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^^T^'r^ze- 



SANSKRIT GRAMMAR. 



MONIBR WILLIAMS. 



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EonDon* 



MACMILLAN AND CO. 
PUBLISHERS TO THE UNIVERSITY OF 

BOLD ALSO BT 
W. H. ALLBN AND CO. 
WATERLOO FLAOB, 
I Publithert to the India Office. 



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PRACTICAL GRAMMAR 




OP THE 



SANSKRIT LANGUAGE, 



ABBANGED WITH BEFEBENCE TO 



THE CLASSICAL LANGUAGES OF EUROPE, 



FOB THE USE OF 



ENGLISH STUDENTS. 



BT 

^;. »Ao^;e. MONIER WILLIAMS, M.A., D.GL, 

Hon, Doctor in Law oftk* Universify <tf Calcvtta ; 

Hon, Member ^the Bombay Asiatic Society ; 

Member ^the Royal Asiatic Society ^ Great Britain and Ireland, attd of the Oriental Society tff Germany; 

Boden Pr lessor of Satukrit in the University <tf O^tford, 



FOURTH EDITION, 
ENLABOED AND IMPBOYED. 



AT THE OLABENDON PBESS. 

M.DCOC.LXXVII. 

[AU rights reserved.'i 



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PREFACE 

TO THE FOURTH EDITION. 

Now that this Grammar has reached a fomi;h edition it 
may, perhaps, without presumption, be allowed to rest on 
its own merits. I have, therefore, dispensed with much 
of the prefatory matter which introduced the previous 
editions. 

Any one who compares the present Grammar with its 
predecessor will see at once the difference between the 
two, not indeed in its structure and arrangement, nor 
even in the numbering of the rules, but in the fuller and 
more complete explanation of points of detail. 

It may be well, however, to draw attention to some of 
the most noteworthy alterations and improvements. 

A table shewing the interchange of letters in the three 
sister languages, Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, has been 
given at pages 18-20. 

The list of suffixes at pages 57-75 has been consider- 
ably enlarged, and arranged in alphabetical order under 
each declension. 

The subject of declension has been elucidated by a 
clearer method of synopsis. 

A more complete account of Sanskrit accentuation has 
been given at the end of the volume. 

The Beading Exercises have been slightly curtailed. 
The publication by the Delegates of the Clarendon Press 
of such a Class-book as the Nalay and quite recently of 
the l§akuntald, sufficiently supplies what is likely to be 
needed for the prosecution of the study of Sanskrit after 
the elements of Grammar have been acquired. 

as 



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VI PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION. 

Four indices instead of two have been appended. 

In order to bring the present edition into harmony 
with the Greek and Latin grammars now in use, some 
of the grammatical terms have been altered, e. g. mffix 
has been substituted for affix; stem for base; special 
and general tenses for conjugatioiial and non-conjugational 
tenses respectively. 

Some errors which, notwithstanding all my efforts, 
crept into the last edition have been corrected, and a 
few other improvements effected. But I dare not even 
now hope to have attained the standard of perfection. 
Sanskrit is far too vast and intricate a subject to admit 
of such pretensions. I can, however, with truth affirm, 
that I have done what I could to bring the present 
work up to the level of the scholarship of the day; 
and my acknowledgments are due to Mr. E. L. Hogarth, 
M. A., of Brasenose College, for his aid in conducting 
the sheets through the Press. 

In conclusion I may, perhaps, be permitted to express 
a hope that my second visit to India will add to my 
powers of improving any future edition that may be 
required, as it certainly will increase my ability to pro- 
mote a more general knowledge of the Sanskrit language 
and literature among my own fellow-countrymen, to 
whose rule a vast Eastern Empire has been committed, 
and who cannot hope, except through Sanskrit, to gain 
a proper acquaintance with its spoken dialects, or to 
understand the mind, read the thoughts, and reach the 
very heart and soul of its vast populations. 

M. W. 

OxFOBD, October 1876. 



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CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Chap. I. — Listtebs 1 

Pronniiciation 9 

Classification 14 

Interchange of letters in Sanskrit, Qreek, and Latin . 18 

Method of writing 20 

Chap. n. — Sandhi ob euphonic combination op lbttebs . . 23 

Sect. I. Changes of vowels 24 

Sect. n. Changes of consonants 32 

Chap. m. — Boors, and the pobmation op nominal stems . 61 

Formation of the stems of nouns by suffixes . .57 

Chap. IV. — Declension op nouns. Oenebal obsebyations . . 76 

Sect. I. Inflexion of nouns whose stems end in vowels . 83 

Sect. n. Inflexion of nouns whose stems end in consonants • 95 

Sect. ni. Adjectives . . 113 

Sect. IV. Numerals . . 118 

Chap. V. — ^Pbonouns 123 

Chap. VT. — ^VIebbs. Genebal obsebvations 133 

Terminations 136 

Summary of the ten conjugational classes . .144 

The augment 146 

Reduplication • 147 

Formation of the stem in the four Special tenses : 

Of group I. or verbs of the firsts fourth, sixth, and tenth classes 1 50 
Of groups n. and HE. — ^Preliminary observations . . .155 
The new rules of Sandhi required for group n. . . .157 

Of group n. or verbs of the second, third, and seventh classes 160 

Of group m. or verbs of the fifth, eighth, and ninth classes . 166 
Formation of the stem in the six G^^ral tenses : 

Perfect 168 

First and Second Future ....... 178 

Rules for inserting or rejecting the vowel t . . .180 

Aorist 186 

Precative or Benedictive 193 

Condilional 196 

Infinitive 196 

Passive verbs 197 

Causal verbs . 203 

Desiderative verbs 209 

Frequentative or Intensive verbs 213 

Nominal verbs 217 



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Vlll CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Participles 219 

Participial nouns of agency 234 

Examples of verbs inflected at full : 

Table of verbs of the ten conjugational classes inflected at full 235 

Table of passive verbs inflected at full 244 

Auxiliary verbs conjugated .249 

Group I. Verbs of the first class conjugated .... 250 

Verbs of the fourth class conjugated 266 

Verbs of the sixth class conjugated 271 

Verbs of the tenth class conjugated 276 

Group n. Verbs of the second class conjugated .... 279 

Verbs of the third class conjugated 287 

Verbs of the seventh class conjugated 291 

Group III. Verbs of the fifth class conjugated .... 296 

Verbs of the eighth class conjugated . . . . 301 

Verbs of the ninth class conjugated 304 

Passive verbs conjugated 309 

Causal verbs conjugated 311 

Desiderative verbs conjugated 312 

Frequentative or Intensive verbs conjugated . . .314 

Chap. Vll. — Indeclinable woeds. 

Adverbs 317 

Conjunctions 321 

Prepositions 322 

Adverbs in government with nouns 323 

Interjections 324 

Chap. VIII. — Compound wobds. 

Sect. I. Compound nouns 325 

Tat-purusha or dependent compounds 327 

Dvandva or copulative (aggregative) compounds . . . 330 

Earma-dh^raya or descriptive (determinative) compounds 333 

Dvigu or numeral (collective) compounds .... 334 

Avyayi-bhdva or adverbial (indeclinable) compounds . . 335 

Bahu-vHhi or relative compounds 336 

Complex compounds . 341 

Changes of certain words in certain compounds . . . 344 

Sect. II. Compound verbs 347 

Sect. III. Compound adverbs 353 

Chap. IX. — Syntax 354 

Chap. X. — Exebcises in translation and passing . .387 

Scheme of the mobe common Sanskbit metbes .... 392 

Accentuation 397 

Indices 401 

List op compound ob conjunct consonants . . . .415 



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CHAPTER I. 

LETTERS. 

I. The Deva-n^gaii or N%ari character (or its modifications *), 
in which the Sanskrit language is usually written, is adapted to the 
expression of nearly every gradation of sound ; and almost every 
letter has a fixed and invariable pronunciation (see, however, i6). 

There are four teen vow els (or without Irl thirteen^ see 3. d) and 
thi rty-three sim ple cons onants. To these may be added a nasal sign, 
standing for either true or substitute Anusvdra (see 6), and a sign 
for a hard breathing, called Visarga (see 8). They are here first 
exhibited in the order followed in dictionaries. All the vowels, 
excepting a, have two forms ; the first is the initial, the second the 
medial or non-initial. 

VOWELS. 

^o, ^ T ei, xfi, i^ f, ^ ^«, ^ ^a, ^ ^ri, "^ g K, 

Nasal sign called true or proper Anusvdra, * n. Substitute 
Anusvdra, * m. 

Sign for a hard breathing, called Visarga, I ^. 



CONSONANTS, 






Gutturals, ^k "^ kh 


^9 


^ffh 


^n 


Rdatals, "^ 6 Wih 


^J 


"^Jh 


STft 


Cerebrals, "Z ( -•^ fh 


^4 


7^ 


m^ 


Dentals, f( t ^ th 


^d 


^dh 


^« 


Labials, J3[j> ^"^ph 


^i 


V{bh 


l?m 


Semivowels, ^ y ^ r 


^l 


-^v 




l^bilants, ^ i i^ ^ fh 


^» 




• 


Aspirate, ^ h 








IVo chanusten, 95 ?, S3^ }h (often=9 4, 7 ^h), are use4 in the Ve^. 



* Such as the Beagili, Gigar&ti, &o. In the South of India Sanskfit is gene- 
nilj written, not in the Deva-nligarl, but in the Teluguy Kanarese, and Malay&lam 

n B 

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*2 LETTERS. 

The characters are written from left to right, like the Roman. 

The compound or conjunct consonants (see 5) may be multi- 
plied to the extent of four or five hundred. The most common 
are given here. A more 'complete list will be found at the end of 
the volume. 



^ nny IT ny, ir it, ?q tth, ^ tn, w tm, "n ty^ iT or ?r *r, n tv, w ts, 
«T %, ir dg, ir ddh, w dbh, H dm, V rfy, -5 rfr, W dv, m dhy, «9 dkv, 
^ nt, 15 nrf, H n», t^ ny, apt, ^ py^ n pr, Jtpl, ^ bj\ ^ bd, r^ by, 
Iff *r, vq bhy, « Mr, iH miA, «»T wiwi, wr my, y «»/, ^ yy, ^ rk, 
^rm,-^ Ip, w //, wi ry, W rr, n i<5, ?iT iy, ^ ir, ^ i^ ^ fo, ¥ ^Af, 
? ^A^A, lor shn, v\ thy, 9 **, w skA, ^ st, w sth, m sti, ^ sm, 
^ sy, B ^, ^ svy m ss, ir Ai», ^ Ay, |r A/, m %, fi *^, H ktv^ 
^ kskn, T5T *#Am, ^ **Ay, t^ ^y, twi ^iAy, J^ gry, |f »*/, ^f »*y, 
W7 (5(5Ay, n A5Ar, ^ v4yy m tan, jn tmy, Vf try, m tsy, |r i*^9 
^ itv, n ddy, V ddhy, w dbhy, if dry, ^q «/y, nq i»4y, % rdr, xS ryy, 
f rw, \ shtr, ^ «/A«, ^ */y, ^ «/r, r^T tsny, iwr n/ry, 1^ r^«y, 
f^ rtsny. 



characters, as well as in the Grantha (or Grantham), which is a name for the character 
used for Sanskrit in the Tamil country, the Tamil alphabet being too defective to 
represent aU the necessarj sounds. In the second edition of this Grammar I gave 
a comparative table of old Inscription charactecs ^firom Mr. Edward Thomas' 
edition of Prinsep's Indian Antiquities, which shows that the present form of 
Deva-ndgari character is traceable to the inscriptions of Asoka, who is called 
Piyadasi for Priyadarsinr-a well-known Buddhist king, grandson of Uandra-gupta 
^Sandrakottos — and who must have reigned over nearly the whole of India, his 
capital being Pd^ali-putra (=P&li-bothra, the modem Patna). These inscriptions 
are found on rocks at Giri-nagara (Gim^) in Gujar&t on the Western coast, and 
at Dhauli in Kuttack on the Eastern coast (in the province of Orissa); and again 
at a place called Kapurdigiri, quite N. of the Pafgib, a little to the E. of Purusha- 
pura (Peshawar). It is from the Gimdr rock-inscriptions that the present Deva- 
n^ari is most evidently derived, and these are not yet clearly traceable to a 
Phenician origin, those of Kapurdigiri being more so. 



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LETTERS. 3 

Observe — In reading the following pages for the first time, the 
attention should be confined to the large type. 

Observe also — ^When reference is made to other parts of the 
Grammar, the numbers will denote the paragraphs, not the pages. 

The letters (except r, called Bepha^ and except the nasal sign 
called Anusvdra and the sign for the hard breathing called Visarga) 
have no names (like the names in the Greek alphabet), but the 
consonants are enunciated with the vowel a. Native grammarians, 
10 designating any letter, add the word int kdra ; thus, wnt Orkdra^ 
*'the letter a;' Hint ka-kdra, *the letter *a/ 

NUMERICAL FIGURES. 

S ^ 9 ft M ^ ^ b ^ ^0 <IS ^^ ;ftM 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ID II 12 345 

THE VOWB^ AND THE BCBTHOD OF WBITINO THBM. 

a. The short vowel n a is never written unless it begin a word, 
because it is supposed to be inherent in every consonant. Thus, 
ak is written m^, but ka is written 9 ; so that in such words as 
Vifii kanaka, tfiR nagaray &c., no vowel has to be written. The 
mark v under the k of ^R|, called Virdma (see 9), indicates a con- 
sonantal stop, that is, the absence of any vowel, inherent or other- 
wise, after a final consonant. It is omitted in the first tables that 
the letters may be kept imencumbered by additional marks« 

a. The other vowels, if written after a consonant, take the place of 
the inherent a. They assume two forms, according as they are initial 
(NT not initial. Thus, ^RTi([ dk, m kd; ^ iky f^ ki. 

b. Observe here, that the 8hort vowel ft, when imtialy is written 
in its right place, but when not iniliai, is always written be/ore the 
letter after which it is pronoimced. Hence, in order to write such 
a word as Hi, the letters would have to be arranged thus. Hi ^, 

e. Perhaps the true explanation of this peculiarity is that in the earliest alphabets 
the two t's were written over the consonant to which they belonged, short t 
iBclining to the left» and long i to the right, a perpendicular stroke having been 
afterwards added. 

3. The long vowels T d and ^ iy not initial*, take their proper place 
after a consonant. Also the non-ihitial and au (which are formed 
by placing *^ and over t rf), like T d, take their proper place after 

B 2 



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4 LETTERS. 

their consonants ; thus, ift kOy id kau. The vowels Uy iy ft, fiy Ifiy 
not initial, are written under the consonants after which they are 
pronounced ; BSy "^ kuy '^ ki, if kriy v kfiy Jf klri. v 

a. Except when ti or t« follows ^ r, in which case the method of 
writing is peculiar ; thus, ;? n«, IK rrf. 

A. When, however, the vowel ^ fi follows ^ r the vowel is written 
in its initial form and r in the crescent shape placed over it (see 5. a) ; 
thus, ftf^ftr nirfitiy *the goddess of destruction/ 

ۥ The vowels ft, fiy Ifi and Ifi are peculiar to Sanskpt (see 11. c), 
^ Ifi only occurs in the root 'ff^^klfipy *to make,' and its derivatives. . 

d. The long T{ M is only used in technical grammatical ex- 
planations; strictly it has no existence, and is useless except as 
contributing to the completeness of the alphabetical system. 

e. The vowels e and oi, not initial, are written above the consonants 
after which they are pronoimced ; thus, ilr ke, % kai. 



/. In a few words initial vowels follow other vowels ; e. g. fl'^fUU*^^ a-ft^sfi, 
' without debt ;' 'liVil go-agra, * a number of cows ; ' H^T pra-ugay * the pole of 
a chariot;' fanv iitau, * h sieve.' 

IIBTHOD OF WBirmO THE SDCPLB CONSONANTS. 

4. The consonants have only one form, whether initial or not 
initial. And here note that in every consonant, and in the initial 
vowels, there is a perpendicular stroke or the commencement of 
one, and that all have a horizontal line at the top; but in two 
of the letters, v dh and )^ bhy this horizontal line is broken. In 
writing rapidly, the student will do well to form the perpendicular 
stroke first, then the distinctive parts of the letter, and lastly the 
horizontal line. The natives, however, sometimes form the horizontal 
line first. 

METHOD OF W BITING THE CONJUNCT CONSONANTS. 

5. The necessity for conjunct consonants is caused by the fact 
that every consonant is supposed to have the vowel ir a inherent 
in it^ 80 that it is never necessary to write this vowel, excepting at 
the be^ning of a word or, in a few cases, of a syllable (see 3. /)• 
Hence when any simple consonants stand alone in any word, the 
short vowel ir a must always be pronounced after them ; but when 
they appear in conjunction with liny other vowel, this other vowel 
of course takes the place of short ir a. Thus such a word as 



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LETTERS. 5 

ITTRiniT would be pronounced k aidnatqyd ^ where long WT d being 
written after I and y takes the place of the inherent vowel. But 
supposing that^ instead of kaldnataydy the word had to be pronounced 
kUmtydy how are we to know that kl and nty have to be uttered 
without the intervention of any vowel ? This occasions the necessity 
for conjunct or compound consonants. Kl and nty must then be 
combined together thus, ^, ^, and the word is written VPun. 
And here we have illustrated the two methods of compounding con- 
sonants; viz. 1st, by writing them one above the other; andly, by 
placing them side by side, omitting in all, except the last, the per- 
pendicular line which lies to the right. 

a. Some letters, however, change their form entirely when combined 
with other consonants. Thus ^ r, when it is the first letter of a 
conjunct consonant, is written above in the form of a crescent,, 
as in ^ kurma, ^117^ kdrtsnya ; and when the Ictst^ is written below 
in the form of a small stroke, as in the word H^ kramena. 

b. So again in if * ksha and '^'^ jha the simple elements i| Y and 
ir »^ are scarcely traceable. 

c. In some conjimct consonants the simple letters slightly change 
their form ; as, ^ ia becomes ^ in ^ i($a ; ^ J with n ya becomes 
V dya; ^ d with V dha becomes ir ddha; ^ d with vf bha be- 
comes K dbha; i(t with ^ ra becomes ^ tra or 9 tra; 1^ k with w ta 
becomes li kta. 

d. Observe, that when r comes in the middle of a conjunct consonant, it takes 
the same form as at the end; thus, ^ grya^ Jl gra. When conjunct consonants 
commencing with * are followed by the vowels t, i, e, at, o, au, or hj a nasal 
symbol (see 6), then ^ is for the convenience of typography written on the right 
of , all ; thus, f^ r^, Vff r^/, 9 rke, m rkau, *% rkanu 

anusvIba and anuk^ika. 
6. Anusvdra (♦ «»), i. e. * after-sound,' is a nasal sound which 
always belongs to a preceding vowel, and can never be used like 
a nasal consonant to begin a syllable (though like a consonant it 
imparts, in conjunction with a following consonant, prosodial length 
to the preceding short vowel). It is denoted by a simple dot, 

* Sometimes formed thus i|, and pronounced kya in Bengali. 
i* This compound is sometimes pronounced gya or ny<i, though it will be more 
convenient to represent it by its proper equivalent j^a. 



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e LETTBBS. 

which ought to come either immediately over the vowel after which 
the nasalization is sounded, or on the right of the vowel-mark ; thus, 
4r kamy ^ hm^ f^ kim^ "fff kirn. 

This dot serves two purposes. It marks, i. the Anusvdra 
proper or True Anusvdra; 2. a short substitute for the five nasal 
consonants; in which latter case it may be called Substitute 
Anusvdra. 

a. True Anusv&ra denotes the nasalization of the vowel which 
precedes it before ^ ^> ^ **> ^ ', and ^ A, in the body of words. 
It is then pronounced with the nose only (like n in the French 
mon, &c.), and will in this Grammar be represented in the Indo- 
Romanic type by n, as in ^ anSa, ilffw anhati. 

But since the true Anusv^ must take the place of a final 1^ m 
when the three sibilants ^ ^9 ^ ^A, ^^8, and the aspirate v h (but see 
7. c) follow; and also generally when ;^ r follows at the beginning 
of a word (see e. next page); it is then in this Grammar expressed 
by m; thus, 1lii ^|^ is written i ^igi^ tarn iatrum; TH^ Hin^ 
becomes i TJWX9[\ tarn rdjdnam; and ^ with root f is written 
#f samhri. 

b. Substitute Anusv^ is sometimes used, for shortness, as a 
substitute for any of the five nasal consonants ^ ^9 ^^ ^9> «f » 
w m, which belong to the five classes of letters (see 15), when no 
vowel intervenes between these and a following consonant in the 
middle of the same word (thus the syllables » ink^ ^^^9 ^vif an^ 
^^inty i^imp may for shortness be written ^, ^, ^, ^, ^). 
In these cases Anusv^ must be pronounced like the nasal con- 
sonant for which it has been substituted, and in this Grammar it 
will always be represented in Indo-Romanic type by these nasal 
consonants. 

But Anusv&ra is more usually substituted for these nasals when 
final and resulting from the euphonic adaptation of the final m of 
accus, cases sing., nom. cases neut., some adverbs and persons of 
the verb to a following word (see 60). It will then in this Grammar 
be represented in the Indo-Romanic type by m, as in the cases 
mentioned in 6. a. 

c. Anusv&ra is even used in some printed books, though less 
correctly, for the final ^^m of the words specified in the last 
paragraph when they stand in a pause (i. e. at the end of a 



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LETTERS, 7 

aentence or clause, or when not followed by another word). In 
•uch cases^ too, it should be represented by m. 

d. But Anusvara is never admitted as a substitute for the original 
final «( n of a pada or inflected word (as in accus. cases plur., loc. 
cases of pronominals, tl^e 3rd pers. plur. and pres. part, of verbs, &c., 
see 54), unless the next word begin with i, f^ t^ or their aspirates, 
when, by 53, a sibilant is interposed before the initial letter. 

e. And in the case of roots ending in «( n or 1^ m, these final 
nasals, if not dropped, pass into Anusv^ before terminationa or 
suffixes beginning with a sibilant or A, but are not changed before 
semivowels ; thus iTf^ 4- Wi^ = TOli^ mansyatCy * he will think ;* 1«^ + 
^ = 1!^ manyey * I think^ (617) ; ^•¥'^^afin^'^i^if!h(yansyati^ *he will 
restrain;^ H^-f-ijrssiTRI ffatnya, ^accessible* (60a); ^+^=^W 
namra, * bent.* ?|i^ followed by TTi^^ is ?nnn^ samr(^\ ' a sovereign.* 

/. Hence it appears that the nasal sign Anusv&ra is peculiarly 
the nasal of the three sibilants 9^ ^9 ^ 'A» ^ '» &nd the aspirate v A; 
and that the true Anusvara always occurs before these letters. It 
is also to a certain degree the nasal of the semivowel ^ r; so that 
these five consonants having a nasal sign of their own have no 
relationship to the corresponding nasal consonant of their respective 
classes. 

7. That Anusvara is less peculiarly the nasal of the semivowels 
10 evident from e, above. Hence «^ m final in a word (not a root) 
may, before ^ y, e^ /, ^ v^ either pass into Anusvara or be repre* 
•ented by ^, ^, ^, or assimilate itself to these letters ; thus Tn^+ i|if 
sVW or iAh» ^4-?5'Nt'|^=4 (Fftw^^or iflflv^. 

In the latter case the nasal character of ^ y and c^ / is 
denoted by a nasal symbol called Anundsika (i.e. 'through the 
oose,^ sometimes called dandra-vindu^ 'the dot in the crescent'), 
which is also applied to mark the nasality of a final <^ / deduced 
firom a final i^ n when followed by initial H /, see 56, Of course 
the word '^^[^jsamyaiUy * gmng conformably * (formed from ttA + ^)» 
retains the m. 

a. And this Ammdsika ^ is not only the sign of the nasality of 
\y9^lf and i(^ », in the preceding cases, but also marks the nasality 
of vowels, though in a less degree than Anusv^ see 11./. 

b. In the Veda Anun^sika U written for a final «(n after a long vowel before 
another vowel ; as, ^[^ p^9 for 'IWI5^1['5Tft^ Rig-veda viii, i, 6. 



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8 LETTERS. 

c. Observe — A final \m before ^^km, ]| hn, ^^hy, |^ hi, S^ hv, may either be 
changed to Anusvlura or undergo assimilation with the second letter; thus f% 
ncoMPn or ftiH IRCTfif, ftli WW or ftn^ Wl^, f% IH or ftV^lK) &c. (see 7). 

ViaARGA, JIHViHiriiTA, AND UPADHMibdYA. 

8. The sign Viaarga^ /emission of breath/ (sometimes said to 
derive its name firom symbolizing the rejection of a letter in pro- 
nunciationy) usually written thus :, but more properly in the form 
of two small circles %^ is used to represent a distinctly audible and 
harder aspiration than the letter ^ A. It is reckoned under the vdhya^ 
prayatnay and is said^ like the hard consonants, to be a-ghosha^ without 
the soft articulation. This sign is never the representative of ^ *. 
Although conveniently represented by ^^ it should be borne in mind 
that Visai^ ($) is a harder aspirate than f h^ and is in fact a kind 
of sibilant, being often a substitute for 8 and r preceded by vowels 
whenever the usual consonantal sound of these letters passes into an 
aspiration at the e;nd of a sentence or through the influence of a 
ky khy py phf or a sibilant commencing the next word. 

And since, according to native grammarians, ^ a ought not to be 
allowed at the end of a complete word, all those inflections of nouns 
and verbs which end in g and stand separate from other words are, 
in native Grammars, made to end in Yisarga. 

But in this Grammar such inflections are allowed to retain their 
final ^ B. We have only to bear in mind that this a is liable at the 
end of a sentence, or when followed by certain consonants, to pass 
into an audible breathing more distinct than s in the French les or 
the English wfe, viscounty when it is represented by J (:). 

In some parts of India Yisarga has a slightly reverberating sound 
very difficult of imitation ; thus xjm rdmal^ is almost like TTff rdmdha^ 
^rf^ agnijf, like ^rfnTfil agni/dy fig^ Hvail^ like tf^ft Hvaihi. 

a. An Ardha-visarga, ' half -yisarga,' or modification of the symbol Yisarga, in 
the form of two semicircles X > ^ sometimes employed before k, kh, and p, ph. 
Before the two former letters this symbol is properly called JihvdmdUya, and the 
organ of its enunciation said to be the root of the tongue (Jikod-mUla), Before 
p and ph its proper name is Upadhmdn4ya, * to be breathed upon,' and its orgaa 
of utterance is then the lips {oshfha). 

The Jihvdmdliya and Upadhm&niya are therefore to be regarded as the sibilants 
of the guttural and labial classes respectively. (See P&9. 1. 1, 9.) 

b. The sign Ardha-visarga is now rarely seen in printed Sanskrit texts. In the 



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LBTTEKS. 9 

VedftB the Upadhmdniya occurs, but only after an Anusvlura or Anun^ika; 

thus, ''4^^'^^ ^' nX^V^) ^^^ >^ ^^^B ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ symbol Visarga may be 
used for it. 

VIBAMA^ AVAGBAHA, &0. 

9. The VirdmOy ' pause ^ or 'stop/ placed under a consonant (thus 
^ *), indicates the absence of the inherent va^ by help of which the 
consonant is pronounced. 

Observe — ^Virama properly means the pause of the voice at the 
etui of a sentence. In some MSS. it is employed like a mark of 
punctuation at the close of a sentence ending with a consonant^ 
while the mark 1 is the proper means of denoting the close of a 
sentence ending in a vowel, all the preceding words being written 
without separation, because supposed to be pronounced without 
pause. 

10. The mark s {Avagraha, sometimes called Ardhdkdra, half the 
letter a), placed between two words, denotes the elision {lopa) or 
suppression {abhinidhdna) of an initial V a after ^ e or ^ final 
preceding. It corresponds to our apostrophe in some analogous 
cases. Thus, i^sfti te 'pi for ir ^»fi| te api. 

a. In books printed in Calcutta the mark S is sometimes used to resolve a long 
d resulting from the blending of a final d with an initial a or dj thus ITOTS^V^ for 
W^ ^^^, BSuaUy written flmM^* Sometimes a double mark ss denotes an 
initial long VT. The mark s is also used in the Veda as the sign of a hiatus between 
Towels, and in the pada teict to separate the component parts of a compound or of 
other grammatical forms. 

b. The half pause I is a st^p or mark of punctuation, usually placed at the end 
of the first line of a couplet or stanza. 

c. The whole pause U is placed at the end of a couplet, or is used like a ftill stop. 

d. The mark of repetition ^ indicates that a word or sentence has to be repeated. 
It is also used to abbreviate a word, just as in English we use a full point ; thus ^ 
stands for ^, as chap, for chapter; so ^ for ^H. 

PRONUNCIATION OP SANSKRIT YOWBLS. 

11. The vowels in Sanskrit are pronounced for the most part as 
in Italian or French, though occasional words in English may exem- 
plily their sound; but every vowel is supposed to be alpa-prdnay 
'pronounced with a slight breathing^ (see 14. a), 

a. Since V a is inherent in every consonant, the student should 
be carefiil to acquire the correct pronunciation of this letter* There 



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10 LETTERS. 

are many words in English which afford examples of its sound, such 
as vocal^ cedar, sfebm, organ. But in English the vowel u in such 
words as/un, Aun, *u«, more frequently represents this obscure sound 
of a ; and even the other vowels may occasionally be pronounced 
with this soimd, as in Aer, rir, son. 

b. The long vowel WT (2 is pronounced as a in the English /a/A^, 
/ar, cart ; ^ i as the % in />i«, lily ; ^ f as the i in marine j police ; 
"9 u as the u in push ; 'mil as the u in mde, 

c. The vowel ^ ri, peculiar to Sanskrit, is pronounced as the ri 
in merrily, where the » of ri is less perceptible than in the syllable 
ri, composed of the consotiant r and the vowel i *. i^ ff is pro- 
nounced nearly as the ri in chagrin, beipg hardly distinguishable from 
the syllable H', but in the case of the vowels ft and ri there is a mere 
vibration of the tongue in the direction of the upper gums, whereas in 
pronouncing the consonant r, the tongue should actually touch them 
(see 19, 20) : ^ e a& the e in prey, there; ^ as in so \ ^ at as at 
in aisk; w^ au as au in the German Haws or as ou in the English 
house f. isi Iri and l^ Ift differ little in sound from the letter c^ I 
with the vowels ri and fi annexed. 

d. Hence it appears that every simple vowel in Sanskrit has a 
short and a long form, and that each vowel has one invariable 
sound; so that the beginner can never, as in other languages, be 
in doubt as to pronunciation or prosody. 

e. Note, however, that Sanskfit possesses no short ^ and d in opposition to the 
long diphthongal sounds of e and o. 

/. Although for all practical purposes it is sufficient to regard vowels as either 
short or long, it should be borne in mind that native grammarians give eighteen 
different modifications of each of the vowels a, i, u, fi, and twelve of Iri, which are 
thus explained : — Each of the first four vowels is supposed to have three prosodial 
lengths or measures {mdtrd), viz. a short {hrasva), a long {dCrgha), and a prolated 



* That there is not, practically, much difference between the pronunciation of 
the vowel ft and the syllable ft rt may be gathered from the fact that some words 
beginning with ^ are also found written with ft, and vice versa; thus, ftiY and 
^^ft, ftp? and ^ftf, ftl^l and 'fl. Still the distinction between the definition 
of a vowel and consonant at 19 and 20 should be borne in mind. There is no doubt 
that in English the sound of rt in the words merrily and rtc^ is different, and 
that the former approaches nearer to the sound of a vowel. 

t Colloquially in India at is often pronounced rather like e and au like 0. 



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LETTERS. 11 

(phta); the long being equal to two, and the prolated to three short vowels. 
Each of these three modifications may be uttered with a high tone, or a low tone, 
or a tone between high and low ; or in other words, may have the acute, or the 
grave, or the circumflex accent. This gives nine modifications to a, t, u, ft^- and 
each of these again may be regarded either as nasal or non-nasal, according as it 
is pronounced with the nose and mouth, or with the mouth alone. Hence result 
eighteen varieties of every vowel, excepting Ijij e, at, o, au, which have only 
twelve, because the first does not possess the long and the last four have not 
the short proeodial time. A prolated vowel is marked with three lines underneath 
or with ^ on one side, thus ^ or WT^ (see Pdn. i. 2, 27). 

PBONUNCIATION OP SANSKRIT CONSONANTS. 

12. '^ K^Jj \P9 ^^ ^6 pronounced as in English. 

a. T ^ has always the sound of g in ffun, give^ never of g in gin. 

i. ^ (J is pronounced like ch in churchy or as c in Italian. 
Observe that ^<J is a simple consonantal sound, although repre- 
sented in EngUsh words by ch. It is a modification or softening 
of *, just as j is of g^ the organ of utterance being in the palate, 
a little in advance of the throat. Hence, in Sanskrit and its cognate 
languages, the palatals 6 andj are often exchanged with the gutturals 
k and g. See 25. 

c. 1^ /, ^ J are more dental than in English, t being something 
like i in sticky and d like th in ihis; thus veda ought to be pro- 
nounced rather like vetha. But in real fact we have no sound 
exactly equivalent to the Indian dentals t and d. The sound of th 
in thin, thw, is really dental, but, so to speak, over-dentalized^ the 
tongue being forced through the teeth instead of against them. 
Few Englishmen acquire the correct pronunciation of the Indian 
dentals. They are said to be best pronounced by resting the end of 
the tongue against the inside of the front teeth and then suddenly 
removing it. 

13. ^ /, ¥ ^. The sound of these cerebral letters is in practice 
hardly to be distinguished firom the sound of our English t and d. 
Properly, however, the Sanskrit cerebrals should be uttered with a 
duller and deeper intonation, produced by keeping the tongue as far 
back in the head (cerebrum) as possible, and slightly turning it 
upwards. A Hindu, however, would always write any English 
word or name containing / and d with the cerebral letters. Thus 
such words as /rtp, drip^ London would be written f^, f^, WfPl. 

c 2 



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12 LBTTEKS. 

In Bengal the cerebral 1^ 4 <^d ^ <pi have nearly the sound of a dull rj so 
that vi^dlay ' a cat,' is pronounced like virdla. 

In some words both 7f and Vd seem interchangeable wither and <<|^ I; so 
that "Wit^kho^, *to be lame/ may be also written ?n^, ^fi^J, Wh^. In Prikfit 
cerebral letters often stand for the Sanskrit dentals* Cerebrals rarely begin words 
in Sanskrit. 

14. ^ *A, ^ gh, ^ 6h, ^ jh, ^ (A, ^ 4h, ir th, ^ dh, 1^ ph, 
"^ bh. These are merely aspirated forms of simple consonants. 
They are not double or compound letters ; h is only added to 
denote a distinct aspiration. Thus if is pronounced like kh in 
inkhom, not like the Greek xi \^^ th in anihill^ not as in think ; 
1^ as J9A in ts^hilly not as in -physic^ but colloquially ph is often 
pronounced like f (as phala is pronoimced fala) ; H M as in 
cahhorse. Care must be taken not to interpolate a vowel before 
the aspirate. Indeed it is most important to acquire the habit 
of pronouncing the aspirated consonants distinctly. Dd and 
dhd^ prishfa and prishfhay stamba and stambha, kara and khxira 
have very different meanings^ and are pronounced very differently. 
Few Englishmen pay sufficient attention to this^ although the 
correct sound is easily attainable. The simple rule is to breathe 
hard while uttering the aspirated consonant, and then an aspirated 
sound will come out with the consonant before the succeeding 
vowel. 

a. With regard to aspiration we may note that according to Pd^. i. i, 9, the 
letters are all either slightly aspirated {alpa-prdt^) or more strongly aspirated 
(mahd-prdtia). To the former belong vowels, semivowels, nasals, and k, g, <f, j, f, 
4, t, df p, b, which are supposed to require a shght breathing in uttering them 
when they are initial. The mahd'prd^ letters are kh, ghy 6h, jh, fh, ^, th, dk, phy 
bh, 4y sh, Sy h, Anusv&ra, Visarga, Jihvdmuliya, and Upadhmdnlya. 

^5* ^ ^> *! ^> ^ 9> •I ^> «^ m. Each of the five classes of 
consonants in Sanskrit has its own nasal sound, represented by a 
separate nasal letter. In English and most other languages the 
same fivefold division of nasal sounds might be made, though we 
have only one nasal letter to express the guttural, palatal, cerebral, 
and dental nasal sounds. The truth is, that in all languages the 
nasal letters take their soifnd from the organ employed in uttering 
the consonant that follows them. Thus in English it will be found 
that guttural, palatal, cerebral, dental, and labial nasals are followed 
by consonants of the same classes, as in inky Hng, inch, under, plinth, 



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L£TT£RS. 13 

imp. If such words existed in Sanskrit, the distinction of nasal 
sounds would be represented by distinct letters; thus, n, f^ng, 
^, ^BH^, ftn^, l?'^. Compare 6. 

a. It should be observed, however, that the guttural nasal ^ n, which is rarely 
found by itself at the end of a word in Sanskrit, never at the beginning, probably 
has, when standing alone, the sound of ng in sinfff where the sound of ^ is almost 
imperceptible. So that the English sing might be written fis^. The palatal ^ n 
is only found in conjunction with palatal consonants, as in ^hd, ^nj, ^ dh, and 
\jn. This last may be pronounced like ny, or like gn in the French campagne, 
Jn Bengal, however, it always has the sound of gy .- thus TT9T \a pronounced rdgyd. 
The cerebral nasal ^ 9 is generally the result of a preceding cerebral letter, as 
explained at 58. It is found in conjunction with cerebral consonants, but is not 
found at the beginning of pure Sanskfit words (except when used artificially as a 
substitute for roots beginmng with «^n). It is pronounced, as the other cerebrals, 
by turning the tip of the tongue rather upwards. The dental and labial nasals 
9( n and 1^ m are pronounced with the same organs as the class of letters to 
which they belong. See 21. 

16. ^ y, ^ r, «nj /, ^ t? are pronounced as in English. Their 
relationship to and interchangeableness with {samprasdrana) the 
vowels i, ri, /n, w, respectively, should never be forgotten. See 
22. a. 

When V t; is the last member of a conjunct consonant it is 
pronounced like w, as VTC is pronounced dwdra ; but not after r, as 
iri sarva. To prevent confusion, however, ^ will in all cases be 
represented by t;, thus WTC dvdra. See Preface to Sanskrit-English 
Dictionary, p. xix. 

a. The character ^ J is peculiar to the Veda. It appears to be a mixture ci 
c^ / and ^ r, representing a liquid sound formed like the cerebrals by turning 
the tip of the tongue upwards ; and it is often in the Veda a substitute for the 
cerebral ^ 4 when between two vowels, as o3^ V^ is for ^ ^A. 

h. The semivowels r and I are frequently Interchanged, r being an old form of U 
Cf. roots rabhy rip^ with the later forms lahh, lip. (See examples at 35.) 

17. 9^ i, 1^ sh, ^ #, f A. Of these, ^ i is a palatal sibilant, 
and is pronounced like sh or like s in sure ; (compounded with r it 
is sounded more like s in %un^ but the pronunciation of 6 varies in 
different provinces and different words.) "^^sh is a cerebral, rather 
softer than our sh. That its pronunciation is hardly to be dis- 
tinguished firom that of the palatal is proved by the number of 
words written indiscriminately with ^ or iT; as, litl^ or iftif. This i^ 



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14 LETTERS. 

is often corrupted into v in conversation^ and m^ ksh is often pro- 
nounced like "^ 6h. The dental ^ « is pronounced as the common 
English 8. Different sibilants^ of course, exist in English, though 
represented by one character, as in the words sure^ session, pressure, 
stick, sun. 

^ A is pronounced as in English, and is guttural. 

CLASSIFICATION OF LBTTEBS. 

1 8. In the arrangement of the alphabet at page i^ all the con* 
sonants, excepting the semivowels, sibilants, and A, were distributed 
under the five heads of gutturals {kan(hya)f palatals (idlavya), cere- 
brals [murdhanya), dentals (dantya), and labials {osh{hya). We are 
now to show that all the /arty-seven letters, vowels, semivowels, 
and consonants, may be referred to one or other of these five grand 
classes, according to the organ principally concerned in their pro- 
nunciation, whether the throat, the palate, the upper part of the 
palate, the teeth, or the lips *. 

a* We have also to show that all the letters may be regarded 
according to another principle of division, and may be all arranged 
under the head of either hard or soft, according as the effort 
of utterance is attended with expansion {vivdra), or contraction 
{samvdra), of the throat. 



* a. According to some native grammars the classes (varga) of consonants are 
distinguished thus : ka-varga the class of guttural letters beginning with h, in- 
cluding the nasal, da-varga the palatals, fct^varga the cerebrals, ta-varga the 
dentals, pa-varga the labials, ya-varga the semivowels, ia-varga the sibilants and 
the aspirate h, 

b. In the Slva-stitras of Pai[^ini the letters are arranged in fourteen groups : 
thus, a % u 9 — ft Ifi k — e o n — at an 6—k y vr f — 1 9 — ii mni^n m—jh bk n — gh 
4h dh sh--J bg 4d 4^kk ph 6h (h th 4 { t v—k p y— ^ sh s r—h l. By taking the 
first letter of any series and joming it to the last of any other series various classes 
of letters are designated ; thus aZ is the technical name for the whole alphabet ; 
kal for all the consonants ; ad the vowels ; ak all the simple vowels ; a^ the vowels 
a, i, u, short or long ; e6 the diphthongs ; ya^r the semivowels ; joi the soft con- 
sonants g, j, 4> ^9 ^ * i^^ the same with their aspirates ; jhash the soft aspirates 
alone ; yar all the consonants except h; jhal all the consonants except the nasals 
and semivowels; jkar all the consonants except the aspirate, nasab, and semi- 
vowels. 



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LETTEKS. 



15 



b. The fdlowing tables exhibit this twofold classification^ the com- 
prehension of which is of the utmost importance to the study of 
Sanskrit grammar. 



Gutturals 


Va tnrf 


WkaTffkha 


nga -^gha 


7^a 


^ha 




Palatals 


\i %{ ^e kai 


^6a ^6ha 


mja mjha 


^iia 


Tiya 


Tiia 


Cerebrals 

I 


^ri^ri 


Zta ztha 


Ii4ais4ha 


^na 


Xra 


^aha 


Dentals 


^/riTjW 


Kia vtha 


^dandha 


i^na 


B/a 


^aa 


Labials 


711 'mii ^0 ^au 


^pa mpha 


Hfba ^bha 


^ma 


"^va 





The first two consonants in each of the above five classes and the 
sibilants, including Yisarga, are hard ; all the other letters, including 
Anusvara, are soft, as in the following table : 



HABD OB 8CBD LXTTSBM. 


SOFT OR BOVAin LBTTXRB. 

• 


■mka* Wtkha* 




Vtf ^d 


T^fl* Vgha'^ 


Wrta 


f Aa 


^6a* ^6ha* 


Via 


Iff %( ^e ^ai 


Wja* m^jha^ 


^i/ia 


^ya 


Zta* Ztha* 


nsha 


^ri ^ri 


ir^* v^Aa* 


?r?ia 


xra 


71 ta* vtha* 


«Mt 


-^Ifi Tj/ff 


^da* vrfAa* 


lina 


-mla 


■qpa* xipha* 


1 


7tt -mu ^0 ^au 


^ba* vfbha* 


nma 


^va 



Note — Hindti grammarians begin with the letters pronounced by the organ 
farthest from the mouth, and so take the other organs in order, ending with the 
lips. This as a technical arrangement is perhaps the best^ but the order of creation 
would be that of the Hebrew alphabet; ist, the labials ; snd, the gutturals ; 3rd, the 
dentals. 

c. Observe, that although ^ e, ^ ai^ are more conveniently con- 
nected with the palatal class, and ih o,^ au^ with the labial^ these 
letters are really diphthongal, being made up of a + i, a + i, a + 1«, 
a + tf , respectively. Their first element is therefore guttural, 
(In the Pr&tildkhyas the diphthongs e, ai, Oy au are called 
Sandhy-^ikshara.) 

d. Note also, that it is most important to observe which hard 
letters have kindred soft letters, and vice versa. The kindred hard 
and soft are those in the same line marked with a star in the above 
table; thus g^ gh, are the corresponding soft letters to A:, kh; 
y, yA, to 6^ ihy and so with the others. 



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16 LETTERS. 

In order that the foregoing classification may be clearly under- 
stood^ it is necessary to note the proper meaning of the term 
vowel and consonant, and to define the relationship which the 
nasals, semivowels, and sibilants, bear-to the other letters. 

ii9. A vowel is defined to be a sound (war a) or vocal emission 
f breath fi:om the lungs, modified or modulated by the play of one 
r other of five organs, viz. the throat, the palate, the tongue, the 
teeth, or the lips, but not interrupted or stopped by the actual 
contact of any of these organs. 

a. HcDce ^ a, ^i, 9 t<, ^ ri^ TC Iriy with their respective long 
forms, are simple vowels, belonging to the guttural, palatal, labial, 
cerebral, and dental classes respectively, according to the organ 
principally concerned in their modulation. But ;^ e and ^ ai are 
half guttural, half palatal ; ^ o and w^ au half guttural^ half labial. 
See 18. c. 

b. The vowels are, of course, held to be soft letters. 

20. A consonant is not the modulation, but the actual stoppage, 
of the vocal stream of breath by the contact of one or other of the 
five organs, and cannot be enunciated without a vowel. Hence 
the consonants from A: to m in the table on p. i are often designated 
by the term sparia or spriskfa, * resulting from contact ;^ while the 
semivowels y, r, I, v are called (shat-sprishfa^ ' resulting from slight 
contact^ By native grammarians they are sometimes said to be 
avidyamdna-^at, ' as if they did not exist,* because they have no 
svara (sound or accent). Another name for consonant is vyafyana, 
probably so called as ^ distinguishing ' sound. 

a. All the consonants, therefore, are arranged under the five heads 
of guUurals, palatals, cerebrals, dentals, andjabials, according to the 
organ concerned in stopping the vocal sound. 

b. Again^ the first two consonants in each of the five classes, and 
the sibilants, are called hard or surd, i. e. non-sonant {a-ghosha)^ 
because the vocal stream is abruptly and completely interrupted, 
and no ghosha or sound allowed to escape; while all the other 
letters are called soft or sonant {ghosha-vat^ * having sound*), 
because the vocal sound is less suddenly and completely arrested/ 
and they are articulated with a soft sound or low murmur 
{ghosha). 

c. Observe, that the palatal stop is only a modification of the 



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XETTBRS. 17 

guttural, the point of contact being moved more forward from the 
throat towards the palate *. 

In the same way the cerebral {mUrdhanya) stop is a modification 
of the dental See 13. 

d. The cerebral letters have probably been introduced into 
Sanskrit through pre-existing dialects, such as the Drfividian, widi 
which it came in contact (see 34). As these letters are pronounced 
chiefly with the^ help of the tongue^ they are sometimes appro- 
priately called Unguals. 

ai. A nasal or narisonant letter is a soil letter, in the utterance 
of which the vocal stream of breath incompletely arrested, as in all 
soft letters, is forced through the nose instead of the lips. As the 
soft letters are of five kinds, according to the organ which interrupts 
the vocal breathing, so the nasal letters are five, viz. guttural, palatal, 
cerebral, dental, and labial. See 15. 

a%. The semivowels y, r, /, t; (called Vir:^ anta^tha or anta^- 
sthd because they stand between the other consonants and the 
sibilants) are formed by a vocal breathing, which is only half 
interrupted, the several organs being only slightly touched {ishat" 
spfishfa) by the tongue. They are, therefore, soft or sonant 
consonants, approaching nearly to the character of vowels — in 
fiu;t, half vowels, half consonants. See 16. 

a. Each class of soft letters (excepting the guttural) has its own 
kindred semivowel to which it is nearly related. Thus the palatal 
soft letters ^ i, ^ f, ^ e, % tfi, ^^j^ have ^ y for their kindred semi- 
vowel. Similarly T r is the kindred semivowel of the cerebral soft 
letters if ft, 1^ ri, and V 4; so also <^ / of the dentals '^ Iriy 1^ H, 
and ^ rff; and 1^ t; of 7 ti, '« u, ^ 0, ^ at«, and "^i. 
. b. The guttural soft letters have no kindred semivowel in Sanskrit, 
unless the aspirate v A be so regarded. 

* The relfttioDship of the palatd to the guttural letters is proved by their fre- 
quent interchangeableuess in Sanskrit and in other languages. See 34, 35, and 176, 
and compare church with ibtrib, Sanskrit datvdr with Latin quatuor, Sanskrit da with 
Latin que and Greek Koi, Sanskrit jaitti with English knee^ Greek yow, Latin ^efiti. 
Some German scholars represent the palatals ^and ^ by k' and g\ 

t That «^ / is a dental, and kindred to <^ (^, is proved by its interchangeableuess 
with d in cognate languages. Thus lacrima, ioKpvfJM, Compare also l^t^with 

D 



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18 LETTEB& 

a3« The sibilants or hissing sounds (called 'm^K(9ifishman by native 
grammarians) are hard letters, which, nevertheless, strictly speaking, 
have in some measure the character of vowels* The organs of 
speech in uttering them, although not closed, are more contracted 
and less opened {(shad-vivrita) than in vowels, and the vocal stream 
of breath in passing through the teeth experiences a friction which 
causes sibilation. 

a. The aspirate ^ A, although a soft letter, is also called an ushman* 

b. The palatal, cerebral, and dental classes of letters have each their own sibilant 
(viz. 91^, 1^, ^, respectively, see 1 7). The Ardha-visarga, called Jikodnv&Uya {X = %)» 
was once the guttural sibilation, and that called Upadhmdttfya ()n=0) the labfid sibila* 
tion (see 8. a) ; but these two latter, though called Ashman, have now gone out of use. 
Visarga (t) is also sometimes, though less correctly, called an Ushnum, The exact 
labial sibilation denoted hjf, and the soft sibilation z are unknown in Sanskrit. 

24. That some of the consonants did not exist in the original Sanskrit alphabet, 
but have been added at later periods, will be made dear by a reference to the ex- 
amples below, exhibiting the interchange of letters in Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin. 
The palatals <f, dh, jtjh, n were probably developed out of the corresponding 
gutturals ; the cerebrals f, t^, ^, ^, ^ are thought to be of Drdvidian origin ; 
the guttural nasal i» is evidently for an original n or m before a guttural letter; 
/ is supposed to be a more modem form of r; 4 belongs to the palatal dass, and 
is generally for an original k; sKSb for an original «, cf. root u»hy 'to bum,' with 
Lat. uS'tu-^, from ur-o: A is for an original gk^ sometimes for dhy and occasionally 
for bh (e. g. root grah^ 'to seize,' for the Vedic grabk). 

Of the vowels probably only a, f, u were original; ft is not original, and seems 
to have been a weakened pronunciation of the syllable ar, and at a later period 
Iji of aL In Pr&krit ft is represented by either i or u. The diphthongs are of 
course formed by the union of simple vowels (see 39). 

nnnacHANaB of lbttbbs in sakskbit, grbbk, and ultjs. 

35. The following is a list of examples exhibiting some of the commonest inter- 
changes of letters in Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin. 

Sanskrit a = Greek a, €, 0, = Latin a, e, 0, t, u: e.g. Sk. a/ra-«, 'a plain,* 
Gr. aypO'^y L. a^cry Sk. jan-as, 'race,' Gr. yev-of, L. gen-xxs; Sk. ,faiiat-a«, 
gen. c, Gr. y€V€(o-)-of, yevov^, L. generAgs Sk. fiai7a-«, *new,* Gr, v€o-^, 
L. noou-«; Sk. apat-aff, 'of work,' L. oper-i^. 

Sanskrit (f =: Gr. a, );, », = L. d, i, 6: e. g. Sk. fud-^p (stem hm^ot-), ' a mother,* 
Gr. jtt^p (stem /^Aifrcf-), Dor. [Mirripy Lat. miter: Sk. jni'ta-s, * known,* Gr. 
7iw-T0-f, L. {g)n6'tU'8: Sk. skmi-, 'half,' Gr. ijfAt-9 L. simi-. 

Sanskrit t = Gr. /, = L. t, e; e. g. Sk. sdmi-, 'half,' (ir. vjfU'^ L. semi-. 

Sanskrit <= Gr. /, = L. /; e. g. Sk. fiv-a-s, 'living,' Gr. jS/o-f, L. viv-u-$, 

Sanskrit « = Gr. v, = L. u, 0: c. g. Sk. «ru-#, 'broad,' Gr. cvpiJ-f ; Sk. jdmn^ 
* knee,' Gr. yowy L. gemx. 



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INTERCHANGE OF LETTERS IN SANSKRIT, GREEK, AND LATIN. 19 
Sanakfit 4=z Gr. v, = L. uj e. g. Sk. m^h, m^h-a-s, Sec, ' a mouse/ Or. fivf, 

Sanskiit ft, i. e. ar :=, Gr. p with a short vowel, = L. r with a short vowel ; e. g. 
Sk. m^-to-f, ' dead,' Gr. fipo^ro-f (for fJiffHTO^g or [Mp'TO-^), L. mor-hm-t; Sk, 
mdtpbkyasj 'from mothers,' L. matnbus; Sk. mdtxithu, 'in mothers,' Gr. fXifjTpaa't. 

Sanslqit f/sr Gr. p with a vowel, = L. r with a vowel ; e. g. Sk. ddtxin, ace. pi. 
of ddijri, *s giver,* Gr. So-r^p-Of, L. da-toT-esj Sk. imi^s^ L. matres. 

Sanskrit e=Gr. cu, €/, o<, = L. at, ^^ ot, is, as, t, i^; e.g. Sk. vei-a-s, 'an 
abode,' Gr. (f)o&co-f, L. ricii-t; Sk. e-mt, ' I go,' Gr. €/-/*/ ; Sk. eva-s, * going/ 
*a oomrse,' Gr. a<-»v, L. setm-m. 

Sanskrit at = Gr. ^» 27> ^9 = L* <e in certun inflexions; e. g. Sk. c/eoyai, 'to a 
goddess,' Gr. 06f£, L. dc». 

Sanskrit = Gr. ov, €V, ov, = L. a«, 0, i»; e. g. Sk. ^o2a-«, ' a ball,' Gr. yav^o^f ; 
Sk. qjas, 'power,' L. au^eo. 

Sanskrit a» = Gr. aVy rjVy^szL, au; e.g. Sk. nau-f, 'a ship/ Gr. vav^y mjv^^ 
L. naviSy iiauto, 'a sidlor.' 

Sanskrit k, kh, 6^ i, = Ghr. #r, =: L. c, q: e. g. Sk. krooM, kravya-m, 'raw flesh/ 
Gr. Kpia^y KpuoVy L. crtt-or, caro.- Sk. khaZa-#, 'a granary/ idld, *a hall,' Gr. 
KoktOy L. celZa; Sk. da, ' and,' Gr. #ra/, L. -que. 

Sanskpt ^r, y, = Gr. 7 (i3), = L. ^ (6) ; e. g. Sk. yt*g-a-m, ' a yoke,' Gr. gt^-o- v, 
L./iig-if-m/ Sk. j^fnif, 'knee,' Gr. 70W, L. genu; Sk. (gra-#, 'a plain/ Gr. aypo-f, 
L. ogtfr,* Sk. gON-f, ' a cow,' Gr. iSov-^, L. bo*y Sk. guru-^, 'heavy,' Gr. fiapih(y 
L.g^at^-w. 

Sanskrit ^r* = Gr. X, = L. gj e.g. Sk. rt. «/igh, 'to ascend/ Gr crefxr^i 
^h0^^9 L- ve-stig'iumj Sk. iaghu-*, ' light,* Gr. cAoj^v-f. 

Sanskrit 6h z=z Gr. aic, = L. $cj e. g. Sk. 6hdyd, ' shade/ Gr. (r#r/a ; Sk. rt. dhtJ, 
'to deave/ Gr. o^i^-», 0^/8-1;, L. scwirf-o. 

Sanskrit / (M) = Gr. t, = L. /; e. g. Sk. traya«, ' three,' Gr. rpug^ L. tr«. 

Saosk^ d= Gr. S, = L. rf; e. g. Sk. dam-a-#, ' a house,' Gr. Jo/tio-f , L. domt«-«. 

Sanskrit (U=:Gr. 0,= L. initial/, non-initial d, h: e. g. Sk. da-dh(£-mt, 'I place, 
Gr. ri-^fju; Sk. dht^ma-«, 'smoke,' Gr. ft/-fxo^, L. fi«-mii-«; Sk. iidh-ar, 
'udder,' Gr. oZSap^ L, uherj Sk. andh-a», 'food/ &c., Gr. avfl-of, L. ad-or. 

Sanskrit p {ph) :=zQt.v (0), = L. p (/); e. g. Sk. ptVp, Gr. varijp, L. pa^er/ 
Sk. phifUa-m, ' a flower,' Gr. ^vXXo-y, L. foKt«-^. 

Sanskrit 5 = Gr. jS (»),= L. ft (/); e. g. Sk. rt. iamb, ' to hang down,' L. lah-i; 
Sk. biid&Hta-«, 'ground,' Gr. mO-fi-qVy L. fundu-s; Sk. hudhy 'to know,* Gr. 
wwfBcofOfMu {wv9-)^ 

Sanskrit bh = Gr. 0) == L. initial /, non-mitial b; e. g. Sk. rt. hhfri, hhar^d-mi, 
'I bear,' Gr. 0€p-«, L. fer-o,- Sk. nabh-a*, 'vapour,* 'a cloud,' Gr. V€<^^, 
L. Mib-e-f. 

Sanskrit », »,=:Gr. y before gutturals, r= L. nj e.g. Sk. an.^a-«, *a hook/ 
Gr. ay#f-«y, «7#f-o-^, L. onc-w-s, «nc-i»-#; Sk. pah6any 'five,' Gr. ircvre, L. 
ftitngiie. 

Da 



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20 INTEBCHANGB OF LETTERS IN 8ANSKK1T, GBBBK, AND LATIN, 

Sanskrit i^, n, = 6r. v, s L. n; e. g. Sk. nava-s, ' new/ Gr. veo-^, L. notm-^. 

Sanskfit m=Gr. /u.y= L. m; e. g. Sk. md-tfi, 'a mother,' Gr. [X'^Tripy L. ma-/er. 
. Sanskrit y = Gr. ', f, = L. y; e.g. Sk. jakfit, 'liver,' Gr. 'njvap^ h.^ecurj 
Sk. jug-a-m, Gr. fuy-o-v, L. jii^-ii-ifi. 

Sanskrit r=Gr. p, X, = L. r, I: e.g. Sk. rcf;aii, 'king,' L. rtx (stem rc^-); Sk. 
MOta-s, 'whey,' Gr. opo-^, L. seru-m; Sk. nu2A-t-ra-«, 'blood-red,' Gr. epvO^po^, 
L. r«6er, r»/i»/ Sk. rt. dnt, itavas^ irU'tas^ Gr. #cX€-Of, #cXu-to-^, L. tii-cly-/«-«. 

Sanskrit /= Gr. A, = L. l; e. g. Sk. rt. H, lu-nd-mi, ' I cut,' Gr. Xi/-», L. re-hi-o, 
»o-l»-o (for «e-li«-o); Sk. ItA (=snA), *to lick,' Gr. A^/jj-w, X/x-yo-f, L. Km^-o, 
lt^-iirt-o. 

Sanskrit v=<jr. F (v), or disappears, r= L. v (u); e.g. Sk. noya-f, 'new,' Gr. 
vcfo-i", i.e. v€o-^, L. novu-sj Sk. Ytsh-a-s, 'poison,' Cir, /-o-^, L. virus: Sk. dvi, 
'two,' Gr. SiJo, L. dvLO. 

Sanskrit / (for an original k) = Gr. #r, = L. c, 9 ; e. g. Sk. daian, ' ten,' Gir. Se/ra, 
L. decern: Sk. asoa-«, ' a horse,' Gr. /«wo-f, iKKO'^y L. 6qtw-«; Sk. s't?(^ * a dog,' 
Gr. /rv-ft;v, L. can-ii, 

Sanskrit «, «A, = Gr. Cy , disappears between two vowels, = L. s, changes to r 
between two vowels; e.g. Sk. asti, 'he is,' Gr. can, L. eBt; Sk. janos-o^, 'of a 
race,' Gr. y€V€((r)-of, yivov^, L. genet-is: Sk. wsh-o*, 'poison,' Gr. /%oif, 
L. 9(r-ti«; Sk. shaf, ' six,' Gr. 6^9 L. sex. 

Sanskrit A (for an original gh, sometimes for dh, and occasionally for hh) = Gr. 
X» 'f (sometimes fl),=L. *, c, 5; e.g. Sk. h»-mfl-#, * winter,' Gr. X^-^v, L. hiems: 
Sk. hft(i-aya-m, 'the heart,' Gr. Kapi'ta, L. cor (stem cord-)-^ Sk. han for gh<m 
and dhon (in Ja-ghdn-a, 'he killed;' m-dhan-fl, 'death'), Gr. flav-aro^ ; Sk. h»<« 
for dhita, ' placed ' (fr. dhd, Gr. ftj), Gr. flcToV. 

THE INDIAN METHOD OF WRITING. 

26. According to Hindu grammarians every syllable ought to 
end in a vowel *, except at the end of a clause or sentence^ and 
every final consonant ought to be attracted to the beginning of 
the next syllable ; so that where a word ends in a consonant, that 
consonant ought to be pronounced with the initial letter of the 
next word. Hence in some Sanskrit MSS. all the syllables are 
separated by slight spaces, and in others all the words are joined 
together without any separation. Thus the two words wrA? Xjm 
dsid rdjd would in some books be written WT ^ "JTifF and in others 
miftj^isil. There seems little reason for considering the mere spaces 
left between the words of a sentence to be incompatible with the 



*■ Unless it end in Annsvara or Visarga ^, which in theory are the only conso- 
nantal sounds allowed to close a syllable until the end of a sentence. 



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METHOD OP VTRITINa. 21 

operation: of euphonic laws. Therefore in some Sanskpt books 
printed in Roman type every uncompounded word capable of separa- 
tion is separated^ e. g. pitur dhanam ddcUte ; which is even printed 
in Deva-n^ari letters (by those scholars who allow an extension of 
the use of the mark called Yir&ma) thus, fi||^ v«n^ ^n?^^, for 

The following words and passages in the Sanskrit and English 
character, are given that the Student, before proceeding further in 
the Qrammar, may exercise himself in reading the letters and in 
transliteration. 

To he turned into English letters. . 

ISPR, W^y ^nj. W^y ^5IN^ ^5^^ ?^5 1?^ t^^ 
^TO» ^3^, ^, ^5155 ^^r, T^Sfy ^BTR, ^il!F, 'RKfT, 
|PRR, IBJ^, ft|^, ^, % ^j ^fT5 f^, m^, 

wt* ^fr^5 >^^ ft^9 ?M ^^, it^9 fti^» inm, 
. ^M 'T?:^ 'ite^ ^y ^^fkjsj^ff{y <jisM^5^:5 ift^ 

^^^^sn* ^*n^> ^5^ftl^ T^f ^TTij %li[^ ^, 

y 
^ To be turned into Sanskrit letters. 

Ada^ asa^ alt, ddi^ dkhu^ dgas^/iii, (iai^, (hd^ uddra, upanishad,y 
4gMrodAaf iirUy dsha, fishi^ eka^ kakudy kafu^ koshai^, gaura, ghafa, 
icMyay 6et^ 6halam, jetri, jhiriy iagara^ (famara^ d^dla^ i^ma^ 
tata$y tathdy ifif^ tushdra^ deha^ daitya^ dhavalay nanUj nayantimyy 
mddnamy pitfi^ bhauma^ hheshajamy marus, mahatj yuga^ rushy ruihisy 
laukOy vivekaSy iaiamy shotfaian, sukhin^ hfidaya^ iairay adya^ buddhi, y 
ixrkay kraJtUy onsa^ oftka, anga^ aiUala, aiyanay ka^ha^ an^^ anta, 
manda^ sampirna. 



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22 



METHOD OP WRITlirG, 



The following story has the Sanskrit and English letters 

interlined. 



ro ndma rajakdi^ tasya gcuraor' 




[isat iatai tetia 



tpe Bosyakihetre 




Mi6 ^M 'ataUk§a vtf&^h^^ 
la^af^ saivarcm palayante atha mmji iasyUrakAoKeifa dntUara" 

efanie aMiam tmca mm 6a mfe dfiinfva garaabhai pumfawji 
garda^yamili mcttvi 



^ 







The following story is to be turned into Sanskrit letters. 

