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OovTiltht. IBSB, laoa, ISBT, im, bj a, J. Jobomm Oa 
Copjrilcht, ISO], bj D. Appleton aad Compuv 














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i, u in faU. Q, M in fmU. 

t, u in fat. fi, u in »iit. 

. i, M Id /oil. It, prodnoed with lip« rounded to nttnr oo and 
fi, OS io father. tongue placed u in uttering «. 

i, H in u^art. A, u in bum or iurg. 

e, M in metl. ^_ u in Oeraian Uh. 

.' . I ' , , -r, L klL M cA in Oerman naeht and Bcotcit loeh, and 
e, as m A#r and eu in French -«wr. , ^ ^ 

' as p in Oeniuui taf. 

I, sa in jfw. th, as in thin. 

i, M ia tt. th, aa in thotigh. 

as in tober *' ^^""^ '^"^ ** *"^ ™! P«>no«noe onj, *n^, 

A as in not *'''^' ***'* '" ^'^'■^ "?' ''^' wituout sound- 

6, as in/DoI or flwon, or as « in nJa. "« **■* '" 

8, as in foot. H, Spanish o-y, as in caflon ; French and Italian 

,fl, at in CfiOie and eu in French nAj^, — gn, as in Boulogne. 

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Sii'tMB ttt Chai^t;. Sm Chabttt, Sisttss 

SUten of Hei'cy, Boman Catholic siiter- 
hood, foonded ^.t Dublin, 1627, by MiM Ckth- 
erine UeAuky. Th« rule is aimilar to that 
of the PreaentBition nuns. OrlEin^ly each 
coiiT«iit was independent, but offabooti from 
the pttrent house, eapeaially outside of Ire- 
land, are nmall;' mbject to it. , These reli- 
ffioDS women are under the jurisdiction of the 
kical bishop. They were introduced into the 
U. 8. in 1843, at Pittsburg. They have more 
than 200 oonvents, and are occupied in the 
conduct of parochial schools, acadmuiss, hoa- 
pitali, and homes for the o^d. 

Si'Tphni, in Grecian mythology, son of 
iGolua, father of Olancus, grandfather of Bel- 
lerophon, and king and founder of Corinth. 
Because of his deceitful wickedness Zeus aent 
Death to take him to Hades; but Sisyphus 
bound Death and held him prisoner, so that 
no one died until Death was released by Atm. 
For this reason (though other reasons also 
are KiTen) Sisyphus was doomed to roll to 
the wp of a mountain rock, which always 
broke away from him just as the top waa 
being reaened. 

XViM. (formerly New Abchangbl), former 
capital of Alaska Territory, on Baranof Is- 
land, near the Pacific. It has a harbor that 
is deep and commodious, but is difficult of 
approach. It was founded by the Kussians in 
tbe eighteenth century, but consisted, when 
transferred to the U. 8^ 1B6T, of only 100 log 
huts. Sinoa then several large 'edinces have 
been built. Pt^ (1910) 1,039. In 1900 Ju- 
neau became the capital of Alaska. 

Siftfaqc BnH (Indian name, Tataitka To- 
TAKKA), IS3T-90; Sioux chief and medicine 
man; became tbe leader of the unruly mem- 
bers of his tribe, who massacred whites at 
Spirit Lake, Iowa, and In Minnesota 1862, 
and were driven by Oen. Sully into the Big 
Horn r^on and to the Yellowstone, 1S64. 
They wen defeated on the Uuscle Shell River, 
1B6S; were placed on a reservation in the 
Black Hills, from which they were driven by 
miners, I87S; refused to be transported to tbe 
Indian Torritoryj «lcw a party of troops un- 
der Qm. Custer. On being pursued by Oen. 
Terry, Sitting Bull SlpI some of his followers 


escaped into Canada. Hs surrendered on « 
promise of pardon IBBO, and returned to Da- 
kota, but fomented trouble, and In the Indian 
rising in IBQO he was killed. 

Si'va, or Shiva, a Hindu god, the " Destrmrer 
and R^enerator," member of the Hindu Trl- 
murtt or triad of divinities, with Brahma, 
the " creator," and Vishnu, the " preserver." 
He sppears Under many names, attributes, uid 
funcUons. As the Destroyer he is represented 
hj Budro. Aa the Regenerator or Beproducer 
his symliol is the linga or phallus, and under 
this he is worshiped. He represents the con- 
templative and ascetic aide of Hinduism. Ha 
is represented aa sitting absorbed in thought, 
naked, and smeared with funereal ashes, with 
matted bur, and a necklace of human skulls 
and bones. He baa three eyes, and fire from 
them eonaumes those who interrupt his devo- 

Sivathe'iinm, extinct genus of ruminants 
from the Siwalik Hilla, India, remarkable for 
their size and peculiar borna. Bivalhenum 
Siganteum nearly equaled the elephant in siae, 
and was armed with ttro pairs of horns, a 
small pair on the anterior part of tbe head 
and a larger pair on the top. 

Six-prln'clple Bap'tlsts, a sect of American 
Christians who tales as their creed the prin- 
ciples laid down in Hebrews vi, 1, 2: (1) re- 
pentance, (2) faith, (3} baptisms (of repen- 
tance, of fire, and of Christ's au&erinsa), (4) 
laying on of handa, (5) the resurrection, (6) 
the eternal judgment. There are in the U. S. 
(IQOBj abt. SeO communicants and 12 churches. 

Slx'tns, the name of Ave popes; the most 
important follow: Sixtub IV (Francesco della 
Roverc), 1414-64; entered the Franciscan or- 
der; attracted notice by his eloquence and 
learning; became the close friend of Cardinal 
Besaarion, through whose influence, it is said, 
he was chosen pope 1471. Be built the Sistine 
bridge and the Sistine chapeL He was munif- 
icent in his patronage of arts and letters. 
He used his influence to advance relatives, 
and was unfortunate in some of his political 
affiliations. Sirrus V (Felice Peretti), 1521- 
90; one of the abteat of the popes; entered the 
order of the Franciscans; taught canon law 
at Rimini and at Siena, and became a car- 
dinal in 1G70. His ambition s«emed to go no 


further. E« lived qiiietif, auA gave iht im- 
prewion of being a mem cmt to lead. The 
cardinalB, thinking be would l>e mild and in- 
dulgent, elected nim, but he threw oS all 
eoaeeatoient of the natural energy of charac- 
ter, and began vigoroue refonna. Hia aim 
was to raise the papal see to its former splen- 
dor, and hia political negotiations show his 
capacity for Btatefunanship. He suppraeoed the 
banditti, encouraged trade, and enforced the lav 
in his states. 

Skagemk' (formeriy Seager-Rack), an arm 
of the North Sea, 80 nu broad, between Nw- 
way and Jutland, connecting the German Ocean 
with the Catt£gat or Katt^at. It came into 
special prominence as a part of the area of the 
grwt naral battle between the British and Qei^ 
man fleets in the battle of Jutland Bank, May 
31-June 1, 1916. 

aifecies of the genus 

tAie skeleton is cartilaginous, the body much 
depressed and more or lesj approaching to a 
rhomboidal form. The common skate agrees 
with other members of the genus in possess- 
ing a flat, broad body, the chief portion of 
which is made up of the expanded pectoral 
fins, which are concealed, in a manner, under 
the skin. The tail is long and slender; the 
snout pointed, with a prominent ridge or keel. 
The teeth are arranged in a mosaic or pave- 
mentlike pattern. The fish, although common- 
ly seen of moderate dimensions, may attain 
a weight of ZOO lb. or more. 

SkM, or Sid, a Bcandinarian snowshoe made 
from a long wooden runner, to 10 ft. in 
length, about the width of a man's foot, and 
i in. thick, wiUi a groove along the middle 
of the under surface to prevent slipping side- 
ways. It ia curved upward at the tip. In 
the U. S,, Canada, and Norway clube have 
t>een fbrmed for the sport of akeeing, the con- 
tests being for long runs, 20 m. or more, for 
short nms at high speed, and for jumping. 
The UtUr is a long flight through the air 
from a hillside, and the jumper must alight 
on his feet without falling, and continue nis 

and protect the more delicate tissues 
animal. Among the invertebrates the skeleton 
is often represented by calcareous or siliceous 
plates developed in connection with the in- 
tegument, known as the exoskeleton, as dis- 
tinguished from the apparatus developed with- 
in the connective tissue aa the cartilage or 
the true osseous substance of the endoskeleton. 
A true skeleton exists only in vertebrated ani- 
mals. Among the higher vertebrates a pri- 
mary cartilaginous framework is gradually 
replaced by the osseous skeleton. 

The vertebrate axis is formed of a series of 
disks, from 16 to 306 in number, at one end 
of which is the cranium, or brain case, which 
juiT be considered as composed of enlarged 
nnd modified vertetme. The axial skeleton in 
man includes the vertebrm. skull, ribs, and 
sternum, while the appendicular skeleton con- 
sist* of the shoulder girdle (clavicle and scap- 

ula connecting the arm to the axis) and th« 
pelvic girdle ( hip bones, or innominata ) , 
which Bupporte the thigh itonea. In animals, 
as the whales, where the liind limba are want- 

Ttaa BmuM aaxLnoH. 

ing, the pelvic girdle, and hence the pelvis, is 
absent. Bones are united by fibro-elastio 
bands (ligaments) and the structures of the 
joints. The voluntary muscles are attached 
to the skeleton and tti.e leverage afforded by 
the long bones of the limbs gijcs power and 
swiftness to their motion. The number of 
bones in the human skeleton varies with age. 
Thus the thigh bone or femur represents the 
fusion of five segments, the union not being 
complete until the twentieth year. The adult 
human skeleton consists of 206 distinct bones, 
as follows: 

TbaBpiiie,lDdudiac24vBrt«bi»,Baaruni,miid«xH7X. 3C 

Th« nba, 12 pain, ■temuia, and bvoid 20 

Tha Bkull m. tocstbec with S su^bonta 28 

Tha uppar axtmnitiaa, ew:h 32 Oi 

Tha lower BXCraraltiM, CMh ai «2 

At birth their number is 278; at twenty- 
flve, 224; and in advanced old age, 194. About 
660 segments are needed in the formation of 
the 200 permanent bones. 

Skel'tan, John, abt. 1455-1620'; English poet; 
b. probably in Norfolk; graduated at Cam- 
bridge abt. 1482; laureated at Oxford abL 
1400; tutor to Prince Henry (afterwards 
Henry VIII} ; held a position at court, bj 


Bome coiuidered equiTalcnt to king's iteter, 
by others to poet-laureate ; incurred the re- 
sentment of Cardiual Wolaey by his satirical 
verses ; obliged to take aanctiuuy at Westmin- 
ster, and died there. Slcelton was one ot the 
earliest EnElish pools whose writings are eas- 
ily intelligible to modern readers. Most of his 

I "Philip Sparrow" and 
"■ uoiin i^ioui." 

Skep'tidsm, the doctrine whicb sets np, as 
its highest principle, doubt or suspense of 
indgment in view of the contradictory nature 
of pheuonjena, and infers the impossibility of 
knowing truth. Skepticism, therefore, inten- 
sifies mental independence, and is regarded 
as a neoessary clearing up preparatory to 
philosophic thinking. At Uaat since the time 
of Descartes this has been the case, and some 

skepticism is elementary philosophy. Skepti- 
cism is based upon the obeervation of method, 
and in this respect is a higher activity of the 
mind than mere dogmatism. Among the 
Qreeks, Georgiae had reached the doctrioB of 
nihilism — nothing exists; and Socrates assert- 
ed that he knew only that he knew nothing; 
while Beitus Empiricus sums up ancient skep- 
ticism as follows; Nothing is certain in itself, 
as is proved by the diversity of opinion, and 
nothing can be made certain by proof, since 
it derives no certainty from itself, and, if 
based on other proof, leads us either to the 
re^e«»u« ad infinitum or to a vicious circle. 
See AoiTosTiasM. 

Skirn'mei, Sds'aOTsbill, or Shear'wnter, any 
bird of the genus Rhyncho^t, and related to 
the terns. These birds skim over the sea with 
the lower mandible, which is much longer than 
the upper and compressed like a kni^ blade, 
cutting through the water. The black skimmer 
{R. fiigra) is black above, whito below. The 
spread ot wings is 3} to 4 tt.; length, IB to 
20 in. It ranges northward to New Jersey, 
but R. albicoU*» is Indian and R. pavirottria 

Skin, the name given to the external layer 
or tissue of the bodies of most animals, form- 
ing at the same time a protective and a blood- 
purifying organ. Structurally viewed, the skin 
of all vertebrates consists of two layers — an 
outer and inner layer. To the outer layer the 
name of cuticle, epidermit, or scar/ cfcin is 
popularly given. This layer is destitute of 
nerves and of blood vessels, and is thus a non- 
sensitive structure. The inner layer is a highly 
vsacular and sensitive layer, and is named the 
demits, oorium, or (rue sicin. At the lips and 
elsewhere the epidermis becomes continuous 
with the more delicate mucous membrane 
which forms the lining membrane of the in- 
ternal passagea. This membrane is to be 
viewed as a mere modification of the epider- 
mis itself. 

The epidermis is oomposed of several layers 
of epithelial cells. The upper cells of the 
epidermU, as seen in a vertical section of the 
ikin, STB flnttened, ud of scaly conformation. 



shape. The elongated celle have their long 
axes arranged vertically to the general skin 
surface. The deeper portion of the epidermis, 
or'rete mucoaum, is of softer and more opaque 
oonsiBtence and appearance than the upper 

Sun, Hiqhlt I 

layer; and it is in tiie rete muootum that 
coloring matters are present, which give the 
hue to the skin. The dermis or true skin 
rests upon a layer of adipose and cellular 
tissue, and is composed of interlacing fibers 
of flbrocellular tissue. It is richly supplied 
with blood vessels, so that when cut it bleeds; 
and nerve fibers are likewise disposed in it, 
conferring sensibility. The surface of the true 
skin is tnrown into a series of elevations — 
papillm, or minute prominences — which are 
specially rich in capillary blood vessels and 
nerve endings, and which are thus particularly 


SscnOM or Sein, Hiam.T IQaiiiviaB. 

vascular and sensitive. The special glands of 
the skin are in the form of tubes coiled up 
into balls, and the total number of them in 
the human skin is estimated at over two mil- 
lions. There are also sebaceous glands, whioh 
secrete an oily fluid useful for 


lliougli the mort oatmulbla ftmotion of the 
■kin Mems ta be that it covers Rnd protecta 
the more dettcate atrueturea thftt lie Deneath 
it, its functions as sn excretory orKon and as 
* regulator of the temperatura of the body 
are also of higli importance. The hair and 
nails are modi&cationi of the epidermis, as 
are also the feathers of birds and the claws 
of animals. Extensiona of skin, as between 
the toes of ducks, etc., or between the arms 
Eind legs of flying squirrels, and as seen in 
bate, may exist. And pendulous skin folds, 
horns, callosities, homy, plates, scales, and 
other modificatione of the epidermis, are met 
with in various animals. The acvtea, or bony 
plates, seen in the armadillos are dermal 
structures united to horny plates formed by 
the epidermia. In many reptiles and in some 
liiards the two layers of the skin similarly 
participate in forming the exoskeleton. The 
scales of flshee are formed by the dermis or 
true skin, but those of serpents are epidermic 
in their nature. See Epidebmis; Bpitkeuuu. 

SUnk, any one of a numerous species of liz- 
ards belonging to the family ScincidiB. The 
body is eubcylindrieal, with the tail cylin- 

CoMHoiT Bunk. 

drical or tapering; the scales generally smooth 
and regular; the timbs variable in develop- 
ment, typically four, generally more or lees 
weak, sometimes atrophied; the tong<ie is 
short, flat, and squamous. They are distrib- 
uted in almost aU parts of the world, more 
eapecially in the warmer climates. It was 
believed by the ancients to be a speciflc for 
various disease a. 

Sko'beleff, Mikhail Dimitrievlch, 1843-18S2i 
Russian general; entered the army as sub- 
lieutenant in 18Q1; distinguished himself 
against the Poles in 1S66', and afterwards in 

Turkish War Skobeleff distinguished himself 
at the second battle of Plevna, and also at 
Loftscha; was created adjutant general to the 
emperor, 1878; sucoesafully led an expedition 
against the Tekke Turkomans, and captured 
Oeok Tepe, January 12, 1881; then promoted 
to the rank of general. He died suddenly in 
Moscow. Be was a brilliant and scientific 
officer, antl much beloved by the troops. 


Skn'a, Sfctu-gnU, or Jae'fsr, names given to 
gulls belonging Ut the subfamily fitcrcorortintB, 
who have the- habit of pursuing smaller gulls 
and forcing them to give up tlieir food. They 
also eat eggs and prey upon small or young 
birda. The akuas aj-e readily diatinguiehed by 
the homy hood, or cere, at the base of the 
bill, beneath which the nostrils opeiL From 
four to six species are recogniced, the largest 
being the great Antarctic skua { Megalettrit 
antarctieua] , the only one peculiar to the S. 
hemisphere, the others being most abundant 
in high N, latitudes ,and in Arctic regions. 
The large N. species, M. skua, is about 8 ft. 
long, powerfully built, and of a dusky-brown 
plumage. It is an uncommon bird, and in 
Great Britain has, through persecution, be- 
come so rare that it is now protected by 
taw. Three other and much smaller species 
occur along the more N. shores of the U. 8., 
and are locally known as gull catchers or gull 

SkuU, hard framework of the vertebrate 
head, composed of the cranium, which pro- 
tecta the brain, and the facial structures. 
These may consist entirely of cartilage, as in 
the shark, or of bone, as in mammals. As 
the size of the skull is intimately connected 
with brain development, human skuUa are 
grouped according to their cranial capacity, 
as: microcephalic, below 1,360 c.c. (including 
such races as the Andamese and Bushmen ) ; 
meaocephalic, from 1,360 to 1,460 cc. (as in 
the American Indians, Chinese, and some ne- 
groes) 1 and megace^allc, over 1,460 c.c, met 
with in the more civilized races (European, 
Japanese, etc.). The relation of the length 
to the breadth of the akull is also important, 
and the " oephalio index " is found by multi- 

plying the maximum length by 100 and divid- 
ing the result by the maximum breadth. Do- 
lichocephalic skulls have an index below 75 
(as Australians, Zulus, Eskimos) ; mesoticeph- 
alic, from 76 to 80 (as mixed Europeans and 
Chinese) ; broehy cephalic, over 80 (as Malays, 
American Indians, etc.). The facial an^le iq 


also calculated In eraniologj, a skull with m 
greatly projecting lover jaw, as (wen in Afri- 
c*ii negroes, being called prognathoui; a IcBser 
degree of projection, b« in the Chinese and 
PolTseBianB, being meBognathoufl; while or- 
tbognathouB includes the almost vertical eII- 
houette of the mixed European races. 

In the human skull but twenty-eisht bones 
exist— aix in the ears (see Eab), eight in the 
crajiium and fourteen in the face. This is 
largely due to the fusion of bones distinct in 
the embrvo as well as in the adult of lower 
forms. Ilie cranial bones are ( 1 ) the occipital 
bone, which lies at the back of the skull; (2) 
the frontal bone, which forms the forehead; 

(3) the parietal bones, two in number, which 
meet one another above the middle of the 
crown of the bead, and form a large part of 
the sides and root of the'skulli (4) the tem- 
poral bones, one on each side, which contain 
the ear cavities; (6) tbe sphenoid bone, which, 
with the occipital bone, forma the base of the 
dcull; (6) the ethmoid bone, which forme the 
partition between the brain and the nose 
chambers. The paired bones of the face are 

(1) the maxills, or upper jaw bones; (2) the 
palate bones; (3) the malar, or cheek bones; 

(4) the nasal bones; <5) the lachrymal, or 
tear bones, between the eye socket and the 
nose; (6) the inferior turbinate bones, in the 
nose. The single bones of the face are the 
lower jaw bone, or mandible, and the vomer, 
which forms a partition between the two nos- 
trils. See Man; PHbedoloot. 

Sktmk, a mustetoid carnivorous mammal of 
the Mephitina. The body is moderately elon- 
gated and arched backward; the legs compara- 
tively short; the feet subplantigrade; tlie tail 
rather long and very biuhy; the color is par- 

CoMMOH Skdhk. 

ticolored, black and white being contrasted. 
Their anal glands contain a nauseous liquid, 
which the animal, on being alarmed, diS' 
charges with such force that the jet is car- 
ried from 8 to 12 ft. 

The skunks are distributed throughout 
America, N. as well as 8., except the coldest 
parte, and are found in no other portion of 
the world. They are all active carnivorous 
animals, feeding on small quadrupeds and 
birds as well as reptiles. They burrow and 
hibernate. They bring forth from six to nine 
»t » birth. The mephitic fluid has been em- 


ployed medidnally as an antispasmodic The 
□ite of the animal iS' dreaded, and is said to 
induce hydrophobia. Mepkitis mephtttca is the 
common large skunk; U. putoritu, the little 
striped skunk; Conepatu» mapurito is about 
the size of M, mephitica, and extends into the 
BW. of the U. S. (Texas, ete.), from Mexico. 
Skunks are beneficial from the number of mice 
and insects the^ devour. They are said to be 
gentle, inoffensive pets. Their fur is sold aa 
Alaskan sable. 

Skimk Cabltage, the Symploearpua feetidua, 
a large marsh plant of the arum family, com- 
mon in the U. S., distinguished by the un- 
pleasant smell of its leaves. 'It produoes earljr 
in the spring ite four-petaled flowers in a 
globular cluster upon a Bh<»'t st«n. The fruit 
IS oval and fleshy, inelosins large purple seeds. 
The roots and ^ves have Deen used as stimu- 

Skye (ski), island of Scotland, the largest 
of the Inner Hebrides; area, 536 sq. m. The 
surface is mountainous and rusged. Fishing 
is the principal occupation. TbB inhabitante 
are poor, and their number decreases, as many 
emigrate. Pop. (1901) 14,642. 

SkyTark, the Alauda arcensts, an Old World 
bird, noted for ite song. It is about 7 in. 
long, the teil being 3. It is fou'hd all over 
Europe, as well as in N. Africa and the cor- 
responding zones of Asia. It frequents mead- 
ows, and does not perch. It feeds chiefly on 
seeds and larva. Its nest is on the ground. 
It lays four or five eggs of a whitish gray. 
It is esteemed for the delicacy of ite flesh and 
Ihe melody of ite song. 

Slan'der. See Libel and BiAnnEB. 

Slate, a rock consisting largely of silicate of 
aluminum, which splits into slabs or plates, 
formed by the consolidation, under heat and 
pressure, of clay deposited in still water. It 
weighs from 170 to 180 lb. per cubic foot, and 
ite most extensive use is for roofs. The out- 
put of slate in the U. S. in 1910 was valued 
ftt S(I,23a,769, of which «2,S92,358 worth was 
quarried in Pennsylvania and $1,841,589 worth 
Ui Vermont. 

Slav'ery, a stete of bondage of one human 
being to another. In its usual sense it does 
not include the milder forms of bondage, such 
as serfdom or villanage. In its origin it was 
the sign of civilization, in that it arose from 
the sparing of captives, who in savagery were 
slain' by their capters. The slavery of the 
industrial classes has characterized the early 
history of all civilized races, and as forcing 
men to labor, .despite the reluctence inherent 
in barbarous tribes, seems to- have been a nec- 
essary element of progress. It existed among 
all races of whom there is historic record, but 
in some ite rigors were mitigated by peculiar 
laws and customs, as among the Hebrews, 
whuae slaves became free after seven years, 
while every fiftieth year all slaves were eman- 

The rearing of slaves was not profiteble in 
Greece; it was cheaper to purchase those who 
had reached the age of labor. Tliey were em- 
ployed in domestic service, in agriculture, aad 


eren in commerce, ind ocenpcUons in whieli 
the risk and rseponsibilitj were great. In 
Attica the slaves bore to the free native popu- 
lation the ratio of three to one, and is Sparta 
the Helots numbered 220,000, while the Spar- 
tan* numbered only 32,000. In Sparta the 
Helots Buffered cruel treatment, while Athenian 
maatera were noted for their mildness. In 
Athene a slave who bad a just complaint 
against his master could demand to be sold; 
he had a right to asylum in the temples, and 
his death could be avenged. Be could pur- 
chase his freedom, and could be liberated by 
the act of his master. Emancipation was fre- 
quent No ooneciousneas of the injurious moral 
effects of slavery leema to have been felt by 
the greatest thiiucers. 

In Rome the aourow of supply of slaves 
were wars and commerce. The proportion of 
■lave to free is estimated at three to one in 
the period ISO b.Ov23S a.d. A freedman in 
the reign of Augustus is said to have left over 
4,000, and families of 2O0 or 300 slaves were 
not uncommon. A slave was under the domin- 
ion of his maatcr, against whom he bad no 
legal redress. The marriage of slaves had no 
legal recognition, nor oould a slave acquire 
property, though it became customary to per- 
mit him to enjoy a share of his earnings, 
known as his peoulium. Punishments for 
crime were aevere against slaves. Their barsb 
treatment is attest^ by several servile inBur- 
rections, as that of Eunus in Sieily, 133 B.C., 
and that of Spartacus in 73 n.o. By the sec- 
ond century greater humanity began to dis- 
play itself in dealing with the slaves. Upon 
contact with- the Roman civiliEation the Ger- 
manic tribes were naturally affected by the 
system of agricultural labor wbicb tbey found 
in operation, the coloni being free but not 
allowed to leave the aoil. The resulting sys- 
tem waa serfdom (see S&ar}. 

Durins the Middle Ages slavery was still 
practiced, but among Christian races the en- 
slavement of Christians was opposed by the 
Church- No such scruple applied to the en- 
slavement of Mohammedans, many of whom 
were beld as slaves in Europe, while Christian 
slaves were left in tbe hands of the Turks and 
Saracens. Tbe great commercial cities of Italy 
carried on an extensive slave trade with the 
East, and the corsairs of Barbary carried off 
Christiana into slavery, even penetrating into 
Spain and S. France, and seizing the peasants. 
Charles V freed 20,000 Christian slaves after 
his expedition against Tunis in 1635, and 
12,000 Christian galley slaves were liberated 
after the battle of Lepanto, 1G71. White slav- 
ery still exists among the Mohammedans, but 
the slaves are on the whole humanely treated. 
The traffic in black slaves, honever, is marked 

African slavery on an extensive scale was 
not practiced bjf Europeans till after the dis- 
covery of America, when a great demand arose 
for negro tabor. The Portuguese had at first 
a monopoly of tbe slave trade, but the English 
soon took part in supplying the Spanish de- 
mand. The first slaves sold te Englisn colonists 
were brought by a Dutch vessel lo Jamestown 


in lelO, but tbe English afterwards supplied 
the greater number, and continued the trade 
throughout the eighteenth century, despite tbe 
increasing opposition to it on both sides of 
tbe Atlantic. The Quakers had from the first 
opposed It, but they lacked numbers and influ- 
ence. Tbe enemies of slavery, through the 
labors of Clarkson, Sharp, Wilberforce, and 
others, after repeated failures to secure legis- 
lation triumphed at last, and an act abolishing 
the slave trade was passed, 180T. August ZS, 
1B33, a law was enacted fixing August 1, 1834, 
as the date for tbe emanoipation of all slaves 
witbin the British Empire, and providing for 
the payment of £20,000,000 to the masters, 
who, however, were to retain their slaves as 
apprentices till August, 1940. The appren- 
tiMship system was found to work badly, and 
was discontinued in 1S3S. Slavery was not 
abolished in Brazil till 1888. 

In the U. S. the slave trade was forbidden 
by law in 1808. Franklin, Jefferson, Mtidison, 
and Jay were among the advocates of eman- 
cipation, and in the N. this policy was so 
far carried out that by 1821 slavery had 
ceased to be a power in that region. The 
ordinance of 1787 prohibited slavery in the 
Northwest Territory. In the S., however, the 
cotton gin .laused an ever-increasing demand 
for slave labor, and the S. states were more 
tenacious of slavery while the abolition senti- 
ment was developing in the N. The more 
moderate opposition confined itself to attempts 
to restrict its sphere, but unconditional aboli- 
tion was favored by radical reformers like 
Benjamin Lnndy and W. L. Garrison, who 
represented a small and discredited but ag- 
gressive party. The contest belongs to the 
histoiy of the U. S. In tbe Missouri Com- 
promise, in the struggle over the Wilmot Pro- 
viso, resulting in the formation of the Free- 
soil Party, in the Kansas-Nebraska difficulty, 
and tbe formation of the Republican Party the 
extension of slavery became the leading issue. 
Wben civil war followed secession, the expedi- 
ency of emancipation as a war measure began 
to be seriously cofasidered, and on January 1, 

lion slavea. See NEaBOES; Sebfs. 

Slav'ic Lan'gnages, group which embraces 
Russian, Polish, Servian, etc Tbe undivided 
Slavic people, apparently with the principal 
designation of Blavitte (sing, filovdncnti ) , in- 
habited the region of the Vistula (upper and 
lower) and of the upper Dniester and Dnieper, 
extending to the outer fringe of the Carpa- 
thian Mountains. ^^ ^i^b first mentioned 
by Pliny, Tacitus, and Ptolemy as the Veiieda 
(Ohfttai). The Slavic overflow into central 
and SE. Europe came to a close in the first 
decade of the sixth century. The patriarchal 
organization of tbe Slavs and their division 
into small disunited tribes allowed them to 
make no immediate political impression on 
their better organized neighbors. Their Chris- 

learnt tbe new forms of political and national 
life from those around them. 
In answer to a request of Rostislsv, who 


wjibed to frM U« Uagdon from woladutio*! 
dependaniM upon tlw Frankiih, the iMrned 
Coaatantin* and bis brother Hethodina were 
•ent from Ck)iiitantinop1e as misaionuies to 
the S1»T*. Cotutantine (lata called Monk 
Crril) found a literary language for all the 
SlaTB— tbe Church SlaTonio or Old Bnlgariaii 
(Old BloTenJaii), which aerred for many oen- 
turiea as the organ of Uie Gmrch ud of 
ciTilizatlon for half the Slavie latm. It was 
written in two alphabet* — the Glagolitie, atill 
retained for Coostantine'a writings, and the 

Cyrillio, which arose aoon after, apparently 

"ulnria, and, becaose of ita aimpfieity and 

ablanoe _to the litnrgieal Greek uncial 

{while the Glagolitic ii baaed chiefly on the 
euraivfl mimuonle), displaced the earlier al- 
phabet With wmie modemiEation nnder Pe- 
ter th« Great, tt is aUU the alphabet of Great 
and Little Russian, Bulgarian, and Servian, 
while the Croatian, Slorenian, Slorakian (Hcr- 
Tatian), Czech, Idisatiaii-Serrian, and Polish 
use the Latin alphabet. In Slavic philology 
Church Slavonic plays much the same part sa 
Gothic in Germanic philology. It has thb 
advantage of having raceivea a fixed literary 
form three hundred years earlier than any 
other dialect, and baee an alphabet extraor- 
dinary for ita fine phonetic discriminations. 

Saro'nia, tar ri tot y of tanaar Auatri^-Hunganr, 
bounded N. by the DraTc, S. by the Bave^ and £. 
by the Dsnuber«i«i 9,106 aq.m. See Czbcho- 
Slovak Republic; Jugo-&avu. 

Slavt, a race of Indo-European relationghip, 
characterized chiefly by their apeech and con- 
atftuting three tenths of the population of 
Europe, and divided into three main branches 
— Eastern, Western, and Scmthem. To the 
first belong the Rustians and Rntheniaua; to 
the Beoond the Polet, tbe Oeehs, the 81ovak^ 
and tbe Wenda; to the third tbe Bnlnrians, 
the Serviana and Croatiana, and the Slovenes. 

Sleen >• normal and periodical condition of 
tbe organism in which there is more or less 
nnconsciousaess with loss of power of volun- 
tary motion. The lowest forms of aninali, 
M the amtaba, do not show any rest reaem- 
blins sleep. Among the theories of the cause 
of sleep are that it ia due to (1) a periodical 
anemia of the brain; (2) a numbing of the 
brain by ezhanation products accumulated 
during the day; (S) a shrinkins of the nerve 
elements in the brain so that temporarily 
they do not interlace. During sl^p the cir- 
culation is slower. The heart beats with more 
regularity, but with leaa force and frequencv. 
So the blood is not distributed so thoroughly 
and rapidly as during wakefulness, and the 
extremities readily lose their heat. 

The nervous system continues in action dur- 
ing sleep, though generally with somewhat 
dimiuiahed power and sensibilit;. The reflex 
funetiona of the nerve centers are still main- 
tained, and thus various movements may be 
executed without consciousness being awak- 
ened. Somnambulism is a condition of ex- 
altation in tbe functions of nerve centers with- 
out the oontrolling infiuence of the cerebrum 
being brought into aiition; but aaide from thla 
rather abnormal phanmnenoii, there are others 


which ar/entlrelT within the range of health. 
Thus, if the position of the sleeper beecsne* 
irksome, it is changed; if the feet become oold, 
they are drawn up to a warmer part of the 
bed; and cases are recorded in which indi- 
viduals have risen from bed and performed 
many complicated and apparently volitional 
acts without awaking. The extreme of this 
condition is known as eomnambuliam, or slemi- 

That the imagination may in Its fiighta dur- 
ing Bleep strike upon fancies which are sub- 
Sueutly developed by the reason into lucid 
[.valuable ideas is probable. It would be 
strange if, from among the absurdities and 
eitravagancee to which It attains, something 
fit to be appropriated by the mind should not 
"»"— lionally be evolved, and there are many 

leep. Tie clarifying effect <j " sleeping over" 
a complicated mentM problem is well Known, 
thoughts being found to be rearranged and 
coordinated when waking life Is resumed. Yet 
there are many instances on record of knowl- 
edge which had passed out of the mind behig 
reacquired during sleep. During sleep judg- 
ment is suspended. We do not actually lose 
the power of arriving at a decision, but we 
cannot exert the faculty in accordance with 
truth and reasoning. An opinion may be 
formed during sleep, but it is more likely to 
be wrong than right; and no effort that we 
can make will enable us to distinguish the 
false from the true, or to discriminate between 
the pouible and the impossible. 

Defirivation of sleep — a form of punishment 
in China — produoea death in a few Says. Con- 
tinued insomnia demands medical treatment, 
as it too often leads to mental deterioration, 
insanity, and suicide. Hypnotics should be 
taken only apon preseription, and after out- 
door exercise, bathing, and proper hygiene hav« 
proved Ineffectual. An infant may sleep twen- 
ty hours out of every twenty-four; a child 
may sleep twelve hours; as age advancea sleep 
becomes less profound. The deepest sleep oc- 
curs in the first two hours after reUring- 

Sleep'lnx filek'nesa (TrypdiuMomiatia) , also 
called AxXLCAS Lkthabot, a disease prevalent 
in Africa, particularly in the Uganda and 
the Kongo district. Although white men are 
by no means immune, it occurs mainly among 
the n^roes. It is believed to be due to an 
animal parasite, transmitted to its victims by 
means of the tsetse fly, and causes, specially, 
cerebral disorder and nervous disorganization. 
The symptoms are headache, pains in the cheat, 
dullness of faculties, loss of mental and phys- 
ical energy, apatl^, lassitude, and increasina 
desire for sleep. Some cases reach their fatal 
termination in two or three months, others 
not for vears. Coma appears in the final 
stage, ana death uanally follows from ttarva- 

ffleep of PUnti^ the nootnmal condition of 
many plants. Many leave* assume a particu- 
lar position at uightfall or in a darkened room, 
as is the case with certain sorrels (OaoMs), 



•a) , and other Legumtnota. Many Howen 
eloM at night and open in the rooming, aa of 
•pecies of Portulaca and Oxalis, the dandelion, 
and other Compoaita. 

Slide, Sam. Bee HAUBnaroH, THOMAS 

SUden:, John, 1793-1871; American ataUi- 
mani b. Kew York; settled at Mew Orleans; 
U. S, District Attorney, 1829-33; member of 
Congress, 1843—46; miniBter to Mexico, 184G, 
but not received by the Mexican Govt.; U. S. 
Senator, 1S63-61, but withdrew upon the se- 
eeeaion of his state, which he had done much 
to promote. Sailing from Charleston as com- 
missioner of the Confederate Qovt. to Franca, 
he and his aasoeiatc, James M. Mason, em- 
barked at Havana on the British steamer 
Trent. On November 8, 1881, Capt. Wilkes, 
of the U. 8. frigate San Jaointo, stopped the 
Trent, seized the commissi oners, and brought 
tfaem to the U. S., where they were impris- 
oned at Fort Warren. Bitter denunciations of 
the seizure appeared in the British press, and 
the attitude of the British Govt, was threat- 
ening, but the U. S. disavowed the act of 
Willus and released the prisoners January 1, 

Slide Sole, an instrument for solving arith- 
metical problems where approximate results 
are Batisfactory. The form invented by Will- 
iam Oughtred (1ST3-1S60) is beet known, and 
the more precise one introduced by Edwin 
Thacher in 1886 is much used. The principle 
is that of logarithms, the divisions on one 
scale being those of the logarithms of numbers 
from 1 to lOO, or from 1 to 1,000, while the 
numbers th^nsetves are marked at the divi- 
sions of the other; by sliding one scale along 
the other the products and quotients of two 
numbers may be read off by inspection. 

Sli'gfl, country of Connaught, Ireland; area, 
721 sq. m. Agriculture is the principal occu- 

Sation, especially cattle breeding and dairy 
timing. Fop. ( 1901 ) 84,083. Principal 
town, Bligo, 137 m, NW. of Dublin; pop. 
(1901) 10,882. 

Sling, a small disk of leather pierced by a 
hole and suspended by one, two, or three 
strings, say a yard long. A stone was placed 
upon the disk, and then whirled rapidly about, 
when one of the string was dropped from the 
baud at the proper instant and the missile 
sent with force through the air. A sling was 
used by David in his encounter with Ooliath. 
The Greeks used the sling, often with a plum- 
met of lead. The Persians, Archsano, Acar- 
nanians, and especially the Balearic islanders, 
were famous alingers. 

Slo'cnm, Heniy Wumer, 1827-94; American 
military officer; b. Pompey, N. Y,; graduated. 
West Point, 1862; appointed second lieutenant 
of artillery; first lieutenant, 1666. After a 
brief campaign against the Seminoles, he re- 
signed to practice law. On May 21, 1861, he 
was colonel of the Twenty-seventh New York 
Volunteers, and led at Bull Bun, July 2lEtl 
He was engaged In the siege of Yorktown and 
action of Weat Point. At Gaines's Mill, June 

27th, his command rendered important service; 
at Olendale, June 30tb, it held the right of 
the main line, as at Malvern Hill, July 1st. 
He was made a major general of volunteers 
July 4th, and engaged In the second battle of 
Bull Run, at South Mountain, and at Antie- 
tam. In command of the Twelfth Corps, he 
led at Chanceilorsville and at Get^sburg, 
where he commanded the right wing. He then 
served in the Department of the Cumberland 
and the District of Vicksburg. In command 
of the Twentieth Corps, be was the first to 

left grand division. In September, 1866, he 
resigned, and resumed the practice of law; 
was member of Congress, 1870-72 and 1884-86, 

Sloe, fruit of the blackthorn {Pntnua apina- 
•a], a small thorny plum tree of Europe, 
sparingly naturalized In the E. U. S. The 
black austere fruit is used for preserves, for 
making a factitious port wine, and for dyeing 
black. The unripe fruit yields German, acacia, 
a substitute for gum arable, and the wood la 
made into walking sticks. The sloe is per- 
haps the original form of the plum. 

Sloth, any one of several species of the 
Bradypodida, notable for sluggiBbnesa. The 
form resembles that of the Primates (man 
and monkeys) in the freedom of the membera 
from the common abdominal int^^ument, the 
length of the limbs, and especially of the fore 
ones, and the atrophy of ttie tall. Toes in 
reduoed numbers, two or three {fully devel- 
oped) in front and three behind. The apeclea 
differ considerably. All are confined to S. and 

a Two-TOBD Sbom. 

I by t 

des are ill adapted for prwression on the 
ground, the feet being bent Uiward, but are 
fitted for life in trees. Unlike all other mam- 
mals, they cling to the branches by their feet 
with the back downward, and thus they pro- 
gress, feed, and sleep. They rarely or never 
voluntarily descend to the ground, but when 
one tree is denuded of its leaves proceed from 
it to a contiguous one by means of Interlock- 
ing boughs. 
Sloyd. See Maiojal TBAiimra. 


applied to other moUnaca, and, wrongly, to 
certaih fntecta whieti occur aa peats in gar- 

SlBK'woima, inoorreetly called Sldgb, lar- 
nt of aawfliea, belonging to the Hymtnoptera. 
The; are atvglike in form. In the U. 8. the 
pear, roae, Tine, raipberry, walnut, linden, and 
other trees are inleated with similar larvte, 
whidt Bjfl very deatructive. Decoctiona of to- 
bacco or quassia, whale-oil soap, a weak solu- 
tion of carbolic acid, and petroleum are recom- 
mended for ahniba and trees infested with 
■luffworma. For small trees and shruba hand- 
piling la generally aulUcient. 

&naU Amii^ the projectile arms which aince 
the inventiou of gunpowder have replaced the 
bow and arrow and eroasbow. The original 
firearma, bombards, were not portable, hut in 
the flftMnth century lighter pieeea came into 
nke; even these required the aerviee of several 

Fia. 1. — Kiu.'* Baaacs-LOAnnta Uubebt, FiTamau. 

the Bnke of Orleans poaseaaed 4,000 in 14i: , _ 
1414 they were employed at the siege of Arraa, 
and in 1471 were' introduced into England. 
Thcae hand cannon could be carried by two 
men, had a straight stock of wood about 3 ft. 
long, and were Bred by a match. In Italy and 
Spain improvements received the namea of 
haeqnd>utte, arquebuae, and mousquet; the 

taken from tiie shoulder instead oiflriiCg from 
the cheat, and the weight was reduced to IS 
lb. The tripod had now been replaced by a 
forked rest which the aoldier carried as a cane. 
At the battle of Favia the Spanish bod 2,000 
arqnebnaiera and 800 mousqueteers, whose fire 
determined the issue of the battle, the balls 
penetrating the best armor of the knights. 

In the Untlock the weight was greatly re- 
duced, and without material improve- 
ment remained during one hundred and 
fifty years the arm of the Infantry, un- 
til in the nineteenth century the pei- 
cusafon cap was invented and rifiea were 
substituted for smooth bores. The needle 
gun uaed by the Pmaaiana In the war 
with Austria, 18S6, demonstrat«d the auperi- 
oritf of the breech-loading over the muizle- 
loading rifie. The blunderbuss was a short, 
heavy, large-bored gun, uaed to discharge a 
heavy load of alugs or small bullets at ^ort 
range. During the CMl War iMaily iJOQOflOO 


small arma were obtained, Including nineteen 
varieties of breech 'load iuR carbines and eight 
of rifles, those of Bumaide, Sharps, Maynard, 
and Henrv (the latter a magazine arm) being 
the best Lnov- 

Fio, 8 — Ruiiiaroif LocKma Rin.a, Uodcl, 18T1. 

Since 1880 there has been a great improvn- 
ment in small arms, the moat important being 
the substitution of magazine arms for aingle 
loaders, the decrease in the caliber of the bar- 
rel, and the use of smokeleas powder. The 
penetration of the bullet has been increased by 
the alteration in its shape, by ita harder but- 
face, and also bv its more rapid initial move- 
ment. At the anorter rangea, 800 to 300 yds., 


protection is now obtained by 0.2 in. of 8t«et 
plate and about 0.3 in. of wrought iron, and 
the penetration into earth at these distonoes 
is about 26 in., into pine about 30 In. Their 
effect upon the living human body ia yet to 
be fully determined; probably if striking no 
bone the bullets will tnflict wounds on Uiree 
or four men in file, but wounda leaa aerious 
than those from the heavier lead ball. Knivea 

Fid. <.—UAOBaa (Gaauir). ' 

with blades 9 to 12 in. long have replaced the 
triangular bayonet In 1892 the U. S. adopted 
a rifle invented by Cant. 0. Krag and B. J6r- 
fiensen, of Norway. Tne modem rifle ts effect- 
ive at 4,000 yds., and capable of firing nearly 
forty shots per minute. A recant invention is 
the Maxim " silencer," a device which, when 

Flo. a, — V. B. HlOAIDd RlTLH. 

attached to firearms, renders their discharge 
noiseless. It is baaed on the principle of cen- 
trifugal force, and consists of a cylinder which, 
while having a direct hole in tiie oenter for 
the passage of the bullet, has twelve aonnect- 
ing vortaz ohambera through whioh the gas , 


pendl which lollowv fhe bnllat is raeeeMlnlT 
loroed b^ its expaiuioii and.caiutantlT deflect- 
ed until its power is ezhsiutod. See UiiiAZiiTK 

Small'voz, at VaiiolJI, k ipecific, contaKions 
eruptiTe lever. Smallpoi wOb unknown to the 
eATlf Qreek writers, but is mentioned in the 
oldwt books of India — the Vedas — which de- 
scribe iiMKulatioii with the secretion of the 
smallpoi pustule as producing a mild form 
of the disease, and thereby preventing the 
dangerous natural form. Smallpox was known 
in Europe in Uie sixth eentun'i and in the 
sixteraith centur; it was earried bj the Span- 
iards to America. 

I chill, high temperature, followed in 
three or four days by an eruption of papules 
(pimples), which in about four days more 
become vesicles, and then pustules. The pus- 
tules may break down into ulcers, which when 
healed leave pits of scar tissue, which have a 
characteristic appearance. In discrete small- 
pox the pustules are separate and distinct; In 
confluent smallpox the pustules run together, 
and form serious ulcers. ConHuent smallpox 
is a severe ^pe. With the appearance of the 
papules the fever abates, but the pustules are 
accompanied by a seooud rise of temperature, 
after which Uie symptoms progress toward 
death or recovery. 

Smallpox is both contagious and infectious; 
that is, it may be derived from direct asso- 
ciation with patients or by contact with arti- 
cles which have been used by them. It may be 
spread from oorpses. The disease has appeared 
after articles used by the sick have been han- 
dled, even after these articles have been re- 
moved to a long distance, and after a long 
time had elaps^. The smallpox germ has 
not been satisfactorily isolated. Unborn chil- 
dren have developed the disease, showing that 
it is transmissible through the blood of a 
mother. Freviotu to the introduction of vac- 
cination, smallpox was one of the most dread- 
ed of diseases, and millions lost their lives 
from its ravages. Since the general use of 
vaccination, and partly on account of im- 
proved hygienic conditions among all classes 
of society, the ravages of smallpox have di- 
minished add only lo few localities does it 
appear as an epidtonic. The treatment of 
smallpox is principally symptomatic, that is, 
addressed to individual conditions. Violent 
medication has beeu abandoned. The patient 
is isolated, given digestible food, plenty of 
water, and cool and antiseptic applications 
are made to the skin. Among the most severe 
complications of smallpox are gangrene, boils, 
and blindness. 

Smsctym'snoB, name compounded of the in- 
itials of the authors of B. tract entitled " An 
Answer" (1641), written in reply t« Bishop 
Hall's " Episcopacy by Divine Bight Assert- 
ed" (1641). The Ave writers were Stephen 
Marshall, Edmnnd Calamy, Thomas Young, 
Matthew Newcomen, and Witlism Spurstowe. 

SmelL See Noax. 


&ult (In »lhi«>on to the cnctunberlike odor 
of the Wpical species), a small salmonlform 
fish of the ftenus Otmerut, or a related genus, 
of the family Argentinidce, and esteemed as 
fi>od. 0. eperlantu is the European species; 
0. mordam, the E. N. American, known also 
as frost fi^. Among flsbes improperly known 
as smelts are the cyprinoid BybogtiatKua re- 
giut, the spawn eater, and the Pacific tomcod. 

Smelf ing, the process of redu^g metals 
from their ores oy fusion, or processes in 
which an ore or a product of other opera- 
tions, such as roasting, treatment with aeids, 
etc., is reduced to pure metaL The fusions 
are conducted in shaft furnaces, reverberatory ' 
furnaces, or crucibles. Metals may be pro- 
duced from ores by a single smelting operation, 
as iron ; or they may require a series of smelt- 
ings, alternated with roastings, as copper when 
made from sulphureted ores. The smelting 
process may be simply reducing, or oxidising 
and reducing, or may be designed to volatilize 
certain bodies, to oxidize others, and to re- 
duce still others. Charcoal, coke, and anthra- 
cite are the fueU generally used in shaft fur- 
naces and for heating crucibles, and bitumin- 
ous coal and wood for reverberatory furnaces; 
but peat, natural gas, petroleum, and waste 
gases from furnaces are used. 

Smei'dis, brother of Cambyses, who, envi- 
ous of his strength, sent him back to Susa 
from Egypt. Shortly afterwards Cambyses, 
having dreamed that Smerdis was seated on 
the throne, had him put to death secretly. A 
rebellion broke out in Suea, and the brother 
of the governor of the palace, because he re- 
sembled the dead Smerdis, was declared to be 

discovered the fraud, the false Smerdis 
was able t^l hold the throne for seven months. 
He was murdered by the nobles, who elected 
Darius Hystaspis king. 

Smiloz, large genus of monocotyledonous 

Jlants of the subfamily Bmilacea and family 
iliacew. They consist of herbaceous or shrub- 
by plants, generally more or less climbing. 
There are a^ut two hundred species scattered 
over the globe, most numerous in the tem- 
perate and tropical parts of Asia and Amer- 
ica. True sarsapanlla and China root are 
among the products of the genus. The U- S. 
has numerous species, none important. The 
China brier is the most widely known of them. 
It is very frequent in the S. of the U. S., and 
extends N. to Mew Jersey. It has large, tuberous, 
brownish-red root stocks, which coutain much 
starch. Formerly the Seminotes used the root 
stocks for food in times of scarcity. At pres- 
kind of beer is made from them with 
molasses, parched corn, and sassafras. Several 
plants of this genus are fine in hothouse and 
garden culture. The climbing plant which 
under the name of ami lax is cultivated hj 
florists is the llyraiphyllum aaparagoida. It 
from the Cape of Grood Hope, and is 
cloaely allied to the asparagus. It has a fine, 
threadlike stem, sometimes /iO. ft. lo^ 

B 20. ft. longi an 


Smilei, Sunnel, 1812-1604; Englfih kuthor; 
b. HadiUngtcm, Scotluid ; educated for tbe 
medical profeeaion; became editor ajid railroad 
official. Among his numerous works are " Self- 
Help,-with IlluHtrationB of Character and Con- 
duct," which had an eDormous sale (1860); 
"Workmen's EamingB, Strikes and Savings"; 
" LiVGfl of the Engineers " ; " Cbaract«r " ; 
"Thrift"; "The Huguenots in England and 
Ireland"; "The Huguenots in France after 
the Relocation of the Edict of Nantes " ; 
"Life of a Scotch Naturalist"; " George 
Moors, Merchant and Philanthropist"; "Life 
of Robert Dick" (1878); ''Duty"; "Men of 
JnTentioD and Industry"; "A Publisher and 
his Friends; John Murray"; "Josiah Wedge- 
wood" (1894). 

Smitl^ Adam, 1783-W; Scotch economist 
and philosopher; b. Kirkcaldy. Studied at 
Unir. of Glasgow and at Oxford. In 1761 was 
Prof, of Logic and 17G2 Prof, of Moral Philos- 
ophy, Univ. of Qlasgow. He rasolvcd morals 
into ^l) natural theology, (2) ethics, (3) 
justice with reference to ipecifio rules and 

fireoepta, and (4) political expediency as af- 
ecting the honor, power, and prosperity of 
the state. His lectures were very popular. 
His first publication (1759), the ''Theory of 
Moral Sentiments," led to his being selected 
Ui accompany the young Diike of Buccteugh 
on his travels. Smith thus bad an oppor- 
tunity to become acquainted with the internal 
policy of other sta't^ and to confer with dis- 
tinguished economists. After his return in 
176fl he lived for ten years in retirement. The 
result was his great work, " Ah Inquiry into 
the Nature and Sources of the Wealth of Na- 

Many prioeiplea it laid down were derived 
from the French economists, but the complete- 
ness of their compilation and his clearness of 
statement entitle Adam Smith to be regarded 
as the father of modem political economy. 
His book will continue to be a standard of 
reference. "Its great object is to demonstrate, 
that the most effectual plan for advancing a 
people to greatness is to maintain that order 
of things which nature has pointed out, by 
allowing every man, as long as he observes 
the rules of justice, to pursue his own interest 
in his own way, and to Dring both his industry 
and his capital Into the Ireest competition 
with those of his fellow citizens." He was 
appointed a commissioner of customs for Scot- 
land, and in 1787 was elected lord rector of 
the Univ. of Glasgow, 

Smith, Bdmonil Kirb7, 1824-93; b. St. Au- 
gustine, Fla.; graduated at West Point, 1846; 
participated in Mexican War, then 1 1849-62) 
Assistant Prof, of Mathematics, West Point, 
In 1801 became brigadier general Confeder- 
ate States army, and was wounded at Bull 
Run. Under Bragg be led the advance into 
Kentucky; routed ins Union forces at Rich- 
mond, &.J., August SOth, and advanced to 
Frankfort. Promoted to lieutenant general, 
be was engaged at Perryrille, October 10th, 
»r 1 


and in tbe battle of Hurfressboro, DsMmber 
31, 18B2~January 3, 1863. He was soon after 
made general, and in command of the Trana- 
Missiseippi Department, opposing Banks in 
the Red River campaign, and engaged at Jen- 
kins's Perry, April 30, 18S4. He was the last 
to surrender the forces under his oommand. 
May 26, 1866. He was president Pacific and 
Atlantic Telegraph Company, 1866-68; pres- 
ident Western Military Academy, 1868-70; 
chancellor Univ. of Nashville, Tenn., 1870-76; 
Prof, of Mathematics, Univ. of the South, 

Smith, Gerrft, 1707-1874; American pbllan- 
thropiat ; b. Utica, N. Y. ; graduated at Ham- 
ilton ColWe, 1818; took up his residence at 
Peterboro, Madison Co., N. Y., devoting him- 
self to the management of his great landed 
estate; became a member of the Colonization 
Society, 18ZS, but wTthdrew, 1836, when he 
connected himself with tbe American Anti- 
Blavery Society, of which he was thenceforth 
one of the leading members ; member of Con- 
gress, 1862. Was a liberal contributor to the. 
Free Boil campaign in Kansas; gave pecuniary 
aid to John Brown, 1869; nominated for Gor- 
emor ol New York, 1840 and '1868, at the 
latter time on a platform of abolition and 
prohibition; joined Horace Greeley in signing 
the bail bond of Jefferson Davis, 1867. 

Smith, GoldwfB, 1623-1910; EnglUh-Aber- 
ican author; b. Reading, England; educated 
at Eton and at Oxford, where he graduated, 
1846; fellow of University Collie, 1847; 
called to the bar, 1847, but sever firacticed 
law. Member of the popular education com- 
mission, 1868; Regius Prof, of Modem His- 
toi7, Oxford, 1858-66, and Prof, of English 
and Constitutional History, Cornell iSiiv., 
1868-71. He championed the cause of the 
U. S. Govt, during the Civil War; visited 
the U. S. in 1864 to lecture. In 1871 he 
removed to Toronto, Canada; was for a time 
a member of tbe senate of Toronto Univ. 
Since bis removal to Canada he has persist- 
ently advocated the annexation of that coun- 
try to the U. S. In addition to numerous 
magazine artictea he has published the follow- 
ing among other worlis: "Lectures on tbe 
Study of History," "Irish History and Irish 
Character," "The Empire," "Three English 
Statesmen," " Cowper," '' A Trip to England," 
"Jane Austen," 'Canada and the Canadian 
Question," " The Moral Crusader, W. L. Gar- 
rison," "The United SUtes," "Bay Leaves," 
"Essays on Questions of, the Day,' "Quessee 
at tbe Riddle of Existence," and "Revolution 
or Progress t" 

Smith, JamM, I71B-1B06; a signer of the 
Declaration of Independence; b. Ireland. He 
came to America in 1720, and settled a> a 
lawyer in York, Pa. He was a member of the 
Continental Congress, 1776-78, and when Con- 
gress held its sessions in York the board of 
war occupied his law office. 

Smith, John, 1679-16S1; advsnturar and 
founder of Virdnia; b. England. When voung 
he took part in the wars in the Netherlands, 
and afterwards fought against the Torki, was 

,, Google 


taken prisoner, utd sent as & tlave to Con- 
Btantinople. Be was sent to the seft of Azov, 
whence he escaped to a Russian garrison on 
the Don. Smith returned to England and 
joined the expedition of Newport to Vir"="'- 
aettiag sail December 19, 1006. At the 

' for the rest of the voyage. His trial 
resulted in his acquittal; be was admitted to 
his rights as a. member of the council, and by 
his skill and energy saved the colony from 
destruction. On one of his expeditions into 
the country to obtain com he was taken pris- 
oner t^ thfl Indians, and his life was saved, 
it is said, by Pocahontas. In June and July, 
1608, Smith explored the coasts of Chesapeake 
Bay as faf as the Patapsco, and afterwards 
the head of the bay. He was now president 
of the colony, and admin^tered its affairs with 
energy, restoring order and confidence. The 
company in EnKland being dissatiB&ed, he was 
superseded, and returned to England, Septem- 
ber, 1000. 

In 1614 he explored with two ships the New 
England ooost (so named by bim). In 1616 
he sailed again to New England to found a 
colony, but was captured by a French man- 
of-war, and carried to La Rochelle. He es- 
caped, and on hia return was appointed ad- 
miral of New England and wrote an ocooiuit 
of his voyages to promote American coloniza- 
tion. The moat important of his works are 
"The General! Hiatorie of Virginia, New Eng- 
land, and the Summer Isles^ (1620), and 
" The True Travels, Adventures, and Observa- 
tions of Captain John Smith" (1030). Some 
of his wonderful adventures, as narrated by 
himself, are probably, in part at least, fic- 

Smith, Joseph, Jr., IS06-44; Mormon proph- 
et; b. Sharon, Vt.; grew up almost without 
education, leading an idle and rather disrepu- 
table life. He began to have viaiona at the 
age of fifteen, and on September 21, 1823, 
the angel Moroni appeared to him, announcing 
that God had a work for him to perform, and 
that buried in the earth in a certain spot a 
few miles distant was a record inscribed upon 
gold plates, and with this record would be 
found a kind of spectaclea through which alone 
the writing sould be read. Smith deacribed 
the plates as being inscribed on both aides with 
characters in a language no longer extant, but 
which he was able to decipher bv the use of 
the miraculous spectacles, which he called the 
Urim and Thummim. Smith professed to have 
dictated in Engliah the contents of these plates 
to Oliver Cowdery, the pistes thunselves mys- 
teriously disappearing oa they were trans- 
scribed, and the transcript was printed at 
Palmyra in 1S30 as "The Book of Uormon, 
an .Account written by the Hand of Moroni 
upon Plates taken from the Plates of Nephi. 
By Joseph Smith, Jr., Author and Proprietor," 
and to it was prefixed a certiflcate signed by 
t'owdery and two others that they had han- 
dled the plates. Later, all the witnesses de- 
clared the whole matter to be a hoax. 



went to E^rtUnd, Ohio, where he built a tMn- 
ple and set up a fraudulent bonk. In 18S8 
they were driven away. Smith had in the 
meantime fixed upon a place in Missouri as 
Uie site of hie New Jerusalem; but bis ad- 
herents becoming obnoxious to the inhabitants, 
they abandoned their settlement and took 
refuge in Hancock Co., III., where in 1840 
they esteblished themselves at Nauvoo; in six 
years the population numbered 16,000. Here 
Smith soon began to put forth new revelations, 
amon^ others one eatablishing polygamy as an 
essential of the Church of the Xatter-Day 
Sainte, and combining in his own person all 
civil, military, municipal, and sacerdotal au- 
thority. A newspaper was set up to oppose 
him; the presses were destroyed by Smith and 
hie adherents; warrants were issued for his 
arrest; the Mormons armed themselves, and 
a confiict was imminent They were committed 
to jail at Carthage, on an indictment of per- 
jury and adultery. A mob aaaembled, dis- 
persed the guard, and began firing into the 
jail. Hynim Smith was shot de^; Joseph 
returned tUe fire with a revolver until his 
charges were exhausted, when he endeavored 
to escape, but was shot dead. He was auo- 
eeeded by Brigham Young ( g.v. ) . See Uoi- 

Smith, Samuel Proads, 1808-96; American 
author and editor; b. Boston, Mass.; gradu- 
ated Harvard, 182S; edited Th« Baptist Mit- 
gionary MagaHne, 1832-33; Prof, of Modem 
Languages, Waterville College, 1834-42; ed- 
ited The Christian Revimo, 1842-49. He pub- 
lished (with Rev. Baron Stow) The PsaZniist 
(1843); edited a volume of "Lyric Qems"; 
wrote a " Life of Rev. Joseph Grafton," and 
is author of many well-known songa and 
hymna, including " My County, tis of Thee " 
and " The Morning Light is Breaking." 

Smith, ayOaej, 1771-1845; EngUsh der^- 
man and author; educated at Oxford; was, in 
1802, a founder and first editor of the Edin- 
burgh Bevieio. In 1807-8 appeared anony- 
moualy .his " Letters on the Subject of the 
Catholics, by Peter Pl^ley," advocating Cath- 
olic emancipation, which, owing to an admira- 
ble mixture of sound sense, irony, and pleas- 
antry, had an immense circulation. 

Smith, William, 1769-1839; English eeolo- 
giat; "the father of English geology ; b. 
Churchill; as a mineral surveyor ne mode and 
published many maps of the succession of 
geological strata. He discovered and was the 
first to apply the principle of the clasaiflcation 
and correlation ' of strata by means of their 
contained fossils. He received the first Wol- 
laston medal from the Geoloeical Society of 
London, and later a pension of f 100 a year. 

Smith CoI'lege, institution for the higher 
education of women at Northampton, Mass., 
founded, 1871, by Misa Sophia Smith, who 
bequeathed for that purpose about £306,000. 
It was opened to atudente in 1876. It is non- 
sectarian in management and instruction. In 
1910 there were 122 instructors and l,fl3S 
students. The college library contains 30,000 
volumes. Productive funds (1910J, $1,284,000. 


,v Google 


Smitb'fielO, a ItxnJitj in Lcmdon, foHnerlf 
lued as & cattle market, but historically in- 
teresting aa the place of execution of EnglUh 
martyrs, 1401-1012. Bartholomew Fair was 
held bere- 

Smith'aoii, J«iae«, abt 1706-1829; English 
■eientiHt; b. France; was a natural son of 
Hugh Smithson, first Duke of Northumber- 
land; educated at Oxford, graduating in 1TS6 
under the n«me of Lewia Macie; fellow of the 
Royal Society, 17B7| devoted himself to sci- 
ence, especially chemistry and mineralogy, and 
published many papers. He waa a friend and 
associate of manj' of the most learned men 
of bis day. He lived usually in Paris, where 
he was an intimate of Arago. Sometime be- 
tween 17S1 and 1803 he took the name of 
Smithson. Died in Qenoa, Italy. In 1904 his 
remains were brought from Genoa and rein- 
terred at Washington. For aa account of his 
muniftcent bequest to the U. 8. see SidTHBon- 


Smitbaon'Un Instltn'tioii, an establishment 
in Washington,' D. C, for the advancement of 
leoming under the patronage of the Govern- 
ment of the U. B., organized in 184fi. Its 
founder was James Smithson, whose will con- 
tained the following clause: "I bequeath the 
whole of my properly to the United States of 
America, to found at Washington, under the 
name of the Smithsonian Institution, an es- 
tablishment for the increase and diffusion of 
knowledge among men." It is probable that 
he was familiar with Washington's projeot for 
a national institution of learning. The phrase 
" an institution for the increase «nd diffusion 
of knowledge " occurs in Washington's fare- 
well address (September IB, ITBO). 

There waa opposition to the acceptance of 
the gift. Statesmen, led by Calhoun and Pres- 
ton, argued that it was beneath the dignity 
of the IT. S. to receive presents, and that the 
donor was seeking immortality for too moder- 
ate an equivalent. The acceptance of the gift 
was advocated by others under the leadership 
of J. Q. Adams. Richard Bush was appointed 
agent to prosecute the claim, and, owing to 
the generous tolerance of the British author- 
ities, the matter was soon concluded. The 
l^acy was received in the form of 104,960 
■overeigns, which were delivered to the Phila- 
delphia mint, and reeoined into U. S. money, 
producing $608,318.46, the flrst installment 
of the legacy, which by 1807 amounted to 

Prof, Joseph Henry, for thirty years secre- 
tary of the Institution, deSnas its objects as, 
first, to inereaae knowledge by research and 
study in science or literature, and, second, to 
diffuse knowledge everywhere, especially by 
promoting an interchange of thought among 
those prominent in learning in all nations. 
No restriction is made in favor of any one 
branch of knowledge. The leading features 
of the plan of PxM. Henry were to assist 
men of science in making original reiearehes, 
to pnbliab tbem in a series of volumes, and 
to give a copy of them to every flrst-class 
library on the faoe of Uie earth." Probably 
there is not a scientific investigator in the 
U. 8. to whom a helping hand has not at 


some time been extended by the institution, 
and the hand has often reached across the 
Atlantic. Books, apparatus, and laboratory 
accommodation have been supplied to thou- 
sands, and each year money grants have been 
made. Not less important has been the per- 
sonal encoursgement afforded and advioe ^ven 
in the tens of thousands of replies writton 
each year in response to inquiries. 

The value of the books distributed since the 
Institution wae opened cannot be much less 
than $1,000,000, estimating at standard pub- 
lishers' rates. In return for its own publica- 
tions, and by purchase, the institution baa 
received the books which form Its library, and 
whioh is one of the richest in the world in 
the publications of learned societies. The Na- 
tional Museum, the National Zoological Park, 
the Astrophysical Observatory, and many other 
valuable establishments are outgrowths of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Smoke, the product af imperfect combus- 
tion. If coal, which is chiefly composed of 
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, be 
burned perfectly, the result will be carbonic 
acid, steam, and nitrogen, which iubstancea 
~ill escape and blend with the atmospher' ~~ 

But s 


ordinary combustion of coal is Imperfect, in- 
flammable gases and Tapors and fine particles 
of carbon form soot and black and brown 
smoke, contaminate the air, and caijse a loss 
of fuel. As coal smoke is a unisance, and in 
large towns such as London even a serious evil, 
much attention hag been paid to the burning 
of it. This is attended with practical difficul- 
ties, arising from the necessity of preventing 
the smoke from cooling and of supplying the 
combustible gases and vapors with the neces- 
sary amount of oxygen in order to make them 
bum with flame; but these difficulties are not 
greater than ms; be generally overcome. In 
some cities, as Washington, D. C, the dilu- 
tion of the air by chimney smoke is forbidden 

Smoke'Ieai Pow'dan, ezplosives acting with> 
out the production of smoke. They are: (1) 
Those composed of oellulose nitrate, either the 
insoluble or soluble variety, or both; (2) those 
composed of the constituents of 1 mixed 
with nitroglycerih or other organic nitrates; 
(3) those composed of the constituents of 1 
mixed with nitro-derivativea of hydioearbona, 
Bucb aa picric acid and the picrates. Each of 
these may contain oxidising agents like bari- 
um or potassium nitrates and retarding agents 
such as tannin or lycopodium. 

Among the most successful of these powders 
are of the first class indurite, used by the 
U. S. navy, and B. N., used by the French; 
of the second class ballistito, used by the 
Italians, and cordite, used by the British; and 
of the third class Peyton powder. These are 
smokeless because the products of their com- 
bustion are wholly gaseous, whereas fifty-five 
per cent of the products of the combustion of 
ordinary gunpowder is finely divided solids. 
While this property of smokelessnesa is a de- 
sirable property, and one which has modified 
strategy and tactics, the most valuable prop- 
erty common to these powderi ia the high 


Teloeities which they Impart to projectiles. 
In order to minimize the stniin on the gun 
the presBure developed must be kept within 
prescribed limits. The best powder gives the 
maximum initial velocity with the minimum 
chamber pressure; which gives uniform re- 
sults when used under uniform conditions; and 
which undergoes no change, either chemical or 
physical, under the exposure incident to the 
military and naval service. One disadvantage 
of using smokeless powder is the oorrosive 
eSect it has on the gun. See Explosives. 

Smolensk*, government of RubhIb, 8W. of 
Moscow; area, 21,938 sq. m., generally exten- 
sive plains interspersed with morasses. The 
climate is cold, but healthful; the soil is fer- 
tile and welt cultivated, yielding rye, hemp, 
and flax. . Many fine cattle are raised, while 
its vast foreets furoish valuable timber. Its 
msDufaotures are unimportant. Pop. (1915) est. 
at 2,210,200. Capital, Smolensk, on the Dnieper; 
pop. (1913) est. at 7fl,000. 

Smollett, Tobias GroriB, 1721-71; Scotch 
novelist; b. Dalquburn, Scotland; studied at 
Qlasgow, where he served an apprenticeship to 
a surgeon-, went to London at the age of nine- 
teen, with a tragedy, "The Regicide," which 
he unsuccessfully offered to the managers; was 
surgeon's mate in the navy; participated in 
the expedition agvinst Cartagena, 1741; resid- 
ed in Jamaica; returned to England, 17 4S; 
published in 174B, with success, his first novel, 
" The Adventures of Roderick Random," in 
which he made good use of his W. Indian 
experiences ; published " The Adventures of 
Peregrine Pickle"; after seeking medical prac- 
tice at Bath, settled at Chelsea, 17G3, and 
wrote " The Adventures of Ferdinand, Count 
Fathom"; translated "Don Quixote"; issued 
" A Compendium of Authentic and Entertain- 
ing Travels," in which he embodied his own 
experiences; edited a Tory organ, The Critical 
Rtview; was fined and imprisoned three months 
for a libel on Admiral KnowlpB (ITGQ) ; wrote 
in fourteen months a " Compleat History of 
England, deduced from the Descent of Julius 
Ciesar to the Treaty of Aii-la-ChapeUe"; 
translated "Gil Bias"; wrote in prison his 
"Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves"; ed- 
ited The Briton, in defense of Lord Bute; aid- 
ed in issuing a translation of " The Works 
of Voltaire"; made a journey through France 
and Ital;, 1763-66, which furnished materials 
for a work of "Travels"; satirized Bute and 
the elder Pitt in "Adventures of an Atom"; 
wedt to Italy, 1769, and wrote on' the journey 
" The Expemtion of Humphrey Clinker," his 
best novel- 
Smollett ranks Tith Richardson and Field- 
ing as one of the standard novelists of the 
eighteenth century, founders of the English 
school of prose fiction. He was influenced by 
Cervantes, Le Sage, and the group of Spanish 
" rogue " or picaro novelistfl. His stories deal 
with low life, travel, and broadly comic ad- 
venture, vigorous and racy, but coarse to the 
verge of brutality. In the persons of Commo- 
dore Trunnion, Jack Battlin, Tom Bowling. 
and other nautical characters he introduced 
the British tar into fiction. 


Smoc'glinb tiia (statutory) offense either 
of bringing into a country articles prohibited, 
or of defrauding the customs revenue by se- 
cretly importing dutiable goods without pay- 
ing such duties or without paving the full 
amount. In Great Britain the o^ense includes 
the exporting of goods with like intent, and 
(as often deftoed] the introduction of any 
articles into consumptk>n without payii^ the 
duties chargeable upon them. In the U. S. the 
offense ia within the federal power to r^ulate 
foreign commerce, and is denned as " the act, 
with intent to defraud, of bringing into Uie 
United States, or, with like intent, attempting 
to bring into the United States, dutiable arti- 
cles without passing the same, or the packe^ 
containing the same, through the customhouse, 
or submitting them to the officers of the rev- 
enue for examination." 

The penalties are a floe of from $50 to 
$5,000, or imprisonment for not more than 
two years, or both ; the contraband goods are 
forfeited, as may also be the vessel or other 
means used to import them. Resistii^ or 
hindering the revenue officers adds to the 
gravity of the offense. These officers are 
clothed with large powers of search, and may 
even, by court order, obtain an inspection of 
the books and papers of those suspected of 
or charged with the wrongful nonpayment of 
duties. When the property seized is condemned 
and sold, the net proceeds are distributed, part 
to the U. S., part U> the principal customs 
officers of the district, and part to the in- 
former If there was any distinct from the 
officer himself who detected the offense and 
procured the seizure. 


Smuts, the Ustiiaginete, an order of minute 
parasitic fungi principally attacking the huh- 

I .c.oogrc 


er plant*, and ottm produoIiiK Mrioni injuriei 
to {arm and gkrden orops. In England they 
ara aometitnc* known as duet brands. They 
consist of slender, branohlDg, colorless threads, 
whidi gioyf through the tissues of their hosts, 
following the intercellular spaces, or penetrnt- 
log and even filling the cell cavities. After 
A period of growth, the threads produce nu- 
merous spores, forming dark, dusty masses, 
which have suggested tneir popular name. No 
sexual organs are known in any of the smuts, 
and it ia probable that the structural degra- 
dation due to excessive parasitism is so great 
that these organs have been lost. Smut masses 
should be burned, and seed soaked in water 
and treated with copper sulphate or potaa- 
sium sulphide solution, to kill the fungus. See 

Smyi'iu, ci^ and vilayet of Aidin, Asia 
Uinor, at the E. of the Gulf of Smvrna. Areft 
of vilayet, 25,801 aq. m. Pop. about 2,600,- 
000. Were it not for tbe camels traversing 
its quay, tbe city of Smyrna with its modern 
edifioes, would be taken at Srst glance for a 
dtv of W. Europe. It still justifles its poet- 
ical names of Crown of Ionia, Eye of Ana- 
tolia, Pearl of tbe East. 

Its origin is lost in myths. Tantalus, abt. 
1600 B.C., is said to have founded it. It was 
colonijeed by the Greeks soon after the Trojan 
War, Taken and dismantled by Alyattes, 
King of Sardis (628 B.C.), it was rebuilt by 
Alex'Jider the Great, It rapidly developed, 
and has since been the chief commercial city 
of Asia Minor, Here was one of the Apoca- 
lyptic churches. Captured by the Seljuk pi- 
rate Tuchas (1080), Smyrna suffered, but 
was soon retaken by the Greeks. The Seljuk 
prince of Aldin conquered it (1313), but a 
crusading fleet drove out the Moslems. The 
Roman Catbolio faith was introduced 134S, 
and the city has contained ever since many 
Catholics. Tamerlane, after defeating Baye- 
zid I st Angora (1401), filled up the port, 
carried the place by storm, and butchered the 
inhabitants. Since 1424, when it was con- 
qnered by Murad II, it has been held by the 
Ottomans save that it was sacked by ths 
Venetians in 14T3. The site of the city, 
though always near the bay, has changed 
many times. Smyrna has suffered fronl earth- 
quakes, notably in 177 (aft«r which it was 
rebuilt by Marcus Aurellus), 1688, 1778, and 
1880; and from plague, as in 1612 and 1837. 

IlM Btreets mn parallel with or at right 
angles to the shore. The houses are built of 
wtmden beams encased in stone, as safer in 
fire and earthquake. Educational advantages 
are nowhere greater in ths Ottoman empire. 
Tbe principal exports are dried fruits, raw 
silk and cotton, opium, wheat, rice, valonia, 
oil, sesame, goatskins, carpets, wax, emery, 
cheese, beans, bones, mohair, etc The sports 
average about $20,000,000 annually in value, 
and ttie imports about $15,000,000. Smyrna 
possesses some remarkable ruins, as the Gen- 
oese castle on Mt. Pagus, the theater lower 
down, the stadium and remains of tbe Temple 
of Diaiuu Fop. about S7fi,00D, of which half 
an Gi«dn, the rest bdng Timu, Armenians, 
Europeans, and Jsws. Levantines, offspring of 



Eunqiean and native mairiagea are numerous. 

Early in May, 1019,' an extenaiTe Allied naval 
oonoentration was beguu at Smyrna in oonneo- 
tion with a mandate to Greece to administer the 
city. The fleeta represented England, France, 
the TJ. 8., Italv and Greece. Troops were also 
concentrated tbere from Salonica. At a pre-de- 
termined mommt Greece landed a division of 
tzoops and took format posseesioD of tbe dty — 
important aa being Asia Miaot't ip«at ■eu>ort. 
This movement sigaalised the begmning of the 
rearrangement of the old Turkish Enmire, 
and Grwce^ though disappointed, welcomed tiie 

Snail, terrestrial shell-bearing mollusks gen- 
erally. It has two pairs of tentacles on its 

much esteemed as food. Both male and female 
organs appear in each snail, but they procre- 
ate by cross fertitiiation, and bury their eggs. 
See, further, GAaT&aoPODA. 

Snake'bird. See Dabteb. 

Snake Xel, marine eel of the genus Ophiau- 
rtia, allied, to the oonimoo eel, but found only 
in warm latitudes. 

Snake In'dians. See SHosBonEAH Inoiahb. 

Snake Plalsa, region in Idaho throng which 
Snake River flows in a deep caDon, covered by 
successive eruptions of lava which came from 
fissures and deluged an area of 260,000 sq. m., 
including parts of Oregon and Washington. In 
Idaho the lava occurs iii horizontal sheets rest- 
ing on older volcanic rocks, and the streams 
flow beneath it, forming " lost rivers." 

between Idaho and Oregon, for 200 m., and 
between Idaho and Washington for 30 m. It 
then turns W. and joins the Columbia in Wash- 
ington, near Pasco. Its length is lietween 800 
and 1,000 m. In most of its course it is a 
rapid stream, flowing in caSons 1,000 to 3,000 
ft. deep, with fine cataracts. It is navigable 
above. It flows through an arid region, the 
drainage of which has been rejuvenated by 
overflows of volcanic rock and probably also 
by recent elevations, and the gorge it has cut 
is still narrow and steep sid^. 

Snake'ieot, plants believed to cure snake 
bites. In the U. S. the name is applied to: 
(1) Tbe black snakeroot or sanicle (Santcula 
marilandica) , a common untbelliferous plant, 
with a root of an aromatic taste, used as an 
antispasmodic. (2) Eryt^givm gueoafoUum, 
button snakeroot, or rattlesnake master, a di- 
aphoretie and expectorant. (3) The Beneca 
snakeroot. (4) Liatria tpiaata, (0) L. tquar- 
roaa, and (S) L. tcariaaa, called also button 
snakeroot, blazing star, rattlesnake master, ete,, 
showy oomposite-flowered plants, with stimu- 
lant and diuretio properties. (T) Eupatorium 
agaratoUht, common in the N. states and a. 
good tonic, called white snakeroot. (8) Am- 

tohchia lerpentaria, th« Virginia Bnakeroot, & 
valuable stimulant and tonic luid of pleasant 
fragrance. (B) A. retioulata of the 8W. has 
properties similar to Virginia snakeroot, and 
produces much of the snakeroot of commerce. 
(10) CintiiH/ui^a racemota, black anakeroot, is 
a sedative and expectorant. (11) Jiarutn 
eanadenge, wild ginger, is called Boakeroot and 
Canada snakeroot in New England; it is fra- 
grant, with propertiea like A. aerpentaria, but 
more pungent. 

8iuk«a. Bee Serfert. 

Snake'atone, a piece of stone, bone, or other 
substance placed upon the bite of a serpent 
to absorb or charm awa^ the poison. The 
vulgar in almost all countries have faith in 
such cures as the m&dstone, which is applied 
to tlie bite of a rabid dog. In India there are 
apparently authentic instances of the efflcacj 
of snakestones. It is possible that the stones 
may have a strong ftbsorbtive power, for the; 
are often porous, and the faith which the vic- 
tims have in this cure ia doubtless a powerful 

Snake'wood. See Lmtebwood. 

SiiAp'dragon, any plant of the genus Antir- 
rhinum, family Scrophulariacea. The snap- 
dragons are annuals and perennials, and many 
flue flowering varieties are cultivated. 

&iap'pei, fishes of the family Lutjantda. 
They inhabit warm seas, and are carnivorous. 
The red snapper [Lutjanua aya), of the Gulf 
coast of the U. B. in deep water, is an im- 
portant food fish. The mangrove snapper, or 
gray snapper (£>. griteut), ranges from the 
W. Indies N. to New Jersey, and is abundant 
along shore among mangroves. The name is 
improperly applied to tb« roseflsh (SeboslM 
', the btuefish, and others. 

Snap'ping Tni'tle, in the U. B., om 
eral species of tortoises. (1) The 
snapping turtle of the N. and most of the B. 
states is the Chelj/dra aerpentina. This has 
the head moderately large, and covered with 
a soft skin, and the marginal scales of the 
shell are in a single row. It rarely attains 
4 ft. and a. weight of 60 lb. It is found from 
Canada &., and from the Atlantic seaboard W. 
to the plains. (2) A species which in some 
parts of the 8. states replaces the C. avrpenlina 


is the Maerochelyt laeertiita. This animal has 
the head very large and broadly triai^ular, 
and it is covered with homy plates; the mar- 
ginal scales of the shell are in two rows. It 
reaches a large size, iKimetimeH weighing 100 
lb. It is confined to the B. states, from Florida 

to W. Texas, and N. op to MisHiuri. It is 
known as the alligator snapper. These are 
distinguishable from other turtles of the U. S. 
by the long and imperfectly retractile neck and 
tail, and the cruciform plastron or lower shell. 
Their popular name is due to the habit of 
snapping at food or enemies. Their bito is 
severe, and it is difficult to relai their hold. 
They are esteemed for food, especially for soup. 
They have a strong musky odor. In the early 
summer they lay ^om 20 to 40 eggs in a hole 
dug by themselves. (3) The name is locally 
applied to the soft-shell turtles, or Trionjfch- 
ida, which snap abruptly at food or other 

Sneeie'wDod, the timber of the Pt<Broxylon 
■utile (family 8apindae«a] , of S. Africa. When 
sawing it, joiners are much troubled by the 
sneezing which its fine dust provokes. 

Sneet'ittg, or Sternuta'tion, a convulsive move- 
ment by which the lungs and cheat walls are 
expanded and then suddenly contracted, forcing 
the breath out violently throush the nose. It 
is produced by reflex action, thire being some 
irritation of the membrane of the nose which 
originates the action. Sneezing tends to re- 
move irritants from the nose. As a symptom 
of cold, it indicates catarrhal inflammation. 
In children measles may begin with this symp- 
tom, and influenza is also frequently bo ini- 
tiated. Sneezing due to irritation of pollen is 
a distressing s^ptom of hay fever. The use 
of sternutatories, such as snulT, was long a 
popular method of " clearing the head," 

Snipe, any bird of the BcoUipaoUUe, includ- 
ing shore birds or sandpipers, and commonly 
restricted to the 20 marsh -haunting species of 

CoiIHOH Shipe. 

the genus QalUnago, which are widely distrib- 
uted. They have a straight bill, longer than 
the head, grooved to the end, which is slightly 
expanded, well supplied with nerves and used 
in probing the mud for worms. The eye is 
placed far back, over the ear. The plumace is 
streaked with buff and brown, black and white, 
and blends completely with the ground. The 
tail feathers vary from 12 to 28. The Amer- 
ican snipe (0. delioata) is found over the 
greater part of the U. S. In winter it mi- 
grates as far S. aa Brazil. It is SMuetimes 


called English snipe; but that bird, althongli 
similar, ia a distinct epeciea (ff. gallinago), 
which does not reach N. America, although 
found in Greenland. The jackanipe of Europe 
(G. jraUtnulu) is the smalleat; the great anipe 
of E. S. America {G. gigantea) is the largest. 

Snor'ri StnT^nson, luuallj' written Snobbb 
STBKLABOn, I17S-1241-, Icelandic historian; b. 
Evam ; beloi^ed to the powerful clan of the 
Sturlunge. We was speaker of laws, and for sev- 
eral jrears was the richest and 
most influential man in the 
land. He became involved in 
feuds and litigation with his 
relatives and others. Tu 1218 
be Tisited Norwaj, and was re- 
ceived by the young king. Eakon 
Halconson. In 121q he visited 
the lagman Eakil in Sweden, and 
there he must have obtained 
that knowledge of Swedish af- 
faire which appears in his writ- 
ing, in 1220 he returned to 
Iceland, after having promised 
to work for the subjugation of 
Iceland to Norway. Aa he made 
no progress he was suspected of 
faithlessness, and his enemies in 
Iceland took advantage of this 

to r 

After endless feuds, Snorre 
went to Norway in 1237, but he 
lost the good will of Eakon and 
returned to Iceland. On his ar- 
rival there he got into trouble 
with his son-in-law, Gieaur Tbor- 
vaJdson, who, at the instigation 
of Kins Eakon, murdered him 



land's most distinguished saga- 
nan, and he enjoys some repu- 
tation as a skald. As a writer 
of histoiT he ranks with Herod- 
otoB and Thucydides. His' " Heimskringla," 
embracing an elaborate history of the kings of 
Norway to the death of Magnus Erlingaon in 
117T, it famous. The "Younger Edda" also 
bears Snorre's name, and is to a great extent 
his work. 

Snow, the spicules of ioe into which atmos- 
pheric vapor IS condensed. These snowflakes 
assnma a variety of crystalline forms, but usu- 
ally Resent the outbne of a heiason or a 
nx-pouted star. (See Ice.) In high and 
middle latitudes the ground is covered with 
■now each winter, but within the tropical re- 
gions no snow falls at or near the level of the 
■ea, for the temperature of the lower atmos- 

^r decreases upward, the formation of snow 
is always possible upon high mountains, even 
under the equator. At the summit of the 
Andes and the Himalayas the moisture con- 
densed during the rainy season falls as snow, 
while it rains on the slopes and plains below. 
In all lAtitndes from the equator to the poles 
the tops of high mountains are permanently 
covered with snow, which the summer heat is 
not snlBidatt to melt. Tlu lower limit of per- 


petna] snow, called the anou; line, varies in 
altitude in the different portions of the globe. 
Within the tropics it is about 3 m. above aea 
level; in temperate latitudes it desoends to 
below 2 m.; and at the N. limits of the con- 
tinents it is half a mile, or less, above sea 
level; while on the Arctic islands vast fields 
of snow remain permanently near the sea- 
shore. See Glacibbs. 

Red Snow, real snow tinted by the presence 
of iTonniifocacmM taouttria (or Protocooout 

Show CanuM, 

nivalit), microscopic alge of the order Proto- 
cocooidea. The cells are subglobose. and about 
rW iA. in diameter. In 1819 Ross found banks 
of red snow on the E. shore of Baflln Bay 
extending for miles, and these were in some 
parts 12 ft. deep. 

Snowball, the Viburnum opvUis, a cultivat- 
ed shrub of the Caprifoliacem, called also 
Guelder rose. To this species belongs the high- 
bush oranberry of the U. S., whose fruit is 
edible. The species is native to Europe and 
N. America. The Japanese snowball is T. 
tomentogum (T. pitoatum of nurseries). 

Snow'btny, the Bj/mphorioarpo* racemosua, 
a handsome shrub ( family Caprifoliacea ) , 
common in the U. 8. and naturalised in Eu- 
ropean shrubberies. It has persistent, white, 
inedible berries. The name is also given to 
Cluog*ne» hiapidala (family Erioacea), a 
creeping woody plant, whose leaves and white 
edible berries have tiie taste of the checker- 
berry {OauHI\«ria). It is common in the N. 
parts of the U. S. and Canada. 

Snowliird, species of the genus Junco, fam- 
ily Fringillida, and have a small conical bill, 
the wings rather short; the color is blackish 


or uh above, wh>t« on the b«11f, KaA not 
duveloped in streaks) the outer tail feathers 
are white. They are about 6 in. in length, 
of which the tail forms a half. They are 
distributed over the U. 8. They are moatly 
birds o{ pasaage in the E. and Middle states, 
as the majority go N. to breed while yet 

The name is applied to the snow bunting {Pleo- 
trophewui nivalia), a little flnch of high N. 
latitudes and seen sometimes in vast flocks. 
The back is gray, tail and wings black and 
white, under parte white. In breeding plum- 
age the back and bill are black, and there is 
more white .in the plumage than in winter. 

SnoVdiop^ the OoIoatAus nicalM (family 
AmarjfUidiioea) , a small herb much cultivated 
for its anow-white flower, appearing in earliest 
epriDg. A native of the Atpa, it is natural- 
ized in N. Europe and in the U. B. A larger 
Bpeciee, <}, imparatri, is also grown. 

Snowdrop Tree, either the BaUaia tetraptera 
or tiie H. diptera (Btyraoacea), small trees or 
large ehrubs native in the S. parts of the 
U. S.- They bear showy white dusters of 
flowers, which appear in spring somewhat be- 
fore the leaves. They are very fine in culti- 

Snow'flAln, Xnropean berha of the Amaryl- 
. Udacea, cultivated in the U. S. They ar4 
hardy bulbous plants with white flowers. The 
bulbs have long been employed as an emetic. 

Snow'aliMa^ footwear worn in Canada and 
elsewhere, conaistinit of an oval frame like a 
tennis racket. The Scandinavian skee is a long 
strip of wood, a few inches wide, curved up 

In front, and used as a snowshoe or skate. 
The object of these is te secure a larger foot- 
hold, and BO prevent the waarer from sinking 
into the snow. 

Snnff. See Tobacco. 

Soap, any salt of tlte fatty a«ids with a 
metalae base, usually a soda or a potash. All 
the true oils and fats are decomposed by alica- 
line hydrates, b^ certeiu metetlic oxides, and 
also by acids, high steam, and hot water. In 
the decomposition of fate by alkalies the prod- 
ucte formed are glycerin and the alkali salts 
of the fatty acids. This process is known as 
taponifKatitm. As a rale, soaps produced 
from soda are hard aoapa, while those pro- 
duced from potash are soft aoaps. Caater oil 
fonns with potash a hard and brittle soap. 
A difltinctlon betweao the hard and soft soaps 
ia that in th« iormor the glycerin ia removed 


in the mother liquor or spent lye, while In 
the latter it remains mingled with the semi- 
fluid mass. Moreover, it is not possible to 
dry the potash soaps, owins te the hygroscopic 
character of the base, while soda soaps may 
be dried so as to admit of grinding to powder. 
Formerly the clearing of forests provided a 
plentiful supply of potash, but the cheap prO' 
duction of soda by the Leblanc process has 
practically stopped the making of potash 

In making soap with caustic potash and 
stearin (glyceryl stearate) the producte are 
glycerin and potassium stearate; thus: 

8te&iia. 3 moleautn Qlyovin. 3 moleoulea of p<^ 

(C^O- 1 H.j H. J K, f 

The alkaline liquor (lye) is added to the 
neutral fat or oil in large soap pans, and the 
mixture heat«d. Resin is sometimes added, as 
it gives' the product more than its value in 
weight and volume. Then, by the addition 
of salt, the emulsion of oils and alkali ia 
decomposed, the salt taking the water and 
causing the precipitation of the newly formed 
soap in a curdy stete, floating on the dense 
spent lyea in which is found the glycerin and 
salt, and no alkali. The soap is again boiled, 
skimmed, and placed on frames to harden. 

The principal classes of aoapa are those 
made from vegetable oils and those made from 
animal oils and fate. Uarseillee or Castile 
Boap is made of olive oil, with rape-seed oil 
to prevent crumbling. The richness of the 
olive oil in margann or palmitin, and the 
freedom from animal odors, account, in part, 
for the excellence of this soap. Coeoanut-oil 
soap, or marine soap, is not easily decomposed 
by weak aaline liquors, so it is used to wash 
in salt water. Common yellow or roain soap 
is a serviceable soap, which lathers well and 

In domestic economy it is a practice in New 
England and Kew York to saponify the drip- 
pings of the kitchen, chiefly beef and mutton 
sue^ with the crude potash of commerce is 
the cold. The following receipt is traditional 
for domestic soft soap: Fat, 12 lb.; potash, 
9 lb.; water, IS gal. The fat and alkali are 
placed in a cask, and water added, 3 gal. at 
a time, Imiling hot, once in twenty-four hours, 

itil all is used. Saponiflcation sete 1 ~ 

but i 


and is hastened by stirring with a strong 
stick. When saponification is complete bU 
lumps of unaltered fat disappear, the soap has 
a silky luster when stirred, and the consist- 
ency of a jelly, trailing oS in slender threads 
from a stirrer, and is a powerful detergent 
for the coarser purposes of the household. 

Toilet soaps are made from pure and sweet 
materials — sweet almond oil, beef marrow, re- 
lined aweet lard, saponified without beat and 
perfumed with essential oils. Pure curd soap 
IS also used for the foundation of toilet Hoaps, 
for which purpose the soap is reduced to thin 
shavings, melted over a water bath with rose 
and orange-flower water and common aalt — 24 
" of soap, with 4 pinte each of lose and o^ 


ange-flower w&t«r, uid 8 oe. of uilt. BbaTing 
ereun it made b^ beating np lard with one 
and ft half times its weight of potash Tje, and 
perfuming and coloring. Oljcerin Map is pre- 
pared by mixing glycerin with a toilet soap, 

Q cold weather. Soap was not known to the 
ancients. It is first mentioned by Pliny, who 
refers to it aa something used b^ the Romans 
to beatitlfy the hair. Geber in the second 
century atates that soap was prepared front 
tallow with potash and lime. It is stated 
fnrUier that soap is ased as a medicine, and 
that by means of it all dirt could be removed 
from the body and clothes. 

Soap'stone, See STCATtnL 

Soap'wort, plants of the BapifidaeetB, some- 
times BO called from the soapy quality of 
their fruits. Plants of the genua Saponaria 
{family Caryophjfllacctr) and other plants of 
the same family, which are alao sometimes 
utilized for their detergent powers. There are 
many vegetables which are excellent substi- 
tutea for soap. This cleansing power some- 
times depends upon the principle saponine, 
found in plants of widely diverse families. 

Sobiesld. See John m, Bobibski. 
Soc'cAge, or Socage. See Tkitube. 

So'dal Con'tiact, or Social Com'pact, an ex- 
ploded theory, ftr^ fully stilted by.Bousseau, 
that society originated l^ the coming together 
of men in convention consciously to bind them- 
Belve»-itito a community or state. The theory 
took for granted a previous unsocial existence, 
and overlooked the gradual evolution of so- 

St/daliam, a conscious endeavor to substi- 
tute organized cooperation for existence in 
place of the present competition for existence. 
Socialists are divided into several schools, each 
with its own shades of opinion. This article 
will, therefore, endeavor to present the main 
lines of thought and the conclusions upon 
which most aocialists are agreed. 

Primitive society was founded upon oom- 
tnunfsm, or common ownership of the means 
of production and of the products. With the 
Institution of private propertjr the destruction 
of the communal form of lite and all that 
this involved was inevitable. But during the 
period of communism all the inventions and 
discoveries which fomi the foundation of the 
modem system of machine production were 
placed at the disposal of mankind. The do- 
mestication of animals, the srowth of cereals, 
the wheel, the potter's wheel and pottery, the 
canoe and aall, weaving, dyeing, the use of 
the stencil plate, the mining and smelting of 
metals — each and all of these were in use 
under communism. The names of the kivent- 
ors are unknown, and the circumstances under 
which they lived prevented them from deriving 
any individual advantage from their superior 
ingenuity. Exchange, in the modem sense, 
was unknown. 

Aa the power of man to prodnoe wealth in- 
creased further progreaa m wealth production 


was hampered by th«M eommnnkl forms, and 
by the necessity incumbent upon each member 
of the tribe to perform his share of the oom- 
munal duty. When, also, it was discovered 
that the captives from neighboring tribes could 
produce by their labor more than was neces- 
sary to maintain themselves in health and 
strength, there was a strong economic reason 
for keeping them alive, in Ihe service of the 
conquering tribe or its chiefs, in place of butch- 
ering them on the spot or reserviUK them tor 
cannibal banquets. Taough the alaves were 
often more numerous than their masters, they 
scarcely thought of achieving freedom. The 
division into castes and classes followed. The 
extension of trade led to the rise of the mer- 
chant class. In the Middle Ages the slave was 
replaoed by the serf. Then arose ttie free 
peasant cultivators and the city craftsmen. 
Owing to historic and economic causes, these 
free individual owners and craftsmen were 
gradually deprived of their private property 
and independence, and wer^ driven as wage- 
earners to produce goods no longer primarily 
for use but for exchange. Previously produc- 
tion for exchange and profit had heoi the ex- 
ception; now it became the rule. The personal 
relations which. In the main, had dominated 
over the old civilizations became 'mere pecu- 
niary relations, and thenceforth p^uniary con- 
siderations were supreme in society. - ' 

The change to the modem competitive sys- 
tem was gradual. Instead of individual pro- 
duction, generally for individual use or for' 
the local market, only the surplus coming into 
exchange, production itself assumed a social 
form, and the local market widened into the 
national and international market. The mem- 
l>ers of the wage-earning class possessed, nom- 
inally at least, liberty to do what they pleased; 
hut, having no property, they were compelled 
to sell their labor to those who would hire it. 
But Uiese workers had no share in the owner- 
ship of the raw material, no say in the quan- 
tity or quality of the articles produced, no 
control over Uie finished product, which he- 
longed to the master. They received as wages 
that which represented on the average their 
cost of subsistence, in accordance with the 
standard of life of their class, so long as their 
employer required their services. What then 
had happened! Production had become social, 
but appropriation and exchange remained at 
the entire disposal of individuals. 

This initial antagonism lies at the root of 
all the ontagonisma of the modem system of 
capitalist and wage-earning production for ex- 
change and pro&t. Competition ruled the mar- 
ket. Competition by free, propertyleas wage- 
earners below; competition for increased profit 
by capitalists and employers above. The lat- 
ter were driven to sweep aside the old local 
restrictive laws, and, as they gained strength, 
they substituted their own commercial control 
in politics for that of the classes theretofore 
supreme. Thenceforward all improvements and 
inventions went into the hands of the capital- 
ist class and were shared by them, unwillingly, 
with the landlords. Such was the course of 
evente in Great Britain, where the eoonomio 
tranatormstion was soonest effected, the r4 


moTal of the people from the IndiTldQal or 
collective ownereliip of the soil havinK first 
been carried out. Socialiata claim that with 
the factor; iaduatry, founded on the inven- 
tions of Watt, UarK^eaves, and others, the last 
Seat system of human slavery was estab- 
hed, and that the cruelty and physical 
degradation by which it has been invariably 
accompanied fully equal chattel slavery and 

The conQict for the markets of the world 
has prepared the way for a closer understand- 
ing between all races and nationalities. The 
■low economic development which arises out 
of the institution of private property is thus 
approaching its close, and we are on the 
threshold of the most, crucial transformation 
that the world has ever seen. The distin- 
guishing feature of the capitalist system of 
production from all previous systems is that 
it is carried on primarily for profit and ex- 
change. Goods are of do immediate use to 
those who produce them. They are made to 
go upon the ma.rket under the control of the 
employer, who must sell them for cash in com- 
petition with others, who likewise sell for 
cash. Cheapness being the determining force 
in the commercial conflict, each manufacturer 
must cut down bis cost of production to the 
lowest point so that be may undersell his rivals. 

The commodity which the wage-earner sells 
— his power to labor— produces more value 
than the worth of the wages which he is paid. 
From this surplus labor-value incorporated in 
commodities the employer derives his profit, 
the landlord his rent, the commission agent 
his brokerage, the banker his interest, and so 
on. It is the unpaid labor of the wsge-eamers 
— the labor which they give in excess of the 
value of the wages they receive — that enables 
the capitalist class and th8ir associates to pHe 
up riches and capital. Individua.1 capitalists 
may run risks, but a profit for them as a 
class is certain; but in order to enhance this 
profit in circumstances where they are pressed 
by the competition of their fellows, they have 
reduced wages, lengthened hours of labor, in- 
troduced improved machinery, and turned out 
as much goods as cheaply as possible, so as 
to obtain a larger sale. The wage-earners be- 
ing obliged to competa with one another for 
the sale of their sole oommodity, labor power, 
often accept lower wages because they must do 
this or sU.rve. The sucoess of the emplo;fer 
seems a necessity of existence to them, and a 
large employer of labor for profit ie often 
regarded as a public benefactor; but the in- 
terests of the wage-earning class nnd the cap- 
italist class c&nnot be in reality identical, 
though it may be and is to the temporary 
interest of a particular set of wage-eamera 
that their own individual employer should he 

Organized industries call for thorough or- 
gduiuitiou, and anything in the shape of un- 
punctuality or dereliction of duty on the part 
of the employees is fined. It is essential, 
from the profit-making point of view, that 
there should be no waste of time, and that 
the plant, mechanical and human, should work 
with regularity. But this oomplete orgouiia- 


Hon of production finds its ooTrelative oppo- 
site in the anarchy of the exchange when 
competitive capitalism is in full awing. Each 
fights for himself- Moreover, the capitalist 
system of production haa developed on antag- 
onism between the sexes, and even between 
parents and their children. The family, in its 
ancient sense, has been disrupted, and men are 
compelled to compete for wages by women 
who, owing to a variety of causes, accept a 
lower standard of life and a lower rate of 
wages. Children in many countries compete 
against men and women. Of the antagonism 
between skilled and unskilled labor, between 
casual, unorganized workers and trade union- 
ists, between employed and unemployed, it is 
unnecessary to speaJc 

Ever since the capitalist ^stem became pre- 
dominant, ups and downs of trade, periods of 
inflation alternating with depression, have 
been the rule, and they are taken for granted 
by men of business, who base their calcula- 
tions upon such variations. The remarkable 
feature in all the cataclysms from ISIO to 
1S07, before as after the use of steam vessels, 
railways, and telegraph cables, was that they 
were preceded and accompanied by on excess 
of products. In previous economic epochs, as 
in barbarous couotriea at present, general de- 
pression of trade has arisen from drought or 
flood, from bad harvest or pestilence. Only 
among the most civilized peoples does on ex- 
cess of what the world requires become a cause 
of stagnation, and the reason why workers are 
prevented from earning their livelihood. 

At this point socialism claims tliat the an- 
tagonisms inherent in the capitalist system 
must be solved by making exchange social, a« 
production is social; by establishing coSper- 
ative production and distribution in the place 
of competitive wsgedom and competitive cap- 
italism. The formation of companies of bond- 
holders and shareholders, to carry out publio 
works, and the transformation of many pri- 
vate concerns into similar companies, form a 
distinct move in the direction of socialization. 
The individual employer is merged in a mul- 
titude of shareholders, and the pecuniary rela- 
tion becomes the sole tie between employers 
and employed. Fnrtbermora, these companies 
are minimiaing competition by combination. 
Banks are oonsolidated, nationaUy and inter- 
nationally; shipping companies agree not to 
eompet«; joint-stock associations form tmsta 
and " rings." Human nature assumes a higher 
character in a society in which life is not s 
constant struggle against want and misery. 
Instead of the personal, limited, introapectiva 
individual ethio Is the social, altruistic, broad 
ethio In which the duty toward society neces- 
sarily involves the highest duty toward a man's 
self. Woman, relieved of economic and social 
subjugation, will assume her place as the so- 
cial equal of man. So for, therefore, from 
individual initiative and personal freedom be- 
ing limitAd, human beings will have the op- 
pertnnity for attaining to a level of physicdl, 
moral, and mental development such as tjia 
world has never seen. The golden age of hu- 
man society Is, indeed, not in tiie post bnt ia 
the future. /-- • i 

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In 1917 tbere were orgMiiied m HuniK m<uiT 
Soviets (oouncils or oommitteeB), some of which 
UtcT beokme known as radical aocialiBls, and 
othen aa Bolaheviki, and tmder one or more of 
tbeoe namea opiead nraidly into other oounUka, 
indudiog tlw U. 8. while ttieae organiiationB 
differed acMnewbat in method, they were iimilar 
inpuipoae. Andthia puipoee waa freely stated 
by NLkalai Lenine, Botaheviki leader, at Mos- 
cow, Aim. 4, 1919, as: revolution, not refonn; 
the orerLnrow of all landowners and capitalists; 
the oixaniaation <A the worken of the world into 
a sin^ fraternal union, and the oruahing of all 
leaistanoe by tenor if neoeeaaiy. 

So'dal Wot, the war (90-89 B.C.) betw^n 
Rome and her Italian allies. The latter, who 
had for nearly two centuries shared the bur- 
dens and dangers of the republic, juatly de- 
manded the pririlege of the franchise. After 
the BBsansinBtion of M. Livius Drusus (91 
B.C.), who desired to grant citiEeoahip to the 
Italians, tlie allies. Including the Marsi, the 
Peligni, the Lucaniana, the Samnites, and 
others, roae and proclaimed a new republic. 
A bloody war followed, and notwithstanding 
the great victories of Sulla, Marius, L. Cesar, 
and others, the Romans were compelled to 
make ooncessions. Over 300,000 men are said 
to have been slain in this war. 

Sod'ety Islands, or Tahl'ti Atchipel'SEO, a 
group of islands in the B. Pacific Ocean, in- 
ctndinB the French establishments in Oceania, 
and the Marquesas, Tuamotu, Qambier, and 
Tubnai greupa and Rapa Island. They consist 
of one Targe island, Tahiti, and small isles; 
total area, S60 sq. m., with 13,266 inhabitants', 
Id the center some of the islands rise to S,000 
or S,000 ft., bat all have a belt of low land 
extending between the foot of the mountains 
and the sea, and are generally surrounded by 
coral reefs. The soil is fertile and the climate 
delishtfuL The inhabitants are Polynesians; 
most of them Christians. The capital of the 
colony is Papeete. The chief exports are 
mother-of-pearl, copra, cotton, and Tanitla. 
Sugar and coffee also are produced. 

Society of Fiisnda. ' Bee FaiEiins, Sociktt 


by creating free agents He has TOlnntarily 
limited His power and His knowledge, because 
free will is self-determined, and future con- 
tingent events are not the objects of knowl- 
edge. (4) There is no such Jnstice in God 
as requires absolutely and inexorably that sin 
be punished. Hence He can pardon any re- 
pentant and reforming sinner without a satis- 
faction to justice. (B) The Holr Ghost Is the 
impersonal power and efficacy of God. 

In practical ethics Fauatus Socinue was hu- 
mane — opposed to war and capital punish- 
ment. The system of Socinns was remarkable 
for ita radical de^rture from traditional 
theology. Even the English Vnitarlaoa ot the 
eighteenth century, who were Socinlan rather 
than Arian, were, much more cautious and 
conservative than Socinua, while the early 
Unitarians in the U. S. were generally Arians, 
regarding Jesus as a being <m gtnerit, and 
only a little less than God. 

Sodol'ogy, the setenee of society, which oc- 
cupies itself with the elements and first prin- 
ciples ol social phenomena, and leaves to eth- 
nology, demography, political economy, com- 
parative jurisprudence, the theory of the state. 

groups of social factBj,aIl of which have their 
ultimate interpretation in sociology. 

Systematic sociology is not an abstract sci- 
ence, tracing the operation of particular social 
forces through all their ramifications, but a 
concrete science, descriptive, historical, and ex- 
planatory, concerning itself with the organ- 
ization, activities, and evolution of those bands 
and nations into which the populations of the 
world are distributed. Sociolo^ is the funda- 
mental social Ktenoe, because it includes the 
elementary and preliminary descriptive matter 
which is presupposed by ul Uis apeeial aocial 

Bodety of Je-an 

Bee JxeTTiTB, 

Sodn'lana and Sodn'Unlam, the historical 
designations of the advoeatca and doctrines of 
an organized system of anti-Trinitarianism. 
In tlie U. S. the names have given place to 
Unitarians and Unitarianism, names of wider 
■cope. LkIIus Socinus (1526-62), b. Siena, 
haa been called " the spiritual father of 6o- 
dnianjsm," while his nephew, Faustus So- 
cinus (1530-1604), waa the founder of the 
■ect. Bocinians accept the Scriptures aa di- 
Tinely revealed, but hold that Adam's guilt 
is not imputed, and that responsibility is lim- 
ited by ability. They hold that: (1) The 
divine unity is inoonaistent with personal 
distinetlona. (2) Free self-determination is 
more fundamental in the divine nature tban 
eiUier justioe or love. (3) By the act of 
creating the world, God haa voluntarily lim- 
ited Bis omnlpreseikM as to Hia esaenoe, tad 

B^tematio sociology begins with analysis, 
classification, and generalization. The ele- 
ments of society are all included under the 
term population, which must be studied un- 

gling of races snd nationalities, and under its 
aspect of empathies, antagonisms, tolerances, 
habits, and character. The social composition 
includes the family, the horde, the tribe, the 
town, the connW, the commonwealth, uid the 
nation. The other form of organization may 
be called the aocial constitution. Its basis Is 
a division of labor, and it consists of associa- 
tions engaged in different activitiea, some eco< 
nomic, some political, some cultural, but all 
coordinated. Tlis study of population begins 
with the facts of aggregation or grouping. 
AggregaUon is of twofonns. Individuate de- 
scended from a oommon ancestry are often 
found living near each other in and about the 
place of their birth. This is a genetic a^^e- 
gation. Other individuals bom in many differ- 
ent places are found carrying on their life 
activitiea in one place, as in London or Mew 
York. This is a congregate aggregation. 

Turning to the psychical factors of sociefy, 
the most elementary phenomena of social psy- 

individiwlB, namely: (1) Mutual perception 
And oommunieation, by motlona, tones, or 
■peech; (2) reoognition of fellow beings of 
one'a own kind or Hpeciei as like oneself 
knd unlike all 1>ther objecta; (3) imitation; 
(4) conflict; (S) toleration; (6) mutual aid, 
alliance; <7) mutual pleasure, play, festivity. 
These constitute ataoeiation as distinguished 
from the merely physical phenomenon of ag- 

Association rsaots on the associated indi- 
viduals, developing in them a social nature; 
but owing to differences of circumstance and 
of heredity the development does not go on 
equally, or at the same rate, in all parts of the 
population, and social classes result. In a 
majority of individuals fellow feeling, imi- 
tativeness amounting to industry, tolerance 
amounting to justice, helpfulness, and com- 

riionableness, are ruling qualities. This class 
the normally social. Dt other individuals 
these qualities are deficient or absent, but are 
simulated. Pretending to tu|ve the social 
nature and appealing to those In whom it is 
real, these pseudosocial characters, if not ag- 
greaalvely antisocial, make up the pauper 
class. Yet others, whether simulating the so- 
cial nature or not, having become aggressively 
antisocial, are the criminal class. The fore- 
going mental and moral elements of society are 
combined in products which wb call the com- 
mon feeling, the moral sense, the public opin- 
ion, the general will, of the community, and 
which it Tb convenient to name collectively the 
social mind or the social c^insciousness. 

The social integration of desire, belief, and 
will, which constitutes this mind, is effected 
sympathetically or rationally; passionately 
and violently, or dellberatively. One mode is 
seen in fada or crazes, panics, emotional re- 
vivals, mobs, lynchings, riots, violent revolu- 
tions. The other is seen in the proceedings of 
a parliamentary body, the execution of legal 
justice, the movements of a disciplined army. 
The primary products of the social mind are 
social choices and values. These are further 
combined with reference to the phases and 
interests of life into standards of living and 
of industry, rules and methods of art, laws of 
conduct, political policies, religious faiths, sci- 
entifle doctrines, ethical ideals, all of which, 
being handed on, become traditions. The pri- 
mary traditions are; (1) The economic, con- 
sisting of the whole body of knowledge and 
usage pertaining to material welt being; (2) 
the jnndical — the customary and positive law; 
(3) the political — the political history, policy, 
and aspirations of a B^t«. Secondary tradi- 
tions are the lingual. Bathetic, religious, scien- 
tific, and ethiaaL 

In the social structure small groups arc com- 
bined into larger groups, and these again into 
groups yet larger. The unitary group in soci- 
eties of the higher animals, or of men, is the 
family, which may be a temporary or an en- 
during union of one male with one female and 
their offspring, or of one male with two or 
more females (polygamy), of one female with 
several males {polyandry), or of several males 


with several female* (pnnaloan or commu- 
niatio marriage). 

Hliman societies composed of families 
grouped in larger aggr^ates are of two typeaj 
Ethmcal B ■ ■■ 

1 societies s 

Demotic societies are groups of people bound by 
habitual intercourse, mutual interests, and co- 
operation, without regard to origins or genetic 
relationships. Ethnical societies are the ear- 
lier, and among them many are metronymic, 
kinBhip being |raeed through the mother name 
only. Others are patronymic, with the kinship 
traced through the fatLer name only. The 
smallest ethnical society' is the horde, a gronp 
of from three to thirty families, dwelling to- 

father in a camp or village. The Bushmen, 
uegians, and Inuits afford examples. The 
next larger group is the tribe, probably orig- 
inating in an alliance of several hordes for 
defense or agression. Horde and tribe are 
often confounded with the clan or gens. The 
horde and the tribe includes all of its de- 
scendants who dwell in the parent camp, while 
the clan is a partly natural, partly artificial 
brotherhood and sisterhood, which rigidly ex- 
cludes all of the descendants of its sons if 
metronymic, or all the descendants of its 
daughters if patronymic. Related tribes speak- 
ing dialects of the same language, when they 
confederate, are a folk or ethnic nation. 

In demotic society the smallest community 
is the deme, village, or township. Townships 
are combined into counties, counties into com- 
moowealtlis,.tiommonwealths into federal states. 
It is an error ta attribute to the state defen- 
sive and juridical functions only, and to private 
associations economic and cultural functions 
only. The fact is that the state performs al- 
ways important economic functions of produc- 
tion, transportation, exchange and finance, and 
cultural functions, religious or educational, and 
that private ossoeiationa, such as political par- 
ties, political clubs, revolutionary societies, and 
private tribunals to achieve political or jurid- 
ical ends, are among the most important vol- 
untaiT organizations known. The socialists, 
therefore, are right in saying that the state 
could, if necessary and deaired, carry on all 
social undertakings, and the individualists are 
right in saying that society could get on, and 
in a way achieve its ends, without the organ- 
ized state; but both are wrong in supposing 
that either thing will happen under a normal 
social evolution. Whatever belittles the state 
or destroys popular faith in its power to per- 
form successfully any kind of social service — 
whtttever impairs the popular habit of achiev- 
ing ends by private initiative and voluntary 
associations, by so much endangers society, 
checks its development, and prevents the full 
realization of its ends. 

The supreme end of society is the protection 
and perfecting of sentient life. The end of 
human society is the evolution of the person- 
ality of its members. The associations directly 
concerned in this function are the cultural, 
namely: the religious, the scientific, the eth- 
ical and the xethetic, the educational organica- 
tions, and what is called poIit« sociafy. 

Economic, legal, and political orgEnisatioa 




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mind are knoim u iiutitatioiis, and they 
fostered or abolished *Jwa7S vith s view w 
cultural aa well as to prDt«i!tiTe ends, 

Soo-atu (eSWii-tta), 470( !46e)-3ft9 B^; 
Greek philotopher; b. near Athens; tiie Mm of 
6ophroni»cuB, a uulptor, and was trained in 
hU father's art. Aa a philoaopher he called 
himself self-taught, and referred his knowledge 
■ometimes to books, but more often to inter- 
niUTse witli distinguished men. Few events of 
his life are recorded. Of bis wife Xanthippe, 
all that hu passed into 
hiBlOTT is that she bore 
him three sons, that she 
had a violent temper, 
and that be said he mar- 
ried and endured her for 
self-discipliQe. He sought 
influence neither as a sol- 

bravelf at PotidKa, _ _ 

Hum, and Amphipolis) 

~ ~ r as a statesman, and 

ce ontj discharged a 

falitical office. He proved 
imself to have an ex- 
traordinary capacity to 
endure cold, heat, and 
fatigue. He walked bare- 
foot upon the ice and snow ot Thrace in his 
usual clothing, while others were clad in furs. 
He was warned from participating in public 
affairs by what be called a im/iino^ — i.e., an 
internal voice, which be professed to tiear from 
ehildhood in the way of restraint, and whtch 
be waa accuetomed to speu of familiarly and 
to obey implicitly. By divinations, dreams, 
and oracular intimetioDS also be believed his 
peculiar mission to be imposed upon him; and 
when the Pythian priestess pronounced him to 
be the wisest of men, he was perplexed between 
the decision of an authority which he deemed 
worthy of respect and bis own estimate that 
be had no wisdom whatsoever on any subject! 
With this sanction, be struck out the orig- 
inal ^th of an indiscriminate public talker 
for the sake of instruction, founding no school, 
teaching in no fixed plaee, and writing no 
booka. His assumption of the ctiaractcr of an 
ignorant learner added zest to his discussions. 
He Let slip no opportunity to engage with the 
masters of sophutry, Ut iollow them through 
their subletiea, to unravel their captious In- 
quiries, and to wield the weapons ol rhetorical 
adroitness in the interest of truth. Attached 
to none of the political parties, ridiculed in 
turn as a buffoon and as a moral corrupter, 
only a decent pretext was wanted to bring 
upon him the vengeance of power, and this was 
found in * charge of impiety and corruption 
of youth. Socrates had cross-examined with 
his dialectic skill and bitter irony most of the 
atateamctt, orators, posts, sophists, and artisans 
of Athena. None iM forgotten their humilia- 
tion at hi* hands; a few had songht help and 
instmctiMi from him aftcnmrda, Mt most of 
them avoided his presence and deaired revenge. 
Ha approached hia trial with no opeetation of 


acquittal, though he had alwa^ obejed the 
law*, and even in religious opinions was iden- 
tified with the public mind of Athena. In his 
defense he declared his solicitude rather for the 

rd of the Athenians than for himself; and 
heard without surprise ttie sentence of con- 
demnation, which was passed b; a majori^ of 
only five or six in the Athenian dicastery of 
GBTmembera. He chose a cup of bnnlock as the 
instrument of his death. He drank the cup with 
perfect composure after a oonversation with his 
friends upon the immortality of the soul. 

