Skip to main content

Full text of "A Practical French Grammar: With Exercises and Illustrative Sentences from French Authors"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on Hbrary shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/| 


Mr, William D, Lucas 



^,<^,. . 

---»'*• ^ 


/ ■ 

: f . 

. «i 




1 . 

ihudei's iodehh luguige books. 

aiiatRlivc SenUncs f 
HI, and Supple 



BRIEF GERMAN GRAMMAR. i6ins, 14) p| 
GERMAN READER, .img. 513 pp. 
GERMAN TEXTS Ediled by Prof. W, D. \ 

«Er, Prof, tn Yit CoUcgt. i6mo, i)8pp 

CoBTB»'s IniUBinB iiw Timis. Annouud by Prpf. FiiAioa 
CiiTEii, Williams College. i6ino, 113 pp. 

Scmum's Hskia Stu.itt. AnnnUted by E. S.Jov*es, Prof. 
Urilveruty of South CarolUu. i6ino, 313 pp. 

Praf. In Himnian College. i6niD, 1^ [>p. 


HENRY HOLT & CO.. Publishers, NEW YORK. 









Carretupondmt of thelnsiUtUe of France; Profeitsor of Sanskrit and 
OomparaUve PhUology and Instructor in Modem Lanfftiages 

in Tale College. 



F. W. Chbistbbn 

Boston: Cabl Sghobnhof 

Cop- ^ 

OomiaHT, 1887, 



70^ 3 7 

New TOBX. 


This yolume ib the outcome of the author's experience 
as a teacher of French during many years iu one of the 
departments of Yale College. The design had in view in 
it has been to furnish for such classes, and for preparatory 
schools {where training in French is coming to he more and 
more demanded), a grammar which should combine the 
advantages of practice and theory in a higher degree than 
others now existing. To this end, the most important 
facts of the language have been groaped and arranged in a 
aeries of Lessons, in an order suggested by practical con- 
venience, each Lesson being accompanied by sufficient 
Exercises. These Lessons constitute the First or Practical 
Part of the grammar, which it is expected that every l 
learner of the language will work through. Its general I 
plan, while not unlike the method followed in many gram- 
mars, is so far accordant especially with that of the widely 
used and valued " Conversation-Grammar" of Otto, that it 
may fairly be said to be founded upon the latter — though 
no more than that, since both text and Exercises are ( 
tirely new, and deviations from the older plan not only 
numerous, but of much importance. As one example 
among many, a more systematic course is followed in the 
important item of the learner's introduction to the verbs : 
all the principal forms are learned and practised, one after 
another, before any complete paradigm is set forth ; and the 
commonest and most useful of the irregular verbs are 
worked in by degrees, before they are taken up as a body. 

It ia believed that the method h«re adopted of presenting 
and teaching the irregular verbs has decided practical advan- 
tages over any other, and lightens, as much as it is possible 
to lighten, this heaviest burden in French grammar. In 
the Sxercises, care has been taken not to embarrass the 
learner with long lists of words of which little use is to be 
made, but rather to make him pra^itise over and over a 
more limited and slowly increasing vocabulary. 

If, in the case of any class, the Lessons are found too 
long, the intelligent teacher will easily divide the Exercises, 
returning to take up what was omitted, in the course of 
that review and reiteration by which alone the desired 
degree of mastery of the material can be obtained. Where 
an early introduction to reading ia especially aimed at, 
the Esercises maybe reduced to a minimum, and (so much 
like English are French words and construction) a Ecader 
or a text can be taken up as soon as the auxiliaries, the 
regular conjugations, and a few of the commonest irregular 
verbs are learned. This summary process will be greatly 
aided by the French Vocabulary, in which are to be found, 
besides many of the oftenest used words of the language, 
nearly all the form-words — the auxiliaries, the articles and 
pronouns, and the prepositions and conjunctions— with full 
references to the explanations and illustrations of their use 
that are given in the volume. 

The Second Part is to be regarded and used both as a 
supplement and as a successor to the First. Besting upon 
the basis of the First Part {whilenot rejecting the occasional 
repetition, in more proper connection or in fuller form, of 
statements there made), it gives a more penetrating view of 
the usages of the language, especially of its syntactical 
usages. The framework of Lessons, which could only em- 
barrass such a presentation, is discarded in it. That it 
should be worked and written through as soon as the First 
Part is despatched, does not at all lie in the author's plan. 
No class should be expected to take it up in that way until 

i&nng read considerable French text ae well, and thus 
gained some practical familiarity with the facts of the lan- 
guage which the grammar attempts to systematize. Noth- 
ing is worse than to try to make pupils learn more French 
grammar than they learn French. But the practical 
knowledge of the language gained in connection with the 
First Part stands in need of frequent reference to the 
Second, for the explanation or further elucidation of special 
points, in order to their proper understanding ; and with 
many etudents the chief use of this Part will be as a book 
of reference, to be consulted under the guidance of the 
teacher. Another way to use it with profit is to read with 
care the sets of IllaatratiTe Sentences, noting in connection 
with the reading the grammatical points which those illue- 
trate. One has there a series of selected phrases from 
French authors of repute, exemplifying most of the usages 
of which it is the duty of a grammar to take note; after 
despatching those, with the accompanying explanations of 
the volume, one will meet with little in French reading 
that will cause grammatical difficulty. The English 
Themes of this Part give the means of reaching the same 
result in a different or an additional way ; and the English 
Vocabulary will, it is believed, be found full enough, in its 
phroaes and references, to make their rendering into French 
fairly easy. Here, again, the working through of these 
Themes will be found a sufficient grammatical preparation 
for rendering into French, or writing in French, in a more - 
general and freer way. A class, finally, that has due | 
preparation, in age and knowledge, may profitably go 
through the whole Second Part, just as it stands. 

An attempt has been made to lead the way toward that 
comparison of French with Latin which forms a natural 
and even a necessary part of the more advanced study of 
the former, by directing attention from point to point to 
the correspond encea between the two languages, by setting 
forth their general relations in a chapter introductory to 

the Second Part, and by giving, in a brief and nnsystematio 
fonn, the Latin (and other) etymologies of French words 
in the first Vocabulary. The comparative study of the two 
languages cannot, of course, be taken up otherwise than by 
the way, while the pupil haa his hands full with learning 
the modem language itself; but this task may be made 
both easier and more interesting by the use, under the 
giiidance of an intelligent teacher, of such material as is 
here put within convenient reach. 

The pronunciation of a new language is not a thing that 
can be learned ont of a book and by rule ; it must be gotten 
through the ear of the pupil from the mouth of the teacher. 
Yet there is sufficient consistency in French orthography 
to render it possible to hold a pupil, after sufficient intro- 
ductory practice, to responsibility for not making too 
blundering work of uttering a word that is normally pro- 
nounced, or even of an exceptional one that he has met with 
before. In order to this, however, distinct statements as 
to the facts of pronunciation are required. And they are 
of no small value to the teacher also, unless he have enjoyed 
very exceptional advantages. It is partly in view of the 
needs of the great majority of teachers not French by birth 
or education, that so much fulness has been given in this 
work to the preliminary chapter on pronunciation, and that 
all the commoner words that are exceptionally pronounced 
(whether they do or do not occur in the Exercises and 
Themes) are entered, marked as such, in the Vocabularies- 
Different teachers will make different use of the chapter in 
instruction, according to their various training and habit. 
It is believed, however, that a class of beginners may to 
their decided advantage be required to learn at the outset 
certain points : namely, the division of syllables (4a, b) ; to 
name correctly the orthographic marks (6-10); to tell when 
e is mute (18) ; the value of y as double i (37) : the chief 
rules as to the nasal vowels (46-7, 62, 63) ; those as to 
final consonants (66a, li) ; as to ch (69) ; to gn (63) ; to li 

(64«, e); to liquid 1 (68, 68e) ; to r (73, 73«) ; to s pro- 
nounced as z (74a) ; to ti in endings (77«) ; and as to the 
Uniting of final consonants {Sin. b, 85i, SBn). The rest 
may well be left to oral teaching, one and another rule 
being later brought in as found desirable : especially, the 
pnpil will need further on to note the rules a^ to the occur- 
rence of mute B and i and i (19, 20a, 21"), which settle ho 
many cases of otherwise doubtful orthography. 

The grammarB of which most use has been made in the 
preparation of this one are that of M9.tzner (of which 
there is a re-working in English, under the name of 
" French Syntax," by Profeasor J. A. Harrison — a valuable 
work, especially for teachers) and that of Ploetz. From 
them hare been taken also a few of the Illustrative Sen- 

Tau CoLuac, New Havdi, ^uffuri, 1B8& 


The rBferencw are to pages only. 


Alphabet and Phonuncution, l- 

Alphubet, 1-3 ; divneion of syllables, 3 ; acoonta and 
other orthographic marks, 3-4 ; accent, 4 ; pronuooin- 
tion of the simple vowels, 4-10; of the digraphs or 
vowel compounds, 11-3; of the nasal vowels, 12-5; 
of the consonants, 15-23 ; linking or earrjing-on of 
flitaJ consonaatE, 36-6. 


I, Geoder, articles, etc. ; present of avoir, . 
II. Plural of nouns ; present of etre, . 
III. The prepositions & and de ; imperfect of aroir 

and Atre 

rV. Partitive and inclusive senses of the noun ; pret- 
erit of do., 

V. Material and measure ; future of do.. 
VI. Prepositions ; proper names ; conditional of do., 
VII. Adjectives— gender ; imperative of do., . 
VIII. Adjectives — number, position ; present subjunc- 
tive of do., 

IX. Adjectives — comparison ; imperfect subjunctive 

X Conjugation — the verb avoir haiJe, 
XI. Conjugation of the verb Itre be, . . . 

XII. Negative conjugation. 

Xtll. Demonstrative and interrogative adjectives, 
XIV. Poesessive and indefinite adjectives, . 

XV. Cardinal nuraerals, 

XVI. Ordinal numerals, 

XVII. Numerals continued — months and week-days, . 
XVIIl. Regular verbs ; first conjugation, 

XIX. Second regular eonjugation, . .90 

XX. Third regular eonjugation, .... 94 

XXI. Irr^5ular verbs ; first conjugation, . 98 

XXIL Conjunctive personal pronouns, . . . 102 

XXIII. Disjunctivewnd conjunctive pronouns, . . 107 

XXIV. Demonstrative pronouns ; irregular verbs, 

Tonloir Ill 

XSV. Interrogative pronouns ; the irregular verb 

pouToir, 117 

XXVI. Relative pronouns ; the irregular verb devoir, ISI 
XXVII. Possessive and indefinite pronouns ; the ir- 
regular verb aller 126 

XXVIII. Pasaive verha ; auxiliaries, . . . ,131 

XXIX. Reflexive verbs, . 135 

XXX. Impersonal verbs, 13(1 

XXXI. Adverbs from adjectives; the irregular verb 

XXXII. Various adverbs ; the irregular verb faire, . 

XXXIII. Prepositions ; the irregular verb dir«, . 

XXXIV. Conjunctions ; the irregular verb aavoir, 

XXXV. Irregular verba ending in ire (J- J4), 
XXXVI. Irregular verbs in adndre etc. and altre 

etc. (.15-30), 

XXXVn. Further irregular verba in ra (21-29), . 

. 143 
. 148 


; irregular verbs in re (30-37), 175 

"n ir (38-Sl), .180 

rregular verba in ir (32-64), 185 

n oir (65-71), . - 190 

XLII, The remaining irregular verbs in oir, and those 

in er (7>iS3), 194 

Index of Irreghlab Verbs, Sqiple and Compound, . 199-201 
Abbaeviationb or Authors' Sahes ; Refekknces, . , 202 

XXXVIII. The remaining 

XXXIX. Irregular verbs 

XL. The remaining 

XLI. Irregular verbs 



L Tkb Relation or Fbench to Latin, . . 208-9 
n. NOCNS, ........ 309-23 

Gender, 208-13; numbor, 318-15; case-relationa, 
315-21 ; noun used absolutely, 315-6 ; noun with 
de, 31T~8 ; partitire noun, 330 ; noun with Si, 331. 

ITT. Abticleb, . 228-82 

Definite article, 328-^ ; indefinite, 229-30. 

IV. AnjEcTlVBa 283-41 

Adjective forms, 238-4 ; agreement with noun, 
234-6 ; place, 336-7 ; noun -adjuncts, 289-40. 

V. NiTMEKAis, 241-4 

YL Pbonodns and Pronominal Adjectives, . . 244-68 
Personal pronouns, 244-8 ; poasesaives, 351 ; de- 
monstratives, 258 ; interrogativeB, 364-5 ; rela- 
tives, 255-6 ; indefinites, 358-60. 

VII. Vkkbs, 263-840 

Uses of the tenses, 364r-S ; usee of the indicative 
mode, 373 ; uaes of the subjunctive, 373-82 ; sub- 
junctive in independent clauses, 373-3 ; in sub- 
stantive clauses, 374-6 ; in adjective clanses, 
378-9 ; ID adverbial clauses, 380-3 ; uses of the 
imperative, 388-4 ; verb and subject, 286-8 ; and 
predicate noun and adjective, 203-8 ; and object, 
294-6 ; and prepositional phrase, with k, 298-800 ; 
with de, 301-3 ; and adverb, 305 ; n^ative ex- 
pression, 803-11; espletivene, 310-11; the infini- 
tive, 313-33 ; as subject, as predicate, in apposi- 
tion, 813-5 ; as object of, or dependent on, a verb, 
816-36 ; without sign, 816-8 ; with de, 330-1 ; 
with ^ 323-5 ; with de or i, 325-6 ; infinitive 
as dependent on an adjective, 327-8 ; on a noun, 
338-9; on other prepositions than de and k, 330-1 ; 
the present participle, 333-8 ; the gerund, 333 ; 
the past participle, 331-7. 

Vni. Adverbs, 340-1 

IX. Prepositions, 841-4 

X. Conjunctions, 345-7 





XII. Arrasgbment or the Sentencb, 


XIII. French VrasmcATioN, 


lu-iwraATiTB Sehtkncbs (is the sbcohd p4bt). 

II. Noun with de, qualifying a noun, . 

. 216 

. 218 

m. Partitive noun 

. 820 

IV. Noun with £, qualihing a. noun, . 

. 221 

V. Partilive and inclusive article. 

. 234 

VI. Article with proper nameg 

. 226 

Vn. Varioua uses of tlie article 

. 229 

Vin. iDdeflnlte article 

. 230 

IX. Agreemenl and place of adjectivep, 

. 387 

X. Noun-adjuocta of adiectives 

XI. NumeraCi 

. 240 
, 248 
. 248 

XIII. Posseasives, 

. 252 

XIV, Demonstrativea, 

. 353 

XV. Interrogaiivea, 

. 255 

XVI. Kelatives 

. 256 

XVII. Indefinitea, 

. 381 

XVIII. Tenses of the verb 

. 268 

XIX. Sub unctive in independent clauses. 

. 273 

XX. 8ub unctive in subject and object clauses, 

. 276 

XXI. Sub unctive in adjective clauses, . . . 

. 379 

XXII. Bub unctive hi adverbial clauses, . 

. 382 

XXni. ImpcrativB 

. 284 

XXTV. Vert) and subject 

XXV. Verb and predicate, 

, 390 

, 204 

XXVI. Verb and object 

. 296 

XXVII. Verb and case-phrase with a, . . . . 

. 800 

XXVIII. Verb and case-phrase with de 

. 802 

XXIX. Negative espieBsioo 

. 308 

XXX. Expletive negative, 

. 811 

XXXI. Infinitive as subject and as predicate, . 

. SIS 

XXXII. Object-infinitive without sign, .... 

, 318 

XXXni. Objeet-inflnitive with de, 

XXXIV. Object-infinitive with a, 

. 326 

XXXV. Infinitive dependent on an adjeciive or noun, . 
XXXVI, Infinitive after other prepositions than de and i, 
XXXVII. Present participle and gerund. 

.' 831 

. 833 

XXXVni. Paal parlicipk 

. 887 

XXXTX. Adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, 

. 347 

XL. Inverted arrangement of the sentence, . 

. 863 


(m 1 

I ascoKD part). 

1. Oaae-relatioQs of aouns, 222 

2. Articles 281 

8. Adjectives - . 340 

4. Numerals 248 

5. Personal pronouna, 260 


7. DemonBtratlves, 264 

8. iDlerrorativea and relatives, 257 

9. Indeflnltes, 262 

10, Tenaes ot the verb, 270 

11. Subjunctive in indepeDdent and in substsDiive clauBes, . 377 
13. Subjunctive in adjective and adverb clauses, and imperative, 285 

13. Verb and subject, ... 391 

14. Verb with predicate and objecl, 287 

15. Verb and case-phrase, with a or da, 803 

16. Native expression 313 

17. Subject and predicate infinitive 816 

18. Objoct-inflnitive without sign, .819 

19. Object-Inflnitive with de, 823 

80. Object-inflnitive wilb i 827 

31. Intutitive dependent on an adjective or a noun, , . . 880 

22. InSnite after other prepositions than ds or i, . . 331 

33. Present participle and gerund, 834 

24. Past participle 889 

25. PrepoBitlonB, 349 


I. French -English vocabulary, 
II. Vocabulary of French proper Dames, 
III. English ■French vocabulary. 
Gemgbal Ind&x, . 



ir mggemoiu 01 tc theuieof OiIb Introductorj chapter on pronunciatioi]. see 


1. The French alphabet is the same with the EngliaK 
a. But the lettera t and w occur only m a few words, borrowed 

out of other lacguages. 

2. The lettera of the alphabet and their names are as 
follows (the naiiiea pronounced as French words) : 

a a h ache o o n u 

b M i i p p6 T v6 

c cd J J' q, ku w double v^ 

d d^ K ka r erre z its 

e 6 1 elle b esse y i greo 

f effe m emme t t6 z z^d 

g g6 n enne 

a. la reading and spelling, however, it is dow common to name 
each consonant by its own sound followed by a mute e (18), which 
ia pronounced only just enough to let the character of the conso- 
nant be diatinguisbed : thus, for b, b« instfiad of bj ; for g, goo or 
je (accorfing as the g is hard or softj instead of ge ; and so on. 
But when any letter ia named by itself, it is always by the name 
given in the above table. 

3. Ubb of Capitals. — As regards the nae o£ capitals, 
French agrees in general with English, but with the fol- 
lowing important exceptions : 

a. An adjective derived from a proper name does not 
take a capital when used as ao adjective, but onl^ when 
it has the value of a noun. 

Thus, nn lirre fram^is, a Prei/eh book, but na FrajiQais, a 
Frenchman ; des chevaoz aja^ricaiiu, American homes, but des 
Amdricains, Americans. 


i. The names of the davs of die week and of the 
months are not written with capitals in French. 
Thus, inndi, Monday, join, June. 

c. The word for 1, namely je, \s not written with a 


4. The rules as to how a French word is to be di'vided 
into 9y]Iabies are of much practical importance in their 
bearing on the mnte e (18) and on the nasal vowels (46). 

a. A eingle consonant between vowels always belongs 
to the following vowel. 

Tiiua, fi-si, ai-me-rai, dd-coa-nb-ger, cr^nd-ron-se-ment, i-ni- 

J. Also two consonants, if they are such as inay begin 
a French word, belong to the following vowel. 

Tbufi, ar-pres, i^-gler, a-bri. 6-c1ob, Sr^roit, trd-fi«, on-tre. 

Such groups have r or 1 as their fioal member ; they are br, bl ; 
cr, cl ; dr ; fir, fl ; gr. gl ; pr. pi ; tr ; vr. 

a A consonant digraph, or group of two consonants repre- 
senting a single sound, is treated as if one consonant only ; such 
are ch, ph, Uk, gn ; (bus, ar«lie-ter, pro-phe-ti-e. pa-th^ti-qiia, 

d. Other groups of two consonants are divided, the former 
consonant going to iLe preceding vowel, the latter to the follow- 
ing vowel : thus, al-ler, firap-per, im-an, es-pe-raji-ce, ad-mi-ra- 

e. Groups of three or more consonanls follow the same princi- 
ples of division : thus, com-bler, por-dre, is-stant. 

/. A few exceptional cases occur: x belongs lo the preceding 
vowel, lis ex-em-ple: n and h (in words of compound origin) 
are divided, though the h is silent, as bon-heor; also diride 
in-stmi're. at-mo-sphe-re, etc. 


5. Three accent-marks are used in French, and consti- 
tute a part of the necessary written form of French 
words. They are the acute accent, as in 6t4, crM ; the 


OSAVB ACCENT, as in dds, Ik, ot; and the omoiruFLEZ ac- 
OSNT, as ID p&te, f&te, lie, hflte, ffltes. 

a. These accent;- marks do not at a1! point out the actually ac- 
cented syllable of a word ; but they in part show differences of 
Towel-souod, in part are means of distinction of words otherwise 
spelt alike, and in part ahow something reepecting the history of 
the word. 

6, It is jtist as great a fault iu writing French to leave off an 
accent or to write a wrong accent, as to leave out a letter or to 
write a wrong letter. 

c In spelhng, the accent should always be mentioned along 
with the vowel to which it belongs : thus, 6t6 is "b acute, t, e 
aoDt«"; & is " a grave"; lie is " i circumflex, 1, a"; and bo on. 

8. a. The acute accent occurs only on the vowel e. 

6. The grave occurs almost always on e ; but also on a, in a 
very few words (16), and onn in oa, where. 

e. The circumflex occurs on all vowels, usually as a. sign of con- 
traction, and in the great majority of cases showing the loss of an 
s, formerly written after the vowel now oireumflexed : thus, hS.te 
for older haste (Eng. haste), fBte (or feste (Eng. feast), hete for 
ho«te (Eng, host), m for isle (Eng. Me), fttea for ftastea (I^t. 
fuistia), maltre for maistre (Eng. master), cofiter for coiuter 
(Eng. cost), and so on. 

7. The CEDILLA is a mark placed nnder a c (thus, 9), to 
give it its soft or «-Bound before the vowels a, 0, n (where 
it would otherwise be pronounced hard, like k ; 58i) : 
thus, plaga, fa^on, re^n, 9'a. 

8. The Di£EEsie (Fr. trdma) is a double dot, set (as 
floraetiniee also in EngKah) over a vowel which ie to be 
pronounced separately from a preceding vowel, not form- 
ing with it a diphthong: thus, hair (i.e. ha-ir), oui (i.e. ou-i). 

a. It is also used on the vowel that follows a gB, if the o is to be 
pronounced (compare fH^) : thu.s, a.mhisMt^, ambignS (where 
the e itself is silent). 

9. The APOSTROPHE shows, as in English, the loss of a 
final vowel which has been cut off before another vowel : 
thus, rami, s'il. 

a. The vowel thus cut off is almost always e (86c) ; 
but in a few cases it is a (16) or i (296). 


10. The HYPHEN 18 nsed, as in English, but more fre- 
quently and strictly, between parte of worde, and whole 
words reganied as having an especially close connection 
with one another. The cases where it is required will he 
stated below. 

11. The actnal accent, or stress of voice on one of the 
syllaliles of a word of two or more syllables, rests in 
French on the last syllable that is fully pronounced — i.e. 
that does not have as its vowel a mute e. 

Tbue, palais', mala'de, maladroit', maladroi'te. m^lajicoli'e, 
indabitalile, i^concilier', r^concilie'rent, indivisibility'. 

a. This accented BjllBble reeul&rl; and imuaU; repreaeota Uie oan whlcb bod 
the accent la taUa: see Part Second, | aa. 

h. But the stress of voice is very slight. In general, 
the syllables of a French word (except those containing a 
mute e) are nttered with equal distinctneSB aud nearly 
even stress. 

c. This eveniieaa of ntteranee, aud equal dtatinctuess of vowel 
sound in alt the syllables of a word, is one of the most striking 
pecnliaritiea of French pronunciation as compared witii English, 
and cannot be too much iasistod on and practised. 


12. QcANTTTT. — There is no strongly-marked distinc- 
tion of long and short vowels in French, such as there is 
in English (and in Gierman). French vowels are in general 
short, though sometimes a little prolonged — oftenest be- 
fore a final pronounced r, and when circuraflexed, 

13. A, a. — a. When final, or followed at the end of a 
word only by a silent consonant or by r, a has very nearly 
the full open sound of English a in far or father. 

Thua, ira, donna, la., a, cas, bras, plat, drap. car. 
h. Elsewhere, a is a little flattened, like English a in 
fiat, cap, jack, only not quite so much so. 

1'] VOWELS. 5 

Thus, ami, animal, cabane, malade. bagne, place, paue, ftme, 
p&te. &ge, cli4teaii. 

c. For an iitid am uasal, see 48. 

14. The a is silent in aoflt, August, aoflteron, rfiaper, taon, 
horse-fly, Caen, Cnra^ao (laat syllable"), Sa6iie. 

15. The final a of la (article and objeet-prononn) is cut off be- 
fore a yowel (or a silent h): thas, I'amie, lldatoire, il Taime. 

a. But not that of la aa pronoun after the verb, except before 
another objett-pronoun: thus, tronve-la aimable; but envoyes- 

16. An a has the grave accent in the preposition a, to, and 
the adverbs lil, there (with most of its compounds, but not cela, 
fhali, and 9!^ here (with its compound de^ on this side), to 
distinguish these words from a (verb), la (article and pronoun), 
and (a (pronoun) ; also in d4j&, already (and the almost obsolete 
ja>. It often has the circumflex { but never the acute. 

17. E, e. — This vowel has in French a greater variety 
of written form and of pronunciation than any otter, 
being writtei] as e, t, h, e, and pronounced with a mute, 
a closer, and an opener sound. 

18. Mdte ok Silent e. — a. A simple e (that ie, one 
without accent-eign) standing at the end of a sjllahle (4) 
haa the so-called "mute" or "silent" valne (e muot) : 
that is, it is prononnced as briefly and lightly as possi- 
ble, and what sound it has is like that of English u in hut 
or hwrt. 

h. The sound is quite precisely that in Engbsh the before a 
consonant in real colloquial utterance: thus, "tell us the name of 
the man." Examples are le, me, de, te-nir, re-gard, re-gar-de, 
re-le-va, ra-md-na, ea-ne-mi. In many situations — especially tit ^ 
the end of a word of more than one syllable, as table, rare, ma- 1 
chine, abortive— it is in ordinary utterance entirely silent ; but ' 
gtill it malies theoretically a syllable (thus, TOr-re. mSr^dii-ne, ar- 
bOT-ti-ve), which counts as sucb in poetry, and in singing must 
be ottered as much as any other syllable. In learning French 
pronunciation, the pupil must first be able to give the right sound 
to the vowel, and then duly to alight or omit it. 

c. The same sound belongs also to the e of es at the end of a 
word (eicepttng in the monosyllables les, des, ces, mes. tes, sea), 
and to that of ent at the end of the lid pers. plural of a verb ; 
thus, rares, machines, certea, donnes, donnent, regairdent, doo- 




d. Kore eioentiotifll ca^M are desana, dASMoa. reMonrce, and 

most, other words beginning with ress-; also fiusast etc. {39c), 
and monsieur (54A). 

e. The e of jo, /, when following the verb, is completely 
silent, in the same manner as at the end of a word of more thai 
one ByUaljle : thus, ai-je, /iom /.' pronounced as if written 
&isei anis-je, am /?^asif snige; avaifl-je, hat/ / ? as if avaiee ; 
and BO on. 

19. The acute and grave accents, as used on e, are 
signs giving it a full pronunciation, where otherwise it 
would be mute. No 6 or 6 is ever written unless with- 
out tlie accent tlie e would (by the rules of the preced- 
ing paragraph) have its mute value. 

20. a. As between the acute and grave, the general 
rule is that the grave is written if a next following sylla- 
ble in the same word is a mute one; otherwise, the acute. 

Thus, pd-re, chd-re, U-ve, c6-4a, md-no-rai, pe-le-riu ; but 
c6-der, ce-da, c6-d6, c6-l6-bri-t6 ; and d^e-de, c^U-bre, c^-16- 
breut, pr6-f%-reB, t^-n&-bres. 

Hut to tliis rule there are some exceptions: 

t. An i remains in the future and conditional of a verb having 
4 in the infinitive: thus, c^-d«-rai, c^-de-raia. 

c. An 6, and not 4, is uaunlly written before g thus, col-l^e, 

But the French. Academy has receully ruled that h should stand 
before g. jnst as before other consonants: thus, comge, abrege. 

d. On the oHier iiand, i is written before b at the end of a tew 
words : thus, dds, trda, ^ia, aprda, ezpr^. progrda, ancc^. 

e. There are a few otiier 8i«oial exceptions : tlius, only 4 is in- 
itial, OS in ri-le-ver; 6 Is used in certain individual words, as i4- 
Toloppor, ^v^nemout. m^docin. 

21. a. It is to be noted that the occurrence of two 
successive mute syllables in the same woi-d is generally 
avoided. Tims, no word is ever composed of, or ends 
in, two mute syllables ; nor do two often come together 
in the middle of a word ; at the beginning they are not 
quite BO rare (especially when re or de is prefixed to a 
verb already beginning with a mute syllable, as venir, 

iwenir, deTenir, and even redevenir). And no word ever 

begins with a mute c. 

i. Hence, such words as leve, mene, jete, chere, complete, a.p- 
pe^B, levea, manes, clierea, or [as 3d pi. of a verb) lerent, me- 
nent, are impossible in French; and wherever they would occur 
in the regular processes of word-formation or inflection, the con- 
currsnee of the two mute syllables is avoided by giviug a full 
ptonanciation to ilie first. This is oftenest done by writing the 
grave accent over it : thus, leve, mene, chere, complete, meaes, 
mdneat— but sometimes by doubling the consonant (if it be 1 or 
n or t) instead : thus, belle (bel-lej, appelles, sienne, prennent 
(3d pL^ nette, jette. 

c. Hence also (since a following je is pronounced as if a part oE 
the sami word with a preceding verb : IBe) the final e of a verb- 
form before je takes an accent, and this accent is the acute : thus, 

22. The e with acate accent, or 6, has the sound of 
English so-called " long a," in day and th&i/, and the like 
(jet without the vanishing sound o£ " long e," with which 
onr " long a" nsually ends). It is called the close e (e 

23. Ihe e with grave accent, or b, has an opener sound, 
nearlj lile our " abort e," jn ebb, send, and the like ; and 
it even in some cases, especially before a following r, ap- 
proaches our still opener sound of e in there and the like. 
It is called the open e (e ouvert). 

S4. The e witli circumflex accent, or 6, lias the open 
Bound, like 6. 

a. The a is not, like 6 and i, restricted to situations where the 
a would otherwise be mute, but it is found (though not often) be- 
fore a consonant in the same syllable : thus, fordt, benSt. 

26. An e that is followed by a consonant in the same 
syllable (whether that consonant be prononnced or silent) 
is not mute, bat has either the closer sound of 6 or the 
opener of *. 

a. It haa the closer sound in the final syllables (with sUent con- 
sonants} er, aa, ed : thug, citer, chantier, nez, citez, pied. 

b. It has the opener sound before a pronouneed r (whether 


final or not), and nsaally before a double consonant ; also hefo« 
(silent) t final: thus, fer, verre, elle, nette, mieime, richesHi 
26. E in a few woi'ds has an irregular pronunciation : 

a. It is pronounced as an a would be, before n and m. in 
famine, woman, Bolennel, soUmn, and iti derivatives, and ad- 
verbs ending in -emment ; also in nenui, nay, bennir, ndgh, 
indemnity, iridemnity. 

b. It is aometimes used aft«r b merely as a device for eluwing 
that tbe ^ is to have its soft sound, being itself not pronoanaed 
(62e): thus, mangeai, m&neeons. 

c. The final mnte e of a mon syllable is generatlj" cut 
off before a vowel, and replaced by an apostrophe 

Such monosyllables are : the article le; thepronouna j«, me, te. 
se, ce. le, que; the preposition de; the conjunction ine; the 
negative particle ne. But the subject-pronouns je and <e are not 
thus abbreviated when thej come after the verb ; nor tie object- 
pronoun le in the same position, except before another object- 
pronoun, as enTOyez-l'y. 

The same elision takes place also in jnsqae ; and h lorsqne, 
pmsque, qnoiqne before il, elle, on, nn. Further, in i. few com- 
pound words, us qaelqn'an, presqn'Ue, entr'acte, a^joirdlmL 

d. For en and em nasal, see 4S. 

27. I, i. — The vowel i has in French invariably the 
sound (as regards quality) of English ■' long e," ir of i in 
the words machine, pique. 

Thus, il, ri, vite, id, midi, ddfini, divis^, Tisibilit^. 

n. The error of pronouncing a French i anywhere like the 
English "short i" at pin, finish, and the like, muat be very care- 
fully avoided. 

6. For i before a liquid 1, see 6S ; for in and im nasal, see 50. 

28. fl. An i followed by mute e has, of course, it? full pro- 
nunciation, the e being the vowel of a succeeding mate flyllable ; 
thus, vie, ajnies, rient (divided vi-e, a-mi-es, li-ent). 

b. But an i followed in the same syllable by an a not nmtc, or 
by any other vowel (or diphthong), is uttered verv briefly, ea a 
mere y-preflx to the following sound : thus, piea, ciol, metier, 
&Aat, arridre, arriSr^, vier^, vianne, vient, vieille, lien, mon- 
Bienr, viole, aviona, fiacre, diable, bestiaox. And even if the 
i is (in verse) regarded as forming a separate syllable, it is apt to 
lose more or less of its full q ^■- ■--' -■ ■ ■■ - 


29. a. An i never takes any other accent-mark than the air~ 
comfies : thus, Ue, plajt, fit, niajtre. 

6. A final i is elided only in the conjunction Gi, if, before the 
pronouns il, Us, he, they : thus, b'U, b'lU. 

30. 0, 0. — a. The vowel o has in general the sound of 
the English o in note (but without the vanishing eound 
of 00, in which the English " long o" usaally ends). 

t It is so pronounced espeuially when it is eircumflexed, or ia the 
final sound of a word : thus, cAte, nOtre, rOle, trOne, mot, cachot, 
trop, HOB. , 

1). But in many words o has an opener sound, ap-^^^i^^ 
proaching that of English o in not (or midway between ^^^ ^ 
that and the o of come); and before a final j'-sound it 
comes near to our o in Jior. 

Thus, robe, mode, Rome, dogue, ^cole, dorer, notre, porter, 
occnper, modeste ; and or, mort, corps. 

31. a. The o is silent in foon, fmnn: paou, peacock; Laon 
(pronounced as fen, etc.)- 

b. An o never takes any other accent-mark than the circumflex : 
thus, lidte, rtti, hOpitaL 

c. For the diphthong oi, see 43 ; for on and om nasal, ace 49. 

32. U, a. — The French u has a sound nnlike anything 
in English (but precisely agreeing with that of the Gier- 
man " modified if," or " u with umlmit^^ written «). It 
ia produced by a corabination of that position of the 
tongue with which ee (as in ineet) is made, with that po- 
sition of the lips with which oo (as in moot) is made. Fix 
the tongue, then, to say ee, and, without moving it, round 
the lips as if to say oo, and the product is the sound de- 

Thus, va, dd, nnl, pure, afire, sacre, minate, fdmle, occiiper> 
mnltitode, minnscule. 

33. a. U is generally silent after q; for the exceptions, soa 
under q (726). 

6. U ia also regularly ailent after g, when itself followed by 
another vowel, usually e or i, except when the following e or i 
has the diieresis C^e 8): thus, ^erre, gnide, langne, longueur, 
fetisne, fetigo^, vogner, vogua., voguons. For the exceptions, 
see under e ifSSf). 


c. The um at the end ot a lAtin word is pronounced nearly aa 
in English : thus, forum, album. In majseliUc and a few other 
foreign words, it has the sound of English oo. 

(i. For un and nm naaal, see 5L 

34. TT often baa the circumfles accent : thus, dfl, mfir, chfite, 
f&t, fBtes. It never takes the acute ; nor the grave except in oil 
where (for distinction from on or). 

35. A u followed by a mute e keeps its own full sound : thus, 
vue, vnes, saloent (3d pi.)- But before any other vowel— name- 
ly, a, i, and « not muto— in the some syllable, it is abbremted 
and slighted, beuoming nearly like English lO, while the following 
vowel has the principal vowel-sound of the syllable. Thus, in 
words where it is by exception pronounced after g and q, lingTin.!, 
linguiste. Goise, loquace, loqu^le, ^qnestre; after other conso- 
nants {where it retains more of the peculiar French sound of n), 
Ini, enniii, antmi, fruit, fiiite, cnir, nnire, sniTre, cnisse, puis- 
aant, duet ^cuelle. 

36, Y, y. — The sound of y, when it is the vowel of a. 
syllabie, is the same with that of i : thus, y, style, syg- 
tbme, lyllabe, phystcLae, Yves. 

a. The value of i belongs to y also when followed in the same 
syllable by another vowel, as in yenx, e^c-t, Yonne, and a few 
other proper names and foreign words. 

37. A y between two vowels has the value of double 
i, or i-i, one of the i's belonging to the vowel of the pre- 
ceding eyllable, the other (as a. brief y-like prefix : 28J) 
to that of the following syllable. 

Thus, eBsaysr is pronounced as if written essai-ier : appnyer. 
ns if appui'ier ; envoyer, as if envoi-ier; and so on. 

a. The same value belongs to the y in pays (pronounced as if 
written pai-is), and in its derivatives payaa^, payaaa. 

6. A y is not allowed as final, nor in general before mute e ; 
and, both in derivation and in inflection, the interchange of i and 
y, according as flaal or not, and as a mute e or any fully pro- 
nounced vowel follows, is very common ; thus, joie, joyeux : roi, 
royal ; aie, ayons, ayes, aient : appnie, appuies, appuyons, ap- 
pnyei, appnient; and so on, 

<;, But y is in some verbs allowed to stand after a even before 
mute e, as esaaye ; and it is the rule (though rare) after b, as 
ET&sseye, aueys. 


38. There are a few very common combinationa of two 
vowels (or three), which represent for the most part sim- 
ple sonnds, but which are commonly called diphthongs; 
they are ai and ei, au (and eaii). en (and (bh), on, and oi 

a. It is to be notiotd that real diphtliongal sounda, like those 
in English ^7e, foul, foil, are altogether wanting in French. 

b. As to vowels followed by mute e, see 45 ; aa !« .the vowel- 
groups, compound both in form and in pronunciation, which be- 
gin with i and u, see 286, 35. 

39. Ai and ei. — These compounds have no other 
sonnds than those of e when not mute, or of 6 or 6. 

^ a. Ai final is pronounced as 6 : thus, ^i, donnai, dounerai. 
^Elsewhere, it is usually like 6, especially in the endings ais, ait : 

thus, ^tais, anrait. 
6. Ei (which is never final) has usually the sound that o fnot 

mute) would have in the same situation : thus, peine, reine. 

c. In certain forms of the verb foire, ilo (XXXII. 8) — namely, 
the pres. pple. fiusant aud those following its analogy, also in 
the compounds of &i8ant and the derivatives fiiisaiice and &i- 
senr— ai is pronounced aa a silent e (but recently also as ai). 

d. For ai and ei nasal, with following n or tn, see 50c ,* for 
their pronunciation before liquid I, see 686. 

40. An and can are pronounced as o would be in the 
same situation. 

Thus, an, ean, bean, beant^, tombeaa. chevanx, anrai, Manre. 

41. Eu has a peculiar sound, nearly like that of Eng- 
lish u in fur, hurt (or nearly like German 0). 

It is closer in feu, lien, peaple, etc. \ and opener in lenr, jeone, 
avensle, etc. 

a. (En, which is much less common, is pronounced in the same 
manner as eu : thus, vtsu, tenf, bmuf, ceuvre. 

b. In all parts of the ve^ common verb avoir, Jtam. en is 
pronoanced as if simple n (33); thus, en, ene, ens, enrent, eusse, 
etc. The same is true ia a few words after g, where the e is only 
written in order to preserve the soft sound of the e (62b): thuB, 
maiigeore, gagenre. 

e. In a word or two occnrs ne before liquid I (68 : written il}) it 
is pronounced like eu : thus, ceil, eye. 

d. Alter c and g, before liquid 1 (written il or ill), in a vei; 


few words, no is written instead of en, and is pronounced like on: 
thus, caeillir, orgnisil- 
e. For en nasal, witli foUowing n, see 51. 

42. On, — Tlio combination on is everywhere pro- 
Douiiced like English oo, m pool, l}Oon, etc. 

Tlius, ou, oil (34), con. bont, hibonx, coupe, boutcb, conrte, jon- 
jon, donlonrenz. 

a. In a few words, on is followed in the same syllable bf a 
pronounced vowel (not mute e). In such a case, the following 
vowel bafi the principal vowel-sound of the syllable, and the on is 
shortened before it to a sound nearly like that of English wj: 
thus, oui, onais, onest, bivona«, fbnet, fbnetter, cte. 

43. Oi. — The combination oi, which is extremelj" coni- 
inon in French, is everywhere pronounced hke the Eng- 
lifih wa in woe (not with the broader eonnd of wa in 

Thos, moi, soi, foi, oiBsan, toile, ploie, dottre, crois, trois, 
adroite, firoidenr, proie. 
a. The i ia silent in oignon, onion. 

44. a. As to oy as substitute and equivalent of oi-i, see 37 ; as 
to oi nasal, with following n or m, see 50d. 

6. Until recently, many syllables now written with ai were 
written with oi, and the latter spelling is stUl occasionally met 
with : thus, dtois, Angloia, connottre, foible, and so on. They 
should be pronounced as when wTitten with ai. It is still in good 
usage to write oi in roide and its derivatives, but the usual pro- 
nunciation is that of raide. 

45. As after i (28n) and h (35), so also after 6 and the vowel- 
compounds, a mute e may stand without making (in prose) any 
difference in their pronunciation: thus, ffie, cr^o, cr^es. cr^ent 
I^U pi.); gaie, gaies, aient (Hd pi.); bleae, bleaes; mone, lone, 
lones. lonent (Sd pi.); oie, croie, croies, croient (3d pi.); plnie. 
appuie. appoies, appuient. In all such eases, the e is the vowel 
of an additional mute syllable : thus, f#-e. lon-es, croi-eat. 


48. If a vowel, simple or compound, .is followed in 
tlie same syllable by n or m, the n or m loses its separate 
pronnneiation, and the vowel itself is made nasal, 

a. A nasal vowel is one that is pronounced partly through the 
moiUb. and partly through the nose : that is, while tbe month- 

*0] VOTtTlLa. 13 

organe are fixed as m ilte uttera&co of an ordmary vowel, the 
passage from the mouth into the nose b also opened, so that a 
part of the expelled air goes through the nose ana reeoiinds there, 
giving a nasal twang to the vowol-tone. Beginners may help ac- 
custom themselves to recognize and produce this na«il twang by 
shutting the nostrils with the fingers, in which case the naa^ty 
becomes especially loud and conspicuous. 

6. In learning to pronounce the nasal vowels, the fault especi- 
ally to be avoided is the shutting of the mouth-organa after the 
vowel-sound, so as to end it with anything like an n or ny-sound. 
A habit of m doing, if oace formed, is estremeiy hard to get rid 
of. Better than this is to leave the vowel at first unnaaalized, 
hoping to learn by degrees to give it the right quahty. 

47. There are in Frencli four nasal vowels, or oasalized j 
Towel-BonndB, Thej are very nearly those heard in the | 
English words wan, song, sang^ and sung, or on, pmon^ I 
pa^ and^wTi — as tlieae would be if the n- and «^-sonnd8 I 
'in them were not separately uttered, but had their nasd J 
tone as it were absorbed into the vowel itself. 

48. The nasalized vowel-sound of Englisli wan or on 
belongs in French to an and am, and to en and em. 

Thus, an, pan, banc, quaiid, lance, manger, ^ranler, ban- 

gnet, anae, ayant. vanter ; camp, lampe. ajnple, chambre ; on, . 

dent, en&nt, peate, prudence, genre ; temps, trempe, fvmplir, I 

membrs, embldme. 1 

a. The same sound ia heard, of course, after tlie jirefiseJ half- I 
vowel sounds of i, y, etc., in the same syllables thus, viands, I 
croyant (pronounced as croi-iant), patience, orient, pingonin. I 
But en after i or 7 has sometimes a dMertint sound ; see 50e. I 

49, The nasalized vowel-sound of English ^i«/i or 
song belongs in French to on and om, 

Tbits, on, HOD, done, long, plonge, aunonce, conter, ronde; 
nom, ]4onib, tomber, romps, rompre, combler, comte. So also 
action and the like. 

50, a. The nasalized vowel-sound of English sang or 
pan belongs in French especially to in and im. 

Tbufi, vin. vint, vinrent, vinsse, pincer, Inde, ingrat ; imbn, 
timbre, simple, impur. 

b. The same sound belongs to ym and yn, in liio few woixls in 
which they occur : thus, thym, nymphe, symbole 1 syntaxe. 


c. The Game Bound beloags to the compound vowels 
ai and ei with following n or m. 

Ttius, sain, aainte, craiudre : &iiQ. eBsaim ; sein, serem, pein- 
dre, peintnre. 

d. The oi of oin has not its ordinary value, but the in of it haa 
the re^^lar nasal sound of in, to which the o gives a prefix like a. 
w, Tims, loin, moins, ointe, oindre, joindre, a«cointancw. 

e. Final en aft«r i (or y), and en everywhere after i in the 
forms of the verbs tenir and venir, has the sound of in; thus, 
rien, bien, eien, moyen (pronounced as moi-ien), tiens, viendra. 
Many pronounce in the sunie way final en after 6 : thus, eoro- 
P^en, vend^eu. En iiud em ure uko pronouni'ed ilk in in a few 
proper names and foreign words : thus, Mentor, Hemphis. Ben- 
gaXo, Enbens, agenda, appendice. pensnm, exanten, pentame- 

61. The nasalized vowel-sound of English sung or 
pun belongs in French to un, um, and enn. 

Thus, nn, bran, tribon, d^Amt, Inndi, empmnter; parfiim. 
hnmble; jenn. 

a. Jti a few foreign proper names, nn has the sound of on ; 
thus, Dnnkergne, Snnd. 

b. In reading Latin, and in a few words taken nnchanged from 
the Latin — as albnm, pensnm, mna^nm, Te-denm, trinrnvir, also 
in rham, rum — nm is pronounced very nearly as in English, the 
vowel not being nasal. 

52. If the n or m is followed by a vowel, the preced- 
ing vo(vel is of courne not nasal, beeanse (4(z) the n or 
m is not in the same syllable with it. 

Thus, tenir, semer, bonorer, nne, inntile (divided t&-nir, ho- 
no-rer, i-nn-ti-le, etc.) ; also intinmH.iii, inbabitd. etc. (the b be- 
ing silent, and not counting as a consonant : see 64). 

a. But in enivrer and enorgneilliT and tiieir derivatives the e 

53. Also when the n or m is doubled, tlie preceding 
vowel is not nasal. 

Thus, ann^, bAamme, tienne, ennemi, fbmme, lionne, 
bomme, innocent, immoler. 

a. But in ennni and its derivatives, in ennoblir, also in em- 
mener, and most other words beginning with emm (from en-m), 
the e is nasal 

b. The combination mn is idso treated as if a double letter, so 





far as eonoerns th^ nasalization of a preceding vowel : thus, eon- 
dsimner (cf. 69a), mdenmit^ (20a), hynme. gTmsose. 

54. Other cases of vowels whiob, againat the general rule, are 
not pronounced as nasal are : 

a. The en of ent in the 3d plural of verbs (the e being here 
mute : 18c). 

6. The on of monsieor, being pronounced as a mute e (Ucf). 

0. Final am, em. en, im in many foreign proper names : thus, 
Friam, Abr&hajn, Jerusalem, Niemen, Ibrahim, Ephraim. 

d. A few other words of foreign origin and form : thus, omen, 
hTmen, specimen, Edan, d&^mvir, Nemrod, Kremlin. 

55. As to the pronunciation of the n or m of a final nasal syl- 
lable upon a following vowel, see 86*;. 


66. Gknekal KuLEs. — a. Final consonantB, either one 
or more than one, are in general silent at the end of a 
French word. 

Thus, pied, trop, les, fkit, prix, manz, nez : plotnb, rand, 
pieds, diaps, romps, Siits, doigt, vingt, venta, vends, instincts. 

b. But final c, £, 1, and r are usually pronounced. 
Thus, sec, avec, tic, bloc, sac, tnrc ; fief, vif, nenf ; bal, cruel, 

vot senl; par, fer, flnir. or, snr, nartjrr. 

For esceptional cases, in which these four flnala are silent, or 
others than these are pronounced, see under the several letters ; 
for the proDunoiation of a final usually silent upon a following 
initial vowel, see 8* etc. 

c. Oonsonants written double are, as in English, pro- 
nounced as single. 

Thus, abb^. greffier. psUe, conronn^, frappant, arriTer 
bless J, jettera. 

For certain exceptions, see below, 58c (c), 62f (g), 73d (r). 

57. B, b. — The letter b is pronounced as in English. 

Thus, bean, bien, robe, barbier, bombe, subtil. 

n. Final b is silent after m: thus, plomb; but after a vowel 
fin a few oaaw only, mostly foreign words and proper names) it 
is pronounced ; thus, clnb, radonb, Acbab, Joab. 

b. B is silent also in a few proper names : thus, Doubs, Lefeb- 

19 PBOHCKOIAnON. [*•— 

68. 0, c. — This confionant has in French, as in Kng- 
lieli, twu sounds : a soft sotind, like g ; and a bard soand, 
like k. 

As to ch, aee the next paragraph. 

a. C IB soft before e and i (or y), and the compoimd 
vowels in which e or 1 is first {el, eu, ie). 

'fliuB, ce, c«ci, ici, plac^, proems, doiue, ceint, cenx, adoiude, 
ciet, (Tmbale. 

i. In all other situations — before other vowels, before 
coDsonauts, and as final — c has its hard sound. 

e. A double c is proaounced as single only if the second c 
would bo hard according to the above rule ; otherwise, cc is liie 
ks or X : thus, sacceB, accident ; but accord, acdajnsr, accroc. 

rf. C ia soft also before a, o, n, if it has the cedilla (7>: thus. 
pla^B, plafons, firan^aia, re9ti, ^'a (from ce a). 

e. For the exctiaage of c and qn, when c comes to be followed 
by a soft vowel, see 72a, 

/! The c of second and its derivatives is pronounced like g. 

g. A final c is usually pronounced (566). But it ig silent after 
a nasal vowel : thus, blanc, jonc, vainc; — also in some words 
after r: thus, derc, pore, marc;— also in estomac, stomach; 
tabac, tobaooo ; lacs, snare ; eric, Jack ; broc, jug ; croc, ?iook ; 
accroc, nonk ; caontclionc india-mbber. 

69. Ch, oh. — This combination has in French regu- 
larly and usually the sound of English sA, or ch ia tho- 

Thua, chasse, chaise, chand, chez, cochon, choox, choiz, chute, 
cbninter ; h&che. recherche, chochoter, ponche. 

a. But there iire many words of foreign oripn (chiefly Greeki 
in which ch has llie soiind of k. Thus, always before a conso- 
nant, oa Christ, chr^tien. chronique, technologie, chloral, 
flichaia, yacht ; — but often also before a vowel, as in archange. 
arch^logie, chaos, choenr, cholera, orchestre, richo, and other 
less common words; and in proper names, as Chald^e, Bacchus. 
Oharyhde, ADtiochos, Chaaaan, Uoloch, Unnich, Hichel-Ange, 

b. A.» A\\>xM irregularities, ch is eilent iu almanach ; it is usu- 
ally pronounced as g in dractune. Fq: sch, see 75c'. 


60. D, d. — Tliifl consonant is pronounced as in Eng- 

Thus, de, d«8, d^dire, dindon, droit, fnide, mode, pondre, 

a. Final d (aaually silent : 56a) ia pronounpRd in Bud, muth, 
and in most proper names, as Alfred. David, Cid, Nemrod, 
Joad (but not in Uadrid, Saist-Clond). 

61. F, £ — This consonant is pronounced as in EngUsii. 
Thus, &I1X, fen, fon, flenr, froid, fief, sauf, afikire, forfkit, 

Ber£ neuf. 

a. Final f (uauiilly pronounced ; 566) is ailont in def, fey, in 
cerf (as usually pronounced), in the chef of chef-d'tEHTre, in the 
plurals CS11&, bceii&, nerfe (though pronounced in the singular of 
these words, except in aerf used figuratively), iu the combina- 
tions btenf gnta, cenf dur, ceof fi^s, nerf de bcsof, and in Nenf- 
ch&teL Also the f of nen^ nine, is silent before an initial con- 
Bonant of a word numbered by it : thiw. neuf Uttsb, nenf cents 
(not in le nenf janrier, Jan. dth ; neuf par an, nine a year, eto.). 

62. Q, g. — Tliia consonant Las in French, as in Eng- 
lish, two Boanda : a soft sound, like English s in azure 
or $ in pleasure ; and a hard sound, like English g in gig. 

a. Q has its soft sound before tlie vowels e, i, y. 

Tiius, geW, gele, g^nie, g«indre, oragenz, gilet, bongie, 
gy Kinase. 

6. In other situations — before any other vowel than 
te, i, y, and before a consonant — -g luis its hard sound. 

Thuit, giant, gai, gauche, gomme. gottre, goM, ai^ ; gloire, 
igroB, fiegme, ogdoade. For g with following B, see the next 

0. Of double g5 (which very rarely occurs), the second g is 
pronounced soft if followed by e, i, y: thus, sngg&rer (but ag- 

d. A final s (generally silent ; 56o) is pronounced (hard) in 
jong and iu a few foreign words and proper names, as zigzag, 
grog, Zadig. liy some it is pronounced in legs. 

e. In order to preserve the soft sound of a g, when in the 
changes of iuQection or derivation it would come lo aland before 
a or or n, at) e (not itself pronounood) is often written nftcr it : ^ 
thus, from manger come mangeant, mangeons, mangenre. X, 
The same silent e used to soften a g is found in a few indopeod- ' 
«iit vords, as geai, George, Geofiroi, pigeon. 





f. An after e, when the u is followed by e or i or y, has ubu- 
bUv ia like manner the oince of giving the g Us hard sound, and 
is itaelf ailent But o after g is pronounced when the following 
Towet has the diwresis (8), also in aigaille, ai^ser, lingnal, 
linguiflto, argaer(andtheirderi¥ativ(ia), and a few proper names, 
as Guise, Guide, Gnjr, Guyana. 

g. The n of a verb like coniugner is retained through the 
whole infleation : thus, conjagwinti coivjusnons, el<!. 

63. The eombinatioD gn has iii general a peenliar 
liquid Bound, nearly like English ny in lanyard or ni in 

Thus, ga,gaBT, r^gner, regne, ligne, cicogne, r^pngne, cygne, 
magniflqne, ignorant, rognon, seigneur. 

This is in reality a palatal n-souud, made with the flat of the 
tongue, instead of its tip, against the fore part of the roof of the 

a. But in a considerable number of words, coming from other 
languages and not yet fully naturalized, the g and n are pro- 
nounced separately, the g having its usual hard sound before a 
consonant. Some of the commonest of these are : gnome (and 
all other words with iiutial gu), agnat, cognat, magnat, g^og- 
noaie, cognition, stagnant, expngnable. 
.J 6. In a few words, the g ia aileut before n: thus, signet, Com- 
7 pi^gne, Clngny, Kegnard. Eegnanlt. 

64. H, h, — This consonant is not pronounced in 
French; no such sound as the English A should ever be 
heard in any French word. 

a. But there is a considerable number of words in 
which an initial h, though now silent, is treated as if it 
were still pronounced — namely, hy the absence before it 
of the elision (26c'), of the carrying-on of a final consonant 
(84), etc. Such an initial h is called " aspirate h," the 
other being called, for distinction, " mute or silent h." 

6. The commonest of the words beginning with aspirate h are 
as follows : 































like liaut; but b^rolne, h^roiqne, h^rolsme, have mute h.thougb 
htoia has asiiirato. And tho li of hnit is silent after dix. 

d. Initial aspirate h ia generally marked in the dictionaries 
with an inverted apostrophe— thus, 'iLaie, 'h^oa. 'honte, etc.; 
and the Bame method will be followed in this work in the vocahu- 

e. The silent initial li is treated as if it had no exist- 
ence, or as if the word actually began witli the following 
vowel ; the aspirate initial h. is treated like any other con- 

Thus, I'homme like I'ombre, cet homme like cet ombre, son 
heore like son euphonie, etc. ; but le hasard, ce h^ros, aa harpe, 

/. The words onl nnd onse (with onzieme) are treated a! 
they began with an aspirate h: thus, que oni, le oueo. 

g, H with preceding c forma a compound consonant, pro- ] 
aoonced like English sh ; see 59 above. In a number of words of 
foreign origin, it follows other consonants, but without ehanging 
their usual pronuneiaUon ; thus, th^e, ath^iate, Ehia, rhom, 
myrrhe. Fh is pronounced as f : thus, pMloBophe. 

65. J, j. — ^Tliia consonant liaa in French invariably 
the Bonnd of English .sin azure, or a \n j}!-easure (the 
same as soft g : 62). 

Thus, jamais, je, Jen, joie, joiijon, jnge, jt6f. 

66. K, k.— This conson;tnt occurs in Trench only in a 
few borrowed words ; it lias the sound of EoglisU k. 

Thus, kilomdtre, kepi, kermesBe, kioaqne. 
a. The A-sound is represented in French words by c hard (586), 
by ch (59o), and by qn (72). 

67. L, L — This consonant, except when liquid, is pro- 
nounced in French as in English, 

Thus, le, la, lilie, loi, Ini, lucre, lajnelle, foUe, nnl, table, 
boncle, BooSe, ^raole, simple, hnrle. 

a. L is silent In soU, surfeited, pools, pulne, anlx, pL of ail, 
garlui; and bifore a consonant after an, en, ou in the endings of 
a few other words. 

An 1 following i in the same syllable is generally 
-made liquid — that is, it is pronouuced as a close y. 


Thus, Gtl. babil, mil, miilet, avnL p^ril, gr^sU. fiUe. c^diUe. 
bill&rd, ortiUeria, gnillotme, barbiUon. 

a. The sound of Freiith ■' liquid 1'' (1 mouill^) was formerly 
that of a palatid /, oue made with the flat of Iho tocgue, instead 
of its tip, against the roof of the mouth, nearly like English ly 
in gledyard, or Hi in brilliaTit; and thia sound it still has in parts 
of France ; but tha now prevailing and accepted pronnnciation 
haa changed the ^;y-sound into a simple y. 

h. It the i before 1 is preceded by another vowel, simple or 
compound, that vowel has its own sound, not forming a com- 
pound with the i, the latter's sole office being to show the liquid 
BOnnd of the 1: thus, travail, traTaiUer, conaeil, conseiUer, 
▼ieil, Tiflillir, senil, Cenille, fenilla^, houille, honillenr. And 
oe (after c or g) and os bt'fore liquid il have the sound of en: 
thus, accneil, or^eil, (bU. But in poil the oi is the usual diph- 
thong, and 1 has ils full sound. 

c. But final 1 is silent after i in a number of words. The com- 
monest of these are : baril, barrel, chenil, kennel, contil, tick- 
ing, fonmil, bakelmuse, taxi, gun, nombril, tcaeel, ontil, tool, 
sonrcil, eyebrow; also 1 in &1b, wn (74(fj, and the plural gen- 
tUahommea, gentlejjten (in gentiUiomme it is liquid ; also in 
gentil, nice, except at the end of a sentence or when followed by 
a consonant, when it is silent). 

d. Final I has the proper l-sound after i in a number of words : 
thus, il, /le, fil, thread, mil, thoiisaml. Nil, Nile, vil, civil, 
exil, profll, anbtil, viril, pndril, volatil; further, according 
to the more usual pronunciation, in cil, avril, and p^ril (pro- 
nounced also with liquid or with silent 1). 

In fact, il final except after a vowel if) liquid only in the few 
words given at the beginning of this paragraph ; in some of the 
others, usage varies. 

e. At the beginning; of a word, ill is not liquid : thus, illatif, 
illegal, illimitd, illogi<ine, illostre. 

f. Double 1 after i haa the fnll l-sound also in the interior 
and at tlie end of a number of words : thus, viUa, town, mille, 
thousand, tranqoille, pnpille, vard, distiller, flistil, vaciUer, 
vadllate, pnBJllaniipe, axillaire, axillanj (with their compounds, 
aud derivatives), .and a few others. 

69. IT, m. — E.xL'ept where it makes tlie preceding 
vowel nasal, aDd is itself uut pronounced (46 etc.), m has 
the same sound in French as in English. 

Thus, me. ma, mOme, moi, menrt, mAr, femme, homme, imiai- 
mori, hymns. 


'S] C0N8ONANTB, 31 

a. But m is pronounced as a in antonme (not in antomnal), 
etc ; also in dajimer and it^ oompounds and derivatives. 

70. N, n. — Except where it inabes the preceding 
vowel nasal, and is itself not pronounced (46 etc.), n baa 
the same sound in French as in English. 

Thus, nappe, naine, ne, nenf, aid, uon, noir, nonvean, nnl, 
nnire, bonne, bruua. 

71. P. p. — This consonant is in general pronounced 
aa in English. 

Thus, pape. pere, people, poorpre, pur, pnits, plaire, pr€, 
frapper, hnppe, sonpe. 

a. Final p is usually silent (56), as drap, trop, coup: also, a p 
followed by aQoChur silent final, as rompt, temps, corps. It is 
also silent in sept, seeen, and septieme, neeenth (not in other 
derivativea of sept, as septambre) ; in baptdme, baptism, and 
baptiser, haptiie: in compter, reckon^ dotnpter, subdue, exemp- 
ter, prompter, sculpter, and the words related with these (ex- 
cept exemption, impromptni. But, tinal p is pronounced in cap, 
cape, and in a few propter names, as Alep. For ph, see 64^. 

72. Q, 4. — This consonant ia almost always followed ■K 
in French, ae in English, bj u ; but in French the u ie ^ 
generally silent, and the combination qn has the sound 

Thus, qnatre, ^uai, que, queue, quelqne, qui, quint, quotidian, 
qnoique, calqner, marquer, vainqois, vainquons. 

a. A Lard ft-sound before or i cannot be written in French 
except by qa; and hence qn sometimes takes the place of c in 
inflection and derivation when e or i is added : thus, vainqnez, 
vainqneut, vainquis, from vaincre; tnrqne, from tnrci ca- 
dnqne, from cadnc. 

6. But in a number of French words qn lia^ the same sound as 
in English. The commonest of these are quadrat, qaadri-, 
qnadra-, qnarto, qnatenie, questenr, quiescent, quiet (according 
to some autliorities), qninqna-, qoinqne-, qnintette, qaintnple, 
^itatenr, ^nation, ^uestre, equilateral, requiem. 

c A final q occurs (save in a very few proper names) only in 
taniiifloe, and coq, coeft, and is usually pronounced as a A,' but 
it is silent in coq dinde, tad in cinq before an initial consonant 
of a word numbered by it : thus, cinq livres.yiw hooks (not in le 
cinq mad. May 5rh, etc.). 

78. R, r. — This consonant ia always more or less rolled 


or trilled in Frencli, and so is made much more distinct 
than in ordinary English pronunciation. 

Thus, rare, frere, rire. aurore, pamre, roi. troia, fiToid. croiz, 
droit, partir, portenr. arbre, meortre, bruit, grand, pres, vrai. 

a. A final r is regiilarly pronounced (56S); but it is 
usually silent after e in words of more than one syllable. 

Thus, Bilent in fier (yiTb), aimer, parler, l^ger, entier, officier, 
etc.; pronounced in cber, fer. fier (adj. i, hier. mer, elc. an(i. 
before other silent flnai!>, In clerc, perd, perds, cerf, tiers, sert, 

6. Final r is also pronounced after e in the words of more than 
one syllable, amer, bitter, cancer, ctiiller, s-poon, enfer, hell, 
hiver, winter, and a lew foreign words, eiiiefly proper names, as 
mairister, Jupiter, Esther, Oder. It i.s not silent in sueh wordii 
before another silent final, unleas that final be the plural-sign s ; 
thus, it is pronounced in eavers, .iiiTers. uuivers, acquien, 
d&eit, Bobert (but silent in entiers, officiers, etc.). 

c. Final r is silent in monsieur, messieurs. 

d. In the future and conditional of the verbs conrir, 7-un, 
mourir, die, qn^rir, ask, and their coaapounds, the douhle r is dis- 
tinctly to be heard as two separate r's : thus, conrrai, monrrais, 

74. 9, s. — This eouBonant is in general pronounced 
with the sound which it ordinarily has in English (in our 
words fien^e, sister, etc.). 

Thus, sa. se, si, son. sur, espace, estime, poste, prisme, Sasqae, 
disparu, descriptif, transcrire, anse, penser. 

a. But g between two vowels has the sound of our s. 

Thus, raser. raison, 16se, misere, rose, blouse, ruse; also 
d^shonneur (sili-nl h). d^shabiller, etc. 

h. S ha.s the Roniiil of <■ also in trans- before a vowel : thus, 
transaction, transhumer (h silent), transitif; also in Alsace 
and alsacien, and in balsamiqne; also in a few other words 
where followed by a sonant consonant, as presbytere, Desd€- 
mone, desmode, and disgr&ce (according to some authorities). 

c. On the other hand, s has its own s-aound even between two 
vowels, when it is the initial of the second part of a compound 
word, as in vraisemblable, parasol, polysyllabe. d^snetuie, 
resanTer, Des^se; also in the conjugation of g6Bir(XL. 4), ex- 
cept the infinitive grisir itself. 

d. S final is regularly silent (56) ; but it is sounded in as, aee. 




alo^, cena, census, expreas. Sis, son, h^las, alas ! jadia, for- 
tnerly. laps, Ua, lily (ejccept in flenr-de-IiB), mals, maize, man, i 
March, moeura, murals, ours. dear, sens, jtt^iMe (except in seu 1 
commun), sua iLuensOB), tous, all (except when followttl by a * 
word whiuh it limits adjeutivelyl, vis, screw; alsci in n number of 
words of unchanged Latin form, as atlas, bis, /in'i-f; bloctis, 
gratis, onmibOB ; also ia most foreign proper names, ;is Romalns, 
Adonis, Hemphia, Lesbos, Andalous, Ladislas, Gil Bias, and a 
number of French ones, as Uons, Rtaeima, S«nlia, Fr^ns, Sieres 
(osuallf si-dze). 

e. S in the interior of a word is usually pronounced, even in 
the compounds lorsqne, presque, pnisqne, plns-qne-parfait : hut 
it is silent in many proper names (whieli have liept unelianged an 
ancient style of spellingi, as Cosine, Cosne, Rosny, Dngoesclin, 
Praslin, vosEes, F^lasgea. 

75. There are certain consonant compounds containing a and 
having a simple sound. Thus : 

a. A double s, or ss, is pronounced like a single a (as usual ; 
Sfc), but always with the hissing s-aouad, never as z : thus, asBez, 
blesser, disse, grosseaae, ponasasae, prosaien, vinaae. 

6. 8c, before e, i, y, is sounded as as : Ihus, scdne. scie, science, 
ascStiqae, laacif, obsc^nitd, Scytlie. 

c, Sell occurs only in a few foreign words, and is mostly pro- 
Doimced ns cb would be (English sh) : thus, scbiame, schamaue; 
but sometimes like ak, as in ach^e and its related words, sdio- 

76. T, t. — This cotiBonant is generally Bounded as in 

Thus, ta, taire, taoz, t&teT, te, tfite, titre, ton, tonte, tntenr, 
nette, irottoir, ^troite. 

a. Final t is regularly silent (56a) ; but it is pronounced in a 
number of words : namely, after a vowel in nt, do, brat, crude, 
cloA, hunh.' deficit, dot, tlowr//, &t,/bp. mat, dtw, net, neat, 
snbit. sudden (according to many authorities], transit, and 
hnit, eight (except before the initial consonant of a word num- 
bered by it) : after a consonant in est, east, onest, west, lest, 
ballast, Christ (but the s and t are silent in astichiist, and 
usually in J^ans-Chriat i. vhiat, rapt, rape, aept, seven (except 
before an initial consonant of a word numbered by it), and vingt, 
twerUy, in the numbers 31-39. As to words ending in ct after a 
vowel, there is much difference of usage ; ordinarily, c and t are 
both pronounced in tact, contact, exact, abject, coirect, direct, 
in&ct, strict; only c is pronounced in clrconspect, snapect, diB> 
trict; both c and t are silent in aspect, respect. Final t is 
further pronounced in a few unchanged Latin words, as exeat, 


and in man; fordgn proper names, as Japhvt. Aclunet : also, ac- 
cording' to some, at the end of a sentence, in bat, ffoal, and in 
&it, deed, and sot, fiiol, used as nouns. 

77, a. T followed by i, in certain endings where li in EngliBh 
bus the sTi-Eound, is ujunded as s (not as sh) : thus, partial, es- 
sentiel, egyptien, ambitienx, pl^potentiaire, Actium, pa- 
tient, patience, portion; also in tie corresponding to ci/ or Ha 
in £nglish, as d^mocratie, proph^tie, tninntie, inertie, B^otie ; 
and in tier (of a verbj corresponding to -Hate in English, aa 
initier, bf^batier; and in satiety. 

b. Bnt where the ti is preceded by s or x (and (t has in Eng- 
lish the cA-Round), t retauis its proper value : thus, question, 
mixtion. The same is the case in chntien and in ch&tier. 

c. Elsewhere, t before i has its own proper sound ; thus, moiti^r 
portier, contient, portions and porties (i.e., before the endiagSi 
ions and iez of Ist and 2d pi. of verba), etc. 

78. Tlio conibiniition th is everywhere pronounced as simple 
t: thus, th^a.tre, th^, path^ti^ne,' ath^iste, sympathie. It is 
silent in asthme and isUime. 

79. V, V. — This consonant ia sounded as in English. 
It never occurs as fiiia]. 

Thus, vala, venir, venve, viyast, vienne, vol, voir, vrai. 
active, vivre. 

80. W, w. — This consonant occurs oidy in a very small num- 
ber of foreign words. It is usually pronounced like English ■p; 
thus, wugon; but in a word or two rather as English w: thuB, 
whist, whig (the h. silent). 

Bl, X, X. — This consonant is for the moKt part pro- 
nounced like ks, m in English. 

Thus, saxe, seze, fixer, boxenr, Inxe, Alexandre, annexation, 
exciter, excaas, experience. 

a. In the initial syllable ex before a vowel, il is pronounced 
lilce gz: thus, exalte, exemple, exister, exil, exode, exhorter, 
exhumer (h silent); as also, of course, in the compounds of such 
words, as inexact. Initial x has in moat words the same gz- 
sound : thus, Z^nophon, Xavier, xylograplie. Xerxes is pro- 
nounced gzersesae. 

6. Final x is regularly sUent {56a) but it is pronounced, like 
s, in the numerals six, sir. and dix, (en (eiceyt before an initial 
consonant of a word numbered by them), in dix-aept, serenteim, 
Beatrix, Codix, Aix en Provence ; in Aix-la-Chapelle it is pro- 
nounced like ks. also in a few foreign words, as Ajax, Styx, 
larynx, index, prefix. In the compound numerals dix-hni^ 
eighlten, and dix-nenf, nineteen, it is sounded as ?. 




c. M^al X is Bovmded as s (not z) in soixante sixty, and in a 
few proper names, as Bmxelles. Anxsrre ; and as z in denxiBiDe 
second, u^ime sixth, dixi^e tenth, aixaine half a dozen. 

82. T, y. — This letter tas generaUy tlie value of a vowel, 
being pronounced aa i, or as double i, aud as such has been 
treated of above (36, 37). lu a few foreign words, it has the 
value of the English conaonantal (semi-vowel) y : thus, yacht 
(pronounced yak), Y^men, Tocatan, etc. 

83. Z, z. — 'Thig cooeonaiit has in general the eame 
Boand as in English. 

Thus, Zama, zele, ngtag, zone, zymotiqne, gazon. 

a. Final a is regularly sileut (56a) : thus, nez, aimez, riz. 

But it is pronounced, a^ z, in gaz gas, and in certain proper 
names, as Acliaz, Berlioz ; and as 5 in a few other proper names, 
as CorteE, Velasquez, Suez. 



84. A tina! consonant oeually silent is liable to be pro- 
nounced when followed by another word beginning with 
a Towel (or inirte h). This is called the linking or carry- 
ing-on of the final (in French, liaison ). 

a. The final consonant thus carried on is pronounced 
directly npon the following vowel, as if a part of the 
same ayllahle witli it ; any relaxation or pause is to be made 
before the consonant, not between it and the vowel. 

i. The carrying-on of the final in any case depends 
npon the eloseneaa of connection between the two words, 
and also in part upon the general style of utterance. 

c. Thus, close grammatical connection between the two words, 
dependence of the one on the other, tavora the linking. This, 
then, generally or invariably takes place between an article or ' 
possessive or other adjective and the following qualified noun j ' 
between a verb and its preceding or following pronoun, subjeot 
or object, or a verb and its preceding aubject noun ; between an 
auxiliary and following participle ; between an adverb and the fol- 
lowing qualified adjective or adverb ; between a preposition and 
its governed noun ; and so on. In cases of less close connection, 
tlie linking depends in part on euphony as determined by the 
general habits of the language, in part on the style of deliver; : 


in reading aloud, namely, and in formal or solemn discourse, a 
^at deal more linking is done than in the freedom of conversa- 
lion. Tills class of differences, of course, is only to be learned by 
much experience. And linking is to be avoided where there is a 
natural pause, whether marked by a sign of punctuation or not. 

85. «. Some iinal consonants hare their own proper 
sound when ciirried on to the following initial vowel. 

Thus, de broc.en boncbe, il est donc_arriTd, mu-homme. 
rien.^ faire, trop^avant, beancoap.occnp^, cinq^enfants. 
aimer. k. boire, 1e pramier^homme, cetwhabit, est^il, motc^ 
mot, avez_6t6, allez^y. 

b. Bnt final s and x, when linked, take the sound of i ; 
d takes that of t ; and s (rare) takes that of k. 

Thus, les„hommaa, nos„amis„ont, nonB„auronft_en, 
core, sajia„elle ; denx.hommes, de beaoz^yeuz, des cha- 
peauz^enomtes, tu peuz^y aller; nn grand^Iiomme,, 
qnand^il vient, pied-a-terre; tm rang^^ler^. ce long.hiTer. 
le joog.-inB'Dpportable. But the d of nord keeps its, d-sound. 

c. A linnl consonant that is not silent has in general the same 
sound before a vowel as before a consonant : thus, snd-oiiest, 
David ^tait, Ajax eat. But six and dix are linked with s fol- 
lowing Tiumbered noun after the manner of words ending in 
silent X (i.e., with z) ; and the f of nenf in a like situation has 
the sound of v; thus, six_eiifaDts. dix^bommes, neniLajis. Al- 
so, according to most authorities, the s o£ fils, jadis, sens, is 
linked as z. 

86. Special exceptional cases are to be noted as fol- 

a. The t of et and is never carried on. 

6. A final consonant after r (unless it bo the plural sign b) is 
averse to linking : thus, vers nne henre, hors nn aenl, il na sert 
i, lien (but Bert=il). 

c. The final n of a nasal syllabic is carried on only in cases of 
close grammatical connection ; and when the carrying-on takes 
place, the preceding vowel loses more or less (sometimes all) of 
ito nasal tone, while retaining the same vowel-quality as in its 
naeal utterance : thus, iuu.eiL&nt, moik^ajni, ca boiuJtomme, 
eiT-Italie, bieiLBimabls, rieiu.ik dire, en plain^air, enivrer, 

IT All wonis having an esceptional pronuuciation will be marked 
In the vciculmliiries below by a preflxed asterisk ; thus. *fiU. Then 
the gchoral vocabulary at the cml of lae volume will give liie neces- 
uuy ruferencos. 



1. All nouns in French are either masculine or femi- 

For the distinction of maeculino and feminine nouns aa shown 
by their meaning or by their ending, see Second Part, § 13 etc. In 
general, names of male beings are masculine, and those of female 
beings are feminine ; tbe names of things having no sex are maa- 
cuUne or feminine, for the moat part according aa they were so in 
latin ; but, the old neuter having been lost, nouns of that gender 
in Latin have become masculine in French. 

2. Hence, words qualifying or relating to nonna — 
aB articles, adjectives, pronouns — have also usually a dis- 
tinction of masculine and feminine form, so as to agree 
in gender with the nouns to which they belong. 

3. There are, as in English, two articles, the definite 
and the indefinite. 

4. The definite article has in the singular a different 
form for each gender: namely, le before a masculine 
noun, and la before a feminine. Examples are : 

le pera, (A« foffier la meTG, Me mother 

le Toi, CAe king la reine, £A« qu^en. 

Is chevAl, (h» Itorm Is vaohe, the eow 

le llvre, Oie book la flenr, thepmer 

But in the plural there is one form of the article, le^ 
for both genders: thus, 

iBB psret, iheJaOwn lei msTei, the motiurt 

let Ilvrei, the books les fieon, thejhuwi 

5. Before a word beginning witli a vowel for h mute : 
64^), le and la both lose their vowel, and take the apos- 
trophe, beeoniing alike I {ZQc, 15) : thus, 

I'ami, thefrieTid I'ajniB, Vie (female) friend 

I'homnLB, the man I'heTirB, lAe hour 

6. The indefinite article ia iin before a maecaline 
noun, and nne before a feminine ; thus, 

iiD pere, a fattier hub mBrs, a jnother 

nn Toi, a king nne relna, a quevti 

nn UTr>, a book nne flsoi, aJUiKT 

The indefinite article has no plural. 

7. The articles iiiiiat always be repeated id French 
before every noun to which they belong (that ie, an ar- 
ticle may not be understood from a nonn to a following 
noun, as it often is in English) : thus, 

the father and mother, le pare st la mire 
a king and queen, nn roi et one reiue 

8. The commonest posseaeivea used with nouns are 
mon maec, ma fern., my ; son m., sa {., his or her or 
ite ; uotre m, f. our; yotre ui, f. your: thus, 

mon pSra, myfaOier ma mire, my mother 

■on Utt«, hS» or her book t% fleur, hit or A«r or itt fioaer 

notre unl, owfrtetid votro amie, yowr (female) ftiend 


9. The PEEBKNT tense of the verb avoir ha^'e is as fol- 

j'ai, IhiMe noni avoiu, im have 

n ftt, (^u Aa«f yoDB avu, you AaM y . 

' 11 k, A« Aa« U( DDt, fAe^ (m.) Aaw ' 

I elle.k, the hat aUai ont. f Af^ {f.) hate 

a. The abbreviatioQ j' ia for Jo, J (26c). Notice that je ia not 
written with a capital, like English /. 

6. In French, as in English, the pronoun of the '2d pere. plural, 
Tons you, is ordinarily used in addressing an; one, instead oE 
ta iliou. In the exercises, therefore, yoti should always be ren- 
dered with Tons (and your with votre), and tn should be used 
only when thou is given in the English. 

10. The same tense in the interrogative form is as 
follows ; 

ai-ja, Rate If avona-iioiu, harie wet 

M-ta, hatt thout avai-Tons, ham ymit 

B-t-il, hat hel ODt-tla, hate theg (m.)t 

a-t-alla, has ihet ont-aUaa, haM Aey (f.)? 


a. For the pronunciation of je in ai-je and the like, Bee 18«. 

6. It ia seen that in French (as in English) the subjeot-pronoan 
is put after the verb in asking a question : and it must always be 
joined to the verb by a hyphen. 

c If the 8d pers. aing. of any verb ends in a vowel, a t ia 
added to it, with a hyphen between, whenever it is followed by 
the pronoun il or elle (or by on: XXVII. 4). 

This t Is that of the 3il sine. In r*tin, restored in such cafrs by anaJogj' wllb 
the verbs that hsve retained It throughout, as eat-ll, teat-11. 

11, But if tbe subject o£ a verb used interrogatively 
is a norai, the noun ia generally put first, and then a eor- 
reeponding pronoun ia put after the verb : that is, tbe 
subject is first stated, aud then the (jueetion is asked about 
it by means of a pronoun. 

Thus, haa the man a bookf is not a rhomme un Uvre7 but 
lliomme a^-t-il nn livre ? (literally, the man, has he a book f). 

a. For certain exceptions, see XXV. 6. 


1« pere, the father 
U 'flli, Ofe ton 
la frire, the brother 
I'onele, Oi£ uncle 
le MUfln m., (A« eoag, 
rhonunB m., t!ie man 
le Utti, the book 
Uplnma, the pen 
leel^en, thedog 
ooi, ^es 

la more, the moihw 

U aila, the daughter, girt 

le papier, the paper 
le crayon, the peneS 
le ehtt, (^ futi 


' L'homme a nn pt^re et uno mfire. ' A-t-il un chien on 
un chat ? * II a un chien, et nous avons un chat. ' Avez- 
Tona le livre ? ' Oui, j'ai mon livre et votre crayon, * Moa 
pSre a le papier et la plume. ' As-tu une soeuf ? ' J'ai 
ane soenr et un frSre. ' Ont-ila nn cousin ? "Us ont une 
cousine e'fc une tante. " La femme a-t'elle sa plume ou son 
crayon ? " Elle a mon papier et notre crayon. " Sa tante 

a-t-elle un fils P "Non, elle a une fiile. "Nous avona 
notre livre, et toub avjgz votre papier. '* Monjincle a une 
femme. " A-t-il un fils ? " Nori, il a nne fille. 

Theme 1. 
' I have an uncle. ' My uncle has a dog, and mv annt 
has a cat. ' Has the roan the paper? ' He has my paper 
and your pen. ' Have you a brother ? ' No, we have a 
sister. ' Our sister has her book and her pencil, * Hast 
thou a dog ? ' Yes, and my brother has a dog and a cat. 
"Has the woman a mother or a father? " She has a moth- 
er, and her mother hau a father and a cousin. " Has your 
cousin oiir pencil? " No, she has her pencil and our pen. 
'* They have our pencil and your pen, " The man has his 
book, and we have our paper. 


1. The plural of a noun is generally formed in 
French, aa in English, by adding b to the singular: thus, 

le rol, tK^ king In roii, the kings 

U fleur, OeJloK&r Iw flenri, t/iejloimv 

I'hDmme, the man lea^mmM, tAe men 

The principal exceptions to this rule are as follows : 

2. Nouns ending in the sibilants a, i, and z have the 
Bame form in the plural ag in the singular: thus, 

I« flla, tA« A?n lei flli, Ihe gong 

It nolz, the walmit let noix, ths iralnuts 

la n«t, the lUite lai noi, tht nosM 



3. Nouns ending in aa and eu, and a few in on, add x 
instead of b : tlnis, 

le oliapeaii, t/ie hat lei ohftpeftox, t/ie halt 

le Ueo, the place In liens, IheplaeM 

la gencm, the knee 1m genoi^ the knees 

The BOtms in oa taking x in the plural are ^yon jewel, cail' 

lOD peiMe, chon cabbage, eenon knee, hiboa mol, joiqon play- _ 

thing, pon fo(we— all maaculine. Other nouns in on take b, ac- 

QOTcUng to the general rule : e.g., fotu fools, clooa naUs, tronc 

1 Most nonns ending ia al and ail cliangu these end- 
ings to anx for the plnral: thus, 
le cbeval, ihe horte 
le IraYi^, Ou work 

lea chevauz, ffu; hanet 
lei travaox, the aork» 

Exceptions Btre^^balls, c ajfmviiil B cai-nivais, cbacaiB Jaekals, 
r^rals treats, ddtfils details, eventails /am, gonTermuls rud- 
ders, portaila doarujaya (all miiaculine), and a few otherB. 

6. A few nouns form their plural quite irregularly; 
the most important are: 

I'ibU, lh« eye lea ^enx, the eye* 

le diet, Ow Jieaven lee clenx, the heave/ts 

For othfer cases, see Second Part, § 19 etc. 
6. Some nouna are used only in the singular, others only in 
the plural ; some have different plural forms, according to their 
different meanings : see Second Fart, § 19 etc. 

7. The plurals of the possessives already given are 
mes my, sea his or her or its, hob our, vob your. 

8. The FBESEiiT tense of the verb dtre be is as fol- 

tv M, thou art voni Stei. voa are 


o. Compare the LMln ; cga 

ill Bont, they (m.) an 
Bilea eont, th^{i.'ia 

b. The question -forms are suis-je, es-tn, etc. (as for the pres- 
ent of avoir: I. 10), with the subject after the verb, and a hy- 
phen between. 




Ik mauon, the hovte 

la pone, Utt door, gale 

llksblL^m., the coat 

Is ohapaan, llie hat, Umnet 

ranlmal m... the aniinal 

le bra», the arm 

I'mll m., the eye 

nn m., one f., ontf 

troll, tliree 


la chambre, t 

la (enetre, We window 
la robs, f/ie (i7\!«s 
le tableau, the picture 
le cheval, the h/ine 
la jambe, f^ leg 
les yeoi, theeyea 
deoz, tow J^/' 
anui, oiw ,?■**-" 

EXERrtSE 2. 

' Votre pfire a-t-il noe maiaon ? ' Oni, il a une maUon. 
"Sa maiHon a une porte, deux chambres, et quatre fen^treB. 
* Mon oncle a deux file ; ila Bont meg cousins. ' J'ai un 
babit et deux chapeaux. 'L'bomme a deux jambes ; raais 
lee cbevau^t lea cbiens ont quatre jambes. ' L'bomme a 
deux brae et deux yeux, et lea animaux"^ont auesi denx 
yeux, ° La fille a-t-elle une robe ? ' La fille a trois robes 
et un chapean. '°Avez-voua mea tableaux? "J'ai mon 
tableau ; maia ma couaine a vos tableaux. " Sa cfaambre 
a trois fen^tres et deux portes. " Vous avez uoa robes et 
nos habita. " Mea CDuaiua ont une niaison, un cheval, et 
deux cbiens. 

Theme 2. 

' Haa tbe man two legs? 'He baa twD arms and two 
legs, but tbe animals bave four lega. ' My father and my 
motber have a house, three borees; and four dogs. ' The 
giria are my cousins. 'Her cousins are three girls, and 
they have three bats and three dreaaee. * Tbe men have a 
dog and a borae. ' Our uncle bae four sons ; they are our 
coueins. ' His daughter i* also a cousin. ' She has my 
bat, and I have her dresses. '° Your siater has a house. 
" Her house has two doors, three rooms, and four ■windows. 
" The horse is an animal. " Hia brothers bave three pio- 
tureii. " My two sisters have two horses. 

THE PBEPosrnoira A and de. 


Are yoa? We are and you are also. Are theyf HaS-1 
Bhe ? Thon art. Is he ? They have. They are. I ! 
You have. Are we ? She is. Hast thou ? We are and 
we have. 
AH the tensM learned should be exsrcisad upon with aucb scattering qoasUom 


1. Nouns in French have no cases. The same noun- 
form is used both as subject and object of a verb, and 
after a prepoeition (as in English) ; and tlie meaning of 
the English possessive is (as often in English also) ex- 
pressed by help of the preposition de of. 

a. Thus, we have to say in French the book qf the man, le 
Uvn de rhomme, for tfw man's book, because the French has no 
possessive case-form hke man's. The phrase de I'honmie qf the 
man ia in some grammars called the genitive case of honune 
man — and so with other nouna. 

2. The preposition de is always contracted with the 
article le into dn, and with the article les into des; while 
with la and 1' it remains unchanged : thus, 

dn pSre (never da le pere), of the father, the father's 
dM pira* (never de les pares), of the faihert, the fathers' 
del mSrea (never de lei metes), of the motkere, Bie mother^ 

but, on the other hand, 

ia U min, of the mother, the de U Sear, c/fV/ouw 

^\'h.'imm»,eftheman, Ihenutn'a it Vui^a, of t?ie [female) friend 

34 LS3S0K III. 

3. The e of de is apostrophized {26o) before any 
vowel (or silent h.}: thus, 

d'Tin homms, of a man d'une fleor, of a flower 

d'ami, of friend. d'homme, of man 

4, The preposition & to is in like manner always con- 
tracted with the article le into an, aud with the article le8 
into aux; but with la and 1' it remains unchanged : thns, 
an pere (never il le pere), io the aoi perw, U> thefathert 

an roi (acvcr ii le roi), to Vie king anx reinei, to the qtieens 
but, OQ the other hand, 

k la mere, to iAe mother a la flenr, to thefiower 

i. I'homme, to the man a. I'arnle, to the {female) friend 

a. A noun in French is never used (as it sometimes is in English) 
datively, or as indirect object of a verb without a preposition, 
ThuB, / give the itMn the book is always je doime le livre & 
rhomme — literally, / give the hook ta tlie man. The phrase k 
rhoiume to the mart ia in some grammars called the dative case 
of homme man — and so with other nouns. 

6. The prepositions de and i, must be repeated before 
every noun that they govern : thus, 

dee perei et dea meres, of thefathen and motkert 
anz hsmmea, aux fsmmei, et anz enfonts, to the msn, leiimtn, and 
6. For belong is used the verb §tre be, foUowed by k to. 
Thus, h. qui est-il whose is it? il est a. ma coosine it is my 
covsijt'a (literally, it is or belongs to my cousin). 

7. The IMPERFECT tenses of avoir have and 
ire as follows : 

j'avaiB, I had j'etaiB, J was .i^ 

ts ivaii, l/um Imdet tn etais, t/imi leait 

a avalt, Jiehad 11 etait, /le icai 

nans avioiu, loe had nous etioDi, we were 

voni avlei, ytm Itad voiti etiei, you were 

11» Bvaient, they had ill etaient, thts teeri 

a. Every imperfect in the language, without eseeptio 


I DE. 


fleeted in this way, with the endings -ais, -aiB, -ait, -ions, -ias, 

b. Tliis tense expresses continnoua past action {see g 119), and 
is ofton to be rendered by teas Tiaving, kept having, used to have, 
and the like. 

c. The interrogative form is avais-je, 6tais-tu. avait-il, etc., 
as in the tenses already given. 

d. The French Impprfect b from the Latin imperfect : avBiit In habehAm ; 
At>is Ib ■tHbam— siDce parte of Die Terb stare ttand ' 
up (he Inflection of the verb be In Frencti (see below, XI. 

have been taken to Gil 



I'uniiD., the friend 
le nereit, the nephew 
I'en&ntm., ihtdiOd 
la judin, the garden 

■ U b^B, the leaf, sheet 
ja daniM, I give 

- fntBl, here ii or are 

ramie f., tk^ friend 

la aieca, the nieee 

le gsrf on, the hay 

I'arbre m,, Gte tree 

U flaor, thejiowier 

11, ella donne, he, she gitet 

ToQfi; there is or ore 

' La fille de mon oncle est ma consine, et je sma son 
coasiii. * Ma cousinc donne la fleur d votre niSce. * Le 

1 garden est le fils du nevea de mon pfire. * Je donne lea 
fieurs du jardin aux enfants. ' Votre sceur a-t-elle mes 
crayons? 'Elle a lea crayons des filles et dea gargona. 
' L'enfant est le fils de I'ami de ma stBur. ' Voici la maison 
des deux amies de ma mere. ' Votre ami a-t-il un jardin ? 
" Voil4 lea arbres du jardin de mon ami, " La femme 
donne une fleur au garijon. " La maison est a mon pSre. 
" VoilA lea fenilles de I'arbre ; elles sont a votre amie. " 
" A-t-elle aussi les fleurs f " Non, les deurs sont d I'enfant. 
" Voici la porte do ma obambre. " La maison de nos 
amis a qnatre f engtres. 

Tbeue 3. 
' The man's coat and hat. ' The woman's dresa. ' The 
. , eyes of the horse are two, his legs are four, ' I have the 
" boy's dog and the girl's cat. * I give the cat to the chil- 


dren, aDd the dog to 
of the girls have also 
of his friend. 'My 
the girls the flowers, 
honse is my friend's. 
and the girl gives hi 
paper is the cliildren'i 
house belongs to my 
nephew is my niece, 
three leaves. 

LE880N IT. 

the son of my cousin. ' The brothers 

horse. ' He gives a hat to the son 

uncle gives the boys the leaves, and 

' There are the hoy's books. " The 

"The boy gives his sister a book, 

?r brother a pen and pencil. " The 

?, bat the pens are my sisters'. " The 

father's brother. " The sister of my 

" She gives her aunt a flower and 


He was. Had yon? They are. Was aheP Thou 
hadst. They were. Are we ? I had. Was I ? Had 
she or had he ? They have and they had. Am I ? You 
are. Art thou ? She is. 



1. The partitive sense of a Donn is that which in 
English may be expressed by putting some or ani/ before 
the noDn, bot which is oftenest left unexpreesed. 

Thus, have you bread (i.e., some bread, or any bread) f u-e 
have books (or, some booka) ; the;/ luid pens, but they had no itik 
(i.e., some pens, not any ink) ; and so on. 

2. In French, this sense of a noun is in general dis- 
tinctly expressed, by putting before it the preposition de 
of, along (usually) with the definite article : thus, 

j'aJdn pain, Ihave bread (literally, ofl^ bread) 
»vei-TOM del livTH, have you booka (literally, o/(Ae book»)1 
r doniiH-inol ds la brl&e et da 1'«r,ii, gine me tome flour and wUer 


The rules for the combmation of de with le and lea, and for 
the repetition of de before every noun that it governs, have been 
already given (III. 2, 5). 

3.* Sometimes, however, the article is omitted, and the prepo- 
sition alone expresses the partitive sense of the noun. This is 
the case : 

a. When the noun has an adjective before it {see below, VIII. 
6): thus, 

j'ai de bon ptun (not du bon pain), / have good bread 
nous avons d'exceUents livres, tee Itave esecellent books 

b. After a negative verb (see below, XTl. 7) : thus, 

je n'ai pas de pain (not du pain), Ihaoe not any bread 
nooB n'aTOOH jajoais de livres, we never have books 

4. More rarely, both preposition and article are omitted, and 
the bare noun stands in the partitive sense, as in English, This 
is the case : 

a. After ni., meaning neither ... nor (see below.XII, 7a): 

je n'ai ni pain ni benire, I have neither bread nor butter 

h. In long enumerations : thus,, 
il y a aur la table ean/Tin, ifidre, pain, benrre, &omage, 
there is on the table water, wine, beer, bread, butter, cheese 

For further details and exceptions aa to the espresaion of the 
partitive sense of a noun, see Second Part, S 35. 

5. On the other hand, a noun la Bometimes used in 
its moBt inclusive senee, or as signifjing the whole cJass 
of objects to vrbieh it applies. This sense, ■which is uen- 
ally left unexpressed in English, requires in French the 
definite article before the noun : thus, 

man (i.e., the whole race) i» mortal, rhomma est mortal 
men li.e., alt men) are mortal, les honunei BOut mortals 
life is ehert, la vie eit conrte 
tleep u the broHier of death, le BOmmeil eat le frera de la mort 

a. The article thus used may conveniently be called 
the iNOLuarvE article, 

b. The inclusive article is especially common before abstract 
nonns : e.g., la vie life, la beant^ beauty, la nature Nature, la 
fbrtiue fortune, la sensibility sensibility. 



c. The inclusive article is not wholly wanting with a » „ 
noun in English : thus, the dog is an enemy nfthe cat; iheh 
has Jive fingers, and so on. 

6. The frequently occurring expression of the partitive and 
inclnaivB senses of the noun, which in English are left to be 
simply inferred from the connection, is a marked feature of 
French usage. Often, the two senses, alike unexpressed in Eng- 
lish, are dStinguished in French in the same brief sentence ; 
thus, birds have wings [i.e., all birds, but a certain limited num- 
ber of wingsi. les oiseanx ont des ailes ; time is money, le tamps 
est de I'argent. 

7. The PRETEKiT tenseB of avoir have and Stre he are 
as follows : 

j'eni, Ihad 

I, thoa haxUt 
nam efmtt, v>e had 
TOO! eatH, you had 
111 enrsnt, Ihey had 
. As to the pronunciati< 
6. All preterits in the language, 

ja tat, Iteai 
to foa, thtm loaet 
il (at, he wa» 
nam fOmet, loe teere 
TOM fatM, you wer, 
ill fnrent, <^ wen 
e 416. 

£ etc. , 

^ „ , without exception, have ths 
plural endings -mes, -tea, -rent, and before the first two of these 
endings they have a circumfleited vowel (either fl, as here, or &, 
or i) ; and all excepting those of the first regular conjugation 
(SVIII.) have -b, -%, -t, as here, in the singular. 

c. The preterit espresses simple past action, with nothing else 
impUed. In some grammars, the tense is called the past defi- 
nite (Er. pasaS d^fini). 

d. The interrogative form is ens-je, fha-tn, ent-il. and so on, as 
in the other tenses. 

Ib the Lattn perfect ; coQipare witli fas etc the Latin 


Diea, God 
le pain, lAe bread 
1« twnrre, the batter 
le mI, ^ saU 
la eaffi, lAe eoff» 
le Ult, tA0 mOft 

U terre, (he sarth 
la viands, the meat 
le bomage, iheeheeta 
le poivre, the ptpper 
le tbe, tM tea 


iTB, the sugar 
'e f., tM iak 


' L'enfant avait-il du pain ? ' Oni, il avait dn pain et 
du beurre. ' Mon fr^re donne des fruits a votre sceur. 
' Sea filles ont-clles du caf S ? ' Eiles ont du caf6, et elles 
ont anasi du lalt et du sucre. ' Avez-voua du f romage ? 
'Non, mais j'ai du beurre, ' Je donne au garijon de la 
viande ; il a du ael et du poivre auaei. ' A-t-il des livres 
et dea crayons? '° Elle avait du papier et de I'encre. 
" L'bonune est l'enfant de Dieu, " Dieu donne aui 
bommes les fruits de la terre. '" L'hoiume est un animal. 
" Voild des livres ; ils sont a mon ami. " As-tu des frfires 
et dee acenrs ? " Hon, maia j'ai dea amis et des amiea. 

Theme 4, 
' Have you any coffee or tea ? ' Yea, we have some 
coffee, and our mother bas some tea. ' His motber gives 
bread and milk to her children. ' Have your sisters meat, 
pepper, and salt ? ' No, but ibey have bread and ebeeae. 
' I have a garden, and I give fruit to my friends. ' Have 
you my pencils ? ' Youi" brother haa your pencils, bnt I 
have some paper and pena, ' The boy has horses and 
doga. " Cats are animals. " The dog is also an animal. 
" God gives to man flowers, the fruits of the earth, '^ God 
is the friend of man. " The earth is the garden of God. 
"Had the child a father or mother? "No, but she had 
friends and siatera. " Here are coats and bats. " There 
jve books and pens. 


(For the put Forms, gfre both loiperfect and preterlC.) 

Yon had. Had they? Haa she? We have. They 

were. la he? Have you? You were. He was. Had 

I ? 1 am. Thou waat. Hadst tbou ? I waa. 


1, In French (as often in English), the material of 
whicli anything is made is expressed by help of thfl 
prepoaition de of: thas, 

vna bagu d'or, a rin^ 0goid una 'cnillar d'argsnt, a tpoon 


U bonna ds *oie, the purae of silk d« Dhapeanx ds Telonri, haU 
of velvet 

a. Such expresMona as a gold ring, a siluer spoon, a silk purse, 
a velvet hat, in which wo use in En^hsh the noun of matt^^ as 
if it were an adjective, are impossible in French. 

6. English adjectives of material in -en or -n, as jtvoden, imolen, 
leathern, also have to be expressed in French by de and the noun 
of material : thus, 

one tablB de boll, a wooden taiHe da diap de laine, tome itoolen cloth 

2, Nonna expressing measure of quantity, of weight, 
of number, and so on, are also followed {as usually in 
English) by de of before the name of the thing meae- 
ured: thus, 

una bonteilla da vin, a botUe of nne livre de mere, a pound of 

dai morceavz da [nln, hiti of d<M pairea de bM, pain<if jfucjt- 
bread iriQi 

3. Also after adverbs of qnantity, de of is requiring 
iu French (though usually omitted in English) : thus, 

beauconp d'ean, much aiater (literally, mvch of water) 
trop de Tin, too miieh inine auei de fletira, enough fowen 

Tliia construction is that of a noun instead of an adverb, or 

like that of the eorrespouding English words before this and 

that : thus, enough of this arid too much of that. 

4. The commonest adverbs of quantity are : 
tMatieonpi'mueA, man]/ penriiij^, /«w 

trop, too much, too many trop ftjS-joo little, tooftu 

tent, *o tiMieA, to many antantjOrmucA, a» man^ 

*-— '■'-1, hoa muek f luwsi, humgh 




1 6tre he are 

4. AsME enough m never allowed to stand, as in Englisb, after 
the noun niL-asurtd : thus, always asses de pain, for English 
enough bread, or bread enough. 

b. After ^JQL also meaning much, many, and la plnpart 
most (Iite^a[1^^7(e more part), de must be followed by the defi- 
nite article before the noun : thus, bieq deg hommes (not 
dliommes) many tnen, l aplnpax t dea livrea tnost books. 


6. The FDTUBB teoBes of avoir have a 

j'&ual, IihaS have 

tn auriii, thov ipitt have 

11 aura, he wilt Jiarie 

nooi anroni, -we Aall ham 

Tom anrei, yov, will /lave 

ill Boroiit, thfj/ will hare Us s«rant, tfiej/ wiU be 

a. Every future in the language, without exception, is inflected 
like these, with the endings -aj, -as, -a, -ons, -ez, -ont, and with 
r before the endings. 

b. The interrogative form is, as in other tenses, anrai-je, 
Beraa-tn, anra-t-U (1. 10c), ete. 

<■. The Frencli ruture comspoDdB wllli no lAtiu tense, but is a modem (oroub 
a, moile br addtne the present of avoir to the Infloitive of the verb ; thiu^ 
" sted rrom xTolr-nl. /AovB (0 Ani'f, etc. Hence the correepc ad 

JB lerai, lAaH be 
tn leru, thou leilt be 
11 lerft, he viill be 
dohm leronti, weehallbe 
Tons leiei, you wilt be 

ontraetedtr ... 
endings with tbosi 

I since the Fi 

■ii Ineultlve Bins 

ence aJso the pi 


(Beddes Che words of 
Is Tin, th£ leine 
la drap, the doth, 
la Uine, the wool 
U labia, t/ie liibte 
\t metre, the meter, ya/r4 
la bonteiile, the bottle 
U taue, Ou cap 
le bolt, the wood 

quantity given in the LesBoa.) 
I'ean f., the water 
le velonri, l/ie velwC 
la goie, the silk 
la chaiie, tAe chair 
la livre, the, pound 
le verre, the glate 
le morosan, the hit, pieae 
qne, than, as 


* ATez-Tous nne bouteille de vin 

verre d'ean, et un morceau de pain. 

* Non, maiB j'ai un 
* Men atni a nne table 

de bois et beaucoup de chaises. ' 11 a plus de cbaie^s qne 
de tables. ' Combien de tableaux avez-vous? ' Noub 
avons troiB tableaux. ' Le gar;on a moioB de plumes que 
de crayons. ' Votre sceur a-t-elle des robes de drap ? 
' Elle a des robes de soie et un chapeau de velours, 
" J'avais deux habits et autant de chapeaax. " Avaient- 
elles da drap de laine? " Aviez-voua autant de soie que 
de velours ? " Nous avons quatre mfitres de soie, et assez 
de velours, " H avait trop de vin et trop peu d'eau. 
" Elle donne 4 son frfire une tasae de th6 ou de caf6. 
" Bien des hommea ont peu de p^ et de viande. " La 
plupart dea tablea sont de bois. 

Theme 5. 
' Had yoQ much wine ? ' I had a cup of tea and a bit 
of bread. ' Your daughter baa my silk drese. ' I had too 
many pens and pencils, and too little paper. ' Has the girl 
dresses enough f ' She has three woollen dresses, and as 
many hats. ' The man gives a bottle of wine to his friends. 
* She bad also a bit of bread and cheese, and a glass of 
milk. ' I have more friends than brothers. " Most men 
have water enough, and many men have too much wine. 
" My mother had many yards of silk and velvet. " We 
have wooden tables and glass bottles. " Most bottles are 
of glass. " My father gives bis niece four yards of cloth 
and a little velvet. '* I bad three pounds of tea and as 
much coffee, and a pound of sugar, " Tou have less pep- 
per than salt. " There are many books and sheets of pa- 


She will have. Will be be? Were they? We shall 
be. They will have. Is be? Had you? I shall be. 
Shall I have ? They' had. We are. We shall have. 
Wilt thou have ? You will be. 




1, The commonest French prepoBitions 
de) are as follows : 

tpria, a/Ier 

derrifire, feMnd ponr,/«- 

ftTuit, ii/ffre (previous 

devant, before (in front wqb, leiOioat 



ftTN, le^ 

en, tn, tnto mu, under 

cliei, at the Tutune of 

entre, between but, ^/pm 

dull, in. into 

par, ii'. WwuffA Ten, enver*, t 

Other prepositions 

and preposition -phrases will be given 

later Leeson (XXXllI.)- 

a. Por in or info, dons is more common than en; tlnd en is 
almost never used before the definite article or a possessive. 

6. Ot the two prepositions meaning before, a-vant is used only 
of time, devaut only of place. 

e. Chez at theliouse o/may oft«n l>e rendered by with, but in a 
different sense from avec : thus, dioez chez nous, dine with us, 
i.e., at our house ; but dlnez avec nous, dine with us, i.e., along 
with us, in onr company somewhere. 

2. Names of countries and provinces in Trench gen- 
erally take the definite article. 

a. Some of the commonest names of countries are: 
la TniUM, Pmnee I'Ameriqne, America 

PAngleterre. England rEorope, Europe 

I'Allaiiis^B, Qerma7iy I'Aaia, Asia 

I'Sipagae, Spain I'Afrique, Afriea 

I'ltalis, Italy la Chjne, China 

la Bnlwe, Steiixerlaind la Belgiqne, Belgium 

I'AntrioliB, Austria la'Hollonde, BoiUaid 

U PniiH, Prtutia la Sneds, Saed^i 

Iwia, Bmtia la Vonige, NorvMiy 

All these are feminine ; masculine are le Danemark Denmark, 
le Hanovre Hanover, le Ueziqne Mexico, le Japon Japan, and 
a few others. 

3. But the article is omitted before names of coun- 
tries ill certain eases, especially tLe following : 

a. After en in, into, to : thus, il eet en France he is 
in France, je vais en Amiriqne lam going to Ajnerica. 

b. After words meaning kin^, emperor, kingdom, empire, 
duchy, or the like ; also after lustoire historff, carte map, etc. : 
thus, roi de I^unce king of France, Tempire d'AUemagne the 
empire of Germany, nne carte d'AmiSrique a map af America. 

L". After the name of a commodity coming from tlie country 
designated : thus, lea Tins de France the -wines of France (French 
wines), dn cnir de Knssie Russian leather, de X'or de Califomie 
some Califomian gold. 

4. Witli the name of a country, the preposition en is 
OBed, to express both in and to (literally, into) ; but with 
the name of a city or town, k is used, to express both to 
and at or in. 

Thus, je vais en Angleterra / am going_ to England, but je 
vaia & Londres 1 am going to London, and il demenre en Italie 
he lives in Italy, but il demenre k Bome he lives in (at) Some. 

6, With regard to the use of the article, other proper 
names follow the same roles in French as in English: 

a. Names of persons and of cities and towns are used without 
the article. 

6. Names of mountains and rivers take the article. 

c. Examples of common names of persons are : 
J«an, Jo/in, Jekune, Jane, Joan, Joanna 
Lonii, Lewi* Loniie, Louisa 

Henri, Hear}/ Heiuriette, Eenrietta, Barriet 

JniM, Juliiis Jnlie, Jvlia 

Fren^oiB, Franeit. Frank Tr»n9oi»e, France*, fbnny 

GulUaama, Wiiliaiii Harie, Mary, Maria 

d. Examples of names of towns are : 
Londrn, London OsneT*, Qmeea 
TlBime, Tiernta TeniM, Veniee 
*BraxaUM, BruMeli ^P"^ Lyon* 


e. Examples of Dames of mountains and rivers are : 

IsB Alpai, e^ Alpt In Fyrencifli, the Pyrenttt 

le Khin, the Bkine U Tamiie, CAd Thainet 

1b Dauabe, f^ Danvhe la Baine, £^ &^'n« 

But Bdmus of single mountains also take the article : thus, le 
T^BBTe Vesuvius. 

f. A few names of persona and places require the article : thus, 
le Daate Dante, le ^vre Havre, le Caire Cairo. 


6. The CONDITIONAL tenses of avoir have and 6tre he 

j'aUBli, I should halt j« sgraii, lahovld be 

tv aorut, tium, vrouidaC kar:B tn Mtaia, thou wouldit be 

il anrait, he mnild ham 11 «eralt, he mniid be 

n<nu anrloni, we thould haiie none serioiis, me should be 

7001 anriei, you would haJx toob Bsriei, gou would be 

ill anraiant. th«t/ would hare 111 lerBient, the;/ would be 

a. Every conditional in the language, without exception, is in- 
Bected like these, with the endings -aia. -aia, -ait, -ions, -ies, 
-aient — which are precisely the same with the imperfect endings 
(III. 7a) ; and ttese endings are invariably preceded by r. 

b. The comlltiaiul 1b. Id fact, a kind oC imperfect or pact lease to the future, 
olwayi dlSerlDg (ram It hi tlie eudiiigH oalj. It Is made up oC the hiflnldTe vlUi 
tbe imperfect ot UTolr added to IC (.auraia = avoir STals, Ulerall; , / had to 

(Only the nords ot the liela glTeu Id the Lefsan.) 


' Jean est-il chez son cousin ? ' Non, il est chez aa tante, 
' Sa B<Bnr est avec ses amies dans le jardin derriSre la 
maison. ' Le vin de France 6tait sur la table de bois entre 
lea denx fenfetrea. ' Aviez-vous du the dans voire tasae ? 
' J'ayais da th6 avec du lait et du sncre. 'La bouteille de 
iMt 6tait pour I'enfant. * Louis est en Prance, maia sa 
B(Bur est A Rome. * Paris, sur la Seine, est la capitale de 
Is France. " Serez-rons en Angleterre ? " Oui, nous 

Berons k londres. 

: est entre la France et 

I'ltalie. " Les Alpes Bont en Suisse. " Le clmpeau de 
Jeanne 4tait sons une chaise devant la porte. " Avez-vous 
des arn'm en Am^riqae ? " Mod ami a beancoup d'arbres 
devant sa maUoa. 

Theme 6. 
' Is the child at his uncle's ? ' No, he is in hia room with 
his brothers, 'The fruit on the table is for the girls. 
' Your brother WiHiam is in front of the house behind a 
tree, ' John is with Mary at her father's. ' The chair is 
between the two windows. ' Henry is in France, and he 
will be at Paris. ' The dress was of French silk, and the 
coat was of English cloth. ' The trees are in the garden 
behind my hous&, and the fruit is on the trees, '°Tou 
will have sugar and milk in your coffee. " Henry's dog is 
under the table. " Frank had water in his glass. " The 
bread and the Italian cheese will be on the table. 


Would you have ? They will be. She would be. He 
will have. Will she have? lliey bad. I shonld be. 
Wouldst thou be? We are. Have they? We shonld 
be. Would they be? I am. Have I? He had. They 
will have. 


Adjectives in French have in general a Tariation 
of form for gender and for number, and are made to 
agree in botli these respects with the nouns (or pronouns) 
to which they relate. 



a. The ftdjective, whether attributive or appoaitive or predica- 
tive, whether hefore or after the word it qualifieB or otherwise 
separated from it, whether qaalif ying a word expressed or under- 
stood, must be of the gender and number of the quahfied word. 

6. Exceptions are adjectives relating to nous we aod vona 
you, when these pronouns are naed with reference to a single per- 
son, 8ach adjectives are singular only. Thus, you are very good 
is vons 6tea trea bon |to a man), or Tona fites trea bonne (to a 
woman) ; but tr6s boos or trds bonnes, if addressed to more than 

2. A feminine adjective ends always in mntee; and 
the feminine of most adjectives is made by simply add- 
ing mute e to the masculine form : thns, 

petit, p«tits, amall aise, aiiee, easy 

^rand, prande, great joli, jolia, pret^ 

nolr, noire, black vral, vraie, trai 

royal, royale, m^uf nn, -aae, naked ^-.'"^ 

plain, pleiiie,/^U blea, bleae, Uui 

But there are many exceptions to this rule. Thoe : 

3. If a masculine adjective ends already in e mate, 
the feminine has the same form : thus, 

■age, wim, \ceU-behaved hanngte, hmeit 

Awile, tiOijl impis, irnpiinit 

4. Adjectives ending in the mascnline in el, ell, ien, 
on, also many in s and t, double their final consonant be- 
fore the added mute e of the feminine : thus, 

parell, pareille, likt 
bon, bonne, good '*" 
giM, groiie, big ■,' bu, baue, Um '. <■■' 

net, natte, tteat lot, lotte, stupid '-' 

a. Adjectives in 8 and t falling under this rule are mostly 
moaosyUabic, but also ^pais f^paisse) thich; si^et (sqjette) lia- 
ble, mnet (moette) mute, and a few others. But ras smooth, 
obtoB obtiise, prfit ready, mat li'iU, add e simply. 

b. Nnl (nolle), ^stil (gentille), and fol and mol (below, 7), 
follow the analogy of adjectives in el and sil. 

6, Adjectives ending in the mascnline in x and f 


change these respectively to s and t before the i 

mute : thus, 

hmiTBni, henrBuia, happy 
*i^ Tlvfl, liiidy 

For an exception or two, see below, 8. 

6, In Bome adjectives, changes of Bpelling are the ne- 
eeesary result of the addition of e for the feminine : thus, 

a. Adjectives having in the masculine an e before a 
final consonant (whether pronounced or silent) change it 
to 6 in the feminine, if the consonant is not doubled 
(21S) : thus, 

oher, ohere, dear couplet, oomplete, eompletB 

And ef in like manner becomes &ve: thus, bref, brdve, brief. 

b. Final c is changed for the feniinine to qne (72a), and final g 
to gae (ffi?/") : thus, 

public, pubUqoe, public [franc,] franqne, Frankith 

toio, tnrqae, Turkuih long, loagiie, long 

And so oblong oblong. But grec Greek makes grecqae (not 

greqne) ; and blanc white, &anc frank, sec dry, make more 

irregularly blanche, franche, adche. 

c. Adjeotivea ending in gn add e for the feminine (8a) : thus, 
aiga, aoguS, acute; Simbigu, ambignS, amhigvous. 

7. Five adjectives liave two different forms in the 
masculine, from one of which the feminine is made ; 
they are: 

besa bel, belle, beaut^ld 

nottveau nouTel, nonvalle, -new, nonet 
vlenzTieil, -vieille, ofif '' ' 

fon fol, toU«,fiioliali, mad 

mon mol, molle, lofl 

a. Of the two masculine forms, the one in 1 is used be- 
fore a word beginning with a vowel {or i. mute) ; thus, 
nn bel honune, a han4»oine man 
le noavel ordre, the nev> order 
nn fol eipoir, afooU»h hapt 


but nn bean livre a handsome book, le livre est bean the book 
in handsome, and so on. 

8. Some adjectives form their feminine more irregu- 
larly; of these the commonest are : 

fraie, tntehe, /rmh faux, fiiiiMa,/aiM »'■-«- ^- 

doux, douoe, eaiBct fovori, hTarite, fanoriU 


9, The rMPEBATTVEB of avoir have and 6tre Se are as 
follows : 

.;> aia, have, Aom tAou, ifo (Aoti hatie BOia, ie, etc. 

■i7imB, let iM &IW, Aow uw loyong, let v» be, etc 

ifM, AoM, Aaw yfl, ds ffoa hntie loyoi, fe, etc. 

a. While the Enghsh imperatlvft may be used either with or 
without a sat^ect expressed, the French never allows one. 

6. Third persona imperative are supplied from the present aub- 
junotiva : see below, VIII. 7c. 

twn, bonne, good manvaii, -aiae, bad, lekleed 

bean bel, belle, ha/idtome, beautiful joll, jolie, prett;/ 
^and, grands, large, tall petit, petite, snuUl, little 

vieni vleil, Tieille, old jeune, yoang 

rongfl, red noir, noire, Uaek 

bUoc, bltmclie, while loi^Si lensiiSi loTig 

henrenx, lienienge, happy oher, chare, dear 

la *ville, the city le 'TiUc^e, the viUage 

la nuitre, the maeter I'eleve, thepu^ 

ttU, very trop, Uio 

Exercise 7, 
' Votre Bceor est-elle jolie ? ' Ma petite scetir eat sage ^ f-m 
«t jolie. ' La maiBon de men pSro est belle, et son jardin 
■eat grand. ' Le fruit de son arbre est bon. ' Votre oncle 
est-il bean 'f ' Oui, nion oncle est ua bel ho^iiiMe, et ma tante 
eat une trSs belle femme. ' Le maitre est bon, et I'enfant 
sera henreus. ' Le petit enfant a un vieux maitre. ' Le 
village est-il grand? '° Non, il est petit, mais la villa eat 
frande et belle. "Le petit vieil homnie est mon oher 

so LBS80N Tm. 

msltn. " La flenr est blanche, mais le fmit eet roage on 
noir. " Le maftro 6tait trfis vieui, et I'el^ve ^tait trop 
Jeuao. '* Ma vioille tanU- est chez ma ch^re couBine. 
" Le beau jnune homme cut le cousin de mon vieil ami. 
*• Voire robe ent trop lougiic 

Thumb 7. 
' I> yonr brother large ? ' Yes, I have a tail brother and 
a pretty little Bister. * The house is handeome, but it is too 
Mmull. ' W(i havn a large house and a small garden. ' The 
flower id red and the fruit is white, ' Your city is large 
and beautiful ; our village is small and pretty. ' I was 
young and happy, but my master was old. ' The old man 
is tall and black. ' The woman ia young, white, and hand- 
»omt'. '"The beautiful woman is my dear aunt. "The 
miuttor waa too old, or the pupil was too young. " Is your 
mother beautiful 1" " No, but she is good and happy. 
" My cousin (f.) is a pretty young woman. " Milk (TV. 6) 
ia white, wine is red, and ink ia black. " The tree ia tall 
«ud handsome, but the fruit is small and bad. 


Be. Let Ub have. They were. He would be. Be 
(ye). You will have. They would have. He is. We 
were. Have (thou). Will he have? Would they be? 
She has. They (f.) will have. Let ua be. He will be. 
Wo wi>rt\ Should I be? 

LESSON vin. 


1, The plumi of an adjective is generally formed ae 
tbo pliiml uf a nuun of like ending wonld t)e: thna. 

0. K ivmiuiiw adjeotire (since it ends is e) alwajs adds a for 
Ihf (iltual. 



b. Masculines lu general add b; but final a or x (z does not 
ooouf) remain unchanged; an and eu (not on) add x; al is 
usually changed to anx. 

e. But blen blue makes blens ; some in al matte a.lB (as &,talB, 
finalB, ovals, ete.) ; oE the adjectives having two forma in the sin- 
gular (VII. 7), the plural is made from the form ending in n; 
thus, beanx, sonveanx, fona, moos. 

2. The adjective in French comes more uaiially after 
than before the noun which it qualifies. 

a. Adjectives have great freedom of position in French, and it 
depends very much upon the euphony of the sentence and the 
choice of the writflr or speaker whether in a given ease the adjec- 
tive shall precede or follow the noun. The following rules point 
out some of the leading considerations that help to determine the 

3. A few of the conioionest adjectives are almost in- 
variably placed before the noun, 

a. These are especially the adjectives meani'nf^ good 
and had (bon, mauvais), large or bigr and small (grand or 
gios, petit), young and old (jenne, vieuz), also beau hmid- 
Korne, vial true, with some others : thus, 

le bon *imii, good seme nn bean livre, a !iandso7ne bo<A 

4s grandt honunu, ^reotin^n monvienxtwailn, myo/deouHa 

4. a. An adjective denoting a physical quality, as color or 
form, inclines to follow the noun ; one denoting an ideal or moral 
quality, to precede it : thus, 

del fleun nngsi, redjloviers nns t£te ronde, ii r/mnd Jiead 

(On lit dor, hit hard bed 1b bouillOD ohsod, the hot broffi 

b. An adjective tends to follow the noun when taken in a more 
literal sense, and to precede it when taken in a more figurative 
sense : thus, 

na loiM protoiid, a deep dilch nn profond lilenoe, a deep iHenee 

la baibo noire, the Uaek beard nne noire tialiiion, a bloAk treason 

nn livre char, a dear book nn ohai ami, a dear friend 

5. a. An adjective having adjuncts rather follows the noun ; 
but a simple adjective rather precedes a noun that has other ad- 
juDctg : thus, nne fllle aasez jenne et passablement belle a 
rather younij and tolerably handsome girl; rimmortel a.ntsnr 
dn Paradis perdn the ivimortal autfior of Paradise Lost. 

b. An adjective used more appositively, or having a special 
prominence or emphasis, or signifying something brought for- 

52 LESSON vni. 

ward as new rather than reterred to as already t 
comes aft-er the nouu : thus, c'est un livre excetlent lhi.i i» an 
excellent book, but cet esculent livre est a moi this excellent 
book is mine. 

c. In virtue of these differences, some adjectives have a well- 
marked dialinctiou of meaniDg, accordinji; aa they precede or fol- 
low the noun : thus, cber dear means costlj/ after Ihe aonii, but 
loved before it ; brave is brace after, but excellent, worOiy be- 
fore ; honnAte is nice, ciml after, but honest before ; panvre is 
indigent after, but 1/ poor quality or pitiable before ; simple is 
men before ; certain ia certain ia the sense of one or some be- 
fore, of sure after ; dernier is last elapsed after, but concluding, 
final before ; propre is neat after, but own before— and so on. 

6. The partitive sense of a noun that is preceded by 
an adjective is usually expressed by de aloue, withoot the 
definite article : thus, 

dB ban pain, good bread it petlts enfuiti, tittle ehUdren 

da mauvaii Buare, bad sugar de bellei flenrB, beautiful fioicen 

a. But if the adjective follows the noun, the article is not 
omitted : thns, dn pain excellent excellent bread, des flenrs 
magniflqnes magnificent flowers. 

b. Also, if the adjective and following noun form together a 
current combination, a kind of compound name for something, tlie 
article remains: thus, dn bon eeuB good sense, des jeuues gens 
young folks, des petite poim green peas. 


7. The PREBEKT HUBjDNonvEB of EToir have and 6tre 
be are aB follows : 
qns j'aie, that I may hafie 
qna tn aiei, thai Oiou mayest ham 

Lqn'il ait, that he may ham 
que nooi a;ou, that vte may hare 
qne von> aTet, that you may hate 
qa'Ui uant, thai they may hane 
a. For the exchange of i aud y 

que je aoia, that I -may be 
qni tv idU, that thou maye»t be 
qn'II ult, that he may be 
qns naoi loyoiu, that we may be 
que Tona aoyfii, ttiat you may be 
qv'ilB «)i«nt, that Oiey may be 
a these forms, see 376. 
h. It is customary to preAx the eonjuuetion qne tliat to the 
inflection of the subjunctive tenses in French grammars, because 
a subjunctive usually (not always) has that conjunction before it. 
For the abbreriation of qne to qn', see 26c. 

The 8d persona of this tense are often used in an imperative 
i, and in some grammars they are given also with the imper^ 
tive, as its 3d persons : thus, ^ 


qu'll ail, let him have 
qii'lU aient, let them Aa^ 
This tense anTeeponds to the (uie at the aa 

recole f., the nahool 
la Tie, life 
pauTTe, poor 
bleu, bhie 
wtff, aetijx 
ftinuble, amiiaMe 
simple, limpU 
IntarHunt, inleresting 
nooTsatt (VII. 7), new 


qu'll lolt, let him be 
qn'ils Boient, leC them bi 

I'egliBfi f., ths efiweh 
la famills, OiefianUy 
ridie, ri^i 
bmn, hn/iBTi 
Iftborieaz, laboriou» 
bonnete, hone»t 
modeste, modetl 
ezcellent, eieelleTtt 
avengle, blind 

'Avez-TonB de belles fleurs ? ' J'ai.dea flears bleoes et 
lougea. ■ Les jeunes filles onl de beaux chapeaux. ' Elles 
ont auBBi de nquvejles robes eiinples et modestes. 'Mon 
pauvre oncle a ud fila aveugie. ' LeB homines pauvres ont 
nne vie active et laborieiise. ' La vieille eglise eat de boia 
noir. ' L'enfant aimable eat -X l'6cole chez un maitre ex- 
cellent. ' L'exeellent maitre eet un bon ami des eofants 
riches et des enfants pauvres. '° Nous avone dea livres 
tr^s bons et tr<^s iut^resaantB, mala nous avone aussi de 
mauvaia livree. " L'honn^te bomme laborieux aura une 
vie heureuse. " Mon fr^re eat un garden honnfite et aima- 
ble. " J'ai de bon vin blanc dans des bouteilles noires. 
'* 11b ont de bon pain noir, du beurre, et de tr^s-mauvaia 
fromage. " La pauvre fiUe aveugie a un p^re richo. " Elle 
a de grands yeuz noirs. " Mon p^re a une famille aimable 
et intfiressante. 

'Have you good friends? °I have interesting friends 
and dear eiatera. ' She is a laborious young girl. ' My 
poor cousin is very unhappy. ' She has a little blind 
daughter. * I have a rich uncle. ' My rich uncle is an 


hoDPSt man. ' He has a aimple and modest life, * We 
shall have an excellent school in our little village. '° There 
is an interesting old church. " Mary is a pretty and mod- 
est girl, '"She has Hmall hands and large blue eyes. 
" Have you black bread and good butter ? " Here is 
good white bread and excellent butter. " You have old 
red wine in new black bottles. " My good old uncle has 
very interesting books in hia little brown bouse. " He has 
a large family. 


1. AdjectiveB in French are for the most part oot 
otherwise compared than by patting before them ad- 
verbs meaning more etc. 

a. The compai-ative adverb is plus more, and this ia 
made superlative by prefixing to it the definite article: 
thus, le plus the most. 

b. We may ftlso prefix moLna less and Is moins least to an 
adjectivo, producing a comparison downwards, or of diminution. 

2. Hence, examples ol fhe ordinary comparieon of a 
French adjective are as follows : 

beBn, handsome plos bean, Juindgomer la pins Iksii, handaomeit 

jenue. young plug jenne, younger lo ploa jenne, younger 

almable, amMle plus aimabls, more ami- le ploi slmable, riioii 
able niiiiable 

a. The article before plug ia of course varied for gender and 
number, like the adjective : thus, la pins belle handsomest (wo- 
man), les plus jeunes youngest (men or women). 

3. But three adjectives have a epecial form for the 
comparative, which then is made superlative by prefix- 
ing to it the definite article. Tbey are : 

htm, good msillenr, belter le maillenr, bttt 

aivntdi, bad pira, wurss le plre, teorst 

petit, mnaU molndxe, gmaUer la molndlTa, tmaHett 



«. But manvaJB and petit are also comparod with plus; and 
even boa, in tbe sense of good-natured. 

4. Comparison of equality is expressed by aussi as 
before the adjective. After the adjective, both as and 
than arc expressed by qua. Thus : 

a-Bisi belle q.ue ta. siBiir, as Randmme as her liater 
plot p«tit que men &ere, nmaller t/iaii my hroOmr 

6. Special rules are : 

a. The article showing the superlative has to be dropped after 
a possessive : thus, men pine jeune &6re my youngest brother 
(not distinguishable from my younger In-other). 

6. If a superlative adjective is put after a noun having the 
definite article, tbe article must be repeated : thus, I'homine le 
plus savant fAe most learned man, la. villa la plna penpl^ ths 
most populous city. 

. e. After a superlative, the preposition de of, and not dans in, 
ii used before a word of place: thus, le plus bel honune dn 
monde the handsomest man in the world, la plos grajide villa 
de I'Europe the largest city in Europe. 


6. The IMPKRFECT BDBjTjNCTrvES of avoir have and etre 
he are as follows : 
qua j'sniie, that Imiglit /laim que je taae, that I might bi 

que tn. fnassB, that thoit wighiett 

I, that thou mig/itest 

qn'il e&t, tlmi he might have 
qns noni enatlani, that ice might 

hate be 

quo VOM ooaBiez, thai you might que voos flusiez, thai yov. might 

hate be 

qu'ilB eoBBent, E/iaC they might qa'lli faisent, that they might be 

a. Every imperfect Bubjunetive in the language, without excep- 
tion, is inflected like these, with the endings -sse. -Bses, -t, -ssiona, 
-uies, -ssent, and witb a ch'cumflexed vowel (fl. or & or !} before 
tbe t of the 3d singular. 

&. The subjunctive tenses are by no means always to be ren- 
dered in English with the auxiliaries may and might, but some- 
times with others, as should and would, and sometimes by simple 
anbjunctive or even indicative forms. 


c. TbiB lauBe is from tbe Lstiii pluperfect aubjnnctlTe i compare huie eto. 
irith Lai, ftilsiem etc. 

plot, 'more moinB, leg* 

melilear, better pire, worte 

Af.! .' •■'■" iBjp^anJ the peaeanl la roae, the rote 

I ' laid, uglg 'hunt, high c 

Exercise 9. 
' Mon frfire est le plus joli gargon <lu village. ' Mob 
ami eat plus beau que ton fr^re. ' Le pauvre gar^on est 
le plus jeune dea enfants de mon vieil ami. ' Etiez-voua 
plus jeune que votre sceur ? ' Non, raa 8<eur Stait la plus 
jeuae et la plus jolie de notre famille. * Paris est la plus 
grande ville de la France, maia elle eat moins grande et 
moios ricbe que Londres. ' L'Amerique eat pjue grande 
que I'Europe, et moins grande que I'Aaie. ' Louise eat la 
jeune fille la plus aimable du monde. ' L'enfant sera aussi 
laid quo eon pauvre pf^re. " Le meilleur vin etait dans la 
plus petite bouteille. " Les paysans les plus honnfites et 
les plus beaux de I'Europe sont dans les plus hautes mon- 
tagnea, " Les 61^ves sont plus jeuoea que le maltre. 
" Henri eat le pire dea gargona du vUla^e. " Avez-voua de 
meilleur vin? "La rose est la pluBbelledesfleuradu jardin. 
Theme 9. 
' His sister is ugly, but his niece ia tbe uglieat girl in the 
city, ' The boy is as handsome as bis beautiful cousin. 
' The largest pieces of bread are for the poorest children. 
' The good and honest peasants are less poor than the bad 
men of the city. ' The Alps are the highest mountains in 
Europe, ' A city is larger than a large village, ' Mary ia 
as pretty aa Helen, but she ia less amiable and interesting. 
■' The youngest of the children are my sisters. ' The pret- 
tiest child ia ray youngest sister. '° Tbe peasants of the 
Alps were bis heat friends. " The women are a« handsome 
as the men. " The smallest horse ia larger than the largest 


dog, " The cat ia Bmaller than the dog. " The worat boy 
in the village was your dearest friend. " The red wine is 
better than the white wine. 

coHJUGATioN — roE TEKB avoir have. 

1. In tlie preeediiig lesaous have been given, with 
their complete iuiiection, examples of all the simple 
tenses and modes of the French verb. The remaining 
parts are the infinitive, the present and past participles, 
and the compound forms, made with an auxiliary verb. 

2. Thq DjFismvEa of the two verbs Aave and Im are: 

ftvoir, hate, to AtJW Stre, !ie, toie 

a. The infinitive always ends in r or re. 

6. The "sign of the infinitive," corresponding to the English 
to, is either i, to or (qnite as often) de of. As to the use of the 
one or the other of these, see Part Second, g 172 etc. But the 
French iaflnitive ia often also (like the EngUah) used without a 
sign, aa subject of a verb, after various verfe, and after preposi- 
tions, especially poor in order to (hterally /or, for to) : thus, 
parler est raieiix to speak is better, U Tsnt avoir he mslies to 
futvt, pour Stra in order to be. 

c. TbB French infloitlve corroBpouds to the LUm inflnltlre actiTe. 