AHi iriparvaiamadkye brahmapurdkhyam nagaram. Taira iailon 
Hkhare ghai^dkarno ndma rdkshasa^ praiivasattti janapravddah irtt- 
yale. Ekadd gha/n^dm dddya paldyamdnai^ kai6i6 Sauro vydghrei^ 
vydpdditab* TatpdnipatUd ghanfd vdnaraii^ prdptd. Te vdnards tdm 
ghai34dm anukshaii^am vddayanti. Tato nagarajanair mannskya^ khd^ 
dito drishtai^ praliksho^am gha/otdrdvcMa irdyate. Anantaram 
gha^dkarnaJ^ kupito manushydn khddati ghanfdm 6a vddayatUyt^ 



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SANDHI OR EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF LBTTBRa 23 

ktvdjandiL sarve nagardi paldyiidi. Tatai kardlayd ndma iuffinyd 
vimriiya markatd ffhcmfdm vddayanii way am vijAdya rdjd ^f^pitaJ^ 
Deva yadi kiyaddhanopakshaya^ kriyaie taddham enam ifha/otdkan(um 
sddhaydmi. Tato rdjiid iushfena tasyai dhanam dattam. Kuftwyd 
ia man^Iam kfUvd iaira ffaf^eiddigawavaifi dariayitvd wayam 
vdnarapriyaphaldnydddf/a vanam pramiya phaldnydkbn^dni. Taio 
ghantdm parUyajya vdnardff, phaldsaktd babhUvui. KuffinS ia 
ghan^fdm gfthitvd nagaram dgatd sakalalokapiyydbluwat. 



CHAPTER 11. 
SANDHI OR EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF LETTERS. 

Wb are accustomed in Greek and Latin to certain euphonic 
dianges of letters. Thus for the perfect passive participle of reg-o 
(stem reg-) we have (not reg-tu-^ but) rec-tu-s, the so£k^ being changed 
to the hard c before the hard f (cf. rex for reg-s). In many words 
a final consonant assimilates with an initial ; thus avv with yvA/Ati 
becomes aruyyi/wfifi ; iv with Xa/ttxco, e\Xa/i7ra>. Suppressus is 
written for subpressus; appellattui for adpellatus; immensua for 
imnensus; affinUaa for adfinitas; offero for obfero^ but in perfect 
obinU; colloquium for conloquium; irrogo for inrogo. In English, 
assimilations of the same kind take place in pronunciation^ though 
they are not always recognized in writing ; thus cupboard is pro- 
nounced as if written cuM>oard^ and blackguard as if written blag- 
guard. These laws for the euphonic junction of letters are applied 
throu^out the whole range of Sanskrit grammar ; and that, too, 
not only in the interior of words when a stem is united with its 
terminations and suffixes, but in combining words in the same 
sentence. Thus, if the sentence ^Bara avis in terris^ were Sanskpt, 
it would require, by the laws of Sandhi or combination, to be written 
Bardviriniterrib. The learner is reconunended, after learning the 
most common rules of combination, printed in large type, to pass 
at once to the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs. 



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24 EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF VOWBLS. 

There are two classes of rules of Sandhiy viz. i. Those affecting, 
the junction of final and initial letters of completely formed words 
in sentences as well as of the stems of words in compounds; 
2. Those which take effect in the process of forming words by the 
junction of roots and of stems, whether nominal or verbal, with suflBxes 
and terminations (see 74. a). As the rules which apply to one class 
are generally applicable to the other, it will be convenient to consider 
them together ; but some of the rules which come into operation in^ 
the formation of verbs^ are reserved till they are wanted (see 294). 

Sect. I.— EUPHONIC PERMUTATION AND COMBINATION 
OF VOWELS. 

27. The changes of vowels called Guna and Yriddhi should at once 
be impressed on the memory. When the vowels ^ i knd ^ i become 
^ e, this is called a Gu^a change, or qualification {guna meaning 
'quality^). When i and i become ^ aiy this is called a Yriddhi 
change, or increase. Similarly, V u and 9 ti are often changed to 
their Gu^a tj^ 0, and Yriddhi ^ au; ^ ft and i^ff to their Guna 
fl^ aty and Yriddhi ^n^ dr; and ^ a, though it can have no corres-^ 
ponding Gui^a change, has a Ypddhi substitute inwid. 

a. Native grammarians consider that a is already a Gu^a letter, and on that, 
account can have no Gui>a substitute. Indeed they regard a, e, as the only 
Gu^a sounds, and <£, at, au as the only Vf iddhi ; a and d being the real Guna and 
Yriddhi representatives of the vowels ^ and '^. It is required, however, that r 
Hhould always be connected with a and <f when these vowels are substituted for p/ 
and /, when* they are substituted for ^\ 

h. Observe — It will be convenient in describing the change of a vowel to its 
Gu^a or Yiiddhi substitute, to speak of that vowel as gunated or vriddkied. 

iz8« In the formation of stems, whether nominal or verbal, the 
vowels of roots cannot be gunated or vriddhied, if they are followed, 
by double consonants, i.e. if they are long by position; nor can a 
vowel long by nature be so changed, unless it be final. The vowel 
fr a is, as we have seen, already a Gu9a letter. See 27. a. 

a. But in secondary derivatives long vowels are sometimes vriddhied : ^vhv 
sthaula, 'robust,' from ^^cl sthMa: V[^ graiva, 'belonging to the neck/ from; 
^ftm gritd; m^ maukit ' radical,' from ^^ miula (see 80. B). 

29. The Guna sounds ir^y tj^ are diphthongal, that is, composed 
of two simple vowel sounds. Thus, ^ e is made up of a and t ;: 
yHt o{ a and u; so that a final fr a will naturally coalesce with an 



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EUPHONIC COMBINATION OP VOWELS, 25 

initial |[ t into e; with an initial v « into o. (Compare i8. c.) Again, 
w^ ar may be regarded as made up of a and ft; so that a final m a 
wiU blend with an initial ^ (i into ar. 

a. Similarly, the V|fiddhi diphthong ^ at is made up of a and e, 
or (which is the same) d and t; and ^ au o( a and o, or (which is 
the same) d and «. Hence, a final a will naturally blend with an 
initial ir e into ai ; and with an initial ih o into au. (Compare li.c; 
and see note to table in next page.) The simple vowels in their 
diphthongal unions are not very closely combined, so that e, o, at, 
cm are liable to be resolved into their constituent simple elements. 

h. If at is composed ofd and t, it may be asked. How is it that long d as well 
IS short a blends with t into e'(see 33), and not into ai? In answer to this some 
sdiolars have muntained that a long vowel at the end of a word naturally shortens 
itself before an initial vowel (see 38. t), and that the very meaning of Gupa is the 
prefixing of short a, and the very meaning of Vfiddhi, the prefixing of long (f, to a 
simple vowel. Hence the Gui[Uk of t is originally a t, though the two simple vowels 
blend afterwards into e. Similarly, the original Gul[^k of a is a a, blending after- 
wards into o: the original Gu^a of ft is a ft, blending into ar. 

e. The practice of gunating vowels is not peculiar to Sanskrit. The San- 
skfit a answers to the Greek € or (see 35), and Sanskrit ^fif emt, 'l go/ 
which in the ist pers. plural becomes ^<t^ tmat, 'we go/ is originaUy a t mt, 
eorresponding to the Greek e7fAi and i/Aev. Similarly in Greek, the root <t^^ 
(e-0t;y-oy) is in the present ^xTf^* Ck>mpare also the Sanskrit veda {vaida\ 
'he knows,' with Greek oiha\ and compare Xc-Aoiv-o, perfect of Ait, with the 
Sanskpt peilbct. 

30. Again, let it be borne in mind that 1^ y is the kindred semi- 
vowel of i, f, e, and ai; ^r of u, ti, 0, and au; T r of ft and ft; 
and 1^ / of /ft and Ifi, So that i , i, e, aiy at the end of words, when 
the next begins with a vowel, may often pass into y, y, ay, dy^ 
respectively; n, li, 0, aw, into r, t?, ar, dv; and fi^ fi, into r. 
[Observe — Ifi is not found as a final.] 

The interchange of voweU with their own semivowels is called 
by Sanskrit grammarians samprasdranM, 

In En^sh we recognize the same interchangeableness, though 
not in the same way; thus we write AoZy, holier; easy^ easily; and 
we use ot<^ for oti in «otr, coWy &c. 

In order to impress the above rules on the mind, the substance 
of them is embodied in the following table : 



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26 EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF VOWELS. 



Simple vowels, aord ior( 

Gu^a substitute, e 

1 


uoru 
1 — ^ — • 



1 


riorri 
ar 

1 


Iriotlfi 

al 

1 


Vriddhi substitute, d 


1 
ai 


1 
au 


1 
dr 


1 
dl 


Simple vowels. 
Corresponding semivowel, 


iori 

y 


uovd 

V 


rioTfi 

r 


Ifi or Ifi 

' V ' 


Guna, 


e 

1 




1 




m 


Guna resolved, 


1 

a + i 
1 


1 
a + u 

1 






With semivowel substitute, 


1 
ay 


I 
av 






Vriddhi, 


ai 

1 
r a + e 

1 


au 

1 

a-^o 

1 






Vriddhi resolved. 


1 1 

a+a+i a+a+tt 
1 1 








. *d + i 

1 


1 






With semivowel substitute. 


1 

dy 


1 

dv 







The following rules will now be easily understood. They apply 
generally to the junction (i) of separate words in sentences and 
compounds ; (9) of roots and stems with suffixes and terminations. 
To distinguish the second class of combinations the sign + will be 
used in the examples given. The object of most of the rules is to 
prevent a hiatus between vowels f. 

31. If any simple vowel (short or long) is followed by a similar 
simple vowel (short or long), the two vowels blend into one long 
similar vowel (Pfi?, vi. i, loi) ; e. g. 

•f 1U« ^ na asii iha becomes «flid1f ndsWia, 'he is not here.' 
TTifT ^RJ TIR: rdjd astu uttamah becomes THIUJinit rdjdstittamah, * let the 
king be supreme.' 
"* 'irfT W^jivd anta becomes ^ft^J^jMnta^ ' end of life.* 

^fffll ^^R adhi Ucara becomes ^R^IHqt adhUcaray ' supreme lord.' 

^1] 9raq fitu utsava becomes ^^M^ fitiitsava, ' festival of the season.' 

^^ ^I%i»»<r» r*^Mi becomes f^lffifi pitfiddhi, ' a father's prosperity.' 

* Since e=a+t and o=a+ti, therefore a+e will equal a+a+i or d+i; and 
a+o will equal a+a-^-u or d-\-u. 
t In the Vedic hymns hiatus between vowels is not uncommon ; cf. note to 66, 



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EUPHONIC COMBINATION OP VOWELS. 27 

32. ^ a or %n d, followed by the dissimilar vowels ^ <> 7 ««» ^ ft 1^ 
(short or long), blends with t or f into the Guna ir e; with tt or u 

into the Guna ift 0*; with ri or r( into the Guna ir^ ar (Pdn. vi. 
1,87); e.g. 

TO^ ^l^ltparama (hara becomes MU) ^^Kparameivara, * mighty lord/ 
fiff 9Vq9 hita vpadeia becomes HlAlM^^I hitopade^a, ' firiendly instruction.' 
lyr IF^ gangd udaka becomes «ijf)^«ii gangodaka, ' Ganges- water/ 
* V^ ^q[% tava fiddhi becomes H^Cf tavarddhi, ' thy growth/ 
W^ ^ffk makd fishi becomes n^Hmaharshij ' a great sage.' 
Similarly, IPT 4(4 K /ooa Ijikdra becomes ITT^n^ tavaUsdra, ' thy letter /fi.' 

33. ^ a or mi d, followed by the diphthongs IT «, ^ 0, ^ at, or 
ift on, blends with e into the Vriddhi at: with at also into at; with 
mto the Vriddhi au ; with au also into a«« (Pfin. vi. i, 88); e. g, 

'^K.Jff^para edhita becomes '^kfiSGK paraidhita, 'nourished by another.' 

ftin W^ vidyd eva becomes "firtN vidyaipa, * knowledge indeed.' 

^ ^ni«l deva ttUvmya becomes ^q^n? devatharya, * majesty of deity/ 

mS Wl«i^ alpa oJM becomes Ww'l^ atpaujas, * little energy.* 

JfJfT tire gangd ogha becomes ijfl^ gangaugha, ' Ganges-current/ 

If^wNv /vara aushadha becomes W^tn jvaraushadha, 'fever-medicine/ 

34. ^ t, 7 «, ^ ri (short or long), followed by any dissimilar 
vowel or diphthong, pass into their kindred semivowels; viz. i or { 
mto y; u or i into rf; fi or H into r (Pi^. vi. i, 77)5 e.g. 

mt^H ^HfJ agrd astra becomes W**^^ agny-astra^ * fire-arms.' 
nfw ^m^prati uvd^ becomes l|i^4 1^ praty^uvd^a, ' he spoke in reply.' 
1 ^^inln^^ %ddn{m becomes fr9^T«fh^to iddnim, ' but now.' 
ini| tn^n^ mdtjri dnanda becomes HlflM«<[ rndtr-dnandoy * a mother's joy.' 
mj wiyw mdtfi autsukya becomes HT^I^W rndtr-autsukya, *a mother's 
anxiety.' 

35. Final ir e and ift 0, followed by an initial fr a, if it i^^tit 
another word^ remain unchanged, and the initial fr a is cut off 
(Pan. VT. I. 109); e. g. 

a ^ifil te apt becoibes Wsfti te ^pi, * they indeed ' (see 10). 
^ ^Jfil so apt becomes ^Bft'ftl so ^pi, * he indeed.' 

* The blending of a and t into the sound e is recognized in English in such 
watds as sail, nail, &c. ; and the blending of a and u into the sound is exemplified 
by the French /ou/e, baume, &c. 

t IQuatrated by some English words; thus we pronounce a word like 
mUUon as if written mUlyonj and we write evangelist (not euangeUst), saying, 
playing, &c. 

E 2 



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28 EUPHONIC COMBINATION OP VOWELS — PRAGRIHTA, 

a. In compoiinds tlie elbion of initial a after a stem like po appears to be optional^ 
e.g. ffO'*hdfk or go-a^dft, * oxen and horses * (Pip. vi. i, 133). See 38. e. 

b. But ffo may become gava in oertun compounds^ as po affram may become yaiod- 
gram^ see 38. e; so go indra becomes pavendra, * lord of kine>' or gav'4ndra by 36. 

36. But followed by d, i, (, u^ H, ri^ f(^ e, 0, ai^ an^ if any one of 
these begin another tvord^ final if e and ^ are changed to ay and av 
respectively; and the y of ay, and more rarely the v of av, may be 
dropped^ leaving the a uninfluenced by the following vowel (Pan, ti. 

1,78); e-g- 

W Wnnrn te dgatdh becomes inrniwn tag dgatdf^y and then W WMINI! ta dgatdk, 
* they have come.' 

Similarly, f^TBIlt ^ vish^o iha becomes f^mf^ vM^oo iha, and then f^HH ^ 
vishfia iha, ' O Yishpu, here V 

Observe ^When go, * a cow/ becomes gov in oompovnds, v is retamed ; e. g. 

'n ^^n^o ^ara becomes '1^1 Hli gav-ihara, * owner ol kine.' 

Tn Vhll^^o ohM becomes ^xi^^^gav-okat, ^ abode of cattle.' 

a. And in the case of if e and wt o followed by any vowel or 
diphthong in the same word, even though the following vowel or 
diphthong be a or e or 0, then e must still be changed to ay, and 
to aVy but both y and v must be retained; e. g. 

^ + ^je-\-a becomes W^jaya, the present otem otji, * to conquer * (see 363). 

V% + ^ agne-^e becomes H^flf agn^ge, ' to fire ' (dative case). 

Ht + V bko-^-a becomes H7 khava, the present stem of bhd (see 363). 

37. ^ oj and yfi an, fcAowed by any vowel or d^hthong^ 
similar or dissimilari are changed to dy and dv respectively (P£q. 
VI. ly 78); e.g. 

^ra vf^ kasmai opt becomes W^VTOftl ka$mdg api, * to any one whatever/ 
T -f W^ rai-^as becomes TFR^ rdya$, * riches ' (nom. pliir.). 
?^ ^nr^ dadau annam becomes ^^l^^<i daddn mmam, * he gave food.' 
•It + ^ jkitt+au becomes «TrA ndvan, 'two ships ' (nom. do.), 
a. If both the words be complete words, the y and v are occasionally 
dropped, but not so usually as in the case of • at 36 ; thus V%H1 irfil kasmd api 
for *Wl^ftl kfumdg api, and ^7[[T ^nn| daii(i aiinam for ^I^IF^iJiultfo OMnam. 

PBA09IHTA EXCEPTIONS. 

38. There are some exceptions (usually called pragfihya, *to be 
taken or pronounced separately^) caused by vowels which must^ 
under all circumstances, remain unchanged. The most noticeable 
are the terminations of duals (whether of nouns^ pronouns, or verbs) 



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EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF VOWELS — PRAGRIHYA. 29 

in f, rf, or e (Pfi?. i. i, ii). These are not acted on by following 
voweb; e.g. 

^B^ CTt kttv{etau, 'these two poets;' ''P^^ bandH imau, 'these two rela- 
tions;' ini xiitnH 'these two sit down;' iniw ?!« 'these two cook;' 
^n^ WR1H we two lie down.' 

Observe — ^The same applies to Wfft am/, nom. pi. masc. of the pronoun *l<5^. 

(L The Vedic asme and yushme are o^bo pragfihya according to Pdn. 1. 1, 13. 

b» Prolated vowels (11./) remain unchanged, as WPRS ^V^^iV 'Come, 
Krishna, here,' &a (Pip. vi. i, 135; viii. a, 82), 

e, A vocative case in 0, when followed by the particle t/t, may remain unchanged, 
as f^VQT ^flr vishi^ iti, or may follow 36. 

d. P^urtides, when simple vowels, and ^ 0, as the final of an inteijection, remain 
unchanged, as ^ ^[55 t indra, ' O, Indra !' ^ 11^ u umeh, * O, lord of Vmi !* 
Win T*? ^*® indra, ' Ho, Indra!' (Pd^. 1. 1, 14, 15.) 

Observe — ^This applies also to the exclamation VT d (but not to the d which 
native grammarians call WT^ dn, and which is used as a preposition before verbs 
and before nouns with the meanings ' to,' ' up to,' ' as far as,' ' until,' ' a little ') ; 
e. g. Wt ^^ d evam, ' Ah, indeed ! ' (but d udakdt becomes odakdt, ' as. far as 
water ; ' d tuA^a becomes osA^, ' slightly warm '). 

e. Before initial V a the vt of ni go, 'a cow,' remains unchanged and 
optionally cuts o£P the a; e.g. 'u-mu^go^agram, or ^uUm^gO'^gram, *a multitude 
of cows' (cf. 35. a. b, 36. Obs.). 

Other Exceptions. 

f. The final a or (f of a preposition blends with the initial ^ ft of a root into dr 
(not into ar); e.g. If ^^ = 1ir^ *to go on;' V^ ^r^= ^hi^ 'to approach;' 
H i^[W = 1If^ 'to flow forth;' UT ^l|^ = W^ 'to obtain' (Pi^. vi. i, 91). 
Compare 360. a. 

g. The final a of a preposition is generally cut off before verbs beginning with 
^ e OT wt 0,- see 783. *. Obs. and 783. p, Obs. (P69. vi. i, 89, 94). 

Observe — ^The particle ^ when it denotes uncertunty is said to have the same 
effect on a preceding final a, 

&. The 9i^ which takes the place of the ^ of ^TT^ in the ace. pL of such words 
ai Vmr, 'a steer training for the plough,' requires Vfiddhi after a, as h«i^^. 

t. The 9 « of fti^ may remain or be changed to ^o before a vowel, as fti^ IHinv 
^ flfejH^ ' whether said.' 

j. According to S'ikalya, a, t, u, ft (short or long), final in a word, may option- 
ally either remain unchanged (but, if long, must be shortened) before a word 
beginning with ^ or follow the usual rule, thus IW ^Pm; (or even HVT ^fU; 
'a Brahman who b a Rbhi ') may be either IW ^fMi or iwf^, but in no case 
can mn ^lfi^\ be allowed to remain unchanged. Similarly, ^TOT ^^f^ may be 
eitiier V^^Kk or ^^^Pm ' according to the Rishi.' 

So in the case of ^ ori^ or fi, final in a word, followed by dissimilar vowels, thus 



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30 EUPHONIC COMBINATION OP VOWELS — ^EXCEPTIONS. 

^Hft IW is either -^SMC^ or ^rfil W^ 'the discus armed bere.' But com- 
pounded words follow the usual rule, as l|^ "W^ = «T^!pl ' river-water.' Except 
before words beginning with ft, as in the example ^HlO^^^I or ^HlHll^^li: 
(Benfey's larger Gram. p. ^2), and in vf^^llil ' made prosperous by (the power 
of) the sword,' Mah&-bh. xviii. 105. 

k. The words ^^ 'a cat' and wtv 'the lip/ when used in compounds, may 
optionally cut off a preceding final a; e.g. ^H Wt^ is 4>^fj)( or ^^^TSiJ; ^HTC 
^itW is 'WIthf or inrov 'the lower lip ;' (see Pd?. vi. i, 94. V6rt.); and ^ ^rfhl^ 
may be either fif^tw^ or fif^hw^ * a deity,' 

/. So also the sacred syllable ^vtH and the preposition VT d may cut off a final a: 
e. g. f^^rni ^ •nr: = (\mm i ^m * Om l reverence to Slva;' f^cf^(i.e.Wwith 
^flf) = ^^^^ * O Siva, come ! ' 

m. The following words illustrate the same irregularity: 1^ V^ becomes 
58W8> W% W^ becomes «iA*J 'jigube;' Mljfc^ ^ becomes c^lJf^Nr 
' plough-handle ; ' (see Ga^a SUiandhv-ddi to Fii^. vi. i, 94.) 

«. The following compounds are also irregular (see P^q. vi. i, 89. V6rt.) : 

Htfir^fn akshauh$if£, ' a complete army ' (firom akska tikM for vdhin{). 

ut9 pra»4^f ' grown up ' (from pra iit/ha). 

W^ prakkay 'reflection ' (from pra 4ha), 

^^ svttira, '^tftj^ svairin, * self-willed ' (firom sva ir<i). 

^fnft tukhdrta, * affected by joy ' (from sukha ft/a). 

HPft prdn^, ' principal debt ' (from pra fi^). 

imdllfi kambaldn^ ' debt of a blanket ' (firom kambala ft^a). 

<lll^l4 va$andn^ ' debt of a doth ' (firom vasofui ft^a). 

^^in^ ftfi^r^a, ' debt of a debt ' (from ftfui fi^Mz)* 

OT praUha, * an invitation ;' flli| praishya, * a servant ' (from pra eska). 

The annexed table exhibits the combinations of vowels at one 
view. Supposing a word to end in ii, and the next word to begin 
with au, the student must carry his eye down the first column 
(headed * final vowels ') till he comes to u, and then along the top 
horizontal line of * initial vowels/ till he comes to au. At the 
junction of the perpendicular column under au and the horizontal 
line beginning u, will be the required combination^ viz. v au. 



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TABLE OF THE COMMONEST CHANGES OP VOWELS. 



31 



3 



^ I 
ft 

B. S- 



5' 



CD H^ 



m 



g* 



2. » 
r g 

•I 

ST* **• 
2 S3 



i^s 



r 



en 

o 

® I 

if 

£1. 3. 



o 

00 





























FINAL VOWK 

a or d 




CO 


o 

^ 








•3. 
•3. 




8 


o 




i 


-a 


CO 


*a 


? % 














s 


s 




o\ 
















CD 


p 


^ 


o 


.Sn 


a cb 




•< 




« 


^ 






« 


# 


^ 


^ 


















H- 




H- 




:^ 




4^ 




!^ 


O) 


ftx 


^ - 


d 


y* 


d 


d y* 




Q 




d 


ft 








^ 


^ 


Q\ 


a S^ 




•« 




« 


^ 






S^ 


« 


^ 


^ 




















H- 






4^ 




4^ 




5^ 


O) 


On 


ftxfco 


^ 


Ox 


(^ 


(^ ^ 




$K 




Ov 


On 








1^ 


1 


«l^ 


«§ « 




^ 




« 
















^ 




S^ 




O) ,^ 


oo 


(b 


«». 00 










-1^ 




■^ 




M 


^ 






«». 


«»• 


•». 


«•• «•• 




«•• 




«»• 










On 


a 


.Sv 


S^ d 




^ 




« 








cs 


« 


^ 


^ 


























00 

-1^ 




:^ 




w ^ 


00 


Cb 


•»V 1^ 


•»% 


•^ 


•*w 


•»\ •^w 




•»\ 




•*w 










Qx 


5^ 


.9^ 


eS 5» 




^ 






^ 






« 


^ 


^ 


^ 
















" 










Od 
4^ 






SSx 


03 

4*^ 




o 


e ot 


e 


e 


8 


S! 8 




e 






8 








Q^ 


s^ 


»x 


d » 




•^ 






^ 






« 


« 


«S 


^ 


























SS 




O) 


«x 


^ 


Od 
to 


o 


«x<» 


Rx 


Sfv 


«^ 


5tx «x 




S^x 






CSx 








1^ 


§ 


<l^ 


^ ^ 








« 


^ 














t-4 


•3v 


O) 
4^ 




!^ 


Oo 


^ 


•3.-^ 


•3. 


•2. 


•2. 


•3. -3. 








•3. 


•3. 








On 


Q 


(^ 


.S ft 








<s 


«s 






5^ 


<s 


^ 


^ 


























O) 


•3. 


:? 




5^ 


Oo 


^ 


■3v» 


•3. 


•3. 


•3. 


•3. -3. 








•3. 


•3. 








(^ 


d 


^ 


a » 




"< 




C5 


^ 






S^ 


§ 


^ 


^ 


























^ 




5^- 




O) 

4^ 


OO 


s. 


Cb «> 


a 


a 


<« 


a <b 




<b 




(b 


<b 








i^ 


§ 


^ 


^ ^ 




•^ 




<S 


««t 














^ 




^ 




5^ 


OO 

Oo 


s. 


S.S 


8. 


§. 


§. 


s.§. 




§. 




§. 


s. 








Q\ 


9 


.Sv 


S^ d 




•« 




« 


<e 






S^ 


Q 


<«5 


<<S 


























!^ 




s 




^ 


OO 
OO 


i 


o S 


o 


o 


o 


o o 




o 




o 


o 








^ 


d 


.Sv 


.S ft 




^ 




« 


^ 






s^ 


« 


^ 


^ 


























O) 




Oa 




Ut 


oo 


ft 


s ^ 










H^ 




4^ 




4^ ^ 


Oo 


ct 


SS to 


i 


i 


i 


§1 




§ 




§ 


1 









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32 



EUPHONIC COMBINATION OP CONSONANTS, 



Sect, XL— EUPHONIC COMBINATION OF CONSONANTS, 
39. Before proceeding to the combination of consonants, let the 
letters be again regarded as divided into two grand classes of Hard 
and Soft, as explained at 2a b. 



HARR OB 8USD. 


aOR OB SOHABT. 


k kh 






9 


gJ^ 


i> 


h 


a d 






6 ih 


< 




J 


jh 


A 


y 


i ( 


e a* 


9 


t (h 


»h 


» 


4 


4h 


9 


r 


ri ft 




or 


t th 


* 




d 


dh 


n 


I 


¥ ¥ 




m 


p p* 






b 


bh 


m 


V 


u ^ 


am 





40. The stems of nouns and the roots of verbs may end in almost any letter, 
and these final letters (whether single or conjunct) are allowed to remain when the 
crude words stand alone; but complete tDorcb, when they stand alone or at the 
end of a sentence, can only, according to the native system, end in one of nine 
consonants (or, including Visaiga and the Anusv^ substituted for final m, eleven), 
vii. "'^ *, ^ ^ \t, \p, ^ ••, ^ t^> '^ «, '^ «, ^ t Visarga (:), and Anusvdra (j?i); 
and even stems of words not ending in one of the above eleven letters are liable to 
undergo changes whidi shall make them so end, before the process of their 
euphonic union with other suffixes and other words in sentences is commenced. 

Pd^ini (viii. 4, 56), however, seems to allow a word ending in one of the soft 
consonants ^, ^, d, and 6, optionally to stand at the end of a sentence or before a 
pause ; e. g. ^Tlf or ^TT^, &c. 

41. In this Grammar the soft letters g^ 4$ d^ &> the sibilant ^ s, 
and the semivowel ^ r will be admitted as possible finals of com- 
plete words standing alone, as well as of stems preparing for 
euphonic combinations; but the following five preliminary laws 
must be enforced under any circumstances^ without reference to 
the initial letters of succeeding words. 

nVE PREUMINARY LAWS. 
I. A conjunct quiescent consonant (i. e. a conjunct consonant 
having no vowel after it) is not generally allowed to remain at the 
end of a word, but must be reduced to a simple one. As a general 
rule this is done by dropping every consonant except the first; 
thus Saranis becomes Saratiy avets becomes avet^ Sildrsh becomes 6ik(r 
{see 166. a). 



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0£KSRAL RULES FOR COMBINING CX)N80NANTS. 33 

ObMnre, however^ that ^ ib, ^ f , 1(^ ^, \p, when preceded by T r, remain 
conjunct if both elements of these conjunct letters are either radical or substitutes 
for radical letters, e.g. 4rk, nom. of itj, 'strength' (176. h); amdrf, 3rd sing. 
Impf. of rt. mjij (Pi^. viii. 3, 34). But in abibkar for abibhart, t is rejected as 
not being radical (see the table at 583 5 cf. ?tv»tov for ctwitovt). 

IL An aspirated quiescent consonant is not allowed to remain 
final, but is changed to its corresponding unaspirated letter; 
e. g. (Vieir^fl^ HtraMkh becomes iUralik (see 43) ; i| ih^ however, 
usually becomes j^ f (see under IV. below). 

m. The aspirate ^ A is not allowed to remain final, but is usuaUy 
changed to ^ ^ (thus lih becomes lif); sometimes to '^ k or if^t* 
(see 182,305, 306). 

rV. Final palatals, as being of the nature of ^tturals^ are 
generally changed to gutturals ; thus ^ ^ is usually changed to 
1^ A, e. g. vd6 becomes vdk (see 176); but ^ 6h becomes ^ t (see 
176); ij^y is changed to if ^r (or i| it) and sometimes to 7 ^ (or ^ t), 
(see 176) t* [Technical grammatical expressions are excepted ; cf. 

50. b.-] 

V. The sibilants II i^ V sh, if final, are generally changed into 
^t; sometimes, however, l|(^i becomes TK^k; and "^^jh either 1^ A or 
Yisarga (see 181) {. 

a. The above changes must hold good beforo all suffixes and terminations of 
nouns and verbs beginning with strong consonants (i. e. all consonants except 
nasals and semivowels), and before Taddhita suffixes beginning with nasals. 

b. But beftire terminations of nouns and verbs beginning with vowels, and 
generally before weak consonants (i. e. nasals and semivowels), the finals of roots 
and stems remain unchanged (see vd6, 176; vad, 650), even in opposition to the 
general rule which requires the softening of a hard letter when a soft letter follows. 

GENERAL RULES FOR COMBINATION OF CONSONANTS. 
40* If two hard or two soft; unaspirated letters come in contact^ 
there is generally no clumge ; thus 

ni^l^inW^ vidyut prakdia remains f^ijhl«iii^i mdyut-prakdia, *the brilliance 
of lightning.' 

* So in Arabic « h becomes i t, 

t So in cognate languages ch is often pronounced as A: or passes into k. Com- 
pare archbishop, archangel, church, kirk, &c. Again, nature is pronounced nachurt, 
and g in English is often pronounced as j. 

X Compare parochial with parish, and nation pronounced nashun, 

P 



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34 GENERAL RULES FOR COMBINING CONSONANTS. 

9^ f^<Vra kimtud vikdsa remains ^yrg^iKI kumudUvikdsa, ' th& blosfloming of 

the lotus.' 
^^1^ ^nftnfw dfUad adhogoH remains ^9^U)j|Qf dfUad'odhogati, 'the descent 

of the rock.' 
Hiqi^H- ^ vidyut'\'8tt remains ft^^i^ ^idyutsu, * in lightnings * (loc. case plnr.)* 

43. If any hard letter (except a sibilant^ see 64—66) ends a word 
when any soft initial letter follows, the hard (unless affected by 
some special rule) is changed to its own soft^ which must always be 
in the unaspirated form by 41. II. (but see d. below) ; thus 

^ftl^CT sarit raya becomes titVj^M sarid-raya^ * the current of a river.' 
f^Wfi^ ftjftnr 6iiralxk (for ^tralikh, 41. II.) likhita becomes ftl?ffc5f^|ftni 

^tralig-Ukhita, * painted by a painter.' 
^Tn|^^ vdk (for vd6, 41. IV.) defni becomes ^P^^ vdg-dev^, 'the goddess of 

eloquence ;' similarly, ^1^ ^ vdk Ua becomes ^^ft^ vdg-iia^ * the lord 

of speech.' 
f|^ W mt (for vi$h, 41. V.) hkava becomes f^T^H^ vti-hhava, 'generated by 

filth.' 

a. An option is allowed before nasals, as follows : When two 
words come together, the initial of the second word being a nasal, 
then the final of the first word is usually (though not necessarily) 
changed to the nasal of its own class (see Pan. yjii. 4, 45) ; thus 

TH^ n?R tat netram becomes inl?P^ tan netram (or tad netram), * that eye.* 
H^ ^co^ ap fwUam becomes VMJcW am mdlam (or ab mtilam)^ ' water and 

roots.' 
^ftH^^^ sarit mukha becomes ti(V*g^ sarin-mukha (or ^ffinjfT sarid'tnukha), 

'the source of a stream.' 

&• Before maya and mdtray the nasalization is not optional but 
compulsory; thus 

f%ll T^ 6U maya becomes f^*MM ^in-maya, ' formed of intellect.^ 
^TT^ ^^ vdk (for vd^^ 41. IV.) maya becomes ^TRQ^ vdn-maya, ' full of words.' 
fire ^^ vif (for vish, 41. V.) maya becomes fiWHI vii^maya, ' full of filth.' 
in^^l44^ tat mdtram becomes d HII ^H^ tan-mdtram, * merely that,' *an element.' 

c. In the case of roots followed by Kpt suffixes there is not usuaUy any change ; 
e. g. 1[7 + ^^dhad-\-man becomes Jl^f^^dhadman, ' disguise.' 

d. It will be seen from 41. V. a. b. that the general rule 43 applies 
to case-endings of nouns beginning with consonants, but not to 
case-endings beginning with vowels. In the latter case, the final 
consonant attracts the initial vowel, so as to form with it a separate 



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SPECIAL RULES FOR COMBINING CONSONANTS. 35 

syllable; thus vdk+bhis becomes vdg-bhis^ *by words ;^ but in vd6 
+ dy6 attracts rf, thus vd'6d, * by a speech^ (not vdj-d) : sarit + bhis 
^ sarid-bhis, * by rivers ;^ but in sarit + d, t attracts d, thus sari-td, 

'by a river ^ (not sarid^). So also samidh + d becomes sami-dhd^ 

* by fuel ^ (not samid-d). 

e. Similarly, in the case of verbal terminations beginning with 

vowels or with m, t?, y, attached to roots ending in hard letters (see 

P^i 597- c ; kshipy 635 ; va6, 650), rule 43 does not apply. 

/• ^ * 81^ ' (becoming ^ by 41 . V.), when followed by the augment n before the 
case-ending W[^^ dm^ becomes ^Iffl*^ shai^'^'dm, because the final ^ becomes 1^^ 
and oerebralizes also the inserted n coming in contact with it. Similarly, "^ HMPd 
becomes ^^TOfir shai^-f^ati, 'ninety-six,' and ^ •frtl becomes ^^f^J shaif 
^gatydh, 'six cities.' Compare 58. h, 

44. If a sofl letter ends a word or stem, when any hard initial 
letter follows, the sofl is changed to its own hard, which must 
always be in the unaspirated form by 41. II ; thus 

^9V% "*■ 5 ^wmd-^-su becomes ^1^ kumutsu, loc. pi. of hmud, * a lotus.' 
^ffnf^ + ^ samid (for samidk, 41. II.) -fw* becomes ^ITftn^ samitsu, loc. pi. of 

samidh, 'fuel.' 
Note — Similarly in Latin, a soft guttural or labial passes into a hard before 

s and /,• thus reg+si becomes {reksi) rexi, scrib-\-8i=scrip8i, reg'\'tum={r€ktum) 

rectum, &c. 

a. With regard to palatals see 41. IV. 

b. Soft letters, which have no corresponding hard, such as the nasals, semi- 
yoweb, and ^ &, are changed by special rules. 

c. If the final be an aspirated soft letter, and belong to a stem whose initial is 
'^ ^ or ^ ^, ^ d or "^ 6, then the ^piration, which is suppressed in the final, is 
transferred back to the initial letter of the stem; as ^ + 5 ftt«dA-f«« become* 
^15 bhuttUy Toe. pi. of budh, * one who knows ' (177; cf. also duh, 182). Simil^ly 
^ + 11^ dadh-\'tas becomes VTI^ dhaUas, 'they two place;' and see 306. a, 
399. a. by 664. 

Note — Greek recognizes a similar principle in rpiyco, Bp^^ofJiat ; rpvip, 6pvrra>: 
d, also OpS^^ i. e. OpiK-^ from the stem rp/;^-. 

CLASSIFICATION OF SPECIAL BULES. 
It is stated at 40, 41, that complete words 88 well as stems 
preparing for combination can only end in certain consonants. Of 
these the most usually occurring final consonants are n^ / and ^ rf, 
the nasals ?( n and R m, the dental sibilant ^ 8 (changed to Visarga 
by native grammarians), and the semivowel ^ r (also by them changed 



F 2 



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36 CHANGES OP FINAL 1^ t AND ^ d. 

to Visarga). It will be suflScient, therefore, for all practical purposes 
to give special rules under four heads : 

1st, Changes of final l^ and ^. 

and. Changes of the nasals, especially f( and ^. 

3rd, Changes of final ^. 

4th, Changes of final ^. 

CHANGES OF nNAL ^ i AND f d. 

45. By the general rule (45), final 1^ / becomes ^ d before soft 
consonants, and before vowels ; as iv^ ^rfH marut vdii becomes 
iV^yrfk marud vdt% * the wind blows/ 

a. Certain exceptions are provided for by 41. V. 6, 43. d. Hence also sterna 
ending in t followed by the suffixes vat, mat, vin, vala do not necessarily change ; 
e.g. vidyut-vat, * possessed of lightning $' gartU^mat, 'possessed of wings.' 

46. And, by 44, final ^ d generally becomes 1^ t before hard con- 
sonants; as '^pi^ innr becomes ^liUMdH dfiiat-paiana, *the fall of 
a stone/ 

47. And, by 43. a, final t^ ^ or ^ rf may become ^ n before n or m. 

Assimilation of final ir t or V d. 

48. If T^/ or ^ d ends a word, when an initial ^ 6, i{^jy or ?^ / 
follows, then 1^ / or ^ d assimilates with these letters ; thus 

>nnH^yt>m^^ bkaydt lobhdt 6a becomes H4|||jj^m^ bhaydl lobhdd 6a, * from fear 

and avarice.' 
W^ irt^'!'^ tadjkanam becomes A^l^tf^ taj jivanam, ' that life.' 

a. A final 1^ / ot^d also assimilates with a following 1^ <fA or ^jh, but by 
41. II. the result will then be 6 6h; j Jhj thus V1^ ft^Vf^ becomes Wf^SSffw ' he 
cuts ^at ;' H^ ^RS^ = IfiVS^ 'the fish of him.' 

b. Fliuil W ^ or ^d assimilates in the same way with ^ ^, ^ ^, and their aspirates; 
thus in^^ft^ becomes 1I^)V; Tf^ lftf«^, Tf^^^5 ^^^If^y <lirf9^* 

Observe— The converse does not take place in the contact of comptete words ; 
thus ^ n (noV^) 'those six :' but "^ + W = ^ * he praises,' see 325. 
Fmal 1^/ or !^ d may also assimilate with initial ^il and V t». 

49. If 1^ / or ^ d ends a word and the next begins with 9^ i 
immediately followed by a vowel, semivowel^ or nasal, then t or d iB 
changed to ^(5, and the initial ^< is usually changed to'^Sh; e. g. 

Vl^^iVT tat hutvd become* ir<lPIT ta6 6hrutvd, ' having heard thai;' but iriq[iVT 
ta6 imtvd is allowable. 



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CHAN0B8 OP PINAL H^ t AND ^ d. 87 

a. Similarly, the change of initial 9^ / to 1^ ^A is optional after a final ^ ; thus 
4l9|ill may either remain so or be written ^imtV ' a hundred speeches.' Af^ain, 
after a final \ t *^^ \p this rule is said to be optional; but examples are not 
likely to occur : though in Rig-veda iii. 33, i, we have Omi^U^^jfl for fiWI^ 
M^> the two rivers Viplls and S^utudri in the Pafg£b. 

50. If 1^ / ends a word, when initial ^ h follows, the final 1^ Ms 
changed to ^ rf (by 43), and the initial ^ h optionally io'^dh; thus 

71^ ^Cfir tat karati becomes HVtlfw tad dkarati, * he seizes that;' but V^ ^Tfif 
tad kmrati is allowable. 

a. By a similar rule, and on the same principle, any consonant (except a nasal, 
semivowel, or sibilant) followed by ^9 must be softened if hard^ and its soft aspi- 
rate optionally substituted for the initial ^ ; thus ^T^ ^Tfw vdk karati becomes 
W^ndlf vdg pkarati, * speech captivates.' 

h. Similarly, ^T^ ^9: a6 hrasvah becomes Wkiy|M« ajjhrawafi, * a short vowel.' 

Insertion of n^t changeable to ^ t. 

51. When ^ 6h is between two vowels (long or short) in the body 
of a simple word, 1^ / changeable by 48. a. io^6 must be inserted 
before ^ 6h; thus root JC^ praSh followed by a vowel must be 
written ITK pra66ha (as in ViPm papradiha, ^ifif, &c. at 631); so 
also ft*+i[^ becomes fbit^ *he has cut;^ W * + fiprn= fri^K^H^ 
'he was cutting' (see Kn. v^. i, 73, 75). 

Observe — In the case of root mur^h there is no insertion of <f in mth-dhana, &c., 
because 6h is not between two vowels. 

a. This insertion of (^ is obligatory when ^ 6h is initial, and when 
a previous syllable of any word, either separate or compounded, 
ends in a short vowel ; as, |N99f ^Kf^ or |h9^KniT ' the shadow of a 
rock.' 

b. The same is obligatory after the preposition in d and the 
particle m md; as W KV becomes rnntM * covered ;' so nv fv^ 
becomes nr f^J^md 66hidaiy 'let him not cut' (P&9. vi. i, 74). 

e. In 'all other cases after long vowels the insertion of ^ ($ is 
optional ; as, ^!<Ow^l or W^^fhsm ' the shade of a jujube tree ;' 
m fw^ or W fBWfti * she cuts' (Pin. vi. i, 76). 

d. An augment H^t may optionally be inserted after final ^ (• before initial t(«; 
as, il^^^nirt or ill^MNi: ' being six ' (P4^. viir. 4, 43 ; 3, 39). 

* fv ^' is the syllable of reduplication to form the perfect of ftlp^ 6hid (253), and 
V a the augment to form the imperfect of all verbs (251). 



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38 CHANGES OP PINAL NASALS. 

CHANGES OF THE NASALS, ESPECIALLY 5^ n. 

52. If the letter 5^^ n, preceded by a short vowel, ends a word, 
when the next begins with any vowel, the n is doubled ; thus 

W^m ^C?f dsan atra becomes vitiqd dsann atra, * they were here.' 
nf^n^mrR tasmin udydne becomes nTw^win tasminn udydne, ' in that garden.' 

a. This applies equally to final ^ n and ^?; as hn^ ^fk becomes UiU^Ol ' he 
goes towards the west ;* ^«iw^ ^rfw = ^^OTpBcT * he is a good calculator' (see Piij. 
VIII. 3, 32); but these, especially the last, rarely occur as finals. 

b. Technical terms in grammar, such as Ui^-ddi (i. e. ' a list of sufBbces beginning 
with uvk'), are said to be exceptions to this rule. 

53. If f^ n ends a word, when an initial 'ir^ (5 or 1 ^ or ^ ^ (or their 
aspirates) follows, a sibilant is inserted between the final and initial 
letter, according to the class of the initial letter ; and the i|[ n then 
passes into the true Anusvara, see 6. d; e. g. 

«BfW^+ ^l[ka8min+6it becomes ^ f^i Ov 4^ kasminitSit, * in a certain person.' 
wftR«^ TRPT asmin ta4dge becomes ^iftTOTFT asmins ta^dge, ' in this pool.* 
n^\\ 7|p mahdn ^ankaft becomes T^TTIC* mahdnsh tankafi^ ' a large axe.' 
a. The same holds good before "^ 6h (as, Hf^lBtRf'rfW *he covers them*), and 

before "^M, \ t^; but the two latter are not likely to occur. 

h. If 8 immediately follows ^ in a conjunct consonant, as in the word 19^ ' a 

sword-hilt,' there is no change ; thus 9«^ W^ remains ^«Wf?!. 

c. A similar euphonic s is inserted between the prepositions sam^ ova, pari, 
prati, and certain words which begin with k, as tKSHli. sans-kdra, W^K sans-krita, 
^fVWfX. parish'kdra, H Pn »cii iKpratish-kdra, &c. (see 70); just as in Latin, between 
the preposition ab and c, &c., e. g. ab-s-condo. Also, between W ' a male,' and 
a word beginning with a hard consonant, as '^HIk^ ' a cuckoo,' thus Mij^Oic?! ; 
also when VF^ is repeated, e. g. «iitt!iiif\ or «»1<siii«\ * whom ?* * whom ?* * which 
of them ?' (Pdn. viii. 3, 12, but cf. Vopa-deva 11. 35.) 

d. «^n at the end of a root does not require an inserted s before terminations begin* 
ning with tj thus ^ + flT han + Hh ^ftff hanti, * he kills' (but see 57, 57. a. b). 

e. Except, also, tmfltf^ prcJdn (nom. of pra^dm, 179. a); as, U^lnlHlfd *the 
peaceful man spreads 5 ' H^Tf^^ftfif * the peaceful man collects * (Pdii. viii. 3, 7). 

54. The only cases in which «^ n, when originally the final of a word, can pass 
into Anusvara are given above at 53, 53. aj thus in classical Sanskrit combina- 
tions like ?n«^ *Orri or in«^^^ird must not be written Iff li^tfif, irf ^f^Jlfif. 

55. If 5^^ n ends a word, when the next begins with » i, then 
f^ n and 5( i may be combined in either of the two following ways : 
I at, the final t^ n may be changed to palatal si li; thus irgn^ ^HK 
mahdn iurah may be written i^^ivj^c: ' a great hero.* 

andly, the initial 5^ i may be changed to ^ <5A; thus if^T^^:. 
a. According to native authorities an augment t, changeable to (f (51), may be 



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CHANGE OF 5^ » (NOT FINAL) TO ^ n. 39 

inserted in both cases, thus ^V^T^^Tt or <I^T^^:, but this is rarely done ; and in 
practice, both «^and l^are sometimes erroneously left Unchanged against the rule 
(thus, H^\^ ^l?*)* 

b. Final ^ n may optionally insert an augment ^ k when any sibilant begins the 
next word or syllable. Hence TTH^ ^ may be either TnZ^ (or ffT^^ by 49. a) 
or may remain unchanged. 

c. Similarly, final ^9 may insert ^ f, and final 5^^ n may insert l{^t before ^«; 
e.g. ^«i^, *a good reckoner,' is in loc. pi. ^H^ or ^H?!^; and ^ TH, *he 
being,' may be '•QHUt; and some say the inserted letters may optionally be aspirated. 
The insertion of 1^ between a final «^ and initial ^ is common in the Veda; but 
in later Sanskrit these insertions are not usual. 

56. If «^ii ends a word, when the next begins with <^ {, the n assimilates with 
the /, and the Candra-vindu mark ^ is placed over the /, substituted for n, to 
denote its nasality ; thus m«|i«\ cjTTfk becomes MHII^^lHl or MUff^ fj«fl(ll * he 
dips the wings;' see 7. Similarly, €V + XafAva = ekXcifMra ; con+ligoz^colligo, 

a. Final «^ii, before i^j or ^jh, and ^ «, is properly written in the palatal 
form ^, but in practice is often allowed to remain unchanged agsdnst the rule. 

b. Final T^n, before ^ d, ^ ^, and Hfn, should be written in the cerebral form HT . 

c. But final r^n, before gutturals, labials, semivowels (except ^y), and the sibi- 
lants ^«, ^sk, remiuns unchanged ; as, lTTt( i|? ' those six.' 

57. «^ n as the final of nominal stems is rejected before termina- 
tions and suffixes beginning with consonants; thus vff!f(+fH^ 
dhMdn + this becomes ^iffffir^^ dhanibhis, * by rich people ; ' g^+ 1^ 

• yuvtt^ + tva becomes g^fW yuva-tva, * youth.* Similarly svdmin + vat 
becomei svdmi-vat^ * like a master.' But iM<^^ rdjan-vat is excepted 
in the senie of * having a good king.' (Raghu-v. vi. 2% ; Pdn. viii. 
2, 14 ; of. alao ^npn^^ udan^at, ' the ocean,' Raghu-v. x. 6.) 

a. «^ 11 as the filial of a root is rejected before those terminations beginning with 
consonants (exceptbig nasals and semivowels) which have no indicatory P (see 
307 and 323) ; thus ^+hT is ?ft?r, but '^+tas is ^?f^, see 654. 

b. Also, when a word ending in «^n is the first (or any but the last) member of 
a compound word, even thoiigh the next member of the compound begins with a 
vowel ; e, g. Tlil'^ J^ r^an fmrusha becomes Tlif^^ rdja-purusha, ' the king's 
servant;' TVinf^JjP^rdjan indra becomes TJIFJ rdjendra, 'chief of kings;' ^^tft^^ 
^A^^svdmitt artham becomes 4d |W|fl*^«?(fmy-flr/Aam, * on the master's account.' 

c. «( » not final, immediately preceded by a palatal, is changed to the palatal 
form ; e. g. ^Tr^+ HT = 'H^ * prayer,' ^n^+ *T = T^J * a sacrifice ;' similarly, 
tnjft ' a queen,* fem. of rW^ * a king.' 

Change of t{^ n {not find) to ^ n. 

58. I£^^n {not final, and having immediately after it any vowel, 
or one of the consonants ^^ n, H m, ^ y, ^ r) follows any one of the 



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40 CHANGE OF 5^ n (NOT FINAL) TO ^^n. 

three eerebral letters if fi (short or long), ^ r, i^ «A, in the same 
word {samdna^ade\ then ^ n must be changed to the cerebral l( n^ 
even though any vowel or any of the guttural or labial consonants 
at page 15 (viz, *, *A, g^ gh^ ft. A, and />, ph, b, bh, m, v\ or y or 
Anusvdra^ either singly or combined together or with any vowel, 
intervene; as in the following examples formed with suffixes or 
terminations: f^inftl(635); ^^(152); ^pt^{ioy); <{f9' causing 
to grow fat ;' ^f^ * homed ;* VW^ ' devout/ fll^l3l«l1 d6drydni, 
* the wife of an A6irya/ is an exception (Pin. iv. 1, 49. Virt)*. 
Obs. I. 9^n final (i.e. followed by Vir^a) in a word is not so 

changed; e. g. ?n^> ^^^ 'T?'^ (®^ ^^7)' 

Obs. 2. In a word like ^|f%i%> ^they do/ t immediately after n 
prevents the change. Similarly, ^^^^ (^7^)* 

Obs. 3. This change of a dental to a cerebral letter is called noH in the Pr^ti- 
sikbjas. 

a. The intervention of any of the palatal, cerebral, or dental oonsonaats at 
p. 15, except y (viz. <f, 6h, J, Jk, n, /, f, l^t 4* #* f» ^ '*, d, dk, /, #), prevents the 
operation of this rule, as in W^PfT 'worship ;' "Wilm 'abandoning;' nEhPf 'playing;* 
^iftrftf * roads ' (nom. pi. of ^f?fi«^) ; ^«iid«i ' by a jackal * (149). 

The intervention of a labial, eot^unct with ^^ n, precludes 9jij change in the 
conjugational. forms of the verb ^^'to satisfy,' cL 5. (QHIOi &c., 618), and in 
those of ^[^ ' to shake," cL 9. (IgVlOl &c., 694) ; see Pd^, viii. 4, 39. In the Veda, 
however, ^^^sHk is found. But the intervention of nasals, semivowels, or A, though 
conjunct with the «^, do not prevent cerebralization, as in ^V^'lin (157); VU^I 
inst. c. of ^JTW^ * hostile ; ' i|i«^i of Um^ * a stone.' 

Observe — According to Pap. vi. i, 16, the past pass. part, of vradS, *to cut,' 
and rtjf, ' to break,' should be ^79, ^VIT. 

b. If two conjunct «^iis follow the letters causing the oerebralisation, they each 
become H^, as in hnm vi§haip^f (54^)* 

e. Even in compoimd words where ^9 ^ ^> ^ are in the first member of th&. 
compound, and «^ occurs in the second member, the change to JB may sometimes 
take place (especially when the separate ideas inherent in each word are lost sight 
of in a single object denoted), and sometimes is optional. When, however, ihe 



* The whole rule 58 is thus expressed in the first two Sdtras of Panini viii. 4, 
twrf ^ •?: 'HHIfiM^ I V^9mi(«JM|C||i)sfy|. The vowel rt is supposed to be 
included in T. ^ stands for the vowels, diphthongs, y, r, v, and h; ^ for the 
guttural class of consonants ; ^ for the labial ; WT^ for the preposition ^ ; ^JW 
for Anusvdra. 

t Except a word like mfVi^i^redup. aorist of W[ 'to breathe,' with H. 



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CHANGE OF ;^« (NOT PINAL) TO TTTn. 41 

^ards do not, so to ^peak, merge their individualitj in a single object, no ^hang^ 
is generally allowed, but even in these cases it is impossible to lay down a precise 
rale. The following are a few examples : i|i«i^ 'a village-chief,' IRpA 'foremost,' 
JPtm 'the Rim^yaQa»' ^i3l^« 'a Rhinoceros' ('leather-snouted animal'), 
IR^ra ' having a sharp nose,' but -^nnifti^i 'a whip,' and WHW^^ ' a pronoun,' 
^BT^J^ft or ^n9?jt * the river of heaven,' ^q«ii^«i * a plant ' (where ^M^UI^tf might 
be expected), Olfifl<(l or ftfftsn(t * a mountain-stream,' WRRQ * a mango-grove,' 
^IV^IPV (aco. of IfH^) 'the killer of a Brahman.' Similarly, ^?f5^acc. c. oi 
^Wp^ ' the slayer of Vfitra,' but ^?ni (where han becomes ghna) ; 9%T^ ' the 
whole day;' and in other similar compounds when the first member ends in 
short a, but ^TOJ ' afternoon' (if from ^TO '•l^*^). See Pan. viii. 4, 3, &c. 

d. In a compound, i|[ii is not generally changed to ^n, if the first member ends 
in \9k, and the next word is formed with a Kfit suffix containing «^n, as fn^Hin, 
{■^M, 4^>MNt| (Pij^ VIII. 4, 35). 

e. If the second member of a compound contain a gfiittural or be monosyllabic, 
the change of ^n to ^9 is necessary, as in ^^hSTftWDT, ^ftiWIlF (Pdn. viii. 4, 13), 
l^tWIff (P69. viii. 4, 13); but not in compounds with agni, as ^Tdfrf . 

59, The prepositions iW^iTj:, fff^ (for ftw^), ^TO, ^, U, and 5^ (for 
^^) require the change of 5^^ n to ^ n in most roots beginning with 
f^ (which in the Dhatu-pafha are therefore written with cerebral JS^ ; 
e* g. IRORTflf * he bows/ ^ninlirftT * he leads inside,' f^T^Tfir ' he drives 
out,^ V<l^^ni *he drives away/ HHR 'guidance,^ IRirnni *a guide/ 
i|ft9T^ ' circumference/ 

a. But in the following roots the ^^ is never changed, and these roots are there- 
fore written in the Dhdtu-pdtha with dental r^n; •p^^' to dance,' •T»^ ' to rejoice,' 
1|| 'to roar,' ''W *to kill,' ^T^ 'to dance *,' tfl^'to ask,' tfT^* to ask,' ^ 'to lead.' 

b. In the case of «n^'to destroy,' the change of i|[ into Hr only takes place, 
when «(^ is not changed to 1^, as IWrprfil, ^ftUT?^, but IR?, vfljf^ (P^n. 
vni, 4, 36). 

e. In the case of f«( ' to kill,' the change of «^ to ^ takes place except when f 
b changed to 1^, as in 1|?PRn , in^^Q*?, but nH^ff (Pdn. viii. 4, 24). An option is 
allowed when t^is followed by '^ or ^, as in Ifjf^ or H^ftw, &c. (P^^. viii. 4, 23). 

d. When the preposition m intervenes between the above-mentioned prepositions 
and the root, the change of 9^ into ^takes place in the following verbs, 7|^, «f^, 
^» ^> "n, ny ^, ^, HT, ^, "JT, "^j ^% ^, ^, ff, fif^. In most other 
verbs the change is optional, as 1ff«f5T«Tftf or 1lftirHfl(\| (Pdn. viii. 4, 17, 18). 

e. After prepositions containing an r, the n of certain suffixes like ana is liable 
to be cerebralized, but in the case of causal stems, and in some other cases, the 

* According to some the resistance of this root to cerebralization is only when 
it bdongs to class 10, and means ' to drop or faU.' 

6 



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42 CHANGES OF FINAL 1^ HI. 

change is optional (see P^q. viii. 4, ^-31) ; e. g. inft^ or IHlt^RFy IHIHR or 
ll^mni. In H<^Mn9 IWWT, inifPf, H'WH, WTH, &c., no change to 9 is 
allowed (Pin. viii. 4, 33^ 34). In the case of root ^li^ ' to hreathe/ the final 
becomes ^in UTOT and ^HCRITy making inAlriir 'he breathes/ and 'TUfiufW (P^. 
VIII. 4, 19). The causal aorist allows two cerebral nasals^ e. g. HlOu^^; as does 
also the desid. of ^H^, e. g. MUfluriimOf, In this way final «^ may be changed 
to K^ at the end of a word, as in HPIf , MU^, formed firom rt. an. But this is only 
true of rt. ^Ri^. In no other case can final ^ become ^. When r is separated 
from the 11 of an by more than one letter, no change is allowed, as in MMf^ifJl. 

Changes of final »( m. 
6o* If If m ends a word^ when any one of the consonants ky kh^ 
ff, gh; <5, 6h, j, jh; U tK 4, 4h; U th, d, dh, n; />, ph, A, iA, m 
follows, then ir m may pass into Anusv^, or may, before any one 
of those consonants, be changed to its own nasal ; thus 3j^ wtm 
gfiham jagdma is written either if^ ifTTT or Jj[^\|illi| ' he has gone 
home f and nagaram praii either tnrt uftr or H'K^ Ol * towards the 
city/ but in these cases Anusv&ra is generally used. So also 'fhf 
preceded by prep, sam becomes either 4i\H or lERpftfT 'flight;^ ^ ^^^ 
either #^ni or im * collection f ^ ^ami either H^m or ^smTir * abandon- 
ment ;' but in these cases Anusv^ is not so usual. 

0. The final H m of a root is changed to 9^ii or ^9 before sufiEbces beginning 
with any consonant except y, r, /, s; thus •nP^+ ^ = 'W^ i^^ 7^)* So also 
^T8|l^+ ^ = W8f?pi^ (see 58 ; and Pin. viii. a, 65). 

b. Before SI, ^, ^, ^, a final if is represented by Anusvdras also generally 
before the semivowels, but see 6. e,f, 7. 

c. With regard to final ^^^ before ^ when followed by m, n, y, /, v, see 7. c. 

d. When the next word begins with a vowel, then 11 m must 
always be written ; thus ij^ ^rnnfv becomes ij^iirofil ' he comes 
home ' (not ajf ^Rnnfir). 

e. Observe — ^When T^n or ^^m not final is preceded by ^ (f&, the latter becomes 
1^^, asir^ + *f = lrW *a question;' ftf^ + tT = fTW * lustre ' (Pdg. vi. 4, 19); 
VJV^ + ftl = ITHflpr * I ask frequently.' 

CHANGES OF FINAL ^ «. 

61. Many cases of nouns and many inflections of verbs end 

in ^ «, which is changeable to ^ i and if sh, and is Uable to be 

represented by Visarga (:, i.e. the sign for a hard breathing, see 8), 

or to pass into ^ r (regarded as the corresponding soft letter of the 



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CHAKQES OF FINAL ^ «. 43 

hard sibilants and Visarga). Am these changes will constantly meet the 
student's eye^ the following five rules must be carefully studied. 

Observe — In other grammars these rules are designated 'rules for the changes 
of Visarga,' a sibilant not being allowed at the end of a complete word standing 
alone (see 40). 

In the following pages^ however^ 9 is preserved as a final, both in declension and 
conjugation, for two reasons : ist, because it is more easily pronounced than a 
mere breathing; andly, because it keeps in view the resemblance between Sanskrit 
and Greek and Latin terminations. 

6%. First Rule. When does the final sibilant remain un- 
refectedP — Before t^/, ^d, and ^ fy JUicL their aspirates, respectively; 
thus, final ^ s before /, thy remains unchanged ; before ($, <5A, passes 
into the palatal sibilant vS; and similarly, before fj fh, passes into 
the cerebral sibilant 1^ sh. 

tu. Final ^ « is also aUowed to remam unchanged before initial ^ s, and to assi- 
milate with initial '^4 and ^«A*. More commonly, however, it is in these cases 
xepresented by Visarga; see 63. 

b. So also, the final ^s of a root must always remain unchanged before the 
terminations «, $e: thus ^ir^+ % = HJTW; ^ + % = T#; see 304. a, 

e. When an initial \t\s compounded with a sibilant, a preceding final s, instead 
of renudning unchanged, may become Visarga as if before a sibilant ; e. g. ^fc 
^^ '1^1 Hi ^ Hari grasps the sword-belt' 

d. For exceptions in as, w, us, see 69. 

6^. Second Rulb. When does final ^^s pass into Visarga (:)? — 
Before '^ k^ ^^p, and their aspirates, and generally (but see 62. a) 
before the three sibilants ^ «, ^i, and v sh f. 

a. Before a pause, i. e. at the end of a sentence. 

b. When an initial sibilant is compounded with another hard consonant, the 
^preoedmg final « is often dropped in MSS.; e.g. ^ft ^F^ or ^fb ^am^Pn 
'Hari goes/ 

e. Nouns ending ia is or us followed by verbs beginning with k, p, or their 
aspirates, and grammatically connected with these verbs, may optionally substitute 
sk for Visarga ; e. g. ^rft«ircHir or frffc wdtffi 'he makes ghee ' (Pd^. viii. 3, 44). 

64. Third Rule. When does final ^ as become o 1 — Before all 
soft consonants. 

a. Similarly, before short ^ (7, which a is then cut off. 
This rule is more properly, but less simply, stated thus. When does final ^ s 

* The assimilation of ^ with an initial ^id rare ; but ^^wtflf is an example. 
t Examples before initial ^, like ACHfv, are rare. 

O 7. 



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44 CHANGES OF VlNAL ^ #. 

blend with a preceding a into the vowel o ? Before all soft consonants final ^# ia 
treated as if liquefied into u *. 

h. The names of the worlds {bhuvas, mahas, jana$, tapas, &c.) change < to r 
before soft consonants ; e. g. bhuvar-loka, mahar-loka, &c. 

65, Fourth Rule. When does final ^^ s become ^ r? — ^When 
preceded by any other vowel but m a or ^n d, and before all soft 
letters, consonants or vowels. 

a. Unless t r itself be the soft letter following, in which case, to 
avoid the conjunction of two r^s, final ^^s 19 dropped, and the vowel 
preceding it (if short) is lengthened. 

The interchangeableness of s, r, and Visarga is illustrated in some Greek and 
Latin words; e.g.floSfflorisj genus, generis j labor tor labos; sexz=z€^l swwis=z 
yj^v^y &c. 

66, Fifth Rule, fflien is final ^s rejected? — ^When preceded 
by short ^ a, before any other vowel except short Wat. NB. The 
W a, which then becomes final, opens on the initial vowel without 
coalition %. 

a. When preceded by long w a, before any soft letter, consonant 
or vowel. NB. If the initial letter be a vowel, the W| a, which then 
becomes final, opens on it without coaUtion. 

b. When preceded by any other vowel but m a or ^ a, before 
the letter r, as noticed at 65. a. 

c. Native grammarians say that final s passes into Visarga, which is then 
changed to y; which y is rejected in accordance with 36, 37. 