The Platonic dialogues of "Crito" and 
" Phsdo " may be regarded as tha substance of 
his last arguments on the duty of obedience to 
the laws and on tbe evidences of immortality. ' 
The " Uemorabilia " of Xenophon and tbe dia- 
logues of Plato have been supposed to represent 
an exoteric and an esoteric Bocrates, and' there 
has been a long oontroversy as to which con- 
tains the most complete and true aocounts. 

Socrates, with a tumed-up nose, projecting 
eyes, bald head, thick lips, round belly, re- 
sembled a satyr of Silenus; he wore a miser- 
able drees, and would frequently stand still in 
sudden fits of abstraction, rolling his eyes, 
staring on vacancy. The teaching of Socrates 
expresses tbe transition from the morali^ of 
custom and habit, mere conventional use and 
wont, to morality as conscious right conduct, 
resting on refiection and moral piinciples. 

So'da, a hydrous oxide of sodium, Na,0;, 
and the compound formed by the action of 
water unon this oxide, hydrate of soda, or 
sodium bydrate. The carbonates of sodium 
also are commercially called soda. Sodium 
hydrate, NaOH, or caustic soda, is prepared 
from the carbonate by the action of lime. Much 
caustic soda, is made by beating or boiling to- 

f ether the Oreenland mineral cryolite with 
ydrato of lime. The compound is white, 
opaque, crystalline, and melts below incandes- 
cence. It IS used largely, in the form of solu- 
tion or Boda lye, for mining Soap. 

Soda Ash, crude soda before having been 
refined. Previous to the French Revolution the 
only source of tbe alkali soda was from the 
ashes of seashore plants, or kelp. Tbe trade 
in kelp ceasing durmg tbe revolution, the Com- 
mittee of Public Safety called upon chemists 
to find some new source of soda, ell the {lotash 
attainable being needed for gunpowder. Nico- 
las Leblanc, a surgeon and chemist, obtained 
the prize offered. His method consists in con- 
verting common salt into sulphate by sul- 
phuric acid, and then beating this together 
with cltarcoal and carbonate of calcium, which 
gives, theoretically, a mixture of carbonate 
of sodium and sulphide of calcium. This 
process is carried on particularly in England, 
all the soda used for making soap, glass, and 
many other products being thus procured. 

The defect of Leblanc's system as originally 
carried out was the toss of the sulphuric acid 
or of the sulphur used in making it. Hence 
other methods have been sought. One in suc- 
cessful operation, tbe Solvay or ammonia-soda 
process, consists of decomposing concentrated 
brine with a strong solution of bicarbonate of 
ammonia, which engenders chloride, of am-. 

I LM_.a .C.oogle 


moDittm and nearly insoluble bicarbonate of 
Boda. The chloride of ammonium is reconvert- 
ible into bicarlmuate, to be used over agaic. 
By Chance's procesa, patented in 1888, the sul- 
phur can be economically recovered from the 
exhausted black ash in Leblanc's method. 
, Soda Wa'tei. Sen Aerated Watebb. 
So'ditm, a metallic element first obtained 
in 1807 by H. Davy by the electrolysis of caus- 
tic soda (hydrate). Its occurrence in nature 
is chiefly as common salt (chloride of sodium) 
in the ocean, and as a constituent of silicates, 
chiefly the feldspars alblte and oUgoclase, on 
the land. It is also found in natron, an im- 
pure sodium s«squicarbonate, contaiuing be- 
sides sodium sulphate and chloride. A cubic 
foot of ocean water contains about 6,440 grains 
fnot far from 1 tb. avoirdupois) of metallic 
sodium, and a cubical tank 14 ft. on each side 
filled with sea water will contain more than 
one ton of this alkali metal. A cubic foot of 
rock salt contains over 52 lb. of sodium. 
Sodium is a metal probably more abundant in 
its occurrence than iron, and probably not nec- 
essarily much more difficult or expensive to 
obtain in approximate purity than the latter 
metal, and yet, by reason of the fewer uses 
developed for it, the cost of sodium is much 
greater than that of iron. Sodium is one of 
the elements moat essential to animal life, be- 
ing a constituent of alt blood. It is also found 
in the vegetable organisms that dwell in the 
ocean and along its coasts, hut plants dwelling 
on land above the sea level contain potassium 
more abundantly than sodium. 

It may be prepared by distilling a mixture 
of charcoal and carbonate of sodium, the trans- 
formation being essentially 

Na,CO. + C, = 2Na + 3C0. 
The sodium vapors are condensed and the metal 
collected under paraffin. When exposed to the 
air, it rapidly absorbs oxygen and moisture, 
forming either anhydrous oxide |Na,0} or 
caustic soda (NaOH). When water toucbee it 
there is an intense reaction, with evolution of 
hydrogen gas and caustic soda. The heat pro- 
duced may be so high that the metal takes fire, 
and bums with a yellow flame. Sodium must 
be kept immersed in some liquid which is free 
from oxygen, such as the hmvy oils of coal tar. 
The most important salts or compounds of 
soda are: Acetate of Sodium. — This is prepared 
on a large scale by the makers of wood vinegar 
or pyroligneous acid. It is used in medicine 
and OS the source of commercial acetic acid by 
distilling with sulphuric acid. Borates of 
Sodiitm. — Of these the most important is 
borax. Oarbonatea of 86dium. — Of these there 
are two of importance — the neutral or normal 
carbonate, commercially sal soda or washing 
soda, and the bicarbonate, commercially cook- 
ing soda. Sal soda, Na,CO, + IOS,0, crys- 
tallizes in large, transparent crystals. This 
salt effloresces in the air very rapidly, falling 
down to a white powder, which contains but 
half as much water as before. It dissolves in 
twice its weight of cold water. The anhydrous 
carbonate is a product of enormous value in 
the arts, used chiefly in the making of glass 
and soap. Cooking loda, or loda talemtut 


idisodiuM dikydrogen dioarbonale) , HNaCOt, 
is made by exposing the last compound to an 
atraoephere of carbon dioxide, which is ab- 
sorbed, with evolution of heat and separation 
of water. Commercial bicarbonate of soda la a 
white ^anular powder, which requires thirteen 
times its weight of water for solution. It la 
largely used in medicine and in cookery. 

Sulphate of todium, or Glauber's salt^ 
Na,SO. + 10H,0, occurs native in mineral 
springs, and as IJie mineral species mirabilite. 
Glauber's salt is highly efflorescent, tailing to 
a white powder in the air, and in time toeing 
all its water of crystallization. It dissolves in 
three times its weight of cold and in ite own 
weight of boiling water. It has a remarkable 
propensity to form supersaturated solutions. 
For sulphite of todium, see Sulpbuboub Aoid. 

Sod'om, a city mentioned in the Old Testa- 
ment memorable for its wickedness and its 
miraculoua destruction hy a storm of brim- 
stone and fire (Gen. xii, 24, 25}. The site 
of Sodom and its allied cities, Gomorrah, Ad- 
mah, Zeboim, and Beta or Zoar. in the vale of 
Siddim, has long been discussed, the usual con- 
clusion having been that the " cities of the 
plain " occupied the present hasin of the S. 
bay of the Dead Sea. The catastrophe was 
perhaps not volcanic, but in consequence of the 
Ignition by lightning of the asphalt with which 
the land is full, which would hum up the 
cities. The land sank when the asphalt had 
been burned out, and the Dead Sea overflowed 
the sunken ground. On the SW. coast of the 
Dead Sea is Jebel 'Usdom (hill of Sodom], a 
mass of mineral salt. At the 8. end is a tall, 
isolated needle of rock, resembling a woman 
carrying a child. This Is called Lot's wife. 
Josephus says that traces of the lost five cities 
could be seen under the waters. The catas- 
trophe is mentioned by Strabo and Tacitus. 

Sodom, Sea of. See Dead Sea. 

Sofia (s6-fe'a). See Sophla. 

SoftaSp'at Constantinople the whole body 
of the theological students who receive instruc- 
tion in the colleges (medressehs) connected 
with the larger mosques. From them are re- 
cruited the Mussulman clergy. Without or- 
dination, hut according to aptitude or length 
of study, each one is appointed to his special 
religious functions. This body of students 
has taken a prominent part in political af* 
fairs. Thus prior to the Russo.'Hirkish War 
(1877) they caused the deposition of an in- 
capable grand vizier and of an obnoxious 
sheik-ul- Islam. Their number at the capital is 
probably not much below 10,000, 

Sohiab'. See Rubtau. 

Soil See Loau. 

Sotana'cee. See Niortshadk FAKiLr. 

Solan Goose. See Oaknet. 

Solar Bn'gine, or Solai Ho'tOT, an appara- 
tus for utiliain^ the heat of the sun as a motive 
power hy causing it. through the medium of a 
reflecting metallic mirror, to heat the water in 
a boiler and convert it into steam. 

luut HIV DIUUHn 

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and center of the earth. Attempts to 
the distanoe of the bud were made by the an- 
cient aBtronatneTB, Ariatarchua and Ptolemy, 
but they were necesMirily futile, since no ot>- 
•ervatioDi tbej were able to make would 
measure so aniall a quantity aa the parallax 
of the Bun. Still they thought they measured 
the dietance, and found it to be 1,210 radii of 
the earth. Telescopic observations showed that. 
the ann'a distance was far more than 1,200 
radii of the earth. At the time of Newton all 
that was known of the sotar parallax waa that 
it muat be immeaaurable with the Instnimenta 
then at ootnmand. 

As the eartii revolTea around the sun, as- 
tMmomera see other planets In various direc- 
tiouB, and can thus determine the annual par- 
allax of each. In this way the ratios between 
the different orbits admit of very exact ob- 
servation. Without any knowledge of the 
actual distance of the sun, it can he said that 
if the distance of the earth be unity, then that 
of Venus will be 0.72333, that of Mars 1.52360, 
that of Jupiter G.2028, etc. It follows from 
this titat if any one of these distancea can be 
dJatermined, or even the diatance of Venus or 
Mara from the earth at any moroent, all the 
other distances will follow, including that of 
the earth from the sun. The nearer a planet 
eomea to the earth the greater wilt be its par- 
allax, and the more easily will its distance be 
determined. Moreover, obaervationa on the 
position of a planet can be mode with much 
more accuracy than on the sun. 

It is now found that the most accurate 
measures of the parallax can probably be made 
(HI the small planeta between Mars and Jupi- 
ter. There are other methods of determining 
the aun'a distance. One of these is the measure- 
ment of the velocity of light. The phenomena 
of aberration show that there ia a ratio between 
the velocity of light and the velocity of the 
earth in its orbit. This ratio ia such tiiat the 
velocity of light ia a little more than 10,000 
times that of the earth around the sun, and 
from this it follows that li(^t takes about 
four hundred and ninety-eight seconds to paas 
from the sun to the earth. It follows that if 
.it can be determine how many milea per sec- 
ond light travels, the distance of the aun can 
be at once obtained by multiplying this number 
by 408. This determination has actually been 
made with a high degree of preciaion. 

Yet a third method of determining the sun's 
distance is founded on the theory of gravita- 


tion. The action of the sun in changing the 
motion of the moon around the earth will be 
slightly different, according to Ita distuioe. 
The difference ia such that an inequality of 
about two minutes In the motion of the moon 
arises from this cauae; but this inequality is 
difficult to determine. The value of the par- 
allax is protably between 8,780" and 8.790". 
This gives, in round numbers, 93,000,000 m. 
for the dlstanoe of the sun, a result protwbly 
correct within 100,000 m. 

Solar Sys'tem, the sun and the bodies which 
revolve around, it. Its main featurea are the 
great maaa of' the central body, between 700 
and 800 times the total mass of all the bodies 
which revolve around it; the orderly arrange- 
ment of the principal bodies of the system, 
which revolve around the sun 'in a fairly r^u- 
lar progression of distances, and in i>early cir- 
cular orbits ; and the isolation of the system 
from the other bodies of the universe, the near- 
est fixed star being about 9,000 time* tho dia- 
tance of the farthest planet. 

The bodies which compose the system are: 
(I) The great central body, the sun. (2) The 
four inner planets, Mercuiy, Venus, the Eartii, 
and Mara. (3) A group of several hundred 
minor planets, or asterotda, revolving outaids 
the orbit of Uars. Over 400 have been cata- 
logued. (4) The four outer planets, Jupiter, 
Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. These, with the 
four planets first named, are called major 
pUmett. (5) Twenty-one satellites revolving 
around the planets, of which one belongs to 
the earth, two ta Mars, five to Jupiter, eight 
to Saturn, four to Uranus, and one to Neptune. 
Also a number of comets, which may be con- 
sidered as belonging to the system ; and clouds 
of meteoric particles, iuviaible in themselves, 
the presence of which is made evident by their 
combustion when they strike the atmosphere, 
forming shooting atars. 

The principal features of the orbits of the 
major planet^ are their near approach to cir- 
cles, and the fact that they lie nearly in the 
same plane. The moat eccentric of their orUta 
is that of Mercury ; yet the eye could scarcely 
distinguiah its deviation from a circle, though, 
it could perceive that the sun was not situated 
in the center of the circle. It is also tjie planet 
whose orbit is moat inclined to the ecliptic, the 
inclination being seven degrees. 

The principal elements of the planetary or- 
bits are shown in the following table: 





(•UD 1- I). 














13 5 

23 M 41 

24 37.22 « 

9 SS 21 








„ Google 


SoUet {aOA'tn), an alloy Mnplojed to unite 
pieoes of metal bf fusion upon the propoeed 
joint. Tbere are mutj solder«, each designed 
lOr some special use. Three grades of Holder 
are in common use: common solder, of equal 
parts of tin and lead ; floe solder, of two parts 
of tin to one of lead ; and a cheaper article, of 
two of lead to one of tin. The soft solders are 
usually of lead and tin, or lead, tin, and bis- 
muth; these melt at a low temperature. The 
hard eolden cannot be melted at a low'tem- 
perature ; tfaey are conuncnly of lino and 

Sole, a flat&sb of the Boleida. The com- 
mon sole, Solea aolea, is dark brown on its 
upper and white on its lower aide, with the 
pectoral &n blscldsh at its end; it ranges be- 
tween 10 and 20 in. in lengtb, and between I 
and 10 lb. in weight, although the latter di- 
rarcly attained. It ie fouiid 

teemed; the flesb ie wbite and Ann. 
chiefly taken on the coasts of the British Is- 
lands by trawling. Another species is the 
lemon sole. Achirua lineaiui is the nearest 
American ally of the European species; it is 
known as the hog choker, cover clip, or calico; 
it is worthless. In California several species 
of true PleuToneotiiUB are called solea. 

Solfeuio (sOl-f &d'iO) . See Souozatiok. 

Solfeiino [sAl-f6r-S'D9), village of Mantua, 
N. Italy; celebrated for the battle in which 
the French, under Napoleon III, and the Sar- 
dinians, under Victor Emmanuel, defeated the 
Austrians (June 24, 1S60). It was the de- 
cisive battle of the war of Italian independence. 
The forces of the allies numbered about 150,- 
000, while the Austrians brought about 170,000 
into the field. After their defeat the latter 
retreated toward Verona, and left all Lombard; 
open to the allies. Napoleon concluded the 
truce of Villafranca. 

Solic'itoi, in Great Britain, an officer of the 
courts who is entitled to institute or defend 
any action, similar to attorneys in the U. S., 
except that the solicitors do not appear before 
the higher courts, that function being reserved 
for the barristers ig.v.). 

Sol'idaB, Homan gold coin, Vi of the pound. 
In the Middle Ages a silver solidus, A of the 
pound, was coined. This became the sol or 
sou, the latter being retained as the popular 
name for the five-centime piece. 

Sollngen, town of Rhenish Pnusia; 13 m. 
E. of Dltsseldorf; famous since the Middle 
Ages for its iron and steel goods, especially 
sword blades, and still an important center for 
cutlery. Pop. (1900) 45,260. 

Soils y Klbndeneyra (e re-v&tha-na'e-ra) , 
Antonio de, 1610-86; Spanish writer, first of 
poems and dramas; later as secretary to Philip 
IV and historiographer, wrote " Historia de la 
Conquista de Mexico," a Spanish classic, 
thot^h shallow «nd bigoted, but the first ctm- 
uectea history of the conquest. 

Solitaire (sM-I-tSr'), the Pezophapt tolifaria, 
a bird related to the dodo, formerly inhabitiDg 


the island of Bodrignez. Numerous remains 
of the solitaire have been found. It was larger 
than the turkey, and did not use its wings lor 
flight. It was a slow runner, and dcKnded 

itself with its wings and beak. Its fieah was 
good to eat. Francis Leguat, 1691, describes 
the solitaire in bis " Voyages et Aventures." 

SOLITAIBE, or Patience, a game which one 
person can play alone; usually applied to 
games of cards in which the player arranges 
the cards according to some fixed rule and 
tries to classify them according to suits. 

Solmisa'tiou, or Solfeg'gio, in music, the art 
of giving to each of the seven notes of the 
scale its proper sound or relative pit<:h. The 
acquiring of a true intonation of the scale, first 
i)y regular gradation upward and downward, 
and then by skips from one degree to another, 
is of importance in vocal music. To facilitate 
this, expedients have been devised, chiefly the 
association of the several sounds with articu- 
l9.te utterances, such hb the numeral words, 
ont, tvjo, three, etc. Many centuries ago cer- 
tain syllables, void of any special meaning, 
but containing the several vowel sounds, were 
selected for Uiia purpose, and are in general 

SDl'omon (Hebrew, 8h'l6mOh, "peaceable"),' 
son and successor of David, King of Israel. 
His name was given with reference to the peace 
which should attend bis reign (I Chron. xxii, 
7-10). As the recipient of Jehovah's promise 
to the eternal line of David (II Sana, vii) he 
was also named Jedidiah, beloved of Jehovah 
(II Bam. xii, 24, 25). His mother was Bath- 
siteba, the widow of Uriah. In I Chronicles 
xiiii, I-xxix, 22a is an account of Solomon's 
being made king, followed (verses 22b-25) by 
an account of his being made king " a second 
time," this second account being a condensation 
of I Kings I. Apparently the flrst coronation 
occurred near the close of the fortieth year of 
David (bis last year but one), and just before 
the outbreak of Absalom's rel^llion (I Chron. 
xxvi, 31; II Sam, rv, 7), which interpretation 
gives a consistent meaning to the biblical data, 
— Solomon b^an his reign humbly and wisely, 
asking God for wisdom, which was granted. 
In his fourth year be began his great work, 
"the house lof the Lord," for which David had 
laid plans and accumulated enormous treas- 
ures. It was completed and dedicated seven 
years later. This was but the beginning of 
his achievements as a builder. Among the 
structures attributed to him are his own palace, 
"the House of the Forest of Lebanon," and 
his wonderful throne, together with cities, fbr- 
tiflcations, stations for commerce, reservoirs, 
and aqueducts. He also engaged In husbandry 
and in landscape gardening. He oonaDlidat«d 
the kingdom which his father had conquered. 
He reorganized and enlarged the civil service 
of David. He started the hitherto pastoral or 
agricultural Hebrews on the new road of com- 
merce, sending ships to " Ophtr," India, and 
Arabia in tlie Bast from Ezion-geber on the 
Red Sea, and from Jaffa and Tyro, to 
" Tarshiah " in Spain. Many kings were his 
tributaries; untold wealth abd the wonders and 
curiosities of many countries flowed into the 
land. Many foreigners were attracted tiy hia 

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Hplendor and wisdom, notably the Qnwn of 
Sheba, mth her retinue. His harem had 1,000 
inmates, in accordance with Oriental ideas of 

in Jewish and Mohammedan tradition he 
appears aa a person of fascinating beautj and 
grace, impetuous, generous, sympathetic, and 
at first humble; of fine humor and noble in- 
tellect, a man of broad views, a far-sighted 
statesmaii, learned in the science of the day. 
He was an organizer of splendid executive 

Gwers, a great builder and artist, poet, phi- 
lopher, and had from the Lord preeminently 
, '■ an understanding heart to judge." Unfortu- 
nately, there fa another side to the picture. 
From motives of state Solomon married the 
daughter of Pbaraoh of Egypt and many other 
wives from among the princesses of his tribu- 
tary kingdoms. This led to latitudinarianism 
in religion, to extravagance, to oppression and 
disregard of human rights. The result was 
that his reign was partly a failure. Before his 
death Bdom and Syria revolted, and Jeroboam 
raised rebellion. After his death the ten tribes 
revolted, so that the strictly Israelite portion 
of his kingdom was divided, while the tribu- 
tary peoples fell away from their all^iance. 

Solomon, Son{ of. See Canticle. 

Solomon Ben I'saac, generally known aa 
Rashi (a combination of the initial letters 
of bis title and name), 1040-1105; celebrated 
Jewish commentator; b. Troyes, France. Lit- 
tle is known about his life, except that he 
studied at the theological schools of Maycnce 
and Worms. He died July 13, 1105. He wrote 
I all the books of the Bible 

f the traditional rabbinic exegesis, seek 
to determine the simple meaning {Peahat) of 
the text. They have been held in the highest 
esteem not only by Jewish writers, but also by 
NicolauB de Lyra, Luther, Sebastian Mttnster, 
etc His commentary on the Pentateuch was 
the first Hebrew book printed ( 1475). He also 
wrote a commentary on twenty-three of the 
treatises of the Balgrlonian Talmud, which is 
printed in every eilition of that work. Among 
his other writings may be mentioned a com- 
mentary to BeresHlft Rahha; Bappardet, con- 
taining decisions on ritual and legal matters; 
and a few hymns. In bis commentaries Rasbi 
cites a large number of Frovengal words which 
have been collected by ArsSne Dnrmeateter, 
and which are of value in determining the pro- 
nunciation of the particular dialect used by 
the Jews in that part of Provence. 

Solomon (German, Salouok) Islands, an 
archipelago E. of New Guinea, from which it 
is separated by the Bismarck Archipelago and 
Louisiade Islands. It consists of seven large 
isianda and many small ones. The N. half of 
the archipelago was taken under German pro- 
tection in 1886. The largest of the isianda are 
Bougainville (pop. 10,000), Choiseul (5,S50), 
and Isabel {6,S40). The total area of the 
islands is 16,950 sq. m. ; pop. 89,000. The re- 
mainder of the archipelago was brought witbin 
the British protectorate, June, 1893. In 1899 
Germany ceded Choiseul and San Isabel to 
Great Britain, which now controls the remain- 


der of the group with the exception of Bou- 
gainville and BuVa, which still belong to' Ger- 
many. The inhabitants are Papuan and 
Polynesian. They are intelligent, quick, and 
crafty, but make good servants, and are in de- 
mand as laborers. They are cannibals; their 
weapons consist of the bow and arrow, spear, 
and club, which are of fine finish. Their 
canoes are the finest in the Pacific. The islands 
are volcanic, surrounded by coral reefs. They 
were discovered in the sixteenth century, but 
were lost sight of until 1767, when they were 
rediscovered by Carteret. They are still the 
least-known group of the Pacific. 

Solomon's Seal, any one of the liliaoMus 
herbs of the genera Polggonatvm, Yagjtrrv, and 
UnifoHum, found in Europe and N. America. 
The name properly belongs only to the specie* 
of Polj/gcxMtfum ; the "seal" is the cfrcnlar 

Solomon's 8iau 
t ■tem. bud. aod Ktu 


depressed sear left on the root stock by the 
separation annually of the flowering stem. 
The common Solomon's seal, P. muHiflorum, is 
foimd in England and Scotland. It has a stem 
2 ft. high. The flower stalks are generally 
unbranched; the (lowers, which are not large, 
are white and drooping. 

Solomon's Tem'ple. See Jebusaulu. 

Solon, abt. 638-669 B.C.; Athenian law- 
giver of royal descent, but impoverished by bis 
father's extravagance; he visited in his youth 
many parts of Greece and Aaia as a merchant, 
gained distinction by his poenls, and from his 
reputation for political wisdom was reckoned 
one of the seven sages. He began his political 
career by recovering Salamis from the Mega- 
rians, and gave to Athens the mastery of the 
sea. The repeated failure to capture Salamis 
had BO discouraged the Athenians that a law 
was passed prescribing death for anyone who 
should renew the attempt. The Athenians 
were captives in their own land. Solon, feign- 
ing madness, roused the patriotic ardor of hia 
countrymen by his poems, and then led them 
to victoi?. It was the turning point in the 
history of Athens. In 694 he was called to the 
archonship, with authority to confirm, repeal, 
or modih- the Draconian laws. The constitu- 
tion of Solon was by a solemn oath declared 
valid without alteration for ten years. He ob- 
tained leave of absence for that period, and 
visited E^t and Cyprus, He returned to 
Athens prior to the first usurpation of his 
relative Piaistratus (660), and amid violent 
dissensions was respected by all parties. 

The radical evil which Solon had to cure 
was that the small landowners were hopeless^ 



in d«bt. The debtors' Uws were mollified; 
limita were set to the uquiaitidn of large es-», and b modification of tlie coinage ulevi- 
ated the wretched condition of the proletariat. 
The garemment was no longer conducted by 
a few noble families, but shared in hj all 
in proportion to their property. Sumptuary 
regulations repressed extra vagancs ; snd the 
statutes, written on wood, were exposed to be 
read bj all. Crtesus, the magnificent King of 
Ljdia, seeking a oompliment, asked Solon, 
" Who is the happiest man jou have ever 
seen! " and was mortified b; the philosopher's 
reply: "I can speak of no one as happy until 
I hare seen bow his life has ended." 

SoloT', an island of Malay, off the E. ex- 
tremitj of Florea; area, 106 sq. n. ; pop. 
15,000, mostly engaged in fishing and tratung. 
Sulphur and ediMe birda' nests are the prin- 
cipal artides of exportation. Also the small 
archipelago to which this islAnd belongs. It 
contains two other larger islands — Adenara 
and Lomhiero. Area of the group about 1,260 
sq. m.; pop. est. from 40,000 to 180,000. 

Sol'sUce, the inclination of the earth's equa- 
tor to the ecliptic or plane of its annual mo- 
tion about the sun is the cause that the latter 
is during half the year on the N. polar side of 
the equator, the other half on the S., causing 
,the Ticissitudes of summer and winter to the 
respective hemisphercB. The distance from the 
Hun N. or 8. of the equator is thus constantly 
varying. The two points at which this ap- 
parent N. or S. motion ceases (or at which its 
progressive increase of declination appears to 
he arrested) are the summer and winter sol- 
stices. At these periods the day is the longest 
or shortest, according as the earth is in the 
summer (June Zlst) or winter (December 
21at) solstice. See Equmox. 

Sol'nble Glass, or Wa'ter GUsa, an artificial 
silicate of aoda or potash, or a double silicate 
of these atkalies. It may be formed bj fusing 
eight parts of dry carbonate of soda or potash 
with fifteen parts of white sand. Soluble gloss 
is applied to brick and stone walls to harden 
them, is fireprooflng, and as a fixative in 

jSoln'tion, the liquid product formed when 
a solid, a liquid, or a gas dissolves in a liquid. 
Thus when water is poured upon salt or sugar 
the solid substance disappears as such and 
passes into the liquid form. Any liquid which 
has the power to dissolve a substance is called 
a solvent, and the substance is said to be sol- 
uble in the liquid. Water is used more com- 
monly than any other liquid, while alcohol is 
also much used, especially tor medicinal solu- 
tions. Tinctures are suiJt alcoholic solutions 
of medicinal constituents of plants. Some 
liquids mix with one another, or, in other 
words, they dissolve one in the other, as water 
uid alcohol. Other liquids act diO'erently. 
Thus water, as 'is well known, does not dissolve 
oily liauids. Ether and hendne, on the other 
hand, do dissolve oils. Some gases dissolve in 
water to a veiy remarkable extent. Thus wa- 
ter can dissolve 1,000 times its bulk of the gas 
Water also dissolves carbonic-acid 

gas, and all natural waters oontain some of 
this, gas in solution. When a liquid is placed 
in a dosed vessel, and gas forced into it, it 
dissolves more and more gas as the pressure 
increases; and when the pressure is removed, 
the gas passes rapidly out of solution, giving 
rise to ^ervescenoe, as is commonly seen in 
soda water. 

In a solution, whether of a solid, a liquid, or 
a gas, the dissolved substance is uniformly dis- 
tributed—there is as much of it in one drop of 
the solution as there is in any other drop. A 
drop of a concentrated solution of magenta 
brought into many gallons of water imparts a 
distinct color to all parts of the liquicC liiis 
gives some idea of the extent to which the divi- 
sion of matter can be carried, for in each drop 
of the dilute solution there must be contained 
some of the dve, though the quantity must 
be inflnitesimally small. Little is positively 
known in regard to the nature of solution. 
There are facts that indicate that the particles 
of the solvent form unstable compounds with 
the particles of the dissolved substance. Id 
some cases it appears that solution Involves a 
complete breaking down of the dissolved sub- 

Sol'way Pirtb, an inlet of the Irish Sea, 83 
m. long, from 2} to 20 m. broad; it separatee 
Cumberland from the S. of Scotland. It is 
noted for the swiftness and strength of its ebb 
and flow, the spring tide rushing in with a 
wave from 3 to 6 ft. high, and with a speed 
of from 8 to 10 m. an hour. It receives the 
Esk, the Derwent, and several minor streams. 

Sol'yman, same as ScLEiiiAn iq.v.). 

Somali Coast, or Somali Land, an ill-defined 
area occupying the E. horn of Africa, and ex- 
tending along the Gulf of Aden and the Indian 
Ocean from Zeila, in lat. 11° IB' N., to the 
mouth of the Jub, in lat. 0° 14' N. ; claimed 
by the British (along the Gulf of Aden) and 
the Italians (along the Indian Ocean S. to 
British E. Africa) ; the remainder subject to 
Abyssinia ; area of the former part about, SB,- 
000 sq. m. The British and Italian ^vem- 
ments in 19M defined the limita of their pro- 
tectorates. It is mountainous, rich in myrrh 
and incense, and inhabited by tribes relate to 
the Abyssinians, Mohammedans, and Oallas, 
and mostly nomads and ill famed from their 
predatory habits. Tha principal port is Ber- 
bera. During the hot season it is deserted, but 
in. winter comprises a population of about 
30,000 people, who gather to exchange the 

groducts of their industry. The French Somali 
oast Protectorate is on the Gulf of Aden; 
capital, Jibuti. 

Sonutol'ogy, the science of living organized 
bodies as far as relates to material conforma- 
tion and not to psychological phenomena. The 
name has also l^n ^ven to the study of in- 
organic bodies, iji which case it does not differ 
much in signification from physics. 

Som'eiB, John (Lord), 1661-1710; English 
statesman; b. Worcester; was chairman of the 
committee which drew up the Declaration of 
Right; in I6B7 was Lord Chancellor. He drew 
up the plan for the uniim of the crowns of 


,v Google 



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England and SootUnd, 1706. A nliuible col- 
lection of «Ut« papeTs, known u the " Somera 
Tr«ct»," WM edited from ariginaU in hia 

Som'enet, Edward ScTmotur {Duke of), 
1500-S2; English Btateeman; brother of Jane 
SeTmour, mother of Edward VI. After the 
death of Heary VIII he rose to the head of 
ftffaira, becoming king in alt but name. When 
the Scots opposed the mnrriage of Marj Stuart 
to Edward VI, Somerset defeated them in the 
Inttle of Pinkie. His arrogance and rBShnees 
provoked opposition, and among hie political 
adTETvariee was his own brother. Sir Thomas 
Sefiaour, who was executed by his orders, 
Harch, 1549. This brought the protector into 
EKat odium, and in October, 164Q, the j'oung 
king had bim thrown into the Tower, but he 
was released in a few months. Among his 
rivala was the Earl of Warwick. Somerset 

filotted against his life; was again armted, 
ound guilCj of felony and conatructiTe treason, 
Mid beh^ed. 

Somerset House, a building in London be- 
tween the Strand and the l^mea erected in 
the eighteenth centunr, and now occupied hy 
King's Oollege, as well as Bereral government 
branches, as Uie inland revenue and tbe reg- 
istrar's office. It ia also the depositary of 

Som'erMtsIilre, county of SW, England; 
area, 1,615 aq. m. The surface is diversifled 
by low, rocky bills; the Mendip Hills in the 
N. and the Quantock Hills in the W. Cool 
and freestone are mhied, and iron and lead in 
small quantities. large tracts afford excellent 

Kturage. Cheddar cheese and eider are 
jely produced. Dairy farming is one of the 
principal occupations ; leather, glass, paper, 
•nd iiOD goods ^re made. Fop. (1911) 

So'man't Iilaada. See BEBinnu Isunds. 

Somerrilk, city; Middlesex G04 Uass'.; on 
tlM Mystic River; till IB42 a part of Charlea- 
town, and is a residential city for many en- 
gaged in buainesa in Boston. In 1000 there 
were 114 "factory system" manufacturing ea- 
tablishments, employing 5,280 wage earner*, 
and turning out products valued at ^8,087,- 
000. The city was setUed in 1029, and in- 
corporated 1872. It ia built on seven hilU. 
The first vessel built in tbe state waa launched 
from Gov. Winthrop'a Ten Hill farm on the 
Uystic River in 1631; a powder house erected 
on Quarry Hill abt. 1703 is preserved in tbe 

Hill during the wiege of Boston; Oen. Putnam' 
" impr^naUe fortress" waa on Cobble Bill; 
»nd the " citadel " where Washington raised 
the first colonial union flag, January 1, 1770, 
was on Prospect Hill. Pop. (1910) 77,238. 

Somme (sOmm), department of N. France, 
bordering on the English Channel; area, 2,443 
•q. m. The surface is flat, hut the soil fertile, 
knd large crops are raised. Cattle breeding is 
extensively carried on, and the manufacturers 
of velvet, silk, ootton goods, soap, chemicala. 


beet-root sugar, paper, and linen are important. 
Pop. (1911) 620,161. • 

SouuE is also the nnme of a river of France; 
rises in the department of Aisne, passes by St. 
Quentin, Ham, Amiens, and Abbeville, and 
falls into the English Channel after a course 
of 152 m. It IB navigable to Amiens, and is 
connected with the Seine, Oise, and Scheldt by 
OaiutlB. The river gives its name to two B^tMl 
batUea in the World War. The first, fought by 
the British and Flench on one nde and the 
Oermans on the othai, began July 1, 191Q, lasted 
into November, saw the introduction of tbe 
"tank," and resulted in the failure to break the 
Genoan linea. Tbe second, (^>ened Aug. 12, 
1918, between the same antagonists, and re- 
Bultea in large Allied gains, tbe recrossinK of 
the river by the British, 2»th, and the full Ger- 
mOn retreat toward the Hindenburg (9. v.) line. 

Sona'ta, originally, in the sizieenth century, 
any composition for instruments, in contra- 
distinction to vocal compositions, or oanfala. 
Later, especially after Bach, the name was ap- 
plied principally to compositions for solo in- 
struments and of a certain form, consisting of 
several movements — flrst, three, the allegro, 
adagio, and rondo — to which afterwards a 
fourth was added by Haydn, the mtnuelfo or 
tofterso, which differed from each other in time 
and sentiment, but were held together by the 
general character pervading all. 

Song of Birds, the musical notes uttered by 
many birds, especially by oecine passerines. 
Nearly all birds utter some kind of a cry, but 
in the majority it can scarcely be called a song. 
In man and other mammal, gounds are i>rO' 
duced in the larynx^ but in birds musical 
sounds are produced m an enlargement of tbe 
windpipe termed the syrinx. To the syrinx are 
attached the ringing nsusoles, numbering in ihn 
oscines from four ui six or eight pairs. The 
apparatus is simple, and its modifications are 
slight. There ia no reason to suppose that the 
tongue takes any important part in the pro- 
duction of sounds even in birds which pro- 
nounce words. Son^ is almost excluaively an 
attribute of male birds, although the female 
may sing, as does the cardinal of the U. 8., 
and it is heard most often during the time of 
pairing, so that spring time is preeminently the 
season of song; still some birds sing t^ — ' 
out the year, and even, like tbe Carolin 
in winter. The bobolink changes his n 
with his coat, and sings only in full-dress 

Slumage. Early morning is the favorite hour 
>r aong ; next to that the sunset hour, but 
some birds, like the scarlet tauager, sing dur- 
ing the torrid heat of a 8. noonday, and many 
songsters besides the nightingale sing at night, 
notably tbe-mockins bird and yellow-breasted 
chat of the U. S. The gay-plumaged birds of 
the tropics belong large^ to the harsh-voiced 
Clamatoret, but a bright coat is not a sure 
sign of a discordant voice. Not only do indi- 
viduals of a given species var^ considerably in 
their power 01 song, but certain localitiea seem 
to develop musical talent better than others. 
The meadow lark sings better in Florida than 
in the N. parts of the U. 8., while the W. aub- 
species excels that of tbe E. 

Song of Songa See Cakhou^, T jQqqIp 

I O 

Son'aet, a poetic*! form Thich, as finally 

fonrteeuth cepturiea, consists of fourteen hen- 
decBBfllabic Tere«a (corresponding' to English 
decasyllablee), arranged according to a rind 
scheme. The main features of tliia are xbe 
division of the sonnet into two parts, the first 
of eight lines (called the octaTe), the second 
of six (called the sestet) ; the furUier division 
of the octave into two tetrastiches (called in 
Italian piedi) ; the emptoyment of but two 
rhymes in the octave, arraneed abbaabba; 
the use of either two or three rhymes la the 
sestet variously arranged, though a b b ab aia 
preferred. The Hestct, when it forms an in- 
divisible whole, is often called in Italian 
tiriTim; when it falls into two tercets, volte. 
This severe form, however, has not been fol- 
lowed hy all sonnet writers. Shakespeare 
hardly observes the minor divisions of the 
sonnet at alL He arranges the rhymes of the 
octave abababab.oi even ababodod, 
thus neglecting all the subtle modulations of 
the Petrarchan type. He often allows the 
sense to run over from the octave to the sestet ; 
and even when he parts the two he makes little 
effort to contrast the meaning and the har- 
mony of the latter with those of the former. 
This loose type of the sonnet is often called the 
bastard or illegitimate sonnet; but this is 
hardly justified by the history of the torra. 

Wordsworth's sonnet on the sonnet does more 
than exemplify its form: 

Boom not (h« Sc 

)vu have f inwDsd, 
■ ■ i. key, 

» thii pipe did Tu*q m 

Amid Ihe oypm 


To ■tn^K'* [hmui^ dar^ w 

path of Uilton. in 1 

r, called f mi 

Sono'ra, NW. sUte of Mexico; area, 76,900 
sq. m. The Sierra Madre Kange forms the £. 
boundary, and its spurs cover much of the E. 
part, which is imperfectly known. Succeeding 
this r^ion are plateaus and valley with a 
rich soil, but only available for agriculture by 
irrigation. The ^nds along the coast are arid, 
except in the river valleys. The NW. part is 
a desert, resembling Ariiona. Of the few riv- 
ers the Yaqui is the most important. The cli- 
mate is hot on the lowlands, mild on the 
plateaus and in the higher valleys; rains (prin- 
cipally from July to September) are soantv, 
and the NW. deserts and parts of the coast belt 
are essentially rainless. There is no true for- 
est, except id* the mountains. The state is rich 
in minerals; the mines of silver and gold are 
famous, lead occurs with silver, and coal beds 
have been opened in the Yaqui valley, the 
product being exported to Arizona. Mining is 
the only important industry; cereals, etc., are 
cultivated in the river valleys, and there are 
herds of cattle in the N. A kind of guano is 


found on Islands in the Gulf of California. 
Pop. (1910) 262,Si5. A large proportion are 
Indians of the Opata, Pima, and other tribea, 
who retain their old customs and languages, 
and are often practically independent. 

Soochow', formerly Boo-Chow Too, or Sd- 
CHOW, a city of CUna, capital of a depart- 
ment of same name, and of the province of 
KiangBu; on the Grand Canal, 80 m. W. of 
Shan^uii. In 1861 the Taipings reduced the 
city almost to ruins, the only buildings which 
escaped destruction being the temples (300 in 
number) and pagodas, one of them, the Great 
Pagoda, being the highest in China. Soocbow 
is a great commercial and manufacturing city, 
thousands of looms turning out silk and satin, 
and there are numerous workers in wood, iron, 
brass, tin, stone, silver, and gold. Its streets 
— 7 or 8 ft. wide — are too narrow for traffic, 
but a network of canals extends throughout 
the city and surrounding region, and along 
these the heavy traCBc passes. Pop. 600,000. 
A history of Soochow in ISO volumes was 
written one thousand years ago. September 
26, 18&6, Soochow was opened to f^rei^ trade. 

Soot, a carbonaceous deposit from smoke, 
formed !n chimneys. That which forms near- 
est the fire is often shining and Tamishlilce, 
consisting chiefly of dried tany matters mixed 
with carbon, and giving a brownish-black pow- 
der, sometimes used as a pigment under the 
name of bistre. That which forms farUier up 
the chimney is more like lampblack. 

Soo'ty Tern. See Eco-BtBD. 

Sophl'a. capital of Bulgaria; on a tributary 
of the lakra. Till 1878 it was " a dirty and 
pestilential village of wooden huts," but since 
Russia wrested from the Ottoman^ a semi- 
independence for Bulgaria (IS7B), it has im- 
proved. It now resembles a European city with 
straight, clean streets and attractive houses. 
Over 7,000 Ottomans from among its former 
residents emigrated, but the population has 
steadily increased. It has manufactures of 
leather, earthenware, and woolen cloth, and an 
active transit trade. Pop. (1006) 82,021. 

Sophia, St., Church of, in Constantinople, 
the most celebrated ecclesiastical edifice of the 
Greek Church, now used as a mosque, was built 
by the emperor Justinian, and dedicated in 
668. It is in the Byzantine style of archi- 
tecture, has a fine dome rising to the height 
of 180 ft., and is richly decorated in the in- 
terior. With the principal dome are connected 
two half domes and six smaller ones, which 
add to the general effect. The mass of the 
edifice is of brick, but is overlaid with marble; 
the floor is of mosaic work, composed of 
porphyry and verd antique. The great piers 
which support the dome consist of square 
blocks of stone bound with hoops of iron. The 
numerous pillars supportinr the internal gal- 
leries are of white and colored marbles, por- 
phyiy, granite, and have capitals of various 
peculiar forms. The interior of the church is 
243 (t. in width from N. to S., and 266 in 
length from E. to W., and ila general effect is 

ao""'"'""-- I, .Google 


Soplt'lsta, the Mven iriM men of Oreeee, but, 
later, the teaeben at Athens who gave lessons 
ID the arts and sciences for money. Truth be- 
ing man; sided, the point of view taken was 
supposed to justifr differences of opinion, and 
the art of presenting grounds or reaaona to 
justify any view is the art of the Sophists, or 

Sophocles (sSf'O-klez), 4S6 or 496-40S B.C.; 
tragic poet of Greece; b. of a wealthy family 
at Colon ug, near Athens. He was carefully 
trained in gymnsstica and muaic At sixteen 
he led the chorus of bo^s in honor of the tIc- 
tory of Salaoiis, and there is other evidence 
of his personal beauty and grace. Tlis first 
play, acted in 468, was a great auccess, and 
won the prise over ■Esohylus after a close con- 
test. For the next ten yeara Sophocles divided 
with .Sschylus the empire of the stage. After 
the death of .^^schylus, Sophocles was the lead- 
ing dramatist. Be never tailed of at least the 
second prize, and coped successfully with auch 
plays as the " Alceatia " and the "Medea" of 
Euripides. But as jf^hylus accepted the im- 

whose greatness he did not fail to recogni 
Sophocles took an active part in public life, 
and was called to hold high positions. In con- 
sequence of the sentiments expressed in his 
" Antigone " (440) he was made a colleague 
of Pericles in tbe command of the forces sent 
•gainst Samos. Before that he had been an 
Hellenotamiaa or treasurer of the Alliance, 
and in the trouhlous times of the Pelopon- 
nesian War he is said to have been one of the 
wpiPattiM, or coPimittce of safety. Love played 
a large part in his life, and his sweet and easy 
temper was often put to the test. According 
to traditipn, when far advanced in years Sopho- 
s brought before a family court by his 

jolonus from the " (Eldipus Colo- 
neuB," whi^ti be bad just composed, and the 
charge wan dismissed — as the story may be. 
He died an easy death in 405. 

Of his 123 dramas seven are extant — " Ajax," 
"Electre," " CEdipus lyrannus," "Antigone," 
"Tracbiniffi," " Philoctetca," "CEdipus Colo- 
neus." In the construction of tbe plot Sopho- 
cles bad no rival. Bis " CEdipus Tyrannus," to 
cite but one instance, is a tragic web of un- 
equaled sublety and effectivenesa. The lyric 
parts of hia plays are in beautiful balance with 
the dramatic element. Bis language ia more 
supple than that of .^CBchylua, but never falla 
short of elevation. It ia sweet, and yet doea 
not lack a certain austerity that saves it from 

Sopra'no, the highest voice of women and 
boys. The compaaa of the high soprano ex- 
tends from lower E on the treble staff to C 
above, and that of the meezoaoprauo from A 
below to A above. Among the high sopranos 
exceptional compaas is aometimes found, reach- 
ing even to T and O in alt. 

Soiac't^ the present MonTE Di Sait Orbste, 
» mountain of Etruria, an outlying offset of 
tiie Apennines, froni which it U detached by 


the valley of the Tiber. It rises abruptly 
2,420 ft. above the plain, and forms a pictur- 
esque feature in the views of the Campagna. 
In ancient times it was dedicated to Apollo, 
and bore on its top a celebrated temple to 
which peculiarly aolemn processions were made 
from Home. In 740, Carlomon, the brother of 
Pepin, founded the monastery of San Silveatro 
on the aite of the old temple. Its present name 
is derived from a village, San Create, on Its 
slope and known for its sour wine. 
Sora'tft. See Illahpu. 

(a5r-bAn'], the theological faculty 
of the ancient Univ. of Paria; named from 
Kobert de Sorbon (b. at Sorbon, Ardennes, 
1201, chaplain to Louia IX; died renowned 
for aanctity and eloquence, 1274). In I2S2 
be founded an inatitutiou connected with the 
Univ. of Paris, in which seven secular priests 
were to teach theology to sixteen poor students, 
and, 1253, the institution received ita charter 
from Louia IX, which was confirmed, 1268, 1^ 
Pope CItment IV. Connected with it was a 
preparatory schooL Both were imder a pro- 
visor. The severity of the examinations made 
its d^rees of high esteem. During the Middle 
Ages, and even after that time, the decisions 
of the Sorbonne were appealed to not only in 
theological controversies, but also in tbe con- 
tests between the popes and the secular powers. 
It demanded the condemnation of Joan of Arc; 
it justified the massacre of St. Bartholomew; 
it sided with tbe League, and condemned both 
Henry III and Henry of Navarre. On the 
other hand, it introduced printing into Paris 
immediately after ita invention, and prevented 
the introduction of the Peter's Pence and tbe 
Inquisition into France. It was a standi 
champion of tbe freedom of the Oallican 
Church, and strongly opposed to Ultramontan- 
iam. Its culmination was in the time of 
Richelieu, who, himself a graduate of the 
school, provided it with a magnificent building 
and enlarged its library (1620). In its cen- 

tury it was unsuccessful, and It had outlived 
its fame when during the revolution it was 
suppressed (17S0). At the reconstruction of 
the university in 180S, the building, called the 
Sorbonne, became the seat of the acadimie, and 
between 1816 and 1827 was given to the the- 
ological faculty in connection with the facul- 
ties of science and btllea-Uttret. New build- 
ings were erected, 1884-89, at an expense of 
nearly (4,600,000. The Sorbonne haa now over 
100 professors and 10,000 students. 

Sorb Tree, or Wild SerVJce, the Pyrtu ter- 
minalia, a small European tree (family Rosa- 
cea), the wood of which ia hard and valuable. 
Ita fruit, the sorb, when overripened, is soft 
and mellow and good eating. Hertfordshire, 
England, is famous for ita sorbs. The name is 
Bometimea applied to P. (fomesd'co. 

Sor'cery. See Maqic. 

Sordello, abt. tl80-aht. 12S6; Italian poet 
and warrior; b. Goito, of noble Mantuan fam- 
ily; wrote, in Provencal, love aongs and polit- 
ical poems; eloped with Cunizza, wife of Count 
Richard of St. Boniface. Pied a violent death. 

Sorel', Acn«8. 8m Agnes Sobel. 

Sor'ghiim, a tall, broad-1ea,Ted ansual plant 
of tbe graM family, regarded as a varietj' 
iSacoharatum) of Andropogon torgktta. Its 
origins.! home was doubtleen the interior of 
Africa, but modem travelers do not report ita 
having been found there in a wild state, and 
the wild formi, as in the case of the sugar 
cane, appear to have been lost. Sorghum as a 
cultivated plant has been known from an- 
tiquity. It was introduced into Italy at the 

b«giiiiiiDK of the Roman Empire, but ita culture 
did not Sourish. ESxperiments were again con- 
ducted with it at Florence in 1768, hut with 
no pr8cti<^ results. In China it has been cul- 
tivated from the earliest historical tiniea, but 
only as a cereal and for fuel and forage until 
reeeutl;. During the Civil War sorKhum was 
cultivated owing to the high price of sugar. 

The difficulties attending the making of su- 
gar from sorghum depend on the presence of 
bodies such as starch, gum, nonciTstallizable 
sugar, etc., which tend to prevent crystalliza- 
tion. Sorghum produces seeds which are equal 
to ordinary cereals for food; each ton wilt 
yield 100 to 160 lb. of seed. It la valuable as 
foraffe, lor which purpose it is chiefly culti- 
vated, although, in a small way, it is used for 
making molasses. 


Sor'rel, sour-leaved plants of the genua 
Rumem {Polj/gonaaea), to which genus the 
coarse herbs called 
dock also belong. 

rel of sterile fields 
is B. aeetoaella. 
Plants of the ge- 
nus Oayria are 
called mountain 
sorrels. The wood 
sorrels are of the 
genus OaalU {Oe- 
ramaoea). In Eu- 
rope the sorrels, 
fountain sorrels, 
and wood sorrels 
are cultivated in 
gardens for table 
use. All these 

to oxalic add and 
its salts. 

Sorrel Tree, or 
Soni'wood, tbe Oa- 

ydendrum arboreum, a handsome tree of the 
U. 8., found in Ohio and Pennsylvania and 
aoutbward to the Gulf. Its leaves resemble 
those of the peach. They are sour, and from 
them a cooling drink is made for the sick. 
The wood is soft and difficult to dry. It is 
sometimes planted as an ornamental tree. 

Sorren'to (ancient, Burrentum), town; prov- 
ince of Naples, Italy; on a small rocky penin- 
sula S. of the Bay of Naples. It was a Qreek 
settlement, was adorned with splendid temples, 
and after the tall of the W. empire was ruled 
bv its own consuls and dukea. Of the old tem- 

Files, a few fragments atone remain. The bo- 
ubriouB climate, the luxuriance of tbe vegeta- 
tion, and the beauty of the scenery have made 
Sorrento one of the most frequentM resorts in 
S. Italy. It is the birthplace of Torquato 
Tasso. Pop. (1901) 0,909. 

So'tei. See Ptolemy. 

Soterol'ogy, that branch of Christian theol- 
ogy which treats of tbe redemptive work of 
Christ. In ita wider signification the term in- 
cludes tx)th the atonement which Christ made 
and its application through faith to indi- 
viduals. It is, however, used in a more re- 
stricted signification, to denote only the atone- 
ment. See Atoncuent. 

So'thic Pe'riod, a period of 1,460 Julian 
years (3661 days), equal to 1,461 vague years 
(of 365 days) of the Egyptian calendar. In 
the latter the year was reckoned by twelve 
months of thirty days, with the addition of 
Ave intercalary days. The difference between 
the two .thus amounted to atiout six hours an- 
nually, BO that the vague year receded al>out 
day in each four yean. The beginning of 

ithic - -'-■ '-"■ '^- ■'-- -'—" 

of the h 


new year, and at the rate of divergence be- 
tween the two BjBtems this coincidence recurred 
ODG« in about 4 X 366^ 1,460 solar years. In 
the eonrae of a Sothic period any periodic 
event, tuch aa the inundation of the Nile oi 

En the Mtpearanca of such periodic events waa 
not marked in the lite of an individual, being 
only about twenty-flve daya in a century, Con- 
■eqnoitly little attention was paid to the mat- 
ter till in the Ptolemaic dynaaty, when the 
Sothio period aeema first to have been used in 
calculating time. Reckoning back, by Bothic 
periods, beginning approximately )32Z B.C., 
S78Z B.O., and 4242 B.C., the beginning of the 
first dynasty has been auigned to tne year 

So'tUa, another d 

I iq.v.). 

Soto (sC'tO), Fernando, or Henundo de, 
1496-1542; Spanish explorer. After studying 
at one of the universitiea, lie accompanied in 
leie his patron, Pedrarias Davila, on his sec- 
ond Bxpedition to America as Governor of 
Darien. He supported Hemandei in Nica- 
.ragua in IS27, and in 152S explored the coast 
of Gnatemala and Yucatan, la 1632 De Soto 
joined Pizarro in his enterprise for conquering 
Pern. In IS33 he penetrated through the 
mountains, and discovered the great natitHial 
road which led to tits Peruvian capital, and 
was soon after selected by Fisirro to visit the 
inca Atahuallpa as ambassador. He was prom- 
inent in the engagements which completed the 
conquest of Peru, and was the hero of the 
battle which resulted in the capture of Cusco. 
He returned to Spain with a large fortune. 
Having obtained permission to make the con- 
quest of Florida at bis own expense, De Soto 
■ailed in 1638 with more than 600 men, and 
reached Florida in 1539. He sent back his 
ships to Havana, set out upon a journey to the 
NW., and reached the Miaaiasippi in 1B41, after 
losing many of his followers. He crossed the 
river, went N. to Paeaha, and thence to the 
Whit« River, the W. limit of his expedition. 
Then proceeding S., he wintered at Autiamque 
on tlie Washita River. While descending the 
Mississippi in 1S42 he died of fever, and to 

the stream. His followers, reduced in number 
more thJaji half, then went to Mexico. Soto is 
properly r^;arded as the true discoverer of the 
Mississippi, though Pineda found its mouth In 
1619, and Cabeia de Vaca must have crossed it 
near the GuU in 1628. 

Sondui'. Bee BtniAiT. 

Son], a term variously used to signify either 
the principle of life in an organic body, or the 
first and most undeveloped stages of individual- 
ized spiritual being, or, finally, all stages of 
spiritual individualit?, incorporeal as well as 
corporeal. Aristotle, whose treatise, " De 
Anima," ie the first and perhaps the greatest 
work on the subject, hss himself introduced 

stance as the aelf-detenmning power of an or- 
ganicsd body, and tiiui aft«rmrds attributing 


to it reason, and making it as reason entirely 
separable from body. The much-debated ques- 
tion of the immortality of the soul implies a 
definition of soul as including not only its 
phases of corporeal existence, but also the 
higher ones of thought and wilL See FUTUKB 
State; Ikkobtauti; Ruukbxctiov. 

Sonlt (sOlt), Hlcolai Jean de Dleii, Duke of 
Dalmatia, 1799-1361; French military officer; 
b. St. Amans-la-Bostide, France. In 1793-94 
he rose from captain to brigadier general, and 
in 1799 was made general of division for his 
share in the battle of Zurich, which saved 
France from Invasion. He was captured by 
the Austrians at Genoa, May 16, 1800, but was 
exchanged after Marengo. In 1B04 Napoleon 
mode him a marshal, and at Austerlitz declared 
him to be the first strategist of Europe. In 
I806-T he won fame in the Prussian campaien, 
after which he was made Governor of Berlin 
and Duke of Dalmatia. He nearly annihilated 
the Spanish army at Burgos (November 10, 
180BJ, took from the English Corunna and 
Ferrol, and occupied Oporto and N. Portugal, 
whence Wellington expelled him. On March 
11, 1811, he secured Badajos through the 
treachery of the Spanish commander ; but 
Wellington carried it by assault with fearful 
loss on the night of April 6, 1812. Disapprov- 
ing of King Joseph's proceedings, Soult asked 
to be relieved; but Napoleon ordered him to 
assume the chief command and retrieve Jo- 
seph's crushing defeat at Vittoria, June 21, 
1813. He was defeated at Orthei, February 
27, 1814, and forced back to Toulouse, where 
he made a heroic resistance until he received 
the news of Napoleon's first abdication. After 
accepting the Ministry of War from Louis 
XVni, fie rejoined Napoleon, served at Water- 
loo, was in exile, 1816-19, reinstated as a mar- 
shal in 1S20, and in 1827 was made a peer. 
Under Louis Philippe he was Minister of War, 
1830-31; Premier, 1832-34, and again from 
1830-47, when he retired as marshal geneiml. 

Sonnil, The, a narrow strait, one of the 
passages between the Cattegat and the Baltic, 
and separating the island of Seeland from 
Sweden. It extends N. and S, 68 m., and op- 
posite Copenhagen is about 16 m. wide. Toe 
name is properly confined to its narrowest part, 
which between Elsinore and Helsinborg/ia only 
3 m. wide. Denmark formerly held both sides 
of the strait, and taxed all vessels passing 
through the Sound; but this right was bougU 
off under treaties concluded in 1867. 

Soimd is the sensation produced when cer- 
tain vibrations are excited in the ear. This 
sensation is produced by the transmission of 
the vibrations to the ear by some elastic fluid, 
such as air. (For the physiology of hearing, 
see Eab.) Acoustics is the study of the nature, 
production, and perception of eotmd. 

That sound is a vibration, or wave motion, 
can be shown by setting in vibration a tuning 
fork and holding it close to the surfaea of * 
glass of water. The vibrations of the tuning 
fork will be transmitted to the surface of tha 
water, and minuto ripples will spread out bo 
the sides of the glass. Sound waves can also 
be reflected from properly arranged suiiaeM 


producing echoed, inch as in the old BepreMnt- 
ktive Chamber in the Capitol at Washin^gton, 
where a whiaoer at one part of the room will 
be reflected irom the walla and returned to 
another part of the chamber. An echo at 
Woodstock Park, England, repeats seventeen 
ayllable* by day and twenty by night, while in 
St. Paul's Cathedral, London, the faintest 
sound is conveyed from one aide of the dome 
to the other, but la not beard at any inter- 
mediate point {I^dall). If a vibrating body 
be surrounded by a vacuum, as in an air pump, 
no sound will be transmitted. 

The relation of the quickness of the succes- 
sion of the wave vibrations to the pitch of a 
sound can be shown by spikee of a toothed 
wheel striki^ upon a tongue of metal fixed 
sAsinst it. ^th every increase in the rapidity 
<a the vibrations of the metal tongue the sound 
produced will rise in pitch, or shrillness, and 
this increase' will bear a constant relation to 
such rat« of vibration. Below IS vibrations 
per second the sound will be an unmusical 
noise or rattle, but as the rate is increased 
this will become a low hum, which will grad- 
ually rise with the increased speed tUl it 
reacnet the utmost shrillness appreciable by 
the human ear. By using the electric apark, 
also, the sound waves can be made visible. 
Musical sounds are those produced when the 
vibrations are r^ular in their succession ; noiae 
is the sensation produced by single, or irregu- 
lar, vibrations. Many people cannot hear 
sounds of 12,000 vibrations per aeeond or over, 
■o the shrill ciy ot the bat or the squeak of a 
mouse cannot be perceived by them. The up- 
per limit of the human ear seema to be about 
40,000 vibrations per second, therefore some 
of the shrill sounds emitted by insects cannot 
be directly sensed. 

When a gun ia discharged at a distance the 
flash ia aeen, and an appreciable moment of 
time then elapses before the report is heard. 
This is because the vibrations of tight, i.e., 
the flash, are transmitted through the sir at a 
much greater speed than the vibration waves 
of sound. Experiments show that sound trav- 
els through the air at the rate of 1,089 ft. per 
second at 0" C, and that this rats increases 
for every degree of temperature because, the 
air being expanded by heat, there is a leaa 
number of air particles to be set in motion 
between the resonant body and the observer. 
Sound is transmitted more readily through fog 
and mist than through the clear air of a sum- 
mer day. The velocity of sound through wa- 
ter is four times its velocity in air, and through 
iron the velocity is seventeen times the rate 
through air. In addition to the pitch, as de- 
termined by the number of vibrations, and the 
loudness, due to the intensity of the motion, 
there is another element which enters into 
sounds, known as quality, or acoustic color, or 
clang tint, which is due tfl the blending of the 
overtones with the main vibrations. 

If a string be stretched between two points 
and then set ia vibration it will be found 
that while the string is in motion as a whole 
this vibration is accompanied by subsidiary 
vibrations of each half and quarter of the 
vibrating len^h. II vibrating string A B be 


lightly touched at C the vibration D will be 
stopped, but the string will continue to vibrate 
from A to C and C to B, and the tone pro- 
duced will be the octave above the sound 
produced by the whole string. These har- 

monics are utilized by violin players, and their 
mastery is one of the hardest parts of the 
technie of that instrument. If these har- 
monic or BubeidisTy waves of sound chime in 
well with the main note, the result, as in the 
violin or piano, is pleEising to the ear; but if 
the overtones are not harmonious the resultant 
note will be harsh and discordant, though still 
retaining its quality as music as distinguished 
from noise. 

The pitch of musical sounds la measured 
from G, which is produced by 256 vibrations 
per second. If this number of vibrations be 
doubled, the octave of C is produced, and every 
doubling of the rata of vibration produces a 
combination which gives the ear a sense -at 
agreement as if the notes were felt to be re- 
lated in some way to each other. The simul- 
taneous sounding of notes of different rates of 
vibration. If the result is unpleasant, produces 
discord, or, if the result is pleasant, harmony. 
To Europeans and Americans a combination 
of notes whose rates ot vibration is represented 
by the ratio i:B:6: is generally pleasing, and 
is known as a major triad. 

If two notes are nearly but not quite in 
accord, the resultant note will alternate be- 
tween a rise and fall in loudness as the con- 
stituent waves converge and diverge from each 
other; these alternations are colled beats. A 
similar phenomenon is noted in the ease of a 
moving, sound-producing object, as the whistle 
of a rapidly approaching train; the traveling 
sound waves follow each other so quickly that 
the pitch of the note is raised, and lowered 
as the whistle recedes from the observer. 

Sound'ing, the operation of trying the depth 
of water and the quality of the bottom, espe- 
cially by means of a plummet sunk from a 
ship. In navigation two plummeta are used, 
one called the nand lead, weighing about S or 
9 lb., used in shallow water, and the other, 
the deep-sea lead, weighing from 25 to 30 lb. 
The nature of the bottom is commonly ascer- 
tained by using a piece of tallow stuck upon 
the base of the deep-sea lead, and thus bring- 
ing up sand, shells, ooie, etc., which adhere to 
it. The scientific investigation of the ocean 
and its bottom has rendered more perfect 
Bounding apparatus necessary, and has led to 
the invention of various contrivances for this 
purpose, among the most simnle and common 
of which is Brooke's Kiunaing apparatus. 


Soni'VooiL See Sokbxl Tbee. 

South Africa, Union of, British dc 
formed M&7 31, 1910, bj the union under one 
government of the selt-eoveming oolonies of 
the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, the Transvaal, 
and the Orange River Colony. The government 
ift admin lite red by a Oovemor-General ap- 
pointed by the Crown, assisted by an Executive 
Council of the ministers of state. L^islative 
power is vested in a Parliament consisting of 
a Senate of 40 members, mainly eiective, and a 
Hooae of Assembly of 121 elective members. 
Parliament meets annually. The seat of 
government is Pretoria, and the seat of the 
I^egislature Cape Town. A rebellion hy 
Boers of German eyropathies in 1914 was 
quickly suppressed and its leaders punished. 
The area of the Union is 473,1B4 sq. m.; 
pop. (1911) 6.968.499, of whom 1,278.025 
are whites. The revenue, 1911-2, was esti- 
mated at £14,859,000; expenditure, £16,160,000; 
public debt, 1911, £11S,SOO,ODO. The import*, 
1911, were valued at £36,400,000; exporta, 
£58,800,000. Nearly one-half the value of the 
ex porta is contributed by the gold of the 
Transvaal mines. 

South African Bepnblle. See Transvaal. 

South Afrium War. See Boiss. 

South Amer'ica. See Akekica, S. 

Southamp'ton, Henry Wrlothealey {third 
Earl of), 1673-1624; Eaglish statesman; was 
a patron of Shakespeare, who dedicated to him 
"Venus and Adonis" and "The Hape of 
Lucrece." He was accused of complicity in the 
ireaaonahle designs of Essex ; protested his in- 
nocence ; was convicted, and sentence of death 
and attainder was pronounced, but Elisabeth 
remitted the death penalty, and the attainder 
was removed by Parliament soon after the ac- 
ceoaion of James I. He was an assignee of 
the patents of settlement of Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh, and took a prominent part in the early 
couuization of America. He went with hia 
son. Lord Wriothesley, to the Netherlands, to 
aid the Dutish in their struggle against Spain, 
and took command of a regiment. Died at 

Senthamptoii, seaport in Hampshire, Eng- 
land; 79 m. 8W. of London. Southamntoo 
contains many old buildings, among wbien is 
the Domut Dei, an hospital dating from the 
thirteenth century; also St. Michael's Church 
(1080). Shipbuilding and the manufacture of 
engines are carried on. Pop. (1911) 119,039. 

Sonth Austia'lia, State of the Common- 
wealth of Australia, occupying a central N. 
and S. band of Australia, from the Arafura 
Sea to the 8. Ocean, with Queensland, New 
S. Wales, and Victoria on the E., and W. 
Australia on the W. The greatest length is 
1350 m. N. and S., and the average breadth, 
6G0 m. It also embraces many ialands, of 
which the largest are Kangaroo Island (1,700 

S. m.), off the mouth of St. Vincent Gulf; 
elville Island (80 m. long by 30 broad), and 
Bathurst Island, both off Port Darwin; and 
Groote Eyiandt (about 40 m. in each direo- 
tion), in the Onlf of Carpentaria. Total area, 
903,090 s<i. m. The district N. of the parallel 


of 26* S. is called the N. Territory, and is 
practically separate from the 8. portion, with 
Palmersti^ as its capital. 

The interior is little known, but in the cen- 
ter is a mountainous region, with but slight 
elevations, rarely Burpassing 3,000 ft. The cul- 
minating range seems to be the McDonnell 
To the S. of the mountains is a district with 
many bodies of water called lakes, but ara 
really aalt-water la^^oona. W. of the mountain- 
ous and lagoon districts and along the W. 
boundary is a desolate region forming an ex. 
tension of the Great Victoria Desert, and the 
Great Sand Desert of W. AuBtralia. Amhem 
Land is sn elevated plateau sloping gently 
toward the E. and abruptly toward the N. To 
the W. of it the country is better watered and 
more fertile. The climate about Adelaide is 
like that of S. France or N. Italy. The N. 
Territory is tropical, resembling Guinea and 
central America, and, in the Interior, the 

The most important mineral is copper, and 
the colony owes its continued existence at a 
critical time to the discovery of the Burra 
Burra copper district, 90 m. N. of Adelaide. 
The mines were developed in 1845, and Isr 
some years paid eight hundreil per cent on the 
investment, but were abandoned in 1864 be- 
cause of the difficulty of transport, and re- 
opened <m the construction of the railway from 
Adelaide to Kuringa. Gold it obtained from 
mines in the hills S. of Adelaide (at Echunga, 
etc.) and at other places, but chieQy from Uie 
N. Territory, where there is a large alluvial 
and auriferous quarts r^on 100 to 150 m. 8. 
of Port Darwin. Gold was discovered in 1S&2> 
8. Australia is essentially an agricultural and 
pastoral country; it is called " the ^nary of 
Australasia," but only about one third of one 
per cent of the area is under cultivation; sev- 
enty-five per cent of this was in wheat, twenty- 
one per cent hay, and less than one per cent 
each for vines, oats, barley, and potatoes. Vina 
growing and the making of wine receive mucll 
attention. Pop. (1900) 412,808; capita), 
Adelaide (1909) 164,393. Revenue (1909-10) 
£3,986,806; expenditures, £3,513,061; imports 
(1909) £11,336,6«9; exports (IDOS) £18,646,- 
701. Executive, a governor appointed by the 
crown, with a council of ministers. Parlia- 
ment consists of a L^islative Council snd a 
House of Assembly, elected by adult suffrage 
with certain property qualifications. The col- 
ony was founded 1836, but was not firmly 
established till 1856. In 1802 Stuart crossed 
the continent from S. to N., and in 1863 the 
N. Territory was granted to 8. Australia. 

South Bend, capital of St. Joseph Co., Ind.; 
on the St. Joseph River, 85 m. E. of Chicago. 
It' is in a rich agricultural region. 8. Bold 
is the seat of the Univ. of Notre Dame (Roman 
Catholic), founded in 1842. The census re- 
turns of 1909 showed 218 factories turning out 
products valued at C27,S54,000. The leading 
industry is carriage and wagon making; agri- 
ciultural implements rank second. Here La 
Salle landed in 1679 on his tour of exploration 
to the Mississippi, and here he camped msny 
tintes thereafter. It was then the site of a 
large village of Uiomi Indians, and inhabited 


South Betlilehem, borough in Northamptoi 
Co., P».; on the Lehigh River. It waa aettled 
in 1741, but its growth dat^s from {850. The 
Bethlehem Iron Company is the principal i 
ufacturing establishment, but there are other 
metal works and several wood-working, koit- 
ting, and silk mills. The Lehigh Univ. is in 
the borough. Pop. (ISIO) 12,837. 

South Caroli'na, one of the V. 8. of N. 
America, popularly' known as the PALItElro 
Statk, area, 30,9S9 sq. m., of which 500 sq. m. 
are water surface. A great gtologic break 
pBHsing through the «tnte near Cheraw, Co- 
lumbia, and Aiken divides it into the " up 
country " of Primary formation, and the " low 
countiy " of Tertiary, with Cretaceous out- 
croppingi. The up country 19 subdivided into 
the Alpine and Piedmont regions, which are 

notable for granite, gold, and other minerals, 
especially large deposits of iron. The Sandhill 
or Pine region (2,000 sq. m.), the beach of a 
former age, atretchea across the state. The 
Red Hilis (1,500 sq. m.), slcirting the sand- 
hills, are Eocene. The Upper Pine-belt (6,000 
sq. m. } comprises some of the Qnest farming 
lands, both gray and " mulatto " or chocolate 
lands. Here was produced the largest yield 
of com (2gS bu. to an acre) ever gathered. 
The Lower Pine-belt (9,000 sq. m.) comprises 
the lower tiers of countries, excepting the salt- 
water region ; it has phosphate deposits. The 
Coast region (1,500 sq. m.) is Post Pliocene. 

There is much water power in the state. 
The Catawba River falls 178 ft. in 8 m. The 
Columbia Canal, on the Coogaree, has devel- 
oped 13,000 horse power. The chief rivers are 
the Savannah, the Santee, and the Pee Dee 

?'stem, consisting of the Great Pee Dee (the 
ndkin in N. Carolina), the Little Pee Dee, 
Lynch's, Black, and Waccamaw. The Ashley 
and the (hooper rivers, forming Charleston har- 
bor, the Edisto, Ashepoo, Combahee, and 
Coosawhatchie, are smaller streams. There 
are no important lakes. Cotton, maize, wheat, 
rice, peas, hay, and sweet potatoes are the chief 
stapica. The Sea Islands grow 10,000 bales of 


crop amounted to 1,848,712 hales. Tobacco 

S rowing, truck farming, and fruit growing are 
eveloping. Stock raising, once profitable, then 
neglected, has been revived. Hired field labor 
is supplied by negroes, but there are nmny 
Hihall farmers among the whites, especially of 
the Piedmont region, who work their own 

The climate Is mild, and, except in the 
swamp and rice regions, is salubrious. The 

equable and dry climate of some portions, as 
the pine lands, is favorable for sufferers from 
pulmonary complaints. Aiken and Bomerville 
are noted health resorts. Other localities at- 
tract winter tourists, and the Alpine and Pied- 
mont regions are much frequented in summer. 
The mercury rarely reaches 100° in summer, 
or falls below 13' above zero in winter. Snow 
is practically unknown below Columbia. Cy- 
clones visit the coast apparently in periods of 
four, seven, and eleven years each. One in 
August, 1893, did much damage in Beaufort, 
Charleston, and Port Royal, and on the 8e» 
Islands. A severe earthquake visited the state 
in 188S, doing great injury to Charleston, 
"''''ipal cities are Charleston, Columbia (cap* 

Newberry, Orangeburg, Georgetown, Beaufort, 
Chester, Laurens. Pop. of state (ISlO census) 

Manufacturing induatries of the state in 
leoe had ft total capital of $173,221,000; the 
raw material used was valued at $60,351,000, 
and the output at 9113,236,000. In 1900 there 
were ninety-three cotton mills with 1,693,649 
spindles, and twenty-five new mills under con- 
elruction; in 1909, 3,754,251 spindles were 
in operation. Assessed valuations in 1011: 
Real property, f 149,802,901 ; personal, 994,- 

A majority of the first settlers were dissent- 
ers. The first Huguenot church (the only one 
in America still preserving its old form of wor- 
ship) was built abt. 1681; first English church 
abt. 1682; first Baptist, 16S5; first Quaker, 
1QB6; first Scotch Presbyterian, 1696; first 
Jewish, ITSO; first Lutheran (in Charleston), 
1750, and the first Methodist, 178S; and the 
first mass was celebrated (in Charleston) in 
1788. An act of the assembly in 1712 allowed 
negro slaves to join the church. The war of 
1861-65 closed many schools. In 1968 a pub- 
lic-school system was provided, which is stead- 
ily improving. The races are taught sepa- 
rately. In the school year ending June, 1909, 
the school population was 517,875> in 1S08-0 
the enrollment was 334,902; teachers, 6,876 i 
school buildings, 4,748; expenditures of the 
year, {1,905,236. The enrollment showed 
163,807 white pupils and 181,095 colored, and 
2,696 teachers were colored. The state has 
two higher institutions of learning — the Univ. 
of S. Carolina, founded in I80S, and the Clem- 
son Agricultural College, founded in 1893. 
There are a number of small colleges and 
many private institutions. Clafiin Univ. at 
Orangeburg is endowed by part of the national 
land grant. 

In 1892 the legislature prohibited the aals 
of liquor by prfAta persons, and e-'-*-"-' 


etuto and oountf dupensaTfea. Idqnon, chan- 
ioallf pure, put up in ualed pnckaget, aiB sold 
l^ mJaried county diapeasers in the dajtime 
to t«mperat« persoDB, who «ra not allowed to 
open the package on the premisca. The proflta 
are divided between the state and local treae- 
nriea, a portion being devoted to the achools. 

In 1620 Spaniarda visited Fort Royal and 
kidnaped Indians. Hie Qrat attempt to col- 
onise the territory now comprised in 8. Garo- 

created by 

Charles II in 1663. The first permanent set- 
tlement in S. Carolina was made on Ashley 
River in ISTO by English colonists, who re- 
moved in 1&60 to the present site of Charleston. 
In I6SS many French Huguenots arrived. Un- 
der the name of Carolina, both the present 
atates of N. and S. Carolina nera held as a 
proprietary government till July, 1728, when 
the Idng bought out the proprietor!, and formed 
two royal colonies. 5. Carolina suffered from 
Indian depredations, and with Georgia waa en- 
gaged nnoer Oglethorpe in a contest with the 
S[MUuah aettleiUenta m Florida. It was the 
aeene of severe warfare during the revolution-. 
■ry atru^te, hotly contest^ battles being 
fought at Fort Moultrie, Charleston, Camden, 
Klng'a Mountain, Cowpena, Eutaw Springs, etc. 
The British held the country for the greater 
part of 1780 and 1791. 

A atate constitution waa adopted March 26, 
1776; the Constitution of the U. S. was ratified 
by 8. Carolina, May 23, 1T8S. In November, 
1632, a state convention adopted the " Nullifi- 
cation Ordinance," which pronounced the high 
tariff of 1828 and 1832 ''null, void, and no 
law, nor binding on this state, its officers and 
citizens," and prohibited the payment of duties 
on imports imposed by that law within the 
atate after February 1st ensuing. It was also 
declared that should the general government 
attempt to enforce the law thus nullified, or to 
interfere with the foreign commerce of the 
state, the people of 8. Carolina would " bold 
themselves absolved from all further obligation 
to maintain or preserve their political connec- 
tion with the people of the other states." Pres. 
Jackson ordend ben. Scott to Charleston, and 
issued & proclamation in which he held that 
nullification wa> treason, and should be pun- 
ished as such. But as Congress passed the 
compromise tariff, which was acceptable to 8. 
Carolina, the course threatened by that state 
was not pursued. 

8. Carolina was the first of the states to 
institute active measures for withdrawing from 
the Union on the election of Lincoln, and the 
first to pass an ordinance of secession. Oq 
November T, 1860, an act was passed by the 
legialature calling a state convention. The or- 
dinance of secession was adopted, December 
20th. On the 24th, Gov. Pickens proclaimed 
the dissolution of the union between 8. Caro- 
lina and the other states. On the 27th, Fort 
Moultrie and Castle Pincfcney were seized by 
the state. The bombardment and capture of 
Fort Sumter, April 12th-13th, by Gen. Beau- 
T^ard, waa the banning of open hostilities. 


T. W. Sherman. In January, 1866, Oen. W. T. 
Sherman's army b^an its maren from Sa- 
vannah through 8. Carolina. Columbia waa 
surrendered and Charleston evacuated on Feb- 

and declared slavery abolished. By the war 
the assessed property of the state was re- 
duced from 96SO,000,000 to {100,000,000 (|200,- 
000,000 being the value of the slaves set free). 
A refusal to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment 
led to a reconstruction. In 18Q8 S. Carolina 
was restored to the Union. 

Sontk Dako'ta, called the Cotote Stati, one 
of the U. S. of N. America, the twenty-seventh 
state admitted into the Union. It Is bounded 
on the N. by N. Dakota, E. by Minnesota and 
Iowa, 8. by Nebraska, and W. by Wyoming 
and Montana; length from E. to W., 866 m.; 
breadth, N. to S., 240 m.; area, 77,615 aq. m.; 

pop. (IBIO census), 683,868, about 6ne aixt^ 
are foreign born. The Missouri River divides 
S. Dakota into two nearly equal portions. 
The E. part is generally smooth and rolling, 
but the W. rises more rapidly, and culminates 
in the Black Hills in Hame/s Peak (7,400 
ft.). The climate is dry and bracing, tempera- 
ture ranging from 40* P. to 110° F.; the 
average rainfall varies from 30 to 40 in. The 
Bad Lands (French, MauDaisea Tcrrea) , near 
the head of White River and extending into 
Nebraska, arc a striking feature, with cafions,' 
depressions, walls, and castles of white earth, 
a desert region rich in soil-making chemicals 
and abounding in fossils. The gently sloping 
lands of the E. portion, and the intervals and 
parks of the Black Hilla and the Talleys near 
them, are the moat fertile soils. The river 
bottoms are rich and fertile, while the more 
rolling or hilly lands are dry and less pro- 
ductive. The Big Sioux River flows 8. near 
the E. border. Its current is swift, and there 
are rapids falling 110 ft. at Sioux Falls. The 
Dakota (or James) River, 80 m, W., is a slug- 
pah stream 200 to 4O0 ft. lower than the B^ 
Sioux. W. of the Missouri the .streams In or- 
der of their size are the Cheyenne, Grand, 
White, Bad, and Moreau. A long artesian 
basin stretehea across the state, and the weUa 


___> of red quartzite, and at Yankton thick 
beds of Fort Beaton clay and chalkstone, from 
which a Huperior Portland cement ia made. 
Brick clays are found in many localitiea. Tjn 
is found in the Harney Peak and Nigger Hili 
regions of the Black Hills, and the first tin 
mill in the U. S. was opened here in IBOO. 
During 1809 the Black Hills yielded 312,982 
fine ounces of gold, \-alued at $6,469,500, and 
M5,600 fine ounces of silver, valued at $188,- 
2B1. In 1910 the product of gold was valued 
at «5,3B0,20O, and silver at «65,1D0. Granite, 
aandatone, and limestone sre quarried. The 
Sioux Falls quartEite has been used for paving 
in Chicago and other cities with good results. 
The chief industry of S. Dakota is agriculture. 
Stock raising has become an important inter- 
est. In 1910 6. Dakota had 77,644 farms, con- 
Uininx 26,010,892 acres, valued at $902,606,- 
751. The crops in order of their value are: 
corn, wheat, oats, bartev, potatoes, hav, and 
rye. The yield of corn in 1911 was 50,820,000 
bu.; of wheat, 14,800,000; and of barley, 
6,508,000. There are about 40,000 acres in the 
state imder irrigation. 

The chief manufacturing industries of the 
state are the making of butter, cheese, and con- 
densed milk, and flour and grist niillinf^. The 
institutions for advanced instruction mclude 
the Univ. of 8. DakoU at Vermillion, Dakota 
Univ. at Mitchell, Pierre Univ. at E. Pierre, 
Sioui Falls Univ. at Sioux Falls, a State 
Agricultural CoUe^, and a State School of 
Mines. There are also Indian schools main- 
tained by the state. 

8. Dakota as well as N. Dakota was included 
in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803; in ISSl 
IMcota Territory was organiied, including a 
great part of what now constitutes Montana 
and Wyoming. The pop. of the territory was 
at this time abt. 3,000; in 1968 the area of 
the territory was much reduced, and in 1870 
the pop. was abt. 136,180. In 1889 N. and S. 
Dakota were admitted into the Union as states. 

Principal cities and towns are Sioux Falla, 
Lead City, Yankton, Aberdeen, Mitchell, Dead- 
u'ood, ^VatertowD, Huron, Madison, Brookings, 
Pierre, Vermillion, Canton, Webster. 

Sonth'cni Cross, a coast«lUtion visible in 
the S. hemisphere, the four largest stars of 
which are arranged, roughly, in the form of 

Southern Wood, a plant See Axteuisu. 

Sosthey (sowth'I|, Bobert, 1774-1343; Eng- 
lish author; b. Briatoi; received his early 
education at Westminster School; in 1793 en- 
tered Baliol College, Oxford, with the design 
of taking holy orders, but left Oxford after 
two years, and entered upon a career of au- 
thorship, his first work being a small volume 
of poems (1794). He was made secretary to 
the Chancellor of the Exchequer for Ireland, 
a' sinecure with a salary of £350, but resigned, 
and in 1804 settled for life at Keswick. He 
was named poet laureate in 1813. In 1807 he 
received a pension of £160 a year, iitcreaoed to 


£460 in 1S3S. His wife died in 1837, and two 

S».rs afterwards he married Caroline Bowles, 
ut Southey's faculties had begun to give way, 
and on the day when he brought his wife to 
their home he felt into a state of mental pros- 
tration which soon grew into complete imbe- 

Southey's principal poems are " Joan of 
Arc," " Thalaba the Destroyer," an Arabian 
tale; " Madoc," founded on legends of early 
Welsh voyafes to America; "The Curse of 
Kehama," based upon Hindu mythology; 
" Hoderick, the Last of the Goths, founded 
on Spanish history; "A Vision of Judgment," 
an apotheosis of Qeoroe III; and "A Tale of 
Paraguay." Among hte numerous prose works 
are '' History of Brawl,*' " Life of Nelson," 
" Life of John Wesley," " HistoiT of the Penin- 
sular War," " Book of the Church," " '^-'- 

the most indefatigable and ' 
luminous of English authors, his published 
works numbering over 100 titles. His reputa- 
tion aa a poet, imposing in bis on-u lifetime, 
has steadilv declined. His poetry is common- 
place, without inspiration, spontaneity, or 
charm of style. The worth of his character, 
his wide learning and incessant productiveness, 
his dignified social standing, and his intimate 
association with Wordsworth and Coleridge, 
men of a higher genius than his own, still 
make him an important figure in English lit- 
erary history. 

Sonth Geoi'sia, a group of uninhabited is- 
lands, generally icebound, nearly 800 m. E. by 
S. of the Falkland Islands, of which they are 
a dependency; area about 1,000 sq. m.; first 
discovered in 1676. 

Sonth O'maha, city of Douglas Co., Neb.; 
adjoining Omaha on the S. Is the third larg- 
est meat-packing city in the U. S., and has 
extensive stock yards and "five large packing 
and rendering plants. Pop. (ISfO oenaus) 

South'poTt, town in Lancashire, England; 18 
m. N. of Liverpool. Southport from being a 
sandy waste has rapidly developed into a pop- 
ular watering place. Pop. {1911] 61,650. 

Sonth Sea Bnb'ble, a financial speculation 
which arose in England about the same time 
as Law's Mississippi Scheme in France. The 
South Sea Company was established by Lord 
Treasurer Harley in 1711 with the design of 
providing for the extinction of the public debt 
(ilO,000,000). The debt was assumed by a 
number of merchants, the govenunent to pay 
six per cent interest for a certain period, se- 
curing this sum by making permanent certain 
import duties. The purchasers of the fund 
were to have a monopoly of the trade to the 
S. Sea or the coast of Spanish America, 
and were organized as the South Sea Company. 
Though the S. Sea trade yielded no great 
profit, the company flourished from the pre- 
vailing delusion with regard to the riches of 
Spanish America, and vied with the Bank of 
England in controlling the finances of the 
country. After the FeM« of Utrecht, Spain 

refused to open her 

e compaiiy aBHUnied 
the entire debt of over £30,000,000, bearing in- 
terest of five per cent. The ministers intended 
to give the company a good bargain, but the 
House of Commons voted to open the scheme 
for competition to the Btxk of England also. 
The company was thus compelled to offer £7,- 
600,000 for its privilege. 

Notwithstanding this drawback the stock 
was in great demand, under the eztravagaot 
expectation of profits from the American trade 
and the prevalent rage tor speculation. It was 
increased by successive tubBcriptions, the price 
of shares rising till £1,000 waa paid for a 
single share of £100. Other bubbles were 
started, such as schemes for a fishery of 
wrecks, to make salt water fresh, to make oil 
from sunflowers, to extract silver from lead, 
all with promises of enormous profits. For 
lack of office room the streets near 'Change 
Alley were lined with desks. The BCtk)n of the 
South Sea Company itself in proceeding against 
some of these .bubbles turned attention to its 
own affairs, and dbtrust arose, under which 
the stock declined. Confidence was further 
weakened when it became known that some of 
the directors had sold out. The failure of 
IdW's schema opened alt eyes to the delusion, 
and as the year 1720 closed the bubble burst, 
bringing ruin to the company and to thousands 
of families. An investi^tion ordered by Par- 
liament disclosed much fraud and corruption. 
Some of the directors were imprisoned, and all 
of them were fined to an aggregate of over 
£2,000,000 for the benefit of the stockholders. 

Sonth Shetland, or New Sonth Shetland, 
lalands, an Antarctic archipelago, S. of S. 
America, between 31° and 03° 30' 8. lat., con- 
sisting of Clarence, George First, Livingston, 
and SmitJi islands, discovered 1810; area about 
850 sq. m. The islanda are mountainous, deati- 
tuta of vegetation, in the interior covered with 
perpetual snow and ice, and rise out of very 
deep water. They are visited by whalers, but 
navigation is dangerous on account of the ice. 

Sonth'well, Sobert, 1S60-96; English author. 
He became a Jesuit at Rome, I57S, and in 
1686 waa sent as a missionary to England. 
He waa imprisoned in the Tower in 16B2, was 
t«n times subjected to the torture to make him 
disclose a plot against Elizabeth, and was exe- 
cuted at l^bum. His most important poems 
are contained in " St. Peter's Complaint and 
other Poems." His chief prose works are " The 

SottVMtre (sO-vestr'),&niIe,lB0e-64; French 
novelist and dramatist; h. Morlaix, France. 
Aifter editing a newspaper at Brest, he settled 
in 1S3< in Paris, where he attracted attention 
first by his sketches of Brittany, and became 
soon popular aa a writer. The most remark- 
able of his novels are " Les Demlers Bretons," 
" L'Eorome et I' Argent," " Confessions d'un 
Ouvrier," " Un Philosophe sous les Toits"; 
and of his dramas, " Henri Hamelin," " L'Oncle 


Baptiste," " Le Mou89«," etc. All his works 
have a strongly marked tendency, representing 
morality and riches as incompatible. 

SOT'ereign, tha British coin representing the 
pound sterling of 208. It first appeared in 
1817, and now weighs 123.27447 grains troy, 

and is worth 14.866 in U. S. money. The Eng- 
lish coin first called double royal (afterward^ 
replaced by the guinea), first struck about 
1489, was often called the sovereign. Its value 
varied from 208. to 30s., but its original valuo 
was 22>. sterling. 

Sov'treignty, the posseBpion of the highest 
power in any given sphere, aa in the state. 
The debates concernin? the supreme power, 
whether it resides by right in the people — i.e., 
the organized people — ultimately, or in some 
ruler who received it from God, led to the ap- 
plication of the word to the former as the 
source from which the right of the particular 
magistrate or line of kincs was derived, and 
to the latter as invested by the former with 
bis power according to the will of God. In 
the English usage the king or queen is called 
sovereign, although possessed of an authority 
limited by law. Yet, aa in theory all executive 
power is derived from that of the monarch, the 
term sovereign contains no absolute miBnomer. 

Sovereignty in public law is the right to 
exercise uncontrolled the powers of the stat«. 
The internal sovereignty of a state includes all 
those powers which it possesses over its own 
subjects and transient foreigners within its 
territorial limits and on its merchant ships on 
the' high seas. Such are those of eminent do- 
main, taxation, legislation, punishment, etc. 
Thus the interna] sovereignty of the U. S. was 
complete from the declaration of its inde- 
pendence. External sovereignty, being the 
right to enter into relations with other states, 
for which intercourse their consent is neces- 
aary, depends upon their recognition. In the 
case of the tJ. S. this was made by France 
tbrongh the Treaty of 1778; by Great Britain 
in Bxprem terms by the Treaty of 1782. When 
a state exercises some but not all of the powers 
of external sovereignty, it is called a dependent 
or semisovereign state, e.g., Bulgaria. 

Under the U, 8, Constitution the question 
whether the several states or the U. 8. are 
invested with the sovereignty has been a great 
contention. The following considerations are 
TOrthy of nbtiee : 

"in the provisional articles of peace betweai 
the U. 8. and Great BriUin (1782), and in - 
the Treaty of 1783, the king acknowledges the 
U. S. " to be free, sovereign, and independent 
states," " treats with them B9 such," and " re- 
linquishes all claims to the government, pro- 
priety and territorial rights of the same, and 
of every part thereof." The meaning of this 
is that he, and no one else, had any claims of 
sovereignty over the territory of the U. 8., and 
that by relinquishing those claims he left them 
in the same condition in which other states in- ' 
dependent of all external powers were by the 
nature of their situation placed. The thirteen 
states were at that time confederated, but of 
this confederation he took no notice. 

The limitationa Imposed by the Federal CaO) 

I Federal Coov 



Btitution Are well expreasad In Prea, Jmeluou's 
proclamation of December, IS32: "The itatea 
Beyerallf have not retained their entire aov- 
ereignty. It has been ehown that in becoming 
parts of ft nation, not members of a league, 
tiuy surrendered many of their essential parts 
of soTereignty. The right to males treatiea, 
declare war, lery taxes, exercise exclusive judi- 
cial and l^alative powers, were all of them 
functions of sovereign power. The states, then, 
for these important purposee were no longer 
sovereign. The allegiance of their citizens was 
transferred, in the Srat instance, to the govern- 
ment of the U. S. ; they became U. 8. citizens, 
and owed obedience to the Constitution of the 
U. B. and to laws mode in confonnitf with the 
powers it vested in Congress. This last posi- 
tion has not been and cannot be denied. How, 
then, can that stat« be said to be sovereign 
and independent whose citizens owe obedience 
to laws not made bj it, and whose magiatrates 
are sworn to disregard [its own] laws when 
th«^ come into conflict with laws passed by 
another t What shows conclusively that the 
states cannot be said to have reserved an un- 
divided sovereignty is that they expressly ceded 
the right to punish treason — not' treason 
against their separate power, but treason 
against the U. S. Treason is an offense against 
gocereigntg, and eoverei^ty must reside with 
the power [able] to punish it." 

Sov'lnc and Sowinc Ha'diiiiei, the act or 
process of depositing seed in the ground, and 
the machines used lor the purpose. When 
seeds are deposited singly or with only a few 
in ft definite spot, the act is usually called 
planting, the term soun'nji being restricted to 
coses when the seed is thrown broadcast or 
deposited in rows or drills. Bowing or plant- 
ing Is usually performed in the spring, but 
sometimes, and with some kinds of crops, in 
the autumn, so that the plants may have a fair 
start when the spring opens. The seeds are 
usually covered over by narrowing, brushing, 
OT rolling the soil after they have been depos- 
ited. As a rule, it may ba laid down that 
when the soil is rather firm and the climate 
moist, little depth of covering is required ; but 
when the soil is loose and the climate dry, the 
seeds should be covered to a depth of twice 
or more their thickness. Machines, more or 
less complex, have been In use from time im- 
memorial for performing the operation of sow- 
ing or planting in all its forms. Boms scatter 
the seed broadcast ; others dibble it into the 
ground in rows or drills, and then cover it, 
the general principle being that the drills 
should be at such a distance apart that a horse 
drawing a light plow may pass between the 
drills without injuring the plants. In the 
larger machines, often drawn by horse power, 
the seed is often placed in small cups, from 
which it passes through tubes so arranged as 
to allow them to drop r^vlarly into shallow 
furrows cut by coulters just in front of the 
escape orifice of the tubes, the furrows beins 
closed up by a kind of rake or harrow fol- 
lowing immediately after and forming a part 
of the machine, xbere are many kinds of seed 
drills and planters in use. 


Soy Bean, the O^oitw (or Boja) Mapida; • 
bean extensively grown in Japan, China, India, 
and the ^ice Iilandi, where it is much used 
as food. Tha sauce called aoy is made of boiled 
soy beans, mixed with tr^'^'^t meal and fer- 
mented. It is then salted and mixed with 
water, and after daily stirring for a long time 
the BUpematant liquid is poured off and pre- 
served. Qood soy is a spirited and excellent 
sauce, and Is believed to improve with oget 
The plant is ooming into notice in tbe U. S. 
for forage. 

Space, OS defined by Aristotle, " tlie first 
and unmoved limit which bounds body " when 
taken ae finite space or plaee ; taken as space 
in general, it is " the nnmoved limit of wnat- 
ever is moved " — i.e., of all bodies. Time, on 
the other hand, should be, according to him, 
the number and measure of movement. Tbe 
existence of pure space is evident, he says, 
from the fact that things diange places ; yet 
in spite of its three dimensions it is mtt to be 
confounded with body, for in that case two 
bodies would coincide ; it is not cause ; there 
is no place in which space itself exists; nor 
does space grow with what grows. Matter and 
form are iwparable, but extension and limit- 
ing surface are separable; hence matter and 
form do not explain them, as was thought by 
Plato in the Titnatu, where he makes space to 
be the primitive matter of the universe; it is 
not form, for space remains when the form is 
removed. As ultimate logical condition it has 
frequently been identified with the infinite, or 
made to be a divine attribute. Newton sug- 
gested that Ood by existinf constitutes time 
and snace. Locke thought tnat he could trace 
the idea of space to the senses of touch and 
eight; most of his followers have adopted the 
same doctrine, making it a generalization from 
experience gained in the perception of bodies. 
Accordingly, they ignore in different ways the 
attributes of universality and necessity which 
are the distinctive characteristics of a priori 
ideas, and make unbroken custom or habit to 
be tbe explanation of ibe inability or impotence 
of the mmd which we call inccmceivabilily. 

Spalila, or Slpalila, the name ^ven to the 
irregular Turkish cavalry, which is said to 
have been organized by Amnrath I, and which 
gave place in 1826 to r^ular cavalry. _ Their 
usual arms were the saber, lance, and javelin. 
Tbe French call a body of light cavalry raised 
in Algeria by the name of spahis. The name 
sepoys given to the native troop* in British 
India is a variation of the word. 

Spain, kingdom of Europe occupying more 
than four fifths of the Iberian Peninsula, 
which it divides with Portugal, and separated 
from France by the I^enees. It Includes the 
Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, and the 
town of Ceuta on the Moroccan coast. It con- 
sists of forty-nine provinces; area, 104,783 sq. 
m.; pop. (1910) ia,603,06B. Until 180g it also 
had colonies — in Americai Cuba and Porto 
Rico; in Asia; the Philippine, Sulu, Caroline, 
and Marianne islands; In Africa; Rio de Oro, 
Adrar, and several small towns and islands im 
the N. and W. coasts, making altogether under 


Spanish oontrol 603,000 aq. m. Aa a 

Aa a randt 



of the war with the U. 8., Cubk, Porto Kico, 
Qana, uid the Fhilippinea were lott to Spain. 
The FeninHuIa is Bep&rated from Africa by 
the Straita of Oibmltar, IS m. across. The 
center ol the Peninsula is formed by a mass 
1,600 to SfiOO fL high, and separated into ser- 
eral river basins hj mountain chains running 
approximately E. and W. The plateaus ol 
Leon and Old Castile occupy the N., and that 
of New Castile the center. The Pyrenees cross 
the isthmus from the Bay of Biscay to Cape 
Creus on the Mediterranean. The culminating 
points are Mount Ferdo (10,907 ft.), and 
Poeets (11,047 ft.), and Mount Aneto (11,170 
ft). Toward the E. end of the chain the little 
republic of Andorra ilea between France and 
Spain. The Pyrenees are continued W. by the 
Cantabrian Uouutaina for 3S0 m. They rise 
directly from the ocean on the N., but on the 
S. they ■ ■ - - - 

I level 

ri into plaina 2^00 to 3,000 ft. above 
The highest point is the Torre de 
Ceredo (8,780 ft). The Sierra Nevada borders 
the Mediterranean along the S. coast, and is 
higher than the Pyrenees. Between the N. and 
S. coast ranges are four other principal and 
many minor chains, which divide the river 
basins, ramify, join together, or are lost in the 
central mass, covering Spain with vioimtains 
naually rough and wild, yet not offering difE- 
enltiea to intercommunication. 
The largest streams flow W., through Portu- 

Sil, into the Atlantic The largest stream 
□wing into the Mediterranean is the Ebro 
(440 m.), which drains the Pyrenees and E. 
Cantabrian alopea. The longest river is the 
TaguB (666 m.), which cjY«sea the Peninsula 

S[eae Donro (Spanish, Buero). It drains the 
blai-land of Old Castile, and empties into the 
Atlantic. The GuadalquiTir (310 m.) and 
Otladiana [316 m., with the Zancara, 610 m.) 
empty into the Atlantic oa the Qulf of Cadis. 
The riTcn, so far aa th^ lis In Spanish ter- 
ritoiy, are of little use for navigation, except 
the Guadalquivir, bat are used for irrigaticoi. 
The amount of flow is unequal, being very 
■mail in summer and autumn. 

The climate in the interior table-lands is gen- 
erally continental, rigorous and dry, that of 
tiie E. coast dry cuid mild, that of the S. coast 
moist and hot, and that of the N. slope cool, 
wet, and stormy. Madrid has onlv 11 in. of 
annual rainfall, lesa than that 6t Denver, but 
more than that of EI Paso. Hie summer tem- 
peratures in tlie Interior are the hottest in 

The mineral wealth of Spain has been known 
from the most ancient times, and its richness 
In gold made it the California of the Carthagin- 
ians and Romans. The production of gold nas 
Itaig failed, but Spain still continues the rich- 
eat country in Europe in other mineral prod- 
ucts. Iron is abundant in the mountains, 
especially in tie Biscayan provinces; lead is 
abnudatn; argentiferous l^d is extensively 
distributed, ami the mines at Linares are im- 
portant; copper is worked at many places, 
Cdpally to the N. of Hnelva; cinnabar has 
u^en out at Almaden from the time of 
and rock salt, marble, plaster. 


mineral fertilinra, and ooal offer huge re- 
sources. The wealth of Spain in mineral and 
thermal springa is even more unique than her 
wealth in minerals. These occur chiefly at the 
foot of the Pyrenees and of the Sierra Nevada. 
Of the lauds, eighty per cent is classed as 

Sroductive, and of thia thirty-four per cent is 
evoted to agriculture, twenty-one to fruits, 
twenty to meadows, four to vineyards, and two 
to olives. The great variations in altitudes 
permit the productions to range through those 
of the subtropio and temperate zones. The 
leading crops are wheat, rye, barley, maize, 
rice, esparto, flax, hemp, and pulse. The 
product of wine Is very large and highly 
valued ; it is the chief item of export. Raisins, 
almonds, oranges, olive oil, and conserves are 
also largely exported. Cork is chiefly furnished 
t^ Spain, though the cork tree growa in SW. 
Europe and N. Africa. The Spanish races of 
sheep, cattle, and horses are alt celebrated. 
The Imports are chiefly wheat, cotton, raw or 
' manufactured, coal and coke, drugs and chem- 
icals, sugar, machinery, tobacco, and woolen 
goods. The chief exports are wine, minerals 
and ores, cork, boots and shoes, cotton textiles, 
fruits, oil, and wool. The trade is chiefly with 
France, Great BriUin, and the U. S. In 1007 
the imports were rated at 095,139,697 peaeUa 
(9180,007,000), the exports at 962,809,466 pe- 
setas ($174,603,000). 

Spain is a monarchy, under the constitution 
of 1876. The legislative power is vested in a 
parliament called the Cortes, consisting of a 
Senate and a Congreas. The senators in part 
hold life positions by inheritance, or ea officio, 
in part are nominated by tbe orowD, and in 
part elected, and together number not more 
than 360. The Congress has 406 elected depu- 
ties. All are elected for five years, or until 
the Cortes are dissolved by the crown. The 
ministry ia respoaaible, and conslata of nine 
members. The local governments are generally 
representative- The revenue is derived from 
direct and indirect taxation, stamp duties, 
monopolies, and income of public property. 
The monopolies are the tobacco trade, the lot- 
tery, the mint, and others. The public debt of 
all kinds (funded and floating) in October, 
1911, amounted to 9,902,870,000 pesetas «1,- 
911,264,000), and the principal item in the 
public expenditure is the payment of the in- 
terest charges. 

Gibraltar, which controls the Straits, is in 
tbe bands of the British. The army and navy 
are recruited by conscription. The permanent 
army consists of about 80,000 men, with about 
1,200 afl^cers. Of tbe colonies in 1B98, Rio de 
Oro and Adrar were governed by the province 
of Canarias, and the others were ccmtrolled by 
governors. Cuba had forty-six representatives 
in the Cortes. 

The present popnlatfon consists of Ilwriana, 
modifled successively by intermixture with 
Celts, Carthaginians, Romans, Goths, Jews, and 
, Moors. With the last came some negro blood, 
and to the slight intermixture of this blood is 
. probably due the Spanish and Portuguese ca- 
pacity for tropical colonization. At the same 
time from Spain has poured out an enormoua 
' wave of emigration, which has left ita mark OB 



the most of America and ■everal oeeanlo archi- 
pelagoes, and thia has had its reaction on 

purity of Spanish blood. Yet notwithBtanding 
these intermixtures, each lasting through cen- 
turies, the people are among the most cbarac- 
teriatic, Bell-contatncd, and sharply defined of 
Europe. The linguistic type evolved is esaen- 
tially Boman, but the ethnic includes the Por- 
tuguese, and is dearly distinct from the rest 
of Europe. The Spaniard, somewhat swarthy, 
is well balanced as to virtues and Tiees, vig- 
orous, original, serious, proud, dignified, cour- 
teous, tenacious, patriotic, thrifty, sometimes 
vain, bigoted, intolerant, and vindictive. In 
the Roman conijuest Spaniards were found 
gallant and warlike, and when overcome they 
made the most faithful and conservative of the 
Koman provinces. They formed a fertils and 
easy field for early Christian missionary effort, 
and having accepted the Boman supremacy and 
Christianity they were tenacious of them. 
With the discovery of America this race dis> 
played to the world Its courage, enterprise, and 
endurance, as well as its indifference to the 
Hufferinga of inferior races. Tlie principal 
cities are: Madrid (pop., I8I0, 571.639), 
Barcelona (660,000), Valencia (213,530), 
Seville (155,368), Malaga (133,045), Murcia 
(124,9B5), and Zaragoza (105,788)-, no other 
cities have more than 100,000. Emigration is 
chiefly to Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina. 

The national church ia the Roman Catholic, 
and the only professed diaaenters number about 
30,000, about 7,000 Proteatanta, 4,000 Jews, 
and 19,000 of other religions. In 1884 there 
were 32,436 priests, 1,Q84 monks resident in 161 
monastic houses, and 14,5Q2 nuns in 1,027 con- 
vents. Since 1876 private Protestant worship 
hsa been permitted. In 1860 onlv twenty per 
cent of the population could read and write; 
in lOOO this had grown to 37.0. Compulaory 

!>rimary education is statutory, but ia not en- 
orced. There are about 35,000 public schools, 
with 2,000,000 pupils, and 8,100 private ones, 
with 350,000 pupils. The secondary schools are 
less efficient. There are 10 universities with 
10,000 students. The colonisation of the coasta 
by the Ph<Enicians (Cadiz), Greeks (Sagun- 
tum), and Carthaginians (Cartagena) began 
abt. 1100 B.C. Tlie Cartha^ians connuercd 
about half of the Peninsula in the third cen- 
tury B.o. This waa inherited by the Romans, 
and the conquest completed, 19 B.C. The prov- 
inces were thoroughly Romanized. The Gothic 
invasion was begun in the fifth century A.D., 
but the Qothic kingdom was overthrown by 
the Arabs in 711, who remained in control for 
three centuries. Christian kingdoms were es- 
tablished from the eleventh century until the 
marriage of Ferdinand V of Aragon and Isa- 
bella of Castile united these kingdoms in 1479, 
•and began a career of prosperity, which re- 
sulted in the conquest oi the Moors and the 
discovery of America, and gave Spain the form 
it yet bears. The marriage of Isabella's daugh- 
ter Johanna with Philip I, son of the Emperor 
Maximilian, made Spain a part of the Haps- 
burg Empire, with Germany, the Netherlands, 
Milan, Naples, and Sicily, Sardinia, Burgundy, 
and the colonies, under Charles I of Spain, 
V of Germany (1510). The despotism of 

Charles i 

I followed by the tyra 

of the Inquisition, undertook to root out 
Protestantism, and he with his no less despotic 
and intolerant successors succeeded in bringing 
to a close before the eighteenth century the 
brilliant period of Spanish history. The line 
of Hapaburg princes doaed with Charles II 

On bia death followed the War of the Spaniah 
Succession, which resulted in placing a Bour- 
bon on the throne, and with two brief inter- 
ruptions this dynasty has remained In power. 
In 1608-14 Joeeph waa kept in power by his 
brother Napoleon. This waa the period of the 
Peninsular War, in which succesaful reaistonce 
to the schemes of Napoleon was for the first 
time offered. Upon the dethronement of their 
king and the occupation of his throne bj Joaeph 
Bonaparte, the Spanish people rose in arms, 
and, though ill disciplined, showed such vigor 
and courage as to require the presence of Na- 

Kleon to restore French authority. Later he 
t to his marshals the task of subduing the 
Spaniards, whose persistent elTorts, aided and 
directed by Wellington, contributed to the final 
overthrow of Napoleon. The second interrup- 
tion of the Bourbon rule was 1368-74, during 
which years a regency, a short-lived monarchy 
under Amadeus, and a republic were suc- 
cessively established. The Bourbons were re- 
stored, December 30, 1874, in the person of 
Alfonso XII. He died in 1SS6, and was suc- 
ceeded by his posthumous son, Alfonso XIII, 
with Maria Christina, his mother, as regent. 
A rebellion in Cuba led. In 18B3, to war with 
the U. 8., in which the flower of the Spanish 
navy was destroyed. The death of Alfonso XII 
in 188S, and the accession In 1886 of his 
posthumous son, Alfonso XIII, failed to dis- 
turb the political conditions. The Carlists, 
indeed, have been uneasy at certain crises, and 
the adherents of a republic are not unimpor- 
tant. Nevertheless, afi'sira have been in the 
hands alternately of the Liberals, led by 
Sagasta, and the Conservatives, led by Cfinovas 
until his assassination by an anarchist in 1807. 
Spain has in fact had her share of anarchism; 
she has suffered from labor trouble, and her 
finances have been on the verge of collapse. 
Externally, the chief recent event is the loss 
of the Spanish colonial empire, incident to the 
Spanish- American War of 1898. See SpAiaSH- 

SpanOan (spSn'dow), an old fortified town 
and military station; province of Brandenburg, 
Prussia ; st the confluence of the Havel and 
the Spree, 9 m. WNW. of Berlin [see map of 
German Empire, ref. 3-Ct). The citadel stands 
on an island in the Havel, and is used by the 
Prussian^ Govt, as a prison for military and 
political criminals. The city is well built, has 
manufactures of hosiery, woolen fabrics, gun- 
powder, and arms, and carries on a large 
transit trade between Berlin and Hamburg. 
Pop. (1005) 70,295. 

Spaniel (apBn'ySI), Cani» tatraritu, a, variety 
of hunting dog; in form a small setter, with 
silky hair, long in some parts of the body, and 
long, soft, pendulous ears. It probably orlg- 

.y Google 


iiuted In Bpftln. The colon are varioiu, black, 
brown, ^iea, liver colored and white, and black 
and white. The Englieh breed ia oonaidered 
the best (or aportamen, being etrong, with an 
Kccellent noee, and fond of the water. The 
water apaniel differs from the common breed 
in the eagemesa to hunt and swim in water, 
-whence it U used to drive ducks into the nets 
in decqj ponds. The Alpine or St. Bernard 
apaniel is the largest and most celebrated of 
the race, being 2 ft. bi^ at the shoulderi, and 
S or 6 fL from nose to end of tail. This ia 
one of the breeds which search the mountain 
paauB in the vicinity of the Botpioe of 8t. Ber- 
nard in ipiest of bewildered or weary travelGm. 
The Newfoundland dog resembles the Alpine 
spaniela; it is large and has great strraigth; 
is gentle, very intelligent, and affectionate; it 
is an excellent swinuner, the toes being partly 
webbed. The King Charles spaniel is a small 
and beantiful breed, prized as a lady's pet, 
generally black and white, or black and tan 
colored; the hair is soft and silky, the ears 

Endnlous, the forehead elevated, and the eyes 
telligent; the variety prized by Charles I of 
England was wholly black. 

Sput'ish Anu'da. See Amuada, Tbb Spait- 

Spanish Fly. See Cakthasis. 

Spanish Graaa, another name for Ebpabto 

Spanish Lan'gitaga, the national language of 
Spain and also of some other countriea where 
it has been carried by colonista, as Mexico and 
the rest of Spanish ijnerica. Di Spain certain 
regions are not properly included in the ter- 
ritoi7 of Spanish; tiius the dialect of Qalicia 
belongs to Portuguese, and there is a amall 
territory in the N. where the language is 
Basque, while Catalan is spoken in Catalonia, 
Valencia, and the Baleario Islands. The num- 
ber of thoae whose native tongue is Spanish in 
some form or other is estimated at from eleven 
to fourteen mUlions. Noteworthy is the al- 
moat total lack of doubled consonants in Span- 
idi words. The orthography, as regulated by 
tha Academy, is a fairly^ood representation 
of the spoken language. The pronunciation of 
modem Spaniah is not the same as that of the 
older language, in which some sibilant sounds 

eisted which have been lost. Thus a formerly 
d in popular words the sound of th in Eng- 
lish ahe, but this has become the aspiration 
written j or g; compare -Qvijote, formerly 
Quimitt, with the French form Quiehotte, or 
English sherry — that is, wine of Xerez (now 
written Jerez] , An initial h, now silent, often 
■tands for older f. 

The grammatical structure of the language 
is similar to that of other Romance languages. 
Certain neuter usee, especially of the neuter 
form (lo) of the article with adjectives, are 
noteworthy; so, too, are the frequent use of a 
prapoeitioB (i, " to ") before the direct object 
of a verb, the distinction between the two 
words ter and eitar, " to ,be," and that between 
iaber and tmer, "to have." Among the 
eoorces of the Spanish vocabulary, Meides 
Latin, Greek, and old Germanic dialects 
4r 4 


Spanish Mack'erel, (1) along the &. coast 
of N. America, Scomieromorut maoulatua, a 
very slender, compressed flab, bluish^reen 
above, satinlike white below, with yellowish 
spots on the back and sides; it attains a length 
of Zi ft; it is a native of the tropioal aeas, 
but ranges from 8. Brazil to Cape Cod, and 
is one of the moat esteemed of salt-water fishes. 
(2) In Europe, Scomber ooliae, distinguished 
externally from the common mackerel (18. 
ecombrua) by the larger eye and the dimin- 
ished number of wavy streaks; it is known 
in the U. S. ea the chub madierel and the 
thimble eye. 

Spanish Main, an old term still used for 
those portions of S. and Central America 
which border on the Caribbean Sea, {.«., Ven- 
ezuela, Colombia, and the Central American 
states. The original Spanish term, Tierra 
Firvie, Included only the coasts from the mouth 
of the Orinoco to Costa Rica. Some writers 
erroneously use the name for the Caribb^n 

Spanish-Amer'icBb War, a war between 
Spain and the United States, caused by tha 
condition of aiTairs in Cuba. Centuries of 
misrule had culminated in such anarchy that 
interference on the part of the U. S. seemed 
to be called for. In the nineteenth oentury as 
many as ten organised efforts bad been made 
to throw off the Spanish yoke in Cuba, the 
moat energetic extending from 1808 to 1678, 
when the iaiand was desolated and impover- 
ished by a ten years' war. When, at length, 
it was over, the Spanish Govt, caused new 
difficulties by undertaking to reimburse itself 
for the expense of the war by additional taxa- 
tion. The consequence was an outbreak of 
an organized revolt in 189S. The autbonties 
at first made little headway against it, and 
the govermnent at Madrid, ooncluding that 
Capt.-gen. Campos, the governor of the island, 
was too oentle in his methods, snperaeded him 
by Gen. Weyler, who aa governor of the Phil- 
ippines had acquired the name of " The Butoh- 
er." W^ler's methods in Cuba were energetic 
and cruel. His plan was to reduce the insur- 
gents by burning the bouses and crops, and 
driving the starving population into villages 
surrounded with stockades and ditches known 
aa trochaa. 

Appeals from the leaders, however, found 
their way into the U. S., and an organiiatiou 
in New York known as " The Junta " furnished 
the press with details of the horrors to which 
Cubans were subjected. Such was the state of 
Cuban affairs when Senator Proctor, of Ver- 
mont, determined to visit Cuba. The result 
of his visit, OB reported in a speech in the 
Senate, thrilled the nation. The reooncentra- 
ifos, as the people penned within the tTookaa 
were called, were dying of starvation at an - 
unprecedented rato. lu the little city of Santa 
Clara, with a population of only about 14,000, 
the number of deaths in 1897 was 6,961, while 
in the seven years previous to that time the 
total number of deaths, including the victims 
of an epidemic of yellow fever, waa only S,48B. 


It wa^ while such terrible fBcte were beoom- 
ing known that the U. S. battleship Maine 
Tia^ted Havana, after due eonsultation with 
the Spaniah minister at Washington, and the 
vessel was moored in a position EMsigned by 
the authorities of the harbor- The ship had 
been in position less than a month without 
having left the moorings when, ou Februai? 
16, 1698, a terrible explosion occurred which 
destroyed the ship and caused the loss of SSS 
officers and men. The U. S. appointed m com- 
mission to investigate the causes of the ex- 
plosion, and this commission reported that 
the ship had been destroyed b; a mine exterior 
to the vessel, and that the oonoussioD had 
caused two of the magaziues also to eXpIode. 
The publication of this report caused all the 
slumbering fires of indignation in the country 
to burst out into flame. 

Pres. McKinley had persAiall; learned the 
horrors of war, and was determined that every 
resource of diplomacy should be exhausted to 
secure the desired result without an appeal 
to arms. On his request, Weyler was recalled, 
but the changes made by the new captain gen- 
eral were not enough to satisfy the coimtry. 
Aooordingly, on March 8th, McEinley asked 
for an appropriation of $60,000,000 for na- 
tional defenses, and Congress granted the ap- 
propriation without a dissenting vote. The 
coast defenses were at once strengthened, ves- 
sels and naval supplies were purchased. Con- 
gress declared war April IBth, the anniversary 
of the battles of Lexington and Concord. Tbie 
Pre^dent called for 200,000 volunteers and an 
increase of the regular army from 27,000 to 

The first great event of the war was in the 
Far East. The Pacific fleet, under Commodore 
Qeorge Dewey was ordered to proceed to the 
Philippine Islands and capture or destroy the 
Spanish fleet. The squadron arrived off Manila 
Bay on the evening of April 30th. Besides 
strong fortifications at the mouth of the bay, 
there was a tort with ita arsenal at Cavite, 
and there were numerous submerged torpedoes 
in the channel. The two fleets consisted of 
about the same number of cruisers, but the 

At daybreak the ships bad reached Manila, a 
point nearly 30 m. from the mouth of the 

The Spaniards fought with the utmost dee- 
peration, and it was not till all their ships 

had been sunk or were on fire and the arsenal 
at Cavity had been exploded that the white 
flag was raised over the fort. The number of 
Spanish casualties has not been reported, but 
on the American fleet not a man was killed, 
and only seven were slightly wounded. With 
the Spanish fleet destroyed, Manila was easily 
taken, and the entire group of some 1,200 is- 
lands soon fell under U. S. control. 