3. The PEE8KNT pAETioiPLEs of the same verbs are : 

ay»nt, hamng etant, being 

a. The present participle invariably ends in ant. 

b. This participle, when osed as a participle, has no variation 
for gender or number. Often, however, it is used as an adjec- 
tive, and then is varied hke any other adjective : thus, nne char- 
mante femme a elmnning tooinan, des jrenx perqanta piercing 

e. This participle ia also (apparently) very commonly uaed after 
the preposition en: thus, en ^tajit in being, in the act of being, 
while being (and often bpst rendcreil being simply). 

d. la fact. howevBT, Oie so-callei partiolple with en answers to the Latin abla- 
tive geraud 1b -ndo (en Hyant^ Lat. Id Hubendo). Tba participle is the Latin 
[)ieaeiitiiaxt!ciple(Bj'ant= Lat hsbent-emj. 

4b The PAST FAB'iiciPLEs of the same verbs are ; 
an, had ete, beoi 

a. This participle ia variable for gender and number, like any 
ordinary adjective. 

b. The pastpaniciplecoiTespondalo Che Latin poBBlTepamciple, 

5. Compound forms for all the parts of a Frencli 
verb (except the imperative and the past participle) are 
made, as in English, b^ adding its past partieijjle to the 
various forms of an auxiliary verb. The auxiliary is 
usually avoir ha/ve ; but some verbs take instead fttre he 
(see below, XSVIII. 5-7). 

a. Hence, to make anv given compound form, the correspond- 
ing simple jorm of avoir (or sometimes of etre) is to be taken, 
and the past participle of the principal verb added to iL 

6. The participle is for the most part unvaried, or has its mas- 
culine singular form, in the compound forms of the verb when 
made with avoir. But it is a rule in French that if a compound 
verb-form has a direct object, and that object stands before the 
verb, the participle is made to agree with it in gender and num- 
ber : thus, quels livres avot-vous ona ichat hooks have you had. f 
les flenrs que j'ai sues tJiefloiaers which Ihave had, and so on : 
see Part Second, g 191 etc. 

8. The compounds of the present and imperfect tenses are 
best called, as in English, the fehfbct and pluperfect ; that of 
the preterit, the past anterior ; those of the future and condi- 
tional, the niTijRE PERFECT and ooNnmoNAL perfect. 

a. In many grammars, the indicative perfect is called the past 
indefinite (Fr. pass^ ind^fim). It is very often used where in 
English we have the preterit ; and especially, of anything that 
has happened during this day, or during any period of which the 
present is viewed as a part. 

6. For the use of the past anterior, see Part Second, g 122. 

7, The compound forms of avoir have are made, aa 
in English, with avoir itself aa auxiliary. The simple 
wid compound forms are given together in full below. 

Complete CoN.rt 

PiBT (or Passive) Pakhciplb. 


^ CONJUGATION OF avoir. 59 ^ 


"L. —■ ^ 

j'al, /A«M 

j'ai en, I/iave had ^^^^^M 

tn u, thou hast 

tu as en, thou hast had ^^^H 


n a im, he has had 

noni iTOnB, joc Auas 

BOOS avouB eu, we have had 

Ton* avea, ^ou /larx 

TOM aTGZ en, j/oa fiave had 

ill out, W<if Aacfl 

iU ont ett, thi'// have had 

j'aTiii, / Aarf. wo* /lomnj?, etc. 


tn avail, tlu/u hadst etc. 

tn STaii ou, thou hadst had 

U arait, fus had etc. 

il BTiit eu, he had had 

noiu aviimt, tee had etc. 

none aviooi ea, lee had had 

TOM aviei, ^(W Aod etc. 

TOBB aTiez en, you h'ld had 

ill aTaient, t!iey had etc. 

ila aTaiont eu, fhey had had 





j'BUB, /Aaii 

i'eMB eu, I futd had 

to em, th/m hadst 

tn CM en, fAou /uii?8f ^ad 

a eat, he had 

U out en, he had had 

ntmt efime>, u>£ had 

nauB edmea on, m had had 

TOM eftte*, s«( Aorf 

Tons ettes en, you had h«d 

111 enient, (S^ ftorf 

iU enrent ea, l/teff had had 

f, Wtyy^^K. 

Fm^E PrarRO-, 

i'ajtni, IshaBharf. 

i'aurai on, I shall haee had 

ta aoTM, thou tnile have 

tn Burai on, tlum wUt have had 

U aura, he mil have 

il aura ea. he wiB hate had 

nou aoroni, m« aftii/i Jura 

soua anroiu eu, we ^laU have had 

TOM anrea, you will hase 

TouB anrei en, ymt wUl have had 

iU auTont, Ihtj/ mil have 

ill anront en, thgy will have had 



CosDmoy.i. Pkhikt. 

j'aaraii, /8A0u;t;Aaii« 

j'anraiB en, I should ham had 

tu anrfti*, ifc»u u»uW»( ftoiM 

ta anraii eu, t/iou wouldsl fiawt had 

il aoralt, he >Mald hane 

ii anrait en, hs wmiCd have had 

nOM aniioiui, lee should have 

nous anrloM en, tee shffiM have had 

TOM anriet, you wiuM Aftw; 

Toae anriez en, yoa mmild hane had 

ill avaimt, thetj would hone 

ils anraiont en, they tamld hate had 

ayons, Irl us haee H 


aU, have, hane thou 

syez, haee, have ye ^^^^^^ 

80 tsasoN X. 


rRmeHI, PiBFKT. 

qaa j'ate, that I inay hane que j'ala en, that I may Tiavehad 

que tu aiei, that thoa viayent fiate que ta aim eo, that thou mageit etc. 

qn'il ait, that he may have qn'il ait en, that hx may hate had 

que DOai aiyoni, that u>e may hace qne noni ayoni an, that we may etc. 

que Ton* ayei Huit you may hate qae vooa a;ei eu, thai you may etc, 

qn'ila alent, that they may ham qn'ila aient en, that they may etc, 

que j'euMe, that I miglit hare que j'enaae «a, that I might hate liad 

qna tn euiaai, that thni miglile/it que tu eosiei en, tJuit thoii mighfeit 

hone liare had 

qa'll a&t, that he migM haoe qn'U eut en, thnl he might hate liad 

qne nana euuiani, that we might que nana anaaioni en, thai lee might 

hiipi- hate had 

qne vons enaiieE, Oiat you might qne vena enwiei eu, Oiat you might 

hape have had 

^'i'Um»B'B.\,thallheymightha'ai qn'Us euuent en, that they might 
have had 


I'oT m,, gM I'argent m., it^iw, money 

la main, th^ hartd la poehe, tie pocket 

le maroliand, the (retail) merchant le bonlanger, the baJeer 

maUiBnTeux, vnhapjry ignonnt, ignorant 

•1, ^ quoiqna, although 

Nora.— Quo Iq He (XXXIV. la) aJvors mqutrex Ibe following rerb to be In the 
mibiunCTive ; ■! {XXXTV. lb) baa thelndlcBtive, For Uie aSreriaUon gf ■! b> 
e', see *Vi. 

Exercise 10. 

' J'ai an morceau de pain, et j'aurai aussi du beurre. 

*Avez-vous eu assez de fromage? ' Notw auriona ea au- 

tant de beuire qne de fromage. ' Eurent-ila de I'argent? 

' Elle eut de I'argent dans la main, el il avait eu de I'or 

dana la poche. *Mon cousin aurait en du vin, s'il avait 

en un verre. ' Mes scpura auront de jolira robes. ' Aurai- 

ent-ellea eu aussi^de beaux fhapeaux ? ' Ayez du caf6 aveo 

votre pain. " Ayons de la viande anssi. " Mon fr^re a 

eu nn grand eheval laid ; il aura uu bean petit chevaL 

ooiTJtWiTmN rw aTolr. 


" H aura eu deux chevaux. " Qu'il ait auasi nn chien 
" Si nous aviiins en un fri?re, nons auriona eu des amis. 
I " Quoique uoufl ayons beaucoup d'argent, nous Bommee 
tr^B malbeureux. " Ayant un bon p^re, elle ewt beur 
" Qnoiqa'il ait eu un matlro excellent, I'eliive eat ignorant 
et malheureux. "Le marchoud a-t-il eu de la soie bleue 
'* H avait beaucoup de aoie, main j'a-vaia trSs peu d'argent. 
'° Le boulanger a du pain noir et de bon pain blanc. " II 
fetait malhenrenx, quoiqu'il eut aesez de pain et de vin. 

' Had tbe mercbant some pens ? * He had pens, and he 
will have paper, ink, and books. 'Ton have had black 
ink ; he will have had good red ink. * Had yon had white 
bread f ' I ehonld have bad bread enough, if he had had 
butter, ' The boys had money enough ; they will have 
meat and wine. ' Our old master would have bad a new 
Bohool, if he had bad more pupils. ' Although be bad few 
pupila, he was satisfied. " Had you a bit of gold in your 
pocket ? "I had gold in my band, and silver in my pocket. 
" Have a bit of bread and cheese. " Let us have new 
hats and handsome red and blue dreeseH. " We shall have 
had coffee and tea, " Will your sisters have red flowers? 
"Though they had mucli money, they were unhappy. 
"That I might have some wine and water! " That you 
might have had a horse I " The man will have a laborious 
life, if he has too little money. " The baker, having had 
some wine, had a bottle in his hand. "" Although the peas- 
ants have little money, they are happy and content. " Al- 
though the girl had beautiful eyes, she was very ugly. 




1, All the eimple forma of 6tre he have been given in 

previous leBsons. They are here repeated in their order, 
along with the compound forms, wliich are made, as in 
English, with the help of the auxiliary avoir have. 

lifPCJinvB, PEttFHjT IsroonvK. 

gtre, be, lobe avoir ete, to kajie been 


etant, beitig ajwat ete, haring been 

PiBT (or Pissira) PiRnoiPLE. 

He, been 



j, I have been 

j'fiUIi, Iwu, uied to be, etc. 


Uitalt ^ ,, 





TOO* late* 


ilB aTueat Ste 

j'eiu ete, / bad been 

cosjusATiOK OP fttre. 

j'aoTBi ete, I »}iaU haw been 

j'a,iirai» ete, Ithould Jtate beoi 

BOia, bf, be thou 

wyez, fc, fe 3W 

liTLt it tOi, thai 


que j'aie ete, that I -may ha^ iem 

que tQ Mil 

qne tn aiea oto 

qu'il Bolt 

qn'il ait ete 

qne noM myoM 

que sons nyons ete 

qua tom iDjei 

qua vouB Byea ete 

qv'Us Mlent 

qn'ilB aient ete 

que JB fuse, Mat I might tn 

que j'ensae ete, tt<i( / might hatt 

qu'll Bfit o( 

que tn fnuBs 
qn'il fat 

qae nana fauions 
qne Tom fossiez 
qn'lLi faaient 

a. Btre correepoiids only Id pb 
putol). parUdpleB, aud IniperteiA i 
ttasji : Uie future and ooDdldoiui: 
eiHire, made by adding the usual 

2. To express tlie indeiinite aubjeet it of ii is, it was, 
etc, the French generally usee ce, literally this (XXTV. 2), 
bat sometimee alio il U. 

qoe vona Bnsriea ete 

qn'il* enBient ete 

t to the Ladn ease etc.; the Inflnltiv 

are formed In the usual nay (V. Be 



a. n is used in Btatements of time, particnlarly of the 
time of day; and ce in most other cases. Thna: 
U Mt qnitr* haaret, it ie 4 a'doek il etait midi, ■( iciu noon 
11 MTk dlx heiu-M, it teiil be \Q 11 est minnit, i( ie midnigkt 

II Mt Urd, il M lale il mt temp) de partir, it it time la 

o'Mt bifn, it it jretl e'etait en vsin, if nxu in vain 

c'Mt tool, it u / c'Gtait nous, il wag ae 

c'Mt S Toni qnejeporle, il it to yiyi that I^Kok 
h. If the vorb after ce is followed by a [ihiral noun, or a plural 
pronoun of tin- Ihjrd person, it is itself made ploral : thus, 
o« fnrent ellM, if imt tJuy ce MTont mm amis, if teill be my 

M lent nM llfrn qne je toIi, it it our books that laee 

mftlide, lint, ill Iaib\e,fif}>te, weak 

pareiieuz, idle, lot}) content, contented, happg 

a ta eampftgne, ia the country riaare f., tlw hour, o'clock 

a, prwent, at praent, now toujonra, always 

Exercise 11. 
' Votre ami eat-il riche ? ' Mon ami est pauvre & pre- 
sent, raais it a 6t6 tr^a riche. ' Ha aeraient heureux, s'ila 
avaient 6t6 Uonnfltes et laborieax. ' Nous avona et6 k 
I'Scolo, et 1I0U8 serons d I'Sglise avec noa Boaiira. ' Voua 
auriez PU de trt^a bon vin, ai youb avieZ etg chez mon oncle. 
• li'homme a-t-il 6t(' malade ? 'Ha et^ tr^a faible, et il 
sera malade. ' Qaoique lea jeunea filles soient trtia con- 
tentea iV la aampagne, ellea seront nialheureiiaea a la ville. 
' Sois bon et sage, et tu seras heureux. '° Vous ^tea jenne 
et belle ; aoyez oontente. " II est trois lieures il present ; il 
sera quatre heures. " Ce eont lea enfants de mon frfire. 
" Ds aur^ent cu de betlea flears et des fmits, mata ils ont 
M tr^B manvais. " II est dens heurea, et elle aera k 
I'^gliae. "C'fitait I'homrae le plus pa^eienx dn monde. 
■* Qnoique lo pari;on ffit il I'^cole, il f tait tonjonra pares- 



Benx. "Ayant 6te malade, la femme est trSs faibla 
" Quoiqu'il flit riclie, il ^tait plus malheureux qu'un homrae 
pauvre. '° E aura ^t6 chez mon p^rc nne heiire. '" C'^tait 
da viu d'E 

Theme 11. 
' It is my children. ' ITiey have been very bad, but they 
■will be good now. ' It is three o'clock. ' My sisters will 
have been at achool two houre. ' Although they are very 
young, they are very idle. 'If the man has been sick, he 
will be feeble. ' Although we have been poor, we were 
always contented. ' I should have been at school, if we 
had had a new master. ' The boy had been at church dur- 
ing three honrs. '° Although the girls had beautiful hands, 
they were ugly. " Be good and active, and you will be 
happy, " Let us be lazy and happy. " It will be three 
o'clock, and the boys will be at school. " I should have 
been at Paris, but ray father is in England. " If we had 
been-in the country, we should have had fruit and flowers 
enough. " It was one o'clock, and Henry was in his room. 
" My sister had been very rich, and she was in Rome with 
my mother. " Having been in Italy, she is very happy. 
"It is a good man, but it is a bad merchant. '° It is a 
wooden table. 



1. A verb is made negative by putting ne before and 
pas after it — in a compound tense, before and after the 

a. It must always be borne in mind that in any compound form 
it is the auxiliary that is the real verb, the added participle being 
only a verbal adjeotive. All rules, therefore, as to the place of 
negative words, subject and object pronouns, and ao on, given 
with reference to the verb, apply to tte auxiliary and not to the 
participle in compound forms. 




6. The ae cornea after the subject, but precedes a pronoun-ob- 
ject {XXII. 7). It is iibbreviated alwaj-s to n' before a vowel or 
11 mute (26c}. 

icted negatively are : 
n'avais poa en, I had not had 
n'avaiB pu ea, thou kadilnolhad 
n'avait paa en, he had jwt had 
tuu'avions paa en, KeJtadnothad 
ns n'sTiGZ pBB En, you had Twt had 
A'aTUflst pu en, they had Tict had 
I is Bometimes used point, which makes h 
iphatic Degative : thus. 

Examples oi ter 
je oe sniB pas. lam not 
tn n'es pas, l/mii art iwt 
il o'est pas, Ac ie mt 
aona iie Bommes pu, we are ' 
TOtti n'fitM pM, ffou a/re not 
U* ne Mnt pu, ihey are ml 

3. Instead of ; 
atroDger or more 

a. PaHand point aie resUf doiidb, meanIoE slepand point, used advetUanj 
to Btreagthen the negaUon, lllce EngtlBb not a Sii and the like. 

6. With some verbs, ne is usually or always used alone, the pas 
being omitted : see Second Part, g 166. 

^ 4. For never, nobodi/, and nothing, the French say 
ne . . . jamais {literally, noi ever), ne . . . peraonne (liter- 
ally, not a person) and db . . , rien (literally, not a thing), 
respectirely, the two words being separated, and the ne 
pnt always before the verb (or auxiliary) : thus, 
je n» inli jamaia malade, Jiint n^ver ill 

il D'avait jamais eta ohai nam, he had neoer been at owr luAiae 
je n'ai vn personse, Thaw teen rwhodg 
peTBonne n'a en mon livrs, no one has had my book 
D'avBi-TonB rien, kaee you nothing f 
rien ne seralt plm cmel, nothing would be more eruel 
6. A verb made negative by ne is also followed by 
ni . . . ni, to give the sense of neither . . . nor ; by ga^ie, 
to give the sense of scarcely, but Utile ; very often by 
que (literally than : i.e. elae than), to give the sense of 
OTily ; and by plus, to give the sense of tw loTiger: thus, 
U D'eBt ni jenne ni 'beau, hj: ie neither young Tiar haThdaaiTte 
il n'a gnere il'a,rg:ent, he has hardly any aumey 
^ ieji'^ ^eiTOia Uvtm, T have only three boeki 
elle n'eBt plni id, she is no longer here 

^k ^. .\j-,. , , ,~^..J, /^t-<- *5fiZx^ _-*•£_«./ 


6. The negative, ne belongs strictly to the verb, and 
can never be used except with a verb expressed. If the 
verb, then, is omitted (for example, in answers), the ne 
is also omitted, and the other word has bj itself a nega- 
tive sense : thus. 

aTei-vaai dw livres, havcyou books? pas on, not one 

qu avBi-iDiu, whal hate youf rien, Toothing 

qui wt ioi, who i* here f personne, TuHx/dy 

7. After a negative verb, the partitive sense of a noun 
Is expressed hy de alone, without the article : thus, 

je n'fti pM de pain, Ihate no bread 
nons n'avioni gusie de Tin, we had teaircdy any wine 
Toni n'tLom ploi de patienee, you, will no longer have patience 
a. After ni . . . ni, both preposition and artiolfi are omitted, 
and tho partitive sense is left unexpressed, as in English : thus, 

je n'ai ni pain ni benrre, / harie Tieither bread nor iulter 
■-; 6. On the other hand, after ne . . . que on/y both prepositiou 
and article are used : thus, 

^.J^souB ne TOfoni que des ennsmia, jne tee oniy enemies 

8. "When a negative verb is made interrogative, the 
subject- prononn is put, as usual, immediately after the 
verb (and joined to it by a hyphen), while everything 
else remains unchanged. An example of a tense used 
both negatively and interrogatively is as follows : 

n'aarai-je paiste, ihall I not have been? 
n'anrai-tn pai ete, wilt thoTt not ham been f 
n'anrSi-t-il pae ete, unB be not haiie been f 
n'aoTonB-nDiiB pat ate, shaU tee not have beettf 
nanrea-vouB pa» eto, v^lyou not hate been? 
a'aoTont-ila pat etS, wSl they not have beenf 
a. N'est-CB pas is ;i much-used phrase, meaning is it not so ? 
or corresponding to English repeated questions like m he not f do 
they not f and the like : thus, il est encore malade, n'est-ce pas 
fie is still HI, is he not 1 vons avez mon livre, n'est^^ pas you 
have my book, have you not* 


Exercise 13. 

' N'avez-vonB pas ^t6 chez votre oncle ? ' Non, il n'etait 
pas d la maiaon, ' Avez-voue du pain ? ' Non, nona n'a- 
Tons pas de pain, nous n'avons que du liearre et du jfro- 
mage, " Le marchand a-t-il du fruit ou du vin ? ' II n'a 
ni fruit ni vin. ' Le pauvre paysan n'a-t-il pas ^t& ma- 
lade ? ' I] n'a jamais et6 malade, mais sa femme est trfis 
faible, et il n'a rien pour ses enfants. ' Quoiqu'elles 
ne soicnt pas riches, elles ne sont jamais malheureuses. 
" Voire frSre ne sera-t-il pas A Paris avec sea amis ? 
" Non, il ne sera ni i Paris ni A Londres ; il ost en Italie. 
" Fersonne n'a 6t4 chez mon p6re. " N'avez-vous rien 
pour mes pauvrea petita enfants ? " Vous n'avez jamais 
eu d'enfants ; vous n'avez que des fr&rea et des sceurs. 
" J'ai en de bon papier rouge et de I'encre excellente, mais 
je n'ai plus rien. "Lesgarjons n'avaient-ils pas un trfes 
manvaifi maJtre ? " Kon, le maltre n'etait point mauvaia; 
il n'a 6t6 que faible et malade. " Nona avons assez d'eau, 
mais noua n'avons gufire de vin. " Je n'aurais jamais fitfi 
& l'4cole, ei mon p^re n'avait pas eu une maiaon k Paris, 
" Elle n'a 6t4 chez personne. 

Theue 13. 
' Had yon not a sister ? ' No, I had neither aister nor 
brother, hut I had many good frienda. ' la not yonr father 
at Paris ? ' No, he has never been in Paris, ' The yonng 
girla will not be either at the bouse or at the acbool ; they 
will be at the church. ' The poor woman is not happy ; 
she has been ill, and she has only a bit of bread in the 
house. ' Haa not the peasant many children ? " No, he 
has no children ; he haa only a wife and a niece. ' The 
school was not in the city. "Although the master was 
old, he was not {at all) ugly. " He had good scholars, 
and he was never unhappy. " He would not have been 
unhappy, if hia pupils bad not been very bad, " We have 


been ill, but no one is ill any longer. " If he had never 
been idle, he would not be poor now. " I have only one 
friend, and he has neither books nor paper. " Are you not 
happier than your friend ? "I shall not have had any wine 
in my glass. " If the girls had not had new hata, they 
would not have been at the church. " The children were 
in the garden, but they had no fruit. " No one had any 
fruit. " He is no longer at my father's. 



1, In French is made a fuller diBtinction than ia English be- 
tween pronomimil adjectives, accompanying an expressed noun 
which they qualify, and pronominal substantives, or pronouns 
proper, standing for a noun not expressed. The pronoun forms 
will be given m later Lessons (XXIV.-XSVU.) ; the adjective 
forms, here and in the next Lesson. The pronominal adjectives 
always qaalify a following noun, and are of the same gender and 
number with it. 

2, The DEMONSTRATIVE ADJEOiTVES, meaning this or 
that and these or those, are ae followa : 

cet or ce m., cette f. ; ces m.f. plural. 

Get m. is used when the following word begins with a 

vowel (or h mute) ; otherwise, ee. Thus : 

oe ohapean, thi» (or that) Aal am ohapeaiiz, tlieee (or those) hati 

ta rote, tkit (etc.) dreii oea rob«i, tfi^iie (etc.) dreuei 

Mbra, this (elc.) tree net homme, t/iu (etc.) man 

cet honnSte homme, thii (etc.) honettfellme 

3, When the demonstrative ia meant to be emphatic, 
or when this and that are to be distinguished from one 
another, the adverbs ei here and 1& there are added re- 
Bpectively to the qnalifled noun; and they are joined to 
it in writing by a hyphen : thua, 

70 LESSON xin. 

M dliapean-iii, this hat (literaUy, ffiis TiOt here) 

cea rohea-U, those dretKt (^iKtti[\Y, thiKe dresm* Ihere) 

cet homme-oi et ostte famma-la, this man and that moman 

4, The iNTEEEonATrvE adjective, meaning which or 
what, ia ; 

Sing, quel m., quelle f. ; plur. qaels m., qaelles f. 

qnsl livre aTBE-Tons, inkieh (or what) book bam you T 
qneUeB flenn lont sur In table, whatfiimera are on t!u labkf 

5. a. The interrogative adjective is also used in ex- 
clamation : thus, 

qnelle bonte, vihat goodness ! qnsli beanx Uttm, what heaut^Vi boekt/ 
h. It is likewise used as relative : thus, 

je ne ui> ^uel livia il a, Idon't Imow which book he ?uit 
c. The indefinite article, sometimes added in English after what, 
ia not expressed in French : thus, qnel bel homme, ie>hat a hand- 
some man .' 

6, In phrases signifying bodily conditionB which one 
feels or is conscious of, avoir with a noun is used in 
French, where the English has tlie verb be with an adjec- 
tive: thus, 

j'ai raim, lam hungry (lilerally, Ihane hungeri 
U a, sail, he is thtrsty (lilerally, he h/u thirst) 
naTSETDiii pM aommell, are you not sleepy t 
notu avoni froid, ire are cold toui btge nliBQd, you are warm 

tn BTiii pear, thou watt afraid Us aoTDnt honte, they wiU be as/iamed 

a. Similar phrases are avoir maJ k have a pain or aehe in, 
avoir raison be right or in the right, avoir tort be wrong or t« 
the wrong : thus, 

j'ai mal a la tete, I hace the headache 

TOQB avez raiaon et j'ai tort, you are right aiid lam itiTong 

b. In a corrcspnding maimer, questions a^ to one's personal 
condition are asked and answerecl with avoir: thus, qn'aveB- 
vous what ia the matter with you f (literally, what have you t) 
and ave&-vouB qnelqne chose is anything the matter with you f 
(literally, ?iave you anything f) and je n'aj rien nothing is the 
matter witit me (literally, / have nothing). 


, _^. VMABCURT. 

b blbUoUMqoe, 


to oontB, the lion/, taXe 

to roman, the To 

nwmee, »M»d 

ITuBtoira f., the kiet^ 

la Ute, the head 

la deat, the tooth 

antra, other 

pouriiuol, leAy? 

paroB qae (XXXIY. 63), fecaww 

' Quels enf antB ont it& & I'Scole P " Ces bona petits gar- 
5onB-ci Bont toujoura d I'ficole, niaU ces filles-li ii'ont jamitis 
et4 d I'^cole, ' Quels livres avez-vous dans la main ? ' Ce 
livre-ci est un roman, et cet autre livre est une histoire. 
' C'^taient des livrea de la bibliothSqae de mon oncle. 
' Ces livres-lfl, aont-ils intfireBsanta ? ' Ces romans-14 aont 
trSs interessants, maia cette histoire-ci eat trop-ennuyeuse. 
' Lea contes et les romans sont toujours plus int^ressanta 
que les hiBtoires. ' Quellea hiatoii-ea avaient-ils eues (X. 5S) ? 
'° Us avaient eu I'hiatoire de France ; cet autre livre est une 
hiatoire d'Angleteire, " Get homme est-il I'ami de votre 
fila ? " Non, mon ami, c'est son consin. " Quel maitre vos 
enfanta avaient-ils ? "Jen'ai paa d'enfanta ; ce gar^on-ci 
est mon neveu, et cette jolie fiUe-ltk est ma niSce ; ils 
avaient un mattre tr^s bon, maia tr^e ennuyeux, " Cette 
femme a beaucoup de consins ; mals elle n'a que ces deux 
enfanta, " Quela jolis petits enfanta j " Dana quelle mai- 
son avez-vous ^t^ ? "J'ai ^t^ h. Paris chez ma coueine. 
" Quoiquo cette femme-ci soit trfis pauvre, elle n'est pas 
plus malheurense que cet homme-li, " Pourquoi cette 
femme est-ellemalheureuae? " Elle est malheureuae, parce 
qu'elle eat toujours malade. 

Theme 13. 

■ This young girl haa been in the country with her father, 

'What dresses haa she had (X. 5$) ? ' She has had these 

dresses and that hat. ' These histories are longer and lesa 

interesting than those novels, ' What book have you in 


LESsos xrv. 

the hand ? * This book is a dull littlo etory. 
is the mother of this little girl, and the aunt of that big 
boy, • These young girla are not her danghtera, ' She 
has many cousins, but she has only this child. " Theee 
books belong ( TIT. 6) to my uncle's library. " What beau- 
tiful books, and what a large library I " If this man had 
not been ill, these children would have had enough bread, 
" Although this man and this woman are honest and in- 
duBtrioDs, they have always been poor, " He had the bot- 
tle in this band, and the glass in that hand. " In what 
cities have you been ? "I have been in this city, but I 
have never been in that village. " This old man is very 
dull, " Why is he so dull ? " He is dull because he has 
always been idle, and because he has never been at school. 
"° What an interesting story 1 


Are yon coldf I am cold, but be is warm. Will he be 
bnngry? He will be hungry and thirsty. What is the 
matter with him ? He is sleepy. Is anything the matter 
with you ? No, nothing is the matter with me. They 
have the headache. I am right and you are wrong, I am 
always right ; I am never wrong. Nothing is the matter 
with us. Has she not the toothache ?■ ^"No, nothing is the 
matter with her. We were afraid, TLey are ashamed. 





1. The POBSEssrvE adjectives are : 

Sing, mou m., ma i.; ptur. dim m.f., mi/ 
tonm., Uf.l tMUl.f., thy 

f.. Am, fer, itt 

11. f; 

n.f., . 


a. There is no distinction made in Frencli between his and Tier 
and Us; son etc. baa all these meanings, and, like the other ad- 
jectives, ia varied only to agree with the noun wliich it qualifies. 

2. Bat the femiDine singular forms ma, ta, sa are not 

allowed before a word beginning witli a vowel (or h 

mnte) ; itietead are uaed mon, ton, son : thus, 

mon amle, nty (female) friertd ton eponse, f^^ tpiyiue 

ton &me, hii ioul son hittaire, her history 

mon BTCngle mnr, my bHnd mter ton tdmable fllle, thy lately dauglttm' 

3. The posseseivea are repeated before everj" Qonn 
that they qualify : thus, 

my father and mother, mon pare at ma mere 
herfriejuU and relatives, bgb amis ot bbb parents 

4. Titles of respect or politeness, naed both in ad- 
dressing and in speaking of persons, are the foBowing : 

'monaienr, m>, Mr., the gentleman 
'meBsienTB, geaHemcTi, Mesxrs. 

madams, madam, my lady, the lady, Mrs. 

meidamea, my ladie», the ladies 

mademolBells, Miss, the young lady 

niMdemoiBBlles, Misses, the young ladies 

a. Tbeue wardn are compnumlii aiCb the possessive mon my, and both porta of 

6. In speakinj,' to any one of his or her relatives, politeness often 
requires these titles to be put before the possessive : thus, 

f/oar mother, madame votre mere 

pour brothers, meaBieiirs vob freras 

your son and daughti^, monBiew votre flla at madsmoiBsUe TOtre fllle 

c. "When these titles arc used with a surTiarae, they are written 
with a capital thus, MonHieur Guizot ; or, by abbreviation, U. 

5. The possessive ia often used in French, especially in address, 
where it is omitted in English : thus, boDJonr, ma stenr good- 
day, sister, oni, mon g^n^ral yes, Qeneral. 

a. On the other hand, the definite article is often used in 
French instead ot the possessive, where the connection shows 
clearly what is meant : thus, il I'avait dans la poche )ie had U 
in his pocket, fermez les yenx shut your eyes. 

6. The commonest mDSFUirrE adjeoiiyes are : 


LE3801T XIV. 

flhaqiu, eaeh, etffry nvl, not ang, W 

tont, every, aU ananii, rwt (my, no 

qiielq.nB, aom» plmienn, getiend 

a. Of these words, chactne is only singular, and plnsieurs only 
plural ; nal and ancim form femiaines, nuUe and ancnne, but no 
plural ; q.nel4ne lias the plural qnelques ; tont makes the femi- 
nine tonte, and the plurals tons m., tontes f. 

6. Tont means all when followed by an article o; 
demonstrative : thus, 

toate la Tills, all the dly ifhe 

whole eity) 
tcnu Me enSmtt, dH hit children 
tont oe tamps, all Uiie time 

c. Qnelqne aigniaes a more limitod snir 
1, 2), and is usually better rendered by a 

tonte ville, every eUy 

Lt enbjit, ea/^ child 
out tempt, at etery Ume 

des pomines, eojne apples qnelqnGi poounu, afe^ <y>plee 

do Tugent, money qnelqne argent, tome liltk money 

d, Hnl and ancun both alike i-equire ne with the verb : thus, 

nnl homme it'ett parfult, no man it perfect 

U n'a anonne fftate, he lioi not any fault 


U TBche, (he am 

ne de terrs, (he potato 
0, Ike peach 

le txmif, ihsoi: 

Is bietiu, the sAeep 

l4 ponmiB, t/ie apple 

la poiie, the pear 

le panler, the basket le vaae, Vie vase 

la l^nme, the vegetable le parent, the relative, pa/rent 


' Monsieur B. a-t-il dea enfants ? ' Oui, madame, ce gar- 
qon-ci est son Ills, maiB la petite tille eat sa niSce. ' Ces 
demoiselles avec Mademoiselle B. sont ses cousiues. ' Cea 
messieurs eont-ils les amis de monsieur voire p^re? 'Nod, 
oe sont ses frSres. ' Mon amie a un grand vase d'argent. 
' Quelles fleors a-t-elle dans la main f ' Elle n'a point de 


flenrs ; elle n'a qu'un livre dans la main, et une pomme 
dans la poche. ' Mademoiselle votre sceur n'a-t-elle pas 
6t6 en Allemagne ? " Kon, elle a 6t& en Angleterre avec 
madame votre tante. " As-tu des amis, mon eDfant ? 
" Oni, madame, j'ai plusieurs amis et quelques parents, 
" Cette femme-ci est-elle ta mi^re ? " Non, madame, elle 
est ma tante. " Voici mon p(5re et ma mfire, " Ces pay- 
Bans ont-ila des vaches et des "bceufs ? " Non, mon oncle, 
chaque paysan a une vache et quelques brebis, mais aucun 
paysan n'a de bceafs. " Toutes lenrs brebia aont dans lea 
champs. " Quels fruits avez-votts dans votre panier ? 
" J'ai qnelqnes pommes et plusieiirs poires. " N'avez-vous 
pas anssi dee pomme±< de terre ? " Je u'ai aucune pomme 
de terre, mais j'ai des pSches. 

Thesie 14. 
'Is yonr mother at the bouse? "No, she is iiJ Paris, 
with her cousin, Miaa B. ' Are these boys your friends ? 
' No, cousin ; they are the children of my teacher. ' They 
have been in all the schools of this whole city. ' Every 
friend of my son ia my friend also. ' All theae peasants 
have been in the fields, and each woman has a basket on 
her head. ' Several women have vegetables in their baskets. 
' Have you peaches and pears, my good woman ? "I have 
a few pears, sir, but I have no peaches. " Do all these 
animals belong to your aon ? '" No, air, the sheep belong 
to my aon, but he has no horse, and we have only three 
ooWB, " What vegetables have we, Mary ? " We have a 
few potatoes in the house, and several applea. " Each 
child will have an apple, hut no child will have a peach. 
'* I had some little money in my pocket, but my brother 
had nothing. "I never have potatoes in my pocket. 
" They had some flowers, bnt they had no vase. " This 
poor old woman had a basket on her head. " My friend 
(f.) had her history in her hand ; she is now at sohooh 

LE980N XT. 


1. The 

Dames of numbers are as 


1 on 

10 dii 

ei s 

ixanta et nu 

2 itnx 

20 vingt 

82 a 


3 troiB 

3D [rente 

63 I 


1 quatre 

40 qnarante-^if . ' 

64 BO 



GO cinqaanta 

, 65 B 


6 'six 

60 "MiianteX<*Tl^* 

■■ ' 66 BO 



TO aoiiante-dix 

67 B 



80 qoatre-vingts 

63 B 


9 neuf 

90 qnatre Tingt-dix 

69 ac 


10 'dli 

100 cent 

70 Boiiante-dix 

11 'onie 

101 cent on 

71 B 

izante et onze 

13 dome 

103 oentdeni 

72 Boiiaute-doaze 

13 trewB 

103 oenttrois 

73 so 


14 luatorie 

200 deoxcentB 

74 BO 


IS qulme 

201 deux cent dd 

75 BO 


16 seizs 

206 dfliixwnHix 

76 BO 


17 "dllBBpt 

1000 *niille,inll 

77 ao 

zante-diz lept 

18 ■dii-hnit 

2000 deox nulla 

78 soiiante-dii hnit 

19 -dls-ttBuf 

1.000,000 iin million 

79 aoixante-dii-neof 

20 -Tlnp V^ 

' 2,000,000 deux mimonB 

80 qnatre-vingtB 

2, a. TTn is maaeuline only, and forms the feminine 
one ; no other numeral makes a dietiuction of gender. 

b. Vingt twenty, score, and cent hundred, are the only 
nnnierals (below million) that make a plural : thus, vingts, 
cents. This plural form is used when so(yre or hundred 
is nmlt-iplied by a preceding numeral — not, however, if 
au added numeral follows : thus, 

oinq ««iitB../ire hwn^reA oinq cant ^x, fiie hanelreA and fm 

quaUe-TiDKtt./DurKOT'S qnatre-Tingt-on, Hghty-om 


3. The French has now no separate names for sevent]/, eighty, 
ninety^ but after Hxty-nitie (aa shown m the table) it counts 
tixty-ten, sixty-eleven , etc., np to siniy-nineteen ; and bo in like 
manner foursoore-ten, founscore-demn, etc., up to fourscore- 
nineteen or ninety-nuie. 

a. But the older septante seoeniy, oct&nte eighty, and nonante 
ninety, are still occasionally met with. 

4. The other odd mimbei'a between the tens are made 
in the same way as those for 61 to 69 in the table. 

Tims. viQgt et tin 2\, 'Tinet-deoz 23,' trente-troiB 33, 411^ 
rante-cinq 4.i, cinqnajite-lmit G8, and so on. 

a. Vin^un 31, trento-nn 31, etc., are sometimes used; alao 
cent et nn 101, soizante et diz TO. soixante-on^e Tl ; but only 
qnatro-vingt-nn 81, qnatre-vingt'dix 00, qna-tre-vingi-onze 91. 

5. A hyphen is always inserted between Ji ten and a 
nnit Immediately following, but not when et stands be- 
tween ; and it is not used after cent or mllle. 

6. Un is not used before cent or mille in counting : that is, the 
French aaja simply hundred, thousand, not one hundred or a 
thousand and bo on. 

7. In giving dates, the briefer form mil is used in- 
stead of mille : thus, 

mil lapt cent loixante-ieiie, 1TT6 
mil hnit Dent qnfttre nngt-Bisq, 18BS 
a. The French seldom says, in dates or elsewhere, etghieen hun- 
dred and so on, but rather (a) thoitsand eif/JU hundred etc. 

8. Still higher numbers are used than those given in the table ; 
thus, nn milliard or nn billion a thousand milluin, nn trillion 
a million millions, etc. 

9. After pins more and moins less, before a numeral, 
than is expressed by de : thus, plus de trois ans more than 
three years, moins de dix minutes less than ten minutes. 


I'an m., I'sonea f., the year le moli, (lie month 

U lemaine, t/i£ vieek Is Jour, the day 

U minute, Oie minute la, 'seconde, lite second -< 

Eombien, houi mueht how manyt (V. 4) In ohMa, Uie dung 

U foil, thi time font, make (XXXII, Si) 



mass 15. 

> to be read Into words.) 

'5; 17 ; 23; 44 ; 72 ; 98; 117; 361 ; 1492; 177R; 1S86, 
'Ce paysan-ci a 3 chevaus, 4 bcBufs, 13 vaclies, et 211) 
brebis. ' L'annSe a 365 jours. ' Chaque jour a 24 heures. 
' L'heure a 60 minuteB et 360 Bocondes, ' L'annSe a 12 mois. 
'Lemois a 29, on 30, ou 31 jours, 'Combiende minutefi 
!e jour a-t-il ? ' 60 fois 24 font 1440 ; le jour a 1440 min- 
ntes. '° Combien de livres avez-vous sur la table ? " J'ai 
plus de 7 livree. " Mon oncle a pins de 565 livres dans sa 
'biblioth^que. " Combien de fruits a-t-U dans sou panier ? 
""II a II pommee, 7 poires, et plus de 10 p6cbes, "J'ai 
6t6 en Angleteire 6 mois et 3 semaines. " Combien 
d'heures la semaine a-t-elle ? " La eemaine a 168 heures : 
7 fois 24 font 168. " 5 fois » font 45. 

Thbue 15. 
* Hare yon many books? *I have less than a hundred 
boots, but my father has more than a thousand books in his 
library. ' How many peasants are in this village ? ' Nine- 
ty-six ; and each peasant has a wife and several children. 
' How many animals have you, my good friend ? ' I have 
nine cows, twelve oxen, and a hundred and twenty-one 
sheep. ' CharleSj how many weeks has a year ? * A year 
has fifty-two weeks and one day. ' Three times four make 
twelve. " Five times two make ten. " Seven times nine 
make sixty-three. " Eleven times twelve make a hundred 
and thirty-two, "Where is your mother, sir ? "She has 
been more than four days in the country, but she is at home 
now. " These boys have bad 41 apples ; they will be siok. 
" We shall have been in London less than three weeks. 
" A month has thirty or thirty-one days. 




1. The ordinala are mostly formed from the cardi- 
nals, whether simple or compouud, by adding the ending 
•Ume, before which a final e of the cardinal is omitted. 

a. First is premier, and second is either 'second or the 
regular deTixi6me — except in componnd numbers, where 
first is nnifeme, and second is denxi^mB only. 

h. Cinq makes cinqni6me, with inserted n ; and nenf 
raakcB neavitoie, with change of f to v, 

2. Examples of the ordinals are : 

( Tiugt et aBieme 
32d Tingt-denxiema 

l«t premier 

( aanxleiiie 
Sd trolBlSme 

4tli qoatriema 
6 th oinqulSme 

lim aniieme 
IBth diz-hnitieiDB 
20Ui yingtieme 

4ad. (|iiaraate-tToiai€me 
Setb dnquftnte-aixieme 
6Tth BOixante-septieme 
TTth BoixantS'dix-geptieine 
99th qniLtre vingt-diz-iii 
100th oentieme 
lOlBt cent nnieme 
713th sept cent treiiieme 
1000th millieme 

I24Sth mille deux cent qnaiante-hiiitieme 
a. An ordinal is generally preceded by the definite 
article, le or la or les ; aud premier and second have a 
special feminine form : thus, la premiere, la seconde. 

h. Second and deuxidme are u^ed gomewhat indifferesttf -, bat 
Becond is rather preferred where there are only two objects {no 
third, fourth, etc., to follow) : thus, Je eecond tome the seeond 
(and last) volume, or le denzieme tome, t?ie second volume (of a 

3. The cardinal numeral sometimes stands in Frenoh 
Vrbere in English we use the ordinal : namely— 


a. In giving the daj of the montli, except the first : 

le deax janrier, the seeortd of Jawaary 
lo quatre ou le oinq STill, tliefimTth or fifth of April 
dn donae aa vingt-troU jati,fn>m the \Wt to the2Sdof May 
le dix du hloIb, l/ie tenth of the month 

le premier nui, theJlTlit of May 
h. In giving the title of it sovereign, except the first 
and sometimes the secoiul : tiius, 

Onillaume trois, Witliam IZT. 
Henri quatre, B-'ury IV. 
LoTiis qiiatorze, Louis SIY. 


Henri premier, Hsn ry I, 
CborlsB denz or Charles second, Charles IT. 
c. In other mi monitions also, wher« tlie number follows the 
thing enumerated : tiius, 

tome denZ| volume teeond ohnpitTB qoatre, chapter fourth 

page vingt-clnq, page iicenlg-fifth article qoarante-iieaf, article 49 

4. As in Ergheh, the ordinals are need also as frac- 
tionals— but only from^i^A upward : thus, 
on ninqnieme, afifthpart troie Tiag:tiemeB, tliree beentiethi 

a. For half, the French haa two words, moiti^ f. as 
noun, and demi {demie f.) as adjective. Ent demi before 
a noun is joined to it with a hyphen, and is not varied 
for gender. Thus: 

la moitie dn temps, half of the time 
nn demi pisd, a ha^-foot, haif afoot 
nne demihenre, a halfhmir, ha^'ati hovr 
nn pied et demi, a foot and a ha^ 
one henre et demie, an Iiout and a half 
}. The words for third -^-a^ fourth or qua/rter are tiera 
and quart respectively : thus, 

trois et nn tiers, Qirec and a third 
nn qnart d'henre, quarter of an hjmr 
one aone K troii qnarti> a yard and three quarlert 
0, Quint is also rarely used iot fifth part, instead of cin^nifemq. 



le grand-peTe, Ote grandfather le p«tit-flla, the grandum 

le tol, Che king la reine, t/ie queen 

le bImIb. tfie eentury le toma, the volume 

U oluLpitre, the ehapler Is page, the page 

dernier, last (VUI. Be) prochain, next 

Zdonard, Edwa/rd Eliubetli, EUsabeOt 

(The flguroe are to be read into words.) 

' Le 1', le S""', le H"', le 23"'% le 34"'% le 57"°% le 72»% le 
96°% le ISl"^ lo 4004'°". ' Henri 6tait le quatri^me fils et 
le septi^me enfant de ses parents. ' Louis XV. fut petit- 
file de Louis SIV., et grand-p^re de Louis XVI. et de 
Charles X. ' Les deux Ills de CharleB I. ^talent Charles 
IL et Jacques II. ' Henri VIH. avait 7 femmes ; la 
premii^re avait une fille, Marie. ' Quel livre avez-voua 
dans la main ? ' J'ai le 3™° tome d'une histoire de France. 
" Comhien de pages ce livre a-t-il ? 'Ha 387 pages ; mais 
le 2"* tome a 419 pages, et le 1' n'a que 278 pages. " Com- 
bien de mois avez-voua ete en Italie ? " J'ai ete h. Rome 
deua mois et demi, et iL Florence one aemaine et demle. 
■" J'etais i Londres le 15 du mois, et j'avais Ste h. Paris du 
18 au 29 du mois dernier. '* Quel tome avez-vous ? " J'ai 
tome trois, chapitre qnarante-deux, page trois cent cinq. 
" Ce garijon a fite une demi-heure h. i'ecole ; 11 sera i t'^glise 
deux heures et un quart. " Ce mois est le 12™° de l'ann6e. 
" Avez-vous du pain ? " Non, monsieur, nous avons trois 
livrea et demie de ancre, et une livre et quart de beurre ; 
mais nous n'avons pas de pain, " J'ai ete ici trois quarts 
d'heure, et je n'ai rien eu. '° Nous sommes eofants da 
19"" siScle. 

Theme l6, 

'She is the fifth daughter of her parents. ' George HL 
was grandson of George II., and father of William IV. 
• Were you in Paris the 13th of last month V ' No, I was 

8S LESSON xvn. 

xt Paris the 18th, and I shall be in London from the 12th 
to the 27th of the nest month. ' What history have yon ? 
* I have volume fifth of the history of Henry VIL ' HeDry 
Vm, was eon of Henry VII., and father of Edward VL, 
Mary, and Elizabeth. ' Elizabeth wae the second qneen of 
England ; Victoria is the fifth. ' Have you been in Ger- 
many ? "I waa in Germany a year and three quarters. 
" I shall have been in school two hours and a half, " Sis 
months are (the) half of the year. " Each child had a 
half-cup of tea and a bit of bread. " They had a pound 
and a quarter of cheese, and three pounds and a half of 
sugar. "Those (ce) are the children of my fourth son. 
"The first, the fourth, and the sixth of the children are 
boys. " The second, the third, and the fifth are girls. 
" My grandfather is now in his 63d year; he has many 
grandsons. "You are the 14th grandson of your grand- 
father. " The France of our days is not the France of the 
17th century. 



1. The names of the months are as follows : 
jutviar, January mai, May leptemlire, September 
firriur, I^/ntary join, Jvne ootobrs, October 
'm/n, Jfarieft jnlllat, Jiily norembn, JVowmfisr 
'•TTll, April 'aoflt, August deoambre, Deeealier 

2. The names of the days of the week are as follows : 
dimanalia, Sandag meroredi, Wednetday vindredl, Friday 
londl, Monday jandi, Thursday luaedl, Saturday 
mtu^, Tartday 

a. The names of months and of week-days are not written with 
capitals, as in EDglish, but are treated like common nouns. 

3. In giving a date, the number (generally cardinal: 
XVI- 3o) of the month-day stands before the month- 


name, and is not nsnally followed by de of ; before it 
etands the article le (in old style, ce this, and in mercan- 
tile Btyle au on the) : thus, 

Inadl le premiar aviil (rarely d'sTTll), Sfdndo}/, April lit 

Mardi Is qnatre jnillst, Tuetday, July Ath 

%u. trenU jutn, pnyei eXc. , on Jmie 30tA, pay etc. 

f aril, oe dix upt aoflt, mil hnit oBnt, Pnrii, Aug, IT. ISOO. 

a, In asking the flay o£ the monih, various expressions are 

used : e.g. qnel jonr dn moia (or quel qnanti^me) Bommes-noiis 

(or aTOna-nons, or est-il) aiq'oiird'tLiii what day of the month is 

it to-day f turaa sommes (etc.) le treise U is the ISth. 

4, In giving the time of day, o'clock is expressed by 
henrM, literally hours, and the parte of hours, as in the 
following examples : 

(me o'eloek, naa beiue Jtm o'eUielr, eluq henrea 

Kkal o'eieei it it, qoelle henro sat-il 1 

it will toon be eleven, il lera Ijientot onie henres 

halfpa»t three, tioii henrei et demie 

quartar pattfoiir, qoatre hmurei et qnart (or et nn quart) 

at a quarter to leeen, i liz henrM et trail qauta or 
a «ept henrM moini nn qnsrt 

laen^ three minute* past eight, hnit baacm et viogt-troii minntN 

at tieelve vUnalai liefore tern, a dix henrei moina dome minntM 

a. As the examples show, henrea is n<it to be omitted. 

h. But doQze hemes is not used for twelve &clocJt ; in- 
stead of it is said midi (literally Tmdday) for twelve at 
noon, and miniiit (literally midnight) for twelve at night : 

half poll tweliie o'eloek, nidi (or minnit] at demie 
Anmfjr joinutea to twelT^, midi (or minnit) molu vingt minntei 
6, One's age is thns expressed : 

Aoie old are you, quel ftgo avei voni 1 (litfrally, iehat age hate you) 
TamJifleen years old, j'ai qninie ana (litfiratly, Ihare 15 yean) 
my rater iifrie and a half, ma Ksni a dnq ani et demi 
8. Measure is expressed as follows : 
htiti feet high, il eit haM de Bii pisds (literally, high hy 6 /«<) 
IMl hoUM it 45 feet long, oette malson est longne de qnarante-ria^ pladi 
or a qnaranta einq piada da loapteor 

LEssoiT xvn. 

7. For Htnea with a nnmGral is used Jbia: thus, 
twice, cincL fois sept font trente-cm^ Jfve times seven are (lit- 
erally, mafcf) thirty-flm. 

8. For other numeral derivatives, see the Second Part, g§ 67 eto. 

longnenr, fen^fl 
Mtjoiird'lial, to-dag 
loi, Aere 

deDuin, io-morrovi 
hier, yesterday 


largenr, breadth, 
.om.l, o/tti. 
la, f^re 

Bpres-demain, day 
■vant-hisr, day 2* 

after to-msmm 
''ore yesterday 

Exercise 17. 

'Paris, le 23 avril, 1886. 'Quel jour du moU Bvons- 
Bons aujoard'hui ? ' Aujourd'hui est le 19 ou le 20 ; de- 
main sera le 21. * F6yrier est le 2me, et d^cembre le 12nie 
mois de I'annee. ' Uimauche est le ler et vendredi le 6me 
jour de la semaine. ' Nous avons mercredi aujourd'hui ; 
avant-hier a ^t4 luudi, et apr^s-demain sera vcudredi. ' A 
quelle heure seras-tu chez mon peredemainf *Je serai h 
I'eglise fi, dix heurea et demie, et jo serai chez ton pere ik 
midi et quart. ' Quelle heure eat-il? '° II est onze heurea 
moins dix minutes, et nous avonn ete a I'ecole deux 
heures ot trois quarts. " Quel dge votre fils a-t-il, madame f 
" Mon fils a dix-neuf ans et demi, et il est grand de six 
pieds. "Notre maison a quarante-deux pieds de large ur, 
et elle eat haute de trente-cinq pieds. " lis ont 6t6 ici de 
dix heures il midi. " Lea enfanta out etc i I'ecole dcnx 
fois aujourd'hui, h. ucuf heures moins «n quart, et i deux 
heures et demie. " A midi ila auront ete h, I'ficole trois 
heures et un quart. " Trois fois quatre font douze. " Sept 
et bait font quioze. • <>.^ 

Theme IT. 

' London, Sunday, Nov. 5, 1773. ' Washington, July 4, 
1776. ' What day of the week is it to-day ? ' It is Thurs- 
day, the 9th of June, ' What day were yon in Paris ? 'I 
was at Paris Tuesday or Wednesday of last week, ' Satiu> 



day, Aag, 12tli, I shall be in the country. * At what hour 
was my father here yesterday ? ' He waa here at half past 
six or a quarter to Beven. '" He will be at the house to- 
morrow at a quarter past twelve, " Is this gentleman often 
ill? "He was ill yesterday, but he is not ill to-day, " He 
bos been here a year and nine months. " How old is he ? 
" He is 67 years old, acd he is 5| feet tall. " I have been 
three times at the school, but the master was not there. 
" Yesterday we were at church an hour and a half, " Our 
garden was 150 feet long, and 200 feet wide. " 7 timee 9 
are 63. " 10 times 11 are 110, " 7 and are 16. 

LESSON xvni. I 

BEGULAB teebb; eirbt conjugation, 

1. There are three regular conjugations of French 
verba ; their infinitives end reapectively in 1. er; 2. irj 
3. re : thus, donner, flnir, vendre. 

a. There are also many irregular verbs having these same end- 
ings in the inftuitive, and others having oir. Half-a-dozen at 
those ending in oir in the infinitive are in many grammars called 
another regular conjugation (the third, those in re being reokoued 
as the fourth). The irregular verbs will be given further on. 

2. All the forms of regular verba (and also moat of 
thoBe of irregular verbs) may be inferred from five lead- 
ing forms, which are therefore called the principal pakts 
of the verb. These are 1. the infinitive ; 2. the pres- 
ent participle; 3. the past or passive participle; 4. the 
present indicative; 6. the preterit indicative. 

a. In learning a French verb, then, regular or irregular, the 
first thing is to learn aud make familiar the principal parts, 

3. From the infinitive are made the future and con- 
ditional, by adding reapectively ai and aie (the e of the 
iofinitive ending re being lost) : thus, 


86 LEHSON xvrn. 

i MFu i m i f i doener flnlr vandn 

SVxDHE doiiii«r^ flnirai Tinbti 

CoNumoitAi. daimeraiB fluiraii fendnli 

a. ThlB 1b the onl; caae of a real derlTation ; see V, Bf, VI. eii. 

4. From the present participle may be fonod the im- 
perfect indicative and the present subjnnctive, by chang- 
ing ant into oil and e respectively : thus, 

Pbbb, pflx douuutt flniiMDt Tmduit 

IiiFr. imicr. doiuuli flniiaais vsndiia 

Fbis. auKi. donns fl&lne vanda 

a. In many verba, the plural persons of the present indicative 

need also to be inferred from the present participle ; thus, flnis- 

bohb etc. ti-om. finissant; see XXIV. 5c. 

6. From the paet participle are made, with the aux- 
iliary verb avoir or 6tre {see XXVIII. 5-7), the various 
compound forms— the perfect infinitive, perfect indica- 
tive, and so on : thns, 

PiBT FPLE donnS ani vendn 

PiHF. DTm. «to1t donuB kvoli fiui mToir Tendn 

Fdw. inihc j'Bi donne j'ki flni j'fti vsnda 

6. From the present indicative may be found the im- 
perative : thns, 

pRia. nmic. doniM finlj vnidl 

Ihft. doniM fiali Tiadi 

a. In general, the three persons of the imperative are the same 
with the corresponding persona of the present indicative : only, 
in the first conjugation, the final a of the 2d sing. impv. is nan- 
ally (see below, 10a) lost, so that its form agrees with that of the 
lat sing, indicative. 

7. From the preterit indicative may be made the im- 
perfect Bubjunctive, by changing final s (in the firat con- 
jngation, that of the 2d Bing.) into bm : thus, 

Put. didic. doimal, doaaM flaii Tindli 

flnllM VMkdltM 

a. Verbs of the first conjugation are the only ones in the lan- 
guage Uiat do not end iu ■ in the 1st sing, preterit. 




FiasT Regular Conjtgation. 

8. The first regular eonjagation, with infinitive end- 
ing in er, contains the great majority of all the verbs in 
the language. 

n. They ors principally tlte Tarba of the flrst Latla oonJu^tiOD. In mre, but 
■ISO afew of thoBS of tbe second imd third conjugations, now come to be indeoCad 
like them, and nun; borrowed and Dew-made verba. 

9, As a model of its inflection may be taken the verb 
donnei give {donate ,• Lat, donare). 

a. The synopsis of its principal parts and the parts 
derived from them is as follows : 

S. The complete inflection of the simple tenses is (with 

infinitive and participles prefixed) : 

donner (i donnar, da donstr) 

PtLEaxsT pABTioiPLB, giving Pim FucnoiFL^ (riiwit 

donuat dDDiia 



m irfifim. uc. 

je douse 

nan* donnau 


Tinu dennai 

U donna 

ill doanant 


nam donnlau 



U donnaJt 

Hi daniudent 

PRnEUT, rmm, did 



nam daonimai 


Toni donnitat 


FOTDM, /•Sou or M* 

aiM, cu. 



Toni donnaiei 


il* daimaraat 

LESSON xvm. ^M 



je dannsralB 

11 donnerait 

ill dotmenient 






axsT.Hiat tvialgiBl.tK. 


que ddhs domdon* 

que ta damiei 

qne vatu donnlei 

qii'il donna 

qn'ila donnent 




que noiu daniujuoiij 

qn'U donnSt 

avoir, it will he sufficient to give the synopsis, the in- 
flection of the anxiliary being already familiar (X.) : thus, 

avoir donne 

a.7&nt donne * 

j'oi donne etc. 

j'avaiB doime etc 
Purr ABTzHioit, I fiorf iiftrji. eta 

j'euB donne etc. 

janni donne etc. 

j'anntu donne etc, 

que j'lis donne elc. 

qne jensse donne elc. 

a. The 3d sing, imiir. nf ihu first conj. adds an 
i by tlia object- pro aouiis en or y (XXIIJ. 5-7). 


b. Aa ia all verba (1. 10c), the 3d sing, present, preterit, and fu- 
ture add -t when followed by the subject-prououns il, elle, or on : 
IIinB, donne-t-il, doima-t-«Ue, donnera^t-on. 

c. If the 1st sing, present indicative or imperfect snbjunctiva 
(the latter, of any conjugation) coniM to bo followed by its sub- 
ject, it takes an acute accent on its final e (21c) : thus, donn^Je 
do Tgive f donnaBB^je should I give. 

dmuiBr, ffine apportar, bring 

eharehar, teek, lookfttr Uoviei, jind 

aimer, lore, like travaiUer, work, Uibc 

le jonet, the plaything, toy U l«ttra, ths letter 

Exercise 18. 
' J'ai donn^ un joli cheval A, nion cousin. ' Aimez-TOHB 
YOtreconsin? 'N^o'l! niaiJame,je n'aime point cecouain-lA, 
mais j'aime beaucoH^) ses freres et sea Htenrs. ' Ces 
jennea filles cherchaient des fleurs, male ellea n'ont rien 
trouvfi. ' Quelles fleurs ont-eiles oherchfies P ' Elles aiment 
toutes les fleurs. ' Donnez du pain a ce petit garjon ; il a I 
faim, 'Quoiqu'il ait travaille toute la semaine, 11 n'apas ;„iri 
d'argent. ' Ponrquoi le marchand ne donna-t-il paa d^ar- .' 
gent au garqon hier? '"II aurait donn^ de I'argent, a'il ', - 
n'avait pas 6t6 mala de. " N'avez-vous pas trouv^ lemaltre? 
"Nona trouviimes le maitre i I'lJcolo a dix heures. " Ce 
bon paysan apportait chaque jour da lait il mon oncle. , 
" Hier il ne trouva pas ses vaches, et il n'apporta paa de 
lait. " S'il cberchait trois joure, il ne trouverait pas ses /i f-v 
vaches. "Marie, apporte la lettre de ta tante. "Ponr- 
quoi madame votre stsur ne donne-t-elle pas de jonets i 
&UX enfants ? " Si elle avait trouvfi de beaux livres ehe£.ar*^ 
le marchand, elle aurait donnc un livre il chaque enfant. 
" Quoique nous ayone cherche dana toute la ville, nous 
n'avons trouve qne de manvaia livrea. " Cherehona dea 
fruita, et donnons nne pomme on une poire d chaque garson, 
et nne fleur d chaque fille. 



Tbeue 18. 
' Do yon love yonr friends f ' I love all my friends and 
relations. ' What plaything shall I give to yonr brother ? 
' Let us give a book to her brother. * What cows was the 
peccant looking for? ' He waii seeking bis cows, bat he 
has fonnd nothing. ' If he does not find his cows, he will 
not bring milk to the city. ' Although he bad not fonnd 
his cows, he brought milk enough yesterday. ' The peas- 
ants work all day. " They love the country ; we love the 
city. " What letter did Louisa give to this man ? " She 
had not found her father's letter, but she gave to the man 
her uncle's two letters. "I often give handsome things 
to my friends. "My uncle will bring from (de) Rome 
some beautiful pictures for (ponr) his nieces. " Children, 
let ns give some wine to this poor woman. "She has 
worked ten hours, and she is very unhappy. " Give your 
old black coat to this man ; he is cold. " Did these young 
girls look for flowers? '* Yes, sir ; they had been seeking 
flowers an hour in the garden. " Why have they not 
brought flowers to their mother? " They have found no 
flowers ; they have found only leaves in the garden. 



I. The verba of the second conjugation, with infini- 
tive ending in ir, are ninch fewer than those of the first. 

BrindpaJlr Terbi of the ZaOn fourth conj 
ie KCODd UK] third conjugiitlotiB, and 

ijunUoa. In Ir*. 
vtth dcnomlnBi 

imlnBtlTe verba. 

2. As model of the second conjugation, we will take 
the verb Snii^niah. 


o. The Bjnopsis 

of principal and derived parte ib : 1 

flnir llnlM«Dt flni finii fiuii ■ 

Aninl flnltMlt ivoir fini Hull flnlM. J 

flnirmi* finlua 


h. The fall inflection of the aimple tensee is : ^^^| 

btnnmvi, finitli. lo flnUh ^^^^H 

flnii (i finlr, do flnir) ■ 

PaHBiT F.i>Timi^ finithing Purr Puticipu, Jlntitol ■ 


„-:=- ■ ^ 


.(m.flnl»>u ^H 


ToniflniHU ^^^H 


Uiflniuent ^^^H 


noni flnluloui ^^^H 


Toni flnluiBi ^^^^| 


fluluiiBQt ^^^^1 


nooi OniULM ^^^^| 


VDTufllUtM ^^^H 


Ub OnirBnt ^^H 


DOn* flolroiu ^^^H 


ToniSnlni ^^^M 


iliflnlnnt ^^^H 

Cdhditioiu, f (Ao~UjI»«h. etc ^^^^^| 


noiu finlrioita ^^^H 


TOM flniriei ^^^H 



Inmnm jtaM. eK. ■ ^^^^^| 

flnlMon. ^^H 

^^^H flnlj 

iinlMB. ^H 



P™BIT,»UB/m»VJI»irt,t«:. fl 

^^H V»J*fl°l«H 

^^^B qwtaflnlHM 

qns voni AniuiM J 

^^^^V in'U InlM* 

(in-ili flniwnit ^^^fl 

Sttbi. Fbbx. 


IHTBnniFT, lAnl Imfuhifiaiah, etc 
que je flniase qne nom flaiulonl 

qa« tn flnlsiN que toiu finigiiez 

qn'il flnit qn'Ui flnisieut 

c. Of the compound tenaes, the brief synopsis ie : 
Pebf, InriN. avau: flnl, to Jtaim Jinitkid 

Pebf. Pabt. a;[uit flnt, hating Jinufud 

iMDic, Pkhf. j'ai flni, I Jiave JinitheS 

Pldft. j'aviUa finl, Ihad finished 

Pabt akt. j'mu fini, J had fininhed 

For. Pkhp. j'anrni flnl, I ehaU have finiehed 

j'anraii flni, lahovM have jlnithtd 
qns j'aie fini, (^( /may hate finished 
qae j'euiseflni, that I might havefitiithed 

d. Note that, of the simple tenses, the present and prelerit in- 
dicative are alike in the singular, but differeot in the plural ; also, 
that the present and imperfect subjunctive are alike throughont, 
Bscept in the 3d singular. 

3. Two or three verbs of this conjugation have slight irregulari- 
ties, which may be pointed out here : 

a. The verb haJr hoU loses its diuresis (that is, has its a and i 
united into a diphthong) in the singular persona of the present 
indicative and of the imperative. These two tenses are thus in- 
flected : 

je hail noiu haiBsoiu balumu 

tn hail vooi 1i>[uh ball haluei 

il halt ill luluent 

b. The viirb flemrir flourish, otherwise regular, has a setond 
present participle and imperfect indicative. floriaHant. je floris- 
sais etc., from the old verb-form florir. The forms with o are 
used only in a figurative sense. 

c. The verb b^nir hlexs has a second past participle h^nit, used 
aa adjective, oonsecrated: thus, dn pain b^nit consecrated bread, 
I'ean h jnite holy waUr. 


flair, ^nM lAtiz.buHd . 

ponir, puniiA 'hab, hate ffJ,^. 

choiair, choote aaiiir, »eixe 

bsuii, hU»» flmirir, fiovrith 

la tadia, Oie task la cbote, fhjr thing 

lepretre, t)iepne»t 1m gem pi., thepeopla 

lil«ii, imU mal, iff 

beoond beaci.ab conjcgation. 93 

Exercise 19. 

' Cee enfaats n'ont-ils pus tini leur t^he ? ' Le maitre 
punira lea enfants, s'iIb iie finiBsent pas leur tache. ' Le 
manvaie homme n'a point d'amis ; il hairles homiueB, et 
les homtueB haissent le mauvais homme. ' Le pr^tre a b6iii 
le pain et te vin. ' II donnera aux gens le pain benit, mais 
il ne donnera le vin d, peraonne, ' Cea horaraeB ont bdti 
nne nonvelle egliee pour le vieux pr^tre. ' lis finiront 
I'Sglise le moia prochain. * Quotqu'ile batiaBent I'egliae, ila 
ne bAtiront pae I'^cole. ' Mon oncle bdtiBsait nne tr^a-jolie 
maison pour sa tille. '"Nous choisiseions de beaux ta- 
bleaux pour cettc maiaon. " Le fruit fienrit-il dans votre 
jardln, monsienr? " Oui, madame ; toua lea f raits et toutes 
lea fleurs fleurit^«Ht)dan8 ce jardin. " Pourquoi punissez- 
voua ceB enfanta ? '* Parce qu'ils ont saisi lee fleura de ce 
pauvre gargon. " Mea enfants, ne saiaiaeez jamais lea choaes 
dee autrea, " Je cboiairai beaucoup de tri^^B jolies fleurs, 
et je donnerai lea fleure ii ma mlire. " Edouard, finia ta 
tdcbe, " Le mattre ne punira paa Edouard, qitoiqu'il ne 
finisse pas aa tdche. " II ni.' bait pas la tucbe, maia il a 6t^ 

TUEME 19. 
'Have you finished your task, Edward? 'No, air; bnt 
I Bhall have finished tbia laak to-morrow. " Although you 
have not finished- thia book, chooae another book. ' I will 
cboose a history. ' My aister chose a novel yesterday ; 
she does not like a history. ' We hate biatoriea, but we 
like stories and novels. ' My uncle built the last year a 
library for the people of the village, and he will build a 
pretty bouae for the priest. ' Why does he not build a 
church also ? ' Were you choosing a picture for your 
room ? "I should have chosen a picture, if I had had 
money. " Charlee, chooae a present for thy sister, but do 
not seize the things. " Good children never seize other 


people's things. "Why did you pUDish the dog? "I 
puniBhed the dog, because he seized this poor boy's meat. 
" Do the flowers flourish in your garden ? "I have many 
flowers, and they flourish well in my garden. " Although 
these children hate their tasks, they love hooks, " They 
did not choose good Iiooka ; they choee bad novels. 
'* Their master will punish the children. " If you have 
fluished your history, give the book to your brother. 


1. The verbs of the third conjugation, with infinitive 
ending in re, are but few in number, 

a, Thsf an certeiii verba ot the l^tin third conjugiatloa. 

2. As model of their conjugation may be taken the 
verb vendre adl {Lat. vendere), 

a. The synopsis of principal and derived parts is : 
T«ndTB vendanl vendu rsndi vendii 

▼«n(lni vendalt Kvoir vsndn vendi vanditH 

vandiali vend* e . e . 

h. The full inflection of the simple tensee is : 

InmuTiyi;, ttll, to lell. 
Tindra (ft vendre, de vendra] 
PKaHSn' Particifu, wEIitv ^^^ PiRTiotPif , $Old 

venduit vendu 


^^^^^^^ TBIBD 





QOiu vendlmaa 


YOU vanditai 


lU vendirant 


noni vondTMM 


»otti Tendrei 


ill Tsndrant 


OimindlUl.. / rtouM «H, 0..,. 

nooa Tondrioni 

M TMtdrali 

TOOJ Tandrisi 

il Tsnilnit 

ImiuTiTi. ^^^^^1 

TBndoiu ^^^^1 


Tandai ^^^^H 

8»™c™. ■ 

'B««llT,(ko(Jmw«n.«(0. ■ 

qua jB vende 

qua nmu randiou ■ 

qns tn Tindea 

que virai randiai H 

qa'U Mnda 

qTi'ili vendent ■ 

rsSTZCT, Mai / niglil all. etc. H 

que je vendiaae 

qua to vendlnei 

qne Ton* TandiMiei 1 

qn*a Tendit 

c. Of the compound tensee, the brief aynopflis is : J 


ftTOir vandn, to Aotm mid ^^^^^^ 


ftyutt venda, hamng toid ^^^^H 


j'Bi vendn, Ika^ »cid ^^^H 


j'sTBia TBndn, I had eold ^^" 


j'eaavendD, /AdffWfi 

Fet. Peht. 

i'»orai vandn, /<iA»K ftawwM 

CoND, Prar. 

i'anraii vandii, Ishould have xM 

B™. Pntf. 

que j'aje vendn, that I man '>av» aM 


qne j'enue Tanda, Oiai I might have aoid 

d. Notice that the 

verbs of this conjugation have different 

vowels in the endings 

of the preterit and of the past participle : 

thOB, vendia, venda. 

In nearly all other verbs, reeular and 

irregulftT, these two forms agree in vowel. I 

3. Two or three verbs of this conjugation have slight irrej^- | 

Uritiea, which are beat 

pointed out here, ■ 


a. Vaincra eonqiur (Lat rioeere) is perfectly rerularE 
ear. but is neceaaarily spelt with qn instead of e before e and i 
CITat. and tben aleo before a and o; tlie c remaining onlv before 
D, before a. congonant, and as final. The sj'nopsis of principal 
and derived [larls is as follows : 

T&liura Tftinquajit vunim Tftine* vkiaqnit 

TkioMii vkinqnBii RToir vKinen T&inca TkinqoiMC 

T&incraJa T&lnqus ''^' '"'" 

The prea. indicative and imperative fin which aloae any change 

of flpelling occurs in inllection) aro as follows: 

J* nuM ninu Tsjnqnoni T»iaqtioiu 

ts tkIum toiu Tainqnei Taina Tunqnn 

U Tains ill viinqneat 

The compound convaincre convince ia conjugated in the same 

b. Bompre break fLat. rampere) adds a t in the 3d sing, indie. 
present : thus il rompt (not romp) ; in all other respects it is 

c. Ba.ttre beat (Lat. battaere) loses one of its two t's in the 
singnlar of the pres. indicative and of the imperative, which are 
thus infleetod : 

Ja bati non* battoui battona 

tn bata vona battel bata battel 

11 bat 111 battent 

The rest is regular. 


TMidra, nell 

attandr*, Motf, expret 

battrs, heat 

!• gateau, the eake 

I'olHau m., the bird 

•oModra, hear, underttand 

Exercise 20. 
' Ce boiilanger vend du pain et dee gdteanx. ' Pourquoi 
n'a-t-il pas vendu de pain k cet homme-ci ? ' II n'a pas 
Tenda de pain li rhomme, parce qu'il n'avait paa d'argent. 
' H perdit hier tout son argent. ' Entendez-vous lea oiBeanx 
dans 1e jardin ? ' Non, madamc ; je n'ai point entendu lea 

perdre, lo^ 
rompTB, break 
Taincre, canqver 
la tdU, Vie wine 
rennemi m., the enemjt 
la eerlie, ckerry 



oiBeaui, mais j'entends lavoix d'nne jenne fille. ' Ma eoeur 
ft et6 malade, et olle a perdu ea belle voix. ' Quel livre 
avez-vous perdn ? ' J'ai perdu I'hietoire d'Angleterre. '" Je 
perds sonvent nion histoire. " Les mauvaia garqons bat- 
tent les pauvres chieuH. " Henri ne bat jamais son cbien. 
'* Le roi Louis XIV. a vaincu toue ees eTinemis. " II vaino 
toQJours. " Avez-vous attendu une lettre ? " Oui, j'attenda 
des lettrea chaqoe jour, " Quoique ce boulanger vende 
beaacoup de pain, il perd toujours de i'argent. " Le pr^tra 
rompt et b^nit le pain, et donne lea morceaux aux hommes. 
" S'il vendait tout le fruit, il n'aurait plus de ceriaea pour 
les enfanta. " II n'aurait rien perdu. " Rompez le pain, 
et donnez an morceau A ce pauvre enfant. 

Theme 30. 
' I hear a voice in tbe house. ' Wbat voice did you hear ? 
' I beard yesterday the voice of this young girl iu tbe gar- 
den. 'Did you expect nobody day before yesterday? 
' Tea, I expected my brother, ' I shall expect many friends 
to-morrow. ' This poor man has lost hia wife, and he will 
lose his daughter. ' This man does not beat his horseB, 
' He does not sell bis horses, though they are very old. 
" If we sold our horse to tbia man, he would beat the horse. 
" A good boy never beats hia dog. " Why does your couain 
not break tbe big cake ? " Let us break the cake, and let 
ns give a piece to this little girl. " Have you sold your 
bird ? " No, we did not aell the bird ; we lost the bird. 
" If I had not loat alt our birds, I should give a bird to this 
boy. " Have the enemies conquered ? " No, our king has 
conquered the enemies. " Ho always conquers his enemies, 
"This bad baker often sella bread to our enemy. "He 
will sell bread to all the people, if they have money. 




1. Beeides tte verbs of the three regular coEJuga- 
tione, the French has a large number {neai' a hundred) 
that are more or less irregularly inflected. Of all these, 
the inflection has to be separately learned, and it will be 
given in the lessons following. 

2. a. Of the first conjugation, or with inflnitiyes ending in er, 
there are but two really irregnlar verbs, aller go, and envoyer 
amd (for which, see XXVII. 8, and XLII. 11). 

J. But many verbs of the first conjugation, otherwise 
regular, have to undergo in inflection certain changes of 
spelUng, in accordance with the general rules of the lan- 
guage (laid down above, in the Lesson on Pronnnciation). 
Thus : 

3. Since (21a) no word in French may end in two silent ayllablea, 
and their occurrence anywhere in a word is generally avoided — 

a. Verbs having in the infinitive a mute syllable be- 
fore the final syllable have to give the former a full pro- 
nunciation whenever in inflectioii the syllable after it 
becomes mute. 

h. This is usually done by putting a grave accent upon 
the e of the syllable in question. 

Thus, from the infinitive mener had, we have je mene, in 
mdneras, il menerait, mene, qn'ils m^nent, etc, ; Imt nous me- 
nons, je menais, in menas, qa'il men&t, ete. A]«o. from acheter 
buy, we have il achete, aoua acheteronB, qne tn achfetos. etc. ; 
but vooB achetez, il acheta, achetona, qae nous achetions, etc. 

c. But a few verbs double instead the consonant (t or 
1) following the e. 

Thus, from jeter throw, we have je jette, tn jetteras, il jetta- 
rait, jette, qn'ilB jettent, etc. ; and from appeler call, we have 
U appelle, nous appellerons, que tn appelles, etc. 


The verbs thus doubling the consonant are jeter ^and its com- 
pouade) and cacheter; appeler, chanceler, ^tinceler, reaon- 
Teler, and ensorceler. 

d. The synopsis of principal and derived forms of mener is as 
follows : 

The only tenses that show the difference of spelling in their 
tense-inflection ace the pres. iadicative, the imperative, and the 
prea. aubjunctive ; they are : 

mine manflnt mene menent 

And in like manner with the other verbs. 

4. Since the accent on an e followed by a silent syllable is regn- 
larly and usually the grave (20ai) — therefore 

a. Verbs having in the infinitive an acute € before the 
final syllable change the accent to grave (6) when the 
next syllable becomes mute — except, liowever, in the 
fatore and conditional, where the aente is retained. 

Thus, of the verb c4ier cede, for example, 

6. The synopsis of principal and derived forms is : 
tader eSd«nt oSde eede ledal 

«adeni oedaii avoir cede cede cSduia 

««d«nui eSde "*" ^"^ 

And the inflection of the tetises that show a change of accent is : 

odde oedoiu 

cedM nedez cede 

eSi« eldeDt 

c. But tlie verb creer create retains the aeute throughout : 
thus, je crSe, ils cr^ent, etc. ; also, in general usage hitherto, the 
verbs ending in the infinitive in ^ger: thus, from prot^ger pro- 
tect, je protige. ils prot^gent, ete. (but now better je protege, 
ila prot^nt, etc.: 30c). 

6, Verba having c or g (prouoaiiced soft) before final 
er of the infinitive retain the soft sound of these letters 
throngh their wholti conjugation ; and this is signified by 









100 LEseoK XXI. 

writing a cedilla ander the c (tlius, 9), and by keeping an 
e after the g (62e), wherever in conjugation those letters 
come to be followed by a or 0. 

Thus, from placer place, and manger eat. wp have 
je place, and noos plagons ; je mange, and noDB mangeons 
je pla^aiB, and doob placions ; je mangeais. and nons mangions 
none pla^ftjueB and ils placerent; nous mange&mefi, and ill 

6. Sittce y ( = double ij does not usually stand before a mute e 
(376j — therefore 
a. Verbs having a y before the final er of the inflnitive 

change it to 

i when in 

conjugation it eon 

es to be fol- 

lowed by a mute e. 

6. Thus, for 

example, of the verb paver pau the fivnepsis of 

principal and derived forms 




pare pU« 




»™r^^je P«^« 




And the pr^ent indieativ 

is thus inflected 1 







And in like 

manner with 

employer employ, appuyer support. 

and so o 

e. But verbs in eyer preserve the y throughout : thug, jfl 
grasBeye (not gnuseie), et«. And some writers retain the 7 
after a: thus, je paye, et«. 

7. When the i of a verb ending in ier eomes to be followed by 
1 in inflection (namely, in 1st and Sd plur. impf. indie, and pres. 
aubj.), the two i'B remain unchanged (do not become y). Thus, 
from prier pray, onblier forget, we have nous priionB, voub 
piiin; qne noos onbliions, ^ue Tons onbliiez. 

■ippeler, caU uheter, buy 

Btuer, laks, lead proteger, protect 


•nployer, emploff nettoyer, eUan 

nSta, ertate onblisr, forgei 

la doMMtiqae, tenant, maid le ber^er, lAf ihepJierd 

!• monds, tht aorld le teup«, the time 


' Appelle la domestique, HelSne. ' Je I'ai appeUe, ma 
m^re, maie elle n'etait pas ici ; elle nettoytiit les chambres. 
' Elle nettoi era voire ohambre demain. ' Ce petit gar9oii-ci 
m^ne anx champs lea vaches et les brebis de son p^re. ' Le 
berger et son chien prot&gent toujoura les brebis. " 8i le 
berger n'etait pas ici, ce vieux chien mfinerait et ppotfigerait 
lea brebis. ' Quel fruit mangez-vons, mes enfanta ? ' Nous 
maugeona des corises ; bier nous mange^mes des pommes, 
et demain nons mangerons des poires. ' Acfaetez-vous 
beaaoonp de fruit ? '° J'acb^te dn fruit touB les jours de 
cette vieille femme. "Si nous donnons de I'argent & ce 
garqon, il achStera da pain pour sa mere malade. " Quoi- 
qu'il ait acbet^ da pain poar sa m^re,elle ne mangera rien. 
" Elle acheta da fruit et da vin pour cet homme, mais il ne 
mangea rien. " Charles, avez-vous commeucfi ce livre-ci ? 
''Non; mais je commencerai ie livre demain matin. "Nous 
commenQons I'eoole aujourd'hai, et je mineral tous les en- 
fanta 4 leur mattre. " Ont-ils oublifi le maitre ? " Quoiqne 
nous oubliions le maitre, il n'oablie jamais see fil^ves. 
" Emploie bien le tempa, mon enfant, et n'oublie point ta 
tS,che. '" Diea a cr&e le monde, et il protege tonjours les 
" H cr^e lea arbres et leors fraita. 

Thbme 31. 

' Edward i% hungry, but he doea not eat any bread. 
' Let UB buy some fruit, and let ue eat two apples, ' You 
ate (pret.) too many peaches yesterday. ' If they buy 
bread to-day, they will buy wine to-morrow. 'The ser- 
vant was cleaning the windows yesterday ; to-day she will 
clean the rooms of the house, ' Did the school begin yes- 
terday? 'It would have begun, but the master was ill. 
* Let ua begin the school to-morrow. ' The servant will 



take all the children to the school. '" Call Mary ; I caUed 
her, hut she was not there. " The shepherd takes the ^heep 
to the fields. " At five o'clock he will take the cows to 
the water. " He took the sheep to the water yesterday at 
two o'clock. " If they call the boy, he will protect the 
flheep. " My cousins build houses, and they employ many 
men. " We only employ one servant. " Let us begin 
this pretty story. " I have forgotten the book. " We 
were at the school, and you always forgot the hooks. 
" These children were employing their time well. " They 
had finished the history, and they were beginning a new 
story. " God created all men, he created also the sheep 
and the cows. 



1, Many pronouns in French, especially the personal 
pronouns, have a different form according as they are 
used conjunctively or disjunctively. 

2, A conjunctive pronoun is one that is immediately 
connected with a verb, as either its subject or its direct 
or indirect object ; any other is disjunctive. 

3, The snbject-pronoane are already familiar ; they 

Stiro. Je, / tv, Oum U, hs; lUe, the 

Plur. sou, lee voai, you il« m., ellw f., they 
a. In rare instances, however, even the subject-prononn is 
oUiged to take the disjunctive form : see Second Part, §g 74a, 76. 
4. The subject -pro noun staode in general immedi- 
diately before the personal verb, only the negative ne 
and the object-pronouns being allowed to come in be- 
tween the two. 


a. But, as in English, the Bubjeet-pronoun followe the 
verb in questions, and in interjected phrases like dit-il 
said he, and oecaeiooally in other cases : see Second Part, 
§ 234 etc. 

b. In a question, only the subject-pronoun changes ita 
place, everything else remaining as it would be if the 
sentence were an assertion. 

6. Of the object-pronouna, direct and indirect object, 
all the forms are these : 

Sd " ta, Mt Ihee, to the v ou, j/au, to you 

8d " la, him ; la, her ; Ini, to him or h^" let, them ; leiir, to then 

6. The uses of the object-pronouns are as follows : 
a. NouB and vous are unvaried, standing in every con- 
struction and position — as conjunctive pronouns and as 
disjuQctive, as subject and as object, aa direct and as in- 
direct object, before the verb and after it. 

h. Me and moi, and te and toi, are used either as direct 
or as indirect object, me and te before the verb, and moi 
and toi after it (for one exception, see XXIII. 6S). Thus : 

tn m'aiinei, ihou loneet me aimemol, lorn me 

lu te donnu, thmi gkeet thyaflf donno-toi, gm thymlf 

voni me donnei, yoa give in me donne»-moi, give to me 

c. Lb, la, and lea are used as direct object only, le be- 
ing masculine, la feminine, and les of either gender ; lui 
and leor are used only as indirect object, both being of 
either gender : thus, 

U rainie, hi lovet her edmei-la, low her 

alle I'sims, g/ie lotea him aims-le, lone him 

ji Ini donne, Igite to him at 7ier donnei lol, give to kim or har 

aoiu Ih TBndotu, we tell them Tendani-lea, Ul u« eell litem 

TOO* lew vendH, yon ten ta them veudei lenr, sell to t?iem 

104 LESSON xxn. 

d. Thus it is eeen that tlie object-pronouns of tbe let and Sd 
sing, vary in form according to their position before or after the 
verb, and for that only : while, on the contrary, those of the 3d 
pera. vary according to their character as direct or indirect object, 
and the direct object in the singular also for gender, bnt they have 
the same form before and after the verb. 

e. Notice that the direct-object pronouns lo la les have the 
same form, and the same distinctions of gender and number, with 
the delinite article. Le and la also have their vowels cut off be- 
fore a following vowel (or h mute), juet as when they are articles. 

7. An objeet-pronoun, whether direct or indirect ob- 
ject, stands in general immediately before the governing 
verb — in the compound tensea, immediately before the 
auxiliary : but with this exception, that if the verb is an 
imperative affirmative, the pronoun stands instead direct- 
ly after it (and is joined to it by a hyphen). 

For examples, see above, 66, c. 

a. Nothing is allowed to come between the verb and 
its pronoun-object ; the subject, and the negative ne, 
when used, are placed outside of them ; thus, 

je ne voos donna pu 1b llvre, I do not give y(m tfw book 
moD ami ne t'a pM vn, my friend hat not geen thee 
ne 1m ftimei-Tou pu, do yoit luA lone Oiem t 
ne Vanra-t-il pu flnl, wiU he not hatejhudud itf 

b. If the vei'b is an imperative negative, the object- 
pronoun precedes instead of following it : thus, 

ne Ini donnei pu le livrs, do not giK him the book 
ne lei almei pM, do Tiot tote them 

8. When a verb governs two object-pronouns, one 
direct and the other indirect, they are both together 
placed either before or after it, according to the rules 
just given — that is, after it in the imperative affirmative, 
otherwise before it. 

n French does not have two direct objects; and al- 
! two indirect, unices one be en or ; (Second Part, 



9. Ab regards their position relative to one another: 
a. When both come before the verb, the indirect stande 

first, unless it be of the third person (lui or leur), in which 

case it foUowa the direct: thus, 
je M le donne, Igii>e it to t/tee 
Toiu nooi le doimem, yoa imU ffiet it (o lit 
je le Ini ai donae. / have gieen it to Mm (or to her) 
vooi le leor »TieE douse, yira And given it to thtm 
II ne me lei vsndra pai, /i« jbUI not lell them to Tne 
11 ne nous les a pai vendnt, he hat not xAd ifiem to vt 
ne me lei donne pu, do net give them to me 
na Tona Is Tendrat il pu, wUl he not leilit to youf 

i. When both come after the verb, the indirect alwaje 
stands last : thus, 

donnaE-lei-nLDl, give lAeta to mt 
vendoni-Ie-lanr, Ut vs »dl it to them 

c. As the last examples show, both object-pronouiiB, when they 
follow the verb, are joined to it by hyphens. Some, however, 
prefer to omit the second hyphen : thos doonez-lfls moi. 

d. A brief rule, covering all cases ot the relative position of 
direct and indirect object -pronoun, objects of the same verb, is as 
loHowa : 

Before the verb, the iDdirect-object pronoun, unless of the third 
person, precedes the direct. 

words, except Uie pmnoua-ConiiB at 


' Le maCtre n'aime-t-il pas ces enfants ? * II ne les aime 
pu; il lea punit toujourB. ' Donnez-moi ces gateanx. 
' Nod, mon enfant, je ne te les donnerai pas ; tu ne lea 
mangeras pas. ' Avez-vous bdti votre maison a Paris ? ' Je 
I'ai h&tie dans la ville. ' Le boolanger vous a-t-il vendn ce 
pain-ci? 'II ne nous I'a pas veodu, il nous I'a donnS. 
* Les enfants ont beaucoup de gAteaux ; le houlanger lee 



lenr a donn^a. " Si voqb avez de bone li/res, donnez-les- 
moL " Apportes-tu cette fleur 4 ma B(Bur ? '" Oui, moB 
ami ; je la lui apporte. " Apportez-moi aossi des fieurs, 
" Ne ioi apportez pas de fruit. " Si j'avais du paiu, je 
TOQB le donnerais. " II a faim ; je !e lui donneraL " Avez- 
Toua Totre livre, ou I'avez-vous perdu ? " Je I'ai perda, 
monsienr ; je le cherche, maia je ne le Irouve pas. " Cher- 
cliez-le toujoars ; vous le trouverez. " Ke me donnerez- 
vous pas ce8 jolies fleurs ? " Je ne voub les donnerai pas ; 
je les ai achetges pour ma mi^rc, et je les lui donnerai. 
" Si VOU8 ne me I'aviez pas donn^, je ne vous aurais pas 
aim6. " Tn as les pommes de ces enfants ; donne-les-leur, 
" Si tu ne les leur donnea pas, je te punirai. 

Theme aa. 

' I give you the book ; you give me the book ; they give 
her the book ; we give them the book ; he gives ub the 
book ; thou givest him the book. " I give it to my friend ; 
thou giveat them to thy brother ; we give it to our father. 
' I give it to you ; you ^ve it to me ; they give it to her ; 
we give it to tbem ; he gives it to ua ; thou givest it to 
Mm ; give it to them ; do not give it to her. * Will you 
not give me this apple ? ' I shall not give it to you ; I 
shall give it to this boy. ° Do not give it to him ; give it 
to me. ' Did not the baker sell the bread to this woman f 
' Yes ; he sold it to lier ; he did not give it to her. ' Will 
ahe give it to her children ? '° She will not give it to thetn ; 
she ia eating it. " Give it to me ; do not eat it. " Eat it ; 
do not sell it to them, " Bring me the book, and I will 
buy it. " If she had brought me cborrieB, I should have 
eaten them. " The shepherd had aheep, but he has lost 
them. " He is seeking them, and if he finds them, he will 
lead them to aa. " Find me the book, and bring it to me. 
" Does the baker aell bread to the poor people ? " He does 
not Bell it to them, because they have no money. " Let us 


buy a piece of bread, and let us give it to tbem. " Although 
we have bread enough, we will not eat it ; we will give it 
to you. 



1. Personal pronouns not immediately connected with 
a verb, as either its subject or ite direct or indirect ob- 
ject, are called disjunctive, or are said to be used diajunc- 

2. Tlie disjunctive forma of the pereonal prononna 


lui, him; Ma, Tier 
enzm., elln f., them 

a. Note that in the first and second persons these pronouns 
have the same form with some oC the oonjunctiyes, while in the 
third person enx is new, and Ini, which as conjunctive prononn 
(indirect object) is of either gender, as disjunctive is masculine 

3. The ordinary coustruetions of the diajunctive pro- 
noun are these : 

a. "Witli a preposition. 

Thus, k moi 'o me, de toi of thee, arec Ini leiUt him, sans eU« 
teithout her, pour etts for tJiem (m.), entre elles between them 

h. Used absolutely — ^that is, without any verb expressed 
with which they should be immediately connected : thus, 

qui » dit cela, wito li/m said that moi, /(for jel'kl dlt) 

qui Bvez-VDUI Tn, lefu/ia haw you Ini, him (for JB I'll w) 


u grnnde qae tai. ahe it taller fAan (Aw (orQ 
at nol, du at I{do) 



c. In combiDation with mSme self, to form emphatic 
pronoDDB eorreeponding to onr myself, thyself, etc. : tliOB, 
moi-mime, myself mmi-mBmet, miTKtve* 

tol-meme, Ihyitif 
elle-memB, heruTf 

allM-memw, tbemidtiet (f.) 

<iTself and voos-mSme yourself, when used of 
a single person (VII. 16). 

These pronouns admit of being used as subject : thus, lui- 
mSme me I'a dit Minselfhas said it to me. 
d. As predicates after the impersonal c'est, ce sont, U w ; thoB, 
r c'est moi it is I, c'est toub it is you, est-ce lui, is it ?tef but 
V (XI. 2b) ce Bont enz. ce sent elles, it is they. 
. V e. But after personal forma of 6tre be, the conjunctive pronoun 
■- of the direct object is used as predicate, especially in the sense of 
it or so, standing for an adjective or noun already expressed : 
' ^ thos, etes-votu henrenz? noos le avam^a, are you happy f we 
■_'■ areso; \a. Tvm.^'i lela, saia, Vie queenJ / ant 5Ae (see Second 
' " Part, 5 81). 

/. When more than one pronoun, or a pronoun and noun, are 
subjects of the same verb, the pronoun has the disjunctive form ; 
and if the two are not of the same person, the compound subject 
is usually represented by a suitable pronoun before the verb : thus, 


oil, yau and Tare friend 
\e and kis unde are gone 

The same is necessary in the case of a compound object ; thus, 
je Tons jconts toi et lui et elle, / listen to thee and him and Tier. 

g. If a subject-pronoun is separated from the verb by anything 
but the negative ne and object-pronouns, it has to take the dia- 
jnnctive fonn : thus, lui, saiaiasant nn crayon, ^crivit he, seizing 
apeneU, wrote; eox sanla aont venus they alone have come. 

4. Besides the personal pronoTiiiB already given, there 
IB anotlier, a reflexive pronoun of tlie 3d person, having 
the conjunctive form se and the disjanctive sol (like me 
moi, ta toi). 

Se is used in the inflection of reflexive verbs (XXIS.), both as 

direct and as indirect object, both as singular and as plural ; aoi 

is only singular, and usually relates to an indefinito subject : thns, 

ohMvn peoH S ioi, entry one thinks of Aimseff 

B'ftlma qne Ml, to lote only wt'» telf 



5. There are also two words, en and y, which have the 
value of genitive and dative caaes, respectively, of per- 
Bonal pronoune of the third person. Th ey are n eed chief - 
ly of things, not_^ pereons (except of anspecified persona 
in the plural). 

a. En means of it, of them, and so on ; it is the equiva^ 
lent of a pronoun with the preposition de (de lui, d'elle, 
d'evz, d'elles). 

ft. Y means to it, to them, and so on ; it is the equiva- 
lent of a pronoun with the preposition k (& Ini, k elle, k 
euz, k elles). 

c. Hence they are often used with verbs to represent nouns 
which, if expressetl, would liave to be connected with the verba 
by de and k respectively: thus, s'en approcher to approach it 
(because one says B'a.pprocher de qaelqne chose to approach 
something) ; je vons en remercie / think yon for it (because re- 
mercier de qnelqiie choae) ; j'en ris Ilaugh at it (because rire 
de qnelqne c^ose) ; 7 ajracher lo wrest from them (because ai^ 
nudier £ qnelqa'im wrest from any one), j'y pense 1 think iff it 
(because penser H qneliine chose think cf sotnethiiig) — and so on. 

6. Bn and y are treated as conjunctive pronouns, be- 
ing always joined with the verb in the sentence, whatever 
their logical connection, and being put before or after 
the verlj according to the same rules as other object-pro- 
nouna (XXII. 7): thus, 

j'en loj* certain, lam certain of it 

il in oannait lea loU, Ke kru>ms Oie laois of it (it» latm) 

voui y etu obebMnt, you are obedient to it 
a. When naed along with other object>-pronouns, tliey stand 
last, whether before or after the governing verb: thus, 

js Vj ooBdointl, I wUl eimduet him to il 

oondoini-I'y, conduct him lo it 

donnei-M-en, yiee him of it (Mme) 

ja ne tou en daanarai pu, Iwiil not give yau of it {ati^ 

h. After the verb as well as before it. me and to are used 

instead of moi and toi before en, and usually before ;: thus, 

donneK-m'en give me of it {or *ome), rendfi-t'7 betake thyself Us 

it (but sometimes rends-y-toi). 


LESSON xxm. 

c. When y and en are used together, ea follows y: thns, il y 
en a (?(ere are some. 

7. En is often used partitively, standing for a noun 
with the partitive prepOBition de. 

Thus, avez-Tonadnpain? ham you bread f j'enad: je vons en 
Aoimerai, I have some ; I icill give you iome. 

a. Where the noun would have an adjective quiiUfjine it, the 
adjective takes the partitive preposition : tliiis, j'en ai de bon J 
have aome {that is) good (equivalent to j'ai de ton pain) ; vonlez- 
TOOB des fleuTB ? je toos en donnerai de belles do >/ou want 
floicers f I will give you some handsome ones. 

B. En and y are originally adverbs, and are, especially y there, 
not seldom used with that value. They have many idiomatic 
uses, for which see the Second Part, g 85. 

k bal, Ihe ball, danee 
la plaisiT. the pleature 
penier (it) think (of) 

la the&tre, the theatre 


ou est-il plus grand que 
naia je suis plus grand 
i ; et le plus beau, c'est 
' Non, je I'ai perdn. 
' Moi-m<;me I'ai trouvS, 

' Es-tn plus grand que ton frttre, 
toi ? ' II est plus bean que moi, : 
que lui, ' Le pins grand, c'est mo 
lui. * As-tu ton livre avec toi ? 
* Toi et moi, nous le chercherons, 
sans voua. ' Le boulanger rionne-t-il des gdteanx A cea j 
enfants ? ' II en a, mais i! ne lenr en donne paa. " Moi,^?f , 
j'en ach^terai pour eux ; il en a de bona. "Toi et lui, ^; 
avez-T0U8 fite an bal hier ? " Moi senl y ai ^td ; il 6tait an ■ . 
th^dtre avec eux. " Ce tableau n'eet-il paa trfee b(AQ? 
" II I'est ; mais j'en ai de plus beaux. " Get honune parle " 
beauconp de ses amis ; mais il n'y pense pas ; il ne penee 
jamais qu'A soi-m^me. " Les garijons aont-ils au th6fttre ? 
" Us y ont ete avec moi, mais ils n'y sont plus. " Us y ont 
eu beaucoup de plaisir, mais its n'eu auront plus ; ils sont 
^ rficole il present, " Menez-m'y, je cherche lenr maltre, 
" C'est moi, monsieur ; je le suis moi-mfime, " Aviez-vous 


parig de ce livre 7 ** Kous y avione pens^, mais nous n'en 
avione pas parte. " Lni et elle en parleront. 

Theme S3. 
' These children are hungry ; give me bread for them. 
' I haven't any ; but I will buy some, ' No, I will buy 
some myself. ' They are poorer than I, but I am smaller 
than they. ' They alone are unhappy ; we are not so. 
' The moat unhappy of men — it is I. 'I have loat my 
friend, and I am unhappy without him. ' I do not speak 
of him, but I think always of him. ' I was happy, but I 
never shall be so again. '" This good man never thinks of 
himself. " He has much money, and he gives some to these 
poor people. " Are these men the peasants of the village f 
" It is they. " If you have money, give me some for them. 
" Have you been at the ball ? " No, I have not been at it. 
" I shall be at the theatre with her to-morrow. " My friend 
and I were at the ball. " These books are very handsome, 
but I have handsomer ones in my library, " I will give 
you some for yourself. " What book have you ? "I have 
forgotten the name of it. " I shall be at the house ; wait 
for me there (at it). "I shall not be there {at it); I shall 
be_ at my uncle's. 



1. The demoDetrative pronouEs are: 

«e, thii, lAat. it (indefinite and neuter) : 

odni m., ceUe f., thti or that one; cmz m., ceUes f., ««», a^ 

a. To all of them maybe added the demonstrative ad- 
verbs -ci and -14 fas to the noun following a demoustnt 
tive adjective : XIII. 3). 

113 LESSON sxrv, 

2. Ce has the value of a pronoun as subject of 6tre he 
in its various tenses, and as antecedent of the relative 
pronouns qui, que, etc. 

a. In the former case, it is generally to be rendered 
by it in English : thus, c'eet moi it is I, ce fnt eon devoir 
it was his duty, 5'a fit6 lui it was {has hem) lie, ^'aurait 
6t6 dommage it would hanie been a pity, 
^b. Ce iR much more often used than il with the 3d persons of 
6tre in the sense of it fs, it was, etc. This is especially the case 
when something already described or intimated is referred to, so 
that the ce would admit ot being rendered by that ; but it is not 
limited to such cases. In fact, il is hardly used oscept in ex- 
pressions of time (XL 2a), before an adjective followed by a lojii- 
cally subject-clause {infinitive or relative) which the il antieipatcB, 
and in the parenthetic il est vrai, meaning to be sure. 

Thus, il est temps de partir it is time to leave, il est tard it 
is late, il est six henres it is 6 o'clock, il est difficile de voua 
plaire it is hard to please you (i.e. to please you is hard), il est 
Evident que tous avez tort it is plain that you are wrong, 
dL&rement, il est vrai, mais fort loin at a dear rate, to be sure, 
but vei-y far off;— hut vona avez tort, c'eat Evident j(OW are 
wrong, it {that) is plain; &ites cela, ce tt'est pas difficile do 
ikat, it is not hard, ce ftit ma fante it was my fault, c'est votre 
uni qui est paxti it is your friend that has ^ft. 

c. Ce is also sometimes used with ponvoir and devoir as aux- 
iliaries of Stre, and in n few phrases with sembler seem: thus, 
ce poavBJt Otre Ini 1^ might belie, ea doit 6tre it must he, ce me 
semble it seems to me. 

d. For ce as anteaedent of a relative, see XXYI. 10. 

3. The compounds of ce with the demonstrative ad- 
verbs are written ceci and cela (witiiout grave accent; it 
is often contracted colloquially to 9a); they mean t/)is 
and that in an indefinite way, without reference to any 
particular object expressed. They are nsed in all con- 
etructions. Thus ; 

mU na me plait paa, that does not please me 

j6 SB venz pu oed ; donnei-moi cala, Idtm'l want iMt; give me lAat 

qnsditw-TOM de oeU, tehat do you sag about thatf 

a. In a question, ceci (rarely used) and cela are divided into 
ce ci and ce 1& : thus, est-ce lik votre livre is that your book 7 
sonvce ci vos gants are these your gloves 7 


4 The other deiuonetrativeB, celui etc., distinguish 
gender and number, and are used of persons and o£ 
things, with more direct reference to sonietliing already 
expressed or distinctly understood. They are used either 
alone or with oi and 14 added to them by a hyphen : thus, 
celni tkie or that one, celui-ci this one, celai-l& tltat one. 

a. The simple celni celle cenx celles are used only as 
antecedents of a following relative, and before the prepo- 
sition de in possessive phrases : thus, 
oelui qui wt mon ami, he who it m}/ friend 
mei BmiB st oenz de nioa tiba, mff fi'iendg aiul ing broOier'g 

iliterally, and those of my broSwf) 
ma Tobe et oeUe da nu sviir, mg drets wnA my siiter'a 

h. In all other constructions, the compounds celui'Ci, 
celiii'l&, etc., are used — as subject, ae object, after prepo- 
sitions, and so on : thus, 

void deux flenn ; tdhIbi vdu «lle-oi on oelle-lii, liere wre tirojUnrera; 

icUl you hase thU one or thai one? 
M llTn-ot eit &mDl; js hb loii rlen de tslvi-li, l/tis book beloTiffg to tne ; 

J know nothing of that one. 

c. As the last example sliows, the demonstrative adjective is to 
be nsed when there is a noun with it for it to qualify, but the 
domonBtrative pronoun to represeat the noun, when the latter is 

d. Celui'Ci etc. often mean the loiter, and celui-l^ etc. the 

iHHBoitLAB TiRsa— Toaloir. 

5. a. Those verbs in French which a 
throughout like one or other of tlie three— donner, flnir, 
veadre — already given, are called EEfiDLAE vekbs. But 
there are also many others in the language deviating 
more or leas from these models, and they are ciilled ie- 


114 LESSON sxrv. 

6. The irregular verbs are one of the principal di.lictiltiM of 
French Grammar. They are of various degrees of irregularity: 
some are irregular only in their principal parts, all the derived 
parts coming from them precisely as in the verbs of the three 
regular conjugations; others are irregular also in the formation 
of the derived parts (only the inipf. aubj. coming without any 
exception regularly from the pret. indie.). But, in all of them, 
irregularities of tense-inflection are confined to the three present 
tenses — the present indicafive, the imperative, and the present 
Buhjunetive, Of the other tenses, when the first person is known, 
the rest follow from it with certainty. 

c. The only rales for the formation of the derived 
parte are those already given for regular verbs (XVIII. 

Of more special importance among the irregular verbs is the 
rule for finding the plural persons of the present from the present 
participle (XVIII. 4a). 

d. In learning an irregular verb, the principal parts shonld 
first be mastered and made familiar, then the synopsis, then the 
inflection of the present tenses when this is in any way irregular. 
Tlie synopsis of principal and derived parts will be given in this 
grammar for every irregular verb, and the inflection of the 
present tenses when called for. In the synopsis, those derived 
parts which do not eome regularly from the principal parts wQl 
have attention called to thom by being printed with spa.ced or 
open letters. 

6. The very common verb vonloir wiahy desire, will 
(Lat, Telle), is also a specially irregular and difficnlt one. 
a. Its synopsis is as follows : 
— , Tooloir voulMit '^^••''-*-- vonlu'-^i"''^. vmii 1,.^ TOnlni U^a4f 


b. Its pros, indie, and subj. are thus inflected : 










ft The regular imperative venx vonlons voulee is very rarely 
nsed ; instead of it, the 3d pers. sing, and plur. venille venillei 
are used, but only with a following infinitive, and in the sense of 



d. In Tonlolr, u in a number of other verbs, the rowel of tho rcxjt Is chftneed 
(here, frDm oa lo en) whomever Ihe radical sellable 1b ocoented. noC being fol- 
lowed by aaather of full tone. Tliese forms wilb chsoged lowel are HomB&ineB 
called the araom tonaa (veoi, veuleat, veuiUent, etc.). 

e. Tonloir is used with tie iafinilive of anotheT verb almost as 
ail auxiliary, and must stand for our tcill whenever a wish or 
request ig implied : thus, Tonles-Toos ^ner cliez noiu tcill you 
dine with us? It also sigaifles wish to have, want: as, vonlac' 
Tons dn lait will you have some milk f 

f. En Tonloir, followed by i., means hare a gt^dge at, be vexed 
or angry at, be hostile to, etc. : thns, il en vonladt k. ce panTre 
homma he bore a grudge agaittst this poor man. 

It portrait, theporiraU la peintnre, the paintinfj 

Ispeintre, lAe painter ratelierm., the studio 

TTal, true miens adv., better 

Ejehcise 34. 
' Eet-ce 1^ votre pfire ? ' Non, monaienr, c'est mon oncle. 
' H est vrai que noua ne raimona pas, mais c'eat parce qu'il 
est un mauvaiB bomme. ' Ce sont les troia freres de notre 
ami ; oelui-ci travaille loujoufB, mais ceux-ld sont paressenz 
et ne trsTaillent jamais. * Cherchez-vons ceci? 'Je ne 
cherche point cela ; je cherche mes livres et ceux de mon 
frfire. ' Voila lee portraits de raa famille ; celui-ci eat tr^a 
bon, mais cens-lA eont manvais. ' Ce peintre a beaucoup 
de beaux tableaux dans son atelier. ' Acb^terez-vouB cette 
peintnre-ci on ceUe-14? " Celle-ci est le portrait de Lonis 
XIV., et celle-Id de Louia XV. *' C'etaient deux rois de 
France ; ce!ni-ld etait nn tree grand roi ; celui-ci 6tait on 
Cr4s mauvaie bomme. '' Ke me donnez pas cela ; je ne 
I'aime pas ; j'aime mieux ceci. " Ceci est trop cher ; je ne 
fous I'ach^terai pas. " C'est cher, il est vrai ; roais c'est 
tr^s beau. "Si j'avais asaez d'argent, j'ach^terais tout 
eeoi. " Sont-ce 14 vos livres ou ceiix dn maitre ? " Ce 
sent mes livres ; cenx de mon maitre sont il I'^cole. 
" Qnoique ooue fussions tr^s riches, nous n'acbt^teriona pas 


LESSON xxir. 

ces tableaas-ci ; ceax-lil sont beancoup plas beaux, 
homme n'est pas tr^s riche, maia celui-lA est trSe pauvre, 
" J'ai beaacoup de robes, et je vous donnerai celle-ci. " Je 
lui donnerai aunai celle de ma MEur. " DonDez-moi celle- 
U ; je I'aime rateux. 

Tremk 34. 
' Is that your house ? ' Tea, it it* my house, and it is a 
very good bouse. ' We bave prettier ones in our village ; 
but this one is larger than my father's. ' This picture is 
handaome ; I do not like that one. ° Are you the painter 
of it ? ' I am the painter of this one, and I have many 
pictures in my studio. ' Do you like this one better, or 
that one ? ' I like this one, but those are alao very pretty. 
' Which portrait have you bought? '° I have bought that 
of the king of England. "Have you brought me this? 
" Yea ; but if you do not like this, I will give you that. 
"I have lost your present and your brother's, but I will 
look for them. " I have found this in the garden, and I 
will give it to you. i " It is seven o'clock, and I am hungry ; 
give me bread. ' I have some, but it is not for you, 
" You had some fruit, and you did not give me any ; now 
I do not give you this, "These men do not work, but 
those work always. " We have loat our horse, but we have 
my brother's. " If we had not had these flowers, we should 
have bought the old woman's, " These flowers are not 
handBome ; I like those better. 


' Voulez-vouB du pain ? ' Je n'en veux pas ; je n'ai pas 
faiin. ' Ne voudriez-vous pas manger ce fruit ? ' Veuillez 
m'en donner. ' lis ne veulent pas travailler, ' II voulait 
manger. ' II ne veut paa me le donner. ' Quoiqu'il voulflt 
manger, il n'avait rien. 

* I will ; they do not wish ; will you ? we shall have 
wished ; you will wish ; that I might have wiahed ; that 


f,, she might wish ; that we may wish ; they wished ; we 
' ^were wishing ; they would have wished. '° Will you have 

■some milk? " No, I do not want any ; I waat some water. 

S" I want to give her a present. " Give her a new dreaa ; 
' e wants it. " Will you huy a dreaa for her ? 



y^. The interrogative pronouns are : 

qui, wTio? v>J»mf wlialT quoi, irhatf 

qnB, lehatf Isqasl I'tc., which 

_xS. ftiii is hardly used except of persons. It stands 
for all genders and numbers, and in all confitnictious — 
as subject, object, predicate, after a preposition, etc. 

qui Mt U, M^ M th&re? 

qui c1iBrcliBnt-iIi| vihoiit do they seek f 

qoi etes-voiu, w/io are ytnit 

poor qui C8 crayon est-il, for whom is this pencil * 

i qui eit ca llvpB-la, to vihom doe» that book belong f 
3. Qni is sometimes, but anly rarely, used as subject in the 
sense of whatf Generally, the phrase q,ii'est-ce qui what is thai 
tehich or what is it that is employed instead. Thus : 

qui Toni tunens, what brings ymi here T 
qn'wt-w qoi vooi troable, wkal troubles youT (literally, 
what it it that IravbUs you f) 

J 4. flue and quoi whatf are also without distinction of 
gender or number, but are used only of things; que is 
conjunctive (XXII. 2), and quoi is disjunctive {like me 
moi, etc.). 

118 LE8B0N XXV. 

a. ftue is only object of a verb, or predieato with an 
intransitive verb: thua, 
qoB Tonlei-voni, leMt do you •aithT 
qoe nonB dit «et homme, what doet tAi» man aay to u»f 
qn'eat-M (or qn'sst-oa que o'at), inhat is it? 
qae »8rt-il, qf what u»e it ilf 

que devlendra-t il, inhai wilt }mhe«tmef {i.e. Vihat wHl beeome ef himT\ 
h. ftuoi is used absolntely, and with a preposition : thus, 

elle TOO! k doone — qnol, aJie Ima given you — witaif 
ds qnol porla-t-ll, qfiehat ialietpeakingf 

c. Both que and qnoi are frequent in esclamation : Ihus, 

que ds bonte! qne de Uenfaiti! what (i e. how much) goadne>»l 

what (i.e. how many) kindnesses I 
qnoi de plna henrens, what nwreforlumUe! 
qaol I voui j stei euMre, what! ymi are here stUlf 

d. Qae is often also an adverb, meaning how / why f : thns, 

qne TouE etea belle, hoin handsome yim are ! 
que puIez-vooB si lutut, why do you apeak so loudT 
/5. Lequel is made up of the interrogative adjective 
iinBl {XIII. 4) and the definite article; it is written as if 
one word, but both its parte are inflected for gender and 
number: thus, 

Bing. leqnel m., laqnelle t. Flor. leaquels m., leequellM f. 
They are used in all constructionB, in the sense of 
which? which ofie ? whatoiuf Thus: 

void deoz livrei : leqnel choiiisBei vooi, here are two books! 

'whieh do you choose t 
laquelle de sm vexat eit mariee, which ofkii sisters it marriedt 
par leqnel de cea oheminB, by inhich one of th^te roads t 
a. The article in leq.tiel ot«. also combines with the prepositions 
de and & just iis wtien it stands alone, making dnqueX desqnela, 
deaqnellea; aoquel, anzqnels, aoxqaelles; thus, dnquel de 
T08 amis parles-voos of which of your friends do you speak f 
anxqnelleB de ces ecolieres lea a-t-il donnas to tchich (tf these 
scholars has he given them.? 

/fl. After some interrogative words — the pronouns qni and qne, 
iKe adjective quel, and the adverbs oil u'here f qna&d when 1 com- 




meat how? combien how much, how many f^-A Bubject-noim ia 
allowed to be itself put after the verb In asking a question (com- 
pare I. U) : thus, que vent oatte fenune what does this woman 
ipantf ou eat notre ami where is our friend f quel livre & 
l'to>liBr what book fias flie scholar t 

yi<^. 1[ ia oomnioo in. French to use paraphrases in asking qnes- 
- tions: thus, qn'eat-ce quo vous aves what is it t?iat you liaix f 
for qu'avez-voQS what have you f qui est-ce qni vend who is it 
that aeltx * for qui vend who sells ? and the like; also est-ce qne 
TOOB avSE is it [the case] that you ham f for avez-Tona have you ? 
and especially est-ce que j'aime instead of aim^je, and the like. 



8. The verb poavoir be able, can, is, like touIoIt 
{XXIV. 6), a very common and very irregular verb, 
used somewhat in the manner of an auxiliary of mode. 

a. Its aynopaia of principal and derived fornis is: , 

pouTOir pouvant r'-! - ^J »»- pu ^r pwnorpnii'*/'* pni' ■^'y 
ponrrsii ponvaia ■>;v.' (-■/ btdIt yaJ-^'J ^'-/ pnaw /"yti-"- 





j. comEB regulBT^ trom 
only as orcliuary ad jsctl 

another fo 

a. ppje. pulatant. 

d. Puis and penx are equally common as Ist sing. In quee- 
tiom, however, only pnis-je is used. 

e. When this verb is made negative before an infinitive, the pas 
is often omitted : thus, cela ne pent tarder tJiat cannot delay. 
The omission is more usual with pnia than with peuz in 1st sing, 

/. PouToir sometimes expresses general possibility, and is lo 
be rendered by mai/, might, etc. : thus, cela pent fitre that may 
be, il pouvajt avoir vingt ans he might {perhaps) be 20 years 
old. It is sometimes used reflexively, in the sense of be possible 
thns, txia, se pent that is possible. 

g. PoutMt oftfln lakes an object directly where in English we 
have to nse another verb : thus, peut-il atteudre can tie wait, 
il la pent /le can (do) it. 


1b Mrrlatte, the napkin U lutppe, the tabte-dolh 

I'Milatte, the plate In 'ooiller, the apoon 

It oouteaa, tlis knife la (onrDhottB, Ihifork 

dSnar, dine dqeimer, hrfakfdit 

mainteniuit, now alon, then 

Exercise 3S. 
' Qui est ce ietme homme ? ' C'est Monsiear B., mon 
ami. 'Lequel de vos amia aimez-vouB? ' Je lea aime touB. 
' Qui veut diner avee moi ? ° Moi, je le veux ; je n'ai pas 
encore dtn^, et j'ai faim. ' Laqiielle dee deux nappes 
vonlez-vouB employer ? ' Nons emploierona la rouge ;«ii^ 
nous voulona nettoyer la blanche. TA qui eetlcette assi- 
ette-ci ? '° C'eat k men fils, maia il o'est pas encore ici. 
" Qu'avez-vouB A manger ? " Veuillez manger de la viande 
et des legumes. "Voila une cuiller et une fourchette ; 
laqnelle voulez-voua ?/ " Donnez-moi la fourchette, et un 
conteau aussi. "Que veut-il ? '°I1 veut du ael et du 
poivre, " Que lui donnez-voitB maintenast ? " Je lui 
donne une aBsiettc. " Lequel de vos fr^res est ici, el que 
veut-il? "II veut d6jeuner avec moi. " De quoi voub a- 
t-il parl€ ? " II m'a parl6 dn concert ; qu'en pensez-voua ? 
" A quoi pensiez-vous alorB V " Je penBais a ma t3,che. 
"Auxquetles dea jeunes fiUes pensez-voua maintenant? 
" Je pense A ma niOce. 

Tfeme 35. 
' Who has been in my room ? ' It waa I, madam. 
■ What did you want ? ' I wanted to find the table-cloth 
and napkiuB. ' Which did you find ? ' I found the white 
ones. ' At what hour do you wish to dine ? ' I will dine 
now, because I have not brealcfaated to-day, ' What have 
you on the table ? '° We have butter and cheese ; which 
do you wish ? "I wish cheese with my bread ; give me a. 
knife and a plate. " Here is a blue and a white plate ; 


(rtiicli do you want ? " Please to give me that large knife. 
"Which of the knives is the largest? / "This knife is 
larger than that. " Of what are you thinking ? " Why 
do you not bring me the meat and the vegetables? 
"Who IB this woman, and what has she in her basket? 
" She has potatoes ; and I will buy you some. "' To which 
of the children did he give the cake? " He gave it to 
nobody then ; he will give it now to this good child. " Of 
whom have you bought this picture ? "1 bought it of the 
painter for my sister. "Of what were you speaking? 
" We were speaking of this portrait. 


' B pent travailler. ' II ne pouvait pas travailler. * D 
ne pourra pas travailler, s'il est maiade. ' H pourrait tra- 
vailler, s'il n'etait pas maiade. ' II vent travailler, mais il 
ne le pent paa. * Kous le pouvons, mais nous ne le voulons 
paa. ' A-t-il attendu ? ° II ne I'a pas pn. 

* Can I ? you can ; we were able ; they will be able ; she 
has been able ; though he cannot ; if thou couldst ; that 
he might be able. '° We can if we will ; he could if he 
would ; he will be able if you shall be able. " This one 
would work if he could ; those can (it) and will not (it). 
" I should have been able to love you, if you had been 
willing to love me. " I cannot love you, but I have not 
been able to hate you. 



1. All the interrogative pronouns are used also as 
relatives, but with some notable differences from their 

aee as interrogattves. 


2. By far the commoneBt relatives are qni and que — 

qxa standing as subject, and que as direct object of a 
verb. Both of them signify either persons or things, of 
any gender or number. Thus, 

I'eufitnt qui plenre, the ehild that eriei 
dn olBsanz qui volent, birds that fly 
le Uttb que tou« ave», the book lehieh you fttwe 
lei amis que nooi aimaiu, thefrieitdt whom we low 
'>. Que is also souieliiues |)rwlicate with an intransitive, espec- 
ially 6tre : thus, imbecile que Tons fitea /oo! that you are, ce 
que c'est that which it is, ce que votu devenez that trhieh you 
beamte, co qn'il nona &Dt ivfiat we lack. 

b. The participle of a compouud tense following qns agrees in 
gender and number {X. 56) with the word to which qne relates : 
thus, les gajits qn'il a. achet^ the gloves that he has bought, les 
flenrs quo nous avions vues the flowers whieh we hod seen. 

c. A verb having qui ns subject is of the person of its ante- 
cedent : thus, moi qui snis / who am, toi qui as thou that host, 

3. Qui is also nsed with prepositions, but generally 
only of persons : thus, 

rhonune & qni je I'ttl don&e, ih£ man to lehom I have giten it 
Im unii ahsi qui toob demenrei, the friend* viitk wh^tm. yov. live 

4. Leqnel etc. is used with prepositions of objects 
other than persons: thus, 

le ahlen anqnel j'si daime a manger, the dog to which I hatt 

given {mrnethiag) to eat 
1m maiMiiu dam legqnellea voot demauret, the hotiua in mhiek 
yeu dweH 
a. After paimi among, lesqnels (or leaqnellea) is always nsed, 
and not qui. 

6. But lequel etc. is also used as subject or direct 
object of a verb, in place of qui or que — generally, how- 
ever, only when there is special reason for distinguishing 
the gender and number of the person or thing referred 
to : thus, 

volla land de ma mere, leqnel vient me voir, h^re m my molher'tfi-ieTid, 
uho comet to »ee me (where qnl, if uscil, might seem to refer to 
min mother) 



6. ftnoi, when used as relative, is more often a com- 
pound relative (or relative ini|)lyiiig also its antecedent), 
and taken in a general or indefinite sense : thus, 

dH ehMn a qnol on fitit atteatloQ, things to which one pays attention 

•PTM quoi, il t'tn alia, afler which, he went off 

l» na ui» quoi, I ilon't knom what 

Toni me dirai a qnoi me fler, yml tnill tdlmeon, what to rdy 

a. De qnoi, before an infinitive, means wherewith: thus, j'ai 
de qnoi voua ajonBer / have wh&reun'th to amuse you (the meaitg 
Ctf amusing you). 

7. Instead of qui or leqael with preceding de is often 
nsed dont, meaning of whom, of which, whose : thus, 

lliamme dont vonc pulei, the man ofwhfm you wpeak 
nntrs ami, dont le flls eat iei, ouTfrievd, whote ton i» here 

a. If the word on which dont i3 dependent is object of a verb, 
it takes its r^uiar place after the verb, however far separated 
from the relative : thus, la, femmo dont vons a-vez re^n la lettre 
the woman whose letter you have received, le livre dont je ne 
connais pas le titre the book of which I do not know the title. 

b. Dont is originally an adverb ( = Lat. de nude), meaning 
whence, from whence, and it is often beat so rendered : thus, 
respiit retonme an ciel, dont il eat descendn the spirit returns 
to heaven, w/tence it descended. 

8. The adverb oil where is also often used almost as a relative 

Eronoun, meaning to or at or in which, and the like ; thus, les 
onnenrs on vons aapirez the lumors to which you, aspire, la 
doulear o& je snis plong^ the gri^ into which I am plunged. 
And d'o4 means fmm whielt or whence, and par oft by which, 
bj/ which route, etc. 

S. Qniconqne whoever, anyone who, is an indefinite relative. 
generally without antecedent expressed : thus, qniconqne ment, 
sera poni whoever lies sfuill be punished. 

10. The pronoun used as antecedent of a relative (as 
already pointed out, XXIV. 3, 4a) is not the pereoual, 
as in English he who, they who, and bo ou, but the da- 
monstrative, oe or celai etc. 

a. Ce qui and ce que answer to English what or that 
which, the one aa subject, the other as object (or some- 

as subject, the 
times predicate) of a verb : thu 


dltet-mcii ce qnl 
ditei-moi (x qua 
diteB-moi ce que 
foltsB tont oe qaa je 

I vonlei, teU lae lekat you, wUA 
I ete», UU me what you are 
I dl«, do all that I tell you. 

b. Ce dont means of what or that of which : thns, dites-moi 
ce doat voua D,Tez & voiib plaindre '^2^ nie ((f what you have to 

c. Celui qui or que etc. means in like manner ?ie who, 
the one which, and so on : thus, 

Mini qnl est dam les oienz, he trko m in the heai)»a» 
oeHa qne totu kimez, the whom you, lone 
11. Note that the relative, often omitted in English, 
must always be expreseed in French : thus, 
the friends I love, las unii qua j'Bime 
the hooka he hai bought, lei livrei qa'il a Mtittii 

12. The irregular verb devoir owe, ought etc. is con- 
jugated aa follows ; 
a. Synopaia of principal and derived parts : 
deroli dSTBiit dn doii dns 

dayrai devaii kvoir da doii duiH 

daTraia dolve ""'"* 

6. Inflection of the present tensoa : 


davoiu doive deTiou 

deyei doive* deviei 

dolTB dolvant 

c. NalB that in the aooenWd or atrone forms (he rool-vowel ehftnges from e lo 

d. Several other Terhs (roeerolr etc.) are eonjugated Ulra devnlr, and in 
some frrBDuaarB [orm with It the third regular conjugatlau IXVHL lo.i 

e. The past participle has the cireuiuflex only in the masc. sing, 
(to diatinguiah [t from dn = de la) ; the other forms are due, dua, 

f. Doit etc. very often signifies is to, is planned or destined to ; 
thus, il doit vemr ches nous demain he is to come to w to- 
morrote, je savais ce que je devais faire I knew what I was to 
do. In many cases it has the sense of mtint, have to, etc. : thus, 
ells a dfl etre belle dajis sa jenueaae she must have been beauti- 
ful in lier youth. The meaning ouffht belongs eapeeially to the 
L'onditional : thus, qnond devrais-je revenir when might I to 
mme back? il anrait d& la faire he ought to Tiave done it. 



la iroiiliie, lAe teUehen la ooiiliiilre, the Book 

I'«iif m. , the egg Im poll m., the pea* 

la Tve, the street 
preparer, prepare 

Exercise 26. 
' Qni eBt-ce qui vonu cherche ? ' C'eat ma cuisini^re qui 
me cherche. ' Qu'est-ce qu'elle veut ? ' Elle demande d 
quelle heure je veux dSjeuner. 'Elle prfipai-era tout ce 
que vous Toudrez. ' Voulez-voua de la viande qu'elle a 
prepar^e, ou dea 'ceufs qui sont dans la cuiBine? ' Je man- 
gerai les pois que j'ai sur mon assiette. ' La femme dont 
je vouB ai parle eat dana la cuisine. " C'est la femme k qui 
j'ai donne de I'argent. " Que veut-elle ? " Elle veut vous 
vendre ce qu'elle a dans son panier. '" Qu'est-ce que c'est ?J 
" Ce sent dcs (Biifs qu'elle a apport^s de la campagne. 
" Oii cherehez-vous los brebis? "Je les chercherai dana 
lea champs ou je les ai perdues. " Ou demeurent ces 
panvreB gens ? " lis demeurent dans la vieille maison oii 
je vous ai meu6 hier. '" Qaiconque donne aux pauvres sera 
belli, " Celle qui voua aime vous donnera ce que vous 
vonlez. " Donnez A celle que vous aimez ce qu'elle veut. 
" Voilfl la maison oti nous demeurons. 

Theme S6. 
' Whom do you love ? ' I love those who love me ; but 
I do not hate him who liates me. ' Speak to me of her of 
whom I was thinking. ' I looked for the house in which 
he lived, but I had forgotten in which of the two streets 
it was. * The house is in the street in which my brother 
lives. ' If I had found him whom I sought, I should have 
given him all that I had. ' My cook bought all the eggs 
which be had brought in his basket. ' Does she not want 
Also the peas which are in the basket ? ' No, we have pota- 


toes Btill, '" The friend at whose house I wish to dine ia 
he of whom you spoke to me. " He is a handsome man 
whom I love, and whose mother wa« my friend, " The 
books of which yon spoke to me are in the library f) " These 
houses ai-e those to which we bring milk and'eggs. " The 
man to whom we sold the eggs lives in that house. " Who- 
ever wishes to be good can be bo. " I will love him who 
finds me what I have lost. " Give me what is in your 
pocket, and I will give you what I have in my hand. 
" What is that which you are eating ? " There is the man 
to whom I sold my book. '" Where is the little boy whose 
father lives in our street ? 

' Je ne vous dois rien. ' II me doit beauconp d'argent, 
' n me donna ce qu'il me devait. ' Ces enfants devraient 
6tre punis. ' Nous devious I'apporter hier, mais nous ne 
as. ' J'ai du fetre ici a cinq heures, 

they were owing; we owed (pret.) ; they 

e would owe ; that you may owe ; that he 

■ We are to dine at four o'clock. ' He was 

to be here at noon. '° You must be hungry. " You ought 

(cond.) not to forget what I have told you. " They most i- ' 

have forgotten it. I'' ' 

^ ,/^ 

e pouvions p 

will owe ; 
might owe. 




1, WTien used substantively, or without an accom- 
panying noun expressed, the posaessivee have a special 
form (different from that of the possessive adjectives : 
XIV.), and are always preceded hy the definite article: 


lei nusnuM, mine 
lei tieniiM, lAirte 
lei sieaaei, ktg, htn, ilt 

. The femiiiii 

leg lean, tAetr* 

s and plurals are made regulnrly, according to 
the rules tor adjeetivea (VII., VIII.), except that lenr has the 
Kame form for masculine and femiome. 

2. These posaeBsive pronouns {as they may be called) 
take the gender and Dumber of the object possessed, and 
mast be nsed whenever the noun expressing that object 
does not immediately follow them : thus, 

on eliaptan et le ilea, m^ hot and Im (or herg't 
n clupMli et le mien, hig (or her) hat and mine 
ini BTOiiB noi chapeanz et ill out let lean, lee ) 
and they have theirs 

3. A few other words, more or less akin with pro- 
nouns in value, call for mention and explanation. 

4. As an indefinite subject, on is used in the sense of 
oTie, they, people, and the like : thus, 

on dlt, one mye, they tay, people say, etc, 

a. Instead of on simply, Ton (with the article prefixed) is often 
used af t«r a vowel Bound, especially after et, on, oit, qw, Bi : thus, 
si Ton Toit if one sees: but not if the next word begins with 1. 

b. This l< the iiiclualre article IIV. 5). sathI in order U> preieat biatua ; line* 
on [b by origin the same word as houune dfjO.. faomo>. 

c. It is very often convenient to substitut* in English a passive 
expression for an acti'te with on : thus, it m said for on dit. 

5. Compounds of nn with the pronominal adjectives 
(XIV. 6) chaque each and quelqne some are 

ekMan m., chacnne f., eaeh, eaeh one, ewry one 



t, wm^iody 

a. Something, anything is expressed by qnelqne chose. 


LE890N XXVn, 

and everything by tout or by toute ohose (not oliaqiie 

6. Some words used as pronominal adjectives (XIV, 
6) may stand also substantively, or as pronouns : such are 
aaoao m., aucane f. (with no before the verb), not one, no 
oTie, none ; un autre <moth£r, I'aatre the other, d'autres 
others, etc.; plasienrB several; tout oR, everything} le 
rnfime the same. 

a. From autre yomes the pronoun autmi another, other people, 
others than one's self; it is never used as subject. 

7. tTn one and autre other are combined into certain 
phrases: thus, I'ua et I'autre the one and the other, i.e. 
hoth; Tun ou I'autre the one or the other, i.e. either ; nl 
I'uu ui I'autre (with ne before the verb) neither the one 
nor the other, i.e. neither ; Tun I'autre the one the other, 
i.e. one a/notlisr, each other. 

a. Both is also expressed by tous deux or toua les deux 
(literally, aU the two), 

b. Tout le monde (literally, all the world) is a very com- 
mon expression for everybody : thus, tout le tnoude I'ainie 
everybody loves Mm. 

8. The verb aller go is extremely irregular, being 
made np in its conjugation of parts derived from three 
different verbs. It takes itre as auxiliary (XXVIII. Ba). 

a. Its synopsis of principal and derived parts is; 

4Uer allant klle vbIb allai 

ir&i allati Stre Bile tb allasse 

trail »ill« °''"''- 

b. Its three present tenses are inflected thus : 

lilla alliDDi 
aillsi aUiai 
luUs aillent 


9. a. Va. 3d aing. impv. becomes vaa before en and y (com- 
pare XVm. lOa). 

b. Vati elc. come from Ldt. lailere vmth; Iral etc., (rom Lat. Ire go; ths 

lAt. original of slier etc. is obscure and disputed. 

