citizens of (Quebec as 
well as by students. Dr. Aubry returned to 
France in lHti.5. and was appointed profes.sor of 
Roman law in the University of Angers. 

Al'STIN.BeiiJamin FUli, Canadian educator, 
b. in Brighton. Ontario, 21 Sept.. 18.50. He was 
educated at .Mbert college, and enten-d the Meth- 
o<list Hpiscojial ministry. After holding pastor- 
ates in Ottawa and Prescott, he was made princi- 
pal of Alma Indies' college, St. Thomius. Ontario, in 
1H81, which ofilce he held until 1897. He received 
the degree of I). D. from Victoria university, has 
Ijeen editor of the "Temi)crance Union" and of 
"The Methodist Eiiiscojial Pulpit," and is the au- 
thor of " Popular Sins,'' sermons (1879); "Gospel 
to the Poor vennm Pew Itents " (1884) ; " Woman : 
Ilcr Character, Culture, and Conduct" (1890); 
ami " Rational .Memory Training" (1894). 

Al'STIN, .Mrs. Jane (joodwin, novelist, b. in 
Worcester. .Mass.. 25 Feb., 1831 ; d. in Boston, 30 
March. 1894. .She wils the daughter of lsa<ic Good- 
win, of Worcester. an<l in 18,50 married Loring H. 
Austin, a classnuitc of James Rus.sell Lr)well. She 
lived for several years in ( 'anibridge. and afterward 
in Concord, but her later life was chiefly spent in 
Boston. Her writings consist mostly of historical 
tales relating to the lives of the Pilgrim fathers 
ami their descendnnls.and include" Dora Darling " 
(lUHtton. 1864): "Outpost: A Novel" (I860); "Ci- 
pher: A Itomance "(New York, 1869); "The Shadow 
of Moloch Mountain" (1870); "Mrs. Bcauchainp 




Brown" (Boston, 1880) ; "A Nameless Nobleman" 
(1881); "The Desmond Hundred "(1883); -'Stand- 
ish of Standish " (1889) ; " Dr. Lo Baron and Jiis 
Daughter" (1891); and "David Alden's Daughter, 
and other Stories " (1893). 

AVENDASO, Andres (ah-vain-dahn-yo), Span- 
ish missionary, b. in Old Castile about 1050; d. in 
Merida, Yucatan, about 1730. He entered the 
order of St. Francis in the province of Burgos, 
and was sent to the missions of Yucatan, where in 
1705 he was appointed provincial. In his long 
residence among the Mayas he seems to have been 
an acute observer, and left several interesting 
manuscripts : " Diccionario de la longua de Yu- 
catan," " l)iccionario abreviadode losadverbios de 
tiempo y lugar de la lengua de Yucatan," " Diccio- 
nario de nombres de personas, idolos, danzas y 
otras antigiiedades de los Indios de Yucatan," 
" Diccionario boUinico y medico de Yucatan," and 
" Explicacion de varios vaticinios de los antiguos 
Indios de Yucatan." According to Juan Jose 
Eguiara, in his "Biblioteca llexicana," these 
existed in 1760 in the provincial convent of 
Merida, but so far they have not been discovered 
in the original, although extracts have appeared 
in the works of Orozeo y Berra and Icazbalceta 
copied from contemporaries of AvendaHo. 

AVERY. Elroy McKendree, author, b. in Erie, 
Mich., 14 July, 1844. He served in the army 
through the civil war, and was graduated from 
Michigan university in 1871, acting during his col- 
lege course as correspondent of the Detroit "■Trib- 
une." Later he became principal of the Cleveland 
normal school, and for some years was connected 
with the Brush electric light company of that 
city. He has published " Elements of Natural Phi- 
losophy " (New York, 1878), and numerous other 
successful school-books, and contributed biograph- 
ical and historical articles to the magazines. Mr. 
Avery is engaged in the preparation of a " Popu- 
lar History of the United States." 

AYALA, (iabriel (i-a'h-lah), Mexican hi-storian, 
lived in the 16th century. He belonged to the 
nobility of Texcoco, and in his youth, after the 
conquest by the Spaniards, was converted to Chris- 
tianity and appointed notary of the city corpora- 
tion. He wrote fluently in Nahuatl, the learned 
language of the valley of Anahuac, in which he 
composed " Apuntes historicos de la Nacion Mexi- 
cana desde 1243 hasta 1563 en lengua Nahuatl," 
the original MS. of which was in the possession of 
Lorenzo Boturini, and confiscated with the rest of 
his collection, but extracted in his " Ensayo de una 
Nueva Historia General, etc." (Madrid, 1746). 






BABCOCK, Christopher ATery, surgeon, b. 
in Stonington, Conn., 5 April, 1?25: cL in New- 
port, R. L, 2 N'ov., 1780. lie was stationed at 
Newport while Gen. Wasliington's headquarters 
was at Xewburg. An order from Washington was 
sent to Gen. Schuyler, then commander at New- 
port, directing him to send a surgeon to Danbury, 
Conn., irame<liately, and to have him report to Gen. 
DsTid Wooster, commander at that place. Dr. 
Balwock was so detailed, and remained in Danbury 
more than two years, unl il (icn. \V(M>ster was lullea. 
Dr. Babcock was with Wooster when he died, and 
endeavored in vain to extract the ball. After Gen. 
Wooster's death Gen. Wa-'^hington ordered Dr. 
Batxsock back to Newimrt. as the camp fever hud 
broken out there. lie died in six weeks after bis 
arrival of the prevailing fever. 

BACON, Anzngtns 0ctaTiii8, senator, b. in 
Bryan county. Ga.. 20 Oct., WiO, and was gradu- 
ate<l in IXiO from the cla-ssical department of the 
Universitv of Georgia, and from the law department 
in 1860. lie served during thecainpuign of 1861-'2 
•s adjutant of the 9th Georgia infantry, and sut>- 
sequently as captain on stan duty. After the war 
he practised at Macon both in the fe<leral and state 
courts. In 1880 he was presi<)ent of the state 
Democratic convention. For fourteen years he was 
a inemtxT of the Georgia house of repn-sentntives, 
and for ten years he aclc<l as siwaker of the house. 
Mr. Uacon was s»'Vcral times a candidate for the 
Deni<K>nilic nomination for governor, anil in No- 
vember, 1894, was elected to the U. .S. senate. His 
tcnn of service will expire 3 March, 11K)1. 

BACON, John .Mosby, soMier. b. in Kentucky, 
17 A|)ril. 1H44. lie liccame 2<1 lieutenant of the 
11th Kcnlucky cavalry on 22 Sept.. 1862, and on 
a Nov. of the same year liecanio 2d lieutenant 
in the 4th Kentiickv cavalry, lie wa.s (iromoted 
1st lieutenant in Peii., 186.'), capljiin on 14 March 
of the same year, and major, 20 Nov.. 1864. For 
gallant and meritorious action at the siege of 
J'ort Resaca. Georgia, he wa.« brevette<l major on 
2 March, 1867. lie was honombly mii«tered out 
of the volunteer service on 21 Aug.. 18<}5, but he 
entered the regular armv us captain of Troop G of 
the lHh cavalrv on 28 .luly. 186(1. The regiment 
was sent to 'I*exas ami six'ut eight years there, 
patrolling in search of depre<lating Indians. On 
7 .lunc, 1860, with 32 men of his troop, he was 
engaged with Indian^ on liio I'ecos, lexas, and 
on 2d and 29 Get. of the same year he had an- 
other engagement at the .Salt I-'ork of the Brazos 
river. For gdllanlrv' in these two engagements 
he n-ceived the brevet of lieutenant-colonel. From 
1 .Ian.. 1871. until 8 Feb., 1884, he sirvcd as colo- 
nel and aide-de-camp on the staff of Gen. Sher- 
man. He was promoted major of the 7th cavalry 
on 14 April, 1884. and on 7 April. 1890. was trans- 
ferrejl to the 1st cavalry ilh lieutenant-colonel, un- 
dcrCol. Abraham K. Arnold. On 29.lune. 1897, he 
was miule colonel of the 8th cavalry. .\t the out- 
break of war with Spain in 1898 he was promote<l 
hrigiulier-peneral and aj)poinled to the command 
of the department of Dakota, with headquarters 
at St. Paul, Minn. In Octolier. 1898. he promptly 
put down nn outbreak among the Chippewa In- 
di»n<< on the Leech Lake reservation. 

BAGLF.Y, Worth, naval ofTuer. b. in Raleigh, 
N. C, 6 -April. 1874 : il. off Cnnlenas. near Matan- 
rjin. Cuba, 11 May. 1898. He was appointed to the 
naval academy in .Septemlier, 1891, was graduated 

,/COfnAi /^*-aCL^^ 

30 June, 1897, and was appointed an ensign the 
day following. While a cadet attatrhed to the 
academy he was assigned to make cruises on the 
"Texas," " Montgomery," "Indiana," and "Maine." 
When appointed an 
ensign lie was as- 
signed to the "Indi- 
ana," but in August 
was transferred to 
the " Maine," where 
he served until 28 
Nov., 1897, when 
he was ordered to 
the Columbian iron- 
works for duty in 
connection with the 
torpedo-lx)at "Wins- 
low," which was un- 
der construction at 
the time. When the 
lx>at wius completed 
and |nit in commis- 
sion, in December, 
1897, he was at- 
tached to her, and 
reniaine<l with tier until his death. Re was the 
first American naval officer killetl in the war with 
Sjiain. A tablet to his niemorj- has been placed 
in the chapel of the U. S. naval "academy. 

BAILKY, Thomas Williamson, military en- 
gineer, 1). ill Kingsbury, Washington co., N. Y., 
21 Sept., 1826. He was graduated at Reii.s.selaer 
jiolytochnic institute, and during the next eleven 
years was engage<l as a civil engineer. In 1861 he 
assisted in raising a company for the Kngineers' 
regiment of the wi-st. Col. Josiah W. Bissell, and 
served with that organization throughout the civil 
war. In the summer and autumn of 1862 he was 
detailed as military roiidmaster of the Mobile and 
Ohio railroad uiufer Gen. .lames B. McPherson. 
While thus engaged he was called upon for a plan 
of a system of fortifications to protect Jackson, 
Tcnn., where a large amount of military sui)plies 
were stored. He furnishe<l it, and it was a<lopted 
by Gen. John A. Ijogaii. Bailey assisted 
C'apt. Frederick E. Prime, chief engineer of the 
Array of the Tennessee, in fortifying Corinth, 
Miss. At the siege of Vicksbiirg lie liegan a sys- 
tem of fortifications at Haines's Bluff, but after a 
month of constant exposure and incessant toil he 
was sent home on sick leave in July, 1863. On re- 
turning to his regiment he aided in putting Vicks- 
biirg in a state of defence, and subsequently 
accompanicil his regiment, which in Gen. .Sher- 
man's march to the sea had charge of the pontoon 
train of the Army of the Tennes.see. He was com- 
missioned 1st lieutenant in 1861, captain in 1804, 
and major in 186.5 and was mustered out of the 
service in August of the la-st-nained year. Subse- 
quent to the war he was compelled to relinquish 
his i)rofession through ill health, but he resumed 
il in 18*19, bccoiniiig connected with the Chicago, 
Burlington and (juiiicy railroad, on the engineer- 
ing staff of which corj)oriition he long continued. 

BAII.LAIRGK, Charles T. Florent, Cana- 
dian architect, b. in Quebec. 27 Sept.. 1827. He 
was educatcnl at Quelle -seminary. pa.ssed through 
an apprenticeship as architect, surveyor, and en- 
gineer, entered on the practice of his profession, 
and became in IS-ie a meinlier of the board of ex- 
aminers and land surveyors of the province, of 




which he was chairman in 1875-85. The Monu- 
ment des braves de 1760 at Quebec was erected in 
1860 after his designs. He acted as joint architect 
of the parliament and departmental buildings at 
Ottawa in 1863-'5, and designed and carried out 
the Dufferin terrace in Quebec in 1872 and the 
arched aqueduct over St. Charles river in 1873. 
Among the buildings that have been erected after 
his plans are the asylum and church of the sisters 
of charity in Quebec, the Laval university build- 
ing, the music-hall, and many churches in and 
around Quebec, notably that of Ste. Marie, Beauce. 
Mr. Baillairge has frequently lectured on various 
scientific and technical subjects. He was in 1874 
elected president of the Quebec association of 
architects, and is a member of numerous learned 
societies. His writings include a •' Treatise on Ge- 
ometry and Trigonometry" (Quebec, 1866) ; " Nou- 
veau Dictionnaire Prancjais, systeme educationnel ; 
rimes, consonnanees, homonymes " (1888) ; a simi- 
lar dictionary of English rhymes and synonyms 
(1890) ; and numerous professional papers. 

BAIRl), Henry Samuel, lawver, b. in Dublin, 
Ireland, 16 May, 1800 ; d. in Green Bay, Wis., 28 
April, 1875. tfis father, Thomas Baird, one of the 
United Irishmen, was imprisoned for a year in Kil- 
mainham jail, Dublin, and on his release in 1803 
came to the United States, whence in 1803 he was 
followed bv his family. Henry studied law at 
Pittsburg, ta.. and Cleveland. Ohio, and in 1822 
settled in Mackinaw, Mich., where he opened a 
school. In the spring of 1823 a new court was es- 
tablished by act of congress, and he was admitted 
to practice. In September, 1824, he removed to 
Green Bay. In 1832 he served as quartermaster- 
general in the Black Hawk war, in 1836 was 
elected a member and chosen president of the first 
legislative council of the territory of Wisconsin, 
and the same year was appointed the first attor- 
ney-general of the territory, and subsequently in 
that year was secretary of Gov. Henry Dodge, 
U. S. commissioner to negotiate the treaty with 
the Menomenee Indians at Cedar Rapids, when 
about 4,000.000 acres were ceded to the U. S. gov- 
ernment. In 1846 he was a member of the Con- 
stitutional convention, and he was the last Whig 
candidate for governor of Wisconsin. For many 
years he was a vice-president of the State histor- 
ical society, and a contributor to its published 
collections. — His brother, Thomas James, b. in 
Dublin, Ireland, 30 April, 1794 ; d. in Pottsville, 
Pa., 5 April, 1842 ; was graduated at West Point 
in 1814, served in the war against Great Britain, 
and resigned a captain of artillery in 1828. — The 
son of the latter, Edward Carey, b. in Pottsville, 
Pa., in April, 1836; d. near Ashland. V'a., 14 Nov., 
1874, served in the civil war for nearly four years, 
was assistant adjutant-general to Gen. John P. 
Reynolds, in command of the left wing of the 
Army of the Potomac; aiul at the battle of Gettys- 
burgthat general ilied in his arms. Baird was pro- 
moted to the rank of major for gallant conduct. 

BAKER, James, Canadian legislator, b. in Lon- 
don. 6 Jan., 1830. He was graduated at O.\ford 
university, and entered the Indian navy, subse- 
quently becoming a cornet in the horse guards, 
later serving with the 8th hussars in the Crimean 
war. For bravery in the battle of Tchernaya and 
during the siege of Sebastopol he received medals 
with clasp. He retired from the army in 1875 
with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, later travel- 
ling in the, the fruit of which was a volume 
entitled " Turkey in Europe." Removing with 
two sons to British Columbia, he became a farmer 
and ranchman, and in 1884 he was sent to the 

legislature, in which he still retains a scat. Col. 
Baker in 1892 was minister of education and im- 
migration, also provincial secretary and minister 
of mines. He is a younger brother of Gen. 
Valentine Baker Pasha, and of Sir Samuel Baker, 
governor-general of the Soudan. 

ISAKER, Loran Ellis, merchant, b. in Yar- 
mouth, Nova Scotia, 13 May, 1831. He was edu- 
cated at Yarmouth academy, engaged in mercan- 
tile pursuits, and became a banker and ship-owner. 
Since 1874 he has been president of the bank of 
Yarmouth. He is also president of the Marine 
railway, and has twice held that office in the 
Western counties railway — first in 1873-'4, on the 
organization of the company, and again in 1881-'6. 
He is also interested in woollen mills and gold- 
nlines, and in 1887 became president and manager 
of the Yarmouth steamship line between Boston, 
Nova Scotia, and Cape Breton. He has been a 
member of the legislative council of Nova Scotia 
since 1878. He founded the Yarmouth free mu- 
seum and public library, and lias contributed in 
many other ways to the prosperity of the place. 

BAKER, Liicien, senator, b. in Ohio in 1846. 
At an early age he removed, with his parents, to 
Michigan, where he attended the public schools. 
In 1869 he removed to Kansas, took up his resi- 
dence in Leavenworth, aiul engaged in the practice 
of law. He followed his profession closely until 
1895, when, after the sweejiing victory at the polls 
in November, 1894, of the Republican parly, head- 
ed by E. N. Morrill, over the Populists, headed by 
Gov. L. D. Lewelling, and the Democrats, headed 
by David Overmyer, he was elected to the U. S. 
senate as a Republican, to succeed John Martin, 
Democrat, for the term ending 3 March, 1901. 

BAKER, Peter Carpenter, publisher, b. in 
North Hempstead, N. Y., 25 March, 1822 ; d. in 
New York city, 19 May, 1889. Four of his ances- 
tors were in the Revolutionary army. He entered 
a book-store in New York, learned the printer's 
trade, and in 1850. with Daniel Godwin, estab- 
lished the firm of Baker & Godwin, which made 
a sjiecialty of printing law-books and became 
widely known for fine work. In 1865 Mr. Baker 
established the law-publishing firm of Baker, 
Voorhis & Co., which is still in existence and has 
a large catalogue. Mr. Baker was one of the 
founders of the Metropolitan literary association, 
edited the " Steam Press," a patriotic periodical, 
during the civil war (1861-'.5), and originated the 
plan for a statue of Benjamin Franklin in Print- 
ing-house square. New York, which was given by 
Albert de Groot. He early became known as a 
public speaker, delivering orations at Fort Inde- 
pendence, N. Y., 4 July, 1848; at Trenton, N. J., 
4 July, 1849 ; and in the old Broadwaj- tabernacle. 
New York, on the anniversary of Bunker Hill, 
1853. He pulilished many addresses and mono- 
graphs, including, besides the orations noted 
above, "European Recollections" (New York, 1861) 
and •' Benjamin Franklin " (186.5). 

BAKER, M'illiam Spohn, antiquarian, b. in 
Philadelphia. Pa., 17 April, 1824; d. there. 10 Sept.. 
1897. He became a conveyancer, but later turned 
his attention to art and literary pursuits. Mr. 
Baker possessed a collection of engraved portraits of 
George Washington which was the most complete 
known, and his number of medals of Washington 
was second only to that of William S. Appleton, 
of Boston, while his collection of biographies of 
Washington was the most noted in existence. He 
was a member of the American philosophical so- 
ciety, one of the council of the Pennsylvania his- 
torical society, and for twelve years was vice-presi- 




dent of the Pennsvlvaiiitt academy of fine arts. He 
was till' author of " Origin and Antiijuity of En- 
graving " (Philadelphia, 1872; 2d e<l., illustrated, 
Boston, 1875) ; " American Kngravers and their 
Works" (Philadelphia, 1875); "William Sharp, 
Engraver, and his Works" (1875); "Engraved 
Portraits of Washington " (1880) ; " iMedallic Por- 
traits of Washington "(1885); "Character Portraits 
of Wu.shin},t.>ii (1887); " Bibliotheca Washing- 
toniana" (18Sl»): and " Itinerary of George Wash- 
ington from June 15, 1775, to I)«?c. 23, 1783"(1892); 
" Washington after the Revolution " (1887) : and 
" Washington in Philailclphia" (1897). Mr. Baker's 
collection of " Washingtotiiana" was bequeathed to 
the Historical society of IVnnsylvania. 

U.\LUWIN, Maurice Souliard, Canadian An- 
glican bishop, b. in Toronto, Canada. 21 June, 
1836. He was graduated at Trinity college, To- 
ronto, in 1859, ordained deacon in April, 1860, and 
became a presbyter in July, 1861. lie was incum- 
bent of Port Dover, Ont., in 1862-'5, and in 1870 
was appointed curate of Christ church cathedral, 
Montreal. He became canon of the cathedral in 
the following year, and in 1872 was electe<l rector 
of the parish. In 1882 he was ap|>ointed dean of 
Montreal, and on 17 Oct., 1883, was elected bishop 
of Huron, to which ofllce he was consecrated on 
30 Nov. of the same year. He received the degree 
o{ I). I), from Trinity college, Toronto, in 1882. 
Bishop Baldwin atteniled the Lambeth conferences 
of 1888 and 1897. He is the author of " A Break 
in the Ocean Cable" (.Montreal. 1877); " Life in a 
li<»k" (1N7») ; and a volume of " Sennoiis." 

it.U,LlN(;KR. William Pitt, jurist, b. in 
Barbourville, Knox co., Ky., 25 Sept., 1825; d. 
in (iaivcston, Tex., SO Jan., 1888. He was edu- 
cated at St. Mary's college, near Lebanon, Ky., re- 
moved to Texas at the age of eighteen, served as 
a private and afterward as adjutant and lieuten- 
ant during the Texan revolution, studied law, 
an<l was admitted to the bar in 1847. He began 
practice at Oalveston, was appointed V. S. attor- 
ney for the district of Texas in 1800, and was em- 
filoye<l as counsttl in many important cases, nota- 
>ly that between the city and the Galvestcm wharf 
company involving the title to the water-front of 
the city. He declined a [dace on the suiireme 
bench in 1871, and re»igne<l the ofllce imme<lialely 
after he a<-c<'ptcd it In 1874. In 1H75 he was a 
Mil inlM'r I'l the state constitutional convention. 

ltAN(iS, John Kendrirk, author, b. in Yon- 
ki.Ts, N. v., 27 May, 18*12. He was gradoated from 
Ciiluinliin, and studied law. Later he was associ- 
ate eilitor of " Life." and since 1888 has been eon- 
necte<l with '• Harjfcr's Magazine." He has lieen 
for several vears president of the Hnlslead school. 
Yonkers. 'Fhe following are among his many 
piililicalions : "Coffee and Kepartee " (New York, 
iNiCii: "Three Wwks in Politics "(181>4): "Water 
(1804); ".Mr. 
' A l{el)ellious Hero- 
ine' (1896); "The I'nrsnit of the Houseboat" 
(1S97): "Peeps at i'eople" (1888); and "The 
Hous«.U>«t on the Sivx" (1890). 

BANKIIKAI), Henry Clay, military officer, b. 
inUiiltiiiion-. M.I.. r>Oi-t., IH2M: iI. in Hayonne, X. J., 
9 Jan.. 1X94. He was graduated at the l*. S. mili- 
tary academy in June. IS-IO.cnlcreil the army, and 
in 1879. after attaining the rank of major of cav- 
alry, he was relireil for disabilities incurreil in the 
lineofdiity. Iletook [larl in the lialtles of Shiloh, 
Gettysburg, Five Fork.s, ami other famous engage- 
ments of the civil war. receiving the brevet of 
brigadier-general in both the regular and volunteer 
service for gallantry in the field. 

(iliosts, and other Stories' 
parte of Corsic^" (1895); 

BAKANDA. Joaquin, Mexican jurist, b. in 
Merida. Yucatan, 7 May, 1840. He was educated 
in Camiieehe, graduating there as a lawyer. He 
went to the state of Tamanlipas, and was ap{X>int- 
ed in succession to several important p()sitions, in- 
cluding that of attorney-general. When he re- 
turned to Cam|)cche be was appointed criminal 
judge. Since the fall of the empire he has served 
as judge of the district of Cainpcche, representa- 
tive to the 4th and 5tli congresses of the union, 
president of the supreme tribunal of justice of 
Campeche, governor of the state for three terms, 
magistrate of the circuit tribunal of Yucatin, Cam- 
pec-lie, Tobasco, and Chiapas, senator for the fed- 
eral district, secretary of justice and public in- 
struction, re-elected senator, and finally secretarv 
of justicw and public instruction in 1884. which 
tilace he still hold.s. In 1887 he established the 
bureau of records, with all its defiendencies. He 
was appointed secretary of the commissioners of 
Costa nica for the international conference of the 
American republics, and in 1891 was a delegate to 
the moiietarv confert-nce which met in Washington. 

BAKBOSA-BACELLAK, Antonio (bar-bo- 
sah), Portuguese author, b. in Oporto al>out 1600; 
d. in Cliagas in 1663. After finishing his studies 
at the L'niversity of Coimbra he taught law in 
the latter city, was afterwani civil judge at Bahia, 
and later judge of the supreme court of Brazil, 
but came into collision with the viceroy, and, 
resigning, retume<l to Portugal, and died in jx)v- 
erty at the hospital of Chagas. He wrote " Sla- 
tera veritatis, give pra'cipua ralionnm momenta 
pro Jure corona- l^usilania"" (LisImhi, 1641): 
" Itela^) da tomada da cidade dc Recife e ou- 
tras do Brazil" (1648); " Rclacao das victorias 
alcanfadas por as tropas do rey I>om Alfonso VI., 
sobre as de Castella" (1650) ; and KelaySo Diario 
do sitio e t^miada da forte prat^ado Recife, recupe- 
ra^ao das capitanias de Itamaraca, I'arahiba, iiio 
Grande, Ceara, e ilha de Fernando de Noronha, 
por F. Barreto, Mestre Gl. do estado do Brazil " 
(Ifl.'Vt). a very valuable work, which was translated 
into Italian'(Rome, 1665) and into French (Paris, 
1671). His poems were collected and printe<l in 
" I^henix renasi^ido, seu Obras poeticas dos mel- 
hoes engenhoes i'ortuguezcs " (Lisbtm, 1716). 

BARBOSA-MACHADO. Diogo, Portuguese 
bil>Ii.igra|)her, b. in Lisbon, 31 March. 1082 ; d. in 
Santo .\ilriano de Sever in 1770. He studied at 
the I'nivcraity of Coimbra, entered holy onlers in 
1?24. anil was" apjiointed in 1728 abbot of the eon- 
vent of .Santo Adriano de Sever, which post he re- 
tained till his death. He devote<l eighteen years 
to researches in convents, state archives, private 
and public libraries, and wrote "Bibliotheca Liisi- 
tana antigiia e nova, hi.storica, eritica e chrono- 
logica, na qiial sc coinprehende a noticia dos au- 
tores e das obras que compiizeram 
des<le o tempo da promulga<;ito da ley de grnva. ate 
o tempo presente ' (4 vols., Lislwn. 1741-'52). It 
contains biographical noticesof all Portuguese and 
Brazilian authors, a list of their works, and a com- 
plete catalogue of known unpublished manuscripts, 
and has [>rove<l invaluHblc for the history of Por- 
tuguese and Brazilian literature. BarlM)sa-Macha- 
do's great work was several times reprinted, and 
the bililiograpliical part of it was sejiaralely piib- 
lisheil. with notes and a<lditions by Ueiito Jos^ 
Farinha under the title "Sujnniarioila Bibliotheca 
Liisitana " (4 vols.. Coimbra, 18'20). — His brother. 
Ignaeio, Portuguese author, b. in Lisbon in 1682; 
d. ill Hnhiii, Brazil, in 1770. He was educated at 
the l'niversity of Coimbra, entered the magistra- 
ture, and was sent to Bahia, in Brazil, as civil judge 




in 1730, a position which he filled with great credit 
for thirteen years, when he entereil holy orders after 
the death of his wife. He was appointed histori- 
ographer of the provinces beyond the sea, and 
wrote " Nova relacjiio das iniportantes victorias 
que alcan^aram as arnias portnguezas na Brazil e 
India" (Lisbon, 1742) and " Fastos politicos e 
militares da antigua e nova Lusitania" (1745). 

BARBOUR, Liicieii, jurist, b. in Canton, 
Conn., 4 March, 1811; d. in Indianapolis, Ind., 19 
July, 1880. He was graduated at Amherst, weiit 
to fndiana, was licensed to practise, and began his 
professional career in Indianapolis. He was ap- 
pointed U. S. district attorney by President Polk 
for the district of Indiana ; was commissioner to 
codify the laws of Indiana in 1852 ; acted several 
times as arbitrator between the state of Indiana 
and private corporations, and was elected to the 
34th congress from Indiana, serving with ability 
and distinction from 1855 to 1857. 

BARDSEN, Ivor, Greenland magistrate, b. in 
Oster Bygd about 1300; d. there about 1350. 
Ele was steward or lay justice to the bishop of 
Gardar, and was sent, in 1339, to drive away the 
Esquimaux or Skrellings, who had made a descent 
upon the Vester Bygd, and to convey succor to 
the sister colony. He found on his arrival only 
wild cattle, which his people took on board their 
vessels and returned home. He wi'ote an account 
of his voyage, which was discovered in manuscript 
in the Danish archives and published by the Hak- 
luyt society, with original text and the English 
version, at the end of " The Voyages of the Ve- 
netian Brothers Nicolo and Antonio Zeno to the 
Northern Seas, in the 14th Century, compris- 
ing the Latest Account of the Lost Colony of 
Greenland, and of the Northmen in America, be- 
fore Columbus " (London, 1873). It confirms the 
voyages of the Zeno brothers, and places the date 
of the destruction of the colony of Vester Bygd, 
of which Pope Nicholas V. spoke in a letter of 
1448, recently discovered, at about 1337. 

BARKER, Albert Smith, naval officer, b. in 
Hanson, Mass., 31 March, 1843. He was graduated 
from the U. S. naval academy in May, 1861, and 
served on the steam-frigate " Mississippi,"' being 
aboard at the bombardment and passage of Ports 
Jackson and St. Philip, the Chalmette batteries, 
and the capture of New Orleans, also at the at- 
tempted passage of Port Hudson, where the " Mis- 
sissippi " was destroyed. He then joined the " Mo- 
nongahela," taking part in the siege of Port Hud- 
son and subsequent fights, until the Mississippi 
was in complete control of the north. He was 
promoted ensign, February, 1863. lieutenant, Feb- 
ruary, 1864, commander, March, 1877, and captain. 
May, 1893. In the war with Spain he commanded 
the cruiser " Newark," and in the following year 
the celebrated battle-ship "Oregon," succeeding 
Admiral Dewey in command of the Asiatic squad- 
ron at Manila, which he retained until relieved by 
the arrival of Admiral Watson in July, 1899.— Hi's 
wife, Ellen Blackmer, b. in West" Springfield, 
Pa., 13 June, 1859, married in 1879 the Rev. Allen 
J. Maxwell, who died in Lucknow, India, in 1890. 
Four years later she married Capt. Barker. 
Among her published volumes are the stories of 
" The Bishop's Conversion," " Three Old Maids in 
Hawaii." and "The Way of Fire." 

BARKER, Wharton, banker, b. in Philadel- 
phia, 1 May, 1846. He is a son of Abraham Barker, 
for half a century a member of the Philadelphia 
stock exchange, and a grandson of Jacob Barker 
(?. v.), of New Orleans. He was graduated at the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1866, previous to 

which he commanded a company of colored troops 
during the civil war. He became a member of 
the banking firm of Barker Bros. & Co., and in 
1878 was appointed financial agent in the United 
States of Russia, and intrusted with the building 
of four cruisers for that government. In 1869 lie 
founded the " Penn Monthly," and in 1880 it wa.s 
merged into "The American," which he still owns 
and edits. He was a Republican until 1896, since 
then a Populist ; by this party he will probably be 
nominated for tlie next presidency. 

BARKER, William Morri8,P. E. bishop, b 
in Towanda, Pa., 12 May, 1854. He was grad- 
uated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1873, 
and from the Berkeley divinity school six years 
later. He was ordained deacon and priest, and 
was successively rector of St. Paul's, Washington, 
St. Luke's, Baltimore, and St. Paul's, Duluth. 
Dr. Morris was consecrated bishop of western Colo- 
rado in January, 1893, and a year later was trans- 
lated to the .see of Olymiiia. 

BARNARD, (Jeorge tirey, sculjitor, b. in Belle- 
fonte. Pa., 34 May. 1803. He studied for a year 
at the Chicago art institute, and then for four 
years at the ficole nationale des beaux-arts, Paris, 
where he first exhibited in 1894. His studio is 
in New York city, and his principal works are 
" Brotherly Love," " Norway," " 1 wo Natures," 
in the Metropolitan museum of art, and " The God 
Pan," also in the museiun. He is engaged on " The 
Hewer," for the Paris exposition. 

BARNES, Alfred Smith, publisher, b. in New 
Haven, Conn., 28 Jan., 1817 ; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
17 Feb., 1888. He entered the book-publishing 
business at sixteen years of age in Hartford, Conn.. 
went to New York in 1835, and in 1838 formed a 
partnership with Prof. Charles Davies for the pub- 
lication of the latter's mathematical works. He re- 
moved to Philadelphia in 1840, but returned to New 
York in 1845, and continued in the active manage- 
ment of his business till 1880. Soon after settling 
in New York he formed the plan of publishing the 
" National Series of Standard School-Books," and 
the firm's principal business hsis been in educa- 
tional works. Mr. Barnes was interested in the es- 
tablishment of the elevated railroads of New York 
city, and was connected with the central branch of 
the Union Pacific railroad, and several banking 
and insurance institutions. He left $35,000 to be 
equally divided between twenty-five educational 
institutions, $25,000 to be equally divided between 
five religious societies, and $45,000 to the Young 
men's Christian association of Cornell university. 

BARNES, James, author, b. at Annapolis, Md., 
19 Sept., 1866. His father is Lieut.-Coni. John T. 
Barnes (a son of Gen. James Barnes) and his 
mother, Susan Bainbridge. a granddaughter of 
Commodore Bainbridge. The son studied at St. 
Paul's school, Concord, N. H., and after a few 
years in the west, where in 1885-'7 he assisted as 
a civil engineer in the construction of the Missouri 
Pacific railroad, entered Princeton, where lie was 
griiduated in 1891. During his college course he 
was an editor of the " Nassau Literary Magazine." 
After graduation he was connected for a time with 
" Seribner's Magazine," and in 1894-'5 he was as- 
sistant editor of " Harper's Weekly." He has pub- 
lished " For King or Country " (New York, 1895) : 
"Naval Actions of the War 'of 1812" (1896); "A 
Princetonian," " Jlidshipman Farragut." a boy's 
book, " A Loyal Traitor "' (1897) ; " Conimo<lore 
Bainbridge." " Yankee Ships and Yankee Sailors," 
and "The Hero of Erie" (1898). 

BARNSTON, George, Canadian manufacturer, 
b. in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1800 ; d. in Mont- 




real. Canada, 14 March, 1883. lie came to this 
country in 1820, connected himself with the Hud- 
son hay eom[»iny, and estal)lislu>d the first factory 
on the Fraser river, in British Columbia. He as- 
sisted in fitting out Sir John Franklin's party in 
1824, and thirty years later aided the arctic ex- 
peditions under Dr. .John Kae, Kol>ert Stuart, and 
others. He retiretl from the Hudson bay coni|)any 
in 1807. and subsecjuently devoted mucli time anil 
research to collecting Canadian botanic and zoo- 
logical s[>e<:imens for the British museum and 
other scientific institutions. He was president of 
the Montreal natural history society. 

B.4KK, Robert, author,' b. in Glasgow, Scot- 
land, 16 Sept., 1850. He was taken to Canada 
when he was four years old ; attended the Normal 
school, Toronto; learned the carpenter's trade, and 
afterwanl fitted himself to be a teacher, which 
occii[>8tion he followed for some time. He then 
removed to the L'nited .States and l)ec;»nie con- 
nected with the Detroit " Free Press," to which he 
contribute<l humorous sketches under the pen- 
name of " Luke .Sharp." In 1881 he established 
the English edition of the " Free Press " in Lon- 
don, where he has .since resided, either in the city 
or its suburl(8. With Jerome K. Jerome he fountf- 
ed in London '"The Idler." but he afterward re- 
tired from it to devote himself to story-writing. 
He has published " In a Steamer Chair" (New 
York, 18ltO): "In the Midst of Alarms" (1894); 
"The Fa<-c and the Mask" (1894); "A Woman 
Intervenes" (189(1): " From whos*- Bourne" (1896); 
" One Day's Courtship " (1896) ; " Revenge " (1897) ; 
"The Mutable Many" (1897); "Medinval Tales" 
(1898) ; and " The Countess Teckla" (1898). Most 
of these arc (•ollections of short stories. 

BAHRINGGK. KnriiN. lawver, b. in Cal>arrus 
county. X. ('.. 2 Dec. 1H21 ; d. in Charlotte, X. C., 8 
Feb., 1895. He was gradiiat<-il from the I'niver- 
sity of North Carolina in 1842. With his brother 
Moreau he studied law, was admitted to the bar, 
and began practice at Concord. In 1848 he was 
sent to the slate legislature as a Whig: in 1850 
he was made a state senator, and in 1800 he scrve<i 
as an elwlor on the H<'II and Kverett ticket. He 
was a firm iH'liever in the I'nion. but at the out- 
break of the civil war he went with hi.s state, and 
raised a com jmny of cavalry, of which he was com- 
missioned captain. He was promoted major 20 
Aug.. 186:1. and lieutenant-colonel three months 
later. In June. 1864, he was commissioned briga- 
dier-general, and a.ssigned to the command of the 
North Carolina cavalry brigade, consisting of the 
Isl. 2il. :)d, and .5th regiments. He took part in 
70 actions, and was several times severely woundinl. 
After the war he removed to ('harlotte and l)egan 
the practice of law, advocating the acceptance of 
the reconstruction acts of 1867. In 1870 he was 
elected to the state constitutional convention ; in 
1880 he was an unsuccessful candidate fr)r licu- 
tcnaiit-govcmiir. atid he was also a member of the 
Republican convention that nominatedCarfield for 
the pre-sidency. In 1884 he retired from the prac- 
tice of law; he busied himself with his farm, and 
with writing reminis<'cntial sketches of the civil 
war and articles on North Carolina history. 

KARROS ARANA. Mt^u (Im r-ms-'ah-ra h- 
n8h)|Chilinn historian, b. in Santiago. 10 Aug.. ISJO. 
He belonged to a wealthy family. receive<l an ex- 
cellent education, anil in 1843 entered the In.sti- 
tuto Nacional. where he pre|iared himself for the 
study of law, but feeble health force<l him in 1849 
to afmnilon profes-sional studies. He Ihenwforth 
gave himself entirely to literary and historical pur- 
suits, gathering a great number of documents on 
TOL. vii. — ,<? 

the history of his country, and soon acquired repu- 
tation as a laborious investigator. His first essay 
was the publication, in 1850, of an historical sketch 
on the campaigns of 1818-'21, the favorable re- 
ception of which encouraged him to begin an ex- 
tensive history of Chilian independence, and in 
1853 he founded the literary magazine " El Museo." 
In 18.55 he was elected member of the faculty of 
humanities and philosophy of the university, of 
which he became rector in 1801. After 18.57 he 
took part in r)olitics, and was a eontribntor to 
"El Pais" and "La Actualidad." He travelled 
through the Argentine Republic. Uruguay, Brazil, 
England, France, and Spain, searching the gov- 
ernment archives and public ami private libraries 
for documents on the history of South America, 
and in Simancas he discovered the inainiscript of 
the historical poem of Fernando Alvarez de To- 
ledo {q. v.), " Puren Indomito," which he pub- 
lished (Leipsic, 1860). After the political change 
of 1861 he returned to his country, and was elected 
in 1803 rector of the Instituto Nscional, where he 
still occupies the chair of history of literature. 
In 1864 he founded the magaziiie "Correo del 
Domingo," and in 1875, with Miguel Luis Amu- 
nitegui, the " Revista Chilena." In 1876 Barros 
was appointed minister to Chili, and in 1898 was 
commissioner for settlement of boundary between 
Chili and the Argentine Republic. He is a mem- 
ber of the historical institute of Brazil, and is the 
owner of one of the most extensive libraries in 
South America, containing valuable historical 
documents, which will be given to the library of 
the Instituto Nacional. He has written " Rstuilios 
Historicos sobre Vicente Benavides y la campafla 
del Sur 1818-1821 " (Santiago, 1850); " El general 
Freirc" (1851); "Historia dc la Indefiendencia 
de Chile" (4 vols., 1854-'8); " Ijis campafiH.s de 
Chiloe" (18.57); "Vida v V'iajes de Hernando de 
Magallanes" (1864); "Oompendio de la Historia 
de America" (1865) and an elementary extract of 
the same ( 1871) ; " Elementos de Literatura " (1808); 
" Historia modernay contem|)fininca " (1870); " His- 
toria de Literatura " (1870); "Oeografia Fisica y 
Descriptiva"(1871); " Manual ilecomposicion lite- 
raria" (1871); " Riquezas de los antigufw Jesuitas 
de Chile" (1872); " I'rocesode Pedro de V'aldivia" 
(1873); "Don Claudio Oay, Estudio biogrAfico" 
(1876); "HIstoire de la Guerre du Pacifique," 
written by order of the government (2 vols., Paris, 
1881); an<l "Historia General de Chile" in 12 
octavo volumes (.Santiago. 1884-'03). 

BARROWS, Walter Manning, clergyman, b. 
in Franklin. Mich., 12 April, 1840 : d. on Alackinac 
island, 10 Aug., 18i>l(. He was the son of the late 
Pnjf. John M. Barrows, of Olivet college, was 
graduated from Olivet, and studied theology in 
New Haven, New Vork. and AnJover. He was 
filled with the missionary spirit, anil for eight 
years was pastor of the l-irst Congregutional 
church at .Salt liake City, and was one of the 
founders of the Salt Lake academy. On account 
of his executive ability, his knowlei^ge of the west, 
and his powers of sjioech, he was elected secretary 
of the American home missionary society, with 
office's in New York, a place he )ield for seven 
years. Then for ten years Dr. Barrows was pastor 
of the Second Congregational church of Rockford, 
III. Owing to his determination the new edifice, 
one of the finest in the west, was built, and after 
it had burned down was rebuilt at a cost of more 
than ♦1(H),(K)0. In 1897 he accepted a call to the 
Second Congregational churchof Greenwich, Conn. 
— His brother. John Henry, b. in Medina. Mich., 
11 July, 1847, wius graduated at Olivet, and studied 




at Tale, Union, and Andover theological semi- 
naries, lie was for fourteen years pastor of the 
First Presbyterian church, Cliicago, and president 
of the World's parliament of religions in 1893. 
Later he was a lecturer in India, at the Union 
theological seminary, and in the University of 
Chicago. In 1898 Dr. Barrows was elected presi- 
dent of Oberlin college. He is the author of " The 
Gospels are True Histories" (Boston, 1890); "I 
Believe in God" (Chicago, 1891); "The World's 
Parliament of Religions" (1893); "Lite of Henry 
Wan! Beecher" (New York, 1893); "A World 
Pilgrimage" (Chicago, 1898); "Christianity, the 
World Religion." and "The Christian Conquest 
of Asia ': (Xew York, 1899). 

BARRYMORE. Maurice (Herbert Blythe), act- 
or, b. in India in 1847. He was graduated at Oxford 
university, and studied for the Indian civil service. 
He was admitted to the English bar, butabandoned 
the law for the stage. His first engagement in 
the United States was at the Fifth avenue thea- 
ter, and he has since played with ModjesUa, Mrs. 
Langtrv. and others, and with various companies. 
He is the author of " Nadjeska." " The Robber of 
the Rhine," and other i)lays.— His wife, Geor^iaiia 
Drew BaiTvmore, actress, b. in Philadelphia in 
185(i; d. in Santa Haibara, Cal., 2 July, 1893. She 
was a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John Drew, and 
made her first appearance in the Arch street thea- 
ter, Philadelphia, in 1872, in " The Ladies' Battle," 
and continued to be a member of her mother's 
stock company for several years. In 1876 she was 
married to Maurice Barrynfore, and their daughter, 
Ethel Barrymore, is now (1899) in Sir Ilenry Irv- 
ing's company. Mrs. Barrymore was an accom- 
plished actress, and during her career played with 
Edwin Booth, Barrett. Modjeska, and her husband. 
She last ajjpeared in New York in 1892. 

BARTLETT, Sir Ellis Ashmead, statesman, b. 
in Plymouth. Mass.. in 1849. He was graduated at 
Oxford university with honors in 1877. and three 
years later admitted to the English bar. He was 
elected to parliament in 1883, and became a civil 
lord of admiralty in 1886. Sir Ellis is the author 
of "The Battlefield of Thessaly " (London. 1897). 
—His younger brother, William Leliiiiaii Ash- 
mead, b. in Plymouth, Mass., in 1851, was gradu- 
ated at O.xford university. He became private 
secretary to the Baroness Burdett-Coutts, and in 
1881 her husband, then assuming her name. 

BARDS, Carl, physicist, b. in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
19 Feb., 18o6. lie was educated in the public 
schools of Cincinnati, graduating at the high 
school, where he received the Ray silver medal for 
proficiency in mathematics, after which he entered 
the school of mines of Columbia university, study- 
ing civil and mining engineering and chemistry ; 
and in the University of Wiir/.hurg, where he re- 
ceived the degree of Ph. D. in 1879 (summa cum 
laude), where also he acted as assistant for two 
years. On his return to the United States lie en- 
tered the U. S. geological survey, and was given 
charge of certain investigations in physical geology. 
Subsequently he was appointed professor of meteo- 
rology in the U. S. weather bureau, where he inves- 
tigated the condensation of atmospheric moisture. 
Later he was intrusted with important aeronautical 
experiments for the Smithsonian institution. In 
1895 he was called to the chair of physics in Brown 
university, which he still retains. He was elected 
a fellow of the American academy of Massachusetts 
in 1887, and a member of the National academy of 
sciences in 1892, and in 1897 presided over the sec- 
tion on physics of the American association for the 
advancement of science. Dr. Barus is the author of 

numerous scientific monographs and papers, sev- 
eral of which form bulletins in the series published 
by the U. S. geological survey. He was also a 
member of the committee appointed by congress 
in the session of 1895 to draw up specifications for 
the electrical standards of the United States. 

BATE, William Bremage, senator, b. near 
Castilian Springs, Tenn., 7 Oct., 1826. He received 
an academic education in his native county of 
Sumner, and when quite young acted as second 
clerk on a steamboat plying between Nashville 
and New Orleans. He volunteered as a private 
and served through the Mexican war, attaining 
the rank of lientenaiit in the .3d Tennessee in- 
fantry. He was editor and proprietor of a news- 
paper published at Gallatin, Tenn., called the 
"Tenth Legion." He became a member of the 
legislature of his native state in 1849, graduated 
from the Lebanon, Tenn., law-school in 1852, and 
entered upon the practice of law at Gallatin. In 
1854 he was elected attorney-general for the Nash- 
ville district for a period of four years. During his 
term of olfice he was nominated for congress and 
declined. He was a presidential elector on the 
Breckenridge-Lane ticket in 1800. He entered 
the Confederate army as a private, and was pro- 
moted successively to captain, colonel, brigadier 
and nuijor general, surrendering with the Army of 
Tennessee in 1865. He was tiiree times danger- 
ously wounded. At the close of the war he re- 
turned to Tennessee and resumed tlie practice of 
law. He was a delegate to the national Democratic 
convention in 1808, served on the national Demo- 
cratic executive committee for Tennessee for 
twelve years, was an elector for the slate at large 
on the Tilden and Hendricks ticket in 1870. .Six 
years later he was elected governor of Tennessee, 
and re-elected in 1884 without opposition. He 
was twice narrowly defeated for U. S. senator, the 
first contest being against Andrew Johnson, and 
on one roll-call he was elected by one vote, but it 
was changed before the result was announced. In 
Jaiuiary, 1887, he was elected to the U. S. senate, 
anil was re-elected in 1893. and again in 1899. 

BATES, Alfred Elliott, sol.licr, b. in .Monroe, 
Mich., 15 July, 1840. He was gradiuited from the 
U. S. military academy in June, 1865, and entered 
the army, 2d cavalry, as 2d lieutenant, seeing 
much Indian service during the ten years prior to 
his appointment as paymaster, with the rank of 
major, in 1875. He served in various departments 
until appointed military attache in London in 1898, 
and to Paris the year following. In .Inly, 1899, 
he was promoted to brigadier-general, and ap- 
pointed paymaster-general, U. .S. army. He c<m- 
tributed a chapter to Rodenbongh's " From Ever- 
glade to Canon with Second Dragoons," and was 
associated with the late Gen. Etnery Upton (q. v.) 
in compiling the "Cavalrv Tactics of 1874." 

BATTERSON. Hernioii (iriswold, clergy- 
man, b. in Marbledale. Litchfield co.. Conn., 28 
May, 1827. He was educated privately, and or- 
dained to the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal 
church. He has held rectorships in San .intonio, 
Tex., in Waliasha, Jliini., and in Philadelphia. 
Nebraska college gave him the degree of I). I). 
He has published " Missionary Tune-Book "(Phila- 
delphia, 1867) ; "The Churchman's Hymn-Book" 
(1870); "Sketch-Book of the American Episcopate" 
(1878); "Christinas Carols, and other Verses" 
(1878) ; " The Pathway of Faith " (1885) ; " :\Iannal 
of Plain Song"; and " Vesper Bells." — His elder 
brother, James (Joodwin, is president of the New 
England granite-works, and of the Travellers' 
insurance company of Hartford, which he founded. 




BAXTER, Algernon Sidney, broker, b. in 
RockingliHin, Vt., 14 Nov.. 1S19 ; d. in New Yorlc 
city, 29 April, 18U7. He was a si)n of Judge Hor- 
ace Baxter, of Vermont, and after acomnioii-scliool 
ediicaliiiD he went to Boston, and later to St. Louis, 
where he was a merchant, and tiecame acquainted 
with Ca|)t. U. S. Grant. Soon after the war be- 
gan, he was on the staff of Grant as quartermaster, 
with the rank of captain. At Siiiloh he carried 
to Gen. Wallace that celebrated despatch which 
caused so much controversy. Grant, in his " Per- 
sonal Memoirs," says: "Capt. Baxter, a qnarter- 
master on my staff, was ai'conlingly directed to 
go ba<-k ami order Gen. Wallace to march immedi- 
ately to Pittsburg by the road nearest to the river. 
Capt. Baxter made a memorandum of this order. 
. . . Gen. Wallace has since claimed that the order 
deiivert<i to him by the captain wa.s simply to 
join the right of the army." Baxter's condition 
of health com[>elled him soon after to leave the 
service, when he 8eltle<l in New York city, pursu- 
ing a successful career as a broker in Wall street. 
He was the last survivor of those officers who 
served on Gen. Grant's staff in the successful bat- 
tles of Fort Donelson and .Shiloh. 

BAXTER, James Phinner, author, b. in 6or- 
ham. Me., 23 March, 1831. He was educated in 
Portland, Me., and l^ynn, Mass., and became a mer- 
chant and manufacturer. He organized the Asso- 
ciated cliaritii-s in Portland, and was instrumental 
in founding the Maine industrial school for girls. 
Mr. Baxter in 1S87 presented to the I'ortland pub- 
lic library, the Portland scwietr of art, and the 
Maine historical societv, conjointly, a lot of land, 
and is erecting u|>on it, at a cost of tlOO.IMX), a 
building for these societies. lie is the author of a 
volume of poems entitled "Idyls of the Year" 
(Porllan<l. 18»4); "The Trelawiiey Pafiers.," pub- 
lished as the Sd volume of the " Documentary His- 
tory of Maine " (1884) ; " George Cleeve, of C'a.*co 
Bay, 1K«)-I6fl7" (1885); and "Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges and his Province of Maine" (1889). He 
has also e«lile<l " I)igby's Journal," the writer of 
which served under Burgoyne. under the title of 
"The British Invasion from the North " (Albany, 
1887), and the 4th volume of the "Documentary 
History of Maine." containing dwumenls from 
American atid foreign archives (Portland. 1889). 

BAVLOR, FranoPH Conrtenay. author, b. in 
Fayettevdle, Ark., 20 Jan.. I84.S. She was etlu- 
caled at home, and has travelled extensivelv. Her 
present residence Is Winchester. Va. Miss Baylor's 
principHl (iublicatiotisare"On Both Sides " (Phila- 
delphia. I88«).'-Juan and Juanila" (Boston, 1887). 
"Behind the Blue Kidge" (Philndeliihia, 1888). 
"ShiK-king KxamiOes. and other Sketciies" (18S0). 
"Claudia Hvde" (New York. 18!)4). "Miss Nina 
Barrow" (1897). and "The Lailder of Fortune" 
(Boston. 181i9i. Her first work is very entertain- 
ing, and has iH'pn liighlv coinmcnde<l. 

BEAN, Tarletoii HofTinun, ichthyologist, h. 
in Bairibridge. Lancaster co . Pa.. 8 Oct.. 1840. 
After graduation at the Columbian university. 
Wiishington. !>.(;.. he was principal of Smyrna 
seminary. Delaware, and of the high school in 
Wilki-slmrre, Pa. In 1874 he became cnnnected 
with the V. S. fish cominissiim. was curator of the 
department of fishes in the U. S. nati<inal muwum. 
ichthyologist and iLssislant in charge of the di- 
vision of llsh culture. V. S. fish commission, and 
editor of il.s publications. With Dr. G. Brown 
Goo<Ie he ha* written an important memoir on 
the "Deep-Sea Fishes of the Atlantic Basin." 
Twice he visitol Alaska, in 1884 and 1889. to in- 
restigate and report on fisheries. Dr. Beau was 

for two years in charge of the Castle garden aqua- 
rium, of New York, which was opened in 1896. 

BEARDSLEE, Lester Anthony, naval officer, 
b. in Little Falls, N. Y., 1 Feb., 1835. He was 
graduated at the V. S. naval academy in 1856, 
served as a midshipman under Coinmcjdore Perry 
when, in IS-W, he opened Japan to commerce. In 
October, 1864, he was, as licutenanl-conimander. ex- 
ecutive officer of the " Wachuset " when she caught 
the Confederate privateer "Florida" in Bahia, 
Brazil, and he brought the prize to the United 
States as commanding officer. After the civil war 
he served as the naval member of the board for 
testing American ineluls. In July. 1869. as com- 
mander of the gunboat " Palos " on the way to 
China, he carried the first American flag thrdugh 
the Suez canal. In 188(>-'3 he had charge of the 
government of southeastern Alaska. In 1894-'7, 
as rear-a<lniiral. he commanded the U. S. forces in 
the Pacific station, and was retired in February, 
1898. Admiral Bcardslee is the author of vari- 
ousofllcial reimrts. includingthoseon the "Strength 
of Metals." the " Resources of Ala.ska." and on the 
"Present Condition of Affairs in Hawaii," frora 
which country he returned in 1897. These are pub- 
lished among the senate executive do<'unienls. 

BEATY, Janiet) (l>ee-ty). Canadian lawyer, b. 
in Trafalgar. (»nt«rio, 10 Nov.. 1831. His parents 
were Irish. He was educated in Toronto, studied 
law, was called to the bar in 185.5. and practised 
his profe8.sion. In 1873 he was appointeil queen's 
coun.«el. He was made alderman of Toronto in 
1877, anil in that year intriKluced the '' Bealy by- 
law." changing the entire management of the civic 
business. He l)ccame mayor in 1878. and was re- 
elected to this office in the following term. He is 
a bencher of the Imw society of Ontario, is head of 
the legal firm of Beaty, Hamilton & Ca.«sels. and 
has been for fifty years a justice of the court of 
apiK-als for Ontario. He was elected to parlia- 
ment from West Toronto in 1880. and continued 
a memt)er to the close of 1887. He was chairman 
of a committee of parliament, a founder of the 
Confederation life a-s-socintion. and president and 
a director of many institutions and associations in 
Toronto. In 1884 he became president of the 
Northwest Central railway company. Trinity col- 
lege, Toronto, pave him tiie degrees of B. C. L. 
and D. C. L. Flc is the author of "Paying the 
Pa«tor Cnscriptural and Tradilional" (London, 
1SS5). — His uncle. JaiueH Beaty, b. in Cavan. Ire- 
lan<l. in 1798. iH-canie a memlier of parliament for 
Kast Toronto in 1867, was for twcnty-tive years 
proprietor of the " Ix^ader." an organ of the Con- 
.servative |>arty. and was a founder of various chari- 
table anil monetary institutions in Toronto. 

BEAI'URY. KonU Nnpuleon, clergyman, b. in 
Highgate, Franklin co., Vl., 11 Aug., 183.1. He is 
of French-Canadian parentage, and was a Roman 
Catholic, but was converted to Protestantism 
through the influence of his classmate, the Uev. 
Josi'ph Cofik, became a Methodist, and entered the 
Troy conference in 18.50. He studied in Troy 
university, but left without graduation, and be- 
came chaplain of the 5th New York regiment of 
ca%'alry on 31 Jan.. 1863. After jiarticipatiiig in 
manv battles, he was capture<l and spent the sum- 
mer 'of 18IW in Lil)by nri.son. On 19 July. 1805, 
he was honorably discharged from the service. 
Since 1876 he has iH-en a member of the Montreal 
conference, and was superintendent of the French 
district of the conference, and professor of theol- 
otry in Wesleyan theological college. Montreal. 
Mr. Beainlry is the author of "Army and Prison 
Experiences with the Fifth New York Cavalry " 




(Albany, 1865) ; " Spiritual Struggles of a Roman 
Catholic" (New York, 187.5; Glli Canadian ed., 
Toronto, 1883; French translation, Montreal, 1883; 
Spanish translation, 1884). 

BEACSOLEIL, Cl^ophas, Canadian lawyer, b. 
in St. Felix du Valois. Canada East, 19 June, 1845. 
After receiving his education at Joliette college, 
he studied law in Montreal, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1880. For years he has been a member 
of the city council of Montreal, and has held other 
local offices. He was elected to the house of com- 
mons of Canada in January, 1887, and since 1896 
has been chairman of the standing committee on 
expiring laws. From 1866 till 1875 he was con- 
nected with the " Press," and subsequently with 
"L'Ordre" of Montreal and " L'Evenement " of 
Quebec. Fie was chief editor of " Le Nouveau 
Monde" in 1870-'4, and in the latter year estab- 
lished " Le Bien Public." In 1881 lie entered 
into partnership with Honore Mercier, premier of 
Quebec, and he now practises in Montreal as a 
member of the firm of Beausoleil, Choquet & 
Girard. Mr. Beausoleil has published " Reforme 
du tarif Canadien," a i)lea for protection to home 
industries (Montreal, 1872). — His younger brother, 
Joseph Maxime, is a prominent physician, and 
has been editor of " Le Journal d'Hygiene Popu- 
laire " and " La Gazette Medieale de Montreal." 

BEAVEN, Thomas Daniel, R. C. bishop, b. at 
Springfield, Mass., in 1849. He received his edu- 
cation in the Jesuit college of the holy cross, at 
Worcester, where he was graduated in 1870, and 
was for two years afterward a professor in the Col- 
lege of Loyola, at Baltimore. In order to complete 
his ecclesiastical course of studies he went to the 
College of Montreal, in 1872, and was then or- 
dained in the priesthood in 1875. He then served 
as assistant pastor at St. Mary'schurch, at Spejieer, 
Mass., and in 1879 he became its pastor. In May, 
1882, he laid the foundations of the Church of St. 
Mary's, at Spencer, which he brought to successful 
completion, and which was dedicated by Bishop 
O'Reilly. Here he performed missionary work for 
thirteen years, when, in 1889, he was called to take 
charge of the Church of the holy rosary, at Hol- 
yoke, Mass. At the centenary celebration of George- 
town university, in 1889, he received the degree of 
D. D. While thus engaged at Holyoke he was 
appointed to succeed Bishop O'Reilly' as bishop of 
Springfield, and was consecrated in 1892. 

BEE, Hamilton Priolean, soldier, b. in 
Charleston, S. C. 22 Julv, 1822 ; d. at San Antonio, 
Tex., 3 Oct., 1897. In 1839 he was appointed secre- 
tary on the part of Texas to the commission to run 
the boundary line between Texas and the United 
States from the mouth of Sabine bay to Red river. 
Gens. George G. Meade and Joseph E. Johnston 
were the army engineers engaged in the work. In 
March, 1863, he was sent by President Houston of 
Texas as a member of a commission to treat with 
the Comanche Indians. The Comanches at first 
refused to recognize their flag, and made them 
prisoners, but eventually treated witli and released 
them. He was secretary of the Texas senate in 
1846, but after hostilities commenced with Mexico 
he resigned and joined Gen. Ben McCuUoch's 
Texas cavalry. He was engaged in the battle of 
Monterey, and was promoted 1st lieutenant under 
the command of Gen. Mirabeau 15. Lamar. Early 
in 1861 he was appointed brigadier-general of the 

Provisional army of Texas, and was appointed 
rigadier-generai in the Confederate army, 4 
March, 1862. lie was a brother of Gen. Bernard 
Elliott Bee, of the Confederacy (q. v.), who was 
killed at the battle of Bull Run in July, 1861. 

BEERS, William George, Canadian dentist, 
b. in Montreal, 5 May, 1846. He was educated at 
McGill college, studied dentistry, and was secre- 
tary of examiners from 1868 till 1879, and also 
served as president and vice-president. In 1868 
he founded the Canadian " Journal of Dental Sci- 
ence," which he edited, and he has contributed ex- 
tensively to journals of dentistry in the Unite<I 
States. He was the first to make laws for the In- 
dian game of lacrosse, and had it adopted as the 
national field-game of Canada in 1864. His la- 
crosse team, of which he is captain, visited the 
British isles in 1876 and 1883, and was one of the 
founders in 1893 of the Canadian national league. 
Dr. Beers has published many magazine articles 
on Canada and its sports, and is the author of 
"Lacrosse, the National Game of Canada" (1869), 
and '• Over the Snow " (1883). 

BEGBIE, Sir Matthew Baillie, Canadian ju- 
rist, b. in the island of Mauritius, 13 Sept.. 1819; 
d. in "Victoria, British Columbia, 2 June, 1894. He 
was graduated at Cambridge, England, in 1841, and 
became a fellow there in 1846. He was called to the 
English bar, and subsequently came to Canada. la 
1858 he was made judge of British Columbia, and 
also judge of the vice-admiralty court in the same 
province. He became acting chief justice of Van- 
couver's island in 1871, and in the same year chief 
justice of the united colonies of British Columbia. 
In 1875 he received the honor of knighthood. 

BEGIN, Loiils-Nazaire, R. C. archbishop, b. 
at Levis, Canada, 10 Jan., 1840. In 1857 he was 
sent to the Seminary of Quebec, where he re- 
mained until 1862, receiving the Laval degree and 
winning the Prince of Wales medal. He after- 
ward entered the Grand seminary of Quebec to 
pursue his theological studies, going to Rome to 
continue them in 1863. In Italy he was ordained 
a priest in 1865. He also while abroad travelled 
in the Holy Land, pursuing special biblical and 
historical studies, and subsequently studied his- 
tory and languages at the Catholic university of 
Innspruck. Returning to Quebec in 1868, he be- 
came professor of dogmatic theology and ecclesias- 
tical history in Laval university, and was also pre- 
fect of studies in the Little seminary. In 1884 he 
accompanied Archbishop Taschereau to Rome to 
defend the rights of Laval university, was ap- 
pointed bishop of Chicoutimi, and was consecrated 
at Quebec cathedral titular archbishop of Cyrene, 
which he still holds. He became coadjutor to 
Cardinal Taschereau, and since his death has ad- 
ministered the archdiocese of Quebec as adminis- 
trator. The works of Dr. Begin, some of wliich 
have received English translations, are as follows: 
" La primaute et rinfaillibilite des Souvereins 
Pontifes" (Quebec. 1873); " La Sainte Ecriture et 
la Rfegle do Foi " (Quebec. 1874) ; '■ Le Culte Catho- 
lique, etc." (Quebec, 1875) ; " The Bjble and the 
Rule of Faith," translated from the French by G. 
M. Ward (1875); "Chronologic de I'Histoire du 
Canada" (Quebec, 1895); " Chronologic de I'His- 
toire des Etats-LInis d'Amerique" (Quebec, 1895); 
and many published discourses. 

BELASCO, David, dramatist, b. in San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., 25 July, 1858. He was graduated at 
Lincoln high-school, San Francisco, in 1876, and 
from an early age has frequently appeared on the 
stage. He was stage manager in 1879-'81 of the 
Baldwin theatre, the Grand opera-house, and the 
California theatre in San Francisco, in 1881 of the 
Madison square theatre. New York, and in 1886 
became manager of the Ijvceuni theatre in that 
city. Mr. Belasco's principal plays are " Hearts 
of Oak," " La Belle Russe," " May Blossom,"" Vale- 




rie." and. with Henry C. DeMille. " The Wife," 
"The Heart of Maryhiiul," " Men anil Women," 
"Tlie Charity Ball," anil " Lord C'humlcy." 

BELDEN, James Jerome, oonf;ressman, b. in 
Fabiiis, Onondaga eo., N. Y., 30 Sept., 1825. He 
received a eonimon-school education, and has been 
actively engaged in pursuits for fifty 
years, having been interested in and director of 
several banks. Mr. Belden is president and prin- 
cipal owner of the Robert Gere bank of Syracuse, 
wnich he founded. He was elected mayor of that 
city in 1877. and was re-elected without opiwsi- 
tion; was a delegate to the Republican national 
convention which met in Chicago in 1880. and was 
elected to the 50th congress. He has since been 
re-elected four times, having declined an election 
to the 54th congress. Mr. Belden has been a trus- 
tee of the .Syra<'Usc universitv since it was founded. 
He is a direct descendant of Kicharil Bayldon, of 
England, who setlle<l in Weatliersfield, Conn., in 
1836, and is an active member of the order of the 
Founders and [lat riots of America. He has re- 
cently enlarged the Manhattan hotel, which will 
rank among the largest in New York citv. 

BELIi. Imuic, merchant. I), in New S ork city, 
4 Aug., 1814 : d. there, 30 Sept.. 18U7. He entered 
the employ of a banking-hous* in New York when 
he was twelve years of age, and from 18:16 till 18.55 
he engaged in the cotton business in Charleston, 
S. C, and Mobile, Ala., from which stale he was in 
1848 elet-ted to congress. From 1858lill 18«0hewas 
a member of the New York l>oaid of supervisors, 
and in the latter year he l)ecame one of the orig- 
inal commissioners of the department of public 
charities and correction. He was a commissioner 
of education in 1S7()-"H!», and also for some time a 
commissioner of immigration. In 1866 he was an 
organizer of the <.>ld Dominion steamship company, 
and he served as its vice-president till his resigna- 
tion in 181)0. He founded the ambulance system 
in connection with the charities dc|>artmeiit. Mr. 
Bell, who married a daughter of Dr. Valentine 
Mott, was prominent in New York .society. One 
of his sons was U. S. minister tn The Hague, 
another was a CenlrMJ park cr)rntnissioner. 

BELU WHliam HemphHI, sohlier. b. in 
Chi>ster, Pa.. 'iS .Ian.. IXiA. He was grn<lualo<l at 
the U. S. military acadeinv in ,Iune, IS-W. entering 
the annr as brevet 2d lieutenant, and serving 
through the civil war in the field and in the sul>- 
8ist«nccdei>artnient. Afterthedoseof the war, his 

service was chiefly 
westof t he .M issisRi[>. 
pi, in Alaska, and on 
the frontiers. Hav- 
ing f>as.sed through 
the intemioliate 
grwles, he Iwcame, 
in November. 181(7, 
com tn is.«i»ry-gcneral 
of the C S. army, 
with the rank of 
brigadier - general. 
He was retired 28 
.Ian.. 18fl8. after for- 
ty years' service. 
' fiKLLAiNY, Ed- 
nard, author, h. 
in Chieopee Fall.s, 
Ma.s.'i., 26 March. 
WK): d. there. 22 
May. mm. He was 
educate<i at Union 
college, but was not {nwlimted. In 1871, after 
studying law, be waa atlmitted to practice. F'or 

C <»>-/— —< u Qu^yC^ 


several years he was assistant editorof "The Union," 
Springfield, Mass. ; an editorial writer of the " New 
^ ork Kvening Post," and with his brother Charles 
established the .'■ipringfield " Daily News." He was 
a frequent contributor to the magazines. Failing 
health led him in time to seek the aid of the Colo- 
rado climate, but without substantial benefit. His 
princifial works are "Six to One, a Nantucket Idyl" 
(New York, 1877); "Dr. Ileidenhoff's Process" 
(1879); "Miss Ludington's Sister, a Romance of 
Iminortalitv " (Boston, 188.5); "Looking Back- 
ward, or 2000-1887" (1888); and "Equality," a 
sequel to " Looking Backward " (1897). 'rhese 
last two works had a wide circulation, and the 
first was translated into Arabic, French, German, 
and Russian, awakening almost as much interest 
in the Old world as in the New. 

BELMONT. August, banker, b. in New York 
city, 18 Feb., 18.j;t. He is a son of the late banker 
of the same name (t/. v.), and was graduated from 
Harvard in 187.5. immediately entering his father's 
banking-house, of which he is now the head — 
August Belmont & Co., American representatives 
of the Roth.schilds. He is chairman of the board 
of directors of the liouisville and Nashville rail- 
way, and connected with various financial enter- 
prises. — His younger brother, Oliver Hazard 
Perry, was graduatc<l from the V. S. naval 
academy in 1879. and for several years has taken 
an active part, as a Dem<K-rat, in the politics of 
his native citv aiul state of New Y^ork. 

BENHAM'. Andrew KIHrott Kennedy, naval 
ofllcer, b. on Slaten island, 10 .\pril, 1832. Heen- 
tered the luivy as a midshipman, 24 Nov., 1847, 
and l>ecaine a pa.ssoil midshipman, 10 June, 1853. 
He was ordered to the " Princeton " in .Inly, 18.53, 
transferred to the ".St. Jiary's." Pacific squadron, 
and served on her till 1857, and was commissioned 
a master, 15 Seiit., and lieutenant, 16 Sept., 1855. 
Fie was attacheil to the " Crusader," on the home 
station, in 1860-'l, and when the civil war began 
he was made executive officer of the "Bienville," 
on the South Atlantic blockade, where he partici- 
pate<l in the capture of Port Royal, S. ('., and in 
18<K1 serveil in the "Sacramento." lieidiani was 
promoted to lieutenant-commander, 16.1uly, 1862, 
and given the " Penobscot" in the Western Gulf 
blockailing s<)Uadron, until the close of the war in 
180.5. He was on duty at the Brooklyn navy-yard 
in 1866. and on si)ocial service in the "Susfiuc- 
hanna " in 1867. He was promote<l to commander, 
25 July, 1806, serveil at the Brooklyn navy-vanl in 
18<)8-'!t. as lighthous<' inspector in 1870-' 1. and 
commanded the monitors "S«iugus" in 1871-'2 
and "Canonicus" in 1872-'8, on the North At- 
lantic station. He then served us lighthouse in- 
spector in 1874-'8, wa-s promoted to captain. 12 
March. 1870. and commanded tliefiag-ship " Uich- 
mond." on the Asiatic station, in 187H-'81. Ho 
was on duty at Portsmouth navy-yard from 8 Dee.. 
1881. until 15 Nov., 1884. when he wils appointed 
lighthouse inspector, anil served until January, 
1888. He was promoted to the rank of commo- 
dore, 4 March, 1886. and to rear-admiral, 28 Feb.. 
1890. He was in command of one of the naval 
divisions that took part in the great display in 
Now York waters in .\pril. 1893. and was retired 
in the following spring, after forty years' service. 

BENMNiJ, Henry Lewis, jurist, b. in Colum- 
bia county. Ga.. 2 Aoril. 1814: d. in Columbus, 
Ga.. 10 July, 1875. He was graduated at the uni- 
versity of 'his native state in 1834, winning the 
highest honors of his cla8.s. He was admitted to 
the bar in Columbus, in which city he afterward 
resided. In 1838 he was elected solicitor-general 




of the Cliattalioochoe circuit, and in 1853 became 
one of the justices of the supreme court of the 
state. In Auffust, 18G1, he was ajipointeil colonel 
of the 17th Oeorpia reRinient, and in the followinjir 
year was promoted brigadier-general, takina: part 
in the battles of Antietam. Fredericksburg. Gettys- 
burg. Chickauiauga, and the Wilderness. Gen. 
Benning was in command of his brigade at the 
surrender of Loe's army, after which h6 resumed 
the practice of law in Columbus, in partnership 
with his father-in-law. Col. Seaborn .Tones. 

BENTLEY, Charles Eugene, clergyman and 
politician, b. in Warner's, Onondaga co., N. Y., 
30 April. 1841. He studied at the Monroe insti- 
tute and Oneida conference seminary. Until 1863 
he lived on a farm, but in 1866 lie removed to 
Clinton, Towa. anil in 1878 he moved to Butler 
county, Nebraska, where he engaged in farming 
and in preaching as a Baptist minister. In 1880 
he became pastor of a church at Surprise. Neb. 
He took an active interest in the Prohibition party 
in the state, serving as chairman of the state con- 
vention in 1884. and also as caTididate for repre- 
sentative in congress, for governor, and for TJ. S. 
senator, in none of which was he successful. In 
Way. 1896. the Prohibition party split at its con- 
vention at Pittsburg. Pa., on the question of the 
nature of the platform. The majority or '' nar- 
row-gauge" report declared for prohibition alone 
as a party issue: the minority report called for 
planks in the platform in favor of free coinage, 
government control of railroads and telegraphs, an 
income tax. etc.. and the party of the minority, 
about two hundred in number, withdrew from tlie 
convention hall and nominated Bentley for presi- 
dent and James Haywood Southgate, of North 
Carolina, for vice-president, as candidates of the 
National or Ijiborty party. 

BERDAN, Hiriiiii, inventor, b. in Plvniouth, 
Mich., aljnut 1823 : d. in Wivshington, D'. C, 31 
March, 1893. His father owned a stock-farm near 
Rochester, N. Y., where tlie son was brought up. 
He showed a taste for practical mechanics in early 
boyhood. He also attained great skill as a marks- 
man, and in April. 1861, was made colonel of the 
1st regiment of U. S. sharpshooters, which he had 
organized. The regiment was armed with a re- 
peating rifle of his invention, the first of the kind 
to be put into actual service. Col. Berdan was 
brevetted brigadier-general of volunteers for his 
conduct at Chancellorsville and major-general for 
Gettysburg. After the close of the civil war he 
went to Russia and sfient several years in superin- 
tending the manufacture of his rifle there for the 
Russian government. In 1888 he returned and 
sued the United States for 1500,000 for infringing 
his patents in the Springfield rifle; and in 1893 
the court of claims awarded him .flOO.OOO. Be- 
sides his rifle. Gen. Berdan invented a twin-screw, 
armored, submarine gunboat; a long-distance 
range-finder; a torpedo-boat for evading torpedo- 
nets ; and a distance fuse for shrapnel shells. 

HERENUT, Karl Hermann, scientist, b. in 
Dantzic, 12 Nov., 1817; <1. in Guatemala city. Cen- 
tral America, 13 May, 1878. He studied at va- 
rious German universities, receiving his degree of 
M. D. at Kiinigslierg in 1843. In 1843 he l)egan 
practice at Breslau and also acted as privut-docpnt 
m surgery and obstetrics at the university. In 1848 
he was a member of the Vor- Parlament &i Frank- 
furt. His political sympathies forced him to remove 
to America in 1851. He proceeded from New York 
to Nicaragua, and spent two years in the study of 
the ethnography, geograi)hy,"and natural history 
of that section. Two years later he moved to 

Orizaba, Mexico, and thence to Vera Cruz, where 
he remained from 1855 to 1863. He then gave up 
medicine and devoted himself to natural science, 
linguistics, and ethnology, paying special atten- 
tion to the Mayan tribe's. He spent a year in 
Tabasco, and thence came in 1863 to the United 
States. Here he devoted the greater part of the 
following year in copying manuscripts in the 
Carter Brown library. At the request of the 
Smithsonian institution he visited Yucatan ; the 
results of this visit are published in its report for 
1867. In 1869 he e}?plored the ruins of ancient 
Ceutla. in the plains of Tabasco. He visited the 
United States several times between this date 
and 1876, his last visit. In 1874 he settled at 
Coban, Vera Paz. partly to study the Maya dia- 
lects of the region and partly to raise tobacco. 
At the request of the Berlin museum he spent a 
winter in securing and forwarding the sculptured 
slabs of Santa Lucia de Cozumaljualpa, Guate- 
mala; but an attack of fever terminated his work. 
He contributed many articles in English, Ger- 
man, and Spanish to such works as Petermann's 
" Mittheilungen " and the '• Deutsch-Amerikan- 
isches Conversations-Lexicon." Among his pub- 
lished works are "Analytical Alphabet for the 
Mexican and Central American Languages" (New 
York, 1869) ; " Los escritos de D. Joaquin Garcia 
Icazbalceta " (Merida. 1870) ; " Los trabajos lin- 
gui-sticos de Don Pio Perez" (Mexico, 1871); 
'• Cartilla en lengua Maya" (Merida. 1871); El 
ramie" (1871) ; "On a Grammar and Dictionary 
of the Carib or Karif Language," in the Smith- 
sonian report for 1873 : " Die Indianer des Isthmus 
von Tchuantepec " in " Zeitschrift fUr Ethnologic" 
for 1873; "The Darien Language," in the "Amer- 
ican Historical Record" for 1874. Much of his 
work is unpublished; some manuscripts are in 
the library of the bureau of ethnology at Wash- 
ington and others in a private collection. 

BERKOWITZ, Henry, clergyman, b. in Pitts- 
burg, Pa.. 18 March, 1857. lie entered Cornell, 
but was unable to complete the course. While 
studying law he obtained a scholarship in the 
Hebrew union college at Cincinnati when it was 
first opened for the education of Jewish ministers 
in 1875. He was graduated at McMieken univer- 
sity in 1881 and at the Hebrew college in 1883, 
and was one of the first to receive the new degrees 
of bachelor of Hebrew and rabbi. Prior to his 
his ordination he received a call from the Jewish 
congregation at Mobile, and entered upon his 
duties there on 1 Sept., 1883. He was one of the 
founders of the Conference of rabbis of the south, 
and has been secretary of that body since 1886. 
He introduced the work of the American humane 
society into Alabama, and has been vice-president 
of the Mobile society since 1886. and of the na- 
tional association since 1887. He was appointed 
a trustee of the Hebrew college in 1884. and be- 
came rabbi of the congregation at Kansas City, 
Mo., in May, 1888. He received the degree of 
D. D. from the Hebrew union college in 1887. 
Dr. Berkowitz was associated with Rabbi Joseph 
Krauskopf, of Philadelphia, in the authorship of 
"The First Hebrew Union IJe.ider," " Second He- 
brew Union Reader," and "Bible Ethics: A Manual 
of Instruction in the History and Principles of 
Judaism " : and published "Judaism on the Social 
Question " (New Vork. 1888). 

BERMUDEZ, Remigo Morales, president of 
Peru, b. in the province of Tarapaca. 30 Sept., 
1836; d. in Lima. 31 March. 1894. His educaticra 
was slight, and he early engaged in the nitrate 
trade in his native province. Joining the revolu- 




tionary ar?ny in 1854 as a lieutenant, he took part 
in the defeat of Col. Chacano at Arica and in 
routing the force of Gen. (iuardo, and finally 
shared the victory that resulted in the overthrow 
of lien. Kchinique's government. When President 
Ca.-<tilla provoked an insurrection in 1864hoa};ain 
e!-[)ousca the revolutionists' cause. President I'ardo | 
made hira a lieutenant-colonel and prefect of the 
city of Trujillo. During the war with Chili he 
commanded the forces that marched to Arica, and 
be displayed individual bravery. In the uprising 
against President Iglesias and the clericals he 
joined the revolutionary standard of Cieeres (9. r.), 
and when the latter was elected president, in 1886, 
Col. lieriiiudez became vice-presidenL In 1890 he 
succeided ( Vireris iis president. 

BEKNIKIt, Tliouias .llfred, Canadian lawyer, 
b. in Henry ville, province of Quebec, 15 Aug.. 1845. 
He was educated at St. Ilyacinthe college, studied 
law, was ailmitted to the bar of Montreal in 1869, 
and practised in St. John's, serving as crown 
attorney in 1874-'6. In 1S.S0 he removed to Mani- 
tolia, and in 1881 was appointed superintendent 
of educatiim for Roman Catholic sohords and 
registrar of the Manitoba university, which ixists 
he held up to 1890. In 1884 he was appointed 
chairman of the eastern judicial board, and he 
was first mayor of St. Boniface. In 1881-'7 he was 
a mi'Uitjer of the provincial Itoard of agricidturc of 
Manitoba, and in 1888 Ix'camc president of the 
colonization society of that province. He was 
elected to theC;ana<'lian senate in 1892. In 1871-'2 
he was editor of the "Courier" of St. Hyacinihe, 
and he editeil Tache's " Vingt annck-s de missions 
dans le nordouest" (1888). He is the author of 
" Le MHiiitolin. cliamp d'immigmtion " (1887). 

BEKRKIN), Bernardo IVreIra de (bair-ra'v- 
do). historian, b. in Villa-de-Serpa in 
1680; d. in LisUn. 13 March, 1748. He was of 
noble birth, anil, entering the army, rose rajiidly 
in the service and commanded a regiment of cav- 
alry at the battle of .SarBgos,sa, 20 Aug.. 1710. 
For his valor in this action he was ap(>ointed. in 
1711, governor-general of the province of Maran- 
hin. in Brazil, which post he retained till 1718, 
when he became captain-general of Mazagam. 
R-rredo devoted his later years to a great work 
for which he hail collected materials in America, 
and it is now invaluable, as most of the Portu- 
guese archives have since been destroyed. It is 
enlitle<l " Annaes hisloricos. do esliulo lio Maran- 
hSo, em que se dA noticia de sen desj-obriniento e 
tudo o mais que n'elle se tem succcdido, desde o 
anno em nue foi desooberto ate 6 de 1718." It 
was publislied after Herredo's death (Lislmn. 1749). 
Some Brazilian authors charge Berredo with be- 
ing unfair in his opinion repirdini; 1 lie Indians. 
These grave a<Tusations were discussed at length, 
in 1842, in the " Oanabara," • monthly review 
published in Kio de Janeiro. 

BERRV. JaniPii Henderxon, senator, b. in 
Jackson county.-.Mii., \'> .Mnv. 1H4I, and reoeive<I a 
c«)nim(m-s<diiM)l e<lucation. (leentered the Confed- 
erate army as 2il lieutenant. lOlh .Arkansas in- 
fantry, and lost a leg at the Iml tie of Corinth, Miss., 
4 Oct., 1862. After the war he studied law, and 
was admitle<I to practicein 1866. lie was three 
times elected to the legislature, and in his third 
year was made sjieaker ; was president of the Demo- 
cratic slate convention in 1876. and two years later 
he was elecleil judne of ihe circuit court. He was 
elecleil governor in \HX-2. nnil I'. .S. senator to suc- 
ceed Augustus II. (iarland, of Arkansas, appointed 
attorney-general, taking his sent 2.'i .Marcli, 1885. 
Mr. Berry was re-elected in 1889 and 1895. 

BESSEY. Charles Edwin, botanist, b. in Mil- 
ton. Ohio, 21 May, 184.5. As a boy, his inclina- 
tions led him to observe Nature, and he had a 
keen appreciation of natural objects and phe- 
nomena. He was graduated at the .Michigan 
agricultural college in 1869. and soon after was 
appointed professor of natural history in Iowa 
a!;ricultural college, having charge of the instruc- 
tion in zoology, entomology, and botany. During 
the winter of 1872-'3 and thereafter he studied 
botany a-s a s[)eeialty in Harvard, and in 1884 he 
was called to the chair of botany in the state uni- 
versity of Nebraska, where he has developed a de- 
partment of botany which ranks among the best 
in this country. For ten years he was president 
of the Iowa academy of science, and he lias been 
president of the Botanical society of America ; 
also the ilegree of Ph. D. has l)een conferred ujion 
hira by the State university of Iowa. Since 1880 he 
has been botanical editor of the "American Natu- 
ralist." and he wii,« similarly connected with "John- 
son's Cyclo|Hi'dia." Besides many papers on zool- 
ogy, entomology, and botanv, he is tlie author of 
successful text-l)ooks. including " Holanv for High ' 
Schools and Colleges" (New York, 188(); 5th od., 
1888) and "Essentials of Botany" (1884). 

BEYERIIKJE. Albert Jeremiah. senator,!). on 
an Ohio farm on borders of Adams and Highland 
counties. 6 Oct., 1862. He was graduated at De 
Pauw university, and studied law in the oflTice of 
Senator McDonald, becoming managing clerk. He 
was mlmitted to the bar. and was associated with 
.McDonald and Butler iiiilil a few years later, 
when he Itegan pra<'ticc for himself, tie has been 
alrea<ly identified with many im|H>rtant legal cases, 
and has acnuired distinction as an orator and cam- 
paign spealier. He was elected Republican U. S. 
senator from Indiana for the term ending in 
March. 190.5. and in the summer of 1899 ho visited 
the Philippine islands and China. 

BIIIDLE. Juines Stokes, naval ofllcer, b. in 
Philadelphia. Pa., 15 Jan., 1818. He was ap- 
(Hiinled a midshipman in the U. S. navy. 18 Oct., 
1833, and became lieutenant, 20 Aug., 1844. He 
was engaged in the Florida war with a fleet of 
b<Mits. and during the Mexican war he was in 
command of a gunboat and served with the naval 
batteries in the siege of VeraOuz and the capture 
of ToImisco. In 18.56 he resigned from the navy 
and was electe<l president of the Shamokin valley 
railroad. In 1861, at the o|>ening of the civil war, 
he offered his services to the secretary of the navy, 
agreeing to retire at the close of the war. but no 
formal action was taken in regard to it. In 1871 
he was the Democratic candidate for mayor of 
Philadelphia, but was not elected. — His kinsman, 
Crniir. jurist, b. in Philadelphia, 10 Jan.. 1823. is 
a fm of Nicholas Biddle (178(S-1844). w<us gradu- 
Bte<l at Princeton in 1841, and was admitted to 
the liar of Philadelphia in 1844. He repi-esenled 
Philadelphia in the legislature in 1849-'.5(). In 
April. 18tSI, he was made a major on the stall of 
Oen. Roliert Patterson, and served in the .Shennn- 
doah valley. He was then a|)pointed on the staff 
of Oov. Andrew G. Curtin, and was detailed to 
organize new regiments. On the invasion of 
Maryland anil Pennsylvania by the Confederate 
army in \Hl\S. he joined a regiment of Philadelphia 
militia as a private, and marched to the front. In 
January. 18i5, ho was appointed a judge of the 
court of common pleas of Philadelphia, and in 
the following auluiiin was elected to the same 
olTlce. as a Itepiililican. by a large majority. In 
1885 he was re-elected, having been renominated 
as well by the Democratic party as by his own. 




lie has been president of the Philadelphia agri- 
cultural society, and has written on agriculture 
and on a variety of other subjects. He is a mem- 
ber of the Historical society of Pennsylvania, and 
has been one of its vice-presidents. — Another kins- 
man, Chapman, lawyer, b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 
33 Jan., 1833 ; d. there, 9 Dec. 1880, was tlie son 
of Clement C. Biddle (1784-1855), who organized 
and was first captain of the State fencibles, and 
had command of the 1st volunteer light infantry 
in the war of 1813. The son was educated at St. 
Mary's college, in Baltimore, and was admitted to 
the Pliiladelphia bar in 1848. He soon attained a 
lucrative practice, and was solicitor of the Penn- 
sylvania railroad company, and subsequently coun- 
sel for that corporation. In April, 1861, he formed 
a company of artillery to aid in protecting Phila- 
delphia, and was made its captain. During the 
summer of 1863 he undertook the raising of a 
regiment of infantry, which on 1 Sept., 1863. as 
the 131st Pennsylvania volunteers, took the field 
with him as its colonel. He took part in the bat- 
tles of Fredericksburg and Chaneellorsville, and at 
Gettysburg had command of a brigade in the 1st 
corps. In December. 1863, he resigned from the 
army and resumed the practice of his profession. 
Col. Biddle was connected with the Pairmount 
park art association, and through his counsel 
numerous beautiful fountains and ornamental 
groups were placed in the park. — Another kins- 
man, Alexander, b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 39 April, 
1819 ; d. there, 3 May, 1899. He was graduated at 
the University of Pennsylvania, commanded a regi- 
ment at Gettysburg, was identified with various 
Philadelphia corporations, and at the time of his 
death, at his residence on Chestnut hill, was a di- 
rector of the Pennsylvania railway company. 

BIERCE, Ambrose, journalist, b. in Meigs 
county, Ohio, 34 June, 1843. He served in the 
civil war as a lieutenant of volunteers, and later 
became a journalist, having been for many years 
connected with the California press, his present 
residence being at Los Galos, in that state. Mr. 
Bierce has published " Cobwebs from an Emptv 
Skull " (London, 1874) ; " Tales of Soldiers anil 
Civilians" (San Francisco, 1891); ''Black Beetles 
in Amber" (1893); "Can such Things be?" (New 
York, 1893) ; and in collaboration with Dr. G. A. 
Danziger " The Monk and the Hungarian's Daugh- 
ter," an adaptation (Chicago. 1893). " The Tales of 
Soldiers and Civilians," his most popular work, 
was republislied in London ami Xew York in 1898, 
under the title of •' In the Midst of Life." 

BIGELOW, Frank Hagar. scientist, b. in Con- 
cord. Mass., '28 Aug., 1851. He was educated in 
the Boston Latin school of Harvard and at the 
Episcopal theological school in Cambridge, Mass., 
and has entered orders. For some years he was 
assistant astronomer in the Argentine national 
observatory in Cordoba, and afterward professor 
of mathematics in Racine college, Wisconsin, as- 
sistant in the National almanac office in Washing- 
ton, and in 1891 he became professor of meteorol- 
ogy in the U. S. weather bureau in Washington, 
which post he now (1899) holds. He is also an 
assistant rector of St. John's church in that city. 
His name is especially associated with an instru- 
ment for the photographic record of the transit of 
stars and with some novel studies by which the 
solar corona, the aurora, and terrestrial magnet- 
ism are shown to be associated. The theory has 
met with a favorable reception in scientific circles. 
He has published many articles on these subjects 
and a monograph on' the "Solar Corona," pub- 
lished by the Smithsonian institution (1889). 

BINGHAM, Edmund Franklin, jurist, b. in 
West Concord, Vt., 13 Aug., 1838. He was gradu- 
ated from Marietta college, and admitted to the 
Ohio bar in 1850. After practising in Columbus 
and elsewhere, he became judge of the fifth judicial 
district of Ohio in 1873, continuing in that office 
for fourteen years. He was defeated as Democrat- 
ic candidate for the supreme court of the state 
in 1881, and since 1887 he has been chief justice 
of the supreme court of the District of Columbia. 

BINGHAM, Henry Harrison, congressman, 
b. in Philadelphia. Pa., 10 July, 1841. He was 
graduated at Jefferson college in 1863, became a 
lieutenant in the 140th Pennsylvania volunteers, 
was wounded at Gettysburg, Spottsylvania, and 
P^rmville, and in July, 1866, was mustered out as 
judge-advocate, with the rank of major and brevet 
brigadier-general of volunteers. He was postmas- 
ter at Philadelphia in 1867-'73, but resigned to be- 
come clerk of the courts of over and terminer and 
quarter .sessions of Philadelphia, to which office he 
was re-elected in 1875, and served till 1878, when 
he was chosen to congress as a Republican, since 
occupying a seat in the latter body by re-election. 
He was a delegate-at-large from Pennsylvania to 
the national Republican convention in 1873, and 
a delegate from the first district to tlie conven- 
tions of 1876, 1884, 1888. 1893, and 1896. 

BINKEN, Jacobus, Dutch admiral, b. in Dord- 
recht in 1633; d. in Tobago, West Indies, 7 Dec, 
1677. He was employed principally in the Carib- 
bean sea and gulf of Mexico, where he secureil rich 
prizes. In 1675 he was given the command of a 
fleet and appointed governor-general of tlie ishmds 
of Tobago and Cura(;oa, which were threatened 
with invasion by the French. He was attacked 
by Count d'Estrees at Tobago, 3 March, 1677; but 
after a hot engagement he compelled d'Estrees 
to withdraw. The latter returned in December, 
1677. and after a brave resistance Binkcn was 
killed by the explosion of a powder-magazine. 

BISHOP, Judson Wade, soldier, b. in Evans- 
ville. Jeli'erson co., N. Y., 34 June, 1831. He re- 
ceived his education at Fredonia academy. N. Y., 
where his father was settled as pastor of the Bap- 
tist church for several years, and later at Belleville, 
Jefferson eo. Having served as a clerk and book- 
keeper, he taught for two winters, then studied 
civil engineering, and in 18.53 entered the office of 
the Grand Trunk railway at Kingston, Ontario. 
After serving as an assistant enjiineer there and 
in Minnesota, he settled in Chatfield. Minn., as a 
surveyor, publishing a map and pamphlet history 
of that country. He also taught there, and then 
purchased the "Democrat" in 1859. which he 
published until 1861, when he sold it and recruited 
a company of volunteers. He was mustered as a 
captain of the 3d Minnesota regiment on '26 June, 
1861, and served through the war in the west. 
He rose to be colonel. 14 July. 1864, and was 
brevelted brigadier-general of volunteers on 7 
June. 1865. Since the war he has l>een engaged 
in building and operating railroads in Minnesota, 
and is president of the St. Paul trust company. 

BISHOP, Richard Moore, merchant, b. in 
Fleming county. Ivy., 4 Nov.. 1813 ; d. in Jackson- 
ville, Fla., 3 March,' 1893. He received a limited 
education, became a clerk when he was seventeen 
years old. and was admitted to partnership with 
his emi)loyer when he was twenty-one. Later he 
removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, and established 
himself as a wholesale grocer. He was elected a 
member of the city council, 1857, its presiding 
officer. 1858. and mayor on a citizens' ticket. 18.59. 
During the latter service he rigidly enforced the 




laws that provided for observance of the Sabbath, 
received President-elect Lincoln, then on his way 
to Wdshington, and the Prince of Wales, and pre- 
sided over the great Union war meeting. He was 
president of the national eonmiercial convention 
in Ualtiniore in 1871, in 1873 was a member of the 
last constitutional convention of Ohio, and in 1877 
was electetl governor as a Democrat. He was a 
member of the Disciples or Christian church, was 
president of the Ohio state missionary society from 
1859 till 1869, succeeded Alexander' Campbell as 
president of the general Christian missionarj- con- 
tention, and hehl the otlicc till 187.5. Gov. liishop 
was connected with many of the benevolent inter- 
est* of his city and state, and gave largely of his 
means to the institutions of his church, and to 
e<lucntiiiniil and charitable enterprises. 

B1SPH.\M, Jjleorge Tucker, lawyer, b. in 
Philadelphia. Pa., 24 May, 1838. lie was gradu- 
ate<l at the University of Pennsylvania in 1858, 
adopted the profession of law, was admitted to the 
baroftheU..S.supreme court, and established a large 
and lucrative practice. lie is solicitor of theGirard 
trust company. Philadelphia savings fund society, 
Pennsylvania' railwav, and many other important 
coriMirat ions. Mr. liispham is professor of equity 
jurisprudence in the University of Pennsvlvania, 
and IS the author of "The Principles of fcquity" 
(Philadelphia, 1874). He has e«lited James Ilill 
on "Trustees" (18(i7); .lohn Adams on " Equity" 
(1868): and Williain \V. Kerr on " Ueeeiver»"(1872). 

BISSKLIi, Edward Cone, clergyman, b. in 
Schoharie. N. Y., 2 March. 18:12. He was gradu- 
ated at Amherst and at Union theological semi- 
nary, and was pastor of Congregational churches in 
Westhanipton. Mass.. in San Francix'o. and in 
Winchesler. .Mass. He then IxMame a missionary 
under the American iKiard in .Austria, and since 
1881 has been profes-sor of Hebrew in Hartford 
tlieological seminary. During the civil war he 
raised and oramanded a com|iany in the !i'2d 
Massachusetts regiment, which served under Gen. 
Banks at Port Hudson. He is the author of 
" Historic Origin of the Bible" (New York. 187:1); 
"The A|K^)crypha of the New Testament," a re- 
vi»e<l translation, with introduction anil notes. 
which forms a volume of the (Jld Testament in the 
American haiige series (1880): and "The Penta- 
teuch, its Origin and Stnicture: An F'xamination 
of Kecent Theories" (ISWi). 

BISSKLU WIlMin Shannon, lawver, Xew 
I-ondon. Oni'ida oo.. N. V., :!1 Dec. '1847. When 
five years old his parents removed to Muffalo, where 
he attended the public s<-hools : prepared for col- 
lege at a private school in New Haven, and subse- 
quently graduati-d from Yale. At the age of twen- 
ty-one he commenced the study of law with Lanlng, 
(Cleveland & Folsom in lluflalo; in 1872 formed a 
partnership with layman K. Bass. and.alH>ut ayear 
later. Grovcr Clevelaml being admiltwi. the 'firm 
name was changed to Bass. Cleveland & Bissell. 
Upon the removal of Lyman K. Bu-ss to Cnlonido 
and the elin-tion of Grover Cleveland as governor 
of New York, the Hrm was reorganized and for 
several years Ijorc the name of Bissell. Sicard & 
Qoodyear. The special character of his practice 
has lK>en that of counsel for corporations. He is a 
director in several railroad companies: always re- 
fuscil public ofllce. but wrved as pnsidential elect ro- 
at-large in 1884. and »a< a delegate t<i several state 
conventions. In 18iM) Mr. Bisstdl was a member of 
a commission to projiose amendments to the judi- 
ciary article of the constitution of the state of 
New York : and was appointed postmaster-general. 
6 March. 18«:i, in Mr. Cleveland's cabinet. 

BISSHOPP, CecH. British soldier, b. in Lon- 
don, England, 25 June, 1783; d. in Stamford, 
Canada, 11 July, 1813. He was the son of Sir 
Cecil Bisshopp,' afterward baron de la Zouche. 
The son entered the army at sixteen years of age, 
represented Newport, Isle of Wight, in parlia- 
ment, and was attached to the British embassy at 
St. Petersburg, whence he returned to England in 
1803. He then served in Flanders, Spain, and 
Portugal, came to Canada at the beginning of the 
second war between Great Britain and the United 
States, was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, and 
was actively engaged on the Niagara frontier. In 
July, 1813. 'he planned an attack on Black Rock, 
near Buffalo, where the Americans had a dock- 
yard and large storehouses. With about 300 men, 
before daylight on 11 July, he crossed the river in 
Iwats, surprised and took possession of the place, 
and priK'eeded to bum and plunder as rapidly as 
]>ossible, setting fire to the navy-yard buildings and 
a schooner that lay at the wharf and carrying off 
a quantity of stores. But btffore he could accom- 
plish all this (ien. Peter B. Porter collected a 
small force aiul attacked the invaders, and after 
an encounter of twenty minutes the re- 
treated. When their boats pushed off the Ameri- 
cans renewed their fire, fatally wounding Bisshopp. 

BLACK, Frank Swett. governor, b. in Liming- 
ton, York co.. Me., 8 March, 18.'>3. where his father, 
Jacob Black, was a farmer. After graduation at 
Dartmouth in 1875. he movc<l to Johnstown. N. Y., 
and studied law; lack of means, however, forced 
him to accept the position of olitor of " The Johns- 
town Joiinial." An editorial displeasing to the 
owner caused his dismissal; he then move<l to 
Troy, and became a reporter on "The Troy Whig," 
After a few months he l)ecaine clerk in the registry 
department of the local post -ofiice, continuing the 
study of law all this time, and in 1879 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar. He formed a partnership, but 
after a year retired and e.stablislied his own office. 
He ina<le a reputation as a lawyer of standing, 
with a good practice, taking no great interest in 

ilitics until 1894. In 1888 and in 1892 he had 

en a successful speaker during the presidential 
campaigns. In 1894 ho was nominated for con- 
gress by acclamation by the Itcpublicans of the 
19th district, ami was electecl by a large majority. 
In Aug., 1890, he was n<>rninate<l governor by the 
Ronublican party, being successful at the election 
in NovemU'r. and holding ofiice <luring 1897-'8. 

BLACK, John, Canailian clergyman, b. in 
Dumfries. S<'otland, 8 Jan., 1818: d. in Kildonan, 
.Manitoba. 11 Vvh., 1882. He emigrated to this 
cfiuiitry with his imrents, was educated at Dela- 
ware aca<leniv. Delhi, N. Y., and studied theology 
at Knox college. Toronto. He was licensed to 
preach in the Presbyterian church in 1848, or- 
dained in 1851, and the same year removed to the 
Red River wttlement, Manitoba, where he was the 
only Presbyterian clergyman till 1862. lie was 
first miMlerator of the presbytery of Manitoba in 
1870. and ileclined the iniHleratorship of the gen- 
eral lussembly of Canada in 1K81. t^ueen's univer- 
sity gave him the degree of D. D. 

bLACKSTONi:. Timothy Bailer, railway 
nresidcnt. b. In Branforil. Conn.. 28 March, 1829. 
Ho entered the nillway service as ro<lman on the 
survey of the New York and New Haven railway 
in 1847. findingeniployment on various roads, until 
he became. In 1801. president of the Joliel iind Chi- 
cago railway, and three years later president of 
the Chicago and Alton railway, in which office he 
continued for thirty-five years, when he resigned 
and retired to private life. 





BLAIS, Aiidrfi Albert, R. C. bishop, b. at Saint- 
Valier, Bellechasse co., province of Quebec, 26, 
Aug., 1842. He entered tlie ecclesiastical college 
of St. Anne de Lapocatiere for his priestly studies, 
and he was ordained in the priesthood in 1868. 
His first parochial work was performed as assistant 
priest of St. Coloiub de Sillery, and he was thence 
called to a professorship in Levis college. In 1868 
he was elected assistant director of Ijaval university 
and professor of English at the Lille seminary. 
In 1874 he went to Koine to make a more finished 
course of sacred studies, and there in 1877 he re- 
ceived the degree of doctor of canon law. He next 
made a continental tour, and on his returning to 
Quebec he was a[)pointed [)rofessor of canon law, a 
position he held until 1881, when he made another 
Kuropean tour, and went to Palestine. In 1882 he 
was appointed chaplain of the Sisters of the good 
shepherd, and so continued until January, 1890. 
Having been appointed bishop of Germanicopolis 
and coadjutor bishop of Kimouski, he was conse- 
crated in 1890, and, by virtue of his right of suc- 
cession as appointee, on the resignation of Bishop 
Langevin. in 1891, he became bishop of Kimouski. 

BLAISBELL, Albert Franklin, author, b. 
in South Hampton, N. H., 31 Aug,, 1847. He was 
graduated at Dartmouth in 1869, taught for six 
years, and was graduated at the medical depart- 
ment of Harvard in 1878. He then commenced 
the practice of medicine in Providence, and is phy- 
sician to the lihode Island hospital. He has pub- 
lished "Study of the English Classics" (Boston, 
1878); "Our'Bodie.s, and how we Live" (1885); 
"How to Keep Well" (1885); "Child's Book of 
Health" (1886); and " First Steps with American 
and British Authors " (1888). He hasedited " Read- 
ings from the Waverley Novels" (1888). 

BLANCH ET, Fran<;ois, Canadian physician, 
b. in the parish of St. Pierre, Kiviere du Sud, in 
1777; d. in Quebec, 26 .June, 1830. He was edu- 
cated in Quebec seminary, studied medicine in 
New York city, and settled in practice in Quebec. 
He represented his native county in the provincial 
assembly for several years, warmly espoused the 
popular cause in the contests between the people 
an<l the colonial executives, and was imprisoned 
in 1810. During the war of 1813 he was at the 
head of the medical slafT of the province of Que- 
bec. During his parlimentary service in 1814 he 
introduced the first bill for the general education 
of the people, and was active in schemes for inter- 
nal improvements. He published in French a 
valuable work on "The Application of Chemistry 
to Medicine" (New York. 1800). 

BLANCO, Jos6 F61ix, Venezuelan patriot, b. 
in Caracas, 24 Sept., 1783; d. there, 18 April, 1872. 
He was left an orphan in early youth, and owed 
his education to friends, who urged him to enter 
the church. He was ordained in 1801, but took 
an enthusia.stic part in the movement for inde- 
pendence, and at the junta of 19 April, 1810, he 
called Madariaga and other tril)unes to take part 
in the discussion which culminated in the declara- 
tion of independence. Being appointed chaplain 
in the revolutionary army, he took part in several 
campaigns, often in a military capacity. After 
the evacuation of Angostura by the Spanish Blan- 
co's energetic measures provided from the rich 
stores of the missions the means to pay in the 
Antilles for arms and clothing for the patriot 
army. In 1818 he explored jirivately the situation 
and public means of Casanare, regarding an inva- 
sion of New Granada, and his favorable report led 
Bolivar to undertake that enterprise in the next 
year. He was afterward called by Vice-President 

Santander to Colombia, where he served in the 
administration till 1830, having been promoted 
brigadier. After the separation of Venezuela from 
Colombia, he returned to his country, became gov- 
ernor of Maracaibo, minister of war in 1837, mem- 
ber of the supreme military court and of congress, 
and, finally, under Monagas, 1847, minister of 
finance, but after the fall of Monagas, in 1855. he 
retired to private life. Under Paez's short admin- 
istration he was appointed government councillor 
and general of division in 1862, but his desire to 
return to the church, which he had left in 1818, at 
last was gratified by Pope Pius IX., and in 1863 he 
was reinstated and appointed assistant priest of 
the cathedral of Caracas. His last years were 
pas.sed in the duties of his ministry, in putting in 
order the documents that he collected during long 
years, and in preparing his great historical work. 
This work, which reaches from 1780 to 1832, was 
edited after his death by Kamon Azpurua, under 
the title of " Documeiitos para la Historia de la 
vida piiblica del Libertador de Colombia, Peru y 
Bolivia" (16 vols., Caracas, 1877). 

BLATCHFORl), Samuel, clergyman, b. in 
Devonshire, England, in 1767: d. in Lansing- 
burg, N. Y., 27 March, 1828. He was educated 
at the Dissenting college of theology at Homer- 
ton, near London, and in 1789 became pastor of a 
Presbyterian church in Devonshire. He came to 
this country in 1795 to take charge of a church in 
Bedford, Westchester co., N. Y., was sub.><eqnently 
pastor at Bridgeport, {'onn., and in 1804 of the 
churches at Waterford and Lansingburg, N. Y., 
and at the same time principal of the academy in 
the latter town. In 1824-'8, he was first presi- 
dent of Kcnssclaer polytechnic institute. — His son, 
Thomas Wyudeait, physician, b. in Topsham, 
Devonshire, in 1794; d. in Troy, N. Y., 23 Dec., 
1866. was educated under his father and at Union 
college, attended a course of lectures at Kensselaer 
polytechnic institute, and was graduated at the 
New York college of physicians and surgeons in 
1817, in the meantime studying in London under 
Sir Astley Cooper. After practising one year in 
New York city and nine years on Long Island, he 
settled in Troy, N. Y.. where he subsequently re- 
sided. He was president of the New York state 
medical society, a vice-president of the American 
medical society, and a member of several profes- 
sional and scientific bodies. Dr. Blatehford was 
a successful fihysiciau in Troy for forty years. 

BLISS, Alexander, .'joldier. b. in Boston. Mass., 
27 Dec, 1837 ; d. in Washington. D. C, 30 April, 
1896. He was graduated from Harvard in 1847. 
and studied law with William Allen Butler, of New 
Yord, but never practised. Early in the civil war 
he entered the army as captain of volunteers, and 
later passed through the various grades of major, 
lieutenant-colonei.and colonel by brevet in the reg- 
ular army, his service being chiefly in the ipiarter- 
master's department. Kesigning from the army 
in March, 1868, he wa-s appointed secretary of le- 
gation at Berlin, his stepfather, George Bancroft, 
being the niinister to Germany, and remained at 
that post for six years. In the absence of Mr. 
Bancroft Col. Bliss was for a time during the 
Franco-German war charge, d'affaires. With .lohn 
P. Kennedy he published, for the benefit of the 
Maryland soldiers and sailors' fair, "Antograph 
Leaves of our Country's Authors" (Raltimore, 
1864); " Hepiiblican or Democrat" (New York. 
1880); and two valuable pamphlets on the Iliilifax 
award and the northeastern boundary qneslion. 

BLISS, Cornel ins Newton, merchant, b. in Fall 
Kiver, Mass., 20 Jan,, 1833 ; was educated in pub- 




lie schools, at the academy at Fall River, and the 
high-school at New Orleans. After leavine school, 
he was enftagej for a year in his stepfather s count- 
ing-room in New Orleans, and then removed to 
Boston, and entered as a clerk in the house of 
Beebe, Morgan & Co. In 18(Hi he became a mem- 
ber of the commission firm of J. S. and K. Wright 
& Co., and subsequently removed to New York, to 
take charge of the business of the firm in that city. 
In 1881 the name of the firm was changed to Bliss, 
Faby & Co. He was a member of the T'an-.Ameri- 
can conference, and president of the Protective 
taritT lengue. He was chairman of the Kepublican 
slate committees of New York in 18j<7-'8. and 
treasurer of the national Kepublican committees 
in ltSd2-'0. He declined to be a candidate for the 
nomination for governor of New York in 1885, or 
to have his name presented to the convention for 
that place in 1891. He was chairman of the busi- 
ness men's committee of New York city in the in- 
terest of the nomination of ex-President Arthur 
for president in 1884, and chairman of what was 
known as the committee of thirty in 1893. Mr. 
Bliss was ai>|><jinted si-crelary of the interior by 
President McKinley, 5 March, 1897. He resignecl 
in December, 181(8, returning to New York, and 
was succee<led by Kthun Allen Hitchcock. 

BLIS8, Zpnos KandaH, soldier, b. in Johns- 
ton, 1{. I., 17 April. 18;i.). He was graduated at 
the r. S. inilitarv academy in June, 1^54. Knter- 
ing the army as brevet 2<1 lieutenant, he served in 
Texas until .May, 1861, when he was captured by 
the Confederates and confined as a prisoner of 
war until exchanged in April, 1802. lie was a|;>- 
pointed colonel of a Kbode Island regiment, with 
which he wrved for two years, taking |)art in the 
Vickslnirg and other campaigns. I>uring the In-it 
year of the war Col. HIiss commanded a brigade in 
Grant's Virginia campaign. He liecame a briga- 
dier-general in 189.5, and was in command of the 
de|tartnient of Texas for two years. In May, 1807, 
he was advanced to major-general, and retireil at 
bis own request, after more than forty years of 
continuous and faithful service. 

ltLOI><;KTT. Hrnrr >VHHaini<. jurist, b. in 
Amherst, .Mass., 21 July, 1821. His parents re- 
moved to niinois alMiut 18:M. When seventeen 
years of age Henry attended the Amherst acad- 
emy one year, whence he returned to Illinois and 
engage)) in teaching and sulisequently in land- 
survryinjr until twenty-one years of age. He 
stu<lii'd law in Chicago with Jonathan Y. Scam- 
mon and Norman U. Judd, was admilteil to the 
bar in 1845, and began practice in Waukegan. III., 
where ho still resides. In 1844 ho voted the Anli- 
slavery ticket, and he has since lieen an adherent 
of the Antislavery and Kepublican parties. In 18.52 
he was electml to the general assembly of Illinois, 
being the first avowed antislavery member that 
ever o«'cupie<l a seat in that IxmIv, and in the fol- 
lowing year was electeil to the state s<-nate. .\s a 
legislator he was one of the ablest and most useful, 
and wa.s largely instrumental in shaping the legis- 
lation of the commonwealth and in promoting the 
development of the resources of Illinois. In 1855 
and for several years subsequently he was associ- 
ated with the legal de|>Brtment of the Chicago and 
Northwestern railway, of which he was one of the 
projectors. He was the pioneer in the buildinir 
of the Chicago and Milwauki-e railroad, and was 
identified witli it in the capm-ities of attorney, di- 
rector, anil president. Later he was solicitor of the 
Michigan S<iulhem. Fort Wayne. Kock Island, and 
Northwclern ronils, and he retired when the busi- 
ness reached such pro(iortions that it was impos- 

sible for one man to attend to it. In 1870 he was 
appointed by President Grant a judge of the U. S. 
district court for the northern district of Illinois, 
which ollice he resigned in 1892, and in the fol- 
lowing year he served as a member of the impor- 
tant Bering sea commission which met in Paris. 