The above five rules are illustrated in the following table, in 
which the nominative cases "JTC^ naras, * a man ;' ^ffn^ nards, * men f 
^fiC^ hariSj * the god Vishnu ;' ftj^ ripuSy * an enemy ;' and ffff^^ natis, 
^ a ship^ — are joined with verbs. 

* That \a, it is first changed to r, as at 65, and r is then liquefied into a vowel; 
just as / is often changed to u in French. The plural of animal is animaux, 

t That is, it blends with a into o, as in 64 ; and becoming av before any vowel 
but a, the v is rejected by 36. Indian grammarians hold that final s or Visarga 
here becomes y, which would also be rejected by 36. 

:J: This is one of the three cases in which a hiatus of two vowels is admissible in 
Sanskrit. The three cases are, i . when final s is rejected firom as or ds {66) ; 2. when 
a complete word, ending in e, is followed by any other vowel but a (see 36); 
3. when certain dual terminations, ^ i^ H ti, ^ e, are followed by vowels (see 38). 
In the middle of a word a hiatus is very rare (see 5. b). 



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CHANGES OF FINAL ^». 



45 




III II 

Hill 



i| 



§-. 



8 ^ <« 

I S" g 



PJI fill 



S. 5 






I 






^- 1. 1 1 



e. M 




a IP tM S3S 



I 



s- § 



§. 



i 



s* I* I 
vt. ^ -. 






Iff 

i|i 

S' S- ? 

HI 



I. 



I? 
^f I 

i §■ 

I' 



1. 1 :. 
^ 1 



3 
5=. 



9 CO 

? r i E 

till 

n I 



c^ Q^ eif c^ 



I 



^ o •» 

§: I 1 

8-. 



I 

8 g 

I ^ 



U 



^3. 



i' 



I 



s-s- 



11'^ 



A P* 

»1 



II 



111 ff I III m m 



«j 



B 



« -« ^- & 8> 



8 2^ 









^ S 



ft ^ 



I 



1-^ I* 

8 --^ & I 
5* 8 a 8 
g" ft f :?' 

8^£ ^ M 



n n 3 3^ ^1^2 

HHHfft 



I 



As 



I 



I 



i^ 



«)^ ^ 



« 8 



It?- 



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46 CHANGES OF PINAL ^*. 

6y. There is one common exception to 62, 63^ 64 : iSP^sas, * he/ and 
^^^ eshaSy * this/ the nominative case masc. of the pronouns ir^ tad 
and ^ni^ etad {22,0, 223), drop the final s before any conmmant, hard 
or soft ; as^ TT nOOl sa karotiy * he does ;^ tt T^Kfw sa ffa66hati, * he 
goes / ?i| inifir esha paSati, * this (man) cooks/ But rules 64. a, 66, 
and 6^. a, are observed ; thus, ^sf^ so 'pi, * he also / TT W^l sa eskai, 

* he himself/ Sometimes (but only ^T^^[nft to fill up a verse or suit 
the metre) sa may blend with a following vowel^ as IN: for ^ ^w:. 

In poetry sya$, ' he/ nom. masc. of tyad, ma,j optionally follow the same rule 
(P6131. VI. 1, 133). 

Compare Greek for Of. Compare also Latin qui for ^tfir, and iUe, iste, ipse, 
for ilhu, istus, ipsus. The reason why $a dispenses with the termination s may be 
' that this termination b itself derived from the pronoun sa. 

68. The preceding rules are most frequently applicable to ^«, as 
the final of the cases of nouns and inflexions of verbs ; but they 
come equally into operation in substantives or adjectives, whose stem 
ends in ^n^ as, ^ is, and ^ us ; thus, by 65, ^^^ f^ Sakshus 
(kshaie becomes ^1|0h() dakshur ikshaie, ^ the eye sees / and ^^+ 
fin^ dakshus + bMs = ^r^[f^ 6akshurbhis, ^ by eyes/ Similarly, by 64, 
in!^ ifRTfir manas jdndti becomes ipft UTirfw mono jdndti, * the mind 
knows/ and ^9f^^ + f^ manas + bhis = «nfH)r^ manobhis, * by minds/' 

Exceptions in ^n( as, ^ is, ^ us. 

69. ^1^ as at the end of the first member of a compound word retains its s 
befbre derivatives of the roots ^ and W^y and before ^kVi ^^s VJ^f 1|9T> ^i^ 
(see P^ VIII. 3» 46); e. g. fll|l*i 'causing light,' VlllSiK 'a blacksmith^* 
«f*I^K 'adoration/ OliWi. * disrespect ♦,' ^HTWf * a lover of milk.' The s is 
also retained in some other compounds, generally when the second member begins 
with ^, ^; as, fifWlflf *lord of day,' TPWlflf *lord of speech;' similarly also, 
^TT^R * the sun.' Also before the Taddhita sufi^es ^fff^vat, Af^ vin, and ^R9 valaj 
e. g. n^TOn^, n^ff^n^ ' possessing light.' 

a. Words ending in !^ u, tW( tw, such as ^f^> 'rfn^* ^^3^* ^^'> ""^^ *^® 
prefixes ftf^, ^^V\9 ^^rf^> Jp^> m^^y when compounded with words beginning 
with 1l|, ^, K.> ^> change their final ^ into ^(P6i^. viii. 3, 41, 45); e. g. ^ftf^p^^ 

* perfonmng a sacrifice,' HfQ^H*! ' drinking ghee,' H^^^i^ ' a bow-maker^' f«TV^ 

* In forms of AlT^ the retention of ^^s is considered optional (Pdp. viii. 3, 43) ; 
e. g. firCQI^ or flnctii^. 



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CHANGES OF FINAL ^ 8. 47 

'removed,* ftf^lPI 'fruitless,* '^f^Wfff 'excluded,* VlfV^il 'made evident,* 
nntf * difficult to be drunk,' Hi^^n ' made manifest.* 

b. Nouns ending in ^i«, ^'^u^* before the Taddhita sufBxes HII ma/, ^ifivat, 
f^vm, ^(^vakiy change the final ^« to ^#* according to 705 e.g. Hp^^^, 
ilftfiRn^' possessing splendour,' H^^n^' armed with a bow.' 

c Similarly before Taddhita suffixes beginning with 1^ /, as tva, tama, tara, 
U^a, &c (see 80), final s of is and us is changed to sh, but the initial t is then 
cerebralised; thus ilftfln^+W becomes r^tftlTf jyotish-tva, 'brightness.* So 
wftflTFRjyotish'tama, 'most brilliant.* 

d. Similarly ^^ liable to be changed to ^according to 70, is retuned before the 
suffixes «B> 1F9T} ^n^^ and when compounded with the nominal verb IRV^fr; 
M, iirai 'splendid,* 1W« 'glorious,' iR^i^ 'a Uttle milk,' ^rfts^RT 'a Uttle 
ghee,' ^^MilM|f^ 'he desires sacrifice' (Pi?, viii* 3, 39). 

70. ^ Sy not finaly if followed by a vowel or by t^ th^ n, m, y, v, 
ori)y certain Taddhita suffixes^ such as ha, kalpa^ &c. (see 69. d)y 
passes into \8h when preceded by any other vowel but ^ a orm ^, 
and when preceded by i^r *, or ^r, or 7^/; thus ^Blfinf h-;| agm-^su 
becomes wfrlj agnishu^ *in fires ;^ i|n& + ftr karo + « = ^ir^tft karosM, 
'thoudoest;^ ^1^ + ^ vdk + su^^V^vdkshu,^ in words ;^ ftw^ + ftr 
bibhar + « = fwfl bibharsM^ * thou bearest/ See 69 and 6g. a. 

0. An intervening Anusv^ra or Visarga or sibilant does not pre- 
vent this rule ; e. g. flWl, ^^jfll, ^ftrtf (or ^ftrg), ^^TJ. 

h. In aooordanoe with this rule, certdn roots and their derivatives beginning 
with ^ change their initials to ^ after the prepositions V^^ ^vftT> ff » f^> ^fx, 
Ufir, irfir, ^rg, Wfil; thus, ^rfilj from ^rt? and ^, nfVf^'^ from ^ft and ftl^^, 
ffTUn from f^ and Wl I and the change may even be preserved though the augment 
H a intervenes, as in •'iflWH^ from f^^ with ftT> VU|911||^ from FTT with irfv ; 
and though the reduplicated syllable of the perfect tense intervene, as ^vfvim 
(but not always in either case, as Vv^T^TTl^, "W-JflW)* 

c. Hence roots beginning with s and foUowed by a vowel or a dental consonant 
nt written in the Dh&tu-pdtha as if -beginning with shj e.g. "Nv (for fffv), 
S (for ^y VT (for ^n)> t^ (for Wi)l and this applies also to the roots f^> 

fiar^, ^, ^^H, ^n^, &c. 

d. Certain roots beginning ^th s resist all change to sh and are therefore always 
written with sj e. g. ^[^, ^1^, W^ ^, ^, ^l|, ^, ^^5^* ^'^ certain roots the 
change is optional, as in ^9n^» ^SR^9 &e. 

e. The root HW changes its initial to ^ after ^R, as ^HfFWflr. 

/. In a few roots the change is optional, as ^fSc^lWjfif or ^ft.Mi*^fff, f^l^jsrfk 
or nfiJRCfir ; and there are cases where s is retained quite exceptionally, e. g. 

g. The root ^W^ as, * to be,' when it drops initial a, leaves the s liable to be 



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48 CHANaBS OP PINAL T r. 



\ 



changed ix>sh if it he foUowed hjyovA vowel ; e. g. HfWWH^, ^ifiwftr , f«nftr> 

iTi5:''inn^, u^r'^ftr (P6131. vm. 3, 87). 

Even in compounds the initial 8 of the second member of the compound may be 
affected hj rule 70^ especially if a single object is denoted, as in the names ^ftWH 
hari-shei^ for hari-sena, ^^Mit yudhi-shthira for yudhi-sthiraj and in ^f'n* agni' 
shtha for agni-itha, ' a frying-pan.' So also in ^BftinfN, ftf*^? 5*^* ^^ 

h. In compounds formed with ^1^ (rt. ^VT), the initial becomes ^ where ^ is 
changed to a cerebral (^> 1^9 or ^). See 182. e. 

t. The ^ of the suffix ^CFTI^is not changed, as Il0«f4llrf ' to consume by fire.*^ 

j. Observe — ^The preposition nis followed by the root tap does not become nish if 
repeated action is denoted ; e. g, ftWf^'to melt (gold &c.) repeatedly' (Paij. viii* 
3, loa); otherwise ftff^. 

CHANGES OF FINAL If n 
yi. For purposes of Sandhi nearly all words ending in ^ r may 
be regarded as ending in ^ s. Most of the cases in which the 
changes of final ^ r differ from those of final ^ s will be foimd 
below in large type. 

a. Thus, by 63, JtlK^WTtf prdtar hdla becomes UIMI^Jd prdtaft-kdla, * the time 
of morning;' HHI^ 5^ antarpura becomes ^mi^^ antah-pura, * the female apart- 
ments;' and prdtar sndna becomes HI AIWH prdta^-sndna, 'morning ablution/ 

b. But r as the final of a stem, or as a radical letter, remains 
unchanged before a sibilant; thus ^4.^=^ (7^)> f^Wf + ft'^ 
flwfS; ^15^ + ^ = ^151 (see 203, cf. 62. b); and sometimes before the 
hard letter i^/> in compounds; as, ifrtfil gir-patiy Mord of speech* 
(also written jfliufdi, ift«rfir); ^r^ svar-pati, *lord of heaven^ (also 
written ^Wi|fir). 

c. After the analogy of 63, UTiT^ 5 prdtar tu becomes Ullik^ prdtas tu; and 
UTil^ ^ prdtar 6a becomes iniTV prdta£ 6a. 

The transition of r into 5 before / is exemplified in Latin by geitun from geroy 
ustwn firom uro. See. On the other hand, r in the middle of words is preserved 
before t in Sanskrit, as in kartum, &c. 

d. But in opposition to 64 and 66, final 1?^ ar, unlike W^ €», 
remains unchanged before any soft letter (consonant or vowel); thus^ 
Unr^ ^nip prdtar dSa remains inTPCT^ prdtar-dSa, * morning meal f 
yi^ ^infir punar ydii remains girtrftr punar ydti, * again he goes f 
^ff^TSy^punar ukta remains ^;{^% punar^kta, * repeated' (cf. nir-ukta, 
* described/ for nis-ukta, by 65), 

€, After the analogy of 65. a, final ar before initial r drops its own r, and 
lengthens the preceding <t; as ^^ T^/f^ punar rakskati becomes ^^ X^fft pund 



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CHANGES OP PINAL ^ r. 49 

rakskati, * again he preserves.' Analogously, ^AT!^ gi-ratha (i. e. 1^ T9 ^V rat ha), 
* epithet of Bphaspati/ 

/. Analogously to 69. c, ^5^+ Wf 6atur'\'taya becomes ^gv^ datush^toya, *the 
aggregate of four.' 

73. Prefixes such as nir and dur must be treated as originally ending in sj see 
mis, du$y 69. a. 

73* ^ ** preceded by a vowel may optionally double a consonant immediately 
following ; thus f«f^ ^ nir day a may be written either Pn^M nirdaya or Ph^^ 
mrddayOy ' merciless ;' except ^ h and a sibilant followed by a vowel, as in ^^ 
71. 6>' but karshyate may be written karshshyaie. In doubling an aspirated letter, 
the aspiration of the fjrst is rejected, as ^Tf (for ^^). ¥ A is said to have the 
same efEect in doubling a consonant immediately following ; thus brahman may be 
written brahmmanj but for the sake of simplicity it is better to avoid doubting in 
both cases, and write always nirdaya and brahman. 

a. The doubling of consonants, when they come in contact with others, is con- 
stantly allowable in Sanskrit, though not usual in practice. Thus, in any con- 
junction of two (or even more) coi^onants preceded by any vowel, especially if a 
semivowel be the last letter in the compound, the first letter, provided it be not 
^ or Wy may be doubled (Pd^. viii. 4, 47) ; thus "^^ may be written for ^[^T^ ^f^l^9 
for VM^Iy ^I^VTVIE? for ^Wl#^9 but the more simple form is preferable. 

b. Again, any one of the first four consonants of any class may be doubled 
before the nasal of its own class, and if this takes place the middle consonant is 
called the yama of the prece4iug; thus in kkniti (P4i^. i. i, 5) the second k is the 
foma or twin letter. 

e. It should be noted that by P&i^. viii. 4, 65, there is an optional rqection of 
one of two homogeneous consonants after any consonant, so that «An may be 



The following table exhibits the more common combinations of 
consonants at one view. In the top Hne of initial letters the 
aspirated consonants have been omitted, because it is a universal 
mle^ that whatever change takes place before any conso^ant, the 
same holds good befpre its ai^pirate. 



n 



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50 



TABLE OF THE COMMONEST CHANGES OF CONSONANTS. 



S 




f i* .8 -«• 
1 ^" ^ 


i 

8« 






s 

o. 


.1 
J 1 






-1 


ft ft 




0.0 


u * 

o 


o. 

o 


o 


«i 


• Sis 


On Os. 




-. On 


* 

-.On 


O.O. 

«. On 


«. On 


1 


M 






Cm 


91 
9t« 




9f 




1 






va 


9 

«o 


o. 




1 

< 






















O 


9r 

-I- 
















8« 








1 
(^ 






o 


9 


O. 
ft. 


va 

ft- 


-I- 
> 


91 


9 9 


Ox 


o 

• 


9 
9 


o ^ 

• 9 9 .^9 9 


a 


•5»« 


rj< 


"-J 


^1* 


9 






1 






Ox 




9 


ft- 




1 


-1 
3 


3 3 


Ox 

3 


o 


9 

3 


is^» ^va 9 
ft 3 3 a 3 3 


S' 






On 




9 


ft- 


<«5 


1 


-1 




On 

-1 


© 
1 


9 
1 


ft< 




? 


-1 




On 


o 


«*•« 
«*•« 


*-■' 

•m 




3 
J 


1 




On 


o 


9 


ft- 




5 

1 


*>* 








K^ 






•>• 


n^t 


"-* 


00 


9 

00 




o» 






8»« ^r- 


On 


o 


9 


?| 





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SANSKRIT BOOTS AND THE FORMATION OP NOMINAL STEMS. 51 



CHAPTER III. 

ON SANSKRIT ROOTS AND THE FORMATION OF 
NOMINAL S1*EMS. 

Before treating of the declension of Sanskrit nouns {ndman or 
iaiijfid)^ it is nec^^ssary to point out the peculiar method of forming 
the stem from the root. 

74. Every Sanskrit noun (including substantives, adjectives, pro- 
nouns, and numerals) has at least two distinct states prior to the 
formation of the nominative case; viz. ist, a root {dhdtu); sndly, 
a stem {prdiipadika or anga*) formed directly from the root or from 
a modification of the root, generally by the addition of a suffix 
{pratyaya); which stem becomes a complete word {pada) by the 
addition of a case^nding {vibhdkti)f. 

a. The root is of such importance in Sanskrit that it should be 
clearly defined before another step is taken. 

A root (dhdtu) is to language what the primitive elements are to 
chemistry ; it is that primitive part of a word which, being incapable 
of granmiatical decomposition, is supposed to contain the primary 
meaning antecedent to any addition or modification. When a root 
has been developed in any way by the addition of letters or syllables 
or by internal change it becomes a stem, which again is subject to 
further development by the addition of letters or syllables called 
case-endings or inflexions (vibhakti\ whether nominal or verbal. 
Thus ddna and dadd are stems (the former nominal, the latter verbal) 
developed out of the root dd^ but ddna and dadd are not fully 

* According to Vii^, i. 4, 13, the tenn anga is used for the stem when speaking 
of acme suffix {pratyaya) or termination which is required to be added to it, 
whereas prdiipadika is a general term for a stem without reference to its suffix. 

t The process of forming a complete word (pada), in the case of noims, may be 
shewn, as it were algebraicaUj, thus: Root (cfAifu) -f Suffix (pratyaya) ^= Stem 
(prdtipadika); again, Stem (pr^ihi^acftAra) -f Case-ending (ot&Aaith')=a complete 
word {padd)\ e. g. in the word jan-a^s, ' a person/ jan is the root, a is the suffix, 
and s is the masculine termination for the nominative case. 

H 2 



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52 



SANSKRIT BOOTS 



developed until they have received terminations or inflexions, when 
they become complete words [pada); thus ddna-niy * a gift -/ dadd-tiy 
*he gives* (cf. Lat. do-nu-my Gr. Si-^W'tri). 

b. There are in Sansk^t about aooo roots, and every one of 
these conveys some simple idea, conveniently expressed in English 
by the sign of the infinitive ' to/ as in ad, ' to eat/ though it must 
be noted that the simple root ad only denotes the idea of ^eating/ 
which appears under different modifications in its derivatives (see 
76. a). The following are a few of the commonest roots, with the 
leading idea conveyed by each (omitting "to*)' 



^ ad, * eat/ 
^l^ ardy * honofur/ 
^ as, * be/ 
^WT^ dpy ' obtain/ 

n ishj ^ wish/ 

V^ kam, * love/ 

f*ri,* do/ 

^11 krishy * draw/ 

HH^ Aram/ go/ 

1*M,^buy/ 

^ krudhf * be angry/ 

ftf kshi, * waste away/ 

ftj^ kship^ * throw/ 

?gT khydy * relate/ 

jf^ grahy ^ seize/ 
HT ghrd, * smell/ 
^ 6ar, ' go/ 
fw iiy ^ collect/ 
fVn^ 6int, ^ think/ 
IR^ 6had, * cover/ 
ip^yan, * produce/ 
fsfji, * conquer/ 
irt^yfv, ' live/ 
J^jiid, *know/ 
TP^ /on, * stretch/ 



Tl^ tapf * wailn/ 
g^ /ttrf, * strike/ 
WH /yq;, * quit/ 
!p| dahy * bum/ 
^ rfrf, ' give/ 
fif^ rffo, * shine/ 
f?;S(^cfii, * point out/ 
^ dip J * shine/ 
"^ rffi^, * see/ 
^ rfyw/, * shine/ 
•g dru, * run/ 
fw^ dvish, * hate/ 
VT dhdy * place/ 
ifi^y nan<]f, * rejoice/ 
?n( »«^, * perish/ 
ftr^ ninrf, * blame/ 
^«f,*lead/ 

iV^pa6, *cook/ 

^v:\pat, * fall/ 
il^/?arf, *go/ 
^ /?(£, * drink/ 
^ /?a, * protect' 
\pii, * purify/ 
ire j9ra(fA, * ask/ 
W^&ATufA, ^ bind/ 
"5^ budhy * know/ 
ij^ftru,* speak/ 



>Ta^4Aa*M/eat.' 
m Mrf, * shine/ 
fW^ bhid, * split/ 
>ftMf,*fear/ 
^ Mm;, * enjoy/ 
if. bhu, * become/ 
^ iArt, * bear/ 
H^ marf, • rejoice/ 
'f^ man, * think/ 
HT mdy * measure/ 
g^ mw(5, * liberate/ 
^ mwA, * be foolish/ 
q iwrt, * die/ 
^ y^'> * sacrifice/ 
irn^ya/, 'strive/ 
vm^ yam, * restrain/ 

5 ytt, 'join/ 

3^yM;,'join/ 

^yudh/6ght,^ 
V^ rah, ' quit/ 
^ rwA, ' grow/ 
c9^ /aiA, ' obtain/ 
^^ vai, * speak/ 
^ varf, ' speak/ 
^ vflw, * dwell/ 
if^ vahy * bear/ 



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AND THE FORMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS. 



63 



fil^ vidy * know/ 
fllH viS^ * enter/ 
^tTt/,*be/ 
^ ianSy * praise/ 
^ iak^ * be able/ 
^ft if, *lie down/ 
^ iui^ * grieve/ 
^iwAA, * shine/ 
^ inl, * hear/ 
ll| $ah, ' belir/ 



in^^orfAy ' complete/ 
^^,*go/ 
^51^^ srij^ ' create/ 
^ sripy * creep.* 
^Ii5^ skand, * go/ 
^ stUy ' praise/ 
^in «^A(i) ^ stand.' 
HT «»({, ' bathe/ 
ttp^ «pr*^, ^ touch/ 
f^ smiy * smile/ 



18^ smf% ' remember/ 
^^ wop, * sleep/ 
^ «;rf , * sound.' 
^ han, ' kill' 
^ haSy * laugh.' 
^ hdy * quit/ 
^ Aft, * seize/ 
^ Jifishy * be glad/ 
fT^Warf/beglad.' 
3| Al;e, * call/ 



75. A cursory glance at the above list of common roots will serve 
to shew that they are aU monosyIlat)ic. In other respects they 
diflFer. Some consist of a single vowel only ; some begin with one 
or two consonants, and end in a vowel, but none end in either v a 
or w au; some begin with a vowel, and end in one or two conso- 
nants; and some begin and end with one dr two consonants, in- 
dosing a medial vowel ; so that a toot may sometimes consist of 
only one letter, as ^ i, ^to go/ and sometimes of four or more, as 
91^ skandi * to move.' Roots consisting of simple letters, such as 
^j ^> ^9 ftf> V\> ^^'> *"^ probably primitive; and those which 
have compound consonants, such as ^C^ &c., are in all Ukelihood 
developed out of more primitive forms*. Those with cerebral 
letters, such as ^ *to I'oU,' have some of them been formed by 
adopting sounds from aboriginal dialects. 

a. The few polyBjllabic words recognized as roots have probably resulted from 
a constant habit of joining some particular preposition with some particular mono- 
syllabic root till it has at length come to be regarded as part of the root; e. g. in 
n^m^sangrdniy 'to fight,' H*|W1^ avadhir, 'to despise,' the prepositions ?ni[^«(ii?i 
and H^ ctea have combined thus with the root. A few other polysyllabic roots are 
the result of the constant habit of reduplication ; (as, qKj^i daridrd, to be poor ;' 
frj jdfffi, * to be awake ;' ^flf^ dakds, ' to shine ;' Wt vevi, ' to go/ ' pervade ;') 
•nd a few are derived from nouns ; as, ^•ii^ * to play,' from 9«iic kumdra^ a boy/ 
Most of the latter are of the loth class, and may be regarded as nominal verbs (see 
388. h). 



* Thus '^f^i6yut (also written 46u,t), 'to drop/ beginning with three conso- 
nants, was probably merely developed out of rts. <^tt, 6yfity a sibilant and dental 
having been added (cf. 51, 53, 84. III). 



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54 SANSKRIT ROOTS 

b,^n and ^ « at the beginning of a root are liable, according to 58 and 70, to 
be changed to ^t^ and W «A. Hence these roots are generally reinresented in 
Native Grammars as beginning with ^and ^> because the Indian system exhibits 
that form which may occur under any circumstances (see 70. c. c^. But in this 
Grammar, the real initials «^n and ^ s will be retained. 

c. According to Indian grammarians, roots are either uddtta or anuddtta (see 
explanation of accentuation at end of Grammar). Uddtta roots take the inserted 
^ f in certain tenses (see 391), anuddtta roots r^ect this inserted towel (P&9. tii. 
2, 10). Native grammarians attach to roots (either at the beginning or end) 
certain symbolical letters or syllables indicative of peculiarities of conjugation, 
called anvbandhas, 'appendages' (or technically ^ «0» which have the uddtta 
accent on the vowel used as an anubandha, to shew that the verb takes the 
Parasmai (243) terminations only (such verbs being then called uddttetaft); or the 
anuddtta, to shew that it takes the Atmane only (such verbs being anuddttetah); or 
the svaHta, to shew that it takes both (such verbs being nantetaft). See Panini 
I. 3, 12, 72. 78. 

The following is a list of Plli[iini'*s antibandhas (with one or two added by Vopa- 
deva) : 

VT indicates that the past participle suffixes (530, 553, called nishfhd in native 
grammars) do not take the inserted t, vii. 2, 16. ^ that a nasal is inserted 

before the last letter of the root in all the tenses ; thus nid-i shews that the 
present is ninddmi &c., vii. i, 58. ^ that the Aorist (or 3rd Pret.) is 

formed in two ways, either with form I (418) or form II (435); thus ghush-ir 
shews that the Aor. is either agkoshisham &c. or aghusham Sic, and dfi^-ir that 
the Aor. is either adrdksham or adariam. % that the past participle (530, 

553) is formed without t, vii. 3, 14. 7 that the indeclinable participle (555) 

may optionally reject t, while the past part, always rejects it, vii. 2, 56, 
15. 9 that f may optionally be inserted in the general tenses, vii. 2, 

^5* ^ ^^^ ^ ^® Cans. Aor. the radical long vowel must not be shortened, 

VII. 4, 2. ^that the vowel may be either leogthened or shortened in 

the Cans. Aor. H that the Aor. takes form II (435) in the Par., 

!"• i> 55« ^ *^* Vfiddhi is not admitted in the Aor. Par., vii. 2, 5. ^ 

that the past pass. part, is formed with na instead of to, viii. 2, 45. Wi that 

a root is anuddtta, i. e. that it rejects the inserted t. ^ that a root is inflected 

in the Atm., i. 3, 12. l^ that a root is inflected in the Par. and Atm., 

I* 3> 73* ^ ^^^ ^^0 P<^ V^' ^^ ^ present significatioD, iii. 2, 187. J 

that a noun with the suffix atku may be formed from the root; thus fU'k$hm indi- 
oates that k$havatku may be formed from ksku, iii. 3, 89. J that a noon 

with the suffix trima may be formed from the root ; thus ^-ibft shews that kfi- 
trima may be formed frt)m ibft, in. 3, 88. <^that the vowel a must not be 

lengthened in forming the Causal, that in the 3rd sing. Aor. paas. (technically 
called Sn, 475) and indec. part, of repetition (567, technically named ^mul) the 
vowel can be optionally lengthened or shortened, and that nouns of agency in a 
(580) can be formed firom Causal stems having short radical vowels, vi. 4, 92. 93. 



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AND THE POEMATION OP NOMINAL STEMS. 55 

5M. ^that a noun may be fSormed firom the root by adding the suffix d 

(80. 1), III. 3, 104. 

76. Since every word in Sanslqrit, whether substantive^ adjective^ 
verb^ or adverb, stands in close filial relationship to its root, the 
learner is recommended to commit to memory the commonest roots, 
as given at 74. b. He will thus become master of a large family of 
words, whidi are easily remembered when attention is directed to 
the leading radical idea ruoning through them all, 

a. For example: let him take one of the foregomg roots, biidhy to know;* 
out of it are developed, ist, a set of simple substantives s sndlj, of simple 
adjectives; ^rdly, of simple verbs : e. g. bodka or bodkana, ' knowledge;' buddki, 
* intellect;' bodhaka, 'an informer;' bauddka^ 'a Buddhist;' budhth 'wise;' 
buddkkmaty * intellectual ;' and the following verbs, bodhoH, * he knows;' hudkyate^ 
'it is known;' bodkayaii^ 'he informs $' bubknisate or bubodhishaiif 'he wishes to 
know;' bobudkyaie, 'he knows well.' And the simple idea contained in the root 
may be endlessly extended by the prefixing of prepositioDs ; as, prabodka, ' vigi- 
lance;' prabudhyate, 'he awakes,' &c 

b. Similarly, from the root man, ' to think,' a vast number of derivatives are 
developed, throughout aU of which the leading radical idea is traceable ; e. g. 
ma^ta (i. e. man+ta), ' thought,' ' an opinion ;' ma^ti (i. e. man+ti), ' mind ;' maH' 
mat, 'mind-possessing;' man-ana, 'thoughtful;' man-as, 'mind;' manas-vin, 
' intelUgent ;' mand, ' devo^n ;' mand^yn, ' zealous;' man-^ihd, ' reflection ;' manf" 
Mta, 'desired;' m an is k m, ' wise ;' moii-K, 'man;' manwtu, 'an adviser;' man'tfi, 
'a thinker;' man^-tra, 'a sacred text;' mantrim, 'a counsellor;' maniri-tva, 'office 
of a minister;' man-iiiaii, 'desire;' manyu, 'courage;' mdna, 'pride;' mdnana, 

honouring;' mdnaioa, 'belonging to man,' &c.; mdnata, 'mental;' mdnita, 
'honoured;' mdmin^ 'proud;' mdmUha, 'human;' mimduid (from the Desid. 
stem), investigation;' mikndi^a^ 'to be investigated.' 

Similarly, after prefixing prepositions (such as aim, abhi, ava, ni, praH, m, sam, 
&c.) to the root, the meaning may be extended and a larg^ number of derivatives 
formed; e. g. from aniMnan, 'to assent:' — anm-^naia, 'agreed to;' anu-maiif 
'assent ;' atm-manana, 'assenting.' Krom ava-man, 'to despise:' — avm-mata, 'des- 
pised;' ava^mati, 'disrespect;' ava-mdna and aca'^ndnama, 'dishonour;' ava^ 
mdmm, * holding in contempt ;' aoamdni'td, ' disrespectfiilness.' 

77. It has been shewn at 74 that a stem (prdtipcuUka) ia an 
intermediate state between the root and nominative case — ^the crude 
form of the noun, which serves as a kind of stock out of which its 
eight cases, beginning with the nominative, are made, as it were, to 
grow. In a Greek or Latin dictionary we look for the noun und^r 
the nominative case ; but in Sanskrit we look for it under its stem. 
Thus, bodha, bodhana, tai, paiUan^ bhavat are the stems under 



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56 SANSKRIT ROOTS 

which the nominative oases bodhas, bodhanam, sas, paiUa^ bhavdn 
are to be sought 

The stem is, in truth, no mere useless grammatical invention. 
It is that form of the noun which, with occasional modifications^ is 
used in the formation of compound words, and in this respect may 
be regarded as the most general of cases. And sinqe eveiy Sanskrit 
sentence contains more compound words than simple, it may even 
be said, that the stem is the fgrm under which th^ noun most 
usually appeipr^. 

Similarly, Greek and Latin grammarians might have supposed a root Ary, from 
which was drawn out the nouns Acf if, X^T^iKog, XtKTOiy tiaraXoyi^y ekXoyo^, 
and the verbs Xey«, Karakeyoo, eXXoyiw : so also, a root scrib, from which was 
derived the nouns scriptio, scriptum, scr^tor, scripturaj and the verbs scribo, 
perscribo, ascribo : or a root nau, from which would come nauta, navis, nautieus, 
navalisy navigo, &c. And a stem Xeqi and Xe^iKO of Ae^i-f and Xe^iKO^^^ and 
navi of navies: which stem is, in fact, the form used in the formation of com- 
potmd words, as in Aef /#fo-ypa0o-f and nam-ger, 

78. It will now be perceived that the consideration ef Sanskrit 
nouns must divide itself into two heads ; ist^ the formation of the 
stem ; andly, the infle^pon or declension of the stem ; that i)a, the 
adaptation of the stem to a conunqn scheme of case-terminf^tions. 

a. In fact, the same system applies hoth to nouns and verhs. As in verbs 
(see 348) the formation of a verbal stem from a root precedes the subject of verbal 
inflexion or conjugation, so in nouns the method of forming the stem from the 
root precedes declension. 

i. Mcweover, nouns, substantive and adjective, are classified into 
separate declensions, according to the finals of their stems, not 
according to the finals of their nominative cases. In Greek and 
Latin grammars a similar system of classification is now adopted. 

c. The final syllable of nominal stems may end in almost any 
letter of the alphabet except ^ », «^ ^, and ^ y. 

Those stems that end in vowels may be conveniently separated 
under four classes, each class containing masc, fem., and neuter 
nouns; the ist ending in w a, ^ if, and \i ; the ojaA. in \i; the 
3rd in 7 u; and the 4th in l| ri. 

Those that end in consonants may also be arranged under four 
classes ; the ist, 2nd, and 3rd, ending in 1^ ^ and ^d^^n, and ;^ s^ 
respectively (compare 44)1 and the 4th comprising all other final 
consonants. 



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AND THE FORMATION OP NOMINAL STEMS. 57 

Primary and Secondary Derivatives. 
79. Nominal stems [prdtipadika), formed by means of suffixes 
(pratyaya)^ are of tiie ki&ds : i. Primary derivatives formed imme^ 
diately from a root, or firom. a modified form of it, by addition of 
a J!H/-8uffix (hence called E(idranta, ^ ending in a Krii-sutB.x/ the 
word Efii being an example of a primary derivative) ; under which 
head are included aome participles formed with aniya^ tavya, yt^ 
(which with elima are sometimes called Kfitya siiffixes); as also 
words formed with Unddi^ suffixes. 2. Secondary derivatives, 
formed from the sterna of primary derivatives by means of Taddhita 
suffixes, and therefore called secondary (for examples see 80^ A, B)» 

Observe — It is not intended that the student should commit the following lists 
of suffixes to memory, but he is recommended to note carefully the final letters of 
the stem under each of the eight classes. 

FORMATION OF THE STEMS OF NOUNS. 

80. First Class. — Stems ending in w a (m. n.); iniTT £ and 1 1 (f.) 

A. Pbimaby Dbrivativbs, formed from Roots by adding the following 

Kjrit suffixes — 

Observe — ^A list of adverbial suffixes will be found at 718-725, and the parti- 
cipial suffixes will be more fully explained 524-583. Feminine suffixes must be 
looked for under their corresponding masculine forms. In the examples which 
follow, the meaning of roots will not be given when they coincide with that of 
their derivatives. Thus when bkeda, * division/ is said to come from hhid^ it is 
implied that the root hhid means 'to divide.' In a few cases the meanings of 
roots are omitted when doubtful. From is written fir. ; Root, rt. 

I. W -a, forming, 1st, abstract nouns, generally masculine, after Vfiddhi of a 
medial radical a and Gui^ (with some exceptions) of a vowel capable of gunation ; 
a final palatal 6 or J being changed to its corresponding guttural k or g'\ (cf. 
ao. e, 24, 25)} e. g. hheda^ m. ' division,' fr. hhid: veda, m. ' knowledge,' fr. vid: 

* A list of suffixes 'beginning with the suffix un* (i.e. k, with the indicatory 
letter f ), so called from the words kdru, vdyu, &c. in the first Sdtra being formed 
witii this suffix. The sense of Ui;^di derivatives frequently does not agree with 
the meaning of the root, and even when it does, usually receives a special signifi- 
cation ; e. g. kdru, though it involves the general idea of doingy means especially 
'an artizan.' 

t Forms Hke pa^, vatja, &c, (from pa^, vpj), generally found at the end of a 
oompound, tetein the palatal ; e. g. kim^pada, ra$a-varja, &c» 

I 



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68 SANSKRIT BOOTS 

bhavOy bhdoa, m. 'existence,' fr. hhti; bhara, bhdra, m. *a load/ fir. bhji, to 
bear;' bodha, m. ^knowledge,' fir. budh; jay a, m, 'conquest/ fir. ^'i; pdka, m. 

cooking/ fr. pa6j yoga, m. 'joining* &c., y«^a, n, 'a yoke/ fr. yujj ydga, m. 'a 
sacrifice/ fr. yaj. 

Formings sndly, other nouns, substantive iind adjective, especially nouns of 
agency (fem. rf, sometimes /)* ©'g* plava, 'what swims/ fr. plu; sarpa, 'what 
creeps/ fr. srip; deva, 'a god/ fr. div, 'to shine/ dara (fem. ^), 'one who goes/ 
fr. 6ar; jana, *a man/ fr. jan, 'to produce/ ^ubha, 'beautiful/ fr. ^bhj kara, 

doing,' fr. kri; jaya, 'conquering/ fr. jij dama, 'subduing/ fr. dam. Cf. Gr. 
forms in = Sk. a; e.g. XvKo-i, Aoyo-f, ^opo-^^, 4>opO'iy fvyo'-v, 6/yy6-v, &c. t 
Lat, sonu-8, deu-^s, vivurs, &c. Words like kara, 6ara, jaya, plava often occur at 
the end of such compounds ; as, bhayan-kara or bhaya^kara (fem. f), 'fear-causing' 
(see 580); arinTdama, 'foe-taming/ (cf. /anro-Sa^of, veri-dicus, grandi-loquMi 
omni-vorus, &c,) When su, 'well,' and dus, * ill,' are prefixed to such words, they 
take a Passive sense, as in Greek (576. a)j e.g. su^kara (fem. generally f), 'easy 
to be done / dusk-^kara (fem. generally {), ' difficult to be done,' &c. Cf. cS-^opof, 

tig^OpO^y Jy^,.TOjXO^, &c. 

^ -d, frequently without change of the radical vowel, forming feminine substan- 
tives (Pd^. III. 3, 103-105); e.g. bhidd, 'splitting/ fr. bhid; kshudhd, 'hunger,' 
fr. kshudh; mudd, *joy,' fr. mud, *to rqoice/ spjihd, 'desire,' fr. spfih; lekhdi 
'writing,' fr. likh; jard, 'old age,' fr. jrC, 'to grow old:' often added to the 
desiderative stem (Pdn. iii. 3, 102) j e.g. pipdsd, 'thirst/ fr. Desid. of pd, *to 
drink :' sometimes to the intensive stem ; e. g. loluyd, * determination to cut,' fr. 
Intens. of M, *to cut.' Cf. Gr. forms iji a, 17; e.g. <pop^d, (pvy^-^^ tojDi-i}, 
OTTOvS-oy : Lat, tog-a, mol-a, 

%'^ forming a large class of feminine nouns, generaUy corresponding to mascu- 
lines in a (see 123); e. g. gopi, * a herdsman's wife' (see P&9. iv. i, 48); dev^, 'a 
goddess/ nad{, 'a river/ rfiA:^(nom. ^), 'a she-wolf/ sifh{, 'a lioness/ putr{, 
'a daughter/ Many of such feminines in d and { are not strictly formed with 
Kpt suffixes, being rather derived from masculines, or formed with Taddbita 
suffixes: some words like Indra, Hhe god Indra,' have a fem. form for the 
goddess ; e. g. Indrd^{, ' the wife of Indra.' 

II. W^ •^aka (having six technical names, lp(, ^, *g3^, ^, ^f^, ^5T)» 
forming adjectives (fem, akd or %kd) and nouns of agency (see 582. b), after 
Vfiddhi of a final vowel and generally of medial a, and Gu^a of any other vowel ; 
e. g. td^'dka, ' inflammatory,' fr. tap, ' to bum / kdr-aka, ' a doer,' fr. kjri; ndy-aka, 
*a leader,' fr. n{j nart-aka, 'a dancer/ fr. nfii; sddh^dka (fem. dkd or ikd), * eflfec- 
tive,' fr. sddh; khan-aka, 'a digger,' fr. khan. 

Observe — ^The feminine of the agents is usually formed with ikd; e, g. kdrikd, 
ndyikd, 

III. H?| -a-tra. See -ira. 

IV. WH 'a$M (having nine technical names, ^, 15'^, 5^> l'l> ^' 'S'^' 
^S^' ^^9 '^^^), forming, ist, a large class of chiefly neuter substantives after 



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AND THE FOBHATIOIf OF NOMINAL STBMS. 59 

Giii[^k of the root; e.g. nay-ana, n. 'the eje/ fr. n<, 'to guide;' ddna^ n. 'a gift/ 
fr. dd; Mthdna, n/ place/ fr. stkd, 'to stand;* darp-a^, 'a mirpor/ ft. dpp, 'to 
make proud ;^ 6ay*^atta, n. 'collection/ fr. <ft'; vad*ana, 'the mouth/ fr. ©act 'to 
•peak ;* ^af-ana, ' a couch/ fr. iT, ' to lie down.' 

Forming, andly, nouns of agency (see 583. c) and acyectives (fern, and or ani); 
as, nart'-ana, ' a dancer,^ fr, njitj Mh-ana, ' bright/ fr. hibh^ 

Observe —The feminine of the agents is in anC Cf. opyavo^v, Jp€7ravo-v, 
iicavo*^, viBavo^g^ &c, 

V. -mnin -^aniya, forming future passive participles (see 570) after Gu^a of a 
radical vowel liable to gunation ; e. g. 6ay*<m{ya, ' to be collected/ fr. 6i, ' to col- 
lect.^ According to Schleicher ^ardya is for ^^ana-^ya. 

VI. W*cf. See page 58. 

YII. Wm '4ka (fem. dki), forming a few adjectives and nouns of agency ; e. g. 
ja^'dka, ' chattering,' fr . jalp : bhiksh-dka, m., bhiksh^dk^, f . * a beggar/ fr. bkiksh. 

VIII. Wm '4na (^Tf^, ^''T'n^, ^Tf^, WTf^), forming, ist, present partici- 
ples Atm. (see 526; cf. -mdna, XXVII); e.g. lih-dnaj 'licking,' fr. Uh; hy-dna, 
* lying down,' fr. ii; Snv-dna, * collecting/ fr. S-nu, present stem of 6i. 

Forming, andly, perfect participles Atm. (gee 554. rf); e. g. bubhuj-dtui, one 
who has bent,' fr. bu-bhuj, perfect stem of bhuj, ' to bend ;' dadriS-dna, * one who 
has seen,* fr. da-dfU, perfect stem of dfU, 

IX. !^ 'i'ta, ^n«i -i-tavya. See -fa, -tavya, 

X. ^ 'ira, 1^ ^ila. See -ra, ^la. 

XI. \^{. See page 58. 

- XII. ^Wi 'uka (^pi5^, ^Hfi^/ 'T^^ ^^^ ^I^^'Oj forming a few adjectives 
after Gui^a or Vf iddhi of a radical vowel ; e. g. varsh^ukoy * rainy,' fr. Vfisk: kdm- 
mka, amorous,* fr. katn. 

XIII. ^ns "iika, forming adjectives and nouns of agency from intensive stems ; 
e.g. vdoad'^a, 'talkative/ fr. Intens. of tad, 'to speak/ ydyaj-iUca, 'constantly 
sacrificing,' fr. Intens. of yaj, 'to sacrifice.^ 

XIV. T^ '^nyOi forming a kind of future passive participle after either guna- 
tion or weakening of the root; e.g. rar-cnya, 'desirable,' fr. vji, to choose;' 
ui-enya, ' to be wished,' fr. va^, ' to wish.* 

XV. If^ -era, forming a few adjectives and substantives ; e. g. pat-era, ' flying,' 
'a bird,' fr. pat, 'to fly ;' muh-era, ' a fool,' fr. muh. 

XVI. "* 'ka, forming a few words ; e. g. ^ush-ka, ' dried up,' fr. ^h (see 548) ; 
dkd'ka, m. 'a receptacle,' fr. dhd, 'to hold.' Cf. Gr. O^'fcvj: Lat. lo-cu-g, 

'pait'CU'S, For the Taddhita suffix -ka, see LVI. 

XVII. Tf'ta, 'i-ta, forming past passive participles (see 530 &c.); sometimes 
without changre of the root ; sometimes with weakening of the root ; sometimes 
witti rejection of the final nasal of a root ; frequently with insertion of t (which 
takes the place of aya in Causals and verbs of the loth class) ; e. g. ^ru-ta, ' heard,' 

I 2 



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60 SANSKRIT BOOTS 

fr. iru; jhd'ta, * known/ ft.jhd: kj-i-ta, * done,' ft. kfi; sthi^ta, * stood/ tr. stkd; 
ga-ta^ *gone/ fr. gam: ta^ta, 'stretched/ fr. tan; pat-uta, 'fallen,' ft. pat: gph' 
^"ta, 'seized,' fr. grah (inserted i lengthened); ved-H-ta, 'made known,' fr. Cans, 
of vid. Cf. Gr. kKv^to-^^ «yiw-T^^, ^ra-^o^g : Lot. da'tu-s^ Mta^tu-^, (^)«<»- 
/«-#, 8cc, 

XVIII. 1W 'toffpa, 'i'tavya, forming fttture passite participles froln the stem 
of the first future (see 569); e.g. kar^tavya, 'to be done,* fr. kjri: dd-tavya, 'to 
be given,' fr. dd: sto-tavya, 'to be prmsed,' fr. stu: ^ejl-tavfa (for 6hed'(avya\ 
*to be cut,' fr. 6k%d: yok-tavya, 'to be joined/ fr^ yt^: pak-iavya,* to he cooked,' 
fr. pad: bhav^*tavya, 'to be become/ fr. bhU: hodkay^i-tavya, 'to be made 
known,' fr. Caus. of bM: grah-i^tatya, 'to be seized/ fr. ^a%. Cf. Gr* partici- 
pials in -r€0-^ (for r^F^o^\ as So-reVr, Se-reo-^. 

XIX. VI -/ya, forming future passire participles alter roots ending in short 
vowels (see 573); e.g. kfi-'tya, 'to be done,' fr. kjri: i-tya, 'to be gone,* fr. i: 
Mtu-tya, * to be praised,' ' laudable/ ft, stu: bUxi^tya^ ' to be borne,' fr« &Aft. These 
are occasionally used as substantives ; e. g. bhjrityd, f. ' maintenance.' 

XX. ?r 'tra i-ird), -a^tra^ -utra (for the adverbial suffix tta see 730), forming 
(after Gui;ia of a root capable of gimation) nouns denoting some instrument or 
organ, generally neuter > e. g. iro-tra, n. ' organ of hearing,' ' ear,* fr. hu: pd-troj 
n. ' a drinking-vessel,' fr. pd: va$-tra, n, ' a garment,' fr. vo^, * to wear;' 6kat-tra, 
n. * an umbrella,' fr. ^ad, ' to cover ;' gd'ira, n. * a limb,' fr. gd, * to go >' vak^ira, 
n. the mouth,* fr. vad, 'to speak ;^ ne-tra, n. 'an eye,* fr. n/, 'to lead/ 

A few are masculine and feminine; e.g. dansh-fra, m. or daf^h-^rd, f. 'instru- 
ment of biting,' 'a tooth,' fr. da-^S: man-tra, m. 'a holy teit,' 'prayer/ fr. mam, 
'to reflect;' yd-trd, 'provisions (for a journey),' fr^yd, *to go;' vara^-trd, f. in- 
strument of surrounding,' ' a strap,' fr. Vfi. 

Sometimes t is inserted between the root and suffix ; e. g. khan-i-tra^ n. 'a spade,' 
fr. khan, * to dig ;' dar-i-tra, n. * proceedings,' fr. dar, ' to go / and sometimes the 
present stem is used ; e. g. kfinta'tra^ n. ' a plough,' fr. kjit, 'to cleave ;' pata-tra, 
n. *a wing,' fr. pat, 'to fly;* vadha^tra, n. 'a weapon/ fr. vadky 'to kill.' Cf. 
similar Gr. forms in -rpo-v, -tf^o-», ho. ; e. g. viw^rpo^Vy apo^po-v^ /Soic-rpc-y, 
ffa-^po-Vf p^'Tpa^ (ppd-rpOj Kotixyj^pa : Lat. ras-tru-m, ros'tru-^, ara^tru-m, 
plec'tru-m, fulge-tra, &o. 

XXL iW -tva (for secondary suffix -tva see LXVIII), forming a kind of fstiire 
passive participle (probably an abbreviated form of "tvyaf -tavya) after Gupa of a 
radical vowel capable of gunation; e.g. kar-tva, 'to be done,* fr. kfi: je-tva, ' to 
be conquered,' fr. ji: vak-tva, *to be spoken,' fr. vad: snd-tva/^t for ablutions/ 
fr. snd, 

*tvd, forming indeclinable past participles (see 555), appears to be a kind of 
instrumental case of a suffix tva (see 555. a), and is either added to the root or to 
the same weakened form of the root as the -ta of the past passive participle (see 
XVII); e.g. kfi'twi, 'having done,' fr. kfi: stki-tvd, 'having stood,' fr. sthd: 
uk-tvd, 'having spoken^* fr. vad, 'to speak:* sometimes an t is inserted; e.g. 



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AND THE FORMATION OP NOMINAL STEMS. 61 

M-Utvdt 'having known,' fr. vidj Ukh-^uttd at lekk'i-tedy 'having written/ fr, 
Ukh; 6oray%-tvd/ hsmn^ stolen/ fr. dtir, 'to steal.' 

-tD^ a Vedic form of -Uod (e.g. kri-tvi, 'having done^^ appears to be for tvyd 
(which is thought to be for tvayd), 

XXlt. l^^fvya, a Vedic abbreviated form of -tavya (see XVIII); e.g. kfi-tvya, 
'able to perform/ ' effectual/ fr. kri. 

XXIlt. ^ '^tha or -a-iha, forming some nouns of either gender; e. g. yu-tha, n. 
a herd/ flock/ &c., fr. yu, *to imite;' ui*tka, n. praise/ fr. u6, a form of vad, 
io speak;' i^r-ika, m.n. 'a sacred bathing-pkce/ fr. 6^ 'to cross over;' ni-tha, 

m. n. 'guiding/ fr. ni; gam-a-iha, m. ' a traveller/ fr. gam, 'to go;' abo ud-atha, 

rav-atka, ^p^tha, hoi^atha, 

XXIV. n -^a, forming (in place of -fa, q. v.) many past passive participles (see 
530-540); e*g- hhin-na^ 'broken/ fr. hhid; bhag-na, 'broken/ fr. bhai^; an-na^ 

eaten,' fr« ad 2 stir-^a^ * spread,' fr. stfi. 

Forming also a lew nouns, generally masculine ; as, yaj-ha (57. 0), m. sacrifice,' 
ft^yoj: yat-na, m. 'effort,' fr. yat; svap-nas m. 'sleep,' fr. soap: ush-ii^, m.n. 
'heat/ fr. ush, 'to bum/ 

Forming also a few feminine nouns in "ud; e.g. ush*i^, 'heat;' trish-^ 
'thirst,' fr. trishj yd6-nd (57. c), ^ a request/ fr. yd6, Cf. Or. Sw'-vo-f, cruy-vo-^^ 
8ei-yo-f , o"Tcp-»o-y : Lat. som-nu-s, mag^U'S, ple^nu-s, reg^nu-m. 

XXV. if -ma (in^> i1«(), forming adjectives and a few masculine and neuter 
Buhstantives, generally ^thout change of the radical vowel ; e. g. bhi-ma^ ' terrible,' 
fr. hkCi 'to fear;' tig-ma, 'sharp,' fr. tij (cf. 80. 1); idh-ma, m. 'fuel,' fr. indh^ 
'to bum ;' ghar-ma, m. ' heat,' fr. ghfi (after Gui^); dkd^ma, m. ' smoke,' fr. dhdj 
W-mo, n. *a pair/ fr. yuj, 'to join.' Cf. Gr. Bep-fMO^^, Ov'fJLO-^, ay-€-jxo-(: 
Lat. fu'jnU'M, an-umu-i, 

XXVL VR «fiiara (wr^)> forming a few adjectives and Substantives; e.g. 
ghas-mara, 'voracious,' fr. ghas^ 'to deVour;' ad^mara^ 'gluttonous,' fr. ad^ 
'to eat' 

XXVII. IVPT -mdna (liable to become mdf^\ added to the stem of the present 
tense of the first, fourth, sixth, and tenth classes of verbs Primitive, and of verbs 
Causal and Passive (see 526^528) to form present participles Atm^, and to the 

I stem of the second future tense to form future participles Atm. (see 578); e.g. 
hhira^md^af 'bearing/ fr< bhfi: kiiya-md^, 'being made,' fr. Pass, of kri: 
hodkaya-mdnoy 'informing,' fr. Caus. of budh: ddeya-mdna, 'about to give,' fr. 
the item of the second future of dd. In the Veda mdna is also added (instead of 
^) to the stem of the perfect, to form perfect participles Atm. ; e. g. sasfi-mdi^ 
(for 9a9rdi^\ fr. sp, 'to go;' ^a-mdna, fr. yqj, 'to sacrifice;' cf. suffix -dna, Cf. 
Gr. <f>€po^fMVO*'iy J/8o-jX€VO-i", ^ooao^fxevo-g I Lat. alu^mnu-s (for alo-meno-s)^ 
Vertu-mnU'S (for verto-meno-s), 

XXVIII. ^ rya (^1^ W^9 VMf ^p 1^)> forming future passive participles 
(sM 57i'-576), adjectives, and substantives, generally after Guiia or V^iddhi, and 



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1 



62 SANSKRIT ROOTS 

sometimes other changes of the root (see 571); e.g. de-yCt * to be gathered/ fir. ^j 
stav-ya or stdv-ya, 'to be praised/ fr. stu; yog-ya and ycj^ya, 'to be joined^' fir. 
yni; guh'-ya and gok-ya, 'to be concealed/ fir. guh. 

Forming also many neuter abstract substantiyes ; e.g. vdh-ya^ n. 'speech/ 
fir. va6s bkog-ya, n. 'wealth/ *com/ bkoj-ya, n, 'food/ both fir. bhi^, 'to 
enjoy.' 

Forming also feminine substantives in ydj e. g. vid-yd, f. ' knowledge,' fir. vid; 
vraj-yd, f. ' wandering about/ fir. vraj; iay-yd, f. 'a couch' (for h-yd), fir. ^, 'to 
lie down / cf. jd-yd (i. e. jan-yd), ' a wife / ihd-yd (i. e. 6had^d), ' shade / md-yd 
(i. e. man-yd\ ' illusion.' Cf. Gr. ay-io-i {:cydj^ya-B), CTvy'^to^s i Lat. gen^iu-i, 
in'gen'iu-nn, con-jug'Hu^m, 

For the indeclinable participial sufi&x ya ('^P^) see 555. 

XXIX. T -ra {w^f f|, T, T?^, 15^), -a^a, -i-ra (fiit!^), -^-ra, forming ad- 
jectives, nouns of agency, &c.; e.g. dip-ra^ 'shining,' fir. dip; kship-ra, 'swift,' 
fir. kship, * to throw / ffond-ra, ' worshipping/ fr. vandj 6kid*ra, pierced,' * a hole' 
(neut.), ft, 6hid, 'to cut/ aj-ra, m. *a plain,' aj-i-ra, 'active,' 'an area' (neut.), 
fir. ajj paUa-ra, ' flying/ fir. pat: also with r or « inserted ; e. g. dhid^i-ra, m. * an 
axe/ dhid-u-ra, 'cutting,' fir. 6hidf ' to cut / rudh-^-ra, ' red / bhtd-u^a^ ' splitting,' 
'fragile,' 'a thunderbolt' (neut.); bhds-ura, 'shining' (^zbhds-vara), fr. bhds. 
Cf. Gr. XafMT-pO'ff IpvO^po^^ iy-pO'S, <f>atH€'pog : Lat. rubber (stem m-Jro), 
Tubra^ ag-er, gna-ru-s, pu-ru-^s. 

XXX. 79 'la {jHf c^l), -a-la, -H-la, -u-'la, forming a4jectives, &c. »= -ra, &c. 
above; e.g. hk-la (= Acit-ra), 'white/ fr. A^, 'to shine ;^ iar-a-la^ 'tremulous/ 
fir. tjr{; an^-la, 'wind/ fr. an, 'to blow;' Aar«A-u-to, 'delighted/ fr. hfish, Cf. 
Gr. jxey-oAo-i-, Jci-X^f, rpoy^^OLXo-^y ^SJ-Ao-v: Lat. se^te (for sed^a), trem- 

ulU'S, &c. 

XXXI. ^ -va (9^*1^9 ^f ^)^ forming participles, adjectives, and substantives; 
«. g. pak'Vay 'cooked,' fr. pa6 (regarded as m past passive participle, see 548); 
a^'Va, ' a horse,' fr. an assumed rt a/, ' to be quick ;' e-va, ' going/ fr. ij pad^a, 
'a road/ fr. /wwf, 'to go/ Cf. Gr. iw-»o*f (for iV*fo-f): Lat. eg-^u-s, ard-uu-s 
(= i^r(fA<7a), ar-wi-f», c^vu^m, 

XXXn. ^ '^ara (iTC^f ^'^^ ^'^^ ^^•)» fonning adjectives, nouns of 
Agency, &c. (fem. generally /); nai-^ara (fem. f), ' perishing,' fr^ no/, ' to perish ;' 
di'Vara^ 'a ruler,' fr. <i; wthd-vara, 'stationary,' fr. sthd, 'to stand.' After roots 
sending in short vowels or a nasal, / is sometimes inserted i as, i-t'^ara, ' going ' 
.(fem. {), fr. 1/ ji-'t-vara, 'conquering/ fr.ji; ga-t^ara, 'going,' fr. gam. 

XXXIII. H -sna (^ra), forming a few adjectives; e. g. tik^shinka, ' sharp,' fr. tij; 
ilahshi^, ' smooth' (said to be fr. iliah), 

XXXIV. Other imcommon suffixes (mostly Uiptddi, see 79. note) forming primaij 
derivatives of this class are, "Onga, e.g. iar-anga (according to some rather 
taran-ga), pat-anga; ^a^, e.g. kar-ai^, tar-ai^; -ata, e.g. dar^-ata, pa^-atOy 
yaj-aia ; -anta, e. g. jay-anta, tar'ante, vas-arUa ; ^anya^ e. g. tw-enya, nabh-anya^ 
parj-anya; -apa, e.g. ul-apa, uth-apa, mai^'apaj -abha, e.g. fuh-abha, gard-abhay 



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AND THE FORMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS. 63 

vptk'Obka, iar-dbha; -ama, e.g. kaUama^ rui-ama, sar-amd: -amba, e.g. kar- 
amba; -aia, e.g. dam-asa, div-asa, man-asa, va^-asa; "tisdna, 'being,' pres. part, 
of 09, 'to bcy' e.g. mand^asdna^ vridh'-asdna; -dnaka, e.g. dhav^di^aka, lav^^aka: 
nhuika, e.g. bhay'^naka, day -dnaka j 'dyya, e.g. pan-dyya, panay^yya, mah^dyyas 
-dra, e. g. ang^-dra, tush-draj -dla, e.g. kap-dla, kar-dla, 6ash'dlaj -ika, e.g. kfish' 
ika, vfid'd'ika; -isha (Le. -isa), e.g. dm-isha, tav-isha, avyath-ishaj ^ika^ e.g. 
QM'(ka^ dfii-ika, 6ar6aT'{ka: -i]fa, e. g. kfip-^a: {ra, e. g. gabh-ira^ iar^ira, hinth- 
(ra; '(ska, e.g. fij-Ma, pur^isha, man-^hd; -utra^ e.g. tar-^ra, var-uiraj -una, 
e. g. or-ufui, arf'tma, yam'^nd, var^ufuij -ushat e. g. nah^ushaj pur^usha, man^ushaj 
'■dkha, e.g. may-dkha; -uthay e.g. jar^dtha, var-uthaj -dra^ e,g, fnay-dra; -iUa, 
e.g. Idng-ula: -eUma, e. g. pad-elmay bhid-eUma (576. 5); -^ra, e.g. kafk-ora, sah- 
ora; 'kara, e.g. push-kara^ tas-kara^ -trima, e>g. kfi-trima, pak'trima (Pdi?. iii* 
3, 88); -thaka, e.g. gd-thaka (perhaps for gdtha-ka); -sa, e.g. drap-sa, vfik-sha, 
ghroB'Sa. 

B. Secondary Dbjuvativeb» formed fh>m the Nominal Stems of 
primary derivatives* 

PreUminary Observations. 

a. The final Yowels <^ the nominal stems of primary derivatives ave liable to 
certain changes before Taddhita suffixes beginning with vowels or y: thus 
(i) a, dy ij ( are rejected; e. g. iu6iy ' pure;' iau6a, ' purity;' (2) ti, t^ are gunated 
into 0, which then becomes av; e. g. fr. Manu comes Mdnav-a, * a descendant of 
Mtnu :' (3) o and on become av and <fp according to the general rules of Sandhi; 
e. g. from go, * a cow,' comes gavya, ' relating to cows ;' from nau, * a ship,' comes 
ndmka and whya^ belonging to a ship.' 

b. A final » is generally rejected before Taddhita suffixes beginning with con- 
sonants; and both n and its preceding vowel are sometimes rejected before vowels 
uid y; e.g. yuvan, 'young/ ymoa-td or yttva^tva, 'youth/ dtman, 'self,' dtmya 
and atnUyeiy ' own/ ' personaL' There are, however, many exceptions to the latter 
part of this rule; e. g. yauvana^ 'youth/ ft. yuvan j rdjanya, 'regal,' fr. rdjanj 
dimanina ft, dtman, 

c. It will be found that Taddhita or secondary suffixes often require Vfiddhi of 
the first syllable of the words to which they are added, as in matUa, 'radical,' fr. 
mdla, ' a root / dauda, * purity/ fr. dudi, ^ pure.' Similarly, in the case of deriva- 
tives formed from compound words; e. g. sauhfida, 'friendship,' fr. su-hfid, 'a 
friend:' sometimes a double Vjiddhi takes place, as in sauhdrda^ 'friendship,' fr. 
stk-kfid: saubhdgya, ^ good fortune,' fr. su^bhaga, fortunate.' 

d. When the initial consonant of a word is compounded with y or f followed 
hjaordjM VYdghra, * a tiger,' svflrfl, * sound,' the y and r are generally resolved 
into kf and im?, thus yndgkra and suvara, and then vriddhied, e. g. vaiydghray 
'relating to a tiger,* sauvara, ' relating to sound ;' so also sva, ' self,' makes sauvay 
'relating to self;' dva%y 'a dog,' dauvana, 'canine.' Similarly) svasti makes 
tamasHka; nydya, naiydyika: sv-aha, sauoaiviy &c. 



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64 SANSKRIT BOOTS 

XXXV. ysf -a (fern. {), after Vriddhi of the first syllable, forming abstract 
nouns, collectives, patronymics, and adjectives expressing sonoe relationship to 
the primitive noun ; e. g. hu^a, n. ' purity,' fir. ^iu^, ' pure ;' fotiAfuia, n. or sou* 
hdrda, n. 'friendship,' fr. su-hfid (se« Preliminary Obs. 0); paurusha, n. ' manliness,' 
fr. purusha, * a man ;' Saiiava, n. * childhood,' fr. £4Uf ' a child s' kshaitra^ n. ' a col- 
lection of fields,' fr; kshetra, *a field;' Vdsishfhay 'a descendant of Vasishtha;' 
Mdnava, ' a descendant of Manu,' fr. Manuj FoifAnava, ' a worshipper of Vishiju,' 
fr. Vishfiu; paurusha, * manly,' fr. purusha, 'a man;' scUkaia, 'sandy,' fr. tikatdj 
ddrava, 'wooden,' fr. ddru, ' wood' (see Preliminary Obs. a); vaiydkarai^, * gram- 
matical,' fr. vydkarai^, 'grammar' (see Preliminary Obs. d). 