As soon as the war broke out the President 
ordered the fleet at Key West to blockade 
the ports of N. Cuba. On Juns 14th, there- 
fore. Gen. Shatter, in command of the mili- 
tary expedition against Santiago, set out 
from Key West with 16,000 men on board 
thlrty-flve transports, under the protection of 


fourteen armed vessels of the navy, and after 
six days they arrived oS Morro Castle, and 
landed at Daiquiri, 16 m. E. of Santiago. 
The first engagement was at Ouaaimas, two 
days after. IfuicGug, where the Spaniards were 
vigorously driven back, chiefly dv the First 
U. S. Volunteer Cavalry, commonly known ai 
the Bough Riders, under Col. Wood and XJeuV- 
ooL Boosevelt. A general advance was ordered 
for June 30th. Gen. Lawton's division carried 
El Caney July Ist, and this was succeeded by 
the storming of San Juan under Oen. Kent 
and Gen. Wheeler. The Americans killed num- 
bered 230i the wounded, 1.284. On the evening 
ot July lat the American lines were within 
6 m. of th^ city. 

When it became evident that the city must be 
taken, the Spanish Govt, ordered Admiral Cer- 
vera to att^pt an escape. At about 10 a.ic. 
the first of the Spanish fleet, quickly followed by 
the others, appeared in the mouth of the har- 
bor. As the Spanish fleet, on emerging from 
the bay, turned westward to escape, piej were 
subjected to a terrific flre from the American 
battleships and cruisers. Soon all the Spanish 
vesoels were captured or on fire. 

Ab soon as it became certain that the sur- 
render of Santiago was assured, Gen. Nelson 
A. Miles organized a force to take possession 
of the island of Porto Rico. His force landed 
at Ponce, on the S. side of the island, and 
met with very little resistance- 
Soon after the destruction of Cervera's fleet 
the French minister at Washington presented 
a note in behalf of Spain, asking the terms on 
which the U. S. would make peace. Pres. Mc- 
Einley issued a proclamation suspending hos- 
tilities. Spain was to abandon all rignt to 
Cuba; Porto Bioo was to be ceded to the U. B. ; 
Spain was to grant to the U. S. one of the 
Caroline Islands, to be selected by the commis- 
sion, and the commission in the flnal treat; 
was to determine the future status of the 
Philippines. Theae conditions were duly am- 
ptifled in the Treaty ot Paris, which was lati- 
fled by the U. S. on Februanf 6, 1899, and l^ 
Spain on March ITth. The Philippines passed 
to the U. S. in consideration of the payment of 
$20,000,000, and the island of Guam was se- 
lected as the representative of the Carolines. 
In the course of the war public opinion had 
come to favor the accession of Hawaii, very 
largely for military and naval reasons. As 
soon as it became probable that the Philippine 
Islands would be retained by the U. S. it be- 
came obvious that there would be many 
strate^c advantages in the possession of the 
Hawaiian Islands. Accordingly, on the recom- 
mendation of the President, Congress adopted 
a resolution acceding to the petition of the 
Hawaiian Govt., annexing the islands to the 
U. S. A precedent for this method of procedure 
had been furnished at the time of the annexa- 
tion of Texas. 

Unfortunately, war did not close with the 
signing of the Treaty of Peace. The condition 
of the Philippinee was the cause of not a little 
anxiety. The natives had been in revolt against 
the Spanish Govt, when the war broke out, and 
when Spanish authority was overthrown the 
party In rebellioi^ was unwilling to yield to 


the U. S. Aguiiwldo, the leader of tbe rerolu- 
tionjets, ioBiated upon independence. Hub the 
U. 8. WHS not wiUing to grant, although it 
gave most formal asaurancee that the political 
and civil rights of tbe OBtivea nould be re- 
■pectAd. The U. 8. could not believe that tbe 
Filipinoa were fitted for aelf-goTemment. It 
was evident that, if abandoned, they would fall 
into anarchy and under military despotisni. 
But the aMurances of Fres. McKinley were not 
satisfactoTT to the military dictator, Agui- 
naldo, and on February 4, 1899, his troops 
attacked tbe American lines in the suburbs of 
Uauila. Not till early in 1900 was the or- 
ganiied insurrection broken up. and even after 
that time fighting was continued by aniall 
bauds in the more inaccessible parts of the 
island of Luzon. Aguinaldo was captured 
March £3, 1901, by Gen. Funston.and taken 
to Manila. On April 2d he took the oath of 
alliance to the U. 8., and published a 

Sroclamation advising bis followers to lay 
own their arms. In the meantime a commis- 
sion appoint^ ty the U. S. had established 
local native governments in many places in the 
islands, and had introduced many needed re- 

^■n'worm, or Meaa'aring Worm, the larvs 
of any geometrid moth ; so called from the ele- 
vation of its body in locomotion, as if measur- 
ing. The canker worm is an example. 

Spar, in mineralogy, a term used vaguely 
for several crystalline minerals of nonmetallic 
luster and smooth cleavage. See Cai^oaxtoub 
Spab, Feldbpab, and Fluo&spab. 

Spatk, £lec'tric See Elexttbic Dibchaboe. 

Spai'iow, any bird of the family FHn^'ilt- 
da. Tbe term is generally applied to those 
with a streaked plumage in which some shade 
of brown predominates. The most familiar is 
Paaser dometttcut, called in tbe U. S. English 
sparrow, from the country whence it was in- 
troduced, and more correctly known in Great 
Britain as the house sparrow. It is too well 
known to need a description. Its' original hab- 
itat was the greater part of Europe and tem- 
perate Afia and N. Africa. Tbe English 
sparrow was introduced into the U. S. in the 
fall of 1850, when Nicolas Pike and other di- 
rectors of the Brooklyn Institute imported 
eight pairs. These did not thrive, but others 
y were brought over in 1852 and thereafter, and 
by the end of 1886 tbe sparrow had spread over 
the ftreaUr portion of the U. B. E. of tbe 
Mississippi and N. of Florida, and extended in 
the NW. portion of its range into Iowa and 
' Minnesota and beyond the Missouri. It wem 
also abundant about San Francisco, Salt Lake 
City, and New Orleans. Since then it has 
steadily spread, but exactlv how much territory 
it covers u not definitely known. The sparrow 
haa also been introduced into Australia, New 
Zealand, and the Hawaiian Islands, where, as 
in the U. B., It has become a pest. Evidence 
it orerwbelmingly against the sparrow. It is 
convicted of beuig destructive to various crops, 


of crowding out native birds by eating their 
food and occupying their nesting places, and 
also of actually driving them away. It is par- , 
ticularly harmful to grain, grapes, peaioiea, 
and pears, while the number of injurious in- 

HODBB Sr^uuiw. 

sects destroyed by it is trivial. Its phenomena] 
increase is due to its fecundity, as a pair of 
sparrows raise on an average three or four 
broods a season, and may raise as many as 
six, each brood numbering four or five, 

Spar'tow Aawk, any one of several small 
species of the genus Falco. The color of the 
sexes is very different at all ages, but the old 
and young of each sex are alike. The common 
American species is F. ITinnunculua) spar- 
vertus. Its characteristics are the bluish 
crown, whitish front and c 
spicuous " mustaclie " acr 
the cheeks, the whito or whit- 
ish abdomen; in the male the 
upper part of the head, as well 
as wines, is ashy blue or slata 
colored; in the female the bead 
is bluish above, but the bluish 
on other parts is replaced by 
rufous, which is barred by 
blackish. Its len^h is about 
a foot. The species is an in- 
habitant of N. as well as 8. 
America; the only U. S. form 
is the ^iiical Bparverius, and Hkad ahd Foot 
this is found from the. sub- of Auestcan 
polar regions to the Isthmus Spahrow Bawe. 
of Panama. It preys upon 
small birds as well as mice and reptiles. It 
may be frequently seen perched on the top of a 
tree nearly erect and motionless, surveying the 
country around. It breeds in the N. parts of 
the U. 8., as well as farther N., and selects 
for its nest a hollow tree, in which it Isys five 
to seven dark cream-colored, nearly spherical 


eggB. It IB one of the moat useful of tbe small 
hawks, feeding iii>on insects, and particttlarl; 


Spai'ta, or Laced«'moi^ in antiquitjr, the 
capital of Laconia and chief citj of the Pelo- 
ponnesuB ; on the Eurotaa, 20 m. from the sea, 
in a valley bounded W. and E. by the ranges 
of Taygetus and Pamon. It was about S m. 
in circumference, and consisted of the orig- 
inally separate villages, Pitane, Cynosura, 
Limnee, and Mesos. It included several hills, 
upon the largest of vbich was the theater, of 
white marble, the two wings of which, 430 ft. 
apart, still remain. The private dwellings, 
including the palace, were ^mple; but few 
Greek cities equaled Sparta in the magniB- 
cence of its temples and statues. The modem 
town of Sparta occupies one of the hills in the 
S. part of the ancient site; pop. 4,000. The 
Domarch and other ofHcials of laconia reside 
here. According to tradition, Lacediemon. 

snd gave the name of his wife to the city, and 
his own name to the people and country. 
Amoi^ the mythical kings is Menelaus. After 
the Dorian conquest of the Peloponnesus, 
Sparta fell to the twin sons of Aristodemus, 
EuryBtheues and Procles, and ever after had 
two lines of joint kings, the Agid (from Agis, 
son of Eurysthenes) and Proclid. At first in- 
ferior to Argos, Sparta became the chief of the 
Dorian powers only after the institutions of 
Lycurgus had made it a nation of soldiers. 

The Lycurgan legislation (probably before 
820 B.C.) recognized three classes: (1> The 
Spartans, of Dorian stock, resident in the city, 
alone eligible to public offices, and all warriors; 

(2) the PeritEci or Laconians, freemen of the 
neighboring townships, with no political power, 
devoted to agriculture and industry, and form- 
ing bodies of heavy-armed soldiers in war; end 

(3) the helots, or serfs, txtund to the soil, and 
sometimes employed both in domestic knd mili- 
tary service. The most important part of the 
Lycurgan legislation related to the discipline 
and education of the citizens. The individual 
was held to eitist exclusively for the state, to 
which he should, devote all his time, property, 
and energies ; and eyery male child, uiereforc, 
was under public inspection from bis birth, 
and was trained to warlike exercises. If weak 
or deformed, he was exposed to perish j other- 
wise he was taken at seven years from his 
mother's care, and educated in the public 
classes. At thirty the Spartan was allowed 
to engage in public aSairs and to marry, but 
still continued under public discipline, and was 
released from military service only in his six- 
tieth year. Both sexes were subjected to nearly 
the same rigorous gymnastic training. Under 
the Lycurgan constitution Sparta began its 
career of conquest. The first and second Mes- 
senian wars (743-723 and ' 685-668 B.C.) 
doubled its population and territory. The long 
stru^le between the Spartans and Argives 
terminate)] in favor of the former In 647 and 

I by unanimous consent i 


trusted with the chief command. Leonidas 
died a glorious death at TbermopyUe' (480) 
and Paiuanias won the great battle of Platsa 
(479). But in 476 the allies, alienated by tbs 
arrogance of Pauaanias, offered the supremaq' 
to Athens, and the rivalry of these states modi- 
fled all the history of Greece till the Macedon- 
ian era. The Peloponnesian War (431-404) 
terminated with the conquest of Athens and 
the restoration of the hegemony b> Sparta. 
The Spartans, who now had a great commander 
in AgesilauB, exerted unrivaled authority until 
at the battle of Leuctra (371) they were de- 
feated by the Thebans under Epaminondas, and 
thenceforward ceased to be a leading state of 
Greece. In 221 Sparta for the first time felt 
into the hands of conquerors. In 146 it fell 
with the rest of Greece under the dominion of 

Spar'taciu, leader in the Servile War (73- 
TI B.C.) i b. in Thrace; was a shepherd and 
afterwards chief of a gong of robbers, but wsa 
captured by tbe Romans, sold as a slave, and 
trained as a gladiator. By showing how much 
better it would be to die in an attempt at free- 
dom than to be butchered in the arena, he 
formed a conspiracy among the pupils of the 
schools. Seventy of the conspirators, headed 
by Spartacus, fought their way out of Capua 
and took refuge in the crater of Vesuvius. 
Hers they were soon joined by numbers of ri 

taken. C. Claudius Pulcher was then sent 
against them with an army of 3,000 men and 
blockaded them in the crater, but his force 
was suddenly attacked in the rear and almost 
annihilated. After this success the. mutiny 
rapidly grew into a formidable war. The 
peculiar state of affairs in S. Italy contributed 
much to this result. The soil was owned or 
leased in large allotments by the Boman 
nobles, whose estates were cultivated by a stave 
population, which lived in an abject condition, 
bfuirtacus proclaimed the abolition of slavery, 
and before long he was at tbe head of 70,000 
men. His plan was to force tbe pEisses of the 
Alps, lead his army out of Itol^, and then send 
every man to his home. With a victorious 
army of 100,000 he passed by Rome, and pene- 
trated into the regions of the Po, where he was 
met by two consular armies. He routed them 
both. Unable to induce his soldiers to follow 
him out of Italy, he marched S. and went into 
winter quarters in Thurii. Tbe defection of 
some of his troops and dissensions in his &mp 
led to his defeat by Crassus. He then tried to 
cross over to Sicily, but was betrayed by the 
Cilician pirates who had agreed to transport 
his forces. A part of his army fell into the 
hands of Crassus, but Spartacus and the re- 
mainder effected their escape. Lucullus was 
now recalled from the E., Pompey from the 
W. After new victories, Spartacus went to 
Brundisium with the purpose of seizing the 
shipping in the harbor and crossing over to 
Thrace. Falling in with the army of Crassus, 
near the source of the river Silarus, he wm* 
defeated and slain. The fugitives were huntad 
down and slaughtered, and the revolt was com- 
pletely suppre^ed. 

Spurn, audden and involvintaiy mUHcular 
contraction. Spaam of muicle mtLj result from 
dUtuTbaoce of the nerve centeni, from pe- 
ripheml irritation of the BffecUd part, or froiii 
irritation of other organs or surfaces reflected 
from the nerve centers. When spasmodic 
rigidity is persistent it is termed fonto spaam. 
Such is the period of rlRidity at the beginning 
of ths epileptic attack and the prolonged 
rigidity of tetanus and cerebro-spinal meningi- 
tis. When spurn is brief and recurs rapidly, 
it is termed clonic spasm. Such are the in- 
termitting and repeated muscular contractions 
following the inception of the true epileptic 
attack, and constituting the more ordinary 

ffiileptifonn attacks or " fits " of children. 
le graver spasmodic diseases are true epi- 
lepsy; epileptiform attacks from many causes, 
as indigestion and worms in children, renal 
disease in adults, and in the course of severe 
acute diseases, narcotic poisoning, etc. ; chorea 
or St. Vitus's dance, tetanus, hydrophobia. 
Sneedog and coughing are spasmodic Contrac- 
tions of the respiratory tracts excited by irri- 
tation of the mucous membrane. Asthma is 
spasmodic constriction of many bronchi o! 
tubea, producing dyspncea. -Intestinal colic is 
a condition of painful spasmodic constriction 
of the intestines, due to cold or bad diet. In 
invalids painful spasms of various internal and 
external parts may develop suddenly from un- 
known or trivial exciting causes. The im- 
mediate relief of spasm is secured by anti' 
■pasmodics, as valerian, mask, camphor; l^ 
anssthetics, narcotics, and sedatives, as potas- 
sium bromide, hyoscyamus, bellndonna, opium. 
The permanent sure, when attainable, follows 
the correction of known causes. See Cohvul- 

Spathe, the single sheathing bract which in- 
closes a cluster of one or more flowers in many 
species of monocotylcdonous plants. Some* 
times the inclosed flowers are arranged on a 
spike of the form called ipadw, and in numer- 
ous palms the spadix is branching, and besides 
the principal spathe there are numerous sec- 
ondary ones on the apadix. 

Sps'Tin, certain swellings upon the hock 
Joint of the horse. In bog spavin the swellint^ 
and lameness are due to undue secretion of the 
lubricating fluid of joints. The treatment is 
entire rest, with frequent bathing of the parts 
with cold water, and baudaginK. accompanied 
I^ firm pressure upon the swelling, by com- 
presses or spring trusses. Bone spavin. 

spavin proper, is bony enlargement of the hock 

It causes lameness, even in the early 

I, and an imperfect action of the joint. 

gradually groving worse until the bones be- 
come united and solidified by the mass of 
Bbrons bone which grows over them. The dis- 
ease is caused by strains, to which the bock is 

When taken early, rent and counter irritants 
will effect a cure; but when a considerable 
growth of bone has taken place, no absorption 
can be expected, although setons, iodine blis- 
ters, or firing may cause au absorption of the 
bony excrescence, or even of the contiguous 
bone to wme extent. When the disease is 


taken early, or his diet otherwise regulated, a 
spavined horse should be turned out to grass, 
BO that it shall be nutritious, yet cooling and 
laxative. At the same time the spavin may be 
bathed for a week daily with salt and vinegar, 
and then a blistering salve of iodide of mercury 
rubbed in. Though caused by s'b'ains and over- 
work, spavin is hereditary, and a spavined 
horse or mars should never be used as > 

Speak'ei of the Honse, the presiding officer 
of the House of Representatives of the Con- 
gress of the U. 8., of the lower houses of state 
legislatures in the U. S., of the British Houses 
of Parliament, and in legislatures of British 
colonies. As the representative of the House, 
the Speaker communicates its resolutions to 
others and conveys its thanks or censures. In 
the V. S. House of Representatives the Speaker 
presides over the deliberations of that body, 
appoints its committees, supervises its journal, 
signs its bills, resolutions, etc., and as a mem- 
ber may participate in debate after calling an- 
other member to the chair. He is chosen by 
the House from its own number, and can be 
removed from office by the House. 

Speak'ing Tmm'pet, an instrument of wood, 
metal, or papicr-macli^, usually in the form of 
B liollow truncated cone, the mouthpiece being 
at the smaller end. It is used to intensify the 
sound of speech and increase its propagation 
in one direction, as on shipboard, or in giving 
commands to firemen. The cheaper papier- 
mach^ trumpet ia aliu) known as a megaphone. 
When the instrument ia uacd the air in front 
is acted upon over so wide a surface that it 
becomes subject to greater compression and 
rarefaction, by the diminished lateral overfkiw 
or inflow. Tims the air retains its vibrations 
and propagates the sound more etTectively. 

Spui'mint, a plant, Mentha viridis, of the 
Labiata, abundant in Europe and the U. S., 
generally found on moist soil. It is much cul- 
tivated for its leaves, which are used in a 
sauce and as a flavor to beverages. An oil is 
also distilled from spearmint, and from this 
an essence ia prepared, both of medicinal use. 
It is a handsome plant, with deep-green leaves, 
and pale-purple flowers springing from an 
erect stem, usually 2 ft in height. See Mint. 

Spe'de Pay'ments, Beamnp'tion of. During 
the Civil War the U. S. Govt, issued paper ' 
money ("greenbacks"). These greenbacKS, 
which were not redeemable in any otlier form 
of money, were made legal tender; in other 
words, persons were obli^d to accept them as 
the equivalent of money m the ordinary course 
of business. This paper rapidly depreciated, 
and before the end of the war a dollar in gold 
was equivalent to a value of 92.S5 in green- 
backs. In 1975 Congress passed an act pro- 
viding for a return to specie payment on the 
first day of January, 1870 ; in other words, 

Eroviding for the redemption of the green- 
icks in coin. When the time of resumption 
arrived, however, there were but a few de- 
mands for coin, with which the paper moo^ 
was already do par. ^.~. , 


Spe'cies, in biolog;r, the smalleBt group rec- 
ognized in ordinarj classification. In general 
words the 'members of a, Bpecies differ only in 

arate them from allied forms are practically 
permanent. But the idea of Bpecies belongs 
rather to metaphjeica than to nature, for in 
the living world sharp distinctions do not ex- 
ist, and if we take into account extinct forms 
all so-called species really intergrade. Species 
are grouped into genera; allied genera com- 
pose an order; and orders are grouped into 

Specific GiaT'ity. See Obatttt, Bpicino. 

Specific Beat, the heat capacity of a giren 
mass of a substance compared with the heat 
capacity of the same mass of water. If a 
pound of water and a pound of some metal 
such as lead or mercury be raised the same 
number of degrees, it is found that it takes 
a much larger amount of heat to increase the 
temperature of the water than that of the 
metal. So we say that water has a great ca- 
pacity for heat. Indeed, among liquids, water 
naa the largest speciflc heat, and acts every- 
where as an equalizer of temperature. It has 
such great capacity for heat that it warms up 
slowly and coots down slowly. 

Specific heats are" measured by heating the 
body to a known high temperature and deter- 
mining the amount of heat in calories which 
it gives up in falling to a second, lower, known 
temperature. This quantity, divided by the 
number of d^reee between the lower and the 
hirher temperature and also by the mass of 
body in grams, gives the mean specific heat for 
the interval of temperatures used. The most 
delicate of calorimetrjc operations is that in 
which the amount of ice liqueQed by the cool- 
ing body is indicated by the change of volume 
which it undergoes. 

Tabue or Srxcino Bmb. 

; 1 

. .083 



See Heat. 

Specific Peifoim'ance, in the equitable juris- 
prudence of ths U. S. and of England, the 
species of remedy conferred by courts of equity, 
in wliich a party is compelled to perform the 
very thing which he has undertaken to per- 
form in behalf of the person to whom the 
undertaki)^; is given. In its broadest sense, 
the phrase would properly describe all the 
varieties of equitable relief which consist in 
procuring a defendant upon whom on obliga- 
tion rests to do the very specific acta which 
such obligation requires him to do; but in its 
technical and more restricted signiflcstion it 
is confined to cases in which the obligation 
arises out of a contract entered into by the 

The fundamental rule is that a ppwiflc per- 
formance will not be ordered when the com- 


purely legal Judgntent. If, therefore, the 
contract vests the pTaintiff with property in a 
chattel, BO that he can recover its poasession 
through an action at law, or if by uie money 
recovered ho can restore himself to the same 
position, in contemplation of law, which he 
would have occupied if the defendant had ful- 
filled his agreement, he must resort to his legal 
remedy alone. As an illustration: If the con- 
tract relates to ordinary goods and chattels, 
or to any personal property of marketable 
value, and conteinplates a delivery thereof in 
any manner or a transfer of title, since suffi- 
cient money paid to the injured party will 
always enable him to procure other articles of 
a like value to those stipulated for such a 
pecuniary compensation is deemed an adequate 
remedy, and a specific performance will be 
refused. In order that a speciflc performance 
may be decreed, such a performance must be 
reasonably possible by the contracting party, 
and must'he of such a nature that the court 
can compel the specific performance which it 
decrees.' Thus the agreement of an actor, a 
singer, a painter, or other artist to employ 
hia talents in a specified manner qannot be 
specifically enforced. Finally, the agreement 
and the relations of the parties must be such 
that a decree of speciflc performance will be 
reasonable, just, and equitable. 

Spee'tacles, a device for the improvement of 
defective sight. The invention of spectacles 
has been ascribed to Alexander OB spina, of 
Florence, or to Salvinus Armatus (d- 1317); 
also to Roger Bacon (g.e.). It is more prob- 
able, however, that the knowledge of them in 
Europe came throu^ the Saracen Alhazen (d. 
1038). Ths Chinese have for ages employed 
spectacles, and probably they were known to 
the ancients. Lenses for spectacles are spher- 
ical and cylindrical. In a spherioal lens the 
surface on one or both sides is a section of a 
sphere. Rays of light passing through it are 
refracted equally in at) planes. In a cylindrioal 
lent the surface on one side Is a s^^tion of a 
cylinder parallel to its axis. Light passing 
through a cylindrical lens in a pliijie parallel 
to its axis is not refracted. At right angles to 
its ,axis parallel rays are rendered convergent 
or divergent according as the cylindrical sur- 
face is convex or concave, 

Convea tpheriaal lentea ground into specta- 
cles are used (a) to correct presbyopia (a 
diminution of the range of accommodation, in- 
terfering with vision of near objects) ; [b] to 
correct bypennetropia, or far sight (over- 
sight), by increasing the refraction of the eye, 
so that distant rays instead of coming to a 
focus behind the retina are accurately »>eu8ed 
upon it; (o) to supply the loss of refractive 

Ewer caused by removal of the crystalline 
IS, e.g., after extraction of cataract; these 
must be powerful glasses having an optical 
value of about eleven diopters. Gonoaue epher- 
ical Unaea are used to correct myopia, or short 
sight, by lessening the refraction of the eye, 

.lb, Google 


Tariea in the different meridiaua of the eye> 
The eflindricAl Burfaee« ma; be either eoneave 
OT oonTex, according u the faulty meridian is 
myopic or hypermetropic. Priamatia glojuet 
are used to reliere miueular weakness of the 
q'e, because a prism will alter the direction 
of the ray from the point of fixation, so ttiat 
it coincides with the visual line of the weaker 

If tliere is a combination of aatigmatiam and 
bypermetropia or myopia, oompound lentea are 
lued. On one face of the glass is ground the 
spherical curvature (convex or concave, ao- 
eording as there la bypermetropia or myopia ) , 
and on the other the cylindrie curvature, to 
neutralise the astigmatiBm. Iicnsea are num- 
bered according to oqo of two s^tems. In the 
old system a strong lens of 1-iu. focal length 
is the unit. 'Lenses weaker than the unit are 
expressed bf fractions; thus a leiu of 2 in. 
focus is expressed as }, one of 10 in. focus as 
iVi Btc. In the second or new system a weak 
lens of 1-meUr (100 am.) focus is the unit, 
and is called a diopter (abbreviated D.) ; a 
lens twice the strcEngth of the unit is & D., and 
has a focal length of 50 cm. Lenses used to 
correct optical defects may be mounted in 
spectacle framea or in eyeglasses. When sep- 
arate glasses are required for distance and 
reading they may be combined in one frame by 
cementing the stronger lens upon the lower 
portion of the distance glass. These are ce- 
mented bifocals or double-focus glasses, and 
have replaced largely the old Franklin glasses, 
which were of two pieces divided horizontally 
and joined by their cut surfaces. Instead of 
doubfe-focDS glasses the reading lemi may he 
added as a separate glass in a hook front. 

Spectacles should never be worn unless the 
eyes have been carefully examined by a — 

lenses. Qlass used i: 

s should be of 

> special ad- 

Spectmde Snake. See Cobr^ dk Cafello. 

Spectntphotom'etei, an instrument for the 
comparison of any color or wave length from 
any given source of light with the same color 
or wave length from a standard source. Ta- 
riouB sources of light, such as the sun, the 
incandescent filament of the glow lamp, and a 
standard gas flame, have be«i used as stand- 
ards with this instrument. 

Spec'troacope, any instrument for the pro- 
duction and study of spectra. Bpectroecopes 
designed for the precise determination of wave 
lei^^ are called spectrometers. Spectroscopes 
may be clasaifled with reference to the nature 
of the dispersing device, whether pTism or 
grating; or with reference to the aisnersing 
power (high or low) ; or according to tne spe- 
eial purpose to which the instrument is to be 
put (t«lasp«ctroseope, microspectroscope, etc.). 

The essential parts are the slit and the dis- 
persing device, with the focusing arrangemoit, 
and the means of idratifying and det«nnining 
the positions of the various regions of the 
spectrum. The slit consists of two parallel 


jaws of metal, accurately worked and adjusted. 
One or both have freedom of motion in a direc- 
tion at right angles to the length of the slit 
(Fig. 1). The two ed^ should be so true 
that when brought within a small fraction of 
a millimeter of one another the aperture will 
be of uniform width. This aperture when Il- 
luminated from behind forma thi source of 
light the image of which, dispersed and focused 
upon a screen, or within the eyepiece of an 
observing telescope, is to form the spectrum. 

FlQ. 1. 

The usual material of the prism or dispersing 
device is glass, although for special purposes 
rock salt, quartz, fluorspar, carbon bisulphide, 
etc., are used as different degrees of disperwion 
of the rays are desired. Whenever high dis- 
persion fs desired and a prismatic spectrum is 
preferred to the normal spectrum produced by 
of the diffraction grating, a train of 

1 the spectro 
' in apectroa 
. . spectrum n 

than a prismatic spectrum is desired — that is 
to say, when direct absolute determinations of 
wave length are to be made; (2) when high 
dispersion is wanted. Gratings give relatively 
greater openness in the lonper wave lengths 
and less in the violet and ultraviolet than do 
prisms. They are objectionable on account of 
the faintness of the spectra produced, of the 
overlapping of the spectra, and of the fortuitous 
and irregular distribution of intensities. For 
photographic work, however, gratings are ad- 
vantageous because the strong absorption which 
violet light suffers in passing through flint 
gloss may be avoided. 

Collimator and Ohtcrving Teleaeope. — Speo- 
troacopes of the usual form (Fig. 2) have be- 
tween the prism or grating and the slit a lens 
( C) , the purpose of 
which is to bring 
light to the prism 
in parallel rays. 
This lens is at- 
tached by means 
of the connecting C~ 
tube to the slit 
at such a distance 
that the latter is 
at the principal 
focus. This ar- 
rangement is called the collimator. Beyond 
the prism the dispersed raya enter the observing 
telescope (7), which having been focused for 
parallel light brings the portion of the spec- 
trum under observation to a focus in the eye- 
piece. Collimator tube and telescope swing 
upon a common vertical axis at the center of 
the instrument. By means of the position of 
the telescope, as indicated upon a divided dr- 

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Fid. 3. 


cle (a), about which it moveB, the resion of 
the epectriun which is in coincidence with the 
cross hairs in the ejepiece 
' is identified. 

Where a grcting is uaed 
the position of the psrts of 
the qiectroseope is that 
shown in Fig, 3, the tele- 
scope being placed on either 
side of the collimahir ac- 
cording as the right-handed 
r left-handed spectra are 
a be observed, and at vari- 
oDB asfflcs according to the 
order m the spectrum. 

By instrumental develop- 
ments known as the inter- 
ferometer and the echelon spectroscope, indi- 
vidual lines of the spectrum have been ana- 
lyzed ftnd studied. S«e SpEcnvu. ^ 

^ec'tmm, the oblong figure or stripe formed 
on a wall or screen by a beam of light, as of 
the sun, received through & narrow slit and 
paased through a prlam, being thus decom- 
posed or separated into its constituent rays. 
This stripe is colored throughout its length, 
the colors shading insensibly into one another 
from red at the one end, through orange, yel- 
low, green, blue, indigo, to violet at the other. 
These colors are due to the different constitu- 
ents of which solar light is made up, and the 
stripe seen is formed oy an indefinite number 
of images of the slit ranged In order and par- 
tially overlapping. The analysiB or decomposi- 
tion of the beam is due to the different re- 
frangihilitiee of the component rays, the violet 
being the most refrangible and the red the 
least Besides the colored rays, the spectrum 
contains thermal or heating rays, and chem- 
ical or actinic rays, which are not visible to 
the eye. The heating effect of the solar spec- 
trum increases in going from the violet to the 
red, and still contmues to increase for a cer- 
tain distance beyond the visible spectnun at 
the red end, while the chemical action is very 
faint iu the red, strong in the blue and violet, 
and sensible to a considerable distance beyond 
the violet end. The actinic rays beyond the 
violet may be rendered visible by throwing 
them upon a surface treated with some fiu- 
oresoent substance. 

A pure spectrum of solar light is crossed «t 
right angles t^ numerous dark lines, called 
Fraunhofer's linee, each dark line being in- 
variable in position. For the proper under- 
standing of the import of these lines, five prin- 
ciples require to be kept in view. First, an 
incandescent solid or liquid body gives out a 
eontinuoui spectrum. Second, an fncandeecent 
gaseous body gives out a discontinuous spec- 
trum, oonslsti^ of bright lines. Third, each 
element when iD the state of an incandescent 
gas gives out lines peculiar to itsslf. Fourth, 
if the light of an incandescent solid or liquid 
passes through a gaseous body, certain of its 
rays are absorbed, and black lines in the spec- 
trum indicate the nature of the subetuice 
which absorbed the ray. Fifth, each element, 
when Easeons and inoandeecent, emits bright 
rays iaentical in color and position on the 
spectrum with those which it absorbs from 


light transmitted through it. Kow, applying 
these principles to the solar spectrum, we find, 
from the nature and position of the rays ab- 
sorbed, that its light passes through hydrogen, 
potassium, sodium, calcium, barium, mag- 
nesium, sine, iron, chromium, cobalt, nickel, 
copper, and manganese, aU in a state of gas, 
and constituting part of the solar envelope, 
whence we conclude that these bodies are pres- 
ent in the substance of the sun itself, from 
which they have been volatilized by heat. 

The moon and planets have spectra like that 
of the sun, because they shine by its reflected 
light, while, on the other hand, each fixed star 
has a spectrum peculiar to itself. It has been 
already said that the incandescent vapor of 
each elementary substance has a characteristic 
spectrum, consisting of fixed lines, which never 
changes. This furnishes the chemist with a 
test of an exquisitely delicate nature for the 
detection of the presence of very minute quan- 
tities of elementary bodies. Thus, by heating 
any substance till it becomes gaseous and in- 
candescent and then taking its spectrum, he is 
able by the lines to read off, as it were, from 
the spectrum, the Tsrious elements present in 
the vapor. (See also Light.) 

and tin capable of taking a high polish, though 
the term has also been applied to unsiWered 
glass since the introdui^ion of silvered-gl&sa 

Speech. See Lanou&oe. 

Speed'well, a plant of the genus Teronica of 
the Bcropkularuica!. The species are numer- 
ous, comprising annual and perennial herba- 
ceous plants and small shrubs, natives of all 
temperate and cold climates, some of them 
growing in wet ditches or in marshes, others 
on the driest soib, but all having beautiful 
blue, white, or pink fiowers, 

Spichem (spi' 

Speke (spek), John Huming, 1827-44; Eng- 
lish explorer; b. Jordaqs, Somerset; served in 
India and in the Crimean War; accompanied 
Capt. K. F. Burton in the expedition which 
resulted in the discovery of the great )akes of 
central Africa, and lat^ {with Capt. Grant) 
discovered the connection of the Hile with ' 
those lakes. Capt. Speke published a " Journal 
of the Discovery of the Source of tlie Nile " 
(1863), and "What Led to the Discovery of 
the Source of the Nile" (1664) ; and was en- 
gaged after his second expedition in a bittu' 
controversy with Capt. Burton as to the merits 
" " ■ discoyeries. 


of their respective 

SpeU'ing Bcform'. 

Spelt, the Tritiovm apelta, probably the far 
of the ancient Bomana and the sea of the 
Greeks; a grain somewhat resembling wheat, 
but distinct from it. It can be grown on poorer 
soils than those which are required for wheat. 
It is much raised in ports of Europe, and 

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crops of it tkW oceaaionslly eeeti in the U. S., 
u m Virginia. In quality it is much inferior 
to wheat. T. hetygalenae is raised in India. 
Lesaer spelt, or St. Pet«ea com (T. monocoo- 
cum), called also one-grained wheat, is raised 
to some extent on poor soils in Europe. 

^el'ter, ooinmercial i 

i for pig or block 

Spen'cei, Herbert, 1820-1803 ; b. Derby, 
England; wa« attracted to natural history; 
devoted himself chiefly to mathematics, and in 
IB37 b^an work as a civil engineer. After 
this he was engaged several years on railroads, 
bat gave his spare time to inventions, scientific 
experiments, mathematical studies, and to 
wnting for the Civil Bngineer'a and Arohitict'e 
Journal. In 1S42 contributed a series of let- 
ters to the iionoonformiat on " The Proper 
Bpb^e of Government " ; published his first 
book, "Social Statics," a treatise on social 
science based upon the conception of the evo- 
lution of society through the operation of nat- 
ural laws; from 1850-60 published a series of 
eassys, mainly devoted to various subjects of 
the principle of evolution; wrote, in 1855, 
" The FrinciplsA of Psychology," in which work 
the doctrine of evolution was applied to the 
science of mind, and the ground was taken that 
mental faculties in the whole scale of animal 
life have been developed by eiperience, through 
the intercourse of living organisms with their 
surroundings, through the principle of heredity 
and variaHon, producing slow modifications in 
vast periods of time. 

In 1858 Spencer reached the conclusion that 
evolution is a universal process dependent upon 
the laws of matter and force conformed to by 
all orders of phenomena and capable of being 
resolved and formulated. Believing that the 
time had come to attempt a comprehensive 
scheme of Uiought from the point of view of 
modem scientific results, be resolved to under- 
take it. He began his work by drawing up 
the prospectus of a " System of Philosophy, ' 
involving the full working out of the law of 
evolution and its application to the phenomena 
of life, mind, society, and ethics. The Phi- 
losophy was divided into two parte : { 1 ) " The 
Unknowable"; (2) "The Laws of the Know- 
able." In the first part it is argued that in 
its knowing th« human mind cannot transcend 
phenomena, but that it cannot escape thi — 

all phe 

which human thought can never grasp or un- 
derstand. The initial treatise, "First Princi- 
ples," was published 1862; it is occupied with 
the foundations of his scheme, in which the 
law of evolution is broadly worked out and 
fonnnlated in terms of matter, motion, and 
force. In 1B67 he completed the " Principles 
of Biology," devoted to the data and inductions 
of biolf^ical science from the pcrint of the view 
of evolution as expounded in " First Principles." 
In 1872 appeared the " Principles of Psychol- 
ogj," an exposition of mental science grounded 
in biology and in accordance with the theory 
of evolution. The fourth division of his system 
ia the " Principles of Sociology," in three vol- 
umes and " Tke Principles of Ethics " occO' 

pies two volumes. His " Autobiography " was 
published in 1904. Mr. Spencer visited tbe 

'. S. in 1882. 

Spencer, John Cfiarles (third Earl Spencer), 
better known as Lobd Althobp, 17B2-184S; 
English statesman ; elected to Parliament, 
1804; held ofllce under Fax. as Junior Lord of 
the Treasuiy; sat in parliament from Decem- 
ber, 1806, till tbe passage of the Reform Bill, 
1832, during which period he was one of the 
leading members of the opposition; especially 
prominent in attacks upon the financial policy 
of tbe Tory administrations; Chancellor of tbe 
Exchequer and ministerial leader of the House 
of Commons in tbe reform ministry of Earl 
Grey, 1330-34; succeeded his father as Earl 
Spencer in November, 1834, and soon after- 
wards withdrew from active political life; de- 
voted himself to scientitlc agri'iulture ; was 
a founder and the first president of the Royal 
Agricultural Society, 1838. 

Spencer, John Poynti (fifth Earl Spencer), 
1836-1910; English statesman; entered Parlia- 
ment, 1857, but succeeded to the peerage in the 
same year; Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 1868- 
74; Lord President of the Council. 1880; again 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 1882-85; for a 
second time Lord President of the Council in 
the Gladstone administration, 1866; First Lord 
of the Admiralty in the Gladstone government 
of 1892.-B6. 

Spen'ser, Bdmnnil, 1662-00; English poet; 
b. E. Smithfield, London. He was educated 
at Merchant Taylors' School. He entered as a 
siKar at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. &Iay 20, 
1669, in which month be contributed sonnets 
and epigrams to " The Theater of Worldlings," 
a volume printed at London. In 1570 he left 
Cambrid^ without a fellowship and visited 
Lancashire, where he fell in love with a lady 
supposed to have been Rose Dynley, whose 
charms he celebrated under the name of Rota- 
linde In a pastoral poem, " The She^bearde's 
Calendar," published anonymously in 1579, 
dedicated tn Sir Philip Sidney ; printed soon 
nfterwsrdB " Thrpe Proper and Wittie Familiar 
Letters lately passed between two Universitie 
Men" (ISSO), being a correspondence with his 
friend, Gabriel Harvey; obtained in 1680, 
through the influence of Sidney, the post of 
secretary to the government under Lord Orey 
of Wilton, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland ; prob- 
ably resident in Dublin, 1682-88, when he re- 
signed his clerkship of decrees; his services 
were rewarded in 1560 by a grant from the 
crown of an ,estato of 3,028 acres, near Done- 
raile, county Cork, where he resided, and where 
he completed his "Faerie Queene"; wrote in 
1586 his " Astrophel," a pastoral elegy on the 
death of Sidney; was in 1688 appointed clerk 
of the Council of Munster; received in IB89 
a memorable visit from Sir Walter Raleigh, to 
w^om he read the first two books of his great 

Sem, which the latter thought " a dish to set 
fore a aueen." 

Spenser s reception by EliEabeth appears to 
have been appreciative, tor she granted him a 
pension of £50. In 1600 he also published 
''Muic--' " '- '■'"' '^- - -•'■ -^ ■ "" 

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the World's Vudtie," "The Btdnes of Time," 
" The Tc«rM of the Uuaai," and " Proeopo- 
poia." His miuTuge in 16S4 iiupired tiia 
beautiful^ love eonneta entitled "Amoretti" 
utd a KLBgniflceiit " Epithalamfuro " ( 16BG ) , 
which irare followed by " Colin Clout's Come 
Home Again." la 1596 he published " The 
Second Fart of the Faerie l^eeue," " Foure 
B.jmneh," and " A View of the State of Ire- 
land." In 1098, as sheriff of the county of 
Cork, Bpeneer incurred the enmity of the in- 
surgent of '^the Ear! of Tyrone's rebellion," 
who burned his house and plundered his estate, 
forcing him to Qj to England, Rednced to 
porer^, Bpenser passed a few miserable months 
in London, and oied in Westminster, Accord- 
ing to Ben Jonson, he " died for luck of bread," 
after having refused money sent him by the 
Earl of Essex. He was hurled in Westminster 
Abbey, near the tomb of Chaucer, as he had 

Spennace'tl, Spermaceti-fat, or Ce'tia, a 
Bubetanee (CtiH,,0,) which exists ready 
formed in the cavities of the head of tbe sperm 
whale {Phf/aeier maorocephalua) , and also in 
that of some other whales and of DetphimtB 
edenttiiua. It crystallizes out of the sperm oil 
of the head cavities after the vital heat is lost, 
forming a magma or mirole, from which in 
cold weather the sperm oil Is expressed by 
hydraulic pressure ("cold-drawn sperm oil"), 
the sperroaoeti being left behind. It Is purified 
by melting it by steam to separate mechanical 
Impurities, and recrystallizing. It then forms 
a lustrous, pearly white mass of crystalline 
texture, soft and soapy to the touch; does not 
grease paper if quite freed from oil. If pure, 
it is without taste or odor, and has a neutral 
reaction. It yields by aapcniflcation cetyl al- 
cohol and palmitic acid. Spermaceti was for- 
merly much used in the production of sperm 
candies, which are no longer so common as in 
the prosperous days of toe sperm-whale fish- 
eries, the decline of which datee from the in- 
troduction of refined petroleum and paraffin. 
Spermaceti bums with a bright, clear flame 
like wax. The standard sperm candle, which 
is the common unit of comparison for photo- 
metric experiments in Great Britain and the 
U. 8., is taken to bum 120 grains of sperm 
in an hour, which !t rarely does with accuracy. 

Spermatoio'a, the male reproductive cells of 
animals, which by union with the female cell 
I egg) render the latter able to develop. They 
consist largely of the cell nucleus with the 
addition of other accessory structures to facili- 
tate the union with the egg (impregnation). 
In shape they vaiy greatly, but the most com- 
mon shape recalls the tadpole. In these forms 
there is a head, composed of the nucleus, fol- 
lowed by a " middle piece," and this in turn 
by the tail, which may either be threadlike, or 
ma^ have an undulatery membrane attached 
to it. Usually the spermatozoa have the power 
of motion, by means of the vibrations of the 
tail, but in some forme they are motionless. 
Recent investigations show that both nucleus 
and " middle piece " are concerned in impreg- 
nation; the tai) and analogous structures play 
no part after the union. 

Spe^atttitt. See Qumr. 
Italy, 60 m. SE, of Genoa, It has grown rap- 

SpezU (sptt'sB-H), town; province of Genoa, 
^y, 5fl m. SE, of Genoa, It has grown rap- 
idly in consequence of the construction of tbe- 

naval arsenal. The town since 1861 is the chief 
naval stetion of Italy, and is defended by for- 
midable batteries; it has extensive shipyards, 
docks, etc., and manufactures sailcloth, white 
lead, cables, and leather. It is much frequented 
as a seaside T«sort, Pop. (1901) commune, 

Sphagnum (sffig'nflm), a large genua of 
mosses, many species of which grow ia the 
U, 8., mainly in bogs, forming deep, spongy 
masses, almost always damp. They are called 
peat mosses, being the principal ingredient in 
pure peat. 

Sphere (sfer), a surface all of whose pointe 
are equally distant from a point within called 
the center. It may be generated by a semi- 
circle revolving about its diameter as an axis. 
Any line from the center to a point of the 
surface is a radiiu, and any line drawn through 
the center and limited by the surface is a 
diameter; all radii of the same sphere are 
equal; also all diameters of the same sphere 
are equal. Every plane section of a sphere is 
a circle ; if the plane passes through the cen- 
ter, tbe Aectiou is called a great oircle ; if it 
does not pass through the center, the section 
is called a tmall otVcIe. The surface of a 
sphere is equal to four grnt circles, or it is 
equal to the circumference of a great circle 
multiplied by iU diameter. The surface of a 
zone, otz., the portion of surface included be- 
tween two parallel planes. Is equal to the cir- 
cumference of a great circle multiplied by the 
altitude of the zone. The volume of a sphere 
is equal to its surface multiplied by one third 
of its radius. The volume of a spherical sector 
is equal to the zone which forms ite base mul- 
tiplied by one third of the radius of the sphere. 

Sphe'roid, a surface generated by an ellipse 
revolving about one of its principal axes. If 
the ellipse revolves about its conjugate axis, it 
generates a surface resembling a fiattened 
sphere called an oblate spheroid; if it revolves 
about ite transverse axis, it generates an elon- 
gated surface called a prolate spheroid. The 
surface of the earth ia approximately an oblate 

Sphetom'eter, an Instrument for msBBuring 
the radius of a sphere when only a portion <S 
tbe spherical surface, as, for instance, a lens, 
is given. The usual form conaiato of a vertical 
screw turning in a socket; which fa equidistant 
from three supporting legs with sharp steel 
pointe. Above the socket^ the screw has a 

Gaduated circular head. The pointe of the 
js are brought in contact with the spherical 
surface, and the screw is turned until ite ex- 
tremity also touches it. This process is re- 
peated with a plane. Thus the diateuce between 
the center of the circle through the ends of the 
legs and ite pole on the sphere is obteined, 
from which tne radius of the sphere can be 

SpUnc'teT, in anatomy, a muscle the flbnv 
of which, general^ dreular, surround Mm* 



passage in the animal organiam, closing the 

passage, ia oppoeition to certain other muscli^B 
called dilators. Some of tlie sphincters are 
composed of striped liboT, some of unstriped, 
and some of both combined. The eyes, pupils, 
mouth, rectum, vagina, bladder, aod urethra 
are the most important passages which are 
provided with sphincters j but there are numer- 
ous other seta of circular fibers which have 
more or less of the kction of sphincter mnscles. 
Sphinx (sfliiki), a fabulous monster of Greek 
mytholo^, In the legends of tlK poets the 

T^ OvuT BpBm. 

Chimera, or of T;phon and Echidna, and to 
have come from the most distant parbi of Ethi- 
opia. She was TavagJDK Thebes and devouring 
those who could not solve a. riddle which she 
proposed, when CEdipus solved it. upon which 
the sphinx destroyed herself. (See (Edipos.) 
Among the Egyptians sphinxes had the head 
of a man, bearded and capped, and the body 
of a lion, thus differing from the Greek 
sphinxes, which had a female head and the 
body of a winged lion. The great sphinx at 
the pyramids of Oizeh is near the E. edge of 
the platform on which they stand, with its 
head turned toward the Nile. The head meas- 
ures 28 ft. 6 in. from the top to the chin. The 
total length of the body, which is that of a 
lion crouching close to the ground, is 146 ft. 
Across the shoulders it measures 36 ft., and 
the paws are extended about 60 ft. Between 
the paws was built a small temple, which was 
of masonry, as were the paws, while all the 
rest of the sphinx seems u> be carved out of 
solid roclc. 

The countenance is now so much mutilated 
(since it wa« used as an artillery target) that 
the outline of the features can with difficulty 
be traced. All but the head utd ahoolden ve 


buried by desert sand, though it has been un- 
covered several times by ancient kings and by 
modern explorers, its age is unknown^ it -has 
been assigned to preliistoric times, to the age 
of Cheops, and evon later, but without proof. 
It probably represents Ra-Harmaeh is, the sun 
god, as guardian of the tombs in the vicinity. 
Spice, certain aromatic seeds, barks, roots, 
dried fruits, etc., used in cookery for their 
Qavoring qualities, and in medicine as stim- 
ulants and carminatives. Such are cloves, 
ginger, allspice, nutm^, pepper, mace, cap-' 
sicum, cinnamon, cassia, vanilla, etc Besides 
the above, which are exported from tropical 
countries, and especially from the East, there 
are others now nearly forgotten, such as cas- 
samuniar, zerumbet, zedoarv, culilawan, and 
the so-called clove bark. These have nearly 
disappeared from general commerce — some be- 
cause they are inferior in quality, and others 
on account of th^ir limited supply. Most of 
the spices are natives of the Old World, but a 
few tire American, and nearly all the important 
ones are now generally naturaliied throughout 
the tropical world. 

SpiMtitialL See Feveb Bubh. 
Spice Is'landa. See Moutccab. 

S^'dei Crab. See Cbab. ' 

Spiders, an order of arachnid animals, the 
Araneida. The chief characters which distin- 
guish them from other groups are the posses- 
sion of a body divided into two regions, 
eepbalothorax and abdomen, both without dis- 
tinct joints, and the latter, which is joined to 
the former l>y a slender stalk, hearing spinning 
mammilln on the hinder end. The cephalo- 
thorax bears four pairs of legs and two pairs 
of smaller appendages, the first of which are 
the poison jaws, while the second are curiously 
modified in the male for reproductive purposes. ' 


there are two pairs of these organs on the un- 
der side of the abdomen. It other forms there 
is a single pair of lungs, the other pair being 
replaced by air tubes lilce Uiose of true insects. 
Spiders are carnivorous, and live upon other 
insects, which they kill by the poison forced 
through the poison jaws. They do not eat the 
prey, but merely suck its juices. Some spiders 
hunt their prey, jumping upon it like a minia- 
ture tiger, but the majority form webs of 
silken threads covered with a viscid substance. 
The shape and character of these webs vary 
exceedingly. In general it may be said that 
the spider has a loir where he can recognise 
any vibration of the web, and whence he can 
rush out further to entangle the prey. The 
web is made from a fluid secreted by glands 
inside the body, and as it comes in con'^c^ with 
the air in its passage through the spinning 
organs it hardens into the familiar threap 
which in reality is a cable formed of a number 
of smaller fibers. Beaides its ua« in formiiy 

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weba the silk ia employed in nuUdnf; xesta, as 
a means of flying, and for the formation of 
cocoont to contain the fgg». The malea are 
smaller than the females, and their approaches 
to the latter are made with extreme caution, 
aa they run the risk of beins devoured 

betake themselves to flight. In their habits 
spiders are among the nioat interesting of ani- 
liials, well repaying observation. Among the 
largest is the crab spider, measuring 6 or 7 in., 
and strong enough to prey upon small animals. 
The bite of the tarantula (g.u.) is feared, 
though usually not fatal. 

Spiel'hagen, Fliedrieli, 182&']911i German 
Dowelisti b. Magdeburg; studied jurisprudence, 
and afterwards philosophy, philology, and lit- 
erature; taught for some time at the Univ. of 
Leiprig, and finally devoted himself to literary 
pursuits; 1869-62, he was Jiterary editor of 
the Zeitung fir Horddeutachland. Spielhagen 
has successfully aspired to treat the great 
questions of the day in a series of novels dis- 
tinguished by their artistic composition, ele- 
gant style, and philosophic thought. The most 
important of these novels are " Froblenuttische 
Naturen." " Duroh Nacht sura Lioht," " Die 
von Hohenstein," " In Reih und Glied," " Ham- 
mer und Amhoss," " Sturmflut," " Quisisana," 
" Angela," " Was soil das werden," " Noblesse 
oblige," " Der neile Pharao.'' In his enoellent 
book, " Beitrflge lur Theorie und Technik des 
Romans," Spielbagen attempts to fix the Es- 
thetic laws which govern the art of novel writ- 
ing, and in his autobiography, " Finder und 
Erflnder," he gives a chnrmmg account of the 
inlluences which conspired to make him a novel 

Spike'nxrd, or Hard, (1) the Nardoataehya 
jatamanai, a valerianaceous plant of India. Its 
strong odor is disagreeable to most Europeans, 
but it is considered precious in the IHast. Its 
medicinal properties are those of valerian. (2) 
Roots of various species of valerian are ex- 
ported from Europe to the Levant under the 
name of Frankish nan], Celtic nard, and moun- 
tain nard. Cretan nard is also the root of a 
valerian. These are used as substitutes for 
true spikenard. {3) In England the fragrant 
oil of Andropogen nardu4, an E. Indian grass, 
is called oil of spikenard, and used in per- 
fumery. ( 4 ) In the U. S. the name spikenard 
is given to Aralia raeomota, and the A., nu- 
dicaulia, or false sarsaparilla, is called small 

Spike, OQ of, the volatile oil of the Lavan- 
dula jtpioa, the broad-leaf lavender of Europe. 
It has an odor much like turpentine. It is 
used by artists in preparing varnishes, and by 

S^ncch, or Spinafe (spln'Bj), the Spinaoia 
cAeracea, a cbenopodiaceous Old World herb, 
much cultivated in nearly all parts of the world 
as A pot herb, especially for use in the spring. 
There are about twenty varieties grown \n the 
U. S. Otlier plants of this and of other genera 
having similar usea are locally called by this 


Spi'nal Caries (ki'rl.fa), or Pott'* Diaease" 
of the Spine, an inOammatory condition of the 
vertebrce, destructive in its nature, uaually 
tuberculous, and slow in its course. A slight 
injury ia often sufficient to awaken the process 
in a predisposed individual. Gradual disin- 
tegration of the bodies qf one or more vertebrte 
takes place with subsequent bending, which 
produces a kyphosis or sharp projection back- 
ward. The early symptoms are colicky pains 
in the abdomen (often mistaken for indiges- 
tion), reflex pains in the limbs, Euid rigidity 
of the back in walking and stooping. If the 
disease ia situated in the cervical or upper 
dorsal r^ions, an irritative cough is often an 
early symptom. 

"Ihe treatment consists in keeping the dis- 
eased bones perfectly at rest until nature 
throws a bony bridge across the diseased gap 
and anchyloses the spifie. This result may be 
accomplished by placing the patient continu- 
ously in the recumbent posture, or by the ap- 
plication of a hard leather or rigid jacket, 
plaster of Paris splint, or other device. The 
disease is long and tedious, often extending 
over many years. Abscesses frequently form 
in the back or groin, more commonly in ttie 
latter situation. The latter oondition is known 
as a psoas abscess, from the fact that the pua 
follows the sheath of the psoas muscle. When 
the pus seeks exit in the back, the process con- 
stitutes a lumbar abscess. 

Paralysis qf the lower limbs occasionally re- 
sults, which though tedious ia usually curable, 
Sirovided extension and fixation are rigidly en- 
orced. See Caboes. 

Sp'nal Cni'vatnru are of three kinds: (1) 
rachitic, (2) lateral, (3) angular. The curva- 
ture of rickets (rachitis) is usually a simple 
exaggeration of the normal curves of the spine 
— convexity or kyphosis in the dorsal, and 
concavity or lordosis in the lumbar region; 
occasionally there is a lateral bending (bco- 
liosie ) . ' 

Lateral curvature is a deviation of the spinal 
column at one or several points from the posi- 
tion which it occupies in health in the median 
line of the back, accompanied by marked rota- 
tion of the bodies of the vertebrie aroi^nd the 
axis of the spinal column, which is thus much 
more distorted in front than behind. It occurs 
in children; in young, imperfectly developed, 
feeble, and growing adults, more especially 
women, and less often In men. Habitual use 
of one arm to the exclusion of the other may 
cause deviation of the spine to the stronger 
side — a common occurrence in weakly children 
atr school, housemaids, etc Disease of one lung 
by limiting respiratory movement on one side 
often causes dorsal curvature to the more 
active side. Shortening of one limb, hip-joint 
disease, persistent limping by tilting trie pel- 
vis, throws the spine out of center and develops 
lumbar curvature. 

Lateral curvature is often cnrable by cor- 
recting bad habits, as favoring one side in 
standing, aitting, or aleeping, by resort to light 
gymnaaticB and passive movements, and by the 
use of apparatua which removes weight from 
the spine and applies pressure or traction to 

.y Google 


eaontenet the raires. Oreat advanUM may, 
in «arl; cases, be derived from l^^ing flat on the 
bock, without a pillow and on a. hard mattreaa, 
for at least an hotir in the mid part of the 
day. 6«neral tonic treatmeDt, cod -liver oil, 
and phosphates, out-of-door life, warm clothing, 
etimulBting baths, and regulated diet are indi- 
cated in all cases. 

For angular curvature, see Spinal Cariea. 
Spine, the backbone, the composite bony col- 
unm of vertebrated animala which affords at- 
tachments, direct or indirect, for the ribs anij 
other bony parts, and for numerous muscles. 
In man it is a flexible column of 
thirty-three vertebre united by liga- 
ments, with interposed cartilaginous 
cushiona. The column is from 2 to 
2i ft. in length, and viewed later- 
ally presents marked curves. ( Fig. 
1.) The column is divided into re- 
gions — the cervical, dorsal, lumbar, 
and pelvic — corresponding to the 
neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis. 
The vertebrie, excepting in the pel- 
vic region, rotate freely and fles 
both anteroposteriorly and lateral- 
ly. A single vertebra (Fig. 2) con- 
sists of the lody, which unites it 
to other vertebrEs, and a bony ring 
which incloses the vertebral fora- 
men or vertebral canal, protecting 
the spinal cord; this ring has proc- 
esses for attachment of ribs, liga- 
ments, and muscles. 

The medulla spinalis is that part 
of the central nervous system which 
na. 1. is inclosed in the spinal canal, ex- 
tendinjf from just below the fora- 
men magnum, at the base of the skull, to 
a point usually opposite the upper part of 
the first and second lumbar vertebrc. It is a 
cylindrical, slightly flattened, cordlike mass of 
nervous matter, continuous at its upper end 
wtth the medulla oblongata, and terminating 
below in a conical extremity, its entire length 
being about 18 in. In this course it gives off 
thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves, by means of 
which it is pieced in communication with the 
whole of the body 
below the head. 
The spinal cord is 
inclosed by three 
membranes which 
lie within the bony 
canal of the spine 
— the dura mater, 
the arachnoid, and 
the pia Plater. The 
structure and gen- 
eral arrangement 
of these mem- 
branes do not 
essentially differ 
from those of the same enyelopes around the 

The spinal cord itself, like the other nervous 
centers, consists of certain elementary tissues; 
these are a supporting baaia substence, the 
neuroglia, the connective tissue derived from 
the pia mater; the nerve cells, the nerve fibers. 

ferent parts of the spinal cord. In general 
terms, it may be said that the spinal cord is 
made up in its central parts of gray matter — 
i.e., groups of ganglion cells of different sizes, 
with nerve fibers, blood vessels, and delicate 
basis substance; and in its outer peripheral 
parts of white matter — i.e., or less coarse basts 
substance, supporting medu Hated nerve Sbers 
and containing blood vessels. 

Spin'el, a mineral, essentially a compound 
of alumina and magnesia, but with variations 
and admixtures that give rise to a great variety 
of colors and tints. The transparent spinels 
make beautiful gems, the finest bavit^ often 
been erroneously sold tor true rubies. The pink 
variety is known as balas ruby or hibicelle, 
the blue sapphire spinel, the green chloroepinel, 
tb» purple almandine spinel. The so-called 
Black Prince's ruby in the English crown is a 
spineL The best spinel gems are from Ceylon, 
Burma, and SUm. 

Spinello di Ln'ca Spinelli, called Spihello 
Aretiko, aht. 1333-1410; painter; b. Arezzo, 
Italy. He was the pupil of Jacopo di Casen- 
tino, and at the age of twenty surpassed his 
master. Some scenes from the life of St. Bene- 
dict (painted in 1384) by Spinello, at San 
Miniato, near Florence, are still in good 
preservation. Before this date he bad deco- 
rated many churches in his native city; in 
San Francesco an " Annunciation " still eiisb 
in the chapel of St. Michael. He painted a 
fantastic composition of the archangel driving 
Lucifer from heaven, a fragment of which 
fresco is in the National Gallery, London. In 
ISal Spinello painted a panel for the abbey of 
the Catnaldolesi, in the Casentino. In 13S7 
Spinello was invited to Pisa to work in the 
Campo Santo there, and painted pictures con- 
sidered his masterpieces, but now nearly de- 
stroyed. He left Pisa on account of political 
disturbances, and after a year in Florence he 
returned to Arezzo aht. 1394. Here he worked, 
decorating many churches with frescoes till 
I40G, when he went to Siena to paint the 
aeries of frescoes still preserved in the towu- 
hall of that city. The last that is heard of 
him in Siena is in 1408, after which he re- 
turned to his birthplace, where he died. 

Spin'et. See Habpsicbobd; Pianofobte, 

Spin'ning, the art of producing from vege- 
table or animal fibers an even and compact 
thread suitable for sewing or weaving, it is 
one of the most ancient of industries, and is 
still practiced in many countries by the spindle 
and aiatafl in the some manner that the process 
is pictured on Egyptian monuments. The 
distaff, held in the left hand, was a simple 
stick around which the fiber was loosely coilod; 
the spindle was a species of top which was set 
in motion by a twirl of the hand, and by com- 
bining its rotary motion with a gradual move- 
ment away from the spinner, who equalized 
the size of the flber by passing it between the 
finger and thumb of the right hand until the 
motion of the spindle was exhausted, when the 
thread was wound around it, and tiie proceea 


WB8 repeated. The flnt {mpTovement cotwiBted 
in plAciDg the Hpindle in a frame «od maJdng 
it revolve in connectioD with a wheel and 
treadle. This coastitut«d the spinning wheel, 
which cannot be traced further back titan 1530. 
Modem inveutiod hsa added little to this im- 

Slement, the chief improvement being a bobbin 
n- winding the yam b; a, motion separate 
from that of the spindle. 

The spinning jenn; was theearliest spinning 
machine in which more than one thread was 
spun at a time. Cotton' is reduced from the 
state of the fleecy roll called carding into the 
state of spun thread bj repeated though aim- 

Thb SnimiNa JsinrT. 

liar operations. The first draws out the card- 
ing and gives it a very slight twiat, so as to 
make it into a loose thread about the thickness 
of a candle wick, which is called a roving or 
slubbin. The subsequent processes draw out 
the roving much finer, and at length reduce it 
into yam. The spinning jenny, invented abt. 
1764 by James Hargreaves, was not, like Ark- 
wrights spinning frame (ITQB), capable of 
being applied to the preparation of the roving 
itself. In tTTB Samuel Crompton completed 
his invention of the mule, which combined In 
one machine the principles of both the jenny 
and the frame, and by which the jenny was 
ultimately superseded. The person operating 
the jenny turned the wheel with the right hand, 
and with the left drew out from the slubbin 
box the ravings, which were twisted by the 
turn of the wheel. Next a piece of wood, lifted 
up by the toe, let down a wire, which so pressed 
out the threads that they, wound regularly 
upon bobbins placed in the spindles. The num- 
ber of spindles in the jenny was at first eight, 
but as many as 120 have been used. The in- 
troduction of the spinning jenny met with 
great opposition. In IT7S a mob destroired the 
jennies for several miles around Blackburn, 
and with them all the carding engines, spin- 
ning frames, and every machine turned by 
water or horses. The spinning industry was 
driven from Blackburn to Manchester and other 

ginning Wheel. See Spihnimo. 

SpinoU (spe'nft-U), Ambtoilo (Marquii de), 
abt. 1671-1630; soldier in the service of 
Spain) b. Genoa, Italy; took service under his 
brother, an admiral in the Spanish navy ; par- 
ticipated in the war against the Dutch and 
Snglish, 15S8 ; raised at his own expense in 
Spain a corps of veterans, at whose head he 
proceeded to the Spanish Netherlands, 160Z; 
rescued the Archduke Albert from the superior 
forces of Prince Maurice of Nassau ; became 
chief commander of the Spanish armies in 
Flanders, 1003; and took command of the 
forces around tetend, which had been besieged 
for two years. The city capitulated, Septem- 
ber, 1604. He conducted the war with 
Seat abili'^, but varying success, until 
e truce oi twelve years (1609), which 
be favored; commanded the Spanish 
forces in Oermanv; took AiX'la-Cha- 
pelle, Wesel, and JQlich, 1622; was re- 
pulsed from Bergen-op-Zoom, 1623; cap- 
tured Breda after a protracted siege, 
I 1626; was later commander of the Span- 
ish army in Italy, and captured the city 
of Caaale, Pie^ont, but died while 

Sressing the siege of the citadel. His 
eath is said to have been hastened by 
his chagrin at the ingratitude of tha 
' Spanish Govt, in disr^^rding his pe- 
cuniary claims. 

S^D'ca, BatdcIi or Boiedict, 1632- 
77; Dutch philosopher; b. Amsterdam; 
« member of the Spanish-Portuguesa 
Jewish community at that place, then 
the chief seat of European Judaism. 
Becoming a sceptic, he cut loose from 
Judaism, and unable to accept Christianity, 
he was left without support. The Jewish 
Qod, as the cause and creator of tlie uni- 
verse, he had discarded; the Christian con- 
ception of Gh>d was utterly repugnant to his 
originally Jewish mind ; and thus he had no 
other recourse left than the so-called panthe- 
ism of Substantiality. He was expelled from 
the synagogue in 1658, and changed his name 
from Baruch to Benedict Spinoza; and, to 
avoid persectition, lived in deep seclusion from 
1656 to 1661. 

'In personal appearance Spinoia was of mid- 
dle height ; his features were regular and well 
formed, complexion dark, hair curly and black, 
long black eyelashes, and, as Leibnitz remarks, 
" with somewhat of the Spanish in bis face." 
To earn his livelihood he learned to grind op- 
tical glasses, and also tbe art of painting. His 
mode of living was extremely frugal and se- 
cluded. He never married. The ground ot the 
extraordinary interest taken in Spinoza is to 
be found in the pantheistic view of the universe 
which he has carried out in the completcst of 
extant forms in his " Ethics." Hence none of 
the other works of Spinoza claim special notice. 
In his scheme there were no (Jod, no Freedom, 
no Immortality. > 

Spire, term specifically applied fo the taper- 
ing portion of a steeple rising above the tower, 
but sometimes loosely applied to the steeple 
itself. The earliest spires. In the architectural 
sense, were merely pyramidal or oonical roofs, 
of which sUll exist in Nomum build- 

Inga. Th«M roofa, baeoming gradasUr elon- 
gated and more aod more acute, r«aulted at 
Imgth in the elegant tapering spire. The spirea 
of mediRTBil architecture 
(to which alone the term 
is appropriate) are gen- 
erallj aquare, octagonal, 
or circular in plan; tbe^ 
are Bometimei solid, more 
frequently hollow, and are 
varloiulj onuunented with 
bands mcir cling them, 
with panelB more or leaa 
enriched, and with spire 
lighta, which are of in- 
finite variety. Their an- 
gles are eometimet crock- 
eted, and they are almost 
invariably terminated by 
a flnlaL The term spire 
i« aometlmea restrictea to 
signify such tapering 
buildings, erownmg tow- 
era or turrete, as have 
parapets at their base. 
Spii'itB. See Gsosra. 
Spirit Dock, a com- 
mon N. American dnck 
( Charitonetta albeola) . 
Brmx. Tha male haa the head 

very puffy and Irideaoent, 
hence the name bufflehead. It is an expert 

Spirit Plant See Holt Qhost Flowxb. 

Spli'ItnaUam, the creed of those who believe 
in the communication of tbe spirits of the dead 
with the living, usually through the agency of 
peraons called mediums, and also in certain 
physical phenomena, traiucending natural laws, 
MUeved to accompany frequently such spiritual 
communication, and attributed either to the 
direct action of spirits or to some force devel- 
oped by the medium's personatitv. 

The elements of the spiritualistic creed are 
not new, but are traceable severally to a high 
antiquity among different races and in widely 
separate localities, and have usually been as- 
sociated with some form o{ religion; they have 
been revived, though not of conscious purpose, 
and gathered into one body of beliefs as the 
result of certain incidents which took place at 
Hydesville, N. Y., in 1848, In March, 1848, 
rapping sounds were heard, apparently proceed- 
ing from various parts of a house in Hydes- 
viUe, belong!^ to a family named Voss (an- 
glicized into Fox) . These sounds were always 
perceived In the presence of one or both of the 
young daughters of Mr. Fox, and a code of 
communication was established by which con- 
versation was carried on. In 1868 Mrs. Eane 
(Margaretta Fox) confessed that she and her 
sister had made the sounds with their toes; 
but before her death she repudiated this con- 

The Hydesville phenomena led to the forma- 
tion of numerous circles, where rappinga of a 
umilar kind were produced, and supposed com- 
moaicatian with toe spirits of the d^d was 
(stabliahed. To the spirit rapplngs were added 


other phenomana, audi as table turning, auto- 
matio writing, trance speaking, etc. ; and tiie 
persons who developed them received the name 
of mediums. The first medium, after the Fox 
sisters, was Andrew Jackson Davis, who at- 
tracted notice in 164S as a clairvoyant and 
later as a trance speaker. In 18SS the cele- 
brated Daniel D. Home went to England, and 
later to the Continent. With Home spiritual- 
ism reached its highest development, and pri- 
vate and professional sauces veii established 
in almost every European town. Home over- 
shadowed all contemporary mediums, and 
gained adherents to spiritualism from every 
intellectual and social class. He was equally 
Bucoetsful in receiving spiritual communica- 
tions and in producing physical phenomena, 
which were often severely tested. Notable ei- 

erimenta in testing Home's powers were made 
William Crookes, by means of apparatus of 
his own construction. 

Some years later Slade, and also Eglinton, 
attracted much attention in Europe by so- 
called psychography, or spirit writing (usually 
on slates). The spiritualists attributed this 
psychography to the spirits, and the nonspirit- 
ualists asserted it to tie due to conjuring. One 
of the most noted mediums in England was the 
Rev. William Steinton Moees (d. 1892). Ha 
claimed to receive communications from spir- 
its, both of those recently departed and of 
personages belonging to remote generations. 

In I8B2 a series of sittings under unusually 
stringent, If not perfect, conditions wss held 
by a committee of Italian savants with a Nea- 
politan medium, Mme, Eusapia Palladino, with 
the result that several of this committee were 
convinced of the supernormal character of the 
phenomena observed, while the others, if not 
quite convinced, were unable to offer any sat- 
isfactory explanation of what thc^ had seen. 
The phenomena consist^ in alterations in the 
weight of the medium, raps, moving of furni- 
ture, and materialisation of hands. 

Spiritualistic communications or vnessagea 
are received through the automatic writTng 
with pencil or planchette, or trance speaking 
of the medium when under spirit control; by 
direct writing of the spirite on paper or slates 
with pencil or chalk; by precipitated writing 
— that is, writing supposed to be produced on 
paper without visible means; by tabic turning, 
eitiier with or without contact of the medi- 
um, and interpreted by a conventional code; 
and by raps on the furniture or walls of a 
room, made intelligible by a code as in table 

Tbe principal so-called physical phenomena 
of spintualism are lights, musical sounds, as 
of invisible inatruments played on or playing 
of real instruments by invisible or materiatized 
hands ; moving of furniture and other heavy 
objects; the passage of matter through matter, 
as bringing flowers or other material objecte 
into closed rooms; materializations of hands 
or other parts of the body or of complete hu- 
man figures; spirit photography; and, finally, 
phenomena immediately affecting the medium, 
such as levitation or floating in the air with- 
out visible support, the elongation or shorten- 
ing of his body, and fire teste, when tbe medium 


haudlea live coala and gives them to othen to 
handle without injuiy, phenomena for which 
Home was especially renowned. 

Spiritualiato acknowledge that many expo- 
sures of fraud in medimus have been made. 
They assert, however, that such fraud is to be 
expected occasionally in professional mediums, 
since their living depends upon the production 
of phenomena, and the necessary power is very 
uncertain. They also say that the trickery is 
generally of a rather simple kind, and that the 
genuine phenomena are unmistakable, and not 
to be so explained, and that therefore occa- 
sional trickery does not necessarily prove 
habitoal bad faith on the part of a medium. 
In 190S there were 437 spiritualistic organixa- 
tions in the U. S., with 75,000 members. 

Spifhead, a roadstead off Portsmouth, Eng- 
land, the E. portion of the sea channel sep- 
arating the Isle of Wight from the English 
mainland. Its security as an anchorage, being 
protected from all winds except those from the 
SE., its contiguity to the naval establishioent 
at Portsmouth, and its proximity to the coasts 
of the Continent, make it a favorite rendezvous 
of the British navy. Spitbead has been strong- 
ly fortified since 1884. 

SpltiberE'eQ, Arctic archipelago, 400 m. N. 
of North Cape of Norway; coosisting of W. 
Spitzbergen, Northeast f-and, Stana Foreland, 
King Charles Land, Prince Charles Foreland, 
and many amatler islands; area, 27.000 sq. m., 
with no permanent inhabitaitts, and not claimed 
by any country. The islands are mountainous, 
and mostly covered with snow and ice. Only 
along the shore are found patches of laad, 
where during the two summer montlis, when 
the thermometer rises 10° F. above the freez- 
ing point, the snow melts and a few herbs 
appear. The mountains contain granite, mar- 
ble, and coal. Sears, reindeer, and foxes are 
found, and innumerable whales, seals, and sea 
fowl gather along the shores. The islands were 
discovered in IS33, and visited in 1596 by the 
Dutch navigator Barentz while seeking a 
NE. passage to India. The group forma occa- 
sionally the base of operatiqns for Arctic ex- 

S^tx Dog, the Pomeranian dog, a small va- 
riety thought to be a crosa between the Arctic 
wolf do^ and the Arctic fox, like the Es- 
kimo, Siberian, and Iceland dogs, to which, 
though much smaller, it has a marked resem-' 
blance. It is characterized by short and erect 
ears, a pointed muzzle, a curved bushy tail, 
and long hair, usually pure white, but some- 
times cream color or even deep black. It is 
brisk in its movements, useful as a watch- 
dog, somewhat snappish, handsome, quick of 
apprehension, and a favorite lapdog in the 
U. S. and Europe. 

Splaen, the largest of the ductless glands 
' the body. In man, it is in the left hypo- 
cnondriac r^ion, beneath the ninth, tenth, and 
eleventh ribs; its inner surface adjoins the 
stomach. It is directly related to adjacent 
viscera by its blood supply, the splenic artery 
being the largest branch of the ctaliao axis. 


^0 variable size and gross and minute struc- 
ture of the spleen indicate that it is a great 
vascular reservoir. In health it is G in. long, 
3 to 4 thick, and 1 to 1 j in breadth, and 
weighs 7 oz. ; it is larger immediately after 
eating, and in malarial and certain other dis- 
eases may weigh 15 or 20 lb., and occupy the 
abdomen down to the pelvic bones. Such en- 
largement is popularly called the ague cake, 
rupture of which and consequent death may be 
caused by slight violence. The subetauce of 
the spleen is a soft, pulpy mass of dark, 
reddish-brown color, consisting of granular 
matter, red and white blood cells, and the 
Malpighian corpuscles — masses of lymphoid 
cells closely padced about the terminal arte- 

The functions of the spleen are not definitely 
known, but it is certainly the birthplace of 
iioth white and red blood corpuscles. It is 
active also in the destruction of red corpuscles. 
It is prol>ably a storehouse for nutritive ma- 
terial, and since in certain diseases, as malaria, 
plague, etc., the invading organisms are sotoe- . 
times found in the spleen, though hard to dis- 
cover elsewhere, it may be that it has a pro- 
tective ' function. It is not an indispensable , 
organ, for it has been removed in animals and 
men with no serious result. The spleen is fre- 

Juently congested in the course of infectious 
iseases, such as typhoid fever, malaria, typhns 
fever, and the like, and is often permanently 
enlarged by repeated- congestions, infiltration, 
and hypertrophy of its tissue. , There may be 
Bupemumerary spleens. 

Splint, a bony growth, generally upon the 
inside of the fore leg of the horse, below the 
knee. In young horses it is usually caused by' 
overwork. Rest, poulticing, and packing with 
cold, wet compresses are recommended for the 
early stages. I^ter, iodine, mercurial oint- 
ment, blisters, and the actual cautery may be 
employed, but not till the inflammation is 
gone. If the tendons are interfered with, vet- 
erinary surgeons sometimes remove the splint. 

Splil'gen, mountain pass of the Alps, leading 
from Switzerland into Italy over an elevation 
of 6,046 ft. On the Italian side it is covered 
at many places with galleries of solid masonry 
to protect travelers from avalanches. These 
galleries were built by the Austrian Govt., and 
finished in 1834. 

Spoils Syi'tem, in politics, the system of 
bestowing public offices upon members of the 
party in power as rewards for political services. 
See Civil Sebvick and Civil BESTica Rs- 


Spokane' (formerly called Spokane Falls), 
capital of Spokane Co,, Wash., on the Bpokane 
River, and an Important railway center of the 
Pacific coast; about 15 m. W. of the boundary 
between Washington and Idaho. It is at the 
falls of Spokane River, and has a picturesque 
location. The business portion is built about 
the falls, with broad streets. 

Spokane is the seat of a bishopric in the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, and the Jesuits 
have three church buildings, several parochial 


gchoole, and a college — Qoiua«:& Collie. The 
Jesuit missioiiBTiea came to Spokane when it 
was & mere village, H.nd acquired an extenaive 
tract ol land, now within the city limits, by 
which their college has become well endowed. 
Spokane has an excellent school Hystem. 

In Iflll the city hud a property valuation of 
191,034,031, and a bondtd debt of $S,UBH,391. 
The receipts from all sources are about $2,300,- 
000 per annum, and expenditure's aomething 

Admirable water power from the Spokane 
River has mode Spokane an important center 
for manufacturea. The output of the flour 
mills for 1900 was 357,080 barrels. It has a, 
large lumber trade. 

In 1879 the aite of Spokane was occupied by 
an Indian trading store and a aawmill. The 
Northern Pacific Railroad was completed as 
far as Spokane in I8S4, and from that time 
the place had a rapid growth. It became the 
chief supply point tor numerous mines in 
VVaahington, Idaho, and British Columbia, and 
a rich agricultural region S. and W. In 
August, 1869, it was almost wholly destroyed 
by fire. More than ^8,000,000 was invested in 
bnsiuesa blocks within two years. During the 
same period there was a rapid concentration of 
railways here. In 1S94-95 its citizens gave 
1,000 acres adjoining the city to the U, S. 
Govt, for the eHtablishment of a large military 
post. Fort Wright. Pop. (1910) 104,402. 

Sponge Fiah'eiies, those industries which 
consist in the gathering and preparation of the 
fibrous, homy framework remamiug when the 
fiesby matter has been washed away from one 
of the Ceratoapongia. The softness and value 
of a sponge depend on the firmness and elas- 
tid^ of the fibers, and their freedom from 
hard spicules. The best sponges grow in clear, 
quiet water, 150 to 200 ft. deep. The commer- 
cial grades of sponges range in value from 
twenty-five cents to $50 a lb., the fine Turkey 
sponges being most expensive. The greater 
portion and the best qualities of sponges come 
from the Mediterranean and Adriatic. Some 
are taken in the Bed Sea, and quantities of the 
coarse kinds corns from Florida and the 

Sponge flsberies are mostly carried on from 
small rowboate. The ^ater portion of the 
Bpongea are wrenched from the bottom by a 

E rouged spear ; but, owing to the weight of the 
andle, this Impl^ent can be used only in 
water under 40 ft. deep; beyond that depth 
divers are employed, or a dredge. In connec- 
tion with the spear a water glass is used, this 
being a tube of wood or metal 3 or 4 ft. long, 
with on end of plain glass. When this is low- 
ered into the water, the bottom can be seen 
through it plainly. After the sponge has been 
taken from the sea it is exposed to the air until 
decompoaition sets in, and is then beaten with 
a stick or trodden nnder foot in water till the 
soft parts are removed. In Florida the sponges 
are put in pens, where the animal matter de- 
composes, and is washed out by the tide. After 
cleaning, the sponges are bleached, dried, and 
baled. The Florida sponge fishery for 1908 
amounted to 622,000 lb., worth $545,000. Sue- 


cessful experiments have been made in culti- 
vating sponges. Fresh sponges are cut into 
pieces an inch square, and the cuttings are 
skewered on bamboo rods, which are attached 
to boards and sunk in favorable localities. It 
requires from three to seven years for a sponge 
to attain a marketable sise. 

gida or Porifera of zoGlogists. 
are animals of uniform structure, elt*ho:^^ 
varying greatly in ap^)earance. All over their 
outer surface are minute openings or pores 
which communicate with canals, and through 
these water enters the mass of the aponge. In 
this the canals branch and supply large num- 
bers of chambers lampulbe), and from these 
ampiillBe the water is collected into excurrent 
canals and transported through the cloaca to 
the exterior. In any common sponge the gai- 
eral course of these canals can be traced among 
the fibers. (See figure.) Nourishment is ob- 

tained from minute particles drawn in with 
the water which is con.stantly passing through 
the body. In some sponges no skeleton occurs, 
but the usual skeletal elements are spicules 
and fibers, and these are greatly different, both 
in appearance and in origin, among different 

Spicules are composed of calcium carbonate 
or silica. Fibers and spicules may occur in the 
same sponge. The fibers form a continuous 
network, and consist of a peculiar organic sub- 
stance, spongin. Sponges are hermaphroditic; 
the reproductive elements consist of ^ga and 
s)icrm cells, and it is only after the union ol 
tliese two that the egg will develop. Among 
the more interesting forms which occur as fos- 
sils and in the detper parte of the ocean are 
the " glass-rope sponges " and the beautiful 
" Venua's flower-basket sponge." A single 
gonua of sponges live in fresh water, and are 
found in the U. S., especially in the vicinity of 
Chicago. The deca^ of these often injures the 
water supply of cities. 

Spon'sors, in general, those who In any way 
become surety for another; specifically, one 
who at the baptism of an infant promises in 
L „■ .... 1 ™ -. ... ... 


bind tbemaelves to see to it tbnt tb« child aliall 
receive ChriatiaD trBiniii^. Uaually, in the Ro- 
man Church, there are two spoiuors, a oiftn 
and a. wonun, ftnd the relation of godfather or 
godmother and godchild is held to be a real 
one, precisely as though it were one of 
saneuinity. The rule of the Church of . „ 
land calls for three Bponsors, two of whom are 
of the same sex as the godchild, and 

spoonbill is often applied to the shoveler. The 
spoonbill aandpiper is EuTynorhgnchut pyg- 

parents to act as spomiorH. 

Spont«'neous Combus'tlon, combostion with- 
out the application of heat. Lucifer matchcH 
have igniU^l when exposed to the sun's rays, 
and ptwsphorue, when in a dry state, has often 
taken fire at the touch of the hand, on account 
of its affinity for oxygen. It is this readiness 
to combine with oxygen which causes spontane- 
ous combustion in the case of other bodies. 
Mechanical division increases it greatly, by af- 
fording a larger surface to the action of 
o^gen, and by lessening the conducting powers 
of the bodies acted on. If the oxides of nickel, 
cobalt, or iron are reduced by hydrogen below 
a red heat, the resulting finely divided metals 
take fire when poured into the air. Freshly 
burned charcoal is liable to take fire, owing 
probably to condensation of oxygen in its 
pores ; so it is not ground for making gunpow- 
der imtil it has been kept for a time. Recently 
expressed fixed oils absorb oxygen and give out 
carbon and hydrogen; the temperature of heaps 
of rags, tow, sawdust, and similar bodies 
soaked with oil, grease, turpentine, varnishes, 
etc., will rise on this account, and the lov 
conducting power of such materials helps thi 

Brocess, until very often the mass takes fire, 
ituminous coal, especially when containing 
much pyrites, is liable to spontaneous combus- 
tion, when moistened with water. Moisture 
aids spontaneous combustion also in the cases 
where fermenting piles of damp hay or freshly 
mown grass have taken fire. There are a num- 
ber of alleged cases of spontaneous combustion 
of the human body, but there is hardly an in- 
stance which admits of no other explanation. 
Liehig considered that the dead body of a fat 
man, who had been saturated with alcohol, 
might possibly bum, but that in no circum- 
stances could a body, in which the blood is cir- 
culating, take fire. See CoMBDsnon. 

SpoonHiiU, any one of flvi or six species of 
wadins birds closel;^ related to the ibises, and 
remarkable for their apoon-shaped bills. The 
roseate spoonbill ( Ajaja ajaja ) of tropical 
and subtropical America is from 30 to 36 in. 
k)ng; the rack, wings, and under parts are of 
a delicate rose color ; the lower neck, amaller 
wing coverts, and tail coverts of a rich car- 
mine hue; legs darker. The bill and bald head 
are varied with tints of green, yellow, and 
black. This bird occurs in the S. of the U. S., 
but is growing scarcer as it is much sought 
after. PlalaUa leueorodia, the only apeciea 
found in Europe, was formerly in some de- 
mand for the table. In the U. S. the name 

Spoonbill Duck. See Sboveler. 



Samos and Rhodes. The more important are 
Samos, Ni carta, Patmos, Kalymno, Cos, Symc, 
Telos, Scarpanto, and Rhodes. All belong to 
Turkey. The cluster of islands N. of Negro- 
pont is sometimes called the N. Sporades. 
Scyros, Scopelos, Sciathos, and Halonnesos are 
the chief. They belong to Greece. 

Spare, in botany, a single cell which becomes 
free and is capable of developing into a new 
plant. When it ia produced directly or indl' 
rectly by an act of fertilisation, it is a " sexual 
spore," while any cell produced by ordinary 
processes. of vegetation, and not directly by a 
union of sexual elements, which liecomes de- 
tached for the purpose of direct vegetative 

logation, is called an asexual spore. Many 

'- of spores are distinguished by botauists. 

Sportt. See Bascball, BASKBr Ball, 
Cricebt, Cubuno, Footbux, Oolf, Lacbossb, 
Lawn Tennis, Rowina, Whkstliiio, Yachtg 
AND Yadhtino, etc. 

Sports, Book of, a proclamation by James I 
of Great Britain, issued in 1618, setting forth 
certain games which might lawfullyoe in- 
dulged in on Sundays after church service. 
Among these were " dancing, archery, leaping, . 
vaulting. May games, Whitsun ales, morns 
dances, and the setting up of Maypoles." It 
was designed to prevent unlawful interference 
by Puritanical magistrates with popular recre- 
ations. Bear baiting, bull baiting, bowling, 
and " interludes " were forbidden on Sundays, 
Charles 1 reissued the proclamation in 1633. 
In 1044 the Lour Parliament directed that all 
copies of the " Book of Sports " be burned by 


The pubUcftUon of tlie 

" Book of Sporti " gave riB« to intense excite- 
ment, and amused strong opposition among the 

Spota'wood, or Spot'tiswood, Joiu, 1S66- 
1639; Scottish prelate and historical writer; 
b. Scotland; educated at Glasgow; chaplain to 
Scottish ambassador in France, ISOl ; accom- 
panied James VI to London, and made Arch- 
bishop of Glasgow and a member of the Privy 
Council for Scotland, 1003 ; Archbishop of St. 
Andrews and Primate of Scotland, 1615. He 
crowned Charles T at HolTTOod, 1633; in 1625 
became Chancellor of Scotland. He drew great 
obloquy on himself for the part he took in the 
examination of John Ogilvie, a Jesuit priest 
who was apprehended at Glasgow and hanged, 
and in the prosecution of Ljord Balmerino, who 
was condemned to death for the crime of sedi- 
tion. In 1637 he endeavored to introduce the 
new liturgy and book of canons into Scotland, 
urged on bj the king and Laud, contrary to 
his own wish. He was removed from the 
chancellorship, deposed from his bishopric, and 
excommunicated, 1638. Wrote " History of 
the Church of Scotland," 1625. Among his 
other writings is a Latin treatise, " Refutatio 
Libelli de R^mine Eccfeain Scoticano," 1620. 

Sprain, or Snbltucc'tion, a stretching or 
wrenching of the nonbony parts of a joint, 
without aisplacement of the bones, and either 
with or without tearing of ligaments or 
tendons. Severe sprains are eometimes as 
serious as dislocations, especially if the patient 
attempts to use the part before the inflamma- 
tion nu wholly subsided. Perfect rest, cold 
or sometimes hot lotions { if the latter be more 
agreeable), with splints for mechanical sup- 
port and opiates for the pain, are the treat- 
Sprat, or 6«i'vi«, the Barengulus tprattua, 
a little herrins of the European seas. Sprats 
are spiced, salted, dried, or potted, and are 
very good when freah, but are generally eaten 
only by the poor. The French preserve small 
sprats, and sell them for sardines. Quantities 
are also used for fertilizing land. 

SprM (sprK), a river of Prussia; rises in 
Saxony, passes through Berlin, and joins the 
Havel at Spandau, after a course of 220 m. 
I^ibsch was its former limit of navigation, but 
it has recently been deepened so as to permit 
ships to go as far as Berlin. It has canal con- 
nection with the Oder. 

Spring; the season of the year which follows 
winter and precedes summer. In the temper- 
ate regions of the N, hemisphere it includes, 
in an indefinite way, February, March, and 
April (as in Great BriUin), or March, April, 
and May (as in N. America) ; astronomically, 
it wonld extend from March Slst to June Slst. 
In the temperate regions of the S. hemisphere 
the spring months are September, October, and 
November. In the tropical regions there is 
neither spring nor autumn, but only two sea- 
sons, iJie wet and the dry; in the polar r^ons, 
only two Masons, summer and winter. 


SpbiKG, an underground current of water 
which Is fed by rain falling on higher land, 
and finally rises to the earth's surface. The 
rain after percolating through the soil gathers 
as "ground water" above some impervious 
strata such as clay or rock, and then issues at 
the base of some hillside as a spring. The 
water of warm springs usually comes from a 
great depth, or is heated by coming in contact 
with lava. Water in percolating through the 
soil dissolves the soluble salts, and when the 
amount of these is large, they Tai.^ form min- 
eral springs of more or less medicinal value. 
See ABTE8iAn Wells; Geisers. 

Spring'liok, so called from its habit of leap- 
ing when alarmed, a beautiful, active, and 
graceful antelope of B. Africa, ths Oaxella 
euchors. It goes in immense herds upon the 

plains. Its flesh is in some estimation as food, 
and the hides are much sought for by tanners. 
This timid creature, when taken in band young, 
becomes very tame and sportive. 

Spiing'er, a name given by sportsmen to 
several varieties of the hunting spaniel, used 
for starting birds from bushy coverts. The 
Clumber, Sussex, and Norfolk breeds are the 
best. The springer should weigh from 14 to 40 
lb., and should have a good coat, a feathery 
tail, carried low, and an active, graceful style 
of work. The Clumber is especially liked, be- 
cause it gives no tongue while at its duty. 

Sprlng'&eld, capital of Illinois and of San- 
gamon Co., 1S6 m. SW. of Ciiicaga. The city 
contains d.S4 sq. m. The most conspicuous 
of the public buildings are the state house, 
the U. S. courthouse and post office, the county 
courthouse, the governor's mansion, the state 
arsenal, tlie city hall, and the public library. 
The capitol, completed in 1887, stands in a 
park of about eight acres. The governor's 
mansion and grounds occupy an entire block 
in the S. part of the city. The mansion is a 
fine and imposing brick structure. The city 
hall is built of cream-colored brick with stone 

Among the chief historical attractions of 
Sprinsfleld are the Lincoln residence and the 
Lincoln national monument The latter stands 
in Oak Ridge Cemetery. This mausoleum con- 
tains the remoina of Pres. Lincoln, his wife, 


two of hia children, and one grandson. In 1900 
the monument uas taken down and rebuilt 
upon a foiuidatioD extending to the solid rock 
at the baae of Monument Hill. The recon- 
structed monument is identical in outline with 
the original except that the shaft is greatly 
increasM in altitude. The Lincoln borne is 
owned bj the state, and la maintained as it 
was when the President's family left it, with 
BB much as possible of the furnishings intact. 

The tree public library is claimed to be the 
largest in the U. S. in proportion to the size 
of the city. In addition, the city has the Il- 
linois Stat« Library, the Illinois State Histor- 
ioal Library, and the Supreme Court Library. 
Near the city is Camp Lincoln, the permanent 
training grounds of the Illinois National 

The census of 1909 showed 171 "factory sys- 
tem" manufacturing establishmentB. represent- 
ing many industries, employing 3,662 pcraons, 
and turning out products valuud at $8,407,000. 
The principal industries were cars and general 
shop construction, foundry and maebine-Bhop 
products, and lumlwr and planing-mill prod- 
ucts. The city is an important coal-mining 
center, and is surrounded by a. rich agricul- 
tural region. 

SpringlieUl was settled in 1819, and in 1823 
became the county seat. It was incorporated 
as a town. April 2, 1832, and as a city, April 
6, 1840. In 1837 it was made the permanent 
seat of the state government. Pop. (1910) 

Springfield, county seat of Hampden Co.. 
Mass.; on the Connecticut River. Springfield 
has forty-six churches, and an elaborate and 
efficient public-school system. There are also 
a French -American (Protestant) College and 
a Bible Normal College. 

The city has property valuation of over 
«128,000,000, The receipts and expenditures 
are nearly equal, and are more than $2,100,000. 
The census returns of 1909 showed .^48 fac- 
tories, employing 11,855 hands, turning out 
products valued at 831,773,000. The city has 
extensive factories of cars, arms, cotton and 
woolen goods, paper, machinery, metals, and 
chemicals, etc. The U. S. armory employs 
about 1.000 men and the output of rifles is 

1,500 B 

Springfield was settled in 1636 by emigrants 
from Roxbury under the leadership of William 
Pynchon, and was firist called Agawam. In 
1840 the name was changed to Springfield in 
compliment to Mr. Pynchon, whose country 
residence in England bore that name. In 1675, 
during King Philip's War, the town was 
burned by the Indians. During Shay's Re- 
bellion in 1787 the U. S. arsenal was attacked, 
but the insurgents were dispersed by the state 
militia. Pop. (1910) 88,928.. 

Springfield, capital of Greene Co., Mo.; 240 
m. WSW. of St. Louis, It is on one of the 
highest plateaus of the Ozark Mountains, 1.450 
ft. above sea level; is built in a grove of forest 
trees with prairies on three sides, and is in an 
agricultural and lead and zinc mining region. 
It is the seat of Drury College (Congr^a- 
tional) and & Roman Catholic college. The 

city h&8 a large jobbing trade, embracing the 
chief lines of merchandise, and covering prin- 
cipally SW. Missouri and NW. Arkansas. 
There are railway-car and repair shops, a 
wagon factory, flour mills, etc. Pop. (1910) 

Springfield, capital of Clark Co., Ohio; on 
the Mad River, Lagonda Creek. 80 m. NE. of 
Cincinnati. It is in an agricultural region, 
but best known for its manufactures. It is 
also the seat of Wittenberg College. The man- 
ufactures a great variety of farming im- 
plements and maehini'ry. shoes, grave vaults, 
coffins, and proprietary medicine. One of the 
great industries of the city is flowering plants, 
there being eight large establishments tbat do 
a mail-order and wholesale busineas. The city 
had in 1910 an assessed valuation of C47|700,- 
480. Pop. (1910) 46,921. 

Spruce, trees of the genus Picea, in the 
U. S. especially P. nigra, black or double 
spruce, and P. alba, white or single spruce, 
which both afford useful timber, superior to 
hemlock, but inferior to the best pine. The 


Norway spruce P ejce!sa is a noble forest 
tree of the N of li.uropp The natue spruces 
of the U. S afford a rtiinous substance called 
spruce gum used as a magticatory The tops 
are often brewed to make spruce beer, by add 
ing the essence of spruce to water in which 
sugar has been dissolved, in the. proportion of 
1 L L.lHJi^lC 

spurge. Bee Eupeobbia. 

Spnr'tjeon, Chatlea H&ddon, 1834-B2; Eng- 
liah preacher and writer; b. Kelvedon, Essex; 
becamo usher of a school at Newmarket, but, 
embracing Baptiit views, joined n congrega- 
tiaif in Cambndge; became a tract distributor, 
and at eighteen minister of a small chapel at 
Waterbeach, where he became noted, for his 
zeal and eloqueace. He went to London in 
1853, where his audiences were so numerous 
that the congregation had to remove first to 
Exeter Hall, and thence to Surrey Hall. In 
IBQI an immense chapel, called the Tabernacle, 
was built for htm. where he afterwards 
preached. Nearly 20,000 persons were admitted 
to his church, and thirty-sis other chapels were 
opened in London, the ministers of which were 
trained at a college founded and directed by 

gecretly telegraphed by the Germnn miniatcr at 
Buenos Ayres, May 19, 1917, regarding Argen- 
tine Bteftmahips. Germany announce! reaump- 
tion of aubmarioe rut iilessneEs after Feb. 1, 1917, 
on Jan. 31, ante, and the advice or order from 
Buenos Ayrea was the firat direction to U-Boata. 

Spnnlieiin (spOrts*hlm) , Kaspai, 1770-1832; 
German phrenologist ; b. Longwieh, Rhenish 
Prussia; studied medicine, and became a dis- 
ciple of Dr. Gall, whom be accoinpanied on his 
travels, and assisted in popularizing phrenol- 
ogy by lecturing, newspaper articles, etc. In 
1813 he undertook the introduction of the new 
doctrines in England, where he resided 1814- 
17, and from 1825-28, and gave very popular 
lectures; 1817-25, he lived in Paris. In 1832 
he removed to the U. S., and h,id just begun 
to excite interest when he died in Boston, 
November 10, 1832. bee Gall, F, J. 

Spnyten Duyvil (spl'tn dl'vll) Creek, the 
channel connecting the Hudson with the Har- 
leni BJver, forming the N. boundary of Man- 
hattan Island. 

Spy, in the laws of war, a person who goes 
in disguise or under false pretanses within the 
lines or territory of a belligerent to observe 
his strength and obtain information for the 
purpose of communicating the same to the 
enemy. A scout ditTers from a spy in that he 
retains his character as a soldier, and uses no 
false pretenses to obtain information. The 
rules of warfare permit the infliction of the 
death penalty upon spies taken in disguise 
within the enemy's lines. The employment of 
spies, however, is considered a kind of deceit 
allowable by the rules of war, and, notwith- 
standing that death is usually inflicted by 
hanging, men of high honor have often under- 
taken the office. Two notable instances in his- 
tory are those of Capt. Nathan Hals and Maj. 
AndrS during the Revolutionary War. 

In the U. S. the instructions for the govern- 
ment of the armies of the U. 8. in the field 
provides that "the spy is punishable with 
death by banging by the neck, whether or not 

he succeed in obtaining the information or in 
conveying it to the enemy." Exactly what acts 
shall bring a person within the definition ot a 
spy is not definitely determined, nor when he 
ceases to be a spy after once having had that 
character. In the Franco-German War of 1870 
the Germans claimed that persons crossing 
their lines in balloons were spies, but this is 
not in accordance with present generally ac- 
cepted opinion. Political ' spies have been 
largely employed in Europe, especially in Rus- 
sia, and in France under Napoleon III. In the 
U. S. the Secret Service (q.v.) of the Treasury 
Department has been employed for otJier pur- 
poses than the detection of counterfeiters. 

Squad'ron, two troops ot cavalry; two 
squadrons form a regiment. A squadron in- 
cludes from 100 to 200 men. In naval par- 
lance a squadron is a division of a fleet under 
the command of a junior flag officer, and de- 
tached for some particular duty or station, as 
"the bloclcading squadron," "the S. Atlantic 

SquaUs, bursts of wind, usually of brief 
duration and accompanied by rain. snow, or 
hail. One of the commonest of the many 
causes of squalls is the falling wind which 
descends on the water from mountainous 
coasts. On the NW, coast of Lake Superior 
squalls descend from the bluffs and low moun- 
tains only a few hundred feet high, yet with 
such violence and suddenness in calm, warm 
weather, and in the heat ot the day. that they 
are dangerous to sailing vessels. In the Aleu- 
tian Islands they often descend the mountains 
behind a head of white woollike fog, and are 
therefore called " woollies." The white squalls 
of the tropics on the ^V. coast of Africa are 
sudden and furious bursts, whose approach is 
indicated by an advancing but harm less -look- 
ing white cloud, 

Sqaarea, Ueth'od of Least, a process used 
to obtain the most probable value of a quan- 
tity from a series of observations. In ordinary 
cases an average is sufficiently accurate; but 
in Boientiflc work reijuiring extreme accuracy 
the rule is that " in treating observations ot 
equal precision the unknown quantities are to 
be so determined that, after allowing for con- 
stant error, the sum of squares of the remain- 
ing errors shall be the least possible." This is 
the " method of least squares." 

I. Crook-osck iquuti. 

Sqnasb, in N. Amer 

2. Scalloped gquagli. 


varietica of C. pepo. and alao sometimea rari- 
etiea of G. mogchata. (See PifMPKiN.) The 
fruits of C. maxima have aott, cylindrical 
Btema which are not inflated at their insertion, 
the flesh is dry and orange yellow, and the 
seeds are large and not thin margined. Va- 
rieties of this species are Hubbard, Boston, 
Marrow, tlie Turbans, Marblehead, etc. 

Squash Bug, the Anata trigtia, a hemipter- 
ous inaeet, well known for its ravages upon 
squash and pumpkin vinea. It emits a, power- 
ful and offensive odor. The striped squash bug 
is ZKobroltoa vittata. As a rule, these insects 
are most destructive while the plants are 
young; and the aquaah hills ahould be pro- 
tected by a frame covered with millinet, or 

Squat'ter Sor'eieisnty, or Pop'ulai Sover- 
eiKiity, a term used in the political history 
of the V. S. to deride the principle of leaving 
to the settlers within the territories of the 
U. S. the decision of the question whether slav- 
ery should be permitted by the f;onstitution8 
to be adopted when the territories became 

Squeteagne (skwe-t«g']. See Wbakftbh. 

Squid, a popular name for many decapod 
cephalopoda, particularly those of the Teulht- 
d<e {cslanaries), but extended to the 
Sepiida or true cuttleflshea, and even to the 
poulpes or Octopodida. The squids proper 
are found in nearly all seas; they form an 

important part of the food of many flahes and 
crustaceans, are extensively used as fish bait, 
and in many countries nre much used as 
food. (See Cephalopoda, Ccttlefish, Ftrisa 
Squid, c^tc. ) There are several squids com- 
mon on tlie U. S. coasts. 

Squiet, Bphiaim George, 1821-88; American 
archanlogist. His principal works are " An- 
cient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley," 
" The Serpent Symbol." and an important 
work OP Peru, for which he Iwd gatJiered ma- 

ssloner to Peru, 

Squill, a drug made from the hulb of Ur- 
ginca maritima (sea onion), a perennial plant 
of the Liliacete, growing on the Mediterranean 
coast. The bulbs are dried and sliced, and 
offer the varieties known as white and red 
squill, according to the tint. Squill has little 
smell, but an acrid, nauseous, bitter taste. It 
contains much mucilage, but there is uncer- 
tainty concerning the active principles, which 
are probably » resin and a bitter principle. 
Squill has been known as a medicine from a 
remote period. It is an acrid irritant, affect- 
ing the mucous membranes and glands, and in 
large dose causes vomiting, purging, strangury, 
and may even prove fatal. In small doses it 
produces an increased flow of urine, and also 
modifies the morbid condition of a mucous 
membrane adjected with catarrh, especially of 
the bitHichiB. 

Sqoinf ing, or Stnbis'mtis, the condition of 
vision when the visual axis of one eye is devi- 
ated from the point of Siation. The deviation 
may be inward, convergent strabismus; out- 
ward, divergent strabismus; upward or don'n- 
ward, vertiail strabismus. 

In paralytic squint the deviation is caused 
by a paraWsia of one of the musclea of the 
^eball. The normal position of the eye and 
t^e correct direction of its visual line depend 
upon the tonicity of the four straight muscles, 
attached one above, one beneath, and one on 
each side of the eyeball. If one muscle is 
paralyzed, the eye is deflected to the opposite 
side by the stronger or intact muscle. Gener- 
ally with paralytic squint, in addition to the 
deviation, there is loss of movement in the di- 
rection of the action of the affected muscle. 
Thus, if the outer straight muscle of the right 
eye were paralyzed, the affected eye could not 
move toward the temple on that side, and 
would be turned inward by the action of the 
inner straight muscle which is unatTected — 
that is, there would be a convergent squint. 
There is also generally double vision, because 
the images from an object do not fall upon 
identical points in the t»-o retinas, and hence 
are no longer fused. Paralytic squint is caused 
by diseases of the brain, meningitis, and spinal 
cord, especi^illy locomotor ataxia, certain gen- 
eral diseases like syphilis, rheumatism, diph- 
theria, diabetes, etc.; poisons, e.g., lead, and 

In concomitant squint the deviating eye is 
able to follow the movements of the otlier in 
all directions. It usually appears about the 
age of four. Far-sightedness ia often accom- 
panied by convergent squint, while in near- 
sightedness there may be divergent squint. 
Proper glasses may straighten the squint, but 
if it is persistent it citlls for operation, which 
ahould not, however, be performed before the 
sixth or seventh year. 

Squir'iel, name properly applicable to the 
slender arboreal forms constituting the genus 
SctuniB of the family Sciurida. Tlipae are of 
moderate size or small, have a r:it!icr stcodcr 
head, no cheek pouches, rather long ears, no 


lateral winglike extension of the skin, and a 
large bushy tail. The genus grades into 
Tamiaa, or the chfpmunlcB, and Spermophilua, 
or the gionnd tquirrelB. There are about ]S0 
■peciea, and representativea are found in al- 
most every n^on, Australasia and Polynesia, 
the S. extremity of 8. America, and the W. 
Indies being the only considerable bodies of 
land in the temperate- or tropical zones desti- 


tnte of them. In habits the living epecles are 
all similar. Most of their life is spent among 
the trees, and they exhibit great agnity in run- 
ning up the trunlis and leaping from branch 
to branch. Their principal fo^ consists of 
nuts; they also eat to some extent the larva 
of insecte, and attack the neste of birds for 
their eggs, and even for their young. Their 
favorite attitude in eating is to sit on their 
haunches, with their tail thrown upward on 
the back, and holding the eatables in their 
paws. In. the colder countries they lay up 
stores of provisions in boles and nooks in or 
near the trees in which they live. They are 
mostly readily tamed, and are generally kept 
in cages with rerolving wheels, wherein they 

Sqnlnel, Fty'lng. Bee Flxiko Sqcibbel. 

Sriaagai, or Setlnagnr (sre'nB-gar), capital 
of Kashmir, situated in the beautiful valley of 
Kashmir, at an elevation of G,2T6 ft., and with 
a mean temperature of 56.R° F. ; on the river 
Jhitam. It is famous for its shawls and attar 
of roses. The most remarkable building is the 
palace of the maharajah ; it is called the ShcT' 
garh (citedel). Close by the city is I^e Dal, 
which boasts of the far-famed isle Chinars 

(Platinu* onetttalit). Vwetables are raised 
here on flosting rafts called gardens. Pop. 

(IMl) 122,636, nOBtly Mohammedans. 

Smch'iun, formerly Bzk-ohven, 


000 sq. m. It is approached from t 
the Yaug-tse, up which boats of 1 

seventy tons are dragged slowly, and by the 
" Great North Boad " over the mountains from 
Bi-ngan-foo. C^ ^ found, but not mined ex- 


tensively. The making of iron from its ores is 
general. Bait, from brine raised from wells, 
IS valued at $63,000,000 annuallv. Petroleum 
ia plentiful. Silk, insect was, tobacco, and tea 
are produced. Ch'ung-k'ing is a river port 
open to foreign trade. Capital, Ching-tu; pop. 
(1906) 68,7E4,S90. 

SUIwt Ha'ter ("the mother was sUnd- 
ing"), the first words of a Latin hymn ranked 
among the seven great hymus of the medieval 
Church. It begins: 

By tha onMi. Md vivl keap- 

Stood tha moomful mother 

As the " Dies Irm " has been pronounced the 
greatest, so the " Stabat Mater " is deemed the 
most pathetic of hymns. Its author is un- 
known, but it is assigned either to Pope luio- 
eent III (d. 1216) or Jacopone da Todi (d. 
1300). The hymn is still in use in the Roman 
Catholic Church, being sung during the Holy 
Week and on the festival of the Seven Dolors 
of the Virgin Mary, and is known te all 
through the beautiful music of Rossini, 

Sta'dia Heas'nrement, in surveying, a meth- 
od of determining distances by graduated rods_ 
and the cross hairs in the telescope of a transit' 
instrument. The principle of the method is 
that of similar triangles, shown in the figure. 
tha two hairs a and 6 seeming to be projected 

on the rod at A and B. Let o be the distence 
from the hairs to the object glass ftnd d the 
distance from the object glass to the T*d, then 

d = 

ab ab 

The precision of stadia work is equal to that 
of ordinary chaining on rough ground. The 
word " telemeter " u generally employed in- 
stead of stadia on the if. S. Coast and Geodetic 

Sta'dtnm, the principal Greek measure of 
length for journeys, used la later times also 
for other linear measuremente, especially by 
the Romans. Its length was fixed by that of 
the foot<race course (alaifium) at Olympia, 
and was 600 Greek = 625 Roman = 6001 Eng- 
lish ft., or one eighth of the Roman mile. 
Stadium was originally the name of the foot- 
race course in which nmning and other athletic 
exercises took place. Stadia existed at many 
Greek cities, but the moat famous was that of 
Olympia. The stedium was laid out in two 
parallel oblong areas, connected at one end by 
a. semicircular tract. The whole was sur- 
rounded by eeate for spectators, ~ > 


Stadtholdei (BtBt'hald-«r), a govemor of a 
country or province. In the course of tbe re- 
volt of the Netherlands ogaiiist Spain the seven 
United Provinces choee William, Prince of 
Orange, as their stadtholder. The title was 
iDtentionallj a modest one, intimating that the 
revolt was not against the sovereign, but 

yiinst the tyranny of his viceroy, the Duke 
Alva. It involved tbe chief civil and mili- 
tary command, and was heLd with some inter- 
missions by the head of the state until the 
annexation of Holland by France in 1S02. On 
the reatoration of the house of Orange in 1814 
the title of king was assumed. 

Staol-Hol stein (sta-er-ol-staA'}, Anne Lanise 
Germaine Heckei de ( Baroness) , commonly 
called Mme. d& Sta£l, 1766-1817 ; French au- 
thoress. She was the only child of the Finance 
Minister, Necker, She married in 1786 tbe 
Swedish ambassador. Baron de Bta^l-Holatein 
(d. 1802), and became the center and oracle 
of a distinguished society. During the revolu- 
tion she saved Matthieu de MontaiorenQ- and 
other friends from the guillotine, bsrely es- 
caped herself, and, 1793-94, resided in Lon- 
don. Under the Directory she was conspicuous 
as a leader of the constitutional party with 
Benjamin Constant. Bhe was an enemy of 
Bonaparte, who compelled her to leave Paris, 
and sne took refu^ with Mme. lUcamicr. She 
returned to its vicinity, but a work published 
by her father ( 1 S02 ) became a pretext for her 
being banished forty leagues from Paris, and 
she went to Oermany. Napoleon persecuted her 
whenever she left Coppet, and the French edi- 
tion of her work on Germany wos destroyed. 

In the spring of 1612 she went t<i Vienna; 
and, OS she was not safe even there, she went 
to St, Petersburg, and in 1S13 to London. In 
1S16 she vainly sought to regain her health in 
Italy. Of her three children by her first hus- 
band, Auguste (author of " Lettres sur I'An- 
Eleterre ") survived her till 1827, and Al- 
ertine, wife of the duke, Acfailte de Broglie, 
till 1836. Ths youngest, Albert, was killed in 
a duel in 1813. She bad one child by her sec- 
ond husband, Albert Jean de Rocca, a French 
ofBccr and military writer (b. 1787, d. 1818), 
whom she secretly married in 1811, first dis- 
closing the fact in her will. Mme. de StaCI 
was especially celebrated for bold and sug- 
gestive generalizations, a masculine grasp of 
thought, an irrepressible flow of ideas and lan- 
guage, and love of humanity and constitutional 
liberty after the models of England. Her beat- 
known works are " Delphine," a novel in which 
she idealizes herself; " Corinne, ou I'ltalie," 
" De rAllemagne," and " Dji annSes d'exil." 

Staff, the sasistants of the general in chief 
of an array and of his generals, and as com- 
monly used includes (1) the heads of depart- 
ments (such as artillery and engineers, mili- 
tary law, medical, quartermaster, pay, etc.), 
(2) the personal staff (including aids, orderly 
officers, etc.), (3) adjutants, and (4) a special 
body of officers, intrusted with duties connected 
directly with military operations, entitled the 
general ttaff. 

The gfaiera! staff has been universally recog- 
nised «a on eswDtial port of modem army or- 


ganiEBtion. Its purpose is to convert the ideas 
of the general commanding into orders, not 
only by conve^ng them to the troops, but far 
more by working out all the necessary matters 
of detail, and to watch over and preserve the 
fighting condition and material welfare of the 

Staff, an exterior covering for buildings, re- 
sembling plaster or stucco, first used at the 
Paris Exposition of 1880, and employed for 
most of the buildings and exterior decorative 
work of the expositions at Chicago and St. 
Louie. It is made of hydraulic cement, sand, 
and a binding material of jute fiber. It is 
cheap and easily molded, but not adapted for 
permanent structures. 

Staffs, a small, uninhabited island of Ar- 
eyle, Scotland; 8 m. W, of Mull; celebrated 
for its curious caverns, among which FinOAl.'B 
Cave ig.v.) is the most remarkable. Among 
the other caves are the Cormorant and the 
Clam Shell. The interior Uble-land is covered 
with rich soil and luxuriant grass, which feeds 
a number of black cattle. 

Staff Oidshite, a county of England; area, 
1,120 eq. m. Tlie central part is low and un- 
diihiting, but in the N. and S. the surface be-' 
comes hilly. The soil is generally cold, clayey, 
and nob productive. The coal fields are very 

blc, freestone, and an excellent potter's clay. 
V^'ith respect to its manufactures, chiefiy china, 
earthenware, and iron, this county is the third 
in rank in England. Pop. (1911) 739,105. 

Stag, or Bed Deei, the largest deer of Eu- 
rope, the Cervus elaphtu, resembling the Amer- 
ican wapiti. The male is called the hart, the 

under four, a apayad; under five, a gtaggoKd; 



and under ais, a stag; bo that, atrictl;, a stag 
is a red deer five years old. At six years he ia 
a hart of ten, and when aeven years old he is a 
Jtart orovmed, und considered fair game. The 
stag JB distributed over the greater part of 
Europe, and is found in N. Asia bh far as the 
Lena Snd hake Baikal. It inhabits Exmoor, 
in England, and tbe Highlands of Scotland. 
lU homa are lofty and branching. In sumnter 
it is yellowish brown ; in winter, reddish 
brown ; the color deepens much with age, and 
in winter the old stags are nearly hlack. The 
flesh is inferior to that of the fallow deer. 

Stag1>eetle, or HomliuE, large beetles of the 
Luainidte, remarkable for the great size of the 
head and lar^ horullke mandibles. L. damn. 
of the U. S. IS a well-known inhabitant^ of de- 
caying wood, piles of chips, etc., and is capable 
of inflicting a severe bite. L. cervtit is Euro- 

StAge'coaclL See Cabkiaqcs. 

Stag'KBis, popular name for several diaeasea 
of horses and sheep. Blind staggers in horses 
is a sort of epilepsy; mad staggers, an inflam- 
mation of the brain ; grass staggers, an acute 
and dangerous gastritis. The treatment of the 
first is hy aetona about the head, hut the dis- 
ease is incurable. The second ia treated 1:^ 
blisters, cathartics, and bleeding. Grass atag- 
gera calts for active enemata and full 
doses of calomel and opium. Stag- 
gers in sheep is caused hy larvK of 
(Estrus ovU in the nostrils; they 
may sometimes be removed by throw- 
ing into the nostrils snuff mixed with 

Stag^Otud, a large, rough-haired 
dog, much like the greyhound in 
general huild, although heavier. It 
is strong, swift, and fearless, and the 
rival of the bloodhound in powers of 
scent. It is supposed to be a cross 
breed of the bloodhound and the grey-' 
hound, and is used in Europe for 
hunting the stag, and in the W. 
U. S- for hunting antelope. 

Stog'iiite, Ar'istoUe th«. See 


95. He was an advocate, and figured in Scotch 
politics under both Cromwell and Charles II. 
The latter made him a baronet, and in ISTl 
he became Lord President of the Court of Ses- 
sion ; but, refusing to take the new test oath, 
he was obliged to resign in 1681. In the latter 
year appeared his " Institutions of the Law of 
Scotland," the Scottish Blackstone. He fied 
from persecution to Holland in I6S2, came with 
the Prince of Orange to England in ISB8, and 
was restored to his former office and raiaied to 
the peerage. (2) John Dalbtuplb, Earl of 
Stair, abt 1648-1707, son of the preceding. 
Secretary of State for Scotluid. He was pro- 
nounced by the Scottish Parliament the orig- 
inal author of the massacre of Glencoe, and 
censured, hut never prosecuted. (3) JoHlT 
DALBTm-LE, Ear! of Stair, I6T3-1T47, son of 
the orecediug. He served with distinction un- 
der Marlborough, won the battle of Dettiogen, 
was ambassador to France and Holland, and 
was made commander in chief in Scotland, and 
afterwards in Great Britain. 