BLOI»GETT. Kufuis, senator, b. in Dorchester, 
N. H., 9 Oct., 1834. He studied in local schools 
and academies, and at the age of eighteen was ap- 
prenticed to the Amoskeag locomotive works, at 
Jianchester, N. H., where he learned the trade of 
a machinist. In 1866 he removed to New Jersey 
and engaged in the railroad business. From 1874 
till 1884 he was superintendent of the New Jersey 
southern railroad, and in the latter year was ap- 
pointed su()crintendent of the New York and 
Ijong Branch railroad, which place he still holds. 
Senator Blodgcit is also president of the Long 
Branch city bank. He was a member of the New 
Jersey legislature in 1878-'80, and was a delegate 
to the Democratic national convention in 1880. 
!n 1887 he was elected as a Deniocnit to the U. S. 
senate, and was succeetled by James Smith, Jr., 
who took his seat in March. 1803. 

BLOOM FIKLI). Sir Thomas, Bart., British 
soldier, b. in Kngland, 16 June, 1744: d. in Kent, 
England. 24 Aug.. 1822. He was educated at the 
Koyal military academy in Wofilwicli. where he 
was 8p[ioitited a cadet in 1758. and early oblained 
his commission in the army. His first service was 
at the bombanlinent of Havre de Grace, and later 
he took part in the blockade of France. In 1762 
he went to the West Indies, and was present at 
the capture of Martinique and Havana, and later 
at that of Pensacola and M<il>ile. After various 
services he returned to p'ngland. and in 1771 l)e- 
came ai<le-ile-camp of the ma.>iter-general of ord- 
nance, which place he continued to hold until 
1776, when he wa.« ordercil to Canada. The ap- 
pointment of major of brigade was tendere<i him 
on his arrival in America, and he was employed 
in the constniction of floating lialteries on the 
I^ake-s. He returned to Kngland in November, 
1770, but, having constructed a gun anil carriage 
suitable for Imth land and water service, he went 
again to Canada early in 1777, and served under 
(len. John Burgoyne until he was wounded in the 
Saratoga campaign of 1777. After his recovery 
he returne<l to Kngland in 1779. and resumed his 
duties as aide-de-camp to I^>«1 Townshend. In 
1780 he WHS app<iinted inspector of artillery, which 
post, with the insiiectorship of the royal foundry, 
ne held until his iieath. His last and most impor- 
tant military service was at the siege <pf Cofienha- 
gen in 1807, where he commanded the British and 
(terman artillery under the I-^rl of Cat heart. He 
was rewarded with the thanks of {>arliament. an<l 
was made a baronet. He attained the rank of 
general in the British army. 

BI^rR, Victor, naval ofilcer. b. in North Caro- 
lina. Dec. IWJo, and ai>poiiiled to the naval 
academy, Sept.. 1883. lie served as a.ssistant 
engineer from 1889 to 1892, and was appointed 
ensign. 12 Dec.. 1892. He served on the "Alli- 
atice " and the •• Thetis." and was assigned to duty 
at the naval academy. 2H S«'iit.. 1896. During the 
war with .Spain in 1H98 he was <irdered to the 
gunltoat ".Suwanee"; <m Saturday. 11 June, he 
landed l)efore Santintio and proceeded with guides 
to the hills overlooking the citv and harbor, where 
he distinctly saw and Ifxateii the Spanish fleet 
in the harlmr; he travelled about seventy-two 
miles through the enemy's coimtry. and his report 
dis|telled the last lingering doubt there mav have 
l)een as to the presence of Admiral Cervera s fleet 




in Santiago harbor. In September he was given 
command of one of the Spanish prizes, and in 
March. 1899, he was matle a lieutenant. 

BODLEY, Rachel Littler, chemist, b. in Cin- 
cinnati, Oliio, 7 Dec, 1831 ; d. in Philadelphia, 
Pa., 15 June, 1888. She was graduated at the 
Wesleyan female college of Cincinnati in 1849, 
where she taught until 1860. In that year she 
studied advanced chemistry and physics. In 1865 
she was chosen professor of chemistry and toxicol- 
ogy in the Woman's medical college of Pennsylva- 
nia, and in 1877 she became dean of the faculty, 
both of which offices she held until her death. 
When it was proposed that a gathering of Ameri- 
can chemists should be held in 1874 to celebrate 
the centennial of chemistry, she suggested that it 
should take place at Joseph Priestley's grave in 
Northumberland, Pa., and she was elected first 
vice-president of the meeting there. Dr. Bodley 
was a member of various scientific societies, in- 
cluding the Franklin institute, before which in 
1881 she delivered a course of lectures on "House- 
hold Chemistry." She published papers on chem- 
istry and botany in scientific journals, and in 
1859-'60 edited "The Alumnia;" in Cincinnati, 
also Clarke's " Herbarium " (1865). She was the au- 
thor of "The College Story" (Philadelphia. 1881). 

BOUGS, William Ellison, educator, b. in Ah- 
mednuggur, Hindostan, 12 May, 1838. He was 
graduated at South Carolina college in 1859, 
studied theology, and entered the Confederate army 
as a private in 1861, becoming, in the following 
year, chaplain of the 6th South Carolina volunteers, 
and surrendering at Appomattox. Later he held 
pastorates in several Presbyterian churches of the 
south, and in 1883 became professor of ecclesiasti- 
cal history in Columbia theological seminary. Since 
December, 1889, Dr. Boggs has been chancellor and 
professor of metaphysics and ethics in the Univer- 
sity of Georgia. He received the degree of D. D. 
from the Southwestern Presbyterian university. 

BOIES, Horace (boice), governor, b. in Aurora 
township, Erie Co., N. Y., 7 Dec, 1827. He was 
educated in the academy of his native place, and, 
like his friend, Millard Fillmore, acquired under 
the greatest difficulties, while working on a farm 
and teaching in a country school, a knowledge of 
the law, which he afterward practised successfully. 
In 1857 he was a member of the state assembly, 
and later resided in Buffalo. Soon after the close 
of the war Mr. Boies removed to Waterloo, Iowa, 
where he quickly obtained a profitable law prac- 
tice. In 1884 he left the Republican party and be- 
came a Democrat, being elected by them governor 
of Iowa in 1890, to which office he was re-elected. 
In June, 1892, he was a prominent western candi- 
date for the nomination to the presidency, and 
ho is the popular Democratic leader in his state, 
where, owing to his handsome and honest face, he 
is frequently called "Affidavit Boies." 

BOMl'AS, William Carpenter, bishop, b. in 
London, England, 20 Jan., 1834. He studied law 
and practised for seven years, when he prepared 
for the ministry. For a time he was a c\irafe in 
Lincoln diocese, and in 1865 he went to Mackenzie 
river, British America, as a missionary. In 1874 
he was made bishop of Athabasca, and ten years 
later his diocese was divided, and he became by 
choice bishop of Mackenzie river. For more than 
three decades he has lived a life of exile that has 
few parallels in missionary annals. He received 
the degree of D. D. from Lambeth. Bisho)) Bom- 
Das is the author of " An Api)eal to the Bible and 
Missionary Societies" (London. 1882) and " A His- 
tory of the Diocese of Mackenzie River " (1888). 

BONACUM, Thomas, R. C. bishop, b. in Tip- 
perary county, Ireland, 29 Jan.. 1847. He was 
only a year old when he arrived at St. Louis, Mo., 
where his parents permanently settled in 1848. 
Having determined to embrace the priesthood, he 
made his classical studies at the Salesianum near 
Jlilwaukee, and his theological studies at the eccle- 
siastical seminary at Cape Girardeau. He was or- 
dained a priest by Bishop Meleher of Green Bay, 
in the absence of Archbishop Kenrick at Rome, in 
1870. He spent his years of priesthood in success- 
ful missionary work. He attended the Lfniversity 
of Wilrzburg lectures by Hergenroether and Het- 
tinger, and in 1881 became pastor of the Church 
of the holy name at St. Louis. In 1884 he was 
present at the third plenary council of Baltimore 
as theologian to Archbishop Kenrick. He was in 
1887 appointed bishop of Lincoln, Neb., and was 
consecrated in that year. During the twelve years 
of Dr. Bonacum's episcopate the progress of the 
church has been great in his diocese. 

BONILLA, Policarpo, president of Honduras, 
b. in Tegucigalpa. 14 March, 1858. He was ad- 
mitted to tlie bar, and from early youth took part 
in politics, becoming 
the leader of the lib- 
eral party. He held 
several important po- 
sitions, and was well 
known as a represent- 
ative in the national 
assembly. He lived 
for several years in 
Guatemala, and after- 
ward went to Nica- 
ragua, where he was 
elected a reiiresenta- 
tivc In 1893 he be- 
came the leader of 
the revol ntion against 
Gen. Vazquez, presi- 
dent of Honduras, 
and, allied with 
N icaragua, overthrew 
his administration. 
Peace being estab- 
lished, with a new 
constitution, Mr. Bonilla was elected president of 
the republic of Honduras for the term ending in 
1899. During his administration he was a co- 
worker in the establishment of the " Republica 
Mayor de Centro-America," which comprises the 
states of Honduras, Nicaragua, and San Salvador. 

BONNEY, Charles Carroll, lawyer, b. in Ham- 
ilton, N. Y., 4 Sept., 1831. He was educated at 
Hamilton academy, and engaged in teaching in 
his native town and in Peoria. III., to which place 
he removed in 1850. He took an active part in 
establishing the present educational system of the 
state of Illinois. At the same time he studied 
law, and in 1852 was admitted to the bar. In 1860 
he removed to Chicago, where he has since prac- 
tised his profession. Jlr. Bonney was engaged in 
various reform movements, was an originator ot 
the law and order movement in Illinois in 1872, 
and the author of the plan for a series of world's 
congresses in connection with the Columbian ex- 
position of 1898. In furtherance of this scheme he 
served as president of the world's congress aux- 
iliary. Mr. Bonney was president of the Chicago 
library association in 1870. He edited the poet- 
ical works of Judge Alfred W. Arrington. and is 
the author of a "Handbook of Railway Law"' 
(Chicago, 1864) ; " Law of Insurance " (1865) ; and 
of numerous published addresses and essays. 



D, Applefon & Co. 




BONNEY, Edirard, author, b. in Essex oountv, 
N. Y., 26 Aug., IS(t7; d. in Chicago. 4 Feb., 1864. 
He reinoveil to Elkhart, Inil., in 1837, and thence 
to Nauvoo, 111., in 1844. After the murder of Col. 
George Uavenport at Koc-k Island, III., on 4 July, 
1845, he volunteered to detect, bring to justice, and 
disperse a widely organized gang of murderers and 
robbers, thieves and counterfeiters, that then in- 
fested the .Mississippi valley, and was known as 
"The Banditti of the Prairies." The story of his 
success is descriljed in "The lianditti of the 
Prairies, or the Jlurderer's Doom : A Tale of the 
Mississippi and the Far West" (Chicago, 185,5), of 
which it is said that more copies have been sold 
than of any other publication in the western 
country. He settled in Hannibal, Mo., in 1860. 
and at the beginning of the civil war enli.sted in 
the National army, was 8ssigne<l to the se<Tet ser- 
vice, and contracted a disease from which he died 
during the last year of the war. Mr. Bonney pre- 
pared a second volume, giving a further history of 
his exploits, but the .MS. was destroyed by fire. 

BOOT, Adrien (bote), Flemish engineer, b. in 
Antwerp about IfiSO; d. there about Id-V). He 
was a famous hydraulic engineer in Eurofie when 
he was engaged by the Spanish ambassa<lor in 
Pari.s, Inigo de C'anlenas, to ins|)etrt and super- 
intend the works for the <lrainage of the valley of 
Mexico, and sailed for that country in 1614. Soon 
after his arrival he ins[>ected the tunnel that had 
been executed by Enrique Martinez, and declared it 
inefflcient fur llie proposed end, and tooexiiensive, 
advising as a substitute an o|ien cut. lie pre- 
sentetl a project which, a</i'oriling to his calcula- 
tion, would oidy cost $186,000, and was i)ut in 
charge of the work, but it was soon found (hat his 
estimate was far below the probable cost, and, as 
his overbearing manner had made him many ene- 
mies, be was relieved from the work, and after a 
few years returne<l to Euro[)e. His re|>ort, "In- 
forme 8«l)rc d Pesagile ile Ins Lnguiias de -Mexico 
y Obras de Enrique .Martinez," was printed (Mexi- 
co, 1637). and he was also the author of " Descriji- 
tion (!<• la Nouvclle Esfwgne" (.\ntwerp, 1641). 

KOOTH-Tri'KKK, Fredprirk St. (JtHirge dp 
Lllllteur, b. in .>Ioiigliyr, lleiigal. 2! Man'li, 18,5:). 
He was idiicated at Cheltenham cullege, England, 
and pa-M'd civil examination in 1874, contiiiiiiiig 
his .studies in London for two years. He was 
ap[>ointe<l to a position in the Punjab, which he re- 
signed in 1881 to join the Salvation army, inaugu- 
rating ami continuing the work there for nine years. 
From 1891, for five years he was secretary of .Salva- 
tion army international affairs, and since March. 
1806, he ha-s l>een in charge in t he I'nited States, with 
heailnuarters In New York. — Hiswife.EmniaMoSfi, 
daughter of William B'M)th, commander-in-chief of 
the Salvation arniv, b. in (iateshead, Kngland, 8 
Jan., 1N60, was married in 188« to Mr. Tu<ker, 
who then a<lopted the name of ItiNith. and accom- 
panied him to India, and later to the l'nlt<-d Stales. 
She holds the rank of consul in the .Salvation army, 
and has joint and equal authority with her husband 
in the dirc'liun of their afTairs in this country-. 

BOOTT, Kirk, mannfacturer, b. in B<*ton. 20 
Oct., 17U0: d. in Lowell. Ma--.-<.. 11 Apr.. 18:17. His 
father, an Eiigll.'^hman, came to Boston in 178:), 
and engage<l in business as a wholefwle merchant. 
The son studie<l in the Boston schools, and then 
went to Rugby, in England; returning to this 
oonntry, he entered Harvard in the cla.-w of 18<t9, 
but left U'fore gnuiiintion to study civil engineer- 
ing in England, with a view to joining the British 
army. At the age of twenty-one he received 
his commission as lieutenant. With his regiment. 

the 85th light infantry, he took part in the 
peninsular campaign, landing in Spain in August, 
1813. After Napoleon had been sent to Elba, 
Boott's regiment was detailed for service against 
the United States, and took part in the attacks on 
Washington and on New Orleans. Boott, how- 
ever, was excused from serving against the land of 
his birth. After a short visit to this country ho 
returned to England, and studied engineering at 
Sandhurst. Later he resigned his commission and 
came to Boston to engage in business witli two of 
his brothers. He was not succes-sfiil in this ven- 
ture, however, and when in 1822 Patrick T. Jack- 
son offered him the pf>sition of agent of the Merri- 
mack mills at Lowell he accepted the offer eager- 
ly. The man and the opportunity were joined 
most op[K>rtunely. Boott was a man of tireless 
energy, original, a bom leader. The possibilities of 
Lowell as a manufacturing centre were just un- 
folding, and Boott at once threw himself into the 
developing of his particular company and of the 
town as well. His training as military engineer 
enabled him to take every mechanical advantage 
of the water-power offered by the Merrimack 
river; mills, machinery, locks, canals — all received 
his attention. Besides his agency of the Merri- 
mack mills he was also .superintendent of the print- 
works, and agent of the Proprietors of locks and 
canals. He was moderator of the first town meet- 
ing, and was often sent to the state legislature. 
Naturally he took an interest in church work 
equally as intense as in munici|>al affairs and in 
the immediate business concerns of his mills ; he 
threw himself entirely into the business of the mo- 
ment, and impressed his personality upon Lowell 
as few other men have done. He was the pioneer 
and the leader in the development of manufactur- 
ing in this country — from the small, detached, weak 
establishments in which it had hitherto been con- 
ducted into the great joint-stock companies, to the 
existence of which is due so much of the wealth 
of the country. He (lushed on with all his powers 
at extreme tension, until he was suddenly stricken 
down by a stroke of apoplexy. 

BORrNBA, Joii^ Ignacfo, Mexican archnKilo- 
gist, b. in Mexico alx)ut 1740; d. there about 1800. 
According to the Mexican anti<|uaries Boriinda is 
the ('ham|H>llion of Anahiiac, and none knew as 
well the symbolical and phonetical value of the 
Mexican hieroglyphs whicli he learned to decipher. 
After stiidving law in his native city he became 
attorney oi the royal audiencia. and had charge, 
in 17fl5, of the case of Father Mier, who was tried 
for a sermon that he delivereil in the Church of 
Nuestra Sefiora de Oiiadelouiie, in which Mier de- 
nied that the Virgin had ever appeared in the lat- 
ter place. The archbishop of jlcxico, Gonzalo 
Niifiez lie Haro. appointed Morunda referee in the 
case by reason of the hitter's knowledge of the 
ancient hieroglyphs on which the story of the ap- 
parition is base<l. Borunda's decision, which was 
favorable to the defendant, brought on him much 

ferseciition from the ecclesiastical authorities. 
le wrote " Dissertacion dirigida al Superior Go- 
bierno de Mexico, sobre las .Minas de Azogne de la 
Nueva F'spafla." a mantiwript which was formerly 
in the catlie<lnil. but now in the National library 
of Mexico, and " I)is.sertacion sobre la predicaciiJn 
del aiKwtol Snnto-TomAs en la America Septen- 
trional," whir-h was sent to Spain by Nuflez de 
Haro for examination by t he ecclesia-stical authori- 
ties. The latter manuscript is unfortuimlely, 
or i>erhaps has Ix-en destroyed in .Spain. In it Ho- 
runda explained his theory and system of reading 
hieroglyphs, and contended that they afforded 




the proof that one of Christ's first apostles. St. 
Thomas, passed to Nortli America and preached 
the gospel in Mexico. Borunda wrote also " Frag- 
mentas para la formacion de un Diccionario Geo- 
grAfico-etiinologico de las Provincias Mexicaiias," 
another valualile manuscript which is lost. Al- 
though all authors agi'ee that Borunda was a great 
Aztec linguist, some sav that he was ca|)ricious in 
his ideas, and sometimes very arbitrary in his in- 
terpretation of ancient hieroglyphic texts. 

antiquary, b. in Milan, Italy, toward the end of the 
17lh centurv: d. in Madrid about 1760. He early 
settled in Spain, became a member of the acad- 
emy of Valencia, and in 1736 obtained permis- 
sion from the court for a prolonged stay in Mexi- 
co. There he studied the Aztec language, and 
in his familiar intercourse with the natives as well 
as with Spanish scientists had occasion to make 
profound studies on ancient history and the cus- 
toms of the Aztec nation. With great trouble and 
a heavy outlay he gathered a large collection of 
old Aztec manuscripts, maps, paintings, and other 
art objects, when, in 1744, ui some way he aroused 
the suspicions of the authorities, his museum was 
confiscated, and he was arrested and sent to Spain. 
There he was able to justify himself and was ab- 
solved, but his collection "was never restored to 
him and remained in the royal museum. With 
notes that he saved lie wrote " Idea 6 Ensayo de 
una Nueva Historia General de la America Sep- 
tentrional, f undada en copiosos materiales de figu- 
ras, simbolos, caraoteres, cantares y manuscriptos 
de autores Indios, nuevamente descubiertos" 
(Madrid, 1746). He also wrote "Oratio ad Divi- 
nam Sapientiam, Academiie Valentina? Patronaui " 
(Valencia, 1750), and "Oratio de Jure Naturali, 
Septentrionalium Indorum " (1751). 

BOUIUNOT, EUas CoriiPlius, Indian lawyer, 
b. in the old Cherokee nation, near Rome, Ga., in 
August, 1835; d. at Port Smith, Ark., 27 .Sept., 
1890. His father, a full-blooded Indian, whose 
Indian name was Kill-kee-nah, was sent by mis- 
sionaries at the age of fifteen to be educated at a 
school in Cornwall, Litchfield co.. Conn. While at 
this school, Elias Boudinot, of New Jersey, a son 
of the first president of the Continental congress, 
visited the school at Cornwall, and took quite an 
interest in the young Indian and induced him to 
adopt his name of Elias Boudinot. John Ridge, 
who was afterward one of the chiefs of the Chero- 
kees, was his cousin and schoolmate. Gen. Stand 
Waite, also a chief of the Cherokees, was a younger 
brother of Elias Boudinot. After leaving school 
at Cornwall, Boudinot married Harriet Gold, the 
youngest daughter of an influential family at that 
place, despite the opposition of her family. She 
accompanied her husband to the land of the Chero- 
kees, in north Georgia, where she died in 1836, 
leaving six children, three boys and three girls. 
John Hidge also married a New England girl, and 
he and the elder Boudinot were the leaders in the 
politics of their tribe, and negotiated the treaty of 
1835, under which the Cherokees removed from 
Georgia to the Indian territory. This treaty gave 
rise to two factions, one led by John Ross and the 
other by Ridge and Boudinot'. In the contest for 
supremacy. Ridge and Boudinot were assassinated, 
22 June, '1839. The subject of this notice was 
educated in New England, but returned to the 
territory in 1853, and was actively engaged in 
politics. At the breaking out of the civil war he 
and Stand Waite raised a regiment of Indians, 
and entered the Confederate army, Stand Waite as 
colonel and Boudinot as major, Boudinot was 

afterward promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy of 
the regiment, and served as an aide to Gen. Thomas 
C. Hindman at the battle of Prairie Grove. He 
was delegate from his nation to the 2d and 3d 
congresses of the Confederate states. After the war 
he was in Washington for many years, acting in 
the interest of his tribe, and subsequently removed 
to Port Smith, and engaged in the practice of law. 

BOULTON, Charles Arkoll, Canadian senator, 
b. in Coburg, Ontario, 17 Sept., 1841 : d. in Shell- 
mouth. Manitoba. 18 May,1899. After graduation 
from the Upper Canada college he served in the 
British array, retiring in 1868. He then went to 
the Red river, and at the outbreak of the rebellion 
under Riel, in 1870, took an active part on the 
loyal side, and was one of the Canadian party who 
were arrested, imprisoned, and sentenced to death 
by the conspirators. He escaped to Ontario, where 
he remained until 1880, when he again went to 
Manitoba and engaged in farming. In 1885 he 
raised a corps of mounted riflemen, known as 
Boulton's scouts, and led them through the north- 
west rebellion. The next year he published at 
Toronto an interesting book entitled " Reminis- 
cences of the Northwest Rebellion." In 1889 he 
became a Liberal senator in the Dominion parlia- 
ment. In 1896 he introduced a measure favoring 
the establishment of an international peace tribu- 
nal. In the summer of 1897 Senator Boulton ac- 
companied Sir Wilfrid Laurier to England as a 
member of the military staff sent to represent 
Canada at the Queen's diamond jubilee. 

BOURKE, John (iregory, author and soldier, 
b. in Philadelphia. Pa., 23 June, 1846: d. there, 8 
June, 1896. He was graduated at the U. S. mili- 
tary academy; entered the cavalry in 1869 as sec- 
ond lieutenant, was promoted in 1876. and became 
cafrtain in 1882, serving for several years on the 
staff of Gen. George Crook, and taking part in nu- 
merous Indian campaigns. He was. in 1890. bre- 
vetted major for gallantry in the field, and in 1893 
detailed for special service in the Latin-American 
department of the Columbian exposition, and two 
years later was ordered to join his regiment at 
Port Ethan Allen. In 1896 he was elected jiresi- 
dent of the American Polk-lore Society. In addi- 
tion to numerous contributions to scientific pe- 
riodicals, he was the author of "The Snake Dance 
of the Mouquis" (New York, 1884); "On the 
Border with Crook" (1886); "The Medicine Men 
of the Af>aches" (1893); and "The Folk Food of 
the Rio Grande Valley " (189.5). 

BOl'RNE. George, clergyman, b. in Westbury, 
Wiltshire. England. 13 June. 1780: d. in New Vork 
city, 20 Nov., 1845. He was educated at Homer- 
ton, and in 1802 came to the Ignited States, but 
soon rcturne<l to England. In 1804 he again came 
to this country, and settled in Baltimore, Md. 
After preaching there and elsewhere, he removed 
to llarrishurg, Va., where, besides his pastoral la- 
bors, he established a print ing-oflice, a county Bible 
society, and was active in promoting education 
among the people. He learned the art of type- 
setting, and comiiosed his tracts and discourses at 
the case without manuscript. Mr. Bourne made 
himself obnoxious to the people by his antagonism 
to slavery and his advocacy of immediate and un- 
conditional emancipation. He carried his views 
so far as to organize an independent Presbyterian 
church of non-slaveholders on 4 July, 1815, in Har- 
risbnrg court-house. During that year he wrote 
a work entitled "Tlie Book and Slavery irrecon- 
cilable," in which the subject was discussed with 
vigor. He was compelled to surrender his church 
and printing-oflBce, and remove to Germantown, 




P»., where he accepted a pastorate. In 1820 he 
was called to Sing Sing. X. Y.. and in addition to 
his printing he had charge of the aca<leniy. lie was 
inviteil to take charge of the Indc[)eiiilent church 
in (Quebec in 1824. and remained there till 1829, 
when he returned to New York citv.and on 1 Jan.. 
1830. began the publication of " f he Protestant," 
which !<nl>se(jnently continued under the name of 
" Protestant V'indicalor." In a<l<lition to his pas- 
toral work, he was associate<l in the editorial de- 
partment of the "Christian Intelligencer," and 
e<lite<l foreign theological books for New York 
publishers. His works include "The Book and 
Slaverj- irreconcilable " (Philadelphia, 1815): " Ijec- 
tures on Ecclesia-stical History " (.Sing .Sing. 1822); 
"Pictures of gucbec" (New York, 1830); "Old 
Friemls" (IWtl): "Lorette: The H istory of a Ca- 
nadian Xun" (New Y'ork. 1834); "Slavery, illus- 
trated in its Effects u|>on Woman " (Boston. 18:^4); 
"Text-Book of I'ojicry " (1837): and "The Ke- 
fonners — Sketches of the Keforination " (1838). 

BOVEK. MarTiii Henry, reformer, b. in Am- 
stenlam. X. Y.. 5 Jan.. 1827; d. in Whitewater, 
Wis., 7 Mav, 1888. He received an academic edu- 
cation in his native town, and in 184^1 went with bis 
father to Kagic, Wis. In 1852 he was there elected 
chairman of the lK>ani of sii|iervisors. and in the 
name year he was chosen to the Wisconsin senate, 
where he introduced and carried to a successful 
issue the bill to alHilish capital punishment. In 
1858 he securol the vags»ge of a similar law in 
Illinois, and in the following winter he made a 
public caiiva.<is in its lM>half in the state of Xew 
York. Mr. Bovee rapidly ac<|uired a national rcji- 
utation. and Tiuml>ereii among his friends Henry 
Ward Beeclier. William Lloyd (iarrisfin. Henry 
W. I»ngfelliiw, and Uerrit .Smith. Through his 
efforts capital punishment was abolished, or the 
taw so motlifled that it was rarely inflictetl, in Wis- 
consin, Illinois, New York. Minnesota. Iowa, and 
other states. During his late years .Mr. liovee was 
de«>ply interested in theestablishtneiit of industrial 
schools for the young, a work when'in he was quite 
successful. He was an effusive public s|>eaker. and 
for many years his services were called into re<|ui- 
silion by the DenuK-ratic [>arty in jiolitical emer- 
eencies. During the presidential canvass of 1884 
he made mon- than 100 spee<'hes in Ohio and Xew 
York. He pidilishe<l "Christ and the Gallows, or 
lieason for the Aljolilioh of Capital Punishment" 
(Xew Ynrk. 18fl!t). which was widely circulatwl. 

BOWEN, (j<*or?e, missionarv. b. in .Middle- 
burv. Vt.. 13 Aj)ril. 1816: <1. in' Bombay. Inilia, 
8 I-'eb.. 1888. He left school in 1828 aiidengaged 
in mercantile life. In 18:12 he became a skeptic. 
but the death of a Christian woman to whom Mr. 
Bowen was engaged led to his conversion. He was 
graduated at I nion theological seminary, and 
onlaini-il as a mi.ssionary in Xew York city in 
1847. Sailing for India under the authority of the 
Araerican Ixmril of commissioners for foreign mis- 
sions, he rea<'hed Bombay in 184**. Afters|M'n<ling 
B year in India he refused to accejit further salary 
for his labors, believing that he would have more 
influence among the heathen if he were not pos- 
sessed of a state<l income. He liveil for many 
years in the native baiuiars ami among the de- 
graded f>opulation. until he was retpiested to Ih?- 
come sei'retary to the Heligious tract society, at 
whose defiot fie afterward n-sided. managing its 
affairs without [lay in addition to his other labors. 
In 187:1 he was a member of the missionary staff of 
the Methfslist K|>iscopal church, ami at the time 
of his death he was iiresiding elder of the Ilonibay 
district. Ho was called "the nestor of the .Metho- 

dist conference in India." Jlr. Bowen edited " The 
Bombay Guanlian " from ia54 until his death, and 
was the author of "Daily Meditations," "The 
-Vinens of Christ." and " Love Revealed." 

BOWEN, Henry Chandler, editor, b. in Wood- 
stock. Conn.. U Sept., 1813 : d. in Brooklyn. N. Y., 
24 Feb., 1886. He was educate<l at Wootlstock 
academy, and after four years in his father's store 
removed to New York, where he became a mer- 
chant. In 1848 he assisted in establishing "The 
Independent" as a Congregational, antislavery 
paper, and later he became its sole proprietor, re- 
tiring from mercantile business in 1861. After 
this date he acted as the paper's publisher, and, on 
the retirement of Thetxlore Tilfon, as its editor. 
In 1862 he was made collector of internal revenue 
for the 2d New York district, but President John- 
son removed him because "The Independent" 
otipose<l the president's |H)licy of reconstruction. 
Mr. Bowen was a founder of Plymouth church, 
and for many years an ardent friend of Henry 
Ward Beecher. At the tinieof the Beecher-Tillon 
trial he was tried by a committee of the church 
for having slandered his pastor, and was ex|ielled 
because he refused to divulge facts that he con- 
fessed ha<l come to his knowleilge. Mr. Bowen 
for many vears gave 4th of July celebrations at his 
summer liome, Koseland park, in Woodstock, 
Conn., and invited there many of the most emi- 
nent men of the country as s|>eakers. He l>e- 
c|ueatlu'<l the reversion of f l.'i.OOO to Woodstock 
academy and the same amount to the trustees of 
Koseland park, and created a special trust of |ilO,- 
<N)0 to maintain the |>ark. — His son. Clarence 
Winthrop, b. in Br(H)klyn, 22 May, 1852, was 
graduated at Yale in 1873. He has \>ven con- 
necteil with "The Independent." and in 181(6 siic- 
cee<led his father as its publisher. In 1880 he was 
secretary of the committee of arrangements for 
the celefiration of Washington's first inauguration 
in New York city. Yale gave him thc<legreeof 
Ph. D. in 1882. He has published "Boiin<Iary 
Disputes of Connecticut "(Ilost on, 1882); " WihhI- 
st<K-k, an Historical Sketch" (Xew York, 1886); 
and the memorial volume of the centennial of 
Washington's inaugurali'm (1802). — .Aiiother son, 
Herbert Wolrott. b. in Br<K)klvii. 20 Feb., 1856, 
was e<lucaled in I'aris. in Berlin, and at Yale, 
where he was graduated in 1878. He stmlied law 
at Columbia and l)egan practice, but in 18)M) was 
made U. S. consul at Barceloua. Spain, and in 
1804 became consul-general at that place. Five 
years later he was apiiointed minister to Persiiu 
)le has publishe<l "Verses" (Boston. 1884); "In 
Divers Tones" (1800); " Losing (iround," sonnets 
(1802); " De CJenere Huinano" (1893): and a work 
on "International Law" (Xew York. 18iH!). — An- 
other son, John Eliiit, b. in BriHiklvn. 2t^ June, 
18.58: d. there. 3 Jan.. 1800. was graduated at 
Yale, and liocame connected with "The Independ- 
ent." Columbia gave him the degree of Ph. D. 
He published "The Conflict Iwtween the Fast and 
West in Fgypt " (Xew York, 1887), and translated 
Carmen Svlva's ".Songs of Toil " (1888). 

BOWLkS, Satnnel. editor, h. in Springfield. 
Mass., 15 Oct., \H')l, He Btudie<l at liome and 
abmnd for two years, taking a two years' special 
cours«' at Yale. Ho became in 1873 an assistant 
in the<>ditr>rial department of the Springfield " Re- 
publican." founded by his grandfather in 1824 and 
continued by his fattier for thirty-five years, the 
business manager two years later, and since 1878 
has lieen the publisher and editor-in-chief. Mr. 
Bowles is a director of the Springfield city library 
ass<x.'iation and son-in-law of Judge Hoar. 




BOWSER, Edward Albert, mathematician, b. 
in Sackville, New Brunswick, 18 June, 1845. He 
was graduated in 1868 at Rutgers, and lias been 
professor of mathematics and engineering in Rut- 
gers since 1871. In 1869-'70 lie was assistant in 
office of U. S. coast and geodetic survey, and since 
1875 acting assistant U. S. coast and geodetic sur- 
vey. Lafavette college gave him the degree of 
LL. D. in 1881. He has published " Analytic Ge- 
ometry " (New York, 1880) ; " Differential and In- 
tegral Calculus" (1880); "Analytic Mechanics" 
<1884); " Hydromechanics " (1885): " Academic Al- 
gebra " (1888) : " College Algebra " (Boston, 1888) : 
" Plane and Solid Geometry " (1890) ; " Elements 
of Trigonometry " ; "Treatise on Trigonometry" 
(1892); and "Logarithmic Tables ' (1895). 

BRADFORD, John, printer, b. in Fauquier 
county, \"a.. in 1749; d. in Fayette county, Ky., in 
March, 1830. He served in the Revolutionary war, 
and in 1779 visited Kentucky for the first time. 
In 1785 he settled with his family in the vicinity 
of Lexington, and on 11 Aug., 1787, with his 
brother, Fielding Bradford, he established the 
"Kentucke Gazette," under which style it was 
continued until 14 March, 1789, when the spelling 
was changed to " Kentucky Gazette." This was 
the first newspaper published west of the Alle- 
ghanies except the "Pittsburg Gazette," which 
first appeared about 1 Aug., 1787. The type with 
which the paper was printed was floated down 
Ohio river and carried on pack-horses over a wil- 
derness. Its first issue was published on a sheet 
of demi-paper, and the second on a half sheet of 
the same size, but owing to the difficulty of pro- 
curing paper it was soon afterward reduced to a 
half sheet foolscap, and was thus published for 
several months. His large type and illustrations 
were carved by himself out of dogwood. There 
was no post-office in the region, and Mr. Bradford 
employed a post-rider and established a letter-box 
in his log-cabin office for the liencfit of his neigh- 
bors. In 1788 he published the "Kentucky Al- 
manac," and in 1794 he printed books. He was 
the first public printer of Kentucky, and in 1803 
■conveyed his establishment to his son. In 1793 
he was chairman of the board of trustees of Lex- 
ington, Ky., and he was for a long time at the 
head of the Democratic committee. He was also a 
trustee of Transylvania university, and for many 
years sheriff of Fayette county, which office he 
held until his death. On account of his great in- 
formation he was familiarly known as the "town 
oracle " or the " old warder." 

BRADFORD, Royal Bird, naval officer, b. in 
Turner, Me., 22 July, 1844. He was graduated at 
tlie U. .S. naval academy in June, 1865, and pro- 
moted through several grades from ensign to com- 
mander. In 1883 he superintended the placing of 
an electric lighting plant aboard the "Trenton," 
the first man-of-war of any nation to use electric- 
ity, lie commanded the IJ. S. steamer " Benning- 
ton" off the coast of Chili during the threatened 
war with that country. In October, 1898, he Wiis 
appointed naval attnche to the United States and 
Spanish peace commission, and in March, 1899, was 
advanced to the grade of captain. He is at present 
head of the bureau of equipment, with the rank of 
rear-admiral while holding that office. 

BRADLEY, Charles Smith, jurist, b. in New- 
buryport, Mas.s.. 19 Julv, 1819; d. in New York 
city, 29 Aiiril, 1888. He was graduated at Brown, 
and, after a brief service as tutor there, studied 
law at Harvard and with Charles F. Tillinghast, 
of Providence. In 1841 he was admitted to the 
Bhode Island bar, and entered into partnership 

with Mr. Tillinghast. He was elected to the state 
senate in 1854, and chiefly through his influence 
the act of amnesty to all who were involved in the 
Dorr rebellion of 1842 was adopted. He was 
repeatedly a delegate to national Democratic 
conventions, and in 1860, when the party was 
divided, he voted for Stephen A. Douglass. In 
1863 he was the nominee of his party for congress, 
but failed of election. He was chosen in 1866 
chief justice of the supreme court of Rhode Island 
and held that office for two years, when he re- 
signed to resume his legal practice. For two years 
he lectured at the Harvard law-school, and in 
1876-'9 he held a chair in that institution. In 
1866 he was elected a fellow of Brown, which 
place, by re-elections, he filled until his death, and 
in 1867 the degree of LL. D. was conferred on hira 
by that university. Judge Bradley was again the 
Democratic nominee for congress from his district 
in 1886, but was defeated. His reputation as an 
orator led to his being chosen often to speak on 
public occasions. Among his best-known efforts 
are "An Address before the Alumni Association of 
Brown University " in 1855, " Oration on the 250lh 
Anniversary of the Landing of the Pilgrims at 
Plymouth " in 1870, his remarks on the retirement 
of President Alexis Caswell from the presidency 
of Brown university in 1872, his oration before 
the <t> P K society of Harvard university in 1879, 
and his oration on " The Profession of the Law as 
an Element of Civil Society," pronounced in 1881 
at the University of Virginia. 

BRADLEY, Lyman, inventor, b. in Cavuga 
county, N. Y., 7 June, 1807; d. in Buffalo, N. Y., 
18 May, 1888. He was educated in his native 
place, and acquired much of his knowledge by his 
own efforts. For a time he was in business in 
Lockport, N. Y., but later he removed to Wiscon- 
sin, where he engaged unsuccessfully in lumbering 
and other enterprises. In 1865 he settled in Buf- 
falo, where he spent the remainder of his life. He 
formed the acquaintance of a chemist who was 
experimenting on a process for manufacturing 
sugar from corn. With very little capital, and in 
the face of the most discouraging circumstances, 
he joined in the enterprise, and by his own study 
and energy completed the process. This was 
the beginning of the corn-sugar industry. After 
perfecting and patenting the method he disposed 
of his interest for a handsome fortune, a greater 
part of which he devoted to the payment of out- 
lawed debts. Jlr. Bradley was also the inventor 
of a process for preserving fruit. 

BRADY, John, R. C. bishop, b. in County Cav- 
an, Ireland, in 1840. He made his ecclesiastical 
studies at the College of All Hallows, the great 
missionary college of Ireland, and was ordained in 
1874. His first work was at St. Mary's church, in 
Newburyport. Jlass.. as assistant pastor, until 1868, 
when he was appointed pastor of St. Joseph's 
church at Amesbury, where he still continues to 
perform successful parochial work. To the theo- 
logian and )mstor he unites a thorough appreci- 
ation of American citizenship. He was chosen to 
aid Arehbisliop Williams of Boston in the arduous 
laboi-s of the e|)iscopate; was appointed auxiliary 
bishop of Boston, was consecrated at the Boston 
cathedral in 1891, under the title of bishop of Ala- 
banda, and still, while discharging the missionary 
duties of pastor at Amesbury, relieves the arch- 
bishop of many of the labors of the episcopate. 

BRANN, Henry Athanasius, author, b. in 
Parkstown, County Meatli. Ireland, 15 Aug., 1837. 
He came to the United States, received his clas- 
sical education in St. Mary's college, Wilmington, 




Del., anil St. Francis Xavier's, New Vork city, 
studied for the priesthood in St. Sulpice, Paris, 
and the American college, Roine.and was ordained 
in 1W52. He was vice-president of Seton Hall col- 
lege until 1S64, and director of the Roman Catho- 
lic seminary in Wheeling, W. Va.. from 1868 until 
1872. when he was appointed rector of St. Eliza- 
beth's church. New \ ork. He is also archdioccsan 
censor of books. Besides contributing frequently 
to Koman Catholic periodicals and reviews, he has 
written " Curious (Questions " (Newark. 1867) ; 
"Tnith and Error" (New Vork, 1871); *' Essay 
on the Popes " (1875) ; "The Age of Unreason'' 
<1881): and " Immortality of the Soul " (1882). 

BRAUN, Antoine Nicholas, Canadian clergr- 
man. b. in St. -A void, Lorraine, 5 Feb., 1815: d. In 
Sault aux Hwollets. Montreal, 1 Feb., 1885. He 
Wits educated in France, and was onlained in Laval 
in 1H46. Subseijuently he exercised the ministry 
in Stra'^burg, Lyons, and in Notre Damede Liessc. 
He was a meml>er of the order of Jesus. In 1851 
he went to Cana<la, and remained there until his 
(leath. Father Braun was (he author of various 
religious works, including " Instructions Dogma- 
limies sur le Manage Chretien " (t^uebcc, 1866). 

BRECKINKI INiE. I lirtonKhodeti. diplomat, 
b. in Ijexington, Ky., 22 Nov., 1846. He is a son 
of John C. Breckinri(lge (y. i'.), and entered Wash- 
ington college, Virginia, but was not graduated, 
owing to trouble with his eyes. In 1870 he re- 
moved to Arkansas to engage in cotton-planting, 
and was elected as a Democrat to congress in 1873, 
retaining his seal until 1804, when he resigned to 
become U. S. minister to !£us»ia, where he renuiined 
for three years. During the greater part of his 
service in con^^ress Mr. Hrwkinriilge was a member 
of the committee on ways and means, and also 
active on several other committees. 

BRKKl), WilUam Pratt, clergyman, b. in 
Orcnbush. N. Y.. 23 Aug., 1816; d.'in Phila<lel- 
phia, I'a., 14 Feb., 1880. He was griuluated at the 
I'niversity of the city of New Vork in 1843 and at 
Princeton theological seminary three ycurs later. 
In 1847 he was called to the charge of the S'cond 
Pn'sliyterian church in Steulicnville. Ohio. continu- 
ing there until IKjti. when he accepted the pastor- 
ate of the West S|inii-e sln-et churi'h in Philadel- 
phia, Pa., where he ren)airied till his death. The 
di'trri-e of D. D. was conferred on him by the Uni- 
vtr-lty of the city of New Vork in 18ft4. He took 
ail lu'live [(art in the movement to erect a nionu- 
iiii'iit to John Withersjiooii in Fairmount juirk, 
Philadelphia, delivering "An Historical Discourse 
on Presbyterians and the Uevolulion" in many 
places on its l>elialf. Dr. Breed made the a<lilress 
of weh-oine to the delegates of the second general 
council of the alliance of the Keforiiie<l churches 
ill Septemtier. 1HS(». nnd read a pajier l>efore them 
on "The DilTusioii of Presbyterian Literature." 
He wiis the author of volunii-s for Suiidav-school 
libraries, and " Presbvterianisiii Thri'e Hiindretl 
Vears Ago " ( Philadelphia, IHTi) : " A Model Chris- 
tian Worker. John Potter" (1870); and "Aboard 
and Abroad in IxtH" (New York, 1885). 

BRKNNAN, Thoniatt Francis. K. C. bishop, b. 
in Tipperary. Irelaml, in IN");i Coming to the 
Unile<i States while very young anil s«'tlllng in 
Pennsylvania, he received his education in the 
liiinlier region of that state. He gradiialeil at 
Allegheny college, studied the elHssics at Kouen, 
in France, and theology at Iniispruck. in (termany, 
receiving in 1K«1 the degree of D. D. at Kome. 
Retuniing to the United .States and to the I'enn- 
sylvania mission, he erecteil three churches in 
Forest, Potter, and Elk counties. He travelled in 

Spain, Germany, Russia, and Africa, availing him- 
self of these op[H>rtuaities of studying the lan- 
guages of many nations. He n>nrcsented the dio- 
cese of Erie at Pope Leo's jubilee, and was then 
made a domestic prelate of the pope's household, 
with the title of monsignore. He was appointed 
bishop of Dallas, Tex., and was consecrated by 
Bishop Mullen, of Krie, on 5 April, 1891, and re- 
signed in the following year. He next became 
au.xiliary bishop of St. John'.s Newfoundland, un- 
der Bishop Power, who died in 1893, when liishop 
Brennan returned to Koine at the request of I^eo 
XIIL. who projKised to place him in the Catholic 
college intended to be founded in Constantinople, 
but not yet established. He has resided ever since 
with the Indian fathers, in Iheir Grotto Ferrato, 
about fourteen miles from Home. 

BRENNER, Carl C„ artist, b. in Lauterecken, 
Hheiiish Bavaria, 1 .Aug.. 18.'J8 ; d. in Louisville, 
Ky., 22 July, 1«88. He attended the public schools 
in his native village, but came to the United States 
when he was a boy. Hi~ first o<,-cu[iation was that 
of a sign-iiai liter, and during th? civil war he did 
considerable illustrating of military experiences 
while serving on the staff of Gen. Stephen G. Bur- 
bridge. As a painter he devoted himself prin- 
cipally to landsca|>es. and his sinilies of the l)eech 
tree under all groupings and conililions was esjio- 
cially not*'w<irthy. In 187(> his exhibition at the 
Centennial exjiosil ion in Philadelphia attracted at- 
tention, and one of his tyjiical paintings of beeches 
is now in the Corcoran gallery in VViushington, D. C, 
He was a prolific artist, and' his work was seldom 
absent from an exhibition. S|iccimensof his land- 
scapes are to be found in many of the art -galleries 
in this count rv. also in private collections. 

BRENT. J»M>|>h Ijtnra8t«r, lawvcr. b. in 
Charles City county, Md., 30 Nov., 1826. He was 
assigned to duty as chief of onlnaiice to Gen. John 
B. Magruder in April. 1862. and was subsequently 
chief of ordnance to the right wing of the Army of 
northern Virginia, under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. 
During the latter part of 1862 he was apjHjiiitcd 
chief of ordnance and artillery to Gen. iiichard 
Taylor, in which position he continued during the 
year 186:1 and until 17 Anril, 1864, when he was 
made coUmel of artillery, lie was appointed briga- 
dier-general, Octolx'r, 1864. His command con- 
sisted of the 2<1. 5th, 7lh, and 18th regiments of 
Ixiuisiana cavalry, known as Brent's cavalry bri- 
gaile. He comiiiandeil the front lines extending 
from .\rkansas to the Gulf, including the forts on 
Kill river, at the time of Gen. K. Kirby Smith's 
surrender, and was in command of the gnnlmats 
which captured the U. S. ironclad "Indiauola." 

BREWSTER. Chaiinrpy Biinre, P. K. bishon, 
b. ill WiiMlliHin.Conii., .'i Spt.. \>^S. He wasgrad- 
ualeil by ^ale in IHIW, where he was afterward 
tutor : st'uditKl at Ik-rkeley divinity school. Middle- 
town : wiLs onlained deacon in 1872, and priest in 
1873. He has lieen rwlor of Christ church, Kye, 
N. Y., (tra<-e church, Detroit, and Grn<-e church, 
Brooklyn. While rector of the latter (larisli he was 
chosen coadjutor bishop of Connecticut, and con- 
secrated in New Haven, 28 Oct., 1H97. On the 
death of liishop Williams in 1890. he succeeded to 
his ofllce as clifK'esan of Connecticut. Bishop 
Brewster has published "The Key of Life" (New 
York. lKS,"i) Rud various inagaziiie articles. 

BREWSTER. Frederick Carroll, lawyer, b. 
ill Philadelphia. I'a.. lo .Miiv. 1825; d. in Charlotte, 
N. C, 30 Dec. 1808. He was grailualed at the 
University of Pcnnsylxania; read law with his 
father. Francis (j. Brewster, and was admitted to 
the Philadelphia bar in 1844. In 1862 he was 




elected city solicitor of Philadelphia, which office 
he held until 1866, when he was elected a judge of 
the court of common pleas, resigning the office in 
1869, and accepting that of attorney-general of the 
state, which he retained until 1870. Judge Brews- 
ter was among the most eminent men of the Phila- 
delphia bar. At the time lie entered on his duties 
as city solicitor the celebrated suit of the heirs of 
Stephen Girard, in their eifort to set aside the 
charitable bequest of Mr. Girard, was on trial : a 
judgment was entered against the city in the court 
below, but this was subsequently reversed, the de- 
feat of the heirs being in a large measure due to 
Mr. Brewster's sound views upon the subject and 
their forcible presentation. He was also instru- 
mental in securing the decision in the Chestnut 
street briilge ease, wherein a decree was entered 
in the supreme court of the United States allow- 
ing the city to cross the Schuylkill river by bridge, 
the importance of which decision in furthering 
the prosperity of Philadelphia cannot be overesti- 
mated. He received the degree of LL. U. from the 
University of Pennsylvania. Judge Brewster was 
the author of "Digest of Pennsylvania Cases"' 
(Philadelphia. 186!)); " Brewster's Reports " (4 vols., 
1869-'78) ; " Brewster's Blackstone, with Annota- 
tions of Decisions on the Rule in Shelly's Case " 
(1887); and "Practice in Pennsylvania Courts" 
(1888) ; and had ])ublished a translation of Moliere. 

BRICE, Calvin Stewart, senator, b. in Den- 
mark, Ohio, 17 Sept., 1845 ; d. in New York city, 15 
Dec. 1898. He was graduated at Miami university, 
serving for a year in Ohio regiments during his 
college course, and at the close of the war studied 
law at the University of Michigan. He began his 
successful financial career in 1870, acquiring large 
interests in railway and other enterprises. He was 
on the Tilden electoral ticket in 1876, the Cleve- 
land electoral ticket in 1884, and delegate to the 
national Democratic convention of 1888. On the 
death of William II. Barnum he was unanimously 
elected chairman of the national committee in 
1889, and in January, 1890, he was elected U. S. 
senator, to succeed Henry R. Payne, for the terra 
commencing 4 March, 1891. He served on com- 
mittees on appropriations, naval affairs, railroads, 
interstate commerce, pensions, and Pacific rail- 
wavs. of which he was chairman. 

BRIGHTLY, Frederick Cliarles, lawyer, b. 
in Bungay, Suffolk, England, 26 Aug., 1812: d. in 
Gerniantown. Pa., 24 Jan.. 1888. After serving as 
a midshipman under the East Indian company he 
came to this country in ISiSl, studied law, and was 
admitted to the bar" in 1839. Mr. Brightly retired ! 
from active practice about 1870, and devoted his i 
time to legal autliorship. His collection of about | 
5,000 volumes is one of the best private law libra- 
ries in this country. He printed a descriptive cata- 
logue of his books, with critical notices of authors 
and_subjects, for private circulation (Philadelphia, 
1885). His legal works are "The Law of Costs in 
Pennsylvania" (1847); " Reports of Cases decided 
by the Judges of the Supreme Court of Pennsyl- 
vania." with noles (1851); "The Ecpiitable Juris- 
diction of the Courts of Pennsylvania" (185.5); 
•' An Analytical Digest of the Ijaws of the United 
States, 1789-1869 "(2 vols., 186.5-9); "A Digest 
of the Decisions of the Federal Courts " (2 vols., 
1868-73); "The Bankrupt Law of the United 
States" (1871) ; "A Collection of Leading Cases on 
the Law of Elections in the United States "(1871) ; 
"Constitution of Pennsylvania, as Amended in the 
Year 1874," to which is appended the constitution 
of 1838 (1874): "A Digest of the Decisions of the 
Courts of the State of Xew York to January, 1884 " 

(3 vols.. New York, 1875-'84) ; " A Digest of the 
I)ecisions of the Courts of tho State of Pennsylva- 
nia from 1754 to 1882 " (3 vols., Philadelphia, 1877- 
'83) ; and " A Digest of the Laws of Pennsylvania 
from 17(X) to 1883 "(1883). He also republished 
two editions of " Binn's Justice, or Magistrate's 
Daily Comjianion " (1870-'86) ; also "The Practice 
in Civil Actions and Proceedings in the Courts of 
Pennsylvania" (2 vols., 1880), popularly known as 
" Troubat and Haley's Practice " ; and has edited 
numerous volumes of reports and other legal 
works. — His son, Francis Frederick, lawyer, b. 
in Philadelphia, Pa., 26 Feb., 1845, was graduated 
at the law department of the University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1866. He has published "A Digest of 
the Laws and Ordinances of the City of Philadel- 
phia" (2 vols., 1887) and "A Digest of the Laws 
of Pennsylvania from 1883 to 1887" (1887). 

BRINGHAM. Bavid, clergyman, b. in West- 
boro', Mass., 2 Sept., 1794 ; Bridgewater.Mass., 
18 April, 1888. He was graduated at Union college 
in 1818, and ordained to the ministry in 1819. 
He became pastor of the Congregational church 
at East Randolph, Mass., 29 Dec. 1819, ami had 
subsequently pastorates in Framingham. Bridge- 
water. Falmouth, .South Plymouth, JIass., and 
otlier places. Though he was a<;lmired by a large 
circle of friends, his outspoken denunciation of 
slavery subjected him to many insults in the early 
part of his career. Twice he was saved from ex- 
pulsion from his church by a majority of three, 
and on several occasions he was compelled to go 
armed to protect himself. He was also an ardent 
prohibitionist, and at the time of his death he was 
the oldest Congregational clergyman in New Eng- 
land, and the oldest but one in the United States. 
BRINSMABE, Thomas Clark, physician, b. 
in New Hartford. Conn., 16 June. 1802; d. in Trov, 
N. Y., 22 June, 1868. He studied medicine in 
New Marlboro', Mass., was licensed to practice, 
and after spending ten years in Lansingburg, 
N. Y., removed to Troy, where he |)ractise<l suc- 
cessfully until his death, and at the same time 
occupied many offices of public trust. He was 
health officer and president of the Troy board of 
health for many years, and active in the estab- 
lishment of the New York inebriate asylum, of 
which he was an original trustee, president of the 
Rensselaer medical society, a vice-president of the 
New York state medical society in 1857 and it-s 
president in 1858, treasurer of the Renssehier 
polytechnic institute, later vice-president and 
president in 1868. Dr. Brinsmade published an 
iwldress on the "Medical Topography of the City 
of Troy " in the " Transactions of the New 
York State Medical Society for 1851," " The 
Registration of Diseases, comprising Statistics of 
37,872 Cases " (Albany. 18.58), and '" Registration 
of Diseases, including Statistics of 2,056 Cases 
treated in 1858-9" (1860). 

BRITO FREYRE, Francisco de (bree -to), 
Portuguese historian and soldier, b. in Coruche 
about 1620; d. in Lisbon, 8 Nov., 1692. He chose 
the profession of arms and became captain of cav- 
alry. As "almirante"' of the Portuguese fleet 
he led two expeditions to Brazil in the war for 
the expulsion of the Dutch from that country. 
His first expedition sailed from Lislion early in 
October, 1653. with Pedro Jaqucs de Magalhaens for 
general. The Portuguese captured Recife in Jan- 
uary. 1654. and on the 26th of the month forced 
the Dutch to sign a treaty surrendering all they 
possessed in Brazil, thus ending the Pernambucan 
war. On Brito's second expedition, in 165.5-'6, he 
captured and brought back into Lisbon seven ships,. 




which netted nine million reis. When Affonso VI. 
was forced from the throne in 1WJ~, and sent cap- 
tive to Tereeinv, Brito was ordered to convoy him 
thitlier. He refiise<l to obe? because of the regard 
he felt toward the king, ifis action in this matter 
event iiallr brought him misfortune in his old age. 
lie married a daughter of Pedro Alvarez C'abral, a 
direct dcsc-cnilaut of the discoverer of Brazil, and 
he hod one son, who was sent out as governor to 
Kio de Janeiro, where he died. Brito is best 
known by his " Nova Lusitania, historia da guerra 
Brasilica a f>urissima alma e savdosa mrmoria do 
sereni.ssimo princi|)e Dom Theodosio princi|)C de 
Portvgal, c princii)e do Bra.sil" (Lisbon, IBTo). It 
contains only the first decatle, book one treating 
of the dis(-overy and settlement of Brazil and 
Ixwks two to ten of the war between the Portuguese 
and Dutch, from 1623 to 16:«. The work is of 
great rarity, and is im|K)rtant Iwth as a bit of Por- 
tuguese literature and as a contribution to history, 
lie wrote " Viageda armailadecompanhia do 
comniercio, e frotas do estado do Brasil. A cargo 
<lo general Francisco de Brito Freyre. Impressa 
por maixludo do el Hey nosso senhor. Anno 1<>.55." 
The work was probably printed at Lisbon, and the 
date of the imprimatur, 13 Apr., 16-'iT. may fix the 
date of printing. It is often lound bouml in as a 
part of the "Nova Lusitaiila." 

BROOKK. Francis Kpt. P. E. bishop, b. in 
Gambier, Ohio, 2 Nov.. 18.'>2. He is a son of the 
Rev. .John Thomson Brooks, I). I)., rector of Christ 
church, Cinciniiali, and was graduate<l at Kenyon 
college, (Jambier, and later received the degrees of 
A. B. and A. M. He has been a clergyman of the 
Protestant Kpiso<>|ial church since is*5, having 
held the rectorship of several parishes in Ohio, of 
St. Peter's church. St. liouis, and of Trinity church. 
Atchison, Kan. He was consecratc<l missionary 
bishop of Okliitioma and Indian territory in 18JI3. 
KROOKK, John Kntter. soldier, b. near Potts- 
town. Pa.. 21 .lulv. ISSM. He was ap|:>ointed ca(>- 
tain in the 4th Pennsylvania iMfantrr, 20 Aprd, 
1861, ami was nius- 
tore<l out 26 Julv, 
1861. <Jn 7 Not. fol- 
lowing he wa.t ma<le 
colonel of the 53(1 
Pennsylvania infan- 
try ; he was promotol 
to brigailier-general 
of voluntecm on 12 
Mav. 1864. He re- 
signwl, 1 Feb., 1866. 
and was appointeil 
lieutenant-colonel of 
the 371 h iiifanlrv. 28 
July. 18<i6. He was 
transferred to the 3d 
Infantry, 15 .March, 
1 8<5!(. was promote<l 
to colonel of the 18th infantry, 30 March, 1870, 
and was again transferred to ihe 3<l infantrv on 
14 .Tune following. He wils made a brigadier- 
general on April. 1888. Much of the time he 
was emplciyed uiM)n Ihe fnmtierand on the plains; 
in 18B7 he commanded ami conilucted successfully 
a detachment of six hundred cavalry and infantrj' 
rrcnilts on an overland march to New Mexico. 
When the war with Spain o[H'iu'd in 181»8 ho was 
put in command of the 1st anny-corps, with head- 
quarters at Camp Thomas, Chickiiiiiiiiiga i)ark, 
and he ret?eivo<l the rank of niajor-gonorid of vol- 
unteers. He nccomjmnied (ion. .Miles upon the 
invasion of Puerto Rico as second in command. 
When (ien. Miles returned in August Gen. Brooke 


was left in command. He was also appointed, 
with Admiral Schley and Gen. Gordon, a com- 
missioner to settle upon the details of the evacua- 
tion of Puerto Rico by the Spanish troops. In 
Decomlicr he was appoinfe<l mditary governor of 
Cuba, assuming command the same month. 

ItROOKS. WiHiuin Robert, astronomer, b. in 
Maidstone. England, 11 June, 1844. He came to 
this country in 1857. and settled with his parents 
in Darien, N. Y. When he was only fourteen years 
of age he constructed a telescope, and at the age of 
eighteen delivered his first astronomical lectures. 
Subsequently he was employed as a mechanical 
draughtsman, and invento<l various improvements 
in astronomical, photographic, and other scientific 
instruments. In 1870 he settled in Phelps, N. Y., 
where, in 1874, he founded and became the di- 
rector of the Re<l House ol)servatory. In 1888 
he removed to Geneva, N. Y.. to take charge of 
Smith observatory. His work has consisted largely 
in the discovery of comets, and thirteen of these 
bodies have Ix-en credite<l to him since 1881, of 
which two were the first-observed return of the 
notable long-perioil comets of 1812 and 1815. 
He found two in 1885 and the first three that were 
discoveri'd in 1886, making a record of five comets 
within a perifnl of nine months, of which four 
were in .siicces.sion and two within four days. 
Three of these, l>earing his name, were visible at 
the same time, which is unparallolcd in the history 
of astronomy. Mr. Brooks is a fellow of the .Vmeri- 
caii asiwx'iation for the advancement of science 
and a fellow of the Royal astronomical society of 
(treat Britain, and has won a number of prizes 
by his discoveries. He has lectured fre<|uently, 
and, besi<les rmners on his specialty, has published 
tK>ems, of wliich " Milton " and "The Pilgrim of 
Ijivorgno" have been widely copied. 

BROWN, Addison, jurist. b. in West Newbury. 
Kssex CO., Mass.. 21 Feb., ISW. He was grudunted 
from Harvard in 1854, and from the law-school 
two years later. He was admitted to the bar. and 
prac'ti8e<l in New York city from 18.55 until he was 
api>ointed C S. judge for the southern district of 
New York. Judge Brown was forseven years presi- 
ilont of the Torrey Iwtanical club, also one of the 
originators and a s<-ientific director of the Now 
Viirk botanical garden, whos<' charter he prepared 
in 18)11. With Prof. N. L. Britton he wrote " Brit- 
ton ami Brown's Illustrated Floraof the Northern 
riiilod .States and Canada " (3 vol.s.. New York, 
1896- '8), and he has contributed legal opinions in 
admiralty casos to the "Federal Reporter." 

BROWN. Francis, clergvman, b. in Hanover, 
N. H.. 26 Dec, 1849. He was graduated at Dart- 
mouth in 1870, taught at I'ittsburg, Pa., in 
187o-"2, was tutor in Greek at Dartmouth in 1872- 
'4. and was graduated at I'nion theological semi- 
nary. New ^ <irk city, in 1876. After studying two 
years in Oertnany he I)ecaine instnictor in biblical 
philology in Union theological seminary, associate 
professor of the same in 1881. and fufi professor 
in 1885. He recoivoil the degree of D. I), from 
Hamilton and Dartmouth in 1884. Prof. Brown 
is the author of " A.ssyriologv, its Use and Abuse 
in Old Testament Study" (New York, 188.')). He 
has edited "The Beginnings of History," by 
Francois Lenormant (1882). and with Prof. Ros- 
well I). Hitchcock (</. r.) "The Teachings of the 
Twolvo Apostles" (1884: roviseil ed.. 1885). 

BROWN, George WiHiani, jurist, b. in Balti- 
more, Mil., 13 Oct.. 1812: <1. nt hake Mohonk, 
N. Y.. 6 Sept., 18<M). Ho was graduated at Rut- 
gers in 1831, studied law, and was admitted to the 
bar of his native city, attaining to the first rank 




in his profession. He became mayor of Baltimore 
in 1860, having been elected on a reform ticket, 
and was instrumental in restoring the peace of the 
city during the riots that occurred at the begin- 
ning of the civil war, marching at the head of the 
Massachusetts troops on 19 April, 1861, through 
the streets to quell the disturbances on that day. 
He was a member of the Maryland constitutional 
convention in 1867, was elected chief judge of the 
supreme court of Baltimore city in 1873, and 
served till his retirement in October, 1888. For 
many years he was professor of international and 
constitutional law in the Univei-sity of Maryland. 
Judge ISrown published, with William H. Norris 
and Frederick W. Brown, " Digest of the Jlary- 
land Reports" (Baltimore, 1847); "The Origin 
and Growth of Civil Liberty in Maryland," an ad- 
dress before the Maryland historical society (1850) ; 
"The Old World and the New," an address (New 
York, 1851) ; " The Relation of the Legal Profes- 
sion to Society," a lecture (Baltimore, 1868); 
"The Need of a Higher Standard of Education in 
the United States," an (1869) ; an -'Ad- 
dress to the Medical Graduates of the University 
of Maryland" (1873); "Sketch of the Life of 
Thomas Donaldson " (1881); and "Baltimore and 
the 19 .Vnril, 1861 "(1887). 

BROVVN, James Allen, theologian, b. in Dru^ 
more township, Lancaster co., Pa., 19 Feb., 1821 ; 
d. in Lancaster, Pa., 19 June, 1883. He entered the 
senior class in Pennsylvania college, Gettysburg, 
where he was graduated in 1842, taught in Leiters- 
burg. New Windsor, and Darlington, Md., in 1843- 
'5, and on 19 Oct. of the latter year was licensed 
to preach by the Lutheran synod of Maryland. 
He was pastor of churches in Baltimore, Md., 
and York and Reading, Pa., till February, 1859, 
when he assumed the professorship of theology 
and ancient languages in Newberry college. South 
Carolina, of which in 1860 he was elected presi- 
dent. Upon the opening of the civil war he resigned 
and returned to Pennsylvania, where he was ap- 
pointed chaplain of the 87th regiment of volunteeers 
and, after fifteen months' service, chaplain of the 
U. S. army hospital at York, Pa. In August, 1864, 
he accepted the professorship of didactic theology 
and the chairmanship of the faculty in the theo- 
logical seminary of the general synod at Gettys- 
burg, which position he held until 9 Dec, 1879, 
when he was suddenly stricken down with paraly- 
sis, which deprived him of the power of speech and 
the use of his right arm. His resignation, tendered 
in June, 1880, was not accepted by the board of 
directors until 1881. In September of the same 
year he removed with his family to Lancaster, 
Pa., where he spent the remainder of his life in 
retirement. He received the degree of I). D. from 
Pennsylvania college in 1859, and that of LL. D. 
from the university at Wooster, Ohio, in 1879. He 
was one of the chief spirits in the general synod, 
and its oresident in 1806, when the separation oc- 
curred that resulted in the formation of the general 
council of the Lutheran church in North America. 
During the years 1870-80 he was first joint editor, 
then sole editor of the " Lutheran Quarterly," in 
which appeared many of his best literary and 
theological productions. Among his review ar- 
ticles are "Conversion of the World to Christ," 
" Angelology." " The Augsburg Confession and 
Second Coming of Christ," " Gladstone . on the 
Vatican Decree," and "A Question (Jonoerning 
the Augsburg Confession." Many of these ap- 
peared in namphlct form. 

BROWN, Joseph Henry, manufacturer, b. in 
Glamorganshire, Wales, 34 July, 1810; d. in 

Youngstown, Ohio, 17 Nov., 1886. He accompanied 
his father to this country in 1820, became an iron- 
worker, and after several years of successful busi- 
ness in Pennsylvania removed to Youngstown, Ohio, 
in 1854, and became president of an iron manufac- 
turing comi)any. In 1874-'81 he was president of 
the Joseph II. Brown iron and steel company, of 
Chicago. He then retired from active pursuits, 
and resided at Youngstown until his death. He 
invented the first method of cutting nail plate. 
Mr. Brown was identified with the early history of 
Youngstown, and one of the founders of the iron 
plant in that city. From its establishment till 
1881 he was president of the National tariff league 
of America, and active in its work. 

BROWNE, John Mills, surgeon, b. in Hinsdale, 
N. H., 10 May, 1831 ; d. in Washington, D. C, 7 Dec, 
1894. He was graduated at Harvard in jMareh, 
1853, and entered the U. S. navy as an assistant sur- 
geon, 36 March, 1853. In 1855-"6 he participated 
in the Indian war on Puget sound, and subse- 
quently he took part in the survey of the north- 
west boundary. He became a passed assistant sur- 
geon, 13 Jlay, 1858, served in the brig " Dolphin," 
suppressing the slave-trade on the west coast of 
Africa in 1858, and in October of that year joined 
the Paraguay expedition. He was commissioned a 
surgeon, 19 June, 1861, and attached to the steamer 
"Kearsarge" until 9 Dec, 1864, participating in 
the engagement with the Confederate cruiser " Ala- 
bama." He served at the Mare island navy-yard 
from 1869 till 1871, during which time he superin- 
tended the erection of the naval hospital there. 
He was commissioned as medical inspector. 1 Dec. 
1871, and was fleet-surgeon of the Pacific fleet in 
1873-'6. He served at the naval hospital at Mare 
island, Cal., in 1876-'80, was commissioned a medi- 
cal director. 6 Oct., 1878, and was a member of the 
examining board at Washington from 2 July. 1880, 
to 20 Oct., 1883, when he took charge of the Muse- 
um of hygiene until 1 July. 1886, after which he 
was again appointed a member of the examining 
and retiring board. On 37 Jlarch, 1888. he was 
appointed chief of the bureau of medicine and 
surgery and surgeon-general of the navy. 

BROWNE, Wilson Northrop, banker, b. in 
Albany, N. Y., in 1805: d. in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 
1857. He was educated in his native city, but 
when still young went to New York and engaged 
in business ; subsequently settled in Cincinnati, 
where he was one of the first to engage in [irivate 
banking. Although at that time not at all in 
symjiathy with the anti-slavery movement, he dis- 
suaded a pro-slavery mob from sacking the resi- 
dence of James G. Birney. who had fled from the 
city to avoid its fury. He was a Whig manager 
until within a few years of the death of his friend 
Henry Clay, and afterward became one of the 
earliest memliers of the Republican party. While 
never connected professionally with the press, he 
was during the greater part of his life a regular 
contributor to it. and was considered an authority 
in southern Ohio on political subjects and election 
statistics. He was the first writer of " money 
articles" in newspapers west of the AUeghanies. — 
His son, Junius Henri, journalist, b. in Seneca 
Falls,N.Y.,140ct., 1833. was graduated at St.Xavier 
college, Cincinnati. He was connected with the 
press of Cincinnati until 1861. when he removed to 
New York city and became war correspondent of 
the " Tribune." He was slightly wounded at Fort 
Donelson, and again on the Mississippi flotilla, 
was with the gunboat fleet and the western armies, 
iloing occasional staff duty, until 3 JIay. 1863, 
when he volunteered to accompany an expedition 




that was organized to run the V'icksburjr batteries. 
The enterprise was a faihire, and the thirtv-four 
men engaged in it were either kille<l, wounded. r>r 
captiirtHl. Brown was paroled with his fellow- 
corresponiient. Allien D. Richardson (q. <•.), at 
Viek.sburg and sent to Richmond, to go north by 
the first flttg-of-tnice boat. The Confederate 
authorities, however, were unwilling to release the 
" Tribune " men, and during the next twenty 
months they were transferred to seven different 
prisons. In the winter of 1864 they succeeded in 
eluding the guards at Salisbury. N. C, where they 
had been in charge of the hospitals for a year, and 
after travelling 4(K) miles by night through a hos- 
tile country tlicy reached the National lines at 
Strawberry Plains. Tenn., on 14 .Ian., 18<$5. There 
they telegraphed to the "Tribune" that they had 
escaficd " out of the jaws of death, out of the 
mouth of hell." bringing with them a full list of 
the Union soldien< who had died ut Salisbury. 
This was published, and forms the only authentic 
account of their fate. After the war he whs con- 
nec-tetl with the New York '"Tribune" and 
" Times," and has served as corres[K)ndent for some 
of the chief journals of the country, also contrib- 
Dting to |>eriodical literature. He has published 
" Four Years in Secessia " (Hartford, 186.'i) ; •' The 
Great Metropolis "(1869); " .Sights and Sensations 
in Eun.fjo" (1«71): and "Women " (18851). 

BKlTHESI.LonisPanl Napolpon. K. ('.arch- 
bishop, b. at -Montreal. ■iH <)<t.. IH.',."). His early 
studies were made in tlu- M-hools of the Christian 
brothers at Montreal. He made his cla-'^sii-al course 
•t the little seminary of the Snlpicians. and at his 
own request was sent to Prance to study philos^jphy 
in 1874, in which year he received tonsure from the 
bands of Canlinal Guibert. archbishop of Paris, 
and commenced the study of sacre<i sciences un<ler 
Dr. Olier. After three years thus s|K'nt he went 
to Rome and enter»-<l the French wminary of the 
Sulpicians, andsul>s4>quently studied at the Roman 
college uniler the .lesuil.s where he received the 
degree of I». I>. He receive*! onlination from Car- 
dinal Monaco in the basilica of St. .John I^ateran. 
He assisted at the corrniation of Leo XII I., travelled 
through Europe, and returned to Moiitreiil, where 
he became the private secretary of Archbishop 
F'abre. He was now chos«'n professor of dogma in 
Ijaval university, dischnr>;ing at the same time the 
duties of chaplain to the Ursulines. His fame for 
eloquence was wide-spread; he was freipiently 
calletl on to s^ieak at the Catholic circle, Canadian 
institute, in the university course, the Royal socjet v, 
and the congre.«s of \Hxi. In 1884 he travelled I'n 
Europe for his health, and, returning to Montn-al, 
labortnl in the parishes of ."^t. Bridget and St. 
Joseph. In 1887 he delivered in thi- new Ijival 
faculty at Montreal a course of lectures. He ac- 
companied An.'hbishoti Fabre to Rome, retuniing 
home to assume as the archbishop's stH'retary a 
large share in the tulminist ration of the archdiocese 
of Montreal. Dr. Iiruch('-si became titular canon 
of the cathedral, sui>erior of religious onlers, vice- 
rector a</ interim <if I^val university, commissjiry 
of the government of (Quebec province, i)n'sident 
of the Catholic school commission of Montreal, 
and discharged many other important offices. He 
was appointed archbishop of Jtontreal in .Iniie, 
1807, was consecratfsl by Archbishop Begin in the 
Montreal cathedral in August of that year, and in 
December he visited Rome. 

KKUIX, EiiHtache. French admiral: b. in 
Cape Frani;ais, San Domingo, West Indies, I'.Iulv. 
\~r,^: d. in Paris. 18 Manh, 180.'}. He entered 
the navy in 1776, was with Count d'Estaiug at 

Savannah, October, 1779, with Charles Louis de 
Ternay at Newport, July, 1780, with Count de 
Grasse at Yorktown, October, 1781, and with Mar- 
quis de Vaudreuil in the West Indies in 1782-'3, 
being promoted ensign at the end of the campaign, 
and was associated with Count de Chastenet-Puy- 
segur (o. v.) in 1786-"7 in preparing a chart of the 
coast of San Domingo, and of the currents around 
the island, and published, with the latter. " De- 
tails sur la navigation aux cotes de Saint-Do- 
mingue et dans ses debouqueinents " (Paris, 1787, 
with atlas, 2d edit.. 1821), which work secured his 
promotion to lieutenant. In 1792 he commanded 
the frigate "Semillante" for a cruise to the Lee- 
ward islands, but was dismissed in 179^ on suspi- 
cion of being a royalist, reinstated in 1796. and 
amminted to the command of the frigate "fiole" 
of the station of Martinique. He was afterward 
chief of staff of Admiral V'illaret Joyeuse (q. v.), 
assisted in the exi)edition to Ireland, was pro- 
moted rear-ailmiral. and became secretary of the 
navy in 1800, but. resigning, he assumed command 
of the fleet at Brest. He was af'erward com- 
mander-in-chief of the flotilla assembled at Bou- 
logne for the invasi(m of England, and ini[)osed 
on NajHileon. One dav the emjieror had em- 
barked on the admiral's \>oat for the purpose of re- 
connoitring the blockading British fleet, which 
was continuing a galling fire. Thev had advanced 
for some distance, when bullets whistled near the 
emperor, and Bruix ordered the rowers to pull 
back. "Kcei) advancing!" ordere<l Napoleon, 
"Pullbackl' resj)onde<l the admiral. "Sailorsof 
my guard," exclaimeil t he emf)eror, now thoroughly 
incensed, "obey your emperor!" ".Sailorsof the 
guard," resi)oiided Bruix coolly, throwing in the 
air his baton of admiral,einblem of authority, "olx-y 
your admiral, who alone commands here;" and 
adilrcssing Napoleon, saiil, " I am, sir, your de- 
voted servant, an admiral of your navy, a French- 
man, but I am iKirn in the |iart of the world which 
is the lanii of liberty, and where every one under- 
stands how to |K'rform his duty, despite the ex- 
alteil iiosition of his guest." And the emperor 
kept silent, and never in his life did he receive 
such a rej)roof. A few days later Admiral Bruix 
fell sick, ^ust when Napoleon had issued orders to 
relieve him of his command and for his arrest, 
but they were momentarily su8i>ended, and he was 
taken to Paris, where he died. 

BRt'MUV, ThoniaH Mason, naval officer, was 
b. in Marietta, Ga., in IH-'i;). His father, Slajor 
Arnoldus V. Bniinby. was a graduate of the U. S. 
military a>'ademy class of WiH; he later became 
president of tlie(ieorgia military academy at Mari- 
ella, where his son «iis born. The family moved 
to Athens in 18li:i. and to Atlanta in 18(18. The 
son enlcreil the U. S. naval academy, 2.5 Sept., 1873, 
and was graduated, 18 June, 1879. He served on 
the "Tennessee," being pnimoted ensign, 20 Nov., 
1880; on the receiving-ship "Vermont," on the 
"Jamestown," on the " (Jcdney," and on the " Van- 
dalia." He was one of the siirvivoi-s of the hurri- 
cane off .Samoa in .Man'h, 1889. He was promoted 
lieutenant (junior grade). 21 April, 1887. lie again 
serve<l on the receiving-ship " Vermont " and on 
the si-hool-ship "St. Mary's." He was promoted 
to lieutenant, 24 Aug., 1892, and was appointed to- 
the "New York" in August, 1893, and was trans- 
ferretl thence to the " Vermont" in October. 1896. 
From Septeml)er, 1897, until January, 1898. he 
was at the naval oliservalory and war college; he 
was then a.ssigned flag-lieutenant on tlie"01ym- 
pia," of Dewey's squadron, Ix'ing present on the 
flag-ship at the Manila victory. At the surrender 



of Manila to the combined naval and army forces 
under Dewey and Merritt, 13 Aug., 1898, Lieut. 
Brumby raised the American flag over the city. lie 
accompanied Admiral Dewey on his return to the 
United States in the ''Olvmpia." in Sept., 1899. 

BRYAN, Jonathan, patriot, b. in South Caro- 
lina, 12 Sept., 1708; d. in Georgia, 13 March, 1788. 
He removed to Georgia in 1752 and was active in 
the affairs of the colony. In 1754 lie was made a 
member of the first royal council under Gov. Rey- 
nolds and an associate judge of the fii'st general 
court. In 1769 he presided over a meeting of the 
" Liberty boys," who passed non-importation reso- 
lutions similar to those of Virginia, for which ac- 
tion the king ordered his suspension from his of- 
fices, thus making him the first martyr for political 
liberty in Georgia. lie represented the district of 
Savannah in the provincial congress, 4 July, 1775, 
and was a member of the council of safety. In 
1776 he was one of the committee that was ap- 
pointed by the council to wait on Gen. Charles Lee, 
then commanding that department, in behalf of 
the colony, and by his influence persuaded Lee to 
prepare an e.\pedition against St. Augustine in 
defence of the Georgia frontier. The expedition 
failed through Lee's mismanagement. In 1779 he 
was arrested by the British, and with his son James 
imprisoned in one of the prison ships in New York 
bay. In 1780 he was released, but disqualified by 
act of the Tory assembly of Georgia. Although 
then seventy-two years old, he entered the Conti- 
nental army and fought under Wayne. He was a 
brave loader, a true patriot. The county of Bryan, 
Georgia, was named in his honor. — His grandson, 
Josuph, b. in South Carolina, 18 Aug.. 1773: d. 5 
Sept., 1812 ; was educated at the University of Cam- 
bridge England, and elected in 1803 a member of 
congress from Georgia. He served three sessions, 
and resigned in 180ti to retire to private life. • 

BRYAN, Thomas Barhour. lawyer, b. in 
Alexandria, Va., 32 Dec, 1828. He was graduated 
at the Harvard law-school in 1848, and practised 
in Cincinnati for four years, when he removed to 
Chicago. He was a member of the Union defence 
committee, president of the Chicago sanitary fair, 
and president of the Soldiei-s' home since 1865. 
He was an active promoter of the World's Colum- 
bian exposition of 1893, and has been president of 
the Union league club of Chicago. — His son, 
Charles I'a^e, b. in Chicago, 12 June, 1856, was 
graduated at the University of Virginia and the 
Columbia law-school, and was in 1878 admitted to 
the bar. He was for four terms a member of the 
Illinois legislature and on the staff of Gov. Rich- 
ard Oglesby {g. i:), with the rank of colonel. In 
December, 1897, he was appointed by President 
McKinley American minister to China, but before 
proceeding to Pekin he was transferred to Brazil. 

BRYAN, William Jennings, presidential can- 
didate, b. in Salem, Marion co., HI., 19 March, 
1860. His father, Silas L. Bryan, of Virginian an- 
cestry, was a member of the state senate for eight 
years, and afterward a judge of the circuit court. 
William J. Bryan was educated at the public 
schools of his native town, and in Whipple acad- 
emy, Jacksonville, III., where he was prepared for 
Illinois college. In his senior year in the latter 
institution he gained second prize in an intercol- 
legiate oratorical contest, and on his graduation, 
in 1881, he was class orator at commencement. 
After studying law at Union law college, Chicago, 
111., and in the office of Lyman Trumbull, he began 
to practise his profession in Jacksonville. A year 
later he married Mary E. Baird, of Perry, 111., whom 
ho had met during his college course, when she was 

^/^-y^S<-'y-^5 , 


a student in the seminary at Jacksonville. In 1887 
he removed to Lincoln, Neb., where, after the birth 
of the first of her three children, his wife was 
admitted to the bar and gave him efficient aid 
in the practice of his profession. In May, 1888, 
Mr. Bryan was elected a member of the Omaha 
convention that was to select delegates to the na- 
tional Democratic con- 
venlion at St. Louis, 
and he became widely 
known as an orator 
through a speech be- 
fore the convention ad- 
.vocating a tariff for 
"revenue only. Large- 
ly owing to this speech, 
he was offered in the 
following year the 
Democratic nomina- 
tion for lieutenant- 
governor of the state. 
Although he declined 
the office he took an 
active part in the can- 
vass, and a year later, 
in 1890, he was nomi'' 
nated by the Democrats for congress through the 
efforts of the younger element of the party in his 
district, 'i'he district, although Democratic by 
7,000 majority in 1886, had been carried by the 
Republicans by 3,000 in 1888. The party man- 
agers gave little aid to Mr. Bryan in his canvass, 
regarding it as hopeless, and he was ridiculed by 
his opponents as young and without experience, 
yet he entered into the contest with vigor, and de- 
feated his opponent, Mr. Connell, the holder of the 
seat, by a majority of more than 6,000. lie was a 
member of the ways and means committee both in 
this congress and in the following one, to which he 
was chosen in 1892 by a plurality of only 140. In 
congress he actively supported the Democratic 
view of the tariff, and later became a conspicuous 
advocate of the free coinage of silver, aiding Rich- 
ard P. Bland in his efforts to this end, and gaining 
notice by readiness as a speaker and skill in parlia- 
mentary tactics. He declined a third nomina- 
tion to congress, and became, in 1894, editor of the 
Omaha '• World-Herald " for the purpose of advo- 
cating his views on the free coinage of silver. 
After an unsuccessful candidacy for the U. S. sen- 
ate he left the editorship and resumed his law 
yiractiee, at the same time continuing his interest 
in politics. He is credited with a principal part 
in bringing about at this time the union of the 
People's party with the Democrats in Nebraska. 
In 1896 he was a member of the national Demo- 
cratic convention at Chicago, and on 10 July was 
put in nomination as a presidential candidate by 
H. T. Lewis, of Georgia. His nomination by the 
convention had not been thought of as possible un- 
til, in reply to a speech by Senator David B. Hill, 
of New York, he had advocated free coinage of sil- 
ver in an address closing with the words, afterward 
widely quoted : "You shall not press down upon 
the brow of labor this crown of thorns. You shall 
not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold." On 
the first ballot Mr. Brvan received 119 votes, on 
the second 190. on the third 291. on the fourth 280, 
and on the fifth .500, thus receiving the nomina- 
tion. In the convention of the Peo]de's party, 
held in St. Louis later in the month, he was also 
made the head of their ticket. He telegraphed to 
Senator Jones to withdraw his name unless Ar- 
thur Sewell, the Democratic candidate for vice- 
president, should be nominated by the Populists 




also, but his name remained on the ticket, although 
Thomas Watson, of (icoreia, was made the vice- 
presidential candidate. Mr. Bryan also received 
the nomination of the national Silver party at its 
convention, held in St. Louis on 23 July. The 
canvass was remarkable for the at'tive part that 
Mr. Bryan took in it as a imlitical orator, speaking 
in all parts of the I'niteil .States. In the electioa 
with which it closed, the three tickets headed by 
Mr. Bryan received 0,506.H3.5 votes in a total of 
13.926,757, of which the Republican candidate, 
William McKinley, received 7.104,244. Of the 
electoral votes, .Mr. Bryan received 176, and his 
successful opponent 271. Since his defeat Mr. 
Bryan has continued active as an advcK?ate of the 
free coinage of silver, bot h as a public sneaker and 
a writer. See " Life and S|»eeches of William J. 
Brvan." bv John S. Ogilvie (New York, 1896). 

ttl'BKftT, Caspar, sculptor, b. in Bohemia, 
Austria, in IHSO; d. in New York city, 22 Aug., 
1899. lie rweivcd his art education in Vienna, 
and came to this country in 18.')6. Among his 
works were the bass-reliefs on the Garfiehl monu- 
ment in Cleveland, the bnmiie statue in Alex- 
andria, Va., sytnl)olical of the lost cause, the figure 
of Colund)ia in front of the congressional library, 
Washington, and allegorical groups of the patent 
oflice. rej)resenting electricity, fire, water, inven- 
tion, agriculture, and mining industry. He also 
created the I'onco de Leon statue for Venezuela. 
At the time of his death he wa.s taking an active 
jwjrt ill the construction of the Dewey triumphal 
arch ill Fifth avenue. New York. 

lirCHANAN. (»e«ree, phvsician. b. in Scot- 
land atK>ut 1698; d. in Baltimore. 23 April, 1750. 
He emigntted to this country in 1723. and prac- 
tised medicine in Baltimore county, of which he 
was a justice. He was one of the seven commis- 
sioners that were name<l in the ai^t of 8 Aug., 
1729, for laying out and founding the city of Bal- 
timore. In 1849 he was a meiiilier of the legisla- 
ture. Dr. Buchanan's residence, with its exten- 
sive grounds of 5(K) acres, called "Druid Hill." 
was purchased by the city in 1H«0 for <;5<X).(KX), 
and is known ili " Druid Hill Park." Within it is 
the burial-ground of the Buchanan family. — His 
son, Andrew, soldier, b. in •• Druid Hill " in 17:t4 ; 
d. there, 12 March, 1785. was lieiilenant of Balti- 
more county during the Revolution, anil also pre- 
siding jii.xtice. He wa.s active a,s a member of the 
committee of corres|Kindence and in organizing 
the militia, and was one of the brigadier-generals 
8p[K>inled for the colonv in I77((. He was the 
grandfather of (leii. Roljcrt Christie Buchanan 
(vol. i.. p. 436). — -Andrew's son, (irorgp. plivsiciaii, 
b. in Baltimore-, 19 .S'[>t., 176:{; d. near Pliiladd- 
phia, 9 July, I80M, was graduated at the me<lical 
department of the I'niversitv of IVnnsylvania in 
1785, and also studie<l in t'Minburgli. Dr. Bu- 
chanan began practice in Baltimore in 1789, was 
a member of the first branch of the city council 
orKHiiizcd under the charter of (he city, and in 
1799 he wiLS one of the city magislnites. (In 4 
July. 1H()6, he was appointed by (lov. McKeon, 
of I'ennsylvania. whose daughter he ha<l mar- 
ried, la/aretto jihysician, and died at the laza- 
retto near Philadelphia of yellow fever, con- 
tracteil in the discharge of his ofiicial duties. He 
Ixi-ame a mi'inl«'r of the American iihilosoph- 
ical societv in 1786. a charter menilH>r of the Med- 
ical and chinirgical faculty of Maryland in 1788, 
and a member of the Me<lical ?«K-iely of Baltimore 
in 17H9. Dr. Buchanan was the author of " Des- 
scrtatio I'hvsiologica de caiisis Respiralionis ejiis- 
dcmque atfectibiis" (I'hilailclphia, 1789); "Treat- 

ise on Typhus Fever," published for the benefit 
of establishing a lying-in hospital in Baltimore 
(1789); " Letter to the Inhabitants of Baltimore," 
in which he suggests the registration of deaths, 
the formation of a public park, and the organiza- 
tion of a humane society (1790) ; "An Appeal for 
the Establishment of a Humane Society, in con- 
junction with Drs. Brown, Wiesenthall, Goodwin, 
Coale, Wynkoop, Stevenson, and Haslett (1790); 
and ".Vn Oration upon the Moral and Political 
Evil of .Slavery, delivere<I at a Public Meeting of 
the .Maryland .Society for Promoting the Abolition 
of Slavery and the Relief of Free Negroes and 
others unlawfully held in Bondage" (Baltimore, 
1793). A copy of the last-named pain ph lei was 
discovered in 18(io in the library of the Boston 
athena'um, among some books from the library of 
(jell. Washington. It is dedicated to Thomas 
Jefferson, and has Washington's autograph on the 
title-page. It was considere<I .so valuable a work 
that it gave rise to Poole's "Anti-slavery Opinions 
l)efore the Year 18(X)" (Cincinnati. 1878), in which 
is a fac-simile of the panijihlet. He left three sons 
and several daughters. His son George was a pro- 
thonotary and brieadier-general of the Pennsylva- 
nia militia, and the father of Lieut.-Comniander 
Thomas McKean Buchanan. V. S. navy (vol. i., p. 
436) : .McKean, a jwiy-director in the navv and a 
veteran ollicerof two wars; and .\diniral tVanklin 
Buchanan (vol. i., p. 428). — The first George's son, 
WIHIani, b. in Italtimore in 1748; d. there, 19 
Dec, 1824, was a nieinlwr of the committee of cor- 
respondence during the Revolution, and in 1778 
was registrar of wills for Baltimore county. — Will- 
iam's son. James M., lawver, b. in Baltimore in 
May, 1803; d. there. 23 Aug.. 1876. studied law, 
was admitte<l to the bar and served in the legisla- 
ture. He was postmaster at Baltimore in 1841-'9, 
memlier of the state constitutional coiivenlion of 
1850-'l. and it-s president pro lemjmre, and com- 
missioner of Maryland to settle matters in dis- 
pute between that state and Pennsylvania. In 
1855 he was appointed judge of the 6th judicial 
district of Maryland. In 1856 he was a memlier 
of the Democratic convention that nominated 
James Buchanan for president, and in 1858 ho 
was ajipointed U.S. minister lo Denmark. 

mCHANAN, Joseph, inventor, b. in Wash- 
ington county, Va.. 24 Aug., 1785 ; d. in Louisville, 
Ky., 29 S<'pt., 1820. He removed to Tennessee 
in 1795. was ediicate<l at Transylvania university, 
Kentuckv. studied medicine, and practised in Port 
Gibson, Miss., but in 1808 removed to Lexington, 
Ky.. where in 1811 he was apjiointed |)rofes.-:or of 
the institutes of medicine in the medical depart- 
ment of Tiansvlvania university. Among his nu- 
merous inventi<uis was a new musical instrument, 
in which the notes were prinluced by glas-ses of dif- 
ferent chemical composition, and a steam-engine 
with which, in 1824. lie ran a wagon through the 
.streets of liouisville. He claimiHl to have discov- 
ered a new motive [lower, ilerived from combus- 
tion wlllioiit the aid of water and steam, which is 
now utilized in the air-engines of John Ericsson 
anil others; anil also originated what he called 
"the music of light," to lie ppKluced by means 
of " harmoiiific colors luminously displayed." Dr. 
Buchanan edited the "Palladiiiin" in Frankfort, 
the " Western Spy" and the " LiteraM' Cadet " in 
Cincinnat i. ami t he " Focus " in Louisville, and was 
the author of the " Philosophy of Human Nature" 
(Richmond. Ky.. 1812). He was the father of Dr. 
Joseph Rodes Buchanan (q. v.). 

BI'CK. WHliHiii JoHepli, historian, b. in 
Bucksville, Bucks co.. Pa., 4 March, 1825. He re- 




ceived an academical education, taught, and was 
auditor of Bucks county from 1857 till 1863. As 
early as 1851 he became a contributor to journals 
ami magazines, chiefly on historical subjects. In 
1852 the Historical society of Pennsylvania pub- 
lished in their collections his " History of Moore- 
land," and the following year his articles on 
^' Local Superstition " and "Indian Relics." For 
the former article he received a complimentary 
letter from Washington Irving. He wrote a his- 
torv of Bucks county, Pa., which appeared in 
Bucks county " Intelligencer" in 1854-'o, and the 
"History of Montgomery County," which was 
published in "Scotfs xVtlas" (1877). He is also 
the author of " History of the Indian Walk per- 
formed for the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania in 
1737. with a Life of Edward Marshall" (1886) ; 
" Local Sketches and Legends pertaining to Bucks 
and Montgomery Counties" (1887) : and " William 
Peun in America, with Daily Occurrences wliile 
in Pennsylvania." Since 1876 he has arranged 
and indexed thirty-three volumes of manuscripts 
belonging to the Pennsylvania abolition society, 
which was founded by Benjamin Franklin and his 
compeers, and he is engaged in writing an elabo- 
rate history of the society. 

BUDD, Henry, lawyer, b. in Philadelphia, Pa., 
13 Nov., 1849. He was graduated at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania in 1868, studied law, and was 
admitted to the bar in Philadelphia in 1871, since 
which time he has engaged in the practice of the 
law in his native city. He has been one of the 
editors of the " Weekly Notes of Cases " since its 
inception in 1875, and has contributed on legal 
subjects to the " Southern Law Review " and the 
"American Law Register," which latter publica- 
tion he edited in 1887-'8. He delivered a course 
of lectures on " The Legal Status of the Physi- 
cian " before the .Medico-chirurgical college of 
Philadelphia in 1885-6 and before the University 
of Penn.sylvania in 1886-'7, and is the author of 
"Leading Cases in American Law of Real Prop- 
■erty " (Philadelphia, 4 vols., 1894). 

BUDDINGTON, Sidney Ozias, arctic explorer, 
b. in Groton, Conn., 16 Sept., 1823; d. there, 13 
June, 1888. After receiving a public-school edu- 
cation he became a sailor, and was captain of 
whaling vessels for nearly twenty-five years. In 
1860 he commanded the whaler "George Henry," 
in which Charles Francis Hall (vol. iii, p. 37) 
sailed to the arctic region, and he was also sailing- 
master of the " Polaris " in the expedition of 1871. 
On 29 Aug. the "Polaris" reached altitude 82° 
ir north, the highest point that had been attained 
by any vessel. After the death of Hall the expe- 
dition was abandoned, and Capt. Buddington and 
the crew prepared to return, but on the lircaking 
up of the ice in the spring the vessel was crushed, 
and the crew took refuge on floating fields of ice. 
Several of the explorers, including Capt. Budding- 
ton, were driven ashore and escaped. They were 
rescued by the Scotch whaler " Ravenscraig," and 
reached home in the summer of 1872. 

DUEL, Siunuel, clergvman, b. in Trov, N. Y., 
11 June, 1815; d. in New" York city, 1 Feb., 1891. 
He was a son of Judge David Huel, and was grad- 
uated at Williams in 1833, and at the General 
theological seminary of the Protestant Episcopal 
church four years later. He was rector successive- 
ly in Marshall, Mich., Schuylkill Haven, Pa., Cum- 
berland, Md., Pouglikeepsie, N. Y., and New York 
city till 1866. He became professor of ecclesiastical 
history, and subsequently of divinity in Seabury 
divinity school, Faribault, and was professor of 
systematic divinity and dogmatic theology in the 

General theological seminary from 1871 till 1888, 
when he was professor emeritus. He received 
the degree of S. T. D. from Columbia and from 
the General theological seminary. Besides numer- 
ous articles in periodicals, he published a transla- 
tion from the German of the " Report of the Union 
Conferences held from Aug. 10 to 16, 1875, at 
Bonn " (New York, 1876), and is the author of 
" The Apostolic System of the Church defended in 
a Reply to Dr. Whately on the Kingdom of Christ " 
(Philadelphia, 1844) ; " The Eucharistic Presence, 
Sacrifice, and Adoration " (New York, 1874) ; and 
a later volume of learned lectures entitled "A 
Treatise of Dogmatic Theology." 

BUFFINGTON, Adelbeit Rinaldo, b. in 
Wheeling, W. Va., 23 Nov., 1837. He was grad- 
uated from the U. S. military academy in May, 
1861, and was made a brevet 2d lieutenant. He 
served through the civil war, first in drilling 
volunteers at Washington, then as ordnance oflS- 
cer at the St. Louis arsenal, and later as colonel 
of a regiment of Missouri militia. In 1863 he 
was promoted to be captain of ordnance, and was 
engaged as an inspector of the rifling of sea-coast 
cannon. He was in command of the New York 
arsenal from July, 1864, to September, 1865, when 
he was transferred to the Baton Rouge arsenal. 
He was brevetted a major for his services in the 
ordnance department in the war. Later he was 
in command of the arsenals at Watertown. Indian- 
apolis, Allegheny, Watervliet, Springfield, and 
Rock Island. While at the latter place he built 
the noble bridge across the Mississijipi river. He 
was promoted to be lieutenant-colonel in 1881, 
colonel in 1889, and brigadier-general and chief of 
the army bureau of ordnance in April, 1899. His 
name is connected with a number of improve- 
ments in armament. He is the designer of the 
BuITington-Crozier disappearing gun-carriage, and 
the field-gun carriage in use by the army. 

BUIES, Arthur, Canadian journalist, b. in 
Cote des Neiges, province of Quebec, 24 June, 
1840. He was educated in France, where he also 
studied law in the University of Paris. On his 
return to Canada engaged in journalism in Mon- 
treal, and was admitted to the bar. He has pub- 
lished " Chroniques" (Quebec, 1875); " Le Sague- 
nay et la Vallee du Lac St. Jean " (1880) : and 
" La Lanterne " (1884). 

BULLOCH, WilHani Gaston, physician, b. in 
Savannah, Ga., 4 Aug., 1815; d. there, 33 June, 
1885. He wa-s the great-grandson of Gov. Archi- 
bald Bulloch (vol. i.. p. 446), was graduated at 
Yale and at the medical department of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, and completed his medical 
education in Paris. On his return in 1840 he be- 
gan to practise in Savannah, and became visiting 
physician to various hospitals. At the begin- 
ning of the civil war he entered the Confederate 
service as surgeon with the rank of major, was sta- 
tioned in Charleston to examine candidates for 
service, and afterward had charge of hospitals, in- 
cluding the first hospital for Confederates in Rich- 
mond. He was eminent as a surgeon and oculist, 
and performed many operations that were unusual 
at that time, including ovariotomy. He was presi- 
dent of the Georgia medical society, and for some 
time professor of surgery in Savannah medical 
college. Dr. Bulloch invented a useful maxillary 
splint for the lower jaw. 

BULNES, Mannel (boo'1-nays), Chilian soldier, 
b. in Penco in 1799 ; d. in Santiago in 1866. From 
his youth he was an enthusiastic partisan of the 
movement for independence, and in 1815 he was 
banished by Gen. Osorio to the island of Quiri- 




quina. whence he escaped after eight months, and, 
enlisting in the army, served in the battles of 
Canoha Kayada and Maypu. As a captain, he 
served undiT (ion. Piieto in the campaign ait:uinst 
Benavidcs, in 1818-'2I, and later pursued the Pin- 
cheira bandits, who carried on a guerrilla warfare 
in the south, and whom be flnallv annihilated in 
the l)eginning of 1832, for which Fie was promoted 
brigiwlicr. In 1838 he was appointeil by President 
Prifto commander of the ex|XHlitionary army to 
Peru, occupied Lima, and pursued .Santa Cruz to 
the interior, <lefeating him in iluaraz, Matucana, 
and finally in Yungav, 20 Jan., 1839. He was re- 
wanied with the rank of general of division, and 
bv Peru with that of grand-marshal of Ancach. 
lie was elected president of the republic in 1841, 
and re-elected in 1846. During his administration 
the University of Chili, the normal college for 
teachers, the sc-hool of arts and tnules. the con- 
servatory of music, the National agricultural so- 
ciety, and the colony of Punia Arenas were 
founded, but, although he sometimes called mem- 
bers of the Liberal party to the cabinet, he was a 
strict Conservative. When, in 1851, the civd war 
began he t(x>k the part of the Conservative admin- 
istration of Jlontt, and soon suMued the revolu- 
tion in the battles of (iiiinilas au<l I.ongomilla. 

Bl'NdAY. <iPor|fe Wa.thiiigtoii, journalist, b. 
in Walsham-le-Willows, Suffolk. Kngland. 28 Nov., 
1826; d. in Bloomfleld. N. J., 10 .Inly. 1892. He 
came to this country at an early ag^*, was educated 
in New York citjr, and engaged in journalism. 
From 187:1 till 1887 he was emplove*! in the New 
York custom-house. He was a well-known lectur- 
er, contributed to the press, was literarv editor of 
the '■ Melro[)olitan." a weekly jounml in S'ew York, 
and the author of "0(f-l land Takings, or Cravon 
Sketches" (New York, 1854); "Traite of Kenre- 
sentative Men "(1882); "Pen Portraits of Illus- 
trious At»stainers." published bv the Natiimal tem- 
i.i raiice society (1884): and "'The Creeils of the 
ik'lls" his most popular poem. 

BrN>KR. Henry Ciiyler. author, b. in Os- 
wego. N. Y.. 3 .\ug.. IK.V1: d. in Nutley, X.J., 11 
May, IHlMi. He rttreived u common-school e<luca- 
tion. and l>ccame a clerk in an im|>orting house of 
New York. In 1877, having previously contributed 
to "The Arcadian " and other jiajiers, he was ap- 
pointed assistant editor of " Puck," s<Min after- 
ward becoming editor, and holding the position 
till his death. He published "A Woman of 
Honor" (New York. I88;t); ".Airs from Arcadv 
and Klscwliere"(1884): "The MidKe"(1886): "The 
Story of a New York House" (1887): " Zmbx- Pine, 
and other Stories "(1891); "The Uunawav Hrowns" 
(1892); "Made in France" (1893); "Short Sixes" 
(1894); and ".Tersev Street and Jcrsev I^ane" 
(1896). With Braiider Matthews he wrote "In 
Partnership" (1884). and he published a plav, 
"The Tower of Balwl." (irst prfHlucc<l in 18K'J. 

Bl'RDEN, Kln!K»jr, planter, b. on IJurdcn's (now 
Seabrooks's) island, S. ( ., in 1775; d. in Charleston, 
S. C, 4 Dec., 1859. lie was a sutierior agricultu- 
rist, and the foremost of those who by their own 
efforts improvwl the staple of the cotton that is 
grown upon the s«'a islands of South I'arolina to 
such a degree that it U'cnme the choicest variety. 
Seeing the jKissibility of improvement in the qual- 
ity of the yield, he early began to make si'lections 
of seed. His wife had obtained from Georgia some 
seeds of a new variety which had come from the 
Rahamas, where it was known as Persian cotton, 
ami he continued to improve it, till in 1825 the 
legislature of South Carolina was on the |>oint of 
offering him $200,000 for the st'crct of his method. 
VOL. VI 1. — r. 

BURDETT COUTTS. See William Lehman 


BL'BH.\NS. Daniel, clergyman, b. in Sherman, 
Conn., 7 July, 1762 ; d. in Poiighkeepsie, N. Y., 80 
Dec., 1853. After preparation for college and 
several years $|ient in teaching, he was made 
deacon in 1793, and in 1794 he was ordained 
to the priesthood of the Protestant Episcopal 
church by Bishop Samuel Seabury. He la- 
boreil in Lanesliorongh, Mass., and its vicinity 
until 1799, when he was called to Trinity church, 
Newtown, Conn., where he remained for thirty 
years. During this time he organized parishes in 
t*iltslield, Lenox, Tyrringham, and Williamstown, 
Mass.; New Lebanon Springs. Coo[H'rstown. Rich- 
field, Exeter, and elsewhere, in New York. In 1831 
he took charge of .St. Peter's, in Plymouth, Conn., 
and six years later went to Oxford and Zoar. Conn., 
where he continued until 1844. when he retired 
from the ministry and settled in Poughkeepsie. 
He was a member of the standing committee of 
the Connecticut diocese, a delegate to the general 
convention for many years, and also a trustee of 
Trinity college. The degree of A. M. was conferred 
uiion )iim by Williams, and that of S. T. I), by 
Trinity. lie wrote a history of the church at 
Newtown, and published several sermons. At the 
time of his death he was the oldest Episcopal cler- 
gyman in this country. Dr. Hurhans was ac(|Uaint- 
etl with the first three American bishops — Pro- 
voost. Seabury. and White, strongly resembling 
the latter, for whom he was fretpiently mistaken. 
Bl'RKE, Miinriee Francli*, K. ('.'bishop, b. in 
Ireland. M May. IH45. He came to this country 
with his parents in 1849, was educated at .St. Mary's 
university, (.'hicago. III., and in the American col- 
lege at Home. Italy, and in 1875 was ordained a 
priest in the Roman Catholic church. He was as- 
sistant at St. Mary's church, Chicago, for the three 
subsequent years, and afterwanl pastor of St. 
Mary's church. Joliet, III., till 1887, when he be- 
came bishop of Cheyenne, Wyoming territory. In 
1893 he was transferred to St. Joseph, Mo., and 
iniine<liately made bislioj) of that see. 

Bl'RKE, Thomas Martin AloysiuK. H. C. 
bishop, b. in Ireland. 10 Jan.. 1H4(I. son of Dr. 
Peter Ulic Burke, who settled in Utica in this 
country. In 1855 he entered >St. Michael's college, 
Toronto, Canaila, and commenced his classi<-al 
studies, which he was compelled to discontinue on 
account of weak health. In 1856 he entered St. 
Charles college, Maryland, where he finishe<l his 
classics. While making his philosophical course 
there he taught in the college, and the following 
year he commenced the study of theology in St. 
Mary's seniinary, Baltimore, where he graduated 
in 1864, receiving the degrees of M. A. and B. T. 
On 30 June, 1864, he was ordained a priest by 
Bishop McKarhind.of Hart ford, and iK'rformed his 
first missionary work at St. John's church. Albany, 
in 1864-'5, ami then at .St. Joseph's church, in the 
same city, 18(i4-'94. In 1884 he was appointed a 
theologian in the third plenary council, in which 
he t<M)k,a prominent part. He succeeded Dr. Lud- 
den as vicar-general of Allwiny. and later was ap- 
iHilntcd administrator of the diocese, and finally 
l)ishnp of Albany. His appointment was in May, 
1894, and he was' consecrated in July of that year. 
Bishop Burke was created a knight of the holy 
sepulchre, and also a knight of the grand cross. 

BrRLEKiH, (■(■orge Sliepard. (met, b. in 
Plainfield. Conn., 26 .^farch. 1821. He wa.s edu- 
cated in the district schools, assistetl his brother, 
William II. Burleigh (vol. i, p. 455), in editing the 
"Charter Oak," and subsequently devoted his time 




to intellectual pursuits. He has published "Anti- 
Slavery llynins" (New London, Conn., 1842); 
"The Maniac, and other Poems" (Philadelphia, 
1849) ; and " Signal Fires, or the Trail of the 
Pathfinder" (New York, 1856); and translated 
into English verse Victor Hugo's " La legende des 
sieoles" (printe<l privately, 1867). 

BL'RNHAM, Benjamin FrankHn, lawyer, b. 
in (iroton. Vt., 30 Nov., 1830: d. in Hoston, Mass., 
21 May, 1898. He was graduated from Wesloyan 
university in 1853, and then took up the stmiy of 
law. securing his admission to the bar of Illinois 
in 1857. At the outbreak of the civil war he was 
practising law at Newbury. Vt. He eidisted at 
once in the 8th Vermont volunteer infantry. In 

1864 he was detailed as assistant superintendent 
of education of freedinen in Louisiana, and in 

1865 lie was put in command of a company of 
U. S. colored infantry at Palmetto ranch. He 
was then assigned to the frcedman's bureau, and 
was charged with the task of establishing schools 
among the negroes. While engaged on this duty 
he was at one time wounded severely by a mob at 
Monroe, La., opposed to the innovation. He re- 
turned north, and took up his residence at Boston 
in 1867. LTntil 1873 he was an associate justice of 
the South Boston court. He published at Boston 
in 1870 two volumes of the "Digest of Decisions 
of the United States Courts of Common Law and 
Admiralty," covering the years 1868 and 1869. 
Judge Burnhaui was also the author of "A Voice 
from the Pews, or a Tabernacle Supplement " 
(Boston, 1877), and, in conjunction with Celeste 
S. Burnham, of "The Life of Lives: being the 
Records of Jesus reviewed by Recent Biblical 
Scholars" (Boston, 1885). 

BURNHAM, Daniel Hudson, architect, b. in 
Henderson, Jefferson eo., N. Y., 4 Sept., 1846. His 
great-grandfather was an oflRcer in the Revolution- 
ary army. Young Burnham went to Chicago with 
his parents when nine years old, and was educated 
there in various schools and afterward under pri- 
vate instruction in Massachusetts. He then stud- 
ied architecture in Chicago, and has since prac- 
tised his profession in that city, planning, among 
other buildings, the Montauk block, the Rookery, 
the Insurance exchange, the Calumet club, the 
Women's building, the Masonic temple, the North- 
ern hotel, and numerous churches, all in Chicago, 
besides noteworthy buildings in other western 
cities, including the Mills office building in San 
Francisco. In 1890 he became chief of construc- 
tion and supervising architect of the World's Co- 
lumbian exposition, and in this capacity he su- 
pervised tlie construction of the great group of 
exposition buildings, besides having much to do 
with planning the arrangement of the whole. 