0. The present and imperfect indie, of aller are nsed 
before an iutinitive (witlioat infinitive-Bign), precisely 
like I am, going, I was goiiig in Englifih, as a sort of im- 
mediate future teTise, or to denote something just about 
to take place: thus, il va partir he is going to leai-e, 
j'oUais lui rfipondre / was going to amwer him. 

d. AUons let us go is used, in tho sense of eome, come on. 
Aller voir, aller chercher correapond to our vinit, and look for 
or fetch For the reUexiTe a'en aller go off, see XXIX. 7c, 

U nlota, tJie taioon, diaijig-Toom le ragout, the »teiB, ragout 

1b oonvort, Ui« ooner {place at tatiie) \t plat, fAe dish 
la Mnpe, the map la lonpiera, the tureen 

U poltioii, thejkh la canBtore, the sweetmeat 

euHT, breaic Ster, remoae, filial off or away 

' Est-ce que votre oncle et le mien Hont ici ? ' Oui, raa- 
dame, iU sent tons lea deux ici. ' Si tout le monde est ici, 
nouB pouvons dtner. * Votre aalon est plus grand que le 
mien. ' Oui, monsieur, le mien est plus grand, mais le 
vfltre est plus joH. ' Ce sont toutea les deux de trfis belles 
chambres. ' Voici votre convert, et voilS, les leure. ' Marie, 
apporte de la soupe il monaienr, ' Voulez-voiis de ce plat- 
ci on de I'antre ? '" Je ne veux ni de Pun ni de I'autre ; don- 
nez-rooi le ragoAt et quelques legumes. " No voulez-vous 
pas de pommes de terre ? C'^J'en ai dejd mangS plnsieurs ; 
mais j'en mangerai encore quelques unes, " Doia-je don- i_^ ' 

ner des confitures aux enfants? " Non, aufiun des enfanlet^^^t^-J^ 
ne doit manger de confitures. " On a donnfi aux enfants 
du poisBon et de la viande, et ila ont maiig^ de I'un et de 
I'autre. " Oil eat laeoupiSre? "On I'a cass^e. '" On ne 
doit jamais casser les choses d'autrui. " St t'on eaaae une 



chose, on devrait en acheter nne aatre. " Ces mesaieura 
ont 6t6 lenrs chapeaax ; Ote ausai le tien, " On 6te ton- 
jours Bon chapeau dane la maisoD. " J'aime toutee \es 
choseg que voiis aimez. 

Themb 27. 
' Are you looking for my brother or hers ? ' I have 
looked for both, but I have found neither ; they have dined 
already. ' Several of my friends are here ; let us dine 
without the others. ' Each one ought to have a cover, 
' We have eight places, and we can have others. ' You 
have not plates enough ; some one has broken several. ' If 
one looks in the kitchen, one will find some, ' We have 
several dishes ; which will you (have) ? ' Will you (have) 
fish or meat ? " We will (have) neither ; give me some 
stew. " I am not hungry ; give me only very little of the 
meat ; I ought to eat something, " Remove these sweet- 
meats, and bring me others. " Your sweetmeats are much 
better than mine. " Ours are good, but theirs are very 
bad, " Everybody is hungry, but no one of ns eats stew. 
" I am poor ; but I have never eaten the bread of others. 
" My children are much more amiable than hers, but his 
are prettier than yours, "Every one loves his children 
better than those of other people. " If one has good chil- 
dren, one ia always happy, " What do you think of (dc) 
this book ? " Each of us thinks something of it, but no 
one thinks the same of it. 


' Ou allez-vous ? ' Je vais & la ville. ' Ces enfants iront 
chercher leurs amis. ' Ds vont & l'§cole. ' Va chercher 
des confitures, nous aliens en manger. ' Je vais les appor- 
ter. ' AUona, parlons d'autre chose. 

' Thou goest ; they were going ; she went ; did you go ? 
we shall go ; he would go ; that I may go ; that be might 
go. ' We are going to eat. " He was going to be hungry. 



" I shall go to-morrow. " Did they go to look for the dog ? 
" My friendB are going to the city. " Come, let as find 



1. The forme of the PAesrvB conjugation of a verb 
are made in French precisely as in English ; namely, by 
prefixing the auxiliary 6tre he to a past participle. 

a. To make, then, any given passive form of a verb, 
add to the corresponding form of fitre the past or passive 
participle of that verb: thus, 

he Wfu praised, il etait Ions 
A« ipauld have been prawed, 11 ftorait iti tone 
h. The participle agrees in gender and number with 
the aabject of the verb : thus, 
ihe was praised, elle etait loaee 

thty (m.) te/»ild Aase been praised, il« anraieat ete lonei 
c. Note, however, that (VII. 16) if toob is used f o represent a 
single person, the participle agrees with it only in gender : thus, 
you, (sing, i.) will hepraised, toub sereE lonfe. 

2. a. Taking as an example the verb loner praise, the 
Bynopsis of simple passive tenses is as follows : 

ftie lone (Ioqm, lonei, Ioumi), he praised 


otant lone (etc.), being praised 
tsEin, je Bull lone (etc.), I am praised 
■EBraoT, j'etaJB lone (etc.), I was praised 
KTEBiT, je foi lone (etc.), Twaspraised 
nnu, jB serai lone (etc.), I shall be praised 

je Miftii lono (ele.), Ishtndd bepraited 

■ois lone (etc.), bepraited 
qns je toia lone (elc.), that I mag be praised 
qoe je ttLm loae (et«.), that I might be praiied 





i. The syuopeis of componnd passive tenses is: 

■ncT luriMrnn. **o1t M loot (etc.). to hare been praited 
BTKrt fuTicifLK ayuil eU loas (etc.), haring been praited 
jitnTiTB PuwuT, i'»i ett touB (eir.), I hape been praued 
ln.i-Har>i-T. j'ftTU) ete totie (etc.), I had been praiied 

j'eni ete Ions (etc.), / had been praited 
j'»ur»i ete l(iii6(e!c,), I afiall haoe been praited 
j'knrau ete lone (elc.), / tlundd have been 

qoe j'«ie eta lone (etc.), that Imay hone been 

qna j'anBu ete lone (etc.), Oiat J might hatie 
been praited 
8. After a passive verb, by m generally represented 
by par ; Imt sometimes also by de, if the verb expresBes 
a meutal action or feeling: thus, 

il aat aims de tout le monda, he it tared by ecerybcdg 

11 fnt tranve par la ehien, he leat found by the dog 

t, The passive is less used in French than in English- instead 

of it often stand active verbs with the indefinite Bnbject on 

(XXVIl. 4). or reflexive verba (XXIX.). 

Avoir OB Ctro as auxiliaries. 
b. Avoir is the auxiliary used in forming the com- 
pound tenses of all transitive verbs, and of the great ma- 
jority of intransitive or neater verbs (including fitre he 

6. fitre is used to make the compound forms of all 
passives (above, 1) and reflexives (XXIX. 3), and also of 
a few in transit! ves. 

«. The commonest intransitives taking always *tre as 
fiuxiliary are: 

«U«r,^ eclore, open, hatch 

«tali, eome (witli its compounds devenii, moorir, die 

parTenir, elc.) decedar, decaue 

txAva, aTriTe, happen, lombax, fail 

WMT, ftiter tihtitjftitt ^^c-^^f 

tt^M,beborn ,.,?.-:■'• 




number of intraneitives take eometimea avoir 
and aometimes 6tre— avoir when there is had in view es- 
pecially the perform aiice of an act, but 6tre when tlie re- 
sulting couditiou IB intended : thus, 

11 » pM»e ii qoatra hanrei, fle )«»( iy o(/(wr o'eioi;* ??(^Ti li^ A»-< 
il «st pBBse at duparn, he hai gone b}/ and duappearedj 
a. Such verbs are especially those that signify a distinct cliange 
of placf or conditiou. The most frequent of them are partir, 
sortir, retonmer (these three almost always with Stre), paagflr, 
raster, monter, deBcendre, accourir, chancer, cesser, dctiapper; 
aod croitre, grandir, vieillir, d^generer, disparaitre, p6nr,i-** 
and so on. * ■= a 

8. WLeu an intransitive has etre as auxiliary, its par- 
ticiple in the compound tenses agrees in gender and 
nnmber with the subject of the verb ; but the participle 
with avoir remains unchanged (i.e. has the masc. sing, 
form, whatever the character of the subject). 


le roTtune, the kingdcrm, realm 
1e patrle, the lfine'») country 
le oitoyen, the eitiieti 
oluHBT, drire off or a«>ay 

la repnbllcine, the Tepublio 
la loi, f/ie law 
I'emiemi m., the enemy 
rappeler, reeall, call back 
roBter, remain, ttay 

loner, praits 

Exercise 38. 
' Le roi eet-il aim^ de ses sujets ? ' Non, le roi n'est aimfi 
de personne, mais la reine est aimge de tout le monde. 
' La patrie doit fltre aimfie de tous les citoyens. ' Les 
citoyens eont proteges par les loia. * Ceux qui n'obSis- 
sent pae anx lois seront punis. * Le roi a ktk chaes^ de eon 
royaame par beb ennemiB. ' D a pass^ en Angleterre, et il 
y eat reate pendant deux ana. ' II a 6t^ rappele par les ci- 
toyens, et 11 est retourn6 en France. * Charles est-il rest^ 

184 LE880N xxvin. 

chez vone? '°Non, monsieiir, il n'est pas encore amv6, 
" Votre m^re & beaacoup vieilli pendant I'annfie demi^re. , 
" Cette femme est beaucoup vieiliie, ujais elle *sj encore t^y" 
trSs belle. " Est-ce qne votre amie eat arriv^e, madame f \ 
" Non, je suis all6e la chercher, mais je ne I'ai pas trouvSe. 
"Etes-Tous invito au bal? "Non, madame ; je ne suis 
pas invito, mais toub et votre sceur etee invitueB. " N'eat- 
elle pas aU6e A sa cbambre ? " Oui, maia noua I'avons rap- 
pel6e, et elle est retourn^e au Ralon. " Mon ami veut ven- 
dre sa maison ; la mienne est d^j^ vendue. '"" Elle a H& 
achetee par mon ricbe voiain. 

' The republic is loved aud praised by everybody. ' The 
country ought to be protected by its citizens. ' Where is 
the king of France ? * He has gone to England, but the 
queen has stayed here, ' Has he never returned? ' Yes, 
he returned last year. ' The citizens are praised because 
they obey the laws. * Many of the enemies of the republic 
have been driven away, but some have remained. ' Has 
not Helen been here? " No, she went by at six o'clock, 
but she did not stay. " She has not yet returned. "At 
what hour did you arrive? "I arrived at ten o'clock. 
" We arrived at half past eight. " You (pi.) did not stay 
long in Paris. " Where baa Mary gone ? " She had gone 
to her room, but I called her, and she has returned to the 
dining-room, " Is she not invited to the concert to-day ? 
" No ; we are invited, but she and her sister are not in- 
vited. " She is atill very handsome, although she has aged 
very much, " The enemy passed into Gtermany last week. 






1. A SKFLExivK verb, or verb used reflexively, de- 

Bcribes the subject as acting upon itself, 

a. Reflexive verbs are a much more marked and important n\as» 
in French than in English. Some verbs are reflexive eadusively, 
or nearly go ; others are often such ; and almost any transitive 
verb, and some intransitivea, may upon occasion be used reflex- 
ively ; but the conjugation of them aU is the same. 

2. A verb is made reflexive, as in English, by adding 
to it an object-pronoun corresponding in person and num- 
ber to the subject. 

a. The reflexive pronouns of tbe first and second per- 
sons are the same with the ordinary object-pronouns: 
namely, me and te (or toi) in the singular, nona and vous 
in the plural For the third person there is a special re- 
flexive pronoun, se; it is the same in singular and plural. 

5. The place of the reflexive pronoun is the same with 
that of any other object-pronoun (XXII. 7) : namely, in 
general before tlie verb, but after it in the imperative 
afBrmative (when te becomes toi: XXII, 6J). 

3. The auxiliary of a verb used reflexively is always 
and only Stre. 

4. In accordance with the general rule (X. 65), if the 
reflexive object is a direct one, the participle in the com- 
pound tenses agrees with it in gender and number ; if it 
is indirect, the participle is invariable. 

Thus, from se blesser wound one's self, 
11 1'Mt blsue, eUe I'est bleuea, notu nooi lanmiM blewit, 
but from s'imaginer imaifine to one's self, 

il I'ett imagine, eU« I'Mt imagine, nooi noos sonunu imagin* 


5. Aa a model of reflexive conjugation mayl 
the verb se rfijouir delight OTie^s self, rejoice. 

It is & regular verb of the second conjugation, inflected like 
finir (XIX.). 

a. The full inflection of the present indicative and im- 
perative, with the BjnopBis of the other simple tenses, 

M (or te, ms etc.) rqonlr, r^oux 

Fhebent PaBI'ICIFLE. 

■B (etc.) rqoiuBBaiiti rgoicing 

ja ma rejooiB, Ir^foide nans nom Tqoaiuoni, uw r^oiee 

tn te rfiianu, then r^oteett toqb toiu r^onutei, you rgoiee 

il u r^onit, he r^ces ils ■« rqjDnlnent, the}/ T^oiet 

innsFKT, je me rqonjteaie, Iwa r^mciiig 

FuiKiUT, JG DM t^onle, Ir^oked 

Fmciu, je me iGJooiraJ, IthaUr^iee 

ooNDinoiiu, je me T^onirau, IsJtoaM r^oiee 


rqjoniuoiu-DOiu, letvtr 

rejonii-toi, r^oiee (iht>u) rqoniaMi-vaiu, r^tnee (^) 

FsBBn. qne je ms r^oulue, Oiat I may T^oiee 
iHFEBnoT, qxiB JB m« T^ouiM»e, thai I might r^iet 
h. The full inflection of the perfect indicative, with 
the synopsis of the other compound forme, next follows. 
To save burdensome repetition, the various forms of the reflex- 
ive pronoun (in infln. and pple), and of the past participle (whicli 
in this verb must agree in gender and number with the object) 
are not given. 

je me inls rqanl Ihate rejoiced none noiu Mmmai rigonii, we have 

to t'ee r^oni, (flou haat r^oieed toqb vona etea rejooie, ycru hate Te- 

11 1'eet rqool, lie ha» r^oiced ill le aout rqooii, thtf have r^oiail 



ie m'eUlii rqcnj, Iliad rejoieed 
B ma fUa rajoni, I had rooked 
e me serai rejoui, IgfuiU Mte r^oietd 
ie ma aeriii rqoni, I should hone rooked 
aiiuimcnvK pshfict, que je tne loia rqjoni, that I may hatie rejoiced 
Tutnau'K.-i, qae je me fane rejoni, that I might hane rejoieed 
c. Note the form (VII. 1ft) Tons vona etes r^joni you have re- 
joiced {yourself), when referring to a single individual. 

8. Tlie negative and interrogative forms are made in 
the same manner as tlioee of any other verb taking ob- 
jeet- pronouns. Examples are : 
je ne me r^onis pu, I do not r^oice 
ne te rqjoait-il pas, did he notr^oieef 
Tons rejonisBetf oaB, do you r^oicef 
m noDi rcijoxiiHonB pu, let ue not r^oiee 
Toiu ne TODS serez pai rejovli, you (pi.) mil not hate r^oiced 
qn'aUe ne le f£it pas iqciiiie, Ihat Khe migM tuit hate rtjoieed 
ne «e wnt-ellea pat rqonles, have ihey if.) not rqjokedf 
7. a. Many reflosive verbs (like se r^onir itself) have to bo 
rendered with simple verbs in English. A few of the commonest 
of tlwse are as follows : 

■'wrSter, stop 
•'assaoir, tit dawn 
■e oonelieT, go to bed 
■e depeeher, mate kaele 
■■ hater I haeten 
I'ecrier, exdaim. cry out 
■'ennuyer, be bored 
■■ taoher, be aoffry 

te Isver, arige, gel up 

■e pUindre, lament 

■B porter, be (in retpecl to health) 

M promener, take a walk 

Be retirer, retire 

m sonTsnir, remetnier 

■e tabs, be stLent 

Be tromper, be mulahen 

b. A number of reflexive verbs followed bv certj.m prepositions 
form transitive expressions of special meaning Thoi>e moat fre- 
quently occurring are : 

■'approchar de, approach, go near le fler ft, tmil 
•'attendre i, await le mettre S, begin (set on^t m^ atj 

ae d6Ser de, dintiitet ae manner de, ridicule, modt 

le donter de, auepecl ae pasaer da, do or go viithimt 

I'sntendTe a, be a judge of ae aervlr de, use, make use of 

Thus, il s'approclia dn. fen /m approached the flre. Us ss mi- 
rent & ^crire they began to write, eUe ne pent se servir d« us 


e. Of the mtraiiEitives used reflexively, the most notewtailiy is 
g'en slier go away, dear out, be off with one's self (literally, go 
one's self from it). The indirect pronouD -object en always fol- 
lows the other pronoun. Thus : je m'en vais J go off, il s'en est 
all^ he has gone away, va-t'en be off I ne nous en allona pas let 
us not go away, qn'il ne B'en fftt pas alii that he might not have 
gone away, etc. 

8. Plural reflexive forms are often used in a reciprocal sense : 
thus, aimons-nonB let us love one another, ila s'aiment t?tey love 
each other, and so on. 

B, irregular verbs not jet ezptaJued 

' A quelle heore vous fites-vous conche hier ? ' Je me 
Buis couche il dix heures, et je me euis levfi & six heures. 
' Pourquoi n'Stes vous pas all6 A Paris la semaine demlSre 1 
* Je ne me portais pas bien, et je me suis airSt^ & Boaen, 
' Cea jeunes fiUes oh se promenaient-elles ? ' Elles ae sent 
promenees dana )a ville. ' Pourquoi s'en all^rent-ils ? ' Da 
86 fdchSrent, et ila ne voulurent plus rester. ' Ne vona 
r6jouisBez-vou8 pas ? '" Non, nous nous aommes beaucoup 
ennuyes. " Nous irons chercher quelque chose de nouveau. 
" Approche-toi, mon enfant, ne te d^fie pas de moi. " Cet 
enfant se doute de tout, et ne se fie plus k personne. " Elle 
se serait beaucoup rejouie si vous tous ^tiez approcb^ d'elle. 
" Nous ne nous seriona jamais arrgt^s &. Paris, si nous nous 
^tions dout^B de cela. " Pourquoi ces jeunes gens se hStent- 
ils tant ? " lis s'en vont cbez eux ; ila veulent se coucber. 
" Vous vous porteriez mieuz ai vous vons passiez de votre 
diner. " Arr^tez-voua ; je veux vous parler, " Jene peux 
m'arr^ter 4 prfiaent; je me b^te de me coucber. " Ne vous 
fiez pas au roi ; il se moque de vous. " Koua ne pouvons 
noua passer de lui. 

Tbsui 29. 

' Let UB rejoice ; I rejoice and you rejoice ; tbat they 
might rejoice ; thou didst rejoice ; abe mil rejoice. ' Have 



yoo rejoiced? bad she not rejoiced? I should have rejoiced 
if yon had rejoiced ; thongh they rejoiced, we did not re- 
joice, ' Go to bed ; has he not gone to bed ? we ahonld not 
have gone to bed ; yon would go to bed ; that they may 
have gone to bed. * Get up ; I have got up ; ahe would 
have got up ; will you not get up ? he had not yet got up ; 
I have gone to bed, hut I will get up ; let ub not go to bed, 
thongh he has got up. ' Have your children gone to bed ? 
mine are getting up. ' Make haste, children ; get up, we 
are going to take a walk. ' Helen will not go to walk, he- 
cause she is not well, 'I shall be bored, if I cannot take 
a walk. ' Let us not take a walk ; it is two o'clock, and 
we shall dine soon. '" The dog did not approach the chil- 
dren ; he did not truBt them, " I eannot do without the 
book that I have lost. | " Take a walk with the dog, and I 
will look for yonr book. " We are going away, because 
we distrust these men. " He who diatrnBts everybody will 
never be happy. " Why did not the little boy come with 
you ? " He stopped at the baker's. " He is not well ; he 
oaght not to go near the baker. " If he does not go with- 
out oakes, he will be ill. " Go away ; we can do without 
you. " The king cannot return to France, because the 
citizens distrust him. " Do not be angry ; we will retire. 
" If you trust this man, you will be mistaken. 



1. A few verbs in French, as in other lan^agee, are 
used only in the 3d singular, with the indefinite or im- 
personal subject U If, and are therefore called iufebbonal 
verbs. Those oftenest so need are : 


gelBr./rerae (il geU itfrutf*. il a plS, eUs.) 

dueler, f A<ii/> (11 degele, il a de^ele, etc.) 

grsler, haU (U grel«, U a grete, etc.) 

afliger, jcfioie (il nsige, il a nii^, etc.) 

planvoir, ram (II plant, il a pla, etc.) 

tonnsr, Ihundfr (il tonne, il a tonne, etc.) 
a. These vurbs are eonjugatMi like anj others (always with the 
auxiliary avoir), except tliut only the 3d sing, is in use, Plenroir 
is irregular : see XLI. 6. 

2. Many other verbs are used in great part impereon- 
allj, with il as subject, and often in a somewhat special 
meaning. Examples are : 

11 Imports (etc.), it i* of eotitequence (etc.) 

il ooDTient, il it tuitdUe or proper 

11 lombla, it geemf 

11 airive, it hajipent 

11 mlBt, it it gapcimt 

11 vaut mlenx, it it better 

il I'a^t, the gaettion it 

3. Almost any verb may take the iinperaonal subject U repre- 
senting by anticipation its real subject, stated later : thus, il vient 
on anbre there eomes ajwther, il paxait qn'elle n'; ^tait pas it 
appears that she was not there. 

4 The English expression thsre is, thej-e are, etc., is 
represented in French hy the verb avoir, nsed imperson- 
ally with the adverb y tliere before it : thus, 

U y a, IJifre w or are (liternllj, it has there) 

11 n'; a pat, there is not 

y a-t il en, has there been t 

11 n'y anra pM, there will not be 

n'y anrait il pa* eu, would there not have baeaf 

qn'il n'y ait pai, that there mag not be 

qn*il 7 e&t en, that there might have been 

a. Since tlie following noun is in French grammatieally the ob- 
ject of the verb, and not its subject as in Engiiah, there is of 
course no change of number in the verb when the noun becomes 
plural : th«B, il y avait nn oisean ttiere was a bird, and il y 
araitqoatre oiaawix there vere four birds (\\t&[tMj, it had there 
»n« bird, four birds). 

b. Even Mhe imflmtive, ; avoir, is used, along with certain verbs 



c. n y a etc. is often used, elliptically, in expressinp; extent or 
distance of time reckoned backward from the present : thus, il y 
a hait jours qn'il est malade he has been ill (t/tese) eight days 
(literally, th^re are eight days that he [has been OTid] is ill), jo lo 
vis il y a denx mois I saw him two months ago Gtterally, I saw 
him, there are two months fjrtncej). 

d. n est etc. is also used impersonally, especially in poetry, in- 
stead of il y a etc, 

fi. In speaking of the conditions of the weather, the French uses 
il fait etc., it mak^s etc., with a noun or adjective, where the 
English nses it is: see XXXIl. 9a. 

6. To express English must, the French iises the im- 
personal verb falloir be necessary/. 

a. Falloir is an irregular verb ; its synopsis of princi- 
pal and derived parts (the tenses in 3d sing.) is as fol- 

7, Since folloir is impersonal onlj, while the equiva- 
lent English expressions, Tnttst, have to, be obliged to, etc., 
admit sobjecte of all pereons and nniiiberB, the sentence 
has to be cast into a qnite different form in French. 

a. n faut etc. is oftenest followed by qae that before 
the verb which in English takes tntist as its auxiliary. 
This verb must in French always be in the snbjonctive : 
present if the tense of falloir is present or future, other- 
wise imperfect. Thus: 

h€ mutt wrk. il taut qnil tr»TftlUe lliterally, it it neeatary thai 

he tcorV) 
you mxat read, il &Dt qns tdiu liiiei 
the boy had tii go,^ fftlUit que le pufon allEt 
the army leill be (Aliged to retreat, i] bndis qua I'traioe m tatlrs 
IA« hooks 'Kould hate had lo be tobl, il aonit blla qna Im Uvtm 
fusgnt vendiu 


b. But if the subject be a pronoun, a briefer ezpiee- 
eion is more ofteu used, the subject being made indirect 
object of the tense of falloir, which is then followed by 
the infinitive of the other verb: thus, 

he mwil work, il Ini font travaillOT (literally, it is neeeesary to him 

gov, must rea4, il vooi font lire 
the had to go, il M &llait allor 
Aey m^ be obliged to withdraw, il leor bindra le ntinr 
8. n &nt etc. is also used with a following subject-nouo. to ex- 
press that something is lacking or desired : tbus, il me but nn 
cliapeaa / want a hat (literally, there is wanting to me a hat), 
Tona fallait-il des liTTOs did you want some books f 


Exercise 30. 
' Est-ce que vons etea aI16 !\ la ville? ' Non, monsieur ; 
il a ueige tonte la journee, et il me fallait rester &, la maison. 
■ Nons devious aller il Paris ; mais il gSle, et nous resterons 
chez nous, ' S'il dfig^le, nous irons demain. ' Y a-t-il 
de jolies villes en Angleteire ¥ ° II y en a de tres jolies ; 
mais la plupart des villes ne sont point jolies, ' Nous y 
avons 6t6, il y a deux ans. ' N'y a-t-il pas eu un bal chez 
madame votre m^re ? ' Non, il n'y avait pas de bal, mais 
il y avait plusieurs de nos amis qui dinaient chez nons. 
" U arrive trfis sonvent que nous avons des amis chez nous, 
" II me faut aller ^ I'^cole, et il faut que mon cousin y aille 
avec moi. " Eat-ce qn'il y aura un beau concert au th^^tre P 
" II me faudra entendre ce qu'il y a, " Voiis faut-il qnelque 
chose ? " II me faut quelques livres que je ne puis trouver 
k la bibliotht^que. " II m'a fallu les chercher chez mon 
oncle. " II fallalt que les pauvres paysans vendissent tontes 
leurs brebis. " Leur faudra-t-il vendre lenrs vaches aussi ? 
" Qaoiqa'il leur ait falhi vendre leurs brebis, ils ont encore 
beanconp de vaches et de chevaui. " Que vous faut-il t 
" II nous faut de I'argent, nous en avons trop peu, 



Theue 30. 
' It snows and haile, and I shall not go to the school. 
' If it freezes, do not go there to-morrow. ' I shall have 
to go there to-morrow, if it does not thunder, ' It tbawed 
yeflterday, and it will not freeze to-morrow. ' There was 
no concert yesterday, because it was snowing. ' Will there 
not be a ball in the town to-morrow ? ' There would have 
been a ball, if it had not snowed. ' What does he need ? 
' He needs some new pictures for his room. '° She must 
buy a new dress and a hat. " This man must buy another 
horse ; the one which he has is very old, " It seems to me 
that you are never at home. " It happens often that I am 
in the city. " I dined with your aunt three days ago. " I 
should have been there, if it bad not snowed. " Are there 
not fine things in this book ? "I must buy it. " It seems 
to me that everybody is talking of it. " I had to go to 
England to (pour) buy English books for the library. 
"Are there not many fine castles in England? "There 
may be some, but I have not found them. " Although it 
bad snowed, all day, I should have had to go to the city. 
" My sister was expecting me, and I had to speak to her. 
" If you go, yon will be bored. " I must go, and my sister 
must return -with me. 



1. Most adjectives, in French as in English, bave ad- 
verbs made from them by adding an adverbial suffix. 

The adverb-making suffix in French is ment, and 
it is in general added to the feminine form of the adjec- 
tive — jet with not a few exceptions. 



nind, ■ 

tIth menta with livfly taind, < 

3. Most adjectives ending in a consonant in the mae- 
culine add ment to their feminine form : thus, 

'hant, high 'hautBrnant, highly 

gnod, great grandement, grcafiy 

plein.J^W pleinement, /uH^ 

otttain, eerlain nertainement, certaiidy 

Mai, mle ESulemGnt, only, mldy 

onul, oruet cmellamant, erueliy 

BBDion, unciiMit aDaiennement, andentty 

fil, lively TiTeraent, in a Utdy manner 

heDTenz, happy hanratuemeiit, happily 

ehar, dear Bhorement, dearly 

ttua, frank trtaehement, frankly 

long, long longntment, lenglhUy 

doni, mceel douaemant, mputly, eo/Uy 

Exceptions to this rale are the following : 

4. a. Adjectives ending in ant and ent for the most part 
change their nt into m, and add ment directly to it ; thus, 

oonatnit, eonitant oonitunment amsttintly 

prudent, prudent ■prndamment, prud-enlty 

Bilt lentetnent slo'rly, pr^Beatement prcieiilli/, v^h^mente- 
ment 'eehsnthntly, by the general rule, 

b. A few adjectives change e i>f tlie feminine to 6 before ment: 
thus, coMiuim^meat, confos^meiit, difiiis^meiit. ezpreBsement, 
importim^Tiieiit, obscnremeiit, profondement, pr^cisriment. 

c. Gentil forms gentiment inVe?^, 

5. Moat adjectives ending in a vowel add ment to 
their masculine form : thus, 

fMlla, ea*y faoilement, eauily 

joli, pretty jolimeiit, prettily 

mbBoln, abtolvte abtolumaat, abeolulfly 

moderi, moderate ntodereaent, moderately 

TTki, true Traimciit, tnily 

6. Exceptions to this rule are as follows: 

a. fiean, nonyean, fon, and moa add ment to their femi- 
nine form (YII. 7) : thus, noavellement, follement, etc. 



6. A few a()jectivea change cheir final e lo e liefore ment : thus, 
ftrengUment, commodement. conformement, enonn^ment, im- 
mens^ment (and ose or two others, little us^kI). 

n. A few adjectives change (hial n. to fl befoi'e meat: thus, as- 
siddmeut, contiuflment. ciiment, nflment; and gai gay makeii 
eithei' gaiement or gaiment. 

'f. Impuni forms impUQement vAth impunity. 

7. Adverbs derived from adjectives (and a few oth- 
ers, as soaTent often) have a comparative and superlative, 
made by prefiXiDg pins and le plus respectively (as in the 
comparison of adjectives ; IS. 1): thus, 

f&oilement, pliu facilement, le pliu bciUment, mgUy, mare eatUy, etc. 
souvent, plna aouvent, le plus sonvent, often, qftener, qfleneet 

8. Four orir^inal adverbs have special comparative 
forms, which are made superlative by prefixing le: thtis, 

Mtn, miBU, Ib mlenx, wdl, better, best 
mftl, pjj, la pis, ioiWy or ill, leoru, worH 
pen, moini, Is moiiu, tittle, less, least 
beanuoap, pla», le ploi, muck, more, most 

9. Many adjectives are, either commonly or in cer- 
tain phrases, used dii-ectly as adverbs, without any change 
of form. Some of the comraoneat of thera are : 

boB, in a low tone fort, veTy 

'liBQt, loud, aloud jnsta, eorreeUn 

olBiT, cle-arly tout, quite 

droit, straight toudain, suddenly 

expree, expressly vite, quicHs, fast 

•a. Most of these form also adverbs in ment for certain uses. 

10, The very irregular verb venir coTne is also one of 
the commonest in the language, and has many idiomatic 

a. Its synopsis of principal and derived forias is (it takes the 
auxiliary etre; XXVIIt. ft/i; 

vanir venant veaa vieni tIiu 

Tisndral venais etra venn vleiu tIdih 

Tiendraii vienne '"■'■"'' 


146 LEB80N XXXI. 

h. The inflection of the present tenses is: 

PMH, IBMD, IMP». 1*I1B. aim), 

Tlsni Tenon* T«ni>iu vienne tmiIdiu 

view TBn« Tieni tmim vienneB vsnlei 

▼ient Tiennent Tieone ilnmeiil 

c. Note the change of e to ie in all the accented or strong forms 
(in this verb, also in future and conditional), 

d. The preterit is regularly inflected : thus, viofl, Tins, vint, 
▼tnmaa, Ttntes, vinrent. It (with the pret, of tenir) is the only 
preterit in the langnago having a nasal vowel. 

e. The common verb tenir hold is conjugated throughout pre- 
cisely like venir (oxcopt that it takes avoir as auxiliary). 

/. Tenlr luid iBnlr are Lat. venlro nod tonere. 

11. a. Vonir is followed by an infinitive directly (without & 
or de), when it means come in order to do anything : thus 11 est 
venn me Toir he came to see me, venez diner c^ez nous come and 
dine with us. 

b. The present and imperfect indicative of venir followed by de 
are used before an infinitive to signify time juat past ; thus, je 
viena de le voir I have Just seen him, il venadt de diner he had 
just dined. 

h phrases mean literally lam coming from, he tcag ooming 

diner he teas going to dine), ete. 


(BealdcB the adiorlie KJyen above In the LeesoD.) 
sanBer, amvae le fatignsr, be tired 

nureher, imlk plenrer, leeeii, weep fir 

cbuiter, nng la mnilqnB, muiie 

extremement, NtTemdy pkT&ltement, perfectly 

demlirement, lately, recently oontiniuUenieBt, eontitiuaUy 

Exercise 31. 
' Qu'est-ce que vous aimez le mieui, mon enfant ? ' J'aime 
mon pSre miens qae tont !e monde. ' Mon oncle a vieilli 
tr^B vite ; malhenreusement il a perdu sa fille. ' Eat-ce 
que Touu allea plus Bouvent au ihSiitre qu'au concert? 
* J'y vaia conBtamment, mais je ne mV amuse que mod^r^- 
meut. ' Moi, je m'y amuse tonjoars estr^mement. ' Cette 
jeune femme a-t-elle perdu eon mari demi^rement ? ' Oui ; 


qaoiqu'il flit absolum^t mauvais, et qu'il la battit crjiel 
m^t, elle I'a aim4 ave'^glement, et elle le pleure continue! 

e continue! le- 
nient ' De quoi cet homme voub a-l-il parle ei longuement ? 
'° II a parlS trop baa, et je n'ai abBolument rien entendu. 
" Cette jeune fiUe cbante parfaitement; elle a une voix vrai- 
ment belle, " Elle ne chante pas toujours juste. " Votih 
marcbez trop vite, monsieur; voiis voua fatiguerez oertaiiie- 
ment. " Non, madame ; ]"e raarche constamment, et je ne 
rae fatigue pas faoilement. " Marcher, c'est ce que j'aime 
le plus. " Malheureasement, je ne doia marcher que trfis 
rarement. " Pourquoi parlen-vons si haut ? " Je parlerai 
plus doucement, ei vous le voulez. 

Theme 31. 
' Do you love muaic, air? 'I love it extremely, but un- 
fortunately I cannot sing. ' Frankly, I do not love mnsic, 
but it amuses me greatly at the theatre. ' You go there 
often, but I go tbere oftenest. ' Can I find easily the 
bouse of your uncle ? ' Ton will find it more easily if you 
walk straight to the village. ' If you walk too fast, you 
will certainly tire yourself. ' Walk slowly, we shall eaaily 
arrive in an hour. ' We ought to take a walk constantly. 
" If you love blindly, you will be extremely unhappy. 
" They love her dearly, but she absolutely does not love 
them. " If you wish to be well, you must eat moderately. " 
" Speak aoftly, but do not speak too low, or I shall not 
understand you perfectly. '* Why does this woman weep 
80 cruelly ? " She is extremely unhappy, because she has 
lately lost a child that she loved dearly. " I trusted my 
friend fully, but unfortunately I was mistaken in him. 
" No one is constantly happy. 


' Vi>nez-vous chez nons? * Pourquoi ne vient-il pas? 
' lis ne sont pas encore venue. ' Vint-il bier ? ' Non, il ne 

148 LEsaoN xxxn. 

viendra que lieiiiaiD. ' Quoiqu'il vienne, elles ne viendront 

pas. ' Je snis venu voiia trouver. ' II yient de trouver les 
livrea que vous aviez perdus. ' Vieas ici, je vous te parler. 
" Je viendrai il quatre heares. " II serait venu, si voua 
I'aviez appele. " Noub venions d'arriver, et il nous fallait 
noUB en aller encore. " Venez diner chez moi. " EUes 
sont venues il y a trois heureH, 

" Will she come ? they would not come ; he came ; you 
were coming ; they come ; come I that I may come ; that 
you may not come. '" Has he not come ? they would have 
come ; will she not have come ? though he bad not come ; 
you had come ; will they have come? " I have come to 
speak to you. "Will you come to dine with ub? "I 
have just dined with my friend. " He had just dined, 
when we invited him. "' They are going to come to- 
morrow. " She had just gone to Paris, but she ie going 
to return to-morrow. 


1. Of adverbs and adTerb-pli rases there are in French, of 
course, a great many, which it belongs to the dictionary to give. 
Only a few of those most used will bo presented here ; some of 
them have been already given, and used in the Exercises. 

2. Some of the commonest adverbs of place are: 
Id, here la, Ificre 

on VihfTeT teher» jmqne, as far as 

pTM, knprii, near \oiii,far 

alllenn, elieieliere partout, fceryvhere 

alentoiir, roandaboul enMmble, Uiyetlifir 

*dwnu, atom ■daiMOi, lieneath 

dtduti, mthin, imiiie dahor*, outnlrle, 'ritknal 

a. The conjuiictive adverbs y and en were explained at XXIU, 
5-8 ; the relative adverbs dont and oil, at XXVI. 7. 

b. Some of these adverbs (as well as others) malio phrases with, 
prepositioua : thus, d'ici /leiice, par 1& thatu-ay, doa, whence t 
par on by what road f jnsqn'ofi haw far ! etc. 

5. Some of the eotnmonest adverbs of time are : 
mainteoant, jum alma, then 

qnand, when, T v>hm longtampB, long 

wnvent, often toiyoori, alway» 

qnelquefaii, nometima autrefois, /onnn'fjV 

tot, bisntSt, 80071 tard, laU 

•noon, yet, still, again deja, already 

a^joardlini, to-day draomiBiB, henceforth 

damain, to-moi-roin Tuar, yesterday 

4. Some of tbe coramoneBt adverbs of degree, com- 
parison, etc., are i 

(jnsi, Ihll* anui, aa 

Bommetit, hoa f how 
tree, bian, fort, very 
plnt6t, eooner, rather 
prwiine, alniott m6me, even 

a. The most often used adverbs of quantity — as beB-aconp, 
plm, pen, moina, assez, trop, taut, a-ntajit, combien — were given, 
and their uses with nouna expiaiued, at V. 4. 

6. Of the very numerous compoiin<i advetbs and ad- 
verb-phrases, a few of the eommouest are : 

aurtont, especially 
davantagB, still jiun- 

t prMMt, B 

toQt da Buite, immediately 

tont i &lt, entirely 

& pan prSi, nearly, e^moit 

qoelqne part, mmevihere 

•a hant, aHoft, tipsUwrt 

la-bu, yonder 

peat^tre, may lie, perhaps 

da boana hanra, in good tijne, early 

6, a. The interrogative adverbs- ... 
ntent — are, like the interrogative pronouns, also used ns relativ 
in which case their value is rather that of conjunctions. 

6. The negative adverbs, and rules for their use, have already 
been given : Bee XII. 

c. The responaives, oni j/m and non no, are already familiar. 
Instead of oni, si is sometimes used (especially coLoquially), in 

•ur le champ, direetly, at ona 
tout a oonp, tuddejtly 
da tont, at all 
a. peine, hardly, tcareely 
nolle pact, nowhere 
en bai, lielain, doan-atairs 
en attendant, meanwhile 
en effet, in fact, really 
a bon marehe, cheaply, cheap 
., qnand, combien, com- 


reply to a n^ative question : thus, Tons n'r aTSi pas 4i6t >i 

you have not been there ! yes, I haoe. 

7. Adverbs have considerable freedom of position in 
the sentence. General rales are : 

a. An adverb ia aloioat never allowed before the verb in 
Frencb : thus, she alvai/s cries elle plenre tonjonrs, I often take 
a walk jo me promene soavent. 

6. With a verb in a compound tense, the adverbs of most fre- 
qnent nse ordinarily come between tbe aiuiliary and the parti- 
ciple : thus, elle a toqjonrg plenre slie has always ej-ied, je 
m'^tais Bonvent promend I had often taken a walk. But Bueh 
may for special reasons come aft^r tbe participle, as do adverbial 
phrases; and the words tor to^ay, yesterday, to-morrow, etc., 
always follow the participle. 


B. a. Of the very common irregular verb falre make, 
do, the synopsis of principal and derived forms is as fol- 

foire &iiaDt Ii>it faU fli 

fcrai fuiaii avoir fut taia flita 

feraia fane '^"^• 

b. The indection of the present indicative and tbe imperative 
(the prea. subjunctive being regular) is : 

faU (idtM bit [Bitet 

bit font 

c. Note that in this verb (39e) &i before B of another syllable 
is pronounced as fe, 

d. Note the special irregularities of the plural: the 2d tiers, 
ending in tea (found elsewhere only in Btes and dites), and the 
3d in out (elsewhere only in out, Bont, vost). 

9. Faire has many special uses and idioms ; among 
them may be noticed here : 

a. It is used impersonally in describing the conditions 
of tbe weather. 

ThuH, il fkit &oid it is cold, il faisait chaud it was learm, il 
fera bean temps it imll be fine weather ; even il fait dn vent it 
is windy, il a &tt des Sclaira it has liyhCetied; and 



h. Eaiifl tB much used in the Beaee of cause to etc. with 
a following infinitive, or as an auxiliary forming a kind 
of causative verb-phrase. 

Thus, je le &is B&voii I caute to know it (i.e. make it 
known), illea a. &it Tsoir he Tuts made them, eome, vons ftroi 
&ire ua babit gou will ham a coat made (literally, will cause to 

If the following infinitive has a direct object, the object of &ire 
itaelf must be made indirect (see Second Part, g 1586) : thus, je 
le &iB dcrire / make fiini write, but ja Ini &.iB £crire one lettre 
/ make him write a Utter. 

e. Fadre m aometimes (but much less often than do in English) 
used to avoid the repetition of a preceding verb : thus, jb loi ai 
^crit, comme je devais le &ire / wrote him, as I ought to do. 

(No new wonls wDl be given, besides the adverba listed abare.) 

' D'oii venez-vous, et ou allez-voue ? ' J'ai et& A. peu 
pr^s partont. ' Je viens d'arriver, et je vaiB aller sur le 
champ d Paris, oii j'ach^terai des robes 4 bon marche. 
' Alors vona viendrez dinor anjourd'hui chez moi, et je vous 
mineral plus tard au theatre. ' Nous aommea tout d fait 
fatigues d present ; nous pouvona d peine marcher, ' Ne 
voulez-voua pas venir tout de suite dSjeuner avec nous? 
' J'ai d6jd d6jeune ; je viendrai demain. ' J'ai perdu mea 
gants qnelqno part ; il me faut les chercber ; mais j'irai 
bientdt, et j'arriverai de bonne heure. ' Je les ai cherch^s 
partout, mais je ne lea trouve nuUe part. '° Je les ai eus 
en haut. " Voici votre ami; menez-le en bas, et allez 
voua promener. " Jusqu'oii nous faut-il aller, et par oii ? 
"Allez jusqu'd la ville, par le cbemin de Paris. "La 
petite fiUe-est dedans; je veux qu'elle vienne dehors. " II 
est dejd tard ; elle viendra bient6t. " La France etait 
autrefois un royaame ; maintenant c'est nne r6publique. 
" Elle ne I'a pas 6t6 longtemps. " Oii est ton fr^re ? 
'* II n'est pas ioi ; il eat peut-fitre lA-baa. '" D'oii vient la 


lettre que toos ayez dans la main ? 
onole d'Am^riqne. 

" Elle vient de mon 

' Wtiere ia your brother? ' I do not find him here ; he 
mUBt be elsewhere. ' Look for him everywhere ; you will 
certainly find him Bomewhere. ' He has already arrived, 
but the others have not yet come. ' He must go imme- 
diately to the city. ' He ie going to-raorrow to England ; 
he will stay there almost two years. ' I was there formerly, 
and I should like (vonloir) to be there still, ' I have never 
gone so far ; I have always stayed at home ; but you, you 
have been everywhere. * I shall come henceforth often to 
yonr house. " When will the merchant arrive from Paris ? 
" He has already arrived ; he is within. " He cannot have 
been here long. " I looked for her, but she was far from 
hero. " How far had she gone ? " She had gone as far as 
to Paris; but she will return soon. "Do you like the 
country aa much as the city? " I have always liked the 
city better ; I do not like the country at all. " I go there 
often, but I do not stay there long. '" Whence do you 
come now, and where have you been to-day and yesterday ? 
" Formerly I often went to my uncle's, but I no longer go 
there ; he lives too far. " I have been sometimes at his 


' Que f aitee-voua Id ? ' Je ne fais rien. ' Qu'eat-ce qu'lls 
vont faire? 'lis viennent de faire de jolis cadeaux, 
'Ferez-vous chercher vos gants? 'Je les ai fait chereber 
partout, ' Que ferez-vous demain ? ' Je ferais venir la 
servante, ai elle ^tait 4 la maison. " Si vous ne I'avez dejd 
fait, il faut que voua le fasaiez tout de suite. " II fait beau 
temps aujourd'hui, mais il f era tr^s chaud demain. ' ' Quoi- 
qu'il fit froid hier, j'en etaia content, 

" They make ; will he not make? let ub make ; that you 



may make ; she would not make ; I shall do what you do ; 
do what you wish to do. " Thou hadst not done ; they 
would have done nothing ; I should have done it if he had 
done it. " la it cold ? it will be warm ; it would be fine 
weather if it was not too cold. " I have made him come ; 
he will make mo come. " The cook has made bad bread 
to-day ;tBhe must make better to-morro»^) "I have jnat 
nrnde bread, and I am going to make butter. 






1, The prepositions most need in Freneli were given 
in early lessons (III-, YI.). Other simple prepositions 
are a£ follows : 

ii»,from, since 
dnrant, during 
hora, honmi, out of, except 
malgre, in ipiCe of 

moy«nnant, b}/ meaiit <^ 
outre, besidea, beyond 
panni, among 
pendant, during, peitding 

lelon, aecurding to 
2. Some prepositions are also used along with a pre- 
cediug preposition or adverb, foriniug a prepositional 
phrase : thus, 

(, through 

i'aprei, aeeording U> 

i.'i,vee,fnim imtKfTan 

par-desttu, oetr, heyond 
quant a, agfor, a* regard* 
i'eiiUe,/Ti>m among 
do par, by authority of 

3. Many prepositional phrases are made of adverbs 
or adverbial phrases followed by de <rf; some of the 
commonest ai'e : 

1E8B0N xxxrii. 

kntmr da, armtnd, aiotU 
hor» de, out of 
loin Aa, far from 
•u-devMit da, in front cf. 

Ion de, of tAe time ef 

1« long de, aZoag 

vli-a-Yia de, appotite to 
aa-del& de, beyoiui 

4. A few prepoBitione are followed by the infinitive 
directly ; they are : 

At, of (fo) 
apra, after 

pour, in order to 
urn, ui^kirat 

a. Of these, par is little used, and aprds almost only with the 
perfect infinitive : thus, aprtta avoir dtni after having dined. 

b. The English to as sign of the infinitive is represented by both 
& and dfl. Often, the reason for using de, as meaning properly 
lif, frmn, is to be seen : thus, il est temps de partir it is timt 
to leave (literally, time of leaving), nom sommes d^feodns de 
parlsr we are forbidden to speak (literally, kept off from ^leak- 
ing), il a cesB^ d'etre lie lias ceased to be (literally, ceased from 
being), and so on. But ia considerable part this is not the case, 
and the distinction has to be learned for each phrase. See the 
Second Part, § 171 etc. 

5. Prepositional phraees often followed by the infini- 
tive are : 

kfin de, in order to, to 
an lien de, initead of 
i, fOree de, bg dint of 
mnnt de, b^ore 

loin ie, far fivm 
a. moini de, fhorl of. without 
de penr (enduts) Ae, for fear oj 
plntet que de, rather than 

a. It is the English infinitive in ing that in very many cases 
corresponds to the French infinitive after a preposition or prepo- 
sitional phrase : thus, sans attendre without waiting, avant da 
monrir b^ore dying, de penr de tomber/or/sor of falling. 

5. Frequent special uses of ik and de are : 

a. i, is much used before the name of that by which anything 
is characterized (as possessing it, being for it, acting by it, and 
the like) : thus, on hommean coeurtendre a Tnnwq/' fender Tieari, 
le ver & aoie the silk-worm, im bateau it vapenr a steamboat 
(see Part Second, § 36). 

6. Da is much used before a numeral to express the measnre of 
anything, or that by which one thing differs from another : thus, 

PREP0BIT10K8. 156 

"i^a de Bsiie ans aged Id years, long d« donze piede twelve feet 
long, plnfl grand de la moiti^ larger by a italf (see Part Second, 

i= 61c). 


7. a. Of tlie very coramon irregular verb dire say, 
tell, the syDopsis of priucipal and derived parts is this: 
din diiant dit dii dii 

dlni dlsftit aTDirdit dli diu* 

dliali di«« *"■ *"" 

b. Tlie inflection of the present indicative and imperative (the 
impf. subjunctiFe being qait* regular) is: 

dli diaoni dlioni 

dli dltM dli ditet 

dit duent 

c. Note the 2d plur. ending in tea (like etes, foites). 

d. Common phrasea containing dire are ; on dit (XXVII. 4) 
or il se dit (XXYUI. 4) it is said; c'eat i. dire that is to say, 
that M ,- a. dire vrai to tell the truth ; poor ainsi dire so to speak ; 
cela va bsjib dire that does not need to be stated or is a inatler of 
course (literally, goes without saying). Tooloir dire (literally, 
wish to say) means signify, mean. 

and preposition phrases girfln in the Lesiaa.) 

le ohemin de far, railroad, railway 
le bateau a TBpBnr, iteamlioat 
le bateau a vollai, aaUboat 
la voyaga, tJie journey 
la mer, tlie »ea 
le loir, the enening 
ordinaliamant, umaily, ordoMrHy 

(Beeidee the preposttloiis 
le ohenuD, road 
la bataan, 6oal 
la gtx«, nCaCJim, depiiC 
la poita, the lioat, pogt^ffice 
le matalat, Ifie KaHor 

Exercise 33. 
' Par oil allez-voua A la ville ? ' J'y vais par It 
de fer. ' Est-ce que la gare est prfis de Totre maieon ? 
' Non, elle en est tr^a loin ; elle est hors du village. ' Plu- 
tdt que d'aller par le cbemin de fer, je n'irais jamais au 
dehors du village. ' Quant it moi, j'aime extr(>mement £k 


156 LESSON" xxxin. 

Toyager. ' Au lien de rester chez moi, je snis all6 autour 
da monde. ' Je ne peux JEtmais atler eur la mer, de pcnr 
d'etre malade, ° Avant de quitter la France, j'en avaJB 
toujours peur ; mais ^ force d'avoir voyagfi, je n'y 
pense plus. '" Ce matelot est-il all6 i, travers la mer ? 
" Selon lui, il eet alle dix fois jusqu'en Am^riqtie, " Est-ce 
qu'il va en bateau k vapeur ou en bateaa i voiles? "II 
voyage ordinairement en bateau A voiles. " Mon p6re 
vient d'amver, et je sais alle au-devant de lui. " Depuie 
quelle heure est-il ici ? " II est arrive pendant la nnit. 
" Voas ne me quitteroz point, sans faire ce que vous devez 
faire. '* J'y suis venu pour le faire. " Apr^s avoir dejeunfi, 
il nous m^nera but son grand bateau A, vapenr. " Je n'ai 
pas le temps d'aller avec vous. " Au lieu d'aller an bateau, 
il me faut aller A I'ficole. 

Thbme 88. 

' Where have you been since {the) morning ? ' I went 
to the post in order to find the old sailor. ' He came to 
meet me, and we dined together on the steamboat. ' After 
having dined, we went around the boat. * It is 800 feet 
long, larger by (the) half than most of the sailboats. ' Did 
you talk with the sailors ? ' No, one ought not to speak 
to them ; but, in spite of that, I spoke to one sailor. ' Be- 
fore arriving here, he had been around the world. 'He 
had gone three times as far as America. '" For lack of 
money, I have to remain here, without travelling. " In- 
stead of doing nothing, you must work, in order to have 
money. " By dint of working, one can have as much 
money as one wants./ "It is time to go to the station. - >^ 
" The station is opposite the house of my brother. '* It is 
necessary to go along the river, in order to arrive there. 
" As for the railroad, I do not like it at all. " I have not 
the time to travel, but I am not content without going often 
to Paris. " Rather tlian travel by the railroad, I go uau- 


ally by the steamer. " Far from loving to (ft) travel, I 
hate it. " I can never travel without being sick. 


r' Que dites-voiis? ' Je n'ai rien dit. ' Qii'en dira-t-ori? 
' On dira que nous ne faisona rien. " Dis-moi ce que tu as 
fait. 'Je nVn dirai rien d persoiine. ' Qu'est-ee qu'iis 
, vouB disaient ? 'Us m'ont dit de m'en aller. ' Qii'cst-co 
"V*"^ ' •'Wie oela veot diro ? " Cela veut dire qn'ils ne m'aiment 
^f J 'paa. " Dites-lui de venir ici. " II vieudra tout de suite : 
o'estril-dire, iL six heures et demie. 

" Teil it to me ; I shall tell you nothing ; he told it to 
her ; will she not tell it to them? we should tell it to you, 
if they had told it to us. -|-" What were you saying V " I 
, was going to say that I do not like her. " That is a matter 
^ - of course. ^'''" What does that, mean ? " It means that she 
V>res everybody. " IrWfearamat the qneen is in London : , 
■Knat is,, she will arrive there soon. '° Don't tell me that..'- " 



1. The conjunctions most used in French are : 
•t, und on, or 

nail, bvt ca.T,fm' 

que, Ihal lanqae, ic/ien, cu 

puiaqne, siTKe, beeauie, as qaoiqae, altlu>ugh, though 

■i, if, whether comme, i« 

a. Of these conjunctions, quoique althouyh requires 
the following verb to be always in the subjunctive : thns, 
although hi it ill, qaoiqn'il »a!t malBde 
though ae had nothing, quoiqne naiu D'eoMioni rien 
h. The conjunction si if (which in English especially 



requires the aubjunctive) is in Froncli almost always fol- 
lowed by the indicative (pres. or impf.): thus, 

^fteeotne, t'il vleat if they were here, a'Ui etaitnt ioi 

But the subjunctive pluperfect ia also allowed after si: thus, if 
he had been here is s'il efit 6t6 id (or a'il avait 6t6 id). 

Si may be followed by the future (or conditionalj when used 
in the sense of whether : thus, qui sait s'il viendra icho knows 
whether he will come ? 

Note the ahbreyiation of hi before il or ila (296). 

c. The conJTirietion que /hat (as well as the relative : XXVI. 
11), ihough often omitted iu English, must always be expressed 
in French : thus, I believe you are right je crois que vons aves 

2. The interrogative adverbs, in their relative sense IXXXII. 
6a), have the value of conjunctions : thus, quand je le vis, je ne 
savaia pas d'oil il 6tait Tena wtitn I saw him, I did not know 
whence he had come. 

3. Correlative conjunctione, used in successive ckuses, 

•t . . . «t, both . . . and on . . . aa, eit/ier , . . or 

ni . . . ni, TisUber . . . nor loit . . . uft, whether . . , or 

plui . . . plui, the ware . , , the inore molni . . . mains, the leu . . .the let* 
ant«nt . . . aattmt, cm mueh . . , us tantSt . . . tantSt, nmn . . . note 

4. Connectives of sentences, having the character 
rather of adverbs tlian of conjunctions, are : 

iif, al»B, too, tucordingly 

poi*, then, next 
nnniDDlDS, naairlhdeu 
oependMit, meanwhile, homter 
mtrBmBnt, olherwiw 
6. Many phrases having j 
made by adding the conjunction que thai to a preposition 
or adverb or adverbial phrase. 

a. Some of those most commonly used are : 

iLinii, thHf, to 
doDD, then, conaegueiitii/ 
alori, then 

tantefoii, yet, howcTjer 
ponrtant, get, stiU 
d'oillsnn, beeiden, moreooer 
conjunctional value i 

KprM qua, qfter that, afUr 

pendftot que, while 
p«r«a qua, beeauie 
Mnt qua, » loitg at 

depnii qna, tinae [tlie time that) 
dea qna, ahen, at toon at 
tutdla que, while, whereat 
Binii qua, at 
Rntaat que, at much 




h. Some Bach phrases reqnire the following verb to W 
in the subjnnctive ; examples are : 

afin qna, in order that poor que, in (irder thai 

tnnt que, btfore jiuqn's oe que, vnlil 

Mmi qua, although pcntrvn qne, provided tluit 

wni qn«i without l/iat as cm qne, iVi atm tfatt 

Afler sana que, the verb can hardly he. rendtred ex(;ept by out 
infinitive in ing; thus, sans qne penoniie s'en apen^oiTs without 
any one's perceiving it. 

0. One or two require the following subjunctive to be preceded 
by the negative ne: they arc il moins qne unless, d« crainte (or 
penr) qne for fear tfiat, lest : thua, & moioB qn'il ne vienne vn- 


6, a. Of the irregular verb Bavoir know (Lat. sapere) 
the synopsis of principal and derived parts ia : 

Mvolr taalunt la uii lui 

■ korki ■•Tsla aToIria lache tons 

itnraii laehe nt.eic. 

6. The inflection of the present indicative and imperative (the 
pree. subj. being quite regular) is as foUowe: 

ial» laToni Mchoni 

Mil MTCE iMhe Mcbet 

■ait lavent 

c. The impf. Indie, oomes fram BnDOier form ol the pres. pple, SBvwit. now 
lued onir aa bd odjecQie, meaning learned. 

7, a. With an object and a predicate relating to it, savoir 
means krutw to be: thus, je le sais modeate / know him to be 
modest; with a following infinitive, it means know how: thus, il 
■ait se taire he knows how to hold his tongue. 

b. The pres. snbj. (?) je sache etc. is in certain pbrases used like 
an indicative : thus, je ne sache personne qni / knoiv no one who 
etc.; que je sa«he .to far a* I know. The conditional aaurais 
is used (negatively) in the sense of can^ be able: thus, ils ne 
tauraient servir tliei/ are unable to be of use. 

c. The phrase ja ne sais qnoi (or qui, quel, et«.) is much need 
in the sense of something, lean't tell what ete. 

d. Savoir is very often conjugated negatively witli ne alone 
(paa being omitted). 


(BsBldes the coDjuncU 

1» &1)rlqne, Vu factory 
le nLKguin, ihe ghgp, ttore 
I'onvrier m., the laorkman 

IB glveii in the liste above.) 

le fsbrioaDt, ttu: manufaeturer 
t» nuier, marry, be laarried 
I'OQTTlBre f . , ihe imn-ivaman 

Exercise M. 
' II va geler ; allez-vous done ^ Paris ? ' Bien qu'il gSle, 
il faut qne j'y aille. ' D'ailleurs je ne Teux pae rester chez 
nioi towte la journee. ' Que ferez-vous pendant que voub 
y Berez ? ' Je vais chercher un cadeaii pour raon amie, 
parae qu'elle vient de ae marier. ' Dea que je buib arrive, 
j'ai chercbe partout des cuillera d'argent ; mais je n'en ai 
troiive de jolieSj ni au magasin iii d la fabrique. ' Pour- 
tant on m'a dit que ce marcliand en a de tr^B belles. ' II 
me les a montrSea ; maia plua je lea regardaie, plus je les 
trouvaia laides. ' Alora que me faut-il faire, afin que j'aie 
qnelque choae pour elle? '"11 faut attendre jusqu'd ce 
qn'on en fasse de plus jolJes. " Est-ee qu'on aura le temps 
de lea faire avant qu'elle Be marie f " Depnis que je voub 
ai parle, je auia alle k la fabrique. " Potirvii qu'il y ait 
aesez de temps, le fabricant va me lee faire. " II ne 
pourrait les faire, sans qu'il efit de bona ouvriers, " II 
en aura, dfia qu'il voudra en avoir, " S'il efit eu de bona 
ouvriers, il aurait df^jd de jolies choses. 

Theme 34. 
' Have you been at the shop since you left me ? 'I have 
been both at the shop and at the factory. ' Then you have 
bought aomething. 'I wanted to buy either forks or 
spooHB ; but I have bought neither forka nor spoons. ° If 
you bad found some, should you not have bought them ? 
' Although I have found some, nevertheless they were not 
pretty. ' Moreover, the manufacturer wishes that I wait 
(aubj.) until be shall make some new ones. 'Provided 
that he makes them at once, we can wait ; otherwise w« 



shall go elsewbere. 'I wifih to give them to ray friend, 
before she is married. '° The workmen go to the factory 
early, id order that they may work longer. " Although 
she is ill, this poor workwoman works the whole day. 
" Unless she works ten hours, the merchant will not give 
her moneyy " So long as she shall work, she will be ill. 
" However, she mnat work, in order that he may give her 
bread for her children, "She cannot work much, because 
she is ill, " She had to work, lest he should give her noth- 
ing. " As soon as she ahail be better, she will work more. 
"The more she works (fut.), the more he will give her 
money. " Ton must stay at home, since you are not welL 
" While you are working, I shall go to the school. 


Sais-tu quelle heure il est ? ' Je ne saia pas, ' lis n'en 
savent rien. ' Je ne aaurais vous le dire. ' II salt tra- 
vailler. ' II ii'y a personne ici, que je sache. ' Charles 
vous aavait malade, et il n'est pas venu, ' Savez-vous s'il 
viendra demain ? ' Personne ne eaurait dire oii il sera de- 
main. '° Je sanrai le trouver. 

" Does he know ? you know ; she knew ; they were know- 
ing ; we shall know ; that he might know. " Has he known 
it? we know what you know ; I knew, but I do not know 
now ; she knew and she had always known ; you would 
not have known it, if I had not told it to you. " Did you 
know that he was ill ? "I had known it, hut I had forgotten 
it, "Yon know how to work. " I could not tell how he 
loves her. " I do not know whether ho is going to Paris. 




1. a. The general accottnt of the irr^ular verbs wue 
given above, at XXTV". 5, and some of the commonest 
among them have been explained in fall. 

Those so explained are as follows : avoir Aare. X., Str« be, XI,, 
▼onloir wish at XXIV. S etc.. ponvoir be able at XXV. 8 etc., 
devoir owe at XSVI. 12 etc., aller go at XXVIL 8 etc, &Uair 
mwit at XXX. 6 etc., venir come at XXXI. 10 etc. &ire do at 
XXXII. 8 etc., dire saj/ at XXXIII. 7 etc.. and B&voir know at 
XXXIV. 6 etc 

h. It remaioe now to g^ve the rest of the irregular 
verbs, and to explain their inflection. 

2. The verbs condaire conduct ein., isBtrmre instruct 
etc., and cnire cook, are conjugated alike, having past 
participles ending in it, and preterits in isis. Their de- 
rived parts are all made regularly. Thus : 

a. 1. condaire ooadaiaaDt wndnit Mndolt ooDduitii 

condnirai oondnlsalt aTolr oandnit eondiiij itonduiiiuB 
MDdvirBu condtiiM '"^ "^ 

b. The present indicative and imperative (the pres. subj. l>eing 
entirely regular) are inflected thus : 

Modni* oondnuoni oondnuQU 

oondnu oottdtdut oondnit oondnitM 

conduit condniiant 

c. Like condnire are conjugated the other compoundH of -dnire 
(Lat. ducere) : namely, 

dUoire, deduce introdnir«, introduce t«didre, sedtiee 

eoondoiTB, remote prodnirs, produce trsdnira, tranelaU 

Mtdoire, da over reoondtiire, reeonduet 

indnire, iTiduee redolie, redvee 

The Bimple verb, dniro suit, ia used only in the Bd sing, present. 
Of the other two verbs, it will be enough to give the principal 
parts only. 

d. 2. luitmlr* initnuiant initroic inttnLii initrtdilc 


e. Like inBtmireareconjugated the other compounds of -etruirB 
(Lat. etraere) : namely, 

eofutmlre, construct detmiie, dettroy Twonitmlre, reeojutmnt 
/. 3. oairs onisant nut miii oni«U 

g. Like cnire (Lat. coquere) is conjugated ite compound : 
Tecnfre.eooJt again 

3. The verbs naiie injure and luire shine are conju- 
gated in tbe same way, except that their past participle 
ends in i instead of it. Thus : 

a. 4. nnira nnliant niii nnia nnliU 

5. luire laiMnt Ini luia - — — — 

6. The pret. indie, andimpf. aubj. of Iniroaronotinnae. like 
it is conjugated its compound : 

rslnln, ihine, gluten 
c. Tbtne verba are Lst. nocere and Inoere rBspecClvely. 

4. The verbs tnfflre suffice, conflre preserve, and oir- 
concire circumcise, are conjugated alike, except tte past 
participles, which end respectively in i, it, and is. Their 
preterit ends in is simply, like the present (not in iais, 
like the preceding verbs). Thus : 

a, 6. infflra lofflMnt stiffl inffis snffla 

7. oonfire <»lnaiaiit oonflt oonfli CDnfls 

8. clrconcire oiicaucliant clrconoia circoncis circonoi* 

b. Tbese verba are respectively L&t. antncere, coaflcere. and i^iruaniDitl- 

c. Like confire ia conjugated its compound : 
dloonflie, discomfit 

5. The very common verb dire say, tell difEera from 
oonflre only by having in the 2d plural pres. indie, and 
impv. dites (instead of diuz). Its principal parts are : 

9. dira dlunt dit dii di> 

The complete inflection of this verb was giyen above, at XXXIII. 
7 etc. 
a. Of the compounds of dire (I-at. dicere), only 
Tsdire, say again 
ia conjugated precisely like it. Most of the others— namely, 

(Mntndiri, eontradict iaterdira, interdict predire, predict 

dUir*, ditaara medlre, ilafidtir 

—are like conflrv, imving -diBe*E (instead of -dites) in the 3d 



plural. But maadire curse (Lat, maledicepc) is mach more ir- 
regular, having double as iu tbe present participle and in all the 
forma that follow its analogy. Thus ; 

JtOt iHAndlro maudisHant nuudit niftndlft maiidiB 

mandirai mandisBaii avDir mandit msndls nundlHS 
m&ndiralB maudiue 
The inflection of the pres. iuiiic, and impv. is : 

uan^ti mandlsaoiu mandiHoni 

nwiidii niBtidiaaei mandli mandiusi 

mandit mamliasent 

6. Lire read forms its past participle in u and its pret- 
erit in TO, The other parte and their inflection are like 
those of condnire, above (2). Thus : 

11. lire liuQt In lia In* 

liiai llsal* ktoIt In Ub Idhb 

lirftU li«B °^ ""■ 

a. Like lire (Lat. legere) are conjugated its compounds 
elirs, el«et relirt, rfod again reelire, reeled, 

7. The verb fierire write is in the main like condnire ; 
but it has everywhere v instead of a after i iu the full 
forms of the root. Thus: 

a. 12. Scrire eorivant aorit ecrii earivit 

eorirai eoriTais avoir edit ecrlB eoriTiiie 

BorirBli ScrivB •^'^- '^''■ 

6. The inflection of the pres. indie, and impv. Is aa follows : 

eorii ecrivoiu toivoM 

enria Sorivei esrii eoriTei 

eorlt MTlTent 

c. Like toiro (Lat. acTlhppc) are conjugati-d the comi>ounds : 
oirooucrirB, eircttinierilie prexirlre, prescribe aovaeriie, tubecribe 
AaariTii, describe ^loaeriTe, proarribe trtiiiKiiie, trariMribt 

inwrire, imeribe roorirfl, rearite 

6. The verb rire laugh is still more unlike the above 
verba. Thus : 
a. 13. rire riuit ri lia lii 

ilifti riali BTOir ri rla tImm 


b. The inflectioa of the present tenses is : 

rii tIoiu riona rie liloni 

rii rial rii tIm , tIm cllai 

rit rient He rient 

a. Like rire (Lat. rldere) is inflected its compound : 

Mnrlre, aniile 
9. The verb frire yiy ia like rire, except that its past 
participle ends in it, and that it lacks the present parti- 
ciple and all fonne following its analog^y — namely, the 
impf. indie, the pres. subj., and the plural of the pres. 
indicative. Thne: 

14. Mre — Mt frii Ml 


(BMldeB tlie verbs In Uie LesEon. ) 

la paste, the poet la poeile, poetry 

la tragedla, the tragedy la oomedie, t/te eomtdy 

romrage m., tlm linrk la maoiera, tlte, manrier 

le jonrnal, Ihijownal, newspaper It redactenr, Vie editor 

ttm^tia, French anglais, Englkh 


' ATez-vouB lu les ouvragea de ce po^te, madame ? ' Je 

lis tonjours de la po^eie, mais je ne sais ce que cet bomme 

a §crit. ' Je Ina I'aimee derni^re nne de sea comedies, qui 

me fit beanconp rire. ' Nous liaons les tragfidiea, et nous 

ne rions jamais. 'Voue ficrivez beaucoup poiir lea jour- 

naux, a'est-ce pas ? ' Ce Bont les redaoteura qui Scrivent 

pour IcB joarnaui ; moi, je n'ecris que de la po^sie. ' Qu'6- 

oriviez-vouB hier ? ' Nous tradnisiona lea comfsdies de Mo- 

liSre. * Les avez-vous lues ? "' Si voua les avez traduites, 

je le» lirai certainement. " Voua en rirez ; eiles sont tr^a 

amnaantes. " Nous en avons beancoup ri, quand noua les 

lisions. "Pourquoi le pofite maudiasait-il le redacteur? 

"Parce que celui-ci lui a nui. "II a dficrit sa dernt^re 

tragedic d'une manitsre amusante, et tout le monde en rit. 

" J'ai lu oe qu'il en a ^crit, et je n'ai paa m^me souri en le 


lisant. " Que faites-vous aveo ces jeunes fiUes ? " Noub 
ies Gonduisona au the&tre, a€n qu'elleB s'y amuBent. " Les 
bonnes comedies inEtniieent beaucoup lea jennes gens. " Si 
vous Toutez Retire de la pogeie, il faut que toub lisiez les 
pontes franqais. 

Theub 35. 
' He will conduct ; I have conducted ; we were conduct- 
ing ; conduct him I they would conduct her, if she wished 
to go there. ' Bead your letter ; I have read it ; we shall 
read it to you ; let ub not read it to her, ' They were 
writing ; she would write ; we had written ; you will never 
have written ; I shall write to nobody ; nobody has written 
to me. ' HaB he read the letter that she has written him? 
write him a letter, in order that he may read it. ' He has 
laughed ; she will laugh ; they were langhing while I was 
reading ; do not laugh at (de) the books which you read. 
' I read much poetry ; but I have not read the works of all 
the poets. ' Do you write nothing? ' Yes, I have always 
written a great deal for the newspapers. ' I translate many 
comedies, but I do not write any. " I w^ reading a tragedy, 
and I did not laugh at it. " Why do you not read the 
newspapers? "Because they do not instruct me. "My 
daughters write poetry, and my son has written a tragedy. 
" They have always read the heat works of the French 
poets, and they have translated English poetry. 


iBBEoni.AB TGBBS IN aindre etc., and altie eto. 

1. Among the other irregular verbs ending in re, there 
are two important groups which may be taken up first. 
S. A considerable number of much-need verbs have 

IBBEQITIAR VEEB8 IS aindre ETC., AND altrt ETC. 167 

their infinitive in ndro preceded by one of the three di- 
graphs ai, ei, oi — verbs in aindre, eindre, and oindre. 
They are conjugated precisely alike, and their derived 
parte are made with entire regnlarity from the principal 
parts — which, however, are quite irregular in their rela- 
tions to one another. 

3, As examples may be taken craindre fea/r, peindre 
paint, }oinize Join. Thus : 

a. 15, onindre oraignant enint oralnt crftignii 

orftladml aralgnsiB avoir oralnt onJni oraigniiM 
endndraii cnigne '" ""' 

6. The inflection of the prea. indie, and impv. (ths pres. subj. 
belDR quite regular) is as follows : 


onuos orai^OE arain* 


enlnt oraisiieiit 

c. Of the other two verbs, it will be enough to give the princi- 

pal parts. Thus : 

10. peindre 

peiipant paint 
iUfpiftnt joint 

peini palgnli 

17. loiadrs 

JoitLi (oignJi 

d. Like these verbs are eonjugated : 

I ■ ' 

pUlndre, p% 

snEeindTB, ffird 

gelndre, ffnxm 

ftttelndre, aOain 


SpTBlndre, nquitse oat 

rBpeindre, paint again 

iAptaitt, depict 

Iteindre, extinguuh 

reitreindie, rettrain 

detelndro, /ad« 

etreiiidre, draw UgU 

retaindTB, dye otier 

Mndro, feign 

teindre, (inffo 

poisdre, punoftww 

dqolndra, di^^^ 

oindie, anoint 

dHjoindro, divoin 

e. ThcaeTerlMendiD Lattumnetlrln -users: thuH 

piBlniIre, Lat plBDRere: 

pelDdra. Lat. plnBe 
Buere [ and bo on. Be 

■e: jolndre, L*l. jongBr 

J 6teln.l™, Lac. exMn- 

ni» tbe en in many ot Uieir 

orma. But -prela lire and 

Bel&dre ere Lst. -pre 

4. A number 

of verbs in altre and oltre, some of them 

very common on 

es, are conjugated nearly alike. They, 


168 LE8B0N XXXVT. 

too, make their derived parts quite regularly from an 

irregular set of principal parte. 

6. As models may be taken paraltre appear and croltre 
grow. Thus : 

a, IS, ptTBitre p&niuaiit pam par&li panu 

paraltr&i p&TaUB&il avafr para pftTnll punn* 
pataf traia panlBie °"' " ' 

h. TiiB inflection of prea. indie, and impv. is ; 

puait paraiHoiu pukiuont 

paraia paxaiaisi paraia paraltHl 

porait poraiMent 

Note that the circumflex of the infinitive appears here in the 
Sd Bing., but not elsewhere. 

c. Like paraltre are conjugated ita compounds t 
nppomitre, wppear oompuraitrg, appear dlipaiutre, disappear 

also counaJtra know, be acquainted with, and its compounds : 

meaonnattrs, fail to reeognite neoDnaltre, reeegnies 
also paitre graze and its compound : 

rapaitTB, feed 
But of paitre the pret. indie, and impf. subj. are not in use. 

d. Old iufluitive forms arc apparoir and comparoir, for ap- 
parattre and coinparaitre ; from apparoir ia made- also the im- 
personal 3d sing, il appert (( appears. 

6. Of croltre grow the principal and derived parts are : 
19. OToitre crolaaant era cro!a crSj 

OTOitrai croiaaaia avoii crfl crob crAaa* 

croitrals oroiiw " ' 

a. The inflection of the prea. indie, and impv. is : 

oroti orolaioni enliuiil 

Note Ihat the eiroumfles of the infinitive appears here through 
the whole singular. The cireumflej in past pple and pret, is 
chiefly for the puriioBe of distinguishing the forms from those of 
croire believe (below, XXXVIl. 5). 

XEBEOFXAR VE&BS IN ftindra ETC., AND aitlB ETC. 169 

B. Like croitre are conjugated its corapounda : 
MoroitrB, imrcoie' dewoitre, deoream reoroitre, p-oa again 

inrcroitrs, cmergrow 
These, however, have tin circumflex in the past pple : thus, accm 
etc. ; and some authorities omit it in the impf. snbj. throughout : 
thus, crosse, accnuse, etc. 

7. Tlie verb naitre he horn ia in part inflected lik& 
paraltre etc., bnt ie very peculiar in ite past participle and 
in its preterit. It takes the auxiliary 6tre {XXVIII. 6a). 
Tlins : 

20. naitre nuiisftnt ae nais nsqait 

naitrai naitBais etie ne nais naqnlM* 

a. The intlection of tlie pres. indie, and the impv. is precisely 
as in paxaStre : 

nail naiisoiia nalsBoni 

nalt naluez nais naisMi 

n^ naltient 

&. Like aaJtre is conjugated its compound ; 

ranaitce, be bom again 
c. In the sense of was bom is used the perfect, snis n^ etc., if 
the person spoken of is liviBg. 

~ H come, wlUi Borne snomalous changes, troi 

■ ' - eonufJtre, Li 

-mre: thuEi, parBiIro ia Lat, paregcert 

□ Latjn TU-bs It 


(Beddee the verhe glyea In the Lmsdcl) 
1b general, Uie general le aoldat, {A« toldier 

rarmee f., tlie army la gnerra, Oie tear 

1b banheur, happiness, good for- le mallienr, unliappineu, tnis- 

lung f<»t/wne 

Exercise 36. 
' Ne plaignez-vouEi pas cette pauvre fern me ? ' Je la 
plains beaucoup, oar elle est tr^s malbeureuse. ' Elle a eu 
un bon mari ; mais il joignit I'annee I'annee demiCre, ot 11 
a tout k fait disparu. ' Elle n'a pas do pain pour son panvre 
enfant, qui est ne il y a qnelquea mois. ' Connaissez-vous 
le Tieux g^n^ral ? ° Noits Tavons connu autrefois, mais Je 



ne pense pas qu'il nous reconnaltra t present 'Ces arbres 
ont beauGOup crfl, depnis que je ne les ai tub. ' Lee enf anta 
oroiBsent trf;s vite, et apr6s peu de temps on ne les reconnait 
pins. ' II parait que nous allona avoir une guerre avec 
TAllemagne. " Tous les malheurs de la patrie naissent de 
Ja guerre. ' ' Anssitfit que la guerre commencera, le bonheur 
dea citof ens aura disparu. " Qui est-ce qne voua plaigniez ? 
" Nous plaigniona les pauvres soldats, qui doivent aller a 
la guerre. '* Qui est-ce que cet homme veut peindre ? 
" II a peint beauconp de g^n^raux de France ; maintenant 
il va peindre ce soldat-ci. '*Napol6on naquit en Corse 
le 15 ao1Jt, 1768. "La plupart de nos grands hommes 
sont n^B en France. " Donnons-nous la main, et soyone 
bone amis. "Mon p^re naquit en 1796, et moi, je suis n§ 
en 1853. "Nous ne craignona pas lemalhenr; pourquoi 
le craindrione-nous ? 

Theme 3Q. 
' They fear ; we shall fear ; that he may not fear ; fear 
nothing ; did he never fear ? he would have feared it. ' I 
had recognized her ; do you not recwignize me ? we should 
recognize him ; he will recognize them ; she recognized 
him as he was entering. ' Will he not appear? if he ap- 
pears, we shall disappear ; although he had not yet appeared, 
we went away ; do they not appear ? he appeared yester- 
day ; we appear to-day ; they will appear to-mor-ow. 
' You paint ; was he not painting ? I will paint it, if you 
wish ; give me what you have painted. * What was the 
man painting ? ' He has painted the beautiful flowers 
which grow in our garden. ' Does he never paint men ? 
■ Those painters always paint animals. ' Do you not recog- 
nize this picture ? " Yes, I recognize it well ; it is the 
portrait of the young generaL "Did you know him? 
" I knew him very well, and we have always known his 
family. " Where is he now? " He disappeared last year." 
"It appears that his family has had many misfortunes. 


" Yea, we pity them very mach. " When was your son 
born? "Hewaa bom in 1878, "He has grown a good 
deal since I went away. '° Yee, he grows very fast ; all 
the children are growing ; he will stilt grow a little. 



1. The verb traire drav), milk lacks the preterit and 
the imperfect Bnbjunctive. 
a. Ite principal and derived parts aro aa follows ; 

21' tf&ire trityftiit trait trail 

tnuTsi trayaiB avoir trait trab 

tralraii traio "^ "'' 

6. The inflection of pres. indie, and impv. is : 

trail trayoni tnyoni 

tru* trayei trail trajei 

trait traiint 

c. Like traire (Lat. tj-ahere) are conjugated its compounds : 
ftbitrain, abttraet diBtralra, dMract TBntraln, darn 

attrftlra, attract iztraire, extra/it retrtlre, milk again 

«, tuitmct 

2. The verb brajre bray is conjugated like traire, but is hnrdly 
used except in the infinitive and the 3d sing, and p*. of prea. in- 
die, fut., and conditional. 

22. braite bnit bralra brairalt 

braisnt bralroiit brairalwit 

a. This verb is of doubtful origin. 

3, The very common verb faire make, do, which iE 
also very irregnlar, has been given in full above; see 
XXXIX. 8. 

a. 23, Like fkire (Xat. facere) are conjugated its compounds : 
oontraUrs, aranterfeit laxMaixt, do HI nfalra, remote 

do&lrt, undo mefajra, do harm MtI*fKir«, tatitfy 

to&iiB, offend paifairfl, annplete inrlklra, merda 



4. The verbs plaire please and taire £*ep 'i 

conjugated alike, except that plaire has an irregular cir- 
cumliex in the 3d sing. pree. indicative, Tims: 

a. fl4:i plaire plaiiaiit pin plaii pint 

pUirai pUiiaiB avoir pla plais plniis 

plairaia plBiae ' ' ^ °' 

b. The inflection of the pres, indio. and impv. ia : 

pUIl plailOQB plaitoDB 

pUii plaiiet pUli plaim 

pla!t ploiient 

c. Like plaire {Lat. placere) are conjugated Its compounds : 

(lomplaire, be complaitant deplaiie, ditpleeue 

d. Plaire is muiih used imperaonally, eapeciallj in the phrase 
s'il voub plait if you please. 

e. Of taire, it is enough to give the principal parts : 

S5. taiie taiiant tu tais toi 

The 3d sing. prea. indie, is il tait. 

/. Taire (Lat. tacere) ia much used reflexively, in the sense be 
silent, hold one''s peace : thus, tais-toi or taisez-voOB he silent ! 

5. There m^ two verbs in oire— namely, cioire think, 
hdieve, and boire, drink — of whicli the former is regu- 
lar in the formation of its derived parts and in its 
tense-inflection, while the latter is irregular in both. 

a. 2fi. croire crojanX en croli emi 

nroiral Droyati aTOir cm oroli croMe 

oroirai* oroio '^'' '^' 

Inflection of the three present tenses : 

croli GrayoQi croyoiu) croie aojiont 

oroli croysi eraii erOTra DToiti crcTifi 

croit arolent erole crolent 

h. A compound of croire (Lat. credrre), accroire (in &ire 

accroire deceive into believing), is used only in the infinitive ; 

another, d^croire disbelieve, only in the Ist sing, present. 

0. Croire in French is followed by an infl nJtiv e without 
inftnitiverBiga, where in English we nse instead a dependent 
clause, or insert a reflexive pronoun : thus, je crois ravoir dit / 
think (mysei/) to have said iC, or / think that I have said it. 


d. 27. boire buvant bn 

bol« btll 

boirai bavaU avoir bu 

boi» bni 

boirais boive "'■'^■ 

Inflection of the thi'ee ijresent tenses : 

pbib. txDic. mi'.. 

Pbi«. subj. 

bolt bnvoaa buvons 

boive bnvioiiB 

bou bnvBi bo«* buVBZ 

boivBB buvlez 

bolt boiTent 

boivs boivent 

e. Like boiro (Lat. bibere) are conjugated 

its compounds : 

«mboiro, imbibe imbolre, imbibe, imbue rebolre, dnnk again 

6, There is oue verb in ore, namely elore doae, with 
its compound 6cloie open, hatch (taking 6tre as auxiliary : 
XXVIII. %<£). Tlicir conjugation is as follows (only a 
few of the fornia being in actual use): 

a. 2S. olore [closant] cloa clco 

olorai avoir cloi 

cloraii olosa (etre ecloi) 

b. The 3(1 aing. pres. indio. Js cl6t (and fcl8t) ; of the plural 
only the 8d pera. ^closent is in use. The Eut. and cond. of dclore 

re more usually written with the circumflex : ^clOra etc. (only 
le 3d persons are in use). 

c. Of dore (Lat. claadere) there are other compounds : 
decloTB, Tincloae enolora, encloie t<iii)lon,/i>reclo/e 

but they are rarely used, aud only in a few forms. 

7. There is also a jingle ve rb ending in ure, namely 
-clore in conolnre conclude etc.' The conjugation is ae 
follows : 

a. ^!i. oonolnre conclnant 

oanclniai conclnais 

flonoluraiB oonolne "'*" ' ''' 

6. Inflection of the presLnit teiiai's : 

oonolni conulnoiiB ooncluoni ooiioIbb conclolona 

conclnB Goaalaei ooneloi oonolnei conolne* concluiei 

eoQolut DonalneBt nonolne oonclneut 

e. Like conclure aro conjuffated also the other eompounda of 

-cinre (Lat. -clniJepej : namely. 


ntolni*, exclude rtolora, . 

but of reclnrc only a few fomiB are In use. 


(Besides tbe vertn given Id the Lesscoi.) 

la bime, IhefOfTm 1» fermisrt, thefatrm«r'» a\fe 

le lii, tfie li 

le m»tin, thg moTTiiitff 

la vioI«tt«, tke vtolel 
le loir, the ereninff 


' Qne buvez-voua V ' Je bois du lait frais ; voulez-vona 
en boire ? ' On I'avez-vous trouve ? ' La fermit^re trayait 
BBS vacbes, et elle m'en a donne. * Croyez-vous que je 
pnisae en avoir auBsi ? ' Elle les a d^jii traites, mais elle les 
traira encore ce Boir. ' Alors j'en boirai ce soir. ' ToiU 
de jolies fleurs ; elles Bont ^cloBes ce matin. ' Lea roseB 
eclAront demain, je croia, " J'en venx quelques unee. " Je 
craia vous avoir dit que j'aime eitrfimement touteB les fleurs, 
" Eat-ce que ces petitee fillesne vohb plaiaent paB? " Elles 
m'ont beaucoup d6plu, parce qu'elles ne ee taieent jamais. 
" II faut qu'un enfant se taise loraque lee autreB veulent 
parler. " Avant de m'en aller, il faut que je boive nn peu 
de vin. "Voub en avez d^jA bu, et nous ne croyons point 
qn'il VOUB en faille encore. " Mais le lait ne me plait pas. 
" Taiaez-voiiB, et buvez ce qu'on voub donne. '* Je me tai- 
rai, maia je ne boirai pas ce qui me d^plait. '° Ne oroient- 
ils pas ce que je leor ai dit? " lie n'en ont rien era. 

Theme 87, 
' He believea ; does sbe not believe ? tbey will believe ; 
believe what I say ; I have believed what she has said to 
me, ' Will he drink ? do you drink f they would have 
drunk ; drink, and go away ; let us drink water ; he would 
drink wine, if he had aome. ^ Does she please you ? that 
would never pleaee me ; they have pleased me. ' She Bpoke 

THB BSlUIHIirS TEBBS vs re. 175 

and I was silent ; be silent while your mother speaks ; if 
yoD do not keep silence, I shall say nothing. * I want t& 
go to the farm this morning, if you please. ' I will con- 
dact yon there ; bnt you must be silent while I speak to 
the farmer's wife. ' Do you believe that she will milk the 
cows while we are there ? ' If she milks them, she will 
give yon some milk. * I drank some fresh milk formerly, 
and I shall drink some to-day. " We drink milk often, but 
we have never drank wine, " Do you think that the liliea 
have opened ? " They have not yet opened, but they will 
open this evening, " These violets please me much ; give 
me some, if you please. " Be silent, my child ; you have 
displeased me. "We thought that we had pleased you. 
" Since you are silent, we conclude that we displease yon. 
"Although we drink much milk, we are always thirsty. 



1. The remaining verbs ending in the infinitive in re 
have a consonant next before the r. They are quite dis- 
cordant, and in part very irregular, in their conjugation, 
and must be taken up one by one. 

a. We will begin with two that are extremely common m use. 

2. The verb prendre take is thus conjugated : 

90. prandre prenant pris prsndi piii 

preudmi prsnais avoir prU prendt priMe 

pTBndrait prenaB ^"^ "^ 

Inflection of the present tenses : 

pmdf pTMioni prenoiu prnma prflnloni 

pnad* preaeR pcendi pTni«« preDnw prsniBi 

prend preniieat prsont piennnit 

a. For the doubling of the n in prenne etc., see 2L 

176 LESSON- xxxvm. 

b. Likn prendre (Lat. prehenilprp) art' t'oujiigated ita n 
compoatidH (Bome of iliem Tcry iDuiih used) : 
•ppTsndiB, leant rapprendra, releam meprendre, mialal-e 

detnpprendre, ■unlearn eompronarfl, urKUrntand reprendre, reniime 
S^andrs, ge&e ontrepreiidrB, vndertalte BnrprendrG, surprite 

3. The verb mettre^w( is thus coujugated : 

31. mattrB mBttaat mia meti mia 
mettral mettaii avoir mit met* miasc 
mettrai* metis *'"' ' "'"' 

Inflection of the pres. indie, and impy. ; 

met! mettODB mettom 

mat mettent 

a. Like mettre (Lat. miilere) are conjugated its numerous and 

mucb-uaed eompounda : 
admettre, admit omettre, omit lemettre, remit 

Mtmrnettre, commit pBTmsttra, permit toumattra, submit 

demettre, pnt out promettre, promiee transmettre, tranimit 

Smettre, emit campromsttre, amtpromite 

h. For the phrase se mettre & begin (literally, set one's seif af), 

see above, XXIS. 76. 

4. The verb vivre Uve is very irrcgnltir in its preterit 
and past participle : thus, 

32. vivre vlvant tdcq vIb veoni 
vlvrai vlvaiB avoir vecn via vacnsaa 

Inflection of the pres. indie, and impv. : 




a. Like vivro (Lat. Tlvere) are conjugated its compounds : 

ravlvre, revive anrvlvrai minive 

b. The pres. subj. is used in good wishes for English long litie: 
thus, Tive le roi long live the icing. The expression qni vive 
teJto goes there f is explaiued as meaning who [do you. wish\ may 
line long 1 i.e. on whose side are you ? 



17? 1 

5. The verb vaintifoUow 

is quite nearly regular. It | 

is conjugated as follows : 


33. miyn »aiTant 


tola lulvlE ■ 

■nlTToi inivsls 

Kf air aolri 

■nil miTiHS J 

■nivnii luive 



loflection of the pres. indie. an( 

impT. : 


Pkh, Jbdic, 

».. ■ 

■nlB BDiToni 

.1,™. ■ 

■nil lolTei 


•nivei 1 

■nit eaivent 


a. Notice the identity of jo gnis 

/ follow with je anis / am. ■ 

b. Like Buivre (Lat. scquij are 

onjugiited its compounds : H 

eniuiTre, enmie 

6. The verh coudre aew is 

thus conjugated : | 

34:. oondre cooMnt 


•MmdB ODwil ^ 

oondrai cotUHU* avoir contn 

oondl Mullw 1 

wodndi coiue 

CU... 6K. 


Inflection of the pres. indie, anc 

imjiv. ; 


wnidi ooiuKiiu 

»..„ 1 

wndi cowei 



iKmd eonient 


o. Notice the unusual difference 

in the final vowel-fiound of the 1 

pple conan aud pret. consia. Such difference 

is found only in I 

oondro, Tfltir (XXSIX. U), and v 

oir (XLT, 4) 


b. Like coudre (Lat. cunaaere) 

are conjugated its compounds : J 

deoondre, unmw, rip 

reoondrB, » 

«o OPCT- again ■ 

7. Tlie verb moudre gnnd 

is thus cor 

jugated : H 

35. nxondre moulsnt 


moiida monlni JH 

mondnl mooUii a 


mondi numloMi H 

moadrais mouls 



Inflection of the pres. indlc. and 

impv. : 


mondi monloiu 

mooloM 1 

BLOiLdl moolez 


>.d.. ■ 

mond maulent 


a. Like mondre (Lat. molere) a 

ro conjugated its compounds : "1 

Smoiidre, «iAff 

remondra, gnM over 1 

8. The very irregular verb r^Boudre 

resolve is thus J 

conjugated : 





Hft. reuadie resolvsnt reioln rMOodi reaolni 

reiDiidiu resoWaii avoir re*o!a rwouds reiolnus 

rotoiidnui rwolvo ^'^' ^'^' 

Inflection of the pres. indi:;. and impv. : 

TesDudi rsiolTDUi r«ii>l7Dni 

resondi resolvBi rMondi retolvM 

reund rMoIveut 

a. Nearly like r^soadre are conjugated the other compounda 
of -sondre (^Lat. solvere) : aamely, 

sbMndre, td)tolne dlitondre, dimiiBe 

except that their paat participles are atsoOB and dissoiu (fem. 
-sonte). And r^sotis {only masc.) is also a rarely uned participle 
of r^sondre, in the sense of dissolued. 

9. Of Bonrdre (Lat. snrgere) rUe forth are used only the in- 
finitive and the 3d persons pres. indicative : thus, 
37f KniTdie aonrd, lonrdent. 


(Besides the verba giren in the Leeson.} 

la malls, tJie trunk le monctioiT, the handkerehitf 

le odI, t/ie collar 
la lef on, the lesson 
anglalE, English 

la manoliatts, the eiiff 
le thsme, the exercise, 
allemand, Oerman 

' Qu'avez-vous appria de votre f r^re ? ' J'appreads qu'il 
va entreprendre nn long voyage. ' Permettez-vous qu'il 
a'en aille ? 'II I'a resolu, et 11 fant que je le lui permette. 
' Est-ce qu'il prendra toutes ces malles avec lui ? 'II ne 
prend jamais qu'une malle. ' Voild la malle qu'il a prise 
I'ann^e demi^re. ' Prenez ces mouchoirs et mettez-les 
dans la malle. ' Est-ce que voue j avez mis les manchettes 
et les cols ? " T f aut que je les couse avant de les y mettre. 
" Ne les cousez pas, il en achetera d'autres. "Si votre 
fr&re va en Angleterre, il lui faudra appreadre 1' anglais, 
"n a rSsoIu de I'apprendre, et il prend des leijons d' ftn- 
glais depuis un an. " Maintenant il I'aura appris tr^s 
bien, je crois, " Comprenez-vous 1' allemand, mademoi- 


IN 1 


Belle ? " Non, monaieur; maiB je me suis mise a I'apprendre. 
" Ce qu'on a rfsolu d'apprendre, on I'apprend toujouns. 
"EB^ce que votre chien vous suit? '° II m'a toujours 
Buivi ; mais il devient vieux, et jo ne crois pas qu'il me 
Buive pins longtemps. '° Les chiens ne vivent pas auMsi 
longtemps que les hommee. " Bien que celui-ci n'ait v6cn 
que dix aus, il est dijk vieux, et il faut que je me resolve it 
en acheter nn autre. " Nous vivrona d^sonnaiB dans la vjlle. 

Theme 38. 
' You will take ; they iiavc taken ; take it ; we took it ; 
will she not take it? I wish that you may take it ; tbou 
wast taking ; I have taken nothing. ' We would put ; that 
they may put ; let ub put it there ; he put it in his pocket; 
will he not put it there ? I shall put it where I wish ; he 
will have put it on the table ; I never put them there. ' They 
were living ; he lived ; do we not live? live ! I wish that 
the king may live long ; youwould have lived. 'She sews; 
they were sewing ; I did not sew ; if you sew, we shall sew 
also ; that he might sew ; let us sew. ' That he may re- 
solve ; I have resolved ; we shall resolve ; would he not 
resolve ? they were resolving ; let ua resolve ; she would 
not have resolved. ' What have you done with (de) the 
handkerchiefs which I was sewing? ' I put them in your 
trunk. ' I did not permit you to (de) put them there. ' If 
I bad not put them there, my brother would not have been 
able to go away. '° Which trunk has he taken ? " He has 
taken the old black trunk which he took last year. " Have 
you learned why he leaves ? " My father permits him to 
leave, in order that he may learn English " Does he not 
understand English? "He does not understand it yet, 
but he is beginning to leam it, and he will understand it 
soon. " You take English lessons also, I believe. " No, 
air ; but I take German lessons. " This child must under- 
stand German, if he ia going to Germany. '* Where have 



you pot your little dog ? '" It Ib dead ; it lived only three 
months, " I took your [lencil, and put it on the table 
it ie no longer there. " Put your book where you will 
able to find it again. 



1. A number of verbs ending in the itilinitive id ir 

are conjugated alike, and quite regularly. 

Such are pMtir set mil, leave, depart. Bortir go out, aentir 
feel, mentir Ife. fell a lie, repentir (reflexive) repent, dormir 
altep. servir seme. 

■e properly regular than tbe Bo-eailed reftular verbs ot 

hree ■ 

;but ■ 
11 be M 

3. Tlie verb partir is thus eoiijugated : 

38, putlr partant parti pars partis 
partlru p&rt&ii etra parti para portlue 
partinii partB "*■ "'' ' 

Inflection of the |>res. indie, and impv. : 

pan partoiu ptutaiia 

pan partei pan partM 

part partsnt 

3. Of the otiiers in tir, it will be enough to give the 
principal parte: 

39, loitir Hirtant lortl ion sortii 

:tl, menCii mentant menti mens mentli 

4^2. repentir repentant rep«ntl repent repentU 

a. Like the.'ie verbs (Lat. partlri, sorlirl. senllre, mentirl, 
-poeniicre) are eraijugated tlieir coiupounds ; 

depanir, dutr&utt repsrtir, set out again 

resiortlr, go mit again 

oonientir. foment ^nawo.\it,fon»ee rt—nat,fiel, rami 

demsntir, give the lie It) 



h. But r^axtir distribute is like finir ; and so also ressortir 
when it niuaus resort; and asBOrtir assort is not a compound of 
Bortir, and is regular. 

c. As to the auxiliary with partir and sortir, see XXVUI, 7. 

4, Of the two verbs in mir and vir, the principal parts 
are as follows : 

Their prea. indie, (with which the imperative persona, as usual, 
agree) are these : 

don dormanB 

don dormei 

dort donneiit 

a. Like these verbs (Lat. dormir 
their oompounda : 

endoTmir, jiut lo sle^ radDnnir, ele^ again 
deBasrrir, ckar (a UMe) 
But asservir suljugate ia regular {like flnir). 
6. The piirase se servir de use, tnake use of, ■ 
XXIX. 76. 

6, Somewhat less regular is assaillir assail, which has 
a present indicative like a verb of the first conjugation. 
a. The principal parts are : 

4S. »«""»'■ uuillant M*ailli uiaille usallliB 

The pres. indie, and impv. are ; 

•virej ai'B conjugated 

TtoAonaii, put to 
^titj) again 

a given at 






6. Like a-BBa-illir ia conjugated another compound of sadUir, 

treuaiUir, be tlartUd 

but the simple saillir {Lat, satire) gush forth is Uke flair; in 

the aeuise of jut out, project, it has the 3d persona pres. indie. 

like assaillir. 

6. The verb caeillir gather is still further irregular, in 
having also the fiitnre and conditional made after the 
manner of the Urst conjugation : thus, 


40. Dneillir 


caeillant oaeilli cneiUe 

cueilleral cneilluls avoir cneilli ooeills onelllXiH 
caeillsrBii coaille ""' '^''' 

The present tunscs are like those of a.ssaillir. 
a. Like cneiUir (Lat. colliKere) are conjugated its compounds ; 
Mcaeillir, reeeive iMueillit, eolleet 

7. The verb fnir Jlee, shun has a very regular conju- 
gation : thus, 

47i fait fayaat fni Mb fni* 

fuiifti fayali avoir fni Mo fnitce 

fturaii fliie *""' '"^ 

The prea. indie, and impv. are : 

fuis fayoni tajooM 

full Aiyw fois foje* 

Mt Mmt 

a. Like fnir (Lat. lu^erc) is conjugated its compound: 
B'ouAiir, run a)iDay,fiy 

8. Of the verb bmire (probably from Lat. ruBipe) roar, he 
noisy, the few forms that occur may best be put here, on account 
of their analogy with those of fbir. They are only 

4S, brain bnyant il bruit it bmyait 

il« brnfalont 

9. The verb ouir hear (Lat. andire) is now hardly oaeil except 
in the infinitive and past participle, wilh (he perfect indie, and 
pluperfect subj. Its full tonjiigation is as follows : 

4if. oolr ojant ool oli onli 

i r a i oyais avoir onl ois onlsge 

10. The verb faiUir miss, fall s/iort is also very defective, being 
used at present only in the infinitive, future, and conditional, 
and in the compound tenses : thus, 

BO. &ilUr [faillant] &iUi [&nz] [Mllii] 

&illini [falUait] avair fidlli 

fftllUraii [laillo] "^ '^°- 

a. Other forms of this verb are met with in older nse, and 
sometimes agreeing in form with those of feUoir (originally the 
same word : Lat. fiillere). As meaning fail (in business), it is 
sometimes conjugated like flnir. 

b. The perfect j'ai &illi etc. is used with a following infinitive 
ia the sense come near, just escape : thus, j'ai &illi tombAr 1 
eame within an aee of falling. 


c. The compound d^bUlir fail is also used only ii 
its forms, and with somewhat varying conjugation. 

11. The verb vfitir clothe differs from the preceding 
in having u as ending of its past participle. It is thus 
conjugated : 

ai. vetiT 

Inflection of pres. indie, and iinpv. 


a. But this verb is also sometimea conjugated like finir. 

b. Like vStir (Lat. vestlre) are also conjugated ita compounds : 

dfrrjtir, uwsMhe 

(BWIdes the verbfi giyen \a tJbB LemOD.) 
It OWir, Ihe heart I'ftmitlB f, , thefneiid^ip 

I« Toltore, W« carriage adien, fareaell, adiea 

1* mail, the haeband la beau-b^e, the brother-in-laui 

Exercise 39. 
' Pourqnoi aortiez-vouB de bonne henre aajonrd'hui ? ' Je 
Buifl aorti avec mon ami, qui partait ponr I'Angleterre. 
* On m'avait dit qu'U ne partirait pas avant ce soir. ' On a 
menti, monsieur^ il est parti ce matin. * S'il n'ljtait pas parti 
de si bonne heure, nous nous serions leves pour lui dire 
adien ; mais nous dormions encore. ' Moi, je n'ai point 
dormi ; je me sentais trop mailbeureux. ' Ressentez-v 
tant d'amiti6 pour lui ? " Je ne mens paa; je I'aime de tout 
mon ciBur. ' Est-ce que les enfants sont partis ? '" Da sor- 
tirent il y a deux heures. "Qu'eat-ce qu'ils font? "lis 
vont donner xan pauvres soldata malades les fleurs qu'ils 
ont cueillies. " lis sont sortis ce matin, et ils ont cueilli 
lea fleurs dans les champs. " De quo! so sont Jla i^iervis pour 
alier aux champs ? " Ils se sont servis de notre grande voi- 


ture. " Qui eat cette femme, qui est v^tue de uoir ? " Cest 
ma tante ; dppuia la luort de son enfant elle Be v@t ton- 
jours ainsi. "Elle a failli perdre aussi son niari. " J'ai 
oui* dire que les aoldats avaient fui devant I'ennemL " On 
a menti ; les soldats fran^ais ne fuient jamaU. " Celui qui 
ment doit 3tre puDi. " Ke sortez pae, mon ami ; il fait 
trop froid. 

' Let U9 set out ; they were setting out ; she would de- 
part ; shall you not set out ? that he might depart ; she 
has departed ; you would have departed. " Is he not sleep- 
ing ? she slept ; if he had slept ; sleep ! that you may 
sleep ; if we had not slept, ' You clothe ; they had not 
clothed; do I not clothe? that you might clothe; let us 
clothe, ' She gathers flowers ; we will gather flowers for 
her ; she has gathered them for us ; why have you not 
gathered any flowers ? ' Go out of this room ; he will not 
go out of it ; we have gone out of the town ; he went out 
by the door ; you will go out by the window. ' Why does 
this woman always dress herself in black ? ' She dresses 
herself in black because she has lost her husband. ' Let us 
gatlier some violets in order to give to her. ' Where have 
you gathered these beautiful flowers ? " We went ont of 
the house and gathered them in the garden. " Did your 
cousins go away in the large carriage ? " No, they made 
use of the small carriage. "Where have they gone? 
" They did not sleep at all here. " I go to sleep very early, 
when I am in (i) the country. " We shall sleep before 
going out. " Has the teacher gone away without saying 
farewell to as ? " Although he has lied to us, we still feel 
friendship for him. " Why do these women dress them- 
selves so badly ? " They are very poor, and they nse old 
dresses, which some one has given them. "Let na flee, 
while our enemies sleep. 





1. In this LesBon will be given the rest of the irr^a- 
lar verbs having the infinitive ending in ir. 

2. The verb conrir run is thus coiijngated : 

S2. vmait oonrant conm eonn wanii 

The prea. indie, and impv. i 


oonrt Muent 

a. Note the double pronunciation of therr in the (abbreviated) 
flit, and cond. of this verb (73(fj. 
6. Like courir {, currere) are conjugalcd its compounds : 
acconrir, ran up encoarir, indir Teconrlr, recur 

Mttflourlr, eonear parconrir, traverK tteoaiii, tucan- 

diBdoorir, dUeourae 
c. An old form of the infinitive, courre, is sometimes used as a 
hunting term. 

3. Ponr verbs — namely, offirir qfej-. sonffirir suffer, 

ouvrir open, and oonvrir cover — liave art as ending of 

the paat participle, and e of the present indicative : thus, 

a. 5.'i. oSrii ottruit oS«rt ofbe offrii 

ofiiral ofiaii btoit offart ofie offriiM 

The pres. indie, and impv. are .- 




6. Of the others, it will be enough tn fjive the priacipal parte ; 

54. MoAIr lonffrant wuffert lonffre lonf&ia 

55. onvTll Dnvrant ouvert ouvre oaTria 

56. oottvrfr oooTrftot cooTert oouvre nonvrl* 
c. Of o&ir (Lat. odterre) and soo&ir (Lat. HolTerre), there lire 

no compounds; like ouvrir (Lat. aperire) and convrir (Lat. 

cooperire) are conjugated theb comixninda : 

lonTrir, reopen entr'ouvrir, luUfapen 

deooaTrir, diteocer iBoonvrir, afmr again 

4. Certain verba in ir are used iu only a few forma : 
a. 57. Pdrir strife (Lat. ferire) occurs only in the infloitive 

(and, very rarely, the past participle Km), 

6. as. iBsir issue (Lat. exlre) has only the past participle 
iBsn (and, according to some, also the present participle iss&ut). 
c. G6sir lie (Lat. Jaccre) has only the following parts : 

5f>. geslr gisant git 

And of the pres. indie., only the 8d. aing. and the plural per- 
sons are in oae : thus, 

git glMnt 

especially in the phrase ci g^t Acre lies, on a tomhstone. Aa to 
the pronunciation of b in this verh, see 74c. 

5. The remaining verbs in ir change the root-vowel 
in a part of their forme — namely, in those persons of the 
three present tenses which are accented on the root, being 
either monosyllables or followed only by a mute syllable. 

6. The verbs venir mrm and tenir hold are conjugated 
precisely alike. They change their e to ie in the aeeented 
persons ; and also in the futnre and conditional, which 
are irregularly formed. 

a. Of venir the whole conjugation has been already 
given (XXXI. 10); it takes (XXVITI. 6) 6tre as auxiU- 
ary. Only its principal parts will be repeated here : 

^0, v«air venant venn TiBU tIu 

ft. The verb tenir is thus conjugated ; 


tiendrais tleane 

The iiiliection of the present tenses is 

tlsnneB teniei 

tienne UeDnent 

tiennsnt t 

c. Ljki^ venir (Lut. ventre) and tenir (Lat. tenere) are conju- 
gated their cumerona and much-used compounds : 

rMionTenir, remiitd 

advenir, h 

parranir, arrice 

avenir, happen 

coutreveuir, eoiUra- provenir, 


diicanTenir, ditagree larvenir, come in, addi- 

alwtanir, c^sUiin detenlr, detain obtenir, obtain 

reteuir, retain 
wntenlr, »iuitain 

d. For tlie auxiliary uaed with venir and uioat of its com- 
pounds, see XXVIII. 6«. 

7. The verb monrir die changes its ou to en in the ac- 
cented forme, and is also irregular in the future and con- 
ditional. It ia eonjngated thus : 

62. monrir monrant 

The inflection of the three present tenses ia : 


With monrir (Lat. mori) are formed do compounds. 

a. For the pronunciation of rr in the fut. and coiid., see 7M. 

8. Of the simple verb qnfirir seek, only tbe infinitive 
is in nee ; but its oonipoundB are fully conjugated. 

Ab example may be taken acqn&ir acquire. The charge ot 
the root-vowel e is to ia (as in vanir) ; the future is made an in 
moorir and tioarir. 

G3, aeiinerlr aiiqaersiiit aoqulB acqnien acquis 

aoquerrat acqaecaii avoir acqoiB aDqniers acqtdBse 

The inflection of the three ])reaent tenst's is : 

BOquien angneraiu aciiiieTOiu ao^oisrs acqnSrloni 

ocquiart atiqnersi acqaien aoqnerK aoquierei aftqnerlBi 
aoqnisrt acqnlereut aoqoi^ra acqalerent 

a. In the same manner are conjugated the other eorapouuda of 
-qu^rir (Lilt, queerere) : 

Mnqnerlr, coitquer B'anqnerir, inquire TeeonqueriT, reeongver 
requorir, require 

9. The verb bonillir hail is conjugated nearly like paitir 
(XXXIX. 2), being irregular only in the singular of the present 
indieative aiid imperative. Thus : 

64:. bmdlliT bonillant baollU tioai bonfllli 

banilUrai bonilliiiB avoir bonilli bmu boniUiaie 

bonillirai* boniUe ""■'■'^■ 

Inflection of the prea. indie, and impv.: 

boQB bomtlana b«nillou 

boui honillei boot boolllei 

bovt bonillant 

a. Like bonillir (Lat. buUlre) are conjugated its compounds: 
fibonilllr, boil aims rebooillir, bml again 

(Bealdes the verba given tn Uie Lesson.) 
I'Klr m., the air le pfad, the foot 

le bu, Vie gtocking le tanlier, tfie ihoe 

la poula, the fowl, hen la baaaa-oonr, the poultrj/yard 

trtAA, cold ohand, warm 


Exercise 40. 
' Est-ce que vous ne voua eentez pas bien, mon enfant ? 
' J'ai raal k la tfite, et je soaffre beaucoup, ' II vous faut 
de I'air fraia ; j'ouvrirai la fenetre. ' Si vous ouvrez la 
fen^tre, j'kurai froid. ' Alors Bortez, t!t courez dans le jar- 
din. ' Nona avona beaucoup couru ce matin, et nous avons 
mal anx pieds. ' Nous ooiirrons C6 soir, si voua voulez. 
' Qne faitea-vous hi ? ' Je faia bouillir de I'ean ; noua allons 
avoir du the. '° 11 faut que I'eau bouille, pour faire de bon 
the, " Lorsque j'aoiai fait le the, je vous en ofFrirai. 
" Potirquoi ne m'avez-voua pas offert ausai des (eufs? '* Lea 
(Pufs ne m'appartiennent pas ; done je nevoua lea offre pas. 
" Qu'eat-ce que voua tenez dana la main ? " Un livre qui 
appartient A mon fri're ; il a appartenu autrefois k Mon- 
sieur B, " Mon ami mourut l'ann6e derniSre. '' II etait de- 
venu tr^a pauvre, et depuis qu'il eat mort, on a di'i vendre 
toat oe qui lui appartenait. " Mon p^re a acquis beaucoup 
de biens en travaillant ; si vous travaiJIez, voua en acquer- 
rez auasi. " Je n'ai paa ouvert ce livre-lil. " Que quelqu'un 
ouvrc la portc, ou je mourrai. " On vient d'ouvrir la porte 
de la baase-cour, et toutea lea poules conrent dana le jardin. 
" Si DOiis avions des has et dea souliera, noua ne aonffririona 
pas du froid aux piedr^. 

. Thbme 40. 
' They run ; we were mnning ; you ran ; he will run ; 
she would run ; let us run ; that I may run ; that thou 
mighteat run. ' Offer ! we shall offer it to him ; they would 
have offered them to me ; I offered her nothing ; thou 
never offerest anything to anybody. ' He holds ; will you 
not bold ? hold ! they were holding ; that ahe might hold ; 
we should have held ; do not hold it ; that he may hold 
them. ' Why do not theae children run ? ' Their feet have 
become cold, and they cannot run any more. ' If you run 



very fast, yonr foet will become warm. ' These poor chil- 
dren have been able to obtain neither shoes nor stockings. 
' Their father has died, and they have become very poor. 
' He died six months ago ; and now their mother is dying. 
'° We have offered her a fowl, but she suffers so ranch that 
she cannot eat, " They are suffering from headache. " If 
they opened the window, they would have more air, and 
they would suffer less. " Where does he acquire all his 
money ? " He has sold all that which belonged to him, 
but he has not acqnired much, "If be works well, he will 
acquire more. " This dress belongs to me, and I will offer 
it to her. " Let us offer to the children the old shoes which 
have belonged to ns, " The water boils ; make the tea. 
" Give me some boiling water, and f will make it. " If my 
nncle does not come back to-day, he will come back cer- 
tainly to-morrow. 



1. The verbs ending in oil are much less nmnerons 
than the irregular oues in ir and in re, but some of them 
are very common and important. 

Wo may take up first among them a little group euding in the 
infinitive in evoir, which in many grammars are treated aa a 
separate regular conjugation— called the third, the verbs in i* 
being reckoned as the fourth. 

2. The verb reoevoir receive ii 

B thus conjugated : 

The inflection of the present lenaes ie 



refoii rvMToni TecBToni re^olTs reoBvlooi 

rsfois recevei rB9oii rBoovei revive* recevie* 

rtfloit re^olTOnt refoive rB9oiTont 

a. Like recevoir are cimjugated Ihe other fompoiinds of -cevoir 
([^t. -cipere) ; namely, 

Goaoevoir, aiticevoe deoaToir, tleceir>e pereevolr, rceMte 
aperceroii, peiixiiie 

3. In the same manner is conjugated also tbe verb 
derolr owe, which has been given in full above {XXVI. 
12 etc.) ; its principal parts are : 

66. Jevoir devant 6A dola dm 

a. Like devoir (Lat. del>*"ro) is conjugated its compound : 
redevolr. oae again 

4. The verb voir see is thna conjugated : 

Of, voir voyuit vn voia tj» 

V « T r ft i vofttii avoir vn voli vlue 

Tbe present tenses are thus inflected ; 

reia Toyoni YOjtaa voi* voyiimi 

ToU TOyai voii voyra voia* voyie* 

TOit volant voln Toient 

o. Like voir (Lat. videre) are conjugated two of its com- 

revoir, tee again Bntrevoir, nee partly 

6. But two other componads, pr^voir foresee and ponrvoir 
provide, muke regular futuree and eonditiouals, and the latter 
also baa the preterit in us instead of is: thus, 
6'*. prsToir preToyant prevo privoli previa 

prevolrsi prevoytdi avoir prevn prevola preriaaa 

prerolraia prevoie e .e . 

c. Of ponrvoir it will ho enough to give the principal parts : 
69, ponrroir pourroyant poarrii ponrvola poorvnt 

d. Like ponrvoir is conjugated its compound 

depanTTolr, dtprifie 

5. Of the verb choir fall, only the infinitive and thti 
pafit participle ohu are now in nse. 



But its compound d6clioii fail, decay is atill conjn. 
gated in full. 

T'Oi dedioir [declioyuit] decha decholi deohoi 

deoharrBi dechoyoU viwx declLU deohois deohuue 
dooharrfti* dechois rfo-ew!. 

The pres, indie, and impv. are thus inflected : 

deohoii deohDyoiu deetLoyani 

dfohoii dechoyec deohoU deohoysi 

decholt dechdient 

a. The pres. pple is not in use, and in its value as gerand after 
en (X. 3c, d) is found d^ch^tint. 

b. The other compound n( cbair (I^t. cadere), nameljr 

eehoir, /oK in 
ia conjugated in the same way, but is used in only a few of its 

fl. The verb plenvoir rain is impersonal, or used onlj 
in the third persona singular (XXX. 1) ; it is tljtie con- 
jugated : 

Tl, planvfllr plenvBiit pla plant pint 

p 1 e u T r » plenvait aToIr pin plit 

plenvralt pleuve ' ~ 

a. Of plenvoir (Ijit. plnere) there are no compounds. 
7. For apparoir and compaf oir, see XXXVI. Set 


(Beeldea tbe verbs given in Uis Lesaon.) 

1« proj«t, the plan, prqjeet Is paqnet, Oi« package 

le b«afai, the need, requirmttnt la dlfflenlte, the diffieuUy 

1» poBVoIi, the pouter pent-ltre, perhap*, woyta 

Exercise 41. 
'•Pai re(ju une lettre de mon ami. ' Qa'est-ee qu'il voub 
kfsnt ? * II me dit qu'il me verra demain, s'il ne pleut pas. 
' H pleuvra certainement, et je ne le reverrai jamais. ' I] 
faut que vous le voyiez avant de partir. ' Je ne Gon9ois 
point ponrquoi voua voulez partir. ' II a coniju nn projet. 


d«it il n'aperqoit pas encore toutes les difficuItSs. 'NV 
Tez-vous paa re^u le petit paquet dont je voue ai parl6 ? 
• NoQB ne I'avions psis IrouvS, mais nous le voyona mainte- 
nant. '° Est-ce que yous €tea ponrvu d'argent pour tone 
voB besoinB? " Oui, et nous en recevrons encore le raois 
prochain. " Avez-vous vu le roi depnis qu'il est dfechu du 
ponvoir? "II partit pour I'Angleterre, et il n'a jamais 
revu la France, " Avez-vouB vn les eoldats qni partaient 
pour la guerre ? " Je ue lee ai pas vub ; il pleuvait, et je 
n'ai pas pa sortir. " Noub les reverrons dans qnelques 
jours. " Avez-voua reQU des lettres da g^niiral B. ? " Les 
lettree ne aont pas encore venues ; il faut qu'il les resolve 
demain. " Ponrquoi n'Stea-vons pas venu me voir hier? 
" Parce qu'il a tant pin. " D^b que je vous vcrrai chez 
nous, je vous montrerai le cadeau que je viens de recevoir 
de lui. 

Theme 41. 

' They will receive ; let ub receive ; he received ; she was 

receiving ; you receive ; that she might receive ; we have 
received them ; they had received it ; that I may have re- 
ceived her. ' Do you aee ? I have seen nothing ; he will 
aee what I saw ; let us see ; did you not see him ? they 
will have seen ua ; though he had not seen them, they saw 
him. * It rained ; it would have rained if it had not been 
too cold ; it has not rained to-day, but it will rain to-mor- 
row ; if it rains to-day, it will not snow. * Have you seen 
the general to-day ? ' No, but I saw him yesterday, and I 
shall perhaps see him to-morrow. ' You will not see him 
again ; he has gone off to the war. ' You have received 
a letter ; is it not so? 'Here is the letter which we have 
received this morning ; we shall receive a package this 
evening, ' I shall receive money from my father next week. 
"He must receive many letters from us. " Do you not 
perceive the difficulties of the plan which you have con- 



ooivedf "I peroeivo all the difiicultieB, bnt I mnet proTicE 
for (4) the neoda of my family. " Although I have seen 
my father, I have received no money from him. " Whom 
did you Bee in Paris ? "I saw no one of my friends. " It 
rained bo much that nobody came to see me. " Although 
it rained a good deal, I went to the shops, but I saw noth- 
ing there. " If it had not rained, I should have seen you 
there. " Does it not rain ? " I do not think that it rains 
now ; but it will perhaps rain this evening. " We could 
see nothing, for it wa^ night. 



1. The remaining verbs in oir are more irregnlar in 
their conjugation, and for the most part show changes of 
radical vowel in the inflection of their present tenses. 

2. Of the extremely common verb vouloir wish, he 
willing, will, the conjugation has already (XSIV. 6 etc.) 
been given in full. The principal parts are here re- 
peated : 

7it. Tonloir vonlant TOuln venx voulnl 

a. Of vouloir (Lat. velle) lliere are no compounds. 

3. The verb valoir he woHh, home the valve of is con- 
jugated nearly like vouloir, Thus : 

73. valolc valftiit vain vanx TiJnt 

vandTKl Talaii avoir valu vanz vatuau 

VBiLdrati vaille '"'""' 

The inflection of the present tenses is : 











a. Liko valair (Lat. valere) are conjugated its compounds : 
iqolvftlolr, be tqaivaknf prevaloir, preriaU ravaloir, pay hack 
except that pr^Tnioir makes the pres, subj. pr^vale etc. 

6. Be worth more b valoir mienx; be ivorlh the trouble or be 
worth while '^s val-ir la. peine. 

4. The impersonal verb fallolr he necessary, must has 
been conjugated in full above (XXX. 6 etc.). Its forms 
closely correspond with those of valoir, The principal 
parts may be repeated here : 

74. fiOlOlT fallaut &lla fant bllnt 
a. This verb and &illir (XSXIX. 9) aro by origin one (Lat. 


5. The extremely common verb pouvoir he able, can 
has been given in full above (XXV, 8 etc.)- Its princi- 
pal parts may he repeated here : 

75. poavoir pouvant pn pmUi puis pui 

6. The verb mouvoir jnove is thus conjugated : 
JS, moOTolr 

The circumflex is taken only by the singular masculine of the 
participle. The inflection of the present tenses is : 

menve monWons 

mant msnTent iii«nve 

a. Like mouvoir (Lat. morere) are conjugated its compounds : 
BmoBTOli, agitate, motte promonvoir, promote 

but they take no circumflex in the participle : thus, 4mM, promu. 

7. Of the common verb savoir know, hnow how the 
full conjugation has been already given (XXXIV. 6 etc.). 
The principal parts only are here repeated : 

77- savoir taohuit in uU sni 

a. Savoir (Lat, eapere) has no compounds. 

8. The verb seoir sit is defective as a simple verb. 
But its compound asMoir — chiefly used reflesively, ('as- 



Moir seat one's sdf, sit down — is cunjugated in full 
Tiiua : 

7S, aaieoii aUGyant OBsil aidsdi asBU 

ft 1 1 i e r a i Bsgejrait SiToir u«u ajsieda aMlne 

The usual inflei'tion of the present tenses is this : 

Bugeye aaieyooa 
aiseyea MBsyez 
aaseye asseyent 
usual and accepted forma. 


Bueyez a^Bieds 


a. The above are the more 
variety of others are occasionally met with ; thus, prea. indie, and 
impv. EUBois, assoyons, etc.; impf. aeBoyaia; prc«. subj. aasoie; 
fnt. asBoirai, or aaeeyerai. The compound rViBseoir seat again 
is conjugated like asBeoir. 

h. Of the simple verb seoir (Lnt. sedere) in the sense of sit are 
used almost only the infinitive and the two participles (seyant and 
■is); but in the sense of sit (m, fit (said of clothes and the like), 
tbe 3d persons sied si^nt, seyait seyaient, siira eieront, sife 
si^nt, are also met with. The compound raesseoir fit badly, 
mvitU is used in the same forms, except the iiiUmtive. 

c. Another compound of seoir — namely surseoir supersede — 
lacks the pres. participle and the parts made from it, and has the 
pres. indie, sursois and tbe fut. sarBeoiraL 

9. 79, Of the old verb Bmiloir fie uiteiistomed (Lat. eolere) is 
left in use only the imperfect soutait, itself antiquated and rare. 

10. 80. Of the commou auxiliary avoir have the com- 
plete eonjugatioi] was given above (X.). 

a. The sole compound of avoir (Lat. habere), namely ravoir 
have again, is used only in the infinitive. 

11. There are only two irregular verbs having tht 
infinitive ending in er. 

One of these, enVoyer send, is irregular only in the 
future and conditional (which are like those from voir). 
It ie thne conjugated : 

81. BiiToyer envoyant enroye envoie envoyiJ 

enveirai eavoyali Hvoii envoys envoie anvoyuu 
enverraii envoie '^"'' ''"'' 

a. Like envoyer is ooiijuf,'atod lis compound : 
Tsnvoyer, letid bark 



12. The other irregular verb in er — namely, aller go 
— has been conjugated in full above {XXVll. 8 etc.). 
Its principal partu are repeated here ; 

82, slier allont alls vail slUi 

13. 83. The commoQ auxiliary 6tre be ia, like aller, 
made up of the forms of more than one root. Its com- 
plete conjugation was given above (XI.). 

a. Of 6tre (Lat. cuae, stare) there k no compound. 

la talUenr, tAe tailor la coatmisre, the dragmaher 

la eordoitiiiet, tht lihoemaker la botte, the boot 

h mantean, the cloak Is reoit, the tale, »tory 

la firano, thej^atio le fen, the fire 

T/iia de, near to, iiear antoor da, around, about 

BxEBcisE 42. 
' Qui Yous a envoye cet habit ? " Mon tailleur me I'en- 
Toya il y a deux joura ; mais il ne me eied pas bien. ' Voub 
le lui renverrez, n'est-ce pas ? ' II vaiit mienx en acheter 
un autre. 'Allons, nous irons chez la couturii^re acheter 
un mauteau. ' Celui que vons portiez I'hiver dernier voua 
Beyait trop mal. ' Je voua en donnerai un qui vous eiera 
mieux. ' Asaeyez-vous pendant que je le cherche. ' Eat-ce 
que celni lii vous plait ? '° Combien vaut-il ? " II vaut cent 
vingt-cinq francs ; mais ce manteau-ld vaadra deux cents 
francs. " Mon vieux manteau ne valait que quatre-vingts 
franca. "Pourquoi le cordonnier ne m'a-l-il pas envoye 
mea bottes ? " Le pauvre homme eat malade ; il les en- 
verra d^a qu'il ae portera mieux, "II m'a fait le recit de 
ses malheura ; et j'en suia tout emu. " Les malheurs des 
pauvres 6menvent tous lea ccBurs. " Assieds-toi, mon en- 
fant. "J'ai trSs froid, madame; il ne faut paa que je 
m'aaseye. " Tu t'aasi^raa pr^sdufeUjU'eat-cepas? "Pen- 
dant que tu y seras aasis, nous enverrons chercher dea g&- 
teauK pour toi et ta petite aoaur. " Cela ne vaut paa la 
peine, madame ; nous u'avons pas faim. 


Theue 42. 
' They have sat down ; sit down ; do not dtdown there; 
I will sit down ; we sat down ; that she may sit down ; he 
sits down. ' What is that worth ? it is worth nothing ; 
they were worth ten francs last month ; they will be worth 
twelve franca to-morrow. ' That is not worth the trouble. 
* Those books are worth more than these. ° Will the dresa- 
maker send you anything to-day ? 'She has already sent 
me a cloak, ' Does it lit you ? ' No, the things that she 
sends me never fit me ; I shall send it back to her to-mor- 
row. " Are you going to take the coat which the tailor has 
sent you ? '" That one was worth a hundred francs, and I 
shall buy one which is worth (fut.) only seventy-five francs, 
" Who makes your boots? "An English shoemaker makes 
them, and they fit me always well. " I mast send [and] 
buy some. " How much are they worth ? " They are very 
dear ; they are worth fifty francs. " It is not worth the 
trouble to (da) show them to rae ; I shall not buy them. 
" It will be better to buy our boots from this poor French 
shoemaker. " Why have you seated yourselves about the 
fire ? and what has moved you so much ? " Charles is tell- 
ing (faire) the tale of the poor king. '° Sit down also, and 
hear the tale. "' This tale does not move me, and I do not 
wish to sit down. " The tale is finished ; let us go away. 












ol verba, and to OwpflKB" 





















































































176 1 













































































































































































































162 , 











, 200 
























































































































































































































































































flenrir, florlr 































J 83 




















































































1 imir 









- jftindTB 
































































































































































nj.DflTR*TITE SBamiHCBB. ^M 

BO. /Balzac. 
Earth. BarthSlemy. 

d6 Mai*, de Maifitre. 1 

dtMamt. de Uainlenon. H 

Mar. MarivAUz. H 

Bon. Boonccbose. 

Mig. Mignet ■ 

Bow. Bourrienne. 

Mol. .. Holi^re. M 

Chat. ^-Cbalcaubriand. 

Mont. ^ Montesquiea. ^^H 

Cftert. Chcrbuliej;. 

deMu. deMusset. ^^^H 

(torn. Comeille. 

Faec. Pascal ^^^H 

Bam.. . Daudet. 

Fon. FoDsard. ^^H 

iTutn. ^ Dumas. 

Bae. Racine. 1 

Mn. Fenelon. 

Lab. Laboolaye. 

d^ ,S°ii. de Sevigng. M 

La Br. La Brayfire. 

SU.-B. Bainte-BeuvB. M 

LaF. I La Fontaine. 

ds n de Vigny. ■ 

Lam. . Lamartine. 

Vol. Yollsire. ■ 

LaE. , La Rochefoucauld. 

Vota Volney. ^^^B 

Ref enmcea to the Second Part 

are always preceded by the paragraph- ■ 

aign : thus, g lT6a, etc. Arabic numbers nitbout paragrapb-sign ■ 

Lessons of tbe First Part are made by Roman nmnerala : tbus, XXIV. | 







1. The French is a language deaeended or derived 
from Latin. 

a. By tills is meant, that the old Latm has gradually changed 
into French, by processes of alteration similar to those which 
every living language (English as well as the rest) is undergoing 
at the present day. Tbei^e processes consist in the loss of old 
words and forms, the acquisition of new words (in constdorable 
part, by borrowing oat of other languages) and new forms (this, 
however, on only a very small aeale), and the alteration in respect 
to meaning and construction of what has been preserved from 
former times : and all this, accompanied by a great change in the 
pronounced form of the words preserved, partly by abbreviation, 
partly by turning certain sounds into certain other sounds. To 
explain all this in detail would be the dnty of a comparative or 
historical grammar of French ; only the principal points can be 
touched upon here. 

h. What we call French is only one among many dialects found 
in France. But it is the principal dialect, the one taught in the 
schools, and universally u^ by educate people and in literature. 
In a similar way, what we coll Latin was the cultivated or literary 
dialect of Rome and its provinces, and some of the peculiarities 
of the other dialects, imperfectly known to «s, may be traced in 

e. By race, the French people is mainly Celtic, related with 
the Welsh, the Bretons, the Irish, and the Scotch Highlanders. 
Their Latin language was a consequence of the conquest and gov- 
ernment of the country by Rome, and the introduction of Roman 
institutions. Extremely little of Celtic language is left in French. 
The conntry was later conquered by Germanic tribes, especially 
the Franks, from whose name come the words Frarwe, French, 
etc.; and the French vocabulary contains a considerable number 
of nords of German origin. But also, in later times, a great 


many words have been borrowed into French, just as into Eng- 
lish, out ot the classical languages, especially the Latin. The 
words thus obtiiined from Latin are in general much less altered 
than thoBG that form a part of the language by n^ular descent. 

d. Other langoages besides French are descended from Latin, 
in the same way as French, and are therefore related (as it is 
called) with the latter. The chief among them are the Italian, 
the Spanish and Portuguese, and the Wallaehian. They form to- 
gether the group of so-oailed Romanic languages. 

e. The oldest specimens preserved to us of what has the right to 
be called French, as distinguished from Latin, date from the tenth 
century ; a considerable French literature begins in the twelfth 
century. But the Old French of that period is very different from 
the present French, so different that a Frenehman has to study it 
hard in order to understand it (much as we have to study the 
Anglo-Saxon). Its condition is in many respects intermMiftte 
hetween those of Latin and of modern French, and it illustrates 
in a very instructive way the transition from the one to the other 
of these. 

2. Of the changes of pronounced form by which Latin 
words have become French words, a very brief statement, 
touching only upon the most important points, is here 

a. The accented syllable of the Latin word is the last fully pro- 
nounced syllable of the French word, being either actually the 
final eyllahle, or virtually so, as having after it only a syllable 
containing a mute e. 

Examples are : F. aimer, L. ama're ; aimdrent, amave'runt ; 
fates, fUls'tie ; CTUel, ci-udclem ; f^ure, fac'ere ; fr61e, ttaifU 
lem; si^e, sec'ulum i fable, fbb'alain. 