Stalac'titea, iciclelike masses of lime, limou- 
ite, chalcedony, pyrites, etc., attached to the 
roofs of caverns; they are formed hy the evap- 
oration of water holding these auhatances in 
solution. Stalactites sometimes form columns 
reaching from floor to roof of high chambers; 
sometimes they imitate curtains, waterfalls. 

Stained GUw. See Glass Paint- 

Stain'ei, Sir Jobn, 1840-1901 ; Eng- 
lish composer and organist; b. Lon- 
don; chorister and assistant organ- 
ist in St. Paul's Cathedral till 1872, 
then organist till 1B68; 1889, Prof, 
of Music, Oxford. His compositions 
were chiefly sacred, and include three 
sacred c&ntatas, " The Daughter of 
Jairus," " St. Mary Magdolene," " The Cruci- 
fixion"; the oratorio, "Gideon," an early 
work; and many anthems and services; also 
wrote " Music of the Bible " and a " Diction- 
ary of Musical Terms." 

Stair, a prominent Scottish family, of which 
the following are the moat eminent members: 
(1) Jaus Dalbtuplx, Viscount Stair, 1616- 

SruACTmB AMD Stai. 

H Roor AND FLooa a, 

The amiira ebow the direction 

etc., and constitute notable features, as in the 
Mammoth Caves (Kentucky) and the Luray 
Caverns (Virginia). The name stalagmite is 
given to accumulationa of material of the same 
nature as stalactites, but deposited on the 
fioors of caverns. This sometimes forma con- 
tinuous sheets over the surface, sometimes risea 
into columns, which join the stalactites above. 
Stalactites are often tubular, and, indeed, gen- 



erally begin h> form ai tubM, rituw the aoliA 
matter held in Mlution by % drop of water 
when precipitated by eTaporation (orma a ring 
at the base aod outside of the drop. 

Stal'warts, a section of the Republican Par- 
^ that in 1S81 opposed the adminiatTation of 
Prea. Garfield, llie quarrel arose from the 
appointment of a collector of the port of New 
York in opposition to the wishes of Conkling 
and Piatt, the senators from that state. The 
party waa divided into Stalwarts and " Ealf- 
breeda," a^ friends of the adminiatration were 
called, and this helped the Democrats to win 
in 18S4. 

Stambonl (stSm-bOl'), the wealthiest, most 

Stambonl ia a trianffular-ahaped promon- 
tory, protecting B. toward the Bosporus from 
the raainuud, and indnded between the Golden 
Horn and Marmora. 

Sta'men, the pollen -bearing organ in plants. 
Morpbolosically it is a leaf, npon which one or 
more pollen aacs (spore sacs or sporangia) 


after the attainment of adult a^. It is gen- 
erally increaaed by emotional disturbance, es- 
pecially fright, and is often cured, by the 
patient acquiring confidence, nerer attempting 
to speak in a hun^ or when the diest is empty 
of aii, or by reading with deliberation. Stam- 
merers never have any difflcultr in singing, for 
they know that a certain definite manner is to 
be observed, and this ^ves them confidence. 
The affection is aometimes permanently re- 
moved in time by the patient performing aome 
trifling muscular action aa he enunciates the 
words over which he stumbles. Thus he CMi 
sometimes prevent the fault by moving a flnger 
at the very instant that he begins to utter the 

Stamp Acta, laws requiring that stamps pur- 
chased from the government be placed on cer:- 
tain legal documents. In the history of the 
British colonies in N. America, Stamp Act re- 
fers to a law pas»ed by the British Parliament, 
iMorch 22, 1765, " for granting and applying 
certain atamp duties and other duties in the 
British colonies and plantationa in America." 
It took effect from November 1, 1766, but waa 
the occasion of such protests 
and resistance that it waa re- 
pealed, March 18, 1706, and a 
bill of indemnity for those who 
had incurred penalties waa 
paaaed, June 6, 1706. 

are produced. On account of its special func- 
tion it is rarely an expanded structure, al- 
though it is BO in water lilies, cannas, and 
some other eases. In its usual form the slen- 
der stalk (/tloment) Is surmoimted by the pol- 
len sac (anther), which at maturity contains 
many loose cells, the pollen. 

Stam'ford, town and city, Fairfield Co., 
Conn., on IJong Island Sound and Mill River, 
34 m. NE. of New York. It lies in a valley 
with hills on three aides and the Sound on the 
S. There are lumber mills, metal and chemical 
works, stove and range factories, and a variety 
of other industries. Stamford locks are well 
known. Stamford was settled in 164S, had its 
name changed from the Indian Rippowam, 
1642. Assessed property valuation, ^9,678,- 
413i pop. (1910) 26,130. 

Stam'meiing, an afTcction of speech charac- 
terized by imperfect coordination of the mus- 
cles concerned in articulation. It may tw 
manifested as a difflcuUy in beginning the 
enunciation of words, especially words which 
b^n with the "explosive consonants " (b, p), 
and which require the sudden opening of the 
lips. Or the word may be b^cun, but after the 
enunciation of a syllable there is a repetition 
of the same syllable. This is also known as 
stuttering. Stammering may be acquired by 
carelesenesa in speech or by association with 
others similarly effected, or even by mocking 
gfich person*. In most QaK« it diaappears 

Stampa, cdScial marks aet 
upon tnings chargeable with 
some du^ or tax, snowing that 
the tax baa been paid. These stamps may be 
either emboased or printed separately and 
gummed on the back. Hie British Govt, has 
long required the use of such stamps on checks, 
receipts, bank drafts, and legal documents, and 
during the Civil War and the Spanish-Amer- 
ican War the U. 8. made aimilar use of stamps 
for revenue purposes upon proprietary articles 
and a variety of other commodities. Internal 
revenue stamps are used in the U. S. only for 
tt^Micco, snuff, cigars, ales, etc., and, since 
1894, for playing cards. 

Postage stamps are also of two kinds: (I) 
those that are impreaaed on envelopea, wrap- 
pera, and cards, and (2) adhesive labels! Th^r . 
use is an evidence of prepayment of postage. 
Before their introduction it wka tlie custom to 
take letters to the post office and prepay the 
postage in cash, the postmaster then stamping 
such mail matter aa prepaid. The first intro- 
duction of postage stamps for regular issue 
took place in Oreat Britain, Mav 0, 1840, and 
was tiie result of the efforts of Sir Rowland 
Hill, who had fought for three yeara in tbo . 
House, of Commons for postal reform. Prior 
to that time, James Chalmers, of Dundee, S<»t- 
land, had invented an adhesive label intended 
.to be used as a postage stamp, but he was un- 
able to introduce his invention. It was in 
France that the flrat attempt waa made to pre- 

ey letters by means of a cover or band at a 
ed rate. 
In the y. S. tite pioprieton d lo^ d|> 




IiTGry companies began to aell postage stamps 
to their patrons as earlv as 1842. The first 
was the Cit; Dispatch Poet, owned by Alex- 
ander H. Greig. operating ia the city of New 
York; in August, 1842, he sold the entire 
outfit to the U. 8. Govt., which retained his 
design for the stamp, a three-quarter-face por- 
trait of WashiztRton, chanfiug the inscription 
to read " United SUtes 0\tj Deepatch I^Mt." 
The government of the U. 8. was rather tardy 
in accepting the new system, and until 1647, 
when the first stamp for general use was ifl- 
HUed, the postal service depended either upon 
the old cumbersome system or the individual 
enterprise of the postmasters in various towns, 
who, on their individual responsibility, had 
postaee stamps printed and sold at their otBces. 
Brazil issued postage stamps in 1843; France, 
, Belgium, and Bavsria followed suit in 1649. 
Host of the prominent governments in Europe 
followed in rapid succession, but 

<18531, Norway (1854), Busaia (1857), 
Sweden (1858), Greece (1861), Turker (1863). 

'All early issues of postage stamps had plain 
edges, until in I34S Henry Archer, in London, 
invented a machine for perforating. 

The number of stamps issued by different 
countries, fts well as the extremes, both high 
and low, of denomination, vaiy greatly. Tbe 
V, B. enjoys the .distinction of uavine hod in 
n^ular use at one time a larger number than 
any other country. From 1873 to 1884, besides 
the r^ular issue for general use of 13 ad- 
hesive stamps, 13 envelopes, and 2 wrappers, 
each department of the government had it« own 
series, with a total of 02 adhesives, 12 en- 
velopes, and 2 wrappers; besides these there 
were T postage due and 24 newspaper and peri- 
odical stamps. This does not take into account 
minor varieties of die or the different eolors 
of paper used for the envelopes. The postage 
stamps which have the lowest face valu« are 
the i milesimo stamp of Cuba and Porto Bico 
and th« ) centimo of Spain, each represent* 
ing about -^ of a cent. These are used for 
local newspaper postage. The stamp of largest 

. denomination is tlie £20 of S, Australia, which 
is available for both postage and revenue pur- 

Ad interesting feature of the use of postage 
ttampe ia the issue of a special kind of stamps 
on the occaaio* of any celebration. The first 
issue of this Ueecription was made in Great 
Britain in 18S7, on the fiftieth anniversary of 
the accession of Queen Victoria. The example 
was not followed for some years, hut it has 
become fashionable to make such issues, and 
among them may be mentioned especially the 
Columbus issue made by the U. S. in 1893 to 
celebrate the discovery of America, and similar 
issuia made in the Argentine Republic, Nic- 
aragua, Salvador, Honduras, Venezuela, and 
Porto Rico in 1802 and 1893. All of these 
were legitimate issues, made to commemorate 
au event of real importance, but they have 
opened the eyes of other government* to the 
speculative value of such stampe, and 1894 saw 
a flood of jubilee and commemorative issues. 
Flagrant examples tf such abuM ore on Issue 


in the repnblic of San Marino to commemorate 
the opening of a new palace, and an issue in 
Portugal to commemorate the seven hundredth 
anniversary of the birth of St. Anthony of 
Padua, both of which are avowedly made solely 
on account of the profits to be derived from 
the sale to postage-stamp collectors. Philately, 
as the study of postage stamps is termed, has 
its text-books and periodicals, and its devotees 
are in all countries. Every minut« variation 
of paper, style of printing, perforation, gum, 
water mark, etc., is considered as marking a 
different issne, and in some instances as many 
as fifty distinct variations of a single stamp 
are collected. 

Stand'arda See BannEB; Fi,Aa. 

Standards of Tal'ne. See Monrr^BT Staioi- 


Stan'dish, Milea, abt. 1G84-1656; soldier; b. 
I4kncashire, England; served on the Continent, 
probably with the English forces; became a 
captain; settled in Leyden, and accompanied 
the Pilgrims of the May/lotDor to New England, 
1020; lost his wife, Ro«e, during the first win- 
ter; is said by tradition to have employed his 
friend, John Alden, to negotiate hia marriage 
with the fair Priscilla MuUins (see Longfel- 
low's " Courtship of Miles Standiah"), with 
the result that Alden married her; rendered 
important services to the colonista in preserv- 
ing 4hem from the Indians ; visited England as 
Xnt for the colony, 1S25, returning with sup- 
■M, I62S; broke up the settlement at Meriy 
Mount, 1628; was for the remainder of his life 
either magistrate or a member of the board 
of osaiatants to the governor, and took part in 
the settlement of Bridgewater, 1649. He was 
of smatl stature and choleric temper, and pos- 
sessed great energy and force of will. One of 
his swords and other relics are preserved in 
the Pilgrim Hall, Plymouth. 

Staa'fleld, William CUikson, IT93-1807; 
EnBlish landscape and marine paint«r; b. Sun- 
derland, Durham. He was a sailor in the 
British navy, became a scene painter white still 
a young man, and taking up painting of land- 
scape and naval battle scenes attaint success, 
and was elected a Royal Academician in 1836. 
Among his moat celebrated works are " Battle 
of Trafalgar" and "Battle of BoverEdo." 

Ston'ford, Leland, 1824-93; American cap- 
italist and philanthropist ; b. Watervliet, N. Y. ; 
admitted to the bar, 1849; removed to Port 
Waahiligton, Wia., where he practiced law till 
1862, when he went to California and engaged 
in gold mining; settled In San Francisco in 
ISSe, and entered into business. He first ap- 
peared in politics as a dele^te to the conven- 
tion at Chicago in 1660 which nominated Lin- 
coln; was elected Governor of California, 1861, 
and urged the importance of building the Pa- 
cific Railroad. He superintended the construc- 
tion of that part of the road that crossed the 
mountains, spending personally more than 
£20,000,000 on a stretch of rosdway of 100 m. 
U. S. Senator, 1885-91. With hU wife he 
founded Leiand Stanford Junior Univ. 

Stanliopa, Lady Hester Lncy, 1776-1839; 
b. Cbevening, Kent; ca«44etttial secretary tQ 



ier uncle, William Pitt, 179tt-180fl; raceiyed 
theTeafter a pension of £1,200; proceeded in 
1810 to Syria; acquired by her nuii^iflceat and 
singular ways of living the veneration of the 
Arabfl, who treated her as a queen ; established 
herself in 1SI4 in the deserted convent of Mar 
Elias, upon a crag of Lebanon; became a bene- 
factrew to political refugees and to the poor ; 
exerted considerable political influence, and 
praeticed astrology. 

Stanhope, Philip Henry ( fifth Earl Stan- 
hope), better known by his courtesy title, Lobo 
MIhor, 1806-76; English statesman and au- 
thor; b, Walmer, Kent; elected to Parliament, 
1830; Under Secretary of. State (or Foreign 
ASairs, 1S34; supported the repeal of the Com 
Laws; carried the Copyright Act of 1842; de- 
feated at the electiona of 1SS2 for having vot«d 
with the protectionists against the modifica- 
tion of the navigation laws ; founded the Stan- 
hope price for the study of modem history at 
Oxford, ISGG; Lord Rector of the Univ. of 
Aberdeen, 1858. Author of " History of the 
War of Succession in Spain," " History of Eng- 
land, 1713-83," "The Life of the Riiht Hon. 
William Pitt," and a " History of England, 
Comprising the Beign of Anne, until the Peace 
of Utrecht." 

Stan'ialaiis LeucsyB'Bki, 1677-1766; King of 
Poland; b. Lemberg, Oalicia, of one of the 
oldest and wealthiest families of the Polish 
nobility; held a high position at Polish court; 
won the favor and friendship of Charles XII 
of Sweden, who, after the defeat of Augustus 
II of Poland and Saxony, declared the Polish 
throne vacant, and by hii influence Stanislaus 
was elected King of Poland in 170S. BtanislauB 
was a noble character, and not without talent 
as a ruler; but after the disaster of Charles 
at Poltava, 1700, was compelled to flee from 
Poland; joined friends at Bender, and, 1714, 
vas made governor of the duchy of Zwei- 
brttcken. At the death of Charles, 1718, fled 
to France. His daughter Marie was married 
to Louis XV, 1725, and at the death of Au- 
gustus II, 1733, he was reflected King of 
Poland by French Influence. Russia was op- 
posed to his restoration, and the army placed 
Augustus III OQ the Polish throne. By the 
Peace of Vienna, 1736, his family estates were 
restored; he received the duchy of Lorraine 
as a pension, and retained the title of King 
of Poland. He resided at LuQJville or Nancy, 
where he held a brilliant court, gathered sci- 
entiflc men around him, founded splendid edu- 
estional institutions, erected magnificent public 
buildings, and was' generally called Le Bien- 
faitant. Wrote " (Euvrea du PhJlosophe Bien- 
faisant " and " Voix d'un Citoyen," in which 
he predicts the division of Polsjid. 

Stanley, Arthur Fenrhyn, 1815-81; English 
clergyman and author; b. Alderl^, Oheshire; 
was B, favorite student of Dr. Thomas Arnold 
at Rugby, 1820-34 (he was the Arthur in 
" Tom Brown's School Days " ) ; gained a schol- 
arship at Baliol Coll^^, Oxford, 1834; took 
a fellowahip at Univeraity College, 1838, and 


waa tutor for twelve years, and i 
I84I; took orders in the Church of England, 
1840, affiliating himself with the Broad Church 
party; preacher to the Univ. of Oxford, 1840- 
47; Canon of Canterbury, 1851-68; Regius 
Prof, of Ecclesiastical History, Oxford, 1866- 
04, and Canon of Christ Church, 1868-64; in- 
stalled Dean of Westminster, 1864, and Lord 
Rector of the Univ. of St. Andrews, 1874- He 
was prominent as a defender of broad-minded- 
QesB in the Church of England; cultivated 
friendly relations with dissenters, and was 
much more popular with them than in his 
own church; and was regarded as the repre- 
sentative of the progressive school of. British 
theology. He was a seasitive, highly gifted, 
poetic, spiritual, pure, and picturesiiue person- 
all^. The chief of his many publications are 
" The Life and Correspondence of Thomas Ar- 
nold," " Sermons and Essays on the Apostolic 
Age," "The Epistles of St. Paul to the Co- 
rinthians," " Historical Memorials of Canter- 
bury CaUiedral." 

Stanley, Henry Horton, 1841-1904; African 
explorer; b. near Denbigh, Wales, of humble 
parentage. He was in the poorhouse until his 
thirteenth year, then taught school, and later 
shipped as cabin boy for New Orleans, where 
he was adopted by a merchant, whose name he 
assumed instead of his own, which waa John 
Rowlands. His adoptive father having died 
without a will, and the Civil War breaking 
out, he enlisted in the Confederate stat«s army; 
was taken prisoner at Shiloh (1802); volun- 
teered In the U. S. navy, and was made an 
officer for bravery. After the close of the war 
tie went as a newspaper correspondent to Tur- 
key and Asia Minor, and in 1868 accompanied 
the British expedition to Abyssinia as corre- 
spondent of the New York Berald. In October, 
1809, being then in Spain, he was sent by the 
Herald to head an expedition to learn the fate 
of Livingstone, from whom only vague intima- 
tions had been heard for two years. He 
reached Zanzibar in January, 1871, and act out 
for tlie interior with 192 men. In Novemt>er 
he found Livingstone, who was living near Lake 
Tanganyika, and furnished him with supplies 
for further explorations. After having ex- 
plored the N. portion of the lake, Stanley set 
out on his return journey in March, 1872, 
reaching England in July, where he was re- 
ceived with honor, the Royal Geographical 
Society awarding to him in 1673 its patron's 
medal. Tidings having been received of the 
death of Livingstone, Stanley headed an expedi- 
tion, the cost of which was jointly undertaken 

3uatoriat Africa. Starting with 300 
ter many hardships and severe contests with 
the natives, he reached Lake Victoria Nyanza, 
having lost 194 men by death and desertion. 
He circumnavigated the lake, and found it to 
be a single larce lake, and not, as supposed by 
Burton and Livingstone, a group of lagoons. 
He arrived at the mouth of the Kongo River 
after having explored its whole course; re- 
turned to the Kon^ in 1879, at the head of 
a Belgian international expedition, and organ- 
ized the EoDgo Free BtaM; lectuzed is tlu 



U. 8. {n December, 188S; returned to Kongo 
Fn» StAt« in 1887 with mi expediUoo for the 
relief of Emin Bey, whom he found on the 
Albert Hjaaxa. On the return trip he discov- 
ered the Ruwenzori Mouutkini S. of Albert 
Nyonza. In 1891 he visited the U. 8. and Aus- 
tralia on lecturing tours. In 180G he was 
elected to Pftrlituient, and was knighted, 1899. 
Hie principal works are " How I Found LiriuK- 
stMie," " Coomaseie and Hagdala," " ThrouDh 
the Dsrk Continent," " The Kongo, and the 
Founding of its Free State," " In Darkest 
Africa," " M7 Dark Companions," and " Slav- 
ery and the Slave Trade in Africa." 

Stan'narlei, in general, tin mines, but ape- 
ciallj' those of Cornwall and Devon, with pecul- 
iar laws, usages, and courts of their own. 

Stanovoi (sta-nO-voi') Bjuge, name given hy 
Pallas to the mountains at the source of the 
Olekma, but since expanded to embrace 
whole Siberian watersned between the Arctic 
and Paciflc drainage systems. It is imperfectlj 
Icnown, but appears to extend NE. fripn near 
Urga, in N. central Mongolia, to the Chukchu 
Peninsula, 8,700 m. A principal range on the 
W. side is the Yablonoi Khrebet, whi<^ borders 
the plateau of Vitim. The highest point is 
Mount Sokhoudo (lat. SO" N., Ton. 110' E.), 
9,250 ft. 

Stan'ton, Xdwln HcHasters, 1814-69; Amer- 
ican statesman; b. Steubenvilte, Ohio; admit- 
ted t« the bar, 1838; seUIed at Cadlt and 
afterwards at SteubenviUe; 1S42-4S he was re- 

GrUr of the Ohio Supreme Court. In 1847 
removed to Pittsburg, Pa. In December, 
1S60, he was made U. 8. Attorney-general, and 
served to the close of Pres. Buchanan's admin- 
istration. In January, 1862, he was appointed 
by Lincoln Secretaiy of War. The character 
istica of Stanton's administration were in 
tegrity, energy, determination, singleness of 
purpose,, and capacity to comprehend the mag- 
nitude of the Civil War and the labor and cost 
in blood and treasure Involved in suppressing 
it. His labors irere indefatigable, and many 
of the most important and successful move- 
ments of the war were originated by him. He 
continued as secretary after the succession' of 
Johnson, hut supported many measures which 
were vetoed by the President and refinacted by 
Congrees, including those for the establishment 
of the Freedmen'e Bureau, for protection of 
civil rights, for admission of Colorado as a 
state, for organication of governments in in- 
surrectionary states, and for conferrin^^ suf- 
frage without i|^r^i^d to color in the District 
■ of Columbia, l^ie led the President (from 
whom the power of removal had been taken by 
the tenure of office act) to request his resigna- 
tion. He refused to resign, but gave wa^ under 
protest to Gen. Grant as secretary ad mterim. 
On JaouaiT 13, 1868, the BenaU reinaUted 
htm. On February 2lBt the President ap- 
Minted Lorenzo Thomas Secretary of War ad 
interim. Stanton refused to vacate, and the 
impeachment of the President followed. Upon 
bis acquittal, Stanton resigned. A few days 


before his death he was made an aa80ciat« 
justice of the V. S. Supreme Court. 

Stanton, EUiabeth (Cast), 181S>1902; wom- 
an suffragist ( b. Johnstown, N. Y.; educated 
Johnstown Academy and Mrs. Willard's Sem- 
inary at Troy; married, 1640, Henry B. 
Stanton (author and state senator, d. 1887) ; 
accompanied him to the World's Anti-Slaveiy 
Convention at London; there met Lucretia 
Motti resided in Boston until 1847, when they 
settled at Seneca Falls, N. ¥.; with Lucretia 
Mott signed the call for the first Woman's 
Rights Convention, which met at her place of 
residence, July 19-20, 1848; addressed tiie New 
York I^slature, 1864, on the rirht of suf- 
frage, in 1800 io advocacy of divorce for 
drunkenness, and in 1B67 maintaining that 
during the revision of the constitution thu 
state was resolved into its original element", 
and all the eitixens had a right to vote for 
members of the constitutional convention. 
Most of the calls and resolutions for conven- 
tions, addresses to women, legislatures, and 
Congress, were from her pen. She was presi- 
dent of the National Woman's Rights Commit- 
tee, 1865-46, of the Woman's Loyal League, 
1863, aiid of the National Association until 
she withdrew in 1892; contributed articles to 
Journals and maga sines; president of the first 
International Council of Women, Washington, 
1888 ; joint author of " The History of Woman 
Suffrage." • 

Sta'ple, in English history, certain towns 
which bad the royal authority to sell and ex- 
port goods abroad. While these regular mar- 
kets were first established for convenience In 
levying taxes, the monopoly of trade which 
tbi^ afforded was carefully preserved I^ the 
local merchants. By extension of the term, 
staples or staple ^joods are tliose commodities 
which are ordinanty dealt in. 

Star Ap'ple Fam'ily, the Bapotaceif, a amall 
family (400 species) of gamopetalous, dicoty- 

ila of the leaves, and have o 
two series of stamens, and a superior two- to 
flve-celled, few-ovuled ovary. They are mainly 
tropical and subtropical. In the 8. U. 8. there 
are nine or ten species, five of which are amall 
trees of the genus Buvmtia. " Several species 
of this family are useful to man. The fruits 
of Luouma mammoaa, the marmalade of the 
W. Indies, are a very agreeable food, as are 
those of Aohrat aapota (the aapodilla plum) 
and various species of Gkryaophgllum (star 
apples), whii;h are much sought after in the 
AJltilles." Some species of Baaiia, the butter 
trees, yield a fatty substance by pressure of the 
seeds. Gutta-percha is obtained from Jtonan- 
Ara gvtia, a large tree of the E. Indies, by the 
evaporation of its milky Juice. 

Starch, a substance { also called feeula, ami- 
don, and amylum ) of the ehemli^ formula, 
C,H„0. or 0„H„Oi„ widely diffused in the 
vegetable kingdom, liere are two other sub- 
stances found in plants which resemble starch 
— the inulln, which occurs in the dahlia, dan- 
delicm, chicory, mustard seed, etc., and the 

stah CHAMBSft 

lichen starch which ia found in leeluid in 

and leTeTal of the lichen and fucua tribes of 

Starch ii extracted chiefly from wheat, In- 
dian com, rice, potatoes, the root of manioc 
or casUiTa, Jatropha manihot (tapioca), tha 
root of several species of the Maranta (arrow- 
root), and the pith of many palma (sa^o). 
Wheat flour contains fifty to ei^ty per cent 
of starch. The starch is extracted from the 
whole wheat hy " softening " in cold water 
and pressing under millBtones or rollers, or in 
bags uuder water, »b long sa milky water runs 
off from it. This liijuid, when left to itself, 
deposits starch containing gluten; the latter, 
however, diisolves for the most part in the 
liquid, which turns sour; on decanting this 
acid liquid, repeatedly stiTring up the starch 
with fresh water, and leaving it to settle, it is 
at length obtained pure, and may be dried. 
Com starch is made in the U. S. by soaking 
corn in water containing caustic soda or hydro- 
chloric acid to dissolve the sluten, grinding, 
washing on sieves, etc. The cheapness and ex- 
cellaice of this starch has put an end to the 
importation of atarch, and much is now ex- 

Birted. Rice starch is largely made in Great 
ritain, France, and Belgium. The rice is first 
soaked in weak lye, then ground, and washed 
on a sieve. Potato starch is largely made i 
Europe and the U. S. Horse-chesUiut atarch i 
made in France. 

Starch is a white shining powder, soft to 
the touch, grating between the fingers or the 
teeth, sometimes couaiating of amorpboua 
masses, but more frequently of granules rec- 
ognisable by the microscope. Starch, so long 
as it retains its natural state of s^r^ation, 
is insoluble in water, alcohol, and ether; but 
when placed in contact with hot tpater, the 
water penetrates between the different layers 
of which the granules are composed, swelling 
thero up and forming a gelatinoua moaa known 
OS ttarch paste, and vaed for stiffening linen. 

Starch is used for stiffening cotton and linen 
cloth, paper, etc. Com starch possesses the 
highest, and potato starch the lowest, stiffen- 
ing qualities. It is used for food, aa arrow- 
root, tapioca, sago, etc., for making paste, for 
dextrin, glucose (com simp), etc. For the 
nutritional value of starch, see Food. 

Star Cham'bei, in English history a high 
court of justice supposed to have derived its 
name from the fact that the room in which 
it waa held at Weetminater waa decorated with 

filt stars. As early as the reign of Edward 
II, the chancellor, treasurer, justices, and oth- 
ers are mentioned aa exercising jurisdiction in 
Uie " star chamber." Its powers are thought 
to have been derived from the council which 
in 14S3 was reeogniied as having jurisdiction 

Wara of the Hoses. By the act of 1488, Henry 
VII empowered a committee of the council to 
act oa a court of justice with jurisdiction over 
caaea in which the operation of the law was 
wnmgfully impeded. It had the right to pun- 
ish tnthout a jucr tha misdemeanors of sheriffs 


and juries, and in spita of its arbitrary nature 
was of use in quelling the turbulent spirit of 
the great nobles and eatabtishing order. In 
Henry VIII'h reign its powers were reabsorbed 
by the council, but thenceforth the composition 
of the court was uncertain. Its jurisdiction, 
which was equally vague, comprised in prac- 
tice almost every class of offenses, and it could 
inflict any penalty short of death. Indeed, it 
claimed its power aa representing the King's 
Council. Its abuse of torture to extort con- 
fessions, and its condemnation of persons who 
were not given an opportunity to defend them- 
selves, made it particularly odious. The pecul- 
iar uncertainty of its legal rules made it the 
defense of absolute power, and under the Stu- 
arts its arbitrary decisions and cruel punish- 
ments brought down upon it the popular 
hatred. It was abolished in 1641. 

Stare Deciais (sta'rB de-sl'sls), a shortened 
form of the maxim, " stare dedaia, et turn 
quiela movere " — " to stand by decisions and 
not to disturb matters once settled." Ordi- 
narily, it applies only to decisions of the court 
in which the question is again mooted, or to 
those of its superior. At Umes, however, the 
rule.ia followed with regard to decisions of 
inferior courts and even to decisions of ex- 

Stai'fiah, any animal of the Echinodermata, 
order Aateroidea ; characterized by having the 
body more or lesa star shaped, and without 
sharp distinction between the Ave or more rays 
or arms and the central disk. The body wall 
ia hardened with plates and spines; the mouth 
is in the center of the lower surface of the 
disk, and the vent, when present, ia above. 
Each arm bears on its lower surface two zigzag 
rows of tubular suckers, by means of which 
the animal moves or anchors itself; while at 
the tip of each ray is an eye spot. The round 
spot noticeable on the upper surface is a 
strainer through which water is admitted to 
tubes connected with the suckers. The sexes 
of the starfish are separate, and the eggs ara 
usually committed to the waves. Star&sh lack 
all hard armaturtt to the mouth, and they eat 
by protruding the stomach, inserting it into 
the mollusc upon which they feed. They are 
extremely destructive to oysters. 

Star'gaiers, marine fishes of the TJranotcopi- 
dm. The best-known apeciea is V. toaber of 
the Mediterranean; two species are found on 
the Atlantic coast of the U. B., but most of 
the species are E. Indian. They are spiny 
fishes, having tbe eyes on top of the head, 
whence tbe name. 

Stark, John, 1728-1822; American miliUry 
ofBcer; b. Londonderry, N. E. In 1TG4 he en- 
tered the service against the French and In- 
dians, and in 1757 was made a captain. In 
1776 he became colonel of a r^ment which 
formed the left of the American line at Bunker 
Hill. He was in the expedition against Canada, 
and in 1776 joined the army under Washing- 
ton. He led the van in the attack upon 
Trenton, and was in the battle at^inceton. 



Being a^rieved &t Con^esi in regard to pro- 
motioDfl, be resigned his commission, April, 
1777. In 1777 he was in command of the New 
HampaMTe troops raised to oppose the British 
advance from Canada, and on August 16th 
fought the battle of Benoia^D, for which 
Congress made him a brigadier general. He 
afterwards cut oil Burgoyne's retreat from 
Saratoga. In 177B he was placed in command 
of the N. department; in 1779-60 he served 
in Rhode Island and New Jersey, and at West 
Point was a member of the court-martial fur 
the trial of Maj. AndrC; and in 1781 he again 
had command of the N. department. After the 
war he retired to his farm. 

Stalling, the Btumui vulgarit, a common 
European bird. It is a favorite, especiaJty with 
the Germans, who have it caged, and t^ch it 

CotmoH BrisLiHa. 

.to whistle tunea and even speak words. The 
bird is S} in. long, black, with violet and ^reen 
reflections and buff spots. It has been intro- 
duced into the U. S. 

Star of Bethlehem, plants of the Liliaata, 
native of Europe, but widely grown in the U. 8. 
Their clusters of white, waxy, itar-shaped flow- 
ers arc very common in gardens, though their 
odor is not pleasant to ^1. They are propa- 
gated from offsets of their bulbs. 

Stai of In'dlx, Ofder of the, British order 
of knighthood, to reward distinction in the 

rtmment service in India. It was instituted 
1861, and reorganized, 1869 and 187S. It 
consists of the sovereign, the Viceroy of India, 
and three clasacfl of members : ( 1 ) knights 
grand commanders (Q. C. B. I.) ; {2) kuighU 
eommanden (K. C. S. I.); and (3) compan- 
iona (0. S. I.). The badge is a light-hlue rib- 
bon with white stripes, and the motto, " Heav- 
en's Light our Quide." 

Stan, in general, immenie maasea of mattar, 
at a temperature so high as to be self- luminous, 
scattered through space, and of the same gen- 
eral nature as the sun. According to the 
nebular hypothesis, each mass is hot because 
it has never had time to cool since it was first 
formed from the condensation of the nebula. 
Like the sun, the stars are surrounded hy at- 
mospheres of vapor, cooler than themselves, 
and spectrum analysis shows that they are 
composed of chemical elements similar to those 
found upon the earth. 


The number of stars which can be seen at 
one time by the average eye, on a clear even- 
ing, may be estimated as between 2,000 and 
2,500. As only half the celestUl sphere is 
above the horizon, and few stars can be seen 
near the horizon, owing to the vapora in tbe 
atmosphere, the number in the whole celestial 
sphere is more than double that visible at any 
one time. The number in the heavens which 
the ordinary eye can see is about 5,000, but 
these are only a small proportion of the whole 
number, the great majority being invisible 
without telescopic aid. No exact estimate has 
ever been made of tbe total number visible 
with the neat refractor of the Lick Observa- 
tory, hut it would probably exceed 50,000,000. 

An ancient system of estimating the ap- 
parent magnitudes or brightness of the stars, 
still in use by astronomers, divided the stars 
into six orders of brilliancy. About twenty of 
the brightest stars were called of the first mag- 
nitude. Next in order came the brightest stars 
of the Great Bear and of Cassiopeia. These 
were of tbii second magnitude. The successive 
magnitudes corresponded with the continually 
diminishing degree of light, until the sixth was 
reached, which included the faintest visible 
with the naked eye. The original division into 
magnitudes was made from estimates by the 
eye. In modem timea greater exactness has 
been aimed at, though not always attained, by 
the use of decimals. Thus a star of 2.5 mag- 
nitude stands midway between stars of the 
second and third d^reca of brilliancy. The 
number of stars of each magnitude increases 
with their minuteness. Roughly speaking, 
there are three timea as many of the second 
magnitude as of the first; three times as many ' 
of the third as of the second, and so on. In 
the case of the fainter stars, however, the pro- 
gression is not so rapid. There are between 
two and three times as many stars of the sixth 
magnitude as of the fifth ; probably about twice 
as many of the seventh as of the sixth, and 

In former ages the figures of men, animals, 
or natural objects were supposed to be deline- 
ated on the face of the nocturnal sky, so as to 
include all the principal stars, and the stars 
were designated by the particular limb or part 
of the animal in which they were found. The 
bright red star, Aldebaran, for example, in 
the constellation Taurus, formed the eye of the 
bull, and two other smaUer stars were at the 
ends of his horns. So we have three stars 
forming the belt of Orion, and three others his 
sword. In ancient times special names were 
given to several of the bnghter stars; thus 
ArcturuB is alluded to in the book of Job. The 
Arabs introduced special names for 100 or 200 
of the stars. Some of these names are still 
used, but the tendency is to designate the stars 
according to the system of Bayer, introduced 
abL 1600. All the stars of a constellation 
have the name of that constellation as a sur- 
name. The Christian names are the lettera of 
the Greek alphabet, a, A etc. These letters 
are used in each constellation in the same 
manner that persona of different familiea may 
have the same Christian name. The first liit 
tere of the alphabet are usiuUly applied to 




brighter starB. ThuB a Una lOnorls Is one 
of the two brightest stars in Ursa Minor; fi 
Ursa Minoris la the other> 7 Minoris is the 
tbird in the order of brilli&ai^, etc. When Qie 
Qreek alphabet wss eshauatM, in the case of 
an; one conatellation, the Italic alphabet was 
used. In modem times aeveml stars are rep- 
ressited b^ one of Bayer's letters and a num- 
ber attached to it. Thus two stars in Aquarius 
are represented by h, and ft, respectively. 

Flamsteed, in making his catajogue of stars, 
found that he had to include so many stars 
not lettered by Bayer that be used numbers, 
instead o( the Qreek and Italic letters. These 
unmbers were arranged in the orders of right 
ascension; tbus 1 Scorpii was the first star in 
ScorpiuB which passed the meridian, 2 Scorpii 
the second, etc. The system comnionly used 
now is to designate the star by Bayer's letUr, 
when it has one, otherwise by Flamsteed's 
number. Stars which have neither letter nor 
number are distinguished simply by tbeir mag- 
nitude, right ascension, and declination, or t^ 
tbeir number in some well-known catalogue; 
but for uniformity the constellation to which 

' i dis- 

> the 

distribution of the stars in space. In certain 
parts of the heavens the stars are heaped to- 
gether in clusters. The telescope reveals won- 
derful groups, such as that in Hercules, which 
containa thousands of stare in a small apaee, 
spreading at the edge into curved sprays. A 
group near « of the 8. Cross shows an ag- 
gr^ation of variously colored stars. 

A. t/<ir1htm ContUUO' 

7 LMerta. 

8 Lyax. 

• Um Major. 

6<fwH>i 1A« uniUt 0} 
latiludt 4S' and thi 

12 Equuleui. 
14 I^m!!*' 
16 A 

*7 Saipcni. 

48 Ophiuchus. 

49 Scutum SoUbUI. 

50 AquUa M AdUoous. 
Gl Libn. 

S3 Boocpio. 
64 S><itIaTi(u. 
ES CupricpniuL 

S7 Piscia AustnliL 

■ indude 13 atan of the Gnt 

maffnitudtt. 4i ^- --^ — ^^ — . *- 

flfth. 3.074 xUlh. irilh 41 vnriible >Un. IS 
•■>,< T nohiilrr in atl fi,421 gtara of the aiz 
'd tha Dalud »]'•. 

ra the amoUaat viaibl* U 


Oertafn star* vary In brilliant from time 
to time. The two most remarkable ones are a 
Ceti and g Persei, or Algol. During the 
greater part of the time the former of these 
stars is invisible to the naked eye; but at in- 
tervals of about eleven months it becomes 
Elainly visible, and after retaining a Maximum 
rilliancy for some two weeks fades awa^ 
again. Its maximum brilliancy, bowerer, is 
very different at different appearanoea, ranging 
from the second all the way to the fifth. In 
the 8. hemisphere q Argus for several cen- 
turies has varied in a singular manner. The 
first record of it was by ^lley in 1677, when, 
it was classed as of the fourth ma^itude. In. 
1837 Sir John Herschel, while making observa- 
tions at the Cape of Oood Hope, was aston- 
ished by 'the appearance of a new star of the 
first magnitude, which he found to be q Argus. 
Its light was, however, nearly trebled, being 
then RTeater than that of Rigel. He states 
that the liglit continued to increase until the 
beginning of 1B38, when it was brighter than 
most of the stars of the first magnitude. It 
then graduail; faded awa; for two or three 
years, but in 1842 and IB43 blazed up brighter 
than ever, so as to be the brightest star in the 
heavens, except Sirius. Since that time it has 
been steadily diminishing. 

With most of the variable stars, the changes 
of light go on BO continuously as to show that 
it Ib due to the constitution of the star itself. 

due to a process analogous to that of the 
formation of spots 01^ the sun. The spots on 
the sun go through a regular period in eleven 
years. It may therefore be called a variable 
star, with a period of eleven years. It may 
therefore be said that variations in brilliancy 
among the stars are due to the r^ular forma- 
tion of spots like those on the sun, at intervals 
which are sometimes fairly regular. 

A slight examination will show to any ob- 
server that the stars are of different colore. 
The great majority are white. A few, such 
as Sirius and Alpha Lyne, have a slightly blu- 
ish tint. Uany others, as Aldebaran, Arcturua, 
Antaree, and -Alpha OrioniB, have a reddish 
tinge. These differences of color are probably 
due in part to differences in the temperature 
of the stara, and in the absorbing power of 
the atmoapheres which surround them. It is 
familiarly known that the color of the light 
emitted by a piece of heated iron is at first 
red, and then it changes toward white as the 
iron gets hotter. There is little doubt that 
the red stars are not at so high temperature 
as those of other colors. Stellar spectra show 
that the stars contain the same elements as 
the earth and the sun — hydrogen, sodium, iron. 

There is no well-established cewe of a 
known star disappearing from the heavens. 
The supposed cases were those when an ob- 
server had made some mistake in recording th« 
poaition of a star, so that future observers on 
looking at the place found it vacant. Stars 
apparently new appear from time to time. Tha 
most extraordinary on record was that of 1752, 
described by Tycho Brahe. For nearly a mcmth 



It was BO bright as to be diRcemible in full 
daylight. It then faded avaj, and at the end 
of MKither yeaf gradually became invisible. 
The position of the itar was determined by 
T^cho «fl well as his inBtruments would per- 
mit, and there is now a telescopic star near 
the place. Kepler records a similar star, which 
appeared iu 1604, in the constellation Ophiu- 
cnus. In October of that year it was of the 
first magnitude, and remained visible during 
1606. It faded away early In 1606, and the 
question whether such stars were new might 
nave been considered an open one until the 
appearance of T Coronv m May, 1886. It 
waa first seen on the 11th of that month, when 
it had attained the second magnitude. On the 
question whether the star was visible before 
tnat day the testimony is conflicting. The 
most important circumstance connected with 
this star is that it was found to have been 
already recorded in Argenlander's catalc^e, 
being a teleseopie star of the ninth magnitude. 
A few days alter it blazed forth it began to 
fade again, and has aince diminished to its 
former state. In 1802 a new star appeared in 
. the constellation Aurigte, but it did not rise 
above the fifth magnitude, and might therefore 
have passed unnoticed. No certain e:cplana- 
tion can be given of these phenomena. 

To the unaided vision the stars seem to pre- 
acrre the same relative position in the heavens 

astronomy show a slow motion to be taking 
place in at least all the brighter stars. This 
motion, however, does not follow any exact law 
that has yet been discovered, except to the 
extent that there ia a preponderance of mo- 
tions in a certain direction in the heavens 
which may be described as from the constella- 
tion Hercules in the N. hemisphere toward 
that of Pictor in the 8. For shooting stars, 
aea Motdobiie. See also Abteboid; Coket; 
UentoBi Planet. 

Star'atone, a variety of sapphire, the aaleria 
of the ancients, found in C^lon. It presents, 
when cut en eaboehon, or in a bemispberical 
form, and viewed in a direction perpendicular 
t« the axis, a peculiar reflection of light in the 
form of a star. 

Starva'tion, or Inani'tlon, the condition of 
tissue waste, exhausted vitali^, and death re- 
sulting from prolonged privation of food. A 
slower starvation ensues when food is scanty 
and impure, or is deSeient in one or more of 
the constituents essential to man. Animals 
have been fed experimentally on single classes 
of food — one upon albuminoid matter, another 
partaking of only farinaceous substances, a 
third only of the hydrocarbons or fats. Such 
exclusive diet proved disastrous; emaciation, 
enfeeblement, and death by starvation ensued. 
The phenomena of starvation have been re- 
corded by the shipwrecked, by persona immured 
in mines, and Arctic explorers. 

Prolonged abstinence necessitates bodily 
waste; hence the reported cases of prolonged 
subsistence without food, usually women ap- 
parently in a state of trance or catalepsy, are 
not to be accredited; carefully investigated, 
6p ', 


they invariably prove to be artful deceptions 
by hysterical or demented persons. Rigid ex- 
clusion of food and drink causes death in from 
five to eight days. Water, freely supplied, 
may prolong life two or three weeks, excep- 
tionally longer. Water constitutes over half 
the weight and bulk of the body, and even solid 
food, so called, is iu part water. Starvation 
at the outset produces urgent hunger; this may 
gradually lessen, be replaced by laintness, loss 
of appetite, and evei^ loathing of food. The 
strength fails, the body wastes, the mind be- 
comes enfeebled; in some cases there is liat- 
lesaness and stupor, in others excitement and 
delirium. The starving person ia liable to in- 
tercurrent disease, and the community suffer- 
ing privation is often visited by epidemics of 

victims. Starving persona, when rescued, 
should not be supplied too suddenly or freely 
with food; the enervated digestive apparatus 
can retain and assimilate but small quantities 
at a time, an excess exciting irritation and 
dangerous diarrhea. Certain diseased condi- 
tions may cause starvation; such are stricture 
and cancer of the cesopbagua and upper orifice 
of the stomach, and tubercle of the mtegtine. 

Stasafnrt (st&s'fort), town; province of Sax- 
ony, Prussia; on the Bode; 20 m. SSW. of 
Magdeburg. It is noted for the immense layer 
ol rock salt in its vicinity, discovered in 1337 
at a depth of 826 ft. and with a thickness of 
1,000 ft The production in 1887 was 201,062 
tons of rock salt and 1,204,081 tons of other 
salts. An extensive chemical industry has been 
built up. fop. (1000) 20,031. 

State, in its pre«ent sense, a body politic; a 
aelf-goveming community organised under per- 
manent law which has for its aim justice and 
the security of all. It ia the best term for 
denoting communities on their political side 
whatever their form of government be. The 
term nation implies common origin and lan- 
guage. The kingdom of the Netherlands, such 
as it was before the disruption in 1830, con- 
sisted of inhabitants speaking three languages 
— Dutch, Flemish, and French — with various 
earlier institutions and political connections. 
This was in no sense a nation, but was a state. 
So Austria at present is not a nation, but is 
a state where three UBtionalities at least — a 
German, a Hungarian, and a Slavonic, to say 
nothing of Polish and Roumanian and other 
subjects— ere bound together under the same 
political institutions. 

State, Depart'meat of, an executive depart- 
ment in the U. S. Govt., having charge of the 
relations of that government with foreign pow- 
ers. Its head is the Secretary of State, who 
ranks as the first of the Cabinet officers. The 
secretary not only is charged, under the direc- 
tion of the President, with all negotiationa 
relating to foreign affairs, but is the medium 
of correspondence between the President and 
the executive of the several states, is custodian 
of the great seal of the U. S., and publishes 
the laws and resolutions of Congress, proclama- 
tions admitting new states into the Union, and 


amendmentB to the conatitutiona. He Ib fur- 
ther required to iuue reports of information 
received from the consular and diplomatic 

Stat'eu Ii'land, largest island in New York 
harbor ) formerl}' Ricbmond Co., N, Y., now 
the Borough of Richmond, New York City; 
length, 13 m.; width, 8 m.; area, S8} sq. m.; 
and ii bounded on the N. by the Kill von EuU, 
£. by New York harbor. New York Bay, and the 
Narrows, SSE. by RaritlLn Bay and the lower 
bay of New York, and W. 1^ Staten Island 
Sound. January I, 18SB, it was annexed to 
the city of New York us the Borough of Rich- 
mond, and the five towns into which It waa 
divided became wards. The island is very 
hilly. A mile SE. of Clifton is Fort Wads- 
worth, guarding the approach to New York 
harbor; on the N. shore Ib the Sailors' Snug 
Harbor, and between St. George and Tompkins- 
ville is a U. S. lighthouse. The island is a 
place of residence of many New York busineaa 
men. Pop. (IBIO) 86,960. 

StKte Sights. See BonaaasTr. 

State's Er'ideuce, or (in Great BriUin) 
Ein£'B or Qnsen's ETidence, a phrase popu- 
larly used to describe the evidenoe of an ac- 
complice, generally given under an arrange- 
ment made with the officer repreaentins the 
state that the witness so testifying shall not 
himself be prosecuted for the crime of which 
he confesses himself to be guilty white he is 
disclosing the guilt of the party on trial. It 
is often neceesaryj in order that the ends of 
justice may not be defeated,, that one of several 
criminals should be suffered to testify on the 
trial of his fellows, although hb evidence may 
show himself to be guilty. When and with 
whom such an arrangement shall be made rests 
on the sound discretion of the ofEcer who rep- 
resents the people, or, if suit has already been 
instituted, of uie court Such evidence is of 
course suspicious, and it has even been said 
that no conviction should be had upon the un- 
corroborated testimony of an accomplice. A 
jury has the power to convict upon' such evi- 
dence, and their verdict could not be set aside 
as illegal. See Evidence 

SUtes-G«n'eial, an assembly composed of 
representatives of the nation. In France it 
consisted of representatives of the three orders 
— the nobility, the clergy, and the third estate, 
or the bourjreoune. Its origin seems to date 
back to Charlemagne. The first convocation of 
which history gives authentic report is that of 
Blois, 1302, by which Philippe le Bel tried to 
give a greater weight to the course he hod 
adopted in his quarrel with Boniface Till. 
The most memorable convocation was that of 
1789, which ushered in the revolution. In 
Holland the name States-General is applied to 
the legislative body of the kingdom, uiere dis- 
tinguishing that assembly from the merely 
provincial states. The Dutch States-General is 
composed of two chambers — the upper, elected 
by the provincial states, and the lower, chgaen 
)^ the citizeuS. 

States of the Cbnich. See Papal States. 


Stat'icSi that branch of mechanics whicli 
treats of the properties and relations of forces 
in equilibrium. By equilibrium is meant that 
the forces are in perfect balance, so that the 
body upon which they act is in a stat« of rest. 
The word statics is used in opposition to 
dynamics ( q.v. ) , the former being the science 
of equilibrium or rest, the latter of motion, 
and tioth together constituting mechanics. 

In statics, forces are measured by the press- 
ures that they will produce; the umt of 
pressure is usually a certain effect of the force 
of gravitation as indicated by a spring balance 
(not by a steelyard or scales) acted upon at 
some assigned place by a definite quantity of 
matt«r measured in pounds, kilograms, etc, 
and represented by lines, the lengths of the 
lines being proportional to the intensities of 
the forces, their directions parallel to the di- 
rections of the forces, and their ends denoting 
the points of application of the forces. The 
resultant of two or more forces is a single 
force which produces the same effect as the 
several forces acting together. The components 
of a single force are forces whose united action 

froduoes the same effect as the single one. 
be process of combining forces into a resultant 
is called composition, and that of separating 
a single force into components is called reso- 
lution. Theae proo- 
essea are effected b^ 
means of the princi- 
ple of the parallelo- 
gram of forces, which 
is thus stated: If two a*^ 
forces P and Q acting 
upon the material point a are Tepresentetl in 
intensity and direction by the lines a b and 
a d, their resultant R will be represented in 
intuit; and direction by the diagonal a o of 
the parallelogram a b e a constructed upon the 
two given sides. 

Another fundamental law is the principle of 
moments (See Momknt. ) Statics considers 
also parallel foroes and the determination of 
centers of gravity and moments, of inertia of 
bodies, and the equilibrium of forces acting 
through the cord, lever, pulley. Inclined plane, 
and screw, of which all machines are com- 
poimded, together with tbeir modification by 
the foroes of friction and cohesion. The laws 
of the equilibrium of gsses and of liquids 
(hydrostatics), with their applications to the 
barometer, pump, and hydrostatic press, ai* 
then developed. Among the more complex 
aspects of statics are the theory of the equilib- 
rium of arches and bridges, the theory of th« 
flexure of elastic bodies, the theory of the 
strength of materials subject to forces of ten- 
sion, compression, shearing, or torsion, the 
theory of the tension of fluids, and tlio statics 
of molecules. 

ries of figures or 
representing the 
r '' cniriat's Paa- 

Sta'tioBs of the Cross, a s< 
pictures, usually fourteen, 
stages of the Via Dolorosa, i 
sion on the way to Calvary." They are gener- 
ally found in every Roman Catholic church. 
In Roman Catholic countries they are .often 
erected by the wayside, in cemeteriM, on prom- 
inent sites, etc ' ~ ' 

■ Google 


Statii'tlci, in its simpleat meaning, a de- 
scription of any clau of fact* expreued b^ 
mean* of flpiree. The Book of Numbers is a 
■tatiitical report. There ia record of Btatis- 
tical work in Chins in 2300 B.C. In Greece 
aiid Some also there were iystematic collec- 
tions of data pertaining to gational life. In 
SS4 B.C. a cenaua was taken in Greece for the 
purpose of levjinK taxes which divided the 
people into four Masses according to wealth. 
Athens took a census of population in 309 B.a. 
The constitution of Servius Tullius, G50 B.C., 
distinguished six property classes. - In the 
Middle Ages there was national enumeration 
of papulation or of property. The work, how- 
ever, was suggested by some practical neces- 
sity, as the " Domeaday Book " of William I, 
1088 A.D., or the " Land Raster " of Walde- 
mar II, leSl A.D. In France the need of defi- 
nite information as to national conditions fol- 
lowing the revolution was reoogniied, and a 
commission established to collect data for re- 
forms in administration and finance. This led 
to the establishment of statistical bureaus in 
France, as also in other countries. 

The phrase, " science of statistics," has been 
looself used to convey a number of indefinite 
Ideas. Its claim to be a science usually rests 
OD the observation of uniformity In those do- 
mains of human activity which are commonly 
regarded as subject to the control of the in- 
dividual. For example, one would suppose 
that suicides, being wholly under the direction 
of the individual will, would show no rule of 
recurrence, but a study of the statistics of 
saicides shotM that notning ia more constant 
in ita recurrence ttian the cause for which, the 
time in which, and the manner by which sui- 
cides are committed. The same is true In any 
domain of human activity, ao much so indeed 
that by the use of statistics one is able to 

tredict with great assurance what ia likely to 
ippen. This fact, however, does not seem to 
make good the claim that statistics is an in- 
depen£nt science, but indicates rather the 
possibility of scientific treatment of ail social 
and moral questions. Statistics therefore 
comes to be a method of investigation, a branch 
of the science of logic. Accepting, then, statis- 
tics as a science of method, it may be regarded 
as consisting in a systematio observation and 
classification of facts. 

Among the most frequent errors made in 
dealing with statistics are ttie consideration of 
percentages without r^ard to the figures upon 
which they are founded. For example, an in- 
crease of 10 m. in railway mllef^ in a district 
which bad but 10 m. to start wilh would show 
a higher percentage of increase than an in- 
crease of 1,000 m. In a district which had 
10,000 m. of line at the outset. One who rea- 
sons by means of percentages must hold con- 
stantly in mind that he is dealing with ratios, 
and not with absolute facts. Caution is also 
necessary in drawing conclusions from aver- 
ages. In the first place, a sufficiently large 
number of individual facts must be collected 
to nullify the influence of any unusual or ab- 
normal caaea. Then individual facts should 
be allowed to influence the average in propor- 
tion to their relative importance, for exam- 


pie, wheat ia relatively of more vital impor- 
tance to the people than silks, and any in- 
vestigation which holds in view the efl'ect 
of chan^ in prices on the well being of a 
community must lay greater stress on varia- 
tions in the price of wheat than in that of 
silks. Again, it will not do in determining 
the average of wages to rely upon the daily 
rate of wages reported as paid, but the number 
of days in the year for which the workmen 
receive the stated wages must also be taken 
into account. 

Under population statistics are included an 
extensive class of facts. Thus, in addition to 
the actual count, there is a classification of 
population by territorial groups to discover the 
density of population. Changes in population 
are also included, with all questions of birth 
rate and death rate (vital statistics) and im- 
migration. The facta pertaining to the physical 
life of the people are also included under popu- 
lation statistics, OS, for example, expectation 
of life at various ages, classification on a basis 
of age, etc. Under industrial statistics are in- 
eluded all facts pertaining to the production, 
exchange, distribution, and consumption of 
wealth ; also to the means by which the In- 
dustrial process is carried on. Statistics of 
wages, capital, railways, money, prices, and the 
like are all included under industrial statistics. 
The statistics of social and political life include 
the facta descriptive of the manner in which 
people live and of the governments under wtkicb 
they live. Moral statistics Include all facts 
which indicate the character and habits of the 
people, education, religion, crime, marriage, 

In the Federal Constitution it is provided 
that a census shall be taken once in ten years, 
and many of the states also require that a 
state census shall be taken at certain inter- 
vals. In 1870 the scope of the federal census 
was greatly extended until at present it may 
be regarded as a general statistical bureau. 
The Agricultural Department has a bureau of 
statistics which aims to collect facts of inter- 
est to the growers and consumers of farm 
products. The Treasury Department, In addi- 
tion to financial statistics, maintains a bureau 
of statistics on imports and exports of the 
U. S. The comptroller of the currency re- 
ports upon banking, and the director of the 
mint upon coinage and the production of the 
precious metals. The commissioner of educa- 
tion reports on the number of schools, col- 
leges, and universitieB in the republic, the 
number of pupils attending each, the num- 
ber of teachers, their compensation, etc. The 
Interstate Commerce Commission provides for 
the atatiatics of railwaya. Congress frequently 
authorizes special investigations into special 
topics. The public documents of the Federal 
Government are rich in statistical material, 
while many of the states maintain efficient 
bureaus for the collection of facts of local in- 

Sta'tlu^ Polilina Paplnios, b. abt. 4S A.D., 
in Naples; Latin author; court poet to the 
emperor Dtnnitian. It has been said, without 
foundation, that he was a' Christian, and that 

f mger. 

SUt'nary. See SctopniBE, 

Sta'tns, a term of the Roman law, denoting 
the legal condition of a person, or the sum of 
hia capacitieB ''and incapacities to hold le^l 
rights or to be subjected to legal duties. In 
the Roman law there were three grades of 
Btatua or legal condition, the lower and more 
general of which might exist without the oth- 
ers, while tbe higher and more special always 
presupposed the lesser. The flret and most 
general was that of liberty {atatut Ubertatia), 
by virtue of which a person was either s, tree- 
man iliber) or ft slave (serviu). The second 
was that of citizenship {status oivitatia), by 
virtue of which a person was either a citizen 
{oioii) or a stranger Iperegriniu). The high- 
est was that of the family {status familia), 
by virtue of which a person might be the head 
of a household {paterfamilias) and bia own 
master {sui juris), or under the control of 
another (alteni juris), as a .son, daughter, 
wife, ward, and the like. 

Stafate of Frauds. See Fbauds, Statute 

Stattltei, laws in a written form enacted by 
the supreme It^ialative authority of a nation 
or commonwealth, as contradistin^ished from 
taws established by judicial decision. The ex- 
tent of the powers held by law-making bodies 
is determined by the organic law of each coun- 
try. The British Farlianient is said to be om- 
nipotent, which simply means that the restric- 
tions under which it ordinarily acts are self- 
imposed. In the U. S. the most remarkable 
feature of the political organisation is the lim- 
itation of the legislative function contained in 
all the written constitutions, which are them- 
selves fundamental statutes adopted by the 
people in their sovereign capacity. With every 
new revision of the state constitutions this 
limitation in reference to the forms and modes 
of legislation, as well as its subject-matter, is 
mode more far reaching, minute, and prohib- 

The time when statutes take effect is fixed 
in most of the states of the U. S. either by a 
constitutional provision or by a general law. 
In some they become operative at the expira- 
tion of a specified number of days after the 
close of the session, in others at a specified 

Griod after tlie day of their passage ; but the 
jislature may in the body of a statute pre- 
scribe a difTerent time, as. for example, Uiat 
it shall take effect immediately. The common 
law made an net operative from the first day 
of the session at which it vne passed, but this 
absurd doctrine was abiiliahcd in the thirty- 
third year of George III, and all laws were 
declared to be binding from the time when 
they received the royal ansent. The repeal of 
a statute may be either express or by implica- 
tion. It is express when effected by a clause 
inserted for that specific purpose in a subse- 
quent act; it is by implication when the pro- 
visions of a later enactment are wholly and 
irreconcilably inconsistent vith those con- 
tinued in an earlier one. Bepeal by implica- 


tion is not favored. If the two statutes con- 
cerning the ssjne subject-matter can possibly 
be harmonized, both will stand; if the contra- 
diction is absolute, the prior one gives way. 
See Law; Codk 

Staub'hach ("dust stream"), a celebrated 
waterfall of Swltserland, in the canton of 
Bern; has a descent of between SOD and 900 
ft. Before the water reaches the bottom it is 
dissolved into spray and carried away b^ the 

• StsTTD'pol, government of Russia, on the 
Caspian Sea; area, 23,397 sq. m. It is mostly 
low and flat, with shallow lakes and extensive 
swamps. In the SW. agriculture is tlie prin- 
cipal occupation; wheat, millet, and mulber- 
ries are cultivated. In the N. the inhabi- 
tants are nomads, and inunense herds of 
cattle, horses, and sheep are reared. Fop. 
(1W7) 1,048,100. 

Steam, the vapor of water. Pure steam is 
an invisible gas and must be distinguished from 
the white clouds of vapor which consist of mi- 
nute drops of water temporarily suspended in 
the air. Water, and even ice, at all tempera- 
tures, when not confined within impermeable 
walls, continually give off vapor, the surface 
particles assuming the gaseous state with a 
rapidity determined by the temperature of the 
moss and the nature and density of the sur- 
rounding atmosphere. When confined, this gasi- 
Scation goes on without rt^ard to the character 
or density of the atmosphere present until the 
vapor produced, by gradual accumulation, ac- 
quires the maximum density and pressure at- 
tainable at that temperature. The pressure 
rises faster than the temperature. Under pres- 
sure of one atmosphere the boiling point is 
212° F.; at four atmospheres it is 301*, while 
at twenty it is 444°. This temperature is 
called the temperature of saturation under the 
given pressure. When the process just de- 
scribed is carried on in a vessel open to the 
atmosphere, the issuing vapor mingles with the 
molecules of that atmosphere as rapidly as 
formed, and separates only at the surface, until 
the boiling point is reached. See Bohjko 


Steam, as worked in the steam engine, if not 
dried by superheating, is wet; i.e., it carries 
in suspension fine particles of water. A cubic 
inch of water makes a cubic foot of dry steam. 
The principal advantage of superheating is an 
increase of economy due to the thorough ex- 
pulsion of water from the vapor, and conse- 
quent reduction of loss by condensation and 
revaporization in the steam engine cylinder. A 
less degree of improvement is due to the simple 
increase of temperature, and to the consequent 
widening of the range of temperature within 
which it is worked. The following table gives 
a summary of the properties of steam. Frea- 
Bures are given in pounds per square inch above 
a vacuum, and in inches of mercury measuring 
from the same point. Volumes are relative to 
water at its greatest density. Weights are 
given in pounds, and specific gravity is referred 
to ^r as unity at a temperature of 32° F. 


A. Tb* wiwble but: 

1. 'n>lH 

b ISC. , 

B. Tba latent b«t: 

2. To ooavcit tbc mtertovapor. 
imflpeetivo of pnsnire on not- 

vhetbet air or provioualy ^ren- 
Z.lie.g lb. p«r aqtuis Coot ol 

Total latent haat 

Total heat of steam 

892.0' - 6SS,Z42 

72.8" - M,S1B 

> Stbau Boileb; Steau Hauueb; Steau 

Steam Boil'er, an apparstuB for generating 
Bteam by the application of beat. In general 
terms it may be described as a closed metallic 
\eue\, kept partly filled with water and so 
arranged that heat ma; be imparted to the 
water by means ot the combustion of fuel. The 
steam generated is confined in the vesael above 
the water until it is required for use, when it 
is dran-n off through pipes. This metallic ves- 
sel, with its compartmenta and openings, takes 
the name of "boiler" in the shops where it is 
manufactured; but in many classes or forms 
of boilers the steam -generating apparatus is 
not complete until the bailer is set up in brick- 
work, with an external furnace constructed for 
the combustion ot the fuel and external Sues 
for conducting the heated gases to the chim- 
ney along the sides of the boiler. In other 
cases the boiler ia ready for use as it comea 
from the manufacturer, having within iU ex- 
ternal shell all these necesaa^ arrangementa 
for combustion and draught. In all cases cer- 
tain adjuncts and appurtenances are necessary, 
such as the feed pump or other means of sup- 
plying water, the safety valve, steam and wa- 
ter gauges, and grate bars for the furnace. 

Boilers may be classified under a few types, 
which will serve to illustrate not only general 
principles of construction, but the adaptability 
of the various forma to particular circum- 
stances of use. While the sphere is a form of 
inclosing envelope which is best adapted for 
the resistance o( internal fluid pressure, it is 
not the best adapted for the application of 
heat, nor is it the cheapest form of construc- 
tion. The nearest approach to it which is 
practicable is the cylinder with hemispherical 
ends. Boilers may be divided into two great 
groups known as the externally Sred boilers 
and the interfially fired boilers respectively. 
In the first class are included all boilers whose 
furnace is external to the proper structure of 
the boiler, arid in the second class al! those In 
which the water to be evaporated surrounds 
the fumaot. The first class require a brick set- 
ting, while the second class do not, but are sdf- 
contained. The latter, while more oMtly, have 
these advantages: There is less loss of beat 


From radiation, they make steam more rapidly, 
and a great evaporative capacity ia »ucuied in 
a very compact form. 

Fig. I is a type of externally fired boiler of 
the simplest form, being a plain cylindrical 
shell with a dome for the collection of eteam. 

FiQ. i. 

It is bricked iq, the furnace beine exterior to 
the boiler shell. This type ia used where gase- 
ous fuds are employed and where the water 
contains chemical salts liable to precipitation 
upon boiling, as in iron works and smelting 
furnaces. The next type (Figs. 2 and 3) of 
externally fired boilers are those containing, in 

Ftos. 2 and 3. 

the space devoted to water, fluea or tubes 
through which the hot gases pass on their way 
to the chimney. A type of multitubular boiler 
is given in Fig. 4. The Sue boiler is used where 
the fuel gives a long flame from the presence of 
combustible gas, since the fine subdivision of 
the products of partial combustion which 

Fio. 4. 

would be the case in tubes would tend to extin- 
guish the flame before complete combustion had 
takHi place. Where complete combustion can 
take place before the gases enter the tubes the 
multiiubulftr boiler is preferable by reason of 


its extended heating Burface. The fourth type 
of this class of bMler (Fig. 6) ia the sectiona] 
or water-tube boiler. It consifite of a ■jstem of 
tubes or small units, eo arranged as to provide 
a continuous circulation of water through the 
tubes. Of the internally fired boilers the moat 
prominent type is the locomotive boiler <Fig. 6). 

A modified fonn known as the upright boiler 
is much used for portable and stationary en- 

For marine piirposes, where a thoroughly self- 
contained boiler IS a necessity, the internally 
fired type has received great development, sjid 
■»- — --e many varieties in use, the most prom- 

The term "horse power" of boilers is often 
used as the measure of work which it can do. 
It has been agreed that the commercial horse 
power of a boiler sbaU be an evaporation of 
30 lb, of water an hour from a feed-water tem- 
perature of 100° F. into steam at 70 lb. gauge 
pressure. See Steau. 

Steam En'sine, a machine for converting 
heat energy into that of mechanical motion 
through the medium of steam. It conrists of 
two parts— the boiler, where the steam is " gen- 
erated " by boiling water, and the engine 
proper, where the steam acts on a piston, pro- 
ducing motion. Machiiies where the st«am acta 


nn blades set on a rotating wheel, although log- 
ically steam engines, are generally called steam 
turbines or turbine engines. (See Tusbine.) 
Other vaporizablc liquids, as ammonia, ether, or 
carbon disulphide, may be used witb practi- 
cally the same mechanism, but water has 
obvious advantages. 

Toys in which motion is due to steam pres- 
sure were made in old times, but the first use- 
ful steam en^ue is due to Edward Somerset, 
Marquis of Worcester, in 1663. This applied 
the pressure directly to a water column for 
raising it— a plan now again coming into use 
after three and a half centuries. The first 
practical piston engine was that of Newcomea, 
which was improved by Watt Automatic 
valves were added by Humphrey Potter. Pos- 
sibly the most important application of the 
steam engine ia that to traction. See Locx>- 

In all engines the steam is admitted from the 
boiler to a cylinder in which fits a piston, slid- 
ing lengthwise. The pressure drives this piston 
to the opfKKite end of the cylinder, and this 
motion, through the connected valve gear, 
closes the aperture through which the steam 
was admitted and opens another on the other 
aide of the piston head, so that this is driven 
back to its first position. This goes on as long 
as desired. In a type of large engine called 
" single acting " the steam is admitted only on 
one side, the piston returning by gravity. Most 
engines are now " double acting, as described. 
The steam pressure on the side that ia discon- 
nected with the boiler is abolished in any one 
of several ways. If it is allowed to escape 
through a valve into the outside air, the engine 
is called " high preasure," because, as the steam 
must then work against the ordinary air pres- 
sure of 15 lb. to the square inch, its preesuro 
must be great enough to overcome this. Moat 
locomotives are biKD pressure, and the " ex- 
haust," as it is called, reaches the outer air by 
way of the smokestack, where the expansion of 
the waste steam causes the characteristic puf- 
fing sound and aids the draught of the furnace. 

If the exhaust is directed into a cold com- 
partment or condenser, it ia quickly condensed 
to water, and causes a partial vacuum, so that 
the steam pressure on the other edde has no 
longer the normal atmospheric pressure to work 
against, but a much less one. Where con- 
densers can be used, as in steamers and in most 
stationary engines near bodies of cool water, 
this form, known as the " condensing " or 
" low-pressure " engine, is much more econom- 
ical. If tie valve connecting with the boiler be 
closed before the one on the other side is 
opened, and while the piston has still some dis- 
tance to travel, the steam in the cylinder con- 
tinues to exert its own expansive force, though 
no longer ia connection with the main body of 
steam in the boiler, and the steam is said to 
work " by expansion." If the exhaust be con- 
nected with a second cylinder, this expannve 
power of the steam may be sufficient to dnva 
another piston. In this way as many as four 
diflerent seta of cylinders, at different pres- 
sures, may be used. Such an engine is called 
"compound," and is denominated a "double," 
" triple," or " quadruple " expauMpn engine, ac- 



cording to the number of cylinder! used. Ms- 
rine enpneB are commonly compounded, And 
the principle has occasionally been applied to 
locomotivea, as in the Vauclain type. 

In order to preserve uniformity of motion, de- 
vices called " governors " are used. The moat 
common type depends on the centrifugal force 
imparted to balls rotated at the end of arms 
connected with the steam valve. As the speed 
increases, the balls rise slightly and the steatn is 
partly turned off. The action here does not re- 
spond quickly and is jerky; but in the Corlisa 
engine the governor does not actually do the 
work of turning off the steam, but only " indi- 
cates " to another mechanism when the work 

s wheel which, by its inertia, not only 
acts to equalize motion, as does the governor, 
but also carries the engine past its " dead cen- 
ter " — the point where the piston 'thrusts di- 
rectly against the axle of the wheel. Where 
there are two cflindera, the pistons are so con- 
nected that the two are never on a dead center 
at the same time; hut with a single cylinder 
the lly wheel is essential. 

The motion of the engine is generally im- 
parted to the machineiT through rotating 
parts. Aa the motion of the piston is " recipro- 
cating," or to and fro, this necessitates a trans- 
formation, which is usually effected through a 
crank. A reciprocating motion such as that of 
an engine piston will not in general turn a 
wheel with uniform regularity; hence an oddi- 
tional reason for the regularizing action of the 
heavy fly wheel. In the turbine engine, where 
there are no reciprocating parts, no transforma- 
tion ii reqnired. Since the time of Watt at- 
ternpts have been mode to construct a rotary 
piston engine, but it has been Impos^ble to 
avoid lea^ge and difficult to use the steam ex- 

Engines are sometimes classed as " horizon- 
tal " or " vertical," according to the position of 
the cylinder. In the old vertical marine en- 
gines motion was transmitted to the crank by 
means of a vibrating beam, called the "walking 
beam " (supposed by some to be a corruption 
of " working " beam ) . The vertical rod con- 
necting the other end of this beam with the 
crank was often called the " pitman," from its 
use in mine pumps, where it extended into the 
shaft and connected with the pump rods. 

As the steam engine i* only one form of heat 
engine, its efficiency depends on the differmce 
in temperature between the boiler and con- 
denser, or the range through which its working 
substance (steam, in this case) parts with its 
heat The whole amount of heat could not be 
converted into mechanical energy, even theo- 
retically, unless the condenser was at the ab- 
solute zero of temperature. As the practical 

is tra^ 

rature Is far hisher and really not very 

low that of the hot boiler, only t 

atively small part of the fuel heat 
formed into work — the rest is wasted, jim- 
ciency may be increased by widening the tem- 
perature range, either by cooling the condenser 
to a lower point or by increaning the temper- 
ature of the working steam. This may be done 
by incsoing the cylinder in a steam jacket, and 


Steam Harn'mers, hammers which are raised 
by the direct action of steam an a piston in a 
steam cylinder, as distinguished from hammers 
which are raised by other mechanical means, 
receiving their power from a steam eniine 
through the intervention of belts and pulleys 
or gearing. A heavy mass of iron constitutes 
the hammer, or " tup." as it is called. This tup 
slides freely in guides or ways in the frame or 
upright of the hammer. On top of this frame is 
placml a cylinder Stted with piston, piston rod, 
and valve, after the manner of a steam engine. 
The piston rod, extending downward, termi- 

Flo. 1. 

nates in its attachment to the tup or ham- 
mer. Steam admitted under the piston raises 
it, and thus lifts the hammer; upon the open- 
ing of the exhaust and escape of the steam the 
hammer falls with a force, due to its weight, 
less the friction of the piston, piston rod, and 
escaping steam. This form of hammer was at 
first made single acting only — that is, the 
steam is used only beneath the piston; but 
hammers are now made double acting, the pres- 
sure of the steam above the piston in the down 
stroke assisting the action of gravity, thus caus- 
ing the hammer to strike a more rapid and 
more powerful blow. 

The steam hammer was invented by James 
Nasmvth, of the Bridgewater Foundry, near 
Manchester, England. Nasmyth's first ham- 
mers were worked by hand, but his manager, 
Robert Wilson, devised a plan of operating the 
valve automatically; and he also, it is believed, 
first applied the balance principle of valve to 
the steam hammer. Hammers for heavy forg- 
ings are constructed with douUe uprights, 
large-sized hammers with a long stroke, having* 
a wide spread of base between the legs of the 
upright to give room for the workmen to imt- 



dk the iron being forged. Ftg. Z showa a 
double upright hammer. For light work, luch 
ai drawing out bars of eteel, an automatic 

valve motion is of the utmost importance. Fig. 
1 EhowB the form of a single upright hammer 
M uied for light forging. See Bteau. 

Steam Vea'sel*. The pOBHibilitj' of udng 
■team for the propulsion of ships seems to have 
occurred to Roger Bacon. The earliest prac- 
tical effort appears to l>e that of Papin, who 
in 1707 applied bis steam engine to the pro- 
pulsion of a model on the Fulda River at 
Cassel. Newcomen had in the meantime 
brought the steam engine itself to a working 
condition, and in 1730 Jonathan Hulls patented 
a marine steam engine to be used in a tugboat. 
Abt. ires William Henry, of Pennsylvania, 
built a small model steamboat, which he tried 
with succasB on the Conestoga River ; the ex- 

Srimcnt fumislied the hint to Robert Fulton, 
mes Bums«7, of Maryland, in 1780 built a 
boat which was propelled upon the Potomac by 
steam at the rate of 4 m. an hour by means 
of a jet of water forced out at the stem. He 
bnilt a boat in London with which a sucoeasful 
experiment i»aa made on the Thames in I79Z. 
Meanwhile John Fitch experimented on the 
Delaware River. His first boat, built in 1780, 
wsa propelled by paddlee moved by a steam 
engine; at Srst a spaed of only 3 m. an hour 
wa« attained, but improvements increased that 
speed to a n. He employed side wheels, with 
a screw piT>pelIer at tne atera. 


Abt. 17M Robert Fulton left the U. 8. for 
England, where he turned his attention espe- 
cially to steam navigation. In 1800 he re- . 
.tamed to New York, bringing with 
him a Boulton ft Watt steam engine, 
for which a hull was built. This vessel 
the Clermont, made a trial trip to 
Albany, August 7-9, 1807, returning on 
the two following days, her average 
running speed being G m. an hour. Ttie 
Clemwnt was 130 ft, long, 18 ft. beam, 
7 ft deep, with a burden of 160 tons. 
6he soon began making regular trips 
between New York and Albany, and 
for all practical purposes must be 
considered the first steamboat adapted 
for the conveyance of passengers and 
freight. John Stevens, of New York, 
was even earlier than Fulton an ei- 

S>rimenter in steam naviration. The 
rst steamboat in Great Britain was 
the Comet, 40 ft. long, built in 1812 for 
the navigation of the Clyde. As early 
aa 1819 the steamer Savannah made 
the voyage from Savannah, GrO., to 
Liverpool, England, in twenty-two days, 
and thence to Russia. From that time 
the development in ocean steamships 
has been steadily toward larger steam- 
ers, including the famous Great East- 
em the Dreadnought among battle- 
flhips, and the Olj/mpic among ocean 

Steau Tlrbines, now used upon 
many ocean steamships, were invented 
in 1884 by C. A. Parsons, of Sweden, 
who applied to the steam engine the 
principle that had long been used in 
constructing water wheels. The Far- 
eons type of turbine has a series of 
disks mounted upon a common shaft, and alter- 
nating with parallel blades fixed within the 
casing of the shaft. There are buckets or cups 
upon both the revolving disks and the fixed 
blades, the fixed buckets being reversed in rela- 
tion to the moving cups. The steam, admitted 
first through a set of stationary blades or buck- 
eta, impinges at an angle upon the first rotat- 
ing disk and imparts motion, passing thence 
through ailbther set of fixed blades to the sec- 
ond disk upon the main shaft, and thus through 
the entire series of alternately fixed and rotat- 
ing buckets. The area of the passages increases 
progressively to correspond with the expansion 
of the steam as it is used on the succeasive 
disks. See also Navy; Ships; SrsAU. 

Ste'aiin, a glyceride or ether of glycerin 
(C.H,lC„H„0,), = C.,H„.0.). In commer- 
cial parlance, stearin is a term applied to the 
impure stearic acid obtained by the saponifica- 
tion of fats in the preparation of star candles. 
Xristearin is the natural form of stearin in 
hard fats. 

Ste'atlte, or Soap'stone, a stone which re- 
ceives both its names from ite unctuous qual- 
ity. It is a compact form of talc, and is an 
impure hydratad silicate of magnesia. It has 
some use in ths porcelain manufacture. A soft 
white sort ia toe French chalk of the toilet 
and of the tailors' shops. Powdered steatita 


1 ," 

J ..LCJ rtn' 



,Cut, ( ;jliJ 

„ Google 


ie used m » lubriouit, and in tiet,m packing. 
Steatite is eMily cut into figures, which are 
then hardened I^ Sre and colored to imitAte 
more eoertljr etones. St«atite la employed- in 
making stores and foot stoves for use m cold 
weather, since it retains heat. It ia abundant 
in many parts of the U. S. and other countries. 

Sted'man, Edmnnd CUience, 1833-I90S ; 
American poet and critic; b. Hartford, Conn.; 
in 1860 waa employed upon the New York 
Trilmne; editor and war correapondent of the ' 
New York World, 1861-63; contributed to The 
Allanlio Monthly and other magazines; wae in 
1S63 in the Attorney-general's office, Washing- 
ton, and after 18BG a stockbroker in New York. 
Works include " Poems, Lyric and Idyllic," 
" Alice of Monmouth," " The Blameless Prince," 
and " Hawthorne." " Victorian Poets " waa 
followed by "Poets of America," and by "The 
Nature and Elements of Poetry." In 1S95 he 
brought out " A Victorian Anthologr," and in 
1900 "An American Antholo(^"i in ISOS a 
" History of New York Stock Eichange." 

Steel, a compomid of iron which has been 
cast from a fluid state into a malleable mass. 
The terms, "pot" or "crucible" steel, "open- 
hearth " steel, and " Bessemer " steel, are used 
for distinguishing processes of manufacture, 
but they do not necessarily distineuish between 
steels which differ either obemicaUy or mechan- 

The grand structural characteristic of stcd, 
to which it largely owea its value for all uses, 
is lu>mi»eneity, due to fusion. The important 
cheroicar qualities of tool steel are: (1) The 
tempering quality, which is due, flrst, to the 
presence of from three quarters to one and a 
quarter per cent of carbon; second, to the 
mecbanica) mixture of this carbon with the 
metal by means of slow cooling from a red heat 
which makes the metal comparatively soft, so 
that it can be cut with the ordinary tools; 
third, the extreme hardening of the metal 
when, hy means of sudden cooling, the carbon 
is chemically dissolved in the iron. (2) Its 
freedom from ingredients, such as phosphorus, 
which cause brittleness. Excepting some mod- 
em steels, in the manufacture of which nickel, 
manganese, tungsten, chromium, titanium, and 
some other metalloids are employed, the best 
tool steels have but a few hundredths of one 
per cent of any ingredient except carbon, sili- 
con, and iron. The more important qualities 
of atructural steels vary with their precise 
uses. In general, great resistance to statical 
strains, or to those gradually applied, is ac- 
companied by comparative brittleness and un- 
fitness to redst strains suddenly applied. High 
resistance, resilioice, hardness, and brittleness 
increase, up to certain limits, with the amount 
of impurities contained in the metal. Low 
resistance, softness, ductility, and toughness 
become more marked, within certain limits, 
as the impurities become leas ; hut too little ss 
well as too much impurity makes steel weak 
and unsuitable for structural purposes. It re- 
quires what is called body to give it resistance 
to either statical or sudden strains. This body 
ia impacted by carbon, manganese, silicon. 

tfl 'kKT. 

phMphoms, and 1^ other ingredients; but too 
much of either of them, or of certain com- 
pounds of them, weakens the metal. 

In the manufacture of steel the oructble- 
eteel proeeat at first consisted in melting 
wrought iron with carbon in day crucibles. 
In the present manufacture, other ingredients 
besides carbon, chiefly manganese, are added. 
Sometimes substances intended to combine 
with and remove the impurities in the wrought 
iron are introduced, but generally these im- 
purities remain in the steel. The finest et«el 
must therefore be made from wrought iron 
which has been purified t^ reworking with pure 
fuel, and which was originally made from pure 
ores. The melting point of wrought iron u so 
high that it has been usual to carburize it in 
order to fuse it at a convenient temperature 
in crucibles. The use of the Siemens furnace 
and the modem improvement of crucibles ren- 
der the melting of wrought iron practicable 
and cheap. The cheaper nodes of crucible 
steel are largely made from Bessemer steel-rail 
ends and other scrap. The quantity of steel 
made by the crucible procfsa is relatively 
small. The two processes ^hich produce the 
bulk of the metal for rails, structural mate- 
rial, wire, nails, pUttes, hoops, tin plates, etc., 
are the open-hearth or Siemens-Martin process 
and the Bessemer process. 

The Siemens regenerative gas furnace, by 
means of the intensity and uniformity of its 
heat, first furnished practical conditions to the 
open-hearih proeeat (or Siemens-Martin) abt. 
1B62. It was also demonstrated by Martin 
that the addition of manganese at a certain 
stage was necessary to the production of sound 
and practically malleable steel. In the Siemens 
open-hearth steel furnace the hearth or bed of 
the furnace consists of a shallow iron tank, 
ventilated below to prevent the concentrated 
heat of the hearth and the regenerators from 
endangering the structure, and lined with a 
vary refractory material, usually silica, nearly 
pure, and just fusible enough to set into a 
solid mass. The red-hot air and gas play upon 
the materials placed on the hearth, and pass 
down into the rc^nerators at the left end, 
where they give off their heat to a checker- 
work of fire bricks. The current being reversed 
after some thirty minutes, the air and gas 
enter at the left end through the newly heated 
regenerators and pass out at the right end. 
The design of furnaces undergoes some modi- 
fications when natural gas is used as a fuel. 
An important modification of the ordinary 
open-hearth furnace consists in plilcing the en- 
tire hearth on rockers, which pertuit of tilting 
the furnace. This presents important advan- 
tages in charging and in tapping the charge. 

The materials employed are various, and 
consequently the process varies, although the 
deearburization of pig iron is always a part 
of it. In order to obtain a sufflciently intense 
combustion there must be a slight excess of 
air; the flame Is therefore oxidizing, and would 
seriously waste wrought iron or the ingredi- 
ents usually melted in crucibles. A bath of 
east iron, which on account of its carbon can 
be melted without serious loss, ia first neces- 
sary; in this are immersed and Pi^tected the 


varies from ten to thirtj-three per cent of the 
total charge. The more commoii procesa is 
known as the scrap process, and this again is 
divided into (1) the fuaioii of pig and scrap 
wrought iron or steel charged together, the 
former melting while the latter is heated pre- 
paratory to melting; (2) the diasolving of 
either hot or cold scrap in a bath of pig 
previously melted ; ( 3 ) the dissolving of 
wrought-iron aponge in a caat-iron batb. Tlie 
operation in all these caaea is chiefly the melt- 
ing of the decarburized iron forming the bulk 
of the charge, and the oxidation of toe greater 
part of the carbon and silicon in the crude cast 
iron, end also in the basic process of the 
phosphorus. A portion of the iron is aha 
oxidJEed, and this oxide of iron makes the 
product unmalleable or red short. To remove 
the oxygen something (for instance, manga- 
nese) must be addM which has a greater 
affinity for it than iron. By using an excess 
of nanganeae «ny desired proportion of it re- 
mains in the steel. If the decarburization of 
the east iron and the dilution of the carburized 
and uncarburieed portions of the charge are 
carried only to such an extent that a nighiy 
carburized product remains, less manganese is 
Deeded to make it malleable. As soon as the 
manganese is thoroughly diffused through the 
bath the charge is tapped out and cast. The 
pig-and'ore process, as developed by Siemens, 
consists in decarburizio^ a bath of pig iron by 
iron ore, and then adding ferromanganese in 
the usual manner. The iron in the ore is added 
to the bath, and a little limestone is thrown 
in to facilitate its separation. The theory is 
to use ore enough to make good the waste of 
the iron by oxidation. 

The chemical part of the B«Memer process 
may be described as the oxidation by means of 
air blasts of the carbon and silicon {as in the 
older or acid process), or of the carbon and 
phoBphoruB (as in the basic or improved 
process) in melted crude cast iron so as to 
make it malleable. During this reaction a 
certain quantity of iron is also oxidized. This 
is reduced by adding manganiferous pig iron, 
which reintroduces the necessary unount of 
carbon and also adds manganese, whose pres- 
enoe is useful in the subsequent rolling of the 
steel. The Bessemer process as first performed, 
and as still practiced to a limited extent abroad 
with irons rich in manganese, consists in ap- 
plying the blast until all but one fourth to 
one half of one per cent of the carbon is burned 
out, and then casting the product. The pres- 
ent practice is to blow the iron imtil all the 
carbon is exhausted, but the product now, as 
in the open-hearth process before described, 
contains so much oxide of iron that it is brittle 
while red hot and crumbles in working. To 
reduce this oxide of iron, manganese is added. 
No phosphorus is removed from the iron In 
the acid Bessemer process. Only the carbon 
and the silicon are oxidized. It is therefore 
important to start with pig irons having a lit- 
tle less phosphorus, sulphur, and copper than 
the steel ma^ safety contain; but it is not 
usually practicable to use irons low in silicon. 


for the oxidation of this element produces the 
high temperature necessary to keep the mass 
fluid. Manganese is to a certain extent a sub- 
stitute for silicon in this respect, and always 
a valuable ingredient, but the greater part of 
the irons of the world do not contain it in 
important quantities. 

A standard American Bessemer plant of a 
type to which many existing works belong con- 
sists ( 1 ) □! a melting department, the furnace 
and working floor of which are shown in plan 
by Fig. 1 ; sections of these floors and the 
furnaces are shown by Fig. 2. (2) The con- 

verting department, shown in ground plan by 
Fig. 1 and in cross section by Fig. 2. The 
vessel in which the melted iron Is treated 
by air blasts is Illustrated by Fig. 3. (3) 
liie engine department, which oonta&a a blow- 
ing engine, capable of delivering air at 25-lb. 
pressure to the square inch. The water-press- 
ure machineiy for actuating the hydraulic 
machinery consists of a pair of duplex pumps. 
The tendency in the U. S. has been to do away 
with the casting pit. This is accomplished by 
pouring the steel into a ladle suspended from 
EUi overhead traveling crane. The steel is 
poured into molds standing on cars, consti- 
tuting a train, so that the whole charge can be 
hauled out of the converting house bv a loco- 
motive soon after it is east. A growing prac- 
tice in Europe and in the U. S. is to dispense 
entirely with the remelting of the pig iron in 
cupolas. The molten pig lioa as it u tapped 

n as it ii tappei 

from the blast fnnikce is run into Udles 
moun^ on can. It is cast mb> a large ves- 
■el boldin^ 100 to 160 tons of molten metal, 
eallad tbe mixer. From this mixer the iron is 
tappeid whenever required, and in the quanti- 

ties needed into bdle cars, from whioh it is 
poured into the eouvertere direct. Thia is 
called the direct process. 

The hydraulic crane generally used in works 
in tbe U. S. is illustrated by Fig. 4, and 
consieta of a cylinder open at the top only, and 
requiring chiefly Tertical support from the 
solid pier on which it reeU. Since abt. ISTO 

open-hearth and Bessemer steel hare prac- 
tically displaced puddled iron in the manu- 
facture of rails, wire, plates, structural shapes, 
tin plate, and cut niuls, and has made heavy 
inroads into Its field, in bars and other shapes. 
In 1867 there were produced in the U. 8. 
19,643 long tons of steel; in 1610 there were 

Steele. Sir BichJtTd, 1Q72-1T29; English au- 
thor; b. Dublin; educated at the Charterhouse, 
Loudon, and at Oxford. In 1B06 he enlisted as 
a private in the Life Guards, and in tbe ssme 
year published " The Procession," a jioem on 
Queen Mary's funeral. This was dedicated to 
Lord Cutta, who gave Steele a captain^ in 
the Coldstream Guards.. In 1701 he published 
" The ChriBtian Hero," a short manual of re- 
ligious ethics, and brought out at Drury Lane 
his first comedy, " The Funeral." This was 
followed by " The Lying Lover " and " The 
Tender Husband." About this time he mar- 
ried a widow, Mrs. Margaret Stretch, who 
seems to have died in 1700. In May, 1707, be 
was appointed gazetteer. In September, 1707, 
he married Miss Mary Scurlocic, of Llangun- 
nor, Wales. His letters to this lady were first 
printed in 1787. He was always in pecuniary 
diOicultiea, but such was his amiability that 
be always found friends to assist him, and 
was successively appointed to many lucrative 
offices. In politics be was an ardent Whig. In 
1713 he was returned to Parliament for Stock- 
bridge, and was expelled on account of polit- 
ical articles written by him, but was knighted 
by the king, and returned to Parliament for 
Borou^hbridge in 171S. In 1721 he brought 
out his successful comedy of " Tbe Conscious 

His first wife, who died soon after their 
marriage, brought him a plantation in the W. 
Indies, and his second wife was a Welsh heir- 
ess, but he squandered bis large income in dis- 
ai^tion and unprofitable speculations, and 
being attacked with a paralytic stroke, which 
disabled bim from literary work, he retired to 
his estate at Llangunuor, where he died. " My 
life," he said, " has been spent in sinning and 
repentinc." Several of Steele's political es- 
says and pamphlets had a high reputation In 
their day, and his comedies were well received. 
His chief fame rests upon his connection with 
The Tatl«r and The Spectator, although in 
these his part was inferior to that of Addison, 
who was his lifelong friend. The TatUr ( 1709- 
11 ) contained 271 numbers ; IBS were by 
Steele, 42 by Addison, and 30 by both con- 
jointly. This was eucoeeded by The Spectator 
(I71I'I!), containing 655 numbers, of which 
236 were l^ Steele and 274 by Addison. After 
the discontinuance of The Bpeotator, Steele, 
with the cooperation of Addison, started The 
OvardicM, but Addison soon withdrew, and ths 
work was brought to a close. Steele started 
other papers which were comparatin failures, 
__i ^_ ._^ . — .._=_...,, ... ,.^^ 

Sted EngrxT'lng. See EnesAviHa. 

StMl'ton, Dauphin Co., Pa.; on the Susque- 
hanna BiTer, 3 m. G. of Harrisburg. It was 
laid out under the name of Baldwin in 1866; 
later known aa Steel Works P. O., and incor- 
porated under present name in 1880. It con- 
tains the plant of the Pennsylvania Steel Com- 
pany; several fiour, saw, and planing mills, 
and a public-school building, elected by the 

elected 17 the 


steel oompany. Pop. (1880) 2,447; (1910) 
14,246, sot including the suburtw of Highland, 
Oberlin, New CumbeTland, and New Market. 

St«eil (Ht&n), Jan, 1036-80 ; Dutch painter. 
He punted about 300 pictures, combining all 
the elements of genuine low comedy. In the 
museum at The Hague ia his well-known " Rep- 
resentatioQ of Human Life." 

Stee'ple Chase. See Eoksb Racino. 

Stein (stm), HeinricB Fdedrich Karl (Baron 
Ton), German Btatesman. 1757-1831; b. Naa- 
sau-on-the-Lahn ; atudiad jurisprudence at 
GOttingea, 1773-77; entered the civil service of 
Prusaia, 1780, and was made chief of the de- 
partment of commprce, manufaeturea, and in- 
direct taxation, 1804. Ho was dismisBed, Jan- 
uary 4, 1307, but recalled after the Peace of 
Tilsit (July 20, 1807), and president of 
the cabinet. He developed astonishing energy. 
His reforms were a reorj^anizntion of the Prus- 
sian atate. Serfdom was abolished, and llni- 
versal obligation of military service introduced ; 
manorial estates were tSM-d, nil citizena made 
equal before the law, a lilieral municipal sys- 
tem established, and on the crown lands the 
system of peasant proprietorfihip was intro- 
duced. His final aim "ns to cli'vate the jieaa- 
ant class and to create a powerful and intel- 
ligent middle class, and, with tlie nation 
reorganized on this btisii, to renew the contest 
with Napoleon. He had also a clcnr idea of 
what a united Germany mcnnt, and was averse 
to the division of the country into petty states. 
An incautious letter, in which he criticized the 

Slicy of Napoleon and spoke of his own plans, 
1 into the hands of the French police. 
On November 24, 1908, Ptein was compelled 
to resign, and, on December IBth, Napoleon 
outlawed him and confi-^eatcd his property.. 
He went to Austria, thence to Russin, but once 
again he was at the head of the political affairs 
of Germany during the period between Napo- 
leon's disaster in Russia and the Peace of 
Paris, when he actually was the leader of the 
diplomatic coalition against France. His in- 
fluence soon became small. The German princes 
hated him for hia ideas of a German unity; 
the abeolutista hated him for his ideas of a 
representative government; and he himself was 
unwilling to adopt the impracticable views of 
the radicals. He retired to his estates, and 
died at Kappenberg, Westphalia. 

Stein'bock, any one of several species of the 
family Bovidte. (1) The German designation 
BtHnboek (and hence the Dutch aleenbok) was 
orinoally conferred on the ibex or bouquetin 
of Europe, a species of goat, and to that ani- 
mal the name properly belongs. (See Bou- 
QUETIK.) (2} The Dutch settlers of S. Africa 
applied the name to an antelope peculiar to 
that region. It is the Nanatragua tragulu*. 
The steinbok ia an animal of graceful and sym- 
metrical form, with the head well proportioned, 
having a bovine nose and large muffle; the legs 
long and slender, and the tail very short. The 
color is a fulvous ash above and on the sides. 


and white beneath. The lei^Hi is leas than 3} 

ft., and the height at the shoulder about 1) ft. 
The species is most abundant on stony plains 
and in v.illeys, and eapecially on open flats, 
where large stones and clumps of trees are 
found. It is very swift, and progresses by great 
bounds. It is also very timid and readily 
alarmed. It is much esteemed for its flesh. 

Steinmeti (sttn'mStz), Karl Friedrich von, 
1796-1877; Prussian military ofticer; entered 
the Prussian array 1813 and fought against 
the French; made bis name illustrious as com- 
mander in chief of the Fifth Army Corps in the 
campaign against Austria in 1800. On Jime 
27, 28, and 20, 186S, he made a stand at Nachod, 
Skalitz, and SchweittshHdel with his corps and 
one brigade against three corps of the eneuij', 
defeated them, drove them back, and took 11 
guns and 6,000 prisoners. By tliis victory he 
made it possible for the Second Army to de- 
bouch, on which maneuver the success of the 
Prussian battle plan depended. In the war 
against France, 1871, he was at the head of the 
First Army, but, having in some way conflicted 
with the plana of Von Moltke, he was I Sep- 
tember, 1870) made Governor of Posen and Si- 
lesia, and removed from the theater of war; 
the King, however, declined to accept his res- 
ignation, and (April, 1871) he was made gen- 
eral field marshal. 

Stem, a term of historical grammar denoting 
that part of a <Ac)r(l which is left When the in- 
flexional ending is removed. 

Stem. See Botary. 

Stenog'raphy, systems of brief writing, 
whether written, printed, or published, previous 
to the invention of phonography, or writing by 
sound, invented by Isaac I'itman, 1S37, and 
which is now almost universally used in all- 
English- speaking countries. 

Dr. Young ( 1 JS4-10a2) and Champollion 
(1701-1832) endeavored to prove that the Egyp- 
tians, from their threefold form of writing, had 
a kind of tachygraphy, Diodorus hn\ ing said 
that " the King of Kgypt was hound by a cer- 
tain law to have before him a daily report of 
the state of affairs over tlie length and bieadth 
of his kingdom," some believed the Egyptians 
used shorthand. There are pa.^sages in the Bi' 
ble (Jer. xxxvi, 4, 18; Fa. xlv, 1, and Ezra 
xiv, 24, etc.) which tend to show that the 
Hebrews had abbreviated writing. These are 
merely conjectures. Xenophon (445-355 B.C.) 
is given credit by Diogenes Laertius for having 
first taken down the sayings of Socrates (470— 
399 B.C.) in notes ( hravii»'«i^ivil ) ■ To impart 
a shoi-tliand meaning sucli as that contained in 
the well-known Greek word "luchjgiaphv" is 
overstraining that original tenu. In a letter 
written by Flavins Philostratns, 105 A.n., is 
found the first undoubted mention of a Gieek 
shorthand. It is probable that in the century 
before Christ some kind of writing briefer than 
the common was practiced by the Greeks, but 
existing examples of taehygraphy date only 
from the tenth century. 

Tachygraphy appears to have been taught in 
Roman schools, and many distinguished men, 
among them Emperor Titus (40-8) a.d.), used 
a meuiod ol brief writing. In eftri; Clbnstian 

* I vCoogIc 


times taeh]rgr*phy wks employed in taking 
down the worda and aeraioni ot the bUht^ of 
the Church. In the ninth and tenth centuries 
these brief noteB—initial Greek nod Roman let- 
ters and ooDtraotiona — were used by the revia- 
sre and annotators of the texti of USS. The? 
appear to have gone out of general uae about 
tus time. 

There are etill existing an inventory and 
fifty-four charters ot I^uia the Pius of France 
in the characterH of the Tironian eystem. In 
the time of Frederick Tl (I4S2-1656) shorthand 
was confounded with the Armenian or diat>oI- 
ical characters, and books and MSS. were 
burned. From the reign of Louis XIV (1654) 
until the present there have been a multitude 
of treatises on the art of writing " as quickly 
as one speaks." The syatem most in use by 
practical French reporters is that of Duploye. 
Isaac Pitman's shorthand has been adapted to 
the French language. From the middle of the 
seventeenth century until 1S32 there was no re- 
liable German system of stenography. Franz 
XaverG8bebberger(n8ft-1849) in 1817 planned 
his sTstem, but it was fifteen years before he 
found a publisher. It was at first crude, but 
subsequent editions contained improvements 
which entitled it to first rank in Germany. In 
1900-1 ita practitioners claimed 30,660 pupils 
attending 1,087 schools, and being instructed 
by 1,2-13 professors. The Prussian Chamber is 
the only exception to the olBcial use of the 
Oabelsberger shorthand in Germany. 

There is no country in Europe where short- 
hand is so extensivety practiced as in England. 
In 1002 it boasted the creation of 49S distinct 
systems. Nearly all the earlier ones are worth- 
less catchpenny pamphlets. In 1588 Dr. Timo- 
thy Bright published "Characterie: The Art of 
fthort, SH-ift, Secret Writing." It was dedi- 
cated to Queen Eizabeth, and all others were 
forbidden to print the same. Peter Bales in 
1590 published the art of " Brachygraphy." 
Both these efforts are not now considered wor- 
thy the name of stenography, John Willis is 
regarded as the founder of alphabetic short- 
hand. The first edition appeared in 1602. From 
this date to 1700 appeared forty distinct alpha,- 
betic systems. From 1700 to 1800 there were 
twenty-seven systems published. From Crome 
(1801) to Selwyn (1847) torty-tme systems are 
recorded. Tliese make no pretentions to pho- 
netics, and, with tbe exception of the modified 
and improved systems of Byrora and Taylor, 
which are still used by a few old practitioners, 
have passed out of practical use. Systems 
based on phonetic shortliand alphabets — conso- 
nants and vowels— are; TitTin, 1750; Lyie, 
1702; Holdsworth, 1760; Roe, 1802; Isaac Pit- 
man, 1837; and De Stains, 1839. Of these, only 
the Isaac Pitman system survives, which has 
become practically universal for correspondence 
and reporting. 

In the U. S. previous to 1845 there were 
many uiiauccessful attempts to invent practica- 
ble shorthand systems. Most prominent among 
these were those of Day and Stetson and 
Chnrles Saion. In the early days of the re- 
public modifications of tbe systema of Byrom 
and Taylor were roost used. Thomas 8. Malone 
arranged a - new set of consonant signs, took 

Duplt^'i Towel arrangement, and called it 
" Script Phonography." Being unsuccessful in 

England, it was transferred to the U. S. Sine* 
the introduction and failure of " Script 
Phonography," other systems — five in all — 
having the same vowel basis, have been pub- 
lished, the most vigorously pushed being tiiat 
by Kingsford, entitled " Oxford Shorthand," 
and by Gregg, called " Light-line PbtNiogr^- 
phy." See Phonoobapht. 

Stepb'aniia, or Stephena (ste'vCns], Frencli, 
Ebtiehse or Etiesnk, name of a French fam- 
ily of printers of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. Henst, the founder of the family 

mathematical and theolc^cal works. His sons, 
Fkanoib (1502-50), ROBEBT I (1603-G9), and 
Chasles (abt. 1505-64), were largely engaged 
in printing. Robert in his twentieth year pub- 
lished an edition of tbe Latin New Testament. 
In 1531 he began tbe publication of hia " Did- 
tionarium, seu Thesaurus Lingua lAtina," 
which he Improved in two subsequent editions, 
and which is still in use. He published at least 
eleven complete editions of the Bible, in He- 
brew, Greek, I^tin, and French, besides many 
separate editjoos of tbe New Testament and 3^ 
other worka. He first introduced the existing 
division of the New TestanKot into verses. 
His brother Charles succeeded to his business. 

9S), waa a profound student of Greek litera- 
ture. He carried on business successively in 
Paris and Geneva, but suffered severe financial 
losse* by the publication of his " Thesaurus 
Lingun Grwae.'" Paul (1566-1027), son of 
Henry, succeeded his father at Geneva, and 
Antuoki (abt. 1592-1674), his son, for fifty 
yeara conducted a printing house in Paris, and 
died in poverty. 

Ste'pken, Saint, the first Christian martyr; 
one of the seven deacons in the Christian con- 
gregation of Jerusalem. Charged by the Jews 
with speaking against the law and against God, 
he was stoned to death by order of the Sanhe- 
drin. (Acts vi and vii.) His festival is held 
on December 26th, both in the Eastern and 
Western churches. 

Stephen, the name of ten popes. Some his- 
torians count but nine, from the circumstance 
that Stephen II died three days after his elec- 
tion, March 27, 762, before he had been con- 
secrated. The following bearers of the name 
are the most noteworthy: Stipukh I, Saint, 
pope from abt. 254-257 a.d.; ia noted tor bis 
controversy with Cyprian as to the necessity 
of rebsptiiing converted heretics. The coun- 
cils of Carthage (2S6 and 256) having decided 
Hfrainst the Roman practice of recognizing bap- 
tism by heretics as valid, Stephen broke off 
communion with the African. Church. Stsfbek 
III (11), pope from 752-757, suffered severely 
from the aggreaaiona of the Lombards. After 
asking in vain for help against them from tbe 
Byzantine emperor, Conatantine Copronymua, 

he went in person to Pepin le Bref, chief of the 
PrankB, whom he crowned kine on the condi- 
tion that he should expel AiBtuIf, the Lombard 
king, from the exarchate of R«Tenn« (wd the 
Pentapolia, and bestow these territories on the 
■ee of St. Peter. Pepin made two campaigns 
in Italj, but succeeded at last in forcing the 
Lombards to retreat from the above territories, 
vhidi be then gave to the papal see, in spite 
of tlw protest of the BjEantioe emperor, there- 
by laying the foundation of the temporal power 
of the pope. Stephek ¥11 (VI) (896-897) is 
most noticeable for his violence in respect to 
his predecessor Formosus, whose corpse he 
caused to be exhumed, stripped of the papal 
insi{piiB, mutilat«d, and thrown into the Tiber, 
annulling all his ordinances, and even his con- 
secrations. Stephen X (IX) (1067-68), eon 
of the Duke Gotelon of Lower Lorraine, and 
elected pope through the influence of Cardinal 
Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Or^ory VIL 

Stephen, abt 1100-11S4; King of England; 
the last of the Anglo-Norman line. His father 
was Stephen, Count of Blois, and bis mother 
was Adela or Adeltcia, daughter of William the 
Conqueror. Henry I, his mstemal uncle, pro- 
cured bis marriage to Matilda, heiress to the 
Count of Boulogne, as early as 1114. After 
Henry's death, white deliberations as to his 
proper successor were tn progress in Normandy, 
Stephen hastened to England, and was crowned, 
December, 1135. At first hit government was 
fairlf successful, but his reign was a period 
of war and tumult, the most miserable in Eng- 
lish history. He was involved in contests with 
the Welsh, who inflicted defeat and loss on the 
English. In the war that was renewed with 
Scotland in 1138, the English ^ined the battle 
of the standard, August i2d. The cause of the 
Empress Matilda, Henry's daughter, was early 
taken up hy a party in England, headed by her 
natural brother Robert, Earl of Gloucester; 
and, September 30, 1138, Matilda landed in 
England. Stephen was defeated add made 

Eisoner, February 2, 1141, at the battle of 
ncoln. The greater portion of the country 
submitted to the victors, but Matilda's arro- 
gance caused a speedy reaction. Robert of 
Gloucester was defeated and captured in Sep- 
tember, 1 141, and was exchanged for Stephen. 
At Uie battle of Wiltcm, July I, 1143, Glouces- 
ter was victorious, and the king fled. In 1153 
Henry, son of Matilda, defeated Stephen at 
Malmesbury; but leading men now interposed 
to make peace, and under the Treaty of Win- 
chester (or Wallingford), November 7, 1153, 
the throne passed on Stephen's death to the 
house of Plantagenet in the person of Henry IL 

Stephen, Sir Jamei Pitxjames, 1820-94; 
English jurist; called to the bar, 1864; as 
member of legislative council of India, 1869, 
he made important contributions to codes of 
evidence and criminal procedure. Judge of 
Queen's Bench Division, 1877-91. Wruta "His- 
tory of the Criminal Law of England," " Lib- 
erty, Equality, and Fraternity," digests of evi- 
dence and criminal law, and many monc^aphs. 

Stephen, Leslie, 1832-1904; English author; 
brother of the preceding, educated at Eton, 
King's College, London, and Cambridge. He 

edited T\e Oornhill Magazine, 1871-72, resign- 
ing to take charge of the " Dictionary of Na- 
tional Bioeraphy, the first twenty-six volumes 
of which he edited. Among bis writings are 
" The Playground of Europe," " Free Thinking 
and Plain Spealdng," " Houn in a. Library," 
" History of English Thought in the Eighteenth 
Century," " The Science of Ethics," " An Ag- 
nostic's Apology," besides biographies and an 
edition of Fielding. 

Ste'pheat, Al«z«nd«i Eamflton, 1812-83 ; 
American statesman; b. Georgia; admitted to 
bar, 1834; member Georgia L^slature, 1836~ 
42; member of Congress, 1843^9. He vigor- 
ously opposed the secession ordinance at the 
convention at Milledgeville, January 16, 1861, 
but was a member of the congress which met 
at Monigomeiy in February, and was elected 
vice president of the Confederacy; May 11, 
1865, he was arrested and sent to Fort Warren 
in Boston harbor, but, October 11th, was 
l«roled. Member of Congress, 1872-82; then 
Governor ol Georgia. 

structed the first operable locomotive. In 1815 
he originated the steam blast and devised a 
miner's safety lamp still used in England. 
Sir H. Davy, however, received the pnie of 
£2,(XI0 offei^ for such a lamp, Stephenson 
receiving £100. A subscription of £1,000 was, 
however, later raised for him. The first rail- 
way built by him, opened in 1822, 8 m. long, 
was BO successful that he was thereafter almost 
inoessantly engaged on new roads. In 1824, 
with Edward Pease, he opened locomotive 
works at Newcastle-upon-TjTie. In 1825 he 
was principal engineer of the Liverpool and 
Manchester line, on which he overcame great 
engineering difficulties. He prevailed on the 
directors to otTer a prize of £500 for the most 
eflTective locomotive engine; and at the trial, 
October 6, 1829, his engine the " Rocket," con- 
structed by himself snd his son Robert, was 
adjudged to be the beet. At the opening of 
the road, September IS, 1830, eight locomotives 
constructed at the Stephenson works were em- 
ployed. His life has been written by Samuel 

ROBEBT (1803-59), his son, a railway en- 
gineer. For many years he was employed in 
constructing railways and otber engineering 
works at home and abroad. Among nia most 
remarkable works are the high level bridge 
over the Tyne at Newcastle, the viaduct over 
the Tweed valley at Berwick, the Conway 
bridge, and the Britannia tubular bridge across 
the Menai Straits. He also designed an im- 
mense bridge across the Nile at KaSre Azzayat, 
and the first great tubular bridge across the St. 
Lawrence near Montreal. From 1847 till his 
death he was a member of Parliament. He 

Eublished " Description of the Locomotive 
team Engine," " Report on the Atmoepherio 
Railway System," and " The Great Exhibition, 
its Palace and Contents." His life has been 
written I 
and W. 1 

.y Google ' 

Steppe (•tep), tbo name nren by the Tu- 
Un to the plaina of central A«U. The^ are 
umiallj' coT^^ with grass, and coirespond in 
their aspects and relations to the prairies o{ 
the U. B. and the lUnos and pampas o( S. 

Steppe-mttr'Ttln. See RiimKRFEST. 

Sterfc See Mxrtio Systeu. 

Ste'reo-chBm'iatrr, a branch of chemistrf 
that baa to deal with the relations which the 
atotnH bear to one another in apace. The ordi- 
iisry methods of Investigation of chemical com- 
pounds lead to certain conclu^ons in regard to 
■ existing between the atoms in 

Lnything about the arrangement ii 
two atoms of hyd 
gen. The formula 

two atoms of hrdrogen and the atom of 0x7- 

aula expi« 

of the two atoms of nydrogen is linked to the 

* that each 

atom of oxygen, but the question whether they 
are on the same aide of on oppoaite aides, abOTe 
or below, is not touched. Yet it is certain that 
if these atoms exist and are united in the mole- 
cule they must be arranged in space, and a 
formula that does not take into consideration 
the three dimeniions of space is certainly in- 
complete^ Up to within a comparatively short 
time no facts were known that justified any 
speculation concerning the uiace relations of 
atoms, but it appears that the time has come 
when such speculation is nrofltable, and facts 
are conatantly beioE brougtit to light that can- 
not be explained without itg aid. See Ceeu- 


Stereop'tkon. See Haoio Lantxbit. 

Ste'reoscope, an Instrument by aid of which 
the two eyes view two different pietnres ai the 
same object and combine them Into one hav- 
ing the appearance of solidity. This illusion is 
produced oy presenting to each eye a picture in 
perspective as it would appear to each, which 
can readily be accomplished by means of pho- 
tography. It is said that such a atereotcope 
was conceived by Prof. Elliot, of Edinburgh, In 
1S34, but was not constructed by him till IBSQ, 
after Sir Charles Wheatstone had in 1838 in- 
vented and exhibited his refleoting stereoscope. 
In Wheatstone'a instrument the M)server looks 
with each eye into a separate mirror, the two 
being inclined at an angle of about 4S°, which 
reflect the images of pictures placed one on 
either ude. In I84S Sir David Brewster in- 
vented a refracting Btereoacope, which is more 
convenient than Wheatstone'a. The open atere- 
oecope common in the U. S. was devised in IBSl 
by Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes. In this the two 
pictures are placed side by side, separated by a 
partitbn, and viewed through two lenticular 
priams which slightly magoi^ tbem and 00m- 
Inne them into one. 

The illusions of the stereoecope are explained 
by the fact that binocular vision gives us the 
perception of solidity or the third dimension of 
extension in all objects not over £00 fL distant 
from the eyes; for in the atercoseope we have 
tiie image* formed on the retina of the rieht 
eye and of the left ^milar to the images that 
would be formed in the eyea if real lolia objects 


were before us, having the sizes and the situa- 
tions that they appear to liave in the stereo- 
scopic illusion in the instrument; also, the axes 
of the eyes are inclined to each other in the 
aame manner wh»i looking in the stereoscope 
as they would be if they regarded the above- 
mentioned group of solid objects. Hence tha 
eye is affected exactly as when it views these 
real objects, and a stereoscopic perception is t^ 
effect If the pair of pictures b« transposed, 
that intended tor the right eye being put for 
the left, the effect is a reversal of the relief fore- 
ground points appearing to be in the. back* 
Ste'reotyping and Elec'trotTplaK, the proeeaa 
' making metal plates, reproducing ir *---'— 

ully of oopper, depoa- 
Thera are three methods of atereotypiiu 

U pi 

with a sheet of papier-mache, which forma the 
matrix. Whrai tiie matrix is dry, metal is 
poured upon it, and the resulting plate, when 
trimmed, is ready for the printing press. In 
the chalk-plate process a sheet of steel is cov- 
ered thinly with soft material, like chalk, 
which is scraped away where lines are to show, 
leaving tile ateel bare. The plate is then used 
as a matrix. In electrotyping, a wax mold i* 
first made from the engraving or type and pow- 
dered graphite is apread over its surfaoe, so 
as to make it a conductor of electricity; cop- 
per may then be deposited on it by the ordinary 
process of electroplating. For glyphography a ■ 
sheet of copper la bla^ened ou one side and 
then covered with a waxlike composition. 
Wherever the wax is scraped, the black surface 
is seen, and ahowa what an electrotype printed 
from the plate will be. See ELBcraoTTPb 

Sterne, Laurence, 1713-08; English humor- 
ous author; b. Clonmel, Ireland. He was a 
parish clergyman of Yorkshire and a preben- 
dary of York Cathedral. His "Tristram 
Shandy " took an extraordinary hold upon the 
public, end Stems ranked with Fielding, Rich- 
ardson, and BmoUett as a great writer of prose 
fiction. In 1760 and 1766 appeared four vol- 
umes of termona. In 1767 he wrote the first 
and only part of " The Sentimental Journey," 
his best work. In 1775 hia daughter Lydia 

fublished three volumes of his " Letters to His 
rienda," and in the same year appeared " Let- 
ters to Eliza," consisting of ten letters ad- 
dressed by Stems in 1767 to " Mrs. Elizabeth 
Draper," and another collection of letters in one 
volume. He was a subtle delineator of char- 
acter, and his chosen province was the whim- 
sical. His views are kuidly, but bis works are 
mostly corrupt. 

Steth'oscope, an instrument employed by 
phyaiciaue for the physical exploration of the 
chest. Laennec, the founder of methodical aus- 
cultation, introduced the solid stethoscope, a 
tube made from a single piece of wood (Fig. 1). 
It Is from 10 to IS in. long, has a flanging 


eheatpieoc to receive aound, u open eanal h) 
convey Bound, the solid itructiire alio lerving 
to conduct it, and a broad, flat earpiece for 
sppoiition to the ear and the 'excluBion of ex- 
tranmua Kxmds. This has now been replaced 
by the " binaural " or " double itethoscope " 

{Fig. 2). For careful diagnoais, by eoncen- 
tratiDK local sound, and conveying a separate 
but similar and simultaneous impreasion to 
each ear, the stethoaoope is invaluable. In Uie 
phonendoecope the sound is increased by a 
plate of hard rubber at the end in contact with 
the patient. 

Stettin leVH-ttn'), capital of province of 
Pomerania, Prussia; on the Oder, S3 m. NE. of 
Berlin. The site it occupies is hilly, and the 
houses are neat and substantial. Its sugar le- 
fineries, oil mills, glassworks, breweries, distil- 
leries, and manufactures of anchors, sailcloth, 
rope, tobacco, soap, candlee, hats, etc., are im- 
portant, and Btettin is the tiird port of Ger- 
many; its port on the Baltic is SwinemHnde. 
Stettin was a flourishing member of the Ean- 
seatic League. It forms the outlet for the 
rich products of Silesia. Pop. (1910) 239,146. 