BURNHAM, Horace Blois, lawyer, b. in Co- 
lumbia county, N. Y., 10 Sept., 1834 ; d. in Aspen 
Shade, Henrico co., Va., 10 April, 1894. He received 
a common-school education, and then studied 
law, securing his admission to the Pennsylvania bar 
at Wilkesbarre in 1844. lie practised his profes- 
sion until the outbreak of the civil war. when, in 
October, 1861, he was commissione<l lieutenant- 
colonel of the 67th Pennsylvania infantry. With 
his regiment he took part in the principal cam- 
paigns of the Army of the Potomac in Jiarvland 
and Virginia in l'863-'3, and during the draft 
riots in New York city he was temporarily as- 
signed to duty there. In October. 1864, he was 
honorably mustered out under his commission, 
and was appointed on the same day major and 
judge-advocate of volunteers. He was brevetted 
lieutenant-colonel and colonel of volunteers in 

March, 1865, for faithful and meritorious ser- 
vices during the war. From October, 1864, until 
May, 1866, he was judge-advocate of general 
courts-martial. He then served a year in the bu- 
reau of military justice at Washington. In Febru- 
ary, 1867. he had been transferred to the regular 
ariny with the rank of major and judge-advo- 
cate. During 1867-70 he was chief judge-advo- 
cate of the first military district, the headquarters 
of which were at Richmond. At the same time he 
served also as additional judge of the hustings 
court of Richmond, and as a judge and president 
of the supreme court of appeals for Virginia. For 
the next two years he was assigned to the depart- 
ment of the South. In 1873 he was sent on tem- 
porary duty to the department of Texas, and from 
1873 until 1886 was judge-advocate in the depart- 
ment of the Platte. In July, 1884, he was pro- 
moted lieutenant-colonel, and was made deputy 
judge-advocate-general. From the department of 
the Platte he went to the military division of 
California at San Francisco, and here he com- 
pleted his active service, being retired in .Septem- 
ber, 1888. His fidelity to duty had been com- 
mended by Gen. Crook in general orders, and on 
the eve of his retirement Gen. Howard gave warm 
testimony of his fidelity and zeal. 

BUKNHAM, Slierbnrue Wesley, astronomer, 
b. in Thetford, Vt., 12 June, 1838. He was edu- 
cated at Thetford academy, and became a stenog- 
rapher, following that profession until he was ap- 
pointed in 1865 clerk of the U. S. circuit court 
for the northern district of Illinois, which position 
he still occupies. He began the study of astron- 
omy, making many discoveries, and is now {)ro- 
fessor of practical astronomy in the University of 
Chicago. In 1874 he became a fellow of the Royal 
astronomical society of England, receiving in 1894 
its gold medal for his discovery and measurement 
of many double stars. Prof. Burnham has pub- 
lished numerous catalogues of more than a thou- 
sand stars discovered by him. 

BURR, William Hubert, engineer, b. in 
Watertown, Conn., 14 July, 1851. He was gradu- 
ated at the Rensselaer polytechnic institute, and 
began practice as a civil engineer in 1872. He be- 
came in 1884 general manager. Phcpiiix bridge 
company, in 1892 professor of engineering in Har- 
vard, and in the following year accepted the same 
position in Columbia, which he continues to oc- 
cupy. Prof. Burr has also been very frequently 
employed as consulting engineer. New York city 
parks, docks, and more recently in the department 
of bridges. He has published several works of & 
professional character, and is a member of the 
American society of civil engineers. 

BURR.\(wE, Henry Sneetzer. clergyman, b. 
in Fitchburg, Mass.. 7 Jan.. 1837. He was gradu- 
ated at Brown in 1861. entered the 36th Ma.ssaehu- 
setts regiment as a private, rose to the rank of 
captain, was wounded at Cold Harbor and brevet- 
ted major of volunteers, and became an a.ssistant 
adjiitant-general on the staff. He was captured 
in Novemlier, 1864, and held as a pri.soner till 32 
Fell., 1865. He resumed his studies at the close of 
the civil war, was graduated at Newton theological 
seminary in 1867, spent a year abroad, and in 
1869-'73 was pastor of a Baptist church in Water- 
ville. Me. Since 1873 he has edited the " Zion 
j\dvocate." a Baptist religious journal in Portland, 
Me., ami since 1876 he has been recording secre- 
tary of the .American Baptist union. He is chan- 
cellor of the Maine conimandery of the military 
order of the Loyal legion of the United States. 
Brown gave him the degree of D. D. in 1883. Dr. 




Burrape has editeil " Brown University in the 
fivil War" (Providciue. K. I., 18««): "" Henry 
Wonlsworlh Longfellow's Seventy-fifth Birthday ' 
(Portliinil. l*^) : and " History of the Thirty-sixth 
Keiriment of Massachusetts Volunteers" (Boston, 
18H4) ; and is the author of " The Act of Baptism 
in the History of the Christian Church " (Phila- 
delphia. 187U): a " History of the Anabaptists in 
Switzerland" (1882): and "Baptist Writers and 
their Hvmns" (New York, 1888). 

BrRROrUHS. Ueorge Stockton. e<lucatnr. 
b. in Walcrlo<j, N. Y., 6 Jan., 1855. He wasirra«lu- 
atcd from Princeton and from the theoiot;ieal 
seminary there, after which he had charge of va- 
rious I'resbyterian churches in New Kngland. In 
1880 he accepted the professorship of biblical lit- 
erature in Amherst college, remaining there for six 
years, when he became president of Wabash col- 
lege, which prospereil un<ler his charge. He re- 
signed this |Kisitloii in the autumn of 1809, and 
accepted the presidency of nberlin college. He 
has reieive<i the degrees of I). l». and LL. U. 

BURROWS. JuUiig C'Kxar. senator, b. in North 
East, Erie co.. Pa., 9 Jan.. 18iJ7, received an aca- 
demic education and stuilied law, which he was 
practising when he entered the Union army in 1862. 
He WHS eight times sent to the hous<' of representa- 
tives, ami to his last term in the .Wth congress was 
elected by 13,000 majority, lie resigneil his seat, 23 
Jan.. 181*5, to assume the ofllce of V. S. senator, to 
which he had been elected by the legislature to fill 
out the unexpire<l term of Francis B. Stockbridge, 
di^'<'a.'i«Ml. S«'riator Burrfiws's term of service ex- 
pired in .March. 1HU9. He was re-ele<'te<l. 

BURTIN. Nicholat* Victor, missionary-, b. in 
Met/.. Als«<'.-l,orr«inp, 16 Dec. 18'28. He studied 
for the Roman Catholic priesthofxl, and was or- 
daineil at Marseilles in December, 1852. In June. 
1854, he arrived in Canada, and was sent toCaugh- 
nswaga in S<-ptember, 1855. In August. 1856, he 
went to Ottawa college as pn>fe8sor of classics and 
theology. Here he remained for two years until 
December. 1H.V<. when he was sent again toCaugh- 
nawaga as assistant pastor. He was made pastor 
of the mission in .\pril, 18ft4. Father Burtin is 
the author of several works which an- still in 
manuscript, prayers, chants, and other devotional 
works in the Mohawk language, besides a history 
of the mission at Caiighnawaga, which he hopes 
soon to see published. 

BURTON. Clarenco Monroe. lawyer, b. in 
"Whiskey Diggins." Cal.. 18 Nov.. IS-'iS! He was 
gradwate<l at the University of Michigan, and a/1- 
mitte<l to the \mt in 1874. Since that time he has 
practised his profession in Detroit, and dcvoltHl 
nis leisure hours to the study of the history of 
Detroit and the northwest. His colle<'tion of 
Americana relating to those subjects is the largest 
in the country, nurnhf-riiig over lOO.fXK) Iwioks, 
pamphlets, and dm-umcnts. Mr. Kurton has re- 
cently nublishe<l -Sketch of the Life of .\ntoine 
de la >lothe Cadillac. Founder of l)elrr>il." n " Di- 
rectory of I>etn>it tx'lween 1701 and 1710," "In 
the Fixilsteps of Ca<lillac." and " A Chapter in the 
Hislorv of Clevelanil. (thin." 

BI'RTON. Mconre Willlani. Cana<lian jurist, 
b. in Sandwich. Kent, 21 July. ISIN. He w a son 
of Ailmiral Burton of the Kiiglish navy. He 
came to Canada, studied law. and was ailnntted 
to the Ontario bar, practising suc<'i'ssfullv in 
Hamilton. He was appointed a y. C. by Ijonl 
Monck in 186;t. and in 1874 he became a judge of 
the court of ap|H'ai. Judge Burton served in 1885 
as chairman of a commiltee then appointed for 
the revision of the provincial statutes. He was ap- 

pointetl chief justice and president of the supreme 
court of judicature of Ontario in April, 1897. 

BURTON, Lewis William. P. E. bishop, b. in 
Cleveland, Ohio. 9 Nov., 1852. He was graduated 
with first honors at Kenyon college in 1873, and 
at the Philadelphia divinity school four years 
later. He was ordained deacon in 1877 and priest 
in the next year, and has been connected with All 
Saints and St. Mark's, Cleveland ; St. John's, 
Richmond ; and St. Andrew's, Louisville. He was 
chosen bishop of I.<exingt>m. Ky.,in January, 1890, 
and has since received the degree of D. 1). from 
the University of the south. 

BURWASb. Nathaniel, Canadian clergyman, 
b. in .Vrgentueil, Quebec, 25 July, 1839. He was 
graduated at Vi toria university, at Harvard, and 
at Garrett biblical institute. He became a clergy- 
man in the Methodist Episcopal church in 1861, 
was professor of natural science in Victoria uni- 
versity, and has been di'aii of its theological faculty 
and professor of biblical and systematic theology 
since 1873 in Gan-etl biblical institute. He is the 
author of "Genesis. Nature, and Results of Sin" 
(Toronto, 1878); "Wesley's Doctrine and Stand- 
ard" (1881); and "Relation of Children to the 
Fall, the Atonement, and the Church" (1882).— 
His brother. John, b. in 1842, also a clergyman, 
has been since 1891 professor of English Bible and 
practical theology in \'ictoria university. 

BURWELU 'William Armistead (bur-rell), 
legislator, b. in Met'klenburgh county, Va., 15 
March, 1780; d. in Washington. D. C., 21 Feb., 
1821. He was graduated at William and Mary 
college, and in the following year removed to 
Franklin county, Va., which he sul>.«oquently rep- 
resenled in the legislature. He was residing on 
his plantation in 1804, a wealthy tobacco-planter, 
when he was invited by President Jefferson to be- 
come his private .secretary. Accepting the offer, 
Mr. Burwell removc<l to Washington, where he 
remained throughout Jefferson's ailministnition. 
He was also electe<l a meml>er of the ninth con- 
gress as a Democrat, and seven times re-elected, 
serving from 1 Dec, 1806. until his death. While 
in ctmgress Mr. Burwell handed to Josiah Quincy 
an old manuscript account of Bacon's rebellion 
that had Ijeen preserviKl in his family, with the 
request that it might be preser»-ed in tlie archives 
of the Ma.ssachusetts historical society, there being 
at that time no similar association in Virginia. 
From this record Bancroft afterward wrote his 
account of the first -AmericHii rebellion. The 
Virginia Burwells were descended in one line 
from the Bacons, the estates originally intended 
by President Nathaniel Bacon for his nephew, Na- 
thaniel, "the Rclx'l," having U-en bequeathed to 
the niece of the former. Mrs. Burwell, of (ilouces- 
ter county, Va. Mr. Burwell enjoyed the friend- 
shiji of Mr. Jefferson, who wrote for his tomb the 
following epitaph : " Died at his post in Congress : 
his Hisly here, his .Spirit with its Kindrwl — the 
Just, the GiKxl, the Beloved of Men." — His .son, 
William .MacCrpcry, journalist, b. in Botetourt 
county. Va.. 4 Nov.. 1809; d. in Bcilford county, 
Va., 4' .March. 1888. was gra<Iuate<I in 1809 at the 
University of Virginia. Among his cla.ssmates 
were Edgar A. Poe. .Mcxander Stephens, and Rob- 
ert TiMniilw. Although he was left by his father 
the heir to large estates, and hiul every induce- 
ment lo lea<i an idle life, he had also inherited a 
taste for a nuldic career, and. entering [wlitics. he 
was elected to the legislature, representing his 
county from 1840 till 185.'». He was a dis<-iple of 
Henry Clay, a forcible thinker and a ready de- 
bater.' In "1850 he was sent as an envoy to the 




city of Mexico in connection with the Tehuante- 
pec scheme. Soon afterward he founded a daily 
newspaper at Lynchburg, which stronjjly advo- 
cated Whig principles. He was also earnest in 
advancing the material prosperity of the state, and 
was instrumental in securing the charter for the 
Virginia and Tennessee railroad. He served as a 
private in a Virginia regiment until he was re- 
called to represent his county in the legislature 
again. This seat he held until the close of the war. 
After spending some time in travelling through 
the south, he settled at New Orleans and became 
the editor of " De Bow's Review." He was subse- 
quently connected with the New Orleans " Repub- 
lican," " Commercial Bulletin," and " Price Cur- 
rent." In 1867 he was elected secretary and 
treasurer of the New Orleans chamber of com- 
merce, which office he held for twenty years, until 
failing health compelled him to retire from public 
life. He became a Republican, and was receiver of 
public moneys in the Louisiana land office during 
the administration of President Hayes. In 1884 
ho was the Republican candidate for lieutenant- 
governor, and in 1886 he was the nominee of the 
same party for congress. In June, 1887, he re- 
turned to his former home in Virginia. He was a 
prolific writer of plays, poems, and tales. Among 
the latter are " Exile and Empire," which appeared 
in the " Southern Literary Messenger," and " White 
Acre against Black Acre," which was published in 
book-form before the war. 

BUTLER, Marion, senator, b. in Honeycults 
township, Sampson co., N. C, 20 May, 1863, and 
was graduated at the Universitiy of North Carolina 
in 1885. For several years he was a school-teacher ; 
in 1888 he joined the Farmers' alliance, and pur- 
chased the '• Clinton Caucasian," which has been 
removed to Raleigh, and now has the largest cir- 
culation of any paper in the state. He was elected 
to the state senate in 1890, and was the leader of 
the alliance forces in that body. Four years later 
he was elected president of the national Farmers' 
alliance, and was chairman in 1894 of the Popu- 
lists' state committee. He was elected to the U. S. 
senate as a populist to succeed Matthew W. Ran- 
som, Democrat, in 1895. Mr. Butler, whose term of 
service will expire in March, 1901, is the youngest 
member of tlie senate, and in 1896 he was an ardent 
supporter of William J. Bryan for president. 

BUTLER, Thomas Aiiibrose, author, b. in 
Dublin, 21 March, 1837. He was educated in St. 
Lawrence's seminary, and was graduated at the 
Roman Catholic university, Dublin, in 1856. He 
studied for the priesthood" in Maynooth college, 
and was ordained in 1864 and appointed to a 
curacy in Wicklow county, but came to tlie United 
States in 1867, and was engaged in missionary work 
in Kansas until 1875. Later he was appointed pas- 

tor of St. James's church, St. Louis, also contribut" 
ing to Roman Catholic periodicals and journals. 
He is the author of " The Irish on the Prairies, 
and other Poems" (New York, 1874), and " Kansas 
and Irish Immigration " (1875). 

BYERS. Sainnel Hankiiis Marshall, poet, 
b. in Pulaski, Pa., 23 July, 1838. He was educated 
in the jiulilic schools of Oskaloosa, Iowa, and stud- 
ied law, but did not practise. He served in the 
National army, was taken prisoner in November, 
1863, and while in confinement in Columbia, S. C, 
wrote the song entitled " Sherman's March to the 
Sea," whose popularitv gave its name to the cam- 
paign it celebrated. lie was U. S. consul at Zurich, 
Switzerland, in 1869-'84, and consul-general to 
Italy in 1885. In addition to being a contributor 
to magazines, Mr. Bvers is the author of " What I 
saw in Dixie" (Danville, N. Y., 1868); -Switzer- 
land and the Swiss" (New York, 1875); "The 
Happy Isles, and other Poems " (1885) : and " Mili- 
tary Histirry of Iowa" (Des Moines, Iowa, 1888). 

BYNNEit, Edwin Lasseter, author, b. in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., 5 Aug., 1842; Boston, Mass., 
5 Aug., 1893. After graduation at the Harvard 
law school he was admitted to the bar, and prac- 
tised law in Bo.ston, St. Louis, and New York until 
1886, when he devoted himself entirely to litera- 
ture. The colonial history of New England re- 
ceived his special attention. He wrote several 
historical novels, including "Nimporf (Boston. 
1877); "Tritons" (1878); " Damen's Ghost" 
(1881); "Agnes Surriage " (1886); "Penelope's 
Suitors" (1887); "The Begum's Daughter" 
(1889): "The Chase of the Meteor, and other 
Stories" (1891); " Zachary Phips" (1892): and, 
with Lucretia Peabodv Hale, "An Uncloseted 
Skeleton" (Boston, 1893). 

BYRNE, Thomas Sebastian, R. C. bishop, b. 
at Hamilton, Ohio, in July, 1841. He entered St. 
Mary's ecclesiastical seminary, near Bardstown, 
Ky., where he made his classical and ecclesiastical 
studies, and continued them at Mount St. Mary's 
preparatory seminary, in Cincinnati. In 1865 he 
went to Rome and continued his studies until ill 
health compelled him to return, when he resumed 
and complete<l his theological studies at Mount 
St. JIary's seminary, and there he was ordained a 
priest. He remained there for ten years as a pro- 
fessor and until that institution was closed, when 
he accepted the position of chaplain at Delhi, 
Ohio. He subsequently became rector of St. 
Peter's cathedral at Cincinnati, and while there he 
founded the Springer institute and directed its 
erection until completed. In July, 1887. he was 
appointed rector of Mount St. Mary's seminary, 
and so continued until 1894, when he was ap- 
pointed bishop of Nashville. He was consecrated 
in St. Joseph's church, Nashville, in July, 1894. 






CADWALADER, Thomas, physician, b. in 
Philadelpliia. Pa., in 1708; d. near Trenton, N. J., 
14 XoT., 177K. He )>egan the study of medicine in 
Philadelphia and completed his course in London. 

About 1731 he re- 
turned to Phila- 
delphia, and con- 
tinued his profes- 
sion there for fif- 
teen years. During 
the winter of \Ti6- 
'7 he is mentioned 
as one of the physi- 
cians that mocu- 
lated for the small- 
pox. In 1746 he 
removed to Tren- 
ton, N. J., but in 
1750 he returned 
I ~ r ' to Philatlelphia, 

^.^ _ He subscribcil in 

j;^^ t^^c^^,^^ S[tai'r.^of;i:: 

Pennsylvania hospital, uf wliioh he became one of 
the original physicians, and in the same year woa 
elected a niemtx-rof the common council, in which 
he served until 1 774. Dr. l'a<lwaladcr was called to 
the provincial council on 3 Nov., 1755, and signed 
the non-importation articles. In July, 1776, the 
committee of safety of Pennsylvania appointed 
him on a committer for the examination of all 
candidates that applied for the [lost of surgeon in 
the navy, and at tne same time he was appointed 
a medical director of the army hospitals. In 177H 
he 8ucceede<I the elder William Shippen as surgeon 
of Pennsylvania hospital, and previously, in 1765, 
he had Ix-en elected trust«ie of the Medical college 
of Philaili'lphia, where hegaveacourtie of lectures. 
Dr. (-'HdwHliKler was a member of the American 
philosoptiii'al wK-iety and the .Xmerican Sfx-icty for 

rromotnif; useful knowli'd)?e iK-fore their union in 
76U. He was one of the original cor|>orat'jni of 
the Philadelphia library comiuiny in ITdl. It is 
reported that he saved the life of a son of Uov. 
Jonathan Belcher by the application of electricity 
before 1750, and he published an " Kssay on the 
West India Dry Gri|i<'s" (1<45). Its pur|M)sv was 
to prove that (juicksilver and drastic iiurgativcs 
were highly injurious to the system, lie was the 
father of (ten. •lohn Ciulwalailer and of Uol. l<ani- 
bertCailwaliwler. — II is grandson, Thuuias, soldier, 
b. in Philadelphia, Pa., "ia <X-t., 177U; d. there, ai 
Oct., 1841, was the son of (ien. John (.'adwaliuler, 
and was griuluated at the L'tiiversily of Pennsyl- 
vania in 170'). After studying law he was ad- 
mitted to the tmr, but took charge of the interests 
of the Penn family, which withdrew him from 
practice. In April, 171HI, he was a private soldier 
ID a cavalry troop, and was one of the sixteen that 
captured the ringleaders of the insurrection in 
Pennsylvania. During the war of 1812 he was a 
lieutenant-colonel of cavalry, and he was afterward 
apiMiinted tocomiiiandlhe advuncetl light-brigade. 
Under Gen. ( mlwalader's training these troo|>s U.'- 
caine remarkable for their ellleieney and discipline. 
In 1812 he was appointed inajor-geiieral of tliu 1st 
division of Pennsylvania niilitiit. With Wintield 
Scott andZachary Taylor he wasap|Hiint<.-d in 182U 
to revise the tactiia) of the U. S. army. In 1816 he 
was appointetl a trustee of the University of Peiin- 
■ylvauia.— His son, John, lawyer, b. in Philadel- 

phia, Pa., 1 April, 1805; d. there, 26 Jan., 1879, 
was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania 
in 1821, and in 1825, after studying law with 
Horace Binney, was admitted to the bar. The 
place of solicitor of the Bank of the United States 
was given to him by his relative, Nicholas Biddle, 
then its president, and his services were also re- 
tained by the government in important eases, 
among which was the Blackburne cloth prosecu- 
tion. Mr. C'a<lwalader afterward confined himself 
to private practice in his profession, and was one 
of the best-known commercial lawvers in the 
United States. In 1844, after the riots of that 
year, he raised a company for the city artillery 
composed chiefly of lawyers, which was partially 
supported by the city authorities. He was elected 
to congress as a Democrat and served from 3 
Dec., 185.5, till 3 March, 1857. In 1858 he was 
appointed judge of the U. S. district court, and 
he served thereafter on the bench until his death. 
The degree of LL. D. was conferred on him by the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1870. — Dr. Thomas's 
grandson, Thomas, soldier, b. near Trenton, N. J., 
11 Sept.. 171)5; d. there, 22 Oct., 1873, was the son 
of Col. Lambert Cadwalader (q. v). He was boni 
at Greenwood, a profwrtv that was purchased by 
his father in 1776, and is still owned by the 
family. Young Cadwalader was graduated at 
Princeton in 1815 and then studied law, but never 
practised. He was ap|>ointed deputy adjutant- 
general of the New Jersey militia on 2 June, 1830, 
aide-de-camp to the governor, with the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel, and luljulant-gencral of the 
state, with the rank of brigadier-general, on 30 
July, 1842. This oHlce he retained through sev- 
eral political changes, until his resignation on 26 
Jan., 1858. In 1850, at the request of the gov- 
ernor, he travelled through various Kuropeau 
countries and reported on the fire-arms there in 
use, which report was priuted. He was brevettcd 
major-general in Man^h, 1858, in pursuance of a 
special act of the legislature for his long and 
meritorious services. — His son, John Lambert, 
lawyer, b. near Trenton, N. J., 17 Nov.. 1830, was 
graduated at Princeton in 1856 and at Harvard 
law-school in 1860. His legal studies were made 
with Daniel I-ord in New York city, ami subse- 
quently he practised his profession in that iilace. 
During lK74-"6 he was assistant secretary of state 
under Hamilton Fish. — Another son, Richard 
McCall, lawyer, b. in Trenton, N. J., 17 Sept., 
183l», was graduated at Princeton in I860, and at 
Harvard law-school in 1863. He wa.s admitted lo 
the Philadelphia bar in 1864, where he has since 
practised. Mr. Cadwalader is the author of " The 
Law of Ground Rents" (Philadelphia. 1870). 

C.4FFERY, Doncldson, senator, b. in the par- 
ish of St. Mary, La., 10 Sept., 183.5, and was edu-' 
caled at St. Mary's, Maryland. He was admitted 
to the bar of his native' state, and served in the 
Confederate army, first in the 30th Ix>uisiana 
regiment, and sul»e<|uently on the staff of Gen. 
Walker. .\t the close of the war he enga^'d in 
sugar-planting, and continued to practise his pro- 
fession of I he Taw. He was a memlier of the con- 
stitutional couvention of 1870, and was elected to 
the slate senate in 1892. He was later appointed 
by the governor U. S. senator, to succeed Kandall 
Lee Gibson, deceased, and look his seat in Jaim- 
ary, 1803. He has served on coiiiinittees on claims, 
manufactures, education and labor, pensions, and 




enrolled bills, beingchairman of the last mentioned. 
Senator Caffery was elected by the Louisiana legis- 
lature in 1894 "to fill out the terra of Gibson, which 
expired in the following year, and also to succeed 
himself for the long term ending in March. 1901. 

CALLAWAY, Samuel Ro^er, railway presi- 
dent, b. in Toronto, Canada, 34 Dec, 1850. He 
entered the service of the Grand Trunk railway at 
thirteen, later being employed by the Canadian 
express company and the Great Western railway. 
Rising steadily, he became in 1875 superintendent 
of the Detroit and Milwaukee railway, in 1880 
manager of the Chicago and Grand Trunk, and in 
1884 vice-president of the Union Pacific and 
allied lines of nearly six thousand miles. In 1887 
Mr. Callaway was elected president of the Toledo, 
St. Louis anil Kansas City railway, an office which 
he resigned in 1895 to "become president of the 
New York, Chicago and St. Louis. Two years 
later he accepted the presidency of the Lake 
Shore and Michigan Southern, and in 1898 was 
elected president of the Hudson River and New 
York Central. Mr. Callaway is regarded as a 
railway official of the highest character. 

CAtLIS, John Benton, soldier, b. in Fayette- 
ville, N. C, 3 Jan., 1828 ; d. in Lancaster, Wis., 33 
Sept., 1898. He removed to Wisconsin in 1840. 
At the outbreak of the civil war he was appointed 
captain in the 7th Wisconsin infantry, 30 Aug., 
1861, and on 5 .Ian., 1863, he was commissioned 
major. Me was honorably discharged, 29 Nov., 
1863, was commissioned major of the veteran re- 
serve corps, 24 May, 1864, lieutenant-colonel, 11 
Feb., 1865, and was honorably mustered out, 14 
May, 1867. having received the brevets of colonel 
and brigadier-general of volunteers, 13 Mar., 1865, 
for efficient and meritorious service. On 7 Mar., 
1867, he was commissioned captain in the 45th 
regular infantry, and received, the same day, the 
brevet of major for his services at Gettysburg, 
where he had been wounded. He served as super- 
intendent in the war department until Dec, 1865, 
when he was sent to Huntsville, Ala., as assistant 
commissioner of the freedmen's bureau, which po- 
sition he held until he resigned, 4 P''cb., 1868. In 
that year he was elected to congress from the 5th 
Alabama district, and while in congress he intro- 
duced the resolution on which was afterwards 
based the Kukhix Klan bill. 

CALVO, Joaqnin Bernardo (eal-vo), Costa 
Rican minister, b. in San .lose in 1858. lie is the 
son of a distinguished statesman, received a good 
education, and established the first daily in tbsta 
Rica. In 1885 he was a member of the commis- 
sion established to settle the claims arising from 
the wars which at that time took place in the Cen- 
tral American states. He resigned from the com- 
mission to accept the place of governor of the prov- 
ince of Cartago. Since June, 1896, Mr. Calvo has 
been Costa Rican minister to the United States. 
His most important work is entitled "Apuuta- 
mientos Geograficos Estadisticos e Ilistoricos de la 
Republica de Costa Rica," which lias been trans- 
lated into several languages, and of which many 
editions have been issued. 

CAMBON, Jules Martin, diplomatist, b. in 
Paris, 5 April. 1845. He studied law at the College 
of Louis le Grand, became an advocate in 186(5, 
and in tin; year following was made secretary of 
the " Conference du stage." During the Franco- 
Prussian war he served as captain ; after the war 
he was made auditor to the provisional commission 
charged with succeeding the council of state. He 
became assistant chief of the bureau of the gen- 
eral government of Algeria in September, 1875, and 

chief of the bureau in November, 1876. In June, 
1878, he was made prefect of Constantine ; he left 
this position to become general secretary to the 
prefectureof polieeoftheSeine. When his brother, 
Pierre Paul Cainbon. was sent to Tunis in 1882. he 
succeeded him as [irefect of the department of the 
north, at Lille; he remained here until he became 
prefect of the Rhone, at Lyons, in 1887. In 1891 
he was sent to Algiei-s as governor-general, and 
only relinquished that post to become atnbassador 
to the United States. When he left Algiers he 
was made honorary governor-general of the prov- 
ince, a title heretofore bestowed on no man. He 
was appointed ambassador to this country on 14 
Oct., 1897, and he presented his credentials on 15 
Jan.. 1898. When war broke out between Spain 
and the United States, Spain chose him, in July, 
to make overtures for peace ; and it was he, acting 
on behalf of Spain, that signed, with Secretary 
Day, the protocol that put an end to hostilities, on 
12 Aug., 1898. M. Cambon became a knight of the 
Legion of honor in 1879, with special mention of 
his former services; in 1885 he was promoted offi- 
cer, and in 1889 commander. 

CAMKRON, Arellibalil, clergyman, b. in Scot- 
land in 1771 ; d. in Shelbyville, Ky., 4 Dec, 1836. 
He came to this country as an infant with his 
parents, who settled at first in Virginia, but sub- 
sequently removed to Kentucky and was educated 
at Transylvania seminary (now university), com- 
pleting his course in Bardstown. His theological 
studies were made with Rev. David Rice in Dan- 
ville, and he was licensed to preach on 14 Feb., 
1795, by the Transylvania presbytery. At first he 
served as a missionary, but on 2 June, 1796. he 
was ordained and installed as pastor over several 
churches in Shelby and Nelson counties. For 
many years he was the only Presbyterian clergy- 
man in a very wide extent of country, to supply 
which he labored with indefatigable industry and 
perseverance, travelling through a wilderness in 
the most inclement seasons, and often being 
obliged to swim swollen streams to fulfil his a|)- 
pointments. He organized and built up many 
churches, and next to Rev. David Rice wjus consid- 
ered the father of Presbyterianism in Kentucky, 
being known familiarly as '■ Father Cameron." 
From time to time he found it necessary lo con- 
tract his labors, and from 1828 until near the close 
of his life he devoted himself to the churches of 
Shelbyville and Mulberry. His publications in- 
clude" " The Faithful Steward " (1806) ; " The 
Minister, or Religious Liberty, Church Govern- 
ment and Discipline" (1806) ; " An Ai>peal to the 
Scriptures on the Design, Extent, and Effect of 
the Propitiation" (1811^; "A Discourse concern- 
ing the Doctrine of Indefinite Universal Atone- 
ment" (1814); "A Defence of the Doctrines of 
Grace" (181C); "A Ke|)ly to some Arminian 
Questions on Divine Predestination " (1822) ; and 
"A Sketch of the Transylvania Presbytery." 

CAMERON, Henry Clay, educator, b.'in Shep- 
herdstown, Va., 1 Sept., 1827. He was graduated 
at Princeton in 1847, and at the theological sem- 
inary in 18.55. Meanwhile he was principal of the 
Edgehill school in Princeton in 1851, and in 
1852-'5 tutor at the college. He was made ad- 
junct professor of Greek in 1855. associate in 1860, 
and professor in 1861, and since 1877 he has held 
the chair of the (J reek language and literature. In 
addition he was instructor in French in 1859-70, 
and librarian in lS65-'72. Prof. Cameron was or- 
dained a clergyman by the presbytery of Pliila- 
delphia on 1 Feb., 1863". The degree of" Ph. 1). was 
given him by Princeton in 1866, and he received 




that of D. D. from both Rutgers and Wooster in 
1875. For more than twenty years he edited the 
" General Catalogue of the College of Xew Jersey," 
and, in addition to CTclopiedia articles and essays, 
including one on "Jonathan Dickinson and the 
Rise of Colleges in America," he has published 
•' Princeton Roll of Honor." a list of the graduates 
of that college that fought in the war for the 
Union (Princeton, 1865): "The History of the 
American V\'hig Society" (lS71):and with Prof. 
Arnold (iuvot a series of classical maps. 

CA.MKRON, Sir Roderirk Wniiani, merchant, 
b. in Glengarry county. Canaila, 25 .July, 1825. He 
was educated in a district school of Kingston, and 
in 1852 chartered a vessel in New York, in which 
he sailed, with a |)arty of voung Canadians, for 
Australia. He established himself as a shipping 
merchant in New York, and now has branches in 
London and Sydney. He wiis a volunteer in the 
civil war. but remai'ns a British suhject. He was 
a commissioner from Australia to the Centennial 
exposition of 1876, from Canaila to the Melbourne 
exposition of 1880, and was knighted in 1883. 

CAMPBELL. Alexander WnUam, soldier, b. 
in Nashville, Tenn.. 4 June, 1828: d. in Jacks<^in, 
Tenn.. 13 June. 189.'f. He w»s graduated at the 
West Tennessee college in 1H47, and from the 
I.ielmnon law-school in 1851. He waf^ a lawyer of 
ability and among the most prominent members 
of the profession in his native state, and was for a 
period the partner of Howell K. Jackson, recently 
one of the justices of the V. S. supreme court. At 
the beginning of the war he volunteereil as a pri- 
vate, wag soon on staff duty with Gen. Cheatham, 
and in October, 1861, Ufame colonel of the H-llh 
Tennessee infantry, leailing his regiment at .ShiUili, 
where he waslwice wounde<l. In Septemlicr, 18(54, 
be was a.ssigne<l to the command of abriga<le under 
Gen. Forrest, having previously Iteen ni8<Ie a briga- 
dier-general, and serving with that succes<«ful cav- 
alry leader until the surremler at Gainesville, Ga,, 
5 slay, 1N05. (>en. CampU'll wa-s an active mem- 
ber of the Protestant KpiscDpal church. 

CAMPBELL. Archibald, soldier, b. in Al- 
bany, N. Y., 26 July, 1813; d. in Wnvliinglon, 
D.C., 27 July, 1887. 'His father, of thesjime name, 
came from Glenlyon, Scotland, to the Cnited 
States in 1704, and wa.« for fortv years ileputy sec- 
retary of .stale of New York. The son wa-s gnulu- 
ate<l from West I'oint and commissione<l brevet 
2d lieutenant in the 6lh infantry in 1h:<5, and in 
A ugust, IKIW, IwH-ame aide-<li'-camp to Gen. Gaines, 
then in command of I'. S. forces on the Texas 
frontier. Resigning from the armv in 1836, he 
was engageil in various surveys and works of in- 
ternal improvement until appointed in .April, 1845, 
private secretary to William L. .Marcy, sei'retarr 
of war. A year later he was maile chief clerk 
of the war diMiartmeiit. He was ap|>oinle<l com- 
mis.«ioner of the nortliwesteni lioundary survey in 
1857, and claimed for the Cnited States the canal 
I)e Haro as the water boundary, and by his flrm- 
iiess prevent<Kl (during the civil war) Great Britain 
from making giK>d her claim to Rosario straits, 
thus saving to the Cnited States the valuable isl- 
anil of San Juan. His position was fully sus- 
tained by the German em[)eror when as arbi'trator 
he n-ndered his ilecisinn in favor of the Cnited 
Slates. Mr. Cam|>lM-ll was apiHiint<'il commission- 
er of the northern boundary survey in 1S72, and 
completed the boundary line across the continent 
by uniting the northwestern and ea.slcm lioundary 
lines at the Lake of the Woods: his report on 
which, together with roam, was published under 
the act of congress of 8 March, 1877. 

CAMPBELL. Hugh Jones, lawyer, b. in Penn- 
sylvania in 1831 ; Yankton, So. Dak.. 19 Apr., 
1898. He removed when quite young to Muscatine, 
Iowa, where he was studying law at the outbreak 
of the civil war. Under a commission from Gov. 
Kirkwoo<l he raised a regiment of volunteers : he 
was appointed major, 2 Aug., 1862. lieutenant- 
colonel, 17 July, 1863. colonel. 1 Dec. 1864. and was 
mustereil out as lieutenant-colonel with his regi- 
ment at Little Rock. Ark.. 20 July, 1865. He re- 
ceived the brevet of brigadier-general. At the 
close of the war he fini.she<l his Taw-studies, and, 
after securing admi.ssion to the bar, began practis- 
ing law in Louisiana, where he was appomted a 
l^ S. court judge. During the contest of rival 
presidential electors after the election of 1876, as 
a member of the returning boartl he gave the de- 
cision in favor of the Republican electors, thus 
giving the vote of the state to Hayes and securing 
his election. Campbell remove<l to what was then 
Dakota territory in 1877, and held the office of 
U. S. district attorney for some time. He took an 
active interest in polities, served as delegate to 
many conventions, and was at the head of the 
movements for division of the territory into North 
and South Dakota and for a<lmission into the 
Union. Throughout Dakota Gen. Campbell was 
known as the " father of statehood." 

CAMPBELL, James Baxter. lawyer, b. in Ox- 
ford. Mass.. 27 Oit., 1808; d. in Wa.shington, D.C., 
8 Nov.. 1883. He was educated at Brown, but left 
without (wing graduated, and studied law in the 
office of Hugh S. Ix'gar^, in Charleston, S. C. After 
his admission to the Imr he attained note in his pro- 
fession in South Carolina, especially as an equity 
lawyer. Under the leadership of Joel R. Poinsett 
he took an active part in the nullincation contest. 
He l)ecame the confidential agent of the Union 
committee of South Carolina in Washington, where 
he met Andrew Jack.son, Daniel Webster. Kdward 
Livingston, Ijewis and other political leaders. 
For many years he serve<l in the legislature as a 
conservative DemixTat. When the civil war began, 
in 1H61, although lj«'lieving in the right of secession, 
he op[iosed the tiring on Fort .Sumter and other 
acts that tended toward sepanition. In 1866 he 
was elected to the U. S. senate by the provisional 
legislature, but was excluded with other Southern 
members. During the ruct ion era he held 
aloof from politics, with the exception of s|ieaking 
at the meetmg in Charle.ston to ratify the nomina- 
ti<m of .S'ymourand Blair in 1H68. Mr. Canifiliell 
was electe<l to the state senate in 1877, but his op- 
|<osition to the voting-precinct law caused his en- 
tire st'jnaration from tlie party there. 

CAMPOS SALLES, Manuel Kerras de (cam- 
pos sal-yeas), presiilent, Brazil: li. in .Silo Paulo, 13 
Feb., I84I. He took up the study of law. and 
was graduated in 1864. While yei a student he 
had entered into politics in his native state in 
1862 as a newspa|K'r writer. He wa.« elected to 
the state legislature of SiJo Paulo in 1867, and 
was thereafter re-elcclcil several times, until he 
was sent to the chamber of deputies of the em- 
pire in 1884. With Prudentc ae Moraes, he was 
the first republican member to the chamlier dur- 
ing the time of the empire. When the republic 
was proclaimed he held the [Mjsition of minister of 
justice. His first act was toalwlish the centralized 
law organization of the late empire, and this he 
followed by organizing new legal measures, ba.sed 
upon sound principles of federal law. His efforts 
in thisdirectionweresosuccessfulthat the constitu- 
ent assembly followed closely, in ilrawing up the 
new constitution, the lines he had laid down. He 




left the cabiuet, and was chosen to represent his 
state in the senate. Before his term here was 
completed he was elected presiilent of Sao Paulo, 
and this office he held until he resigned to become 
the candidate of the republican party for the presi- 
dency of Brazil in 1899, to which office, a little 
later! he was elected bv a large majority. 

CANCCHAEE, Peruvian poet, lived in the 15th 
century. She was, according to some authors, 
among the virgins that guarded at Cuzco the 
archives of the nation in a magnificent palace 
dedicated to the sun, which occupied the site 
where the convent of Santa Catalina de Siena 
now stands, but others contest this, although all 
agree that she deserves the name of the Peruvian 
Sappho. She fell in love with a priest, Yahuar 
Imace, who disdained her. and she bewailed her 
misfortune in touching and graceful verses, or 
yaravis, some of which were till lately occasionally 
sung by Indians in the mountains of Peru and 
Bolivia. The yaravis composed by Cancchaee were, 
according to all historians, graceful poems, and 
Ferdinand Denis proposed in 1860 to the French 
government to appoint a commission for obtaining 
the original melody from the Indians. Tradition 
says that Cancchaee committed suicide in the 
Colqui-Cocha, or Silver lake. Her poems are men- 
tioned by Valdes y Palacios in his " Viage al Cuz- 
co," by Alcide d'Orbigny in his " L'homme Ameri- 
cain," by Johann von Tschudi in his "Antigile- 
dades Peruanas " (Vienna, 1851), and by others. 

CANDLER, Allen Daniel, governor, b. in 
Lumpkin county, Ga. He was graduated from 
Mercer university, and became a manufacturer. 
In 1861 he entered the Confederate army as a 
captain, continuing to the close of the civil war, 
when he had attained to the rank of colonel. In 
1872 he was elected to the legislature, in 1879 to 
the Georgia senate, and from 1883 to 1890 he was 
a member of congress. In 1894 he became secre- 
tary of state, and in October, 1898, he was elected 
governor of Georgia. lie is the author of a 
biography of his great-grandfather, entitled " Col. 
William Candler, of Georgia," who was an officer 
of the Revolutionarv army (Atlanta. 1896). 

CANDLER, Warren Akin, M. E. bishop, b. 
near Villa Rica, Carroll co., Ga., 23 Aug.. 1857. 
He was graduated at Emory college, was licensed 
to preach in 1875, and became pastor of various 
churches in the south. In 1885 he was appointed 
assistant editor of the "Christian Advocate," and 
three years later he accepted the presidency of 
Emory college, which he held until elected bishop 
in May, 1898. He has received the degrees of 
D. D. and LL. D., and is the author of " His- 
tory of Sunday-Schools" (New York, 1880) and 
"Georgia's Educational Work" (Atlanta, 1893). 

CANNON, Franii Jenne, senator, b. in Salt 
Lake City, 25 Jan., 1859, and was graduated from 
the University of Utah in 1878. lie became a 
printer and contributor to newspapers. Mr. Cannon 
was a delegate to the Republican national conven- 
tion which met at Minneapolis in 1892, and during 
the same year he was defeated for delegate to con- 
gress. Two years later he was successful, and in 
January, 1896, he was elected to the U. S. senate. 
His term of service expired in March, 1899. He 
withdrew from the St. Louis national Republican 
convention of 1896 because of dissatisfaction with 
the monetary plank of the platform. 

CANTARI, Peruvian scientist, lived in the 16th 
century. He was a native of the valley of Coeha- 
bamba, and descended from Ilia, the inventor of 
the quipos, or bunches of strings of various colors, 
which, among the Peruvian Indians, served to re- 

cord historical events. Cantari was among the 
few that were able to decipher the quipos, and 
afforded great aid to the historians, as is acknowl- 
edged by Anello Oliva in his " Histoire du Perou " 
(Ternaux-Conipans's collection, Paris, 1840), by 
Juan de Velasco in his " Hi.storia del reyno de 
Quito " (Paris, 1840), and by Ferdinand Denis in 
his " fitudes sur les Quipos " (Paris, 18.58). 

CANTERAC, Jo86 (can'-tay-rak), Spanish sol- 
dier, b. in France about 1770: d. in Madrid in 
June, 1835. His father, a general, was executed 
for his fidelity to the royalist cause during the 
revolution of 1793 ; the son, with the remainder of 
the family, took refuge in Spain, where he entered 
the military service, became a brigadier, and in 
1817 was put in command of 2,700 men, and sent to 
Peru with orders to touch at Venezuela and assist 
in subduing the island of Margarita, which had be- 
come the headquarters of many American, Dutch, 
and English armed vessels, under privateer's com- 
missions from the revolutionary government. On 
15 July Canterac defeated the republicans after a 
bloody resistance, and, with the second division 
under Aldama, he was ordered to march against 
the capital, Asuncion, but was defeated on 31 July 
at Matasiete. He also participated in the storm- 
ing of Juan Griego, 6 Aug., and Villa del Norte, 
10 Aug. ; but after being repelled from the latter 
city, Morillo, the general-in-chief, being in need 
of all available forces, resolved to keep the regi- 
ments that had been destined for Peru, and Can- 
terac left early in 1818 with only his pei-sonal staff. 
In June of that year he joined the army of Upper 
Peru under Gen. La Serna at Tupiza as adjutant 
general, and took i)art in the campaign of that 
province during 1819-"20, being temporarily in 
chief command, after La Serna's departure, from 
19 Sept.. 1819, to 5 Feb.. 1820. In Deceml)er of the 
latter year he was ordered to Lima bv the viceroy, 
Pezuela, joined in the petition for the reappoint- 
ment of La Serna, and on 29 Jan.. 1821, as chief 
of staff, was the first to sign the manifesto of Az- 
napuquia demanding the resignation of Pezuela. 
He was rewarded by the new viceroy with the ap- 
pointment as general-in-chief, and when the vice- 
roy resolved to abandon the capital Canterac was 
ordered to the interior against Gen. Arenales. In 
August, 1821, he marched from Jauja with 4,700 
men to relieve Callao. but on 16 Sept. he resolved 
to evacuate the fortress, which surrendered to the 
patriots on 21 Sept., and Canterac returned in Oc- 
tober to Jauja, after an inglorious campaign. He 
was promoted major-general in JIarch, 1822, de- 
feated Gen. Domingo Tristan at I§a on 7 April, 
and, joining Gen. Valdes after his victory of To- 
rata, routed the republican army under Gen. Are- 
nales at Moquegua. 21 Jan., 1823, and was pro- 
moted lieutenant-general. He was ordered by the 
viceroy in July. 1824. to take the offensive, but 
remained in Jauja until the approach of Bolivar's 
army, when he marched on Pasco, but. meeting 
the patriot forces on the way, took position near 
the lagoon of Lauricocha in the plain of Junin, 
where on 6 Aug., 1824, he was totally defeated. On 
22 Sept. he joined the army of the vicer<jy. advanc- 
ing from Cuzco. who appointed him his chief of 
staff. After the final defeat of the royalist army 
at Ayaeucho, 9 Dec, 1824, and the capture of the 
viceroy, Canterac, as second in command, signed 
next day the capitulation by which Peru was 
evacuated. He went to Rio Janeiro and thence 
to Spain, where he was appointed commander-in- 
chief of the camp of Gibraltar. In 1835 he was ap- 
pointed captain-general of New Castile, and during 
a military mutiny he was shot by the insurgents. 




CAPERS. Ellison. P. E. bishop, b. in Charles- 
ton. S. C 14 Oct.. 1837. He was graduated at the 
South Carolina military academy, later becoming 
one of its professors. He y/as three times wounded 
during the civil war, and at its close was a Con- 
federate brigadier-general. He was secretary of 
state of South Carolina in 1867-'8, and later en- 
tered the Protestant Episcopal church. He held 
rectorships in several southern parishes, including 
Christ church. Greenville, S. C. where he remained 
for twenty years. In 1893 he was elected and 
later consecrated bishop of his native state. 

CAPRON, Erastus AUyn, soldier, b. in Mace- 
don, Waviie CO., N. Y.. in 1813 ; killed at Churu- 
buseo. Xfexico. 20 Aug.. 1847. He was graduated 
from Geneva college, and then entered the U. S. 
military academy. lie was graduated and ap- 
pointed brevet 2d lieutenant m the 1st artillery. 
July, 1833, and received the c-ommission of 2d 
lieutenant on 31 May, 1834. He served in the 
Florida war in 1835-'8. and won distinction in the 
battle of Withlacoochee. He was promoted 1st 
lieutenant, 19 Nov., 1836. During the Mexican 
war he was engaged in the siege of Vera Cruz. 
He was in the sKinni.shes of La Ilova. Oka Luka. 
and the buttle of Contreras. He had been ap- 
pointed captain. 16 Feb.. 1847. and at the battle of 
Churubusco he led his company in the storming of 
the strongly intrenche<l convent used as a citadel ; 
Uuring this engagement, for liravery in which he 
was three tiroes brevetle<l, he fell mortally wound- 
ed. Fort Capron, F'lorida, was name<l after him 
for his servic-cs in the Seminole war. — His son, 
Alljrn, soldier, b. in Tamjm, Fla.. 27 Aug.. 1846, 
<1. at Fort Myer, Va.. 18 .S<>pt., 1898, of typhoid 
fever contracted in the campaign before Santiago 
de Cuba during the war with Spain. He was ap- 
pointed to the U. S. military academy from Korth 
Carolina, and he entere<l it on 1 Sept., 186.3. He 
was graduated and commissioned 2il lieutenant in 
the 1st artillery in .Tune. 1867. He remained with 
his battery until 1871, when he was transfcrretl to 
signal duty at P'ort Whipple, Va. Ho was pro- 
rootcnl 1st lieutenant. 19 Aug.. 1873. in which year 
sl!«i he was graduated with honor from the artil- 
lery school. A fine mathematician and a man of 
marke<l ability, he was recognized as an authority 
on matters connected with the artillery branch of 
the service, and also on tactics. He was made 
captain. 4 Dec., 1888. During the Sioux camixiign 
of ISltO he mMile a brilliant reconl at the battles of 
Woundeii Km* and Drexel Mission. After that 
he was on duty j)rinci|>8lly in the department of 
California. During the war with Spain in 1808 he 
tmik part in the invasion of Cuba; he o|>ene(l the 
fight at Rl Caney at 6.1.5 o'clock, shattering the 
first flagstaff in Santiago. Two weeks later he 
had the honor of flring the salute of twenty-one 
guns at the surrender of the town. During this 
campaign he liecaine infected with the germs of 
typhoirl fever; he fought against the attack with 
his customary energy, but was force<l to succumb. 
He was ordered to his luime at Fort Myer, Va., 
and died there. — His son. AllTn Kliwain, soldier, 
b. in Hrooklyn. N*. V.. 24 .lune' 1K71. was killed at 
the battle of La Guaxima. Culia. 24 June, 1898. 
He studied in the. Brooklyn high-school; in 189() 
he enlisted in the 4th U. S. cavalrv. He was com- 
missioned 2d lieutenant in the 5tii cavalry in Oc- 
tolier. 1893, and was tninsferre<l to the 7th cavalrv 
in 1894. In 1894 he had charge of the Indian 
prisoners at Fort .Sill. Indian territory, and was 
made ii iiiemlior of the Apm-hc trilM-.' Like his 
gnindfuther and father, he was a fine miitlH'ina- 
tician. and showe<l exceptional ability in his pro- 
VOL. VII. — 7 

fession. He contributed to magazines and the 
cavalry journal, generally on scientific subjects. 
When war broke out with Spain, and Col. Leonard 
Wood and Theodore Koosevelt recruited the 1st 
U. S. volunteer cavalry, popularly known as the 
" Rough Riders," he was commissioned captain, 
and took part in the invasion of Cuba. While 
leading the advance guard in the battle of La 
Guasinia. he was niortallv wounded, the first Ameri- 
can army olTicer that fell in the war. 

CARDENAS. Francisco (cir-day-nas), Mexican 
historian, b. in Merida, Yucatan, about 1600 ; d. 
there, about 1660. He studied theologv in his 
native city, was ap|>ointed its parish priest, and 
afterwanl was ecclesiastical judge of idolatry for 
thedi<H?ese. His leisure wasemployed in searching 
the archives for historical documents and hearing 
and shifting the traditions of the native race. He 
wrote " Relaci6n de la Conquista y Sucesos de 
Yucatiin, ))ara el Cronista mayor de Indias Don 
Tomis Tamayo de Vargas" (1639). and " Relacion 
historia e<'lesiastica de YiicjitAn. hecha en virtud 
de Real Ci'slula de 16.35 " (1643). lioth manuscripts 
are in the archives of the Indies. They were liber- 
ally used by Diego Cogolludo in his " Historia de 
Yucatan,"* and are mentioned by Gil Gonzalez 
Divila in liis "Teatro de la Iglesia de Indias oc- 
cidentales" (Madrid, 1645-'9). 

CAREY. .\9a Bacon, soldier, b. in Canterbury, 
Conn., 12 July, 18:t5. He was graduated from the 
U. S. militarv academy, and jiromoted to lieuten- 
ant in the l.^th infantrv. He served during the 
civil war in New Mexico, the National govern- 
ment giving him two brevets for gallantry. At 
the battle of Apache Cailon, near Santa Fe, Capt. 
Carey comniamled one of the battalions that 
gaine<l the rear of the enemy, captured and ile- 
stroycd all their ammunition, supplies, and trans- 
portation, and turned t he defeat of the Union forces 
at the front into a victory. The enemy, having 
no supplies, were force<l to leave the country. He 
was brevetti'<l major for services on that occasion. 
In 1863-'4 he took part in the camj)aign against 
the Navajo Indians, which resulted in their being 
conquered. With a hundred and fifty picked men 
he j)assi>d through the Caflon de Chclly, a feat never 
liefore accomplished in time of war with the In- 
dians. For it he was brevetted lieutenant-colonel. 
He was chief <|Uartermaster of New Mexico for 
some time, and su|>erintendent of the volunteer 
signal service, chief mustering and disbursing 
officer anil commissary of the territory in 1865, 
and afterward in charge of the chief commissary's 
oflSce, department of Dakota, until 5 Oct., 1867, 
when he was aii|K)inteil paymaster, with the rank 
of major. In Junuarv, 1899, he was transferred 
to Washington as acting pHyninster-general, and 
on the rt-tirement of I'avmaster-tieneral .Stanton, 
on 30 .Ian., he succeeded him. He was retired 13 
Julv, I8!t9. having reaclied the age of sixty-four. 

CABI,ETON.Charle»Ame8,.soldicr,b. ill Brook- 
lyn, N. Y.. 27 April, 18:t«: d. in New York city, 
1 April, 1897. He wa« graduated at Dartmouth in 
1N.W. studied law. and subsequently wius connected 
with the New York publishing house of his brother, 
George W. Carlelon. In April. 1861, he entered 
the service a.s a private in the engineer corps, and 
continued in the army, passing through all the 

Cles. until mustered out as lieutenant-colonel in 
ember, ise.'i, anil brevetted colonel and briga- 
dier-general of volunteers. He was for thirty years 
an active memln'rof the Loyal legion, filling many 
offices in the New York conimanderv. 

CARLETON, Henry (Jny, ilranuitist. b. in Fort 
Union, N. M.. 21 .lune, 18.>"). He is the son of 



Gen. James H. Carleton (vol. i., p. 526), and was 
graduated at Santa Clara college in 1870, where he 
was specially educated as a civil and raining engi- 
neer. In 1873 he was appointed 3d lieutenant in 
the 8th U. S. cavalry, but he resigned in 1876, 
after serving in the Indian campaign against the 
Arapahoes and Kiowas on the Llano Estacado, 
Texas. During the political troubles in Louisiana 
he was major of the 2d battalion of Louisiana 
infantrv in January, 1877, and adjutant of the 
Louisiana field artillery in March, 1877. Mr. 
Carleton has invented a double-fluid barometer 
(1873); a telegraph repeater (1884); and the electric 
log and engine record, which is used in the New 
York yacht club (1887). He has also been actively 
engaged in journalism since 1876 as associate edi- 
tor of the New Orleans "Times," as managing 
editor of " Life," and as a member of the edi- 
torial staff of the New York " World " since 1886. 
In 1878 he gained the prize that was offered in 
New Orleans for the best poem to express the 
gratitude of the south to the north for aid in the 
yellow fever epidemic. He is the author of " Men- 
mon," a tragedy in blank verse (Chicago, 1881) ; 
"Victor Durand," a drama that was performed at 
Wallack's theatre in 1884 ; and " The Thompson 
Street Poker Club" (New York, 1884). 

CARMAN, William Bliss, poet,b. in Frederic- 
ton, New Brunswick, 15 April, 1861. He was gradu- 
ated at the University of New Brunswick in 1881, 
and afterward studied in Edinburgh, Scotland, and 
at Harvard. He studied law, practised civil engi- 
neering, taught school, and has engaged in journal- 
istic and literary work. He is the author of " Low 
Tide on the Grand Pro " (New York, 1893) ; " Songs 
from Vagabondia," with Richard Hovey (Boston. 
1894) ; " Behind the Arras " (1895) ; " More Songs 
from Vagabondia," with Richard Hovey (1896) ; 
and " Ballads of Lost Haven " (1897). ,„^ 

CAROCHI, Horacio (cah-ro'-ke), ItalianTtTl- 
guist, b. in Florence in 1586 ; d. in the city of Mex- 
ico in 1666. He entered the society of Jesus in 
Rome, and before concluding his studies was trans- 
ferred to Mexico, where he was graduated, and be- 
came learned in the Aztec and Otomi languages. 
He was appointed provincial secretary, rector of 
the College of Tepozotlan, and superior of the com- 
pany's house in Mexico, where he died. His writ- 
ings include " Arte de la Lengua Mexicana con la 
declaraeion de todos sus adverbios " (Mexico, 1645 
and 1759); "Gram4tiea de la Lengua Otomi" 
(1646) ; " Vocabulario copioso de la Lengua Mexi- 
cana " and " Vocabulario Otomi," the manuscripts 
of which were in the library of Tepozotlan ; and 
" Sermones en Lengua Mexicana," manuscript in 
the College of San (jregorio. The last three are 
now in the National library. 

CARPENTER, Cliarles Carroll, naval officer, 
b. in Greenfield, Mass., 27 Feb., 1834 ; d. at Ja- 
maica Plains, Mass., 1 April, 1899. He was ap- 
pointed a midshipman in 1850, was attached to 
the sloop " Portsmouth," was in the naval academy 
from 1855 to 1856; and was promoted to passed 
midshipman in the latter year. Later he served 
on the steam-frigates " Merrimac," " Roanoke," 
" Colorado," and " Dolphin," of the home squadron, 
and while on the squadron assisted in the capture 
of the brig " Echo," with 300 slaves aboard. After 
being made a lieutenant in 1858 he was attached to 
the steamer " Mohawk," which captured the slaver 
" Wildfire," off the coast of Cuba, with 500 negroes. 
When the civil war broke out the " Mohawk " was 
placed on the Texas and East Gulf blockade. Car- 
penter was transferred in 1862 lo the steamer 
" Flag," of the South Atlantic squadron, and in 


that year was promoted to lieutenant-commander. 
He next saw service on the monitor " Catskill," and 
was aboard of her during the attacks on the de- 
fences of Charleston. During the latter part of the 
war he was at the naval academy, and after its close 
he went to the Asiatic station with the flag-ship 
"Hartford." His first command was the steamer 
" Wyoming," then for two years he was stationed at 
the Portsmouth navy-yard.' During this lime he was 
commissioned as commander. B'rom 1871 to 1872 
he had command of the " Nantasket," and then he 
returned to Portsmouth on equipment duty for 
three years. His next sea duty was in the ill-fated 
" Huron," of the North Atlantic squadron, from 
1875 to 1876, leaving her a year before she was. 
wrecked off the North Carolina coast. Again he 
returned to Portsmouth, and while there was ad- 
vanced to captain in 1880. He completed his 
three years of shore duty at the Boston navy-yard, 
and in 1883 was commander of the " Hartford," 
which carried an English and American scientific 
expedition to the Caroline atoll to view the total 
eclipse of the sun. For three years he commanded 
the receiving-ship " Wabash " at the Charlestown 
navy-yard, and in the latter year was transferred to 
Portsmouth as captain of the yard, and later be- 
came commandant. He received his commission 
as commodore in 1893, and as rear-admiral a year 
later. As commander of the Asiatic squadron in 
1894 he saw many of the naval movements of the 
Chino-Japanese war. Under his orders was fired 
the first and only shot by an American man-of-war 
at a Chinese ship, thereby enforcing the demands 
of this government and averting the impending 
breach of relations between the United States and 
China. His action was commended by the govern- 
ment. Admiral Carpenter was retired in 1890, 
after forty-six years of service. During the Span- 
ish war he was recalled to act as commandant of 
the Portsmouth navy-yard. 

CARPENTER. Louis Henry, soldier, b. in 
Glassboro', N. J., 11 Feb., 1839. He entered 
the University of Pennsylvania, but before com- 
pleting his course began the study of medicine. In 
November, 1861, he enlisted in the 6th U. S. caval- 
ry, in which he became 3d lieutenant in June, 1863. 
lie served principally with the Army of the Poto- 
mac, and during 1864 was acting aide-de-camp on 
the staffs of Gen. Sheridan and Gen. Gregg. After 
attaining the rank of 1st lieutenant in September. 
1864, he was transferred to the 5th colored cavalry 
with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and became 
colonel of this regiment in October, 1865. He re- 
ceived the successive brevets from 1st lieutenant 
in the U. S. army to that of colonel in the U. S. 
volunteers during the civil war, and was appointed 
captain in the 10th cavalry in July, 1866. Subse- 
quently he served chiefly on the frontier against 
the Indians, and was brevetted colonel for his ser- 
vices on Beaver Creek in 1868. He was promoted 
major of the 5th cavalry in 1883. After June, 
1887, he had command of Fort Myer, Va. In 
July, 1892, he became lieutenant-colonel, and in 
June, 1897. colonel of his regiment. He was ap- 
pointed brigadier-general of volunteers in jNlay, 
1898, and was in command of the province of Puer- 
to Principe. Cuba, until merged into the military 
department of Santiago in July, 1899. In June, 
1881, he was sent to Europe to report on the con- 
dition of cavalry abroad, and on his return he 
published a report that was issued by the war de- 
partment.— His brother. Jaiiies Edward, lawyer, 
b. in Kent county, Md.. 6 March, 1841, entered the 
8th Pennsylvania cavalry, and in March, 1862. was 
promoted 2d lieutenant. His regiment was as- 




signed to the Army of the Potomac, and he par- 
ticipated in the caiupaigri!! of that army until his 
discharge in October. 1864, having attained the 
rank of captain in 1863. lie received the brevet 
of major in March, 1865. After the war he studied 
law, and was admitted to the bar in Philadelphia. 
He has been treasurer of the Historical society of 
Pennsylvania since 1869. Major Carpenter has 
written on military subjects, and published " A 
List of the Battles, Engagements. Actions, and 
Imiiortant Skirmishes in which the 8th Pennsyl- 
rania C'a%-alry participated during the War of 
1861-5 '• (PliiladelphiH. 1886). 

CARPENTER, Saninel, colonist, b. in Eng- 
land in 1649: d. in Philatlelphia, Pa.. 10 April, 
1714. He early esjMjused the cause of the (Quakers, 
and,embracing their faith, emigrated from England 
to Barba<Joes, and in 1683 established himself in 
Philadelphia. From 1685 till his death he was 
treasurer of the province. He was a member of the 
provincial council from 1687 till 1714, and dejiuty 
governor during William Markham's administra- 
tion in 1694-"8; also one of the cimimiissioners of 
pro[)erty to represent William Penn in the man- 
agement and sale of lands during his absence from 
the colony. He was ju.stice of the court of com- 
mon pleas, quarter sessions, and orphan's court of 
Philadelphia in 1688; one of the overseers of the 
public school of that town, and a memlier of the 
provincial assembly in 1689. His name was at the 
head of the list of councilmon in the first charter of 
the city of Philadelphia, grunted by Gov. Thomas 
Llovd in 1691. He was a member of the assembly 
of JJew .Jprscy, in which province he held large 
landed interests. Samuel C'arjienter was accounte<l, 
after William F'enn, the richest man in the prov- 
ince of Pennsylvania. He was extensively inlercst- 
ed in commerce and shipping, and was the builder 
and owm-r of mills in Uristol and other places in 
Pennsvlvania, as well as of dwellinj;!*, warehouses, 
and wharves in Philadelphia. William IVnn ap- 
|(ointe<l him by his will a trustee <if his estate in 
America. — HIsdesoendant.Thonia.H Prpstoii. law- 
yer, b. in Ola-soboro". N. .1.. 19 April. 18<)4 : d. in 
<'amden. N. J., 2 .March, 1876, was the son of Ed- 
ward ('ari^nter. who was the owner of the glass- 
works at Olassboro' for many years. Edwar<r<licd 
when the son was (|uile young, and he grew to man- 
hood in the family of his grandfather, al ('ar|ien- 
ter's Lan<ling (now Mantua). After obtaining a 
liberal e<lucation he studicnl jaw. and was admitted 
as an attorney in Septemlter, 1830. On 26 Oct., 
1838, he was ap|K>inte<l prosecutor of the pleas of 
Gloucester county. He was 8p|)ointed erne of the 
associate justices of the supreme court of New ,Ier- 
.sey. On his retirement from the judgeship, after 
.serving a term of seven years, hedevotpfl himself to 
the practice of his profession. As a judge of the 
supreme court he was held in high esteem by his 
associates and by the l>ar of the state for his ability, 
learning, and for the uniform goo<l judgment which 
he brought to the consideration of cases. — Another 
ili'scendant. John ThoniaH, surgeon, b. in Potts- 
ville, I'u.. 27 June. IMH:!. His father. James Strat- 
lon. was an eminent physician. The son was gnul- 
uated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1852. 
and in medicine in 18.55. At the'ojjening of the 
civil war he was commissioned surgeon of the ;}4th 
Pennsylvania volunteers ; in S<-pteinl>er he was pro- 
moted brigade surgeon: in Octolwr he was made 
medical director of .Mc( 'ook's brigade, army of West 
Virginia; in Hecembcr. medical director in charge 
of hospitals at Charlestown. W. Va. ; and in ManOi, 
1862, in charge of hospitals at Cumberland, .Md. 
In the following May be became medical director 

of the Mountain department ; in August, in charge 
of general hospitals at Cincinnati, Ohio ; in Decem- 
l)er, medical director of the department of Ohio; 
in May, 1863. president of the army medical board, 
Cincinnati, Ohio: and in March, 1864. medical in- 
spector and superintendent of hospitals in the dis- 
trict of Kentucky. At the close of the war he 
settled in the practice of his profession at Potts- 
ville, Pa. In 1876 he was president of the Schuyl- 
kill county medical society and a member of the 
International medical congress, and in 1880 he was 
president of the medical society of Pennsylvania. 
Dr. Carpenter is the author of numerous medical 
papers— on the management of iii.«titutions for the 
insane, on the cause and prevention of insanity, 
on the local origin of constitutional diseases, and 
on the identity of hospital gangrene with diph- 
theria. The last-named paper was rea<l before 
the American medical as.<iociation in 1878. and is 
quoteil by Prof. Hirsch. of Berlin, in his work on 
'• Geograjihical and Historical Pathology." 

CAKR, Ezra Slocnni, educator, b. in Stephen- 
town, Rensselaer Co., X. Y.. 19 March, 1819. He 
was graduated at the Rensselaer polytechnic insti- 
tute in \KiH. and at once engaged in the New York 
state geological survey. Meanwhile he also studied 
medicine and received his degree at Albany med- 
ical college, and at Castleton medical college in 
1842. On graduation he was amiointed professor 
of chemistrv and pharmacy in Castleton medical 
college, which chair he held until 1854. and in 
ISJO-'.'iO he gave similar lectures in Philadelphia 
medical college. In 1851 he was elected profes.sor 
of chemistry and pharmacy in Albany medical 
college, which place he held for five years, and 
was at the same time chemist of the S'ew York 
state agricultural society. He was called to the 
chair of chemistry and natural philosoiihy at the 
I'niversity of Wisconsin in 18.56. where he was ap- 
|Kiinted a regent of that institution by the legisla- 
ture, and one of the state commissioners to carry 
forward the geological survey of the state, in 
which capatrity "he enriched the university with a 
complete collection of the soils, minerals, and pro- 
ductions of Wisconsin, thus forming one of the 
most perfect cabinets of the kind in the world." 
Meanwhile, from 1861 till 1865 he was profes-sorof 
chemistry in Rush medical college. In 1869 he 
was appointed professor of chemistry and agri- 
culture in the University of California", which post 
he held until 1875. also occupying the chair of 
chemistry in the Toland medical college. He was 
then electe<l state superintendent of public in- 
stniction. which post he held for four years, when 
he retired and settled in southern California. Dr. 
Carr received the honorary degree of LL. I), from 
Miildlebury college. He was vice-president of the 
American medical a-s.sociat ion in 1848, and presi- 
dent of the Wisconsin medical society for two 
years. Among his published papers are "Child 
Culture," "The Genesis of Crime." "Claims and 
Conditions of Industrial Kilucalion," and "Patrons 
of Hushandrv on the Pacific Coast." 

CARRANK.\. IMego (car-rAn-thah). Mexican 
friar, b. in Jlexico city in 1569; d. in Tehnante- 
|iec in 1603. He united with the Dominicans in 
1577. anil after finishing his studies was sent, in 
1587, to Xejuiia, in Oaxaca. to learn the Zapotec 
language. Tnere he also acquired the Chontal 
dialect, and resolved to convert the wild tribe of 
that name which roamed without fixed habitations 
through the mountains of the southwestern part 
of the province. Aftertwelve yearsof missionary 
labor, and founding the Chontal villace of Te- 
quistlan, he contracted leprosy, and died in a 




hospital. He wrote, besides a number of sermons 
and prayers in the aboriginal language, " Arte de 
la lengua Chontal " (in manuscript) and •' Doetrina 
Cristiana " in Cliontal, almost the only work that 
is left in that language (Seville, 1659). 

CABRANZA, Jeronimo de, Spanish adminis- 
trator, b. in Seville about 1535 ; d. in Spain about 
]6t)0. In 1589 he came to America, and served for 
ten years as governor of Honduras, when he re- 
turned to Spain. He was an adept with the sword, 
an(l first reduced to practice the theory of swords- 
manship propounded by Jean Pons, of Perpignan. 
He finished in 1569 a work entitled "Librode Hie- 
ronimo de t'aran(;a, natural de Sevilla, que trata 
dela philosophia delas annas y de sv destreza, y de 
la aggresio y defensio C'hristiana," which was pub- 
lished at San Lucar de Barrameda in 1582. In 
1600 Luis Pacheco de Narvaez published at Ma- 
drid an epitome or abridgment entitled " Libro de 
las grandezas de la espada, en que se declaran mu- 
chos secretos del que compuso el Comendador Ge- 
ronimo de Carranza." The Biblioteca Colombina 
at Seville possesses two manuscripts of works re- 
lating to Carranza, one entitled " Los cinco libros 
sobre la Ley de la Injuria, de palabra 6 de obra, en 
que se incluyen las verdaderas resoluciones de la 
honra, y los medios con que se satisfacen las afren- 
tas," etc., the other " Diseurso de Annas y Letras 
sobre las palabras del proemio de la Instituta del 
Einperador Justiniano ; y una deelaraeion en verso, 
en razon de los mordaces murmuradores y Deca- 
dencia de las Ciencias, Artes, Pacultades, y Sabi- 
duria, por haber censurado los escritos del autor 
Jer6ninio Sanchez de Carranza," etc. 

CARRERE, John Merveii, architect, b. in Rio 
de Janeiro, Brazil, 9 Nov., 1858, the son of Amer- 
ican parents. He was educated in Switzerland, 
and graduated at the celebrated fioole des Beaux- 
Arts in Paris, France, in 1882. Establishing him- 
self in New York as an architect, he three years 
later formed a partnership with Tlioinas Hastings 
(see vol. iii., page 113). The firm have designed 
and erected many prominent public and private 
buildings in that city and elsewhere, including the 
picturesque Ponce de Leon and Alcazar hotels in 
St. Augustine, Fla. To this firm was awarded, 

CARROLL, Anna Ella, patriot, b. in Kingston 
Hall, Somerset eo., Md., 29 Aug., 1815 ; d. in Wash- 
ington, 1). C, 19 Feb., 1894. She was a daughter 
of Thomas King Carroll, governor of Maryland. 
The daughter began at an early age to interest 
herself in political subjects, writing pamphlets and 
contributing to periodicals. At the beginning of 
the civil war she became an ardent advocate of the 
National cause, and set free her slaves. In 1861 
she submitted to the government a plan for con- 
ducting military operations in the west and south, 
by which she proposed to divert operations from 
the Mississippi to the Tennessee, and thus work 
southward to the center of the confederacy. This 
plan, as she claim, was adojited, and in 1870, in 
a memorial to congress, she asked that her services 
should be recognized and rewarded. The military 
committee of the house, in 1881, presented a favor- 
able report upon it, accompanied by a bill bestow- 
ing upon her the salary of a major-general from 
1861 to the end of her life " as a partial measure of 
recognition of her services to the nation " ; but un- 
fortunately no further steps were taken in regard 
to Sliss Carroll's claims. See " A Military Genius," 
by Sarah Ellen Blackwell (Washington, 1895). 

CARSON, Joseph, physician, b. in Philatlel- 
phia. Pa., 19 April, 1808 ;"d. there, 30 Dec, 1876. 
His grandfather, Joseph Carson, emigrated from 
Scotland, and was one of the shipping merchants 
of Philadelphia that signed the non-importation 
resolutions and gave his credit to the Continental 
congress in the struggle for independence. The 
grandson was graduated at the University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1826, at the medical department in 
1830, and began practice two years later in Phila- 
delphia. He was professor of materia medica in 
the Philadelphia college of pharmac^y in 1836-'50' 
and in the University of Pennsylvania in 1850-'76, 
then becoming emeritus professor. He was asso- 
ciated with various hospitals, was a vice-president 
of the Academy of sciences, and in 1870 president 
of the national convention for revising the phar- 
macopa'ia of the United States. In 1835 he was 
made fellow of the college of physicians. Dr. Car- 
son was co-editor of the "American Journal of 
Pharmacy," and edited " Elements of Materia Med- 

over numerous competitors, the new building now 
in course of construction in Bryant park for the 
New York public library — Astor, Lenox, and Til- 
den foundations — which it is expected will be 
completed before the close of the century, and 
which is represented in the accompanying illustra- 
tion. This noble building, which is to cost $2,500,- 
000 exclusive of the site, it is believed will be second 
only to the Library of Congress among edifices yet 
erected for library purposes. Carrere & Hastings 
also won the first prize for the fine building to be 
erected by them near the cathedral. Morningside 
park, for the National academy of design. 

iea," by Jonathan Pereira, M. D.. with notes and 
additions (Philadelphia, 1843: 2 vols., 1845), and 
" Materia Jledica and Therapeutics," by J. Forbes 
Royle, M. I). (1847). Besides many papers to sci- 
entific journals, he published " Illustrations of 
Medical Botany" (Philadelphia, 1847): synopses 
of lectures on materia medica and therapeutics 
(1852-67); and "History of the Medical Depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania " (1869). 

CARTER, Thomas Henry, senator, b. in Scioto 
county, Ohio, 30 Oct., 1854, received a common- 
school education in Illinois. For several years he 
was engaged in farming and school-teaching, after 




which he studied law, and was admitted to the bar. 
In 1882 he removed to Helena, was elected delegate 
from the territory of Montana to the 51st congress 
as a Republican. Upon the admission of the state 
Mr. Carter was elected its first representative. He 
was conimissiuner of the general land office from 
March. 18U1, to July. 18i)2, when he became chair- 
man of the national Republican committee. In 
January, 189.'5, he was elected to the U. S. senate 
for the term ending in March, 1901. 

CARL'THERS. Robert Looney. jurist, b. in 
Smith county, TiMin.. 31 Julv, 1890; d. in Leba- 
non, Tenn., 4 Oct., 1882. He was graduated at 
Greenville college, read law, and was admitted to 
the bar. He was clerk of the chancery court in 
Smith county, where he e<lited a newspajier. and in 
1827 Ix-came solicitor for the judicial circuit court 
till 1832 ; afterward he was state attomev. He was 
electe<l to congress as a Whi^, serving from Mav, 
1841, till March. 1843, declining a re-election, ife 
was made attorney-general of Tennessee in 1844, 
was a presidential elector on the Clay and Freling- 
huyscn ticket, and in IS-Vi was called to the su- 

greme court of Tennessee, serving until 1861. 
le was a delegate to the peace convention of 
1861, a member of the provisional Confederate 
congress in that year, and was elected governor of 
Tennessee in 1863, but his inauguration was pre- 
vented by the presence of the National troops. 
Judge <'arnthers fiiunde<l Cumberland university. 
C'ARVALLO GOVENECHE. Vicente (car-v^- 
yo). Chilian author, b. in Valdivia in 1742: d. in 
Buenos Ayres, 10 March, 1816. He was the son 
of the governor of Valdivia, and after studying in 
the college of cadets went in 1766 as sub-lieuten- 
ant, to serve ou the fn>ntier against the Arauca- 
nians. When Ambrosio O'Higgins, in 1786, was 
app<>int<-<l presiilent of Chili, t'arvallo formed [art 
of his escort, and continued to serve in Santiago. 
He solicited [jermission to go to Spain, where he 
wished to study documents relating to Chilian his- 
tory, and being refused he fled, and disgiiise<l as a 
friar crossed the continent to Buenos Ayres. Hear- 
ing there that an onier of arrest had been issued 
against him as deserter, he presented himself in 
Madrid, was pardoned, and for some time searched 
the archives for the desired documents. Toward 
the end of 1793 he was assigned to service in the 
drag<M>ns of Buenos Ayres, and at the opening of 
the revolution, in 1810, he es|>oused the cause of 
independence, became secretary of the govern- 
ment, anil obtained the rank of colonel. He died 
in poverty in a hospital, and his historical work 
in manuscript was soM for a trifle. It was after- 
ward acijuired by Claude (ray fur the National 
library of Sniitiapo. and was published by the gov- 
ernment. The title is " I)esfrip<M<'>n histnrica y 
geognitica del reyno ile Chile hasta el aflo 1788." 

CAS.\1"IjT. Sir LoniH Na|(oleun, jurist, b. in 
St. Thomas. yuelH-c. 10 July. 1823. He was edu- 
cate<l at the yueiKH- seminary, an<i studied law. 
In 18.54 he wa« elected to the Canadian as.sembly 
from the county of Montmagny. and in 1867 was 
chosen to the Canadian commons from the county 
of Belle Chisse, which plat-e he resigned in 1870 to 
accent the puisne judgeship of the .su|K'rior court. 
He dc<'linc<l an appointment to the queen's bench 
in SeptemlxT. 1888. Judge Casault became pro- 
fessor of common law at Laval university in 18,58, 
and Uiiig held that chair. The degree of LL. I), 
was conferreil on him by Laval in 1H65. and he 
was appfiinted queen's counsel in 1K67. He re- 
ceived the honor of knighthood in 1894, and in 
the same year was appointed chief justice of the 
supreme court. Lady Casault is president of the 


Quebec branch of the National council of women 
of Canada founded bv the Countess of Aberdeen. 

CASEY. Lyman 'Rnfiis, senator, b. in York, 
Livingston co., N. Y.. 6 May, 1837. He removed 
in early life to Michigan, engaging in business 
there until 1882. when he went to Dakota territory, 
becoming general manager of the Casey-Carring- 
ton land company, a large farming corporation, 
which position he still holds. He never sought 
any public office except the U. S. senatorship, to 
which he was elected a.s a Republican, holding the 
office from Januarv, 1890, to March, 1893. He is 
a kinsman of the (ate Gen. Thomas L. Casey, of 
the engineer corps (q. v.), who died on the farm of 
their ancestor. Edward Ca.sey, of Rhode Island. 

CAKEV, ThoniaM Lincoln, soldier, b. in Madi- 
son Barracks, .Sackett's Harbor, N. Y., 10 Mav, 1831 ; 
d. in Washington, D. C, 25 March, 1896. lie was 
graduated at the U. S. 
military aca<lemy as 
brevet 2d lieutenant 
of engineers in 18.52. 
In 18.54- '9 he was as- 
sistant professor of en- 
gineering at the mili- 
tary academy. From 
ia59 till 1861 he had 
command of the en- 
gineer troojts on tie 
Pacific coast. Duriim 
the civil war he servcii 
at first as staff engi- 
neer at Fort .Monroe, 
Va., beciime captain in 
the engineer corfis on 6 
Aug., 1861, was super- 
intending engineer of 
the permanent defences and field fortifications upon 
the of .Maine, and served on special iluty with 
the North .\tlantic s<iuadron during the first ex- 
rK-dition to Fort Fisher, N. C, 8-29 Dec, 1864. 
He was made major on 2 Oct., 186:}, and brevette<l 
lieutenant-colonel and colonel on 13 March. 186.5. 
In 1877 he was placed in charge of the public build- 
ings and grounds in the District of Columbia, the 
Washingti in aqueduct, and the construction of the 
building for the state, war. and navy departments, 
which was complete<l on 31 Jlay, 1888. He was 
engineer of the Washington monument from 1878 
tilfits completion in 1884, and in 1886 he became 
president of the lK)ard of engineers, in New York 
city. In July, 1888, he was appointed brigadier- 
general and chief of engineers, U. S. army, and 
in C>ct., 1888, he was, by act of congress, placed in 
charge of the erection of the magnificent buihling 
for the library of congres.s, which he substan- 
tially comjileted Ijefore his death. Besides numer- 
ous official rejiorts, and articles upon engineering, 
Gen. Casey cimtributed many valuable sketches to 
historical and genealogical nuigazlnes. 

("ASS, (Jeorge Watihington, engineer, b. in 
Dn-sden. Ohio. 12 March. IHIO: d. in New York 
city. 21 March, 1888. He was a nephew of (ien. 
I,ewis Cass, with whom he resided in Detroit. 
After graduation at the U. S. military academy, in 
18;J2, with the brevet of 2d lieutenant, 7th infantry, 
he served on engineer <iuty, and became 2d lieu- 
tenant on 4th March, 1833,' and 1st lieutenant on 3 
Dec, 183.5. SfXin after his resignation, on 26 Oct., 
18;i6, he wiLS ap|K)inted by President Jackson to 
the engineer corps fur the construction of the great 
national road, and was engaged in that work until 
it was completed through .Maryland, Pennsylvania, 
and Yirgmia. In the course of this enterprise he 
constructed the first cast-iron bridge that was ever 




built in the United States, over Dunlap's creek, a 
tributary of Monongahela river. A company was 
then organized for the improvement of the channel 
of the Monongahela, and he became the engineer 
and afterward a member of the board of managers. 
On the completion of the improvements to Browns- 
ville, lie organized the first steamboat line on the 
river, and also the first fast transportation line 
iicross tlie mountains by relays of teams, and thus 
built up a large carrying trade between the east 
and west bv wav of the Monongahela and Pitts- 
burg. In 1849 he established the Adams express 
across the mountains from Baltimore, effected the 
consolidation of all the company's lines between 
Boston and St. Louis and south to Richmond in 
1854, and was its president from 1856 till 1863. 
He was also president of the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne 
and Chicago railway from 1863 till 1884 ; of the 
Continental improvement company. Grand Rapids 
and Indiana railroad company from 1869 till 1874 ; 
of the Southern railway security company in 
1870-'3 ; and of the Northern Pacific railway com- 
pany in 1871-3. He was appointed brigadier-gen- 
eral of the Pennsylvania militia. 

CASSETT, Alexander Johnson, railway presi- 
dent, b. in Pittsburg, Pa., 8 Dec, 1839. He- was 
graduated from the University of Heidelberg and 
from the Rensselaer polytechnic institute, when 
he engaged in surveying a railway route in Georgia. 
In 1861 he entered the service of the Pennsylvania 
railway as a rodman, rising through the various 
grades until he retired as vice-president in 1883. 
Three years later Mr. Cassett became president of 
the New York, Philadelphia and Norfolk railway, 
also president of a company formed to build a 
railway connecting North and South America. In 
1899 he succeeded the late Prank Thompson as 
president of the Pennsylvania railway. 

CASTELLANOS, Juan de (cas-tail-yah-nos), 
Colombian poet, b. in Tunja about 1550. Little 
is known of his life, but he deserves mention as 
the author of a valuable collection of biographies 
in verse of some of the principal persons that 
figured in the discovery and conquest of Spanisli 
America. The first part was published under the 
title of " Primera parte de las Elegias de Varones 
ilustres de las Indias, compuesta por Juan de Cas- 
tellanos, benefieiado de la ciudad de Tunja del 
Nuevo Reino de Granada" (Madrid, 1589), and 
the second and third parts were found two cen- 
turies later and printed in 1847. 

CATHCART, Charles Mnrray, governor of 
Canada, b. in England, 31 Dec, 1783; d. there, 16 
July, 1859. He was educated at Eton, and at the 
age of fifteen entered the army as an ensign. He 
served on the continent under the Duke of Wel- 
lington, and at the battle of Waterloo, where he 
led several charges, three horses were killed under 
him. He succeeded his father as second Earl 
Cathcart in 1843, was appointed commander-in- 
chief of the troops in British North America in 

1845, and on the retirement of Lord Metcalfe, in 

1846, he assumed the civil government as well. A 
year later he resigned his military command, re- 
turned to England, and was then succeeded in 
his civil office by Lord Elgin. Subsequently he 
was appointed to the command of the Northern 
and Midland district of England, which post he 
retained until 1854. He also served on various 
important commissions, and was for several years 
a member of the British parliament. 

CATHERWOOl), Mary Hartwell, author, b. 
in Luray, Ohio, 16 Dec, 1847. She was graduated 
at the Female college, Granville, Ohio, in 1868, 
and on 37 Dec, 1887, married James S. Cather- 

KL&^ «t- iaJcLa.-Lyctrv^'/, 

wood, with whom she resides in Hoopeston, 111. 
Mrs. Catherwobd, who has become one of the most 
•prominent and pojjular of American novelists, is 
the author of "Craque-o'-doom " (Philadelphia, 
1881); "Rocky Fork" (Boston, 1883); "Old (Jara- 
van Days" (1884); 
"The Secrets at 
•' The Romance 
of DoUard " (New 
York, 1889); "The 
Bells of Ste. Anne" 
(Boston, 1889) ; 
" Story of Tonty " 
(Chicago, 1889) ; 
"The Lady of Fort 
St. John" (Bos- 
ton, 1891); "We 
are Seven "(1893); 
" Old Kaskaskia " 
(1893); "The White 
Islander " (New 
York, 1893); "The 
Chase of St.-Cas- 
tin, and other Sto- 
ries of the French 
in the New World" 
(Boston. 1894); "The Spirit of an HIinois Town 
and Little Renault" (Boston, 1897); "The Days 
of Jeanne d'Arc" (New York, 1897), a beautiful 
biography; and "The Queen of the Swamp and 
other Plain Americans" (Boston, 1899). 

CATTANI, (jiaetano (eat-tah-nee), Italian mis- 
sionary, b. in Modena, 7 April, 1696; d. in Para- 
guay, 28 Aug.. 1733. He became a Jesuit, went to 
Paraguay in 1739, and labored with success among 
the Indians. He wrote letters to the general of 
the Jesuits, which were printed in M uratori's work 
on foreign missions, but are better known by the 
French version, entitled " Relation des missions du 
Paraguay" (Paris, 1734). 

CAUCHE, Fran^rois (coash), French explorer, 
b. in Rouen in 1615; d. there about 1660. He was 
a sailor, visited Madagascar, Brazil, and the West 
Indies, and led for some time the life of a privateer 
in the south sea. As he was unable to write, 
Morisot de Dijon composed the narrative of his 
travels, and published it under the title " Rela- 
tion veritable et curieuse de I'lle de Madagascar 
et du Bresil " (Paris, 1651). 

CAVERLY, Robert Boodey, author, b. in Bar- 
rington, now Strafford, N. II., 19 July, 1806. He 
studied law at Harvard, practised his profession 
in Limerick village. Me., and at Lowell, Mass. 
Before he removed from New Hampshire he served 
as inspector in the state militia, with the rank of 
colonel, on the staff of the major-general. He is 
the author of " Synopsis of the Court-Martial of 
Forty Days" (Lowell. 1858); "The Merrimack and 
its Incidents: An Epic Poem" (Boston. 1866); 
" Heroism of Hannah Dunston. together with the 
Indian Wars of New England" (Boston, 1875); 
" Genealogy of the Caverly Family" (Lowell, 1880) ; 
"History of the Indian Wars of New England: 
Life ami Labors of John Eliot, the Apostle among 
the Indian Nations of New England, with an Ac- 
count of the Eliots in England " (3 vols., 1882). 

CAVO, Andres (cilh-vo). Mexican historian, 
b. in Guadalajara in 1739 ; d. in Rome in the be- 
ginning of the 19tli century. He entered the so- 
ciety of Jesus in Mexico in 1759. and had been 
sent to the missions of the northwest, when the 
decree of expulsion of his order in 1767 forced 
him to abandon his country. He settled in Rome, 
where he gave his leisure to the study of Mexican 




history, and at his death left the manuscript of 
his "llistoria civil y politica de Mejieo" to the 
Marquis de las Torres, of Cadiz, but it was lost 
for a time, being discovered by Carlos M. Basta- 
raantc in a book-store in Madrid, and published 
under the title of " Los tres siglos de Mejieo 
durante cl gobiemo Espaflol" (2 vols., Mexico, 
1836). Cavo is also the author of " De vita Joseph! 
Juliani Parrenni, Havanensis" (Rome. 1792). 

CERVERA, Pascnal (ther-vc-ra). S[)anish ad- 
miral, b. in .Spain about ISJS. When war broke 
out between Spain and the Tnited Stales he was 
in command of that section of the Spanish fleet 
that had colleete«l at the Cape Venle islands. 
Soon after war began the fleet sailed, and the un- 
certainty of its objective point caused no little 
anxiety along the eastern seaboard of the United 
StAtes. On 19 .May, 1898, after having skirted the 
West Indies, he entered the harbor of .Santiago de 
Cuba with four swift arraoretl cruisers and two 
torpedo-boat destroyers. Here Cervera and his 
oflicers were greeted roost enthusiastically ; they 
were banqueted and feted, and it was declared 
that the S[>anish flag must float from the capitol 
at Washin^on. The American fleet, however, 
under Admiral .Schley, hati blockaded the harbor, 
and was soon joined by the fleet under Admiral 
Saraiison. In July, 1898, Admiral Cervera was 
ordered to leave the harbor and force his way out. 
He made the attempt on Sunday morning, 3 July, 
and his entire fleet was totally destroye<l and sunk 
by the Americans. The admiral himself was taken 
prisoner and sent to Portsmouth, X. H., and thence 
to Annapolis. Md., with his staff and ofllcers. The 
crews that escaped death were confined in the har- 
bor at Portsmouth. Admiral Cervera arrived at 
Annapolis on 16 July on board the "St. Louis," and 
was received by Admiral McNair. He was or- 
dered home in August after the (leace protocol had 
been signed, and sailed from Portsmouth for San- 
tander, 12 Sept.. on the "City of Kome," with his 
staff anil 1,70() of his former crews. 

4'H.4B(>T, Jemn, Canadian lawyer, b. in .St. 
Charles, 15 Oct., 1806; d. in Quebec, 27 May, I860. 
He was edacsted at the Seminary of (Quebec, stud- 
ied law, was atlmittetl to the bar in 1834, and soon 
acquired reputation. In I84^{ he was elected to 
represent Queljec in parliament, and he was re- 
electc<l in 1844 and 1849, representing Bellechassc 
in 1851-'4. In 1849 he was made chief commi.s- 
sioner of public works, and he was reappointed 
to this oflice in 18.">2. L'nder his administration 
the five piers in the lower St. Ijawrence were con- 
struct«<l, and for this work the Canadian govern- 
ment was exposed to censure fur the large amount 
of unanthon7.ed expenditure. In 1852-'4 he was 
a director in thefirand Trunk line, and almut that 
time he wa.s appointeil a seignorinl tenure com- 
missioner under the law of lH."i4, providing for the 
abolition of the feudal system of iHiid-liolding. 
For two yeare he again represented (^ucIm-c in 
parliament. On 26 .Sept.. ly-W, he was appointed 
judgi- of the sufierior court of Lower Canada, 
w^hifh offlce he held at the time of his death. 

t'HADWICK, French Eniutr, naval offlcer, b. 
in .Morpintown. W. Vn., 29 Feb.. 1844. lie re- 
ceived a classical education at the Mommgalia 
academy, and entered the naval academy in IHtil. 
He was made one of an a<lvanced class of thirty 
chosen out of the large numlM-r of over two hun- 
dred and sixty who entere<l that year, and was 
graduated in }Joveml)er. 1864. After some service 
in the " Siiwinehanna," he went in the same ship 
to the Brazil station, where he servwl two years, in 
the meantime )>eing transferred to the " Juniata," 

in which he returned home in 1867. After service 
in the "Sabine," "Tuscarora," "Guerriere," at the 
naval academy as an instructor of mathematics, in 
the " Powhattan," and on lighthouse duty, he was 
sent abroad in July. 1882, to collect information 
regarding lighthouse, life-saving, and other kin- 
dred administrations. He was shortly appointed 
naval attache to our London embassy. On leav- 
ing Ijondon he took command of the "York- 
town," in the Mediterranean and Gulf of Mexico. 
When detached from this command he s|)ent some 
time as memlaT of the first Ixmrd on organization 
of labor at the navy-yanl, was anfiointed chief in- 
telligence officer in 1892, and July, 1893, succeeded 
Commodore (now Admiral) Dewey as chief of the 
bureau of equipment. He left this duty in Sep- 
tember, 1897, and, after serving as a member on a 
board to report upon the numlier and character of 
docks needed, was ordered, in November, to the 
command of the "New V'ork." He was a member 
of the court of inquiry on the " Maine " disaster, 
and when Admiral Sampson was as-siened the com- 
mand of the North Atlantic station was appointed 
chief of staff, also commanding oflicer of the " New 
York," serving throughout the war with Spain. In 
Oct.. 1899, he received a sword from his native town. 

CH.\FFEE, Adna Rouianza, soldier, b. in Or- 
well, Ohio, 14 .\pril, 1842. He received a common- 
school education, and at the age of nineteen en- 
tered the army, serving as private, sergeant, and 
Ist sergeant of Company K, 6th cavalry, from 22 
July, 1861. to 12 .May, 1863. He was commis- 
sioned 2d lieutenant, 1^ March, 1863. and 1st lieu- 
tenant, 22 Feb., 1865. He received the brevets of 
1st lieutenant on 3 July. 186:<. for gallant and 
meritorious service in the Viattle of tietlysburg, 
and of captain on 31 .March. 1865, for similar 
service in the battle of Dinwiddle Court-house. 
From 11 Nov., 1864. to 12 Dec., 1866, he serveil as 
regimental adjutant, and from 12 Dec, 1866, to 
12 Oct., 1867, as regimental quartermaster. He 
became major of the 9th cavalry in July. 1888, 
and lieutenant-colonel of the 3d cavalry in June, 
1897. In the war with Spain he was made briga- 
dier-general of volunteers, saw s«>rvice in Cuba, 
and was promotetl to major-general in July, 1898. 
See "The Santiago Campaign," by Gen. Joseph 
Wheeler, and Lmlge's " War with .S|«in." 

CHAMBERIi.^IN, Jacob, clergyman, b. in 
Sharon, l.itchli.-ld co.. Conn., 13 April. 1835. Ho 
was graduate<l at Western Reserve college. Ohio, 
in 1896, studied at the Reformed theological semi- 
nary. New Brunswick, N. J., and receive*! a medi- 
cal degree at the College of physicians and sur- 
geons. New York, in 1859. In December of that 
year he went as misaionar)' to India, and was sta- 
tioned in Palamanair. Mailras presidency, in 1860- 
'3. In 186:{ he established a new station in Ma- 
danapalli. and he now has charge of both places. 
He established a hospital and dispensary at ^lada- 
nnpalli in 18<88, and another at PalaiimiiHir in 
1872. In 1878 he was appointed chairman of the 
committee for bringing out a new translation of 
the Old Testament from the Hebrew into Tcliigu, 
and in 1879 he was made chairman of a committee 
to revise the Teltigu New Testament. In 1878 he 
was elected vice-president for India of the Ameri- 
can tract society, which post he still holds. Im- 
riaired health c'omiH-lled a rest in this country in 
l874-"8. and he revisited the United States in 
lH84-'6. He received the degree of D. D. from 
Western Reserve, Hutgers. and Union in 1878. 
Dr. Chamberlain transUited into Telugu the Re- 
formed church liturgy (Madra-s, 1873) and " Hymns 
for Public and .Social Worship " (1884), and is 




the author of " The Bible Tested " (New York, 
1878): "Native Churches and Foreign Missionary 
Societies " (Madras. 1879) ; " Winding up a Horse, 
or Christian Giving"; and "Break Cocoanuts 
over the Wheels, or All Pull for Christ " (1885) ; 
besides contributions to periodicals. 

CHAMBERS, Robert WllUam, author, b. in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., 26 May, 1865. He was educated 
at the Brooklyn polytechnic school and in Paris, 
where he studied art under Lefebvre, Cornion, Col- 
lin, and Benjamin Constant. In 1891 he exhibited 
in the Champs de Mars salon. On his return to 
this country he illustrated for " Life," " Vogue," 
" Truth," and other papers, but since 1894 he has 
devotedhiraself chiefly to literature. Mr. Chambers 
has published " In the Quarter" (New York, 1894) ; 
" The King in Yellow" (1894) ; "The Red Republic " 
<1895) ; " A King and a Pew Dukes " (1895) ; " The 
Maker of Moons " (1896) : " With the Band," a col- 
lection of verse (1897) ; " Lorraine " (1897) : " The 
Mystery of Choice" (1897); and "The Haunts of 
Men " (1898). His play " Meg Merrilies " was acted 
at Daly's theatre. New York, in 1897. 

CHANLER, WiUiam Astor, congressman, b. 
in Newport, R. I., 11 .June, 1867. He is a great- 
grandson of William B. Astor, and was graduated 
at Harvard in 1888. On leaving the university he 
set out on an African exploring expedition, being 
absent about a year, and in 1892, accompanied by 
Lieut. Von Hohnel, an Austrian scientist, he de- 
parted on a second African expedition, which oc- 
cupied two years. In recognition of his services 
in the cause of geography he was made an honor- 
ary member of the Royal geographical society of 
Vienna and a member of the British royal geo- 
graphical society. He served through the war with 
Spain, being on the staff with Gen. Wheeler, with 
the rank of captain, and taking part in the siege 
•of Santiago. In 1898 he was elected a member of 
congress from New York city. He is the author 
of "Through Jungle and Desert" (New York, 1896), 
being an account of his travels in unexplored re- 
gions of eastern Africa. 

CHAPELLE, Placide Louis, R. C. archbishop, 
b. in the diocese of Mente, Prance, 28 Aug., 1842. 
Coming to America with an uncle who was a 
missionary in Hayti in 1859, he also devoted him- 
self to the priesthood and entered St. Mary's 
seminary, Baltimore, where he completed a full 
course of studies before the canonical age for or- 
dination, and consequently occupied two years in 
teaching at St. Charles's college. He was or- 
dained a priest in 1865, and labored on the mis- 
sion at Rockville, Md., and neighboring stations, 
receiving while there the degree of doctor in the- 
ology from St. Mary's seminary. After five years 
of missionary work he accompanied Archbishop 
Spalding to "the Vatican council. He was made 
assistant pastor of St. John's church, Baltimore, 
in 1870, afterward its pastor, and subsequently 
pastor of St. Joseph's. On the death of Rev. 
Francis X. Boyle, of St. Matthew's church, at 
Washington, he was appointed pastor in 1882. 
He was made president of the theological confer- 
ences of the clergy held every three months at 
Baltimore, in recognition of his eminence as a 
theologian, and in 1885 succeeded Bishop O'.Sul- 
livan as president of the conferences held in 
Washington. He was selected by Bishop Keane 
to deliver an important course of lectures at the 
Catholic university at Washington on " The Writ- 
ings and Influence of the Blathers of the Church," 
was a member of the board convened by Cai-dinal 
Oibbons to prepare the decrees for the third 
plenary council, and secretary of one of the most 

important committees of the council. In 1891 he 
was appointed coadjutor bishop to Archbishop 
Salpointe, of Santa Fe. with the right of succes- 
sion, under the title of bishop of Arabissus, and 
was consecrated by Cardinal Gibbons in the Bal- 
timore cathedral. He was promoted to the archi- 
episcopal rank, with the title of archbishop of 
Sebaste, in JIay. 1893, and on the resignation of 
Archbishop Salpointe he became archbishop of 
Santa Fe in January, 1894. In November, 1897, 
he was appointed archbishop of New Orleans, and 
in July, 1899, selected as one of three prelates to 
carry out Americanization of the Catholic church 
in our new possessions and Cuba. 

CHAPIN. William, educator, b. in Phila<lel- 
phia. Pa., 17 0ct., 1802; d. there, 20 Sept., 1888. 
He was educated in Philadelphia, became an en- 
graver and map publisher, and removed to New 
York, where he kept a map-store in Wall street 
for many years. In 1837 he became interested in 
the education of the blind, for whom he estab- 
lished a Bible class in New York city. He was 
afterward appointed to organize the Ohio institu- 
tion for the blind, which he conducted in 1840-'6, 
and also visited similar institutions in Europe, 
publishing, on his return, an extended account 
of their condition and methods. In 1846-'9 he 
was principal of a school for girls, and from 
1849 until his death he was at the head of the 
" Pennsylvania institution for instruction of the 
blind." He early advocated the establishment of 
supplementary institutions for the care of the 
blind after their education was completed, and 
through his personal efforts during 1852-"8 the 
Pennsylvania industrial home for blind men. the 
Industrial home for blind women, and the Penn- 
sylvania retreat for blind-mutes and the aged 
and infirm were erected. He was an officer and 
manager in each, and was also a founder and 
until the time of his death president of the Phila- 
delphia city institute, which was established to 
furnish without charge night schools, books, and 
lectures to youths of both sexes. Mr. Chai)in was 
in early life associate editor of the Norristown 
" Herald." He contributed frequently to the 
press, and prepared encyclopaedias, dictionaries, 
and other books in raised letters for the blind. 
He was also an excellent amateur artist in water- 
colors. — His son, John Basselt. physician, b. in 
New York city, 4 Dec, 1829, was graduated at 
Williams in 1850. and received his medical degree 
at Jefferson medical college in 1853. He was resi- 
dent physician of the New York hospital, afterward 
ap|iointed assistant physician to the New York lu- 
natic asylum. Utica. in 1854. and in 1862. in a public 
communication, recommended a change in plans 
of asylum construction that would provide for the 
various classes and conditions of the insane and 
for their segregation in detached blocks in place of 
their "congregation." These views were afterward 
applied in the erection of the Willard asylum for 
the insane on Seneca lake, of which Dr. Chapin 
was the first superintendent and physician. These 
changes from previous plans were not at first fa- 
vorably received, but as time and their actual ap- 
plication have shown their practicability they have 
been accepted as an advance. After serving there 
from 1869 till 1884, lie was appointed physician- 
in-chief to the Pennsylvania hospital for the insane 
in Philadelphia, wliich post he still holds, lie has 
lectured on insanity at Jefferson medical college, 
which gave him the degree of LL. D. : has con- 
tributed annual reports on the insane ; papers for 
the medical press, and written a "Compendium of 
Insanity " for physicians and students. 




CHAPMAN, Edwin Nesbit, physician, b. in 
RiiifreneM. Conn.. 26 Fel).. 1819; d. in Brooklyn, 
X. Y.. 2 March. 1888. After graduation at Yale in 
1842, and at Jefferson nietiical college, Philadel- 
phia, in l.S4.">, he practised his profession in Brook- 
lyn. He was elected professor of therapeutics and 
materia medica in Long Island college hospital in 
186t»-'3. and in 1863-'7 was professor of obstetrics 
and discn-ses of women and children. Dr. Chap- 
man juiblishcil two valuable works, a "Treatise 
on llysterology ■■ (Xew York, 1867) and "An- 
tagonism of -Ucoliol ami Diphtheria" (1878). 

CH.4RNAY, IJfsirf, explorer, b. in Fleurie, 
France. 2 May, 1828. lie was educated at the 
College Charlemagne, and has been sent by the 
French government on many scientific explora- 
tions, including one in 1880 to Central America, 
which was aided by the generosity of Pierre Loril- 
lard. He is the author of " Cites et mines ameri- 
caines"(Paris, 1861); " Le Mexique " (1862); " Kx- 
plnralions au Mexique et Amerique du Centre" 
(ISWi); •• Le.s anciennes villes du nouvcau monde" 
(1883): and "Une princess indienne avant la con- 
qucte" (1888). "The Ancient Cities of the New- 
World" wa.s translated by Mrs. Gonino and Mrs. 
Helen .S. Conaiit. with an introductory chapter by 
Allen Thomdike Ui<c (New York, 1887). 

IHATARU. Kn-derlfk, naval officer, b. in 
Baltimore, .Md.. in 1807; d. in St. Louis, Mo.. 8 
Oct.. 1897. He entennl the U. S. navy as a mid- 
shipman in 1824, and became a commander in 
185.5. .Six years later he resigned to enter the 
Confederate navy, with the rank of commander, 
and at the time of his death was the oldest sur- 
viving officer of that navy, in which he saw sev- 
eral vears of a<tive st-rvice. lie wa.* a member of 
a well-known Maryland family, being a brother of 
Dr. Francis Chatard and an uncle of Bishop Cha- 
tard of the Catholic dJK'osc of Vinccnnes.Ind. 

CHATFIKLD-TAYLOK. Hobart Chatnpld, 
author, b. in Chicago. 24 .March. 1865. He was 
graduatetl from Cornell in lSf<«. in 1888 became 
the editor of "America," and three years later 
was the I^onilon corrosjH indent of the Chicago 
"Daily News." In IWW he was ctmsul for Spain 
in his native citv.and for services rendered to that 
country during the World's Columbian cx|)osition 
he wa.s dei-orated by the queen regent with the 
order of 1sal>ella the Catholic. He has contrib- 
uted to the "North American "and other maga- 
?ines, and is the author of "With I'^lge Tools" 
(Chicago. 1891); "An .American Peeress" (189.3); 
"Two Women and a Fool" (180.5); "The Land 
of the Castanet" (18!»6) — last three reprinted in 
Lonilon ; and " The Yic« of Fwls" (1897). 

CHAl' VIX, Jean (sho-vang). French navigator, 
b. in Normandy, France, about 1.540 ; d. in 
France in UMW.' When Manpiis de la Koche 
rctumtHl in disgrace from his Canadian expedi- 
tion in 1.598, Chauvin obtained from Henri IV. 
the exclusive privileges of the fur-trade in New 
France, with all the prerogatives that had been 
conferred on La KiK'hc am! the title of 2d lieu- 
tenant-general of Canada. With several fully 
e<piipi>ed vessels he sailed down St. Lawrence 
river, and when about 86 miles from its mouth 
laniling at Cadansac, where the Indians were in the 
habit of coming to sell their furs, and estaidishcd 
a flourishing traile with them. He returned to 
France in 1602. leaving a party of emigrants lie- 
hind, nearly all of whom perished of famine. 
Chauvin had planned the establishment of a fixed 
commerce in furs l>etwecn France and Canada, 
ami was preiiaring to make a third voyage in the 
spring uf 1603, when he died, 
vol.. Tii. — 8 

CHAFYIN, Pierre, sieur de Tonnetuit, Nor- 
man military and naval commander and mer- 
chant, b. at Dieppe. France, in the 15th century; 
d. at Honfleur in 1603. In 1.5«9 he commanded a 
company of Calvinists in the defence of Honfleur, 
and later took part in the campaign of Henry IV. 
in the Canx. Associated with him were De Monts 
and De Chasles, who afterward became prominent 
with himself in the efforts for colonizing Canada 
made in the beginning of the 17th century. In 
1599 Chauvin, having previously made voyages 
to the Newfoundlaml fisheries, received a roval 
commission to fit out an expedition for Canaila. 
The voyage was matle in the spring of 1600 with a 
fleet of four shifts, and anchore*! at the month of 
the Saguenay. Chauvin was as.sociated with Du- 
pont-Gravf (usually called Pontgrave) in the en- 
terprise which had for its main object as far as 
they were concerneil the colle<tion of furs. They 
received a niono|)oly of the fur-trade on condition 
that they should establish a colony of 400 persons. 
They loaded their ships with furs at Tailoussac, 
and .sailed for France, leaving at the former place 
sixteen of the crew to Itegin a settlement. In 
1601 Chauvin sent out the " Esi)erancc." and in 
April. 1602, saileii himself with two ships to 
Ta<loussac, whence after a stay of four months 
he returned to France. His colonial projects 
failed, and the only trace of his visits to Canada 
discoverable when Champlain landed there was a 
wooden building which he erected. 

CHE(iARAY. Eloise DeHabare, educator, b. 
in Paris. France. 1 Feb., 1792; d. in New York 
city. 22 Jan.. 1889. She was <lescended from the 
Huguenot family of D'Amljerbas, which went to 
.San Domingo on the revocation of the edict of 
Nantes. Her father, M. Desabaye, deprived of his 
estate by the revolution of 1797, removed to the 
Unitwl .States, and the daughter was e<lucated in 
New Brunswick. N. J. In 1814 she established a 
school in New York, in Greenwich street, ami sul)- 
sequentlr she removed it successively to North 
Moore street. St. John's square. Fifteenth street, 
and Madison avenue. The school was one of the 
l)est known in the country, and numbered many 
well-known (leople among its pupils. After her 
retirement from its management Mme. Chegaray, 
as she wa.s called, having married a Fnmchman of 
that name. Iive«l for some time in Philadelphia 
and New Brunswick, N. .1.. but she returned to 
New York two vears before her death. 

CHENEY, Henjaniin Pierce, expressman, b. 
in HillslKiro'. N. II.. 12 Aug.. 1815; d. in Welles- 
ley. Mass.. 23 Jniu>. 18!l.5. lie received a com- 
mon.«chool e<lucation, became a stage-driver, and 
subsefpiently manager of the line. In 1842 he es- 
tablished, with two others. Cheney & Co.'s Boston 
and Montreal express. A few years later he formed 
the Cnited States and Canada exjircss company, 
of which he was the president. In 1881 it was 
incorporated with Adams express, of which Mr. 
Chenev was trea-surer and the largest stfickholder. 
He left an estate estimated at li!9,00(),(K)0, bequeath- 
ing handsome sums to various Boston charities, and 
having previously presented his native state with 
the bronze statue <if Daniel Webster at Concord. 

CHENEY. Person Colby, senator, b. in llold- 
emess (now .Ashland). N. H.. 25 Feb.. 1828. After 
an academic education he became a pajier manu- 
facturer in Pelerboro. and later in Manchester. 
He served for a year as lieutenant in the civil war, 
and when compelled by illness to resign he sup- 
jilied a three years" substitute. He was governor 
of New Hampshire in 1875-'6. and U. S. senator 
for short term of the 49th congress, to fill the un- 




expired term of Austin F. Pike, deceased. He 
has been a member of the Republican national 
committee since 1893, and in tliis same year he was 
appointed by President Harrison minister to the 
repul)lic of Switzerland. Since its organization 
■ in 1874 Mr. Cheney has been president of the 
People's savings bank of JIanchester. 

CHESTER, Colby Mitchell, naval officer, b. 
in New London, Conn., 29 Feb., 1844. He was 
graduated at the U. S. naval academy, and in 
1863 was ordered as ensign to the " Richmond," 
participating in the operations against Mobile and 
in the famous naval battle of Mobile fought by 
Farragut. In 1866 he became a master, in 1867 a 
lieutenant, and in June, 1896, received his com- 
mission as captain. He commanded the " Galena " 
in 1886, from 1890 to 1894 was commandant of 
cadets at Annapolis, in 1897 was in command of 
the Asiatic squadron, and during the war with 
Spain was in command of the " Cincinnati." Capt. 
Chester was in 1899 assigned to the command of 
the new and powerful battle-ship " Kentucky." 