6. If the accented syllable is preceded in Ijitin by two others, 
the latter of these, when a short vowel, is lost ; when a long, is 
changed to e : thus, bont^, bonlta'tem ; bl&mer, t>laephcma're : 
poitrail, peotora'lc ; cercler, circula're ; but omement, orna- 
men'tnin ; vOtement, TeHtimen'tam. 

c. Of vowels not lost, those that in Latin were followed by more 
than one consonant oftenest remain unchanged in French : thus, 
ajlire, aFborem ; sept, seplem ; fort, fbrtem ; jnste, Jnstum : 
yet i in such a position becomes e, and n more usually on: thus, 
ferme, flrmum ; gourd, surdum. In other situations, a vowel 
long in quantity is treated otherwise than a short : short a, e, f, n 
becoming respectively ai, ie, oi, on, as moigre, maceram; Ser, 
fbram: poire, plrum; loup, lupomi while long a and e become 
a and oi, as nei, naaum; avoine, aveaaiii ; and long i and u re- 


tain the same form, as ami, amlcum : pnr, purum. But long 
and short o both become ea, as neuf, nuv'eni t heore. ^o'^aIll. 
The diphthong an becomes o, as or, nnrum ; and ve nnd «■ be- 
come e or is, ae ciel, cnelum. 

d. Of the Latin eonsonanta, the hquida m, ii, I, r have on tlip 
whole suffered least alteT'ation : thus, venir, venire; nous, noe; 
mer, mareinom, uoineii ; lettre, Iitpram:Sel,sal;nLre, rarnin; 
▼er, Termem ; their exchanges with one another are only ex- 
ceptional. The mutes, e and g. and t and d, are often lost be- 
tween vowels: thus, £iire, nicerc : Ecoii, iVf^lclum: chaine, 
catenam; cmel, cmdelem ; and sometimen b: Ihtra, ayast, 
babeniem. In other situations (as sometimes in this), they re- 
main ; or the surd mute (c, t, p) is changed to the sonant (g, d, 
1>) ; and o and t not seldom become sibilants : thus, cher, camm ; 
raison, ratlonem. The vowels brought together by the loss ot 
an intervening consonant then show another series of combina- 
tions and changes. 

e. Gronps of two or more eonsonanla, either cominE from the 
I>atin, or arising by the loss of an intermediate vowel, are to a 
great extent simplified, by the loss or assiinilation of a consonant : 
thus, fiut, facinm; ronte, rnplam; dette, debkum; dame, 
dominani. Those gronps of which r or I is a member undergo 
least alteration. But t>efore 1 or r is not seldom inserted a mute 
after a nasal: thus, ^pingle, spinulani; hnmble, Immlleni; 
cendre, cinereni ; cliambre, camerani. Very frequent, even in 
inflection, is the change of 1 before another consonant into n: 
thus, antre, altenini; coupable, cnlpabilem ; Taut, valet ; cha- 
vanx from chevals, traranz from travails, and so on. To ini- 
tial 8c, et, ap was prefixed an e ; thus. eEcalier, Hcalarlum : es- 
tomac, stoniacham : esprit, aplrituui ; and then, in many such 
words, the a was later dropped, and the e marked willi the acute 
accent : thns, ^cole (earlier escole), scholam ; jtnde, studlum ; 
gpooz, sponsnin, and many others. 

3, The differences in inflection between Latin ant] 
French consist chiefly in lasses hy the latter of forms 
possessed by the former. 

They may be summarily stated as follows ; 

4. In (ieciensioD, or inflection for case and number 
and gender, in nonns and adjectives and pronouns: 

a. The distinctions of case have been entirely lost in modern 
French, except to a certain extent among pronouns. 

For the distinction in pronouns of suliject nnd ohjccl. o 

native and accusative, and, in the 3d jjiirsoiial pronoun, of direct 


and indirect object, or accusative and dative, see the Leeaons on 
tbe Prononns (XXII.-XXVL). 

b. In Old FrencL, there still remained a distinction of subject 
and object form, or nominative and accnsative, in nouns. Thus, 
mnrs imlt (L. mtirus) nom., mnr (muruni) accus. sing.; mnr 
(muri) nom., mors (mnros) accus. plur.; and so p&tra shepherd 
(L. pastor) nom., postenr (paHto'rcni) accus.; sire sir ^L. 
se'nlur) nom., sienr (aenlo'rem) accus. But this aUo died 
^adually out ; and it was ^nerally the accusative or ohjective 
form that remained in use, in either number: thus, mnr sing., 
mnn plur. That is to ea;, the French noun is, as a rule, the 
representative of the Latin accusative, and has ita pronounced 
form determined by that of this case, and not by that of the Latin 

c. In a few cases, however, the nominative form has been re- 
tained instead ; examples are flls, sranr, peintre, ancdtre. traJtre. 
And sometimes (as in p&tre paistenr, sire Hienr, mentioned above) 
both foniB are left in French, as apparently independent words. 

d. There remains in most French nouns and adjectives a dis- 
tinction of the plural from the singular. And the s that marks 
the plural is, as seen above, that of the I^tin accusative plural 
(that is, as found in words having a difference of nominative and 
accusative plural, aa rosee rosas, mnrl muros ; paatores having 
both values). 

e. The Latin triple distinetion of gender, as masculine, femi- 
nine, and neuter, is represented in Irench by a double one only, 
since the differences of masculine and neuter forms have been 
effaced, and these two genders have been merged into one, which 
we call masculine. There are a number of exceptions to the iden- 
tity of gender between a Latin noun and ita French descendant ; 
they are pointed out below (§12). Those adjectives which in 
Latin had the same form in masculine and feminine, as grandla, 
have mostly come to have a distinction of gender— as grand, 
grand©— made in them in modern French, by analogy with the 
others ; in Old French this was wanting, and such combinations 
as s^'ajid'mdre. grand'meoBe, grand'roiite (instead of grande 
mere etfi.) are relics of the former state o( thin^. Traces of 
old neuter forms iiiaed adverbially) are to be seen in the adverbs 
mieux (mellns), pis (pejus), moins (mtnue), as distinguished 
from the adject! vosmeillenr (mellorem), pire (pejorem), main- 
dre (minopem). 

/. The Latin comparison of adjectives is almost lost : the su- 
perlative being entirely gone, and of Ihe comparative only a few 
examples being left, in adjectives (IX. 3) and adverbs (XX XL fl), 
6. Tlie changes in the inflection of verbs, or in con- 
jugation, are as follows ; 

6] VBEB-INPLBCTlOir. 207 

a. The Latin pasHtve is entirely lost, ite pla^e being filled with 
compound forms, or yerb-pbrases. 

6. Of the tenses of the active, there are saved in French the 
present, imperfect, and perfect indicative, and the present and 
pluperfect subjunctive — the last, with the value of a past simply. 
Then there are supplied a new future and conditionij, made by 
combining the inmiitive with an auxiliary (see V. 5c, VI. 66). 
And a whole series of compound tenaea, or verb-phrases, made 
with an auxiliary, are added. 

0. The endings of tense-inflection are much changed, although 
the distinctions of person and number are well preserved. Of 
the Ist singular, all signs of a final in are lost ; but an a has in 
reoent time (since the 14th century) got itself generally added, 
though even now sometimes omitted in poetry. The final h of the 
2d singular is everywhere retained. The final t of the 3d singu- 
lar is to a ^eat extent lost, but reappears by analogy in ease 
certain aubject^pronouns follow, and is treated aa if a euphonic 
insertion {I. 10c). The mni of the Ist plural is retained as mes 
in all preterite, and in the present aommes (sntiiua) ; elsewhere 
it is contracted to ns (for ma), and a constant o has come to bo 
prefiied. The ti» of the Sd plural is retained as tea in all pret- 
erits, and in the presents Stes, bites, ditea; elsewhere the t is 
lost, and ec written, instead of es. The unt of the 8d plural has 
become in peneral ent (of which, however, the n is wholly lost in 
pronunciation) ; but it is out instead in four present tenses, 
namely Bont, font, Tont, ont (and hence also in the futures, 
which contain oat as auxiliary : V. 5c). 

rf. The Latin infinitive active is saved as French infinitive ; also 
one case of the gerund, in the so-called present participle as used 
with en (more properly called gernnd : see X. 3c, d). The su- 
pines and the gerundives, or future passive participles, are gone. 
The present active and the past (passive) participles are retained ; 
and the latter, with ausiliaries, makes a double series of verb- 
phrases, active and passive. 

e. The four Latin conjugations are much made over. The 
French Ist conjugation, indeed, corresponds in the main to the 
I.iatin 1st, and has become still more the predominant one, in- 
cluding perhaps five sixths of all French verbs ; it has drawn in 
many verbs from the Latin 2d and 3d conjugations, and contains 
the majority of borrowed verbs, and of new verbs, made from 
nouns and adjectives. The French 2d conjugation corresponds in 
a general way with the Latin 4th (ir ^ Ire) ; but in its inflection 
it has become mixed with the Latin inceptive conjugation (see 
XIS. la) ; it too has drawn in verba from the I-atm Sd and 3d 
conjugations, and it contains a considerable numtter of borrowed 
and new verbs. The French 3d conjugation is made up of a few 
verbs from the Latin 3d, which agree in their inflection well 



enough to be clawed together. The rest are so discordant as to 
have to be left as irregular verbs. 

6. Of new synthetic formations (that is, such as result in the 
combinBtion into one word of two independent words, one of 
whioh acquires the value of a formative element), the French has 
not many to show. The principal ones among them are the new 
future and conditional, spoken of above, and a large class of ad- 
verbs from adjectives with ment (L. mente) added (see XXXI. 2a). 

a. Many :^rench words, however, exhibit a fusion of two or 
more Latin words into one ; and some of the cases are very curi- 
ous: e.g. encore, Iianc horam; derant, deabante; djeormaiB, 
delpsahora magis; mfime, semet ipeissiniom: seethe Yocabu- 

7. The changes in the vaJne and construction of 
French words as compared with Latin are innumerable 
and infinitely various. 

The lost inflection is in part replaced by flsed rules of position, 
in part by auxiliary words ; thus, prepositions stand instead of 
cases, auxiliary verbs instead of tenses and modes, and adverbs 
instead of encfings of comparison. Of parts of speech, or what 
are analogous with such, trie French has added only the articles : 
the definite article altered from a demonstrative (le, la, les from 
lllnm, lilatn, illos and lllosl, and the indefinite from the nu- 
meral 07ie — both as in other langu^es. Nnraerous additions, in 
part quite peculiar, have been made especially to the classes ot 
prepositions and conjunctions. 

8. The power of making compound words, possessed 
in a )iiph degree by the Latin, has been almost entirely 
lost in French. 

9. It was pointed out above (§ la) that many new 
words have been borrowed into French out of other lan- 
guages : especially, in former times, from German ; re- 
cently, from Latin and Greek; but also more or less 
from a great variety of different tongues. 

In this way, there are in modern French many pairs of words 
coming from the same Latin word, one by ancient descent, and 
the other, much less altered, by recent borrowing ; examples are 
&eie and fragile from n-agllem ; blAmer and blasphemer from 
blaspliemarc ; essaim and examen from eiamen ; center and 
computer from cornputare. and so on. Many new derivatives, 
also, have been made from primitives of every kind and source. 

10. Many of the iteme of correBpondenee and of dif- 
ference bere grouped together have been pointed out in 
detail in the Lessons of the First Part, and others will be 
pointed oat in their order in the Second Part. And the 
general Vocabulary at the end of the volume gives the 
I^tiu and other sources from which the French words it 
contains are derived. 

a. It muflt depeDd upon the class and the teacher what use ia 
made of this chapter m the olaaa-room. It does Uttle good to call 
a claes's attention to the details of comparison between French 
and Latin unless its members have already a fair knowledge of 
Latin ; but the general faols of the relation between the two lan- 
guages may in any case profitably be set before his pupils by the 
teacher. And a teacher well versed in the subject, with a class 
prepared for it, may weU follow the compariBou into much greater 
detail than ia indicated here. The moat convenient and accessi- 
ble guide for the teacher in such a case ia Braohet's little Histori- 
cal Grammar and Etymological Dictionary of French. 

n.— NOUNS. 

A. — Gendeb of Nounb. 

11. All nonns in French have a distinction of gender, 
a part of them being masculine and the rest feminine. 

a. For tbe reductloti of Uie three genders In Latin to the tno fn French, 8« 

12. For the most part, French gender corresponds 
with Latin : that is to say, a noun is feminine in French 
if its original in Latin was feminine ; otherwise, it is 

Hence, a rule of general use (if one knows Latin) is to call to 
mind the Latin gender, which is in many cases plainly showu by 
the ending of tbe word, in order to determine the French. 

But there are a considerable number of exceptions: 



a. Abstract nouns in enr (Latin -or made.) are feminini 
French : thus, la donlenr, nne erreor, ctj;. Exceptions are 
honneur, lo labeor, laa pleura. 

6, A number of nouns corresponding to Latin nGUI«r plural 
» or ia are feminine in Frcncli : e.g. la. mnraille (L. mural 
la merreille (L. tntrabllia), ima arme (L. arma). Other a 
are more irregular, and must be learned from the dictions 
examples are u. levre (lalirnm), la joie (Kaudluni), la r^pc 
(reiponaum), and other words from neuters in nm ; la 1 
(mare n.), etc. 

c. Not a few words are moBculine in French that were femii 
in Latin : examples are nn 6pi (spicam), nn ongle (uDgnia 
un art (artem f.), OS arbre (atborem f.), le sort (but al& 
■orte : sortem f.), la dent (dentom m.}. 

13, The gender of many nouns may be inferred fi 
their endingB. 

a. It is not worth whOe to attempt to give rules for all endii 
because of the small number of words belonging to some, and 
numerous esceptions to others ; only a few of the principal cla 
will be noted. 

6. Masculine are most nouns ending in age, ege (or ^ge : 2 
aame, isme, ime, iste, en, an, oir: examples are le voya^E 
pririldge, I'entbonBiaBme, le paganisme, le crime, nn arti 
le feu, le chapean, le miroir : also the great majority of tl 
ending in a consonant (except enr). 

c. Feminine are most nouns ending in t6 and ti^ (L. -tatem] 
tiDnaDdBion(L. -tlanemetc), andinence,ense,ance(L. -ntta 
examples are la bontS, la pitid, nne action, la passion, la i 
deuce, la d^ense, la couiaiBsance ; also, nearly all those end 
in mute a preceded by another vowel or by a double consona 
e.g. nne ep^, la vie, la vne, la plaie, la liene, la cbatte 
noisette, la faiblesse, la lionne, la fenille. 

14. The gender of many nouns may be inferred fr 
their meaning: thus, 

a. Masculine are the i 
animals conspicuously im 

But a few abstract*, used concretely, are feminine even w 
they designate males : thus, la caution bail, nna counaisBa 
acquaintance (also dnpe, pratique, recrue, sentinelle, victin 
and the feminine name of a musical instrument sometimes de 
natea its player, as nne clarinette a darinettist. 

b. Masculine are the names of seasons, months, daya .| 




divifiiona of the day (not hours), and cardinal pointa : e.g. nn 
hiver, le f^vrier, le dimanche, le matin, le snd. 

e. Masculine are the names of trees and metals : e.g. le pom- 
mier, le chfine, le fer, le plomb. 

d. Mascuhne are infinitives used as nouns, as le rire, laugMer ; 
also other parts of speech and phraeea used as nouns, as le uou 
tA« no, hb si an if, le ttix'aa dira-t-on the " what will people my 
about it " 7 most names of letters (not of ( ta, 1, m, n. r. s) ; and 
adjectJTHH taken as abstract nouns, as le bon et le vrai the good 
and the true. 

e. Feminine are the names of female persons and of animals 
oonepicuoualy female : e.g. la. femme, la jument, la vache. 

f. Feminine are moat names of countries, islands, towns, and 
rivers, if they end in e mute : e.g. la. France, la Sardaigne, la 
Tieille Kome, la Seine : exceptions are le Hanovre, le Mexiqne, 
le Bengale, le HS-vre, le Danube, le RhQne. and a few others. 

y. Feminine are most names of fruits and flowers : e.g. la 
pomme, la cerise, la. rose. 

15, Some Donns are either TnaBculine or feminine, ac- 
cording to their different meanings. 
a. The most important of these are as follows ; 

aide, Itelp 
alglB, atandard 
couple, pair or brace in 
enaeigne, sign, mark 
g»rdB, vtatch, guard 
gmde, Ifadingrein 

aide, he^r 
kigls, eagle 
Bospla, vniledpair 
eualgne, enmgn (officer) 
garde, l^cper, guard 
gvUt, gui(te 

Dunolie, handle 

memotre, memorial 

ptllltwe, rigura 

pandnls, pend^dTtm 

potte, pott (military etc.) poite, jioel-office 

vapenr, gleamer vapenr, eteam 

voile, txil ToilB, mil 

6. In this Ust are not included words that Lave accidentally 
, the same form, though coming from different originals. Such 
are livre m. book (L. liber), livre f. pound (L. libra) ; page m. 
page (in waiting) (It. pagK^o), page f. page (q/' a book) (L. 
pagina) ; other examples are anne, monle, mousse, poSle, somme, 
tour. vase. 

manclie, ileeite 
mamoire, memorg 
peillBue, straw bed 
penduJe, haiiging-doek 

812 NOONB. [*5— 

c. Amour, ddice, orgue are masculine in the aingiilar, and 
feminine in the plnral (ajnour, in poetry, sometimes in sing, also); 
also PfULves Easter (Pftque passimer is fem. aiso in sing.). 

d. Gens ])1. people, folks (almost never used in sing.) is in gen- 
oral treated as a masculine ; but an adjective preceding it has the 
feminine form ; and also tout before such an adjective, provided 
the latter is distinctively feminine in form : thus, les gens seiu&, 
but les bonnsB gena ; and tontes lea bonnes gena, but tons les 
bra.Tos gens, like tons les gena senses. 

e. Eniant c/itld is fpniinine in the singular if it means a girl : 
thus, cette pauvre enfant; and the same is true of esclave slave. 

16. Some nouns, names of living creatures, have a 
epeeial derivative fonn for the feininiue: thus, 

a. Many nouns in ear, coming directly from French verbs, 
have a feminine in ense: e.g. daoBenr danaeuse dancer, chas- 
senr chasaenae Imnler, himtrens. A few in tenr have a feminine 
in trice : e.g. actenr actrice, bienfkitenr bienfaitrice ; impdra- 
trice is feminine to empereor. But muny — as anteur, orateor, 
Bcolpteur — are used in their masculine form tor jiersons of both 

b. Some iioiiiis endin» in e have a feminine in esse: e.g. comte 
comtesBe, maitre maitreaae, fijie &nease. More irregular cases 
are abb^ abbeaae, dien d^eaae, dnc dncbeaae, p^chenr pdche- 

c. Many nouns form a corresponding feminine in 
of adjectives (VIT.), by adding e, often along with ^ 
modificatinn of a final consonant : e.g. ami amie, cousin ct 
ours onrse, marquia marqnise, lion lionne, chien cbienne, chat 
cbatte, 6poiut spouse, veuf veuve, citoyeu citoyenne, payaan 

d. More irregular cases are roireine, h^ros heroine, loup leave, 
mnlet mule, aud a few others. 

17. Many names of animals arc masculine or feminine only, 
without regard to the natural sex of the atiimala; e.g. un fliS- 
phant, le Mopard, le cygne; la panth^re. la aonria. la monche. 
A few, ending in e, take either the masculine or feminine article, 
according aa a male or female is intended: e.g. un buffie une 

18. a. The gender of a compound noun is in general deter- 
mined by that of the noun or the principal noun in the compound, 
to wliich the other element serves as modifier : e.g. la chef-lien, 
la ffite-dien, one mappe-monde, le beau-pdre, le i£at-huant, une 
ean-forte, nn arc-en-ciel, un avant-braa. 

6. Compound nouns made up of a verb and governed noun are 

1 eEsnie-mains, le piie-Dieo, ie 

B. — Number op JJohns, 

19. The general rules tor forming the pLural of a 
qoud, and their principal exceptions, were given in the 
First Part (Lesson II.)- Further matters requiring notice 
are the following : 

30. Nouns ending in ajit and ent usually dropped their final 
t in former times before the plura! ending b. and this spelling 
is stitl met with in some authors : e.g. enfaiis, conqn^rauB, 
momena, HentimenB. Gens (sing. g«at no longer in use) is always 
80 epelt. 

21. Nonns in al and ail that add a in the plural (instead of 
changing those endings to a,az) are : bal ball, cal callus., caniH>- 
val carnival, ct^^cal Jackal, pal .stake, r^gal treat, detail detail, 
^ponTOntail scareorow. gventadl fan, gouTenuul rudder, poi- 
trail poitfel, portail portal, serail seraglio. 

a. Travadl forms travails wben it means rejxirts or certain 
machines; ail garlie forms ails or (less often] anlx. The col- 
lective Mtail cattle has a!so tlie equivalent plural beatiaiix. 

22. Other cases of a double form of plural are : 

a. Ciel has as plural ciels (instead of deux, II. 5) when it 
means awnings, or climaiea, or the skies of pictures. 

h. (Eil has ceils (instead of yenz, II. 6) in the compound mils- 
de-bffiof bulls' eyes. 

c. Aienl baa aienla meaning grandparents, but ^nx meaning 
ancestors in general. 

23. Some nouns — besides those ending in the singular 
in ■ or X or i (II. 2} — form no plural different from the 
singular : thus, 

a. Some foreign words not wholly naturalized remain un- 
changed when used with a plural meaning : examples are ave, 
credo, specimen, Stc-simile, andante, creBcendo; while others 
of the same class make regular plurals, as operas, pensmna, 
B^os : and with regard to many there is a difference of usage. 

h. Proper names are often used unchanged with plural mean- 
ing : as, lea deox Caton the turn Cntns. They are always singu- 
lar when, though preceded by the plurals les or cea, they signify 
but a single person (§ 12«) : thus lea Moliera et les Bacina On 

314 NOCNH. [«»- 

the otlier band, they take the plural-sign when used in the sense 
of people like so-and-so, or t/ie ii>or& of so-and-so: thus, ils 
^talent les Cic^rous de lenr pays they were the Ciceros of their 
cxmntry, j'ai m plnsienra Eaphaela an mus^ I saw several 
Saphaeh at t}ie picture-gallery, 

c. Other jiarts of speech used as nouns, and the u.inies of let- 
ters snd figures, take no plural-sign : thus, les mais et les si i/s 
»nd buta, teivez trois a write three a's, Otez les deux un can- 
cel the two Vs. 

d. Some words are naturally without a plural, aa certain proper 
names and abstract words : thus, Europe, modestie. But many 
abstract nouns are used concretely, and form plurals : thus, les 
TertuE the eirtues, ses bont^s his kindnesses. 

24, Some nouns are used only in the plural. 

The commonest of them are : annales annals, ancBtres ances~ 
tors, d^ris ruiiis, environs »ucl alentoura environs, entrailleB 
entrails, &ais and d^pens I'-rpeime, ion^raiUes and DbeeqiiaB 
funeral, hardes clothes, mines manes, moaurs manners, inordls, 
monchettes snuffers, plJenrs tears, rivres victuals. 

25. Some noans have a special meaning in the plural 
— usually, in addition to their regular plural meaning. 

The commonest of these are : cisean eliisel, ciseaoz chisels, 
and also scissors; for iron, fsrs irons, fetters, gage pledge, 
gages pledges, and also wages; and in like manner lettres lit- 
eratare, lunettes pair of spectacles, Inmigres enligldeninent, 
6puigka piH-monei/, armes coat of arms, and a few otliers. 

36. In compound nouns, the principal word, if a noun 
or adjective, taJcea its plural form for the plural. Thtjs: 

a. If the compound is made up of a noun and an adjective 
qualifying it, or another noun in apposition with it, both parts 
take the plural form : e.g. bean-frere, beaux-freres brothers-in- 
law; choa-flenr, chonx-flenrs cauliflowers; chef-lien, che& 
lienz ehi^ towns. 

b. If the compouud is made up of a noun and a qualifier of 
any other kind, the noun alone takes the plural furiu : e.g. pota- 
an-fen broth-kettles, arcs-en-ciel rainbows, chefs-d'csnTre mas- 
terpieces, timbres-poste postage stamps, vice-rois viceroys. 

c. If the compound is made up of a verb and a following ob- 
ject-noun, the plural is regularly like the singular: e.g. les coups- 
gorge the cutthroats, las porte-drapean t/ie standard-bearers. 
But those more familiarly used not seldom take the plural sign? 


Some of the compounds of tliis kind have the object-noun ia 
the plural: n.g. as tire-bottea a bool-Jat-k, I'essnie-maiiis the 
towel, le core-dentB the tootJipich ; these are of course without 
change in the plurrtl. 

d. A compound not containing a noun as principal word is not 
changed for the plural : thus, lea passe-partont the. master kegs, 
lea forte-piano the piannfortes ; and so also sueh ns les tfite4- 
tflte the private interviews, les ■piei-k-tem lodginffs on the ivad. 

But a word that has lost by frequent and familiar use the sense 
of its character as a compound is liable to take the plural-sign 

C.^ — Cask-bklationb of Nopnb. 

27. No Frencli noun lias any variation of form to 
express the varying relations of caee; the simple noun 
stands as subject and as object, or as nominative and ac- 
cusative or objective; the other case-relations are in gen- 
eral expressed by prepositions. 

a. For the gradual loss in French of the Latin cases, see above, 
gio, 6. 

6. Of the prepoaitions, de q^ and i, to are especially frequent, 
and form with a following noun oombinations closely analogous 
with the cases of Latin, and of various other languages ; so that, 
in some grammars, de lliomme (if the man, for example, .is 
called the " genitive case" of homme, and it rbonune to the man 
its " dative case" — this, however, is artificial and false. The uses 
of a noun with de and &, as with other prepositions, will be ex- 
plained in this work under the various constructions. 

28. Sut the simple noun has a number of independ- 
ent constructions (analogous with those of the accusative 
in Latin). Thus : 

a. It expresses place where or whither, but only rarely, in the 
adverbial expressions qnelque part etc.: thus, il est quelqne 
put he M sometvhere, je n'irai nnlle part / shall go nowhere, 
TOM le tnraveres autre part yiu will Jind him elsewhere. 

b. It often expresses time when: thus, il eat v . 

he came this rnarning, il viendra le onze he will come (on) the 
eleventh, nons le TOjrons toos lea jonrs we see him ecery day. 




But a preposition (&,de, eii,8iir, etc.) is often used with a doud 
in expressions of time. 

c. It expresses very often dumtion of time, extent of spttce, 
measure of dimension, of weight, of price, and ao on : thus, il 
restera deux jours fw will stay tioo days, ils travailldrent tonte 
la nnit tJiey worked the whole nigM, alles trois milles go three 
miles, cela vaat diz francs that is loorth ttii francs. 

But dimension with an ad.jective is usually expressed by de : 
see ^ Sic. 

d. A noun is not seldom used absolutely in French, along with 
an accompanying adjunct, which is oftenest a participle (compare 
g 195): thus, le diner £m, il sortit the dinitsr done, he went out, 
parteriez-Tona ainai. le majtre present (or Slant present) would 
you speak thus, the master being present? il conrt, lea mains 
dans las pochea he runs along, his hands in his pockets, elle me 
rSpondit lea larmea anx yeox she ansuxred ine tiHth tears in her 

SENTKNCES,— I. Noun used abaolulely. 

(§ 28.) ' Et, s'il va quelque part, on le met d la porte. 
[Pon."^ ' NuUe part il n'y a plus de paroles et moins 
de faita. (ff. Sand.) ' Le 5 mat 1789 fitait le jour fis4 pour 
I'ouverture des Etata G6neraux. La veille, une cSr^monie 
religieuse pr^c6da leur installation. Le letidemain, la 
seance royale eut lieu dans la aalle des menus. (Mig.) 
' Ou courez-vous la nuit? {Rac.) " Je ne veux de trois 
mois rentrer dana la maison, (Sac.) ' II gagnait en un jour 
plus qu'un autre en six mois. Utac.) ' lis attendirent encore 
quelque temps, lea yeux' toujours olou6s sur cette poteme. 
(Dau.) ' Je continual ma route I'eapace de six milles. 
( Voln.) ' Paris 6tait rest6 vingt-et-un jours eans nouvellea 
de I'empereur et de la grande arm^e. (^Boit.) " Elle 
vend ce secret mille louis A Fonchfi. (Bour.) " Le m&rite 
vaut bien la naiaaance. (Afar.) " On rgsolnt de pSrir les 
ai'mes li la main. ( Vol.) " Le coude appuy6 sar la ba- 
lustrade, le menton dana la main, le regard distrait, elle 
avait I'air d'une statue de Venus, deguiaSe en" marqniae. 
(de Afaia.) " Je pouvais, auivanC une douce habitude, 
rfiver lea yeux ouverts, en attendant le dfijeuner. (Lab.) 
" Paris tomb6, I'expfirience a prouv6 que la France tombe. 


99. A nonn preceded by de of ia used (much as in 

EngliGh) to limit another noun, in all the ordinary eeoses 
of a genitive or possessive case. 

The more noteworthy of these uses are given in tlie following 
pa Digraphs, 

30. A noun with de is used to express poEsession, ap- 
purtenance, connection, in the most general and varied 

Thus, la tete dn lion th^ lion's head, la porte de la maison 
Ihe door of tlie house, le fila dn p&re the father's son, le p6re dn 
flls the son's father, les CBUTres de Racine Sadness works, 

a. De is sometimes used in French where the English prefers 
another preposition : e.g. le chemin de Pajris the road to Paris 
(Paris road), le voyage da Rhin tfie journey on the Mliine 
(Rhine Jottmey). 

h. Sometimes, as in other languages, this expression assumes 
the value of a subjective or objeetive genitive ; thus, les conqnetflB 
de Napoleon Napoleon's conquests, la conqn§te de ce royanme 
the conquest of this hingdom, la baine dn tyran the tyrant's 
hatred (tif some one), la tiaine de la tyrannie the hatred qf 
tyranny (by some one). 

e. A noun with preceding de not seldom follows another noun 
in French ae an adjectival adjunct to it where in English an ad- 
jective would be used or a compound formed ; thus, nne ville de 
province a provincial dty, le maitre d« chant the singing-mas- 
ter, son bras de hdros ?iis heroic arm (i.e. arm like that of a 

31. A noun with de is used aa a genitive of apposition 
or equivalence. 

Thus : le titre de president the title of president, le nom de 
Henri the name of Henry, le pays de France tlie. country of 
France, la ville de Eonen the city of Rouen, le mot de gueux 
ihi word "beggar". 

a. In familiar and low language are used fas also in English) 
inverted appositional genitive phrases like nn diable d'homme 
a demon of a man, cesfiripons d'en&nts these rogues <if childrett, 
la drOle d'idde the oddity of an idea (i.e. the odd idea). 

32. A noun with de is used as a genitive of character- 
istic quality, or as the equivalent of a descriptive adjeo- 

il8 NOCNS. [88- 

Thus, tm homme de sagsBse a Tnan of leisdoTn (Le. wise ■)nan), 
una femme d'une grands beaat^ a woman of great beauty, vol 
temps de d^sordre et de trouble a time nf disorder and trouble, 
il est d'nn caractere trea g^n^reux lie is of a very generous 

33. A nouD with de is used to signify material. 
Thus, la table de bois the table of unyod (i.e. wooden teAle), 

one coiller d'argent a siteer spoon. 

Owing to the deflcienoy of adjectives of material iu French, thia 
USB is a common one. See Part First, V. L 

34. A nouii with de is used partitively, or as a parti- 
tive genitive, signifying something of which a certaio 
part or quantity is taken. 

Thus, nn pen d'argent a little money, nn morcean de pais a 
bit of bread, troia livreB de th.^ three pounds of tea. 

a. Such a partitive genitive is used after adverbs as well as 
nouns of quantity : thus, asses de pain enough bread, tnfiniment 
de conrage an infinite amount (if courage. See Part First, V. 

6, It is much used after superlatives, numerals, and other 
words implying selection ; thus, le meilleur des amis the best of 
fHends, trois de ces messieurs three nf these gentlemen, leqnel 
de nous tons which of us all f 

c. By a gRimmatical confusion, we meet sometimes with ei- 
pressious like qui des denz est le pins grand, ou de C^sar on de 
Fompte, or evea qni eat le pins grand, de C^sar on de Fomp^e 
which is the greater, Casar or l^mpeyf the alternatives, when 
specified, being treated as if in apposition not with the Interroga- 
tive but with the added genitive phrase (whether expressed or 

d. A partitive genitive is sometimes used in French where the 
English has an appositive noun or adjective : thus, cent soldata 
de priBonniers, cent de tn^s a hundred soldiers prisoners, a 
hundred slain, y Sr-t-il personne d'assez bardt is there any one 
bold enough f donnez-nons qnelqae chose de bon give us some- 
thing good, rien d'^tonnant nothing astonishing : such instances 
as the last two are especially frequent. 

ILLUSTRATIVE SENTEKCES,- II. Noun with rfe, lualiiymB a noun, 

(g 30.) ' Une derai-heure apr^s, il traversait le jardin 
maraicher du No. 12 de la rue de la Sant^, et il sonnait d 
la porte de Madame Blouet, (Tkeuriel.) " II nous racontait 
pour la centidme fois cette ainistre retraite de Rnssie. 

■*1 0A8E-EBLATION8. 219 

(Dau.) 'Le bon abbS est 6tonn6 que lea voyages d'Aix 
ct de Marseille vous aieDt' jet^s daos une si ezeesaiTe 
d^pense. (de See.) ' Les vunta, depuis*" troia moia en- 
chaia^H sur nos tfitea, d'llion trop longtempB vous ferment 
le chemin. (.flae.) ' Liaez la vie de St. Louis ; vous verrez 
Gombien lea grandeurs de ce monde aont au-desBons du 
desir du coeur humain. We Maintj ' Lea hommea, preasSs 
par lea beaoins de la vie, et quelquefois par le deair du 
gaiu ou de la gloire, cultivent des talents profanes, ou a'en- 
gagent dans des profeBsions Equivoques. {La Br.) ' II aent 
pen ii. peu° a'amollir sou coeur de fonctionnaire. (Theuriet.) 

(§ 31.) ' Je ne aaia qui prononpa d'abord le mot de ma- 
nage ; maia qu'iraporte'' ? (About.) ' Votre eoquine de 
Toinette eat deveniie plus inaolente que jamaia. (Jifol.) 
' C'Stait un grand diable de gar9on, d'une quarantaine 
d'ann^es. {Cuppie.) 'Votre belle S,me de comteaee a'en 
acandaliae ; maia tout le monde n'est pas comtesse.' {Mar.) 

(§ Z%) ' II est permis aux gens de mauvaise bumeur de' 
la tronver comme ils voudront.^ (Mar.) ' La femme Etait 
d'nne jolie figure, maia d'une mauvaise sant6. {Berquin.) 

(§ 33.) ' Le pot de fer proposa au pot de terre un voyage, 
(ia F.y ' Queiques chaises de paille, un bureau de noyer, 
formaient tout I'ameublement. (Dum.) 

{§ 34.) ' II y a gagnS beaucoup d'id&es, et perdu conai- 
dSrablement de vigueur. (About.) ' L'amour-propre est le 

filuB grand dc tous les flatteurs. (La R.) ' Lea dieus et 
es deessea d'OIyrnpe avaient lea yeux attaches aur Tile de 
Calypso, pour voir qui aerait victorieus, ou de Minerve ou 
de I'Amour. (fen.) ' De ton cteur ou de toi, lequel eat le 
poete ? Ceat ton ctfiur. (de Mu.) * Qu'il ach^ve, et degage 
aa foi, et qu'il choiaiaae apr^s de la mort ou de moi. (Com.) 
'II n'y a paa une aeule plante de perdue de celles qui 
€taient connuea de Circfi. (Fen.) ' La vie est trop courte ; 
je Toudraia qu'on elit'' cent auB d'assur^s, et le reste 
dana I'in certitude, (de Sev.) ' La perte dea enuemia a 6ti 
grande ; ils ont eu, de leur avcu, quatre mille hommea de 
tuea. (de Sev.) ' II n'y a rien d'fitroit, rien d'asaervi, rien 
de limits, dana la religion, (de Sev.) '"S'il y a quelque 
chose de bon et d'utile dana ce r6cit, profitez-en, jeunes 
gens, (de Stael.) 

■il3«!>. I'ftll. <E3Tf. °|1486. 


SSO sorsa. [••— 

M. A ooua preoeded bj 4t ^with or wiAaat the defi- 
nite »rti^)f iafjng tbe value of s puthiTe gemtivB, is 
modi Died io Fr«)eb vbere it is desired to ezpicGB a cer- 
tain part or Dnmher or qoandtr of what tbe noon eagni- 
fiea, or where in English we pnt or might pot a(nne or 
any before the noun. 

This is called the pabttiive xorx. or the noiin ased 
partitivel.v. It majr etand in anv noun constrnction — as 
enbject, ae object, as predicate, ae governed by a prepo- 
sition (except de;, and &o on. 

Thus. dM »oldat< I'azrfltereiit torn* afddiert arrattd him, il 
Mt diM gnu qui mentent there are people who lie, ila boivuit 
da Tin they drink wine, avec da secret et de I'adresse trilh 
geirrecy and address, ponr des raisons snffis&ntes for sufficient 
reamns, sojet fc de graTes errenrs Jiabh to yrore errors. 

a. The principal rules for this frequent and important usage 
were (fiven in Part First, TV. 1-4. For further rules as to the 
nae or omiasion of the article, see I; 39. 

b. After a negative verb, a noim not properly admitting par- 
tition IE often put in tbe partitive form : tbna, il'n'a pas de m^re 
fie has no mother, elle n'a d'antre djsir que celtu-d she has no 
ot/ier tiHah than this. 

e. KouDB are often also nsed in a sense really partitive without 
d«: thus, after ni . . . ni, and in an enumeration, the usual par- 
titive expression is omitted fsee Part First, IV. 4); also after 
certain prcpOBitiona, especially sans: thus, sana 6knte withotU 
fault ; also a plural uoun in the predicate expressing condition, 
profession, ana the like (compare § 506) : thuB, soyons amis l(^ 
(M be friends; also as objects of verbs in many familiar phrases, 
aa avoir penr be afraid, chercher fortune seek one's fortune, 
donsST courage gice courage, entendre raison listen to reason, 
Aire grand brtiit malce a great jioise, perdre haleine lose breath, 
prendre oonaeil take counsel, rendre justice do jtistiee, tenir 
oompagnie keep company, and so on. 

ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENOE8.-m. Pttrtitiva noon. 

(g3n.) ' DepuissantsdufensoarBprendrontnotrequerelle. 
(Rac.) ' Co Bont dea hfiros qui fondent lea empires, et des 
Iflchee qui les pordent. {V. ffupo.) ' Polyeucte a du nom, 
et Bort dii sang des rois. ( Com.) * Us disaient que oe 


n'etait point avec des gamisons que Von prend des Etata, 
mais avec des annees. ( I'ol.) * II la fit asiseoir pr^s de lui, 
la conaolant par de douces parolee. {Blanc.) 'II n'est 
point de noblesse oii manqae la Tertn. {Crebilloa.) 'tin 
homme libre, et qni n'a point de femme, pent s'elever an- 
desBUB de sa fortune. {La Br.) ' L'homme n'a point de 
port ; le temps n'a point de rive ; il coule, et nous passons. 
\Lam.) *NouB n'avons point de banqueroutiej^ parce 
qu'iJ n'y a choz nous ni or ni argent. ( Vol.) '° li tomoe aur 
son lit sans cbaleur et sans vie. {Roe.) '' Je fais gr&ce A 
I'esprit en faveur des sentiments, (rff Sei<.\ " II faut tenir 
t^te d, trois feus. {Jt Vi.) " Je vous aimais trop pour tous 
rendre justice. {Mar.) 

36. A noun preceded by & is often used to express 
that by which something is characterized, as a distinguish- 
ing feature or qaality, a purpose, means, ingredient, and 
the like. 

>- Thus, rhomme an lon^ nez the man with the long nose, Lf die 
an doDK soorire Lydia of the sweet smile, des arbres a fruit 
fruit-trees, la botte aux lettrea the letter-box, la poudre an 
canon gtaipmcder, on batean & vapenr a steamboat, da caf^ an 
lait coffee wrtA"**^. 

As the examplosnuw, such phrases often corrcHpond to com- 
pound words in Englisftv . 

37. Other special uses of i, with nouns are : 

a. After mal ache etc. , with the part affected : thus, mal & la 
tftta headaohe, mal anx dents toethache. 

b. Between two numerals, to express approximate number: 
thus, dtx h, donze ten or a dasev. 

e. Between two repetitions of the same noun, to signify suc- 
cession ; thus, un & on one by lyne, gontte a goutte drop by dro}!. 

ILLUSTRATIVE BENTENCKS — IV. Noua with a, guBlUying B u 

(§36.) *Le poudre k canon change le systSme de la 
gnerre; la peintureill'builese d4Teloppe,et couvre I'Europe 
des' chefs-d'ffiuvre de Part. ( Guhot.) ' On parlait de Thebes 
aux cent portes. { Vol.) ' Cette ressemblance continuait 

332 NOUNS. [87— 

encore, autant qu'un homme auK yenx noirs, & la chevelure 
^paiBse et brune, peut reeseiubler A ce Bouveraln anx yenx 
bleus, aux cheveux chAtains. (Bal.) ' Combien d'bommes i 
talent 'X qui il ne manque qu'un grand malbeur pour deve- 
nir hommes' de g^nie 1 [Hum.) 

(§ 37. J ' 11 ap^rocha une chaise de" la cheminee et a'aseit. 
J'ai froid aux pieds, dit-il. [V. Iftiffo.) 'Son pi5re avait 
at^ez loyalement gagn6 six a huit mille livrea de rente. 
(5a/.) ' Vous Toyez un liomme de quarante-cinq A oin- 
quante ans, endurci au travail manuel. (About.) ' L'eau 
Mait bien bouillante, et je I'ai versee goutte & gontte, 
( Coppee.) 


' Did you go nowhere yesterday ? " I went to Paris last 
week, and stayed there three days, but I did not find my 
friend ; he was elsewhere. ' I shall go there Monday, May 
15th ; the ceremony will take place Tuesday, and we will 
return together the next day (morrow). ' They had been 
several days without news of their son, ' He will remain 
some time at Bordeaux ; one cannot gain much in a few 
days. ' These beautiful pictures are well worth a look. 
' I have just bought them for 10,000 francs. " Why do 
you look at this house with tears in your eyes ? ' Because 
it was my parents' house. " The winds and the rain have 
closed to us the road to Paris, and we shall lose the joi 
ney to Italy. " Have you read the history of the con- 
quests of Napoleon? " He wanted to make also the con- 
quest of England, " He was bom in Coreica, and gained 
later the title of Emperor of France. " His nan 
mired and loved in all the country of France. " He was 
a man of much talent, but of little virtue. '* The silver 
spoons are in an iron box on the wooden table. " If I had 
money enough, I should buy a little bread. " If I had an 


infinite amount of money, I should give him none of it. 
" Which poet is the greater, Victor Hugo or Lamartine? 
" Victor Hugo is the best of all the modern French poets. 
" Bead me something beautiful. " There is nothing inter- 
esting in this book. " Good books are rare ; but there are 
books that we love very much. " One does not make con- 
quests by soft words, but by brave deeds. " Kings are 
not always heroes. " The child that has no mother is very 
unhappy. " This man has neither money, nor friends, nor 
talent. " He is without hope and without happiness. 
" If he will listen to reason, he will go to seek his fortune 
in America. '" Who is this woman with blue eyes and 
brown hair ? "I have seen her on the steamboat, but I do 
not know her. " There are six or eight steamboats on the 
river, but I see no sailboat there. " I have a pain in the 
eyes ; I can see nothing. " I hope that you will be better 
little by little. " They walk two by two. 


38. The forms of the definite and indefinite articles, and the 
general rules as to their use, were given in Part First. Certain 
points require further or more detailed notice here. 

A. — Definite Aeticlk. 

39. The partitive noun, or noun used partitively with 
de (§ 35), is usually accompanied by the definite article. 

d and meat, dea soldats 

n exceptions — that the article is omitted after a 
n^^tive, aJso before an adjective, and both artiuleand preposi- 
tion after ni . . . ni and in a long enumeration — were given, in 
Part First, IV. 3. 4. 

6. The article is also omitted after an infinitive governed by 
■uiB urithout, as uupljing a sort of negation : thus, sans avoir 
d'amis without having any friends : compare § 210. 

c. After Qoe of ne . . . que, meaning only, the article is re- 

224 ARTICLES. [>•— 

tained : thus, il n'a pas de pain, il ti'a que de la viande he has 

Tw bread. Tie has only meat. 

d. The articie is also aometimea retained after a negative verb, 
when a certain affirmative sense is intended to be implied : thus, 
n'aTez-Tona pas des amis have you not friends ? (i.e. is it not 
true t?iat you have friends f), je ae Tons ferai pas des reproches 
frivoles it is not frivolous reproaches that lam going to make 
to you. 

e. The article is retained before an adjective, if this and the 
following noun form a sort of compound noun, or current phrase 
of simple meaning : thus, des granda-p^eB grandfathers, an bon 
sens good sense, des jennes gens young folks, des petits pains 

40. The article ib used in French, much more gener- 
ally than in English, before a noun taken inclusively, or 
expressing the whole kind or class. 

8ee Part First, IV. 5. Further esamples are: le cliien est 
I'ennemi dn diat, et le chat de la sonria the dog is the cat's foe, 
and the cat the rrymse's (here the usage is the same in both lan- 
guages : but), la vinaigra est acide mnegar is sour, le bois Idger 
a. moins de valenr light wood is worth less, j'sime la salade / 
like salad, nons apprenona I'liistoirs u>e learn history. The ar- 
ticle thus used we have called the inclusive article (see Part First, 
IV. 5a), 

a. By a like usage, the article generally stands before an ab- 
stract noun : thus, la foi, la chants, et Tesp^rance faith, love, 
and fwpe, la modeatie eat nne belle vertn modest;/ is a beauti- 
ful virtue, le temps dn p^ril est anssi celni dn conrags the time 
of danger is also that of courage. So also with an adjective 
aaed as an abstract noun : thuR, le cnlte dn bean the worship of 
the beautiful, elle aime le vert she likes green. 

b. But the article is often omitted in proverbial and old-style 
expressions, as weU as in various phrases. 

ILLDSTEATIVE BENTENCEB,— V. Psrtltlve Bud Indliutve AFtiole. 

(§ 39.) ' On a des bras, pas de travail ; on a du coeur, paa 
d'ouvrage. { V. Hugo.) ' li y avait sur cette table, et A pro- 
fusion, broaaes, Sponges, savons, vinaigrcs, pommades, etc., 
mais pas une goutte d'eau. (Lab.) ' Je n'ai vraimeiit que 
des obligations au baron Taylor, (Dum.) ' Madame, je 
n'ai point des sentiments si bas. {Rac.) ' Yous savez bien 

DEPlSrTB AKTlCtK. 825 

qae sooB ne BommeB pas des h^ocritee. (O. Sand.) Vou- 
lez-TOua deB petits pains ? restez ; j'en* ai d'excellenla. 
(Cum.) ' I] 8 agit d'avoir'' da bon sens, mais de I'avoir 
sans fadeur. (CoTistilutioiuttl.) 

(§40.) 'Onepronvatont-d-coupleehorreuredeia famine. 
(de Genlu.) ' C'est vrtd ; mais q^nand la colf^re me prend, 
ordinal rement la m^moire me quitt«. {Mar.) * Si on avuit 

fin, on anrait mis la force entre les maiua de la jiistioe. 
Pat.) 'Jeane fillette a toujoura aoin de" plairc. (IV.) 
• Ce qne femme vent, Dieu le veut, ( Vo!.) 

41. The article ia generally need before the name of a 

That is, when the name ia subject or object of a lorb, or gov- 
erned by any other preposition than «n and sometimes da. Sao 
Part First, VI. 2-4. Further special rules are as follows : 

a. If the name of a country is the same with that of a «ity 
contained in it, it is generally used without article ; likewise an 
idasd of little extent : thus, Naples, Bade (there are a few cx' 
ceptions, as le Hanovre) ; Malte, Elbe (but la Sardaign*, la. 

b. The article ia generally omitted after venir de, pajllr da, 
and the like: thus, il vient d'Amdriqne /if rotiii'.t/jfm AiiH'Hca. 
fli^tir de France go out of Fi-ance. 

e. The article ia generally omitted after de when it makeK a 
genitive of equivalence (§ 31), also when it follows llie nikmc of n 
product, of a niler or other official, the words Mslor]/, map, uvr, 
etc., and in various other cases where the name of the i^ouulry la 
used with the value of an adjective. 

Thus, le royaume de France the kingdom of Francf. dn vis 
de Hongrie Hungarian wine, la reioo d'Angleterra thr qurrn 
of England, rambassadenr d'Antriche (he Aimlrinn amnasm- 
dor, I'histoire de Rnssie llie hislori/ of Rtissin. lea villea d'AUe- 
magne the German citie.i, la foontiiu-e d'Espagne r/ie Spanish 

d. But, in both these classes of cases (6 and c), the artiolo is 
generally retained if the name of the country is masculine, or 
plural, or contains an adjective ; also if it dcsicnatcs a n-tnote 
and unfamiliar country : and there are apocial eases bvnides, 
Thns, Tcnir dn Uexiqne eome from ifexico, I'empire dea I&- 
dea t?ie empire of the Indies, rempereur de la Chine the em- 
peror of China, en toile dn Bengale in Bengal diiUi, rhiatoire 
da la Grande Bretagne the hintorg of Great Britain. 




e. The article is always omitted after en, meaning both in and 
to or into : see Part First, VI. 3a. But daiis, with the article, is 
used instead of en, if the name of the country is qualified by an 
adjective : thus, dajis la SnisBe fi-aoQaise in French Switzerland. 

43, With other proper names, French neage in regard 
to adding the article is in general the eame as English. 

But tlie following differences are to he noted : 

a. The article is used before the name of a siiigle mountain : 
thus, le Tfenve Venivim, le Mont-Blanc Mont-Blanc. 

6. Proper names, whether of persons or places, lake the article 
when qualified by an adjective : thus, le panvre Joan poor Jolm, 
I'autiqne Rome ancient Some. 

c. Some proper names are always joined with the article as an 
inseparable prefix ta them ; the most common are le Harre, an. 
Caire of Cairo, le Dante, le Titien, du Correge of Correggio, la 
Ponsain, le Cajnoens. 

d. In familiar language, the article is oft«n added to the names 
of noted persons, especially women ; thus, la Rachel, la Grisi; in 
a still more colloqnial and lower style, it is used yet more widely ; 
thus, sans attendre la Barbette imthout waiting for Sarbatte. 

e. The plural article is, in a higher narrative style, often put 
before the name of an individual, to mark him as a person of note 
and importance : thus, les Bossnet et les Bacine ont 4^6 la 
gloire de leor siecle such men as Bossuet and Raeine were the 
glory of their century. 

f. Before the name of a saint's day, la stands by abbreviatiou 
forlafSte de the festival c^ : thus, la SaMrJeaa St. John's dag, 
la Saint-Martin Martinmas. 

La is used also before a word for the middle of a month : thus, 
la mi^mai. 

g. A la is familiarly used by abbreviation for & la mode de in 
the manner or after tjie fashion of : thus, nno barbe i la Praji- 
^is L a beard in the style of Francis I. 

ILLUSTRATIVE 8ENTKN0ES.— VI. Artiole with Proper Names. 

{§ 41.) ' Heritier^ comme archiduc, de I'Allemagne orien- 
tale, aouverain des Pays-Baa, de I'Espagne, de Naples, de la 
Sicile, comme succesaeur dea dues de Bourgogne, des roia 
de Caatille et d'Aragon, ce possesscur de tant de territoires, 
qai regnait sur lee prineipales lies dc la M^diterranee, qui 
occupait par plusieurs points le littoral de I'Afrique, n'avait 
alors que dix-neuf ans. (Mignet.) ' Vousarrivez de France? 
— Ce matin mCrae, (^Scribf.) ' La loi des Visigoths int6- 



resae plus ITiistoire d'E«)agne <^ue I'histoire de France. 
(Guizot.) ' Le roi des Indes lui offrait cent eliiphaTitB. 
I Vvl.) * Portez cea porcelaines du Japon chez la mar^chale. 
(Seribe.) ' En Espagne, au milieu du r^gne de Philippe 
n., eclate la revolntion des Provinces Uniea. [Guizot.) 

(§ 42.) ' Le joyenx fecolier D'avait jamais aongfi k ce qu'il y 
a de lave bouillante fnrieuse et profonde sous le front de 
neige de I'Etna. ( V. Hugo.) ' C etait un des roia qui ont, 
apr^s un ai^ge de dix ana, renverae la fameuae Troie. (Fen.) 
' A ton tour, regoia-moi comme le grand Byron, {dt Mu.) 
' A aa Buite parut le jeune Mazarin. \<le Vi.) ' Bi I'dme de la 
Pompadour etait revenue visiter son chdteau, elle aurait 
trouve peut-^tre que la vie qu'on y menait manquait de 
gaiete. (Cherb.) ' Je ne viens paa pour te parler de la Ma- 
delon. {G. Sand.) 'Lea acrupulea de justice nesontpaa, 
en g^n^ral, ce qui arr^te les hommes de la port^e des Fr€- 
dfinc et des Napol6on. (Sle.-B.) ' Tons les arts, & la vOrite, 
n'ont point ete pousaes ]>Iub loin que sous lea M^dicia, aous 
les Auguste et lea Alexandre. (Vol.) 'Monaieur ne salt 
paa ce que c'eat que^ la Saint-Nicolas . . , d Paris on ne 
fete paa ce aaint-ld. {Theiiriet.) 

43. The article is used before a title. 

Thus, le docteuT Akakia Dt\ AkaMa, le profasMur B. Prof, 
B.-i le g^n^ral Bonaparte Gen. Bonaparte. The titlea of polite- 
ness, monsieur etu. (XIV, 4j, stand before this article : thus, 
moiiBienr le docteur A. 

tt. In describing the parts of a person or thiug, the Trench 
ordinarily uses, after avoir, the article before the name of the 
part, and the descriptive adjective after the latter (really as ob- 
jective predicale) : thus, elle a lea yenx bleua she has blue eyes 
(literally, has her eyes blite), il a I'esprit cnltiv^ he has a ctilli- 
Taied mind, le chgne a I'^orce rude the oak has rough bark. 

45. The article is often used in French where the 
English uses a poaaeaaive, when the connection points 
ont the poesesBor with sufficient clearness. 

Thus, je tonmai la tSte / turned tny head, fermez les yenx 
shut your eyes. 

46. The definite article is often t 
where in English each o 

i distributively, or 
r evei-y might stand. 


228 ARTICLES. [«— 

Thus, denx fbis la semaine tirice ea^h week, trois francs la 
livre three francs a pound, 1« bateau part le lundi, et reviettt 
le jendi the boat goes ecery Motuluy, awl returns emry Thurs- 

Ab the examples show, English often has the iadeflnite axticle 
in BUch a ease. 

47. There are many phrases where the article, omitted 
by abbreviation in English, is retained in French ; as also 
where, retained in English, it ie omitted by abbreviation 
in French. 

Exumples are : i. I'dcole at school, ik I'^gliae at c/iurcA, I'an 
pasB^ last year, avM-Tom le temps de le foire have yrm time to 
do it ? vers le soir toward evening ; and i. ganonx on the knees, 
sons prdtexte under the pretense, conrir rieqae run the risk, 
mettre pied k terre set foot on the ground, monter li cheval get 
on a horse. 

a. In niftny other phrases, French and English agree in the 
omiasion of the article ; for exaraple, aprds diner after dinner, 
i, table at table, perdre de vue lose from sight. 

h. Before a numeral following the noun it qualifies, the article 
is omitted more uniformly than in English : thus, Charles First 
or Charles the First, Charles premier. 

48. a. For I'on instead of on one see XXVII. te. 

b. In like manner, I'nn is sometimes used for nn : thna, le 
hec-crois^ est I'un des oiseanx the cros^teak is one of the birds. 
In the combinations of nn and antre, the article is aiwaya used : 
see Part Firat, XXVII. 7. For the article in expressions of time, 
see §706. 

c. In intimate and familiar address, the article is sometimes 
put hefore a noun used vocAtively : thus, I'ami, crois-moi, rentre 
chei toi friend, take my advice and go home. 

d. Either tons denx or tons les denx both is said ; so with 
tons les trois all three. Higher numbers generally take the ar- 

49. Though the article is generally required to be repeated be- 
fore eiteh separate word (Piirt First, I. 7), it is occasionally under- 
stood, especially when a word is added by way of explanation : 
thus, les d^put^B on repr^sentants dn penple the deputies or 
popular represenlitliKs, les ministres et grands offlciwg th9 
ministers and high o^icers. 



a ITaea of the Article. 

(I 43.) ' Monsieur I'abbe ! voulez-voua m'ouYrir? jo vals 
querir madame la baronne. (de Mii.) ' Dans' ime heure, k 
cheval, et I'attai^e des lignes ! Messieurs les mar^chaax, 
BiUTez-moi. (de F>.) 

(§ 44.) ' Les habitants de la Nonvelle-HoUande ont le nez 
gros, lea l^vres grosses, et la bouche grande. (Buffon.) 
' Pauline a I'fime noble, et parle k'' cceur ouvert, ( Com.) ' Ce 
n'est rien, dit-il ; j'ai seuti que j'avais encore la jambe sfire 
et la tfite froide. (ff. Sund.) 

(§ 45.) ' Mais je veux t'4ponser demain ; viena, Jeanne, 
donne-moi la main, (de Vi.) ' Elle 6tait vftue de blanc, et 
avait un voile blanc aur la t^te. (Vol-) 

(% 47.) ' Tu te tais maintenant, et gardes le silence. 
(Corn.) 'L'enfant raet pied & terre, et pnia le vieillard 
monte. (La F.) ' Monsieur men neveu, je voua soubaite le 
bonjour. (de Ma.) ' Les loups firent la pais avec les brebis. 
(La F.) ' Sachez que plus niea bontSs sont grandes, plus 
Tous serez puni si vons en° abusez. (Mont.) Dieu ! que" 
plus on est grand, jilus voh coups aont 4 craindre' ! (Vol.) 

(§ 48.) ' Apres eela, I'nn de ces messieurs de la Com^die 
fran^aise et 1 une de ces dames r^citaient une sayn^te. 
(Ckerb.) 'Adieu, done, la fille ; bonjour, I'ami. l^<"'-) 
' Vous pourriez encore danser, la belle ! ( V. Hugo.) 
' Faites comme moi, I'ami, et vous deviendrez riehe comme 
moi. (Arnault.) ' Du moins devait-elle attendre, et les voir 
tous deux. (Mar.) ' Ne les grondez point ou ne les cor- 
rigez point tous les dens en m^me temps, (ff. Sand.) 

(g 49.) ' Les voies ferries ou chemins de fer etablissent 
la communication la plus rapide entre les grandes villes. 

B. — Indefinite Article. 

60. In certain cases, where tlie English usually hae 
the indefinite article, it is omitted in French. Thus : 

a. The artiolc is often omitted before a worf standing in appo- 
sition with another ; thus, Dieppe, ville de Normandie Dieppe, 
a city of Normandy, Ch&r lea. fils da U. Pierre Charles, a son 
(or the son) of Mr. Pierre, Zaire, tragMie de Toltaire Zaire, a 
tragedy nf Voltaire. 


■ 1 lev. 






6. It is usually omitted before a predicate noun designating, in 
a general way, nationality or condition in life or profesBion. 
Thus, je bhIb Am&icain / am an Ainerican, son frere est GOlda.t 
his irother is a soldier. But tliere are frequent exceptions, es- 
pecially when the predicate noun is qualified by an adjective etc., 
also after c'est etc. : thus, il est nn bon peintre he is a good 
painter, c'est nn peintre it is a painter. 

c. It ia omitted, by abbreviation, in titles of books, superscrip- 
tions, etc. : thus, Oranunure angUuse an English OrammaT. 

d. It is often omitted, especially in familiar speech, before 
sombre, quantity, and the like : thus, je Tad tub nombre de 
foia IhaM seen her plenty of times. 

e. It is omitted before cent and mille (see XV. 6) : thus, mille 
joors, cent ana a thousand days, a hundred years; also after 
quel used interjectiooally (see XIII. 5c): thus, quelle vne aAirense 
wfiat a horrible sight ! . 

/. It is omitted after jamais before a subject-noun : thus, ja- 
mais homme n'a ^t^ pins exalte nevsr Jias a man been more ex- 

g. It 13 omitted by abbreviation in certain phrases, where the 
English retains it : tbus, mettrc fin put an end, &ire present 
make a present, prendre fenune take a wife. There are other 
phrases where the contrary is the case, or where the two lan- 
guages agree. 

A. As to English a used distributively, see above, ^ 46. 

i. Both articles are omitted in those combinations in which a 
noun after da is added to another noun with adjectival value : 


(§ 50.) ' Sylla, homme emporte, m^ne violemment lea Ro- 
mains A la liberty ; Auguste, meg tyran, les conduit douce- 
ment A la servitude. {Mont.) "Anne, belle-HCQur de Gnillaume 
III., etfillede Jacques II., mariL'eil George, prince de Dane- 
mark, gtait I'hgritiSie coastitutionnelle de la couronne. 
{Rimusal.) ' Un jeune homme nomraS Croiaillep, fils d'un 
orffivre, revenait de Paris an" Havre, {de Ma.) ' Ma fiUe 
est veuve d'nn homme qui etait fort consid^r^ dans le 
monde. {Mar.) ' Monsieur est Persan ? c'est une chose 
extraordinaire ! Comment peut-on fitre Persan ? {Monl.) 
' Dans le langage des partis, on eat courtisan quand on 
appnie la royaute, republioain quand on defend la liberty, 



traitre ou d^serteur quand, de I'opposition montant an 
ponvoir, on soutient le gonvemenient qu'on a voulu, {fle- 
musal.) ' Danton etait un revolutionnaire gjganteaque. 
(Miffnet.) ' Un vieus domeetique, nomme Jean, qui aervait 
SB, famille depois" nombre d'annfies, s'approcba de lui. 
(rfe Mil.) ' Qnel joli metier vous lui apprenez ! (Cherli.] 
" Quelles belles epaules blanches ! quel eourire dV^temelle 
jennesse daus oette toile merveiUeuee ! {Oautier.) " Jamais 
personne ne recouvra la sant^ avec moina de platsir que 
moi. {&. Sajiil.) " Jamais homme n'a eu tant d'eclat ; ja- 
mais nomme n'a eu plus d'ignomiuie. (Pasc.) "Saint- 
Nicholas est descendu dans ma eheminee , . . et il m'a fait 
cadeau d'une femme. (Tlieuriet.) 

' Have you neither brush nor comb ? ' Bmsbes, combs, 
sponges, we have tb^m all ; and we have soap also ; but 
we have no water. ^ Has not the servant brought yon 
water ? ' He has not brought me any hot'' ; he has only 
brought me cold water. ' I will not return without bring- 
ing you news of your friends. ' Do not be anxious ; have 
you not health, fortune, and friends ? ' Young folks have 
not always good sense. ' I do not like history ; most" 
histories speak only of war and of famines. ' Force is 
sometimes the friend of justice. "The love of the true 
and the beautiful is one of man's finest qualities. " This 
history of Germany is very tedious, but I will give you a 
history of the United Provinces, which will interest you 
very much. " I have travelled in Italy and in Italian 
Switzerland ; I come now from Germany, and I shall go 
next winter to China or Japan. " The queen of England 
ia also the^ queen of Great Britain and the*^ empress of 
India. " We sell French and Spanish wines, Italian silk, 
and English wool. " Which is the higher mountain, Ve- 


8uviu8 or Etna? " Parnassus is tbe favorite monntain of 
the poets. " Little Jobn is better ; bat his grandmother, 
poor old Mary, died this morning. '* Great Demostbenes 
was the most eloquent orator of ancient Greece. " Rachel 
was the glory of tbe French theatre. '° Shakspeare and 
Racine are in literature what Napoleon and Wellington 
are in war. " The English hardly know what St. Martin's 
day is. " He dresses in the style of Louis XV. " Gen, 
Thomas and Prof. St. Pierre are going to dine to-day with 
Dr. Lncas. " Madame Tellier has blue eyes and auburn 
hair. " His heart is young, though his hands are weak. 
" If you are afraid, shut your eyes and give me your hand ; 
I will guide you. " She is cold, because she has nothing 
on her bead. " He has lost his right arm. " I go to Paris 
three times a month ; I start from here Tuesdays, and ar- 
rive there Fridays. " This cloth costs ten francs a yard, 
*' I wish you good morning, sir ; I am going to church. 
" I have not time to go there at present ; I shall perhaps 
go toward evening. " The more he goes to school, the 
less be likes to study. " The greater one is, the more one 
runs the risk of falling. " I admire one of these ladies 
and love the other. " As for me, I admire them both ; but 
I love neither. " Marcus Aurelius, an emperor of Rome, 
was a good philosopher also. " James IL of England, the 
son of Charles L and the brother of Charles H., and the 
constitutional heir of the crown, was, during many years, 
a guest of Louis XIV., the king of France. " William, a 
grandson of our friend Mr, Morton, is a soldier, and he 
hopes to become a general. '° His brother is a painter, I 
think. " How can he be a painter? he has made quanti- 
ties of pictures, indeed, but they are all very bad, '* What 
an ugly woman t " Never has an author been more ad- 
mired than she. 



51. The Frenah adjective corresponds in general to the Latin. 
Respecting ita loss of tbe neuter gender, of the diatinotions of 
case, and of formal comparison, see above, § fe,/. 

62. The adjective is in general varied for gender and 

For the rules for forming the feminine and the plural of an 
adjective from its masculine singular (aa heing the simplest form), 
see Part First, VII.-IX. A few particulars remain tii be added 

53, Further speeialtieB of formation of the feminine 
are as foUows : 

a. The following adjectives in ot add e without doubling the t 
(see Vn. ij : bigot, d^vot, idiot, manchot, cagot, ragot. 

b. Bel is used instead of bean in a few titles : thus, Fhilippa 
le Bel ; vieiut is sometimes allowed to stand before a vowel : 
thus, on Tienz homme (see VII. 7). 

c. A few more adjectives that form their feminine irregularly 
(VII. 8) are ; tiara tierce third, ronx rouase red, bjnin b^nigne 
benign, malin maligne malignant, coi coite quiet, h^bren b^ 
liral^ae Hebrew. 

d. Masculines without corresponding feminine are chfttain 
eheatnut-cobtred, faXfoj^sh, dispoa in lusty health. Feminines 
without corresponding masculine are crasse craaa, oc£B.iie oceanic. 

Certain other words of color, properly nouns, are sometimes 
used in the manner of adjectives, but without variation of form : 
sach are aorore, son&e, orange, etc. 

e. Certain classes of nouns make a feminine, aftflr the manner 
of adjectives : see above, % 16. Of these, the nouns in -enr -eose 
are often used as adjectives : thus, one langne trop flattense a 
too flattering tongue. 

64. As regards the formation of the plnral : 
a. 7m, late (i.e. deceased), according to some authorities, has 
no plural ; others allow one to say les fena roia de Prusse et 
d'Angleterre the late kings of Prussia and England, and the 
like : compare below, § 56a. 

6. Plurals in aU from adjectives in al (VIII. 16, c) are little 
used; for some adjectives such plurals are altc^ther wanting, 
being avoided by nsing some other form of ezpreuiou. 

334 ADJECTIVES. ['*— 

c. Adjectively used nouns of color form no plural (as no femi- 
nine : above, i; 53d) : thus, des cbeveox chatftin-<Jair brig/it 
broum hair. 

65. As regards comparison : 

a. Certain French adjectives represent Latin comparatives and 
superlatives, without having (any more than the corresponding 
words in English) a value as such. Examples are ; majenr ma- 
jor, ant^rienr anterior, extreme extreme, snprfime supreme. 
They are not themneivea compared. 

6. Absolute sujierlatives in iasime, as iUnstriaume most illus- 
trious and r^v^rendiBBime most reverend, are late and learned 

56. As regards the agreement of an adjective with 
the noun which it qnalifies : 

a. Some adjectives are differently treated according to their 
position. Demi half before a noun is taken as forming a com- 
pound with it, and is invariable ; thus, nne demi-livre a half- 
pound, nne livre et demie a pound and a half. Nd bare is 
similarly treated : thus, marcher no-tate, or marcher tdte nne 
waVc bare-headed ; but only la nne v^ritfi the naked truth. The 
participles excepts, sappos^, y compris are invariable, as if used 
prepositionally, before the noun : thus, excepts les damea except 
the ladies, but lea domes except^es the ladies eaxepted. In like 
manner firanc de port prepaid (as letters etc.) : thus, je re^ois 
fiunc de port les lettres que . . . I receive prepaid the letters 
which . . ., bnt envoyez-moi vos lettres franchea de port ssnd 
me your letters prepaid. Ci-inclng and ci-joint enclosed, annexed, 
fieremth are invariable at the beginning of a phrase, and also 
with a noun not accompanied by the article : thus, ci-inclna vons 
recevez la copie you receive enclosed the copy, but voos troaverez 
ci-jointe la copie you will .find annexed the copy. Fen la/e 
{deceased) is variable only after an article or poasosstve : thus, 
fen la reine, but la fene reine, the late queen; fen ma tante, 
but ma fene tante, my late aunt. 

b. An adjective following avoir I'air Ttare the aspect or look is 
sometimes made to agree with air and sometimes with the sub- 
ject of the verb : thus, elle a I'air content or elle a I'air con- 
tente she looks satisfied (the one meaning rather she lias a satis- 
fied look, the other the look <if being satined). 

c. Soi-disant pre/emdec^ stands always before its noun, and is 
invariable : compare § 180c. 

d. An adjective used as adverb (XXXI. 9) is of course invari- 
able. But in frais cneilli fresh-picked and tont-pnisaaut all- 
power/ul, the adverbial adjective is treated as an adjective if the 
qo^ifled nonn is feminine : thus, des flenrs frsi^ies cneilliM 


freah-pieked flowers, ime reine tonte-poiBsante an all-powerful 
queen. There are also uomhinations in which noareau, premier, 
etc., are treated as adjectives while logically rather adverbs: 
thus, les nonveaax Toaxiiathe iiewly-married couple {or couples). 
For the treatment of tout, see ^ 116c. 

67. As regards the form of an adjective qualifying 
more than one noun, the general role ie that it is naade 
plural, and taaaculine if any one of the qualified nouDs is 

ThQs, le fr6re et la Btenr forent contents the bmtfter and sis- 
ter were happy, nme Teste et un pantalon blena a blue vest arid 
trousers, dn pain et du beurre ezcellents excellent bread and 
butter, la langrae et la litt^ratnre latines th£ Latin language 
and literature, tob nom et prSnomB yoiir surname and given 

a. Bnt the adjective is not seldom made to agree with the 
nearest noun alone, and especially if thiii is added ratber as an 
equivalent or esplanatiun of another noun, or if a gradation is 
implied. Thus, avec nne vitease, one rapidity inconcevable 
with a su-iftness. a rapiditu irtcoiiceivalle, Testime et la confi- 
ance pnbliqae the puhlic esteem and conjidence, point de roman, 
point de com^die espagnole sans combats no Spanish romance 
or Gomedy viitkout fights. 

b. If two nouns are connected by the disjunctive on or, the 
adjective regularly and properly agrees only with the nearer one : 
thus, I'estime on la conflance pabliqne the public esteem or eon- 
fldenee. But it is not always so : for example, voir son fils on 
sa fille perdoB pour la soci^t^ to see one's son or daughter lost to 
society (Vol.). 

58. Two or more singular adjectives aometimes qualify a plu- 
ral noun, an including a singular belonging to each of them : 
thus, les lan^nes fraa<;aise et an^laise the P'rench and English 
languages, lee dix-hnitiemo et dix-nenvidme Bi^es the \Mh 
and Wth centuries. But the same thing may be expressed by 
la langiie &an^aise et la langne anglaiae or la langno fran- 
^se et I'anglaise : and, iu like manner, le diz-hnitieme et le 
dix-nenvieme siecle, or le dix-bniti6me siftclo et Is diz-nen- 

69. An adjective, of either gender or number, is of- 
ten used as a noun. 

Thus, un riche a rich man, cette belle this beauty, le bon et 
le Trai the good and the true, lea pauvres Ifie poor. 

a. An adjective so used may be qualified by another adjective 

236 ADJECTIVES. ["»— 

or an adverb : thtu, le vrai bea.a the Irw beautiful, de panvrea 
avengles poor blind men, Im mfinimant petits the infinitely 

60. The adjective in French, when used attribntively, 
stands often before the noun that it qnalifies, bnt etill 
more often after it. 

The principal rules respecting the place of the adjective were 
given in Part First (VTII. 2-5) ; a few more partieulara are added 

a. The adjectives that most regularly and usoally pre- 
cede the noTin (compare VIII. 3a) are: 

ban, good grand, large bMU, lutndMme 

manvaii, bad gioi, Hg joli, pretty 

Eiecluuit, leieked petit, nnall vilkln, ugly 

meilleor, better moiiulre, laa jenne, young 

pira, iiH/rie vute, tatt vianz, old 

Even these are sometimes made to foUow the noun ; and there 
are others which nearly as regularly precede. 

b. Since (VIII. 4, 5) a physical meaning rather than 
an ideal or moral one, and a literal rather than a figurative 
one, tend to belong to an adjective following its nonn, 
some adjectives have a wellmarbed difference of mean- 
ing, according as they precede or follow. 

The most important of these are instanced as follows : 
aertain bomme, a eertain man una chou certaiae, a sure tfUng 

un ptuvTB hamme, a poor fellow nn hamme paavrs, a poor man 
DD brave honime, afinefdioa an homme brave, a brave man 

nn gatant bonune, a gentleman nnhommegaUnt.ainano/^a'IantT^ 
diver»e» l oIiobm, gundry . \ divwaei, ,.„ , ... 

„_, \ ,,. " ohoaeaJ..., ' different thiMi 

differentei ( Ihingi { diffSrenles, ■" ^ 

men ebeT ami, my dear friend nn livre cher, a dear book 

■a propre main, his own hand u. main propre, hia dean hand 

nnB tags femme, a midwife nne fetnma lags, a wise woman 

Dernier following the noun means last in the sense of next 
preceding the present time : thus, Tann^e demi&re last year, but 
la demidre ajm^ de sa vie t?ie last year of his life. 


d. If two or more adjectiTea qualify the same noun, and are 
not coordinate, but each added one further qualifies the nouD aa 
already limited, each ia put hefore or after the noun as it would 
be if used aione. 

Thus : on cheTftl noir a hlank horse, tm petit cheval noir a 
little Uack horse, un panvre petit chovaJ noir a poor little black 
horse; and so one grande tasse blene cass^e a large white 
cup broken. 

e. Two or more adjectives joined by conjunctions (expressed or 
understood) atand t<^ethor either before or after the noun — usu- 
ally after, if one of them is such aa does not ordinarily precede the 
noun. Thus, nn gr&nd et bean jardin a large andfl/ne garden, 
tine dajne riche, jenne, et aimable a yming, rieh, and amiable 
lady, nne femme petite, maas bien fkite a short but well-formed 

(§ 6fl.) ' J'etais, depuis une demi-heure environ, ploog6 
dane une sorte de torpenr, {Fmillet.) ' Hier, A dix heures et 
demie, le roi declara qu'il 6pousaJt la princesae de Pologne, 
( Vol.) ' Les demi'SavantB s'en moquent*, et triomphent 
s^ montrer ]A-des8ua Ba folie. {Pasc.) ' C'eat I'abbe de 
Sainte-Genevi^ve, nn-pieds, pr^cSde de cent cinquante 
religieux, nu-piede ausai. (de Siv.) 'Lonis auivait, pieds 
nuB, I'^tendard de la sainte croix. {FUchier.) ' J'ai oui 
dire k' feu ma Bceur que sa lille et moi naqulines^ la mSme 
ann6e. (Mont.) ' Ah, tnonaieur ! si feu mon pauvre p^re 
6tait encore vivant, c'etait bien votre affaire. (Bite.) ' La 
fene reine y allait souvent de Fontaine bleau, et prenait 
grand aoin du bien-fitre du convent. (St. Simon.) ' Alora 
ce sont lea premiera arrives qui font la loi dana votre au- 
berge? {Lacking.) '° Celui-ci avait dfejA jete un coup 
d'oeil p6n6trant aur le nouvean venn. {de vi.) 

(§ 57.) ' Ijcs arriv^es et les departs principaux n'ont lieu 
que pendant la nuit. {Conslitutiortnel.) ' La paix et le con- 
tentement fetaient done revenus 4 la Bessoniere. (ff. Sand.) 
' C'eat d'eux' que nous sont venus cette tendreaae, cette d61i- 
catesBe de sentiment, cette religion, ce culte dea ferames, qui 




ont eu une si grande influence sur notre chevalerie, (de Sig- 
mondi.) ' Lisez les Cummentaires de CSaar ; c'eet nn Btyle 
d'une netletS et d'une fermetC ainguliSrea. (Ampire.) ' Sa 
vie n'a ^t6 qu'un travail et une occupation perpetuelle. 
(_Massillon.) * II semble avoir compldtement oubli^ qu'il 
eat fila", et qu'il a'agit de aea p^re et m^re. (Slc.-B.) 

(§ 68.) ' Lea arm^ea fran(;aiae el italienne travereent le 
Tanaro, ( Vol.) ' La ville de Nuremberg, beaucoup plua 
populenae aux douzidme et treizieme aiSclea qu'elle ne'' I'eat 
aujourd'hui, 6tait le centre d'une grande induatrie. {R. d. 
deiix Mondes.) 

{§ S9,) 'L'aveugle ne rfipondit rien. (ff. Sand.) 'D^s 
qu an grand est mort, on a'assemble dana une mosqa^e, et 
Ion fait son oraiaori funSbre. {Moitl.) ' Quelques nabilea 
prononcent en faveur des anciena contre lea modernea. {La 
Br.) ' lis aortent de I'art pour I'ennoblir, s'ficartent dea 
regies, ai ellea ne lea conduiaent paa au grand et au aublime. 
(La Br.) ' Va trouver de ma part ce jeune ambitienz. 

(§ ao.) ' Penaeur^ profood soub le n^gne du pedautieme, 
antenr brillant et ingenieux dans une laogue informe et 
grossitire, Montaigne ecrit avec le aecoura de aa raison et des 
anciena. Son ouvrage, longtemps unique, demeure toujours 
original ; et la France, enriebie tout d coup de brillantes mer- 
veilles, nesent pasrefroidir son admiration pour ces antiques 
et nal'ves beantea. ( Vilkmain..) ' Au moia de mai dernier s 
diaparn une figure unique^ entre leii femmes qui ont r£gn6 
parleurbeauteet parleurgrdce. (Ste.-B.) ' M, de Chateau- 
briand, dans lea vingt derniSres annees, f ut le grand centre 
de son monde. {Ste.-B.) ' A quoi le bon oncle r^pond, en 
dScoupant son propre melon de sa propre main : Ce neveu- 
1^ aura I'bfiritage. (Soulie.) " Et ne craignez-voua point IHm- 
patient Acbille ? (iiac.) ' Le v^n^rable Malesherbea s'offrit 
k la Convention pour d6fendre Louis XVL {Migaxl.) ' Lau- 
rence vit la vieille femnie aveugle 6tendue sur aon lit. (ff. 
Saiid.) 'AbgUiadanie ! excuaezmon aveugle doulenr. {Com.) 
* Je m'^tais asais devant cette vieille petite table noire que 
vous connaissez. (Sue.) " Un long et ttourd g^missement 
s'^leva autour de Whitehall. (OuUoL) 

61, Adjectives are often, as in English, modified or 
limited by nouna, joined to them bj a preposition, es- 
pecially de or ft. 

In the majority of cftses, the French prepoaition corresponds to 
the one that is used in English : thus, capable de traMson capa- 
ble (if treason, dier a ses a.mis dtar to his friends, exempt d'or- 
gneil exempt from pride, eSlUbr^ par (or poor) sea victoirea 
cdebraied tiy (or for) his victories, constant dajia I'adverait^ 
constant in adversity. But there are certain eases that require 

a. De is often used before a noun expressing source or cause or . 
motive, after an adjective which in English requires a different ''' ',/^ 
preposition : thus, content de loi satisfied with him, &/tik6 de ' ' 
ma &ate sori-i/ for my fault, Eurpris de cette nouTelle sar- ^ 
prised at this news. ,t^f-'' 

The commonest adjectives having this construction are aiae,,'' " ' 
amourenx, avide, coniiia, content and m^content, d^sol^, ^pris, ^ 
fitch^ sorry, fon, iiirienz, gros, inconEolable, indigne, inqniet, 
Ivre, justiciable, offense, rari, rassasi^, rempli, Borpris, tribn- 

6. De is Bometimea used in the sense of in respect of, in regard 
to, where the English uses a different preposition : thus, richo 
d'attraita rich in attractions, cnrieux de TfiTeiuT ourioits about 
the future.. 

The commonest adjectives thus used are complice, cnrieux, 
d^d&igneux, foible, reconoaiasaat, redevable, responsable, 
ricbe, soigneux, triate, Tictorienz. 

c. De is used before a numeral after an adjective sigtiLfying 
quantity or dimension ; also after a comparative adjective, to 
signify measure of difference. Thus, grand de six pieds six feet 
tMl, laigo de deux ponces two inches wide, S.g6 ds donze ans 
twelve years old; plus tiant d'nn pied higher by a foot, moins 
Sig4 de cinq, ans less aged by five years, inferienr de vingt pieds 
twenty feet ioiver. 

d. More peculiar is the use of de after words of nearness: thus, 
prodiB d'eUe near to her, Toiain dn grajid cbemin bordering on 
the highway (also prds de near to : compare § 16^, end). 

e. The preposition k to, toward, at, is sometimes used in the 
sense of in resp&^ to where English prefers a different exprea- 
sioQ : thus, adroit an jen skilM in play, &pre an gain greedy 
for gain, il n'est bon k rien he is good for nothing. 

f. Some adjectiTcs are followed by different prepositions, either 
without or with noticeable differences of meaning : thus, cruel & 
or envers cruel to or toward, indulgent a or pour or euTers in- 


dtdgent to etc., babile ik or d&na or en tkilled in: but fB,c&£ 
contre means angry at, and fEU:Ii6 de means anjrry on aceoimt of 
or sorry for. 

g. Participles in general take the same prepositions after them 
as the verbs to which they belong. 

A, For the use of de or i, before an inflnitive after an adjective, 
see § 184. For the use of da or par with a passive verb-phrase, 
see XXViri. 3. 


(§61.) ' Savez-vous, apr^B tout, de quoi je auis capable^? 
[Mol.) ' Oswald 6tait mecontent de lui-mSme, {de Stael.') ' A 
tort ou k raiflon, le monde s'imagina que Marchal ^tait plus 
amoureux du cadre que d« tableau, {About.) *Je n'en 
euis pas surprise ; son caract^re etait si different du vfitre. 
{Mar.) ' n eat tr^a adroit k tona lea exercicea ; nul ne tire 
mieux I'arc que lui. {Oautier.) * H y en a qui sont braves i 
coaps d'6p€e, et qui craignent les coups de mousquet. {La S.) 
' Elle fut sublime de soina et d'atteutions pour son vieox 
p^re, dont les facult^a commenijaient d Ttaisaer. {Bal.) ' Fa- 
tigue d'Icrire, ennuyg de moi, d^gout6 des autree, abtm6 
de dettes, et l^ger d'argent, , . . i'ai quitt^ Madrid. {Beaum.) 
'En 1783 vivait dans le Calvados une jeune fille, &gee de 
vingt-cinq ans, reuniaaant a une grande beautg un caractSre 
ferme et independant. {Thiers.) " Quoique voisin d'une 
ville populeuae, ce lieu presente an aspect melancolique. 

iTopJer.) " Un peuple at juste devait ^tre oheri des dieni. 

Theme 3. 
' We went there at half past four, and we were there 
about half an hour. ' A hundred monks, bare-footed, pre- 
ceded the coffin of the late princesa, and all the court, ex- 
cept the ladies, followed it, with bare heads. ' Do you re- 
ceive your newspapers prepaid? 'I receive them every 
day, and I send you one of them herewith. ' This lady 
looks very happy. ' It is because the count marries her 
to-day at half past ten, ' To-morrow all their frienda will 
come to see the newly-married [couple] ; there will be no 
place for the last comers, ' She ia very well acquainted 




Trith the French language and literature. ' The first and 
second emperors of France were the two Napoleons. '" He 
passed the first and last years of his liffs in London. " They 
found the door and window shut, '" Montaigne, the great- 
est thinker of hU time, enriched the young and unformed 
literature of France with his profound and brilliant essays. 
" The illustrions Chateaubriand was a much- esteemed au- 
thor, but during the past' twenty years France has felt" 
her admiration for his works grow cold. " This old black 
table is not very neat, and I will hold the melon in my own 
hands. " The poor sick child was stretched upon her little 
old hard bed. " If I thought you capable of that, I should 
be much dissatisfied with you. " Were you angry at the 
news which I brought ? " No, but I was surpriued at it. 
" I imagined that our friend was inconsolable for the loss 
of his wife, but they say that he is already in love with this 
young and handsome girl, " They say also that che is rich 
in charms and attractions. " This young man, seventeen 
years old, is six feet and two inches tall ; he is taller by 
seven inches than his brother, who is three years older. 
" He is skilled in all games. 


62. The numerals, both cardinal and ordinal, along with the 
priuOHial rules for their use, were given in the First Part (Les- 
sons XV.-XVII.). A few further particulars are added here. 

6S. Mille is nsed instead of mil even in dates, when 
not followed by another number, and also usually when 
the date is before Christ, 

Thus, en mille in {the year) a thousand, en I'an deux mille in 
Che j/ear two thoumiid. 

a. In giving the year, one uses ofteneat en simply, but also en 
ran, or I'aa alone (for numbers under lOO). 

64. Cent and quatre-viiigt are used without s in dat- 
ing, and also when following the nonn iu an ordinal 


Thus, en mil hoit cent in (ttie year) 1800, tome qoatre-Tingt, 
page denz cent cnhime 80, page 300. 

65. The indetinite article nn ii the uumeral an with 
weakened meaning; and sometimes it may admit of 
question whether the word is to be called numeral or 

66. Old ordinals, now hardly in nse as such, or used only in 
special phrases, are |ndme first, tiers (tierce f.) third, qiuft 
fqnarte I.) fourth, qnint fifth. The last three are used also as 
fractionals (see XVI. 46, «}. Quint atill appears in one or two 
names of sovereigns : Charles-Quint, Sizte-Qnint. 

67. Collectives are formed from cardinal numerals 
by the ending alne ; they mean about the number of. 

Thus, nne donzaine a dj/zen, about 13, nne vingtaine a aeore 
or so, nne Boixaataine some threescore. 

a. The only oues in ordinary use are hnitaine, dizaine, don- 
zaine, qninzaine, yingtaine, trentaine, qaarantaine, cinquan- 
toine, soizantaine, centaine. Instend of one centaine is said 
nn cent, eepeeially of artieles sold by the hundred : thus, nn cent 
de clons u hundred naUs. 

b. Un millier a thousand or so is a like collective from mille. 

68. Of special niultiplieatives are in use only the fol- 
lowing : 

limple, simpL qnodraple, quadruple Bsptnple, mnen-foUt 

donbla, dmilde qnintnple,^Be-/i>W ootople, eightfold 

tilpla, trifie MZtaple, tix-fiM deonpls, ten-fold 

eantnple, htindredfotd 
a. For the other numbers, one says nenf foia nine ti}nes, or 

uenf fois antant nine times as much, or aeof fois pins nine Cimt« 

more ; and .so onze fois eleeen times, and so on. 

69. a. For the numeial adverbs once, twice, thrice, 
and BO on, the French uses foia f. with the numenil pre- 

Thus, nne foia, denx fois, trois foia, qnatre fois {four times), 
and BO on. But bis is also used in certain special connections for 

19] NUMERALS. 243 

b. Numeral adverbs axe also made, as in Englisb, from the 
ordinals, in the same manner as from other adjectivea (XXXI.) : 
thns, premidrement firstly, secondement or denziemement sec- 
ondly, troiaidmement thirdly, and so on. 

70. The following special neea are to be noted : 

a. After pins more or moins leas, the EngUeh titan before a 
numeral is expressed by de : thus, plua de diz miautes more than 
tea minutea, moins de cent ana less than a hinidred yearn. 

b. The article is not seldom used after vera lowani i\.a-\ snr 
<^ut in expressions of time : thus, vers or anr lea six heures 
about S o'doek ; and thon, by analogy, even in vera les une henre 
oftoM* 1 o'doek. 

c. Such expresBions as Ini cinqoidme, literiiUy himself thefi/th, 
are sometimes used for he and four others, and the like. 


(§ B6.) ' Charlea-Quint ! dans ces temps d'opprobre et de 
terrear, que fais-tu dans ta tombe? { V. H-ayo.) 

(§ 67.) ' II vit devant lui une jeune fille d'une vingtaine 
d'anneea, qui ae tenait sur le seuil. ( Tkeuriel.) ' L'album 
contenait des portraits, panoi lesquek se trouvaient une 
trentaine d'amia intimes. (Bal.) ' II se retirait tonjours 

^B droit aux ennemis, et I'epee au poing, leur don- 
nant pTua de crainte qu'un cent d'autrea. {Michekt.) 

{§ 69.) ' Le timbre eonore lentement fr^mit douze fois 
. . . et I'annee expire 4 ea voix. (Tastu.) ' J'ai vu deux ou 
troia fois ici M. <i Autun. {de Siv.) 

{§ 70.) ' Votre majestfi aura encore plus d'une heure pour 
e'y repoaer. (Gukot.) " Lea sc614rata ! ils m'ont attache les 
mains, comme vous voyez ; ils ^taient plus de vingt. (de 
Vi.) ' C'^tait sur les cinq hetires de I'aprSs-midi, parte plus 
beau temps da monde. (0. Sand.) ' Tu partirasvers les deux 
heures apres diner; tu aeras Id-bas a la nait. (6^. Savid.) 
' II est parti lui douzi^me ; tout le reate conrra apr^s. 

Theme 4. 


' Charles the Fifth died in the year 1558. ' He had ab- 
dicated sovereign power in 1555, but he lived, in the clois- 
ter to which he bad retired, more than three years longer. 
' Have you begun the second volume of the novel you were 


readiflg yt'Bteriiay ? 'It has three volumeB, sir; I have 
just finished the second, and I am going to begin the third 
this evening. 'I ieft at Paris some hundred friends, 
among whom there were not more than ten or bo intimate 
ones, ' He would not have retired before a hundred ene- 
mies. ' He was in the army more than twenty years ; ho 
has made a dozen campaigns, and has been wonnded five 
or six times. ' I have seen him only once ; it was toward 
eleven o'clock in the evening. ° He came in, he and nine 
others, but he stayed less than an hour. 


7L In the First Part, the substantive forms and the adjective 
forms of the various classes of pronouns, with their uses, were 
explained separately ; here the two kinds will be treated together 
in each class, 

A. — Personal Pronouns. 

73. The forms of the porsoual pronouns, and their principal 
usee, were explained in the Rrat Part (Lessons XXII. and XXIII.). 
Further rules are added here. 

73. Both the snbject-pronouii and the objeet-pronoun 
are ordinarily repeated with each verb to which they be- 
long in sense. 

Thus, nDiu aJlona et nous Tenons we go and come, je le vois et 
je I'entendB Isee and hear it. 

a. But exceptions arc not infre<iuent ; the rule applies more 
strictly to object- than to subject-pronouns, to pronouns of the 
first and second than to those of the third person, and with sim- 
ple than with compound tenses of the verb. The repetition is 
necessary if the object-pronouns are in different constructions : 
thus, je I'ai th et je lui ai parl4 I harm seen and spokett to Mm. 

74, If a fiubjeet-pronoun is to be made emphatic, it U 
Uflually repeated, in its diejunctive form, either before 
the verb or, soinotimes, after it. 


Thus, moi, jo I'ai dit or je I'ai dit. moi / {myself) Itaw sai<l it. 

a. Then tfae proper Biibject ie soinetimes omitted, and the em- 
phatic disjunctive is left alone as subject : thug, Ini n'a en qn'nn 
ami Tie (emphatic) had only onefrieiid. 

76, 111 like manner, an object-pronoun is repeated, in 
combination with mfime, for emphasis or distinctneBS, and 
with k if it is indirect object. 

Thus, il se Test foit & lni-m6me /i« has done it to himself, Jo 
t'ai TU toi-meme I /miv seen thee thyself. 

76. A subjeet^pronoiin separated from the verb, by a 
clause or even a single word, like eenl or anui, has to 
take the disjunctive form (see XXIII. 3^). 

Thus, enz ansai nons ont vna Ihei/ loo have, semi its, loi senl a, 
raison he alone is rii/ht. 

a. Bnt in old-style and official speech this rule is Boraetimes 
violated : thus, jo eonsEUgnd declare I the undersigned declare. 

77. The use of two conjunctive pronouns with one 
verb, aa its direct and indirect objects respectively, is 
limited to cases in which the direct object is of the 3d 
person, and not reflexive (se) ; otherwise, the direct ob- 
ject idone is made conjunctive, and the indirect follows 
the verb as disjunctive, with 4. 

Thus, je me pr^sente & toi or i. Ini I present m}/selfto thee or 
to him, il Be montra k moi lie nhawed himself to me. 

78. While a noun-object with i (o is ordinarily represented in 
proooun-form by the simple conjunctive pronoun of the indirect 
object, there are certain verbs which require iufitead the disjunc- 
tive pronoun with &. 

Such verba are especially psnser iL or aonger i. think of, venir 
& come to, coorir & run to, Btre a. belong to ; also appeler k call 
to, renoncer JL renounce, accontumar a wxustam to: thus, je 
pense & toi / think of thee, il vint & nona he came to us, cette 
maisoD est i> mot this house belongs to me. 

79. a. Certain verba that govern an infinitive directly 
(without de or &) are treated like auxiliaries in taking be- 
fore them an object-pronoun logically belonging to the 

Such verbs are faire or laisser cause, sentir feel, entendre 


Tiear, voir see: tbus, je I'ai fait fiiire / have caused to Tuake it 
(or oaused it to be made), nous I'avonB entenda dire vm fiave 
heard it mid (literally, Ttave heard say U). 

For the case of two object -pronouns in Kueh a combination, see 
below, § 158. 

6. The same is not seldom the case with vonloir wish, ponvoir 
can, deToir ought: thus, il me le vent persnader or il veat me 
le persnader he wants to persuade me qf it. on le pent gagner 
or on pent le gagner one ean vHn him, qni le doit emporter 
ichd might to yet Ihebetterf Other cases soinetiiues occur : e.g. 
nona Tallona montrer me are going to show it. 

80. If an imperative affirmative is followed by an- 
other, connected with it by et and or ou or, the pronoun- 
objecte of tlie latter may be placed before it instead of 

Thus, console-toi et m'^conte (or et ^conte-moi) comfort thy- 
self and listen to me, montreE-les-mol on me les peignez #/i«ir or 
ilescribe them to me. 

81, a. The direct object-proiiotin of the third person, 
le, is used predieatively without variation of gender or 
number to represent a preceding adjective, or iioun of 
condition or quality, where so may be used in English. 

Thus, etes-Tons henrenz 7 je le snia are you Jiappy ? I am so, 
Ait-elle servante ? elle le fiit '(«^T she a servant ? she was so. 

b. But where the cjuestion. is one of identity, the predicate pro- 
noun is varied t« agree with the noun to which it relates ; thus, 
Otes-Tons la Uarie ? je la snis are you Mary f I am alie. 

82, a. The Freueli often uses le to repeat or to an- 
ticipate something stated in a preceding or following 
clanse, while the English omits it. 

Thus, ils ne sont pas ici, je le voia they are not here, I see. 
Tons le saves, c'est nn caracttoe foible you know, he is a weak 

The repetition, in fact, of either subjttet or object in the form 
of a conjunctive pronoun (also en and y) with the verb is a fre- 
quent and familiar peculiarity of French. 

6. With a few verbs, the French uses le as a sort of indeflnitfi 
constant object : thus, remporter i/el the better (literally, carry 
it off), le ceder give way, le dispnter contest, vie, and so on. 

83. The disjunctive pronouns of the third person — 




Ini, elle, erat, ellea — are chiefly, thougli not exduaively, 

used of persons, other modes of expression beiDg Bubsti- 
tuted wlien tbings are referred to. 

*^84. Sol (XXIII. 4) is used of persons only in an in- 
definite way, when no reference is liad to a particular 
person. As relating to things, its employment is less 
restricted ; but modern usage tends to substitute for it 
the ordinary disjunctives of the third person, especially 
in the feminine, and where definite objects are intended. 

Thus, nn bienfait porte sa. recompense en soi a kindTiesti 
brings its ou-n- reward with it, Ijiit les choaes ne sont en ellea- 
mBmes ni pures ni impnres //lingii art iit:itfit.r pure nor impure 
in tTtemselves. 

86. En and y (XXIII. 6-8) are adverbs that have ac- 
quired the value and construction of pronouns, being 
used instead of personal pronouns (rarely, of demonstra- 
tives) in the genitive and dative eases respectively, or as 
governed by the prepositions de and ft. They refer usu- 
ally to things ; but also to persons, if plural or under- 
stood in an indefinite sense ; to a definite person in the 
singular, only rarely. 

a. Quite frequently, they refer to a whole (preceding) clause, 
or to somethiug stiU more indefiniteh' suggested : thus, il n'est 
p&B ici, j'en ania sflr ?ie is not here, lam sure of it, il est sorti, 
fiBB-vona 7 ?ie has gorie out, depend upon it. 

6. Eeace also, in many special combinations, they have a yet 
more indefinite reference, to notliing specified or distinctly sug- 
gested, but to things in general ; and they form idiomatic phrnses, 
where they are hardly, if at all, translatable : en meaning in re- 
gpeet iv" U, became of it, from it, aumy; and y meaning t/iere, 
unto it, etc. 

Some of the commonest o( these eombinafion-s are ; 

•'en Uler (XXIX. le), go off 

en ftvoir ft, hnve to deal with 

en tdhIoIt i, luive a grudge against 

en Btrt t>it, be all vter 

•'en prendre i, make re»pon»&le, 

en oeer avee, Ireal, hantUe 
ea etre, be at a point or situation. 
en venir i, come to Che point of 
en Snir, ma/te an end 




j BToir (XXX, 4}, there it, etc. y Itrs, comprehend 

7 aller ds, eonesm j voir, lee thingi, hoM eyet 

Eu la the sense of away (as in s'en aller) is in manf cases 
compounded with a verb : thus, s'eofliir run aivay, e'envoler 
}iy off, B'emporter lose one's self-control, emmoner oarry off. 

c. En is sometimes used pleonaatically tu repeitt a genitive 
(usually plural) depending on the same verb : thus, de ces Irois 
unites il n'y en a qn'nue d'tmportante of tliese three unities there 
is only one [that is] important. 

d. For en having the value of a possessive, see below, g fl8&, 

ILLUSTRATIVE 8KNTENCE8.-XII, Personal Pronouns. 

(§ 73.) ' Qui, j'^tais et je suiB encore dane une graiide 
perplexite. (About.) ' Votre lettre, madaine, me plait, me 
touche, et m'alarme. (Bouss.) ' En attendant le jour du 
depart j'allais, je venais, je ne pouvais n . -, . 

la citadelle, I'arsenal, le port. (Barih.) 
je lui parlai,je me desesp^rai. [Mar.) 

(§ 74,) ' Moi, Bans me vanter, j'ai la mine qu'il faut* 
pour les contes d f aire'' peur, {Courier.) " Moi, j'ai paaaa- 
blement couru pour trouver une fenune, (About.) ' En at- 
tendant, lui ne bouge pas de aa fenStre. {Ttepfer.) ' 8'il 
n'en dit rien d Claire, ce n'etait pas qu'il oraignlt" de la 
rendre jalouse, ou que lui-mSme gardat° au fond du cceur 
un reste de d^pit, (About.) " On ne lone point une femme 
ni nn autear comme eux-memeH se louent. (La R.) 

(§ 75.) ' Si V0U8 avez fait de votre mieux, ne voua en 
vouiUez^ pas K voua-mSmes. (Jouffroy.) ' Je ne puis' sans 
horrenr me regarder moi-m<5me. (Ddauigne.) 

(% 76.) ' EUe les nomme ; et Ini, saisisBant un crayon, se 
met il lea 6crire. (Thier».) ' Maia lui, voyant en moi la 
fllle de son frSre, me tint lieu, ch^re Elise, et de pere et de 
m^re. (Rac.) ' Eux aeuls savent inger, aavent penaer, sa- 
vent ecrire, doivent ficrire. (La Br.) ' Lui, bravant tons 
les dangers, semblait seul tenir la campagne. (Beranger.) 

{§ 77.) ' C'est moi qui me fie k vona, (Mignet.) ' C est 
I'art et non pas la nature simple qui ae montre ft nons. 
(Fen.) "J'ai m^ritS ce qui m'arrive, poisqne j'ai pu 
m'adresser A lui, (Scrihe.) On trouve k qui parler qnand 
on a'adresse k moi. (Delavigm.) 

(g 78.) ' J'ai pens6 d elle a'abord, c'^tait mon devoir ; 

> I ISftb. 

■ |i: 

' XXIV. 8/. 





k moi ensnite, c'etait mon droit. (Auffier.) ' Mon moulin 
est A moi, tout aiissi bien, au moinB, que la Prusae est au 
roi. (^Andrieur.) ' Un aoirj comme j'arrivais, TeiifaDt vint 
d moi toute troublee. (Dau.) 

(§ 79.1 ' Monsieur lui voulut faire voir St. Clond lui- 
ro^me. {St. Simon.) ' Aimez-moi toujours ; cVst la seule 
cbose qui me peut donner de la eoneolation. {de Siv.) 
° Ta trahie mes bienfaits ; je les veux redoubler, (Com.) 
* Ainai toujoura lea dieux voua daignent inspirer ! (CWi.) 
' N'ayant pu vons venger, je voua irai rejoindre. (Corti.) 

(§ 80.) ' IMonsieiir LyaidaB, prenez un ai^ge vous-m(5me, 
et VOU8 mettez lA. {Moi.) 'Tenez, monaieur; battez-nioi 
plnt6t et me laiseez rire. (Moi.) 

(8 81.) ' Soia gentille.— Je ne le suis done pas toujours ? 
— Oh! ai. (AlioiU.) 'Vons n'fitiez pas coapable envers 
moi ; c'est moi qui le fus envers moi-mfime. {G. Sand.) 
' Vona fites Ardaaire ? lui die-je. — Oui, perfide, repoDdit- 
elle ; je la aiiia. (ifont.) 

(§ 82.) ' C'eat dana cette charabre bien aimple, voua le 
Toyez, que j'ai paaae lea plna doucea heurea que j'ai v^eu'. 
(Dum.) ' n s'en va ; je n'ai pas taut de pouvoir sur lui 
que je le crojaia. (Mar.) ' Lui aeul, madame, voua aura 
aim6e comme vous devriez I'etre. (Bal.) ' Cette alterna- 
tive prouve en effet qu'il leur manque quelque choae k 
cbacun. (Cavier.) 'Lea rieheaaea et le luxe dea arts le 
diapntent en eclat aux dona aplendidea dea f6e«. {de Sis- 

(§84.) 'II est beau de triompher de soi. {Corn.) 'II 
eat plus aiafi d'Ctre sage pour les autrea que de lY'tre pour 
aoi-m£me. {La Ji.) ' Etre trop mScontent de soi eat une 
faibleaae ; fitre trop eoutent de soi est une sottiae. {df 
SahU.) 'La poeaie porte son excuae avec aoi. {Boileau.) 
'Les victolrea trainent toujoora apr<^s ellea autant de ca- 
lamit^s pour un Etat que les plus sanglantea d^faitea, 

(§ 85.) ' En 18H, la Restanration, tronvant le general 
Dupont en prison, en cut fait un ministre de la guerre. 
(Ste.-B.) ' En aortant de I'utat de nature, noua for^ons nos 
semblables d'en sortir aussi ; nul n'y peut demeurer malgr^ 
lea antres. {Rouss.) ' J'etaia indigne de voua, et j'en rougia. 




(f?. Sand.) ' C'Stait elle, j'en etais sflr, qui avail ai douillette- 
mant install^ Ik aa. bonne metre. (Coppie.) 'On m'a dit 
tanl de mal de cet homme, et j'y en toib' si peu 1 (La Br.) 
° Comment s'y prend-on, k la guerre, pour eviter les mau- 
vais ooupB ? {About.) ' J'en ^tais Id de mes reflexions, 
quand j'entendis appeler'' mon nom. (Dau.). ' Pourquoi 
e'en prendre aux hommes de ce que les femmea ne sont pas 

savantes ? {La Br.) ' C'en est fait, mes amis ; il n'est plus 
de patrie. (P""'-) "La dispute s'^chanfEant, on en vint 
bientflt aux armea. {Vertol.) " II y va de ma gloire ; il 
faut que je me venge. {Com.) " De deux pereonnes qui 
s'aiment, soit d'amour, Bolt d'amiti^, il y en a toujours une 
qui doit donner de son coeur plus que I'autre. ( 0, Sand.) 


' We are and always shall be charmed with this book ; 
it pleases and instruots us. ' Do you know who is its" au- 
thor? 'P know and have spoken with him; he came 
himself to see me, the eve of his departure. * He alone 
knows bow" to write really interesting stories. ' I will give 
this book to yourself, but you will not permit her to' read 
il. 'They also will read il, but he alone will understand 
it. ' If he wants to present himself to us, we shall not 
show ourselves to him. ' We were thinking of her when 
she came to us, ' This house — I cannot accustom myself 
to it, altboagh il is mine. " I saw them arrive this morn- 
ing. " I have caused to say to her that I cannot see her 
to-day. " She sends you this letter ; take it and read it. 
" Is she not your sister ? " She is (so) ; I was always kind 
to her, but she has not been so toward me. " You know, 
I have passed here many happy years. " I love this room 
more than you would believe^. " Some men are happier 
than they ought* to be. " One onght not to be too well- 

• cisi 





satisfied with one's self, " Every weaknesB carries its own 
punishment in iteelf, " He who triurapbs over" himself 
triamphs over" all misfortuneB, " It was sbe who said so 
much evil of them, depend upon it. " It is all over ; let 
us make an end, and go away. " Of all these people, there 
is not one that I love. 


S6. The possesSLves are the adjective forma corresponding to 
the personal pronouns as substantives. The forms and principal 
uses of them have heen already given (SIV. 1-5, XSVII. 1. 2). 

a. The so-called possessive pronouns (Xesflou XXVII.) are only 
a different form of the possessive adjectives, made of substantive 
value by prefixing the definite article. 

87. The possessive pronoun is occasionally used predicatively 
without article, and attributively after the indefinite srticle in- 
stead of the definite : thus, cette maiaon est mienne tliia house 
is mine, ub mien parent a relation <tf mine. 

88. The possessive adjective is often omitted in 
French where English usage requires it, or its meaning is 
expressed by the French in another manner than in Eng- 

a. It is omitted especially in speaking of parts of the body or 
dress, whore the connection makes clear what is meant ; thus, il 
me donna la. main lie gave me his hand. 

h. Its meaning is often expressed by an indirect objeet-pronoun 
with the verb, or by en : thus, il s'est cass^ 1$ bras lie ha» bro- 
ken his arm, le sol en est fbrtUe its soil is fertile. 

c. On the other hand, the possessive is used in address before 
the name of a relative, the title of a superior officer, and in other 
like cases : thus, boiyonr, mon pdra good day, fathei; oni, men 
gfoi&ral yes, Omeral. 

89. The possessive is made emphatic, as in English, by adding 
propre oie-n ; but also by adding the corresponding disjunctive 
pronoun with h.: thus, de mes propres yenx loith my own eyes, 
la ntaison de mon p6re et la. mienne propre my father's Itouse 
and my ttwn, votre opinion i, vons your very ovm opinion. 



(§ 87.) ' EUe ueut" nous plaire plus ou moins, inaU elle 
est si en lie. (Sle.-B.) ' Lfn mien cousin, Cfisar, Comte de 
Garofa, pr^s de Velalcazar. ( V. Hugo.) 

(g 88.) ' Je me Buia blessfe a la main. {Dimvitr.) 
'Jeunea femmea, ne jetez jamais lea yeux aiir les maitrea 
uhantcitra de BohCme. [Gaulier.) 'Pins nombreux, ils le- 
vaient le front plus haut que lui, (Delaviffne.) ' Je m'at- 
taohai i\ me perfectionner le gout, {Le, Sage.) ' Au second 
eoup aeulement, le bourrean lui abattit la tfte. [Migntt.) 
' Pour ohasaer oe caucheniar, je fermai lea yeux ; le ceeur 
me battait A'' me rompre la poitrine. (Lab.) ' La main me 
tremblait, mon regard se troublait, te cceur me manqua. 
{Lmi.) 'En passant en Pologne, il en vit le roi. {St. Si- 
won.) ' Cette vie, je I'ai en grande partie parcourue ; j'en 
connais les promessee, les r^alites, lea deeeptions. (Jtmffrog.) 
" Ma mdre, ma m^re I pourquoi ea-tu si longtemps oouch^e ? 
(Berqum.) " Pauvre cher homme 1 j'ai diii6 hier avec lui ; 
je lui disais : Vous manges trop, mon oncle. (Auffier.) 

J'en ferai confidence il tout le regiment ; merci, mon 
vieux 1 (Aliout.) 

{^ 89.) ' Aimable enfant, ajoutait-il, votre presence et 
voB doux sourires, voild mes i&tea d moi. (Sandeau.) ' AIubi, 
toute ma faniille d moi, c'est ma panvre nonrrice, U m^re 
Joaeph. (Scribe.) 


' Here la a cousin of thine ; give him thy hand. ' I can- 
not give him ray hand ; I have broken my arm. ' If yon 
perfect your taste, you will like books better ; you will un- 
derstand their beauties and know their authors. * France 
is the moat beautiful country in Europe, and Paris is its 
capital and largest city. ' Cousin, you do not know the 
world. ' You are afraid, friend ; your hand trembles, and 
your courage fails. ' Come with me, captain ; you shall 
see the whole company. ' I did it with my own hands. 
* I am not going to dine with you at the restaurant ; it is 

my' bapplneBB to'' dine with my own family, in my own 

C — Uemonsteatives. 

90. The forms and principal uses of the demonstrative adjec- 
tives and pronouns are giveu in tlie First Part (XIII. 1-3, XXIV. 

91. The demonstratives containing ci and lA are often 
used respectively in the sense of latter (i.e. nearer) and 
former (i.e. farther off). 

Thus, Comeilla et Baxiiie sont denx grands po^tsB ; celni-U. 
[i.e. Comeille] est plus sublime, celni-ci [i.e. Racine] est plus 
vrai CorneUle and Racine are tivo great poets; the former has 
mare auMimity, (he latter mnre. truth. And in the same manner 
ce . . . -ci and ce . . . -!&, and ceci and cela. 

92. a. Instead of the simple demonstratives celui etc. (XXtV. 
4a) as antecedent of a relative, the compounds celni-lA etc, are 
used, if somethiuR intervenes Iwfore the relative, or if the rela- 
tive clause is additive or parenthetic in value : thus, celiU'4& est 
bon qni &it dn bien aux antres he is gmyi who does good to 
others, celni-ci, qui cofite deux &aacB, est meillenr que celui-lji, 
qui en coflte cinq this one, which costs two francs, is better than 
that one, which easts five. 

ft. On the other hand, the simple celni etc. are in rare cases 
used otherwise than before a relative or de : thus, cette remarque, 
oinsi qne cellea pnrement grajumaticaleB (Volt.) Ihi^ remark, 
as ivell as those purely grammatical. 

93. 9^ is a familiar substitute for cela (XXIV. 3) ; it is t 
times used in a derogatory or contemptuous way of persons ; thus, 
loi, qu'est-ce que qa, lie ? what is fie * 

9t a. For the repetition by ce of a subject already expressed, 
see g 147e. 

6. The adjective ce is often us«l ot persons present or neai 
where the English uses instead the article : thus, ces dames the 
ladies (q/'t/ie house), and so on 


(§ 91.) ' Uvie a qnelques traits de Madame de Mainte- 
non ; si celle-ei fonda &aint-Cyr, cetle-Id s'oceupait des 
jennes fiUee en les mariant, (Ampere.) 

{§ 92.) 'Ceux'U sedla qui ont la conscience de n'litre 

•emphatic. 'I1T3I), 




rien par eus-m^mes, manifestent des regrets en tombant An 
pouvoir. {Sal.) 

{§ 83.) ' Qa marche ! 9a marche ! dans huit joura nous 
entrerona A Berlin. {Dau.) ' Aie bien Boin de tout ; tu rae 
rendraB corapte de (;a l^-bas ! dit-il. {Bal.) 'Davouat? 
Qa'eBt-ce que c'est que" ea? — pa, 'moneieiir le marquis, 
c'eBt le hdroB qui pr^para Wagram. (Sandeau.) 

(§ 94.) ' Ce que je desire, o'eat de* vous voir reusair. 
(flue.) II a peur de° perdre line minute, parce que le 
temps, c'est de I'argent, (Lab.) ' Faites approcher ce mon- 
sieur, que ces messieurs avaient attacbe. (v. Hugo.) 

' I have read the life of "Wellington and that of Napo- 
leon ; the latter was the greater inati, the former the bet- 
ter citizen. ' He alone is happy who triumphs over'' him- 
self. ' Those who love others are themselves beloved. 
' This man, who haa never had anything, ia happier than 
that one, who has loat his great wealth. ' Wagram ? what 
is that ? ' Wagram waa one of the great battles of Na- 
poleon's wars. 

D. — Intkbeog ATIVE8. 

85. The interrogative adjeetive and pronouns were given, aud 
their principal uses explained, in the First Part (XIII. 4, 5, XXV. ). 

96. De qui is not used in the sense of whone i with the govern- 
ing noun immediately following : thus, de qui est-ce le livre 
whoKB book is this ? 

97. The predicative que (XXV. 4o) is used almost as subject 
in certain impersonal expressions, where the impersonal subject 
ia omitteti : thus, que vons an aemble le/iat do you think qf 
them f {literally, vihat seems to you of them t) q.n'aiTivB-t-il what 
is happening f 

98. After qn'eat-ce meaning wJiat i^l 1% que is added before 
the predicate noun : thus, qn'est-ce que la vie what in life f 

a. The same is the case aft«r the doubled interrogative qa'est-ce 
que c'eat (XXV. 7) : thus, qa'eat-ce que c'est quo la vie what 
is life f 


" ) 1736, 



99. For the repetition of de after an interrogative before two 
alternativea, see above, § 34/: 


(§ 95.) ' Qui voulez-vouB que mon oceur mette &, voire 
place? (Mar.) ' Qui vons rend Bi hard! de troubler mon 
Dreuvage ? (La F.) ' Qui voub a fait po6te ? — Le malheur. 
{Pum.) ' Qui vouH a engage i, oommettre oet assaasinat? 
— Ses crimes. (Tkiern.) °Sais-tu qae c'est son sang? le 
sais-tn? — Que m'importe? (Corn.) ' Qu'4teB-voua mainte- 
naiit, soldats anglaia? (Guizot.) ' Voulez-vous que je vous 
apprenne la logique? — Qu'est-ce que c'eat que cette lo- 
gique? (Mot.) 

E. — Relatives. 

100. The forms and principal uses of the relative pronouns 
and adjective were given and explained in the First Part (XIII. 
56, XXVI.), 

a. For the use of a relative clause where in English a present 
participle stands, see helow, ^ 189^. 

101. a. Lequel !»< occaHionally used a& adjec-tive, when intro- 
ducing a clause that has additive value : thus, leqnel cbevalier 
devait ^ponser Mademoiselle B. which gentleman loas to marry 
Miss S. 

b. In antiquated and official phraseology, leqnel stttnds some- 
times where ordinary usage requires qiii or que : thus, uu t^moin, 
lequel ■■ dit ... a witness, who has said . . . 

102. Dont and de qui are not used as dependent upon an an- 
tecedent that is governed by a preposition : thus, le roi aux bien- 
&ita duqnel . . . tJte king to whose ben^ts . , . 

103. Qui, que, and quoi are all often used as compound rela- 
tives, or relatives implying also their antecedent, and having a 
general or indefinite senae. 

a. Qui referring to persona thus signifies any one who, whoeve/ , 
and is used also as object : tbuB, Qoi s'ezcuBe a'axxuse whoever 
fiecuses himself accuses himself, qu'importe la vie (L qui perd le 
bonbenr of what use is life to any one who loses happiness f je 
ne sais qui chercber / don't know whom to look for. 

b. Qui ia also used instead of ce qui as referring to things after 
void and voil&, and in parenthetic phrases like qui plus est what 
is more : thus, voilk qui aerait merveilleux that would be ad- 
mirable (lit'ly, behold what wmtld be admirable). 

c. Que hardly occurs in this sense except as object of an infini- 
tive immediately following it : thus, il ne sait qne &ire he knows 
not what to do. 




d. Qttoi staods with this value eapeciall; after a prepoation 
(Be« XXVT. S) : thus, voUk de qnoi U parts ITuU is what he i* 
talking about, dites-moi en qnoi je pais vona serrir t^ me in 
what I can be ()f service to ymi. And de qooi has become an idi- 
omatic phrase, meaning the wherewith, the means of anything. 

IM. Qui, (Looi, and qnel. when followed bj qne before a sub- 
JnnctiTe, correKpond to whoerer and tchatervr with the subjonc- 
tive in EnglJKh ; qni being used relating to persons, qnoi as ob- 
ject relating to things, and quel aa predicate adjective : thuf, qui 
qae vons sorei, qnoi que vons fossieE, quels que soient tob ta- 
lents wfifieeer you maij be, ifhateixr you may do, whatever be youi 
talents, quoi qo'il en aoit whatever the case may be. 

a. The same phrases are nsed sometimes in the sense of any 
one soever, anything whatever, and the like : thus, il ne con- 
oalt qui qua ce soit he knows nobody at all. 

b. Very rarely, qui is used instead of que, with a verb follow- 
ing of which it is the subject : thus, qnoi qni snive whatever 
may ensue. 

c. For the use of qnelqne qae in a similar sense, see below, 
% 107c ; for that of relative adverbs, see g 137c. 


(§ 100.) ' Moi <fui suis royalJBte, je le dis francbement. 

fde Vi.) ' Dis-moi, qui ee-tu, toi qui me parlea ainei? 
ifar.'^ ' Ce fut moi qui m'inclinai A mon tour, [bum.) 
' Soleil qui vols, entetids, connais tout I (Chenier.) 

{% 102.) 'Monsieur, c'est nn homme sur la vie duquel 
reposent d'tinormes capitanx. (liol.) ' Celui-14 seul avait 
le droit de triompher, sous les auspiceti duquel la guerre 
etait faite. (Mont.) 

(§ 103.) ' Qui dit le peuple, dit plus d'une chose ; c'eat 
uue vaste expression. {La Br.) ' A qui venge son p^re, il 
n'est rien d'lmposslble. {Com.) 'Qui sert bien son pays 
n'a pas beaoin d'aieux. ( Vol.) ' Je n'anrai qni tromper, 
HOD plus que qui rae trompe. {Com.) ' J'ai de qnoi me 
d^fendre, et de qnoi vous r^pondre. {Holrau.) ' Voild qui 
m'^tonne, que nous ayons €tS seules, I'une et Tantre, tout 
aujourd'hui. {MoL) "Edouard III. ne se crut paa aaeez 
fort tout seul ; il chercha qui embaucher dans sa cause. 
{Vocquerie.) ' C'est la pens^e qui fait I'^tre de I'homme, et 
sans quoi on ne le pent concevoir. {Pane.) ' S'il faut SKir, 
je ne saia que faire ; s'il faut parler, je ne sais qne dire. 



(g 104.) ' Qui que ce soit, jiarlez, et ne le craignez pas, 
{liae.) ' Quoi que vous fasBioz, votre image m'eBt restSe. 
(rfe Ma.) 'Le grand myst^re de la mort, quel qa'il soit, 
doit donner du calme. {de Slael.) ' Madame, j'aime mieux 
voH ii;t6r<^tB que les siena, et que ceux de qui que ce aoit au 
monde. (Mar.) 'Mais n'importe, ma chSre ni^oe ; quoi 
qu'il arrive, quelle que soit notre famille, oela ne change 
nen k mes proietB. {Scrihe.) ' D^aormaia je ne douterai de 
qnoi que ce aoit. {de Mu.) 


' Whose pretty picture it) this ? ' What matters it to 
yon who is its owner ? ' What is man's happiness ? ' Who 
told you that ? ' What do you want ? 

' He alone has the right to be happy, on whose life rests 
the happiness of others. ' One who wants to be rich ought 
to work, ' I do not know what to do, to whom to address 
myself, with what to defend myself. ' Here is something 
to defend yourself with. " We have worked a great deal, 
and we have gained the means of living. " Nobody can 
tell what ahe is thinking of at present. '' That is the man 
who has deceived me. " Speak to him, and you will find 
that he haa nothing to answer yon with. " Whatever they 
do, they are always wrong. " Whatever I said to her, she 
would not listen to me. " Whatever may be your talents, 
yon will never succeed without application. " Do your 
duty, whatever it may be, and yon cannot' be really un- 
happy, " We have not seen any one whomsoever. " What- 
ever may happen to yon, be firm. " They do not succeed 
in anything whatever. 



105. Some of the forms and uses of the prooominal words 
f alling under this head wer« §^reD in the First Part (XIV. 6. 
XXVn. 3-7) ; further particulars are added here. 

106. On (XXVII. 4). A predicate nonn or adjective relating 
lo on tn subject usually takes the number and gender corre- 

rading to the implied meaning : thus, on n'«at point doa ea- 
ves people are not slates, q,n'on est folle d'agir ainsi kojo 
foolish one (i.e. a woman) is to aH thus. 

a. If a corresponding object-form to on is required, vons hta 
to be used. And Tons la also sometimea used as subject in an in- 
definite way. as in English, instead of on. 

b. On is sometimea used lo Miften the force of a command : 
thus, qn'on se taise, instead of taises-vons be silenl. 

107. Qnelqne, qoelgn'tm, cinelqne chose (XIV. B, XXVU. 5). 

a. Qnelqne chose something is treated as masculine (although 
chose is fcmiQine) : thus, tiaeliine chose de bon something good, 
ce qnelqne chose this something. 

b. The negative correlatives to qnelqn'nn aud qnelqoe dioM 
are personne and rien. These are used uot only where the nega- 
tion is distinct or distinctly expressed, but also often where a de- 
gree of negative sense is implied : thus, sans voir personne with- 
out seeing any arte, je le dSfle de rien dire de moi I defy him to 
my anyOiing of me. 

e. In the sense of English whatever with subjunttive, qnelqne 
. . . qne stands in French In an attributive wjiise, or directly 
qualifying a noun expressed : thus, qnelqnes talents qne Tona 
ayoa whatever talents you may fiave, de qnelqne cfltfi qn'on se 
tonme in whatei>er direction one may turn. 

Compare the corresponding use of qni, qnoi, qnel, with follow- 
ing qae, alxiye, § lOt Here, also, the que is in rare cases replaced 
by qni as subject : tlius, qnelqnes nonveanx malhenrs qni notu 
doivent attendre whatewr new viisfortuves may an-ait ua. 

d. Qtielqne is also used in the same way adverbblly, qualify- 
ing an adjective or adverb, in the sense of lioieever. and is then, 
of course, invariable : thus, qnelqne gprands qne soient vos ta- 
lents Jiowever great your talents may be, qnelqae fort qn'on se 
d^ftnde however stoutly one may resist. Compare the conjunc- 
tion qnoiqne although. 

e. Qnelqne is also invariable when used in the sense of about, 
nearly, with a word of quantity, generally a numeral : thus, 
qnelqne vingt ans some twenty years, qnelqne pen some little. 

108. Qnelconqne. This is a pronominal adjective of infre- 

11*1 INDEFINirBS. 259 

quent use, meaning whatever, and always following the nonn it 
qualifies : thus, doimeB-moi nn point q.nelconqne, dee points 
quelconqnu give me any point uihatever, any points vhateoer. 

109. Chaqno. chacira (XIV. 6. XXVIl, 5). Of the two words 
meaning eeery, cliaqae is distributive and individualizing, tout 
is inclusive and generalizing : thus, tout liomme est mortal ; honune a son caractdrs & Ini eoerg man is mortal ; every 
(or each) man has his own character. In many oases, however, 
the two may be used indifferently. 

110. Tel suioh. Tel is varied for gender and number like any 
other adjective in el : thus, tel, teU ; telle, telles. It is used in 
all adjective constructions, and also substantively. It takes the 
indefinite article before it, instead of after, as in English ; thus, 
nn tel homme such a man, sa coudnite 6tait telle qne . . .his 
cmiduct teas *ucft as . . . 

a. Tel has various idiomatia uses. It means m-and-so, or 
»ueh-and'such, standing in place of a word which it is desired 
not to express distinctly : thus, k telle ripoqne at such-and-such 
an epocA, moiuieiiT nn tel Mr. such a one. It may often be ren- 
derml by one and another or many a one, or the like : thus, tel 
parle de chosea qn'il n'ontend pas sonw people talk of things 
they don't understand. Tel . . . tel stand for one . . . another: 
thus, tel rit, tel plenre ont laughs, another cries ; or for a« . . . 
so; thus, tel p^, tel fils a« t/ie /other, so the son. Tel qnel 
means elUptically nuch as it is, nf whatever sort or quality. 

IIL Ancnn, nnl (XIV. 6. XXVIL 6). These words are used 
both adjeotively and substantively, and both alike require ne be- 
fore the verb. They but rarely occur in the plural. 

a. They are used not only as distinct n^atives, but also where 
a negative sense is implied or suggested, as after sans without 
and verbs of denial or donbt : thus, sans nnl 4gard without any 
consideration, je donte qn'ancnn de vena le fasse / question 
whether any of yau would do it. Ancnn is occasionally found in 
old-style French with a fnlly poaitive meaning: thus, ancnns 
croient qne . . . some believe OiOi . . . 

112. Plnsieiira several etc. PlosienrB (XIV. 6, XXVII. 6) is 
only plural, and used both adjectively and substantively. 

a. Other adjectives used nearly in the same sense are (much as 
in Eoglish) certain, diSSrent, divers, certain, sundry, divers, 
and the like. 

113. Uaint tiiany a, inany. This is an attributive adjective 
only, having the usual adjective inflection : thus, maint homms 
many a man, maintes foU many times or many a time. 

114. a. Hflme self, name, etc. This word, a prononii by ori- 
gin, hns acquired a variety of values. For its combinations with 
the disjunctive pronouns, mot-mOme myself etc., see the First 


Part (XXIII. 3c). Aiter a noun, it has a similar meaning, il«e(f 
etc.; thus, la Tertn mfime virtue itself, lea Fran^ais memes the 
French themselves; and it is sometimes beat translated I'^ry : 
thuB, ce matin mSme that very morning. 

i. Before the qualified nous, it means same : thus, ce mBine 
matin that same morning, lea mdmes Fraii;aia the same Frmdi- 

c. It is also often used as adverb, meaning even : thus, mSme 
ce matin ecen this morning, ses eimemia mfime even his enemies. 
With this value it is, of course, invariable in form. 

115. Autre other (XXVIl. 6). Tliis word is for the most part 
an ordinary adjective, capable of being used also substantively. 
For its combination with im into phrases, see the First Part 
(XXVn. 7). 

a. It is sometimes added to noas or voob expletively, or simply 
to emphasize the distinction of us or i/ou from others : thus, noiu 
antrea Fran9aiB we Frenchmen, vena antres Anglaia you Eng- 

b. Antre chose anything else is common with a negative verb 
in the sense of Twihing else. 

116. Tout oii,eperi/ (XIV. «,XXVn. 5-7, §109). This is also 
in the main an ordinary adjective, but having some values analo- 
gous with pronominal words. 

a. In certain phrases, tent signifies all, whole without accom- 
panying article etc.: thus, k teste force vnth all one's might; 
this is especially the case in the plural : thus, en tontes diosea t» 
all things, de tontes sortes qfoll sorts. 

b. Tout everything is sometimes used in the sense of everybody. 
Le tout is the wfiole. 

c. Tent is very often used adverbially, meaning whoUy, en- 
tirely, ^uite, altogether, all, and the lilie. In these senses, it re- 
mains invariable before a noun, an adverb, a proposition, a mas- 
culine adjective, and a feminine adjective beginning with a vowel ; 
but, before a feminine adjeotive Iwginning with a consonant, it is 
itself treated as an adjective, and made to agree with the follow- 
ing noun : thus, elles aont tout adinir^es they are altogether ad- 
mired, but elles sont tontes maladea they are quite ill, elle £tait 
tout aimable, tonte graciense she was altogether amiable and 

d. Tout before an ndjective, or noun used adjectivoly, with que 
after it, adds the meanini^ of hmcever; tont bon qn'il eat Tiow- 
eoer good he is, tont gentilBhommes qn'ila ponvaient Mre Ttow- 
ever mudi the gentleman they might be. Ilerp, too, the tont ie 
treated as adjective before a feminine begiiming willi a conso- 
nant ; thus, tontes bonnes ijn'elles aont good f hough they are. 



(§106.) ' Qiiand on eet jeunes, riches, et j oik b, meg- 
dames, on n'est pas riiduiteB a I'artifice. (Diderot.) ' Qu'on 
redouble demain lea heurcux Bacritices. (C'or».) 

(8 107.) ' Un gentilhomme croit Binc^rement qu'il y a 
quelque chose de grand et de noble i la chasee. (Pane.) 
'Quelquea luinitirefl, quelques traits d'eaprit que Ton ait, 
rien nest si ais^ que de se tromper. (/*a»c.) 'Enfin, de 
quelqne mani^re que les finances de I'Etat soient adminis- 
trces, la France possdde dans le travail d'envbon Ttngt 
millions d'babitanta un tr^sor inestimable. ( Vol.) * Quel- 
que corrompues que soient dob nKBure, te vice n'a pas en- 
core perdu toute sa bonte. (Mansillon.) ' Et quel fige avez- 
vous i"— He I qnelque soixante ane, (Rac.) 

(§ 108.) ' Toutes les jouissances eont toujours pr£cM6es 
d'un travail quelconque. (Campan.) 

(§ 109.) ' Chaque conditioD a ses d6go1\ts, et d chaque 
4tat sont attach6ea ses amertumes. (Massillon.) ' Toute 
confiance est dangereuse, si elle n'est enti^re. (La Br.) 
' Cbacun se croit capable de tout. (Nicole.) ' Comme si lea 
travers de la faraille bnmaiae ne rajeuniasaient pas chaque 
an, chaque semaine ! (de Mu.) 

{§ 110.) ' Mais 011 Madame de Lafayette retrouvera-t- 
elle un tel ami, une telle society ? (de Sev.) ' Tel qu'est le 
jagedupeuple, telBBontaeaminiatres. (Sact.) 'Telsdoivent 
etre loues de ce qu'ils out fait, et tela de ce qu'ils auraient 
fait. (La Bt.) 'La aculpture, an contraire, ne fait gufire 
rfiver ; car elle represente nettement telle chose, et non paa 
telle autre. (Cousin.) ' Mais 1 'enfant retrouvee telle quelle, 
on s'est calme bien vite. (ff. Sand.) 

(§ 111.) ' Notre vie ne suffit pour auoun exercice, pour 
aucun art, pour aucune profession. (Nicole.) ' Helas 1 au- 
cun son ne frappait notre oreille. (Chat.) ' Part out la 
force eclate, mais sans grSce aucune. (Le Bury.) ' Je me 
snis retournS ; je I'ai regard^ : lui, sans nul 6gard, sans 
nulle attention, a repet6 le mfime discours. (Stdmite.) ' A- 
t-il la an livre qui tui a pin ? C'est la plus belle chose qu'il 
y ait en aucune languo. (de Mu.) 

(§ 112.) ' Ah, monsieur ! il ya certains petits adoncisse- 
ments k cause de la faiblease du sexc. (de Siv.) 

(§ 113.) ' Car, si les loups mangeaient mainte bSte ega- 
r6e, les bergera de leur peau se faisaient maints habitb. 


SLa F.) ' Avec quelques vertus, j'ai maint et maint d^faiit. 

(g 114.) ' C'est la voix m^me de la patrie, goDflee de 
Bouvenim et de larmes. {Dan.') * A la cour, a la rille, 
m^mes passions, mSmea faibleseea, monies petiteases. (Za 
Br.) ' Ce sont encore lea FFan9aiB, mais non lea m^mes, 
(Pasc.) ' H est probable m^me qu'un seul 6te [de flinerie] 
ne Buffirait point k faire un grand homme. ( TiEpfer.) 