XXXVI. W^ 'Oka (g^, ^, ^, ^^, ^), generally after Vriddhi of the 
first syllable, forming adjectives (fem. generally f) and substantives (cf. -ika, -ka); 
e.g. aumaka, * flaxen,' fr. tuiti, 'flax;' Angaka^ 'coming from An*ga;' auskfraka, 

coming from camels,' 'a quantity of camels' (neut.), fr. ushfra, 'a camel;* 
vdtsakoj n. ' a number of calves,' fr. vatsa, * a calf.' The fem. of this suffix is 
sometimes ikd, which, however, may be regarded as the fem. of ika, 

XXXVII. WT7 "dfOy as vd^dfa, 'talkative,' fr. vd6, 'speech;' similarly, ^ngdfa 
fr. ifinga. 

XXXVIII. Il1«fl 'dn£, forming feminines from masculine nouns like Indra, 
see Indrdi^i under •/, page 58. (Observe — Agui, ' fire,' has a fem, form Agndyi^ 'the 
goddess of fire.') 

XXXIX. HWI -dyaua {^t ^ni*^» ^I'f, ^if » ^*^)> forming patronymics, &c., 
after Vfiddhi of the first syllable ; e. g. Ndrdyai^, ' a name of Vishnu,' fr. nara. 

XL. Wlt9 'dlay as vd^la, 'talkative,' fr. vdd, 'speech.' 

XLI. |[9 'ika (fem. tK), forming adjectives and a few collective nouns after 
Vriddhi of the first syllable; e.g. dhdrmika, 'religious,' fr. dharmoy 'religion;' 
rot'tMim^a, ' a flute-player,' fr. vefiu; Vaidika, ' Vedic,' fr. Veda; (fAniiba, ' daily,' fr. 
ahan, 'a day;' naiydyika^ ^knowing the Nydya philosophy,' fr. nydyaj dauodrika, 
*a porter,' fr. dvdra; kaiddrika, n. *a quantity of meadows,' fr. keddra. Cf. Gr. 
voXefA-iKO'^^ l3a<rtX'tK0^ : Lat. beU-iou-s, naut-icu-s, &c. 

XLII. ^ -t/a, as phaUta, ' having fruit,' fr. phala (the past passive part, of 
phal being phuUa, 547. b) ; ratkita, 'furnished with a chariot,' fr. ratha. Observe — 
This may be regarded a^ a past passive participle suffix added to the stems of 
nominal verbs, cf. -tfui below. 

XLIII. ^ rina (^«f^), as phaUna, ^fruitful,' fr. phala; maUna, 'dirty,' fr. 
mala; dfingt^, 'homed,' fr^ ifinga; rathina, 'having a carriage,' fr. ratha. 

XLIV. ^^ -ineya, forming a few patropymics after Vriddhi of the first syl- 
lable; e.g, Maubhdgineya, 'the son of an honoured mother,' fr. st^bhagd. 

XLV. ^ 'iya (fem. (f), as agriya, 'foremost,' 'the best part' (neut.), fr. 
qgra. 

XLVI. |[T '^ira (fem. d), as medhinif 'intelligent,' fr. medhd, ' intelligenoe ;' 
rathira, * going in a carriage,' fr. ratha (cf. -ra, LXXVIII). 



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AND THB FORMATION OP NOMINAL STEMS. 65 

XLVII. fW -tte (fem. rf), as phenila, 'foamy,' fir. phena, * foam' (cf. -la, LXXX). 

XLVIII. J[9 -ishfha (fem. d), fonning superlatives, as alpi$hlha, 'least/ fr. 
dlpa^ 'little,' which also uses kanWktha tr. rt. Iran (see 193-194). Observe — 
FerfaapB this suffix is in most cases rather primary than secondary, being generally 
added to the root or modified root, as uru, 'wide,' forms varishfha ft, vfi (see 
-^M, 86. V). Cf. Gr. jxey-iO-TO-f , ^J-iO-To-f : Lat. juxta for jug-{i)sta, lit. 'most 
joined.' 

XLIX. ^ -^ (ir, WT), forming adjectives and substantives, as grdmit^y 
'rustic,' fir. grdma, ' a village/ kul^na, 'of good family,' fr. kulaj naoina, * new,' 
fir. nova; adhvaniM, ' a traveller,' fir. adhvan, ' a road ;' anvpadind, f. ' a boot,' fir. 
anupada: dMna, ' being a day's journey for a horse,' fir. aha. 

L. ^ -/ya, forming adjectives, sometimes after Vpddhi of the first syllable of 
the stem ; e. g. stdsriya, ' a sister's son,' fr. svasji, ' a sister ;' hhrdtriya^ ' firater- 
nal,' fr. bhrdtji; pdroaUya or parvaUya, 'mountainous,' fr. parvata; aMya, 
'relating to horses,' 'a number of horses' (neut.), fr. a£va; parakiya (fem. d), 
* belonging to another,' fr. para (in this the final of the stem apparently remains 
and k is inserted); saukkiya, ' pleasurable,' fr. sukka. 

Forming also possessive pronouns, as mad{ya, ttmdiya, &c. (see 331). 

LI. ^ -^ra^ -Ha, only lengthened forms of tra, Ua, qq.w. 

LIL ^ 'Ura, as dantura, 'having long teeth,' fr. danta, 

LIIL TH -«/a, as mdtula, ' a maternal unde,' fr. mdtfi. 

LIV. ^St9 "ula, as dantiHa, 'having teeth,' fr. danta j vdiiila, 'rheumatic,' 'a 
whirlwind ' (masc.), fr. vdta. 

LV. ^ -eya (fem. f), forming adjectives and substantives after Vfiddhi of the 
first syllable; e.g. pauruskeya, 'manly,' fr. puruska; dgneya, 'fiery,' fr. agni: 
ddseya, ' bom of a slave-girl,' fr. dds{j makeya, ' earthen,' fr. maM; jAdteya, n. 
'relationship,' fr, jndti, Cf. Gr. XeoVrc/o-f, Aerfvrco-i": Lat. igneu-s, &c. 

LVI. ^ 'ka, forming adjectives, collective nouns, and nouns expressing diminu- 
tion or depredation ; e. g. Sindhuka, ' belonging to Sindh,' fr. Sindku; madkuka, 
'sweet,' fr. madku; rdjaka, n. 'a number of kings' or a petty king' (m.), fr. 
rdjanj aivaka, 'a hack,' fr. aha, 'a horse.' Sometimes almost redundant, as 
madkyamaka (fem. ikd), ' middlemost,' fr. madkyama: hkiru-ka, 'timid,' fr. bkiru: 
putraka, 'a son ;' bdlaka (fem. ikd), ' young.' For the Kpt suffix -ka, see 80. XVL 

Observe — Some of these may equally be regarded as formed with the suffix 
-oka, q.v. Cf. also -ika, 

LVII. liOf ka^a (^V^ff^), regarded by native grammarians as a secondary 
Suffix (see Pa^. v. 3, 67. 68, &c.), denoting ' similitude with inferiority,^ or in the 
tense of ' nearly,' ' about ;* as, kavi-kalpa, ' a sort of poet ;' mjrita-kalpa, nearly 
dead ;' paMi-kalpam, ' he cooks fairly well.' See Diet, kalpa, 

LVin. inf 'tana (fem. f), forming adjectives from adverbs of time ; e. g. haS' 
tana, * future,' fr. has, ' to-morrow ;' kyas-tana, * of yesterday,' fr. kyasj prdtas' 
tana, 'belonging to the early morning,' 'early morning' (neut.), fr. prdtar, 'at 

K 



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66 SANSKRIT BOOTS 

4&y-break ;' prdk-tana, * former,' fr. prdk, * previously ;' other examplef are prdhne- 
tana, pratana, nutana, 6irantana, Cf. Gr. ev-ijc-Tavo-^ : Lat. craS'titm-s, dJu-Ztnu-s. 

LIX. HT 'tama (inn(J, {-tamdm)^ formmg, I8t, the sii^rlaldve degree, &c. (see 
191, 195-197); e. f;, pui^ya-tamoj 'most holy* (see 191); u^ais-tama, * very lofty,' 
fr. u66a%$. Sometimes added to pronominal stems (see 236). Cf. -tora, -ma : Lat. 
op'timu'8, uUtimu-s, &c. 

Forming, 2ndly, ordinals (iHI^) ; e. g. vindati-tama (fem, /), ' twentieth,' fr» 
vinsatit 'twenty' (see 21 1-2 13). 

Tamdm, derived from the first, is added adverbially ; e. g. u^Msrtamdm, ' ex- 
ceedingly high ;' vadati'tamdm, ' he talks incessantly.' 

LX. jm 'taya, forming adjectives (fem. {) and neuter substantives from nume- 
rals ; e. g. tri'taya, * consisting of three,' ' a collection of three ' (neut.); ^atush- 
fay a, * four-fold,' 'a collection of four,' &c. (neut.), fr. Mur, *four' (see 214). 

LXI. llX^-tara {JfUOs forming the comparative degree (see 191, 195-197, 236); 
e. g. puffya-tara, ' more holy ;' uddais-iara, * higher,' fr. u66ai8, ' aloft.' Sometimes 
added to pronominal stems (see 236). Cf. -tama: Gr. yXvKv^rtpO'g, jCxeAay- 
r€po'$. 

Tardm, derived from -tara, is added adverbially ; e. g. uddais-tardmy ' in a higher 
degree' (cf. baku'tardm); vadati'tardm, 'he speaks more (than he ought).' 

LXII. in 'td {z^'tva below), forming feminine abstract substanljjves from 
stems of nouns or adjectives; e. g. bahu-td, 'multitude,' fr. bahu, 'many;' 
pfithu'td, 'breadth,' fr. prithu, 'broad;' yuva-td, ' youthf ulness,' 'youth,' fr. 
ywan, 'young;' purmka-td^ 'manliness,' fr. purusha^ 'a man;' deva-td^ *a 
divinity.' Cf. Lat. juoen'ta, senec-ta, vindic-ta, 

LXIIL fifl -titka (fem. /), forming ordinal adjectives, &c.; e.g. bahu-titha, 
' manifold,' fr. bahu; tdvatitha, ' the so-manieth,' fr. tdvat. 

LXIV. ifhl 't{ya (fem. d), forming ordinals ; e. g. dvi-Hya, ' second ;* tfi-Hya, 
* third' (isee 208). 

LXV. 3f 'tna, forming adjectives ; e.g. dira-tna, 'old,' 'ancient,' fr. diret, *long ;' 
other examples are ndtnay pratna. Cf. -tana above. 

LXVL W 'tya {Wl^y "W^)* forming a few adjectives; e.g. taira-tya, 'being 
there,' fr. tatra; tha-tya, 'being here,' fr. iha. Sometimes with Vfiddhi of first 
syllable ; e. g. pdiddUtya, ' subsequent,' fr. pa46dt, 'behind.' Similarly, ddkshind' 
tya fr. dakshind; pauras-tya fr. puras. 

LXVn. IgfT -trd, forming a few feminine collective nouns ; e. g. go-trd, ' a herd 
of cattle,' fr. go. For the adverbial sufllxes -tra, -trd, see 720. 
. LXVIIL Jm 'tva (=: 'td above, q. v.), forming neuter abstract nouns ; e. g. 
bahu'tva, ynva-tva, pjithu-tva, deva-tva, &o. 

LXIX. 7T«T 'tvana {=z-tva), Vedjc, forming neuter abstract nouns; e.g. oioAi- 
tvana, 'greatness,' fr. mahi or makin, 'great' (Vedic); sakhi-tvana, 'friendship,' 
fr. sqkhi, 'a friend;' vasu-tvana, 'wealth,' fr. vasu, 'rich.' 

LXX. ?^ daghna (^^^^), regarded (like dvayasa and mdtra) as a secondary 



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AND THE FORMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS. 67 

suffix (Pin. v. a, 37), denoting * height,* * measure/ &c. ; e. g, 4rU'daghna (fern. 0» 
'ntehing to the thighs.' 

LXXI. \^H deiiya (^^fl^^), regarded (like kalpa, q. v.) as a secondary suffix 
(Pin. V. 3, 67), denoting *ahout,' *neariy;* e.g. pafu-deiiya, 'tolerably dever.* 

LXXII. V^9 dvayasa (WW^, denoting 'height,' 'measure/ &c. (see daghna 
above); e. g. 4ru'dvayasa (fern. {), 'reaching to the thighs.' 

LXXIII. «| -na (Wy ^T^)) forming adjectives and substantives, Sometimes after 
Vfiddhi of the first syllable ; e. g. purd-na (fem. d or 0> * old/ fr. purd, ' formerly / 
pra-ifaf 'old,* fr. praj p<mn»na (fem. {), 'virile/ 'manhood' (neut.), fr. puQS, 
'a Dian/ straiifa (fem. /)> 'womanly/ 'womanhood' (oeut.)) fr. sM. 

LXXIV. ^ "fna (probably an old superlative suffix, cf. -tama, ^ra), forming 
ordinals uid other adjectives; e.g. panda-ma^ 'fifth;' aapta^ma^ 'seventh' (see 
309); madhya-maj 'middlemost^' fr. ntadkya^ 'middle;' aoa-mat 'undermost,' fr. 
flpa, 'away;' para-mat 'furthest/ fr. para, 'beyond.' Cf. Gr. cjSJo-jtw-f : Lat. 
«pfMii«-#, pri-mU'S, infi'mu-s, sum-mu^, &c. 

LXXV. ^^ -may a ('Hl^), forming adjectives (fem. /) denoting ' made of/ *con- 
ustmg of;' e. g. loha-maya, 'made of metal,' 'iron,' fr. loha, 'metal;' tejo-maya, 
*fall of light,' fr. tejas, 'lustre;' buddhUmaya, 'intellectual.' 

LXXVI. ifW fndtra ('H?!^), added to words to denote * measure,' ' height,' 
&c. (cf. daghna, dvayasa); e. g. yava^mdtra (fem. /)» * of the size of a barleycorn ;' 
^nt-rndtra, ' up to the thighs.' See mdtra in Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 

LXXVIL H -ya (^> ^, «;f , ^, ^, W, S^l^, ZipiT, Wf, ^, ^J1^, Wl^^, 
^> ^^ •*!)> forming adjectives, patronymics, and neuter abstract substantives, 
generally after changes similar to those required by secondary suffixes beginning 
with vowels (see Prelim. Obs. a. b. at 80. B); e. g. dhanya, 'wealthy/ fr. dhana, 
wealth ;• rahagya (fem. d), * secret,' 'a Becret* (neut.), fr. rahas, ' secrecy ;' pitrya, 
'fetherly,' fr. jn/p; ritavya, ' seasonable/ fr. fitu: frequently after Vriddhi of the 
fint syllable, e. g. saumya (fem. d or mi(\ 'lunar,' fr. soma, 'the moon;' rnddhur* 
fa, n. 'sweetness,' fr. madhura, 'sweet;' daur-ya, n. 'theft/ fr. 6ora, 'a thief;' 
snkM'ya, n. ' Mendship,' fr. su-hfid, ' a friend ;' saubhdg-ya, n. ' good fortune/ 
fr. M-5Aa^a (see Prelim. Obs. c); svdm-ya, 'lordship,' fr. svdmin; vaiydghrya, n. 
the state of a tiger,' fr. vydghra. Sometimes the nasal and preceding vowel are not 
iqected; e.g. brahmaiy^a (fem. d)^ 'relating to Brahman;' rdjan-ya, 'regal,' fr. 
rdjan (see Prelim. Obs. 6. d). Cf. Gr. varp-io^^, worp-Za, (TooT^p-io^^ a«Tiy/?-/a : 
hbLpatr-iu^f patr-ia, nrfarAm-s^ &c. (cf. the primary suffix -ya, 80. XXVIII). 

LXXVIII. T *^a (probably an old comparative suffix, c^. -tara, -ma), forming a 
fewadjeottvee (fem. d); e.g. madhu-ra, 'sweet/ fr. madhuj aima-ra, 'stony,' fr. 
oimm; aoa-rat 'inferior/ fr. ava, 'down;' apa-ra, 'posterior/ fr. apa, 'away.' 
Cf. Lad. sup^'eru-Si siip*er: inf-em-s, mf-er. 

LXXIX. ^^ riipa (^^), regarded as a secondary suffix giving the sense 
'composed of/ 'consisting of,' 'fiiU of,' &c., and sometimes almost redundant; 
e. g. satya-nHpajfi vdkyam, ' a speech fuD of truth,' or simply ' a true speech ;' drya- 

K 2 



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68 SAKSEBIT KOOTS 

rupa, 'respectable.' Sometimes giving the sense 'good,' 'well^' and even used 
with verbs adverbially; e.g. palu-rupa, 'very clever;' vaiydkarai^-rupa, *a good 
grammarian ;' pa^atp-r^pam, ' he cooks well ' (P^Q. v. 3, 66). 

LXXX. €9 -la (fem. d), forming a few adjectives (cf. -i-la); e. g. M'la, * fortu- 
nate/ fir. Mj pdniu'la, * dusty,' ft,pandu; phena-la, 'foamy,' fr. phena. 

LXXXI. ^ -va (probably for -vat, 84. VII), as keia-va, ' hairy,' fir. ke^a. 

LXXXII. ^<9 -vala (^cl^, jw"^), forming a few adjectives (fem. d) and sub- 
stantives; e.g. urjas'vala, 'strong,' fir. urjas; Okhd-vala^ 'crested,' 'a peacock' 
(masc), fr. iikhdy ' a crest ;' dantd-vala, m. * an elephant,' fr. danta, * a tooth.' 

LXXXIIL ^ 'Vya ('TO, ^I'^), as pitri-vya^ 'a paternal uncle,' fr. pUfit *a 
father.' Cf. Gr. varf^mo-q : Lat. patr-uus, 

LXXXIV. 9 -/a, forming a few adjectives (fem. d) and substantives; e.g. 
loma-ia^ 'hairy,' 'a sheep' (masc), ' a fox' ((f, fem.), fr. loman, 'hair.' 

LXXXV. 9 -sa, forming a few adjectives, sometimes with Vfiddhi; e. g. /p?^' 
«a, 'grassy,' fr. trii^j trdpusha, ' made of tin,* fr. /ropti, 'tin.' 

81. Second Class. — Stems ending m ^ i (m. f. n.) 

A. Primary Derivatiybs, formed from Roots by adding the following 

Kfit sufi^es — 

I. ^ -f, forming abstract nouns, nouns of agency of aJil genders, and adjectives 
(with occasional Gu^a or Vfiddhi of the radical vowel); e. g. ham, m. 'a poet,' fr. 
kus ahi, m. 'a snake' (c%/^, angvis), fr. aih: dhvani, m. 'sound,' fr. dkoanj 
yaj'i, m. ' a worshipper,' fr. yaj: pesh-i, m. 'a thunderbolt,' fr. pish, 'to crush ;' 
tvisk'i, f. ' splendour,' fr. tvish, * to shine ;' sad-i, f. * friendship,' fr. $a6j kfish-i, t 
'ploughing,' fr. kfish; lip-i, f. 'a writing,' fr. Up, 'to smear;' ^hid-i, f. 'an axe,'* 
fr. ^idf 'to cut;' vdr-i, n. 'water,' fr. vfi, 'to surround;' aksh-i, n. 'an eye,'' 
fr. aksh; iu6-i, 'pure,' fr. iu6, 'to be pure;' bodh-i, 'knowing,' fr. budk. 
Sometimes with reduplication ; e. g. jagm-i, * quick,' fr. gam, * to go;' jaghn-i, 
'slaying,' fr. han, Cf. Gr. »oA/-^, St;ya/x/-$'y crraai'^^ oipi-^^ &c.: Lat. ovi-s, 
trudi'S, &c. 

Often added to dhd, ' to hold,' after various prepositions and prefixes, to form 
masculine nouns, the final of the root being dropped; e. g. ni-dhi, m., vi-dhi, m., 
san-^hi, m. ; one or two are exceptionally fem. (e. g. oshadhi), 

II. fil -/t (cf. -Ai)} forming feminine abstract nouns and a few masculines, and 
closely related to the -ta of the past pass. part, at 80. XVII, being added with 
similar changes (except that i is rarely inserted); e.g. iru-^, f. 'hearing,' fr. iruj 
bkd'ti, f. 'existence,' fr. bJdj sthi-ti, f. 'state.' fr. sthdj mati, f. 'mind,' fr. manj 
uk-tif f. 'speech,' fr. va4, 'to speak;' p^r-ti, 'fulness,' fr. prt * to fill;' dat-ti, f. 
' a gift,' fr. dd; bhit-ti, f. ' a fragment,' fr. bhid, * to split ' (but past part. 5Atfi-tui); 
^it'ti, f. 'flplittmg,' fr. 6hid (but past part, ^hin-na); vfidrdhi (ue,Vfidk + ti), f. 
'increase,' fr. vridh; yati, m. 'a sage,' fr. yam, 'to restrab ;' jndti, m. 'a relation,' 



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AND THE FOBMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS, 69 

fr, jndj pati, m. *a husbaDd' (for pdti)^ ft, pd, 'to protect/ Cf. Gr. /x^t/-;, 
^-Ti-^, <f>ar<Ti'i^ [JLaih-Ti-fy vo-(Ti'^: Lat. ves-ti-s, mes-si-s (for met-ti-i}, mor-s 
(stem mor-ti), pO'ti'S, corn-pot (stem com-po'tij^ 

III. fH -m, forming feminine abstract nouns (in many respects analogous to 
those formed with -H, so that when the past passive participle ends in -fuz, q. v., a 
noun maj generally be formed with -nt), also a few masculines and adjectives ; 
as, gld-ni, f. ' weariness/ fr. glai, * to be languid ;' Id-ni, f. * cutting/ fr. liij jfr-ni, 
f. *old age/ fr. jf(, 'to grow old/ hd-ni, f. 'loss/ fr. hd (but past part. Mna)i 
agniy m, 'fire/ fr. ang or ahjj vah-ni, m. 'fire/ fr. vah, 'to bear/ ©rwA-^*, 
'raining/ 'a ram' (m.), fr. vfish, Cf. Gr. fi^w-^, <y»a-w-f : Lat, ^-m-« (=Sk. 
ag-nps)^ pa-ni^. 

IV. fif -mt, as 5Ai^mt, f . ' the earth/ fr. bku, 'to be / dal-mi, m. ' Indra's 
thunderbolt/ fr. dalj iir-mi, m. f. 'a wave* (perhaps fr.vji); rcJ-mi, m. * a ray ' 
(perhaps fr. rai for to). Cf. Gr. (p^iu-g : Lat. ver-mi-s. 

V. fic-rt> as in atiA-W, angh-riy ai-ri, vank-ri, vadh-ri. Cf. Gr. /S-f/-^. 

VI. ff -w, as in ghfisk-vi, Jir-vi, iir-viy jagfi-vi, dddhfi-vi. 

VII. ftl -#», as in dhdsi, phk-shi, iuk-shu 

B. SscoNDARY Derivatives, formed fr^m the Nominal Stems of primary 

derivatives by adding the following Tcuidhita suffixes. 

(See Prelim. Obs. at 80. B.) 

VIII. ^rf% -aki, forming a few patronymics after Vfiddhi of the first syllable; 
e.g. Vaigdsaki, ' a descendant of Vydsa.' 

IX. inf^lflT 'dyani, forming patronymics; e.g. vdsindyani fr. vdsin (P^p. vi. 
4, 174). 

X. ^ 'iy forming patronymics after Vf iddhi of the first syllable^ e. g. Daushyanti, 
'the son of Dushyanta;' so Ddiarathi, 'a descendant of Dasa-ratha;' SauvaM 
fr. Sv-aiva, 

XI. mfw 'tdti (= 'td)y forming Vedic abstract substantives ; e. g. deva-tdti, f. 
'divinity/ fr. deva; vasu-tdti, f. 'wealth/ fr. vasu; sarva-tdti, f. 'entirety/ fr, 
tarvoj 'all.' Cf. Gr. <f>iXo-TVj^ (i.e. 0/X^-T^-f), tcaKO-Ti^^ (ifaifcf-nyr-oj) : Lat. 
ekfi-toM (stem civi-tdt- or cwutdti-), cekri-tas (stem celeri-tdti-), vetus-tas, &c. 

XII. fk -ti, as in yuoa-ti, ' a young woman,' fem. of yuvan (Tin. iv. i, 77). 

82. Third Class. — Stems ending in '9 u (m. f. n.) 

A. Primary Derivatives, formed from Roots by adding the following 

Kfit sufi^es — 

I. VJ -atku (w^^, after Guna of a radical vowel ; e. g. kshay-athu, m. * con- 
sumption/ fr. kshi, 'to waste away;' ivay-athu, m. 'swelling/ fr. Mj also vep- 
atku, van^-atku. 

II. ^m -dttt, as jiv'dtuy m. f. n. 'life/ &c., fr. j(Of 'to live.' 



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70 SANSKRIT BOOTS 

III. ^T5 -rfni, as iar-druy 'hurtful,' fr. 4f{, *to injure;' vmid-drii, 'polite/ fir, 
vand^ ' to pmie/ 

IV. Wnj -<^'«* (= -rfru above), as idy-dlu^ * sleepy,' fr. ^, 'to lie down;' sprihay- 
dlu^ * desirous,' fr. jpftA {i<^^ class), 'to desire.' 

V. n -itnu, forming acQectives &c. from verbal stems of the loth class ; e. g, 
gaday-itnu, 'talkative,' ft, gad, to speak;' stanay'Unu, m. 'thunder,' fr. stan, 
'to sound.' 

VI. ^1^ 'ishiiiu (i.e. i-snu) =«iiti, as ksay-uhi^u, 'perishing,' fr. ksid: bhoD- 
ishtiuz=bhu^ki^, 'becoming,' fr. bhd. 

VII. 7 -u (^9 ^y Tfy '^y 9ir, ^3^)» forming adjectives (fern, m or vO i^d a 
few nouns, the radical vowel generally undergoing change ; e. g. pfith^u, broad^' 
fr. prath, 'to extend;' mjid-u, 'mild,' fr. mrtd, 'to crush;' svdd-u, 'sweet,' fr. 
svad or svddj lagh-u, 'light,' fr. langh^ 'to spring;' tan-Uy 'thin,' fr. ton, 'to 
stretch;' di'U, 'swift;' handh-u, m. 'a kinsman,' fr. bandh, 'to bind;' bhid-Uy m. 
' a thunderbolt,' fr. bhid, 'to cleave;' kdr-u, m. 'an artisan,' fr. itff, 'to make;' 
tan-u, f. 'the body,' fr. tan; ddr-u, n. 'timber,' fr. rffii 'to split;' madh*u, n. 
* honey.' Cf. Gr. ix-v-^y iji'V'^y vXar^V'f : Lat. ac-n-i, id-U'S, sudv-us (for 
suddu-i-s). 

Forming also desid^mtive adjectives (sometimes governing an accusative, see 
834) from desiderative stems ; e. g. jigamish-u, ' desirous of going,' fr. jigamisha, 
desiderative stem of gam, 'to go :' similarly, didfikshuy 'anxious to see;' jigishu, 
'striving to conquer.' 

VIII. 9 -to (^y ^), forming nouns of agency &c., generally masculine; e. g. 
gan-tu, m. * a wayftufer,' fr. gam, * to go ;' yd-tu, ' a goer,' &c., ' time^' fr. yd, * to 
go;* bhd-tu, m. 'the sun,' fr. bhd, 'to shine' (cf. bhd-nu); jan-tu, m. 'a creature,' 
fr. Jan J p-to, m. a season,' fr. ft, 'to go ;' vas'tu, n. an object,' also vds^tu, m.n. 
'building-ground,*' fr. vas, 'to dwell.' Cf. Gr. iSoiy-Tu-^, cSi^-TU-i', a<y-Ti; (for 
Faa-rv) : Lat. «to-to-«, vic-tu-s, cur-su-s (for cttr-to-5). 

Observe — ^The accusative of this sufi^ is used to form the infinitive; e.g. ydtum, 
'to go :' and in the Rig-veda other cases, as the dative, genitive, are used as in- 
finitives ; e. g. ydtave, ydtavai, ydtos (see 458, 459). 

IX. ^ -m* (]|9 ^, as gridh-nu^ ' eager,' ' greedy,' fr. gjidhy ' to covet ;' tras-nu, 
'timid,' fr. tras, *i& taremble;' sd-nu, m. 'a son,' sd-nu or sd-nu, f. 'a daughter,' 
fr. ««, 'to bring forth;' bhd-fiu, m. 'the sun,' fr. bhd; dhe-nu, f. 'a milk-cow,' fr. 
dhe, 'to suck.' Cf. Gr. fl/>^lrt^•^, Xiy-vv-g. 

X. 5 -y««, as ^ndh-yu^ 'bright,' 'fire' (m.), fr. dundh, 'to purify;' jan-yu, *a 
creature,' fr. Janj man-yu, 'wrath,' fr. man, 'to think;' also bhuj-yu, das-yu, 
mifi-t'yu. 

XI. ^ ^ru, as bh^-nt (nom. fem. nts or rds), 'timid,' fr. bh{, ' to fear;' o^-m, ' a 
tear'(8aMtobefr. ad). 

XII. ^ 'Snu (cf. -ishifu), as sthd-snu, 'firm,' fr. sthd, 'to stand;' ji-shifu, 'vic- 
torious,' fr. it, 'to conquer;' bhu-shfu, ' heing,^ fr. 6At«. 



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AND THE FORMATION OP NOMINAL STEMS. 71 

B. SECONDARY DxRivATiVES, formed from the Nominal Stems of 
primary derivatives by adding the foUowiDg Taddhita sufi^es — 

XIIL ^ -yu, forming adjectives, frequently in the sense of wishing for,' and a 
few nouns ; e, g. lirtfa-yUf ' woollen,' fr. ^infdj svar^yu, ' desiring heaven,' fir. soar, 
'heaven;' also Mhatp^yu, kiu^yUf ahat^'yu, asma-yu, 

XIV. ?| ^h, as kppd-lut dayd'lu, ' compassi^>9ate,' fr. kripd, dayd. 

Stems ending in \ i and V u (see 123). 

XV. ^ -/, forming numerous feminine nouns, which will be found ui^der their 
corresponding masculine sufi&xes, see 80. L &c., 123-136. Others, mostly mono- 
lyllabic, and often formed by taking a naked root to serve as a noun, are, bk{, f. 
*fear;' dk{, f. 'understanding;' M^ f. 'prosperity;' 8tr{, f.' a woman;' LakshnU^ 
f. the goddess Lakshmi;' n{, m. f. 'a leader' (whence send^n^, m. 'a general;' 
grdma-^, m. f. ' the phief of a village '). 

XVI. V -If, forming feminine nouns, which will be found under their corres- 
ponding masculine forms, as s4^u, bkf-r^, 82. IX. XI. (see also 125, 126). Others, 
sometimes monosyllabic, and formed by taking a naked root to serve as a noun« 
•re, Ik, m. f. ^a reaper;' bkd, f. 'the earth;' Svayutn-bkd, m. 'th^ Self-existent;' 
M(2JI^,f.'awife.' 

83. Fourth Clasb. — Stems ending in ^n (ra. t b.) 
Primary Dbrivativbs, formed from Roots by adding the KfU suffix — 

f -/ftf forming, ist, Qoans of agency of three geBdevs> sod a kind of future par- 
ticiple, the same change of the root being required which takes pkoe in the first 
future, and the same euphonic changes of t (see 386 and 581) ; thus kskep^tfi, 'a 
thrower,' fr. kship; dd-tfi, *a giver,' fr. dd; bhar-tfi, *a protector,' fr. bhfi, 'to 
bear;' boddkfi/ hkaower,^ fr. btMj 9o4hji, 'patient,' fr. soA, 'to bea>;' bk<w4rtTi, 
'about to become ' {sz/u-turu^s), fr. bhd, ' to become ' (Raghu-v. vi. 52). 

aodly, nouns of relationship, masculine and frminine ; in these tho vowqI of the 
root is frequently modified; as, pi-trif * a father,' fr. p<^ 'to protect;' mi-tfi^ 'a 
mother,' fr. fiu^ ' td form,' ' produce ;' bhrd-tfi, ' a brother*' fr^ bhfi, 'to support.' 
Cf. Gr. Xo-T^f, ^a-nyp, f-y^r^p *• Lat. da-tor, da-turu-s, pa-ter, ma-ter, fra-ter. 

84, Fifth Class. — Stems ending in i(t and ^ d (m. f. n.) 

A. Primary Dbrivativss, formed from Roots by adding the following 

KfU suffixes — 

L Wl^-o/, forming present and future participles Par. from the stems of the 
pnsent uid the second future tenses respectively (see 524, 525, 578) ; ^ g. ad-^, 
'eating,' fr. ad^- ^nv-at, 'collecting,' fr. 6i: karkky-at, 'about to do,' fr. kfi; 



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72 SANSKRIT ROOTS 

dadh-at, 'placing/ fir. dhd. Cf. Gr. ^€p-»v (stem ^€^-6Vt-), SiS-ov-^ (stem 
8/8o»T-), TiO^t"^ (stem T/fl-cvT-) : Lat. veh-ens (stem reA-«i/-), t-eiw (stem e-nn/-). 

II. ^-t'> forming a few nouns and adjectives; e.g. sar-it, *a river/ fr. jft, 
*to flow;' har-it, * green/ 

III. 1^-^^ firequently added to roots ending in a short rowel, to form noona of 
agency, substantives, and adjectives (often used at the end of compounds) ; e. g. 
ji-t, 'conquering/ in sarva-jit, * ail-conquering/ fr. jij kfi-t, * a doer/ in karma- 
hfit, * a doer of work/ fr. Ayt . 

Sometimes t is substituted for a final m of a root, generally at the end of a com- 
pound ; as, ga-t in adhva-gat, m. ' a traveller,' h, gam, * to go.' 

IV. This class, besides comprehending a few nouns already ending in d, as 
iarad, f. 'autumn ;' djrUad, f. 'a stone;' kumud, n. 'a lotus,' includes a nimiber 
of monosyllabic nouns formed by takmg roots ending in ^ or J, and using them 
in their unchanged state as substantives and nouns of agency, the technical suffix 
kv^ (leaving v) being theoretically added, for which a blank is substituted (see 87); 
e.g. ^, f. 'the mind;' mud, f. 'joy;' vid, a knower' (in dharma'vid); ad, 'an 
eater' (in kravydd, 'a flesh-eater'); dyvt, f. 'splendour;' pad, m. 'a step.*^ 

Some nouns falling under this class are formed by prefixing prepositions to 
roots ending m t or d, or in a short vowel ; e. g. sam-pad, f. ' success ;' satfl-vid, 
f. 'an agreement;' vi-dytU, f. 'lightning;' upa-ni-shad, ' a philosophical treatise;' 
iom't-t, ' conflict ' (fir. sam^i, ' to go together '). 

The practice of using roots at the end of compounds prevails also in Greek and 
Latin; as in xh'^^^ (->'/3-)> iBov-wXi^ (-»^^-), &c., arH-fex {-fie-), eami-fex 
i'fic-), pTiB'Ses i'Sid-), &c. And there is a very remarkable agreement between 
Sanskfit and Latin in the practice of adding / to roots ending in short vowels ; thus, 
corn-it' {comes), * a goer with ;' equ-it- (eques)^ ' a goer on horseback ;' al-it- (ale$), 
' a goer with wings ;' wper-sHt- {superstes), ' a stander by,' &c. Greek adds a similar 
/ to roots with a long final vowel; as, a-ywT- (ayvwj), o-wto^- (ottw^), &c. 

B. Secondary Dsrivativks, formed from the Nominal Stems of 
primary derivatives by adding the following Taddhita suffixes — 

V. Tm{^ 'tdt, a Vedic suffix {^-tdii, 81. XI); e.g. deva-tdt, f. 'worship;' 
satya-tdt, 'truth.' 

VI. in(^-ma^ (^^^(9 ^RT^)' fonning adjectives (fem. ati) signifying 'possessed 
of,' ' full of,' &c.= -vat below; usually added to stems ending in t, <, or uj e. g. 
agni-mat, 'having fire;' dH-mat, 'prosperous;' dM-^mat, wise;' aniu-mat, 'radiant;' 
yova-nur^, 'abounding in bariey;' madhu-mat, 'fiiU of honey;' vidyun-mat=ividgut- 
vat, ' possessing lightning,' fir. vidyutj Jyotish-mat, ' brilliant,' fir. jyotis, ' light ;' 
dhanu$h-mat, 'armed with a bow ' (see 69); ar6ish-mat, 'brilliant ' (69. b). 

VII. ^-va< (^^V^y ^rf^)* forming, ist, adjectives (fem. atf) signifying 'pos- 
sessed of,' &c. ; usually added to stems ending in a, <^ or m, and in some other 
consonants ; e. g. dhana-vat, ' possessed of wealth ;' aha-vat, ' having horses ;' 
vira-vat, 'abounding in heroes;' Hkhd-vat, 'crested,' fi*. ^hd; vidyd-vat, 'learned,' 



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AND THE FORMATION OP NOMINAL STEMS. 73 

fr. vidyd, 'knowledge;' rdja-vat or rdjan-vat (see 57), * having a king,' fr. rdjan; 
egni'Vat=agni-maty ' having fire ;' hiri^-vat, ' possessed of what ;' pad-vat^ ' having 
feet,' fr. pad, 'a foot;' vidyut-vat, ' possessing lightning/ fr, vidyut (see under -mat); 
tejoM^ai, *hrilliant,' fr. tejas, 'splendour;' bkds-vat, 'shining,' *the sun' (m.), fr. 
bkds, * light ;' srug-vaty ' having a ladle,' fr. sru6. Cf. Gr. forms in -fci^ (i. e. for 
f€VT'()j -fecaa (i. e. ferya = vat^ for vatyd), -f cv (for FevT) ; as, XOLfl-u^ (stem 
;(api-f evT-), toucpvi-ug (stem icucpvO'FevT"), 

Forming, 2ndly, past active participles (see 553); e.g. kjita-vat, 'one who has 
done;' bhaffna-^aty 'one who has broken.' 

For the suffix -vat, in td-vat, ' so many,' yd-vat, &c., see 334 ; and for the 
adverbial suffix 'Vat, expressing ' similitude,' see 724. 

85. Sixth Class. — Stems ending in ^an and ^in (m. f. n.) 

A. Primary Dbrivatives, formed from Roots by adding the 
following Kfit suffixes — 

I. ^I«^ -on, forming several nouns, chiefly masculine ; e. g. rdjan^ m. ' a king ' 
(fem. rdjM, 'a queen,' 57. c), fr. rdj, *to govern;' taksk-an, m. *a carpenter,' fr. 
taksh, ' to form by cutting ;' aneh-an, m. ' a friend,' fr. snih, ' to love ;' uksh-aUy m. 
* a bull,' fr. uksh, * to impregnate ;' a^-an, m. * a stone,' fr. a^; ud-an^ n. ' water,* 
fr.udcfr und, ' to wet.' Cf. Gr. #fXi58-»v, T€ifT-«i> (stem T€#ct-ov-), ei/e-m (stem 
€i#f-ov-) : Lat. hom-o (stem Aom-tn-), asperg-o (stem asperg'tn-), pect-en (pec-rtn-). 

II. ^ -tn, forming numerous substantives, adjectives, and nouns of agency 
(fem. «»/); e.g. trntth'tn, m. 'a churning-stick,' fr. math, 'to shake;' path-iiiy m. 
'a path,' fr. path, ^to go* (see 162); kdr-in, m. 'an agent,' fr. itff, 'to do;' dvesh-in, 
m. ' an enemy,' fr. doish, 'to hate.' Cf. the secondary suffix -in at VI. 

III. W^-tvan (fem. tvar{), see under -van below. 

IV. ^^ -man {nh^f Hftf, I^Ph^), -iman, forming neuter and a few masculine 
abstaict substantives, and rarely adjectives, often after Guna of the radical vowel 
(those in iman being generally masc.) ; e. g. kar^man, n. a deed,' fr. kri, ' to do ;' 
jan-man or jan4man, n. * birth,' fr. jan, 'to beget;' ved-man, n. * a house/ fr. vi4, 

to enter;' nd-man, n. (for jUd^man), a name,' fr. jhd, 'to know;' iiar-man, n. 
'happiness,' probably fr. 4ri: pre-man^ m.n. 'afiPeddon,' fr. pri^ 'to please;' i«A- 
flum, m. ' heat,' fr. f»A, * to bum :' also si-man, f. ' a boundary ;' ai-man, m. ' a 
stone;' iush-man, m. *fire,' * strength' (neut.); pdp-man, m. 'sin.' 

Sometimes with insertion of i (and Vedic /), in which case the gender is generally 
masculine (cf. the secondary suffix -iman) ; e. g. sar-iman or Ved. sar-iman, m. 
'going,' fr. m, *to go;' star-man or Ved. star-fman, m. 'a couch,' fr. stri, 'to 
spread;' dhar-iman, m. 'form,' fr. dhfi, 'to hold;' har-iman, m. 'time,' fr. Aft, 
'to seize.' Cf. Gr. OK-fivv (stem ouC'Iaoih), yvw-fJMV (stem yvco- fxov-), vvO^fjii^v 
(stem wvO'fJieih-) -, Lat. no-men (stem no-mtn-), stra-men (stem stra-min-), ag-men, 
teg-men, teg-i-men. 

V^ ^^5^ -WW dSfif^, ^r«^H^), forming substantives, adjectives, and nouns of 

L 



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74 SANSKRIT BOOTS 

agency (fem. generally var(; cf. suffix -vara, with which -ran appears to be con- 
nected); e.g. pad-van, m. *a way,' fr. pad, *to go;' mad-van (fem. vari), 'in- 
toxicating,' fr. mad, * to gladden ;' ink-van (fem. var{), * praising,' fr. ar6 (or fi^); 
drii-van, * one who has seen ' (generally at the end of a comp.), fr. dfi^; yaj-van 
(fem. var{), * sacrificing,' fr. yaj. 

When a root ends in a short vowel, t is inserted ; e. g. kfi-t-van (fem. var{), 
* effecting,' fr. kri; ji-t-van, 'conquering,' fr. jij i-t-van, 'going,' fr. t. 

B. Secondary Derivatives, formed from the Nominal Stems of primary 
derivatives by adding the following Taddhita suffixes — 

VI. ^ -in, forming numerous adjectives of possession, &c. ; e. g. dhan-in, 
'wealthy,* fr. dhana, 'wealth;' bal-in, 'strong,' fr. bala, 'strength;' mdl-in, 
'wearing a garland,' fr. mdld, 'a garland;' vrih-in, 'having rice,' fr. vrihi, 'rice;' 
ked-in, 'having hair,' fr. keia, ' hair;' padm-in, 'abounding in lotuses ' (pac^mtn/, f. 

a quantity of lotuses '), fr. padma, ' a lotus.' 

VII. ^ITI^ -iman (^f^T^, H**r«f«(^), forming masculine abstract substantives, 
mostly from adjectival stems, the finals being generally rejected, and the same 
changes being frequently required as before the comparative and superlative 
suffixes -iyas, -ishtha (cf. the Kjrit suffix -man, 85. IV) ; e. g. kdUiman, * blackness,' 
fr. kdla, 'black ;' iagh-itnan, 'lightness,' fr. laghu, 'nimble ;' mah-iman, 'greatness,' 
fr. mahat; sIbo gar-iman, drdgh-iman, prath-iman, &c. (cf. comparisons, 194). 

VIII. w^ -fiitn, forming adjectives of possession (cf. the suffixes -in, -vin, -mat, 
-•vat); e.g. vdg-min, 'eloquent,' fr. vdd, 'speech;' go-min, 'possessing herds,' fr. 
go, *a cow;' svd-min, 'an owner,' fr. sva, 'self.' 

IX. f^i«^-otn, forming adjectives, generally from stems ending in dor as; e. g. 
medkd-vin, 'intellectual;' tejas-vin, 'splendid' (69); srag-vin, 'wearing a gar- 
land,' fr. sraj. 

86. Seventh Class. — Stems ending in ^^Bs^^is^'^us {m.f.n.) 

A. Primary Derivatives, formed from Roots by adding the 
following Kfit suffixes — 

I. ^n[ -08, forming numerous nouns, mostly neuter, and a few adjectives, 
generally afrer Gu^a of the root ; e. g. nutn-as, n. ' the mind,' fr. man, ' to think :' 
similarly formed are nam-a$, n/ adoration ;' tap-as, n. 'penance;' tam-as, n. 'dark- 
ness :' ian-as, ' a race ;' sar-as, n. 'water,' fr. sfi, *to go ;' M-as, n. * mind,' fr. ^z 

iam,' fr. sru, 'to flow' (in this case t is inserted); usk-as, f. (nom. 

. ush {=zvas), 'to shine;' Jar-as, f. 'old age,' fr. jji,' to grow old* 

(nom. m. f. n. ds, ds, as), ' creating,' ' name of Brahman ' (m.) Cf. 

v-Of, eV'-yeiH^f (stem fiJ-ycv-c^-), c^fACV-^i" {^su^manas) : Lat. 

m-€8- or gen-er-), sceh-us, 

= -as above), as hav-is, n. 'ghee,' fr. hu, 'to offer;' also ixrd-is, jyot-is, 

io6-is, n. 'light,' 'lustre,' fr. ar^, jyut, dyvt, ru6, i»6, 'to shine.' 



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AND THE FORMATION OF NOMINAL STEMS. 75 

III. "^ "US (= '08, 86. I), as 6ak8h-us, n. *an eye,* fr. 6ak8h, *to see;' also 
vap-us, n. * body ;' tonus, n. * body ;' dhan-vs, n. (m.) * a bow ;' jan-us, n. * birth j' 
man-US, m. 'man.' 

IV. ^r^-oof, 4vas (nom. m. f. n. vdn, ushi, vat), forming perfect participles from 
the stem of the reduplicated perfect (see 554)5 e. g. vivid^as, *one who has known,' 
fr. vivid (cf. vidvas, 168. e) ; similarly, tcH'tvas, jagm-ivas, &c. (see 168). 

B. Secondary Dbbivativbs, formed from the Nominal Stems of primary 
derivatives by adding the following TaddhUa suflBLxes — 

V. ^1^ '^yos, forming the comparative degree (see 167, 193, 194) ; e. g. bal' 
iyas, * stronger,' fr. bala for balin or bola-vat. Observe — Perhaps this suffix is in 
most cases rather primary than secondary, being generally added to the root or 
modified root; as, uru, *wide,' forms variyos fr. vfi (cf. -ish^ha, 80. XLVIII). 

VI. l|^ -yos (= 'iyos above), as bkd-yas, ' more,' comparative of bohu (see 194) : 
also jyd-yas (194); nav-yas, Ved. (comparative of novo, 'recent '). 

87. Eighth Class. — Stems ending in any Consonant, except 
Hi and ^ d, i^n, i^s (m. f. n.) 

Almost any root may be used alone in its naked unchanged state as a nominal 
stem, no suffix of any kind being apparently added, but as it is a rule of native 
grammarians tljat no word can be formed without a suffix, they suppose a suffix 
technically called kvip (leaving v), for which a blank is then substituted. Most 
naked roots so used, form nouns of agency, especially at the end of compounds. 

Those roots which end in t or d, or in a short vowel, having t affixed, have been 
already noticed as falling under the fifth class, see 84. III. IV. This eighth class 
is mtended to comprise aU other roots, ending in ony consonant; e.g. bkuj (nom. 
hhuk), ' an eater ;' so, budh (nom. bhut), ' a knower ' (see 44. c) ; spfi^ (nom. sprik), 
one who touches ;' vi4 (nom. vi(), ' one who enters,* * a Vais'ya ' (m.), * a house ' (f .) ; 
Uk (nom. lif), 'one who licks;' duh (nom. dkuk), 'one who milks.' 

a. Some require modifications; as, prddh (nom. prdf), 'an asker,' fr. pra6h, 
A desiderative stem is sometimes used alone in the same way; e. g. pipaksh (nom. 
pipak), * one who wishes to cook.' 

b. Many roots are taken in this way to form substantives; e.g. yudh, f. (nom. 
yut), * battle ;' kskudk, f. (nom. kshut), * hunger :' some requiring modifications of 
the radical vowel; e.g. vdd, f. (nom. vdk), 'speech,' fr. va6, 'to speak;' pur, f. 
(nom. p4r), * a city,' probably fr. pf<; gir, f. (nom. gir), * praise,' fr. gH, 

c. Many roots ending in nasals, when used in this way, especially at the end of 
compounds, either reject the nasal, or exchange it for t (see -/, 84. Ill) : gam, ' to 
go,' has go or gat: jan has jay han has ha or ghna, 

d. There are also a few dissyllabic nouns formed fr^m roots which must be made 
to fall under this eighth class ; as, tfishnoj (nom. trishii^k), ' thirsty ;' asfij, n. 
(nom. asrik), ' blood :' also a few substantives formed by prefixing prepositions 
to roots; as, sam-idh (nom. samit), 'fiiel.' 



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76 DECLENSION; OR INFLEXION OP THE STEMS OF NOUNS, 



CHAPTER IV. 

DECLENSION ; OR INFLEXION OF THE STEMS OF NOUNS, 
SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

88. Having explained how the stem of a noun is formed, we 
have now to shew how it is inflected. 

In the last chapter, nouns. Substantive and Adjective, were ar- 
ranged under eight classes, according to the final of their stems 
(the first four classes comprising those ending in vowels, the last 
four those ending in consonants). In the present chapter their 
declension or inflexion will be exhibited under the same eight 
classes. Moreover, as every class comprises Adjectives as well as 
Substantives, so the example of masculine, feminine, and neuter 
Substantives given under each class will, serve as a model for the 
declension of masculine, feminine^ and neuter Adjectives coming 
under the same class. 

Oender of Nouns. 

89. The noun has three genders, and its gender is, in many 
cases, determinable fix)m the termination of its stem. Thus, nearly 
all stems in a, f, and those formed with the suffix ti (81. II), are 
feminine : most abstract nouns and those denoting an act or instru- 
ment, formed with the suffixes ana, tva (80. LXVIII), ya, tra (see 
under 80), a*, w, us (86), and man (85. IV), are neuter; those 
formed with the suffixes na (80. XXIV) and iman (85. VII) are 
generally mascuUne ; but those in a, t, w, and ri are not reducible 
to rule. The Nominative case is, however, in the first of these 
instances a guide to the gender ; as, deva-s, * a deity ,^ is masculine ; 
but phala-my *fruit,^ neuter. And in other cases the meaning of 
the word ; as, jntri, * a father,^ is masculine ; and mdtriy * a mother,^ 
feminine. 

It may be noted also that words denoting gods, mountains, seas, 
divisions of time, are generally masculine ; words denoting rivers, 
the earth, and night, are usually feminine; while adjectives and 



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DECLENSION; OE INFLEXION OF THE STEMS OF NOUNS. 77 

participles, used as abstract nouns^ the names of woods^ flowers, 
finiitSj towns, and water, are generally neuter. 

Cases of Nouns. 

90. In Sanskrit, nearly all the relations between words in a 
sentence are expressed by inflexions (vibhakti. Pan. i. 4, 104). 
Many prepositions exist, but in Post-Yedic Sanskrit they are not 
often used alone in government with cases, their chief use being as 
prefixes to verbs and nouns. Hence the necessity for eight cases. 
These, as it were, grow out of the stem, and are called, i. Nomina- 
tive {prathamdy scil. vib?iakti, * the first case ^) ; 2. Accusative {dviHyd, 
*the second'); 3. Instrumental (tfitiyd, *the third ^) ; 4. Dative {6a- 
turthi^ *the fourth^); 5. Ablative {pan6am(, *the fifth ^); 6. Genitive 
{stuxshfhi, 'the sixth *) ; 7. Locative (saptami^ * the seventh^) ; 8. Vo- 
cative (see 9a). I. The Nominative is the kartri or *agent,^ but the 
agent is not always in the N. case * ; thus in the sentences, * he did 
that,' and ^ that was done by me,' the agent in the last sentence is 
in the I. case. a. The Accusative is the karman or * that acted on,' 
but the karman is not always in the Ac. case ; as in ^ that was done 
by me,' where * that' is the karmany and is in the N. case, 3. The 
Instrumental expresses karana, ' instrumentality,' i. e. it denotes the 
instrument or agent by which or by whom a thing is done ; as, tena 
kfUam, * done by him f/ 4. The Dative is used in the sense sum- 
praddna, * giving,' * delivering over,' &c. 5. The Ablative generally 
expresses apdddna, ^ taking away,' and is usually translateable by 
* firom,' and not as in Latin and Greek by * with,' * by,' * in ' (see 
812). 6. The Genitive expresses «am£a/i«{Aa, ^ relationship,' 'con- 
nexion t-^ 7. The Locative is used in the sense adhikarana, * location,' 
and generally expresses the place or time in which anything is 
done; as, Ayodhydydniy *in AyodhyS;' pdrva-kdle^ *in former time;' 
bk&naUy * on the ground t/ 8. The Vocative is used in the sense 
sambuddhi fmd sambodhana, * addressing,' ' calling to.' 

* These cases will sometimes be denoted by their initial letters. Thus N. will 
denote Nominative ; I., Instrumental ; Ac., Accusative ; Ab., Ablative. • 

t The Instrumental and the Locative cases denote various other relations. See 
Syntax, 805, 817. 

X The Genitive in Sanskrit generally denotes ' possession/ but is of very exten- 
sive application. See Syntax, 815, 816. 



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78 DECLENSION; OR INFLEXION OP THE STEMS OP NOUNS. 

91. According to the Indian systeniy each of these eight cases 
has three numbers, singular (eka-vaSana), dual (dviHva6ana\ and 
plural {ba}iVrV(i6ana) ; and to each belongs a termination which is 
peculiarly its own, serving alike for masculine {pufnrlinga)^ feminine 
{8tri'lingd)y and neuter gender {kliva or napuriaaka-lir^a). 

Again, according to the native system, some terminations are 
technically combined with servile or indicatory letters to indicate 
some peculiarity, or to distinguish one from the other, or to enable 
Praty&h&ras to be formed (see note below). Thus the proper 
termination of the Nominative singular is i^ * (expressible by 
Yisarga : before A:, kh, /?, phy and before the sibilants, or at the 
end of a sentence, see 63) ; but the technical termination is su, 
the letter u being servile *. Similarly, the termination of the Nomi- 
native plural is really as, but technically jas, the j being servile. 
The two schemes of termination, with and without the servile 
letters, are here exhibited. The first, or merely technical scheme, 
is given in small type. 



Technical Terminations with the 


Real Terminations without 


indicatory 


letters in capitals. 


the 


indicatory letters. 


SING. 


DUAL. PLUBAL. 


si.no. 


DUAL. 


PLURAL. 


N. ^«i;* 


watt If^Jifl* 


s 


au 


as 


Ac. nn^am 


ift^ auT* ^ S^as 


am 


an 


as 


I. ZlTd 


>^n^^bhydm fH^^bh^8 


d 


bhydm 


bhis 


D. ^N-e 


bhydm WW( bhyas 


e 


bhydm 


bhyas 


Ab. 'yfiff Nasi 


bhydm bhyas 


as 


bhydm 


bhyas 


G. Ti^Na* 


Wt^o« ^BJT^rfm 


as 


OS 


dm 


L. f9Ni 


08 ^«ttP 


i 


OS 


su 



* The servile u may possibly indicate that final s, in certain positions, is liable 
to be liquefied into u. The object of the ^ of w^ in the Ac. du. is to enable a 
pratydhdra ^ to be formed, denoting the first five inflexions, i. e. the Strong 
cases of masculine and feminine nouns (see 135). The terminations for the D. 
Ab. 6. and L. sing, are called by Pd^ini nitafi, ' having n as their it,* to indicate 
th^t they are applicable to the four cases, admitting occasional substitutions ; of. 
the inflexion of mati, dhenu at i la, ^r/, &c. at 133. The pratydhdra '^^stqt is used 
to denote all the cases from the N. sing, to the L. pi. Praty^h&ras are generally 
formed by combining the first member of a series with the final consonant of the 
last member, as above (cf. page 14, note b). 



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DECLENSION; OR INFLEXION OP THE STEMS OP NOUNa 79 

92. The Vocative is held to be a peculiar aspect of the Nomina- 
tive, and coincides with the Nom. in the dual and plural. Hence 
it is not supposed to have a separate termination of its own. In 
the singular it is sometimes identical with the stem, sometimes with 
the Nominative. Sometimes, however, it differs from both *. 

a. The terminations beginning with vowels will sometimes be 
called vowel'terminatums ; and those beginning with consonants^ 
including the Nom. sing., consonantal terminations. 

Again, those cases which take the vowel-terminations will some- 
times be called vowel-cases ; and those which take the consonantal, 
coMonantal cases. 

See also the division into Strong, Middle, and Weak cases at 

Observe — ^The terminations should be read horizontally, i.e. for 
each case in all three numbers ; not perpendicularly, i. e. not for 
all the cases of the singular before passing to the dual. Hence 
the expression * ias and all the remaining cases ^ must be taken to 
mean the Ac. pi. and all the other cases sing. du. and pi., and the 
' first five inflexions ^ must be taken to denote «, au, as^ am, aUy or 
N. sing. du. pi., Ac. sing. du. 

93. Having propounded the above scheme as the general type 
of the several case-suffixes in the three numbers, Indian gram- 
marians proceed to adapt them to every Substantive and Adjective 
in the language, as well as to Pronouns, Numerals, and P&rticiples, 
whether masculine, feminine, or neuter. 

In &ct, their theory is, that there is but one declension in San- 
skrit, and that the stem of a noun being given, and the regular 
case-terminations being given, the stem is to be joined to those 
terminations according to the regular laws of euphonic combination, 
as in the following examples of the two stems, '^ nau, f. ' a ship ^ 
(naviy vav)j and ffb^ haril, m. f. * green.^ 

* In the first or commonest class of nouns the masculine stem stands alone in 
the Vocative, just as the termination is dropped from the and pers. sing. Imj^eKi- 
tive Parasmai in the first group of classes in conjugation, see 346. 



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80 DECLENSION J OR INFLEXION OF THE STEMS OF NOUNS. 
94. 



SINGULAR. 

Nona, Voc. lih^ nous 
nuu-\-s 


DOAL. 

nat* + au. See 37, 


PLUBAL. 

nau + (W. 37. 


Ace. "Sfwr ndvam 
nau + am. 37. 


— ndvaw 


— ndvas 


Inst- ifHT ndvd 
nau + a. 37. 


ffhs^ni^^ naubhydm 
nau 4- bhydm 


^^f^ naubhis 
nau 4- bhis 


Dat ifl^ nave 

nau-\-e. 37. 


— naubhydm 


n^MIl^ naubhyas 
nau + &%a^ 


Abl. A\^\ ndvas 
nau \- as. 37. 


— naubhydm 


— naubhyas 


nati + as. 37. 


'^(it^^ndvo8 
nau 4- 0*. 37. 


nau + dm. 37. 


Loc. inf% ndvi 

nau + 1. 37, 


— ndvos 


nati4-w. 70. 



95- 



SmOUTiAB. 

Nom. Voc. ^ftn^ harit 

harit + s. See 41. 1. 


DUAL. 

ffxift haritau 
harit + an. 43. d. 


PLUBAL. 

haritd as. 43. rf. 


Aart/ + am. 43. rf. 


— haritau 


— haritas 


Inst, ^(Vai haritd 

harit -{-d. 43. d. 


harit 4- bhydm. 43. 


harit 4- 6Aw. 43. 


Dat. ^fic?^ Aan/e 

harit 4- e. 43. rf. 


— haridbhydm 


^finn^ haridbhyas 
harit 4- *Aycw. 43. 


harit + as. 43. rf. 


— haridbhydm 


— haridbhyas 


§en. — haritas 


harit + 0*. 43. d. 


iru\\ harit dm 
harit + dm. 43. d. 


Loc. uftftr Aart« 

Aart/ 4- i. 43. rf. 


— haHtos 


'^fTj% haritsu 
harit 4- su. 4a. 



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DECLENSION ; OR IN7LEXI0K OF THE STEMS OF NOKJKS. 81 

96. Unfortunately, however, ^ nau^ * a ship/ is nearly the only 
noun, ending in -a vowel, that joins its stem thus regularly with case- 
endings ; and although nouns ending in consonants are numerous, 
and nearly as regular as harity they are far less common than nouns 
in a, cfy t, (, tt, and ft, ^hose declension requires frequent changes 
in the finals, both of stem and terminations. 

97. Thus in cl. I of stems ending in a (comprising almost as 
many nouns as the other seven classes tc^ther ; compare 80 with 
•81—87), not only is the final a of the stem liable to be lengthened 
and changed to e, but also the termination ina is substituted for d, 
the proper termination of the Inst. sing. masc. ; ya for e of the Dat. ; 
t for eu of the Ab. ; sya for as of the Gen. ; n for as of the Ac. pi. ; 
ais for bhis of the Inst. pi. And in other nouns changes and sub- 
stitutions are required, some of which are determined by the gender. 
(Compare the first group of verbal stems at 257. a.) 

The annexed table repeats synoptically the terminations, with 
the most usual substitutions, throughout all the classes of nouns. 

8IKQULAB. DUAL. PLUBAL. 

N. i|^(m.f), 1^* (n.) ii»(m.f.),t(f.*n.) in^(m.f.), ^ (n.) 

Ac^^(m.f.), 1^* (m.f.n.) ift(m.f.),^(f.*n.) W^,^(m.f.),^(m.),^(n.) 

I. wn (m.f.n.), ^* (m.n.) wn'^(m.f.n.) fil^(m.f.n.), ^* (m.n.) 

D. ir (m. f. n.), ^* (m. n.) wni^ (m. f. n.) ww^ (m. f. n.) 

Ab.W^(m.£n.),^(m.f.),T^^»(m.n.) wni^(m.f.n.) ^ (m.f.n.) 

G. W^(m.fji.),^(m.£),^(m.n.) ih^(m.f.n.) tw (m.f.n.) 

L. S[(m.f,n.),^mil(f.),^(m.£) ^(m.f.n.) ^ (m.£n.) 

Obs. I. Those substitutions marked * are mostly restricted to 
nouns ending in a, and are therefore especially noticeable. Femi- 
nines in ^f are peculiar in taking the neut. substitution t in du. N. 
AcV. 

Obs. 2, It will be perceived that the Accusative pi. of all masc. nouns in the 
first four declensions ends in n, whilst that of all fern, nouns ends in the regular 
termination s, 

a, Ck>mparing the above terminations with those of Latin and Greek, we may 
remark that s enters into the Nom. ting, masc, and m or » into the neuter, in all 
three languages. In regard to the Sk. dual au, the original termination was d, as 
found in the Vedas ; and d equals the Greek a, », and €• In Nom. pi. masc. 
the $ appears in many Lat. and Gr. words. In Ac. sing., Sk. agrees with Lat., 
and even with Gr., final /x in Gr. being changed into v. 8 appears in all three 
languages in Ac. pi.; and when the Sansbrit ends in n, as in the first class of 



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82 DBCLEKSION ; OR INFLEXION OF THE STEMS OF NOUNS- 

nouns, this n is probably for na, since a preceding a is lengthened to compensate 
for the rejection of s. Cf . some Vedic Ac. plurals ; cf . also movg Ac. pi. in the 
Cretic dialect ; and Gothic forms, such as balginsj sununsj cf. likewise the r added 
in the Veda after the Ac. pL, e.g. ^ ji«J ritHXr anu (Rig- v. i. 49, 3). In Inst. pi. 
bhis is preserved in the Lat. nobis, vobis, and Gr. <pi{v) for (f>ii {vav^iv = lumbhis). 
The ais which belongs to Sk, nouns in a is probably a contraction of dbhis, since 
in the Vedas ebhis for dbhis is found for ais, as vfikebhis for vfikais, &c. &c. This 
ms probably answers to the Latin Dat. and AbL plural in is, just as bhis and bhyas 
answer to the Latin bus. In the <jen. sing, all three languages haye preserved 
the s (vfT^, nav'is, w^g for vaFog) ; and in the Gen. pL dmszGr. cov and Lat. 
um {x[^J^j= voS£y, pedum). In Loc. sing. Sanskrit t is preserved in Lat. and Gr. 
in such words as 0/^0;, 'at home,' laSixoT^ 'on the Isthmus;' humi, domi, 8cc.; 
and in the Dative {ftffijt = vvKriy •nftc= navi). In Loc. pi. «i=Gr. ai ; e. g. 
Oipaat{y), 'at the door;' Spa<Ti(v), 'at the right time* («n5 = wii;cr/). Sanskjit 
stems in a prefix t to w; so that vjrikaishu {39. b) — At;iro7or/. The Voc. sing, in 
Gr. is frequently identical with the stem, aud the Voc. du. and pi. with the Nom., 
as in Sanskrit; e.g.voA/n^-f^stemandVocvpAiTa; /JiyTWf, stem and Voc. /m^to^; 
ttr/ivfj^^ stem and Voc. ciJycwjv 

98. In the following pages no attempt will be made to explain 
how or why particular nouns deviate from the general scheme of 
terminations. A division of nouns into eight classes, four ending 
in vowels^ and four ending in consonants, will be made ; and under 
every one of the eight classes a model noun for the masculine, 
feminine, and neuter, serving for adjectives as well as substantives, 
will be declined in fuU. 