CHILTON, Horace, senator, b. in Smith coun- 
ty, Texas, 29 Dec. 1853. He is an attorney-at- 
law, and was a delegate-at-large to the national 
Democratic convention held at St. Ijouis in 1888. 
He was appointed U. S. senator by Gov. Hogg to 
fill the vacancy created by the resignation of John 
H. Reagan in April, 1891, but failed of election 
when the legislature convened. Mr. Chilton be- 
came a candidate again in 1894, made a success- 
ful canvass of the state, and was elected as the 
successor of Richard Coke (wlio declined to be a 
candidate), 23 Jan., 1895. Senator Chilton's term 
of service will expire 8 March, 1901. 

CHILTON, Robert Hall, soldier, b. in Loudon 
county, Va., in 1817; d. at Columbus, Ga., 18 Feb., 
1879. He entered the military academy, July, 
1833, was 2d lieutenant of dragoons, July, 1837, 
1st lieutenant, 1842, captain 1st dragoons, 6 Oct., 
1846, major and paymaster, 25 July, 1854, brevet 
major, 23 Feb., 1847, for gallant and meritorious 
service at the battle of Buena Vista. In this bat- 
tle Col. Jeffei'son Davis, 1st Mississippi rifles, was 
seriously wounded and was borne from the field 
by Capt. Chilton, and their life-long friendship 
dated from that event. He resigned from the 
U. S. army, 29 April, 1861, and was appointed 
lieutenant-colonel in the adjutant-general's de- 
partment of the Confederate army soon afterward. 
He was promoted to colonel, 13 Oct., 1862, and 
brigadier-general, 20 Oct., 1862. The appoint- 
ment was not confirmed by the Confederate sen- 
ate, and he was reappointed and confirmed, 21 
Dec, 1862. He was for some time chief of staff 
to Gen. Robert E. Lee, also inspector-general of 
the Army of northern Virginia. He resigned 
from the army in April, 1864. and subsequently 
engaged in business in Columbus. 

CHINIQUY, Charles Paschal Telesphore, 
Canadian elergvman, b. in Kamouraska. province 
of Quebec, 30 July. 1809; d. in Montreal, 16 Jan., 
1899. He was educated at the College of Nicolet, 
occupied the chair of belles-lettres there for four 
years, was ordained to the priesthood of the Roman 
Catholic church in 1833, and held charges in Que- 
bec till 1851, when he was sent to Chicago to direct 
Roman Catholic emigration to the prairies of Illi- 
nois. Meanwhile his successful crusade against 
drunkenness had won him the title of the " apostle 
of temperance of Canada." In 1858. a change in his 
religious views having occurred, with his entire 
congregation at St. Anne, which he founded near 
Kankakee, 111., he left the Roman Catholics and 
united with the Canadian Presbyterian church. 

Six years later he married an American lady of 
his congregation. He lectured in England in 
1860, 1874, and 1882, and in Australia in 1878-'80. 
In addition to many minor popular treatises, he 
published "The Priest, the Woman, and the Con- 
fessional " (St. Anne, Kankakee co.. 1874) and 
"Fifty Years in the Church of Rome" (Chicago, 
1885), which have passed througli seventy editions 
and been translated into ten languages. Though 
in his ninetieth year, Dr. Chiniquy preached in 
December, 1898, in a French Protestant church of 
Montreal, where he had lived for ten years. In 
1889 McGill university conferred upon the vener- 
able preacher the degree of 1). D. 

CHURCH, Frederick Stuart, artist, b. in 
Grand Rapids, Mich., 12 June, 1842. He studied 
in the schools of the National academy of design, 
and afterward established a studio in New York 
city, which he still continues. He is a delineator 
of animals and figures, and also a successfid illus- 
trator of books. Mr. Church has been a member 
since 1885 of the National academy of design, 
is a member of the Society of American artists, 
and also of the American water-color socictv. 

CHURCHILL, Lady Randolph, b. in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., 10 June. 1853. She is a daughter of 
Leonard Jerome, of New York, and was educated 
Ijrinci pally in Paris. In 1874 she married, in 
Grace church. New York. Lord Randolph Church- 
ill, who died in 1893, She is vice-president of the 
Primrose league of England and prominent in 
London fashionable society. Lady Churchill es- 
tablished an expensive, handsomely bound quar- 
terly entitled " The Anglo-Saxon Review " (June, 
1899), published in London at a guinea each. Of 
the first number 3.000 were sold. — Her son, Win- 
ston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, grandson of 
the seventh Duke of JIarlborough, b. 30 Nov., 
1874, was educated at Harrow and Sandhurst 
military college. He entered the British army in 
1895. serving with Spanish troops in Cuba in the 
same year, and in 1897 with the Malakand field 
force. He was with the Nile expeditionary army 
in 1898, winning the medal with clasp for services 
in the battle of Khartum. In 1899 he was an 
unsuccessful candidate for parliament. Lieut. 
Spencer-Churchill is author of "The Storv of the 
Malakand Field Force" (London. 1H9S). 

CHURCHILL. Winston, author, b. in St. 
Louis, 10 Nov., 1871. He was graduated from the 
U..S. naval academy in 1894, and has since 
then pursued a literary career, contributing nu- 
merous articles vchiefly naval) to the American 
magazines. He is the author of "The Celebrity " 
(New York, 1898), and " Richard Carvel " (1899), 
an exceptionally popular historical novel, one hun- 
dred and fifty thousand copies having been sold 
insismonths. Withthesingleexceptionof " David 
Harnm," it is the most successful American novel 
issued during the year 1899. " Literature " pro- 
nounces Mr. Churchill's work to be "a production 
of which not only the author but his countrymen 
have every reason to be proud." 

CLARK, Clarence Don, senator, b. ia Sandy 
Creek, Oswego Co., N. Y., 16 April. 1851. and was 
graduated at the University of Iowa. He studied 
law, and was admitted to the bar in 1874. teach- 
ing school and practising at the bar in Delaware 
county, Iowa, until 1881. In that year he re- 
moved to Evanston, \Vy.. where he has since re- 
sided. Upon the admission of the territory as a 
state, he was twice elected to congress, but was 
defeated for a third term by a fusion of Demo- 
crats and Populists. In January. 1895, Jlr, Clark 
was elected as a Republican to the U. S. senate for 




the terra ending 3 March. 1890, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the faihire of the legislature to elect a 
senator in 18i»2-'3. His present term of office 
continues until March, 1905. 

CLARK. Charles Edgrar, naval officer, b. in 
Bradford, \'t., 10 Aug., 1843. and was appointed 
to the naval 'academy, 29 Sept., 1860. He was 
promoted ensij^ii, 1 Oct., J8C3, and served on the 
steaiii-sl(M)p "Os-sipce" on the western blockading 
squadron. taking part in the battle of Mobile Hay 
and the bonibiirdment of Fort Morgan. He was 
appointed iiia.-iter. 10 Nov., 1866, and served on the 
steamer " Vanderbilt " on the Pacific station. He 
was comrai-ssioned lieutenant, 21 Feb., 1867, and 
lieutenant-commander, 12 March, 1868. He was 
on the steamer " Suwanee " when she wils wrecked, 
7 July, 1868; then 8erve<l on the receiving-ship 
'• Vandalia" at Portsmouth, N. H., on the steamer 
"Seminole" and the ironclad " Dictator " on the 
North Atlantic station, at the naval academy, on 
the '■ Saratoga " on the practice-eniise of 1871, on 
the ironclacf " Mahopuc" on the North Atlantic 
station, on the steamers " Hartfonl," •' Monocacy," 
and " Kearsjirge " on the Asiatic station, at the 
Hoston navy-yard, and on the training-ship "New 
Hampshire." He was commissioned commander, 
1.5 Nov., 1881. -served on the "New Hampshire," 
and on the steamer "Ranger" on the survey of 
the North Pa<-ific. He was lighthouse inspector 
for four years, and was on duty at the .Marc island 
navy-yarid. He commanded the " Mohican," and 

later the U. S. re- 
ceiving-ship "ln<le- 
iicndcnee." He had 
been promoted ca|)- 
tain, 21 June. 1806, 
and soon after was 
in command of the 
" .Monterey." When 
it was dts'iiled to 
send the "On-giin " 
round from the Pa- 
cific to the At- 
lantic, Capt. Clark 
wa-s ap[)ninted to 
command her. The 
ship left .San Fran- 
cisco, 10 March, 
1808, and reached 
Jupiter inlet, Flori- 
da, on 25 May, mak- 
ing the journey of 
13,000 miles on an 
average of 2fM) miles 
a day — a tribute to her makers and the captain in 
command. During the war with S|)ain Capt. Clark 
continued in command of the " ()regr)n." and won 
iiddilional fame for himself and his famous ship 
in the destructi<m of the Spanish squadron coin- 
niande<l bv Admiral Pascual Cervera. 

CLARii, EinnioiiH, secretary, b. in Huron. 
Wayne co.. N. Y.. 14 Oct.. 1827. lie graduated at 
Hamilton collc;:e. and studied meilicine. but short- 
ly thereafter, removing to New York city, he be- 
came a clerk in the first office estal)li»hed in Broad- 
way for the transportation of through freight and 
pa»scnger<i to Chicago and the west, rising rapidly 
to the place of manager. He was appointed sec- 
retary of the board of health at its organization 
in 1866. and still hohls that office. In January, 
1857, he enlisted as a private in the 2d com- 
panv of the 7lh regiment ("National guard"). 
N. Y. state militia; was elected 2d lieutenant. 
Scptemlx^r, 1850; 1st lieutenant, June, 1800; and 
captain in December of the same year; and was 


in command of his company in the three cam- 
paigns made by the regiment, in 1861, 1862, and 
1863, during 
the civil war, 
and in the 
draft riots of 
1803. He com- 
man<Ied the 
7th regiment 
in the Orange 
riot of 1871, 
and in the la- 
hoT riots of 
1877. In 1864 
he published 
a " History of 
the Second 
Companv of 

the Seventh Regiment, N. Y. State Militia." He 
was elected colonel of his regiment in 1864, and 
continued as such for a quarter of a century, when 
he resigned, and was succeeded by Col. Daniel 
Appleton. For twenty-five years of faithful ser- 
vice in the National guard, state of New York, 
the legislature by s|»'cial act brcvetled him briga- 
dier-general. To Clark's energy was chiefly due 
the successful completion bv private subscription 
in 1880 of the armorv (see iilustration) now occu- 
pie<l by the 7th regiment, while his untiring at- 
tention" increa-sed the [(rosi)crity of the organi/A- 
tion. He imblished a " itislorv of the iSventh 
Kegiment ''(2 vols.. New York, 1889). 

CLARK, WilUam Aiidrews. senator, b. near 
Connellsville. Pa., 8 Jan., 1830. He studied at the 
Laurel Hill academy, but in 1856 his parents re- 
moveil to Van Bureh county. Iowa, where he con- 
tinued his studies, attending the law-school in Mt. 
Plea-sant, but never iiractised his profes-sion. Dur- 
ing 1859 and 1S(M) he taught school. In 1862 he 
crossed the plains, driving a team and settling in 
South Park. Col.. I)ut on the discovery of gohl in 
Montana he went thither, again driving his o.x- 
team. He was one of the first to r(>ach Itannock, 
where he opened a store, but soon branched out 
into mining, banking, and manufacturing. In 
1876 he was the slate orator for Montana at the 
Centennial exposition, and in 18K4 he was state 
commissioner to (he New Orleans exi)osilion. He 
served as major of the Butte battalion in the Nez 
Perce campaign of 1878. He was president of the 
constitutional conventions of 1884 and 1880, and 
was the Democratic candidate for delegate to con- 
gress in 1888. He was defeated at this time and 
again in IHDO as candidate for U. S. senator; at 
this ele<'tion he claimed that he had iH'en success- 
ful, but he was denied his seat. On 28 Jan.. 18it9, 
he was elected senator to succeed Lee Mantle. He 
is the largest individual owner of copper mines and 
smelters in the world, his largest holdings being 
in Butte, Mon.. and in Jerome, Ariz. He is inter- 
ested largely in sugar-beet plantations in Cali- 
fornia, coffee, tea, toliat-co. and rubber plantations 
in Mexico, and owns a large copjH-r-wire works at 
KlizalM'thport. N. J. Senator Clark is erecting one 
of the most expensive residences on Fifth avenue, 
New York city, and occupies one of the largest in WiLshington. known as ".Stewart castle." 
He is a collector i\i valuable paintings. 

CLARKE, RehMTB Sophia, author, b. in Nor- 
ridgewixk. .Me., 22 Feb.. 183:3. where she continues 
to reside. She was carefully ediicate<l. has engaged 
in literarv pursuits since her youth, and is the au- 
thor, under the |ien-name of ".Sophie May." of 
many volumes for children and voung people, in- 
cluding " Little Prudy Stories " (Boston. 1864-'5), 




" Dotty Dimple Stories " (1868-'70) ; " Flyaway Sto- 
ries " (1871-4) ; " Tiie Doctor's Daughter " (1873) ; 
" Our Helen " (1875) ; " The Asbury Twins " (1876) ; 
" Flaxie Frizzle Stories " (1877-85) ; " Quinnebas- 
set Girls " (1878) ; " Janet " (1883) ; " In Old Quin- 
nebasset"(1886); " Drones' Honey " (1887); "The 
Champion Diamonds"; and "Pauline Wyman." 

CliAKKSON, Matthew, philanthropist, b. in 
New York, 17 Oct., 1758; d. there. 35 April, 1825. 
He was the great-grandson of Matthew Clarkson, 

who for thirteen 
years was secretary 
of the province, 
and his father 
and grandfather 
also held important 
places in the colo- 
ny. At the begin- 
ning of the Revo- 
lutionary war the 
son became a pri- 
vate in a company 
of fusileers under 
Rudolph Ritzema, 
and afterward he 
served in Col. Jo- 
siah Smith's regi- 
ment of minute- 
men, which was 
raised for the pur- 
pose of protecting 
Long Island from invasion. He joined the north- 
ern army in 1777, was wounded at Fort Edward, 
and at Saratoga rendered effective service to Col. 
Daniel Morgan, also acted as aide-de-camp to Bene- 
dict Arnold, and was present at the surrender of Gen. 
John Burgoyne. In 1779 he was appointed aide 
to Gen. Benjamin Lincoln, under whom he partici- 
pated in the siege of Savannah, and in the defence 
of Charleston he served as major of infantry, and 
became a prisoner at the surrender. In 1781 he re- 
turned to his place as aide to Gen. Lincoln, and was 
with him at the reduction of Yorktown. He also 
served on the expedition of Commodore Abraham 
Whipple during the siege of Charleston, and later 
in the " Jason." When Lincoln became secretary 
of war, Clarkson acted as his assistant, and on the 
conclusion of hostilities he received the brevet of 
lieutenant-colonel, and for more than fourteen years 
was major-general of the state militia. Heserved 
in both branches of the legislature, and was candi- 
date of the Federal party for U. S. senator. For 
twenty-one years he was president of the Bank of 
New York, one of the promoters of the free-scliool 
system, a regent of the University of the state of 
New York, governor of the New York hospital for 
thirty years, during twenty-three of wliieh he was 
president, one of the vice-presidents of the Amer- 
ican Bible society, and his name is associated with 
the foundation of many of the eai'ly philanthropic 
and literary societies of that city. 

CLAY, Alexander Stephens, senator, b. in 
Cobb county, Ga., 25 Sept., 1853, antl was gradu- 
ated at Hiawassce college in 1875. He studied law 
in Marietta, and entered actively in tlie practice of 
his profession. In 1884-'7 he represented Cobb 
county in the general assembly, and in 1892 was 
elected to the Georgia senate, serving as presi- 
dent of that body for two years. Mr. Clay was 
chosen chairman of the state Democratic executive 
committee in 1884, and was re-elected in 1896. He 
was elected to the U. S. senate as a Democrat, to 
succeed Gen. John B. Gordon, in October, 1896, and 
took his seat 4 March, 1897. Senator Clay's term 
will expire 3 March, 1903. 

CLAYTON, .John Middleton, b. in Delaware 
countv. Pa., 13 Oct., 1840 : d. in Plummerville, 
Ark., 29 Jan., 1889. was a brother of Powell Clay- 
ton (q. I'.). He received a common-school educa- 
tion, studied at Barton's seminary in Village 
Green, Pa., and then read law. He was admitted 
to the bar. and took up the practice of his piofes- 
sion in Jefferson county. Ark. He entered active- 
ly into state polities, serving as member of the 
state assembly in 1870-'2. and as member of the 
state senate in 1872-'4. He was selected sheriff 
of the county in 1876. and was re-elected five 
times in succession, the last time having no oppo- 
sition and polling the entire vote of both parties. 
In November, 1888, he was the Republican can- 
didate for congress from the 2d Arkansas dis- 
trict. The excitement was so great during the 
campaign and at election that many personal en- 
counters took place at the polling-places. The 
official count of the district gave C. K. Breckin- 
ridge 5.201 votes and Clayton 4.369. but the latter 
maintained that the theft of ballots and a general 
intimidation of colored voters had caused this re- 
sult. He went to Plummerville to institute a con- 
test for the seat, and while there was shot by an 
unknown assassin. The news of the crime created 
great excitement in the state, and a reward of 
$5,000 was offered by the governor for the arrest 
of the tnurderer, but it was without success. 

CLEEVE, George, founder of Portland. Me. 
Settled, in 1630, on the mainland near Rich- 
mond's island, but in 163.3, being driven from this 
place by Winter, who claimed possession under a 
grant from Trelawney, he went to Machigonne. a 
neck of land on Casco bay, and in 1636 secured 
a grant for the same from Gorges, together with a 
joint commissionership with Winthrop and otiiers 
for the government of " New Somersetshire" and 
the direction of Gorges's interests. In 1642 com- 
missioned deputy governor of the province of Ly- 
gonia, under the proprietorship of Sir Alexander 
Uigby. but only in 1646. after long litigation, was 
he able to dispossess the old government holding 
under the Gorges grant. In 1658. when the prov- 
ince came under the jurisdiction of Massachusetts, 
he was appointed a commissioner for Falmouth 
(Portland). He died about 1666. in destitute cir- 
cumstances, having been deprived of his property 
by the Gorges claimants, whose efforts brought 
about the annulment of his grant in 1665. 

CLEMENT, John, jurist, b. in Haddonfield, 
N. J., 8 Nov., 1818; d. there. 15 Aug.. 1894. His 
father, a sur''cyor by profession, had l)een a mem- 
ber of the council of west Jersey i)roprietors. 
When he resigned in 1851 his son succeeded him 
in the council, becoming president in 1885. The 
son wa.s also a surveyor, and father and son were 
associated in work for many years, thus gaining an 
exceptional familiarity with the history of land 
titles in the state. In 1854 the son wius appointed 
judge of the Camden county courts, and was re- 
appointed in 1860. In 1864 he was appointed lay 
judge of the New Jersey court of errors and ap- 
peals, which office lie held until his death. He was 
also, by reason of this office, a member of the 
court of pardons. In 1877 he was one of the three 
commissioners appointeil by Gov. Bedle to report 
on the prison system of the state. He was ap- 
pointed by Gt)v. .McClellan in 1879 to the commis- 
sion for preparing a system of general laws for 
the government of municipalities, and in 1885 
the supreme court of the state chose him as a 
commissioner to .settle a disputed boundary line 
between the counties of Burlington and Atlantic. 
He took an active interest in the New Jersey his- 

r. jla.ii.ol- 

-^--^ ^^^ 



D . ApplstoTL 8 Co. 




torical society, serving as president of it from 1890 
until 1894. lie wrote much on historical subjects 
for magazines and newspapers, and published in 
book-form "Sketches of the First Emigrant Set- 
tlers in Xewton Township " (Camden, 187"). 

CLEXIJEMN. Dafid Ramsay, soldier, b. in 
Lancaster county. Pa., 24 June, 1830 ; d. in Oneida, 
111., 5 March, 1895. A graduate of Knox college 
in 18B1. he entered the army as major in the 8th 
Illinois caralry. being promoted lieutenant-colonel 
in Dec, 1863. " He was mustered out 17 July, 1865. 
having been brevetted colonel of volunteers, 28 
Feb., 18C5, and brigadier-general in July. lie en- 
tered the army again as major of the 8th U. S. 
cavalry in 1867, was promoted lieutenant-colonel 
of the 3d cavalry, 1 Nov.. 1882. colonel of the 2d 
in Oct.. 1HS8. and was retired on 20 April, 1891. 

CLEVELAND. Cynthia Eloise. author, b. in 
Canton, N. Y., 13 Aug., 1845. She was educated 
in Michigan and Medina, N. Y.. and engaged in 
business in that place and Pontiac, Mich. In 
1880-'2, as president of the Women's Christian 
temperance union of Dakota, she organized unions 
with so great success as to influence the vote of 
the territory for constitutional prohibition. She 
then settled in Pierre, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1883. In 1884 she entere<l the presidential 
canvass in Michigan and Indiana, l>eing the flrst 
woman that ever spoke in public for the Demo- 
cratic party. She removed to Washington, D. C, 
in 1885, and was ap|>ointed a law-clerk in the treas- 
ury department. She has written "See-Saw. or 
Civil Service in the Departments" (Detroit, lliST), 
a political novel, and " Is it Fatet" (1888). 

CLETELANU, ttrorer. twenty-soooml and 
twenty-fourth president of the United States, was 
born m Caldwell, Essex co., N. J., 18 March, 1837. 
On the [Miternal side he is of English origin. 
Moses Cleveland eniigratetl from Ipswich, county 
of Suffolk, England, in l(i35, and settled at Wo- 
bum. Mass.. whi're ho died in 1701. His grand- 
son was Aaron, whose son. Aaron, was great-great- 
grandfat her of Grovcr. The second Aaron's grand- 
son. William, was a silversmith and w^atchmakor at 
Norwich, Conn. His son. Itichard Falley Cli-ve- 
land, was gra<luated at Yale in 1824. was onlainod 
to the Presbyterian ministry in 1829, and in the 
same year married .Vnnc NVal, daughter of a Ralti- 
more merchant of Irish birth. These Iwn were the 
parents of (Jrover Clevelanil. The Presbyterian 
parsonage at Caldwell, where Mr. Cleveland was 
born, was first oecupie<i by the Kev. Sti-phen Gro- 
ver, in whose honor the Ijoy was nameil ; but the 
first name was early dropped, and he has b«'en 
known as (trover Cleveland. When he was four 
years old his father acceprod a call to Kavetteville, 
near Syracuse, X. Y., where the son had an acad- 
emy schooling, and aftcrwanl was a clerk in a 
country store. The removal of the family to Clin- 
ton, Oneida co., gave (irf>ver additional educAlional 
advantages in tiie academy there. In his s«'ven- 
teenlh year he IxK^ame a clerk and an assistant 
teacher in the New York institution for the blind 
in New York city, in which his elder brother, Will- 
iam, an alumnus of Hamilton college, now a 
Presbyterian clergyman at Forest Port. X. Y., was 
then a teacher. In 1855 Grover left Iliilland Pat- 
ent, in Oneida co., where his mother then resided, 
to go to the west in search of employment. On 
his way be stopped at Black Rock, now a part of 
Buffalo, where his uncle, Ijewis F. Allen, induced 
bim to remain and aid him in the compilation of a 
volume of the " American Herd-BiK>k," receiving 
for six weeks' service $60. He afterward assisted 
in the preparation of several other volumes of this 

work, and the preface to the fifth volume (1861) 
acknowledges his services. In August, 1855, he 
secured a place as clerk and copyist for the law 
firm of Rogers, Bowcn & Rogers, in Buffalo, began 
to read Blackstonc, and in the autumn of that year 
was receiving four dollars a week for his work. 
He was admitted to the bur in 1859, but for three 
years longer he remained with the firm that first 
employed hira, acting as managing clerk at a salary 
of fGOiO, soon advanced to |il,(X)0, a part of which 
he devoted to the supjwrt of his widowed mother, 
who died in 1882. lie was appointed assistant dis- 
trict-attorney of Erie CO., 1 Jan., 1863, and held 
the ofHc-e for three years. At this time strenuous 
efforts were being made to bring the civil war to a 
close. Two of Cleveland's brothers were in the 
army, and his mother and sisters were dependent 
largely upon him for support. Unable to enlist, 
he borrowed money to send a substitute, and it 
was not till long after the war that he was able to 
repay the loan. In 1865, at the age of twenty- 
eight, he was the democratic candidate for district 
attorney, but was defe»itetl by the republican can- 
didate, his intimate friend, tjvman K. Bass. He 
then became a law partner of Isaac V. Vanderpool, 
and in 1869 became a member of the firm of Lan- 
ning, Cleveland & Folsom. He continued a suc- 
ces.sful practice till 1870, when he was elected 
sheriff of Erie co. At the expiration of his three 
years' term he forme<l a law partnership with his 
personal friend and political antagonist, Lyman 
K. Ba-ss, the firm being Bass, Cleveland & Bis.sell, 
and. atU'T the forced retirement from failing health 
of Mr. Bass, Cleveland & Bissell. The firm was 
pros|)erous, and Cleveland attained high rank as a 
lawyer, by the simplicity and directness of his logic 
and expression and thorough mastery of his cases. 

In 1881 he was nominated as democratic can- 
didate for mayor of Buffalo, and was elected by 
the largest majority ever given to a candidate 
in that city prior to that time. In the same 
election the republican state ticket was carrietl in 
Buffalo by an average majority of over 1,600; but 
Clevelanil had a partial republican, inclcpendent, 
and "reform" movement support. lie entered 
upon the office. 1 Jan., 1882. He soon liccame 
known as the " veto mayor," using that preroga- 
tive fearlessly in checking unwis<>, illegal, or ex- 
travagant expenditure of the public money, and 
enforcing strict compliance with the requirements 
of the state constituticm and the city charter. 
By vetoing extravagant appropriations he saved 
the city neariy f l.OOO.OOO in the first six months 
of his a<lministrati<m. He oppose<l giving f500 of 
the taxjiayers' money to the firemen's benevolent 
society, on the ground that such appropriation was 
not permissible under the terms of the state con- 
stitution and the charter of the city. lie vetoed a 
resolution diverting $.500 from the Fourth of July 
appropriation to the observance of Memorial day 
for the same rcas<m. and immediately suViscrilM-d 
one tenth of the sum wonted for the purpose. His 
admirable, impartial, and courageous aoministra- 
tion won tributes to his integrity and ability from 
the press and the people irresiK'ctive of party. 

On the second day of the demf)cratic state con- 
vention at Syracuse. 22 Sept., 1882, on the third 
ballot, by a vote of 211 out of 382, Grovcr Cleve- 
land was nominate<1 for governor, in opposition to 
Charles J. Folger. then secretary of the U. S. treas- 
ury, noniinateil for the same office three days be- 
fore by the republican state convention at Sara- 
toga. In his letter accepting this nomination Mr. 
Cleveland wrote : " Public officers are the scrvonts 
and agents of the people, to execute the laws which 




the people have made, and within the limits of a 
constitution which they have established. . . . We 
may, I think, reduce to quite simple elements the 
duty which public servants owe, by constantly 
bearing in mind that they are put in place to pro- 
tect the rights of the people, to answer their needs 
as they arise, and to expend for their benefit the 
money drawn from them by taxation." 

In the canvass that followed. Cleveland had the 
advantage of a united democratic party, and in 
addition the support of the entire independent 
press of the state. The election in November was 
the most remarkable in the political annals of New 
York. Both gubernatorial candidates were men 
of character and of unimpeachable public record. 
Judge Bulger had honorably filled high state and 
federal offices. But there was a wide-spread dis- 
affection in the republican ranks largely due to 
the belief that the nomination of Folger (nowise 
obnoxious in itself) was accomplished by means of 
improper and fraudulent practices in the nominat- 
ing convention and by the interference of the fed- 
eral administration. What were called the " half- 
breeds " largely stayed away from the polls, and 
in a total vote of 918,894 Cleveland received a 
plurality of 193,854 over Folger, and a majority 
over all, including greenback, prohibition, and 
scattering, of 151,742. He entered upon his office 
1 Jan., 1883, in the words of his inaugural address, 
" fully appreciating his relations to the people, 
and determined to serve them faithfully and well." 
With very limited private means. Gov. Cleveland 
lived upon and within his official salary, simply and 
unostentatiously, keeping no carriage, and daily 
walking to and from his duties at the capitol. 

Among the salient acts of his administration 
were his approval of a bill to submit to the people 
a proposition to abolish contract labor in the 
prisons, which they adopted by an overwhelming 
majority; his veto of a bill that permitted wide 
latitude in the investments of savings banks ; and 
the veto of a similar bill allowing like latitude in 
the investment of securities of fire insurance com- 
panies. He vetoed a bill that was a bold effort to 
establish a monopoly by limiting the right to con- 
struct certain street railways to companies hereto- 
fore organized, to the exclusion of such as should 
hereafter obtain the consent of property-owners 
and local authorities. His much-criticised veto of 
the " five-cent-fare " bill, which proposed to reduce 
the rates of fare on the elevated roads in New York 
city from ten cents to five cents for all hours in 
the day, was simply and solely because he consid- 
ered the enactment illegal and a breach of the 
plighted faith of the state. The general railroad 
law of 1850 provides for an examination by state 
officers into the earnings of railroads before the 
rates of fare can be reduced, and as this imperative 
condition had not been complied with previous to 
the passage of the bill, he vetoed it. He vetoed 
the Buffalo fire department bill because he believed 
its provisions would prevent the " economical and 
efficient administration of an important depart- 
ment in a large city," and subject it to partisan 
and personal influences. In the second year of 
his administration he approved the bill enacting 
important reforms in the appointment and admin- 
istration of certain local offices in New York city. 
His state administration was only an expansion of 
the fundamental principles that controlled his 
official action while mayor of Buffalo. Its integ- 
rity, aliility, and success made him a prominent 
candidate for president. 

The democratic national convention met at 
Chicago, 8 July, 1884. Three days were devoted 

to organization, platform, and speeches in favor of 
candidates. In the evening of 10 July a vote was 
taken, in which, out of 830 votes, Grover Cleve- 
land received 392. A two-third vote (557) was 
necessary to a nomination. On the following 
morning, in the first ballot. Cleveland received 688 
votes, and, on motion of Thomas A. Hendricks 
(subsequently nominated for the vice-presidency), 
the vote was made unanimous. He was officially 
notified of his nomination by the convention com- 
mittee at Albany, 29 July, and made a modest re- 
sponse, promising soon to signify in a more formal 
manner his acceptance of the nomination, which 
he did by letter on 18 Aug., 1884 In it he said, 
among other things : 

" When an election to office shall be the selec- 
tion by the voters of one of their number to assume 
for a time a public trust, instead of his dedication 
to the profession of politics ; when the holders of 
the ballot, quickened by a sense of duty, shall 


avenge truth betrayed and pledges broken, and 
when the suffrage shall be altogether free and un- 
corrupted, the full realization of a government by 
the peoiile will be at hand. And of the means Uy 
this end, not one would, in my judgment, be more 
effective than an amendment to the constitution 
disqualifying the president from re-election. . . . 

"A triie American sentiment recognizes the dig- 
nity of lal)or, and the fact that honor lies in honest 
toil". Contented labor is an element of national 
prosperity. Ability to work constitutes the capital 
and the wage of labor, the income of a vast number 
of our population, and this interest should be jeal- 
ously protected. Our working-men are not asking 
unreasonable indulgence, but, sis intelligent and 
manly citizens, they seek the same consideration 
which those demand who have other interests at 
stake. They should receive their full share of the 
care and attention of those who make and execute 
the laws, to the end that the wants and needs of 
the employers and the employed should alike be 
subserved, and the prosperity of the country, the 
common heritage of both, be advanced. As re- 
lated to this subject, while we should not discour- 
age the immigration of those who come to ac- 
knowledge allegiance to our government, and add 
to our citizen population, yet, as a means of pro- 
tection to our working-men, a different rule should 
prevail concerning those who, if they come or are 
brought to our land, do not intend to become 
Americans, but will injuriously compete with 
those justly entitled to our field of labor. . . . 

" In a free country the curtailment of the abso- 
lute rights of the iniiividual should only be such 
as is essential to the peace and good order of the 
community. The limit between the proper subjects 
of governmental control, and those which can lie 
more fittingly left to the moral .sense and self-im- 
posed restraint of the citizen, should be carefully 
kept in view. Thus, laws unnecessarily interfer- 




ing with the habits and customs of any of our 
people which are not offensive to the moral senti- 
ments of the civilized world, and which are con- 
sistent with pmd citizenship and the public wel- 
fare, are unwise and vexatious. The commerce of 
a nation to a great extent determines its suprem- 
acy. Cheap and easy transportation should there- 
fore be liberally fostered. Within the limits of 
the constitution, the general government should so 
improve and protect its natunU water-ways as will 
enable the producers of the country to reach a 
profitable market. ... If I should be called to 
the chief magistracy of the nation by the suffrages 
of my fellow-citizens, I will assume the duties of 
that high office with a solemn determination to 
dedicate every effort to the country's good, and 
with a h\imble reliance upon the favor and sup- 
port of the Supreme Bemg, who I believe will 
always bless honest human endeavor in the con- 
scientious discharge of public duty." 

The canvass that followed was more remarkable 
for the discussion of the personal characters and 
qualifications of the candidates than for the 
prominent presentation of political issues. In the 
election (4 Nov.) four candidates were in the field, 
viz. : G rover Cleveland, of New York, democratic; 
James (i, Blaine, of Maine, republican; Benjamin 
F. Butler, of Massachusetts, labor and greenback ; 
John P. St. John, of Kansas, prohibition. The 
total popular vote was 10,067,010, divided as fol- 
lows: Cleveland, 4,874.980; Blaine, 4,a')l,«81 ; 
Butler, 175,370; St. John, 150,309; blank, de- 
fective, and scattering, 14,004. Of the 401 electo- 
ral votes, Cleveland received 319, and Blaine, 182. 

In December the executive committee of the 
national civil service reform league addressed a 
letter to President-elect (.'leveland commending to 
his care the interest of civil-service reform. In 
bis replv. dated 2A Dea, he declared that " a prac- 
tical re/orm in the civil service was demanded " ; 
that to it he was ple<lged bv his " conception of 
true democratic faith and pul)lic duty," as well as 
by his past utterances. lie added : " There is a 
class of government positions which are not with- 
in the letter of the civil-service statute, but which 
are so disconnected with the policy of an adminis- 
tration that the removal therefrom of present in- 
cumbents, in my opinion, should not be made 
during the terms for which they were appointed, 
solely on partisan grounds, and for the purpose of 
putting in their places those who are in political 
accord with the appointing power. But many now 
holding such positions have forfeited all just 
claim to retention, because tbev have used their 

S laces for party purposes in disregard of their 
uty to the people, and because, instead of being 
decent public servants, they have proved them- 
selves offensive partisans and unscrupulous ma- 
nipulators of local partv management. The les- 
sons of the past should be unleamrd, and such 
officials, as well as their successors, should bo 
taught that efficiency, fitness, and devotion to 
public dutv are the conditions of their continu- 
ance in pudlic place, and that thec^uiet and unol>- 
irusive exercise of individual political rights is 
the reasonable measure of their party service. . . . 
Selections for office not embraced within the civil- 
gervice rules will be based upon sufficient iiuiulry 
as to fitness, instituted by those charged with that 
duty, rather than upon pei-sistent importunity or 
self-solicited recommendations on behalf of candi- 
dates for appointment." 

When the New York legislature assembled, 6 
Jan., 1885, Mr. Cleveland resigned the governor- 
ship of the state. On 27 Feb. was publbhed a 

letter of the president-elect in answer to one 
signed by several members of congress, in which 
he indicated his opposition to an increased coinage 
of silver, and suggested a susfiension of the pur- 
chase and coinage of that metal as a measure of 
safety, in order to prevent a financial crisis and 
the ultimate expulsion of gold by silver. His 
inaugural address was written during the ten 
days previous to his setting out for Washington. 
On 4 March he went to the cajiital in company 
with President Arthur, and after the usual pre- 
liminaries had been completed he delivered his 
inaugural address from tne eastern steps of the 
Capitol, in the presence of a vast concourse. At 
its conclusion the oath of office was administered 
by Chief-Justice Waite. He then reviewed from 
the White House the inaugural parade, a proces- 
sion numbering more than 100,000 men. In the 
address he urged the people of all parties to lay 
aside political animosities in order to sustain the 
government. He declared his approval of the 
Monroe doctrine as a guide in foreign relations, of 
strict economy in the a^minist ration of the finances, 
of the protection of the Indians and their eleva- 
tion to citizenship, of the security of the freedmen 
in their rights, and of the laws against Mormon 
polygamy and the importation of a servile class of 
foreign lalxjrcrs. In respect to appointments to 
office, he said that the people demand the aiipli- 
cation of business principles to public affairs, and 
also that the people have a ri^ht to protection 
from the incompetency of public employees, who 
hold their places solely as a reward for partisan 
service, and those who worthily seek public em- 
ployment have a right to insist that merit and 
competency shall be recognizetl instead of party 
subserviency or the surrender of honest political 
belief. On the following day he sent tothc senate 
the nominations for his cabinet officers as follows: 
Secretary of State, Thomas P. Bayard, of Dela- 
ware; secretary of the treasury, Daniel Manning, 
of New York ; secretary of war, William C. Endi- 
cott, of Massachu-sctts; secretary of the navy, 
William C. Whitney, of New York; postmaster- 
general, William F. Vilas, of Wisconsin; attorney- 
general, Augustus II. Garland, of Arkansas; sec- 
retary of the interior, Lucius Q. C. I^amar, of 
Mississippi. ■ The nominations were promptly con- 
flrme»l. On 13 March, 1885, President Cleveland 
withdrew from the senate, which met in extra 
session to take action on ap[)ointments and other 
business connected with the new administration, 
the Spanish recipr<x;ity and Nicaragua canal 
treaties, in order that they might bo considered by 
the new executive. On 13 March he issued a 
proclamation announcing the intention of the gov- 
ernment to remove from the Oklahoma country, in 
Indian territory, the white intruders who sought 
to settle there, which was done shortly afterward 
by a detachment of soldiers. By his refusal at 
once to remove certain officials for the purjK)se of 
putting in their place members of his own party, 
he came into conflict with many influential men, 
who advocated the speedy removal of republican 
office-holders and the appointment of deiiiocnits, 
in order to strengthen the party as a political 
organi7.atiiin. .\t the same tune the republicans 
and some of the civil-service reformers complained 
of other apfiointments as not b<>ing in accord with 
the professions of the president. " Offensive 
partisanship" was declared by the president to be 
a ground for removal, and numerous republican 
functionaries were displaced under that rule, 
while the term became a coniumn phrase in political 
nomenclature. When disturbances threatened to 




break out between the Cheyennes and the Arapahoes 
in Indian territory, Gen. Sheridan, at the request 
of the president, visited that country in order to 
study the cause of the troubles. lie reported that 
the threatened outbreak was the result of the occu- 
pation of Indian lands by cattle-owners who 
leased vast areas from the Indians at a merely 
nominal rental. The legal officers of the govern- 
ment decided that these leases were contrary to 
law and invalid. The president thereupon issued 
a proclamation warning all cattle companies and 
ranchmen to remove their herds from Indian ter- 
ritory within forty days, and enforced the order, 
notwithstanding their strenuous objection. 

In his message at the opening of the first session 
of the 49th congress on 8 Deo., 1885, President 
Cleveland recommended increased appropriations 
for the consular and diplomatic service, the abo- 
lition of duties on works of art, the reduction of 
the tariff on necessaries of life, the suspension of 
compulsory silver coinage, the improvement of the 
navy, the appointment of six general Indian com- 
missioners, reform in the laws under which titles 
to the public lands are required from the govern- 
ment, more stringent laws for the suppression of 
polygamy in Utah, an act to prohibit the immi- 
gration of Mormons, the extension of the principle 
of civil-service reform, and an increase in the 
salaries of the commissioners, and the passage of 
a law to determine the order of presidential suc- 
cession in the event of a vacancy. The senate. 

sitting in secret session for the consideration of 
the president's appointments, called for the papers 
on file in the departments relating to the causes 
for which certain officers had been removed. Upon 
the refusal of the president to submit the docu- 
ments to their inspection, a dispute ensued, and 
threats were uttered by republican senators that 
no appointments should be confirmed unless their 
right to inspect papers on the official files was 
conceded. On 1 March, 1886, he sent a long mes- 
sage to the senate, in which he took the ground 
that under the constitution the right of removal or 
suspension from office lay entirely within the 
power and discretion of the president ; that sec- 
tions of the tenure-of-office act requiring him to 
report to the senate reasons for suspending offi- 
cers had been repealed ; and that the papers that 
the senate demanded to see were not official, but 
were of a personal and private nature. Eventual- 
ly most of the appointments of the president were 
ratified. During the first fiscal year of his admin- 
istration the proportion of postmasters throughout 
the country removed or suspended was but little 
larger than had often followed a change of ad- 
ministration in the same [jolitical party. 

In his second annual message he called the at- 
tention of congress to the large excess of the reve- 
nues of the country beyond the needs of the gov- 
ernment, and urged such a reduction as would 
release to the people the increasing and unneces- 
sary surplus of national income, by such an amend- 
ment of the revenue laws as would cheapen the 
price of the necessaries of life and give freer en- 
trance to such imported materials as could be 
manufactured by American labor into market- 
able commodities. lie recommended the erection 

of coast defences on land, and tlic construction of 
modern ships of war for the navy ; argued for the 
civilization of the Indians by the dissolution of 
tribal relations, the settlement of their reservations 
in severalty, and the correction of abuses in the 
disposition of the public lands. He urged the 
adoption of liberal general pension laws to meet 
all possible cases, and protested against special 
legislation for a favored few, as an injustice to the 
many who were equally deserving. 

He approved a bill to regulate the questions 
arising between the railroads and the people, and 
appointed an interstate commerce commission 
under its provisions. A number of bills provid- 
ing for the erection of public buildings in various 
parts of the country were vetoed, on the ground 
that they were not required by the public business; 
and while he approved 180 private pension bills, 
he vetoed 42 for various reasons ; some being cov- 
ered by general laws, others were to his mind un- 
worthy and fraudulent, and others were not so 
favorable to the claimant as the general laws al- 
ready passed. A dependent pension bill, permit- 
ting a pension of $12 per month to all soldiers and 
sailors who served in the war for the Union, upon 
the ground of service and present disability alone, 
whether incuiTcd in the service or since, was 
vetoed, on the ground that a sufficient lime had not 
elapsed since the war to justify a general service 
pension ; that its terms were too uncertain and 
yielding to insure its just and imjiartial execution ; 
that the honest soldiers of the country would pre- 
fer not to be regarded as objects of charity, as was 
proposed; and that its enactment would put a 
wholly uncalled-for and enormous annual burden 
upon the country for very many years to come. 
The veto was sustained by congress. Vetoing an 
appropriation for the distribution of seeds to 
drought-stricken counties of Texas, he said : 

" I can find no warrant for such an appropria- 
tion in the constitution ; and I do not believe that 
the power and duty of the general government 
ought to be extended to the relief of individual 
suffering which in no manner properly related to 
the public service or benefit. A prevalent tend- 
ency to disregard the limited mission of this power 
and duty should, I think, be steadfastly resisted, 
to the end that the lesson should be constantly 
enforced that though the people support the gov- 
ernment, the government should not support the 

As he had done while governor, so now as presi- 
dent, Mr. Cleveland exercised the veto power with 
great freedom. This was particularly true during 
the session of congress which ended 5 Aug., 1886, 
when of 987 bills which passed both houses he 
vetoed 115. 

In October, 1886, accompanied by Mrs. Cleve- 
land and several personal friends, the president 
made a tour of the west and south in response to 
invitati(3ns from those sections, which involved 
about 5,000 miles of railroad travel and occupied 
three weeks. He was enthusiasticidly received by 
the people, and made speeches at Indianapolis, 
St. Louis, Chicago, Jlinneapolis, Kansas City, 
Atlanta, and other cities. In December, 1887, 
departing from custom, he devoted his annual 
message to the presentation of a single subject, 
namely, the reduction of the tariff. He advocated 
a radical modification of the existing policy by the 
adoption of a law framed with a view to the ulti- 
mate establishment of the principles of free trade. 
The republicans immediately took up the issue 
thus presented, and the question at once became 
a predominant issue of the canvass. Cleveland 




was unanimously renominat«d by the national 
democratic convention in St. Louis on 5 June, 
1888. The efforts of both parties were directed 
chiefly to the doubtful states of Indiana, New York, 
New 'Jersey, and Connecticut. Cleveland carried 
all the southern states, and in the north New Jer- 
sey and Connecticut, while of the doubtful stjitcs 
Gen. Harrison received the votes of New York and 
Indiana. Of the electoral votes Ilarri-son receive<l 
2:13, Cleveland 108. The popular vote for Cleveland 
nunib<'re<l r)..>40,:i2i). that for Harrison ,'5.4;J9.8.>3. 

At the cknv of his administration, on 4 March, 
1880, Mr. Cleveland retired to New York city, 
where he re-entered upon the practice of his pro- 
fession. As a private citizen ho continued to 
«xert a powerful influence upon his party and 
public sentiment by fre<iuent exprc-ision of his 
opinions on iin|>ortunt public questions. Tlu'se 
expressions were always l)ased upon an implicit 
belief that the integrity and justice of the woplo 
would not tolerate demagogisni, but demanded of 
»ny leader the truth fearlessly s|)oken. Conscious 
of a strong public demand that he should again 
be the demo<rratic candidate for president, and of 
the {)ersonal conseciuerice to him of his every wonl 
and act, he constantly stateil his views with the 
coura^ and candor which had characterized his 
whole public life. A notable instance of this was 
his famous letter of 10 Feb., 1801, addressed to s 
public meeting in New York city, which had been 
called to protest against a bill then pending in 
congress for the free and unlimite<l coinage of 
silver. There was grave danger that the bill 
would be cna(-te<l. liehind it was a strong public 
sentiment, including probably a majority in con- 
gress of his own party. His opiMisition insured, it 
was believed, the failure of the bill, but also of all 
chance for his renomination. Yet, inifwlled by a 
sense of public duty which would not consider 
personal consequences, be declared his belief " that 
the greatest peril would be invited by the adop- 
tion of the scheme " ; and he denounced " the dan- 
gerous and reckless cx|>erinient of fre«5, uidimited, 
and independent silver coinage." The bill was de- 
feated. Notwithstanding the opjxjsition and pre- 
dictions of many le»ders of his (mrty, the demand 
for his renomination stciulily increased. The great 
cause of tariff reform, which as president he had 
championed and whii-h ha<l carried the country in 
the elections of IH!M», was evident ly to lie the prin- 
cipal is.->ue in the campaign of IMUa, and he was the 
natural and logical leader. At the national demo- 
cratic convention which met in Chicago, 22 June, 
1802, ho was nimiinated on the first ballot, receiv- 
ing more than two-thinis of the votes of the con- 
vention, though bitterly and unanimously opposed 
by the delegation fromliisowii state. In hissjtcech 
of acceptance dcliveri'd to a great audienc«> in Madi- 
son Square Garden, New York.anii laterinhis formal 
letter of acceptani* of 26 S«'pt., 1892. he emphasized 
the need of tariff reform, and made it the leading 
issue between the imrties. In his letter he said : 

"Tariff reform is still our puriM>sc. Though we 
oppose the tlKrory that tariff laws may Ih* passed 
having for their object the granting of discrimi- 
nating and unfair governmental aid to private 
ventures, we wage no exterminating war against 
any American interests*. We believe a rejuljust- 
raent can 1x3 accomplished, in accordance with the 
principles we profess, without distister or demoli- 
tion. We believe that the advantiigcs of freer raw 
mat^-rial should I* accorded to our manufacturers, 
and we contemplate a fair and careful distribution 
of ne(;essary tariff burdens, rather than the pre- 
cipitation of free trade." 
vol,, vii. — 

He denounced " the attempt of the opponents of 
democracy to interfere with and control the suf- 
frage of the states through federal agencies" as 
"a design, which no explanation can mitigate, to 
reverse the fundamental and safe relations be- 
tween the j)eople and their government." lie ad- 
vocated "sound and honest money," declaring: 
■• Whatever may be the form of the people's cur- 
rency, national or state — whether gold, silver, or 
paper — it should be so regulated and guanled by 
govenimental action, or by wise and careful laws, 
that no one can be deluded as to the certainty and 
stability of its value. Every dollar put into the 
hands of the people should be of the same intrinsic 
value or purchasing (lower. W'ith this condition 
absolutely guaranteed, both gold and silver can 
safely be utilized U|K)n equal terms in the adjust- 
ment of our currency." He also urged " an honest 
adherence to the letter and spirit of civil service 
reform," "liberal consideration for our worthy 
veteran soldiers and for the families of those who 
have died," but insisting that "our [x-nsion roll 
should be a roll of honor, uncontaminated by ill 
desert and un vitiated by demagogic u«e." 

After a most vigorous cainixiign and a thorough 
discussion of im|iortant principles and measures, 
the democratic [larty won an overwhelming vic- 
tory, reversinff the electoral vote of 1888 and 
largely increasnig its popular plurality, and carry- 
ing Iwth the senate and house of representa- 
tives. The ticket carried twenty-three states, in- 
cluding the doubtful states of New York, New 
Jersey, Conne<'ticut. and Indiana, and for the first 
time in years in a presidential contest Illinois and 
Wis<»ns'in. The p<ipuUr vote was 5,553,142 for 
Cleveland, 5,186,031 for Harrison, 1,030,128 for 
Weaver, of the " people's party," and 208,361 for 
Bidwell, the prohibitionist. In the electoral col- 
lege Mr. Cleveland received 276 votes. Gen. Harri- 
son 145, and Mr. Weaver 23. On 4 >Iarch, 1803, 
Mr. Cleveland was for a second time inaugurated 
president, being the first instance in this coun- 
try of a president re-elected after an interim. He 
immediately nominated, and the senate prompt- 
ly confinne'd, as his cabinet Walter Q. Grcsham, 
of Indiana, secretary of state ; John G. Carlisle, of 
Kentucky, secretary of the treasury ; Daniel S. 
Lamont. of New York, secretary of war ; Richard 
Olney, of Massachusetts, attorney-general ; Wilson 
S. Bissell, of New York, postmaster-general ; 
Hilary A. Herbert, of Alabama, secretary of the 
navy ; Hoke Smith, of Georgia, secretary of the 
interior; and J. Sterling jforfon, of I^ebraska, 
secretary of agriculture. Judge Gresham died on 
28 May,' 1805, liaving held office but a few months, 
and was succeeded by the attorney-general, Mr. 
Olnev, whose place was taken by Judsoii Harmon, 
of Ohio. A little later postmaster-general Bissell 
resigried and was succeeded by William L. Wilson, 
of Virginia. In August, 1806, Secretary Smith re- 
signe<l and the president appointed in bis place 
David U. Francis, of Missouri. 

Grave and difficult questions at once confronted 
his administration. A treaty for the annexation 
of the Hawaiian islands to the territory of the 
I'nited States had, on 14 P'cb., 1893, been con- 
cluded between President Harrison and commis- 
sioners representing a provisional government of 
the islands, and hiul been transmitted to the sen- 
ate on the day following, but bad not yet been 
acted upon. The provisional government had 
been established on 17 Jan.. 1803, by the overthrow 
of the constitutional ruler of the islands. Serious 
doubts existed as to the authority and validity of 
the provisional government and as to the part 




taken by our government, through our ministers 
and troops, in aiding its establishment. President 
Harrison, in his message to the senate submitting 
the treaty, declared that "the overthrow of the 
monarchy was not in any way promoted by this 
government." On the other hand, the queen and 
her ministers filed with the treaty a protest, assert- 
ing that when she yielded to the provisional gov- 
ernment she had yielded to the superior force of 
the United States. In order that this vital ques- 
tion of fact might be impartially investigated and 
determined. President Cleveland at once withdrew 
the treaty from the senate and despatched James 
H. Blount, of Georgia, as a special commissioner 
to make full examination and report. 

On 18 Dec, 1893, in a special message to con- 
gress, ho transmitted the report of the commis- 
sioner with all the evidence and papers connected 
with the case. In his message, after reviewing all 
the facts and confirming the finding of the com- 
missioner, he declared that he believed "that a 
candid and thorough examination of the facts will 
force the conviction that the provisional govern- 
ment owes its existence to an armed invasion by 
the United States. . . . The lawful government of 
Hawaii was overthrown without the drawing of a 
sword or the firing of a shot, by a process every 
step of which, it may safely be asserted, is directly 
traceable to and dependent for its success upon 
the agency of the United States acting through 
its diplomatic and naval representatives." 

Referring to the principles which should govern 
the case, he said : •' I suppose that right and jus- 
tice should determine the path to be followed in 
treating this subject. If national honesty is to be 
disregarded and a desire for territorial extension or 
dissatisfaction with a form of government not our 
own ought to regulate our conduct, I have entirely 
misapprehended the mission and character of our 
government and the behaviour which the conscience 
of our people demands of their public servants. . . . 

" A man of true honor protects the unwritten 
word which binds his conscience more scrupulous- 
ly, if possible, than he does the bond, a breach of 
which subjects him to legal liabilities; and the 
United States, in aiming to maintain itself as one 
of the most enlightened of nations, would do its 
citizens gross injustice if it applied to its interna- 
tional relations any other than a high standard of 
honor and morality. On that ground the United 
States can not properly be put in the position of 
countenancing a wrong after its commission any 
more than in that of consenting to it in advance. 
On that ground it can not allow itself to refuse to 
redress an injury inflicted through an abuse of 
power by officers clothed with its authority and 
wearing its uniform ; and on the same ground, if a 
feeble but friendly state is in danger of being 
robbed of its independence and its sovereignty by 
a misuse of the name and power of the Unitei 
States, the United States can not fail to vindicate 
its honor and its sense of justice by an earnest 
eilort to make all possible reparation. . . . 

" These principles apply to the present case with 
irresistible force when the special conditions of the 
queen's surrender of her sovereignty are recalled. 
She surrendered not to the provisional govern- 
ment, but to the United States. She surrendered 
not absolutely and permanently, but temporarily 
and conditionally until such time as the facts can 
be considered by the United States. . . . 

"By an act of war, committed with the partici- 
pation of a diplomatic representative of the United 
States and without authority of congress, the gov- 
ernment of a feeble but friendly and confiding 

people has been overthrown. A substantial wrong 
ha.s thus lieen done which a due regard for our na- 
tional character as well as the rights of the injured 
people require we should endeavor to repair." 

lie concluded by informing congress that he 
should not again submit the treaty of annexation to 
the senate; that he had Instructed our minister 
" to advise the queen and her supporters of his 
desire to aid in the restoration of the status exist- 
ing before the lawless landing of the U. S. forces 
at Honolulu on 10 Jan. last, if such restoration 
could be effected upon terms providing for clem- 
ency as well as justice to all parties concerned"; 
and he cojnmended the subject " to the extended 
powers and wide discretion of congress " for a so- 
lution " consistent with American honor, integrity, 
and morality." 

These proposals of the president met with 
strong opposition in congress, and in February, 
1894, the senate committee on foreign relations 
made a report upholding Minister Stevens in his 
course with relation to the revolution. Previous 
to this, in December, 189.3, Mr. Willis, the U. S. 
minister, had formally announced the president's 
policy to President Dole, who had returned a for- 
mal refusal to give up the government in accord- 
ance with that policy, at the same time denving 
the right of Mr. Cleveland to interfere. 6n 7 
Feb., 1894, the house of representatives passed by 
a vote of 177 to 75 a resolution upholding Mr. 
Cleveland's course and condemning annexation, but 
a similar resolution was tabled in the senate, 36 to 
18, on 39 May, and on 31 May a resolution was 
adopted against interference by the United States. 
On 4 July, 1894, the constitution of the republic 
of Hawaii was formally proclaimed by the revolu- 
tionary government, and Mr. Dole was declared 
president until December, 1900. The U. S. senate 
passed a resolution favoring the recognition of the 
new republic, and thus the matter practically 
passed out of Mr. Cleveland's hands. 

This was not the only question of foreign policy 
that was forced upon the administration. Early 
in 1895 an insurrection broke out on the island- of 
Cuba. Mr. Cleveland at once took measures 
against violation of the neutrality laws, and in his 
message in December he appealed for the observa- 
tion of strict neutrality as a " plain duty." Sym- 
pathy with the insurgents was wide-spread, how- 
ever, and it became increasingly difficult to detect 
filibustering expeditions, and still more so to indict 
and convict those guilty of violations of neutrality. 
The administration was blamed in Spain for sup- 
posed failure to enforce the law, and in the United 
States for attempting to enforce it too stringently. 
Strong efforts were made to induce the adminis- 
tration to recognize the insurgents as belligerents, 
and in April, 1896, a resolution in favor of such 
recognition passed both houses of congress. Mr. 
Cleveland disregarded these resolutions as being 
an attemjit to invade the prerogative of the ex- 
ecutive, and Secretary Olney stated publicly that 
the administration regarded them merely as "an 
expression of opinion on the part of a number of 
eminent gentlemen." Besides the resolutions 
just referred to others were introduced at various 
times providing for intervention, for special inves- 
tigation, and for recognition of the Cuban repub- 
lic. On 3 June, 1896, Mr. Cleveland sent Fitz- 
hugh Lee to Havana as consul-general in place 
of Ramon 0. Williams, and it was generally be- 
lieved that Gen. Lee was expected to act in some 
sense as a special commissioner of the president, 
to report to him on the state of affairs in the 
island. Many expected that the appointment 




would be only a preliminary to intervention, but 
the administration, though instructing Gen. Lee 
to guard the rights of American residents, con- 
tinued to watch for filibustering expeditions and 
to intercept thera when this was possible ; and in 
July, 1896, the president issued a second proclama- 
tion of neutrality, repeating in more explicit 
terms the one that had been put forth in 18!)5. 
Relations with Spain continued to require delicate 
management during the whole of the administra- 
tion, the more notable events being the firing on 
the American steamer " AUian^a " by a Spanish gun- 
boat, for which apology was ultimately made by 
Spain, the condemnation to death of the crew of the 
alleged filibustering schooner " (Competitor," which 
was finally suspended upon representation that the 
prisoners had not received the trial by civil tri- 
Dunal to which they were entitled by treaty, and 
the settlement by Spain, on 14 Sept., 185)5, of the 
long-standing claim of 1,500,000 pesos, as in- 
demnity for the condemnation to death, in 1870, of 
Antonio Mora, a naturalized American citizen, and 
the confiscation of his estates. It was charged by 
the enemies of the administration that this pay- 
ment was made in pursuance of a secret agreement 
by which the Unitew States bound itself to vigilant 
action in the suppression of filibustering. 

But the most conspicuous event in the relations 
of the administration with foreign countries was 
undoubtedly President Cleveland's Venezui'la mes- 
sage, the act morit highly prai;%d as well a'< the 
most severely condemned of his whole public 
career. In his message to congress on 2 Dec., 1895, 
Mr. Cleveland called attention to the long-stand- 
ing boundary dispute between Great Britain and 
Venezuela. an<l to the efforts of the U. S. gov- 
ernment to induce the disputants to settle it by 
arbitration. I'reviously, in July, Secretary OIney, 
in a despatch to the .\meri<!an ambassador in Lon- 
don, hail called attention to the [Mwuliar interest of 
the United States in the dispute, owing to the rela- 
tion of that dispute to the Monroe doctrine, and 
again urging arbitration. On 26 Nov. Lord Salis- 
bury returned an answer in which he denied that 
the interests of the United States were necessarily 
concerned in such ilisputes, and refuse<l to arbitrate 
except in regard to territory lying to the west of 
the Sehomburgk line — a line surveyed by Great 
Britain in 1841-"4. 

These despatches were sent to congress on 17 Dec, 
together with a special message in wiiich Mr. Cleve- 
land stated that, as Great Britain had refused to 
arbitrate the dispute, it now became the dutv of 
the United States to determine the boundary line 
by diligent inouiry. and asked for a «{)eciiil appro- 
priation to defray the ex[)en.'ics of a commission to 
be appointed by the exe<;utive for that purpo-*. 
This commission was to report without delay. 
" When such report is made and accei)tc<l," tlio 
message went on, " it will, in my opinion,' be the 
duty of the Unite<l States t« resist by every means 
in its power, as a wilful aggression lipon its rights 
and interests, the niipniprliition by (in^it HntJiin nf 
any lands or the e.xerci.'* of govemmentiil jurisdic- 
tion over any territory which, after investigation, we 
have determined of right to belong to Venezuela." 

This message causMl great excitement Imth in 
this country and Great Britain, being reganled as 
equivalent to a threat of war. The president's 
course, however, was almost unanimously uphrld 
by Ixjth parties in congress, which immediately 
authorized the ap|i<>iiitinent of a boundary com- 
mission, and this commission was imme<liatcly con- 
stituted l)y the appointment of Justice David J. 
Brewer, of the U. b. supremo court ; Chief-Ju^itice 

Alvey, of the court of appeals of the District of 
Columbia ; Andrew D. White, of Xew York ; Fred- 
erick R. Coudert, of New York; and Daniel C. 
Oilman, president of Johns Hopkins university. 

The commission began at once to take testimony 
and accumulate<l a vast amount of data, but before 
it was prepared to make its formal report, the ex- 
citement due to the message had subsided on both 
sides of the Atlantic, and an agreement was reached 
through diplomatic channels by which Great Brit- 
ain bound herself to arbitrate her dispute with 
Venezuela, thus terminating the incident. The 
conclusion of this controversy was widely regarded 
as the first formal acquiescence by a European 
power in the Monroe doctrine, or, at any rate, in 
the application of that doctrine to warrant the ex- 
ercise by the United .States of virtual protection 
over the smaller American states. The Venezue- 
lan arbitration treaty was signed at Washington 
by Sir Julian Pauncefote for England and Minis- 
ter Andrade for Venezuela, on 2 Feb. According 
to its provisions. President Cleveland designated as 
arbitrator, on behalf of the Unitcl States, Justice 
Brewer, of the supreme court, while the Venezue- 
lan government named Chief-Justice Fuller, and 
Great Britain appointed Lord Herschell and Jus- 
tice Collins. 

Some minor events in the relations of the ad- 
ministration with foreign governments were as fol- 
lows : In 1896 groat sympathy was excited through- 
out the country by the Armenian massacres, and 
in congress many efforts were made to bring about 
the active interference of the United States in 
Turkish affairs, either on broad humanitarian 
grounds or because of spe<;ific cases of injuries 
suffered by American missionaries. It was be- 
lieved that the United States should have a 
war ship at Constantinople, and when Turkey re- 
fused to grant to this country the privilege of 
sending an armed ship througlt the Dardanelles, 
there were many rumors of an impending attempt 
at a forcible passage. The administration, how- 
ever, continually denied any such intention, and, 
although the " Ilancroft,""a small war vessel, orig- 
inally intended for a practice-ship, was sent to the 
Mediterranean, as was believed, that she might bo 
in readiness to act as a ^uanLship should she be 
required to do so, no occasion arose for her use, the 
American squadron in Turkish waters, larger than 
for many years previous, being such as to compel 
proper treatment of American citizens. 

Owing to the repeate<l efforts, especially in the 
Pacific states, to restrict ('hinese immigration, laws 
hiid l)een passed by congress, which were agreed to 
by China m a special treatv concluded at Wash- 
ington, 17 March. 1894. liy this treaty Chinese 
lalmrers were prohibited entering the country, and 
those already residing in the United States were 
required to be registered. On 3 May, 1894, the 
time fixed by congress for this registration ex- 
pired. There was great objection to this feature 
of the law, and large numbers of Chinese had failed 
ti) ri'ijistiT. The law nrovided that all such should 
be deported, but finally the luluiinistration decided 
that as no means ha<1 iieen provided for this pur- 
pose no steps should be taken to carry out the de- 
portation clause. 

The seal-fishery question, which it had been 
hoped was scttle<l by the Paris tribunal, continued 
to come in different forms Ix-fore the a<lininistra- 
tion. President Cleveland had urged in one of his 
messages that congress should sanction the pay- 
ment of |!425,(XK), agreed upon l)etwcen Secretary 
Gresham and the British minister iis compensation 
for Canadian vcissels seized unlawfully by the U. S. 




authorities, but congress failed to appropriate the 
amount, and the claims remained unsettled. The 
customary yearly proclamations against poaching 
were issued, but, owing to the inadequacv of the 
provisions for its prevention adopted by the Paris 
tribunal, the seal herd continued to decrease. 

To pass from foreign to domestic affairs, the un- 
settled financial state of the country during a large 
part of Mr. Cleveland's second term first demands 
notice. On 8 Aug., 1893, the president convened 
congress in special session because, as stated in his 
message of that date, of " the existence of an alarm- 
ing and extraordinary business situation, involv- 
ing the welfare and prosperity of all our people," 
and to the end that " through a wise and patriotic 
exercise of the legislative duties . . . present evils 
may be mitigated and dangers threatening the fu- 
ture may be averted." The country was in the 
midst of a financial crisis, largely due, it was be- 
lieved, to past unsound legislation, under which 
the gold reserve had been diminishing, silver ac- 
cumulating, and expenditures exceeding revenue. 
Confidence had become impaired and credit shaken. 
Business interests and the conservative sentiment 
of the country demanded the repeal of the provi- 
sions of the act of 14 July, 1890 (popularly known 
as the Sherman act), which required the monthly 
purchase of four and one-half million ounces of sil- 
ver and the issue of treasury notes in payment 
therefor. Such repeal the president strongly rec- 
ommended, declaring that " our unfortunate finan- 
cial plight is not the result of untoward events, nor 
of conditions related to our natural resources ; nor 
is it traceable to any of the afflictions which fre- 
quently check natural growth and prosperity," but 
is " principally chargeable to congressional legis- 
lation touching the purchase and coinage of silver 
by the general government." Reviewing such 
legislation, he said : " The knowledge in business 
circles among our own people that our government 
can not make its fiat equivalent to intrinsic value, 
nor keep inferior money on a parity with superior 
money by its own independent efforts, has resulted 
in such a lack of confidence at home in the stabil- 
ity of currency values that capital refuses its aid 
to new enterprises, while millions are actually with- 
drawn from the channels of trade and commerce, 
to become idle and unproductive in the hands of 
' timid owners. Foreign investors, equally alert, 
not only decline to purchase American securities, 
but make haste to sacrifice those which they al- 
ready have." He insisted that " the people of the 
United States are entitled to a sound and stable 
currency, and to money recognized as such on every 
exchange and in every market of the world. Their 
government has no right to injure them by finan- 
cial experiments opposed to the policy and prac- 
tice of other civilized states, nor is it justified in 
permitting an exaggerated and unreasonable reli- 
ance on our national strength and ability to jeop- 
ardize the soundness of the people's money." 

The house promptly, and by a large majority, re- 
pealed the obnoxious provisions. In the senate a 
strong and determined minority resisted the repeal, 
and, taking advantage of the unlimited debate 
there permitted, delayed action for many weeks. 
In the heat of the contest a compromise was prac- 
tically agreed upon in the senate, which was de- 
feated only by the firm opposition of the president. 
He insisted upon unconditional repeal, which was 
finally enacted 1 Nov., 189.3. 

Soon after, one of the suggested measures of 
comproniise, which provided among other things 
for the immediate coinage of so much of the silver 
bullion in the treasury as represented the seignior- 

age (declared to be $5.5,1.56,(581), was embodied in 
a bill which passed both houses of congress. This 
bill the president vetoed as " iil-advised and dan- 
gerous." He said : " Sound finance does not com- 
mend a further infusion of silver into our currency 
at this time unaccompanied by further adequate 
provision for the maintenance in our treasury of a 
safe gold reserve." 

At the first regular session of the fifty-third con- 
gress, opened 4 Dec, 189.3, the question of tariff re- 
vision was at once considered. In his mes.sage of 
that date the president, after reviewing the work 
and needs of the various departments of govern- 
ment, dwelt with special emphasis on the necessity 
of immediately undertaking this important reform. 

" Manifestly, if we are to aid the people directly 
through tariff reform, one of its most obvious fea- 
tures should be a reduction in present tariff charges 
upon the necessaries of life. The benefits of such 
a reduction would be palpable and substantial, seen 
and felt by thousands who would be better fed and 
better clothed and better sheltered. . . . 

" Not less closely related to our people's pros- 
perity and well-being is the removal of restrictions 
upon the importation of the raw materials neces- 
sary to our manufactures. The world should be 
open to our national ingenuity and enterprise. 
This can not be while federal legislation, through 
the imposition of high tariff, forbids to American 
manufacturers as cheap materials as those used by 
their competitors." 

A tariff bill, substantially following the lines sug- 
gested by the president and providing among other 
things for free wool, coal, iron ore, and lumber, was 
framed by the committee on ways and means, and, 
with the addition of free sugar and an income tax. 
passed the house on 1 Feb., 1894. In the senate 
the bill was amended in many items, and generally 
in the direction of higher duties. After five months 
of prolonged discussion the bill, as amended, passed 
the senate by a small nuijority. all the democrats 
voting for it except Senator Hill, of New York. It 
was then referred to a conference committee of 
both houses to adjust the differences between them. 
A long and determined contest was there waged, 
principally over the duties upon coal, iron ore, and 
sugar. It was understood that a small group of 
democratic senators had, contrary to the express 
wishes and pledges of their party and by threats 
of defeating the bill, forced higher duties in im- 
portant schedules. While the bill was pending be- 
fore the conference committee the president, in a 
letter to Mr. Wilson, the chairman of the ways and 
means committee, which later was read to the 
house, strongly urged adherence to the position 
which the house had taken. 

The house, however, finally receded from its po- 
sition in the belief that any other course would de- 
feat or long delay any reduction of the tariff, and 
that the business interests of the country demanded 
an end to the conflict. The bill, as amended, passed 
both houses, and at midnight of 27 Aug., 1894, be- 
came a law without the signature of the president. 
In a published letter of the same date he gave his 
reasons for withholding his approval. While he 
believed the bill was a Vivst improvement over ex- 
isting conditions, and would certainly lighten many 
tariff burdens which rested heavily on the people, 
he said : " I take my place with the rank and file 
of the democratic party who believe in tariff re- 
form and well know what it is, who refuse to accept 
the results embodied in this hill as the close of the 
war, who are not blinded to the fjict that the livery 
of democratic tariff reform has been stolen and worn 
in the service of republican protection, and who 




have marked the places where the deadly blight of [ 
treason has blasted the councils of the brave in j 
their hour of might. The trusts and combinations i 
— the communism of pelf — whose machinations 
have prevented us from reaching the success we 
deserve, should not be forgotten nor forgiven." t 

The close of the year If^4 was market! by finan- 
cial depression, by a larger deficit t han had been 
expected, and by a decline in the revenue. Al- 
though the Sherman act hail been repealed, no 
progress had been made with the scheme presented 
by Secretary Carlisle for reducing the paper cur- 
rency and providing for an adequate reserve. The 
reserve was threatene<l twice, and the president 
was obligol to make use of the power givt-n under i 
the resumption acts, by issuing l(oO,000,(X)0 worth 
of five-per-cent ten-year bonds for the purchase of 
gold. In his message to the last session of the 
58d congress he stated that he should employ his 
borrowing power " whenever and as often as it be- 
comes necessary to maintain a sulTlcient gold re- 
serve and in abundant time to save the credit of 
our country and make gixxl the &nancial declara- 
tions of our goveniment." 

In February, IHit.^. the jfuld reserve had fallen 
to $4U00O,000, and Mr. Cleveland aske<l congress 
for perml-wion to issue three- [>er-cent bonds payable 
in gold. This being denied him, ho issued four-per- 
cent thirty-year bonds redeemable in e<iin, to the 
amount of $62,000,000. In Juru', 1H03, the supreme 
court decided by a majoritv of one that the income 
tax that had b(>en imposed by the Wilson bill was 
unconstitutional, and the treasary thus lost a source 
of revenue that it had been estimated would yield 
$30,000,000 yearly. In his message of December, 
1805, the president recommended a general reform 
of the banking and currency laws, including the 
retirement and cancellation of the greenluu'ks and 
treasury coin notes by exchange for low-interest 
U. S. bonds ; but congress failed to act on this 
recommendation. Gold exports continuc<l, and in 
January preparations were made for a new loan. 
An invitation was issued asking applications for 
$50 thirtv-vcar f<)ur-|)cr-cent bonds to the amount 
of $100,000,(XW Ix'fore « Feb.. Kurtjpean bankers 
held back, a frw-coinnge bill havitig Ikhmi mean- 
while n'|Mirlwl fuvnmbly in the S4'nale, hut Ameri- 
cans suljscTiljcd freely, and the treitsury obtained 
$111,000,000 in thus way. This success was con- 
trasted by Mr. Cleveland's opponents with his 
policy in the loan of 1S95, which was maile by con- 
tract with a svndicale of bankers; but it was 
pointed out in favor of that policy that it was the 
only course possible in a sudden emergency, and 
that such an emergency did not exist in 18iM. 

On 2U .May the jiresident vetooti a river ami har- 
bor bill that provided for the immetliate expenili- 
ture of $17,01)0.000, and authorizc<l contracts for 
$62,00(),()(X) mon?, but it was passe<l over his veto. 

In July, 1«04, serious lalxir tnmhles arose in Illi- 
nois and other states of the west, tieginning with a 
strike of the employees of the Pullman palace car 
company, and spreading over many of the railroads 
centring in Chicago. Travel was' interrupte<l. the 
mails delayed, and interstate commcrci? olisl riicted. 
So wide-spread Ixtcame the trouble, involving con- 
stant acts of violence and lawlessness, and so grave 
was the crisis, that military force was necessary, 
especially in Chicago, to preserve the peace, en- 
force the laws, an<l protect pro[K'rty. The presi- 
dent, with cotnmend»l>!e firmness and prf>mptnef<s, 
fully met the emergency. Acting under authority 
vested in him by law, he orden^l a large force of 
IT. S. troojia to Chicago to remove obstructions to 
the mails and interstate commerce, and to enforce 

the laws of the United States and the process of 
the federal courts; and on 8 and i) July issued 
proclamations commanding the dispersion of all 
unlawful a.ssemblages within the disturbed states. 
The governor of Illinois objected to the presence 
of the troops without his sanction or request. In 
answer to his protest the president telegraphed: 
'• Fe<leral troops were sent to Chicago in strict ac- 
cordance with the constitution and laws of the 
l'nit<d States upon the demand of the post-offlce 
de{>artment that obstruction of the mails should 
be removed, and upon the representations of the 
judicial oflii-ers of the Unite«l States that process 
of the federal courts could not be executed through 
the ordinary means, and upon abundant proof that 
cons|)iracies existed against commerce between the 
states. To meet these conditions, which are clearly 
within the province of federal authority, the pres- 
ence of federal troops in the city of Chicago was 
deemed not only proper, but necessary, and there 
has been no intention of thereby interfering with 
the plain duty of the local authorities to preserve 
the i>eace of the city." 

To a further protest and argument of the govern- 
or the president replied : " While I am still per- 
suaded that I have transcended neither my author- 
ity nor duty in the emergency that confnmts us, it 
seems to me tlmt in this hour of danger and public 
distress discussion may well ^ve way to active effort 
on the part of the authorities to restore obedience 
to the law and to protect life and property." 

The decisive action of the president restored 
order, ended the strike, and received the commen- 
dation of both houses of congress and of the people 
generally. The president then appointed a com- 
mission to investigate the causes of the strike. It 
Ls interesting to note in this connection that by 
special message to congress of 22 April, IKSO, Presi- 
dent (.'leveland hiul strongly recommended legis- 
lation which shouW provide for the settlement by 
arbitration of controversies of this character. 

Early in ilay, 1806, Mr. Cleveland Lssued an 
order by which 30,000 additional posts in the civil 
seni-ice were placed on the list of those recjuiring a 
certificate from the civil -service commissioners, 
thus raising the number on this list to HO.OOO. 
When he first became president there were only 
i:),0OU an|M)intments out of 130,000 for which any 
test of tlie kind was rwjuired. 

In .Mr. Cleveland's last annual message, after de- 
claring that the agreement between Ureat Britain 
and the United States reganling the Venezuela 
boundary question ha<l practically removed that 
question from the field of controversy, he added 
that " negotialions for a treaty of general arbitra- 
tion for all (lilTerences Ix'lween CJreat Britain and 
the Unite<l ,SliU»>s are far ailvanced and promise to 
reach a successful consummation at an early date." 
On 11 Jan.. 1897, a treaty l)etween Oreat Britain 
and the Unit«I States for the establishment by the 
two countries of such an international tribunal of 
genenil arbitration was signed by Secretary Olney 
and .Sir Julian I'auiicefote nt Washington, and sent 
by President Cleveland to the senate. This treaty 
was haile<l with great satisfaction bv all friends of 
arbitration. The preamble stilted that the articles 
of the tre»ity were agreed to and concludc<l because 
the two cfiuntries concerned are " rlesirous of con- 
solidating the n-lations of amity which so happily 
exist. Ix'tween them and of consecrating by treaty 
the principle of international arbitration." No 
reservation was made regarding the subject-matter 
of disputes to Iw arbitralisl. Matters involving 
pecuniary claims amounting to $500,000 or less 
were to be settled by three arbitrators, consisting 




of two jurists of repute ^d an umpire, the latter 
to be appointed by tlie king of Sweden in case the 
arbitrators should not agree upon one. All other 
claims, except those involving territory, were to go 
first before such a tribunal, but in case the decision 
should not be unanimous it was to be reviewed 
before a similar tribunal of five. Boundary ques- 
tions were to go to a special court of six members 
— three U. S. judges and three British judges. 
The treaty was to continue in force for five years, 
and thereafter until twelve months after either of 
the contracting parties should give notice to the 
other of a desire to terminate it. 

On 1 Feb. the foreign relations committee of 
the senate reported favorably on this treaty with 
amendments that were regarded by the friends of 
the treaty as making it practically of no effect. 
Even in this form the treaty, on 5 May, failed to 
receive the two-thirds majority necessary for con- 
firmation, the vote being 43 to 26. It was generally 
believed that personal hostility to Mr. Cleveland 
had much to do with the rejection. There had 
been for some time a feeling in the senate that the 
president and his secretary of state had not de- 
ferred sufficiently to the rights of that body in 
matters of foreign policy. Mr. Olney's statement 
in the Cuban matter, noticed above, had much to 
do with strengthening this feeling, and although 
the secretary's position in this matter was gener- 
ally sustained by constitutional lawyers it doubt- 
less had its effect in still further estranging many 
senators from the administration. Another differ- 
ence of opinion of the same kind occurred in the 
case of certain extradition treaties negotiated by 
Secretary Olney with the Argentine Republic and 
the Orange Free State. In these treaties, by the 
president s desire, as was understood, a clause was 
incorporated providing for the surrender of Amer- 
ican citizens to the authorities of a foreign coun- 
try provided such citizens have been guilty of 
crime within the jurisdiction of the country that 
demands their return. This was intended to pre- 
vent this country from becoming an asylum for 
European criminals, who had been granted natu- 
ralization papers here and who should attempt to 
make their naturalization protect them from the 
consequences of their past criminal acts. But this 
plan has never been adopted by any other country, 
and the attempt to cause the United States to in- 
itiate it was not in accordance with public opinion. 
On 28 Jan., 1897, the senate ratified both treaties, 
but with amendments conferring discretionary 
power on the surrendering government in the mat- 
ter of giving up its own citizens. 

As the time for the meeting of the national 
democratic convention of 1896 drew nigh it be- 
came apparent that the advocates of the free coin- 
age of silver would have a majority of the dele- 
gates. On 16 June Mr. Cleveland, in a published 
letter, condemned the free-silver movement, and 
called upon its opponents to do all in their power 
to defeat it. The convention was clearly opposed 
to Mr. Cleveland. Its platform was in effect a 
condemnation of his policy in the matters of the 
currency, the preservation of jiublic order, civil- 
service reform, and Cuban policy. It declared for 
the free coinage of silver and nominated a pro- 
nounced free-silver advocate. In the canvass that 
followed Mr. Cleveland was favorable to the gold- 
standard wing of the party, which under the name of 
the national democrats held a separate convention 
and nominated Senator Palmer for the jiresidency. 
One of the president's last official acts was his 
appearance at the sesquicentennial celebration of 
Princeton university, where he delivered an address 

that was widely praised. Soon afterward it was 
announced that he had purchased a house in the 
town of Princeton, and after the inauguration of 
his successor he removed thither with his family. 
There his son was born, 28 Oct., 1897. The picture 
on page 64 represents Mr. Cleveland's summer 
home at Buzzard's Bay, Mass. 

Mr. Cleveland is as distinguished for forcible 
speech as for forcible action. His many addresses, 
both while in and out of office, are marked by clear- 
ness of thought and directness of expression, which, 
with his courage and ability, have always appealed 
to the best sentiments of the people, and have 
formed and led a healthy public opinion. He is 
notable for being the first public man in the United 
States to be nominated for the presidency thrice in 
succession. Equally remarkable is the fact that he 
has received this recognition although often at vari- 
ance with his own party. His final withdrawal from 
public office was marked, as has been already said, 
by a general estrangement between him and' many 
of those who had been once his followers, and de- 
spite this the popular feeling toward him through- 
out the country continued to be one of respect and 
esteem. Several campaign lives of Mr. Cleveland 
appeared during his three presidential contests. 
See also " President Cleveland," by J. Lowry Whit- 
tle, in the " Public Men of the Day " series (1896). 

President Cleveland married, in "the White House 
(see illustration, page 62), on 2 June, 1886, Frances 
Folsom, daugh- 
ter of h is deceased 

friend and part- --a-^*. 

ner, Oscar Fol- 
som, of the Buf- 
falo bar. Except 
the wife.of Madi- 
son, Mrs. Cleve- 
land is the young- 
est of the many 
mistresses of the 
White House, 
having been bom 
in Buffalo, N. Y., 
in 1864. She is 
also the first wife 
of a president 
married in the 
White House, 
and the first to 
give birth to a 

child there, their second daughter having been bom 
in the executive mansion in 1893. — His youngest 
sister. Rose Elizabeth, b. in Favetteville, N. Y., 
in 1846, removed in 1853 to Holland Patent, N. Y., 
where her father was settled as pastor of the Pres- 
byterian church, and where he died the same year. 
She was educated at Houghton seminary, became 
a teacher in that school, and later assumed charge 
of the collegiate institute in Lafayette, Ind. She 
taught for a time in a private school in Pennsyl- 
vania, and then prepared a course of historical 
lectures, which she delivered before the students 
of Houghton seminary and in other schools. When 
not employed in this manner, she devoted herself 
to her aged mother in the homestead at Holland 
Patent, N. Y., until her mother's death in 1882. 
On the inauguration of the president she became 
the mistress of the White House, and after her 
brother's marriage she associated herself as part 
owner and instructor in an established institution 
in New York city. Miss Cleveland has published 
a volume of lectures and essays under the title 
" George Eliot's Poetry, and other Studies " (New 
York, 1885), and " The Long Run," a novel (1886). 

S^ 'y^ fe 

4- r 





CLEWS. Henry, banker, b. in Staffordshire, 
England, in IWO. lie was iiitenilcd for the rainis- 
trv, but left -K'hool at fifteen to enter mercantile 
li/e in New York. Later he begun business for 
himself, bceoming a meml)er of the firm of Liver- 
more. Clews & Co., which during the civil war 
acted as U. .S. government agents in selling its 
bonds. In 1877 the firm of Henry Clews & Co. 
was established and still continues. Mr. Clews is 
connecte«l with many financial corporations and 
city institutions, and has been treasurer of the 
American geographical society and for the Society 
for the prevention of cruelty to animals. He is 
thcauthorof "Twenty-eight Vears in Wall .Street" 
(New V'ork. 1888). and is writing another work. 

CLINTON, Henry Lauren, lawvcr, b. in 
Womlbridge. Conn., 21 Feb., 1820; (1. in New 
York city. 7 .Tune. 1899. His father was a farmer 
in comfortable circumstances, but the son never 
received any formal educational advantages other 
than those of the district school. At the age of 
eighteen he taught school and began to read law. 
and when he attaine<l his majority went to New 
York, where he studied in the office of David Gra- 
hain, the elder brother of John (Jraham, the noted 
criminal lawyer. He was admitted to the bar in 
1846. and devoted his attention to criminal law, 
in which he ultimately stootl near the head of the 
profession. He was one of the counsel for the 
prosecution of Tweed, and his connections in this 
case led to his becoming, with John Kelly and Au- 
fjustns Schcll, one of the triumvirate that reorgan- 
ized Tammany hall. With Col. John R. Fellows, 
he conducted the ilefence of Kichard Croker in his 
trial for murder. His later successes, however, 
were in practice in the surrogate's court, where he 
acted as counsel in a number of important will con- 
tests, among them IxMng the of Alexander T. 
Stewart. He published two volumes, " p^xtraordi- 
nary Cases" (New York. 1898) and "Celebrated 
Trials" (1807). both dealing largely with legal 
contests in which he had been engaged. He had 
in preparation a volumedealing with the litigation 
that arose out of Commoilore Vanderbill's will. 

COBB, Henry Ives, architect, b. in ISrnckton, 
Mass.. 19 Aug.. 18.')!). lie was gra<luated at Har- 
vanl. entcre<l an architect's office in Boston, and 
in 1881 established himself as an architect in Chi- 
cago. Among the many public buildings which 
he has designe<l in that city is the Newlwrry 
library, the University of Chicago, and the ojK>ru- 
house. In 189S he wius a memlH-r of the Hoard of 
architects of the Columbian exposition, and is at 
pres<'nt s|)ecial architect for the V. S. government. 
Mr. tlobb has also a large general [)ractice through- 
out the country, and has prepared designs for 
manr prominent buildings in several other states. 

COKL'KN, John, jurist, b. in Philadelphia. Pa., 
in 17tW: d. in .Mason county. Ky., in February. 182:t. 
He was educated for the bar, emigrated to Ken- 
tucky in 1784, and settled as a merchant near Lex- 
ington. He removed to Mason county in 1794. 
and was a judge of the U. S. district court, and 
subseauently of the circuit court till 1805. Presi- 
dent Jefferson appointed him U. S. judge for the 
territory of Michigan, but he declined, and he was 
subscfpiently judge of the territory of Orleans, 
holding court in St. Louis. He resigned that fnist 
in 1809. anil in 1812 became collector of internal 
revenue for the 4th district of Kentucky. Judge 
Coburn stoo<I high in the confidence of the Demo- 
cratic party. He was a memt>er of the Kentucky 
convention in 178.'i, and a commis-sioner witn 
Robert Johnson to run the boundary line between 
Virginia and Kentucky in 1790, making an able 

report on that subject. He was also one of the 
most accomplished political writers of his day. 
He was an ardent friend and admirer of Daniel 
Boone, and to him is attributed the act of congress 
that granted Bofuie 1,000 acres of land. Ho de- 
clined a nomination for the U. S. senate in 1800 
in favor of his friend John Breckinridge. 

COCKRAN. William Boiirke, lawyer, b. in 
County Sligo. Ireland, 28 Feb.. 18.54. He came to 
the Utiited States in 1871 ; for several years was en- 
gaged in teaching, during which period he studied 
law, and later was admitted to the NcwY'ork bar. 
He became prominent as a lawyer, asa Democratic 
[Hilitician. and as a public speaker. In 1891 he 
was elected to congress, being returned two years 
later. In 1892 he opposed the nomination of Cleve- 
land, and four years later he advocated, in note- 
worthy speeches, the gold standard and the elec- 
tion of William McKinley to the presidency. In 
August. 1899, he addressed an open letter to the 
president urging him tn proffer mediation to Great 
Britain in the Tninsvaal (lifiicultv. 

CODDINIiTON, Jonathan Indee, merchant, 
b. in Woodbridge, N. J., 23 Dec, 1784; d. in New 
Y'ork city, 24 Dee.. 1856. He was educated at the 
academy of his native town, entered a shipping 
house in New Y'ork, and soon formed a partner- 
shi|) with David Vesey Smith. For two decades 
he was among the most prominent and wealthy 
commission merchants of the metropolis. For four 
years he was postmaster of New York, and he 
was on most intimate terms with Presidents Jack- 
son and Van Buren. In supjiort of Jackson's poli- 
cy in the state of New York he was closely asso- 
ciated with William L. Marcy, Silas Wright, and 
John A. Dix. Mr. Co<ldington declined the Dem- 
ocratic nomination for governor of the state which 
was offered by his party. He died at his residence, 
238 Fifth avenue, leaving four sons, of whom only 
Gilbert S. is now living.— DaTld Smith, lawyer^ 
b. in New Y'ork, 28 
Sept., 1823 ; d. in 
Saratoga, 2 Sept., 
186.5. When only 
fourteen he en- 
tered the fresh- 
man class of Co- 
lumbia.and subse- 
quently was grad- 
uate<l at I'nion. 
He studie«l law 
in the olllco of 
George W. .Strong, 
an<l at the early 
age of twenty-one 
was admitted to 
the New York 
bar. At college 
he won honor as 
an elocutionist, 
and soon established a reputation as an able lawyer 
and elofiuent siHjaker. His oration at the grave 
of .Tefferson, in Virginia, in 1851, his eulogy on 
Lincoln, delivers*! in Charleston, S. C, in May, 
1865. and many other of his speeches were pub- 
lished when delivered, and after his early death a 
Volume appeared containing his addresses and ora- 
tions (New York. 186<!). Had he possessed more 
robust health he woulil doubtless have taken a 
prominent position among the statesmen and law- 
yers of the land. The oldest son, who bore his 
fathers name and died before him, was also a suc- 
cessful lawyer. He was a well-known figure in 
the fashionable life of hisday. pos.sessing a superb 
physique, standing six feet six inches. 




COE, George Simmons, banker, b. in Newport, 
R. I., 37 March, 1817; d. in Englewood, N. J., 3 
May. 1896. After receiving a coinmon-scliool edu- 
cation lie became a clerk in a grocery, and at eight- 
een years of age a bank messenger. He served six 
years in a New York banking house, and in 1834 
was made cashier of the American exchange bank, 
whose vice-president he became a few months later. 
In 1860 he was elected its president, and he held 
the oflicc (ill his retirement, on account of failing 
health, two years before his death. Mr. Coe, at a 
conference of New York bankers that was called in 
1863 by Secretary Chase, suggested a successful 
plan for relieving the financial straits of the gov- 
ernment by the combination of banks in New York, 
Boston, and Philadelphia, lie also conceived a 
plan of bringing together the banks and the clear- 
ing-house, then newly established, in such a way 
that their coin reserve and liabilities could be re- 
ported daily, and devised the system of clearing- 
house certificates that has proved so useful in 
averting or ameliorating financial panics. He was 
elected president of the National banking associa- 
tion in 1881, and was treasurer of the Children's 
aid society, which he assisted in founding. 

COFFEE, John, soldier, b. in Prince Edward 
county, Va., 3 June, 1778; d. near Florence, Ala., 
in July, 1834. He removed to Davidson county, 
Tenn., in 1798, and engaged in mercantile pursuits 
till 1807, when he began to survey public lands. 
In October, 1809, he married Mary Donelson, a sis- 
ter of Andrew Jackson's wife. At the beginning 
of the war of 1813 he raised a cavalry regiment, 
and after the massacre at Fort Minns he organized 
two others, became brigadier-general of militia, 
and fought and won the battle of Tallusliatchie. 
He participated also in the battles of Talladega, 
Emuckfaro, Ala., where he was severely wounded, 
Enotochopco, and the Horseshoe. He was subse- 
quently at the battles of Pensacola and New Or- 
leans, reaching the latter in time for the fight by 
a forced march from Baton Rouge in two days, 
and commanding Jackson's left wing. He was fre- 
quently commissioned to treat with the Indians, 
became surveyor-general of the southwest territory 
in 1817, removed to Huntsville, Ala., and later to 
Florida. He was known as " brave Jack Coffee." 

COGHLAN, Joseph Bullock (cog-Ian), naval 
officer, b. in Frankfort, Ky., 8 Dec, 1844. He was 
graduated from the U. S. naval academy in 1863, 
and immediately saw service as an ensign in the 
civil war, his first sea duty being aboard the "Sa- 
cramento." He became master in 1865, in the fol- 
lowing year was promoted to lieutenant, and was 
executive officer of the " Pawnee." Later he was 
transferred to the " Guerriere," and made lieuten- 
ant-commander in March, 1868. He served on the 
" Richmond," and then on the ironclad " Saugus," 
of the North Atlantic squadron, and later on the 
" Monongahela" and the "Indiana." He was pro- 
moted to commander in February, 1883, and cap- 
tain 18 Nov., 1896. Since 1897 he has commanded 
the " Raleigh " on the Asiatic station, taking part 
in the brilliant naval battle of Manila bay, 1 May, 
1898. In the spring of tne following vear Capt, 
Coghlan returned in the " Raleigh " to t"he United 
States, where he received a cordial welcome. A 
speech made in a New York club in which he said 
that Dewey was on the point of sinking the Ger- 
man squadron at Manila, as he did the Spanish 
shhis, attracted the attention of the country. 

COGOLLl'DO, Diegfo (co-gole-yoo-do), Spanish 
historian, b. in Alcala de Henarcs about 1610; d. 
in Mc'-rida, Yucatan, about 1686. He entered the 
order of liarefooted Franciscan friars in his native 

city in 1639 ; was sent to the missions in Yucatan, 
where he labored with zeal among the natives ; 
became professor of theology in the seminary of 
Merida, afterward superior of the convent, and 
lastly provincial of his order. He studied the 
antiquities of Yucatan, searched the archives and 
convent libraries for historical documents, and, as 
an expert in the Maya language, investigated the 
oral traditions of the natives. As a result of his 
studies he composed his"Historia de Yucatan," 
which is still the principal source of information 
for students of Maya history (Madrid, 1688). 

COLBY, Leonard Wright, lawver, b. in Cherry 
Valley. Ashtabula co., Ohio, .5 Aug., 1848. He 
studied at the University of Wisconsin, where he 
was graduated from tlie classical department in 
1871, and from the law-school in 1873. He moved to 
Nebraska, and was a memVierof the state senate in 
1877 and 1887. From 1891 to 1893 he wa.s assist- 
ant attorney-general of the United States. He 
took an active interest in the militia of Nebraska, 
serving four years as captain, six as colonel, and 
nine years as brigadier-general in command of the 
Nebraska state troops in the Indian wars and 
troubles from 1874 to 1896. When war broke out 
with Spain in 1898 Gen. Colby was commissioned 
brigadier-general of volunteers, and was assigned 
to the command of the 3d brigade of the 1st di- 
vision of the 3d army-corps. 

COLE, Nelson, soldier, b. in Duchess county, 
N. Y., 18 Nov., 1833 ; d. in .St. Louis, 31 July, 1899. 
During the civil war he saw much service, and 
reached the rank of colonel of the 3d Missouri 
light artillery. In 1865 he returned to St. Louis 
and organized the Cole and Glass manufacturing 
company, of which he was president. When war 
was declared, with Spain he was appointed a briga- 
dier-general, and was assigned to the 3d brigade, 
3d division, at Camp Alger, afterward going to 
Columbia, S. C. Gen. Cole was mustered out owing 
to ill health in February, 1899. 

COLES, Jonathan Aekerman, physician, b. 
in Newark, N. J., 6 Jlay, 1843. He was graduated 
from Columbia and from the College of physi- 
cians and surgeons, also studying abroad for two 
years. He gave to Washington park, Newark, a 
colossal bronze bust of his father. Dr. Abraham 
Coles (q. v.), and has made gifts of works of art 
to his native state, to the Metropolitan museum, 
to Columbia university, and to Admiral Dewey 
as a memento of his famous victory at Manila 
bay he jiresented one of Barye's beautiful allegor- 
ical bronzes. Dr. Coles is a well-known collector 
of bonks and paintings, and active in the affairs of 
the New Jersey historical society. 

COLSTON." Raleigh Edward, soldier, b. in 
Paris. France, 31 Oct., 1835; d. in Richmond. Va.. 
39 July, 1896. His supposed father. Dr. Raleigh T. 
Colston, was the son of Raleigh Colston, of Berke- 
ley county, Va. (now W. Va.), and his wife, Eliza- 
beth Marshall, a sister of Chief-Justice John Mar- 
shall. Dr. Colston after studying medicine in 
this country went to France, became a permanent 
resident of Paris, and married there the divorced 
wife of Gen. Kellermaii. Some years of married 
life passed without ottspring. when Dr. Colston de- 
cided to visit his family in Virginia. On his re- 
turn his wife ])resenfed him with a son, said to 
have been born during his absence. The child was 
received by Dr. Colston as his own, and named 
Raleigh Edward, for himself and his brother Kd- 
ward. This supposed son. who afterward became 
Gen. Colston, was highly educated, and. being pos- 
sessed by nature of a bright mind, made rapid 
progress in all his studies. In 1841 he was .sent to 




Virginia to completp his education, and in July, 
1842, was entered as a cadet in the Virginia mili- 
tary institute. Before the completion of his aca- 
demic course his supposed mother died, and npon 
her death-bed<l that she had ini^iosed him 
upon her husband and that he was not her child, 
but the son of a poor officer of the French army. 
When the information reached him that he was 
disinherited and disowned by him whom he ha<l 
respected and loved as a father, he was deeply dis- 
tressed. This, however, was of short duration, and 
he submitted to his misfortune with the fortitude 
of a philosopher. The authorities of the institute 
made provision for th» completion of his course of 
studies by a.ssigning him to the post of acting as- 
sistant professor of French. After his graduation 
he was advanced to the full professorship of French. 
lie occupied this chair until the beginning of the 
^ civil war. He was miule colonel of the 10th rcgi- 
wnent of Virginia infantry, in May, 1861, and ap- 
pointed briga<lier-general in the Confederate army 
in December. He commanded the department of 
Norfolk and brigades of Virginia and North Caro- 
lina regiments during the war, acquitting himself 
in the many battles in which he wa.s engaged with 
great credit. In 1H6M he was H|>[>ointi-d colonel in 
the Kgyptian army, and subsequently received a 
decoration. On returning to the United States he 
lectured in several cities on Kgypt, and delivered 
an adilress on the war in the Soudan, published by 
the American geographical society in 1885. 

.CONATY, Thomas James, educator, b. in Kil- 
naleck. County Caven, Ireland, 1 Aug.. 1847. Com- 
ing to this countrv a youth, he was graduated at the 
College of the holv cross anil at the Montreal theo 
logical s<'hool. lie was fiastor of the Church of 
the sacred heart from 1880, and one of the organ- 
izers of the Catholic summer scIkk)! at IMatlsburg, 
N. Y., and its president for four vears. In 1806 
he was selected by the American bishops as rector 
of the Catholic university, Wa.<hington, and ap- 
pointed to the jKisition as successor to Dishop 
Keane iq. c.) by I'ope Leo XIII., who in 1807 con- 
ferred upon him the title of domestic prelate. 
Dr. Conaty founded and for four years edited 
" The CatHolic School and Home Magazine." 

CONE. Spencer Wnllare. lawyer, li. in Alex- 
andria, Va.. 'irt May, INIO ; d. in New York city. 
21 Jan., 1888. lie was the son of Rev. SfK-ncer 
H. Cone (vol. i., p. 70.5), and was grailuated at the 
University of the city of New York, lie studied 
law, and was admitted to the bar in 1841, but de- 
voteil himself chiefly to literature and politics. 
For eleven years he was emjiloyed in the New 
York, and was coiinected with the 
"Sunday Times." At the o|r>enini; of the civil 
war he organized the 61st New York regiment, 
and became its colonel, serving through the war, 
at the close of which he was brevetled brigadier- 
general of volunteers. Col. Cone published a 
small volume of [xjcms, one of fairy tales, and, 
with his brother, a memoir of their father. 

CON(JER, Edwin Henry. dii)Iomatist, b. in 
Knoxcnunty. II1..7 March. lS4:i. lie wasgrmluated 
at Lombard universityandat the Albany law-school. 
He serveil for three years in the civil war. and 
sinc-e 1868 has been a banker in Iowa, lie was 
state treasurer for three years, and in 188.'> was 
sent to congress*, Iwing twice re-elected. He was 
appointed to Itrazil in 1801, serving for four years, 
and was again ap|Kiinteil by President McKinley 
in 1897. In the following year he was transferred 
to China, at present a more imfxirtant field than 
Brazil, and requiring the service of an able, astute, 
and experienceil minister. 


CONRAD. Frederick William, editor, b. in 
Pine Grove, Schuylkill co.. Pa., 3 Jan., 1816. He 
entered Mount Airy college, and for several years 
afterward was collector of tolls on the Union 
canal and railroad at Pine Grove. He studied in 
the theological seminary at Gettysburg in 1837-'9, 
was admitted to the Lutheran ministry in 1839, 
and he was pastor at Pine Grove and Waynesboro", 
Pa., an<l Hagerstown, Md., till 1850. He was pro- 
fessor of modern languages in Wittenberg college, 
.Springfield, Ohio, and also of homiletics and 
church history in its theological department in 
1850-'5, and [lastor at Dayton, Ohio, and Lancas- 
ter and ChanilK>rsburg, Pa., till 1866. During his 
pastorate at I^ancaster he became joint owner and 
editor of the " Lutheran Observer," and in 1866 he 
remove<l to Philadelphia and became editor-in- 
chief of this (H-riodical. in which post he has con- 
tinuc<l to the present time. In 1864 Wittenberg 
college conferred on him the degree of D. D. Be- 
sides his editorial work, he has been a frequent con- 
tributor to the '• Lutheran Quarterly." and many 
of his articles have liecn published in separate 
form. Among these is one on " (Get- 
tysburg, 1873) ; "The Lutheran Church" (Phila- 
delphia, 1883) ; " Worship and its Forms " (Get- 
tysburg, 1884): and "Luther's Small Catechism 
Exi)lainetl and Amplified " (Philadelphia, 1886). 

CONY, Daniel, jurist, b. in that part of .Stough- 
ton, Mass., that is now .Sharon, 3 Aug., 1752 ; d. in 
Augusta, Sle., 21 Jan., 1842. His grandfather, Na- 
thanael, came from England to Massachusetts in 
the latter part of the 17tli century and settled in 
Boston, but in 1728 went loStoughton. Daniel re- 
moved in 1778 to " Fort Western .settlement " (now 
Augusta. Me.). He had prepared himself before 
leaving Ma-ssachusetts for the profession of medi- 
cine, and was a successful practitioner for many 
years. He was in public life for several successive 
years as representative and senator in the general 
court and as a member of the executive council, 
and he was one of the electors that chose Wash- 
ington president for his secoml term. He held the 
office of judge of the court of commini pleas and of 
judge of probate from Kenneljec county, and was 
a delegate to the convention that framed the con- 
stitution of Maine. Judge Cony in 1815 founded 
and liberally endowed the Cony female acwicmy in 
Augu.sta (now the Coii^ high-school). His daugh- 
ter married Nathan W extern, chief justice of com- 
mon pleas in Massachusetts in 1810-'20, and sub- 
sequently chief justice and associate justice of the 
supreme court of Maine in 1820-'41, and a daugh- 
ter by this marriage was the mother of Melville W. 
Fuller, chief justice of the United States. 

CONYNOHAJI. John NeHbit.iurist, Phila- 
delphia in December, 1708; d. in vV'ilkesbarre, Pa., 
21 Feb., 1871. lie was the sou of David llayfield 
Conynghani and grandson of Hedmond Conyng- 
ham, of Ireland. Hedmond came to Philadelphia 
in 1750, and with James Maxwell Nesbit established 
the mercantile finn of J. N. Nesbit & Co. He re- 
turnetl to irelan<l before the Hevolution, and his 
son. David llayfield, who had Iteen trained in the 
counting-house of his father, succeeded him in the 
firm, which subse(|uently became C<inyngham, Nes- 
bit & Co.. and which materially aided the cause 
of the colonies with their lil)eral donations from 
1776 to 1783. David Conynghani was a member 
of the Philadelphia city troop during those days. 
John Nesbit Conyngham wasetiucated at the Uni- 
versity of IVniisvlvania, where he was graduated 
in 1817. studied law with Joshua K. Ingersoll, of 
Philailelphia, and in 1820 removed to Wilkcs- 
barre where he became well known in his profes- 




sion as well as in tlie affairs of the Protestant 
Episcopal church. He was lor nearly fifty years 
a lay deputy to the diocesan convention of Penn- 
sylvania, an'd for twenty-five years a lay deputy 
from that diocese to the general convention of the 
church, serving for years on the committee on 
canons. From 1868 till 1871 lie was the president 
of the American church missionary society. He 
was for two vears a member of the legislature, and 
in 1840 was appointed |)resident judge of the court 
of common pleiis for Luzerne county, holding the 
olfiee for thirty years. He was a member of the 
American pliilosophical society, and received the 
degree of LL. D. from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1869. He published several addresses. 
He was the father of John B. Conyngliam and the 
brother of Redmond Conyngliam (vol. i., p. 713). 

COOK, Kraiicis Ames, naval otlieer, b. in North- 
ampton, JIass., 10 May, 1843. He was graduated 
at tlie naval academy in 1863, was appointed en- 
sign, and served with Parragnt for two years dur- 
ing the civil war in the West Gulf squadron. He 
became a master in 1866, a lieutenant-commander 
two years later, and a commander in 1881. He 
was appointed a captain in 1896, and soon after 
assigned to the command oftlie " Brooklyn," flag- 
ship of Commodore Schley, commanding the Hy- 
ing squadron, which played so important a part 
in the naval battle and victory of Santiago in 
July, 1898. He is now on duty in Washington. 

COOLIIMJE, Thomas Jefferson, merchant, b. 
in Boston, 26 Aug., 1831. After graduating at 
Harvard, he began business as an East In<lia mer- 
chant, later becoming interested in New England 
cotton-mills, lie was also connected with bank- 
ing and railway enterprises; was presi<lent of, and 
is now a director in the Chicago, Burlington and 
Quincy railway. In 1892 President Cleveland ap- 
pointed him minister to France, where he re- 
mained for four years. In 1899 Mr. Coolidge was 
made a member of the commission to adjust dis- 
putes between this country and Canada. 

COPE, tJilbert, genealogist, b. in East Brad- 
ford, Chester co.. Pa., 17 Aug., 1840. He was edu- 
cated at the Friends' select school in West Chester 
and at the Friends' boarding-school in Westtown, 
and for a few years followed farming. He is a 
member of the Pennsylvania historical society and 
of the New England historic-genealogical society, 
and has published "A liecord of the Cope Family" 
(Philadelphia, 1860); "The Browns of Notting- 
ham" (1864); "Genealogy of the Dutton Family" 
(West Chester, 1871); and, with J. Smith Futhey, 
" History of Chester County " (Philadelphia, 1881) 
and "Genealogy of the Sharpless Family" (1887). 

COPPINUEB, John Joseph, soldier, b. in 
Queenstown, Ireland, 11 Oct., 1834. He was edu- 
cated in a private school, and in early manhood 
he left for Italy to join the papal army during the 
struggle with Victor Emmanuel. He won a lieu- 
tenancy, and for heroism in the defence of La 
Roeea gateway, in Rome, he received a decoration. 
At the outbreak of the civil war he came to this 
country, and ft'as made captain of the 14th infan- 
try, 30' .Sept., 1861, serving throughout the war, 
and was appointed colonel of the 15th New York 
cavalry on 27 Jan., 1865. He served in several 
Indian campaigns, and was made major of the 
10th infantry, 20 March, 1879, and lieutenant- 
colonel of the 18th infantry on 31 Oct., 1883. In 
April, 188.'), he became brigadier-general, and when 
the war with Spain began he was appointed major- 
general and put in command of the 4th army-corps, 
with its headquarters at Camp Wheeler, II unts- 
ville. Gen. Coppinger was retired 11 Oct., 1898. 

CORBIN, Anstln, financier, b. in Newport, 
N. II., 11 July, 1827; d. there, 4 June, 1896. He 
was gi'aduated at Harvard law-school in 1849, prac- 
tised in his native village, and in 18.')2 removed to 
Daven|iort, Iowa, and in 1866 to New York, where 
he engaged in banking business, and in 1880 be- 
came president of the Long Island railroad. In 
1886 he was chosen president of the Philadelphia 
and Reading railroad company. Mr. Corbin was 
actively as.sociated in various organizations that 
had for their objects the development of artistic 
and philanthropic purposes in New York city and 
elsewhere. His sudden death was due to an acci- 
dent while driving with a pair of s])irited liorses. 
There has been much litigation over his very large 
estate, which is still unsettled. 

CORBIN, Henry Clarke, soldier, b. in Cler- 
mont county, Ohio, 15 Sept., 1842. He .served 
through the civil war, receiving the appoint- 
ment of 2d lieutenant in the 83d Ohio infantry 
on 28 July, 1862. He was transferred to the 79th 
Ohio on 29 Aug. following. On 11 May, 1863, 
he was promoted 1st lieutenant. He resigned 
on 13 Nov.. 1863, and was appointed major in 
the 14th United States colored cavalry on 14 
Nov., 1863. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel 
on 4 March, 1864, and colonel on 23 Sept., 1865. 
He received the brevet of brigadier-general of 
volunteers 13 March, 1865; was honorably mus- 
tered out 26 March, 1866. On 11 May, 1866, he 
was appointed 2d lieutenant in the 17th infantry. 
He was promoted captain of the 38th infantry on 
28 July following. On 11 Nov., 1869, he was 
transferred to the 24th infantry. He was pro- 
moted major and appointed assistant adjutant- 
general on 16 June, 1880, made lieutenant-colonel 
on 7 June, 1889, and colonel 26 May, 1896. In 
1892 he was detailed to duty in the war depart- 
ment at Washington; later he was made chief of 
staff of the department of the east, stationed upon 
Governor's island, and in 1897 he was ordered 
back to Washington to the adjutant-general's 
office. On 25 Feb., 1898, he was made brigadier- 
general and appointed adjutant-general of the 
army, and in August appointed major-general of 
volunteer.s, which commission he declined. 