Steuben (stoi'bin), Friediich Wilhelm An- 
pwt Heinrich Feidinand (Baron von), 1730- 
S4; American soldier; b. in Prussia. He en- 
tered the Prussian army in 1747, and distin- 
guished himself at Prague and Roesbach (1767), 
at Kay and Kuneredorf (175B), and later at the 
siege of Schweidnitz. Received special instruc- 
tion in t&cticB from Frederick the Great In 
1764 the Prince of Hohenzoll^n-Hechingen 
made him grand marshal and general of nis 
guard. In 1777 he volunteered in the American 
army under Washington, and during the winter 
reached Valley Forge. On May S, 1TT8, he was 
appointed inspector general ^th the rank of 
major general, and in June he was at the battle 
of Monmouth. He prepare a manual for the 
army, which was approved by Congress In 1779, 
and introduced the most thorough discipline. 
In 1T80 he was a member of the court-martial 
on Major Andre ; afterwards commanded the 


grew Toted him a life annuity of 42,600. Sev- 
eral of the states voted him tracts of land, 
New York presenting him with 16,000 acrea 
near Utica. Died at Steuben, N. Y. He was a 
man of great kindoess and generosity, of ready 
wit, and polished manners. 

Stenlienville, capital of Jefferson Co., Ohio; 
on the Ohio River. It is in a rich agricultural 
and mining region; is laid out on the second 
terrace of the Ohio, above danger from the 
floods, for which the river is noted, and is 
nearly surrounded by hills from 300 to 600 
feet high. Pop. (IBIO) 22,391. 

Ste'vens, Thaddens, 1792-186B; American 
statesman ; b. Peacham, Vt. ; graduated Dart- 
mouth CollMe; went to Gettysburg, Pa., where 
he taught school and studied law; admitted to 
the bar, 1S16, and soon acquired an extensive 

Practice. In the presidential canvass of 182S 
e was a strong opponent of Jackson; in 1833 
and several times later he was a member of the 
state le^slature, and in 1836 a member of the 
convention to revise the state constitution. He 
wa« active in introducing the public-school sys- 
tem in Pennsylvania. In LS48 was elected a 
member of Congress; was reelected 1850, 18S8, 
1862, and thereafter to each Congress until his 
death, serving as chairman of important com- 
mittees, being one of the acknowledged leaders 
of the Republican Party, and distinguishing 
himself for his advocacy of measures in oppc^. 
tion to slavery, for the emancipation and en- 
franchisement of the negroes, and after the war 
for stringent proceedinrs against the seceding 
states. He was one of the most active man- 
agers in the impeachment trial of Pres. John- 
son. Died in Washington. . 

Ste'vcnaon, Adiai Ewing, 1636- ; Vice 
President U. 8., 1893-97; b. Christian Co., Ky.i 
admitted to the bar, 1858; member CongrcM, 
1876-77; again nominated for Vice Preudent 
in 1800 on Democratic-Populist tickets, 

Stevenaon, Robert Louis Balfour, 1860-94; 
English author; b. Edinburgh, Scotland. He 
was admitted to the Scottish bar, but did not 
engage in pracUce. He first attracted attention 
by " An Inland Voyage " and " Travels with a 
Itonkey." These were followed by a series <rf 
romances — "New Arabian Nights," "Treasure 
Island," a tale of buccaneers and buried trea»- 
ure and one of the best boys' books; "Prince 
Otto," a love story; "The Strange Case of Dr.' 
Jekyll and Mr. Hyde," a psychological ro- 
mance, and the moat popular of Stcvenaan's Ac- 
tions 1 " Kidnapped," a novel with historical 
elements and studies of Scottish character types 

Juite equal to Scott's; "The Merr^ Men and 
iher Tales," a volume of short stones in a va- 
riety of keys; "The Master of Ballantrae "; 
" The Wrecker " (with Lloyd Osboume) ; " Da- 
vid Balfour," a sequel to " Kidnapped," etc. 
Rtevenson's versatility is shown in his " A 
Child's Garden of Verses," a very imaginative, 
pnetic representation of the world from the 
childish point of view, and in various volumes 
of travel, criticism, miscellaneous essays, and 
sketehes such as " VirKinibus Puerisque," 
"Across the Plains," "The Silverado Squat- 
ters," and " Memories and Portraits." He trav- 
eled much in search of health, and many of his 


books nere written in a dck bed, on railway 
ioumeye, or at sea. For yeara he resided at 
SMnoa and elaewherc in the S. Sea Islands, re- 
portiiig his observations in " A Footnote of His- 
tory," " Island Nights' Entertainments," etc. 
In an ase of realism Stevenson brilliantly ad- 
vocated the claims of romance both by practice 
and by theory. Died Vailima, Samoa. 

Stewart, Balfonr, 1829-87; Engtisb physi- 
cist; b. Edinburgh. Director at Kew, 1859; 
Prof, of Natural Philosophy, Owens College, 
Hanchcat«r, 1870. He discovered the law of 
equality between the absorptive and radiative 
power of bodies. Joint autnor of " Besearcbes 
m Solar Physics " and of a religio-scientiflc 
treatise, " The Unseen Universe." Also wrote 
many popular tezt-boolis. 

Stewart, David (Duke of Rotbeaay and Earl 
of Carrick), 1377-1401; son of Robert III, 
King of Scotland; became lieutenant of Scot- 
land, subject, however, to the advice of his 
council, of which his uncle, the Duke of Al- 
bany, was a member. He defended Edinburgh 
against Henry IV of England, 1400, but waa 
■oon after seized by the opporite party and 
tmpriioiied In Falkland Castle, where ha died 
by starvation. 

Steyn (stln), Martin"! Thennis, 1857- ; 
Preaident Orange Free State. Called to the bar, 
1S82; StaU Attorney, IB8Q; then raised to the 
bench. President of the republic, 1806. Coop- 
erated with the Transvaal to resUt the Britisn, 
and after Pres. Kruger's departure waa in 
command of the fighting forces. 

Stick'ing Plas'tei, or Adhe'sive PUater, an 
article for surgeons' use, made of resin, lead 
plaster, and soap, melted together and spread 
by machinery upon stout muslin. Light ad- 
hesive plasters, court-plasters, and the like 
are made of silk or goldbeater's skin, covered 
with a solution containing isinglass and gum 
betuoin, and backed with a varnish of Cbian 
turpentine and benzoin. See Coubt PulSTRB. 

SticHUeback, a small fish of the family Oa»- 
terottaidie, having the back armed with stout 
■pines, whence the popular name. The species 

TwivsniniD BncELUA 

rarely exceed 6 in., and are generally much 
less. Although so small, they are neverthe- 
less extremely pugnacious and voracious, and 
attack without hesitation animals many times 
larger than themselves. 

Stfg'ma, certain abnormal appearances which 
mark a degenerate person, such as irregular 
teeth or ears, or deformed palate; or func- 
tional derangement, such as epilepsy or deaf- 


sion upon certain saints of marks similar to the 
five wounds of Christ (stigmata) or of the 
crovm of thoms. Instances are those of St 
Francis of AskeI (September 15, 1224) and 
Veronica Giuliani (1694). Many persons, 
among whom was St Catharine of Siena, ara 
said to have felt at regular intervals the pain 
of such wounds, but without any ex^mial 

Stilicho (stll'1-kfl), FUviiu, abt. 360-408; 
Roman general; the son of a Vandal officer ot 
cavalry under Valens. For his services as an 
envoy to Persia in 384 Theodosiua gave him the 
band of Serena, his adopted daughter. Stilicho 
became tuaster general of the army, and in 304 
Governor of the West as guardian of Honorius. 
Theodosins died in 305, leaving to Honorius the 
Empire of the West and to Arcadius that of tlw 
East. After establishing peace on the border, 
Stilicho turned toward the East, osteoubl^ 

assasBination of Bufinus (305). In 308 a mar- 
riage was celebrated between Btilicho's daugh- 
ter Maria and Honorius. In 403 Stilicho twioa 
defeated Alaric, and in 404 received a triumph 
in Pome. In 406 Italy was invaded by Bada- 
galsus with a swarm of Vandals, Buevi, Bur- 
gundians, Alans, and Ooths; and although he 
was defeated and slain (406) and bis troop* 
sold as slaves, a portion of his horde ravaged 
Gaul, from which Stilicho had been obliged to 
withdraw the garrisons. This caused indigna- 
tion, and Stilicno's power at court was secretly 
undermined by the eunuch Olympius, who rep- 
resented to Honorius that he meditated his 
death, Stilicho took refuge in a church in Ba- 
venna, hut was soon brought out and slain. 

Stilt, a name applied to birds of the genna 
Himantopua, related to the avoeet. , They are 
distinguished by excessively long legs, ft 
straight, slider bill, which is slightly com- 

pressed, feet with the middle and outer toe* 
connected by a small web and destitute of m 
hind toe, and tail projecting beyond the winga. 
Sis spedes of the genua are recognised as m- 



habitants of varioiu purta of the world. One 
species ia found in America, and ranges from 
tile N. U. S, to Paraguay. 

Stim'ulants, tliose agents nhich increase 
functional activity of the various organs of the 
body, especially of the respiration, circulation, 
and nervous system. Such are, preeminently, 
strongly nourishing hot food, if it can be di- 
gested; if it cannot, then aleoholic or ethereal 
potions, ammoniacal soIntlonB, lieat, strych- 
nine, etc. 

Sting Ray, of the genus Trygon, a group be- 
longing to the order Raiia. They nave the 
body rhombic and moderately broad, slcin 
smooth and without tubercles, nasal valves 
coalescent into quadrangular fiaps, teeth flat- 
tened, and the tail long, tapering, destitute of a 
true fin, and armed nith an elongated spine 
(sometimes with two} compressed from before 
backward, with teeth or serratures at each side 
directed downward. These spines are the 
" stings." There are about thirty species found 
in tropical and temperate seas, and are much 
dreaded on account of the wounds they inflict 
with their spine-bearing tail. They can whip 
the tail around with great ease and transfix the 
incautious intruder with the spines. 

Stirling, capital of Stirlingshire, on the 
Forth; 35 m. NW. of Edinburgh. It contains a 
fijie old castle. The town at^ its vicinity are 
rich in historic associations. Tartani, shawls. 
rope, soap, leatlier, and malt are manufactured. 
Fop. (1901) 18,403. 

StlTlingsMre, county of Scotland, forming 
the borderland between the Highlands and the 
Lowlands; area, 447 sq. m., of which about 
two fifths is under cultivation. The W. part of 
the county is mountainous, and rich in iron, 
coal, and freestone. The highest peak is Ben 
Lomond, 3,192 ft., near the foot of which lies 
Loch Lomond. Agriculture, cattle breeding, 
mining, and the manufacture of cotton and 
woolen goods, chemicals, etc., are pursued. The 
ironworks at Carron are among the largesf; in 
the country. Stirlingshire is rich in Ustoric 
associations, and boasts of many battle fields, 
the chief of which are Stirling Bridge, Falkirk, 
Bannockburn, and Kilsyth. Pop. <1911) 161.- 
003. County town, Stirling. 

Stoat See EBUinE. 

Stock Bxcbange', an association of brokers 
In shares, bonds, or other accuiitiea of corpora- 
tions, nations, states, counties, or municipali- 
ties, and in negotiable certificates representing 
commodities of trade. Until the decade ISSO-90 
the last-mentioned instruments were not regu- 
larly dealt in by stock exctianRes. The Petro- 
leum and Mining Exchange of New York City 
was, however, in I8S6, expanded into an ex- 
change for stocks, oil, and mining shares, and 
the older New York Stock Exchange shortly 
afterwards admitted to regular trading on its 
board the so-called " pipe-line certificates " of 
the petroleum market, and later certificates of 
deposited silver bullion, through which the 
price of silver might be made a convenient spec- 

Membership in a stock exchange is nsnally 
limltad, and as, in a number ol exchangee, a 


" seat " is the property not only of an active 
broker, but also of his hein or aasigneee, the 
privilege represented by it possesses a market- 
able value. Memberships in the New York 
Stock Exchange have sold as high as (00,000 
(in 1001) and as low as 91S,260, the record of 
1863. The purchase of a seat from a previous 
incumbent does not of itself entitle the buyer 
to the privilege of trading on the floor. He be- 
comes a member only after formal application 
and by the approval of the committee on ad- 
missions. StocK exchanges are governed by 
strictly enforced by-laws, covering rules for 
general management, mutual arrangement and 
enforcement of contracts, and requirement of 
personal businesB honesty and good behavior. 
On the New York Stock Exchange an insolvent 
member is suspended until he has settled with 
his creditors, and may be readmitted only on 
proof of such settlement and on the formal vot« 
of the committee on admissions, or, if rejected 
by them, on appeal to the general governing 
committee. Suspension or expulsion is also 
fixed as.penalty for (1) the making of fictitious 
sales; (2) the making of fictitious or trifling 
bids or offers; (3) the buying or sellinir erf se- 
curities for a less commission than that fixed in 
the by-laws; (4) "obvious fraud"; (5) refusal 
to comply with any other regular provision of 
the by-laws. 

In nearlv all stock exchanges no Security 
can he dealt in on the floor uSess it has been 
officially admitted by the committee appointed 
for the purpose. Securities may also be ex- 
pressly excluded. The only exception to this 
privilege of exclusion, in Eunniean stock ex- 
changes, is the public stock of the nation to 
which the exchange belongs. In Loudon a ruts 
forbids trading in public loans raised by nations 

change the applicant company must show to 
the committee on stock list th^t the shares or 
bonds in question were regularly issued, and 
that they have been actually marketed. A 
general financial statement at a data not too 
tar distant must accompany the applicaticn. 
In the case of shares, the securities must be reg- 
istered with a trust company satisfactory to the 
stock exchange, lii the case of bonds, evidence 
must be submitted that the mortgage was prop- 
erty drawn and recorded. These stringent pro- 
visions were the result of numerous frauds and 
" overissues " of securities in the earlier his- 
tory of American stock speculation. . On the 
New York Stock Exchange the regular mini' 
mum commission is one eighth of one per cent 
on outside orders, one thirtv-seeond of one per 
cent on orders given by fellow memlierB, and 
one fiftieth of one per cent where a memlier has 
merely employed a fellow memi>er to make the 
bargain, delivery beins made to or by the ,real 
purchaser or seller. All conuniBsions are reck- 
oned on a security's par value. A broker is for- 
bidden under a penalty to sell stock at a price 
lower than the best bid made in his hearing 
for the amount in question oc to buy at a price 
higher than the lowest offer. This is to prevent 
unfair " manipulation." 
In all stocK exchanges actual delivery of 
iui«a, th 

securities sold Is requl 

« apparent tt> 



cation being in cbsm when mutually bftluiced 
eontracta are canceled through the stock ck- 
change clearinjE; house. The commou aasump- 
tion that, trading on stock exchanges iovolvea 
no real sale, purchase, or tranafer, but is merely 
a species oE gambling on differences, is whoUjr 
erroneous. This species of gambling is confined 
to the "bucket shops," private concerns with no 
stock exchange membei^ip, and which neither 
receive nor deliver actual securities, merely 
paying to cuetomers or receiving from them the 
monej' balance due between the stock -exchange 
price at the time of the fictitious sale or pur- 
chase and at the time the contract ia closed. 
In the U. S. these institutions are illegal in 
most states, and are lAided by the police as 
common gambling bouses. 

Trading in stocks has tor nearly two centu- 
ries been characterised by a set of terms and 
phraseology peculiar to itself. A " bear " la a 
market operator working to cause lower prices. 
A ■" bull, conversely, is working for higher 
prices. Both of these terms are at least as 
old as England's S. Sea speculation of 1720. 
The bear is ui^ually ^d to be " short " of 
stocks. The origin of this more modem term 
is plain, and ngnifies that the operator has sold 
stocks which be does not vet own, for delivery 
at a fixed future date. The price may or may 
not be lower than previous recorded quota- 
tions. Usually he receives his payment, at cur- 
rent prices, on the spot, and in modem stock 
exchanges he also makes his deliverv of stocks 
on the spot. But the stock thus aelivered is 
borrowed from real holders, to be repaid when 
the " short " seller " covers " — that is to say, 
when he buys outright in the market to close 
his contracts. The tull is commonly " long " 
of stocks in a speculative way. This term sig- 
nifies that he buys the stock and pays for it in 
money on the spot, but borrows the money for 
payment When he sells his stock, at a profit 
or otherwise, he repays the loan. It often hap- 
pens, therefore, that when the bear is borrow- 
ing stocks and the bull borrowing monev, the 
one is simply lending to the other. Bales oy the 
bulls are currently called liquidation. Stocks 
are said to be " carried " when a banker ad- 
vances money to the bull speculator, retaining 
the stocks as security for the loan. The " car- 
rying rate " naturally varies, therefore, with 
the rate of money and the demand for stocks. 
"Pools" are combinations of operators devot- 
ing their joint resources to the manipulation 
of a single security or group of securities. 
The manipulation is usually directed by one 
member of the pool. Contracts for such pur- 

fiose have in some cases been recognized as 
sgal by the courts, but appeal to law is rarely 
made, and bad faith, such as the " selling out 
on his associates " by one member of a " bull 
poo)," is not easily proved against the offender. 
A "put " is a contract drawn by a capitalist 
or broker and sold at a specified sum to a spec- 
ulator, in virtue of which the speculator may, 
within a fixed period, deliver the stock to the 
iMuer of the put and be paid for it at a stipu- 
ated price. The buyer of a put is, of course, 
' usual^ a bull, and buys the put to guard him- 


contracts to sdl to the buyer of the call, at or 
before a stipulated date, a certain amount of a 
certain stock at a fixed price. The bear buys 
this to guard against unexpected advanceo. A 
" spread " or " straddle " combines the features 
of both put and call, contracting at the option 
of it« buyer to deliver to him or receive from 
him a fixed amount oif securities named, the 
limits of price being set as many points apart as 
the situation, in the view of the issuer, will jus- 
tify. AH of the contracts described are gener- 
ally classed as " options " or " privileges," A 
" wash sale " is a transaction in stocks wherein 
buyer and seller do not permanently transfer 
the securities at all, but work in a commou in- 
terest to create semblance of activity and af- 
fect prices. In most stock exchanges " wash 
sales are forbidden under heavy penalty, but 
they are difficult of detection and undoubtedly 
play a large part in current stock transactions. 
Two expreesions in stock -exchange dialect, 
frequently used in cable dispatches, are peculiar 
to London. " Contango," a word probably de- 
rived from the continental expression for con- 
tingent," refers to the rste or percentage 
charged an operator long of stocks for carrying 
over nis account to the next fortnightly settling 
day. " Backwardation " is an etymological 
barbarism describing the premium, if any, 
charged to a short operator tor permitting him 
to defer delivery from one settling day to the 
next. Its equivalent on the New York Stock 
Exchange is the premium charged in the " loan 
crowd," where actual owners of stocks are lend- 
ing the shares to bear operators desirous of 
making present deliveries. 

Stockliolm, capital of Sweden, is built upon 
the mainland and several islands at the outlet 
of Lake Millar in the Baltic, and has been called 
the " Venice of the North." In the island of 
Staden is the royal palace (built 1697-1754), 
oneof the most beautiful in Europe. The islands 
have been enlarged by embankiDents built on 
piles, whence the name Btockholm, meaning an 
Island on piles. The Swedish kings are crowned 
in the old St Nicholas Church. The Djur^ard, 
or deer park, occupying almost an entire island 
about 3 m. in circumference, and containing the 
Rosendal Palace, is one of the numerous pleas- 
ure grounds. The industry is considerable, es- 
ped&lly in tobacco, leather, linen and cotton 
fabrics, iron, sugar refining, etc. Navigation ia 
closed each year for about five months, during 
which the harbor ia covered with ice. 

The town was founded toward the end of the 
twelfth century by Knut Erikson, and given 
the rank of city in 1255 by Birger Ja.ri; 1389 
it was taken by Margrethe, Queen of Denmark i 
October 14, 1471, the Swedes, under Sten Sture, 
defeated the Danes at BrunkeberR and drove 
them out of the country ; but in 1520 they again 
took the city under Christian II, and the Stock- 
holm massacre took place; bythe general risin;.; 
which resulted, Guslavus Vasa established him- 
self on the throne. During the peaceful tiiii s 
of the nineteenth century the prosperity of the 
citv, like that of all Sweden, has much in- 
cre'ased. Pop. (1907) 337,460. 




BSE. o( ManchwUr. It Is irregularlf built on 
rugged and uneven ground across a gorce. It 
ia BO important seat of the cotton iudUBtrr, 
•nd has also breweries, fou7idrie», machine 
shops, etc. Stockport was the site of a Roman 
BtatioQ, and afterwards of a Nonnan castle, 
which vas destroyed during the parliamentary 
war. Pop. (1911) 108,693. 

Stocks, a wooden apparatus formerly much 
used in Europe for punishing petty offender* 
and Tagrants. It conaisted of two heavy tim- 
bers placed one above the other, with notches so 
arranged that when the upper timber, which was 
movable, was shut down in place and fastened, 
hides were formed in which the ankles of the 

e sometimes 

offender were secured. There v 
other holes for the handa, and li 
hole lor the neck. Stocks were first introduced 
into England probably about the time of the 
statute of laborers, 23 Edward III (1350), 
which provided that they be erected in every 
town, and by subsequent statutes this punish- 
ment was inflicted for minor offenses of various 
kinds down to very recent times. In the U. S. 
they were used to punish slaves. Stocks may 
■till be seen in some villages in England. 

Stock'ton, Francis Richard, 1834-1902 ; Amer- 
ican humorist; b. Philadelphia; applied him- 
self to wood engraving and to literature, con- 
tributing illustrations to Vanity Fair and 
other periodicals, and issuing stories for chil- 
dren, such as " The ' Ting-a-Ling Stories," 
" Tales out of School," etc. He was employed 
successively upon the Philadelphia Post, the 
New York Hearth and Home, Scrihner's 
Monthly (afterwards The Century Magazine), 
and Si. mcholas. The first of his books to at- 
tract general notice to him, as a humorist of 
a new and original vein, was " Rudder Grange." 
This was followed by "The Lady or the 
Tigerl" "The Ijite Mrs. Null," "The Casting 
Away of Mrs. Leeks and Mrs. Aleahine," " The 


Dusantes," " The Merry Chanter," and many 
Stockton, capital Son Joaquin Co., Cal.; on 

an arm of the Ban Joaquin River, 100 m. E. by 
N. of San Francisco. The fertile San Joaquin 
Valley is tributary to Stockton. The water 
supply ia from artesian wells. The average 
temperature is 40° in winter and 76° in sum- 
mer. The city was laid out in 1849 by Charles 
M. Weber, who owned a large tract of land un- 
der a Mexican grant ; first became important as 
a point of departure for gold-mining parties, 
and has since prospered as a commercial and 
wheat-distributiug center. Pop. (1910) 23,2S3. 

Stod'dard, Richard Heniy, 1826-1903; Amer- 
ican journalist and poet]7 b. Hingham, Mass.; 
became a, mechanic in a foundry; contributed 
poems to periodicals, and in 1840 privately 
printed " Footprints," a small volume of 
poems, followed in 1852 by a larger volume; 
1853-73, he held appointments in the New York 
customhouse and dock department; literary 
editor the New York fforW, 1860-70, and in 
1880 became literary editor of the New York 
Mail and Express. Bis writings include " Ad- 
ventures in Fairy Land," " Songs of Summer," 
" Town and Country," " Life, Travels, and 
Books of Alexander von Humboldt," " The 
King's Bell," " The Children in the Wood," in 
verse; "Abraham Lincoln, a Horatian Ode"; 
" Putnam the Brave," " The Book of the East," 
and " The Lion's Cub," poems. 

Sto'icB (literally, belonging to the Porch, 
derivation of Xrai *w«l\tr, the Painted Porch 
at Athens, in which the Stoics were wont 
to gather), an ancient philosophic school 
founded abt. 310 B.C. by Zeno of Citium in 
Cyprus (flourished abt. 350-25S), and which 
for centuries exercised a great and, good influ- 
ence upon the stronger minds, especially of the 

The Stoica attached great importance to 
what they called a criterion of truth, though 
they were never able to fix upon any that 
would satisfy them. They r^arded force and 
matter as inseparable, much as tliey are by 
modern physicists. They believed in a peri- 
odical return of the universe to primeval fire, 
which was, of course, incompatible with the 
resurrection of the body. The individual, as a 
mere temporary emanation, returns at lost to 
his source. But it was its ethics rather than 
its logic or physics which gave stoicism its 
practical importance. 

In their ethica the Stoica, if not altruistic, 
were essentially unselfish — they rigidly main- ' 
tained that the end of life was virtue for vir- 
tue's sake. What virtue was they found it 
difficult to define, their " living agreeably ti> 
nature " being vogue, not to aay that they 
sometimes made nature mean human luiture, 
sometimes universal nature. Man exiata for 
society, for only in that is virtue possible. 
Virtue is sufficient for happiness; and pleas- 
ure, which naturally accompanies activity, is 
not to be sought for ita own sake. The car- 
dinal virtues are practical wisdom, courage. 

wise man, who ia free uid the equ^ of Jupiter 

I :XrOOg IC 


bimMlf. The Stoics drew a broad diatinetion 
between acta and motives, and made the moral 
quality of acts depend eotirel; upon motives. 
Man shall do that which is good independently 
of BUTTOunding influences and circumstancea, 
and, having done that which ia good, he shall 

Stote-npon-Tient, Staffordshire, England; 
on the Trent; 16 m. N. of Stafford. It is the 
capital of the potteries district, producing 
earthenware, porcelain, encaustic tiles and 
pavements. Coal mining and bricic making are 
carried on, and engines, . machinery, etc., are 
made. Pop. (1901) 30,4^0. 

Stom'acht organ for the reception of food, 
its disintegration and solution, and the di- 
. geation of albuminoid matter. The stomach is 
aituated on the left side of the body, below the 
diaphragm, behind and beneath the ribs. It is 
a membranous bag, capable of great distention, 
but often flaccid and collapsed. When full it 
is 12 in. long and 4 high. The stomach re- 
ceives food from the esophagus through its 
upper or cardiac orifice. The greater curva- 
ture of the stomach ia the lower, convex sur- 
face ; the lesser curvature is concave and above. 
Food leaves the stomach through its lower 
orifice, the pylorus, and enters the duodenum, 
the first section of the small intestine. 

The stomach has four coats: (1) Tie octer- 
nal serous layer, coverinf^ It at all points except 
the entrance o£ the nutrient vessels and nerves 
in the great and small curves. (2) The mus- 
cular layer, which has three sets of fibers — 
the longitudinal, the circular, and the oblique. 

Flo. 1 

--Thb Stduach. 

These muscular bands, acting in diflTerent di- 
rections, propel the contained food from aide 
to side of the cavi^, (3) The cellular coat, 
consisting of loose areolar tissue, connects the 
muscular to the Internal mucous coat. It is 
called also the.submucous coat and the vascular 
coat, as it contains the blood veaseU which 
supply the elaborate capillariea. (4} The 
mucous coat, thiclc, especially at the lower or 
pyloric end, presents large longitudinal folds 
when the stomach ia but partially filled or 
empty, which disappear when it is distended. 
Closely inspected, the mucous surface is found 


to be perforated by innumerable closely aggre- 
gated oriQces of the gastric tubules. Tbese are 
of two Icinds : ( I ) the peptic glands situated 
in the cardiac and central parts of the organ, 
end (2) the pyloric situated at the pyloric 
end. The stomach is constantly lubricated t^ 
secreted mucus, which may become excessive 
in digestive disorders. Gastric juice is chiefly 
secreted after the taking of food. By branches 
of the sympathetic nervous system the func- 
tional activity of the stomach is influenced by 

Fio. 2, — The Tbreb Coats or the SioUACa. p. inusr 
■urfkoe muoDui membmtiei mi, drculu layer of 
musoalAT fiben; me, outer layer of loncjludiuai 
mutoular fib«ii; p. lidge of pylorie linf. 

the health of each organ end part of the body; 
it receives the terminal branches of the pneu- 
moKastric nerve, which gives off branches con- 
trolling the action of the heart, lungs, and in 
a measure the larynx and pharynx. It is by 
these connections that gastric indigestion may 
cause palpitation of the heart, difficult and 
sighing breathing, irritability of the larynx, 
and hoarseness, and by reflex influence many 
morbid sensations in various parts of the body. 

The most frequent diseases of the stomach 
are its functional disorders. Acute inflamma- 
tion or gastritis is of rare occurrence, the result 
of violent mechanical or chemical irritation, 
swallowing corrosive poisons or putrid and 
acrid food. It is characteriEed by violent ejec- 
tion of all food, gastric mucus, traces of bloo4 
and bile, by local burning pain, feeble pulse, 
cold e-itremities, and collapse. Perforating 
ulcer of the stomach is a not infrequent dia- 
ease in young women of anemic character. The 
symptoms are pain in the stomach upon recep- 
tion of food, its rejection, and hemorrhage 
when the ulcerative process has eroded a blood 
vessel. Cancer of the stomach is a relatively 
common affection of old persons, particularly 
of males. Cases of entire removal of the 
stomach for cancer or other cause show that 
this organ is not essential to life. 

Stomach Pump, a syringe with a flexible 
tube, designed to be passea down the esopha- 
^s into the stomach, after which water is In- 
jected through it into the stomach and then 
withdrawn by reversing the action of the syr- 
inge. The operation may be repeated until the 
stomach is clear of its contents. The instru- 
ment is useful in removing poisons. In case of 
insane persons, or where some disease of the 
mouth or esophagus exists, artificial feeding is 
required, and is usually done with a simple 
rubber tube, which may also be used as a si- 
phon for washing out the stomach. 

Sto'mata, breathing pores in the epidermis 
of plants, each stoma consisting of two eloQ. 


gated, curved cells, the guud celU {g in fig- 
ure), between which iB a definite opening. 
When the guard cells curve away from one 
another, bb they do when the atmoaphere ia 
moiBt, the alit between them 
^ , is opened, permitting the free 

/ r\ ingresa and egresB of gaaea. 

( 1 N. Thej rarely occur on Bub' 

^^W > merged parte of plants, and in 
I^HL leaves which lie upon the sur- 

^H^B face of the water they are 

^^^B confined to the upper aide. In 

^Hn ordinary leaves they are uau- 

/ 1 nlly uure abundant upon the 

j I luwcr Bide. 

J I Stone, Thomas, 1743-87; 

signer of the Declaration of 
A SioHA. Independence; b. Maryland. 

I He was a lawyer; delegate to 

Congress, 1774-78; served on the committee to 
prepare a plan of confederation ret^lected to 
Congress, 1777 and 1783. 

Stone. See Butxj>in<); Concbete 

Stone, in Great Britain, 14 lb. avoirdupois. 
though other stones are 24 lb. of wool, 8 lb. of 
meat, 16 lb. of cheese, etc. 

Stone (in pathology). 

e Calculus. 

Stone, Age of, the atage of development in 
which people used tools and weapone of atone. 
It doea not refer to general chronology, but to 
a period in the development of each race. Thus 
certain races of the S. Sea islands and the 
extreme N. belonged to the Stone Age in the 
nineteenth century. It seems probable that in 
all parts of the world men have passed throueh 
this stage before making use of metals. In 
Europe the Stone Age is divided into the 
Paleeolitbic and Neolithic. The remains of 
the former consist exclusively of Bint, and 
roughly shaped by clipping into rude forms. 
The Neolithic implements include axes, ham- 
mers, knives, etc. These are made of various 
stones, some finer specimens being of jade, 
often highly polished. 

Stone'henge, a collection of huge stones 


9 to form t 

avals within two 

circles, surrounded by a bank of earth 16 ft 
high and l.ftlO ft. in oircumfcrence. It Is now 
much defaced. There are about 140 stones, 


weighing from 10 to 70 tons. Scattered over 

the plain are about 300 tumuli, or barrows, 
some of which have been opened and found to 
contain charred human bones, fragments of pot- 
tery, and British and Roman ornaments and 
weapone. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, 
Stonehenge was erected by order of Aurelianus 
AmbrosiuB,! the last Brili^ king, in honor of 
4tH) Britons slain by Ilengiat the Saxon. Some 
believe it to have been a druidic temple, and 
others that it was a place of both worship and 
o( council, but later archteoIogiBta regard it as 
a burial place of the people of the Bronze Age, 

Stone Lily, a crinoid having the form of 
a lily. Bee Cbjnoid.£. 

Stone Riv'er, Bat'tle of. See & 

and leaves are very simple, often 
no more than a row of cells, but sometimes a 
rylindrical mass of cells. The sexual organs, 
which occur upon the leaves, conaiat of anthe- 
I'ida and carpogones. Fertilization takes place 
by the entrance of the antherozoid through the 
opening in the coronula, and its fusion with the 
odapbere, which then acquires a thicker walL 
This ripened spore fruit soon falls to the bot- 
tom of the pond, and after a period of rest 
germinatee by sending out a jointed filament, 
which eventually gives rise to a branching plant 
again. The stoneworts number about 150 spe- 
cies. In N. America there are about sixty- 
two species, widely diatributed in ponds and 
slow streams. 

Ston'7 Point, town; Rockland Co., N. Y.; 
at the head of Haverstraw Bay; on the W. side 
of the Hudson River; 42 m. N. of New York 
City. It is on a rocky promontory, which was 
fortified early in the Revolutionary Wjlr, was 
captured, .strengthened, and garrisoned by the 
British, retaken by the U. S. forces under Gen- 
eral Wayne in a night attack. July IS, 1779, 
and soon afterwards the fortifications were de- 
stroyed and the place abandoned. The summit 
contains a lighthouse and fog-bell tower. The 
hou.w in which Arnold held his treasonable in- 
terviews was destroyed by fire in I8B2. Ke- 
mains of the fortifications are Still preserved. 
The site was acquired as a national reservation 
in 1807. Pop. (1910) 3,6S1. 

Stop'page in Tran'situ (fn transttu^Lnt., 
in passage), in law, stopping goods while they 
are in transit, and resurotng possesaiou of them 
by an unpaid seller, who haa parted with their 
possession. The seller is allowed to exercise 
this right upon discovering the insolvency of 
the buyer, on the ground " that the goods of 
one man should not be applied in payment of 
another's man's debts." 

StoT'age Bat'teiJes, also called accumulators 
Of secondarv batteries, are voltaic cells for the 
storage of electrical energy. Voltaic cells may 
be dii-ided into two classes: primary and sec- 
ondary. A primary cell consists of two chem- 
icallv different mrlnl*. such as zinc and copper, 
placed in a vessel or jar coUtaining an add to- 


lution called an electrolyte. This combiiuttjoii 
will give a current of electrieit; whenever the 
tnetau are coimectad by a, eonductor. Thii cur- 
rent, the eTiei^ of vliich is obtained by the 
combination of one of the metals with the acid 
part of the electrolyte, will continue to flow 
until the supply of metal and electrolvte ie ex- 
hausted. The products of the chemical reaction 
must then be removed and fresh material sup- 
plied before the cell can be brought into activ- 
ity again. 

In the storage battery or secondary cdl the 
necesBBry difference between the two metais la 
brought about by the direct actioa of the cur- 
rent flowing through the cell. The current em- 
ployed for this purpose, which is called the 
charging current, baa a portion of its energy 
transformed into potential energy of chemical 
combination, in which form it may be said to 
be stored— hence the term storage battery. 
After the charging process has gone on for a 
sufficient length of time the cell may be taken 
out of the circuit, its terminals metallically 
connected, and it may thus be made to give 
current just as any primary cell would do. 
This current, which Is calleo the diechaiging 
current, flows in the opposite direction irom 
the charging current.' The amount of energy 
which may be obtained from it can never ex- 
ceed the total energy stored in the cell by the 
action of the charging current, but under the 
best conditions it may approach very near to 
the latter in amount. 

A storage battery does not in reality store up 
electricity! but by electrochemical action it 
stoics up energy, which is supplied to It in the 
form of electricity, and which it will return in 
the same form, ^ving, when charged, a cur- 
rent like an ordinary primary battery. The 
ordinary storage battery consists of plates of 
lead covered with lead salts, placed ■- " -"" 

the lead sulphate, formed by the action of the 
acid, becomes spongy metallic lead at one plate 
and brown lead dioxide at the other. When the 
lottery discharges, the dioxide is again reduced 
to lead sulphate, and a similar action takes 
place with the spongy lead. By passing a 
charging current through the cell again the 
plates are restored to their original condition. 

There are two varieties of Btorage-battery 
plates, known as the pasted and the Plants. 
In the Plants plates the active material is 
formed by certain chemical actions on the lead 
plate itself. In the pasted plates, known also 
as the Faure, the active material is made up in 
quantities and applied to a perforated lead 
plate called a grid. The capacity of a battery 
is usually given in ampere hours, meaning that 
a tattery will discharge a given number of am- 
peres for a certain number of hours. A battery 

ampere hours. A new type of storage battery 
invented by Thomas A. Edison usen nickel steel 
in place of lead, thereby gaining considerably 
in lightness^— a great consideration. Storage 
batteries are made in many sizes and of differ- 
ent dedgns to suit the purposes for which they 
are required. Tbey are much nwd for running 

electric launcbes and automobiles and to sup- 
plement a dynamo, from which they may store 
enough ener^ to be expended at intervals when 
the dynamo u insufficient or at rest. 

Stork, any bird of the genua Cioonia and of 
the family Ciconiid<B, which contains half a 
dozen species, all — save C. tnagnari — inhab- 
itants of the Old World. In general appearance 
they resemble the European stork {C. alba). 
This is a large bird, 3} ft. long; the head, neck, 
and body above, as well as below, are white, 
the wings partly black, and the bill and leg* 

red. It is a migratory species, which In the 
warm season extends into N. Europe, and in 
winter (as well as other seasons) is found in 
N. Africa and Asia. It has no cry, but claps , 
its bill together with a loud noise. Storks are 
great favorites with the people, who conceive 
that their presence brinp good luck. They 
often build upon the roofs ofhouses. They de- 
vour offal, reptiles, and other vermin. The 
stork displays remarkable affection for its 
young, and'is of old a popular emblem of filial 
liety and conjugal laithfulnese. See also 

, ^jjij gjiAoOW BiBD. 

Storm, an intense atmospheric disturbance, 
which may be general or local, and may be 
characterised by high winds, when it is of es- 
pecial importance to navigators, or by heavy 
precipitation of rain or snow, when it is most 
important inland, or by both wind and precipi- 
tation. General storms are areas of low pres- 
sure (" lows," or cyclones) of intense action, 
which travel eastward in temperate latitudes, 
hut westward in the tropics. In summer very 
few of the " lows " are sufficiently intense to de- 
serve the name of storm; in winter, perhaps, 
half of them are stormv, and in spring and au- 
tumn the ratio is still larger. 

Stormy weather ineresses in frequency from 
the tropics toward the poles. The ocean in 
the vicinity of Cape Horn has the reputation 
of being the stormiest sea in the world, but 
the N. Atlantic is the stormiest frequented 
ocean. The Pacific Ocean deserves its name 
only In lower latitadea. About the Aleutiaa 


Islands and 8. of AustrslasiB, it is vetj BtoTrnj. 

In the U. 8. the Htomi frequency is greatest in 
New EnfUnd uid the region of the Great 
Lakes. Next come the eKtreme NW. and the 
Atlantic coast. The most destructive general 
storms in the U. 8. are of tropical origin 
(see HcBBCCASBS), but they affect only the 
E. part of the country and occur only In late 
Rummer and autumn. The general storms 
which enter Uie U. 8. from the W. Gulf coast 
or Mexico in the colder seasons bring wai 
weather with abundant precipitation, si 
times torrential raina. Host of the general 
storms which alTect the E. part of the U. S. 
appear first in sight on the plains E. of the 
Rocky Mountains, in Alberta or Assiniboia. 
The American storms which last long enough 
to cross the Atlantic usually pass northward 
of the British IslandB. A few pass over Great 
Britain, or sometimel pass farther S., over 
France, or ereu Spain. 

The approach of a general storm is heralded 
by a falling barometer, a rising thermometer 
(generally), and a sheet of clouds ascending 
from the W. and preceded by long, filmy 
Btrealcs of cirrhua. These signs usually give 
a day's notice, and the weather map a no- 
tice of two or three days. The storm lasts 
from one to three days; the maximum of 
rainfall and wind usually precede by a few 
hours the minimum of air pressure; and the 
retreat of the signs of the storm is more rapid 
than their advance with the approaching 
storm. The official forecasts of general storms 
can be mode with more accuracy than those 
with moderate changes of weather, and their 
approach is herald^ by storm signals and 
warnings. A general storm occupies an area 
of about 600 m. in diameter, and may live 
from three days to a fortnight. 

While the advance of the general 'storm can 
be forecasted with fair accuracy a day or two 
beforehand, the same is not true of local 
storma They are small, are not of long dura- 
tion, travel but short distances, occur usually 
in warm weather, and only in Oie hottest part 
of the day. In the U. g. local storniB usually 
occur in the warm season a few hundred miles 
to the southward of a large, moist, and warm 
" low," especially when this is closely followed 
by a shaip fall of temperature. In the tropica 
they have no association with general areas of 
low pressure, but have a marked diurnal pe- 
riodicity. For instance, at San Jdb£, Costa 
Riea, in the roioy season there is rain two days 
in three, and the rain is always after noon. 
Nine tenths of the rain there ^lls between 2 
FM, and 7 P.u. 

Sto'ry, Joseph, 1T79-1S4G; American jurist; 
b. Marblehead, Mass. He was several times 
elected to the Massachusetts Legislature, and 
in 1B08 to Congress; ISll he was appointed As' 
sociate Justice of the U. 8. 8upreme Court; 
1829, Prof, of Law in Harvard, and he after- 
wards resided in Cambridge. His worha com- 
prise " Commentaries mi the Constitution of 
the United Btates," " Commentaries on the Con- 
flict of Laws," " Comm»ntari«fl on Equity Ju- 

risprudence," and " Equity Pleadings," and va- 
rious treatises, which have passed through 
many editions. 

Story, WilliAm Wetmoie, 1810-95; sculptor 
and author. He studied law, and published a 
"Treatise on the Law of CiDntracts" and a 
"Treatise on the Law of Bales of Personal 
Property," and three volumes of reports of 
case in the U. S. Circuit Court. Among his 
other publications are two volumes of poems 
(1S4T and 1366}; "Eoba di Roma, or Walks 
and Talks About Rome "; "A Roman Lawyer 
in Jerusalem"; "Nero, an Historical Play," 
and " Castle St Angelo and the Evil Eye, being 
Additional Chapters to ' Roba di Roma.'" 
After 1648 be resided in Rome, devoting him- 
self to sculpture. Among his works are a ut- 
ting statue of his father, in marble, in the 
chapel at Mt. Aubtim; statues of George Pea- 
body, Josiah Quincy, and Edward £^erett; 
busts of Lowell and Theodore Parker, and 
many ideal works. 

StOtk'ard,Thomaa,lT66-lB34; English paint- 
er and designer; b. London; apprenticed to a 
designer of patterns for the silk trade, but soon 
became an- illustrator of books, and finally a 
painter. Elected Fellow of the Royal Acad- 
emy in 1794, and its librarian in 1812. His il- 
lustrations for books number more than ifiOO, 
among them being those for " Robinson Cru- 
soe " and "The Pilgrim's Progress," 1788; the 
"Rape of the I^oek," 1798; the worics of the 
German poet Gessner, 1802; Conper's poems, 
1826, and Rogers's " Italy " and poems. He ' 
made many designs for KOldsmitbs., Amon^ his 
best paintings are the '"Canterbury Pilgrims," 
" Flitch of Bacon," " Four Periods in a Sailor's 

Stvraine', a synthetic product, the hydro- 
chlorate of I-dimenthylamijio ^-benzoyl pen- 
tanol, discovered by Ernest Fonmeau, a French 
chemist whose name, translated into English, 
is " 8tove." It is not, as many think, a de- 
rivative of cocaine. It is not as poisonous as 
cocaine; it takes three times as much stovaine 
as cocaine to kill a guinea-pig. As a local 
anesthetic it is considered by many as good 
as coca4ne. Prof. Thomas Jonnesco, a Rou- 
manian, of the medical department of the 
Univ. of Bucharest, has recently brought this 
anesthetic prominently before the American 
public. Stovaine's local anesthetic properties 
are applied by its injection in solution into 
the spinal canal. The discoverer of spinal 
anesthesia was Dr. J. Leonard Corning, of 
New York City, who at that time, 1866, used 
the then only available drug, cocaine. 

Stove, an apparatus for retaining and dif- 
fusing heat, as for warming and ventilating or 
cooking. In the Middle Ages stoves, construct- 
ed of onck or tiles, were used for warming 
dwellings. They were large, and in Scandinavia 
their broad, flat surfaces were sleeping places. 
The fire was kindled at the bottom, and the 
heat and smoke passed through flues into tha 
chimney. Some of these stoves had ovens uid 
Sues for cooking, and when once thoroughly 
heated required feeding but once in twenty-lour 
hours. Cardinal Polignac, in France, construct- 


ed flreplkMS with hollow backs, bekrths, And 

Jaaba of iron, and Des Aguliera modified Po- 
KDAc's flrepliiceB to a.B to use them lor coal. 
Neither these, nor the Holland stoves, which 
were introduced sobn after (plain bmc stoves, 
with a Hmall amoke pipe or flue at the top, and 
a aingle door, into which the wood or coal was 
thrown), became popular in England, owing to 
the prejudice of tba people in favor of open 
firea. Franklin's atove was a great advance. 
Although, in ita ordinary use, a fireplace, it was 
capable of being closed, and hod a downward 
draught, distributing the heat through the air 
boxea in its sides, till at laat the remainder ot 
the heat escaped with the smoke through a flue 
leading into the base of the chimney. A reg- 
ister or " damper " of sheet iron was introducol 
into the descending flue, which checked and con- 
trolled the Ore. In ITTl and lat«r Franklin in- 
vented other stoves. Between IT86 and 1795 
B«njamin Thompson (Count Kumford) derisad 
several improvements in stoves, intended to 
economize fuel and heat. 

In the U. B. before 1S25 the use of stoves, 
generally of the box pattern and very rude, 
was confined to shops and offices, public rooms, 
and churches in cities and larger villages. In 
the country the churches were seldom warmed, 
but the women carried foot stoves and the men 
protected their feet by stout overshoes, called 
''boxea." Among the wealthy in cities cannel 
and other EngBsh coal (sea coal ") was 
burned in imported grates or in the Rumford 
stove, lined Mth fire brick. A greater number 
in cities ana larger villagea used the Franklin 
stove, burning wood and making an open fire- 
place of it The rest of the world used the old 
open, capacious fireplace, buniing wood logs. 
Until 1835 stoves in the U. S. were heavier and 
ruder than now and had loose and imperfect 
joints. Most of them were made In New Jer- 
sey, Penosylvania, and Ohio, though a few 
were east quite early in the furnaces at Cold 
Spring and Warwick, N. Y., and at Balisbury 
and Canaan, Conn. Stoves for heating pur- 
poses were either box stoves, made on uie old 
German plan, au oven being sometimes added, 
placed directly over the fire, or portable and 
partly open fireplaces made on Franklin's 
plans. For cooking purposes Count Rumford's 
cooking Btovea or ranges, lined with fire brick 
or Boapstone, and with a ventilating oven, 
which had been introduced in New York aa 
early as 1768 and into Boston about 1800, were 

E dually coming into use. Anthracite coal was 
tined to create a revolution in stoves. Jor- 
dan L. Uott and James Wilson, both of New 
York, made self-feeding stoves between 1827 
and 1831 that would bum the British coats, 
and were an improvement on previous inven- 
tions; but it was not until 1S33, when Ur. 
Uott had demonstrated that an anthracite fire 
could be made successfully from nut and pea- 
sized coals, and that the depth of the column 
of coal in his self-feeders must be in direct pro- 

Eartion to its site, the largest coal requiring the 
ighest column, that anthracite-coal stoves be- 
came aalable. The first cooking stoves made in 
Albany (1835) were ot the old ten-plate oval 

Cttein, with oven above the flre and a single 
le gn the top. These were followed by the 


saddlebag pattern, having the oven in the mid- 
dle oyer the fire and the stove collar and pipe 
over it. The nest pattern was the horse block 
(so called from the rear portion of the stove, 
which contained the oven, being a step higher 
than the front). The rotary atove, having a 
movable top, revolved by means of a crank, so 
as to bring any desired vessel directly over 
the fire, was a later invention. Then came the 
buck atove, both (or wood and coal, having the 
flre above the oven and reversible flues, which 
carried the heat and flame around, behind, and 
below the oven. 

In cooking stoves and fixed and portable 
ranges the number of inventors and manufac- 
turera is lai^ge. The eflJorta of the stove makers 
since 1850 have been directed rather toward 
completing the adaptation of the principles of 
base burning, hot-air feeding, and the anti- 
clinker arrangement to stoves and greater accu- 
racy and perfection of the castings than to the 
discovery of any new principles. Portable and 
brick-set ranges in great variety are now pro- 
duced, with similar arrangements for heating 
water as in the cooldng stoves. They are well 
constructed, have all the improved facilities tor 
labor and fuel saving, and are particularly 
noteworthy for the perfection of their castings 
and finish. 

While the use in the U. 8. of cast iron has 
continued for heating stoves and the majority 
ot cooking stoves, there has been a growing ap- 
plication ot steel in the construction of cooking 
ranges. Since 1685 an important development 
has been in the use of gasoline as a fuel. At 
first such stoves were made so aa to bum the 
gasoline direct, but in the newer forms, called 
process stoves, the gasoline is first changed into 

¥i.a. Kerosene has also been used aa a fuel, 
he employment of illuminating gas as a fuel 
is steadily growing, and in cities improved 
burners and cheapened gas have led to the in- 
troduction of many forms of gas stoves for use 
in apartments. The use of electricitv as a heat 
producer is recognized, and forms of heating ap- 
paratus for it have been devised, but as yet its 
employment is not large. All the stoves used 
in the U. B. are of domestic manufacture. In 
the U. S. In 1909 there were 676 esUblish- 
ments, having a total capital of tS6,944,000, 
for the manufacture of stoves and furnaces; 
the value of products, including repairing, waa 

Stowe, Harriet Elixabetk (Beeches), 18U- 
98; American author; daughter of Lyman 
Beecheri b. Litchfield, Conn. At thirteen she 
was sent to the school kept by her sister Cath- 
erine at Hartford, where she studied and 
taught until 1632, when she mnoved to Ciucin- 
naU; married, 1836, to Rev. Calvin E. Stowe, 
then professor at Lane Seminary, Cincinnati. 
In 1840 she published "The Mayflower, or 
Sketches of the Descendants of the Pilgrims," 
and in 1B5I began in The li'ational Era of 
Waahington a serial to illustrate the horrors 
of slavery, which was published separately in 
1852 as '' Uncle Tom's Cabin," and attained a 
rapid and almost unparalleled succesa at home 
and abroad. Within five years 600,000 copies 
were sold in the U. S.; within ten yeaia there 
bad been made from it two or three Fmioh ver 


aions and more than a dozen Germaii ones. It 
. woe also translated into Danish, Bwediah, Porta- 

Kese, Spanish, Italian, Welsh, Sutdan, Polish, 
in^^rian, Wendiah, Wailachian, Arraeoinn, 
Arabic, Romaic, Chinese, and Japanese. It has 
been repeatedly dramatized. It did more than 
any other literary agency to rouse the public 
conRcience against slavery. In 1663 she put 
forth a " Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin," in which 
was set [ortb the main facts upon which the 
story was based, together with many incidents 
in corroboration of its truthfulness. 

In 18G0 Mrs. Stowe removed to Brunswick, 
Me., where her husband was a professor in 
Bowdoin College; 18fi2 they went to Andover, 
Mass., where ne had accepted a chair in the 
theological seminary. In tSSS she accompanied 
her husband and her brother tn Europe, and 
upon her return published "Sunny Memories 
01 Foreign Lands. Her subsequent writings, 
mostly inferior, usually first appeared in peri- 
odicals, especially in The Atlantic Monthly 
and in Searth and Borne, of which she was 
for a time one of the editors. Among these are 
" Dred," later published as "Nina Gordon"; 
" The Minister's Wooing," *' The Pearl of Orr's 
Island," " Agnes ol Sorrento," " Oldtown 
Folks," " Pink and White Tyranny," " My Wife 
and I," " Bihle Heroines," " Poganuc People," 
" A Dog's Misnon," and a volume of reli^oua 
poems. Her paper in The Atlantio Monthly, 
" The Tnie Story of Lord Byron's Life," started 
an unfortunate scandal, and she replied to ber 
critics with "Lady Byrim Vindicated: a His- 
tory of the Byron ControTeray." In 1864 Mre. 
Stowe removed to Hartford, Conn., where she 
died July 1, ISH. 

Strabis'mai. See Squinttho. 

Stralo, abt. 64 B.o.-abt. 24 aj;.; Greek 

geographer; b. Pontus, Asia Minor. He trav- 
eled in Syria, Fgypt, Crete, Greece, and Italy, 
' and wrote "Historical Memdrs," wbieh are 
tost, and a " Geography " which embodies the 
geogrspbical knowledge of bis age. 

Stradivarina (stra-dl-Ttl'rl-tls), Antonio, 1644- 
1737; Italian maker of musical instruments; 
b. Cremona, Italy; learned the art of making 
violins and other string instruments from Nic- 
olo Amati, under whom he worked for several 
years; in 1668 began to make violins marked 
with his own signature, and by. degrees not 
only rivaled, but even outshone his master. 
His best instruments were made between 1700 
and 1T2S, and command from 91,000 to f3,000. 

Strafford, Thomas Wentwortb (Earl of), 
1603-1641; English statesman. He was elected 
to Parliament in 1614, was made Baron and 
Viscount Wentwortb in 1628, and was the most 
trusted adviser of Charles L He was appointed 
Lord President of the Council of the North, and 
in 1632 Governor of Ireland, where his adminis- 
tration was severe and unjust, but advanced 
the material prosperity of the people. He 
aimed at the establishment of his system of 
" thorough," or the absolute power of the King, 
and he acquired the designation of " the Wicked' 
Earl." In 1640 he was created Earl of Straf- 
ford and appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 
In the same year Charles put him in command 

of the anny against Uie insurgent Scots, before 
whom the royal troops fled, panic-struck, after 
the rout at Newbum (August 28tb) ; and con- 
trary to the strenuous advice of Straflord, th« 
King accepted the terms imposed by the Scots. 
In November articles of impeachment were pre- 
sented against Strafford, who was accusea of 
an attempt to subvert the liberties of the coun- 
try. His guilt is placed beyond a doubt by 
later evidence, but .it could not then be proved, 
and the House abandoned the original impeach- 
ment A bill of attainder was passed, and the 
King, by Strafford's own advice, but in viola- 
tion of an express pledge to him, signed a war- 
rant for his execution. His attainder was re- 
versed under Charles IL 

Straits Set'ttoments, a British crown colony 
in tbe K Indies, including Malacca, Penang or 
Prince of Wales Island, with the province of 
Wellesley, the Dindlngs, and Singapore. The 
Settlements were made a separate dependency 
of the British crown in 1853 and placed under 
tbe Governor General of India. April 1, 1867, 
the connection with India ceased, the provinca 
became a crown colony, and is administered by 
a goTnnor residing at Singapore. In 1866 the 
Cocos or Keeling Islands were attached to the 
colony, and in I86B Christmas Island. Christ- 
mas Island was annexed to the Settlement of 
Singapore in 1000 and the Cocos Islands in 
1003. Tbe British possessions, of 1,4721 eq. m., 
were inhabited (1901) by 572^48 persons, 
mostly Chinese and Malays. Since January 1, 
IS07, tbe colony of Labuan has been included in 
the colony and incorporated for administralive 
purposes in the Settlement of Singapore. The 
federated Malay states (Perak, Selangor, Negri 
Sembilan, and Paliang) comprise about 34,660 
sq. m. Pop. (IMl) 672,249, not including Jo- 
hor, which has an estimated population of 
300,000. Tbe internal administration of these 
states is in tbe hands of the British residents. 
Mining is actively carried on, and tin is export- 
ed from Perak and Selangor. Fifteen hundred 
British troops and • few vessels maintain 
order and punish piracy. 

Stiamo'ninm, a drug consisting of tbe seeds 
and leaves of Datura ttramonium, an annual 
plant of tbe Bolanacea, growing as a weed 
throughout almost all the temperate and warm- 
er countries of the world. The herb, called 
thorn apple, and in the U. S. also Jamestown 
or Jimson weed, is found mostly in rank soil 
near dwellings. Its average height is 3 ft. 
Tbe seeds are flat and of a dark-brown color. 
Both leaves and seeds contain an alkaloid, 
daturine, closely analogous in its poiaonous 
properties to atropine. Medicinally, stramo- 
nium is a duplicato of belladonna. The dried 
leaves or powdered roots are smoked for the 
relief of asthma. 

Strasa'bnrK, fortifled town of Alsace, on the 
ni, the Breusch, and the Rhine-RhAne and 
Rhine-Mame canals; 2 m. W. of the Rhine. 
It is ill built, with narrow atreeta and high 
houses, but is improving. Tbe most remark- 
able of its buildings is the cathedral, with • 
tower 466 ft high, fdunded in 610 by Chlodwig, 
but the older structure was destroyed by light- 
ning in 1007. In 1016 Bishop Werner, of 


Hapaburg, laid a new foundation, and in 1275 
the main buUding was finished. The tower was 
b^ion in 1277 aod completed in 1439. In this 
building is the famoua clock (made 1547^0), 
representing our planetary system and ita con- 
■tellations. The Church of St. Thomas, founded 
in 1031 and containing a monument to Mar- 
shal Saxe, and the New Church are also notice- 
able. A German university was opened May 
1, 1S72, and numerous educational and benev- 
olent institutions exisL Commerce and indus- 
try flourish in consequence of the favorable 
situation on the river. Under French domin- 
ion the city had a strong bastioned circum- 
vsUation, but since 1871 a new system of forti- 
fication has been applied, consisting of large, 
strong forts surrounding the Inner fortifica- 
tions, BO that an army can encamp between the 
city and the forts, while the city is protected 
from the enemy's Are liy the outer forts. 

During the Middle Ages Strassburg was one 
of the moat powerful free cities of the German 
Empire, and during the Reformation it was a 
center of the Protest&nt movement. September 
30, 1681, Louis XIV captured it, and l^y the 
Peace of Byswick he retained it. It continued, 
however, a completely German city down to 
the revolution, when French gradually gained 
the ascendency. By the Peace of Frankfort 
(1871) it returned to Germany, and Ixicame the 
seat of the civil and military Kovemment of 
Alsacb-Lorraink (s-b.) Pop. (1910) 178,290. 
Strassbnrg Gock, the famous clock in Straas- 
burg made in 1547-80. It is 30 ft. high and 
15 ft. broad at the base. It has globes and 
calendars which indicate sidereal time, the ris- 
ing and setting of the stars, phases of the 
moon, the days of tbe month, the fixed and 
movable feasts. The days of the week are rep- 
resented by figures of Diana, Mars, Mercuiy, 
Jupiter, Venus, Cupid, and Saturn drawn in 
chariots. A figure turns an hourglass at 
the end of each hour and the quarter hours 
are struck by figures — the first by an infant 
with a rattle, the second by a youth, the third 
by an old man, and the last by Death, with a 
bone. At Uie top Is a figure of Christ, before 
which, each day at noon, passes a proceasion 
of figures of the twelve apostles while a cock 
crows three times, 

Stiaf egy, that branch of the art of war 
which has for its object the initiation and con- 
duct of wars, campaigns, and battles in such a 
mamier as ( 1 ) to take advantage of all avail- 
able means for securing success, and (2) to 
Cftusethe greatest benefits to result from vic- 
tory and the least injury from defeat. Ques- 
tions of statesmauBhip ttnd diplomacy are fre- 
quently the leading factors in planning modem 
campaigns and oattles, and thus become 
strategical considerations. Tlie domain of 
strat^y includes the methods of organizing 
and autioning active armies and reserves so 
that without unintentionally threatening or 

cial oonsiderationa have weight in this connec- 
tion, and frequently fix the time for banning 
hoatiUtiM ana determine the plan of campaign. 
In a country with a popvlar government, in 


order to arouse enthusiasm and lead the people 
to make necessary sacrifices, strategy, as de- 
fined above, sometimes requires a plan of cam- 
paign which, under other circumatajices, might 
not be desirable. 

An army in campaign seeks to obtain pos- 
session of some pomt which is known as its 
objective, which is selected with a view to the 
injury inflicted upon the enemy by its loss, 
and UiB advantages resulting from its capture. 
The first may be material, moral, or political; 
the second generally consist in facilities tor 
further advance, better communications, and 
greater ease in supplying the army. Hence 
objectives are frequently capitals, large com- 
mercial or manufacturing cities, arsenals, river 
crossings, or railway centers. The base of 
operations is that part of a country from which 
an army draws its supplies. The portion of 
country between the army and its base which 
contains the railways, wagon roads, and water 
routes, by which the arm^ advances and re- 
ceives its supplies, is its line of operations or 
its communications. Since the combatants of 
an army cannot be expected to carry with them 
more ammunition, provisions, etc., than are 
needed for one battle, this line of operations 
must not be broken. Strategical movements 
frequently are directed with a view to threat- 
ening the enemy's oommunicatioiiB and protect- 

A large army covering a very extended front 
may, by a skillful attack, have one wing de- 
stroyed before the other can come to its sup- 
port. To accomplish or prevent this is another 
problem in strategy of frequent application. 
Similar problems arise when a small but con- 
centrated army tries to beat in detail the parts 
of a larger one which attempts to concentrate 
upon a point at or near that occupied by the 
smaller force, and also in maneuvering to 
strike a hostile force in flank. The guiding 
principles of strategy consist in so conducting 
the preliminary operations and movements as 
to force the enemy to flght at a disadvantage 
either in numbers, in position, or in the rd- 
ative results which will follow victory or 
defeat. The best strategical combinations, 
however, will not secure victory unless supple- 

operations, and which is the field of tactics. 

There have been many great generals who 
were not men of learning, or even men with 
great powera of understanding. The question 
at once suggests itself. Why is it, then, that 
there are so few great generalsl A glance at 
some of the difficulties met with at every step 
in actual 'campaigning will give the answer. 
A complete list of them would not be prac- 
ticable, but the following are examples; (I) 
There are comparatively few men whose mintb 
are not somewhat clouded by the presence of 
danger; great moral and physical courage are 
therefore necessary. (2) There is total or par- 
tial iterance of the enemy's condition and 
intentions, and information is contradictory. 
Tbe natural anxiety as to the correctness of 
our conjectures upon these points leads, with 
nn ordinaty man, to hesitation and doubt, and 
these are Utal. Perfect self-reliance and eabn 


ftdhcreaee to origiiuil pluiB are here damanded. 
(3) There ie oearly alwEiys some miscalculBi- 
Uon in the difficulties of a road or the strength 
of a poet. Expecting to reacb n point at a 
given time, a commander finds himself a. long 
distaoee from it Great energy, strong will, 
even aome severity to obtain toe utmost exer- 
tions of the troops, are here necessary. (4) 
The movements of an enterprising enemy call 
constantly for new combinations, and these 
must be made and act^d on nlthout hesitation. 
This demands great decision of character. ( 6 ) 
To insure the full support of troops, the gen- 
eral must he able to impress upon them bis 
own spirit. This requires a deep knowledge of 
men. (6] There is always the element of 
chance; a sudden rain storm or a fog may 
neutralize the greatest efforts. 

The following are some of the principal max- 
ims of war^: ( 1 ) Foresee everything that the 
enemy may do, and provide means to thwart 
him. (2) The forces employed must be pro- 
portionate to the obstacles to be overcome. (3) 
Debate well at the outset whether'to assume 
the offensive or defensive; but the offensive 
having been selected, pursue It to the last ex- 
tremity. (4) Be ready to meet the enemy at 
all hours of the day or night, whether on the 
march, at a halt, or in camp. (6) With an 
army inferior in numbers avoid a general bat- 
tle, and supply the place of numbers 1^ rapid- 
ity of marching. (6) The honor of his arms 
is a general's first consideration, the lives of 
his men secondary, though the two are entirely 
consistent with each other, for safety to the 
whole is found in audacity and persistency. 
(Tt Never do what the enemy wishes you to, 
for the reason merely that he desires it. (B) 
When surprised by a superior enemy, a bold 
attack, will generally disconcert him. {9) On 
the day of tattle neglect no chance of success ; 
a battalion sometimes decides the day. See 

Strat'ford de Bed'cliffe, Stbattobo CANinno 
(Viscount), 1786-1880; English diplomatist; 
b. London; educated at Eton and Cambridge; 
1814, minister to Switzerland; 1820, on a spe- 
cial mission to the U. S. ; 1S24, to Russia, and, 
1825, ambassador to Turkey, Diplomatic in- 
tercourse having been interrupted by the naval 
battle of Navarino, he returned to England and 
sat in Parliament until 1842, when he was 
again ambassador to Turkey till 1858, during 
which time his influence at the Ottoman court 
was great, and always in favor of reforms, 
especially to ameliorate the condition of the 
Christian population of Turkey. The most in- 
teresting pomt of his whole career was the 
contest between him and Prince Meoshikofi!, in 
1853. The question was whether British or 
Russian influence should prevail iu Constanti- 
nople, or, rather, whether Russia should be 
allowed to settle the destinies of Turkey to her 
own advantage and without regard to other 
European powers. The keenly contested diplo- 
matic stru^le — the result of which was the 
Crimean War— is narrated with dramatic 
power by Kinglake in his " Invasion of the 
Crimea." Canning was raised to the peerage 
in 1362 by the title of Viscount Stratford de 
Bedcliffe. He published an essay, "Why am 


I a Christian t" and a drama, "Alfred the 
Great in Athelney." 

Stratford, a city in Perth Co., Ontario, Can- 
ada, S8 m. W. of Toronto. It has excellent 
water power and manufactures of iron cast- 
ings, agricultural implements, machinery, lum- 
ber, furniture, woollens, and flour. The Grand 
Trunk Railroad haa extensive workshops in 
the city, giving employment to a large num- 
tar of men. Pop. (1911) 12,846. 

Stratford-on-A'van, in Warwickshire, Eng- 
land; 8 m. SVV. of Warwick; on the Avon, here 
crossed In a bridge with fourteen arches built 
iu the fifteenth century. The house in which 
Bhakespeare was bom is still preservral; tJiat 
in which be died has been razed. The former, 
which is a, Shakespeare museum, and Anne 
Hathaway's cottage (at Shottery, I m. W. of 
Stratford) are national property. In the chan- 
cel, restored 1890-92, Shakespeare was buried. 
Pop. (1901) 8,310. 

Strath'clyde, an independent kingdom formed 
in SW, Scotland at the dissolution of the 
ancient Britannic confederacy, and consisting 
chiefly of the broad valley of Clyde. The an- 
nals of its sovereigns are involved in obscurity, 
little more thaJi their names being known. It 
fell to the crown of Scotland early in the 
twelfth century, was held for some years hy 
Prince David as an independent kingdom, and 
was permanently united to Scotland on his 
accession in 1124. 

Stiathco'DA and Hoiuit Boy's!, Sn Donald 
Alexandsb Buitu (Lord), 1820- ; Cana- 
dian statesman; b. Archieston, Scotland; en- 
tered the service of the Hudson Bay Company 
in 1838, and was promoted until he became resi- 
dent governor and chief commissioner of the 
company in Canada. In 1870 he entered the 
legislature and the House of Commons, but re- 
signed his seat in the legislature four years 
later. He remained in the house until 1880, 
and entered again in 1887, remaining until 
1896, when he retired from Canadian political 
life on his appointment to represent the Do- 
minion in London as High Commissioner. In 
1897 he was raised to the peerage as Baron 
Strathcona and Mount Royal; Cnancellor of 
Aberdeen Univ., 1903. 

Stratlfica'tjon and Stra'ttun. See GSoloot. 

Stia'tna. See CLOtma. 

Stravn (strowse), name of a noted family 
of composers. Johakn (1804-49], the elder, 
h. Vienna, in early childhood showed gr^at tal- 
ent for the violin; became deputy conductor 
to I^nner. In 1826 he had his own orchestra, 
and began writing the waltzes which have made 
the name of Strauss known everywhere. In 
1840 he conducted for the first time in the 
Imperial Volksgarten, Vienna. He had five 
children. Johann (1826-99), the eldest son, 
b. Vienna, succeeded his father as conductor, 
and in 1SB3 became conductor of the court 
balls. Be composed nearly 400 waltzes, and a 
number of operettas which have had great suc- 
cess. He retired from the conductorship in 
1870 to devote himself to composition. Joseph 
(1327-70), the next Bon, b. Vienna, became 


r And composer. Eb vorka 
DtUDber upward of 283. Eduabd (1835- ), 
the third son, b. Vieniui, made bis first ap- 
peanukce as a conductor in 1862) in 1865 con- 
ducted at St. Petersburg, and in 1370 huc- 
oeeded his brother Johann in Vienna. He has 
composed over 200 danoe pieces. Both Johann 
And Eduard visited tlie U. 8. and conducted 

Strauss, D«rid Tiiedrich, 1603-74 ; Qerman 
philosopher; b. Ludwigsburg, Wflrtembere. 
While stud^ng at TQbingen wrote his " Life 
of Jesus" (1835-36), based upon the principle 
that nothing which is supernatural, neither 
prophecj nor miracle, can be historical. He 
replied to his critics in several " Btreitschrif- 
ten" and in " Zwei friadliche BlKtter." He 
lost his theological position at TUbingen, and 
became e. teacher in Ludwigsburg and Stutt- 
gart. He was called to be Prof, of Dogmatics 
and Church History in Zurich, 1838, but was 
deprived of his chair bj a popular insurrec- 
tion, though retaining for life half his aalarf ; 
1840-11, he attempt^ to do for theology what 
he had aimed at m his " Life of Christ," but 
his work, though learned and acute, made a 
comparativeij slight impression. In 1847 he 
wrote an ingenious parallel between Julian the 
Apostate and King Frederick William IV of 
FruBsia. In 1857 he produced an important 
'• Life of Ulrich von Hutten," In 1864 he 
wrote a second " Life of Jesus." 

Strauss founded no school, either in philoao- 
phf or theology. He was a critic, learned, 
sagacious, yet without well-defined ultimate 
system. His life is a reflex of the most extreme 
anti -Christian theory of human life. He b^an 
as an idealist, and ended as a materialist. He 

Sve up his early Hegelian pantheism to the 
:est theory of atheistic evolution. I>ied at 
Ludwigsburg of cancer, after long and patient 
suffering, and was buried, by his own direction, 
without any church service. 

Straw, the stalk or stem of certain grains, 
chiefly wheat, rye, oats, barW, and buckwheat, 
and sometimes of peas and beans. Straw en- 
ters largely into the manufacture of textile 
fabrics, paper, and braid for hata and trim- 
ming Mats for sleeping on are perhaps the 
earliest objects that were made from straw. 
Baskets and bags of braided straw are still 
eommon. Those made in the S. Sea Islands 
are so close in texture, though quite fiexible, 
as to be impervious to water. A development 
of the art is shown in the Panama hats made 
In S. and Central America from the straw of 
the Carlitdooica palmata. The leaves of this 
plant, which resemblea a patm, are gathered 
before they unfold, and, after the ribs and 
coarser veins have been removed, are cut into 
shreds. These are exposed to the sun and then 
tied into a knot and immersed in boiling water 
until they became white, when they are hung 
up in the shade and afterwards bleached. The 
finest Panama hats take several months to 
make, and come from Ecuador, while commoner 
kinds are made in a few days. In the U. S. 
ft domestic straw from some varieties of hair 
grass was formerly used in making women's 
hats. Straw in its natural state is put to 


innumerable uses. The fiber from the straw 
of the flax plant is largely used in mek'ng 
linen. Straw is much employed In paper mak- 
ing, and lye straw yields the best qualities of 

StrawHMrry, any species of the genua Fraga- 
ria, family Botaeea. The genua, comprising 
about twelve species, is con&aed to temperate 
climates. The species are all low herbs with 
thrice-divided leaves, propagating by runners, 
and bearing the flowers and fruite upon short 
scapes. The strawberry fruit is a fleshy re- 
ceptacle or stem, upon which the true fruits 
or akenes — generally called seeds — are home. 
The strawberry is of recent cultivation, the 
first-named garden variety having appeared in 
1660. At the present time it is largely grown, 
and in N. America it exceeds In importance any 
other of the small fruits. Commercial straw- 
berry culture began in the U. S. abt. 1B30. The 
commercial strawberries of N. America are off- 
springs of the old Pine strawberries, sprung 
from the Chilian beny (F, chiUxntia). la 
the N. U. S. strawberries grow best in a rich, 
sandy ^m. The plants are not profitable 
after having home three crops. An average 
good yield is from 160 to 260 bu. per acre. 

Strea'tor, city of La Salle Co., HI., on the 
Vermilion River. It ia built on the river 
bluffs; is surrounded by a rich agricultural 
country, and is underlaid by several seama of 
coal, two of which are beina' worked, and also 
by valuable straU of shale, ^re clay, and other 
clsys, which are used in making paving brick, 
sewer pipe, and other cla^ products. The in- 
dustrial esteblishments include clay- working 
factories, producing building and paving brick, 
sewer pipe, and tile; several manufactories of 
glass lK>ttIeB, window glass, rolled plate glass. 
Bint and Bohemian ware, and glass specialties ; 
foundries and machine shops, and flour and 
planing milU. Pop. (IBIO) 14,263. 

Street Rall'wayt, or Tiam'wara, railways 
constructed in citiei or tewns, and desioned ' 
especially for local passenger traffic. The first 
street railway was built by John Stephenson 
in New York in 1831, on the Bowery and 
Fourth Avenue, from Prince Street to Uie 
Harlem River. In 18S2 the Second, Third, 
Sixth, and Eighth Avenue lines in New York 
were begun. Boston began the construction 
of horse-car lines in 1S66, Philadelphia in 
1857, and New Orleans in 1S61. In France 
a lirie was constructed in Paris in 1363. In 
Oreat Britain, in 1880, George Francis Train 
built a road at Birkenhead and one in Lon- 
don, which was removed in a few months, and 
not until 1870 were horse cars permitted in 
that city. In 1866 a number of horse-car lines 
were built in S. America. 

In 1870, in several American cities, surface 
cable lines and elevated roads with steam loco- 
motives began to be constructed. The first 
city to construct a cable line was San Fran- 
> (1873), whose hilly location made horse 
impracticable on many of its streets. 
Chicago began to use cable traction in 1878, 
and Philadelphia in l'B84. The first franchise 
an elevated railway was granted to New 



York City in 1867. The first plan wm to use 
cable traction upon these elevated linea, but it 
ma decided to adopt dummy locomoti'rea, which 

were used for twenty years, until displaced by 
electricity. In Chicago the construction of ele- 
vated railways began in 1888; Boston's system 
wag opened in 1903, and Philadelphia's in IQOT. 

In 1864 the dynamo was invented which later 
made possible the use of electricity to propel 
railway cars, but it was not until nearly 
twenty-five years later that it was adapted to 
street-railway service. At first the overhead 
trolley was used, but gave wa^ to the under- 
ground trolley as soon as the difficulty of insu- 
lating the conductor in the conduit was over- 
come, and the expense reduced. The third-rail 
syBt<an utilizes a rail placed on the ties between 
Uie two-track rails or about 2 ft. outside of the 
rail as a positive conductor. A cast-iron eliding 
shoe collects the current from the rail. The third 
rail has many advanta^iea for beavy work. 

In 1880 seven tenths of the total single-track 
mileage of street railways in the U. S. was 
operated by animal power; to-day, with the 
exception of a few ^ort cable lines, electric 
traction occupies the field. The transition from 
animal to mechanical traction was quickly 
made, because of the greater economy and effi- 
ciency of the electric railway. In 18BB there 
were 503 m. of horee-car lines in Massachusetts 
and no electric roads, and the ratio of operat- 
ing expenses to gross receipts was 81.07 per 
cent. In 1902 there were no horse-car lines 
and i,4Si m. of electric roads, and the operat- 
ing expenses had fallen to 69.6 per cent. For 
d^ription of the system, see EfLECTBio Rah.- 
WATB. In 1881 Mdcarski applied compressed 
air with success as a motive power to street 
cars at Nantes, France, and tbe same method 
has since been applied in Paris and in Bern, 
Switzerland. See Railway; UNnEBOBocuD 

Strength of Mate'rials, the resistance of ma- 
terials to forces which tend to change their 
form; often called the elasticity and resistance 
of materiala The materials used in constmc- 
tions are more or less elastic when the applied 
forces are not too great*— that is, tbey spring 
back to their original form upon the removal of 
these forces. It is a rule in engineering, that 
materials should not be strained beyond the 
elastic limit, since then the elasticity is im- 

K'lred and a permanent deformation results. 
e molecular reeistance which is developed by 
an applied force is called stress. Stresses are 
tensile when the forces tend to pull a body 
apart, compre^ive when they tend to crush it, 
and shearing when they tend to cut it across. 
In bending a beam stresses are produced often 
called flexurat, but they can always be resolved 
into those ot tension, compression, and shear; in 
twisting a shaft, stresses are produced often 
called torsional, but the^ can also be resolved 
into the three kinds ot simple stress. 

Of materials, steel has the greatest strength, 
followed by wrouBht and cast iron. Timber va- 
ries in strength, the heav^ woods, as box, ash, 
and beech, being more resistant than the lighter 
poplar and white pine. 

Steady stresses occur in buildinf^, varying 
stresses in bridges, while shocks are liable to 

occur in machinery and on railway wheels and 
rails. Tbe injurious natura ot shoeka r»quires a 
high factor of safetv, and hence a tow working 
stress. A load suadenly applied theoretically 
produces twice the stress caused by the aune 
load when applied gradually, and the elongation 
is also double. When a load drops upon a bar 
the resulting stresses and deformations are often 
more than double those caused by a gradually 
applied load. In all cases it is desirable that 
such a factor of safety should be used that the 
maximum working unit stress mav not exceed 
one half the elastic limits of the material. 
Repeated stresses beyond the elastic limit cause 
a change of molecular structure, or, as com- 
monly expressed, the material becomes fa- 
tigued. For instance, if the ultimate strength 
of a bar of wrought iron is G6,000 and its elas- 
tic limit is 25,000 lb. per sq. in., a single appli- 
cation of a load will not cause fracture until 
the 66,000 lb. per stj. in. is reached; but if 
stresses be often apphed which exceed the 25,- 
000 lb. per sq. in., the molecular structure ia 
altered, the iron becomes brittle, and finally 
fracture will occur under a stress of perhaps 
30,000 or 40,000 lb. per sq. in. It is, hence, a 
fundamental rule that the materials of perma- 
nent structures should not be strained beyond 
the elastic limit, and the factor of safety ahould 
be selected with this in view. 

Strike (in geology). See Fault. 

Strike, the refusal of the employees of an 
establishment to work unless tbe management 
complies with some demand. A lockout occurs 
when the management refuses to allow em- 
ployees to work except under some condition 
dictated by the management. 

The first great strike of which we have a rec- 
ord was that of tbe Hebrews in E^pt. There was 
a prolonged labor agitation, lastmg many years, 
which the Egyptians endeavored to repress by 
imposing severer tasks upon the Hebrews. 

A strike may be declared for one <»■ more of 
the following objects: (1) To secure an ad- 
vance or resist a reduction in wages. (2) To 
effect a reduction or oppose an increase of the 
hours of labor. (3) To resist the discharge of 
union men and binder the employment of non- 
union men. (4) To regulate methods of work, 
materials used, number of apprentices, kind of 
work done by each branch of laborers, and the 
like. (5) To support a strike in some other 
industry or in some other branch of tbe same 
industry, as when pavers strike to help gran- 
ite cutters, or hrakemen to help switchmen on 
a railway. These are sympsthetic strikes. 
Strikes are wisely held by workmen to be tbe 
last resort of a contest, and never to be risked 
nnti] it is clear that the desired object cannot 
he reached without them. They are expensive, 
arduous, and uncertain, and if rashly under- 
taken end in disaster after much suffering. 

To the earlier weapons ot strikers modern in- 
genuity has added the boycott, by which all 
markets are closed against the goods of the 
employer against whoin a strike is ordered. 
This proved a very effective weapon in the 
hands of laborers, but its illegality has recently 
been declared by the courts. 

The first recorded strike in tbe U. 8. was that 
of the journeymen bakers in 174L_jrhe leadera 



were tii«d for conapiraer. Next came Uia ahoc- 
maken of Philadelphia in ITM, 1796, and I7M; 
then the Bailors in Philadelphia in 1803, who 
struck for $14 againttt <10 a month. They 
were arrested and the leaders imprisaned. In 
1309 the New York cordwainers struck, and 
used the term " scab " to denote nanatrikers of 
their association. Printers struck in 1821, us- 
ing the word " rat " for nonunion men against 
whom thev struck. In 1B34 the 6nt women's 
strike took place at Lynn, Mass., In the shoe 
trade. It was unsuccessful. In 1S7T occurred 
the great railway strikes on the Baltimore i, 
Ohio, the Pennsylvania, and the Erie systems, 
resulting in the destruction on Julv 2Ut'23d of 
1,600 cars, 126 locomotives, and »5,000.000 worth 
of property. In the spring of 1692 occurred the 
granite cutters' strike, i^ch extended finally 
to pavers in New York, and arrested for a 
time the whole stone industry. This was, bow- 
ever, quite eclipsed by the famous strike in the 
Carnegie ironworks at Homestead, which were 
kept in a state of siege for several days. Eight 
thousand soldiers were required to subdue the 
rioters, and though the strilce apparently failed, 
yet it probably minimized the wiliingness of 
both laborers and capitalists to enter upon 
future battles. In 1894 a railway strike in 
Chicago and other Western cities, although a 
failure, threatened for a time the commercial 
interests of the whole country. 

The cost of strikes runs into enormous sums; 
<0O,OOO,OOO was sunk in strikes and lockouta 
from 1S81 to 1688. One lockout on the Clyde, 
in Scotland, was reckoned to have cost the 
unions $7SO,000, while 91,660,000 was last in 
wages. A strike in Manchester, England, cost 
the unions (400,000 and the employers $1,600,- 
000. False economic theories are responuble 
for a large part of the enmity between capital 
and labor, out of which strikes and lockouts 
are bom. The false notion that profits must 
fall as wages rise— a notion contradicted flatly 
by history, which shows high wages and laive 
profits inseparably yoked together— is partly 
responsible for the striking spirit. The higher- 
priced workmen are in reality the cheaper, on 
accountof the quantity and quality of the work 
done. Low-priced labor ia found to be dearest. 
Of course, it would be but a visionary business 
policy to favor increasing wages were it not that 
wage advance mesne larger demand, increased 
consumption, and ultimately larger profits, out 
of which, again, further advances of wages may 
be made, as they will certainly be demanded by 
strikes. Violence nearly always condemni the 
strikers in public r^ard and defeats their ends, 
while it cripples their resources. It is of no 
advantage b) wortcmen striking for wages to 
destroy the property out of which wages come, 
and the impolicy of violence toward property 
ia now becomine clear to strikers themselves; 
but toward workmen seekins to take the place 
of strikers there is still a ready spirit of violence. 

During the period 1881-1906 there were in the 
U. S. 36,767 strikes and 1,546 lockouts, involv- 
ing I99,9E>4 establishments and throwing 9,629,- 
434 persons out of work. The greatest nnmbw 
of strikes occurred in the building trades and 
the largMt peroent^e of strike* was in New 
York SUta. 


Strob'oBcope, an instrument for examining 
the motion of a body by intermittent light. In 

its simplest form it is a disk perforated with a 
series of equidistant radial openings, through 
which the body is viewed while the disk rotates 
uniformly. The principle of the stroboscope is 
applied in instruments to which a variety of 
names have been ^ven, such as thaumatrope, 
phenakistoscope, Yibroscope, xoetrope, soOpraxi- 
Bcope, kinetoBcope, etc. If a succession of pho- 
tographs of a rapidly moving body be taken at 
intervals of less than one tenth of a second, 
and these be appropriately arranged for exami- 
nation by the stroboscopic method, the result- 
ing perception is that of the body in actual 
motion. With the development of instantane- 
ous photography the preparation of such series 
of pictures has been brought to a high degree of 

Stromlrali, northernmost of the Llpari la- 
lands, in the Mediterranean, off the N. eoast of 
Sicily; area, 8 sq. m. It is wholly of volcanic 
formation, and Jias a constantly active volcano, 
3,040 ft., with an extinct crat«r on top, but an 
active one on the side at about 2,150 ft Cot- 
ton, wine, and fruit of superior quality are 
produced, and sulphur and pumice stone are ex- 
ported. On the east side lies the smaU town of 
Stromboli. Pop. of island, 2,000. 

Stron'tinm, the metallic basis of strontia, 
one of the alkaline earths, first obtained by Sir 
H. Davy in 1808. It is & pale ydlow, bums 
with a crimson fiame, emtttmg sparks; decom- 
poses water, liberating hydrogen gas; is bard, 
ductile,, and malleable, and is obtained from 
the anhydrous chloride hj electndysis. Specific 
gravity, 2.54; atomic weight, 87 .S; symbol, Sr. 
Its most important compound is the oxide 
called strontia, a grayish-white, porous mass, 
which combines with water to form a white 
potrder, hydrate of strontium (SrO.H.O). This 
compound has acquired importance in Germany 
for Ite use in extracting sugar from beet-root 
molaases. The nitrate Sr(NO,), is emi^oyed in 
making crimson lights in ^reworks. The crys- 
talline sulphate (SrSO,) is found native, and is 
known as celestine. 

Strophan'thns, a genus of apoeynaceons 
plants. From certain African climbing shrubs 
of this genus is prepared a poison locally 
known as kombo, inee, and onaye, and used tor 
the purposes of the chase and war, which con- 
teins a crystalline principle, strophanthin, 
which has a powerful influence upon the mus- 
cular system, first stimulsting, but if in sufB- 
eient doses Anally causing a general paralysis, 
ending in death through failure of the respira- 
tion. It affects not only the voluntary mus- 
cles, but also the muscle flbers in the heart and 
in the walls of the blood vessels; and since its 
first action, and indeed its entire action when 
in minute doses, is stimulating, it is a valuable 
remedy in failure of the heart. It resembles 
digitafis, but is more prompt and fugacious in 
its action, and acte more powerfully upon the 

Stm'thin. Bee Sapodih. 

Stmtt, John William (third Baroo Ray- 
leigh), 1S48- ; English phyddst; adneated 



at Cambridge; fellow of Trinity College, 1886; 
Prof, of Experimental Physics, Cambridge, 
1879-84; Prof, of Natural Philosophy, Kojal 
IiLstitutJon of London, since 1887. He is the 
author of " The Theory of Sound." In 1884, in 
conjunction nith Prof. Ramaay, he discovered 
a new element in the atmosphere, which he has 
called argon. 

Stnive, Otto Williwn, I81B-1905 ; b. Dorpat. 
Ab consulting astronomer he superintended, 
1847 to 1862, all investigations conducted by 
the Russian army and navy. He succeeded Ins 
father aa director of the observatory of Pul- 
kova and resigned 18S0. His labors relate 
chiefly to nebulie, double stars, faint sateilitea, 
and comets, and include a new determination 
of the constant precefision, the discoTery of 
about 600 new double stars, the determination 
of the mass of Neptune, investigationa in re- 

Erd to Saturn and his rings and to the paral- 
c of various fixed stars, and obserrations of 
the nebula of Orion. He first showed that the 
red prominences visible in a total solar eclipse 
belong to the aun's surface. 

Sti7ch'nine. See Kux Vouica. 

Stn'ait, or Stewart, a royal family which 
has given several sovereigns to Scotland and 
England. They trace their descent to a Nor- 
man baron, Alan, who accompanied William 
the Conqueror, and received large gifts of land 
in England. His second son went to Scotland, 
entered the service of David I (abt. 1130), by 
whom he was made steward of the kingdom, 
the dignity remaining hereditary in the family, 
who assumed the title as their family name. 
The sixth of these Stewards married in 1316 
a daughter of Robert Bruce, and their son 
Robert in 13T1 succeeded David Bruce on the 
throne of Scotland as Robert H. The fallow- 
ing are the sovereigns of the Stuart line, with 
the dates of their accession: Robbbt II 
(1371), RoBEBT lU (1390), Jauxh I (1424), 
Jaues II (1437), Jauss III (1460), James 
IV (1488), Jaues V (1513), Uabt Stuabt, 
Queen of Scots (1642); Jauxb VI, crowned 
King of Scotland in 1568, King of England as 
Jaiibb I (1003), and transmitted both thrones 
to his successors; Chables I (1626), Chables 
U (1649), and James II (1685). See the re- 
spective titles. James Il'e son. Jambs Edwabd 
Francis Stuabt, assumed the title of James 
III upon the death of his father, and is known 
as the Old Pretender. His eldest son, Chables 
Edwabd, is known as the Young Pretender. 
Beury, the second son of the Old Pretender 
(see Stuabt, Heitbt Benedict Makia Clem- 
ent), died in 1807, and with him ceased the 
line of the Stuarts. The present royal family 
of England are descended only indirectly, and 
in the female line, from the Stuarts, through 
a granddaughter of James I of England, upon 
whom the succession was bestowed by Pariia- 

Stuart, Arabella or Arbella, 1576-161B; often 
called the Lady Arabella; the only child of 
Charles Stuart, Earl of Lennox, brother of 
Damley and uncle of James I. Her relation- 
ship to Elizabeth, being the same as that of 
James, made her the subject of constant in- 
trigues, and in 1603 Sir Walter Raleigh was 


accused of a plot to raise her to the throne. 
In 1610 she secretly married William Seymour, 
grandson of the Eart of Hertford. Seymour 
was committed to the Tower, and the Lady 
Arabella placed in custody. In June, 1611, she 
escaped by feigning illness, but was captured 
while sailing to France >iid thrown into the 
Tower, where she became insane. 

Stuart, Gilltert Charles, 1766-1828; Amer- 
ican painter; b. Rhode Island. Ue received 
his first instructions from a Scottish painter 
named Alexander, went to England in 1778, 
was befriended by West, and rose to eminence, 
rivaling Reynolds. After residing in Dublin 
and Paris, he returned to America, 1793. He 
went to Philadelphia to paint a portrait of 
Washington, 'and destroyed his first picture as 
unsatisfactory; but at the second sitting he 
produced the well-known head from which he 
painted all his other portraits of Washington, 
and which is regarded as the standard likeness. 
After residing several years in Washington, be 
settled in Boston, 1906. As a painter of beads 
he holds the first place amouK American artists, 
if we except Copley, and nis flesh coloring 
rivals the finest modem efforts. Over 750 of 
his portraits are in existenoe. 

Stnait, James EweD Brown, 1833-64; Con- 
federate cavalry general; b. Patrick Co., Va.; 
graduated U. S. Military Academy, 1864. Re- 
signed his captaincy in the Union army, and 
was in chief comraand of the Ckmfederate cav- 
alry at the first battle of Bull Run. As briga- 
dier general (September, 1861) and major 
general (July, 1862} he served with the army 
of N. Virginia. During the invasion of Mary- 
land he covered the Confederate rear, and took 
Krt in the battle of Antietam. At Chancel- 
'sville, after the fall of Stonewall Jackson, 
he was in temporary command. During the 
campaign of Qettysburg he passed up through 
E. Maryland and Pennsylvania, and rejoined 
Lee at Gettysburg. In 1864 Stuart, by a wide 
detour, suoceeded in interposing himself be- 
tween the Confederate capital and Sheridan's 
column. Concentrating at Yellow Tavern, near 
Richmond, he was attacked by his able rival. 
During the obstinate but ineffectual struggle 
Gen. Stuart was mortally wounded. 

Stnbbs, William, I82&-1901; English his- 
torian; Bishop of Oxford; b. Knaresborough, 
educated at Bi^n, Christ Church, Oxford ; 
elected a fellow m Trinity College; took holy 
orders, 1848; became vicar of Navestock, 1862; 
librarian to the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
1362, and was school inspector in the diocese ' 
of Rochester, 1860-66, when he received tha 
appointment of Regius Prof, of Modem His- 
tory at Oxford. In 1869 he became curator 
of the Bodleian Library ; was chosen as a mem- 
ber of the hebdomadal council in 1872, and in 
1876 received the presentation of the rectory 
of Cholderton, Wiltshire. He was appointed 
canon residentiary of St. Paul's in 1879, con- 
secrated Bishop of Chester in 1884, and became 
Bishop of Oxford in 1889. Published many 
books on historical and ecclesiastical subjects. 
His "Constitutional History of England" is 
one of the ablest and most authoritative works 
on the period of which it treat*. 

I by Google 


Stnc'co, plastic, adbeaive composition ap- 
plied to walls to give them a smooth and eren 
Burface, either decorative or plain. The ce- 
menting medium of the composition for iniide 
work is common lime or calcined gypsum, or a 
combination of the tno, generally mixed with 
sand. The word aluceo technically applies to 
a mixture of lime putty and white sand or 
powdered marhle, and to a coating produced 
with this compound. The rudest example of 
the plastarer'a art is the application of a single 
coat of mortar composed of lime paste and 
common sand laid on the surfaRc of a wall 
with the trowel, while the highest consists in 
imitating fine marbles and other beautiful 
building gtoDCfl by using pure calcined gyp- 
lum, mixed with gum, iainglasa, and suitable 
coloring matter, laid on in a variety of dec- 
orative forms in order to produce panels, 
pilasters, moldings, cornices, etc. 

The mortars used for inside plastering are 
" coarse stuff," " fine stuff," " gauge stuff," 
called also " hard flnish," and " bastard 
stucco." Coarse stuff is simply common lime 
mortar, of the quality suitable for brick mn- 
sonry, mixed with well-switched bullock's hair 
free from animal and v^etable matter. Fine 
stuff ia prepared by slaking pure lump lime 
with a small quantity of water, and after- 
wards adding water until the paste is diluted 
to the consistency of cream. It is then allowed 
to stiffen by evaporation. One coat of plaster- 
ing on laths is said to be laid, and the coat is 
called a laying coat; and work in two coats 
is said to be laid and «e(, and the coats are 
styled a laying coat and a set coat. In three- 
coat work on latbs the first b called the 
priektd-up or the soratcA coat, the second is 
the floated coat, and the third the tet coat. In 
the U. S. hydraulic cement and clean, sharp sand, 
mixed up with fresh water to the consistency of 
plasterer's mortar, is most commonly used for 
the exterior coating of walls, more especially 
of brick walls. The mortar is usually applied 
in two coata in one operation; that is, the sec- 
ond coat is put on while the Brst is yet soft 
and pUstio, 14 that the two become one. 

ComioH EuBorauf SntaoioM. 

StniKCOn (stflr'jQn), any ganoid fishes of 
the Acipenteridtx. All the species have the 

the fresh water, 

dents of the sea part of the year, while oUiers 
are permanent denizens of the lakes and rivers. 
They nearly agree, in fact, in distribution with 
the sahnonids, save that they are less generally 
found in streams, on account of their larger 
size. Their flesh is reddish, and is highly es- 
teemed. Their eggs are often made into 
caviare; their air bladders can yield a kind of 
isinglass. They are the largest of fresh-water 
fishes, the huso (A. Auao) of the Caspian and 
Black seas sometimes exceeding the length of 
16 ft., and the weight of £,000 lb. 

Stvim (stArm), Johannes ran, 1507-89; Ger- 
man educator; b. Schleiden; founded (1537) 
the gymnasium in Strassburg, which attained, 
under him, world-wide celebrity. Ho was the 
greatest educator connected with the Re- 
formed Church, and received the title Pra- 

and introduced the method of grading pupils. 
To read, write, and speak Ciceronian IJitin 
was the great object tit his instruction, and to 
this end a course of twenty-one years — six at 
home, ten at school, five at college or univer- 
sity — was thought about sufficient. 

Stnt'terin{. See Stammemko. 

Stntt'gart, capital of kingdom of Wttrtem- 
berg, Qermany; on the Nesenbach, an affluent 
of the Neckar; 33 m. ESE. of Carlsruhe. It 
lies in a charming valley. The Alstadt, occu- 
pying nearly the center, and grouped around 
the marketplace, contains several small and 
narrow streets, but the new parts of the city, 
mostly erected during the nineteenth century, 
have broad and beautiful streets and sym- 
metrical squares. The most prominent point 
is the palace square, surroundcnl by magnificent 
buildings. Among these the new palace is the 
most remarkable — a very handsome structure, 
with two projecting wings, the central building 
containing 305 rooms rich in works of art. To 
the right of this edifice stands the old palace, 
built 1563-70, a gloomy castle with towers and 
pinnacles. The finest promenade is the palace 
garden, a park with lakes, fountains, statues, 
etc., stretching from the palace for 2 m. In 
the vicinity are the royal summer palaces. 
Solitude, Villa Rosenstcin, Wilbelma, and the 
Villa, and the charming town of Canstatt-on- 
thc-Neckar, with 22,000 inhabitants, frequented 
as a bathing place. The woolen industry is 
important. The manufactures of pianos, ear- 
risges, chocolate, sugar, and machinery are 
considerable. The commerce of the city is ex- 
tensive; the book and art trade is especially 
important. Pop. (1910) 285,5S9. The name 
^lullsart first occurs in history in 1229, though 
the exact date of its foundation is not known. 
It became the residence of the Count of Wllr- 
temberg in l.'!20, and the capital, 1482. The 
city was held by Austria, 1510-34, and occu- 
pied by Alba in 1546. Prom 1634-38 one half 
(8,810) of the inhabitants died from the 
plague. In the wars of Louis XIV it w 


Stnyvesant (stl'v^ sfint), Petnu, 1802-82; 
the last Dutch Director General of New Nath- 
erlaud {New York), b. in Holland. Lost a. leg 
in an attack upon the Spanish island of St. 
Mart in. He arrived at New Amsterdam as 
director general in Maf, 1847; conciliated the 
Indiana, who had been provolced to hostilities 
bj his predecessor, William Kieft, and restored 
order in every department. In 1656 he ousted 
the Swedes from their posseHsions on the Dela- 
ware, where they had taken Fort Casimir, built 
by the Dutch in 1651. In August, 1664, an 
^iglish fleet under Richard Nlcolls appeared 
ia the bay and demanded the surrender of the 
city, in virtue of the ^ant by Charles II to 
the Duke of York of the territ<i^ between the 
Connecticut and the Delaware. The municipal- 
ity, seeing the futility of resistance, insisted 
on yielding, and the city was given up on Sep- 
tember 3d. Stuyvesant went in 166S to report 
tn his superiors in Holland, but returned and 
spent the remainder of his life on his bouwerij 
or farm, whence the Bowery derives its name. 

Sty, or Horde'olum, a small boil on the edge 
of tiie eyelid. It should be treated with a 
warm-water dressing or light wet poultice; 
after the discharge of a little pus and a slough, 
it usually gets well at once. If there be a suc- 
cession of sties, tonics, with mild laxativea, 
will be useful. 

Style, or Stylus, an inBtrumentT usually 
made of metal, bone, or ivory, used in olden 
times for writing. It was sharp at one end 
for writing, and flattened at the other for the 
purpose of making erasures on the tablets, 
which were covered with wai. 

Style, Old and New. See Calekiiab. 

Stylites. See Pn.r.An Saints. 

Stylit'eB, St. Sim'eon. See Siueoit Sttutss. 

Styr*!*, province of Austria; bounded N. by 
upper and lower Austria, E. by Hungary, S. 
by Camiola and Croatia, and W. by Carinthia 
BUd Salzburg; area, 8,670 sq. m.; pop, (1900) 
1,355,494, of whom over 710,000 are of Ger- 
man and the rest of Slovenian descent; capital, 

Styx, in Greek mythology, a river of Hades 
which flowed from the tenth source of Oceanus. 
At the entrance to Hades was the abode of the 
nymph or goddess Styx, by whom the most 
solemn oaths of the gods were swam, thus dedi- 
cating themselves to death in cose of perjury. 
Styi was also the name of the highest water- 
fall in Greece, near Nonacris in Arcadia. The 
ancients, like the modem residenia of the vicin- 
ity, considered its waters poi.sonous, and it was 
believed that no vessel could hold any of it 
unless made of the hoof of an ass or horse. 

Sua'bio. See Swabia. 

Suakim (sw^'klm), or Saw«1dn (Ba-wK'kin), 
fortified town of Nubia and beat port on the 
Red Sea; on an island near shore. It has been 
in the possession of the British since 18fi2. 
Formerly the head of the caravan rout^ into 


the interior, it lost much of its importance aa 
a result of the Mahdist rebellion, and this is 
not yet recovered, because of the insecurity of 
the interior. Opposite Suakim on the mainland 
is the suburb of El-Kef. Suakim is of great 
strat^cal and commercial importance, and is 
the most suitable terminus for a railway into 
Egy^ian Sudan. The chief exports are rum 
arable, silver, ivory, senna, and skins. Pop. 
(1897) 16,713. 

Snbllma'tion, a chemical process of separa- 
tion and purification, applicable only occasion- 
ally in cases in which a volatile substance con- 
denses or crystallizes from the condition of 
vapor directly to the solid condition, and not 
to the usual liquid form. Among the more 
important substances to which, this method ia 
" .ble are sulphur, iodine, vermilion, cor- 
sublimate, calomel, salts ( 
lus oxide, oxalic, benzoic, s 
pyrogallic acids, camphor, caffeine, etc 

SnWime' Porte. See Fobte. 

Submarine' Mines. See Tokfedobs, 

Submarine Navi£a'tion, the art of navigating 
a submerged vessel. In submarine navigation 
it is requisite that an operator should be able 
to move freely in any direction and at any 
depth, and with no communication with the 
Eurface except at long intervals. The accounts 
of early attempts to accomplish these results 
are exceedingly meager, and but little was done 

Fro. 1. — Bubdhbll's Sdbmiiuhb Boat; VEsncAi. 
LoHorrnDiH*!. Section. A, Permanenl ballast; 
B, mavBble balloM; C, watei^«aiige; D, compsn; E, 
screw; F. screw; G. rudder; /, eptnmoe; LL. aii-uipes; 
M, yeniU«tor; XX, vmive* in LL; JV, valve to »d- 
mit water; OO. WKler Unk; P, pump for disohsr«iaa 
O; Q, bilge pump; R. wood Krew; S, rospnine: T, 
percusdon clockwork. 

till 1771, when David Bushnell suggested the 
idea of attacking a vessel underneath the wa- 
ter, and constructed a submarine boat capa- 
ble of accomplishing the desired object. The 
accompanying figure corresponds with the de- 
scriptions and will serve to illustrate an inven- 
tion whirh was the most perfect thing of its 
kind that has ever been inventei' 



The bo«t wu aluped like a turtle, uid BcMii- 
pd in the w&ter with the tul down. It con- 
laiiied air enough to support life for haJf an 
hour, and air could be renewed through unaJl 
Tentilatore by rising to the eurface. Ihe oper- 
ator waa Mated in the middle, the seat forming 
fi brace between the two eideH, and in this posi- 
tion he had his ejes oppoeite one of the numer- 
ous glaae plates in the cover or top of the boat. 
In front of him was the handle of a screw. 
by which the boat was propelled; another, 
which it waa raised or loweredi a comi 
marked with phosphorus; a water gauge, 
show the depth, marked with oil and phospho- 
rus; and Dear him the handles or treadles of 
Tarioua small pumps and levers, by which wa- 
ter and foul air were eipelled, the rudder 
moved, ballast let go, etc. The torpedo con- 
sisted of a block of oak containing a charge of 
about 150 !b. of powder. This block was on 
the upper after part of the boat, and connected 


■afrty Um bbst must have strengtli to resist the 
crushing force of the greatest depth to which it 
will descend, and must possess a reserve buoy- 
ancy, overcome during submergence by me- 
chanical means, but never destroyed. It must 
have stability enough to prevent capsizing or 
considerable change of trim under service con- 
ditions, and must carry an ample supply of air 
for the crew. Modem steel construotJMi pro- 
vides the necessary strength for a subroergeDce 
of IGO ft., which is ample, to be obtained with 
a weight of hull of about one half the displace- 
ment. Reserve buoyancy is a feature of all 
modern submarine boats, and additional safety 
is given by various devices, whereby the pres- 
sure due lo any stated depth will automatically 
impel the boat upward, either by expelling wa- 
ter from the tanks or by moving the horizontal 

Stability on the surface is obtained as in or- 
dinary vessels, and below the surface by simply 

re rsBulator; 

by means of a rope to a wood screw, the handla 
of which waa directly in front of the operator. 

The mode of operation waa to move slowly 
alon^ the surface, with the top just awash, till 
within a short distance of a vessel at anchor, 
then to sink, and, coming up underneath the 
bottom, fasten the torpedo by means of the 
screw. The torpedo and screw were then de- 
tached from the operator's boat, a clockwork 
mechanism inside the torpedo being set for six, 
eight, or twelve hours' run, thus allowing the 
operator time to escape. 

Since Bushnell's time many inventors, in- 
cluding Fulton, have given attention to sub- 
marine navigation, but it is only within the 
last half century that any real progress has 
been made. In France, under the auspices of 
the government, experiments were made by 
Bourgeois and Brun, followed more recently by 
those of Groubet and Z€de, while in England 
the Nordenfeldt boat gained approval. In the 
U. S. the inventions of Gleorge C. Baker, of 
Detroit, and J. P. Holland (see Fig. 2), at 
New York, have been conspicuous. The types 
vary, and Improvements are constantly being 
made. In the European War, their first test, 
submarines proved their value aa offensive 
weapons. See next page. 

Essentially tbe general requirements fur sub- 
muine boats for war purposes — and this is 
their only practical use---given in the order of 
thdr importftnce, are safety, facility of maneu- 
Tcr, ^eed, endurance, and offenaive power. For 

placing the center of gravity below the center 
of buoyancy. Compr^ed air in tanks gives a 
ready means of ventilation, but ii, a boat of 
ordinaryi size there is enough air to last the 
crew several hours, especially as the storage 
batteries generally in use tor propulsion under 
water give off a certain quantity of oxygen. 
Complicated means for purifying the air are 
found to be practically not necessary. Facility 
of maneuver in the vertical plane can probably 
be best obtained by diving rudders, for with 
these a boat can most quickly come to the sur- 
face and again disappear. Any simple form of 
pressure gauge wilt indicate the depth of sub- 
mergence, and the variations of the water pres- 
sure are easily made to control the diving rud- 
dera automatically, the replacement of fuel, 
torpedoes, or other stores expended by an equal 
weight of water keeping the buoyancy and 
trim unchanged. Motion in the horizontal 
plane is controlled by ordinary rudders, and 
twin screws add to the turning power. Surface 
speed is of great importance, since approach to 
an enemy must be on the surface, and escape 
may depend upon it. Steam propulsion is still 
the best for surface use, means being provided 
for rapidly bousing the smokestack and sealing 
the furnace doon preparatory to diving. 

Endurance depends only on the weight which 
can be allotted to fu« or other sources of 
powsr. Fuel for a run of 1,000 m. on the sur- 
face and electric power for i 
under water can easily be carried^ 


In the World War kU the maritime belUgerenlB 
employed aubmarinea with toipedo equipment 
Thdr laiceet uae vaa by the British and Ger- 
mADB, and while avowedly directed against naval 
craft and merchant BhippinR the Gennan U- 
boats did not hentate to attadk and sink crowded 
hoepitAl ahipa with thenr cbsracter conspicuously 
marked, llie U. S. losaea by submarine action 
during tile war were; Veffleta torpedoed, 50; 
mined, 7: deatroyedby gmifire, etc., 87 — a total 
of 144, of 354,449 groestonn^. The loss of life 
waa 775. Allied and neutralBhipping loet, 11,- 
827,572 p-oes tona from the be^mung of the war 
U> early 1918. 

Sabp<s'na, in law, a writ or process by which 
either parties or witnesses are compelled to 
appear in court or before a judicial officer 
and answer or testify, bb the case may be, un- 
der a penalty for their disobedience. There are 
several different kinds of this writ. The com- 
mon species of subpiena now used in all the 
courts is for the purpose of ordering witnesses 
to attend upon a trial or other judicial exam- 
ination and to give their evidence thereat. It 
generally purports to be issued hy the court, to 
be signed by its clerk, and sealed with its seal; 
but in the loose practice prevailing in many 
states of the U. S. it is issued by the attorney. 
A variety termed the avbpiena duce» tecum 
contains an additional clause directing the 
witness to bring with him into court certain 
books, papers, etc., in his possession which may 
be useful as evidence, and which must be des- 
ignated with Butlieient particularity to apprise 
the witness of the exact papers to be produced. 
Both these forms are compulsory; the witness 
must obey the mandate, and it is for the court 
alone to decide whether his evidence or the 
documents he is ordered to produce are mate- 
rial and proper. If the witness violates the 
comniand, an action for damages may be main- 
tained against him by the partv who is mate- 
rially injured by his default. The subpcena is 
served by exhibiting the original to the wit- 
ness and delivering to him a copy thereof, and 
paying him his lawful fees for travel and for 

SubTi>ga'tiDn, an equitable doctrine hy which 
a person paying in proper circumstances a debt 
which as between himself and another should 
have been paid by the latter is given the rights 
and remedies of the original crditor. 

SnVsidy, money given in aid of something; 
spcciflcally, in modem use, a grant of money 
by the state in aid of individual enterprise. 
This is the most common use of the word since 
1840. In English constitutional history a sub- 
sidy is a special tax on persons (not on prop- 
erty), and in general European political his- 
tory it is a payment of money to an ally to 
aid in carrying on a war. 

In the modern sense of the word, subsidies 
have been grsnted especially to railway and 
steamship lines. In several continental Euro- 
pean countries, the |K>^emment defrayed about 
one half the originnl coat of the railways. In 
the U. S.. states and municipalities have sub- 
scribed largely, sometimes unwiiely. to railway 
stocks and bonds. The Federal Qovemment 

has usually given land ^ants, but in 1862 
Congress granted in addition a money subsidy 
of over {25,000 a mile to the Pacific railroads. 
Great Britain has paid no railway subsidiea, 
but as early as 1840 granted an annual sulwidr 
of £81,000 to the Cunard Steamship Line, which 
amount was gradually extended until 185B. 
Grants were also made to other lines until 
about a million pounds annually were so paid. 
This has been considerably reduced iu recent 
years, owing largely to public sentiment con- 
sequent on the success ot unsulnidlzed lines. 
Similar, though smaller, subsidies were given 
in the U. S. to the Collins and other lines, and 
these amounted to several million dollars just 
after the Civil War; but a reaction in public 
feeling abolished most of them, and the most 
strenuous efforts have been unsuccessful in re- 
newing them on any considerable scale, though 
l^ 1694 over 1700,000 were paid to varioiu 
lines. Subsidies are usually paid ostensibly 
for transporting the malls, but are generally 
advocated as means of building up a merchant 
marine and of supporting lines of vessels that 
may furnish cruisers in war time. 

Subatitn'tiona, The'ory of, branch of modem 
mathematics. A substitution is an operation 
which is conceived to interchange quantities 
or symbols among themselves, putting one in 
place of another, hut taking none away and 
adding no new ones. If we have an algebraic 
expression containing several symbols, say the 
roots of an algebraic equation, some substitu- 
tions may change the value of the expression 
and others may not. For example, in the ex- 
pression X -f y — t, an interchange of x and y 
makes no changs of value, because x -f* y ^ 
y + X ; but interchanging either of these quan- 
tities with z changes the value. 

Snb'way. See Urdeboboukd Railwatb. 

Succes'don, the distribution of intestste esr 
tates which now prevails dates back directly to 
a statute enacted in 1670 (22 and 23 Car. II, 
cap. 10) by which the respective rights of wife, 
children, and next of kin were fairly and, as 
the event has proved, permanently adjusted. 
One third of the personal estate undispiraed of 
by will; and remaining after the payment of 
debts and funeral expenses, was to go to the 
widow and the residue to the children, to be 
equally divided. If there was no widow, the 
children took the whole of the surplus; if there 
was a widow but no children, the widow took 
one halt and the next of kin (parents, brothers 
and sisters, grandparents, etc., " everyone ac- 
cording to the decree that belongs to him ") 
took the other half. If the intestate left no 
widow or children, the next of kin were enti- 
tled to the whole surplus. In case a person en- 
titled was dead, his legal representatives would 
take his share. There was no discrimination 
(as there was in the rules r^ulating the de- 
scent of real property) against kin of the half 
blood nor against female kin, but all of the 
class or grade of kinship inherited equally. 
" :hts of the husband in the personal es- 
his wife ^■ere not altered by this stat- 
ute, but remained as at common law. As a 

e of hi* 


purpose of collecting them in and converting 
them to his own use. 

The dtatutee of distribution now in force in 
Great Britain and the U. S. are sutMtiintia.Uf 
only reEnactments of the act of Charles II 
above described. The meaning of the expres- 
sion "next of kin" and the relative rank of 
such persons, and the order of their succes- 
BJon, are deSned with precision in the sev- 
eral statutes of distribution. The test usu- 
ally applied is nearness in degree of blood, 
and the method emploj-ed to ascertain the 
degree is usually that of the civil law. Per- 
sons bom out of lawful wedlock have no 
part in the distribution of personal estate, 
whether they claim as children of the intestate 
or as next of kin. A bastard is nulliiu plius 
by the common law, and is wholly ouUide the 

file of consanguinity. In some of the states, 
owever, an illegitimate child has by statute 
been rendered capable of inheriting from his 
mother. Of course, if such a person marries, he 
or she thereby becomes capable of taking prop- 
erty by descent from the wife or husband, the 
capacity in that case being wholly independent 
ol any relationship of blood. 

Succession Wars, wars resulting from con- 
flicting claims to the throne, especially applied 
to the four wars of the eighteenth century that 
arose from the disputed succession to ( 1 1 the 
throne of Spain (1701-U), (2) that of Poland 
(1733-38), (3) that of Austria (1741-48), 
and (4) that of Bavaria (1778-79)— of which 
only the first and third are of sufficient impor- 
tance to be treated here. 
Wab or THE Spasish Stjccesbion. — The im- 

n accordingly 
devolved upon the collateral heirs. In the life- 
time of (diaries there were three principal 
claimants: first, Louis XIV, in right of nis 
wife, Maria Theresa, daughter of Philip IV, 
who, however, had renounced her richt m the 
Treaty of the Pyrenees; second, Leopold I, 
Emperor of Germany, by virtue of his descent 
from Philip III of Spain; and third, Joseph 
Ferdinand, the electoral Prince of Bavaria, 
grandson of Leopold and Margaret Theresa, 
the younger daughter of Philip IV, Neither 
Louis nor Leopold ventured to claim the throne 
for himself, die former supporting the candi- 
dacy of his grandson, Philip, Dnke of Anjou, 
the latter that of his second son, the Archdulce 
Charles. ' Nevertheless, so great an accession 
of power to either the Bourbon or the Hapsburg 
dynasty was thought to endanger other nations, 
and it was fwreed that the electoral prince 
should sueeeea to the Spanish throne. Bis 
death, however, in IS99, reopened the question. 
In the Intrigues which ensued Louis was suo- 
cessfu], and Charles II made a will bequeathing 
his posaesaions to Phillip of Anjou. The latter 
was well received in Spain, and his title was 
generally recogniied throughout Europe, but 
Louis alienated other nations by declaring that 
Philip's sueoeesion to the Spanish throne had 
in nowise affected his right to the Uiroiw of 


France, and he angered England h;f pronounc- 
ing the Pretender the lawful heir to the Eng- 
lish throne; 1701-2, the Grand Alliance waa 

Duke of Qesse, with the object of breaking the 
power of the Franco- Spanish monarchy. For 
ten years the war was carried on, the chief 
campaigns being in Spain, in Italy, in the 
Rhine countries, and in the Spanish Nether- 
lands. In Spain the French were successful, 
and, under Berwick and Vendflme, expelled the 
invaders and maintained Philip. In N. Italy 
the Austrians, under Prince Eugene, conquered 
Milan and Mantua, and, after a victory at 
Turin, forced the French to withdraw from 
Italy. In the meanwhile Marlborough and 
Prince Eugene had won the victory of Blenheim 
in 1704. The victory at Ramillies, I70Q, drove 
the French out of tbe Netherlands, and their 
attempts to regain their lost footing were foiled 
at Oudennrde (1703) and Malplaquet (1709). 
Louis now sued for peace, but the terms im- 
posed were so humiliating that he preferred 
to continue the war. Circumstances came to 
the rescue of France; the death of Leopold I 
and of hie sou and successor, Joseph I, brought 
the Archduke Charles to the throne. To unite 
tho thrones of Spain and the German Empire 
seemed even more menacing to the balance of 
power than to maintain the Bourbon king in 
Spain. In England the Tories, who had sup- 
planted the Whigs, desired peace, and in 1713 
was signed the Treaty of Utrecht, stipulating 
that the two lines of the Bourbon house should 
renounce all claims of inheriting from each 
other, and the two crowns should never be held 
by the same person. 

Wab of the Austkiait Stjccebsion. — As 
the Emperor Charles VI had no male beirs, 
he tried to obtain the accession of all the pow- 
ers concerned to the Pragmatic Sanction, by 
which after his death all the Austrian posses- 
sions should be transmitted undivided to hia 
eldest daughter, Maria Theresa. The nearest 
claimant to the Austrian inheritance, the 
Elector of Bavaria, never gave his consent to 
the Pragmatic Sanction, and when Charles VI 
died (October 20, 1740) a, desire was mani- 
fested among the European powers to divide 
the Austrian dominions. Claims were advanced 
by Spain, Augustus III of Poland and Saxony,, 
the King of Sardinia, and Frederick the Great 
of Prussia, to whom France was added by her 
traditional hatred of the Hapsburgs. Great 
Britain alone went to the aid of Austria. The 
Elector of Bavaria took possession of Bohemia 
in 1741, and in 1742 was crowned emperor. 
Frederick the Great seized Silesia. Maria 
Theresa appealed to her Hungarian subjects 
for aid. It was granted, and a period of Aus- 
trian success followed, due in part to the pur- 
chase of Prussian neutrality by the surrender 
of Silesia to Frederick ; but the latter, alarmed 
by the success of the Austrians, again took the 
field in support of the emperor (1744), In 
upper Italy a French army joined the Spanish, 
and fought with great success, and in the Neth- 
erlands Marshal Saxe began his brilliant cam- 
faign with the victory at Fontenoy, May 11, 
745. Soon, however, events occurred which 

On Januaiy 20, 1746, the emperor, 
VII,' died, and Joseph, the husband of Maria 
Theresa, was electea Emperor of Oermuiy aa 
Francis I. Frederick the Qreat had become 
thoroughly disgusted with his allies, the 
French, and iu the death of Charles VII be 
found an opportanity of retiring from the 
coalition ; peace was concluded between Prussia 
and Austria, December 2G, 1745. The war with 
France continued. Marabal Saxe gained bril- 
liant victories in the Netherlands, and pene- 
trated into Holland. The British, howeTer, 
had nearly destroyed the French shipping and 
conquered many French colon iea, and when 
Russia, in June, 1747, joined Austria, France 
was willing to make peace. Peace was con- 
cluded at Aix-la-Chapeile, October, IT4S. Aus- 
tria gave up Parma, Guostalla, and Piaccnza. 
to Don Philip, of the Spanish Bourbon line, 
several districts of Milan to Sardinia, and con- 
finned Frederick II in the possession of Silesia. 
See Mabia Thebbsa. 