99* But the student must understand, that this division into 
eight classes is entirely arbitrary. It does not imply that there 
are eight separate declensions in Sanskrit. All that is meant is, 
that the final letters of the stems of nouns may be conveniently 
arranged under four general heads for vowels, and four for conso* 
nants. Indeed, according to native grammarians, there is only one 
declension in Sanskrit, all nouns, whatever may be the final of their 
stems, being forced to adapt themselves to one common scheme of 
nearly similar case-terminations. 

100. It is most important to remember, that the formation of 
every case in a Sanskrit noun supposes the application of a rule of 
Sand/d or 'junction;^ and that declension in Sanskrit is strictly 
* junction,^ i. e. not a divergence from an upright line (rectus)^ but 
a Joining together of a stem with its terminations. 



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INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 83 

loi. Sometimes^ however^ before t\na joining together takes place^ 
the original final of the stem has to be changed to its Guna or 
Vjiddhi equivalent (see 27), or even to some other letter (see 41. 
II— V), so that it will often be necessary to point out in what 
manner the inflective stem {anga^ see 135. c) varies from the original 
stem (prdtipadika) ; and sometimes the original termination of the 
scheme will have to be changed, as indicated at 97; thus, at 103, 
under the, Gen. du. Hvayos^ Hve + os denotes, that before the stem 
Hva is joined to the termination os^ the final letter a is to be changed 
to e; and the reference 36. a, indicates the rule of Sandhi (explained 
at 36. a) which must come into operation in joining Hve, and os to- 
gether. Similarly, when the original termination has to be modified, 
the termination will be exhibited in its altered form; thus, at 103, 
un4er the Ac. sing., Hva + m denotes, that the stem is to be joined 
with 171, substituted for the original termination am. See the table 
at 97. 

102. In declining the first model noun Hva, the stem with the sign +, and 
after it the termination will he exhibited under each inflexion, and a reference 
will be given to the number of the rule of Sandhi which must come into 
operation. 

In the other nouns the process of Sandhi will be expluned when necessary, 
along with the changes of the stem, immediately before the paradigms of declen- 
sion, and in the paradigms a transliteration in Italic type will be generally given 
immediately under the Sanskrit type. 



Section I.— FIRST FOUR CLASSES OF NOUNS. 

Inflexion of NounSy Substantive and Adjective^ whose stems end 

in vowels. 

First Class in w a, ivt cf, and \i. 

This large class corresponds to a common class of Latin and Greek words in us 
and o(, wn and oVy a and a, e. g. lupus, XvKO-g (=Sk. vfika-s, Nom. of vrika) ; 
dtmrn-m, ^po-y; terroy X»fa {^dhard); and to adjectives like bonus, aryoBoiy 
e.g. Sk. nava-s, navd, nava-m, *new,*=:Lat. novu-s, nova, novu-m; Gr. v€o-f (for 

103. Masculine stems in a, like f^ Ova, m. Hhe god S^iva,' or 
as an adjective, * prosperous/ 

U 2 



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84 INFLEXION OP STEMS OP NOUNS ENDING IN TOVTBLS. 



The final of the stem is lengthened in D. Ab. sing., I. D. Ab. du., Ac. G. pi. ; 
and changed to e in G. L. da., D. Ab. L. pi. : » is euphonieally affixed to the final 
in G. pi. Hence the four inflective stems ^a, Hvd, iioe, Hodin. 

DUAL. PLURAL. 

f^ift Hvau fipf!^ iivd$ 

Hva+au. See 33. itra+ot. See 31. 

— Hvau 



SINGULAR. 



' [Hva+m 



I. 



V D. 



fftj^ Hvena 
[iha+ina, 3a. 

ffSp^nr Hvdya 



[£vd+t 
^ [ f^f^^ Sivasy a 
\^va+sya 

\^va+i. 32. 



r^^lMim Hvabhydm 
Hvd-^hhydm 

— Hvabhydm 

— Hvabhydm 

f^mi^ Hvayos 
Hoe +08, 36. a, 

— Hvayos 



{i^Hva 



iiva (5 dropped). 92. 



f!g^[[^^Hvdn 

Hvd+n 
f^li^Hvais 
diva+cds, 33. 

f^^«f^ Hvebhyas 
iive+bhyas 
— Hvebhyas 

filfWRf^^Hvdndm 
iwdn+dm 
f^l^ Hveshu 
itoe+«tf. 70. 
fflf^fm^Hvds 
Ava+as. 31. 



f^rft Hvau 
^va-\-au, 33. 

Obs. — ^The Vedic I. sing, may end in d, e.g. ^d for Hvena; N. Ac. du. may 
end in i, e.g. ^d for Hvau: N. pi. may end in dsas, e. g. Shdsas for Hodsj I. pi. 
may end in ebMs, e.g. Hvebhis for Hvais. Of. ebhis, I. pi. of idam, 234. 

104. Neuter stems in a, like fijn Hva, n. * prosperity/ or as an 
adjective, * prosperous/ 

The final of the stem is lengthened and assumes » in N. Ac. V. pi. 

fflf^Sivam f^ Hve f^mfsiHvdni 

' [iifca+m. 97. Hva+i, ^2. itrrf+n+t 

The Vocative is f^ Hva, f^ Hve^ f^^rffT Hvdni; all the other 
cases are like the masculine. 

105. Feminine stems in d and (, like fifm Hvd, f. ^ the wife of 
S^iva,* or as an adjective, * prosperous/ and fi^ nadi^ f. *a river/ 
Their declension is exhibited side by side that their analogy may 
be more easily perceived. 

In £od the final of the stem is changed to e m I. sing., G. L. du.; yd is inserted 
in D. Ab. G. L. sing.; and f» in G. pi. Hence the inflective stems ^ivd^ dwe, la 
nad{ the final b changed to y before the vowel-terminations by 34; <£ is in- 
serted in D. Ab. G. L. sing. ; and n in G. pi. ; in V. sing, the final of the stem 
is shortened. 



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INFLEXION OF STEMS OF KOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 85 

Junction of stem with termination : N. sing, s rejected; N. dn. iivd+{:=iive 
bjaa; N.^hiiDd+a$i=iiivdshj^ii I, Bing.^e + d=AvQydhj ^6,a: D. sing. 
divd+yd+e^ dhdffoi by 33 ; O. L. du. dwe + 08=diomfDM by 36. a^ D. sing, nad^ 
+ ^+^^s^iit by;34and33; L. pi. nad^+w =iMi(i^iii by 70. 



SING. 


DUAL. 

Hve 


PLURAL. 

Hvds 


SING. 

nad(' 


DUAL, 


PLURAL. 

nadyos 


\iivayd 


Hve 


Hvds 
\ Hvdbhis 


nadim 






Hvdbhydm 


nadyd 


nadtbhydm 


i nadibhis 


D 1*^ 

yUvdyai 


Hvdbhydm •Hvdbhyas 


nadycd 


nadibkydn 


r nadlbkyas 


^^'{Hvdyds 
®* \Hvdyd» 


Hvdbhydm 
Hvayos 


\ Hvdbhyas 


nadyds 


nadibhydm nadibhyas 


Hvdndm 


nadyds 




nadindm 


f^wpm^ — 

' [Hvdifdm Uvayot 


Hvdsu 


nadydm 


nadyos 


fiodishu 


V [^ 


Hve 


Hvds 


nodi 


nadyau 


na<fya« 



Obs. I. The Vedic I. sing, may be disd for divaydj D. sing, ^at for ihdyaij 
N. pL dwdsasj G. pL Hvdm^ 
Obs. 2. The Vedic N. pL of nouns in { may end in it, e. g. nadis for nacfyot. 

106. Monosyllabie nouns in ^ {, like ^ f. 'fortune/ Wt f. 'fear/ &c.y vary from 
lutdirin the manner explained at i%g« 

107. In accordance with 58, such words as ^ mfiga^ m. * a deer;' 
5^ purushUy m. * a man ;* nrtt bhdryd, f. * a wife ;' ^intt kumdri, 
f. *a girl' — ^mnst be written, in the Inst. sing. m. and the Gen. pi. 
m. ty with the cerebral ^ 9 ; thus^ ^[itm nf^rige^^ f^^> ^pmn^, 
jfiraTil» m^ren^y fUlO^W. When n is finals as in the Ac. pL m., 
it remains michanged. 

. 108. When a feminine noun ending in d forms the last member of a compound 
a^ectire,it is declined like dioa for the maso. and nent. Thus fr. vtilyifr 'learning,' 
atforvidyas (m.), alpa-mdifd (t), alpa-vidyam (n.),. ' possessed of little learning.' 
Sinularly, a masculine noun takes the fem. and neut. terminations ; and a neut. 
noun, the masc. and fem. 

a. When roots ending in <f, sudi as /«f, ' to drink ' or ' to preserve,' form tile 
last member of compound words, they assume the terminations at 91 regularly 



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86 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 

for their masculine and feminine, rejecting, however^ the final of the stem in Ac. 
pi. and remaining Weak or yowel-cases; thus, tTt^iHi soma'pd, m. f. 'a drinker of 
Soma juice;' N. V. -^If^, -^, -^H^J Ac. -^n*!, -"RT, -^j I. -IfT, -trtWrC^, &c.; 
D. -My &0. They form their neuter like that of fiva, e. g. neut. N. Ac. V. ifiHV^, 

-^, -^nftr, &c. 

Similarly, fir^TIT 'protector of the universe,' and ^fpifT * a shell-blower.' 

b. Analogously in £Ug-veda iv. 9, 4, TSft * a woman ' is in N. sing. '«|l^. 

c. Masculine nouns in d, like ^T1[T hdhd, m. ' a Gandharva»' not derived from verbal 
roots, assume the terminations with the regular euphonic changes, but the Ac. pi. 
ends in «^; thus, N. V. ^Tl^^, ?n^, ^1^1^; A. ^TP«^, ^'^j tJI^T*^; I. ?T?T, 
^l^l^MI, ^T^rfil^, &c.; D. fl^, &c.; Ab. ^IfH^, ice; G. ^I^W^, ^'f^* 
^(W^l L. fl%, &c. 

d. The Voc. cases of WQT ambd, Wtp akkd^ and ^HKt attd, all signifying 'mother,' 
are Wflf, ^RR, ^W> ' O mother !' 

e. ^JW m. * a tooth/ ifTO m. * a month,' Vlt^ m. ' a foot,' ^ m. n. ' soup,' 1II9I 
n. * the face,' l^ n. *the heart,' ^^ n. 'water,' ^M n, 'the head,* •ihl n. 'flesh,' 
rn^ll f. ' night,' •nflrar f. * the nose,' 'jnni f. * an army/ are declined regularly, 
but may substitute ^9 11^, ^, 1!^ ^^^^% ^%> "^^^^ ift^^ ''rf^j fifS^, 
•1^9 ^ in the Ac. pi. and remaining cases (see 184). In the neut. nouns, the 
Nom. pi. does not admit the same substitute as Ac. pi. Thus, 7^ will be Ac 

,pl. ^^fUrftf or ^^frfif; I. sing. ^^%f or ^IH. Again, iflfiwi in I. du. will be 
^nftnWTI^^or ^fftwiT'lJ^; and ihf, 'rf^WH^^or IfTWin^. 

109. To understand the importance of studying the declension 
of this first class of nouns, the student has only to turn back to 
pp. •57-68, where the formation of the stems of nouns, substantive 
and adjective, which follow this declension, is explained. All mascu- 
line and neuter substantives in this list are declined like Hva, and 
all feminine either like Uvd or nadi, all ^e adjectives following the 
same three examples for their three genders. 



Second Class in ^ t. Third Class in v tt. 

The inflexion of the and and 3rd classes of nouns (see 81, 82) is exhibited side 
by side, that their analogy may be more readily perceived. 

The and answers to Latin and Greek words like ignis, turri-s, ToAi-^, vio'Ti-f , 
mare, fJii^i ; the 3rd, to words like gradu^s, eornu, fioTpv^g, ij^V'^f [xiOv. 

110. Masculiue stems in ^ t and 7 tt, like ^tfni agni^ m. {^ftds)^ 
*fire;* >ng bhdnu^ m. 'the sun.' 

The final of the stem is gunated in D. Ab. G. V. sing., N. pi. ; lengthened in 
N. Ac. V. du., Ac. G. pL ; dropped in L. sing., or, according to P&^ini, changed 



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INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 87 

ioaj nia inserted in I. sing., G. pL Hence ihe inflective stems agni, agniy agne, agn : 
bkdnuj bhdn4, bhdno, bhdnj according to some the Locative of bhdnu was originally 
bhdnavi (such a form occurring in the Veda), and t being dropped, bhdnav would 
beoome bhdndto {bhdnau). 

Junction of stem with termination : V. sing., N. Ac. V. du., case-termination 
Injected; N. pL agne'\-as=agnaya$ by 36. a: D. sing, agne+e^agnaye, 36. a: 
G. L. du. egm'\-os:=agnyos, 34; L. pL agni+su:=agni8hu, 70. -Similarly, N. pi. 
bk4htO'{-(U:=bhdnavas, 36. a; D. sing. bluhM-\'eG:bhdnaoe, 36.0; G. L. du* 
bhdnu + OS =zbhdfa)08, 34; L. pi. bkdnu+su=bhdnu$hu, 7a 



SING. DUAL. 


PLURAL. 


SING. 


DUAL. 


PLU&AL. 


" \agnis agni 


agnayas 


bhdnus 




bhdna/vas 


mfnm — 

Ac . ^ . 

lagntm agni 


<ignin 


bhdnum 


bhdnu 


bhdnUn 


[agfdnd agnibhydm agmbhii 


bhdmnd 
bhdnave 


' bhdnubhydm bhdnubhis 


* \dgnaye agnibhydm agnibhyas 


— *ng*^ 

bhdnubhffdm bhdnubhyas 


Ab ^ 

'[agnes agnibhydn 


I agnibhyas 


bhdnos 


hhdnubhydm bhdnubhyas 


G. '■'^ 
lagnes agnyos 


agnindm 


bhdnos 






[agnau agnyos 


^Rfnri 
agnishu 


bhdnan 


6A(jfir9« 




* [agne agni 


agnayas 


vrnft 
bhdno 




bhdnavas 



III. The Vedic Gen« sing, may be bhdnvas, which form may also serve for the 
Nom. and Ac. pi. 

112. Feminine stems in ^ t and 7 u^ like «ifk mati, £ Uhe mind/ 
and i)^ dhenuy f. ^ a milch cow/ 

The final of the stem is gunated in D. Ab. G. V. sing., N. pi. ; lengthened in 
N. Ac. V. du., Ac. G. pi.; dropped in L. sing, (imless the termination be ^V1<^); 
wis inserted in G. pL Hence the inflective stems mati, mat{, mate, mat; dhenu, 
dftan^, dkeno, dhen. 

The junction of stem with termination is generally the same as in the mascu- 
lines agni and bhdnu. Inst. sing. mati+d=: matyd, 34 ; D. mate-^e= mataye, 36. a; 
maH-^d+e:=:matyai, 33. 



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88 INFLEXION OP STBM8 OP. NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 



N. 

Ac. 

I. 

D. 

Ab. 

G. 

L. 

V. 



\matis 
{maiim 



lift 
mati 



nrtdtyd 



matayas 

— ^^(\^^ 

mati fnatU 

m<;Uibhydm maiibhis 
\ matayeorHyai matibhydm matibhyas 

( mates or ^tyds matibhydm matibhyas 

i — TO^ ITiftlfT^ 

( mates or °tyds matyos . matindm 

{ ifln or Hnii^ — "rfl^ 

I ma/ott ar^tydm matyos maiishu. 70. 

ma/e ma/( matayas 

With the optional forms in D. Ab. G. L. sing., compare similar forms in the same 
cases of nadC 

113. The Vedic Nom. pi. may be dhenvas, 

114* Neuter stems in f t and 7 ti, like mft vdri, n. * water/ and inf 
madhUf n. * honey* (fAeOv). 

The stem inserts n before the vowel*tenninations, and the final is lengthened in N. Ac. 
V. and G. pL Hence tiie inflective stems vdri, vM; madhu, madhi 



8IN0. 



dhenus 


dhewi 


dhenaocu 


dhenum 


dherd 


dhenus 


dhenvd 


dhenubhydm dhenubhis 


^^^ or ^5^ ^^^^ 
dhenaveoT^^nvai dhenubhydm dhenubhyoM 


^^or^5^ — — 
dhenos ar^nvds dhsHubkydm dhenubhyag 


dhenosor^fwds 


dhetWQS 


dhemindm 


Hmori|M||H 
dhenauor'^nvdm dhewoos 


dhenushu. 70* 


dJieno 


dhetd 


dhenavoB 



SINO. 

N. j^lft 
Ao. v<M 


DUAL. 


PLIZ&AL. 


8IN0. 


OVAL. PLUKAL. 

madhunt madhdrd 


*• (wfrnui 


vdribhydm vdribhis 




madhubhydm madhubkis 


■ v<fnn« 


vdribhydm vdribhyas 


ma^fAufie 


madhubhydm madhubhyas 




vdribhydm vdribhyas 


madhunas 


madhubhydm tiMdhubhyoB 


' (t;(frina« 


HTftsft^ 
vdrifios 


vdrif^m.^%. 




«cy!^ iP|in^ 


1 ^iftftl 


vdrinas 


iNimAti. 70. 


f?KufAtmt 


fftad%fino» ffui<2AiwA». 70 


* vdriorvdre vdrini 




11^ or init 'i^pft ^rf^ 
madhu ormadho madhunt madhUni 



115. The Vedic Ac. pL may be madki. 



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INFLBXION OP STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS, 89 

ii6. Neuter npuns in t and u fbUow the analogy of nouns in tii at 159, e^coept 
in G. plur, and V. sing. 

cr. fH^ n. ' summit/ ' ridge/ optionally substitutes ^ in all cases except the first 
five inflexions. 

iij. There are not many substantives declined like agni and vdri (81), but 
nouns like mati are nmnerous (81. II). Moreover, adjectives like iuH, and com- 
pound adjectives in t, are declined like apii in niasc.» like mati in fem., and like 
M&^ in neut. 

118. Again, there are few substantives declined like dhenu and madhUf yet many 
nmple a4Jectives like tatm and pipdtu (83), all compound adjectives in u, are de- 
clined fike bkdnu m the masc., like dhenu in the fem., and like madku in the neut. 

a. Many ailQectives in «, however, eith» optionally or necessarily follow ntidi in 
fbm. ; as, tamt, 'thin,' makes Norn, tern* either tonus or tatwi: ^9 ' tender/ makes 
Norn. f. ^ift mfidn(: and ^, 'heavy,' ^pff ^im^: and some optionally lengthen 
v in the fern. ; as, hlUru^ * timid,* makes fern. )A^ or Whc, declinable hke nouns 
in 4, 135. 

119. When feminine nouns in t and 11 form the last member of a compound 
a4)Mtive, they must be declined like a^i in masc, and vdri in neut. Thus alpa-" 
maiiy 'narrow-minded,* in the Ac. plur. masc. would be alpa-maHn; fSem. al/Mr- 
wuO^s: neut. alpa^mai6li, 

Similarly, a masc. or neut. noun, at the end of a comp., may take a fbm. form* 
0. Although adjectives in t and « are declined like vdri and madku for the neut., 
yet in the D. Ab. G. L. sing., and in the G. L. du., they may optionally follow 
the masculine form ; thus itUi and tauu will be, in D. sing, neut., wP^^ cv ^pi^» 
•iqn oar IHf^y and so with the other cases. 

130. ^rf^ sakJdy m. 'a friend,' has two stems, mn^for the Strong oases (see 
135. a), and ^rf^ for the others ; thus, N. W^, 9€fW| ^HRHV^ ; Ac. <i^iM^t 

Ab. ^fni]^> Tifiiiwn«^, ^rflfwi^; G. w^^, inpfl^, 4i^«!i*|^; L. ^nnT> ^wrt^t 

llftlj; V. ^RSr, ^SWnii, ^mil^. Hence it appears that $akhi in some cases 
assumes tiie terminations at 91 more regularly than ognL In the rest it follows 
aguL 
Obs. — ^The feminine mft, ' a female friend,' is declined like «!^. 

131. ^iflf m. 'a master,' 'lord' (voai^), when not used in a compound word, 
follows sakhi at i so in I. D. Ab. G. L. sing, (thus, I. 'QTTT, D. i|7^, Ab. G. ^t^, 
L. Vlmf) ; in the other cases, agni. But pati is more usually found at the end of 
compounds, and then follows agni tiiroughout (thus, >JJlOl'*H 'by the lord of the 
earth'). 

Obs.-^The feminine of VlfH is ^^9f^patn(, declinable like 'Tlf^. 

133. A few neuter nouns, ^fci n, * a bone ' (oorcov), ^tf^ n. ' an eye ' (oovto, 
ifcof), ^Sflpi n. 'a thigh/ ^ftln. 'coagulated mUk,' drop their final i in I. sing, and 
remaining weak or vowel-cases, and are denned in those cases as if derived from 
obsolete forms in on, such as VFF^ &c. (cf. ndman at 153); thus, 

N 



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90 INFLEXION OP STEMS OP NOUNS BNDINO IN VOWELS. 

UfiW * a bone :' N. V. Ac. trf^, wf^pft, IW^MW; I. ^^^9 ^fei^Ni*^, &c. ; 
D. IP^, ^wfttWIi^, &c. ; Ab. ^■^^^ &o.; G. UIJI^, ^WJ^* '«i^i«\^; L. ^rf^ 
or ^RWftf , -n^l^, ^'ft^- 

Hence, Hftf, ' an eye,* will be in I. Bmg. WIQT; in D. ITl^y &c. (see 58). 



Nouns ending in \i and 9 u. 

123. Besides the feminines of adjectives and participles, &c., 
declined like nadi at 105 (cf. 80. XI), there are a few common 
monosyllabic words in long ^ ( (generally roots used as substantives) 
primitively feminine, i. e. not derived from masculine substantives 
(sec 82. XV), whose declension must be noticed separately. They 
vary from the declension of wfi (105) by forming the Nom. with ^, 
and using the same form for the Voc., and by changing the final ( 
to iy before the vowel-terminations ; thus, 

^f. 'prosperity:' N.V. ift^, ftw, ftR^; Ac. fw^t ftw, ftw^; 
I. fiRr, irtwip^, ^rtfii^; d. fsr^ or ftrt, fftwiPf, 'JI^m^; Ab. ftw^ or 
finiw[t iftwim, 'Jl^M^j G. ftR^ or fwT^, ftnit^, ftnn'^ or ^Bft^n*^; 
L. ftffti or finn^, ftnft^, ^ftj. 

a. Similarly, Wt f. 'fear/ fft f. 'shame,' and ^ f. 'understanding ;' thus, N. V. 
)A^> finfft fini^; Ac. fil^, &c. ; I. filHf , &c. ; D. firt or mA, &c. 

b. T^ t, ' a woman ' (not being itself a root like the examples above), follows 
W(\ in N. V. sing., and varies also in other respects ; tbus, N. ^pf^, ^9n> > (\{|MI^; 
V. %, f^SK^f ^Sr^l Ac. ^fN^or f^m^, %^, ^Bft^ or %1|^; I. f^JPH, 

Hfl^'H? iS^^^J 1^- %l^> ^aftwni^* ^Sf^^i Ab. %nn^, ^ft«n^, «1^M,; 
G. 1^41^, ^pft^j ^fNn^; L. f^sp^, <^pft^» ^ft^. 

As the last member of a compound adjective, it shortens its final, and in some of 
its cases follows agni and mati; e. g. 

vHlf^jl m. f. n. ' surpassing a woman :' N. masc. *%|^9 -Hi^Mi, -^JI^I^; Ac. 
-%|^ or -ffepi'^, -^nr, -Sfr^ or -%PI^; I. -f^WT, -1^«U*^, &c. ; D. -^, 
&c. ; Ab. -^1^, &c. ; G. -^Jf^, -%^, "fpfrOT^; L. -^, &c. ; V. -^, &c. 
The fem. form is like the masc., but Ac. pi. -^jfN[or "^{Pl^; I. ~%nn I D. -(^^^ 
or HCn; Ab, -f^jpn^or -^if^, &c. For neut., see 126. j. 

124. A few primitively feminine words not monosyllabic, such as tSWft 'the 
goddess of prosperity/ IRft ' a lute-string/ TTft ' a boat/ like ^, take s in the 
Nom. sing., but in other respects follow l|!ft; thus, N. cVl^ft^, €9W^> Hl^^l^; 
Ac T^A'^y &c. ; V. fVftH* 

Obs. — ^Analogously in the Veda ^Jlft ' a she-wolf' (Rig-v. 1. 1 17, 18), and (accord- 
ing to some authorities) f^BT^ ' a lioness,' make N. sing. ^pA^> ^It^)^- 

But Wndt f. ' the brilliant (goddess),' as a derivative fem. noun, is N. sing. m^. 



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INFLEXION OP STEMS OP NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 91 

1 25. Feminine nouns in long 9 u, not monosyllabic, are declined 
like primitively feminine nouns of more than one syllable in ^ f, i.e. 
like <91^, they follow the analogy of nad( except in N. sing., where 
s is retained. In the other cases 9 u becomes v, wherever ^ f is 
changed to y (see 34) ; thus, 

^* a wife :\ N. ^^, ^, WT^; Ac. ^ipr, W^, ^^; I. WIT, 
^^P«iTH, ^^|Sf^; D. ^, ^9p|^i>nsr, ^i^|[^; Ab. !ii9i^> ^^R'''^, ^T?^; 
G. nutr^y ^^9^9 ^np^'lJ L. nysr^, w^, ^^ ; V. n^, nmt, wi^. 

Similarly, ^f. *a host;' ''^^* *^ mother-in-law.* 

a. Again, monosyllabic words in u primitively feminine are de- 
clined analogously to ^ f. at 123; u being changed to uv, wherever 
i is changed to iy; thus, 

. ^f. 'the earth :' N. V. ^, ^, ^^; Ac. ^VT, ^, ^^; I. ^, 
«»W^, «6^; D. ^ or ^, >janif, Jfvq^; Ab. ^^ or ^^, «an^, 
«^; G. ^^or ^5^, ^^, ^^or ^j?n^; L. ^ or ^tit, ^^, ^jj. 

Observe that the V. is like the N. 

*. Similarly, ^£ *the eye-brow' (oippvg) : N.V. ^, ^, ^;^, &c. 

126. Roots of one sjUable ending in { and u, used as masc. or fern, nouns, follow 
the declension of monosyllabic words in { and 4, such as ift at 133 and ^9i 125.0; 
but in the D. Ab. G. L. sing., G. pi., take only the first inflexion ; tbus, 

lit m. f., ' one who buys/ makes D. ffpi only for m. and f., and ^ m. f., ' a 
reaper/ makes D. ^^ only for m. and f. 

a. The same generally holds good if they have adjectives prefixed to them ; 
thus, ^n?nft m. f . ' the best buyer * (N. V. -Ifl^, -fii'ft, -ftW^; Ac. -fiWT, &c.) 

b. And when they are compounded with another noun as a dependent term they 
generally change their final { and « to y and 9, before vowel-terminations, and not 
to f jf and w> (unless { and ii are preceded by a double consonant, as in ^MHil ' a buyer 
of barley'), thus conforming more to the declension of polysyllables ; e.g. 

WFT^ft (for iraifT) m. f., ' a water-drinker,' makes N. V. Ifcrtt^, -W, -^"I^J 
Ac. Hf^Ufll^ -W, -''^^; I. ^raTT, -^rt*Tnf , &c. ; D. ITFTO, &c. ; Ab. nco'^^, 
&c. ; G. 9ic9«H^9 "^"f^T) &c. ; L. ^c^fuv (in opposition to 31), &c. 

So ilso, WSSJ^m. f. * a sweeper :' N. V. ^c8^H^, -"W, -T^; Ac URH^, &c. ; 
I. W<5WT, &c. ; L. vcofi^, &c. : ^|eJ^*one who cuts well;' N.V. ^^J^, • W > -"^l^. 

c. Similarly, ^^T^m. f. *a frog,' "5'^™" '* thunderbolt,' ^IT^m. *a finger- 
nail,' J'riLm. f. ' bom again ' (N.V. ^'ff:^; Ac. -^, &c. ; L-^; D. -^; Ab. 
G. -^^4l^, -f>^* But if the sense is limited to a distinct female object, as ' a virgin 
widow remarried,' the D. will be -V?; Ab. G. ->%^; L. -Wi^, like 'l^. 

d. Similarly also, itHT'rt m. 'a general,' ITPV^ ni. f. 'the chief of a village;* 
but these, like wf^, take dm for the termination of the L. sing, even in masc. ; 
thus, N. V. iffPft^, -^, -^1^; Ac. -^n^, &c. ; I. -^; L. ^«|l«l||«^, %'fpft^, 

N % 



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92 INFLEXION OF ST£MS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 

^Hl^Jy &0. This Bpjdies also to the simple noun ift m. f. ' a leader,' but the 
final becomes iy before vowel-tenninations. 

«, But ^Ora^ and ^«|[^ m. * self-existenV as a name of Brahm^y foUow ^ at 
125. a« taking only the first inflexions; thus, D. '^l Ab. *^|^9 &c. 

/• Masculine non-compounds in ^and 4 of more than one syllable, like ^T^ m. 
' who drinks ' or ' cherishes/ ' the sun/ ^ m, * a Gandha^a,' follow 9|c4M1 and 
1fF5^ at 126, h, except in Ac. sing, and pL ; thus, N. V. hWI^, ^n>IT, ^TO^; Ac. 
^roft^^y W^y ^nrtv^; and in L. sing, the final i* combines with the t of the termination 
into / (31), not into yt; thus, L. sing. V^ (but ffif firom Jfjf). Again, ^IIU^ 
m. 'an antelope ' (surpassing the wind), as a compound, may follow 9i€o4); but 
Vopadeya makes Ac. sing, and pL follow inA. When such noims have a feminme, 
the Ac. pi. ends in s; thus HTC m. f., ' tawny,' makes HTCIS^ for the Ac. pL fem. 

g, A word like JVH f. * superior understanding ' (formed from the compound 
verb ira), when used as a fem. noun, is treated as a polysyllable, and follows 
HH^, except in D. Ab., &c., where It takes the second inflexions (D. sing. Vu^y 
&c.) But when used a^jectiydy, in the sense ' having superior understanding/ 
it follows Wt^ throughout, both for masc. and fem.» but may optionally for the 
fem. be declined like the fem. substantive. The Yoc. fem. may be WH^ or nfv. 

Two rare nouns, ^|lA * one who loves pleasure ' and ^lA * one who wishes for a 
son,' also ibUow IfFHA'; but in Ab. G. sing, make ^^H, ^fjt^* 

k. Monosyllabic nouns primitive^ feminine (like Wt f.> ^ f., ^ f., at 123, 
^f. ^the eye-brow'), forming the last membar of a compound adjective, still follow 
the declension of monosyllables, but use the first inflexions only in the D. Ab. G. 
L, cases and G. plur. fbr the masc, and may optionally use them tot the ibm. ; 
thus, N. Tinft^ m. f., * fearless,' is 'nriw only in D. sing, m., -fw or -fw in 
D. sing. f. So also, ^^ m. f. ' intelligent,' IJV^ m* f* * having pure thoughts,' 
^4f m. f. ^ stupid/ ^ipft m. f. ' having good fortune,* ^^m. f. ' having beautiftd 
brows ;' thus, N. V. ^^> "^[^y ~^^' ^^* ^IW^> ^^ According to Vopadeva, 
the Voc. f. may be ^9 and this form oocnrs once in the Bhatti*k4vya. 

f . Words necessarily feminine (mtya-^f^'Uttga), such as htmdr^, ' a girl,' CUmri, 
She goddess Gauri,' 9sc, (not like f|i«iW)> which may be masc and hm.\ retain 
their madi^ chanMster (P69. i. 4> 3)9 even though they afterwavda assume anoUier 
jNnse which makes them masculine. This may happen in a oompound, as m 

HJVrtt m. * a man of many excellenees :* N. Wj^^lft, -OT, -^l(^; V. -fl», 
&o, ; Ac, •ift'^, -w, -^fh^; I. -^n> -^ftwnw, &c. ; D. -F^, &c. I Ab. G. -^HP^, 
to.; L, -55n^, &C. 

Or in words not compounded, as in ^Hl^ 'a man who acts lil^e a girl,' N. masc. 
9«ii.^« But these difiPer in Ac. sing, and pi. (^^VT^, ^■'H^). Cf. the name 
QopdUi'-saragvaU in Sanskfit-English Dictionary. 

Also like bdkvhheyasi (but N. sing, will end in ^), nfHc^Vftlft m. f. * one who has 
surpassed Lakshml,' HllMVSlft m. f. * deprived of fortune,* lrfk^i|^m. f. 'victorious 
over hosts * (N. ^ifini^, -W^, -'^; V. -^ ; Ac. -ij|r, -W^, -'|J^, Ac. pi. f . -•p^ ; 
I. -'TT, -^J'nil^f &c. ; D. -^, &c. ; Ab. -''IT^, &c.) ; but these three iftay follow 
Vopadeva^s declension of ^TITHlft at ia6./. 



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INFLBXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS BNDING IN VOWELS. 93 



j. Adjectives ending in i'wid i^ shorten the final yowel for the nenter, »nd follow 
vdri: but in the I. D. Ab. G. and L. cases thej may optionally take the masc. 
terminations; thns, N. V. sing. neut. Tllfil; I. ITffiffl or TlfWHT; D. 1ifBl% 
or ^Wfirt , &c N. V. Ac sing. IfHfll ; I. HWfMH! or -W, &c. N. V. Ac. WW^ J 
I. -JfT or -^. N. V. Ac. WJ^ifftl; I. -fi^lftlH! or -^^IWWT; D. -'^llftl^ or 

"^M^, &c. N. V. Ac. irnvAif; I. -ftnif or -wr. 

Fourth Class in if fi. 

This class answers to oorfipy itar'^p, pater, &c. ; p being equivalent to or: and 
it 18 remarkable, that ddtdram, ddtdras, &e„ bear the same relation to pitaram, 
pUaras^ &c., that JoT^pa, XoT^f €f , SoT^f /, &c., bear to varipa^ varepe^, varepi^ 
&c. Compare also the Latin datoris from dator with patris from paler, 

127. Masculine stems in n» like ^ ddtfi^ m. * a giver/ and ftr^ 
|rt/ff, m. *a fiither/ The former is the model of nouns of agency 
(83} ; the latter, of nouns of relationship. 

In nouns oif agency like ddtfi the final fi is vriddhied (a8), and in nouns of 
relationship like pitt% (except nop/ft, ' a grandson/ and «o<Mft, ' a sister ') gunated, in 
the Strong cases (see 135) ; but the r of dr and ar is dropped in N, sing., and to 
compensate in the last case a is lengthened. In both, the final p is gunated in 
L. V. sing., and ur is substituted for final ri and the initial a of of in Ab. 6. sing. 
In Ac G. pl« final p is lengthened^ and assumes » in G. pi. Hence the inflective 
stems diUjif ddtdr, ddtar^ ddtfiy ddtvrj ptp, pitar, pUfi, pitur. 

Junction of stem with terminations ; $ is elided at the end of a conjunct conso- 
nant after rj hence in Ab. G. ddturs and pUmrs become ddtur and pitur. See 41. 1. 



■IMS. 

N l^^ 


DUAL. 

ddtdrau 


PLU&AL. 

ddtdras 


SING. 

flnn 
pitd 


DUAL. 

pitarau 


PLURAL. 

pitaras 


\ddtdram ddtdr au 


ddtrin 


pitaram pitarau 


pitfin 


*• \ddtrd 


ddtfibhydm ddtfibhis 


ftr?fT 
pitrd 


pitfibhydm pitribhis 


"• \ddire 


ddtfibhydm ddtribhyas 


pitre 


pitfibhydm pitfibhyas 


"isL 


ddtfibhydm ddtfibhyas 


pitur 


pitfibhydm pitfibhyas 


»■{*»»• 


ddtros 


ddtri^dm. 5S. 


pitur 


pitros 


pUfit^m. 58, 


^- \d6ian 


ddtros 


ddtfishu. 70. 


ftnrft 
pitari 


pitros 


pitfishu. 70. 


V \^^ 


ddtdrau 


ddtdras 


pitar 


pitarau 


pitaras 



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94 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN VOWELS. 

ia8. Pitji seems to be a weakened form of pdtfi, 'a protector' {pd, *to protect'). 
The cognate languages have preserved the root in varrjpj pater, 'father/ &c. 
The Latin Jupiter, however, is literally Dyu-pitar, or rather Dyaush-pitar^ * fiather 
of heaven.' It is clear that sterns like ddtri, pitji, &c., originally ended in or. 

a. «r| naptfi, *' a grandson ' (thought by some to be derived from na, ' not>' and 
pdtfi, *' a protector '), is declined like !(lf ddtfi, 

b. There are a few nouns in ft expressing neither relationship nor agency. 

^ fift, m. ' a man/ is said to be declined like pitji: thus, N. •TTtu^ Ac. vf^y 
I. ^, D. ^, Ab. G. g^, &c. But the forms ^, %, ^^ are seldom, if ever, used. 
The following forms certainly occur : N. sing. •??, Ac. •TTH; N. Ac. du. •TO, 
I. D. Ab. ^^'O'^, G. L. tlO^; N. pi. ifC^, Ac. "5^, D. Ab. ^^^> G. ^^^Jf^ or 
•pui«^j L. '^j^. In the I. D. G. L. sing., the corresponding cases of «R are gene- 
rally substituted. 

c. 1^ m., ' a jackal,' must form its Strong cases (except V. sing.) and may form 
its Weak cases (135) from Tdj. N. ldVT> -OTu, -WfT^; Ac. -fH?^, -)TO, -'^ 
or-^; I. -IT or -^^TT, "g^«^, &c. ; D. -|^ or -1^, &c. ; Ab.-^or-ft^^&c; 
G. -^ or -Y^, -I^ or -yt^, -^OT^or -ffn^; L. -fflc or -IH, &c.; V. -f^. 

As the last member of a compound adjective, in the neuter, lih| alone is used. 

d. Nouns like ^^^^ m. * a charioteer/ r^ m. * a carpenter/ ^ m., Iftj °^'* ^"^ 
m. ' di£Perent kinds of priests,' if^ m. ^ a warrior,' of course, follow ddtri. But 
««Mj m., * a charioteer,' follows pitji, 

129. Feminine stems in ^ rt belong to nouns of relationship, 
like* ma^n, *a mother' (from md^ *to create,* *the producer'); and 
only differ from pitri in Ac. pL, which ends in s instead of n; 
thus^ HTiW. Compare fJ-^Tfjp, fifp-epa, Voc. fi-nrep. 

a, ^9^ gfjasri, ' a sister,' exceptionally follows ^fHf ddtjij but the Ac. pi. is still 
^^^. The lengthening of the penultimate in the Strong cases is probably caused 
by the loss of the t from tji, preserved in the English sister. So soror for sostor, 

b. The feminine stem of nouns of agency is formed by adding ^ { 
to the final^ri; thus, ^ + |, 5T?ftrfrf<r£, f. * a giver;' andi|f + ^, 
WJlflf. *a doer/ Their infleicion follows nad( at 105. 

130. The neuter stem is thus declined : N. Ac. IfT^, ^fl^'irt, ^TiriVr; V. ^Tl^ or 
^TJ. The rest may conform to vdri at 114, or resemble the masc. ; thus, I. ^T?fT 
or ^T{^9 &c. But neuter stems in ^ ji belong generally to nouns of agency or 
of relationship, when used at the end of compound adjectives, such as ^?^Tf bahu- 
ddtfi, 'giving much,' or f^^Hiij divya-rndtri, agreeing with neuter words like 
^««^, i. e. *a family having a divine mother,' or flPRTf 'having two mothers' 
(compare OifiTjTCop), Their declension may*resemble that of t^e^ at 114, or con- 
form to the masc. in all cases but the N. V. Ac. ; thus, N. Ac. ![!?> ^T^^* ^HrfilF; 
V.l^or?nT^»&c.; I. ^I^W or ^WT, &c. ; D.^T^or^, &c.; Ab.G.^H^pV^ 

<>' V^> &c- ; L. <^ii|(Vi or ^fiwft:, &c. N. Ac. -m^, -'imift, -im^; v. -inj 

or -'nw^, &c.; I. -HIjHII or -IT^IT, &c. 



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INFLEXION OP STEMS OP NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 95 

Nouns ending in ^ ai, ^*V o^ ^ au. 

131. We may notice here a few monosyllabic nouns in ^^ wt, 
and w, not sufficiently numerous to form separate classes. 

133. T rot, m. f. * substance/ * wealth ' (Lat. re$) : N. V. ^CI^, xrii, TR^; Ac. 
XP^ &c. ; I. TRT, TWn^, Ufi*^ {rebus) ; D. TI^, tWP?, m*h^; Ab. TIHI^, 

&c. ; G. tnr^, Tnf^, tphh ; l. nfti, n^ft^, ti^. 

133. 'ft go, m. f. * a cow * or ' ox ' {hos, fiovg), 'the earth :' N. V. Ww^, IFn, 
fW^; Ac. TTIf , Iw , IT^; I. ^nr, WtwiP^, 'ftfil^; D.l^j&c; Ab.n^,&c.; 
G. W^, Tft^f TIW ; L, ifti {bovi), 'Pft^, 'ft^. Compare W\ with yypf. 

o. ift dffo, f. * the sky,* follows 'ft; thus, N. V. 1IT1(, WTv, WW^; Ac. WW, 
wHt, W^; I. Wnif Wt^nC^, WWW^; D. Wl, &c. The Vedic N. du. is WTO. 

134- ^ <Mii, f. ' a ship ' (cf. navis, voivg), is declined at 94, taking the termina- 
tions with perfect regularity. With the N. pi. ndvas, compare naves, voUg (v^€^). 
The gen. ifrjof for vaog or vaFog s novas. 

Similarly may be declined ^ m. ' the moon :' N. glaus, gldvau, gldvas^ &c. 

a. The above nouns sometimes occur at the end of compoimds ; as, ^7T 'rich,' 
N. m. f. ^5^W, &c.; WJHi * having many ships/ N. m. f. ^J'TT^, &c. The 
neuter is ^IjflC, ^IJ^ ; of which the Inst, cases will be ^jftWT, 'IJ^fT ; and so 
with the other cases : the masc. forms being equally allowable in ^jlV throughout, 
except in N. Ac. V. sing. du. pi. 5 e. g. ijtV^ui or ^pCRT. 

b. In the case of ^0, 'a cow,' the compound seems always formed with gu; e.g. 
dbi-^ Mf, us, «, * worth two cows ;' pahSa-gu, ' bought with five cows / ^ata-gu, 
'possessing a hundred cows.' 

Section II.— LAST FOUR CLASSES OF NOUNS. 

Infleman of Nouns^ Substantive and Adjectivey whose stems end 

in consonants. 

135. The last four classes of nouns, though including substantives, 
consist chiefly of adjectives, participles, or roots at the end of adjective 
compounds. All masc. and fem. nouns under these remaining classes 
regularly take the terminations at 91. Neut. nouns take the substi- 
tutions at 97 in N. Ac. du. pi. 

a. The case-terminations are here repeated with Bopp^s division 
into Strong, Weaker, and Weakest, as applicable especially to nouns 
ending in consonants (though not to all of these even). The Strong 
cases will be here denoted by the letter S ; the Weaker, sometimes 
called Middle, will be denoted by M ; and the Weakest by w. In 
those nouns which distinguish between Strong and Weak cases only, 
the Weak will be marked by both M and w. 



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96 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 

SINGULAR. If. P. N. DUAL. M. P. N. PLU&AL. M . F. N. 

Nom.Voc.^*(S),(NeutM) w^ati(S),(Neut.w) ^a*(S),(Neut.S) 

Ace. ^ am (S), (Neut. M) — m (S), (Neut. w)—as (w), (Neut S) 

Inst ^<^ (w) v^bhydm (M) f^bhis (M) 

Dat ir c (w) — bhydm (M) ^^i^bhyas (M) 

AbL ^»^ as (w) — bhydm (M) — bhyas (M) 

Gen. — as [w) lft^^os (w) ^rp^dm {w) 

Loc. ^t (w) — OS (w) ^su (M) 

The Voeatiye, though identieal with the Nom. in the dual and 
plural, has sometimes a peculiar form of its own in the singular 

(see gi). 

b, Pd^ini always considers the Nom. sing. maso. as having the termination «, 
which is supposed to retun its e£Fect, though it experiences lopa (cutting off); hut 
in the N. Ac. Voc. sing. neut. there is htk of the terminations « and am, i. e. these 
terminations disappear altogether (P&9. vii. i, 33). 

c. The terms anffa^ pada^ bha (the first two of which have also 
general meanings, see 74 with note) are applied in a restricted sense 
to different forms of the Pratipadika or stem as modified by the 
above terminations or by suffixes ; thus, the stem is called a»ga 
before the terminations of the so-called Strong cases or Pinini^s 
sarva-ndmorsthdna (viz. the Nom. sing. du. pL, Ac. sing, and du, 
of masc. and fem*. nouns, and the Nom. and Ac. pL of neuter nouns, 
see the above table); pada* before the terminations of the Middle 
cases (viz. bhydm^ bhis, bhyas^ and su)^ as well as before Taddhita 
suffixes beginning with any consonant except y (P^n. i. 4, 17); 
bha before the terminations of the Weak cases beginning with vowels 
(except of course the anga terminations mentioned above), as well 
as before Taddhita suffixes beginning with vowels and y (see P&9. 
I. 4, 18). 

d. A stem is made strong by lengthening the vowel of the last 
syllable, or by inserting a nasal, e.g. yuvaUy yuvdn; dhanavat^ dha-^ 
navoMt : and made weak by eliminating one or more letters, e. g. 
yuvaUy yun; praiyafiS, pratU. 

t. It should be noted that the Ac, pi., and in neuter nouns the 

* PK>hahly so called because the laws of Sandhi which come into operation at 
the junction of separate words {pada) in a sentence generally hold good before 
the terminations of the Middle < 



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INFLEXION OP STEMS OP NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 97 



Inst, sing., is generally the guide to the form assumed before the 
remaining Yowel-terminations. 

f. This division of cases has not been noticed before, because it 
is of no real importance for stems ending in vowels. That it applies 
to stems ending in rt is accounted for by the fact that these originally 
ended in ar. 

Fifth. Class in i^/ and ^ d. 

This class answers to Latin Fords like c(mtt (stem cwmi'\ eques (stem equit'\ 
ferens (stem ferent-) ; and to Greek words like X^P^^ {js^rn. X«piT-), K^pa^ (stem 
tcepaT-), ik%U (stem cA»i8^), xaplug (stem xapi€VT-). 

136. Masculine and feminine stems in 1^/ and ^ d^ like ^fb^AortV^ 
m. f. * green ^ (declined at 95), and ^f^sarit^ f. *a river/ and the 
compound v4ft; dharmorvidy m. f. ' knowing one's duty* (see 84. IV). 
Obsenre — ^The Norn. sing, is properly harits, dharma-vits, but s b rejected by 
41. 1. The same applies to all nouns ending in consonants. So aiii^fxcev for 
oiOfi/AOV^. Latin and Greek, when the final of the stem refuses to combine with 
the « of the Nom., often prefer rejecting the final of the stem ; thus, X^^( for 
yofirg, comet for comits: and in these languages the final consonant frequently 
combines with the s of the Nom., as in Zeop (for leks), ^Aof (for ^Ao^(). 

8INO. DUAL. PLURAL. 

-vit -rtrfatt '■vidas 

-f^ — — 

-vidam -^vidau ^-vidas- 

-vidd -vidbhydm -vidbhis 

-vide -vidbhydm -vidbhyas 

-f^ — — 

-vidas -vidbhydm -vidbhyas 

-'vidas -vidos -viddnk 



SINO. 



DUAL. 

saritau 



PLURAL, 

sariias 



Ac. 



I. 



D. 



Ab. 



G. 



\sarit 

i^lft^ — ^ — * 

saritam saritau saritas 

sariid saridbhydm saridbhis 

Barite saridihydm saridbhyas 

(irftl^ — — 

\ sariias saridbhydm saridbhyas 

\ saritas sariias saritdm 

( sarin saritos 



-wrft --vidos 



'Vitsu 



saritsu 

137. Neuter stems in n^t and ^ d, like jfc^harit^ n. *green/ v^ftr^ 
dharma-vid^ n. * knowing one's duty/ and ^|^ kumud, n. * a Iptus/ 

These only differ from the masculine and feminine in the N. du. pL, Ac. sing, 
du. and pi., the usual neuter terminations ^ ^ ^ i (see 97), being required^ and ' 
II being inserted before the final of the stem in N. Ac, pi. ; thus» 

o 



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98 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS BNDINis IN CONSONANTS. 

N. Ac. V. ^ficn harii, ffbft haritt, fflcftr karinti ; I* ^ftjn haritd^ 
fftvrT>(^ haridbhydmy &€.» like masc. and fern. 

N. Ac. V. irtfirn^, ^''^^^''t^j ^^PlfV^ ; I, vWnfT, &c. 
Similarly, N. Ac. V. ^^n^, fijlf^, f^; I. ff^, &c. 

138. All nouns at 84. II-IV. follow ffb^and "M^ft^. 

139. ^ hfid, n. ' the heart,' is said to be defective in the first five inflezionSy 
these cases being supplied from hjridaya (see 108. e). 

140. Possessive adjectives formed with the suffixes ^-va/ (84. VII) 
and wif^-mat (84. VI), like xrifmn^dhana-vat, 'rich,' and ^fN^^ rfAf-mo/, 
' wise,' are declined like fuirii for the masculine ; but in the Strong 
cases (see 135. a) n is inserted before the final of the stem. 

In N. sing, dhanavdn for dhanavants, ts is rejected by 41. 1, and the final vowel 
4l the stem lengthened by way of compensation. 

N. V^nr^ dhanavdn V^n^ dkanavaniau VH^nl^ dhanavantas 

Ac. ifH^WR dhanavaniam — dhanavantau IR^IT^ dhanavatas 
I. V^nVT dhanavatdy V^nVTH dhanavadbhydm, &c., like harit 
V. iR^ d%aAat;an, &a 

Similarly^ ^^t^f^^ *wise:' N. iA«n'l[, VtiPif^, iftiw^; Ac. ifhfiirVy 
VtWr , ^ftifTf^, &c. ; V. ift^y &c. 

a. like dhana-vat are declined Past Active Participles, such as ^fTRI^'one who 
has done' (553) ; thus, N. masc. ^iW^, ^IRRIT, ^iicim^, &c. 

b. The feminine stems of acfjectives like IHMIf^ and 4Nn^, and Participles like 
^IRW, are formed by adding ^ / to the Weak form of the masc. stem ; as, Vn^ifl, 
iftlflft, ^flRlft, declined like if*^ at 105 ; thus, N. VTHft, VTOu , ^•i^m^, &c. 

c. The neuter is like the neut. of harit : N. Ac. V. V'l^, M'mft, WRfw. 

141. Present Participles (524) like iT^/wiA»/, * cooking,^ and 
Future Participles (578) like ^iftivn^^ karishyai, * about to do,' are 
declined after dlianavat (140), excepting in the N. sing, masc., where 
a is not lengthened before n ; thus, 

N. V. sing. V^l9{^paian (for padanU)^ and not ^^\\pa6dn : N. du. pi. ^^TOT, 
trW^J^; Ac. ^Win^, ^i|^w, Vni^; I. ^WWT, &c. Cf. Latin and Greek Par- 
ticiples like /pr«w, /«•«!/-«, /ere»/-em, &c.; ^€^«v, ^po»T-o^, ^po»T-a, &c. 

a. Observe, however, that all reduplicated verbs of the 3rd class and Frequen- 
tatives (but not Desideratives) ; a few verbs from polysyllabic roots (75. a), and 
some few other verbs — such as W^* to eat,' ^T^ * to rule ' — which reject the nasal 
in the 3rd pi. Pres. of the Parasmai-pada, reject it also in the declension of the 
Pres. Participle. Hence the Pres. Participle of such verbs is declined like harit^ 
the N. sing..being identical with the stem ; thus, fr. dd, cl. 3, * to give,' N. V. smg. 
da. pi. dadaty dadatau, dadaias; Ac. dadatam, &c. : fir. bkjri, ol. 3, 'to bear,' N. V. 
sing. du. pi. bibhrat, bibhrataUy hibhratoM, So also, jdgrat, * watching ' (fr. jdgf%)t 



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IKFLSXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN OONSONAN 



^dMoi, * ruling ' (fr. ids), jakshat, * eating ' (fr. jaksh). The rejection of the naiai 
is doubtless owing to the encumbranoe of the syllable of reduplication. 

Obs. I. Quasi-reduplicated verbs of d. i and Desideratiyes do not reject the nasal; 
e.g. Hikfkat, fir. stkd, 'to stand/ makes N. sing. du. pL iiskfhan, tiskfkantau, tiskthan' 
tasykc. Simlilarijjighraty fir. ghrd, * to smell;' jigkfikshai, Desid. ofgrah, *to take.* 

Obs. a. The reduplicated verbs of cl. 3, &c., mentioned above, optional^ reject the 
nasal from the N. V. Ac. pi. neut. ; thus, dadati or dadaiUi, jakshaH otjakskantu 

But jagatf n. 'the world,' is (mljjaganti in N. Ac. pi. 

6. In Present Participles derived from verbs of d. i, 4, 10, a nasal is inserted 
for the feminine stem; thus, ITTlrt fr. ip^, d. i (declined like nad^ht 105); and 
this nasal is carried through all the inflexions, not merdy, as in the masculine, 
through the first five. So ^fh^A fr. (Hv, cl. 4 ; and ^ftt^Rft fr. <^r, d. 10. 

Similarly with quasi-reduplicated verbs of cl. i and Desideratives ; e.g. tishfhant^ 
fr. stkd; jighranti, fr. gkrd; jighfikshanH, fr. Desid. olgrah (cf. Obs. i. above). 

The same conjugational classes also insert a nasal in the N. V. Ac. du. neut. as 
well as the pi. ; thus, ^T^, ^'^•rtl, H'^f^w. 

In all verbs of cl. 6, in verbs ending in d of the and, and in all Partidples of 
the and Fut. Parasmai, the insertion of the nasal in the feminine is optional ; thus, 
iudaH or tudanH, fr. tud, cl. 6 ; ydt{ or ydnH, fr. yd, cl. a ; karishyaH or harishyanU, 
fr. hri. It is also optional in the N. V. Ac. du. neut., which will resemble the Nom. 
sing. fem. ; thus, tudant{ or tudati, ydnii or ydU, karUhyanti or karUhyati. 

e. Verbs of d. a, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 follow 140. b, c, and insert no nasal for feminine 
nor for N. Ac. V. du. neut. ; although all but cl. 3 assume a nasal in the first five 
inflexions in the masculine ; thus, adat (fr. ad, d. a) ; N. V. masc. adan, adantau, 
adantas; fem. adaH: juhvat (fr. hu, d. 3) ; N. V. masc. juhioat, juhoatau, juhvatoij 
tom.JMkoat{: nmdhat (fr. rudh, d. 7) ; N. V. masc. rvndhan, rundkantau, rundhan' 
ta$j fern. nmdhatC The neut. will be N. Ac. V. adat, adaU, adanti : juhvat, du. 
juhoaii, but phjuhvanti or juhvati (see 141. a), 

142. The adijective ^^f^, 'great,' is properly a Pres. Part. fr. ^^ fwh, 'to increase i* 
but its masculine lengthens the a of at before n in the N. Ac. sing., N. V. Ac. du.» 
N. V. pi., and neuter in N. V. Ac. pL ; thus, N. masc. H^l*^ •i^i«nl> •i^i^n^; 
Ac *HTini, IffilT, H^H^; I. •i^fli, &c. ; V. ^(^9 I^Tw, &o. : N. fem. n^Ap 
&C., see 140. a. 6 .• N. V. Ac. neut. "f^H^, lipft', ti^ifm. 

a. ^^m. f. n. * great,' 1^!!^^m. f. n. ' moving,' ^^m. f. * a deer,' follow Pres. 
Partidples; e.g. N. V. masc. ^55^, ^<w , 'J^'nt^. Fem.^^iJt. Neut.^]^9&c. 

143. The honorific pronoun )T^ (said to be for HT^ bkd-vat) follows Vnii^^ 
(at 140), making the a of at long in the N. sing. ; thus, ^T^T^ ' your honour,' and 
not ^n^^, The V. is WP^. The fem. is *T^?ft, see a33. 

>W1^' being,' Pres. Part, of ^*to be,' follows of course VlH^at 14 1. 

144. ^I^H^n. * the liver ' (ifivap,jecwr), and ^jPfl^n. * ordure,' may optionally be 
dedined in Ac. pi. and remaining cases as if their stems were «(«*«\ and ^i«a«^; 
thus, N. V. ^1^1^^, 'I^pft, Tfftff ; Ac. ^^^^P(y «if ffl, ^^fiW or ^mfif ; I. ^Q^fWT or 

^jp, 'npiworinini'n'^, ^fty^or^wfii^; d. nip^ or ^, &c. 

O % 



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100 INFLEXION OP STEMS OP NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 

o. A defective noun ^ia optionally substituted for ^^ in Ac. pL and remaining 
cases (see 183), and is often used at the end of compounds; e. g. su-dat, * having 
good teeth,' making N. maso. fem. neut. st^dan, su-daH, su-^at. 

145* ^n^ 9 ^^ foot,' at the end of compounds becomes ^ in Ac. pi. and remuning 
Weakest cases ; thus, ^Ml€y * having beautiful feet,' makes in masc. N. Y. ^m^, 

W^i^y l^n?!^; Ac. fiiT^, ^^, ^^^; I. ^[^, ^Hiwii^^ l^nfw^, &c. 

The fem. is ^^9 like nad{ht 105. Neut N. V. Ac. ^^$ ^^> ^hiR{. 

a. Similarly, fk^n^y but according to Pd^. i v. 1, 9, the fem. is dvi-padd, if agreeing 
with fik, 'a verse ;' dvi-padK, if agreeing with strC^ ' a woman.' So al6o f?rn^> &c. 



Sixth Class in yx9[^an tod j^in. 

This class answers to Lat. and Gr. words like sermo (stem sermon-)^ homo (stem 
hondn'\ iaifLOov (stem So/jxov-). Latin agrees with Sansk|it in suppressing the n 
in N. masc. and fem., but not in neut. ; thus homo is N. of masc. «tem himin, the 
stronger vowel o being substituted for t, just as /is substituted for t in Sanslqit; 
but nomen is N. of the neut. stem nomin, 

146. Masculine and feminine stems in ivi^ an, of two kinds, A, 
and B. 

A. If an be preceded by m or v at the end of a conjunct conso* 
nant, then the model is WfW^^ dtman, m. ' soul/ ' self.' 

B. But if an be preceded by m or t; not conjunct, as in Hh^ 
siman, f. (sometimes m.) ^a border/ or by any other consonant, 
whether conjunct or not, than m or t;, as in JT^p^ taksAan, m. *a 
carpenter,' tnn^ n^'an, m. ' a king,' then the a of an is dropped 
in the Ac. pL and before all the other vot^eZ-'terminations^ and the 
remaining n is compoimded with the preceding consonants 

Obs. — In the Loc. sing, this dropping of a is optional. 

All nouns ending in an, lengthen the a in the Strong cases (V. sipg. excepted) ; 
and drop the n before all the consonantal terminations (see 57). The inflective 
stem will be dtmany dtmdn, dtma j shuxn, Hmdn, simn (see above), s(ma. 

Junction of stem with termination : N. sing, n final of stem^ and $ oase-tennina* 
tion rejected by 57 and 41. 1 ; V. sing, case-termination rejected. 

A. B. • 



N. 



DUAL. 

dtmdnau 



^'{dimdnam dtmdnau 



\dtmd 



dtmdnas 
dtmanas 



, fwrwRT mw^iii^ iBTwfW^ 

[dtmand dtmabhydm dtmabhis 



simd simdnau simdnas 
simdnam simdnau simnas 
simnd simabhydm simab/ds 



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INFIiBXION OF STBMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 101 



Ab. 



dtmane 


diniabhydm dtmabhyas 


simne 


Hmahhydm s(mabkya$ 


[dimanas 
dtmanas 


dtmabhydm dtmabhyas 


simnoM 


sifnabhydm $(maAhya$ 


dtmanos 


dtmandm 


simnas 


simnos 


simndm 


^imfn 




mm^ 


^ftftrdr^llilftl 


— 


iftif^ 


dtmani 
dtman 


dtmanos 
dtmdnau 


dtmasu 


slmmoT$imani simno^ 


iimasu 


dtmdnas 


siman 


simdnau 



147. Like miin^ are declined ^lf«^ yajvan, m. ' a sacrifider ' (e. g» N. ^nfT> 

^ninii5 ^ntTf^; Ac. 'wni'^j 'Winff, 'ni^; i.inffT^ &c.)5 Hi^^pdpnutn, 

m. 'sin;' li^«^ a^auaif m. 'a stone;' 9<«^«\ii#Afiiafii m. 'the hot season;' HH«^ 
huhman^ m. ' fire ;' mPf^ hrahmam, m. ' the god Brahman ;' ^lypf^ adhif<m, un'm 
road ;' ^1F( dfiivan, m. ' a looker.' 

Like 4l1l1«|^are dedined ^{^m^ *head' (I. ^^^&c.; L.llfiNor^^fW>&c)i Tfl^ 
m. ' &t ' (Ac. pi. m1 5<^) ; ^'I'^nu'aloom;* Frf^'R'^m. 'lightness' (LcjftWfi&c.) 

148. Similarly, likd TftW^i <^^ declined irwp[^ nt 'a carpenter^ and 
TJ1«( m, * a king/ 

Obs. — In the inflexidn of words like takshan, rdjan (which follow the B foite kmott 
in combining m and f»), the dental n of the stem being combined with a cerebral or 
palatal is changed to the cerebral or palatal nasal respectivelj. See 57. e, 581 



SINO. 

^- \tak8hd 


DUAL. 

takshdnau 


PLURAL. 

takshdfjMS 


SING. 

TlWf 


DUAL. 

Tnrnft 


PLURAU 

rdjdnas 


\tdk8hdnam 


iakshdnau 


te**An(W.58. 




rdjdnau 


rdjiuis.^'j.c. 


\ takshnd. 581 takshabhydm takshdbhis 




% rdijdbhydm rdjabhis 


[takshne 


takshabhydm takshabhyas 




rdjabhydt 


nrdjdbhyas 


Abl'"^ 
itakshnae 


takshabhydm takshabhyas 


rdjfias 


rdjabhydm r^fabhyas 


' [takshi^ 


takshnos 


iakihridm 


tdjiioi 


rdjhos 


rdj'hdm 


L. i^^* 
[takshr^ 


iakshrj^os 


inn 


rdjm 


rdjiios 


rdjasu 




takshdryau 


takshdnas 


rdjan 


tnrnft 

rdjdnau 






i. t 


OrTTWfifn&Vmt. 












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102 mFLBXION OF STEMS OP NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS, 

149. Masculine stems in W^t* like ifhn^, "J^* 'W'^, generally 
form their feminines in ^ (Pan. iv. i, 7); e. g. Ml^Oy "J^* ^'^0, 
declined like nodi at 105. 

150. When a feminine stem in ^ / is formed firom words like TPT^^ it follows 
the rules at 146. A. B. for the rejection of the a of an; thus, Trtft rd^hi, *a queen.* 

151. When r((faii occurs at the end of a compound, it may he declined Uke itoa 
(103); as, N. sing. ma8C.iiia^($'(u«* Ac maA^((^*am, &c. (cf. 778) : butnotneoes- 
sarily. as bahu^d^an^ m. f. a. ' having many kings.* , The fem. stem of which may 
be hahu-r4jan or bdku-rdjd or bahu-rdjnC 

15a. Neuter stems in "^an^ like irt^^an action' and ifP^5^*a 
name' (»(ww€», ovofia''^). 

Obs. — ^The retention or rejection of a in an before the Inst. sing, and remaining 
vowel-terminations, as well as optionally before the Nom. Ace. du., is determined 
by the same rule as in masculines and feminines (146. A. B). They only differ 
from masculine nouns in Nom. Voc. and Ace. sing. du. pi. 



I. 



•INO. DUAL. PLURAL. 