CORNSTALK, Shawnee chief, b. in Mason 
county, Va. (now \V. Va.), about 1720; d. in Point 
Pleasant, W. Va.. in the summer of 1777. He 
was the chief of the Shawnee Indians, and at the 
battle of Point Pleasant. 10 Oct.. 1774. his plan of 
alternate attack and retreat occasioned the princi- 
pal loss of the whites. After the battle he con- 
vened his tribe to consult what must next be done, 
and, after upbraiding them for not suffering him 
to make peace with the settlers the day before the 
fight, struck his tomahawk in the post of the cen- 
tre of the town-house and said : " I will go and 
make peace." He kept his treaty with the Ameri- 
cans till 1777, when the Shawnees, being incited 
by the British, began to disturb the frontier settle- 
ment. One day Cornstalk appeared at Point Pleas- 
ant, and, summoning the principal settlers, told 
them that he could make no secret of the disposi- 
tion of the greater part of his tribe toward them, 
but that, although he was opposed to the British, 
he was afraid they would force him "to run with 
the stream." The council then determined to de- 
tain him as a hostage, and while in confinement 
he and his son were infamously murdered by colo- 
nists in retaliation for an outrage by Indians. 
The governor offered a rewani for the apprehen- 
sion of the murderers, but without effect. Corn- 
stalk was generally regarded as the ablest soldier 
among the Indians on the Virginia frontier. 




t'ORTfiS, Madariaga Jos^ (cor-tays), South 
Anicricjin patriot, b. near Satitiago, Chili, in 1784; 
d. in Rio llacha, Colombia, in 1836. lie studied 
theology in his native city, was graduated as doc- 
tor of divinity and ordained to the priesthoo<l. but 
in 1805 hail a controversy with the prosecutor of 
the audiencia, and went to Spain to obtain justice. 
On his return in 1806 he went to Caracas, where he 
obtained a canonry in the cathedral, lie took part 
in the patriotic movement, and when on 19 April, 
1810, in the meeting of the municipality, the cap- 
tain-general. Kmparan, was about to be victorious, 
Cortes was sctit for and took a seat in the assem- 
bly as deputy of the clergy. By his spi-eches he 
inhuenced the a.«seinbly, and the populace outside, 
to demand the deposition of Kmparan, thus de- 
claring independence, lie was sent in 1811 as a 
commissioner to the patriots of New Granada, but 
in 1812 was included in the capitulation of Mi- 
randa, and sent by Monteverde as a prisoner to 
Spain, where he was confined in the [)eniteiitiary 
of Ceuta. lie tied to tiibraltar in February, 1814, 
and was delivered up by the governor to the Span- 
ish authorities, but released in the following vear 
on the reclamation of the British cabinet, which 
disavowed the conduct of the governor, in 1810 
he set ont for Jamaica, where he heard of Bolivar's 
expedition from llayti to Venezuela, and early in 
1817 sailed for Margarita. There he published a 
manifesto protesting BKuinst the country being 
controlled by military chiefs, and recommending 
the formation of a representative government. In 
April he went to Caru|>ano, and in Cariaco met 
Gen. Montilla, Zeo, and others, who were carried 
away by Cortes's elfKjueiice, and on 8 May as- 
sembled the so-calle<l congress of Cariaco, which 
decreet! the deposition of Bolivar frtnn the execu- 
tive and appointed a governing junta of three 
members. But the other chiefs of the ea.stern 
provinces did not recognize the authority of this 
congress or the governing junta, and before the 
approach of the enemy Cortes fled to Jamaica. In 
IK^ he joined the ex|iedition of Gen. Montillu 
agaitist Rio Hacha and Santa Marta. and fixed his 
residence there, while Caracas, which had become 
his second home, was oifMipied by the Spanianls. 
When they evacuated the city in June, IWJl, Cor- 
tes, oflendeil at not Ix-iiig summoned, remained in 
Rio llacha till his death. 

I'USBY, <i!f>orge Itlake, soldier, b. at Ijouis- 
ville, Ky., lit Jan., IHitO. He was edueateil at pri- 
vate st;hools until fifteen years old. when he became 
clerk in a commission house, lie entered the mili- 
tary aciulemv, 1 St'pt.. 184S. wiis lirevet lieutenant 
mounted rifles. 1 July. lN.'i2. 3d lieutenant, 10 
Sept.. IKW. 2d lieuteniint cavalrv. 3 March. 1855, 
1st lieutenant, 1 Mav, IWO. capliiin. 9 .May. 1861. 
He joined the ConfeJerate army its captain of cav- 
alry the latter part of May. 1861, was promote<l 
brigadier-general. 20 Jan., ISOJl. and commanded 
a brigade of cavalry under (ien. Stephen I), l^ee in 
the south. Later he served us chief of staff to 
Gens. Magruder and Biickner. .After the close of 
the war he was adjutant-general of California four 
years, and is at present receiver of public moneys 
of California at Sacramento. 

COTTKR, JoHoph B., U.C. bishop. b. in Liver- 
pool, Ktigland. in 1H44. His parents came to this 
country in 1847. and he received his early educa- 
tion at St. Paul, Minn., in the local schools, and 
his theological studies for the priesthood at .St. 
Paul's the<dogical seminary, in Grovcland Park. 
He was ordained a priest in 1871 by Archbishoj) 
Grace, then bishop of St. Paul. He wius apftointed 
pastor of St. Thomas's church, in Winona, Wis., 

and there he labored with true missionary zeal 
until 1889, when the diocese of St. Paul was erect- 
ed into an archdiocese and Winona was made one 
of the suffragan sees. He was appointetl first 
bishop of Winona, and was consecrated in 1889. 
Bishop Cotter has acquired a wide reputation as a 
temfjeranee worker and organizer, and was for 
three successive terms elected president of the Na- 
tional union of the St. Matthew tem|)erance so;, 
cieties. His championship of the cause has ex- 
tended throughout the Union. It is a fact worthy 
of record that the ecclesiastical province of St. Paul 
is cornfiosed of the archdiocese of St. Paul, presided 
over by Archbishop Ireland, and of the dioceses 
of Duluth. Jamestown, St. Cloud. Sioux Falls, and 
Winona, and that all the dioceses of the province 
are administered by prelates all of whom are advo- 
cates of the temperance cause and total abstinence. 

COURTNEY, Fredrrirk, Canadian Anglican 
bishop, b. in Plymouth, Kngland, 5 Jan., 1837. He 
was educated in the Bluecoat school and was grad- 
uated at King's college, London, in 1863. In the 
following year he was ordaine«I deacon and in 1865 
a priest by Dr. Langley. archbishop of Canterbury. 
After holding [lastorates in Kent, Plymouth, and 
Glasgow, he was assistant at St. Thoiiias's church 
in New York from 1876 till 1880. Dr. Courtney 
was rector in 1880-'2 of St. James church, Chicago, 
an<l then of St. Paul's. Boston. On 1 Feb., 1888, 
he was elected fifth bishop of Nova Scotia, and on 
25 April was consecratecl as successor to Bishop 
Binney. His jurisdiction comprises Nova Scotia, 
Cape Breton, and Prince Kdward island, and his 
residence is in the city of Halifax. 

rorSIN, Jean (coo-zang), French navigator, 
b. in Dieppe, lived in the latter part of the 15th 
century. His <lis«"overies are related by Ixiuis 
K.stancelin in his " Kecherches sur les voyages et 
decouvertesdes navigatenrs Norinands en Afrique, 
dans les Indcs Orientale.s, et en Ameriquc" (Pari.s, 
1832), Leon Guerin in his "Les navigatenrs 
Franvais" (Pari-s, 1846), and Amans Alexis Mon- 
teil in his "Traill des materiaux manuscrits des 
divers genres d'histoire" (2 vols., Pari.s. 1835), and 
confirmed by the anonymous publication " Mi?- 
moires pour servir k I'histoirede Dietijie" (Dieppe, 
1740). and by Francis Parkman in tus "Pioneers 
of France in the New World " (Ifostoii, 1860). Ac- 
centing to these authorities, in 14t*8. four years be- 
fore Columbus's voyage. Cousin, being at sea off 
the African coast, was forciKl westward by winds 
and currents to within sight of an unknown shore, 
where he presently described the mouth of a great 
river (probably the Orinoco). On board his ship 
was one Pinzmi, who, being dismissed for mutinous 
conduct, went to Spain, became known to Colum- 
bu.s, and accompanied him in his voyage of 1492. 
Cousin's discovery is mentioned in the "Jour- 
nal de I'Am^'rique" (Troyes, 1709) and in "De- 
scription des cotes de la iiicr Oceane." It is also 
said that a French pilot discovered America. Un- 
fortunately the archives of the city of Dieppe were 
destroyed during the boml)ardnient of 1694. and 
no informktion is now to be obtained there about 
Cousin's voyage to America, a narrative of which 
was iindonbtedlv ileposited in the city archives. 

COYILLK, F'rederifk Yernoii. botanist, b. in 
Preston, Ni'W York. 23 March, 1S<>7. He was cdu- 
cate<i at Oxford academy and at Cornell, where 
he was graduated in 1H87. For a year he wius in- 
structor in lM>tany in Cornell, but in 1888 was ap- 
pointed assistant l)otaiiist in the U.S. department 
of agriculture, which place he held until 1893, when 
he was made chief botanist ; since 1893 he has 
been curator of the U. S. national herbarium in the 




National museum. He has had charge of several 
botanical expeditions, notably that to the Death 
valley in 1890-'91. Mr. Coville is a fellow of the 
American association for the advancement of sci- 
ence, to the proceedings of which he has contributed 
numerous papers, and in addition many papers to 
other sources. He is the author of the " Botany of 
the Death Valley Expedition " (Washington, 1893). 
COWEN, Esek, jurist, b. in Rhode Island, 24 
Feb., 1787 ; d. in Albany, N. Y., 11 Feb., 1844. He 
was descended from John Cowen, a native of Scot- 
land, who settled in Scituate, Mass., in 1656. His 
father's family re- 
moved in 1790 to 
Greenfield, Saratoga 
CO. Four years after- 
ward he went to 
Hartford, Washing- 
ton CO., N. Y., and 
at sixteen began the 
study of law, at the 
same time teaching 
during the winters. 
He was admitted to 
the bar in 1810, 
and began practice. 
In 1812 he removed 
to Saratoga Springs, 
which was afterward 
his residence. lie 
was reporter of the 
supreme court in 
1821-'8, and was 
then appointed judge of the 4th circuit. In 1835 
he -was appointed to fill a vacancy in the supreme 
court, and continued in that office until his decease. 
Judge Cowen's opinion in the celebrated McLeod 
case, in connection with the Canadian rebellion, in 
which were discussed the question of perfect and 
imperfect war and other great national principles, 
attracted wide attention. Of his opinions in gen- 
eral it has been said that " in their depth and 
breadth of research, and their strength and reason 
of bearing, they are not excelled by any judge in 
England or America. He has frequently been com- 
pared to Lord Mansfield. Judge Cowen was more 
than six feet in height, and possessed great dignity 
of presence and unassuming manners. In 1812 he 
was one of the founders of the first temperance 
society in the United States. He was the author 
of "Civil Jurisdiction of Justices of the Peace in 
New York " (2 vols., 1844) ; " New York Reports, 
1823-'8 " (9 vols., 1824-',<J0) : and a " Digested Index 
of Reports '" (1831) ; and edited " Phillipps on Evi- 
dence " (5 vols.. New York, 1850). 

COWEN, John King, railroad president, b. 
in Millersburg, Holmes co., Ohio, 28 Oct., 1844. 
He is the son of Washington Cowen, a native of 
Oxford, Pa., who had settled in Ohio at an early 
age. The son entered the Vermilion institute at 
Hayesville at the age of sixteen, and two years 
later began teaching at Millersburg. By this work 
and otlier occupations he earned enough to enable 
him to enter Princeton in 1863; he was graduated 
at the head of his class in 1866. He returned to 
Millersburg, where he taught in the high-school, 
and later he became principal of the academy at 
Shreve, Ohio. He studied at the law-school of 
Michigan university, took his examination at Can- 
ton, where William McKinley was one of his ex- 
aminers, and on his admission to the bar settled 
at Mansfield. In 1872 he was offered a position 
in the legal department of the Baltimore and Oliio 
railroad by Robert Garrett, son of John W. Gar- 
rett, president of the road and a classmate of 

Cowen's at Princeton. The ability of Cowen was 
recognized and he secured rapid advancement, 
eventually becoming general counsel of tlie com- 
pany. He held this position until he was elected 
president of the road, to succeed Charles P. Mayer. 
He has taken a prominent part in Maryland poli- 
tics since 1883 as an Independent Democrat. In 
1884 he was elected to congress as a free-trader, in 
opposition to the Gorman wing of the party. In 
1887 he worked in co-operation with the Republi- 
can party in support of Walter B. Brooks for gov- 
ernor, ile was an active supporter of Mr. Cleve- 
land at the Chicago convention in 1892, and in 
1894 was nominated to congress by the 4lh con- 
gressional district, although he was a resident of 
the 2d. After a campaign of strong opposition 
from many Democrats he was elected. 

COWLES, Augustus Woodruff, educator, b. 
in Reading, N. Y., 12 July, 1819. After gradua- 
tion at Union college in 1841, he taught, studied 
theology in New York city, and in 1847-'56 was 
pastor of the Presbyterian church in Brockport. 
lie was then made president of Elmira college, 
where he still remains. The degree of I). D. was 
given to him by Ingham university in 1858, and 
that of LL. D. by Hamilton college in 1886. Dr. 
Cowles was the first president of a college that 
was fully chartered expressly for the collegiate 
education of women, with a course of study honor- 
ably equivalent to the courses in colleges for men. 
He has gained considerable reputation as an artist, 
first introduced the special study of art criticism 
into a college curriculum, and has delivered there 
freehand illustrated lectures on art. 

COWLEY, Charles, lawyer, b. in Eastington, 
England, 9 Jan., 1832. He came with his parents 
to Lowell, Mass., in 1842, and has since resided in 
that town, where he also received his education, 
and has held many local offices. In 1864-'5 he 
served as acting assistant paymaster in the U. S. 
navy, and was also on the staff of Admiral John 
A. Dahlgren as judge-advocate of the South At- 
lantic blockading squadron. After the war he re- 
sumed his law practice, having been admitted to 
the bar of Massachusetts in 1856. In 1870 he was 
the candidate for assistant attorney-general of the 
state on the labor reform ticket that was headed 
by Wendell Phillips. He was instrumental in pro- 
curing from the legislature the ten-hour law and 
the charter of the grand lodge of the Knights of 
St. Crispin. During the civil war he acted as na- 
val correspondent for the New York " Herald " 
and for the Charlestown '• Courier " and " Mer- 
cury," and has since written for the press of New 
England. Norwich university, Vermont, gave him 
the degree of LL. D. in 1885. Mr. Cowley is the 
author of a " History of Lowell" (Lowell, 1868); 
"Historical Sketch of Middlesex Countv, Vt." 
(1878); "Famous Divorces of All Ages"'(1878); 
" Leaves from a Lawyer's Life Afloat and Ashore " 
(1879); "Our Divorce Courts" (1879); "Reminis- 
cences of James C. Ayer" (1879); and edited 
"The Revised Charter and Ordinances of the 
City of Lowell, with Appendix " (1876): Admiral 
Dahlgren's " Maritime International Law." with 
memoir by his widow (Boston. 1877): "The Ro- 
mance of History in ' the Black County," and of 
War in the Career of Gen. Robert Smalls, 'the 
Hero of the Planters'" (Lowell, 1882); and 
" Lowell in the Navy during the War" (1894). 

COX, William Ruffln. soldier, b. in Scotland 
Neck. Halifax co.. N. C, 11 March, 1832. He was 
graduated fit Franklin college, Tennessee, and at 
Lebanon law-school, in the same state. He served 
in the Confederate army in the various grades from 




major to brigadier-general. Resuming the practice 
of the law at the close of the war, he became judge 
of the superior court of North Carolina, and later 
was elected to congress. Gen. Cox is now (1899) 
secretary of the U. S. senate. He is a son-in-law 
of the late Dr. Lyman, bishop of his native state. 

COXE, Daniel, author, b. in London, England, 
in 1674; d. in Trenton, N. J.. 25 April, 1739. He 
was the son of Dr. Daniel Coxe, of London, who 
was proprietor of extensive lands in West Jersey. 
Daniel came to this country in 1703, and at various 
times was a member of the royal council, speaker 
of the assembly, and associate justice of the su- 
preme court of New Jers»'y, which post he held 
from 1734 until his death. Ue was an able law- 
yer and a zealous churchman. Several of his let- 
ters are published in the " History of the Church 
in Burlington," by the Rev. George Morgan Hills, 
D. D. (Trenton. 1876). While visiting London he 
published "A Description of the English Province 
of Carolana, by the Spaniards called Florida, and 
by the French Ija I»uisiane" (Ijondon, 1722). In 
his " curious preface " he sketches what is believed 
to be the original plan for an American union, 
which was subsequently a<lopted, to bind together 
the thirteen states. Richard Stockton Field, in 
his " Provincial (Jourts of New Jersey " (New York, 
1849), says: "It was, in fact, the very plan which 
was recommended by Dr. Franklin to the conven- 
tion at Albany in 1754 for the purpose of forming 
a league with the six nations and concerting meas- 
ures for united o|)erations against the encroai^b- 
ments of the F^rench. This plan of Dr. Franklin's, 
which has been described as the Albany plan of 
union, figures largely in our histories, and is 
thought to have been one of those original con- 
ceptions for which he was so famous. And yet it 
was little more than a transcript of the design 
sketched by Coxe many years before, and which 
would seem to have originated with him." A slab 
in front of the chancel of St. Mary's church in 
Burlington, N. J., marks his burial-place. 

CRADDOCK, Charles Egbert. See Mibfbee, 
Mary Noailles. 

CKAKilE, I'earl Mary, author, b. in Ik)ston, 
3 Nov., 1867. Her name was Richards, and after 
completing her education at University college, 
Ix>ndon, she married there Reginald Walpole 
Craigie, from whom she obtaine<l a separation and 
the custody of their child in 1895. Mrs. Craigie 
resides in England, and is the author of the follow- 
ing novels and plays, all published under her pen- 
name of John Oliver Hohbes: ".Some Emotion, 
and a Moral" (New York, 1891); "The Sinner's 
"A Bundle of Life" (1895); "The Gods. Some 
Mortals," and " Lord Wickenham " (1895); "The 
Herb Moon" (1896); ".S<;hool for Saints" (1897); 
"The Ambassador,aComedv"(1898); " The Tales 
of Oliver John Hol)l>es" (lWt9): nnd " Tlic Life 
of Jami's Anthony Kroude" (Kilinlnirgh, 181)9). 

CR.^Ml', CharleH Henry, shiphuilder. b. in 
Philadelphia, 9 Mav, 1828. He was educate<l at 
the Central high scfiool ami then learned the ship- 
building tra<le, later becoming a (wrtner in the 
Arm of William Cramp & Sons, of Philadelphia. 
He is now president of the Cramp shipbuilding 
company, the largest in the country, employing 
about 6,000 workmen. During the past quarter of 
a century the (!rainps have built many of the finest 
naval and merchant vc-sxels now afloat. In their 
yards the powerful biittle-ship "Maine "is at pres- 
ent in course 'of construction, also the fa-st battle- 
ship " Alabama." — Henry W., a brother of Charles, 
is vice-president of the company. 

CRAMP, Thomas, Canadian shipbuilder, b. in 
London, Englimd, in 1827; d. in Montreal, Canada. 
18 Feb., 1885. He came to Canada in 184.5, settled 
in Montreal as a merchant, and forming a partner- 
ship with David Torrence and son. under the firm 
name of D. Torrence & Co., he began the enter- 
prise of establishing the Mississippi (now Do- 
minion) line of ocean steamships. As president 
of the Montreal btsird of trade and chairman of 
the harbor commission, he did much for the im- 
provement of the harbor and the deepening of the 
ship channel. A month before his death he be- 
came president of the Corn exchange of Montreal. 

CRANE, Stephen, author, b. in Newark, N. J., 
1 Nov., 1871. He was educated in his native city 
and at I^afayette college, Easton, Pa., but left dur- 
ing his college course, at the age of sixteen, to enter 
journalism, and was for several years occupied as 
a reporter and in writing newspaper sketches. His 
first pul)lished bcx)k, " The Red Badge of Courage " 
(1896), a story of the civil war. gained instant suc- 
cess on both sides of the Atlantic. The writer was 
commonly supiiosed for some time ir England to 
be a veteran soldier who was relating the story of 
his actual experiences. Mr. Crane now retired 
from general journalism, and has since devoted 
himself chiefly to writing stories. In 1897, when 
on the way to Culm, he was shipwrecked, and spent 
some time in an o[)en boat before he was rescued. 
Besides the book mentioned above, Mr. Crane has 
published " Maggie : A Girl of the Streets." written 
in 1891, and at that time put into type by the 
author, but not published till 1896; "George's 
Mother" (1896); "The Little Regiment" (1897); 
"The Third Violet" (1897); and "Poems" (1899). 

CRANE. William Henry, a<;tor, b. in Leices- 
ter, Mas.x.. 12 March. 1845. He made his first ap- 
pearance on the stage at Ctica. IxH-ame a leading 
comedian in Chicago, and in 1877 appeared with 
Stuart I{ol)Son at the Park theatre. New York. He 
continued with Mr. liolison for twelve years, and 
has since appeare<l in star roles in " The Senator," 
"For Money," "The American Minister," "A Vir- 
ginia Courtship." " Peter Stuyvcsant, Governor of 
New York." and many other i)lays. 

CRANFILL, Janies Britton, e<litor, b. in 
Parker county, Tex., 12. Sept., 1858. He received 
a common-school education in Gonzales county, of 
the state, studie<l for the Baptist ministry, and 
later Iwcame editor of "The Baptist Stan'dani." 
In June. 1892. he was nominated candidate for 
vice-president, with John Bidwell, of California, for 
president, by the national Prohibition party at its 
convention in the oilv of Cincinnati. 

CRAVEN, John Joseph, surgeon, b. in New 
York city, 1823; d. there, Feb. 14, 1893. Ue was 
surgeon of the Ist New Jersey volunteers, the 
first regiment from that State to take the field in 
the civil war. He was the fifth candidate to qual- 
ify as brigade surgeon, and wits placed in charge 
of the medical department of the expedition to 
South Carolina under Gen. Horatio (J. Wright, 
afterward Incoming medical director of the de- 
pariment of the Sfiuth. He was brevetted lieuten- 
ant-colonel, and directed the medical equipment 
of the expedition apainst Fort Wagner and Fort 
Sumter. Afterwarcihe acted as medical director 
of the lOtli army-corps in Virginia with Gen. 
Quincy A. Gillmore. and still later as medical di- 
rector of the department of Virginia and North 
Camlina. While filling the latter position Dr. 
Craven was given full charge of Jefferson Davis 
<liiring his incarceration as prisoner of war. He 
retired from the service soon after the war. and 
wrote a work on the prison life of Jefferson Davis, 




treating the Confederate leader generously. Dr. 
Craven was the inventor of a successful submarine 
cable for telegraphic purposes, and during the 
celebration of Cyrus W. Field's success the name 
of Craven was associated witli that of Field on 
the transparencies carried through the streets of 
New York. He invented the first gutta-percha 
covering for the purpose of insulating wires. 

CRAWFORD, Thomas Hartley, lawyer, b. in 
Chambersburg, Pa., 14 Nov., 1786; Washing- 
ton, D. C, 27 Jan., 18(i3. He was graduated at 
Princeton in 1804, studied law, was admitted to 
the bar in 1807, and began to practise in Chambers- 
burg. Later he was elected as a Jackson Democrat 
to congress, and was re-elected, serving from 7 
Dec, 1839, till 2 March, 1833. In 1836 he was 
appointed a commissioner to investigate alleged 
frauds in the purchase of the reservation of tlie 
land of the (!reek Indians. From 1838 till 1845 
he held the office of commissioner of Indian affairs. 
In 1845 he was appointed judge of the criminal 
court of the District of Columbia, and continued 
as such for nearly forty years, until his death. 

CRERAR, John, philanthropist, b. in New 
York city, 8 March, 1827 ; d. in Chicago, 111., 19 
Oct., 1889. He was of Scottish parentage, and 
was educated in 
New York, where 
he engaged in mer- 
cantile pursuits, un- 
til his removal to 
Chicago in 1863. 
There he became 
head of the firm of 
Crerar, Adams & 
Co., an incorporator 
and director of the 
Pullman palace car 
company, a director 
of the Chicago and 
Alton railroad com- 
pany, and a member 
of many important 
e^ civic organizations. 

iQ^^/yi'^^^ylyUAyl^ In 1888 he was a 
^"^ C. presidential elector 

for the 1st district of Illinois on the Kepubliean 
ticket. He was a member of the Kelief and aid 
society after the great fire of 1871, and rendered 
much assistance. He left a fortune of ^3,500,000, of 
whicli f 1,000,000 was bequeathed to various charita- 
ble and religious associations in Cliicago. He con- 
tributed $100,000 for a colossal statue of Abraham 
Lincoln, for the double reason of friendship and 
patriotism, and $3,500,000 as an endowiiuMit fnn(l 
for a public library, organized in 1894 and now in 
successful operation in Chicago, imder the name 
of the John Crerar library. He also left a be- 
quest of $25,000 to the Chicago historical society, 
and a like sum to the Scotch Presbyterian church 
established in his native city in 17b6, with which 
was erected in 1897 a parsonage adjoining the 
church, known as the "Crerar memorial manse." 
CRISP, Charles Frederick, jurist, b. in Shef- 
field, England, 24 Jan., 1845; d. in Atlanta, Ga., 
23 Oct., 1896. His parents, who were American 
actors, were abroad professionally at tlie period of 
his birth. He received a common-school education 
in Macon and Savannali, entered the Confederate 
army in May. 1861, serving for three vears. when 
he was captured. On his release, in June, 1865, he 
studied law, becoming in 1872 solicitor-general of 
the southwestern judicial circuit of Georgia, and in 
1878 judge of the superior couit of tlie same dis- 
trict. Four years later he was elected, holding 

his seat until his death. In 1891 and 1893 he was 
elected speaker of the house of representatives, and 
in 1896 he was a candidate for the U. S. senate, 
and within a week would have been elected. 

CRlTTENDEN,Thoiiia8Theodore. statesman, 
b. in Shelby county, Ky., 2 Jan., 1832; was edu- 
cated at Centre college, Danville, and adopted the 
profession of the law. He was lieutenant-colonel 
of tlie 7th Missouri cavalry from May, 1862, to the 
close of the civil war, and was appointed attorney- 
general to fill the unexpired term of Aikman 
Welch, deceased. In 1876 he was elected to con- 
gress, and was re-elected to the 45th congress. Col. 
Crittenden was governor of Missouri from Jan- 
uary, 1881, to January, 1885. His two adminis- 
trations were generally recognized as beneficial to 
the state, particularly in his enforcement of law 
and management of its finances, as well as in his 
vigilant care of the schools and other public insti- 
tutions. He is a nephew of Senator John J. Crit- 
tenden, of Kentucky, and a half-brother of Gen. 
Eli H. Murray, of the same state. 

CROKER, Richard, politician, b. in Black 
Rock, Ireland, 24 Nov., 1843. His grandfather, 
Maj. Henry Croker, was inspector-general in the 
British army, one of his uncles was a member of 
parliament, and another was governor of Ber- 
muda, He accompanied his father to the United 
States when three years of age, attended the public 
schools of New York, and has since resided in that 
city. His father served in Gen. Siekles's brigade 
during the civil war, and also in the 10th New 
York engineers. The son was elected in 1867 al- 
derman of New York ; re-elected in 1869 ; elected 
coroner in 1872; re-elected in 1875; again elected 
alderman in 1883. During the same year he was 
appointed fire commissioner, and in 1889-'90 was 
city chamberlain. He early attracted the atten- 
tion of John Kelly, was prominent in opposition 
to the Tweed ring, and rapidly advanced in power 
in the Tammany Hall organization, of which he 
has been for years the recognized leader. He was 
active in the political campaign of 1897. which 
terminated in the elect ion of Robert A. Van Wyck 
as first mavor of Greater New York. 

CROMWELL, Bartlett James, naval officer, 
b. in Nebraska, 28 March, 1841. He was the first 
naval cadet appointed from Nebraska, and gradu- 
ated as a midshipman in June, 1861. The first 
sea duty of the young officer was seen aboard the 
receiving-ship " Princeton " at Philadelphia. In 
1862 he was promoted to acting master, and was 
attached to the "Quaker City," cruising in the 
West Indies and off the blockade. His first ex- 
tensive trip was when he was commander, and was 
assigned to the navigation of Admiral Schufeldt's 
flag-ship, the " Ticonderoga," on its trip around 
the globe in 1879-"80 and 1881. In September of 
1895 he was summoned to Washington as a mem- 
ber of the examining and retiring board of the 
navy department, a position he held for two years, 
being promoted to the rank of commodore, 10 
Aug., 1898. He succeeded to the rank of rear- 
admiral when the naval personnel bill went into 
force, on 3 March, 1899. Admiral Cromwell is 
commandant of the naval station at Havana. 

CRONIN, David Edward, artist, b. in Green- 
wich, Washington co., N. Y., 13 July, 1839. He 
was educated at the Washington academy, and 
subsequently studied art in Europe, at Brussels. 
Antwerp, and Dilsseldorf. He enlisted in the Na- 
tional army during the war, and rose to be captain 
in the 1st New York mounted rifles, serving from 
August, 1863, till November, 1865. During that 
period he was judge-advocate of Gen. August V. 




Kaiitz's cavalry division and provost-marshal of 
Williamsburg. Va. He was also brcvetted iimjor. 
At the close of the war he studied law, was admit- 
ted to the bar. and practised \intil December, 1872, 
when he began the publication of the Bingham- 
ton, X. Y., "Times," a daily morning newspaper, 
which he also edited. In 1876 it was consolidated 
with the Binghaniton " Republican." Major 
Cronin is best known as an illustrator of wide- 
margin books and edilitms de luxe. He was the 
first to intnxluce this mode of illustration, and his 
work is much prized by collectors. The materials 
that he uses are jjcn-and-ink ami water-colors, the 
process being e.xcecilingly laborious and delicate. 
The execution of the work on Gen. Grant's" Per- 
sonal Memoirs" occupied the illustrator more 
than a year. Among the books that he has thus 
illustrated are " Valentino," for William Waldorf 
Astor; " Domcsticus," for William Allen Butler; 
Dame Bernerss " The Art of Fysshynge with an 
Angle"; Washington Irving's " Sketch- Book " ; 
Isaac Walton's "Complete Angler"; and three 
copies of "The Evolution of a Life" (New York, 
1884). The latter work is an account of the artistic 
career ami army experience of Major Cronin, writ- 
ten by himself and published under the pen-name 
of "Seth Eyiand." — His brother, Eiij^ene Au- 
gnstns, lawver, b. in Greenwich, N. \ ., 9 Aug., 
1841; d. in 'Portland, Ore.. 13 Nov., 1879, came 
into prominence during the excitement subsequent 
to the presidential contest of I87C. lie was a 
presidential elector for the state of Oregon. 

CROOKS, Hamsrj, fur-trader, b. in Greenock. 
Scotland. 28 .Ian.. 1780: d. in New York city, 6 
June. 1839. He came to this country in early life, 
and established himself in Wisconsin as a fur- 
trader. In 1808 he entered the service of John 
Jacob Astor, and in the following year he set out 
on an overland joumev to Astoria, on the Pacific 
coast, in company with Wilson Price Hunt, Don- 
ald McKenzic. Itobert Stewart, ami a company of 
followers, a distance of 3,.')00 miles by the route 
they travelled. Later, Mr. Crooks brcanie the 
manager of the Mackinac division of the Ameri- 
can fur company, of which Mr. Astor was the 
head. In 1834 lie sold his interest to Crooks and 
his associates, the latter becoming president, and 
Robert Stuart vice-president of the new company. 
The financial crisis of is;t6 and other causes led 
to the failure of the enterprise, and a few vears 
later the company was dissolved. Visitors to Mac- 
kinot^can see the company's ancient trading-houses, 
now known as the John Jacob Astor hotel, and 
inspect the account-lxK)ks of the old corporation, 
which are still preserved there. Mr. Crooks re- 
turned to New York, where he sjicnt the closing 
years of his active and energetic coreer. Black 
Hawk said Mr. Cr<x)ks wm< the best pale-face friend 
the red men ever had. and few chiefs from the north- 
west failed to see him when on their way to Wash- 
ington. He was fluent in French, and was master 
of the Chippewa and other Indian languai^. 

CROSBi, Frances Jane, hymn-writer, b. in 
South East, Putnam co., N. Y., 24 .March, 1820. 
She lost her sight when but six weeks old. In ISW 
she entered the institution for the blind in New 
York city, and was gra<luate<l from it in 1844. 
She was apiminted teacher of English grammar, 
rhetoric, (ireck and Roman history, in the institu- 
tion in 1847, and continued to teach these subjects 
until 1858, when she married Alexander Vanal- 
styne. a teacher of music in New York citv. and 
blind like herself. While very young she sliowed 
a remarkable ability at verse-making; this ability 
she turned to the writing of hymns, and her suc- 

cess heroin was great. Perhaps the best known of 
her hymns are " .Safe in the Arms of Jesus," " Pass 
me not, O Gentle Saviour." "Jesus is Calling," 
" Rescue the Perishing," " Ble.ssed Assurance," 
" Saved by Grace," " Jesus keep me near the Cross," 
and " I am Thine, O Lord." Among her publica- 
tions may be mentioned "The Blind Girl, and 
other Poems" (New York, 1844); "An Address 
comiiosed and delivered ... at an Exhibition" 
(184«); "Monterey" (1849); " Pilgrim Fathers," 
in collaboration with George F. Root (Boston, 
1854); "A Wreath of Columbia's Flowers" (New 
York, 1859); "Bells of Evening" (1897). Her 
hymns in Mootiy and Sankey's "Gosf>el Hymns" 
and in Mr. Sankey's ".Socre<l Songs and Solos" 
have attained a remarkably wide circulation in 
the I'nited States, and abroad as well. 

CROUCH, Frederick IVllliam Nicolls, com- 
poser, b. in London, England ; d. in Portland, 
Jle., 19 Aug., 1896. He was the son of a nmsi- 
cian, and at an early age became a singer and a 
violinist in the orchestra of Drury Lane theatre. 
In 1849 he came to this country, becoming a 
teacher and comp<»ser of music. He served 
through the civil war as a private in the Rich- 
mond Grays, soon after its close establishing him- 
self in Baltimore as a teacher. His best-known 
composition is " Kathleen Mavourneen," the mel- 
odj of which he wrote in I.iondon to words re- 
ceived from their author, Mrs. Crawford. Cora 
Pearl, a celebrated character of Paris in the days 
of Napoleon III., was his eldest daughter. 

CROW, James, distiller, b. in Scotland about 
1800; d. near Glenn's Creek, Ky.. in ia'i9. He 
was graduated as a phvsiclan in Edinburgh, and 
in 1822 came to Philaifelphia, where he engaged 
unsuccessfully in business, and then emigrated to 
Woo«lford county, Ky. Here his knowledge of 
chemistrv enabled him to improve the rude meth- 
ods of distilling whiskey ttien in vogue. His 
nnxluct soon became widelv known, and he gave 
nis name to one of the best-known brands of 
whiskey. He also practised medicine to a limited 
extent, and his opinions on this subject and on le- 
gal, litcrarv, and theological questions were high- 
Iv reganieii in the region where he livcil. 
' CROZAT-CONVERSE, Charles, composer, b. 
in Warren, .Mass.. 20 Jan., lXi'2. He studied law 
and music in I-eipsic, and, retuniing to the United 
.States, was graduated at the Albany law-school in 
1861. He has comjMJsed much church and other 
miisic.and his "American Overture" was played at 
the World's Columbian eximsition by the Theodore 
Thomas orchestra, and since then by Anton Seidl's 
orchestra in New York. He is a contributor to 
current literature and has published in a quarto 
volume " Hail Columbia, Overture Auiericaine 
[)oiir (irand Orchestra" (Paris, 1889). 

CRr<JEK, JiiUa Urinnell Storrow (Julien 
Gordon), author, b. in Paris of American par- 
ents alK)ut 1850. She is the widow of Col. Van 
Rensselaer Crugcr, and before his death in June, 
1898, was j)rominent in New York society. Mrs. 
Cniger is the author of the following novels, all 
issued with the pen-name of "Julien Gordon": 
"How She Did It" (New York, 1888): "A Diplo- 
mat's Diarv" (Philadelphia, 1890); "The Puritan 
Pagan" (N'ew York. 1891): "A Successful Man" 
and "Marionettes" (1892); "Mademoiselle Rc- 
s*'da" and "Mis Letters" (1893); "Poppaja" 
(1894); "A We<Iding, and other Stories," and 
"Eat not thy Heart" (Chicago, 1897). 

CRI'.M.VKLL, Alexander, clergyman, b. in 
New York city, 3 March. 1819; d. in Washington, 
D. C, 10 Sept., 1898. His father was a native 




African, his mother a free woman. He received 
his education in Canaan and Oneida, N. Y., and 
was the second ordained colored minister of his 
country, having pursued his theological studies 
under i)r. A. H. Vinton, of Providence, and being 
ordained by Bishop Lee, of Delaware. His posi- 
tion here was so unpleasant that he went to Eng- 
land, entered Cambridge university after preach- 
ing there and elsewhere, and was graduated in 
1853. Going to Africa, he became a rector and 
professor of Liberia college, where he remained 
until 1873. Prom that year until 1894 Dr. Crum- 
niell was rector of St. Luke's church, Washing- 
ton, where ho erected a fine stone building supple- 
mented by a parish hall. On his retirement as 
rector emeritus of St. Luke's he was elected presi- 
dent of the Colored ministry union, and in 1885 
he was appointed a member of the commission for 
church-work among tlie colored peoplv,. 

CUESTAS, Juan Lisboa, Uruguayan presi- 
dent, b. in Paysandu, 6 .Jan., 1837. He studied in 
Montevideo and Buenos Ayres, and returned to 
Pay.sandii as secretary of Col. Ambrosio Sandes. 
In 1865 he was appointed a member of the board 
of public instruction, and later filled an important 
position in the Banco Italiano of Montevideo, act- 
ing afterward as manager of the branch office 
in Paysandu. In 1870 was appointed receiver of 
the custom-house of Salto, and also auditor. In 
1877 the administration of Col. Latorre intrusted 
1o him the organization of taxes anil real estate, 
besides that of the public debt. In 1879 he was 
appointed collector of custom-houses, and in 1880 
secretary of the treasury. In 1886 President 
Francisco Vidal selected him as secretary of state, 
which he afterward resigned and went to Buenos 
Ayres as minister of LTniguay. In 1887 Mr. Cues- 
tas returned to Montevideo, acting as substitute 
for Senator-General Santos, who was in Europe, 
and in 1891 as representative, being re-elected in 
1894 for Montevideo. In 1891 Paysandu elected 
him senator, and in 1897 he was appointed presi- 
dent of the senate. When in August, 1898, Presi- 
dent Idiarte Borda was shot by a political fanatic, 
Mr. Cuestas was given charge of the public ad- 
ministration, and after a turbulent period he 

WHS almost unanimously elected president of the 
republic, in March, 1899, by a vote of seventy-five 
members of the assembly. 

CURTIS, James Langdon, presidential candi- 
date, b. in Stratford, Conn., 19 Feb., 1816. He 
was educated in his native town, and engaged in 
business in New York city, where, as colonel of the 
9th regiment, he did good service in putting down 
the hour riots in 1835. He was nommated by the 
Labor party for governor of Connecticut in 1884, 
and in 1888 became the candidate of the national 
American partv for president 

CURTIS, William Eleroy, journalist, b. in 
Akron, Ohio, 5 Nov., 1850. He was graduated 
from the Western Reserve college, selecting jour- 
nalism as his profession,and being for fourteen years 
on the staff of the Chicago " Inter-Ocean." Since 
1887 he has been the Washington correspondent 
of the Chicago " Record." He had charge of the 
Columbus manuscripts at the expo.sition of 1893. 
Mr. Curtis is the author of "The Land of the Ni- 
hilist " (New York, 1888) : " The Capitols of .Span- 
ish America" (1888); "Christopher Columbus 
Portraits" (Chicago, 1893); "Venezuela" (1896); 
" The Yankees of the East : Japan " (Chicago, 
1896); "The United States and Foreign Powers" 
(1897): and "To-day in France and Germany." 

CUSHINU, William, author, b. in Lunenburg, 
Mass., 15 May, 1811 : d. in Cambridge, Mass.. 27 
Aug., 1895. His brother, Edmund Lambert (1807- 
'83),waschief justice of New Hampshire in 1874-'6; 
another brotherwas Luther Stearns. William was 
graduated at Harvard in 1832, and at the divinity- 
school there in 1839, and pi-eached till 1857, when 
he removed to a farm in Clinton, Mass. He went to 
Cambridge in 1868, became library assistant in the 
Harvard library, and after 1878, when he was dis- 
charged, engaged in literary pursuits. He spent 
several years in collecting material for a volume 
entitled"" The Century of Authors, 1778-1880," the 
manuscript of which was acquired by the publish- 
ers of the " Cyclopa'dia,'' and has been used in its 
preparation. His published books are " Index to 
the North American Review" (Boston, 1878); 
" Index to the Christian Examiner " (1879) ; and 
"Initials and Pseudonyms" (1885-'8). 





DALES, John Blakely. clergyman, b. in Kort- 
right, Dfliiware co., N. V., 6 Aug., 1815; d. in 
Chautauqim, 28 Aug.. 1893. lie was graduated at 
Union college in 1835, and at the Associate re- 
formed Pre.sbjrtcrian theological seminary. New- 
burg, N. Y., in 1839. and entered the ministrvof that 
chnrch. After 1840 he was pastor of the first As- 
sociate Reformed (now Second Cnited) Presbyterian 
church, Philadelphia, Franklin college gave him 
the degree of D. I), in 1853. Dr. Dales was an 
editor of the "Christian Instructor" in 184tt-'79, 
professor of church history and pastoral theology 
in Newburg seminary in 1867-'76, and has held 
various offices in his denomination. He was the 
antfaor of " Roman Catholicism " (Philadelphia, 
1842); "Introduction to Lectures on Odd Fellow- 
ship" (1851); "The Dangers and Duties of Young 
Men " (1857) ; " History of the Associate Reformed 
Church " in " The Church Memorial " (Xenia, 
1859); and a "Church Manual" (1884). 

DALLT, Abram, soldier, b. in New York city, 
12 Aug., 1795 ; d. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 15 Feb., 1893. 
He enlisted in the 11th New York heavy artillery 
in 1812, and during the war with Great Britain 
wa.s on duty at Fort Gansevoort and at the Block- 
house, in what is now Central park. On the for- 
mation in 1850 of an association of veterans of the 
war of 1812 he became a member, and rose in it to 
the rank of brigadier-general. He was the last 
survivor of the war in the vicinity of New York, 
and was for many vears a familiar flgnre when on 
national holidays he hoiste<l the flag at the old 
Blockhouse in Central park and at the Battery. 

DAME, Harriet Palienoe, nurse, h. in Barn- 
stead, N. II., 5 .Jan , 1815. Her parents moved to 
Bamstead about 1797, and in 1843 Miss Dame 
went to (!oncord, where she re8ide<I until the civil 
war. She joined the 2d New IIami>shirc n-giment 
as hospital matron in June, 1861, and remaine<l 
with it until it was mustered out in December, 
1865. Miss Dame was inside the trenches at Fair 
Oaks, where she pa-xsed a dark night alone in the 
thick woods, the only woman in the brigade, car- 
ing for the wounded of other regiments as well as 
her own. She was on duty as nurse near the old 
stone church at Centrcville while her regiment 
jjarticipated in the soc-ond battle of Bull Run. 
There she wa.s taken prisoner, but was soon relea.«e<l. 
Miss Dame wan appointed matron of the 181h army- 
corps hospital in SeptemlK-r, 1864. and hwl siitier- 
vision of the nurx's on duty. Of her services. Gen. 
Oilman Marstxin, who was long colonel of the 2d 
regiment, said : '" Wherever the regiment went 
she went, often going on foot, and sometimes 
camping on the field without tent. . . . She was 
truly an angel of mercy, the bravest woman I ever 
knew. I have seen her face a battery without 
flinching." In Augiist, 1867, she was ap|)ointe<l to 
a clerkship in the treasury department. In 1886 
she deposited f 1.000 with a committee of the 2<1 
regiment veterans to erect a building for their en- 
campment at I>ake Winnipiseogee. N. H. On the 
death of Dorothy L. Dix. iliss Dame succeeiled to 
the presidency of the e.x-iiriny nurses' association. 

DANA, Alexander Hamilton, author, b. in 
Owego, N. Y.. 4 .luly. 1807; .1. in Montclair. N. J., 
27 April, 1887. His father, Kleazar, was presiding 
ju<lge of the Owego district. The son was gradu- 
ated at Union college, studied law in New York, 
and afterward was the he«<l of the firm of Dana, 
Woodruff & Ijeonard till 1854. Subsequently he 

vol,. VII.— 11 

practised either by himself or with his son, Fran- 
cis E. Dana. Mr. Dana was the author of the 
legal articles in the "New AmcricanCyclopajdia" 
and works on "Knigmas of Life. Death, and the 
Future State " (1860) ; " Ethical and Physiological 
Inquiries" (New York, 18()2) ; and " Inductive In- 
quiries in Physiology. Ethics, and Ethnology" 
(1873).— His son, Malcolm McUregor, clergyman. 
h. in Brooklyn, N. Y., 4 June. 1838: d. there, 26 
July, 1897, was graduated at Amherst in 18.59 and 
at t'nion theological seminary. New York, in 1862, 
and held Congregational pastorates in Norwich, 
Conn., in 18«4-'78, and then in St. Paul, Minn., till 
1888, when he accepted a call to Lowell, Mass. He 
was an organizer of the Minnesota board of chari- 
ties and correction,. served as chaplain of the legis- 
lature of that state in 1885, and was identified with 
the educational development of the northwest. 
Middlebury gave him the degree of D. D. in 1877. 
He was the author of " Memorial of Norwich in the 
Rebellion " (Norwich. Conn., 1874) and " The Story 
of Carleton College" (St. Paul. Minn., 1880). 

DANA, Edmund Lovell, soldier, b. in Wilkes- 
barre. Ph., 29 Jan., 1817: d. there. 25 April, 1889. 
He was grwliiated at Yale in 1838, studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar. In December, 1846, 
when the government called for troops to aid in 
the war with Mexico, he was captain of the Wy- 
oming artillerists, and, tendering the services of 
his company, participated in all the battles of that 
war. In 1862 he wius major-general of Pennsyl- 
vania militia, and was appointed by the governor 
commandant of a camp of organization. On 18 
Oct., 1862, he was elected colonel of the 143d Peim- 
svlvania regiment, and was in all the battles of 
the Annv of the Potomac from this time until the 
close of t^e civil war. The command of his brigade 
devolvetl upon him at the Imttle of Gettysburg, in 
which he met and refielle<i the last charge of Ix)ng- 
street's corps, his brign<ie losing more than half its 
entire strength. At Chancellorsville his horse was 
shot under him, and he was wounded and taken 
prisoner. In June, 18(}4, he was one of 50 oflicers 
that were placed under Are of the National guns 
at Charleston in retaliation for the bombardment 
of that city. In August, 1865, he was brcvetted 
brigmlier-general of volunteers. He resumed his 
law practice, and in 1867 wasele<>ted additional law 
judge of the 11th district of Pennsylvania for ten 
years. He was president of the Wyoming histor- 
ical and genealogical swiely and a member of va- 
rious societies, (ien. Dana published " Address 
delivered before the Mathelian Society, Kingston, 
Pa." (1845); "Address beforetheSociotiesof Muh- 
lenhnrg College" (1881); and "Incidents in the 
Life of Cnpt. Samuel H. Walker" (1882). 

DANFOKTH, Kdnard, educator, b. in Hills- 
borough county, N. H., 4 Dec, 1828; d. in Elmira, 
N. Y., 3 June,' 1888. He was educated at home, 
began to teach in New York state when he was 
sixteen years old. and afterward went to Grand 
Rai>ids, Mich., where in five years he built up a 
system of schools that attracted wide attention by 
their improved methmls. Mr. Danforth was then 
successively superintendent of schools in Troy, 
N. Y., deputy .state superintendent for two terms, 
and superintendent of schools in Elmira, where he 
remained till his death. He was an active mem- 
ber of the Slate teachers' association after 1856, 
serving eighteen years as an officer and contrib- 
uting papers to its proceedings. He imblished 




" Mind Studies for Young Teachers," and was edi- 
tor of the " New York State Recorder," an annual, 
and "Tlie Sunday-School at Work," a quarterly. 

DANFORTH, Elliot, lawyer, b. in Middleburg, 
Schoharie co., N. Y., G March, 1850. lie studied 
at the public schools of his native town and at the 
Schoharie academy. He then travelled widely in 
the western part of tlie country and on the I'acific 
slope, and was admitted to the bar in 1873. In 
1878 he formed a law partnership with George II. 
Winsor, and in 1880 he was elected president of 
the village of Bainbridge, holding the office for 
three terms. lie was also a member of the local 
board of education, in 1880 he was sent as a 
delegate to the national Democratic convention 
at Cincinnati, and in 1884 to the Chicago conven- 
tion, lie declined the offer of a nomination to 
congress in 1880. In 1884 he was appointed 
deputy state treasurer and held the position until 
1889, when he was elected treasurer; two years 
later he was re-elected. He was nominated for 
lieutenant-governor at the Democratic convention 
at Syracuse, 29 Sept., 1898. He has published 
addresses on " Indians of New York," delivered 
before the Oneida county historical society; on 
" Old Schoharie," delivered before the Schoharie 
county historical society ; and " Address at the 
280th"Celebration of the Purchase of Mamaroneok, 
N. Y.. from the Indians. Sept. 21, 1891." 

DANIEL, James Jacqiielln, lawyer, b. in Co- 
lumbia, S. C., 14 Aug., 1832; d. in Jacksonville, 
Pla.. 2 Oct., 1888. He taught in, and then con- 
ducted an academy for boys in Columbia, S. C, 
until 1848, when he removed to Florida, where he 
studied law and was admitted to practice. This 
profession he followed until the beginning of the 
civil war, when he raised a company for the 2d 
Florida infantry, and accompanied that regiment 
to Virginia. He took part in the peninsula cam- 
paign of 1863, ()ut failing health compelled him 
to return to Florida, where ho was placed in 
charge of the conscript bureau. This post he 
held, with the rank of colonel, until the close of 
the war, when he returned to Jacksonville and 
resumed the practice of law. Refusing all politi- 
cal appointments, he continued active in his pro- 
fession until his death, which was caused by yellow 
fever. Col. Daniel was interested in the develop- 
ment of Jacksonville, was president of its board 
of health, its auxiliary association, tlie Florida 
emigration society, and the Florida publishing 
company, and was an officer or director ni various 
banks, railroads, and other corporations. 

DANIELS, Charles, jurist, b. in New York 
city, 12 iMarch, 1836 ; d. in Buffalo, 30 Dec. 1897. 
He was left an orphan at the age of ten, and at 
fourteen apjirenticed himself to a shoemaker in 
Buffalo, at the same time studying law in the 
intervals of work. He afterward became clerk in 
a lawyer's office, and in 1847 was admitted to the 
bar. In 1863 he was elected a justice of the state 
supreme court as a Republican, to fill a vacancy, 
and in 1869 he was re-elected, serving until 1891. 
In 1886 he was an unsuccessful candidate forjudge 
of the court of appeals. After his retirement from 
the bench Judge Daniels was chosen to the 53d 
and 54th congresses, and later he practised his 
profession in ISutfalo till his death. 

DARWIN, Charles Robert, English naturalist, 
b. in Shrewsbury, England, 13 Feb., 1809; d. in 
Down, Kent, England, 18 April, 1883. He was a 
grandson of Dr. Erasmus Darwin. Immediately 
after his graduation at Cambridge in 1831 he vol- 
unteered to accompany the ship "Beagle" as 
naturalist on an exploring expedition around the 


V te<*^ 



world, on which he was engaged till 2 Oct., 1836. 
Ijeaving the ship at Valparaiso, Darwin crossed the 
South American continent to Buenos Ayres, dis- 
covering on his way the gigantic fossil remains 
that first brought his name into notice. On his 
return he settled on 
a country estate in 
Kent, where he spent 
liis life in scientific 
occupations, writing 
his remarkable works 
on botany and natu- 
ral history, and pro- 
pounding the theory 
of the origin of spe- 
cies by the natural 
selection of favora- 
ble variations, which 
soon became cele- 
brated as the Dar- 
winian theory. His 
writings that relate 
to this hemisphere 
include "Journal of 
Researches during a 
Voyage Around the World" (1839); "Geological 
Observations in South America" (1846); and 
many papers, such as " The Connection of Certain 
Volcanic Phenomena in South America." See 
" Life and Letters of Charles Darwin," by his son, 
Francis (3 vols.. New York, 1887). 

DAVENPORT, Charles, manufacturer, b. at 
Newton, Mass., 25 May, 1812. Having learned 
the coach and carriage builders' trade, he began 
for himself in 1832 at Cambridge. In 1834, as 
the firm of Davenport & Bridges, lie entered upon 
the business of building railroad cars, and for some 
years of locomotives. As ear-builders his was not 
only the pioneer firm of the United States, but 
for the twenty-two years during which he carried 
on the business his was the largest car establish- 
ment in the country, having factories at Cam- 
bridgeport, an<l from 1840-'50 also at Pierniont 
and Newburg, N. Y. His first cars for the Boston 
and Worcester railroad, early in 1835, were after the 
pattern of a long omnibus upon four wheels, seat- 
ing 24, to be entered by a central door upon either 
side, and from a step running the length of the 
car, as on a modern open street-car. Within the 
fixed seats faced all one way, and were separated 
on either side by a central aisle the length of the 
car. The car was turned about on turn-tables 
at the end of each trip. In the cars built next 
he made the seats with narrow, reversible backs, 
and by next year with broad backs, similar to the 
modern car-seat. He thus did away with the need 
of turning around the car itself. In 1837 he built 
the entrance door and platform steps at the ends 
of the car, instead of the side, thus opening a pas- 
sageway through a train from ear to car. In 
1838-'9"he built the first 8-wheel car, to seat 60, 
and in 1840 tlie first 16-wheel car, to carry 76 pas- 
sengers. Thus from year to year he constantly 
added new improvements, as he had earlier been 
the first to build a large pleasure-party barge 
sleigh. In 1856 he retired from business, having 
constructed over $4,000,000 worth of care for over 
fifty different railroads in this country and Cuba. 
He was an advocate and promoter of many public 
improvements in and about the city of Boston. 
Among others, the originator of the earliest plan 
for the Boston Back Bay park, and of the Charles 
river embankment improvement in Cambridge, 
upon the opposite side of the river, both of which 
have now been largely carried out. He resides 




near his son. Dr. Bennett P. Davenport (g. v.), in 
the Boston suburb of Watertown. 

DAVID, Lanrent Olivier, Canadian journalist, 
b. at Sault au Kooollet, near Montreal, 24 March. 
1842. He was educated at the Seminary of Ste. 
Therese, and became an advocate in 1864, but 
a<lopt«d journalism as )iis profession, and was edi- 
tor of " L'Opinion Publique " from 1870 to 1884. 
Mr. David was also connected at different times 
with " Le Bien Publi(iue," "Le Pavs," " Le 
Temps," •' La Patrie," and " L'Union." Mr. David 
is a fellow of the Koyal society of Canada, and ha.s 
sat in the legislature of Quelicc as member for 
Montreal East. His published works are " Biogra- 
phies et Portraits de nos principaux Canadiens- 
Franvais" and " Patriotes de 18:l7-'8." 

DA VIES. Thomas Frederick. P. E. bishop, b. 
in Fairfield, Conn., 31 Aug., 1831. lie wa.s gradu- 
ated from Yale in 1853 and from the Berkeley 
divinity school three years later. He was or- 
dained deacon by Bishop Williams, and by that 
prelate advanced to the priestlioo<i in 18.57. Mr. 
Davies was called to St. John's churt^h, Ports- 
mouth, N. II., of which he was rector to Easter, 
1868, when he was invited to his second parish, 
St. Peter's, Philadelphia, remaining there until 
elected bishop of Michigan in 188U, being conse- 
crated in his own church, where he had Ix^en rector 
nearly a quarti'r of a century, 18 .Oct., 1889. Bish- 
op Davies received his degree of I). D. from the 
ifniversitv of Pennsylvania. 

DAVIli, Nicholas Flood, Canadian journalist, 
b. at Kilflnane, Ireland, 13 Jan., 1843: educate<l 
at a college afliliated with Ijondon university, and 
afterwanl at Queen's college, Cork. He wascalled 
to the English l>ar. Middle temple, and subse- 
quently he was enrolled a barrister of Ontario and 
the northwest territories of Canada. He early at- 
tached himself to journalism. He was the war 
correspondent of the "Irish Times" and the Lon- 
don "Standard" during the Franco-German cam- 
paign, and at the siege of Montmedy he was 
wounded. Ho was a writer for the Toronto 
"Globe," and afterward he contribute<l important 
articles to the Toronto "Mail." In 1879 the 
Canadian government sent him to Wa.shington to 
inquire into the system of management of Indian 
industrial schools. He then proceeded to Mani- 
toba and took evidence on the best location for 
such schools, an<l on his report the system in 
vogue in Cana<la at present isbase<l. He was sec- 
retary to the royal commission Cana<lian PaciBc 
railway, and to the commission to inquire into the 
Chinese immigration (piestion. In March. 1883. 
Mr. Davin established "The Kogina Leader." and 
in 1884 he was named a delegate to Ottawa to 
represent the claims of the northwest territories 
before the Dominion government. He has been a 
member of the house of commons of Canada since 
1877. His works are "The Irishman in Canada" 
(1887). "Eos. an Epic of the Dawn, and other 
Poems," "The Fair Grit," " British versuji ,\mer- 
ican Civilization" (1894), "The Earl of Beacons- 
fleld," " Culture and Practical Power," " Ireland 
and the Empire," and " France and (ierniany." 

DAVIS, Alexander JackHon, architect,' b. in 
New York, 24 .luly, 1803; <1. in West Orange, 
N. J., 14 Jan., 1892. He pa-sscd some time in 
the studv of architecture, and in 1826 opencfl an 
office, fie wai in partnership with Ithiel Town 
in 1829-'43. and the two intrrKlucc<l numy novel- 
ties and improvements in building in this coun- 
try. Mr. Davis designed the executive de|>art- 
ment and patent office in Washington (1834), the 
Capitols of Illinois and Indiana (1837), tJhio (1839), 

and North Carolina, the University of Michigan, 
and the Virginia military institute. He also de- 
signed the New York custom-house, and was the 
founder of the American institute of architects. 
In 1831 Mr. Davis was elected an associate mem- 
ber of the National academy. 

DAVIS, Charles Wilder, soldier, b. in Con- 
cord, Mass., 11 Oct.. 1833 ;d. in Chicago, III., 16 
Dec, 1898. He attended the common schools, 
and at eighteen he entered the 5th Massachusetts 
infantry, in which he received his early military 
training. In 1861 he was living in Chicago and 
was commissioned adjutant of the 51st Illinois. 
He was present at the siege of Island No. 10 and 
took part in the battle of Corinth. In September, 
1862, he became major, and was wounded in the 
battle of Chickamauga. Later he was promoted 
to lieutenant-colonel, and was severely wounded 
in the battle of Missionary Ridge, being in the hos- 
pital for many months. lie was promoted colonel 
in May, 1865, and the same day received the sur- 
render of Gen. M. Jeff Thompson and 7,000 Con- 
federates. He was mustered out and returned to 
Chicago, where he afterward resided. At the 
time of his death Col. Davis was commander of 
the Illinois commandery of the Loyal legion. 

DAVIS, (Jporpe Koyal. soldier, b. in Palmer, 
.Mass..3 June, 1840; d. in Chicago. 25 Nov., 1899. He 
studied for college, but enlisted as a private in the 
8th Massachusettji 
regiment at the 
opening of the 
civil war, and at 
its close had risen 
to be colonel of 
the 3d Rhwie Isl- 
and volunteer cav- 
alry. He then re- 
ceived a staff ap- 
pointment in the 
regular army, but 
resigned in 1871, 
and has since re- 
sided in Chicago. 
He was electeil to 
congress as a He- 
publican in 18(8, 
and was re-elected 
in 1880 and 1882. 
In 1886 Col. Davi 
became treasurer 
of Cook county. He was a delegate to the national 
Kepubliean conventions of 1884 and 1888, also a 
memlK'r of the national Republican committee 
and one of its officers. He was foremost in the 
promotion of the World's fair of 1893, and in 1890 
was made director-general of the exhibition, which 
owed much of its success to his executive ability. 

DAVIS, (Jeorge Whit«ileld, soldier, b. in 
Thompson. Conn., 26 July, 18:19. He studied at 
Nichols acadi'iny. Dudley, Mass., but was not 
graduated. He enlisted in the 11th Connecticut 
infantrv, 27 Nov., 1861, and was promoted 1st 
lieutenant, 5 April, 1862, captain and assistant 


quartermaster of volunteers, 22 May, 1865. major 
and quartermaster, assigned on 31 May, 1865. hold- 
ing tlie position until 5 Feb.. 1866, and was honor- 
ably mustered out 20 April, 1866. He entered the 
regular armv, and was comniissione<l captain of 
the 14th iiiriintry,22 Jan., 1867 ; he served as lieu- 
tenant-colonel and aide-de-camp to Gen. Sheridan 
from 15 April to 10 Oct., 1885. lie was made 
major of the 9th infantry on 16 Aug., 1894. He 
was assistant engineer until the completion of the 
Washington monument. From 1890 until 1893 




he was general manager of the Nicaragua canal 
company while on leave of absence from his army 
duties, and from 1895 to 1898 he was president of 
the board of publication of the official records of 
the war of the rebellion. At the outbreak of the 
war with Spain in 1898 he was made brigadier- 
general of volunteers and placed in command of 
the 2d division of the Sd army-corps. 

DAVIS, Henry Gassoway, senator, b. in How- 
ard county, Md., 16 Nov.. 1823. lie received a 
limited education, and in 1843 became a brakeman 
on the Baltimore and Oliio railroad. He was soon 
advanced to higher positions on the road, and in 
1858 settled in West Virginia, becoming president 
of a bank. Mr. Davis was elected to the legisla- 
ture in 1865 ami to the state senate in 1868 and 
1870. He was a delegate to the Democratic na- 
tional convention in 1868, and in 1871 took his 
seat in the U. S. senate, wliere he served until 1883, 
having been elected for two full terms. 

DAVIS, Samuel, spv, b. in Rutherford county, 
Tenn., in 1842; d. at Pulaski, Tenn., 27 Nov., 1863. 
He entered the Confederate army, 1861, as a mem- 
ber of Ledbetter's company of the 1st Tennessee 
regiment. He was detached from his regiment 
soon afterward and assigned to scout duty. In 
October, 1863, Gen. Bragg, desiring to be informed 
of the strength and fortifications of the Federal 
artny in middle Tennessee, selected Davis for that 
duty. After accomplishing his purpose he was 
arrested on his return, within the Federal lines, on 
20 Nov., and a plan of the fortifications of Nash- 
ville, Pulaski, and other places of importance found 
on his person. The accuracy of the plans and 
minuteness of detail showed at once that the in- 
formant was a man of high position among the 
Federal engineers. He was questioned as to his 
source of information, and, while admitting that 
the plans had been furnished him by a Federal 
officer, he resolutely refused to give the name. 
Gen. Dodge, the post commander, convened a court- 
martial, which found him guilty and sentenced 
him to be hanged on Friday, 27 Nov., 1863. Capt. 
Armstrong, who had charge of the execution, said 
to Davis on the scaffold, " I am sorry to be com- 
pelled to perform this painful duty." Davis re- 
plied that he had no feelings against Capt. Arm- 
strong; he had done his duty and was ready to die. 
Capt. Chickasaw then asked the prisoner if it were 
not better to save his life by disclosing the name 
of the officer who furnished the information, and 
intimated that it was not yet too late. Davis an- 
swered with indignation : " Do you suppose that I 
would betray a friend. No, sir, I would die a 
thousand deaths first. I will not betray the con- 
fidence of my informer oven to save my own life." 
An appropriate monument to his memory has 
been erected over his grave at Pulaski. 

DAVIS, Varina Anne Jefferson, author, b. in 
Richmond, Va., in 1864 ; d. at Narragansett Pier, 
R. I., 18 Sept., 1898. She was the youngest of the 
five children of Jefferson Davis (q. v.), was edu- 
cated at Heidelberg, and was highlv accomplished 
in French and German. Much o'f her life was 
spent at Beauvoir, her father's plantation home, in 
Mississippi. After the death of Mr. Davis she fre- 
quently appeared on public occasions in the south, 
where she was affectionately known as " the Daugh- 
ter of the Confederacy." It was at a reunion of 
the Confederate veterans in Atlanta that Miss 
Davis was exposed to a severe rain-storm, which 
caused her death two months later. She received 
a public funeral in Richmond, and was buried by 
the side of her father in Hollywood cemeterv. For 
many years Miss Davis was a favorite in soci'etv and 

a constant contributor to current literature. Her 
principal writings are " The Veiled Doctor" (New- 
York, 1892), her most popular novel, and her latest, 
entitled a " Romance of Summer Seas " (1898). 

DAWES, Rufus R., soldier, b. in Malta, Ohio, 4 
July, 1838 ; d. in Marietta, Ohio, 1 Aug., 1899. He 
was graduated at Marietta college in 1860. and in 
the following year entered the army as captain of the 
6th Wisconsin infantry. He participated in twenty 
battles during the war, and was promoted to colonel 
of his regiment, receiving in 1866 the brevet of 
brigadier-general. His business was that of a lum- 
ber merchant, and from 1871 until his death he was 
a trustee of Marietta college. He served one term 
in congress in 1880-'2, and declined the mission to 
Persia, which was proffered to him by President 
McKinley. — His son, Charles Gates, b. in Mariet- 
ta, Ohio, 37 Aug.. 1865, was graduated at Marietta 
college in 1884, and at the Cincinnati law-school, 
practising law for seven years in Nebraska. He 
was the leader of the McKinley movement in Illi- 
nois, resulting in instructions for McKinley at the 
Springfield, III., convention of April, 1896. In 
January, 1898, he was appointed comptroller of 
the currency. He is the author of " The Banking 
Systems of the United States." 

DAWSON, JDneas MacDonell, Canadian au- 
thor, b. in Redhaven, Scotland, 30 July, 1810. He 
was educated in Scotland and Prance, entered the 
Roman Catholic priesthood on 2 April, 1835, and 
has held charges in Canada. The University of 
Kingston gave him tlie degree of LL. D. in 1886. 
He is the author of " The Temporal Sovereignty 
of the Pope" (London, 1860); "Our Strength and 
their Strength" (Ottawa, 1870); "Life and Time 
of Pius IX." (1880) ; "The Last Defender of Jeru- 
salem." a poem (1882) ; " Zenobia," a poem (1883) ; 
and several admirable translations. 

DAWSON, Samnel Edward, Canadian pub- 
licist, b. in Halifax, Nova Scotia, June, 1833, and was 
educated there. He entered the book establishment 
of his father, the late Benjamin Dawson, in Mont- 
real, at an early age, and subsequently became sen- 
ior partner in the firm of Dawson Bros. Laval 
university conferred on him the degree of doctor 
of letters, and for some years he has been an active 
member of the Royal society of Canada. In Novem- 
ber, 1891, Dr. Dawson was appointed queen's printer 
and controller of stationery, with residence at Ot- 
tawa. He has written verse, his best-known poem 
being " Champlain." He is the author of " Copy- 
right in Books," " Old Colonial Currencies," " A 
Study of Lord Tennyson's ' Princess,' " " A Hand- 
Book of the Dominion of Canada," " A Hand- 
Book of Montreal," "Canada and Newfoundland" 
(1897) ; and various papers on the Cabots. 

DAY, James Roscoe, clergyman, b. at Whit- 
neyville, Me., 17 Oct., 1845. He was educated in 
Wesleyan seminary, and was a member of the class 
of 1874 of Bowdoin college, but did not grad- 
uate. Dr. Day has held various charges in the 
Methodist Episcoj)al church at Portland. Me., 
Boston, and New \ ork city, and has been a trustee 
of Maine Wesleyan seminary and Boston univer- 
sity, also a member of the general conferences and 
boards of his denomination. In 1893 he became 
cliancellor of Syracuse university. His literary 
work is confined to magazine articles and sermons. 
He has received the degrees of S. T. D. and LL. D. 

DAY, William Rufns, statesman, b. in Ra- 
venna, Ohio. 17 Ajiril, 1849. His father, Luther 
Day, was judge of the supreme court of Ohio. 
The son entered the University of Michigan, at 
Ann Arbor, from which he was graduated in 1870. 
He then read law at Ravenna in the office of Judge 




G. P. Robinson for eighteen months, after which he 
returned to Ann Arbor and attended law lectures 
for a year. In July, 1872, he was admitted to the 
Ohio bar, and soon formed a partnership with 
William A. Lynch at Canton, Ohio, where he also 
made the acquaintance of the prosecutin": attor- 
ney of Stark county. M ajor William McKinlcy, Jr. 
In the spring of 18i% he was elected judge of the 
common pleas court of the ninth judicial district 
of Ohio, and served until the following year, when 
he resigned to give his attention more closely to 
the practice of his profession. President Harrison 
nominated him to be U. S. district judge for the 
northern district of Ohio, and the senate eon- 
firmed the nomination ; but on the advice of his 
physician, however, he declined the honor. Ills 
health was somewhat recufierated by an outing in 
the woods of northern Michigan in the summer 
and fall of 1889, after which he returned to his 
home in Canton, and left it only at the urgent re- 
aucst of McKinlcy when the latter became presi- 
dent. John Sherman was appointed secretary of 
state, and Judge Day became his assistant. lie 
had just been appointed by the president a s|)ecial 
commissioner toCnba to investigate the Kuiz case, 
but the peculiar state of affairs in the state de- 
partment induced the jiresident to retain Judge 
I)aT near at hand. Owing to the feeble health of 
Secretary Sherman, the greater (wrt of the duties 
of the state de|>art ment ilevol vcd u|>on I he assistant 
secretary, who |K)s.sessed not only rare tiict,(li.scre- 
tion, reticence, and diplomatic qualities, notwith- 
standing his lack of previous diplomatic training 
and experience, but also a readv, careful, and accu- 
rate knowledge of the principles of international 
law. and an acquaintance with the practice of it 
as well. The Cuban question, grown acute during 
the previous administration, was uppermost in 
our diplomulic relations, anil he unuertook with 
earnestness the solving of the problem. He was 
soon convinced that Canovas would take no steps 
of real value to ameliorate the condition of Cuba; 
but after the as.sassination of the Spanish premier 
by steady pressure he secured the recall of Weyler 
and the substitution of Blanco in bis place,'thc 
promulgation of improved constitutions for Cuba 
and Puerto Uico, and received also characteristic- 
ally .Spanish promist^s of further libenil rcfonns in 
the future. The blowing upof the " Maine." how- 
ever, in the harljor of Havana, 15 Feb., 18U8, forced 
the country to the f»int of war with .S|>ain. Judge 
Day's efforts between this timeand the actual out- 
break of war were devoted to pre[>aration for it, 
to securing the neutrality of the European f)owers, 
and to co-oi)cration with the other departments of 
the government. In the matter of the letter writ- 
ten by the Spanish minister I)e l/>me. speaking dis- 
paragingly of President McKinley and of his sin- 
cerity in relation to Siiain, which was intercepted 
and published. Day abancloiied diplomatic tnuii- 
tions, made a personal call upon the minister (who 
ha<l resigncci, however, the day before), and by his 
prompt treatment obtained the identification of 
the letter by De Lome, and thereby secured a 
prompt and straightforward solution of the ilifll- 
culty. At the outbreak of war Secretary Sherman 
resigned, and on the day following President Mc- 
Kinley nominated the former a-ssistant to be secre- 
tary of stale. During the war Secretary Day was 
unremitting in his ofTurts for an honorable peace. 
The hoplcssiiess of the struggle on the part of 
S[>ain was patent to all, and early in August Jules 
('aml>on, the French ambassador at Washington, 
made approaches that led to the signing of a prf>- 
tocol on 12 Aug., 18fl8, by Secretary Day on the 

part of the United States, and by M. Cambon on 
the part of Spain, which brought about a cessation 
of hostilities. In Septemljcr Secretary Day re- 
signed and went to Paris as chief of the American 
peace commissioners, which met the Spanish com- 
missioners in October, returning in December, 1898. 
In the following year he was appointed judge in 
the U. S. court of appeals, and in September an- 
nounced his retirement from active practice of law. 

DE BESSOMES. John Francis August (bes- 
sone), R. C. prelate, b. in Alsace. France. 17 June. 
1815. He was educated at the University of 
St. Sulpice, Paris, and in 1839 he removed to In- 
diana, and was ordained by the first bishop of 
V'inceniies. He became vicar-general of the dio- 
cese of Indianapolis in 1872, and a moiisignor 
twelve years later. He has since that time fre- 
quently l>een administrator of the diocese. His 
work in Indiana is represented by several churches 
which he has built, a Imy's school, a home forthe sis- 
ters of Providence, and another for the sisters of the 
Good .Shepherd. Moiisignor de Bessonies, who is 
an anient advocate of temperance, was in 1899 
pointed out by Archbishop Ireland as an example 
of the results of totjil abstinence, having actively 
spent sixty-one vears in the priesthood. 

DEBOE, William Joseph, senator, b. in Crit- 
tenden county, Ky., .30 June, 1849. and was edu- 
cated at Ewing college. He studied law, but later 
was graduated at the Metlical university of Louis- 
ville, and practised for several years. Renewing 
the study of law he was admitted to the Marion 
bar, and entered upon the practice of his profession. 
In 1893 he was elected state senator for a term of 
four years. When the Republicans carried the leg- 
islature he l»ecame a canilidate for U. .S. senator, to 
succeed Joseph C. S. lilackbuni, Democrat, but 
withdrew in favor of William E. Hunter, who 
failed to be elected during one session of the legis- 
lature. Again in 1806 Mr. Deboe was a candidate, 
and a second time withdrew in favor of Hunter, 
who again failed of success, after which Deboe was 
elected. His term of service will expire in 1903. 

1)E CAZES, PanI, Canadian publici-st, b. in 
Britanny, 17 June, 1841. and came to Canada at 
the age of seventeen. He was educated at LTnsti- 
tution Loriol. a naval training-school at Paris. 
In (Quebec province he editi-d " Le Messager de 
Joliette," " LeCourrierdeSt. Hyacinthe," and " La 
Nation." He was admitted to the (Quebec bar in 
Octolier, 1869, and formed a partnership with the 
late Hon. Honorc Mercier, which continued until 
1874. He went to Paris in that year as agent of the 
Dominion government, but returned in 1879. when 
he was api>ointed to the department of public in- 
stniction, and Iwcaine secretary in 1886. He is a 
fellow of the Royal society of Canada, member of 
the Geographical society of France, ofllcier d'Aca- 
deraie, France, and a member of several other 
learned bodies. His work " Notes sur le Canada " 
has pa.sseil through five editions, 

DECELLES. Maxinic, R. C. bishop, b. at St, 
Damarc, ('miadtt, 80 April, 1849. He made Ijoth 
his classical and theological studies at the Semi- 
narr of .St. Hyacinthe, and was ordained a priest 
by bishop La'Rocque in 1872. His first mission- 
ary work was at St. Denis, and next at Belu.>il. In 
1875 he was called by Bishop Moreau of St. Hya- 
cinthe to the cathedral of that city, and he was cre- 
ated titular canon of the cathedrol. He resigned 
in 1880. and iL^sumed charge of the Church of .St. 
Itoch de Richelieu. and in 1889 was promoted to the 
more im[K)rtant parish of St. Peter, at Sorcl. In 
1893 he was a[ipointed coadjutor bishop of St. 
Hyacinthe, and was consecrated under the title of 




bisliop of Druzipara in March, 1893. He has con- 
timied ever since to assist Bishop Moreau of Hya- 
cinthe in the episcopal labors of that diocese. 

DE KOVEN, Henry Louis Rej^inald, com- 
poser, b. in Middletown. N. H., 3 April, 1859. Ue 
was graduated at Oxford university, and studied 
music at Stuttgart and Florence. He has been 
the musical critic of several New York journals, 
and has composed numerous songs and the operas 
of " The Begum," " Don Quixote," " Robin Hood," 
"The Fencing Master," "The Tzigane," "The 
JIanderin," " The Highwayman," and " The Three 
Dragoons."— His wife, Anna Farwell, b. in Chi- 
cago, 9 Nov., 1860, was graduated at Lake Forest 
university, and in 1884 wfis married to Mr. De 
Koven. She is the author of " A Sawdust Doll," 
and of contributions of prose and verse to various 
periodicals. Mrs. De Koven is a daughter of 
Charles B. Farwell {q. v.). late U. S. senator. 

DELAND, Marg:aretta Wade, author, b. in 
Alleghany, Pa., 33 Feb., 1857. Her maiden name 
was Campbell. She was educated at Pelham 
priory, New Kochelle, N. Y., then studied at 
Cooper Union, and in 1878-'9 taught industrial 
design in the Girl's normal college. In May, 1880, 
she married Lorin F. Deland, of Boston, Mass. 
Mps. Deland has published " The Old Garden," a 
volume of verses (Boston, 1886); "John Ward, 
Preacher," a novel that has attained great success 
(1888); "Mr. Tommv Dove, and other Stories" 
(1893); "Philip and his Wife " (1895) ; and "The 
Wisdom of Fools " (1897). 

DEMAKEST, Mary Angusta Lee, b. in New 
York city, 26 June, 1838; d. in Los Angeles, Cal., 
8 Jan., 1888. She was a daughter of Thomas R. 
Lee, and became the wife of Theodore F. C. Dem- 
arest. For many years she was a resident of Pas- 
saic, N. J. Mrs. Demarest bequeathed $10,000 to 
various religious institutions. She was the author 
of many poems, a volume of which was published 
(New York, 1883). The best known of these is " My 
ain Countrie," which first appeared in the New 
York "Observer" in December, 1861. 

DENBY, Charles, lawyer, b. at Mount Doy, 
Botetourt co., Va., 13 Dec, 1830. He was edu- 
cated at Georgetown university and graduated at 
the Virginia military institute. He taught school 
and studied law for two years, practised in Indi- 
ana, and entered the army as lieutenant, passing 
through the various grades until he became colo- 
nel of the 80th Indiana infantry. In 1885 he was 
appointed minister to China, serving as such for 
four years, and in 1898 President JIcKinley made 
him a member of the commission appointed to in- 
vestigate the conduct of the war with Spain. Col. 
Denby was one of the commissioners, the others 
being President Schurman and Prof. Dean Worces- 
ter, sent to the Philippines in the summer of 1899, 
and ordered by the state department in September 
to return and report to President McKinley. 

DENIS, Jean, Norman pilot. This navigator, 
according to a narrative in " Ramuzio," visited 
Newfoundland in 1506, and some time prior to 1519 
explored the coasts of Brazil. The 1506 voyage 
was majle under the auspices of Jean d'Ango (q. v.). 
Nothing was known of his personnel until the re- 
cent discovery of his name upon the register of a 
charitable institution at Hcmfleur, existing in 
1457, and also among the names of an assembly 
of the bourgeois of that city in 1502. ' 

DERKY, Orville Adelbert, geologist and ex- 
lorer, b. in Kelloggsville, N. Y., 23 July, 1851. 
le studied at Cornell, where he received the de- 
gree of M. A. in 1874, after he had made a trip to 
the Amazon in 1870-'l. In 1873-5 he was in- 


structor in geology in Cornell, resigning to serve 
on the geological commission to Brazil. In 1878 
he was appointed curator of the National museum, 
and arranged the collection which he had gath- 
ered in Brazil. He has explored nearly every part 
of that country, and is regarded as the greatest 
living authority on the geology and physical geog- 
raphy of Brazil. Mr. Derby is a fellow of the 
London geological society and a member of nu- 
merous scientific associations. 

DE REKZKE, Jean, singer, b. in Warsaw, Po- 
land, 14 Jan., 1852. From an early age his voice 
showed remarkable qualities ; his parents, however, 
destined him for the bar and educated him with 
this end in view. Although he took his examina- 
tion and received the degree of advocate, he soon 
gave up his profession and devoted himself to 
music. He studied under Ciaffei, and in 1874, by 
the advice of Cotogni, made his first appearance as 
baritone at La Fenice, in Venice. His voice, how- 
ever, was tenor, rather than baritone, and after 
some years ho retired from the stage, on the advice 
of Sbriglia, to prepare himself for tenor parts. The 
event justified the step, for on his reappearance, 
at Madrid, his success was great; from Madrid he 
went to London, and in 1885 he appeared in grand 
opera at Paris. Later he became a great favorite 
in operas given in the leading cities of this coun- 
try. — His brother Eduard, singer, b. at Warsaw, 
23 Dec, 1855, has made a reputation equally 
great as a bass singer. He intended to devote 
himself to scientific agriculture upon the family 
estate, but, upon the advice of his brother, he 
took up the study of music, under Stella and 
Alba, in Milan, and Coletti, in Naples. After four 
years he went to Paris and studied with his broth- 
er under Sbriglia. The two brothers have been 
favorites in grand opera in Paris and the other 
capitals of Europe; they have had equal if not, 
iiKleetl, greater appreciation in the United States, 
where tliev have sung for manv seasons. 

DE VAllENNES, Pierre Gautliier, Sieur de 
la Verendryc, French traveller, b. in France ; d. in 
Quebec in 1749. He emigrated to Canada, and 
was for some time engaged in trading in peltry 
with the Indians. M. de Beauharnais, governor of 
Canada, originated a scheme to reach the Pacific, 
and its execution and expense were undertaken by 
De Varennes, who discovered the Rocky mountains 
in 1731. While on this tour he discovered, among 
massive stone pillars, a small sione bearing on two 
sides graven characters of an unknown language. 
The stone was afterward sent to Paris, and there 
the resemblance the characters were thought to 
liear to the Tartaric was regarded as supporting 
the hypothesis of an Asiatic immigration into 
America. The king of France conferred the cross 
of St. Louis upon De Varennes, and at the time of 
his death he was about to resume, by the king's 
desire, his attempt to reach the Pacific ocean. 

DES'ILLE. Edward Gaston, surveyor-general 
of Canada, b. at La Charite-sur-Loire Meire, 
France, in 1849. He was educated at the naval 
school, Brest, and retired from the navy to take 
charge of the extensive hydrographic surveys in 
the South Sea islands and Peru. In 1874 he 
arrived in Canada, and remained in the employ of 
the government of Quebec a.s inspector of surveys 
and scientific explorer until 1879. Two years 
later he was named inspector of Dominion land 
surveys, and in 1885 he reached his present posi- 
tion. (!apt. Dcville is a fellow of the Royal society 
of Canada, as well as a member of several other 
scientific .societies. He is the author of "Astro- 
nomic and Geodetic Calculations." 




DE VOE, Thomas Farringrton, author, b. in 
Yonkers. N. V.. 15 Manh, 1811 ; d. in New York 
city, 1 Feb., 1892. His ancestor, Frederick de 
Veaux, fled from France to Germany when a boy 
to escape religious persecution, and came to New 
York about 1077. Thomas was educated at private 
schools, and became a butclier and cattle-dealer. 
He was afterward superintendent of markets, in 
which ollice ho instituted many reforms, and then 
collector of the city revenue till 1884, when he re- 
signed. He was fur ten years a manager of the 
American institute, and took much in his- 
torical research. De Voe was colonel of a regi- 
ment that volunteered for the Mexican war. and 
later became colonel of the 8th New York infantry. 
He read before the Long Island historical society 
"Historical Keminisc-ences of Brooklyn," and he 
published "The Market Book" (New York, 1862); 
" The Market Assistant " (Boston, 1867) ; and " The 
De Veaux (ienealogy " (New York, 1885). 

DEWEY, <»«org:e, naval oflicer, b. in Montpel- 
ier, Vt., 26 Dec., 1837. He is dcjicended from 
that Thomas Dewey from Sandwich, Kent, who 
landed at Dorchester about 1633, wa.s admitteii a 
freeman 14 May. l(i:!4, and who married 22 March. 
1(J3S», at Windsor, Conn.. Frances Clark, widow of 
Joseph Clark. His father, Julius Yemans Dewey, 
wasboni 22 Aug.. 1801, at Berlin, Vt,, and, after 
graduation from the medical de|>artraent of the 
University of V^ermont, practised medicine in 
Montpelier nntil 1850, when he became connected 
with the National life insurance company; his 
mother was Marv Perrtn.whom his father married 
9 June, 1820. at llerlin, Vt., and who diwl 3 .Sept., 
1843, at Mont|ielier. George was the thinl of four 
children. His birthi>lace is seen in the accompany- 
ing illustration. His boyhood was the usual boy- 
homl of a healthy, vigorous la<l in a New England 
village; there was plenty of out-door life, there 
were as many truant days from school as he coidd 
safely avail himself of, and there were the usual 
struggles that form so large a part of the life of a 
boy. llis friends of those days tell how he learne<l 
to paddle and swim in the Onion (now Winooski) 

river; how in boyish emulation he stayed under 
water until the .siiccljitors feared he was drowned; 
how he pulled from the water and saved from 
drowning one of his weaker companions. His 
school-teacher. Major Z. K. I'angborn, relates the 
experience of his first few days as teacher in the 
Montpelier school. Several of his predeces-sors 
had been driven off bv a close little ring of the 
older pupils. of which Dewey was the leader. Tri- 
fling annoying of young I'angborn, then fresh 
from college, on the first day gave place to snow- 
balling on the second, and to a well-planned attack 
upon him in the schoolroom itself on the third. It 

was only by the aid of a rawhide whip and several 
hickory sticks that the teacher succeeded in bring- 
ing to terras young Dewey and the other heads of 
the rebellion; he then sent them home, still smart- 
ing from their stinging punishment. This lesson 
was well learned — there was no further trouble in 
the school ; and when Major Pangborn went to 
Johnson, Vt., to estab- 
lish a private acad- j 'Mlllll yi V \\ 
emy, Dewey went with ^«inifcJ!m 
him. The boy was 
then fourteen years 
old. One year later he 
was sent to the Nor- 
wich military acad- 
emy, then at Norwich 
but now at North- 
fleld.Vt. Hereataste 
for military affairs de- 
veloped itself; West 
Point was thought of, 
but the attractions of 
the naval academy 
at Annapolis proved 
stronger. The father 
opposed this inclination, but prudently yielded 
when he saw it was a serious desire in the boy's mind. 

He was appointed alternate to the vacancy ex- 
isting at Annapolis for Vermont, but George 
Spaulding, his schoolmate at Norwich, who had 
received the appointment, failed to qualify, and so 
young Dewey entered the naval academy in 1854. 
During his four yeirrs at Annapolis he kept a good 
rank in his class, took an active interest in the 
.social amenities that were afforded, and was a vig- 
orous participant in the political and sectional 
discussions rife in the decade preceding the civil 
war. It is told that on one occasion he avenged a 
fancied insult on the north by a blow from his 
fist ; a challenge to aduel with pistols was prompt- 
ly sent by the young southerner, and was as 
promptly accepted by Dewey; C(X)ler heads, how- 
ever, among the cadets, informed the officer of the 
day, and the affair was stopped. The class that 
entered in 1854 contained about sixty members, 
but of this number only fourteen graduated in 
1858; Dewey was fifth in rank. His first assign- 
ment to dutT was as midshipman on the steam- 
frigate " Wabash," under command of Capt. Sam- 
uel Barron, who afterward became commodore in 
the Confederate navy. The illustration repre- 
sents him at this time. The " Wabash " was then 
on Ihe Mediterranean station, and attracted no 
little attention at the ports she visited, for this 
was in the early days of steam as applied to war- 
ships, and the type of frigate evolvcti by American 
builders was full of interest to foreign luival 
ofiicers. This cruise gave Dewey an opportunity 
to visit the Holy Land and to send home various 
mementos of his visit to his Vennont friends and 
relatives. In 1800 he was ordered back to Annap- 
olis for examination as passed midshipman; he 
succee<led in advancing himself two numbers, 
making his final rating in the class number three. 

At the outbreak of the civil war he wius commis- 
sioned lieutenant, and ordered to the steam-sloop 
" Mississippi " on the Gulf squiulron. Early in 
1802 Farragut was assigned to the squadron as 
flag-offlcer, and at once he began preparations for 
forcing his way up the Mississippi nast Forts Jack- 
son and St. Philip to take New Orleans. By Feb- 
ruary the heavy-draught ships of the squadron 
had been lightened sufliciently to allow them to 
cross the bar and to ascend the river. On the 
April day on which the forts were to be passed 




iOL^I^C^ .^>W*^^^ 

Capt. Melancton Smitli, of the " Mississippi," or- 
dered Dewey to con the ship; and from the con- 
ning bridge Dewey directed the vessel up the un- 
known, devious, sliifting channel, through the rain 
of shot and shell from the forts, past the Confeder- 
ate rams, into safe 
water above the 
forts, where the fleet 
held New Orleans at 
its mercy. When 
Parragut pushed on 
in March, 1863, to 
attack Port Hud- 
son, the " Mississip- 
pi " grounded under 
the bluffs, and of- 
fered such a target 
for the Confederate 
batteries that she 
was abandoned and 
burned. The part 
Lieut. Dewey took 
in the blowing up 
of the "Mississippi ' 
was described at the 
time by the corre- 
spondent of the New York " Herald " as follows: 
" Capt. Smith and Lieut. Dewey were the last to 
leave the ship. She had been fired both forward 
and aft, and Lieut. Dewey was in the boat at 
the port gangway waiting for the captain, when 
the latter expressed the wish that the ward-room 
should be examined once more, to see if the fire 
kindled there was burning properly. At this in- 
stant a heavy shot, striking the starboard side of 
the ship, passed entirely through her, coming 
within a foot of the stern of the boat in which 
Lieut. Dewey was sitting. It was only necessary 
for him to look through the hole that the shot had 
made to ascertain that the ward-room was in a 
blaze, and on i-eporting such to be the case Capt. 
Smith was satisfied, and left the good old ship to 
her fate." Capt. Smith and Lieut. Dewey passed 
on to the " Richmond." Some of the men had 
landed on the west bank of the river, from which 
they were rescued by Commander Caldwell, of the 
" Essex." Capt. Smith reported in JIarch, 1863, 
that 233 were saved, and 64 killed and missing. 
It was rumored at the time that a few of the crew 
had been captured, but the statement made in 
the present year (1899), that Dewey was taken 
prisoner on that occasion, is not true. Dewey was 
then assigned to one of the smaller gunboats of the 
fleet; he took part in the engagements with the 
Confederates below Donaldsonville, La., in July, 
1863, and saw other service on the river until the 
stream was completely opened for the Union 
forces. In 1864-'5 he served on the gunboat 
'■ Agawara " on the North Atlantic blockading 
squadron. He took part in the severe engage- 
ments before Port Pisher in December, 1864, and 
January, 1865; and in March, 1865, received his 
commission of lieutenant-commander. The war 
was now over, and Dewey was transferred to the 
"Kearsarge," on the European squadron, as ex- 
ecutive officer. For a time he was stationed at 
the Kittery navy-yard, just across the river from 
Portsmouth, N. II.; here he met Susan P. Good- 
win, daughter of lehabod Goodwin, war governor 
of New Hampshire. They were married in Oc- 
tober, 1867, and had one child, George Goodwin 
Dewey, born 23 Dec, 1872: five days after the 
birth of the son the mother died. This son was 
among the first to greet the great admiral on his 
return from Manila, 26 Sept., 1899. 

During 1867 Dewey served on the "Colorado," 
flag-ship of the European squadron; in 1868-'9 he 
was assigned to duty at the naval academy. He 
was in command cf the " Narragansett " on special 
service in 1870-'l. A year later he received his 
commission as commander, in April, 1873. For 
three years, 1872-'5, he was in command of the 
"Narragansett" on the Pacific survey. It was 
during this period that the "Virginius" trouble 
occurred and war with Spain .seemed imminent. 
Commander Dewey wrote to the navy depart- 
ment requesting that, in case war should break 
out, he might be assigned the duty of captur- 
ing Manila. The controversy with Spain was 
settled by diplomacy, however, and there was no 
need of armed force ; but it is an interesting his- 
torical fact that over a quarter of a century before 
the opportunity occurred the admiral had his eye 
on Manila. On his return from duty on the Pa- 
cific he served as lighthouse inspector in 1876-"7, 
and as secretary of the lighthouse board from 1877 
to 1882. He was then assigned to the command of 
the" Juniata "on the Asiatic squadron ; his experi- 
ences on that station in 1882-3 stood him in good 
stead when he was again in command on that sta- 
tion, some sixteen years later. In September, 
1884, he was appointed captain. He commanded 
the " Dolphin in 1884 and the " Pensacola," 
flag-ship of the European station, in 1885-'8. He 
was then detailed chief of the bureau of equip- 
ment and recruiting, with the rank of commo- 
dore; this position he held from August, 1889, 
until May, 1893, when he became a member of the 
lighthouse board. In 1895 he was transferred to 
the board of inspection and survey, serving as 
president during 1896 and 1897. He had held the 
rank of commodore from the time of his service as 
chief of the bureau of equipment, but his commis- 
sion as such was not issued until 20 Feb., 1896. 
His health had been failing him while on shore 
duty, and he applied for an assignment for sea- 
service. It is probable, too, that Secretary Long 
and Assistant-Secretary Roosevelt foresaw the out- 
break of hostilities with Spain, recognized the im- 
portance, in that event, of success by the Asiatic 
squadron, and resolved to put in command an 
officer tried by varied experience on sea and shore. 
On 30 Nov., 1897, Dewey was assigned to sea- 
service, and was detailed to the Asiatic squadron, 
of which he assumed command 3 Jan., 1898. 

This was the critical period in the relations be- 
tween Spain and the United States. Sagasta had 
recalled Weyler from Cuba, and had sent Blanco 
to introduce a system of autonomy, the failure of 
which soon became evident. The United States 
began concentrating war-vessels near Key West 
and collecting naval supplies ; the tone of the 
press became more serious, demanding more ear- 
nestly the end of Spanish rule in Cuba. The de 
Lome letter early in February, and the destruc- 
tion of the United States war-vessel " JIaine " in 
the harbor of Havana, made it evident that war 
was imminent. The navy department at Wash- 
ington made every effort to give the Asiatic 
squadron all the munitions of war necessary. 
The coal supply was of course the crucial ques- 
tion ; Dewey purchased two ships, one laden with 
three tliousand tons of the best Welsh coal, the 
other carrying six months' supplies of stores and 
provisions. W'ith careful foresight he made 
his preparations, and then waited. When war 
should break out there would be no port where 
he might refit or repair a ship nearer than San 
Francisco, 7,000 miles away. He must either 
take a port for a base or else sail home. Irame- 




diately upon the declaration of war the British 
government published its proclamation of neu- 
trality, which course forced Dewey (under pro- 
test, for he had not yet received notification from 
his own government) from the harbor of Hong- 
Kong. He took advantage of the delay of China 
to proclaim neutrality and lay for two days in 
Mirs bay, waiting for final instructions from the 
government, for the arrival of Consul Williams, 
and for the completion of the last necessary prep- 
arations. Pie was not bound by unnecessary de- 
tails in his orders from Washington, dated 24 
April, which read simply: " War has commenced 
between the United States and Spain. Proceed at 
once to the Philippine islands. Commence opera- 
tions at once, particularly against the Spanish 
fleet. You roust capture vessels or destroy. Use 
utmost endeavors." On 27 April he sailed for the 
Philippines with a fleet of nine vessels — the flag- 
ship " Olympia," the •' Baltimore," " Boston," " Ra- 
leigh," "Concord," "Petrel." the revenue cutter 
" McCulloch," a collier, " Nashan," and a supply- 
vessel, " Zafiro " ; the oflicers and men in the fleet 
numbered 1,694. The Spaniards were informed 
by cable of the departure from Mirs bay, and 
might have calculated with a fair degree of cer- 

tainty the time the fleet could be expected at Ma- 
nila. The vessels arrived at the south channel lead- 
ing into Manila bay at 11.30 P. H. of SO April. The 
Spaniards might iiave expected a hostile fleet, in 
such a case, to lie to in the open until daylight be- 
fore attempting to enter an unknown liurl>or sup- 
pose<l to be well protected by lurpcdrn's and mines 
in addition to the forts. Dewey waited for noth- 
ing, however, but sailed boldly into the harbor, 
leaiiing the way on the "tHympia," followed by 
the" Baltimore," " Raleigh,"" Pet rel," " Concord, 
and " Boston" in the order named. The fleet was 
not discovere<l by the lookout at Corregidor until 
the head of the column was nearly abreast the 
lighthouse: then an alarm signal wiLt fired, and 
was answered by the flash of a rocket on the main- 
land, but that was all. A lifc-l)Uoy fell overboard 
by accident from one of the lea<ling ships, and 
ignited as s<X)n as it struck the water; the smoke- 
stack of one of the vessels caught fire three times 
and flared up. giving another excellent target for 
the Spanish giintiers: but still not a shot was 
fired l»y them. At last came the first discharge, 
from a battery -scarcely half a mile distant: a few 
shots from the American fleet replied, but appar- 
ently did little damage to the enemy. 

The vessels steame<l on at a slow rate, calculated 
to put them within striking distance of the Span- 
ish fleet at daybreak. The men who had been 
allowoil to sleep beside their guns were now at 
quarters ; coffee was served to them, an<l the bat- 
tle-flags were broken out. At S.l.'j a. m. three bat- 
teries at Manila, two near Cavite, and the Spanish 
fleet opened fire ujjon the advancing Americans; 
Dewey's orders were not to fire until he had given 
the woril, and the fleet steamed on. At last Dew- 
ey remarked to the captain of the "Olympia," 

"Gridley, you may fire when you are ready," and 
at 5.41 the Americans began to return the Spanish 
fire. The result of long months of target-practice 
was soon apparent in the greater destructiveness 
of the American fire. The flag-ship led the way 
past the Spanish fleet and forts, and then counter- 
marched in a line approximately parallel to that 
of the enemy's fleet, anchored in'a line about east 
and west across the mouth of Baker bay. At 7 
A.M. the "Reina Cristiua," flag-ship of Admiral 
Montojo, made a desperate effort to leave the line 
and to engage the American fleet; she was met 
by such a galling fire from the " Olympia." how- 
ever, that she was driven back, barely suecee<ling 
in reaching the shelter of the point of Cavite ; 
American shells had set her on fire, and she con- 
tinued to bum until she sank. Dewey .silenced 
the land batteries at Manila bv a message to the 
governor-general to the effect that if they did not 
cease firing he would shell the city. The action 
had been so fierce and the expenditure of ammu- 
nition so rapid that the commodore began to fear 
for the supply ; accordingly, at 7.3.5 a. m. he 
ceased firing, after passing the Spai;ish fleet for the 
fifth time, and witlidrcw out of range to take ac- 
count of his ammunition. He satisfied himself 
that the supply was ample, gave his men their 
breakfast, and returned to the attack at 11.16 
A. M. ; by this time almost the entire squadron of 
the enemy was in flames. The engagement con- 
tinued until 12.30 p. M., when his orders to "Cap- 
ture vessels or destroy " were literally fulfilled, for 
of the Spanish vessels the " Reina Cristina," "Cas- 
tiIla,"and"Don Antonio deUUoa" were sunk, the 
" Don Juan de Austria," " Isla de Cuba," " Isla de 
Luzon," "General Lezo," "Marques del Duero," 
" El Correo," " Velasco," and " Isla de Mindanao" 
were burned, and the "Rapido" and "Hercules," 
as well as several small launches, were captured. 
The Spanish loss, as given in the report of Admiral 
Montojo, was, including those at the arsenal, 381 
men killed and wounded. Against this the Amer- 
icans lost not a single ves.seT nor man, only nine 
seamen in the whole fleet being wounded. 

Dewey offered to permit the Spaniards to use 
the telegrat)hic cable from Manila to Hong-Kong 
providccl they would allow him to make use of it 
in communicating with his own government ; this 
they refused to do, and in consequence he sent a 
vessel to cut the cable just off its landing-place. 
A vague announcement of the battle and intima- 
tion of the defeat of the Spaniards had ^^»^ 
already been telegraphed, but no offi- f^^ 
cial version was known until Dewey ^^^fr 
had sent his rejmrt to Hong-Kong ,^«^r^ ^1 
one of his own vessels. Iminedi- ^^f^^m ately 
upon the news of the battle ^^^^ Euro- 

pean government* with ^j^S^ interests in 

the Philippines or- ^^^^ dered their Asi- 
atic squadrons to ^^^ the scene for the 
protection of ^^^ theircitizens. A French 
vessel ap- ^^r^ peared first, followed soon 
by nil- ^^r merous German ships, by the 
Brit- ^^r ish squadron, and others. It 

t^^ ^ soon became evident that the Ger- 
^> mans were desirous to make trouble 

for the Americans, to ignore the harbor 
regulations that Dewey had drawn up, and to es- 
tablish obtrusively friendly relations with the 
Spaniards. The fleet under Vice-Admiral von 
Diederichs was larger and stronger than the Amer- 
ican, including two battle-ships, and not a little 
apprehension was felt that they might come to 
blows. At length Dewey intimated to Von Die- 
derichs that he considered the course pursued by 




the Germans distinctly unfriendly, .and that it 
must be persisted in no longer; after this their 
conduct was less objectionable. 

Dewey held Manila at his mercy ; he could take 
the city at any time, but not having sufficient 
troops to garrison it he took no active steps until 
forces from San Francisco arrived. The time be- 
tween the battle of Manila and the arrival of 
American troops was a trying one for him ; the 
question of the status of the rebels against Span- 
ish rule, the action of the Germans, the widely ad- 
vertised relief expedition from Spain, under Ad- 
miral Camera, and many other questions, contrived 
to put Dewey into a strain of anxious tension. 
The news of the destruction of the Spanish fleet 
at Santiago, and of the recall of Camera's fleet 
from Suez, received on 17 July, served to clear 
the atmosphere, and the arrival of American 
troops gave increased confidence. The first army 
expedition consisted of three transports with 
2,500 men, which sailed from San Francisco on 
15 May and arrived off Manila 30 .June ; as fast 
as possible other expeditions followed, until the 
entire force in the islands consisted of 041 of- 
ficers and 15,058 enlisted men, under command 
of Gen. Wesley Merritt. It was only reluctance 
to cause needless loss of life and property that 
prevented an immediate attack upon the city ; 
it was hoped Gov.-Gen. Augustin would yield 
to the inevitable. During this period of inaction 
the insurgents resumed the hostilities which had 
been suspended by the uncompleted truce of De- 
cember, 1897. They invested the city on the 
north and east, but Dewey and Merritt constrained 
them from attacking it. On 31 July the Spaniards 
in force attacked the American lines that had been 
established at Manila, but were repulsed with a 
heavy loss, the Americans losing only 9 killed and 
47 wounded. On 13 Aug. the fleet under Dewey 
combined with the troops under Merritt to make 
a simultaneous attack upon tlie city. The brigades 
commanded by Gens. McArtluir and Greene car- 
ried the Spanish works, losing about fifty men ; the 
navy again came off without the loss of a single 
life. After about six hours of fighting the city 
surrendered and Dewey's flag-lieutenant, Brum- 
baugh, raised the American flag. 

Secretary Long suuimed up admirably the re- 
sult of the victory in Manila bay when he said, in 
his annual report in November, 1898 : " Aside 
from the mere fact of having won without the loss 
of a single life such a brilliant and electrifying 
victory at the very outset of the war, with all the 
confidence which it infused throughout the coun- 
try and into the personnel of every brancli of the 
service, it removed at once all apprehension for the 
Pacific coast. The indirect pecuniary advantage 
to the United States in the way of saving an in- 
crease of insurance rates and in assuring tlie coun- 
try of freedom from attack on that coast is incal- 
culable." On 9 May, 1898, President McKinley. 
in a special message to congress, recommended that 
the thanks of the nation be given to Dewey and to 
his officers and men ; joint resolutions to that effect 
were agreed to at once, and further resolutions or- 
dered to be prepared a sword of honor for Dewey 
and medals for the officers and men, $10,000 being 
appropriated for the purpose. The first substantial 
evidence of the gratitude felt toward him was his 
appointment by President McKinley, on 10 May, 
1898, as rear-admiral ; he was then the senior 
officer in the navy. The rank of admiral, held 
before in our navy only by Parragut and Porter, 
was revived by congress, and on 3 March, 1899, 
Dewey was promoted to that rank. 

After the fall of Manila and during the peace 
negotiations at Paris relations between the Span- 
iards and Americans became quiet, but the insur- 
gents under Aguinaldo gave no little trouble; the 
Spanish prisoners in the hands of the Filipinos 
were also a fruitful source of friction. The insur- 
gents grew bolder and more restive ; on 7 Jan., 1899, 
Aguinaldo issued a proclamation protesting against 
the intrusion of the Americans in the Philippines, 
alleging that they had promised freedom for the 
islands and had violated their promises, denounc- 
ing McKinley's orders to Gen. Otis (who had suc- 
ceeded to the command after Merritt had been 
called to Paris to advise the peace commissioners), 
and calling upon the Filipinos not to desist in their 
straggle for liberty. In Jaimary President Mc- 
Kinley appointed a commission of five, consisting of 
Admiral Dewey, Gen. Otis, President Schurman, of 
Cornell, Col. Charles Denby, sometime minister to 
China, and Prof. Dean C. Worcester, of the Univer- 
sity of Micliigan, for the purpose of examining the 
situation in the Philippines, and reporting to him 
and advising him on each new step in colonial de- 
velopment. On 4 and 5 Feb. hostilities broke out 
between the insurgents and Americans ; from then 
on they continued even into the rainy season. 
Dewey supported the land forces with the navy in 
every case possible. His time now was also occu- 
pied by his duties on the Philippine commission, 
the civil members of which arrived at Manila on 
4 March. On 4 April the commission issued a 
proclamation assuring the Filijiinos of the perfect 
good faith of the Americans and their sincere de- 
sire to give them prosperity and happiness, well- 
being and good government; that a conflict 
the Americans must in the end prove hopeless ; and 
putting forth plainly and in detail the intentions 
of the Americans with reference to the government 
and control of the islands. On 23 May the com- 
mission submitted to peace commissioners appoint- 
ed by the Filipinos a draft of the proposed form 
of government ; this included a governor-general 
and a cabinet to be apiiointed by the president, 
and later an advisory council to be elected by the 
Filipinos. Dewey's work on the commission was 
now at an end. lie had asked to be relieved, 
Rear-Admiral John C. Watson had been assigned 
to succeed him in command of the Asiatic station, 
and accordingly on 20 May he left Manila on board 
his flag-ship "Olympia." bound for New York by 
way of Hong-Kong, the Indian ocean, the Suez 
canal, and the Mediterranean sea. His progress 
homeward was one continued ovation at every port 
in which he stopped, and every attention and honor 
possible were sliown him. In the United States the 
preparations were most elaborate. A popidar sub- 
scription toward a fund to provide him a home 
was started ; city after city invited his attendance 
at dinners and reee|)tions. In New York the cele- 
bration in his honor, 39 and 30 Sept.. 1899, pro- 
vided a most remarkable spectacle, the etjual of 
which has perhaps never been witnessed m this 
country. The Dewey arch erected on Fifth ave- 
nue in his honor will, it is expected, be perpetu- 
ated in marble. The admiral was presented also 
with a beautiful loving cup of gold, the gift of the 
city of New York, and another equally beautiful 
silver cup was given later by a daily journal of 
the city, whicli had rai.sed funds for the purpose 
by popular subscriptions of single dimes. Pro- 
ceeding to Washington, Dewey was received by 
President McKinley, and was presented with the 
sword (see illustration) voted by congress, receiv- 
ing anotlier ovation in the nation's capital. 3 Oct., 
second only to that of the city of New York. 









In person the admiral is of medium height, very 
slightly stooped, inclining to be stout, but still ac- 
tive and vigorous. lie is a man of the world as 
well as a planner of naval battles, and while in 
Washington he was extremely popular as a club 
man. His manner is quiet and reserved, indicat- 
ing yioise and self-control, however, rallier than 
aloofiu>ss or a lack of sympathy with those about 
him. Sketches of his life are numerous in the cur- 
rent magazines after May. 1898. The books treat- 
ing of the operations in the Philippines all contain 
notices of the admiral. See " With Dewev at Ma- 
nila." by Thomas .1. Vivian (New York, 1898) : " Life 
of George Dewey. Uear-.Vdmiral. U. S. X.. and 
Dewey Family History." by Adellwrt M. Dewey 
and Louis Marinus Dewev (Westfteld, Mass., 1898) ; 
and "Admiral George Dewey: a Sketch of the 
Man." by John Uarrett, which was published at 
New York in Septen)her, 1899. 

As the names of Hull and the "Constitution" 
and Karrngut and the " Hartford " are indissolubly 
linke<l together, so are those of Dewey and the 
"Olympia" — the latter seen in the accompanying 


vignette. Her keel was laid in June, 1891, and she 
wa.s launched in November, 18)(2. completed April, 
189>i, and first commissioned February, 189.5. She 
was constructed at San Francisco by the Union 
iron-works, and is schooner-rigged. She is a .sec- 
onii-class armored cniiscr, carrying armor varying 
from Si to 4i inches in thickness. Her main bat- 
tery consists of 10 5-ineh rapid-fire guns and 4 
8-ineh breech-loading rifles mounte<l in turrets, 
an<l her secondary battery comprises 14 rapiil-fire 
6-pounders, 7 rapiil-fire l-poundcrs, 2 Colt's and 1 
field gun. .She also carries 6 Whitehead lorix'does. 
Her displacement is .WTO Ions, and she rerpiircs 
34 olUcers and 410 men. Her hull and machinery 
cost 11,796.000. She was first sent on several short 
cruise.s. and then wa.s attached to the Asiatic sta- 
tion. In May. 1898. her name and Dewey's l>ecanie 
known the world over through the battle of Manila 
bay. In that famous sea-fight she was commanile<l 
by C'aj)t. Charles Vernon (iridley, who later, on his 
way home on sick leave, died at Yokohama. Tlic 
" 01ymj)i«," with the admiral alKiard, arrived in 
New \ork harbor on the morning of 26 Sept., 
189!(. and a few days later a valuable service of 
silver was presented to the celebrate<l war-ship by 
the citizens of Olympia. Wash., who also gave a 
lars:i' and tieautiful bronze shield. 

UKWKY. Jeilediah, dergvman, b. 11 April, 
1714,at We^tlicld, .Miuss. : d. 21 Dec. 1778. at Ben- 
nington, Vt. He learned the trade of a car|)entcr 
after his common-school education was completed. 
In 1~{7, at the age of twentv-lhrec. he joined the 
church at Westfield.aml at the lime of "the great 
awakening" in the New Kngland churches in the 
middle of the eighteenth century, when the West- 
field church adopted" the hajf-way covenant," 
Dewey left the congregation, joine<i llieSefmralists 
or New Lights, and became a preacher in that di- 

vision of the church. He had left the Westfleld 
church in 1748; in 1749 he was called to account 
for this, and in 1750 the church voted that they 
could no longer regard him as one of their num- 
ber, and therefore withdrew their fellowship. .Soon 
after Bennington, Vt., was settled the church was 
organized there, and on 24 May, 1763, a call was 
extended to Rev. Jedediah Dewey, pastor of the 
New Light church at Westfield. The church pro- 
posed further that the church at Westfield unite 
with them and form one church under the then 
W^estfield pastor. This proposal was agreed to by 
an ecclesiastical council at Westfield on 14 Aug., 
1763, and was ratified by the church at Benning- 
ton on 12 Sept. Dewey continued as pastor here 
until his death. He took an active part in affairs 
secular as well as ecclesiastical, being indicted at 
Albany in January, 1770, with others, as one of the 
leaders in the controversy with New York over 
land titles, which had begun almut 17C5. In May, 
1772, in a spirited correspondence between Gov. 
Tryon of New York and the Bennington settlers, 
in which Dewey took a prominent part, Tryon sug- 
gested Dewey and two others as proper messengers 
for a conference on the matter in dispute. The re- 
sult was that Tryon modified his demands not a 
little. During the Revolution Dewey preached 
such vigorous war sermons, especially at the time 
of Baum's invasion of Vermont and the battle of 
Bennington, that he earned the title of " the fight- 
ing parson." His tombstone at Bennington bears 
the following inscription: " Uev. Mr. Jedediah 
Dewey, First Pastor of the Church in Bennington, 
who after a laborious life in the Gospel Ministry 
resigned his ofllce in God's Temple for the sublime 
employment of Immortality Dec. 21,1778. In the 
65 year of his Age. 'Of comfort, tio man speak 
Lets talk of graves and worms and epitaphs. Make 
dust onr paper and with llainey eyes, Write sor- 
row in the bosom of the earth.' " 

DKWEY, Joel AHcn, soldier, b. in Georgia, 
Franklin co., Vt., 20 Sept., 1840; d. in Knoxville, 
Tenn., 17 June, 1873. He entered Oberlin in 1858, 
but left in 1861 to enter the National army, and 
served as 1st lieutenant and caiitain of Uhio volun- 
teers under Gen. John Pope in the west, and then 
with Gen. William T. Sherman. He was at one 
time on the staff of Gen. William S. Rosecrans. 
He became colonel of the lllth U. S. colored regi- 
ment in 186;{. and led a brigade near Huntsville. 
He was captured near Athens, Ala., in September, 
1804, after a day's severe engagement with Gen. 
Forrest's cavalry. After his liberation in Novem- 
ber he served in Tennessee and northern Alabama 
till the close of the war. He was commissioned 
brigadier-general of volunteers on 13 Dec., 1865, 
and was mustered out, 31 Jan., 1866, after declin- 
ing a captain's commission in the regular army. 
Gen. Dewey then entered the law-school at Albany, 
N. Y.. where he was graduated in 1867, and prac- 
tisc<l in Dandridge, Tenn. In 1869 he was elected 
attoriicv-general of the state. 