(§ 115.) 'Nous autres ^plomates profitons volontien 
des fautes de noa collogues. (Scribe.) ' Vons avez fini, 
voue autrca ecrivaina, par rendre bien ridicules lea fenunes 
qui se pretendent ni6coimaea. (Bal.) ' Avez-vous de I'or 
et de I'argent ? me disent-ile ; noua ne aouhaitonB pas autre 
chose. (O. Sand.) ' Toutes les pasaions ne sont aatre chose 
que IcB divers degr^s de la cbaleur et de la froidear du 
aang. (La S.) 

(f 116.) 'Tout petit prince a deB ambassadeurs ; tont 
marquis veut avoir dea pages. (La F.) ' Autour d'elle tout 
a'etait ecroule ; tont en elle sonffrait et gemissait. (San- 
dea-a.) ' Qoand mon p^re venait au parloir, j'^tais toujours 
accompags^ de C6sarine, qui etait pour lui tout aimable, 
toute gracieuae. (Scribe.) ' Pour voir done lea passions dans 
leur difformitg naturelle, il faut les consid^rer toutes nues. 
(Nicole.) ' Elle treasaillit, puis devint toute rouge. (Tkeu- 
riet.) ' H est de ce heros, de Frederic II., qui, tout roi qu'il 
fitait, f ut un penaeur profond. (Ajidrieux.) ' La valeur, tout 
hfiro'ique qu'elle est, ne snffit pas pour faire des h6ros. (Mai- 
silloti.) ■ L'esperance, toute trompeuse qu'elle est, sert au 
moine d noua mener k la fin de la vie par un chemin agr^- 
able. (La M.) ' Vous semblez tout effrayee ! — Effray6e ? 
r^ondit-elle ing^nument, non, male troubl^e et oontente. 

Theme 9. 

' Do not be deceived. ' How foolish people are to talk 
thus 1 * Whatever richea we may have, we can lose them 
in a day. * However dull a man may be, be has always 
something good or noble in bis character, 'Whatever 
gifts may be offered us, we shall not accept them. * I 
have been at his house already some ten times without 

Ill] INDBPIIflTES. 263 

finding him. ' Althoagh he is already some eighty years 
old, he has not yet lost all his wit. ' I wanted to give you 
something beautiful and interesting, but nothing is mora 
difficult than to find such an article. * Give me any book 
whatever, and I will be satisfied ; there is nothing easier 
than to choose one. " Every book pleases me ; I read 
every volume that is given me. " Every man ia more or 
less unhappy, but each man has his own troubles. " Where 
have you seen such a judge and such ministers ? " Some 
love sculpture and some painting. " Such as are the peo- 
ple, such is the government. "One ought not to admire 
every painting, whatever its quality; praise only those that 
are excellent. " No life is sufficient for more than one art 
or for more than one profession. " No one has more grace, 
but she is without any force. '* I doubt if there is any 
language that she does not speak. " Man has many a 
weakness, many a defect ; but in many things be is strong. 
" I saw my friend last week, and I have seen him again 
this very morning. "We saw bim at the same time as 
you. " Even our weaknesses and our passions are not the 
same. " You women, you are always asking gold and sil- 
ver ; you want nothing else, it seems to me. " You men 
never see in us anything else than faults. " During the 
last century, everything baa changed. " France has 
changed in everything. "These little girls are quite 
young still. " Life, however rich in attractions it may be, 
is not always happy. " The hopes of men are altogether 
vain and deceptive. 


117. The inflection of all the verbs in the langua^^, regular 
and irregular, was given in the First Part, together with the more 
important rules respecting the uses of the foruis ; Huch further 
portioulars as most need to be given foliow here. 


118. The PRESENT tense in French has no variety of 
expression eorreeponding to the English I give, I do 
give, I am giving, etc.; all alike are rendered by the 
Bimple present je donne. 

a. The present stands for the usual varieties of pres- 
ent action, as purely present, habitual present, expression 
of general truths, and the like. 

i. As in English, the present is often nsed instead of 
the past in lively narration. 

Thus, la nnit approcbe, riiutaiLt arrive ; Cieax ae prAsente 
night draws nigh, the moment mtnes ; Cmsar presents himself. 

And in French, much more often than would be regarded as 
good style in English, present and past are mixed and interchange 
in the same sentence. 

c. The present not infrequently stands where the fu- 
ture would he more logically correct. 

Thus, des que je pourrai, je reviena as soon as I shall be able, 
I [shall] come baek, je pars demain I set out to-morrow. 

But the French makes this substitution of prraent for fntnre 
leas often than the English : see below, § 123a. 

d. The present is regularly used (instead of the per- 
fect, as in English) for past action continued into the 
present, or for what lias been and still is. 

Thus, il eat ici depuis ime aemBine he has been here for a 
loeek, je I'ai Af^i. deox ans / have had it two years already. 

Compare the similar use of imperfect for English pluperfect, 
below, § 119c. 

110, As between the two simple past tenses, imper- 
fect and preterit, the pKETKKrr expresses simply past 
action, without further implication; the imperfect ex- 
presses past action viewed as continuous, as a lasting con- 
dition or quality, as habitual, repeated, or the like. 

a. This <Ustinction is in part quite clear and easy to make, as 
in oases where our language says or might say / was gimng, or / 
Aep( giving, or / gate repeaiedly, or / nsed to give, or the like, 




the imperfect being required in Bueh cases ; but often also it ia 
mQch more difficult, being determined by the way in which things 
are looked at, or even by idiomatic usage that is not readily to be 
accounted for. It depends in great part, not on the character of 
the action itself, but on the relation of that action to some other : 
especially, when one action is represented as going on at the time 
another occurs, the former is imperfect and the latter preterit : 
thus, in English, he was (impf. ^tait) there as I entered (pret. 
entrai) ; he spoke (pret. parla) to me as I ottered (impf. entr&ia); 
I turned (pret. toomai) while lie gpohe (impf. parlait) ; as 1 
turned (impf. tonmais) I saw (pret. vis) something— aad so on. 
The student should nevei pass au imperfect in reading without 
stopping to aak himself why that tense is used instead of Oie 

b. Certain special cases are : the imperfect sometimes in verbs 
of speaking, when the words of the speaker are quoted (as if 
went on to say or the like) : thus, elle vons trahira, Ini r^pond- 

il AToaez, reprenait son ami . . . Jajnais, jamais, r^p^tait 

rantre she wUl betray you, replies he . . . Confess, his friend 
went on . . . Never, never, repeated the other ; sometimes a series 
of suecessive events are combined, as it were, into a whole by the 
use of the im^rfect ; the imperfect is used in an emphatic way 
for the conditional : thus, B'il ne I'avait pas fait, Tantre £tait 
mort if he had not done so, the other was (i.e. would have been) a 
dead tnan. For the imperfect instead of conditional or subjunc- 
tive after si, see below, § 138a. 

c. The imperfect is regularly used (instead of the pln- 
perfeet, aa in English) for previous action continued to or 
into a past time, or for what had been and still was. 

Thus, il 7 ^tait depnis lon^temps he had been there for along 
time ; lis avaient des d^fensenrs ; Us n'en enrent pins they had 
been /taving d^enders ; they no longer had any. 

Compare the similar use of present for our perfect, above, § H&d. 

120, The PEETEBiT needs no other definition than that 
given above; it ia the tense for simple past action in a 
general way, when special reasons do not require the im- 
perfect or perfect. 

121. The PERFECT answers in the main to the English 
perfect, being the expression for past action with some 
reference to the present involved. 

But there are also consideriible differences between the two, ea- 

pecially b& the French often uses the perfect where we set the 
simple preterit : thus, 

a. To espress general facts of the past, not in connection with 
their Burroundings : thus, Alexandre a d^troit rempire des 
PeraeB Ihe Persian empire was destroyed by Alexander, Dien a 
cr^^ le moiide Qfid ereated the world. 

1). Especially, the perfect is very often used to expresa 

recent eveDta, connected with the present, as liaving 
taken place within a division of time now current. 

Thus, je me snia lev^ k six henrea ce matin I got up at ^ 
o'dock this moming ; lui ftves-Tons parl^ did you speak to him f 

c. Not aeldom in other cases, not easy to define, the perfect ia 
employed where general analogy would lead ua to expect the 

122. The FLUPEEFECT and the past anterioe both an- 
swer to the Englisii pluperfect, but the French pluper- 
fect is its ordinary equivalent, and much the commoner of 
the two tense-forms, 

a. In general, the past anterior ia used only after certain par- 
ticles, which give a special deflniteness to the action espressed, 
in its relation to another past action. These particles are qnand 
and iDrsqnB whtn, aprds qne after, djbA qn« and anssitOt que as 
soon (ur, £ peine hardly, and the like : thus, lorstia'il eut Ani, je 
Bortis when he hadjlnished, I went out. 

b. Only the pluperfect can be used after si if. 

123. The future correeponds to the English future. 

a. The French, however, often uses the future in compound 
Bentences where it ia logically more correct, but where the English 
has the present instead : thus, vous direz ce qn'il Tone plaint 
you wUl say what you [shall] please, tant qn'il vivra as long as 
he lives (or sTtall live). 

b. The future is used after si only in the sense of whether : 
thus, je ne eais s'il viendra / knou> not whether lie will come. 

e. As in English, the future is sometimes used in an imperative 
sense : thus, tn ne tneras pas thou- shall not kill; or to express 
a probability : thus, ce sera qnelqne grand homme he is doubt- 


197] XJSES OP THE TEN3E3. 367 

124. The future perfect is used like the correspond- 
ing tense in English. 

a. Its peciiliaritics of uao are closely analogous to those of the 
simple future : thus, tn recneilleras ce que tn auras semi t/iou 
wilt reap what thou hast (shall fiave) sown, penoime ne saura 
■'il sera vena nn one- iiHll know whet/ier lie has conie; il aura 
rendu qnelqnes services Ae has doubtless rerulered some service. 

125. The coNDmoNAL agrees in general in use with 
the English conditional, or verb-phrase made with the 

auxiliaries would and sliould. 

a. Tlie future has in mme degree a modal character, as having 
a contingent or hypothetical meaning ; and the conditional, which 
is properly a past tense to the future, like the corresponding Eng- 
lish (would and should being past tenses of will and afialt), is 
still more modal, and is oft«n so classed and described, as the 
" conditional mode." 

b. The conditional answers to a past tense as a future to a pres- 
ent : thus, j'espere qn'il riendra, j'eBp^rais qn'il viendrait / 
hope he will come, I hoped he would come; qui I'anra, eeramort, 
qui l^anrait, serait mort whoever has it will be a dead man, 
whoever had it wotdiJ be a dead man ; je ne eais s'il viendra, je 
ne MTais s'il viendrait Idmft ktww whether lie will oome, Idid 
not know whether he would aome ; and so on. 

c. In a hypothetical sentence, the conditional is used in the 
conclusion : thus, si je I'avais, je serais content if I had it, I 
slwuld be satisfied. But instead of it, the past subjunctive may 
be used : see below, g 131ri. If quand is used instead of si, the 
conditional may stand abo in the other clause ; thus, qnand je 
VKuniA if I had it ; also after que, in an idiomatically inverted 
sentence : thus, je raurais, que je n'en serais pas content / 
might hatie it, o»(d j/et not be satt-ijled. 

d. As in English, the conditional is used to soften a request or 
statement : thus, anrisz-vons la. bontd . . . would you have t/ie 
kindness . , . , je vondrais que . . . / should like to ham . . . 
Sanraifi (XXXIV. 76) is idiomatically used in the sense of the 
present can. 

126. The coNDrnoNAL pekfect correBponds to the 
same tense in English, and is related to the simple con- 
ditional precisely as the future perfect to the f cture. 

127. For the jiHwf-tenses of immediate past and immediate 
future, formed with the present and imperfect of aller, and of 
venir with da. see the First Part (XXVII. 8c, XXXI. 116). Cer- 

268 VEHBB. [187— 

tain other phrases have an analogy with toDBe-fonna : thus, j'ai 
i faira / ftaite to do, c'oBt 4 eap&er it is to be fuyted, and bo on. 

128, Phrases with a redundant auxiUary partit^iple are sonie- 
timea made in colloquial French, iind occasionally appear even in 
the literature : thus, dds qn'il aura en fini as soon as he sTtall 
have i^ot) finished. 

ILLUaTEATIVE eENTENCES.-XVm. TensM of the Verb. 

(§ 118.) 'An qainzi^me siSele tout change; la pensee 
bnmatne decouvre uii moyen de se perpetuer". (V. Huffn.) 
' Alors elle tire un couteau de son sein, frappe Maral au 
flanc gauche, et enfonce le fer iusqu'au coeur. A moi", 
B'6cria-t-il. ( Thiers.) ' Comme j'acnevaia la quatri^me Mgne, 
je live Taguement les yeux, et j'aper^ois de° I'aatre cfit6 
dn foss^ . . . un ours qui me regardait fixement. ( V Hugo.) 
' Je pars dans I'instant, rSpondit Charles ; laissez-moi. 
(fihiizof.) * Je vous ramSne chez moi en sortant du Louvrej 
14 je vous ^coute, et je pars pour continuer mon ouvrage; 
car rien oe m'ebranlera, je vous en avertia. {de Vi.) ' Je 
songe, depnis quelques jours, que les inter^ts huniains m'ont 
trop detournS de cette /unique pensee, (de Vi.) ' H y a 
lonstemps que je r6vG d'lin officier qui me sauve la vie. 

(§ 119.) 'Quand je revins il moi, il faiaait jour. . . Pour 
chasser ce cauchemar, je fermai les yeux; le cmur me bat- 
tait 4 me rompre'' la poitrine; quand j'osai regarder, j'etais 
seul ... Je n'avais qu'd me taire; je laissai Zambo ex- 
baler sa furie, et ne youlus pas voir qu'il me tirait la langue. 
{Lah.) 'Pendant que j'ficrivaia, une grosae mouche vint 
ae poser sur I'oreille ensanglantee de mon spectateur . , , 
Je commen^ais i me faire il ce t6te-A-tete lorsqne surviiit 
un incident. ( V. Hugo.) ' Nous eherchdmes, tant qu'il St 
jour, notre chemin d travers ces bois; raais, plus noascher- 
chions, plus notis nous perdions, et il fttait nuit noire quand 
D0U8 arrivdmes pri^s d'une maison fort noire ... On crut 

?ue nous portions les diamants de la couronne . . . Par les 
entes dc la porte je vis le pt^re, sa lampe dans une main, 
dans I'autre an de ses grands couteaux. II montait, sa 
femme aprfis lui ; moi derriSre la porte ; il ouvrit. (Couriw.) 
* Vous vous OGcnpez toujours de police ? lui disait Bona- 
parte avec une sorte d'admiration. — Oh ! r^pondait mo- 

•I ISOo. " i %Z9b. • S 8040. i I82h. 



destement Foucbe, j'ai conservu qiielqaeB amin qui me 
tiennent an conrant. {Lanfrey.) ^A Eylaii, I'jnfanterie 
roBBe paraiesait in^branlable ; N^apol^on lant;ait f'ur elle 
Hoixante esoadrone de dragons et de cnirassiers, et v ouvrait 
^si nnc brSche qui oe ae refermait plus. {Thiers.^ ' Si le 
czar avait en toujours cette bumanite, c'^tait le premier des 
hommeH. ( Vol.'j ' Pensez ! depuiB quarante ana il 6tait \& 
& la mfime place, avec sa. cour eD face de lui. (Dau.) ' Elles 
daraient depuie plus de dix ans, sans qu'il efit pu les cban- 
ger, {St. Simon.) 

(§ 121.) ' Quand vous m'aviesi connue, je n'etais pas 
ce que je auis aujourd'hui. (ff. Sand.) ' Ma oh^re, m'a-t-il 
dit, j'ai failli fitre ta6 sur les quatre beures. (Sal.) ' J'ai 
su que vous etiez I'tm des meilleura amis de ce pauvre gar- 
ijon. (Bal.) ' Achille Deveria a traefi d'elle, le jour de ea 
mort, une esquiBse fiddle, qui exprime la souffrance et le 
repOB. (Ste.-B.) ° Enfin, je me ania lev4 bruaquement, 
" Qa'est-ce que c'est? ai-je dit ; qu'est-ce que vous faites ?" 
Madame de V. a feint une vive surprise, Est-ce qqe mon- 
sieur n'a pas demande a diner ? — Pas du tout. — Edouard 
m'a dit que monsieur . . . Edouard s'est trompS." ... I^ 
pauvre femmc s'est mise alora d plier triatement sa nappf, 
en me jetant les yeux ^plores d'un cbien qu'on a battu. 
" Monsieur a probablement dine, a-t-elle repris d'une voix 
timide. — Probablement." {Fe^iillel.) 

(§ 122.) ' Apr^s qne les deux comtes furent sortia, Marie 
coneola ees aerviteurs, qui fondaient en lartnes . . . Qaand 
elle eat fini d'ecrire, il etait prSa de deux heures du matin . . . 
Lorsqu'on les eat eloignee, elle se remit en marcbe. (Miffnei.) 
' A peine sa jambe eut-elle tonch^ le gazon, qu'il tomba a 
genottx. {de Vt.) 

{§ 123.) ' Faia comme tn voudraa, Bourguignon. (Mar.) 
' Men p^re me pardonnera, dfis qu'il vous aura vuc. [Afar., 
' KouB serone disperses sur la surface de la terre, parce qut 
nouB Herons de ta famille, et mauditB, parce que nous porte 
rons ton nom. (Bum.) ' Si mon fils le rencontre, il lui fera 
tout le bien qu'il pourra. ( V. Hugo.) ' Quand vous jugerej 
la cfaoBe & point, et qu'il sera temps de I'arrgter, voaa tire 
rez un coup do piatolet. ( V- Hugo.) ' Knfin, ce sera, je le 
BOppoBe, un trait lance contre la jurisdiction exp4ditive 

\ 124.) ' Quand vous aurez fini 

tre p 

^^re, i 



firendrez ei toub vonlez m'aider. (de Vi.) ' C'est 14 que, 
orsqu'il sera mort, elle vivra obscure et paisible. (Coppfe.) 
' Quand vous en aiirez goflte, voub De voudrez plus manger 
d'autre chose. (Dum.) ' Jamais, d eoup etir, il u'aura iait 
antant de bruit de eon vivant. (Scribe.) 

{§ 125.) ' Je voulus voir si les races vivantes m'offriraient 
plus de vertus, ou moins de malheitrs que les races 6va- 
nouies. (C/iut.) ' Si tu avais fait la guerre dans la Valte- 
line, tu ne parlerais pas comme ^a. Qie Vi.) ' Si nous de- 
vious, dys ce monde, recevoir le pris dli k nos vertus ou k 
nos forfaits, toutes les prosperit^s seraieiit honorables, et 
un coup de foudre aerait une mort infamante. {Saintine.') 
' Quand voua me donneriez cent mille francs, ^a ne me 
ferait pas autant de plaisir que de vous voir manger mon 
pauvre diner. (Feuiltel.) ' Cet exemple, je I'esp^re, ne sera 
pas perdu ; je voudrais qu'il servit A eombattre respSce 
d'affaifisemeut moral qui est la maladie de la g^n^ration 
nouvelle. (TkierTy.) ' Je saurais 6tre pauvre, et je m'en 
ferais gloire. (Ponaard.) 

(§ 126.) ' Cependant que m'auraient aervi des conseila ? 
Je ne leB auraia pas suivi. (de Vi.) ' Madame Recamier lea 
connaissait tous, et en parlait trds bien ; celui qui aurait 
voulu en ^crire avec goQt aurait du en causer auparavant 
avec eJle. ISte.-B.) ' Vous ne me rSpondez pas ; me serais- 
je trompSP (de Vi.) 

(% 127.) ' Le diner ^tait tout pret j i! va 6tre perdu, et 
le petit va ^tre grondfi par son pSre. (Feuillet.) ' Je vaia 
m'enf ermer et nTabaudonner i ma douleur, {de Mu.) ' Vous 
cherchez une explication d ce que je viena de vous dire, 
n'est-oe pas ?— Et je ne la trouve point, je I'avoue. (Bum.) 
' Le parlement de Paris venait, d'i^tre relegu& dana une 
petite ville. (Monl.) 

{§ 128.) ' Quand M. Fouquet a eu cesae dc parler, M. 
PuBBort s'cBt leve imp6tneueement. (5^'.) 'II sera sorti 
d^S qu'il aura eu achcv6 la lettre. (Duvivier.) 

Theue X. 


^ I find Charles and speak to him ; but he answerB nothing, 
and I leave him again. 'I am going to-morrow, said he, 
and I shall take you back with me. ' I shall come back in 


half an hour ; wait for me here. ' I have boen here some 
time ; I am waiting for the young officer. ' He has been 
talking for two weeks of hia friend who was to come from 
Paris. ' Now I shall leave you ; I have litttened to you 
already two hours. ' Aa I raised my eyes, I saw him in 
front of me. ' He was looking at me. ' I drew near to 
him, and said a few words, " He listened to me, but said 
nothing. " He departed, and I found myself alone. 
" When she first came to our city, I kept seeking her every- 
where. " I thought that she had arrived, but I could not 
find her. " As we were going to the theatre yesterday, 
we discovered them. " If they had given me the letter 
earlier, you would already have the answer. " He bad 
been speaking several hours, and we were all very tired, 
" During many yearn. Napoleon bad appeared invincible, 
but then he fell. " We had already been there a week 
when our friends arrived. " Louis XIV. was the greatest 
monarch of his time. '° Where did your friends travel last 
winter? "They visited England and Scotland. "We 
told tbe poor boy that we were his best friendfi, but he did 
not believe us. " I saw yesterday the picture which he 
had made of her, and admired it greatly. " My friend, 
said I to him, you never painted anything so beautiful. 
"As soon as I had dined, I folded my napkin and went 
out. " When I had arrived at home, I began to write. 
" After I had finished the letter, I sent it at once to the 
post. " I cannot tell whether tbey will come ; but as long 
as they are here, I shall be happy. " When you begin the 
picture you will tell me so. '° They will get np as soon as 
the dinner is ready. " I shall recognize them as soon as I 
have seen them. '" If this world were perfect, we should 
receive the reward due to our virtues. " If you ate my 
poor dinner, I should be satisfied. " He would like to give 
us a thousand francs, but he has not so much money. '° I 
cannot tell you what time it is ; I have no watch. " Would 

273 VEEBB, [12*- 

you have received me, if I had come to aee you f " If I 
had known that yoa were comlog, I should have stayed at 
home in order to receive you. " I have just visited one 
of our frienda ; I am going to come to your house again 
to-morrow ; at present I have other things to do. 

B, — Modes of the Verb. 


129. The indicative is used both in independent and 
in dependent clanBes, except in the cases to be stated 

a. The indicative appears in object-clauses after an affirmative 
verb : thus, saveB-TOoa qni ja suis do you know Kho lamf jk 
vona ai dit que j'y ^taia / toM you that I was there. The sub- 
junctive of indirect statement is not a French construction. 

6. After si if, only Ihe indicative is used except in the phiper- 
fect tense : see ^ 138a. 

c. The conditional has been treated under the head of Tenses 
fabovB. § 125-6) ; there remain, then, only the subjunetivo and 
imperative to be considered. 


130. The subjunctive is the mode of contingency, an- 
ticipation, expectation, requirement. It belongs for the 
most part to dependent clauses, and is usuallj introduced 
by the conjunction que thai. 

a. Hence, in frivins the forms of the verb, it is cuBlomary to 
prefix que to the subjunctive through its whole inflection : see 
VlII. 76. 

131. The Biibjnnctive is used in independent clansca, 
or without que t/iaf. in the following cases : 

a. Ill sache /.iii'ir, uneti negatively in the Isl sing, : thus, je tie 
sa,che pas / hanUj/ ktiow; also after que meaning m far as: 
thus, que je aachemjar as I know (but que je ctoIb etc.). 

Some regard this as an old or irregular indicative form. As 
to vivB. in qui vive who is there ? see above, XXXVIII, 46 (p. 
178. bottom). 

6. Sometimes, in wishes or requirements— that is, in an opta- 
tive or imperative sense : thus, ainai soit-U so be it. pniaswK- 




vDOB r^nssir may you (be able to) succeed, plflt i. DieD qne . . . 
might it please &od thai . . . 

This is rare, eiuept with the present snbjuactivBs soia, puiase, 
venille, garde, Tive, p^risae, and plaise, and with the imper- 
fecta nlfit and. 4^ : Hence the use of Boit . . . soit as conjune- 
tionslXXXIV. 3). 

c. Hence also sometimes in a coucessive or a conditional seaae 
(giving the meaning of if) : thus, Tienne qui To&dra, je resterai 
come rcho unll, I shall stay, edX-iX 6t6 plus fort had he been (or 
if lie had been) stronger. 

Note in these nses the inverted order of verb and subject. In 
the same senses, que is also often used before the subjunctive : 
see §142. 

d. The pluperfect subjunctive may stand {instead of the condi- 
tional : g i25c) in a hypothetical sentence, in the clause express- 
ing conclusion or result, and even when the other clause is im- 
plied only ; thus, sa main I'eftt sanr^e (for I'atirait sanT^e), ai 
olle eflt pn atre sanv^e ?ils hand had Mved her. if it had been 
possible to save her, il eflt ^te embarrass^ dans ume telle con- 
Tersatioii he leoulil /lam been embarrassed in such a conversa- 

a Independent 

(§ 131.) ' Je ne sache pas qu'on ait'' jamais appele duel 
ce qui se passait entre Louis XVI. et le bourreau. (CAai.J 
'II s'agit de Dorante; avez-vous aujet de vous plaindre" 
de Ini ? — Non, que je aache. (Mar.) ' On dit que celni qui 
le gardera & Fignerol est nn fort hoan^te homme; Dieu le 
veuille 1 ou, pour mieux dire, Dieu le garde ! {de Sir.) 
' Dieu aoit b^ni I vous voilA vivant. {de Ma.) ' Dieu sauve 
la reine Elisabeth ! Ainsi pgriasent tous ses enncmis 1 ajouta 
le docteur Fletcher. (Miffaet.) ' Loa6 soit Dieu, dit-elle, 
de" la nouvelle que vous ni'apportez. (Miffnel.) ' H^las ! 
fasae le eiel qu'elle ne vous brflle pas ! (de Vi.) ' Pliit aux 
dieuz que ce f iit le dernier de see crimes. (^Rac) ' Dfit 
oela Tous f4cher encore, U faut que j'en convienne. (Meil- 
Aac.) "Le grand CondS n'en tira aucnn succ^s, aoit que 
lea circonstanoes des lieux lui fusaent^ moinB favorables, 
Boitqu'ileufpriadeamcBHreBinoins justes. {Vol.) " Vienne 
□n deluge, la montagnc aura disparu depuis longtemps soua 
lea flots, que" lea oiseaux voleront encore. ( ('. Hugo.) " Et 
qnel dge as-tu ? — Keuf ans, monsieur, vienne la Tousaatnt. 



(C'<^^>ee.) " II D'eat paa de di-inon, en effet, fat-ce ra4ine 
celai de la triatesse, qui obs affronter le voUiaage des ]ketits 
unfaatM. (Su.-B.) " Oni, monsieur, mais en eat-elle rioet 
foi» davantage, je ne repouBeraie pas. (Mar.) "S'll cut 
onk, il »* flit mis en colore. {La F.) " La HoUande n'eflt pas 
Kubiiitit^ longtempa, si elle se ffit boniee a enlever la flott« 
d'argent dea Eapagnols. {Vol.) " A me voir', vous n'ens- 
itiw! BU H j'etais mort ou vivant. (CWriw.) "La princeeet; 
aiirait en ce moment parte le diad^me de la France, son 
front n'elit pas ^tk plus imposant qu'il I'etait aoaa fe bean 
dia^ltime de sea cbeveux. (Bal.) 

132, Subjunctives in depeodent clauses (usually after 
qoe tltat) may be beet classified under the Leads of 
1. Hubjunctives in eubstantive clauses, or those need a& 
tsnbject or object of a verb ; 3. Subjunctivea in adjective 
clauses, or those used to qualify a nonn ; 3. SubjuDctives 
in adverbial clauses, or those used to qualify a verb, 
.,fl33. The subjunctive occurs in a clause used as logi- 
cal subject of an impersonal verb— that is, of one having 
the graiuniatical subject il or ee (XI, 2) — whenever an- 
ticipation, expectation, requirement, or the like, is im- 

The commonest of snch impersonal verbs are il font it is ne- 
ceisary (XXX. 6), il convient it is suitable, il snffit it is enough, 
il vant mienz it is better, U importe it niaUers, il se pent it is 
possible, il aembla it seetns, il eat facile or difficile or nicessaire 
or posaible or rare or fknz or aingnlier it is easy or hard or 
necesmiry or possible or rare or false, or singular, and the like : 
thu:;. il fant qn'il aoit ici he. must be Tiere, il ariffit qn'elle ait 
avond aa f^ote /( is enmigh that s!ie has confessed; her faidt, il 
est possible que nous revsniona it is possible that we come back, 
c'est dommage qne je I'aie perdn it is a pity that I lost it. 

a. But the indicative is used if the clause is the iliatinot atate- 
ment of a fact ; so eapcciaily with il eat vrai or bQt or clair it is 
Inie or sure or dear, il parait it appears, il arrive )( hnppent, 
il r^anlte it follows, and the like : thus, il eat vrai qn'il n'eat 
pas encore anivd it is true that he has vat yet arrived, il parait 
que vons avez raison it appears that you are right. 

1«*] SUBJL'SCTIVE. 275 

h. In Eome casea, either mode is admissible, aceording to the 
degree of actuality impUM or of the subject's responsibility for it. 
And the use of the siibjunctire is more decidedly suggested if 
the principal clause is negative or interrogative : thus, eat-il vrai 
qn'il soit arrive is it true that he has arrived ^ il ne paratt pas 
qn'il Biit tort it does imt appear that he is wrong. The subjunc- 
tive is also re<]ulred if its clause precedes : thus, qn'il aoit arriTJ, 
et qn'il ait et^ re^n arec joie, tout cela eat vrai that he has 
come, and has been receited with joy, is all tnie. 

c. Sometimes the grammatical subject is omitted, or the prin- 
cipal clause is other^se incomplete : thus, mienx vandrait qn'il 
fEtt Billenn it would be better that he were elsewhere, qnelle 
bonte qn'il se soit sanvj what a shame that he has run away ! 
non que j'dpronva.fise dn plaisir not that I felt any pleasure . 

131. Tlte giibjiinctive stands io a clause which is used 
as the object of certain verhs : namely — 

a. Of verbs that signify wishing, requiring, approv- 
ing, permittiug, forbidding, expecting, deserving, and the 

Thus, il vent qne nons disions la v&it^ he wishes that we teU 
the ti'uth, je defends qii'on sorte d'ici I forbid any one to go out 
from here. Verbs of preventing take further a ne before the . 
aubjnnctive : sec § 170o. 

b. Of verba that signify regarding with such and such 
a feeling, as admiration, joy, grief, apprehension, doubt, 
indignation, and the like. 

Thus, je m'^tonna qn'il ne nous Toi« pas / am ajitoni^h£d that 
he does not (or should not) see us, il se r^onit qne vona fhaaieE 
de retonr he was glad that you were back again. Verbs of ap- 
prehending and doubting require further a ne Ix-fore the subjunc- 
tive (see § 1*700) : thus, je crains qn'il ne vieune I fear that (or i 
lest) he is coming, doateE-vona qne cela ne aoit vrai do you \ 
doubt that this is true f 

'•,. Of verbs that signify thinking, viewing, supposing, 
and representing or stating — but usually only if the sen- 
tence is negative or interrogative or conditional. 

Thus, je ne croia paa qn'il soit A&jh. arrivg T ito not believe 
tliat /te has already arrived, eap^rez-voua encore qn'il vienne 
do you still hope that he is coining i s'il affirme qne ce aoit ainsi 
// he affirms that it is so. 

d. Under these heads, there are various esoeptious. The aub- 



Jiitiiinr in mil ii.^ci] when a distinct fact is mt«niled lobe implied; 
iini .iMiT M-ili, i\|in;ssing deciBion or reeolre (which taxe the 
luiiMi' '■!■ n.iiiliiiiriiiil] ; nor after verbs expressive of regarding 
uiHi ,1 ri'i'ijiin iVi'liti^', if de ce is introduced before qua : thus. 
■B plaindro de ce qn'U est id lament that he m here. Verbs of 
(liiiililltiu, ili'iiyiUK' and the like, are treated as if n^ntive. If 
lli<' (iliii'i'ilvr clHnHii JH pat first, it requires the snbjunctire (cf. 

r. Thrrc iirt' vi.nniis phrases composed of Stre or avoir with 
fnlliiwIiiK iiiljri'tivi'or noun reBpeotively, which are treated as if 
>.liji]ilii vnrliH ill ri'Riird to reqiiiring the subjunctive. Such are 
>iii]ii'<'iiill,v etro heuretix or ravi or triste or Hehi or snrpiis be 
Ikii'I'II 111' i'linrni'il nr xnd at xorry or surprised, and the like, and 
kvoir honte nr pour (le aahamed or afraid, and the like ; thus, 
Jn lain ravl que vons ayez besoin de moi I am delighted that 
l/i>ii huff iiiril '(/' 111-', J'aj pour qn'il ne vienne pas T/ear he ttiU 
iiiil mini: Kvini iifttir such nouns aa pear and crainte in other 
■'iirmlriuilioiiii tlip subjunctive is used: thus, de pear qn'il ne 
vkaniie 'p%»/iirfear that he may not come. 

f. Viiv \\w subjunctive in a substantive clause reallj governeil 
lij II |jro|ii)iiltlon, 800 below, g 138o. 


a Subject a. 

(H Ifia.) ' n faitilmit. que vous vinssiez vous-mtme pro- 
poKur (10 niarmgd iV inon pilire. {de Mii.) '' II fallait que la 
niflrc tit la flilc cussont vfcu loin du monde. (About.) ' Ce 
ii'ii«l. |itis i|iif 111 puissance et les evenements personnels 

m-iriil ■■ |i;iiJibli>s. (I'"/.) 'II n'est pas 6tonnant que 

ItmiM 1 Ii' .t'tto bulle; mais il I'est que des personnes 

ImiKi' I'iii ..iiifi-i I'll aient bcsoin, (fW.) ' Cela ne m'fi- 

I.HI |i:ih, ihi 11, .pi"!! soit mort. (de Mu.) 'Cela me fait 

wiii]»;"iiiii'r qn'il Ml" pourrait" bien que les dmes des m&- 
«liiiiit.n riiHHcnt anfianties & lour mort. {Bouim.) ' II setnblc 
i|iic Ton iiu piiisse rire que des choses ridicules. {La Br.) 
' II Horikit pourtant singulier qti'il partit, apr^s tout ce que 
j'di fait. (Mnr.) ' C'est fini ; il paralt que decidenieut je 
NUiH un homme de gC'Xiie. (Scribe.\ "Mais il me semble 
quo nous lo aavons dfjA. {Ste.-B.) " Qu'une chose anssi 
visible <ju'est la vanit6 du monde soit si pen connue, cela 
ost admirable 1 (/'nw.) " II est bien rare qu'on s'etabliese 
on (laix dans cette facon d'etre sSche et bomee. {de Slael.) 
" Quel malheur, dit-il, que cette (i^vre ne soit pas 4cbae & 


eon oncle ; eUe I'aurait gu^ri 1 (Aboul.) " Plfit au eiel que 
je fiiBsede I'avis de.mefiamiBSurmeaouvrages ! (Birangtr.) 

Qu'importe'' d I'Etat qu'Ergaste soit riche, qu'il ait des 
chiens qui airStent bien ? (La Br.) " Non paa que je 
veuille enlever A" d'habiles minietres, & de grands n^gocia- 
teura, la gloire qui leur appartient. {^Seribe.) 

(§ 134,) ' Vonlez-voua qu'on dise dn bien de vous ? D'en 
ditea point. {Pasc.) ' Cond6 et Turenne voulaient qn'on 
d^molit la plupart des places bollandaiees. ( Vol.) ' Enfin, 
il parla de sa valise, pnant fort qu'on en elit grand soin, 
qu on la mil au ehevet de aon lit. (Courier.j ' Charles-Quint 
demanda que ['expedition ffit ajourn^e. (Mipntl.) " Enfin, 
il ne put empgcber que I'empereur, I'enipire, et I'Espagne 
ne" a'alliaaaent avec la Hollande. { l'"'.) ' Noua verrona, 
repondit M. Auvray; attends que la n^vre aoit paasSe. 
(About.) '" En verite, ne meriteriez-vous que je lea priaae ? 
(Mar.) ' Les Hollandais eussent bien miens aimg qu'il eflt 
rendu la Flaiidre. ( Vol.) ' Je craina qu'il ne" vous vienne 
& I'esprit que c'est pour moi que je parle. (de Vi.) " On 
ne croirait pas que lea aouverains eussent obligation aux 
philosopbea. (Vol.) " Je suppoae que les bommee Boient 
fetemela sur la terre. (La BrJ) " Je nie done en principe 
qn'elle n'ait* fait du tort pour le plaiair de nuire. (About.) 

Je Boia fach& que tu puiases croire une pareille vilenie de 
ma part. (G. Sand.) " Je n'aurais paa besoin qu'on repor- 
tk% mon D(Bur dana ma patrie ; il n'en eat jamaia sorti. 
(flowM.) "Nous avons peur que tu n'aiea' pas tout dit a 
madame, (Mar.) " La princeaae Marie a'etait d'abord jetSe 
en arri^re, de peur que I'on ne* distingndt les larmea de sea 
yeur. (de Vi.) 




' I hardly know anything more beautiful than this pic 
ture. ' It is not a portrait, so far as I know. ' He ia dead I 
the will of Heaven l)c done ! may we find a succeasor who 
is worthy of bim I ' Long live the men who wish well to 
the country 1 ' Would to God that he arrive safe to day ! 




278 TEBBS. [184- 

' Would to God, say I, that he had never gone away ! 
' Come what will, we have done our whole duty. ' Had he 
heen here, we should not have had to seek another. ° Were 
it my own son, I could not love him better, '° If they had 
listened to ua, this misfortune would not have befallen 
them. " They had hidden themselves, as if they had been 
afraid of being seen. 

" Must the boy come back, as soon as he has carried the 
letters to the post ? " Yes, it is important that he be here 
before four o'clock. '" It is a pity that be is to go so far ; 
who knows whether we find him at the appointed time ? 
" What a misfortune that we have not sent him sooner ! 
"^I wish her to come and bring me the books that I lent 
her, " Have you not permitted that your friend read them 
before bringing them back? "Yes, but I should prefer 
that sbe read tbem more promptly ; I fear that she may 
have lost them, "I do not think that tbey are lost ; I 
assure yon that she has them stiil, and that she wit! send 
them back ; she is waiting probably that you ask for tbem. 
" My teacher permits that we go into his garden, but he 
does not wish us to carry away anything ; he would be 
angry if (qne) we should do so. ^' We are astonished that 
you have got up so eariy, "' I got up early for fear that 
you should not find me ready. 

136. The subjunctive is need in adjective clauBea — 
that 18, such as are introduced by a relative pronoun and 
qualify a noun — in the following eases : 

a. Wlien tlie noun qualified stands in a construction 
implying anticipation — as demand, expectation, purpose, 
and the like. 

Thus, je cherche use retraite oil je sois trasiiuiUe / seek a 
nook in whwh I may he qniet, envoyeZ'moi qnelqn'im qui ma 
Teade ce service scwl me some one viho mitt/ do me this service. 
In these eases tlie English also generally has a potential or condi- 
tional phrase. 

1361 8UBJUNCTIVB. 279 

b. After a superlative, or a numeral word having a 

sense akin to the aiiperlative. 

Thus, c'sBt le meUlenr honime qne je connaisse he is the best 
man I kiuim, le premier qui soit arrive juBqa'ici the first that 
has yet arriced. In the same inaQiier, after a enl. nniqiie, or the 
like : thus, le senl roi qoi ait r^gn^ si iDDgtempa t/te only king 
that has reigned so long. 

c. Often, after a negative or an interrogative or a con- 
ditional clause. 

Thus, il n'; a personne qui ne aoit venii there is no one who 
has not come, k quoi sert. im roi qui soit iztjnste qf what tise is a 
king that is unjust f s'il a, un. conteaa qui soit bon if he has a 
/m^e that is good. So after pen in t}ie sense of but few, not 
many : thus, ily a pen de rois qui sacbeut gonyemer thei-e are 
few kings that kTww how to goeeni. 

d. In all these caaee. the indicative is used when greater actu- 
ality or objectiveness is implied. 

(§ 135.) ' Ayez I'esprit de' lui dire qnelqne chose qui la 
persuade. ((?. Sand.) * Je cherchai la solitude, et, k defaut 
d'Smes qui puaeent nie comprendre, je me plaignis il Dien. 
(Dum.) ' D semble qu'un p^re et qu'une mfire aoient de 
oes €tres qu'on ne puisse trop louer, ou du moins trop aimer. 
(Sle.-B.) 'Vous me dites que votre amitig, telle qu'elle 
est, aubsistera toajours pour moi, tel que je aoia. {Roma.) 
' L'homme est nn Strange animal : je ne auia pas le premier 
qui I'ait dit. [About.) On envoya chercher un carroaae 
de louage, le plus beau qui f&t dana toute la ville. [de Mu,) 
' Le dernier barde qn'on ait oui dans ces deserts me chanta 
lea po6mes dont un u^ros consolait jadie aa vieillesse. ( Chat.) 
' H n'y a que le bon Dieu qui puiaae gouvemer les cboaea 
et lea hommes. (6". Sand.) ' Paa tin talent, paa une vertu, 
pas une distinction qti'clle n'almdt i connaitre, it convier, i 
obliger. {Ste.-B.) " 11 n'y a gu^re de dfifauts qui ne aoient 
plus pardonnables qae lea moyena dont on ae aert poor lea 
cacher, (La R.) " II n'y a personne qui nous vaille pour 
I'ordre, I'economie, et lea confitures, (About.) " Jamaia ce 
nom ne sera pour un homme qui soit ou le vainqueur on 
I'esclave de Komo. ( Com.) " S'il y avait un pays d'Ama- 
zonea qui ae proourassent une colonie de petits gardens 

pour les 61ei 

homiDes prendraient la premiere plac* 

femmea, bient6t leB 
(de Maistre.) 

136, The subjunctive is used in adverbial clauses — 
that is, snch ae liinit or qualify the action of a verb — iu 
mauy cases, where a looking forward, auticipatioD, con- 
tingency is implied. 

a. The cases falling under this rule are in great part reallf 
those of substantive clauses introduced by que that, and having 
various constructions : thus, especiaUy, governed by a preposi- 
tion, as in avant quo, pour quo, bhju quo, etc.; or uppoaitional 
to or dependent on a noun, ns in afin que, eu ca,s que, do manidra 
que, etc. ; or in absolute construction with an adjective, as in loin 
quo, snppos^ quo, ponrvu que, etc. ; or in more oUiptical phrases, 
as & moins quo, biou que, eucoro quo (and quoiquo, though writ- 
ten as one word), etc. But it is convenient and usual to treat the 
quo as forming along with the preceding word or phrase a com- 
pound conjunction or conj unction-phrase {XXXIV. 5), and so to 
regard the clause introduced by it as directly adverbiaJ. 

137. Adverbial clauses having the sobjunctive may 
be classified as follows ; 

a. Temporal clauses, expressing time before or up to 
which anything happens. 

The conjunctions are avaut que before, en attoudaut que un- 
til, josqu'l, ce que until, taut que so long as. Thus, sortons 
avaut qn'il soit trop tard let vs go out b^ore U in too late, je 
resterai en attendant qu'il vionne / imll stay until ?ie comes. 
But the indicative is used sometimea, when an actoa! past fact is 
signified : thus, il Hsiata taut qu'il pouvait he resisted an long 
as he could. 

h. Concessive and hypothetical clauses, expressing a 
supposition (whether accepted or refused). 

The conjunctions are ■ suppose quo or en (or an) cas quo etc. 
sttppoAiiii/, ponrvu quo proviflfil, soit que ichelher, quoiquo or 
biou que iir encore qne nlthoiigh. ft. moins que inilcss, sana que 
or hora qne uitlioiit or iinleis^ malgr^ qne or uonobatant que 
natwithstaniUng that, uou que twt that, loiu qne far from its 
being the ease that, and a few others less coimuon. Thus, an 
oas qu'il vienne in case lie eomen. qnoiqn'il ne soit [AS con- 
pable although he is not guilty, malsr^ quo je no venille paa 
notwithstanding that I am unwilling, soit qa'il en ait on qu'il 
a'en ait pas whether he luis any or not, loin qu'il soit panvre, il 



. being poor, he grows all 

As to Bi, and qae by itaelf , see below, g 138. 

c. Claaaes introclueed by que after a relative pronoun or 
adjective or adverb, to be rendered in English by whoever 
or whatever or Iiawevef, or other equivalent phraeea. 

Theae are Bpecial caaea of the hypothetical clause. The usual 
coinbi nations are qiu que, qnoi que, quel . . . que, quelqne . . . 
qneiBeeabove, §104, UBc, d; much more rarely, o^ qne, conune 
que, and the like : thus, oil qn'il soit whereeer he may be. ]>ss 
commonly, other combinations than with the relative are used m 
this sense and coustriictiou : as. ei . . . que, pcnr . . . que, tel . . . 
que : thus, si haut qn'il pairUit however lotMlp he spoke, pour 
peu que vouB donnies however little you may give. Tout . . . que 
in a similar use takes the subjunctive when understood bypo- 
thetically : thus, tout aimable qn'elle aoit howeeer amiable she 
tnay be. 

d. Final and consecutive clauses, or those expreasing 
purpose and result. 

The conjunctions are a^n que or ponr que in order that, de 
manidre que or de sorte que so that, si . . . que so . . . that ; and 
qne alone oft«u stands in the sense of ponr que : thus, afin que 
{or ponr qne or simply qne) vons lo sacMez in order that you 
may know it, faitea de (or en) sorte que je puisse la. voir man- 
age so that I Tnay see her. But when the result is not one of an- 
ticipation, the subjunctive is not taken : thus, il fit de sorte que 
je la, vis he maiiaged so that I saw her. 

,1 138. Certain special cases are as follows : 

a. Si (^ may be followed by the subjunctive pluperfect ; other- 
wise, only by the indicative present or imperfect (XXXIV. 16), or 
by their compounds, the perfect or pIupeMett. 

Exceptions, showing other subjunctive tenses after ai if., are 
very rare, but not entirely unknown. And occasional instances 
occur of a conditional so used, 

b. If a si in one clause is repeated by que in a following clause 
{§ 2216), the latter has the subjunctive : thus, a'il n'a qu'un mil- 
lion, et qn'il en ait besoin de denz if he has only one million, 
and wants two. 

0. A que foUowed by ne, and used in the sense of without, un- 
less, until, takes the subjunctive : thus, il n'a jamais rien ftait 
qn'il ne m'ait consnlt^ he has never done anything without oon- 
tulUng me (or till he has cojutulted me). 



d. For qne used imperatively with tbe subjunctive, see below, 

139, The tense of the subjunctive id a dependent 
clanse is in general governed by that of the principal 
clause, being past t^irapf. or pinpf.) if tbe latter is past or 
conditional, and present (or perfect) if the latter is pres- 
ent or future. 

Thus, je venx qu'il vienne / winh him to eotnt, je voulais uir 
Tonlna or ai vooln) qa'il Tint / wanted him to come, j'avaia 
vDulu qn'il Tint I had ipiinted him to voine^ je ne crois pas qu'il 
soil venu I do not belieet that he has eome, je so croyais pas 
qn'il fat Venn I did not belwoe that he had come, j'attendrai 
qn'il Tienne or qn'il soil venn I will wait till he conies or till he 
)ui^ come, j'attendr&is qn'il vlnt or qn'il fftt venu /should wail 
till he came or till he had come. 

a. There are exueptious to this ntlo of sequence. Sometimes a 
past Gubjunetive is used by a logical necessity, aa in je ne crois 
pas que les Somains parfasaent aiusi / do not believe that the 
Somajia vaed to speak thvs. After a perfect (aa being a kind of 
present ; also, when used instead of a preterit : § 1216, c) a pres- 
ent subjunctive is frequently used : thus, Dien noos a dann^ la 
raison afln qne nous none en serrions 6od has given us reason 
in order that we may make use of it. Other more irregular cases 
occasionally occur. In familiar speech, especially, the UBe of an 
imperfect subjunctive is mainly avoided, by various devices, and 
in part by putting tbe present in its place : thus, il &Ddrait qn'il 
B'en aille snr-le-cliajnp he would have to go directly, 

(LLDBTRATIVK BEKTENCES.— XXH. Hulquiiotive in AdTsrb-ClauBea. 

(I 137.) ' EJle hit avec une grande ferveur les pri&res 
des agonisants. Avant qu'elle les eixt achevges, on vint 
henrter & la porte. {Migiiei.) ' Elle me restera fiddle ins- 
qu'4 ce que je puisse I'^pouser. (rfe Mu.) ' Oui, vous etes 
mon oncle, (juoique vous I'ayez onblig ce matin, (About.) 
* J'avais affaire d un ennemi qui aavait mieux ae battre que 
moi, bien que j'eusae deux ana de salle. (£e Sage.) ' Je ne 
I'ai pas, k moine qu'il ne soit dans mon lit. (About.) * Us 
I'aid^rent h, poser sa t^te sur le billot. Bans qu'elle cessdt de 
prier, (Miynet.) ' Voyons, cher beau-p6re, k qtioi puis-je 
vous 6tre bon¥ — si taut est que je puisse ^tre bon k quel- 
que chose. (Augier.) ' Quand ce fort n'eflt arrfitfe I'annfie 

n'un seul jour, elle aerait raorte de faim et de fatigue. 

Vol.) ' Quelque rare que soit le veritable amour, il Pest 



moina que la veritable amitifi. {I>a Ji.) '°Quoi qa'il en 
Boit, que m'importe ce que seront les mSchants? (Rouss.) 
" H41a8 ! ou que voue aoyez, vous ^tes mort pour moi. 
{Houga.) " Combien que lea malhonn^tee geiia proep^rent, 
ne pensez pas qu'tls aoient heureux. {Marmontel.) " Lisette, 
qoelque ^iDignemGnt que tu aies pour moi, je suis forc^ Ac. 
te parler. [Mur.) " Si bonnete bomme et si peu int^ressg 
que soit UQ paysan, on ne peut pas dire que la vue de Tar^ 
gent Ini faase de la peine. (G. Sand.) "Lalibertfe doit 
vaincre k tel prix que ce soit. {Miffnet.) '" Pour pen qu'ellea 
remuassent, le bdtiment tremblait. {St. Simon.) "Pour 
grands que aoient lea roia, ila aont ce que noue aotnraea. 
(Com.) " Tout autear que je eois, j_e ne auis pas jaloux. 
{Reffnard.) " Monaieur, il faut me dire votre nom, aSn que 
je sache il qui je parle. (de Siv.) '° Seigneur Oluf, reculez- 
voua, pour que je passe, dit le cbevalier tl la visi^re baiss^e. 
(Gautier.) Mais la tristease avait pris trop imperieuse- 
ment possession de lui poor qu'il ae deababitudt de souffrir. 
(Blaiie.) "Beviena, que je te revoie. {Dam.) " Cacbez- 
Tooa dana votre chambre, qu'on voua croie sorti. ( V. Hugo.) 
" Plaeez-le de mani^re qu'il soit bien ferme. {Ouizot.) 

(§ 138.) ' Je ne me seraia paa console si monaieur le 
oomte eftt euccombe. {Boailly.) ' Ou, ai d'un aang trop vil 
ta main serait trempee, au defaut de ton bras, prfite-moi 
ton tyke. (Rac.) ' Si j'etais riche, d'une conditiou hon- 
nfite, et que je t'aimasse autant que je t'aime, ton coeur 
n'aurait point de repugnance pour moi? {Mar.) *I1 ne 
courut plus par le monde de chansons ni de vaudevilles 
qu'on ne les lui prfitdt. {Sle.-£.) 


^■^ 140. The imperative bus in general the same uses in 
French as in English (see VU. 9, VIII. 7c). 

a. With the proper imperative persons (2d sing., and 1st and 
2d p!.}, no subject ia ever expressed. 

b. In the absence of a first person singular, the first plural ia 
sometimes used with that value ; thus, aoyooB homme, m'ecriai-je 
let me play the man, cried I to myself. 

c. Some imperatives are used inter] actional ly ; the commonest 
are ftllons <»)««, come on, tisns <ir tenet hold! stop a moment, 
gee here, take notice, and the lilce, voyons let's see, see here, va 
go I Le. pshaw, nonaense, and the like. 



d. In rare cases, a jx^rfecl imperative is foniid : thus, a^e« 
atiandoim^ la ville qnajid I'eimemi 7 entrera hwue the city aban- 
doned when the enemy enters it. 

141. For the lacking third persons o£ the imperative 
are need the third persons of the present subjnnctive. 

Thus, qn'il soit, qa'ils soient let him be, let them be O't'ly, that 
he may be, etc.). The case ia pnywrly that of a subjunctive aH«r 
verbs of wishing or requiring (l34a). but with the verb omitted 
on which the subjunctive should depend ; as if je Tens qo'il aoit 
IvHah that he be, j'exige qn'ils BOient / require that they be, or 
the like. 

a. The same paraphrase is sometimes found also for other per- 
sons of the imperative, especially the first singular : thus, qne je 
te retTDSTe ici let me find thee here again. 

142. The imperative {both tlie proper imperative and 
the paraphrase with que) not seldom has a coneeaaive or 
hypothetical meaning. 

Thus, avoae-le, et je te le pardonne con/ess it, and I pardmt 
thee/brU (i.e. if thou ewtfessest it, I will ^q.), qn'ilparle, toot 
Be tait let him apeak (i.e. if/te apeaks), emry one is silent, qu'll 
parle ou qn'il Be taise, pen ni'lmporte / eare little whether he 
gpeaks or holds his peace. 

a. For the infinitive used in the sense of an imperative, see be- 
low, § 176s. 


(g 140.) ' Surtout ne perds pas la lettre ! songe que tu 
as deux cent mille francs aur toi ! ( V. Hugo.) ' Ne dispu- 
tons point; car je ne cbangerai jamais. {Mar.) 'Hjltez- 
vouH, et que Ton donne le mot & toute la maiaon. (Mar.) 
' Feignons de aortir, afin qu'il m'arr^te. {Mar.) ' Voili fort 
k propoa ce fripon de Saint Jean ; commenQons par me d6- 
barrasser de lui. {Scribe.) ' All on a, Fanebette ; dis done 
adieu k Marguerite. {O, Sand.) ' Va, le raal n'est pas 
grand ; consolons-noua. {Mar.) ' Je disaia done qu'il me 
restait un tableau precieux. Tenez, monaienr, voyez. ( V. 
Hugo.) ' Ayez fini votre tache d I'heure indiquee on ne 
I'ayez point fini ; on ne voue en temoignera ni pina ni moins 
de satisfaction, (de Sacy.) 

(§ 141.) ' Gu^ria-le bien, clier pSre, mais pas trop ; qu'il 
reste asaez fou pour m'aimer comme je I'aime. (Alx^it.) ' H 
y a poartant nn Bieu ; qne aa volenti eoit faite I (de Siv.) 




' Que je saave la France et que je soia fl^trie ; la honte soil 
pour moi, le fruit pour ma patrie. {Ponnard.) 

(§ 142.) ' Va-t-en, reviena ; tout cela doit in'(5tre indiffe- 
rent. {Mar.) ' IjaisBez-lui le teiDpB, et tout B'arraDgera, {di 
Afu.) ' A toua vos cavaliers je demande aa t6te ; oui, qn'mi 
d'eus me I'apporte, et je buib Baconqufite. (Corn.) 'Mais 
que ce aauveur impatiemment attendu donne tout k coup 
Bigne d'exiBtence, I'lnatinct national le diaceme et I'appelle. 

Theme 12. 

' Send me a book that I can read without being bored, 
" She wanted to buy a present that was pretty and did not 
cost much. ■ Show me a road that leads me to the city. 
'I insist that you go away immediately. ' We cannot wait 
till she comes from the city. 'That ia the handsomest 
picture that one has seen at the exhibition for several years, 
and the only one that I wish to buy. ' I will tell you a 
story, the moat extraordinary that you can imagine. ' There 
are but few stories that I have not already heard, ° I have 
met no one who is more sincerely attached to you, '° We 
have done nothing to him of which wo repent. " If you 
find a book tliat I ought to read, send it to me by the post. 

" I will be your eompaniou until you find a better. " We 
will not leave you before you have arrived at your destina- 
tion, "Provided that you love me, we will never part. 
"In case be tells me interesting news, I will write you 
everything. " Far from my being bis friend, he had hated 
me since I had known him. " I shall not be able to visit 
you unless it is fine weather. "Whatever riches he may 
possess, however learned be may he, whatever be may have 
done, it is the character that makes the man, " Whatever 
may be your faults, you can correct them. " Whoever he 
may be, I do not fear him. " Wherever one goes, one 

286 VERBS. [US- 

carries with him the manners of his country. "' However 
great heroes may be, they are after all men. " Amiable 
as she is, I cannot love her. "' Give me that book, that I 
may read it while I await her coming. " We must always 
speak 80 that others understand us. " If you admire this 
picture, and if you have means to buy it, why do you 
hesitate ? " What must he do ? "' Your friend will be 
obliged to stay with you until it is fine weather. " She 
would not get np, althongh I called her three times. " I 
ran away, in order that she might not see me. " I did not 
think that you were so cowardly. " I know some one who 
would he willing to accompany rae. 

" Let me remember what she said to me. " If I must 
die, let me die. " Come, let ua seek them everywhere, and 
perhaps we shall find them again. " Let him stay here, 
without stirring, and we at least shall not lose him. 

C. — Adjdncts op the Verb. 

143. The adjuncts of the verb are theee : the enbject, 
the predicate noun or adjective, the object, whether 
direct or indirect, the prepositional case-phrase, and the 


144. In general, the verb has a single subject, ex- 
pressed or implied, which determines or "governs" it in 
respect to number and person. 

But the following points require notice : 

a. The imperatively used exclamation vive long live .' sometimes 
takes a plural subject ; thus, vivo les jeooes gens hurrah for 
the young I Vivent, however, is in aut-h a mse more uaua! and 

145] SUBJECT. 287 

noun ; also with the following |ironouii, if it is of the Sd person 
(XI. 26): thus, ce sont noB anus it is out friends, ce sont eoz il 
is they; but c'est vnus it is yot/. 

Very rarely, the verb remains singular before a plural noun. 
Rarely, too, the same agreement is made after anotlier subject 
than ce: thus, sa nonnitnre ordinairs Bont des &nttB it.i usiml 
food is fruits. (BuiEon.) 

c. With a collective subject, the verb is, as in Engliah, some- 
times singiilar and sometimes plural, according m the collection, 
or the individuals composing it, are the leading idea — more usu- 
ally plural, if the noun is followed by de and a plural : thus, nue 
tronpe de soldats marcliaient a troop qf soldiers were marching, 
la troupe vient the troop is eomittff, beancoup d'hommes y sont 
many men are there. 

d. After the relative ([ui (as 
2c). the verb is of the person a 
of qui. 

e. More special oases are : a singular verb usual after plus 
d'nit: thus, pins d'nu aoldat a p^ri more than one soldier has 
fallen ; either singular or plural after tin de (with plural) . . . qui : 
thus, nne des plus belles actions qui soit or eoient . . . one of 
the noblest acts that have . . . 

lib. If a verb lias more than one subject of the same 
pereoi), it ia regularly plural. 

a. But the verb is oftener singular if to one noun is added an- 
other as its equivalent or emphatic repetition or explanation : 
thus, son courage, son intrepidity dtonne les plus braves his 
courage, his intrepidity astonish the braivM, la beant^ et la 
grandenr de ce spectacle me &appa t/te beauty and grandeur 
qf this spectacle struck me. 

b. The verb also often agrees with the nearest noun, the others 
being, as it were, lost from view ; so especially where there is a 
climax, or where the verb precedes the subjects : thus, nn mot, un 
sonpir, nn coup d'aail, nous trahit a word, a sigh, a glance be- 
trays US, tombe Argos et sed mnrs doien go Argos and its walls. 

c. A list of subjects is often summed up by tout all or each, 
-«haciui each, or the like ,; then, of course, the verb is singular : 

thus, bommes, dieux, animaux, tout y fait quelqne rSle men, 
gods, animals— everything plays some part in it. 

d. Along with two subjects that are connected by on or or ni 
iwr, the plural as well as the singular is sometimes fonnd used : 
thns, le temps on la mort sont nos remddes time or death is our 
remedy, Ulysee ni Calchas n'ont point encore parl^ neither 

i I'lm ni rantrQ n'est or se 

e. But also, a singular verb is allowed after run et I'aiitre^ and 
a, plural verb after a singular subject to whiph an addition is 
made by means of avec with, ainai as well as, or the like : 
thua, I'lm et I'aatre m'ennnie both bore me, le s6a6rBl avec 
goelqneB sold&ts sont sortis the geiteral, with a few soldiers, has 
gone nut. 

146. If a verb has more than one subject of difEercnt 
perBODB, the agreement of the verb in person ie as it 
would be if the different subjects were summed up in one 
personal pronoun. 

Thus, after a first person along with a second or a thii-d, the 
yerb is of the first person, because he and I, or j/ou attd /would 
both alike be represented by lee; and so a second and third have 
the verb in the second person, because thou and he would be rep- 
resented by you,. For example, num ami et moi sommes tomb^s 
d'accord m^ friend and I have agreed, Tons et vos amis fites 
tomb^B d'accord j/ou and your friends have agreed. 

a. More often, such compound subjects are repeated by means 
of a pronoun that include them : thus, vous et moi, aans sommeB 
coBteuts you and I are satiitfied, vons et Ini, vous savez I'affaire 
ywt and he understand the matter. 

147. It is quite common in French that the true or 
logical subject of a verb is repeated by a pronoon as 
grammatical subject. 

The principal eases are the following : 

a. Begularly and usu^ly, when a noun, or anything else save 
a conjunctive pronoun, is made the subject of a verb used inter- 
rogatively (see I. 11): thus, voire ami est-il id is your friend 
here f cela est-il vrai is that true ? 

b. Very commonly, a logical subject — whether a word, a 
phrase, or a clause— that follows the verb is anticipated by the 
indefinite or impersonal il or ce with the verb ; thus, il me vient 
lue id^ there comes into my head an idni. il est bean de monrir 
ponr la patrie it is noble to die for one's ci'iin/iy. c'est a vons ^ 
parler U i« for you to speak, il est vrai qn'elle viendtu ici 
it is true tlrnt she will come here, ce flirent les Fheniciens qui 
inTentJirent r^critare (( tvas the Pheniciavs who invented writ- 
ing (see XI. 2. XXIV. 2). 

The logical subject is then sometimes i^reeeded by que, aa a sort 
of correlative to the grammatical subject ce : thus, c'eat one 
charmante chose qn'tme femme il is a charming thing, a icotium 

1«] St7BJECT. 389 

(fa). And in elliptical expression the qne remains, even when ce 
and the verb are omitted : thus, nn singnlier homme que ce roi 
a Angular man, this king '. 

Note farther the idiomatic expressions qn'est-ce que nr qu'est- 
ce q.iie c'eat que for what is f (see XXV. 7). AJstj the common 
est-ce que is it the case that f used as a paraphrase for a simple 
question (see XXV. 7). 

c. A preceding aubicct is also often repeated by the grammati- 
cal subject ce: thus, le temps, c'est de I'argant titm w jiww;/, 
ce qne je desire, c'est de vons voir reussir lohat I winh is to see- 
you suireed, commander a. see passions, c'eat remporter la pins 
belle des Tictoirea to wntml one's passioiis is to i/ain the bent of 
mcton'es. The effect of this repetition is to emphasize the subject. 

d. A snbjeot is not seldom repeated by a personal or demon- 
strative pronoun, principally for emphasis : thus, moi, je la saig, 
or je le sais, moi I know it indeed, ils tombent, ces palais qoe 
I'art en vain d^core they fall, iliase palaoes that art adorns in 

e. Repetition of the auhject by a pronoun is usual in inverted 
clauseH after h. peine, encore, pent-6txe, vainement, and the Ul(e : 
thus, & peine mon ami ftat-il sorti hardly Jmd my friend gone 
out. pent-etre la fortnne raviendra-t-elle perhaps fortune will 
return (i22»a). 

148, Ou the other hand, the proiionn-snbject of a verb 
18 sometimes omitted. 

a. The subject of the imperative 1st and 2d persons is always 
omitted : see § UOo. 

6. The usual impersonal or indefinite subject il is sometimes 
omitted, eepeoialiy in certain phrases, and also in colloquial or 
low style.: thus, quand bonme aamblera, when it sTiall seem gooii 
to me, qne m'importa & mot wliat mattern it to me, salt dit entre 
nans lie it said between ns, plflt & Dien wtmld to God I 

c. The usual grammatical subject ce or il (§ 1476) is not seldom 
omitted, and the logical subject stands alone with the verb : thus, 
& qnoi nons sert d'etre venns qf what use is our having come t 

d. Other special cases are occasionally met with, in antiquated 
st^le : thus, fSiis ce que dois, adTienne qne ponrrB. do wliat thou 
shouldst, come uhat may, si ne I'aj plus if I nu longer haee it. 

149. Much more generally than iii Eiigliah, the pro- 
noun Hnhject is repeated before each verb. 

Thus, je I'aime et je Tadmire I love and admire him. 

^ft d. 

ILmSTRATTVE 8ENTENCE8._-^ XXTV. Verb bnd Subject. 

{§ HM ' Viv^ les, ieoDes gene 1 tout est feu ; tout est 
grace. {JBreC.) ' Ce sofiArWite ana gagnus sans peine. {Pose.) -U^ 

C'fitaieiit des vieux solJats, pleina de sante et de vignenr, 
(Thierg.) ' Joindrette remarqua que I'tnil de M. !Leblano 
B'attachait d cett hommes. G'est des amis ! (\'. Bugo.) '11 , 
est des visages de femme qui trompent la aCience et d6-/^' 
routent I'observation par leur calme et par leur finesse. 
{Bal.) ° Et comment aurait-il de la repugnance ^ reToir 
oeus qui I'ont soigue ? C'est nous ! [About.) ' Un pgtit 
. nombre de choses aucienneg aont reatees debout en Frgjice 
4 travers nos rSvolutions pSriodiqnes. [Ste.-B.) ' Une foule 
d'ficrits utiles et inetruotifs se r^paodent. {de Barante.) ' La 
plupart des pontes ae sent livr^s sans contrdle et sane frein 
a tous les instincts de leur nature. (Ste.-B.) " Le peu de 
bons ouvragea dont je me suis p^n^trfi depuis que j'esiste 
a d^veloppe le peu de bonnea qualitSs que j'aL ((?. Sand.) 
" Et c'eat moi qui ai combine, qui ai conduit tont cela, qni 
Buia la cause de tons cea grands Iv^nementa. {Scribe,) 
" NouB qui n'y etiona pas, nous ne pouvonB parler qu'avec 
une extreme reserve de cette epoque. {Ste.-B.) "J'fitaia 
aloFB un des plus beaux enfants qui aient jamais foule de 
leura picds nus lea pierres de nos montagnea. {Lam.) 

(g 145.) ' Tout I'interet et toute Taction du roman se 
passent dans ce voyage. {Ste.-B.) ' U souriait doucement 
et regardait doucement, et pourtant ce regard et ce sonrire 
vouB glaflaient de terreur. {Gaulier.) 'TJu soupir, un re- 
gard, une simple rougeur, un silence est assez pour espli- 
qner un cceur. LMol.) * L'heure, le lieu, le bras ae choiait 
anjourd'bui. (Vorn.) "Ce courage si grand, cette Ame si 
divine, n'est plus digne du jour ni digne de Pauline. { Com.) 
* Quand le crime d'etat se m^le an sacrilege, le sang ni 
l'amiti6 n'ont plus de privilege. {Corn.) ' Le ciel, tout I'u- 
nivers eat plein de mes aieux. {Sae.) " L'habiletfi, la pru- 
dence, lebon goQt, tout conaeillait ce dernier parti. { Ste.-B.) 
' Ni I'un ni I'autre n'ont su ce qu'ila faisaient. {de Ft.) 

(§ 146.) ' Ah ! te voild, Bourguigoon i Mon porte- 
raanteau et toi, avez-TOUH ^te bien reijus ? {Afar.) *C'eBt 
heureux quo ni toi ni moi n'ayons pris le mal de ce panvre 
frSre. {Bau.) ' Dorante et moi, nous sommes destiufea I'nn 
A, I'autre. {Mar.) ' Htlaa 1 non, nous serona tons tristes, 
VOQB, moi, les magistrals . . . et le public, (ff. Sand.) 

l«] SUBJECT. 391 

{§ 147.) ' Quel Bens cela avait-il ? (V- Hugo.) ' La crise 
terrible qu'elle avail provoqu6e sans le savoir, gu&rirait-elle 
le malade ? (About.) ' Maia, A propoa de tea adieus, il me 
reste encore une chose A eavoir. (Mar.) ' S'il court de m6- 
chants bruits, c'est qu'on le calomnie. {Poofard.) 'II est 
difficile d'aimer oeux que nous n'eatimons point. [La H.) 
* II me sera impossible de retenir mea larmes ; cependant il 
faut a'en aller pour revenir. (de Sew.) ' Ce n'est pas un 
petit objet que deux cent mille francs. (Mar.) 'Ah! les 
sottes gens qae nos gens I (Mar.) ' Maia c'eat une aatisfac- 
tion bien rare pour les esprita aerieux et judicieux que cells 
de lire uue auite de volumea si aiefia et si pleins. (Ste.-Ji.) 
" Qui eet-ce qui me dedommagera de votre perte ? (Mar.) 
" Devenir amourenee d'un jeune homme sur son reflet: 
u'est-cepasunefolie? (Oautier.) " La plus veritable marque 
d'^jtre ne avec de grandee qaalites, c'est d'etre nS aans en- 
vie. (La R.) " Moi, je n'ai pas rfive. (About.) " II regarde 
si je retoume la tete, et ]e ne aauraia le rappeler, moi. 
(Mar.) " Peut-^tre mes efforts en ce sens n'ont-ils pas et6 
tout-A-fait vains. (Ouizot.) 

(§ 148.) ' Soit, ma fille, je te permets le d^guisement. 
(Mar.) ' Mais peu nous importe ; et le po^te a eu, dans sa 
vie, bien d'autres oublis phia gravea. (Ste.-B.) ' Pliit ^ 
Dieu que je fuaae mort en effet, si je me trompe, et ai ce 
regard n'etait pas pour moi. (de Mu.) 

Theue 13. 
vebb and subject. 
' Is it you who wish to see me? ' No, it is our friends, 
who come from the country. ' Here are your sisters ; it 
was they who were looking for us. ' Which are the four 
cardinal points? They are the north, south, east, and west. 
' Moat men are ambitioua. ' I went to meet him ; a score 
of his frieuda surrounded him, and a company of soldiers 
marched behind him, ' A band of thieves had introduced 
itself into the house, and was pillaging the rooms. ' Their 
noise was beard by a few neighbore, who gathered and at- 
tacked them suddenly. ' More than one escaped, but the 
remainder were killed or taken. '° It was one of the most 

292 VERBS. [160— 

HuccesBful affairs of the kind that have happened in our 
village, " The courage, the dash of our friends was ad- 
mirable ; llie confusion and flight of tlie thieves were pitia- 
ble. " Thou who art still so yoang, listen to me who am 
thy friend. "It is we ourselves who wish to aid you. 
"Astronomy is one of the sciences that do most honor to 
the human mind, " My brother or I will go to see and 
encourage him. "His ruin or his salvation depends on 
(de) hia reception of ua. " He and I have been good friends 
the past twenty years. "There has happened to him a 
great misfortune. " It will be impossible for him to re- 
cover from it. " It would be a great pleasure to me to see 
him again, " Tours is a very handsome watch. " What 
we wish is to see you happy. " It matters little to you 
whether they go or stay. 


150. A predicate adjective or noun agrees in general, 
in gender and number, with the word which, through 
the verb, it is made to qualify. 

But there are differences in this respect between the adjective 
and the noun, and the agreement of the noun is more restricted. 

151. A predicate adjective, not less than an attribu- 
tive, agrees in gender and number with the noun {or 
pronoun) wbich it qualities, and is plural if it qualifies 
two or more. 

Thus, sa fortnne €tait sT^Jide hw fortune was great, la. stBiir 
et la tante forent charm^es the sister ajul aunt were, charmed. 

a. If tile two words qualified are of different genders, the ad- 
jective is ordinarily masculine ; but it is sometimes made to agree 
only with the nearer or the more important noun : thus, le mftrite 
et la vBita sont estim^ merit and tirtun are esteemet?.. Id &r, le 
bandeau, la flamme est touts prSte the steel, the bandage, the 
flame are ail ready. 

b. A predicate adjective qualifying a personal or interrogative 
or relative pronoun that does not (Sistinguish gender (or either 
gender or number, as qui) is i ariwi in form to agree with the 
uoun represented hy the pronoun : thus, nooa (hommes) sommM 





henrenx tee (men) are happy, vous (femmes) fltes beorenses yott 
{women) are liappy, ceiix or celles qui sont heureux or heorenses 
those who are happy. 

The indeflnite on is Bometimes treatt^d iu tlie same way : thus, 
q^nand on eat marine when one {a woman) m married. 

e. VoiiB and (more rarely) nous, when used with the value of 
singuliirs, take a predicate in the singular (though the verb re- 
miiina plui'al): thus, Otes-vons henrenz or henrense are you 
(sing.) happy f nous sommes henrense we are happy (said by a 

d. Words used adjeetively without variation of form {§ 53d, 
54e) are of course invariable when predicative. 

152. A predicate nouu agrees with tliat which it de- 
scribes only BO far as its own variations of form and the 
logical meaning admit. 

Thus, il eat actanr, elle est actrice Tie is an actor, she is an 
actress, elle est aintenr et mnsicienne she is an author and mu- 
aieian, il en a et§ la dupe he has been tJie dupe of #, il ftat lea 
dfilices de toute la ville Ae was the delight qf the whole city. 
See gg ISc, 18. 

a. For the forma of the pronouns when used predicatively, see 
XXni. 3d, XXV. 4a, XXVI. 2a, Examplea are : c'est moi it is I, 
elle est belle et le sera encore longtemps she is handsome, and 
leiUlong continue so, eteB-vonslestrois&dres? nous lea sommes 
are you the three brothers f we are they, qn'Stea-vons what are 
yoK f fon que je snis fool that I am ! 

153. The predicate is often a prepositional phrase, 
with de, i, en, etc., or an adverb. 

I'hus, cette ep^e est de fer this sword is of iron, il ^tait & 
genonz he was oji his knees, les bl^s sent en flenr t/ie wheat is in 
flower, il est bien he is well off. 

154. Verba of making, coueeiving, declaring, and the 
like, are followed by an objective predicate, qualifying 
the direct object, and agreeing with it in the same man- 
ner as the ordinary predicate with the snbjeet. 

Thus, je la declare innocente i declare her innocent, ils se 
firent capncine they made themselves capuchins, il lea sonpqon-' 
oait morts lie imagined them dead. 

a. But pour for or comme as is ordinarily used after many 
verbs befora the predicate word : thus, ils Is choiairent pour 
g^n^ral they chose him for general, il les conaid^rait comme ses 
B he considered them as^ ' 

ILLUaniATIVE 8KNTEKCEB.— XXV. Verb and Predioote. 

(§ 151.) ' La Bcience et la medecine sont bonnes, (Rouss.) 
'Paul et Virginie 6taient ignorants. (St. Pierre.) ' Sa 
bonte, son pouvoir, sa justice est immense. (Corn.) ' Non, 
non ; par ces sonpgonB je uuis trop oflEensfie. IMoI.) ' Voua, 
madame ! Eh ! n'6tes-voas pas except6e ? (Mar.) * Mais 
les frais de voyage, quand on est orpheline? (Scnbe.) 

(g 152.) ' J'Stais son eiinemie, et je ne la suIb pins. 
(Mar.) ' La mfire est le premier instituteur de son eiuant. 
iSt. Pierre.) ' Mon maltre en Palestine Stait une abeille. 
( Chat.) * Mile, de Schurmann . . , ^tait peintre, musicienne, 
graveur, sculpteur, philoeophe, geomfitre, theologienne 
mfinie. (Biogr. Univ.) 

(§ 153.) 'Lea culottes sont de tricot, les bas de eoie, et 
les aouliera de satin. {Bum.) 

(§ 164.) ' Je vous ai promiB d'avance de le faire capi- 
taine dans mes gardes, dit le prince, (de Vi.) ' Je ne crovais 
pas la Madelon si menteuse et si perfide. {G. Sand.) ' Est- 
ce que tu pretends aontenir cette piSce ? — Parblen ! je la 
garantis detestable. (^Mo/.) 'Je savais d§jil que je le 
trouverais grand ; mais je ne savais pas si je le trouverais 
simple. {^Dum.) ' Quand je les verrai heureux ensemble, 
j'irai mourir en paix loin d'eux. (ff. Saiid.) ' J'aime la 
compagnie, je I'avoue. — Je I'aime aussi, mais je I'aime 
choisie. {Mot) ' Cette ac^ne effrayante, et plus encore la 
crainte de la voir se renouveler, la tinrent longtemps fiveil- 
l^e. {de Maistre.) ' Toute dme grande et forte, aux mo- 
ments on elle s'anime, pent se dire maltresse de la parole. 
(Ste.-B.) ' Cette rudesse le rendit de fer. (tie Vi.) " Puiss^- 
je de mes yenx j voir tomber ce foudre, voir sea maisons 
en cendre et ses lauriers en poudre. {Com.) " A son re- 
gard si doux, pour un ange il I'a prise, (ff, Stmd.) 

165. The object of a verb is a noun, or something 
having the value of a noun — as a pronoun, an adjective 
used substantively, an infinitive, a phrase, or a clause. 

a. A partitive noun (§ 35), or one preceded by de, with or with- 
out the article, having the Bcose of some or any, is to be regarded 
Bfi immediately relat«d to the verb (whether as subject or predi- 
cate or object), like a simple noun. 8o also with a noun preceded 

juB^u'a dear to, in the sense of not excepting or epen ; thus, 



il aime jnsqa'ft, aes enmemiB he lows even 
ceded by pres de nearly, about ; and ao on. 

156. Tlie object of a verb ia either direct or indirect. 

The direct object correspondB to the usual English objective or 
Latin accusative ; the indirect, to the English objective with to, or 
the Latin dative. 

a. The pronouns are the only words in the language that have 
a difEerent form as subject and as object (XXII. etc). No noun 
bas a special object-form. 

b. The personal pronoun of the thii'd person (XXII. 5, 6e) is 
the only word in the language tbat has a special form for the in- 
direct object as distinguished from the direct. 

c. No noun ia used as indirect object immediately dependent on 
the verb. A noun as indirect object ia always preceded by i. to : 
thus, je donne le livre it mon ami I give my friertd the book; 
but, je loi donne le livre I give him the book. 

d. If a noun is conneet-ed with a verb by the preposition k. it 
may usually be represented by an indirect object-pronoun, what- 
ever the logical relation : see ^ 161^. 

e. For the indirect object- pronoun in the sense of a poBsessive, 

/. The indirect object- pronoun is used as a so-called " ethical 
dative" — i.e. to express some one indefinitely concerned in the ac- 
tion : thus, bats-moi cet h.omme-I& beat me that man. 

167, Verba are called "transitive" or "intransitive" 
according as they do or do not admit a direct object. 

a. Some verbs which in English are used as transitives are in 
French only intransitive — and vise versd ; thus, j'ob^ia aox loia 
/ obeg the laws, il approche (or a'approche) dn but he approaches 
thegoal; il Bonne le domestiqae herinqs for theservant: see 
below, g 1616, ie2if. 

h. A few verbs usually intransitive may take a direct object 
when used factitively (i.e. in the sense of mailing or showing by 
means of a certain action) : thus, tout y respire la joie emrg- 
thing there breathes joy, cet or sent le sang this gold smells of 
blood. Other intransitives do so in certain phrases : thus, conrir 
riaqne ru-n a Hsk, parler nne langne talk a language, caoaer 
littSratnre converse about literature. A so-called cognate accusa- 
tive is very little used in French ; the noun generally takes de 
before it : thus, mourir d'nae mort uatnrelle die a natural death, 
dormir d'ou bon sommeil sleep a good sleep. 

168. A verb in French does not take two direct ob- 
jects, but only a direct and an indirect together. 



a. An only apparent exception is the second noun that is taken 
as predicate to the object of a verb, or as objective predicate : 
thus, Ub le firent roi they made him king: see above, ^ 1S4. 

6. The prohibition of two direct objects is extended to those 
compound verb-phraaea in which an infinitive is directly (i.e. 
without de or It) dependent on another verb, especially &ire 
make, cause. If the mftnitive has a direct object, the logical ob- 
ject of the other verb has to be made indireot. Thus, / have 
■made him say it is je le loi ai £ut dire, Ihave made ^ny friend 
read your letter is j'ai &it lire rotre lettre H mon ami ; and so 
je Ini ferai voir ce qne je anis / iviU let him see what J am. In 
all these eases, the &ire and following infinitive are treated as 
forming a kind of unitary verb-phrase, a causative verb, taking 
both its objects, if pronouns, toffether before it. The same con- 
struction is also generally re<juired with an infinitive after laisser, 
voir, entendre, onir : thns, je lenr ai entenda dire ces pax olea 
/ heard t?iem say these words, je le Ini aj tq esBayer / have seen 
him try it. 

An exception is now and then met with : thug, je les ai laiss^s 
boire mon vin / let them drink my urine ; and always if the ob- 
ject of the infinitive is reflexive : thns, je I'ai laiss^ s'egarer / 
let him lose himself. On the other liand, the object of tain is 
sometimes made indirect when the infinitive has not -x direct ob- 
ject : thns, CBB chants flrent changer de visage & Atala these 
songs made Atala change countenance. (Chat.) 

169. A noun is often added to a verb directly, or 
without a preposition, to express measure or extent, time 
wLen, or (rarely) place where. 

Such a nonn is not properly an object of the verb, but ia rather 
used adverbially ; though its value shades into that of an object. 
It may be called an advebbial object. For examples, see above, 

(§ 155.) ' H avait da bon sens ; le reste vient ensuite. 
(ia F.) ' n a de la gaietS dans I'eaprit ; il a da 16ger et 
du plaisant. (Ste.-B.) ' Fant-il tout sacrifier, jusqa'tl I'opi- 
nion de la postSritfi ? (de Ft.) ' 11 mena prfis de trois cents 
genttlBhommes ^ Candle H ses d^pens, quoiqa'il ne ftt pas 
riche, (Vol.) 

(I 166^ ' Cette tdte. coHtacent mille livree i M. deVen- 
d6me. (ChauHeu.) 'II faut montrer aux Allemands la 
beaut^, la grandeur de notre BCtine trajrique. {Thiers.) 
' Qu'on me j^^gorge, qii'on me lui fasse griiler les pieds, 

U*] OBJECT. 297 

Su'on me 1e mettedaDS I'eaubouillante. (Mot.) 'Regarde 
iemard : ga n'a pas encore viogt-huit ana ; eb bien, (ja. 
Tous a df'ja nn bout de rnban i la boutonni^re. {Sandeau.) 
(§ 157.) ' En le auivant, M. I:jaint-Marc Girardin obeia- 
Hait de plus A sa nature. {Ste.-B.) ' Nous pardonnons aiaS- 
ment &. nos amis les dSfauts qui no nous regardent pas. 
(La H.j ' Imaginez-vous qu'elle I'a querellfi de ce qu'il 
etait bien fait. (Mar.) ' II ne faut paa courir deux lievres 
k la fois. (Prnverb.) " Que tout respire ioi luxe et magni- 
ficence 1 (Buval.) ' Tous les membres de cette famiJle par- 
laient I'italien le fraui;ais, I'espagnol, I'anglais, et I'allemand. 
(Bal.) ' Me parlerait-il poSsie ou farine, academie ou agri- 
culture, publicatiou ou recolte ? (^Bum.) ' Mars rit auaai 
d'un rire amer. (de T;.) 

{§ 158.) ' Bien que la mort n'Stait capable d'expier son 
forfait ; on le lui fit bien voir. {La F.) * Les m^mes gens 
de bien entreprirent de lui faire voir M. de Koailles. (de 
Siv.) ' Le plus grand effort de Taraitifi n'est pas de raon- 
trer nos d^fauts A un ami ; e'est de lui faire voir les aieus. 
{La R.) * Les occasions nous font connaitre aux autres, et 
encore plus k noua-mSmes. {La R.) ' II faut se laieser em- 
porter au torrent, (Chaulim.) 'On peut prSferer de lui 
telle ou telle maniiire, mais il est curieux de les lui voir 
essayer toutes. {Ste.-B.) ' Le gentilbomme de M. de Tu- 
renne . . . dit qu'il a vu faire des actions h^roi'ques au che- 
valier de Grignan. {de Sev.) ' Des paroles singuliSrea qu'on 
lui a entendu dire sur la religion, sur la cour de Rome, nous 
ont 4t6 rfep^tfies par des'temoina dignes de foi. {Thiers.) 
' Je lui laissai sans fruit consumer sa tendresse. {Roc.) " Un 
sentiment d'orgueil lui a fait applaudir ^ tout ce qui apla- 
nissait la route des bonneurs, {Vampan.) 

Theme 14. 


' His virtue and constancy are groat. ' The arm and 
band are made in order to execute the will. * He and she 
will be absent when you return. ' You are our friend, and 
we are yours, said the queen to him, ' This wine pleases 
me, but that other seems to me better. ' She is a dancer, 
and ber sister is a musician ; their brother is a painter; 



they are all able artists. ' We were bold ; but experience 
has rendered us more tsautioue. ' God has not made life 
too hard to bear. ' You think her sincere ; I have found 
her false &nd mendacious. '° We know them {to be) rich 
and happy, " Can one call courageous an action so rash 
and foolish f "I like to see people happy about me. " We 
regard it as certain that they will be here. " He had taken 
me for another. 

" She likes everything in him, even his fanlts and weak- 
nesses. " We have seen to-day nearly a hundred pictures, 
and not one of them has pleased us. " He has fought 
the good fight ; let him sleep now a long and deep sleep. 
" I have made her write the letter of which I was speaking 
to you ; and now I shall ring for my servant, to carry it to 
the post. " We have heard them tell this story many 
times. '° Have you not seen her give her hand to your 
rival ? " Do not let him forget himself. " This cloth is 
worth only ten francs a yard, but it has cost me twelve 
francs, and I have had to run about the streets three hours 
in order to find it. 


160. A verb is extremely often qnalilied by a prepo- 
sitional phrase — that is, by a noun or other word or 
phrase having substantive value, and joined to it by a 

All the prepoaitioaa are used to connect the nouna they govern 
with verbs, thus qualifying or limiting the latter's moaning. 
l;tomo of these constructions need no explanation, being perfectly 
simple and like English constructions ; some will be treated under 
Prepositions (§ 202 etc.); a few, involving the commouest prepo- 
sitions, k ami de, may best be stated here, as being most closely 
analogous with the relations ordinarily expressed by cases, the 
dative and genitive. 

161. A noun with ktoia need after a verb dativelj, 
or in the manner of an indirect object. 

Hence it is rcpresentable by an indirect object- pronoun : name- 




ly, loi and leiir for peisonB, and 7 for things (but somotimeB also 
(or persons) : see XXn. 5. 6 ; XXIII. 5, 6. 

a. The uses of a as connecting a noun with 11 verb eome from 
its original value aa meaning both to and at, and it often has to 
be rendered by at or about, and not seldom by other prepoaitJonB, 
as on, by, with, etc. Sometimes, too, it ia rec|Uired where in 
English the verb takes a direct object. The principal peculiari- 
ties of its use are noticed here. 

h. Some ver!)a wbich in English are traositive require 
in French 4 before their object. 

Such are especially conseiUer & advise, noire i. harm, injure, 
ob6ir & obe^, plaire a please, renoncer ii renouTux, resBembler & 
resemble, risiater a resist, Burvivre 4 outline, survive ; thns, 
oMissez h, Tos parents obey ymir parents. Other verbs may take 
ik, or take it in certain senses or certain phrases : thus, aider or 
aider i«td, /ie(p,atteindre &af(ofn, assisterifie present (ri, com- 
mander k, ordonner i. command, order, and peranader a per- 
suade, urge, with a person, when the thing commanded or urged 
is also expressed, croire & belieoe in, satia&ira & sati^ as a 
general rule or obligation, toucher a come in contact with, be 
dose to, BnppUer ik make up as& deficiency. In a caw or two 
the whole construction is different from English : thus, reprocher 
& iinelqu'iui sa fbiiite reproof any one for hia fault (Ut'ly, re- 
prr^ach to any one his fault). 

o. A few verbs take k where we should expect de, as meaning 
/hmi or q/'. These are arraclier snatch, extort, flter and enlever 
take away, aontirer vMhdraw, &±apper escape, demander ask, 
empnuiter borrow, acheter buy (and sometimes gagner gain, 
prendre take) : thus, arracher qnelqne chose k qaelqu'nn 
snatch something from somebody, je demande pardon a cet 
homme / ask pardon of this man, il a emprunt^ de I'argent a, 
nn banqiiier he has bortvwed moneg of a bankt^. Also penser k, 
aoager k, in the sense of think upon, turn one's thoughts to: thus, 
pensez & moi thi7ik cffme. 

These verbs (but not demander) take also sometimes de instead 
of k, for the most part with little difference of sense ; but pensez 
de means liatx an opinion of: thus, pensez-Tons de moi 
what do you think of me ? 

*d. In many phrases, a noun with k is added to a verb to ex- 
press the manner or instrument of the action : thus, il voyage a 
cheval he travels on horseback (by horse), il parle k hante voix 
he talks in a loud voice, aller a voiles go by mil, fouler anx 
pieds trample underfoot: compare g 38. 

e. I d some combinations, & with a noun has the sense of be- 
longing to: so especially with fitre: thus, cette maison est & 



moi this house m mine; and similarlv with tronver, snppoBer, 
connaitre, aij<i croira credit : thus, je Ini tronve an craor excel- 
lent I find Mm to possess an excellent heart, il leur croit aasez 
de bon Bens he credits them good sense enough. 

Itelated with this is the not infrequent uay of the dative, espec- 
ially of a pronoun, instead of a possessive adjective : thus, jo loi 
prends la main / take her hand, il a'est cassti le brae he has 
bivken his arm. 

f. Of special cases may be mentioned the reflexive phrases 
B'attendre k earned, be prepared for. s'attaqoer & pii^k a quar- 
rel with. Be mBler a (or de) meddle with ; also faire la gnerre k 
make war upon, avoir afikire k have u difficulty with, en von- 
loir k bear a gntdge against, tenir a d^end upon (compare 
XXIX. lb). 

g. Esamples of the use of an indirect object-pronoun to repre- 
sent a noun requiring & after the verb are as follows : je Ini ohSa 
I obey him, il &iit y renoncer one must reTiotmce it, il lenr de- 
mande leors noma he asks them their names, nona y pensons 
tonjonrs we think nf it aU the time, je Ini en vemt I have a grudge 
against him. But the noun of manner or instrument, and that 
following €tre in the sense of belong cannot bo so replaced. 

ILLUSTRATIVE SENTENCES.-XXVU. Verb and Case-phraoe with a, 

(g 161.) ' Votre ingenieuse critique n'obeit pas eeule- 
ment ft une necessite, e!le se livre d nn goflt et il un plaisir. 
(Ste.-It.) " II ressemblait I'l un fantfime, mais A eelui d'un 
martyr, {de Vi.) ' On tonche encore k son temps, et tr^s 
fort, mSme quand on le repousse. (Ste.-S.) 'Racontant 
I'em prison ncment de eon pSre pendant la Terrcur, M. de 
Lamartine nous fait ossister d dee sc^nee tant eolt peu ro- 
manesquBB. (Sle.-B.) 'II* reproche d Bjron de I'avoir 
imit6 sans le nommer et sans lui en faire honneur, [Ste.-£.) 
' Sa pif t6 ^tait si vive, son effusion si toucbante, son cou- 
rage si admirable, qu'eJle arracbait les larmes d tons les 
aBsiatants. (Mtgnft.) ' Je demande il Votre Majest§ la per- 
mission de me retirer i Citeaux. {de Vi.) ' C'est Marie qui 
a peDB6 4 ce cantonnier ; Marie pense d tout, s'avise de 
tout. (Ste.-B.) ' Songe au fleuve de sang oii ton bras e'&t 
baigne. (Com.) '° Dupont, lanc^ en*' fl^cbe dans I'Anda- 
lousie r^volt§e, est bient^t oblig6 de se rabattre et de son- 
cer d une retraite ; mais il y songe trop tard. (Ste.-B.) 
' La Madelon, qui n'avait jamais pensS bien sSrieusement 




d Landry, se mit 4 y penser beaucoup. (ff. Stmd.) " Ce 
n'est rien, monsieur le marquis ; c'est uoe folle qui est arri- 
vee a pied ici cette nuit. {de Vi.) "Da parle de rappeler 
la reine-mSre, dit le capucin 4 vols baaae. {de Vi.) " A 
I'oBuvre on connait Partisan. {La F.) " J'ai nomm4 M. de 
Balzac ; ce romancicr original a trouve, je I'ai dit, une veine 
^ai est bien k lui. (Sle.-B.) " Voiis me croyez plus de qua- 
lites que je n'en ai. (Mar.) "Je ne vous eoupgonnala pas 
lea talents et I'babUete que vous avez d^ploy4s aujourd'bui. 
(Scribe.) "11 a I'esprit, le cceur Datnrellement mod^r6s, et 
je ne lui ai jamais va de passion. (Sle.-B.) " Je leur ai 
pardonne du fond du coeur, {Quizot.) " Voas lui avez 
peut-6tre airacbg enfin cet aveu ; voua avez bien fait. {&. 

162. A Doun witb de of, from, is used after a verb in 
the manner of a genitive ease, and may be represeoted 
iu prououn-form by the genitive pronoun en (XXIII. 6). 

a. The uses of de as connecting a nonn with a verb come in 
great part from ite origiual value as meaning frnm. It often 
stands where English requires a different preposition, especially 
with, hy, ftflcawje of, and the like, and sometimes where the verb 
in English talcoa a direct object. The principal cases are noticed 

J. A de stands after verbs of proceeding or removing, 
in every variety ; after those of talcing and the like ; 
after those of depending; and so on. 

Thus, il arrive de Poria he ixnnen from Paris, je I'ai re^ de 
mon pere I have received U from my fat fier, cela depend de vona 
t?iat dependu on (litly, from) you. 

0. A de is very often nsed after a verb to mark that 
from which anything proceeds as cause, motive, occasion; 
and hence also agent and means or instrument — where in 
English Iry or loitk is used. 

Thus, il est mort de feim he has died of hunger, il se repent 
de sa. condnite he repents qf his amduct, je les pnnis de lenr 
fante / punish them for their fault ; ami ils la loueut d'nne 
Toix they praise fier iPitA one voice, il est arm^ d'nne ^p^e he is 
armed u-ith a sword; and elle jone dn piano she plays on (lit'ly, 
with) the piano. 

Hence the frequent use of de falternately with par) with a pas- 

302 VEBB8. 1163— 

aive to decote the agent ; thus, il est aim4 de tout le monde fit 
is looed by eBerybody: see the First Part, XXVIII, 3. 

d. It stands before a, noun e^ressicg material, nuntent, and 
the like : thns, il 1'b> fait de bois he made it of trued, remplir 
d'eaa fill with water: comx>are § 33, 

e. It not Beldom expresses manner : thus, ramener de force 
bring back bg force, agir de boime foi act in good faith, parler 
de la sorte talk in thai fashion. 

f. Some verbs that are transitive in English require in 
French a de before their object. 

8ueh verbs are especially jonir enjoy, Tiaer use, abnser ohme ; 
also d^der decide and jnger Judge (sometimeB iufransitive in 
English); also redonbler redouble in certain phrases; and 
changer when it signifies the exchange by the subject of one 
thing for another of the same kind : thus, il cliange d'opinion 
he changes his opinion, il redonbla d'efforta he redoubled his 
efforts, je joais de sa favenr I enjoy his favon; Us abttsent de 
ma bontd they (dmse my kindness. Also sometimes b&iter in- 
Jierit: thus, h^riter d'nne maison inherit a house. More 
special cases are: de after a pprocher or s'approclier ap- 
proach: thus, il a'approcha da "en he approached the fire; 
after certain reflexive verbs, as s'aperceroir perceive, se d^fler 
distrust. Be doater suspect, bs passer do vMhout, se serrir maki 
use, and so on {compare XXIX. 76): thus, je m'apergoia de cela 
I perceive that. 

g. After traiter and qualifier with an object, an<i aftir servir, 
de is used to mean in character of or as ; thus, je I'ai traits de 
prince 1 Ttare treated him as a priiice, il me sert de modele he 
serves me as model. 

h. Examples of the use of the genitive pronoun en in these va- 
rious constructions (except to express manner) are : il ^tait i, la 
campasne ; il en revient anjonrd'lLni he was i» the country, fie 
returns from it to-day, il en est d^ mort he has already died 
of it, on Ten a arm^ Ihey fiave armed him icith ii, il les aime, et 
il en est aim^ fte loves them and is loved by them, nsez-en, mais 
b'en abuses pas use it, hut do not abuse it, le voyant, il a'en ap- 
procha sedng it, he approached it. 

i. For a few verbs taking both de and i, see § 183. 

j. For the partitive noun with de, used like a sim]jle noun aa 
the object of a verb as well as in other constructions, see § 35. 

with M. 

(§ 162.) ' Ceiix qui ne eortent pas d'eux-mfimea aont 
tout d'uiie pit^ce, {OWardin.) ' Bien ; vous allez partir de 
Madrid tout il Tbeiire. (T. Huijo.) ' \\ revient de la Grfioe 


et de Jerusalem; il aborde en Egypte. (SU.-B,) 'line 
vit que de lait, ne descend jamais &, la aalle A manger. (Dau.) 
' £lle He retira ensiiite k part, et ttcnvit de sa main, pendant 
pluBieiira heurea, dea lettroN et son testament. (Mii/net.) 
Le bonirean lni-m£me 6tait 6mu, et la frappa d'line main 
raal assuree. (Miffnel.) ' Le comraissionnaire la renverse 
d'un coup de chaise ; la gouTernnnte la foule aux pieds. 
(TAier*.) ' Soudain sea traits se contract^rent comme de 
I'espoir du triomphe. (Saintine.) ' Je me sens piq^n^ de ce 
discours Strange. {Atol.) "Je le connais de vue, mais je 
ne sals pas son nom. (Mar.) " La lune brillait de tout son 
Sclat. ijfapolion.) "Et il continue de la sorte de donner 
ooura k un enthousiasme severe. (Sie.-£.) " Allons, Zambo, 
ohantait-il dSin ton furieux et comique ; toume le robinet 
pour Masaa. (Lab.) "II a ete frappe 4 premier e vue des 
d^fants, des travers, des ridicules du temps. {Ste.-B.) " De 
I'heure .fugitive, bfltons-nous, jouiaaons. (tam.) "Yous 
oroyez qn'abusaot de mon autonte, je pretends attcnter H 
votre liberty. (Jiac.) " En cbangeant de nom, tu n'as pas 
chang^ de visage. (Mar.) " Je leur fecris qu'Achille a 
change de pensee. (Rac.) "Peuple aauvage ! ni^criai-je 
en approohant du feu. (Lab.) '" Un ignorant b^rita d'un 
manuscrit, qu'il porta chez son voisin le libraire. (La F.) 
"Madame de Vaubert avait serri de mfire dHfilflne. (Saa- 
deau.) '' L'enthoQsiasme nous sert aussi d'asile k nous- 
m^mes contre lea peines les plus amSres. (de Stael.) " Et 
j'ai traite cela de pure bagatelle. (Mol.) " Tu me traites 
de m6chante aans que j'aie jamais fait de mal. (0. Sand.) 
" Charlotte Corday eat condamnSe k la peine de mort ; son 
beau viaage n'en paralt pas 6mu. ( Thiers.) " J'etais all6 
k Claje, a quelques lieues de Paris. Je m'en revenaia k 
pieJ. ( V. Jiugo.) " J'ai trop d'avantage, et, en ennemi 
g^n^reux, je ne veux pas en profiter. (Scribe.) " Profite de 
tea biena, George. — J'en use sans plaisir, et les tiena en m6- 
pris. (Ponsard.) " N'^tes-vous jamais passe aur nne tombe 
sans vous en douter ? (Dum.) "Laisaez-moi, l'abb6, laissez- 
moi, je vous en prie. {(?. Sand.) 

Theme 15. 


' The boy ought to obey his parents ; the man, the law 
and Grod. ' He ■who lovea his parents will obey them ; ho 



wbo honors the law will obey it. 'Wisdom commands 
every one to renounce all pleasures which can Injure him. 
'She pleasea them because she resembles her mother. 
' Tell him what we have promised him, and persuade him 
to withdraw, 'Your memory will perhaps aid his. 'If 
one has pardoned a friend his faults, one no longer re- 
proaches him for them. ' He asked her what book she was 
reading, and as she answered him nothing, he snatched it 
from her. ' What do you think of his conduct? '"He 
will not escape the punishment due to bis misdeed. " He 
came on horseback, and they received him with open arms. 
" I bought it cheap, with money that I had borrowed of 
my uncle. " Speak with a louder voice, or we shall not un- 
derstand you. " This house belongs to my neighbor. " It 
is very handsome ; I did not credit him with so much 
taste. " We have found no ill in him, " Do not meddle 
with this affair. " I bear them no ill-will, although they 
have quarreled with my friends. 

" They have just arrived from America ; whether they 
remain here depends upon their health, '" At present, they 
are wearied with the trials of the journey. '' They were 
preceded by their courier, and will be followed by their 
baggage ; they are accompanied by their servants and a 
parrot. " He is burning with impatience to see the East ; 
but she is bored by everything, and weeps for grief at hav- 
ing left her country. " She has written me several letters 
with her own hand. "' He occupies himself too much with 
his health. " He does not know what to do with his time. 
" I thank you for your kindness. " If you wish to enjoy 
my favor, you must not talk in that fashion. " She never 
abuses her influence over him. " This man changes hie 
religion as one might change his coat. '° He redoubled his 
efforts to approach the shore, and did not perceive the ef- 
forts that were making to save him. " I can make ase of 
you ; but if you think that we cannot do without you, you are 

l»j KEOATION. 305 

much mistaken. " He always treated me as a chili. " That 
will serve ua aa example for what we have to do. 


163, The verb is very often qiialified by an adverb. 
a. For the formation and use of adverbs in general, see XXXI,, 

XXXU., and below, § 196 etc. Here only certain special matters 
call for treatment. 

6. As to the use of the adverbs y and en us pronominal objects 
of verbs, sue XXIll. S-S, and g 85. Aa to the pronominal uses 
also of dont and on, see XXVI. 7, 8. 

164. A verb is made negative by prefixing the nega- 
tive adverb ue ; and the verb of a sentence containing a 
negatioQ always has ae before it 

See Lesson XII. Much of what was said in the Lessona is un- 
avoidably repeated here. 

a. The ne is always placed after the suhject, bnt before an ob- 
ject-pronoun ; nothing but an object-pronoun ever stands between 
the negative adverb and the verb negated by it. 

b. For the very rare omission of the na, see below, § 165s. 
166. But usnally, in expressing simple negation, an 

auxiliary word, pas or point, is added after the verb. 

a. Pas and point are in reality adverbially-used nouns, matdng 
distinct or strengthening the negation ; pas is literally pace, step, 
and point is point. Point makes a stronger or more emphatic 
n^^gation than pas, like no/ at all, by no mean*, or the Uke. 

6. Pas and point, if the verb is compound, are put after the 
auxiliary and before the participle. With an infinitive, they are 
usually fnot always) made to precede : thus, ne pas dire or ne 
dire pas not to say. And the objeet-pronoun of such an infini- 
tive may be placed either between or after the two negative par- 
ticles : thus, ne pas Tons dire or oe vons paj dire (or ne vons 
dire pas) not to tell you: the first is most usual. 

c. Point is not used before plus nor before an adjective nn- 
meral. In a question, pas is used if an affirmative reply is ex- 
pected : thos, n'eat-ce pas Tons qni me I'aves dit means # U 
you, UitTtotf that told »te, but n'est-ce point vons etc. means 
it surely is not you, is it ! that etc. 

d. Quite rarely, mie (lit'ly, a erumh) ia used instead of point 
thus, ne les ^contez mie do not listen to them at all. 

e. Very rarely, ne is omitted, and the negation expressed by 




pa> or point alone : thus. I'&i-je pas dit didn't I say sot This 
h&rdly occurs except in low or vulgar style. 

166. In certain ca&es, ae is need alone, without added 
pai or point, to negative the verb. 

The priacipal and most usual cases are those stated below. But 
the omission of the seeond Degative is sometimes made at the ar- 
bitrary option of an author. 

a. With the verbs Bavoir, poavoir, oser, and ceuer, pas 
or point is usually omitted, especially when an infinitive 
follows, and wlien the negation is not emphatic. 

Tims, je ne sais ce que c'est / don't know what it is, il na 
pent tarder Ae cannot delay, elle o'oserait revenir sM would 
ftot dare to come hack, vons ne cessez de rire you do not Hop 
laughing. Less common oases are such as je ae bongerai d'id 
J Khali not »tir (budge) fi-om here. Sa.iu-ais in the sense of can 
(XXXIV. 76) always has no only : thus, je ne sanraia le dire I 
canttot say; also usually puis : thus, je ne puis Icannot (bat je 

b. Ne is often used alone after si, after rhetorical questions in- 
troduced by qui, after qne in the sense of why ? or unless, with a 
perfect after depnia qne and il r a . . . que, and in a negative 
clause depending on one that is negative or impliedly so : thus, 
■i ca n'ert vona ^it ia not you, qui de nous n'a ses d^&nts who 
<if ua hoB not his faults 'i quo ne bb corrige-t-il )c/(^ t/ww fte no/ 
eorreat himself t 11 y a trois mois que je ne I'ai vn I ham not 
seen him these three months. Tons n'aveE pas nn ami qui ne Boit 
auisi le mien you have not a friend who is not also mine, and 
aTflE-vons un ami qui ne Boit aosai le mien have you (i.e. surely 
you have not) a friend who is not also miiie ? 

c. Ne Is used without pas or point in certjiin special phrases : 
thus, n'importe no maitcr, n'avoir garde de take care not to, 
n'avoir que fiure not have anything to do, ne plaiae or ne A&- 
plaise may it not please or displease, and a few others : thus, i, 
Dien ne plaiBe Ood forbid, je n'ai garde de d^saTouer ma &nte 
/ take care not to disavow my fault. 

187. He is also need without second negative particle 
along with certain words which are regarded as forming 
with it a compound negative phrase, often to be rendered 
in English by a single negative word. 

a. These negative phrases are especially ne . . . rien nothing, 
S» ■ . ■ jamais never, ne . . . personne nobody, ne . . . ancnn not 

ant/, wwie. no.JM... plua no longer, no more (in sense of con- 
tinuance of time), no . . . quo orily {Litly, not [else or other] than), 
no . . . go^re, hardly, scarcely. 

b. Of the words tlius used, rian and jamaiB and annm and 
entev, though in themselves properly positive, occur almost only 
in negative phraaea and with n^ative value. Exueptiona are oc- 
casionally met with, especially in clauses that have a negative 
implication : thus, peraoune a-t-il JamaiB rien tu de pareil 
has any otie ever seen anything like it ? (i.e. no one, surely, has 

a. Instead of rien thing, are found sometimes in special phra.'ses 
mieifrMinfi, gonttofirop, Drin mote, mot word; instead of jajnais 
ever, are found the obsolete one or imqneB eeer, also de ma, vie 
in my life, and other similar expi'cssions ; instead of personne 
or ancuu any one, any, are found qui que ce aoit or quelconqne 
any one or any whateisr, and the lilce. 

d. Of ae . . . que, meaning only, the qae gtauds where than 
would stand if the expression were fillod out : thus, je ne verrai 
qu'eUe I shall see only her, je ne la verraj que demain J shall 
see her only to-morrow, je ne la veirai demain qn'aprea le diner 
/ shall see her only after the dinner to-morrow. If the only 
qualifies the verb itself, e. paraphrase is made with &ire do ; thuH, 
elle ne fait qne plenrer site merely cries, or elle ne fait antra 
choH que plenrer she does nothing else than ory. Autre other 
is not seldom used with ne alone : thns, le droit n''eat antre chose 
qne la i&ison mdme right is Tuothing but reason itself. 

e. Kot seldom, more than one second negative belongs with the 
same ne : thus, je ne Ini aj jamais rien donni / have never given 
him anything, je n'en dirai jamais rien & personne 1 wVl never 
say anything to any one about it. This is especially frequent 
along with qne, and then the rendering only must bo changed to 
aometliing else : thus, je n'ai jamaU aim^ qne Ini Ihaee nether 
loved any one but him, or the like. 

/. Nnl none, not any (also its adverb nnllement in no wise), 
and ni nor, though themselves negative, require also ne before 
the verb : thus, ni Tons ni moi ne le poavons neither' you nor 1 
can do it, je ne le pnis, ni ne le venx / neither can nor will do 
it, nnl ne le sanra -none will know it. The tiame is the case with 
mm plnB not any more : thus, elle ne I'aime non pins qne moi 
she doesn't like it any more than I. 

But nnl used apitoaitively or predicatively to mean null, of no 
account, does not require ne. 

168. He can never be used except directly witb i. verb 
expressed ; if it is omitted, because of the absence of the 

308 VEBB8. - riM- 

verb, the otlier word usually associated with it in a nega- 
tive phrase may itself be used in the oegative sense. 

Thus, point may stand by itself for not at all ; pas not alone, 
but with another word, e.g. pas moi not I, pas du tout not at all, 
pDnrqaoi pas why Ttot ? ; rien as nothing, jamais as iiever, per- 
sonne m mhndy, ancnu as no, none, plus as no longer. But que 
and ^aere do not stand thus (unless in very rare cases). 

a. Rien qne nothing [else] than, is used elliptioally with a fol- 
lowing inftuitive in the sense of merely by : thus, rien qu'il y 
penser merel// hy thinking qf it. 

169. The negative word non is especially used as direct 
answer to a question, njeaniug no. 

In this, as in most of its other iisesj it may be followed by the 
second negative pas (or rarely by pointj : thus, vonles-vons la 
£Lire 7 non (or non pas) will you do it t no. 

a. It also stands, in incomplete expression, for an omitted neg- 
ative verb or clause : thus, je ga^e qae non I wager fhiit it is 
not so, si Ton Bou&e on non rchether one suffer or not (i.e. or do 
not suffer), non que je le croie not (i.e. il m not the case) Oiat 1 
believe it. 

b. It is used to negative a particular meiubiT of a senleuce 
which is not a verb ; thus, il demenre & la campagne, non loin 
did A* lives in the country, not Jar from here, il p^rit, non sans 
gloire he perished, not without glory. Especially, with a nega- 
tive alternative opposed to ii positive : thus, nons vonlous on 
msltre at non (or non pas) nne maitresse we want a master, and 
not a mistress, je le feiai non senlement poor Ini, mais anssi 
pour ses en&nts I shall do it not only for him, but also for his 

c. Non plus not any more, not any sooner, stands after a nega- 
tive verb or after ni nor, and is often best rendered hy either: 
thus, je ne le ferai pas non pins / shall not do it either (lit^ly, 
any more than he or than yon, or the like); oi moi non pins nor 
I either. 

d. Non had formerly the ofBce of directly making a verb nega- - 
tive, and is sometimes still found so used, in antiquated style : 
thus, non ferai-je I shall not do it. 

a p^re. 


(§ 165.) ' Je ne vons reponds pas dea volont^e d' 

mais je ne serai point A d'autre qu'i VaUre. (Mot.) 
est capable de ne pas me croire ; et s'il inc croit, c'est en- 
core pis. (Scribe.) ' C'est pourtant triste de ne jamais 
danS^er, dit Landry. (G. Siml.) ' Dans les piiices serieoses. 





il suffit, poor n'^tro point bldin^, de dire des choses qui 
Boient de bon sens el bien 6criteB. (Mol.) 'Je feral tout 
pour ne voua pas d^plaire. {Rac.') 'Hf bien 1 I'ai-je pas 
dit ? {I^e^ ' Voyez-vous paa s'enf uir les botes dn bocage ? 
(Ddille.) ' Je parie que tu n'as pas encore . . . ie consen- 
tement de tes parents ?— ^a ne sera pas long; j'en ai pas. 

(§ 163.) 'Certes, il est bien inalbeureux, mala il ne pent 
Ctre cruel ; il entendrait la vfirite. — Oui, mais il n'oaerait 
la faire triompher. (de Vi.) " Je ne sais ai le marquis me 
pardonnerait, {Sajideau.) ' On ne savait quelui dire; tout 
le monde pleurait. (de Set'.) 'II y a quelques centaines 
d'ann4es que je n'avais revu votre petit monde. (ff. Sand.) 
' II n'y a pas de raeehanc^fi qu'ejle n'invente. {S^gur.) ' Je 
n'aiirais jamais era chose patfiiltefsi je n'avais vu de mes,' 
yeus, et enlendii de mes qreilles. (Seffur.) ' Qui de nous, 
monBieur, n'est sujet 4 1'erreur? (Scribt.) ' Mme. Humblot 
et sa fille n'euvent garde de manquer au rendez-vous. 
(About.) ' En te reprochant ta faute, je n'ai garde de d^- 
savouer la mienne. (fen.) ^'N'importe ; au milieu de ces 
sentiers tortueux, j'en veux prendre un nouveau. {de Vi.) 

(§ 167.) ' Si ie n'ai pins de fils, que m'iinporte un em- 
pire? {^ol.) 'Mais il 6tait trop tard pour la Bicbonne ; 
elle ne vivait dejA plus. [Nodier.) ' Mais ce bel borizon ne 
nous tient gu^re chez nous. {Dan.) ' D n'y a que oe valet 
qui soit saspect ici ; Dorante n'a qn'a le chaeser. (jt/iir.) 
' Tons ceux qui la virent en ce moment crurent mieux que 
jamais que c'etait chose venue de la part de Diea, {Mi- 
chelei.) ' II serait difficile d'imaginer rien de plus beau. 
(Chat.) ' EUea me font peur, encore que je n'ycomprenne 
goutte. {&■ Sand.) ' Eh bien 1 c'est un homme qui ne dit 
mot, gui ne rit ni qui ne gronde. (Mar.) ' J'en approuve 
I'espnt ; s'il penaait autrement, je ne le verrais de ma vie. 
(Mar.) " n ne faisait k Paris que dea voyages courts et 
rares. (St. Sintoji.) " En toute afFaire ils ne font que aon- 
ger au moyen d'exercer lenr langue. (La F.) " II m'a fait 
souvenir que mon fila est dans Tarmee du roi, laquelle n'a 
en nnlle part iX cette expedition, (de Sev.) " Je n'ai plus 
rien A vous apprendre. (Scribe.) " Je n'ai jamais rien vu 
qui imprime tant de terreur. {Chnulieu.) 

(§ 168.) ' Voua n'auriez pas perdu la t^te, par haeard ? — 
Paa que je sache. (About.) ' Dana la rue, des gena aSai- 




r£s . . . point de brQit, point de r-ns, point de fl&neura 
et, anssi loin que portait ma vue, pas un sergent de ville, 
pas un gendarme. (Lab.) ' Vous croyez qu'on I'accueille, 
qu'on la Boulage, qu'on la console ?— Point, fff. SoniTJ 
' Qnoi, coueine ! personne ne t'eat venu rendre visite ? — 
Pereonne. (Mol.) "Voueavez re9u quelque ^dacation, au 
moins? — Aucune. (Butn.) 'Plus d'amour! partant, plus 
do joie I (La F.) ' Puis rien, paa m^me une plainte, ne suc- 
c^da au cri de Guiilaume. (Dutii.) ' LeB legions romaines, 
qne vous avez imitees, mais paa encore 6gal6e8, combattaient 
Carthage . . . sur cette mfime mer. (Najio/ion.) ' Non, ja- 
mais mes professeura ne m'ont donne le centiSme de I'ln- 
struction que je hume de \k, rien qu'd regarder dans la 
rue. (Tvep/er.) 

{§ 169.) ' Non, non ; je me trahis moi-m^me d'y penaer. 
(Com.) 'Elle a raison ! — Ma foi, j'ai aoutenu que non. 
( V. Hugo.) ' Que notre impferieux cardinal venille ou non, 
la veuve de Henri-le-Grand ne reatera pas plus longtempa 
eiilfee. (de Vi.) 'II a travaille pour le moment, et non 
pour I'avenir. (de Vi.) '"iPaTme voire personne, et non 
votre fortune. (Cum.) ' Nous y entrames, non sans soup- 
9on ; mais comment faire? (Courier.) 'Non seulement le 
cffur ue s'attacbe A rien dans cee gttee, maia I'esprit j est 
iiiquiet, (About.) 'Pour moi, je n'ai paa grand'choae i 
dire. — Ni moi non plus. (Mol.) 

170. In dependent clauses, n« is not eeldom found 
used with a verb expletivelj, or where no negation is 
really implied. 

Such a ne is never accompanied by a second negative, pu or 
point. It is inserted by reason of a confasion of two construc- 
tions, a positive and a negative being both had in mind at once. 
The special caaea are as foUowa : 

a. After verbs of fear or apprehension, of hindering, of doubt 
or denial ; also, after nouns and adjectives of like meaning : tbus, 
je crains qn'U ne vienne / /ear he maij come, empSchei qn'il a« 
vienns preeent his coming, ^vitei qu'il ne vous parle avoid his 
speaking to you, je ne donte pas qn'il ne vienne I do not dotibt 
that he is contini/. de penr qn'il ne vieaae for fear that ?ie is 
coming, point de donte qne cela ne soit no doubt that is so, ^ 
eit dangerenz que la vanity n'^tonffe la reconnaissance it is to 
be feared that vaniti/ may stifle gratiliide. 

In Buch eases, the verb of the dependent clause is always anb- 

wo] NEGATION. 311 

junotive ; and the que with foUowisg ne may often be best ren- 
dered in English by lesl : I fear lest he may come, and so on. 

But there are also many exceptions : thuu, ne is not inserted 
after an expression of fear or apprehension that is negative or 
implies a, negation : nor, in modern style, after UtonAiB forbid ; 
nor nnless the expression of doubt or denial is negative or implies 
negation ; nor, genenvtly, before an infinitive — and other more 
irregular eases occur. The illogical intrusion of the negative is 
coming to be more and more neglected. 

6. After the expressions of time il y a . . . q.Be, depnis que, and 
arant que, a superfluous ne is sometimea inserted : thus, depnis 
que je ne vona aj vn since I saw you, je serai aorti avant qa'il 
n'entre / shall have gone out hefore he comes in. Also after il 
s'en fiint there is lacking, with negative implication : thus, il ne 
s'en &Lnt pas beanconp qa'il r'ait perdn la raiaon he came very 
near losing his reason . 

e. A ae is inserted before a verb following and depending on a 
oomparativB : thus, c'est pins vrai qne vous ne le croyes it is 
truer than you. think. So also after antre (and antrementj; 
thus, cela eat antrement qne vona ne croyea that ii otherwise 
than as yori suppose. 

d. A ne is inserted hefore the subjunctive after a, moinB que 
unless : thus, it moins qne vons ne veniez unless you come ; also 
often after aana qne without : thus, aans qne cda ne paraisBfl 
withuut its appearing. 

njLUSTRA.1TVE SENTENCES.— XXX. Expletive Negative. 

(§ 170.) ' On craignait que I'on n'eiit touch^ au trfisor 
public. {Vol.) 'Parce que nous avions peur qu'elle ne 
nouH groudSt. {Sei/ur.) 'll eat ablme, mais il est content ; 
et I'on ne doute pas qu'il n'aille h la Trappe. {de Sea.) ' J'i- 
rai Tous voir avant que vous ne preniez auoune resolution, 
{de Siv.) ' Depuis que je ne tous ai vu, il a'est pass4 de 
bien grandea cboeea. (Acad.) 'Peu s'en faut que Mathaa 
ne malt noram4 son p5re. {Sac.) 'Ah, maman I le bon 
Dien eat cent fois meillenr qu'on ue le dit. {Abottt.) ' Oh t 
tu m'ennnies ; qu'ai-je besoin d'etre mieux que je ne suis ? 
I Afar.) ' Je ne I'ai pas, k moins qu'il ne aoit dans mon lit, 
(About.) " Toutes les cSr 6 monies fureut accomnliea, sans 
qu'il y manqndt rien. (Mickelet.) " Elles s'attacherent plus 
que pas une k leur nouvelle directrice, {St, Simon,) 


' lie loves ber too mach (poor) not to tell ber tbe truth. 
' I*iea(*e not epeak to me while I am listening to the mosic. 
' I cannot nnderatantl yon, if Toa speak to me so softly. 
' I cannot describe to yoa all tbe beantif nl things that I saw. 
* We will not stir from here, since you require it. ' The 
cliili) did Dot dare to answer, bnt it did not cease to weep. 
' We shall not take a walk, if she does not come to accom- 
pany UB, ' I know no one who does not sometimes commit 
faults. ' It is very long that his friends have not seen him, 
'° Have I anything that is not at hia service? " God for- 
bid thnt she should loTe him and not me! "Take care 
not to be absent when one calls you. "A man is only 
good eo far as he does bis duty. " I never heard anything 
so horrible. "Say nothing of it to anybody, or I will 
never tell you anything. " Neither ' wealth nor fame 
makes a man truly happy. " I neither admire nor love 
her. " You give him everything and us nothing. " One 
should trust bis heart, and never his mind. " That laugh 
Ih a sign of despair, not of joy. " Shall I take this pen? 
No, if you please ; take this one, not that one. " He does 
ui)t want it, nor you either. 

'* We fear lest be should come before the appointed time. 
"Nothing can prevent bis appearing to-day. "If he 
eonies, avoid his seeing you before yon are ready to receive 
him. " I do not doubt that he is at home at present. 
" Who can deny that it is so ? *' Speak low, for fear that 
some one hear us. " It is ten days since I saw her. " I 
Hbould like to speak to him before he goes to bed. " No 
ono would dare wake her before she has rung. " Since I 
have been there, great things have been done. " Tbeir 
condition was more dangerous than they had supposed 
" Th« weather is K-tter to-day than it was yesterday. "He 


acta otherwise than he epeaks. " We will take a walk this 
afternoon, unless it is bad weather. " He never sees mis- 
fortunes without his heart's being touched by them. 

D. — The Infinitive. 
171. So far as concerns its dependent adjuncts and 
modifiers — object, predicate, prepositional phrase, and 
adverb — the intiuitive is treated in the same manner as 
the personal parts of the verb to which it belongs. 

172. So far as eoncerne its own construction in the 
sentence, the infinitive has in general the value of a 

a. Thus, it is Bubject or predicate or object of a verb ; it ia 
governed by prepositions, especially de and ik; and it is aome- 
timea preeeded by the article. 

b. Like to in English, the prepositions de and i. are to 
a considerable extent used in French as standing accom- 
paniments or " signs" of the infinitive, in constructions 
where tbey do not have their proper meaning, and would 
not be used with an ordinary noun. 

Hence, under every conatruotioD, it ia necessary to define when 
the influitive is used alone, and when along with preceding de, or 
with preceding ^ 

c. A few infinitives, with preceding article or possessive, are 
u«ed tjuito as ordinary nouns ; the commonest of them are these : 
le boire drink, le manger food, le parler talk, le dire asser- 
tion, le aavoir knowledge, le BB.vaiT-&ire knowledge of conduct, 
le lire laughter, le votuoir wQl,- others are so used occasionally, 
or in special phrases. Further, a certain number of ordinary 
nouns are infinitives by origin : such are Boavenir remanArance, 
ponvoir power, devoir duty, 6tre being, sonper supper, and so 

178. The infinitive is used as subject of a verb, either 
alone or witli its sign de (very rarely ft), 

a. It may be nsed aa subject without de especially when it 
stands at the head of the clause or precedes its verb ; but also 
when it follows, if the sentence is one requiring the inverted 



order : tbuB, parler est impmdent to speak is imprudent, k 
qnoi sert paxler (if what use is it to speak f 

h. A]i iDflaitive as logical Bubject is often aaticipated, as in 
English, by il or ce as grammatical subject ; in that case, it regu- 
larly taicps de, except after the verbs il &ut it is necessary, il 
vaiit antajit or mienx it is as well or better, il aemble it ieemn. 
il &itbon or beau it is pleasant or looks well. Thus, ileat fa.cile 
k de faire cela it is easy to do t/iat. il me platt d'obliger tm ami 
it pleases me to oblige a friend, c'eat & Tons de parler it belongs 
to you to speak ; but il fant parler it is necessary to speak, il fiut 
bon V0118 revoir il does ojie good to see ymi. again. But i. ia some- 
times used inatead of de when the sense is future ; i.e. when an 
action to follow is indicated : thus, c'eit k tous k parler you 
have now to speak. 

c. Where, after such ii verb, there is a comparison, the second 
infiBitive, preceded by que than, as, regularly has de; thus, il 
vant mienx Be taire line de parler it is better to be silent than 
to speak. 

d. An infinitive as subjeet (like an ordinary noun : § 1476) is 
liable to be repeated by a following ce ; thus, s'sntretenir avec 
son ami, c'est penser tout haat to talk \cith one's friend is to 
think aloud, te voir c'est t'aimer to see thee is to love thee. 

e. After ce, an infinitive (Ute a nohn in general : g 1476) is 
sometimes preceded by qne : thus, ce n'est poiut croaatd que de 
punir les conpables it is not cruelty to punish the guiUy ; and 
qoe is necessary after a predicate infinitive : thus, c'est m^ter 
la mart que de I'attendre d'autmi to await death from others is 
to d^eriv it. In this case, the de may also be omitted : thus, 
qne I'attendre etc. 

174, The infinitive is sometimes used as a predicate. 

a. It is so used, without sign, after c'est, after semDler and 
paraitre seem or appear, after se tronver^iKJ ime's se^, c/iance, 
and after 6tre censfi or Bnppos^ be supposed or reckoned : thus, 
▼^gtiter c'est monrir to vegetate is to die, il paraSt arrirer it 
seems to liappen, il est cens^ fitre mort he is reckoned as dead. 
Rarely, a de is found before the infinitive in euch a nse. 

6. In other predicative uses, the infinitive has the sign de : 
thus, son premier commandement est d'aimer Dieu his first 
commandment ia, to love God. 

e. After fltre, ote., an infinitive preceded by & bas the value of 
a predicate adjective (compare § 1^): thus, cette maison est & 
adwter this Tiouse is purchasable, elle eat k vendre it is for sale 
OT tobe sold, elle est k loner it is to let. ce theme est k re&ur« 
this exercise is tobe done oner again, sons sommes k plaindre uv 
are pitiable or to be pitied. As the examples show, the corre- 
sponding English expression is various, and in part identical with 
the French. 

d. The mfinitive without sign is sometimes used as a noun in 
apposition : thus, il me reste deux partis k prendre : combattre 
on m'enfliir there are left me turn courses to take ; ^^ght or run 


{§ 172.) ' J'ai tout son 6tre, et jusqu'^ son nom m^rae, 
en naine. {de Vi.) ' La Madelon a'etonna auBsi pour aa 
part du joli parier de la petite Fadette. (ff. Sand.) ' Je ne 
pais me fier qu'i vous pcur me dire si je suis ricfae on 
pauvre, et pour eavoir au inste le compte de mon avoir. 
{G. Sand.-\ 

(8 173.J ' Attendre est iiDposeiblc, agir ne I'est pas 
moms. (Delnvigne.) 'Aqnoi bon vonloir sauver ma vie? 
( V. Hugo.) ' C'est manquer de respect k la reine. (Scribe.) 
' Oh ! doucement ; s'aimer, c'est une autre affaire. (Mar.) 
' Loner les p rijice s des v ert us qu'ils n'ont pas, c'est leur dire 
impnnement iles injures, (La A.) ' Sauter A bas du lit, cou- 
rir d la fenfitre, me toucher les bras et la tSte, ce fut I'af- 
fjure d'un instant. (Lab.) ' Plat6t souffrir que monrir : 
c'est la devise des hommes. (La F.) °I1 fant ne plus noua 
voir ; c'est le monde qui le vent ainsi. (Sandeau.) ' II me 
semble avoir vu remuer cette porte. (Hum.) '"Que sert de 
se flatter? (Rac.) " Je n'al fait qu'une fante : c'est de 
n'fitre pas parti d^a que je t'ai Tue. (Mar.) " C'est A Mon- 
seigneur . . . d lui faire onblier le pays qn'elle quitte avec 
tant de joie. [de SeaA " De vons dire pourquoi, cela serait 
long. (Courier.) " Cela donne de la tristesse, de voir tant 
de morts autour de soi. (de Sev.) "Rien ne rafralchit les 
id^es comme de se faire la barbe. (Lab.) " Quand on ne 
trouve pas son repos en soi-tn^me, il est inutile de le cber- 
cher ailleurs. (La R.) " Eh ! monsieur, de quelle consS- 
qaence_^8t-il de vous justifier auprds de moi? (Mar.) 

Ceat en quelque sorte se donner part aux belles actions, 
que de les loner de bon cteur, (La S.) '* Ce n'est point 
outrager le marqais que de chercher sons ces ombrages les 
souvenirs qn'il y a laissfis. (Sandeau.'j 

(§ 174.) 'Epargner I'ennemi qui c&de ou qui supplie, 
c'est user du pouvoir, c'est agir en vainqueur, (Arnavlt.) 
' Le plus grand bienfait qu'il retira de cee relations fut de 
recouvrer I'eatime de lui-m^me. (Sanrfea.M.) "Ahl jeunesse! 
jeuuesse 1 que votre dge est d plaindre ! { Courier.) * II n'y 

a plus qu'nn pas k francMr. ( Guisot.) ' II n'y a pour I'homme 
que troie evenements : naltre, viyre, et muurir. {La Br.) 

Theme 17. 
snbjbct ajtd pbbdicate infimttive, 
' To live is hard ; to die ia yet harder. ' But to die is 
better than to live in disgrace, ' For her to show herself 
was to please ; for me to see her was to love her. * To 
hear you praised mates me happy. ' It makes him proud 
to hear himself praised. ' It is hard to live with a bad 
conscience. ' There are many occasions when it is as well 
to be silent as to speak. ' It ought to suffice you to know 
that I shall return next week. " It is a fine thing to keep 
a secret. '° It seems to me that I saw you yesterday. " If 
he appears to hesitate, he will be thought to be afraid. 
"To speak is to express one's thoughts by words. "He 
finds himself to be the last of all the company to arrive. 
" He is to be pitied who has no friends. " It is to be hoped 
that he will soon go where enemies will no longer be to be 
feared. " This is what one calls being happy. " I have 
two things to do : go to school and go to walk with my 

176. The infinitive ie especially used as object of, or 
dependent on, a verb. In this uonstrnction, it appears 
eitlier without a sign, or with de or with JL 

SometiineB more than one of these constructions is permissible 
with the Banie verb ; but in general, the governing verb deter- 
mines the matter : compare § 183. 

176. The simple infinitive, or infinitive without pre- 
ceding sign, appears in tlie following eases : 

a. After the quaai^auiUiatifa vouloir, ponvoir. devoir, &ire, 
laisaer : thus, vonleB^vons venir will yim come f ponves-voita le 
fidra can you do it f je dois partir & cinq heureB / am to set out 
at five o'clock, je 1« ferai appaler / uill hace Mm called (IJt'iy, / 
will cause to call him), vdub I'avez laiee^ tomber j/ou have let it 

But devoir in the sense of owe, having an indirect object, re- 





quires de (§ 179^ ; also &ire pins t[nd do more than : thus, on loi 
doit de raimer it is oiif's duty to lave him. 

b. After oser dare, daigner (/e/^w, 'savoir kiww how, and cer- 
tain verbs of desiiiiig, hopipij^ iriteDdinji[) and the like, as d^Birer. 
Booliaiter, pr^f^rer, ai mer itut ant or mienz, esp^rer, prendre, 
compter, penser: thus, noiw n'oBons rien dire we dare not say 
aiiythinij, elle ne sait pas nager she does iiot know how to swim, 
deaire-t-il nous parler dors lie want to speak to its f nous eepi- 
rons vons voir domain ii<e hope to see you to-morrow, je compte 
y etre ^ rheure dite / count on being t-here at tlie appointetl 
hour: abto afli'r aimer in the conditiona l : tiiuB, aimeriaz-vona 
le voir wotdd you like to see him f 

But after d^airer, aonhaiter, prdf^rer, esp^rer, and compter, 
de is sometimeB taken ; and after aimer antant iiiii] penser, some- 
times k. A second infinitive followinf; qne thiiii. us regularly re- 
quirea de : tliua, j'aime mienx partir qne de rester / uwild 
raUier go than stay. 

c. After certain verbs of believing, declaring; aad the like, if 
their subject is also the subject of the action espresaed by the in- 
finitive. Such vert)s are croire, s'imafiner, penser, afflnuer, as- 
surer, avoner, declarer, jnrer, nisr : thus, ils croient avoir 
raison they think they ure right (literally, believe [themselves] to 
be right), U msnre ne I'avoir jamaiB vae he deidares that he 
neoer saw liei% il nie fttre mala<de he denies that he is ill. As the 
examples show, the English usually expresses tiie subject of the 
second verb. 