Ac. ( karma karmani karmdi^i 

( karmand karmabhydm karmabhis 

D. i?*^' ^\ \\ike dtman. 146. 
(karmaiateyCLC.) 

( karma or karmany &c. ) 



8INO. DUAL. PLUBAL. 

ndma ^mni or ^mani ndmdni 

ndmnd ndmabhydm ndmabhis 
^, &c. 



. o I like siman, 146. 
ndmneyOLC.) ^ 

^rmor^TTO^, &c. )i:]^T^A^ 
ndmaoTndmany&c. ) 

153. Like ^w^ n. are declined IfW^ * birth,' q^«i«|^ ^ house,' w5^ 'armour,* 
1fV(* prayer,' 'the Supreme Spirit,' «irSf^*road,' ^^5^* leather,' WH^'preteart,* 
l^l*( * a joint.' 

Like HW«^n. are declined ^W^ ' string,' ^TW'^ * conciliation,' VTRt^ ' mansion,' 
^*^*t, ^ sky,' OM*!, (for HW^ rokman, from ruh), ' hair,' V^ (also m.) * love.' 

154. When nouns in an, mait, and van form the last member of acfjective com- 
pounds, the feminine may be declined like the masc, or its stem may end in d, 
and be declined Uke iwdj the neuter follows the declension of neuter nouns at 
152. Those in ait, if they follow the declension of siman and rtfjan, may also form 
their feminine in /, rejecting the a of an, and be declined like nad{{Fii^. iv. i, a8). 

155. There are a few anomalous nouns in an, as follow : 

a. "^m. * a dog ' {cants, kvcov) : N. IITT, HI Hi, miHH)^; Ac. SIM*I^, mint, ^^^l 
I. ^pIT, W^n^f ^ri^; D. ^, &c.; Ab. ^J'!^, &c.; G. ^pT^ (^fwvoV), ^pfl^, 

* Greek has a tendency to prefix vowels to words beginning with consonants 
in the cognate languages. Cf. also nakha, * nwl,' ovuf ; laghu, ' light,' cXaj^v-f ; 
^'brow,' O0^il-f. 



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INFLEXIOK OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTa 108 

^•ii«^; L. Ijftr, ^pft^, ^^; V. "^j ^Wff, &c. See 135. a. Fem. ^ifft, &c. 
(like nad{ at 105). 

A. 5^ ni- * * youth,' * young :' N. 5^> 3^Wn, ^qint^; Ac. J^TfT, gq»«ii> 
^Pl^; I. ^y i^^\\y J^^l 1). ^, &0.; Ab. TRf^, &c.; G. ^?1^, ^jft^, 
^^nw ; L. ^fif , ^jft^> 3^> V. f'P^, 5^nft> &c. See 135. a. Fern. ^Jjft (like 
muft') or j^Pw (like matt). Neut. ^, ^?ft> 'g^iHrf, &c. 

c. TTO^ m. *a name of Jndra :' N. 'WIT, -qi«ii> -TR^ ; Ac. ifWlfT, -«nfi|t, 
T^Hl^; I. IR'NT, H V|W||*(^, -^6|^; D. ir^^, *IM^**IIH, &c.; Ab.^r^t^r^^&c; 
G. iritf^, «?^H^, mftTT';^; L. iltftfir, i?^ttfrH, iTIR^; V.irTO^,&o. Fem* 
TwrtorirWift. 
- The last may also be declined like a noun in vat : N. •ii*=ii«\, -'^RIT, &c. See 140. 

156. V^n., *' a day/ forms its N. Ac. V. sing. fr. V^ akar, and the consonantal 
middle cases fr. ^^ tihasi in the other cases it is like ndmam ; thus, 

N. Ac. V. ^1^ (41-1)* ^^ or 'B^'ft, ^W^lfiT ; I. ^BJP, "WftwiP^, ^BT^Mh^; 
D. HJ, fl^*m*^, HI^Mf^; Ab. *IJ|^, &c.; G. ^^t^, ^j^t^, 'IJT'^' ^' ^"^ 
or ^V^f^y ^jjlt^, ^^'^^ or ^V^r^. At the beginning of compounds the form is 
generally ^^^, as in ahar-nUam, ' day and.night.' At the end of compounds it 
may be declined as a masc. ; thus, N. ({I^'^'M,* "^T'S* -^1^^; Ac. -^TO*!, &c.; 
V. "^^, &c., or si^metimes becomes ^J^ or ^HJ. 

a. f^f^m., 'a day,' lengthens the t in those cases where the a of an is rejected ; 
thus, Ac. pi. ^3^; I. ^jtjT, &c. 

b. ^H«f^n., 'the head,' is said to be defective in N. sing. du. and pL«nd Acu 
sing, du., these cases being supplied from f^ITT!^ n., or lltw loS.e. 

c. «(«*«\ n., * the liver,' and ^14^ * ordure,' are said to be defective in the first 
five inflexions, these cases being supplied from yakfit and idkfit respectively, 
see 144. 

157. W^>l«^ m., * the sun,' does not lengthen aoianrn'S. du. pi., Ac. sing, du.; 
thus, 

N. W^TT, ^l^fW, ^l^'WD^; Ac.w5lWIH,^rt*TOi,^rt'^; I.^»^»^,&c. 

a. Similarly, ^[]*5^' the sun:' N. ^[^, ^•wiT, &c.; Ac. ^P'D'^, &c.; but the 
Ac. pi., and remaining Weakest cases, may be optionally formed from a stem ^; 
thus, Ac. pi. "SW^ or ^[^. 

b. Similarly, compounds having -^«^ as the last member, such as mi^«(m. 'the 
slayer of a Brdhman :' N. Mll^l, fll^lUi, &c. ; but in Ac. pi. AIIU^^; I. inmTy 
'HH^uillly &c. {h becoming ffh where the a of han is dropped). 

158. ^I%i^m. 'ahorse,' or m. f. n. 'low,' 'vile,' is declined like nouns in vat 
at 140, excepting in N. sing. ; thus, N. ^I%T, ^1»in, ^^•A^^; Ac. 1^»d*j^, &c.; 
I, ^f^ilT, ^l%W^, *I^Q|^; V. ^r%«^, &c. If the negative W^ precedes, ^^l^is 
Tegular; thus, N. vrtl, UH^w, &c.; Ac. ^R^T^BW, &c.; I. pi. ^R%fiW(. 

' 159. Masculine stems in IS^ifiy like vffi{^dhaninj m. ^rich.' 

In N. sing, dhani for dhanins, n and 8 are rejected (by 57 and 41. 1), and the 
vowel lengthened by way of compen8ation>. 



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104 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CX)NSONANTS. 

SINaUIfAB. DUAL. FLUSAL. 

N. ^^(idhani y^f^f^i dkaninau shf^dhaninas 

Ac. nftni^rfftamiMwii ^ — dkaninau — ^ dhaninas 

I. ^iffPIT dhardnd vfffMrn^ dhambhydm, 57. vfVffiv^ dharubhis. 57. 

D. xfftk dhamne -^- dhanibhydm Mf^fW^ dhanibhyas. 57. 

Ab. 'Hlf9(9;^^dhan%naB -'— dhanibhydm -■ — dhanibhyas 

Q. ^ — dhaninas vlhpft^^dhaninos yf^m^^dhanindm 

L. yftffVf rfAaitmi * — dhaninos vfi^f^dhanishu* 70. 

Obs. — Many adjectives of the forpis explained at 85. VL VII I. 
IX, 9re declined in masc. lik|s vf^; thus, iNrf^ medhdvin, 'intel- 
lectual;^ N, ^vrtt, -flnJ^, -fll'l^, &c. Also numerous nouns of 
jBgency, like ivf^ ' a doer/ at 85. II ; thus, N. wft, 'mf^ (58), 

160. The feminine stem of such adjectives and nouns of agency 
is formed by adding ^ £ to the masc, stem ; as, fr. vf^, vf^^ f. ; 
fir. wrf^, wftsft f. ; declined like nad( at 105 ; thus, N. vfTpft^ -^, 
.^, &c^ 

i6i. The neuter is regular, and is like vdri as far as the Gen. pL ; 
N. Ac. vftfp xftrtt, vftftff But the G, pi. Yftnn^, not vift'n'^; 
V. sing, lift! or ^fS^* 

162, iftlVJ^ m. 'a road/ •fOv^ m. * a cfauming-stick,' and ^^(V|«^ m. 'a name 
of India,* are remarkable as exhibiting both suffixes, an and in, in the same word. 
They form their N. V. sing, from the stems ^1^1^, ''''W^, 'W^^J their other 
Strong cases, from the stems h*«i«|^, ^H'^y ^V^*l> their Ac. pL, and remaining 
Weak cases, from the litems H^, T^, ^^|^> in their Middle cases they follow 
dhanin regularly; thus, 

N. V. iT^n^ (1^3), M^IIHt, iFTR^5 Ac. Mf^l«i«^, in^TTm, ^BTT^; I. ^HIT, 
^^Wlfl^, ifWW^; D. ^, &c. Similarly, N. V. «rwn^, &c. ; ^f^l^, &c. : 
I. «f^T, &c. ; ^T^T, &c. Observe—The V. is the same as the N. 

a. The compound ^Mftj^, * having a good road,' is similarly declined for the 
masc. ; the N. fem. is ^^nft > -^9 "V^^f like hoc?/ at 105 ; the neut. is N. Ac. ^[^rf^» 
-^^» -iF^nftr, &c.; V. ^piftR^or ^sf^; the rest as the masc. 

Seventh Class in ^a«, ^^» <^^ '^us. 
This class answers to Gr. and Lat. words like vofloc, f^^o^, genus^ seehu, kc. 
163. Masculine and feminine stems in H^o^, like ^i^l^ 6andra^ 
mas, m. Hhe moon.' 

In N. sing, as is lengthened to compensate for rejection of the termination $1 



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INFLEXION OF STBM8 OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS, 105 

^aniramas becomes 6aMdr9mo by 64 before the terminations hhydm, hhis^ bhya$ : 
in L. pi. 6andrafiia$+su becomes 6amdrafHalitu by 63, or 6amdramas8u hj 62. a. 

N. ^if^gwr^iandramds "^^^fvii Sdndramasau %^H¥i\ Sandramasas 
Ac ^^imn iandramasam — 6andramasau — iandramasas 

I* ^n^;Hm (andramasd ^^^\^\*(6andramobhydm "^^^i^^ifyp^Sandramobhis 
D. "^^iif^ Sandramase — 6andrafnobhydm ^^i^^iitsf^Sandramobhyaa 

Ab. %^H¥i^6andramasa8 — 6andramobkydm — Sandramobhyas 
O. — 6andramasas wSH^ft^^Sandramasos ^^9f;jf(m^6andramasdm 
lu ^V^pfftr ^onrfrafTum — 6andramasos ^f9pv:^6andramaljtsu or -^ 

V. nnpf^Sandramas. g2. ^^pt^ 6andrafn€isau ^n^;tm^^6andrama$ds 

a. Similarly, m^^K^apsaras, f. ^anymph:^ N. urai^^y &c. 
164. Neuter stems in H^o^, like ^i^^^manas, n. ^mind^ {fiivof, 
wiens). 

These differ from the maso. and fem. in the N. Ac. V. The a of at remains 
short in N. sing; after the rejection of the case-termination s, but is lengthened 
in N. Ac. V. pL before inserted Anusv^. 

N. Ac. Y. ipfl[ manas «nT^ manasi iRfftr mandnsi 

I. inreiT manasdy ^^ipsfm^manobhydm^ &c., like the mase. and fem. 

o. Obs. — Nearly all simple substantives in a« are neuter like fiumas; but these 
neuters, when at the end of compoimd adjectives, are declinable also in masc. and 
fem. like 6audramas, Thus mahd-manas, * magnanimous/ makes in N. (m. f. sing, 
du. ]d.) makd-mands, mahd-manasau, mahd-manoias. Similarly, sumanas, 'well* 
intentioned ;' dmrmanas, * evil-minded ' (N. m. f. tumands, durmandi, &c.) : cf. €V^ 
jx€ir^^, Si/a-jxcm;^, m. f., but neut. and stem €v^fi,€vig^ iwr^fL^vig^ derived from 

h. Where final as b part of a root and not a suffix, the declension will follow 
(Vflll^ ' ono who devours a mouthful ;' thus, N. V. sing. m. f. f^im}^; Ac. -ti«^* 
N. V. Ac. du. -Uw, pL -fPI^; I. -HW, -Ijtwn^, &c. N. V. Ac. neut. -H^, 
-iflft, -iff^« When a root ends in ds^ s will be rejected before bh by 66. a j thus, 
^m^y 'brilliant,' makes in I. du. ^<WW||«^. 

c. But ^0^^ (fr. €^) and m^ (fr. <4^), at the end of compounds, change final 
^ to 1^ before the consonantal terminations, making N. sing, ^ni and Iffl; e.g. 
^WWI^, lrtlHH^(see Pd^. in. a, 76; vii. i, 70; viii. 3, 73). 

165. Neuter stems in |[^ is and 9^iif are declined analogously to nn\numas 
at 164, f and « being substituted for a throughout, sh for s (70), tr or ur for (65) ; 
thus, 

l[f)|^ kavis, n. * ghee :* N. Ac. V. ?ftr^, tfl'rt, ^'rtftl ; I. ?fiWT, ^flWIi^, 

fAlWt^» iftW^; L. fftlfk, fftfift^, ^^5 or -ij, 
a. ^i"^^ 6ahshuSf n. *the eye:' N. Ac. V. ^V^, ^^^1f ^^jfil; I. ^I^H, 



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106 INFLEXION or STBMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 

<^- ^^"i^f '•^••X* ^^^5 L-^'^,^^^>'^lor-W[, 

1 66. Nouns formed with the suffixes is and u$ are generally neuter. In some 
nouns, however, the final sibilant is part of the root itself, and not ai a suffix ; 
such as ^iG^i^ d^f f. ' a blessing ' (fr. rt. ^1^), and ^l^i^ m. f. ' an associate ' (fir. 
^^). These follow the analogy of masc. and fern, nouns in a$ (163) in the N. Ac 
cases ; and, moreover, before the consonantal terminations, where the final sibilant 
is changed to r, unlike nouns formed with i$ and iif, lengthen the t and ti (compare 
nouns in r at 180) ; thus, 

N. vi^il^y -f^> -^^^; Ac. -f^wr, -fi^, -fip^; I. -f^^> -isfWi'^, 

-?pfH9l[, &c. ; L. pi. -^fhf or -l^Nj. 
N. ^^, -ipw, "1^? Ac. -^JVf , &c. ; I. -^, "T!^> ^c. 

a. Nouns formed from Desiderative stems in ish (497), such as ftlff^ (for 
jigadish), * desirous of speaking,' are similarly declined ; thus» 

N. V. m. f. flini^^j "^^^> &c. ; I. du. -I^^Sw. The N. V. Ac. neut. pL is 
ftl'lRjHl, the nasal being omitted (cf. 181. d). 
So frraft^, * desirous of doing,' makes N. V. m. f . fwfhf, -WlWi, &c. 

b. ^J^ 'well-sounding,' where us b radical, makes N. Y. sing. m. f. ^^; 
Ac. ^RpiW; N.V. Ac. du. f3w, pi. ^^H^l I. 'JfW, 11!*^> l?f^> ^^ 
N. V. Ac neut. %^f %%^9 %^[^• 

c. Obs. — ^When neuter nouns in w or a^ are taken for the last member of com- 
pound adjectives, analogy would require them to be declined in masc. and fern, 
according to 6mdramas at 163 ; but, according to the best authorities, the N. sing, 
does not lengthen the vowel of the last syllable ; thus, ^rnco"^^^ m. f. n. ' having 
lotus eyes,' N. masc. and fem. ^TWc^'f^^, -^M""* &c ; and ^frf^ftf'f^ m. f. n« 
'having brilliant rays,' N. masc. and fem. Vf%nf^» wf^OPiV, &c 

d. !ft^ dos, m. 'an arm,' follows the declension of nouns in is and usj but in 
Ac. pL, and remaining cases, optionally substitutes doshan for its stem (see 184) ; 
thus, N.V. ?f^, -iir, -ir^; Ac. ^ftw, -in, -iT^ or -W^; I. ^Nt or ^klilT» 
-IjMh'^ or ?ftvnW, &c. As a neuter noun it makes in N. Ac. V. !{T^, v^> ^iflf . 

167. Comparatives formed with the suffix ^^ {yas (193), lengthen the a of at, 
and insert n, changeable to Anusv4ra before s, in N. sing. du. pi., V. du. pL, Ac. sing, 
du. masc. ; thus, Wcihj^ m. f. n., * more powerful,' makes N. masc 1^414, (for 
iffjhrt^, s rejected by 41. A), -irfTIT, -^Ut^; Ac. -'ilw, -^iNt, -^W^; I. -HW, 
*li^)(<IT'^» &c., like 6mdr&mas at 163. The Y. sing, is ^c*l^l^; du. and pL like 
the Nom. 

a. The fem. WcA^tA follows nad£ at 105. The neut. WF^N^ is like manas, 

168. Perfect Participles, formed with vas (see 554), are similariy declined in the 
Strong cases ( 135. b). But in Ac. pi., and remaining Weak cases, vas becomes «tA» 

^and in the Middle cases vat; so that there are three forms of the stem, viz. in v6»s, 
ush, and vat*; thus, 

* Vat is evidently connected ^th the Greek or. Compare tuH^at (fr. rt. #1^) 
-with T€TV<^(f)oT, and tutupvatsu with T€TW0-o(t)^i. 



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IKFLBXION OF STBMS OF NOUNS BNDING IK CONSONANTS. 107 

<Wii^ (Ptef. Part., fr. ftr^ *to know*) : N. flfftwii^, f^ftwhiJ, ftiflnrhR(; 
Ac. fWiihn^j ftrftnrhf^, W^^j i. ftrft^ir, fiftrmn^, ftftnrfk^; d. 

fW^, &o. ; V. fllf^fi^, fWHTOT, &c. 

The neuter is N. Ac. fWnH, -J'ft, -wWff I for fern, see d below. 

0. Wlien thii Ftotioiple is formed with iva$ instead of voi (see 554)^ the vowel t 
is ngected in the cases where vom becomes u$h j thus, 

l|frW^(fr.1^*togo'): N. masc. ilOimi^^ Ac; Ac. i|P«mI^H^, IIDh^IiIi, 
^••|^^, &c. ; I. IfnfiT, &c. ; V. IIOhI^, Hfiil^lin, &c. 

h. Similarly^ Wftf^ (fr. TP^ * to stretch') : N. nftm?^, WftnWi, &c. ; Ac. nftf-* 
^l«^, Wfinhft, nq^^. See. ; V. i^ftTP^, -^rfw, &c. 

c. But not when the t is pert of the root ; thus, frlPw^ (fr. f'lO, ftrft^ (fr. 
^) make in the Ac. pL P'i'JilH, ftf^f^. ^^^^ (fr. If) makes, of course* 

d. The N. fcm. of these Participles is formed from ushj and the N. Ac. neut. 
nng. du. pL from vat, tuh, and vas, respectively; thus, N. fern. fsNgJI, &c., 
declined like nad£ tit 105. Similarly, from the root ^comes ^§^41 (cf. rfTwf^vTa), 
Those fanned with was do not retun t in the feminine; thus, tenivas makes N* 
ung. masc fem. neut. tenivdn, temuM*, tenivat. 

€. The root ff^, *to know,' has an irregular Pres. Part, "fifl^ vidoas, used 
commonly as an adjective ('learned'), and declined exactly like ^f^s^ above, 
leaving out the reduplicated ni; thus, N. masc. ftW1'^>f^wWT,ftvhW(; V. f^s*^, 
ftc. With reference to 308. a, it may be observed, that as a contracted Perfect 
of mil is used as a Present tense, so a contracted Participle of the Perfect is used 
as a Present Participle. Ilie fem. b f'^J'ft, and the neut. P^ii^. 

169. ^m.,' a male,' forms its V.sing. from^lf^, and its other Strong cases 
(135. h) from ^l^i^; but Ac. pi., and remaining Weakest cases, from ^; and L 
do., and remaining Middle cases, from ^^y thus, 

N. yns^, ^pri^, I'if^; Ac. yriiff^, yrtA, t^; 1. 1^> y*^> ^f^; 

D.ji^»&c.; Ab.^H^^&c; G. |^, |i^, ^OT^^; L.^,T|lrt^,^; V.g^ 

Infill y&O. 

170. ^l[nn[ in<> ' A name of the regent of the planet S^ukra,' forms N. sing. 
^9|PfT from a stem 7!^^ (147)* Similarly, |y?b^V^ m* * & name of Indra,' and 
Win m. 'time.' The other cases are regular; thus, N. du. «^«i«T« But 
^^IR^may be optionally in Voc. sing. 9inn[ or ^^n or 9^«i«^. 

171. ^iR!!^ f.y ^ decay ' (o^pof), supplies its consonantal cases (vis. N. V. sing., L 
D. Ab. du.pl., L. pL) from UTT f. Its other cases may be either from IR^ or UTT; 
thus, N. sing. ITO; V. ift; Ac. iTOW^t or HTJ'V; I. WtW and HUIl, IRWTf, 

* There seems, however, difference of opinion as to the rejection of t; and 
some grammarians make the feminine tenyushi, 

t Since WTIP^ certainly occurs, it may be inferred that the N. Ac. V. du. are 
^TST or 1|T ; N. Ac. V. pi. IIW^ or ITO^. These forms are given in the grammar 
of ttvara-dandra Vidy4^8&gara, p. 51. 

P 2 



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108 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS* 

Eighth Class. — Steins ending in any consonant except 
H^/, ^rf, i^n, ^*. 

172. This class consists principally of roots used as nouns, either 
alone or at the end of compounds^ or preceded by prepositions and 
adverbial prefixes* Stems ending in 1^ / or ^ rf, formed in this 
manner^ are of common occurrence ; but their declension falls under 
the fifth class at 136. 

With regard to stems ending in other consonants which we place 
under the eighth class, the only difficulty in their declension arises 
Srom. their euphonic combination with the consonantal terminations. 

173. Whatever change of the final consonant takes place in Nonu 
sing, is preserved before all the consonantal terminations ; provided 
only, that before such terminations the rules of Sandhi come into 
operation. 

174. Before the vowel-terminations the final consonant of the 
Stem, whatever it may be, is generally preserved. If in some nouns 
there is any peculiarity in the formation of the Ac. pi., the same 
peculiarity runs through the remaining Weakest or vowel cases. 

The terminations themselves undergo no change, but the s of the 
Nom. sing, is of course cut off by 41. 1 (see, however, 135. i). There 
is generally but one form of declension for both masc. and fem.; the 
neuter follows the analogy of other nouns ending in consonants. 

175. Stems ending in "^ k^ Wf^kh, il^g^ '^^g declined. 

< 91^ m. f . * one who is able ' (in sarva-^ak, ' omnipotent '}• 



N.V 


.W^iak 


^ni^ iakau 




Ac. 


Ifi^^ iakam 


— iakau 


— iakas 


I. 


^rUT iakd ' 


97»n«^ iagbhydm 


^fhl^ iagbhis 


D. 


iikiake 


— iagbhydm 


^fmi^ iagbhyoB 


Ab. 


V^iakas 


— iagbhydm 


— iagbhyas 


G. 


- — iakoB 


^[^i^iakoM 


"^[^m^iakdm 


L. 


^fftliaW 


— iako8 


^ iakshu 



Tht neuter is N. Ac. V. ^1^, ^9^9 V^lfy &c- > the rest like the masc. 
a. Similarly, fw^ ' one who paints ' (in 6itra-likh, ' one who paints a picture ') : 
N. V. fi?^ (41. II, 41. 1), Pc*^ (174), fiOTf^; Ac. fcWn^, &c.; I. "ftwi, 
fRWnW, r»r««l^, &c. ; L. pL fc5^. 
The neuter is N. Ac. V. ft^f frtfrt, f?lf^> Sec. ; the rest like the maso* 



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IKFLEXIOK OP STEMS OF NOUNS BKDING IN CONSONANTS^ 109 

- b» In the same wajr final '^y ^ we changed to 1(^9 and when final ^9 ^5 1^^ ^^^ T 
lose their aspirate form, the aspirate mnst be transfeired to the imtial, if that 
initiai be ^y V, ^^ or ^(see 44. e). 

e. ^^^fS^m,f., 'jumping well,' makes N.V. ^4c^ (41* I)> ^^'^n, &c. ; Ac. ^'TOI'^i 
&c.; L^^vn,^^r^i'IW,&c.5 D.^^t^,&c.; Ab.G.^^'^ST^&c; L.^^ff^T,^^^^, 
5^^ (see 70). Neut. N. Ac. V. ^Mc^» ^^«>fl, ^fft^ or (see 1 76. h) ^^HsH. 

176. Stems ending in ^^^ ^ M, ^^jf^jh declined. 

Final ^is changed to V or v^; final 1| b changed to ^, which becomes ^ or ^ 
before the consonantal terminations ; final If to 1^ (n) or ^ (<^) ; and final V^, 
^hieb is rare, to 1^ or '^^ before the consonantal terminations (41. IV, 9a. a). 

U^t ' speech' (fr. rt. ^) : N. V. irn| (for vdks, 41. 1 ; vox, ft^), ^1^ (2r€), 
11^4^ {voee$, 0»€^) ; Ac. ''THf'^ (vocem), ^Ptt, TT^ {ovag) ; I. ^IT^, ^TTwnn, 

^rfri'^; D. ^Tf, ^imni^, ^ttmi^; Ab. TT^, ^iwm'f, ^n^wi^; G. "^r^, 

^1-^^, TTW^; L. ^rfw (^/), ^T^ft^, ^nr^- Compare Latin vox, and Greek 
^ or oar for Foz throughout. 

Similarly, ^^ * a liberator :' N. V. ^l^, 5^^* T'^* 

^fl^m. f. 'one who eats:' N.V. ^g^, ^fni, ^^^9 Ac. ^pi*[» &c.; I. ^piT^ 

Wll m. f. 'an asker ' (fr. rt. H^ : N.V. HT^, VJ^, in|l^; Ac. in^> &c. ; 
L Ni^i, ^i^«^i«^, &c. ; L. pi. Ni^^* 

The root H1^ becomes HH^ (just as vad becomes vdd) ; e. g. N.V. ifT^ m, f. n. 
'a sharer.' 

a. The neuters are thus formed : N. Ac. V. ^fn|, ^iVJ, ^TPl, &c. (as in ^f!^ 
'speaking well'); ^1^, ^pi^y ^ftly &c. ; Ttt^f ui^, iii(^> &c. 

6. The root tl[^ aA^ ' to go/ preceded by certain prepositions and adverbial 
prefixes, forms a few irregular nouns (such as IVT^' eastern'), and is found at 
the end of a few compounds after words ending in a; such as VM<I^' tending 
downwards/ &c. These all reject the nasal in the Ac. pi. and remaining cases 
maacuHne. In Nom. sing, the final ^d being changed to 1(^ ib, causes the preceding 
nasal to take the guttural form, and the 1(^ is rejected by 41. 1. In the Ac. pi., 
and remaining Weakest cases, there is a further modification of the stem in the 
case of 1191^9 &c. 

m^m. 'eastern,' 'going before :' N.V. Wl^, HTv, W^Wj Ac. IfTVir, VTmif 
HI^^; I. HT^, III'WII*^, in^H^; D. WT^, &c. ; L. pL Hi^. Similarly, VIT^ 
m. 'southern.' 

1l?P|m. 'western :' N.V. THV^, HFw, wm(; Ac. HM^^I^, HMW, hiO^^; 
I. Wrt^, W»«m^, irwfHn^^; D. IrtWf, &c. Similarly, ^HJ^' going with,' 
' fit,' and eren 7^ ' northern,' which make in Ac. pi., and remaining Weakest 
cases, VfH^, ^^1-^^. 

So also, f^^'^y ^ going everywhere,' forms its Ac. pL, and remaining Weakest 
cases, f^. a stem m»j^, making Ol^'^^, &c« 



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110 INFLSXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS SNDIKQ IN CONSONANTS. 

Analogously, fM^' going crookedly/ * an animal/ fonna its Weakest cases ft. 
a stem ftrT^^ making Ac pL f)irW^> &o. 

The feminine form and the neut. du. of these noons follow the analogy of tiie 
Ac. pL J thus, N. fern. Wil &c., HI I'll &c., Ulrt^ &c., ^?JNI &c., VfWt &c., 
fknA Ac, declined like W(i* 

The neuter is N. Ac. V. Wf , W^ft, Wfti, &c. ; nmif » HlfNI; imfv, &c. 

c. tin^» when it signifies ' worshipping,' retuns the nasal, which has become 
guttural, throughout ; but 6, which has become ib, is rejected before the consonantal 
terminations; thus, 

N. V. VJ^f WIt, &c. ; Ac. 111^4^, &c. ; I. imT, sn^««ii^> &c. 
Similarly, ^P^ *a curlew:' N. V. "^j "yT, Ac; Ac. Tf^ &c.; I. "^^^ 
9^«<ii<^,ftc; L.pl."fl^or'f|J(55.6). 

d. Vlji^ n., 'blood,' is regular; thus, N. Ac. V. V^^> ^l^9^> Vl^fti^ Ac ; 
but it may optionally take its Ac. pL and remaining inflexions fh>m a defbctiTC 
stem, mR^osofi/ thus, N. V. pi. V^ftf; Ac. pL V^ftf or W9TfW; I. '•ill ill or 
Hin, H^'Mlll^or HUMI!^, &c. ; L. H^ffW or WSrfif or irfw, &c. 

e. Nouns formed with the roots IH^ ' to worship,' TJl^ ' to shine,' f^ ' to rub,^ 
^Ifl^^to shine,' ¥rai(^'to fiy,' Hl^^'to wander/ ^p^'to create/ generally change 
the final li^to ^ or ^ before the consonantal terminations ; thus, 

^%1( m. 'a worshipper of the gods' (^H^ becoming J9(^ : N. V. sing. ^^« 
Bimilariy, TJl^m. 'a ruler :' N. sing. XPfj I. TSWly m^«4i^» &c. So also, ^f^?|^ 
'adeanser:' N. sing. ^ifiCf^* So also, ftran^m.f.' splendid:' N. sing. ftMl^. 
Similarly, ilficHIl^^m. 'a religious mendicant' (misbecoming 1lll^« N. sing. 
Mfillltf. So also, ftifl^l^m. ' the creator of the world :' N. sing. Hv^i^^. 

But ftrV when it precedes tHI^y as in rt^U^m.*a universal ruler,' becomes 
fVlTT wherever l(^becomes ^ or ^; thus, N. (^HIKI^» flTTOfllT, &c. 

i^fill^m., 'apriest' (^ + ^for 11^^), is regular: N.V.^^fjfl^. 

/• HWm m. ' a kind of priest,' ' part of a sacrifice,' forms the consonantal 
cases from an obsolete stem, HWIH^s N. V. sing. du. pi. imilK|^, -Allfii -«ni^; 
Ac. -inin^, &c. ; I. -imiT, -^•hi*^^, &c. ; L. pi. V^IWJ or H^Wrj. 

g. ¥ni^» ^one who fHes,' may take ^JH^for its stem, and make N. V. "^^ ^fW, 
)pi^; Ac. ^}W^9 &c. Similarly, TH^, 'one who cuts,' makes, according to some, 
^» &c., and not If^, &c. ; but others allow vrat. 

h. ^I^f., * strength,' makes N. V. 1% (41 . 1. Obs.), kc. ; Ac. S^l^, &c ; I. ^irihy 
Wv4t^» &c. At the end of a comp. the neuter is N. Ac. V. 4rk, irji^ linrji. But in 
these cases where a word ends in a conjunct consonant, the first member of which 
is r or I, the nasal' may be optionally omitted in the plural, so that 4rj% would be 
equaUy correct. 

t. ITI^, 'lame/ makes N. W[f WWt m^i I. pi. Wf^l^; L. pi. H^^* 
177. Stems ending in ^/A» i^cfA declined. 

The final aspbrate is changed to its unaspirated form before the consonantal 
terminations (41. II, 43), but not before the vowel (43. 3). W^^m. f. 'one who 
tells:' N.V.lll^, Wm, IWI^; Ac. W^, &c.; I. WT, W^> &c. 

So also, ^^f. 'battle:' N.V.^^^iyihj^; Ac.J^^&c; I. ^> fll1^» &Cr 



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IKFLBXION OF STBMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. Ill 

la th« CMe of ^^m. t, 'one who knows/ ihe initial ^ b becomes )^ bh wherever 
the final ^^dh becomes / or i» by 175.6. and 44.C/ thus, N. V. ^> ^H^, T^> 
Ac ^|^> &c. ; I. ^itf V^» ^<^* i ^ P^ ^^' 

«. TTie neuter is N. Ac. V. lU^, Wft, lrf%^, &c. ; J^, 5^> ^|^> &c. 

178. Stems ending in \py ^ph^ ^i, H &A declined. 

^m. f. * one who defends :* N. V. ^^ ^pii, IJ^; Ac. 5^> *<5* » 1' 3^» 

l|b|i||l^y ^fVd^y &c. 

TS^m. f. 'one who obtains :* N. V. ^S^^ ^Wi, W^l Ac. 19H*[> &c. ; I. IWT, 
WW^^ «r«ti^, &c.; L. pi. 79^. 

a. The neuter is N. Ac. V. ^^ ^^, ^ft*!, &c. ; c^ ?f5^, Wf^, &c. 

6. ir^f. 'water,' declined in the plural only, substitutes t{d) for its final before 
W; thus,N.V.'«rq^; Ac.m^; I.vflR^; D.Ab.WH^; G.lTO^; L.^. 
In the Veda it is sometimes singular. 

179. Stems ending in ^^m declined. 

The final m becomes n before the consonantal terminations. ^V^iofii, m. f. ' one 
9vho pacifies :' N.V. ^85(^^111, ^l|^; Ac. ^'V^, &c. ; I. 9^> ^P^R^, ^fWl^t 
Sec; L.pL9<^. 

a. Similarl7,1l9n^m.f., 'quiet/ makes N.V. U^l^y h^i*"> 11511*1^; Ac.ll|ll^i^» 
&c; I. munVT, 1I9I«M||I|^, &c.; L. pL H^T^ or lUPfJ. Compare 53.e. 

b. The neuter is N. Ac. V. ^, ^nft, ^fll, &c.; H^fP^y 'W^f "?nfif, &c. 

180. Stems ending in ^ r and \v declined. 

If the vowel that precedes final r be t or «, it is lengthened before the conso- 
nantal terminations (compare 166) ; and final r, being a radical letter, does not 
become IHsarga before the « of the Loc pi. (71. b). 

^m. f. *one who goes :* N.V. ^, 'TO, Wtl^; Ac ^*T^, &c. ; I. ^TO, ^«^, 
^ifS^, &c. ; L. pL ^. 

H^f.'adoor:' N. V. IT^, nd, HT^, &c 

ftl^f. 'speech:' N.V. ift^, fht^, ftrC^; Ac. ftll^, &c; I. ftfTT, 'fWl^, 
sftfS^, &c. ; L. pi. ^4t^. 

«. The neuter is N. Ac V.^,^T^,^,&c.; 'ft^, fW, ftlft, &c 

Soalso^^n.' water:' N. Ac ^, ^fTlftf ^llft* 

b. One irr^^ular noun ending in W v, via. fip^f. * the skj,' forms its N. V. sing, 
from irt (133. a), and becomes ^ in the other consonantal cases ; thus, 

N.v.ii^,firA,fl?^; Ac fl^, flr^, flr^; I. fi?iT, ^f^, &c 

Sinukrly, ffl^ m. f. 'havmg a good sky,* but the neuter is N. Ac. V. ^, 

i8i. Stems ending in 9 < and '^^sh declined. 

The difficulty in these is to determine which stems change their finals to ^ and 
wluch to ^ (see 41. V). In the roots fi^, pr, ^, ^^, and T|^(the last forming 



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112 INFLEXION OF STEMS OF NOUNS ENDING IN CONSONANTS. 

^ip(^' impudent ') the final becomes ^, and in ^11 optionally ^ or ^ (lf^ or «f^}. 
Otherwise both ^ and ^at the end of stems pass into ?[• 
fts^^m. f. ' one who enters/ or ' a man of the mercantile and agrioultural class ^ 

N. V. fi^ (41- V), ftnp^, ftrp^; Ac f^c^ &c. ; I. fii^, flnp^> &c; fiju^f. 

•a quarter of the sky:* N. V. f^ (41. V, 24), fl^, fl^^^; Ac. fljIR^, &c; 
I. fijW> fif'^'n'^* &c. f^m. f. 'one who hates:' N. V. ff^ (41* V), fl^, 
fk^; Ac. flpn^, &c.; I. fl^, ftr^wnPfl[, &c. ^m. f. 'one who endures:* 
N. V. ^ (41. V), ^, ^1^5 Ac. fW, &c.; I. ipiT, If^'n'l, &c. f^ 'one 
who touches :' N. V. ^1^, ^^^> ^^> &c* 

The neuters are N. Ac. V. ft^, fil^, Wfij* &c. ; fi{^, fl?5ft> ^^^B^ &c- 5 %^f 
fy^, frf^^&c; »R, f*, «lftl, &c, 

a. ]|^kVT^ ' a priest/ in the Veda, makes N. V. sing. ^Clsi^y and forms its other 
consonantal oases firom an obsolete stem, ^0«^« Ck)mpare 176./. 

6. ^{\|i^m.f.x Very injurious^' makes N.V. ^H^t^ ^fi^^T^ &c. ; Ac. ^ftSV^, &c.; 
I. ^f^^, ^|flP''n'^> &c. But nouns ending in ^^ preceded by vowels, fiJl under 163. 

c. 'ftrBT, * a cow-keeper/ makes N. V. «i\<^ or "ftr^, 'Ui.^, &c. 

d. Similarly, nouns firom Desiderative stems, like Imm^ ' desirous of cooking/ 
and ftni^ * desirous of saying/ make N. V. PlIMf^, ftw^, &c. ; ftn^, fiWW»* 
&c. (see 166. a). 

182. Stems ending in || A declined. 

In stems beginnmg with ^ i, the final aspirate generally becomes "^ h C'^^), in 
other stems ^ ^ (^ c{), before the consonantal terminations; and in stems whose 
initial is ^ i or '^^^ the loss of the h, which disappears as a final, is compensated 
for by aspirating the initial, which becomes ik or gli wherever final h becomes h (^) 
or \ (fl. See 44- c> I75» ^- ^^ m- f- 'one who licks :* N. V. ffej^ (41. Ill), 
ftnfi, f(6<^; Ac. r»^»^, &c. 5 I. ft!PP> ftjWPT, &c. ; L. pi. PcA^^ or Pc^?^^. 
J^m.f.' one who milks:' N.V. ^^,51^,51^; Ac. Jf^, &c.; I. J^T, ywiP^, 
^fh|55[, &c.; L. pl.^. 

The neuter is N. Ac. V. fe^, Pc^^y ft^^> &c. ; y^, J^, ^f^, &c. 

a. But "W m. f., 'injuring,' makes N. ^HJ or "^ (44. c) ; I. 'WT> ^•Ml^^or 
^^vqnVy&c; L.pl. IJ^or^;^. Similarly, ^m.f.' infatuating :' N.^ or ^* 

The same option is allowed in f%rf 'one who loves ' and ^^ 'one who vomits.' 

h, 'Vflilf f., 'a kind of metre,' changes its final to h (g) before the consonantal 
terminations, like stems beginning with d : N. ^fvifl^^ ^tuil^, &c. 

c. ^tf 9 ' bearing ' (fir. rt. ^ 'to bear'), changes ^ to 9 11 in Ac. pi. and re* 
maining Weakest cases (and before the ^ / of the fern.) if the word that precedes 
it in the compound ends in a or d; this aotd combining with 4 into ^ au (instead 
of ^ o, by 33) ; thus, 

HIT^TT m. f. 'a burden-bearer:' N. V. masc. HK^II^ ¥ITCTT^, MKMIft^; 
Ac. WK*II?*(, HTW1?T, HTO^; I. ^iCci> >n^«n^»^i«^, &c. N. fem. ^TO^, Ac. 
So imtf m. 'a steer ' and P^^Hii 'all-sustaining.' Under other circumstanced 



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ADJBCTIVBS. 113 

the changa of vdh to^hla optional; thus, ^lirA^HjE, 'bearing rice/ makes in Ac. 
pi. ^n^Jl^or ^llfa^l^^ . 

d, wim^ m., * India* (* borne by white horses'), may optionally retain m in Ac* 
pL &c.; and in consonantal cases is declined as if the stem were "^hV^^; thus» 

N. V. "^hni^, ^hRT^, HI 111118^; Ac. '^rtrar?'? , "^wii^, ^hftij^ or hiii^i^^; 
I. ^luci or Hiii^i^u ^hnitwnfi, "^hnrtfW^, &c. 

e. In J'CI^^* ' * name of Indra,' the 1^ is changed to W wherever |^ becomes ^ 
or ^: N. gum^, fCWTip, ITTIR?^; Ac. JtWTp^, &C.5 I. JTWn^, fCI- 
■H^**IW, &c. 

/. HHJI^ m., ' an ox * (for ^nftllT^ £r. ll«l^ * a cart ' and ^t^ * bearing '), forms 
the N. V. sing, from ^RJ?^; the other Strong cases from W«Tjr^> and the Middle 
( from VH^I^; thus, N. WT|Ti^^ ^Hf^T^* '••^31(8^5 Ac. HH^I^H, ^TtT^ 



lR|f^; I. W1f|5T, W^TfWT^, ^nT|flR^, &c.; L. pi. W^TJI?' ^' ^^^l' 
There is a feminine form "wi^i^l, but at the end of compounds this word makes 
fenu N. sing. WfJI^; neut. N. V. ^HTTi^, Wtf^^, wi|I(^. 

183. vTI^ 'binding/ 'tying/ at the end of compounds, changes the final to l^or 
^, instead of <^ or ^; thus, 9m«i^ f., * a shoe,' makes N. V. ^rnfl^^, 5Mr«i^, 
«MM^^; Ac. 9MlH?*f^, &c. ; I. 9MIH^I, ^MMflW^j &c.; L. pi. "^^nfl^' 
See 306. b. 

Defective Nouns. 

184. The following nouns are said to be defective in the first five inflexions, in 
which cases they make use of other nouns (see P&i^. vi. i, 63): ^m«(n. (176. d); 
lKTW9{^n, (168. e) ; ^^n. (io8.e); ^m. (io8.c); lftM«|^ n. m. (166. d) ; •l^f. 
(108. e); ftf^f. (loB.c); '^m.(io8.c); ^f. (loS.e); «rfHn. (foB.c); 'H^m. 
(108. e); im^^n. (144,156.0); ^P'^m. (108. c); ^Ifi^n. (144,156.0); ^pft^n. 
(15^- *) i ^ n- (i i^- «) 5 f? »i- (io8« «). 

185. Examples of nouns defective in other cases are VI8*( n. (156) ; iSt^ nu 
(128. c); ITt^f. (171). 

Section III. —ADJECTIVES. 
186. The declension of substantives includes that of adjectives; 
and, as already seen, the three examples of substantives, given under 
each class, serve as the model for the three genders of adjectives 
fidling under the same class. Adjectives may be grouped under 
three heads, A, B, C, as follow : 

A. Simple adjectives, coming immediately from roots, and not 
derived from substantives. These belong chiefly to the first, second, 
and third classes of nouns (see 80. A, 81. A, 8^. A, 103-115). 

B. Adjectives /ormed/rom substantives by secondary or Taddhita 

a 



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114 



ADJECTIVES. 



suffixes. They belong chiefly to the first, fifth, and sixtk classes 
of nouns (see 80. B, 84. B, 85. B, 103, 140, 159). 

C. Compound adjectives, formed by using roots and subltantives 
hi the end of compounds. These are common under ever/ one of 
the eight classes. 

187. A. Examples of Simple Adjectives. 

m iubhUf * beautifiil/ ^ good :^ masc. and neut. stem 1^ ikbhd ;- 
fem. stem mrf iubhd. 

An example' of an adjective of cl. i is here given in fdll> that the dedenllDn of 
the masc., fem., and neut. forms tdbj be seen at once and compared with ttiat of 
Latin adjectives in us^ like bonus, ' good.' The fem. of some of these a4jeolives 
is in /, and then follows nad{ at 105. In the succeeding examples only the Ntei. 
cases sing, will be given. 



Singular. 

MASC. Fiir. 



N. 1|H^ 

Ac. ^>|if 

I. ^H^ 

Ab. ^pnn^ 

G. ^HFT 
L. i|d 
V. 1^ 



^P^ — 



N.AcV. ^ 
I. D. Ab. w?Twrf(^ 
Q. L. mij^ 

N. V. ^m^ 
Ac. ^^n«( 

D. Ab. ^^Ihi^ 
G. ^«n<^ 



Dual. 

FBM. 

Plural. 

1^ 






JflR *dear* 
1^^* beautiful^ 

{^'pure* 

HT^ * pale * 
^n^'good' 
H5 * tender * 
>rt^ 'timid^ 



NOM. MA80. NOir. PXM. NOM. NBUT. 

I * \ . * k I * > 

^•^<H 55^or;|i?^. 105. ^^<*f^ 

^n^ ^n^ or HTs4t. 105. ?n^ 

4h5^ ^ft^orWhs^. 125. 4t^ 



Obs. — ^The neuter of adjectives in i and « maj in D. Ab. G. L. sing, and G. L. 
du. optionally follow the masculine form ; thus, D. sing, ^u^ne or iu6ay€, mfidime 
or mfidavej Ab. G. sing, ^udinas or ^u6es, mridunas or mjidos; L. sing, ^ti^'ns 
or itkfatf, mfu^um or mridau; G. L. du. ^udinos or iu6yos, mridunos or mfidvos. 
See 1 19. a. 



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ADJECTIVES. lltf 

i88, B. Examples of Adyectives formed from Substantives. 

'A«8. STIir. NOM . MA8C. NOM . FIM. NOlf . NBUT. 



{mg^ * human ^ 'VT^^ *ll*jrfl 'ng^ 

^lfi«* religious* vrfN^ vrfNft VlflNri^ 

r^M^«^ * strong * Wc9^ "^HOTift. 105. WcV^ 

l^rfNu^'prosperous* tftifF^ isftinft. 105. ^?^ 

tf. { iftPl ' happ7 * ^ fftnft. 105. 



189. C. Examples of Compound Adjectives. 

%l^n. 8TBM. NOir. MASO. NOM. FBM. NOM. NBUT* 



I. {^^|ftrer' very learned* ^^jf^V^ "^ffwr '^^jf^W^ 

^- {jt^ 'foolish* 5^fir^ jffir^ 5^ 

3. {w^TWg 'small-bodied* V^Tif^ ^<tMdjf^ ^TSUiig 

4- { ^J^ * very liberal * ^I^YITT WJ^fT?^. 105. 'If^ 

5. I 'irlftrn^ * all-conquering * ?l%ftn^^ ^ftn^ ?l%ftn^^ 

6. I ^pP^ * well-bom * ^i|wi| ^ppRT WT*! 

7. { mrwir^ ' deprived of sense* Jnnhn^ Til^iTI^ innhr^ 

8. I n^^^' piercing the vitals* 1^^^ "l^^?^ 'rih'Pf 

190. Examples of some other Compound Adjectives. 

fnpm 'a shell-blower* (108. a). IfW^ ^TOf**"^ W^ 

^rwft 'ruined* (1^6. A). ^TV^I^' ^ff^rt^ ^nrfw 

HcS^' a sweeper * (126. b). €lc4^^ ^^"f!^ '^^^^ 

f^iqHT^ ^having a divine mother* (130). fipquTin fif^qmin fif^WT^ 

^* rich* (134. a). ^JU^ ^5^ iljft 

Ij^ * having many ships * (i 34. a). ^V^i^ ^fj^ ''Jf^ 

DBGBBBS OF COMPABISON. 

1 91. The degrees of comparison are formed in two ways : 

1st, by adding to the stem nt tar a ( = Gr. -re/oo-y) for the com-* 
parative (see 80. LXI), and im tama ( = Lat. -timu-Sy Gr. -raro-?) for 
the superlative (see 80, LIX), both of which suflSxes are declined in 
m. f. n. like Subha at 187; thus, 

'^p^ pu^ya, *holy,' f^TfT puf^ya-tara (Nom. m. f. n. cw, a, am), 'more boly,' 
^^■•i pwfya-tama (Nom. m. f. n. asy d, am), * most holy.* Similarly, >«i«ii^(2ia- 

Q 2, 



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116 ADJECTIVES. 

navat, 'wealthy,' V«rnrT dhanapat-tara, 'more wealthy/ If'SWWI dhamwai'tama, 
'most wealthy.' 

a. A final n is rejected; as, yffi(Sf^dhanin, ^ rich/ H^i(Ktdham-'tara, 

* more rich/ vfVnm dham-tama^ ' most rich.' 

*. fil¥^, *wise/ makes ftmrc, fflUf. Compare i6i.e. 

192. andly, by addmg ^irB( iyas (Nom. m. f. n. 4ydn^ -iyasi^ 'iy^^i 
see declension below, cf. Gr. Iwv) for the comparative (sec 86. V), and 
^ ishtha (Nom. m. f. n. -ishthas^ -ishfhd, -ishtham^ declined like h/Aka 
at 187, cf. Gr. -iCTToij for the superlative (see 80. XLVIII). 

Obs.— The difference in the use of tara, tama, and {yas, ishtha, seems to be 
this— that ^yas and ishtha, being of the nature of primary suffixes, are generally 
added to roots or to modifications of roots (the root being sometimes weakened; 
sometimes gunated), while tara and tama are of more general application. 

a. Note, that while the Sanskrit comparative suffix ends in n and s (^yans) for 
the Strohg cases, the Greek has adhered to the n throughout (N. {ydn=>tWf 
Voc. {yan=ziov); and the Latin has taken the s for its neuter {{yas=ius, neuter 
of tor J s being changed to r, in the masc. and oblique cases). Cf. Sk. gariyas with 
Lat. gravius. 

193. Before iyas and ishiha, the stem generally disburdens itself 
of a final vowel, or of the more weighty suffixes in, vin, vat, mat, 
and tfi ; thus, wfi^ * strong,' Wc^hR^ ' more strong,' wf^TV * strongest f 
"inft|5^ 'wicked,' iinfN^ 'more wicked,' inftw 'most wicked f H^ *hght,' 
<?nThW^ ' lighter,' crfw ' lightest ;' HVTf^ * intelligent,' ^iAi|^ * more 
intelligent,' ^fti? 'most intelligent.' Similarly, iffTi ' great,' if^N^ 

* greater,' irf^^ * greatest.' 

a. CJompare ^l<{)l(^ (N. of svddfyas) fipom svddu, 'sweet,' with iji'icov from 
ijl^v^ ; and IjuR^V^ with ^S-iarof . 

The declension of iTF^HVi^ masc. is here given in full (see 167). 

8INOULAR. DUAL. PLURAL. 

N. Wf^ltm^^baliydn Hc^l^l^l baUydnsau ^t^fM^battydnsas 
Ac. 'WTA^rhm ia%(%5ai7i — baliydnsau Wfiffv:^bal{yasas 

I. WtfhV^ baltyasd ntH^^y^baUyobhydm "^nA^itf^baUyob/Us 
p. 'Wt'ft^ baliyase — baliyobhydm *w«ftifhii|^ia/£yodAya^ 

Ah.'^t'iiVl^baliyasas — baliyobhydm — baliyobhyas 

G. — baliyasas ^^^^\^^ baUyaso9 ifrilmmf[baUyasdm 
L. •Irtl^ftl baliyasi — baliyasos *WcJhn^ ^a/fya^J^ 

V. Wc9^^ia%an ^dl^i^l baliydnsau 'W^iM^baliydnsas 

Wcajhrsft fem. is like nadi {105), and WTAif^neut. like manas (164); 



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ADJECTIVES. 



117 



194. Besides the rejection of the final, the stem often undergoes 
change, as in Greek (of. i^dioDv^ ?x^i<rro9^ fr. iyBpoi) ; and its place is 
sometimes supplied by a substitute (cf. peKrlwv^ fiikTiaro^, fir. ayaOoi). 

The following is a list of the substitutes : 



pofinrvK. 


^ neda (rt. ftf^) 


JOMPARATITS. SUPBRLAnVS. 


^reia/iwr, 'little** 


Vfibma(rt.■lR^) 


w^ihi^ 


^fns 


ir^mru/\Mtge'{€vpv^) 


^ vara (rt. \) 


HS^ 


^W 


^ry«/rtraight'* 


^|irrva(rt.^) 


^Jlfrq^ 


^iftff 


^*r^ 'thin,' 'lean' 


HCBJtraia(rt.f1^) 


lR{ft^ 


1l%f 


f^W ksMpra, * quick ' 


^^ kskepa (rt. f^Q^ 


irft^ 


^iftiw 


^ h$htdra, 'small,' 'mean' 


1^^A5*oia(rt.ip) 


H|1<1^4^ 


T^W?» 


^ 9wru/\iwrf' (fiofii) 


TT^ara (rt. '^) 


nftvm^ 


'i(V» 


fVfp^a,' satisfied' 


m trapa (rt. "J^) 


wft^ 


?|ftw 


^t^ d{rffha, ' long * 


-^drdghairt,-^)- 


v^^^, 


^jifW 


S[^(2i^a,' distant' 


!rT(to«(rt.5) . 


vf^"^ 


tjflw 


•f»<frHfta,'fipm' 


^drfl^(rt.'51f) 


•j^tHt^ 


Tt^ 


ntV^a parivtvfka, * eminent * 


^iftmr partvro^ 


iitanft^ 


^ftwfln 


^Pfi^hu, 'broad' (vkarvf) 


Tf^praika (rt. 11^) 




uf^ 


Vnf^ praiasya^ * good * 


•irtira(rt.lft) 
\^tiyrf(rt.^) 




1^ 


fiWpr»yfl,'dear' 


lltpra(rt.lft) 


iN^ 


ihr 


^ bahm, 'much,' 'fireqnent ' 


*t*W(rt.^) 


y^H 


JjiftW 


np9baMa/mach' 


^6a»*a (rt.l^) 


^^^ 


*ft 


^bkriiih'txceBKve* 


«^6*rfl/a(rt.^I1() 


wrfhi^ 


«f^ 


^mfidm/ioit* 


^ mrada (rt. ^) 


"(^ 


vfl^ 


f^m fw<m, 'young ' (jwoenu) 


lWyora(rt.5) 


Trtu^ 


T»fil» 


WI7tM^^'finn," thick' 


^IV«Attfl(rt.^) 


^inftn^ 


wrfw 


^vfiddha/ old' 


^«ar»Aa(rt. ^) 






^|1^R vfHuie^, * excellent ' 


^^vfiiida 


^i<hiH 


^•^ 


fmt$tkira, ' firm,' ' stable ' 


m$thaiH.W) 


^N^ 


«)v 


^^f^ihaa,' gross,' 'bulky' 


W^stkava(Tt.^ 


^q^ft^m 


wftn 


fnCipAIro,' turgid' 


^%q^ka{ft.^^X^) 


^iHHl^l 


^ 


1^51 hrasva, ' short ' 


J^ hrasa (rt* f^) 


s^^n 


ff^ 



♦ W5I may be also regularlj ^P^fN^, ^ifeTf ; and ^fl| ™*y I'® r>ft^, &e. 
t In the case of ISf and H the final vowel is not rejected, but combines with ^a* 
and i$k(ka agreeablj to SandhL In Wl and ^9 yas is affixed in place of ^m. 



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118 NUMERALS. 

195. Tara and tama may be added to substantives ; as, fir. XX^\y * a king/ 
<inn<, &c. ; (r. JJW, 'pain/ Jt^TOT, &c. If added to a word like tiRt^, 'clarified 
butter,' the usual euphonic changes must take place ; thus, ^rf^f^^ &c. (70). 

These suffixes are also added to inseparable prepositions ; as, 79^ * up,' 7W^ 
higher,' 9MH 'highest' (cf. Lat. ex-timus, in-timuSj ^c); also to pronominal 
sterns (336); and tama is added to numerals (209, sii). 

196. Tard and tamd maj sometimes be added to feminine stems ending in { 
and ti (like fift ' a woman,' wf\ ' a fiaithful wife,' f^^^l ' a wise woman '), which 
may optionally be retained or shortened ; e. g. ^gftllTTy %||1aHI> or f^STttT, f^n«ii ; 

^nftiiTT,irthnn,orirfinrtT,^rfTnnn; f^ji(l**ii or ft^rMflm (Pd?. vi. 3, 44. 45). 

But if the feminine be the feminine of a masculine substantive, as fiiii^i/) of 
VmTy the shortening is compulsory, as HllilOUAil (P4i). vi. 3, 43). 

197. Tara and tama may even be added, in coi^unction with the syllable yxt^^dm, 
to the inflexions of verbs; as, ITSlfinrCP^'he talks more than he ought.' See 
80. LIX, LXI. 

a. Sometimes {yas and tara, ishtha and tama are combined together in the same 
wcnrd (just as in English w)b say lesser) ; thus, ^Mtrn, ^«fl«i; ^VIHl; nfi^¥ini> 
&c. : and tara may be even added to ishfhaj thus, HWIR* 

Sbction IV. — numerals. 
CARDINALS. 

198. The cardinals are, ir« m. f. n. i, ^; fif m. f. n. 2, ^; fijl m. f. n. 
3>l> ^rjpj: m. f. n. 4, d; ^r«^ni.f. n. 5, M; in^m.Cn. 6, ^; ^ni^m.£n. 
7, ,9; iiff^in.f.n. 8, t; '!^9>^> ^TB'l 10,^0; ^iin;^ii, ^^; ¥i^?5i'l 
la,^^; ?n^?iFii3»^?; ^ql^i4,^; ^n^PH^is,^; *f5n^i6,<i^; 
im^^i7,^; ^nrr^^iSj^t; ^n^^or aHr^^iPH 19,^; W^tfiif. 20,^0; 
^«f*|ifir 21; nf^Mir 22; ^flnpftr 23; ^t5f^^24; iwW^25; 
irf^^ 26 ; OTfiqrfir 27 5 ^wfih^fir 28 ; irrW^rfii or wrfiJiin^ 29 ; 
ftj^f. 30; ^?'W5rn3i; ?Tf*jn^3^5 ?nifw5i^33; ^5%r^34; 
^'(^^ff^i^SS; ^^W?T^36; ^nrfirf^ 37; irfTf?h[n^ 38 ; ^?nrf*!rn^ or 
'iT^WTftsrn^ 39 ; ^wwTftyn4o; ^'i%^TfcFn^4i; fi^wft^rn^or n^iWT- 
ft^42; fa ^ f^ i ra^ in ^ or ^i|Siifiin^H^^ 43; ^ fl ^ i^ i r^m^ 44; MVi' ^ i^inC^iJ^^ 
45; ^l^^WlfT?JT^46; ?m^iiiTfT^47; ^g l^ r^int^m^ or fHf^i^lHUm 48 ; 
tfH^i^lft^m^ or g^HM^l^li^ 49; ^WT^5o; ^li^^rpT^^ 51 ; flnw^n^or 

¥nwT5rn^5^; ftnwn^or?nK'nT^53; ^^^""^54; ^wwrr^ 55; 
^f^^wrr^ 56; ^nnrfn[n^57; ^gM^nm^ or n gi MMnn^ ^58 ; nn^rp^or 
'''^^59; ^60; Fimrff 61; fir?fworiT?fir 62; ftrrfr or ?n»:iff * 
^3; ^Jift*64; "^^1^65; if^wf¥66; ^rmrfw 67; ^HF^f? or vt mff 

* These may also be written ?pn^fv> ^JMffk. See 62. a, and 63. 



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NUMERALS. 11» 

68 ; tnnifip or ^RnwfVr 69 ; ^nifw ^o ; ^v^irfif 71 > flnnrfw or giimrA 
72 ; On w Pit or 911:1111 Hif 73 ; ^'Tjtfnrfw 74 ; M^tl^Hpfl 75 ; ii^^Hpff y6 j 
irwmfir 77; iBroiifir or ^ronrnfir 78 ; Ti^^iffir or ^RT5jitf?r 79 ; ^dg^ 
80; ^wiftfif 81; ir^ 8a; «n[flfir 83; ^i3T?[ftfir84; W^ftfir85; 
ilf^flfir 86 ; ^Hl^ffl 87 ; VSI^'tfA 88 ; «nT^ftfk or Vtivf^Or 89 ; H^fic 

90; Fv^nflr 91; finnrfir or innfir 92; ftnrrfir or ?nft?nfir 93; 
^j^ 94 ; ^wnrrfir 95 ; ^WRfir 96 (43/) ; ^nnnfir 97; wf?i^ or 
W¥li»^ 98 ; h^IH^Pn or m?!^ n. (m.) 99 ; ^ n. (also m.*) or irti ^ni^ 
100; ^iiT(nT n. loi ; f^n^n.102; ^^^^103; ^•^104; ^Wf^io5; 
H^^ 106 ; ^SH^If 107 ; VIP^H 108 ; ^n^ 109 ; ^^1^4 1 10 ; %l(nnT 
(nom. sing, n.) or it l|r^ (nom. du. n.) or 71^ (nom. du. n.) 200 ; fin^nnf 
(nom. sing, n,) or Wi(Vi ^nnftf (nom. pi. n.) 300 ; ^t^HfT or ^fWTft ^TTirftf 
(nom. pL n.) 400 ; ^n^iri^or ifif ^prfif 500 ; n^^nn^or H^ :pnfH 600 ; 
and so on up to ?EI^ n. (also m.) looo, which is also expressed by 

rt ^i^^f'^ or by ^ ^[nrrfW or by ^^^Hfnft f.; if ^njd 3000; ?i1Air 

199. The intervening numbers between 100 and locx^, those be- 
tween iQOO and aooo» and so on, may be expressed by compounding 
the adjective vf^ adhika (or occasionally irinc lUtard)^ 'more/ 'plus,' 
with the cardinal numbers ; thus loi is i!i|^^iii^(see above) or ^iirfv^ 
|nn^ (or occasionally ^iftwt ^iH^), i. e. ' a hundred plus one/ or com- 
pounded thus, ^mftrv^ni^. Similarly, vftnt ^TP*^ or fl|Py«h^dH, 102 ; 

^Prt ^fin^or «if\iii^ AM 103 ; ^nnfVnk ^jin^or ;FnRhrt|nn^^io7; fS^r^rTf^- 
^^nn^i3o; irar9^fWiV^nP^i5o (also expressed by mS^pirn^ ' one hun- 
dred and a half') • HPjU i wOi^Pg^ l flU^ 7,261 W|^«qft|%(tnmn^ 383 ; ttot- 

ifNfiwwjt^nr^ 485 ; M4H<iwPM^M^<yfli^ 596 ; ir^rorfiHrn^^fni^ 666 ; 

INIV^H^^i^ or Nqiill^if^ 1060; H^S^IItlllH^or M^lfl'I^^^^^U^ 1600; 
^^HRfiUfiftf^^Tn^^ 1666 %. 

* 1 have found ^ T^l ' a hundred hundred 'and ^W^TifT: * seven hundred ' 
(agreeing with ^nUTt) in the Mahd-bhdrata. 

t ^•ti^tsi«<^i« used in Rig-vedaV. 30, 15 for 4000; and on the same principle 
P^%^ti*v^ might stand for 3000, and PffUftl^for sooo, &c. ; but it is a question 
whether these might not also stand for 1004, 1003* 1002 respectivej^r. 

X Similarly 3130 may be expressed by P^*^ I ^R<^%W^|Pa^aH^ or -^nnf^ or by 
ming 1|T ; thus, IUv^^^^VmX ^ ^^. Other forms of expressing numerals 
aw also found; e.g. 31,870 ^nSHH^lrf^^H* l^Wnw >J?nj ^iwfir:; 109,350 
^nnniH ^m ^^i^lflu M^I^I^A|P«( ?ftftr. According to Pd?. vi. 3, 76, ^^BTVI 
may be prefixed to a number in the sense 'by one not,' ' less by one ;' e. g. ^^IFSf- 
P^^flf * by one not twenty,* 'one less than twenty,' i. e. 19. 



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120 NUMSBALS. 