1»E>VIN(J, Thomas Wilnicr,, b. in Bos- 
ton. Mass., 4 .May. 1852. He studied in 1876-'9 
under Jules J. Lefcbvre in Paris. His more im- 
portant paintings are "Young Sorcerer" (1877); 
".Morning" (1879); "Prelmle" (1883); "A Gar- 
den " (18(5) : " The Days," which gained the Clarke 
prize in 1887 (18«4-'6): and "Tobias and the An- 
gel" (1887). He has produced, among other por- 
trait.", those of Mrs. Lloyd Bryce. Mrs. Robert 
GiMilct.and Mrs. DcIanceyKune. He is a member 
of the .Society of American artists, and was elected 
an associate memljer of the National academy in 
1887, and an academician the year following.— His 




wife, Maria Richards, whose maiden name was 
Oakcy, b. in New York, 37 Oct., 1855, studied at 
the National academy and under Jolin Lafarge, 
and, in 1876, Thomas Couture. She has painted 
numerous figure and flower pieces, among which 
are " Violets " (1878) and " Mother and Child " 
(1880), and a number of portraits, including " Por- 
trait of a Boy " (1875) ; " Portrait of her Father " 
(1877); and " Sleeping Child " (1878). 

DIAS, Pedro (de-ahss), Portuguese missionary, 
b. in Gouvea, near Viseu, in 1621 ; d. in Bahia, 
Brazil, 25 Jan., 1700. He served as a captain in 
Africa, but on his return to Lisbon became a 
Jesuit and was sent to Bahia. He visited nearly 
the whole of Brazil, founded several missions, be- 
friended the Indians, among whom he lived for 
several years, and was afterward friar of a con- 
vent at Bahia. lie wrote "Arte da lingoa de An- 
gola " (Lisbon, 1697) ; " Arte da lingoa Brazileira," 
which contains a vocabulary for five Indian dia- 
lects (1698); and " Viageur da Bahia" (1699), be- 
sides severAl manuscript prayers and sermons in 
the aboriginal language, which are preserved in 
the archives of the Jesuits at Rome, and several 
ecclesiastical works. 

DIAS, Roberto (de-as), Brazilian explorer, b. 
in Bahia, Brazil, about 1540; d. near I5ahia in 
1591. He claimed descent from the noted Diogo 
Alvarez Correa or Caramurii, and owned a large 
estate near Bahia. In one of his excursionsthrough 
the province he discovered some rich silver-mines, 
and went to Madrid to report to King Philip II., 
carrying considerable plate that had been manu- 
factured at Salvador from samples of the ores that 
he discovered, as he claimed. He asked for the 
title of marquis of Minas, promising to reveal the 
location of the mines, but Philip II. gave the title 
to the newly appointed governor of Brazil, Fran- 
cisco de Souza. Dias returned to Brazil, and when 
Souza asked him to serve as guide to the mining 
district Dias conducted him through unexplored 
countries, where Souza lost many men, and returned 
exhausted to Bahia, threatening Dias with impris- 
onment, but the latter died a few months later 
without having revealed his secret. Some silver 
ores have recently been discovered in the province 
of Bahia, which tend to confirm Dias's storv. 

DICKINSON, Donald McDonald, cabinet offi- 
cer, b. in Port Ontario, Oswego eo., N. Y., 17 Jan., 
1847. He was graduated at the University of 
Michigan in 1867, studied law, was admitted to 
the bar, and has been engaged in many impor- 
tant cases. He became chairman of the Demo- 
cratic state committee of Michigan in 1876, and 
in 1880 was chairman of the Michigan delegation 
in the Democratic national convention. Since 
1884 he has represented Michigan on the national 
Democratic committee. On 17 Jan., 1888. he be- 
came postmaster-general of the United States in 
Cleveland's administration. 

DIGBY, Robert, English naval officer, b. near 
London, England, 20 Dec, 1732; d. at Minterne 
Magna. Dorsetshire, England, 25 Feb., 1814; broth- 
er oif Henry, seventh baron and first Earl Digby. 
He entered the English navy in 1744, and attained 
the rank of in 1755. He commanded 
the " Kamilies,"one of the leading ships in the in- 
decisive action between Admiral Keppel and Orvil- 
liers in 1778, and in 1780 was second in command 
to Admiral Rodney in the victorious engagement 
with Don Juan de Langara off Cape St. Vincent. 
In 1781, when rear-admiral of the red, he received 
a commission for commanding in North America, 
where he arrived on 24 Sept. with the " Prince 
George," the " Canada," and the " Lion," accom- 

panied by Prince William Henry, afterward King 
William IV. of England, then a midshipman in the 
royal navy. He was about to attack the fleet of 
the Count de Grasse, acting under Admiral Graves 
(whom he was unwilling immediately to relieve), 
when news was brought them, near Cape Charles, 
of the surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown 
several days before. Graves soon afterward sail- 
ing, agreeable to his instructions, to the West In- 
dies, he took command on the American coast. 

DIONNE, Narcisse Eiitrope, Canadian author, 
b. at St. Denis, Quebec, 18 May, 1848, and educated 
at Laval university. He took a course in theology, 
but, relinquishing divinity for medicine, he was 
graduated M. D. in 1873, and went to Athabasca, 
where he practised his profession for two years. 
Then he went to Quebec, and accepted a leading 
position on the editorial staff of " Le Courrier du 
Canada." He has published "Le Torabeau de 
Champlain," " Etats-Unis, Manitoba et Nord- 
Ouest, ' " Pete Nationale des Canadiens-Fran^ais 
a Windsor, Ontario," " Ilistorique de I'eglise de 
Notre-Dame des Victoires," "Jacques Cartier," 
" Les Lieutenant-Gouverneurs de Gaspe," " Mis- 
Cou : Hommes de mer et hommes de Dieu," " La 
Nouvelle France — de Cartier a Champlain," " Sam- 
uel Champlain: sa vie et ses oeuvres," "C. P. 
Painchaud, fondateur du College de Ste. Anne," 
"Vie de C. P. Painchaud," and " Mgr. de Forbin- 
Janson : sa vie — son Oiuvre en Canada." Prom 
1880 until 1884 he was editor-in-chief of " Le 
Courrier," and afterward conducted " Le Journal 
de Quebec." In 1886 he returned to his post on 
the " Courrier," which he held until 29 Sept., 1892, 
when he was appointed librarian of the legislature 
of Quebec. He is titulary member of the Aca- 
demie des Muses Santonnes, France, and a fellow 
of the Royal society of Canada. 

DOBELL, Richard Reid, Canadian merchant, 
b. in Liverpool, England, in 1837 ; came to Canada 
in 1857, and engaged extensively in the timber 
trade, founding one of the largest exporting com- 
mercial houses in Quebec. He married ElizaVjeth 
Frances, eldest daughter of the late Sir D. L. Mac- 
Pherson, of Toronto. Mr. Dobell has always 
taken great interest in the prosperity of his adopt- 
ed country, and has held many prominent posi- 
tions in the business life of Canada. He was an 
unsuccessful candidate for parliamentary honors 
in 1895, but in 1896 he was elected a member of 
the house of commons for Quebec West, and on 
the formation of the Liberal administration he 
was sworn of the privy council and appointed a 
member of the cabinet without portfolio. 

DODGE, Henry Lee. merchant, b. in Mont- 
pelier, Vt., 31 Jan., 182.5. He entered the Unil 
versity of Vermont in 1842, but on account of il- 
healtli was compelled to leave without graduation. 
In 1847-'9 he studied law, but abandoned it to seek 
his fortune on the Pacific coast. He arrived in 
San Francisco, 1 June. 1849, and after working in 
the mines he obtained the appointment of clerk 
in the alcalde's court, and was made clerk of the 
"ayuntamiento" or town council of San Fran- 
cisco, both of which offices he retained until the 
organization of the state government. During his 
incumbency the sale of beach, water, and town 
lots occurred. The making and delivering of the 
deeds and the receipt of the purchase-money, ag- 
gregating more than $1.000.()00. devolved upon 
Mr. Dodge. He joined his brother in opening a 
wholesale provision house, which business connec- 
tion he has continued for thirty years. In 1863 he 
was elected to the state senate for four years, in 
1877 he was appointed by President Hayes a mem- 




ber of a commission to investigate the affairs of 
the San Francisco mint and custom-house, and in 
the same year he was made superintendent of the 
San Francisco mint. This office he held four years 
and a half, during which time he disbursed more 
than 12,000,000 from congressional appropriations, 
and more than $180,000,000 in coin and bullion, 
tnming over to his successor $31,000,000. Mr. 
Dodge was elected president of the chamber of 
commerce in 1885, and re-elected in 1886, in which 
year he was also invited by President Cleveland to 
serve on the U. S. mint ass»iy commission that met 
in Philadelphia. He was connected with many 
enteri)rises, and was president of the California pio- 
neers association. In 1887 he became interested in 
the organization of the Sather banking company 
of San Francisco, and was made its president. 

DODGE, Robert Perley, engineer. b. in George- 
town, D. C. 1 Sept., 1817 ; d. in Washington, I). C, 
21 May, 1887. His father. Francis, was a well- 
known merchant in the District of Columbia for 
fifty years, and a lineal descendant of William 
Dodge who came from England to Salem, Mass., in 
1629. The son was graduated at Princeton in 
1836, in 1837 he went through a course of engi- 
neering studies at Georgetown, Ky., and in 1838 he 
was appointed an engineer of the Chcsa|>eake and 
Ohio canal. On resigning that post he turned his 
attention to farming in Washington county, and 
was subsequently a merchant in Baltimore'and a 
flour manufacturer in Georgetown and its vicinity. 
He was appointed in 1801 an additional pay- 
master in tiie U. S. army, with the rank of major, 
promoted to colonel in 1804, and soon aftcrwanl 
retired to private life. In July, 1876, he was aji- 
pointc<l treasurer of the District of Columbia. 
When a change was made in the hx-al goveninient 
in June, 1870, he was made treasurer and assessor, 
and when another change took place in the arrange- 
ment of offices in July, 1881, he was made assess- 
or of the dlslri<t, holding Ihe [)ost until his death. 
DOLE, Sanford Ballard, president of Hawaii, 
b. in the Hiiwuiiiin islands. 23 April, 1844. His 
father and mother were missionnries, who went to 

the Hawaiian isl- 
ands from the Unit- 
ed States in the year 
of his birth. The 
^ ^j„j^ «^ son was educated at 

^ J^vJ J?| Pubahan college.on 

■>/ his native island, 

and at Williatns 
college, .Mass., after 
which he studied 
law in Hoston, was 
admitted to the bar 
there, and then re- 
turned to Honolulu. 
He practised law in 
his native city itiid 
also became inter- 
ested in politics, be- 
ing a memljer of the 
legislature in 1884 
and taking an ac- 
tive part in the 
reform movement 
that culminate<l in 
1887. In 1889 he was again a member of the 
legislature and of its executive committee. In 
1887 he had l)cen appointed a judge of Ihe su- 
preme court of the tcingrlom, and at the time of 
the revolution of 1893 he was placed at the head 
of the prr)visional government then fonne<i. On 
20 Jan. be issued a proclamation declaring all 



powers and duties belonging to the sovereign to 
be vested in the provisional government. On 30 
June a new constitution was adopted, in which he 
was specially named as president till 1900, and 
this constitution was promulgated on 4 July, 1894. 
Meanwhile a new administration had come into 
power in the United States. A treaty of annexa- 
tion that had been negotiated by commissioners 
sent by the provisional government had been with- 
drawn from the senate by President Cleveland 
(see Cleveland, Grovee), and the latter had an- 
nounced his intention of restoring the monarchy. 
On 23 Dec.. 1893, President Dole sent to U. S. 
Minister Willis, in response to a demand that he 
should relinquish to Queen Liliuokalani her con- 
stitutional authority, a replv denying the right of 
Cleveland to interfere in flawaiian affairs. The 
stand taken by the Hawaiian government in this 
matter, under his leadership, rendered the policy 
of Cleveland futile. Mr. Dole has always been 
conservative politically, and exerted himself to 
the utmost to prevent all rash action during the 
revolution of 1893. He advocated the annexa- 
tion of the Hawaiian islands to the United States. 
In January, 1898, with Mrs. Dole, iie visited this 
country as the guest of the nation, receiving much 
alti'iitioii (luring his sojourn of several weeks. 

DO.MEYKO, Ignaz.Chilianscientist, b. in Lith- 
uania, Poland, 3 July, 1802; d. in Santiago, 23 
Jan., 1889. lie rceeive<l his primary education in 
Cracow, and in 1817 continued his studies in the 
University of Vienna, where he was graduated. 
Taking part in the Polish insurrection of 1830-'l, 
he was obliged to emigrate to France, where he 
labored in the mines of Alsace, and afterward fin- 
ishe<l special studies at Paris. In 1838 he accepted 
the professorship of physics and chemistry at the 
Lyceum of Serena, Chili. In 1846 he was called to 
the same chair in the National institute and the 
University of Chili, of which he was rector from 
1870 till 1883. He was an a.ssociate editor of 
" El Arancano," " Los Anales dc Miuas," and "El 
Seinanariode .Santiago." and in 1888 began a scien- 
tific journey through Europe. He is the author of 
" Tratado de ensayes " (Serena, 1843 ; .Santiago, 
18711) ; " Elemcntos dc Mineralogia" (1844) ; " La 
Araucania y sus habitantes" (1845); " Geologia y 
Geometriafeubterriinea" (1873); "Excursion & las 
Cord illerasdeCo[iiap<'r'( 187.5) ; and " Constitucion 
Geoli'icica de Chile" (1876). 

DONALDSON, Thomas Corwin, lawver, b. in 
Columbus, Ohio,27Dec.. 1843 ; d. in Philadelphia, 18 
Nov., 1898. He W8sgra<liiate<l from Capital univer- 
sity, of his native place, served as a private in the 
civil war and later as a lieutenant, and was admit- 
ted to thelmr in 1867. He filled various government 
offices, and wa* offered the governorship of Idaho 
by President Hayes, which he declined. While 
residing in Idaho he was colonel of a regiment of 
the National guard. His collection of curios, auto- 
graphs, and paintings contained in his Philadelphia 
residence was among the most imtKirtant in that 
eitv. Col. Donaldson's publications include " The 
Public Domain: Its History, with Statistics "(Wash- 
ington, 1884), which passed through several edi- 
tions; "The George Catlin Indian Gallery in the 
National Museum, with Memoir and Statistics" 
(1887); "Walt Whitman: The Man " (New York, 
1896); and "The House in which Thomas Jeffer- 
son wrote the Declaration of Intlependcnce " (Phila- 
delphia. 1898). "Some of the People I have met" 
anil " Exiicricnccs in Idaho Territory " were in 
press at tlie tiiiir of his death. 

DONOHL'E, Tatrick James, B. C. bishop, b. 
in England in 1851, and was a graduate of the Uni- 




versity of London. In 1873 he came to the United 
States, and, having settled in Washington, he stud- 
ied law, received the degree of LL. D. from Colum- 
bian university, practising law at the capital till 
1882. He then exchanged the common law for tlie 
canon law, and studied for the priesthood at St. 
Mary's seminary, Baltimore, was ordained in 1885, 
and was made assistant priest of St. John's church. 
In 188(i he was appointed chancellor of the archdi- 
ocese of Baltimore under Cardinal Gibbons, and in 
1891 was appointed rector of the cathedral. His 
duties in this position were onerous, but successful, 
imposing upon him many general and extra duties. 
He took an active part in 1889, and again iu 1893, 
in serving on committees for extending a suitable 
welcome to Monsignor, now Cardinal Satolli, on his 
arrival in the United States. On the transfer of 
Bishop Kain, of Wheeling. W. Va., to St. Louis, 
Dr. Donohue was appointed bishop of Wheeling, 
and he was consecrated by Cardinal Gibbons at the 
cathedral in April, 1894. 

DONTENVILLE, Aiignstin, R. C. prelate, b. 
at Bischweiler, in the diocese of Strasbourg, Alsace, 
4 June, 1857. He came to this country in 1873, re- 
sided two years in the diocese of Buffalo with his 
uncle, the Rev. Father Uhrich, one of the pioneer 
priests of that diocese, and was sent by him to the 
College of Ottawa, where he pursued his course of 
humanities. In 1878 he joined the religious order 
of Oblate Fathers at Lachine, where he made a 
year's probation, and thence went to the College of 
Ottawa to follow his regular course of studies in 
philosophy and theology. He also filled the chair 
of arts in the same institution. Being a member 
of the order of Oblates he made his final vows 
therein in 1880, and was ordained a priest by Arch- 
bishop Duhamel in May, 1885. He filled a pro- 
fessor's chair at Ottawa college until 1889. when he 
was sent to New Westminster, British Columbia, 
as director of St. Louis college. In April, 1897, he 
was appointed coadjutor bishop to Bisliop Durieu, 
of New Westminster, under the title of bishop of 
Germanicopolis, with the right of succession. He 
was consecrated in August, 1897, by Archbishop 
Langevin of St. Boniface. 

DOOLITTLE, Charles Caran. soldier, b. in 
Burlington, Vt., 16 March, 1833. He was educated 
at the high-school in Montreal, Canada, but was 
not graduated on account of his removal to New 
York city in 1847. He subsequently went to Michi- 
gan, and on 16 May, 1861, became 1st lieutenant in 
the 4th Michigan regiment. He was made colonel 
of the 18th regiment of that state on 32 July, 18G2, 
served in the peninsular campaign, and was slightly 
wounded at Gaines's Mill. He served in Kentucky 
in 1862-'3, and in Tennessee 1863-'4, and was in 
command of Decatur, Ala., during the first day's 
successful defence of that town against Gen. John 
B. Hood. He led a brigade at Nasiiville, and was 
in comuiand of that cit}[ in 1865, and of the north- 
eastern district of Louisiana in the autumn of that 
year. On 27 Jan., 1865, ho was made brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers, and on 18 June he was brevet ted 
major-general. He was mustei-ed out on 30 Nov. 
at his own request, and since 1871 has been cashier 
of the Merchants' national bank, Toledo, Ohio. 

DOUBLET, Francjols (du-bla), Norman colo- 
nist. In 1663 the merchants of Rouen sent out two 
ships, the "Saint Michel" and the "Grenadin," 
under Doublet, with a eomymny of twenty-five colo- 
nists for the islands at the mouth of the St. Law- 
rence. They loft Rouen, 26 April, 1663, and after 
a long passage landed at the island of Brion, where 
they found some Basques living in wooden huts. 
Doublet planted the cross upon the high capo on 

the bay where the fleet had anchored. The colo- 
nists built houses and magazines, and for a subsist- 
ence betook themselves to cod-fishing. Doublet 
shortly returned to France, and in April, 1664, set 
out again for the island with re-enforcements for 
the colony, but on his arrival at the island he 
found the establishment abandoned, the buildings 
destroyed, and could discover no traces of the col- 
onists. His eldest son, Jean Francois, was boni in 
Honfleur, France, about the year 1650. 

DOUGHTY, John, soldier, b. in New York city 
in 1754; d. in Morristown, N. J., 16 Sept., 1826. 
He acted as commander of tlie American army 
by seniority of rank, or l)y the appointment of 
Gen. Washington, from June, 1784, till Septem- 
ber, 1789. There was no U. S. army during that 
period except two companies of artillery, the Con- 
tinental army having been disbanded and the new 
army not formed. He became major of an artil- 
lery company in 1789. lieutenant-colonel of artil- 
lerv and engineers in June, 1798. and on 26 May, 
1800, he resigned. Col. Doughty, in 1785, built 

Fort llarmur, at llie juiu-tioM of tlie Muskingum 
with the Ohio river (the site of Marietta), which 
was the first post of the kind within the bounds of 
Ohio. In 1790 he built Fort Washington, con- 
sisting of hewn-log cabins with connecting pali- 
sades, where Cincinnati now stands. It was be- 
tween the present Third and Fourth streets, and 
is represented in the illustration. 

DOWD, Charles Ferdinand, educator, b. in 
Madison, Conn., 35 April, 1825. He was graduated 
at Yale in 1853, and has successively held the posts 
of principal of the preparatory department of 
Newton university, Baltimore, Md., professor of 
mathematics there, principal of the high-school, 
Watcrbury, Conn., associate principal of the Con- 
necticut normal school at New Britain, superin- 
tendent of public schools. Waterbury, Conn., 
principal of the Granville (N. Y".) military acade- 
my, and president of Temple Grove seminary, 
Saratoga Springs, N. Y. He conceived the idea of 
adopting one standard for railway time, and after 
submitting it to a railway convention in New York 
city in October, 1869, he devised a complete plan, 
which he published, with a maji (1870). Prof. 
Dowd attended conventions of railway managers 
in Boston, in New York, and in the west, and finally 
secured the adoption of the present system of rail- 
way standard time, which is a modification of his 
first plan. In this system the country is divided 
into sections, in each of which the time is made 
uniform, and the standards in adjacent sections 
differ bv (me hour. It went into effect on 18 Nov., 
1883. Prof. Dowd received the degree of Ph. D. 
from the Universitv of New York in 1888. 

DOWLING. Thomas Joseph. R. C. bishop, b. 
in Limerick. Ireland, 28 Feb.. 1840. In 1850 he 
came with his family to Canada, and in 1860 they 
removed to Chicago. In 1855 he entered St. Mi- 





chad's college, Toronto, and remained there sev- 
eral rears as pupil and teacher of the classics. He 
was one of the founders of St. Michael's literary as- 
sociation, to which hecontributes annually a medal 
for proficiency in English literature. He pursued 
his studies at the Grand seminary of the Sulpician 
fathers at Jlontreal, and was ordained a priest at 
St. Mary's cathedral, Hamilton, in 1804. He was 
appointed [>astor of the nii.ssions at Budford and 
other stations, where he labored twenty-three years, 
and built two churches, a presbytery, and a sepa- 
rate school and convent for the sisters of St. Jo- 
seph. In 1877 he accompanied the Canadian pil- 
grims to Roineas the representative of the Hamilton 
difXH>se, in 1881 was appointed vicar-general of 
Hamilton ili(K-ese, and in 1883 was elected vicar- 
capitular during the vacancy of the see and until 
the arrival of Uishop Carberry in 1884. In 188(1 
he was elected bishop of Peterborough and was 
consecrated in May, 1887, being transferred to the 
diocese of Hamilton in January, and installed as 
bishoii of Haniiiton in May, 188!). 

UKAKE, Frani-i8 Marion, soldier, b. in Rush- 
ville, S<liuyler eo.. III., :J0 Dec, 1830. His father, 
John, a native of North Carolina, founded the 
town of Drakesville, Iowa. The son was educated 
in the district schools, and entered a mercantile 
life at sixteen years of age. He crossed the plains 
to Sacramento, Cal., in 18-53 and 1854, engaged in 
Indian warfare, and in I80U settled in business in 
L'nionville, Iowa, He served through the civil 
war, btH'oming in 1862 lieutenant-colonel of the 
36th Iowa cavalry, was severely wounded at Mark's 
Mills, an<I in 186.5 was brcvetted brigiulier-general 
of volunteers. He re-entered mercantile life at the 
end of the war, and was admitted to the bar in 
1866, but sui>sequently engaged in railroad-build- 
ing. In 1881 he became a founder of Drake uni- 
versity, contributihj; the principal amount. 

DUC'LERC, Jean-Baptistodlew-clare), French 
naval ofllcer, b. in lirilanny in 1663; d. in Rio Ja- 
neiro, Ilra/il, 18 March, 1711. He early followed 
the sea, lieconiing a buccaneer in Tortngas, made 
successful raids against the Dutch, Knglish, an<l 
Spanish possessions, and in 1702 enterc<l the royal 
navy as (Hist-captain. In 1700 he formed a com- 
pany for organizing an expedition to sack Rio Ja- 
neiro and Uahia. Sailing from Brest with six 
ships, carrying 1,'.J(K> mariues, he sighted Rio Ja- 
neiro on 6 .\ug.. and the council of war opiKising 
an immediate attack he landed at Tojuca, a few 
miles from the city, on 17 Aug., with 900 marines. 
Duclerc was pur|)08ely misled by two negroes who 
offered themselves for guides, and was attacked at 
Novo Kngenho dos Padres da Companhia by an 
overwhelming force and totally routed. He forti- 
fied himself on ahill commanding Kio Janeiro, and 
on 18 Sept. wasattiu-ked by the governor. Krancisi'o 
de Castro Monies, whom he defeated. Duclerc en- 
tered the city in pursuit, but was assailed by the in- 
habitants, while the Portuguese army prevenfe<l 
his exit. With the greater part of his forces he 
took refuge in the custom-house, while Charles 
d'Ysamlierl (q. v.), with a few others, fortified them- 
selves in the city-lmll. Unable to obtain U»h\. Du- 
clerc agreed to a capitulation proviilingthat he and 
his men should be sent back to France, but the 
fleet, unaware of the Portuguese success, having 
meanwhile made an attack on the city, Castro de 
Monies declared the capitulation violated, sent the 
soldiers to (irison, while Duclerc and his officers 
were kept in clos<! confinement in their house. 
Duclerc was murdered, according to some authors, 
by order of the city authorities, while others pre- 
tend that be was killed in an attempt to escape. 

DUCREUX, Franqois (dew-cruh), French his- 
torian, b. in Les Sainlcs in 1594 ; d. in Bordeaux 
in 1666. He was a Jesuit, and for many years pro- 
fessor of rhetoric in the College of Bordeaux. Be- 
sides several classical works, he wrote from the let- 
ters of the missionaries " Historia Canadensis, 
sen Novae F'raneia', libri decern, ad annum usque 
Christi 1656" (Paris, 1(564), which contains also a 
narrative of the wars between the Hurons and Iro- 
quois. It was praised by Charlevoix in his " His- 
toire de la Xouvelle France." 

Dl'Gl'AY-TROriN, Rene (dew-gay). French 
naval officer, b. in St. Malo, 10 June, 1673 ; d. in 
Paris, 27 Sept., 1736. He was educated for the 
church and studied at Rennes and Caen, but in 
1689 embarked as volunteer on a privateer armed 
by his family, and displayed such valor that in 
1691 he was appointed to the command of a frig- 
ate. In 1697 he entered the royal service as post- 
captain, and in 1711 he proposed to the king an 
expedition to Rio Janeiro, obtaining permission 
to form a company to carry out the scheme on 
condition that a part of the profits should re- 
vert to the crown. With the utmost secrecy he 
armed 15 vess«'ls, carrying 2,0(X1 marines, and set 
out from La Rochelle, 9 June, 1711. Arriving off 
the bar of Rio Janeiro on 12 .Sept., he entered the 
narrow channel that led to the bay, despite the 
desperate resistance of the Portuguese fleet and 
batteries on the shore. The next day ho burned 
or captured the Portuguese men-of-war and all 
merchants vessels anchored in the harbor, and car- 
rviiig succes-sively the advanced batteries entered 
the city on 21 Sept. On 11 Dec. the viceroy of 
Brazil, Antonio d'Alburcjuerque, arrived with an 
army of 3,(KK) regular troops and 6,0(X) natives, and 
being also routed agreed to pav 610,000 crusados as 
ransom for the cit v. Duguaysailed again for France 
on 13 Dec. carrying back SiSO soldiers from Jean- 
Baptiste Duclerc 's expedition, which he had found 
in the city prisons, and booty valued at 30,(X)0,000 
livres, anchoring at Brest, 12 Feb., 1712. He was 
promoted chef d'encndre and commander of St. 
Louis in 1715, vice-president of the council of the 
Indies in 1723. and lieutenant-general of the naval 
forces in 17'28. His " Memoircs," which contain 
interesting details about his expedition to Rio Ja- 
neiro, were published after his iieath (2 voLs., 1740), 
anrl his life was written by Jean Pricher (Paris, 
1784) and Jules de La Landcllc. His statue in 
bronze is in the palace at Versailles. 

DU MOULIN, John Philip, Canadian Angli- 
can bisho|>, b. ill Dublin, Irelaml, 9 Jan., 1834. 
lie was educated at Bishop's college, and received 
the degree of D. C. L. from Trinity college, To- 
ronto, ill 1891. He was one of three famous men 
brought out to Canada by Bishop Cronyn, of Hu- 
ron. He was ordained deacon in 1H62 and priest 
ill 1863. and wascurate to Archdeacon Brougn.the 
rector, of St. Jolin's church, London, and curate 
of Trinity church and St. James's church, Montreal. 
He tiecaine rector of St. Thoniius's, Hamilton, in 
1871. and in the following year was elected bishop 
of Algoma. but declined. He was rector of St. 
Martin's, Monln'al, canon of the cathedral, and 
examining chaplain. Dr. Du Moulin was ap- 
pointed canon and sub-dean of St. Alban's cathe- 
dral, Toronto. He was elected bishop of Niagara 
and translated to Ottawa, being consecrated at St. 
James's cathedral, 24 June, 1896. Bishop Sullivan 
was one of the consccrators'and Dean ('iirmichael 
preached the sermon, both of whom had accom- 
panied Bishop Cronyn to Canada. He attended 
the Lambeth conference of 1897. His son, Frank, 
is the rector of Kmiiianuel church, Cleveland, Ohio. 




DUNBAR, Paul Laurence, poet.b. in Dayton, 
Ohio, 37 June, 1872. He was graduated from tlie 
high-school of his native place in June, 1891, and 
since that time he has been a journalist and a 
public reader of his own poems. He is at present 
employed in the library of congress at Washington. 
Mr. Dunbar, who is a colored man, has published 
"Oak and Ivy" (Dayton, 1893); "Majors and 
Minors " (Toledo, 1895) ; " Lyrics of Lowly Life " 
(New York, 1896) : " Folks from Dixie," a collec- 
tion of stories (1898) ; a novel entitled " The Un- 
called " (1898) : and " The Lyrics of the Hearth- 
side" (1899). His writings have been highly com- 
mended in his own country and also in England. 
Mrs. Dunbar is the author of a volume entitled 
" The Goodness of St. Rociue " (New York, 1899). 

DUNN, Andrew Hunter, Canadian bishop, b. 
in Saffron-Walden, England, in 1839. He received 
his education in private schools and at Heidelberg, 
Germany, graduating from Cambridge in 1863. 
He was ordained deacon by Archbishop Tait in St. 
Paul's cathedral, and advanced to the priesthood 
in the following year. After holding various 
charges in London and elsewhere, lie was unani- 
mously elected, in June, 1893, to be the fifth bishop 
of Quebec, as successor to Bishop Williams, being 
consecrated in the following September in Christ 
Church cathedral, Montreal. Among Bishop 
Dunn's publications are " Our Church Manual, 
" Holy Thoughts for Quiet Moments," " Helps by 
the Way," and " Our Only Hope." — One of his sons, 
the Rev. Edward Arthur, was appointed domestic 
chaplain to the bishop in 1895, and assumed the 
editorship of the " Quebec Diocesan Gazette." 

DU PONT, Charles Ir6n6e, manufacturer, b. 
in Charleston, S. C, 30 March, 1797 ; d. near Wil- 
mington, Del., 31 Jan., 1869. He was a son of Vic- 
tor Marie Du Pont, and was educated at Mount 
Airy college, Germantown, which institution he 
left at sixteen years of age to learn the business of 
woollen manufacture and assist his father. He 
relinquished his hope of entering the U. S. navy 
to devote himself to this business. In 1827, at the 
death of his father, Mr. Du Pont became the head 
of the manufactory of cloth at Louviers. In 1856 
he retired from the business and devoted himself 
to agriculture. He was for several years a mem- 
ber of the legislature of Delaware, and was fre- 
quently spoken of in connection with the office of 
governor of the state. He was one of the origina- 

tors and directors of the Delaware railway, and 
from 1830 until his death a director and presi- 
dent of the Farmers' bank of Delaware. — His son, 
Victor, b. in Louviers, on the Brandywine river, 
11 May, 1838; d. in Wilmington, Del., 13 May, 
1888, was graduated at Harvard in 1846, and ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1849. He was trained as a 
Whig in politics, but eventually entered the Demo- 
cratic party. Although any office within the gift 
of the people was at his command the highest be- 
ing frequently offered him, he persistently declined 
all political preferment. He was a presidential 
elector on the Democratic ticket in 18C4, a director 
of the Union national bank for thirty-six years, 
also of the Wilmington and Northern railroad and 
the Baltimore and Philadelphia railroad, and di- 
rector and, after 1880, president of the Farmers' 
mutual fire insurance company of Delaware. — His 
kinsman, Henry, manufacturer, b. near Wilming- 
ton, Del., 8 Aug., 1813 : d. there, 8 Aug., 1889. He 
was the second son of P^Ieulhere Irenee Du Pont, 
and was graduated at the U. S. military academy 
in 1833. entering the 4th artillery. He was on fron- 
tier service in the Creek Indian difficulties, resign- 
ing his commission at his father's request to en- 
ter the family powder manufactory at Wilmington. 
His father dying soon after, the brothers Victor, 
Albert, and Henry conducted the business, the 
largest of its character in this country. 

DUPONT-GRAVE, Francois (usually called 
PoNTGRAVE). Or Fraufjois Grave, Breton sailor. 


DYER, Nehemiah Mayo, naval officer, b. in 
Princeton, Mass., 18 June. 1839. He entered the 
volunteer navy in 1861 as master's mate, and for 
gallantry displayed was promoted to acting ensign 
in May, 1863; a year later he became acting mas- 
ter, and was placed in command of the " Ran- 
dolph " — operating in ftlobile bay and being sunk 
by a torpedo in April, 1865. He was commis- 
sioned lieutenant, and later lieutenant-commander 
in 1868 and commander in April, 1883. For sev- 
eral years he was on duty in the bureau of navi- 
gation, and in July, 1897, he was advanced to cap- 
tain and given command of the protected cruiser 
" Baltimore," of the Asiatic squadron. Capt. 
Dyer commanded her in the battle of Manila, May, 
1898, and in the following year was presented with 
a handsome sword by the city of Baltimore, and 
met Admiral Dewey in New York on his return. 





EAMES, Wilberforce, librarian, b. in Newark, 
N. J., 12 Oct.. 18.55. lie has resided in Brooklyn, 
X. Y., since 1861, and attended the common schools 
of that citv. He spent twelve years in the service 
of various bof)ksellers. and in 1883 became an assist- 
ant in the Lenox library. Subsequently he was 
advanced to first assistant (1888), assistant librarian 
(1893), and librarian (1893). Since the consolida- 
tion of the Astor. Lenox, and Tilden libraries, he 
has continued to be known as " I^enox librarian." 
In 1896 he received the honorary degree of A. M. 
from Harvard university. Mr. Karnes has edited a 
comparative edition of the authorized and revised 
versions of the New Testament (1882) and vols. xv. 
to XX. of Sabin's " Dictionary of Books relating to 
America" (188.5-'92). a work still in progress. Ills 
most noteworthyartidesin .Sabin — "Bibliographies 
of the Bay Psalm Book " (1885), " Ptolemy's Geog- 
raphy " (1886), and ".Sir Walter Raleigh "' (1886)— 
have been issued in separate editions. He con- 
tributed largely to Pilling's Indian bibliographies, 
especially the article on .lohn Piliot, also ij.sued 
separatefv a-s " Bibliogra|)hic Notes on Eliot's In- 
dian Bibfe, and his other Translations and Works 
in the Indian Ijanguage of Massachusetts" (1890). 
In 1892 he edited for the Lenox library a com- 

finrativeetlition of four I^atin texts, with new Kng- 
ish translation of Columbus's letter to .Sancliez 
on the discovery of America. I.ater he issued 
"Early Xew England Catwhisms: A Bibliograph- 
ical Account of some Catechisms publislieil liefore 
the Voiir IMOO. for use in Xew England" (1898). 

EARL. Koltert, jurist, b. in Herkimer, X. V., 10 
Sept., 1824. He was graduated at Union college 
in 184.5, admitted to the bar of his native county, 
and forseveral years edited the " Herkimer Demo- 
crat." He was judge and surrogate of Herkimer 
county in 18.56-'<>0, subsequently chief judge of 
the ofd court of appeals, and, after the constitu- 
tional amendments in 1869, a commissioner of ap- 


peals in 1870-'5. He was ap|K)inted a judge of the 
present court of ap|ieals in 1875 by Gov. Samuel 
.1. Tilrien. and held oflicc by ro-cle<'tion tillJan. 1, 
1895. With Mrs. F^arl he founded the Herkimer 
free library in 189.5, and gave to it property valued 
at :f:i<).(K)0. .ludge Earl was also a founder of the 
Herkimer historical st^wiety, and has been its presi- 
dent since its foundation. He has received the 
degree of LIj. I), from Columliia university. 

EARLE, Alice Monr, author, b. in Worcester, 
Mass., 27 April, 18.5:1 She is the daughter of Ed- 
win Morse, and on 15 April, 1874. married Henry i 
Earle, of Brooklyn, X. V. .She was educated in ' 
the public schoofs of her native city, being gradu- 
ated from Worcester high-school in 1872, and also 
attendeil Dr. Gannett's school in Boston. Mrs. 
J^rle has ilevoted herself chiefly to researches 
about the manners and customs of the colonial 
and revolutionary periods in Xew England aiul 
New York, and her books on these subjects have 
achieved wide popularity. They include "The 
Sabbath in Puritan Xew Englaiid " (Xew York, 
1891); "China Collections in America" (1892); 
"Customs and Fashions in Old Xew England" 
(1893); "Early Prose and Verse of Xew York," 
with E. E. F'onl (189.3); "Costume of Cr)lonlal 
Times" (lM94);"Life of Margaret Winthrop" 
(1895); " Diary of .Anna Green Winslow" (edited) 
(Boston, 1895); " Colonial Dames anil (ioodwives" 
(1896); " Curious Punishments of Bygone Days" 
(1896); "Colonial Days in Old Xew' York " (Sew 
vou yii. — 13 

York, 1896); "Old-Time Drinks and Drinkers" 
(1897) ; and "Home Life in Colonial Days" (1898). 

E.4RLE, Joseph Hayneswortb, senator, b. in 
Greenville, S. C, 30 April, 1847 ; d. there, 20 May, 
1897. He served during the last year of the rebel- 
lion in Charles's battery of Darlington county, and 
surrendered with Johnson's command at Greens- 
boro'. X. C, in May, 1865. After graduating at 
Furman university in 1868, he Ijecame principal of 
Chick Springs academy in Greenville county, and 
was admitted to the practice of law in 1870. He 
was elected to the legislature in 1878, became state 
senator in 1882. was a delegate to the Democratic 
national conventions of 1880 and 1884, and was 
elected attorney-general for the state in 1886 and 
1888. Mr. Earle, while serving a term on the 
supreme court bench, was elected to the U. S. sen- 
ate for the term ending in March. 1903. 

EDOERTON. Aloiizo Jay, jurist, b. near 
Rome, X. Y., 7 .lune, 1827; d. in Sioux Falls, S. 
Dak., 9 Aug., 1896. He was educated at Wcsleyau 
university, graduating in 1850. He removed to 
Minnesota, was a member of its legislature, and in 
1876 he was chosen presidential elector. He re- 
cruited Company B, 10th Minnesota infantry, 
of which he was apiKiinted captain, and served 
through the Indian campaigns of 1862-'3. In 
1864 lie was commissioned colonel ef the 67th 
U. S. colored infantry, and was ordered to Louisi- 
ana. In 1865 his regiment and the 65th were 
consolidated, retaining the latter number. Later 
he was coinmi.ssi«med brigadier-general by brevet, 
and placed in command of Baton Koiige, remain- 
ing m command of that district till his muster 
out in the winter of 1867. In 1881 he was made 
U. S. senator, succeeding Mr. Wiiidom, whom 
President Garfield had appointed secretary of the 
treasury. In 1881 he was appointed chief justice 
of the territory of Dakota, lie was a member of 
the constitutional convention of South Dakota 
which in 1885 formulated the present constitution, 
and of the convention held in 1889 to readjust the 
constitution to meet the requirements of congress. 
Both conventions made him president. When the 
stale was admitted, he was appointed district judge. 

E1>KALL. Saniiiel Cook. P. E. bishop, b. in 
Dixon. 111., 4 March, 180(1. being a descendant of 
Samuel Edsall. who came from Yorkshire in 1644. 
He was educated at Racine college, studied law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 188'2. Later he 
entered the Western theological seminary, and 
was admitted to the priesthood in June, 1889, by 
Bishop McLaren, 'rhc following year he took 
charge of St. Peter's parish, Chicago, where he met 
with much success and remained until elected by 
the general convention held at Washington in 
Octolicr. 1898, missionary bishop of North Dakota, 

EDSON. Allttii Aaron, Canadian artist, b. in 
Stanbridirc. yueliec. 18 Dec, 1842; d. m Glen Sut- 
ton, t^uebec, 1 May, 1888. He was e<lucated at 
Vercheres college, and entered mercantile employ- 
ments in Montreal, but practised drawing and 
painting by him.self, and as soon as the opportunity 
came went to London to study. After three visits 
to England ami Scollanil, he spent five years in 
France, a part of the time as the pupil of Leon J. 
Pelousc, aci|iiiriiig the French techiiiipie, which 
with his keen insight into Xature made him pre- 
eminent as an interpreter of the summer and 
winter aspectsof Canadian forest scenery. He ex- 
hibited in the Paris salons and the London roval 




academy, and every year after 1871 in the Ver- 
sailles exhibitions, as well as in the Royal Cana- 
dian academy, of which he was one of the founders. 
Among his principal works are "On the Line," ex- 
hibited at the Philadelphia centennial exposition 
(1876) ; " Study of a Canadian Landscape (1882) ; 
"Bolton Forest " (1883) ; "A Grav Day" (1883); 
" In February " (1883) : " Un Petit "Coin aux Vaux, 
pres Cernay-ia-Ville " (1884) ; " Habitants crossing 
the St. Lawrence in Winter" (1886); "Driving in 
Mount Royal Park, Montreal" (1886); and "Set- 
tlers' IIuts"and " A Suffolk Farmhouse," which 
were exhibited at the London institute of water- 
colors. His last work was "The Frozen Cascade." 

EDWARDS, James Thomas, educator, b. in 
Barnegat, N. J., 6 .Jan., 1838. He was graduated 
from Wesleyan university, Middletown, an<i then 
entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, but engaged chiefly in teaching. After 
service in the National army in 186i), he was prin- 
cipal of East Greenwich academy, Rhode Island, 
till 1870, and then president of Chamberlain insti- 
tute, Randolph, N. Y., till 1893, since which date 
he has been principal of McDonogh school, Mary- 
land. He served three terms in the senate of 
Rhode Island, was a presidential elector on the 
Republican ticket in 1868, and in 1893-'3 served 
in the New York senate. In both senates he was 
chairman of the committee on education. In 1884 
and 18i)2 he was a delegate to the general confer- 
ence of his church. Dr. Edwards has published 
"The Grass Familv " (Randolph, N. Y., 1877); 
" The Voice Tree " (Philadelphia, 1883) ; " Silva of 
Chautauqua Lake" (Buffalo, 1893); "Pen and 
Picture : A Chautauqua Sketch-Book " (Meadville, 
Pa.. 1895); and "Addresses" (New York, 1896). 

EGBERT, Henry Clay, soldier, b. in Pennsyl- 
vania about 1840 ; d. in Manila in March, 1899. He 
was appointed a 1st lieutenant in the army from 
civil life, 23 Sept., 1861. He served continuously 
as a line otlicer for nearly forty years. He was more 
closely identified with the 12th infantry than any 
other organization, having served with distinction 
in that regiment in the civil war. He was taken 
prisoner at the battle of Gettysburg, but escaped 
and rejoined his command, and was severely 
wounded in the battle of Bethesda church, Vir- 
ginia. He was major of the 17th infantry from 
1890 to 1893, when he became lieutenant-colonel 
of the 6th infantry. This regiment he commanded 
in the Santiago campaifju, until disabled by a shot 
through the body on 1 July, 1898. For his distin- 
guished service in battle he was promoted to be 
brigadier-general of volunteers. This grade he 
held until December, 1898, when, in the reduction 
of the vohmtcer army, he was honorably dis- 
charged. He was promoted to the rank of colonel 
in the regular service in July, 1898, and assigned 
to the 23d infantry, whose colonel, Charles A. 
Wikoff, was killed at San Juan hill. He joined 
the 32d infantry on 30 Jan., 1899, sailed with it 
for Manila, and arrived in Manila on 4 March, 
1899. Col. Egbert was killed at the head of his 
regiment in a liattle fought near Manila. He was 
buried in Arlington cemetery, 11 Jlay, with full 
military h(mors, all the available regular troops 
near Washinglon were ordered out, and many 
prominent odicers were present. 

EUIIIGUREN, Victor (a-ge-goo-ren), diploma- 
tist, b. in the department of Piura about 1860. He 
studied law, and was admitted to the bar at Lima. 
Later he was a representative for his department. 
The dissolution of congress <m account of the war 
led hiui to withdraw from politics, to devote himself 
to his profession, till 1895, when the triumph of the 

coalition gave birth to the " Junta del Gobierno 
Provisional," of which he was secretary. He was 
afterward elected senator by popular vote. In 
1897 he was appointed minister to Colombia. Mr. 
Eguiguren has i)ublished several articles on the 
demography of Piura's department, and others on 
constitutional law. politics, and administration. 

EGUSQUIZA, Juan Uaiitista (a-goos-key-tha), 
president of Paraguay, b. in Asuncion, 10 May, 1845. 
When thirteen years old he was sent to Buenos 
Ayres to complete his education. He took part 
in the war against Brazil, the Argentine Republic, 
and Uruguay, and became a lieutenant-colonel. 
After the war he retired to private life. He was 
active in the revolution against Mr. Jovellanos in 
1873 and 1873. Was elected representative, and 
afterward secretary of war under President Gon- 
zalez, and in 1890, with great activity and energy, 
crushed a rebellion. Congress advanced him to 
the rank of colonel, and two years later he was' 
made a general. He declined the office of secre- 
tary of war in order to take part in the elections 
to succeed President Gonzalez, and in June, 1894, 
his partisans, allied with those of the other candi- 
date. Gen. Caballero, deposed President Gonzalez. 
Then the house of representatives intrusted the 
management of public affairs to the vice-president, 
Mr. Mormigo, and at the end of his term Gen. Egus- 
quiza was elected without opposition. He took 
possession of his post in November, 1898, and has 
inaugurated aconciliatory policy, striving specially 
to advance public instruction, to forward material 
improvements, and at the same time to preserve 
the peace of the republic. 

EIS, Frederick (eyes), R. C. bishop, b. in Ar- 
bach, near Coblentz, 20 .Jan., 1843. He came to 
this country at the age of twelve, completing his 
education in Milwaiikee and at St. Sul[iice. He 
was ordained priest in 1870 by Bishop Meak in the 
cathedral of Marquette, and remained there as rec- 
tor for three years, and later was dean and bishop's 
consultor. He was pastor of other parishes, and 
in June, 1899, was appointed by the pope bishop 
of Sault Ste. Marie and Marquette, and in the fol- 
lowing August he was consecrated in the cathedral 
of Mar(|uette as fourth bishop of the diocese. 

ELKIN, William Lewis, iistronomer, b. in 
New Orleans, Im.. 29 April, 1855. He was edu- 
cated at the Royal polytechnic school in Stuttgart, 
Germany, and was graduated at the University of 
Strasburg in 1880. Subsequently he was associ- 
ated with Dr. David Gill, of the Royal observa- 
tory at the Cape of Good Hope, in investigating 
the parallaxes of southern stars. In 1884 he be- 
came an astronomer at the observatory of Yale 
university, which post he still holds. His investi- 
gations at this place have included a triangulation 
of the Pleiades with the heliometer, and other re- 
searches with that instrument, the only one of its 
kind in America; also researches on the parallaxes 
of northern stars. These results have been pub- 
lished in current astronomical journals, and liave 
given Dr. Elkin reputation among astronomers. 

ELLIOT, John, senator, b. about 1773; d. in 
Sunbury, Liberty co., Ga., 9 Aug., 1827. He was 
descended from the Scottish Roxburghshire Elli- 
ots. Of his early history nothing is known ex- 
cept that he graduated at Yale college in 1794. 
He represented the state of Georgia in the U. S. 
senate for one term from 1819 to 1825, serving on 
the inililary and several other important commit- 
tees. The senator is remembered as a man of 
abilitv and an eloquent speaker. 

ELLIOTT, Charles, author, b. in Castleton, 
Roxburghshire, Scotland, 18 March, 1815 ; d. in 




Easton, Pa., 14 Feb., 1892. He removed to the 
I'nitcd -States in his youth, was graduated at La- 
fayette, studied at Princeton theological seminary, 
and was ordaitie<l to the ministry of the Presby- 
terian church. After teaching in Xenia, Ohio, he 
became professor of belles-lettres in the University 
of Pennsylvania, o<.-cupied the chair of Greek in 
Miami university in 1849-'63, that of l)iblical exe- 
gesis in the Presbyterian theological seminary of 
the northwest, and after 1886 was professor of 
Hebrew in Lafayette. Ohio university gave him 
the degree of I). D. Dr. Elliott was a member of 
the American oriental society, and devoted much 
of his life to the study of ancient languages and 
history. He translated ami enlarged Kleinert's 
commentaries for the American edition of Johann 
Peter Ijange's commentary on the Holy Scriptures 
(New York, 1874). He also translated, with Kev. 
William J. Harsha, Cellerier's " .Manuel d'herme- 
neutique," under the title of " Biblical Hermeneu- 
tics" (1879), and was the author of "The .Sal)- 
bath " (1866) ; " Treatise on the Inspiration of the 
Scriptures " (Minburgh, 1877) : and " Mosjiic Au- 
thorship of the Pentateuch " (f'in<-innati, 1884). 

ELLIOTT. John .Milton, jurist, b. in Scott 
oountv. Va.. l(t .May, \X'H); assassinated in Frank- 
fort, Ky., 26 .March, 1879. for faithfully iwrform- 
ing his duty as a judge of the state supreme court. 
His father, a man of talent and influence, was an 
early settler in Carter, now Kllicott county. The 
s<m was educated at Henry college, Virginia, stud- 
ied law with Henry C. Harris at Prestonsburg, Ky., 
was there admitted to the bar, and in 18>>:i was 
elected to congress as a Democrat, serving three 
successive terms. He represenle<l the 9th Ken- 
tucky district in the ('onfoderate c<mgre«s. In 1808 
he was elected circuit judge in the Kith district, 
and .'terved six years, declining a re-election. In 
1876 he was elected bv the Ist apfiellate district to 
the supreme court oi the state, whichiiosition he 
was filling at the time he was .shot by Thomtts liu- 
ford. For thirty-two years .luilge Elliott was. 
with slight exceptions, in oflicial life, a high testi- 
monial to his ability and integrity. The state of 
Kentucky erected a monument at t'^rankfort to his 
memory, which was unveiled, 34 April, 1884, with 
approprinle <'erenionies and aililrt^s«'S. 

r!LliIS. John Valentine, Canadian journalist, 
b. in Halifax. 8 May. WVi. He removed to Mont- 
real, and later to int. John, where he still resides. 
lie is wiitor of the '• Daily Evening GIoIm'," 
and sat in the New Brunswick house of a-ssembly 
from 1882 until 18M7, when he resigncil and was 
elected by St. .John n iriemlwr of the house of 
commons. He was defeated in 1891, but elected 
in 1896. In the election of 1887 in (jueens coun- 
ty. .Mr. King, now .Senator King, had a nmjority of 
the votes cast. The returning ofBcer, however, 
gave the scat to Mr. George BainI, on the preten- 
sion that King had not lM>en regularly nominated, 
through some defect in making his reiwrt. King's 
votes were accordingly rejc>cted. and application 
was made to a county juilge for a recount of the 
ballots. The judge decided to allow the recount 
and immed a date. Mr. Baird applied to a circuit 
court juilge for a stay, wliich was granted. A 
copy of the order was served on the county judge, 
but he<l to obey it, and o|)cned his count. 
The returning olVicer refused to give up the ballots 
to the county judge, and Mr. BainI obtained the 
scat. Mr. Ellis severely eriticise<l this pr<K'e<lure 
in the " Glolie." and was held for contempt of 
court. The matter was in litigation for seven 
years, but Anally Ellis was found guilty by the 
supreme court, and, there being no appeal to the 

supreme court of Canada, he was committed to 
jail for one month, fined two hundred dollars, and 
condemned to pay all costs. The ciise created 

treat excitement at the time, and the friends of 
Ir. Ellis raised the money and iiaid all his ex- 
penses, though he suffered the full term of his in- 
carceration. He is an able writer, a keen parlia- 
mentary debater, and a popidar lecturer. 

EM.liERSON. Henry Robert, Canadian states- 
man, b. in Maugerville, New Brun.swick, 25 Sept., 
1853, educated at Acadia college. He took his 
degree of LL. B. at Boston university law-school 
in 1877, and was admitted an attorney in October 
of the same year and a barrister in the year fol- 
lowing. In 1887 he was an unsuccessful candi- 
date for a scat in the house of commons. He sat 
in the Xew Brunswick house of a.sscmblv for Al- 
bert county from 1888 until 1890. In 1891 he was 
appointed a member of the legislative council, and 
became president of the executive council in March, 
1892, and leader for the government in the upper 
house until the alwlition of that chamber in Sep- 
tember. He was returned member of the house 
of assembly in 1892 and again in 1895. In 1897 
James Mitchell, the premier of New Brunswick, 
resigned the leadership of the government, and 
Mr. Emmcrson took his place as first minister. 

ENO, Anioit Richards capitalist, b. at Sims- 
bun-, Conn., 1 Nov., 1810; d. in New York city, 
21 Feb.. 1898. Herecei%'ed a common-school edu- 
cation, and as a youth was a fellow-clerk with 
Edwin D. Morgan and his cousin. Junius 8. Mor- 
gan, in Hartford. Ijater he became a successful 
wholesale dry-goo«ls merchant in New York city, 
and was a founder and principal st(x;kholder in 
the Second national bank, of which his son, John 
C, was the president. He retired from the dry- 
goods business in 1857 to give his attention to 
real estate, in which he was very successful. He 
erected the Fifth avenue hotel, which he owned 
at his death, together with other real estate in that 
citv, valued at nuiny millions. At the time he 
budt the hotel the site was so far uptown that it 
was called " Eno's Folly." It was orwned in 1859, 
ami proved to be the most prolitable hotel prop- 
erty in New York, possibly in the country. He 
bequeathed fll.'iO.OOO to the Xew York chamber of 
commerce and !JiI20.fN)0 to various charities. 

ER.HENTROrT, Haniel. congressman, b. in 
Keailiiig. Pa., 24 Jan.. is;{7 : d. there, 17 Sept., 1899. 
He was graduated at Franklin and .Marshall col- 
lege, and admitted to the bar in 1859. He filled 
the oflice of district attorney from 1862 to 1865, 
and that of city solicitor for three years, became 
state senator in 1873. and continued in office for 
seven years. From 1881 to 1889 he was a Demo- 
cratic member of congress, and was re-elected in 
1897 and 1899 for his sixth term ils a congressman 
of the Keystone state. He was a delegate to sev- 
eral national Democratic conventions!. Forthirty- 
flve years Mr. Ermentroul was a leader in Berks 
county politics, and was prominent in the national 
councils of his party. His death was caused by an 
accident while at the diimer-table. 

ESTE, lieorge Feahody. soldier, b. in Nashua, 
N. H., 24 Ajiril, 1829 : d. in Xew York city. 6 Feb., 
1881. He wrote his family name Kstcy till he en- 
tered the army, when he adopted an older spell- 
ing. He entered Dartmouth, but left on account 
of illness before graduation, and. after going to 
California, studied law, ami settled in Toleilo, 
where he become a partner of .Morrison \i. VVaite. 
He was solicitor of his county in I860, but, enter- 
ing the National service as a private, became lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the 14tb Ohio infantry, and in 




1862 succeeded to the command. During the At- 
lanta campaign and afterward he led a brigade, 
and at Jonesboro' he averted defeat by a timely 
bayonet charge. lie was brevetted brigadier-gen- 
eral of volunteers, 9 Dec, 1864, and on 26 June, 
1865, was given full rank. Gen. Este resigned on 
4 Dec, 1865, and afterward practised his profes- 
sion in Washington, D. C. He was presented by his 
regiment with a sword with diamond-studded hilt. 
ESTRADA CABRERA, Manuel (es-trah -dah), 

S resident of Guatemala, b. in Quezaltenango, 21 
ov., 1857. He studied in the Colegio de San 
Jose and in the Instituto Nacional de Occiden- 
te, but had to abandon for a time his law studies 
and to earn a living. He was at length graduated, 
and admitted to practice in (Quezaltenango in 1888, 
soon acquiring a reputation as a successful lawyer. 
He was appointed, in succession, district judge in 
Retalhulen and Quezaltenango. Later he was ap- 
pointed a magistrate of the court of appeals. His 
leaning toward political life induced him to ac- 
cept a seat as representative in the national assem- 
bly, where his services to the public interest of the 
republic attracted the attention of Gen. Jose Jlaria 
Keyna Barrios, who in July, 1892, selected Estrada 
Cabrera as his secretary of state. At the death of 
Gen. Barrios in February, 1898, Senor Estrada 
Cabrera was put in charge of the government of 
the repubjic as its president. 

ESTREES, Jean, Count d' (es-tray), French 
naval officer, b. in Paris in June, 1624; d. there, 
19 May. 1707. He served as colonel in the cam- 
paigns of Flanders, entered the navy in 1668, and 
was sent with a fleet to the West Indies, where he 
defeated the English in several encounters. He 
was promoted vice-admiral on his return, in 1669, 
and given, in 1676, the command of an expedi- 
tion for retaking Cayenne and Tobago from the 
Dutch. He arrived off Cayenne, 17 Dec, and a 
few days later stormed the place, compelling the 
Dutch garrison to surrender. With re-enforce- 
ments from Martinique, he then sailed for Tobago, 
where he arrived, 19 Feb., 1677. Having landed 
the marines, he defeated the Dutch fleet, and bom- 
barded the city on S March ; but the marines were 
repulsed on another point with loss, and he re- 
tired to Martinique. In 1677 he sailed again from 
Brest for Tobago, where he arrived, 7 Dec, carried 
the city, and afterward captured the island of 
Curagoa. He was made marshal of France in 
1681, bombarded Tunis in 1682, and in the same 
year was appointed viceroy of America, which 
office he retained till his death. 

EVANS, Henry Clay, pension commissioner, b. 
in Juniata, Pa., 18 June, 1843. After an academic 
education he enlisted in a Wisconsin infantry regi- 
ment in May, 1804, serving until the war closed. 
Establishing himself in Chattanooga as an iron 

and railway-car manufacturer, he was twice elected 
mayor, and in 1889 member of congress. He was 
appointed assistant postmaster-general in 1889, 
serving for four years. In the year following he 
was elected governor of Tennessee on the face of 
the returns, but a recount by the legislature re- 
sulted in the rejection of certain returns for al- 
leged irregularities and his Democratic opponent 
declared elected. Mr. Evans stood second in the 
balloting for vice-president at the national Re- 
publican convention of 1896. In the following 
year he was appointed commissioner of pensions, 
in which office he has abolished numerous abuses 
during his two years' occu[)ancy. 

EVANS, Robley Uunglison, naval officer, b. 
in Floyd county. Va.. 18 Aug., 1846, and ap- 
pointed to the U. S. naval academv from Utah. 20 
Sept., 1860. On 1 Oct., 1863, he was iiroraoted to 
ensign ; in 1864 he was attached to the steam-sloop 
"Powhatan" on the VV^est India squadron; he 
served on the North Atlantic blockading squad- 
ron, participating in both attacks on Fort Fisher: 
in the land attack he received two severe wounds 
from rifle-shots. He was commissioned lieutenant, 
25 July, 1866, and was on the steam-sloop " Pis- 
cataqua," ftag-shi[) of the Asiatic squadron. He 
received his commission of lieutenant-commander, 
12 March, 1868, and later was on duty at the 
navy-yard, Washington, and at the naval acad- 
emy. He served on the " Shenandoah " on the 
European station, also on the " Congress " on the 
same station from 1873 until 1876, and later com- 
manded the training-ship "Saratoga." He was 
promoted to commander, 12 July, 1878. In July, 
1891, he took command of the " Yorktown," and 
was appointed captain, 27 June, 1893. He was ap- 
pointed to the command of the "New York," 23 
Aug., 1894, and was later transferred to the " Iowa," 
which he commanded during the war with Spain, 
taking an active part in the destruction of Cer- 
vera's fleet. He was prominent in making naval 
arrangements for the New York reception to Ad- 
miral Dewey. 29 and 30 Sept., 1899. 

EVANTUREL, Francis Eugene Alfred, Ca- 
nadian politician, b. in Quebec, 31 Aug., 1849. He 
is a grandson of Fran(;ois Evanturel. who served 
with Napoleon in most of his campaigns and af- 
terward settled and died in Quebec, and was edu- 
cated at the Quebec seminary, studied law at Laval 
university, and was called to the bar. He prac- 
tised his profession until 1873, when he entered 
the civil service at Ottawa. In 1H81 he resigned 
and resumed practice in Ontario. He is also editor 
of " L'lnterprete," which he conducts with vigor. 
Mr. Evanturel has been a member of the Ontario 
house of assembly from 1886 up to the present 
time, and in 1894 was unanimously chosen speaker, 
being the first French Canadian to hold that office. 




FAIRBANK. Calvin. clerpTinan. b. in Pike, 
N. Y., ;J Nov.. 1H16; il. in An,i,'i'licii. N. Y.. 12 Oct., 
1898. I le was graduated from Uberlin, and tluring 
his colloKC days made the acquaintance of Gerrit 
Smith, Theodore Parker, and Joshua K. Giddings, 

adopting their views 
and working with 
tlieni. In 1844 he 
learne<l that a beau- 
tiful woman who 
had only one-sixty- 
fourth of negro 
blood was to be sold 
by her father for 
the New Orleans 
market. Mr. Fair- 
bank liastily raised 
%'1:1'17) from Salmon 
V. Chase and other 
Cincinnati citizens, 
attendetl the auc- 
tion, bought her 
anti set her free in 
Ohio, where she now 
(1N!K») lives, happily 
mariie<l. For one 
of his many adventures in liehalf of the slaves Mr. 
Fairbank was sentenced to fiftetjn years' imprison- 
ment at Frankfort, Ky. On Iwing pardoned in 
1849,he at once tried to prevent the passage of the 
Fugitive slave bill, and on its becoming a law he 
resisted its execution. This time he was Kidnapped 
and .sentenced to fifteen years' imprisonment at 
hard labor. During the war he was relea.scd. but 
the floggings he had suffered and the lllth and 
want in which he had lived maile him an old 
man at forty. Prom 18fi5 to 1875 he was eniploye<l 
bv various missionary and religious siK-ieties of 
New York. In 1893 he publishe<l a volume en- 
titled "IIow the Way was prepure<l," which gave 
an account of his eventful life in the slavery days. 
FAIKB.iNKS. Charlp8 Warren, senaior.'b. 
near L'nionville Centre, Ohio, 11 May, 18.')2. He 
was grailuate<l from the Western university in 
1872, and a<lopte<l the profession of the law. Re- 
moving to Indiana he was in 1802 elected chair- 
man of the Republican state convention, and four 
years later wa-s a delegate-at-large to the Republi- 
can national convention at St. Louis, lie was 
elected to the U. S. s<Miate as a Kepublicun, 20 Jan., 
1897, by a majority of 21 on joint ballot over 
Daniel \V. Voorhces and Leroy Templeton. Mr. 
Fairbanks never held any office prior to his elec- 
tion to the senate. His term will expire in 1903. 

FAXSH.\W, Daniel, printer, b. in New York 
city in 1789: d. there, 20 Feb., 1860. He was aj)- 
prenticed to a printer, ami shortly after attaining 
nis majority entennl business for himself. He be- 
came printer to the Bible socictv, then newlv 
formeil, in 1817, and held that contract till 1840. 
He was also printer to the Tract society for many 
years. In 18'29 he introduced power presses, and 
was the first printer of books by machinery in New 
York. He accumulated a large fortune, part of 
which he left to his son, on the condition that he 
abstniii from the use of toljacco. 

FARIiEY. Jolin Mnrplir. R. (.'. bishop, b. at 
Newtown Hamillon. Ireland, 8 April, 1842. He 
was educuteil at .Si. Macartan's college. Monaghan, 
at St. John's college, Fortlham, at .St. .lose[)h's sem- 
inary, Troy, and he spent four years in the study 

of theology in the American college at Rome, where 
he was ordained a priest in June, 1870. He was 
assistant rector of St. Peter's church, at New 
Brighton, Staten Island, in 1870, and from 1872 to 
1884 secretary to Archbishop MeCloskey. He was 
made a private chamberlain to Poiw Leo XIII. with 
the title of monsignore in 1884, vicar-general of 
the archdiocese of New York in 1891, domestic 
prelate of Pope Leo XIIL in 1892, prothonotary 
apostolic in 1895, and was appointed auxiliary 
bishop of New York in 1895. He was consecrated 
under the title of bishop of Teugma in December, 
1895, by Archbishop Corrigan in St, Patrick's ca- 
thedral. While assistant in the episcopal labors 
be continues to be a member of the archbishop's 
council and also his vicar-general. 

FERMOY. Matthias Alexis Roche de, French 
soldier, b. iti the West Indies about 1737; d. after 
1778. He was thirty-fourth on the list of Continen- 
tal brigadier-generals, his commission datingS Nov.. 
1778. On coming to this country in that year and 
offering his .services to congress, Fermoy represent- 
ed himself as a colonel of engineers in the French 
army. He served under Washington in the Tren- 
ton-Princeton campaign. On 1 Jan., 1777, he wius or- 
dered to take his brigade to hold an advanced post 
at Mile-Run, Iteyond Maiden-Head (now Lawrence- 
ville). That night he returned to Trenton, leaving 
his command in a somewhat questionable way. 
The same year (1777) he was place*! in command 
of Fort Independence, opposite Fort Ticonderoga. 
b^ orders of congress, and against the protest of 
Washington. On the retreat of Gen. Arthur St. 
Clair from Ticonderoga, Fermoy, against, the or- 
ders of the commanding general, set fire to his 
quarters on Mount Independence at two o'clock on 
tlie morning of 6 July, 1777, thus revealing to 
Burgoyne .St. Clair's evacuation of Ticonderoga. 
Had it not been for this St. Clair would have made 
good his retreat in safety. In Di'eeud)er, 1777, he 
applied for promotion to a major-generalship, but 
congress on 31 Jan., 1778. refused his request, and 
on 16 Feb., 1778. he was allowetl to resign, receiving- 
;f800 to enable him to return to the West Indies. 

FERRIS. (Jeorffe Washington (iale. engineer, 
b. in Galesburg. HI.. 4 Feb.. 1H.")9: d. in Pittsburg, 
I'a., 22 Nov., 1896. After attending school in Car- 
son City, Nev., and San Francisco, Cal., where his 
early life was spent, he entere<l Rens.sclaer polytech- 
nic s«Oiool.Troy, X. Y., and was graduated in 1881. 
After work as a civil engineer in West Virginia 
and Kentucky, he conceive*! the plan of buiMing 
the gigantic revolving wheel known by his name, 
which was a consjiicuous feature of the Columbian 
exposition in Chicago in 1893. He orguiiized the 
firm thai constructed it and superintended its erec- 
tion. The wheel's diameter was 250 feel, and it 
turned on a steel axle 32 inches in diameter and 
45 feet long. Thirty-six carriages, each holding 
40 persons, were hung at regular intervals to the 
outer tire, and in these many thousand passengers 
were carried in safety during the exhibition. 

FEWKES. Jesse' Walter, b. in 
Newlon. 14 Nov., 18."i0. He was graduated 
from Harvard in 1H75. an<l then spent two years 
in ZfKilogical sluilies in Kurope. receiving in 1877 
the degree of Ph. D. from Harvard. In 1880 he was 
appointed assistant in charge of the invertebrala in 
the >luseum of comparative zoology in Cambridge, 
where he remained for nine years. During 1890- 
'4 he was ilirectorof the Hcmenway southwestern 




archirological expedition, for which he visited the 
Zuiii and Moki pueblos, and also represented the 
expedition at the JIadrid exposition in 1893. He 
became a special ethnologist of tlie bureau of eth- 
nology in 1895, and headed expeditions to Arizona 
•during the summers of 1896 and 1897 for archieo- 
logical purposes. To the literature of natural 
history he has made contributions of over fifty 
papers and monographs that have appeared in the 
publications of the Museum of comparative zoology, 
or in the proceedings of societies of which he is a 
member, or in the "American Naturalist." He 
has also written largely on ethnology, and is the 
editor of the " American Journal of Ethnology and 
Archaeology," of which he was the founder. 

FIELl), Eiig'ene, journalist, b. in St. Louis, 
Mo., 2 Sept., 1850 ; d. in Chicago, 111., 4 Nov., 1895. 
His father, Roswell Martin Field, a native of Ver- 
mont, was Dred Scott's first counsel, and for many 
years judge of the circuit court of Missouri. Tlie 
son completed his education at the university of 
his native state, and on returning from a few 
months' travel in Europe he entered upon the 
career of a journalist, ultimately connecting him- 
self with the Chicago " News " and " Record." He 
was a great traveller and bibliomaniac, and success- 
ful as the writer of verse for children, his strongest 
claim, perhaps, to remembrance. His principal 
works are " A Little Book of Western Verse " 
(Boston, 1893); "A Little Book of Profitable 
Tales," " With Trumpet and Drum " (1892) ; 
" A Second Book of Verse " (1893) ; " Love Songs 
of Childhood " (1894) ; " The Holy Cross, and other 
Tales" (1894); the unfinished work "Love Affairs 
of a Bibliomaniac" (1896): and, with Roswell M. 
Field, " Echoes from the Sabine " (1895). 

FIELD, Marshall, merchant, b. in Conway, 
Mass., 36 Aug., 1835. He attended the schools of 
his native village, and at the age of seventeen went 
to Pittsfield, spending four years there as a clerk 
in a general store. lie began his business career 
in Chicago in 1856 as a clerk in the wholesale dry- 
goods house of Cooley, Wadsworth & Co.; in four 
years became a partner in the house of Cooley, 
Farwell & Co., and later of the largest house of its 
kind in the west, Farwell, Field & Co. In 1865 
he formed a partnership with Potter Palmer and 

Levi Z. Leiter. 
Two years later Mr. 
Palmer withdrew 
and the house be- 
came known as 
Field, Leiter & Co. 
until 1881, when 
Mr. Leiter retired, 
and the house was 
and has ever since 
been kiiown as Mar- 
shall Field & Co. 
The retail depart- 
ment covers more 
than half a block in 
the center of the 
city, and the whole- 
sale department, 
which hiis been 
kept separate since 
1872, is now car- 
ried on in a mas- 
sive granite edifice 
covering an entire 
block and among the grandest buildings of its 
kind in the world. Besides the two mammoth 
establishments in Chicago, Mr. Field has branch 
houses in England, France, and Germany. Goods 



are purchased for cash and sold on short time. 
The annual sales exceed $35,000,000, and the i)ay- 
roU includes about 4,000 persons. He gave land 
worth $200,000 to the Chicago universitv and 
$1,000,000 to establish the "Field Columbian mu- 
seum," for the permanent preservation of many 
exhibits of the World's Columbian exposition and 
embracing the elements of ethnological science 
and natural history, and has contributed to the 
Chicago historical society and to many of the 
hospitals of the city. Mr. Field has never been 
in public life, but takes an active interest in the 
development of Chicago, and is a member of 
many clubs in Chicago and New York. 

FIELD, WalbridgreAbiier, jurist, b. in Spring- 
field, Vt., 26 April. 1833; d. in Bo.^ton, 15 July, 
1899. He was graduated from Dartmouth and 
from the Harvard law-school. After attaining 
prominence as a lawyer he was elected to congress 
from the 3d district. In 1887 he was appointed 
by Gov. Long to the supreme court bench, being 
promoted to the chief justiceship in 1890 on the 
resignation of Justice Morton. Gov. Wolcott 
appointed Judge Oliver W. Holmes to the va- 
caiicv caused bv the death of Justice Field. 

FIELD, William Hildrelli, lawyer, b. in New 
York city, 16 April, 1843. He was graduated at 
Union college, and at Columbia college law-school, 
lie was taken into partnership by John W. Ed- 
monds, and remained with him until his death in 
1874. He was elected president of the Catholic 
club of New York in 1887, and re-elected in 1888. 
Under his management this body became the most 
influential Roman Catholic organization in the 
state. He has tried many cases before the court of 
appeals, some of great public importance, involv- 
ing the interpretation of statutes, in which the law 
has been settled in accordance with the construc- 
tion that he advocated. Mr. Field edited, with 
Judge Edmonds. "Statutes at Large of the Stale 
of New York " (9 vols., Allmny, 1863-'75). 

FIOUEIIOA, (liprdiiimo (fisc-gay-ro'-ah), Mexi- 
can missionary, b. in the city of Mexico in 1604; 
d. there in 1683. In 1622 he entered the society 
of Jesus in Tepozotlan, and was appointed professor 
of Latin and philosophy in the College of Oajaca. 
His desire for missionary work caused him to study 
the language of the savage tribes of New Biscay, 
who shortly before had killed eight Jesuit mission- 
aries, and in 1634 he obtained permission to preach 
to the Tepehuanes. He was well received, and in 
forty years' incessant labor converted and civilized 
that fierce nation, and their neighbors to the north, 
the Tarahumares. Worn out by sickness and age, 
he returned in 1674 to Mexico, where he was ap- 
pointed rector of the principal college ; but con- 
tinued till the end of his life to send to his con- 
verts agricultural implements and artisans for their 
instruction. He wrote, besides a catechism and 
religious tracts in Indian dialect, "Arte y copioso 
Vocabulario de las Lenguas Tepehuana y Tarahu- 
mara," of which, according to Father Francisco 
Florrencia, who wrote Figueroa's biography (Mex- 
ico, 1689), the latter left four co(iies in his own 
writing, but only one has been preserved in the 
national lil)rarv of Mexico. 

FINK, Lonis Maria, R. C. bishop, b. at Trifters- 
berg. Bavaria. 12 June, 1834. He pursued his 
studies at Ratisbon, came to this country in 1853, 
at the age of eighteen, and was received among 
the Benedictines by Abbot Wimmer at St. Vin- 
cent's abl)ey in Westmoreland county. Pa., making 
his profession as a Benedictine in January, 18.54. 
His name was Michael by baptism, but he now as- 
sumed that of Louis Maria. Having completed 




his theological studies, he was ordained a priest in 
May, 1857, by Bishop Young of Erie. He per- 
formed missionary worlc in Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, and KcntAckv, building a new church at 
Covington and intrcKlueing the Benedictine nuns 
to teach the girls' school. At St. Joseph's, Chicago, 
he so increased his flock as to render a larger 
church necessary, and this he erected, also a fine 
school. In 1871 he was appointed coadjutor to 
Bishop Miegc, viear-apostolic of Kansas, and was 
consecrated under the title of bishop of Eucarpia, 
in June, 1871, at St. Joseph's church, Chicago, 
which he had erected. He assisted Bishop Miege 
in his lal)ors among the Indians, and many churches, 
schools, institutions.and priests were added. Bishop 
Fink l>ecame vicar-apostolic of Kansas in May, 
1877. and l)ishop of Leavenworth in May, 1891. 

FINNEY, John, physician, b. in Irefanil: d. in 
New Ca.stle, Del., in 1774. He settled at New 
Costle. and was appointed one of the first mem- 
bers of the common council of that city in 1724. 
He followeil his profession with success for fifty 
years, and became the wealthiest person in that 
county. In 1738 he was appointed a justice of 
the [leace, and he served as a judge of the or- 
phans' court for many years. Soon after the defeat 
of Uen. Hraddock he was appointe<l lieutenant- 
colonel of the upper regiment of New Castle county, 
and in 1758 he acted as commissioner of the lower 
counties in enuipping three comimnies of soldiers 
required by Gov. Denny. He was also appointed 
trustee of moneys that were granted the govern- 
ment for military uses by parliament, and was 
naval officer for the port and dist rict of New Castle. 
An elegy written upon him by his friend, John 
I'arke, was printed among poems of the latter in 
1786. — Darid, his son, lawyer, d. near New Castle, 
Del., in May, 1H(I0, was iKjrji in America, but re- 
ceived his higher education in Ireland, and prac- 
tised his profession at Newcastle. In 1748 he was 
commissioned captain of a company of a.»si)clators 
of New Castle county. In 1771 and 1775 he was 
appointcil a justice for that county for the trial of 
negroes, and in 1777a just ice of the jieace. In 1778 
he was judge of the supreme court of Delaware 
and justice of the superior court. He was rej)ut«l 
the richest citizen of Delaware until the peruKl of 
the Kevolution, when his patriotism induced him 
to give too great credit to the Continental currency, 
thereby materially diminishing his wealth. 

FISF.T, Louis Joseph Cyprieii, Canadian poet, 
b. in (Quebec. :i Oct.. IH2.">. He studied law, but 
abatidnned the i)rofession to devote hims(>lf ex- 
clusively to literature, lie was elected president 
of the Institut Canadien in IHTM, and for sev- 
eral vears edited the ~ Jounial de I'lnstruction 
Publif|uc." In 1860 he was selected to write the 
ode of welcome on the visit of the firlnce of Wales, 
and in 1867 he competed siiccessfidly for the medal 
offered by the Laval university for the best jioeni 
on the iliscovery of Camida. Almost all his poems 
have Ix'en publisheil in "La Kuche Litteraire," 
"Les Soirees Catuuliennes," " Le FoyerCanadien," 
and other literary reviews of Montn-al and yue- 
Iwc. The most popular of his compositions are 
•'La voix du pa-sse.' "MiVlitation," "Le poete k la 
muse." and " l^e vn-iix <Ie Mariette." Mr. Fis<-t [ 
iMiblisheil "Jnde el (trazia ou les malheurs de j 
I'einicrution Ciiniidieniir " ((^upbec, ISfil). 

FISHRACK. ^Vlllliini .Wende. senator, b. in ' 
Jeffersonton. Culiicper i-o., Va.. 5 Nov.. 1831. [ 
He was graduated at the Cniversitv of Virginia, | 
reail law in Kichmor.d in 1858. and removed to i 
Fort Smith, Ark. He was a member of the con- 
stitutional conventions of 1861 and 1874, was i 

elected U. S. senator in 1864 by the " Camden " 
legislature, but was refused admission to the sen- 
ate because Arkansas was not properly " recon- 
structed." He was a member of the slate legisla- 
ture in 1877. 1879, and 1885, and elected governor 
in 1893. He is the author of the " Fishback 
amendment " to the Arkansas constitution, forbid- 
ding the legislature to pay certain reconstruction 
state bonds, which he denounced as fraud nlent. 

FISHER, Sidney George, lawver, b. in Phila- 
delphia, 2 March. 1809: d. there! 25 July, 1871. 
He was gnwluatcd at Dickinson college. Carlisle, 
Pa., in 1827, practised law in Philadelphia, and 
wrote largely in the newspapers and magazines of 
the time on the political questions of the civil war, 
under the i>en-name of "Cecil." Among his writ- 
ings were essays on "Kansas and the Constitu- 
tion." "The True Interest of the Border States," 
"The Laws of Hace in Reference to Slavery," 
and "The Law of the Territories." He wrote a 
pamphlet in favor of the re-election of President 
Lincoln, which was published by the Union league 
of Philiulelphia and had a wide circulation. At 
the close of the war he wrote a book called "The 
Trial of the Constitution," which discussed the 
constitutiotial questions and diflicullies that had 
been raised by the war. — His son. Sidney George, 
author, b. in Philailelphia. II Sept.. 18.50, was 
graduated at Trinity in 1879, spent two years at 
Harvanl law-school, and became a niember of the 
Philadelphia bar in 1883. On 30 July, 1880, he 
wrote for the New York " Nation " a letter signed 
" F. G. S.," which was the beginning of the move- 
ment which established the various civil service 
reform societies throughout the country. In 
1892-'3 his articles entitled ".Alien Degradation 
of American Character" and "Has Immigration 
Dried up our Literature f" published in "The 
Forum." did much to influence the formation of 
the Immigration restriction league. Mr. Fisher 
has miule a S[»cial study of colonial history. Ho 
has t>ublished a pamiifilet entitled "The Catises 
of the Increase of Divorce " (Philadelphia, 1890) 
and the following historical books: "The Mak- 
ing of Pennsylvania" (1896); " Pennsvlvania : 
Colony and Commonwealth" (1896); "The Evo- 
lution of the Constitution" (1897): and "Men, 
Women, and Manners in Colonial Times" (1897). 

FISH EK, Sydney Arthur, Canadian statesman, 
b. in Montreal. 12 June. 18,50. educated at .McGill 
university, and afterward at Trinity college, Cam- 
bridge. England, where he took his degree of B. A. 
He became a farmer in Bedford. Quebec, and has 
closely identified himself with dairying, fruit- 
growing, and stock-breeding. He has been for 
many years a member of the council, and is one 
of the vice-presidents for Quel)ec of the Dominion 
alliance for the prohibition of the liquor tralUc. 
Mr. Fisher was first returned to parliament in 
1882 for Brome county, and in 1887 also, but was 
defeated in the electitin of 1891. In IH'M he was 
elected an<l a|>poinleil niiiiisler of agriculture in 
the cabinet of Sir VVi|fri<l Laurier. 

FISKE, (Jeorge MeClelliind. clergyman, b. in 
East Windsor. Conn.. 21 Oct., 18.50. He was grad- 
uated at Trinity, and in 1H74 at Berkeley divinity 
school, from which institution he received the de- 
gree of S. T. I), in 1888. He was nuule deacon in 
the Protestant Epis<>opal church in 1874. and or- 
dained prii'st in 1875. From 1870 till 1873 he was 
heail-master of Burlington college. an<l from 1874 
till 1876 missionary of St. Mark's, Ilammonton, 
N. J., and of Christ church, Waterford, N. J. He 
was rector successively of St. Mary's, Castleton, 
N. Y., St. Peter's, Peekskill, and of St. Stephen's,. 




Providence, R. I., since 1884. He is a member of 
the board of missions of the diocese of Rhode 
Island, warden of St. Mary's orplianage. East 
Providence, and a trustee of Berkeley school. Provi- 
dence, since 1886. In June, 1888, he was elected 
bishop of the diocese of Pond du Jjac, but declined. 
He has published '"A Memorial Sermon on Gen- 
eral Grant " (Providence. 1885) ; " The Real Pres- 
ence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist " and '• The 
Mission of the Masonic Order" (1886): "An Un- 
corrupt Life " (1887) ; and several sermons. 

FITCH, Aslihel Parnielee, congressman, b. in 
Mooers, Clinton co., N. Y., 8 Oct., 1848. His father, 
Edward, a grandson of .labez Pitch, a Revolutionary 
officer, was a successful lawyer in New York city 
and a member of the legislature. The son was 
educated in the New York public schools, at Will- 
iston seminary, Easthampton, Mass., and at the 
Universities of Jena and Berlin. He .studied law 
at Columbia law-school, was admitted to the bar 
in 1869, and devoted himself to corporation prac- 
tice. He declined a Republican nomination for 
congress in 1884 on the ground that he was not in 
sympathy with high protection, but in 1886 was a 
successful candidate in opposition to Gen. Egbert L. 
Viele, a high-protection Democrat. He left the Re- 
publican party on the tariff issue, but was re-elected 
as a Democrat in 1888, 1890, and 1892, and in 1893 
was chosen comptroller of New York city. In 1897 
he was renominated, this time as a Republican, but 
was not re-elected. In congress Mr. Pitch took an 
active part in the contest for an international copy- 
right law, also against the ship subsidy bill and 
the William McKinley tariff bill. 

FITZUERALD, Louis, financier, b. in New 
York city, 31 .May, 1838. Educated in the schools 
of his native city, he early entered on a business ca- 
reer, in which he has been singularly successful. 
In 1857 he became a member of the 7th regiment, 
and marched with it to the defence of Washington 
in 1861. Later he was commissioned 1st lieuten- 
ant of the 11th New York infantry, serving through 
the war, at the close of which he was lieutenant- 
colonel of the 1st Mississippi. Returning to New 
York, he re-entered the 7tn, becoming lieutenant- 
colonel, and in 1883 he was appointed brigadier- 
general, commanding the 1st brigade until his 
resignation, January, 1898. During his success- 
ful administration 6 regiments of infantry, 2 bat- 
talions of artillery, and 1 squadron of cavalry 
were provided with admirable armories, and the 
convenient parade-ground at Van Cortlandt park 
secured for all time for the purpose of the New 
York National guard. Por many years Gen. Fitz- 
gerald has been president of the Mercantile trust 
company, and is recognized as one of the leiwling 
financiers of Wall street, having lieen active in 
the reorganization of several of the most im|)or- 
tant railwav corporations of the country. 

FITZGERALD, Oscar Peiiii, .M. K. bishop, b. 
in Caswell county, N. C., 24 Aug., 1839. He en- 
tered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, was a missionary in the California mines 
in 1855-'7, and subsequently edited the " Pacific 
Methodist," " Christian Spectator," and " Califor- 
nian Teacher " in San Pranci.sco. He was super- 
intendent of public instruction of California in 
18G7-'71, and under his administration the State 
university was founded and the normal school or- 
ganized and permanently established. He became 
president of the Pacific Methodist college in 1873, 
and in 1878 was appointed editor of the Nashville 
" Christian Advo{-atc," the organ of the Methodist 
Episcopal church, south. In 1890 he was elect- 
•ed bishop, and resides in Nashville. Bishop Fitz- 

gerald is the author of " California Sketches " (3 
vols., Nashville, 1879); " The Class Meeting" (1880); 
"Christian Growth " (1881); •' Glimpses of Truth" 
(1883); "Dr. Summers: A Life Study" (1884); 
" Centenary Cameos " (1885) ; " The Life of McFer- 
rin " (1890) ; and " The Epworth Book " (1898). 

FIT/PATRICK, Charles, Canadian lawyer, 
b. in Quebec. 19 Dec, 1853. He was educated at 
the Quebec seminary and Laval university. At 
the latter he took, in 1876, the Dufferin medal in 
the law faculty. lie was called to the bar of 
Quebec, and in 1873 was appointed a queen's 
counsel. In 1879 and in 1887 he was crown prose- 
cutor for the city and district of Quebec. When 
Louis Ricl was tried for treason and nmrder in 
1885 at Regina, Mr. Fitzpatrick was engaged as 
one of the counsel for the defence. He sat in 
the legislature of Quebec from 1890 to June, 1896, 
when he resigned and sought the suffrages of the 
electors of Quebec county for the house of com- 
mons. He was elected by a large majority, and 
became in Mr. Laurier's ministry solicitor-general 
of Canada. Mr. Pitzpatrick's pi-actice at the 
Quebec bar has been large and remunerative. 

FLA(iLER. Daniel Webster, soldier, b. in 
Lockport, N. Y.. 24 June, 1835; d. at Port Mon- 
roe, 29 March, 1899. He was a direct descendant 
of John Plagler, whe came from Holland in 1733 
and settled in Duchess county ; was graduated 
from the U. S. military academy and apj)ointed 
brevet 2d lieutenant, and 3d lieutenant of ord- 
nance. 34 June, 1861. He was made 1st lieuten- 
ant on 3 Aug. following, serving throughout the 
civil war, nuiinly with the Burnside expedition to 
North Carolina and with the Army of the Poto- 
mac. In 1863 he was promoted captain and at 
the close of the war he received the brevet of lieu- 
tenant-colonel for distinguished service in the 
field and for faithful service in the ordnance de- 
partment during the war. He was made major 
in 1874 and lieutenant-colonel in 1881. He was 
in command of the Rock island arsenal from 1871 
until 1886, and had charge of its construction. 
In 1877 the government puhlished at Washington 
his history of the arsenal. He was promoted 
brigadier-general in January. 1891, and was made 
chief of the ordnance department. In its report 
on the conduct of the war with S|)ain the investi- 
gating commi.ssion said of the work in his bureau: 
"The testimony shows that the ordnance depart- 
ment was untiring in its work, both before and 
during the war, and that every effort was ma<le 
by its ofTicers properly to arm and etjuip the 
troops. The delays that occurred were none of 
them of serious import, and it was l)eyond the 
powerof the department to prevent them." 

FLETCHER, Alice Ciiiiiiinarliani. ethnologist, 
b. in Boston, Mass., about 1845. She was care- 
fully educated, and. after study among the archaeo- 
logical remains of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, 
went to reside among the Omaha Indians, in- 
vestigating their customs and traditions under 
the auspices of the Peabody museum of American 
archaeology and ethnology of Harvard. In 1883 
she was appointed liy the secretary of the interior 
to allot the Omahas their lands in severalty, and 
brought to the Indian schools at Carlisle and 
Hampton a large party of their children and 
two married couples. Under the care of the Wom- 
an's national Indian association Miss Fletcher es- 
tablished a system by which small sums of money 
were lent to such Indians as wished to buy tracts 
of land and build houses. At the request of the 
Indian bureau she prepared an exhibit for the 
New Orleans exposition showing the progress of 




Indian civilization for the last twenty-five years. 
In 1886 she was sent by the commissioner of edu- 
cation to visit Alaskan and Aleutian Indians ; in 
1887 was appointed special agent, and assigned to 
the W'innchaRO tribe. She has published numer- 
ous paficrs. and in 1888 completed a report on " In- 
dian Kducution and Civilization," in which is a 
synopsis of all Indian treaties', their laws and 
regulations, and statistics concerning population, 
schools, etc. (Washington. 1888). 

FLK'KIMiKK. Uaiiivl Knmler, bishop of the 
Unitoil Brethren, b. in Sevonmile, Ohio, 25 May, 
1824. He received an academic education, Iwcame 
corresponding secretary of the United Brethren 
church missionary society in 1857, and held office 
by re-election till 1885, when he was chosen foreign 
missionary bishop. lie has made eight missionary 
tours to Africa, and done work on the frontiers of 
the L'nited States and among Chinese emigrants. 
OtterU'in university, Ohio, gave him the degree of 
I). I), in 1875. Dr.'Flickingcr has published "Off- 
Iland Sketches in Africa" (Dayton. Ohio, 1857); 
".Sermons." with Kcv. William J. Shuey (1859); 
" Ethiopia, or Twenty-six Yearsof Missionary Life 
in Western Africa'' (1877); and "The Church's 
Marching Orders" (1879). 

FLOKKSHIIIM, Otto. German musician, b. in 
Aix-la-('hai>flle. 2 .March, 1853. He received his 
musical education under Ferdinand Hiller, re- 
movinl to this country in 1875, and l)ecame a com- 
poser, critic, and editor of the" Musical Courier." 
HiscouifKisitions include a " I'relude and Fugue," 
which was jilaved in New York city under the 
direction of Tlieoilorc Thomas; "Alia Marcia," 
which waspHHluced under Frank van der.Stncken ; 
a symphonic iioem called "Consolation," which 
was successfully performed by the principal musi- 
cal societies in the l'nited States: and a piano 
composition with orchestra and organ accomiMini- 
ment entitled " Elevation," which was produced in 
UrcKiklyn under the direction of Anton Seidl. 

FLOOD, Juniex Clair,, b. in Ireland 
in 1H25; rl. in Il(i(lell.crg.(i.-nnany,21 Feb., 1888. 
He came to this country with William O'Brien, with 
whom he fomie<l an intimate friendship during 
the voyage. After working in shiji-yards the two 
went loCHlifnmia in 1851. ami o|K'ne<l a saloon in 
.San Francisco. They made money by speculating 
in mining stiX'k. ancf several years later formed a 
partnership with •lames O. p'air and John W. 
Mackay. who were then young miners. Floo<land 
O'Brien agrewl to furnish money for tools and 
outfit, while Fair anil Mackay prfispected in the 
Sierras. The result was the dis<-overy of tlieCom- 
st^ick IikIc, which made them four of the wealthiest 
men in the world. They subsequently estaltlishcd 
the Xevatla tmnk in San Fraiicis<>o, and the part- 
nershii) continued till 1881, when Mr. Fair was 
clectea to the IT. S. senate. Soon aflerwanl Mr. 
KIikhI withrlrew from active business. 

FLOWER. KoKwcU IVttihonp. banker, b. in 
Theresa. .Jefferson co.. N. Y., 7 Aug., 18:t5; d. in 
Ea-tiKirt. liong Island. 12.Mav, I89!t. Hewasedu- 
caleil at Theresa higli-scli<M)l, and went to New 
York city, where he Ix'came a merchant, after- 
ward a broker and banker, amassing a fortune. 
In 1880 he was elected to congress as a Democrat, 
and in 1888 and 18iM) he was re-elected, but be re- 
signed in the latter year and wasele"te<l gov»rnor 
of his state as a DemiM'rat, serving till Dec. 111. 
1894. During the threatened cholera e[iidemic of 
1892 he ordered the purchase of Fire island by the 
state for additional ((uarantine facilities, and when 
the dwellers on the island threatened to oppose 
by force the establishment of a station there he 

ordered out the land and naval militia to assist in 
enforcing the authority of the state. Gov. Flower 
gave |50,(X)0 to the St. Thomas Home, New York 
citv, and contributed to various charities. 

tOLdiER, William Mayhew, naval officer, b. 
in Ohio, 19 May, 1844. He was graduated from 
the U. S. naval academy in 1864. served during 
the closing year of the civil war as a midshipman, 
and was promoted to the grade of master in De- 
cember, 1866. Two years later he became a lieu- 
tenant, and passing through theintermediate grades 
he was promoted to the rank of captain in February, 
1898, commanding the protected cruiser " New Or- 

leans " in the war with Spain. In 1899 Capt. 
Folger, who is an authority in the navy on ord- 
nance, was appointed first commander of the new 
" Kearsarge, the most powerful battle-ship in the 
American navy. This formidable ve-ssel is repre- 
sented in the accompanying illustration. 

FONTAINE. I.«inar, engineer, b. in Washing- 
ton county, Te.\., 10 ( )ct.. 1H29. He was educated by 
pri vate tutors, including his kinsman, I'rof. Matt hew 
F. Maury, and adopted the profession of a civil en- 
gineer. In the civd war he held the commission 
of major of cavalry in the Confederate army, and 
is said to have received more wounds than any 
other officer engaged. He claims the authorship 
of "All quiet along the Potomac," which was 
written in August, 1861. There are many other 
claimants, including Mrs. Beers, who has general- 
ly be«'n credited with being the author of the 
popular poem. Major Fontaine has published 
"Oenore," "Only a Soldier." and many other 
widely known and pruiular martial verses. 

FORBES. John .niirray, merchant, b. in Bor- 
deaux. France.2:i Feb., 18ia ; d. in jMilton. Mass.,12 
I ( )<t.. 1898, He was educate<l at Bound Hill school, 
Northampton, and be- 
came a prominent 
China merchant, and 
later president of the 
Chicago, Burlington 
and Ouincv railway, 
and till nis death 
chairman of the board 
of dire<'tors. He was 
the originator of relief 
to Ireland in 1848. 
member of fieace 
com m ission. February. 
1861. founder of tlie 
Loyal publication so- 
ciety, and one of the 
originatorsof the U.S. 
sanitary commission. 
He was sent to Eng- 
land by the govern- 
ment in March, I86M. 
accompanied by William H. Aspinwall. chiefly 
with a view to i)revcnting the sailing of the Laird 
Confederate vessels, ami he was a presidential 
elector from Massachusetts in 1860, 1872, and 1880. 
It was said of Mr. Forbes that he was " an Amer- 
ican citizen who, keeping himself in the back- 
ground, never stinted work, or money, or service 

V^ . A^. vA?i^ 




of any sort for liis country." See interesting 
" Jlemoir of Jolin Murray Forbes," by his daugh- 
ter. Mrs. Sarah Fisher Hughes" (Boston. 1899). 

FORMENTO, Felix, physician, b. in Piedmont 
in October, 1790; d. in Pignerot, Italy, 6 Jan., 
1888. He was graduated in medicine at the Uni- 
versity of Turin in 1813, was a surgeon in the 
French army under Napoleon during his last 
campaign in Prance, and after the downfall of the 
emperor came to this country and joined the ex- 
pedition under Gen. Charles F. A. Lallemand to 
found a settlement in Texas for French exiles. 
After the failure of that enterprise he settled in 
New Orleans, attained to eminence in his profes- 
sion, and became widely known for liis treatment 
of yellow fever and cholera during the epidemics 
of those diseases. He returned to Italy in 1851, 
and after a residence there of nine yeai-s returned 
to New Orleans, but when the city was occupied 
by the National troops he went again to Italy, and 
did not return to this country. — His son, Felix, 
physician, b. in New Orleans, 16 March, 1837, was 
graduated at the University of Turin in 1852, and 
in medicine there in 1857, having in the meantime 
studied six years in the Ecole pratique, in Paris. 
During the war between France and Austria for 
Italian independence in 1859 he took service in 
the Sardinian army under Napoleon III. In 1800 
he returned to New Orleans, settled there in the 
practice of medicine, and was a visiting physician 
to the charity hospital. At the beginning of the 
civil war he was appointed chief surgeon to the 
Louisiana hospital in Richmond, Va., and held 
that post till the failure of his health in 1863, 
when he returned to New Orleans, and was physi- 
cian successively to the Italian, the New Lusitanos, 
the Old Portuguese, and the Firemen's charitable 
associations. In the yellow fever epidemic in 
1867 he rendered active service to the sutferers, 
and in recognition of his care for needy Italians 
received a decoration from the Italian govern- 
ment. He was associated for many years with 
Dr. James Trudeau in the management of the 
Baronne street infirmary, became a member of the 
Louisiana board of health in 1880. and was a dele- 
gate to the international congress of hygiene and 
demography which met in Geneva in 1884. Dr. 
Formento is a member of many learned bodies, 
was president of the New Orleans cremation so- 
ciety, and is the author of articles on hygiene ; 
" Notes and Observations on Army Surgery " (New 
Orleans, 1864) ; •' Memoir on Yellow Fever " (1884) ; 
and " School Hygiene " (St. Louis, 1884). 

FORSYTH, James, lawyer, b. in Clinton county, 
N. Y., 8 Sept., 1817; d. in Troy, N. Y., 10 Aug., 
1886. He was graduated at the University of Ver- 
mont, admitted to the bar, settled in Troy in 1843, 
and subsequently resided in that city, where he 
was for many years interested in railroad and 
banking enterprises as counsel and attorney. In 
1861 he became chairman of the war committee 
of Rensselaer county and was a member of the 
board of enrollment, and in 1864-'5 lie was provost- 
marshal of Rensselaer and Washington counties. 
He was collector of U. S. internal revenue for 
these counties in 1868-'9, and became county judge 
of Rensselaer county in 1881. From 1868 until 
1886 Dr. Forsyth was president of Rensselaer poly- 
technic institute. The University of Vermont gave 
him the degree of LL. D. in 1882. 

FOSTER, AddisoiiG., senator, b.inBelchertown, 
Mass., in 1837. At an early age he removed to Os- 
wego, III., and later to Minnesota. Here he taught 
school, and engaged in the grain and real estate 
business from 1859 until 1875. He became interest- 

ed in the lumber trade and took up his residence in 
St. Paul. In 1889 he removed to Tacoma, Wash., 
and here he continued his activities in the lumber 
business, in developing coal-mines, and in building 
railways. He was vice-president of the St. Paul 
and Tacoma lumber company. While in Minne- 
sota Mr. Foster was elected county auditor and 
surveyor at Wabasha, but he never took an active 
interest in politics until he was elected, in 1899, 
U. .S. Republican senator from Washington for the 
term ending in JIarch, 1905. 

FOULON, Clement, known as Father Claude 
D'Abhbville, French missionary, b. in Abbeville, 
Somme. about 1557; d. in Paris in 1632. In 1612 
he accompanied Commander Isaac de Razilly to 
South America, and. after exploring the northern 
shore of Brazil, began a small settlement on the 
island of Maranhao, near the coast. Returning to 
France a few months later, he vainly solicited aid 
from the church, and in 1614 recalled the three 
missionaries that he had left on Marafion island. 
He was a preacher of much repute, and for many 
years the superior of the convent of Capucins at 
Abbeville, which he had founded. He published 
"Ilistoire de la mission des P. P. Capucins a l"ile 
de Maragnon et terres circonvoisines "(Paris, 1614). 

FRANCIS, Charles Stephen, publisher, h. in 
Boston, 9 June, 1805; d. in Tarrytown, N. Y., 1 
Dec, 1887. His father, David p>ancis. was a part- 
ner in the Boston publishing house of Monroe & 
Francis. The son learned the printing-trade under 
his father, established himself as a publisher in 
New York city in 1826, and engaged in business 
there continuously for more than sixty years. His 
Broadway store was a popular resort for men of 
letters, and was named by the father of Ralph 
Waldo Emerson the " Unitarian headquarters," 
Mr. Francis being the publisher of such authors 
of that denomination as William E. Channing. 
William Ware, Henry W. Bellows, and Orville 
Dewey. He also published many of Audubon's 
works on ornithology. — His brother, David ii., 
who was long associated with him. recently retired 
from the retail book business in New York. 

FRANCIS, David Rowland, merchant, b. in 
Richmond, Ky.. 1 Oct., 1850, of Scotch-Irish de- 
scent. He was graduated from Washingto'> uni- 
versity and entered u|)on a mercantile career, 
organizing, after three years of training, the ci i- 
mission house of D. R. Francis & Bro. in St. Lou s. 
In 1883 he was elected vice-president of the Mi-r- 
chant's exchange, and in the following year became 
its president. In 1884 Mr. Francis was a dele- 
gate to the national Democratic convention that 
nominated Grover Cleveland, and the next year he 
was elected mayor of St. Louis, promoting during 
his term many necessary municipal reforms. He 
was elected governor of Missouri in 1888. his ad- 
ministration being much commended. During 
the free coinage agitation that ended in the tri- 
umph of the Silver party in the Democratic na- 
tional convention held at Chicago, he was a strong 
advocate for sound money. Gov. Francis in Au- 
gust, 1896, became secretary of the interior in 
Cleveland's second administration. 

FRANK. RoyaH Thaxter. soldier, b. in Gray, 
Cumberland CO.," Me., 6 May, 1836. He was grad- 
uated from the U. S. military academy in 1858. 
when he was made brevet 2d lieutenant in the 5th 
infantry.and received his promotion to 2d lieuten- 
ant of the 8th infantry in October following. 
Until June, 1859, he served at Newport barracks, 
Ky., and then in New Mexico and Texas. He had 
surrendered as a prisoner of war in Texas in May, 
1861, and he was held as such until exchanged in 








1862. He was promoted 1st lieutenant in May. 

1861, and captain. 27 Feb., 1862. He was trans- 
ferred to the 1st artillery, 15 Dec, 1870, in 1881 

f)romoted major, lieutenant-colonel of the 2(larlil- 
ery in 1889. and colonel of tlie 1st arlillerv, 25 
Oct.. 1894. From 1888 until 1898 he was com- 
mandant at the U. S. artillery school at Fort Jlon- 
roe. At the outbreak of war with Spain he was 
promoted brigadier-general of volunteers, and as- 
signed to the command of the department of the 
east, which he held from 19 May to 3 .July. From 
7 July Gen. Frank commanded the 1st division of 
the 3d army-corps until he was assigned to the 
comnianil of that corps on 27 Aug., 1898. 

FREDERIC. Harold, author, b. at Utica, N. Y., 
19 Aug.. IS-'iB: d. in London, 19 Oct.. 1898. He 
was graduated from Hamilton college in his 
twentieth year, and in 1874 he became a proof- 
reader. During the next six years he ailvanced 
rapidly from one position on the staff to another, 
until he wiLs qualifled for the place of chief edi- 
torial writer on "The Utica Observer." In 1882 
he took charge of " The Albany Evening Jour- 
nal " and e<lited it for two years, and in 1884 he 
was sent to London as the corres[K>ndent of " The 
New York Times," filling that jiost with ability 
until his death. His novels are "St-th's Brother's 
VVife"(Xew York, 1887): " In the Vallev " (1889): 
"The Lawton Girl " (1890); "The Return of the 
O'Mahony" (18i»2); "The Copi^rhead " (1894); 
"Marsena" (189.5): "The Damnation of Theron 
Ware" and "March Hares " (1896) ; and "(iloria 
Mundi" (1898). Mr. Frederic left in manuscript 
a novel entitled " The Market Place " (1899), a story 
of the London stock exchange, which has proved 
to be his most popular novel. 

FREN'CH, Alice, author, b. in Andover, Ma.s.s., 
19 March, 1H50. She was graduated at Abbott 
acmlemy, Andover, in 1868, resides in Davenport, 
and is the president of the Iowa society of colonial 
dames. Miss French has gained reputation, un- 
der the pen-name of "Octave Thanet," by her 
short character sketches and [lapers on economic 
subject.s. Her most popular stories are "The 
Bishop's Vagabond," " Till' Day of the Cyclone," 
and " Whitsiin Harp, Kegulator." These, with 
other articles that previously appeared in the 
"Atlantic Monthly" and "S<Tibner"s Magazine," 
were published under the title of " Kniltles in the 
Sun "(Boston, 1880); "Otto the Knight " (188a): 
" Expiation "(Xew York, 1H86): "We All"(1889); 
"Stories of a Western Town"(18U2): "An Ad- 
venture in I'hotographv" (1892): "A Book of 
True Lovers" (1897): " .Vlissionarv Sheriff" (1807); 
ard "The Heart of Toil" (1898).' 

FRENCH, SaiiiiieHjibltH, soldier, b. in Glouces- 
ter i-ounty. N. J., 22 .Nov.. 1818. He entered the 
U. S. military academy in lKt9, was ap|Kiinted 
brevet. 2d arlillerv. and was gradiiutrd with Grant 
in 1843. During tlie .Mexican war he pronioteil 
for the battle of Buerui Vi>ia, where he was dan- 
gerouslv wounded. He resigned his commission 
in the C S. army, 31 .May, 18.56. He was appoint- 
ed major of the corjis of artillery in the Confed- 
erate states army, 2 April, 1861 brigadier-general 
in the provisional army, 2ii Oct., iNtil. an 1 inajor- 
general, 31 Aug., 1862.' From 14 Nov., 1861, to 8 
March, 1862, he was in command at Kvansport, 
Va., blockading the I'otomac river. On 14 March, 

1862, he relieved (jen. Branch, in command at 
New Berne, N. C, of the Confe<lcrale forces at 
Kington. He was .sent to Wilmington, and was 
orderetl, 17 July, 1862, to the command of the de- 
partment of Southern Virginiaand .\orth Carolina, 
with headquarters at Petersburg, Va. lie was in 

I command of the line of defence from the Appo- 
mattox and James rivers, and moved to Coggins's 
point, with infantry and artillery, 31 July. Early 
in June. 1863, he was ordered to report to Gen. 
Joseph E.Johnston at Jackson, Miss. Hisdivision 
in 1863 was composed of the brigades of Maxey, 
McNair. and Evans, and in 1864 of the brigades of 
Cockerell, Ector, and Sears, lie was engaged in all 
the battles of Gen. Johnston's campaign, from the 
siege of Jackson, Miss., to Atlanta. Jonesboro', 
Lovejoy's station, and Big Shanty, and was in the 
battles of Decatur, Columbia, Franklin, Nashville, 
and the Meridian campaign. He <lirected the for- 
tiiications of Wilmington. Cape Fear river, Fort 
Fisher, and the line of the Ulufkwater. 

FREVET, Wiinaiu Alfred, architect, b. in 
New Orleans, La., 19 Jan., 1833. He was educated 
in his native city and Baton Kouge, and adopted 
architecture as his profession. At the outbreak of 
the civil war he entered the Confederate army as a 
private in the Washington artillery from New Or- 
leans. He was promoted from time to time, finally 
reaching the rank of lieutenant-colonel of en- 
gineers. He servetl on Kirby .Smith's staff, and was 
also assistant chief and acting chief of the trans- 
Mississippi department until the surrender. In 
1866-'8 he was state engineer for Louisiana, and for 
several years after that he had charge of the con- 
struction of the public schools of the McDonough 
fund, some sixteen in number. He served as su- 
pervising architect of the V. S. government from 
June, l&i7, until March, 1890, when he resigned. 
He designed the reconstruction of the state-house 
at Baton Kouge, and was the architect for the 
buildings of the state university at Pineville, La., 
the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, and many 
of the jiublic buildings and private residences in 
New Orleans and elsewhere in Louisiana and 
several of the neighboring stales. 

FRICK, Henry Clay, manufacturer, b. in West 
Overton, Pa., 19 Dec, 1849. After an English edu- 
cation, he began his business life as a clerk for his 
frandfatlier, who was a merchant and distiller iu 
'ayette county. Later he embarked in the coke 
trade, which increas«Ml until the business was 
larger than all the other houses in the United 
States combined. He is president of the H. C. 
Frick coke company, also of the Carnegie steel 
company of Pittsburg. He first came into public 
notice by his extremely able and vigorous man- 
agement during the famous strike at the llome- 
sleatl works in 1892. when he was several limes 
wounded, being both shot and slabbed by the riot- 
ers. In the summer of 1899 he went auroad and 
visited his former partner, Andrew C-rnegie, at 
Skibo ciuille. in the north of Scotland. 