Some of these verbs in apeeial eonstruetioua take de or i. before 
the infinitive : lliua, ja jnro d'y fttre I swear to he tfiere. 

d. After verbs of perceiving, and Bometimes (in relative clauses) 
of declaring, having a clirect object which is the subject of the 
action cspri'ssed by the infinitive: thus, je le vois vonir [seehim 
come, il la entendna parler he has heard her speak, je la troave 
peser troia livres I find it to weigh three pounds, un pays 
qn'on m'avait dit Btra trds agrfoble a country which they had 
declared to me to be very pleasant. But the participle is often nsed 
instead of the infinitive after such a verb : thus, on I'a vn con- 
i&nt he was seen running ; or a relative clause (§ 189j7) : thus, le 
Toici qui vient here he comes. 

Such a construction (with these verbs and with laisser, fkire, 
envoyer, mener) is the nearest approach made in French to the 
Latin constmction of an accuBative as subject of an infinitive. 

If the infinitive itself has a direct nl)ject, tlie object of the gov- 
erning verb is regularly changed to indirect : see above, §158. 




e. After certain verbs of motion and of causation of motion, 
especially aller go, envoyer seTid, also mener conduct, mettre 
set, ▼enir come, revenir and retoomer return, rentrer coine 
back in, conrir and acconrir run, etre |in past tenses) in the 
sense of go, etc. : thus, iU soat all^ demsnrer h, Paris, tlw]/ ?tave 
gone to live at PariJi, enyoyei le trouver sertd to find him, elle 
viendra me visiter demain slie will come, to risil me to-viorrow, 
Q a ^t£ tronver le roi he has been to find the king. The English 
often coSrdinates the two verbs, with and : thus, go and see him, 
send and find him, and the Uke. 

Hence certain common combinations, which are used almost as 
if simple verbs : thus, aller or venir ciierclier fetch (lit'ly, go or 
come to look for), envojrer diercber send for, aller voir visit. 
Also, the present and imperfect of aller are used vrith an infini- 
tive to form a sort of l«nae of the immediate future (see XXVII. 
8c): thus, je vais le &ire I am going to do it, U allait partir Ae 
was going to leave. 

Vonir is followed by a before the infinitive when it means Tiap- 
pen : thus s'il venait ft. tomber if he happened to fall. It also 
takes de before an infinitive to form a sort of tense of the imme- 
diate past (see XXXI. 116): thus, ja viena de le Aire Ihavejttsf 
done it. 

f. Special cases are : often after &illir and manqaer in the 
sense of Just miss, and always after avoir bean in the sense of 
try in vain : thus, voiu avei &illi tomber you came U'ithin an 
ace qf falling, Tons aves bean r^sister it is qf no use for you to 
resist (or resist as you will). 

g. The infinitive without sign is often found in incomplete and 
esolfflnatory expression, where the verb on which it would depend 
is omitted : thus, qne fkire whnt [is one] to do ? moi, vons aban- 
donner /, abandon yon ? plntOt mills fois moorir rather die a 
thousand times, on ne sait qne &ire on k qni s'adresser oiie 
does not know w/iat to do or to whom to address one's self, donneE- 
moi de qnoi ^crire give me wherewith to write. 

An infinitive standing occasionnUv in the sense of an impera- 
tive is of this character : thus, voir les afflcheB [one man] ^^ '^ 

(§ 176.) ' Non seulement je ne le ferai pas jeter k la 
porte par raes laquais, raais encore je devrai I'b^berger I 
\Sandmu.) ' J'ai fait parler le lonp et repondre I'agmaa. 
[£m F.) ' Sait-elle coudre, savonner, faire de la soupe P de- 
manda-t-il brusquement. (^CoppSe.) 'Elles out daign6 me 
seconder. (Scribe.) " II atmait mieux oe rien faire qne de 



travailler. (Oatttier.) 'DaDa ce reeit je pretends faire voir 
d'un certain Hot la remontrance vaine. (i" ^-) ' Mais 
croyez-vouB avoir tuS toua lea Marata? (Thiers.) 'Chacun 
dans ee miroir penae voir eon image. {Soileau.) 'Ildiaait 
venir du fond de la Boh^me. {Gautier.) " Viena voir mou- 
rir ta soeur dans les bras de ton pSre. (Corn.) " Je fris- 
flonne encore de ce que je lui ai entendu dire, (Mar.) 
" J'entende frapper il la porte. J'ouvre ; hon Dieu 1 c'e- 
tait lui. (Beranffer.) " On m'a voulu mener voir Mme. la 
Dauphine. (de Sev.) " Je ne peux pas vous donner cent 
mille francs, mais je m'en vaiH manger votre diner. (Feail- 
Itt.) "Allons done I'affranchir de ces frivoles craintes. 
( Com.) " La nouvelle que je viena t'annoncer te fera-t-elle 
plaisii* ? (Mar.) " Voua anrez beau voua mntiner, vons ne 
changerez rien anx faita accomplis. (Sandeau.) "Madame 
d'Etampes, qui a failli perdre la France. (Dum.) " Quoi I 
condamner la victime, et epargner I'aasaasin? (V. Haijo.) 
" Quel parti prendre ? Votre situation est neuve, assurfi- 
ment, (Mar.) " Ne pas comprendre mon entbousiasme 
pour eet homme? (SouUe.) " 1)6 fen dez- vous, Horace. — A 
quoi bon me defendre ? (Com,) 

Theme 18. 
object- infinitive withodt sign. 
' Can you come to our bouse to-day? 'I sbould like to 
come ; but I am to go elsewhere witb my father. ' Then 
I shall hope to see you to-morrow. ' You owe it to me to 
visit me at least three times a week. ' He knows how to 
read and to profit by what he reads, ' He likes better to 
read than to play. ' He declares he was not at tbe theatre 
yesterday, but I think 1 saw bim there with my own eyes. 
' He does not deny having been out of tbe house all the 
evening. 'He imagines himself to be very cunning ; but 
if be thinks to deceive me, he is much mistaken. '° Have 
you not heard it said that we are going to have a great 
war in Europe? " I had not reckoned to see it come in 
our time. " Go find my servant, and send him to look for 
my book. " I will run and find him at once. " We have 

320 VBRB8. [ITT— 

becE to visit onr friends, but we did not see them ; they 
had gone to take a walk. " Where can my ahoeB be ? some 
one has perhaps set them to dry at the fire. ''Look for 
them as you will, you will not find them. 

177. Many verbs are followed by a dependent infini- 
tive preceded by the preposition de. 

a. The number of such verbs is very large, de being in French 
more common than ht before the infinitive. In a majority of 
cases, the de has more or less clearly its proper prepositional 
value, as meaning /rom, of, on account of. in respect to, and the 
construction of the infinitive is quite analogous with tliat of a 
Qoun following the same verb ana requiring de before it ; hut in 
nearly as many cases it is not so, but the de is mere ' ' sign" of the 

178. Verbs requiring de before an infinitive-object in 
the same manner aa before a noun-object may be classified 
as follows : 

a. Verbs after which de has nearly the sense of from: thtia, 
s'abstenir abstain, se garder Aeep one's self, beware, (le or ae] 
d^saccontnmer or d^^babitoer disaccustom, wean, (le or se) 
dispenaer or ezcnser let off, eaxuse, (Ie> diaanader dissuade, (le 
or Be) eiapMxr prevent, hinder, venir be coming [^ 176e), etc. 

6. Verbs after which de has the meaning of, or, much more 
often, on aocount of, in reelect to, and the like. Thns, ot in- 
transitives, convenir agree, d^sesp^rer despair, donter doubt, 
6clater etc. (de rire) burst etc. {uHth laughing), enrager be in 
a fury to or at, frdmir shudder, g^mir groan, monrir in the 
sense of long, parler talk, rire laugh, roogir blush, aonfiir suf- 
fer, and brOler in the sense of burn ipith desire. Further, of 
transitivea taking a reflexive or other object, or both ; (le) aicca- 
ser accuse, (le) avertir notify, (se) repentir repent, (le) sonpfon- 
ner su^tect; (le) bl&iaer blame, (se) ranter boast, (le or ae) 
plaindn pity, (se) r^onir r^jice, (le) remercier thank, s^^tonner 
be astonished, and ao'on (the verbs are too numerous to give in 

c. More obscure oases are ; (le or se) charger cfiarge, (ae) i6- 
pBcher or h&ter hasten, (ae) ing^rer or mfiler meddle, (se) pres- 
ser be eager, se passer do withmit, and the impersonal il s'agit 
the question or matter in hand is. 

179. Verba requiring de as sign before an infinitive 
object may be claeaiiied as followe : 


a. Verbs t&kiDg a direct object which is subject of the action 
of the infinitive : such are (le) coajnror conjure, veTaiia,ieT per- 
suade, prier praj/, sommer summon, supplier beg, and d^flez 
rfq/V> ehallmige. 

b. Verbs taldiig the inflnitive with de as direct object, along 
with an indirect object (sometimes reflexive) which is subject of 
the action of the infinitive : thus, (Ini) conunauder command, 
conseiller odcise, crier f^^, ditendie finiid, demander luk (of 
any one), dire tell, Scrire write, eqjoindre enjoin, impnter itn- 
pute, iuapirer put into the mind, mander order, ordonner order, 
■fiBxAojuMTpard-m.-permBttra pemdt,'g^TwiBAQT persuade, preB- 
crire prescribe, proposer propose, recommajider recommend, 
reprocber T^roach Jbr, BmStnr suffer, sngg^rer suggest. 

c. Verbs taking the inflnitive with d« aa du-ect object, the sub- 
ject of the action of verb and inflnitive being the same : thns, 
adiever complete, affecter affect, ambitionner be ambitio'is or 
eager, appr^hender apprehend, cesser cease (or this belongs 
under 178((), choisir vhoose, continner continue (also with 4), 
craindre fear, dfidaigner dindain, diff^rer defer, discontinuer 
cease, eatreprendre undertake, ivitor s/iun, ieiairo Jiign, ftnir 
finish, ga.rder heep, liasarder risk, m^diter meditate, m^riter 
deserve, n^gliger neglect, obtenir get permission, omettre omU, 
Dublier forget, pr^snmer presume, regretter regret, ri8([iter 
risk, tenter try, and some others. 

d. A few such verba take or may take in addition an indirect 
object : thus, devoir owe (which without indirect object takes the 
simple inllnitive : § 176a), jnrer swear, menocer threaten, prO' 
mettre promise, proposer propose, rappeler (especially reflex- 
ive) recall. 

e. In certain phrases, the infinitive with de is taken by a verb 
as direct object, along with an adjective as objective predicate ; 
such are trouTer bon think \it] well, jneer nfoessaire or conve- 
nable regard as necessary or suitable, &ire bien or mieoz do 
well or better, and some others. 

/. It was pointed out above (^ 1766) that after a few verbs de 
may be either taken or omitted : such are drisirer desire, Bonhai- 
ter wish, esp^rer Jiope, dritester detest, nier deny. For the verbs 
that are followed by either de or k, see below, § 183. 

dit le renard, et flattenrs d'applandir thus spoke the fom ; and 
his flatterers took to applauding {La F.). Also, at the head of a 
sentence, to emphasize or put in due connection a following state- 
ment : thus, de recoorir a Lonise, je ne I'aime plus to recur to 
Louisa, Ino longer love her (compare §182^). 

ILLUSTBATIVK BENTKNCBS.'-XXXIII. Objeot-infinitivB withrf«. 

(§ 178.) ' Le eouvenir du dernier de sea crimes anquel 
j'aBBistai m'a empficIiS de liii parler. (de Vi.) • Je viens de 
I'apprendre tout A I'heure. (Mar.) ' lis convinrent de B'eti 
rapporter au jugement du peuple romain, (Bossuet.) * Ne 
me fais plus rougir d'entendre tes Houpire. (Com.) * "Voire 
p^re Bouffre de voub voir en proie A un si violent d6aespoir, 
(Oirardin^ ' Je te plains de tomber dans ses mains redoii- 
tablee. (Roc.) ' On ne devrait a'etonner que de pouvoir 
encore s'etonner. {-La B.) ' L'enfant eclata de rire k cette 
ridicule menace. (Merimee.) ' C'eat parmi eux qu'il s'a^t 
pour none de se creer des amis fidfilee, sincSres. (Ste.B.) 

Le roi se mSle, depuis quelque temps, de faire des vers. 
(de Sev.) 

(I 179.) ' Je vous prie de monter A cheval et de sortir 
de la ville. (de Vi.) ' II commande au soleil d'animer la 
nature. (Sac.) ' II n'efit point pardonne k son fr6re d'fitre 
venu voir la Fadette et non pas lui. (G. Sand.) ' Je vous 
defends, mademoiselle, de danser avec lui. (Scrtbt.) 'R6- 
pondez done; je ne demande pas mienx que de me trom- 
per. (Mar.) ' Grand roi, cesse de vaincre, ou je cease d'6- 
orire. (Boileau.) ' Vous avez omis de me demander ce que 
je viens faire A Paris. (Augier.) ' Sur les paa d'nn banni 
craignez-voua de marcher? (Rac.) ' Je vous promets de 
ne pas oublier votre nnmfiro aujonrd'liui. (Seribe.) '°Au 
lieu de les interrompre, nous ferons mieux d'observer et 
d'6couter. (Scribe.) ' Le voilA done de eourir jusqu'^ la 
demeurance de la mSre Fadet, et de lui center sa peine. 
(O. Sand.) " Un etranger m'a jete ce secret d la faccj et 
ohaque electeur alora de dire : c'est vrai. (Dum.) " De 
recourir d Blanche ; elle avait trop d'intfirfit k dSguiser la 
v6rite. (Le Sage.) 



I de. 

' Beware of falling into the water, if you cannot & 
' He has just fallen into the water, and that prevents him from 
coming to school. ° He ought to blush at being absent for 
Buch a cause. ' We agreed to meet here, and I was aston- 




iehed not to find him already arrived ; but now I deepair 
of seeing him to-day, ' I rejoice to hear you say that yon 
love me atiU. 'I beg you to remain an hour with me. 
' He advised me to go home and to busy myself with my 
own affairs, ' Allow rae to tell you that your conduct does 
not please mc. '1 forbid you to behave thus any longer, 
'" She continued to write him, and to reproach him for his 
bad condnct ; but he refused to answer her. " If you put 
off starting, you will deserve to be abandoned by the others, 
" I regret to make them wait ; but it is impossible for me 
to do otherwise. " 1 must risk offending them, for I have 
promised my father to stay here till he comes, " I judged 
proper to let him see that he had offended me, " He finds 
it better to conceal his evil designs in ray presence, 

180. Many verbs are followed by a dependent infini- 
tive having before it the preposition &, 

a. Here also (as with de ; ^ 177a), in a majority of cases, the 
preposition has more or less its own value, as meaning to, unto, 
at, or the like, and the construction of the infinitive ia analogous 
with that of a noun following the same verb, and requiring & be- 
fore it ; but in part the i is a more arbitrary " sign" of the inflni- 

181, Terbs reqairing JL before an infinitive-object in 
the same manner as before a noun-object may be classi- 
fied ae follows : 

a. lutransittve verbs are : abontir come (to, as result), aspirer 
aspire, a.ttendTe jiiaiC, defer, concourir concur, condescendre 
condescetid, conaenter consent, conspirer'tewtfpire, cantribner con- 
tribute, incliner, incline, pajTsnir attain, pencher incline, pen- 
ser think, renoncer renounce, rfpttener/eei repugnance, r^usair 
succeed, a ervir seme, songer think, anfflre suffice, tendre tend, 
tenir in the sense of hold on, insist, be eager, viser aim. 

b. Transitive verbs, with reltexive or other object, or with both ; 
abaiaaer lower, accorder caitxe to agree, accontnmer accustom, 
■.dmettre admit, agnerrir harden, aider aid, amener bring, 
■.nimer animate, appeler call, a-ppiiqiXBt appli/, Appviter pre- 
pare, KSBisner assign, asstyettir suly'eet, attacher attach, atten- 
dre keep waiting, avilir debase, homer limit, complaire acqui- 
esce, condanuter condemn, dispoBer dispose, eacourager encottr- 

334 VEBfiS. [181— 

age, exciter ejtcite, exercer exercise, exhorter exhort, axposer 
expose, habitaer habituate, indnire induce, intfoesBer iTtleresl, 
inviter inmte, mettre net (ae mettre is freqaent in the sense of 
begin), plaire please, porter leml, ponsser urge, preparer pre- 
pare, pro voqner pro wiA-«, r^dnire reduce, r^signer resign, Toner 

182. Verbs requiiing aa sign i, before a dependent 
infinitive may be claBBified as follows : 

a. Many verbs take an infinitive preceded by i in the sense of 
at, about, in r^erenoe to : anch are the intransitives ba-lajicer 
waver, excfiller ex^l, pers^rdrer persevere, persister pei-sist, 
ta.rder he slow, delay, traTsiller labor, tnompher triumph ; 
the reflexives s'achamer be eager, a'amnser amuse one's self, 
se consumer wear mie's self ovt, oe divertir be diverted, s'on- 
tendre fiave sconce, s'^pniser exhaust one's self, a'esaayer try 
one'^s haiid, s'^tadier apply one's self, B'obstiner and B'opinifttrer 
be obstinate, se plaire take pleasure; aad the transitives em- 
ployer employ, parser pass {one's time etc.), snrpraiidrs catch. 
With them may be mentioned the phrases prendre soin take care, 
prendre plaisir or avoir dn plaisir take pleasure, il 7 a plaisir 
one has pleaswe. Other verbs than these are fouod taking the 
game construudon, it being a current and extensible one. 

b. More peculiar cases are consiBter consist, and gagner gain 
(where we should expect rather de). 

c. After certain verbs, & is used before an infinitive (much aa 
to after the same verbs in English) in a sort of futnre sense, point- 
ing forward to the action expressed by the infinitive aa something 
anticipated or obligatory : thus, aft«r avoir, j'ai cela Si &irB or 
j'ai a. fairs cela I have this to do 01 1 have to d-o this; and in tike 
manner after donner give, cbercher seek, laisBer in the sense of 
leave, trouvor find. Hence also in the same sense predioatively 
after Btre (see above, g 174c); thus, cela est ik fiure this is [a 
thing] to do or to be done (and then also attributively une chose k 
&ire a thing to do or to be done); and after rester remain, be 
left, and the like : thus, il me reste & flEure it is l^ me to do, 
eombien coftte un cheval il nonrrir how much does a horse oost 

d. The infinitive with it is used as direct object after oertain 
verbs, the subject of the action of the infinitive being the same 
with that of the verb : thus, aimer loee, like {except in condi- 
tional ; § 1766), apprandre learn, chercher seek, desapprendre 

e. The infinitive with k is used as direct object after a few verbs 
that take an indirect object which is subject of the action es- 
prosfled by the infinitive: thus, (Inij aider help, (Ini) enseigner 
or apprandre teach, (Ini) montrer show. 

in] INFINITIVE. sas 

/. The infinitive with ill follows a few verbs taking a direct ob- 
ject which is subject of the action expressed by the infinitive : 
thus, (le) instmire or apprendra teach, (la) autoriser authorize. 

g. After a few verbs, & may either be taken or omitted ; such 
are pr^tendre Intend, claim, (lui) plaire please. For verbs fol- 
lowed by either de or i, see below, ^ 183. 

A. The infinitive with & is often used elliplicallj, or without 
governing verb expressed, usually at the head of a sentence, to 
signify (as in English) a condition of what follows : thus, i. vooi 
entendre, on croirait . . .to liear you, one would think . . . (i.e. 
if one heard you). Also sometimes to express result, and hencs 
degree : thus, il sent le Tin i. &ire borrear he smells of wins 
{enough} to frighten one. 

183. Some verbs admit either de or & before a follow- 
ing dependent infinitive. 

Sometimes the choice depends on a difference in the meaning of 
the verb, or in its eongtruction ; sometimes it is a matter of indif- 
ference, or nearly so, being governed by no rule tliat is distinctly 
statable and consistently followed. 

a. The verira accontomer nccnxtom (in compound tenses), de- 
cider decide, determiner determine, hasarder venture, omii of- 
fer, reftuer refuse, r^ondre resolve, regularly and usually take 
de when the infinitive is their direct object, but it when they have 
another direct object, reflexive or otherwise : thus, j'ai r^soln da 
partir / ham resolved to leave, but je me snis r^soln & partir; 
and je I'ai d^cid6 i. partir 1 have decided lam (i.e. made him 
decide) to leave, Some other verbs take & after theii reflexive 
forms, but de in other constructionB. 

b. Uore special cases are : hair hate takes h. when atSrmative, 
but de when negative ; prendre garda heivare takes de before an 
afOrmative infinitive, but i. before a negative ; damander takes 
de when it has an indirect object, the subject of the infinitive ac- 
tion : thus, je lui damanda da se taira / ask him to hold his 
peace; laiasar, wliich in the sense of let or cause is followed by 
the simple infinitive (5 176a), takes a in the sense of leave to, and 
de in that of leave off fivm, fail : thus, je voua laisse & penser 
/ leave to you to imagine, elle ne laiase pas de plaire she does 
not cease to please. 

c. Verbs that take either de or & in senses but little or not at 
all distinguished from one another are : the verbs of endeavor 
essayer and t&cher try, B'efforcer and e'empresser endeavor, 
a'occnper be busy ; the verbs of constraint (with direct object, as 
snbject of the infinitive action) contraindre, forcer, obliger; and 
A number of others : commqncer bcyin, continner continue, con- 

336 TBSBfL tin— 

Bentir oonwnf. mMan^ar /ail, mibiuK X»rget, Uiitar and treaa- 
Vierheritnte; niid. wilh direct objects isnbjects of the infiiutiTe 
action) Conner incite, engager engagf, Mihardir inure. 

d. There are many other verbs which in antiqnated (<t in loose 
Btjle, or in owasiooal ca^es, take another preposition before a 
foUowing inftnitiTe than the one osuallj- mei with. 


{§ 181.) ' Apr^s nne vigonrease defense, il etait parvena 
k faire ss retraite. (J^erimw.) * Tout tn'afflige et me nuit 
et conspire A me nnire. (Knc.) • L'eiretir ne r^oasit qu'i 
^tablir avec pins d'eclat la v^ritS. {MauUloR.) ' C'fetait 
la premiere fois, depois son retour, qn'elle se d^ciclait & 
toucher cette rive. (Satideau.) * Elle Tainens doncement A 
parler de son fils, et pamt s'lnt^resser & tons ees discotirs. 
(^Sandeau.^ ' H voolait accontamer auasi ees Moecovites k 
ne pas connaitre de saison. { Vol.\ ' Qui pardonne ais^- 
ment, invite a I'offenser. (^Com.) Elle lea exhorta & de- 
meurer fermea dans la religion catholique. {Mignet.) 

(§ 182.) 'II escelle k conduire an char daiu la carri^re. 
(iwf.) ' Le public r^volte s'obstine k I'adnurer. [Boikau.) 
' Tu passes la nuit k r^ver ou k ecrire ; mais, je t'en avertis, 
tn ne r^ussiras k rien, si ce n'est k maigrir, k €tre moins 
belle, et k n'Stre pas reine. {de Vi.) ' La po6sie ne conaiste 
pas k tont dire, maia k tout faire rflver. {Ste.-B.) ' Deni 
nommeB si adroita n'ont rien k gagner k se tromper Tun 
I'autre. { V, Ilupo.) ' Apr^B cela, je n'ai plus rien k vous 
dire. (Mar.) ' J'ai nne famille et le nom frani^aia a aoute- 
nir, (£06.) ' Mais, h propoa de tea adieus, il me reate en- 
core nne clioae k savoir. {Mar.) ' Arrfite done, Lisette j 
j'ai k te parler pour la derni^re fois. {Mar.) " On apporte 
k manger; on sert un d6jeiiner fort propre. (Courier.) 
" Elle apprend k chanter, 4 danser ; elle lit, elle travaille. 
{de Siv.) " Je ferai justice ; j'aime k la rendre k tons, k 
tonte heure, en tont lieu. iCorn.) " Aido-moi k oublier 
que je sttis roi. {Bum.) " A vous entendre, on croit que 
TOUB avez raison. {d'ffarleville.) "A vouloir le contraire, 
Dieu lui-m^me perdrait sa puissance. {Saiideau.) " A me 
voir, vous n'euasiez au si j'fetais mort on vivant, {Courier.) 
"Mais elle va 4 ravir, conlinua-t-il ; on la croirait faite 
pour madame la prinoesae. {de Vi.) 

(§ 183.) ' Frauchement, je ne nairais pas de lui plure 




sousle peraonnage que je joue. (Mar.) ' Le public framjaia 
ne laiaBe pas d'etre singulier quelquefois daue ses jugementB 
sur la poesie. (Sl^.-B,) ' Mala Paul et Vu'ginie 1 k peine 
a-t-il commence a le leur traduire, qu'i I'instant la ac6ne 
change. (Ste.-B.\ ' J'avais commence d'ecrire, et je m'ar- 
rfitai. {Mom.) 

TH£HE 30. 

'Do you consent to see her? ' He aspires to win my 
approbation. ' Everything conspirea to aid him, and he 
will perhaps succeed in attaining his end. ' I Lave led 
him to confess his crime, and have condemned him to suffer 
its punishment. ' This girl excels at playing the piano. 
'They are slow to come when one calls them. 'They 
were pleased to say that they had amused themselves with 
taking a walk, and that they had not heard [any one] call. 
' Let us get ready to depart, for the light is beginning to 
appear, and we have a long journey to make. ' I like to 
see the sun rise. '° If you employ your mornings at study- 
ing French, you will soon learn to read it, and you will 
even come at last to speak it well. " I always do well 
what I have learned to do. " Help me, I beg you, to read 
this difficult passage. " I will teach you to understand it. 
" To see you study, one would think that you like better 
to play. 

"He has tried to injure me, and I am trying to restrain 
my indignation. " He does not hate to do me an injustice, 
but he hates to see me afterward. " The law will constrain 
him to do what he had consented to do. '" Take care not 
to approach too near, and beware of falling. " Do yon 
ask to drink? then ask some one to give you a glass of 
water. " One must resolve to drink only water here. 

184. Many adjectives are followed by a dependent 
infiaitive Iiaviug de or k as its sign. 

338 VERBS. [184^ 

Usually, the proper value of the preposition is to be seen in 
Boph coDBtructions. 

./ a. An infinitive preceded by de is used rapecialiy after adjec- 
/tives expressing a conditioa or movement of the mind. The de 
here means 4^ or by reason qA (though sometimes other preposi- 
tions, or fo as infinitive-sigp, are preferred io Eugliah), ana tbe 
construction of the infinitive is the same with that of a noun 
following the adjective. Such adjectives are : bien aise very 
glad, digue uhrthy, capable capable, chann^ charmed, content 
pleased, cnrieux curious, d^airenx desirous, enchajit^ enc?uiftted, 
^toim^ astonished, &ch6 sorry, angry, fier proud, henratix 
happy, honteux ashamed, inconsolable incmtsolable, jalavx Jeal' 
ous, las weary, m^content dissatisfled. satisfUt satined, sflr 
»ure, snrpris surprised, and many others of kindred meaning. 
Examples are benreox de le voir happy to see him (i.e. on ac- 
count of seeing bim), cnrienx d'apprendre curious to learn, las 
de la chertAiOT weary (if looking for her . Alsoafter Stre followed 
by an adjective, especially bon, in such phrases as vons etes bien 
bon de Tonir ai tdt j/ow are very good to come so soon, qn'il est 
hardi de le risqner how daring he is to risk if.' Also in the sec- 
ond term of a comparison : thus, si ityOBte qne de nons pnnir so 
uiyust as to punish us. A few adverbs, having tbe valueof predi- 
cate adjectives, are followed in like manner by an infinitive with 
de : thus, loin de vcraa aimar far from Iming you. 

b. An infinitive with iL is used in general after adjectives which 
would admit a noun with the same constmction, the preposition 
having its proper value of to, at, in regard to, for. Such adjec- 
tives are especially adroit skUful, aiafi easy, bean^ne, bon good, 
cnrienx remarkable, difficile hard, disptuti disposed, endin in- 
dined, &cile easy, habile skilled, impossible impossible, lent 
slow, prBt ready, prompt proinpt, propre suited, triste sad, 
ntile us^td. Examples are bon £ manger good to eat, difficile & 
foire- hard to do, prtt h. partir ready to leave. An infinitive 
with k is also comm.on after an ordinal used substantively, espe- 
cially le premier and le dernier, and after le seal : thus, le pre- 
mier & Toair, le senl i, rester (fie first to come, the only one to 

The cases must be carefully noted where tbe infinitive is logical 
subject (§ 1736), since it then takes de : thus, cola est difflcue & 
&ire that is hard to do, but il eat difficile de faire cela it is 
hard to do that. 

185. A Donn often takes a dependent infinitive pre- 
ceded by de or k. 

a. The infinitive with de after a noun corresponds in general 
to the English infinitive in -ing preceded by of (though often ca* 
pable also of being rendered otherwise): thus, I'art d'&rire (Ae 
art (if writing, I'occasion de parler the occasion (tf speaking. 


i88] iNPiNrnvB. 339 

Often, a verb and nouti togethpr fona a sort ot yerb-phraae, 
much used with a following iuflaitive : thus, avoir penr or 
CTBiate be a/raid, &Toir envie desire, avoir aoin take care, pren- 
dre gajrde beware, &ire aemblaut pretend, readre gi^ce re- 
turnthanks: for example, j'aipenr d'y aller /am iV'i'aM to gru 
there (haoe /ear <if going). 

b. An infinitive with JL after a nonn is used Attributively in the 
same sense as predicative!; aft«r Mre (§ 174c) : thus, im apparte- 
meiit iL loner an apartment to rent ; or also, where iL might be 
rendered by calculated to, of a sort to : thus, nn spectacle k 
ravir a ^mtta^^e to delight one, na conte i. &ire penr a story [o/ 
a kind] to frighten one. 

Not seldom, such an infinitive with i, is used elliptically, and 
forms a sort of compound noun, the infinitive being used like an 
ordinary noun of charact«ristic (§ 36) with ii : thus, nne chambre 
i, concMr a bedromn (i.e. chair^r to skep [in]), la salle & man- 
gor tfie dining-room. 

(§ 184.) ' Regardez-moi done eomme incapable de pro- 
noncer im diaconrs de reception, en supposant que je sois 
capable de le faire. {Biranger.) ' Ji; ne aerais pas fdch6 de 
Bubjnguer sa raison, de I'etourdir un pen. {Mar.) ' Je 
serai cbarm4 de triompher, mala il faut que j'arracbe ma 
▼ictoire. [Mar.) ' H gtait habitn^ d nous eermonner, et 11 
sent qn'il ne trouverait pluH d'fil^ve ai docile d I'ecoater et 
d I'applaudir. {de Vi.) EUe est bien bardie d'oeer avoir 
une femme de obambre comrae toi. {Mar.) ' Lisette s'ba- 
bille, et, devant son miroir, nons tronve trSs imprndents de 
lui livrer Dorante. {Mar.) ' Dieu n'est pas si injuste que 
de nous marquer pour un mauvais sort avant notre nais- 
eance. (6". Sand.) 

(§ 185,) ' Tu n'a pas besoin d'ordonner pour Ctre ser- 
yie. {Mar.) ' Eh bien ! I'honneur de lui plaire ne me sera 
pas inutile. (Mar.) ' Vous avez raison de plaindre M. de 
Pomponne quand il va dans ee pays-Id, (de Sev.) ' II est 
homme d profiler de cette faveur ; il a dc I'esprit. {Scribe.) 
' Au milieu €tait un beefsteak d'une mine d faire honte a 
un beefsteak anglais. {Dum.) 'La ect^ne . . . est d'une 
magnificeiice d faire envie i, Jean-Jacques et d BufFon. 


' I am very glad to aee yon, but sorry to leam that you 
have been so ill, ' They were curious to know whether 
she was there still. ' If he were capable of committing 
such & crime, he would he unworthy to continue in onr 
society. ' I am more ambitious to serve you than to please 
you. ' We are sure to start at five o'clock, hut we are by 
no means certain of coming back before to-morrow. ' Far 
from believing his story, they were on the point of having 
him cast into prison as a cheat. ' All that is horn is liable 
to die. * He is equally inclined to acquire and to keep. 
' That is a man very skilful in handling the pencil. " A 
thing easy enough to say, but very hard to do. " He would 
be the last to deny what he was the first to say. 

" K 1 found an opportunity to serve you, I should be 
ashamed not to avail myself of it. " Take care to walk 
straight, and beware of falling. " The problem to solve 
was very simple. " All men, bom and to be born, count 
upon a life to come. " He came down from his bedroom 
to the dining-room. 

186. Certain adverbs and adverbial phrases are followed before 
an infinitive by de or &, forming a sort of preposition-phrase gov- 
erning the infinitive. 

a. Those formed with de are especially avant de b^ore, pris 
de near, plntSt que de rather than, hora de apart from, loin de 
far from, afin ds for the purpose qf, in order to, k force de by 
diiit Iff, i, moins de short of. Jk condition do on condition qf, 
luAa ie for lack of {see XXXIIl. 5): thus, avant de partir 6^ore 
setting out, k moinB d 'itre attontif jfiori of being attentive (i.e. 
unless one is attentive), plntOt que d'^tudier, il a'ajnnsft rather 
than study, he amuses himself . 

b. Those formed with & are especially de mani^re or fa^on a 
in a way to, yia<ia'h. so far as to: thus, U est aJl^ jnsqn'Ji la 
tn,ppeTfie icent so far as to strike her. Less common are plirasos 
with tlie adjectives sanf so/e and qnitto quits, used <^IIiptically : 
thus, sanf k changer reserving the right to duinge, qnitte k Btn 
gxond^ gelling off with a scolding. 




187. A few other prepositions, besideB do and fc, gov- 
ern the infinitive directly, having before it their own 
proper value, as before a noun. 

a. Poor is very common before an infinitive, with the sense of 
for, in order to : thus, il est id pour Jonsr he is here in order to 
play {or for playing, or simply to play) ; and in this sense it is 
especially frequent after aissez, trop, and the like : thus, trop 
jeone pour msfier too T/ouny to marry. Also sometimes in the 
scuae of/br, on account of : thas, il est pnni ponr avoir voU he 
is punished for ha-Bing stolen. 

Verba admitting de or & before an infinitive sometimes take 
ponr instead, when the sense is made plainer by it. 

b. Par by now governs the infinitive directly only after verbs of 
beginning and ending : thus, il commence par ^crire he begins 
with writing. 

0. Apres after is properly used only before the compound in- 
finitive : thus. apreB avoir parl€ aj^er having spoken. 

d. Sans tcithoul : thus, sans parler mot without saying a 

e. Entre between : thus, il balance entre aller et reater he 

wavers between going and staying. 

lATiVK SENTENCES.— XXXVI. Inftoitive after other 

{% 186.) ' n n'osait tirer, de peur de tuer Guillaurae, s'il 
n'4tait pas mort. (Duin.) ' Avant de se mettre d table, il 
pria Mile, le Couvreur de reciter quelqne morceau, (^Sie.-B.) 
Je vais jusqu'd former dea v<eux centre moi-mSme, [Dda- 
vigne.) * Avant deux jours, je le confondrai de mani^re d 
ne lui laisser rien & repondre. (^Picard.) 

{§ 187.) ' Je viens pour gpouaer, et ile m'attendent pour 
4tre raaries ; oela est convenn. (Afar.) ' Je ne suis plus 
gourmand, pour trop I'avoir 6t6 ; et, ponr avoir trop n, je 
n'ai plus de gait^. (Augier.) ' Yous m'avez prfidit, milord, 
qa'nn jour none flnirons par nous aimer. (Scnbe.) 'Apr^s 
m'fitre ras^, je me trouvai un tout autre bonune. (Lab.) 
* Je m'^loigne sans me plaindre et sana miirmurer. {San- 

iNFirnrrvE after oth 

' Before finding us, he was near despairing of his life. 

' For lack of having been notified, he did not know where 

333 VEBBS. [1«^ 

to seek ns. ' Instead of running and seeking, she atandfl 
Btill and weepa. ' It is not possible to reason thus, short of 
being crazy. ' Conduct yourself in a manner to be loved. 

' No one is ever too old to learn. ' I want a pen and 
some paper, to write a letter to my mother, " He is siek 
now, for having eaten too much yesterday. * This man be- 
gan by being simple soldier ; I think he will end hy becom- 
ing general. " We have returneii, after having been three 
years absent. " He had to depart withont seeing her. 
" There is a great difference between promising and keep- 
ing word. 

E. — The Paeticiples and Gerund. 

168. The present participle has both a participial and 
an ordinary adjective nse ; the gerund atrrees with it in 
form (not in origin or coustruction ; see X. 3c, d). 

189, a. The present participle, in its participial nse, is 
not varied for gender and number to agree with the noon 
to which it relates. 

b. The present participle used adjectively is varied 
like any other adjective to agree with its noun. 

c. The participle is left unvaried when it takes an object, re- 
flesive or other ; and, in general, when it has the adjuncts that 
are distinctive of a verb : thus, deux hommes parlant ensemble 
tiBO men talking together, des prenves convainqnant tout le 
monde pToofa convincing merybody, nne mere consolant sa fille 
a mother consoling her daughter. Hence Boi-di8a,iit is invaria- 
ble : thus, des Boi-diaajit amis self-st-i/Ud fneiids. Ayant and 
4tant are never varied. 

d. The participle ia varied when it has only the ordinary ad- 

i'uncts of an adjective, and the construction of one : thna, 
'Homme est une creature parlante vitm m a speaking creature, 
cea prenves aont bien conTBincantes these proofs are very con- 
vincing, des pajrales consol&ntes consoling uvrds. 

e. Many common adjectives are by origin present participles : 
thus, chaxmant charming, int^resaant interesting. Some are 
such participles with a soraewhat changed spelling : thus, &ti~ 
gaaxiifatiffuing, &tigant tiresome; excellajit excelling, excel- 




lent ejxellenl ; vidlajit violating, ■violent violent; conTainqa&nt, 
conT&incant convincing. 

f. The distinctions between the jjarticipial and adjectival uses 
of the participle are not always stnctly maiutained, and they are 
leas regarded in older style. 

g. Often, where we should use in English a present participle, 
the French has a relative clause : thus, je Is Tois qui vient I sm 
him coming. 

190. The gerund, having always the same form as 
the present participle, is used only after the prepOBition 
en, and ^ignidee accompanying action, or means. 

Thus, en lisant t« [iTte act ofl reading, while reading, on read- 
ing, or simply reading. 

a. The simultaneousness of the action is often made more 
emphatic by prefixing the adverb tout altogether : thuB, tout en 
lisant in tlie very act of reading, even while reading. 

(§ 189.) ' Se aentant un pen fatiguee, et voulant con- 
server ou reprendre ses forces pour le dernier moment, elle 
ee rait au lit. {Mignet.'^ ' Nona voild mangeant et buvant. 
(Courier.'^ 'Tons denx partent, Germain rfivant k sa dfi- 
fante plus qu'A sa future, et Marie pleurant de quitter sa 
m^re et le pays. (Ste.-B.) ' Les boaufs mugissants et lea 
brebis b^Iantea venaient ea foule, quittant les gras pdtu- 
rages. (Fen.) ' Maraan, toujours projetante et toajours 
agissante, ne nous laJssait gu^re oieifs ni I'un si I'autre. 
(Bousa.) ' II ne bouge non plus qu'une pauvre pierre, et 
voild I'orage qui vient. {&. Sand.) 'Mais voici un char 
qui passe, un chien qui aboie, ou rien du tout : ii faut voir 
ce que c'est. {Taepfer.) 

(§ 190.) ' C'eat ton fils, lui dit-elle d'une voix trem- 
blante, en attachant ses yenx noirs sur cenx de son mari. 
(Mirimee.) ' Ne lisez pas cela en voua couchant ; vous en 
r6veriez. (Courier.) ' C'est en meconnaiasant ce but qu'on 
blaspheme et qu'on est malheureux ; c'est en le comprenant 
ou en I'acceptant qu'on est hommc. (Jotiffroij.) * Louis 
XVI., tout en condamnant la conduite des emigres, ne von- 
Int pas donner son adhesion aux mesures prises centre enx, 
(Jfignel.) 'Tout en ecrivant cela, elle s'acheininait Tera 
Paris. (Thiers.) 




Theue 28. 
peksent participle and gkhund. 
' Our friendship, triumphing over jealousy, will endure 
eternally. ' Tlius he spoke, with a triumphant voice. 
' They (f.) took my hook, knowing that it waa mine ? ' His 
words, striking my ear, attracted all my attention. ' He 
addressed to them a few striking words of consolation and 
encouragement. " He is a very tiresome man. ' This woman, 
suffering all that a woman can Huffer, appeals to our com- 
passion. ' Help her ; she appears [to be] suffering, " I 
saw her playing at cards an hour ago. '° We walked slow- 
ly, stopping often to listen. "Night came to part the com- 
batants, " He grew pale while reading the letter which 
I handed him. " Saying these words, the tears came to 
his eyes. " Even while speaking to us, she trembled and 

191. The past participle ie more distinctly aad exclu- 
sively an adjective than the present participle ; and its 
con etr actio US are io the main those o£ an ordinary adjec- 
tive, agreeing in gender and number with the nonn to 
which it relates. 

a. It has a peculiar treatment, calling for special rules, only 
when combined with the aoxiliaries avoir and Stre to make the 
compound forms of a verb ; see XXVIII, 5-8. 

6. The past participle, being passive in its character, does not 

; but it admits the other 

modifiers of a 
'aried before t 

take 8 

fi. For certain participles which are a 
which they qualify, see S 58a. 

192, As regards the use of the participle with aux- 
iliaries to make the compound forms of a verb, the fol- 
lowing principles are to be noted : 

a. When used with 6tre in intransitive and passive verbs (but 
not in reflexives), the participle has the value of a predicate ad- 
jective qualifying the subject of the verb, and with this it ac- 
cordingly always agrees in gender and number. Thus, elle est 
allte she is gone, ila sont atm^a thej/ are loved, lea lettres Airent 


fcrites the letters were written, nooB serous p&rtis we shall be 
(or fiaue) gone. 

b. When used with avoir in tranaitive verbs, the participle has 
originaJIy and really the value of an objective predicate qualify- 
ing the direct object. Thus, in il a retronv^ bob Uvtsb perdus 
fte has found again his lost books, it is the books that are found 
again, and not the finder. Henee it is not with the subject, but 
with the direct object, that the participle ought to agree. In the 
present condition of the language, however, it ia made bo to agree 
when the object stands before the verb, and not otherwise : thus, 
qneU livreB avez-vons troav^B what books have you found f je 
leB ai troQT^ I have found them, Ibb liTTds que jai tronv^B the 
books which I have found; but j'ai tronv^ les li-rres I Ttave 
found the books. 

c. In every verb used refiesiyely, the auxiliary 6tro (by a very 
strange and anomalous Bubstitution) is taken instead of avoir. In 
the eomponnd forma of such verba, the participle has the same 
form as if avoir were used : that is, it agrees with the preceding 
reflesive object if that object ia a direct one, bnt not otherwise. 
Thus, eilBB'BBbtronvieshe/uis found ?ierself (like eUeV a. tron- 
v6b she has found her), fls Be Bont troav^a they have found one 
another (Uke ils lee ont trouvda Iheij have found them) ; bnt, on 
the contrary, elle s'est tronv^ des Lvres she has found for her- 
self some books; and sgain, quels livres s'est-elle tronv^s what 
books has ahe found for herself f — where the participle agrees with 
the direct object livres, and not with either the indirect Be or the 
subject elle. 

d. Many intransitive verbs now take, or take sometimes, the 
auxiliary avoir instead of fltre. In these, the participle (though 
it may logically qualify the subject as much as in the verbs taking 
6tre> is never made to agree with the subject, but remains un- 
varied. Thus, elle a Borti she has gone out (but elle est sortie), 
ils avaieut desceadn they had descended (but ils ^taient deacen- 
duBi, ilfl ont 6t6 they have been. 

,193, Henee we have the following practical rnlee: 

a. When used with 6tre, the participle, except in re- 
flexive verbs, agrees in gender and numher with the sub- 
ject of the verb. 

h. Wlieo used with avoir, and also with fltre in reflexive 
verbs, the participle never agrees with the subject ; but 
it agrees with the direct object, ia case that object pre- 
cedes the verb. 

c. The three cases in which a direct object may precede the 



verb, and so may have the participle agree with it, are those 
illustrated above (g 1926) : nsmely^, when it is interrogative (or 
exclamatory), whea it is a personal pronoun (hence always in 
retlexive verbs), and when it is the relative i^ne (when the parti- 
ciple agrees with the word which qne represents). 

194. Certain exceptional or apparently exceptional 
cases require to be noticed, as follows: 

a. The participle of an impersonal verb, or of a verb used im- 
personally, is unvaried : thus, las plnies qn'il y a en the rains 
that there have been, qnella chaJenr excessive a-t-il &it whaf 
exeessive heat there has been ! 

b. The participle does not agree with an adverbial object, a 
specification of measure or the like (^ 2Sc) : thus, les ann^ea 
qn'elle a dnr^ the yearn that it has lasted, les trois lieoes que 
j'ai march^ the three leagues that I have walked. But of codter 
cost, conrir run, and Taloir be leorth, the participle is sometimes 
made to agree with such an object ; and, in certain phrases, even 
that of vivre live. 

e. With on (if it, some, etc, (XXIII. 5-7), as an indirect object, 
the partieipte of course does not agree ; but after an indefinite 
word of quantity, like combien, it is sometimes miide to agree 
with the noun that is logically implied : thus combien en avez- 
T0U8 vti8 how many of t/iem have you seen ? que da chosas j'ai 
TneB how many things I have seen ! 

d. An apparent object of a verb is sometimes really governed 
by a following dependent verb or infinitive, and the participle of 
the former hiis no occasion to agree with it : thus, las livres que 
j'ai cm qn'elle me donnerait the books which I thought she mould 
give me, cea tableaux, ja las ai vn peiadre / hate seen these pic- 
tures painted (lit'ly, have seen [some mte] paint them), ja 1m ai 
laiaB6 porter antre part / have had them carried elsewhere (in 
these phrases, the les is really object of doniierait, peindre, and 
porter respectively). But if the object is logically subject instead 
of object of the following infinitive, the participle of the former 
Is made to agree with it : thus, je I'ai vne petndre (or peindre 
les tableaux) Ihave seen her paint (or paint the pictures), je las 
ai laisB^B manger qnelque chose Ihave let them eat something, 
les larmes qu'il nona a vos verser the tears which he hasseen us 

e. But the participle of faire make, cause, when used with a 
dependent infinitive, never agrees with the object (feire being 
viewed as forming with the infinitive a sort of compound verb- 
form, of causative meaning, and its object, if the infinitive also 
has an object, taking the indirect form : g 158b) : thus, je lea ai manger I made them eat, il nou avait £ut sgrtir he had 
made us go out, 




/. A governing influitive is sometimes understood rather than 
expressed : thus, je Ini ai rendu tons les services que j'ai dfi 
(or pn, or vonla) 1 ha,ve done him all the services that 1 ought 
(or eould, or chose) — that is, to do Mm. 

g. After avoir etc. (g 182e), EoHovred by an infinitive witt &. 
usage is varying, according as the object is riewed as belonging 
more to the verb or to the infinitive : thne, 1& peine qn'il a. en 
(or ene) ik son&ir the pain which he has had to suffer. 

195. Tlie participles, both present and past, are (ae in 
English) often used absolutely, along with a nonn or 

Thus, cela &it (or cela ^tajit fait), il partit that done (or that 
being done), he d^arted, lui mort, tu tnonrras aussi /le dead, 
thou shalt die also. 

a. The noun or pronoun is aometinies exprei^ed afterward : 
thug, Jtant rentr^, il medit having come in again, he said tome. 

b. Certain participles are used in absolute construction in an 
idiomatic manner, with a value like that of prepositions or 
conjunctions : thus, excepts cette fenune esxept this woman, en 
e^ard k sa jeimesse mnsideHng (lit'ly, regard being had to) his 
youth, attendnson age wciewo/Aisaye. 


(§ 191.) ' Que de palais dStruits, de trdnes renvers^s ! 
i^Rac.) ' Le fer est 6mousaS, les bftchers sont ^taints. ( Vol.) 
' Et quel temps fut jamais si fertile en miracles ? L'impie 
Acbab d^truit, et de son sang tremp^ le champ que par le 
meartre il avait usurpg ; prSs de ce fatal champ Jezabel 
immolee, sous lea pieda des chevaux cette reine foulee, de 
son sang inbumain les chiens d^salt^r6a, et de son corps 
hldeax Tea memhres d6chirea ; des prophetea menteurs la 
troupe conf ondue, et la flamme du ciel snr I'antel desoendue. 
(Jtac.) ' Je vois anx flammes eternelles noa roia precipites 
Sana fin. (Beranger.) 

(g 182-3.) ' Cenx de oes amis qui sont months trop haut 
pour moi, je m'en tiens61oign6. (Beranger.) ' Quelle triste 
economie que celle de VAme ! elle nons a et6 donnge pour 
etre d6velopp6e, perfectionn&e, prodignee m^me dans un 
noble but. (de Stael.) ' Que aont devenua oea personnages 
qui firent tant de bruit ? Le tempa a fait un pas, et la face 
de la terre a 6t6 renonvel^e. (Chat.) ' Tu me demandes en 
cela la raiaon d'une chose qui n'existe pas, et que je n'ai 

$8$ TKRB8. UM— 

emn\n dlto : lea fommos no sont nnllement condamiil«s A 
lu£diocrlt6, (rfe Mnhtm.) *Je ceBserai pour enx de pa- 
raltrc nffllK^e, ot j'oubliorai leur mort, que voub avez ven- 

Rfifi. (^W«,) " Jc no saiB b'iI noUH a reconnnes. (i>o".) 'Si 
I If iiijiK tif xilloiiiinit paa lenra traits, quelles traces aoraienl- 
Wu aMi\(w*i\i^ MOD ])u8Ha);e? (dt Stael.) ' Leare v^temenU 
ol K'tin nrrniw, ijii'oii ii'avait jamais vub, ejccitaient la cmio- 
hll/- .■! Ill Hi(r)iriF<c. {Mieliaaa.) 'Elles araient on ur EJ 
'ii.tij'M <|>M !'r ri^i'ovie 6prouvait une certaine Be 

f |. j( il. . 1 ii\' ;irr(jtee ohfz elles. {de Maistre.) "Dana 

III <l< I r - I ic 'lu XVIII" fli^cle, deux pitifisancee s'e- 

liti<'iii 'h'V'i'H iliiiiH ill Mord, la Prusse et laRussie. (JfiffntL) 
" JnniRviiliirmiui Moot tombee boubvob coups seBODt attire 
mill nif'iriii'i (111 iiiHlliKur. (Ae Sage.) " Vous savez la pidtre 
W'f >)iiit y riK' KiuH faite de raon merite litt^raire. (Beraa- 
l/er.) " >J(ni n'^ards parcouraient avec pltusir Its nom- 
liruuMiw duuiuuriui que [e» liabitants do la campagae se sont 
ouiiNtruitt'ii Mir oob nautours (Barlhilemy.) 

(i 1(94.) ' Quu do maux il en est A(i\t rgsuM ! (BtKhtr.) 
'C'oflt uiio Am id^oH Ion plus utiles qu'il y ait jamais ea. 
{Tlunmtt.) ' Jorogrotto loB nombreusoB anuses que j'ai t^cu 
■anH pouvoir m'instruire. (Rous».) * Le premier volume . . , 
eat adBur^mont fort intfireseant ; la preface nous donne une 
id6e doB reolicrchos qu'il a colit^eB. {Remumt.) Mes ma- 
nuBoritB raturfis, barbouill^s, ot )>roBqne ind^cbiff rabies, at- 
teBtont la poino qu'ila ra'ont coHlfee. (floass.) ' On peut 
jngor doH enibarrax sans nombro que lui avait valus cette 
double parent^. ( V- Huii'i.) ' Mais je oe les ai pas recnos, 
oea annees de ma vio. {Sardou.) ' Tout le monde m'a ofFort 
des servicoB, et pcrBonno ne m'en a rendu, {de Maint.) ' Pen- 
dant oea derniore tompH, combien en a-t>on vus qui du soir 
an matin sont pauvres deTonusI {Im Ji'.) "Tons les sol- 
data a'fitaient 1 bibb 6 prendre. ( Vol.) "A peine I'avons-nouB 
entenduf parlor, { Vol.) '° O Julie ! si le destin t'eftt laiBs^e 
vivre ! {Jiiiuia.) '' VoilA le aujet des larmes que tu m'as 
vneverserl {Florian.) " EUe s est fait aimer ; ellem*af^t 
hair. {Com.) "II a 6tS libre de mettre k oet abandon la 
condition qu'il a voulu. (Sertr/.) 

(§ 195.) ' Mais le combat tini, c'ost alors qu'il se montre. 
{Ponsard.) ' Eux pnniB, noUB pourrons faire admirer an 
monde ... la liberty. (PoMard.) ' II ne sera pas dit que, 
moi parti, vous rirez. {hum.) ' Nous avons plus d'une pi^oe 



qui, 6taiit corrig6e8, ponrraient aller & la p08t6rit6. ( Vol.) 
' Le eas fich^ant, je suis homrae k retamer mon depart. 
(Bum.) ' Ces generalitfis etant adopttea, I'aaeemblee a'oc- 
cupa de i 'organisation du pouvoir ISgislatif . (Miguel.) ' Peu 
de gens de noa jours ae sont tu^a, eu 6gard d tons ceos qui 
ont Hong& k le /aire. (Sle.B.) 


' If we do not hurry, they will have gone before we 
have arrived. ' Virtue is loved by all the good, and only 
hated by those who have addicted themselves to evil 
habits. ' Too many tears have been abed over her sorrowa. 
' I have not yet received the letter that my father has sent 
me. ' What books have you already read ? ' I have read 
only those which you had recommended to me. ' You are 
mistaken; I have not recommended them to you. 'The 
few inhabitants whom war has left in this town are too 
poor and weak to be feared. " How many misfortunes have 
we not Been in our time ! '° I thank you for the trouble 
which yon have given yourself in order to come. " My 
sister has bought herself some beantiful dresses. " The 
dresaes which she had bought for heraelf are not yet 
brought to the house. " What a beautiful evening it was 
yesterday ! " That was perhaps the prettiest festival that 
there hae ever been. " Where has he borrowed the 10,0(iO 
franca that this house has cost him? "All the days that 
this chimney haa smoked have been rainy. " 1 have found 
beautiful flowers in the meadow, and I have gathered some; 
but I have given them all to my mother. '* Have you not 
given any to your sisters? " No, they have gathered aome 
for themselves. " Those are actiona which I have thought 
that you would approve. " The story which I have begun 
to read ia very interesting. " The letter which I have 
promised to write for her ia not yet begun. " I heard her 



epeak of the news which had just arrived, and I let her 
finieh without interrupting her. " I saw her buy the pic- 
ture which we had seen painted last year. "* They have 
made all the excuses which their conscience has permitted 
them. " I pity bim for all the trouble which he has had 
to take. " The dinner finished, he went away without say- 
ing farewell. 


196, The rules respecting adverbs and their use have for the 
most part been already given. 

Thus, as to the formation of adverbs from adjectives, XXXJ, 
1-6. B; as to the comparison of adverbs, XXXI. 7, 8; as to negn- 
tive adverbs and adverbial expressions, especially g 164 etc. ; aa 
to words construed now aa adjectives and now as adverbs, S§ 56, 
116c,d; as to adverbs used in the manner of pronouns. ^S5; as to 
adverbs of quantity with following nouna, V. 3, 4; as to variotis 
adverbs, XXXU. 1-6 ; as to the usual place of adverbs, XXXIl. 7- 

197. Adverbs are sometimes used intlie manner of ad- 
jectives or nouns. Tlius : 

a. As predicative adjectives : thus, il est bien maintenajit he 
is well now. cela n'est pas ainsi that is not .10. 

b. Rarely, as attributive adjectives : thus, le temps jadia the 
titne of old, la page ci-contre the page opposite, la preaqne 6ter- 
nit^ ahnost eternity. 

e. Governed by a preposition, like nouna : thus, d'ofl J'rom 
where, whence, 1m jambes de devant the fore-legs (lifly, legs <if 
in front), la plnie d'iiier the rain of yesterday,^ trop inexcejui, 
superfluous, par trop too mtink, quite too, jnsqa'& demain until 
to-morrow, dSs long:tempB since long ago. 

d. Quite rarely, in othpr noun constructions. 

19S. Sometimes an adverb in English is represented in French 
by an adjective : thus, il est ajTiive le premier he arrived flrst. 

Compare the cases in which the same expression is treated 

^^^^B adje( 

Q adverb and n 

n adjective, § SiS. 

An adverb of degree is often separated from the 
adjective whicb it qualities. Thus : 





a. Comme (nith combien) and que, always, in exclamatorr ex- 
pressions : thus, comme il est henreox how happy he is .' qna 
Tons etes gentille how pretty you are ! 

h. Pins and moins in the sense of the more, the less; thus, 
plus vous etea vertneuz, pins vona seres henreoz, the more 
virtuous you are, the floppier you will he. 

c. Sometimes otlier adverbs ; (lius, taat il eat vrai so true is 

200, Tlie responsivea oni yes and non no are a Bort of 
elliptical adverb, used to represent a sentence. 

«. They are sometimes preceded by qno when used aa repre- 
senting a aeatence whicli is tbe object of a verb ; thus, je croia 
qne out I believe yes {at I believe so), je te dis que non I tell you 
no (or that it is not so). 

b. In answer to a aegative question implying a negative state- 
ment, >i is used instead of oni : thus, totih n'y ^tiez pas you were 
not tjtere, were you f ai yes, 1 was. 

201. Voici and voilk are also abbreviated sentences (from voia 
id and Tois li), and they retain some ot the constructions be- 
longing to the verb which really forma a part of them. 

a. Thus, thej[ often take a pronoun -object, which (contrary to 
the rule for an imperative affirmative ; XXII. 7) ie placed before 
them : thus, les voilltr tlwre they are, m'y voici here t am. Tons 
voulez de Targeitt? en ToUk i/om wwjie money f there is some; 
more rarely, they are preceded by the relative object quo : thus, 
ce monsieur que voici this gentleman here (lit'ly, whom behold 


202. Most of what relates to the prepositions and theiruses has 
been already atated ; what needs further to be added will bo given 

203. The two prepositions de of, from, and h. to, at sat those 
of which the uses are most various, depart most widely from the 
simple original meaning of tbe words, and are most analogous 
with inflectional endings, of genitive and dative respectively ; 
they have been, therefore, most fully treated above. 

a. Thus, the uses of de as connecting one noun with another 
in the manner of a genitive are stated in §§ 29-34 ; as making a 
partitive noun, g 35 ; as connecting a noun with an adjective, S 81 ; 
as denoting material and measure, V. 1-4; after a verb, § 162; 
as preceding an infinitive, §g 177-9, 1S3-5 ; and so on. 


6. la like manner, the uses of k between two nouns, at £§ 36-7; 
between au adjwjtive and noun, § 61 ; between a verb and noun, 
g 161 ; before an iufiuitive, J 180 etc. ; and so on. 

204, Further usee of de may be noted, as foltowfl : 

a. With the noun cfit^ aidt (and aometimes with part part), de 
loHea altogether ila sense of removal, and signifies on or at : thus, 
de ce cOtJ on this side, ils se ran^nt des denx cOUs de la Balle 
they draw up an both aides of the hall, de toates parts on evei-y 
aide, de cGte (or part) et d'antre on the one side and the other. 

b. In like manner, de means at or the like in a few expressions 
of time: thus, dn matin at morning, in t?ie morning {= tif a 
morning], de bonne benre in good time or early, de noB jonrs 
in our day, de ma vie in my life, dn vivant de ce roi in the life- 
time qfthis king. 

c. After pins more or moins less, de is used in the sense of than 
before a numeral, when the meaning is a greater or less quantity 
than what is expressed by that numeral : thus, plna de denx ana 
mort than turn years (i.e. a number fif years greater than two), en 
moins de vingt minutes in less than twenty minutes : bat, qnatre 
yenz voient pins denx four eyes see more than two [can see], 
and so on. The words midi midday and minoit midnight (aa 
being equivalent to donse henres twelve o'clock), also demi half, 
qnart a quarter, and ik demi or jk moitid by half, are treated as 
numerals in respect to this construction : thus, pins de minnit 
H/ter midnight, pins d'ft, demi min^ more than half ruined. 

205. Further uses of & may be noted, as follows : 

a. The preposition & is used elliptically in the sense of at the 
distance of, at the age qf. at the rateqf, in connections that point 
out BufiBciently what is Intended : thus, i. trente lienes de Paris 
at thirty leagues from Paris, il est mort & vingt ans tte died at 
twenty, vendre i. la Utts sell by thepound. 

b. While en is in general used with the name of a country to 
mean either to or in (VI. 4), a, with the article, stands instead 
before a plural name, and also before certain names of d^tant 
countries, and of ancient provinces of France : thus, anx Btats- 
Unis to (or in) the United States, an Japon in Japan, an Ueziqne 
in Mexico, an Poiton to Poitou. With partir set out, start, and 
in one or two similar phrases, is used ponr: thus, pajtant poor 
la Syrie leaving for Syria. 

c. A is used in such phrases as c'est bien i, Tons that is good 
(fyoti (or in you), c'^tait folie & Ini that loas folly in him (or 
fbolish of Mm). 

d. It occurs in many elliptical phrases : as, & moi or an seconrs 


help I (Le. came to me, curne for help), an revoir [good-bye] tiU 
we meet again, k aouB denz between ourselves. 

206. The other prepoaitiooa hare in a much higher degree each 
its own meaning or range of nearly related meanings, corresponrl- 
ing in a general way (though with not infrequent exceptions) to 
certain prepositions in English ; and heace they call for only brief 

207. Daaa and en in, into, etc. Of these two prepositions, 
having nearly the same sense, dans is more definite, en more gen- 
era! and vague, in the relation designated, 

a. Dana (except with propernames) is almost always followed by 
a limiting word, an article or possessive or demonstrative , before 
the noun it governs ; en, on the other hand, rarely stands before 
such a limitmg word, especially the definite article (never before 
le or lea, rarely before 1 ). 

b. Instead of en (YI. 4), dans is used before the name of a 
country when accompanied by an adjective : thus, dans la France 
m^ridionale m southern France, dans tonte rAngleteire in all 
England. Also, both with the name of a country and of a town, 
when the meaning is within, inside of. 

e. In expressions of time, en is used to mean in the year, in 
the fnonth, in the season : thus, an mil hnit cant treats, en ^tri, 
en jnillet- in 18S0, in summer, in July (but, by exception, an 
printempa in spring) ; but dims la mSme ann^ in the same 
year, and the like. In expressions for a certain length o£ time, 
en means rather in the course qf, but dans at or by the end of: 
thus, je finirai ce travail en one semaine / shcul finish this 
tmrk in a weeA, but je Tanrai flmdansiine Bemaine/sAa/^ Aatie 
it finished in a week. 

d. En is used in many adverbial phrases of manner, means, 
material, form, and the like : thiis, en secret in secret, en an- 
glais in English, en or in gold, en blanc in white. 

e. En is nsed elliptically to signify in tlw character of, also 
translatable as like or as: thus, agir en honnftte liomme act like 
an honest man, parler en maltre speak as master. 

f. En and les are contracted to ds in certain learned titles : 
thus, doctenr es aciancea doctor of ncienee. 

208. Avec un'tA. This preposition usually signifies simply ac- 
companiment. But it also, like with in English, not infrequently 
designates instrument and manner, exchanging in these senses 
with da {% 162), often with a hardly definable variation of mean- 
ing ; thus, tner avec nne ^p^e slay with a sword, 6crire avec 
nne plume write with a pen, convrir avec (or d') nn mantean 
coTxr with a cloak, and the like. 

209. Par by. This preposition also often designates manner 


344 PEEPOaiTiONfl. [SOfl- 

or motive, ezchangeiably with de (g 162) : thos, par or de crainte 
/(tr/ear. Alternately with de (XXVm. 3), it is used alougwith 
a paaaive verb to aigmfy the performer of the action, especially if 
the action is an extern^ or physical one : thus, il eat fi^pp^ par'iui he is struck by aomebod;/. But de and par can to a 
great extent be used after the aame verb : de tiit'n expressing a 
moro general or habitual action : par, one that is more special or 

210. Sans without. This preposition is peculiar in being 
treated in some respectB as a negative word (since it so distinctly 
implies a negation of accompaniment) : thus, sans rien dire teith' 
out Haying anything, sans or ni argent icithout gold or aUver, 
sans nnl donte without any doubt. After it, the partitive sense 
of a noun is regularly left unexpressed : thus, avec de I'or mau 
saaa argent with gold but uiithout silver. 

311. Depni8,//w», sinee. Dep»is marks a starting-point, in 
space or in time, especially the latter : thus, depnis les Alpes 
jnaqn'^ Toenail Jrom the Alps to the ocean, depnis cinq henres 
jii8iia'& six from Jive to six o'clock. But with a perfect or pluper- 
fact, or a present or imperfect (f § HSd, 119c) in the sense of such, 
it means siitce, eoer since, during . . . past or for. ago, and the 
like. TbUB, je ne I'ai pas vn depnis son retonr / ham not seen 
7dm since his return, il y r6ve depnis trois jours he has been 
dreaming of it during three days past (or for three days), elle 
est arrivte depnis pen de temps sfie arri'ml a, little uiiue ago. 

812. a. A large number ot preposition-phrases, or compound 
prepositions are made by adding de to an- adjective or adverb. 
The commonest of these were given at XXSIII. 3. They call for 
no further remark or explanation here. 

6. The prepositions that govern the infinitive were given above, 
at g 187. The preposition en, governing the gerund, was treated 
above, at § 190. 

213. The required repetition of de and & before each noun 
governed by them was pointed out at III. 5. Excepted are espe- 
cially a word added to another in apposition or as equivalent to 
it, and a numeral added to another with on or: thus, jvAqne ik 
Londres, capitale des Saxons bis/top at London, the Saxvn capi- 
tal, de deux on troia of tuv or three. 

a. The repetition also of on is nearly as strictly rcijuircd. As 
to the other prepositions, they may be repeated or omilti'd before 
successive nouns, much as in English : thuu, malgr^ lea errenrs 
at les fb,uteB in spite nf errors andfuulls, dans la paix et dans 
la gnerre iii pea*ie and in war. 




214. The conjtinctionB ia French, ae ia other tan- 
kages, may be divided into coordinating and aubordi- 

a. This diatinetion is much less important in Frtnch than ia 
German, because nothing in the arrangement of the sentence 
depends upon it ; it is only a part of general logical grammar, of 
the analyaia of the sentence or period into its constituent parts, 
which may be carried on in mueli the same way in French as in 

216, The commonest coordinating conjunctions are 
et and, mala hut, ou or, ni nor, auBsi dl'SO, car for, dono 
then, or now, ainsi thus. 

a. Both . . . and ia expresaod by et . . . et; and of nearly the 
same value are the correlative pairs tant . . . q.De, non-BBnlement 
. . . mais encore. Either ... or is on ... on, also Boit ... on, and 
aoit . . . soit. Compare SXXIV. 3. 

216. Subordinating conjunctions are such as give to 
the clause introduced by them a Bubordinato character, as 
entering into the structure of another clause with the 
value of a single part of speech — namely, of a uonn or 
suljstantive, of an adjective, or of an adverb. 

217. Substantive clauses are introduced almost only 
by the conjunction que that. 

Thua, as subject, qn'elle salt belle n'est pas it nier that she is 
beautiful ia not to be denied; as object, on ne pent pas nier 
qn'slle soit belle one cannot deny that she w beautiful ; as gov- 
erned by a preposition, malgr^ qn'elle aoit belle, je ne Tadmire 
pas in spite of her being beautiful, Ida not admire her. 

a. But in such cases as the last, it ia usual (see § 136a) to regard 
maHgii qm aa a. compound conjunction or conjunction -phrase, 
introducing an adverb-clause. 

6. A anbject-clause ia much more usually, aa in English, an- 
ticipated or followed by a pronoun aa grammatical subject, with 
which then the clause is to he regarded as standing in apposition : 
thns, ce n'est pas & nier qu'elle soit belle it is not to be denied 
that she is beautiful. 




c. Substantive olansea are also introduced by oompound relative 
pronouna and adverbs (that is. such as are used with the valne of 
antecedent and relative at once) ; also by ai in the sense of whether : 
thu3. qui Tent 6tre aim6 doit fitre aimable whoever (or /le who) 
wants to be loTXcf should be lovable, aUnez qni vons aime love, 
(him) who loots you, je ne sais a'il vient / don^t know whether 
he is coming. 

218. Adjective clanses are for the most part intro- 
duced by relative pronouna, but also by relative adverbe, 
which may then be regarded as conjunctions. 

Thus, la table on je I'ai mia the table tvhere (or on uihich) I 
laid it, le livre qni est snr la table the book which is on the 
table, and go on. 

219. Most conjunctions and conjunction-phrases in- 
troduce adverbial clauBes, or such as qualify verbs, ad- 
jectives, and adverbs, by adding limitations of time, 
manner, degree, condition, supposition, cause, purpose, 
and the like. 

Thus, je partaia lorsqn'il entra / was going away when he 
came in, elle eat ai aimable qn'on ne pent qae I'aimer she is so 
lovable that one camutt but love iwr, ai voaa y reates, j'y reste- 
rai 2X&'&\if you stay here, I ahall stay also,ii;a.o\(in'il6oiX panvre, 
il eat contsnt though he is poor, he is happy, venez que je vona 
voie come, that I may see you. 

220. It is explained above, under the head of Subjunctive 
{§ 132 etc.), in what cases the verb of the dependent clause is 
made subjunctive. 

221. The conjunction having the greatest frequency and variety 
of uses is qne that, and its eroployment as eonjunction shades off 
into that as relative pronoun, meaning that or which, so that in 
some cases they are not easy to distinguish from one another. 
The Index will give references to the passages where the varioua 
uses are explained. 

a. WhUe that, both as pronoun asd as conjunction, is often 
omitted in English, it must always be expressed in French : thos, 
thefriejids lAavehiee amia que j'ai, I know /te is here in jeaaii 
qn'il eat ici ; and so in all other cartes. 

5._JShen the conjunctions and con junction -phrases containing 
que^as lorsqne, pnisqne, qnoiqne, pendant que, tandis que, 
parce que, tant que, dea que — are to be repeat^, they are gen- 
erally repeated by que alone ; and que is likewise used in repeti' 
tion instead of qaand, comme, and si : thus, lorsqne remperenr 


fat revenn et qn'il out viaite le camp when the emperor had re- 
turned and when he had riJtiled the vamp, a'il a'a que peu d'ax- 
EBBt et qn'il venille an avoir pliia (f he has only a HItle money 
and wants more. 

^R_ Especially in familiar language, qne ia sometimes used in- 
stead of loxsqne, avant que. depnis que, jiiBqii'& ce quo, and 
que . . . iie instead of sans que: tbUH, & peine ^tait-il sorti que 
la maison s'dcroola he had hardly i/oue out., when f/ie house fell 
in, je n'y irai point quo tout no 8oit pr§t / s/iall not go there 
unless (or till or b^ore) everythiiiy is ready. 


222. The Bimple or pare interjections in French are 
in part the same as in Engh'sh. 

a. Those most used are ah ah (in various senses), 6 or oil oh, 
ell eh., h^las ala:i, ^e oh (pain), iifie, bail pooh, hoik fiello, chut 
sh, heist hey, parblen zounds, and so on. 

6. Many words and brief phrases are nsed elliptically in the 
manner of interjections. Examples are : bou ijood, silence be 
still, peste plague take U, aliens come, tiens or teues holtl, see 
here, garo look out, par exemple indeed, & la bonne henre eery 
uiell, en a-vaat forward, go ahead, h. moi lielp — and so on. 

c. The interrogative pronouns and adverbs arc often einployed 
in an inter jeetional or exclamatory way. Tlio usage in regard to 
them is very much as it is in English. The same is true of the 
abbreviation of sentences brought about by their use in exelama- 

lTIVE BKNTKNCES.— XXXIX. Adverbs, PrepoBitioiiS, 

(§ 187.) ' Elle a quitte aa belle robe ; eh Men ! elle n'est 
pas pins mal pour cela ; an contraire. {Scribe.) ' Le grand- 
vizir ne s'avise pas de s'informer s'il est bien ou mal dans 
ses affaires, {-ie Sage.) ' Par des r6oits d'antrefois, m^re, 
aorSgez notre veille. (Biranger.) 'J'^tndiaia ile loin, en 
srtence, ce talent precoce et grandiseant. (Ste.-B.) 'Et 
depuis quand as-tu cette idee ? (Dam.) ' Ce moment pour 
jamais a fiit6 men destin. (Girardin.) ' D'ici A un an, je 
promets de rev^tir la robe blanche dii baptdme. (Souveatre.) 
Puis il saisit ses deux pattca de derri^re avec ses deux 
pattes de devant, et, comme satisfait de cette attitude 


cUesique, il ae remit i me contempler. ( V. Hugo.) ' J'abuse, 
cher ami, de ton trop d'aniitie. {Sue.) " Ce n'est qu'an 
effet de leur pen de Iiunii^reB, qui lee emp^che de connattre 
la grandeur de leur mal. (La S.) 

(g 198.) ' Tranquille jem'endors, et tranquille je veille. 
(Ckmier.) ' Lea rares momentB passeat m rapidea ! (Dum.) 

(g 199.) ' Ah ! mon Dieu ! que je euis malheurense 1 
(Seribe.) " Plus leur caase m'eat ch^re et plite i'effet m'en 
blesee. ( Corn.\ ' Plus j'y reflechis, et moins je trouve cette 
Bc^ne naturelle. { Vol.) 

(8 200.) ' Mais non, maman ! y pensez-vous? — Mais si. 

idemoifielle, je le veux. (Scribe.) 

(§ 201.1 'IlB'assied ou me voild, s'ecriaiit: Ai ! quelle 
guerre ! (Biranger.) ' Mon jeune homme ne se fit pas prier ; 
nous voil^ mangcant et buvant, lui du moins. {Courier.) 
' Tremblez, tremblez, m^cbants ; voici venir la foudre. 
(Corn.) ' Pourqnoi m'en donneriez-vous la peine puisquc 
vous voili ? (Mar.) ' Me voiid bien avanc^. — Ne le voild-t-il 
pas bien recule ? {Mar.) 

(g 204.) ' J'avais de mon cOte quelaue chose k te dire ; 
mais tu ra'aa fait perdre mes idees. [Mar.) 'Voyez-vous 
Loudres de I'autre cfit6 de I'eaii? (V.Hugo.) * De toutes 
parta I'on ne voyait que champs cultiv^s. (Volney.) * Le 
roi arriva, la tgte haute, promenant de tons cotea ses re- 
gards, et cherchant le peuple pour lui parler. {Guizol.) 
' II me aemble que de mon temps on n'etait pas comme cela. 
{Scribe.) ' Du temps de I'architecture, elle se faisait mon- 
tagne, et s'emparait puisaammeiit d'un siScle et d'un lieu. 
(V. Hugo.) 'II se jeta d'abord sur I'omelette avec tant 
d'avidite qu'il semblait n'avoir mange de trois jours. 
{Le Sage.) ' En moins de deux ans Gustave Vasa rendtt la 
Su^de lutb^rienne. (Vol.) 'II ^tait alors plus de minuit. 
(* Vi.) 

(S 205.) ' C'est une veuve aaaez riche, qui demeure d 
quelquea lieuea de 14. {Ste.-B.) ' A quelques jours de Id, 
ella gagna la rive droite du Clain, (Samleau.) * Mon plus 
long aejour fut au P6rou. (Feiiillet.\ ' N'importe. madame; 
c'eet bien mal i voua, (6cribe.) Elle frappe Marat au 
flanc gauche, et enfonce le fer jusqu'au c<Fur. A moi ! 
s'^cria-l-il. (Thiers.) 

(§ 207.1 ' Le boeuf etait abaolument inconnu dans I'Amfi- 
rique mgridionale. {Dafim.) 'Jo suis done enfin dana 




MoBcou, dans I'antiqne paya des czars, danfi le Kremlin ! 
(Siffur.) 'Dans quelques jours nous pourrons k loisir 
poursaivre ce diacours. (Ddanigiu.) ' EnRn, qu'as-tu fait 
en trente ana de devouement pour tea chera semblables? 
Rien da tout. {FeuUkt.) 'Quand mon man combat en bon 
Boldat de Rome, ie dois agir eti femmo ainei qu'il fait en 
homme. [Ponsayd.) 'D ressemble ^ une statue de jardin 
habillSe en monsieur. [Merif.) 

{§ 210.) ' Sans Bonger qu'a me plaire, exeoutez mes lois. 
{Corn.) 'Sans Jeter d'alarmes, k tous mes Tyriena faites 
prendre lea armes. {Rue.) 'lis se condamnent d cette 
froideur de sentimentB qui laisse passer les joura sana en 
tirer ni fruitB, ni progrts, ni souvenirs, {de Sta'el.) 

(§211.) 'Comment, cousine I depuis trois ans, voili 
deux fois que vous m'f^crivez ! {CouAer.) 'En orient, en 
Occident, depuis plus de deux mille ans on ne parle que 
d'Alexandre. {Bosmtet.) ' Les pluies qu'il fait depuis trois 
jours me mettent au dgsespoir. {de Sev.) ' II fitait absent 
depuis pluaieurs heures, et le petit Fortunato 6tait tranquil- 
lement etendu auaoleil. {MSrimie.) ' Je comprendB I'etonne- 
ment oii vouh avez 6t6 de tout ce qui s'est passe depuis le 
15 juaqu'au 20 de ce moia. {de Sev.) 

^^ 221,) 'Loraqu'on est aaus fortune, et qu'on spouse 
quelqu'un qui en a beaucoup, songez que de qualit&s il faut 
lui apporter en dot ! {Scribe.) ' C'est la division Legrand 
qui ae trouvait ie plua en danger, parce qu'elle ^tait placee 

Pr^s du Danube, et que, pour ce motif, I'ennemi voulait 
accabler. {Tkien.) 'En tout cas, si je I'epouBe, et qu'il 
veuille en mettre un autre ici h votre place, vous n'y 
perdrez ))oint. (Mar.) ' A peine, en effet, est-il expire 

tu'on Toit 6clater tous les d^sordres qui fermentaient 
epuia quelques annees. (Barante.) ' Vous le feriez officier 
da la Lfegion d'honneur qu'il ne aerait pas plus Buperbe. 
{Janirt.) La vie s'ach^ve que I'on a il peine §bauchfi aon 
ouvrage. {La B.) 

Tbeme 25. 

' Do you wish that I pass on the other side ? 

these flowers on both aides of the rii 
early this morning. * I shall not i 

I found 
You got up quite 
n agaiu in eight 




days. ' It was a little more than midnight. ' He will 
come in less than half an hour. ' I gave him more than 
half of what he asked. ' He sells beer by the pot, butter 
by the pound, clotb by the yard, and eggs by the dozen. 
' It was wise of him to go to the United States, rather than 
to Mexico. " He will stay a year in South Attierica before 
retdrning. " I shall go to find him in three days, and we 
shall finishour journey together within a month. "He lives 
like a man of property. "I can speak of it only with pain 
and regret. " One must bear her loss with fortitude, 
" You came in by the door; you will go out by the window. 
" Without money, without friends, what can one do? " I 
had to leave without seeing any one. '"She speaks with- 
out committing faults. " For the last fiftyyears they have 
talked only of Napoleon. "" He had not seen them for five 

I toe 

^^L the 


223. The arrangement of the sentence iu French cor- 
responds in a general way to tbat in Engligli. 

a. That is to aay, especially, those very frequent and necessary 
changes of order, consisting in inversion or puttiug the verb be- 
fore its subject, and transposition or removing the verb to the 
end of the eentenco, which are characteristic of German, are 
mainly wanting in French, as they are in English. 

b. Minor matters regarding the position of words — such as put- 
ting the adjective more usually after the noun, putting an object- 
pronono before the verb that governs it, and the like— have been 
already disposed of above, under the di^erent classes of words. 

c. It remains here only lo give a few rules respecting cases of 
inversion, or putting the subject after the verb, which also in 
general are hke English cases, yet with some differences. 

224. In questions, the rule for inversion ib in general 
the same as in English: tliat is, the subject is put after 
the verb, except when the subject is itself the interroga- 

337] INVEEBION. 351 

tive elemeot {either an interrogative pronoun, or contain- 
ing an interrogative word). 

Thus, etea-TOiis id are you here i< but qui est ici who fe hei-e f 
quel homme ^tait ici what man fvOfS here f combien d'hommee 
seront ici demaJB luno numy men will lie here to-morrow f 

a. But it ia only the conjunctive subject-pronouns, and aiso on 
and ce, tliat may without restriction follow the verb in questions. 
If, on the other hand, the subject is any other pronoun than 
these, or a noun, the subject is usually required to be stated first, 
and then the question asked about it by means of a conjunctive 
pronoun (see I. 11). 

6. When, however, the sentence begins with certain interroga- 
tive words (XXV. 6), even a noun is allowed to be put after the 
verb, unless the verb has a direct object. Thus, qn'a cet Iiomme 
(or cet homme qn^a-t-il) what is the matte)' with this man '! otl 
est Totre fi^e (or on votre irere est-il) where is your brother .^ 
combien vant cela (or combien cela vant-il) how much is that 
worth ? but only comment votre frere Bupport»-t-il son maJheur 
how does your brother bear his misfortune ? 

c. Interrogative inversion with a noun as subject is very often 
avoided by using the paraphrase est-ce qno is it true thai, or is 
it the case that : thus, eat-ce que votre firdra est ici fe your 
brother here f And the same paraphrase ia also common even 
with a prononn-subject : thus, eat-ce qn'il est venn has lie cotne f 
— especially in the 1st sing. , with a verb-form ending in e : thus, 
est-ce que j'aime (only rarely aim^-je) do I love f 

226. Interjected phraaes, marking a quotation as made 
in the words of the one who uttered them, are inverted 
in French, just as in English. 

Thus, veneE, m'ai-t-il dit eoine, said he to me, qnoi! m'£criai-je 

what I cried I. 

226. In optative phrases, or those expressing a wish 
(sometimes having also an imperative or exclamatory 
sense), the inverted arrangement is sometimes naed, with 
a subjunctive (see § 131S). 

This b not common, a que, in the sense of would that, being 
generally used instead, Eiamplea are : vive In reine long live 
the queen ! pnisBe-t-il (or qn'u pnisse) revenir bientdt may he 
goon return '. plftt & Dien might it please God ! 

227. Quite rarely, inversion is used with a subjunctive 

352 AERANGBMBNT. [«87— 

(uauallj' past) to give a conditiooal sense — that is, one that 
would he fully expressed with if or though (see § 131c). 

Thus, dflt-il m'en coflter la Tie Mou7rf ft (i.e. tlumgh it should) 
cost me my life, fosaiez-vons Lomme on d^mon were you (i.e. 
whether you were) man or demon, ils anraient Hsist^, n'eftt 6%6 
la cbhoh tfiey would have resisted, but for the cannon (Ht'ly, had 
the cannon not been). 

228. Not Beldom, the sentence is inverted when some 
other member of it than the subject is placed at il« head. 

Such another member may be a preiiicate adjective, an object, 
an adverb or adverbial phrase of place or time or other acoom- 
panjing circumstance, and so on. The inversion ia nowhere re- 
quired, but only more or less common. Some of the cases may 
be more specially described aa follows : 

a. After certaiu adverbs and adverbial phrases — e3x>ecially & 
peine scarcely, en vain in vain, anssi aixordingly, tonjoura eixr, 
encore besides, an moias or dn moins at least, pent-6tre perhaps, 
tont an plus at the utmost — a pronoun -subject is commonly made 
to follow the verb : thus, a peine ^tais-je entr^ hardly had 1 
come in, en vain (or vainement) Ta-t-il easa;^ in imin did he 
attempt it, ce seat de belles ^toffes, aussi cofltent-elleB cher they 
are handsome stuffs, and correspondingly dear, peat-§tre Tons 
attend-elle pei-luips she is waiting for you. In correspionding 
cases, a noun-subject also is sometimes treated as in asking a 
question : thus, & peine cet homme ^tait-il entr^ /lardly hod 
this tnan entered. 

b. After a predicate adjective, with 6tre, a noun-subject some- 
times follows the verb. This is especially common with tel: thns, 
telle 6tait sa condition sudi was his condition ; other examples 
are : hnmbles forent d'abord les ponvoirs humble were at first 
the powers, autres sent les temps de UoEse different are the 
times of Moses. 

c. Likewise, after various specifications of time, place, and cir- 
cumstance : thus, ainsi dit le renard thus said the fox, ici €tait 
jadia nne Tille liere was formerly a city, alors commenga nne 
latte terrible then began a terrible struggle, itr cBt6 de notre 
ami ^tait sa Csmme beside our friend teas his wife, au milieu 
de la fonle se tronvait nn petit gar9on in the midst of Ike lyrowd 
was found a little boy, k cette condition Ait E^ont^e use antre 
to this coridition was added another. 

d. Likewise, in a relative clause, after quel, qne, oil, and the 
like : tims^oa vi%qTieUe6taJiB&Bit\ia.tian one snw what Ms situa- 
tion was, le plaisirque loi donne la vne d'tm ami the pleasure 
u^ich thesight of a friend gives him. c'est l&qa'est 


:e grand | 




homme U is there that this great man wim bom, la place oil 6tait 
dresB^ l'A;lia&ud the place where was erected the scaffold. 

e. These mversions with a noun-anbject take place especially 
whore the subject is a complex one, or accompanied by adjuncts 
which connect with following clauses. They can also hardly 
occur if the verb has additional adjancta, especially objects that 
follow it. 

229. In rare cases, tlie verb itself stands at the begin- 
ning of an affirmative sentence. 

Thus, vient un autre (along) comes another. 

830. In poetry, many of the ordinary rules for the 
arrangement of the membere of a sentence are liable to 
be violated. 

Illuatrations of alt (he various cases of inversion are to be seen 
amonp; the sentences already given above. A few more are added 

ILLUSTBA'riVE SENTENCES.— ZI.. BiTeFted Arrangement. 

(§ 224.) ' Oa 8ont, Dieu de Jacob, tes antiques bont^s? 
(Rac.) ' D'oii vient done la c6r6monie que vonn faiteef 
iMar.) ' Quel eat ce principe ? quels en sont les feiements ? 
[Guisot.) ' Et que dira raon p6re, si ie te cacfae sans sa 
permission? {Merimie.) 'A qreoi pretend une religion, 
messieurs, quelle qu'elle soit ? (Otihot.) 'A qui va cette 
lottre? {RegmiTd.) 

{§ 226.) ' Puissfi-je raffermir ta haioe qui chancelle ; 
pnisse une juste horreur te saisir comrae moi ! (Ddnvigne.) 
Sois-je dn ciel 6craae si je mens! (Mol.) ' PIflt d Dieu 
que le sacrifice de ma vie pfit sauver la sienne ! {Gaisot.^ 

(g 227.) ' Eiit-il 6t6 bieu plus fort et bien plus habile, 
eut-il ^te Richelieu ou Sully, il ffit tomb^ de m4me. 
(Mignet.) ' Coiltat-il tout le sang qu'H^ldne a fait rSpandre, 
duss€-je aprgs dix ans voir mon palais en cendre, je ne ba- 
lance point. {Rac.) 

(§ 228.) ' Corame la mode fait l'agr6ment, aussi fait-elle 
la justice. (Pose.) 'Si cela pouvait lui donner les senti- 
ments d'un homme qui va paraltre devant Dieu, encore 
serait-ce quelque cbose. {de Sev.) ' Du moins, en tout cas, ne 
la connalt-on point comme on connaic le chevalier. {Mar.) 
' Pent-Stre traverae-t-il encore quelques rues solitair"- 
(Girardin.) ' Combien les lunettes nous ont-ellea deoo' 




d'fitrefl qui n'&taient point pour nos philosophes d'aupara- 
vant ! {Pose.) ' Aussi la mort de cet homme ne cootrasta- 
t-elle point avec ea vie. (Bal.) ' En Espagne, au miliea du 
r^gne de Philippe II., delate la revolution des Provinces- 
Uniea. (ffuizof.) 'Maiatenant est fait le plaisir de Diea. 
(Mickelet.) ' Amsi a'eet 4conl6 le dix-huiti6me sidcle. (Ba- 
ranle.) '° Adx lettres de pierre d'Orph^e vont saccSder lea 
lettres de plomb de Guttemberg. ( K. Hugo.) " Aa-dessous 
du groB poirier qui tonche au mur de la grange 6tait asBifl, 
aurle bane de pierre, mon p^re adoptif. (Sue.) " Enfin 
arrivSrent les jours d'agonie. (Bal.) " Voici la maiBon ou 
demeure Reboul. (^Dum.) " Tout homme pent faireeequ'a 
fait Mahomet. {Paac.) " C'est U que se ravive I'dme des- 
s6eh6e sar lea bonquins. (Tapfer.) " J'essaierai d'arrivet 
ainsi A, comprendre quel a et6 dans son ensemble, et d'nne 
mani^re complete, le d6veloppement de notre glorieaee 
patrie. {(?wizo(.) " Je commen(^ais A me faire 6. ce tfite-A- 
tfite loraque Burvint nn incident. ( V. Hugo). 

(I 229.) ' Viennent enauite lea d^pntSs de la GrSoe. {£e 

■k for 


231. Since any one who roads French poetry ought to know, 
at least in a general way, how it ia conatructed, the following 
brief statements are added here. 

232. Since in French tihere is (12) no marked distinc- 
tion of long and short vowels, and also (11) only a weak 
accent, resting on the final syllable of each word, and dd- 
accompanied by a secondary accent on any of the pre- 
ceding syllables, there can be in French verse no proper 
metrical movement, either of quantity or of accent: a 
French line of verse is only a certain nnniber of sueeeBsive 
syllables, with a rliyrae at the end. There is and can be 
no French verse withont rhyme. 

333, a. In making out the proper number of syllables 
for a line, the silent syllables, or those containing a mute 

*•*! TEB81FICATI0N. 355 

e (16), count in genera], aa much ae those which have a 
full pronunciation in prose. 
Thus, there are six syllables in 

II re- I gixit I toqjann ; 
«nd seven in 

tTns I perls | qn'il don- | nm ; 
nnd eight In 

Fanvra | mere, { ton file | e*t mort ; 
and twelve in 

Onvient | det im- \ morteli [ lee bien- | tsisaii- | tei maiiu ; 
and thirteen in 

Ta I& I troDblei ! { reprit | catte | Uu \ crnel- 1 Is. 
h. But if a iinal e mute comes to stand before an initial 
vowel of a following word, it is lost, the two vowels 
forming together only oue sjllable. 
Thus, there are six syllables in 

La TJ- 1 olta_et le { poisunt } 
and seven in 

n Ion- 1 oa.nn fon- 1 dre_S I'ln- 1 atant ; 
and eight in 

Et Tan- 1 nee^es- | pire^fi | u Toix ; 
and nine in 

Un pu ] an-eo- | re_en-«i- | re_aaa_lken- | re; 
and twelve in 

OhI I'M- I time I pnbll- | qne^aUs^wt { Teralei | eonil 
and thirteen in 

II eat I pauTTe^I- 1 nnti- [ la_at alia- | oon le | deUIi- | m. 
c. Certain special rules will bo given farther on. 
234. Khjme is of two kinds, called respectively mas- 
culine and feminine. 

a. Feminine rhyme is that between words having a 
mute syllable after those whose accordance makes the 

Thus, feminine rhyme in that between mflre and pore, contante 
and r^ente, dis-je and fis-je, est-ce and mease, gloriile and 
fortifie, due an<I vae, cUm^res and ameres, jonm^es and 
ann^es, irritent and habitent, prient and Sent, and the like. 

b. Masculine rhyme is that between words which end 
with a fully pronounced syllable. 

356 VEB9IFI0ATI0H'. [234— 

Tbus, m4r and pnr, content and recent, dis and fis, dd and 
Tn, bercea-ux and tombeanx, pass^ and TerB^, lui and nui. 

c. The uaini's masculine and foininino are evidently given be- 
cause the I wo kinds of rhyme ai'o audi as sulisist lietween the 
niascnlino and Ihp feminine forms of adjeutives respectively: 
thus pnr m^ and pore nffire ; contents r^cents and contentes 

335. In French verse, masculine and feminine rhymes 

are required always to alternate. 

This may he line by line, or couplet by couplet, or one eouplel 
within another— or yet otherwiae, if more than two lines are 
made to rhyme t-ogether. Examples are : 

Kien ne pe»e tant q.u'nn secret ; 
Ls porter loin est diffioile anz femmoB ; 

Et je sail meme enr ce fait 
Ban nombre d'hommes qtii sont femmeg. (La F.) 

OdI, je vieng daas eon temple adorer I'Eternel ; 
Jo viens, selon rnaage antique et solennel, 
Celebrer avec vona la famense joarnee 
Ob sor la moDt Sina la loi nous fnt donaee, (Bae.) 

On parlera de sa gloiro 

Sous le chaume biea longtemps ; 

L 'humble toit, dans einqnante ans, 
Ke oonnaitra pln> d'autre bistolro. [Beranger.) 

236. Eliymes, to be allowed, muet have more than 
the mere sonnd in common ; there muet also be a certain 
correapondeiiee of written form — so far, enpeeially, that 
the hiials would carry on or link (84 etc.) alike. 

a. Thus, niflr and pnra are never allowed to rhyme, nor con- 
tent and r^centa, nor bleu and pens, nor ai and nez,and so on; 
nor would banc and qnond fir camp rhyme ; nor plier and B,i or 
fiez. But words ending in llie diffi'rejit sDiilants, as enx and 
bleus. <ir faia and paix and nez. or crev^s and deves, may 
rhyitii' ; also d and t, ns attend and antaut ; or c and g, as banc 
and rang: 'd^o <'asea like passe anil grftce, honte tind prompte, 
mSme and theme ainl aime, gants and temps, and so on. 

The first singular of a verb is sometimes used in thyme with- 


oQt its final b : tboa. j'aTerti with votrs parti ja vien with bien, 
je croi with emploi, and sn on. 

This is because the Una) » of this person la only a recent tiddition to 
it : see § Sc. 

c. Some words liaTe in vei'so two different foi'ins, either of 
which may he used ; thus, encor beside encore, avecqne beside 
avec, jDBgiies beside jusqae, and so on. 

(i. Rarely, the liberty is taken of rhyming words generally for- 
bidden to rhyme ; and then the spelling is sometimes changed to 
coiTespond : thus, circonspec (for -spect) and coups debBC{iaii'.). 

237. Words in which a mnte syllable l-e or -es or -eat) follows 
a Towel — thus, cr€e cr^a orient, fie fi.eB fi.eiit, and the like — are 
oi very restricted use in verae, the combinations being never 
allowed to count as two syilables in tho middle of a line. Those 
in final e may be used there before an initial vowel, where their e 
ifiloat (?233i): thus. 

Haia bisntot a ma vne on la fait disparttitre. 
Son mEiitre le mppelle, et orie, et ae tourmentB. 
Qne ne inis-Je reatee^anx borde ou j'u Aenril 

But those in es and ent are only allowed at the end of a line, 
where they make a feminine rhyme. 

a. But the ending aient of imperfect and conditional (also 
soient, aies, aient) is arbitrarily reckoned as a single syllable : 

Eiraient aa gie dn vent, de leor aort incertaliu. 

. . . qne les roia 
le Boient aiusi ; o'eat I'lndalgenos. 

238. An i and another following vowel often form together 
only one syllable, while in other eases they make two syllables : 
thus, rien, but li-en; fieradj., butfi-er v.; lienz, but glo-ri-enx; 

a. For the most part, such combinations have in the same word 
always the same value, an one syllable or as two ; but there are a 
few words in which they are allowed to be treated either way : 
thus, an-cien or an-ci-en, faier or tu-er. The endinp ions and 
iaz (of impf. indie, conditional, and pres. and impf. sobj.) are in 
general one syllable ; but they are two in the conditional if a 
mute precedes the r : thus, €-tions ^-tiez, se-rions se-riez, don- 
nions don-niez, fiu-sions ftu-siez ; but Toa-dri-ons Ton-dri-ez. 

6. The distinction between these two classes of casps has to be 
learned principally by practice. But it may be pointed out that 
where the combination oorreaponds to a single vowel in Latin, it 
is one syllable in French ; thns, rien rem, flel Ibl, bien beii-e, 




pied ped-em, fier ter-um, lien inc-nm. On the other hand, the 
i makes a separate sj-Uatile in the forms and derivatives of verba 
in ier : thus, li-er, li-ons, li-ez, li-ant, li-eur, li-en. 

239. The same difference of valne is found, muoh less often, in 
combinations of n with a following vowe! ; and, quite rarely, in 
those of on. 

Thns, ra-i-ne, but plni-ei an-a-ge, but i-gna-ne: ouaia, but 
jon-aJB; and so on. 

a. An after q or g is in general only an orthographic sign, and 
has no separate value in making syllables. But in ar-gn-er it is 
pronounced, and makes a syllable throughout, as in other verbs 
in ner, like re-mn-er, fla-er. 

b. Hany otherwise doubtful cases are settled by the use of the 
diseresis or of an accent. 

240. Those pupils who are to learn to scan the lines of French 
Verne may best be practised in dividing off the syllables two by 
two — in writing, in some such manner as is done above, in ^ 233 ; 
and also in riding them with the same division. In ordinary 
reading of French poetry, of course, no such artificial division 
should be made. 





t SS 

Old French. 

trom, derived from. 
u, Oarman, Gennaiilii. 
Or. Greek. 

inf. inflStive. 

inierj. Interjection. v Terb 

Words irregularly pronounced have • preflied. and releieace to tie Rules ot 
Pronunciatlan added imiuedlBtely after them. 
A ' before Initial h Hhows It lo be aeplrat^ iMa-d). 

Phrases are glten and ezplelned under tbeir principal vords. 

a prep, (g SOSA, 905) to, toward. 

unlo ; at, in ; of, for, with, etc. 

(cliaracterized byl ; about, in 

respect or reference to ; on, by ; 

from (§ liUj ; belonging to 

(§161tf), [L.ffi.] 
abandon m. abandoomcnt, renun 

dation. [a and baadon, fr. G. 

atMudonner n. abandoD, give up, 

[fr. abandon,] 
abattre o, (XX. 3M beat or knock 

down, strike off. [a for L, ab, 

and battra.] 
abbe m. abbe (tiame and title of a 

clerical person ot a certain 

grade). [L. oAiatem,] 
abeills/. bee. [L. apieulam.] ^ 
abtmer v. sink, overwhelm, swal- 
low up, [abime, abyss ; fr. 

abord m. access, amval, attack : 

d'abord, from the start, at Qrst, 
first, [a and bard, side, cdge.j 

aborder v. arrive, land. [fr. abordT] 

aboyer e, bark. [L. adJ>a>ibari.] 

abroger o. abridge, shorten {henee, 
cBiise to seem shorter, make to 
pass pleasantly). [L. abbremare, 
fr. breDis, short.] 

absent iidj. absent, [L.] 

abaolmnent ndn. absolutely, [fr. 
absoln, L, ai«o/ufua.] 

abosBT D, make wrong use of (da i 
g 163/), abuse, [fr. abni, L, 

academie /. academy, institution 
of learning {h«7ice, learning and 

, its interests). [L. , (r. Qr.J 

'aooablsr t. overwhelm, cru^. 
[fr, OP. caable, engine ot war.) 

accepter t, accept, submit or re- 
sign one's self to. [L. aeeep- 



aocompigner r, accompany, [fr. 
oampngne, ixxupunion,] 

acDOmplir e, itccompliah, complete; 
fait &ocompU, thiog doDC and 
finished. [L. ad-eo'ii^ietv, fill.] 

aticordBT t, tLccord, grant. [LL. 
iKX'iTdare, Ir. arr, ticurt.] 

anoutnmer b, accustom, inuro. 
[fr. coutome, custom.] 

*iicerac (58^) m, hook, bilch, tear, 
[fr. oroc, fr. G., =eroaketc.} L 

aeouBillir r. {irr. -16) receive, wel- 
come. \h. ad-eoll^ere.] 

achenuiier v. despatcli : b' . . ., set 
out, proceed. \i and ohemin,' 
CD the road.] 

BChetac o. buy, purchase. [LL. 

Miever «. achieve, bring to com- 
pletion, finish, [a Sifff, to a 

Mqoerir B. (irr. 63) acquire, gain. ' 
[L. acgutrere.] i 

notif a^. actire, brisk. [L. or. 

Mtion /. action, movement, play, 
deed. [L. axiimwm.\ 

ftdh^on/. adhesion, concurrence, 
[L, adhmiiimem.^ 

kdieu m. adieu, fareivcU, good by. 
(a Dieu, (I commend you) to 

adminlatrer b. administer, man- 
age. [L. orfminwfmre.] 

admirable oAij. admirable, won- 
derful, amazing. [L. adravta- 

admiration /. admiration. [L. 

Totre affaire, the tldng for JoKi, 

what you want ; avoir ajhirs 

a, have 1o deal with, [a faire 

(a Lbing) to do.] 
kffidre aif;. (tM if pple of atbirsi) 

busy, occupied, [fr, affiilra.] 
affaiasement m. bein^ weighed 

down, depiPBskin, Kivitig way. 

[fr. affalsier, fr, fau, burden, 

affliger p. afflict, grieve, vex. [L. 

af&anoliir n. free, liberate, eDfmn- 

chise. [fr. tram, G., free.] 
a&Dnt«r v. stand in front of. 

face, meet, brave, [fr. &vnt, 

Ia. frontcm, front] 
afin aifB, to end : afin da, for Uic 

purpose of, in order lo, to ; 

afin que (^ 13T(^), in order that'. 

adoptif a<(j. adoptive, by adoption. 

[L, adopliBuin.'i 
adoucisaement m. softening, mid- 

KatioD, alleviation, [fr adoaelr, 

fr. dooi, soft.] 
adruaer b. address ; ■',,., address 

one's self, apply, appall, [fr. 

L. ad dingers, direct.] 
adroit a^. adroit, dexterous, skil 

ful.clever. [fr. L. adif/recfum.] 
■fiirt^. a&ir, concern, bttsiness: 

agir ^, art, behave, proceed, ex- 
ert one's self ; I'a^ da impfi'. 
concern, be question of, be the 
matter in hand. [L. upwe.] 

agneanw. Iamb. [L. agneilum,] 

agonle /. agony, acath-Btruggle. 
[L. ugoiiiam. fr. Gr.] 

agoniBer f . Iw at the point of death. 
[L.,fr. Qr.] 

agreablB <ii'j. agreeable, pleasant. 
[fr. agreer, fr, a gre, L. ad gi< 

agrement m. agreeableness, plea 

in guess, gratification, charm. 

[fr. agreer, fr. a gre,] 
B^cnlture f. agriculture (crops 

and their interests). [L. agn' 

aide m.f, (g 15a) aid. help, hclpei 

[fr. aider.] 
aider t. aid, help : idder a i^ 1616), 

give help to ur about, ass' 

[L. adj«l.,re.] 
alenl m. (g 22r) grand-pareul. 

ceslor. [LL. ai^ti'lum, fr. L. 

:. standard. 

[L. aguiiam,] 




JL. aeiiculam. 
guiMT (6!^) r. snarpej 
ttigu, L. aciUtim, aharp,] 
all m. {% 2lu) garlic. [L. allum.] 
■iUsnn ndv. elsewhere, some "i- 
aDjwliere else : d'aUlBnri, olh 
erwise, besides, moreover. [L. 

aimable a^. amiable, lovuhlo, 

lovely, [fr. aimer ] 
aimer e. love, lifee, he fond of or 

sttached to : aimer mleuz, like 

betler, prefer. [L. amare.} 
■imiiidc. Ihua, so, in Ibiaof tliflt 

way, likewise ; ainsi qne, aa, so 
_., ... ^L. 



(Htmospfiiiro) ; nir, look, 
mieo. aspect : aTOlr I'ur, liave 
the look or aspect; {with ailj.; 
% 6BI/) appear, «een) to be. [L. 

aiie a^. pleased, glud, happy. 

aiifl iiiij, easy, not difficult, [fr. 

adv. easily, readily, [fr. 

. adjourn, defer, put 
oil. [k and jour, day.] 
^ ajouter E. add; rejoin. [L., fr. 
^' 'irl &udjiixl-i, near.] 

alarms /. alarm, fright, [fr, a 

raime, to anns 1 j 
alarmer c. alarm, frighten, terrify. 

[fr. alarme,] 
'album (61i) iit. album. [L., 
f alBntonr (irf«. around, roundabout, 
[a I'entonr, in the neighbor- 

' allemand ii0. Oermau. [OG. ule 
man, AJlemanni.] 
aller ». (in-. 82 : p. 138) go, be go- 
ing ; alloni, come, come on 
•'en aUer (XXIX. 7f), gn off o, 
away, be going ; j aller de 
.impel'*, concern. ['!] 
alller r. ally, join. [L.'] 
'almanaoh (S9A) m. almanae. 
[Arabic. ] 

*aX<A» l^iii) m. aloes. [Arabic] 
alora adv. then, at that Lime ; in 

that case : alori qua, at the time 

thai, when. [h. ail Ui'im honnn. 

at that hour.] 
alternative /. attemative. [fr. L. 

ambBBBadeor m. ambassador, [fr. 


ambitienx tiflj, ambitious : as noun 
ambitious person. [L. ambi- 

ame/. soul, spirit. [L. aiiifoam.] 
" jnen(54-;i, amen. [Gr] 

nener c. bring, lend ; draw on, 

ln<iuce. [fr. mecer.] 

imer (736) adj. bitter, sharn. 

[L. a,n.irvm.) 
amertume /. bitterness, vexation. 

ameublement "!, furniture, [fr. 
msnblei, movables, fr. L. mobi- 
mi m., amie/.(i^ 16) friend. [L. 

amitie J 

/ friendship. [L. amiei- 

amolllr i<, soften :■'..., be molli- 
fled or softened, grow soft. [tr. 
mol, soft.] 

prepre, self-love. (L. nmorem.] 

ourctl, in love (with, de). [fr. 

amoaer v. amuse, diyurt, entfirtain. 

[S, and muer, sture.] 
an m. year (esp'ly in definitions of 

length of time). [L. nnuum.] 
anoetre in. ancestor. [L. anfn» 

, old, former. 

anoien mlj. auclenl 

[LL. n,Uianum.-\ 
anoietmement nth. anciently, of 

old. [fr anoien,] 

nihilale. [a and noant (L. iie^ 
etin), nothingness.] 


animal m. animal, living being. 
IL. atamal.] 

uumer n, animBtc, eDliven, excite. 
(L. .«».,».] 

annee/. year (esp ly as a continu- 
ous space of time), [fr. an.] 

annoncir i; aonoonce, make 
kiiown. [L. annv-nliitre.] 

*aiitiiilulBt (70a) m. Bntichrist. 

antiqnB aift'. antique, ancient, of 

former times. [L. anft^n^m.] 
*aoflt (14) 171. August. [L, augnn- 

*aonterini (11) in. harvestmao. 
reaper, [fr, aoftt.] 

apereeToIr «. (ht. 65) perceive, no- 
tice, obaerve. [L. ad-'percipeTe.'\ 

aplanir c. make plane or even, 
smooth, [fr. pliui, L. pfonuiH.] 

appartenir !', {irr. 61) appertain, 
belong. [L. atl-jm-tinere.'] 

appelar i'. (XXI. 3c) call, aunimon, 
appeal to. [L. appeliarej\ 

*app«ndice(60e)in, appeodij. [L.] 

applandir r. applaud, cheer: ... a, 
give applause to, applaud. [L. 

apportar n, brmg, convey, pnxiure, 
[L. apporiare, | 

apprendrs n. {in: 30) apprehend, 
leam ; teacli, make known, in- 
form. [L. appi-ehendere.] 

appiMlier «. bring near (to, d* : g 
162/) ; draw near, approach (to, 
ie); »'.,,, approach, draw near 
(to, ds). [fr. pioche, near.] t 

appranver p. pprove, approve of. 
[L, aitpra/iare.] 

appnyer r. support ; lean, rest. 

tEr. appni, a and OF. pui, 
aprSt prap. after, next following. 
adu, afterward, later ; further, 
proceed : d'aprei, acconling to ; 
aprei que, after that, after {co/ij.). 

aprei-dsnain odtr. day after to- 

are m. bow. [L. aream.] 
archidoc m. ardi-duke. [ardii-, fr. 
6r., and due, L. dutem, leader.] 
arohiteotnTe /. architecture. [L.] 
argent m. silver ; money, treasure. 
[L, argen(wm.] 
argner (MJ/') t. argue. [L. ar. 
jme/, & 186) arm, weapon. [L. 

annoe/. army. [L, armalam.~\ 

arracher r. take away or obtain by 
force, wreat, extort, anatch, 
force (from, a : | iei<^). [L. ab- 

arranger t<, arrange ; •'..., ar- 
range itfielf, come out all right. 
[fr. rang, rank.] 

arreter f. arrest, bring to rest, stop, 
check ; stay, (nfmWp) point, set: 
a' . . ,, arrest one's self, slop, 
stay. [fr. reiter, atay.] 

aniere adu. in the rear, l^kward, 
behind : en arrlare, backward, 
back, into the background. [L. 

arrivar t. arrive : arrive, person 
arrived, arrival. [L. ad-ripare, 
fr. ad Hp<im, to Uie shore.] 
arrivoe/. arrival, [fr. arrlver.j 
ananal m. arsenal, [fr. Arabic] 
art 7«. (g ia<) ari,. (L. M-ti,n.\ 
artifluo m, artifice, deceit, trick, 

[L. arUjkm,„.\ 
artiuQ m. ariisan, workman, [fr. 

*aipact (76ii) nt, aspect, appear- 
ance. [L, ajtptctum ] 
aiaasgin m. assassin, [fr. Arabic] 
MUiMinat m. assassination, [fr. 

auembleej''. aasembly. [fr. 

auemblar D. assemble : t 

gather, come together, 

(fr. L. idmvl. together.] 
BMeair c {irr. 78) sit down, take 

a scat: ■'..., sit down. [L. od- 



»a«BrTlr v. reduce lo semtmie, sub- 

iugale. ecakve : aMervi, slavish, 
fr lerf, serf, slave.] 
MtM <idB. (V. 4'0 enoiigb, etiffl- 
cientJy; tolerably, fairly, rather. 
[L. ad*a(M.] 
Miiette /. plate, [fr. L. ad and 

uiliter D. aaaist, aid, succor ; be 
present (at, a : g 161A), be a wit- 
ness (of, i) \ usittant, one pres- 
ent, bystajider, spectator. [L. 

uinier t. assure, make certain : 

steady, [l^.'amcur.i've.] 

untremBnt ade. assuredly, certain- 
ly. [fr.a»ui8.] 

atdier m. wortcahop, studio. [LL. 

attadier v. attach, fasten, bind, 
tie, join, &x.: ■' . . ., attach one's 
self, be attached oi- faateoed vr 
filed ; apply one's self. [fr. 
taohB, lack, nail ; prob. Celtic] 

attaqna / attack, [fr. attaqnar.] 

attaqnn v. attack : *'...%, fall 
upon, pick a quarral with . [same 
as attaoliaT.] 

attelndrs «. {irr. IS) attain :...£, 
attain to, attain. [L. aUirigere.} 

atiendre o. wait for, await ; wail, 
stay : ■'...&, await, expect, be 
prepared for; en attendant, wbile 
waiting, meanwhile, in the mean 
time. [L. allendeTe.\ 

attenter v. atlcmpt :...£, make 
an attempt upon, assail, plot 
against. [L. allentare.] 

attention /. attention ; mark of 
attention or regard or considera- 
tion, considerate notice. [L.] 

attMter v. attest, bear witness to. 
[L. atteitari.] 

attfrei t. draw down, attract : 
»'.,., bring upon one's self, in- 
cur, fa and tirer, draw.] 

attitude/ attitude. [L. aptiiudi- 

aaberre /. inn, tavern, [fr. 0. 

Jwroerge, camp] 
atuun pron. (uM/i ne : g 111, 167) 

an-deaaoni adu. below : ... da, be- 
low, beneath {prep.), [an (£ 
le), de, and sans.] 

an-deMU ado. above : . . . de, above 
{prep.), [an (a le), de, and laa, 

anJDurd'hni ado. to-day, nowadays. 

[as (ale) joor, de, and hnl, L. 

hixUe. to-day.] 
•anlz leTii.) -pi. of ail (g 31i). 
anparavant 'tdc. before, formerly, 

previously, beforehand, [an (a 

le), par, and avant.] 
anpcei adc. near, at hand : . . . de, 

of. ii 


eyes of, before, [an (a la) and 

auspice. [L. auspi- 


antel m. altar. [L. altare.'\ 
antenr m. author, [L. aufoKm.] 

- ■ - - M 

. . . de, around, about {prep.), 
[an (a le) and tonr^tum,] 

autre }>ron. other (XXVII. 6, 7 j § 
116). [L. allerum.] 

antrefois ndp. formerly, of old. 
[antre and foiB, time.] 

antrement iidv. otherwise, differ- 
ently, [fr. aatre.] 

antmi p'oii. others than one's self, 
other people, [fr. autre.] 

avanoe /. advance, advantage: 


d'avaiiM, in a<lvaii(^e, bofore- > baiuer r. lower, drop, decline, &U 

band, [/-svanoer-l I off, ebb. [fr. bw.] 

avanoar d, advance, put forward, bal m. ball, tfance. [fr. L. baltare, 

pusL on, prefer, beneflc. [fr. ' diince ] 

avitnt.] balanoer r. bulance, ' 

avast prep, before, previous lo : 

. . . de (ibM inf.), before ; . , . 

que, before lliat, before (conj.: 

S 137 «)■ [L. lib am.] 
avantage ni, advantage, odde on 

iinu'B aide, Bupcriority. [fr. 

avant-hiar ads. day before yester- 

I, from with, from. 

BTOrtir V. advertise, give notice, 
inform, warn. [L. adverterf.] 

Bvett 711. avowal, confession, ac- 
knowledgment. [fr. aTonai,] 

avBUgle adj. blind. [LL. lib- 

aveuglement adv. blindly, [fi 

aveuglB. I 
avldite/. avidity, greefli 

a™ m, advice, opinion, way of 

thinking, [jj. iKlvisiim.] 
aviier e. advise, inform : »'..., 

bethink one's self, be thought/ 

ful, take notice, have come mto 

oue'ahead. (fr. avis.) 
avoir e. d'jr. 80 ; p, 58] have : y 

avoir (XXX. 4), there ia, etc.; 

en avoir &, have to deal with; ii» 

avail., KB XXVIII. 6-7 ; for 

phraget. see Ihe iuiuii» used.* qf. 

XIII. 8. [L. luibere.] 
avoir in. what one ban or possesses, 

property, [inf. of avoir,] 
avoaer v. avow, acknowled^, con 

fess, [LL. mitoitire. <id and 

mitiim, vow.] 
•avTU(68(i) HI. April. [L. apriUm.] 

bagatella /, iMigatelle, trifle, [fr. 

baigner p. bathe, ateep, drench. 
[It. bain, bath, L. baiftmim.] 

\Mv.. [fr. L. bilaneem, bal- 

*balsamlque (74A) ndj. balsamic, 

balmy, [tr. Or.] 
balnitrade / balustrade, railing. 

[fr. balnitrs, baluster, fr. Gr.] 
banc m. bench, seat. [fr. Q.] 
bannir r. banish, [fr, ban, fr. O.] 
banquorontisT m. bankrupt, [fr. 

It. banco i-olto, bench broken.] 
(71<f) -M. baplism. [fr. 



•bapt&er(71n) 11. baptize, [fr. 
barbe /. beard ; fairs la . . . 

one's beard in order, shave. 

barbooiUer b, smear, blot. [?] 
barde m. bard. [L., fr, Celtic] 
*haril (681;) m. barrel. [LL. baril. 


baron m. baron. [LL. barontm.'] 
baronne/. baroness, [fr. baron.] 
[LlJiaa ittij. low, base, mean; £ bu, 
downward, down ; en bai, be- 
low, down-stairs. [LL. ba»inim ] 
tia adv. (XXXI. 9) low, in a low 

as m. Blocking, hose. [fr. Imm 


basM-cour /. poultry yard, [lit'ly 4 
lower yard.] 

batean i;i. boat: ... a vapanr, steam- 
boat, steamer ;...£. voiles, sail- 
boat, sailinevessel. [lAA.bdfum, 
fr.G.] , 

batlment m. buildiug. [fr. b&tlr.j 1 

Utir «. build. ffr. bat, LL. Z 

battre n. (XX. 3f) beat, strike: /' 
" ;ht, fence. [L. ftii(H«'e.] 

bel (VII. 7) adj. beautiful, 
dsome, fine : avoir bMn 
(=i 176/), do or try in vain, make 
useless effort to. [L. bellum.\ 
beanaaap ailii. (V. 4) much, a good 
deal, many ; very much, veiy. 
[bean and oovp, stroke.] 


bw«:fr«re m. brotbei-iD-law. [bean 

and frSre.] 
beaa-pere m. father-In law. 
beaTita/. beauty, [fr, besn] 
bee&Csak m. beefsleak. [Euf^liali 

bel, nut bean, 

belern. blwil. |L. hdiu-f.] 

belle-«eur /. sister- Id -law. 

benla adj. (§ C>3<;) bcnignaDt, be- 
nign. [L. benisitiim.] 

bsnir V. Wosb. [L. benedieefe.] 

bergsr in, abopfierd. [LL. btibi- 
Bitrium, fr. berbex, ram.] 

bBBoin m need, necessitf, require- 
ment : avoir beioin, have need, 
be in need or want, need, {'!] 

betail, bmtianx m. (g 21a) cattle. 
[L bettiaif.} 

bete /. lieast, animal, brute, crea- 
ture: bete noire, special aversion. 
[L. bc»liam.\ 

banrre m. butter. [L. bulyrxm, 
fr. Or,] 

bibUotheqie/. library. [Gr.] 

bian adt. well, riglitly ; all riglit, 
very well ; quite, indeed, truly, 
sui-ely ; very ; mucli, many (V, 
V)) : bien qns, though, altbough 
(§ 1374), [L, bene,!] 

bien m. wtiat is well of good, good 
tbing, good ; wealth, fortnm} : 
hanunefi'i' teiome 17' gem) da bien, 
honcat or excellent person. 
[= bien adv.] 

bien^tre m. well-being, welfare, 
[bits and etre.] 

bianbut in,, bcaeflt, good office, 
kind ncas. [bian and fait, deed ] 

biontfit 'irfs. very soon, soon, [bien 
nnd tot, soon,] 

MUot m. ijlock. [fr. Celtic.] 

•bis l74rf) ads. twice. [L, Jis.] 

blamar o, blame, f L. blaepkemnre, 
fr, ar,:S9.] 

tlaau a<lj. (VII. 6*) white, [fr. O.] 

blMphemw D. blaspbeme. [L. 
blai-p/umai-B, fr, Qr.: g 9,] 

bleiiar c. wound. [7] 

blen.if^. iilue, [fr. Q.] 

boeam ra. woods, grove, boskage. 
[LL. boKum, fr, Q.] 

bcenf m. (*b<Bnfk pL 61") OX. [L. 

boiie B. (tri: 37) drink, [L. bibtre.'\ 

bois III. wood, timber; wood, forest. 
[LL, Imr-'i-'n, fr. Q.] 

bon ivlj, ffood (for, a), excellent ; 
right ; kind : a qaol bon, good 
for what ? of what ubb 7 what 
avHilii it ! da bonne henre, in 
sood time, eaj-ly ; a b«n nurcha. 

bon Durcbe, cheap. [L. t 
oDlienr m. happiness, go 
tune, felicity, bleaaing, [L. Oc- 

1 for- 

day, g 

iug, one's grectm^ o 

ments. [bon and jonr, day.] 
bonte/. kindness, goodness; octof 

kindness, favor, ^j. bonitalem.] 
borner v. bound, limit, confine, 

narrow, stint. [7] 
botte/, tioot, [fr, G.] 
booohe/. mouth. \li. bupcam.} 
bonger c. budge, stir, move. [fr. 

boniilir v. {iri: 64) boil. [L. bul- 

bonlanger m. baker, [fr, bonie, 

ball, loaf,] 
ban^niii m, old book, musty old 

volume. [Dutch biie&en, iKwks.] 
twurreaa m. executioner. [?J 
bout m. end, tip, bit, small piece. 

[fr, boutar, push, fr, G.] 
bonteiile/, bottle. [L, bulieulam.'\ 
bontonniera f. button-hole. [fr. 

bontoa, button, fr, bant.] , 
braa m arm, [h. hritchiam,] 
brave ik'j brave, gallant, excellent, 

worthy (§ MA). [?] 
braver p. brave, (ace bravely, defy. 

[fr. brave. I 
brebia/. sheep. [L. berhfeem.'] 
breohe/ breach, gap, [fr Q,] 
hreovage m. drink, beverage, [fr. 

L. buiere, drink.] 
brilUnt ntlj. brillionl, shining. 

[pple of briUar.] 
brmer D. shine, be brilliant. [LL, 

beii/Unvf, fr. b/^T/llui, beryl.] 
brin m, blade, bit, jot, mote. [?] 
-broo (SB?) m. Jug. [S] 



br««/. brosb. [fr. G.] 

bruit 'a. noiBe, biistle, tido ; ru- 
mor, report, [fr. brujre, L. 
ragii-e (!).] 

brfiler v. burn, scorch., consume, 
set on fire. [fi.h.per-iiatum(l), 
burnt up.] 

hmn /idj. brown. |fr. G.J 

bmiquBinaiit "ilr<. bluntly, abrupt- 
ly, roughly, [tr. bnwque adj., 
fr, Ilaban ] 

limt (T6(i) udj. crude, raw. [L. 

bBohsT m. pile, funeral pile. [fr. 
LL. ituea, fr. G.] 

bnllB /. bull, papal edict. [L. 
Iniliim, bos?, seal-] 

bnrtan m. bureau, desk. [fr. linre, 
woolen stuff.] 

Imt (TGt) m. iiuit, mark ; ecd ; 
aim, purpose, [same aa bont.] 

fB pivn. (XXIV, S [ I 93) thnl, 
that thing (or person), [fr. ualaij 

OMhsr !i. coDcc^. hide. (fr. L. 
eoaclum, crowded together.] 

oadean m, gift, present. [Ii. eii~ 
lelliim, cliaiulet,] 

eadre m, frame, framework, bor- 
der. [L. quadi-um,] 

oaffi in. coffee, [fr. Arabic] 

Mlamits /. calamity. [L. miaiiti- 

Mfane a^, calm : at nonn, catni- 
niiss, tranquillity, serenity, [fr. 
LL. «..«,. (I),]' 

OBimer n. calm, quiet, tranquil- 
lize, [fr. calme.] 

oalDmnier v. calumniate, slander, 
libel. [L. calumnvm-} 

ounpogns /. field ; fields, country 
(as distinguished from city). 
[LL. enmjiani'im, fr. eampu:] 

m : p«ndre a . . ., 

^^^^K *«Mati 
^^H iDdii 

^^^V 'wgn 

eantanniBi m. roadsman, giile- 
keeper. [fr. canton, canton.] 

*«Matelioao ;B8i/) in. oiioutclioiic, 
india-rubber. [West Indian 

*oap {71a) m. cape, headland, [L, 

capable ailj capable ; just the one 
or the thing to (de). [fr, L. 
capax. ] 

oapitaine m. caplaio, [LL. eavi- 

oapital m. capital, invested funds. 

[L. aapiiaie-l 
oapnoin m. capuchin (monk), [fr. 

oapaoe, cape.] 
oar WTJ. for. [L. quore,'\ 
caraflierem. character. [L.,fr.Qr.] 
oordlnal in. cardinal. [X.] 

L. caiTuia, (diariol.] 
oarroUB m. carriage, [fr. It., fr. 

BBS ra. case, hap, event; en tout i 

E ; quash, [fr. L. 

otttholiiiufl adj. cafiolic. [Gr.l 

VI. nightmare. [OF. 
(L, caUare, tread) and 

)e de, by n 

. talk, - 

nof. [L.] 

mntters. [L. eavaati.] 

oayalier m. horaeman. cavslier, 
knight, [fr. L. aibalhii. horse.] 

BB, ort pon. (XI. 2; XUI. », 8; 
XXrv.; §147*) this, that; It 
(they, these, those) : ee <tnl or 
que, that which, what ; JoBn'ii 
ooqno.unlil, till. [fr. L. <c« A«e, 

etUpron. this. [o« and oi.] 

nedsr 0. yield, cede, give up : le 

coder (§ 82*), give way. [L, 

ctdere, ] ^_^__ 

that, [etandla; XXTV. 


cendra / ashes, cinder. 



•o«M (TW) m. fnnchlse ; census. 

Mnt'nuiTi. hundred {XV.; §64). 

[L. ceotuv,.} 
Miitalii« /. century, five score, h 

hundred or bo. [fr. Mnt.] 
oentleme imm. buodrcdtb, bun- 

dredth|)Brt. [fr. cent.J 
oentrs rn. centre. [L. cenlriim.] 
oepondsnt ndn. pending «r duriug 

tiita, meanwhile ; however, nev- 
ertheless, [oe and pendant.] 
Eeremonle/. ceremony ; ceremonl- 

ouaness. [L. c^Hmoniam.-\ 
*oeri (Bin) m. stag. fL. eervum.} 
oeriae,/. uherry. [£r. L. osnuum.] 
oertalii adj. certain, sure ; certaio, 

some, sundry (VIH. 6e ; § 60i). 

[fr, L. ctrtus.] 
certiinemant adv. certainly, surely. 

[f r. cartaiD ] 
certa* ndt. certainly, assuredly. 

[L. ,«-fc] 
CMier V. cease, refmin from, slop. 

[L. eesMre.] 

I ohwinB pron. (XTV. 6 ; § 109) each, 

every, [abbrvn. of diacnn.] 
I char m. car, cbariot, cart. [L. 

oharmar c. cbarm, delight, [fr. 

ohartne, L. atniten.] 
Dhasae /. chase, hunt, sport, [fr. 

ohaHer. ] 
flhauer v. chase, hunt : chase 

away, drive off, expel ; dismUs 

(as a servant). [L. captare,] 
ohat m. cat. [L. ealtum.] 
eMtain adj. (§ 63d) chestnufrcolor- 

ed, auburn. \lj. eaataneuTii.'l 
ohitaan m. castle, chateau. [L. / 

ohaitd ndj. warm : avoir Bhaud 

(XIU. 6),be warm, feel warm {of 

persona); faira ahaad (XXXII. 

9a), be warm (of weather). [L. 

ehef m. head, chief : 'ehef-d'tenvre 

{fila), masterpiece. [L. aiput.'\ 
ohamin m. road, way : ohemin da 

far, raOroad, railway. [LL. Celliefl 

ohaisa /, chair, seat. [L. eath^- 

dram, fr. Gr.] fwi.l 

ohalanr/. warmth, heat. [L. cah- 

Bham'bre/ chamber, room : femme 

do ehambre, lady's maid. [L. 

champ m. field : but le ohamp. on 

Uie spot, at once, directly. [L. 

ohanMler v. (XXI. Zc) stagger, 

waver, falter. [L. e/ineellare.] 
changrer p. change, alter : ohanger 

de (g 169/), make a change in 

regard to. shift, change. [L. 

ohanion /. song, ditty. [L. ain- 

lioiiem ) 
<ihajiter v. sin^. [L. ointare.] 
chantanr m. smgcr. [fr. chanter.] 
ehapaau m. hat. [fr. OF. chape, 

OBpo, cape.] 
Bhapltra in, cbaptcr. [L. eiipitu- 

*oheiiU{«8c) in. kennel, [fr.. 
oiar aiij. (VIII. 6c ; g 60'/) dear, 

costly, preciotw, loved, valued. 

[L. carum.] 
charohar v. seek, look tor. try to 

find : aller diereher, go for, 

fetch. [L. c'lTcare. run about.] 
chSramant ade. dearly, at much 

cost, at a bigb price. [fr. 

eherlr v. cherish, treat with affec- 
tion, bold dear. [fr. chcr.] 

chaval m. horse : a ohaval, on 
horseback. [L. cai>'iUnm.'\ 

ohevaleris/. chivalry, [fr. ehaval.] 

otLavaliar m. chevalier, koight, 
[fr. eheval.1 

ohevBloTB /. liead of hair, hair, 
[fr, cheven.] 

chevet m. head of a bed, bolster, 
piUow. [fr. ohaf.] 

chavea m. {gen'ty pi.) hair. [L. 

ohei prep, at or to the house of, 


where (one) Uvea, with, among. 
TL. casa, in the house.] 
- IL. 

(in-. V ' ■ 

chaisl. GelECt. [fr. Q. | 

ohoBe /'. Ihiny, oljject, matter, af- 
fair : qnelqae oboae, something ; 
tonte choce, evcrythiug ; autre 
ohoBa, some or auv tUini; else. 
[L. m«*<™.] 

•Chriit (76'i) 'H. Christ. [Gr.] 

*oliat (7e(t) iiiteiy. hush, [imita- 

A iLe. (Xm. 3, XXIV.; § »1) 

here. [L. eeft hic.\ 
del m. (11. S ! § 2an) heaven, sky. 
clime ; canopy, awning ; Heav- 
en. [L. calum.} 
al-inol<u, d-joint, § S&i. 
*iiinq 172c) num. five. [L, quin- 

duqoante num, fifty. [L. q'lin- 

dnquleme num. fifth [fr. oinq ] 
oiroonstanEB/. drcumstance. [L ] 
oitadeUe/. citadel, [fr. It.l 
oitoyen m. citizen, [fr. oita, city.] 
*civil(88rf)arf)". civil, {h. nvilem.] 
elauique adj. classic, classical . 

[L. W-M«c«ni] 
•clef (61^0/. ke^. [L. c&ioem.] 
oloner r. nail, nvet, fix. [fr. olou, 

niiil, L. cliitum.^ 
•cinl) (S7-0 m. club. [English 1 
otBur m. heart ; courage, resolu 
lion : a omnr onvert, wilh open 
heart, openly, fraafcly ; de ton 
aiBiiT, with all one's h^rt, heart- 
ily, sincerely. [L, an:] 
ool ra, collar. [L. c/iUnm, neck.l 
oolerof. choler, anger, rage, wrath. 