Snc'cory. See Chicobt. 

Sudc'er, any one of several fishes which 
have no resemblanoe to one another except that 
they " suck " in some way. They have ventral 
flns adapted for adhering to rooks and other 
bodies. The species are numerous, and each 
family is represented on the coast of the U. S. 

Sucre (sO'kri), commonly called Cboqdisa- 
CA, and formerly La Pl.ata, official capital of 
Bolivia and capital of the department of 
Chuquisaca; on a terrace of the E. Cordillera, 
and in the midst of magnificent mountain scen- 
ery, 8,840 ft. above the sea. It was founded 
by order of Pizzaro in 153Q, on the site of the 
Indian village of Cbuijuichaca (golden bridge), 
and during the colonial period was renowned 
for its riches, derived from the silver mines of 
the 1-icinit^. In 1S26 the name was changed 
to Sucre, in honor of the first president. It 
remained the official capital, but during the 
civil wars it became customary for Congress 
to mee,t at La Paz, which is now virtually the 
capital of Bolivia. Remains of its former 
grandeur are teea in the fine cathedral and 
other public building. It has a university, the 
oldest in the republic, and is still the metrop- 
olis of the mining region and of a rich agri- 
cultural district. Fop. (1006) est, at 23,410. 

Sadan', forrocriy sometimes Soudah or Soo- 
ui^, geographic name for that part of Africa 
lying S. of and adjacent to the Sahara, and 
extending, roughly, from 5° N. lat. to 15° N., 
and from 10° W. Ion. eastward to the Nile. 
This re^on is occupied by many peoples and 
many different states, and embraces the basins 
of the Niger, Lake Chad, and the Bahr-ei- 
<.:ha)!al branch of the Nile, representing, re- 
spectively, W., central, and E. or Egyptian 
8udan. The upper part of the basin of the 
Senegal is sometimes dixtlnguished as the 
French Sudan. This, with the Kong country 
on tbe upper Niger, is mountainoua, with ele- 
vated plateaus. Central Sudan is lens elevated 
and generally level, but contains some high 
mountains (as Alantika, 0,S00 ft.). French, 
W., and central Sudan are generally well 


wooded and watered, and of great agricultural 
eapacih^ The Egyptian Sudan is generally 
and. ITic races occupying the Sudan are very 
varied, mostly Negroes (hence sometimes called 
Nigritia, or Negroland) , but also including 
Fulas, TnaregE, Arabs, and In the B., Shoos. 
Khartum (I4,SE3) is the capital of the 
Sudan provinces under British administration 
since 1809. Portions are also administered by 
France and Germany, 

Sudtiniy, mining town in N. Ontario, Can- 
ada. It is noted for the very valuable de- 
posits of nickel in Its neighborhood. Thefe 
are accounted tbe most est^sive in America. 
Pop. 5,000. 

Su'detnuutm, Heimaim, 1867- ; German 
dramatist and novelist) b. Matziken, E. Prus- 
sia; was a private teacher and |oumaliat until 
he suddenly became famous by his drama, " Die 
Eh re," which, on account of the clever and 
sentimental treatment of the social question, 
achieved a remarkable success. Hia subsequent 
pla;^, " Sodoma Ende," " Die Heimat," and 

Die Schmetterlingsschlacht," were less suc- 
cessful, and established the fact that thdr au- 
thor had been overestimated. He also wrote a 
number of novels and short stories, of which 
" Der Katzensteg " is the best. 

Sne (sU), Harie Joseph Engine, 1804-69 1 
French novelist; b. Paris; studied medicine, 
and was surgeon, first in the army, then in the 
navy, until 1829, when, having inherited a 
fortune, he devoted himself to literature. His 
first novels, " Kernock le Pirate," " Plick et 
Plock," " AUr-Gull," " La Salamandre," " La 
Coucaratcha," " La Vigie de Koat-Ven," were 
inspired by Cooper, and inaugurated in France 
the novel of naval adventure. In " Cecils,? 
" Arthur," " Le Marquis de Letorifire," " Jean 
Cavalier," " TherCse Dunoyer," " I^tr^u- 
mont," from 183E-38, he worked the historic, 
melodramatic, and romantic vein. After 1940 
be became socialistic, and celebrated the prole- 
tariat in his most famous and popular novels, 
"Mathilde," " Les MystircB de Paris," " Le 
Juif Errant," " Martin," " Les Sept P«chte 
CBpitaux," " Lea MystSres du Feuple." After 
the eoup d'itat be left France and settled at 
Annecy, in Savoy. Ho wrote about fifty vol- 
umes of novels not mentioned here. 

Suetonius (swE-tO'nl-as) TrangnHlna, Caini, 
Roman author; b. probably about the begin- 

magister epistolarvm. His principal work, 
" Duodecim Casarum Vita," has been preserved 
entire and iu authentic form. It contains 
biographies of the first twelve Roman emperors, 
beginning with C. Julius Cssar and ending 
with Domitian. 

Sn«vi (swS'vI), originally a collective name, 
comprising several imlividuat Germanic tribes 
which formed a kind of union. It is thus used 
by Coisar and Tacitus. In the fourth centuiy 
the nama wew applied to a single tribe, one 
branch of which settled along the Neckar 
(Swabia), while another branch broke into 
Gaul, and in 40Q crossed the Pyrenees and pene- 
trated into Spain, where they embraced Cfhrio- 


tianitf, conquered Oallda, and foim^ a. king- 
doiti, which ia Ses wu united with the 
Visigothic Empire. 

Soei' Canal', a ship canal connecting the Red 
&ea with the Mediterraneaa Sea. According ki 
UiodoruB Siculiis (60 B.C.) there wua a. canal 
from the Gulf of Pelusium (not far from the 
present terrainua of the canal) to the Red Sea. 
' — I by Neeoa, continued hy Dariua, 

In 1849 the project of a ahip canal was talien 
up, to be carried through by Count Ferdinand 
de ^>ssepB, after delays due principally to the 
opposition of Qreat Britain, and it was not 
until 1859 that actual work was begun. A 
commission estimated 2(K),000,0a0 fr. as the 
cost ol tlie work. A eecond concession waa 
given on January 16, 1856, the terms of which 
were designed to satisfy the opposition which 
had already begun in Great Britain, and to 
guarantee fair returns to the stoclibolders who 
might invest, and the capital stock of the com- 
pany was fixed at that figure. The viceroy 
made an official declaration for himself and hjs 
BucceasDTa, subject to the ratiBcation of the 
sultan, that the canal and all its ports should 
be open at all times as a neutral highway to 
every merchant ihip passing from one sea to 
another, without any cKclusive distinction or 
preference to persons or nationalities. 

The Egyptian Govt, engaged to furnish a 
contingent of the fellaheen, and the work was 
at once begun. The location of the N. terminus 
of the canal was changed from Pelusium to 
Port Said, The first work of the canal was at 
this terminus, and was begun on August 2S, 
18S9, by De Lesseps in the presence of about 
ISO persons. 

From Port Said the distance across the 
isthmus in a direct line is about TO m. The 
length of the canal is 100 m., of which over 
sixty per cent is through shallow lakes. The 
material excavated was usually sand, but in 
places It was necessary to blast throu^ strata, 
2 or 3 ft. is thickness, of solid rock. The total 
excavation was 80,000,000 cu. yds. The oppo- 
sition of Great Britain to the employment of 
fellaheen labor, etc., delayed its completion and 
increased its cost. This necessitated the adop- 
tion of machines. The appliances thus used 
were various and very efficient. With them 
the contractors excavated 60,000,000 eu. meters, 
with the assistance of less than 4,000 men and 
in. less than five years. The work was all per- 
formed in daylight. 

The canal was opened November 17, ISitO. 
The canal has s depth and wiijth to permit the 
safe pasaaffe of ships drawing 2G ft. The fol- 
lowing table shows the inereaae in the number 

of ships, tonnage, and receipts: 





The busineeB of the canal soon became Bo 
peak that i t was necessary to widen and deepen 
it. The new dimensions are 31-2 ft. depth; 
bottom width, 108.2 ft. ; surface width, 420 ft. 
There are Beveral sidings excavated tor the pas- 
sage of vessels. The cost of the canal as orgiu- 
aliy completed was $95,000,000. In the World 
War the Turks made several inefieotual at- 
tempts to capture or control the canaJ, deeiHt« 
careful preparation. 

Suez, Gulf of, the W. and larger of the 
branches into which the Red Sea divides lying 
between Egypt and the peninsula of Sinai ; 
len^h, 180 m. : breadth, 20 m. It is generally 
believed that the scene of the passage of the 
Red Sea by the Israelites is near the present 
head of the gulf. 

Snei, Isth'maa of, a neck of land connecting 
the continents of Asia and Africa, and sep- 
arating the Mediterranean from the Red Sea. 
Its extreme breadth from the Gulf of Suez to 
that of Pelusium is about 72 m. The surface 
is low and sandy, having an average devation 
of not more thnn 6 or g ft. above the sea, but 
ill places reaching to 60 or 60 ft. It is prob- 
able that the whole isthmus was once covered 
by the waters of the Mediterranean and Red 
seas, which .were then connected. 

Suffolk, county of England; area, 1,476 sq. 
m. The surface is flat, and the soil for the 
moat part productive and excellently cultivated. 
Wheat, barley, beans, oats, and hemp are 
raised, and butter is one of the principal prod- 
ucts. Pop. (1911) 320,141; capital. Bury St. 

Suffrage, the act or right of casting a vote, 
either for some measure directly, as in a pure 
democracy, or for representatives In an assem- 
bly. The right has never been regarded as 
belonging wiuiout exception to all members of 
the community; it has always been limited In 
various ways, although it ia less limited now 
than formerjy. So-called " universal suffrage " 
means generally the admiBsion to the ballot of 
all males who are of age, with the exception 
of unnaturalized citizens, mentally deficient 
persons, and those who have been convicted of 
crime. Thus, besides the three classes lost 
mentioned, the vote ia denied to all women and 
to all minors. On the other band, unnatural- 
ized citizens are allowed to vote in some locali- 
ties, especially In local motters. When the 
suffrage is not " universal." the most common 
qualification is that of property, no one being 
allowed to vote who does not possess wealth 
of some kind to a certain amount or, some- 
times, who is not a landholder. The limit 
may be small ; in fact, states or countries 
nominally under universal suffrage commonly 
impose a small poll tax [three or four dollars), 
the payment of which is a prerequisite for 
voting, and which thus acts aa a small property 
qualincation . 

In the Middle Ages suffrage was a right not 
so much of the individual as a citizen as of 
the member of some community regarded as 
entitled to representation in the law-making 
body. The community might be territorial, or 
it mig^t be education&l, mercantile, religious. 


or military. Eren to-day the Enelista uniTer- 
■ities return members to Parliament. In 
Franoe and the Holy Roman Empire definite 
social ranke and orders had definite privileges, 
and were practically separate communities for 
electoral purposes. Thus, in England still, the 
upper House of Parliament is compoHed wholly 
01 lords — a separate social order, and a defi- 
nite division of this bouse consists of bishops 
represenUng the Established Church, on ec- 
clesiaBtical body. Under these circumstances 
the idea that each vote of a persfm entitled to 
suffrage should count equally was, of course, 
not prominent. It became generally known 
first as a corollary of Rousseau's doctrine of 
the eauali^ of man, according to which not 
only snould eveiy man have the right to vote, 
but one man's vote should count as much as 
another^s. This will be the case only where 
the number of representatives is proportional 
to the voting population, which is often the 
cose, even in this country, only in one branch 
of the legislative body. The Senators of the 
U. S. still represent communities (states) 
whatever their size. In Connecticut the Senate 
is the more papula^ body in the legislature, 
the members of^ the lower house representing 
towns, no matter what their population. 
The general rale that the majority governs 

recent schemes for so-called minority repre- 
sentation, a number of which have been put 
into practice. Such, for Instance, is the pro. 
viso that no one shall vote for the entire num- 
ber of candidates to be elected, so that the 
minority, by concentrating its vote, may thus 
secure representation. 

The suffrage, as noted above, is not usually 
extended to women, although in some countries 
they enjoy it partially and in a few wholly. 
Agitation for fAe extension of woman sTiffraga 
was begun about the middle of the last century, 
and has taken on a particularly active phase 
during the last few years, especially in Eng- 
land, where it has been carried on by public 
meetings and even by ojAb of disorder intended 
to coll attention to what ite advocates consider 
the injustice of withholding it. 

Women voted for memb^ of Parliament in 
England down to the seventeenth century, and 
th^ have always had some form of represmta- 
tion as property holders — in most European 
countries the feme tale (widows and spin' 
sters) voting in person, the feme covert (mar- 
ried wonuu) hf proxy, the husband outing 
her vote as well as his own. In this country 
New York ( 1778) was the first state to qualify 
the antFrage by inserting the word " mate " in 
its constitution. School suffrage has been 
granted to women by twenty-five states, mu- 
nicipal sufTrage by Hontana (188T), New York 

(1001), Michigan (1908), and Illinois (1913), 
and full suffrage in Wyoming (1869), Colorado 

(1893), Utah (1890), Idaho (18941), Washing- 
ton (1910), Calffomia (1911), Arisona (19I2J, 
Kansas (1912), Or^on (1912), Montana 

( 1914) , and Nevada ( 1914) . Since 1800 

women in Great Britain have voted for all 
oDIcers except members of Parliament. In 

Canada, Cape of Good Hope, Australia, and 


other British colonies, women honsdioldera 
vote at all municipal elections. In the Isle of 
Man women gained full suffrage in 18SI, in 
New Zealand in 1893, and In S. Australia in 
1896. -In Russia, women who are heads of 
families vote for all elective officers and on 
all local queetiouB. In Asatio Russia, the mir or 


meat Women obtained full suffrage in Norway, 
in 1909, and in Sweden iu 1912. In Austria- 
Hungary they voted (by proxy) at k11 elections. 
In Italy widows vote (by proxy) for memben ot 
Parliament. In December, 1916, a proposed 
amendment to the Fed^al Constitution, grant- 
ing full suffrage to women, was introduced m the 
V. B. Senate; June 13, 1918, President Wilson 


See Fkanchise; Disfkamchiseiibnt; 

Su'fis, or Soofees, mystics of Islam, deriving 
their name from a coarse woolen cloak, their 
principal ^rment. Rabia, a Mussulman wom- 
an who lived not long after the prophet Mo- 
hammed, taught as her central doctrine divine 
love, and is reckoned by them their founder. 
.Ibu Said, son of Abul Khair, in the ninth cen- 
tury, advanced further, and urged abandon- 
ment of the world and consecration to a 
eontonplative life. The various doctrines de- 
veloped by his adherents and followers embrace 
every possible phase of mysticism. Many are 
pantheists and declare that God is all, but , 
that all is not God. Some claim direct coro- 
munication with the Deity, and a mysterious 
union with him. In Persia there have sprung 
from them noted scholars and poets. 

Sug'ar, chemically defined as anv carbob;^- 
drate soluble in water, but popularly sugar is 
any such compound having a sweet taste and 
usually denotes cane sugar (sucrose or saccha- 
rose) and sugars made from starch, known as 
glucose or grape sugar. The sugar of com- 
merce is deriv^I from sugar beet« and sugar 
cane, the beets supplying about two thirds and 
the cane one third of the total supply. Minor 
sources of sugar are the palm, mapfe, sorghum, 
and starch. Sunr is formed in plants from 
the carbon dioxide and water in the air, and 
this sugar furnishes the principal food supply 
for the growth of all the other tisauea of the 

The nations of remote antiquity were not 
acquainted with sugar as such, but used honey. 
The chief supply of su^r was furnished by the 
bees until the oeginning of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. The sugar cane (Sii«eharti>a ojpetHamm) 
came from bdia, though not found there, or 
elsewhere, in a wild state, and cultivated cane 
dies out when deprived of the care <^ man. 
Its yield of sugar has been raised by cultiva- 
tion from 2 per cent to IS or 10 per cent. 
The sugar beet. Beta mtlgarU, originally came 
from Burgundy, and was carried hy the Men- 
nonite exiles into the Palatinate. From this 

locality it gradually spread to all parts < 
Germany, and was grown as cattle fooo. 
In 1747 Marggraf (1709-^2) discovered that 


sugar could be obtained from the 
Aaurd (1TS3-I821), {a Kaullsdarf, near Ber- 
lin, was tha flrat who undertook a sTatematic 
eolture of the beet, and he largely increased 

Its content of sugar. 

ipect of the sweet- 
ening properties of 
pure eaue and beet 
sugars there is no 
difference whatever 
between the two Tft- 

The maple tree is 
the Bugar palm of 
temperate climatee. 
Of the several va- 
. rieties of this tree, 
only the Acer bar- 
hatum (also called 
A. jncchariniitn ) is 
used to any ext«nt 
for sugar making. 
The principal center b 
of the maple-BUKar 
industry are in Ver- 
mont, New York, and 
Ohio, but almost 
everywhere in the 
NE. of the U. 8.. 
and also in parts of 
Canada, some sugar 
and molasses are 
made. Only the old 
trees are used for 
sugar making, and, 
until within a few 

Jears, the natural 
oreats. Within the 
past few decades 
there has been some planting of maple trees 
for sugar produciiig, although a grove is not 
profitable lor use until it is thirty or forty 
years old. In some few instances trees have 
yielded 40 lb., andyields of 20 lb. per tree are 
not uncommon. The average quantity of sap 
required to make a pound is sixteen quarts. It 
Is probable that the average yield of ail the 
trees from one season to another is about 3 lb. 

Cane sugar, sucrose, or saccharose forms a 
molecule represented tiy the formula CitHnOn. 
The world's production of sugar, 1911, was: 
Cane sugar, 8,321,G00 tons; beet sugar, 8,007,- 
000 tons. See Beet. 



Sn'ldde, intentional death by one's own 
hand. By the andeDts suicide was considered 
neither a crime nor dishonorable. Demosthenes, 
Themiatodea, Mark Antony, Cleopatra, Han- 
nibal, and others baving uiosen this way of 
ending their days. The Scriptures furnish az- 
amplta, aa SaniMin, Sleazar, and Judas Iscari- 
ot. Uithridates and Hanniljal died in this way 
rather than be taken prisoners. Others have 
committed suidde through false pride or timid- 
ity: a striking case in point 'was the death of 
Gala ; determined not to live under the deapot- 
Jsm of Cfttar, he stabbed himself, but, having 
fainted, his wound was dressed. When he re- 
covered lie tore off the bandage*, let out his 

See Hackbebkt. 
Bee HTPNonsic. 


suidde (hara-kiri), by ripping the bowels, was 
considered honorable and praiseworthy. 

Many writers have defended this crime, the 
most able of whom were Mme. de StaSl, Gib- 
IxtD, Uume, Schopenhauer, and Von Hartmann. 

Suidde has sometimes been epidemic in char- 
acter, and is often suggested by sensational 
newspaper reports. But few Huicides are com- 
mitted oy those whose brains are not impaired. 
Buicides are more often men than women by 3 
to 1. There are half the number of suiddea in 
Roman Catholic countries that there are in 
Protestant countries. The average number of 
suicides per million of inhabitants is: Den- 
mark, 268; Germany, 175; Norway and Swe- 
den, 100; France, 150; England and the U. &, 
each 70, Among undvilizld peopies suicide is 
practically unknown. It is peculiarly a disease 
of dvilization. It is more frequent among the 
mercantile than among the professional dassea, 
and more frequent among the responsible heads 
of institutions, business houses, etc., than 
among the dependent classes represented by 
clerks. See Felo-de-BE; Uara-Kjbi. 

Sn'idse. See Swine. 

Snleiman (sO-lS idKq') , or Soryman, name of 
Ottoman sultana, who follow: 

SULEIUAH I, 1406-66; called the GREAT. 
His rdgn was a series of auccessfui wars. In 
1521 he crushed a rebellion in Syria and cap- 
tured Belgrade; 1522 he subdued Rhodes, e«- 
pelling the Knights of St John of Jerusalem, 
whose stronghold it had been 214 years, who 
found an asylum in Malta; 1526 he broke the 
Hungarian power at the battle of Mohaci, slay- 
ing 25,000 Hungarians and bringing to Constan- 
tint^Ie 100,000 Christian captives. Venice and 
Austria paid him tribute. He conquered Per- 
sian Kurdistan and partially aubdued Oeorgia. 
His siese of Vienna was repulsed in 1529, and is 
1552 the Austrians defeated his forces with 
fearful loss in their Ave months' siege of Er- 
iau. Instigated by his favorite, Roielana, who 
sought the succession for her son, he put to 
death bis oldest son, Mustapha (15S3), En- 
raged with his son Bayezid, who fled to Persia, 
he paid the Shah Tahmasp 400,000 gold pieces 
to msure the murder of the Fugitive and of his 
fcur sons (IGBl). To break the naval power ot 
Spain and control the Mediterranean he at- 
tacked Malta, but was defeated with the loss of 
20,000 men (1585). Carrying on a last war 
with Austria, he died at the dege of SzigetJi 
(1606), which, after an heroic resistance, fell 
three weeks later. During his reign the Otto- 
man Empire reached its acme and l>^an its de- 

ScLEiiLan II (1642-91). Timid and incapa- 
ble, he committed the administration of affairs 
to his vizier, Kupruli Zadek Mustapha Pasha, 
the Virtuous, who was slain, with 28,000 Otto- 
mans, at the terrible defeat of Selankemen 
(Au^st 19, 1091), two months after the death 
of his master. 

SnIioUs (sA'lI-Sts), a band of 1,500 Albanian 
Christian warriors who forced the Ottomans to 
acknowledge thdr independence about 1730. 
From 1799 to 1803 they were besieged in their 
mountain tastneeses by Ali Pasha; their 

entnila, and expired. Tho Japanese form of | strongholds were gradually captured, despite 


deflperate nristanM, And ihtj buStj iutraa- 
dei«d on tftvorable terma. The oonqueron vio- 
lated their oath, and tuui, vomen, and children 
were indiacriminntelj massacred. Only a few 
escaped. The story of the twenty-two Suliote 
wwnen, who, rather than fall into the ha^da of 
the Ottomana, hurled their children from a, 
precipice and then leaped after tbem, is every- 
where known. Marco BotiariB waa a Suliote. 
They were avariciaue and haughty, but loved 
their freedom aboTO all. 

Snlla, or SylU, Lncina Comeliua (Felix), 
138-78 B.C.; a Boman dictator. The family 
wae originally called Kufinua and belonged Ui 
the Cornelia gens. In 107 b.c. he waa dected 
qiUEstor, and was sent with oeTalry to Africa 
to aid Mariua. In 104 he was l^ate under 
Marius; in 103 he was military tribune; and in 
102 he left Mariua, who had become jealous of 
him, to anre under Q. Catulus. In 93 he 
Kained the pr«torahip by the use of money. In 
92 he waa sent aa propfEstor to Cilicia to re- 
store Ariobarzanes to bia kinedom of Cappado- 
cia, from which Mithridates had expelled him. 
In the Social War Sulla's successes far out- 
shone those of Marina; bis moat brilliant ex- 
Eloits were in SB, when bb legate of the consul 
. Cato he destroyed Stabiie, subjugated the 
Hir^int, defeated the Samnites, and captured 
Bovianum. In 88 he became consul, and was 
appointed to the command against Mithrida- 
tea. Mariua, who himaelf desired this command, 
succeeded in driving him out of the city. He 
hastened to the army then besieging Nola, per- 
suaded six legions to march under him against 
Rome, and drove out Marius. 

Early in ST he b^an the war against Mithri- 
dates. In 8<6 be took and plundered Athens, 
and from this time till his return to Borne in 
S3 he enjoyed uninterrm>ted success. In the 
meantime Marius and L. Cinna returned to 
Rome and were elected consuls. Sulla 

bria. In 84 Sulla made peace with Mitbridatea 
and defeated Fimbria. Sulla, after exacting 
enormouB sums from Asiatic cities, returned to 
Rome, shut up the younger Marius, the older 
being dead, in PrMieate, defeated the Eamnites 
and Lucanians before the CoUine gate, Norein- 
ber 1, 82, and then took PrEeneste, ending the 
Marian war. He slaughtered hia Bamnite pris- 
oners and the Pr^nestines, and the younger Ma- 
rius killed himself. Sulla now, as dictator, bad 
absolute power over the lives and property of 
all citizens. A reigti of terror followed. Tteah 
lists of proscribed persons constantly appeared, 
till Sulla was rid of hia enemies. In 80 he 
was elected codsuI, and in 80-70 he introduced 
reforms in the constitution and eetabtished mil- 
itary colonies throughout Italy. He voluntarily 
resigned the dictatotahip in 7B, and retired to 
hit estate at Puteoli, where he devoted bimaelf 
to literary and sensual enjoyments. 

Sullivan, Sir Arthnr Seymour, 1842-1&00; 
English composer; b. London. He was early 
tramed in the art, dnging in the Chapel Royal 
when a child; at fourteen gained the Mendels- 
sohn scbolarebip, which enabled him to puraoe 
Us studies under the bert masters. For " The 


Tanpsat" of Shakespeare he oomposed iniri- 
dental music. His compositions includa over- 
turea, symphonies, songs (including "The Lost 
Chord"), and piano music; the operettas " Box 
and Cox," "TliMpia," and "Contrabandista "; 
the cantatas "The Bride of Neath Valley," 
" Kenilworth," and " On Sea and Land "; 
the oratorios "The Prodigal Son" and "The 
Light of the World," and an opera, "The 
Sapphire Necklace." Sullivan's greatest siic- 
cesses have been made with bis comic operas, 
in which he had the invaluable collaboration 
of W. 8. Gilbert Beginning with " H. M, 8. 
Pinafore" and followed by "The Pirates of 
Penzance," " Patienoe," " lolanthe," " The Mi- 
kado," also " The Yeomen of the Quard," 
" The Gondoliers," etc., his popularity has 
been greater, perhaps, than that Of any other 
English composer. He also wrote a grand 
opera called " Ivanboe," which did not prove 
a succeaa 

Snllivan, John, 1740-95; American general; 
b. Berwick, Me. In 1774 he was a member of 
the first General Congress. In June, 1776, he 
waa appointed brigadier general, and com- 
manded on Winter Hill at the aiege of Boston. 
He took command of the army in Canada June 
2, 1776, conducted the retreat frran the prov- 
ince, was commissioned major general August 
10th, and in the battle of Long Island, August 
27tb, contributed to the preservation of the 
American amy. As successor of General Lee, 
he led the right at Trenton on Christmas night, 
1776. On August 22, 1T77, he made a bold de- 
scent on Staten Island, the entire success of 
which was prevented by misconstruction of his 
orders. At the battle of Brandywine ha com- 
manded the right wing. He defeated the Brit- 
ish left at Germantown, but mistakes on the 
American left changed a victory into a repulse. 
August 29, 177S, he defeated the Indians under 
Brant and Tories under Sir John Johnson, at 
Newtown (near the present Elmira), N. Y.; 
member of Congress, 1780; 1782-86 he was At- 
torney-General of New Hampshire, and 1788- 
89, president of the state; 1789-05 he was Fed- 
eral judge of New Hampshire. 

Sully (Bfl-ie'), Hazimilien de Bethnne, Baron 
of Roany (Duke of), 1600-1641; chief minister 
of Henry IV of TVanoe. A skillful adminis- 
trator rather than a statesman, be made no 
radical changes, but reformed the finances so aa 
I a large reserve, and greatly devel- 

Snl'phates. See 8uif ntmic Acid. 
Snl'phides^ compounds of sulphur. with inet- 
als or other elements. 
Snl'pUtet. See Sm.PHiTBoca Acid. 

Sal'phnr, or Brim'stone, an element abun- 
dantly distributed throughout the earth and 
the sea. It occun naUve as a mineral. It is 
also found in gypsum and in a great variety of 
metallic sulphides; also dissolved in the ocean 
as sulphates. It is an essential element of the 
blood, mineles, skin, hair, and other parts of 
Boimala, and eiists also in planta, though not 
It u ( '^ ■ 

in the woody 

I evolvMl tiao 


from TolcMioca, both u v»,fOi of mlphnr and 

ComiDBrcUI BUlphur ts th« native mincr^t 
purified by luaioD or further b; distillation and 
•ubliDUitioii. Depofita of sulphur are reported 
In variouB parts of the U. S., aa Louisiana, Xe- 
TBdA, Texu, aud Utah, but the chief eource is 
from iron p^rite. Beflued sulphur (brimstone) 
and Sowera of sulphur are product* of distilla- 
llan and sublimation. Roll sulphur is made by 
pourins tbe melted sulphur into molds. 

Sulphur aasumes various forma or allotropic 
states, which differ in crystalline or amorphous 
appearance and in their solubility in various 
liquids. Sulphur on heating pastes through a 
succession of chaBKes, melting at about 120° C. 
to a thin yellow liquid. If again cooled, it be- 
comes a permanently transparent solid. Above 
120* the sulphur becomes thick and viscid, los- 
ing its fluidity altogether and assuming a 
brown color at about 2S0° C. At 300° C. the 
mass again becomes liquefied. At 440° C. 1924° 
F.) sulphur boils, forming an orange-yeliow va- 
por. Some of the sulphur-allotropes are soluble 
in several liquids, such as bisulphide of carbon, 
oil of turpentine, etc. Sulphur inflames in air 
at a remarkably Ion temperature — about iB2° 
F. — burning with blue flame and evolution of 
suffocating sulphurous oxide, SO,. 

Taken internally, sulphur produces little ef- 
fect beyond that of a mild and somewhat slow 
laxative. Externally, applied as an ointment, 
it is a powerful parasiticide, especially useful in 
the itch disease Potassium sulphide is a 
sharp irritant, and in large dose inUmally a 
corroaiTe poison. It may be used Instead of the 
simple sulpbnr ointment in itch and other skin 
diseases, and dissolved in water as a bath is 
used in skin disease. In common with other 
Bulphldes, it is used a* a depilatory. 

Sol'phnieti. Same aa Sulphides. 

Solphnreted Hy'drogen, or Hydiosnlphur'ic 
Ac'idi a gas whose chemical formula is SH,. 
It occnra naturally in some mineral springs and 
in volcanic regions. In combination with am- 
monia, it is evolved from putrefving organic 
matter, such as rotten eggs, which have its 
ehatactcriitic odor. 8H, is artificially pre- 
pared by the aetion of a dilute acid upon cer- 
t^ sulphides, and is much used in analysis to 
determine the presence of any of a large group 
of metala and in the preparation of organic 
acids. It is a colorieea gas. When inhaled 8H, 
caused vertigo in some persons, though in oth- 
ers it may produce no apparent effecL 

Snlphnr'Ic Aeifl aud Sul'pbates, a compound 
of sulphur, E,SO,, and its forms of combina- 
tion. Sulphuric acid is called also oil of vit- 
riol, from its having been originally obtained 
by distillation from vitriol, or sulphate of iron. 
Tliia acid was probably known to the Arabian 
protoehemfats. Basil Valentine, in the fifteenth 
century, first mentions the making of sulphuric 
acid I7 distilliog Iron sulphate. The mamifac- 
ture by bumingsulphur, aa now practiced, was 
introduced in Enriand bv Dr. Roebuck abt, 
ITEO. The general method la to bum sulphur, 
either as- brimstone or metallic sulphides. ~ 


from a mixture of saltpeter with sulphuric acid. 
The oxides of nitrogen in the presence of water . 
oxidize the sulphurous acid to sulphuric acid 
and are thHuselves reduced to lower forms, 
which, in the presence of air, are couTeited into 
higher oxides, among which is nitrogen perox- 
ide, NO,, and thus again react with sulphurous 
acid, so that the operation of a limited amount 
of nitrous fumea is continuous, acting as a cai^ 
rier of oxygen to the sulphurous dioxide with- 
out consumption of it* own aubatance. The 
product precipitates with condenaiiig steam 
upon the walls and fiooia of the leaden cham- 
bers as diluted sulphuric acid, which ia then 
concentrated^ — first, in pans of lead, and then 
the boiling down is completed in stills of glaa* 
or platinum. 

Sulphuric acid is an oily, colorless, inodorou* 
liquid, which boils at 620° F. and freezes at 
— 31°. It absorbs water rapidly from the air, 
being one of the most useful aAcuta for drying 
air and absorbing moisture from other sub- 
stances. When mixed with water, great beat 
is developed. Nordhausen, or fuming sul- 
phuric acid, ia obtained by distilling ferrie 
sulphate. It has the composition E,S,Ot, and 
is considered as containing sulphuric trioxide 
SO, or as H,SO,.SO,. WTien gently heated, it 
breaks up into sulphuric oxide, which distills 
over end condenses as a solid body, and ordi- 
nary oil of vitriol remains. Its name of fummg 
acid comes from the fact of its forming white 
fumea in the air. Fuming oil of vitriol is used 
for dissolving indigo and as a reagent in gas 

Among the products of science and art that 
constitute the pillars of modem civilization, 
sulphuric acid occupies a first rank. Probably 
no other except iron could be justly ranged 
with it in this regard. Indeed, it has been 
stated that the civilization of a country may 
be gauged by the amount of vitriol it c<m- 
BUmes. This will appear on a mere enumera- 
tion . of some of the products necessary to 
human life, health, comfort, luxury, or neces- 
sity, which are dependent, ^irectly or indi- 
rectly, upon sulphuric acid as an eesentiol 
agent in their production: soda from common 
salt, and through this, glass, soap, aluminum, 
magnesium ; nitric and hydrochloric acids, upon 
which depend the arts of refining gold and sil- 
ver, with the electroplater's and photographer's 
arts; artificial mineral waters, all the t^ 
etable acids and alkaloids, alum, ammonia, 
ultramarine, the aniline colors, bleariiing pow- 
der, chrome compounds, chloroform and ether, 
and matches, artificial fertillxers, 


Among the compounds of sulphuric acid with 
metals are many of commercial value and im- 
portance which are described under the heads 
of the different metals. The following ia a 
more complete enumeration; 

J.IuttHnum SulphatM. — Of these there are 
spveral, some of which occur as native min- 
crnls. Tlie normal aulphate is AI,(SO.),. 
1RH,0, constituting the mineral alunogen, 
(See also Alcu.) Ammonium jSu^kato (NH.),- 
S0„ a Mpmmercial salt of importaaoe, made 


from the anmoDiacal liquor of ^asworka, ftnd 
used as a fertilizing agent. Banum Sitlphale, 
the mineral barite, iaryiM, or keaoy tpar 
(BaSO.l, insoluble In water, very heavy, and 
the source of most commercial barium com- 
pounds. It in Bold largely as a pigment or in- 
ferior Hubstitute for white lead. Caleiitm 8ul- 
pAoles, represented by gypsum. Copper Sulphate 
^Blue vilriol), an important commercial salt. 
Iron Stilpkatea {Copperas or green vitriol), 
a large article of commerce, Magnen^im Sul- 
phate, Bpaora Salt. See Maonesiuu. Nickel 
Sulphate, very beautiful green cryetale. This 
salt is of commercial importance by reason of 
its use in nickel plating. PataMeium Sulp/tate, 
a considerable article of commerce for fertiliz- 
ing purposes, for which it has great power. 

Snlphoric B'ther. See Etseb. 

Snlpic'ina or Snlpitina SeVeins, abt. 335- 
abt. 425; ecclesiastic and author; b. Aqui- 
tania. He was descended from a noble family, 
and in bis youth had a career of distinction 
at the bar and in public life open before him. 
The loss of his wile, to whom he was greatly 
attached, led him to abandon, abt. 392 a.d., 
the career on which he had entered, and to give 
himself up to solitude and religious medita- 
tion. He entered the Church, became a pres- 
byter and a devoted admirer of St. Martin of 
Tours, whose life be wrote. His chief writings 
ere " Chronica," in two books, from the Crea- 
tion to 400 A.D.; "Vita S. Martini, Tres Epis- 
toln," all relating to his patron, St. Martin, 
and B, sort of continuation of the "Life"; 
"Dialog! duo" (in some editions (re>) ; to 
these are added " Epistolse Septem," though 
doubtfully ascribed to Sulpicius, 

Snl'tan, a tjtle; first used by Mahmud of 
Ghazni (997-1030). It is assumed by man^ 
Mussulman sovereigns, as the rulers of Zanzi- 
bar, Borneo, etc., and is the common Eurojtean 
appellation of the sovereign of the Ottoman 
Empire, who is sultan of sultans, though called 
by his Mussulman subjects Padithah. The 
feminine, sultana, is applied to the mother or 
daughter of a sultan. The masculine form 

S recedes the name, as Sultan Mahmud; the 
■miniue follows, as Nacbshedil Sultana. 

Sniu' or Snlnk' Is'lands, a group of 162 
small, mountainous, fertile islands in the In- 
dian Ocean, extending from Borneo to Min- 
danao, Philippine Isluids; between lat. 4° 44' 
and 6- 66' N., and Ion. IIO" SC and 122" 30' 
E.; area, 1,048 sq. m.; capital, Sulu (officially, 
Joio). Pop. 76,000, mostly Malays, addicted 
to piracy and the taking of slaves till con- 
quered by the Spaniards in 1876, and since 
tnen chi^^ engaged in pearl fishing and col- 
lecting editile birds' nests, the Sulu pearl or 
ManiUi shell being an important export. The 
islands yield sandalwood, teak, sugar, rioe, cof- 
fee, apices, metals, and fish. The largest is 
Baailan (4C0 sq. m.), adjoining Mindanao on 
the N. Spain's claim to these islands was 
recognized in 1886, and they were ceded to the 
U. S., December 10, 1S08; and in I89S the 
Sultan of Sulu lecognized the sovereignty of 
the U. S. 


Sn'tnac, or Samach, any plant of the genus 
Bhu», which includes about 120 species, mostly 
natives of warm or hot climates. In the U. S. 
there are about twelve species of sumacs, all 
of which are shrubs or small trees; of these 
the most common is the well-known smooth 
sumac {Rhus glabra), which is ofteti found 
covering large tracts of barren ground, where 
it grows to a height of from 2 to 12 ft., with 
compound leaves a foot long. The yellowish- 
green flowers appear in June, and have a 
fragrant odor. The -fruit is in dense crimson 
clusters with a velvety appearance and a pleas- 
ant acid flavor; the leaves are among the 
earliest to take on their autumn colors of yel- 
low and scarlet. The stag's-hom sumac (A. 
typhina) sometimes reaches the height of 30 
ft., and is readily distinguished by the soft 
down at the extremity of the branches. The 
dwarf sumac or mountain sumac {B. oopaU 
lina) is rarely mote than 6 or 8 ft. high, with 
dark shining leaves, which in autumn become 
a rich purple. A still more diminutive species 
(R. pumila) is found in the pine barrens from 
N. Carolina southward. The fragrant sumao 
(E. aromatica) ranges from Vermont to Flor- 
ida, and as far westward as the Rocl^ Moun- 
tains; its leaves are among those which are 
smoked by the Indians in lieu of tobacco under 
the name of killikinick. The Toancodendnm 
group of the sumac family includes the two 
species, with white or dun berries and a very 
"■■'■" " foliage, the poison oak and the poison 


formerly consisted 
of the leaves of the R. ooriaria, closely resem- 
bling the N. American stag's-hom sumac, cul- 
tivated in Sicily, and used in tanning, dyeing, 
and calico printing; but it has been proved 
that the sumacs of the U. 8. are quite as 
valuable, and these are now prepared in parts 
of the South. The Japan wax is yielded by the 
K. tuecedanea, being prepared from the white 
coating of the seeds within the capsules. The 
Japanese lacquer is prepared from the juice of 
R. vemicifera, a shrub resembling the poison 
sumac of the U. S. The Chinese galls are the 
result of the deposition of the eggs of an insect 
on the leaf stalks and young shoots of B. temv- 
alaia, and are largely imported into England 
for ^ing and tanning. Botanically, the su- 
mac family (inaeanHacea) includes the ca- 
shew and pistachio nuts, and the mastic and 
mango trees. 

Sumatra (sO-ndl'trft), island, extending from 
NW, to SB., between lai 5" 45' N. and 5° 65' 
S., and between Ion. 90° 40' and 105° 6' W., 
divided by the equator into two equal parla: 
length, 1,115 m.; breadth, 275 m.; area, 162,- 
eoS to (with coastal islands) about 180,000 
sq. m. 

Through its length Sumatra is traversed by 
a range, Bukit Barissan, which reaches Its 
greatest height, 0,655 ft., in Ophir. The prin- 
cipal rocks are granite, syenite, gneiss, mica, 
slate, and red sandstone, none of which are 
found in Java, whose formation is entirely dif- 
ferent from that of Sumatra. Six volcanoes 
are situated near the eq^uator. The SE. part 
is rich in streams, navigable even for large 
vessels U,t into the interior. These streams 


carry large maua of mud anil earth to tba 
sea, the result of which ie a nmaiderable ex- 
tension of the coast line ; at the same time the 
island, like Java and Borneo, appears to be 
tibIdk slowly but steadily. The climaf« Tariei, 
but II generally healthful, with the exception 
of the Mw coast regions to the W. The heat 
varies on the coast between 82° and 80° F., at 
an elevation of from 2,500 to 3,000 ftu between 
64° and 73° ; the«e highlands are known for 
their healthful climate. The monaoons are not 
BO steady and r^ular as elsewhere. 

The natural productions are more Tsried and 
more abnndant than in any of the other is- 
lands. Of metals, gold, iron, copper, and tin 
abound ; brown coal occuia, but not anthracite. 
Petroleum abounds, and is exported. Bice 
forms the principal food, then sago, beans, and 
roots. Among the fruits are many which 
thrive <mly here, and cannot be introduced into 
other countries. Of trees, the Biderooylon 
(justly called iron wood) yields the best wood 
for shipbuilding, it being so hard that it blunts 
the sharpest arrow ; t^k ia not found. - The 
most important plants entering into commerce 
are cotton, black pepper, caoutchouc, benzoin, 
gutta percha, dyestufiB, and camphor, for which 
the island was celebrated among the ancients. 
The Dutch have introduced coffee, tobacco, and 
cacao. The fauna corresponds nearer to that 
of Borneo than to that of Java. Of mammals 
there are eighty species, among which are the 
elephant, rhinoceros, tapir, tiger, panther, and 
bear; among the many species of apes are the 
oran^CKiutang and two gibbons, the siamang, 
and the wau-wau; the buffalo occurs both wild 
aud domesticated; the horse ia small, but vig- 

The pop. ( with coastal islands ) , about 4,000,- 
000, is chiefly Malayan. Sumatra was the 
cradle of the Malays as a nation; in the in- 
terior they founded the empire of Manang- 
KabBU. Next to them the Battas are the most 

important division; thn formerly inhabited 
the couutrv N. of lat. 1° N., but the population 
of Achin naa separated from them, and they 

themselves have decreased in number. The 
Malays are all Moslems. The Battas are fetich 
wor^ipers, and addicted to cannibalism— a 
custom which the Dutch have tried in vain to 
abolish. Ptolemy calls the island Atirea Cher- 
tonetut. The Arabs visited Sumatra abt. 800 
A.D. ; Islamism was introduced into Achtn, 
1200; Marco Polo landed here in 1290; the 
Portuguese under Alvaro Talesso in 1500, the 
I>uteh in I6ST ; an English squadron appeared 
before Achin in 1002. The Dutch East India 
Company established settlements on the E. 
coast, I61S. Great Britain tried to compete, 
but WHS compelled in ITS3 to return all its 
possessions in Sumatra to Holland- In 1811 
It once more occupied the island, but by treaty 
of March 17, 1S24, exchanged all its posses- 
sions in the archipelago for the Malayan penin- 
sula. Since then the Dutch have been occupied 
in gradually extending their conquests over the 
entire island. The last to hold out were some 
tribes of the Battas in the interior. 

SwnlM'wa, island of the Stmda Islands, 
Dutch EL Indies, E. of Java, between Lombok 
and Fiona. Area, 5,400 iq. m. It is high. 

mountainous, and vdcanic. The still active 
volcano Tambora, on the N. coast, 8,B40 ft. 
high, caused a terrible destruction by its erup- 
tion in 1815; the ashes fell in 6un)atra, S40 
m. distant, and more than 12,000 people ara 
said to have lost their lives. Another erup- 
tion, lees destructive, occurred in 133S. The 
principal products are gold, sulphur, saltpeter, 
rice, various kinds of wood, and a fine breed of 
horses. The inhabitants, IBO.OOO in number 
and closely allied in habits and manners to 
those of Celebes, live in four states which are 
under Dutch authority. 

Snme'iians, the people who are believed hy 
moat Assyrian scholars to have occupied Baby- 
Ionia before the Semites appeared in that re- 
gion; to have invented the cuneiform script; 
and to have been the teachers of the Bemjtea, 
by whom they were finally displaced or ab- 
sorbed. It would seem that there were two 
branches of this people — the Sumerians and the 

Som'mer, the warm season of the year, in- 
cluding astronomically the time between the 
vernal and autumnal equinoxes, or from about 
June Slst till about September 22d. The 
calendar summer comprises in the U. S. June, 
July, and August; m England, May, June, 
and July. The Indian summer is a period 
of warm, pleasant weather, which usually 
occurs every year over the N. portion of the 
U. S. after the autumnal storms, and con- 
tinues often without ihterrupUon two or three 

Summer I>tick. See Wood Duck. 

Summer TeaL See GAsoAm. 

Snm'mong, in law, a writ addressed to the 
defendant in a personal action, admonishing 
him to appear in court. It must contain the 
names of all the defendants, the name and ad- 
dress of the person taking it out, and the date 
of issue; but it need not state the form or cauae 
of action. A summons should be served on the 
defendant in person; but if reasraiabte efforts 
are made to do this, snd the defendant is 
aware of its issue, the judge may authoriie the 
plaintiff to proceed in the. action without per- 

Siim'ner, Charles, 1811-74; American states- 
man; b. Boston, Mass. He graduated at Har- 
vard, 1830; studied law; was reporter of the 
U. 8. Circuit Court, and published three vol- 
umes ("Sumner's Reports") containing de- 
cisions of Judge Story. He also edited the 
quarterly Ainertcon Jun'sl. He tonk no ac- 
tive part in politics till 1846, when on the 
Fourth of July he made in Boston an ora- 
tion, " The True Grandeur of Nations," a plea 
for peace, which was followed by a succession 
of public addresses. He opposed the annexa- 
tion of Texas, on the ground of slavery. Is 
the Presidential canvass of 1848 he support- 
ed the Free Soil candidates, Van Buren and 
Adams. In 16SI he entered the U. S. Senate as 
the successor of Webster, and retained his seat 
till his death. His first important speech waa 
in oppoNtion to the Fugitive Slave Act. In the 
debate on the repeal ot the Missouri Compro- 


nuM and on the conteit in Kahmm Snnmer toolt 
a prominent part. Hii l&st speech upon thia 
topic was delivered on Majr lo and 20, \85C, 
and was printed under the title of " The Crime 
AgkiUBt KansaK." Some p&««ages in it greatl; 
iac«nied the members from S. Carolina, one ot 
whom, Preeton B. Broolcs, on May 2241 assault- 
ed Sumner while he was writing at hie deak in 
the Senate Chamber, and with a cane struck 
him on the head till he fell to the door inaen- 
Bible. The injury thua received was followed 
by a severe and long disability, from which his 
cecovery was not complete till three or four 
years later. 

Sump'tnary Law*, laws to restrict and regu- 
late private ezpenditurea, generally aimed at 
extravagant outlays for food, clothing, or fu- 
nerals. Such laws were enforced by every na- 
tion of the Old World, and have been indulged 
in even by the modem states of N. America. 
For example, Massachusetts thought it neces- 
sary at one time to r^^late the cost of funer- 
als. One of these statutes (10 Ed. HI, at. 3), 
ordaining that no man should be served at din- 
ner or supper with more than two courses, ex- 
cept upon certain holidajrs, when he might be 
served with three, was not repealed until the 
nineteenth century. 

Sumptuary laws have not, howeTer, always 
been directed to check extravagance. In Eng- 
land the wearing of ailk on garments was pro- 
hibited so as to promote the domestic wool 
trade, and shrouds were required to be of wool. 
In OUT day the term sumptuary la often applied 
to laws restraining the liquor traffic. They are 
dealt with "by the courts, however, aa police 
regulations. Under the Federal arid state con- 
stitutions of the U. S., with their guaranties 
of individual liberty, it is held that the habits, 
occupation, food, and drink — the life of the in- 
dividual — are severally matters for his own de- 
termination, subjfct only to considerations of 
public health and safety. See Fbobibition. 

Snm'ter, Thomas, 1734-1832; American mili- 
tary ollicer; b. Virginia, but early removed to 
S. Carolina. In 1776 he was made lieutenant 

mps of the Santee, and, with the rank 
of brigadier general, became an able leader of 
the South. Member of convention which adopt- 
ed the Federal Constitution; member of Con- 
gress, 178e-S3 and 1797-1801; U. 8. Senator, 
1801-Si minister to Bradl, 1809-11. He was 
the last surviving general of the Revolution. 

Sumter, Fort See Fobt Sumteb. 

Son, for us, the most important body in the 
universe, next to the earth. It is the center 
around which the planets revolve, and without 
its vivifying influence the earth would speedily 
be envelope in a mantle of ice, on which no 
living being could exist In volume it is more 
than a milrion times that of our earth ; in mass 
more than 300,000 times. Its density is about 
one tonrtb that ot the average of the materials 
which make np the earth, and therefore only 
about half as much again as that of water. Its 
mean distance from us is 93,000,000 m.; its 
diameter, 800,000 m. The force of gravity on 

ita lurfaM la tw«nty-MT«B timaa what it ta on 
the earth. Under such circumatanoes a nan at- 
tempting to stand up would be crushed to death 
by his own weight Like the earth and plan- 
ets, the sun rotates from W, toward £. on an 
axis nearly perpendicular to the ecliptic. The 
period of rotation is about twenty-six days. 

The flood of heat which the sun sends us at 
its enormous distance indicates that the matter 
compoaing it is intenady hot — probably more 
than 10,000° F. The interior must be at a 
much higher temperature. At sucb a temper- 
ature as that within the sun no permanent 
chemical combination is possible. There can be 
only an indiscriminate mixture of elements. 
We must regard the sun as a mass of gas, con- 
densed nearly to the density of a liquid by the 
pressure of its own mass. The visible jHioto- 
sphere is Bometimes supposed to be partially 
solid. It may be that, under the influence of 
rapid cooling, the substances which riae to the 
surface are constantly condensing to solids, and 
then falling down again are once more melted 
by the heat of the interior; but a purely gase- 
ous envelope around the sun would increase ■» 
rapidly in density toward the interior, owing 
to the immense pressure of gravity, that it 
would present the same appearance tbat the 
sun actually does. 

Through a good telescope, under favorable 
conditions, the photosphere is seen to have a 
mottled or curdled appearance, looking much 
like a plate of rica 
soup. This appear- 
ance probably, arises 
from a constant ris- 
ing of currents of 
heated matter from 
the interior. The most 
striking feature of the 
photosphere is formed 
by the spots, which 
may nearly always be 
seen when the aun is 
examined with a tele- 
scope. When examined 
with a high power, a si 
seas marked pecuiiariti 
the appearance may be formed from Fig. 1. 
We have in tiie center a dark portion, called 
the nucleus, or umbra, which is commonly of 
irr^ular form. The word dark must, however, 
be interpreted in a relative sense; though ap- 
parently dark hy contrast, the spot would be 
intensely bright if iaolated. Around thia dark 
center is a gray fringe intermediate in bright- 
ness between the nucleus and the photosphere, 
which is called the penumbra, and has a striated 
or fibrous appearance, being composed of an 
immense number of rootlike filaments directed 
from the outside toward the center. Groups of 
minute specks, brighter than the general sur- 
face of the sun, are often seen in the neighbor- 
hood of spots or elsewhere, and are called 

The spofa vary in size from the smallest viu- 
ble points to objects large enough to be seen 
with the naked eye, and therefore nearly 100,- 
000 m. in diameter. The spots are not seen all 
over the solar disk, but oiUy near to what, in 
our globe, would correapond to the tropica. 

Thay freqaentlr Appaar m graniM of two or 
three, BometimM more. In coniequcnce ol th« 
nin'B rotation, each niot loovtB alawlj ftcrou 
its disk, occupying about thirteen days from 
the time it appears on <aw aide until it dioap- 
peara on the other. The duration of a qnt is 
Tariable, ranging from a few da.j» to aeveial 

Sun spots are snppoaed to bs cavitiei in the 
photoBphere, or cooled portions of matter floatr 
ing upon the photoepliere, or down riuKei of 
matter, carrying the cooler portions with them. 
The frequency uf the sun spots goes through a 
fairly regular period of about eleven years. In 
reoent years the maxima have occurred about 
the years 1848, 1S60, 1870, ISSl, 1892, and 1904. 
Dunng the years of >"=vim„m +>.. ...n ia rBTvW 
seen -without - — ■'- 

without spots 

about halt the time. The fact seems to be that 
the variation occurs in consequence of a cycle 
of changes going on within the body of the sun 
itsdf, but of the nature of those changes noth- 
ing is known. (See Corona snd Ecupbb.) The 
photoBphere is surrounded by a comparatively 
thin layer of vaporized or gaseous matter, 
known as the chromoBphere. Continuous with 
this layer, and yet poBsibly having a different 
origin, are the protuberances, which appear, to 
consist of vast ma«ees of flowing gas ejected 
from the sun with inconceivable force, the ve- 
locity sometimes amounting to 200 m. a senmd. 
These protuberances exhibit a variety of fan- 
tastic forms, Bometimes appearing like immense 
flames, sometimes like clouds floating above the 
Bun and remaining for hour«, or even days, in 
the same region. They" are more frequently 
seen in the neighborhood of sun spots than else- 
where, vet not necetearily over the spots. Borne 
of the forms are shown in Fig. 2, on a scale on 
which the earth would be r«pre*ented by a globs 
of barbap* one eighth of an ineh In diamater. 

^e coronal lignt can be plainly seen extend- 
ing to a distanoe from the sua neariy equal to 


its Mmldiametar, but it also shows rays or 
streamen extending to much greater distances, 
even millions of mijee in extent 

Magnetic force may very well account for the 
structure and appearance of the corona, but 
the difficulty is how substances of any sort can 
remain at rest so near the sun, under the enor- 
mous gravitating force of the latter. The coro- 
na has lieen described as a solar atmosphere, 
but it cannot be such in the sense in which we 
use the term. The fact that comets have 
passed through its snbstanca with a speed of 
several hundred miles a second, without suf- 
fering, so far BB could be seen, the alighteat re- 
tardation or disturbance, shows that there can 
be in the corona no substances but such as are 
of the utmost tenuity — particles so light that 
the thinnest air would be as lead in compari- 
son. It has been suggested that these parUclea 
may be held up by electrical repulwon, or that 
they may be in a state of projection, continu- 
ally thrown up from the sun and falling back 
again upon its surface. A comparison of the 
solar spectrum vrith the spectra of the various 
elements found on the earth shows that the sun 

I earth. Uf these, calcium, iron, 
and sodium are among those most strongly 

The question whether the sun aSectg the 
earth otherwise than by its tight, beat, and 
gravitation is one with which science is busy, 
but on which no positive conclusions are yet 
reached. A relation between the period of the 
aurora and that of the BUn spots seems to be 
not improbable, but the question whether auro- 
ras are themselves excitnl by actions going on 
in the sun is an open one. To our ancestors 
there was no apparent reason why the sun 
should not continue to lieht and warm the 
earth and planets forever; out modem science 
shows that the radiation of heat from the sun 
to the earth involves a continuous expenditure 
of an agent called energy, of which the sup- 

£is necessarily limited. If the amount o( 
t falling on a square centimeter were trans- 
formed into a lifting force. Without any toss 
whatever, it would raise a cubic centimeter of 
water against the force of gravity at the rate 
of about 4,800 ft per minute. A Bimilar com- 
putation shows that the heat #hich the sun, 
when near the zenith, radiates upon the deck of 
a steamship would sufBce, could it be turned 
into work without loss, to drive her at a fair 
rate of speed. Considering the sun simply as 
a hot body, it would be cooled by the heat 
which it radiates, and calculation shows that 
the amount of heat radiated would result in a 
cooling of 6°, more or less, per year, accord- 
ing to the specific heat of the suhstaiiceB which 
compose it. It follows that, in such a case, the 
sun would cool off entirely in a very few thou- 
sand years. As no actual cooling seems to 
take place, the question arises how the heat is 
kept up. 

Two theories have been maintained. One, the 
meteoric theory, is that the countless meteors 
which are moving in ail directions through the 
solar system are continually falling into the 
sun and BUpplytng it with the heat generated 
by the impact. Aa to this theory. ){ can only 



be said that it teems imposaible tbat meteoric 
matter in aufficient quantity could be falling 

into the Bun. The other theory is that the he»t 
is kept up by the contrac^tjon of the sun's vol- 
ume as it cools. This, however, does not mean 
that the heat would last indefinitely. After 
contracting to a certain point the matter com- 
posing the sun would necessarily begin to as- 
sume a solid or liquid form, and then would 
rapidly cool off. The available supply of en- 
ergy would then be exhausted forever, and our 
system would be overtaken by eternal cold and 
darkness. From the known amount of heat 
which it radiates we can even, in a rude way, 
calculate the probable length of its life. From 
fifteen to twenty millions of years seems to be 
the limit of its age in the past, and it may ex- 
ist a few millions of years, perhaps five or ten, 
in the future. There is no reason to appre- 
hend any sudden or rapid changes in the sup- 
ply of solar heat. See Solaa Stbteu. 

Snn'biid, any bird of Neclariniida, inhabit- 
ing a great part of Africa, S. Asia, and Aus- 
tralasia. They have a superficial resemblance 
to the hiunminB birds in their smallness, slen- 
der build, brillTant, often metallio colors, and 

habits of feeding from flowers, but belong to a 
different order, the passerines. Their to^ con- 
sists mainly of insects. Their nests, which are 
roofed over, are swung from a slender twig or 
the tip of a leaf; the eggs, generally three, are 
white, plentifully sprinkled with grayish gre«i. 
There are over 100 species. 

Snn'da fs'lands, the chain of large islands 
belonging to the Malay Archipelago, which, be- 
giuninif with Sumatra and ending with Timor, 
separates tlie Java Sea from the fndian Ocean. 
The name is derived from the indigenous name 
' of the W. part af Java, adjoining the Sunda 
Straits. Most of them belong to the Nether- 
Sun Dance, a ceremony formerly practiced 
by the Sioux, Cheyennes, and other Indian 
tribes of the plains to propitiate the sun ^od. 
As it involved self-torture and other ohjection- 
able features, it has been suppressed by the 
Federal authorities. 

Sun'day, the secular name of the first day 
of the week, which is held among Christians as 
a Eabbatb, or rest day. As soon as the Chris- 
tian religion was recognized by the state, laws 


were enacted for the observance of Sunday. 
Constantim (321) prohibited all business ex- 
cept agricultural labor and all legal proceed- 
ings except the manumission of slaves. Subse- 
quent emperors made similar enactments. In 
England Sunday laws were of very early ori- 
RJn. The common law distingnisbed Sunday 
from other days by allowing no judicial acts on 
that day. The statute 6 and 5 Edw. VI, c. 3, 
makes Sundays, with Ghristmas, Easter, etc., 
holidays, but permits work in harvest and 
in other eases of need. The statute 1 Eliz., c- 
2, punishes by fine persons absenting themselves 
from church without excuse. The most impor- 
tant of the English sUtutes is 2B Chas. 11, 
c, 7, which prohibits all worldly labor or busi- 
ness {works of necessity and charity only ex- 
cepted), the sale of goods, traveling for pur- 
poses of trade, and the serving or executing of 
any process or warrant, except in case of trea- 
son, felony, or breach of peace. The dressing 
of meat in families and its sale in inns and eat- 
ing shops and the crying of milk before nine 
and after four are allow^. This st&tute, later 
modified by laws, is the present Sunday law of 
Great Britain, and lies at the basis of the Sun- 
day laws of the tJ. S. The early laws of Mas- 
sachusetts, Connecticut, Geoigia, S. Carolina, 
and Virginia also compellea attendance at 
church. In most of the states common labor 
and traffic are prohibited; contracts made or 
for service on Sunday are invalid i public 
amusements are restricted or forbidden. The 
constitutionality of Sunday laws has been de- 
cided frequently^ by the highest state courts. 
See Sabbath; Blub Laws. 

Sunday Let'ter. See Douikicai. IiETteb. 

Sunday Schools, gatheringa for religious in- 
struclion and worship, in which the learners 
are clustered in classes under separate teacheis, 
all the classes being associated under a common 
head, and the form of instruction being in- 
terlocutory or catccheticaL Although many 
single schools were of earlier date, modem 
Sunday schools had their origin in a movement 
begun by Kobert Raikes in Gloucester, England, 
July, 1780. His purpose was to provide in- 
struction in reading, and in the Church of Eng- 
land catechism, for the neglected children of 
that city. His first school was gathered on a 
Sunday in a private house under the charge of 
four women, who were employed at a shilling 
a day. Its forenoon session was from ten to 
twelve o'clock. In the afternoon, after a brief 
session, the children were conducted to the par- 
ish church for a part in worship, and were after- 
wards' examined in the catecnism. The Rev. 
Thomas Stock, a parish clergyman, assisted 
Mr. Raikes in this work, and gave an extra 
sixpence a day to the teachers. 

Descriptions of this movement called atten- 
tion to it, and it soon became widely popular. 
Volunteer teachers took the place of paid ones, 
John Wesley introduced its plan of work into 
ligious operations. The success of the 
nent was quickly assured, though it met 
with ecclesiastical opposition. 

Among the Jews religious instruction, apart 
from that which was given in the faniUy, seemi _ 
to have been practiced in the daysj>f Abraham 



(Gen. xiv, 14). Accordins to Ui« Talmud and 
to JceephuE, a s^Bteni of religiouB Bchools in 
connectiDit with the ejn&gogues was organized 
in the century before Chriat. The die of cUssea 
woi limited to the capability of the teacher. 
Seleirted Bible leseone were arranged for a aeries 
of yean. Freeneaa in questions and anawers 
wsa cultivated. Such luihaole were general in 
Paleatine in the day!) of Jesus, 

In the U. S. a Sunday school was organized 
under the direction of BiBhop Aabury at the 
house of Thomas Crenshaw, in Hanover Co., 
Va., in 1780; yet little is Icnowu of it save its 
banning. Now Protestants and Roman Cath- 
olics alike recognize its importance, and it is in 
favor among the Jews as among Christians. Its 
management varies according to the ecclesias- 
tical systems of which it has become a part, 
but its main features are alike throughout. 
According to the statistics reported by the 
Twelfth International Sunday Scliool Conven- 
tion (1908), there were in the world 244,628 
Sunday schools, 2,411,373 teachers, and 22,- 
672,SS8 scholars. In the U. S. there were 
(1917) 195,276 schools, 1,959,918 officera ami 
teachetB, and 19,951,676 aeholars. 

StUl'dedaild, town; in county of Durham, 
England; at the mouth of the Wear; 12 m. 
SE, of Newcastle'Upon''I^ne. The borough in- 
cludes townships on the S. aide of the Wear, 
and Montcwearmouth on the N. side. Sunder- 
land is a well-built modem town with broad 
streets. It has large piers and docks capable 
of reoeiviog- the lan^est vessels. The shipments 
of coal and coke average upward of 4,01)0,000 
tons. Glass, earthenware, iron, lime, cement, 
and chemicals are also exported. The principal 
imports are iron ores, timlier, clialk, and agri- 
cultural produce. Shipbuilding is largely car- 
ried on. In Monkwearmouth is one of the 
deepest collieries in the world (3S1 fathoms). 
Pop. of the municipal borough (1911 census) 
151.] e2. 

of England the name la also applied 
basking shark. (4) It ia also frequei 

Slied by sailore to floating acaleplia ( 


) Isaxairraaova 

Snn'dew. See Dbobeka i 

Snn'aUL See Dui- 

Sim'fiaii, a name given to different aquatic 
animals on account of their brilliant colors, 
sllape, or habit of basking in the sun. ( 1 } In 
the U. 8. and Canada it is most frequently 
applied to fresb-natcr fishes belonging to the 
CentrarckidtB, and cliiefly to the genus Lepo- 
mis. The colors are alwavH quite brilliant. 
Hie species are numerous. The best Imown in 
the N. states are: The L. gibboaus, the com- 
mon sunflsh of New England and the middle 
states, and is recognizable by the ear flaps being 
black, tipped with scarlet, and by the orange 
spots of the sides. The L. aurttu* has long 
black but bluish-edged ear flaps. The L. pal- 
lidut baa squarish black ear flaps. Wherever 
found, Uiey are generally among the most com- 
mon fishes. They are carnivorous and bold, 
and talce a hook Intited with the conmton earth- 
worm. Many of the species build curious nesta. 
<2) On the sea coast, to some ertent, but more 
especially in Great Britain, the name is given 
to species of OrthagorUOa or liola, fishes of 
an almost circular outline. (3) In some parts 
»r 1 

Sun'flower, the EeliantKu* otmuua; a coarse 
and tall annual plant of the Compositm. It 
is often seen in gardens. It is a native of the 
Great Plains of N. America, where it grows 
in abundance. In Europe the plant is raised 
for its seeds, which afford a good drying oil, 
nearly equal to linseed. The leaves are ted to 
cattle, the seeds to poultry, and the flowers 
yield honey. In tropical America the sun- 
flower often attains a height of 20 ft., and 
produces a flower I to 2 ft in diameter. In 
8. Europe it is cultivated as a field crop for 
its seed. See Coufosites for illnatration. 

Sun'stioke, or Thet'mic Fe'vei, a fever due 
to tlie effect of ei(cessive beat or of exposure 
to the direct heat of the sun, on the nervous 
centers at the haae of the brain. Reduction 
of the excessive fever by application of cold 
water or ice to the l>ody of the patient Is the 
first requisite treatment. Where the circula- 
tion is failing, digitalis should be given hypo- 
dermatically. Heat exbaustion, due to exertion 
while subjected to heat, is diaracterized by 
depression of the temperature of the body, 

fillor, and, in severe forms, unconsciousness, 
lie use of external heat, and such stiinulantA 
as digitalis, atropine, and strychnine roust be 
resorted to. In both forms of the disease, 
prompt treatment may avert death from 
paralysis of the controlling mechnnism of 
respiration and circulation in the brain. 

Sun Wor'ship, commonly regarded as one of 
the characteristic features of the religion of 
ancient Persia. The Peruvians of old, wlio 
worshiped every aspect of nature, paid the 
chief honors to the sun. The Egyptians, the 
Greeks, the Italians of antiquity, and tbe Celtic 
and Teutonic rants, the E. Indiana, and some 
Africans, were, as some heathen Taces still are, 
sun worshipers. Sun worship is one of the 
most widely diffused forma of nature worship, 
the genial and fructifying warmth and bright- 
ness, the mystoriouH nature, and the constant 
course of the great luminary appealing power- 
fully to the religious feelings of the ruder 

Supereioga'tion, Works of, in the Roman 

Catholic Churcli, good works performed by a 
Christian over and above his simple duty. 
These works constitute a fund of merit which 
is applied to the relief of aouls in purgatory. 
The definition is based on a distinction betwera 
what is commanded and wliat is only conn- 

Snpe'rior, ci^; capital Douglas Co., Wis.; 
at the head of Idike Superior, opposite Duluth, 
Klinn. It has three perfect landlocked harbors, 
all connected, with total length of 13 m. and 
width, 1 to 3 m.; an imporSint railroad cen- 
ter. The climate ia crisp, dry, and healthful, 
with average temperature for twenty years, 
"* average number of fair days m^ annum,, 



2G0. The water supplj is from Lake Superior, 
and the sewerage sjat^m, pUimed when the 
city was laid out, is sufncient for a cit; of 
1,500,000 people. The mamifacturee are chiefly 
flour, lumber, lath, ahinglea, iron, chairs, bar- 
rels, bags, coke, and woolen goods. Besides 
the shipping facilities furnished by the rail- 
ways, the cil^ has eiceptional facilities for 
receiving and shipping freight by water. Pop. 
(1910) est. at 40,384. 

SnperiDi, Lake, the largest of the Idoren- 
tian chain of lakes. It is the largest fresh- 
water lake in the world and the largest inland- 

Superior in size is Lake Victoria Nyanza (> 
mated 27,000 sq. m.). The mean elevation of 
the surface of Lake Superior is 602 fL above 
the sea and 20 ft. above La^e Huron, into 
which it dischargee through fit. Mary's Biver. 
Its greatest measured depth is 1,008 ft. Its 
hydrographic basin, includmg the lake surface, 
has an area of about B5,000 eq. m. The dis- 
charge through Bt. Mary's River is estimated 
at sS.OOO cu. ft per second. In the deeper por- 
tions of the lake the temperature varies little 
from 3B° F., the temperature of water at its 
maximum density. 

The boundary between Canada and the U. S. 
passes through the lake, about one third of the 
area of the lake betongit^ to the Dominion, 
ihe N. shore is formed of crystalline locks, and 
in places is bold and picturesque. The S. shore 
is moatly low and covered with blown sand, 
glacial deposits, and fine pinkish clays, which 
were deposited from the lake during a former 
high-water stage, when it extended for many 
mHes 8. of its present boundaries. The Pic- 
tured Bocks, about 100 m. W. of the outlet of 
the lake, are Clio's of sandstone, formed by the 
edges of nearly horizontal strata, and, together 
with other bold features about the lake, are 
remnants of an old topography which was fash- 
ioned by stream erosion and weathering pre- 
vious to the Glacial period. The land boraering 
Lake Superior is not well adapted for agricul- 
ture, but neb deposits of copper and iron and 
abundant forests of pine, together with flsberies 
and facititiee for transportation which the lake 
aD'ords, have led to rapid developments. 

Sappi (sOp-plL'), From tod, 1820-06; Aus- 
trian opera composer, whose baptismal name 
was Francesco Ezechiele Ermengildo Cavaliere 
Supp£ Demelti. He very early manifested 
musical talent, and at fifteen composed a maso. 
After study with the best masters, be became 
conductor at the Josephstadt Theater, Vienna, 
succeeded by other similar engagements. His 
first operatic work was " Sommernachtstraum," 
founded on Shakespeare, in 1844. Then came a 
long list of operettas. In the U. S. he is best 
known by his " Fatinitza," " Boccaccio," and 
his overture " Poet and Peasant" 

Snp'per, Lord's. Bee Eucbabist. 

Snppnia'tion, a form of inflammation which 
goes OB to the development of pus or matter, 
as in abscesses, inflammations of the mucous 
membranes, and in wounds. Although pus may 
be otherwise produced, for practical purposes it 


may be regarded as the result of a conflict be- 
tween invading pus-producing bacteria and the 
white blood cells. In studying the process mi- 
croMopically it is found that, as in other forms 
of inflammation, the white blood corpuscles of 
the blood leave the vessels and accumulate in 
the tissues; at the same time a quantity of the 
fluid part of the blood exud^. Eventually the 
cellular exudate softens by d^eneration and 
yellowish pus results. At the same time the 
surrounding tissues produce a wall of young 
cells around the suppurating focus, and thus 
an abscess with a retaining wall is formed. The 
true pus corpuscle is a white blood coipuscle 
which has emerged from the blood vessela and 
undergone more or less degeneration. > 

The ^mptoms indicative of suppuration are 
those of inflammation — heat, redness, pain, and 
swelling; ,but the pain has often a peculiar 
throbbing character, and the swelling is found 
to be fluctuating or elastic In addition, £;en- 
cral fever of irr^ular type, sweats, or chills 
may be noted; and general infection (pysmia 
and septiCKmia) may occur. The treatment of 
suppuration consists in abortive measures, and, 
these failing, in meaauros to promote " point- 
ing " and in the evacuation of the abscess. Ap- 
plications of cold are most useful for the first 
purpose; for the second, heat, and especially 
poultices. After the development of fluctuation, 
incision should be made, the pus cavity cleaned, 
and then, if necessary, packed so that it may 
drain and granulate from the bottom. 

Snprem'aey, Act of. Bee Act. 

Snraba'ya, town on the N. coast of Java; 
capital of the Dutch province of Surabaya; op- 
posite Madura, at the mouth of the Kedlri. It 
has a good harbor and is strongly fortified. It 
is a station on the railway from Surokarta to 
Probolingo, communicates regularly with Sama- 
rang, Batavia, and other places by steamboats, 
and carries on an important trade, exporting 
annually rice, coflfee, cotton, su^r, tobacco, 
and cocoanuts. Its shipbuilding is also exten- 
Kive. Pop. (1905) 150,196, of whom 8,063 ftre 
Europeans, the rest Javanese, Malays, and 

Surakar'ta, town of Java; capital of the 
Dutch residency of Surakarta; on the left bank 
of the Solo; connected with Bamarang and Su- 
rabaya by railway. It contains a magnificent 
palace of the native emperor, who lives here as 
a pensioned rather than as a tributary prince; 
the Dutch fortress is opposite the Kmperor's 
palace. The trade is very latge, especially in 
pepper, vanilla, and cacao. Pop. (1900) 109,469. 

Snrat', town in Bombay, British India; on 
the Taptee. It is m. in circumference, and 
surrounded by walls surmounted by towers. It 
is said to have had BOO.OOO inhabitants at the 
end of the eighteenth century, but its manu- 
factures died out, Its trade is lost, and many 
of the Dutch, French, and Portugese establish- 
ments are deseried. 'The place is most impor- 
tant from a military point of view. Pop. 
(1901) 119,306. 

Sure'ty. See Guxbantt; Scbfitbhip. 

Sur'geiy, that branch of medical science 
which has for its object the treatment by man- 


ual operatioiu of aJI ImImu or mftlfonuktioiu 
of the human bod;. Pictures bave been found 
' amon^ GgTption and Aasyrian ruins display- 
ing instrumenta and operations not unlike 
manT in use in modem timea. The BUi^cal 
attammenta of the early Qreekt seem not to 
have extended further ttian the extraction of 
darts, the suppression of hemorrhage fay pres- 
sure or styptics, and the application of lenitive 
salves. Homer says that when the warriors at 
the Trojan siege sustained fractures of the 
bones, recourse was had, as when pestilence 
arose, to invocations to the gods. Uippocrat«8, 
fa. abt. 4QD B.C., commeD^ed some operations 
that have only of late years been acknowledged) 
to be legitimate surgical resources, such as 
tapping the chest for emjiyema, nephrotoniy 
for calculus lodged in the kidnev, and trephin- 
ing the skull for pergiatent headache. He was 
familiar with cataplasms and venesectioD and 
cupping; with operations on ranula, nasal 
polypi, and ganglia; with the treatment of 

Siles and flstulc by ligature; with tapping in 
ropsies. Eraaistratus was a bold surgeon, 
not hesitating to excise portions of the liver 
and spleen ; he invented a metal catheter. 
Aretcus, of Cappadocia, about the first century 
AJ>„ opened atwceases of the liver and used the 
trephine for the cure of epilepsy. Rhazes 
(BS2-932 A.D.) , of Bagdad, cauterized the bites 
of rabid animals. Guy, of Chauliac, who prftc- 
ticed in Avignon in the fourteenth century. 
flrat mentions the Cesarean operation, and de- 
scribed the use of weights to keep the lower 
limb extended in cases of fracture (now called 
the " American method "}. Ambrose Far^ tied 
the arteries with ligatures after amputation. 
In tha U. S., Dr. Wm. Shippen, of Philadel- 
phia, in 1703 first dElivered lectures on anat- 
omy and surgery, and the first medical school 
in America {the Univ. of Pennsylvania) was 
founded by Dr. Morgan in ITSS. John Collins 
Warren, of Boston ( 1778-1860 ) , wroU a 
treatise on tumors, and wa4 the first to per- 
form (October 16, 184G) an operation of im- 
portance on a patient anesthetized by ether. 
Durgery was revolutionized in the nineteenth 
century by the introduction of anastheties, and 
the antiseptic methods adopted as a result of 
increased knowledge of the function of bacteria 
in disease. By skin grafting, large ulcerated 
surfaces caused by bums, etc., can now be 
healed, though formerly abandoned as incur- 
able. Nerves are cut or stitched; the skull is 
opened to permit the arrest of bleeding, the 
evacuation of abscesses, and the removal of 
tumors the exact site of which has been deter- 
mined beforehand by the rules of cerebral 
localication. The thorax is cut into for the 
relief of empyema, or even morbid conditions 
of the lung itself, and after evacuation of the 
pleural contents reaccumulation is prevented 
Dj tecuring free drainage; and, in cases of 
stab wounds, stitches have been made in the 
walls of the heart. Hardly any organ of the 
abdominal cavity but is subjected to explora- 
tion, ^nd, in cases otherwise incurable, to com- 
plete or partial removal. See Medicine. 

Snrinam'. See Guiana (DutoA). 
Sttnnvllet See Muuxr. 

Siir'i«T> Henry Howard (Earl of), abt. 
1SI6-47; English poet. He was the eldest son 
of Thomas Howard, third Duke of Norfolk, 

earned the rank of field marshal. After the 
taking of Boulogne he became its governor, 
and continued the war with advantage luitil 
January, 1546, when he met with a reverse, 
which induced the king to recall him. Sur- 
rey's comments on this action offended Henry, 
who imprisoned him for a sbort time in the 
Tower. December 12, 1646, Surrey with his 
father was again arrested on a charge of trea- 
son, for quartering the royal arms with his 
own. Surrey proved conclusively bis right to 
assume the royal arms ; yet he was condemned 
and executed about a week before the death of 
the king. His works consist of sonnets, ama- 
tory verses, elegies, paraphrases from the 
Scriptures, and translations of the second and 
fourth books of the ..Eneid. They are the ear- 
liest use of blank verse in Bnglish poetry. 

Snirey, county of England, bordering N. on 
the Thapies; area, 758 sq. m. In the N. part 
the soil is very fertile; in the S. it consists 
mostly of day, chalk, and iron sand ; in the 
whole W. psrt the land is heath. Wheat, hops, 
and vegetables are raised; hogs and poultry 
are reared. Near London are many factories. 
The county contains much wood, and the 
beauty of the scenery and the proximity to 
London have attracted many residents to Sur- 
rey, which is studded with mansions and villas. 
Pop. (1911) eT0,9B0. 

Sur'TOgate, one appointed as a substitute 
for another, and particularly an officer ap- 
pointed to act in the place of a bishop, or of 
a. judge, in matters relating to marriages and 
to probate jurisdiction. In England the surro- 
gate's principal function now is dispensing li- 
censes to marry without banns. In some states 
of the U. B. the term is employed to designate 

period, during which the governor of a colony 
was vested with full authority and jurisdiction 
over matters of probate, but exercised them 
through local delegates or appointees. In the 
U. S. the courts exercising such jurisdiction 
bear various titles, such as probate courts, or- 
phans' courts, parish courts, county courts, or 
courts of the ordinary. As a rule they are 
tribunals of limited jurisdiction, whose proced- 
ure and authority are prescribed by statutes. 
In some jurisdictions surrogates or probate 
courts have the power to appoint guardians 
for Infants and imbeciles, to hear and deter- 
mine disputes affecting estates before them for 
administration, to entertain and dispose of 
proceedings for the sale of real estate, and 
even to administer the estates of insolvent 
debtors. As a rule these courts do not possess 
a general equity jurisdiction. 

Sturey'inK, the art of measuring land for 
determining areas, locating lines, and making 
maps. Surveying is supposed to have orig- 
inated in E^^t, where property lines were 
annually obliterated b^ the inundation of the 
Nile. Plane surveying is divided into land aur- 

veyinr to determine proper^ lines and aieu 
of fields ; topographical surveying, which pro- 
ducei laaps showing the undulations of the 
surface, the forests, swamps, and waters; 
hydrographic surveying, whieh locates rocks, 
shoals, and all the features of bays and rivers ; 
mininK surveying, which locates the under- 
ground passages and shafts of mines; railway 
surveying, which establiahae the best routes 
and grades for railway lines; and city survey- 
ing, which deals with streets, sewers, and water 
supplies. Qeotogical surveying notes the out- 
crops of rock formations, and lays them down 
on topographical maps, tJie field operationa be- 
in^ usuallj' of the nature of a rough recon- 
naissance. Geodetic surveying extends over 
areas so large that it Is necessary to take into 
account the curvature of the earth. See Coast 
AND Geodetic Survey ; Geodest. 

The Gunter's chain of 66 ft., the engineer's 
chain of 100 ft., and tape lines of various 
lengths are used for measuring distances. By 
the use of the compass and transit for measur- 
ing angles, many distances can be computed 
from a few measured ones, and the work 
greatly expedited and economized. The com- 
pass determines the bearings of lines with re- 
spect to the magnetic meridian, while the tran- 
sit measures angles on . a graduated limb. 
Leveling instnunents and rods are needed 
for determining elevations and diOerences of 
heights. In topographical work the plane table 
and stadia rods are used in connection with a 
triangulation. (See Stadia Mzasubkmeht. ) 
Instead of using a chain the distances may be 
approximately found by pacing, or by walking 
over the tinea, and counting the ateps. 

Two methcidB of finding the distance AX 
across a river are shown in Fig. 1. By the 
first method a parallelogram, ABGD, is laid 
out, AB being a prolongation of XA; then E 
is marked on AD at its intersection with CX. 
The distances AB, AE, DE being measured, 
the distance AX is computed by multiplying 
together AB and AB, and dividing the product 
by DE. By the second method XA is produced 

to B, and a stake, C, placed at 
point; then D and E are taken ( 
so that they are in line with X. 
AB, BD, DC, CE, and EA being 
distance AX is equal to 


iny convenient 
n BC and AO, 
fhe distances 
measured, the 


A method of 6i>diiig the length of an inac- 
cessible line, XT, is shown in Fig. 2. A 
stake is flrst placed at any convenient point 
A, two stakes, B and 0, at points on AX and 
AT, and a fourth stake, i), so as to maka 

ABCD a. parallelogram. Then E and F are 
placed on BD and CD at their intersections 
with CX and BY respectively. The distances 
AB, BD, DF, and EF being measured, the dis- 
tance XT is equal to 


The area of a field, as ABODE in Fig. 3, 
may be found by dividing it into triat^les by 
either of the methods stiown, measuring all 
the lines, and then computing the area of each 
triangle separately. To find the area of a 
triangle whose three sides are known, add the 

three sides together, and take half the sum; 
from the half sum subtract each side sep- 
arately, multiply together the half aum and 
the three remainders, and the square root of 
the product will be the area. 

A map of an island or irreRular field, ns in 
the second diagram of Fig. 3, may be made 
by staking out a polygonal 
area ABODE, and mens- . 

tral point. Then perpen- 
dicular lines, called off- 
sets, are set off from each 
side "to the boundary and . / 
their lengths measured, ^^ 
thus giving all the data 
for mapping and comput- 
ing the area. The area ' 
of a field is determined 
in compass surveying by ' "*■ ■*■ 

measuring the lengths and 

trearings of the sides. For example, tor the 
case shown in Fig. 4, the field notes would be 
as follows: 

,ib, Google 





From these datii the distances Ab, Ac, Ad, 
called latitudes, and the distances Bb, Cc, Dd, 
called departures, are computed, and from these 
the areas included between each line and its 
projection on tlie meridian XB. Then the area 
of the field is the sum of the areas BbcC and 
CedD, less the areas BbA and DdA. 

On account of oscillations in the forces of 
magnetism and of local attractions the com- 

e,ss is not an accurate instrument, and should 
used only for rough reconnaissance or for 
farm surveys, where precision ia not impor- 
tant. In all town or city work, as also for 
railways and mines, the transit is employed 
tor the direct measurement of angles. 

A topographical survey of a region embrac- 
ing more than a few square miles should be 
baaed on a triangulation which locates the 

Citions in latitude and longitude of a num- 
of stations. Then, starting from these sta- 
tions, lines are run in various directions, and 
the location of roads, houses, streams, and 
other features, ia made by offsets or by stadia 
sights. Leveb are also run t^ which the con- 
tours or lines of equal elevations are deter- 
mined, and thus a picture of the relief of the 
surface may be obtained. Photography is an 
aid in this class of work, views being taken 
from different points which enable the contours 
of the surface to be sketched in the otEce. In 
the survey of a railway, topographical work is 
done on each side of the liue, and this is neces- 
sarily of a precise character so as to enable 
computations of excavation or comparative 
estimates of the coat of different locationa. 

The general features of the plan for survey- 
ing and recording the public lands that be- 
longed to the U. S. after the Revolution, to- 
gether with all ceded by individual states soon 
after the formation oi the Constitution, and 
additions since made, are as follows : The en- 
tire public domain is first divided into parts 
called land districts, each of which is in charge 
of a surveyor general. In each district a 
meridian line is run, extending through the 
entire district, and from some point of this 
meridian an E. and W. line is run, which also 
extends through the district. These lines are 
determined astronomically, and when located 
serve as axes to which tne subdivisions of the 
district are referred. Parallel to the axes, and 
on each side of them, other lines are run S m. 

To take into account the obliquity of Hie me- 
ridians, suitable offsets are made. The town- 
ships lying between two consecutive merid- 
ians 6 m. apart constitute a ran^, and iiie 
ranges are numbered from the principal me- 
ridian, both E. and W. In each range the 
townships are numbered both N. and S. from 

it is called township 3 N., range 2 E, Each 
township is divided by meridians and ^. and 
W. lines into squares having a mile on each 
side. These are called sections, and each con- 
tains, approximately 640 acres, liie sections 
of a township are numbered from the NE. cor- 
ner, running along the N. tier of sections to 
So. 8, thence backward to section No. 12, 
which lies exactly S. of No. 1, and so on alter- 
nately, running from right to left and from 
left to right,, to the SE. comer, which is No. 
38. The four middle sections are numbered 
respectively 15, ID, 21, 82. In some of the 
states, section No. 16 is set apart for school 

Surri'Tal of the Fit'teat. See EvoLunon. 

Sn'sa, capital of the kingdom of Elam, and 
afterwards one of the residences of the kings 
of Persia; in lat. 32° N., Ion. 48° E. It was 
taken by Aashurbanipal (863-626 B.C.), and 
(Ezra iv, 9, 10) some of its people were sent 
to Palestine. When Alexander took the city, 
331 B.C., he found great treasures of gold. 
Susa is the scene of several biblical narratives; 
(1) The vision of Daniel (vjii, 2] ; (2) Nehe- 
miah's office as cupbearer (i, 2; ii, 1); (3) 
the feast of Xerxes (Esther i, 2). One of the 
buildings is reverenced by the natives as tHs 
tomb of Jonah, Excavations have revealed 
much of its magnificence. 

Snsan'iia, His'tory of, a short book, consid- 
ered by the Roman Catholic Church to be 
canonical, and regarded as the thirteenth chap- 
ter of Daniel, but put among the Apocrypha 
in the English Bible. It relates the attempt 
on the virtue of Susanna, a beautiful Jewish 
matron, her false accusation, her rescue from 
death, and the overthrow of the wicked men 
who designed her ruin. It is probably a fiction 
of neo-Uebrew origin. 

Snspen'sion Bridges. See Bbiiweb. 

Snsqnehan'na Biv'er, formed by the union 
of its E. and W. branches at Northumberlnnd, 
Pa. The E. branch, the larger, rises in Otsego 
Lake, N. Y., at an elevation of 1,300 ft. The 
W. branch rises in Cambria Co., Pa., and has 
a very tortuous and generally eastward course 
through a region abounding in timber and coal, 
but less celebrated fur its fertility and beauty 
than the valley of the E. branch, a portion ot 
which, the Wyoming valley, is renowned in 
history as well as for its mineral wealth. The 
main Susquehanna flon-s through a wide, open, 
fertile, and picturesque country of Devonian 
elates and limestones. It reach^'S the head of 
Chesapeake Bay at Port Deposit, Md. It is a 
wide and stately stream, but is shallow, and ia 
nowhere navigable to any extent, save in the 
spring, when the freshets bring down rafts of 
logs and . lumber and some loaded boats- 
Length, main stream, 160 m.; W. branch, 200 
m.; E. (or N.) branch, 2S0 m. The branches 
afford great water power. Canals have been 
built ^ong the river, but have been rendered 
useless to. a great extent by railways. 

Sm'Kz, county of England; S. of Surrey 
and bordering on the English Channel ; area, 
1,4S8 sq. m.; comprises the two modem ad- 


ministrative divisions of E, and W. Sussex. It 
is intersected from E. to W. by a range of Ion 
hills, called the S. Downs, of chalk covered 
with flne turf and affording pasturage, where 
the Southdown sheep are reared. To the N. 
of the range are extensive woods; to the 8. 
the ground is wholly under tillage, and large 
crops of wheat, barley, beans, turnips, and 
bops are raised, and hogs, fowls, and rabbits 
are reared. Pop. (1911) 418,478. 

Snt'tee, the voluntary burning of a widow 
on the funeral pile of her husband, a practice 
formerly prevalent among Hindus in India. In 
the event of the husband dying in a distant 
land, the widow would place his sandals on 
her breast and cast herself alive into a fire. 
Between 1B15 and 1826 more than 7,000 cnses 
were reported in the province of Bengal alone. 
In 1829 suttee was suppressed. 

Suvatoff, or Suwarow (sO-vft'rOf). Alezei 
Taailievitch (Count and Prince Italiaki), 1720- 
1800; Russian military officer. After various 
distinguished services, he became general in 
chief in 1783. In I7S7-8B he won fresh laurels 
against the Turks, whose main army he routed 
on the Rimnik, receiving the title of count. 
After repeated repulses be stormed Ismail in 
1790. losing 20,000 men, and massacring the 
Turkish garrison of 30,000. In 1794, after de- 
feating Kosciustko jointly with Fersen, he car- 
ried Praga, a suburb of Warsaw, by assault, 
deluging it with blood, and was made Geld 
marshal. In 1799 he was placed at the head 
of the united Austrian and Russian armies in 
Italy, achieved many victories over the French, 
at Cassano, on the Trebbia, and at Novi, and 
received the title of Prince Italiski. He 
crossed the Alps to join Korsakoff, when Maa- 
s^na's decisive victory over the latter at Zurich 
(September 25, 1798) enUrely changed the sit- 
uatton, and he was recalled with the rank of 
Sre'aborg. Bee Sweabobo. 
Swatia, or Suabia, former territory of SW. 
Germany, corresponding nearly to the present 
WUrtemberg and Baden. Its original name 
was Alemannia, but when, in 496, the Alemanni 
were conquered by Clovis, the country received 
the name ot Swabia after the Suevi. In lOSO 
the Emperor Henry IV made it a duchy, and 
bestowed it on Frederick of Hohenstaufen. 
Under this faniily Swabia prospered, and be- 
came the seat of a flourishing civilisation; 
but when the family became extinct with Con- 
radin, who, as the head of the Ghibelline party, 
. was executed at Naples in 1208, Swabia was 
brolcen up into many small dominions and free 
cities. From 1663 to 1B06 Swabia was one of 
the ten circles into which the German Empire 
was divided. 

Swallow, any bird of the Eirundiaidir, dis- 
tinguished by the wide, deep gape, allusion to 
which is evidently conveyed in the name. They 
have the neck rather short, the head full, the 
bi!l short, but comparatively brond and de- 
pressed; the gape yery deep, and continued 
backward nearly as far as, or quite under, the 
eyes. The winga are long and pointed, the tail 
is forked, and normally consists of twelve 


feathers; the legs are weak and smatl, the 
claws curved and acute, but slender. There 
are over 125 species, and representatives are 
found in almost every land and zone. The 
species are among the most active and graceful 

of birds, and ttieir circling and sweeping flight 
is well known. They feed almost exclusively 
on insects, which they take on the wing. The 

purple martin, the cliff swallow, the bam swal- 
low, and the bank swallow or sand martin. 
The so-called chimn^ swallow is a swift. See 
Swdt; Mabtin. 

Swan, any one of those swimming birds of 
the Anatido!, subfamily Cygnina, which have 
a bill nearly equally broad throughout and as 
long as the head; the cere soft and extending 
to the eye; neck long and slender, consisting 
of twenty-two to twenty-six vertebrie; the 
front f«es with a large web, the hind toe with- 
out a lobe, the tail short and rounded, the 
second and third wing quills the longest. They 
are among the largest of birds. Omitting the 
Coscoroba swan, which probably belongs with 
the ducks, there are nine species, all but two 
inhabitants of the N. hemisphere. The excep- 
tions are the btnck-necked swan of Chili and 
the black swan of Australia. The N. American 
swans, whistling swan and trumpeter swan, 
are fine birds, both white. The tame swans 
are of two European species — red-billed swan 
ICygnua olor) and Polish swan (C. im- 
mutabilis). The former is found in a wild 
stiite in Europe, while comparatively little is 
known of the second species. C. immulabilis 
is so named from the fact that the 5'oung — or 
cygnets — are white, while those of other spe- 
cies are grny. Though once held in esteem 
for the tabic, domestic swans are now bred 
merely for ornament. 

Swan' sea, seaport in Glamorganshire, S. 
Wales; at the mouth ot the Tawe; 216 m. W. 
of London. Owing to the rich coal fields in 
the vicinity, and its position on the bay af- 
fording safe anchorage, Swansea has developed 
into one of the most important manufacturing 
to»-na in Great Britain. Nearly half the entire 
exports are tin plates, the rest being coal, coke, 
iron, steel, line, copper, alkali, etc. Pop. of 
municipal borough (1911) 114,673. 

I by Google 


Swa'iiluid. See Tbanbtaal. 

Sweaboig, or Sruboig (sv&'ft-Mrg), a fort- 
MM of Fimkud on the N. coast of the Gutf of 
Finlajid. The place was originally fortified by 
Sweden. When Finland became a. province of 
Eusiia (1809), the latter made it a military 
and naval depot. The isle of Vargoe ia the 
central or principal fortress; the iaie of Great 
Oester-Svartoe the principal naval depot and 
dockyard. Pop. (190S) with Eelsingfors, 124,- 
637. See Helsindbobh. 

Sweat, oT Petapira'tioD, the fluid exuded 
through the pores of the akin. The amount 
of water excreted from the akia is but little 
leaa than the volume of the urine. It varies 
with the seasons and climate, sweat being most 
profuse in summer. The action of the akin is 
complementary to that of the Kidneys; chilling 
of tbe akin sends more blood to the kidneys. 
Experiments of cloeiog the pores by a coating 
of Tarnisb or tin foil, both in man and animals. 

BuBFACE or TBE Falu OF THE H*HD. A ponioo of (he 
■kin about half in inch square, magniSed four diam' 
Mara: i, I, I, I, openings of th< swcM ducts; >, 1. 1, t, 
KTOffres between the papillB of the ildn. 

have induced alarming depression and death. 
Tlie artificial etiinulation of the perspiration 
is a valuable channel of elimination in im- 
paired health. Bathing, friction, and clean 
clothing, by favoring activity of the sweat 

S lands and open pores, are means of preserving 
ealth. The sweat is secreted by the sweat 
glands, coiled tubular masses beneath the akin, 
with excretory tubulca terminating on the sur- 
face. The tube is about j+j in. in diameter, 
the coils or glands vary from -j^j t« |V or 
^ in. in diameter. The number of sweat 
openings varies on diO'erent surfaces ; thus the' 

Calm of the hand has 2,736 to the sq. in., the 
ack of the hand, 1,490; sole of the foot, 2,6B5; 
top of the foot, 924; forehead, 1,259; cheek, 
648. Tlie number of sweat glanda in the body 
is estimated at 381,248, and the aggregate 
length of tubules as 2| m. 

SWMt'ing Sys'tem, in popular usage, the 
practice followed in certain trades of subcon- 
tracting for a low class of work, which is done 
on the premises of the laborers, or the premises 
of the subcontractor, and often amid unaan- 
itary surroundinga and with excessive hours 
of labor. The term " sweating" is in this con- 
nection a term of reproach, and was Srst ap- 
plied to tailors who took home work that their 


wives and children might assist them. I«ter 
tbey found it profitable to do all their work 
at home. Then they began employing others, 
thus becoming sweaters instead of being 
sweated. Sweating is an effect of the survival 
of domestic induatry. Factory labor ia not 
subject to it. It is common in certain trades 
— in Europe in tailoring, bootmaking, furriery, 
needlework of all kinds, nail and chain making, 
and dock labor; in the U. S. the practice Ts 
almost exclusively confined to tailoring and 
other needlework, the preparation of feathers, 
the making of cigars, artificial flowers, and 
fancy leather goods. 

The tailoring trade is the employment in 
which sweating is chiefly practiced. Tlie whole- 
sale clothier supplies the cloth, which ia cut 
and trimmed in hia own workshops. The goods 
are then farmed out to contractors, for the 
most part Jews, to be made up and returned 
at a fixed price per garment. The contractor 
is generally the leasee of a small room, usually 
attached to his own lodgings in a tenement. 
Here two or three " teams of workers are 
employed — a machine man, a baster, and a fin- 
isher constituting a " act." Wages are fixed 
on a piece basis. Where, for example, $7 ia 
allowed for making up two doEen coats, C3 
goes to the machine man, $2.60 to the baster, 
and $1.50 to the finisher. The laborer must 
frequently work sixteen or eighteen hours to 
earn a nominal day's pay. The sweater works 
with his hirelings, overseeing them, and often, 
doubtless, driving them to do their utmost. 
See Factory. 

Swe'den, kingdom occupying the E. slope 
and S. end of the Scandinavian Peninsula; 
area, including lakes, 172,876 sq. m. ; pop. 
(1909) census S,4T6,441. The most of the 
boundary with Norway ia formed by the water- 
shed of the EiOlen Mountains, and that with 
Finland hy the Tomeft River. The coast it 
4,740 m. long. The fiords are few, and the 
seas shallow, with gentle slope. The coast ia 
bordered by a narrow ribbon of islets called the 
ekSrgird, rocky and bare on the W. coast, 
but green and fertile on tbe E. "Hie Sound, 
2} m. wide at its narrowest part, separates 
Sweden from Denmark. Tbe islands are most 
numerous about Stockholm. The Baltic slope 
of the peninsula is gentler than the Atlantic 
one, and in Norrland (the N. part of Sweden] 
it descends in a series of terraces, giving its 
rivers alternately gentle courses, when they 
expand into lakes, and rapids, or cataracts. 
The S. of Sweden, or Gothland, has rocky 
hills, and is separated from tbe central part, 
or Svealand (Sweden proper), by a broad, low 
land filled with lakes. The extreme S. is an- 
cient Bkania, and is very fertile. N. Qotbland 
is relatively arid. Beyond Stockholm is Up- 
land, the classic ground of Sweden. Dalecarlia, 
NW. of Stockholm, and on tbe Norwegian 
frontier, is a beautiful and picturesque land 
with gay, hardy, end independent inhabitants; 
here Gustavus Vasa found the support neces- 
sary to overthrow the tyrannical Christian. 

The highest known mountains are Kebne- 
kaiae, or Ivanstenen (more than 7,000 ft.), 
and Sulitelma (6.154 ft). Sweden is not 
mountainous ; it descends a lon^ and relatli 

and relatively 



gentia alope. GladeTs are nnmerouB In tbe 
N., corering 160 sq. m. Tfas tareest are about 
Sarjekt^okko (0,828 ft), and between the two 
movntainB above named, where on a surface 
of 460 sq. m. the; cover 70 eq. m. The glaciera 
are reported aa growing. A score of rivers 
descend tbe slopes, form lakes in their course, 
hava a length of 160 to 260 .m., and empty 
into the Bothnia or Baltic. The lakes occupy 
one twelfth of the surface. They are generally 
small. The largest are the Wener (2,150 aq. 
m., greatest depth, 295 ft.) and I^ke Wetter 
(7^3 sq. m., greatest depth, 410 ft.). Lake 
KfitUr, third in sise, and penetrating St«ck- 
hoim, Sordlike in form, ie aaid to have 1,200 
lalanda. The climate ia mild for the latitude, 
and atorms paaa uaually W, or S. The annual 
precipitation ia from 10 to 40 in., and is great- 
eat on tbe SW. coast. It ia aaid that the bar- 
veatB ai;e fifteen days later than in the eigh- 
teenth century. Primitive rocks cover moat 
of tbe oooairy. Tlie Glacial period was an 
important one in Sweden, and has left traces 
•Terywhere. Mining is an important industry, 
and the production of iron, lead, and copper la 
large. The chief districts are the Gellivara, 
within ths Arctic Circle, and the Dannemora, 
in Umala. Zino and manganese are also pro- 
duced, and cobalt and nickel are found. 

The forests are extensive, covering two fifths 
of the area, and are characterized by spruces 
and birches to the N., pines and oaks in the 
center, and beeches in the B. The reindeer are 
nearly all domesticated, but the large pastur- 
age they require and their tendency to diseases 
limit their uaefuluess. The bear, wolf, lynx, 
and glutton are disappearing, while the fox 
and elk appear to be increasing, and the roe- 
deer is extending its range farther N. The 
Bwan is a common visitant of the lakes. Food 
fish are abundant, and include, in fresh water, 
the aalmon (the most important), eel, pike, 
perch, and turbot; in salt water, the herring 
(the moat Important), flatfish, cod, mackerel 
and sprata. The climate and soil are not favor- 
able for agriculture, but thia is made up by 
the care given to the art. Only one fifteenth 
of the area is cultivated. Barley and potatoes 
reach 08' N. lat. ; lye passes N. of Haparanda, 
at the N. end of Bothnia ; wheat, formerly cul- 
tivated only S. of Stockholm, reaches 76 m. 
farther N. The farma are generally small, but 
they give occupation to half of the population. 
He largeat area ia in oats, but the largest crop 
Is potatoes. Horses are relatively numerous 
(one to every ten persons) , due to the charac- 
ter of the roads. Tbe stock generally is of 
poor native races, but the dairy industry ie 
growing rapidly, aa London ia an acceaaible 
and profitable market. 

The country Is divided into tweniy-four gov- 
ernments beaidea the city of Stockholm. The 
Finns number (1900) about 22,138; Lappa, 
6,983. Aside from these, and a few Jews and 
other foreigners, tbe Swedish type is pure 
and unmixed. Tbe Lutheran is the state 
church, and other religions, though tolerated, 
are few. Education is compulsory, schools are 
nnmerons, and the percentage of illiteracy is 
evanescent. Serious crimes are rare, but pau- 
perism is increasing. The value of the annual 


imports is (190S) $106,304,000, chiefly textiles, 
colonial wares, and coal; the annual exports 
are valued (1000) at $126,769,000, chiefly tim- 
ber, animals and their products, and ores. 
Germany is the chief importer, Great Britain 
the chief buyer. Gothenburg is the most fre- 
quented port, Stockholm next, and about 36,000 
vessels visit Swedish ports annually. 

Sweden's system of goTemment ia the out- 
growth of centuries of history, like that of 
Great Britain. The king ia intrusted with the 
executive, sTid is aided by a council of state 
of ten ministers. Taxation and legislation (the 
latter subject to the king's veto) are intrusted 
to the two elective houses of a parliament, 
one of ISO unpaid members holding for nine 
years, the other 230 paid members holding for 
three years. Tbe government of the provincea 
is in the hands of prefects appointed by the 
king, but local affaire are administered t^ 
communal and municipal couneila. The munici- 
palitiea are limited to cities of over 26,000 in- 
habitants. The army was reoi^nized in 1901, 
and general personal service adopted. The 
navy is intended only for coast defense. 

The early mythical history of Sweden is dig- 
nified and attractive, and the gods of the 
Northmen displayed their chief activity in 
Svealand. The Goths, who played so impDr< 
tant a part in tife downfall of the Boman Em- 
pire and the reconstruction of Europe, seem to 
have come from Gothland. Authentic history 
begins abt. 1000 a.d., when Olaf became a. 
Christian. The people did not accept Chris- 
tianity for one hundred and fifty years, and 
pagan ideas and customs lingered long after. 
The dissensions between Goths and Swedes were 
heated abt. 1300, and their amalgamation has 
continued since without serious interruption. 
The early history was terminated in 1389 by 
the battle of Axelwalde, when Queen Margaret 
of Denmark and Norway, a striking historical 
figure, took the Swedish king, Albert, prisoner, 
and the union of the three Scandinavian coun- 
tries was confirmed in 1367 by the act called 
the Union of Calmar. 

Sweden was very restivB under the onion, 
and tried repeatedly to break away, but with- 
out success, until led by Gustavus Vasa 
(1623). With this king began the brilliant 
period of history which made Sweden one of 
the first powers of Europe, gave her extensive 
lands to the S. and E., and made her at one 
time the leader and defender of Froteetantiam. 
During this period appeared his grandson, 
Gustavus AdolpbuB, by far the greatest of 
Swedish kings, and the period ended with the 
resignation of his daughter Christina in 1654. 
Then follow one hundred and fifty years of 
decline, during which Sweden was robbed both 
of her infiuence and her foreign possessions, 
until Gustavus IV (1792-1809) proved so im- 
potent and perverse that he was dethroned, 
and hia poaterity repudiated. Charles XIII 
was then elected (1809-18), but was childless, 
and Marshal Bernadotte was invited to become 
crown prince. He accepted, and founded the 

E resent line, under which Sweden's progress 
aa been ateadj and secure. In 1906 Norway 

dissolved the union, and t~~ ""* '"~" 

of" • 

, Google 


SwVdcabois, Bmuniel, 16SS-17T2; Swediah 
theologian; b. Stockholm. His father, Jesper 
Siredberg, was a bishop, and his familv was 
-eimobled in 1719, and took the name of Swe- 
denborg. He was educated at Upsala, and then 
traveled through Europe. He attained emi- 
nence by his writings upon mathematics and 
mechanics, and later on the natural acieucea 
and on finance. In 171S he was made asseasor 
of the Board of Mines by Charles XII. He as- 
sisted the king at the siege of ^rederickshall 
in 1718 by transporting some vessels over four- 
teen milea of land by machines he invented. 

He had always been a thoroughly religious 
man, but for a few years before 1745 his diaries 
and notebooks show that he was changing the 
direction of his studies from the physical and 
natural to the psychical and spiritual. In that 

Cr, he tells us, he " was called to a new and 
/ olfiue by the Lord himself, who manifested 
himself to him in person, and opened his sight 
to a view of the spiritual world, and granted 
him the privilege of conversing with spirits 
and angels." In 1747 he resigned his office of 
assessor, which' he had held for thirty years, 
requesting that half of his salary might be 
continued to him. The king accepted his 
resignation, and granted him a pension for life 
equal to his full salary. He wrot« to a friend : 
" Mv sole view in this resignation was, that I 
might devote myself to that new function to 
which the Lord had called me. On resigning 
my office a hisher degree of rank was offered 
ms, but this I declined, lest it should be the 
occasion of inspiring me with pride." 

From 1749 to 1758 he published the " Arcana 
Ctelestia" in eight quarto volumes; in 1768, 
" An Account of the Last Judgment and the 
Destruction of Babylon," " On the Whito Horse 
Mentioned in the Revelation," " Heaven and 
Hell," " On the Planeta in our Solar System 
and in the Starry Heavens," and " On the New 
Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrines " ; in 
1763, " The Doctrines of the New Jerusalem 
Concerning' our Lord," same " Concerning the 
Sacred Scriptures," same " Concerning Faith," 
same " Concerning Life," a " Continuation 
Concerning the Idst Judgment and the De- 
struction of Babylon," and " Angelio Wisdom 
Concerning the Divine Love and Wisdom"; in 
1704, " Angelic Wisdom Concerning the Divine 
Providence"; in 1766, "The Apocalypse Ee- 
vealed." He bad written a much larger work, 
"The Apocalypse Explained," as far as the 
tenth verse of the nineteenth chapter, vhich he 
did not publish, nor, as far as is known, finish 
— it has been published since his death; in 
1768, " The Delights of Wisdom Concerning 
Conjugial Love"; in 1769, "A Brief Exposi- 
tion of the Doctrine of the New Church," and 
a small work entitled " The Intercourse be- 
tween the Soul and the Body" (in tiie English 
translation, " A Treatise on Influx ") . In 1771 
he published his last work, "The True Cfaris- 
tian Religion, Containing the Universal The- 
ology of the New Church." He also left volu- 
minous manuscripts. 

After the publication of the " True Christian 
Heligion " he went to Loudon, and while there 
he was struck with hemiplegia. After a few 
weeks be recovered hia apeech, and his facul- 


tiefl were cImt to the laat He has never been 
charged with impoature, and they who think 
he was insane muat rest that opinion on the 
fact that for more than twenty-five years, with 
brief intermiaaions, he claimed that he was in 
the spiritual world whenever he wished to be 
there, and published what would fill volumes 
of things there seen and heard. 

Swe'dish Green. See Scubelb'b Qbeer. 

Swedish Lan'giMge, genetically, a member 
of the Scandinavian division of the Teutonic 
group of languages. With Danish it forms the 
minor group E. Norse, as distinguished from 
W. Norse, made up of Icelandic and the popu- 
lar dialects of Norway. Its present territory 
is Sweden, with parts of Russian Finland and 
Esthonia. Chronologically, two main periods 

recognized in the history of the language. 

Old Swedish, from the end of the Vikins 

age to the Reformation (1050-1640), aid 

Modem Swedish, from the Befonnatiou to the 
present time. 

Sweet Bay. See Bat. 

Sweefbread, the pancreas, or thymus gland 
of an animal, used as food. The former is uau- 
ally called stomach sweetbread and the latter 
throat sweetbread. 

Sweetfiriei. Bee EoLAnnnE. 

Sweet Flag. See Acobds Caiaicub. 

Sweet'aop, the soft, sweet, and aromatic 
fruit of a small tree, the inona (Tuaniow of 
tropical America, cultivated not only in Brazil 
and the W. Indies, but also in Hindustan and 
the E. Indies. The fruit is greenish and re- 
sembles an artichoke in size, in form, and in 
its scaly covering. The pulp is soft, somewhat 
mealy, sweet, and luscious, though with a 
musky, aromatic odor and flavor. It is ex- 
tensively used as an article of food, and it has 
proved the staff of life to the people of Hindu- 
stan in seasons of famine. In India it is called 
custard apple, though the true custard apple 
is A. reltculalo, 

Sweys (awBn), Swegen (sv&'gen), or Svend, 
King of Denmark and father of Canute the 
Great ; invaded England to avenge the massacre 
of the Danes in 1M2, and ravaged the country. 
In 1013 he made another invasion, and this 
time reduced the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom. He 

Eroclaimed himself king, but died (1014) be- 
>re he had established hii power, leaving 
Canute as his successor. 

Swift, Jonathan, 1667-1745; British author; 
b.. in Dublin, of purely English descent; grad- 
uated Trinity College, Dublin, in 1685, and 
remained till the Revolution of 16SS-89 drove 
him to England, where he became private sec- 
retary to Sir William Temple. In 1692 he 
took his master's d^free at Oxford, and two 
years later went to Ireland. In 1694 be was 
ordained, and soon after received the prebend 
of Kilroot, in the diocese of C<ninor, but soon 
returned to his secretaryship. He next became 
chaplun to Lord Berkeley, a lord justice of 
Ireland, whom in 1699 he accompanied to 
Dublin. Having reoeived leveral livings, he 


asBtuned the duties of his vicarage at Lam- 
COT in 1700, and shortly aft«r received the 
prebend of Dunlivin in St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
Dublin. In 1701 be published his " Discourse 
on the Contests and Dissensions between the 
Nobles and Commons of Athena and Rome," 
vindicating the conduct of the Whig leaders. 
In 1704 appeared hia "Battle of the Books," 
which was succeeded by the " Tale of a Tub," 
a satire upon the Catholics and disaenters-. 

In IT08 he published his " Ar^ment to 
Prove the Inconvenience of Abolishing Chris- 
tianity," " Bentimenta of a Church of England 
Man with Respect to Religion and Govern- 
ment," " Predictions for 1708, by Isaac Bicker- 
■taO'," and " Letters on the Sacramental 
Test"; and, b 1709, "A Project for the Ad- 
vancement of Relision and the Reformation of 
Manners," the only work to which he ever 
attached hia name. Failing to receive prefer- 
ment from the Whigs, he went over to the 
Tories in 1710, Eis'powertul pamphlet on the 
"Conduct of the Atlies " (ITll) raised hia 
reputation to the highest pitch; but Queen 
Anne, under the advice of Archbishop Sharp 
and others, refused him any high preferment. 
In 1713 he was appointed to the deanery of 
St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, the income of 
which amounted to £700. About this time he 
wrote bis " Public Spirit of the Whigs," and 
in 1714 appeared hi» "Free Thoughts on the 
State of Public Affairs," The death of the 
queen and the overthrow of the Tories sent 
Swift back to Ireland, where he remained dur- 
ing the next twelve years. Swift's history was 
pamfully involved with that of three young 
ladles: Miss Jane Waring, whom he called 
Varina; Miss Esther Johnson, named Stella 
in his poems; and Miss Hester VanhomrigU, 
named by him Vanessa. Under the stipulation 
of perpetual secrecy he married Stella privately 
in I7I6. Their relations had been and con- 
tinued to be equivocal, and she died without 
any public recognition of ber marriage. 

Swift produced in 1720 "A Defense of Eng- 
lish Commodities, being an Answer to the Pro- 
posal for the Universal Use of Irish Manu- 
factures," followed in 1724 by the celebrated 
" Drapier's Letters," in which he attacked the 
scheme to allow William Wood to supply 
Ireland with a copper coinage. In 1726 ap- 
peared bia " Gulliver's Travels," a series of 
satires on human nature and society, the most 
original and extraordinary of all bis produc- 
tions. It has been conjectured with proba- 
bility that the voyage to the Country of the 
Houyhnhnms was written during the last ill- 
ness of Stella, and that the mental anguish of 
the author save ferocity to this appalling 
satire. By 1738 bis health became so under- 
mined as to preclude literary labors. In 1740 
his memory almost left him, and frequent 
fits of passion terminated in furious lunacy. 
This subsided in 1742, and be passed the last 
three years of his life in speechless torpor. 
Some Dosthumous works of Swift were pub- 
lished long after his death, including " A His- 
tory of the Four Lost Years of Queen Anne," 
"Polite Conversation" (a satire), and "Direc- 
tions for Servants." Innumerable anecdotes 
preserve the tradition of his wild humor, his 


tumultuous bursts of arrogance, his admirable 
perspicuity, and his curious inconsistencies of 
conduct and temper. His person was athletic 
and commanding, his eyes of the clearest blue, 
and all his lifs^he was endeavoring by violent 
exercise to subdue his mysterious physical 
maladies, probably due to labyrinthine vertigo. 
History bos dwelt to excess on his ferocity. 

charm of address and his i: 
quisite outbursts of sympathy. 

Swift, common name for the birds of the 
Micropodida (or Cj/paelida) , probably first be- 
stowed on the European species from its rapid 
flight. In external appearance the swifts much 
resemble the swallows, but the bill is decidedly 
smaller; the tail is variable in shape, deeply 
forked In some, almost square in others, but 
always composed of ten feathers. The first toe 
is directed more or less forward, and in the 
typical swifts [Cypaelina] the second, third, 
and fourth digits have but three joints each. 

Ebculekt Sin 

? iCaUocaHa mcuianiai. 

Anatomically the swifts ere very different 
from the swallows, and do not belong to the 
same order. There are about fifty species dis- 
tributed over the grenter portion of the globe; 
with the exception of the E. Indian tree swifts 
{Macropterj/n] , which are prettily clad, they 
are mostly of somber plumage. They are in- 
sect eaters and pass the greater portion of 
their time on the wing, and some, like the 
chimney swift or cbimfiey swallow (Ckalura 
pelagica) of the U. S., even gather the mate- 
rials for their nests in full flisbt. They build 
in caves, crevices of the rock, nooks of old 
building, hollow trees, or adapt themselves t« 
civilization in chimneys, while an African swift 
suspends its. nest to a palm. The nests are 
gummed together with saliva, and the famous 
edible birda^ nests, built by the little swifts of - 
the genua Callocalta, consist entirely of a pecul- 
iar salivary secretion. The common species of 
Euro^ IMioropua aput) ranges from Great 
Britain to India, occurring also in N. Africa. 
In the W. of the U. S. the name swift is ap- 
plied to a small fox ( Vulpet velox) , and in the 
S. to a small Uiard (fiosloportts unduIahM). 