Fl'LLER, Melville Weston, jurist, b. in Au- 
gusta. Me., 11 Feb.. 1833. He was graduated at 
liowdiiin in 1853, studied law in Bangor with his 
uncle, George jM. Weston, and then at Harvard, 
and began to practise in 18-55 in his native city. 
There Tie was an a.ssociate editor of the " Age," 
served a-s presiilent of the common council, and 
became city attorney in 18.56; but he resigned in 
June of that year, and removed to Chiciigo, 111., 
where he was in active practice for thirty-two 
years. lie rose to the highest rank in his pro- 
fession, and was concerned in many important 
ca>*s, among which were the National bank tax 
ca-ses, one of which was the first that was argued 
before Chief-Justice Waile, the Cheney ecclesias- 
tical case, the South park commissioners' cases, 
ami the Lake front case. He was a member of 
the state constitutional convention of 1802, and 
later of the lower house of the legislature, where 




he was a leader ol the Douglas branch of the 
Democratic party. ]Ie was a delegate to the 
Democratic national conventions of 1864, 1872, 
1876, and 1880. On 
30 April, 1888, he was 
nominated by Presi- 
dent Cleveland to be 
chief justice of the 
United States, and on 
20 July he was con- 
firmed by the senate. 
On 8 Oct. he took the 
oath of office and en- 
tered on his duties. 
Justice Puller is, with 
one exception, the 
youngest member of 
the supreme court. In 
1899 he was a member 
of the arbitration com- 
mission, convened in 
Paris, to which was 
referred the case of the Anglo-Venezuelan bound- 
ary question. Among his addresses is one wel- 
coming Stephen A. Douglas to Chicago in 1800, 
and another on Sidney Breese, which is prefixed 
to Judge Breese's " Early History of Illinois " 
(1884). The degree of LL. D. has been conferred 
on him by Harvard and other institutions. 

FULLER, Thomas, Canadian architect, b. in 
Bath, PJngland, 8 March, 1828. He was educated 
in his native place, and, after leaving school, was 
articled to an architect there, subsequently study- 
ing his profession in London. At an early age he 
was intrusted with the erection of a cathedral at 
Antigua. In 1857 he went to Toronto and formed 
a partnership with Chilion Jones. In 1859 their 
designs were accepted by the government for the 
parliament and departmental buildings and gov- 
ernor-general's residence at Ottawa. (See illus- 
tration of the capitol.) In the competition for the 
new capitol for the state of New York, his design 
was one of the three to which equal premiums 
were awarded. In the second competition, to 
which three successful competitors were invited, 
Augustus Laver, one of the tlirce, prepared a joint 

design with Mr. Fuller, which was ultimately 
adopted in 1867. He remained in Albany until 
1881, when he returned to Ottawa, and in De- 
cember of that year he was appointed chief archi- 
tect of the Dominion of Canada. 

FULLEKTON, William, musician, b. in Xew- 
burg, N. v., in 1854 ; d. in London, Kngland, 25 
Aug., 1888. Decomposed original musical themes 
before he was twelve years old, and, having adopt- 
ed music as a profession, was carefully educated 
in Germany. He then settled in London, where 
he became intimate with Leopold, duke of Albany, 
whose apartments he shared, and was widely 

known as a musical critic, song-writer, and com- 
poser. In 1884 he published his first opera, "The 
Lady of the Locket," which was successfully pro- 
duced at the Prince of Wales's theatre. Mr. Pul- 
lerton completed a second opera, " Waldemar," 
but (lied before its production. 

FUNSTEN, James Boneii, P. E. bishop, b. 
in Clark county, Va., in March, 1858. He was 
graduated at the Virginia military institute in 
1875 and at the University of Virginia three years 
later. He was admitted to the bar and practiced 
law, later studied for the ministrv, and was or- 
dained priest in 1888. He had charge of churches 
in Uichmond and Portsmouth, Va. He was con- 
secrated missionary bishop of Boise at Ports- 
mouth in July, 1899, Bishops Cheshire, Gibson, 
Paret, Perrick. Peterkin, Kandolph, Talbot, and 
Whittle being present at the ceremonial. 

FUNSTOA, Frederick, soldier, b. in Clarke 
county, Ohio, 9 Nov., 1865. He is a son of Edward 
Hogue, member of congress from Kansas (1884-'U3), 
who was generally 
known in Wash- 
ington as " Fog- 
horn " Punston, 
and was a candi- 
date for a cadet- 
ship at the U. S. 
military academy, 
which was won by 
(!harles Crawford. 
He was for two 
years at the state 
university, Law- 
rence, but did not 
graduate. He was 
connected with the 
press, and in 1898 
went to Alaska to 
report on its flora 
to the department 
of agriculture. Three years later he joined the 
insurgents in Cuba, serving there eigliteen months, 
when he returned to the United States and was 
commissioned colonel, 20th Kansas volunteers. 
He distinguished himself in several battles in the 
Philippines, for which he was, in May, 1899, pro- 
moted to brigadier-general. Owing to severe ill- 
ness, caused by old womids, he was relieved from 
duty in the following August, and returned with 
his regiment to the United States. A letter re- 
ceived from Gen. Punston said that one reason 
why the 20th Kansas achieved the reputation it 
di<l was that Gov. Stanley invariably confirmed 
Col. lAinston's recommendations for the promo- 
tion of officers, "although at various times under 
very severe pressure to do otherwise." The gov- 
ernor fully appreciated the fact that "a colonel's 
power over a regiment depends greatly on his 
recommendations for promotion taking prece- 
dence over any social or political pull." 

FYFFE, Joseph, naval officer, b. in Ohio, 26 
July. 1882 ; d. in Pierce, Neb., 25 Feb., 1890. He 
was appointed midshipman. 9 Sept., 1847, jiassing 
througti all the intermediate grades and becoming 
rear-admiral. 10 July, 1894. He saw much service 
during the civil war, commanded ships in the 
Asiatic squadron and in the Pacific, his last duty 
being as commandant in 1893-'4 of the Boston 
navy-yard. He was retired in the latter year after 
eighteen years and eleven months sea service and 
sixteen years and one month of shore duty. 

At-^^c^^s-"-^-'^ CC^ 





GABBIELS, Henry, R. C. bishop, b. in Wan- 
iiegem-Le<le, Belgium, 6 Oct., 1838. He received 
his collegiate eilticatioii at Audenarde, his philoso- 
phy at St. Nicholas, his theology at Ghent and 
Lnuvain. became a licentiate in theology in 1864, 
and received an honorary doctorate in 1882. From 
1864 to 1871, having come to the United States, he 
was profes-sor in .St. Joseph's seminary, Troy, and 
from 1871 to 1892 he was president of that insti- 
tution. In 1891 he was appointed bishop of Og- 
densbnrg, to succeed Bishop Wadhatns, and was 
consecrateil in May, 1802. The Catholic summer 
school ha< Ijeeii established with permanent build- 
ings and eijuipment at I'lattsburg, in his diocese, 
which holds .sessions every summer. His works 
are "yuestioncs Mechlinienses in Rubricas " (New 
York, 1887), adapte<l to the United States; "Ru- 
diments of Hebrew Grammar," translated from 
Vosen (1888) ; and he edited Itev. Clarence A. Wal- 
worth's ■' Reminiscences of Bishop VVadhams." 

(>.4GE, Lyman Jud^on, secretarv of the treas- 
ury, b. in iJenivter, Madison co., N'. Y., 28 .June, 
1836. Ue received a common-school education in 
his native county, 
but his parents re- 
moving to Rome, 
N. Y., in 1848, he 
there entered the 
academy at that 
place. At eighteen 
years of age he was 
employed in a bank 
in Rome, but later 
he removed to Chi- 
cago, hoping to ob- 
tain there a better 
situation. I'nsuc- 
rcssful at first, he 
was employed in a 
lumber-yard, but in 
1858 he secured the 
|>osition of book- 
keeper in the Mer- 
chants' loan and 
trust coni(mny, and 
in 1868 was maile 
cashier of the First national bank of Chicago. The 
charter of the bank havinit; expired, it was reorgan- 
ized, Mr. Gage wa.s made vice-president and general 
manager, and in 1891 was elected president. He 
never held any polit leal ollicre, though often solicited 
to Ijecomc u candidate, notably for mayor of Chi- 
cago. Mr. Gage first became known throughout 
the country through his presidency of the local 
corporation having charge of the Chicago world's 
fair of 1893, whose success was largely due to his 
energetic efforts. He was also president of the 
civic federation of Chicago, and origiiiate<l what 
were known as the e<-onomic conferences between 
rcpres«MitBtivesof all classes of thought in economic 
matters. lie was appointed by I'resident McKin- 
ley secretary of the treasurv, and immediately con- 
firmed by thos<'nateon .'J March, 1897. His admin- 
istration of iheodice has given general .satisfaction. 
(i.\GNON, ErncMt Ani^d^e Frederic, Cana- 
dian author, b. at Klviere du Loup, t^uel)ec, now 
Louisville, 7 Nov., 1834, educateii there and at 
Jollette college. He studied music in Paris, and 
travelled extensively In Kurope. On returning to 
Canada he iK'came organist of the French cathe- 
dral in (Quebec. He comi>osed several pieces of 


great merit, and published " Chansons populaires 
du Canada," which passed through three editions. 
Other works of his are " Le Fort et la Chateau 
Saint-Louis," " Le Comte de Paris h Quebec," " La 
Croix de Jacques Cartier," and numerous sketches 
and essays in magazines, reviews, and newspapers. 
In 189.5 he was created officier de Vinstruction 
publique by the government of France. He en- 
tered the civil service in 1875 as private secretary 
to Dr. de Boucherville, then premier of Quebec, and 
in the next year became secretary of the depart- 
ment of public works, which position he still holds. 

G.\INES. M'esley John, bishop of the A. M. E. 
church, b. In Wilkes county. Ga., 4 Oct., 1840. He 
was reared a slave, but received theological instruc- 
tion from the pastor of an Episcopal church in 
Athens, Ga. In 1860 he entered the ministry of 
the M. K. church, and in 1865 united with the Af- 
rican M. E. chun-h. He held several pastorates in 
churches of the latter denomination, has been pre- 
siding elder, secretary of Its home and foreign mis- 
sionary society, ami was elected one of its bishops 
in May, 1888. In his capacity as bishop he has 
had charge of various epi.scopal districts, covering 
a wide range of territory. Bishop Gaines organized 
and built Bethel church, at Atlanta, which is the 
largest colored church in the south. He was the 
founiler of Morrison Brown college, of Atlanta, 
which has an attendance of 400 pupils, and he has 
succeeded in raising (1500,000 for the use of his de- 
nomination. He is also a trustee of Wilberforce 
university, Ohio, and of Payne theological semi- 
nary, being vice-president of the latter and presi- 
dent of the financial board of the church. His 
contributions to literature include " African Meth- 
(xllsm in the South" (1890) and "The Negro and 
the White Man " (Philadelphia, 1897). 

GALBKAITH, John, jurist, b. in Huntingdon 
county. Pa., 2 Aug., 1794; d. in Eric. Pa., 15 June, 
1860. His father wit* a soldier of the American 
Revolution, and took part in the battle of Long 
Island, and after the war removed to Hut ler comity. 
Pa., where he passed the renuiinder of his life. 
The .s<m served an apprenticeship to the printing 
business in the same office in Butler where James 
Thompson, afterward chief justice, was employed. 
He studied law, and In 18'28 was elected to the 
Pennsylvania legislature, and twice re-elected. He 
became a member of congress In 1832, was re-elect- 
ed in 18;i4 and 18;(8. antl became presiding judge 
of the sixth judicial district in 1851, contlnuuig in 
that oflice until his death. Ills home was in Erie, 
Pa., from 1839. — Ills sun, WilliuiH Ayres, also a 
jurist, was Imrn in Franklin. Venango co., Pa., 9 
May. 1823. and died In Erie, 3 Jan., 1898. 

(lALE, Stephen Franciii, merchant, b. at Exe- 
ter, Rockingham co.. N. H., 8 March, 1812. At the 
early age of fourteen he entered the publLshing 
house of Hilliard, (iray & Co., of Boston, continu- 
ing with them for six years. He went to Chicago, 
then a small frontier town, in 1835, with a slock of 
books, and remained there for more than half a 
century. He was Chicago's first bookseller, and is 
now among the oldest surviving .settlers of the great 
city. In 1839 he published a compilation of stat- 
utes of Illinois, the first law-book issued in that 
state. His half-brothers, Augustus II. and Charles 
Burley. joined him under the firm name of .S. F. 
Gale & Co., anil they conilucted a large business as 
publishers and book.sellers. He took an active 
part with William B. Ogueu and others in secur- 




ing the first railroatl connection between the lakes 
and the Mississippi river, and was first president 
of the Aurora branch railway, now part of the 
great Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroad, of 
which he was also the president for five years, 
connecting it with the Illinois central. Mr. Gale 
was largely interested in opening and developing 
coal-mines and stone-quarries in Illinois, and wise 
investments in real estate made him wealthy. He 
wasaWliig and a Republican in polities, and active 
in all works of charity and the promotion of lit- 
erature and good government. 

GALLINGKR, Jacob Harold, senator, b. in 
Cornwall, Ontario, 28 March, 1837, and was a 
printer in early life. Later he studied medicine, 
was graduated in May. 1858. and has since followed 
the profe.ssion of medicine and surgery. He is a 
member of many state and national medical so- 
cieties, and a frequent contributor to the journals 
of his profession. Dr. Gallinger was a member of 
the New Hampshire house of representatives for 
several terms, and also of the state senate, being 
president of that body for two years. He was sur- 
geon-general of the state in 1879-'80, and was 
chairman of tlie New Hampshire delegation to the 
Republican national convention of 1888. He was 
elected to the 49th and oOth congresses, declining 
a renomination to the 51st. and was elected V. S. 
senator to succeed Henry W. Blair. He took his 
seat 4 March. 1891, and was re-elected in 1897. Dr. 
Gallinger's term of service will expire in 1903. 

GAMBLE, William, soldier, b. in Duross, 
County Tyrone, Ireland. 1 Jan., 1818; d. in Nica- 
ragua, Central America, 20 Dec, 1866. He studied 
civil engineering, and was employed on the gov- 
ernment survey of the north of Ireland, but came 
to the United States when he was twenty years old, 
and enlisted in the 1st U. S. dragoons. He served 
in the Florida war and on the western frontier, 
and rose to be sergeant-major, but on tlie expira- 
tion of his term of enlistment went to Chicago, 
111., where he followed his profession. At the be- 
ginning of the civil war he enlisted in the 8th 
Illinois cavalry, was chosen its lieutenant-colonel, 
afterward was promoted colonel, and fought with 
the Army of the Potomac, receiving a wound at 
Malvern Hill that was nearly fatal. He was for 
two years at the head of a brigade in defence of 
Washington, with headquarters at Fairfax Court- 
House, Va., and on 25 Sept., 1865, was commissioned 
brigadier-general of volunteers. After service in 
the west he was mustered out of the volunteer ser- 
vice on 13 March, 18C6, and on 38 July accepted 
a major's commission in the 8th regular cavalry. 
He was on his way with his regiment to Califor- 
nia when he died of cholera. 

OANA, Domingo (ga'h-nah), Chilian diploma- 
tist, b. in Talca, 1844. He was educated in tlie Na- 
tional institute of .Santiago, and graduated in law 
at the university of that city. After practising his 
profession he was appointed in 1871 under-secre- 
tary for foreign affairs and colonization, and took 
part in the conferences on board the U. S. ship 
"Lackawanna," off Arica. in October, 1880, when 
the government of the United States offered its 
friendly offices as nie<liat'ir to bring about a cessa- 
tion of hostilities lietween Chili. I'eru, and Bolivia. 
He was sent to Mexico as minister in 1883, occu- 
pied the same post at the court of Brazil in 1884, 
at the end of 1886 was promoted to Washington, and 
later represented Chili in Germany and Italy. In 
1893 he returned to the United States as ?ninister. 

GANONdt, Francis William, naturalist, b. in 
Carleton. New Brunswick, 19 Feb., 1864. He was 
graduated at the University of New Brunswick, 

and in 1887 obtained the B. A. of Harvard, being 
for six years a tutor in that institution. He stud- 
ied in Germany, and is now (1898) a professor in 
Smith college. He is a member of many learned 
societies and has contributed to scientific ami liis- 
torical journals, particularly on New Brunswick 
and Nova Scotia. Several of his monographs on 
natural history have appeared in the bulletins of 
the New Brunswick natural history society and in 
the Transactions of the Royal society of Canada. 
To the latter publication lie has also' contributed 
historical articles, notably "Jacques Cartier"s First 
Voyage" (1888); "The Cartography of the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence from Cartier to Champlain " 
(1889); "The Site of Fort La Tour" (1891); and 
" Place-Nomenclature of New Brunswick" (1896). 
He has also compiled a "Genealogy of the De- 
scendants of Thomas Ganong" (1893). 

GANTE, Pedro de (gahn'-tay), Flemish mis- 
sionary, b. about 1500; d. in the city of Mexico in 
1572. He entered the Franciscan order in Ghent, 
and, hearing of the conquest of Mexico by Cortes, 
resolved to dedicate hini.self to the conversion of 
the Indians, being one of the first three monks that 
went to Jlexico in 1522. He labored first in Tex- 
coco, and later at Tlaxcala, and was beloved by the 
natives, whom he treated with the greatest kind- 
ness, teaching them not only religion, but also mu- 
sic, sculpture, and useful trades. He removed af- 
terward to Mexico, where he built the chape! of the 
Franciscan convent, the first parish church of Mex- 
ico, and founded the College of San Juan de Letran. 
In order to avoid the nomination as bishop of Mex- 
ico, which was tendered him twice, he refused to 
receive ordination as a priest, and died as a lay 
brother, mourned by all the natives of the valley 
of Mexico. He wrote " Nieam Ompehua in Doc- 
trina Cristiana Mexico Tlatolli Tiquitohua." the 
first catechism in Aztec that was ever ])rinted (Ant- 
werp, 1538; Mexico, 1553), and "Epistola ad Pro- 
vincialeui Flandriiede redus ad fidem christianam 
in novo orbe pertenentibus" (Antwerp. 1538). 

(liARCIA-ROVIRA, Cnstodio, Colombian pa- 
triot. I), in Cartagena about 1780; d. in Bogota, 8 
Aug., 1816. He studied in the College of San Bar- 
tolome of Bogota, where he was graduated in the- 
ology and law. Although he practised at the bar 
he was also noteworthy as an amateur artist, mu- 
sician, and poet. When the revolution for inde- 
pendence began he took an enthusiastic part in 
politics, was elected governor of the province of 
Socorro, and also served in the militia. In Octo- 
ber. 1814. he was elected a member of the trium- 
virate that constituted the executive of the repub- 
lic, and when, in November, 1815, Dr. Camilo Torres 
was named president. Garcia-Kovira was apiioinled 
general-in-chief of the reserves, which were totally 
defeated by Calzada in Cachiri, 22 Feb., 1816. He 
retired to the south, and was gathering new forces 
when President Fcrnande;; Madrid sent in his res- 
ignation to Ihe commission of congres.s. The lat- 
terappointed Garcia president, but before he could 
march on I'opayan and assume the government the 
forces of Vice-President Liborio Mejia were routed 
by Gen. Samano at Cuchilla del Tanibo in June, 
and Garcia-Kovira S(mght to reach the Brazilian 
frontier to save the remainder of his forces. On 
10 July. 1816. he was surprised at La Plata by a 
force under Col. Tolrii. captured, sent to Bogota, 
and condi'miied bv a court-martial to be shot. 

(JARt JA Y ISIGIEZ, Calixlo (k.ah-leeks-toh 
gar-the-ah). soldier, b. in Holguin, Cuba. 11 Aug., 
1839: d. in Washington. I). C. 11 Dec, 1898. He 
WiLS educated at his native place and in Havana, 
where he took his degree of bachelor. He theu 





became a professor in Madrid, and afterward re- 
turned to Cuba to assume charge of his estate. He 
took a prominent part in the rebellion against 
Spain in October, 18()8, and captured Santa Kita, 
Baire, Guisa, llolguin, and other points. He won 

many battles, but 
in the end was cap- 
tured and ma<le 
prisoner. An at- 
tempt to shoot 
himself failed, and 
he was taken to 
Spain and con- 
fined in the for- 
tresses of Valencia 
and Santofla in 
1873. After the 
treaty of peace of 
Zanjon was signed 
in 1878 he was set 
at liberty. When 
after nearly twen- 
ty years of com- 
parative quiet in- 
X-,- . surrection again 

''/^^ifl^-w^ broke out in fuba, 
Garcia landed on the island, 24 May, 18i)6; he 
was appointed chief of the military department 
of the east and lieutenant-general in the Cuban 
army. Again he waged a successful guerrilla war- 
fare, winning battles and capturing many towns; 
he succeeded in driving the Spaniards almost en- 
tirely out of that part of Cuba east of the Moron 
Irocfia. During the invasion of Cuba by the 
American forces in the summer of 1898 he co- 
operated with them ; after the fall of Santiago on 
14 July lie resignc<l his command of the Cuban 
forces, but started at onco for Holguin to attack 
the Spaniards there. On 17 Aug., while fighting 
a force of about 5,000 men between Gittara and 
Holguin, he heard of the signing of the protocol of 
12 Aug. I)etwcen the United States and the Krencli 
minister at Wa-shington. .Jules Cambon, on behalf 
of Spain; he sus[«nded hostilities at once, this 
being the last battle in Cuba. In OctolnT follow- 
ing he was app<>intcd, on recommendation of Gen. 
W()(k1, a commissioner of the United States to as- 
sist in the pacification of Cuba and the restora- 
tion of order in the island. Gen. Garcia arrived 
in the United .States with a party of Cubans, and. 
after spf-mling a few days in New York, proceeded 
to WHsliiiijjiiin. where he died suddenlv. 

GAKDINKK, Asa Bird, lawyer, b. in New 
York city, 30 Sept.. 1830, and was gra<luated at the 
University of the city of New York. He studied 
law. and was admitted to the Imr in 1860. Kntered 
the volunteer service in tlie following year, and 
continued in the army iluring the civil war. In 
1866 he was ap|K>inte(l 2<1 lieutenant in the regu- 
lar army, promoted in 1861) to 1st lieutenant, and in 
1873 was commissiotie<l judge-advwate. He was 
professor of law at the U. S. military acmlemy for 
four years, and later served as judge-advocate on 
the staff of (ien. Hancock, cotnmanding the divi- 
sion of the Atlantic. Major (iardmer was retired 
from the army at his own reijuest in 18K8. and re- 
sumed the practice of law. In 1808 be became 
district attorney of New York. He is an active 
memljer of the order of the Cincinnati and other 
patriotic organizations, and in 1875 received the 
degree of LI,. I), from the New York university. 

UARIB.\MU. GinHCitiK', Italian patriot, b. in 
Nice. 4 July. 1K()7: d. in Caprera, 2 June, 1882. 
He followed the sea from his earliest youth, and in 
1836 went to Kio Janeiro, where he engaged in the 

coasting trade. In 1837 he offered his services to 
the revolted Brazilian province of Kio Grande do 
Sul, and commanded a fleet of gunboats. Af- 
ter many daring exploits he was forced to burn 
his vessels, and went to Montevideo, where he be- 
came a broker and teacher of mathematics. He 
took service in Uruguay in the war against Kosas, 
and was given the command of a small naval force, 
which he was obliged to abandon after a battle at 
Costa Brava in June, 1842. Garibaldi then or- 
ganized the famous Italian legion, with which for 
four years he fought numerous battles for the re- 
public. In 1845 he commanded an expedition to 
Salto, where he established his headquarters, and 
toward the end of the year he resisted with 500 
men for three davs the assault of Urqniza's ariiiv of 
4.000. In Feb., 1846, he repelled at San Antonio, 
with scarcely 200 men. Gen. Servando Gomez with 
1,200 soldiers. In 1847, when he heard of Italy's 
rising against Austrian dominion, he went to assist 
his country, accompanied by a portion of the Ital- 
ian legion ; but after taking part in several unsuc- 
cessful attempts, including the defence of Home 
against the French in 1840, he sailed ii: June, 1850, 
for New York. On Statcn island he W(.rkcd for a 
time with a countryman manufacturing candles 
and soap, and in 1851 he went by way of Cen- 
tral America and Panama to Caliao, whence he 
sailed in 1K52 in command of a vessel for China. 
Karly in 1854 he returned to Italy, where he lived 
quietly in the island of Caprera. At the opening 
of war against An.-itria in 18.59 he organized the 
Alpine chass«'urs, and defeated the enemy in sev- 
eral encounters. After the peace of Villafraiica he 
began preparations for the expedition, which was 
.secretly encouraged by the government. Having 
conquered Sicilv and being proclaimeil dictator, 
he entered Naples in triumph in September, 1860, 
but afterward resigned the dictatorship and pro- 
claimeil Victor Kmmanuel king of Italy, declining 
all proffered honors and retiring to Caprera. In 
1 862 he planned t he rescue of Home from the French, 
and again invailcil Calabria from Sicily, but was 
wounded and captured at Aspromonte, 20 Aug., 
1862. and sent back to Caprera, In June, 1866, 
during the Au»- 
tro-I'russian war, 
he commanded for 
a short time an 
army of volun- 
teers, and on 14 
Oct.. 1867. he un- 
dertook another 
ex|)edition to lib- 
erate Koine, but 
was routed by the 
papal troops and 
the French. He 
entered the ser- 
vice of the French 
republic in 1870, 
anil he organized 
and commanded 
the chas.seiirs of 
the Vosges. In 
1871 he was elect- 
ed to the Italian parliament, and took an active 
nart in politics till the end of his life. In 1888 the 
Italians in New York erected a bronze statue of 
him by the late Giovanni Tnrini. which wasunvailed 
in Wa-shington S(|nare in I8N8. He wrote several 
novels, incluiling " Cantoni il volontario" (Genoa, 
1870): •' Clelia. ovvero il governo nionaco; Koma 
del s<'colo XIX." (1870), which in the same year 
was translated into English under the title of " The 

T^. ^ £<yL<^.-c:i-.^C<.yi^ 




Rule of tlie Monk, or Rome in the 19th Century " ; 
" II frate dominatore" (1873); and a poem, " Le 
Mila di Marsala " (1873). Many biographies ot 
Garil)aldi have been written, including those bv 
W. Robson (London, 1860); by Theodore Dwight, 
(New York, 1860) ; and by Mrs. Gaskell (London, 
1862). An interesting autobiography appeared 
after his death, under tlie title "Garibaldi: Me- 
morie autobiografiche " (Florence, 1888). 

(iARLANl), Hamlin, author, b. in West Salem. 
Mass.. 14 Sept., 1860. He removed to the west with 
his parents and was educated in the common schools 
of Mitchel county, Iowa, and at Cedar Valley semi- 
nary, Osage, Iowa, where he was graduated in 1881. 
Mr.Garland has devoted himself to lecturing on lit- 
erary and artistic subjects, and to literature. lie 
has published " Main Travelled Roads " (Boston, 
1890; new edition, with additional stories, New 
York, 1899): "A Little Norsk" (New York, 1891); 
" Jason Edwards " (Boston, 1891) ; " A Member of 
the Third House " (Chicago, 1892) ; " A Spoil of 
Office" (Boston, 1892): •' Prairie Polks" (Chicago, 
1893) : " Prairie Songs " (1893) : •' Crumbling Idols " 
(1894); " Rose of Dutcher's Coolly" (1896) ; •' Wav- 
sideCourtships " (1897) ; " Life of Gen. U. S. Grant" " 
(1898); and "The Trail of the Goldseekers " (1899). 

OARRETT, Andrew, conchologist, b. in Al- 
bany, N. Y., 9 April, 1823; d. on the island of 
Iluahine, Society group, 1 Nov., 1887. At eighteen 
vears of age he went to sea, and in 1 848 he began col- 
lecting shells in the islands of the South Pacific, 
which he made his special field of research for 
many years, besides exploring the coasts of South 
America, the Kast and West Indies, and the Sand- 
wich and other islands. He made collections also 
of plants, birds, fishes, and other objects in natural 
history. For ten years he was engaged in the in- 
terests of the Goddefroi museum, Hamburg, and 
he was also as.sociated with Prof. Louis Agassiz. 
His private collection of shells consisted of 30,000 
examples of about 8.000 species, representing al- 
most every known part of the globe. Mr. Garrett 
was a member of various scientific societies and an 
acknowledged authority among conchologists. He 
published " Andrew Garrett's Fische der Sudsee," 
in six parts, edited by Dr. Albert Giinther, of the 
British museum (1873, etc.), and papers on " Land 
and Fresh- Water Shells of the South Sea Islands," 
with plates, " New Species of Fishes of the Sand wich 
Islands," and " New Species of South Sea Shells." 

GARY, James Albert, manufacturer, b. in 
Uncasville, Conn., 22 Oct., 1833. He was educated 
at Allegheny college, Pennsylvania. He removed 
with his parents to Maryland in 1840, and in 1861 
became a partner with his father in the Alberton 
cotton-mills. His father dying in 1870, the son 
succeeded to the business, and has conducted it 
ever since. He was nominated as a Whig for the 
state senate of Maryland in 1858, but was defeated, 
and was one of the three delegates from his county 
to the Union convention in 1861 at the Mar^vland 
institute, espousing the Union cause. He was a 
delegate to the national Rejiublican convention at 
Philadelphia in 1872, and was in that year nomi- 
nated as a Republican for congress, but was de- 
feated. He was a delegate to the national Repub- 
lican conventions of 1876, 1884, 1892, and 1896. 
He is vice-president of the Citizens' national bank 
of Baltimore and of the Consolidated gas company, 
a director of the American fire and insurance com- 
pany, in tlie Trust and guarantee company and 
Savings bank of Baltimore, and connected with 
other corporations and enterprises. Mr. Ciary was 
appointed bv President McKinley postmaster-gen- 
eral, 5 March, 1897, and confirmed the same day. 

(•AST, Frederick Augustus, clergyman, b. in 
Lancaster county. Pa., 17 Oct., 1835. He was 
graduated at Franklin and JIarshall college in 
1856, studied theology in the seminary of the Re- 
formed church at Mcreersburg, Pa., and was or- 
dained to the ministry in 1859. He served two 
pastoral charges, and during part of the civil war 
was chaplain of the 45th regiment of Pennsylvania 
volunteers. In 1867 he became rector of the 
academy of Franklin and Marshall college, and in 
1871 he was appointed tutor in the theological 
seminary, when it was transferred from Mercers- 
burg to Lancaster. In 1873 he was elected pro- 
fessor of Hebrew and Old Testament theology 
He received the degree of D. D. in 1877 from 
Waynesburg college, is a member of various 
learned societies, and has contributed numerous 
articles to theological quarterlies and magazines, 
principally on subjects connected with the lan- 
guage and literature of the Old Testament. 

GATLIN, Richard Caswell, soldier, b. in Le- 
noir county, N. C, 18 Jan., 1809; Fort Smith, 
Ark., 9 Sept., 1896. He was graduated at the U. S. 
military academy, 1 July. 1828, and entered the army 
as brevet 3d lieutenant, 7th infantry. He served in 
the Seminole war in Florida until its close in 1842, 
and in 1845 accompanied his command to Corpus 
Cliristi, where it became a part of the army of ob- 
servation under Gen. Zachary Taylor, lie was 
severely wounded at the battle of Monterey, and 
was brevetted major, 23 Sept.. 1846, for gallant and 
meritorious conduct. He resigned, 20 May, 1861, 
having attained to the full rank of major. In 
June, 1861, he was appointed brigadier-general of 
Nortli Carolina state troops, and assigned to the 
command of the coast defences of Wilmington. He 
was appointed colonel of the corps of infantry in 
the Confederate states army, to date from 16 March, 
1861, and brigadier-general in the provisional army 
of the Confederate states, 8 July, 1862, which he 
resigned, 8 Sept., 1862, and was then appointed ad- 
jutant-general of the state of North Carolina. 

(JAY, Claude, scientist, b. in Draguignan, 
France, 18 March, 1800; d. in Paris. 29 Nov., 
1872. He was educated in his native town, but 
went in 1818 to Paris and studieii natural science 
under Cuvier, Dcsfontaines, and Jussieu. After 
making botanical explorations of Italy, Greece, 
and Asia, he accepted a professorshifi in a French 
college in Chili. He arrived in Valparaiso in De- 
cemlier, 1828, and soon his scientific works were so 
well known that in 1830 the secretary of the in- 
terior, Portales, commissioned him to make an ex- 
ploration of the territory of the republic and to 
study its geography, natural history, industry, and 
commerce. After long excursions, seeing that his 
geodesic observations could not be exact for lack 
of proper instruments, he went to France, where 
he had them constructed under his personal super- 
vision and returned in 1834 to Chili, where for 
seven years he explored the whole republic, the 
Chiloe archipelago, and the Juan Fernandez group. 
Besides taking barometrical and ast ronomical meas- 
urements and observing the declination of the mag- 
net, he formed an extensive museum of natural 
history for Santiago, and President Manuel Bulnes 
conferred on him in 1841 Chilian citizenshi|>, and 
obtained from congress authority to have his work 
printed in Paris by the Chilian government. He 
returned to Paris in 1843. and for many years 
lab(]red assiduously to prepare his great book on 
Chili for publication. He was elected a member 
of the French institute in 1856. travelled in the two 
following years in Russia and Tart ary, and in 1859 
was commissioned by the Academy of sciences to 




study the mining system in the United States. In 
1861 he went to Chili, where he was rewarded by 
congress with a pension for life of |2.000. and in 
1863 returned to I'aris. residing there till his death. 
He made large charitable bequests. His works are 
"Origen de la patata" (Santiago, 1834); " Noticias 
sobre la.s minas de azogue de Andagovas e Illapel " 
(Valparaiso, 1837; in French, Paris, 1851): "Noti- 
cias sobre la isladeJuan Fernandez "(1840); "His- 
toria Pisicay Politics de Chile "(24 vols., Paris and 
Santiago, 1845-'34); "Triple variation de I'aiguille 
aimantee dans les parties Ouest de I'Anierique " 
(Paris, ia54); "Carte general du Chili" (1835): 
" Notes sur le Perou " (1855) ; " Notes sur Buenos 
Ayres et Kio de Janeiro" (18.56); " Uapport & 
r.\ca(lemie sur les mines des fitats Unis" (3 vols., 
1861): Hn<l " Historia Civil de Chile" (1872). 

<>EOR(>R, John Malin, philanthropist, b. in 
Phila<leli.hia. Pa.. 16 Oct., 1802; d. there, 11 Feb., 
1887. lie was educated in his native city and at 
Burlington, N. J., and resided throughout his en- 
tire lite on the family estate, Overbrook. He was 
the sole survivor of l)oth his father and mother's 
/amilies, and never marrie<i. By his will he left 
$35,000 to various religious and charitable in- 
stitutions in Pennsylvania. The balance of the 
esUite, after paying a imniber of private legacies, 
was devoted to the erection of a boarding-school 
in Pennsylvania for the education primarily of 
children of members of the Societv of Friends. 

(jERHARllT. Karl, siiulptor, \ in Boston, 
Mass., 7 Jan.. 18.");J. He is of Gertnan parentage, 
and in earlv life was a machinist in Chicopee,, and then a designer of machinery in Hart- 
ford, Conn. His first works were a bust of his 
wife and " A Startled Bather." which so strongly 
indicated talent that he was sent to Paris for 
study. In his .second year he contributed to the 
salon, where he also exhibited in 1884 " Echo," a 
statuette, and " Kve's Lullaby," a life-size group. 
His other works include a bust of Gen. Ulysses .S. 
Grant, taken in the days of his illness ; busts 
of Samuel I,. Clemens (1883) and the Uev. Henrv 
Ward Beecher (1886); a statue of Nathan Hale 
(see vol. iii., p. 31) in the state capitol at Hartfonl 
(1885) ; an equestrian statue of Gen. Israel I'ut- 
nam in Br<M>klyn, Conn. (1887); a statue of Josiah 
Bart let t. signer of the Declaration of Indeiicndence, 
in Amesburv, Mass. (1888); Welton Fountain, 
Watcrhurv, Oonn. { 1888) ; statue of Gen. Gouver- 
ncur K. \Varren (s<'c vol. vi., p. .362) at Gettysburg, 
Pa. (1888): and tablet to John Fitch, In the state 
capitol in Hartford. Conn. (1888). 

GIBBS. John Blair, b. in Richmond. Va.. 25 
Sept., 18.58: d. in (iuantananio, Cul)a. 12 June, 
1808. He was the second son of Alfred Gibljs, 
major in the I'. S. arniv and brevet major-general 
of volunteers, who died at Fort I^avenworlh. 26 
Dec. 18ti8. Dr. (>il)b9's grandfather married 
I.iaura Wolcott, daughter of Oliver VVolcott. .secre- 
tary of the treasury during part of the adminis- 
tration of Washington ami Adams. He was edu- 
cated at Rutgers college, and soon after gnulu- 
ation began the stiidvof tnedicine. He graduated 
at the medical schiK)l of the University of Penn- 
sylvania, and sul>sequently took up his residence 
In New York city, where he was conne<rted with 
Bellevue hospital, and afterward with the Post- 
graduate hospital. After a year of study in Ger- 
many, he commenced practice in New York, where 
his genial and sympathetic nature made him a 
favorite with patients of all When the 
war with .Spain tx^gati he enlisted as a surgeon, 
{iasse<1 an examination in surgery, wa.s commis- 
sioned and .sent on a transport with troops toGuan- 
voL. VII. — ir, 

tanamo. where he was killed in a night attack 
of the Spaniartls on the marine camp. The Uni- 
versity club of New York, as a mark of the respect 
and affection in which Dr. Gibbs was held, arranged 
for a memorial service in Trinity church, about 
three hundred and fifty members of the club being 
present. He was the first physician accepted as 
an army surgeon under the president's first call 
for volunteers, and also the first American officer 
killed in Cuba. 

GIBSON. Charles Hopper, statesman, b. in 
Queen Anne county. Md., 19 Jan., 1842. He was 
graduated from Washington college, Chestertown, 
Md., and was admitted to the bar in 1864, after 
which he began the practice of law at Easton. In 
1870 he accepted the appointment for the unex- 
pired term of the state's attorney for Talbot county, 
to which position he was elected for four years 
in 1871, and again in 1875, holding the office for 
three consecutive terms, and declining a renomina- 
tion for the fourth. Mr. Gibson was elected as a 
Democrat to the 4i)th and the two following con- 
gresses, was appointed to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of U. S. senator Kphraim K." Wilson, 
and was elected to fill the unexpired term, 21 Jan., 
1892. He has served on the naval and other com- 
mittees of the senate, and has lieen chairman of the 
committee of manufactures. Senator Gibson's 
term expired 3 March. 18!)7. 

OIBSON. John Monro, clergyman, b. in Whit- 
horn, Wigtownshire, Scotland, 24 April, 1838. He 
went to Canada in 18.55. and was graduated at 
Toronto university in 1862. and at Knox theologi- 
cal college in 1864. where he had taught languages 
since 1863. He was then pastor of a Presbvterian 
church in Montreal till 1874. and from 1868 till 
that date also lecturer in Greek and Hebrew exe- 
gesis in Montreal theological college. In 1874-'80 
he held a charge in Chicago, and in the latter year 
he was appointed |)asior of a Presbyterian church 
in London. England. The University of Chicago 
gave him the degree of D. D. in 1875. Dr. Gibson 
lia.s published "The Ages before Moses" (New 
York, 1879); "The Foundations," lectures on the 
eviilences of Christianity (Chicago, 1880 ; revised 
edition, entitled " Ko<;k veriiu» Sand," London, 
188:1); "The Mosaic Era" (London, 1811); and 
selected poems of Robert Browning, with notes, 
under the title " Pomegranates from an English 
Garden " (New York, 188.5). 

GIBSON. Robert Atkinson, P. E. bishop, b. 
in Petersliiirg, Va.,9 July. 1846. He waseilucated 
at the Episcopal, Alexandria, Va., 
graduated at Ham[>den-Sidney college, Va., 1867, 
and at the Virginia theological seminary in 1870. 
He was a missionary in five counties in Virginia, 
1870-'2: assistant minister at .St. James's church, 
Richmond. 187^'8; rector of Trinity church, 
Parkersburg, W. Va., 1878-'87, of Christ church, 
( 'incinnati, Ohio, 1887-'97 ; and was elected bishop 
coa<ljutor of Virginia, to succeed the Rev. Dr. 
Newton. He was cons<.'crated in Holy 
Tnnitv church. Uiclimoii<l. 3 Nov.. 1897. 

GIliSON. Roltert WillianiH. architect, b. in 
Aveley, Essex, Englan<l, 17 Nov., 18.54. He was 
educated at a private school in Gravc.<iend, and 
then at the Royal academy of arts in London, 
where he completed his course in 1879. Subse- 
quentlv he settled in New York city, where he has 
since followed his profession. His work includes 
the U. S. trust comjiany's building in New York 
city and the cathedral church in Buffalo, and he 
ha.s submitted a tiesign for the projected cathedral 
of the Protestant Epi.scopal church to be built in 
New York city. Mr. Gibson's best-known work is 




the cathedral of All Saints' in Albany, which is 
shown in the illustration, the design of which 

was selected in 
competition. This 
church, although 
not completed, was 
dedicated in 1888, 
with appropriate 
ceremonies. ex- 
tending through 
an entire week. 
He published in 
the " American 
Architect," during 
1884, a series of 
articles on " Span- 
ish Architecture," 
with illustrations 
made by himself 
in Spain, and, in 
the " pjngineering 
Record," "Obser- 
vations on Heavy Buildings" (1888). 

GIBSON, Walter Murray, prime minister of 
Hawaii, b. at sea in 1828; d. "in San Francisco, 21 
Jan., 1888. He was of English parentage, passed 
his youth in Montreal, and, after leading a roving 
life, went to California in 1848, and made a fortune 
by speculating in mining machinery. In 1849 he 
removed to Mexico in pursuance of Daniel Web- 
ster's plan to effect the centralization of the states, 
and later entered with Gen. Rafael Carrera, of 
Guatemala, into the same scheme respecting the 
Central American republics. Failing in the latter, 
he made a privateering expedition against the 
Dutch in Java, was imprisoned, from whence he 
escaped. In 1853, settling in Utah, he became a 
Mormon elder, and was sent by Brigham Young in 
1861 to establish a Mormon colony in Hawaii, but 
he abandoned the scheme. He then formed a com- 
pany of natives and leased the island of Lanai for 
agricultural purposes, but being abandoned by the 
natives, raised sheep and realized a fortune. He 
went to Honolulu in 1867, entered public life, and 
two years later visited the United States and as- 
sisted in negotiating the recently existing reciproci- 
ty treaty. Thereafter he was active in the coun- 
cils of King Kalakaua, overthrew the ministry in 
1872, became prime minister, and as minister of 
foreign affairs, secretary of the army and navy, 
and president of the boards of healtli, education, 
and immigration, he controlled the policy and 
revenues of the kingdom. In the uprising against 
Kalakaua in July, 1887, Gibson's lite was in dan- 
ger. He was given a civil trial, and escaped to 
California, where he died in obscurity. 

GlESY, Samuel Heiisel, clergyman, b. in Lan- 
caster, Ohio, 26 Aug., 1826; d in Washington, 
D. C, 27 May, 1888. His father, John Ulric, emi- 
grated from Switzerland in 1804, and was one of 
the founders of the Reformed church in Lancaster, 
Ohio. The son was graduated at Marshall college, 
at the Marshall theological seminary, was licensed 
in 1849, and ordained a minister of the German 
Reformed church. In 1855-'60 he was pastor at 
Hagerstown, and till 1870 incumbent of Christ 
church, Philadelphia. Removing thence to Balti- 
more, he withdrew from his communion in 1871, 
and was ordained to the priesthood of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal church in 187!i. He was called 
in 1874 to Christ church, Norwich. Conn., and re- 
mained there eleven years. While in this charge 
he founded chapels at Greenville and Willimantic, 
served as archdeacon of the eastern archdeaconry i 
in 1879-'83, and was a delegate to the general con- | 

vention in the latter year. In 1885 he assumed 
pastoral charge of the Church of the Epiphany in 
Washington. The degree of D. D. was conferred 
upcm him in 1869 by Franklin and Marshall col- 
lege. Dr. Giesy won the reputation of a pro- 
found theological writer and thinker. Besides 
sermons and addresses, he was the author of " The 
I Am's of Christ," which had a wide circulation 
(New York, 1884), and " The Study of the Creeds," 
which was nearly completed at his death. 

GILBERG, Charles Alexander, chess-player, 
b. in Camden, N. J., 17 June, 1835. He was gradu- 
ated at the College of the city of New York in 1854, 
and is the managing partner in a large West India 
house in that city. He is widely known as an 
amateur chess-player, and has served as judge in 
almost every public contest that has taken place. 
His chess library of more than 1,500 volumes is 
the largest in this country, with the exception of 
that of John G. White, of Cleveland, Ohio. Mr. 
Gilberg has received prizes for his chess problems, 
and has edited "American Chess-Nuts" (New 
York, 1868), and also "The Book of the Fifth 
American Congress " (1881). 

GILBERT, Addison, merchant, b. in Glouces- 
ter, Mass., 23 Nov., 1808 ; d. there in July, 1888. 
He was educated in the public schools of his na- 
tive town and at Dunnner academy, Byfield; be- 
came a successful merchant, and accunmlated 
large property. For fifty years he was active in 
the public affairs of Gloucester, being frequently 
sent to the legislature, and .serving in local offices. 
He was president of the City national bank from its 
organization in 1876, and of the Cape Ann savings- 
bank from 1880, both of which he assisted in 
founding. He was an opponent of slavery, and in 
the civil war gave financial aid to the government. 
Among various bequests to public charities in 
Gloucester. Mr. Gilbert left $100,000 for a city 
hospital, $75,000 for an Old people's home, and 
$10,000 to the Widows' and orphans' society. 

GILBERT, James Isliam, soldier, b. in Louis- 
ville, Ky., 4 July, 1824; d. in Topeka. Kan., 11 
Oct., 1887. He received his education in Prairie du 
Chien, Wis., and became a merchant and lumber- 
dealer. Early in the civil war he was commissioned 
colonel of an Iowa infantry regiment, was jiromot- 
ed to brigadier-general at Slobile, and for gallantry 
in the battle of Franklin, near Nashville, was made 
a major-general of volunteers. Gen. Gilbert was 
for several years postmaster at Lansing, and later 
was a silver-miner in Georgetown, Col. 

GILBERT, Samuel Aii^nstiis, soldier, b. in 
Zanesville. Oiiio, 25 Aug., 1825 ; d. in St. Paul, 
Minn., 9 June. 1868. He was educated at Ohio 
university, Athens, Ohio, and then entered the U. S. 
coast survey, in which service he continued until 
the civil war, attaining a rank next to that of 
.superintendent. On 11 June, 1861. he was ap- 
pointed lieutenant-colonel of the 24th Ohio volun- 
teers, and accompanied his regiment to western 
Virginia. He was appointed colonel of the 44th 
Ohio regiment on 14 Oct., 1861, and in May. 1862, 
he took part in the raid upon the Central railroad, 
in which he marched more than eighty miles in 
sixty hours, including all stops. He commanded 
the right in the battle of Lewisburg. W. Va., 21 
May, 1862. and captured a Confederate battery. In 
August, 1863, he was ordered to join Gen. John 
Pope east of the Blue Ridge, and he served there 
until 1863, when he commanded a brigade in 
Kentncky. and dispersed a political convention 
in Frankfort which he considered to l)e plotting 
treason. He continued in Kentucky and Tennes- 
see until November, 1863, when he became engineer 




on the staff of Gen. John G. Foster until Gen. 
James Longstrcet retreated, when he resumed com- 
mand of his brigade. Col. Gilbert's health hav- 
ing been impaired by exposure, he resigned on 20 
April. 1864. He was brevcttcd brigadier-general 
of volunteers, 13 March, 1805. 

GILBERT, William Lewis, manufacturer, b. 
in Nortlifield, Conn.. 30 Dec. 1806. He was edu- 
cated in the public sch<X)!s of his native town, and 
has been a manufacturer of clocks since 1828. He 
was a member of the Connecticut legislature in 
1848 and 1868, treasurer of the Connecticut west- 
em railroad for ten years, and has been its presi- 
dent since 1883. He holds the same office in five 
manufacturing companies in Winsted, Conn. Mr. 
Gill)ert gave, in 1887, !J4(X).000 to provide a home 
for friendless chihiren in Winsted and vicinity, and 
a like sum for a free high-school in that place. 

GILCHRIST, Robert, lawver. b. in Jersey City. 
N. J., 21 Aug., 1825: d. there. 6 July, 1888. He 
was educate<l in private schools, studied law, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1847. Subsequently he 
became a counsellor of the U..S. supreme court. He 
was a member of the New Jersey legislature in 
1859. At the first call for troops in 1861 he went 
to the front as a captain in the 2d New Jersey regi- 
ment. Until the close of the civil war he was a 
Republican, but he left that party on the question 
of reconstruction, and in 1866 he was a Democratic 
candidate for congress. In 186U he was appointed 
attorney-general of New Jerst^y.tofill the unexpired 
tenn of George M. Robeson (appointed secretary of 
the navy in President Grant's cabinet), and in 1873 
was reap|H>inted for a full term. In 1875 he was a 
candidate for U. S. senator. He had been apimint- 
ed one of the coniniis.sioners to revise the constitu- 
tion of the state in 18~1 but resigned before the 
work was completed, and he also declined the office 
of chief justice of New Jersey. Mr. Gilchrist was 
es|)ecially versed in constitutional law, and he was 
employed in many notable cases. His interpreta- 
tion of the 15th amendment to the national con- 
stitution secureil the right of suffrage to colored 
men in New Jersey. He was the author of the 
riparian-rights act, and was counsel for the state in 
the suit that tested its constitutionality. Kroiii this 
source the fund for maintenance of public schools 
in New Jersey is now chiefly derived. He also 
secured to the United .States a half million dollars 
left by Joseph L. Lewis to be applied in payment 
of the national debt. His large law library, en- 
riched with thousands of marginal notes, was sold 
at unction in New Vork six months after his death. 
— His wife. Frederirka, b. in Oswego. N. V., in 
1846, is a daughter of Samuel liaymond Heardsley 
<o. v.). She has published " The True Story of 
Hamlet and Ophelia," a study and new interpreta- 
tion of Shakespeare's play (Boston, 1889). 

(ilLLAM, Bernhard', cartoonist, b. at Ban- 
burv. Kngland. 10 Oct.. 1858; d. at Cnnajoharie, 
N. v., 19 Jan., 1896. When young he came to the 
United States with his parents and settled in W'il- 
liamslmrg, N. V., where he attended the public 
schools. Here he amused himself drawing pic- 
tures of his teachers, classmates, and persons 
whom he met on the streets. He entered a law- 
office, but, discovering his true calling, he connected 
himself with "Frank I.«slie'8 Weekly" during 
the (iarfield campaign, and his position as a car- 
toonist was at once established. Later he went to 
*■ Harper's Weekly." and subseqently to '• I'uck." 
where his "Tattooed Man" in the Blaine cam- 
paign of 1884 gave him a national reputation. He 
finally joined in establishing "Judge," under the 
firm name of Arkell & Gillam, making, chiefly 

through his political cartoons, a success of the 

Eaper. He was a great student of Shakespeare, and 
ad memorized many of his plays. 
GILPIN, William, governor of Colorado, b. in 
Newcastle county, Del., 4 Oct., 1812. He was grad- 
uated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1833. 
studied at the U. S. military academy, and served 
in the Seminole war. but resigned his commission 
and removed to Independence, Mo., in 1841, where 
he practised law, which he had studied under his 
brother. He was secretary of the general assembly 
in 1841-'3. On 4 March. 'l844. with a party of 125 
pioneers, he founded Portland, Ore.,about four miles 
above its present site, and drew up the articles of 
agreement for a territorial govcrinnent. He after- 
ward re-entered the army, serving through the 
Mexican war as major of the 1st Missouri cavalry, 
and in 1848 he made a successful expedition against 
the hostile Indians of Colorado, which resulted in 
a peace for eighteen years. In 1851 he returned to 
Independence, and in 1861 he was appointed first 
governor of Colorado. Gov. Gilpin has published 
"The Central Gold Region " (Plii'.adelphia, 1859) 
and "The Mission of the North Ameiicun People " 
(1873). In the latter he showed by charts the 
practicability of establishing a railroad around the 
world on the 40th parallel of latitude, on which are 
nearlv all the great cities of both continents. 

GINTER, Lewis, manufacturer, b. in New York 
city, 25 April. 1824; d. in Kichniond, Va., 2 Oct., 
1897. His ancestors came from Holland, their 
original name being Gunther, which the grand- 
father of Maj. Ginter changed. He was left an 
orphan, and when eighteen years old settled in 
Richmond, Va.. opening a small store in which 
he sold toys, walknig-canes, etc. He prospered in 
business, and enlarged and diversified his stock, 
and was the pioneer in Richmond of the direct 
importation of European goods. At the beginning 
of the civil war he had accumulated a fortune of 
l|i200,000, but sold out and invested all his means 
in tobacco, sugar, and cotton, which he stored, and 
joined the Confederate army. His tol)acco and 
sugar were destroyed by the Confederates in May, 
18(1.5. He was more fortunate in his holding of 
cotton, which gave him a capital of ^20.0(X) or 
l|30.000 with which to begin business, lie invested 
largely in stocks, and lost some |30<l.0OO, all of 
which lie subsequently paid with interest. He was 
now fifty years old, but, not dismayed by his losses, 
he received consignments of smoking tobacco from 
John F. Allen, of Hichmond, who subsequently 
liecame his partner, and from this time forward in 
the cigarette and smoking tobacco business he was 
eminentiv successful, achieving a fortune of about 
♦ 12.000,000. He served in the Confederate army 
as commissary to Gen. Joseph R. Anderson, of 
Richmond, on whose retirement from the army he 
served in the same capacity under Gen. Edward L. 
Thomas, of Georgia. He provided a physician and 
medicines for all his employees without cost, and 
when one of his buildings was destroyed by fire 
paid all the employees their regular wages while 
rebuilding. At Christmas he distributed useful 

Presents to all persons in hisemiiloy.nnd furnished 
ooks for the children of who attended the 
schools. His l)enevolence during his lifetime was 
far-reaching, and in his will he left *2.000,000 to 
deserving persons and institutions in Kichniond, 
including almost every charitidile institution in 
the city. The many improvements which he prt)- 
je<'ted in Richmond are provided for in his will, 
so that thev will be completed as he designed. 

GLEN, James, lecturer, b. in Scotland in 1749; 
d. in Demerara, British Guiana, 9 Sept., 1814. In 




1783, while he was returning to his home after 
purchasing a plantation, the captain of the vessel 
told him he had a very remarkable book on board, 
written in Latin, which he commended to Mr. 
Glen's favorable attention. This was Sweden- 
borg's " De Ccelo et Inferno." While in London 
he saw the advertisement by Robert Ilindmarsh 
announcing a meeting, 19 Dec., 1783, which he at- 
tended, and found four otliers as much interested 
as himself, one being a curate to the vicar of Ma- 
delay. Mr. Glen, next year, instead of returning 
to his plantation, was led by his zeal for the new 
doctrines to land in Philadelphia to deliver public 
lectures on Swedenborg's religious views. Then 
he travelled through parts of Virginia and Ken- 
tucky. A box of books, which were translations 
of Swedenborg's writings, arrived in Philadelphia 
after he left, and these fell into the hands of Mr. 
Bailey, the public printer, who also embraced the 
doctrines they contained. "The True Christian 
Religion " was reprinted in 1788, Benjamin Frank- 
lin being one of the subscribers. Through Mr. Glen 
a beginning was made for the introduction of the 
doctrines of Emanuel Swedenborg into this country. 

GLENNON, John Joseph, R. 0. bishop, b. at 
Kinnegad, County Meath, Ireland, 14 June, 1862. 
He received his education at St. Alary's college, 
MuUingar, at All Hallows college, Dublin, and 
graduated in May, 1883, being ordained a priest 
in the following year. He was appointed assistant 
pastor of St. Patrick's church in Kansas City, and 
became its pastor, serving there from 1884 to 1887. 
He was pastor of the catliedral under Bishop Ho- 
gan of Kansas City from 1887 to 1892, and was 
appointed vicar-general of the diocese in 1892, 
1893. and 1894, and from 1894 to 1895 he was ad- 
ministrator of the diocese. He was appointed co- 
adjutor bishop of Kansas City, and was conse- 
crated under the title of bishop of Pinara, with 
the right of succession, in June, 1896. 

GLORIEUX, Alphonsiis Joseph, R. C. bishop, 
b. at Dottignies, Belgium, 1 Feb., 1844. He re- 
ceived his education at the College of Courtrai, 
and pursued his theological studies at the Ameri- 
can college of Louvain, with the intention of join- 
ing the American missions. He was ordaine<l a 
priest at Mechlin by Cardinal Sterckx in August, 
1867. and before the end of tliat year was in Ore- 
gon laboring in the mission. His first appoint- 
ment was as pastor at Roseburg, Douglas county, 
to which were attached several dependent mis- 
sions. His next service was at Oregon City, and 
thence he was sent to St. Paul. In 1871 he was 
appointed president of St. Michael's college, Port- 
land, and in 1884 was appointed vicar-apostolic of 
Idaho. He was consecrated under the title of 
bisliop of Apollonia in April, 1885, and was made 
bishop of Boise, on the creation of the new see 
embracing the state of Idaho, in August, 1893. 

GOBIX, John Peter Shiiidel, soldier, b. in 
Sunl)ury, Pa., 26 Jan., 1837. He attended the 
public scliools, and then became a printer's ap- 
prentice. He Went to Philadelphia, where he 
taught and studied law, being admitted to the bar 
in 1859. At the outbreak of the war he was 
elected 1st lieutenant of 11th Pennsylvania infan- 
try, and upon the reorganization of the regiment 
as the 47th Pennsylvania infantry was commis- 
sioned captain, 2 Sept., 1801. For bravery at Sa- 
bine Crossroads and Pleasant Hill in the Red 
river campaign he was promoted major, and later 
lieutenant-colonel and colonel. lie was brevetted 
brigadier-general of volunteers in March, 1865, 
and was mustered out on 25 Dec, 1865. He set- 
tled in Lebanon, where he resumed the practice of 

law. In 1867 he entered the Grand army of the 
republic as a member of Sedgwick post, and in 1886 
he was elected commander of the department of 
Pennsylvania. In 1884 he was elected colonel of 
the 8th regiment of the Pennsylvania National 
guard, and in 1885 was promoted to brigadier- 
general, commanding the 3d brigade. In 1897 he 
was elected commander-in-chief of the Grand 
army of the republic. At the outbreak of war with 
Spain he was appointed brigadier-general of volun- 
teers, resigning in February, 1899. lie was elected 
to the state senate in 1884, re-elected and served 
continuously until 1899; elected president of the 
senate in 1891 ; re-elected in 1893, also elected 
lieutenant-governor of Pennsylvania in 1898. 

GOMARA, Francisco Lopez de (go-mah'-rah), 
Spanish historiaTi, b. in Seville, or, according to 
some authorities, in Gomera, Canary islands, in 
1510; d. in Seville in 1560 or 1576. His parents 
had destined him for a military career, but he 
took holy orders, and was emjjloyed for several 
years as professor of rhetoric at Alcala. Desiring 
to acquire a personal knowledge of the New 
World, he went to Mexico about 1540, and re- 
mained there four years, part of the time as sec- 
retary of Heruan Cortes. On his return he re- 
sided for some time in Italy, and became intimate 
with Saxo Grammaticus and Olaus Magnus. His 
work is entitled " Primera y segunda parte de la 
historia general de las Indias con la eonquista de 
Mcjico y de la Nueva Espaiia" (Medina, 15.53; 
Antwerp, 1554). It had great success, passing al- 
most immediately through two editions, and was 
translated into Italian by Gravalis (Kome, 1566) 
and by Lucio Mauro (Venice, 1566), and into 
French by Martin Funu'e (Paris, 1606). The sec- 
ond part, which is a history of the life of Cortes, 
has been reprinted by Bustamante (Mexico. 1826). 
Gomara's style is clear and fluent, but, unfortu- 
nately, the second part of his work seems to have 
been written from notes, which were not complete 
or exact, and often supplied by a fervid imagina- 
tion. In the royal library of Madrid there are 
two of his works in manuscript, "Historia de Ho- 
ruc y Aradin Barbaroja, reyes de Argel" and 
" Anales del Emperador Carlos V.." the publication 
of which has not been permitted by the royal gov- 
ernment, because they depict the emperor's char- 
acter in an unfavorable light. 

GOMEZ Y BAEZ. Mnxiuio (go-meth), soldier, 
b. at Bani, .San Domingo, 25 Aug., 1826. He re- 
ceived a public-school education, and then served 
in the army of San Domingo. He was a major- 
general in the insurgent army of Cuba during the 
revolution of 1868-'78. At the outbreak of the 
new insurrection in Cuba, 24 Feb., 1895, he was 
enjoying the quiet of his home in San Domingo. 
He was induced by Jose Marti (g. v.). the father of 
the new uprising, to take the field against the 
Spanish, and he became general-in-chief of the 
army of the republic of Cuba. During the first 
months of the war he was confronted with great 
difliculties. which caused him to be "troubled 
with the most terrible doubts." But in time the 
Cidians showed a more general disposition to join 
in the insurrection. He successfully attacked 
the Spaniards at Altagracia, ambushed a Spanish 
guerrilla party, and took El JIulatto and San Ge- 
ronimo. He then crossed into the province of 
Sancti Spiritus, a movement which required his 
passing the trnclio. a military line, which was 
guarded liy nearly fifty thousand Spanish soldiers, 
between Jucaro and Moron. Gomez did not do 
as much fighting as some of the younger generals, 
yet he was continually confusing the Spaniards 




c::::^. &^^ 

by his circuitous movements. He was now in 
one province, now in anotlier, and gave himself 
actively to the execution of tlie orders and decrees 
of the Cuban revolutionary government. When 
the war between Spain and the United States be- 
gan, Gen. Gomez readily agreed to put his army 

at the disposal of 
his American allies, 
and co-t)pfrated with 
them. After hostili- 
ties ceased he bound 
his men to the ob- 
servance of the peace 
protocol. In an 
open letter to his 
son, written in Au- 
gust, 1899. Gomez 
emphasizes the fact 
that the American 
in terven tion has pro- 
duced so far all 
the favorable results 
which might reason- 
ably have been ex- 
pectetl from it. "It 
IS absolutely false," 
he asserts, " that 
great differences exist between the Cubans and 
Spaniards, between the Cubans and Americans, 
or among the Cubans themselves. Ou the con- 
trary, all is going well. More could not have 
been done in so short a time. An impatient popu- 
lace does not realize that it is not the work of 
a day to organize society. The turbulence of 
high-strung minds must have time to abate in a 
people thirsting for liberty. The intervening 
power will fulfil the obligations it has incurred, 
and the Cuban people, heroic and sensible, will 
take the situation calmly, working and waiting for 
the independence which the future will surely 
bring. As to the suggestion that the intervening 

riwer contemplates robbing Cubans of their own, 
do not l)elieve it. Such a niraor is a calumny 
against an honorable tteople." Gen. Gomez has 
written various pamphlets on Cuban revolutions, 
published in Jamaica. New York, and Cuba. 
Among his works are " Mi Asistente." "Carta k 
Tomas Kstrada Paliiia," " Pancliito Gomez," and 
"Mi Hscolta." See " In the Saddle with Gomez," 
by Mario Carrillo (New York. 1K98): "The War 
with Spain." bv Ilenrv Cabot Lixlge; an<l "His- 
tory up to Date'." bv XVilliam A. .lohnston (1899). 
OON.NEVILLK.'Biiiot Paiilinlor de, naviga- 
tor, descended from a noble family of the parish 
of Gonncville-les-Honfleur, in the bailiwick of 
Koiien. of whose birth and death no dates have 
l)een discovered. lleeiiibHrkccI with sixty [icrsims 
from Ilonfleur. 24 June. 1503, in the " Kspoir," of 
120 tons, for the Kiist Indies, but. owing to a vio- 
lent tem|)est. was cast on a southern shore, the sit- 
uation of which remained for a long lime an 
insolvable problem to the geographer. But d'Avc- 
zac and otiier specialists have determined that he 
found land in Hni/.il. January, l.')U4. and harbored 
his vessel in the Kio San Francisco do J^iil under 
2(1' 10' south latitude. lie embarked again for 
France about 1 Jan., l.WS, and when on his way 
was forced by a tcinjiest to put into a port of Ire- 
land for repairs. lie was again on his course — 
in view of the coasts of Xorinandy near the islands 
of Jersey and (iuernsev. 7 .May. iriO.') — when a ca- 
tastrophe Wfell him. hdward Blunt. of Plymouth, 
re-enforced by another vessel from Urittnny, at- 
tacked him. He defended himself, but the profits 
of the voyage were lost. Thirty-one of his men 

died from fever, or at the hands of the pirates. 
His daughter was espoused in 1521 to Essomerie, 
a native of the land he had visited, and who took 
his name. A great-grandson of this marriage, Jean 
Paulniier de Courtonne, published an account of 
his ancestor's vovage in his " Memoir touchaiit 
rEtablissement d'une Mission Chretienne dans le 
TroisiOme .Monde" (Paris, 166.3). See also d'Ave- 
zac's " Kelation aiithciitique du Vovage du Capi- 
taiiie (le Goiineville " (1869). 

(iOOD, Jpreiiiiah Haak, clergvman, b. in 
Rehrersbnrg, Pa.. 22 Nov., 1822 ; d. in TilTin, Ohio, 
25 Jan., 1888. After graduation at Franklin and 
Marshall college, he studied in the theological 
seminary and wius ordained to the ministry of the 
Reformed church. He was pastor and also prin- 
cipal of a high-school at Lancaster. Ohio, till 1848, 
when he established at Columbus the "Western 
Missionary." which he edited for five years. At 
Tiffin he took an active part in establishing Hei- 
delberg college, the new theological seminary, and 
a classical school, with his brother Reuben, in 
1859. He was professor of mathematics in the 
college in 1850-'66, and held thechairof dogmatic 
theology in the seminary till shortly before his 
death. The degree of D. D. was conferred on him 
by Franklin and Marshall in 1868. Dr. Good did 
much toward directing the policy of his synod, 
and his services in the peace commission were of 
great value in bringing the dissensions of the 
church to a close. He was one of the translators- 
of a new edition of the Heidelberg catechism, and 
published a new hymnal and a jjrayer-book. 

GOUOKLU Coiisfans Liberty", clergyman, b. 
in Calais, Vt.. 16 March, 18;«); d. in St. Louis, 
Mo.. 1 Feb.. 1886. He was a grandnephcw of Dr. 
William Goodell (o. c). lis was graduated at 
the University of Vermont in 185.5, and at An- 
dover theological seminary in 1858, was ordained 
to the ministry of the Congregational church, and 
installed [Uistor of the South church at New Brit- 
ain, Conn., in 1859. In 1872 he was called to 
Pilgrim church. St. Louis, where he remained till 
his death. He was one of the founders and a 
trustee of Drury college. Sj)ringfiel<l. Mo., in 1873, 
the only Congregational institution then in the 
southwest, to which he contributed financially, 
and gave 200 valuable books to begin a library. 
Through the work of church extension that he 
organi/.e<l the churches of his coininunion in- 
creased from four to twelve in St. Louis. The Uni- 
versity of Vermont gave him the degree of D. I). 
Among addresses delivere<l by Dr. Gootlell, the one 
t)efore the American home niis«ioiiary society, in 
May, 1881. calling for "a million dollars a year for 
home missiiins," obtained wide celebrity. He pub- 
lishe<i " How to Build a Church " (St. Ilouis. 1883), 
from a series ff articles in the "Advance." 

(«0(H>KI('H. Casper Fredorii-k, naval officer, 
b. in Philailelphia, 7 Jan., 1847. lie was gradu- 
ated from the U. S. naval academy at the head of 
his class in 1864. promoted master in 1866. and 
lieutenant two years later. In 1869 he was made 
lieutenant-commander, in 1884 commaiidir. atid in 
1897 he was ailvanced to his present rank of cap- 
tain. He was naval attache on the stalT of .Sir 
Garnet Wolseley diiringthe Tel-el-Kebircampaign 
of 1882. commanded the "Jamestown." "Constel- 
lation," and "Concord," and in 1897-8 was [iresi- 
dent of the naval war college. During the Span- 
ish-American war Capt. Goodrich commaiide<i the 
cruis<"r "St. Ijouis"and theU. S. steamship" New- 
ark, renilering impfirtant service in both of those 
vessels, and in July, 1899, he was assigned to the 
command of the battle-ship " Iowa." 




GOODSELL. Daniel Ayres, M. E. bishop, b. 
in Xewburg, N. Y., 5 Nov.. 1840. lie was edii- 
cateil at tlie University of the city of New York, 
but left before graduation to enter the ministry of 
the Methodist Episcopal church. He was a dele- 
gate to every general conference from 1876 till 
1888, and at the one in New York city in May, 
1888, he was elected bishop. Wesleyan university 
conferred on him tlie degree of S. T. I), in 1880. 
Bisliop Goodsell lias been literary editor and edito- 
rial contributor of the New York " Christian Ad- 
vocate" since 1880, and was an editorial contribu- 
tor of the '• Methodist Review" until May, 1888. 

GOODWIN, Isaac, author, b. in Plymouth, 
Mass., 28 June, 1786; d. in Worcester, Mass.. 16 
Sept., 1833. He was educated in Plymouth, studied 
law there, practised his profession, and held local 
offices in Stirling and Worcester, Mass. From 
1813 till 1832 he was a member and councillor of 
the American antiquarian society of Worcester. 
Besides many addresses and orations, he published 
"Historv of the Town of Stirling, Mass. (Worces- 
ter, 1815); "Tlie Town Officer" (1824); and "The 
New England Sheriff" (1830). — His son, John 
Abbott, author, b. in Stirling, Mass., 21 Mav, 
1824; d. in Lowell, Mass., 21 Sept., 1884, was edu- 
cated at the Rensselaer polytechnic institute in 
the class of 1847, but was not graduated, lie 
was in the Massachusetts legislature in 1854-'7 
and 1859-'61, serving in the last years as speaker 
of the house, held local offices in Lowell, and de- 
livered many speeches. Among his principal pub- 
lications are " The Pilgrim Fathers neither Puri- 
tans nor Persecutors" (Lowell. 1875) and "The 
Pilgrim Republic " (Boston, 1888). 

GORDON, Ambrose, soldier, b. in Monmouth, 
N. J., 31 iMay, 1750; d. in Augusta, Ga., 28 -lune, 
1804. He joined a regiment of cavalry of which 
William Washington was a field officer, and ac- 
companied Col. Washington as a captain when the 
regiment was sent as escoi't to Gen. Nathanael 
Greene on his succeeding Gen. Horatio Gates in 
command of the southern Continental army. At 
the termination of the war Capt. Gordon accepted 
grants of land from the state of Georgia for mili- 
tary services, and went into business in Augusta, 
Ga., with Col. Washington as his partner. — His 
son, William Wasliiiigton, mayor of Savannah, \x 
in Augusta, Ga., 17 June. 1796; d. in Savannah, 20 
March, 1842. Me was graduated at the U. S. mili- 
tary academy in 1815, appointed 3d lieutenant of 
ordnance, and served as aide-de-camp to Gen. 
Gaines. He then resigned from the army, and prac- 
tised law in Savannah from 1818 till 1836. He was 
mayor of the city of Savannah from 1833 till 1835, 
and member of the state house of representatives 
from 1835 till 1836. He procured a charter for the 
Georgia central railroad, superintended the build- 
ing of the road, and was president of the Central 
railroad and banking company from 1836 until his 
death. A monument was erected to his memory in 
one of the pnlilic squares of Savannah. — His son. 
William Washington, soldier, b. in Savannah, 14 
Oct., 1834. He was graduated at Yale, and served 
in the Confederate army during the civil war, be- 
ing 1st lieutenant of the Georgia hussars and ad- 
jutant and captain on the staffs of Gens. Henry W. 
Mercer and Robert II. Andcrscm. commanding in- 
fantry brigades. Has since its close been engaged 
in the cotton business in Savannah, and for si.x 
years he was a member of the Georgia legishiture. 
He is the senior officer in command of the state 
militia, and as such has suppressed several riots, 
and was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers 
in the Spanish-American war. Gen. Gordon has 

been president of the Savannah cotton exchange, 
and was a member of the evacuation commission 
for Puerto Rico appointed by the President. 

GOKHAM, Nhiibacl, soldier, b. in Barnstable, 
Mass., 2 Sept., 1686; d. at Louisburg, 20 Feb., 
1746. He took an active and efficient part in ob- 
taining the grants made by the legislature of Ma.s- 
sachusetts to the officers and soldiers of King 
Philip's war. He was the chief promoter of the 
settlement of Gorhanitown, Me., and gave much 
time and money to this purpose. On 8 Feb., 1745, 
he was commissioned colonel of the 7th Mas.sachu- 
sctts regiment in the Louisburg expedition, being 
also captain of the first company. He died in the 
service. — John, his eldest son, b. in Banistable, 
Mass., 13 Dec, 1709; d. in London about 1753. 
He removed to Falmouth (now Portland), Me., in 
1742, and for a time resided in Gorham, where he 
built the first mills in the town and owned much 
land. In 1744 he was at Anna|)olis, Nova Scotia, 
commanding a company of Indian rangers. This 
fort being threatened by the French and Indians 
in 1745, he was sent to Boston for succor, and 
while there was invited to raise a number of men 
to join the expedition against Louisburg. He was 
appointed lieutenant-colonel in his father's regi- 
ment, 30 Feb., 1745, and was also made captain of 
the second company. Upon the death of his 
father he became colonel, and. returning to An- 
napolis, was placed in command of the Boston 
troops sent to Minas with Col. Arthur Noble. In 
1748 he commanded Gorham 's indeficndent com- 
pany of rangers, stationed in Nova Scotia. He 
visited England in 1749, being sent by Gov. Shirley 
to explain the condition of military affairs in the 
colonies, and, it seems, also to pro.secutc his claims 
for recognition and recompense for expenses in- 
curred in the Louisburg expedition. 

GORRIE, John, inventor, b. in Charleston, 
S. (L'..30ct., 1803; d. in Appalachicola, Fla., 16 June, 
1855. He was educated in his native city, and 
graduated at the College of physicians and sur- 
geons. New York. Removing to Appalachicola in 
1833. he practised his profession there for about 
twenty years. In 1850 tie patented a machine for 
making ice, which is now widely used in the south- 
ern states. Dr. Gorrie is unquestionably the orig- 
inal inventor of the artificial production of ice. 
The first machine known in Europe was exhibited 
in London in the summer of 1862. 

GOTTHEIL, Gnstave, clergyman, b. in Pinne, 
Poland, 28 May, 1827. He is of Jewish parentjige, 
was educated according to the rabbinical code, at- 
tended lectures in the University of Berlin and at 
the institute for Hebrew literature, and in 1855 
became assistant minister to the celebrated Dr. 
Samuel Holdheim, of the Berlin reform temple. 
He was called to Manchester, England, in 1860, 
and to Temple Emanu-El, New York city, in 1873, 
resigning in October, 1899. Dr. Gottheil is a lib- 
eral in his religious opinions, and a leader in the 
reform branch of the Hebrew church. He has 
been active in social and charitable reforms, con- 
tributing many papers on these subjects to the re- 
views, and is the author of " Hvmnsand Anthems" 
(New York, 1887). In August. 1899, his son. Prof. 
Gottheil, made an important address at the Zionist 
congress held in Basle. Switzerland, describing the 
great progress of Zionism in tlie United States. 

GOULD, George, jurist, b. in Litchfield. Conn., 
2 Sept., 1807 ; d. in Troy. N. Y.. 6 Dec. 1868. He 
was the eldest son of Judge James Gould (</. v..) 
He was graduated at Yale in 1827, studied law in 
his father's law-school, and, after his admission to 
the bar in 1830, removed to Trov, where he attained 




eminence in his profession. He was msyor of the 
city in 1852, anil in 185o-'63 was a judge of the 
state supreme court. Judge Gould edited his 
father's work on i)lea<ling, and adapted it to the 
new code of procedure (1860). An interesting me- 
moir of him was printed privately by his widow 
(Troy, 1871), who died in August, 1899. 

tiOCLD, George Jay, capitalist, b. in New 
York, 6 Fel)., 1864. He was privately educated 
and became an assistant of iiis father. Jay Gouhl 
(q. I'.), in his many financial affairs. Since April, 

1888. he has been president of tlie Little Kock and 
Fort Su)ith railway, and since 1893 also president 
of Texas and Pacific railway, of the International 
and Great Northern railway, of the Missouri Pa- 
cific railway, and of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain 
and Southern railway. Since 1892 Mr. Gould has 
also been tlie president of the JIanhattan elevated 
railway of New York. — His brother. Edwin, b. in 
New Vork. 25 Feb., 1866, was grail uated at C't>- 
lumbia, and is president of the St. Louis and 
Sfiuthwestern railway. — Their eldest sister. Helen 
Miller, b. in New York, 20 June, 1868, is iden- 
tified with charitable work in her native city. 
When the war with Spain liegan she gave the 
U. S. government iflOO.OOO; was an active mem- 
ber of the Women's national war relief associa- 
tion, contributing freely to its work ; [)ersonally 
oared for sick and convalescent soldiers at Fort 
Wykoff. Long Island, giving |i35,000 for neeiled 
supplies; and at the Windsor hotel fire, in March, 
1899, opened her house on the F'ifth aveimc for the 
relief of the dying and injured. Miss Gould has 
also been a generous donor to the University of 
the citv of New York and to various charities. 

GRACK. Thomas, K. C. bishop, b. at W.-xford, 
Irelaiiil, 2 Aug., 1H41. He received his education 
at St. Peter's college, Wexford, made his ecclesias- 
tical studies at All Hallows college, Dublin, and 
was ordained a priest, 11 June, 1867. In this year 
he went to California and |)erformed his first paro- 
chial work at KeillilufT. Tehama county, where he 
built tlie convent of mercy, and wils afterward 
pastor for eight years at St. Marysville. For 
twelve years prior to 1876 he was pastor of the 
cathedral at Sacramento, and on the death of 
Bishop Manoguc he was appointed bishop of Sac- 
ramento, being eonsecratctl in June, 1896. uy Arch- 
bishop Hlonlan of San Francisco. 

GR.4UV, Henry Woodfern, journalist, h. in 
Atliens. (ia.. in 18.">1 ; d. in Atlanta. Ga., 23 Dec, 

1889. He studied at the Universities of (Jeorgia 
and Virginia, and entered journalism as corre- 
sfiondent of the " Con.«titution," Atlanta, to which 
he contributed a scries of letters on the resources 
of Georgin. Then he became Georgia corresiH)nil- 
ent of tlie "New York Herald," and In 1870nc es- 
tablished the "Daily Commercial" in Koine, (>a. 
This venture was unsuccessful, as were also liis 
purchase In 1872 of an interest In the Atlanta 
" Herald " and his subsequent estatilishment of the 
"Courier" in that city. In 1880 he bought a 
quarter Interest in the "Constitution." to which 
he contributed a noteworthy series of articles on 
the condition of the south. In 1889 he made, at a 
dinner of the New Kngland sm'iety, an address 
that attracted wide attention by its oratory and Its 
expression of friendly feeling toward the north. 
P^xtracts from this aililress were published in all 
parts of the United States, ami Mr. Grady became 
Known as a representative of the younger and 
more progressive element In the southern states, or 
of what tnen came to U' called "the New South." 
He dieil of pneumonia that was the result of a cold 
contracted in Boston, wliere he hail gone to deliver 

an address on " The Future of the Negro " before 
the Merc^hants' association. His life has been writ- 
ten by James W. Lee (New York, 1896). 

GRANT, Edward Maxwell, civil engineer, b. 
in Dean's Corners, Saratoga, N. Y., 21 Nov., 1839 ; 
d. in Belgrade, Servia, 21 Oct., 1884. He was grad- 
uated at Rensselaer polytechnic institute in 1860. 
adopted the profession of civil engineering, and 
during the civil war he was captain of an engineer 
corps. He engaged in his profession in the south 
In 1865, built all the bridges on the Flast Tennes- 
see and Virginia railroad and the East Tennes- 
see and Georgia railroad, the iron-wrought bridge 
over Alaljama river, which was the only structure 
of its kind then in existence, and a narrow-gauge 
railroad in Alabama. He went abroad in 1874, 
built iron furnaces in England and Finland, and 
at the beginning of the Russo-Turkish war was ap- 
pointed brigailier-general in the Bulgarian army, 
at the same time acting as war correspondent for 
the " London Daily News " from Belgrade, Servia. 
He was subsequently staff correspondent of the 
" liondon Times," and after the battle of Plevna 
crosseil the Balkan mountains in midwinter on 
horseback to Adrianople. Afterward lie returned 
to Belgrade, and was U. S. vice-consul-geneial 
there until his death. His personal Infhience with 
King Milan of Servia enabled him to procure con- 
cessions for developing the country, and he was 
decorated with the cross of the conimandery. 

GRASETT, Henry James, Canadian clergy- 
man, b. In (ribraltar. Spain, in 1808 ; d. in Toron- 
to. Canada. 26 March, 1882. lie went to Canada 
in 1813 with his father. Dr. Henry Grasett. a sur- 
geon in the British navy, was sent to England to 
be educated, and was graduated at Cambridge in 
1834. He then returned to Quebec, and was or- 
dained to the ministry of tlie Church of England. 
He was a.sslstant at St. James's cat hedrnl, Toronto, 
in 183.5-'47, rector In 1847-'67, and dean from the 
latter year until his death. Dean Grasett was 
identifitHl with the low church or evangelical party, 
a vice-president of the p'vangelical association of 
the illocese of Toronto, a promoter of the Protes- 
tant P^plscopal divinity school, president of the 
Upi>er Canada tract society, and a vice-president 
of the Upper Canada Bible siK-iety. From 1847 
till 1875 he was a member of the council of public 
instruction, serving thirteen years as Its chairman, 
and for many years he was chairman of the hlgh- 
schixil Ixiarii of Toronto. As a preacher he was 
concise, clear, and exhaustive, without oratorical 
effort.— His son. Frederick Le Maitre, physi- 
cian, b. in Toronto, 1 April, 1851, was eilucateil at 
London university, Dublin, and Edinburgh, re- 
turneil to Toronto, and established himself as a 
pliyslcian. He is a fellow of tlic Royal college of 
Edinburgh and a member of the Royal college of 
surgeons of England. In 1895 he was elected 
president of tlie Ontario medical association. 

G'R.^TZ, Hynian, founder, b. In Philadelphia, 
23 Sept., 1776: d. there, 29 Jan., 1857. He was 
educated in his native city, of which he liecnme a 
prominent and public-spirited citizen. He was a 
director of the Academy of fine arts and for six- 
teen years its trea-surer. One of the founders, in 
1818. of the Phllailelphia company for insurance on 
livesand granting annuities, of which he was presi- 
dent from 1837 to 1857. Treasurer (1824-'5fl) of 
the .Mlckvch Israel congregation (the oldest Jewish 
synagogue in Philadelphia), and an incorfxirator 
of the Phihulelphia club in 1850. By his will he 
left a " trust," which became available in 1893, "to 
establish a college for the instruction of Jews ic 
Philadelphia." The Gratz college was opened in 




1895 and is now in its fourth year of usefulness. 
Ilyman and liis brother Simon owned tlie house on 
the soutliern corner of Seventh and Market streets, 
in which Jefferson wrote the fii-st draft of tlie Uec- 
hiration of Independence. — His sister, Rebecca, 
philanthropist, b. in Philadelpliia, 4 March, 1781 ; 
d. there, 39 Aug., 1869. She had every advan- 
tage of education 
afforded by the best 
schools and private 
instruction of her 
native city. Her 
parents were strict 
adherents to the 
Jewish faith, and 
most of the daugh- 
ter's energies were 
devoted to the im- 
provement of her 
own people. She 
established in 1835 
the first Hebrew 
Sunday - school in 
the United States, 
and continued its 
active superintend- 
ent until 1864. Miss 
Gratz was one of 
the founders of the 
Jewish Poster home in 1853, and secretary of the 
Hebrew benevolent society from its inception in 
1819 until her death. She was also active in many 
Christian charities ; her name appears on the first 
list of managers of the Philadelphia orphan a.sylum, 
1814, and as secretary of the board from 1817 to 
1865. She is believed to be the original of Rebecca 
of York in " Ivanhoe." She was intimate with 
Washington Irving and the lady to whom he was 
engaged. In 1817 Irving visited Abbotsford, and 
the dignity of character of Rebecca Gratz as de- 
scribed by him impressed Scott, and doubtless in- 
fluenced him in depicting a Jewess, beautiful, noble, 
and true to her faith, sacrificing her affections to 
•' doing good amongst her own people," as Rebecca 
describes her future life to Rowena. There is pre- 
served a beautiful miniature of Miss Gratz by Mal- 
bone (1806) and two portraits by Thomas Sully 
(1831), from one of which, belonging to Mrs. Clay, 
of Kentucky, the aocompanying vignette is copied. 
GUAU, Maurice, operatic manager, b. in 
Brunn, Austria, 20 Dec, 1849, and came to New 
York as a child. He was graduated at the Free 
academy, afterward attending the Columbia col- 
lege law-school, and wastwoyears in a law ofiice. In 
1873 he became manager for Aimee, and since that 
time has continued his career as a successful oper- 
atic and theatrical manager, conducting seasons 
for Patti, Sarah Bernhardt, Sir Henry Irving. Re- 
jane, and other stars. He is now managing direc- 
tor of the Maurice Grau opera company. New 
York, and of the Royal opera-house, London. In 
August, 1899, he was made a knight of the Legion 
of honor, in recognition of his work on behalf of 
French art. The cross was conferred on Mr. Grau 
by special desire of M. Delcasse, the minister of 
foreign affairs, being, with 'a single exception, the 
first instance of the distinction being conferred on 
a foreign impressario, in view of his thirty years' 
valuable service to operatic music in France. 

(jRAYBIEL, Mary, missionary, b. in Williams- 
ville, Erie co., N. Y., 6 Feb., 1846. She was grad- 
uated at the classical institute of her native town 
in 1864, taught for five years, and in 1883 she be- 
came a missionary to Ilindostan under the care of 
the foreign missionary society of the denomination 

of Disciples. She settled in the mission at Bilas- 
pur, and havingsecured an appropriation of IJ4!0(X) 
built a stone and wood church for the use of the 
natives, herself planning and superintending the 
erection of the building. Under her care the mis- 
sion has greatly prospered, and she has established 
a successful native school. 

(jiREEN, Andrew Hasnell, lawyer, b. at Green 
Hill, Worcester,, 6 Oct., 1820. He received 
his education in the schools of his native slate, 
adopting the law as his profession. During his 
career in New York city he has filled many posi- 
tions as trustee and executor of estates, and 
among the latter that of Samuel J. Tilden. He 
was a commissioner of education and president 
of the board in 1856, president of the Central 
park board from 1857 to 1870, and comptroller 
of the city from 1871 to 1876. His entrance upon 
this office was at the time of the Tweed ring's 
peculations. The finances of the city were in con- 
fusion, and the claims urged upon the treasury 
amounted to millions. Against much opposition, 
Mr. Green labored for the solution of the problem 
of the city's finances, which the ring's frauds had 
ushered into existence. He introduced new meth- 
ods of checks into the system of the comptroller's 
office, which are still continued in that depart- 
ment. He may be called the " father of Greater 
New York," for in 1868 he conceived the plan for 
the amalgamation of the cities and towns which, 
in 1897, were constituted the Greater New York, 
and lor which he, in 1899, was presented in the city 
with a gold medal. Mr. Green was the originator 
of the plan which has resulted in the consolidation 
of the Astor, Lenox, and Tilden libraries under one 
head as the New York public library, of which he 
is a trustee. He has published various important 
reports touching on public and educational topics 
relative to New York city. 

GREEN, Edward Rowland Robinson, capi- 
talist, b. in London, England, 23 Aug.. 1868, is tne 
son of Mrs. Hetty H. R. Green, reputed to be 
one of the wealthiest women in the world. The 
family came to New York in 1872, and he received 
his education in the schools of that citv and at 
Fordham college, where he was graduated in 1888. 
He then took up the study of law, and secured his 
admission to the bar. Instead of entering into 
active practice of his profession, he became a clerk 
in the office of the Connecticut river railway. 
Later he became more deeply interested in rail- 
ways, serving as director of several, and as presi- 
dent of the Texas Midland railway, in which he 
has a controlling interest, since 1893. He made 
his home at Terrell, Tex., and took an active 
part in the politics of the state, .serving as chair- 
man of the Republican state central committee. 

GREEN, Henry Woodliiill, jurist, b. in Law- 
renceville, N. J., 30 Sept., 1804 ; d. in Trenton, 19 
Dec, 1876. He was graduated at Princeton in 
1830, studied law in the office of Chief-Justice 
Ewing, was licensed as an attorney, and began the 
practice of his profession in Trenton, where he 
thereafter resided. He was recorder of that city 
tor several years, later reporter of the court of 
chancery, and a member of the legislature in 
1843. In the convention that nominated Clay and 
Frelinghuysen, in 1844. he advocated the latter's 
nomination, and he was a member of the conven- 
tion which framed the present constitution of 
New Jersey. The legislature of 1845 named him, 
with Peter I). 'Vroom and William L. Dayton, a 
commission to revise the laws of the state, the re- 
sult being the revised statutes of 1846, the only 
systematic code ever attempted in New Jersey. 




He became chief justice of the state in 1846. and 
was reappointed in 1853, retaining the office until 
1860, when he became chancellor. Owing to his 
zeal in the discharge of his duties, his health 
failed, and he was obliged to resign the latter 
oflice in 1866, a year before the expiration of his 
term. His opinions as chief justice of the su- 
preme court and as chancellor are characterized 
by thorough research, great force of argument, 
and lucidity of expression. Judge (jreen was 
president of the board of trustees of Princeton 
theoh)gical seminary, and from 1850 until his 
death was a trustee of the college there, of which 
he was a liljeral benefactor. The degree of LL.D. 
was conferred upon him by his ulmu mater. — His 
son, Charles Ewing, b. iii Trenton, !t Oct., 1840; 
d. there, 23 Dec, 18!)". He was graduated from 
Princeton in 1860, was licensed as a lawyer in 

1863, was chancery reporter. 1863-'77, and was 
also register in l>ankruptcy for several years. As 
one of the residuary legatees of his uncle, John 
Cleve Green, he devoted much attention toa<lvanc- 
ing the interests of the Lawrenceville school, 
Princeton theological seminary and university, 
being a trustee of those institutions. In 1892 the 
latter conferred iiiion him the dejin-e of Lti. D. 

GREENHALGE, Frederick Thomas, lawyer, 
b. in Clitheroe. England, 19 July, 1842; d. in Low- 
ell, Mass., 5 .Marcii, 1896. He removed with his 
parents to Lowell in 18.50. and was employed there 
in the mills of the Merrimack print-work.s. He 
entered Harvard in the class of 186!!, but, his fa- 
ther dying, was obliged to leave college to earn his 
support. He. however, receiveil his degree from 
Harvard in 1870. He was admlttcKl to the Mid- 
dlesex bar in 1865, and began public life as a 
member of the common council of Lowell. Later 
he was a memlwr of the school-boanl, and mayor 
of the city, member of the legislature, and, 1889- 
'90, a member of congress, lie was a delegate to 
the national Republican conventions of 1884 and 
1890. and in the latter year chairman of the Re- 
publican state convention. He was elected gov- 
ernor of Masisachu setts successively in 1893, 1894, 
and 189.5, the last time bv 60.000 'majority. See 
his •' Life," bv James K. N'esmilh (Boston, 1897). 

GREER, barid Hiiiiiiiiell, clergyman, b. in 
Wheeling, W. \'a.. 20 March, 1844. He was gradu- 
ated at Washington college, studied theology at the 
Protestant Episcopal seminary at Gambier. Ohio. 
He was ordained priest at Alexandria, Va.. in 1868. 
and became rector of Trinity church, Covington, 
Ky. He went abroad in 1871, and on his return 
was elected rector of (Jracc church. Providence, 
K. I., ami entered uixm his work there on 15 tk'pt., 
1872. Heorganizeil .several missions in connection 
with the parish church, and was deputy from the dio- 
cese to four successive general conventions. He ac- 
cepted the rectorship of .St. ISartholomew's church. 
New York city, in 1888. He is a broad church- 
man, and an eli>r|uent extemporaneous preacher. 

GRIIILEY, Charles Vernon, naval officer, b. 
in Logansport. Ind., 2ii June, 1845: d. in KoW, 
Japan, 4 June. 1898. He was appointed an acting 
midshipnum from Michigan, 26 Sept., 1860, and 
remaineil at the V. S. naval academy until Octolx-r. 
186;J. when he was made an ensign and attached 
to the steamship '"Oneida." of tlie West fiulf 
8i|U8dron, from 186;{ to 186.5. He was on boanl 
his ship in the battle of Mobile bay on 5 Aug., 

1864. At the close of the war, having served in a 
number of engagements, he was altiu-hed to the 
steam-slof>p " Brf>oklvn," of the Hrazilian squad- 
ron, anil later was al>oard the " Kearsarge." He 
was promoted to lieutenant on 21 Feb., 1867, and 





lieutenant-commander one year later and assigned 
to the " Michigan," and afterward to the " Monon- 
gahela." He was executive officer of the flag-ship 
"Trenton," of the European squadron, and was 
made commander in March, 1882. He was for a 
time assigned to 
the torpedo sta- 
tion, and also to 
the Boston navy- 
yard. He was 
made commander 
of the " James- 
town " in 1884, 
and later was in- 
spector of light- 
houses at Buffalo. 
He became cap- 
tain in March. 

1897, and was 
ordered to the 
Asiatic squadron, 
where he was 
assigned to the 
" Olvmpia." On 
Suntiav, 1 Mav, 

1898, the Amer- 
ican fleet attacked and destroyed the entire Span- 
ish squadron in the bay of Manila. .Tust be- 
fore the naval battle began t'apt. Gridley took 
his station in the conning tower, with Com- 
modore Dewey on the bridge. As the flag-ship 
led the fleet into the bay, and when the "Olym- 
pia " drew near the Sjianish ships, Dewey gave the 
order, '■ You may nre, Gridley, when you are 
ready," and the conflict began. At the time of 
the action Capt. Gridley was very ill, but he in- 
sisted on actively commanding )iis ship. Soon 
afterward his malady l>ecame aggravated and he 
obtained sick leave, dying a few <lays after leaving 
the •'(.>lynipia" to return to the United States. His 
widow an(l daughter were present at the Dewey 
celebration in New York in Septend)er, 1899. 

GRIFFIN, Appletnn Prentiss Clark, bibli- 
ographer, b. in West Wilton. N. H.. 24 July, 18.52. 
He was educated in the public schools of his na- 
tive state and under private tutors, and engaged 
in library work, serving as custodian of the slielves 
in the Boston public library from 1871 till 1890. 
and as keefier of books from the latter dale till 
1894. From 1895 till 1897 he was engaged in pre- 
paring a full descriptive catalogue of Imoks from 
Washington's library in the Boston Athenn-um, 
and also examined and reported on the manu- 
scripts of that institution. Since 1897 he has been 
assistant librarian of the library of congress, 
Wa<hingti>n. He has published " Discovery of the 
Mississippi." a bibliographical account (New York. 
1883); "Index of Articles upon American Local 
History in Colle<-tions" (Boston, 1880); "Bib- 
liography of the Historical Publications issued 
bv the N'ew England Slates " (189.5): "BilJiogra- 
pliy of American Historical .Societies" (Washing- 
ton, 1896); " Index of the Literature of American 
liocal History in Collections pul)lished in 1890-'95 " 
(Boston. 1896); and " Catalogue of the Washing- 
ton Collection in the Boston Alhemeum " (1897). 

GRIFFIN, Saninel Paine, navigator, b. in 
Savannah, (ia., in 1826: d. in .\s[iinwall. Panama, 
4 July, 1887. He was graduated at the U. S. naval 
academy at the head of his class, served through- 
out the Mexican war in California waters, and in 
1840 was in the first U. S. arctic expedition lliiil, 
was sent out to search for Sir John traiiklin. He' 
resigned from the navy in 1854. engaged in busi- 
ness in New Orleans, and during the civil war was 




detailed by Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks to collect a 
fleet for the Rio Grande expedition. He soon 
afterward entered the service of tlie Pacific mail 
steamship company, commanding, as their com- 
modore, successive steamers of their fleet till 1883. 
Capt. Griffin was an autliority on ship-building, and 
the author of a code of international fog-signals. 

GRIFFIN, Tliomiis Musgrove, engineer, b. 
in New York city, 38 April, 1833. He was grad- 
uated at Hobart in 1848, and adopted the profes- 
sion of a civil engineer. He assisted in the pre- 
liminary surveys of the Panama railroad, built the 
suspension bridge at Hamilton, Canada, the first 
bridge over the Mississippi river in 1854, and two 
others in 1876 and 1877, and was mechanical en- 
gineer under Admiral Francis H. Gregory dui-ing 
the civil war. He has invented and patented 
several improvements on suspension bridges. 

GRIGrGS, John Williaui, statesman, b. in New- 
ton, Sussex CO., N. J., 10 July, 1849, and was 
graduated from Lafayette college in 1868. He be- 
gan the study of law, and in 1871 removed from 
Newton to Paterson, where he was admitted to 
the bar. Pour years later he was elected to the 
house of assembly from Passaic county. In 1877 
he was again sent to the house of assembly, but 
the following year he was defeated. In 1883 he 
was elected state senator, being re-elected in 1884, 
and again two years later. In the senate of 1886 
he was elected to the presidency. In 1893 Presi- 
dent Harrison gave serious consideration to his 
name in connection with a vacancy on the U. S. 
supreme bench, caused by the death of Justice Jo- 
seph P. Bradley, but the appointment went to an- 
other. In 1895 Mr. Griggs was chosen over Alexan- 
der T. McGill by a plurality of 26,900 votes, being 
the first Republican governor elected in New Jersey 
in twenty-five years. In January, 1898, he became 
attorney-general in President McKinley's cabinet. 

GRINNELL, Frederick, inventor, b. in New 
Bedford, Mass., 14 Aug., 1836. He was graduated 
at Rensselaer polytechiuc institute in 1854, and be- 
came a draughtsman and mechanical engineer. 
He was successively superintendent of the Corliss 
steam-engine works, Providence, R. I., manager 
of the Jersey City locomotive works, and superin- 
tendent of motive power on the Atlantic and Great 
Western railroad, and in 1869 became president, 
manager, and mechanical engineer of tlie Provi- 
dence steam and gas pipe company. He intro- 
duced and has done much to perfect the auto- 
matic fire extinguislier and alarm, taking out 
about forty patents in connection with it. 

GRISWOLD, Alplionso Miner, journalist, b. 
in Westmoreland, N. Y., 26 Jan., 1834; d. in New 
York city, 14 March, 1891. He was educated at 
Hamilton college, and became a journalist in Buf- 
falo, Detroit, Cleveland, and Cincinnati. His (lara- 
graphs and humorous essays, under the pen-name 
of "The Fat Contributor," won him reputation, 
and he spent the years 1865-'78 in the lecture 
field, his topic being " American Antiquities " and 
" Queer Polks." In 1872-'83 he owned the Cincin- 
nati " Satuday Night," a humorous literary jour- 
nal, and after 1886 he was an editor and one of 
the proprietors of " Texas Siftings." 

GROSSCUP, Peter Stenger, jurist, b. in Ash- 
land, Ohio, 15 Feb.. 1852. His lineage on his father's 
side runs back to Holland, on his mother's to Ger- 
many, but all the ancestors have been in this coun- 
try from a period before the Revolution. Ho was 
educated in the schools of Ashland, and in Wit- 
tenberg college, one of the educational institutions 
of the Lutheran church, graduating in 1873 at the 
head of his class. He obtained his degree of bach- 


elor of laws from the Boston law-school. Mr. Gross- 
cup practised law in Ashland, Ohio, from 1874 to 
1883, l)eing city solicitor for six years of that time. 
In 1876 he was a cantlidate of the Republican 
party for congress, but was defeated. Going to 
Chicago in 1883, he entered the law firm heailed 
by Leonard Swett, a former law partner of Abra- 
ham Lincoln. From 
this time he partici- 
pated in many of the 
most important trials 
occurring in the west, 
and attained wide 
reputation as a law- 
yer. He was appoint- 
ed to the U. S. dis- 
trict bench by Presi- 
dent Harrison, 12 
Dec. 1892. Soon after 
he attracted the at- 
tention of the country 
in his decision upon 
the application of the 
government to close 
the World's Colum- 
bian exposition on 
Sundays. His most 
widely known service, 
however, was the issuance of the injunction in the 
Debs riots of 1894, and his charge to the grand 
jury in the midst of the riots. He has in the 
meantime handed down many decisions of wide- 
spread interest to large portions of the public and 
the legal profession generallv. 

GRUBB, Edward Biird, soldier, b. in Bur- 
lington, N. J., 13 Nov., 1841. He was graduated 
at Burlington college in 1860, entered the Natiimal 
army in 1861, and rose from the rank of 3d lieu- 
tenant to that of colonel of New Jersey volunteers, 
receiving the brevet of brigiidier-general of volun- 
teers in 1865. He engaged in the mining and coal 
business after the civil war, in 1877 built and 
0])erated the first coke furnace in Virginia, and 
became president of the Lynchl)urg iron company. 
He was president of the common council of Bur- 
lington, a member of the Loyal legion, and de- 
partment commander of the Grand army of the re- 
public, lie represented tliis country at the court 
of Madrid for four years. Gen. Grubb is the au- 
thor of " What I saw of the Suez Canal," which 
was the first account of that enterprise published 
in this countrv (Pliiladelphia, 1H69). 

GUERNSEY, Rocelliis Slieridan, lawyer, b. 
in Westford, Otsego co., N. Y.. 10 April, 1836. 
He was educated at a district school and by pri- 
vate instruction, has practised law for forty years, 
and has been a member of the bar of the U. .S. su- 
preuie court since 1863. Mr. Guernsey has been 
counsel for the Western Union telegraph com- 
pany and for the Postal telegraph cable com- 
pany for many years. Ilis more important works 
are "Mechanics' Lien Laws," relative to the 
counties of New York. Kings, and Queens (New 
York. 1873) : " IIow Shakespeare's Plays were 
written" (1874); ".Suicide: History of the Penal 
Laws relating to it" (1885); "Corporation Code" 
(1884); "Ecclesiastical Law in Hamlet" (1885): 
" New York Citv and Vicinitv during the War of 
1812-15 " (2 vols. 1889). and " Taxation and its 
Relations to Capital and Labor" (1897). 

GUINEY, Louise Imogen (gui -nv), poet, b. in 
Boston, Mass., 7 Jan.. 1861. Her father. Patrick 
R. Guiney, served in. the Nat ional army during the 
civil war, was brevetted brigadier-general of volun- 
teers in 1864, and died in 1877 from the effects of 





a wound that he received in the battle of the 
Wilderness. Louise was grailuated at Elrahurst 
aemleiuy. Providence, R. I., in 1879, and early con- 
tributed verses to the newspapers. Her publica- 
tions are "Songs at the Start" (Boston, 1844); 
"Goose-Quill Papers " (1885) ;" The White Sail, 
and other Poems (1887) ; " Brownies and Bogles " 
(1888) : " Monsieur Henry " (New York, 1892) ; " A 
Koadside Harp" (Boston, 1893); "A Little Eng- 
lish Gallery" (New York, 1894); ''Lovers' Saint 
Ruth's" (Boston, 1895); "Patrines" (1897); and 
"The Martyr's Idvl, and Shorter Poeuis " (1899). 
Miss Guiney has also edited Thomas William Par- 
son's translation of Dante (Boston, 1893) and James 
Clarence Mangan's poems (1897). 

tlUNN, Frederick William, educator, b. in 
Washington, Litchfield co., Conn.. 4 Oct., 1816; d. 
there, 10 Aug., 1881. He was graduated at Yale 
in ls;J7, taught in New Preston, Conn., and subse- 
quently in Towanda, Pu.. with Orville H. Piatt. In 
18.'K) he established in Washington, Conn., the boy's 
boarding-school that is now known as the Gunnery. 
His unique methods and the homelike character of 
the admirable sch(X)l soon won it a wide reputa- 
tion, and he continued in its charge till his death. 
The school is described in Josiah G. Holland's 
novel entitled " Arthur Bonniciist le " as the " Bird's 
Nest," and also in William Hamilton Gibson's 
" .Snug Hamlet." See also " The Master of the 
Gunnery " (New York, 1884). 

Gt'NSAt'LUS, Frank Wakely, clergyman, b. ] 
at Chesterville, Ohio, 1 Jan., 1850, and w^as gnulu- , 
ated at the Wesleyan university of that stat« in ■ 
June, 1875. He filled the pulpits of Congreea- ! 
tional churches in Columbus, Ohio, XewtcmviTle, 
Mass., Baltimore, and Chicago, where he was pas- 
tor of Plymouth church for ten years, resigning in 
1897, owing to impaired health, accepting a call to 
Central church in March, 1899. He is an eloquent 
and popular preacher, has been president of Ar- 
mour institute of technology since 1893, and is the 
author of "The Transfiguration of ("" (Bos- 
ton. 1885); "Monk and Knight: An Historical 
Studv in Fiction" (Chicjtgo, 1891); " Phidias, and 
other Poems " (1893); " Songs of Night and Day " 
(1890); "Gladstone: The Man and his Work" 
(1898) ; " Metamorphosis of a Creed," " November 

at Eastwood," "Loose Leaves of Song," and " The 
Man of Galilee" (1899). 

tiUTIERREZ, Rafael Antonio (goo-te-a-reth), 
president of San Salvador, b. in San Salvador, 26 
Jan., 1854. He devoted himself to military life 
and to agricultural pursuits, di.stinguishing himself 
as a soldier, and is now a general. He has acted 
an important part in politics, and suffered banish- 
ment ni Guatemala. When in 1894 the uprising 
against President Carlos Ezeta took place, Gutie- 
rrez was one of the lemiere. and after the triumph 
was elected president in 1894, which place he still 
holds. He lias endeavored to give a solution to 
the economical problems of his country, to im- 
prove the different branches of the administra- 
tion, and aided in the recent formation of the " Re- 
pi'iblica Mayor de Centro Ani'irica," of which San 
Salvador c<mstitutes a part. 

GZOWSKI. Sir Casimlr Stanislaus, patriot, 
b. in St. Petersburg. 5 March, 1813; d. in Toronto, 
Canada, 24 Aug., 1898. He was the son of Count 
Gzowski, a Polish nobleman, who was an officer in 
the imjjerial guard. The son was graduated from 
the military engineering college a' Kremnitz. and 
entered the Itiissian army. When the disastrous 
rebellion against the tyranny of Constantine broke 
out young Gzowski, with the patriotism of his race, 
threw in his lot with the insurgents. He was pres- 
ent at the Polish triumph at Warsaw, and took 
part in the engagements which followed. He was 
several times wounded, and when the final catas- 
trophe came the division to which he was attached 
surrendered, the officers were imprisoned for sev- 
eral months, and were afterward exiled to the 
United States. After four years in this country, 
he moved to Toronto, where he resided up to the 
time of his death. Sir Casimir was the first presi- 
dent of the Society of Canailian civil engineers, 
and was also the first chairman of the Niagara Falls 
tiark commission. A fine bronze bust of him has 
been placed in Queen Victoria park, near Table 
rock. He also won considerable reputation in 
building the international bridge over the Niagara 
river. Sir Casimir Gzowski, who was among the 
most prominent men of Canada, was knighted in 
1875, in recognition of " valuable services ren- 
dered to the Dominion of Canada." 





HADDOCK, George Channiiig, clergyman, b. 
in Watertown, N. Y., 33 Jan., 18ii2; d. in Sioux 
City, Iowa, 3 Aug., 1886. Ho was partially edu- 
cated at Black river institute in his native town, 
learned the printer's trade, and was connected with 
several Republican newspa[)ers in Wisconsin. He 
was licensed to preach in the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and from 1860 until 1882 was actively en- 
gaged in temperance work. He was transferred 
to the Iowa conference in 1882, and while en- 
deavoring to enforce the prohibition laws of that 
state was assassinated in Sioux City. He pub- 
lished several fugitive poems that became poi)u- 
lar, including " Autumn Leaves," " The Skeleton 
Guest," and " The Cross of Gold." See his " Life," 
by his son (New York, 1887). 

HAGGART, John Graham, Canadian states- 
man, b. in Perth, Ontario, 14 Nov., 1836. He be- 
came a mill-owner, was mayor of Perth for several 
years, an unsuccessful candidate for parliament in 
1867 and 1869, was chosen to that office as a Lib- 
eral Conservative in 1872, and afterward served for 
many years by re-election. In July, 1888, he be- 
came postmaster-general, and in January, 1892, he 
was transferred to the department of railways and 
canals, which he held for four yeare. 

HAGOOD, Johnson, soldier, b. at Barnwell, 
S. C, 21 Feb., 1829 ; d. there, 4 Jan., 1898. He was 
educated at the South Carolina military academy, 
where he graduated in 1847. He was elected mas- 
ter in equity, which he held until the civil war, 
when he raiseil the 1st South Carolina volunteers, 
of which he was elected colonel. He was appointed 
brigadier-general in the Confederate army in May, 
1862. On liis appointment he wiis assigned to duty 
on the coast of South Carolina, and was employed 
in the siege of Charleston against Gen. Gillmore 
in 1863, and was in command of battery Wagner. 
He was ordered to Virginia in 1804. He was en- 
gaged at Walthall junction and Swift creek against 
Gen. Butler, and subsequently under Beauregard 
was engaged in the battle of Drury's BlulT and in 
the operations resulting in confining Gen. Butler 
to his fortified base in Bermuda Hundred. He 
was subsequently detached with Hoke's division, 
to which his brigade had been assigned, to Lee's 
army, reaching it in time to partici])ate in the bat- 
tle of Cold Harbor. Returning to Gen. Beaure- 
gard's command, he was engage<i in the three days' 
battle preceding the siege of Petersburg, his bri- 
gade serving in the trenches during the siege which 
followed. He was afterward in the battle of Wel- 
don Road and in the operations north of the James 
following the fall of Fort Harrison. In December, 
1864, he joined Gen. Bragg in North Carolina and 
was engaged at Fort Fisher, commanding the rear 
guard of Bragg's army, and in all operations follow- 
ing and iricluclingthe battle of Bentonville. After 
the war he was president of the South (larolina 
state agricultural societyand chairman of the board 
of visitors of the South Carolina military academy. 

HAID, Leo, K. C. bishop, b. in Latrobe, West- 
moreland CO., Pa., 14 July, 1849. He was edu- 
cated at the Benedictine abbey of St. Vincent in 
his native county, entered the Benedictine novi- 
tiate in 1872, became a profes.sed Benedictine and 
was ordained a priest in 1872. He then became 
chaplain and a i)rofessor at St. Vincent's abbey, 
and in June, 1885, he was elected abbot of St. 
Mary Hel[) abbey, and consecrated as a mitred ab- 
bot in November. In this position he extended 

his labors beyond the monastery and among the 
negroes, made many converts, erecting a new col- 
lege and the church and school of St, Benedict 
for the colored people of the vicinity. North 
C'arolina having been erected into a vicariate 
apostolic by Pius IX., he appointed Abbot Haid 
vicar apostolic and titular bishop of Mes.sene in 
1888. He still fills the offices of abbot of the 
abbey and vicar apostolic of North Carolina. 