{I.: thol&ram., fr Gr.] 
DDUs^e m. colleague. [L. aAU- 

oolonie/ colony. [L.] 

oombat in. combat, struggle, fight. 
[fr. comlmttre.l 

sombattie v. (XX. 3ri) combnt, 
fight I light or BirugglR against, 
contend with, [eon and battre | 

eomblea lulc how much or many ? 

how much or many {rdaSi 
how. in what meaaureo'' degree: 
oombien que, however much, 
Iconune and bien.] 

eombiner d. comhiue, contrive. 
[L. aiml)inare.\ 

eomMle /. comedy ; Camedia fran- 
DaiM,nameof acerUun company 
of actors at Paris. [L., fr, Gr.l 

eoniqae adj. comic, comical. |L ] 

mmmander c. command, order ; 
. . . ii, give in cliarge to, give 
command "'' order to, direct. 
[L, commenrfiirfl,] 

aomms iiin. conj as. just as, like ; 
in character of, as being. [L. 
giiomodn \ 

oonunent nde how 1 how I how 

(re.latu'i) [fr. oomme (-Dient, 

XXXI. 2),) 

commentary. [L.l 
T, 31) commit, [L. 

oonradidoniuirs m mewenper, er- 
rand-man, porter, [fr. conuais- 
rion, errand.] 

eanunanloatiDn /. communicatioD. 

compagnie /, company, societr, 
fellowship ; tronp, band, [fr, 
oompagns, companion,] 

oamparablg ndj. comparable, ad- 
mitting comparisoa, commen- 
surable. [L romptir(Oiiietii.'\ 

complet ailj. complete, entire. [L. 

oompletemint adit, completely, en- 
tirely, [fr. eomplet.j 

oomprendre n.iirr. gU) comprehend, 
include; understand: jeam^ls, 
being included, with InclusiDn 
of (g 66i(). [L. cempTehendere.] 

•oompta (7Ia) m. account, com- 
putation, reckoning, [fr. ooKp- 

•oompter (Tin) tJ. .. .. 

reckon. [L. eomputare.] 

compute, [L.; §9,] 

iir.t,erirl. f t,, Cfltnitew.] 

[fr, oante,'] 



T. 65) conceive, form 
a conception or idea of. [L. 

eonolnis n. (irr. S6) conclude ; in- 
fer. [L, eondu<i£re.] 

'DDndamiier (BBn) v. condemn. [L. 

oonditloD /. condition, etate, rank 
in life. [L. condiliimem.] 

condnirs n. (trr. 1) conduct, lead, 
guide, manage, drive. [L. am- 

eondnits/. conducL [fr, Nndnlre.] 

Mnflanoa/ confidence, truat. [L. 

COnfidBDcs / confidence, trustful 
communication : bire canfidenoe 
de, confide, disclose. [L. a/n- 

Mofltuie /. sweetmeat, preserve, 
jam. [fr. eonfira, L. coiificere, 
put together.] 

•anfondie n. confound, confuse, 
perplex, baffle, [L, eoiifiindere.\ 

oonnaitM P. {!n\ 18) know, have 
knowledge of, be acquainted 
with, be infonned of, have cog- 
nizance of. [L. eognoacere.} 

•onqoSrlr «. (i>r. 63) conquer. [L. 

nm^njte/. conquest. [L. e-onqui- 

eanMienw/. conscience . 

neas, inner sense. [L,] 
eaniail m. couuBel, adnce. [L. 

Muelller t. counsel, advise (some- 

thing); . , , a, advise (some one). 

[L. coaailiarij] 


Miuentenunt m 

eanieqnence /. consequence, 

porlance. [L. co7i*equentiiim.\ 
oaniervai i>. preserve, keep, relaio. 

eanaiderabUmeat'Hfn, considerably, 
[fr. Miuiderable, fr. cmuldeier.] 

eoniiderer i>. consider, regard, es- 
teem. [L. conidderai-e.} 

coDiliter V. consist, be composed 
OT made up (g 182S). [L. con- 

ooniolBT e.console, comfort, sooUie. 

(L. eonsolari.} 
oonialation/. consolation. [L.] 
Donaplrsr c. conspire, combine. 

[L. eon»pirai-e.~\ 
wnstitatiamiel intj. constltudooal. 

[fr. DonititBtiDn, L.] 
oonttaminent adv. constantlj. \H, 

oonstant, h. (XXZI. 4a).] 
Mnutrnira jj. (in-. 3) construct, 

build. [L. eoiu^trueTe.] 

; waate. [L. 

oantempler rr. contemplate, regard, 
gaze at. \h. eonlemplaH.] 

oontenii v. (irr. 61) contain, hold, 
include. [L. emttinere.] 

eontent ndj. content, satisfied, glad, 
happy. [L. contealnm.] 

eontsntenuuit m. contentment, sat- 
isfaction, happiness, [fr. oon- 
teatsr, fr. oontent.] 

oontar b, tell, relate, [same as 
eompter, eompater ; § 9 j 

oontiniiellenient 'tdv. continually, 
[fr. eontlnoel, fr. oontinaer.] 

oontinner ?>. continue, keep on 
with ; keep on, last; go on. [L, 

ooctTMtw «. contract, draw to- 
gether. [L. coiilnicfare.] 

oontrolrs adj. contrary, opposite ; 
au oontralre, on the contrary ; 
quite otherwise. [h. toiUra- 

oontrMter i. contrast, be opposed. 

[fr. Italian, fr. L. eonii-a, 

ODntra prep, against, in opposition 

to ; in exchange for. [L. cond".] 
oontrfile m. control, restraint, [fr. 

— — -■-'■ roil.] 

accord, agree ; suit, be suitable 
or proper : Danvenir da, avree 
upon, assent to, acknowledge, 
own [L «„„.,,,,1 

oanventlon f. convention, aasera- 
Wy. [LI 

oonvieT V, invite, mcile, quicks 
[LL. ™«l«r.J 


wq (lie) ni. cock, [imitative,] 

Doqain m. Doqnlne/. (g IBe) rogue, 

knave, scamp, [t] 
oordoimieT m. Bhoemaker. [lit'l;, 

worker in Cordovau leather.] 
aorpt 711. body ; corpse [L. ear- 

oorriger n. correct, amend ; chas- 

(ise. [L. eonigere.J 
oorrompre '\ (XX. 84) corrupt, vi- 
tiate, spoil. [L. an-rumpei-e.'] 
natem. nide, part (de, on : g 201a), 

[fr. L. eosta.Tih.] 
ODnolLsr r. lay down, pul lo rest or 

to bed: h . . ., retire to resE, go 

to bed. [L. coilocare. ] 
cmde nt. elbow. [L. subitum.'] 
eondift s, {irr. B4) sew. [L, eon- 

Muler V. flow on, glide by, pass 

charge, shot : tont-S-oanp, sud- 
denly, all at once ; i coup inr, 
aaHiiredlj, to a certainty, with- 
out fail; ooap d'isll, glance, sud- 
den look ; and eomp/cre bcaa- 
eonp, [L. eotapAue, St. Gr.] 

Bonpabla adj. culpable, guilty. [L. 

ooiiplB m. f. {% I6o) couple, pair, 
brace. [L, eopvtam.] 

Max f. court ; courtyard, yard. 
[L. cho-rlem.] 

Boamp Tft. courage, [fr. raDnr.] 

cmLTant m. current, stream : an 
oonruit, abreast of the stream, 
not behindhand, up with the 
times, well posted, [pple of 

circulate ; run after, hunt 
(§lS7fr). [L. .;«i ^ 


mrara a, give free course or vent 

to, allow to go on unchecked. 

[L. curmm.} 
oonrt a^. short, brief, curt. [L. 

eOTiTtlMui m. couttJer, courtling. 

[fr. It., £r. coTle = war.] 

eOQiin in. MUilne/. (g Ide) o 

[L. eonst)bHnum.'\ 
eratBan Tn. knife. [L. calteiium,.] 
cofiter t. cost. [L. eonttare, stand 

*WHiUI [68i'; Hi, ticking, [L. ew(- 

oontnrlera/. seamstress, dreaamak- 

er. [fr. eaatote, L. contuturam, 

oouvent ni. convent, monastery. 

[L. «.«m,l.«.] 
Mnrert m. cover, plsie etc. for 

eating, seat at table, [pple of 

oonvrir n. (in'. SB) cover, envelop; 

fill. [L. eoopen e.] 
onindn v. {irr, 15) fear, be afraid ; 

be afraid of, dread. [L. trf- 

mere, tremble.] 
orainta /. fear, terror, dread : de 

orainte que, for fear that or lest 

(XXXIV. 6b ; § 134«). [fr. oraiD- 

oraiifl adj. f. (S bZd) ctaaa, 

[L. ermtam^ 
orayon m. pencil, [tr. L. tnta/m, 

ereer jj. create. [L. creare.l 
eri m. cry, streel-ery. [fr. 

cry, L. quiritare.] 
*orio (68^) m. Jack, lifter. [Imlla- 

crime m. crime. [L. cinwn,] 
ori«/. crisis. [L.. fr. Gr.] 
oritique /. criticism, review. [L. 

ci-ilicam, fr. Gr.] 
•orwi (6Bp) m. hook, [fr. a.,= 

oroirB v. {irr. 28) believe, think, be 

of opinion, suppose ; believe to 

belong (g IBle), cmlit ; with in- 

/ii,(§nflc),thinkooe'aself. [L. 

oTottrB B, (irr, 19) grow, iucreasft 

I L. <-r««»-«.] 
orolzy, cross. [L. ervetm.y 
croel iiilj. cruel. [L. eniddtmA 
craellBDient adv. cruelly. ffr. 




, leaUier. j 

ooiilnfl/, kitchen. [L. eB^dnam.] 

<yai*ini6c»f. cook. [fr. tmlaiiie.] 

ealotU/. (jcn'iy pi.) trousers, pan- 

talooDS. [fr. oul, L. culum. | 
culto vi. veneration, adoration, 

worship. [L. eultum,] 
colttTer V. cultivHte, improve liy 

exercise. [LL. cuUmtre.] 
onriaox a^. curious, peculiar, 

queer. [L. ewrioium.] 
onrioiite/. curiosity. [L. eurioiti- 

iit*/. c 

1 emijeror. 


dalgner /■ dcisn, think worthy, 

vouchsafe. [L. dignan.] 

iaxa^f. lady. [L. daminajii.] 

L — *danmsr (S9<i) c, damn. [L. dam- 

da.nger m. danger. [LL. dcniiiai- 
arium. fr, dontiuiit, lord.] 

iz adj. danEcrouH, attended 

fr- [fr. danger.] 
SOT) in, into, to. [L. 

danior B. dance [fr, G.] 
davantags adv. yet more, more, 

furiher, in addition, [de and 

do prep. Oil, -v.; g M3-<, 204) of ; 

from; about, respecting ; out of, 

because of, on account of, for ; 

'with, by, through : at, in, on ; 

to ig 1726); some or any (IV. ; 

e 38); than (XV. 9); as (S 162p). 

tL. de] 
debarTBuer v. disemliarrass, disen 

cumber, rid. [fr bam*, fr 

barre, bar, obstacle ] 
debont orfc. on end ui upncbt 

position, erect, 'itandmff not 

thrown down, [ds and bout 

deeedM' o. decease, depart this hfe. 

[L. lifeedere.'] 
di«embia >n. December. [L.] 

dioeption/. deception. [L. dMtp- 

deahirGT v. t«ar asunder, lacerate, 
mangle, [probably fr. G.] 

deohoir v. (wr. 70) fali, sink, de- 
cay, [L.dceidi-rr.] 

decldement iidr. decidedly, [fr. 
decide, pple of decider.] 

decider r. decide, settle, deter- 
mine ; . . . de, decide about, set- 
tle ; H . . ., make up one's mind, 
resolve. [L. deddere.'] 

deolarer e. declare, stale, proclaim. 
[L. dectanire.'] 

dioonpar «>. cut up, cut. [da- (L. 
dig) and oonper, cut.] 

deooQTTir o. (in: 56) discover, un- 
cover, disclose, [do- (L. da) 

dedaiu adr, within, [de and 

dsdammager i<, indemnify, com- 
pensate, make up (for, do), [fr. 
do- (L. din) and dommage, dam- 

defant la. defect, deficiency, fault, 
blemish ; an or a dafant ds, in 
default of, in the absence of, 
failing, [fr. defiiiUii, be want- 

defendn p. ward off, keep away : 
forbid, prohibit ; defend, pro- 
tect. [L. <Ufendtre,] 

defense /. defense ; probibitton. 

dofler V. defy; eo , , , de, distrust, 
doubt. (L. diffidere.] 

dofuit adj. defunct, deceased. [L. 

degager v. disengage, extricate, 
free, relieve of obligation, dis- 
charge, redeem. [dB-(L. rfH)and 
gager, fr. gage, pledge.] 

degeler o. thaw, melt, [de- (L. dia) 
and geler.] 

degoat "1. disgust, dislike, aver- 


don, TexaHon, mortlScation, 

[M-{L. dig) and goit, laslc.] 
dteo4tei D. disguKt, aicken, weaiy. 

[fr. degODt.] 

degrrem. ^ 


(L. (fis) and gnlia, giiise.] 
d^:iiuenieDt iii disguise, [fr. de- 

dvhon 14^!'. without, outside, [ds 

and hon, without.] 
dqa adv. already, [dei uud ja, 

L.jam, now.] 
dqjaimer m. breakfast. [LL. diye- 

jun-ire, relieve of hunger.] 
duleatetaa/. delicacj. [fr. dSUcat, 

delicate, L. delieatum.l 
deliM in. /. {% ISe) delight ; pi An- 

light, darling. [L. ileliciiM.] 
deliiga m. deluge, flood. [L. diiii- 

damandar v, ask, request (of, a; 

g 161e). [L. demanditre.] 
damaln adv. to-morrow: a^ea-da- 

main, day after to-morrow. [L. 

de and mitne. in Uie niorningj 
dsmsnraiLoa /. dwelling, abode. 

[provincial, fr. demenrer.j 
dtmenni /. dwelling, abode, [fr, 

damanrer v continue, abide, dwell, 

live. [L. d'liiorari.} 
iami adj. (^ SGa) half : demi-heiU'e, 

half-bour ; dami-MTBDt, half- 

leamed, sciolist. \l,.dimidium.] 
demolir v. demolish, unbuild, pull 

to pieces. [L. demoliri.] 
demon m. demon, devil, eru spirit. 

[L.,fr. Gr.] 
dent/. (§ 13e) tooth. [L. deiUein.] 
depart m. departure, setting out. 

[fr, departlr, depart,] 
dipeeham despatch : w , . ,, make 

haste, hasten, [LL, dii^dirare. 

depeni m. pi, (% 24) expense, cost. 

[L. dwjwiMiini,] 
depania / expense, outlay, [fr. 

dep«n»w, pay out, fr. L. dltpea- 

d«plt m. spite, vesation. [L. df- 

deplo;er r. unfold, develop, dis- 
play, put in action, exert, [de- 
(L. dU) and ploTer, L. plieart, 

dapoia prep. (§ 211) from, since, 
during , , . past, for, ago ; depnii 
qne, Etnce {conj.}. [de and pnia, 

depnte m. deputy, [pple of ds- 
puter, depute,] 

damlar ■itU. (VIII. Sc; ^BOb) last, 
coocluiling ; laat past, next pre- 
ceding^ the present [fr. OF. 
damin, fr. L, de I'eiiv.] 

demlerament adv lastly ; latelf, 
recently, [fr. deraiar,] 

dertrater r. throw off the track, lead 
astray, bewilder, baffle. [d6-(L. 
di») and rente, track.] 

derrisre prep, behind, [fr. L, de 

dra prejj. from, starting from, be- 
ginning with, since : dli qn«, 
from the time lliat, as soon as 

fn'sh, [det IL, din) and altem, 

alter, make Uiirsty.} 
dBBBvooBT r. disavow, disown, re- 
fuse to acknowledge, [dsi [L. 

die) and avoner,] 
deacendre r. descend, come down, 

fall. [L. ile-ceii'lei'e.] 
desert "1, desert. [L. ileiertum.] 
deMrtenr in, deserter, [fr. decn- 

ter, fr. L. deMrlvs.'] 
dMwperer n. despair : ae . . ., give 

way to despair, be in despair. 

[del (L, din) and eiperer, hope.) 
dMMpoir m. despair, [dea (L. du) 

and eapoir, hope.] 
deair m, desire, wish. [fr. dMrar.] 
doairar r. desire, wish. [L, de- 

deababltner r. dlsaccustMn. wean. 

[dea (L. dit) and habitnar, habit- 


dStoTDuli adt), bcncefoHli. [L. de 
ipsa hora •magi*. ] 

dsBseoliar v. dry up, wither. [L. 
derieeare. It. sieeita, dij.] 

*dBBB(nu (IS/f) adv. prep, under, be- 
neath, [ds and loiu, L. subtim.'] 

''dssBUS (ISrf) (/(?«. prep, above, 
upon, on. [de and *ut, 

deitln III. destiny, fate, [fr, deiti- 

dMtinw e. destine, intend by fate. 

[L. deatinare,^ 
detestable adj. detestable, nbomiQa- 

ble. [ft, detester, L. dftailiiri.] 
detoumm e. turn away, avert, 

divert, [de- (L. rfi-) and tonmer, 

detmlre n. (iVr. 8) destroy, ruin, 

demoliah. [L. ds»trusTe.'\ 
dette/. debt. [L. litiiVa.l 
dsnx num. two. [L. duor] 
densiimB (81«) num. second, [fr. 

dBTant prep, adn. before, in front 
of, in front : an-devuit de, tu 
the front of, so as to meet, to 
meet, [de and avant (L. ab 

derelopper v. develop, unfold, 
evolve. [?] 

developpemeitt «i. development, 
evolution, [fr. developper.] 

devenir *. ifrr. 60) become, come 
to be, turn. [L. d^teiiire.} 

deviae/. device, motto, [fr. dovi- 
aer, (r. L. dtujni/w,] 

devoir tj. {irr. 68) owe (| IIM), be 
under obligation, be reguircd. 
have to, be aopointod or intend- 
ed oc destinea, be to ('ci'ft'"/" : 
XXVI. 12/); he sure to. [L. 

dSTOir m. du^. [inf. of devoir.] 
devot adj. (gBSa) devoted, devout, 

pious. [L. rfew»(um.] 
devaneinent m. devotion, [fr. de- 

Toaer, L. deriotare.'\ 
diable m. devil. [L. diaholum, fr. 

dikdeme m. diadem, crown. [L., 

. diamond. [L. ado- 

Dien m. God, [L. rfeum.] 
difierent adj. (BOi) different, dl- 
versej^ wious, sundry. [L. 

dUBoile adj. difllcull, hard. \h. 

difflioltf/. difBcQlty. [L. diffieui- 

difformite/ deformity. [L. d^or- 

digni o4?. worthy, deserving. [L. 

dlmanehe m. Lord's day. Sunday. 
[L. doininieain, of the Lord.] 

diner i: dine. [?] 

diner m. dinner, [inf. of diner,] 

diplomate m. diplomatist. [fr. 
diptome, diploma, fr. Gr.] 

diTB r. {irr. 9 ; p. 155) say, tell ; 
name, appoint. [L. dieere.] 

diractriae /. directress, female su- 
perintendent, [fern, of diree- 
tonr (§ 16'0, fr, L. tUrigere.] 

diaoemer c, discern, descry. [L, 

diBconri m. discourse, speech, ad- 
dress, talk, words. [L. diaeur- 

L. i/isperxum.] 
diapoa m. IS 5Sd) in lusty health, 
bale and hearty. [L. diipoii- 

diapntB /. dispute, controversy. 

|fr. dispnter.l 
diBputer r. dispule, contend, argue: 

iB . . . (§ 826), contest, vie (with, 

&). [L. difpatare.] 
•diatiUar (88/) b. distil. [L. iKi- 

diatfnotion/. distinction. VL.'] 
diatin^nar i^. dlntingulsh, discerD, 

notice. [L. disdngvere.] 
dlatrait ai^. distracted, absorbed, 

unheedint;. [pple of diitrain, 

L. diaiTaiiere.\ 
dlvBTa ndj. (g 606) diverse, differ- 
ent, various. [L. dtewtum,} 


divin adj. divine. [L. dmnum.] 
diTUton /. division, corps (of an 

armf). [L. divitiotiem.] 
•aix (81*, 8Bc) num. ten. [L. de- 

•dii-hnit (8I?i) num. eigliteen. 

[dlx and hnit.] 
*diz-hiiltiSme {%lb) nmu. eigb- 

teenib. [fr. dii-hnit,] 
•diiiamB (lie) num. Wnth. [fi 

*dix-iieiif {ilb) num. nineteen.. 

[dix and nsnf.] 
*dii-iapt {91b) num. sevei ' 

[diz and upt,] 
Aacilaitflj. docile, [L.] 
docleut m. doctor, [L. dBclorem.] 
domaBtique ailj, domestic : a* noun, 

domestic, servant. [L. domes- 

'dmspter (71i) «. subdue. [L. 

itm m. gift. [L. itonam.] 
dona adv. then ; therefore, conse- 
quently ; pray, do {aith impv.). 

LL. ad (MHc.] 
danner v. donale, give, Iwsfow. 

[L, ttonore.] 
dont adv. pron. (XXVI. T ; % 103) 

whence : of whom, whose. [L. 

de unde.^ 
dormii e. l}rr. 43) sleep. [L. dor- 

*dot (78a)/. dowry, mBiriage-por- 

tion. [L. dolevi.'\ 
donble ad.j, double. [L. du- 

doueement nde, sweetly, softly, 
mildly, [fr. doux.) 

dooiUettement mU. softly, delicate- 
ly, [fr. douillBt, fr. L. dvelilem.] 

doiUenr /. pain, grief. [L. doto- 

donx aifj. (VII. 8) sweet, soft, 

pleasant. [L. diiteem.'] 
dmuftine /. dozen, twdve c 

It. twelfth, [ti. donM.' 

*druluii« (S9i) / dracbm, dram. 

dragon 111. dragoon. \Jj. draam&m.'] 
drap "1. cloih. [i] 
droit a^i. direct, Btraight, riglit : 

adv. (XXXI. 9) straight, direct 

ly. [L. direelavi.] 
droit m. right. [L. directum.] 
doe m. duke. [L. dueem, leader.] 
dnel m. duel, [L. duelium.] 
duruit prep, during, pending. 

I pple of dnrar,] 
dnrar v. eodure, last, continue in 

being. [L. diiTait.\ 

•an/, water. [L. aqnam.'\ 

ebaacher v. slcetch, outline, rough- 
hew, [f] 

ebranlar n. shake, disturb, unset- 
tle, [fr. brandir (?), brandish, 
fr. G.] 

Boartar n. discard, remove ; t' . . ., 
irn away, swerve, deviate, [fr. 
(L. ftc) and carta, card.] 

eohappeT?>, escape(from, a: 6161e). 
[fr. OP. cape, cape, enrelop.l 

khaoffer v. warm, heat : ■',,,, be- 
come warm or hot, grow excited, 
[fr. L. enlffneere ] 

eoholr V. {in: 70) fall, befall, oc- 
cur : la CB4 6ch6ant, the case 
occurring, if it so happens. [L. 
er radere.] 

teUt m, liurat, outburst, flash, 
splendor, brilliancy, brightness, 
glory, renown, [fr. edatar.] 

BJlater t. brealc out, burst forth ; 
shine out, come to light, ap- 
pear : . . . de lire, burst out 
laughing, ^r, G.?] 

eoloTB V. {ill-. 28) uoclose,open,bud, 
batch. [L. ex and daiidert.] 

Boolo /. Hchool. VL. seJiolam, fr. 

BOoUer m. Sooliare/, (g 18) scholar, 

fr. Gr.] 

ooouler r. »'. . ,, flow or pass away. 
run by, elapse, [e- iL. «b) sad 


fieontar e. listen to, hear. [L. am- 

iatuvt V. cruali. [prob. fr. G.] 
ecriBr V, ■' . . ., cr; ouE, exclaim. 

[e- (L. ftc) and erier, ccyj 
eorii* n. (irr. 12) write, [L. Kri- 

esrit m. writing, written work. 

[pple of eeriTBTl 
krivkin m. writer, author, [fr. 

LL. leribantiin.'l 
MTonler v. *' . . ., crumble, fall in 

pieces, go to ruin. [b.h.ea.o. 

t'llarp, roll together.] 

I. effect, result : < 
fact, indeed, really, I 
JL. fffectum.] 
tBoit ni. effort, (fr. c 

■, Er. 

tSrajer b. make afraid, frighten, 
alarm, startle. [L. exfrigSurel] 

effuion /. effusion, outpour of 
feeling, espreasion of emotion. 
[L. effutioitem,] 

egalw c. equal. [lT.egel,h.<Fi}ua.lem.] 

Igud m, regard, consideration, 
considerate or respectful atten- 
tion : an ... a, regard being bad 
to, conaidering. [e- (L. ex) and 
guder, keep.] 

egaiBT n. mislead : b' . , ., go astray, 
get lost, [i- (L. «r) and gaiar, 
keep. fr. G.] 

egUie /. church. IL. etclesiitm, 
fr. Gr.] 

SgorgBT V. cut the throat of, 
ataugiiler. [fr. gorg^, throat.] 

eh inteij. ah : ah blan, well. 

elacteor w. elector, voter. [L.] 

elemsnt m. element. [L. demen- 

etepluuit m. elephonL [L.] 
Sieve m. one brought up, pupil. 

[fr. Slever,] 
elersr t>. raise, elevate ; bring up. 

educate : i' . . ., riao, arise, go 

up. [L. eUnare.'l 
elle proii. she ; it. [L. illam.'\ 
eloi^ament m. removal, distance, 

estrangement, aversion, [fr. 



eloigner c. put to a distance, re- 
moTe, wiiJidraw :•'..., go to 
fl distance, retire, withctaw. 
[fr. loin, far.] 

emiiarTas in, embarrassment, hin- 
drance, dilBcullj. [fr. barre, 

embanchBr t. involve, engage, en- 
list, [ff. banohe, workshop.] 

ing the Revolution. [L. 

lull, blunt, deaden, 
dull, fr. O.] 

76) touch with 
, agitule. [L. 

emparei t>. ■'..., possess ones 
self, take possession, seize, mas- 
ter. [L. in and parare, pre- 

eiiLti§«her v. prevent, hinder (ITOii). 

[LL. impedtcare, fetter.] 
smperenr »i. emperor. [L. impe- 

eniplo;er s. employ. 

emporter o. carry off or away : 
■'..., l>e carried away with 
passion ; naporte. passionate, 
violent ; I'emporter, carry it off, 
get the Ijetter. [en {L. inde) and 
porter, cany.] 

ampiisonnemant "i. imprisonment, 
[fr. eiHprUonner, fr. en priion, in 

empmnter v. borrow (from, &: 
% 161e.) [fr. L. in prmavluum.] 

en adv. pron. (XXIH. 6-8 ; § 86) 
thence, away ; of it, of them, of 
him or her ; its, their (§ Wb) ; in 
respect to or a bout it or them ; 
some or any (XXTTT. 7) ; one w 



inohaiiier r. enchain, chain up, 
fetter, restrain, [en ohaina (L. 
calemtin), in chains.] 

enoore (or sddot : ^ 236c) adv. tr 
thia lime, jut, still ; further, in 
addlLlon, Itesidea, more, again : 
encore qna (g 1S7A), although, 
even though. [L. hanc Aoram.l 

tnere /. ink. [L. 
cauatic, fr. Qr.j 

•ndormir o. {irr. 43} put 
■'..., fall aeleep, go 
[L. indi>rmire.'\ 

•ndorclT v. harden, iawn. 
dnroir, fr. dnr, hard.] 

enfant m,(an(i/.: glBfl) child. [L. 
infantum. Infant] 

»en/er(736)m. hell. [L. ijtfenaim.^ 

enlennar v. shut up, lock up. con- 
flue, [en and fenner, shut, L. 

enfln adv. in fine, at the end, at 
last, Anally. . [en and fln.] 

enfonoer v. elnk, pluni;e, buiy, 
drive in. [fr. an and fond <L, 
fuadvm), bottom.] 

eiuFnir v. (ii-r, 47) a' , , ,, flee, run 
away, take flight [eu adv. and 
fnir, flee.] 

engager v, engage, induce, lead : 
a' . , I, become engaged <«■ occu- 
pied, (en prep, and gags, 
pledge. J 

•eniTTar (62a) v. inkisicate, mebn- 
ate. [fr. en prep, and irra (L. 
eiriura), drunk.] 

enlaver v. carry oft, take awny, re- 
move (from, a : ^ 161«). [en and 

•nneini m. eonemle/, (g 16) enemy. 

[L. t.>imicum.i 
•enneblir (S3ii) n. ennoble, raise to 

high rank. [fr. en prep, and 

nalilB, L. nobilen. noble.] 
^annni (S3'i) in. ennui, weariuees. 

[fr. L. in odio, in odium.] 
•"•annyer (83.1) v. weary, bore : 

■'..., be veai^ed or bored 

find. [fr. ennnl.] 

'ennayeni (63'i) adj. wearisome. 

tedious, [fr. ennni.] 
'anoTgnsillir (53a) v. make proud 

[en prep and orgneil, pride.] 

enriohli' n. enrich, make wealthy. 

[fr. en prep, and riohe, rich.] 
eniangUnter r. bloody, cover with 

blood, [fr. en prep, and tan- 

elaat, fr. tang, L. aauguinem, 

enseigne m. f. (g ISii) sign, mark ; 

ensign. [L. iiiKigiim^ 
enaambla lu/r. together, at [he same 

time, in company or union. [L, 

eoaetnhla m. entirety, whole taken 
together, general effect [same 
as ensemble adv.] 

enanitendr' in the next place, next, 
afterward, then, [an and snita, 

attend to, under- 
Bland : a' ... a, understand 
about, be a judge of. [L. in- 
tendfre. ] 

enUvoiiBiasme in. enthusiasm. [L. 
fr. Gr.] 

entier at^j. entire, whole, com 
plele. [L. irtlegrvm.] 

antra pi'ep. between, among : d'en 
tre, froro among. IT,, inwi'.] 

antieprendje n. (iiT. 8U) undertake, 
[antra and prendre, take.] 

entrarr, enter,goi!i, [L. tnirare] 

envera prrp. toward, [en and ven, 

envle/, envy : inclination, desire. 
[L. invidiam,^ 

environ mlv. prep, about, some- 
where nearly, not far from, [en 
and viron, circuit, fr. vlrer, 
turn (?).] 

anvoyer t. (in: 81) send, despatch. 
[L. inmar,.] 

epala iidj. thiclc. [L. tpiiallm.'] 

; epargnar v. spare, save. [?] 

epaole /. shoulder. [L, tpatu- 

epea/. sword, [L. *palham.'] 
' eplora a^j- tearful, red with weep- 



ing. [as if pple of splorer, L. 

pQriiTe. weep. J 
epongB /. sponge. [L. tpongiam, 

fr. Gr.] 
epaqOB /. epoch, age, period (of 

lime). [Gr.] 
eponx III., epooie/. (g 16} spouse, 

husbanii or wife. [L. upon- 

epouBOr v. espouse, many. [fr. 

eptouver i\ make proof of, experi- 
ence, go Ihrough. [L. er-pro- 
*6qiiatGiu (724) m. equator. [L.] 
"8qoeitre(7Bi)ad;, equestrian, [L.] 
eqaiTOqnB ai(j. equivocal, of doubt- 
ful or queationable character. 
[L. .fg.>i,-oeum.] 
erHur f. error. [L. errorem] 
H, in the. [en and 1m : § SOT/.] 
SHadron m. squadrou. [fr. It.. 
fr. L. ex-quarinire. form square 1 
MoIaT* HI. / (g I61-) slave, [fr. G.] 
eipaoe m. space, extent. [L. »pa 

upft^ol ai>J, Spanish : aa noun, 

Spaniard. [L. hispiniioliim,] 
Bsp§M /. species, kind. 



eaparuiM/. hope, [fi 
Mperar n. hope. [L. 1 
Mpolr m. hope. [fr. Mperar. 
Mprlt m. spirit, soul ; minci^ m- 

tellect ; wit, clevcmcBs, bnght- 

neas. [L. fpiritum.] 
Mqniiu /. sketch, outline, rough 

drawing, [fr. II., fr. L. >e/ie- 

dCiim, fr. Gr.] 

MSBjar 7. tr;, make trial or essay 
of, attempt, [fr. Ma«l, L. ex- 

*a»t (TftO m. east. [G.l 

eitimfl /. 
[fr. Mtlmer.j 

spect, value. 
'Ntonao (iZg) 

ft. Gr,] 
•t (B611) eonj. and : et . . . >t, both 

... and. [L. «.J 


m, regard with re- 

[L. antimnre.] 
■ni. stomach. [L., 

•tabliz E. establish, fix, settle. [L. 
araMlire. | 

Stat m. state, condition, position 
In life : State, comtuoa wealth, 
country; estate : EtataOensravx, 
Stales General, BEflembly of or- 
ders for legislation. [L.nialumA 

-'a let oBtMa) and so forth. [L.J 
a I'l summer. |L. aalu'em.) 
slndrs v. {irr. 16) extinguish. 
[L. extlingiiere,'] 

etendud in. standard, banner. [G.) 

etmdra c. extend, slretcb out. [L. 

etaroel aij?". eternal, everlasting, 
[L. fstoi'iiofcm.] 

etonner n. astonish, astound ; a' . , ., 
be astonished or surprised, [L. 

gtonnement m, aHtonisbmont, [fr. 

etrauger m. Strang, [fr. etronga,] 

etre r. (irr., p. 62fhe luaauxU., be, 
have (XXVlII. 6-8); go (S 1T&): 
o'Mt qne, the thing or tact or 
reason is ; Stre i, belong to 
(S 161e); y etre, be up to anv- 
thing, understand ; en £tr«, be 
with respect to things, be at a 
point. [L. rtatv. ente.] 

etri m. b^ng, creature ; exist- 
ence ; essence, characteristic, 
[inf. ofatre.] 

Btroit ndj. strait, narrow, limited. 
[L. at'-ietom.] 

Btndiar o, study, examine, investi- 
gate, |fr, etude, study, h. tlu- 

grajionlr s. vanish, fade away, 

[L. eai-conf'Mi'e.] 
evelller b. wake up, waken ; «' . . . , 

wake up, be awake. [L. ex- 

erenement m, event, occurrence 

[fr. L. erenir,.] 
entar v. shun, avoid, escape. [Ifc_ 


"ezuDSn (GDf) m, esamiiiation, in- 
quiry-. [L.] 

eimller c. excel. FL, ert^ellere.] 

excellent a<(). excellent, [fr. ez- 
cbUbt : § 189e.] 

ezoepte pple. (g ofri) excepted, ex- 
cepting, save. [fr. esoepter.] 

azoepter v. except, leave qui. re- 
move. [1.. e^^eptare.] 

eixieuiladj. exces^ve. [fr. ezcea, 

1^^ ligible. 

exciter t. excite, arouac, stir up, 

[L. e^cftare.] 
ezouBe/. excuse, npology. [fr. ax- 

exonsBT V. excuse, pardon. [L. es-- 

exeontar c. eiecnte, carry out. 

[fr. L. eJiKeutfim.] 
ezemple m, example, instance, [L. 


■ r (7In)^«. exempt, [fr. 

se, practiae. [L. 

exeieiM m. exercise. [L. ezerci- 

ezhaler e. exhale, blow off, give 

vent to. [L. Mtuilaye.'\ 
exhortar e. exhort, admoniah. [L. 

*exil (6Bd) m. exile, banisbmeul. 

[L. ej'ilium,'] 
exiler c. exile, haniah. [fr. udl.] 
Gzlateiica/. existence, [fr. sziater.] 
esiiter n. exist, be In life or being, 

live. [L. exisUre.l 
ezpeditif adj. expcdiliouB, exx)edil- 
ing [fr. ezpedier, L. e/'prdire.] 
ezpeditian /. expedition. [L.] 
e^eiienuB /. experience ; experi- 
ment, trial. [L. i^eperien- 

expiar t. expiate, atone For. [L. 

ezplicatlon/. explication, explana- 
tion. [L.] 

eipllqner v. explain, make inlcl- 
ligible. [L. expltcoTe. unfold.] 

' expression. [L.] 

ezprimar b. express, render. [L. 

Bztr>«rdiiii.lfe adj. extraordinary. 

extreme o<y. extreme. [L.] ' 
eztremament ade, extremely, [fr. 

fabricant m. manufacturer, maker. 
[pple of fabriqaer (g IS9<), L. 

&briqtte/ factory, \h.faltrieam, 

&ae /. face, front : jeter a la fau, 
cast In the teeth ; an faae de, in 
frontof. before. fL./'ietem.J 

faolwT «. offend, disturb, fa^, 
anger : aa , . ., tie offended or dis- 
turbed, be angty. [h.L./agti- 
dinm, averaion.] 

taaila adj. easy. [L. /neilem.] 

taellement adfi. easily, [fr. belle.] 

fa^on/. fashion, manner, way : . . . 
d'atre, way, habit, habitual man- 
ner. {L. fnctionem, make.] 

faenlta/. faculty, capacity, power. 

fftdenr/. flatness, insipidity, tame- 

n^mc Vfm faAm Oat 1 ».. •,>-.?« ■«» 1 

talbleue /. weakness, feebleness. 

[fr. IkiblB.] 
failUr T. (in: 50) fall, come short : 

come just short, be close upon 

or nuar to. Just miss of (§ 178/). 

[L. fallere, deceive.] 
faun / hunger, famine : iTolr 

faim, be hungry (XIII. 6). [L. 

toire r. iirr. 28, p. 150) make, do, 
act : cause, make (XXXIL U ; 
iiWi. 184<) : be {of weatim) 
(XXXn. Ba); put in order, flx: 
ae , . . i, accustom or reconcile 
one's self to ; en etre fait, he all 
over (§ BS6); bien ftlt, well 
shaped, shapely, of good figure i 
&ira Kraoa, tee ^&oe \ bire Tob, 
show, exhibit, [L, yiioera.] 

Ihliiuiea (39<^) /. extra dues. [fr. 



*fkiiMur (39«) m. maker, Jobber, 
[fr. fclre.] 

*Bit (76^*) m. feat, deed, action, ex- 
ploit, [pple of &ira.l 

iklloir n. t^rr. li, p. 141) impers. 
be obllgecl, must, have to ; be 
lacking, need, want : pen «'eii 
&iit, tfiere is little lucking. [L. 
fiUUn, deceive.] 

ruaanx adj. famous. [L. Jamo- 

famllle /. family. [L. familima ] 
fanuDB/'. fainioe. [fr. fainu] 
bntSms m. pbajitom, gUo^t, spec- 
tre. [h.fanliamajT.Qi:] 
•fiMn (aia) in. fawn, whelp, [fr. 
L. firium..] 

, . .. ;; a^- 

(S6M) foppish. [L. fatuum. 

fatal tMg. fatal. [L. fatalevi. ] 
fatipte/. fatigue, weariness, [fr. 

[atipner v. fatigue, tire, weary : u 

. . ., be tired or weary. [L. 

faate /. lack, delicieucy, fault ; 

tantB de, for lack of, in default 

of. [fr. fidlllr.] 
fBTeoT /. favor ; sn taveor de, in 

favor of, on behalf i/r account 

of. [L./«™>'m.] 
favorabls arij, favorable. [L.] 
Kb/, fay, fairy. [L. fata, fate.] 
fslndn V, (I'rr. IB) feign, make 

believe. [L. fingere.] 
*feiiUM (36.0 /- womao, wife : . . . 

de oliuiibTB, gee ohambre, [L. 
fenotrt/. window. [L./eneatram,] 
fente /. split, crack, (tr. fandra, 

L Jiaderf, split.] 
tei m. iron, steel ; weapon. [L. 

ferme arfj. firm, strong. [L. fir- 

fermatS f. firmnesa, vigor, etrength. 
[fr. ferme.j 

fBnnier m. (Brmiera/. (S IB) fann- 
er, [fr. femie, noun.] 

farrer i. fumiah or equip with 
iron : voie farree, railway, [fr. 

fertile adj. fertOe, fruitful. [L. 

terrmnf, fervor. [L.] 

tSte /. festival, feaat, fete. [L. 

Eater v. celebrate : observe as holi- 
day ; keep the festival or holi- 
day of. [fr. fSte.] 

fan m. fire. [L.foeum.] 

fen a^. (^ Mx, Sea) lately de- 
ceased, late. [L. fuit, he was 

fenlUa / leaf, sliect. [L. folia. 

fldela adj. faithful, true, exact. 

[L. ftdtlem.} 
fler v. confide : le . . . £, trust one's 

self in, trust. [L. /(fcre.l 
flevra/. fever. [L./eirem] 
flgnre/. figure, shape, form ; face. 

*fil(e8(()w. thread. [L./iwm.] 
flUa/. daughter, girl. [L.^wm.] 
ailetta/, girl, lass. [fr. fllle.J 
•file (88e. lid) m. son. [L. Jllitia 

(% M.] 
flu /. end, linis : £ la fin, in the 

end, at length ; «uu fin, without 

end, to all eternity ; afin, iee the 

iiiBi'd. [L. flnem,] 
fln ailj. fine, delicate, elegant. [L. 

finititm, finished.] 
flnanea /. finance, [fr. fin, end 

flneate /, fineness, subtlety, art, 

artifice, finesse, [fr. fln, adj.] 
flnir c. finish, bring to an end ; an 

fln if, make a finish or close (g 

Ujtxiim. fixed.] 
Ixament adv. fixedly, steadily. 
[fr. fixe, fixed.] 
I f. flame. IL.l 


flano m. flank, side. [L. flaecum, 
la* (?).l 
t^ Saner e. loiing«. Idle. [!] 
^ flauerle/. lounging, idlenesa. [fr. 

I-- fiinenr m. lounger, idler. [fr. 

flattar r. Halle r. [?] 

aattaur m. flalterer. [fr. totter.] 

flBohB/. arrow, [fr. Gf.] 

fletrir c. wither ; Bullj, dishonor. 

fleuve III. river. [L, jSiEiura.] 
flot 711. wave, flood. [L.pictur 
flotte/ fleet, navy. [fr. Bet 

float, fr. flot.1 
foi/. faith ; plighted word. 

S>i» /. li 

Buccesslon (gg_ GB, 69) : i, la foil, 

cial. [fr. foQctloa, 1 

fond m. bottom, depth, base. [L. 

fonder n. found, base, eBtablisb. 

fondle w. melt, disaolve. [L./un- 

foroe /. force, strength, might, 

power : a (bine de, by dint or 

means of. [L. Jwrfta, strong.] 
fbnwr B. force, compel, [fr. ftroe.] 
hnfait m, miadeed. [fr. forfaire, 

Jj. foiH* faeere, misdo.] 
former v. form, shape, make, oon- 

Btitule, [L./ormoi'*.] 
flirt arfj. strong. — iirfa. strongly, 

greatly, much, very much, very-,-t»m.] 
fort m. atrong place, fort, [fort 

fbrtnne/. fortune ; lot in life, fate ; 

wealth. Wi. JoHunamA 

Gmib m. fosHe, dltcb, trmdi. [L. 

fotnim, dug.] 
f<ra, (W .irfj. (VII. 7) foolish, mad, 

insane, crazy. (?] 
foudre /. thunderbolt, lightning. 

fonle /. crowd, multitude, great 
quantity, [fr. tonlar.] 

fonler v. crowd, press, trample, 
tread : . . . anz piedi, tread un- 
der foot. [L. fuliars, in fidlo, 

loorohBtte /". fork. [fr. L./unvi.l 

•fonniil (68<:) m. bake-house, [fr. 
L./«rnvs, oven.] 

fraeilB nilj. fragile. [L. frngiUm 
(I 8).] 

fraU, fralche (VII. 8) adj. fresh : 
fralt onellli (S S&Q, fresh -picked. 
[fr. a.] 

btii» m. pi. (g 34) expense. [L. 

fractiim (?].] 

Itano, firanohe (VII. 6b) nilj frank, 
free; prepaid (| S6n). [fr. 

frauD m. franc {piece of money). 

tfr. inscription t'l-aneoi-um rM, 
ing of the French.] 
franfaU adj. French, [fr. TraiiM, 

bauobement arfJV frankly, [fr. 

franohir j>. clear, jump or pass 
over. [fr. f»nc.] 

frapper v. strike, deal d blow to. 
hit, knock ; affect strongly, im- 
press, [prob. fr. G.) 

frein m. rein, check, curb, con- 
trol. [L. /-«»",».] 

frele n/lj. frail, fragile. [L. fm- 
gtlem {% 9),] 

fr&uiri). shiver, Tibrsle, ihilll. [L. 

ttett m. brother ; holy brother, 

friar, [h. fralrem.] 
fripen 71. friponao /. (g 18) knave, 

rascal, rogue. \t] 
friBBonner v. quiver, thrill, shiver. 

[fr. binoii,L. fiicliminn,] 
Mvola at(j, frivolous. triSing, vain, 

empty. [L. fiiiroliiiii.] 
frold a^, cold, cool : avoir froid 



(Xm. e). be cold (in, fi). [L. 

tcaiieai f. colilneas, coolnesa, fri- 
gidity, [fr. froid,] 
fronWig* Hi. cheese. [LL. foi-ma- 

ticiira, ghapecl.] 
front m, trout, forehead, brow. 

[L. fronleia ] 
frnlt m. fruit; valuable result, 

profit- [I., fniBtmn.] 
fogitif or^'. fneiUve, fioeting, Iran- 

aiont. [L. fagilivum.l 
fair B. («T. 47) flee, fly ; fly from, 

Bhun. [L,.fi(ffem] 
ftmSbre aHj. funereal, funeral. [L, 

tmtf. fury, rage, wralh, passion. 

fnrieTii a^j. furiouB, raging, an 

in, muaket. [fr. 

gry. fL./u, 

•fSl (flfc) m. gui 

L. JoBW, fireH 

g-ai a4. gay. [fr. Q.] 

galetB, gaite/ gayety, livelinesa, 

tun. [fr. gai!] 
Kagner c. gain, win, acquire ; at- 

taiii, riach, arrive ai. [fr. GJ 
gain m. gain, acquisition, [fr. 

Kftlant-i''/ (§606)gallaal. [fr. G.] 
gant m. gloTe. [fr. O.] 
garantir c. warrant, gunrnntee. 

[fr. G.] 
gar^n in. boy, lad, fcllotv, ser- 
vant, waiter, bachelor. [!] 
garde /. (g I611) guard, waldi ; 

tceeping : n'aToii gaide de, take 

care not to. [fr. gardflr.] 
garde in. (§ ISu) ^urd, keeper. 

soldier of a cerlam class, [do.] 
gaidor V. guard, watch ; keep, 

keep up, maintain, pre^rve. 

[fr. G.] 
gare /. station, terminus, depot. 

[fr. O. (Eng. ware) ] 
gamlaan f. garrison, [fr. gamlr, 

garaish, fr. G.] 
gacaau m. coke. [fr. G.] 
■-- --"-' awkward, cli 

left (band or side), t^' <*■ 

(Eng. gatBk).'\ 
*gBE [83'i) m. gafl. 
gaioa OT. turf, sward, [fr. G.) 
geler n. solidify, stiffen, freeze. 

[L. gtUt,-e.] 
gemir «. gman, moan, lament. 

[L. gemei-e.'\ 
gSmisMmsnt in. groan, [fr. gS- 

gendarme m man-at arms, guards 

man, policeman, [gent, de, and 

in general, ordinarily. [L.] 
general m. general officer, general. 

| = geaeral adj.] 
generalite /. generality. [fr. 

generattan/. generation. [L.] 
generem Uflj, generous. [L.] 
genie m. genius. [L. gemv.m.'} 
geuon ;ti. knee. [L. genieulum.'] 
gens /. pi. (g IBrf) folks, people, 
persons ; servants. [L. gentem.\ 
'gentil (BBf) a^. nice, good, well- 
behaved, pretty. [L. genti- 

geatilhonune \,}il. 'gentiltliaminei, 
68(;) m. man of good birth or 
breeding, gentleman. [gentU 
and honime!] 

geomatre m. geometer, mathema- 
tician. [Gr.J 

giganteiqne nrlj. gigantic, [fr. L. 

gite m. quarters, lodging, deposit, 
layer, [fr. geair, t-.jacere, lie.) 

gUcer e. turn to ice, freeze, chill, 
[fr. glace, L. g'aciem, ice.] 

gloire f, glory : &ire gloixe de, 
make one's 1x)bsI, glory in. [L. 

glorienx o^. glorious. [L.l 

gonfler v. swell, infiate. distend. 
[L. eonftare, blow up.] 

gourmand m. gourmand, epicure. 

govt m. taste, [L. gu^lum.] 

goatte J 
[L. gatlam.] 



gon»arnantfl/, housekeeper, [pple 

of gou vomer.] 
goavBrnoment m. govemnienl, [tr. 

gouvemor e. govern, (iirccl. [L. 

)^ grioa/. grace, favor; gracefuloess, 
chann : tUia griia i, abow favor 
or be iodulgeat Co, exciue. par- 
don, [L. uradam.] 

graelenz utij. gracious, obliging ; 
graceful. [L. ffroKoniim,] 

gTB,nil a)lj. greai, gread, large, tall : 
grand'eltMa |^ v), somelhing ar 
anylhing great, matler of im- 
portance. [L. grandem.'] 

^landanumt otfn. (greatly, largelf , 
grandly, [fr, gnind,l 

grandeur /. greatness, 
graadcur. [fr, grand, 

grsindir i\ grow large, 
[fr. grand?] 

grand'mecB /. (g 4^) grandmotlier. 
[grand and nera.) 

grand-pere m. grandfather, [grand 
and pere,] 

grand-vUir "t. grand -vizier, [grand 
oud vizir.] 

gnnga /. grange, bam. [LL, 
. graamm. granary.] 

1-- gTM adj. fat, plunip, thick, rich, 
[L. emiu'i"!.] 

•gratia (TW) <irfB. gratis. [L.] 

grava adj. grave, serious, impi)r- 
tant, weighty. [L. gra^em.] 

gravanr m, engraver, [ir. gravar, 
fr. G.] 

greler o. impert. h^. [fr. grele, 
gravel-stone, fr. ?] 

griller e. grill, broil, [fr. grilla, 
fr. L, craiieala, gridiron.] 

gronder t. growl, scold, chide, find 
fault, ffr, L. ffWwiHm] 

groi oij), big, stout, large. [L. 

gtMderuilf. coarse, rude, uncouth. 
[fr. groa.] 

gvere adv. [ibUIi ne : g I6T11) hard- 
ly, scarcely, but little, [fr. G, 
weigai'o, mucli,] 

gnSrir b, heal, cure, [fr. O. 
wahren, protect.] 

gnarre/. war. [fr. O., = war.] 
guide mf. (S I6't) guide; leading- 
rein, [fr. guldw, guide, fr. f] 

habile nH.}, able, skilful, coiii[)e- 

tenl. [L. habUeiR.} 
habileta f. abilltv, skill, clevernees. 
. [fr. habUeJ 
liatilUer v. dresB, clottae : ■'.... 

dress one's self. [fr. habile(r).] 
habit m. coat, dress. [L. habitumA 
habitant m. inhabitanL [pple of 


habitude f. habit, custom. [L. 

wont, [L, hiiMluarfj 

'haina /, hate, botred. aversion : 
avoir en haine, regard witi) hate, 
have an aversion for. [fr, 

'hftirp (XIX. 8a) hale, detest, dis- 
like, [fr, G,,=Eng. /i.<'r j 

'hard! nifj. bold, daring, forward. 
[fr. G.. =Eng. /I'i'-d.] 

'hater r. 10 , . ,, hurry one's self, 
hasten, [fr. h&te, haste, fr. Q., 
=Eng. /i<Me.] 

'hant 'iilj. high, tall, lofty, up- 
lifted ; en hant, oa high, above, 
upslairs, [L . (ilium,] 

'hant -irff). (XXXI. 9) in a high /»■ 
loud tone, aloud, |=hBut adj ] 

'hantement udr. highly, haugh- 
tily, boldly, loudly, (fr. haut.] 

'hauteur /. height, eievatioD, lofti 
ness, [fr, hant,] 

'huard m. hazard, chance: par- 
. . , , by chance, perliaps, I won- 
der, [fr. Arabic] 

heberger r. shelter, entertain, re- 
ceive as guest, [fr. G.=Genn. 

hlbraa m. hebrlaque /, (^ fiSo) He- 
brew, Hebraic. [L, hfbrmum, 
fie/n-aicm.] , 

*lielM (7ii0 inteiy. alas I [he, ah, ^^ 
and L, Injt'iiin, miserable] 

•"hannir (36u) c. neigh. [L. hin- 


_)riuga m. heritage, Inheritance, 

horltM V. (8162/) inherit. [L. 

hsritlar m. heritlere /. (g 16) In- 
heritor, heir. [1,. Aeredilariiim.] 

hlralne/. heroine, [L. Aem'nam.l 

herolqne a</j. heroic. [L.AOTwtfum.]. 

'heroi m. hero. [L., fr. Gr.) 

henra f. hour ; time of day, o'clock 
(XVII. 4| : d« Ijonna hBnre, in 
good time, early ; a la bonne 
hanre, in good time, very well, 
well done : tmtt & I'heure, at 
this moment, immediately, jitat 
now, presently. [L. /u>mm,\ 

hsurmuMDMit adn, happily, luck- 
ily, [fr. heorens.] 

hmmnx mlj. happy, fortunate, 
lucky, [fr. henr, L. auguHum, 

'hsnrter n, run against, collide 
with, jostle, knock, rap. [f] 

'hldMiz adj. hideous, horrid. [L. 

hiitoire /. history ; story. [L. 

■hiTK (786) m. winter. [L. hiber- 

'hollandaii adj. Dutch, Nether- 
landish, of Holland, [fr. Hol- 

homme ui. man : etre bomma i, be 
the right person for, be the one 
to. [L. homiitem.'\ 

honnjta ndj. (YIII. Ik) honest ; 
worthy, eicellent ; respeclable, 
creditable. |L. A/>iie»iuin, ] 

honnenr m. honor, respect, credit : 
hira bannenr S., give the credit 
(de, of nnythlDg) to. [L. ho- 

hanorabls iiifj. honorable. [L.] 
'honte/. shame : avoir bonte (XIII. 

6), feel shame, be ashamed, [fr. 

G. , Saxon hoTtda, dishonor J 
horlioD m. horizon. [L., fr. Or.] 
hormii pvep. except, [hors anid 

horrenr/. horror, [L.] 

'hoTa adv. prep, out, out ot, out- 
side : bon de, outside of. out of. 

hStem. guest, visitor ; host, enter- 
tainer. [L. /totpilem.) 

hnile f. oil. [L. oleum,] 

•'hnlt (Mc. 76a) num. eight. [L. 

'httitieme mm. eighth, [fr. buit.] 
bmnain tu^. human ; humane, [L. 

hamanite/, humanity, [L,] 
hnmer ii. draw in, inhale, imbit)e. 

1. ^ humor. [L. Iiumaitm.] 

IgnDmlnie/. iznominy. [L.] 
ignorant adj. ignorant, unlearned. 


il, 111 {Md) pron. be, it, they; 

there <§ 147A) ; ii« indef. mtgeet 

(XI. B, XXIV. a), it ; <u impera. 

mMect (XXX. 1), it. [L. iKam, 


ila / Isle, island. |L. imiilam.] 

Image /. image, likenesa. [L. 

imaglner 9, unagine : *'..., Im- 
agine to one's self, fancy. [L. 
imaginan. ] 
imlter i). imitate. [L. imitari.'\ 
inuuenia adj. iiamease. [L.] 
Immoler b. immolate, sacriSce, 

siny. [L. immoliire.} 
Impatient 'I '^ impatient. [L] 
*lmpatlem)nent (SBn) nilv. impa- 

patiently. [fr. impktient. | 
imperianiament ndv. imperiously. 

[fr. imperieox.] 
imperieax adj. imperious. [L. 

impetneaiament adf. Impetuously. 
[fr. impetuenx, L. impetaommA 
impie 'nij. impious. [L. impinm.\ 
Importer v. be important nr of con- 
sequence, matter, signify, con- 
cern (§ liSi) : n'lmpmta, it is of 


tmpoMnt lidj, im[)OBiiig. [pple of 
ImptMBT, tr. L. impoiiere7\ 

inpoMilila adj. impoKsible. [L.| 

Imprlmar c. impreee, Import., give. 
[L. impHmere.'\ 

ImprndMit a^. imprudent, [L. 

pnnir, punish., 
incapftbU (K^'. incapable. [L.] 
IneertitodA f, UDcertainty. [L. in 

CBi-tiiudinem. ] 
tnoidsnt m. incident, occurretice. 

innllner v. incline, bend : ■'..., 

bow. [L. incUiiare.'\ 
inoonnu im^. unknown, [in- and 

indeohifiablB ailj. vindeiiipberable. 
Ifr. dMhiffiw, fr. ohi&e, cipbrr, 
Jr. Arabic] 
*iiidaiiinite(36i)/. indemnity, [L.l 
indepeuditnt n^. Independent. [L.J 
*inaex (81//) m. index. [L.] 
indifferent ■tdj, indifferent, imma- 
terial, [in- and diSrireiit.] 
indlgue iii^'. unworthy. [L. >'i- 

indtwtrie/', InduHtry. [L.] 
indiqnsr ti. indicate, point out, ap- 
point. IL. iiid/raff.] 
ineiiranlBble adj. not lo be shaken, 

immovable, [fr. ebruiler.] 
inHtimitble ailj. mestimable. [L.] 
InfEuner v. render infamous or dis- 
graceful, cover with ienominy. 

infanterie/. infantry. [!] 

Influenoc/, influentc. [fr. Inflner, 
L. infiiiere. flow in.l 

informe adj. unformea, shapelcsB, 
crude, rough. [L. informan. ] 

informer i>. inform, apprise ;«'..., 
get informed, seek to know, in- 
quire, ask. [L. infonnare.) 

ingenisnx adj. inceniouB, clever. 
[L, ingenipinim.] 

injure/ insult, abuie. [L. t 

[L. O^imtlum.] 
Iniolsnt 11^. insoloDt, imperttnent 

inipirei v, 
iutallation j 

IT T. inspire. IL. inapirarr..] 
ation /. instaltalion. [fr. 

insttOIer r. install. [LL., fr. atklle, 

fr. G., -Eng. dtiW.] 
Inittint in. instant, moment. [L.] 
Initinotni. instinct. [L.] 
liuititatenT m. instructor, teacher. 

[fr, L. insiitvmt, estahliahj 
initmetU adj. instructive. [L.l 

ion. [L.J 

a struct. [L. 

intereiBBnt a^. Interesting, [pple 
of intteauer.] 

interest, concern, [fr. 

interot m. Interest, concern. [L. 

intarTompre v. (XX 3'i) interrupt, 

breait in upon. [L. inCerivm- 

intlnia ndj. intimate, close. [L.l 
Inntile "ilj. useless. [L, iimlilem.] 
Inventer a. invent, devise. [L. 

inviter ?. invite. [L. i'ivilare.'\ 
italien adj. Italian. [L.] 

*j84ii (74d) iidD, of old, in old 

times, formerly. [L. jam d/n.l 

Jaloui ndj. Jealous. [L. geto»am.\ 

j&maii "dK. (wiV/i ne : s 187) nerer, 

not ever ; ever (S 167ft). [L. 

jmii magig.^ 

junlw /. leg. [LL. gnmbnm.J 

janviar m. January. [L. janii- 

japi-on.l. [L. fg/}.] 
jeter r. (XXI 3r) throw, cast, hurl: 

spread, ifr. Jet, Jet, L.ja<(«n».1 
Jendl m. Thursday. [L. Jom 

diem, Jupiter's day.] 


i'vuu adj. young. [L. jueantm.] 
wneM*/. youtfi. tfr.j.ime,] 
joiB f. joy. [L. giiiuUatn.] 
joindre v. [ii-r. 17) join, unite. [L. 

_ j'lnstTi.] 

,_ . adj. pretty, nice, pleasing. 

[tI.O.. = ^Etlg.joUs^ 
jallmaut adv, prettily, [fr. joli.] 

jOQW B, play. [L joeaii.] 

jouet m, playUiiiig, toy. [fr, 

^ong(62d) m. yoke. [L. j'li/iim.] 
jooir ». take pleasure (in, de ; 

^ 162f), enjoy. [L. gaadere.] 
joaiMfksee / enjoyment, pleasure. 

[fr. joilr.] 
ioor m. day ; daylight, liglit : Mn 

jour (XXXII. »«), be dayHght. 

[L. dinnvim.] 
jBumal in. Journal, daily paper. 

newspaper. [L. di'irmlem.] 
joaniM,/, day, [fr. L.iiiurno.] 
r joyenx tn'j. joyous, mcny, glad. 

[Ir. jole.] fdioioaiiin,] 

jadicieu adj. judicious. \L. ja- 
jngB m. Judge. [L. judkem] 
jnganunt in. judgment, [fr.ju^r.] 
Jnger v. Judge, aeeide. [L. judi- 

joUlet'ni. July. [LJaliuai ] 
juln m. June, [li.j'tiiium.] 
jurisdiotion/. Jurisdiction. [L.] 
JDsqne adii. as far as, all tUe way : 
jniqn'a, aU the way to, Q)) Far as. 
clear to ; jntqn'a oe que (g 137il, 
until : Juiqu'oo, how far ? [L. 
de and ungue.'\ 
juit« adj. juat, corrtet, suitable ; 
exact, precise : an Jnita, precise- 
ly, exactly. [L. jh-Iuoi.] 

tune. [=jnit« i 


. }>roa. the ; her, it. [L. 

yonder ; in the other world, pi 
and bat.] 
labew m. labor, cultivation. [L. 


laborlSDz adj. laborious, industri- 
ous. [L. tabo.-ioiiim.] , 

llolis adj. lax, slothful; cowardly, '^~-' 
daslanily. liase : a» noun, cow- 
ard, dastard. [L.'\ 

•law (883) m. snare, string. [L. *- — . 

IK-deasni ade. thereupon, with re- 
gard to Chat, iu tbat respect, [la 
and demu,] 

laid ndj. ugly, homely, [fr. G., 
=Eng. loathe.Y 

laine/. wool. |L. linam.^ 

laluer s. leave, quit, aiisndon ; let, 
leave, allow, permit, cau?o ; 
leave off (from, d«), omit, fail, 
fall short of. [L. la^<ire ] 

lait "I. milk. [L. iae.'\ 

lamps/, lamp. [L. lampnden.^ 

lanoar 1: dart, hurl, launch, shoot 
forth, let loose, discharge, [fr. 
lanoB, lance, fr.?] 

laugage m. language, speech, dia- 
lect, [fr. langue,] 

lan^e 7' tongue; language, speech; 
tirer la langne, thrust out the 
tongue, make faces or grimaces. 
[L. «"ff./a™,l 

*lapi (74rf) m. lapse. [L. tapnum ] 

laqnal* m. lackey, footman, ser- 
vant. [?] 

large nrij. broad, wide, large. [L. 

largeor /. breadth, width, [fr. 
large | 

Urma/. tear, tear-drop. [L. lacri- 

"laryni {alb) m. larynjt. [L., fr. 

lanriiT m. laurel, bay. [Fr. L. 

laurum ] 
lavB/. lava. [Fr. It,, fr, L. latare.] 
1b itrt. jrron. the ; him, it ; bo 

(XXm. So). [L. iltum.] 
iBfBn/. lesson. [L. irr,tionfm,'\ 
loger adj. light, nimble, lively ; 

frivolous, empty, ftr. L. iems.\ 
legion/, legion. [L.] 


U^ilatlf adj. legislative, lawgiv- 
ing. [L] 

legume ni. vegetable, pot-herb. 
[L. 'ivi" ' 

lendemaiD v 

moiTow, following 
liny, [le, en, and demaln.] 
lent iii/j. slow, lardy. | L. lenlum 1 
lentemeat <i[ff!. slowly, [fr. lent, 1 
lequBl />/v«. (XXV- 6, XXVI. 4-7 ; 

f< 101) which one, who, that. 
le and quel.] 
lei art. proa, the ; them. [L. 

illoi, iUat.] 
lettre/ letter. [L. lilrram.] 
lenr pi-an. to them ; their, theirs 
{XIV. 1, 8, XXVII. 1). [L.i«o- 

lever n. raise, llf t : le . . . , rise, get 
up. [L. fera7v 

libra oflj. free, at liberty. [L. 

lien m. place : avoir U«u, tnkc 
place, happen ; tenir lien de, 
take the place of, serve as ; au 
lien de, ioBtead of. [L. I". 

[L. leu earn, fr. 

li^e/ line. [L. lineam,^ 
limiter v. limit, shut In, confine. 

[fr. limits, L. limitem.] 
•linyiBl (OSf) i"lj. lingual. [L."I 
•Unguiito (W) m. linguist, [fr. 

L. lingua, language.] 

11) read, peruse. [L. 

•lli'iTld) m- lily. [L. iitfum.] 
lit m. bed, couch. [L. le/ttum.] 
llttenire ailj. literary. [L.I 
littonl m. coast, shore. [L, Uto 

Uyrem. book. [L, lihrum.] 
livre f. pound ; livre (piece or 

nmount of money, nearly — 

ftane). [L. libram.] 
ItTTer 1'. deliver, give up, make 

over, surrender : m . . ., give up 

or lend one's self ; be applied «r 

devoted. [L. Uberai-e.'] 
logiqno/. lomc. [L., fr. Gr.] 
loi/ law. [L. legem.] 
lola ndv. far. to sr at a distance : 

loin de, far from ; loin qua (g 

13Ti), far from its being the 

casef--' " ■- - -■ 
lolalr t 

long "rfj. (Vn. 64) long, a long 

slory, lengthy, tedious ; le long 

de, the length of, along. [L. 

longtomps iiile, for n long time, for 

a great while, long, [long anil 

lonnement ndv. at length, length- 
ily, [fr. long,] 

langvsnr/. length, [fr. long.] 

Ion adv. then : Ion de, at the time 
of. [L. illii horn, at that hour.] 

loraqne eonj. at the time that, when, 
Bs. [Ion and qne.] 

lonage m. hire, letting out : delon- 
age, on hire. [fr. 1 loner.] 

1 lonar r let out, lend, hire. [L. 

3 lonar v. praise. }1>. landare.l 
lonis m. touis, loois d'or (piece of 
money, of 30 or 34 francs), [fr. 
Lonla, name of king.] 
loup ni. wolf. [L. lupum.'\ 
loyal icilj. loyal. [L. legaleta.'\ 
layalement adv. toyally, boneslly, 

fairly, [fr. loyil.] 
Ini won. him; to him or her. [L. 

au Aute.] 
Inlre c. ("T. 5) shine. [L. latere ] 
Inmlere /. light ; fl. lights, en- 
lightenment, intelliEence and 
knowledge. [fr. L. btmtn. 
Inadl m Monday. [L. lana diem, 

moon's day.] 
Inne/ moon. [L, Uinam,] 
Innetts/, mflgDlfving glass ; spec- 
lacles. [fr. Inne (from the 
Intheiien adj. Lutheran, Protes- 
tant, [fr. iwffter. proper naroe-l 
Inxe m. luxury. [L. luxum.\ 


my laily, tbe iadv, 

[ma and dams.] 

mademouelle 'iiig. msBdemoUetle* 

(Limsel. , 
nusuln III. m 

[fr. Arabic.] 
'mB^ter (T3A) m. schoolmasttr, 

dominie. [L. ] 
magiitrat m. magistriit^. [L.l 
owinlficenOB/. magnificence. [L.] 
maf oi. May. [L. mniii-m.] 
maim adj. meager, thin, lean. 

|C. macerum.] 
mu^ir r, grow tliin or mea^r or 

lean or emaciated, [fr. maigre.] 
luin /. band: & la main, in tbe 

hand ; entn In maim, between 

or into the bandn, intfl tlie 

charge. [L. innnum.] 
malnt pron. (S 113} many a, many. 

maiatenant adu. now, al present. 

[pple of maiatenir.] 
nuintenir r. (in'. 61) maintaJD, 

keep up. [main and tenlt, keep 

Id hand.] 
mail Ainj but. [L. mag£», mure.] 
"vaJM (74<0 m. maize, Indian corn. 

[Indian word.] 
BLauoa /. house, mansion : a la 

maliOD, in the house, at home. 

[L. «o™«,«.l 
maitre m. master, owner, ruler, 

teacher ; maitra BhanUnr, mas- 
ter or chief singer. [L, masii- 

mallianr "i. unhappine9s, misfor- 
tune, [fr. L, mnliim aiiguTivm,] 

malheonnx adj. unfortunate, un- 
happy, [fr. malhetu.] 

maUumnsts adj. dishonest ; un- 
civil, rude, [mal and hoQD^ta.J 

matin, mall^s |§ SSc) a-lj. maliu 
nant, mahgn. [L. nwiipnum.] 

malle /. trunk, mail. [fr. Q.] 

mauBhe m. /. [g 15it) handle ; 
sleeve, [fr. L. iiuinvs, hand.] 

manohattajl cuff. [fr. manohe.] 

nuugar r. eat. [L. inaniiue<ire, 

matiierg /. manner, way, method : 
de muiieTB, in such a way. In 
such wise, so ; de . . . que (g 137d), 
90 that. [fr. L. tiulnm; hand.] 

' «. manifest, show. [L.] 

in. / (§ Ibn) workman ; 


er. dl- 

maftniM /. mistre«s, ov. 

rector, [fem. lomaitis: g itw.j 
nuJMte/. majesty. [L.l 
mal arfc. badl^, ill. [L m'lle.] 
mil m. evil, ill, harm, hurt, pain, 

disease: avoir mal a (XIII. Sn ; 

§ S7u), havi^ pain or ache in. 

[L. malum.] 
m^ada a^. sick, ill : nn noun, 

sick person, patient. [L. mule 

(in, de), be lacking or absent, 
lack : fail, give way, leave in 
the lurch; just miss (§176/). 
[fr, L, laaiieiig. defective.] 

manteatt m. mantel, cloak. [L. 

mannsl adj. manual, with the 
hand. [L. manualrvt.] 

mannsorit m. manuscript. [L,] 

maraloher luij. for vegetable- rais- 
ing or market-gardening, vuge- 
tiible. [fr. maruf, marsh, net 

marohand m. dealer, retail mer- 
chant, shopkeeper, [fr. L. mer- 

marelw m. market : bo» marolie or 
a bon marohe, in a favorable 
market, cheaply, cheap. [L. 

maTBh«/. niarch, walk : an marohe, 
on the march, in motion, [fr. 

marober v. march, walk, advance 
get on, make progress. [!] 


nurdl m. Tnesday. [L. marlin 

diem, day of Mars.] 
mMMbJil m. marahfll. [fr. G,l 
marMhala /. {% IS) marshars wife. 

[fr. marlohal,] 
DUtrl m. liusLmia. [L. marilam,] 
manage m. marriage, [fr. muler.J 
matier o. marry, give in marriage: 

SB . . ., get manieil, many. [L. 

marque/, mark, aign, token, [fr. 

marqaer v. mark, mark out, dcs- 

ignaW. [fr. marqne.] 
marqnii m. marquis, [fr. G., fr. 

iimrk, frontier. I 
marqui»e /. (g 18c) marcbioness. 

[fr. marquiB.] 
*marB (74i^ m. March. [L. mar- 

martyr m. martyr. [L., fr. Gr.] 

maua m. massa (n^i'o/ui' master). 
[American word,] 

•mat I76fi) 'i/lj, dull, dt-ad ; check- 
mated, [fr. G. mrttt.] 

matelDt m. snilor. [?] 

matlii m. momiDg: de grand or 
bon matin, very early. [L. ma- 

maudiTB V. {irr. 10) curse, accurse. 
[L. rnaUdieere,] 

manraii adj. bad, evil, wicked, 
nauglily, wrong. [?] 

ms pron, me, lo me. [L. me.] 

mechaaMte /. wickedness, mis- 
chief, maliciouB act. [fr. me- 

mSdiant a^. wicked, bad, evil, 
malicious, mischievous. [fr. 
meB«hoir, L. minui cadere, turn 
put ill.] 

(iiT. 18) misunder- 
stand, misappreciate. [mS-, 
mis-, and eonnaltre, know] 
mioonteat a/lj. ill-content, disaatts 
fled, [mfr, mis , and oontent.] 
mfdeoine/ medicine. [L.J 
medioeritS/. mediocrity. [L.j 
meiUeni adj. (IX. S) better. [L. 

■melioitm, ] 
mSlanoollqae aiJj. melancholy. [L. 
Ir. Qr.' 

leler c. mis, mingie : ■• . . . Ii, be 
mixed wiUi, miic one's self up 
with, meddle witb, dabble in. 
[fr. L- mi»C6re.-\ 

lelon m. melon. [L,, fr. Qr,] 

lembra m, member, limb. [L. 

leme adj. (S 114) self, -sell 
(XXUI. 3e); self-same, same, 
very ; a* adv. even ; de mime, 
in Uie same manner, all the 
same. [fr. L. nemei ipmnmvm. 


% 16a) n 


/. menace, threat, [L. 
uner v. lead, conduct, take. \h. 

mat adv'. ending {XSSI. a)=ly. 
[L. nwnte, with mind.] 

lantonr m. mentauBe / (S lOn) 
liar : fls adj. lying, false, deceit- 
ful, [fr. mentir.] 

lentir v. {irr. 41) lie. tell a lie, 
Bpeak falEcly. I L. mentiri.} 


manton m. chin. 
tavaaadj. minute; — it* noun, 
matier, detail : lalle dea menoa, 

of a certain ball). [L. minu- 

meiKfs in. contempt, [fr. mSpdMi, 

mer/. sea.''[L. mnre.] 

marcd nt. gratitude, tlianka. [L. 

mercedem, recompense.] 
mereradi m. Wednraday. [L. wiw- 

enrii diem. Mercury s day.] 
aore /. motber. [L. nuid'em.] 
maridional idj. southern. [I,,] 
marita m. merit, desert, worti. 

merreilla /. miracle, marvel, won- 
der. [L. mmtlnlui-] 

merrailleuz adj. marvelous. Won- 
derful, [tr. merreillfl,] 

meadamaa, «e ' 

"meHienn, « 


mMim /. meaHure, meauB, method 

of action. [L.7nensuram.] 
motior m. buainesH, handicraft, 

occupation. [L. miiiisferiuin.] 
mstre m. meter, (a. little more than 

a) yard. [L. melrum, b. Gr.J 
mBttre n. (irr. 31) put, plf- -- 

e of, I 

s self at, hegiti, 
mence. [L. mitlere. Bend.] 

zaanrtrs m. murder, homicide, [fr. 
Q., =En^. murfUr.] 

midl m. middaj, noon, twelve 
o'clock. [L. medium diem,] 

miB /, crumb, particle, mite 
(I 165ri, 187s). pi, mieam.] 

mien adj. (XXVII. 1 i § 8T) mine, 
[fr. L. f^um.] 

mleiuc adr. (XXSI. 8) better; 
more : Is mleoz, best ; aimer 
mlenz, like betier, prefer (^ 
176^) ; de flon mienx, one's best 

•mil (68rf), »ee mUle. 

milieu m. middle, midsL [L. 

mediam toeuia, mid place.] 
•mille (88/), *mU (XV. 7; § 63) 

num. thousand. [L. mille,) 
•mlUe (68/) /. mile. [L. miUia, 

thousand (paceB).] 
million m. million, [fr. miUe.] 
milord, my lord. [English words, ] 
mina /. mien, bearing, aspect, 

look. [fr. It.; L. 

atnight. [tr-h. mediam 
minute/, mmule, moment, mxtietb 

of an hour. [L. viinulnm, 

small, fflinute.J 
miraole " ~-' — ' 

[fr. n . 
mala/, mode, style, fasliiou. [L. 

. miracle. [L. miratt 
mirror, looking-glasi 

atly. [fr. 

modeate <ti 
modeitemBnt adiJ. ] 

»m(Bnr» (74rf)/. pi. (S 24) maoneK, 

morata, habits. [L. moresA 
moip™«.me,tome, I. \h, me.^ 
moindra adj. (IX. 3) less : la moln- 

dre, least. _[L, mimrrem: 8 fc.] 
moini „di>, (XXXI. 8) less, the 

les3(XXXrV. 3); lemoinB, least; 

leas. [L- '«(■»«»] 
mola in, month. [L. nienwm.j 
moitie /. moiety, half. [L. mxiU- 

moment m. moment, instant. [L.] 
men, ma, mei pron. (XIV. I) my, 

[L. HWUWl.l 

monds m 

mon»Bignenr m. lay lord, his grace. 

[mon and Beigneur.] 
■^onfliaup (18ii, 73«) ning. *meg- 

aienr* (73o) /rf, m. (XIV. 4) the 

eentleman, sir, Mr., Messrs. 

[man and Elenr, L. neTiiorem.} 
montagns f. mountain. [L. mon- 

. world i company, 
set, audience : tont 
everybody. [L. mt 


tor '.<. mount, ascend, climb, 

ae ; get on to (o horee. etc,) ; 
■i upstairs. [fr. L. montem. 

montrer p. show, set forth, ex- 
hibit. [L. monatiixre.] 

moqnai v, mock : m . . . ds, deride , 
scoff, ridicule, make fun or 
game of. [?] 

mnal lulj. moral. [L.j 

momean m. bit, morsel, small 
piece, extract, [fr. L. ntorium, 
pple of mordm-e. bite.l 

mort / death. [L. mwtom." 

mort 'tdj. dead; as uoun,' .. 

person, corpse, [ppleolauf 




nuwqiiw /. nuwque, Uoliaiitmcdan 
place of worsLip. [fr. Amliic] 

mot "I. word, term, espresaion, 
ultemnce {% 167e) : domieT le 
mot, pass the word. [LL. mui- 

u,,., n. n 

motU m. motive, cause, reason. 

mouehe/. fly, Ineect. [L. ir.uicam.\ 
monohoir m, handkerchief. 

nunteber, fr. LL. maeear 


monlin m. mill. [L. nwlintim. It. 

moLa, millKloneJ 
monrir v. (irr. %i) die, decease. 

[L. ^m»-i.} 
moniqart m. musket, gun. [LL. 

mtiacheta. fr. m'ai'ca, flj.] 
moiiTOir ». (iit. 76) move. [L, 


[L. : 

moyen m. woy, 

maysniiBr v. mediiite, bring about : 
moTeimaiit, by means of, i 
sideration of. [fr. moyan., 
mngir I', low, bellow, {h. mugin.\ 
muraille/. walL [L, mtiralia.^ 
mormurer i>. murmur. [L.] 
■mmenm (6If>) m. muBeum. [L. 
fr. Gr.] 

. miuioiBnnB /. (§ 16) 
[tr, mwiquB.] 
mnaiqne/. music. [L.. fr. Qr.] 
mntlnOT s.: le . . ., mutiny, rebel, 
be refractory, [fr. muUn, fr. 
L., movedr] 
myitero m. mystery, secret, se- 
crecy. [L , fr. Gr.] 

naif adj. Bimple, UDaftecteil, artless, 

naJve. [L. nati'Dnm.] 
naltwuioe/ birth. [L. nii 
nattre c. (irr. 30) tie bom, 

into being or eidslence, spring 

up, arUe. [L. naKi,\ 
nappe/. lable-cloth. ]\,.mappam.\ 
nation/, nation. [L,] 
nationkl mlj. national, [fr. nation.] 
nature/, nature. [L.] 
Batoi*! (M^. natural. |L.] 

oatnTellement adv. naturallj. \ti. 

ne 'I'/r. (g 164 etc.) not : expUUte. 

g ITO. [L. noil..] I 

nSaniaoiu ade. nevertheless, [ni- m 

ant, nothing (fr. L. tie ent), Hnd 

Decestlte/. necesstty. [L.J 

negooiatenr m, necociaKir. [L.] 

neigrs/. snow. [L. n.ineam.\ 

nelger t. impen. snow. [fr. neig*.] 

nerf m. ^erfs [81a] pt.) nerve, 
sinew ; string. [L. 7i*r»um.] 

*net (Tflrt) adj. neat, clean, fair. 
[L. iiitidmn.'\ 

ittemBnt iidj>, neatly, clearly, dis- 
tinctly, [fr. net.] 

nettete /. neBtneas, clearness, con- 
ciseness, [fr.nrt.] 
lettoyer t. make neat or clean. 

. ninth, [fr. nenf 

ni adii. (XII. 

nor. [L. r 

nlsoe/. niece. 

[L. JMc] 
niece. \L. 

167/) neither, 

no., abbreti'n for n< 

noble adj. noble, exalted, lofty. 

[L. flooifcrn.] 
noblene/. nobility, [fr. nobl«.] 
noir (irff black. [L. nigi-um.l 
nom Ml. name ; reputation, char- 

nombrs in, number ; great number 
of, manv (g Hid) : una aombr*, 
numbcrleaa. innumerable. [L. 

nombranx adj. niimerouB. [L. n«- 

*Bombril (680) in. navet. [fr. L. 

nommer v. name, call or mentloii 

byname. [L. nWn^re,] 
noD iidv. (g 169, 300) not ; no : son 

pliu, not any more, either 

{%lfSlk). [L.non.] 


lata. {XV. 3a) ninety. 

[L. tiointginla.] 
nurd TO, north, [fr. G.] 
AOtra, not pron, (XIV. 1) our. [L. 


n6lH pron. (XSVII. 1) ours. [L. 

noitrum. ] 
noarrlBa/. nurse. [L. nuln'cem.] 
nonirir n, nourish, feed, [L. nti- 

QOn* pren. we, us, to ua. [L. jio« ] 
nouTMu, nouTBl 'idj. (VII. 7) new, 

recent, novel, new-fashioned. 

[L. noMtliim.J 
aouvella /. piece of news, news, 

nDTembrg m. November. [L.] 
aayer m. walnul-tree, walnut- 
wood, walnut, [fr. noiz, L. 

nn arlj. ^% fiSn) naked, bare, nude. 
|L. Hvkura.] 

nnlre v. (in; 4) injure, hftrm, do 
burt(to,&: glBIAj. [h. 'i«cere.] 

nnlt/. night. [L. noeiem.] 

nnl pron. (§ 111) not any, none, 
DO 1 no one ; null, of no value 
or effect: nulls part (2Sa>, no- 
where, [L. nuUu'it.] 

nnllement (ids. in no wise, not at 
all. [fr.nnl.] 

nnmero m, number (In a numbered 
series). [L. numero, abl. case.] 

nn-jdedi (g 6flu) ut^. barefoot, [no 
and pledi.] 

obelT e. be obedient (to, a ; g ISl/'), 

obey. [L. obedire.] 
ofajst TO. object, matter, article, 

thinr. [L. o^ef.Uim ] 
abligaHon/. otiligatioo : avoir obll- 

ntion, be under oblii^tiou. 

ohligar u, oblige, compel, force ; 

lay under obligation, do favors 

to. [L, obligare.] 
obBonr adj. obscure, hidden, dark. 

obiervation/. observation. [L.] 
obtarvn ti, observe, [L. obaermn ] 
otwtiner r. ;■'.,,, be obBtinate, per- 
sist, insist. [L. i^linare.\ 

obtenir v. {Irr. 61) obtain, IL. *i- 

oocsiion /. occasion, opportunity, 

oooident m. Occident, west. [Ii.] 
wcnpatiOD/. occupation. [L.] 
ooonper e. occupy ; a' . , ., occupy 
or employ ones self, be busy 
(with, ds), spend one's time (up- 
on, da). [L. Mcupure,] 
ooeans ailj. f. Ig bid) oceanic. IL.j 
■ ■ ^V. 3a) eighty, [L. 

)ber. (L.] 
.( g 2flA) eye. [L. 
ocutwii. I 
amf m. (*aaft [Bit] pi.) egg. [L. 

iBuvTo /. work, [L, operatn.] 
offeoaer v. offend. [L. ofeniare.l 
offloier m. officer. jX. oJUiariiim.] 
o&ir -n. (irr. 53) offer, set before, 
present ; >'..., make offer of 
one's self, offer, [fr. L. ofeira.] 
oh inteiy. oh I ah I 
*olgnon (43u} m. onioD. [L. 

IB. bird, [LL. avieellnra, 

oi^ a4i. idle, unoccupied, [fr. 

let pass, [L. omilCere.] 
*omnibiu ^^itl) "t, omnibus. [L., 

for all] 
OD pron. (XXVII, 4i § 106) one. 

peoille, they. l**F, horn, L. 

DUO, onqasB adts. (g ISTc) ever. [L. 

OQcle TO, wiele. [L. avaneulum.^ 

anqnaa, nee odd. 

onte (64/) num. eleven. [L. «n- 

opinion /. opinion, good opinion. 
oppoaerji. oppose, [ft.L.oppoittra.] 


ghame. [L. J 
or adv. anij. now, [L. Iioram, 

« m. gold. [L. aurum.] 

DTsge ">. Btonn. [fr. L. aura, 

oniion/ orotioD, Bpeecb ; prayer. 
[L. oralionem.] 

orange ni. oraiige ; orange color 
(§83(1). [fr, Persian.] 

ordmalcB a^/, ordinBiy, common, 
UBual. [L. ordiiiariutn.] 

ordlnklreinaDt ado, ordiUBTiljr, usu- 
ally, [fr. ordiiUilrs.'' 

ordoiuiar r. ^ve orders (to, &: 

>), order. [L. ordinare.^ 

erdie ia. order. [L. m^nem.] 

% 1616), t 

orallle/. ear. [L. avrieulam.] 
arleTTB m. ^Idsmith, jeweler. 

[fr, L. aiiTi ft^rum, worker in 

o^aniMtloii/. orgBnizatiDD. |L.] 
orgno m.f. (§ 16c) organ, [L. 

orgneil m. pride, [tr. G.J 
oriont ni. orient, east. [L. orien- 

orisntBi a4}. oriental, eastern. [L.] 
originkl ailj. original. [L,] 
oripDs/. origin. [L,] 
omement m. ornament, [L,] 
orphelin m. orphelins /. (§ 16) or- 
phan, orptmned. [fr. L. or- 



•oM. or ; on . . , on, eiUter 
-. [L.ant.] 
• pron. (XXVI. 8) where ? 
. _. J ; to or at or in which ; 
d'oL from where, whence ; pu 
oft, by what way or route ; on 
que (| 137c), wherever. [L. 
ovlili m. piece of forgetfulness, 
ovetaight, omission [ft. oublier.l 
onliUn t. forget, [fr. L. Mitin-i | 
a^i) m. west, [G.] 

onl (84/) adv. (§ 200) yes. [L. hen 
iliud, thai same.] 
ilr i>. (irr. 46) hear. [L. audire.] 
•an (74rf) m onwe/. (g 16) bear. 

*ontll (OBf!) m. tool, inmrument. 

[fr. L. uti, use.] 
outrage m. insult, abuse, maltreat- 

ment, outrage, [fr. ontrer, ex 

ceed, fr. L. iiltra?] 
ontrager i', insult, abuse, [fr. on. 

ontrepcep, beyond; besides. [L 

outrer r. go beyond, exceed, [fr. 

onvert adj. open ; frank, free. 
[pple of oBvrir,] 

ooverture/', opt-ning. [fr, ouvert.l 

onviagB Ml, work, fibor : result oi 
labor, product, woric, [fr, 
onvrer, L, operari,] 

oovrier m. ooTriSre J. (§ 18) work- 
er, laborer, workman or work- 
woman. [L. eperarium,'\ 

ouTrir B, iirr. 66) open ; open the 
door. [L. aperiie.] 

page/, page (of a book). [L, pa- 

paidion, boy.] 
paillMte /M. (§ Ua) itraw bed : 

clown, [fr, palllB,] 
paille / straw : ehalee de pelUe, 

straw. bottomed chair. [L. }tale- 

pain m. bread: petit ptdn, roll. 

biscuit. [L. ]ia/iem,] 
palilble iidj. peaceful, [fr, pali.) 
paix /. peace, quiet : en p^, in 

peace. [L. pac^n.] 
palaie la. palace, [L, palutium,} 
papier ni, basket. [L. panarium, 

for bread,] 
*paon (31a) in, peacock. [L.paitf- 

papiar m. paper. [L. popytiim.l 
p&qnem./ (tilfir)pnssoveT, Easter. 

[L. panc/imti, fr. Hebrew.] 
paqnet m, packet, package, parceL 

irr, a.l 

^K^^g 1 

pM pnp. by, fluwugh, by means 

the name of, on behalf of, as 

of: par oil, by what route or 
way. [L. perJi 
pawJtre p. (irr, 18) appear, be visi- 

from ; ponr ma (etc.) part, for 

my (etc.) part, so far aa I (etc.) 

am conc/rned ; aatre or qnalqne 

ble, show one's self ; seem. [L. 

or nnllB part (g SSii), elsewhere 


tir somewhere or nowhere; 

parblen inieij. zounds, [fr. par 

prendre part, take a part, share ; 


■e donner part, make one's self 

paroe qna eonj. because, for the 

a sharer, assume a share. [L. 

ressontbat. [p»r oe, by this. 1 


er over, go or pass tbrough. 

parti m. lUviaion, party, aide ; de- 

lerminalioQ, reaolutioD. [fr. 

traverse. [L. percurrere.] 


par-dessni nrfc. above, over and 

partaat iuIb. accordingly, hence. 

above, beyond, [par and doran*.] 

[par and tant.] 

pwdon !'i. pardon, forgiveness. 

partis f. part, portion, share, [fr. 


partir c. (irr. 38) set out, start, go 

thy of forgiveness, (fr. pardon- 

away, leave, depart. [L-ptrUre, 



partont adv. everywhere, [par 

don BnytWng (to, a, any one). 

and tout.] 

[LL. pei-donare.] 

parvenir v. {irr. 60) arrive, attain. 

parail tafj. like, similar, such : an 

reach one's object, succeed. [L. 

pareil, such a. [LL. pariculum, 
fr. L. par, equal] 

pai m. Blep, pac« ; footalep, track. *-* 

parent m. relative, parent. [L. 

[L. piisium.] 


pai adj). {mill ns) not (Xn.; |/ 

[fr. parent.] 
pareuenx atfj. idle, lazy. [fr. pa- 

g^W8-^l. [same as pas, | 

reuB, L. pigritiam. laziness.] 

ably, prety well. [fr. pauable, > 
fr. pauer.J 

parialtuty. perfect. [L.pei-ftctnni.] 

postage m. passage, passing, [fr. A 

1 par&it.] 


parier u. bet, wager ; dare say. [L. 

pauer n. pass, go on or by w i^ 

•pariare. balance, fr, par,] 

through; spend: le . . ., take 

1 parlwaent m. parliament [fr. 

place, occur, happen : le . . . 


de, dispense with, do without. 

forego, [probably fr. pai.] /^ 

Itr. paralST ' ' 

pauimt /. passion. [L.l 

paitenr m. pastor, shepherd, par- 

parier ra. speech, talk, words. 

[inf. of parlw.l 

son. [L. pa^torem.] ,' 

parloli m. talking-room, parlor. 

patre m. shepherd, herdsman. I— 

[fr. parUr.] "^ 


panul prep, among. [L. jwc im- 
diiim. tbrough (he midst.] 

patrie / one s own country, father- 

land. [L. palriam.] 

parole/, word: speech, language, 
[fr. L. parabolam. fr. Gr.] 

patte /. paw, foot, ! ?] 

part f. part, portion, share ; aide ; 

land. [fr. p£turer, fr. patnre, L, 

concern : a part, aside, opart ; 

de U part d«, on the part of, in 

panvra a^. (VUI. 6c ; § 60b)y 



fidhtf. peach. [L. } 

needy, pitiful, miaenble. [L. 

paiipeitm. ] 
*p*y« (37n) m. country, laod ; 

Fayi-Bki, Low Countiies, NeLh- 

ertonds, |L. pageimm. (r, pa 

gill, village.] 
"fttjnuKa (37a) m. landscape, [fr. 

"paywn (87a) m. peaaant [fr, p«y».] 
,b/. skin, hide, pelt. [L. pel- 

in. Per- 

pdohe / fishing, [fr. pscher, L. 

pUeari. ] 
padie m. ma, tregpase. [L. pewa- 

pedantJMite m. pedantry. [fr. 
pedant, fr. It.] 

peindrfl jj. {irr. 16) paint. [L 

peina /. pain, dietrcas, grief, anx- 
iety ; trouble, difflciSty ; pen- 
alty : a peina, with difficult, 
hardly, scarcely, but just. [L. 

pendant prep, during, pending ; 

pendant qne, during the time 

that, while, [pple of pandre, 

L. ptndere, hang.] 
peuetrsT o. penetrate, permeate. 

[L. penetriire.'] 
peniee/. thought, [fr. penaer.] 
panaar 7>, think : penier £, think 

on or of, turn one's thoughts to ; 

penaer de, think about, have an 

opinion of. [L. pensare, fr. 

pendere, hang. ]^ 
pantanr m. thinKer. |fr. pensei:] 
*paasnni (BDe) m. (aak unposed. 

*pentanietre (BQc) 

pardre v. lose ; ruin, undo. [L. 

pere m, father. [L. jinlyem.] 
pertW)tlonner v. make perfect, bring 
perfection, perfect, [fr. par- 
■ -I, L.J 

perflda n^. perfidious, treacheroiH, 

deceitfuL [L. perfd^im.] 
peril (BSd) m. peril, riak, danger. 

[L. periraiunj.] 
pariodiqae ai^. periodical. [fr. 

IwHode, L., fr. Gr.] 
perir v. perish, go to destruction. 

[L. perire.] 
parmettre «. (irr. 31) permit, allow. 

[L. pfrmiilere.^ 
permiaiion/. permission. \Ti.] 
perpetner *•. perpetuate. [L. per- 

parpetnel arfj. perpetual, never ead- 
[fr. L. jj«7w/ii«*.] 

. pentameter. 


Bonage ; ehfti^ 

peraaj] ailj. I 
peiBOnnage m. persona _ 

ncter, part. [ir. penonne.] 
p«rionne/. [terson, individual; own 

self: icith ne (SII, 4: §107*. 

167-B), nobody, no one, not any 

one. [h. personam.] 
personnel a^j. persond. [fr. per- 

peraoader i>. persuade, convince. 

petit arf). little, smalt, petty : n 
nown, little one, child, boy o, 
girl. [?] 

petitette f. litdenesa. pettlnes! 


pan ade. (and a» nt^M, m,) little, 
not much, not veiy ; few : pen a 
pen, little by little, by degrees ; 
a pen pras, within a little, al- 
most, nearly ; ponr pen qoa, how- 
ever little (§ 1 3Tc) ; tant hU pan, 
cTcr so little, slightly. [L.pou- 

penpte m. people. [L. pojndvvi.\ 
penr /, fear, fright, terror t aTolr 
pern (XIII. 6). feel fear, be 
afntid : faire penr, cause fear, 
frighten ; de pear de, for fear of ; 
de penr qne , . . ne (§ ITOo), for 
fear that "r [L. pnuoiem.] 
pent-etre adr. may be, perltapB. 
[fr. il pent (pouToir) itr«.] 


philoMpbe m. phftosopher. [Gr.] 

piece /. piece ; piece (of music, 

eU;.), dramatic piece, drama, 

play : tont d'nna pisM, all of one 

piece, without pliancy, stiff, 

piad m. foot : i pied, on foot. [L, 

piorrt /. s 


piote/. piety. [L,] 
pietra o^'. poor, 9orry, pitiful. [L. 

pedetlrem ] 
piqnai e. pique, atln^, offend, [fr. 

pic, poiut, fr. Celtic] 
pire ndj. (IX. S) worse. [L. jj^'o- 

pii adu. (XXXI. 8) worse. [L. 

piitDlet m. pistol. [?] 

plooe /, place, room, atead ; forti- 
fied place, stronghold. [L, 
ptaleaia, fr. Gr.] 

set, alation, fix. 


plaindfe B. fin'. 15) weep over, 
lament, pity :»«..., complain ; 
lament. [L. plangfre.] 

pUlnte /. plaint, lamentation, cry 
of grief or pain, groan, [fr. 


plalre v. {irr. 34) please, be pleas- 
ing or give pleasure (to, n ; 
§161A): piat i Diea, would to 
God ; i Bten ne plaiH {§ 16Sc), 
God forbid. [L. placere.] 

plalaant a^. pleasing, pleaBaul. 
[pple of pliira,] 

pM^ m. plea-iure : falre ploliLr, 
cause or give pleasure, gratify, 
[old inf., =pMre.] 

plonte /. plant, [h. pinnlam,'] 

plat "i. diah, platfl. [fr. G., 

plain aifi. full. [L. plenum.'] 
pleinement ode fully, [fr. ^dn.] 
plenrt m. pi. (^I2ft, 24) tears, cries. 

pilar r. fold, bend. [L. plieare.] 
plomb m. lead, [L. piumbitm.] 
plongei B. plunge, immerse, smk. 

[L, plumJtieare, fr. plumbum, 

pluia /. rain. [L.] 
plume /. feather, pen, plume. [L. 

. grei . . 
Ill plapart de {with a ... 
most of, most, [plni and part.] 
plna adv. (IX. 1«, XXXI. 8) 
more ; the more (SXXIV. 3) ; 
(with na; g 16T-B) no longer, no 
further, no more ; de jdu, 
moreover, besides, further, [L. 

plndann proa. pi. (g 112J several. 

[fr. plM.] 
plntSt atjs. Booner, rather, bv pref- 
erence: plntot quedefwiiA lu/.), 
rather than, [plot aiid tSt.] 
poaha/ pocket, [fr. G.] 
peSme m. poem. [L., fr. Qr.] 
poeiia/. poesy, poetiy, [L., fr. 

peete m. poet. [L.. fr. Or.] 
poing in. fist, clenched hand. [L. 

point m. point, dot, apot : a point, 
at the right point, in due rime ; 
(wa/i M : % ISS-S) not, not at 
all, by no means. [Ii. puruUum.\ 
poire/, pear. |L. ptru-ra.] 
poiriar m. pear-tree. [fr. poi».] 
pois in. pea. [L. piiura,] 
poiaiOD ut. flsh. [fr. L. pwwni.] 
poitrina/. breoflt. [fr. L. peelui.] 
polvra in. pepper. [L. piptr.] 
polioa f. police, matters of police. 

[L., fr, Gr] 
pommade/. pomade, [fr, pomme.] 
pomme /. apple : pomme da tarre, 

potato. [L. pomum.] 
populani (iifji. populous. [L.] 
poreeUine /, porcelain, china, 

piece of china-wore, ffr. It,] 
port III. port, harbor, place of ref- 
uge. [L, porlum.] 
porte/. door, gale. [L. porCam.] 
portee/. reach, compass, capadty, 
calibre, [fr. porter.] 

poTUnuntsui m. portmAUteai], 

li^-. [poTMi and BiBtoui.] | mxm 
poTtrmit m. ponreit. |fr. L. pro- pridin 

frktonz adj. prectoos, vslnable. 
[L. pntiotHmA 

pnetpitar f precipitate, burl head- 
long, [L.] 

pnooea <u$, precocious. [L. prw- 

P«Mi r. place, aet. la j : aa . . .. 

settle. aligbL [L. paii»are,\ 
potMder r. possess. [L. pMrnfrrg.] 
posMMtni fn. pu6ae«eor. [L. pu>- 

poM«ui«n/ possessjon. 
poMe /. post, p08t-offlt 

poatsrite/. postentir. 
pot w. pot. [L. yoh 
poterne /. posteni. 


[LL. p 

poor p'-ep. for, on accoiml o 
the sake of, in favor of : 
der to. to : as (| 154n): poor 
qua (g ISTd), in order that. [L. 

ponrqnai ads, eonj, for what, why. 
IpoDT and quoi.] 

pounniTra t. (irr. 33) pursue, fol- 
low, follow out, continue. [L. 

ponrtant uifc. for alt that, yet. 
Mill, nevertL(;lesB. [ponr and 

ponrroir v. {in: 69) provide : pom- 
vn que (^ 137^), provided that, 
provided. [L. pivridere] 

ponaiDi V. push, urge on. [L. piil- 

ponToir r. {in: 75, p. 119) be able, 
have power, can ; may. might 
(XXV. B/): 11 te pent, 
(XXV. if), it is possible, 
[L. ])o»te.\ 

pouTolr wi. power. [Int. of 

lar !', precede. [Jj. p'xecedere,] 

{irr, t) predict, foretell. 
[L. pradiiXTe. ] 
p«heo /. preface. [L. prafatio- 

pretvar r. prefer, [fr. L. prw- 


■prefix <81i) m. prefis. [L.] 

pramier ii<r. IItsL [L. pHmitrivia,'\ 

prandre r. (irr 30) take, take up, 

seise, take hold of, capture : 

t'j . . ., set one's self atnul aotoe- 

thing, proceed , manage : s'an . . . 

a, lay the blame on, inipuie. find 

fault with, come back upon: 

prendre earde, beware. [L. prt- 

preparer r. prepare, make ready. 

prw «rfr. prep, near, next : pre* de, 
near, near by, next to, [L. 

preience/. presence. [L.] 

preaent adj. present : a pretent, at 
present, now. [L.] 

preaentement ode. presently, im- 
mediately, [fr. pretutt.] 

preaenter n. present, offer. [L. 

preaque erfr. almost, nearly. [pri» 
and qne.) 

preuer c. press, urge, crond, hast- 
en, [L. p>'e~«.vr.l 

pr6t urfj. ready, prepared. [LL. 

pretendre c . put forth claim, claim, 
presume, profess, intend, pre- 
tend. [L. jnatendtre,] 

pieter ;. put forward, advance, 
lend ; put to une'fl account, at- 
tribute. [L, pi'(r'la]t.] 

pretre m, pneat, [L. preihjflerum, 
fr. Gr.] 

prier r, pray, beseech, beg. re- 
quest, ask; offer prayer : ■« Ure 
] prier, wait to be urged. [L. 
I preeari.] 


piinM m. prinee. [L. principem,] 
prineeBia /. printeas. [fr. prlnM : 

S is.l 

prinDipal "cf/. princip'^, chief. [L.] 
prinoipe m. principle. [L. priu- 

priTlldge m. privilege. [L.] 
prix m. price, coet ; prize, reward. 

[L. prelijim.] 
protebla adj. probable. [L.] 
probBblament ndD, probably, [fr. 

probable. | 
proeluiii adj. next, next following 

or to come. [fr. prooha.] 
proche adj. neur (to, de). [L. 

prwmwr v, procure. [L. proen- 

prodigoer v. be prodigal of, spend 

freely, lavish, [fr^ prodlgiia, L. 


profans mfj, profane, Becular. [L.] 

piofeueT r, profess, [fr. L. profm- 

pcofsuBnr m, professor, inetnictor, 
teacher. [L.] 

profentoD /. profession, occupa- 
tion. [L.] 

*pwfll I88J) m. profile, [fr. L. 
JU.v.m. thread.] 

proBter r. profit (by, de). take '"■ 

Et advantage, [fr. profit, fr. 
pmfeclaia. ) 
profoond adj. profound, deep. [L, 

proltuion /. profusion. [L,] 
primrw in. progress, advancement. 

prole /. prey : an prole i, a prey 

to. [Tj. prad(tm.\ 
pnijet m. project, plan. [L. pro- 

projBter r. project, plan. [fr. 

prouBoer r. lead forth, take ur 

sendabout; ae . . ., takea walk. 

[L. promiiiitre.] 
promena /. promise. (XL. pro- 

mumm, fr. promiltert^ 

I) promise, p,. 


pnunattre u. (n 

•prompter (Tla) v. prompt. 
prompt, L. pmmptiim.^ 

prononoer e. pronounce, utter, de- 
liver ; give opinion or judg- 
ment. [L. pi-oiiunliare,] 

prophets m, prophet. [L., fr. Gr.] 

ptopof 1)1. ttdk, discoui^Bc ; intent, 
purpose : a ;propo», to the pur- 
pose, in point, appoeltely ; i 
propol da. in connection with, as 
suggested by. [L. propotitum. ] 

propoMT o. propose, [fr. L. pro- 
poaere, ] 

opre itii. (§ Wi) own ; very ; suit- 
able ; nice, clean ; amooryropre, 
self-love. [L. prnprium.] 

proaperer a. prosper. [L. prospa. 

proiperita/. prospcri^. [L.] 
proteger e. protect. [L. pi-oUger'.] 
pronver o. prove. [L. probnre.] 
prorinoa /", province : Frovlnoea- 

Unlee, the United Provinces (of 

the Nelherlandsl. [L.l 
provoquflr v. provoke, exdte. [L. 

promrsare. Call forth.] 
*t^danunent (SOn) ide. prudently. 

[fr. prndent.] 
prndenoa /". prudence. [L.l 
pmdant idj, prudent. [L.T 
pablic 'u>j. public. ]Tj. piiolie "■ 
public HI. public, [same ar - 
pnbliMtion/. publication. 
*puoril (68(/) /idj. puerile. ^ , 
pnia ndr<. Ihen, next, thereafter. 

[L. pod.] 
pniiqne eonj. since, because, us. 

[pnla and qua,] 
pnlsisrauaent idr. powerfully, 

mightily, by force, [fr. poil- 

jwer, might, domin- 
ion, [fr, pniiaant-l 
poiaaant tii^. powerful, mighty. 
puissant, [old pple of ponvolr.] 
pnair r. punish. [L. puin're,] 
par ((([/. pure ; mere, simple. [L. 



qiuUfltr F. quality, entitle, term 
(as, da : g 168^), [LL. quiUi- 

qnalite J, quality. [L.] 

qnuid iiilt. coi.j. when ; if, sup- 

poBiDg tbat. [h. guaiido.] 
quant praii. bow mucb («■ many : 

qaaDt a, as for, as regards, in 

rfspecl to. [L. guaiUum.] 
qnarantalne f. two score, some 

forty. [fr.'<[uarante.] 
qaarantB num. forty. [L. gaad- 

qnart jium. fourtli (§ 86) : n*noHn, 

quarter, fourth part. [L. quar- 

four-score, eighty, [quatro and 

qoatriemB num. fourth, [fr. qaa- 

quB pron,: inteireg. (SXV. 4) 
what, which ; reUU. {XXVI. 2) 
which, that, whom ; what i§ 
103c): afler qui, qnoi, efc. (& 104), 
ever : erprettve (^ 9S, 14TA, ITSr) : 
ee qae (XXVI. 10), that which, 
what. [L. qvem, gvam, gtiod, 

■na eonj. tbat (6 Ml) ; tign of mihj. 
(VIII. 7i), ^a. after, Slja«/c.; 
making eo»j. phiwe*. XXXTV. 
6 i § 136-8 J in order that (§ 
137(^; Tepeatirig li tie. g 18Bi, 
SeiA ; /t>r loTiqne e/«. ^ fi21« ,- 
qua . . . na, unless, until, g 138r/ 
qna in eompaiinoii (IX. 4), (ban , 
BB ; afler qnelqne eU. (6 lOTe, d). 
eTer.-nB.. .qaa<XU-G; §167), 
only. [L. q"'Kl, qiinm.] 

quel proH. (XlU. 4) wimt, what a, 
which : qasl que (g 104) what- 
ever. [L. qaalem.] 

qnaloonqna pron, (g 108) whatever, 
wliatsoever, of some aort. [L. 

pro/,. (SI' 

; § 107) 

Bomc : about, nearly, some (g 
107'') : qnelqae choM <g 107"). 
EOmelhinf;, anything ; qnelqaa 
. . . que (^ 107c, <l). wliaterer, 
honever ; qoelqua pirt (§ Sin), 
somewhere. [L. qualemquatn.] 

quelquefoii "lip. sometimes, [qnd- 
qae and foia.] 

qnelqu'on ;);■"". (XXVII. B; g 107) 
Eome one, somebody, some peo- 
ple, some, [qnelqna and nn.f 

qnerelle /. quarrel, contest. [L, 

quereller c. quarrel nr wrangle 
with, Bcold, chide, [fr. qnerelle. ] 

qneriz v. {irr. 68) seek, look after. 
[L. q-'tnerr.] 

qui jn-on..- inlerrog. ISXV.; g 8ff) 
who, whom, what ; relat. 
(XXVI.; § 102) who, whom. 
that, which ; (§ lOS) whoever, 
— --- „jjQ^ what: qui que 

quint num. (g 68) (ifth ; fifth part 

(XVL 4r). [L. qmnlum,'\ 
qnlaze num. fifteen. [L. 5«(n- 

qniaaiSmo tivm. fifteenth. |fr. 

qnitte adj. free, rid, discharged. 

IL. guielum,'\ 
quitter 11. quit, leave ulnindon, 

give up. [fr. quitte.] 
quoi;»™n..'i»(CTi6ig. (XXV.l what; 

rdal. (XXVI. 8 i S 10S(/| what. 

which ; fxclam. (XXV .4.) what 1 

quoi que (^ 104), whatever : la 

quoi, wherewith, the means 

(XXVI. Rr). [L. oti-A] 
quolqne ™iy. (XXXIV. In ; g 187fc) 

though, although, [quel and 


rabattre r. {XX. Sc) beat down : 
aa . . ., fall back. [r* and 

racontar r. recount, relate, tell. 
[fr. floater.] 

*radooli (97ri) m. repair, [fr. O,] 


. make firm or strong 

a^io, reentorce, cooflnn. [fr. 

^ermir, fr. ferme,] 
Tafruchir v. refresh, freahea up. 

[fr. fraloMr, tr. ftaU.] 
ngofit m,. Blew, ragout. [fr. 

ftgontar, fr. goflt, tuste.] 

cause ; ratio, proportioD ; jus- 
tice, rigbC: & rnttoa, rightly; 
Moir T&usa (XIII. Ba), be right, 
liafe tbe right of it. [L. to- 
tionem. ] 

wgenoir i: rejuvenate, renew 
youlL, make "c become young 
again, [fr. jeiuiB, young.] 

rameuer e. bring back. [fr. 

npide 'idj, rapid, swift, fleet. [L.l 

rappeler v. (SSI. Sr) recall, call 
back, [ti and app«ler.] 

r»pp«rter v. bring or cany tmek, 
refer; I'sn . . . i, refer one's 
self to, leave tbe decision to, 
abide by the judgment of. [ra 
and apportar.] 

•rapt (76u) m. rape. [L.raptum.] 

rars adj. rare, unusual, uncom- 
mon. [L.rarum.^ 

raur r. ahave. [L. reuare.] 

raiuBiar v, satiate, aatiafy, surfeit, 
[fr. L. aa-ialMn. fr. Mti*. 

ratorar u. scratch out, erase, 
cancel, [fr. rature, fr. ?] 

ravir c. ravisli ; enrapture, de- 
light, cbann. [L. rapere.] 

raviver n. revive, bring back to 
life. [fr. vjf, alive.] 

rSallto /. reality. [L.] 

reoeption /. reception, 
(into a Bociely). [L.] 

. (i>r. 65) r 

recipe It,'] 
r«eherohe/. research, search, [fr. 

rseheriihBT, re and ohsrobar.] 
rscit ni. recital, narrative, story, 

lale. [fr. reciter.] 
Teoltn B. redte, rehearse, declaim ; 

roeolta in. harvest, crop. [L. re- 


rMonnaltra j>, (I'rr. 18) know again, 

I'ecognize. [re and conuattrg] 
reoonrir v. {irr, 52) recur, go back. 

[rs and oourir.] 
reoouvier ». recover, regain. [L. 

reouperare, ] 
reonler v. pull or draw or throw 

back : IB . , ., draw back, back, 

recoil.] [fr. col.] 
redaeteor m. editor, [fr. L, it- 

riaclum, put in shapeT] 
redoublar o. (de : g 162/) redouble, 

make twice ns moch. [fr. 

redon table adj, redoubtable, for- 
midable, [fr. redonter, fr. douta, 

rednire e. (irr. I) reduce. [L. re- 

refenoBr v. close or shut again, re- 
close, [ra and former. ] 
reflenhir v. reflect, meditate. [L. 

raflet in, reflection, reflected im- 
age, [fr. nSeter, L. reJUetei-e.] 
reflexion/, reflection. [L.] 
refroldlr i>. cool down, become less 

warm, chill or slacken, [fr. 

froid, cold.] 
regard m. look, glance, notice. 

[fr. rejarder.] 
regarder p. look, look to, see ; loolc 

at, gaze at, regard ; have regard 

or respect to, concern, [re and 

gardar, keep.] 
regiment ni. regimenL [L.] 
regie/, rule. [L. regulam.] 
legne m. reign. [L. regniim.] 
regner b. reign, rule, govern. [L. 

regret m. regret, sorrow, concern. 

[fr. regratter.] 
regretter B. regret. [?] 
reine/. queen : reine-mire, queca- 

mother, king's mother. [L. 

rq'slndre p. (irr. 17) rejoin, [re 

and joindre.] 
relatlaa /. relation, connectiDn. 

nUgtuT c. relegate, consign, ex- 

Ue. [L. i-ekgure.] 



rBligi«M[ <«y. religious : at noun. 

monk. [L. religiotTim.^ 
itUgioaf. religion. (L,] 
renL&Tqiier r. remark, notice, [re 

aod muqtLer.] 
iMuMtr* p. (ii-r. 81) put bock, put 

again, set again ; band over, 

consign ; le . . . a, begin or com- 

/. remonstrance. [ 
', show Bgalu.] 
move, Btir. [L. 

tendre t. render, return, give hack, 
restore ; make, cause to be ; 
give, pay, rto. IL. redden.^ 

Tsnoncw v. (wlthw.: § TB, 161i) Te- 

rsnonTelar 0. (XXI. 3«) make new 
again, renew, [fr. re and nan- 
rents /. rent, income. [L. reddi- 

rentrsr c. re-enter, go back in. 

[re and eatrer.] 
ronversBr v. overthrow, lay low, 

knock or throw down. [fr. L. 

. (iri 

) send back 


[re and envorer.j 
ripandre v. spread abroad, Bcatler, 

diffuse, shed. [fr. L. reexpan- 

repentir v.; ae . . ., repent, [fr. L. 

repetsr n. rei>eat. [I., repetere.] 
repondre b. respond, reply, an- 

Hwer ; . . . de, be answerable or 

responsible for, warrant. [L. 

reponia /. response. [L. I'espen- 

repnter c. bring or carry back. 

[« and portar. J 
ropo* III. repose, calm, rest, [fr. 


repotueer e. push bock, repulse, 
Ihrust off. JL. f'e-puUare.] 

reprendre r, (trr. 30) take again, 
reGimic, recover ; begin again, 
go on lo say. [ra and prendre.] 

repreMntei tt. represent. [L.] 

reproBher c. make n matter of re 
proacli or reproof, reproach (flny 
one, a : g IBIA) for. [re and 
proobe, Dcar.J 

Tepabliaain aify, republican, [fr. 
repnbllqne,] /. republic. [L.] 

repTtgnanee /. repugnance, aver- 
sion, [fr. L. repugnnre.] 

resiiter v. Uniik i.: § 161^) resist. 

reeoudre r. (in: 30) resolve. [L. 

resolntion .r. resolution. [L,] 

reipeet (76<() m. respect, regard. 

reipirer r. respire, breathe ; be- 
token. [L,] 

*Teuemblan<w < 18(f)/. resemblance, 
likeness, [fr. reMamblsr.] 

*Teuemblsr(18E/) r. {with a : ^ 1812') 
be like, reacmble. [re and 

•ressonpoe (lid) f. resource, [fr. 

restanratioD /. restoration, [fr. 
L rtetiiunire.] _ 

rests m. rest, remainder, remnant. 
(fr. raater.] 

reater v. remain, be left, slay, con 
tinue. [L. renlare.] 

rMulter c. result, ensue. [L. re- 

retardar v. retard, delay, put off. 

retenlr c. (i>r. 81) hold back, re- 
lain, restrain. |X. rftinire.] 

retirar P. drawback, draw, derive: 
■a . , ., draw one's self back, 
withdraw, retire, retreat, [ra 
and tlrer.] 


MtmiT m. letum. [fr. ratoniner.] > 

ratiiBrn*r o. return, turn back or 
the other way: ea . . ., turn 
around or back ; a'en . . ., go "'■ 
come back, return. [le and 

retntlte /. retreat, [fr. letralre, 
L, re-lrahere.] 

retroaTei v, jnd Bgain. [re and 

Tennir n. reunite ; unite, joia, 

combine, [ra and onir.] 
rSnasir w. succeed (in, S). [ro and 

rSvar c. dream, muse, eserciae the 
imagination, be in a revery, rave. 
[fr. rSva, dream, fr, 1] 

rBTWiir B. liiT. 60) come back, re- 
turn. [L. ^■^>.ire.] 

rBTBtir V. (irr. 5i) put on again, 

, clothe one's self Ij, put on. [re 


nroir r. (in. _., ___ ..„—., ._ 
view. \L. rerid^it.] 

reroltar o. revolt ; rouse to rebel- 
lion or oppositloii, shock, [fr. 
rSrolte, L. recoluiam,] 

TBvolntion/. revolution. [L. 


[fr. Eng- 

riohe ni*!. rich. [fr. 0.] 
rioheisa' /. riches, wealth, [fr. 

ridlsnle m!J. ridiculous. [L. rtdi- 

ridlcnle m. ridiculausncss, absur- 
dity, [same as adj.] 

risn pron.. (leit/i ne: XII. 4; S 
IOTA, 16T-8) not anything, noth- 
ing; anything; ilea qa'i or 
rien que de, merely by, by noth- 
ing but, [L. 

riva/. Ihuik, shore. [L. ripam.] 
rob*/, dress, frock, [fr, G.] 
robinat m. stop-cock, faucet, [fr 

Bobiu, nicbmme for sheep.] 
roi m. Mag. [L. regem. ] 

romanoler m 

eliat. [fr. r 
rompre f. (XX. Zli) break, burat. 

[L. nimpere.] 
row/, rose. [L. n«am.] 
imigt adj. red. [L. rufeuwi.] 
ronKflnr mi. redness, blush, [fr. 

rsnsir v. turn red, blush, [fr. 

TontB /, route, course, way, road. 

[L. riipUm.'] 
roni, rooue (S 88e) ihS. red, red- 
dish. [L. rwaum.'] 
royal «rf?. royal. [L. regalem.'\ 
royBliite m. royalist, of the king's 

party, [fr. royal.] 
royatune m. kingdom, realm, [fr. 




royaate /. r 
mban m. ril 
rode adj. rough, coarse, rude. [L. 

mdeBBe / rudeness, coarseness, 

harshness, [fr. mda.j 
me / street. [LL. rugam, tur- 

HMrlflco m. sacrifice. [L.] 
■aoilfler v. sacrifice. IXi. taeri- 

Mwcilega m. sacrilege. [L.] 

sage adj. sage, wise ; well-be- 
haved. [L. wjiiuHi.] 

saint adj. holy, sacred, saintly i 
an itoun. Mint. [L. »'i'ietumj 

■aisir o. seize, take hold of. [LJi. 
mr,ire. fr. Q.] 

"' — ' , time of year. [L. 

a manglr (^ IBS'/), dlninB^ 
. ffr. G., =Gtrm. «W.] 
■alon I", saloon, large room, par 
lor. [fr. saUe.] 


lUMdi m. Sdturfuy. [L. mMati 
diem, day of aabbatb (Hebrew).] 

••Mond (68/) num. second. [L, " 


MDK >». blood : kindred, race. [L. 

*.«onde (68/)/- second, sixtieth of 

a minute, [same as Dum.l 

•lewinder (68/) o. second, stand 

Mnglant u^. bloody. [L. «an- 


by, support, [fr, lecand,] 

wnt ;>i'«p. (g 210) without ; apart 

teoonn m. succor, aid, help. [L. 

front, but for : Mnl que (vn;. 

(XXXrV. as : g ISTt) without 

Mflut m. secret. [L.] 

that, without, unless, [L. nne.] 

tein M. bosom. [L. niH/tn,] 

aante/, health. [L. snnrtnfam.l 
■fttin "., Butin. itr. L. irte, silk.l 

letie num. sixleeu. [L. sarfeci'm.] 

iqour ni. sojourn, stay, slop. [fr. 
L. $i>hanadiurn.iii.'\ 

selw. salt. [I., ml.} 

conleut. [L. g«(t)i/n«in!.] 

lelon p^-cp. according to, on the 

unter i:. jump, leap, [L. aaltare.] 
tftuvaga (uj;. wild, barbarou!!, sav- 

authority of. [L. mb-Umgvm, 


age. [L, tilcalictim.'] 
•auvw r, save. [L. raicara.] 

semaine/. week, tL sepCimanam.] 

»Bnveur m. gavior, deliverer, [fr. 

noun, fellow, fellow-being, [fr. 



lavant tidj, knowing, wise, leam- 

Mmliler «. seem, appear, [h. 


scbolar. [old pple of lavoir.] 

•eens (7M) m. sense, hitellect, un- 

■avoir r. {irr. 77 ; p. 159) know ; 

know as, know to be ; ((m"(/i inf.) 

way, direction; bon sens, good 

know how. [L. tapere.] 

lavon in. soap. [L. mpanem.] 

■entier m. track, path, footway. 

■avonner c. soap, lather, wash. 

[L. gemitai-iam.] 

[fr. Mvon.] 

■antinient m. sentiment, feeling. 

■ayaete /. saj-net, little Spanish 

[fr. wntir.] 

farce. [Spanish.] 
Maadaliier v. Bcandalize, give of- 

aantir c. (trr. 40) feel, be sensible or 
have a sense of, be conscious. 

fense, [fr. L. smndalum.i 

[L. lentire.] 

H^lfeftt m. villain, scoundrel. [L. 

VMix t>. {irr. 78) dt. [L. sedereA 
*Bept (71«, 76a) n«ni. seven. [L. 

•dne /. scene; stage. [L,. fr. 


wptante iiitwi. (XV. 8o) seventy. 

science /, science, knowledge. 

[L, cep(?last*a(a.] 

sKill. [L.] 

Mptembre m. September. [L.l 
•»epti&ii« (71a) num. seventh. \tt. 

Borupnle m. scruple, qualm. [L. 



■feolpter {11a) n. sculpture, cut oi- 

sergent m. sergeant : larKant de 

carve in stone, [fr. L. tculpere. 

•wttlptBar (71.1) m. sculptor. [L. 
•Bonlptara (71")/. sculpture. [L. 

"errfeitlem, servant.] 

» p™,,, (XSIII. 4; XXIX. S 


one's self. [h. m.] 
■eance f. sitting, sesdon. [fr. 

■erieoi lulj. serloua. [fr. L. «■ 



BBrmonner p. preach to, lecture. 

■M, Mohs (VII. 64) a4i. dry. IL. 

[L. ».rm^nak] 

^ (Kfium.] > urvles m. service. [L.] H 


•arrlrtt* /. napkin, [fr. gervir.] 
MTTir 0. {in: 44) serre ; be of use, 
avail, advantiigc, help ; serve 
up, put on Ifac table : tervir de, 
serve as, take or fill tbe place of 
(g IBlg) ; Be aerrir de, nerve one's 
self with, make use of, employ. 

terviteoT mi. strviior, servant. 

HvU m. sill, threahold. [L. 

BSvl a^, sole, alone, only, single 

[L. fol'im.] 
■enlement adv. only, solely, sini 

ply. [fr. lenl.j 
aivin itr/j, severe, strict, Stem 

austere, restrained. [L.] 
Hxe m, hex: [L. texuin,] 
ticnj. (XXXIV. lb; gIBSi, ISSii 

■ieals ni. age, centuij. 

lieKs m, seat, aitting ; siege, [fr. 

L. iiedu.] 

■lea pron. (XXVII. 1) Ills, hera, 

its. [L. nuum.] 
ilenr m. master, Mr, [L. tewi- 

tl^g III. sign. [L, tigiium.] 
*si^et {B3b) m. signet ; mark, 

pr. ligDe.] 
lilesBe m, silence: gsfder . . ., 

keep silence, be silent. [L.] 
■illoa m. furrow, [fr. ilUer, fr. 


■illonner t, furrow, groove, wrin- 
kle, [fr. liUon.] 

limple iu(j. simple. [L. limplum.] 

iineere a^. sincere. [L.I 

■inoerament adv. sincerely, [fr. 

■iDRnlier adi. singular, peculiar, 

(Iniitre ai^. sinister, insuaptclous, 
dismal. [L.l 

.Ira m. aire, air. [L. »enwr (§ 


aitoation /. situation, condition. 

•six (81?/, 85I-) niiin. six. [L. ftra,] 
*8ixainG(Bl<:)/.lia1fn dozen, some 

six. [fr. .Ix(geT).] 
•iixletno (81c) num. sistli. [fr. 

HwiBte/. society. [L.J 
VBurf. dater. iL. wi-or (g 4c).] 
u>i pron. (XXlIl. 4 ; g 84) one's 

self, [same as se.J 
loi-dlaant mlj. (% IMe) self-styled, 

professed, pretended. [«oi and 

dlaant, pple of dire,] 
Kief. silk. [L. «■?«>«.] 
eolraer c. take core of, tend, nurse. 

Mir m. evening, la,[ter part of the 

day. [L. xcrum, lale.] 
wit coiij. whether, or ; be it ; l)e It 

so. [aubj. pres. 3d aing. of 

•aolxantaine {»U} f. Uirce-scote, 
aome sixly. [fr. Boixaate (g 6T].] 

'■sizante (Blc) num. sixty. [L. 

•oldat m. aoldier. [LL. toidatTim, 

aoltdl m. Bun ; sunshine. [L. icK- 

euium, fr. sol, aun.] 
'■olaimel (26a) iu}j. solemn, [fr 

L. aoteiiinii.l 
■Dlitaire <ulj. solitary. [L.] 
•olitndB /. aolitude. [X.] 
■on, la, SB* pron. (XIV. 1) his, her, 

its. [L. mnm.] 
tan m, sound. [L. annum.] 
■onge III., dream, re very, [L. 

longer «. dream, muse, meditate, 
reflecl,lliink(of, a;§16Ie). [fr. 

louuer n. ring, ring for. [L. 

„ , clear-sound- 
ing, loud, ringing, [L.] 
Bort m. lot, fate, destiny. [L. 

Borto /. sort, kind, species ; da la 



HTt*, aft^r tbftt fashion, in ibis 
or that way. [L, fuHmn.] 

•ortir c. (in: 39) come <jc go forth, 
issue, proceed ; go out (from 
room, etc, , da) : lorUr de, qmt, 
leave, abandon. [L. firUrC] 

ut (Tfl/T) fny foolisli, silly, stupid ; 
at liou,,. fool. Hilly fellow, 
blockhead. [?] 

MttiM/. folly, piwM) of folly, silly 
act. [fr. Mt.] 

tondain atlj. eiiddim ; im 
(XXXI. B) suddenly. [L. tuU- 

lonffi^noe /. suffering, [fr. louf- 

. (irr. 54) suffer. [L. 

■DoScir t 

lootre n. sulphur ; sulphur color 
of sulphur color [^ 53d). [L. 

■Dokaitar t. wish, desire. [fi 

iW. Miter, U. O.T] 
■oU (6Ta) a^. stLtiated, surfeited. 

[L. aatuUum, it. OT'ul'.] 
loolagtr V. solace, comfort, help. 

[L. aul>-ieviafej\ 
•onlier m. shoe. [?] 
soapfoa m. suspicion. [L, iics- 

■onpfonnai a, suspect, form or 

have a, suspicion of. [fr. tovp- 

Bonpe ,/. soup [fr. O.] 
aonpiBrB /. soup-Bisli, tu: 

Boupir m. sigh. [L. auapiriifm.'l 
'idhtdU (eSc) m. eyebrow. [ 

■ourd u<!}. low-loned, obscure 

sound, dull; deaf. [L. riirdum.} 
BDotlre V. {ill: 18) smile. [L. 

■oni prep, under, beneath, below. 
[L. ttiMue.] 

■oatanir c. (tri; 61) sustain, up- 
bold, support, maiDtaln, pro- 
tect, favor. [L. tustinere.] 

•ouUier c. wiiidraw, subtract 
(from, a: g 1610. [Mat and 


recollect, be reminded ot. [L. 

remembrance, recol- 
lection ; memorial, memeob), 
souvenir, [inf. of sonvenir.] 

■cniTBat adp. oflEn, frequeatty. 
[L. *abind^.] 

■aaTeraiD m. — 

'ipeoimsn (Sid) m. specimen. [L.] 

apeotateoi m. specialor. '"'' ^ 



suhjngnBr r. subjugate. [L.] 
tnblime adj. sublime. [L.] 
■atnister a, subsist, exist, contiuuei 

[L, «ui«tB(fiiul 
*snbtil (68rf) a0. subtile. II,.] 
tacoader e. succeed : ... a, suc- 
ceed to, follow. [L. xacccdert-l 
vaooai m success. [L ] 

Buecomber r. succumb, give w(iy, 

perish. [L. meciunbere, | 
Sucre III. sugar, [fr. Arabic 1 
•■ad i60u) ni. soulh. [/r. 0.] 
■afBro V. (irr. 6) suffice, be Buffl- . 

cicnl w enough. IL. si-Jicen.} 
loite /. what follows, sequel, 
troiu : succcssioo, series, suite : 
tout da inita, at once, immedi- 
ately. [L, teeutuiii.] 
inivra c. ((;■(■. 88j follow. [L. 

iBJet aij;. subject, liable. [L. 

■qjet in. subject, reason, occasion, 

cause, [t. >urg,-cl„m.] 
snperbs aiQ. proud. [L. 

•applisr r. supplicate, beseech, 
beg. [L. sup/iUcar/:] 

■appoaai f. suppose, make the sup- 
position, "- ' - - 

BUT prep, on, upon 
about, near to ; c 
on the strength of 

[L. iuptr- 


■flr ai^. sure, secure, steady, trust- 
worthy. [L. secuminA 
aarfaoB /'. BUrface. [L. super 

BarpreiidrB it. (irr. 30) lake by sur- 
prise, surprise. [■HI' and pren- 

BorprisB /. surprise, ostonisbment. 
[fr. lorpren^e.] 

BortiKit mir. almve all, especially, 
[inr and tout.] 

■urrBnir v. {in: 60) auperi-nne, 
come unexpectedly, befitll [L. 

inrviTW c. (in; 33) survive, out- 
live (ail/i i : § IBli). [snr and 

■UB ndB, above, upon : an *in» 
(71(i), over and above, besides. 

tospact aif} Buapectcd, suspicious. 

[L. tuipeeluja.] 
i;ntenie m. system. [L., fr. Gr] 

tabao (E8^) in. tobacco. [Indian 

table/, table. [L. t'lbvlam.] 
tablBaum. picture, painting, [fr. 

ytaoha/. task. [LL. laxam, fr. L. 

toirare, tax.] 
taiUani in. tAUor. [fr. talUar, cut, 

fr. L. taleam, cut branch.] 
taire v. (iVr, 35) keep secret or 

silent: M . . ., be silent, keep 

silence, hold one's pence. [L. 

talBDt m. talent, natural gift, 
ability, capacity. [L., fr. Q.] 

tandli que can}, nnilst, while, 
whereas. [L, lam diem quod.] 

tant iide, bo much or many, as 
much or many : b1 tont e«t que, 
if so be that, supposing that ; 
tant Boit pan, ever so little, 
slightly, in some measure ; tant 
qne (g ISTa), so long as, [L. 

tantB /. aunt, [ta and ante, L. 

t adr. presently, soon : tan- 

iiTiadi). \ate. [L. lardum, alow.] i 

tane/. cup. [fr, Arabic] *— 

to pron. thee, to tliee. [L, te.] 

tal pron. (§ 110) such (such a, ns 
tal) ; such a one, so and so ; 
one, another, as . . . so : tel qua, 
whatever, any soever ; telle 
qoelle, such as it is, in whatever 
condition. [L. Ialem.~\ 

temaigner n. testify, atlest, indi- 
cate, show. [fr. timoin.] 

temoin m. witness ; testimony, evi- 
dence. [L. teniinioiiiiim.] 

tempa m, time ; weather. [L. 

tendtMiB _/'. tenderness, fondness, 
[fr, tendre, L. lenernm.] 

tenlr v. (i'T. 61) hold, keep : teaei 
(g asiO), hold, look here, well 
now ; le . . ., keep one's self, 
stay, stand ; teidr lien de, net Ubs : 
tsi^ tete a, we tetB, [L. lenere.] 

tBTTB /, earth, gi'ound, lajid ; da 
terre, earthen ; a tBrrB, on the 
ground. [L. fciTiim,] 

tarrenr / terror, dread, fright ; 
la Terrenr, the Terror, the lime 
of tear and dread during Ihe 
French revolution. [X.] 

terrible ii<lj. terrible. [L.T 

territoira m. territory, [t. terri- 

teslament, will. [L ] 
9ie /. head : tenlr tata a, make 
head against, cope with, resiat ; 
perdre ik tete, lose one's head or 
witB or presence of mind. [L. 

teta-a-tate m. private Interview, 

theatre m. theater, stage. [L., fr. 

theme m. theme, exercise. [Gr.] 
thaolDfien m. tbwlonanne/. (g 16) 

theologian. [Gr.J 
lien pron. thine, [L, ti 

n, ^MTM (g I 

1. third. [L. 

timbre ni. l)ell. [L. fywpimwm.] 
timido (ti'T timid, fearful, [L.l 
tirw r, ontw, pull; derive; dia 
charge, shoot off, shoot : tirer 
It, Ungna, Me langne. [fr. Q., 
=Eng. ifir.] 
toi pran. thee, tfl thee. IL. («.] 
Mile /. cloth ; cnnvM, hence pic- 
ture, [L. lelatn.] 
tombe/. tomb, grave. [L., fr. Gr.l 
tomber r. fall, tumble. [I'r. O. (?)] 
toma III. lome, volume. [L., fr. 

ton j«. tone. [L., fr, Gr,] 
ton, ta, tM proii. lliy, [L. fiium.] 
tonner t; impera. thunder. [L. 

tonent vi. torrent. [L.] 

tort m. wrong, harm ; avoir tort 
(Xlil. 6a), be in the wrong, be 
wrong ; a tort, wrongly. [L. 
loTtuvi, twisted-l 

tortneox adi, tortuous, involved. 

tit •ids. BOOH. [L. loglum, burnt 

tonoher n. touch, be in contact 
with, be close upon, approach ; 
lay the band upon, handle, med- 
dle nitli : touah wiib emotion, 
move : touohei a, be close upon 
or in conlacl with, meddle 
with. [?] 

tom'onrs udi'. always, all the time ; 
even now, still, yet, all the same, 
[fr. toiu jean, all days.] 

tonr in, turn. [Cr. tonmer.] 