Swift Shrike. Se« Wo(»i Swallow, 

SwIin'iliuiE, the act of progressing in the 
(rater by means of ad-okei with the hands and 
feet As the specific gravit; of the human 
body is only alightly greater than that of 
water, swimmiiig is easily learned, with or 
without an instructor. The density of salt wa- 
ter being greater than that of fresh, it is much 
easier to swim in it. Indeed, if the aaturation 
is very great, as in the Dead Sea or the Great 
Bait Lake, the specific gravity is greater than 
that of the human body, and a man cannot sink 
in it 

A variety of devices have been in use both 
to assist in acquiring the art and for making 
swimming easier or more rapid ; but the pres- 
~i the water of a competent instructor to 

buoy the body too high in the water, and teach 
the svrimmerto depend on Hometbing other than 
his own floatage. Let the learner wade out 
until breast deep in the water, turn toward the 
shore, and throw a white pebble or any other 
object easily discernible a short distance before 

moment he has acquired confidence and 
mand of his limbs to strike out regularly he 
has learned to swim. The common strokes are 
the broad, dog paddle, and side, or Indian. In 
the broad stroke, after bringing the body 
nearly horizontal, the arms and legs are drawn 
slowly toward the body and then extended, al- 
ternately, with a quick and strong impulse. 
The hands should be kept flat and the flngers 
closed, the legs should be well apart at the be- 

E'nning, and at the conclusion of the act of 
eking brought together. In the tread the 
body is kept perpendicular and the hands and 
feet beat downward. In the dog paddle the 
body lies nearer horizcatal, and hands and feet 
are moved rapidly and alternately with a pad- 
dling movement. The side stroke is commonly 
used in racing, and consists, briefly, in turning 
the body on one aide and reaching far ahead 
with the under hand while the other sweeps by 
the ebest and belly. 

Swin'bnme, Alseinon Chailes, 1837-1909; 
English poet; b. London; received his educa- 
tion partly at Bton, partly in France, and 
in 1867 entered Balliot College, Oxford, where 
he remained only a short time. His life 
was mainly spent in London. He published, 
among other works, " Rosamond " and " The 
Queen Mother," dramas (1861); "Atalanta in 
Caiydon," a tragedy constructed after the 
Greek model, in which he flrst manifested his 
peculiar mastery of rhythm of the English lan- 
guage (1864); "Chastelard" (1885); "Poems 
and Ballads," which were so severely criticised 
for their erotic character that the English pub- 
lisher endeavored to suppress them, and which 
were put forth in New York under the title 
"I.aUB Veneris" (1866); "A Song of Italy," 
"Ode on the Proclamation of the French Re- 
public," " Songi Before Sunrise," " Bothwell," 
a dramatic sequel to " Chastelard " ; " Essays 
and Studies," " Studies in Bong," " A Century 


of Roundels," "Life of Victor Hugo" (1888), 
"Locrine" (1887), "The Sisters" (1892), 
" Rosamolid," " Love's Cross Currants," a novel 

(I90S). After the death of Tennyson, Swin- 
burne was the praSminent poet of England. 

Swine, any artiodacty) mammal of the 
Suidce. The wild boar {Su» scrofa) of Eu- 
rope, N. Africa, and Asia Minor is generally re- 
garded as the original of the domestic forms. 
The river hogs, the babiroussa, and the wart 
hogs are other swine. The chief seat of the 
world's swine-rearing industry is in the N. 
states of the MissiBSippi valley, where favoring 
conditions of soil and climate encourage the 
production of Indian com, which is chiefly re- 
lied on to feed the swine. 

In the U. 8., swine, when very young, are 
designated as pigs, when partly grown aa 
sliotes, and later as hogs. Nine tenths of the 
hogs in the U. S. are black, with small mark- 
ings of white on the face, feet, and tail, and 
sometimes elsewhere. These are of the Poland- 
China and Berkshire breed, or a mixture of the 
two; the next most prominent breed is the 
Chester White. Other breeds, equally distinct, 
are the Essex, black; Duroc- Jersey or Jersey, 
red, sandy, or reddish; Victoria and Suffolk or 
SmaU Yorkshire, white. The Essex and York- 
shires are from England, the Duroc-Jerseyi are 
of uncertain ori^n, and the Victorias origi- 
nated since I860 in Indiana. The predominant 
breed, the Poland -Cihlna, originated by crossing 
in Butler and Warren Coa, Ohio, betweoi 1838 
and 1840. These were crossed with imported 
Berkshires to give refinement and propensity to 
earlier fattening, and incidentally tney acquired 
the Berkshire's black color and white mark- 
ings. The Berkshire in its improved form orig- 
inated (as did the Essex) in Bngland—Italian 
and Spanish swine being crowed with the 
coarser native stock— between 1780 and 1800, 
but although flrst introduced into N. America 
about 1830, it did not obtain general favor un- 
til 1870-80. Hogs of a dark color are most 
largely reared because of a belief that they are 
hardier and lees susceptible to aflections of the 
skin incident to sudden changes of temperature 
and the muddy tjuarters, severe winds, and 
burning suns to which they are subjected. Po- 
land-Chinas, Berkshires, Chester Whites, and 
Duroc-Jerseys are large breeds, weighing from 
300 to 450 lb. at twelve months and from 600 
to 6(X> and even more at eighteen months, and 
tbey have been bred to a degree of fineness in 
bone, smallness of offal, compactness of form, 

nd early maturity which makes them well- 

li^ perfect. 
The two principal markets, slaughtering and 
packing points, for swine are Chicago, III,, and 
Kansas City, Kan. There were marketed in 
the former city in 1894 7,483,228 head, and in 
the latter 2,547,077. Chicago packed in the 
year ending March 1, 1895, 6,293,202, and Kan- 
sas City 2,106,333; these numbers have been 
largdy exceeded in previous and succeeding 
years, but are a fair average. Next to cotton 
and wheat the swine interests furnish the 
largest values in exports from the U. S.; value 

• -wine in the U. S. (IBll) 1823,328,000. 
le chief scourge among swine is a conta- 
gious fever, popularly called cholera, which de- 



luitary and itj- 
Icient variety of 
lood, tending to an enfeebled constitution, en- 
courage its development. It is fatal in from 
one to dx days, or enda in & tedious or uneatiB- 
factoty recoTery, 

Swlu Guarili, bodies of meroenaiy Swiss 
troops employed as guards about courts. Swiss 
mercenaries have frequently been hired by for- 
eign powers since the time of the Swiss struggle 
for independence, which brought the valor and 
hardihood of that people into notice. The term 
Swiss Guards, however, especially refers to the 
royal bodyguard of the kings of France. This 
force, which was organized iu 1616, showed re- 
markable courage and lovalty in the service of 
the Bourbons. In 1789 they were roughly han- 
dled by a mob, and August 10, 1792, almost 
every man was killed in the hemic defense of 
the Tuileries. Tfaey numbered about 2,000. 
Their heroism is commemorated by Thorwatd- 
sen'e " Lion of Lucerne," carved from the liv- 
ing rock in a cliff near one of the gates of Lu- 
cerne. Louis XVIII reorsanized the Swiss 
Guard in 1816. In the Revolution of 1830 they 
were defeated and dispersed. . 

Swith'in, Swithnn, or Swithun, Saint, d. 
862; bishop and jMitron of Winchester; became 
a'monk in the Old Monastery in Winchester; 
later provost ; private chaplain to Egbert, King 
of the W. Saxons; his adviser and rator to the 
King's son Ethelwolf, and later bis adviser 
also; Bishop of Winchester, 852. He was re- 
markable for piety and activity in building 
churches. In B71, when his relics were trans- 
ferred to the church, " such a number of mirac- 
ulous cures of all kinds were wrought as was 
never in the memory of man known to have 
been in any other place." Hie day in the Ro- 
man calendar is July lid — bla death day — but 
in the English calendar July 15th; and it is 
commonly said in England that it it rains on 
St. Svrithin's Day it will rain for forty days 
thereafter, a saying which is supposed to have 
originated in the alleged fact that the transla- 
tion of Swithin's remains was delayed by 

Swif cerland, formerly alao called Helvetic 
Confederation, a federal republic of Europe, 
bounded N. by Germany, B. by Austria, S. by 
Italy and France, and W. by France; area, 
16,976 sq. m,; pop. (1910 census) 3.741,971. It 
is the most mountainous region of Europe, and, 
with Tyrol and Savoy, the most elevated, though 
the Caucasus rises higher in single peaks. It is 
covered throughout almost its whole extent by 
the Alps, of which the following groups, with 
their various branches, belong properly to 
Switzerland: The Pennine Alps,' the Lepontine 
or Helvetian Alps, including the divergent Ber- 
nese Alps; the Rbeetian Alps. The principal 
summits, ranging between 15,200 and 13,700 ft., 
are treated separately. To the W. of the Alps, 
between France and Switzerland, extends the 
Jura Range. Of the heights commanding the 
most striking panoramas, the Bigi, Uiough 
comparatively low, is probably the finest. In 
the valleys of the Bernese Oberland, and those 
which descend from Monte Rosa in Valais, the 
glaciers are seen to great advantage. The ra- 


vine of the Via Hala, on the upper Rhine in 
Grisone, presents one of the most sublime 
scenes. The gladen are the reservrars which 
feed some of ibe largest rivers of W. Europe, 
including the upper Rhine, which flows within 
'and along the boundary line of Switzerland, 
and then enters Germany, and the Rhone, 
which rises among the glaciers of the 8. Goth- 
ard range. The next largest river, the Aar, 
carries the waters of fourteen cantons to the 
Rhine. There are numerous waterfalls, the 
most celebrated being those of the Rhine, 3 m. 
below SchalThauHen, 60 to 76 ft. high. 

The principal lakes are those of Constance, 
Geneva, Lucerne, Zurich, etc. Qeologically, the 

mineral resources, including iron, lead, and 
copper, are small. The salt mines near Basel 
and those at Bex (Voud) are the most impor- 
tant. The mineral springs and watering places 
include Leuk (Valais), St, Monte, in the val- 
ley of Engadine (Grisons) ; Pfflfers (St Gall), 
and Baden and Scbinznach (Aargau). On the 
highest summits snow and ice are perpetual; 
yet in Valais the fig and grape ripen (it the 
foot of iee-clad mountains. The climate is sub- 
ject to great variations, but on the whtde is 
very healthful. About two thirds of the sur- 
face consists of lakes and other watere, glaciera, 
miked rocks, and uninhabitable heights. Same 
districts are very fruitful, yet the grain raised 
is inadequate for home consumption. The vine 
is cultivated on the dopes of the Jura and in 
the valleys of the Rhine, Rhone, Reuss, Lim- 
mat, and Thur, and in some places ripens at 
2,000 ft. above the sea. Flax and hemp are ex- 
tenuvely grown. The forests cover about sev- 
enteen per cent of the soil, and, although im- 
perfectly cultivated, the production of timber 
exceeds the home consumption. 

fishing is extensive, but hunting has fallen 
off, and in some of the cantons is prohibited. 
Chamois are still found in the Alps; other ani- 
mals are bears, wolves, wild boars, and roe- 
bucks; foxes and hares abound, and otters are 
found in some of the lakes. Switzerland is 
celebrated for rich and excellent pastures; the 
finest breeds of cattle are those of the Simmen- 
thai and Saauen (Bern), GruyCre (Fribourg), 
Zug, and Scbwytz. The best cheese is made in 
Gruy6re and in Urseren (Uri), and in the val- 
leys of the Emmen, Saane, and Simmen. The 
chief seats of the cotton manufacture are in 
Aargau, Appenzell, St. Gall, Zug, and Zurich; 
of silks, in Basel and Zurich; and of watches, 
In Bern, Geneva, NeucblLtel, Solothum, and 
Vaud. Switzerland oonsists of twenty-tWo can- 
There are no villages beyond 5,000 ft, ex- 
cept the hamlet of Juf, at 7,000 ft., the highest 
in Europe. On the Great St Bernard the hos- 
pice is at 8,110 ft The inhabitants of the high 
valleys have larger bodies and feet than those 
below, and are more free A-om several mala- 
dies, notably phthisis. Pneumonia and pleu- 
risy are more common and more dangerous 
than below, as are also asthma, scrofula, and 
rheumatism. In the deep, moist valleys, with 
little sunshine, goiter and cretinism occur, but 
increasing attention to cleanlineaa »nd gemral 
c«Mufort diminishes this. 

• Google 


Oertnan ia spoken bj the niKJoritj, and ii 
the official language in iixteen cantons, French 
in five, and Italian in one. Education U com- 
pulsory, primary education is free, and the per- 
centage of illiteracy nearly evaneacent There 
are about 6,000 schooU of all grades and 6 uni- 
Tersities. The principal toiraa, with the popu- 
lation for 1910, are: Zurleb.. (189,088), Basel, 
Baale, or Bale (131,914), Geneva (12G,e2Q|, 
Bern (8^,264), Lauaanne (03,920), St. Gallen 
(37,667), Chaux-de-Fonda (37,630), Lucerne 
or Luzerne (39,1S2), aod Neuchfitel (23,606). 
The imports for 1010 were valued at $336,- 
789,000 and the exporU at $230,803,000. Th« 
ehief im^rts were foodatuffs, tobaooo and 
■pirits, «lk, wools, cottons, and other tex- 
tiles; metals, minerals, and chemical colors, 
bullions, and coin. The chief exports were 
textiles, timepieces, and colors. Wheat and 
flour are largely imported. The trade is 
chiefly with Switzerland's immediate neigh- 
bora-— Germany Srst — but many exports go to 
France, Italy, Oreat Britain, and the U. S. 

The constitution is thoroughly federal, with 
some novel features. Supreme legislative and 
executive authority in federal matters resta in 
a federal assembly of two houses: a state coun- 
til of forty-four members, elected by the can- 
tons, and a national council composed of 167 
members— one for each 20,000 population, elect- 
ed erery three years by direct ballot. Execu- 
tive authority ia deputed to a federal council 
of aeven, elected by tbe assembly for three 
years, and its president and vice president are 
the chief magistrates of the nation. There is 
a special tribunal for trial of cases between the 
confederation and cantons, or between cantons. 
The confederation can levy no direct taxes, and 
its chief source of revenue is the customs. The 
revenue for 1910 was (29,747,000 and the ez- 

Cnditures 930,774,000. No standing army may 
maintained within the confederation, but the 
militia consiflts of S00,000 available men. Each 
dement of the confederation is sovereign and 
independent in local affairs and in such others 
as are not limited by the federal constitution. 
The cantonal govemmenta agree only in the 
absolute popular sovereignty, and differ much 
in organization and details. The referendum 
ia most fully developed in Zurich, where all 
laws, and even the chief matters of finance, 
must be submitted to the popular vote. Com' 
munal government is well developed for local 
afTaira. Several cantons have only indirect 
taxation — duties, stamps, etc — while others tax 
income and property also. 

Though many traces of the ancient race 
known as lake dwellers remain in Switzerland. 
the Eelvetii were the flret inhabitants whose 
name has been transmitted to us. They were 
continually Involved in war with Gauls, Ger- 
mans, or Romans, and even dared to attack 
Cesar's anpy, but were beaten back to their 
native valleys, and from this time to the Teu- 
tonic invasions they served as a bulwark for 
Some against the Germans, and their country 
became a Bdmau province. The time came, 
however, when the Romans had to withdraw 
their forces and make room for other invaders 
— the Ostrofnoths, the Alemanni, the Burgun- 
diani, and the Franks. Tbe W. part was in- 


eluded in tbe Burgundian Kingdom. In 1082 
Switzerland came under the rule of the emper- 
ors. At the beginning of the twelfth century 
the emperor granted to the dukes of Zahringen, 
as vassals, the greater part of W. Switzerland 
and Lesser Burgundy. At the death of the last 
^hringeo (1218) Switzerland was again under 
the emperor, who, however, conferred several 
parts on other vassals. The Swiss were will- 
ing to submit to tbe emperors, hut bore uB- 
easily the rule of vassals. Following the exam- 
ple of the leagues of the nobles and of the free 
cities, the three forest cantons — Uri, Schwytc, 
and Unterwalden — formed in 1291 a league, 
known as the Old League of High Germany, 
which was the nucleus of the present eonfeder- 

The house of Hapsburg attempted to increass 
ita rights and domains; the Lands (or forest 
cantons) opposed, and tried to free themaelvea 
from the dominion of the Hapsburgs. The 
Swiss war of independence is memorable for the 
bravery and vigor of tbe league. At Morgar- 
ten Pass (131fi) Duke Leopold waa utterly de- 
feated, and for aeventy years no serious at- 
tempt was made by tbe dukes of Austria to 
force their rule upon the Bwias. In 1^86 tke 
Swiss gained another victory over the Anatrians 
at Sempach, and this, followed by another vic- 
tory at Nllfels (1388), plsiccd the league on a 
firm footing. New distncts were added, and in 
1474 their independence of the house of Haps- 
burg was formally recoKnized. In the fifteenth 
century another powerful foe appeared in the 
person of Charles tbe Bold of Burgundy, but 
the Swiss won victories at Grandson and Uorat 
in 1476 and in 1477 under the walls of Nancy, 
where Charles was slain. By 1613 the number 
of the cantons waa increased to thirteen. In 
the next few years Protestantism spread rap- 
idly throughout the country, under tne impulse 
of Zwingli, and in 1631 war broke out between 
tbe Protestant and Roman Catholic cantons. 
The Protestant canton of Zurich waa defeated 

ism, and the Pays du Vaud, long subject to 
Savoy, waa conquered in 1636 by the Protestant 
canton of Bern, 

During the Thirty Years' War Switzerland 
remained neutral, and by the Treaty of West- 
phalia (1648) her independence of the German 
Empire waa recognized. Up to the death of 
Louis XIV disorder existed in Switzerland, and 
this disturbed condition continued until the 
French Revolution, the principles of which 
gained ground easily ia Switzerland. The 
numl>er of malcontents increased, and the Swiss 
were to be seen in opposing armies. Tbe can- 
ton of Bern fought valiantly to the last against 
the new ideas and the foreign republican 
armies, but without aucceaa. Switzerland was 
to be converted into a republic " one and indi- 
visible," according to the views of the French 
Directory. This was known as the Helvetic Re- 
public, and lasted four years. To that form of 
government succeeded a league, based upon fed- 
eration. Under this constitution Switzerland 
recovered an appearance of peace, but the me- 
•■tnmliBlinn nft" (Fehruarv IS. 

or ana a uea- 



potic ruler. The mediation luted ten yeara, 
ftnd came to an end at the fall of the French 
Broplre. The European reaction againit France 
took place, and Snitzerland had to oarticipate 
in it; her soil was invaded by the allieB, as it 
had been by the French armiet. By the Con- 
gress of Vienna (1S15) her indenendence and 
neutrality were acknowledged and guaranteed. 
In 1S48 a new constitution was adopted with- 
out foreign interfereoee; this gave place in 1874 
to that now in farce. 

Sword (sOrd), a weapon consisting of a long 
blade, and a handle, or hilt, for grasping, the 
blade being larger than the dagger. The saber 
has one edge only and a broad back ; some 
cavalry sabers are straight. The Japanese 
two-handed sabers, worn aa the badge of the 
Samurai or warrior class, are of great excel- 
lence. The scimiter of Mohammedan nations 

I. Qnak Sword, from ■ moaument. Z. Qnek 
in tba RoyiJ AnliqUBiium. Berlin 
isD nrord, from a vua. *. Qntk iword in scab- 
bard, rram ■ vue. 0. Barbarian ■word, from the 
CoiumD of Antoniu*. 6 and 7, Roman nn> 
the Uiueo NuioniUa, Naplw. 

is a light saber with a blade much curved 
backward; they were made of the famous 
Damascus steel, wrought so tliat its surface 
is covered with delicate waving lines in its 
substance. The yataghan of the Mohammednns 
hoH a sharp concave edge. The cutlass is a 
short saber, cheaply mounted. The ancient 
Roman infantry used a straight, double-edged, 
sharp-pointed blade about £0 to 24 in. long. 
The Malayan creese is about 18 in. long with 
a decidedly waved edge on each side. In the 
early Middle Ages the swords of the knights 
were broad bladed and straight; in the Uiir- 
teenth century the blades were sometimes 45 
in. long, and the two-handed swords were even 
longer. It was not an age for delicate sword 
play. The rapier was introduced by the Span- 
iards {the blades of Toledo being famous), and 
adopted by men of family, about the close of 
the sixteenth century, but the private soldier 
still used a blade for cutting as well as thrust- 
ing, and this passed into the heavy broadsword 
of the seventeenth century, famous in tbe hands 

of Cromwell's 
by the 8 

, but the claymore proper y/oM a huge two- 
handed sword. In modem armies the sword 
is worn by officers generally, though in the 8. 
African War it was found to be too distinctive 
a mark for shazpshooters. In a ceremonial 
way the city sword or walking sword of the 
eignteenth century was the ba^e of a gentle- 
man, and even to-day a slender sword forms 
part of the costume of a European courtier or 

Sword'flah, any fish of th^ XtpMute, re- 
markable for having tbe upper jaw prolonged 
forward in a bony sword. Tne common sword- 
dsh (XipkioK giadiiu] ranges from the Atlan- 
tic coast of'N. America eastward to the Medi- 
terranean. It is often 10 to 16 ft. long. It is 
a rapid swimmer, and is said to assail the 
largest whales with its sword. It sometimes 
strikes ships with such forca as to penetrate 

CoHHOH Swob 

several thicknesses of plank, and tbe sword is 
frec^uently broken off and left in situ, but the 
Bsh which moat often assaults vessels is a 
smaller species of the genus Tetrapturm. The 
swordfish is generally esteemed as food, and is 
taken by the harpoon, an exciting and danger- 
ous sport, but is too scarce to be of commercial 
value. The use of the sword is not clearly 
ascertained. The food of the swordfish con- 
sista of cuttlefish, especially the squid, and of 
small fishes. 

Syb'aiiB, city of Magna Grecia, in Lucania; 
founded abt. T20 n.c. ; 3 m. from the Tarentine 
Oulf, between the rivers CratJiis and Sybaris, 
the modem Crati and Coacile. It rose rapidly 
to a ^eat prosperity, founded other colonies 
— PoBidonia, LsQs, and Scidrus — covered a 
space of 6 m. in circumference, and was no- 
torious for the luxury and effeminacy of ita 
inhabitants. In 510 B.C. Sybaris was com- 
pletely destroyed by the Grotonians and never 
recovered, but in 443 n.a. the deacendanta of 
the conquered and exiled Sybarites founded the 
city of Thurii near the old site of Sybaris. 

Syc'amore, a tree {Fietu ageomonta, or Syo- 
omonu antiguorum) which is a near relative 
of tbe fig. It ia a widespreading, shady tree, 
much plant«d in the Levant for ita shade. Its 
light, fragile wood is reputed to be inde- 
structible. Its fruit is inferior in quality to 
the fig, but ia abundant and palatable. In the 
U. S. the buttonwood or plane tree is improp- 
erly called sycamore, and in Great Britain that 
name is applied to a maple {Acer pieudo- 

Syd'enham, Thomas, 1624-80; English phy- 
sician; b. Winford Eagle, Dorset; educated at 
Oxford, and in 1648 became a fellow of All 
Souls' College; served oa an officer in tbe par- 

liBmentarian armf; studied medicine at the 
Goll^ of Montpetlier, France; took his iegne 
of iLD. at Cambridge, and establiBhed himaeU 
abt. 1660 u a pb}^iciaii in Londoa, where be 
•oon attained the foremost place. He aban- 
doned the routine practice then prevalent, baa- 
ing- his own upon the tbeor^ that there ia in 
nature a recuperative power which it is the 
province of the phyaiciaii to aid. He waa espe- 
dallj acute in abeerving and describing the 
gymptoma of diseases. Among the aervicea 
which he rendered were the treatment of ma- 
laria hj cincbona and the administration of 
cooling remedies in sniBllpoi. 'His norka, 
which are not numeroue, were written in Latin, 
but have been frequently tranalated. In 1843 
waa founded the Sydenham Society, for the 
purpoM of printing important medical works 

Syd'ney, capital of New S. Wales, Australia, 
and the oldest city of Australasia; on the S. 
aide of Fort Jackson, in tat. 33' 6V B., Ion. 
151* 12' E. The dimate ia temperate sad 
generally healthful. Port Jackson is a long. 
Blender inlet, farming a magnificent land- 
locked harbor. 

Tha city proper ia about i m. from the 
heads, on a peninsula between Rusbcutter B^ 
on the E. and BUelcwatUe Bay on the W. It 
has a water front of 8 m. The surface ia un- 
dulating. The streets are often crooked and 
steep, but this gives the city an old-fashioned 
appearance unique in Australia, and affords 
frequent end charming vistas over tbe waters 
o( the bay. There are many public parks 
(3,800 acres), including the Domain (130 
acres), and Moore Park (600 acres), to the 
8E. of the city. The more fashionable of the 
numerous suburbs are toward tbe E., while 
the business portion Is extending westward. 
The entire distance to Parramatta, 15 m., is 
practically suburban. The factories are more 
on the S. side, and population is rapidly ME- 
tending toward Botany Bay, 6 m. to the S. 

The public and many private buildin^n are 
of floe style, and generally of a fine sandstone 
found in the vicinity. The university is the 
most important edifice in Australia, the prin- 
cipal facade being 600 ft. in length. With 
r^rd to its degrees it has the status of the 
English universities. The metropolitan cathe- 
dral of St. Andrew's and tbe Roman Catholic 
Cathedral of St Maiy Are two of the flnest 
structures In AustAIia. The city is in the 
center of a large coal basin, and the beds prob- 
ably pass under the city itself. Coal Is cheap 
and abundant. The manufactures include all 
the products of the pastoral industiT< and es- 
pecially boot and shoe making, railway sup- 
plies, carriage and wagon making, glass, pot- 
tery, furniture, atovea, tobacco, etc., and 
distilling and brewlm;. The city waa founded 
In 1786 oy Capt. Philip aa a penal station, and 
lout remained a humble village. In 1801 it 
had 56,S4S InhabiUnU, 93,685 with tbe aub- 
urba. Pop. (1910) eat. at 621,100. 

Sydney, an important seaport and manufac- 
turing city of Nova Scotia, Canada. It Is situ- 
ated on an ezoetlent harbor in the E. part of 


Cape Breton Island and haa extensive coal 
mines in its vicinity. Tbs city's manufactures 
Include iron, steel, tar, cement, and lumber. 
A large fleet of ocean-going steamers is owned 
in the city, as well as many fishing craft. 
Pop. (leil) 17,723. 

Sydney. See 

Sye'ne, ancient name of Assouan iq.V.). 

Sylla. See SCIJ.A. 

Sylves'ter, name of two popes, besides an 
antipope. SyLVESTEB I, SaiNT (abt. 270-33B), 
Bucweded Pope Melcbiades, January 31, 314, 
and concurred with Conatantlne in convening 
the Council of Nice. In the false decretal! 
Constantine la said to have made to him a 
" donation " of Rome and ita temporal itiea. 
Stlvebtek II (Gesbeit) (abt. 820-1003) waa 
a Benedictine monk and a famous instructor 
at the Univ. of Rheima. The Emperor Otho 
III made him Arcbbiahop of Ravenna, and 
had him elected pope, April 2, 990. Ha 
adminiatered the c^ce with uncommon leal, 
talent, and severity. Hia universal knowledge 
caused him to pass for a magician. SYLvEstn 

III, for three m ' . - .. . 

IX and Gregory 
of Sutri, 1046. 

Syl'vicultnre. See Foszbtbt. 

Symbio'aia, a kind of commensaliam or com- 
panionship, in whioh associated living forma 
are Intimately connected with and dependent 
upon each other. Thus the plants kiu>Mm as 
lichens are composed of symbiotic aasociations 
of alg« and fungi. The association of "yellow 
cells"' (plants) in tbe Kadiolaria (animals) 
is an example in the animal kingdom. 

Symbol'ic I^lc, or, better, Aloobithhio 
LoQic, a form of Ic^c introduced by George 
Boole, an English mathematician, character- 
ized by an artificial language composed of sym- 
bola with their laws of combination, and pos- 
sessed of peculiar advantages in giving of 
actual relations repreaentations whlSi can be 
manipulated accoraing to rules of operation 
and procedure, experimented upon to give new 
knowledge, according to organised processes. 

Sym'pliony, oi Slnfo'nia, in music, an elab- 
orate composition designed for performance t^ 
a full orcoestra, and consisting of several dis- 
tinct movements' (usually four), each of which 
has ita individual character, as the alUgro, 
andante, adagio, tninutl, scfterzo, etc., while 
the whole unite in forming one symmetrical 
work of art. There appears to have been no 
important difference between the symphony 
and the overture until about the end of the 
eighteenth century. 

Symplecades (slm-pleg'&-dez] , two islanda in 
the N. entrance of tbe Tbracian Bosporus, de- 
scribed by the ancients as floating islands 
which dashed against each other, eruahing 
whatever came between them. 

Synagogue (sln'ft-gOg) , a Jewish church. 
The earlier aynagoguea, under the Persians, 
Greeks, and Romans, were also for deliberative 
or higher educational purposea, Dcapita rab- 


binical tr&ditiona, tti beglmiliigB pnil)abt7 io 
Dot go beyond the Babflonian captiTity. The 
BynaffOKUe ia Eenerally a buch buildins, facing 
Uie four cardinal points. The E. wall, wbicE 
all must face during the recital of certain 
prayer*, incloB^ the " holy ark " ( aron hak- 
kod«eh), in which Hebrew copies of the Penta- 
teuch, written on rellum, are deposited ; and 
opposite it, near the center, ia the platform 
(btmoA) on which the reading from the same 
ia performed by the reciter or cantor I'hazan] , 
or by a special reader Ikore). Sermona or 
lectures are delivered from a smaller platform 
adjoining the ark, by the rabbi or lecturer. 

The Gbeat Stnagooue was an assemblage 
of 120 men which, according to Jewish tradi- 
tion, Nehemiah brought together for the re- 
organization of religions worship and the main- 
taining of civil order. They are supposed to 
fill up the gap between the last of the prophets 
and the first of the rabbis. To this body are 
ascribed the reconstitution of public worship, 
the final collection of the canon of the Old 
Testament, and the introduction of certain 

Krayera. Many other ordinaneea are referred 
) their initiatire. 

SyncOpft'tion, in muaic, an arrangement of 
notes which often checks the rhythmical move- 
ment, disturbing the accent, and rendering em- 
phatic that part of a bar or measure n^hich 
would otherwise be unaccented. Bee a, 6, and 
o i/i the axample ! 

Syncopation of a simpler kind occurs when the 
last note of any bar and the first note of the 
her succeeding are tied together by a " bind," 
and thus form in reality only <me note. 

Syncope (^n'ka-pE). See FAinnno. 

Synecdoche (sln-ek'dO-kS), a figure of speech 
which displaces an ordinary term by one which 
naturally suggests it, on account of the relative 
whole to part or part to whole, genua to spe- 
cies or species to genus; thus oily for people 
of the city, hUide for suiord, bald head for bald- 
headed man, bird (or fighting oook, man for 
humankind, etc. 

Syn'eigiam, in theology, the view that Ood 
and man share in the work of r^eneration, the 
human will responding to the Spirit of God. 
So Melancbthon taught, opposing the view of 
Luther aa to the bondage of the will and its 
complete passivity in conversion. 

Syno'rial HemliTaiies, connective-tissue mem- 
branous structures which surround the closed 
cavities connected with the joints, or occur 
about certain tendons or between opposed mov- 
able surfaces, their purpose being to lessen 
friction. They resemble serous membranes in 
structure, but are distinguished from them bv 
the viscid or glairy character of the fluid wita 
which they are lubricated, in contrast to the 
thin watery secretion bathing the serous sur- 
faces. The synovial fluid consists of nearly 
nthety-five per cent of water, rendered viscid 


hj muoni, endothelioid oells, fat, albumen, and 

Syn'tax, that branch of grammar which 
treats of the position and relations of words in 
a sentence. In Greek, I^tin, and other inflec- 
tional languages, the coordination is shown by 
the terminations of the words, and their order 
in the sentence is of little consequence; but in 
English, which lias but few inflections, the 
relation of the words is shown by their order 
in the sentence. See Gbauuab. 

Syn'thesis. See Cbbuistbi. 
S/phax. See JfUsiNisaA. 
Sy'phon. See Siphon. 

Syra (sS'rB), ancient Byroa, an island of the 
Cyctades belonging to Greece; area, 44 sq. m. 
During the Greek revolution it was used as a 
refuge for fugitives. It is now the commercial 
center of the ^gean Sea. Capital, Hermop- 
olis; pop. (1896J 2S,S6e. 

Syr'acuse, (1) a province of Sicily, on the 
E. coast; area, 1,420 sq. m. It is chiefly moun- 
tainous, but the S. is a plain. The principal 
Sroducts are grain, barley, olives, wines, fruity 
ax, and hemp. (2) A fortifled citv (ancient 
Syraciuit] , the capital, 81 m. B. by W. of Mes- 
sina; communal pop. (1001) 32,030. It has a 
fine cathedral, numerous palaces, and extensive 
ruins. It trades chiefly in oil, wine, brandy, 
frait, salt, saltpeter, and sulphur. The an- 
cient Syracuse was the largest city of Sicily, 
with a pop. est at 500,000, 800,000, and 
,200,000. It really consisted of five 
separated by walls — vie., Ortygia (the 
l1 city), Achradina, Tyche, Neapolia, 

the Epipolte, and hence was sometimes 

called Pentapolis. After the Roman conquest 
its limits became restricted; under Augustus 
it occupied only Ortygia and the lower part of 
Achra^na, and since its capture by the Sara- 
cens the town has been confined to the Orty- 
gian peninsula. 

The peninsula and the lowland pprtion of 
Achradma and- Neapolis present evidences of 
former splendor. Near the borders of Tyche, 
Achradina, and Neapolia ia the ancient theater, 
hewn out of the rock, 440 ft. in diameter, .con- 
tained sixty ranges of seats, all cut in the rock ; 
it could accommodate 24,000 spectators. The 
lautumiie or latomiee, originally quarries cut 
in the wall of rocks which formed the face of 
the heights of Achradina, and excavated to the 
depth of 60 to 80 ft., are still perfect Near the 
theater is that remarkable prison cut in the 
rock, now called the " ear of Dionysius." There 
are also catacombs of great extent Near the 
left bank of the Anapo, outside the walls, are 
the ruins of the Temple of Jupiter Olymplua 
The celebrated fountain of Arethuaa has been 
repaired anc) beautified. Syracuse was founded 
by the Corinthians, under Archias, about 734 
— Within seventy years it began to send out 


In 486 an oligarchy called the Geomori, or 
Gamori, which had usurped the government, 
was overthrown. The Geomori withdrew to 
Caamenn, but Gelon, deipot of Gfela, restored ■ 
them to power, reserving for himself the su- 
preme government Hiero, his successor (abt 



478 ) , promoted literature and a.rt. His 
brother and incoeiBor, Thraejrbutus, vaa ex- 
pelled, ftiid a popular Kovemment was in- 
■tituted. In 410 the Athenians forraed & 
league against Sjraeiiae, but their expedi- 
tion ended in disaster. Dionfaius the Elder 
made himself deapot of the citT in 405, and 
ruled vigorously but tjrannicaflr for thirty- 
eight years. After defeating the Carthaginians 
(397), . he extended bis dominion over the 
sreater part of Sicily and a part of Magna 
Onecia. He was aucceeded in 367 by hia son 
Konysius the Younger, who was Qnally over- 
thrown by Timoleon in 343, The restoration of 
liberty was followed by unexampled though 
brief proaperity. Twenty-aix years later Agath- 
oeles ac<)uired despotic power, and used it for 
twenty-eight years to plunge Syracuse into new 
and destructive wars. Soon after his death 
(289) new tyrants assumed the sway, till in 
270 Hiero TI obtained supreme power, and main- 
' tained a firm and judicious administration for 
fifty-four years. He was a steadfast ally of 
Rome. His grandson and successor Hierony- 
muB abandoned Rome for Carthage, which ulti- 
mately led to the siege of Syracuse by Marcel- 
lus (214-212), a siege rendered illustrious by 
the patriotic efforts of Archimedes, but which 
finally resulted in the capture and plunder of 
the splendid city. 

Syracuse fell into decay; yet in the fourth 
century a,d, it was still one of the largest cities 
of Sicily. It fell into the hands of the Goth*, 
was recaptured b^ Belisarius in 635, and in SIS, 
after a sipge of nine months, sacked and burned 
by the Saracens. In lOSS Count Roger of Sicily 
made himself master of Syracuse. It was par- 
tially rebuilt and fortified by Charles V, but in 
1642, 1683, and 1767 was nearly destroyed by 

Syracnse, city, county seat of Onondaga 
Co., N. Y.; on Onondaga Lake: 147 m. W. by 
N. of Albany and ISOJ m. E. of Buffalo. It is 
at the foot of Onondaga valley, in the lake re- 
gion of Central New York. Salina Street is the 
principal thoroughfare, crossing the city from 
8. to N., and W. Genesee Street, part of the old 
turnpike from Albany to Buffalo, crosses the 
dty from B. to W. The streets contain so 
many tree* that during summer the city, 
viewed from adjoining nills, appears to be 
buried in a forest. The city's water system has 
it; source in Skaneateles Lake, 18 m. distant, 
and is considered one of the finest in the TJ. S. 

Syracuse is the fourth city of the state, meas- 
ured by the value of its manual product. The 
census of 1006 gives the number of factory sys- 
tem manufacturing establishments as 738, 
employing 18,143 persons, and producing ar- 
tic^ valued at 949,435,000. The leading in- 
dnstries are clothing, iron and steel, tjpewrit- 
era, automobiles, chemicals, furniture, wagons, 
agricultural implements, candles, electric sup- 
plies, and malt liquors. Syracuse wsa settled 
in 1797, and was known first as Bogardus 
Comers; afterwards as Milan, South Salina, 
Cosaitt's Comers, Corinth, and in 1824 Syra- 
cuse. In 1826 the village was incorporated; 
in 1847 the rival villages of Syracuse and Sa- 
lina were brought Into a city corporation. The 

Jesiiibs, in 1664, "^- ^—^ '- -"-" "- '" 

10 P 

e the first to vidt the lo- 

cality, then inhabited by Indiana (Onondagaa), 
a remnant (425) of whom now occupy a reser- 
vation 6 m. S. of the city and 6 m. aq. PoA. 
(1910) 137,000. 

SytacUM nniver'sity, coedueational institu- 
tion at Syracuse, N. Y. ; founded 1848; located 
at Lima, N, Y., and known as Genesee College 
until 1871, when it was removed to Syracuse, 
the most prominent citizens and the city giving 
$100,000. The campus comprises fifty acres; 
has hall of languagea, Holden Observatory, 
fine arts, and the library building, containing 
the famous library formerly the property of 
the historian Yon Ranke, with 78,000 volumes 
and pamphlets, the Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation hall and gymnasium. The athletic 
field Is one of the finest in the state. The 
medical college is near the center of the city. 
A college of taw was opened in 1896. The 
value o? grounds and buildings is $3,260,000, 
the endowment fund is $1,700,000, and the 
total income $7H8.44», In 1910 tbe number of 
studenU was 3,040. 

Sy'ila, a vilayet of the former Turkey, in 
Asia Minor; bounded N. by the vilayet of 
Aleppo, K. and S. bv the Syrian and Arabian 
deserts, W. by the Mediterranean. It comprises 
the ancient Phcenicia, Ccele-Syria, and Pales- 
tine. Two parallel ranges, Lebanus and Anti- 
Litianus, run southward, and the chief rivers 
are the Euphrates, the Orontea and Jordan, 
and the Leontes. Earthquakes are frequent. 
The climate is parching and the heat oppres- 
sive. The scourge of the country ta the locust. 
Above all, however, the misfortune of Syria 
has been its geographical position, rendering 
it the battleSeld of races and reli^ona. Tbe 
mountain slopes are covered with pine, fir, and 
oalc Cedars are still found in Lebanon; lau- 
rel groves are frequent in the valleys ; exten- 
sive forests are rare. Farming tools and im- 
plements of all sorts, as well as the system of 
cultivation and handicraft, are of the simplest. 
The common cereals are wheat, rye, and barley; 
rice, dhurra, sesame, lentils, and beans are 
raised. Cotton, hemp, madder, indigo, melons, 
cucumbers, and artichokes are extensively cul- 
tivated. The tobacco along tbe coast is of 
excellent quality. Plantations of fig, orange, 
lemon, mulberry, peach, pomegranate, and alm- 
ond, and the vineyards yield excellent returns. 
The coffee plant has been introduced at Lata- 
kia, tbe sugar cane at Beirut, and Damascus 
is surrounded i>^ orchards and gardens. All 
the domestic animals of Europe are triund in 
Syria, as is also tbe camel. Ilie wild animals 
are jackals, hyenas, antelopes, the Syrian hear, 
wolves, and especially wild boar, deer, and wild 
buffalo. The silkworm is extensively reared. 
Mining is hardly carried on. 

There are no reliable statistics aa \a popula- 
tion. The lost estimate gives it 3,675,100 which 
is made up of heterogeneous races, peoples of 
Semitic origin predominating. Arabic is the 
generally spoken language, and French much 
employed by the higher classes. Tribal di- 
visions are rather on the score of religion than 
origin or race. The country swarms with seota 
—Mussulman, Jewish, and Christian, equally 
zealous and intolerant. The ehief oitiee ar« 


Damascus, Aleppo, Beirut, Jerusalem, and 
Horns. The earliest known inhabitants of 
Syria were Semites, such as the Cana&nites, 
PhcEaicians, Aramsaiu, the latter of vrbom 
held Damascus and ruled to the Enphrates. 
Such, too, were the Hebrews. Practically 
all Syria, except Phcenicia, became subject t<> 
the Hebrew monarchy under David. When on 
the death of Solomon the Hebrew empire di- 
vided into the two kingdoms of Judah and Is- 
rael, an independent Aramiean monarchy under 
Rezin waa set up at Damascus. Its kings con- 
quered N. and central Syria. Tiglath-Pileser, 
King of Assyria, subdued this state, capturing 
Damascua (740 B.C.), and likewise Israel (720 
B.C.). Judah was conquered by Nebuchadnez- 
zar, King of Babylon, in SB7 B.C. Syria passed 
from the Asq^ians to the Babylonians, then to 
the Medet, then to the Persians, and after the 
battle of IsBuB (333 B.C.) to Alexander and the 
Greeks. During these transitions many ivon- 
Semitic elements were introduced. On the 
death of Alexander the Seleucidn founded a 
Syrian empire, which they ruled from 301 to 64 
B.C. Antioch, built by Seleucus I (301-281 
B.C.) , was their capital. The Syrian Empire at 
its height rivaled in extent that of Alexander. 
AntiochuB III, the Great (223-187 B.C.), was a 
most formidable enemy to Rome. Antiochus 
XIII (89-85) was overthrown by Pompey, who 
made Syria a proconsular Roman province (64 
D.C.). Syria con^ued part of the Roman and 
then of the Byiantine Empire, but (836-638) 
was gradually conquered by the Mussulmans. 
Damascus was made the capital of Syria in 
064; under the Ommiade dynasty of caliphs it 
continued the capital of the entire Mussulman 
Empire (661-7G^). The ^asaide caliphs de- 
graded Syria to the rank of a province and re- 
moved the capital to the newly founded Bag- 
dad. Distracted by rebellions and by frequent 
wars between the caliphs and the Byzantine 
Empire, the condition of Syria became deplor- 
able, till it fell under the humane sway of the 
Seljuk suHan Malek Bhah (1073-93). Next 


the crasadera deluged the country, and irom 
1099, when the Christian kingdom of Jerusa* 
lem was set up, until 1291, when Acre, the last 
Christian stronghold in Syria, was retaken by 
the Mussulmans, was the most disastrous pe- 
riod Syria has ever known. Prom ths.t time, 
except during the invasions of Tamerlane and 
■""' Syria was ruled by the Mameluke 

of 1832-41, it farmed a part of the Ottoman 
Emi^ire from 1516 till late in 1918, when a 
British army under Gen. Allenby occupied Pal> 
eatine, Jerusalem and other historic plaoea. 

Stt'Ixc Lan'guagft. See Araiujo. 

Sy'Toa. See Stba. 

Syr'tis, Ma'jor and Hi'nor, the ancient names 
of the two targe inlets, or rather of the two 
opposite angles (E. and W.) of the great almost 
rectangular reentrant in the S. coast (rf the 
Mediterranean, of which the margins are the 
coasts of Tunis and Tripoli. They are now 
called, respectively, the Uulf of Sidra and the 
Gulf of Cabes. They are shallow and danger- 
ous to navigate on account of quicluands and 
the uncertainty of the tides. 

Systole (sIs'tA-le). See Hkabt. 

Siegedin (seg-Edeu'), after Budapest the 
most populous city of Hungary, at the junction 
of the Maros with the Theiss; 118 m. SE. of 
Budapest. The old Turkish castle is the sole 
reminder that Szegedln was once an important 
fortress. In 1879 the town was submerged by 
inundation; almost half the houses were de- 
stroyed and nearlv 2,000 persons- perished. 
Soda, soap, and clotn are made on a large scale, 
and trade is carried on in corn, wine, tobacco, 
salt, and lumber. The town is famous for it* 
floating mills and river boats. The HungaHana 
were defeated here by the Austriaus 0849). 
Pop. (1910) 118,328. 

T, the twentieth letter of the English al- 
phabet, derived from the Greek T or tau. Its 
sound is like d, but softer; t is silent in hasten, 
listen, often, etc.; as ti before vowels it has 
tbo sound of sh ; as ati its value is tsh, as in 
question, Christian. In the combination th it 
represents a spirant, either voiceless, as in 
thin, or voiced, as in then. 

Sytn6oii»m.~T = Tuesday, ton, Tullius; Ta 
= tantalum; Te ^tellurium; Th. r= Thursday, 
thorium; Ti^ titanium; Tl = thallium. See 

Tab'aid, The, a famous Inn at Southwark, 
I«Qdon, whose sign was a tabard or the sleeve- 
less coat worn by heralds. It was demolished 
in 1360. 

Tabas'co, a SE. sUte of Mexico; area, 10,- 
072 sq. m. ; of fertile soil, raising maize, cacao, 
and sugar cane. In general it is one of the 

Tab'ernacle, a tent erecteit, under divine di- 
rections (Exod. xiT-xl), by the Israelites at 
Mount Sinai, and carried with them into the 
Holy L.ind. It was the place where God should 
especially manifest His presence, and where 
they should offer to Him their sacrificial wor- 
ship, and was replaced by Solomon's Temple, 
which exactly doubled Its dimensions. 

It was a rectangle 49 ft. long and 16 broad 
and 15 high. It consisted of two adjoining 
rooms, with an outer court surrounding both. 
The inner room, an exact cube, contained the 
ark of the covenant; over this were the figure* 
of two cherubim, and between them the 
Shekinah. The only access to this room, which 
called " the holy of holies " (Heb. Ix, 3, 7), 

I from the outer room, whii^ ,.v 

tO^aa called 


width sod teight, but just twice the leagth. 
Between them hung a double curtain, whkh 
wHB pasaed only bj the high priest, and by 
him only on one day of the year, the great Day 
of Atonement. In the out«r room was the 
golden censer, the golden altar on which in- 
cense wsa burned eveiy morning and evening, 
the table of sbewbread, on whlen were twelve 
loaves of bread, replaced each week, and the 
golden candlestick, lighted every evening. Into 
this the high priest and the priests entered 
daily, in the course of their regular ministra- 
tions, but no othera. In the court the prin- 
cipal object was the large brazen altar, on 
which sacrifices were burned. Between this 
and the sanctuary itself was the brazen laver 
for the ablutions of the priests. This court 
was entered bj all Israelites — who must be 
ceremonially clean — who came to offer sacri- 
flees. The entrance to thia'also was by a hang- 
ing of curtains gorgeously wrought in colors, 
supported on pillars, and was twenty cubits in 
width. The three entrances were thus in one 
line, all facing eastward. 

Tabernacles, Fesst of, the last of the three 
great annual festivals, at which all th« males 
of Israel were required to present themselves 
at the sanctuary (Lev. xxiii, 33-43). It lasted 
seven days, and on the eighth was a " holy 
convocation." It occurred in the last part of 
September and first part of October, after the 
harvest, and was called " the feast of ingath- 
ering." The participants dwelt in booths 
roofed with boughs, in memory of the wilder- 
ness wandering. The sacrifices were specially 
arranged (Kum. xiix, 13-38). Further, the 
priest drew water in a golden pitcher from 
the Pool of Siloam, and poured it on the altar 
amid the rejoicings of the people; and two 
great lights were set up in the court which 
are said to have illuminated nearly the whole 

Ta'bea Dorulia. See LocoiioiOB Ataxia. 

Ta'ble-land. See Plateau. 

Table Hoon'tain, a mountain of S. Africa, 
S. of Table Bay, its highest point being right 
over Cape Town. It is about 3,500 ft. high, 
and level on the top. It joins the Devil's 
Mount on the E., and the Sugar Loaf or Lion's 
Head on the W. 

Taboo', or Tabu, a Polynesian interdict 
which makes persons, places, or things sacred, 
BO that certain persons cannot touch or come 
near them without becoming dedled and out- 
lawed. The svstem of taboo penetrates the 
whole social life of moat of the unchristianizfd 
Pohnesians, and is a powerful agent of chiefs 
and priests in controlling the people. 

Taint, Honnt, an insulated mountain of N. 
Palestine, in Qnlilee, 6 m. 8E. of Nazareth, 
risi:^ 1,063 ft above the plain and 2,018 ft. 
above the sea. It is often mentioned in the 
Old Testament, and was from the fourth cen- 
tury generally regarded as the scene of the 
transnguration of Christ, although it is now 
known that at the time when that event took 


place its summit v 

9 occupied by a fortified 

I«.ke Urumeyah. It is fn the midst of a fertile 
and well-cultivated plain, and surrounded by 
gardens. It is poorly built, with no impor- 
tant public edifices, except the remains of the 
Blue Mosque, a marvel of decorative art that 
was destroyed by the earthquake of 1780. There 
ara important manufacturer of silk, arms, sbawla, 
tobacco, and leather, and e, larga tianait trade. 
It has suffered severely by fin, earthquake, and 
by the invasioDa of Turks, Although not an im- 
portant factor in the World War, Perua came 
under the protection of Great Britain and Ru»- 
sia in the early part of the struggle, as the Ger- 
mans and Turka were, anxious to possess its 
great industrial centers as well as to gain the 
adhesion of its people. Of the coveted places 
Tabris ranked high, and was evacuated by the 
Turks, Oct. 22, 191& Pop. est. at 200,000. 

Tadtus (tfisl-ttts), CoiUB (or Pnblina) Coi- 
nelini^ abt. 6&~11T a.d.; Boman historian. He 
was early appointed to a public office under 
Vespasian, and married a daughter of Julius 
A^icola. He held a pratorsTiip under Do- 
mition, and was cotuuI su/fectua under Nerra. 
Nothing positive is known of his subsequent 
career except that late in life he was procon- 
sul in Asia. He was a famous orator and 
lawyer. His " Vita Julii Agricolie " is the 
masterpiece of biography, ms " Germania " * 
appeared soon after, both probably in 98. 
Abt. 105 appeared the first portion of his his- 
tory of Rome, embradng " Hiatorite " of the 
years 88-08 a.d. Only the first four books 
and a part of the fifth are estant. Next ap- 
peared the " Annales," a condse history of the 
events from a.d. 14 to 69. Of the original six- 
teen books, only nine complete and parts of 
three others are extant. 

Tadtna, Harcni Qandins, abt. 200-276 aj>.; 
Koman emperor. After the assassination of 
Aurelisn, 276, Tacitus, who had held varioua 
offices and was noted for wealth and int^rity, 
was unanimously elected emperor by the sen- 
ate. He instituted domestic reforms. Accord- 
ing to one account, he was assassinated by his 
soldiers when on an expedition against the 
Qoths in Asia Minor. 

Tack'ing and Weai'ing, the common methods 
of working a vessel from one tack to the other ; 
they differ in that, while in tacking the vessel 
turns toward, in wearing it turns from the 
wind. Square-rigged vessels when close hauled 
lie within about six points of the wind; fore- 
and-aft-rigged vessels lie a point or two high- 
er; therefore, in tacking a ship turns through 
twelve and in wearing through twenty points 
of the compass. A vessel wears when, through 
high winds or heavy weather, or some other 
reason, tacking is impracticable. If in tacking 
a vessel comes up into the wind and lies there, 
it is said to be in irons; it may then by shift' 
ing the helm be made to tall off on the other 
tack when stem board is gathered, otherwise 
it may be boxed off im the same taek. See 

,r "■ iXoogle 

Taco'ma, capital PierM Co., Wuh.; on Com- 
nencement Bay and the Puyallup River; 25 m. 
NE. o( Olympia, and 28 m. S. of Seattle. The 
Pufallup River empties within the city liinitB, 
and aida in making n flue natural harbor, and 
the shipping faciiitiea are excellent. Moat of 
the manufacturing and railway indurtriea are 
in the E. part, on or about the level tide flata 
at the head of the bay. The buainess and resi- 
dence portions are on a bluff 80 ft. above the 
1 ^ound rising gradually to 320 ft., 

of unusual 
grandeur, with the Olympic or Coast Bange 

in the W. and the Cascade Range in the E.; 
Mount Tacoma (by some called Mount Bain- 
icr) rises over 14,52fl ft. Wright Park, con- 
taining 40 acres, and Point Defiance Park, 602 
acres, are the principal parks. The region 
immediately S. of the citf is a park land of 
much tieauty. 

Ticoma IB well supplied with churcheB, the 
membership exceeding 10,000. The public 
schools occupy twenty building, and there are 
over twenty private academies and business 
eoUeges. In 1681 a cargo of wheat valued at 
$51,000 was shipped from Tacoma to Liverpool 
in an American bottom. Since then there has 
grown an ocean commerce which in 1900 ag- 
gregated $16^45,407 in exports of wheat, flour, 
coat, lumber, canned salmon, etc.; and the im- 

shipping is extensive. About $12,000,000 is in- 
vested in manufacturing industries. The plants 
include large car shops and sawmills. Over 
3,000 persons are employed in other works. 
Tacoma is one of the most important shipping 
and distributing points on the Pacific coast. 
Tacoma Citv, now the First Ward and called 
Old Town, was laid out in 1808 by Gen. M. 
M. MeCaner. On July U, 1873, the Northern 
Pacific Railroad Company established its Pa- 
cific terminus on Commencement Bay, naming 
it New Tacoma; in 18flO the town became the 
county seat, and in 1883 the two towns were 
consolidated as Tacoma. Pop. (1010 census) 

Tacoma, Hotut See RAinix, Mounr. 

Tac'tics, the art of drawing up military or 
naial fuicts in order of battle and of perform- 
ing military or naval evolutions. 

MiuTABV Tactics is the art of so handling 
bodies of troops as to utiliie to the fullnt ex- 
tent the fighting, maneuvering and resisting 
capacity. When applied to the combined action 
of larger masses, of dilTerent arms, on the field 
of battle, it ia called grand tactics. When re- 
stricted to actions of amall bodies or single arms 
it is called minor tactics. 

Minor tactics include drill regulations, or 
drill, formerly called in the U. S. by the gen- 
eral name of tactics. The object of drill is [1) 
to enable the commanding officer to place each 
and every soldier on the spot he ia to occupy, in 
any desired formation, in the most rapid man- 
ner consistent with complete control at alt 
stages; {2) to enable the soldier to use his 
weapon in the most effective way in action, and 

ciit« properly formations i 
ceremony, such as parades, reviews, etc., to pre- 
serve the pride of the soldier in his own appear- 
ance and that of his command. The field of 
minor tactics ' now embraces the subjects of in- 
formation ajid security, including outpoeta, re- 
connoissance, and the handling of advance and 
rear guards; niarchee, instruction of the three 
arms in all that refers to the use of their 
weapons and their employment upon the field 
of battle. The most marked changes which re- 
sult from the increased range and accuracy of 
flrearms are forcing the enemy to deploy and 
open fire at much greater distance, enlarging 
very much the area covered by the effective Are 
of a battery, thus necessitating fewer changes 
in ita position and giving a larger latitude in 
its selection. They also allow the artillery to 
open the combat at a distance from the enemy 
which can be traversed by him only with such 
losses and in such time that the artillery may 
safely inarch at the bead of a column, open fire, 
and receive support before it is endangered by 
the approach of the enemy. 

The correct tactical use of artillery requires 
the concentration of ita fire upon properly se- 
lected targets, and the modem improvements 
have added largely to its efficiency by facilitat- 
ing this; while the great distance at which a 
destructive fire can be poured upon a body of 
cavalry, by both artillery and infantry, has 
almost entirely changed the tactical use of 
mounted troops on the field of battle, narrowly 
limiting the opportunities for a successful 
charge upon infantry or artillery in position. 
The changes made since the time of the Ro- 
mans in the arms and equipments of the caval- 
ryman, as distinguished from the dragoon or 
mounted infantryman, have reduced themselves 
almost entirely to the addition of the revolver 
and the abolition of body armor. The first 
adds somewhat to his aggressive value, while 
the second is the direct reault of the improve- 
ment in the infantry weapon. The most 
marked change in modem cavalry is the eon- 
versioti of all mounted troops into dragoons, 
armed with a rifie or carbine, and trained to 
fight 00 foot or mounted ; or even in some case* 
into mounted infantry who use their horses for 
transportation only and fight on foot. In recent 
operations cavalry has hem used as a val or 
screen, to cover the advonce of the rest of the 
army, to a much greater extent than it was 
formerly. Scouting, reconaoissances, and map 
making have become important parts of the 
duties of cavalry. 

The modem minor tactics of infantry be- 
gin an action with a dispersed skirmishing 
line, in which the front of each battalion 
or company is covered by its own men, who 
are ret!nforced and strengthened by their 
own comrades and commanded by their own 
officers, thus' avoiiling the disorganization re- 
sulting from mingling different commands on 
the front line of battle. In attempting to ac- 
complish this, great prominence is necessarily 
given to the advance of suceeasive lines in open 
order, which, by short rushes and by taking ad- 
vantage of all possible cover, may diminish as 
much as possible the losses caused by modem 


■mall arms and machine guiu, and at tbe Mme 
tiine collect for the final charge a Btrong line 
ol companiea and battaliom. 

Orofvl taclica iacludes planning battles, per- 
fecting the preliminary arrangements, conduct- 
ing them during their progress, and ssciiring 
the results of victory or avoiding the conse- 
quences of defesL Battles are usuaJl; preceded 
and followed by minor actions, classed as com- 
bats, skirmisbes, etc., which are generally not 
intended to be deciaive. Battles are classed as 
offensive, defensive, and defensive-offenaive, the 
latter name being applied to those actions in 
which the attack having exhausted its strength, 
the defense takes the offensive to gain the vic- 
tory. In great battles the fighting is not car- 
ried on in the same manner at all points of 
the line. False attaclia and demoustratioos of 
the class known as " containing movements " 
are made at some parts of the line, while the 
strength of the attack is concentrated kt an- 
other, thus " making oneself stronger than 
the enemy at the time and place -of actual con- 
flict," whioh is the very soul of success. It is 
this principle which, by overshadowing all oth- 
ers, has led to the statement that " the rules of 
tactics are invariable, and are the same now as 
they were in the time of Alexander." This is 
true only of grand tactics. History shows that 
success has generally attended the aggressive 
leader when other things wese equal; but when 
an army is weak in men, in training, or in 
morale, its leader can only seek to give It su= 
perior strength in actual confiict by fighting a 
defensive battle in a well-selected position made 
strong by fortifications, against which the en- 
emy may exhaust his superior strength. 

Naval Tactics. — The subject may be divid- 
ed into grand tactics, or the tactics of battles, 
and elementary tactics, or the tactics of in- 
struction. The history of naval tactics can 
very properly be separated into three ^rand di- 
visions. The first, the oar period, Iwgins where 
tradition merges into history, and ends about 
the battle of Lepanto (1571), covering about 
two thousand years. The second, or sail pe- 
riod, is embraced between Lepanto and the bat- 
tle of Lissa (1866), lasting only two hundred 
and ninety-Bve years, since which time there 
has been only tbe steam period, yet in its in- 
fancy. The key to any system of naval tac- 
tics IS the tine of battle. If, in the line of bat- 
tle, the vessels are all in line — or, as it was 
called in the tactics under sail, " line abreast " 
and heading toward the enemy — we have the 
line of batUe of the oar period, when war gal- 
leys were armed at the bow with a epui (ros- 
trum), and depended for success in battle on 
ramming and sinking the galleys ol the enemy 
or grappling and boarding him. This formation 
gives us also the line of battle of modem flght- 
mg ships when their principal offensive pow^r 
lies in their rams. If, however, the power of the 
ship lies in her broadside [artillery placed on 
the side of the ship), it is obvious that such 
ship must present her broadside to the enemy. 
In which case the line of battle must be the 
"line ahead," or, as it is now properly called, 
in " column." In addition to the above, there 
are certain " orders " in which it is convenient 
iar a fleet or squadron to navigate the sea, to 


stitutes elementary tactics. The disposition of 
the fleet for actual contact with the enemy 
under various conditions constitutes grand tac- 
tics. It was in the tactics of battle tbat 
Nelson's genius was most conspicuous. 

An assembly of twelve or more line-of-battle 
ships, or vessels of equal value, is called a 
fleet, and is separated into three divisions of 
one, two, or three squadrons each, each squad- 
ron comprising not less than four vessels. Tbe 

fl fl 
A fl Q 

commander in chief commands the entire fleeti 
the second in command, the van division (or 
right when in line) ; the third, the rear di- 
vision (or left when in line) ; and the fourth, 
the center. 

The line, the order of battle for line-of-battle 
ships, rams, and torpedo vessels, is formed as 

S H' 


oFig. I. 

The column is the order of battle for 
whose principal power is in their broad- 
side batteries. (Fig. 2.) 

Double echelon orders are offensive (salient 
angle) and defensive (reentrant angle) for ves- 
sels (or all descriptions (Fig. 3). Vessels are 
said to be in direct single echelon when, steer- 
ing the same course, each bears from its next 
astern at an angle of 45° (four points) from 
thi course; consequently the wines of a fleet 
in double echelon form a right angle. One ves- 

sel should always be designated by signal to 
act as guide, by which the movements of the 
other vessels are to be governed, and should 
wear a guide flag at the main. When maneu- 
vering, the vessel upon which a formation is 
mode must necessarily be the guide. 'When 
the fleet is in line in natural order, the van 
squadron is on the right (Fig. 4). This i 
the line of battle formed by C'" — ' ■"-- ' 

Call icrati das the 


Spartan, at the battle of Arginuw. his fleet 
being composed of 3CK) galleya. The fleet in 
column ii in the natural order when the van 
squadrDO is leading. 

Fig. 6 exhibita the fleet in column of squad- 
rons, or of fours. Should aigual by fours, left 


Tad'pole. Bee Fbog. 
Te'nia. See Tapeworm. 

,m»jii HiiiJHi mil in 

whed, be made, each squadron on coming into 
line must find its place in the line without 
crowding or confusion. It was this evolution 
that was performed by Cnemus, commander of 
the Lacedemonian fleet, in the battle in the 
Crisean Bay, when be engaged the force under 

Taft, WilUam Howail, ISST- ; Amer- 
ican Jurist and twenty-seventh President of 
the tf. S.; b. Cincinnati, Ohio; graduated at 
Yale, 18TS, and at the law school, Cincinnati 
College, 13S0. He was law reporter on the 
Citicinnati Commercial, 1660-^1; assistant 

5 J (1 

Phormio, the skillful Athenian tactician, then 
guarding Naupactus, the modern Lepanto. 
These two ittustrations show bow closely the 
fleet tactics of the oar period resemble those of 
the steam period. The single line, as in fig. 4, 
is eaaily shattered or doubled up. It should 
therefore be reenforced as in Fig. 1. As the sin- 



gle column may be broken and the rear ships 
cut off, it, too, should be reinforced as in Fig. 2. 
In any case, there should be a reserve (R, Fig. 
2), ready to succor any portion of the fleet that 
may need it. 

A strong order of battle is the French pelo' 
ton formauon, for facility of manenvering, af- 

r.o. 7, 

fording mulual support, etc Three vessels act 
as a unit, and these pelotoua may be formed 
in line (Fig. 6), in column (Fig. 7), or in 

The simple orders are the line, column, and 
echelon; compound orders are those wherein the 

- — 1890-02; and 

U. S. judge. Sixth Circuit, 1802-lflOO. In 
March, ISOO, bb was appointed president of 
the oommisaion to organize civil government 
in the Philippines, and on July 4, 1001, became 
civil governor of the islands. In 1903 be was 
appointed Secretary of War. Elected president 
01 tha U. S., 1908, he represented the oonaer- 
vative element of the Republican party in op- 

fiosition to tha "prc^ressive" wing. He was d«- 
eated for a second term in 1912; became Kent 
Professor of Law at Yala University in 1913; 
and exerted great influence with pen and speech 
in sustainins the U. S. and Red Crow activities 
in tha World War. 

"TagUoni (tal-yO'ne), celebrated family of 
dancers and ballet masters, of Italian origin, 
but principally connected with the Royal ITie- 
ater, Berlin. Tbe most illustrious member was 
Maria Taglioni (I804-S4); b. Stockholm. Sba 
made her d£but in Vienna in IS22, danced in all 
the capitals of Europe, and created great en- 
thusiasm, especially by her performance of tbe 
title role in her father's ballet "La Sylphide." 
She retired in 1847. Her brother, Paul Taglio- 
ni (1808-841, b. Vienna, was ballet master in 
the Royal Theater of Berlin, and composed tbe 
ballets " fiardanapal," " Satanella," etc. 

Ta'gns, one of the principal rivers of Spain. 
It rises in the Sierra Albarracin, flows mostly 
W. and SW. through Spain and Portugal, and 
empties into the Atlantic at Lisbon; Imgth, 
566 m. It is navigable 115 m. from ite mouth. 


Tahiti (tS'he-te), or Otahei'te, largest of 
the Society IsIandG; in the Pacific, lat 17° SS' 
B., Ion. 149° 20' W. It is high, reaching 7,336 
It. at its highest point, but traversed bj beau- 
tiful valleys, in which tropical plants grow lux- 
Qriantly. It is 120 m. in circumference, with 
an area of about 600 sq. m., and had, in 1900, 
11,601 inhabitants. It is the principal island 
of the French eBtabliehments in Oceania, and 
contains Papeete, the capital. 

Tailor, name applied to the bluefish; also 
sconetimes to the fall herring. 

Tailor Bird (so called from its habit of 
sewing together the tips of two or three leaves 
to moks a neBt), Sutoria futoria, of the fam- 
ily LutoittiidtB ; found in India and other 
Eastern countries. It is about 5 in. long, with 

TAII.OB Bian ahd Nest. 

a slender and slightly decurved bill, short and 
rounded wings, and very long tail compoaed of 
navrow feathers; olive green above and white 
beneaUi, and brick red on top of the head. Its 
nest is lined with soft downy or oottonlike veg- 
etable substance^, and usnally contains six to 
eight eggs. 

laine (t£n), Hippolyte Adolphe, 1828-03; 
French philosopher and historian; b. Vouziers, 
Ardennes, France^, educated at the Coll^ 
Bourbon and the Ecole Normale of Paris, and 
became a teacher, hut soon gave it up because 
of the hostility of the authorities to tiis ideas. 
His "Essai sur Tite-Live " (1854) and "Lea 
Pbilosopbei francais du XIX> siScle" (1356) 
attracted attmtion by their brilliancy and 
their sharp criticism of the current philosophy 
of Cousin's school. Influenced by the study of 
the natural sciences, he sought to apply rigidly 
to the whole range of human achievements the 
laws of heredity and environment. He regard- 
ed all pn>ducts ot human activity as determined 


by three factors — eoTironment (milieu), race, 
and moment. His works include " Voyage aox 
eaujc des Pyr^neea," " La Fontaine et ses fa- 
bles," " Histoire de la littSratuiB anglaiae," 
" Philosophie de I'art," " Philosophic de I'art 
en Italie," " Voyage en Italie," Vie et opi- 
nions de Thomas Graindorge," " Philosophy de 
I'art dans les Pays-Bas," " De 1 'Intelligence 
Notes Bur I'Angleterre," " Origines de la France 
confemporaine ; 1884 he became Prof, of Ma- 
thetics at the School of Fine Arts, Paris, odd 
in 1S78 member o( the Academy. 

Taipins (ti'ping) or Taeplns BebelOion, a 
formidable insurrection which broke out in 
1850 in S. China to overthrow the Manchu 
dynasty and establish a new purely native 
dynasty. The rebels were by the Chinese called 
Ch'ang-mao-tseh, br " long-haired rebels," as 
they had discarded the queue, or outward ex- 
pression of allegiance to the Manchus. The 
leader, a Hakka schoolmaster named Hung- 
Siu-Chuen, b. 1813, meditated the establishment 
of a corrupt Christianity elaborated by himsdl 
from a vision he bad bad and from a study of 
some Christian tracts and books. In this vision 
he thought he was taken to heaven, whern, 
having been " washed " by an old woman, some 
venerable sages opened his body with a knife, 
took out hia heart and other parts, and put 
new parts in their place. A " Church of God " 
was established, and so xealous were its mem- 
bers in demolishing temples and idols that they 
came into conflict both with tbeir neighbors 
and with the authorities, and many flghts 

1852 they moved into Hunan, advai 
Yang-tse, down which they sailed, capturing 
every important city; made Nanking their cap- 
ital, threatened Fekin, and carried destruction 
and death over fifteen of the eighteen provinces 
of China. It has been estimated that 20,000,- 
000 lives were sacrificed in this struggle. It was 
not till 1864, when Nanking was recaptured on 
July IBth by the Ever- victorious Army under ■ 
"Chinese" Gordon, that the movement began 
to weaken; Hung himself had already taken 
poison and his principal generals had fled. The 
remnant under Tsze Wang made a last stand 
at Chang-chow-fu, in Fuh-kien, but were 
pressed so hard by the imperialists that they 
had to withdraw and disband. The imperial 
operations were directed by Tsftng-kwoh-fan 
and li Hung-Chang, but without the assistance 
rendered bv the British and French at Shang- 
hai and elsewhere, and by the native army 
drilled and ofScered by foreigners and led suc- 
cessively by Ward, Burgevine, Holland, Cooke, 
and Gordon, it is questionable if they would 
have succeeded in crushing the movemenL 

Tal-wan (tl-wOn'). See FosyoBA. 

Taj Mahal (tftih me-hai'). See Aasa. 

Toko', Chinese village, at the mouth of the 
Peiho; TO m. by water from Tientsin. Here 
are the famous Taku forts, which, deemed im- 
pregnable by the Chinese, were taken three 
times by the Anglo-French fleets in ,the cam- 

E signs of 1858-60, and again on June 17, IBOO, 
y tiie fleets of the allied powers. 

Talc, a, magneaium silicate, whlcb sometintca 
makea up the maae of geological fonaationa. 
Talc bdonga to the soft^t minerals, ranking 
with graphite in the scale of hardness. Its 
usual color is a light green, but it is found per- 
fectly white. The massive vaiieties are called 
soapstone. When powdered it is iiaed far lu- 
bricating, and aa talcum powder la a popular 
toilet article. 

Tal'ent, ancient Qreek weight containing 60 
mine, about SZ lb. avoirdupois. There was a 
Babylonian and an JCginetan talent, which 
were to the Attic as B to 3; the Eubcean talent 
was to the Attic nearly aa 4 to 3; the Tyrian 
was equal to the Attic, etc. There wss also a 
gold or Sicilian talent of about three fourths 
of an ounce, called the little talent. A talent 
in money was originally a talent's weight of 
silver or gold, but the talent finally became a 
money of account It wss among all the 
Greeks the monetary unit. Ita value varied 
with the kind of. talent used and with the pur- 
chasing power of gold and silver — from $365 
to $1J59.26. The Attic silver talent was 
smaller than the commercial talent, weighing 
67 lb. of silver. 

Tal'ipM. See Club-voot. 

for covering houses, making umbrellaa, and 
for making a substitute for writing paper that 
ia used extensively in the East, as well as for 
many other purposea. The pith affords a kind 
of sago. Ilia tree grows in Malabar and 

Tolk'int: Machine'. See FBOHoosaPH. 

^oUahas'we, capital of Florida and of Leon 
Co.; 21 m. N. of the Gulf of Meiico, 166 m. W. 
of Jacksoniille, It is in an agricultural and 
fruit-growing r^on; contains four churches 
for white people and six for colored, aeparate 
public schools for white and colored children. 
West Florida Seminary, Normal College for 
Colored Teachers, two libraries, U. 8. Govt, 
building, a national bank and a state bank, 
■nd hoe railway car shops and machine and 
novelty wood works. Pop. (ISIO) 5,018. 

TaUeyraud-PSrigora (tB-la-rttfl'-p6-r8-g5r'), 
Charles Maurice (Due de), Prince of Benevento, 
1764-183S; French statesman; b. in Paris; 
was compelled by his family to renounce his 
right of primogeniture on account of his 
being lame, and was educated for the Church, 
and attracted much attention hy bis wit and 
other brilliant gifts. In 1776 he was ordained 
priest in spite oF his licentiousness, in 1780 
was agent general for the clergy, and in 1780 
Bishop of Autun. Elected a deputy to the 
States-General, he was one of the first of the 
clergy who joined the ttert itat, and iu intimate 
harmony with Mirabeau and Sieyfes he took a 
prominent part in the Assembly. October 10, 
1769, he proposed the confiscation of all Church 
property; July 14, 1790, he officiated at the 
grand national featival in the Champ de Mars 


and cosBecrated the colors of the national 

guard; December 28, 1790, he took the oath to 
obey the constitution, and when the Pope ex- 
communicated him (May I, 1791) he resigned 
his see. In the Assembly his speeches on finan- 
cial, educational, and other reforms exercised 
great influence. Nevertheless, a rumor was cir- 
culated that he was conspiring with the Duke 
of Orleans, and his friends saved him by pro- 
curing for him a diplomatic mission to London. 
While there his name was placed on the list of 

He lived for some time in London and in the 
U. S., but returned to Paris in 1780; was 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1797-1807. Rec- 
ognizing the force of Napoleon, he gave him 
his- loyal support. He negotiated all the 
treaties of peace of this epoch — the Concordat 
with the Pope, who relieved him from excom- 
munication and secularized him; the Confeder- 
acy of the Rhine, after which he was made 
Prince of Benevento, etc.; but he disapproved 
of Napoleon's policy toward Great Britain, op- 
posed his plans with respect to Spain, and 
when, after the Peace of Tilsit, an alliance wa» 
formed between France and Russia, he resigned 
his office. Before the Russian disaster he pre- 
dicted the downfall of Napoleon, and entered 
into communication with the Bourbons; and 
during the last three years of Napoleon's career 
he was one of his most active and dangerous 
enemies. He negotiated the first Peace of 
Paris, and represented France at the Congress 
of Vienna. Here he succeeded in dissolving the 
general feeling of concord with which the pow- 
ers met, snd produced a confusion of jealousy, 
mistrust, rivalry, and hatred, which he under- 
stood how to use to the advantage of France. 
After the second restoration he fell into dis- 
grace, and during the reigns of Louis XVIII 
and Charles X took little part in public life. 
September, 1830, Louis Philippe sent him as 
ambassador to London, and he established cor- 
dial and intimate relations between the courts 
of St. James and the Tuileries, and concluded 
the quadruple alliance between Great Britain. 
France, Spain, and Portugal, April 22, 1834. 
His " M^moircB " were intended by him to be 
published thirty years after his death, but 
in 1868, the publication was postponed for 
twen^-two years on the proposition of Napo- 
leon III. They were published in five volumes, 

Tallow, the hard fat of animals, more prop- 
erty called suet, and includes those fats of a 
leas degree of hardness, e.p., lard and grease, 
as distinguished from oils. The fats obtained 
from the rendering of animal fats of all kinds 
are technically known as tallow, and are 
chiefiy used for making soap and candles. The 
animal fats are hard in proportion as they 
contain more stearin and palmitin and less of 
olein. The quality of animal fats is much in- 
fluenced by the mode of feeding and the food. 
The quality of tallow is also dependent on its 
being rendered at a low temperature by steam, 
the cleanliness of the operation, the character 
of the animals treated, etc. 

Vegetable tallow is found in many seeds. 
Chinese vegetable tallow is from the hu<ik about 
the berries of £[fillinj)ta aetifera; the berries 


contain a liquid fat. The ioUd cODunercig.! 

Sroduct is white, sp. gr. 0.81S, and melts at 
9° F. ; it is rich in palmitin. Bayberry tal- 
low, from Myrica cerifera, also called myrtle 
wax, IB a pale-green, brittle, solid fat from the 
berriea. !t molds in the fingers like nnx when 
warm. Other hard vegetable fats are found 
in nutmeg, palm oil, Japan wax, cocoa i>ut- 
tcT, cocculus graina, and Tarioue species of 

Tallow Tree, (1) of the 8. parts of the 
U. S. and of China, Btillingia; iZ) the Penta- 
dcsnta but^aoea of W. AFrioa, a tree whose 

Taixow Tbib. 

fruit yielda a yellowish tallow; (3) the piny 
dammar tree of India, Valeria indica. whoae 
Beeda on boiling yield an excellent white tal- 

Tal'mage, Thomas DeWitt, 1832-1902; Amer- 
ican clergyman; b. near Bound Brook, N. J.; 
educated Univ. City of New York, New Bruns- 
wick Theological Seminary; pastor Central 
Prest^riaa Church ( later known as the 
"Tabernacle"), Brooklyn, N. Y., 18(19-94. 
The "Tabernacle" was built 1870, burned 
1872; rebuilt 1874, burned 1889; rebuilt 18SI, 
burned 18D4. He was copastor of the First 
Preabj-teriaa Church, Washington, D. C, 1895- 
99. He edit(?d various religious papers, in- 
eluding, after 1890. The Christian Herald, and 
liis sermons, published under sensational titles, 
had a certain popularity in their day. 

Tal'mnd, a work whose authority was long 
esteemed second only to that of the Bible, and 
according to whose precepts the whole Jewish 
people, with the exceptioivof the Karaites and 
the Reformed Jews of the nineteenth century, 
have endeavored to order their religious life. 
It is composed of two distinct works, which 


Talmud. Later on, when learned disputations 
on the Mishna became more frequent, the name 
Talmud was employed to denote these more 
recent discussions in contradistinction to the 
Mishna proper. In later times they were called 
Oemarfi (the Aramaic equivalent of Talmud). 
It was only at a still later period, when the 
ilishna and the Gemara were no longer tran- 
scribed separately, that the name Tahnud was 
applied to the whole of both Alishna and 

The Mishna consists of six divisions (Sed' 
harim) : (1) Zeraim, laws relating to seeds 
and products of the fields ; { 2 ) Moedh, festival 
celebrations; (3) Xashim, women; (4) Nesi- 
kin, civil and criminal laws; (S) Eodaihim, 
offerings and vowa ; ( 6 ) Teharoth, ritual 
cleanliness and . uncleanlineaa. Each division 
is divided into tracts, and these are subdivided 
into chapters, which are made up of para- 

During the sojourn of the Jews in Babylon 
the hope of restoration to the promised land 
had lea to a deeper study of the law and to 
a resolve to put it into practice when that 
restoration should be accomplished. At the 
head of this restoration stood Ezra, " a ready 
scribe in the law of Moses" (Ezra vii, 6). 
Not only the forma of temple worship, the 
many dietary laws, the laws of Lcvitical pur- 
ity, but even the agricultural regulations and 
the whole judiciary code hud to be included 
in the work of reconstruction. Jewish tradi' 
tion ascribes the continuation of Ezra's work 
to the 8opherim (scribes) or the men of the 
Great Synagogue ( see Stkaoooue ) . After 
these the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem became the 
chief tribunal. From its decisions there waa 
and could be no appeal. Thus, in the course 
of centuries, a vast body of laws and usages 
accumulated which the Torah {five books of 
Moses) did not directly authorize, but which 
were transmitted orally from generation to 
generation, and which Jewish orthodoxy refers 
back to the time of Moses (Oral Law). Acftd- 
emies arose for the propagation of this stock 
of tradition, and efforts began to be made to 
found the traditional enactments upon biblical 

R. Jehudah Hannasi, simply called " Rabbi " 
(abt. 160 A.D.) gave final form to tjte Mishna. 
There are three versions of the Mishna, one in 
the manuscripts and editions, another em- 
J>odied in the Talmud of Babylon, and a third 
the Talmud of Palestine. In whole or in 

Eart the Mishna has been translated into 
atin, Spanish, Italian, French, English, and 

The Gemara includes the controveraies and 
achings which arose after the close of the 
Mishna, one Gemara being elaborated in Baby- 
lon, the other in Palestine. It is in gaieral a 
commentary upon the Mishna, and is remark- 
able for pregnant brevity and succinctness. 
Often a single word indicates whole sentences. ■ 
The Oemara has gathered the utterances which 
have dropped from the lips of great masters 
and the traditions which had been preserved 
of their life and actions. Thus it contains 
^1 enactments, homiletieal exegesis of 
cripture, gnomes, maxims, proverbs, parabli 



talea, and also medical, mathematical, and at- 
tronomical data. 

For eiEhteen oenturieH Jewish thought has 
almost whoU; moved within a "^erc of which 
the Talmud was the center. The more the 
Jews were oppreHsed, the more fruitful did 
their literary activity become. It kept the soul 
alive while the body wa« almost dead. An 
immense literature has grown out of and 
around the Talmud. A bare list of such would 
All a bulky volume. It ia almost impossible 
to give in one paragraph an idea of what the 
Talmud ia in its entire scope. It has been cus- 
tomary to speak of the Ocean of the Talmud. 
liie metaphor is well chosen. It is a sea into 
which have Qowed the waters of Jewish life 
and thought. It swarms with a thousand 
varied forms of life. The Talmud is no dry 
handbook. It is an open encyclopedia of rab- 
binical Judaism, cont«ining not only a diger' 
of laws, euactmenU of ceremonial, moral, n 
ligious, and social character, but a record c 
the discuBBions themselves on each and all i 
these subjects; the history of the men who 
appear on its pages, their sayinn and doings, 
and the record of the events which took place 
in the political life of the people during so 
eventful a period. For the great mass of Jews 
it has been the one regulator of their every 
action, and has been held in as high esteem 
as the Bible. 

Tal'pidie. See Desuait and Hole. 

Ttm'arlnd, a beautiful leguminous tree, the 
Tamarindut indica, from S. Asia and Africa, 
now naturalized in moat warm regions. The 
pods are filled with a pleasant sour pulp, which 
IS preserved with sugar, and is uaed for mak- 
ing a drink for fever patients, etc. Tamarind 

pulp contains citric, tartaric, and malic acids, 
potash, sugar, vegetable jellv, etc Tamarind 
pulp is refrigerant and gently laxative, and ia 
employed in the diseaaea of children. The tree 
to sparingly grown in S. Florida and along the 
N. shore of the Gulf of Mexico. The wood to 
hard and handsome, 

Tam'aiisk Fam'ily, a small group of about 
forty-five species of shruba or treea, mostly of 
the temperate and wanner regions of the N. 
hemiaphere. The most important genus U 
Tamarite, which Includes about twenty species, 
several of which are cultivated for their pretty 
pink flowers and beautiful foliage. Aa inter- 


CouuoH TAiuanK. 

Tambourine', a musical instrument resem- 
bling a drum, consisting of a wooden or metal- 
lic hoop over which a parchment ia stretched, 
and furnished with bella. It is held in ona 
hand, and beaten with the knucides or fingers 
of the other hand, also with the elbow. It baa 
been in use from time immemorial in the 
Baaque provinces of Spain and in the retired 
r^ions of Italy, especially in the Abruezi, and 
is employed by gypsies and wandering muai- 
icans, being a favorite inatniment for accom- 
panying their dances. It also figures prom* 
mently In the Solvation Army. 

Tamerlane'. See Tiuxm. 

Tam'many Soci'ety, a political society in 
New York, founded l^ an upholsterer named 
Mooney, May 12, 178S. It derived Its name 
from a Delaware chieftain who for his reputed 
virtues was in the latter years of the Revolu- 
tion facetiously chosen patron saint of the new 
republic Organized ostenaibly for charitable 
purposes, it nevertheless had a definite political 
character from the first, repreaenting the dread 
of an artotocracy and the diatrust of Hamil- 
ton's policy felt by tha thoroughgoing Demo- 
crats. Secret societiaa under the auspices of 
St. Tammany were or{|anlzed in Philadelphia 
and other cities; but tiie institution soon fell 
into oblivion except in New York, where it was 
soon a political lever, and became the principal 
inHtrument of the managers of the Democratie 
Party in New York, exerting a considerable 
influence also upon state politics, and to a less 
extent on national politics. The aodety was 
much dlscredit«d by the participation in its 
honors of William M. Tweed and bis accom- 
plices in fraud, but it was reorganized, and to 
some extent reformed, after the Tweed proas- 

Tam'pa, capital of Hillshoro Co., Fla.; at 
the head of Tampa Bay, at mouth of the Hills- 
horo Kiver; 30 m. from the Gulf of Mexico. It 


has an excellent faarbor, with 23 ft of water 
at tha outer bar. The principal industry is 
cigar making, which has 120 eitablishmeDts, 
employs 4,000 persons, and tum« out goods of 
an annual value of {6,000,000. Many thousand 
tons of phosphate are shipped. Tampa was 
made a port of entry In ISS8, and has grown 
rapidly aince. Pop. (IQIO) 37,782. 

TuniM Baft * ^? of water on the W. coast 
of Florida. Its upper portion ia divided into 
Old Tampa Bay and Hillsboro Bay. It is 
■ome 3S m. long and from 6 to 16 m. wide. A 
line of keya fences its entrance from storms, so 
that it constitutea a safe, spacious, accesBible, 

Tampi'co, town and port of the State of 
TBm«ulipas, Mexico; a short distance above 
the mouth of Panuco; terminus of milways to 
Monterey and San Luis Potosl. The harbor 
has been made good and safe by extensive Int- 

enter. The town i 

built < 

The Pftnuco and its branch, the Tamest, are 
navigated for some distance by small steamers, 
and there is a canal to afford inland com- 
munication. Tampico was opened as a port 
in 1823, when the fort in Vera Cnu was still 
held by the Spaniards. During the frequent 
blockades of vera Cruz it has been the most 
important Gulf port of Mexico, and its trade is 
increasing. Pop. (1900) ie,3]3. 

Tan. See Fbecxles. 

TBn'asers, a family of passerine birds, hav- 
ing, as a rule, a thick, conical, triangular bill, 
with the cutting edges not much inflected and 
generally notched or toothed behind the tip; 
the nostrils are placed verv high, and tne 
wings are modera^. The colors are in almost 
all the species quite brilliant. The group is 
peculiar to the New World, and Is chiefly devel- 
oped in the tropics. Over 300 species have been 
described. One genus (Piranha) is represented 
in the U. B. by five species, the most conspicu- 
ous of which are the scarlet tanager (P. ery- 
thromcltu) and summer redbird (P.' rubra). 
They feed upou grass as well as insects, etc 

Tan'agra TigaTiiM', statuettes and groups 
of terra cotta found since 1S73 among the ruins 
of Tanagra, in the modern provinces of B<Eotia, 
Greece, and extended to similar pieces found 
elsewhere. The greater number are draped fe- 
male figures, 6 to 9 in. high, genenilly made in 
molds, with the head finisbea by hand. Hany 
were elaborately colored. 

Tananarivo' (formerly Attakuiabivo), the 
capital and chief city oil Madagascar ^ situated 
in a mountainous region in the middle of the 
Island; in 18° 66' 8. lat.; 166 m. BW. of Tam- 
Btave (see map of Africa, ref. 8-1). It is built 
on a series of eminences about 600 ft above the 
neighboring valley, and about 6,000 ft. above 
the level of the sea. It is reported to be a large 
citv and to have manufactures of gold chains 
and silk stuffs. The private houses are mostly 
of wood. Pop. ( 1907 ] 72,000. 


Tan'cied, 1078-1112; one of the most cele- 
brated heroes of the first crusade; b. Sidlv; 
1096 raised an army in Apulia and Calabria, 
crossed over to Epirus, joined his cousin, Bobe- 
mund of Taranto, and distinguished himself by 
his valor, sagacity, piety, and chivalric for- 
bearance toward a defeated enemy in Asia Mi- 
nor and Byria, but still more at the conquest 
of Jerusalem in 1099, and afterwards in the 
battle of Askalon. He was made Prince of Ti- 
l>eriaa, and governed with wisdom not only his 
own principality, but also that of Bohemund, 
who had been captured by the Baracens; but 
most of his time had been taken up in petty 
warfare, partly with Baldwin and the other 
Christian princes, partly with the Saracens. 
Died in Antioch. He plays a conspicuous part 
in TasBo's " Gerusalemme Liberata." 

Taney (t&'al), Soger Brook«, 1777-1864; 
American jurist; b. Maryland. In 1816 he was 
elected to the Maryland State Senate; became 
Attorney -general of Maryland, 1627, and of the 
U. B. in 1831. He supported Jackson in his 
controversy with the U. S. Bank, was appointed 
Secretary of the Treasury on the dlsmisaal of 
Duane, September, 1833, and issued orders 
for the removal of the Government deposits 
from the U. S. Bank to the local banks selected 
by bim. When his nomination was communi- 
cated to the Benate, that body rejected it. In 
1830 he was nominated to fill a vacancy on the 
bench of the Supreme Court, but was not con- 
firmed. He was later appointed to succeed 
Chief Justice Marshall, took his seat In Janu- 
ary, 1637, and held it till his death. Hie most 
noted of his decisions was that in Dred Scott 
V. Sandford (19 Howard, 393), pronounced in 
1867 Iq.v.). In this he denied that Scott, a 
negro claimed as a slave and suing for his free- 
dom, was entitled to bring suit in the Federal 
Court, because he was not a citizen; negroes, 
whether slave or free, }iaving been regarded 
before and at the time of the Declaration of 
Independence " as beings of an inferior order, 
. . . and BO far inferior that they bad no 
rights which the white man was bound to re- 
spect." Another opinion which was severely 
criticized was that Pres. Lincoln had no con- 
stitutional authority to suspend the writ of 
habeas corpus. He favored state aovereignty 
and opposed centralized government 

Tanganyika' (tan-e$n-ye'kl), lake of central 
Africa, between lat. 3' and 9' 3. and Ion. 89° 
and 32° E.; about 400 m. in length from NW. 
to BE.; discovered by Burton and Bpeke in 
1368, and afterwards explored by Livingstone 
and Cameron. It has an elevation of 2,700 ft. 
above sea level, deep and clear water, and a 
very irr^ular form, its width varving from 10 
to 60 m. Area, 12,170 sq. m. It diseharmi 
through the Lukuga into the Luataba, or Up- 

Kr Kongo. Its diores are generally rich In 
sutiful Boenery, especially those of the N. 
part, which are set with mountains and bills 
covered with a luxuriant vegetation. The sur- 
rounding country is in many places densely 
Mopled. The moat important towns are Ujiji, 
Bismarckburg, and Albertville. 


and which being produced dow not ent It; a 
Rtrkight line drawn at risbt angles to the diam- 
eter of > circle, from the extremity of it, aa 
HA In figure, which, being continued at A, 
W'luld merely touch and not cut the circle. la 
trigonometry the tangent of an arc is a 
Btraieht line touching the cir- 
cle of which the arc la a part, 
at one extremity of the arc and 
meeting the diameter passing 
through the other extremity. 

ure. The are and its tangent have always a 
certain relation to each other; and when the 
H given in parts of the radius, the other 

to SO degrees, as well as sines, cosines, etc., 
hare been ealeulated with reference to a radius 
of a certain length, and these or their loga- 
rithms formed into tables. In higher geometry 
the word tangent is not limited to straight 
lines, but is also applied to curves in oontact 
with other curves, and also surfaces. 

Tangici (tan-jer"), fortified port and diplo- 
matic capital of Morocco, on the Straits of Gi- 
braltar, a m. E. of Cape Spartel, on a shallow, 
semicircular bay. Its trade is large and in- 
creasing. The chief imports are cMton goods 
and sugar; exports, beans, barley, and wool. 
Tangier is also of political importance as the 
onIj[ plaee of rewdence permanently open for 
forei^era, whether representative* or private, 
and it is a favorite refuge far fugitives from 
justice. The winter climate is exceptionally 
fine, and is largely resorted to hj those who 
are unable to stand the severer climate of Eu- 
rope. Pop. abt. 30,000, one third Jews, who 
transact most of the business. 

Tanltituer, See TANSKAuaKtt. 

Tannhinser (tfinlioi-zte), b. early in the 
thirteenth century; German minnesii^r; 
probably a member of the noble family Tan- 
hausen, in Bavaria; lived chiefly at the 
court of Vienna; participated in one of the 
crusades; probably joined King Konrad IV, 
and disappears with the death of King Kon- 
radin (1208). He is one of the foremost repre- 
sentativee of the later minnesong, a poet of 
great talent, of delightful humor, and of a re- 
markable mastery of the metrical form. He led 
for a time a very gay life, and the eensuous 
character of many of his poems, as well as a 

Knitential song which he composed later, may 
.ve been the cause of his becoming the hero 
of the Tannh&user legend. 

According to this legend, Tannldueer lived 
for some time with Venus in the Venusberg, 
but finallf was smitten by conscience and 
begged Venus to allow him to depart. She re- 
fused, but, owing to the help of the Holy Vir- 
^n, TannhBuser made his escape and went to 
Pope Urban (IV) to obtain remission of his 
sins. The pope answered that TannhKuser's 
xins could as little be forgiven ai the wand 
which he held in his band could become green 
again. Tasnbtuaer, in hi* despair, went back 


to Venniberg and was received with great re- 
joicing. Three days after, the popes wand 
suddenly began to sprout, and messengers were 
sent to Inform TaunhSuser of this miracle, but 
on account of his return to the Venusbeiv he 
was obliged to remain there till doomsday. 
The TannhRuser legend is doubtless one of the 
stories treating of the fatal union between a 
mortal youth and an elf which frequently oc- 
cur in German, Danish, and English folk songs. 
Venus, in this legend, takes tlie place of the 
elf because the minnesinger Taimhftuser fre- 
quently addresses in his poems Hinne (love) as 
Fruu Venus. The story of the wand which be- 
gan to sprout in spite of the words of the pope 
seems to expresH the popular viev " '"" 
the papal abuses in granting the 

Tanjoi« (tfin-jQr'), elf^ of Madras, British 
India; capital of a distnct of same name; on 
the Cavery. It is one of the great religious and 
literary centers of Tamil India, and is renowned 
for its artistic industries (silk rugs, jewelry, 
and copper repoussS), and for its great pa- 
goda. The nalace of the rajahs contains a very 
valuable collection of 18,000 Sanskrit manu- 
scripts. Pop. (IBOl) 57,870. 

Tan'nic Ac'id, or Tan'nin, any one of seve- 
ral vegetable astringent principles. The chief 
sources of these compounds are the barks of 
varieties of the oak and pine, sumac, kino, 
divi-divi, and catechu ; the bark and berries of 
many forest and fruit trees, such as the elm, 
the willow, the horBe-chestnut, the plum, the 
pear. It occurs in tea, especially boiled tea, 
and by combining with albumen in the stomach 
interferes with digestion. It has a bitter taste, 
and is used medidnally as an Bstringmt in a 
great variety of disorders. With the salts of 
iron it forms the basis of ordinary writing ink, 
and its power of combining with animal matter 
is utilized in the tanning of leather. 

TaEoan (tKn'yO'^n), or Tan'oan In'dians, a 
family of N. American Pueblo Indians, wl 

tieramen of the Pueblo country. On the N. and 
E. they were contiguous to the Great Plains, 
and thus to the Utes, Pawnees, Comanches, 
dog-using Apaches, and other buffalo-hunting 
or roving tribes. With these they were con- 
stantly either at war or on terms of doubtful 
amity during brief trading tfucea. Thus they 
became hardier and more warlike and greater 
travelers, traders, and hunters than any others 
of the Pueblo peoples. Their training as moun- 
taineers, and their intermarriage Tot genera- 
tions with wilder neiffhbors, especially with the 
Shoshonean Utes and Comanches, have had a 
marked influence on their physical development 
and appearance. There are now only about 
3.300 of them. Isleta, New Mexico, is the 
most populous pueblo (1,059 inhabitants). 

Tao'iM, or Teniec, an insectivorous mam- 
mal of Madagascar, with a superficial reeem- 
blance to hedgehogs. They arc molelike, and 
burrow in the rice fields, doing much damage. 


September. It wu introduced Into the U. S. 
from Europe, where it is indigenous. It is cul- 
tivated in gardens, but also grows in fields 
and along roadsides. It possesses a strong, not 
unpleasant odor and an acrid and aromatic 
taste. The volatile oil of tansy poMesBes poi- 
sonous propertieH. Tansy tea wsa used as a 
supposed tonic. Tan^ seeds and leaves are 
employed, to a slight extent, in medicine. 

Tan'talum, one of the rarer elements, a 
metal discovered in 1802 by the Swedish chem- 
ist Ekeherg. It was named from Tantalus be- 
cause of the difficulty encountered by its dis- 
coverer in isolating it. 

lan'talus, in Greek mythology, a vary 
wealthy king of Phrygia sometimes wrongly as- 
signed to ArgoB, Corinth, or Paphlaeonia. He 
was a son of Zeus and a nymph called Pluto 
(wealth) and father of Pelops and Niobe. He 
was a favorite of the gods, who often invited 
him to their banquets, but their favor changed 
to hatred when Tantalus stole nectar and am- 
brosia from their table. To test the omniscience 
of the gods he slew his son Pelops and served 
him up at a banquet to which he invited the 
Olympians. As a punishment he was cast down 
to Tartarus, where, tortured by hunger and 
thirst, he was made to stand In a lake, whose 
water receded whenever he tried to drink; rich 
fruit hung from trees above his head, but was 
withdrawn whenever he tried to pluck it. Ac- 
cording to others, his punishment consisted in 
eternal fear caused by a huge rock that was 
suspended over his head and threatened to fall 
and crush him. The myth is based on facts. 
The capital city of Tantalus was near Smyrna, 
and its acropiMiB and what u called the tomb of 
Tantalus still exist 

Ta'oism (Chinese tao, road, way, or path; 
word, doctrine, reason, etc,), a philosophy and 
a religion found in China 
supposed to be based on 
the teachings of Lao-tse. 
Just what philosophic Tao; 
ism is depends largely on 
the meaning of the word 
tao, and there is no word 
in English which can be 
used in all cases as a sat- 
isfactory equivalent. Some 
describe it as " Rational- 
ism," or the doctrine of 
Reason; while still others 
speak of it as "Naturalism.'" Lao-tse wished 
people to cultivate " naturalness," or the sim- 
plicity and innocence of former days. It is 
only when tao (or nature) is missed that arbi- 
trary standards are set up, that men become 
ambitious and violent, and squabble in their 
eagerness for gain. He who does not act con- 
trary to his nature continues long. Lao-tse 
inculcated unseiflshness under the fl^re of 
" emptiness," and humility under the simile of 
water, which, though good at benefiting all 


a warp of strong twine, which warp is not seen 
in the finished stuff. Tapeatry is made entirely 
by hand and without those repetitions of the 
pattern which are characteristic of mechanical 
weaving. It also differs from all weaving in 
the usual aaise in the fact that there is no 
shuttle thrown from side to side of the web. 
It is a mosaic of threads held in place only 
by the warp. Tapestry diflfers from worsted 
work chieSy in its greater solidity and in the 
superior character of the designs executed In 
it. Both differ from embroidery, in that there 
is no background, as of cloth or leather, upon 
which the work is done. 

During the fifteenth and following centuries 
tapestry was made in Flanders, France, and 
Italy, and probably in other European coun- 
tries. The most famous center was Arras, 
France, and the name " arras " was often ap- 
plied to tapestry of any make. Tapestry was 
the favorite decoration for walls of rooms and 
even for the lower part qt the interior of 
churches and chapels. It was hung from hooks 
and generally left free at the lower edge, so 
that a certain space might be left between it 
and the wall. The famous factory of the 
Gobelins in Paris was established in 1G30, the 
royal factory of Aubusson in 1686, and the 
royal factory of Beauvais is of the same epoch. 
These three factories have generally been main- 
tained by the state; they are still so main- 
tained, and their most important productions 
are not commonly sold. Tne Bayeuz tapestry, 
BO called, is a long and narrow piece of em- 
broidery in worsted on linen, and is therefore 
not tapestry in any sense. 

Tape'woim, any one of the Cestodeg, a group 
of parasitic fiat worms, the most striking 
feature of which is the complete absence of an 
alimentary csnal. This is compensated for by 
the mode of life, as these animals live in the 

sdult state fastened to the inner wall of the 
digestive tract of some animal, and, being thus 
surrounded by partially digested food, absorb 
their nourishment through the body walls. In 
ali there is a head in which is the chief nervous 
center or brain, and which serves usuallv by 
means of suckers or hooks as the organ of fix- 
ation. In the simpler tapeworms, which occur 
in some of the lower animals, the body ia un- 
divided and there is but a pair, male and fe- 
male, of reproductive openings. In the other 
forms tlie head, followed by an unsMpnented 
portion or neck, is called a scolex, and behind 
this occure a series of joints or prORlottids, 
each of which contains its own aet of repro- 
ductive organs. New iegmeata are continually 
formed from the scolex, and this is the reaacoL 


why the head of the woim mnrt be removed 
in order to atop the troubles caused bj these 

The largest tapeworm which occurs In man 
is known aa Bothrioaephalu* lalu»; It may con- 
sist of over 2,000 proglottids, and have a length 
of 40 ft. It ia common as a human parasito 
in Switzerland, N. Bussia, and Sweden, but ia 
rare in other parts of Europe. In America, it 
is found only in natives of these countries. 
Tania solium is the moat common tapeworm 
of man. The tip of the head is surrounded by 
a double circle of hooka, and the body, aome- 
timea 10 ft. in length, may conaiat of 600 to 
flOO proglottids. The ripe proglottids and eggs, 
cast out from the body, are eaten by pigs, and 
the embryos, batching in the intestine, bore 
through into the mnsclee, where they develop 
into the cysticereoid atage. If pork infested 
with these bladder worms ("measly pork") 
be eaten in an uncooked condition, the cysticerei 
are set free and, fastening themaelvea to the 
inteatinal wall, develop into the ftdult worm. 
Sometimes man, by eating lettuce, eto., which 
has been watered by liquid manure, becomes 
the host of the bladder-worm atage. The pres- 
ence of tapeworms in the human being ia tibu- 
ally followed by uncomfortable symptoms, and 
a physician should be called. In domestic ani- 
mala these parasites sometimes causa death. 
An Infection in man almost always occurs by 
eating raw or improperly cooked meat. 

Ta^o'co, the atarch of the monioo UaMhot 
vtiiittima {Janipha or JatTopha manihot). It 
ia prepared by pressing the washed and dried 
roots under water, when it ia obtained in a 
mealy form, which is converted into a. gran- 
ular condition by drying aver hot plates. 
Upon drying and pressing the pulp remaining 
in the water, cassava bread ia obtained. This, 
when pulverized, is known aa man j ok flour. 
Tapioca ia largely consumed aa food. 

Ta'pii, any one of the Tapirida, a family of 
mammala related to the rhinoceroses and 
horsea. All are denizens of deep forests, but 
near where water abounds, to which they fre- 

quently resort. Thev vary in bIeg from that 
of a small ass to that of a moderate horse. 
They had a wide distribution in the Tertiaiy 
geological epoch, roaming over Europe and K. 
America. They are now found widely spread 
over S. America and northward to S. Mexico; 

in the Malaccan peninsula, Sumatra, and Bor- 
neo. The American species are dark brown. 
Ail species are str!p«^ or spotted in early 
youth, but soon assume the livery of full age. 

Tap'ping, or Farocente'aia, in surgery, the 

piercing of the walls of a cavity so as to draw 
off a collection of fluid. The abdomen, chest, 
and even the head are ao tapped. The trocar 
and canula answer for the performance of the 
operation in many cases. In others the fluid 
hsa to be removed by an instrument acting as 

relief, i 

toward recovery. 

Tar, a word aasociated with pitoh and nsed 
in a verv indeflnito manner, usually with a 

freflx. Tar is a name properly applied to a 
lack, exceedingly viscous fluid di stilled in 
forests from the wood of pine and spruce. In 
the U. S. the principal supply comes from N. 
Carolina. The wood is placed in a pit and 
covered with turf in a manner resembling a 
charcoal pit. A part of the wood is burned 
to furnish heat to distill the remainder, and 
the tar is received into barrels. It ia mainly 
used in preparing the hemp ropes used in the 
rigging of ships and in calking ships. A dif- 
ferent kind of tar is obtained when the wood 
of deciduous trees is distilled for pyroligneous 
acid; this is called wood tar. Coal tar (also 
called gas tar) is obtained when biturainoua 
coal is distilled for gas. A similar liquid called 
blaat-fumace tar is obtained by condensing the 
vapora that escape from blast furnaces and 
coke ovena. Bone tar is obtained from the 
distillation of bone oil or Dippel's oil. Candle 
tar is % residuum from the stearin manu- 
facture. The word pitch appears to have been 
applied at a very remote period to asphaltum 
and maltha or mineral tar. When different 
tars are distilled, as well as petroleums, va- 
rious kinds of pitch are obtained. The pitoh 
from the paraffin petroleuraa is called coke 
pitoh; that from wood tar is the black pitch 
of commerce. Bur^ndy pitoh is more properly 
a resin; it is obtained from the European fir, 
Abie* excelaa. In Persia and Afghanistan goat 
and sheep dung is distilled, furnishing a mo- 
torial of a tarry or pitehy consistence that ia 
applied to the goata or aheep to ward ofT dis- 
ease. The oily distillato of tar is called oil of 
tar. See Pitch. 

Tar'antiun, an epidonic dancing mania, for- 
merly prevalent in Apulia, and especially at 
Taranto, whence its name. It was believed to 
be caused by the bito of the tarantula, and 
doubtless the fright attonding the bito may 
have aggravated the nervous symptoms. The 
disease was a form of emotional or hystorical 
excitotion. Not only dancing, but catalepsy 
was one of the symptoms. It was believed that 
the patients possessed an ardent passion for 
music and the dance and for bright and beauti- 
ful objects. The moat successful cure waa 
from bearing and dancing the music of tbo 
tarantella, the Sicilian national dance. 

Taran'to (ancient name, Tarentma), town; 
in the province of Lecce, Italy; on on island 
at the N. of the Oulf of Taranto. Two low 


IsUnds (aucient, Charada), Ban I^etro snd 
San Paolo, lie as a protection across the har- 
bor, which is one of the finest in Italy, The 
iDOst important buildings are the Cathedral 
of San Gataldo, the church of the archbishop, 
and a castle erected hj Charles V. The t^ 
etatifai is hardl; less luxuriant now than when 
Horace wrote. Even the date palm bears, 
though not in its perfection. The houey, the 
oil, and the fruits of the neighborhood have 
as (treat a reputation as ever, and the waters 
of the Gnlf of Taranto are noted for their 
shallflsh, the gathering of which affords much 
employment. The remains of the ancient town, 
the lai^cst of all the ciUes of Ma^a Grncia 
(foundMi 708 n.c.), and once boasting of an 
army of 30,000 foot and 5,000 horse, besides a 
strong navy, are insignificant. Pop. of com- 
mune <1901} 00,733. 

Taxan'tnla, a large apider [Tarantnla apu- 
lia) of the warmer portions of Europe, fabled 
to cause 1^ its bite the madness called tarant- 
ism. In America the term is given to any of 
the large crab spiders of the tropics. 

TaiOMOn (tB-rfis-lcOft') , town; department of 
Bonches-du-RhOne, France; on the Rhone, 8 m. 
N. of Arlea. It boa manufactures of woolen 
and silk fabrics, and the Aries sausages are 
made here. Tbe Gothic church of St. Martha 
and the castle finished in the fifteenth century 
1^ King Ren6 of Anjou are its most important 
buildings. The town celebrates the fSte of Ia 
Tanisque, a monster subdued by St. Martha 
and described by Daudct in his works devoted 
toTartarin. Pop. (1901) 5,702. 

Tatax'acnm. Bee Dandklioh. 

Tsioi'tnm. See Taranto. 

Taxes, various leguminous plants, aapeclally 
of the genus Vicia. Some of them are common 
weeds in the cultivated grounds of the U. B. 
and Europe. T. taliva is cultivated as a foiH^ 
plant and as a green manure. Its herbage u 
nutritious. It is probable that the plant called 
tare in the Engbsh New Testament is either 
darnel or chess. . 

Tsr'gvm, name ^ven by the Jewa to the 
Aramtean trauslatioaa and paraphrases of the 
Old Testament which became necessary when 
Bebrew was superseded by Aranuean as the 
spoken language of Palestine. The word occurs 
for the first time in Ezra Iv, 7, but it is im- 
possible to say when theAe translations were 
9rst innde — unofficial ones probably at an early 
date. We hear of a Targum to Job as early as 
the time of Gamaliel the elder, the teacher of 

Tari'fa, town; province of Cadiz, Spain; on 
tbe Strait of Gibraltar. It is the southernmost 
town on the continent of Europe. It is sur- 
rounded l>y old Moorish walls within which is 
aa alcaiar. Its fisheries for tunnies and an- 
chovies are important, and its oranges are 
noted for their aweetness. Pop. (1900) 11,730. 

Tat'iS, a list or acheduls of dues or duties; 
speelflcailk, a list of duties on imports or ex- 
ports. The word is popularly extended to the 
autiea themselves, or to tbe system under 


which they are levied. Custom duties levied 
on goods passing from country to eountij are 
as old as international trade, being originally 
the chief means of raising revenue. As early 
as the sixteenth century, however, duties hav- 
ing a protective purpose appear, and the fos- 
tering of certain industriea by their means 
was soon common. A notable example was the 
French tariS of 16S4, and another that of 1607, 
both due to Colbert. By the eighteenth cen- 
tury every European country had an elaborate 
tariff system of this sort. Other instruments 
then uaed to effect the same end — prohibitions, 
bounties, premiums, etc. — have generally dis- 
appeared, but import duties are still widely 
used with a view to the protection of home 
industries. The chief country where they are 
not so used is now Great Britain, which has 
been practically a free-trade country since the 
repeal of tbe Com Laws in 1846, and wholly 
BO since 1800. 

In tbe U. S, tbere are four distinct tariff 
periods— that of 1789-1816, when tariff l^is- 
lation was politically subordinate; that ot 
1S16-48, during the early protective move- 
ment; that of 1848-60, during which the Uriff 
issue first became a party question; and that 
since 1861, ushered In by the Morrill Act. 

During tbe first period, duties were imposed 
chiefly for revenue, beginning with the Tariff 
Act of 1769, although that act and others of 
the period had some protective features. In 
1S04 the duties on cordage, iron, and glass 
were undoubtedly intended as protective. 

In the second period (1816^2) protection 
was definitely adopted as a principle. The Act 
of 1816, feeling the stimulus of national feel- 
ing due to the War of 1B13, raised duties gen- 
erally. In 1828 the "Act of Abominations" 
was passed, so called because including certain 
extreme features intended to kill it. These 
were dropped in the Act of 1832. The opposi- 
tion of toe Bouth now brought atraut a reduc- 
tion of duties intended to decrease them in 
1842 to a twenty-per-cent level. In that year, 
however, the opening of the third period, the 
Whigs, newly in power, passed a frankly pro- 
tectionist measure providing high duties on 
manufactures in generaL This was superseded 
by the moderate Democratic tariff of 1646, 
which arranged dutiable articles in nine 
schedules with duties varying from one hun- 
dred per cent in Schedule A down to the free 
list (Schedule I). The system inaugurated by 
this act continued until the Civil War. At ■ 
the outset of the fourth, or modem, period the 
revenues had become low, and the Bepublicans, 
controlling the House of Kepresentatives for 
the first time, passed the high-tariff Morrill 
Act. In every year of the Civil War acts 
raising duties still further were passed, espe- 
cially in 1862 and 1864, the latter becoming 
the basis ot the present tariff system. In 1872 
the repeal of the tea and coffee duties seemed 
to settle the policy of using protective duties 
as the main source of customs revenue. The 
McKinley Act of 1800, though admitting sugar 
free, raised most of the duUes, but the Demo- 
cratic act lowered them again, besides marldng 
a change in policy toward placing raw mate- 
rials on the free list. Tha return of the Be* 


publicana to power was marked by a renewal 
of the higher rates. More recent years hav'e 
Hhown B. tendency of W. RepublictinB to advo- 
cate a reduction of duties; and the act of 1009, 
tDaking ctmsiderable changes in the tariff, was 
n^rded bj them aa unsatisfactory iKcause the 
level of rates was in general nuintained. See 
Fbxb Tbadei pBOTE(?riON. 

Taileton (tBrl'tOn), Sir Buastie, 1764-1833; 
English military officer; b. Liverpool; served 
under Howe and Clinton in the campaigns of 
1777-78; became lieutenant colonel and com- 
manded the British Legion, with which he 
served in the Carolina^, achieving a reputation 
tor cruelty, so that " Tarleton's quarter " be- 
came a aynonym for wholesale butcheiy. He 
took part in the battles of Camden and Guil- 
ford Court House, and at the battle of the 
Cowpens, January 17, 1781, was defeated by 
Col. Morgan. He then served with Comwallla, 
and was among th<He surrendered at Yorktown. 
Returning to England, he was promoted to 
colonel, and in 17B0 entered Parliament for 
Liverpool, serving till 1806, and again io 1807- 
12. He was promoted to l>e lieutenant general 
in 1817, having previouslv been appointed 
Governor of Berwick and Holy Island. He pub- 
lished a " History of the Campaigns of 1780- 
Sl in the Southern Provinces of Korth Amer- 
ica" (London, 1767}. 

Tupei'a. See Tabpeian Kock. 

Tarpei'an Bock, the 8K portion of the Capi- 
t^dine Hill at Rome. According to tradition, 
named from Tarpeia, a vestal virgin, who dur- 

from them the promise that they would give 
her what they wore upon their left arms, mean- 
ing' certain gold ornaments. They kept their 
Sromise by crushing her beneath their shields. 
he waa buried on the hill. In later times it 
was customary to burl condemned criminals 
from the Tarpeian Rock. 

Tai'pOIl, a large flsh, Megalopa thriiaoidfa, 
of the family EUipida; closely related to the 
herrings. The eye is large, and bo is the 
obliquely placed rooutb. The dorsal fin is high, 
with a long filament behind, the tail deeply 
forked, the body covered with scales, some 
more than 2 in. wide, and used In ornamental 
work. The color is silvery below and on the 
sides, blue above. The tarpon reaches a length 
of 6 ft, and a weight of ISO lb. It is found 
in the warm parts of the Atlantic, and is 
common on the Florida coast, where it has 
come much into vogue among anglers, since, 
in spite of its vast size, it can be taken with 
rod and line, furnishing rare sport; from its 
vigorous leaps and fine fighting qualities. Its 
flesh is too coarse for food. 

Taiquln'ina, the name of a Roman family of 
Greek origin, which played an important part 
in the early history ot Rome, and two of whose 
members became kings. Bemaratus emigrated 
from Corinth and settled at Tarquinii, in 
Etruria. His son, Lucumo, married Tanaquil, 
an ambitious and cunning woman, dau^ter of 
one of the prominent £truscan families, and 


she induced him to emigrate to Rome, where 
he became a citizen, and assumed the name of 

(1) LaciUS Tabquikius Pbiscub (the Elder). 
HJa wealth and wisdom made him prominent. 
The king, Ancus Marcius, appomted him 
guardian of his children, and after the death 
of Ancus Marcius, 618 B.C., the senate and 
people unanimously elected him king. He 
wa^ed Buccessful . wars against the Sabines, 
Latins, and Etruseans, and extended the power 
of Rome. He built the Cloaca Maxima, laid 
out the Circus Maximus and the Forum, and 
began the Capitoline Temple and the stone wall 
around the city. He instituted the Roman 
games, and added 100 new members ta the 
senate. He was murdered in 678 B.C., and 
succeeded by his son-in-law, Servius TuUius. 

(2) His son, Lucius Tabquinius SuPERnua, 
assassinated Servius Tullius in 534 B.C. and 
seized the crown. Ha abolished the reforms 
which Servius had introdnced, and ruled ar- 
bitrarily and oppressively, whence his surname 
Superbus ("the Proud"). The vacant places 
in the senate were not filled, the advice of this 
body was seldom asked, and he sliejited the 
higher classes and oppressed the lower by 
heavy taxes and forced labor. Finally, the rape 
of LucrctJa caused an outbreak. Tarquinius 
was deposed, and the monarchical government 
abolished in Rome. He made throe attempts 
to reconquer his power by the aid of the people 
of Tarquinii, Porsena, and the Latins, but in 
vain, and died in wretchedness at CutnK, 
495 B.C. 

Tsr'ragon, an aromatic perennial composite 
herb {Artemisia dracunculw>) , native of N. 
Asia, but acclimated in European gardens, 
whore, especially in France, it is cultivated 
for the young shoots used in the dressing of 
'salads and for flavoring vin^ar. Its leaves 
have a taste resembling anise. Tarragon 
vinegar is an article of commerce. 

Tai'rytown, village, Westchester Co., N. T.; 
on an expansion of the Hudson River known 
as the Tappon Sea; 26 m. N. of New York. 
It is one of the most attractive places for 
suburban residence on the Hudson ; was the 
scene of the capture of Maj. Audr6; and con- 
teins the Sunnyside home (2 m. S. of Tarry- 
town) and the burial place of Washington 
Irving, Sleepy Hollow, the Phil ipse manor 
house (erected in 1683), and a Dutch church 
(erected prior te lOBB). Pop. (1010) 0,600; 
including N. Tarrytown, 11,021. 