HALE, Irving, soldier, b. in North Bloomfield, 
N. Y., 28 Aug., 1861, and was graduated at the 
U. S. military academy, at the head of his class, 
in June, 1884. Resigning his commission in the 
army in 1890, he entered the service of the General 
electric company, and was their manager in Colo- 
rado when the war with Spain began. He went 
to the Philippine islands as colonel of the 1st 
regiment Colorado volunteers, and after the' cap- 
ture of Manila, for his distinguished services, he 
was promoted to brigadier-general by Presi<ient 
McKinley, and jilaced m command of the 2d bri- 
gade. In August, 1899, he returned to the LTnited 
States, and has since resigned his commission, and 
resumed his Ijusiness in Colorado. 

HALE, WilHani Thomas, journalist, b. in 
Liberty, Tenn., 1 Feb., 1857, receiving an academ- 
ic education in his native town. He studied law, 
was admitted to the bar, and practised his profes- 
sion from 1880 until 1893, since which time he has 
been connected with the " Commercial Appeal " of 
Memphis, the "Post-Dispatch" of St. Louis, the 
'■ American" of Nashville, and the "Sentinel" of 
Knoxville. Mr. Hale, who has published many 
popular poems, is the author of " Divorce and 
Land Laws of Teimessee " (Liberty, 1889) ; " Show- 
ers and Sunshine," a volume of poems (Memphis, 
1896); "The Backwoods Trail: Stories of the In- 
dians and Pioneers" (Nashville, 1899); and "An 
Autumn Lane, and other Poems" (1899). 

HALIBURTON, Robert Grant, Canadian au- 
thor, b. in New Windsor. Nova Scotia. 3 June, 1831. 
He is a son of Judge Ilaliburton ("Sam Slick"), 
was graduated at King's college, and admitted to the 
bar, soon enjoying an extensive practice in Halifax. 
In 1877 he removed to Ottawa, where hccontinues 
his law practice. Mr. Ilaliburton has been a fre- 
quent contributor to scientific periodicals, also to 
" Blackwood's Magazine " and the " North Amer- 
ican Keview," and is a member of the American 
association for the advancement of science and 
other kindred societies. — His brother, Sir Arthur 
Laurence, b. in Windsor, -26 .Sept., 1832, entered 
the British army, and was permanent under-secre- 
tary of war, from which he retired, and was 
knighted in 1897, during the queen's jubilee. 

HALL, Abraham Oakey, lawyer, b. in Albany 
N. Y., 26 July, 1826 (while liis mother was there 
on a visit); d. in New York city, 7 Oct., 1898. 
His father died when he was three years old ; by 
the efforts of his mother, and by writing for the 
New York city pajiers, he managed to work his 
way through New York university, where he was 
graduated in 1844. He attended the Harvard law- 
school for one term, ai<led by his uncle, Samuel 
W. Oakey, a New Orleans merchant ; on his re- 
turn to New York he entered an office, but soon 
went to New Orleans and studied with Thomas 
and John Slidell, He returned to New York, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1848, All this time he 
wrote for the press, and he continued to do so 
during many succeeding years. He won success 





at the bar, arguing before the supreme court be- 
fore he was twenty-four years of age. With Na- 
thaniel B. Blunt and Aaron J. Vanderpoel he orig- 
inated a prominent New York law firm. Blunt 
WHS elected district attorney in 1830, selecting 
Hall as his assistant. When Blunt died in 1854, 
Hall resigned, but was elected to the |)csition at 
the ensuing election. It is said that lie argued 
two hundred cases as district attorney : he also 
contributed many reformatory statutes applicable 
to the city. He became mayor in 1869, and was 
re-elected in 1870. It was charged at the time, 
and later stated in Brvce's " American Common- 
wealth," that he had criminal relations with the 
Tweed ring ; the courts, however, exonerated him, 
and his dying in poverty would seem to disprove 
the charge. After his retirement he appeared on 
the stage in 1875 in "The t'rucible," a play writ- 
ten by himself, which was not a success. He re- 
turned to journalism, and was for a time city 
editor of the " World." lie then gave up his 
position, went abroad, and practised at the Kng- 
lish bar. Mr. Hall also took charge of the Lon- 
don bureau of the " New York Herald " until 1880. 
He. returned to this country in 1891, and resumed 
literary pursuits. His writitigs include "The 
Manhattaner in New Orleans" (New York, 1851); 
"Old Whitev's Christmas Trot" (1857); "The 
Congressman's Christinas Dream" (1870); "Bal- 
lads" (1880): and an exhaustive " History of the 
Tweeil Ring," left in manuscript. 

HALU Anne, artist, b. in I'omfret. Conn., 26 
Jlay, 1792; d, in New York city, 11 Dec, 1863. 
She was the sister of Jonathan I'rescott Hall 
(q. v.). She took some les-sons in applying colors 
to ivory from Samuel King, who taught Wash- 
ington -Mlston, and received instruction in oil- 
painting from .Alexander Uoliertson, in New York, 
an<l John Trumbull, but soon turned her entire 
attention to miniature [tainting, in which she be- 
came celebrated. She was elected a meml>er of the 
National academy of design, where she occasionally 
exhibited. Her miniature portrait of Garaniia 
Mohallii, the Greek girl, has lieen considered her 
masterpiece, and has been engraved rei*ate<lly. 
Uer beautiful picture of Dr. .lohii W. Francis's 
son John has been long engraved under the name 
of " Ol>eron." Her miniatures are scattered widely 
over the country, but many of the Iwst are in the 
possession of her relatives in New York. 

H.ALU Arthur Crawshuy AlHston, bishop, 
P. K. church, b. in Binfield, Berkshire co., Kng- 
laiid, 12 .\pril, 1847. He was educated at Christ 
Church, Oxford, receiving his degrees from there, 
of B. A. in 18(59, .M. A. in 1872, and D. D. in 189:t. 
He has l)een a licensed preacher in the diocese of 
Oxford. as a meml>cr of the society of St. John the 
Kvungelist. In 1874 he was assistant minister in 
the (;hurch of the Advent, Boston, becoming in 
1882 minister of the mission church of St. John 
the Kvangelist, and so continuing until 18itl. The 
diweseol Vermont elected Dr. Hall itsthird bishop, 
and he was consecrated in February, 1894. Dr. 
Hall has written many religious tracts and books, 
the latest being the Biililwin lecture (1897) entitled 
" Christ's Temptation and Ours," "The Virgin 
Mother," " The Church's Dis<'ipline concerning 
Marriage and Divorce," anil n devotional exiwisi- 
tion of the Epistle to the Hebrews entitled " Con- 

cerning Christ and the Church." 

Ashlield. May. 1845. lie was graduated 


franvUlc Stanley, psychologist, b. in 

at Williams in 1867, was professor of jisychology 
at Antioch ojllege, Ohio, in 1872-'6. studied in 
Berlin, Bonn, Heidelberg, and liCipsic, and was 

lecturer on psychology at Harvanl in 1876 and 
again in 1881-2, becoming professor of that branch 
at Johns Hopkins university in 1882. In 1888 he 
atrcepted the presidency of C5lark university. Har- 
vard gave him the degree of Ph. I), in 1876. 
Prof. Hall has written extensively for periodicals 
on psychological and educational topics, and is 
editor of the " American Journal of Psychology," 
and the author of " Aspects of German Culture" 
(Boston, 1881), and, with John M. Mansfield, 
"Hints toward a Select and Descriptive Bibliog- 
raphy of Education " (1886). 

HALL. James A., soldier, b. in Jefferson, Me., 
10 Aug., 1835; d. on a train near Syracuse, N. Y., 
10 June, 1893. He was educated at the Warren 
academy, in his native state. Abandoning the 
dry-goods business in which he had been engaged, 
he entereil the army in November, 1861. as 1st 
lieutenant of the 2d Maine battery, and rose to the 
rank of brevet brigadier-general, his services being 
especially conspicuous at Gettysburg, where he 
was wounded an<l had his horse shot under hiin. 
Gen. Hall was mustered out, 22 July, 1865, and in 
the following month was assigned as colonel to 
the 2d regiment of Hancock's corps, from which 
he was mustered out at Savannah, Ga., in March, 
1866. He was for thirteen years after the war 
colle<-t(>r of customs at Waldoboro', Me. 

HALL, John, clergyman, b. in Market Hill, 
County .Armagh, 31 July, 1829; d. in Bangor, 
County Down. 17 Sept., 1898. He was graduated 
at Belfast college, and was licensed to preach in 
1849. Three years he served as a missionary at 
Camlin, when he was 
calleil lothe First church, 
Armagh, and in 1858 
was transferred to the 
church of St. Mary's ab- 
bey, now Hut land square, 
Dublin. In the oHice of 
commissioner of educa- 
tion, to which he was 
shortly afterward ap- 
pointed, he discharged 
liis arduous duties with 
unflaggingxeal and with- 
out compensation. In 
1867 Dr. Hall was chosen 
delegate from the gener- 
al as.xeinblv in Ireland to 
the old-8cliool assembly 
then in .>icssi(in in Cincinnati, where he made strong 
appeals in behalf of church unity, and it is believed 
hastened the desired union. At the ncw-sclinol a.s- 
sembly in Koehcster he was equally successful. He 
preached in the Fifth avenue church in June, in 
the following month a call was sent to him, and in 
Oclolier he returned to New York, entering upon 
his duties on the first .Sunday of the following 
month. The church soon became too small for 
the rapidly increasing congregation, and the pres- 
ent imposing edifice was built and generally 
known as Dr. Hall's church. During his ministry 
of more than three ileeades it became the most 
important Presbyterian parish in the country 
and justly celebrated for its wiile-spread charity. 
While neither a great orator nor a profound 
scholar, but a simple, earnest, conservative Chris- 
tian pastor, he wfus recognized as one of the lead- 
ing ministers of his denomination. In 1875 Dr. 
Hall delivered the Lyman Beecher cour.'^ of lec- 
tures at Yale, and in 1882 he became chancellor 
of the University of the city of New York. His 
death occurred at his sister's residence during his 
annual visit to Ireland, and his burial was in 





Woodlawn cemetery, after a funeral service held 
in the Fifth avenue church. He became in 1859 
the editor and owner of " The Evangelical Witness," 
and was tlie author of " Family Prayers for Four 
Weeks " (New York, 1868) ; " Papers for Home 
Reading" (1871); "Familiar Talks to Boys" 
(1873) ; " God's Word through Preaching " (1875) ; 
" Poundation-Stones for Young Builders " (1880) ; 
"A Christian Home and how to maintain it" 
(1883); and, in conjunction with George H.Stuart, 
" American Evangelists " (1875). 

HALLOCK, Charles, journalist, b. in New 
York city, 13 March, 1834. lie is the son of Ge- 
rard Hailock {q. !•.). Studied at Yale in 1850-'l, 
and at Amherst in 1851-'2. receiving his degree 
from the latter in 1871. He was associate editor 
and proprietor of the New York "Journal of Com- 
merce" from 1855 till 1862, and founder and pro- 
prietor of " Forest and Stream " from 1873 till 
1880. Mr. Hailock was an incorporator and di- 
rector of the Flushing and Queens county bank, 
New York, and a money broker and commission 
merchant in St. John and Halifax for several years. 
His business ventures have included sunflower cul- 
ture for the oil product, the restoration of aban- 
doned New England farms, sheep-culture in the 
northwest on Indian model farms, a farm colony 
for sportsmen in Minnesota, the development of 
Alaska, the substitution of porous terra-cotta for 
adobe and titipati in Mexico, a crematory for burn- 
ing garbage, a smoke-consumer and coal-saver, and 
many other economic schemes. He has published 
" Life of Stonewall Jackson " (Augusta, Ga., 1863) ; 
" The Pishing Tourist " (New York, 1873) ; " Cauip 
Life in Florida" (1875); "The Sportsman's Gazet- 
teer " (1877) ; " Our New Alaska " (1886) ; and " The 
Salmon Fisher" (New York, 1890). 

HAMILTON, Archibald, naval officer, b. in 
South Carolina in 1793; d. at sea, 15 Jan.. 1815. 
He was the son of Paul Hamilton {q. v.). He en- 
tered the navy as midshipman, 18 May, 1809, and 
took part in the action between the "United States" 
and the " JIacedonian," which resulted in the cap- 
ture of the latter, and was promoted lieutenant for 
his gallantry on that occasion, 24 July, 1813. Being 
commissioned by Commodore Decatur to take the 
flag of the captured frigate and present it to Presi- 
dent Madison, young Hamilton proceeded to the 
national capital, but on liis arrival found that the 
president, with his entire cabinet, liad gone to a 
military ball. Following them and gaining ad- 
mission to the ballroom, he crossed to where Mi-s. 
Madison was standing and laid tlie captured trophy 
at her feet. Being a very handsome youth, he at 
once became for the ladies the hero of the evening. 
Having a few days' leave of absence, he spent them 
in Washington, and improved the time by becom- 
ing engaged to Miss Maria Mayo, one of the beau- 
ties of the day. Returning to his sliip, Hamilton 
continued to share the fortunes of lier commander 
until the action in January, 1815, when the " I'resi- 
dent," to whicli Commodore Decatur had trans- 
ferred his flag, was captured by tlie British sciuad- 
ron. During the engagement Hamilton, who was 
acting as fourth lieutenant, fell mortally wounded. 
Miss Mayo was inconsolable for the loss of her lover, 
but subsequently married Gen. Winfield Scott. 

HAMILTON', Edward John, clergyman, b. in 
Belfast, Ireland, 29 Nov., 1834. He came to this 
country at an early age, and was graduated at 
Hanover college and at Princeton theological sem- 
inary in 1858. He was pastor of Presbyterian 
churches in Oyster Bay, L. I., and elsewhere ; dur- 
ing the civil war was chaplain in the National 
army for three years, was professor of mental phi- 

losophy at Hanover college in 1868-'79, and of 
logic, ethics, and political science at Princeton 
in 1882. From 1883 to 1891 he filled the chair of 
intellectual science at Hamilton college, and since 
1895 has been professor of philosophy at the State 
university of Washington. Wabash college, Indi- 
ana, gave him the degree of D. D. Dr. Hamilton 
has published a " New Analysis in Fundamental 
Morals " (New York, 1872) ; " The Human Mind " 
(1883) ; and " Mental Science " (1886). 

HAMILTON, Otho, soldier, b. in Edinburgh, 
Scotland, about 1700; d. in Waterford, Ireland, 7 
Feb., 1770. His father, Capt. Thomas Hamilton, 
third son of Dr. John Hamilton, of Muirhouse, 
Midlothian, and Anne, granddaughter of Lord 
Blphinstone. served with reputation in the Swedish 
army, and later was a well-known citizen of Edin- 
burgh. Otho in early life entered the army, and in 
1727 was a lieutenant in the 40th regiment, then 
stationed at Annapolis Royal, in Nova Scotia. On 
28 July, 1727, he was appointed to act as provin- 
cial secretai'y. or secretary of the council, Capt. 
Lawrence Ai'rastrong being lieutenant-governor. 
On 9 Oct., 1731, he was appointed a member of the 
council. Major Mascarene's absence in Boston mak- 
ing a vacancy. In 1736 he was again acting sec- 
retary, and in that year he was one of several that 
received a grant of 50,000 acres of land on the 
south side of the basin of Minas. In 1740 he was 
one of the five men that were appointed from 
Nova Scotia by King George II. to settle the boun- 
daries between the province of JIassachusetts Bay 
and the colony of Kliode Island, but being then on 
military duty at Canso he did not act. In Jlay, 
1764, he was in command of the troops in Nova 
Scotia with the rank of major, and was stationed 
at Halifa.ic. Later he is said to have been military 
governor of Placentia, in Newfoundland. He mar- 
ried in America and had three children. 

HANI), Daiiipl, philanthropist, b. in Madison, 
Conn., 16 July. 1801 ; d. in Guilford, Conn., 17 Dec, 
1891. He was a merchant in Augusta. Ga., and 
Charleston, S. C, wliere he accumulated a fortune. 
After the civil war he retired and returned to the 
north, where he became known as a philanthropist, 
his first gift being a high-school building to his na- 
tive town. In 1888 he gave to the American mis- 
sionary association more than !j-1.000,000, to be 
held in trust and known as the Daniel Hand edu- 
cational fund for 

colored people, to -, ~7-v, 

be used in the '" ^<^ 

"states in which 
slaverv was recog- 
nized " in 1861." 
For many years he 
lived in Guilford. 

HANDY, Moses 
Piiriiell, journal- 
ist, b. in Missouri, 
26 May, 1847; d. 
in Augusta, Ga., 8 
Jan., 1898. His 
father was a Pres- 
byterian minister 
of Virginia, and it 
was while, with his 
wife, he was tem- 
porarily in the 
west that their son 
was born there. 
Moses received a 
little education, 
and in 1862 entered the Confederate army, acting as 
a special courier. After the war he entered upon a 




journalistic career, being connected with various 
papers, including the editorship of the " Richmond 
Inquirer," the " Philadelphia Press," and the Chi- 
cago " Times-Herald." He was commissioner from 
Virginia to the Centennial exhibition, chief of the 
department of publicity and promotion of the Co- 
lumbian exposition, and in Julv, 1897, President 
McKinley appointed him sf)ecial commissioner of 
the I'nited States for the Paris exposition of 1900. 
Major Handy went to France, and was successful in 
his main object of obtaining a large additional grant 
of space besides that alrea*ly allotted to American 
exhibits. He returned to this country with fail- 
ing health in the latter part of Octoljer, 1897. 

H.\NXA, Marcus Alonzo, .senator, b. in New 
L)sl)on (now Lisbon). Columbia co., Ohio, 24 Sept., 
1837. He was graduated at the Western Reserve 
college, and entered the wholesale house of which 
his father was the senior partner. On his death, 
in 1862, the son represented his interest in the 
Brm for five years. He then formed a partnershij) 
in the iron and coal busincs.s. which is still carried 
on. Mr. Ilanna is also connected with the ship- 
ping on the lakes, and with many important rail- 
way and other corporations. He was a delegate 
to the national Republican conventions of 1884, 
1888, and 1896, wa-s elected chairman of the latter 
organization in 1890, and still holds that position. 
In March. 18!)", he was appointed by Gov. Ilush- 
nell to fill the vacancy in the U. S. senate caused 
by John .Sherman's acceptance of the position of 
.sieeretary of slate in McKiidey's cabinet. The 
senator was elected by the Ohio legislature with 
a small niajoritr, to succeed himself, for the term 
of six years, ending in March, 1903. 

HASSBROIOH. Henry Clay, senator, b. in 
Pniirie du Uocher, III.. 30 Jan., 1848; received a 
cofnmon-schiK)l educalion, and in 1867 removed 
with his family to California. There he learned 
the triwle of a printer, and later published a daily 
paper in San Jose, and was aftcrwar<l connected 
with the .San Francisco " (Chronicle." In 1882 he 
removed to the territory of Dakota, engaging in 
joutiialism and becoming prominent in politics. 
He was a delegate to the Chicago convention of 
1888, and w^as elected as a Republican to the Slst 
congress. In 1891 Mr. Hansbroiigh was elected 
to the V. S. senate, to suceee<l Gilbert A. Pierce. 
His term of service will expire in March, 190:5. 

HANSON, Bogrer Weiglitinan, soldier, b. in 
Clark county, Ky., 27 -Aug.. 1827: d. near Mur- 
freesboro", Tenn., 2 Jan., 18li3. He was 1st lieu- 
tenant in Capt. John S. William's com|>any of 
Kentucky volunteers in the Mexican war. lie was 
a member of the general a-ssembly from Fayette 
county. Ky., in 18.5.'). was an elector on the Fill- 
more ticket, and in 1857 candidate of what was 
known as the Know-Nothing party for coTigres,s, 
bnt was ilefeateil bv James II. Clav, son of Ilenrv 
Clay. In 186f) he "canvas.wl Kentucky for Hell 
and Everett. lie was apfxiinted colonel of the 2d 
Kentucky regiment in the Confederate serviee, 2 
Sept.. 18(61, and promoted briga<lier-general, 31 
De<;., 1862. lie was killed at the battle of Mur- 
freesboro' or Stone's river. 

HARItY, l^e (!(>hon, author, b. in Charleston, 
S. C, 7 .Sept.. 1849. anil was educated at home by 
her father, a graduate of Gla-sgow university, and 
by her aunt, an accomplished linguist. Since her 
marriage to Mr. Ilarby she has resided chiefly in 
<jalveslon and New York city, devoting her leisure 
to writing and contributing stories and poems, also 
hist'irical articles to the leading nnigazines. Mrs. 
Harby has read pa|iers before the American his- 
torical association, of which she is a member, and 

she is also a member of the New York historical 
society, the Texas historical society, and the Amer- 
ican and British societies of authors. 

H ARGER. Oscar (har-jer), paIa>ontologist, b. in 
Oxford, Conn., 12 Jan., 1843; d. in New Haven, 
Conn., 6 Nov., 1887. He was graduated at Yale 
in 1868, and during his college course showed a 
marked fondness for mathematical studies. His 
attention had also been directed to botany, in 
which he was unusually proficient, and on gradua- 
tion he was led to pursue zoological studies under 
Addison E. Verrill. He showed special aptitude 
for original work, and had begun important in- 
vestigations when in 1870 he was ajipointed as- 
sistant in pahcontology at Yale, uiiiler Othniel C. 
Marsh. Besides membership in various scientific 
societies, he was in 1875-'7 secretary of the Con- 
necticut academy of arts and sciences. The 
greater part of his time was given to work in ver- 
tebrate pala-ontology, but he also did much in 
invertebrate zoology, publishing papers on inyria- 
pods, a fossil arachnid, isopods, and the results of 
dredging exix-ditions. His last work was a report 
on the ■• Marine Isopoda of New England and Ad- 
jacent Waters " (1880) and one on "The Isopmla 
of the Blake Dredgings on the Eastern Coast of 
the United .States " (1883). 

HARMON, John Haiiclictt, editor, b. in Port- 
age, Ohio, 21 June, 1819: d. in Detroit, Mich., 6 
Aug., 1888. His father was one of the first settlers 
in Portage county. The s<m learned the printer's 
trade, edited a newspaper in Cuyahoga P'alls, Ohio, 
in 1836, removed to Detroit, entered the " Free 
Press " printing office, and became a proprietor of 
that journal, lie took an active part in 1837 in 
aid of the Canadian insurgents, and was in several 
skirmishes. He ser\ed several terms in the city 
council, became mayor of Detroit in 1852, was col- 
lector of the port for several years, and territorial 
governor of Minnesota in 1858-'9. Mr. Harmon 
was an active Democrat and skilful politician, and 
was a delegate to all the national conventions of 
his i)artv from 1840 till 1884. 

HARMON, Judsoil, lawyer, b. in Newtown, 
Hamilton co., Ohio, 3 Feb., 1846. He was edu- 
cated at Denison university, and stuilied jurispru- 
dence at the law-school of his native city. gra<iuat- 
ing in 1869. He joined the Republican .seceders 
who sujiported Horace Greeley for the presidency. 
In 1876 he was a caiulidate for the odicc of judge 
of the court of common pleas in Cincinnati, and 
he was declared elected, but the legislature un- 
seated him in favor of Gen. Cox. A few years 
later Mr. Harmon was elected judge of the suj)e- 
rior court. I)ut he resigned in 1887 in order to re- 
sume practice. He was nominated and confirmed 
in 1891 as attorney-general to succeed Mr. Richard 
Olney, who was advanced to the state department 
on the death of Secretary Gresham. 

HARRIET, mother superior, b. in Charleston, 
S. C, 7 May, 1823; <1. in Peekskill, N. Y., 5 April, 
1896. Her name to the world was Harriet Starr 
Cannon, being a member of a well-known family, 
and she was highly educated. She early became 
imbued with a desire to devote her life to chari- 
table work, and coming to New York joined St. 
liuke's hospital, then recently founded by Dr. 
Muhlenberg. For four years "she was a member 
of the order of In 1865 .she founded 
the community of St. Mary, a religious society of 
the Protestant Episcopal church, purchasing land 
at Peekskill and estal)lishing a .school known as 
St. Gabriel, under the sanction of Bishop Horatio 
Potter. From this luideus grew, under Mother 
Harriet's wise administration, the large Anglican 




order of St. Mary, now established in four dioceses 
with some six hundred members and associates, 
and includine; hospitals, schools, and reformatories. 
Mother Harriet was buried in the private cemetery 
of the sisterhood. See '• Harriet Starr Cannon, 
First Mother Superior of the Sisterhood of St. 
Mary, a Brief Memoir by Morgan Dix, Sometime 
Pastor of the Community" (New York, ISflti). 

HARRIS, Cicero Richardson, A. M. E. Zion 
bishop, b. in Fayetteville, N. C 25 Aug.. 1844. He 
is of African descent, went with liis family to Ohio 
in 1850, and was educated in the Central high- 
school of Cleveland. He returned to his native 
place as a teacher in 18()6, became jiriiicipal of Zion 
Wesley institute (now Livingstone college) in 1880, 
and was professor of mathematics there in 18S3-'8. 
He was general secretary of the African Methodist 
Episcopal Zion church in 1880-'4, and its general 
steward from 1880 till 1888, when he became a 
bishop. — His elder brother, John Dennis, became 
a physician, was surgeon in the U. S. freedman's 
hospital in Washington, and has written "Summer 
on the Borders of tlie Caribbean." 

HARRIS, iieorge Francis, contractor, b. in 
Chesterfield, Mass., 7 March, 1818; d. in Clayton, 
Ala., 18 March, 1888. He was one of the earliest 
railway contractors in this country, having built 
the Vermont and Massachusetts railroad in 1846 
and the Great Western railroad of Cnna<la in 1853- 
'3. From 1876 till his death resided in New York 
city, being connected with various railroad enter- 
prises. He invented the Harris track-laying ma- 
chine in 1880, and subsequently devoted his atten- 
tion to that subject. In 1887 one-fifth of all the 
railway track in the United States was laid by the 
machine that is controlled by the firm of which 
Mr. Harris was the senior iiarlner. 

HARRIS, Jonathan Newton, philanthropist, 
b. in Salem, Conn.. 18 Nov., 1815; d. in New Lon- 
don, Conn., 18 Oct., 1896. He was a member of 
the state senate, twice mayor of New London, 
and at the beginning of the civil war he equipf)ed 
the entire garrison at Fort Trumbull. He was 
long a director and promoter of the American 
board of commissioners of foreign missions, and 
founded the Harris school of science in Kioto, 
Japan, at a cost of |100,000. Mr. Harris also 
gave 150,000 each to the Moody sclujol at North- 
field and to the Mount Hermon school, and an- 
nually distributed that amount to various churches 
and beiu^volent organizations. 

HARRIS, William Alexander, senator, b. in 
Loudoun county, Va., 29 Oct., 1841 ; was graduated 
at Columbian university and at the Virginia mili- 
tary institute. He served three years in the Confed- 
erate army, and in 1863 removed to Kansas, where 
he was employed as an engineer in the construc- 
tion of the Union Pacific railway. In 1868 he be- 
came agent for the sale of the Delaware reserva- 
tion and other lands in connection with farming 
and stock-raising, particularly as a breeder of pure- 
bred shorthorns. He was elected to the 53d con- 
gi'css as a Populist and indorsed by the Democrats. 
Mr. Harris was elected to the U. S. senate, and 
took his seat in March, 1897, for six years. 

HARRISON, Benjamin, twenty-third presi- 
dent of the United States, b. in Nortli Bend, Ohio, 
20 Aug., 1833. It has been stated that his lineage 
can be traced to Harrison the regicide. He came 
directly from the Virginia Harrisons, who were dis- 
tinguished in the early history of that colony, his 
great-grandfather, Benjamin Harrison, being one 
of the seven Virginia delegates to the congress which 
drew the Declaration of Independence. The Harri- 
sons owned large landed estates on the bank of the 

Ohio near the mouth of the Big Miami. Benjamin 
assisted in the work on his father's farm, which 
contained about four hundred acres. The products 
of the farm were annually shipped in flat boats to 
New Orleans, and his father usually went with the 
cargo, the crew being composed of men from the 
neighborhood who were familiar with the perils of 
transi)ortation on the Mississippi river. His first 
studies were prosecuted in the log school-house, and 
at the age of fifteen he went to Farmers (now Bel- 
mont) college, at College Hill, a suburb of Cincin- 
nati. After a two years' stay there he became a. 
student at Miami university, Oxford, where an ac- 
quaintance formed at College Hill ripened into a 
permanent attachment for Miss Caroline L. Scott, 
who afterward became his wife. The young lady 
had faith in liis star, and did not hesitate to ally 
her fortunes with his. They were married while 
he was yet a law student and before he had at- 
tained his majority. He graduated fourth in his 
class in 1852, Milton Sayler taking first honors and 
David Swing standing second. As a boy he dis- 
tinguished himself as an off-hand debater in the 
Union literary society. From the first he showed 
an aptitude for thinking on his legs, and a gift of 
utterance which enabled him to express himself in 
apt words. At a town meeting, where an aboli- 
tionist abused Webster and Clay for the part they 
took in the compromise measures of 1850, the 
citizens were amazed to see a slender, tow-headed 
boy of seventeen mount a bench and make a vigor- 
ous speech in vindication of the great statesmen. 
He studied law with Storer & Gwynne, of Cincin- 
nati, and in 1853 married and was admitted to the 
bar. In 1854 he put up his sign as attorney-at-law 
in Indianapolis, where he has kept his residence 
ever since. It was not long before his ability be- 
came known. His first effort at the bar was in 
prosecuting a man charged with burglary. He 
received a few dollars by acting as crier for the 
United States Court, and was glad to Uike a five- 
dollar fee now and then for a before a coun- 
try justice, though one half of the fee was neces- 
sary to pay for the hii'e of a horse to take him to 
the place of trial. Whoever employed him could 
count on his doing his very best, whether the in- 
terests involveil were small or great. Promptness 
and tlioroughness are characteristics which have 
been manifest in his whole career, professional and 
political. In 1855 he formed a partnership with 
William Wallace, and when that gentleman was 
elected ccmnty clerk in 18G1 he formed a partner- 
ship with W. P. Fishback. which was interrupted 
by his enlisting in the army in 1862. but the con- 
nection was resumed again in 186.5, when the firm 
became Po-ter. Harrison & Fishback, and so con- 
tinued until 1870. when Mr. Fishback retired. 
Judge Hines taking his jjlace. Gov. Porter retiring, 
W. H. H. Miller became a partner in the firm, and 
upon Judge Hines retiring. Mr. John B. Elam be- 
came a memt)er of the firm of Harrison. Miller & 
Elam. which continued until it was dissolved by 
Gen. Harrison's election to the presidency in 1888. 
While not always the senior in years, he was the 
senior in fact in every firm of which he was a mem- 
ber; such is the ungrudging testimony of all those 
who have been his paitners. 

Though breaking the chronological order of 
events somewhat, it is as well to complete here 
the sketch of his professional career. He has been 
concerned in the most important litigation in In- 
diana for nearly thirty years. He was employed 
in all sorts of cases, such as came to attorneys 
engaged in general practice before the era of pro- 
fessional specialists. The panorama of human life 





with all its disappointments and successes is un- 
rolled before the busy lawyer who has such a prac- 
tice. The exclusive devotion to special branches 
makes men strong in their lines; it narrows them 
also, and the lawyer whose work has a wider range 
acquires greater breadth of view, a happy versa- 
tility, and a ilcxibility of mind which enable him 
to pass from one subject to an(jther without weari- 
ness and without distraction. Benjamin Harri- 
son has amiized his associates in professional and 
oHicial life by the ease and ability with which he 
despatches so much important business in a mas- 
terly style. For the exigencies of high station 
the discipline of his professional life was an ex- 
cellent preparation. As a lawyer he was thorough 
in the preparation and study of his cases, in the 
preliminary statement he was clear anil exhaust- 
ive, putting court and jury in full possession of 
his theory of the case; as an examiner of wit- 
nesses he had no rival ; and :'" un advocate his per- 
formances were characterized by clearness, cogency, 
and completeness which left nothing further to be 
said on his side of the case. It often happened that 
his colleagues who had pre|>ared to assist in the 
argument threw away their notes and rested the 
case upon his single speech. As a cross-examiner 
he was unsurpassed. No rascally witness escaped 
him. Xo trumped-up story or false alibi could 
muster under his searching scrutiny. In a case 
where Gov. Hendricks was defending a man in 
the Federal Court a charge of consj)iring 
to violate the election laws, the governor injudi- 
ciously put his client in the witness-ljox. He de- 
nied his participation in the crime in the most posi- 
tive manner; but little bv little under Harrison's 
cross-examination he was driven toatlmit fact after 
fact, the cumulative force of which drove him at 
last to a practical confession of his guilt. In the 
celebrated Clem murder case several alibis, fabri- 
cated for the principal actor in the conspiracy, were 
pulverized by his cross-examination. It was not 
Ills plan to confuse or persecute a witness, but to 
quietlv, persistently, and courteously press for a 
full disclosure of the facts. He never attempted 
to browU-at a witness, never excited the sympathy 
of a jury for a witness by any show of unfairness. 
His skill as a ni»i priiis lawyer was surpassed by 
his power before the higher and appellate courts. 
He put himself on paper admirably, and his briefs 
arc models of strength and concisencts. He was 
deferential to the courts, courteous to his opiKi- 
neiits, generous to his colleagues. He showed no 
fussy fear that he would be shouldered to the rear. 
It was not nec-essary. It soon Ijecame evident to 
his opponents and asscwiatcs that he was the con- 
spicuous flgure in the fight. Unlike many able 
attornejrs, he cared more for success than tor an 
exhibition of his own |>owcrs. Lawyers who had 
never met him were sometimes le«l to think that 
bis abilities had been overrated ; no lawyer who 
ever encountered him in a forensic fight came out 
of it with such an opinion. His commanding 
abilities as a lawyer stood him in g(xxl stead in 
his political career, which began with the organi- 
zation of the liepublican partv. He became con- 
spicuous in Indiana politics in 1860, when, as a 
cundiilate for the olTlce of reporter of the .Supreme 
(,'ourt, he iniwle a thorough canvass of the state. 
His first debate with Gov. Hendricks was in that 
year. Uy some mistake of the campaign commit- 
tees he and Hendricks were announced to speak 
the same day in l{o<'kville. Hendricks was then 
the Dem<K!ratic candidate for governor, and was 
in the zenith of his fame as a stump speaker. He 
courteously invited Harrison to divide time with 
VOL. vi;.— IT • 

him and made the opening speech. The local Re- 
publican managers were amazed at the temerity 
of a stripling who dared to measure strength with 
the Goliath of the Indiana Democracy, and showed 
their distrust of his ability by leaving the court- 
house. Harrison, who had been seasoned and 
warmed for the work by speaking every day for 
weeks, assumed the aggressive, and as his few po- 
litical friends began to show their appreciation by 
applause, the audience increased until the court- 
room was packed with enthusiastic Republicans, 
who crowded about the speaker when he closed 
and showered their congratulations upon him. 
Mr. Voorhees was present, and. feeling the force 
of the impression made by Harrison, arose when 
the speech wiis finished and said he would answer 
the speech that night in the same place. 

Since 180U he has taken an active part in every 
political canvass in Indiana. In that year he was 
elected reporter of the Supreme Court, and his of- 
ficial work may be found m ten volumes of the In- 
diana reports. Hisollicial and professional labore 
were onerous, but the tasks were lightened by the 
thought that he was paying for the modest cottage 
home which he had 
bought on credit. 
Then came the war, 
and Gov. Jlorlon's 
call ujioti him to raise 
a regiment of volun- 
teers. He enlisted, 
and in a few weeks 
was commissioned 
colonel of the 70th 
Indiana infantry. He 
made arrangements 
to have the duties of 
his ortice of reporter 
performed in his al> 
sence. several of his 
professional brethren 
undertaking to do the 
work without cost to him, so that his home could 
be paid for. The Democrats put the name of a 
candidate for the office on their slate ticket in 
180'<i. The Republicans, supposing that Harrison 
would l)e allowed to serve out his term, made no 
nomination. No votes were cast except for the 
Democrat, and in a mandamus suit brought by 
him to compel the clerk to give him the manu- 
script opinions of the judges, the Supreme Court, 
composed of Democrats, decided that Harrison's 
enlistment vacated the office, and that the Demo- 
crat who was elected by default should fill it for 
the unexpired term. At the next election, in 1864, 
while Harrison was still in the field, he was re- 
elected by an overwhelming majority, and after 
the close of the war assumctl the office and served 
out his full term of four years. 

The following is a brief summary of his mili- 
tary record : Heiiiaiiiin Harrison was mustered into 
service as colonel of the 70lh regiment of Indiana 
infantry volunteers with the field and staff of that 
regiment at Indianapolis, Ind., to date fnmi 7 Aug., 
1862, to serve three years. The following remarks 
appear opposite his name on the muster-in roll of 
the field and staff : " Mustered into service as 2d 
lieutenant, 14 July, 1862 ; as cafitain. 22 July, 1862 ; 
and as colonel, 7 Aug., 1862." He was in command 
of his regiment from date of muster in to 20 Aug., 
1863; of the 2d brigade, 3d division, reserve corps, 
to about 20 Sept., 1863 ; of his regiment to 9 Jan., 
1864; of the 1st brigade, 1st division, 11th army 
corps, to 18 April, 1804: of his regiment to 29 
June, 1864; and of the 1st brigade, 3d division, 





20tli army corps, to 23 Sept., 1864, when he was 
detailed for special duty in the state of Indiana. 
The exact date that he returned to duty in the 
field is not shown ; but on 13 Nov., 18ti4, he was 
directed to report in person to the general com- 
manding at Nashville, Tenn., and subsequently 
commanded the 1st brigade, provisional division, 
army of the Cumberland, to 16 Jan., 1865, when, 
upon his own application, he was relieved and di- 
rected to rejoin his proper command for duty in 
Gen. Sherman's army at Savannah, Ga. On his 
way via New York to rejoin his command at Sa- 
vannah, he was stricken down with a severe fever 
and lay for several weeks at Narrowsburg, N. Y. 
When able to leave his bed he started for Savan- 
nah, but arrived too late to join Gen. Sherman, 
and was assigned to command the camp of con- 
valescents and recruits at Blair's Landing, S. C, 
on the Pocotaligo river, and soon after joined Gen. 
Sherman's army at Raleigh. lie resumed com- 
mand of the 1st brigade, 3d division, 20th army 
corps, 21 April, 186.5; was relieved therefrom 8 
June, 1865, upon the discontinuance of the bri- 
gade by reason of the muster out of the troops com- 
posing it, and on the same date, 8 June, 1865, was 
mustered out and honorably discharged as colonel 
with the field and staff of his regiment, near Wash- 
ington, D. C. lie was brevetted brigadier-general 
of volunteers, 33 Jan., 1865, " for ability and mani- 
fest energy and gallantry in command of brigade." 
As a regimental commander he was in action at 
Russellville, Ky., 30 Sept., 1863 ; in the Atlanta 
campaign, at Resaca, Ga., 14-15 May, 1864 ; at 
Cassville, Ga., 24 May, 1864 ; at New Hope, Ga., 
25 May, 1864; at Dallas, Ga., 37-38 May, 1864; 
and at Kenesaw Mountains, Ga., 10-38 June, 1864. 
As a brigade commander he participated in the 
operations at Kenesaw Mountain, Ga., 29 June to 3 
July, 1864 ; in the battle of Peach Tree creek, Ga., 
20 July, 1864 ; in the siege of Atlanta, C,a., 21 July 
to 3 Sept., 1864 ; and in the battle of Nashville, 
Tenn., 15-16 Dec, 1864 ; and was present at the 
surrender of Gen. Johnston's Confederate army at 
Durham's Station, N. C, 36 April, 1865. 

At the close of his term of office as reporter of 
the Supreme Court he resumed the law practice and 
soon had his hands full of work, being retained 
in almost every important case in tlie federal 
and state courts at Indianapolis. In 1876 God- 
love S. Orth, the Republican candidate for gov- 
ernor, withdrew from the canvass while Gen. 
Harrison was taking a vacation on the north 
shore of Lake Superior. Without consulting him, 
his name was put upon the ticket as candidate 
for governor, and when he arrived from the north 
an enthusiastic crowd met him at the station and 
escorted him to his home. The trading of horses 
while crossing the river did not work well, and 
though Gen. Harrison made a splendid canvass, 
running two thousand ahead of his ticket, the 
popularity of Gov. Hendricks, who was on the 
National ticket, pulled the whole Democratic state 
ticket through by a plurality of three thousand. 
The gallant fight made by Gen. Harrison in that 
losing battle imposed a debt of gratitude upon his 
party which has not been forgotten. In 1879 
President Hayes appointed him a member of the 
Mississippi river commission. In 1880 he was 
chairman of the Indiana delegation in the conven- 
tion which nominated James A. Garfield. Some 
of his friends presented his name for the nomina- 
tion in that convention, but he insisted that it 
should be withdrawn. His canvass of Indiana and 
other states during the campaign of 1880 was 
brilliant and effective. President Garfield offered 

him a place in his cabinet, which \ir. declined. He 
was chosen U. S. senator in Ibol, and served 
until 1887. His course in the senate was such as 
to win the esteem and friendship of his Republican 
colleagues and to command the respect of his po- 
litical opponents. This was his first experience in 
a legislative body, but he soon took rank among 
the foremost debaters of the senate. Chairman of 
the committee on territories, he was persistent in 
his demand for the admission to statehood of North 
Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, and 
Idaho, and though not succeeding at the time, he 
had the pleasure afterward of putting his presi- 
dential signature to the laws making them all 
states of the Union. In his speeches in the senate 
he criticised Mr. Cleveland's vetoes of the pension 
bills, voted and spoke in favor of an increase of 
the navy, the reform of the civil service, a judicious 
tariff reform ; he favored every measure of imblic 
policy which had received the approval of his 

Earty. He has always been a strong partisan, and 
as believed and acted in the belief that since 
the Republican party was organized it has done 
nothing of which Republicans should be ashamed, 
or at least nothing to justify a change of allegiance 
from it to the Democratic party. From one point 
of view, such a course in a public man may be 
criticised. It may be doubted, however, if any In- 
diana Republican who has been confronted with 
the type of Democrats which have dominated that 
party tor the last thirty years is to be censured for 
standing by his own party through thick and thin. 
The Republican party leaders saw in 1888 that 
the only hope of winning against Cleveland wai> to 
put up a candidate who could carry some of the 
doubtful states. Early in the year the Republican 
leaders in Indiana and almost the entire Repub- 
lican press of tlie state pronounced in favor of 
Harrison, and his name was presented by the solid 
delegation to the convention at Chicago. On the 
first ballot he received 83 votes, standing fifth on 
the list, John Sherman standing first with 225. 
Seven more ballots were taken, during which 
Chauncey M. Depew withdrew and his supporters 
went to Harrison, giving him the nomination on 
the eighth ballot by a vote of 544. There was 
great rejoicing on the part of his friends in In- 
diana, and as soon as the result was known there 
began a series of demonstrations which are with- 
out parallel in the history of presidential cam- 
paigns. On the day of tlie nomination a large 
delegation came to Indianapolis from Hendricks 
county in a special train and proceeded at once to 
Gen. Harrison's residence and called him out for a 
speech, and from that day until the election dele- 
gations kept coming from different parts of Indi- 
ana, from Kentucky, Ohio, Michigan, Kansas, Illi- 
nois, Iowa, and other states, all of which were 
received and welcomed by him in impromptu 
speeches which, by their appropriateness, variety, 
force, and elegance of style, won the approval of 
our best literary critics as well !is of the public. 
In these ninety-four speeches he made no slip. He 
said nothing that needed apology or explanation 
from his friends. Verbatim reports of the addresses 
were printed from day to day in all the leading 
papers of the country, and he never in anything he 
said gave his political opponents ground for un- 
friendly criticism. It is an open secret that some 
of the members of the National Republican com- 
mittee were terrified when they learned that the 
"Iloosier" candidate had commenced the cam- 
paign by these free-spoken, off-hand talks with liis 
neighbors. They proposed that some one should 
go to Indianapolis and put a stop to the business. 




A gentleman who knew Gen. Harrison's ability 
told them not to be alarmed, and at the end of a 
week the fearful gentlemen had changed their 
minds and said that if they would allow Gen. 
Harrison to go on in that way he would certainly 
elect himself in spite of any blundering of the 
committee or campaign managers. 

A few extracts from some of these speeches may 
give some idea of their quality. To the California 
delegation the day after the nomination he said : 
" I feel sure, too, ray fellow-citizens, that we have 
joined now a contest of great principles, and that 
the armies which are to fight out this great contest 
before the American people will encamp upon the 
high plains of principle and not in the low swamps 
of personal defamation or detraction." To a num- 
ber of veterans of the Union army : " We went not 
as partisans but patriots into the strife which in- 
volved the national life. . . . The army was great 
in its assembling. It came with an impulse that 
was majestic and terrible. It was as great in its 
muster out as in the brilliant work which it had 
done in the field. . . . When the war was over 
. . . every man had in some humble place a chair 
by some fireside where he was love<l and toward 
which his heart went forward with a quick step." 
To the Tippecanoe club, composed of men who had 
voted for his grandfather in 1840 : " I came among 
you with the herita^, I trust, of a good name, 
such as all of you enjoy. It is the only inheritance 
that has been transmitted in oar family." Qen. 
Harrison was not in the habit of boasting of his 
lineage, of which he hatl reason to be proud. If it 
was ever the subject of conversation in his pres- 
ence he never introduced it. To a delegation of 
farmers: "The law throws the lEgis of its protec- 
tion over us all. It stands sentinel almut your 
country homes ... it comes into our more thickly 
populated community and sj^icaks its mandate for 
individual security and public order. There is an 
open avenue through the ballot for the modifica- 
tion or repeal of laws which are unjust or op- 
rressive. To the law we bow with reverence, 
t is the one king that commands our allegiance." 
To a delegation of railway employees : "Heroism 
has been found at the throttle and brake as well 
as ufjon the battle-flehl, and as well worthy of 
song and marble. The trainman crushed be- 
tween the platforms, who used his last breath not 
for prayer or messages of love, but to say to the 
panic-stricken who gathered around him, ' Put 
out the red light for the other train,' inscribed 
his name very high upon the shaft where the 
names of the faithful and brave are written." 
To an Illinois delegation : " It was on the soil 
of Illinois that Lovejoy died, a martyr to free 
spetM'h. . . . Another great epcxjh in the march of 
liberty found on the soil of Illinois the theater of 
its most infiuential event. I refer to that high de- 
bate in the presence of your people, but before the 
world, in which Douglas won the senatorship and 
Lincoln the presidency and immortal fame. . . . 
The wise work of our fathers in constituting this 
government will sIuikI all tests of internal ilissen- 
siun and revolution, and all tests of external as- 
sault, if we can only preserve a pure, free ballot." 
To a delegation of coal-miners: "I do not care 
now to deal with statistics. One fact is enough for 
me. The tide of emigration from alt Kuropean 
countries has been ami is toward our shores. The 
gates of Castle Garden swing inward : they do not 
swing outwanl to any American laborer seeking a 
better country than this. . . . Here there are belter 
conditions, wider and more hopeful prospects for 
workmen than in any other land. ... 'I be more 

work there is to do in this country the higher the 
wages that will be paid for the doing of it. ... A 
policy which will transfer work from our mines 
and our factories to foreign mines and foreign 
factories inevitably tends to a depression of wages 
here. These are truths that do not require pro- 
found study." To an Indiana delegation : " I hope 
the time is coming, and has even now arrived, when 
the great sense of j ustice which possesses our people 
will teach men of all parties that party success is 
not to be promoted at the expense of an injus- 
tice to any of our citizens." As early as 31 July, 
1888, he said : " But we do not mean to be content 
with our own market ; we should seek to promote 
closer and more friendly commercial relations with 
the Central and South American states, . . . 
those friendly political and commercial relations 
which shall promote their interests equally with 
ours." Addressing a company of survivors of his 
own regiment, he said : " It is no time now to use 
an apothecary's scale to weigh the rewards of the 
men who saved the country." To a club of rail- 
road employees : " The laboring men of this land 
may safely trust every just reform in which they 
are interested 
to public dis- 
cussion and to 
the tests of rea- 
son ; they may 
surely hope up- 
on these lines, 
which are open 
to them, to ac- 
complish, un- 
der our Amer- 
ican institu- 
tions, all those 

right things VBI^^^^^ ■-S''' 

they have con- 
ceive<l to be necessary to their lii;:liosi suicess and 
well-being." Addressing a meeting on the day of 
Sheridan s funeral : " He was one of those great 
commanders who, upon the field of battle, towered 
a very god of war. ... He rested and refreshed 
his command with the wine of victory, and found 
recuperation in the dispersion of the enemy that 
confronted him." To a delegation of farmers : " I 
congratulate you not so much upon the rich farms 
of your country as upon your virtuous and happy 
homes. The home is the best, as it is the first, 
school of citizenship." 

All these campaign speeches, with a description 
of the circumstances of their delivery, are collected 
in a volume published by Lovell & Co., of New 
York. But more remarkable than these are the 
one hundred and forty addresses delivered during 
his trip to the Pacific coast and back — a journey of 
10,000 mile-s, which was accomplished in thirty-one 
days, from 15 April to 15 May, 1890, without the 
variation of one minute from the prearranged 
schedule for arriving and departing from the hun- 
dreds of stations on the way. These addresses were 
non-political, and breathe throughout a spirit of 
high patriotism and a call to the high responsibili- 
ties of citizenship. In a letter to an American 
friend who had sent him the volume containing these 
si>eeches. Lord Chief-Justice Coleridge says: "The 
speeches give me a very high idea of Mr. Harrison. 
We know very little here of your politicians, and it 
is pleasant to be brought face to face with any one 
so manly aii<l high-minded as Mr. Harrison shows 
himself in the book you sent me. The perpetual 
demand which American customs make upon any 
one of the least position in the way of speech-mak- 
ing must be very trying. In a degree (not within 




1,000 miles of the president) I found it so myself 
when I was in America. But a private foreigner 
may say what he likes; a president, of course, must 
most carefully watch his words." 

It was assumed that with Mr. Blaine in the cabinet 
President Harrison would be a very inconspicuous 
and unimportant person in tlie administration. It 
is one of tlie marked characteristics of the man that 
when he is assigned to a place he assumes all its re- 
sponsibilities. As a lawyer he never shouldered him- 
self to the front, but when placed in the lead he 
was the leader. The simple fact is, he was not for a 
moment overshadowed by any member of his cabi- 
net. He insisted upon knowing what was going 
on in each department and maintained an intelli- 
gent supervision of them all. Nor is it detracting 
from the just fame of Mr. Blaine to say that by 
reason of that gentleman's failing health the work 
of the state department was much more than usu- 
al the work of the president. Those who have 
known him long did not fail to see his hand in 
the discussion of the legal rights of aliens domi- 
ciled here, contained in the dignified note to the 
Italian government concerning the New Orleans 
massacre. Tlie statement of the basis of our liabili- 
ty for wrong inflicted upon the subjects of friendly 
nations when they are the result of dereliction of 
duty by the local authorities was masterly, and the 
dignified manner in which that government was 
informed that the United States would be just, but 
would not be forced to a hasty decision, was admi- 
rable. In the Chile affair, in which that govern- 
ment denied its responsibility for the assaults upon 
our sailors at Santiago and refused safe conduct to 
some of the members of the Balmaceda administra- 
tion who had taken refuge at the United States le- 
gation, President Harrison was earnest and persist- 
ent in his demands, and, as the correspondence 
shows, after waiting patiently for a response, and 
becoming weary at last of the vacillating conduct 
of the Chilian government, made a peremptory 
request, which was jiromptly and satisfactorily 
answered. It is due t > the republic of Chile to 
say that during the whole of the controversy the 
rival parties in that country kept it in a state of 
constant revolution. The evidence in the case 
showed that our sailors were outraged because they 
belonged to the U. S. navy, and that the authori- 
ties of Chile permitted, if they did not connive at 
it. In such a case it would fiave been pusillani- 
mous on the part of the Government to have failed 
to demand reparation. The Bering sea contro- 
versy, now happily in settlement by arbitration, 
was full of diiliculty when Jlr. Blaine's sudden ill- 
ness threw the burden of the matter for a time 
upon President Harrison. Lord Salisbury was de- 
laying, the season for pelagic sealing was coming 
on, no modus vivetidi had been agreed upon. 
President Harrison took measures for intercepting 
the Canadian sealers, and it was not long until the 
terms of the treaty were arranged. The statement 
of the " five points " submitted to the arbitrators 
by the treaty is a good specimen of President Har- 
rison's thorough and comprehensive work. East- 
ern journals who were not friendly to President 
Harrison have generously united in endorsing the 
conduct of the state department during his ad- 
ministration, and have especially commended it for 
being thoroughly patriotic and American. And it 
may be said from the time of his nomination until 
he retired from the presidential office he sustained 
himself with a dignity and ability commensurate 
with the responsibilities of his exalted station. His 
policy in regard to the tariff has been censured, 
but he simply maintained the views held by the 

majority of the Republican party with which he 
has always been in sympathy. He is what may 
properly be called an out-and-out protectionist, 
ills firm stand in favor of honest money gave con- 
fidence to the business interests of the country 
when they were imperilled by the wild schemes of 
the advocates of free-silver coinage. He was re- 
nominated for the presidency by the Republican 
national convention at Minneapolis without seri- 
ous opposition. To the surprise of tlie country he 
signally failed of re-election. Public opinion 'has 
been much divided as to the causes of this result. 
It was certainly not on account of any failure 
upon the part of President Harrison to carry out 
the policy of his party, or to realize the expecta- 
tion of Ills friends in the ability shown bv him in 
performing the duties of his station. 'I'he fatal 
illness of Mrs. Harrison, and her death a few days 
before the election, cast a shadow over the closing 
days of Ills official life. His administration as a 
whole was business-like in its management of our 
domestic affairs, dignified, firm, and patriotic in 
its foreign policy, promot ig the prosperity of our 
people at home and ket mg peace with all na- 
tions. In his last messag to congress, on 6 Dec, 
1892, after giving a sumir "y of the operations of 
the different departments e said : " 'This exhibit 
of the work of the executi\L departments is sub- 
mitted to congress and to the public in the hope 
that there will be found in it a due sense of re- 
sponsibility, and an earnest purpose to maintain 
the national lionor and to promote the happiness 
and prosperity of all our people. And this brief 
exhibit of the growth and prosperity of the coun- 
try will give us a level from which to note the in- 
crease or decadence that new legislative policies 
may bring to us. There is no reason why the na- 
tional influence, ])ower, and prosperity should not 
observe the same rates of increase tliat have char- 
acterized the past thirty years. We carry the 
great impulse and increase of these years into the 
future. There Is no reason why, in many lines of 
production, we should not surpass all other na- 
tions, as we have already done in some. There 
are no near frontiers to our possible development. 
Retrogression would be a crime." 

Upon retiring from the presidency Gen. Harri- 
son was engageel by the late Senator Stanford to de- 
liver a course of lectures at the Leland Stanford, 
Jr., university, in California, on constitutional law, 
and he successfully filled that engagement during 
the winter of 1893-"4. Foreigners who have stud- 
ied our institutions have expressed regrets that in 
America no provision is made for the dignified re- 
tirement of our ex-presidents, and they have sug- 
gested that some office with a life tenure be be- 
stowed upon them with a suitable provision for 
their support out of the public treasury. The tem- 
per of our people and Ihe genius of our institutions 
are not in accord wiili any such desire. The great 
volunteer generals of the war came back to the 
ranks and took their places with their fellow-citi- 
zens in the walks of private life. So our great po- 
litical leaders, from the senate and from tiie presi- 
dency, when their term of office is over, come back 
to their homes and ordinary pursuits without any 
impairment of their dignity or their self-respect. 
In his retirement from the labors of his official 
station Gen. Harrison can realize the truth of what 
he said In a speech on the day of his nomination 
in 1888 : " Kings .sometimes bestow decorations 
upon those whom they desire to honor, but that 
man is most highly decorated who has the affec- 
tionate regard of his neighbors and friends." 
This he has in full measure. J udged by the stand- 




arJs of a few unprincipled and disapj)ointed poli- 
ticians wlio expected to thrive on the use and 
abuse of public patronage, Gen. Harrison is a 
eold-blootled man. But it is possible that such 
men are not as well qualified to judge of the tem- 
perature of a man's blood as his friends and inti- 
mates who have seen him in all the vicissitudes 
of his daily life, ministering with sympathy and 
self-sacrifice to relatives and friends who, over- 
taken by some great calamity, have found his 
heart as' tender as a child's. The country takes 
little note of the petulant criticisms of its public 
servants, but it will hold at their true worth the 
great and usefid virtues of ability, wisdom, integ- 
ritv, courage, and patriotism whenever they are 
exfiibited by men in high official station. The 
engraving on page 131 is a view of his home in In- 
dianapolis. In April, 1896, the ex-president mar- 
ried Sirs. Mary Scott I^ord Dimmock, and three 
years later he aptwared as counsel in the Anglo- 
Venezuelan bounilary arbitration commission, con- 
cluding his argument in Paris, 27 Sept., 1899. He 
is the author of "This, ''ountry of Ours" (Sew 
York. 1897). Ilis life i s been written bv Gen. 
Lewis Wallaee (I'hiladr ,)hia, 1888). A selection 
of Gen. Harrison's sjn ches, edited by Charles 
Hetlges, a|)peared in IS i, and another collection 
wa.s published four years later. — His wife, CaroHiie 
Lavlnia Scott, b. in Oxford, Ohio. 1 Oct., 1832; 

d. in Washington. 
D.C.,25 0ct,,1892, 
was the daughter 
of John W. Scott, 
who was a pro- 
fessor in Miami 
university at the 
time of her birth, 
and afterward be- 
came president of 
the seminary in 
Oxford. She was 
graduated at the 
seminary in 1852, 
the same year that 
Gen. Uarrison 



took his degree at 
the university, and 
was married to 
him on 20 Oct., 18.">.S. She was a musician, and was 
also devoted to painting, l>esides which she was a 
diligent reader, and gave part of her time to lit- 
erary clubs, of several of which she was a ineml)er. 
Mrs. Harrison was a manager of the orphan asy- 
lum in Indianapolis and a member of the Presby- 
terian church in that city, ami until her removal 
to Washington taught a class in Sunday-school. 
Thev had two children. The son, Kuswll, was 
graduated at Ijafayette in 1877 as a mining en- 
gineer, and, in addition to other engineering work, 
lias been connectetl with the U. .S. mints at New 
Orleans and Helena as assayer. He is now a resi- 
dent of Montana, where he is engaged in jour- 
nalism. The ilaughter, Mary, married .Tames R. 
McKee, a prosjierous mcrchunt f)f Indiunapoli.s, 
Ind., who ha.1 since removed to Xew York, where 
he is 1111,'at'i'd in business pursuits. 

H.\KKISON, (iporge, colonist, b. probably in 
England about 1.599; d. in Virginia in 1624. He 
came to Virginia in 1618, and three years later 
secured 200 acres of land. In the spring of 1624 
he was wounded in a iluel with Richard Stephens, 
near James City, and dieil fourteen days later. 
This is supmsed to lie tlic first duel fought in this 
country. Vidf Alexander Brown's " Genesis of the 
United SUtes" (Boston, 1890). 

HARRISON. Susie Frances, Canadian author, 
b. in Toronto about 1860. She is the daughter of 
John Byron Riley, and was educated in her native 
city and in Montreal. At an early age she began 
writing essays and short stories and songs. She 
was married in 1879 to J. W. T. Harrison. She is 
a contributor to the " Atlantic Monthly," " Tem- 
ple Bar," and other magazines. Among her works 
published in book-form are " Crowded Out " 
(1888); "The Canadian Birthday Book" (1889); 
"Pine, Rose, and Fleur-de-lis" (1890); and 
"Down the River, and other Poems" (1891). 

HARRISON, Thomas. Canadian educator, b. 
at Sheffield. New Brunswick, 24 Oct., 1839. His 
grandfather, James, emigrated to South Carolina 
in 1767 from County Antrim, Ireland, and fought 
in the Revolutionary war under Sir Henry Clinton. 
Thomas was educated at Trinity college, Dublin, 
and was elected a mathematical scholar in 1863; 
in 1864 he was gratluated A. B. and LL. B. at the 
University of Dublin. He was appointed profess- 
or of the English language and literature and of 
mental and moral philosophy in the University of 
New Brunswick in June, 1870, becoming superin- 
tendent of the meteorological station at Frederic- 
ton, New Brunswick, in 1874. and president of the 
university and professor of mathematics in August, 
1885, which last [Kjsition he resigned on his a|)point- 
ment as chancellor of the university in 1892. 

HARRISSK, Henry, author, Paris, France, 
in June. 1830. While quite young he came to 
this country and obtained employment in the 
North Carofina state university, ijlc was deeply 
interested in philosophy, and in 1858 completed 
an Knglish translation of Descartcs's philosophical 
works, but could not find a publisher. From phi- 
losophy he turned to history, the career of Colum- 
bus appealed to him, and he is iiest known from 
his bibliographical and historical works on Amer- 
ica. From North Carolina he went to Washing- 
ton, D. C, and soon became a professor in the 
Georgetown Jesuit college. On the advice of 
Stephen A. Douglas he removed to Chicago, where 
he practised law and wrote for journals and maga- 
zines. Later he settled in New York as legal 
corrcs|jondent for a Spanish bank, and also wrote 
for the perioilicals. About 1866 he relumed to 
Paris, engaging in 
the practice of law 
and writing im- 
l>ortant historical 
works. After the 
siege he was in- 
trusted with a large 
sum of money for 
distribution among 
the poor of Paris, 
especially needy 
scliolars who were 
t<x) proud to seek 
charity. Alx>utthis 
time lie began the 
study of Kgyptology 
under the guidance 
of Miispero and De 
Rouge, but soon 
aliandoned this field. 
His works include "^ 

•' Notes on Columbus" (New York. 1866), " Biblio- 
theca Americana Vetustissima " (1866) and " Addi- 
tions" (I'arls, 18?2); "Notes pour servir i, I'his- 
tolre . . . de la Nouvelle France " (1872); " Jean ct 
S»'bastien Cabot " (1882) ; " LesCorte-Real " (1883); 
"Christophe Colomb " (2 vols., 1884) ; " Christopher 
Columbus and the Bank of Saint George " (pri- 

^<.*» , 




vately printed, New York, 1888) ; " Discovery of 
North America" (London, 1892); "Jolm Cabot, 
the Discoverer of North America" (1896); and 
"Diplomatic History of America" (1898). See 
" Henrv Ilarrisse : Biographical and Bibliograplii- 
<!al Sketch," by Adolph Growoll (New York, 1899), 
where is given a list of seventy-one of his biblio- 
graphical writings, of which the above may per- 
haps be deemed the most important. 

HARTLEY, Jonathan Scott, sculptor, b. in 
Albany, N. Y., 23 Sept., 1845. He was educated 
at the Albany academy, and began his professional 
life as a worker in marble. Subsequently he went 
to England, where he passed three years, entered 
the Royal academy, and gained a silver medal in 
1809. After residing for a year in Germany, he 
returned to the United States, and after another 
visit to Europe, when he went to Paris and Rome, 
he became a resident of New York. He is one of 
the original members of the Salmagundi sketch 
club, and was professor of anatomy in the schools 
of the Art students' league in 1878-'84, and presi- 
dent of the league in 1879-'80. His works include 
" The Young Samaritan " ; " King Rene's Daugh- 
ter " (1872) ; " The Whirlwind " (1878) ; a statue of 
Miles Morgan, erected at Springfield, Mass., in 
1883 : and bas-reliefs on the monument at Sara- 
toga that commemorates the defeat of Burgoyne. 
HARTLEY, Thomas, soldier, b. in Reading, 
Pa., 7 Sept., 1748; d. in York, Pa., 21 Dec, 1800. 
He studied law, was admitted to the bar, and prac- 
tised in York, Pa. He served in the Revolutionary 
war, and was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of 
Irvine's regiment, 9 Jan., 1776, and was colonel 
of the 6th Pennsylvania in the same year. Col. 
Hartley commanded an expedition in October, 
1778, against the savages who had been concerned 
in the Wyoming massacre, destroyed their settle- 
ment, killed many of them, and recovered part of 
the property that they had carried away. He was 
a member of the Pennsylvania house of repre- 
sentatives in 1778, and was elected a representative 
in congress from Pennsylvania, serving by con- 
tinuous re-elections from 4 March, 1789, to 21 
Dec, 1800. He was one of the council of censors 
in 1783, and a delegate to the Pennsylvania con- 
vention that adopted the national constitution. 

HARVEY, Haj'ward Augustus, inventor, 
Jamestown, N. V.. 17 Jan., 1824; d. in Orange, 
N. J., 28 Aug., 1893. He was educated at the 
Poughkeepsie collegiate school, and then devoted 
himself to mechanical inventions. His improve- 
ments included nearly fifty patents in cutting 
screws and rolling screws, as well as many for bolts 
and bolt machinery. He also invented a new proc- 
ess for the manufacture of steel, and he became 
president of the Harvey steel company in Newark, 
N. J. All of his inventions in screws and for the 
making of steel are protected by patents in Euro- 
pean countries. The " Harveyized " steel plates, 
m a comparative test with those of England. 
France, and Germany, were pronounced superior, 
and the United States purchased the right to man- 
ufacture it for the war-vessels of the new navy 
begun in 1890. Altogether Mr. Harvey had se- 
cured about 150 patents in this country. 

HARVEY, Hezekiah, clergyman, b. in Ilulver, 
Suffolk, England, 27 Nov., 1821. He came to the 
United States in 1830, and after graduation at 
Madison university, and at its theological seminary 
in 1847, became tutor there. In 1849-57 he was 
pastor of the Baptist church in Homer. N. Y.. and 
since that time he has been a professor in the Ham- 
ilton theological seminary, with the exception of 
a pastorate in Dayton, Ohio, in 1864-'9. He is the 

author of " Memoir of Rev. Alfred Bennett" (New 
York, 1852) ; " The Church : its Politv and Ordi- 
nances" (Philaflelphia, 1879); and "The Pastor: 
his Qualifications and Duties" (1879). 

HASKELL, James Richards, inventor, h. in 
Geneva, N. Y., 17 Sept., 1825. He was educated 
at Richfield (Ohio) academy, and at the prepara- 
tory department of Western Reserve college. In 
1854 he began a series of experiments with steel 
breech-loading rifled cannon and breech-loading 
small-arms, manufacturing twenty-five of the 
former, which were purchased by the Mexican 
government, and were the first of the description 
that were made in the United States. In 18.55 he 
began experimenting with multicharge guns in 
association with Azel S. Lyman, who first con- 
ceived the idea of applying successive charges of 
powder to accelerate the velocity of a projectile. 
In 1855 congress appropriated funds in order to 
test these guns, but the bureau of ordnance op- 
posed such action. Mr. Haskell's experiments 
have cost more than $300,000, and the system is 
now completed, so that the power of these guns 
is more than doubled, and at the same time the 
maximum pressure used is less than that in other 
guns. In 1862, with Rafael Rafael, he invented 
and constructed a machine gun for very ra|)id fir- 
ing, but, notwithstanding a favorable report on it 
by a board of army officers, the authorities refused 
to adopt it. Mr. Haskell is a member of the 
American association for the advancement of sci- 
ence, and has written several pamphlets on na- 
tional armament and on ordnance problems. 

HASKELL, Joseph Theodore, soldier, b. in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 19 Nov., 1838 ; d. in Columbus, 
16 Sept., 1898. At the age of twenty-five he en- 
tered the army as captain and commissary of sub- 
sistence, 19 Feb., 1863, and as such served "through- 
out the civil war. He was mustered out of the 
volunteer service on 8 Dec, 1866. but had been com- 
missioned captain in the 23d regular infantry, 28 
July, 1866. lie was promoted major of the 24th 
infantry, 28 June, 1872, and on 27 Aug.. 1896, lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the 17th infantry. From Janu- 
ary, 1869, to January, 1872, he was in command of 
the San J uan islands, which were at that time a mat- 
ter of controversy between the United States and 
Great Britain. The matter was settled by arbitra- 
tion. Emperor William of Germany deciding in 
favor of the United States. In 1888 Major Has- 
kell was appointed a member of the tactics board, 
in which position he aided in compiling the mili- 
tary tactics at present in use in the army. At 
the outbreak of the war with Spain in 1898 Col. 
Poland was appointed brigadier-general and 
Lieut.-Col. Haskell was assigned command of the 
17th infantry. He led that regiment in the battle 
of El Caney, 1 July, 1898, and distinguished him- 
self fur bravery, leading the regiment through the 
succession of barbed-wire fences that surrounded 
the block-houses until he was shot. He was 
wounded in three places, but kept his place on the 
firing-line during the whole day. For his bravery 
in this engagement he was promoted brigadier- 
general. He was sent to his home at Columbus 
post and recovered rapidly. The 17th regiment 
returned to Columbus on 16 Sept. following, and 
the great excitement of the day in his weakened 
condition caused his instant death. 

HASTINGS, Henry, merchant, b. in Townsend, 
Mass., 2 Sept., 1818; d. in West Medford. 9 Aug., 
1887. He was educated at Harvard, and studied law 
under Henry A. Wise in Virginia, but abandoned 
that profession in 1844 to become a cotton mer- 
chant in the south. He settled in Boston as a 



Rum a PainhnJ by Sarali "W! Wliitman. 

<^^Z:i^^Ay ^^^(^^J^^^^^, 






ship-builder in 1833, and became the owner of 
about forty sailing vessels, including the 
•' Charger," the "North American," the "South 
American," and the "Kate Hastings," which were 
considered the best wooden sailing vessels in the 
world. During the civil war he was advised to 

Eut his vessels under the protection of the British 
ag, but he refused, with the remark: "Never 
shall any ship of mine, while she has a stick stand- 
ing, fly any other flag than the Stars and Stripes." 
He was known as " Commmlore " Hastings, and 
was the last of the great ship-owners of Boston. 

H.\TCHER, Robert A., congressman, b. in 
Buckingham countv, Va., 24 Feb., 1819: d. in 
Charleston. Mo., 18 'Dec, 1886. llis grandfather, 
Jeremiah Hateher, was a Baptist minister of Vir- 
ginia at the close of the eighteenth century, and his 
father, Archibald, was a merchant of Lynchburg, 
who was afterward the first mayor of Lafayette, Ind. 
The son was educated in Lynchburg, studied law, 
and was admitted to practice in Kentucky. He re- 
moved to New .Madrid, Mo., in 1847, where he fol- 
lowed his profos-sioii, and was for six years circuit 
attorney of the 10th judicial district of the state. 
At the opening of the civil war he entered the 
Confederate army as a captain, later serving as a 
staff officer with Gen. Leonidas Polk. He was a 
member of the state convention in 1862, was made 
aide-de-camp to Gen. A. P. Stewart, and became 
a major and assistant adjutant-general. He was 
elected a representative from Mis.«ouri to the 2d 
Confederate congress, serving till the close of the 
war. In 1873 he was elected to the 43d congress, 
and he was twice re-elected. 

HAWKINS, Hamilton Smith, soldier, b. in 
South Carolina in 1834. He was appointed to the 
U. 8. military academy in July, 1852, and was 
graduated in 1855. On 26 April, 1861, he was 
coinmissione<l 2d lieutenant in the 6th infantry, 
and 1st lieutenant on 14 May following. He was 
commissioned captain on 20 Sept., 186:^, and 
reached the rank of major of the 10th infantry 31 
Oct., 1883. On 17 Feb., 1880, he was promoted 
lieutenant-colonel of the 2:3d infantry; he was 
made commandant of ciulets at West Point on 1 
Feb., 1888, and on 13 Aug., 1894, he was promoted 
colonel of the 16th infantry; in .September follow- 
ing he wiLs transferred to the 20th infantry. On 
10 Oct., 1894. he was made commandant of the 
infantrv and cavalry school at Fort Leavenworth, 
where his regiment was stationed. In the inva- 
sion of Cuba during the war with Spain in 18U8, 
he commaniled the division that captured San 
Juan hill in the second day's fight at Santiago, 
and was there wounded in the foot. On the re- 
tirement of William M. Graham, 28 S<'pt.. 1808, he 
was [•romoted brigailier-general. Immediately 
after receiving his commission, however, he was 
placed upon the retired list un<lcr the thirty years* 
service clause upon his own application. 

H.WUKN. Ilornep Edwin, clergyman, b. in 
Catonsville, .Md., IM Feb., 1S37. He is a grandson 
ef Hora(;e H. Ilnyili-n, and was educated at St. 
Timothy's college, Mnrylaml, and Keiiyon college, 
served in the Confederate army in 1861-'.'), and 
was gratluated at the Virginia theological semi- 
nary in 1867. He was onlained priest by Bishop 
Whittle of Virginia in 1868. and became rector of 
Christ church. Point Pleasant. He has been as- 
sistant minister of St. Stephen's church, Wilkes- 
barre. Pa., since 187!). Mr. Ilayden has devoted 
much study to archaeological and historical pur- 
suits, and is a member of numerous historical and 
scientiflc societies. He has published " History of 
the West Virginia Soldiers' Medals " (1881) ; " De- 

scendants of Paul Weitzel.of Lancaster, Pa., 1740" 
(1883) : " Biographical Sketch of Oliver Pollock, 
Esq., U. S. Agent at New Orleans. 1776-1784" 
(1883) ; " Virginia Genealogies " (1888) ; and " Mas- 
sacre of Wyoming" (1895). 

HAYDN. Hiram Collins, clergyman, b. in 
Pompey, N. Y., 11 Dec, 1831. He was graduated 
at Amherst, and at Union theological seminary. 
New York city, and was ordained to the ministry 
in 1862. He was pastor of Presbyterian churches 
in Connecticut and Ohio in 1862-'71, and of the 
First Presbyterian church in Cleveland in 1872- 
'80, district secretary of the American board of 
foreign missions in i880-'4, and since the latter 
date has held his former charge in Cleveland, 
combining with his duties those of the presidency 
of Adelbert college in 1887 ami of Western Re- 
serve college in 1888-'91. Wooster university 
gave him the degree of D. D. Dr. Haydn has 
published "Lay Effort" (New York, 1877); 
"Death and Beyond" (1878); "On Amusements" 
(1880); "The Blessed Man" (1887); "American 
Heroes on Mission Fields " ; and " The Bible and 
Current Thought " (New York. 1890). 

HAY.MONl), Creed, lawyer, b. in Beverly, FJan- 
dolph CO., Va., 22 April, 1836. When sixteen he 
crossed the plains with a party to California. On 
his arrival he engaged in business in northern 
Sierra county until 1859, when he began the study 
of the law, and on being admitted to the bar soon 
took high rank in his profession. He was cap- 
tain of the Sierra Grays, and went with his com- 
pany into the field under Col. Jack Hays in the 
spring of 1860 against the Indians of Nevada 
after the Pyramid Lake ma-ssaere. He was also 
colonel of the 1st artillery regiment of the 
California National guard. He served as chair- 
man of the cMxie commission of the state, and, 
with his associates, prepared the first complete 
cfxle that was adopteu by any state in the Union. 
He subsequently was a member for two terms of 
the senate of Califoniia. While connected with 
the chief civil suits of the state, he also served as 
counsel in many criminal cases. He defended 
Shepardson, charged with the highway roblwry of 
Wells, Fargo & Co., and on the third trial ob- 
tained an acquittal. Liiter he conducted the cases 
of the men known as the More murderers in San 
Buenaventura, and saved all his clients from the 
gallows, and all but one from the penitentiary. In 
the noted railroad tax cases he for the first time 
raised the question of the protecting influence 
and power of the 14tli amendment of the U. S. 
constitution against the discriminating exercise 
of powers by a state as between citizens or prop- 
erty of the same class, and contended that a 
state could not di.soriininate in the matter of 
taxation as between citizens holding the same 
class of property, nor as to property of the same 
class, because of its ownership by citizens or 
associations of citizens. While this position has 
not yet l>een aflirmed by the U. S. supreme court, 
it has Vieen aiiproved "by the California circuit 
court and bv the courts of seven other states. 

HAYS, riarry Thompson, soldier, b. in Wil- 
kinson county. Miss., 14 April. 1820; cl. in New Or- 
leans. 21 Aug.. 1876. He was eilucated at Mount 
St. Mary's college, Maryland, and afterward 
studied law in Baltimore. He began practice in 
New Orleans in 1844, but later abandoned the law 
and joined his brother. Col. Jack Hays, in the 
Texas rangers for service in the Mexican war. 
At the close of the war he returned to New Or- 
leans, and resumed practice as a lawjer. He was 
a member of the Louisiana constitutional conven- 




tion of 1853. He entered the Confederate service 
as colonel of the 6th Louisiana infantry, and was 
appointed brigadier-general in the Confederate 
army in July, 1862, and major-general in JIarch, 
1865. His brigade was composed of the 5th. 6th, 
7th, 8th, and 9tli Louisiana regiments of infantry, 
Early's division, Jackson's corps. Army of north- 
ern Virginia. He returned to New Orleans wlien 
the war ended, and resumed the practice of law, 
but was chosen sheriff of New Orleans, and served 
out his term, when he again returned to tlie law, 
which he continued until his deatli. 

HAYS, James Bnchaiiaii, jurist, b. in Craw- 
ford county. Pa., 10 Sept., 1838 ; d. in Boise City, 
Idaho, 31 May, 1888. He was educated at the 
University of Wisconsin, adopted the ()rofession 
of law, and for four years was clerk of the circuit 
court of Dodge county. He was district attorney 
in 1874r-'83, and in 1885-'8 cliiet justice of the su- 
preme court of Idaho. Among tlie important 
cases in which he rendered decisions was tliat of the 
Mormon test oath case, in which lie held tliat the 
law was constitutional that prevented members of 
that sect from holding office and voting, and the 
interesting Excelsior mining case. 

HAYWARl), Monroe Leiaiid, senator, b. in 
Willsborough, N. V., 33 Dec, 1840; d. in Nebraska 
City, 5 Dee.. 181)9. In May, 1861, he enlisted in the 
23d New York infantry ; later he was transferred 
to the 5th cavalry, and in December, 1863, he was 
discharged because of disabilities arising from 
sickness. He returned home, and studied at the 
Fort Edward collegiate institute, where he was 
graduated in 1866. His father had removed to 
Wisconsin, whither the son followed, and studied 
law at Whitewater ; in 1867 he moved to Nebraska, 
and settled at Nebraska City. In 1875 he was 
a member of the state constitutional convention, 
and in 1887 he served for a time as judge of the 
district court, filling out the remainder of a term 
by appointment from the governor. He Inis been 
chairman of five state conventions, and in 1898 
he was the candidate of the Republican party for 
governor ; he was defeated, although he cut down 
the fusion |)Iurality from 21,000 to 3,000. In 
March, 1899. he was elected U. S. senator for six 
years. Of his two sons, one, Edwin P., is a surgeon 
in the U. S. army, and the second, William II., a 
lawyer, served as captain in the 3d Nebraska regi- 
ment during the war with Spain in 1898. 

HEAP, Samuel D., diplomatist, b. in Carlisle, 
Pa., May, 1781 ; d. in June, 1851. He was graduated 
at Dickinson college in 1801, studied medicine and 
surgery with Dr. Philip S. Physick and Dr. lienja- 
min Rush, and was appointed surgeon to the U. S. 
navy, but, after serving for several years, resigned, 
and became charge d'affaires in Tunis, where he 
effected a most advantageous change in the U. S. 
treaty with that country, causing to be expunged 
from it articles that for more than a quarter of a 
century had been a standing disgrace to our flag, 
and a source also of frequent humiliating litiga- 
tion and expense. He obtained an alteration in 
the 14th article, to procure which was thought to 
be of sufficient importance by a former adminis- 
tration to send commissioners and offer a consider- 
able sum, but without having been successful. 
These advantages were secured without the sacri- 
fice of a single dollar. .Since the ratification in 
1825 of this change in the treaty, the U. S. vessels, 
on arriving in the ports of the regency of Tunis, have 
been saluted with 21 guns without being subjected 
to the disgrace of paying a barrel of powder for 
each gun, which had previously been required. 
Mr. Heap's two sons, Gwin Harris (q. v.) and David 

Porter, served in the civil war, as did also his 
nephews. Admiral Porter and Commodores William 
and Henry Porter, and the husbands of two of Iiis 
nieces and a grand-niece. Admirals Nicholson and 
Emmons^and Commodore Marchand. 

HEBERT, Louis, soldier, b. in Iberville par- 
isli, Ija., 12 March, 1830. The family of Valery 
Ilebert, his father, were among the first settlers of 
Iberville, and his ancestor Louis Hebert, after 
whom he was named, was one of tlie founders of 
the city of (Quebec. He was a graduate of Jeffer- 
son college of t?t. James parish, and soon after his 
graduation entered the military academy, and was 
made brevet lieutenant of engineers in July, 184.5. 
He resigned from the army the following year. 
He served two terms in the senate of Louisiana, 
and was engineer of the state. He was commis- 
sioned colonel of the 3d Louisiana infantry in the 
Confederate army in 1861. and brigadier-general 
in May, 1862. He commanded the 2d brigade, 1st 
division. Army of the west, composed of the 3d 
Louisiana and the 14th and 17th Arkansas regi- 
ments of infantry, Whitfield's Texas legion. Greer's 
regiment of dismounted cavalry, and McDonald's 
light battery of artillery. Afterward he com- 
manded a brigade in Maury's division. Army of 
the west. He is a representative of the old French 
or Creole people of Louisiana, and is still active in 
tiie management of his sugar plantation. 

HEITFIELI), Henry, senator, b. in St. Louis, 
Mo., 12 Jan., 1859, received his early education in 
the schools of that city, and removed to Kansas, 
whore he continued to reside till 1882, in which 
year he went to the state of Washington. In the 
following year he emigrated to Idaho, where he 
still resides, engaged in farming and stock-raising. 
Mr. Heitfield was elected to the state senate in 
1894, being re-elected in 1896. During the follow- 
ing year he was elected as a Populist to the U. S. 
senate, his term of office expiring in March, 1903. 

HENDERSON. David Bremner, statesman, b. 
in Old Deer, Scotland, 14 March, 1840. He ac- 
companied his family to Illinois in 1846, and three 
years later to Iowa. He was graduated at Upper 
Iowa university, studied law in Dubuque, and 
was admitted to 
the bar in 1865. 
He enlisted as a 
private in the 12th 
regiment, Iowa in- 
fantry, in Septem- 
ber, "1861, being 
elected and com- 
missioned 1st lieu- 
tenant of Company 
C, and serving with 
it until discharged, 
owing to the loss 
of a leg. in Febru- 
ary, 1863. He re- 
entered the army 
as colonel of the 
46th Iowa infan- 
try, continuing as 
such until the close of the civil war. Col. Ilcnder- 
son was collector of internal revenue from 1865 to 
1869, when he resigned to become a member of a law 
firm. He was elected to the 48ih congress as a Re- 
publican, and is still a member of the house. He 
was elected speaker as successor to Thomas B. Reed, 
December, 1899, defeating James B. Richardson. 
Democratic candidate, by a majority of twenty- 
four. He is a member of the Loyal legion, and ac- 
tive in the management of the Society of the army 
of Tennessee at its annual meetings in the west. 






HENDRIX, Eugene Russell, M. E. bishop, b. 
in Fayette, Mo., 17 ilay, 1847. He was graduated 
at Wesleyan. and at l/nioii theological seminary. 
New York, in 1809, and after holding several pas- 
torates in the Methodist church, south, became in 
1878 president of Central college, Fayette, Mo. 
In 1886 he was made a bishop. In 1878 he re- 
ceived the degree of D. D. from Emory college, 
Ga. Dr. Hendrix declined the vice-chancellorship 
of Vanderbilt university in 188o, and also the 
presidency of the University of Missouri. He was 
chairman of the committee to arrange for the cen- 
tennial celebration of organized American Meth- 
odism in behalf of the church, south, when $2,000,- 
000 were raised as a thank-offering. He was a 
delegate to the cecumenical conference in London 
in 1881, and to the centennial conference in Balti- 
more in 1884, and a member of the general confer- 
ences of 1883 and 1886. He made a missionary 
tour of the world in 1876-'7 with Bishop Marvin 
of .St. I^uis, and on his return puhlishetl " Around 
the World " (N'ashville, Tenn., 1878). 

HENNESSY, John Joseph, H. C. bishop, b. 
near Cloyne, Cork co., Ireland, 19 July, 1847. Ar- 
riving in the Inited States with his family when 
young, he received his classical education at the 
college of the Christian brothers at St. Louis, Mo., 
and grmhiated in 1803. He completed his theo- 
logical course at the Salesianuni, Milwaukee, at 
Cape Girardeau he made his philosophy, and re- 
turning to the Sidesianum in 1866. and having 
been a professor there, was ordained a priest in 
1869 by dispenssation, being then under the canon- 
ical age. His first mission covered fen counties 
of Jlissouri, with his headquarters at Iron moun- 
tain, and he built a inimlwr of churches. In 1877 
he cstalilished the I'rsulinc convent at Arcadia, 
in 1878 was app<>inte<l procurator and vice-presi- 
dent of the boaril of managers of the St. Louis 
protectory, and in February, 1880, he »uecec<led 
Archbishop Ryan as pastor of St. John's church, 
St. Louis. He founde<l a reformatory school at 
Glencoe. He was appointeil bishop of Wichita, 
Kan., ami was (•onse<'ratcd in November, 1888. 

HEPBl'RN. Wniiam Peter, congressman, b. 
in Wellsville. Columbiana co., Ohio, 4 Nov., 183.3. 
As a child he was taken by his family to Iowa, 
and sent to the schools of the then territory. He 
studied law. and was admitted to the bar, served 
during the civil war in the 3il Iowa cavalry, reach- 
ing the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He was a dele- 
gate to the Republican national conventions of 
18<M) and 1888, and was a presidential clector-at- 
large for Iowa in 1876 and in 1888. He was sent 
to the 47th congress, and has been re-elected five 
times, receiving for the 55th congress 34.786 votes as 
against 23.960 votes for the candidate nominated 
by both the Democratic and Populist conventions. 
In SeptemlH'r. 1899, Col. Hepburn delivered an 
exceedingly elo<)uent oration at the opening of 
the I'hiliidelphia exjiort exposition. 

IIKKItKRT. Hilary Ahner, statesman, b. at 
LHurensvillc, .S. C, 12 March, 1834. When a 
schoolboy, he removed with his father's family to 
Greenville, Ala. In 1853 he entered the Univer- 
sity of Alabama, and on leaving it he went to the 
University of Virginia, and after a two years' 
course returned home, studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar. When Alabama seceded, he 
joined the southern army in V'irginia as a captain 
in the 8th Alabama regiment. He was wounded 
and captured at the battle of Fair Oaks, having 
won the commission of major. Within two months 
he was exchanged and again entereil active service. 
In 1863 he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel of 


the 8th Alabama, and became colonel in 1864. In 
the battle of the Wilderness he was wounded, and 
was borne by his men from the field. Upon the 
surrender of Lee he resumed the practice of law at 
Greenville. In 1873 he removed to Montgomery, 
was elected to the 4oth congress in 1876, and was 
re-elected to the 47th congress and placed upon 
the ways and means committee. He was made 
chairman of the naval committee in the 49th con- 
gress, which position he filled until his appoint- 
ment as secretary of the navy, 4 March, 1893, ex- 
cept in the 51st congress, when Charles A. Bou- 
telle. Republican, was chairman, Mr. Herbert 
being first on the Democratic side. He now re- 
sides in Washington. In 1888 he wrote for a 
Democratic campaign book a history of the efl'orts 
to increase the navy. He also edited a volume, 
published two years later, entitled " Why the Solid 
South, or Reconstruction and its Results." 

HERBERT, Ivor Caradoc, British soldier, b. 
in Llanarth. Monmouth co.. England. 15 July. 1851. 
He entered the Grenadier guards, o Nov., 1870, and 
became colonel, 18 Aug., 1889, was brigade-major 
of the home district from 35 Feb. to 31 July. 1883, 
went to Egypt as brigade-major in August of that 
year, and later resumed his old post. In November, 

1885, he became commandant of the school for aux- 
iliary forces, Wellington barracks, and in April, 

1886, he accepted the post of military attache at St. 
Petersburg. He was present at the action of Maju- 
ba and at Tel-el-Kebir in 1882 ; was mentioned in 
despatches, and received medal with clasp, bronze 
star, and onler of the Medjidie. In the Nile ex- 
pedition of 1884-'5 he was present at the action 
of Abu-Klea, with the guards' camel-corps, for 
which he received two clasps. In November, 1890, 
he was apfminted major-general commanding the 
militia of Canada, and introduced many reforms 
in that service, though several of his improvements 
were subje('te<l to harsh criticism. Gen. Herbert 
resigned, and returned to England in the autumn 
of 1X95. rejoining his regiment there. 

HERBERT OF LEA, Elizabeth. Baroness, 
philanthropist, b. in England about 1H25. She is 
the only daughter of Lieut.-Gen. Charles Ashe 
A'Court and niece of Lord Heytesbury. and on 12 
Aug.. 1846. marrie<l .Sidney Herbert, second son of 
the eleventh earl of Pembroke. Her husband was 
created Baron Herbert of Lea, 15 Jan., 1801, held 
for some time the secretaryship of state for war, 
and died, 2 Aug., 1861. His elder brother died 
childless, and I^ady Herbert's eldest son, George 
Robert Charles, succeeded to the earldom of Pem- 
broke in 1863. La<ly Herbert has passed many 
years in the West Indies in philanthropic labors 
among the negroes, and came to this country in 
1888 tie work among the colored people of the 
sf)Uth, seeking their conversion to Roman Catholi- 
cism. — Her son. Michel Henry, b. 25 June, 1857, 
as attaelii ot the British legation at Washington, 
liecame acting minister in November. 1888. on the 
dismissal of Lord Sackville, and on the 27th of 
that month he married an American. 

HERDIC, Peter, inventor, b. near Fort Plain, 
N. v., in 1824: d. in New York city. 3 March, 
1888. He removed to Bradford county. Pa., when 
he was a youth, aided his mother in clearing a few 
acres of uncultivated land there, and in 1846 
bought a tract of pine land in the forest of Ly- 
coming county. Settling in Williamsport. he 
aided in increasing that town from 5,000 inhabi- 
tants to 35.000, became the owner of its sewers, 
gas-works, street-railways, bridges, and hotels, and 
at a cost of $80,000 erected Trinity church, which 
he gave to its congregation. He failed with large 




liabilities in 1879, removed to Philadelphia, and 
organized the llerdic coach company, inventing 
the cab or omnibus that is known by liis name, 
which soon became popular, and in a measure re- 
stored his fortunes. Mr. llerdic invested in saw- 
mills during iiis career in Williamsport, and in- 
Tented what is known as the " boom," by wliieh logs 
are floated down stream and caught in a blockade, 
doing awav with the expensive raft system. 

HERNDON, William Henry, b. in Greens- 
burg, Ky., 25 Dec, 1818; d. near Springfield, 111., 
18 March, 1891. His parents emigrated from Vir- 
ginia about 1808 to Green county, Ky. ; in 1821 
tiiey removed to Illinois and settled near Spring- 
field. His fatlier, Archer G. Ilerndon, was at one 
time elected to the legislature of Illinois, being a 
colleague of Abraham Lincoln from Sangamon 
county. The son when not attending school as- 
sisted his father in his si ore, and spent one year at 
the Illinois college at Jacksonville. Returning 
home, he entered the employ of Joshua P. Speed, 
whose store was the favorite resort of Mr. Lin- 
coln, Stephen A. Douglas, Edward D. Baker, and 
other young men who became famous. In 1841 
he began the study of law in the office of Lincoln 
and Stephen T. Logan, was admitted to the bar 
and became the former's partner in 1848, and re- 
mained such till Lincoln's death. A student not 
only of law, but of political economy, psychology, 
and general literature, Mr. Herndon was of great 
assistance to Lincoln. They travelled the circuit, 
and togetlier gained an extensive practice as law- 
yers in central Illinois. In 1853 Herndon was 
elected clerk and in 1855 mayor of the city of 
Springfield ; was a candidate for presidential elec- 
tor on the Fremont ticket in the campaign of 1856 ; 
was appointed bank commissioner for Illinois in 
1857, holding that office till it was abolished in 
18G8-'4. In the campaigns of 1856, '60, and '64 
Mr. Herndon canvassed Illinois for the Kepubli- 
can ticket. Although offered an appointment to 
office by President Lincoln he declined it, and con- 
tinued the practice of law till 1872, when he retired 
from the profession and moved to his farm, six 
miles from Springfield. In the religious world he 
was known as a free-thinker, and frequently ap- 
pealed in the press of the day in advocacy of his 
liberal views. In 1865 he began the collection of 
material for a life of Lincoln, whicli in 18S5-'9, 
with the assistance of Jesse W. Weik, was pub- 
lished under the title of " Herndon's Lincoln. 

HERRESHOPF, John Brown, boat-builder, 
b. in Bristol, K. I., in 1841. He comes of an old 
Rliode Island family which for generations has 
sent its sons to sea. It was an ancestor of his, 
John Brown, that provided the boats for the men 
that burned the " Gaspee," and one of the sliips of 
this same John Brown was the first vessel to 
carry the Stars and Stripes to China. With such 
hereditary influences Jolni Brown Herreshoff natu- 
rally took an early interest in boats. When scarcely 
in liis teens he had become an expert sailor, but 
at the age of fifteen he became blind. This mis- 
fortune, however, did not drive liim away from 
his beloved boats. A hand of wonderful delicacy 
of touch and a memory of wonderful capacity for 
details stood him in stead of his eyes. His history 
from this time on is really the history of the 
Herreshoff manufacturing company, of which he 
became president, and tlie history of the boats de- 
signed and built by the company. In the con- 
struction and building of these boats his name is 
closely linked with that of his brother, Nathaniel 
G., b. in Bristol, R. 1., about 1848. He studied at 
the Massachusetts institute of technology in 1866- 

'9, and then underwent an apprenticeship at the 
Corliss engine-works in Providence, where he 
heljied build the great engine that sujjiilied the 
motive power for the machinery at the Centennial 
exposition in Philadel|ihia. This training he sup- 
plemented bv a course of engineering abroad, 
where he visited many of the best-equipped ship- 
yards in Europe. U'pon his return he devoted 
himself to his business, giving his attention to 
the designing of steam vessels as well as sailing 
yachts. He has given si)ecial care to the con- 
struction and design of ihe machinery in on 
the boats built by the company, his coil boiler 
being perhaps one of the best known and most 
characteristic of his inventions. In 1876 he de- 
signed and built for the U. S. naval school at 
Newport a torpedo-boat, the " Lightning," cafia- 
ble of making twenty miles an hour. At that 
time no other firm in the country made a Sfmcialty 
of high-speed machinery, and for this reason the 
government placed a staff of naval officers at the 
Herreshoff shops to experiment along that line. 
Another early steamboat designed by him was 
the " Stiletto " ; later came the torpedo-boat 
"Gushing," the "Now Then," "Henrietta," and 
" Vamoose," to mention only a few. One of his 
earliest designs for sailing craft was the " Shad- 
ow." The boat that gave him the greatest fame 
was perhaps the " Gloriana," a forty-six-footer, 
launched in 1891, which with her raking stem and 
overhang stern marked an important st«p in yacht 
architecture. The " Waj<p," in the following sea- 
son, showed an advance in speed even on that 
swift boat. Then came the " Vigilant," designed 
as a defender of the " America's" cup in 1893, the 
■• Defender " in 189.5, and the " Columbia " in 1899. 

HERRICK, George Frederic, missionary, b. 
in Milton, Vt., 19 April, 1834. He was graduated 
at the University of V^ermont in 1856 and at An- 
dover theological seminary in 1859, and went at 
once as a missionary of the American board to 
Turkey. A large part of his life since that time 
has been spent in Constantinople, where he has 
been much engaged in literary work for the mis- 
sion. He was one of the revisers of the Turkish 
translation of the Bil)le. and has publislied in Turk- 
isli commentaries on Matthew, Mark, and The Acts. 
In 1870-'3 he was professor of church history in 
the theological seminary in Marsovan, Turkey, and 
in 1879 he was ap])ointed to the same chair there. 
The degree of D. I), was given him by the Univer- 
sity of Vermont. Dr. Herrick has also published 
in Turkish "History of the Christian Religion 
and Church " (Constantinople, 1873) and " Belief 
and Worship " (1878). 

HERSEY. Alfred dishing, merchant, b. in 
Hingham. Mass., 26 Nov., 1804 : d. in Boston, 8 
March, 1888. He received an academic education, 
settled in Boston, and, with Horace Scudder and 
Barnabas Davis, was a lessee of commercial and 
mercantile wharves, becoming their largest owner. 
He was also interested in the shipping business, 
owning shares in forty vessels. He built the South 
Shore railroad between Braintree and Cohasset 
and was its first president, was one of the original 
owners and directors of the Boston and Hingham 
steamboat company, and was heavily interested in 
cotton-mills in New Hampshire. Mr. llersey was 
the last of the old school of Boston merchants and 
wharfingers, an active Republican politician, and 
a public-spirited citizen. 

HESLIN, Thomas, R. C. bishop, b. in the par- 
ish of Killoe, Longford eo., Ireland, in April, 1847. 
He accepted the call of Archbishop Odin to New 
Orleans in 1863, and with several other students 




and some priests whom he joined at Havre, France, 
came to New Orleans with Bishop Dubuis. He 
studied philosophy and theologjr at Bouligny 
seminary under tlie Lazarist fathers at New Or- 
leans, tauglit at St. Jlury's college, Jefferson, and 
at the Carrollton parish school, until ordained a 
priest in 18(59, at Mobile, Ala., but was attached 
to the archdiocese of New Orleans. He performed 
|>arochial work for over fifteen years successively 
as assistant priest at the Xew Orleans cathedral, 
St. Vincent de Paul's church, and at St. Patrick's, 
and as pastor at St. ^lichael's church for fifteen 
rears. He labored among colored people of the 
south, and built schools. He was appointed 
bishoi) of Natchez and consecrated as such by 
Archbishop Jaiissens in the cathedral of New Or- 
leans in 1889. Since he Itecame a bishop he has 
established non-Catholic missions by the aid of the 
Missionary union of New York, and commenced 
a sfiecial mission for the colored people. 

HEWITT, Johu Hill, author, b. in New York 
city, 11 July, 1801 ; d. in Baltimore, Md., 7 Oct., 
1890. He entered the U. S. military academy at 
West Point, and was one of the band of carets 
who attempted to blow up the buildings. Resign- 
ing from ttie army, he went to the south, where he 
studied law, and in 1823 he settled in Baltimore. 
In 18*1 the Baltimore "Saturday Visitor "offered 
a sum for a prize poem and tale. Hewitt carried 
off the former with •' The Song of the Wind," 
while Edgar Allan Poe secured the latter with "A 
Manuscript found in a Bottle." Each considered 
himself deserving of both prizes, and upon their 
meeting on the street they engaged in an encoun- 
ter, llcwilt published '• Miscellaneous Pfjems " 
(Baltimore 1838) ; wrote a comedy, " The Govern- 
ess," which was produced ; and composed the 
oratorio " Jcphthah's Daughter." He was also the 
author of " VV'ashington, or One Hundred Years," 
a play, and " Shadows on the Wall " (1877), which 
is a collection of personal reniiniscence.s. 

HEYWOOI), Charles, marine officer, b. in 
Maine, 3 Oct., 1839. He was ap{)ointed to the 
navy from New York, and received his commis- 
sion as 2d lieutenant in April, 1858. He was on 
duty in Washington, in Brooklyn, Staten island, 
where he was engaged in repressing the quaran- 
tine riots, on the frigate " Niagara," on the special 
service of transporting negroes back to Africa in 
September, 1858, and served also at Grevtown, 
where he had the specialduty of watching Walker, 
the iilibusterer. After service at various places 
he was present at the destruction of the Norfolk 
navy-yaril. He was promoted 1st lieutenant in 
May, 1881, and captam, 23 Nov. following. He 
was on boanl the "Cumberland" during its fight 
with the " Merrimac," and was specially mentioned 
for his bravery. He served throughout the civil 
war, was fleet marine officer on board the " Hart- 
ford," look part in the battle of Mobile bay, and 
the capture of Forts Morgan, Gaines, and Powcl, 
and other engagements in the gulf. For gallantry 
in presence of the enemy he was brcvetted major 
and lieutenant-colonel. After the war he was on 
duty at various land stations and on the Eurojiean 
and North Atlantic Meet stations. During July 
and August, 1877. he had command of a battalion 
of marines at Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Read- 
ing during the labor riots; for nis services he 
was honorably mentioned bv Major-Gen. Hancock. 
Subset! uently he sjiw si-rvice at Mare island, at 
Brooklyn, and at Washington. In 1885 he was 
sent with a detachment of marines to Panama; 
during the troubles on the isthmus his command 
rendered effective service. In 1888 he was pro- 

moted to lieutenant-colonel, and on 30 Jan., 1891, 
he was made commandant of the U. S. marine 
corps, with the rank of brigadier-general, and saw 
active service during the war with Spain. 

HICHBORN, Philip, naval constructor, b. in 
Charlestown, Mass.. 4 March, 1839. He was educat- 
ed in the Boston high-school, and then indentured 
to the government, under Mel vin Simmons, master 
shipwright of the Charlestown navy-yard. In July, 
1800, he went to California, and soon became mas- 
ter shipwright of the Mare island navv-vard. In 
1869 he was appointed assistant naval constructor, 
with the station rank of lieutenant in the navy. 
From California he was ordered to Portsmouth, 
N. H., in 1870, and five years later he was assigned 
to League island. Pa. In June, 1884, having re- 
ceived his commission as a naval constructor in 
1875, he was sent to Europe on special duty. Hich- 
born's report upon European dock- yards embodies 
the result of his investigations, anil has become a 
text-book among the profession. For si.t years he 
was a member of the board of inspection an(l sur- 
vey, of which Admiral D. D. Porter was president. 
In 1881 he was made a member of the first naval 
advisory board, and was prominently associated 
with all matters affecting the designing and con- 
struction of the new naval vessels. He has for many 
years been a member of the institution of naval 
architects in England. In 1884 he was ordered to 
the navy department as assistant chief of bureau, 
and in July, 1893, was api)ointed chief constructor 
of the navy, and rea|>pointe<l in 1897. Commo- 
dore Hichborn in 1890 prepared an important arti- 
cle upon "Sheathed or Unsheathed Snifis," which 
was published in the April number of " Proceed- 
ings of the Naval Institute " of that year. 

HICKSON, Sir Joseph, Canadian j-ailway man- 
ager, b. in 1830 in Kotterburn, Northumberland 
CO., England; d. in Slontreal, 4 Jan., 1877. He was 
educated at private schools, came to Canada in 
1862, in the capacity of chief accountant of the 
Grand trunk railway company. He rapidly rose 
from one grade to another until 1874, when he 
was appointed general manager of the line, with 
full powers. He proved a very successful adminis- 
trative and executive officer. He was president of 
the Michigan air line, and of the Chicago, Detroit 
and Canada grand trunk junction railroad ; vice- 
pre.sident of the Montreal and Champlain junction 
railway and of the International bridge company, 
Buffalo. He was also a director of the Central 
Vermont railway company. He was colonel in the 
Canadian volunteers, and in 1890 was knighted. 

HKJUINS, Anthony, senator, b. in Red Lion 
Hundred, Xew Castle co., Del.. 4 .May. 1840. He 
was graduated from Yale and from the Harvard 
law-school, Ijcing admitted to tlie bar in 1864. He 
was U. S. attorney-general for Delaware from 1869 
until 1876, was chairman of the Republican state 
committee in 1868, and received the votes of the 
Republican members of the legislature for the 
U. S. senate in 1881. Mr. Higgins was Republi- 
can candidate for congress in 1884, and was elect- 
ed to the senate to succeed Eli Salisburj-, Demo- 
crat, taking his seat in March, 1889. His term of 
office expired in 1895, and he was succeeded by 
Richard R. Kennev. Senator Higgins received in 
1891 the (lef;rce i.r'LL. I), fmui Yale. 

HIGINItOTHAM, Harlow Nlles, merchant, 
b. in Jolict, HI., 10 Oct., 1838. He was e<lucated in 
Lombard university, at Galesburg, and the Com- 
mercial college in Chicago; began business life in 
the Conntv bank at Joliet, and after rising to the 
position of cashier went to Chicago in April, 1861, 
entering the house of Cooley, Farwell & Co. In 




Aiigiist, 1862, he enlisted as a private in the Jler- 
cantile battery of Chicago, serving until Deocinber, 
1864; lie then took a position with the firm of 
Field, Palmer & Leiter, and was advanced by them 
and their successors until, in 1878, he became a part- 
ner in the house of Marshall Field & Co., being 

placed in charge 
of the credits of 
the concern, a 
position calling 
for the most on- 
erous and deli- 
cate duties. Not- 
withstanding his 
business engage- 
ments, Mr. llig- 
inbotham has de- 
voted much time 
to public affairs 
as president or 
trustee of vari- 
ous institutions, 
and as chairman 
of the execu- 
tive cominitteeof 
t he Field Colum- 
bian museum, to 
which he has 
been a munifi- 
cent donor. He became a celebrity by his un- 
solicited and unanimous election to the presidency 
of the World's Columbian exposition when its 
affairs were in a critical condition. The success 
of the exposition was largely due to his great 
capacity and untiring devotion. 

HILDRETH, Charles Lotin, poet, b. in New 
York city, 38 Aug., 1856; d. there in 1896. He 
was educated in the College of the city of New 
York, studied medicine, and practised surgery 
for four years. Owing to financial troubles in the 
family, he was in his sixteenth year compelled to 
support himself by his pen while at college as 
well as while studying medicine and surgery. He 
published in his eighteenth year" Arts and Artists 
in America," followed by "Judith: A Novel," 
" The New Symphony," and other works. His 
first poem appeared in his fifteenth year, and he 
contributed poetry constantly to magazines. His 
collected poems were published in 1888 under the 
title of " The Masque of Heath." This was fol- 
lowed by "01, the Mysterious City," and otiier 
works. He became one of the editors of " Bel- 
ford's Magazine." and contributed many poems, 
articles, and reviews to that and other periodicals, 
also contributing articles to encyolopicdias, and 
edited several volumes of English verse. He was 
a descendant of Richard Hildreth, who emigrated 
from England in 164;j, and a nephew of Richard 
Hildreth, the well-known historian {q. v.). 

HILL, Brittoii Armstrong, lawyer, b. in Blil- 
ford, Hunterdon co., N. J., 7 Dec, 1816; d. in St. 
Louis, 31 Oct., 1888. He was educated at Ogdens- 
burg, N. Y., admitted to the bar of Albany, and 
after practising two years in Ogdensburg settled 
in Missouri, and established a successful practice in 
St. Louis, devoting himself specially to land prac- 
tice and insurance, and railroad cases. In 1861-'5 
he was a partner, with Thomas Ewing and Orville 
H. Browning in the legal firm of Ewing, Hill & 
Browning, in Washington, D. C, but he returned 
to St. Louis, and resumed practice in that city. 
During the civil war ho ardently supported the 
National cause, and was an organizer of the Union 
leagues of St. Louis and other towns in Missouri. 
He has devoted much time and study to the reform 

and perfection of the constitution of the state and 
National governments, to abolishing the system of 
granting to railroad corporations the public high- 
ways, with unlimited power to tax freight and 
passengers, and to establishing the greenback sys- 
tem of finance. On that subject his opinions in 
his work " Absolute Money " (St. Ijouis, 1875) were 
sustained by the decision of the supreme court of 
the United States in 1884, declaring the greenback 
to be a legal tender. His other works are " Lib- 
erty and Law Under Federative Government" 
(1873) and "Gold, Silver, and Paper" (1877). 

HILL, John Henry, missionary, b. in New 
York citT in 1791 ; d. in Athens, Greece, 1 July, 
1883. He was graduated at Columbia in 1807, 
studied at the Protestant Episcopal theological 
seminary, Alexandria, Va., was ordained deacon 
in 1830 and priest in 1831, and the same year was 
sent to Athens as a missionary. In July, 1832, 
with his wife, he established a girls' school in that 
city, which they successfully conducted for half a 
century. He became chaplain of the British lega- 
tion in 1845, and held that post for many years. 
Harvard gave him the degree of D. D. in 1856, and 
Columbia that of LL. D. in 1868. Dr. Hill trans- 
lated devotional and other books into modem 
Greek. In recognition of his services in the edu- 
cation of the women of Athens, he was buried 
with the honors of a taxiarch, by special orders 
of the government, and the municipality of Athens 
erected a marble column over his grave. See 
"Service Commemorative of his Life and Work, 
with Memorial Sermon, by Rt. Rev. William Ba- 
con Stevens" (New York, 1883). 

HILLEBRANl), »'illinni Francis, chemist, 
b. in Honolulu, Hawaiian islands, 13 Dec, 1853. 
He was educated at Cornell and Heidelberg, re- 
ceiving the degree of Ph. D. at the latter institu- 
tion, after which he studied in the chemical labo- 
ratories in the universities in Strasburg and Frei- 
burg. In 1878 he returned to this country, and in 
1879 opened an assay office in Leadville. Col., but 
a year later entered the service of the U. S. geo- 
logical survey, and in 1880 was sent to Denver to 
establish a cliemical laboratory for the Rocky 
Mountain division of the survey. For five years 
he remained in charge of this laboratory, and then 
was transferred to the chief laboratory in Wash- 
ington, where he has since remained. His most 
important chemical researches have been the me- 
tallic separation of cerium, lanthanum, and the 
original didymium, the determination of the 
specific heats of the above metals, the detection 
of nitrogen in the various varieties of uraninite, 
which led to the discovery that the gas was a mix- 
ture, the major part of the supposed nitrogen 
being helium. The results of these researches 
have been published in " Liebig's Annalen"and 
" Poggendorff's Annalen " abroad, and in this 
country in the "American Journal of Science," 
the " Proceedings of the Colorado Scientific So- 
ciety," the "American Chemical Journal," and 
the " Journal of the " American Chemical Society." 
Dr. Hillebrand is a memberof the American chem- 
ical society and other scientific organizations. 

HILLERN, Bertha \on, artist, b. in Treves, 
Germany. 4 Aug., 1857. She came to this country 
in 1877, and for two years devoted her time to ad- 
vocating athletic exercises for women, apiiearing 
in public as a pedestrian. She then devoted her- 
self to tlie study of art, wliich she has since pur- 
sued as a profession in Boston. Among her pic- 
tures are "The Monk Felix," from Longfellow's 
" Golden Legend " ; " Evening Praver at the Way-' 
side Shrine, Germany " (1883) ; " I'he Conversion 




of the Heathen General Plaeidus, by a Miracle 
while Hunting" (1885); " Live-Oak Forest in the 
Ojai Valley, California" (1887); "St. Paul, the 
First Hennit," and •' A Walk through the Pine 
Barrens, Florida " (1888). In 1888 she exhibited a 
large number of landscapes in Boston. 

HILLYAR, Sir James, British admiral; b. in 
Portsea, Hants, 29 Oct.. 1769 ; d. at Torr Point, 
Devonshire, 10 July, 1843. He entered the navy 
in 1779 on board the " Chatham," and was in 
her at the capture of the " Magicienne" off Bos- 
ton, 2 Sept., 1781. After