Toiuaaint /. All Saints' day. [tom 

tout (*toM, 74d) pron. (XIV. 64 ; 
i; 116) all, every, whole ; every- 
thing, everybody, tbe whole : ai ' 
adv. (g 116c) wholly, entirely, 
quite, altogether : tonte chOH, 
everything ; tom deux or totu 
iM denz (XXVIl. 7(1), both; 
tent le monde (XXTO. 7*), 
everybody ; da tont, at all ; 


tont . . . qne (% 116(f), howeror; 
tottt ti nonp. all at oace, Bad- 
denly ; tont i fait, wholly, en- 
tirely ; tout i rhenra, just now ; 
tont'de luite, at once, immedi- 
ately. lL.<otum.^ 

toutetoia aitr. yet, bowever, never- 
theless, [toute fola, everv time.] 

tout-pniaauit oi^'. (g SBd) all-power- 
ful, [tent and pniiiBnt.] 

traoa /, trace, [fr, traMr.l 

tracer r, trace, (&aw, sket^, out- 
line, [fr. L, ir/icti-t.] 

trftdnixB v, (in; 1) tro!islate. [L. 

tragedio / tragedy. [L , fr, Gr.l 

trsglqne adj. tragic. [L.. fr. Gr.] 

trahir v. betray, be traitor to, de- 
ceive, frustrate, abuse. [L. 
Ir/uiere, deliver.t 

trainsT ». drag alter one, draw 
along, trail, [fr. train, train, 
fr. traire.] 

traire o. (irr. gl) draw, milk. [L. 

trait in trait, feature, lineament ; 
arrow, shati, dart. [L, traetvm, 

traitar c. treat (as, da : g 162?). 
[L, traelare.] 

traitre Hi. traitor. IL. irudUor 

•tranquille (68/) >iiJj. tranquil, 
calm. [L,] 

*tranqiuUflment (BSf) 'idr, tran- 
quilly, cahnlv. [fr. tranqnille.] 


nransit (746, 76<7)m. transit. IL.] 

travail (g Sin) m. work, labor, 
toil, travail, [fr. L. imbem, 
beam (T).] 

travaillBT e. work, toil, labor. 
[fr. travail.] 

travera m. oddity, whim, caprice. 

traveraor i. iravetsCj 

over or through, 
treiie 7] rim. thirteen. \L. Iredecim',] 
treiiilme ntnn. tbirteenth. [fr. 




tremble. [fr. L. 

tremper c. steep, soak, wet, dip. 

[L. temperare.] 
trentaiiM /. (^ 67) some tliirty. 

[rr. trentel 
trentB num. tLirty. [L. triginta.] 
trSi itrfi. very, very mucU. [L. 

tiSior m. treasure, treaBury. [L. 
' tA^nunim, fr. (jr.] 
tTHwdlUr T>. (11')'. 40) atan, be 
startled or agitated. [L. Irniw- 

trloot m. knitting, knitted work, 

network, [fr. triootor, knit, fr, 

G. ilrifkenA 
trionLplia in. triumpli. [L.] 
triompher v. triumpb, gain the 

victory (over, da). [fr. tri- 

triste a4i. and, dull, dreary. [L. 

trittement ode. sadJy. [fr. triste ] 
tristeiM /, sadneas, melancholy, 

gloom, [fr. triits.] 
trois num. tUree. [L. trea.] 
troitiSme nujn. third, [fr. trois.] 
tromper b. deceive, mislead, cbeat, 
baffle, disappoint: ae ..., de- 
ceive one's self, be mlHtaken, 
make a mislake. [?J 
trompeur m, tmnpeuiey'. (g 16) de- 
ceiver; ai adj. deceitful, mis- 
leading, treacberouB. [fr. trou- 
trfina m. throne. [L., fr, Ur.] 
trap adp. too, too much, in excess, 
beyond wbnt is called for : de 
trap, supcrSuous, not wonted, 
better away ; troppan-too little, [ ?] 
tronbler v. trouble, disturb, agi- 
tate, sllr up : M , . ., b«»inie 
disturbed or a^tated or con- 
fused, falter. [L. turMare.] 
tronpa /. troop, band. [LL. trap. 

p<im. fr. ?1 
tronver v. find, discover, come or 
hit upon ; f nd to be, regard as, 
coD.^der, tliink : m . , ., find 
one's self, cbance to be, be. [L. 
tvrbare, disturb (?).] 

make safe.] 
tyron m. lyront. [L., fr. Gr.] 
tyrlen ad^. Tyrian, of Tyre. [L.] 

without a matcb or equal. [L. 

naer r. {with de ; g 16S/) use, make 

i up, 

I, deal witb, 

treat, handle, [fr, L. uCi.] 
ntnrper d, usiup, take unjust DOS' 

sKfliouof. CL.] 
•nt (T6(i) m. do (name of first note 

of scale). 
ntila adj. useful, advantageous. 

[L. uhVem.] 

[L. . 


vague atlj, vague, [L. 'nagum.'l 

vagoement ndv. vaguely, uncer- 
tainly, [fr. vagoe.] 

yain. adj. vain, useless, idle; con- 
ceited. rL.EaAwn.] 

Tainore c, (XX, 3i) vanqiiisb, con- 
quer. [L. tincere.} 

vshiqaeni nt. ^nqueror. [fr. 

valet n 


valet, flunky, [fr. LL. 
, vassal, fr. Celtic.] 

valenr /. value ; valor, braveiy. 

vali«e/. valiae, portmanteau, [fr. 

valott D. {irr. 73) be worth, bave 
tbe value of ; have as much 
value as, be equal to ; be pood 
for, win, procure ; valoii mieoz, 
be worth more, be better or pref- 
erable. [L. valere.'\ 

vanlte/'. vanity. [L.] 

boast, brag. [L. eanitareA 
vapeur/, steam, vapor ; m. (g 16d) 

steamer [L,] 
t—» m. vase, vessel. [L. vtu.] 




Ti»t8 ndj. vast. [L.] 
vaadsTilli m. vaudeville, ballad, 
ifr. vsl de Tirs, Dame of a 



v«iller r. woke, watcb ; wake up. 

[L. tiffitare.] 
Y«in./.Yein. [U vtnam.] 
Tfllonn in. velvet, [b. L. vHio- 

"i». hairy.] 
vandra r. sell. [L. tendere.] 
vandtodi m, Friday. [L. veneru 

uieiit, Venua'a day.] 
TBnorablo adj. yeneraole. [L ] 
vengers. avenge. [L. HjidiatreA 
venir ». {irr. m ; p. 145-8) come, 
be coming : Tsnn, one arrived, 
c omer ; venii de {with inf., 
XXXI. 116), have joal (done 
anytbiug) ; en venii i, come to 
Ihe point of, liave recourse to, 
reaortto. [h.venivi<.\ 
TBttt m. wind. [L. ventum.'] 
v6ritable ivSj. rerilable, true, ac- 
tual, real. [fr. vBritfl.] 
verite /. verity, truth : a la ... , 
or 0n . . ., in truth, indeed, veri- 
ly. [L.] 
verre m. glass, drinking ■ glass, 

tumbler. [L. vUi'u.m.~\ 
v«» prep, towarif; about, [L. 

[L. > 

shed. [L. 

vertn/. virtue. [L. fij-iufom.] 
Tetcment m. garment, vestment, 

dress. [L. texlnneMiim.'^ 
vitlr «. {iir. 51) clothe, dress (in, 

da). [L. ve»ht ' 
vsoTB /. widow. 
Tiande / meat, 

vice 7n. vice. [L, Miiujn.] 
viotlme f. victim. [L.] 
viotoira/'. victory. [L. ciclfiria 
viotorieni arlj. victorious jT.. 

w. TL. tciduam.] 
t, flesh ; viand. [L. 

vielUard m. old man. [fr. tIsox.] 
vielllMBe /. old age. |fr. vteux.l 
vielllir «. grow old, bwxime ngeit, 

age. [fr. vimot.] 
viMUt, TieU IVII. 7 ; g S36) a.'j. 

old, not young, aawl ; a» iioaa, 

old fellow ur friend. [LL. 

vif oilj. lively, vivacious, brisk, 

vlgontetix iidj. vigorous. [L.] 
TlgDenr f. vigor, strength, force. 

*Til (68rf) a.§-vile, base. mean. [L.] 
Tllenle /. villany, baseneaa. [fr, 

vilain, base, fr. L. tUlaiiut, of 

the country.] 
•village (8^^) m. village, [fr. 

•ville (8^) /. city : a la villB, in 

the city. [L. ei'Ham.] 
yinm. wine. [L. owtum,] 
vlnaigte m. vinegar, [vin aigra, 

vingt (T6u) num. twenty. [L. 

vinetaioB /. a score, some twenty. 

[fr vingt.] 
vingtiBme num. twentieth, [fr. 

vialent adj. violent. (I.,] 
violBttB/, violet, [fr. L, «'oia.l 
*viriU68<f)arfj. virile, manly. [L.] 
*vi» (T*?) /. screw. [L. uiiem, 

vii m. face : vis-ii-vii de, face to 

face with, opposite to, fronting. 

[L. »».,.l 
viMge m. visage, countenance, 

face. [fr. vii, wi.] 
viBibla adj. visible. [L.] 
viiiera/. visor, [fr. vii, m.] 
viiite /. visit : rtndre vidte, pay a 

visit or call, [fr, yiiitBr,] 
vialtBT T. visit. [L. Tmia rt.'\ 
vltB ailj quick ; a» adv. (XXXI. 

9) quickly, rapidly, fast. [T] 
vlvant j». lite-lime, life, [ppleof 



Tl»ME. (ii-r. 88) live. ,_. 
Tiiir ni. Tizier. t(r. Arabic] 
TiBB m vow : wiMi, desire, prayer, 

Toini inter/. (§ 301) see here, here 
is or are oc come, behold, lo. 
[tou iuid ol ] 

Toie /. way, road, track. [L. 

voile 7!i/. (§ IGa) veil ; sail : b&tsan 
i vailM, sailing vessel. [L. 'ce- 

Toir B.' (irr. 67) Bee, behold, view, 
look : TOTont, let's sec, see here, 
come now ; y voir, 8ee things. 
Lave eyes. [L. virlere.] 

TOliin adj. oeighboring, near (to, 
(to) ; (M noun, neighbor. [L. 

voiiina^ m. aeighborhood, vici- 
nage, [fr. vomn.] 
voitnro /. carriage, vehicle. [L. 

voix/. voice. [L. voeem.] 
*volatll (6Bd) iirfj. volatile, flying. 

volor D. fly. fli. ooii™,] 
volonto /. will, inCe&LloD, desire. 

[L. eolttjitatmi.'i 

Tolontlen inlv. willingly, gladly. 

[fr. L. wTKniarie.] 
Tolome m. volume. [L.] 
votreproTi. (XIV.) your. [L. vei- 

vStro proit. (XXVII. I, 2) yours. 
[L. m,frum.] 

votilolr p. (irr. 73 ; p. lU) wish, 
desire, want ; be wflling or in- 
clined or pleased ; mean, in- 
tend; vonloir dire, mean, signify; 
en vonloir £, have a grutlge or 
spih! against, lay something up 
against, have a design upon, 
aim at. [L. telle.] 

vons pron. yon, to J'ou, |X. p-m.] 

voyage m, journey. _[L, viitivum,] 

vrai iiiij. true, veracious, real, ac- 
tual, genuine, [fr. L. oitp/i«,1 

vToiment niiv, truly, really, indcea, 
in fact. [fr. viai.] 

vue / view, sight : de vue, by 
Bight, [pple of voir.] 

y adc. pron. (XXIII. 6-8 ; § BS) 
there ; to it ot' them, etc. [L. 

•ymeht (82) m. yacht. [EngUsh 

yeox (S&i) pr. (II. S ; g 22i) eyes. 
[L. ociiloa.] 



Acluli (5»a, 0T6) »t. Ahab (wicked 

king of Israel: 1 Kings xid. etc,). 
AeUlle (68/) m. AcSlles (chief 

Greek liuro before Troyi. 
AoUlle Daveria, a Freucli artist. 
Afrique/, Africa. 
•Ail (en Provenea) (Hi) /, Aix 

(town in southeaatcm France). 
AlezandTB m, Alexander (king of 

kilemagatf. Germany. 
AlpsB/, Alps (mountaina of Switz 

Amsions /. Amazon (female war- 

Ameriquo/. America. 

AndalouBie /. And.ilusia (province 
of southern 8paiii). 

Angletarre/. England. 

Anne/*. Anne (qaeen of Elngland). 

Aragon m, Araeon (province of 

Ardaalrs /. character in Monies- 
quieii's " Araace et Ismenle," 

Aiie/. Alia. 

Augnits m. Augualus (first empe- 
ror of Rome). 

AntriotiG/, Austria. 

d'Autnn, name of a French gentlc- 

de Baliac, m. Balzac (French nov- 

fielg;iiine/. Belgium. 
BerUn m. Berlin (capital of Prus- 

Bernard m. Bernard (character in 
Sandeau'a ■'Mile, de la Sei- 

Benonniere J. the Bessonni^rc 
(name of a farm in the atory 

" la petite Fadatta" : place of 
the bsBioni, provincial [fr. L. 
bit, twice] for twinal. 

Biohonne/. name. 

Blanche /. Blanche (girl's name). 

BloueC, Blonct (name of character 
in Theuriet'8 atory " la Saint- 

BohSme /. Bolicmia ; Onwj-land 
(applied to aKregBt« of srtistB, 
us homeless ^d free livers). 

Bonaparte, Bonaparte (name of 
family of Napoleon), 

Bowgogne /. Burgundy (eastern 
French province). 

Boargoignon ni. Burgundiaa (as- 
sumed name of Doranie). 

"Brmellea (!If)/. BnisselB. 

BoSon, Bufion (French naturalist). 

Byron, Byron (English poet). 

CalvadM m. Calvados (a depart- 
ment of France, in Normandy). 

Calypto /. Calypso (nytnph pos- 
sessing an island where Ulysses 
was long detained). 

Candle/. Candia (or Crete ; Island}. 

Carthage/. Carthage (city). 

Caatilla/ Castile (province of cen- 
tral Spain). 

Cesar m, Cffisar (Julius Ctesar, gen- 
eral and historian, uncle of Au- 
gustus) ; name of other persona. 

Ceiarine /. Cesarlne (woman's 

Cbarlea m. Charles : Chailw-Qnlnt, 
Charles V,. emperor of Ger- 
many ; Charles I., Charles II., 
kings of Bogland. 

Chateanbrland, Chateaubriand 
(celebrated French author). 

Chine/. China. 

CirOB /. Circe (nymph and sor. 



&n abbey in eastern 

Clain 771. Clain (name of a river, 

branch of the Loire). 
Clair* /. Clara leharacter in 

AbOUt's story " la Fille du 

Claye /. Clave (amall town near 

Coads. prince of Condo (celebrated 

French general). 
Cord»j, Charlotle Cordaj (slayer 

of the French revolutionist 

CroiiillM, Croiailles (name of the 

Srlncipal character in a story of 
e MuBSet). 

Danamvfc m DenmaTk, 

Santon, Danton (noted charactei 
in the French Revolution). 

SaiinbB I'l. Danube. 

Daaphine /. Dauphinesa (title of 
the wifu of the Dauphin, or heir 
to the throne of France). 

Davoost, Davoust (one of Na- 
poleon's marahals). 

Oorante in. Dorauie (character in 
a play of Marivaux, " le Jeu de 
I'imour et du Hasard ''). 

Ihipont, Dupont (French general), 

Edanard in. Edward ; Edward 

, 111., kiiig of England. 

Igypt«,f. Egypt, 

Elitabetli /. Elizabeth (queen of 
. England). 

Eli«a / Eliza (cbarucler in Ra- 
cine's ■' Esther"). 

Ergatts i;i. Ergaslee (fabricated 

BjpapioJ'. Bpain. 

d'EtunpN, Duchess, favorite of 
Francis I. of France. 

Etna m, Etna (volcano 

Europe/. Europe. 

Eylan m. Eylau (scene of one of 
Napoleon 8 batiles). 

Fadet, name of a family in Qeorce 
Sand's story " la petite Fa- 

PttdettB /. name of a girl, the 
heroine of the story just men. 

n Sicily). 

Fanohette/. girl's name. 

riaadre /. Flanders. 

Fletoher] Dr. Fletcher (clergyman 

in attendance at the execution 

of Mary Stuan), 
FontainsblGan m. Foniainebleau 

(French town and palace, south 

from Paris). 
Fortnnato, name of a boy in 

Mcrimce's story " Matleo Fal- 

Fonohe, Fouche (at one time min- 
ister of poiice under Napoleon). 

Foaqoet, Foutjuet (a superinlen. 
dent of finances under Louis 

FranoB/. France. 

Franfoii '71. Francis, Frank. 

Franjoiie/. Frances, Fanny. 

Frederio m. Frodtrick ; Frederick 
II, , or Frederick the Great, 
king of Prussia. 

Geneve /l Geneva. 

Qoorga wi. George (character in 
Ponsard'B p^ " I'Honneur et 
I'Argent"); (Jeorge, husband of 
Queen Anne. 

OeTinaJn, character in George 
H.tnd's " la Mare-nu-Diable." 

Qirardin, X. Saint-Kara, Frecicti 
writer and politician. 

Qiaeef, Greece. 

de QriKnan, count, son-in-law of 
Madame de S^vigne. 

BnlUaune m. Wilflam: William 
111. (William and Mary), king 
of England. 

Goitave Vua, Guslavus Yasa (he- 
roic king of Sweden). 

Qattembe^, Gutenberg (inventor 
of printm)-). 

Hanovre m. Ilanover. 

le Havre (VI. 8/), Havre (city of 

Helene f Helen (character Id 
"Mile, de la Beiirlifire"; Helen 
of Troy, cause of the war and 
destruction of the cityl. 

Henri m, Henry ; Hgnri-le-OraDd, 
Henry the Great (or Henri IV., 
king of France). 

Henilette/. Henrietta, Harriet, 


•HolUnfle/. Holland. 

Horaae, Horatlus (character in 

ConH'ilic'B play of thai name). 
Hninblot, Hins., character in 

About'B story '■ rAlbum du 

Qlon m Ilium (oilier name of 

laAttf.iil. Uie Indies, India. 
Italie/ Italy. 
Jacob (STa) lit. Jacob (ancestor of 

the HehrewB). 
JaBijnei m. Jamcx ; James II., 

king of England. 
Japon m. Japan. 
Jean iii. John ; Jean Jaoqneg, J. J. 

Jeanne/. Jane, Joan, Joanna. 
'Jenualem \6ic)f. Jerusalem. 
Joindrette m. name, 
Jeeahel / Jezabel (wife of Ahab : 

1 Kinaia xii., elc.). 
Jotepb, Joiwpb. 
JoIbb III. JuliuB. 
Jnlia J' Julia ; heroine of a novel 

'Kremlin (64^ in. Eremlin (palace 
at Moscow), 

de Lafayette, Xme,, authoress and 
leader of society in Paris (17th 

de Lamartina, celebrated French 

Landry m a character in Q, Bund's 
story " la petite Fadette." 

Laurenoe, name, 

Leblano, name. 

Is Couvrenr, Mile., celebrated 
French actress. 

Legrand, name of a certain army- 
corps, from its commander. 

Liielte /, {abbi-ev'ii o/fiUea) Lizzie 
(name of a character In a play 
of MarivBux). 

Uyief. Livia. 

Londret m. London. 

Louli VI. Lewis, Louis : Louis 
XIV.. Lonla XVI., kings of 

Lonise/. Louisa. 

Lonvre m. Louvre (palace and gal- 
lery of art in Paris). 

Lyon in. Lyons. 

Lyildu m. Lysldaa (character in 

Molifre's '• fa Critique del'Ecole 

lies Femmes"). 
Kadelon /', Madeline (a characler 

in G, Sand's slory "la petite 

■adrid III. Madrid (capital ol 

Hahomet m. Mohammed (Arab 

de MaintenDn, Ume., celebrated 

French Indy and authoress. 
Maioaheibea, French advocate, 

once minister of Louis XVI. 
Marat, Marat (ferociouB French 

Harohal, a ehnracter In About's 

story " la PMlle du Chanoine." 
Haria/, MBry,M&ria(MarjHtuart, 

Hargnerite/, Margaret, 
"Hare (74rf} m. Mare (Roman god 

of w 

Marseilla /. Marseilles (French 

HatliaD in. Mathnn (chamcler m 

Racine's "Atholie"). 
Haiarin, Mazarin (cardinal, and 

prime minister of Prance), 
MSdiEis m. Medici (ruling family 

at Florence), 
Uediterranea /. Mediterranean 

Ueziqna m. Mexico. 
Minerve /. Minerva (Roman god. 

dessof wisdom], 
Montaigne, Montaigne (celebrated 

French author). 
MoaooB m. Moscow (ancient eapt- 

ta! of Russia). 
MoBDDvite III. Muscovite, Russian. 
Haplea m. Naples. 
Napoleon in. Napoleon (French 

de NoBilles, French gentleman, of 

lii^h rank (cardinal or duke). 
ITorvBge/, Norway. 
Boavelle-Hollande /, New Hol- 
land, Australia. 
Hnremberg m. Ntu^mberg (Ger- 
man city). 
Olof III. characler In Oau tier's 

story '*le Chevalier double." 


I. Olympus (mountain Id 
(Jreece, seat of Uie gods). 
Orphes m. Orpheiw (Greek hero, 
" 'a have mnde stones build 
3 walls, etc., by 

de Slaei's "Corinoe"). 
PalBrtlne/. Palestine. 
PbtIb m. PaiTB. 
Paul in. Paul (character io the 

story " Paul et Vireioie"). 
Faolln* /. Pauline (character in 

Corneiile's " Polyeucte"). 
Flron m. Peru. 
PhUippa m. Philip : PhUipps II., 

king of Spain. 
Plguerol, fortress in which Fou- 

quet was confined. 
FaloKM /, Polaod. 
Pol7siiotB, Polyeuctes Icharacler in 

Uomuille's play of thai name). 
Pompadonr, favorite of Louis XV. 

of France, 
de Pompoane, marqujs, a minisler 

of LouiaXrV. 
Prasoorio /, Pniscovie (Russian 

girl's natoe). 
PrutM /. Prussia. 
PoMort, French statesman, one of 

the judges of Fouquet. 
Pyreneei /. Pyrenees (mountains), 
Beboul, Iteboul (French baker 

B«<DamiBr, Kme,, noted French 
beauty and leader in society. 

Bhin m. Rhine (river). 

Bichellfln, Richelieu Icardinal and 
prime minister of France). 

Bame /. Rome (as scat and repre 
sentative of the Catholic religion). 

Boisia/, Russia. 

SBinte-OsneTiive, French abbey. 

Saint Jean, St. John (name). 

St. Louis, St Louis (Louis IX., 
king of France), 

Saint-Hicolai, St. Nicholas, 

de Sohnrmann, Mile., celebrated 
Netherlandish savauie (17th cen- 

Seine /. Seine (French river run- 
ning through Paris). 

BloU*/, SicUy. 

St. Cloud m. St. Cloud (French 

town and palace). 
Saiut-Cyt m. young ladies' school, 

founded by Mine, de Main- 
Suede/. Sweden, 
BnlHe/, Switzerland. 
Snll7, Sully (minister of Henry 

IV, of France). 
ByUa, Sylla (Roman leader). 
TamiBe/, Thames. 
Tanaro 'ii. river in Italy, branch of 

the Po. 
Taylor, Saron (ii French literary 

man, of English descent). 
ThebBB/, Thebes (Egyptian city). 
Toinelte /. Toinette (character in 

Uolierc's "le Uatade imagl- 

TooiMint/. All-Saints' day. 

la Trappe, la Trappe (famous mon- 

a.iicrv, of especially rigid rules). 
Troie/ Troy, 
de Tnrenne, Turcnnc (famonB 

French general). 
Talere in. Valerius (character In 

Molifre's " Tsrtuffe"). 
Talteline / valley in Italy, near 

l.ike Como. 
de Taubart, Hma,, a character in 

tiandeau's " Mile, de la 6ei- 

Tetalcazar, place in Spain, 
de Tendome, celebrated French 

VeoiBe/ Venice. 

Vieano/. Vienna. 

Virginia / Virginia (character in 

St. Pierre's "Paul et Virginie"). 
ViriKeth ni. Visigotli (one of a 

OermiA race, conquerors of 

Wa^ram m. Wagram (Austrian 

village, scene of a victory of Na- 
WhitehaU, Whitehall (palace In 

London, scene of the execution 

of Charles I.). 
Zambo m. Sambo (name of a ne- 

gix) servant, in Laboulaye'a 

"Paris en AmSrique"). 


Reference is occaslonnll; nude lo tbeme ami KMence : Ihus, 10>\ | 

n. an. nn. 

aflemooii, aprei-midi/. orjTt. 

abandon, atwndoiuier. 

afterward, «pro>, enaufto. 

jiMicate, abdiqner. 

again, enooro, de nonvean (10'\ 

Rble, capable, bon, haliUa : be able, 

against, oontre. 

poavDir !■. ("T, p. 119.) 

Hge (grow old), vieillir. 

(nearly) environ, «ur (^ 7I)I>), 

ago, il y a (XXX. fc). 

qnelqM (^ 107f) : run about, 

agree, oonvenir {iir. 80), 
aid r. aider. 


above, desaos utff;. , audeunE As 

air, atrm. 


all, tent (; S US) : al all. 

absent, alxent : Iw abstnt, etre ab- 

"Mat; after all, aprea tont 

■ent 'ir i-abientBr (19"). 

allow, permettre {in: 31). 

Bbsolntely, ataolnmant. 

almost, preaque, a pen pres. 

abuse i. almMr da (% 162?'). 

alofl, en hunt. 

accept, MMptar. 

accompany, acoorapagnBr. 

along prep. U long d>. 
aloud, 'hant. 

according to, d*apiei, aelon. 

accordingly, an»»i 


already, deja. 

also, ausBi. 


althougb, qnoiqne (XXXIV. li). 

acquire, aoquerir (ht. 63). 

blen qae, encora qna {% 1376). 

across i»ep. i traver*. 

act. agir. 

(S 116^), 

action, aotion/. 

always, toiyourB. 
ambftious, ambitiaui. 

active, ftctif. 

addict one's self, a'adonnar, 

America. Ameriqoe/ 

address t. adreiser: address one's 

amiaMe. aimable. 

self. B'adreiHr. 

among, panni (SXVI. fc). entre : 

adieu, adien m. 

from among, d'entre. 

amount, an inlinitc, >ee inflnitc. J 

admiration, admiration/. 

amuse, amuaer: amuse one's self, ■ 

admire, admirer. 

ancient, anoien. H 

affair, affaire /- 

afraid : be afraid, avoir paor or 

and, et. ■ 

orainte (XIII. 6). 

angry, Kobe (at, oontre; on ac- H 

Africa, Afriqno/ 

count of, de) : be or get angry, ■ 

after prep, aprea ; (w;y. aprei que : 

ae tSeher. H 

after that (wnj.), aprn que (g 

animal, animal i;f. H 


annesed, ol-jolat (§ bBnj. B 

^H^^P H 

uiotlier. nn autre: one another, 

oatonished. etanne. 1 

I'un l'»utr«, leg am lei antrei 

aalronomy, Mtronomie/. ■ 

(XXVII. _7), Be (XXIS, 8). 

at, aj en, dan<; de; par: at all, ■ 


dn tont ; nol at all, na . . . point ■ 

(g 166,.) ; at once, sur le champ, ■ 

anxious, inqoiat. 

tout de inite ; at present, i. pre- ■ 

any, do mlh oW, (IV.; §36, 39), 

■ant ; 'tt. the time of. Ion da ; at ■ 

qualqae : not any, ne . . . aucun 

the house of, id some one's, ■ 

."■ nta, M , . . paa da (§ 364). 

ehai. ■ 

anything, qnelqne ohoie : nol. aiiy- 

atlacli, att*,Glier. ■ 

Ibing, na . . . rian ; anything 

attack V , attaquer. ■ 

whatever, qaoi que cb «oit (§ 

attain, atteindra {ir>: 16). ■ 


appeal v. en appeler (XXI, 3c|. 

attract, attirer. ^^^H 

appear, paraitre iiir. 18). 

attraction, attnlt m. i^^^^H 

apple, pomme/. 

auburn, limn, ^^^^^H 

August, 'aoat (14) m. ^^^^M 

appointed. oonTann, indique, ait. 

tanta/ ^^^H 

Austria, AntriBha/. ^^^H 

■e rapproolier da (§ 162/), (ii^lv.) 

author, autenr m. ^^^^^H 


avail one's self, proflter. ^^^^H 

approbation, approbation/. 

avoid, Svlter. ^^^^^1 

approve, appronver. 

await, sattondpB a. ^^H 

April, lYrilm. 

arise. IB lever. 

bacit : bring back, me bring, etc. H 

arm (limb), hrw m. 

bad. manvaig : bad weather, mau' ■ 

iinny, annae/. 

vail tampa, ^^^B 

around prep., autonr de. 

baggage, bagagei m. pi. ^^^H 

arrive, arriver (-nlk etre, XXVIII. 

baker, bonlanger ,u. ^^^M 


ball (dance). Iial .". ^^^^H 

art, art m. 

band (troop), bande/, i^^^^H 

article, artiole "i. 

bare, nn (§ 68u). ^^ 

artiat, artiete m. 

barefoot, barefooted, nn-pledi, 

as adj>. {befort adj.) aniii, (fifler 

piada nna g 66-0. 

adj.) que: as mucb or many. 

antant ; as much or many us, 

tote, tats nne (g 56..). 

Htant qua ] via long ns, tant qua ; 

basket, paniar m. 

aa soon as, amsitSt que, dst que ; 

battle, bataiUe/ 

as far aa, jniqne, jnaqn'a (;icep.); 

be, etra (/>(■. p. 62); be (in re- 

ns for, ae regards, qnant a, 

spect to health), m porter ; be 

as tu>j. eomma, aind qne, de 

(in respect to weather), &ira 
(XXXII. 9.0 : be all over, en 

(§ 162.7). on (§ 207e) ; (since) pni»- 

que; (when) lorsque. 

otre fait : be off with one's self. 

ashamed ; be ashamed, Moir 

I'en aller ; be belter, aa porter 

bonta (XIII. 6). 

mleux, «e remettre ; be to, de- 

Asia, Aele/. 

voir (XXVI. 13/). 

§ 161.). 


aspect : have the aspect, avoir I'air 

beat F. battra (XX. 3c). 

(S 68i). 

beautiful, Tjean (VU. 7). 

aapire. aiplier. 

beauty, beante.;'. J 

assure, Mniwr. 

because, pane que, puiique, fl 


become, ityaiz (irr. 60}. ] boil r. boolUir {irr. 64). fl 

bed, lit 01, : go lo bed, ■> oonohar, 

bold, 'hardi, 

bonnet, Dhapean m. 

bedroom, chimlire i conisliGr / 

book, liwe m. 

(S IBSA). 

boot, botta/. 

beer. biSre/. 

Bordeaux, Bordeanz m. 

befall, writer 6. 

bore p. eminyer; be bored, Stre 

before prep, (previous to) •Tmt, 

ennnye, a'annayar, 

(in front or in presonoe of) de- 

born, iib; lie Iwrn, naitre {irr. 20 : 

vant ; «!i(A !«/ a?Mit de. 

leM etTB, XXVUl. 6a). 

before coti?. avant qo* (ji IST'i), 

borrow, empmntar (of. a : g 161.'). 

qn. . . . ne l§ 138<=,. 

both p>"". tom deux, toiu lei 

Iwg, prier. 

dettx. l-nn et I'aatre (XXVU. 7), 

begin, oommenMr, le mMtr* (irr. 
81) i, 

let dBQX i3S'). 

both co„j. et (SXXrV. !). 

beliave, la eondnlre (trr. 1). 

botUe, bonteilla/. 

behind, derriera. 

box, bmte/. 

Belgium, Belgiqoe/. 

boy, garden m. 

believe, oroire {i'-j'. 26). 

brave, brave (VUI. 6c). 

( belong, appartenir, aV (to, a : III. 

bread, pain m. 

breadtli, largeur/. 

beloV^. oheri. 

break, rompre (XX. Zb), (the arm. 

below .(rf», en bM. 


beneath pec;), eooi, au-dMMni de ; 

brcnkfa.*!, dajeanar m. 

adr. dBHOQi. 

brilliant, briUant. 

besides pim ontre; fonj, d'ail- 

bring, apporter ; bring back, lap- 



beat «/7j. iB moilleiir; adc. Is 

brother, frsre m. 


brother-in-law, baan-frBre m. 

better '"ij. meiUaiu ; it(ff>. mlenx : 

brown, bnin. 

be betler (in heultli). bb portsr 

brush ;;. hrM«e/. 

mieni, w remettre (('■'■. 31), (be 

BruBscK *BniiflUBB (BM/. 

1 preferable) valoir mlenx ; lore 1 build, batir. ■ 

^ better, aimar davantags ; like ' burn, brnlsr <witb, ds). ■ 

■ better, aimer mieox ; llnd it bet- , hmy one's self, a'aciiiipaT (nitb, da). ■ 

W tei, troDTBi meillenr ; get Ibe but eoi'j. mala ; prep, ezospte : H 

1 better, I'Bmporter. , but little (withe ).iib ... pfire. ■ 

between prep, entrs. butter, benire m. ■ 

beware c. proadiB {irr. 30) garde buy, aoheter (XXI, 3'.). ■ 

(of, de), K gardar. 

by IXXVIII. 3), par (g BOe), d* 

beyond pi-ep. outre, par-deuoi, aa- 

■(g6lr,162=), afgaT--, ieid):by 

dela da. 

big, gTM. 

of, k foroe de. ' 

bird, Dlaaau w. 

bit, moTcean m. 

cake, gateanni. 

black, QBlr. 

call c. appeler (XXI. Sc); call 

bleas, banir. 

back, rappaler. 

blind adj. aveulB. 

campaign, campagne /. 

blue, blen. 
^ blush v. rougir. 

can, penvoii |/.T. p. 110). 

cannot, ne pouvolr {in: p^ lift; 

^^ boat, batMa fn. lb). ■ 

^^^^H TOCABULA.BT. 417 ■ 

capiWe, MpBbl*. 

coat, baMt m. 

capital (ciiief city), oapiUIe /. 

coSce, oafS m. 

captain, napitaine m. 

coffin, oeronaU Jn. 

card, oarta/ ; at cards, anx oartM. 

cold, froidr be cold, feel cold. 

cardinal aOj, cardinal. 

avoir froid (XIII. 6) ; be &iid 

care 'i. ■oin "t. : take care, avoir 

(wealherl, fcireftcid ; grow cold. 

Mia ; take care not to, a'aroir 

«e refroidir. 

garde de (? \ZZe). 

collar, ool m. 

carriage, Toitnie/. 

comb, palgnB in. 

carry, porter ; carry away, em- 


Come,Temr(/.T.p.l45; v>ilh Itre, 

cftse, CM TO. : ia oftse that, in case, 

XXVni. 6(1), (happen) adTenir, 

an »r en oas que (§ 137«. 

(arrive, get so far as) arrlvor, 

cast t. jeter (XXI. 3c). 

envenir ; cornel alloiu (XXVII. 

cat, ohat m. 

SJ) ; come back or again, reve- 

cause n. reiura/. 

nir; come clown, deHsndre; 

caiiae 0. (m(A m/.. XXXII. 94 : § 

come in, entrer. 

ISBi, 176a) faire i}n: p. 150). 

comedy, oomedie/. 

cautious, pmdent. 

cease, eeusr. 

coming n. arrivee/. 

century, eieole m. 

command, commander a (S IfilA). 

ceremony, eeremonle f. 

commit, oommettre {in: 31), lalra 

certain, oertala. 

iirr. 23) (nne (ante). 

chair, ohaiM/ 

company, oompagnie /. 

chamber, chamhra/. 

change e. ohanger, ehaneer de 

conceal, cachar. 

i§ 162/). 

rihapler, ohapitre hi. 

concerl. coacert ra. 

character, oaraetere m. 

conclude, oonolore (i'li'. 2&). 

charm n. eharmo m. 

charm v. oharmer (with, da). 

cLeap, cheaply, a bra tnaroha, bon 

conduct n. eondnite/. 


conduct c. condniie (jit. 1) ; con- 

cheat n. ronrbe m. 

duct one's self, eg oondiiire. 

cheese, fromage m. 

confess, oonfeMar, avoner. 

child, enfant m.f. (§ lie). 

conquer, vainore (XX. 8a}. 

China, Chine/. 

choose, ohoirir. 

church, egliu / : to or at dmrcb. 

a rgglixi. 

meat (26'0. 

citizen, utoyen m. 


consolation, consolation/. 

clean s. nettoyer. 

clear v.: clear out, e'eo alter 

constancy, oonstance/. 
constantly , oonitamment. 

(XXIS. 7c). 

cloak, muteau m. 

constitubonal, QonstitntionneL 

cloister, oloitre m. 

constrain, oontriindre (i'T. 15). 

close n. fermer. 

conlaci : come or b(i in contact 

cinth, drap m. 

with, touoher i. (^ 181ft) 

clothe, TStir {irr. 81). 


il8 £I.'GUSH-FRENOH ^^^^H 

continuBllj, MntinnBUement. 

decease r. deoMar. 1 

deceive, trompsr, deoavoir Hit. 661. 

meorer, ooalinaer. 

December, deoembre m. 

cook, cnisiniere/: 

deceptive, irompaui. 

declHre, deolarer. 

correctly tin tunei, juiM. 

deed, &it ra. 

Coralca, Cm*/. ' 

deep, pnrfond. 

cost r. coatw. 

defect, defant in. 

count r. oompter liipon, lur). 

defend, defendre 

coant H. mmta m. 

countiy, p»yiHi..(one'8 or notive) 
patriB/:. (as (liBtinguished from 

deny, nier, ranier (21"). 

the city) Mtup^ne /.: id Ibi- 

depart, partir (ti-r. 38). 

country, a la campagne. 

departure, depart tn. 

courage, ooorage m. 

depend, aeflw (upon, a: 5"), d». 

pondTB (Oil 01- upon, da : § 10SA) 

couner, wamm m. 

depot, Kara/. 

court, ooor/. 

describe, deorirfl (iif. 12). 

I cousin. MTuin m., oansliie/. 

deserve, meriter. 

1 cover n, (place al labltl oonTert m. 

design n. desBsin m. 

\ cover e. oonTiir (j'rr. 56). 

desire V. vonloir (/n-. 73), dedrar, 

L cow. vaehe/. 

avoir envie de. 

m cowardly, poltron. 

despair n. dsBBBpoir ni. 

1 crazy, ton (VII. 7). 

despair r. cle*eiperer. 

■ create, oroer. 

■ credit r.: credit one witli, croire 

die, motirlr (/w. 62 ; with i/ttt. 

E iquel^uo Ghoae) a (g 16I<]. 


crime, orjme w. 

difference, diffSreoM/. 

crown ". eonroiuiB/. 

difficult, difficilB. 

cruel, ornal. 

dilBculty, difficults/. 

dine, diner. 

1 cry r. cry out, a'eorisr. 

dining. room, *aUa & miogei/. (S 


■ cunniug, fln. 

dinner, diner m. 

■ cup. ISMB/. 

dini : by dint of, i fonw da. 

f^ curious, cnrleox. 

directly, «nr le ehamp. 

curse V. maudire {In: 10). 

disappear, diaparaitre {in: 18). 

discomfit. dBoanflra (irr. 7). 

dancer, danwar m., dansBHiB/. 

discoTcr, dewravrlr (in: 58). 

dangeroua, dangarsux. 

disgrace, hontB/. 

Daoube, Saanbe m. 

disb. plat-,.. 

displease, deplaira {hi: 34). 

dflBh H. intrgpidiU/ 

digsatisGcd. mecontant (with, de). 

daiighler. fllle/. 

dietmst. w defler ds. 

liay, jtrar jii. : day before Teslcr- 
day, avant-hier vi. ; day after tc- 

do, faire {in . p. 150) : do without 

H paBwr d«. 

doctor, dootBur in. 

L dead adj. mort. 

dog, chian m. 

■, dear, oher (VIII. 6.0. 

doubt r. danter {it. qua . . . a« : 

§ 170a). 

■ decay %. dwhoir (»t. 70). 

down-stairs, an baa. 

^HH^^^^IP 1 

dozen, dwmdiw/. 

elsewhere, aillaa™, autre part 

draw, tralro (in: 21) : draw near, 

fg 28a). 

.'•pprMher (lo, fle : g IW)- 

emperor, empeieoj m. 

dress v. s'lutbUlgr. 

employ, employer. 

dress n. robe/. 

empress, impBratriM/. 

dressmaker, eoutiiriore/. 

enclosed, ci-in<jlaa (S B6n). 

drink, hoiTB (»■)■. 27), 

encourage, enoonrager. 

drive off or away, chusar. 
dry ,irfj. «» (VII. Bi-). 

end n. fln /, , (object) but (76o) m : 

dry t. »BOher. 

make an end or finish, en flnii. 

due, dfi (XXVI. Un). 

end s. finlr. 

dull, (Udioas) ennnTenz, (etupit^ 

endure, dnrer. 

loord d'npTit. 

enemy, ennemi hi. 

during, pendant, dnrant : during 

Englinid. Angleterre/. 

the post, during . . . past, do- 

Entdish, anglais, d'Angteteire. 


enough, asaei (V. 4ii). 
enrich, enriehir. 

duly, devoir m. 

enter, entrer (/e'illi §tre : XXVni, 

entire, antiar. 

each, (iidj.) chaque, (ii.) ohacnn : 

each one, chocua : ea«h other, 

l"nn rautTB (XXVII. 7), an 

tout (§1160, 

(XXIS. 8). 

enjoy, jonkdeig 162/). 

ear, oreiUo/. 

equally, agalemant; equally . . . 

earlier, plui tat, de meiUeore henre. 

and, anul . . . que. 

early, de bonns heure : sn early, de 

escape r. [i,.ty.) a'aohappar, (tr.) 

li b«nne heure ; quite early, de 

oohapper S (§ 161.). 

bien (or tree) bonne honiB. 

especially, aurtont. 

earth, terre/. 

essay, etaai m. 

easily, bdleiiieat. 

esteem, ortimer. 

east. -Ml (76a) m. ; the East. I'Ori- 

eternally, BternellemBut. 


Etna, Etna m. 

easy, aUe, facile. 

Europe. Burope/. 

eat, mancer. 

eve, veille;'. 

editor, Todaotaar m. 

even, memo f% 114e), (not except- 

Edward, Sdooard. 

ing) Juwiu a (g 16Su), (leith ger- 

effort, effort m. 

und: § 190</)toot. 

egg, ffluf ( ]d. *[Bnb : 61aj ra. 
ei^t, •hoit (76<i). 

evening, aolr, iciree : in the even- 

hig, da Mir, 

eighteen, *dii-hnit (8Ii) 

every, chaqae, lout (XIV. 66; § 

eighth, hnideme. 

109) ; every one, chacnn ; every- 

eighty, qaatre-TingtB (XV. 36). 

body, tont le monda : every- 

either co,.j. on { ... on, or), (nor 

tliing, tont. tonta ohoae; every 

. . , either) non plus (g 16ec). 

day, touB lea joora ; everjTvhere. 

either pron. I'un on I'antre 
(XXVil. 71, 

evil adj. manvaia. 

eleven, •onia (6*/). 

evil ((. nial w. 

Elizabeth, Ellsabath. 

example, example m. 

eloquent, eloqnant. 

excel, uoeller. 

else : nothing else, rlen d'antre ; 

excellent, excellent. .^^" 

DOtbing else tluin, na . . . riea 

except, hori, ezMpte (g 66»). 


esclaim, leorier. 



exercise n. Buioios in,. UkMe n 
exhibition, expotitiDii/, 
expect, atUndra, 
experience, sxperienos f. 
express, exprlmer ; express o] 

thougbla, I'exprimer, 
cxiniordinury, estTaordinftiie. 
extremely, eztrsmemeitt. 
eye, mil m. [pt. yani SBti). 

fact; in fact, in sffet, 

factory, &bTlqns/. 

fail, bire Ufout a (6'). 

fain I, I'evanonir. 

fall, tomber (wUh etre : XSVIII. 

fti), dechoir (in: TO) ; fall short, 

false, feni (VU. 8). 
fame, renommes^, 
family, famille/, 
famine, famine/. 
Fanny, FraafoUe/, 
far a<in, loin : far from, (leUh inf ) 

loindi, (uiV/icjloin qni (g 1376); 

a.1 fo.raa,»eetiR; so far as, aee so, 
farewell, adien in. 
farm, ftrmo /. 
fanner, fermier m. ; farmer's wife, 

fosbioD : in that fastiion, da Mtte 

fast uric. Tits. 

father, pera m. 

fault, tante/,. dSfant m., vtitm f. 

faTor, faVanr f. 

favorite, fBTori (VII. 8). 

fear v. craindre (in: 15), avob 

pmu (11'"), 
tear n. paor/,, cratDts/.: for fear 

of, de penr rir cralnte da ; for 

fear tliat, de ptur or oralnte qne 

... n»i% 170n.), 
February, favriar wi. 
feeble, (alble, 
feel, wntir {irr. 40), ' 
festival, fate/, 
fetch, aller or vanir ohorcher (g 


few, pen (da : V. *) ; a few, qwl- 
qnei (XIV. fe) j but few, pan ; 

loo few, trop pn ; the few, Ibp' 

qnalqnei (24"), 
Seld, champ nt, 
tiflcen, qninie, 
fifth, cinqnieme, quint (XVI. 4«: 

I flfiy, cinquanifl, 
figbl T. CDmbaUra (XX. 3<-). 
fight 'I. oombttt »i 


; find ( 

9 self. ; 

il a^in, ratronTer. 

fine iiilj. bean (Vfl. T) ; fine weath- 
er, baan, bean tampa ; a fine 
thing, bean, 

finish, finir. 

firm, farms. 

first ailj. premier : adv. pour li 

premiere Ibia. 
fish, polason m. 
five, •olnq (TBe). 
flee, fnir (in-. 47), 
flight, fuite f. 
flourish, ftenrir (XIX, 86), 
flower, flenr/, 
fold r. plier, 
folks, gens pi. (§ 166). 
follow, aniyre (»■-■. 33), 
foolish, sot, inseuie <14"), fan 

(VII. 7). 
fool, pled m. 
lOT prep, pour, de, (during) depnjl 

(§211): as for, qnant S, 
loTo/itj. oar. 
forbid, defendre [da : g 1796) ; God 

forbid, a Dien ne plaiae (g 166c), 
force, force/, 
forget, oublier, 
fork, toniehette/, 
fornier, oelni-la {nubsl,), oa . . . -la 

(f'l'j.) (§ Bli. 
formerly, antrefoii, 
forlituac, conrag-e m. 
fortune, fortune /.; good forlune. 

forty, quarante, 
four, quatra, 
fourteen, qnatorie. 
fourth, quatiiame ; 

fowl, ponle/, 
franc, ftano m, 

fourth part, I 


Frances, Fraa^oiu/. 

FruQuis, Frank, Fnnfoli m. 

frank, frano (VII, 6*). 

frankly, franoliemeiit. 

freeze, geler. 

French, franfais, ie Franos. 

Friday. »eni-adi m.; Fridays, le 

Tsndredi (!^ 46). 
friend, and »t,, amie /, 
friendship, amide;', 
from, de, dea, d'aTso, depnia (% 811). 
front : in frunt of, «n taM de ; to 

tbe front of, an-devant de. 
fruit, fruit m. 
full, plsin. 
fully, pleinemeot. 

gain r. gagner. 

game, geu m, 

garden, jardin m. 

gala, porte.r. 

gather, ((,«»«.) eueillir (iir. 46), 

(I'lid*.) le rsnnii. 
general n. general m. 
Geneva, OtnSYaf. 
gcDtleman, moneleiir (XIV. 4), 

gentilhomms ( pi, "gentilB- 

bomtnea : 0i:'i. 
German, allemand. 
Gcnuauy, AllBmagne/. 
get, obteuir (in: 01); get up. ae 

iBTBr ; get ready, a'appreter, 
gift, oadean m. , pretent m., don m. 
girl, fllle/. 
give, donner : give s present, fidra 

1, aiie ; very glad, blen aiae, 

glory, gloira/. 

go, aUer (!«■. p. 138), Stre (^ ITOf), 
(go away) partir (i't. 88) : go 
away, t'en t.U.n (XXIX. Tc|, 
pKtir (ht. 38) ; go oul, iortir 
{in: 36); be going to {leiih inf.), 
aUer (XXVII, B-r). 

Ood, OiBo m. ; god, diau m. 

gold, or m. 

good adj. bon (IS. 3) : good for- 
tune or luck, bonhaur m. ; good 
morning or day. boiyonr m. 

goTermnent, goavemement m. 

grace, griw/. 
grand, ^and. 
grandfather, grand-pere m. 
grandmother, grand'mere /. (8 

grandson, petit-fils "t. 

great, grand : n greal deal, baan- 

Mup (V. 4). 
Great Britain. Orands-Brstagna/. 
greatly, beaaooup, groadement. 
Greece. Oreoo/, 
grief, ^agrin m. 
grow, oroitre (/it. 19) : grow old, 

Tiaillir ; grow pale, pUlr ; grow 

cold, le re&oidk. 
grudge : have a grudge at, en tou- 

lolrfiiXXIV. 6/). 
guefll, hole m. 
guide, goider, condnlra {irr. 1). 

habit, habitude./', 
bail r. grsler. 
hair, oheveux m. pi, 
half 'I. moitie. 

half ailj. (XYI. 4a : % 66a) demi, 
demi- : half an hour, nue demi- 

hoJid }t. malskf. 

hand '', remettre (i7T. 81). 

bandkerehicf, manchoix in. 

handle v. manier. 

handEome, baaB (Vll. T). 

Hanover, Hanavre m. 

happtn, arriTBT (iititk fitre : 

XXVm. &i), 'aoir i (mlh inf.: 

% ITftJ). 
happily, henreuaement, 
liiippitii'stj, bonheur m. 
happy, heureoz, Dontsnt. 
hard,' dnr, (difliciilt) diffioile. 
hanlly, a peine, db . . . guSre (§ 

167'i) : I hardly know, je ne 

■B«hepai(^ 131i'). 
Harriet, Henrietta/, 
haste ; make baste, le hfttar, m 

hasten, le hiter, ta dep&oher. 
hat, ehape4ii vi, 
hate c. hair (XIX. 3-i). 
have, avoir (irr. p. 58) ; a* atitH,, 

avoir or etro (XXVIII. *-* 

XXTX. 3, yXX . la) ; havB I 


•TOir i (SlMf). itra o-bUgi de, 
faUoirfXSX. 7>. 

erebtm.), que (XXV. 4d); hdwl 

mtknj or tniicb. oombfen, (ai- 

he, 11 [88(0. lui- 

elnm.) qn« de 124'). 

bead, tete/ 

however ade. qnslqne . . . qse {^ 


107d), ri . . . que, ponr . . . qne. 

hear, entendre, oolr (in: 49). 

tont.. .qiie(§116rf, ia7«). 

heart, weur jw. 

howeverwn/.,oepoiid«iil, toiitetoU. 

heaven. olBl (II, 6) >». 

human, hnmaln. 

hpir, herltier ki. 

hundred, cent (XV, 24, 8 ; § 87a). 

help F, »id«r ; help ! i moi (g 

huuLtr, ttimf.; be hungry, avoir 


fiifin iXIII. 8). 

hen, ponle/. 

Imny v. le hater. 

hence odf. dloi. 

husband, mari m. 

henceforth, deaormali. 

I, je, mei. 

Henry, Henri m. 

idle, pareiaeux. 

her pi-on. (XXII.) la, lol, ells 

if, si (296 : XXXrV. IS ; § 18Bo), 

(XXUI. 2); poM (XIV. 1-3) ion ; 

qnand, que (S 188f, 8214). 

hers, den (XXVII. 1,2). 
here, lei; ^i (XHI. 3, XXIV. ; § 
fll-2) ; here is or are, void (§ 

ignoraul, ignorant. 

ill ii4}, maladB ; adi: mal (XXXI. 



ill n. mal ra. 

herewith, d-JDlnt, Di-inolui (§ G6a). 

illustrious, illuBtre. 

hero, 'hSroi m. 

ill-will : bear ill-will to. en von- 

hesilule, hedter. 


hide one's self, le aiebet. 

imagine, imaginer, t'inuwiner, le 

high. 'hsnt. 


him ^XII.), le, m. 

his (XIV. 1-3, XXVIT. 1, B), wn, 

immediately, toot de inite. 

impatiente, impatieneB/. 

impious, impie. 


itaiporUinl, important; lie impor- 

history, histoire f. 

tant, importer, etra neoeatalre. 

hold, teolr tin: 'fil). 

Holhmd, 'HolUnde/. 

in, en, dam (VI. 1« ; S 207). & 

home : at home, oliei mol (etc.), a 

(VI. 4, XIII. &<), de (g 2Mft). 

la maiton ; go home, aller a la 

inch, ponce m. 


inelined, enolin. 

hoMesl.lioim§te(VIII. 6^). 

houor n. honneoi m. 

indeed, en offet, (=: to be sue) U 

1 lionor '\ honorer. 

est vrai 

India, Indesf. p'. 

1 boiw II. espoir m., esperanee/. 

1 horrible, horrlWe. 

infinite : an infinile amoiint, h»- 

1 horse, ohsTal m. 


m horselHick : on horsctiack, S oheTal 

L (^ mm. 

inhabitant, habitant in. 

■ hot, ehaud. 

injure, noire (iir. 4) a (^ IBlft). 

■ hour, henre/.: hiilf au hour, nne 

injustice, injnBtioe.'; 

■ demt-henrelXVI. 4"). 

■ house, malion /.: at the bouse of, 

inside irfr. dedani. 

^_ ohei. 

iiiHist, exJgoT. 

^^^^^ how, oomment {interrog., relat., 

inslead of, an Urn da. 

^^^^^^^^H 433 

^^^SS^Ettralw {irr. 2). 

kitchen, ooisine/. 


knife, coutean in. 

iDlemipl, intenompre (XX. 36). 

know, aavoir (irr. p. 159), (be ac- , 

iDtimale adj. intlme. 

into, »n, duu (VI. 1«, 4 ; g 207). 

18); know how (with inf.) 

introduce one's self, i'introdtdre 

savoir (XXXIV. 1") ; know to 

(irr. 1). 

be, .avoir (XXXIV. 7fl). 

Invite, inyiter. 

labor V. travaillBr. 

iron, (er m.; adj. (=of iron), ds 

laborious, laborieni. 

fcr, en fer. 

laek".: for lack of. fsnte de. 1 

it. U, «Ua ; le, U ; fl» i»rf«/-, s^tj. 

(SI. 3, XXIV. 2 1 § H7S). ce, U. 

lady, dame /.; my lady, the lady, | 

madama (XIV. 4) ; the young 

Italy. IttU«/. 

Italian, ItaUen, d'ltftUB. 

lament, m plaindre [m: 15j. 

Jta,ioa{XIV.),iien{SXVII, 1,2), 

languuge, lallgue./'. , 

«n (§ 88i). 

large, grand. 

last, dernier (VIII- 5<; ; g 6(») ; at 

James, JuqtiH m. 

last, enfln. | 

Jane, Jeanne/'. 

late, (lardyi tard, (deceased) feu 

January. Janvier m. 

(S 6ftil ; later, plus tard. 

Japan, lapon m. 

lately, demierement, "reeemment 


latter, oalnl-ol (g BI). 

John, Jean m. 

laugh T. rire (»■»■. 18). 

; oin, joindio (in-. 17). 

laugh n. rire m. 

, ournal, jonmal m. 

law, loif. 

lany, pareuenx. 

lead r>. mener, eondniie, (Induce) 

, udge n. jnge m.; be a judge of, 



leaf, feniUe/: 

; J'J^^g^-j;2?dge proper, jug« ben. 

learn, appreiidre (irr. 80). 
learned adj. eavant. 

Julius, Jules m. 

least, adn. le moina (SSSI. 8) ; at 

July, jttillet m. 

least, an moinB. 

1 June, jnin m. 

leave, {trans., abandon) qidtter, 

juat adj. jnite. 

(leave behind) lalsser j {inlr., de- 

just (Kic. : have or had just (done 

part) partir (,>-■. 38). 

anything), vieni or venali de 

G (XXXI lit). 

leg. jamb./, 
lend, preter. 

' justice, in.ti«/. 

length, tongnenr/ 


lengthily, longnement. 

keep, tenir {ii-r. 61), garder ; (word 

less adr,. mo&a (XXXI. 8); the 

or a secret) tenlr ; keep silent, 

less, molne (XXXIV. 3). 

talTB (air. S5) ; keep doing any- 

lesson, le,on/. 

thing, impf. (UI. 74 i S 119a), 

leal, qae . . . ne (§ 170a), 

kUl, tnw. 

let. laiiur ! impv. (VHI. 7c; § 141). 

kind a<^. bon (to. poor). 

letter, lettre/. 

1 kindn, iort</.,«iiiem. 
1 kindness, bonts/ 

Lewis, Louit m. 

liable, enjet (VII. 4a). 

' king, roi ffl. 

library, blbllothftiu./. / 


He E. (be false) mmtir (irr. «1. 
life, Tie/.: Id all my life, de vu, 

Tie (§ I6Tc). 
light II, (dajligbt) joni m, 
like c. timtt, vouloir {irr. p. 114) ; 

like belter, ainur mlanz. 
tike ail}, parell. 

like prep. eonj. eomme, en <g 20Te>. 
lily. •!!» (74rf) m. 
listen, §aoater ; listen to, eoonter ; 

listen to reason , antendre raiion. 
literature, litteratnre f. 
little nrffi. pen (de, V. 4, XXXI 8); 

a little, on pen, nn pen de ; little 

by little, p«Q & pen, petit a petit ; 

loo litUe, trap pen de ; but little 

{vtilh v.), ne . . . gnere (XII. 6). 
little n>lj. peUt. 
live, (dwell) demenrer, (be alive) 

Tiyre (iit. 32) ; long live ! vive 

(§ 14ti). 
lively, nf; in a lively manner, 

London, Londrai m. 
long mij. long (VU. 6fi). 
long adv. (a long time) longtempc ; 

longer, encore : any longer, pine 

longtempe (18*); no longer, ne 

. . . ploi (XII. 6); moras long 

as, tant qne (^ ISTa). 
look n. regard m, 
look V. (appear to be) aveir I'alr 

(§ 66'j) ; look at, reguder ; looh 

for, cherDLer. 
lose, perdre, manqnet. 
loss, perte/. 
loud ru^. adv. 'hant. 
Iiouia, Lonii m. 
Louisa, LooIm/. 
love V. aimer ; be loved, u fairs 

aimer (33^). 
love ». amour m/, (§ 16o) ; in love 

with, amonreni de, 
low, bftS ; in alow tone, low (adi.), 

Lyons, Lyon m. 

mad, fou (VII. 7). 
madam, madame (XIY. 4). 
maid, (servant) domeitiq.iie/. 
make, fairs {irr. p. ISO) ; (cause lo 
be) rendrs. 

man, homme in. 

manner, maDlere /', ; in a manuef 
to, de fafon a,. 

manufacturer, fabrloant m. 

many, baaacoap de (V. 4), blen de 
[uiilhurl.: V, 4A),maint (^ IIS) : 
many a, malnt (§ 113) ; as many, 
antant de ; how mnnv, somblen 
de, qne de (XXV. *■) ; so many, 
tant de ; too many, trap de. 

map, carlBi 

mnrcli r. mardiBr. 

March, 'mam m. I,74d). 

Marcus Aurelius, Haro-Anrele m. 

Maria, Marie/. 

marry, (trant.) eponser, se marier 
aveo; {iiitr.) le marier : t>e mar- 
ried, » marier; newly -married 
(person), nouvean marie [% 56d). 

Mary, Maria,/. 

matter n. aJBaire /.; what is the 
matter with him, qu's-t-il 1 
(XUI. 6ft). 

matter v. importer (g \Atb). 

May, mai m. 

may v., nifjj. prw. (IX. 66), ponrolr 
{irr. p. 119 ; XXV. 8/). 

maybe, peut^tre. 

: the D 

a (of a 


de qnol (^ lOid), lea _.,...., ^^ 
means of, moyennant, i forea de ; 
by no nteans, ne . . . naUefflent, 

meanwhile, en attendant, Mpen- 

meat, Tfande/. 

meddle with, le meler a or de. 

meet n. (Crans.) renoontrer, (i/ifr) 

a la renaantre oi' an-devant de. 
melon, melon m. 
memory, memoire/. 
mendacious, mentenr : 

/ (§ 16). 
mcrcliant, negaelant 

marchand m. 
merely by, rien qn'a 


., (reUlI) 
que de (§ 

^^^^^^^^B ^'^^^^^l 

meter, mitra m. 

music, mnaiqne/ H 

Mexico, Mezlqiia m. 

mirWay, midi m. (XVH. 46). 

must, il fMt eir. (SXX. 6, 7), ■ 

midnight, mlnult m. (XVU. «). 

devoir Urr. p. 124 ; XXVI. 1^). M 

coight «., »«6;. (IS. 6i), ponToir 
milk n. lait fn. 

my,iaon(XIV.). ^^^ 

naked, ^^^^1 

milk e. troiw (irr. 81). 

name, nem m. ^^^^1 

mmion. mlUion m. 

napkin, leiviBtte/. _ ^^^^H 

i mind n. Mprlt m„ InteUigance/. 

Napoleon, napoleon m. ■ 

mine, mien {XXVII. 1, 2). 

near adp. prsi, nnprn : too near, ^| 

miaiBter, misiBtre m. 

minute n. mlnutB/. 

near, near to, prep, prai, prei da; ■ 

misdeed , forfait m., meftit m. 

go 01- draw near or near to, ■ 

misfortune, nialh«ur ni. 

B'»ppr«lierde(|iea/). I 

nearly, a pen prSe, pre* de (U"l. ■ 

f MUe. J • 

neat, •net (7&i), (clean) propre. ■ 

mias t'. ffttUIr {irr. 50). 

neceHSary ; he necessary, fallolr ^^^B 

mistake : be mistaken, le tromper. 

{irr. p. 141). ^^^| 

mock, (IrniiK.) bo moqnsr d«. 

need a. basaiii m. ^^^H 

neighbor, vaiain m.. vojaltte/. ^^H 

modem, modome. 

neither »''u/t. nl I'lm ni VntM^^^H 
(XXVII. 7). ^^^H 

modest, modeite. 

monarcii. monar^ne m. 

neiUier csnj. ni (XXXIV. S). ^^H 

Mondny, Inndi m. 

nephew, naven m. ^^^^M 

money, Bigent m. 

never, na . . . jamala (Xn. 4 ; ft^^H 

monk, moine m. 


montli, mols m. 

more, plus (XXXI. 8), plus da (V. 

new, nonvean (VII. 7), nenf. ^^H 

41 ; the more, pin. (XXXIV. 3). 

news n. nenveUe/. (a. or pi.). ^^^M 

moreover, d'aiUEnrs, de pln«. 

newspaper, janinal m. ^^^^1 

next uclj. proobain ; next ia^, ^^^^| 

good-momiug, boigonr tii. 

next }>rep,. prei ; coni, pnls. ^^^^^| 

most, le pliu (XXXI. B), le pini 

niece; nlice/. ^^M 

do, 1b plupart de {tj)ilh art. ; V. 

night, nnit/. ^^H 


nine, neof (Sin, SSc). ^^^H 

mother, mSitf. 

nineteen, *dix. neof (816). ^^^H 

move, monvair im: 76), (with 

ninth, nenvisme. ^^^H 

emotion, the feelings) Smonvoir 

no resp. non (§ 169, 200). ^^H 

{irr. 76), toncher. 

Mr., MoMlenr m., H. (XIV. 4). 

anonn, no . . . nnl (XIV. ia, d, 1 

Mrs., HBdams/.. Mme. (XIV. 41. 

XXVII. 6 ; g 111), ne . . . pH I 

mndi,[u)rfA t.)'be»aconp, trw.fort; 

or point ds (S SBft) ; no longer, 1 
na.*^. pin. (III. 11). '^ 1 

(mVi n-i heaudonp da (V. 4); as 

mucD, auiant de; how much, 

noble, nobla. ■ 

Mmblen, aombien ds ; so much, 

nobody, no one, ne . . . perMnn* ■ 
(XIl. 4 : § 167). 1 

tant, Unt de : too much, trop, 

noise, bmitm. 1 

not much, ne . . . pai bMueonp, 

none, >ee no. a^. 1 

ne . . . puzt. 

nor. ni (XU. »). » J 


nortb, nord m. only adj. »ivl. 1 

Norway, Horvege/. 

only adv. na . . . qu (XH. S ; 

not, ae ; ne . . . pas. OB . . . point 

(§ 164-6), Lon, Don pu (g 169) ; 

open B. onvrii (irr. 65). eelore (irr. 

not any, no . . . anonn, na . . . 


nul, no - . . pM do (§ SSi) ; not 

opportunity, oceaaion/. 

anything, ne rien ; not ever, ne 

opposite to, via-a-Tii da. 

. . . jamaii ; not any one, no . . . 

or, en, aeit (XXXIV. 8). 


nothing, ne . . . rien (XH, 4 ; g 

order : in order to, afln de, ponr ; 


in order that, afln quo, ponr qua 

notify, avBrtip. 

(S I37<!). 

novel ,iilj. nonvsftu (VII. 7). 

ordinarily, ordinalroment. 

other, autre (XXVII. 6, 7; §11B); 

oUierB, other people than one's 

now adt. i preient, maintsnant ; 

self, antrui (XXVU. 6a). 

conj. or ; now . , . now, tantot 

. . . tantdt. 

ought, devoir {irr. p. 124). 

nowhere, units pan (§ 28a). 

our, notre (XIV. 1). 

null adj. nnl (g 167/). 

ours, notre (XXVII. 1, 2). 

out of. hora da, hora. 

obey, obSir a (§ 1614). 

oblige: be obliged to, &lloir 

outride, dehon. 

over, BUT, (above) au-deaau de, (be- 

(XXX, 7). 

yond) par-daBaui ; triumph over. 

obtain, obtonir (irr. 61>. 

triompher de ; be aU over, o'an 

occasion, owatlon/. 
o'clock, houro/. (XTU. 4). 


owe, davoir (ii-r. p. 134 ; § 179d). 

occupy one's self, a'coonper (with. 

own„rfj. prepre(f8B). 


owner, poiUHeui: m. 

October, ootobra m. 

ox, iKBuf m. ipt. "bmjjg ; 61o). 

of. At (III. 1-3) ; en, it. 

Off : be off, B'on allar (XXIX. 7c), 

package, paqnat m. 

offend, offenaer. 

page, (oE a book etc.) page/. 
pam, mal (XIU. Oa ; § Via), 

offer, aSrii (('t. 53). 

officer, offloiflr in. 

(grief) pains/. 

often, lonvant (XXXI. 7). 

paint V. peindre (in-. 16). 

old, Tiani (VII. 7). (ho many 

painter, peintra m. 

years) fcge da ; too old, trop 

painting n. peintore/. 
pale : grow pale, p&Ur. 

age ; be (so many yeara) old, 
avoli: ... ana (XVlf. 6) ; grow 

paper, papier m. 

old, vlellllr. 

pardon o. pardonner (to [anyone], 

once, line foi« ; at once, (immedi- 

parent, parent m. 
Paris, Paris .»., 

ately) tout do anita, anr la ohamp, 

(at the same time) & la loii. 

Parnassus, Famaiss m. 

one, an (XV. 2a), {indef.) on 

(XXVII. 4) ; no one, ^ no ; 

part V. Urnnt.) i£panr, (•«*-. m 

Bome one, lee some ; one anoth- 


er, rnn rantre (XXVII. 7), ae 

part n. part/, partle/ 

XXIX. S); one who, anyone 

pass T. passer. 

passage, pauage 7n. 

onion, *oignon (4Sa} m. 

passion, pasiion/. 


past : half past, etc.. tee XVII. 4 ; 

post, post-office, poBte/. 

during - . . ptut, depoU (% Ell). 

pot. pot m. 

peach, pSohe/. 

potato, pomme de terre/. 

pear, poire/. 

peas, poll m. 

pound, liwe/. 

peasant. "payiaB (37a) m. 

power, ponToir m. 

pen, plnme/. 

praise «. loner. 

pencil, OTBTOii m. 

precede. prSoedBr. 

pending prep, pendant. 

prefer. prefSrer. 

people, (nation) peapl« m. [folks) 

prepaid, firano de port <§ Bto), 

K«u (§ ISol), (inriy. ) on (XSVn. 

prepare, preparer. 
presence, preaeuoa/. 


pepper, poiTre m. 

present n. cadeaa w., preHntm., 

perceive, ap«rcevolr {n-r. 85), 

don w. 

i'aperoflTOir de. 

present adj. -. at preseJt. a preiBnt, 

IJerfect aii}. parfait. 

maintenant : be present at, 

perfect v. pertectlonner. 

auiiter a (^^ 1616). 

perliaps, peot-Stre, prohaMement. 

presently, prStentement. 

permit, parmetlrB (m: 31) a. 

pretended, aoi-diaant {§ 66^ 189c). 

persuade, pennader. 

prettily, jollment. 

pretty, joU. 

piano, piano in. 

prevent, smpeohar (§ 170a). 

picture, tableau m. 

priest, protro m. 

prince, prince m. 

pillBBe, pillar. 

pitiable, pitoyable. 

prison, priion/.; in oi' into prison. 

pity s. plaindre (in: 15). 

en priun. ^^^ 

pity «. pitia: it's a pity, ent 


problem, problema «i. ^^H 

place, lieu m.,plaw/.; take place, 

professioD. profCiiion/. ^^^^H 

avoir Ilea. 

professor, profsaMnr in. ^^ 

plan n. pr<!Jot m. 

profit, proflter (by, de). 

plaK n. aatiette/. 

play t. ((rans.) jonor de, (intr.) 

project, projot m. 

li™^! -ouetm 

promise, promBttro {ii-r. 31: to. *). 

please, pUiro a (iW. 34 ; g 1816) ; 

proper : judge proper, jnger bon. 

if you please, I'U vena pl^t : 

please U> limpn.). Teuillei 

eny, proprietaire. 

(XXIV. fe) ; be pleased to, » 

protect, protegBr. 


proud, orgnBillenx, 

pleasure, plaiiir m. 

provide, poarvoir {irr. 6fl) : pro- 

pocket, pouhe/. 

vided that, ponrru qne (§ 137i). 

poet. poBte m. 
poetry, poB«B/. 

Prussia, Prmue/. 

point, point m.; on the point of. 

punish, pnnir. 

aor le point de. 

poor, panvre (VIII. Be). 

pupil. (Bcliolari elSre in. 

porlrail, portrait »i. 

put, mettre ((?r. 81) ; put off, Uf- 

posscH-s, poBiedor. 

terer, ^^H 

possible. poMlble. Pyrenees, tjtbiAttf. ^^^H 


quall^, qnaUU / 

reproach, rapreohar (g 1616). 

quannty, qnantite/. 

require, aziger. 

quarter, qnwrt m. (XVI. ib). 

requirement, besoln m. 

queen, raina/: 

resemble, reuembler a (g 161&). 

quickJy, vite. 

resist, lediter a (^ 161fi). 

quite, tont (§ 116c), Wen. 

resolve, ee roaondre (irr. 36), re- 

ragoul. ragont m. 

railroad, railway, chemiu de for m. , 

rest, repoaer 

restaurant, reitanrant m. 

vole hrrao/. 

restrain, eantenir {ii-r. 81). 

rain e. planToir (mt. 71). 

retire, m retirer. 

rain n. plnle/. 

return, revenir lirr. 60), ratonnet, 

rainy, ^uvlmii. 

etre de retoni (17»). 

raise, lever. 

reward, reoompeoie/. 

rare, rare. 

Rhine, SMd vi. 

rash, temeraira. 

rich, richa (in, de »!■ ea). 

rather, plntot. 

riches, rlBheaie/. 

read, lira (i>r 11). 

ridicule ". »a moqnar de. 

ready, pret ; get ready, a'apprater. 

right n, droit ■». 

right adj. droit : be right, avoir 

realm, roTaoma //<. 

raiaon (SIII. 6«). 

reasons. raUon/. 

ring, ring for, lOnner (g 167(1). 

reason c. raisonnar. 

rise, as lever. 

recall, rappeler (XXI. Se). 

risk v. riBqaer. 

receive, raWTOir (ire. 85). 

risk n.: run the risk, aonrlt 1« 

risque, risqner. 


rival a. rival m. 

receplioQ, reception/. 

river, riviere/., ftenva m. 

reckon, *compter (Tin). 

rood, cliamin m., route/. 

recognize, reeoonattre (in: 18). 

room, ehambre/, ^^^^H 
rose, rose/'. ^^^M 

recover, *a ralaver. 

red, rouge. 

roundabout adv. alentonr. ^^^^^^H 

royal, roTal. ^^^^H 

refuse, refoier. 

ruin, rnine/. ^^^^H 

regard, ragarder ; as regards, 

run, oourir {(i-r. 53) ; run awiffl^" 

qnant a. 

se aanver ; run the risk, see risk. 

regret n. regret m. 

Rus^^ia, Bnsaie / 

regret n. regrelter. 
rejoice, le rejoulc. 
relative ii. parent ni. 

safe, lauf . 

sailboat, bateau a voilei m. 

religion, religion/. 

sailor, matelot m. 

remain, rerter. 

salt. Bol m. 

remainder, rwte m. 

saloon, Bttlon Jn. 

remember, (recitU Ui mind) le 

salvation, aalnt 'ii. 

rappaler, ae lonvenir (in: 00). 

same, meme(^ 114). 

remove, oter. 

satisfied, well satiaOed, content, 

render, rendre. 


renounce, renonoer a (g 1816). 

Saturday, iBniedl m. 

^ repent, *e ropentlr {irr. 42). 

save, lanvor. 

V reply, repondre. 

say, dire (in: p. 1S5}. 

^^^^^^^^^M ■ 

P flcaicel7, u . . . ^re (Xn, 6), S, 

shore, «6te/. 


short .Id}, oanrt; short of (wi'M 

school, Mole f.-.toor at M-hool, & 

I'l/I, ii moiiuda. 


show f, mantTBr. 

score. lingt, (ftboul twenty) ring- 

sh«n,fair((>T. 47). iritw. 

tfclne (g 67). 

shut. fWniBr. 

science, acdraoe/ 

sick, malade. 

Bcotland, Esous /'. 

side, D6tBm.(on,d8; § BtHo). 

sign, BigM rn. 

signify, Toiiloir diis (XXXIH. 7rf), 
silent : be silent, u bdre (uf. 30], 

seat one's 'self. I'aueojr (in: 78). 

second ■iiij. *iMoad (68/ ). »iieazl- 

silk, sole/. 

imB (Bid. 

silver, argBDt m. 

second «, •ieeonds (68/')/. 

simple, fimple. 

secret n. swret m. 

since ],irp. dspnli (§ 311), dii; 

see, voir (.n-i: 87) ; see agsin, «- 

«<!'(;. pnisqns, (since iJie time 


that) dspnii qua, dBpuli oub , , , 

seek, obereber ; seek one's fortune, 

n« (§ 1706), ^^ 

eherclier fortune. 

sincere, linssre, ^^^^H 

seem, lembler. 

sincerely, ainDdrament. ^^^^H 

Seine. Ssine/ 

MUff. ohttatm. ^^^^H 

seize, uiiiir. 

sir, *lnoniieur (iih, 73i7). ^^^H 

-self, -meme (XXIII. 3cl, 

sisu-r, .our/ ^ 

self-styled, ui-diunt (§ BBf. 189c), 

sit, iMlr {in: 78) ; sit down, I'ifr 

sell, vsndie. 

■eolr (irr. 78|, 

send, enToyer (in-, SI) ; send buck, 

ail, "six (81i), 

reoToyer i send for, enToyer 

sijticen, leiiB. 

sixth, *ilzitoM(81<i). 

sense; good sense, bon "mm (g 

sixty, "loisaata (Ble), 


skilVul. skillid, habile, adroit. 

September, leptambre m. 

sleep ". lommBll hi. 

Bleep -!. dormlr (in: 48). 

serve, iBrvir (wr. 44); serve as. 

sle^y : be sleepy, avoir lomBfll 

wnvir do (S ie2g). 

service, terviee m.; at the service 

slow, Isnt, ' 

of. >u HTvloa d«. 

slowly, lentMuent. 

set, msttTB (in: 81) ; set out, par- 

small, pBtit, 

tlr (irv. 38), 

sratike, fnmar. 

seven, •sept (71.<. 76.1), 

snatch, Mtaoherlfrom.l: 8161.), 

seventeen. "dix-Mpt (7lu. Sift), 

snow, nelger. 

so mlv. Ml, Blnit. 1« (XXni, 8--; 

seventh, "Hptleme Clla). 

seventy, "ioixante^Ux (BIA, e). 

g 81(1) ; SO nmiai or many, tant 
de ; so long a«, tant qua ; ho fnr 

sew, flondpo {iiT. 84), 

as, tant qns, que (S 187«) ; bo- 

she, eU«- 

uiid-KO, tel, un tol (§ 110a) ; or 

ahed t. repwidre, VMier. 

so, «B S 8T ; «> f'nt lln "'«■•' » 

sheep, bTBbii/ 

way that), de !»- en sorte quo. 

sheet, (of paper etc.) fBoiU*/ 

BO etiiij. ainei. 

shepherd. bBTgflrm, 

soap, WTon m. 

shoe, Ntillei m. 

society, sodBte/- 

Bofi, dBuKVir 8), moUVII. 7). 

shoemBker, oordonnlBT m. 

Shop, bootlqu*/,, maguin m. 

430 ^^^^^^^^H 

soldier. Mldat ".. 

strong, fdrt. 1 

solely, imiI«niBiit. 

studio, ateUw n. 

Bolve. rMOndre (in: 36). 

study r. etudiBr. 

some, de wlh art. (IV.; S 86), en 

stupid, wt. 

(XXIII. 7), quBlque C^IV. Br; 

style, maniere/.. mode/.; In the 

g 107), qnelqoBi nn« (XXVU. 9), 

slj'le of, a la (g 42y). 

tBi (S 110.1) ; Home time, quelque 

succeed, reuMir. 

temp*: some one, somebody. 

suceessful, heoreui. 

quBlqu'un (XXVII. 5); some 

successor, saMeseeur m. 

mcD are, il y & dei gisia qfli Bont 

such, tel « 110) ; such ft, un tri ; 


such-and-such, tel. 

S ; S 107«>; sometbing to - . . 

tont a ooup. 

with, da qnoi. 

suffer, BouHrir (in: S-t), 

somewhere, qaelqne p»rt (^ BBo). 

6). ' ' 

son, "aiB (68-;, 74rf) m. 

sugar, BMro"(. 

sooD. tSt, bientot; as won as. 

Sunday, dimancbe '". 

Bmiiitot que. Ait que. 

suppose, lappOBer, croire. 

sooner, ploa tSt. (ratUer) plwtSt. 

sure, Bflr. 

sorrow, peine/., dottleor/. 

surprise. Burprendre (iir. 80) j mn^ 

sorry, aohe. 

prised, surpria (at, de). 

soup, BOnpe/. 

soutl), *snd (6te) ?«. 

suspect. Be donter de. 

Boutb America, Amariqne da Bud/. 

Sweden, Suede/, 

sweet, doux (VII- 8). 


Spiuiisb, EBpagnol, dEspaguo. 

speak, parler(witb,4|. 

swim, nager. ^^^^H 

spite : in spitt of, malgra. 

Switzerland, SoitBe/. ^^^H 

sponge, eponge/. 

spoon, •oulUer I73i)/. 

table, table/. ^^M 

stand : stand still, B'arriter. 

table-cloth, nappo/. ■ 

start, pwUr |irr. 38). 

tailor, talUeor m. ■ 

station, gare/. 

take, prendre (iir. 80). (conductl ■ 

stay, rester. 

mener ; take back (along with ■ 

steamboat, batBSu & vapenr m.. 

one), rameaer ; take off or away, H 
6t«r (from, a: § IBlc) ; tafce ■ 

vapeur m. (§ 16<t). 

slew ". ragodt m. 

plM'c, avoir Ueu ; take a walk, ■ 

slill .1.11-. encore; still more, davan- 

le promener ; lake care, btoIt ■ 

tage ; a)i\}. pourtant. 

sain. ■ 

slir r. bouRer (S 166..)- 

tale. Gontem.,re()lt 171. ■ 

8t. Martin's day, la Saint-Martin 

talent, talent m. H 

(§ 42/1. 

talk, parler. H 

stocking, baa m. 

tali, grand. ^H 

slop, B'arreter. 

task, taohe/. ^^^M 

store. magaBin in. 

tastv, gout m. ^^^^^H 

sloiT. rwit m.. oonte m., hiatoire/. 
straight, dmit. 


street, rue/. 

teacher, maitre m. ^^^^^H 

Btretcb. etencb-e. 

tear n. larma/. ^^^H 

■trike, frapp«. 



tell, aSxt (irr. p. 165). raoontgi 
(«") ; tell a He. meatir [irr. 41). 

ten. •dix (aii). 

teDtb, *dlzieme (Bl<'). 

Thames, TamiiB/. 

llian, que (IX. 4). d« (XV. ; g 

thank v. nmarGier (for, de). 

that pren. Da, m . . .-U (XIII. 2, 
8), oelni, oalTii-la, cola (XXIV.) ; 
{relal.) qui, lue, leaael (XXVI.) ; 
all that, tout oe que ; that which, 
ee (Lui i>r qna (XXVI. 10«). 

that cjtij. que, poor que, aflu que. 

thaw, dogaler. 

theatre, theatre m. 

their, leur (XIV.). 

theira, lenr (XXVII. 1,2). 

them, IM, leur (XXH. 6), enz, ellet 

theme, thlma in. 
then <idc. alon ; eot^. dono, alon, 

there, ii, -U (XIH. 8, XXIV. la). 
y (XXin. a) ; there (demoiiftr.) 
is f>7- are, TOila (§201) ; there Ih 
etc.. il 7 a etc. (XXX. 4). 

they, U* m.. elle* /., (tmfc/.) im 
(XXVII. 4). 

thief, voleor m. i 

thine, tien (XXVH. 1, 2). 

thing, ohoie/ ; other things, antre 

'hink, panier, ungar ; think of 
(turn one's thoughts to), penaer 
■ ; thinli about (have an opinion 
of), pemar de ; (be of opinion] 
erolM (iir. 26) ; (think to Im, re- 
gard as) oroira, oanaar (17"), 

(hmker, pentanr m. 

third, troiiieme, (third part) tiera 
(§ 86). 

thirst, Mif/.; be thirsty, kvoir lolf 
(XIII. 6). 

thirteen, trelia. 

thirty, tranto. 

this. «, a« . . . -ei (XIII. 3, 3), 
eelni. eelnl-ef, oaoi (XXIV.) ; this 
or that la, TOiU (S 201). 

thou. to. 

though, tame as although. 

thousand, *mille (SB/). *mil (fiSif) 

three, troii. 

through, par, a traven. 

throw, Jeter (XXI. Zc). 

thunder s. tenner. 

Thursday, jandi m. 

thus, ainsi, de U sarte. 

thy, ton (XIV. 1,2). 

till cuiij. jwqn'a ce qne, qae. 

time, (period) temp a m.., (succes 
Hive) foil/. (XVn, 7; S 69a), (of 
day) hanre /. \ in good time, de 
bonne hanre ; at the time of, lora 
de ; at the same time, en meme 
temps ; havcdiiic, avoir le temps. 

tire, fatigner ; beltrod,ief«tigiiar. 

tiresome, btigant, enniiyeax. 

title, titre m. 

to, a (in. 4-6), en, dans ; de (^ 
61r(); with i'lf , a, de, pour. 

to-day, aiqourd'hni. 

togelncr, ensBmble 

to-morrow, demaio ; day after to- 
morrow, aprea-demain. 

too, trop ; too mucli '"■ many, trop 
de; too little or tew, trop 

tooth, dent/. 

touch, tonoher. 

toward, vera, enven : (oward even- 
ing. Ten le aoir ; (about, some- 
where near) vers or »ar let (§ 

town, •riUe (88/"). 

tragedy, tragedio/. 

tranalalt, traduiro (/;■!■. 1), 

travel, voyager. 

treat, trailer (as, de ; § lOap), 

tree, arbre m. 

tremble, trembler, 

trial, epronve/. 

triumph, trlonpher (over, de). 

triumphant, triomphant. 

trouble, (venation) ennui m., (ef- 
fort) peine/. 

truly, vraiment, veritablement. 
truuk, malla/ 

truth. Torite/ 
try. esiayer ; try i 
beau (§ 17^). 



Tuesday, uardl ra. ; Tuesdays, !• ' 

tureen, wnplore/ 

IweWe, douM ; twelve o'clock, 

ttidi or ffiinuit (XVII- *!) m. 
twentietb, Tl];gtieiiie. 
iwentv, viagl iTS-O. 
twice,' doux liM, "bU (74(0 (§ 8^)- 

Ugly, laid, viUin. 
UDCle. onde >fi. 

uniietsland, comprandra (in-. 30). 
undcrlake, eotrepreadre [irr. 30). 
unforintHJ, informo. 

iinfortuiiatel.v. mal 

Unbappiness, mallieni 
unhappy, malbearBaz. 
uniliKl. uni : United Provinces, 

Provinoea-UniM ; United States, 

unlew!, S moins quo . . . ne (§ 137/i, 

170rf), Baoa que, hom qne (g IZllr). 
until co"J. jnaqn'a oe que (§ 137-1 1, 

an kttenduit qne |§ 137"). 
unworthy, iadigoe. 
upon, waz. 
up-atairs, en bant. 

use B. o»«r d« {§ Iflllf), le lervir 
(irr. 44) da ; used to, iiiipf. (^ 

Tise n.; make use of, ae lerrir (irr. 
44) de. 

usually, oidlnairement. 

TBCillate, *TaelUar (68/ 

Tain, vain. 

value : have the value of, valoir 

(in: 73). 
vase, vaM m. 
vegetable ". leganie m. 
velvet, veloois in. 
Venice, TeniaB / 
very iidc. trea, bian, lort ; very 

much, beaacoap. 
very a<lj. mema (g 114^). 
VeauviuB, Vefuva m. 
vie, la dlapater (S 826). 
Vienna, Vienna /. 
village, •village (68/) m. 
violel, vloletta/. 

virtue, vertn/. 

visit ('. visiter, aUet voir (% 318f). 

voix /. ; with louder voice, 

ton ptas Itant. 
volume, volnme m., tome m. 

I, attendrs ; wiiit for. attendre. 
wake, (ii-aiiK) eveiUer, {iiiir.) 

WHlk. marcher, ae promeaBr ; lake 

a walk, ee promener ; go to walk. 

allar ae promener. 
want, (di'sire) vonloir (<Vi-. p. 114), 

(lack, be in uced of) (aUoir (iir. 

p. 141 ; 5XX. 8). 
war, Boerre/. 
warm iitlj. cband: feel or be warm, 

avoir ohand (XIII. fi) ; be warm 

weather, fa^a ohand (XXXII. 


weak, faible. 

weakness, faiblaase/. 

wealth, fortune/. 

weaiy T. fatignar. 

weather, tempa m. 

Wednesday, mercredl m. 

week, wmaine/. 

weep, weep for, pleurer. 

weU, bien (XXXJ. 8> ; wist well, 

vonloir dn bien ; be aa well, 

valoir antant. 
well behaved, Hkge. 
well satisfied, eontent (with, de). 
west, •oneit (7«.i)- 
whai i-ij. quel (Xin. 4] ; Ktbtt 

qui, qne, quol (XSV.), ca qni or 

quo(XSVI. 10"). 
wlifttever,' qnoi qne, quol qne (S 

101). qnelqne . . . qua (^ 107e), 

qnelconqae (^1081. 
when aiic. qoand, (in or at which) 

od ; ciinj. quand, lonqna, dee qne, 

whence, d'oti, dont (XXVI. 76). 
where, on (XXVI. 8). 
whereas, tandii que. 
wherever, od qua (g 1S7«), m 

qnalqne endreit qae. 
wheievvilh, do quel (XXVl 6o}. 



irbether, d (XXXIV. U\ que 

; wliether ... or, toit . . . 

us . . . aoit que (^ 137^), 

qne ... on que (13"). 

which n'lj. quel (SHI. 4), nubKi. 

leqnal(XXV. 6), {relal.j qui, que, 

leqnel (XXVI.) ; of which, dont 

(XXVI. 7) ; to <"■ at which, oi. 

while a/nj. pe ndan t que, taodis qde. 

qui, que, leqnel fXXVI. ; g 103). 
whoever, qui que, quel que (fc 104), 

qui (gl03'i). quieonqne (XXYI. 

whomsoever, qui que oe «iit {§ 

lOii, 167f). 
whole, tout entier, tont. 
whose, de qnl, dnqnel, dont, (to 

whom tKlanging] a qui. 
why, paorquDi, qne (XXV. id), 
wi^cd, mnuvBii. 
wife, *IeaunB (SSn)/ 
will, be willing t>. vonlolr lirr. p. 

114; XXIV. Oe). 
will n. volonte/. 
William, QaiUannie ni. 
window, fenetre/. 
win, gagnier 
wind n vent m. 
wine, rfn w. 
winter, *liiver (735) m. 
wisdom, uguas/. 
wise. eage. 
wish t. TonlolT (in: p. 114), de- 

■irer ; (wish good day etc.) sou- 

wilii, aveg {§ SOB), (by) par, i {% 
36), de (^ 1S2<'), (at Ihe house 

of) OhBI. 

withdraw, se retiret. 
within adp. dedans ; pi'cp. eu (g 

without prep. MU (g 210), K moini 
de (wrfft in/. ) : go (w do without, 
ae pasger de ; coiij. (XXXIV. 
bb : g mb. 13S«), aana que, han 
que, qne . . . ne. 

without ,f<lp. dehon. 

woman, *feranie (26a) f. 

wood, bois m, 

wooden, de boia (V. l/i). 

wool, laine/. 

word, parole /., mot (^167*:) m. . 
keep one's word. teiUi parole. 

work II. (labor) travail m,, (pro- 
duction) onvTBgB m. 

work v. travailler. 

workman, ouTrisr m, 

workwoman, oavriere/. 

world, monde ">. 

worse "<lj. pire (IX. 3); adv. pit 
(XXXI 8). 

worst, le piro (IX. 3) ; adv. lo pii 
(XXXI, 8). 

worth ; be worth, valoir {in: 78), 

worthy, dlgne. 

would to God, pint a Dian (g 1316), 
Siea veoilla, 

wound 7. bleuw. 

write, Borlre {I'lr. IS). 

yard n. (measure) metre m. 
year, an ra., annea/. 
yes, onl (^ SOO), ii (g 2004). 
yesterday, Ider (73'i) ; day before 

yefltcrday, avant-hter. 
— * ■'- a; eoiij. ponrtant, 

yonder ndv. la-bas. 

you, yona (I. fti, VII. 16). 

young, jenne : young lady, ma- 

dameiieUe (XIV. 4). 
yonr, votre (XIV.). 
jours, VQtte (XXVU. 1, 2). 



S9 are to pages ; but the numbers ot subdirlaioDa occutrlnE on the 
page are added In pareotheees where called for, in order to the ready flnding of 

All Bteccb ood English worda are ti> be Inoked tor i 
Id die Index. 

ft, proDUD'n of, 4r-5 ; when silent, 
6 (l«l ; wbea elided, 5 (16) ; ils 
accent- marks, 6 (161, 

absolute coDstructioD. 316, 387. 

nbstract nouns, iQcluaivc urticlo 
with, 87 iSh). 224 IM.i). 

accent of ^ word, 4 ; relation of 
Latin 'fljid French accent, 304 

accent-marks or written accents, 
3-3 : — iinii me acute, circumflex, 
grave, and the different voaela. 

accusative, Latin, rmreseiited usu- 
ally by form of French word, 1 



accusative, Ladn constructions of, 
represented in French, 215-6 ; 
accus. with infinitive, construc- 
tiona resembling, 817 (,d). 

acute accent, 3-4;— i(nd »ee Ihe 
diffcptnt mietlf. 

address, vous chiefly used in, 2b 
(BA) ; titles used, 73. 

adjectives, gender, 46-D, 2S3; uum 
ber, 50-1, 288-1 ; agreement, 46- 
7, 334-5, 393-3 ; place, when nt- 
irlbulive, 51-2, 238-7; difference 
of meaning, deiwtiiting on dif- 
tereoce of pluec, 52 (Sc), 286 ; 
comparison, 54-5, 2S4 ; ad verba 
from, 143-5 ; adj. used as ad- 
verbs, 145 (&), 234-5, 2S0 (116'-); 
OS nouns. 3SS-6 : with de and a 
before modifying noun, 289-10; 
lie fore dependent inflnilive, 327- 

8 ; adj. from present participles, 
382-3 (1S9«). 

adjective clauses, 846 ; subjunctive 
used in, 378-9. 

adverbs, 34ft~1 ; made from ad- 
jectives, 143-6 : adjectives used 
as, 145, 284-5. 260 (IWe); com- 
parison of adv.. 145; classes, 
148-9 ; adv. of quantih', and 
their construction with follow- 
ing nouns, 40^1 ; negative adv. 
and their uses. 65-7, 805-11 ; 
position of adv., 150, 810-1 ; 
adv. in adjective or noun con- 
struction, *), 148 (W), 840- 

adverbial clauses, 346-7 ; subjunc- 
tive used in, 279-81. 

adverbial object of a verb, 215- 

X!, mode of expression of. 88 (S). 
iipbtbong, pronun'n of. II ; ol 

sometimes wjilten for, 13 (44''). 
aim, aln, Da.sal vowels, pronun'n 

of, 14(60<'). 
alpiiabet, 1-2. 
am, an, nasal vowel^i, pronun'n 

nf, 18 : esceptiona, 15 (64). 
antecedent, pronoun, of relative, 

113(2), 113 1*1), 183-4. 
apostrophe and Its use, 3. 
appoeitlonol noun, omission of 

article before, 229 {SO<i); app. 

infiDitivc, 315. 
arrangement of the sentence, 350- 


articles, 37-8. 323-82 :—aad mh 
detinite and indeOiiilc. 

Bspirate h, 18-9. 

>a, dipbthong, pronun'n of, 11 

auxiliaries makiog compound ten- 
ses of verb, S8, 183-3 ; of reflex- 
ive verb, 1S5(3); makijig passive 
conlugfLtion, 131 ; aiix. of im- 
neaiate future, 129 (9^) ; of im- 
mediate past, 146 (llA); causa- 
tive aux., 161. 

b, pronun'u of, 15. 
Ix>dil; conditions, expressions of, 
70 (6). 

e, pronun'n of, 16 ; bard and soft 

valuesof, 16 ; oa, 16 l68e) ; use of 

cedilla with, 3 (T), 16 ; when 

sileul as final. 16. 
cspilo] letters, use of. 1-2, 73 {*<■). 
caMinal numerals, w^ Diunerala. 
carrying-on of a final consonant to 

following vowel, S5-6. 
eases mostly wanting in French, 

83, 215 ; loaa of Latin cases, 

205-G ; ca^e relations expressed 

by de and a, 21^33. 
causative verb-phrases, with fairs, 

151 ; > ireci and indirect object 

with such, £86 [litb). 
cedilla, 3 I7). 
oh, digraph, pronun'n of, 16 : how 

treated in syllnbication, 2 (Ir). 
circumflex accent, 3 : — and ae Hit 

clauses, subordinate or dependent, 
345-T ; u«e of subiunelive in, 

close and open sounds of e, 7. 

cognate object of a verb, 295 (1676). 

eolleclive subject, agreement of 
verb with, 287-8. 

color, nouns of, used adjeciively, 
283 (BSrf). 

comparative of adjective, 54 ; of 
adverb. 145 : original comp., 54, 
145; denfler comp., with meas- 
ure of dilTerence, 288 (Blr) ; after 
plni, molni, 342 (2D4r) ; expletive 
Bfl after comp., 311 (170^). 

comparison of adjectives, 54-5 ; ol 
adverbs, 145 ; relation of Latin 
and French comp., 206 i.Af). 

compound forms of the verb, with 
auxiliaries, 58, 86 (S). 
impound nouns, gender, 212-3 ; 
number, 214-5. 

compound subject, agreement of 
verb with, S87-8. 

concessive use of subjunctive, 37S 
(-■), 280 (1876). 

conditional meaning, inversion to 
express, 851-3. 

conditional tense lor mode), 45, 
135 : derived from inOnitive, 
B5-« ; imperfect used for, 265 
(US'!); pluperfect subjunctive 
used for, 273 (rf). 

conditbnal perfect tense, 58 <6), 
267 {126). 

conditional use of subjunctive, 
273 (r); of imperaHve, 804 (142). 

conjugation of verbs, 67 etc.: of 
avoir, 57-60 ; ofitr*, 62-3 ; nega- 
tivecoDj., 65-7;of regular verlis, 
88 etc. ; of irregular verba, 118 
etc.; relation of French to Latin 
couj., 200-8. 

conjugations, the three regular, 
85; a fourth, 85(1(1). 

conjuncUons, 157-B. B45-7; co- 
ordinating conj,, 845; subcrdi' 
natlng, 345-7 ; conjunction- 
phrases, 158-9, 280 (ISftO. 

conjunctive and disjunctive pro- 
nouns, 102-10, 244-8. 

consonants, pronun'n of, 15-36 ; 
relation or French and I^tln 
consonants, 206 : — and tee Iht 
difrreiil letters. 

coOi^inallng conjunctions, 845. 

countries and provinces, the article 
used with names of, 48-4, 23fr4. 

ct final, promm'n of, 23 (76a). 

i, pronun'n of, 17 ; linking of, 36 

dale, expression of, 82-3, 241-3, 
dative case, represented by noun 

with ft, 34 (4'ii; dative pronoun, 

108 |5). 109, 247 ; ethical datjre, 

so-called, 296 (ISe;). 



days of week, names of, B3. 

declension, relation ot Latin and 
French, 305-8. 

definite article, 27 ; combinations 
with ds and i, 33-4 ; use in parti- 
ti»-e expression, 3«-7, 2334 ; in- 
ciusive use, B7-8, 334; witb 
names of counlriea. 48-4, 33o-6 ; 
of mountaiua, 45, 23fl (42 1) ; 
with other proper names, 44-5, 
236 ; with title, 227 (43) ; makes 
superlative from comjMmtive, 
54-5, 14S ; its rciietition, 38 (7), 
55 {6b), 238 (49) ; used for pos- 
seasive, 73 (Si), 337 (46) ; distrili- 
uUvely. 237-8; special cawa, 

demonstratives, 2S3 ; dem. adjec- 
tives, 69 ; pronouna, 111-3. 

dependent or subordinate clauses, 
845-7 ; use of subjunctive in, 

disresis, uses of, 3(B). 

dialects of French, 203 (6). 

diphthongs, so-called, pronun'n 
of, 11-3 i real diphthongs want- 
ing in French, 11 (3»'i): — and see 
tlie different Irllera, 

diaiuncUve and conjunctive pro- 
nouns, 102-10, 344r^. 

dlvisian of wort^ into syllables, 2. 

double consonants, pronun'n of, 
15 (GB<'). 

e, pron'n of, 5-8 ; niiite e, 5-8 ; ■ 
ncule and grave, 6-7 ; e circuin- 
flea, 7 (24) ; b before consonant 
in same syllabic, 7-8 ; exception- 
al cases, 6 ; elision of .when flnal, 
8 ; written to denote Ibe soft 
sound of g, 17 (6Se). 

*, e acute, 6-7 ; a or a before ga, 
{iOc] ; e final of a verb-form 
before JB, 89(c). 

a, e grave, 8-7. 

I, a circumflex, 7. 

eau, pron'n of, 11 (40). 

«i, diphthong, pron'n of, 11. 

■in, nasal vowel, pron'n of, 14 

a, nasal vowel, proa'n of, 18, 14 

<S0<, 63i), 15 (54). 
Himment, pron'n of, 8 (!fti). 
an, naiwl vowel, pron'n of, 18 ; ex- 
ceptional cases, 14 iWe, B8u, 

fi3<i), 15 (51). 
ethical dative, so called, 295 (156/1. 
an, diphthong, pron'n of, 11; in 

forms of avoir, 11 (41''). 

m, nswl vowel, proa'n of, 14 

«-, pron'n of, 34 |81t). 
exclamations. 347 ; use of qnal in, 

70 ; of qve and qnol, 118 (40). 
expletive na, in dependent cktuaes, 


t, pron'n of. 17. 

tactitively used verbs, 295 (I67i). 

feminine of adjectivM, how form- 
ed, 47-fl, 333 ; of nouns, 312 :— 
and Kfe cendej. 

feminine wjnte, 855-6. 

final clauses, subjunctive in, 381. 

final consonants, pron'n of, IS ; 
linking of, 35-fl. 

first regula,r conjugation of verbs, 
85, 87-9 ; its irregular verbs, 

fourth regular conjugation (as 
sometimes reckonedi, 85 (la). 

fractional numerals, 80. 

French language, history, and re- 
lation to Latin, 203-9 ; dialects, 
203 ; related languages, 304 : 
earliest literature, 204 ; relation 
to IjHtin in regard to pronounced 
form, 304-5 ; to inflection, 305- 
8 ; to compounds, 208 ; borrowed 
words ia French, 308. 

future tense, 41 ; its uses, 366 ; 
made from infinitive, 85-6 ; fut. 
of immediate action, 129 (9c) ; 
present in fut. sense, 364 (llBf), 
366 (1231). 

future perfect teuso, B8 (6) ; ite 
use, 387 ; perfect used for, 268 

ff, pron'n of, 17-8 ; hard and soft 
values of, 17 ; double, 17 ; final, 
17 : when linked, 26 <BE&} ; o^ 


ihoirrBpbic use of e wnd n after, 
17-S ; gn. pron'n of, IS. 

KB. B or e before, 6 iSOc). 

gender, of nouns. 27. 208-13 : rela- 
tion of Frencb geniicr to Laliu, 
S06, 20e-IO; gender us nhowa 
by eniHng, 310; liy nienning, 
210-11 ; double. 311-2 ; double 
gender-form. 212 ; gender of 
compound nonjiH, 212-8 ilB/'l ; 
gender of iidiecfive words, 37 
(8) ; of artides, 27 : gender- 
fonuB of adjeelivca, 4&^ ; of 
pronouns, 89-70. 78-8, 107-13B. 

genitlTe case, represented by noim 
with da, 33 (1.1), 217-30 ; gen. 
ot appurtenance. 217; of equiv- 
alence, 317; of cbaractenslic. 
317-8; of materia], 338; parti- 
tive, 318-20 ; genitive pronoun. 
109-10, 347-^- 

Germanic worda in French, 203. 

gerund, 67 Oc, rf), 833. 

gn. digraph, pron'u of, 18 ; bow 
treated in Byllnbication, 2 (4f). 

grammnticftl subject, ob or il, 286- 

grave accent, 8(B):— rt'ir' **■ tJie 

bard c, le ; ch, 16 (69..] : g, IT. 

bfphcn, 4 (lOi ; used in interroga- 
tive verb forms. 39 (104, <i) ; in 
compound numerals, 77 ; before 

Hubjimelivc pavona, S9 <T^ 
984 ; impv. sense of future, SOB 
(128^) ; of infinitiv-c, 81B (lltff). 

imporfect indicative tense, 84-5 ; 
made from preH'nl participle, 
86 (4) ; uses ot, 264-3 : for Kng- 
liab pluperfeet. MH <118o) ; lor 
conditional, 36S(1196). 

impemonai or indefinite subject, 
&4, 113,180-40,288-9. 

imperHonnl verbs, 189-42 ; form 
of participleinrnm pound teuBCfi, 
336 (IM")- 

In, na«u1 vowel, pron'n of, 18 (SO). 

incluBive article, 37 (6), 227. 

indefinite article, 38 : uses, 229- 

indefinite pronouns, 78-4, 127-8, 

indefinite or impersonal subject. 

•t il, e 

1. 112, S 

hypotheltcal sentence, verh-forms 
vised in, 267 (12Sc), 273 (rf), 280 

1, pron'n of, 8-9 ; accent, 9 (tin) ; 
elision of final, 9 (29A) ; metrirail 
treatment, with following vow- 
el, 8 (28A1, 357-8. 

im, nasal vowel, pron'n of, 18 
(SOI ; exceptions, 15 |64/'). 

imperatJve, 49 ; use of, 283-4 ; 
made from presenl indicative, 
86 (6) ; impv. uae of present 

indicative mode, 273. 

indirect object, pronoun forms for, 
108 (S| : with verb, 295-fl. 

indirect statcmenl, 372 (ia9i/),a75 

infinitive, 57 (2) ; sign of, 57 (26), 
154 («), 313 llTSil ; other pro- 
positions and prepoBitioa-phrases 
governing, 154 (4, 8), 880-1 ; 
constructions : inf. as ordinary 
noun, 818 (172c) ; as subject of 
verb, 313-4 ; as predicate, 814 ; 
as attribute, 329 |2>) ; In apposi- 
tion, 8ln ; as object ; witJiout 
sign, 316-8; witb de, 820J ; 
with i, 823-5 ; with de or &, 
335-6 ; inf. dependent on an ad- 
jective, 837-8 ; on a noun, 828- 
9 ; future and conditional made 
from inf., 85-6 ; imperative use 
of inf., BlS(p); inf. with de in 
sense of ' began to,' 381 (g). 

interjected phrases, inversion in, 

interjections, 847 ; interjection al 
imperatives, 288 (140''). 

inlerrogatives, 70, 117-9, 149 (6a), 
158 (Bt, 254-B ; form of intejr. 
sentence. 38-9, 118-9, 8B0-1 j 
with negative, 67 (8) ; interr. 
paraplirasos. 97 (fci). IW (J). 


951 (B24«) ; interr. QBed also as 
relatives, 131. 

intransitive verbs, auxiliary taken 
l)y, 133-3. 

inverted order of sentence, 8B0-4 ; 
in questions, 850-1 ; in inter- 
jected phrases, 351 ; in optii- 
tive pliiases, 351 ; in conditional 
pbrases. 3&1-3 ; in phrases be- 
ffinning with a part of the pre- 
dicate, 353-3. 

irregular verbs of first conjuga. 
tion. 98-100 ; irr. verba in gen- 
eral, 113-4; their conjugation 
in detail, 114-198 ; alphabelical 
list, with refercnecs, 199-201. 

and pron'n of, 19. 

I, pron'o of, 19-20 ; liquid 1, after 
1, 19-20; after i preceded by 
other vowela, 20 (68^) ; excep- 
tional caaea, 19, 30. 

Latin, relation of, to French, 303- 
9 -.—and lee French. 

letters, French names of, 1. 

linkingorcarrying-on of final cun- 
aonants to following vowels, 25- 

liquid 1, «« 1. 

m, pron'n of, 20-1 ; toakes pre- 
ceding Towcl nasal, 12^ : — lee 
nasal vowels. 

masculine and feminine, sec gen- 
masculine rhyme, 8&5-6. 

material, expressed by noun with 
de, 40, 218 (33). 

measure, de used in expression of, 
aft«r noun or adverb, 40, S18 ; 
after adjective, 88 (6), 389 (81-:) ; 
expressed by noun used abso- 
lutely, 816 (<■). 

mn, pron'n after vowel, 14 (B3i), 
31 (Bfti). 

modea of the verb, their uses, 372- 
86 ; indicative, 373 ; subjunc- 
tive, 372-88 ; imperative, al8-4. 

month, day of, how expret«ed, 60 

(Su) ; names of months, 63. 

mountain, oi'ticle used wilh the 
name of a, 45 (Se). 336 (43a). 

mute 0, 5-8 ; after another vowel, 
8 (28u). 10 (38), 13 (46), 357-8. 

mute h, 18-9. 

mule ayllables, reslricled occur- 
rence of, 8-7 ; tbeir value in 
verse, 354-8, 


na.?nl vowel.-^, pron'n of, 13-5 ; an, 
am, em, en, 13 ; an, om, 13 ; im, 
in, ym, yn, aim, ain, eia, 13-4 ; 
oin, 14 (BOrf) ; um, nn, eun, 14 ; 
exceptional cases, 14-5 ; canj- 
ing-on of their n when finul, 38 

negative conjupition, 65-7, 305- 
11 ; expletive negation in de- 
pendent clauses. 810-1. 

nominative forms, Latin, retained 
in French. 306 i4p). 

nouns, gender, 27. 309-13 ; num- 
ber, ffiW, 318-5; case, absence 
of, 33, 315 ; case-relations asex- 
pressed by de and £,83, 34, 315- 
33 ; absolute and adverbial 
constructions, 315-6 ; partitive 
noun, 86-7, 230 i inclusive sense 
of noun, 37, 334 ; infinitive de- 
pending on noun, 838-9. 

noun -clauses, see substantive 

number, relation of I.,atio and 
French, 306 (4ri); number-forms, 

numerals, 76-84, 341-3; cardinals, 
76-7, 341-3 T oidlnnls, 79-80, 
343 ; cardinals for English or- 
dlnal.q, 79-80 ; fraciionals, 80, 
243 ; collectives, 243 : mulii- 
plicatives, 343 ; numeral ad- 
verbs, 343-3 ; de for ' Ihnn ' after 
a numeral, 343 (S04r). 

0, pron'n of, 9 ; accent, 9 (316). 
object of verb, 294-8 : direct and 
indirect, 395 ; both with sr- ■" 


Hliruon, 'JfW , oilvGrblat obji-ct. 

1)1 in 

>.l.|i«'Mvi>t.mlli'iili', •iymiti). 
u..|l|ili1,l.<itijr, l«:fon-ll, 11 (llf), 
'BU, jMOii'ri <>t. Il<41'>|. 
ul, •IliililJioNK, tinia'a ol. 112; el 
wtJili'N for at, li(W,). 

', iifon'n of, 14 


l>, [■hiirriL-lor of, 'Mt 
II 111. mi 

iii'illiiiil tiiiiiirriilH ; -*r< numorolti. 
Dii, iIli>lillii>iiK, iiidJi'iiuf, llj ; wllh 

riill-iwhiu viiwiil, lU Ma). 808 



|iiiiil<>i|.|i.i, n? H, lUm-lO; iirowiii 
l>Fiilf.'lpl<i, IDIU -1; niwl piinld' 
|)l<', ilfl-l ilh In tifiwliitv ron- 
-ii'iiclloii, IIKT. 

..»i>r.«K<i(| liy d*. with or wllb- 
i»il iiillHo, no T, Ml; iiw or 
iiiiiiMlnii [>r >ir|.|[-lii, H7 <S). St. 


inwlvii iiiiiJiLtfiilton, ini a ; tow 
of Lnliii iwmIvu, UUT l<i) ; Kiig' 
llili piiiwlvv ollivrwUn exiiroBMid 
In rrinoli, 1S7 I*'), ia« (4) ; ex- 
pivnnliiri of "by" afUT ixissivc, 
IHUlSi, IHU(B(n), 

IwiBl luil.i'il.u' lonw, ns (8) ; tta ntv, 

liiixi tU'lliill.' iciiiw. «i-callwl. 88 

{T-):-iur llirltrll. 

pnM liidullullu U'liw, Kiriillot), 0» 
(fa):— (Mp«rfocl. 

: pMticiple. ST-e. 

iMidve'iDwle wilb. !ir. Ml in : 
form of panici]^ In HKk mum 
liiitatioiu, Sle iMu 12S i»>^ UJ 
<l"),l33>S>,139i«i.3S«^n: fe 
datulant auiiliaiT ppie. 9K. 

psMi time, u!« of preaeni tor. !M 
(USA); for pttst time coaiinaDie 
to preflent. 264 dlW). 

perfect tsise, 98 le^ ; its ok. b^ 
ie<i), 265-6; EDgUab patea 
n-presented b; Freock pniiat, 
SM illtdj. 

IwrHODol endiogH of verii, LAtia 
and French, compuied, 207 K). 

pcraODBl proDOunH. 102-10, iU- 
51 ; con juDctiTC and distnnctivie, 
102; subj^, 102-8 -. object, 
108-6; reHesive, 108, 247; 
\ 247-8; " 

^n'n of, 19 {04^) ; 
in syUalricatioD, 3 


[ilncc where expressed by simple 
noun, 21S (28'(). 

pluperfect tense, indicative 5S (6) ; 
ItH use, 260; £ngliah plupf. 
represented by Frencti uuper- 
fcct, 365 (e). 

pluperfect lense, Bubiuuctive, use 
of, a* (I//|, 278 (.(). 

plural of nouns, how formed, 30- 
1, ai8-a ; of adjectives. 46, 50-1. 

pmrlry, iirufriilar arrungement in. 
8S» 1 rules of metrioil construc- 
tion of, 264-8. 

poHsesslvGS, adjective, 72-3 ; sub- 
Htauiive, 128-7 ; rules for use, 
78 (3, 5), 361 1 rL-pluecd by article 
or personal pronoun, 78 (6fil, 

poHsesslvc case. «w genitive. 

pri'dicalc noun or odjcellve, 202- 
8 ; prepositional phrase, 288 
(153) ; infinitive, 814 ; objective 
predicate, 298 I1S4) ; form of 
pcrsoniil pronoun in pred.. 108 
(Si/, rj; of interrogative, 118i4'0; 
of relative, 132 (2i(); omission of 
article with pred. noun, 280 {by 


low«l by influiliTe, 154, 830-1. 

prcpoaitloual phrases with £ und 

Oe, as ftdjiinctfl of noiin, 317-8 ; 

of adiecUve, 339-40 ; of verb. 

certaia tenses made from, 88 (4) ; 
also plural persons of present, 
86(4"), 114(5^). 

present tense, indicative, uses, 
364 ; in post sen^, 2S4 (118^J ; 
in future, 364 (llBc) ; for Eng- 
lish perfect. Sfl4 (118'(| ; ila plu- 
ral forma found from present 
participle, 86 (*n), 114 (5c) ; im- 
perative found from it, 86 (6). 

present tense, subjunctive, 62 ; use 
of its persons as imperative, 53- 
a, 273-8 (ISli), 284 (141). 

preterit tense, 38 ; distinction from 
imperfect, 264r-5 ; imperfect 
subjunctive found from it, 8B(7). 

principal pails of die verb, 95 ; 
formatioQ of the other parts 
from them, 85-6, 

pronouns and pronominal adjec- 
tives. 69-74. 103-128, 344^^; 
personal, 103-10, 344-51 ; re- 
flexive, 108, 185, 347; possessive, 
73-3, 136-7, 351-8 ; demonstra- 
tive, 89,111-3,358-4; interrog- 
ative, 70, 117-9, 354-5; rela- 
tive, 70 (W), 131-4. 355-7 ; in- 
definite, 74, 137-8, 358-68:- 
aad iee Ihe different cliiiieii. 

pronunciation, 4-26 ; of vowels, 
4-10 ; of diphthongs, 11-3 ; of 
nasal vowels, 13-5 ; of conso- 
nants, 15-36 :—onrf ««(/«<&/«■- 
ent UKert. 

proper names, use of article with, 
48-5. 325-6 ; prepositions used 
with, 44, 843 (206A), 843 (S07A| ; 
plural of, 313--4 ; adjective with, 
336 (e) ; capitals for, 1. 

Jtron'n of, 31-3 ; final, 33 ; 
ouble, 33 (73-/). 
reciprocal use of reflexive forms, 

reflexive pronoun, 108(41, 185 (2), 

eeular conjugations of verbs, 85- 

relative pronouns and pronominal 
adjective, 70 (86), 131-4, 355-7 ; 
adverbs, 128, 140 (Ba), 158 (S) ; 
oorapound relatives, 356 (103) ; 
relative not omitted, 134 (11). 

repetition, of nrtiele, 38 |7) ; of 
prepositions de and S, 34 (S) ; of 
an, 844 laiSi) ; of de with alter- 
natives, 318 (134i;) ; of subject 
orobjectof a verbbyapronoun, 
346 (83a), 388-9 ; of compound 
subject by a pronoun. 388 

responsive particles, 149 (6«), 341. 

rhyme, rules of, in French verse. 
365-7 ; masculine and feminine 
rhyme, 855-6. 

I, pron'n of. 33-3 ; when as z, 23 ; 
ttnol I, 33-8 ; u, id, iob, 32 ; 
linked or carried on, 26 (8BA). 

I, lost, replaced by circumfles on 
vowel, 3 (Be), 

1 added 1o 3d sing. impv. before 
en and j, 88 (IO.1}, 129 (S'l) ; 1 
final of 1st sing, omitted in 
verse, 856-7 (2384). 

BC, pron'n of, 38 (76i). 

■oh, pron'n of, 33 (7Sc). 

second regular conjugation of 
verbs, 85, 90-8. 

sentence, arrangement of, 350-4. 

silent e, h, syllables, me mule. 

sort sound of e, 16 ; of g, 17. 

u, prou'n of, 33 (7Si). 

strong forms of irregular verbs, 
115 (d). 

subject, agreement of verb with, 
286-83 ; after oe, 286-7 ; with 
collective and eompound subj., 
287-8 ; snbj. repeated 1^ a pro- 
noun, 278-9 ; omitted, ^9. 




subject, tefinitive as, 819-4. 

subject-proDono, it« place, 102-U ; 
mpeated, 344 (78) ; rorcmpbasis. 
Smt-Q : when of di»jiiDctive 
fonn. 34fi (74u. 78). 

Hubjunetivc lenses, G2, 55 ; riile of 
wquence for, 283 ; iraes of, 272- 
68 ; in iadcpeDdent clauses, 272- 
S : in dependent clauses. S74-62 ; 
in substantive subject clauses. 
274-3 ; object, 375-8 ; in ad- 
jective clauses, 378-9; in ad- 
verbial clauaeE, 380-1 ; tempo- 
ral, 38() ; concessive and bypo- 
thctical. 380-1 ; linal and con- 
secutive, aei : ^pec\a\ cases, 381 
U38i ; Imperative use ot subj. 
t'onns, 53-3, 384 ; subj. present 

miboiilinating conjunctiunH, 345- 

subordinate clauscH, te dependent. 

subatanlive clauses. 343-0 ; sutt- 
junctive ttaed in, 274-6 ; clauses 
pr(^)erlv subpl. treated as ad- 
verbial,' 380 (ISBrt). 

superlative, made from compnra 
live, 54-S, 145. 

syllables, division of words into, 2. 

t, pron'n 

■n, pron'n of, 0-10 : after q and g. 
ft (83) ; accent. 10 (34t ; wrilteu 
after g to denote its baid mund, 
18<S^li n and a following 
vowel. 10(36). 358. 

at after e or g, Iwfore il, 1 1-2 (11(f)- 

nm final in Latin icordK, 10 l,3Se), 
14 mi'l 

nm and on, na.'uil vowlI. pron'n nf. 
14 (61). 

V, pron'n of. 24. 

verbs, conjugation of, »m conjuga- 
tion ; auxiliaries, (e^auxUianes ; 
passive verl», 181-3 ; reflexive. 
135-8 : impctBonal, 189-42 ; nsee 
of the tenses, 204-73 ; of tlii- 
modes, 273-86 ; adjuncts of tbe 
verb: subject, 286-82; predi- 
cate uoun and adjective, 302-4 : 
object, 294-6 ; prepositional 
pbrase, 398-305 ; adverbs, nega- 
tion, 305-13 ; inHnltive. 313^2 ; 
parUciples awl gerund, 332-9 : 



a of, 23-4 ; final, 33-* ; ti 
dings before a vowel , 24 ; 

th, 78 (28). 
t, added to a 3d sing, before fot- 1 

lowing pronoun, 39 (lOc). 68 : 

m, 207 («). 
tenses, uses of tbe, 264^72 ; of sub- ' 

junctive tenses, 382 ; Latin and 

French IcnBea compared, 307 

(i) •,—and tee i/te •xinoiis tennen 
til, pron'n of. 24 (78); treatment in 

syllabication, 3 {ie). 
third regular conjugation of verbs, 

85 : as sometimes reclcoaed, 85 

(la), 190. 
time when, as expressed by simple 

noun, 21fli28&l. 
time ot day, expression of, 64 (ii). 


vowels, pron'n of, 4-15 ; Bimpli 
vowels. 4-lU ; dipblhongs, 11-2 
nasal vowels, 12^ ; relation ol 
I-atin and French vowels, 304-6; 
— and *ee Oie dijfereni Uriert. 

w, pron'n of, 24 (80). 

wealber, phrases describing, 141 

(8), 150 (Bu) : impersonal' verba 

of, 140. 
week, names of its days, 82. 

7, pron'n of, as vowel, 10 ; be- 
tween vowels, 10 ; as consonant, 
25 i interchange of i and y, 10 
(37Ap, 100(8), 

ym and yn, nasal vowel, pron'n of. 

t [60'<). 



Blodu's Iiuoia. FunllMr ConTsraatlotu Id French uilEDgKBh. UyMme-A. 

RlDdu. 1£du>. mpp. 
Btamft KAtm' fatude ProBTewivede [a Ijuigua Frauyaise. By SIqkun 

M. Smif uid Baptist* MtHutn. 1:;mD. S8B pp. 
'WltoombA Bellsntfer'a Freaoh OouTerution. Dialogued oo FamlUv 

Reading Books. 

Boohers Frogreasi 

rains. ExtraiUchokdad'iBUTraadlvenM, 
!B. By Mine. L. Alliot. Xiaio. «i\ pp. 
. Premiflre Ann6B. By B. AUBIBT, IBmo. 

leader. With doWa uid vocabulAryby 
Jnivereity. lilmD. £91 pp. Unit roaa. 

>. SfiS pp. 
r M. Lint 

fleurr'a 1,'HlBtaire de Fronoe. Racont^e u 1h Jbu 

De JHDoii'S Beaueil da Po^Bies. A J'usoge de la Jeu 

Mu.1. CUI1L.1JE DE Janoh. Ifima, IM pp. 
JoynsB-Otto IntToductory IPrenoIi Header, The. 

vch^abulary. by Edwaru S. Joykes. l^nio. \*^ pp. 
Julien'B Prftotioal and ConTCTBational Header In F 

F. JUUKK. Squai'e 12in,>. 18J pp. 

Lacombe'B Petite Hiatoire du Peuple PranQau. By Paui. Laoohbc 

Willi tiramiiiaUcal and Eiplmialary Nute» liy Jdleb Buf . ISmn. ail pp. 

Tjb. Fontaine's Fables Cboisies. Edited, with notes, by Leok Dblbob. VUaa. 

Bd.n-ith DOteBaciI 
handEDKliBh. By 

PylodefB BeginnF 

9'ranch Beader. With a 

mplete vocabulary. Ar- 

Pylodefs Second French Keader. With a eomplote French-Engligh vo- 
tabolary. L-unipil>^l by L. Pvwicet. LluBlraled. ISmo. S77 pp. 

Pjlodaf B La Llttfirature Frangalso ClasBiqua. TirSes des Matlnies Olt*- 
ralrea d' Edouard Menhbohet, iSmo. SP3 pp. 

Pylodet's La Litt6rature Frangaiie Oontemporatne. Recusll en prose 

Pylodet'a Qouttei de Bo86e. 

ISmo. 188 pp. 
Pjlodet's La HAre I'Oie. Poesies. eiilBniea, chai 

Illufltr«. Svo, BO pp. 
Whitney's Short French Beader. With nates a 

WHiTNiy. ISmo. 

Trfsor pofitlqua dea Jeunea Personues. 

it 'rondes enfantinsB. 

fe W. D. 


Bellow's Frenoh and English Dictionary (or the Pooket. SBino. OQO pp. 

The same. LarRer print. 12mo. 600 pp. Halt roan. 

OOEo's New Dlotionary of the Frenoh and Enclish IianEUases. Bv 

FRHDiNAiio E. A. Qific. Bvo. French- English pan, BOO pp. EnBlisli-FreLcli 

part. SSi pp. One niliimi-. 
Oanc'H Improved Modem Pocket Dictionary. By F. A. E. Oahc. ISmo. 

FYeiich-EnKltBh part. SV1 pp. Enell»h French part. 387 pp. Oni- vnlume. 


Students' Collection of Classic French Plays. 

TbeHrstHli wltbMI nolegby EYof.E, S. Jonrn, T>;e lutUirM vlth noti 
by Leon Delbob, M.A.. ISmo. Paper. 
Le Cid. Par CoBNKii.i.1!. 110 pp. 
AChalis. Par Ridikb. IIT pp. 
Le HisantliTope. FarUouEiu. ISO pp. 
L'AvaTe. FarMoUEBS. las pp. 
Esther. Far Kicihb. m pp. 
Chiiia. Par CoiuiBii:.Li. 87 pp. 

Romantic French Drama, {lamo. Flexible coven.) 

BU7 Bias. II]' Victor Edoo. WHb uolesbyBuNA A. Micbxils. UTpp. 

College Series of Modern French Plays. 

With EoRlish Dotis by Prof. Ferdinucd BScheu. JliinD. Paper. 
La Joia Fait Penr. Far Mme. he Oihahdin. 46 pp. 
lift Batsdlle de Dames. Par tScBiBE ut Lxrauvfi. Bl pp. 
la. MaiBon de Penarvftn. Far Jules Sandeid. 7S pp. 
Za Poudra auz Teux. t'ar I.abiobe et MjlRTIH. 59 pp. 
Jean Baudry. Par Adqdbtk VAcqUBRia. 7a pp. 
lies PetltE Olsaauz. Par Labiche et DeLACOHB. TO pp. 
Maderooiaelle de la BeigUero. Far J. Saudbad. 99pp. 
Le Baman d'ua Jeune Homme Pauvra. Far O. Feuiixet. iOO pp. 
Les Doigta de Fee. FarE. Soribk. Ill pp. 
Above in S vola. CloLh. Vol I. coutainiBg the flral five. Vol. U. the lau (our. 

Modern French Comedies. (12m 

L IHCUOOUB. 63 pp. 
UK et LahbbbtTbibouot. 28pp 
ir M. Ci.AiHVii.(A 39 pp. 

E. Lbolebq, SS pp. Wi^h vueabulary. 

ip. With vooabuKiry. 

krMAZERBS. Upp. WItb rocabulary. 

Selected French Comedies. 

Origieal t«xt. ulEb a uloss Eaglish v< 
— ..agoii. CoiuMleenla 
C'6talt Oertrude. ComMie c 

Bn Wason. ComMle en t aule. Par Edoene Vebconbii'. 13ma. 44 pp. 
™..,,.« — .__j. ^ — ,^, , "arEnoKNE VBaooNaw, ISmo, Mpp. 

French Plays for Children, (lamo. Paper.) 

La Petite Haman, par Mme. oe M.: I>e Bracelet, i>ar)[nie. dbGacle. i 

La VieiUe Cousme, par E, SoirvtsTBE: IiBb BioochetB. 58 pp. 

Le Testament de I^^ame Falnral, par E. Souvestbe; LaVamoii 

de St, Cyr, par Dhoboiowsk*. M pp. 
La Lotene de Franofort, pai' E. Souvebtbb. Iu Jeime Sava 

French Plays for Girls. (l3mo. Paper.) 


Blbltotheque d'Instructlon et de Recreation. 

ISiDO TolumeB. I'aper (ir Cloth. 
AohArd'a Oloa-Pommisr, el Lob PrlBonniorB du Ctucaae. For Xatub 

Aohard'a CloB-Pommier. Paper. 106 pp. 

BMolUire'B U^TQ HiohGl. With locabularr. Cloth. IMpp. 

BIoEraphieB des UuBioiena CSlSbrea. Cloth, TTi pp. 

ThD BBiiir, Paper. 

CanBadetSeKui'8 0ont«s)I>BFetiteBFIIles Modules, par Hme. naBEorK, 

et Lea GoQteiv de la OraJio'nidre, par Mme. Z. CABfuuD). With & Hst of 

dUScuIt phraws. Ctoth, 193 pp. 
Osmtud'i lias Ooaten de In Orand'mfice. with a lint of difficult 

plirasea. Paper. IHi pp. 
OIioixdeOonteBCoiiteiiiporalnB. Wlthuoins. By B. F. O'Cokkdr. daUi. 

Brctnmn n-Oliatrian '■ CoDBcrit de 1813. Witb notee. Br Prof. 
BAcuKH, Cloth, ass pp. 

The same. Paper. 

lie BloQUB. WItti DoWfl. By Prof. F. BAaaiiL ClotlL SfiSpp. 

The same. Paper. 

Madame Tlieriae. With natas. By Prof. F. BAoheb. Cloth. US pp 

The mnB. Paper. 

FtOlet'a Prlnoea de I'Art. Clotb, t34 pp. 

The same. Paper. 

FeulUet'a Boman d'un Jeime Honuse FauTTe. Cloth. £04 pp, 

— — The eame. Paper, 

FAval'B * Ohouana et BleuB.' With Dotea. Clatli. lS8pp. 

The same. Paper. 

Toa'a OoDtea Biosrapliiqiiefe. Willi *oCBbulaty. Ootb. 188 pp. 

— — - Petit BobliuoD de Paria, With vocabulary. Cloth. KB pp. 

Mac«'B Bouoh6e de Pain. (l^'Homine.) With vocabulary. Cloth. ESD pp 

The »»nie. Paper. 

De MalBtre'a Voyaeie Autour de ma Ohombre. Paper. It7pp. 

IiSB FriBonoleTB du Cauoaae. Paper. ^ pp. 

Herim^e'B Ooliuaba. Cloth. I?lt pp. 

Forobat'a TroiB Uola acuR la Nalge. Cloth. ISO pp. 

The same. Paper. 

Prsaaeiud'a Boaa. With vocabulaiy. By L, PrLoorr. Cleth. S86. 

The same. Paper. 

Balnt-Gennain'a Pour one Eplngla. With vocabularr. doth, inpp, 

The same. Paper. 

Sand'a Petite Fadatta. aotb. SOS pp. 

SAgur et Carraud'B Oontea. (Petitea Flllen Hodileti; Lbb OoHCera de la 

(frand-mBre.) Ciuth. IBS pp. 
BAcur'i Iiea PetlteB Pillea M»dal«B. Paper, es pp. 
BouTBStre'a PhUoaopha aoua laa Toita. Cloth. 1ST pp. 
The same. Paper. 





■X. v 

Si' ^>L.4KJlJi0L, >{i«^^— ^^ 

//.' : \' ^^ .vjtv/ f 

f * • 



.' I r Sl. 

/ 1 t r 

. .' ^''-' -■ 

r r '" y .^ ' ,-^f ''_ V r ,7 a . 


• / 

•■ L <,'"« oaf€ _ .^v '^^ f'/" -"' / -*^'^ ^ 

' i. V .'-*<- 

: / 



^ A- ^-.: 


* i r- f t 1 « -^ 


/'.; / 



/ ^' 


^,. .- ^ ? /"-r^ 



,-iJ. . - 

I . * 

- /a 


• f 



/ -^ 

.' '." ^ / ^ 



; :