In the same way the adjective '9R * less/ ^ minus/ is often placed 
before a cardinal number, to denote one less than that number, in 
*one^ being either expressed or understood; thus, OHOi^ni or ^lit^- 
f^T^fk * twenty minus one ^ or * nineteen ' (cf. Lat undevigintiy i. e. unus 
de viginii). And other cardinals, besides Ifii * one,^ are sometimes 
prefixed to "IR, to denote that they are to be subtracted from a 
following number ; as^ iriH ^TH^ or MH^H^flM^ ' a hundred less five ' 
or ^ninety-five/ , 

a. Again, the ordinals are sometimes joined to the cardinals to 
express iii and upwards ; thus, wm^ J|IK^;^ or Ki||(;^9fli(^iii ; ^^TV^ 
|nr^ii5; Wjf^pn^iao; W^^Jin^or f?f^np^i3o; iIW!]^ ?FH^ 150; 

b. There ire single words for the highest numbers ; thus, ^9^ n. (also m.) ' ten 
thousand ;' t^ n. or «9^ f. or f«f^ n. (also m.) 'a lac/ ' one hundred thousand ' 
(^nti^tf); H^ n. (also m.) 'one million;' mft f* 'a krore,' 'ten millions;' 
WJ^ m. n. * one hundred millions ;' H^l^<( m. n. or Vlft n. or ^fSf n. ' one thou- 
sand millions ;' IV^ n. ' ten thousand millions ;' f«TlR n. ' one hundred thousand 
millions ;' ti^mw n. ^ a biUioD ;' ^V m. (or f^Pn n.) 'ten billions ;' ^|f m. n. or 
^155 ^* ' » hundred billions ;* I^T^If m. n. or V^ ' a thousand billions ;' ^T^ m. 
or VW * ten thousand billions ;' ^flflfl m. or ^RT^ m. ' one hundred thousand 
billions;' ^ n. (^[H) 'one million billions;' Hfl^^ n. ('V^I^H) 'ten million 
billions;' lll|iP^4|Jl f. 'one hundred million billions;' >T]gr8(Tf^^^'one thousand 
million billions.' 

Note — Some yariation occurs in some of the above names for high numbers, 
according to different authorities. 

DBOLENSION OF CARDINALS. 

2,00. ir« I, % 2 {duo, Svo)y ftr 3 {tres, rpeh^ rpia), ^i|j^ 4 {quaiuor), 
are declined in three genders* 

ineka, ^one^ (no dual), follows the declension of the pronominaLs 
at 237 : Nom. m. F^ ekas ; Dat m. ^9^ ekasmai ; Nom. £ ^liT ekd ; 
Dat. f. m(^ eka$yai ; Nom. n. CTf^ ekam ; Nom. pi. m. ^ eke, * some/ 
It may take the suffixes tara and iama; thus, eka-taray ^one of two;;* 
eka-tama, 'one of many ;^ which also f(^ow the declension of pro- 
nominals; see 2^6, 238^ 

aoi. % dvi, Hwo' (dual only), is declined as if the stem were 
W rfva, like Hva ; thus, N. Ac. V. m. T^ dvau, f. n. if dve; I. D. Ab. 
m. f. n. in^'n'^^; G. L. F'ft^. 

lioa. f^ tri, 'three* (pi. only), is declined in the masculine like 



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NUMERALS. 121 

the plural of nouns whose stems end in !( i at ilo^ except in Gen. ; 
thus, N. V. masc. w^; Ac. >rtn; I. ftffti^; D. Ab. f?rwp^; G. w^ 
91^ (VecL ffhtl*^) ; L. f^. The feminine forms its cases from a 
•temfii^; thus,N. AcV.fem.ftf0^; I.fir;^; D.Ab.fiTfil^; G. 
flifin'^; L. fl^. The N. Ac. V. neut is ^ftfty ; the rest like masc. 

^03. ^fj^ 6atur^ *four^ (plural only), is thus dedined : N. V. masc. 
^IWIT^ (r€TTap€9, ria&ape^) ; Ac. ^fCl^; I. ^^^fS^^; D. Ab. ^v;^; 
G. ^ffSii^; L. ^5^. N. Ac. V. fem. "^WH^; I.^ir|6l^; D. Ab. ^W^- 
*^; G. ^fl^Qii^; L. ^ni^. N. Ac. V. neut. ^Wlft; the rest like 
Uie masculine. 

a. In 6atwr^ skask, pam^m, &o., an augment 11 is inserted before 1611, the termina- 
tion of Gen., by Pi^, vii. i, 55. 

204. '^v^paiiSan^^ &ye' (plural only), is the same for masc., fem., 
nnd neut. It is declined in L D. Ab. L. like nouns in an (146). 
The Gen. lengthens the penultimate ; thus, N. Ac V. nm (Tevre) ; 
I. ^wfii^; D. Ab. i|VH|^; G. twrRTi^; L. 'il^. 

Like n^ are declined, ^mn * seven* {septem, erra), iff^ 'nine* 
{novem\ ^^ *ten* {deceniy iexa), ^nm^^ 'eleven* {undecim), T1^^ 
* twelve* {duodecim), and all other numerals ending in an, excepting 
1115^ 'eight* 

205. ^ $hash, * six,* is the same for masc, fem., and neut, and 
is thus declined: N. AcV. n^; I. ^T^f^; D. Ab. "^f^v^; G. ^m^ 
shanndm(43.f); L. 1^. 

a. Similarly without distinction of gender, ilf«^ ashfan, 'eight:* 
N.AcV.Hf^orWf (oc/o, o/cT«); I.^mfil^or nTfH^; D.Ab.inrw^ 
or ^iT«l^; G. iRiPfTi^; L. mn^ or ivf^. 

b. The numerals from ^rv«l['five* to ifiR;^ 'nineteen* have no 
distinction of gender, but agree in number and case with the ndms 
to which they are joined; thus, ^wr6»^ •ftOfW: *by five women.* 

206. Ail the remaining cardinal numbers, fi*om QinHfiprH 'nineteen* 
to irv 'a hundred,* igfj^ 'a thousand,* and upwards, may be declined 
In the singular, even when joined with masculine, feminine^ or neuter 
nouns in the pluraL Those ending in fw ^t are feminine, and declined 
Uke vfflr matt at 112 ; and those in 1^/ are also feminine, and declined 
like n(tl{^sarit at 136; thud, fi^im J^. 'by twenty men;* ff^rfll 
5W^ ace. pi. 'twenty men;* f^fmn ^^ 'by thirty men;* Qt^ 
mx^i ace. pL 'thirty men.* ^ 'a hundred* and ^1^ 'a thousand? 
and all the higher numbers are declined according ta their final 



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122 JiUlfSBALS. 

vowds, whether ayd,i^(fCftu f thus, |nl fnc * a huncbed aacestofi ;' 
irVTI^ftf^ 'from a hundred ance8tor8;^ fm i fttll|lt ftnPC 'a huaditdl 
and one ancestors ;' lF|dir f^ffW: ^ with a thousaiid ancestors ;^ 1^ 
imt 'a millioa men ;^ ^A^fp f^ ^ with ten miHion men,^ &c. 

207. AHhougb these numerals, firom ^FTN^jTfV 'nineteen,' wlien joined with 
^hiral nouns, may be declined in the singnlar, jet they may take a dual er pkiral 
;vi^en used alone and in particular oonstruQtions; as, Oj^A 'two twenties }' f)t|nn 
Hwo thirties ;' U|II4^ ' many thirties ;' ^ 'two hundred;* ]|RITfff 'hundreds;' 
^r^^rf^ 'thousands ;' ' sixty thousand sons/ ^: ga^WriU . 

The things numbered are often put in the genitive ; thus, a «^tf ^"mniH ^ two 
thousand chariots;' UNfjAir^ IfPfPfti^* seven hundred elephants;' ^nN^lrfw: 
){IU^1^' twenty-one arrows.' See other examples in Syntax at 835. 

OBDHiTALS. 

ao8. The ordinals are, ir^W * first'* (c£ Trp&ro^, primus); fMN 
'second' (Seurepo^); ^rfti 'third' (tertkhs); which three are all 
declined like Hva and iubha at 187; but the first may optionally 
follow sarva at 237 in N. V. pi. m. (nn^ or inPVH^) ; and the other 
two the pronominals at ^37, 238 in D. Ab. L. sing. m. £ n. ; thus^ 
J>. fWhiA or fyiftinil m. n., fMNd or fMHn^ f. See also 239. 

209. ^i^ * fourth' t {rerafyro^); nVT 'fifth;' 1? 'siicth;' mm 
' seventh' («6p^tmf<^); VfiT ' eighth ;' tRii^ ninth '(ttomc^); ^|R 'tenth' 
{decimui) ; declined like Hva and hibha for masc. and neut.^ and 
like nad( at 105 for feminine ; thus^ Norn. m. ^fj^^ f. ^VJ^. (In 
iHR &a the old superlative suffix, ma may be noted.) 

aia The ordinals firom ' eleventh' to 'nineteenth' are formed firom 
the cardinals by rejecting the final n ; thus, fix>m dKI^^I^ ' eleven^' 
iniR[|r 'deventh' (Nom. m. f. n. ^^cn;^> -^, -^, 103, 105, 104). 

an. 'Twentieth,' 'thirtieth,' 'fortieth/ and 'fiftieth' are formed 
either by adding the superlative suffix tama (195) to the cardinal, or 
by rejecting the final syllable or letter of the cardinal; as, firom 
f^qHl ' twenty/ N^rfinPI or Nf * twentieth' (Nom. m. f. n. -H^^ -ift, 
'^y -^, -^, -IJ^ 103, 105, 104). Sinularly, fg^lKH or f^ ' thii^ 
tieth,' innpinv or ^im^ 'fiftieth,' &c. ^The intermediate ordinals 
are formed by prefixing the numeral, as in the cardinals; thua, 
f^W^OnH or iwrf*|r ' twenty-first/ &c, 

* Other adjectives may he used to express 'first ;' as, VIV^, -VT, -V^; Hlf^Hl^y 
• t J'fNp^* "^j -^; 5^» -'^> -^ ste slso used for 'fourth.' 



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PRONOUNS, 123 

ai2« The other ordinals, from ^sixtieth' to ^ninetieth/ are formed 
1>7 adding taina; also by changing /t to /a in the case of another 
numeral preceding^ but not otherwise ; thus, fix>m Kf\l * sixty/ ^^fm^ 
^ sixtieth;^ but IV for * sixtieth' can only be used when another 
numeral precedes, as ^«iif or t^vrf^m ' sixty-first/ ftfw or f^rrfkniv 
'aixty-ttdrd;^ from ifffl ^ninety/ inrflnR ^ninetieth;' but ^^n fos 

* ninetieth' can only be used when another numend precedes (see 
Pfigi. V. 3, 58). 

213* ' Hundredth' and * thousandth^ are formed by adding tama 
to i|nr and ?EI^, declinable in three genders ; thus, l^niWT * hundredth' 
(Nom« m. £ n. ^jnnpv^, *^, -•^« Similarly, HfiJWl^, -#> -•P^, 

* thousandth.' 

314. The aggregation of two or more numbers is expressed by modifications of 
the ordinal nmmbets; ibiu, T^'a dnad,* ?fin^'a triad/ ^^V^'the aggregate 
off<rar/ 

915. There are a few adverbial numerals; as, ?Vf1l^.' once/ fv^'twioe,' fll^ 
'thrice,' ^{^ 'four timM.' ^^\ maj be added to cardinal numbers, with a 
similar signification ; m> ^n^fFI^ ' five times.' The neuter of the ordinals may 
« be ased«dverbia]]j; as, HW*^'in the first place/ 

For a table of the numerical symbols see page 3. 



CHAPTER V. 



PRONOUNS. 

. 216. FnoKOUNs {$0nHMidman) have no one stem equally appli- 
cable to all the cases. In the ist personal pronoun, the stem of 
the sing, is practically n^ oA in Nom.^ and in the oblique cases if ma. 
In the 2nd, the stem of the sing, is practically iw iva or g tu, while 
that of the dual and plural is ]g yii. The 3rd has V sa for the stem 
of the Nom. sing., and W ta for the other cases. 

ai7« Nevertheless the form of the pronoun used in derivative and 
compound words is regarded by grammarians as expressive of its 
most general and comprehensive state, and this in the pronouns of 
the first and second persons, corresponds with the Ablative cases, 
singular and plural, and in the other pronouni^ with the Nominative 
and Accusative cases singular neuter« y 

R 2 



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124 PRONOUNS. 

DECLENSION OP THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 

Obs. — In Sanskrit, m in other languages, the general and indefinite character 
of the first two personal pronouns is denoted by the fiact that no distinction of^ 
gender is admitted. For the same reason, the termination of the Nom. case of 
some pronouns is made to resemble the neuter, as the most general state. This 
maj also be the reason whj the ^ pronoun $a drops the « of the Nom. case 
before all consonants. There is no Vocative case. 

ai8. iT^ mad, sSig. *I/ iw^ asmad^ pL * we/ 

N. W^aham/V mtm^dvdm/ -we two' ^r^vayam/we' 

Acm^mdmormfnOy^me' — <^(fmor<i^iiati/u8two^ WW^asmdn or '9^nas/uB^ 
I. ^^l1naffd W^IMiii^ dvdbhydm in^nfil^a^mifftAtf 

D. ^^|P\mahyam or ^ me — dvdbhydm or ir nou w^vsff^asmabhyam or if^iuw 
Ab.Wf(mat* — dvdbhydm wmff^asmat 

G. nn mama or ^ me w^f^lP^dvayos or yfi nau ^tmw[asmdkam or '^^^tuu 
L. ^f^mayi — dvayos 'mmi%a9mdsu 

^19. w^ (vady ring. * thon,* 5^ yuahmad, pi. *you.' 
N. iV^/vam/thou' ^^fT^yuvim, * you two* "^f^^ydyam, *you' or *yc* 
Ao. i^l^Jvdm or mtvd — yuvdm or ^t^vdm '^[rni^lytuhmdn or 'm^^vM 
I. Wdivayd ^^^t^^^vdbhydm ^[^mf^yushm^his 

D. 'fiV{tubhyam or^te — yuvdbhydm or "WJfiydm ^[^(fs^^j^hmabkyam or ^oot 
Ab.jm{^tvat * — yuvdbhydm TjW(f(^yuBhmat 

6. m tava or ^te ^[wit^^yuvayo9 or '^m^vdm ^[mtw^^yushrndkam or '^vob 
L. wif^tvayi — yuvayos ^p^yuihmdw 

Obs. — ^The ahemative forms nu^ me, naif, &c., have no accent, and cannot be 
used at the beginning of sentences, nor before the partides 6a, 'and;' vdy 'or;' 
eva, * indeed,' &e, 

220. ir^ tody * he,' * that.' 

MASCULINE. 

N. W^«(w (usually w*at),*he' lft/flu,*they two* i/c,*they,'' those* 
Ac. in^tam -^tau Kt^tdn 

L ^iena irns^mjdbhydm \^^ta^s 

*lkA the stems fnad and tvad are generally used in compounds, mo^-Zof and 
tval'toM more commonly stand for the Ablative ; see 719. Similarly, the Abbtive 
plural may be ymMkmat'tas, atmat-tas: but these very rarely occur. 

t By 67, V win be the usual form. - IT^ usually exists as ^9 see 64. a. 



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PRONOUNS. 



125 



N. m^if'she^ 
Ac. 'm^tdm 

I. inn tojfd 

Ab. n^in^ iasyds 
6. — /a«y(£9 
L. i[mfi\tasydm 



1IT»vni^ tdbhydm 
— ^ tdbhydm. 

— toyo« 



a« 



— tebhyas 
^t:W[^^teshdm 



FBMININB. 

T^ /If, * they two' (fem.) mn /«, * they" (feni.) 

— /c — fOf 

IP^Ti^ tdbkydm mfil^ /iCiAw 

— tdbkydm VP^ tdbhyas 

— tdbkydm — tdbhyas 



tayo$ 



VT^ /<i9tf 



NEUTER. 



K. Ac. m^/a/, ir /e, TirfiT tdni; the rest like the masculine. 

a. Obeerve the resembliuioe of the Sanskrit personal pronouns to those of the dead 
joid liymg cognate languages. Aham or oA is the Greek €y» (iEolic €yco¥), JLatin 
cyo, German ich, English ' I ;' mdm or md (the latter being the oldest form found 
in the Vedas) equals cjxe, mej mahyam^zndki j mayi^meij the mat of the Abl. 
sing, and of asmat^ yuskmat^ corresponds to the Latin met in memet^ nosmet, &c. : 
vnyomorvaistheEngtish'we;' dsmdn^zusj nas^znosj fvafii=(ii/thou;' tvdm 
or fmfs/e, 'thee;' tttbhyam^itibij tvayi=itmj yi^am=t;/X€/V» English 'jou;' 
.9as=oot. The jrd personal pronoun corresponds to the Greek article; thus, ta» 
ssTci, tamzsTOv; tdbkydm szTOtif^ reuv, fee. 



DBMONSTEATIVB PBESONAL PRONOUNS. 

221. The thin} personal pronoun ir^ tad, * he/ declined above, is 
constantly used in a demonstrative sense, to signify 'that' or 'this.' 

a. It is sometunes used emphaticaUy irith other pronouns, like iUe and ^uj 
thus, itt^l^'Uk egoy l) ^'OK no*/ ^ W^'ttte tu/ mt^'iUa tu;' 
W^n^'ttticof,*' ^Wy^^iUeipse:* l[^WKf{^* id ipswnJ 

222. It is also combined with the relative ya to form another demonstrative 
pronoun (rarely used except in the Veda), of which the stem is tyad : N. ^9V^ (67), 
w, ^ ; Ac. ?n^, &c. Fem. ^^T, W, WH^, &c. Neut. TOT, W, Wlftf , &c. 

223. By prefixing ^^ e to w^, another common pronoun is formed, 
more proximately demonstrative ; thus, . . 



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l26 PRONOUNS. 

1CA8CVLINB. 

N. W'(^esha${\xs\i.WHesha).'jo.^ etau v^ete 

Ac. ^ifi^ etam or T^fm^enam — etau or "^ enau wnTf[etdnotW9i^e4 

I. ^riNr etena or ^^ enena mnwiTi^^ etdbhydm ^1^ e/oi* 

D. CT^ etamai — etdbhydm W^ etebkya$ 

Kh.TKm\^ct9m6t — etdbhydm — etebhyoi 

L. Wifii^^etamin — etayos or -*- enayos Ti^eteshu 

The feminine is N. CTT eshd, ^ ete, ^itt^^etds; Ac. CTT^or ^CTP^^, 

^ or ^, ^TiT^ or ^eHT^; I. THm or ^inn, ^HTwip^, ^irrfin^; 

The neuter is N. ^in^, ^, CTTftf ; Ac. ct^^ or t^i{\, ^ or ^, 
innfVf or FtfTftr, &c. 

a. The alternative forms ^in^, ^^9 ^r^» &c. are, like those of 
the ist and and person, enclitic, and ought not to be used at the 
be^nning of a sentence. Moreover, they can only be used with 
refarence to some one or something mentioned in a previous sen^ 
tence (see Syntax 836). 
With etad cf. Lat. kte, Uta^ ktudj etam=iistum, ettupassiistuu, etats^istud. 

204. There is another common demonstrative pronoun, of which 
1^ idam^ * this,' the N« neuter, is supposed to represent the most 
general state (cf. Lat is, ea, id), though there are really two stems-— 
the vowels ir a and ^ i (cf. a-tas, i-tas, 719). The latter serves also as 
the stem of certain pronominals, such as ^1R» f^9 ^^* See 234, 
234. 4, and 23$. 

MASCULINE. 

N. IR^ ayam, Uhis' l^imati/ these two' ^im^,* these* 

Ac. l^Ri^ imam — imau X^^ imdn 

I. %i^ anena %rtfft[9^dbhydm ^^fis(^^ ebMs^ 

D. ^F^ asmai — dbhydm ^»l^ ebhya$ 

Ab. ir^nn^ cwmift — dbhydm — ebhyas 

G. mm^sya %(wf^^^anayos vm^eshdm 

L. ^rf9l«( (umin — anayos ^ eshu 

* * This is an example of the old fona for the Inst. pL of masculine nouns of tiie 
first class, common in the Vedas. , 



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PRONOUNS. 






FBklNIMB. 




N, ^^ijfam 


^ime 


fn^fffMir 


Ac. 1|^W^ tWMIfll 


— ims 


— kndM 


!• Wiwr (xnaya 


m!mm^dbhy4m 


^nfWl^iiMa 


D. m^asyai 


— ^dbkydm 


im«ll(^(%a« 


Ab.m^m(^ii^d$ 


— ibhydm 


~ 4ikua$ 


Q. — Oiydr 


Win^oMyof 


^ ^aw^^d$6m 


Lu. Wl^ oifdm 


— anafyo$ 

NtUTSR. 


fnfim 


N. Ac. ^^idam 


|(il ime 


^vnftf tnufipit 



12T 



335. Then io ttnother demonstratiye pronoun (nrelj naed, excepting in Norn, 
sing.), of which V^, 'this ' or Hhat/ is supposed to represent the most general 
state, though the stem is Hf amM, and in N. sing. H^ a»u. It is thus declined : 
Masc N. irat, ^1^, ^rtt ; Ac. ^ly^* ^■'^ ^'TjI* ^' ^"V^* ^"^?''^ wfMil^; 
D.^li5^,ll^wnw,iwftwi^; Ab. 'W'l^in^, 'i^**il*\, H^flwin^; G.W^yH^pi^, 
vfNlir ; L. HijC^IIJ^, Vl|4tl(> ^41 3. Fem. N. mBi, ^nj^, ^*i^> Ac. ^nji^, ^m^ 

Iec; O. «l|i|l^> ^i^^> ^W^; L* ^IflCn^, Vf iAl^9 ^"W* Neut N. Ac, 

BBLATIVB PRONOUN. 

aa6. The relative is formed by substituting 1^ y for the initial 
letter of the pronoun tad at 220 ; thus, 

iTf yarf, * who/ * which/ 

MASCULIMB. 

N. ^Sfa# ^yott ^yc,*who' or * which* 

Ac. ^yofii — yau ^y^ 

I- ^y«»a ^qTwn»^y4iAyi6» ^yaj# 

D, i|9^ yo^mas — ydbhydm. ^«^ yebhyas 

Ab.nmt\yasmdt — =- ydbkydm — yebhyas 
G, ^l^yo^a ^nit^yayM ^ni^ y^^Acf m 

L. ^rf^yofmiii — yayo« ^yeshu 

The feminine and neuter follow the fem. and neut of tad at mo. 

Pcm, N. iiT yrf, ^ ye, ^ y<i* ; Ac. iii\ydm, &c. &c. Neut. N. Ac. 

^yat, ^ ye, 'mf^ ydni; the rest like the masculine. 

. With 3fM, yd, y«l, &o., of. Gr. oV> ^9 ^ &c., Sk. y corresponding to ipkUus atpew 
in Gr. (see 25). 



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128 PRONOUNS. 

INTBREOGATIVB PRONOUNS. 
%%'j. The interrogative differs from the relative in substituting k 
instead of y for the initial letter of the pronoun tad at aao ; and in 
making the N. Ac. sing, neut ftp^ instead of ijn^* ; thus, N. masc* 
m^iot, T(^ kau^ w *e, 'who?' *wiiich?*^'what?' Ac. -m^kam, *whom?* 
&c. N. fem. iiT *rf, % ke^ n^ k&By &c. The N. Ac, neut are f^ 
kim^ M ke, nrf^ kdni. Although the real stem of this pronoun is ka^ 
yet kirn is taken to represent the most general state, and occurs in 
a few compounds; such as fivir^'on what account?' 'why?' 

a. To the true stem ka may be affixed H, to form ^ifk koH {quot), ' how many ?* 
The same suffix is added to ta and ya, the proper stems of the third personal 
and relative pronouns, to form tati, 'so many' (tot), and yati, 'as many.' These 
are thus declined in pi. only : 

N. Ac.v. Tifir; I. "nfiffHi^; Dat. Ab. iiflvMR^; G. ''irfhfni; L. "irfirj. 

Note-^The Latin quot and tot, which drop the final i, take it again in composi- 
tion; as, quoiicUe, totidem, 8ce. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 
928. The indeclinable suffixes Od^ api, and 6ana (718), affixed (in 
accordance with the rules of Sandhi) to the several cases of the 
interrogative pronouns, give them an indefinite signification; as, 
^lf%i^ kaijHd, * somebody/ * some one/ * any on^^ ' a certain one.* 

MASCULINE. 

N. %t^fikai6ii, 62, VWWf[kau6it # Pcifli ke6it, ' some persons ' 

Ac. '^^tfi^kttn^U, 59. — kau6it '9i^^kd»46k. 53. 

I. %ff^ifc«iaA** 4i|M| rPi 1^ kdbhydn6it mfVi^kaii6U. 62. 

D. W^f^kamai^ — kdbkydn^it W^lfPv^kebhfa^ 

Ab. mm\t^\kasmd^t. 48. — kdhhydndit — kebhyaiM 

G. 'W^Bfi'^ka8ya6it V^ltftn^itayoiiff/. 6a. iNTf^il|(^ile«ik(£p|<S»^ - 

L. 1|feff^ifc<wmi»/A^ 53. kayomt ijrjf^itwAttitt 

Similarly, Fem. Nom, wf^, wfrn^, wf^; Ac. wf^, &c.: and 
Neut. Nom. Ac. fvf%l^^ something/ * anything/ iirfin^, nrf^ffm^, &c. 

aap. So also by afiBxinf^ ivfi|; as, Nom. masc. ^sftf (64.0) 'some one,' 'a 
certain one/ ^iPrftj^sftl (37, 35); Ac. iRWf^y &o. ; I.%'fTfti;&c.(3i)i D.WWT- 

* Kat (or kad), however (=Latin quod)^ was the old form, and is, like itMi, found 
at the beginning of compounds ; such as kaddid, ' perhaps ; ' kad-artha^ * \ 
('of what use ? ') ; kad-adkvan, ' a bad road ' (' what sort of a road ?')• 



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PRONOUNS* 129 

^ftl, &c. (37); Ab. 1WTI[fil, &c.; G. 1i9ITftr> &c.; L. %(\jHl(^> &c. (53). 
Norn. fem. iwftl, &c. j Ac. HRftl^ &c. ; I. Wllftl, &c. &c. Nom. neut. ftwft 
' something/ ' anything/ &o. The suffix 6ana is rarelj found, except in Nom. 
masc. mzn ' soma one>' ' any one ;' and in Nom. i^eut. Hn^n ' something.' 

230. In the same way interrogative adverbs are made indefinite; thus, from 
lati, 'how many?' kati6idt 'a few;' from kadd^ 'when?' hadd6id or haddSana or 
hadd^^ * at some time ;' from katham^ * how ?' kathandanOj * some how ;' from kva, 
'where?' Aoa^ or ib^» ' somewhere.' 

a. ' Whosoever/ 'whatsoever' are expressed by prefixing the relative to the in* 
definite; thus, 'H irf^B^^or ^ ift^fll 'whosoever/ HT^fiifiiH^' whatsoever:' or 
sometimes to the interrogative ; as, ^ Wf 9M|l)'«! ' by any means whatsoever :' 
or sometimes by repeating the relative ; as, ^ "^t^ ^ inf. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

231. Possessive pronouns (Pfe. iv. 3, 1—3) are mostly formed by 
affixing (ya (80. L) to those forms of the personal pronouns, ending 
in d, which are used as stems ; thus, fr. IT^ * 1/ ^^ mad(ya, * mine ;^ 
fr. W?|l^ * we,^ ^V^nfhr asmadiya^ * our ;^ fr. iir^ * thou/ m^fhl tvad(ya, 
* thine;* fir. w^ 'he/ iR{hr tadlya, *his.* Similarly, ^1^^* yours* 
(Pfin. lY. 2, 115) is formed from bhavad^ and not firom the regular 
stem bhavat (see 233)* They are declined like iubha at 187 ; e.g. 
Nom, m. in(Nl^, f* 'nfhn, n. irJNi^. 

a. Other possessive pronomis differently formed are mdmaka (fem. ak(^ but 
generally ikd) and mdmdkina (fem. d), 'mine;' tdvaka (fem. oH) and tdoakina 
(fem. d)i 'thine;' dsmdka (fem. dk{) and dsmdkina (fem. d), 'our;' yautkmdka 
(fem. dk^) and yauskmdkii^ (fem. d), 'your.' Mdmaka and those formed with the 
suffix ^M (80. XLIX) make their feminines in d, and are declined like hibha at 
187; the others follow £va or iubha for masc. and neut., and nodl^ (105) for fem. 

Obs. — ^The genitive case of the personal pronouns is often used as a possessive; 
thus, Tl^ 5^^ * ^ "^^ *' ^^ W^ ' ™y daughter.' 

KBPLEXIVE PBONOUNS. 

232. The oblique cases sing, of irrw^ a/wan, 'soul/ 'self ^(declined 
at i46), are used reflexively, in place of the three personal pronouns, 
like the Latin ipse. 

Thus, dtmdnam {me ipswm) andhdreifa hanithydmi, ' I shall kill myself by fasting ;* 
dtmdnam (te ipsum) mfitavad dariaya, ' show thyself as if dead ;' dtmdnam (se 
^pmm) nindati, 'he blames himself.' It is used in the singular, even when it 
refers to a plural; as, dtmdnam punimake, 'we (will) purify ourselves;' abudhair 
dtmd paropakaraif^kptait, ' foolish peogfe make themselves the tools of others.' 

a. The indeclinable pronoun w^^^8vayam is sometimes joined. 



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130 , PROKOUNS. 

in the sense of ^ self/ to the three personal pronouns ; thus, m^ ^9^ 
' I myself/ &c. 

b, ^ 9va {suus) is used reflexivelj^ witii respect to all three 
persons, and may stand for * my own^ (meus)^ * thy own^ (/«i«), 'his 
own/ * our own/ &c. (cf. cr^o^y cripn^ (r(f>6v). It often occupies the first 
place in a compound, e. g. W^t 'naflr *he goes to his own house.' 

The Gen. case of ^VTTR^ dtman, or often the simple stem, is used 
with the same signification ; as, ivrvnT^ ^ or HTW^^ fvfft. It is 
used in the singular even when it refers to more than one*. In 
the most modem Sanskrit, ffflT nija is often used in place of ^ and 
^miT^, and from it transferred to Bengali. 

^, in the sense of ^ own/ is declined like sarva at 237; as a pro- 
nominal the Ab. L. sing. masc. neut. and N. pi. masc. may optionally 
follow Subha at 187 ; thus, N. pi. m. sve or svds in the sense of 
<own;* but used substantively in the sense of 'kinsmen' or * pro- 
perty/ sva can only follow iiva or hibha (N. pi. m. «?<&). 

c. ^fhv (f. d)^ ^n£N (f. a), and ^nc (f. akd or ikd), declinable like iubha^ 
sometimes take the place' of ^ in the sense of ^own/ 'one's own.' 

HONORIFIC OR RESPBOTPUL PRONOUN. 

233. H^ bhavaty * your Honour,' requiring the 3rd person of the 
verb, is declined like dhanavat at 140 ; thus, N. masc. H^ns^ bhcwdn, 
)T?R^ bhavantauy H«l^l^ bhavantas ; V. H^ ; N. fem. ^^^ bftavati, 
H^liT^ bhavatyauy K^?!^ hhavaiyaSy &c. ; V. )V^. It is constantly 
used to denote 'respect,' in place of the and personal pronoun; thus, 
^'^n*^ f? nui * let your Honour go home' for ' go thou home.' 

PRONOUNS OP QUANTITY AND SIMILITUDE. 

234. Modifications of the demonstrative, relative, and interroga- 
tive pronouns may take the sufl5x in^ vat to express ' quantity,' and 
^ dfiitty "^T^ driksha or ipf^drii (Nom. masc. neut. drik, fem. drii() to 
express ' similitude/ frequently used as correlative pronouns ; thus, 

J[mH^tdvat, r.nmf[^etdvat, 'so many,' 'so much' (tantus); in^iquantus) 'm 

many/ ' as much' (declined Uke dhanavat at 140); IfT^ tddrUa or KT^ tddfiksha 

or KV^Sf^tddfi^, * such like ' (talis, rrjKiKO^) ; WKT^ etddfUa or ^ITTJS^ etddfiS, 

like this or that/ followiag hhha (187) for masc. and neut. of those ending in 

^sa and Hf ksha; and dii, at 181, for masc. and neut. of those in ^^d; and nadC^ 

* Lassen cites an example (Ramdyai^a II. 64, 28) in which dtman refers to the dual s 
Putram dtmanaft spjrUktvd nipetatuh, ^ they two fdl down alter touching their son.' 



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PBONOUNS. 



131 



at 105, for the fern, of all three. Similarly, the correlatives ^VTinr or '^IT^ or 
irnp^'as like,' 'how like' (qualis, rjXiKO^); f^ or f^ or ^T^l'"^ ^®i* 
^A^ or IJhpi or 41'^S^'how like?* {qualis?) 

a. Note, that ipf is derived Arom the root djrii, 'to see,' ' appear,' and is in fact 
our English ' like,' d heing interchangeable with /, and / with k, 

h. rtuHi^'how much,' and ^^*so much,' are declined like >n!^(i4o). 

e. A few pecUliav pronouns of quantity, some of which are of the nature of 
ordinals^ are formed with the suffix tha (itha), thought by some to be an old 
luperktive, or tiika (80. LXIII) ; e. g. ydoatitha^ as^ < am^ 'to whatever stage or 
degree advanced,' ' how-manieth,' ' as-manieth j' katitha, as, <, am, * to whatever 
degree,' ' how-manieth ;' katitho divaiaft, ' what day of the month is it ?' katipaya- 
iha, as, {, amy 'advanced to a certain degree.' 

PROIfOMINALS. 
235. There are certain common adjectives, called pronomifuils, 
which partake of the nature of pronomis, and follow the declension 
of tad at 220 ; but may also take a vocative case. 

236. Tliese are, 1(11^ ' other ' (but in Veda the neut. may be itaram as well as 
kmrai, Pi^. vii. i, 26, cf. Latin iterum) ; WIT. ' which of the two V {vorepo^ for 
ir^Fcpof ) ; im ' which of many ?* TflHC 'that one of two ;' Tif! ' that one of many ;' 
^W^ 'who or which of two;' 'HR * who or which of many' (formed by addhig 
the comparative and superlative suffixes to the various pronominal stems, 195) ; 
Wai 'other,' 'another;' ^■'mrc'one of two;' and ^JWWI 'one of many.' They 
ire declined like V^, and make the N. V. Ac. neut. sing, in o^; thus, anyat, itarat, 
attyatarat, katarat, katamat, 8cc, ; but they have a vocative, viz. V. masc. at^ya, 
V. iem« anye, V. neut. anyat, &c. ; the V. du. and plural is like the Nom. 

0. With regard to itara, it loses its pronominal declension at the end of Dvandva 
oompounds, but at the end of Dvandvas (748) it may optionally follow tad in the 
Nom. pi. ; e. g. vanfdirametards (or -re), ' classes, orders, and others.' 

237. There are other pronominals, which make am instead of at 
in the N. Ac. neuter. The model of these is ^ sarva^ *all ;^ thus. 



snrotTLAB. 
N. ^^sarvM 
Ac ^B^ sarvam 
I. ^f^ sarveiia 
D. '^A^ Barvamnai 
Ab. ^l%9ni^ sarvasmdt 
6. vik^ sarvasya 



Masculinb. 

QUAL. 

— sarvau 
^%\^m^ sarvdbhydm 

— sarvdbhydm 

— sarvdbhydm 
irt^j^ sarvayos 

-— sarvayos 
^^ sarvau 

8 2 



PLURAL. 

^ sarve 
'^A^lsarvdn 
it^sarvais 
nita^ sarvebhyas 
— sarvebhyas 
Tl^RP^^ sarveshdm 
H^ sarveshu 
m^ sarve 



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132 


PRONOUNS. 




, 


Fbmininb. 




SINGULAR. 


DUAL. 


PLURAL. 


N. ^ sarvd 


^^arve 


lAr^^sarvds 


Ac. ^l%n^*artkfm 


— sarve 


— sarvds 


I. ir^ sarvayd 


^Av^ir\ sarvdbhydm 


^r%T^ sarvdbhis 


D. ^A^sarvasyai 


— sarvdbhydm 


;etr»re( sarvdbhyas 


Ab. >a%9n^ sarvasyds 


— sarvdbhydm 


— sarvdbhyas 


G. — sarvasyds 






L. nt^OT'^^arra^^w* 


— sarvayos 


W\^ sarvdsu 


V. T^sarve 


^ sarve 
Nbutbr. 


?BI%I^ sarvds 


N. Ac. ?rtn sarvam 


^ sarve 


Tuiklf^ sarvdni 


V. ^ Mrra 


— sarve 


— sarvdfii 



The other cases like the masculine. 

238. Like sarva are declined T^HT ^both' (properly only found in sing, and pl.^ 
vbha being used in du. ; the fern, of ubhaya is ubhayi^ like nodi) ; f^TV ^all ;' J^Kt 

* one of two * {(^Karepog) ; W<imnf * one of many 5' Wi meaning * all,' but not when 
it signifies * equal 1' ftw 'the whole;* W 'other;' ^ 'half.' The N. Ac. sing, 
neuter of these will end in ons but W is optionally FIV. In N. V. pL masc. nW is 
Hf or HHIl^* 

Obs.— 7^9 ' both' {ambo, afi^»), is declined like sarva, but only in du. ; thus, 
N. Ac. V. masc. WT^ fem. and neut. "5^ ; I. D. Ab. ^W!«ni^> G. L. TW'ft^. 
a, W^ 'inferior,* ^"^ other,' WR 'other,' WW 'posterior,' 'west,' ^IR 

* superior,' 'north,' ^(^9 'south,' 'right,' ^ 'east,' 'prior,' IPiR meaning 
either 'outer' or 'inner' (as applied to a garment), ^ 'own' (232), follow sarva, 
and optionally itt^Aa, at i87,.in Abl. Loc. sing. masc. and neut., and Nom.Voc. pi. 
masc. ; as, llMi.WII^ or WHill^, &c. They can only be declined like pronominals 
when they denote relative position ; hence dakshindf^ (not dakshii^) kacayah, ' clever 
poets.' Moreover, the pronominal inflexion is optional in certain compounds. 

239. ^H, 'one,' follows sarva, see 200; fsrfl^ 'second,' jiAm 'third,' follow 
Mka (187), and optionally sarva in certain cases, see 208; they make their fem. 
in d. 

240. ^Bl^ 'a few,' 11^ or l»i ' half,' ^finni (fem. <f or * several,' * few,* ' some,' 
inW ' first,' ^^ ' last,' ¥^ (fem. 0, flnni (fem. ' twofold,' ^raiR (fem. f) ' five- 
fold,' and all in -ya and -taya, properly follow ^a at 103 ; but may make their 
Nom. V. pi. masc. in e; as, ^^ orHW^'few,' &c. (see Pai^. 1. 1, 33). 

a, inift^, ^iKlTCy ' one another,' ' mutual,' make their Nom. Ac. sing. neut. 
in am, not atj and V. in a. 

b. In some pronouns the syllable iba or oA: is introduced, generally before the 
last vowel or syllable, to denote^u>ntempt, in the same way that ka is added to 
nominal stems; e.g. •i«i«ti for flH 'by me,* J^if'iTfiT^ for g^lfil^'by you.' 
Similarly, 9^> ft^[^» for ?rtf, fl|^ * all ' (see Pa?, v. 3, 71). 



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VERBS. — GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 133 



CHAPTER VI. 

VERBS. 
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

241. Although the Sanskrit verb (dkhydta, kriyd) offers many 
striking and interesting analogies to the Greek, yet our explanations 
of its structure are not likely to fall in with the preconceived notions 
of the student of Greek grammar. 

There are ten tenses and moods {kdlfi). Seven of them are of 
common occurrence; viz. i. the Present (technically called H^ laf^ 
which, with the other technical names, is applicable also to the 
terminations of each tense respectively) ; 2. the Imperfect, some- 
times called the First Preterite (l^ laii) ; 3. the Potential or Optative 
(fcTl^ lin) ; 4. the Imperative (<^ lof) ; 5. the Perfect, sometimes called 
the Second Preterite (ft?^ lit) 5 6. the First Future (^ luf) ; 7. the 
Second Future ("^ /ft^). Three are not so conunonly used ; viz. 
8. the Aorist, sometimes called the Third Preterite (^ lun) ; 9. the 
Precative, also called the Benedictive (vT%^ f<9^ diir lin) ; 10. the 
Conditional (ts^ Ij^n). There is also an Infinitive, and several Par- 
ticiples. Of these, the Present, the three Past tenses, and the two 
Futures belong to the Indicative mood. The Imperative, Potential, 
Precative, and Conditional (see 242) are moods susceptible of 
various times ; but, as there is only one form for each, it can lead 
to no embarrassment to call them tenses, and to arrange them indis- 
criminately with the tenses of the Indicative. 

The first four tenses, viz. the Present, Imperfect, Potential^ and 
Imperative, are frequently called Special tenses*^ because in these 
each of the ten classes of roots has a special structure of its own (as 
win be explained at 248). 

a. Obs. — The ancient Sanskrit of the Veda is more rich in grammatical forms 
than the later or dassical Sanskrit. There is a Vedic Subjunctive mood, technically 
called dl^ fef , which comprises under it a Present, Imperfect, and Aorist ; moreover, 
the Vedio Potential and Imperative are thought to have distinct forms for various 
tenses. The Vedic Infinitive, too, has ten or eleven different forms (see 459. a). 

* In the previous editions of this Grammar these tenses were called * Conjuga- 
tional.* I have thought it better to bring the present edition into harmony with 
other Grammars by adopting Bopp's designation of ' Special.' 



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134 VERBS. — OENBBAL OBSERVATIONS. 

343. Although the three past tenses are used without much distinction, yet it 
should be observed, that they properly express different degrees of past time. 
The Imperfect {anadyatana-bhdta) corresponds in form to the Imperfect of Greek 
verbs, and properly has reference to an event done at some time recently past, but 
before the current day. It may denote action past and continuing, or it may be 
used like the Greek Aorist. The Perfect (paroktha-bJuita) is said to have reference 
to an event completely done before the present day at some remote period, unper- 
ceived by or out of sight of the narrator; it answers in form to the Greek Perfect, 
but may also be used like the Aorist. The Aorist refers to an event done and past 
at some indefinite period, whether before or during the current day ; it corresponds 
in form and sense to the Greek ist and and Aorist, and sometimes to the Pluper- 
fect*. Again, the two Futures properly express, the First, definite, the Second, 
indefinite futurity f: the Second, however, is the most used, and answers to the. 
Greek Future. The Potential or Optative may generally be rendered in English 
by some one of the auxiliaries ^may,' 'can,' 'would,' 'should,' 'ought.' It is 
said to denote 'command,' 'direction,' 'expression of wish,' ' enquiry,' 'condition,' 
' supposition' {sambhdvana^ P&9. iii. 3, 161). See Syntax, 879. The Conditional (or 
Imperfect of the Future) is occasionally used affcer the conjunctions yadi and <M, 
'if:' it has an augment like the Imperfect and Aorist, and ought on that account 
to be classed with the tenses of the Indicative (see 891). The Precative or Bene- 
dictive is a tense sometimes used in praying and blessing (d^ki). It is a modifi- 
cation of the Potential There is no tense exactly equivalent to the Pluperfect in 
Sanskrit, although the form of some Aorists (in a few primitive verbs, and in verbs 
of CI. ID and Causals) resembles that of the Greek Pluperfect by taking both aug- 
ment and reduplication : the sense of this tense, however, may often be expressed 
by the Past Indeclinable Participle or by the Past Passive Participle ; as, tamiUnn 
apahrdntty ' after he had departed.' See Syntax, 840, 899. a. 

a. According to some, the form of the Imperfect and Aorist, which remains after 
rejecting the augment of these tenses in the Indicative, and which is especially 
used after the partides <fT md and mWmd tma (see 884. Obs. and 889), ought to 
be called the Subjunctive Imperfect and Subjunctive Aorist. 

h. The Infinitive generally has an Active, but is capable of a Passive significa- 
tion (see Syntax, 867-872). 

* The feet is, that the three past tenses are not very commonly used to repre- 
sent the completeness of an action. This is generally done by employing the Past 
Passive Participle with an inst. case ; or by adding vat to the Past Pftss. Part., and 
combining it with the Present tense otas/io be;' as, uktavdn asmi/l have said.' 
See Syntax, 897. 

t The First Future (tut) is said to be an-^dyatane, i. e. to be so far definite as to 
denote what will happen at a future period, not in the course of the current day ; 
as, Tit 'Rflftw * to-morrow I shall go ' (P^i?. m. 3, 15) ; whereas the Second Future 
may refer to immediate futurity ; as,^V ^rnhlT^ '^ ^ iftrTTftT 'this very evening 
or to-morrow I shall be going.' 



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VERBS. — GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 135 

243. Every tense has three numbers, singular, dual, and plural. 

To each toise belong two sets of Active terminations ; one for the 
Active voice (properly so called), the other for a kind of Middle or 
Reflexive voice. Hie former of these voices is called by Indian 
^grammarians Parasmap-ptxda (* word* directed to another'), because 
the action is supposed to be Transitive, or to pass parasmai, * to 
another (object) ;' the latter is called jLtmane-pada ('word* directed 
to one's self'), because the action is supposed to refer dtmane, * to 
•one's self.' This distinction, however, is not always observed, and we 
often find both Parasmai and Atmane employed indifferently for 
Transitive verbs. 

Some verbs, however, are conjugated only in the Atmane-pada, 
especially when they are Intransitive, or when the direct fruit of 
the action accrues to the agent (see the distinction of Uddttetai^ and 
Anuddttetai at 75. c), or when particular prepositions are used ; thus, 

Mud and rtU meaning ' to be pleased,' ' please one's self;' hhvj meaning ' to eat ' 
.{not 'to protect ') ; (2e^ ' to give,' with d prefixed, meaning * to give to one's self,' * to 
take,' are restricted to the Atmane-pada. Sometimes, when a verb takes both 
Padas, the Atmane, without altering the idea expressed by the root, may be used 
to direct the action in some way towards the agent ; thus, padati means ' he cooks,' 
but pa6(Ue, ' he cooks for himself :' yajati, ' he sacrifices ;' yajate, * he sacrifices for 
himself:' namatiy ' he hends ;' namate, ' he bends himself:' dariayati (Causal), ' he 
shews;' dariayaie, *' he shews himself,' 'appears :' kdrayatiy 'he causes to make ;' 
kdrayate, 'he causes to be made for himself:' and ydd, 'to ask,' although employing 
both Padas, is more commonly used in the Atmane, because the act of asking 
generally tends to the advantage of the asker. (See this subject more fully ex- 
plained at 786.) 

a. Passive verbs are conjugated in the Atmane-pada. Indeed^ 
in aU the tenses, excepting the first four, the Passive is generally 
undistinguishable from the Atmane-pada of the primitive verb. 
But in the four Special tenses, viz. the Present, Imperfect, Potential, 
and Imperative (unlike the Greek, which exhibits an identity between 
the Middle and Passive voices in those tenses), the Sanskrit Passive, 
although still employing the Atmane-pada terminations, has a special 

* Pada b an inflected word as distingmshed from an uninflected root (Pd?. i. 
4, 14). The term pada has here reference io the scheme of terminations only; so 
that in this sense there are only two voices in Sanskrit, and they are often used 
indiicriminately. Although the Atmane-pada has occasionally a kind of Middle 
signification, yet it cannot be said to correspond entirely to the Greek Middle* 



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136 VERBS. — GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

structure of its own, common to all verbs, and distinct from the 
conjugational form of the Atmane-pada in all but the fourth class*. 

Thus the Greek aKov» makes for both the Middle and Passive of those four 
tenses, ist sing. oKOvofMUy ^KOvofAVjv, OKovoifirjv^ aKOVov (and sing.) But the 
Sanskrit iru, ' to hear>' makes for the coigugational form of the Atmane, ^<IF» 
^in^ftjTj ^^ppft^j ^PW ; while for the Passive it is "OT, ^^, ^^^9 ^'^• 

244. As in nouns the formation of a nominal stem out of a root 
precedes declension, the root generally requiring some change or addi- 
tion before the case-terminations can be affixed, so in verbs the forma- 
tion of a verbal stem out of a root must precede conjugation. Again, 
as in nouns every case has its own proper termination, so in verbs 
each of the three persons, in the three numbers of every tense, has 
a termination {vibhakti), one for the Parasmai-pada, and one for the 
Atmane-pada, which is peculiarly its own. Moreover, as in nouns, 
so in verbs, some of the terminations may be combined with servile 
or indicatory letters, which serve to aid the memory, by indicating 
that where they occur peculiar changes are required in the root. 
Thus the three terminations which belong to the ist, 2nd, and 3rd 
persons of the Present tense, Parasmai-pada, respectively, are m% H, 
ti; and these are combined with the letter P (miP, «P, /iP), to 
indicate that roots belonging to the second and third groups of 
classes (see 258, 259, and 290) must be modified in a particular way, 
before these terminations are affixed. 

The annexed tables exhibit, ist, the scheme of terminations for 
Parasmai and Atmane-pada, with the most useful indicatory letters 
(denoted by Roman capitals), in all the tenses, the four Special tenses 
being placed first ; 2ndly, the same scheme with the substitutions 
required by certain classes of roots (the numerical figures denoting 
the classes in which these substitutions occur, see 257). 

245. Tbeminations op Special Teksbs. 
Parasmai-pada. Atmank-pada. 

Present tense. 

FIRS. 8IM0. DUAL. PLURAL. 

1. fif^mtP T^tHW l^mdf 

2. ftn^wP ^thds "^tha 

* For this reason we prefer to regard the Passive, not as a Voice, but as a distinct 
derivative firom the root. See 461. a. 



USa, DUAL. PLURAL. 



?e 


'^^vahe 


^^make 


^se 


"Wi^dthe 


ikdhve 


"nte 


^dte 


^f^ante 



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VERBS. — TERMINATIONS. 



137 



Imperfect or Tirit Preterite (requiring the augment a, 251). 



i.^W^iwiAP Wra ^ma 


\% ^f^vaki 


nf^nuiki 


i.fwqjlF TH^tom TTte 


"^thds ^nnmjihdm 


mf[dhvam 


3.fi^JIP KJ^jdm IR^oii 




WHftmta 


Po/«i«aZ 


or Optative. 




i.^n^3f(£n» ^nWjftfpa ^(fRydma 


^fya il^f^ hahi 


^Rff /moAt 


2,l(f^^yds mUHjfdtam VTIfydta 




^W^iciJbam 


3.'^3f<& Jmi^^lfdtdm ^3ft» 




^l?^6-(m 


/mp^a/ive. 




I. VtAt^iIimP Hm^ifoaP WT^dmdP 


^ttiP mvrk^dvahmP 


mm^dnuikaiP 


2.f^ki ^^Ci ll9f^tam IT to 


Wsva ymmHdtkdm 


Uf^^dhvam 


3. l^hiP IIP^ <<£m ^1^ aithi 


Jfl^tdm Wn[Vf[dtdm 




Tbbiunations 0] 


? Gbnbral Tbnsbs. 


, 


Perfect or Second Preteriti 


f (requiring reduplication, 252). 


i.1R,NoP Wra Uma 


^e ^vake 


^mahe 


a.^^AaP m^atkw IT a 


%<e ^IT^(I^A« 


ikdkvei^) 


3.1i^NflP ^r|^a<ii# ^11* 


^e mikdte 


^ire 


First Future i 


>r Definite Future. 




i.'mfm tdsmi "KV^tdsDas Him^tdmas 


WT^ tdhe irra^ tdtvahe 


Jiwi^tdsmake 


2, Vrfll idsi ICT^f^tdstkas lCfW\ tdstha 




iniktddkve 


Z.J\td Kmtdrau JH^tdras 


m td TITu tdrau 


HXK^^tdras 


Second Future < 


>r Indefinite Future. 




i.^Kff^sydmi ^HX^^sydvas ^ni^^sydnuu 


^ sye ^IT^ sydvahe 


'^im^sydmahe 


i.'^ri^syasi ^MMf^syathas ^t^syatha 


Wn syase ^n syethe 


^Kkksyadhve 


Z'^BfiKsyati ^BHR^syatas ^Iff^syanti 


1^ ay ate ^fksyete 


Wlinsya$Ue 


Aorist or Third Preterite { 


requiring the augment a, 21 


■>')■ • 


i.^Mm Wtva ^sma 


fiff si ^ifis «»«*» 


Wlff^smahi 


2,Jfi^^i{s W^^stam Wsta 


W^^^8thds m^sdtkdm 


UP{dhvam{^) 


3.lftl^f^ir Wl^^stdm ^^sus 


^sta mmsdtdm 


infsata 



Precative or Benedictive. 



l,'^[W^Jfd$am ^fTR" ydsva ^TO? ydsma 
2,'^J^^yd8 Hina*\ifd8tam VJ^ydsta 
mW^jfdMtdm m^^ydsu$ 



ZWfjfdt 

I'^^syoM 
2,W{9yas 
3>9n^<ya/ 



^fhK9{ya 91<|(^ sioaki ^lltf i6nahi 

'^Ihtm^ttthfhds ^mWH siydsthdm lltvPlMhvam 
^(ftVf^A/a ^mW^»(yd$tdm Ji<^s(raM 



Conditional (requiring the augment a, 251). 



^BfTRsydoa l^Kmsydma 
tMn^syatam ^OT syata 



^sye ^aimf^sydoahi 

^(^l^syaihds m^i^tyethdm 
T^B(f( syata ^ni^syetdm 



Wt^lf^aydmaki 
mUk^syadhvam 
Wnsyanta 



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138 



VERBS. — TERMINATIONS. 



246. The same terminatianSy with the stib$tituium$ required in certain classes, 
Tbrbonations of Special Tenses. 
Paeasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 

Present tense. 



PBR8. 8IN0. 

I. i»iP 



2. siF 

3. «P 



DUAL. PLURAL. 



vas mas 



thas tha 



{t 1,4,6,10. J 
«2»3>7;5>8,9-L 



DUAL. 

vahe 



PLURAL. 

mahe 



se 



La/Aa 3,3,755,8,9. L 

{ite 1,4,6,10. \nte 1,4,6,1a 
^« a,3,7j 5,8,9. L(rfea,3,7;5,8^ 



nti 1, 4, 6, 10. 
tas " a«/i2,7; 5,8,9. ^e 

An initia] «, as in n, se , &c., is liable to become sh by 70. 

Imperfect or -Fir*/ Preterite (requiring the augment a, 251). 



fiw 1,4,6,10. r 

L£W»Pa,3,7;5,8,9.l 

2. *P 

3. ^P 



va ma 
tarn ta 



t 

thds 



n 1, 4, 6, 10. 
/rfm ' a» 2, 7; 5,8,9. ta 
.tt*3W- 

Potential or Optative. 
In I, 4, 6, 10. 

1. tyam it^a ima 

2. is itam ita 
3- *^ il^^ iy^ i.iya 

1. yc^nt ycfva y(fma 3. {/a 

2. yiltf ydtam ydta 

3. yi{/ ydtdm yus 



fttwm 1,4,6,10, r^^ 

lcaA<lma,3,7;5,8,9. 1 

ff/rfm 1,4,6,10. \nta 1,4,6,1a 



In all the classes. 
(vahi inuxM 

fydthdm (dhvam 

(ydtdm (ran 



1. dmB dvdP dmaP 

—1,4,6,10; 5,8. 

**a»3;5»9- 
dhi{4hi)2,s,^. 
->afler dna 9. 



Imperative. 
oiP 



tam ta 



3- tuV 



tdm 



ntu 1,4,6,10. 
aw^tt 2,7; 5,8,9. 
^atu 3 (2). 



it^oAaiP 



cfmoAatP 



sva 



tdm 



3,3*7; 5A9-L 



fUhdm 

I (f/A<fi» 2,3,7; 5,8,9 



Ica^im 2,3,7; 5>8,9' '■a^<^W3»3»7;Si| 



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VBBBS. — TERMINATIONS. 



139 



In cL 9, At 18 dropped after dna, substHnted for the ooujugational n( of the and 
sing. Impy., Pkffasnuo, in the case of roots ending in consonants. A form TSXIitdt 
(cf. Latin /o, Greek t») may be substituted for At and tu, and even for ta, to imply 
benediction, chiefly used in the Vedas. 

Thbionations of Gbhbbal Tenses. 
Perfect or Second Preterite (requiring reduplication, ^52). 



I. dP *iva 


*ima 


e 


*ivahe ^imahe 


2.iihaorthaP athuB 


a 


*i$he 


dthe *idhveor*i4five 


3. aP atus 


us 


e 


dte ire 



♦ Only eight roots, viz. hu, stu, druy sru, *fi, bhfi, sfi, Vfi, reject the initial 
t from the terminations marked with * ; and of these eight all but oft (meaning 
to cover *) necessarily reject it also in the and sing. Parasmai. See 369-373. 

First Future or Definite Future. 



i.tdtmi 


tdnas 


tdsnuu 


tdhe 


tdsvabe tdsmahe 


i.tdri 


tdtthat 


tdstha 


tdse 


tdtdthe tddhve 


S'td 


tdrau 


tdras 


td 


tdrau tdras 



Many roots prefix t to the above terminations; thus, i. itdsmi, a. itdsi, &c. 
If^ lengthens this ij ^vfi and all roots in long fi optionally do so. 

Second Future or Indefinite Future. 



i.sy&mt 


sydvas 


sydmas 


sye 


sydvahe sydmahe 


%.syasi 


syathas 


syatha 


syase 


syethe syadhve 


3.syati 


syatas 


syanti 


syate 


syete syante 



Many roots prefix t to the above terminations; thus, i. ishydmi (70), a. ishyasif 
kc, If^ lengthens this i; ^ and all roots in long r{ optionally do so. 

Aorist or TMrd Preterite (requiring the augment a, 251). 
FoBM I. — Regular terminations of the scheme. 

si svahi smahi 

sthds or thds sdthdm dhvam 
sta or ta sdtdm sata 

^ 4kvam is used for dkoam after any other vowel but a or d, or after ^ 4 inime« 
diately preceding. 

The same terminations with t prefixed, except in and and 3rd sing.^ 
where initial « is rejected. 



i.sam 


sva sma 


%.sls 


stamortam staorta 


%.M 


stdm or tdm sus 



i.isham 


iskva 


ishma 


ishi 


ishvahi ishmafd 


2.(S 


ishtam 


ishfa 


ishthds 


ishdthdm idhvam 


3'(t 


ishfdm 


ishus 


ishfa 


ishdtdm ishata 



^[f^J4h>am may be used for idhvam when a semivowel or h immediately precedes. 
Q^ lengthens the t throughout ; ^ and all roots in long ft optionally do so in Atm. 

T a 



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140 VERBS. — TBRMINATIONS. 

FoBM n. — ^TermiBationB resembling those of the Imperfect. 



I. am dva or va 


dma or ma 


e or i dvahi 


dmahi 


2. as or 8 atam or tarn ata or ta 


athds ethdm or dthdm adhvam 


3. at or t atdm or tdm 


an or us 


ata etdm or dtdm 


anta or ata 




JPrecative or Benedictive. 




i.ydsam ydsva 


ydsma 


siya sivahi 


simaJu 


2,. yds ydstam 


ydsta 


slshfhds siydsthdm 


sidhvam 


3. ydt ydstdm 


ydsus 


sUhfa siydstdm 


siran 



Many roots prefix i to the Atmane, but not to the Parasmai, of the above ; thus, 
I. itMya, &c. Qf lengthens the % in this tense also, but no other root can do so. 

^i)^f^^9(^am is used for '^^tfB^Mhvam after any other vowel but a or <^ and 
optionally after the prefixed %, when immediately preceded by a semivowel or h 
(see 443). 

Conditional (requiring the augment a, 251). 

sye sydvahi sydmahi 



j.syam 


sydva 


sydma 


a.syas 


syatam 


syata 


Z.syat 


syatdm 


syan 



syathds syethdm syadkvam 

syata syetdm syanta 

Many roots prefix i to the above terminations throughout; thus, i. ishyoM^ 2. 
ishyaSf &c. Iff lengthens this i: ^ and all roots in long fi optionally do so. 

247. Those terminations whieh are marked with P will be called 
the P terminations. They are technically designated Pit (i. e. having 
P for their «/), and are as follow : 

Present, Parasmai, i, a, 3 sing. Imp/,, Par., i, a, 3 sing. Impv., Par., i, 3 sing., 
1 du., I pL ; Atm., i sing., i du., i pi. In these, however, the P is indicatory only 
with reference to certain classes of roots (see 344), but in P«rf., Par., the indicatory 
P in I, a, 3 sing, applies to all the classes. 

Obs. — Instead of NaP, thaF, NaP (which are from Vopa-deva), Pdpini giytt 
NaL, thaL, NaL; and this L, like the P, has reference to accent. 

a. SometiipeSy however, it will be convenient to adopt Bopp's 
expression, * Strong forms/ in speaking of the form assumed by the 
stem before the P terminations, these terminations being themselves 
called Weak. 

b. In fact the P or Pit terminations are on-tMftf/to, 'unaccented ;' and when these 
are added, the stem on which the accent iaUs is called Strong. In other cases the 
accent is on the terminations, and the stem is then Weak and unaccented. 

e. The terminations of the first four or Special tenses are called by Pd^ini sdfroa- 
dhdtukat 'belonging to the fiill form of the verbal stem,' which name is also applied 
to suffixes like ^dna6 (i. e. 'd$ia), Satfi (i. e. ^at), having an indicatory / (but not to 
Vikarapas like iiorp, &c.) The term drdhadhdtuka, * belonging to the half or shorter 



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VERBS. — TERMINATIONS. 141 

form of the verbal stem/ is given to the terminations of the Perfect (Hi), and Pre- 
cative (d^r lini), as weU as to certain distinctive additions to the root before the 
terminations of the remaining four tenses (such as ids and $ya in the Futures and 
Conditional, s in the Aorist, yds and 9{y in the Precative), and therefore practically 
to the terminations of all the six General tenses. 

d. If we examine these terminations, we shall find that they are composed of 
two distinct elements, one marking person, number, and voice ; the other, mood 
and tense. The terminations in which the former element prevuls may be called 
simple, and belong to the Present, Imperfect, Imperative, Perfect, and and form 
of the Aorist ; those which include the second may be called compound, and are 
peculiar to the other tenses. Thus the terminations of the Potential consist of i 
otiorydwB characterizing the mood, and of am, «, i, va, tarn, idm, &c., as marking 
person, number, and voice. So, also, in the and Future the syllable sya prefixed 
to all the terminations, characterizes the Future tense, while the mi^sif /i, vas, thas, 
tasj &c., mark person, number, and voice. If, then, such initial parts of every 
termination as mark mood or tense were left out, an examination of the remaining 
parts would shew that the Present and Imperfect are the prototypes of the termina- 
tions of all the other tenses, that is to say, that the formation of the terminations 
of every other tense may be referred back to one or other of these two. The Present 
tense may in this way be connected with the two Futures. These three tenses agree 
in shewing a certain fulness of form, which is wanting in most of those connected 
with the Imperfect. The terminations of the Perfect, however, partake of the cha- 
racter of both the Present and Imperfect. In the Atmane-pada they very closely 
resemble the Present. Many of them exhibit the same fulness as that tense, while 
some of the other terminations of the Perfect shew even more lightness than those 
of the Imperfect *. It should be observed, too, that the terminations of the Im- 
perative, though evidently connected with the Imperfect, are in some instances 
even more full than those of the Present. 

e. Although comparative grammarians have bestowed much labour on investi- 
gating the origin of Sanskrit verbal terminations, the only point that may be 
asserted with probability is, that they stand in a certain relationship to the pro« 
nominal stems ma, tva, sa, ia. The m of the first persons is related to the stem ma 
{mad, ai8) ; the t, th, sv, s, of the second persons, to the stem tva of the second 
personal pronoun (Gr. <T€) ; and the t, of the third person, to the stem ta. We may 
also observe a conmiunity of character between the termination nti of the 3rd pL 
and the plural of neuter nouns like dhanavat (dhanavanti). But whether the v in 
the dual is related to a pronominal stem va occurring in d-vdm, va-yam; whether 
the $ of the dual and {dura! terminations is the result of blending different pro- 
nominal stems (e.g. va9=va^9i, mas:=ma'si, *l and thou'); whether the termi*- 
nations of the Atmane-pada are formed from those of the Parasmai-pada by guna- 
tion or by composition of the latter with other stems, — these are questions which 

* Ck>mparative grammar, however, has established that these terminations are 
to be referred to the same source as the fuller ones* 



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142 VERBS. — TERMINATIONS. 

cannot be determined with actual certabty. The subject, however, is fiiUj and ably 
discussed in Schleicher's Ck>mpendium of Ck>mparative Grammar, §§ 268-286. 