Tar'shllh, the name of an ancient emporium 
known te the Hebrews. Thero are twenty-five 

commerce, and prob- 
ably in shipbuilding; it is several times spoken 
of as an island or sea coast; it had large trafflo 
with Tyre and Bidon, especially in gold and 
silver, tin, iron, and lead; it is usually repre- 
sented as W. of Palestine and of Tyre, and 
ite ships are spoken of as broken by an E. 
wind. It has been variously identified with 
Taitessus in Spain, Tarsus in Cilicia, the is- 
land of TbasoB, Carthage, ete. The claims of 
Tartessus are the best supported, in spite of 
some apparently contradictery e '" — 

T nnressions. 



Tai'ni% town In Asi* Minor, in the TiUjet 
of Adana, on the Cydnus i Tartu* duU) ; the 
Uicient metropolis of the Cilician confedera- 
tion; then the capital of the Roman province 
of Cllicia, and for several centuries before and 
after Christ the most important citj of Asia 
Alinor as a seat of learning and center of 
oommerce. Cleopatra, accompanied by Mark 
Antony, ascended the Cydnus \a Tarsus in a 
glided galley with purple sails and silver oars. 
TaisuB was the birthplace of Paul the apostle, 
and the burial place of Julian the Apostate. 
The city has greatly- declined. The greater 

Eut of its former site is covered with debris; 
lit it possesses one colossal ruin, an enigma 
to antiquarians, as it resembles no known edi- 
fice, and as ita object has never been deter- 
mined. This consists of two solid masses of 
ooncret« masonry; the larger 115 ft. long, 49 
ft wide, and 23} ft. high; the smaller 66 ft 
long. 39 ft. wide, and 23} ft. high; the two 
inclosed in a rectangular space, 3S0 ft. long 
and 153 ft. wide, by ■ solid wall 21 ft. thick, 
and 231 ft. high. Tarsus carries on much 
trade in cotton, sesame, wheat, maize, yellow 
wax, skins, carpets, tobacco, and raw mate- 
rials. Pop. ab£ 15,000. reduced in summer, 
on account of its unhealthinesp, to 7,000. 

Tarsni. 8ee Foot. 

Tai'tan, a well-known species of cloth, check- 
ered or cross barred with threads of various 
colors. It was originally made of wool or silk, 
and constituted the distmguishing badge of the 
Scottish Highland clans, each clan having its 
own peculiar pattern. An endless variety of 
fancy tartans are now manufactured, some of 
wool, others of silk-; others of wool and cotton, 
or of silk and cotton. 

Tai't«r, any salt of tartaric acid, more espe- 
cially the acid potassium tartrate or hydro- 
gen-potassium tartrate. See Abool. 

Tartar, Cream of. See Cbeak of Tabtab. 

Tartar Bmet'ic, a double tartrate of potas- 
sium and antimony. It has a nauseous, me- 
tallic tast«, and Is a local irritant and power- 
ful poison. Token in small doses it promotes 
perspiration and reduces the pulse; causes 
nausea and vomiting, with relaxation of the 
bowels, and general weakness and depression, 
especially of the heart. In cases of tartar- 
emetic poisoning, tannic acid or strong tea 
■hould be given, and vomiting promoted. 

Taitar'ic Ac'id, an apid with the chemical 
formula, H,C,H,0„ found free in various 

Knts, berries, especially in grape juice from 
cream of tartar (q.v.), of which the bulk 
of the commercial acid is derived. It crystal- 
liies In transparent rhombic prisms, very sol- 
uble in «^ter. Tartaric acid is extensively 
used in dyeing and in preparing effervescing 
drinks and baking powders. Some of the 
tartrates, such as tartar emetic, Kochclle salt, 
and the potassium- ferrous tartrate, possess val- 
nable mediciiial properties. 

Tai'tars (properly Tatabs), an ethnol<^eal 
name, used by some in a wider, by others in 
a narrower, and always in a vague, sense. The 


word TaK-tar was Srst applied to thoss Mon- 
golian tribes which descended from the Altai 
plsteaus to raid the Chinese lowlands. By 
Europeans the word was changed into Tar-tar, 
with an allusion to Tartarus, and was applied 
'to all those tribes and races which Genghis 
Khan led into Europe, including Mongolian, 
Tungusian, and Turkish races. -The name is 
used, especially by Russians, to designate cer- 
tain populations speaking Turkish, living in 
Siberia, the Caucasus, and central and B. 

Tar'tortis, used synonymously with Eadt9 
by the later Greek and liitin writers, but with 
Homer it means a separate place, as far below 
Hades as the heavens are above earth, into 
which Zeus had thrown the worst offenders. 
Later a distinction was made between Tartarus 
And the Elysian Fields as two diviiions of 
Hades, the former occupied by the criminals, 
the latter simply inhabited by the dead. Aa 
a personification, Tartarus is represented aa 
the son of .lEther and Gea (air and earth), 
and by his mother he was father to the 
Qigantes, Typhosus, and Echidna. See Hadu. 

Tar'tai7, a geographical name of vague and 
variable application. In the Middle Ages the 
name denoted the whole central part of E. 
Europe and Asia, from the Dnieper to the Sea 
of Japan. Later, a division Into European and 
Asiatic Tartary took place, and the name of 
European Tartarjr was soon confined to the 
territory now called Crimea, while that of 
Asiatic Tartary first signified the whole era- 

K' e of Genchis Khan and his successors, then 
rkestan alone, with the exclusion of Turfan, 
Mongolia, and Manchuria, and now only that 
part of Turkestan {q. v.) which does not belong 
either to Rusia or to China. 

Tashkend', capital of Russian Turkestan and 
chief town of Syr-Darya; the most populous 
city in central Asia; in a gently sloping, well- 
watered, fertile plain, covered with numerous 
fruit trees, at the foot of the Alatau and Chat- 
kai Mountains. The city was formerly in- 
closed by a wall 7 m. long and pierced by nine 
filths, but this is now in a ruinous condition. 
here is a Russian citadel, with barracks and 
military stores, surrounded by a bastioned walL 
A great caravansary forms the center of the 
wholesale business district. The Asiatic ci^ 
has narrow, crooked, and ill-paved streets. 
Tashkend is one of the oldest and largest cities 
of central Asia, from old times the seat of an 
important agriculture and a brisk trade. The 
value of foreign goods exchanged in the ci^ 
amounta to about 120,000,000 (UinunllT. The 
Arab gec^aph era of the Middle Agea eslled the 
dtv Snaah; from the sixteenth century to the 
eighteenth it was the capital <^ the Kir^iis 
KoBoka; in 1810 it was taken by the Ehan ot 
Khokan, and in 1867 it was occupied by the Rue- 
Biano. In the upheaval in Ru«ift what wag 
formerly the Russian part iA Tuikeetan ot- 
ganisetf ft republican form of govemmoit in 
1918, Tashkend lemainins tibe eHiit>L Pm. 
(1912) 271,660. 


d by Google 


Tmsna'Bia (form«rtr Vait Dmmi'fl Lahi*), 
ui UUnd M)d BTitiah oolony at AuatraUai*; 
160 m. B. of VictoiM, AtutnllA, from which it 
is aepAistcd bv Baas Stnito. It is the BmallMt 
and most be«lthful for EuropeanB of the seven 
Auitnlasikn ocdoniesi area, 20,216 sq. m., about 
tiiat of Greece. The diBcoTerer, Tasman, named 
it Van Diemen'fl Lahd, but when the importa- 
tion of coDvictB ceased, la 1863, it was renamed 
after the discoverer. The colony includes, with 
the island of Tasmania aod the adjacent small 
islands, the Fumeaux Archipelago, N. of the 
NXL angle, and consisting of Flinders Island 
(area, 800 sq. m.), Cape Barnn Island, and 
others smaller; also King's Island, N. of the 
NW. point and about halfway to Australia 
(area, 42E sq. m.). The main island is well 
watei«d, picturesque, and varied, with high 
mountains and fine valleys, rocky and often 
precipitous coasts, and numerous rivers, cas- 
cades, and fresh-water lakes. It is sometimes 
called the Green Isle. 

The coast is indented by many bays, eetu- 
' aries, and well-protected porta. 

The surface is roush and mountainous, and 
consists essentially of a central plateau, about 
4,000 ft. above sea level. Cradle Mountain, in 
the W., is 6,089 ft high; Frenchman's Cap, 
4,760; Hugel Mountain, 4,700, and Mt Bischoff, 
2,500. In the K the highest peak is Ben Lo- 
mond (6,020 ft.); in uie S., Mt. Wellington 
(4,170 ft.) dominates Hobart. The streams are 
numerous. The longest rivers are the Tamar 
(160 m.), and the Derwent (140 m.). The 
latitude and insular charact«r give Tasmania a 
temperate and genial elimat«. The autumn is 
the pleasantest season, with a mean tempera- 
ture of about 67°. The mean annual tem- 
Krature for Hobart for fifty years is 66". The 
t winds of Australia are much tempered by 
the passage of Bass Straits. Zymotic diseases 
are relatively rare. 

The strata generally are very much contorted 
and tangled, and the density of the scrub vege- 
tation has greatly impeded their investigation. 
Gold was discovered in 1862, and hi generally 
distributed in the river sands and in the quartz 
rock, but Tasmania has an unimportant posi- 
tion among the AQstralasian colonies as a pro- 
ducer of gold. The value of the output in 1910 
was £167,370. As a producer of tin she leads 
her sister colonies. It has hitherto been ob- 
tained almost exclusively from alluvial depos- 
its, and is always in the form of cassiterite or 
tin oxide. The most celebrated mines are those 
of MtL Biscbofi', in the NW., and those of the 
Bingarooma district. Considerable areas of 
stream tin are worked out, and attention is 
turning to the lodes. The output in IBIO was 
valued at £390,373. Anthracite and bitumi- 
nous coal are found, the latter in abundance. 
The silver-mining industry is developing rap- 
idly, and silver to the value of i247,67B was 
produced in ISIO. Copper is produced in in- 
oreaeing quantities. Iron is present in large 
quantities and in all varieties of ore. Hobart 
freestone is largely exported to the other colo- 
nies. A peculiar infiammable resinoiu mineral 
haa been found in the Mersey district and 
named tasmanite. 

The fauna is similar to that of Australia, 


but tbs Taananian wolf and Tasmanian de^I 
are peoutiar to Tasmania. A leas favorable im- 
migrant is the rabbit, which has become a pest 
here, as in Australia. The Qora is similar to 
that of Victoria, but has many peculiar species. 
The celebrated bine gum, or Ew>alypttt» glob- 
ulus, which has become a favorite immigrant 
in pestilential localities in America and Europe, 
flourishes best in the S. districts of Tasmania. 
Forests are abundant, and afford some woods 
of great value. The scrub is very thick and 
tangled. The evergreen forests are aromatic 
There is a lai^ timber trade. ,The soil is gen- 
erally good, and some of the lower plains and 
valleys are nmrvelously fertile. The higher pla- 
teau is especially suited to stock raising. In 
1910 there were 236,020 acres under crop and 
403,232 acres under permanent artificially sown 
grass. Oats, potatoes, and hay are exported. 

In 1D^ the oolony possessed 1,7S8,310 Bhe«» 
and 201,654 cattle. It U singularly well adapt- 
ed to ^eep rearing, and its stud floeka are 
annually drawn on to improve the breed of 
aheep in the other colonies, but the industry Is 
slowly decreasing. The wool clip in 1910 was 
estimated at 9fi3Sfi4C lb. The number of cat- 
tle and horses is increasing. 

The aborigines were nearly allied to the na- 
tive Australians, and in 1803 numbered about 
6,000. Boon after arose the "Black War," in 
which they ware nearly ext^jninated. In 1S39 
they were transported to Flinders Island, 

there remained 139 half castes. In 1911 1 
population of the colony was 190,808, with a 
considerable surplus of males. The conditions 
for longevity are favorable, and the percentage 
of those over sizty-Sve years of age is 6M, 
which is very high. 

School attendance is compulsory. The chief 
imports are textiles, art and mecnanical prod- 
ucts, and foods and drinks. The trade is al- 
most entirely with Great Britain or the other 
Australasian colonies. 

The constitution became operative in 1886. 
The Parliament consists of a I/^slative Coun- 
cil of eighteMi elective members, holding office 
for six jears, and of a House of Amembly of 
thirty-six members, elected for three years. 
All members of Parliament receive £60 a year, 
and have free passes on railways and franks in 
the post office and on the telegraph lines. The 
governor is appointed by the British crown, and 
haa a cabinet of advisers of six responsible 
ministers. The public revenue is derived from 
taxation (68 per cent), mostly customs; from 
railway, postal, tel^raph, and other public serv- 
ices (32 per oent) ; and from the rental and 
Bale of pulitic lands. In lSlO-11 it was £970,092. 
The capiUl is Hobart; pop. (1011) 27,719. The 
next largest town is Launoeston; pop. (1911) 
20,838. Tasmania was discovered by Tasmsji, 
November 24, 1642, and first circumnavigated 
by Bass and Flinders in 1798. The first settle- 
ment was made from Bydney in 1803, and in 
the following year a penal colony was estab- 
lished at Hobart. There were several conflicts 

saped oonvists who had token to 

I .Google 


the bush and become bri^tuida. Up to this time 
the colony had been subject to tiew 8. Wales, 
but it was then made independent. A pro- 
test was made against the continuance of the 
importation of convicts, but thia had to be 
mwated for nearly a generatioiL before it was 
effective. Freedom of the press, trial by jury, 
and popular government were also gain«i only 
after long struggles. Although large numbers 
of criminals were transport^ to the colony 
from the beginning till 1863, the convict taint 
upon it was never so deep as on New S. Wales. 

Taamau'iaii Der'il (so called from its fierce, 
untamable disposition), the Dasyurua urst- 
Kus, a carnivorous marsupial peculiar to Tas- 
mania. It is about 20 in. long, exclusive of the 
UN, and dull black, with a white mark on the 
breast- The form is thickset, head large, teeth 
powerful. Before these animals were reduced 
uk numbers tbey were very destructive to poul- 
try, and even ta sheep. 

Tasmanian Wolf, Ze^ra Wolf, or Thylacine, 
the Thj/Utcinua cynocepkalua, a marsupial of 
doglike appearance, restricted to Tasmania. 
It is the largest of carnivorous marsupials. 
Teaching a length of 4 ft. It has no marsupial 

Tasuanun WoLr. 

bones, their place Jbeing taken by tendons. The 
color is grayish brown washed with yellowish, 
and there are about a dozen blackish eroas- 
bara on the hind part of the back. It was 
abundant, hut has been nearly exterminated, 
owing to the havoc it wrought among sheep. 

Tus'd, Torqnato, 1544-95; Italian poet; b. 
Sorrento. In 1562 he wrote his cnarming 
romantio poem " Rinaldo." In 1665 he went 
to Ferrara in the suite of Cardinal d'Este. 
His grave and melancholy beauty, eloquence, 
and varied accomplishments enlisted general 
admiration and endeared him to the duke's 
sisters Lucrezia, the future Duchess of Ur> 
hino, and Eleonora, whb became known as 
the special object of his adoration. After 
about a year's reaidenee in Paris, he was 
in 1572 formally attached to the court of 
Ferrara, before which hia pastoral drama 
" Aminta " was performed in 1573 with splen- 
dor. In 1675 he completed his epic on the de- 
livery of Jerusalem by Godfrey of Bouillon, 
under the title of " II GoiTredo," which was at- 
terwarda changed to " Gerusalemme liberata." 
Be submitted it to Scipione Gonzaga, and was 
invited to enter the service of the Medici, ene- 
mies of the Estes. He declined, but ever after- 
wards fancied that Duke Alfonso had taken 
umbrage at his negotiation with them. 


Od returning to f%rrera he lived in perpetual 
fear, especially when he found his correqrand- 
ence intercepted and his private papers pur- 
loined, with a view, he suspected, of giving the 
duke evidence of his relations with Eleonora. 
But the former long treated him with apparent 
forbearance, and even released him after a 
brief confinement for a murderous aaaault said 
to have been committed by him in a frantic fit 
upon Lucrezia's servant, and permitted him to 
retire to a convent (1677). Tasso, however, fled 
to his sister's house at Sorrento, whence he was 
allowed to return in 1578 on condition of re- 
niaiuing under medical treatment. His renewed 
attempt (1579) to regain the favor of the Fer- 
rara court subjected him to new indignities, for 
resenting which he was committed to the hos- 
pital of Santa Anna. Despite the death of Ele- 
onora in 1581, he lingered in confinement till 
l.'isa, when he was released on condition of re- 
maining in charge of Duke William of Mantua, 
who showed him much kindness. For the rest 
of his life he almost continually traveled from 
Naples to Rome and from Kome to Naples, and 
finally lived in a charitable asylum in Home 
until the Grand Duke of Tuscany enabled him 
in 16B0 to visit Florence. In 1693 appeared his 
" Gerusalemme conquiatata," a remodeled form 
of his first epic, to which he alone regarded it 
as superior. In 1594 Pope Clement VII invited 
him to come to Eome to be crowned with lau- 
rel in the Capitol, but he died before the so- 
lemnity took place. 

Taste, one of the five senses. The glosso- 
pharyngeal nerve is re^rded as the principal 
channel by which taste impreasions are conduct- 
ed from the tongue to the brain. The, exact 
seat of the sense of taste is in the " taste budsi" 
which are a closely compacted group of cells 
Bet around the large papillc at the back of the 
tongue. To be tasted, substances must be dis- 
solved. There are four principal tastes: aweet, 
bitter, acid, and salty. Sweet tastes are best 
appreciated by the tip, acid by the side, and 
bitter tastes hy the back of the tongue. Fla- 
vors are reallv odors. Taste is affected by very 
high or very low temperature. By chewing the 
leaves of an Indian plant (Oymnema eylvea- 
tre) the power of tasting bitters and sweets 
may be lost, while the taste for acids and salts 
remains. The sense of taste may be greatly 
refined hy conscious practice, as in the case 
of professional wine and tea tasters, to whom 
Savors entirely inappreciable tp the ordinary 
palate are clearly distinct. See Sbkbe; Sbnsa.- 
TioH> Tongue. 

Ta'tara. See Tabtabs. 

Tate, Hahnm, 1662-1716; English poet; b, 

Dublin; went to London; became poet laureate, 
1692, and died in the precincts ot the Mint, a 
privil^ed place for debtors. He ia chiefly re- 
membered by hia version of the Psalms, made 
in conjunction with Brady, which ia atill re- 
tained in the "Book of Common Prayer"; 
assisted Haydn in writing " Absalom and Achi- 
tophel," and perpetuated a one-time popular 
stage version of Shakespeare's " King ]l«ar." 

Tat'teraall'a, Knightsbridge Qreen, London, 
is the greatest metropolitan mart for honM/j 

>7 O 

bj Richard TatUrsall in 1773, A nibscripUoii 
room is open for bettora on the turl, where they 
make and iettle their beta, 

Tattuo'ing, the practice of marking the akin 
by means of ^ight punctures or inciaiom into 
waich pigments are introduced. In the B. Fa- 
ciflc the custom was originally almost univer- 
sal, although now dying out. Tattooing is also 
found among the Burmese, Lsos, Japanese, and 
American Indians; in Japan, however, the 
practice has been forbidden by the government, 
and is disappearing. With the races of darker 
color, such as negroes, Malays, and the natives 
of Australia a mora prevalent method o£ orna- 
menting the skiu is by simple scara. The tat- 
tooing of a lew emblems on the arms or body 
is a custom with sailors and the lower-class 
population of Europe. With the Polynesians 
and Japanese, however, the figures cover nearly 
the whole body, and largely take the place (3 
clothing. A peculiarity of the Maoris was the 
elaborate tattooing of the face; many of their 
heads are preservKl in museums. The art of 
tattooing was brought to its most artistic de- 
velopment in Japan. 

Xann'ton, capital of Brietol Co., Maaa,; on 
the Taunton River; 33 m, S. of Boston. It was 
called Cohannet by the Indians; the first pur- 
chase of ground by the whites was in 1637; in- 
corporated in 1639, and had a city government 
in 1865. It is in an agricultural region, and in 
1909 (census) had 146 manufacturing estab- 
lishmenta, including cotton machinery, cotton 
clotii and yarn, metal goods, silverware, oil- 
cloth. Are and building brick, and jewelry. 
Pop. (leiO) 34,250. 

TaDch'niti, Kail Chilstopli Tiangott, 1761- 
1836; German publisher; b. at Grossbardau, 
Saxony; learned printing at LeipQg; worked 
for some time in Unger's establishment in Ber- 
lin, and opened in 1796 a printing house in 
Leipzig, to which were added in 1708 a book 
store. In 1800 a type foundry, and in 1816 the 
first stereotype foundry in Germany. From hia 
estabiishment were issued the celebrated edi- 
tions of Greek and Latin authors, which in cor- 
rectness, convenience, and cheapness surpassed 
all other editions' which had hitherto appeared. 

Taniida (tft'ri-dS} former government of Rus- 
ua, on the Dnieper, the Blade Sea, and tiie Seft 
of Aeot; area, 23,3l2Bq. m. It consiata of the 
peninsula of the CrimeA and districts of the 
mainland. The populstian is very much mixed. 
In March, 1918, the former government (pro- 
vinoe) was declared uripublio. Fop. of former 
province (IQlfi) 2,133,300. 

Tau'ma, range of mountains in Asia Minor, 
stretching E. to W. from the Euphrates to the 
Gulf of Adalia. By the Alma-Dagh it communi- 
cates with the Lebanon Mountains, in Syria, 
and by one branch of the Anti-Taurus with the 
Caucasian Mountains. It rises in terraces from 
the Mediterranean to 10,000 ft., and incloses be- 
tween itself and Anti-Taurus an elevated plain, 
arid, dotted with salt lakes. Highest peak, the 
Aidost, U,6S0 ft. 


Tannia ("the bull"), a brilliant constella- 
tion which may be seen S. of the zenith dur- 
ing the eveninga of December and January. It 
includes the Plriades and 
Evades and the red star 
Aldebaran, Taurus is the 
second sign of the ZcmIibc. 
See ZoDiao. 

Taxa'tion, the ' system 
by which revenue is raised Tioaus. 

to meet the general ex- 
penses of a government whether Bational ot 
local A direct tax is levied upon the persons 
who are to pay it, as a poll tax; an indirect 
tax is levied in such manner that the person 
paying it can recoup himself, as in customs 
duties, when the duty is added to the selling 
price of the goods. 

In his " Weaftii of Nations " Adam Smith 
laid down four canons of taxation: (I) The 
subjects of everr state ought to contribute to 
the support of tbe government as nearly as poa- 
aible in proportion to their respective abihties 
— that ia, in proportion to the revenue which 
they respectively enjoy under the protection of 
the state, (2) The tax which each individual 
is bound to pay ought to be certain, and not 
arbitrary. (3) Every tax ought to be levied 
at the time or in the manner in which it is 
most likely to be convenient for the contributor 
to pay it. (4) Every tax oucht to be so con- 
trived as both to take out and keep out of the 
pockets ot the people as little as possible over 
and above what it brings into the treasury of 
the state. As the French financier Colbert cvn- 
ically put it, taxation is tbe art of so plucking 
the goose 'as to secure the largest amount^ 
feathers with the least amount of squealing. 

tban on its owners. (2) In conformity with 
this rule, an income tax should be levied at the 
sources of the Income rather tban on the receiv- 
ers of the income. Of course this complicates 
the possibility of levying compensatory 3r pro- 
gressive innune taxes, and may beB.T hard upon 
people with small Incomes; but the evasions 
which result from a violation of this rule do far 
more harm than the hardships which result 
from conformity to it. (3) No deductions from 
the value of property should be made on ac- 
count of debt Mor^aged real estate, for in- 
stance, should be assessed at its full value. 
Under the present systero, which allows deduc- 
tion for debt, a large part of the money lent 
on real estate whofly escapes taxation. Tbe 
preamt system puts burdens, first, on the holder 
of unmortgaged real estate, who has to pay a 
higher rate of tax because the valuation of the 
town where he lives ia lower; second, on the 
widows and orphans, who pay a high tax rate 
on their investments, while otner investors con- 
ceal the fact of their holdings. Its benefit to 
the holder of mortcaged real estate is largely 
illusory, because the existence of the present 
system keeps the rate ot interest higher than 
would otherwise be the case. The only man 
who gets much benefit is the lender, who enjoya 
the high rate of interest and makes no tax re- 
turn. (4) The same principle should be applied 
to ccarporationa. Tbe value of the corporate 


pTopertT is repreBcntcd hj tbe market value of 
its stock and debt Thia debt can be reached 
by taxing the corporation either on ita gioee 
earnings, ita net earnings, or its securities as a 
whole. It cannot be reached by an attempt to 
tax it in the hands of the holders. (E) To se- 
cure an equitable land tax, real estate should be 
assessed on the basis ot its price rather than 
of its productiveness; unimproved real estate 
should be assessed higher and improvements 
relatively lower than at present. The assessors 
to-day see that the man who holds unimproved 
real estate gets little income, and they let him 
off easily on account of his supposed inability 
to pay a high tax. The real effect of this is to 
take burdens off the shoulders of a man who is 
waiting for the growth of the community to 
make him rich and to put those burdens on the 
shoulders of those who are contributing to that 

SDWth. Whatever may be thought of Henry 
gorge's single-tax theory as a whole, there can 
be little question that a relatively higher as- 
sessment of ground rent, with corresponding 
relief for those who have made improvements, 
is a much-needed reform. {6) The objects of 
national, state, and local talation should be 
separated as far as possible. See Excise; In- 
couz Tax; Inhebitakce Tax; Rktende; Sin- 
OLE Tax; TABirF. 

Tax'idermy, the art of preserving the skins 
of animals and replacing the flesh by some 
durable material, so as to represent life. It dif- 
fers from embalming, which seeks to preserve 
the flesh itself. The skin of the animal must 
I>e carefully removed, cleaned, and poisoned, 
preferably with sotne preparation of arsenic, as 
arsenical soap or powder. The skin of moet 
mammals must be so tanned that the hair will 
not fall out, and so that the skin may dry hard 
and stiff to retain the form given it. Wires 
or irons are placed in the legs to sustain the 
weight, and around these the original shape ot 
the legs is built up in tow, or tow and eicelrior. 
On the care with which this is done depends 
much of the appearance of the finished work, 
and in the caae ot quadrupeds thinly clad with 

tral wire, board, or body of excelsior, according 
to the size of the animal or method to be fol- 
lowed, and in birds and small mammals the 
nec^and body are made tf^etber, and little re- 
mains to be done in the way of further fllling. 
The easiest, but worst, method is after the skin 
has been drawn over the legs, and they have 
been.atUched to the body, to fill out the skin 
with tow or straw, working out the principal 
muscles from within. The best method, with 
quadrupeds of any size, is to build up over a 
wooden framework the entire shape of the body, 
including the neck, replacing the muscles by ex- 
celsior and tow, smearing this manikin over 
with clay or plaster to attain smootlsiess. The 
finer details about the eyes, lips, and nostrils are 
reproduced by placing a layer of plaster beneath 
the skin and working in the lines and other 
characters. Birds are preserved readily; mam- 
m^ are more difficult ; the smooth, glossy skin 
of cetaceans defies the taxidermist, and can 
only be imitated by a carefully made cast, and 
the same ia true of the large majority ot rep- 

TaxoB'omy, that department of biological 
science wiiich deals vrittt the arrangement and 
classification of animals and plants. 

Tax Sales, public olScial sales of land made 
in pursuance of law for nonpayment of taxes 
which have been laid upon them. I^Jwer to 
make such sales is entirely statutory, and is 
not derived from any rule of the common taw, 
the right ot a government to grant such power 
being a necessary attribute of ita sovereignty. 
The power when granted ia a naked power, and 
not one coui>led with an interest, and the stat- 
utes giving it must be strictly construed. To 
make a valid title under a tax sale, all the 

sessed, not be exempt, and proper steps taken tc 
collect the tax, a tender of the amount ot 
which will invalidate the sale. Due notice of 

Subiic sale must be given, and the right of re- 
emption is liberally construed. 
Tay, river and loch of Perthshire, Scotland. 
The river, which is the largest in Scotland, rises _ 
on the border of Argyieshire, and is called the ' 
Fillan until it passes through Loch Dochart, 8 
or 9 m.; and thence to Loch Tay, 10 m. far- 
ther, it is generally known as the Dochart. 
Near Loch Tay it receives the Lochie, and be- 
low that loch the Lyon and other .tributaries. 
It is nearly 120 m. long, describes almost a semi- 
circle to Perth, and nows thence neariy B. to 

IS m. long, 1 m. wide, and 600 ft deep. 

Taylor, Bayard, 1825-7B; American traveler 
and author; b. Keiuiett Square, Pa.; appren- 
ticed to a printer; published his first volume, 
" Ximena and other Poems," 1S44; made a 
pedestrian tour in Europe, and published 
" Views Afoot, or Europe Seen with Knapsack 
and Staff"; In 1847 joined the staff of the 
New York Tribune, with which he was con- 
nected while he lived, publishing in that jour- 
nal originally the substance ot most of his 
works of travel. In 1849 he risited California; 
1851, Egypt, Asia Minor, Syria, and Europe; 
1852-63, crossed India from Boml>ay to Cal- 
cutta, going thence to Hongkong, and joining 
Perry's expedition to Japan. In 18S2-63 he 
was secretary of legation, and for a while 
chargi d'affaires at St. Petersburg, He re- 
sided at intervals several years in Germany, 
and from 1873 he was engaged upon a biogra- 

Shy of Goethe and Schiller, which he left un- 
nithed. His books of travel include " El 
Dorado," " Journey to Central Africa," " The 
Lands of the Saracen," " Visit to India, China, 
and Japan," "Northern Travel," "Travels in 
Greece and Russia," " Colorado," " Byways of 
Europe," and " Egypt and Icelaikd." He wrote 
four novels, including " The Story of Kenneth," 
which is autotiiogTaphica], and many volumes 
of poems, bis best-known verse being " The 
Bedouin's Love Bong"; and translated into 
the original meters both parts of Goethe's 
"Faust"' (1870-71), which ia his most im- 
portant literary worlc. Ho lectured extensively 

In tbs U. S. He -iru a.ppotirtcd V. S, minister 
to Qernuuif in 1877. 

Ta7loi, Jeremr, 1613-07; Englisb theologi- 
an; b. Cambridge, England; 1026, entered 
Caiiu College m a lizar; gained the friend- 
thip of Biahop Laud, and in 1636 obtained 
a fellowBbip at Oiford; in 1638 was pre- 
sented to tne rector; of Uppingbam. In tlie 
civil wara he adhered to tbe cause of Charles 
I, who made him hia chaplain; but hia rec- 
tor; waa sequestered by Parliament, and he 
fled to Wales, where he supported bimaelf 
by teaching a school and wrote his noblest 
works; was several times imprisoned for his 
royalist sentiments, and in 1658 took up his 
residence in Ireland. In 1660 he signed the 
TOj-alist declaration of April 24th, which paved 
the way for the restoration of Charles II. 
Soon after the Restoration ha was made Bishop 
of Down and Connor. As a preacher and 
writer, he occupies a foremost rank in litera- 
ture. Besides his " Sermons," his principal 
works are " Discourse on the Liberty of 
Prophesying," setting forth the iniquity of per- 
secution for differences in opinions, by some 
held to be the ablest of all his works; "The 
Great Exemplar of Sanctity and Holy Life," a 
life of Christ; "The Rule and Exercise of Holy 
Living," " The Rule and Exercise of Holy Dy- 
ing," " Ductor Dubitantium," a work on casu- 

Ta^or, ZftchJiy, 1784-1860; twelfth Pres- 
ident of the U. S.; b. Orange Co., Va. He 
became lieutenant in the U. S. army, 1808; 
captain in 1810. In 1812 he was in command 
of Fort Harrison, near the present site of 
Terre Haute, on the Wabash River, and in 
September wltH flfty men repulsed an attack 
by a large force of Indiana. For this he re- 
ceived the first brevet (as major) ever given 
in the U. S. service. In 1814, with the rank 
of major, ha commanded an expedition against 
the British and Indiana on Rock River. He 
was employed for several years on the NW. 
frontier and in the S. In 1810 he became lieu- 
tenant colonel, and in 1832 colonei, and was 
engaged in the Black Hawk War. On Decem- 
ber 25, 1337, he defeated the Seuiinolea in the 
battle of Okechobee, and wan breveted briga- 
dier general; and in April, 1838, be was com- 
mander in chief in Florida. In 1840 he was 
ii^ command of the first department of the 
army in the SW. Congress having, March, 
1843, passed the joint resolution annexing 
Texas, Gen. Taylor %\'as directed to defend it 
against invasion from MesJeo. 

Early in 1346, with 4,000 troops, he marched 
to the Rio Grande, opposite Matamoros, and 
erected Fort Brown. Arista, the Mexican com- 
mander, crossed the Rio Grande with 6,000 
men, and, on May 8th, attacked and was de- 
tented by Gen. Taylor with 2,300 men at Palo 
Alto, a few miles from Matamoros, The Mexi- 
cans retreated to Resaca de la Palma, and the 
next day again gave battle to tbe Americans, 
Mho after a severe contest drove them across 
the Rio Grande. The total loss of the Mexicans 
in tbeoe luttles amounted to about 1,000 men. 
Taylor was made a major general. May IBth 
he entered Hatamoros, and in September, with 

Ampudia capitulated. On February 22, : 

Gen. Taylor with about 6,000 men was attadeed 
at Buena Vista by SanU Anna with 21,000. 
The Hexicana were signally defeated, and " Old 
Rough and Ready," as he waa called in the 
army, became a honaehold word. In 1848, Gen. 
Taylor waa nominated as the Whig candidate 
for President of the U. S. over Clay, Scott, 
and Webster, with Millard Fillmore for Vice 
President. They received 163 electoral voten, 
BEainet 127 for Cass and Butler. In the midst 
of violent discussions excited by tbe propoai- 
tlon to admit California as a free atate, and 
other measures affecting slavery, upon which 
the President's recommendations had deeply 
offended the 8. leaders, he died of bilious fever 
sixteen months after his inauguration. One 
of his daughters married Jefferson Davis. His 
son Richanl waa an officer in the Confederate 
states army. , 

Tchad (formerly Chad or Tsad), a large, 
ahallow African lake, full of islands, hut fluc- 
tuating in size with the season; in central 
Sudan, on the B. margin of the Sahara 
Desert, in a military district of its own name 
in the French Kongo. The waters are fresh, 
though it has no outlet. The elevation ia 1,150 
ft. above tbe sea, and the area varies from 
10,000 to 60,000 sq. m. Its principal tribu- 
taries are the great Shari River, the Komadn- 
gu, and the Bahr-el-Ghazal. 

XchOOkctiMS', a tribe inhabiting the NE. cor- 
ner of Siberia, and of the same family as the 
Eskimos of N. America, 

Tea, (1) the prepared leaves of a plant of 
the genus Thea, and specifically of the T. 
chinenaU; (2) the plant itaelf;.and (3) an 
infusion of the leaves of the tea plant, widely 
used as a beverage. It is probable that all tea 
owes its origin to Assam, a province of Burma. 
There in the jungle bordering on the Brahma- 
putra were found thickets of indigenous tea 
trees, often attaining 30 fL It has been 
claimed that Indigenous tea. exists in China 
and Japan; but it is probable that the plant 
waa Introduced into Cliina from India 1,500 
years ago, and into Japan from China not later 
than the ninth century. Tea was introduced 
into Europe by the Dutch about the beginning 
of the seventeenth centtiry. The tea made from 
the Assam leaf is strong, often pungent and 
rasping; it is half egam as strong aa the 

Tbe Chinese plant is of bushy growth and 
of far less attractive appearance than its As- 
samese relative. It is tough and hardy, en- 
during the severe winters of tbe higher lati- 
tudes of China and Japan or of tbe elevated 
gardens on the Himalayan slopes. It survives 
deficiencies in moisture, soil, and cultivation, 
but gratefully acknowledges care and enrich- 
ment with an improved growth and higher leaf 
qualities. Under ordinary agricultural condi- 
tions it annually produces only four or five 
fhishes or crops of leaves. The leaf is smaller, 
tougher, and darker. It yields when properlf 


prepared ft mora d«Iieftt« If WMker te* thui 
the AnwiiiiTifi Uafortuiwtely the Tvry oondi- 
tioni eondadTe to iU best growth creftU the 
wont iiMl«ri>l dUorden unong Europeani 
•ud tbose frcm othsr temperate climatea. 
" Ferer and te* go together." Cultirated tea 
ia rafMd from ae^ ^e plant produeea Biaall 
white flowen, wtdeh one Tear later ^ield from 
one to four seeds about naif the »ze of the 

it called the pekoe tip, or flowery pekoe when 
mjid* into ten. MandaTin tea is prepared from 
it in China; the tips are tligbtly rolled and 
dried, and finallj tied up with ribbons in tiny 
bnncttea, like cigars. Except as a curiosity 
one does not see this tea outside of China, as 
in that country it commands a very Iiigh price. 
The nest leaves are called the orange pekoe 
and pekoe. They, with the tip, yield pel^'M 
tea, eapeciallj esteemed for strength and oaTor. 
When not fermented, but prepared as green 
tea from the half-opened leaves in April, it is 
known as young hyson, hyson being a corrup- 
tion of the Chinese " yu tsien," meaning " he- 
fore the rains." Hoet pekoe teas are sent to 
Great Britain and Hussia. 

In this order of mumeration, from the pekoe 
tip downward, the aise of the leaf ' 

and smaller leaves, the better Is the quality, 
but the more' expensive and curtailed is the 
crop. Genuine green teas are the result of 
quickly drying tne fresh leaf, whereas black 
teas are subjected to oxidation before being 
" fired," as the drying of the moist leaf is 
eallML The most important chemical difter- 
euce between the simply dried tea leaves (i.e., 
green) and the fermented (i.e., black) lies in 
the Tees amount of tannin in the latter. For 
black tea the fresh leaf is thinly spread out 
to wither. It ia then rolled; then the balls 
or moss of rolled leaf are broken up, spread 
out thinly, moistened, and are subjected to 
oxidation, wbereby tea loses Its raw smell and 
acquires a fine flavor. This conBti,tutes the 
most critical operation in the whole process, 
there being no fixed rules to determine its 
length and intensity. The effect of oxidation 
is chenucal, the eUef change being a loss In 

B«triiigeiicy, induced by a diminution of tlw 
tannin; the tea also becomes darker In color. 
After the rolled leaf is broken it is flrpd In 
iron vessels over charcoal fires. The thoroughly 
dried and brittle tea should be packed while 
hot in metallic cases, and hermeticiilly sealed 
to exclude moisture. 

The annual crop of tea in China has been 
estimated at from 400,000,000 to 8,000,000,000 
lb., of which about 200,000,000 is exported. 
The Chinese cultivate the tea plant in small 
gardens, or in outlying comers or on steep hill- 
aides where no other crop can be raised. The 
farmer often sells his crop on the bushes, as 
oranges are sold in Florida. 

Japanese teas sre almost wholly green, llie 
leaf is not adapted for black tea. Steam with- 
ering is practi<^ to reduce the raw flavor. The 
general nniab is very elegant, but artiflcial col- 
oring and facing are common. The green color 
is given by dusting it with Prussian blue at 
the time of roasting. The most esteemed 
brand of Japaneae tea is called tenoha oj flat 
tea, because it is not rolled; indeed, it Is 
claimed that it Is not touched by bond after 
being put on the steaming apparatus. It com- 
mands a high price in Japan. Such teas aro 
finely ground shortly before use, and after 
stirring with warm (not boiling) water for a 
few minutes, the whole infusion is drunk. They 
play an important part in the ceremonial t^ 
drinking — a curious feature of Japanese polit- 
ical history and social life. Tea production In 
the British Indies is on a large scale. Wealthy 
corporations or individuals cultivate hnndreds 
or thousands of acres, employing great capital 
and inunenise numbers of laborers. The opera- 
tions in the field are performed under the 
piecs system and in a tDorou^hty syetematio 
manner. In the factory, the simplification of 

STOcesses and the sutwtitution of machinery 
)r manual labor have rednced the cost of man- 
ufacture, and resulted In the production, of a 
more uniform and cleaner article. 

The chief active ingredient of tea, upon which 
depends most of its influence, . is the alkaloid 
theine, which is practically identical with 
caffeine derived from coffee. Tea leaves con- 
tain from one half to six per cent of theine, 
with from twelve to eighteen per cent of tumic 
acid (which gives overdrawn and boiled tea 
its bitter taste) and an aromatic volatile oil. 
Tea stimulates brain and spinal cord; it quick- 
ens thought so that a mild condition of 
" nervousness " is produced which prevents 
sleep. Tea retards tissue waste. Strong tea 
ia a useful antidote in poisoning by opium or 
antimony, as it combats the depression of 
heart and lungs induced b^ oplimi, and forms 
an insoluble compound witii antimony which 
delays Its absorption. 

Teak, a forest trea, Teetona grandit, of the 
Terbenaeea, of India and Farther India. It is 
the best timber known lor shipbuilding, as it 
resists water and insects. It is more durable 
than oak, more easily seasoned, equally strong, 
considerably lighter, and far more easily 
worked. It is used for making decks and 
planking, for the keel, timbers, and even masts 
and spars. Many all-teak ships are reported 
to be over one hundred years old, and stul Mm,- 

worthy. The wood reseinblea mahcgany. The 
flowers Bud leaves have medicinal qualities, 
And are used in dyeing. African teak, the 

Teal, any one of Hveral small ducks having 
a rather narrow bill but little longer than the 
foot. The wing beara a conspicuous ^ark, or 

speculum, of blue or metallic green. Hiey are 
birds of rapid flight, partial to fresh water, 
and their flesh is excellent food. 

Tea, pBragua/. See Mate. 

Tecbnorogy, a general name for industrial 

science. Strictly, there is no such science, but 
all the sciences contribute much that is of 
value to the various industries ; and technol- 
ogy is the teaching of those parts of science 
which are of direct industrial importance. 

TeCDin'seh, or Teciuntha, 1768-1813; chief of 
the Shawnee Indians. Abt. 1805 he and his 
brother Elskwatawa, who had set up as a 
prophet, attempted to unite the W. tribes to 
resist the whites. In 1811. during Tecumseh's 
absence in the South, Gen. Harrison marched on 
the prophet's town. The prophet attacked him, 
and was defeated at Tippecanoe, November 7th. 
This disconcerted Tecumseh's plans and broke 
the spell of the prophet's power. When war 
was declared with England, Tecumseh ap- 


peared in Canada, served in the action on the 
Raisin, and after being wounded at MaguagOi 
was made a brigadier general in the British 
forces. He was in command with Proctor at 
the si^jE of Fort Meigs, and saved American 
prisoners from massacre. He commanded the 
right wing at the battle of the Thames, and 
fought desperately till he was killed. 

Te Denm ^t6 de'Qm), the most famous non- 
biblical hymn of the Western Church, dating 
from the fifth century, named from its opening 
phrase, " Te Deum laudamus " ("We praise 
thee, O God I "). Its authorship is unknown. 
Besides its use in the morning servi(x, it is 
a special service of thanksgiving after 
great victories and at coronations. 

Teeth, the organs in vertebrates for the leiE- 
ure and mastication of food, placed at or near 
the entrance to the alimentary canal. In adult 
man there are thirty-two, sixteen in each jaw, 
implanted in sockets, and of an Irregular 
conoid form ; in the child, previous to the sec- 
ond dentition, there are only twenty. The 
number of the teeth increases in the lower 
animals, being greatest in the cetaceans and 
marsupialH among mammals, and also consid- 
erable in many reptiles and Bahes. The por- 
a. tooth above the socket is called the 
the concealed 

Cart the root or fang; 
etween these there is ^ 
or less marked 
constriction or neck. In 
rtebrate animals the 
teeth, like the bones, 
have for their earthy 
basis phosphate of lime, 
mingled with some car- 
bonate of lime and fluo- 
ride of calcium, the lat- 
ter being chiedy in the 

A tooth is composed 
of dentine, crutta pe- 
troaa, and enamel. The 
dentine, forming the 
greater part of the body 
of the tooth, is firm, ■^b.o 
transparent, and nearly noii 
homogeneous, composed 
of about seventy -two 
per cent of calcareous 
and twenty-eight per 
cent of organic matter. It is permeated 
throughout by minute cylindrical channels, 
called canaliculi, about ti^do in. in diameter, 
which radiate from a central or pulp cavity. 
The pulp is the only portion of the tooth 
whieh is supplied with blood vessels and nerves. 
The crueti petrosa is a thin layer of bony tis- 
sue attached to the outside of the dentine in 
the fang of the tooth, and serving to connect 
it, by means of its periosteum, more firmly to 
the socket. The enamel, which covers the sur- 
face of the crown of the tooth, is much the 
hardest of its tissues, containing often over 
ninety-flve per cent of calcareous matter. 

In man there are in each jaw four incisors 
or cutting teeth ; next to these, on each side, 
is a canine tooth, those of the upper jaw being 

pulp ; 4, blood i 


called eye .t«eth; next to these are two bi- 
cugpida, uid then three molare, makiD^ sixteen 
teeth in each jaw. The laat molar ia known 
aa the wisdom tooth, as it appears much later 
than the othera. The temporary, or milk teeth, 
consiat o( ten in each jaw, four incisors, two 
canines, and four molars. Thej usually begin 
to appear at seven months, and are complete 
when the child is two years old. See Den- 

TeKudK'lpa (ta-gA-se-g^l'pS}, capital (since 
1880) and largest city of Bonduras; in a plain 
or basin surrounded by mountainH, 3,250 ft. 
above the sea; 60 m. from its port of Amapala, 
on the Gulf of Fonseca. It is in the most thick- 
ly populated region of the republic, is the cen- 
ter of a fertile agricultural district, and has 
minea of ^old and silver. The most conspicu- 
ous building is the cathedral; the president's 
palace and other public edifices are unpreten- 
. tious. The climate is mild and saluorioua. 
Pop. (1906) 34,ee2. Tegucigalpa is the' 
capital of a department of the same 
name, having an area of 3,476 sq. m. 
and a pop. (1901) of 81,800. 

Teheran', capital of Persia; province 
of Irak-Ajmi, .70 m. S. of the Caspian 
Sea; in a sandy and stony plain at the 
8. foot of the Elburs Mountains, which 
rise here, in Mt. Demavend, to 18,600 ft. 
The streets for the most part are nar- 
row, crooked, ill paved, and filthy, and 
the houses low and insignificant, gener- 
ally built of mud, although there are 
some modern boulevards and houses in 
Western style. Some mosques, bazaars, 
and caravansaries are handsome struc- 
tures, however, and the palace of the 
shah, forming a city by itself, is vast and 
ele^nt Teheran became the residence of the 
shah in 1796. It has some manufactures of car- 
nets, cotton and linen goods, shoes and hats. 
Its population varies much from winter to sum- 
mer, as the shah and the wealthier citizens 
leave it early in spring on account of the heat 
and unhealthful atmosphere. Pop. 280,000. In 
the vicinity are the ruins of Eei, the Rhages 
of Scripture. The comment on Tabriz [g.c] 
appliea also to Teheran. 

Tclraantepec (ta-wtln-tB-pek'), lath'mns of, 
a constriction of the American continent, in 
SE. Mexico, between the Bay of Campeche 
(Gulf of Mexico) on the N., and the Gulf of 
Tehuantepec, an arm of the Pacific, on the 8. 
Its width, in the narrowest part, is 134 m. 
The mountain chains, on reaching the isthmus, 
are suddenly depressed, with several passes be- 
low 700 ft There have been many projects for 
a canal across this neck, and careful surveys, 
one by the U. S. Govt, have been made. Some 
of the reports are favorable, but the work 
would be enormously expensive. A railway 
from CoatMCoalcoB on the N. to Salina Crur 
on the S. now runs across the isthmus; it was 
constructed by the Mexican Govt, and it was 
opened 1894. As lonf^ ago as 184T the U. B. 
Govt, endeavored, without results, to pro- 
cure a right of way over the same route. 
Physically, the Isthmus of Tehuantepec sepa- 
rates Mexico from Central America, the land 


K of it, with Yucatan, belonging rather with 
the latter than with the former region. 

Telan'toeiaph, name given by Elisha Grav 
to an instrument invented by him by whicn 
autoeraphic messages can be transmitted elec- 
trically. The mechanism conaiBts of a trans- 
mitting and receiving instrument, with two 
conducting wires, and by its use handwriting, 
drawings, etc., are instantly reproduced at the 
receiving point in facsimile. The message or 
drawing is produced with an ordinary lead pen- 
cil, near the point of which two conls are fas- 
tened at right angles nith each other. These 
cords connect with the mechanism of the trans- 
mitter, and, following the motion of the pencil, 
produce positive and negative electrical im- 
pulses through the action of a permanentlv 
magnetized steel gear wheel, the teeth of whicn 
induce pulsations as they pass by an electro- 
magnet. The receiving mechanism at the ter- 
minus of the conducting wire is driven by an 

TsE Tblautoobipb (1 

Hitting iiutnunent). 

electric motor operated by a local battery. 
The pulsations, as they arrive, control an es- 
capement wheel, driven by the motor, which 
moves the writing lever in exact unison with 
the pencil of the transmitter. The movements 
of the pencil of the writer are reproduced by 
the shifting of a friction wheel driven by two 
disks, one of which gives it an advance and the 
other a retrograde movement, dependent upon 
the wheel being brought into contact with one 
or the other of the two disks. The receiving 
pen is a capillary glass tube supplied with ink 
from a reservoir. The pen, paaaing over the 
paper, leaves a facsimile of the sender's mo- 
tions. The writing is made and reproduced on 
continuous strips of paper 6 in. in width. As 
each line is completed the movement of a lever 
advances the paper the proper distance for the 
beginning of a new line. The same opeiation 
brings the two instruments into unison in case 
of discrepancy in their movements. Satisfac- 
tory tests of the practical working of the tel- 
autograph have been made between Chicago 
and Qeveland, and Loudon and Paris. 

Tel'egraph (from Greek TTjXt, far, + rpiC^iv, 
write), any apparatus or process for convey- 
ing intelligence to a distance other than by 
voice or writing. The idea of speed is included, 
the telegraph being employed only to transmit 
intelligence more quickly than can be done by 
ordinary means. 

As soon aa it became Ii 

• 'ifisQes^' 


could be oondncted hj wlna to a diatuiee, it 
began to be re^rded M ft powible meana o( 
eoavejiag inteUigence. 

Experiments were made by many persoiu, 
both in the U. 8. and abroad, and these cul- 
minated in the demoDBtration of the feasibility 
of transmitting mgnals by a ciurrent of electric- 
ity through insulated wire by Joseph Henry in 
Albany, N. Y. Bamuel F. B. Morse, of New 
York, in 1832 conceived the idea of maliinK 
a at a distance by means of a pencil moved 

by an electro-magnet and a single conducting 
circuit, the paper being moved under the pen- 
cil by clockwork. He constructed a working 

modd of his invention in 1836, and exhibited it 
in 1837. Several years were devoted by Horse 
and his associate, Alfred Vail, to improving the 
invention. In 1844 the first public line was 
completed Iwtween Waaiiington and Baltimore 
(40 m.), and the first message transmitted May 
27th of Uiat year. Soon lines were extended to 
the principal cities of the U. B, The Morse tel- 
egraph was introduced into Germany i>i 1847, 
vrtienoe it has spread all over the E. hemi- 
sphere, and now is the universal telegraph of 
the world. 

Ezperimenta in submarine telegraphy fol- 
lowed. In 1842 Morse laid a cable between 
Castle Garden and Governor's Island, in New 
York, and obtained results that demonstrat- 
ed the practicability of submarine telegraphy. 
In 1800 an experimental line was lud acrosa 
the English ChanneL This success suggested 
the laying of a cable across the Atlantic Ocean. 
In 1854 the attention of Cyrus W. Held, of New 
York, was directed to the subject, and mainly 
through his efforts a company was formed to 
undertake the enterprise. The first attempt was 
made in August, 1857, but it was unsuccessful, 
thb cable parting 300 m. from shore. The fol- 
lowing year the attempt was renewed and the 
work successfully completed August 6, 1858. 
Communications were exchanged until Beptem- 
ber Ist^ when the cable tailed altogether. In 
1866 a new cable was successfully laid, being 

Uaded at Newfoundland, in perfect working 
order, July 27, 1866. The British Pacific cable, 
the first to cross the Pacific Ocean, connecting 
Vancouver, B. C, with Sydney, Australia, was 
completed in 1902, and the cable joining San 
Francisco with Manila, via Hawaii and Guam, 
in 1903. 

All electric telegraphs may be said to consist 
of three parts: first, an apparatus for gener- 
ating or producing the electric current ; second, 
a conductor for conveying the electricity from 
one point to another as required; and, tlilrd, 
apparatus for transmitting and receiving the 



magneto-electric maehlne, or the thermoelec- 
tric battery. Of these, the voltaic battery has 
been the most contmimly used, though much 
baa been done in dereloping the capacity of 
the dynamo-electric machine, which in most 
large stations lus successfully replaced the 
voltaic system. Conductors are usually car- 
ried through the air, but when required may 
be placed under ground or under water. In 
either case they must be well insulated with 
nonconducting materials. 

The apparatus used in tcl^raphy may be 
convenienuy divided into recgrdlng and non- 
recording. Of each of these Uiere are several 
varieties, but the most important is the re- 
cording telegraph that bears the name of Morse. 

T»i.«aH*i'Hie RsaisTBB. 

Its characteristic feature is tlie register, which 
is constructed on tihe general principle shown 
in Uie diagram. A honiontal lever is mounted 
upon a fulcrum, a, and armed at one end with 
a steel point, o, projecting upward and nearly 
toucliing a ribbon of paper, f, which is carried 
along at a uniform rate by a grooved roller 
just above it, the roller being impelled by a 
system of clockwork, e. The opposite end of 
the lever carries a soft iron armature, n, sus- 
pended Just atiove the poles of an electro- 
magnet, t. The end of the wire helix surround- 
ing this magnet terminates in binding screws, 
g g, to which the conducting wires are at- 
tached. A current of electricity traversing the 
helix of the electro-magnet causes it to become 
powerfully magnetic, attracting the armature, 
n, to its poles, and thus pressing the steel 
point, 0, against the paper ribbon moving 
atiove it upon the grooved roller. A continu- 
ous line will in this manner be emlHMsed upon 
the paper as long as the armature remains at- 
tached to the poles of the magnet. When the 
current is interrupted, the magnetism disap- 
pears, and the spring, d, draws the marking 
point away from the paper. Thus the length 
of the line embossed upon the paper corre- 
sponds to th(4 greater or less length of time 
that the electric current is allowed to traverse 
Hie helix of the electro-magnet, (. This la 
governed by the transmitting instrument 
termed the key, which is simply a small hori- 
zontal lever with a finger knob at one end and 
a spring l>«neath. The wire leading from the 
line is connected to this lever, and when the 
latter is depressed by the finger of the oper- 
ator it comes in contact with a metallic stud, 
known as the anvil, to which the lottery wire 
is attached; thus the circuit is oompleted, and 
the current permitted to flow into the line. 


When the latt«r la bnt a. few miles lotig, the 
battery aiod k^ arc eonneeted directlj by a 
wire with the elwtrD-magDet of the register; 
but when the distance ia greater, an instni- 
ment e«lied the relay is employed. This con- 
sisti of an electro-magnet with a lever mounted 
like that of a register, eioept that the marldnc 
point is replaced by a contact point, which 
open* and cloaes the circuit of a local battery, 
and this in turn operates the Teeter. A con- 
iiderable number of relays with their rasters 
may be placed at ae many different points upon 
the aame line, and all operated simultaneously 
bj a kqr at any point. This is the arrange- 
ment nanally adapted in the U. 8. The line 
or main batteries are usually placed at the 
two ends of the route, though each station 
haa, of oonise, its local battery of one or two 
eelU. The alphabetical code, consista of ar- 
bitrary characters composed of combinations 
of ibort lines termed dots and longer ones 
termed dasheq, separated by Tarying spaces . 
The following is the alphabetical (wde used 
in the U. B., Canada, Maxico, and Central 



g— - 


1=-— - 


Period Q 

Comma i.) '-^— — ^- 

In(emi(atioo (ft 

EzalamatloD <!) 

Of tlie nonreeording teleKraphs the most 
important is the sounder, which is simply a 
Uorse register stripped of all its parts except 

' almost entirely auperneded 
the reoording apparatus in the U. S. and Can- 
ada, as experience proves that the speed of 
transmisslca ia praMioU^ doaUed, mile the 


proportion of errors is largely diniinishrd. The 
operator reads from the instrument, and simul- 
taneously copies the message. For military 
purposes the sounder, together with a manipu' 
lating k^, is often reduced in size, so as to be 
contained in a pocket case not larger than a 
tobacco box and weighing but a few ounoea, 
and yet forming a completely equipped Mone 
telegraph station, which may be connected with 
a lijie at any required point. See Cablk 

Teleg'rBphy, Wire'less, a name now restricted 
to telegraphy by means of electro-magnetic 
("Hertzian ) waves, although at first used 
to include telegraphy by induction, by earth 
conduction, and by other methods that have 
not yet reached the commercial stage. Electro- 
magnetic waves were treated theoretically by 
Clerk-Maxwell, the English physicist, over 
thirty years ago, but their actual eristenoe 
was first demonstrated by Heinrich Herts, of 
Karlsruhe, Germany. He devised means for 
generating them by an oscillating electrostatic 
dischaive (the "oscillator") and tor receiv- 
ing ana detecting them; but these instruments 
were not delicate enough to transmit and re- 
ceive intelligible messages. The first patent on 
an electric-wave telegraph was granted in Eng- 
land fo William Marconi, an Italian inventor, 
in ISH. In the same year he exhibited hia 
apparatus at Toynbee Hall, London. His i«- 
ceirer was essentially the " coherer " of Sir 
Oliver liodEB, based on the "radioratnductor" 
discovered m France 1^ Brauly in 1800. This 
depends on the fact that a mass of fine metal 
particles, such as iron filings, becomes a con- 
ductor when an electric wave passes it, be- 
cause the particles then adhere. The particles 
will fall apart when the wave has passed if 
they receive a slight mechanical ahoclc. Mar- 
coni's first receiver consisted of such a coherer, 
with a tapping device to " decohere " ,the par- 
ticles and a device to detect the passage of a 
current in the circuit of which the coherer 
formed a part. The whole was connected with 
an " antenna " or aSrial wire. On strBdng 
this, the wave " cohered " the filings, com- 
pleted the circuit, and made an appropriate 
signal which was at once broken off by the 
action of the decoherer. At the sending sta- 
tion a HertE oscillator was used with an in- 
duction coil, the wave being started by a spark 
sent across a gap one side of which was con- 
nected with an '^antenna." and the oUier with 
the earth. 

This is the simplest wlreleet-telegraph sys- 
tem. Improvements on it have been generally 
either- to increase the sending distance, or so 
to adjust the sending and receiving instru- 
ments that only messages intended for the 
latter will affect it. The sending distance has 
now been extended to several thousand miles. 
Wireless mesBagea are sent across the Atlantic 

world; but the efiforts to adjust the i 
and receiver so as to exclude outside men _ . 
and to send messages that other apparatus 
cannot receive, have not been so successful. 
Most of them have been based on the early 
. r,,. ^.. ^^ Lodge, who Intro- 
L oonduissrs into i<|» 


circuits in such a, way that the receiTer would 
napoud only to waves betneen certain limits 
of length. Such devices are now included in 
. all the awdem syatetne, but their object has 
not been oompletelj attained, since the electric 
wavM used are not suffldently regular and 

In the most recent HareonI ByBtem, & new 
form of receiver is used in which the electric 
wave disturba the mugnetic condition of a 


Uakconi's ArriKxiot. 

metallic band in a kI^ss tiibe oo which primary 
and secondary coils are wound, inducing iu 
these currents that are detected by meana of 
a telephone. In the Lodge- Muirhead system a 
" busier " for regulating the frequency is in- 
cluded in the tranamitting apparatus, and the 
receptor uses a rotating mercurial coherer in 
conjunction with a siphon recorder. The Fes- 
aenden system haa an electrolytic detector 
consisting ot a fine platinum wire, one end of 
which is plunged in an acid solution in a 
platinum veseeT, The De Forest system dis- 
cards the direct current with induction coil, 
and uses instead an alternating current with 
a " step-up " transformer, which charges a bat- 
tery of Iicyden jars. The detector is a Email 
crystal ot carborundum. In Qermany two 
systems, known as the Braun-Siemens and the 
Slaby-Arco, have combined to form the " Tele- 
funken " system, which still uses the old 
coherer, with nickel and silver filings, as a 

An effort to produce waves that are suffi- 
ciently regular and lasting to make perfect 
" tuning " possible, and so brins about the ad- 

i'ustment of sending and receiving instruments 
hat have been imperfectly realized hitherto, 
has been made by Valdemar Poulsen, a Dane. 
He does away altogether with the electric 
spark as a wave generator, and uses instead a 
"singing" arc lamp, whose frequency be in- 
creases to several millions a second by placing 
an alcohol lamp under the are. The waves 
thus obtained are, it is claimed, continuous 
and regular, beins comparable to a musical- 
note, wliile those due to a spark are more like 
on explosive noise. Ordinary forms of detector 
may be used and experiments appear to indi- 
cate that, with the new form of wave, exact 
"tuning" may be carried out; but the system 
ia not yet in the commercial stage. 

The chief use of wireless telegraphy ao far 
haa been at aea, or between vessels at sea and 


coast atations, much greater sending diatonees 
beii^ possible over water than where moun- 
tains and other obstacles intervene. Nearly all 
latKe liners and warshipB are now equipped 
with the necessary apparatus, and by ita mean* 
often keep in communication with land during 
voyages of many days' extent. On October 7, 
1007, a regular transatlantic service was estab- 
lished between stations at Clifden, Ireland, and 
Glace Bay, Nova Scotia. 

Telem'achns, in Greek mythology, son 
of Odyueus and Penelope. He was on in- 
fant when his father joined in the war 
against Troy. After the termination of 
the war, he sailed out, accompanied by 
Athene in the shape of Mentor, and visited 
PyloB, Sparta, and other places, to leam 
the fate of bis father; and on his return 
to Ithaca he found Odysseus living there 
in disguise with the swineherd, Eumnua. 
A recognition took place, and he then 
aided Odysseus in slaying the suitors and 
clearing the house of its burdenaome 
guests. His voyage forms the subject of 
F6ne1on's "Ttfierasque." 
^^ Tdep'athy, thought transference, or the 
phenomenon of the reception by the mind 
of an impression not traceable to any o( 
the recognized chaimels ot sense, and assumed 
to be due to an infiuence from the mind of an- 
other person, near or remote. Thus the sphere 
ot telepathy is not the same as that of olatr- 
voganee, in which it is assumed that the mind 
of the subject may receive an impression ot im- 
ptraonal fact», or things at a distance. The 
subject who receives the impression is called 
the percipient, the one from whom the infiuence 
emanates is usually called the agent, in ac- 
counts of experiments on this phenomenon. 
In the earlier wprks on animal magnetism 
there are many reports concerning subjects 
who are said to have developed the power of 
obeying the silent commands of the bypnotiser. 
More recently there have been public e^ib- 
itors of " mind reading," and their perform- 
ancea have been imitated in private circles by 
the so-called willing game. In most ot these 
teats the agent is required to think intently 
of some act while be lays his bands on some 
part of the so-called mind reader's person. The 
mind reader, either promptly or hesitatingly, 
will then usually perform the act. It is safe 
to assume that, wherever such personal eon- 
tact between the pair is allowed, the percipient 
is guided by the encouragement or checking 
which the agent's hmds more or less uncon- 
sciously exert upon his at first tentative move- 
ments; so that muscle reading, and not mind 
reading, is the proper name for this phenome- 
non. The strongest evidence tor thought trans- 
ference is given by the sittings of certain " test 
mediums," of which the best worked-out cose 
is that of Mrs. Piper, published in the Society 
for Psychical Research " Proceedings " for 
1S90, 1892, 1896. This lady ahows a profuse 
intimacy, not so much with the actual pass- 
ing thoughts of her sitters, as with the 
whole reservoir of their memory or potential 

Telepathjr haa been used as a theory to ezi 
plain '* veridical hallucinations " such «a w9ld4C 


be the sppfkrition of a peraon at a diBtance at 
the time of bis death. The theory is that one 
who is djdng or passing through some crisis 
is for some unknown reason peculiarly able to 
serve as " agent " and project an impression, 
and that the telepathic " impact " in such a 
ease produces hallucination. Stated thus 
boldly the theory sounds most fanciful, but it 
reets on certain actual analogies. Thus a sug- 
gestion made to a suitable' subject in the hyp- 
notic trance that at a certain appointed time 
after his awakening be shall see the operator 
or other designated person enter the room will 
take effect and be followed by an exterioriied 
apparition of the person named. Moreover, 
strange as the fact may appear, there seems 
evidence, smalf in amount but good in quality, 
that one may, by exerting one's will to that 
effect, cause oneself to appear present to a 
person at a distance. As many aS eight per- 
sons worthy of couSdence have recently 
reported successes in this sort of ex- 
, perimenL The whole subject, however, 
is still in its infancy so far as definite 
observation goes. 

Tel'ephone, a word applied by Wheat- 
stone in 1840 to the rod and string 
telephones (as they are now called), in 
which sound rihrations are transmitted 
from one point to another by means of 
a rod or tightly stretched string con- 
necting two elastic diaphragms of mem- 
brane, wood, or other suitable mate- 
rial. In strictness, the word telephone, still 
refers to the acoustic ai well as the electric 
telephone, but the latter, on account of Its uni- 
versal use, is the instrument to which the term 
is usually applied. 

As early as 1S54 a suggestion as to the pos- 
sibility of transmitting speech by means of 
electricity was made by Charles Bourseul in 
Paris, France, and In 1861 in Frankfort, Ger- 
many, Philipp Reis published an account of his 
experiments on the same subject. Reis en- 
deavored to secure the transmission of speech 
by a circuit-breaking operatioo. For a trans- 
mitter he employed a membrane to which was 
fastened a flexible strip of metal connected with 
one terminal of a voltaic battery. The receiver 
nsed consisted of a long helix of insulated wire 
wound about a knitting needle, the whole be- 
ing mounted upon a sounding box. When the 
receiver was connected in circuit with the 
transmitter and a battery, and the transmitter 
was operated, the alternate makes and breaks 
of the current produced by the intermittent con- 
tact between the metallic strip and point of the 
transmitter cstised a sound to issue from the 
receiver. This sound necessarily corresponded 
in pitch with that spoken into the transmitter. 

A method by which the quality of sounds, 
including those of articulate speech, can be re- 
produced with an apparatus as previously sug- 
gested was invent^ by Alexander Graham 
Beil and patented on March 7, 1876. His 
method consists in the production and utiliza- 
tion of electrical undulations similar in form 
to the vibrations of the air of the sound waves. 
The electrical condition of the line particles 
and the vibration of the receiver are controlled, 
not intermittently, at the end of each complete 


vibration, but throughout the whole duration 
and extent of this vibration. To do this the 
transmitting instrument must produce in tho 
line an electrical current which possesses a va- 
riation in strength from instant to instant, 
similar to the corresponding changes in the 
density of the air in the sound waves which 
actuate the transmitter, in which case tlie 
electrical changes will copy the air waves, so 
to speak, and the varying electrical current 
will be represented graphically by substantially 
the same curve that represents the air waves. 
By the action of this undulatory current upon 
a suitable receiver it will reproduce at the re- 
ceiving end of the line air waves which ftre 
similar In form to the electrical variations, and 
hence to the sound waves actuating the trans- 
mitter. The original apparatus devised by 
Bell was a form of what is called a "magneto 
telephone." In the improved instrument, which 

Fig. I. P F ii 
soft-iron pole . 
a coil of insulated wire, D, whose terminals 
run to the binding posts, G G- H is a circular 
diaphragm of thin iron, held at its edge be- 
tween tne case of the instrument, K, and the 
mouthpiece, A. When used as a transmitter 
the instrument is put in circuit with a second 
one at the farther end of the line, which serves 
as a recover. The operation is as follows; 
When the soft-iron diaphragm, H, is spoken to, 
it takes up the motions of the particles of air 
and vibrates in accordance with these motions, 
and so moves toward and away from the mag- 
netized pole piece periodically with a veloci^ 
varying from instant to instant, according to 
the characteristic form of the air waves, ^nce 
these possess all the characteristics impressed 
upon tne electrical current by the vibrations of 
the diaphragm of the transmitter, the receiver 
will give out a sound similar to that uttered 
into the transmitter. The telephone just de- 
scribed has been universally employed as a re- 
caver. As a transmitter, however, it was 

current passed from one conductor to another 
through a " loose contact " — that is, when the 
contact surfaces, or electrodes, rested only very 
lightly upon one another — there was at the 
joint a resistance to the electrical flow, which 
was lessened when the pressure was increased. 
Tho Blake transmitter was invented by Fran- 
cis Blake, and introduced into public use. in 



ft button of h&rd carbon, C, ii 

', u epim a brmH 
'ht, W. A rather 
■tiS epring, S, mutaina 
WondC. A and Bare 
iniulated fropi each 
other at their upper 
enda. K and W are 
die hammer and anvil 
electrodes, retpective- 
It, of the microphone^ 
A current from a bat- 
tery, B, paasea through 
the joint between the 
two electrodes. When 
the diaphra^ entera 
into vibration under 
the action of the voice 
It pusheB the hammer 
electrode, K, into more 
or lesB intimate con- 
tact with the anvil 
electrode, C. The in- 
ertia of C, weighted as 
it ie bf W, keeps the 
anvil electrode from 

f' imphig away from the 
ammer electrode, and 

er position as regards 
the diaphragm. The 
varying pressure be- 
tween K and C causes 
a oorreiponding vari- 
ation in the strength 
of the current to take 

flace, so that when a 
in circuit with the 
trusmitter speech is reproduced. The proper 
norioa] pressure between ths electrodes is se- 
cured by means of the bent lever, L, and 
adjusting screw, N. 

The development of the art of telephony has 
necenitated the invention of a large number 
of special contrivances for local and long-dis- 
tanea transmission. For long-distance trans- 
mission complete metallic circuits ar^ em- 
ployed rather than the grounded circuits usual 
m telegraphy, and such lines are also far more 
satisfactory for local busineaa on account of 
their greater freedom from ekctrieal disturb- 

WmxLESS TKLKPHOiry.— Considerable prog- 
ress has been made in telephony by means of 
"""""sgraph music has 
Copenhagen by 
Poulsen, and the system devised in this coun- 
try by Pessenden has been used between Brant 
Rock and Plymouth, Mass., a distance of 11 
m., with success. Radio- telephones have also 
been installed on ships of war, and the art is 
In about the same stage of development as was 
wireless telegraphy ten years ago. The tele- 
phone is called to control the Hertzian waves 
at the transmitting apparatus by the insertion 
of a microphone in the condenser shunt circuit, 
whoae action molds the wavss, as it were, into 


■psach forms. In th« noairing apparatus an 
electrolytic detector may ba used, which, when 
properly coupled to the antenna and condensers, 
vanes in resistance according to the variation 
in amplitude of the incident wavea. 

Tel'eseope, an optical instrument for in- 
creasing the apparent magnitude and Intensity 
of distant objects, or the size of their imtwes on 
the retina. The essential parts of the matru- 
mcnt are two in number: a mirror or com- 
bination of lenses for bringing the rays of light 
which emanate from each point of the distant 
object to a focus, thus forming an image of the 
object, and an ocular for viewing tins image. 
A refracting telescope is one in which the rays 
of light are made to converge to the focus by a 
syst^ of lenses; a reflecting telescope is one 
in which they are made to converge by being 
reflected from the surface of a slightlv concave 
polished reflector. Telescopes were nrst made 
in Holland, about the year 1608, when Hans 
Lipperhey applied for a patent for such an in- 
strument. Apparently an attempt was made 
by the Dutch authorities to have the inven- 
tion kept secret. The first ^lescopes were, of 
course, very imperfect instruments, the object 
glass consisting only of a ein|^e smiall lens. It 
does not seem that the Dutch inventors at- 

N, ocular; a b, ob)«ct. 

in leiO, who, having 
the principles ^ 
structed. Galilean telescopes consisted of a 
object glass and a concave eyepiece, the latter 
being placed inside the focua This form is still 
used in opera passes, but does not admit of a 
high power being obtained with distinctness. 
Galileo, however, was able with this imperiFect 
instrument to see the phases of Venus and the 
satellites of Jupiter, making the discoveries 
which have made his name immortal. The 
great difficulty encountered by the astronomers 
of the seventeenth century arose frofti the tact 
that the different rays of colored light are un- 
equal in length, and hence do not meet at the 
same focus. This deviation of the foci is called 
chromatic aberration of the telescope. It was 
found that this defect could be diminished by 
increasing the focal length, but then the in- 
strument would soon become unmanageable. 
This led' to the invention of the reflecting tele- 
scope, in which no such defect exists. The lat- 
ter instrument underwent gradual improvement 
from the time of Newton to that of Herschel, a 
hundred years later, who brought it to great 
perfection. Meanwhile Chester More Hall, of 
England, about 1733. invented a combination of 
crown lenses and flint lenses, which would in 
great part correct not only the chromatic, but 
also the spherical aberration, which b the de- 
viation of rays of light due to the imperfect fo- 
cusing of the lens. The invention w« h "^^ 

n vu bnngfat 



into practloal um hj 
Dollond, of London, 
whoM teleacop« ftc- 

S aired great oeleb- 
ity during the lat- 
ter half of tbe 
eighteenth century; 
but their aite waa * 
on^ what is now 
considered the Email- 
est Up to 1800 it 
was thought almost 
impoHsible to make 
a good disk of flint 
gloas of more than 
4 or 6 in. ii^ diam- 
eter. The difficulty 
waa that the great 
density of the lead 
which ia a compo- 
nent of the flint 
glaaa caused the low- 
er part of the pot 
of glaaa to be denser 
thui the upper part. 
By skill and atten- 
tion Blaas nutkera 
learned bow to ob- 

EBFLacmia TnLaaoora at tub Lick OaaUffAXmr. 

) that early in tLe nineteenth centu^ disks ' 
of 8 or 10 in. became oommon, and before tbe 
middle of the century they were carried to 15 
in. The difficulty then waa on the part of the 
optician to grind the lenses of this aiie so per- 
fect in figure that they would bring all the 
rays to the same foeue. The greatest artisui 

K Ramcma TnLaacon a n 

in this rcflpect during the first half of the 
century waa Fraunhofer, of Germany. The 
first person to improve upon hia work waa Al- 
van Clark, of Cambridgeport, Mass. About 
1846 he b^an to experiment in grinding lenses, 
and by 1863 had attained such success that a 
glass of nearly 8 in. diameter was purchased 
from him by Rev. K. Dawes, 
Who found that Mr. Clark's 
gloss waa superior to any that 
be had been able to obtain else- 
where — a conclusion which ea- 
tabliahed tbe reputation of the 
maker. He and his two sons 
continued to make larger and 
larger inatruments, aa orders 
were given, until his work cul- 
minated in the grinding of the 
ae-in. telescope of the Lick Ob- 
servatory and that of hia aon 
Alvan G. in the Yerkea teleacope, 
of Chicago, 40 in. in diameter. 
The principal refracting tele- 
scopes of the world are the 
Yerkes, at Geneva Lake, Wis., 
which haa an object glass 40 in. 
in diameter, and a focal length 
of 64 ft.; the Lick, at Mt. Ham- 
ilton, Cal., with an object glasa 
3S in. in diameter and a focal 
length of 68 ft.; tbe two instru- 
ments at Meudon, France, which 
have lenses 32 and 24 in. in 
diameter, and the telescope at 
the Imperial Observatory at 
Pulkowa, Russia, where the ob- 
ject glass is 30 in. in diameter. 
For many years the largest re- 
flecting telescope in the world 
was that built in 1844 by Lord 
Roake at Birr Castle, Ireland. 
AWBT. The mirror waa , of ipemiliim 

» l.yCOOQlC 


metal uid was 72 in. in diaiBet«r. It failed 
to field the expected returns, and no inatru- 
meatB with Urge mirrorH were agftin built 
until 1801, when A. A. Common erected ' 
Ealing, England, a telescope in which the n 
ror Wit of mlTcr on glass, and was 60 in. 
diameter. In the U. S. valuable results have 
been obtained with the 24-in. mirror at the 
Yerkes Ohsenatory and with the 3a-in. Cross- 
ley refiector at the Lick, on Mt. Hamilton. In 
1908 there was completed by G. W. Hitchey a 
60-in. mirror for the Soar Observatory, Mt 
Wilson, Cal., and in 1903 the Carnegie Insti 
tute, of Washington, ordered for the same ob 
servatoiy a 100-in. mirror for a reflecting tde 
scope of 50 ft. focal length. See BiNoctri.AB 


T«ll, William, l^[endar7 hero of Switzerland. 
According to tradition, he was a hunter living 
in BQrgelen, in the canton of Uri. His wife 
was a daughter of Walter Fttrst, who with 
Stauffacher and Melcthal organiied the con- 
spiracy of the GrUtli in 1307, and founded 
Swiss independence. Tell's part in the revolt 
against Austria is related as follows: Gessler, 
Austrian bailiff in KUasnacht, placed his cap 
upon a pole in the market place at Altorf, 
commanding passert-by to do it reverence. Tell 
neglected or refused to do this, and was sen- 
tenced to death. But as he was a skillful 
marksman, Gessler offered to spare his life on 
condition of his shooting an apple from his 
boy's head. Tell succeeded without injuring 
the child. Gessler perceived that he possessed 
a second arrow, and asked the object. Tell re- 
plied: "To kill yon if I had harnied my son." 
Be was again put in chains, and Gessler em- 
barked for KQisnacht, taking Tell with him. 
The boat being overtaken by a storm, Oeesler 
released Tell to steer it; and as they neared 
the present " Tell's Eock," or " Tell's Leap," 
. Tell sprang ashore, went around by land, and, 
lying In ambush between Brunnen (where Gess- 
ler safely landed) and Kllssnacht, wounded him 
mortally with an arrow. A general uprising 
took place, the Austrian bailiffs were expelled, 
and tneir castles destroyed. In 1315 Tell served 
in the battle of Morgarten, and in 1354 was 
drowned while trying to save a boy's life. 
Such is the story as told in old chronicles and 
songs and as dramatized by Schiller. But re- 
cent historical ^investigations have shown it to 
lack a historical foundation, althoush the 
legend U common among the nations of Aryan 
race, and is found in the Persian poet Fared 
Udden AttAr, the Icelandic sagas, and the Eng- 
lish song OD William of Cloudesley. 

Telln'rinm, one of the rarest elements, re- 
■embling sulphur and selenium. Its com- 

Kunds, such as gold and silver tellurides, are 
jnd in N. America and Europe. Tellurium is 
silver white, brittle, and lustrous. 

Tem'pe, a valley, or gorge, in NE. Theasaly, 
Greece; 6 m. long, and in some places so nar- 
row that there is space only for the river 
Feneus, which traverses the valley, and a car- 
riage road. In antiquity it was celebrate] for 
its beauty. The ruins of its fortifications are 
(till viubie. 


Tem'perament, an old popular classification 
of the general temper or disposition of a per- 
son. There were four temperaments: choleric, 
sanguine, phl^matic, and melancholic 

Tem'peiance. See Abstinehce, Total; Pbo- 

Tem'petatnre, the condition of a body in 
relation to molecular activity manifested as 
he^t, which determinee its interchange, either 
by giving off or by absorption, with neighbor- 
ing bodies. See Ukai. 

Temperatnie of the Bod'y. The lemperatuiv 
of the human adult in health averages from 
08.4° to 98.8" F., the Iractionallv hi^er tem- 
perature existing in the warmer-blooded races, 
those of 8. Europe, the lower average being 
N. nations and the Anglo-Saxon r~ 

The fluctuations of temperature in health are 
exceedingly small — fractions of a dt^ee, rarely 
more— dependent on physical activity or Inac- 
tivity in sleep or wakefulness, or functional 
activity, as digestion. The regulation of the 
production and dissipation of heat is controlled 
by nervous centers in the brain. Any disturb- 
ance of these by conditions of the blood or cir- 
culation may tJierefore lead to disturbances of 
the temperature. " Shock," or nervous deprM- 
sion, causes reduced temperature, while excite- 
ment, pleasure, anger accelerate the circulation 
and elevate temperature. The temperature of 
children and infants is one to two degrees 
higher than that of adults. The temperature of 
aged persons Is half a degree or more below the 
adult average^ 

In many diseases there Is elevation of tem- 
perature. Where this is. but a symptom in 
some distinct local disease the fever is regarded 
as but a symptom; but tjiere are diseases in 
which the fever is. the most decided symptom. 
These have long been known as the fevers, or 
the infectious fevers. Among such are typhoid, 
malarial fever, and the like. In these there is 
usually a period of onset, a stage of continued 
symptoms, and a stage of decline. The temper- 
ature of the body varies greatly in different 
cases of the same fever or other disease and at 
different times. This may depend either upon 
the individual or upon the severity of the dis- 
As a rule, its range is from 101" to 105' 
When above the latter point the term 
hyperpyrexia is applied. Such may occur, espe^ 
cially in pernicious malarial fever, in sunstroke, 
and in certain cases of rheumatism. In the 
last-named diseases temperatures of 110" or 
' """ ". have been noted where recovery en- 
Occasionally cases of elevation of the 
temperature to 118° or 120' or even more are 
recorded; but in many of these deception has 
been practiced. The reverse of fever, sulmor- 
mal temperature, is also frequent. Moderate 
grades are noted in conditions of depression or 
shock. It reaches serious grades in collane 
from injury or such diseases as cholera. The 
external temperature may here sink to 90° or 
even to 8S° F. In practice the temperature is 
usually taken in the axilla, or mouth, though 
the rectal temperature is less liable to accidental 
errors of olwervation. See Ahiual. Heat; 

„ Google 

Tem'periiiE, in meUllnrg^, the prooew of 
giviiig to metals, priiiGipally iron and steel, the 
requisite degree of hardness or softneM, espe- 
cially the process of. giving to steel the neces- 
tATj hardness for cutting, Btamping, and other 
purpoeee. If heated and suddenly cooled below 
a certain d^^ree, it becomes as soft as iron; if 
heated be;ond that degree, it becomee very 
bard and brittle. The process esseiitiallj> con- 
•ista in plunging the steel when red hot into 
cold water or other liquid to give an excess of 
hardness, and then graduall; reheating it until 
the hardness is reduced or brought down to the 
required degtee. The excellence of all cutting 
ateel Instruments depends on the degree of tem- 
per given to them. 

Tem'plui, Knights. See Knights Templabs. 

Tem'ple, Sir William, 1628-99; English 
statesman. In 1665 he was sent on a secret 
mission to the Bishop of MUnster, created a 
baronet, and appointed resident at Brussels. 
In 1667 be visited Holland, and in 1668 con- 
eluded the triple alliance of England, Holland, 
and Sweden against France. He went as am- 
bassador to The 'Hague in 1668, was recalled in 
1671, and returned thither in 1674. In 1679- 
80 he was a member of the Priv;f Council of 
Charles II, and thenceforth lived in retirement. 
His works (edited by Swift) comprise "Ob- 
serrations upon the United Provinces of the 
Netherlands, essays on the " Origin and 
Nature of Government," " Ancient and Modern 
Leamtaig,'' " Gardening," etc. 

Temple, The. See Jebii8aij:ii. 

Tem'po (time), in music, the comparative 
speed at which a composition is to be played. 
Ais is usually indicated by certain words — ■ 
as lento, largo, or adagio (slowly), andante 
(moderately), all^ro (lively), allegretto (a 
little slower than aU^;ro), presto (quickly). 
A more exact method is to use a metronome, 

Tem'poial Pow'er. See Papal States. 

Tench, a fish, abundant in European streams 
Hid lakes, of dark greenish-olive color above 
and on the sides, and lighter below. Some- 

times it attains a length of 3 ft.f and weighs 
12 lb., but usually weighs below 3 lb. Its ileah 
la insipid. 
Ten'der, in law, the attempt to perform a 
liso to do something or to pay something. 
tender must be made by the promiser, or 
by -one duly acting on his behalf, to the 

-— or his duly Authorized represent- 

13F 1 



atlvs; it must be of the kind and mast be 
made at the time and place stipulated in the 
contract or fixed by law, and it roust be un- 
conditional. The effect of a rejected tender t« 
pay money is somewhat different from that of 
a rejected tender of goods. In the latter oaao 
the seller is discharged by his tender, " and 
may either maintain or defend successfully an 
action for the breach of the contract." In the 
U. S., the tender, althou^ rejected, vests title 
to the goods in the purchaser. Such is not the 
effect in England, unless the buyer has pre- 
viously assented to the appropriation of tha 
goods to the contract by the seller. 

A tender of money in performance of & 

Eromise does not discharge the debt. It does, 
owever, if kept good, atop interest and en- 
title the tenderer to coats, if he is sued u^on 
the contract. The money musti be of a kmd 
declared by law to be tendcrable. The U. B. 
Constitution (Art. 1, Sec. 10, cl. 1) provides 
that no state shall make anything but gold 
and silver a tender in payment of debts; and 
U. S. gold coins are a legal tender to any 
extent; also silver dollars, except when other- 
wise expressly stipulated in the contract; also 
U. S. notes; while silver certificates are tender- 
able for customs, taxes, and public dues, and 
silver coins below the dollar are tenderable in 
sums not exceeding $10, and other minor coins 
for an amount not exceeding twenty-five cents. 
Silver coins are tenderable although worn 
smooth by wear, as are gold coins unless re- 
duced one half of one per cent below standard 

Ten'don, in anatomy, the name of a white 
fibrous tissue connecting the end of a muscle 
with the bone which it is intended to move. 

Tcnerife', the larErat of the Canary Islands; 
area, 780 so. m. The coasts are rocky and 
wild, and ailord only one good harbor, Santa 
Cruz de Santingo. The interior is mountain- 
ous, and in the center is the volcano, Pico de 
Teyde (12,182 ft.). The middle region is clad 
with beautiful forests, and the foot, as well as 
the hills and valleys, is covered with vine- 
yards, olive and almond groves, wheat fields, 
and orchards. Prior to 1853 the average an- 
nual yield of wine was 25,000 pipes, but the 
grape disease appeared, and the yield fell to 
8,0()0 pipes. Land previously devoted to vine- 
yards was given up to the cultivation of the 
cochineal insect, and it became the chief prod- 
uct. Pop. (1900) 138,008. Capital town, 
Santa Cruz de Santiago (or de Tenerife). 

Teniers, David, the younger, 1610-90; Flem- 
iab painter; b. Antwerp; studied under his 
father, but the influence of Rubens and Adrian 
Brouwer is recognizable in his work. Hia 
works were extremely popular, and he became 
wealthy and distinguished. Archduke Leonold 
William, the Governor of the Spanish Netlier- 
lands, appointed him to be hia court painter 
and chamberlain. Teniers bought an estate at 
Perck, between Antwerp and Mechlin, whither 
people of distinction went to visit him ; re- 
moved to Brussels in 1647. This artist is well 
represented in all European collections. He 
painted rapidly, and produced hundreds ofi 


ffmre pictured, also Bome UadseapeB. The 
father'a sisiutturp eeema to have been a T with- 
in a D, while the son wrote hie name D. Ten- 
iera F. 

the Bia BcnD State, one of 
Uie U. S. of N. America, the third state ad- 
mitted into the Union; bounded N. b;^ Ken- 
tucky and Virginia, £. by N. Carolina, S. by 

, breadth, N, to 8. 
sq. m. Pop. (ISIO) 2,184,789. The E. third 
of the state ie hill^, the middle undalating, 
and the W. low and level. There are eight 
natural diviiione: (1) The Unaka Range on 
, the E. border, compriaine wooded mountain 
ridges with epurs and fertile intervening coves; 
also loftj peaks with treeless euminita covered 
with luxuriant graasea, and having the flora 
of Canada and the climate ol New England; 
Krea, 2,000 sq. m. (8) The valley of £ Ten- 

nessee, a fluted region of parallel ridges and 
narrow valleja, extending NE. to SW. through 
the E. part of the state; elevation, 1,000 ft; 
area, 0,200 sq. m. (3) Next, on the W., the 
Cumberland Tahle-land, or level top of the 
Cumberland Mountains, which rise abruptly 
1,000 ft. above the valley of E. Tennessee and 
2,000 ft. above the sea; surface ahows low 
ridgea and shallow valleys; much of it is cov- 
ered with native graaaes; summers are cool 
and climate healthful; area, 5,100 so. m. (4) 
The Highland Rim bounds the table-laud on 
the W., and, extending on the N. and S., aa 
far W. aa the Tennessee valW, incloaes the 
Central Basin; elevation, 1,000 ft.; has uumer- 
OUB mineral springs and many summer resorta ; 
area, 6,300 sq. m. (6) The Central Basin, a 
depreaaion of 5,450 sq. m., reaembles the bed 
ot a drained lake with' its main slope to the 
NW, ; greatest diameter from NE. to SW., 
120 m.; altitude, 650 ft (0) The W. valley 
of the Tennessee River embraces 1,200 sq. m. 
of river lowlands and valleys extending into 
the highlands; 3Q0 ft. above the sea; reaches 
across the state from N. to S.; breadth, 10 
to 12 m. (T) Adjoining this is the plateau 
■lope of W. Tennesaee, descending to the Mis- 
sissippi; surface slightly undulating, streams 
sluggish; W. border terminatcB abruptly with 
steep hills which overlook the Mississippi bot- 


toms; average elevation, 600 ft; area, 8,850 
sq. m. (8) The alluvial Mississippi bottoms 
are low and level, with swamps and lakea, 
abounding In flsb and wild fowl; elevation 
abqve the gulf, 205 ft.; area, 950 sq. m. 

The Clinch, Powell's, and Holston rivers 
drain upper E. Tennessee; the French Broad, 
Little Tennessee, and Hiwassee assist, lower 
down; and the Tennessee, formed by the 
union of the two forks of the Holston, car- 
ries all this water into Alabama, thence back 
N. across Tennessee and Kentucky into the 
Ohio. The Cumberland pours into the Ohio 
the drainage of N. Middle Tennessee ; the 
Duck, the Elk, and Caney Fork drain the rest 
of this section ; and the Obion, Forked Deer, 
Big Hatchie, and Wolf carry moat of the W. 
Tenneaaee waters into the Miaeisaippi. The 
principal rivers are the Mississippi, the Cum- 
berland, and the Tennessee, The only lakea 
are in the Miasiaaippi bottoms, and are little 
more than expanaions of small rivers. Reel- 
foot, between Lake and Obion cos., is the 
most noted; it was largely produced by the 
earthquake of lBll-12, 

The principal . mineral products are bitu- 
minous coal and iron, Tiie marble induatry is 
growing. Zinc, copper, lead, mineral paint, 
and limeatone are increasing sources of rev- 
enue, and other mineral riches abound. The 
rich limestone soils of the Central Basin make 
it the garden spot of the state, although the 
richest soil is the black loam of the Mississippi 
bottoms. Cotton, com,_and general crops are 
produced In luxuriance. The principal cropa 
are: corn, wheat, hay, tobacco, and oats. 

The average annual mean temperature ia 
60*. liiough in summer and winter marked 
extremes are sometimes reached,' yet these sea- 
sons are generally mild, and spring and au- 
tumn are delightfully temperate and pl^f'^ 
ant A limited amount of anew falls. There 
are three recogniied political divisions: E., 
Middle, and W. Tennessee, and much local 
feeling exists among theae as to the apportion- 
ment of officea, etc. Principal cities and towns 
are: Memphis, Nashville, Knoxville, Chatta- 
nooga, Jatjcson, Clarkaville, Columbia, Bristol, 
part in Tennessee. The latest census reporta 
4,009 factories, including seventeen cotton and 
twenty-one woolen mills. Flour, lumber, leather, 
cotton seed, and tobacco are important sources 
of revenue. The most notable educational in- 
stitutions are the Univ. of Tennessee at Knox- 
ville; Vanderbilt Univ, and Univ, of Nashville 
at Naahville, Univ, of the South at Sewanee, 
Cumberland Univ, at Lebanon, Southwest Pres- 
byterian Univ, at Clarksvllle and Southwest 
Baptist Univ. at Jackson, and Fiak Univ. at 
Nashville. In 1900 the public elementary 
schools had 512,158 enrolled pupils, with 10,- 
450 teachers. The public high schools had 3T1 
teachers and 9,43S pupils. 

In 1541 the Spaniards under De Soto touched 
Tennessee where Memphis now stands. Here 
the French under La SaUe, 1682, built a fort, 
and the Spaniards afterwards erected San Fer- 
nando. The country was claimed by the Span- 
ish, the French, and the English, Charleville, 
coming up from Louisiana in 1714, built a 
tradiJig house near the present Nashville, and 



French and Engliah struggled to wcure the 
Indian trade. In 1T4B Dr. Thomoti Walker, 
with other Virginians, discovered the Cumber- 
land Mountains, Oap, and River, which he 
named for the Duke of Cumberland. Fort 
Loudon, the first .Anglo-Saxon outpoat in the 
wildemeu, waa built hy Andrew Lewis in 17S6, 
It was taken b^ the IndianB, 1760. The tide 
of migration wea from Virginia and tbe Caro- 
linas. First came hunters, explorers, and 
traders, followed, in 1769, bj immigrants who 
settled on the Watauga. In 1772 the first 
government, the Watauga Association, was 
formed. Tbe Revolutionary War found the 
settlemeDts patriotic. Shelby and Sevier led 
600 men into the Carolinas in ITHO, where they 
defeated the British Ferguson at King's Moun- 
tain. On his return, Sevier made a conqueat 
of the Cherokee Indians. After the Revolu- 
tion, N. Carolina ceded the territoiy to tbe 
Federal Oovemment, and left the inhabitants 
without law or protection. Therefore in 1784 
the State of Franklin was formed, and, though 
* the parent state at once reversed her act of 
cession, lasted till 1788. The final cession, 
however, was made in 1790, and the " Territory 
South of the Ohio River " was formed. Knox- 
ville was laid out in 1702. 

In ITM the 'state was admitted into the 
Union. The first two decades of the nineteenth 
century were characterized by rapid growth 
and contests with the Indians. The &rst bank 
(the Nashville) was chartered iu 1807. Mem- 
phis was laid out in 1819. The state capital 
was Knoxville till 1611, except in 1807, when 
it was Kingston. Knoxville, Nashville, and 
Murfreesboro had the honor iiF turns till IS26, 
when Naahville became the permanent capital. 
Three Presidents of the U. 8. have come from 
Tennessee: Jackson (1829-37), Polk (1845^ 
49),and Johnson (1B66-69). In the CiviLWar 
Tennessee at first hesitated, but on June 8, 
1801, voted to join tlie Confederacy. The Fed- 
eral Government soon regained the capital and 
a large part of the state, and Lincoln ap- 
pointed Andrew Johnson military governor. 
The contending forces fought successively the 
batUea of Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, PitU- 
burg Landing (Shiloh), Stone River, Chicka- 
mauga. Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, 
Knoxville, Franklin, and Nashville. In April, 
I6SS, the legislature ratified the Thirteenth 
Amendment to the Federal Constitution, and 
on July 12, 181)6, the Fourteenth Amendment 
The usual reconstruction troubles succei^led the 
war. Following the war a large stat« debt 
uenmulated, which has been greatly reduced. 

Tennesiee Rlv'ei, the chief affluent of the 
Ohio. It originates in the confluence of the 
Holston and the N. Fork of the Holston, near 
Kingaport, Sullivan Co., Tenn., fiows SW. to 
Chattanotwa, thence W., and again SW. 
Sweeping through N. Alabama, it turns north- 
ward, traverses Tennessee and Kentuclty, and 
joins the Ohio at Paducah, Ky. ; total length 
to the head of the Holston, 1,200 m.; below 
tbe confiuence, 800 m. It is navigable without 
obatniction 280 m. to Florence, Ala., at the 
"foot at the Muscle Shoals. Canals and locks 
now obvint« this diffloulty. Above this point 

the river is navigable throughout its course for 
the greater part of the year by light-draoght 


Ten'nis, a game played with small, hard 
balls, formerly struck by tbe hand, perhaps 
always gloved ; then by the hand covered with 
a special gauntlet, and finally by a bat or 
racket; but Lawn Tennis Iq.v.) isa distinct 
game. The game is played by striking the ball 
so as to make it bound from the upper wall 
or the pent house on the hazard side, and by 
returning it from the hazard side. The ball 
must strike the floor within certain limits; it 
must be struck, on the first bound; it must not 
strike the net, nor tbe roof, nor the high wall 
beyond a certain line. The player counts hy 
sending a ball into any of the openings in the 
lower wall, ond by striking the bafi on its 
first bound in certain ways relatively to the 
cross marlcs on tbe floor. The not dissimilar 
game of racket is sometimes encouraged by the 
same association with tennis; thus in New 
York City the Racquet and Tennis Club bos 
a court for each game, but nowhere does the 
game find many players, as it is superseded 1^ 
other sports, as lawn tennis, criiket, and iMSe- 

Ten'nyson, Alfred (Baron Tennyson), 1B09- 
92; English poet; b. Somersby, England. He 
was a pupil of Louth Grammar School, 1816- 
20. During the next eight years he was edu- 
cated at home by his father and private teach- 
ers. The rector requiring only a moderate 
amount, of intellect'ual work, he was out of 
doors much of the time, rambling in the woods 
and pastures about Somersby. He was solitary 
and reserved, moody and absent-minded, the 
mental habits of tne boy foreshadowing the 
characteristics of the man. His literary career 
began in his youth, his b^lsh rhymes and 
those of his elder brother Charles being col- 
lected into a volume, " Poems by Two Broth- 
ers" (1827). He coipposed a labored nar- 
rative entitled "The Lover's Tale," two parts 
of which were printed, 1B33, but suppressed; 
in 1879 the entire poem was given to the world 
in a more finished dress. In October, 1S28, 
Tennyson entered Trinity College, Cambridge, 
leaving in 1831 without a degree. Here he was 
fortunate in having the companionship of 
choice spirits, but he owed moet to one whose 
name is forever associated with his own^ — Ar- 
thur Henry Hallam, a son of the historian. 
This dearest of his friends, whom he calls more 
than brother, became the betrothed of his sis- 
ter £mily. Together they traveled in the 
French Pyrenees in 1830. Hallam's sudden 
death (September 15, 1833) in Vienna made an 
ineffaceable impression on Tennyson, and may 
be connidered an important agency in shaping 
his character and poetical career. In produc- 
ing " In Memoriam," he conferred immortality 
upon his lost friend and won it for himself. 

In 1829 Tennyson won the chancellor's gold 
medal for the prize poem, " Timbuotoo." In 
1830 appeared his first book, "Poems, Chiefly 
Lyrical." His second book of " Poems " ( 1832) 
was more ambitious. It contained some of his 
loveliest lyrics, having the richness of melody 
and the witcher; of style wbjcb constitute 


Tevnyaoa'a charm, yet it found but few ad- 
mirers. Not man^ reviewers noticed it. Stung 
by the savage critieisma of Wilson and I^ock- 

hart, he set himself to the task of improving 
what he had written. He experimented with 
various styles and meters; thus he served his 
laborious apprenticeship as poetic artist. Ten 
years passed, then he issued his " Poems " 
(1842) in two volumes. The singer, hitherto 
unrecognized, was greeted with universal 
praise. The new spirit of the age found an 
exponent in his verse, which reflected the un- 
rest and hopefulness of a transitional era. 
This was the beginning of a series of triumphs 
and honors. In 1845 he was granted a pension 
of £200; in 1S60 he was appointed poet laure- 
ate to succeed Wordsworth, and in 1855 he 
received the honorary degree of D.C.L. from 
Oxford. He roamed on foot through England 
and Wales, often visiting friends in London 
and elsewhere, and making occasional trips to 
Ireland and the. Continent. His writings prove 
that he WB8 a close observer of nature as well 
as a diligent student of books. Hamerton 
called bim the " prince of poet landscapists." 
"The Princess," in which he first essayed ex- 
tended narrative in blank verse, was published 
in IMT. 

In ISeO, which is called his golden ^ear, ap- 
peared anonymously the poem that' is gener- 
ally regarded as Tennyson's masterpiece, " In 
Memoriam," a monumental work in process of 
growth during the sevpnteen years after Hal- 
lam's death. In 185G "Maud and Other 
Poems " was published. The volume contained 
two patriotic lyrics, " Ode on the D^th of 
the Duke of Wellington" (1852), and "The 
Charge of the Light Brigade " (1854). 
" Maud " was at first misjudged and under- 
rated, but later won its way. The appearance 
of " Idylls of the King" in 1859 was a literary 
sensation. Tennyson's fame was now interna- 
tional, and his hooka sold by the hundreds of 
thousands. His next publication, " Enoch Ar- 
den," has been the moat widely read of the 
laureate's writings in foreign lands, having tieen 
fuequently translated. Four mors Arthurian 
romaunts were added in "The Holy Grail, and 
Other Poems" (1809), two in 1B72, and one 
in 1885. This sfries of tales, if not entitled 
to the name of epic, is the greatest of his lit- 
erary undertakings ; the longest of his works, 
though not the niost orij;inal. At threescore 
he showed no signs of failing powers. The last 
two decades of his life were exceptionally pro- 
ductive of works stamped with dignity of 
thought, felicitous expression, and musical 
versification. The list includes the dramas, 
" Queen Mary," " Harold," " Becket," '■ The 
Cup," " The Falcon," and " The Foresters," 
several of which were put on the stage. 

Tennyson is not a world poet, his appeal 
being more or less insular. He has been criti- 
cizea for being a " chanter of the aristocratic 
idea," yet he was a poet of the common people 
as well as of lords and ladies. He was master 
of the technical resource* of the poetic art. and 
possessed unrivaled power as a word painter. 
But the domain of beauty was too narrow for 
him. Beyond any mere esthetic influence tliat 
he exerted, he was a mighty force for good, his 


polished verse being the vehicle of ethical in- 
struction and spiritual uplift. His success is 
largely explained by the fact that he clothed 
in artistic form the higher thought and senti- 
ment of hia time. Tennyson's career woa un- 
stained by excesses: his life was a poem. He 
was a man of many-sided culture, keenly intar- 
eeted in astronomy, geology, botany, and other 
sciences. He was familiar with the discussioni 
and speculations of physicists and metaphysi- 

Ten'or, the highest kind of adult male voice. 
The average compass of a true tenor is from C 
in the bass staff to A in the treble, and rarely 
two or three tones higher. 

Tenor Violin'. See Vtoul. 

Tent, a pavilion or portable lod^ made of 
skins, strong cloth, or canvas, sustained by one 
or more poles, and used as a shelter from the 
weather, especially by soldiers in cainp. The 
material used as a coverins is usually stretched 
by means of cords secuied to tent pegs. Such 
portable shelters have been used as homes by 
nomadic tribes from the earliest ages. The pa- 
triarchs were dwellers in tents, and the poorer 
classes in Persia, China, and other Eastern 
countries still live in tenia formed of frames of 
wood covered with a thick cloth, felt, or mat- 
ting. Different forms of tents for military pur- 
Cises have been employed in the armies of the 
. S. and of Europe. Prior to the Civil War 
the Sibley tent, which is a conical tent, support- 
ed by a central pole resting on an iron tripod, 
and capable of sheltering fifteen' infantry sol- 
diers or thirteen mounted men, was used in 
the U. 8. army. One of its advantages was 
that it could be warmed by an open fire or 
small stove, and afforded ample ventilation, 
having a circular opening at the apex partially 
covered by a movable piece of canvas, so ar- 
ranged as to be shifted according to the direc- 
tion of the wind. It resembled a Sioux lodge, 
the chief difference being that it was construct- 
ed of canvas and suppqrted by the central pole 
and tripod, while the Indian lodge was made of 
rudely tanned buffalo skins stretched on sev- 
eral long wooden poles. 

The tents used in the U. S. military service 
include the hospital tent, which is made to open 
at both ends, so that several may be placed to- 
gether and form a continuous ward. Each tent 
holds from six to eight beds. The wall tent ts 
used for officers and the conical wall tent for 
enlisted men. The shelter tent, which is a mod- 
ification of the French tenia d'oftri, consists of 
two pieces of cotton duck. In active service 
each soldier carries half a tent, which may 
serve as a cloak on the march, as a coverins 
at night, and when the two pieces are joined 
forms a tent for both men. Besides military 
tents, there are special forms of tents made for 
emigrants, lumbermen, gypsies, surveyors; pros- 
pecting parties, as in railway construction, 
have tents devised for their want*. There are 
pleasure tents of many forms, as those used for 
camping out, for lawns (square and oblong), 
for children, for screens, as the surf tents used 
on beaches. Besides large circus tents, which 
are of heavy twilled duck and special construc- 
tion, there are iMording tents, atable tents, and 

4 LM_.:i .C.oogle 

refreshroenti and exhibition of side ehowa; also 
pbotograpben' Unta, iUaeiou teuta, etc. 

Ten'rec. See Taitbec. 

Ten Thou'NWd, Retreat' of tlie, the home- 
ward march of about 10,000 Greek mercenaries 
from Cunaxa, a town 60 m. N. of Babjion. At 
Cimaxa their leader, Cyrus the Younger, was 
killed in battle asainst bk'brotber, Artaxerxes 
II (401 B.C.). Thereupon their Persian allies 
disposed and the Greeks were left in a critical 

KBition. Their onl; possible line of escape was 
the upper Tigris through the country of the 
Kardouchi (the modem Kurds), and acroaa the 
highlands of Armenia to some Greek cit; on 
the Black Sea. At the river Zapatas their five 
principal generals were assassinated by the Per- 
sian satrap Tissapbcmea. Thereupon Xeno- 
phon, then a private soldier, was elected a gen- 
eral, and became practically commander in 
chid!. After a winter's march of over 100 m. 
in an enemy's country, they reached Trapesus 
(Trebimnd). Finally they arrived at Chrysop- 
olifl, opposite Byzantium (400 B.C.). Their buc- 
cessful escape revealed the weakness of the 
Persian Empire and encouraged Alexander to 
undertake its subjugation. In the " Anabasis " 
Xenophon describes this retreat. 

Ten'nre, the manner in which real property 
is held or owned. The exigencies of the feudal 
system, which required the complete depend- 
ence of the man upon his lord and of the lord 
upon the king, substituted for the notion of 
absolute ownership of lands — such as was rec- 
ognized in the case of goods and chattels— the 
conception of " states " m land, the land being 
deemed to be held of and in subordination to 
the lord of the man and of the land. These 

person of whom the land 

pendent for their contini _^._ ._.. 

perfcHmanee of the terms and conditions of 
such " holding." It is true that the early Eng- 
lish law reconiized an " allodial " or absolute 
ownership of lands, but this did not long sur- 
vive the Norman Conquest. It became a 
maxim of English law that the king is the ul- 
timate and absolute onner of all ttie lands in 
the kingdom, and that all of his land-owning 
subjects are only his tenants. He who held 
directly or immediately of the king was said to 
hold in chief (in capiu) ; but the tenant in 
eapite is not usually the person who deals 
with tlie land as owner. 

So important is tbia fact of service that the 
principal classification of tenures is by the serv- 
ice to be performed. A tenant may hold his 
lands in fee simple, fee tail, or for life, but his 
tenure is by " knight service," or by the service 
of " free alms," or by the service of " serjeanty." 
or by the service of "socage." (I) Knight's 
service was created by " homage," a solemn aot 
by which the tenant acknowledged his lord as 
him of wbom be held his laud and to whom he 
was bound to render service, and from which, 
on the other hand, arose the duty on the part 
of the lord of protecting his tenant. This ten- 
ure was, aa its various designations indicate. 


based upon the performance by the tenant of 
military service in the army of the king. 
(2) Serjeanty reauired the tenant to perform 
some personal and ofttimes domestic or menial 
service to his lord, as the " grand serjeanties " 
of the king's marshal, chancellor, or justiciar. 

chase. (3) Tenure by frankalmoign implied 
spiritual service— to sing masses, to distribute 
money among the poor, etc. — and the land was, 
as between the donor and the tenant in frank- 
almoign, held free from any services or dues 
of a secular nature. (4) Socage tenure com- 
prehended all freehold lands not held by mili- 
tary, or " domestic," or spiritual tenure. By 
statute of Charles II all freehold tenures were 
turned into free and common bocskc, and this 
has continued to be the well-nigh universal 
form of land holding in England. The so- 
called "burgage" tenure was merely a form 
of socage which obtained in certain boroughs. 
The tenures of borough English and gavelkind 
were only local variations of socage tenure. 

There were also lands held at the will of the 
lord, perhaps for the life of the tenant, some- 
times even by tha tenant and his heirs forever 
— upon the service and condition of agricul- 
tural or other labor to be performed at the 
lord's will. This service was called "villan- 
age." Later the condition of labor was com- 
muted into rent, and the copy of the " roll " 
or record of the lord's court, in which was re- 
corded his accession to the estate, became his 
muniment of title. He was now a " copyhold " 
tenant and was said to hold " by copy of court 
roll." Copyhold tenure still prevails in Eng- 

The usual incidents of tenure were: (a) Re- 
lief: a fine paid to the lord of the fee by 
the heir upon the death of a tenant of an es- . 
tate of inheritance, (b) Aids: regular or Ir- 
regular exactions made by the lord to enable 
him to meet his own pressing necessities. They 
were regularly and lawfully claimed for the 
purpose of ransoming the lord from the enemy, 
for knighting his eldest son, and for marrying 
off bis eldest daughter, (c) Wardship and 
Marriage: the right of the lord of a minor 
tenant to the custody or wardship both of the 
land and tenant during the nuuority of the 
latter, as well as to dispose of the infant ten- 
ant in marriage. These rights were during the 
latter part of the feudal regime the principal 
source of Vevcnue to the king and the other 
territorial' lorda The lord was entitled to all 
the rents and profits of the tenement for his 
own use during tbe continuance of the ward- 
ship, and he might " sell " the young heir, 
whether boy or ^rl, in marriage, (d) Es- 
cheat: tbe lord's right to resume an estate in 
fee upon failure of the estate. Nothing is 
more siniificant of the reality and permanence 
of the lord's rights in the lands held of him 
than this notion of the escheating or reverting 
of the estate to him. 

Tbe more burdensome of feudal tenures — i.e., 
the military tenures — never gained a foothold 
on the American side of the Atlantic. The 
earliest colonial charters invariably provided 
for socage tenure. The usual provision waft 


that the land ^ould be bolden of the king 
" in tree and common socage, b; fealty only, for 
all services, and not in capite or by knight's 
service." Tenure in this form, the lordship of 
the state being substituted for that of the king, 
and all feudal incidents being abolished, sur- 
vives in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, S. Caro- 
lina, Georgia, and several other states. In New 
Yoric and most of the remaining states " all 
feudal tenures, with all their incidents," have 
been abolished even in name, and all lands are 
declared by statute " to be allodial, so that, 
subject only to the liability to escheat, the en- 
tire and absolute property is Vested In the 

Tenure of Qfflce Act, an act passed by Con- 
gress in March, 1887, as a result of the contro- 
versy between Pres. Johnson and Congress. 
It provided that a person appointed to office by 
the Pre^dent and approved by the SenaU 
should hold offiee till another person was ap- 

■■'■' "■ ■ -f the 


should hold oHice fbr the term of the President 
appointing them and one month thereafter, 
" subject to removal by and with the advice 
and consent of the Senate." An officer might, 
however, be suspended while the Senate was 
not in session and the place given for the time 
being. to some other person. 

Tcpic (tfi-p$k'}, territory of Mexico sepa- 
rated, 188e, from the NW. part of Jalisco. 
Most of the inhabitants are Indiana, who 
maintain a quaH^indepeDdence. Fop. (1010) 
171,337. Tepic, the capital, is on a plateau IS 
m. from the bay of San Bias, has a fine view 
of the Pacific, and manufactures cotton cloth, 
cigars, etc. Pop. (1900) 16,48B. 

Ter'aphim, imapes or figures, probably used 
by the ancient Hebrews either as objects of 
household worship or as religious symbola 
Nothing satisfactory is known of their charac' 
ter, origin, or use. They were found in Jacob's 
and David's houses as household gods (Gen. 
xxxi, 30, 32-35; I Bara. xix, 13-10) ; Josiah at- 
tempted their suppression (II Kings 


Tet^iiun, a substance associated with er- 
bium and yttrium'in the mineral gadolinite, 
and supposed to be a new element; but its ex- 
istence is doubted. 

Ter'burg, Gerard, 1608-81; Dutch painter; 
excelled in color and the finish of his draperies, 
especially white satin. 

Teredin'ida and Tere'do^, family of mollusks. 
very destructive of timber vsed as piles in the 
ocean. The " ship worms " are its chief repre- 
sentatives. They feed on infusoria, etc., liut 
form a long burrow in which to conceal them- 
selves, and the largest piles may be destroyed 
by them in two or three yeare. The only reme- 
dies are to prevent the teredos from entering 
the wood by sheathing, painting with coal tar, 
etc. Their distribution is widp; have been par- 
ticularly noted on the Pacific coast, where 
wharves have been totally destroyed by them. 

Tei'eflce, Publiua-TerentiBS Afer, abt. 1S5- 
159 B.C.i Boman comic poet; b. Carthage. He 


became a slave of P. Tcrentius Lucanus, a Ko- 
man senator, who gave him an excellent educa- 
tion, and finally freed him. The " Andria," his 
first play, was acted in 166. Later in lite he 
went to Greece, and there translated lOS of 
Menander's comedies. Six of his comedies are 
extant — the " Andria " (" The Woman of An- 
dres "), " Hecyra " (" The Stepmother "), 
" Herfuton-TJmoroumenoB " (" The Self-Tormen- 
tor "), " Eunuchue" {"The Eunuch "), "Phor- 
mio," and "Adelphi" ("The Brothers"). The 
Romans generally did not appreciate the works 
of Terence; but their purity of language, ele- 
gance of diction, and refinement of humor made 
them favorites with the more cultivated Eo- 
mans, as well as later scholars., 

Tennitea (tir'mfts), insects; also called 
White A»tb from the fact that, like the ants, 
they are social. The termites form large colo- 
nies, and in each colony the individuals are dif- 
ferentiated into different castes, each being fit- 
ted by structure for its duties. ~ Only the Idng 
and queen are winged. The mouth parts are 
elTicient biting organs. The wingleas forms are 
grouped into smafl-headed workers and soldiers 
with enormous heads. The king and queen are 
the sexual members of the colony; they swarm 
from the nest, take a marriage flight, and then 
lose the wings, and under favorable circum- 

Vertical Section or TiaHrri's Ntsr. thou Apex 
TO Ground, o. a, a, sollerica peoetnitiDa outer 
dome; b. A, nij chamber: c. <, msgssina and nuiMriM; 
d, d, iDval cbamlier; <, 
0. e. congeriu of royal bi 

stances found a new colony. Before egg laying 
the abdomen of the femaie becomes enormously 
distended with eggs. The workers wait upoa 
the royal pair, feed the young, do ail the ex- 
cavating, and store away the food, etc. The 
soldiers are far less numerous, and are the 
fighters of the colony, and in some species act 
as overseers of the workerB. 

The great home of the termites is in the trop- 
ics, but they also extend into colder climates, 
one species being found in New England. Theee 
N. forms do little damage, although one year 
they seriously threaten^ libraries in Cam- 
bridge. In the tropica they are a finmidable 
pest. '^ ' 

,, Google 


The termites are djirk-loving forms, And the 
workers »nd soldiers are blind. They are rarely 
Been, since they are miDers &ad spend their 
whole lives in tne tunnels which they excavate. 
When they wish to attack a piece of timber 
they build a covered approach of earth and 
saliva, and then when the wood is reached their 
tunnels run through it in every direction, until 
at last only the thinnest shell remaina, ready 
to crumble at the slightest touch. In this way 
they build their mortar approaches up the 
trunks of the largest trees in order to reach 
dead branches. They do good in tropical for- 
ests by removing dead timber, but when thejr 
attack humsn hsbitations the result* are seri- 
ous, since the ravages sive no external sign. 
They will completely riddle everr bit of timber 
in a house, and have even been known to enter 
a table through its legs and leave nothing but 
the outside, ready to collapse upon theslighteat 
strain. The species found in the U. 5. lives in 
decaying wood, but some of the tropical species 

height and 40 to 60 in circumference. They are 
made of clay, packed, and cemented by saliva, 
while in the interior are passages and store- 
ropms for food, nurseries for the young, quar- 
ters for the workers and soldiers, and always 
near the center of the base is the royal cham- 
ber where the queen is kept. 

Tern, any small gull of the Btemina, or 
sea swallows. They are chaTacterised by their 
slender build, remarkably long, pointed wings ; 
rather long, sharp beak; small feet, and, usu- 
ally, deeply forked tail, Tbfy range in size 


style of plumage 1b white, with a pearly mantle, 
and top of head black) but there are excep- 
tions to this, tho sooty tern and noddy being 
almost black. Terns are found over the great- 
er part of the world. They nest on the ground, 
and feed (>n fishes and small crustaceans. Bee 

Teipan'der, Greek musician of the seventh 
century B.C. He established in Bperta the first 
musical school in Greece, enlarged the compass 
of Iks' lyre from four to eeren strings, and was 
the first who r^ularly est poetry to music. 

Terpsicliore (tirp-slk'O-rfi), one of the i 

plectrum in her bands and a wreath of flowen 
on her head. 

Tei'TRce, a limited plain, natural or arti- 
ficial, from which the surface descends on one 
side and ascends ou the other. They have ex- 
tensive use in agriculture, especially in 8. Eu- 

gullies and steep ridges when cultivation 
poses them to the action of rain. To prevent 
this, the land is graded in terraced whose flat 
surfaces give the rain-water rills no power to 
erode, and the steep bluffs bet«-een the terraces 
are guarded by turf or stone. Natural terraces 
are ofl various kinds, the most abundant being 
terraces of differential degradation. Frost and