/. Whatever the exact state of the case may be, the student may aid his memory 
by noting that the letter m generally enters into the ist sing. Par. ; s into the and 
sing. Par. and Atm. ; and t into the 3rd sing. du. and pi. Par. and Atm. of all the 
tenses. Moreover, that the letter v occurs in the ist du., m in the ist pL of all 
the tenses, and dko in every and pi. Atmane. In the Impf. and Pot. Atm., and in 
the Perf. Par., th is admitted, instead of «, into the and sing. ; and in the and pi. 
of the last tense, th has been dropped, owing to the influence of the heavy redupli- 
cation. For the same reason the m and t are dropped in the ist and 3rd sing. Perf. 
Observe also — ^When the ist du. Par. is vas, the and and 3rd end in as (except the 
3rd du. ist Put.), and the ist pi. is moM. When the ist du. Par. is va^ the and 
and 3rd end in tam^ idm (except in the Perf.)) and the ist pi. in ma. When the ist 
du. Atm. is vahe, the ist pL is make, and the last letter of the remaining termina- 
tions is generally e. When the ist du. Atm. is vahi, the and and 3rd end indms 
the ist pL is mahi, and the and pL is dhvam, 

g. The frequent occurrence of m in the ist sing., of $ in the and, of t in the 3rd, 
of ma$ and ma in the ist pi., of ta in the and pi., and of ant in the 3rd pi., suggests 
a comparison with the Gr. and Lat. verb. We may remark, that m, the characteristic 
of the ist per. sing., is suppressed in the Pres. Indie. Act. of all Gr. verbs except 
those in jxi (a«mt= €ijx/. Dor. e/Xjx/for ^(fy^h daddm = m»fi.i), and also in Lat. 
verbs (except iwn and inquam) ; but 6> and answer to the Sk. d of hhardm^^4^p99, 
fero. In the Gr. Middle and Passive, the jxi, which originally belonged to all 
Active verbs, becomes jCAoi ; while the Sanskrit, on the other hand, here suppresses 
the m, and has eiot€U\ bhare (for bhara'me)^(p€pofMU. In the Impf., Gr. has v 
for Sk. and Lat. mute m, because fi> is not allowed to be final in Greek ; atarpam^ 
mpvoVy adaddmz^imWf astivfavam=zi&TOpvw, avahamszvekebam, Gr. has /ai 
in the ist sing. Opt. ; and in verbs in jxi, v takes the place of the mute m of Sk. 
and Lat.; thus, 6Aar«yam=0€^ijXi,/eram; dadydmszOiootifiVy dem : tiskfkeyam^ 
icreurpfj stem. In the Ghr. First Aorist, m is suppressed, so that Sanskrit adiksham 
(Aor.)=€)€i^a; but not in the and Aor., so that addmszfiw. In the Perf., Sk. c 
^Gr. a, tutopa^T€Twl>a, In the Ghr. Middle and Passive Futures, m b retained, 
but not in the Active ; ddsydmi=. S(0<rco, dekshydmi^'^eil^^f ddsye^z idffOfMU, As 
to the ist per. pL, Sk. mas of the Pres. is jCACv (for [M^) in Gr., and mnu in Lat. ; 
tarpd-mas^Tfpvo-fJi^v ; sarpd-mas:=€pvo^/MVy serpi-mus: dad-mas^ioo^fA.eif^ da-- 
musj tishthd'mas=zi(rTa'fJi^Vy sta-mus. The Atmane make answers to Gr. l^^Oa ; 
dad-mahe^iti-ii^Ba, As to the other tenses, in Impf. ist pi. abhard-4na=ie<l>€po^ 
fJL€y9 fereba-mus J aoahd-ma^veheba-mus; adad-ma^eoioo'fi.^vi abkard-makis=. 
i<l>€pOfJ(,i9a. In the Pot. ist pL bhare'ma=z(l>€poi-ii.€rf {"fAeij^fera'musj dadydma^ 
i&ohiiuvf (-jX€(), demus ; dad{'mahi:=:hioi~fA€Oa. In and Fut. d<%ef-ma«=$»o-o- 
/AeVy dekshyd''mas:=i€^o~fJi€V. In and pers. sing. Act., the characteristic s has been 
preserved in all three languages ; thus, in the Present, Sk. asi (for original asst):ss 
€<rai9 es : dadd-si = S/S«^, das ; bhara'Si = (pep^ig^ fers j vahasi =1 vehis. In the 
Atmane, Sk. se (for tat, by 3a) answers exactly to Gr. o'oi of verbs in juu {tishfka* 



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VERBS. — TEBMINATIONS. 143 

qr 

««=i0Ta*O'ai). In other Gr. verbs, c has been rejected, and €eu contracted into ^» 
something in the way of Sk. {rvvTy for rtWe-o-oi). In and du. <Aa«=Gr. ro^^ 
and in and pL ^^=r€ and h«^* bhara'iha8=z4>€p€~T0v; Hskfha'tha^: iora-ref 
sta-Hi: bkara'iha^(t>€p€^T€,fer'tis. In and pi. Atm. 6Aara-(iAr«=<^€p€-(r0€. As 
to the other tenses, in the and sing. Impf. atarpas^^refme^^ avahas^vehebas, &c. 
So also, iam:=zT0Vj adat-tam^ziiti^rov^ ta=T€, a(iaf-/a=€$ii$o-Te. In Atm. thds 
is found for sds in and sing. Impf. and Pot. ; hence abhara'thds=z€(f}€p€'a'Of adat- 
iMs^m^Q-ao^ dad'4tkd8^m'Oi{<T)o. In and smg. Pot. tishthes^ tarairjCy stesj 
dadyds=zOiOotT^^^de8; vahes^vehas; bharesz=:(f>€poif,feras: in and du. 6i^re-/£im:s 
4>ipot'TOv: m2nd,pltishfh€taz=zl<natvjT€f8teHsj dadydiaszhioiyiTf^deHsj bhareia 
=z4>^potT€,ferati8, In and sing. Impv. hi and dki answer to Gr. 0/. Dki was originally 
universal in Sk. (see api), as in Gr. verbs in [Ju; e^i=:h'6iy vid-Mi^h-Si, 
de-kizizOioo-Bif iru-dhi^fcXv^L Many verbs drop the termination hi both in 
Gr. and Sk. ; as, VTC = <pip€9 ftnd compare leiKW with ^ti, Sec, In and du. Impv. 
tttm=TOVf and /a=:T6. In Impv. Atm. «pa=rthe old form 0*0 ; bhara-9vaz=<l)€p€'C0 
(old form of 4>ipov)i daU8t>az=^itii^(T0 ; dthdm=:€a-Oov, &c. In Perf. the tha of 
the and ^g. = Latin sti; dad-itha^dedi-sH, tasthi-tha^steti'Sti, tuio^-tha^ 
tutudi-sH. In the Ao^. addsz^^icoi, avdksMs^vewisti. In the 3rd pers. sing. 
Active, Gr. has dropped the characteristic t (except in €OTi=Sk. asti, Lat. est) ; 
hkaTad=z<j>€p^{T)iyfert; vahati^vehit. Verbs in fu have changed t to s: daddH= 
lHwai (for h^oyri). In Atm. bkarate=i(l>€p€rat. In Impf. avahat=zvehebat, 
abhar(Ua=:i(f>epiTO. luVoi. bharet=.<pipoi^ dadydtz=:htoiyi. In Impv. Mara-^ 
or bkara-tdt=4>€pi^»y fer-to. In Perf. tutopa=:rirv(t>e. In Aor. aodkshitzzivexit^ 
adik$hata= eiet^aro. As to 3rd pi ., in the above tenses, bharanti=<l>€pov<nyfenmt ; 
vakanti^vehunt ; bharantez=z(f>€povTCU ; dadaH=:h'iov(Ti ; tiskthantizzzstant j bha- 
reyu8=<t>€poi€»; bharantuzuferunto ; abharanz=i€(f>€pov \ abharanta=i€<f>ipoVTO ; 
dionzsz^a-av; atarpi8hu8=z€T€ptf/eaf ; ddsyante^ziia-ovrou, 

248. The terminations exhibited in the preceding tables are sup- 
posed to be applicable to all verbs, whether Primitive or Derivative : 
and as in nouns, so in verbs, the theory of Indian grammarians is, 
that before these terminations can be affixed, a stem must be de- 
veloped out of a root, according to certain rules which vary for the 
first four tenses in ten different ways, according as a root belongs 
to one or other of ten classes. Accordingly, ten special rules are 
propounded for forming verbal stems out of roots in the first four 
tenses, which are therefore called the four Special tenses ; while all 
verbs are arranged under ten classes, according to the form of the 
stem required by one or other of these rules. In the other tenses 
there is one general rule for forming the stem, appUcable to all verbs 
of whatever class, and these tenses are therefore called Qeneral. 



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144 VERBS. — TEN CONJUGATIONAL RULES FOR FORMING 

Hence the ten classes of roots are sometimes regarded as following 
one or other of ten conjttgations ; and the four tenses, which alone 
are affected bj these conjugational rules (viz. the Present, Imperfect, 
Potential, and Imperative), are sometimes called the cofyugattonai 
tenses. It is evident, however, that all Sanskrit roots, of whatever 
class, follow one general conjugation for the majority of the tenses 
of the Primitive verb, although they require a special formation of 
stem depending on the class of each root for four of the tenses. 

249. We begin by giving a brief summary of the ten rules for the 
forming the stem of the four Special tenses in the ten classes of roots, 
according to the Indian order of the ten classes. 

Obs. — ^Native grammarians distinguish the ten classes of verbs by the name of 
the first root in their lists; e. g. el. i. Bkv-ddi, i. e. Bhd, &c., or the class of roots 
beginning with bh4. Similarly, cl. 3. Ad-ddi; cl. 3. Juhoty-ddi (i.e. the Hu class); 
el. 4. Biv-ddi; cl. 5. Sv-ddi (i.e. the Su class); cl. 6. Tud-ddij d. 7. Rudk-ddi: 
cl. 8. Tan-ddi: cl. 9. Kry-ddi (i.e. the Kri class); cl. 10. Cur-ddi. 

Cl. I. Gunate the vowel of the root (unless it be V a, or a long 
vowel not finals or a short vowel followed by a double consonant, 
a8) before every termination of the four Special tenses^ and affix 
Iff a — lengthened io^a d before initial m* and v — ^to the root thus 
gunated. 
The accent is on the vowel of the root, imless it be thrown on the augment. 

Cl. a. Gunate the vowel of the root (if capable of Guna, as in 
the last) before those terminations only which are marked with P 
in the scheme at 7,46. Before all the other terminations the original 
vowel of the root must be retained. 

The accent rests on the vowel of the root, but only when the P terminations aire 
added. In other cases it rests on the first vowel of the Non-P terminations. 

Cl. 3. Reduplicate the initial consonant and vowel (see 252) of 
the root, and gunate the radical but not the reduplicated vowel 
before the P terminations only, as in cl. 2. 

The accent rests on the first syllable of the stem before the Non-P terminations, 
and before the P terminations beginning with a vowel. 

Cl. 4. Affix n ya — ^lengthened to in ^^ before initial m* and v — 
to the root, the vowel of which is generally left unchanged. 
The accent is on the vowel of the root, not on the ya (cf. 461). 

* But not before m final, the termination of the ist sing. Impf. ParaamaL 



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THE STEM IN THB POUR SPECIAL TENSES. 146 

CI. 5. AflSx ^ mi to the root, and gimate this tm into no before 
the P terminations only. 

In this class, as well as in cl. 8 and 9, the accent is on the inserted Vikara^a 
(25a b) before the P terminations, and in other cases it rests on the first vowel 
of the Non-P terminations. 

CL 6. AflSx n a — ^lengthened to in c^ before initial m* and v — ^to 
the rooty which in other respects generally remains unchanged. 

Hie absence of gunation of the radical vowel results from the accent being on 
the VikanugA a (350. b), 

CL 7. Insert «r na between the vowel and final consonant of 
the root before the P terminations, and 5^ n before the other termi- 
nations. 

Observe the peculiarity of this conjugation — ^that the conjugational na or « is 
inserted into the middle of the root, and not afi&xed. 

Hie accent is on ike inserted na before the P terminations ; in other cases it 
rests on the Non-P terminations. 

CL 8. Affix 7 tt to the root, and gunate this u into o before the 
P terminations only. 

Obs. — ^As nine out of the ten roots in this class end in n or n, d. 8 will resemble 
CI.5. . 

Cl. 9. Affix tfT na to the root before the P terminations ; ift ni 
before all the others, except those beginning with vowels, where only 
f( n is affixed. 

CL 10. Gunate the radical vowel (if capable of Guna) throughout 
all the persons of all the tenses, and affix ^nr aya — ^lengthened to 
inn ayd before initial m* and v — ^to the root thus gunated. 
The accent rests on the first vowel of ^e inserted aya, 

2,50. It win appear, firom a cursory examination of the above 
rules, that the object of nearly all of them ia to insert either a 
TOwel— ftometimes alone, sometimes preceded by y or n — or a letter 
of some Idnd between the modified root and the terminations. The 
ist, 4th, 6th, and loth agree in requiring that the vowel, which is 
immediately to precede the terminations, shall be a or ^. The 2nd, 
3rd, and 7th agree in inserting no vowel between the final of the 
root and the terminations. The 5th, 8th, and 9th agree in interposing 
either u, <£, or i after the letter n. 

a. Any letters or syllables required to be inserted by the above 

* But not before m final, the termination of the ist sing. Impf. Parasmai. 

u 



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146 VEBBS. — THE AUGMENT. 

ten rules, are inserted only in the four Special tenses (except only 
in the case of cl. lo). In the other six tenses the stem is formed 
according to one general rule for all roots of whatever class, whence 
their name of General tenses. But in these also, some letter or 
syllable has to be inserted (the only exception being in the Perfect). 

h. This inserted coijugational vowel, consonant, or syllable is usually called the 
mkarana, Pd^i's technical names for the ten insertions between the modified root 
and terminations under each of the ten classes, in regular order, are iap^ iapo Ink, 
ilu, 4yan, ^u, 4a, inam, u, 4nd, ff,i6j the last, however, does not strictly contain the 
.vikarm^, the real insertion in cl. lo (and in Causals) being ay a (represented by 
the t of 9tV). The above Vikaranas (with ^tV) hold good before Kfit sufi&xes con- 
taining an indicatory 4 (such as iatri or 4dna6, see 247. c). In Passives and Neuters 
the insertion is technically called yak (leaving ya), to distinguish it from the Vika- 
rai^a iyan of cl. 4. With regard to the six General tenses, the Perfect has strictly 
no vikararia (the almost universally inserted t of t^ being called an augment). But 
in verbs belonging to cl. 10, in Derivative verbs (such as Causals), and in a few 
Primitive verbs like ^h, the syllable dm is added to the verbal stem. With regard 
to the other General tenses the Agama if (or inserted t) is by no means universally 
interposed, but certain letters or syllables are regarded as additions to the root 
distinct from the terminations; that in the ist Future is technically called tdsi 
{=ztds) ; that in the 2nd Future and Conditional is sya : that in the Aorist is called 
6U (for which either si6 or ksa or ^n or an or dtn are always substituted) ; that 
in the Precative is ydsuf {'=^yds) for Par., and sfyuf (=«iy) for Atm.; that in the 
Yedio Let Is called sip, 

THE AgAMA OB AUGMENT H a. 

25 J. In classical Sanskrit (but not always in Vedic) the augment 
1» a (called dgatna^ * increase^) is prefixed to the stems of the Imper- 
fect, Aorist, and Conditional tenses, and when the stem begins with 
V a or WT <f, the augment blends with these vowels into in a by 31. 
(So in Gr. e and € become tj in ^yeipov^ &c.) 

a. But when the augment a is prefixed to stems beginning with 
the vowels !f t, ^ «, and ^ ri (short or long), it blends with them 
into ^ at, ift aUy in^ dr (against 32^, which would require the result 
to be e, 0, ar). 

Thus the stem ^}9K i66ha (fr. rt. M/to wish') in 3rd sing. Impf. becomes ^^91^ 
ai^hatj the stem "9^ tcAa becomes "w^n auhata (Impf. Aim.); the stem ^^Vt 
fidhno becomes ^^CTVJU^drdhnot j the stem ihw okha becomes wtWff^aukhat, 

b. When a root is compounded with one or more prepositions, 
the augment is placed between the preposition or prepositions and 



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VEBBS. — REDUPLICATION. 147 

the rooty e. g. anv-atishtham (fr. anu'8thd\ upa-sam-afiarat (fi*. upa- 
sam-hfi). 

When ^5 is prefixed to the root ^ kji, after certain prepositions (see 53. c), the 
augment is placed before the s, e. g. sam-askarot, 

Obs. — The augment a is thought hj some to have been originally a kind of 
demonstrative particle denoting past time (probably connected with the stem a of 
the demonstrative pronoun idamy see 334), while the separable particle sma (thought 
to be an abbreviation of another demonstrative pronominal stem sa-ma), also de- 
noting past time, and often discharging the function of the augment a (see 878), 
has remained a detached particle. 

REDUPLICATION. 

25^. After explaining the augment it will be convenient to specify 
the rules of reduplication (abhydsa), as these have to be applied in 
the Special tenses of Primitive verbs of cL 3, in the Perfect tense of 
all Primitive verbs, in the Aorist of a few Primitive verbs, and of 
verbs of cl. 10, and of some Nominals (521), as well as in Desidera- 
tives and in Frequentatives. 

In reduplication the initial consonant and first vowel of a root 
are doubled, as in lilip fi*. rt. lip, dadaridrd fr. daridrd. There are, 
however, special rules, as follow : 

ist, as to consonants, thus: 

a. A corresponding unaspirated letter is suhslituted for an aspirate, as ^ d for 
"9 dil, in dadhd fir. dhd. (So in Gr., r is repeated for 0, as 6i(o^ riBvKa^ &c.) 

b. The hard palatal ^<f is substituted for the hard gutturals 1| ib or ^ A;A, as in 
iakhan fr. khan: and the soft palatal ^j for the soft gutturals ^^, \9K or ^ A, 
u mjagarn fr. gam, jag has fr. gha8,juhu fr. hu, 

Obs. — ^ip^Aan, *to kill/ and fij At, 'to go,' substitute ^^gh for T h when redu- 
plicated ; ZBfjaghan fr. han. 

€. If a root beg^n with a double consonant, the first consonant only or its sub- 
stitute is repeated ; as, ^ (f for H^^A, in 6%kship fr. kship ; ^^$ for ^<y, in sasyand 
fr. syandj W j for ? Ar, in jahras fr. hras. 

But if with a double consonant whose first is a sibilant, and whose second is 
hard, the second or its substitute is reduplicated; as, ^^ for ^«A, as in daskand 
fr. skandj H^t for ^«M, as in tasthd fr. sthdj \p for ^ sp,M 'mpaspfi£ fr, spfii, 
andly, as to vowels, thus : 

d. A short vowel is repeated for a long, and diphthongal sounds are represented 
by their second element ; e. g. W a is reduplicated for WT rf; ^ t for \'C,'^ n> "^K* 
^ e, and ^a%: ^ « for II tf, ^ 0, and w au, 

Obs. — In certain cases ^ t is also repeated for a and rf, as being a lighter vowel, 
and dyuty 'to shine,' makes didyut for dudyut, 

U 2 



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148 PRIMITIVE AND DERIVATIVE VERBS. 

e. In fact it may be observed^ that when a long vowel causes too great Wight 
in the radical syllable, it is generally lightened in the reduplicated syllable. 

/. When a form has once been reduplicated, it is never reduplicated again in 
forming other Derivatives from it (see 517. a); and when roots which have to be 
reduplicated have any changed form, this modified form is taken in the redupli- 
cation ; thus, ^ smri, * to remember,' being changed to ^|^ in the Desiderative, 
the vowel of the root does not appear in the reduphcation (^«»IJ.). 

VERBS PRIMITIVE, PASSIVE, CAUSAL, "DESIDERATIVE, &c. 

253. In conjugating a verb, then, two things have to be done : 
ist, to form the stem from the root according to ten rules for four 
.of the tenses, and one general rule for the other six ; andlj, to join 
the stem so formed with the terminations, according to the regular 
rules of Sandhi or euphonic conjugation, ' As yet, however, we have 
only given a general explanation of the formation of the verbal stem 
of the Simple or Primitive verb under the ten classes of roots. 

There are four other kinds of verbs deducible from all roots, 
whatever be their class. 

254. In fact, every Sanskrit root serves as a kind of stock out 
of which the inflective stems of five kinds of verbs may be evolved : 
I. of a Primitive, Transitive or Intransitive ; 2. of a Passive ; 3. of a 
Causal, having often a Causal and often merely a Transitive signifi** 
cation ; 4. of a Desiderative, giving a sense of wishing to the root ; 
and 5. of a Frequentative (or Intensive), implying repetition, or 
heightening the idea contained in the root (see, however, 507). 

255. The first, or Primitive verb, is formed tcom. the root, accord- 
ing to the ten different rules, already given, for the formation of thie 
stem in the first four tenses. 

The second, or Passive, is formed according to the rule for. the 
change of the root, required by the 4th class ; viz. the addition of 
ya in the first four tenses. * 

The third, or Causal, is formed according to the rule for the 
change of the root required by the loth class ; viz. the addition of 
aya to the root in all the tenses excepting the Aorist. 

The fourth, or Desiderative, is formed by the addition of ^a or 
isha, the root also undergoing reduplication. 

The fifth, or Frequentative, is formed like the Passive, according 
to the rule required by cl. 4, and is, in fact, a redupUcated passive 
verb. It may also be formed analogously to the rule for cL 3. 



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FORMATION OP THE STEM OF PRIMITIVE VERBS. 149 

Thus, if we take the root ip^MA, oonvejing the idea of * shining ' — ^frora this 
•re developed, ist, the Primitive verbal stem, iohha, * to shine ;' andly, the Passive, 
4ubhya*U} be bright;* 3rdly, theCansal, ib^Aaya/to cause to shine' or 'illuminate;' 
4thl7, the Desiderative, Mobhisha^ ' to desire to shine ;' gthly, the Frequentative 
or Intensive, iohhhfu or iohbh, ' to shine very brightly/ 

a. And as every root is the source of five different kinds of Derivative verbs, so 
there are secondary Derivative veibs developed out of nouns called Nominal verbs. 
An explanation of i^ese will be found after Frequentatives at 518. 

256. Th* subject of Tcrbs, therefore, as of nouns, will divide itself 
into two heads : 

A. ^The formation of the stem ; ist of Primitive, indlj of Passive, 
3rdly of Causal^ 4thly of Desiderative, jthly of Frequentative verbs ; 
with their respective Participles. 

B. The exhibition of the stem, united to its temunations, under 
each of the five forma of verbs consecutively. 

PRIMITIVE VERBS. 

FORMATION OP THE OTEM OF THE FIRST FOUR TENSES, IN THE 

TEN GLASSES. 

A brief summaiy of the ten rules for the formation of the stem 
of the four Special tenses — viz. the Present, Imperfect, Potential, 
and Imperative — in the ten classes of roots, has already been given 
at 249. These ten rules may be collected into three groups, which 
iorm three distinct general conjugations, as follow : 

257. Group L Conjugation I. This (like the declension of the 
6r8t class of nouns whose stems end in a and a) is by far the most 
important, as comprising roots of the ist, 4th, 6th, and loth classes, 
which agree in making their stems end in a (liable to be lengthened 
to ^). These also resemble each other in taking substitutions for 
some of the terminations, after die analogy of the stems of nouns 
ending in a and 4 at 97* (See the substitutions indicated in the 
table at 246.) 

Note — Of about aooo roots belonf^ng to the Sanskfit language, nearly 1300 
belong to this ist conjugation. Besides which, eveiy root in the language may 
take a Passive and Causal fbrm, and so be conjugated as if it belonged to the 4th 
and loth dassee. 

258. Group IL Conjugation 11. This comprises verbs of the 2nd, 
3rd, and 7th classes, which agree in affixing the regular terminations 



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150 VEBBS. — GROUP I. FORMATION OP STEM. 

(at 246) to the final letter of the root, without the intervention of a 
vowel, after the analogy of the last four classes of nouns whose stems 
end in consonants. 

259. Group III, Conjugation III, comprising verbs of the 5th, 
8th, and 9th classes, also affixes the regular terminations (at 246) to 
the root ; but after the intervention of either m, a, or f, preceded by 
the consonant n. 

260. In comparing Sanskrit verbs with Grreek and Latin, it might be shewn 
that gronp I, comprising the ist, 4th, 6th^ and loth classes, answers to the Gr. 
ist coi^ugation in 0^9 the conjugational V a being represented in Gr. bjr or € 
{tarpdmas^r€fmofi.€Vy tarpathaz=zT€pv€T€) ; and although the Gr. ist conjugation 
contains more subdivisions than the first group in Sk., yet the inflexion of these 
subdivisions is similar. As to the Sk. loth class, however, it appears to correspond 
to Gr. verbs in a^ot> and i^cd, which, like the loth, are generally found in company 
with other verbs from the same root; thus, Ka6api^a>, *l make pure' {KaSaip^)^, 
<TT€va^»y * I groan' (cTevw), where ? corresponds to ^y, as in fea and 'W 'barley.' 
To this class also may be referred verbs in oe^, €07, o» ; thus pdraydmi = vepau, 
where the y has been dropped, and the two a's combined. Lat. verbs in to, like 
audio &c., seem to be related to the Sk. 4th class, as weU as to the loth ; thus 
cupio answers to kupydmi; and the i of audiebam answers to the ay a of the loth, 
just as in Prdkfit aya is contracted into ^ e. The second and third groups of 
classes in Sk. (viz. the 2nd, 3rd, 7th, 5th, 8th, and 9th) answer to Gr. verbs in jxi ; 
thus emi cl. 2=6ijCAi, daddmi cl. 3=SiOco/CAi. Class 7, however, has no exact parallel' 
in Gr., but many Gr. and Lat. verbs resemble it in inserting a nasal into the middle 
of the root ; see 342. a. The 5th and 8th classes answer to Gr. verbs like iuK-vv^fU^ 
^€vy-vt^-/tAl, which agree in inserting vv between the root and termination ; in Gr. 
the vowel v is lengthened before certain terminations, just as » is gunated into 
in Sk.; thus stfii^omiz:: aropvvfJLi, 8trii^shi=zaT0pvvfy stjif^oti^frTopvia-i (for 
OTopwu), 8tri^tna8:= (Tropvi[A€v (for (rrop¥VfJi€(), &c. The 9th class answers to 
Gr. verbs in vfi (viy); thus Mi^mi^zvipvifju (vipvifjixi), ktii^^nas^vepifafiev. 
Cf. also Lat. forms in nij thus stemimus=. Sk. stfiifhiaSf fr. stfi, d. 9. 

OBOUP I. — FORMATION OF I^TEM IN BOOTS OF CLASSES I, 4, 6, lO. 

261. Class i (containing about 1000 Primitive verbs). — Rule for. 
the formation of the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Gimate the vowel of the root (except when debarred by 28) before 
every termination of all the four tenses^ and affix the vowel ir a to 
the root so gunated. Remember, that this V a is lengthened into 
WT d before the initial m and r of a termination, but not when m is 
final, as in the ist sing. Impf. 
262, Thus, fir. root ^JV ^im^A, 'to know,' is formed the stem ^TtV&oi^Aa, lengthened 



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VERBS. — GROUP I. FORMATION OP STEM. 151 

into ^ftVT6odfAa before m and v (Pws. i.* bodhd-^mi^siit^^lUibodhdmi, bodha-^si^s: 
"Wtyftl bodhati, bodha-^-ti^'^ft^^ bodhati ; Du. i. bodM'\'Va8^^H\^^Jbodhdi>a9i 
&c. ; Atm. Pres, &o(Ma+t='iTN bodhe by 33, 6orfAa4-»c=WtV% bodhase, &c.) See 
table at 583. 

263. Similarlfy fr. ftf/t, 'to conquer' (see 590)9 comes the stem Wljaya (i.e. 
je-^-a, see 36. a), liable to be len|^ened into ^Hfljayd, as explained above ; fir. «A 
iU, 'to lead,' the stems nay a and nay(f; fi^. ^6^1^ 'to be' (^w, Lat.yi(), the stems 
bhava (i.e. 6Ao+a, 3^«a) and bhavd (Pres. i. ^^if^i bhavdmij 2. H^% 6Aava«t, 
^veif, &c., see 584) ; fir. ^^PJP* ' *o creep,' the stems ^ sarpa and sarpif (see 27); 
fir. 'H^^/rtp, 'to f&shion/ the stems W^ kaJpa and ka^, 

Obs. — B^ ' to be ' or ' to become,' is one of the commonest verbs in the language, 
and like as, 'to be,' at 584, 327, is sometimes used as an auxiliary. Bku is coi\jugated 
in full at 585. 

264. The stem of the Imperfect has the augment V a prefixed by 
251 (Impf. I. abodha + m=:W^it^abodham, 2. aiorfAa + * = ^Bpftv^ 
abodhcM, &c.) 

265. In the Potential the final a of the stem blends with the initial 
f of the termination into e by 32 (Pot i. bodha + iyam=:^fik^ bo- 
dheyam). So also in the Pres. j^tm. ('^ &c.) See table at 583. 

266. In the Imperative the termination is rejected in the 2nd sing. 
(Lnpv. I. £oJAa + ant=:ifhnf«T bodhdni^ 2. '^ bodha, 3. bodha + tu 
= wtV| bodhatu). 

267. Roots like l^^'to cook,' fW^'to beg,' ift^'to live' (603), cannot change 
theb radical vowels (see 27. a, 28), but, as before, affix V a, liable to be lengthened 
to WT d: (Pres. i.M^|(h &c. ; Pres. Atm. i. fiWf &c. ; Pres. i. irt^Tfil &c.) 

268. §ome roots ending in the Vfiddhi % ai cannot be gunated, but sufPer the 
usual change of Sandhi before V a and W (^ by 37 ; as, from i| ' to sing,' ^ ' to be 
weary,' ^ Atm. ' to preserve t/ ^ 'to meditate,' 9* ' to fade,' are formed the stems 
gdya, gldya, trdya, dhydya, nUdya. See 595. a.b, 

269. Some roots of d. i form their stems in the first four tenses by a change 
peculiar to themselves, which change is of course discarded in the other tenses ; 
thus, firom Vm stkd, ' to stand' (587), Vllghrd, ' to smell ' (588), ^IT 'to drink ' (589), 
vn 'to blow,' ^ 'to repeat' or 'think over,' come the bases fifV tishfhap fWW 
jighra, f^TT pivay VT dhama, >nT mana, the final a being, as before, liable to be 
lengthened. 

a. It should be noted that ^QT sthd and JH ghrd are properly reduplicated verbs 
of cl. 3 at 330. The reduplicated stem, by 252, would be tasthd, jaghrd : but as 
the reduplication is irregular, and the radical d gives way to the conjugational a, 

*^ I. stands for ist person singular; Du. i. for ist dual; PI. i. for ist plural, &c» 
t A form Wf^t as well as TTnT^, is found in Epic poetry for the 2nd sing. 
Impv. of this root. 



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152 VERBS. — GROUP I. FORMATION OF STBM. 

gramoMriuM place these roots under cl. i. The Greek Km^jX/, on the other hind^ 
has not shortened its radical Towel in the singular. 

27a Again, "^^'to see/ 'Tl *to go,' ^*to restrain,* ^* to go/ ^ 'to sink,* 
^ (iitm, in Special tenses. Par. in others) *to fall,' 'to perish/ form their stems 
^15^ paiya, TRSi ga66ha, 'RR ya66ka, ^fl[^ fi66ka^ ^Cft^ Ma^ Tpfhf 4(ya : (Pres. i. 
^^^\^H padydmiy &c.) 

a. According to Pdnini (vii. 3, 78), ^ ' to give ' may sometimes substitute the 
stem ^11^ ya66ha : and ^ ' to go,' the stem M1^ dhdxsa, 

b. ^ ' to conceal* forms 'JJ ; flf^'to spit/ rt^ J ^'^^ to cleanse,' ftW : (Pres. i. 

igsrfii&c.) 

c. UTR'to step,' Hn^'to tire,' 'Vf (with VT) 'to rinse the mouth,' lengthen their 
medial vowels, but the first only in Parasmai : (Pres. i. jnMifH &c., but Atm. llk^,) 

d. ^3^ 'to bite,' TiW'to colomr,' ^ra*to adhere,' ^^*to embrace/ drop their 
nasals : (Pres. i. ^^idi &c., vi^ifii &o.) 

e. ip^ Atm. 'to yawn' makes its stem ^fH^, and eren <9^ Atm. 'to receive' 
sometimes becomes cS^ in Epic poetry. 

371. 'W^^ Atm. 'to love ' forms its stem after the analogy of cl. 10 (Pres. i. *I«im 
&c.), and some other roots add dyaj thus, fr. ^^^ to protect,' *\\M\Myopdya: fr. ^p^ 
' to fumigate,' ^pTO ; fr. ft^ * to go,' ftraCHT ; fr. ^WT Atm. (meaning ' to praise,' 
not ' to wager '), ^TOW ; fr. "^ Atm. * to pndse,' nnm* 

a. ^^ Atm. 'to play,' like all roots contuning tr and ur compounded with 
another consonant, lengthens the vowel (Pres. i. ^|^ &c.) 

272. Class 4 (containing about 130 Primitive verbs). — Rule for 
the formation of the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Affix n ya to the root The vowel of the root is not gunated^ 
and generally remains unchanged. Remember, that the inserted 
'^ ya is liable to become m yd before an initial m and vot the 
terminations (but not before the m of the ist sing. Impf. Par.), as 
in cl. I at 2,61. 

273. Thus, fr. f^sidh, ' to succeed,' is formed the stem fTOI Mhya (Pres. i. 
sidbyd-^-nd =r P^UIlllI Mkydmi, 2. ftfvrf^ Mhyan, &o. ; Impf. asidhya-\-m = ^ifth- 
'W^^andhyam, &c.; Pot. i. tidhya-^iyams:: hi^A^sidhyeyam, 2. fTI^^ nrfikyev, 
&c. ; Impv. i,tidhya-\-ihU=:ih^\?n sidkydni, &c. Pres. Atm. i. sidhya+issfWB^ 
sidhye, Mhya + se^z (Vl «m^ sidhyase, &c.) See 616. 

274. Similarly, fr. TT md, 'to measure,' the stem STR mdya (Pres. i. Atm. mdya 
'^'i:=:^T^fndye,8cc,)i fr. ftW,*«Wp,' to throw, 'ftf^iteA^a; fr.^nrif, 'to dance,' 
^j^ nfitya; fr. "rt ^, 'to fly,' if^ ^a (Pres. Atm. i. Tt^). 

275. Roots ending in afii.and tv, and one in ad^ lengthen the vowel; as, fr. f^ 
dtv, 'to play,' ^(N| dhya; fr. '^n^hhram (also cl. i), 'to wander,' VR^ hkrdmya: 
fr. ^^ mad, 'to be mad,' «nW mddya. Similarly, mw (also d. i) ' to step,' H'^ ' to 
endure,' IF^'to grow weary,' Wl^'to be afflicted,' ?p^'to be tamed;' but bhram 
may optionally form ^S^f^ hhramya. 



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VBBBS. — GROUP I. FORMATION OP STEM. 153 

376. If a root contain a nasal it is generally rejected; bb, from «9(^'to iUl,' 
^Spibhrafyaj from Tl^^'to colour/ TiV; l|«^'to be bom' makes wnjdya (Pres. 
I. Atm. WTm), lengthening the vowel, to compensate for the loss of n. 

a. Roots ending in ^ drop this before the conjugational ya : thus, ^ to/ to 
end/ makes its stem tya. Similarly, l(t ' to cut/ ^ ^ to sharpen/ ^ ' to divide/ 

277. The following are anomalous. From ^'to grow old/ ^MjVrya>- fr. ^^^ 
'to pierce/ fl|H| vidkya (cf. 473) ; fr. ftl^ * to be viscid/ *W medya. 

Obs. — Although this dass includes only 130 Primitive verbs (generally Intran- 
sitive in signification), yet every one of the 2000 roots in the language may have 
a Passive form which follows the Atmane-pada of this class, differing from it only 
in the position of the accent, see 461. 

278. Class 6 (containing about 140 Primitive verbs). — Rule for 
the formation of the stem in the four Special tenses. 

A£Bx the vowel n o to the root, which is not gunated, and in 
other respects generally remains unchanged. Remember, that the 
inserted V a becomes WT d before an initial m and v of the termina- 
tions of the four tenses (but not before the m of the ist sing. Impf), 
as in d. I and 4 at 261 and 272. 

279. Tlias, fr. f^^ibsAtp/to throw,' comes the etemf^ksh^a (Pres. i. kshipd 
+m» = Hii Ml (I1 kshipdm, 2. iivMpa+«t= O^MfVl kskipasi; Pot. i. k8kipa'\'iyamz=z 
V^HM^ k$hipeyamy &o. Atm. Pres. i. kshipa+i^f^ kshipej see 635). 

Similarly, fr. K^ tud^ * to strike,' f^ tuda : fr. if^ dU, ' to point out,' fip^ di4a, 

280. Roots in ^ t, 7 « or 9 1^^ ^ n and ^ jr{, generally change those vowels 
into 1[9 iy, 7^ uv, f^^^riy, and ^ ir respectively ; as, fr. fr, ' to go,' comes the 
stem f^ riya j fr. ^ * to praise/ ^ nuva ; fr. ^* to agitate/ ^ dhuoa ; fr. if * to 
die/ f^^ mriya (626) ; fr. M jfcf/, * to scatter,' ftiT kira (627). 

0. '^ * to swallow ' makes either ftlt or ftlcJ. 

281. A considerable number of roots of the sixth class, ending in consonants, 
insert a nasal before the final consonant in the four tenses ; as, fr. ^p^, * to let go,' 
comes the stem ^^ mun6a j fr. fcT^'to anoint/ fco*M Umpa : fr. ^1^*to cut,' 'pff 
kfmta : it. ftt^* to sprmkle,' ftPi ti1i6a ; fr. TJ^* to break/ ^W? Uxmpa j fr. f^^^ 
' to form/ fthp. Similarly, ft^ * to find/ filT^ * to trouble.* 

282. The following are anomalous. From ^, 'to wish,' comes the stem ^%^id6ha : 
fr. HIT 'to ask,' iJUt pr%66ha; fr. ^^^'to fry/ 1f«r hhxijjaj fr. ^I^'to deceive/ 
flw vi6a 2 fr. H^* to cut,' ^ vri^* Cf. 472. 

a. The roots )(l^ and Tl^ are sometimes regarded as falling under this dass ; see 
their stems at 270. 

283. Class 10 (containing a few Primitive verbs, all Causals, and 
some Nominal verbs, see 5^1).*— Rule for forming the stem in the 
four Special tenses. 

Gunate the vowel of the root throughout every person of all the ■ 



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154 VERBS. — OROUP I. FORMATION OP STEM. 

four tenses (except when debarred by 28), and affix ^m aya to the 
root so gunated. This ^PT aya becomes ^RT ayd before initial m and 
V of the terminations of the four tenses, but not before m of the ist 
sing. Impf. 

284. Thu8» ftpom ^ dur, 'to steal/ is formed the stem ^^ 6oraya (Pres. i. 
A>rayrf-f-iiii=^wtnnftl SGraydmi, 2. ^oraya-f «t=^i^ftl dorajfosi, &c. ; Impf. i. 
adoraya + »=W^ftCT'l adorayam, &c., see 638 5 Pot. i. 6oraya + tyam='^v*iM*f 
6orayeyam; Impy. i. 6oraya + im = ^*1 1.^ I fVl 6oraydifi^ &c., see 58). 

385. Roots ending in yowels generally takeVi-iddhi instead of Gu^a (481) ; as, fir. 
ift 'to please/ WHI prdyaya (of. 485. a) ; fir. If * to hold,' VTCT dhdraya. But ^ * to 
choose ' makes ^^R^ varaya. This last, however^ is generally regarded as a CansaL 

2S6. Roots containing the vowel V a before a single consonant generally lengthen 
this vowel ; as, fr. ?T^* to swallow,' JP^W^grd8aya : but not before a coqjunct con- 
sonant; as, fr. ^VS 'to mark/ ^^; h. ^?|^ 'to punish/ ^mU. 

a. The following, however, do not lengthen the medial a, though followed by a 
single consonant : 1^' to say * (^WT) ; T^* to count / V^' to sin / ^^* to tie / 
^^* to arrange/ tl^Atm. in the sense of 'to surround/ t^ 'to scream/ IPff'to 
wound / W^and "^B^in the sense of * to be lax or weak / t^ * to quit / ^ Atm. 
'to go/ ^ 'to sound/ W^, ^cTi^, ^Bf^, 'to sound/ V^ 'to count' (also 
lengthened in Epic poetry) ; ^il^ ' to spend / and others less common. 

287. W^, 'to celebrate,' * to praise/ makes Wln^ kirtaya (Pres. ^1 fill I Hi). 

388. A few roots with a medial ^ p retain that vowel unchanged ; as, from f>|^ 
'to desire/ '^^'Tj ^ 'to search,' ^TT; ^ *to bear/ ^f^m (more commonly 
^^); fl| Atm. 'to take/ ^[^ (also ?n?^); 1fR*to pity/ ^J^^; but ^'^'to 
wipe' takes Vfiddhi (•ii4<i)* Some of these may be regarded as nominals. 

a. The following also do not gunate their medial vowels : ^^'to make happy/ 
5^ ' to bind,' ^^ * to become manifest,' ^pHT or ^^ * to consult.' 

b, A few roots of more than one syllable (see 75. a) are said to belong to cl. 10, 
viz. ^HUr ' to worship/ ^NWI^ ' to despise,' ^W^^ * to fight,' fHI^ or ^«iif^ * to 
play,' 1^'to search,' ftiB 'to imitate,' fim^'to put on/ llill^'to invite,' 
%l*^fj, r^l^c^i f^Vtc^yHIPc^y'to swing/ h<!^c^ or IT^c^ or ^^JJH^'to cut off.' 
These and a few monosyllabic roots of cL 10, such as ^9(^' to divide/ V^' to ask,' 
fllU'tomix/ in 'to mark,' ^ 'to make water/ ^ ' to thread/ 1^ ' to fkn/ 
ftr^ ' to perforate,' ^^ ' to sound,' and others less common, can, according to 
some grammarians, form their stems optionally with d^aya : thus, ^iN^may make 
in Pres. i. li^HM^I l ftl or ^»?Jinftc. 

289. It has been shewn that every root maj have a Causal form, 
which follows the rule of conjugation of cl. 10. Indeed, it may be 
owing to the fact that there are a number of Active Primitive verbs 
not Causal in their signification, but conjugated like Causals, that a 



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VEKBS. — GROUPS II AND III. FORMATION OP STBM. 155 

loth class baa ariaen distiDct from the Causal. In verbs of tbis class 
the Causal form will generally be identical with the Primitive. 

Again, as some verbs really Causal in their signification are re- 
garded as belonging to cl. lo, there will often be a difficulty in 
determining whether a verb be a Primitive verb of this class, or a 
Causal verb. Hence the consideration of cL lo must to a great 
extent be mixed up with that of the Causal form of the root. See 
the special changes applicable to Causals at 483-488. 

a. Observe, that all verbs, whether Primitive or Causal, which 
belong to cL 10, have this great peculiarity, viz.' that the conjugational 
aya is carried throughout all the tenses of the verb, General as well 
as Special, except only the Aorist and the Precative, Parasmai-pada. 
For this reason the formation of the stem of the General tenses of 
verbs of cl. 10 will not be explained under the head of the General 
tenses (at 363), but will fall under Causal verbs. 

b. Many verbs of d. 10 are also conjugated in other classes ; and many may be 
regarded as Nominal verbs. 

GROUPS II AND in. — FORMATION OF STEM IN ROOTS OF CLASSES 
2, 3, 7, AND CLASSHS 5, 8, 9. 

Preliminary Observations. 

090. The formation of the stems of verbs of groups II and III 
presents more difficulties than that of group I, containing the ist, 
4th, 6th, and loth classes. In group I the verbal stem, although 
varying slightly in each class, preserves the form assumed in the 
singular before all the terminations of every Special tense ; but in 
the last two groups the stem is liable to variation in the various 
persons and numbers of most of the tenses, such variation being 
denoted by the letter P and other indicatory letters of the scheme 
at 246. 

a. The object of the P is to shew, that fulness or strength of form is imparted 
to tke root before these weak terminations (see 347. h) ; thus ^ t, d. 3/to go/ is 
in the Pres. sing, emi, eshi, eti ; in du. was, itkaSy itas ; in pi. mas, &c. : just as 
in Gr. €?/«,*, €?, u<n, ?tov, Ttov, Jju,€V, &c : <tf. also ^/a/ (for ^«fAO» ^V, 
^ci^ ^T^, ^rov, <t>aiMV, 4>oire, <f>affi. So again, stfi, *to strew,' is in Pres. 
sing, stjii^om, sifit^hi, strinoti; in du. stjii^uvas, stjii^uthas, stpnfutas: in pi. 
s^ifumos, &c. : just as in Gr. o-ropv^/u, aropvy^f aropwci^ cropvvrcVf cnpwrov. 



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156 VBRBa — GROUPS II AND III. FORMATION OP STBBL 

<TTopvvfA€Vy 8cc. Similarly, M, ' to buy/ is in Pres. siDg. Mifdmi, kHffdii, kfi^dH : 
in du. &o. Mf^oBt kr^ihoi, Mf^as, kriif^nas, &c., the d being heavier than /. 
Cf. wepvofii (vepvyjiM), vipva^y vepvarif vipvaToVy vepvarov, &c. The P after 
the terminations of the first three persons of the Impv., Parasmai and Atmane, 
indicates that even before these heavy terminations the stem must be full. When 
a root ending in a consonant is long by nature or position, no additional strength 
is necessary, and no Gu^a is then possible (see 28) ; but in place of Gu^a, the 
stem sometimes remains unmutilated before the light terminations, while mutilation 
takes place before the heavy. The same holds good in roots ending in dj thus dd 
and dhd suppress their final vowels before strong terminations, and preserve them 
before weak ; see 335, 336. Similarly, as, ' to be,' which by 28 cannot be gunated, 
drops its initial vowel before the strong terminations, retaining it before the weak ; 
see 337, and compare 324. 

^91. Another source of difficulty is, that in group II (containing 
the 2nd, 3rd, and 7th classes) the verbal stem generally ends in a 
consonant. This group of verbal stems, therefore, will resemble the 
last four classes of nominal stems ; and the combination of the final 
consonant of a stem with the initial /, /A, dh, or «, of a termination 
in the Special tenses of these three classes requires a knowledge of 
the laws of Sandhi already given, as well as of others about to be 
explained. 

292. With regard to the terminations, a reference to the table at 
246 will shew that the last two groups take the regular terminations 
of the scheme, with few substitutions. But in the 3rd pi. Present 
and Imperative, iitmane-pada, the nasal is rejected in all six classes; 
and in the 3rd class, owing to the burden occasioned by reduplication, 
the nasal is also rejected in the 3rd pL of the Parasmai-pada in these 
two tenses ; this class also takes us for an in the 3rd pi. Impf. 

293. Moreover, roots ending in consonants, of the 2nd and 3rd, and all roots of 
the 7th, and the root J hu of the 3rd class, take dM (the Greek Oi) for At in the 
2nd sing. Impv.* (see 246) ; and roots ending in vowels, of the 5th, and all roots 
of the 8th, and roots ending in consonants of the 9th class, resemble the first 
group of classes at 257, in rejecting this termination hi altogether. 

294. Again, roots ending in consonants reject the terminations s and t of the 
2nd and 3rd sing. Impf. by 41. 1, changmg the final of the root, if a soft consonant, 
to an unaspirated hard ; and in other respects changing a final consonant, as indi* 
cated at 41. 1-IV. In roots ending in 1^, ^, J^y ^9 the 3rd person rejects the 

* Dhi was originaUy the only form. Hence hi the Vedas ^|Ar (KkvOi) ; and in 
the Mahd-bhiurata W^n^fv. Dki then passed into hi, as dhita passed into hita, 
and bhUnd into the Latin humus. 



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VERBS. — ^RULES OF SANDHI. 157 

iermination t regularly, and ends therefore in simple 1^; the and person optionally 
rc;}eot8 either the termination s, and ends therefore in /, or the final dental of the 
rooty and ends then in i, see 308. 

295. The following new rales of Sandhi will also apply in forming the Special 
tenses of the Parasmai-Frequentative (see 514), and in forming the stem of the 
General tenses of aU Primitive verbs (except those of d. 10), and in some of the 
Participles ; for although in most roots ending in consonants the vowel l^t (see 391) 
is inserted before the terminations of these tenses, yet a large class of common 
roots reject this inserted vowel, leaving the final of the stem to coalesce with the 
initial consonant of the termination. It will be convenient, therefore, to introduce 
by anticipation examples from the General tenses and Participles. 

EUPHONIC JUNCTION OP CERTAIN VERBAL STEMS WITH 
TERMINATIONS AND SUFFIXES. 

Combination of final ^6, "^ 6h, 1^ j, «^ jh, toith i^^t, i^th, ^dh, ^s. 

296. Ilnal "^6 and i^j, before H^ty'^^ th^ \dh^ and ^«, are changed 
to HI it (cf. 41. IV), the "i^ * blending with ^ s into '^Jc8h by 70, and 
becoming n g before dh ; thus, V€i6 + /t = vakti ; va6 + thas = vakthas ; 
vaS + 9i = vakski ; mo6 + sydmi == mokshydmi ; mu6 + /a = mukta ; 
tyaj 4- /a = iyakia ; tyaj + sydmi = iyakshydmi. The same applies to 
final ^jhy but this is not likely to occur. 

a. Similarly, final 1^ 6h before s ; as, fra6h + sydmi =:prakshydmi. 

297. But a final "^ 6h and ^^j sometimes become ^M before ir /, 
\th; and T^^/, '^M, then become ;|,^; thus, in^4-/» = 'nff ; ^•¥ 
thas^ffW^^; ^+/a = ^; W^ + td—mr. 

a. Similarly, a final n^J may be changed to ^ ^ before ^dh, which 
then becomes ^ ^A. 

b. vnw * to fiy,* ina^ * to be immersed,^ and u^ * to cut,* reject 
their last consonant, and the first two are treated as if ending in w, 
the last as if ending in ^. See 632, 633, 630. 

Combination 0/ final ^ dh, ^ bh, with T(^ t, i( th, ^ s. 

298. Final V dh and ^ iA, before l^/ and i^/A, are changed, the one 
to ^ d^ the other to \b^ and both / and /A then become ^dh; thus, 
rundh with tas or thas becomes equally ^'«i^^ runddhas ; labh + tdhe 
^TiPfi^ labdhdhe ; bodh + tdhe ^^tW^* 

- A similar role applies to final ^ gh, which must be changed to '^^y but this is 
not likely to occur. 

a. When final i^dh is preceded by a conjunct «^n, as in rundh, 
then the final dh,. Yrhich has become d (before t and th changed to 



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158 VERBS. — BULES OF 8ANDHI. 

dh\ may optionally be rejected ; so that rundh + tas = ^«iri^or ^'^M^; 
rundh + tarn = ^55^^ or ^'W (Pdn. viii. 4, 65). 

b. On the same principle jIH^is written for ^p^f^from ^ (674). 

c. Similarly roots ending in 1^< and ^ d may reject these letters before th, t, and 
dhi, when n immediately precedes, hence fiT^ may be written for firw, wiH^for 
fi??l!r^, filfW for filftl. 

299. Final ^ dh and ^ bhj before ^^, are changed by 44, the one 
to i^^9 the other to \p; thus, ^Q^ni^o^A + ftl si becomes ^nfinr 
runaisi; sedh + sydmi^setsydmi; IcAh + sye^laptye (cf. 41. II). 

a. If the initial of the syllable containing the final aspirate be g^ 
d, by or ifj then the aspirate, which has been rejected in the final, is 
thrown back on the initial ; as, wtv bodh + ^ sye ^ )Tt9^ bhotsye ; ^ 
dadh + 9va = dhaisva : and in the case of ;^ the same applies before 
/ and M, against 298. See 44. c, 336, 664. Cf. Ope^^oD from rpiifxo. 

b. The aspiration is also thrown back on the initial, when final dh 
is changed to d^ before the terminations dhve and dhvam. See 336,664. 

Combinations 0/ final ^i, ^sh, ^s, with T^t, t^th, ^s, ^dh. 

300. Final 9r i, before 1^/ and x^/A, becomes ^M; and the nj, '^^th, 
take the cerebral form ^, ^; thus, ^+ te^^; ^+ thds = ^wr^. 

301. Similarly, final ^sh, before lit and ^M, requires the change 
o{l{^t, ^M, to ^, ^; thus, in"^+^i = ^; and fin^+/Aa« = fTV^. 

302. Final j^i or "^sh^ before ^^, is changed to i| X: by 41. V, the 
^^ then becoming T(sh by 70; thus, ^9r + ^ = ^f^; ^+«==¥ftr; 

n. Final ^^ksh is also changed to 1^ Jb; as, ^^+% = ^. 

303. Final 9r i or \shy before 1^ d%, is changed to 1^ ^, the ^ cfA 
becoming ^4h by 51; thus, fir(+rfAt = fi^. Similarly, %ii + 
dhvam = fk^^. A final H^j may also follow this rule ; see 632, 651. 

a. Final l^ksh also becomes ^^, X: being dropped; as, ^r^ + d = ^n^. 

304. Final ^* is changed to j(^t before n^t in the 3rd 'sing. Impf. 
(the termination / being rejected), and before V^A, is either dropped 
or changed to ^ d; thus^ iakds + dhi = either ^wf^ 6akddhi or ^mrfv 
iakdddhi; ?fT^ + rfA» = ^lTfv; ff^+rfAtsfff^orf^ftf, see 658, 673. 

a. Final ^« before ^s is changed to 1^/; as, vas-^sydnUssvai- 
sydmi. So optionally in 2nd sing. Impf. of ^n^, aids-\-s:=aidts^ 
aidt (or aids), 

b. But not in the case of final ^ preceded hj aord before si and je. 



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VERBS. — BULBS OF SANDHI. 169 

Combination of final ^ h tvith T^^t, ^th, ^s, ^dh. 

305. In roots beginning with ^ d^ like ^ duh^ ^ to milk/ final v h 
18 treated as if it were ^gh^ and is changed to '^^g before 1^^ and i[ th^ 
and both / and th then become ^ dh ; thus, ^ duh + tas or /Aa« 
becomes equally ^^^ dugdhas ; R dcih + /il^mi = dagdhdsmu 

But '^f + /a = '5e dfi^ha. 

Note — In root in| the final h is treated as if it were ^ dh, and 
becomes ^ dy after which / and th both become £{%• See 624. 

a. But if a root begin with any other letter than ^d or ^^n^ then 
its final ^ A is dropped^ and both the 1^^ and Jf^th of the termination 
become ^ 4h. Moreover, to compensate for the rejection of the final 
A, a radical vowel (except ft), if not gunated, is lengthened^ and in the 
roots ^ sah and ^ vahy ^to bear/ changed to 0; as, ^ + ta^w^; 
^-^ta^-^l ^ + «=^rfir&^t/ tt^-i-tdsmiz^tKlfm; ^ + id = 

Obs. — But ij^ + /a = ^, and ^ + /a = ^ (Pi?, vi. 3, 1 1 1). 
A. ^ * to injure,^ ff * to be foolish,' fti|^ * to love,* ip; * to vomit,* 
optionally follow either 305 or 305. a. 

306. Final ^ h, before ^ s, follows the analogy of final :i^ i and 
1^ shj and is changed to "i^ Jb^ which blends with ^ s into "Q ksh ; 
thus, j^ leh with si becomes ^fti| ; ttF + sydmi = Tt^oniif . Similarly, 
in Latin, final h becomes k before^; as, veksit {vexU) from veho. 

a. And if the initial of the syllable ending in ^ A be ^ rf, »T ^, ^ft, 
or "^ ^ (the two latter, however, are not likely to occur), then the final 
f A is still changed to "i^ A before s ; but the initial ^ d and J[^g are 
aspirated according to the analogy of 44. c ; thus, !f^ doh + ^ = 
Htf^; T^ dah + sydmi = y9^^({fk; m^^ aguh-^-sam^Wf^. 

b. In root ^ nah final ^ A is treated as if it were dh, and becomes 
1^ / before ^ s. Compare 183, and see 624. 

c. In roots beginning with ^ (/, like |^ duh and f^ dih^ final f h 
becomes n^g before dh; i.e. before the dhi of the 2nd sing. Impera* 
tive, and before the terminations dhve and dhvam (see 306.^); 
thus^ ^ duh + dhi=:^frff dugdhi. And in a root beginning with n, 
like ^ nah, final A becomes d before these terminations. 

But if the root begin with any other letter than ^ J or q[ n, then 
final ^ A is dropped^ and the v dh of the termination becomes ^ (fh, 
the radical vowel (except ^ ft) being lengthened ; thus, f<9^ lih + dhi 



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160 VERBS. — GROUP II. FORMATION OP STEM, 

= titf^ ; lih + dhvam == 7^)^. An option, however, is allowed in the 
case of the roots at 305. b. 

^ d. And 306. a. applies before dhve and dhvam^ when final ^ h be- 
comes Vjg or is dropped, although not before dhi of the Imperative; thus, 
duh-]- dhve sn^gfikdhuff dhve; Bind aguh-h dhvam = yr^jTfl^aghu4hivam. 

e, Obs. — If a root end in ^ A, this final A becomes 1^ X: in the 2nd 
and 3rd sing. Impf. of roots beginning with ^ d (the personal termina- 
tions s and / being dropped). In all other roots the final v A becomes 
;^ ^ (41. III). In both cases the changed ^ throws back an aspiration 
on the first consonant of the root in accordance with 306. a. 

GROUP II. CONJUGATION II. 

307. Class 2 (containing about 70 Primitive verbs). — Rule for 
forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Gunate the vowel of the root (except when debarred by 28) in 
the strong /ormSy or before those terminations only which are marked 
with P in the scheme at 246. Before all the other terminations the 
original vowel of the root must be retained. No vowel is inter- 
posed between the root and the terminations. (Cf. Gr. verbs like 
etfii, (f>fifil, &c. See 290. a.) 

308. Thus, from ftr^ vid/ io know' (Gr. clJctf, ?8ov, Lat. video), is formed the 
stem of the singular Present ved (i. vM^+mt^^fV vedmif See), and the stem of 
the dual and plural vid (Du. i. vid+vas^fn^^vidvas, &c. ; PL i. vid-\'fMSzs 
f^Wf^^vidma$, &c.) So also the stem of the Impf. aved and avid (i. at7ed+ amz=i 
avedam, a. aved-^8s:zavet or aves by 41. 1, and 394); the stem of the Pot. vid 
(i. vid-^-ydmssf^lWJ^^vidydm, Sec.) ; and the stem of the Impv. ved and vid (i.ved 
'\-dni=veddni, a. vid-^-dkissviddhi 293, ved+tu=vettu : Du. i. ved-^-dvaz^veddva^ 
&c. *) See the table at 583. 

a. A contracted form of the Perfect of vid (365) is sometimes used for the Pre- 
sent; thus, Sing, veda, vettha, vedaj Du. vidva, vidathus, vidatusj PL vidma, 
vida, vidu$: see 16S. e. Cf. Gr. ^Tia (for Fo^ol) fr. rt. Fil (€?$«), also used with 
a Present signification ; and Lat. vidi, vidisH, &c. Cf. also the Present vidmas 
with i^/A€y {ia'iA€v), vittha with i(TT€, and viddhi mih Mi. Cf. also old Englbh 
'to wit.' 

309. Similarly^ from %^9 'to hate/ come the stems doeih and dvish (Pres. i. 
ifPw; Du. I. fb»^^, &c. ; see 657). 

* The Impv. of iTuf is optionally formed with the syllable dm and the auxiliaiy 
verb kfi (cf. 385)5 thus. Sing. 3. ft^fnttj or fl^Tlfftj (Pd?. in. i, 41). And 
this root may optionaUy insert r in the 3rd pi. Ktm. of the Pres., Impf., and Impv. ; 
thus, fll^ or ftrj^y ^ifi^ or ^rfVjW, ftf^TIT^ or OlJ'fllH^. 



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VERBS. — GROUP II. FORMATION OP STEM. 161 

310. So alao, from ^ t/ to go/ oome the stems e and t (Pres. i • '^ffk emi (= €iiAi), 
a. Iffll by 70, 3. wflf; PL i. ^Pl^, J/A€V, see 645). 

0. Ifl^ ' to awake ' makes, in the same way» jdgar and jdfffi (Pres. i . ^imU), &c. ; 
Dn. i.ffPJ^; PL 3.inafw; Impf. a, 3. Hlfni^ or infTf t ; Du. 3. mn^UTT 5 

PI. 3. v^in^n; Pot. I. tiMi^m; inipv. 3. niff; Pi. 3. "fTiTj). 

Obs. — Roots of cL a, having more than one syllable (such as Hl^ above, ^frfT 
to be poor,' ^*l^* to shine/ aU formed by reduplication), as well as 1^^ * to role * 
(perhaps contracted from a reduplicated ^^1^), and IT^ 'to eat* (perhaps for 
ii^), resemble the reduplicated verbs of d. 3 in rejecting the nasal from the 
3rd pL Pres. and Impv. Parasmai, and taking us for an in 3rd pi. Impf. Moreover, 
a few roots like f^ and f^T^ above, as well as some in d, like ^ ' to go ' and ^ 
'to protect,' optionally take ns for an in Impf., before which a final d is dropped. 

311. The preposition ^Rf^oii&t, 'over,' prefixed to the root !( t, 'to go,' gives 
the Sense of 'to read ' (Atmane-pada only) : 1( Uien becomes iy (compare ia3) and 
blends witii adhi into wit^^adh{y before the vowel-terminaitions of the Pres., Impf., 
and Pot. Before the consonantal terminations it becomes ^nft adM, (Hence Pres. 
I. inll^, a. ^IvJi^, 3. ^H^; Du. I. W^^^, &c. ; PL 3. vINt^; Impf. i. adhi+ 
«-|-^+»='"8ftl by asi. a, a. VU)m^, 3.^^11; Du. i.^BrvMf^ a.^HWH^ni^, 
Ac ; Pot. I. ^NhftlT, iNNhn^, Ac ; Impv. i. adhi -}- e + at =11 «4^ by 36. a, 
a. Wlufy &c.) 

«. The pvepontion ITT if is prefixed to the root 1( t, according to the usual rules 
of Sandhi, and gives the sense of ' to ccmie ;' thus, Pres. ^fk, ^fR, ^fflT ; ^^9 
&C. ; Impf. W[H^ ^, &c. ; Pot W^t^f I!^I4^, &c. ; Impv. IH'nftf, ^f^, ^, 
&c. Again, tiie prep. W^ apa prefixed gives the sense of ' to go away ;' thus, Pres. 
IRftr, &c. : and the prep. IR gives the sense of * to know/ as, Pres. H^fif. 

31a. So ako other roots in ^/and If ti or 9 ti change these vowels to iy and uv 
(cf. ia3, ia5.4i) before the vowd-terminations ; as, fr. ^ vi', ' to go,' oome ve, v<^ 
and viy (Plres. i. wf, &c. ; Du. i. ^frW^; PI. 3. ftprf*!) *. Similarly, ^ * to bring 
forth' (iitm. only), makes in Pres. Sing. Du. PL 3. ^, ^^«, ^^ ; and in Impv. 
Sing. Du. PL I. ^, ^WT^9 g^wf , 6u9a bdng suppressed. 

313. l|sfttand^s«,'topnu8e/ ^yii,'tojoin/'tomix/ and ^ru,' to sound/ 
follow 31a, but take Vfiddhi instead of Gu^a before the consonantal P termina* 
tions t* Hence the stems W stau, ^ stu, and ^[^ 8tw> : see 648. Before the 
vowel P terminations both Vpddhi and Gu^a are generally (but not always) sup- 
pressed, and WD substituted, as in ^at 31a. Note, that these roots may optionally 
insert an ^ ^ before the consonantal P terminations ; and before this vowel Gu^a, 
not Vfiddfai, is required. According to some authorities, however, < is inserted 
before ail the consonantal terminations ; and, according to others, before all the 
consonants, except y, v, or m, not followed by an indicatory P. 

314. 1|9 'to qpeak,' can never take Vfiddhi, like the roots at 313; but inserts 

* According to some the 3rd pi. Impf. of ^ is ITVIt^as well as vftt|«^. 
t That is, the tenninations marked with P, which begin with consonants. 



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162 VERBS.— GROUP II. FORMATION OP STEM. 

an ^ ^ after Guna in the places where those roots optionally insert it, viz. before 
the consonantal P terminations. Hence the stems bravi, bfH, bruv. See 649. 

a. Before the yowd P terminations Gu^ is not suppressed, excepting in the ist 
sing. Impf., which may be either HWf^or 'J^^* 

315. ^> 't» lie down' (Ktv^ oMy), gunates the radical vowel before all the 
terminations, and inserts r in the 3rd pi. Pres.^ Impf., and Irnpv.^ after the analogy 
of the 3rd pi. Pot. See 646. 

316. ^1^, So cover/ takes either Vpddhi or Gui^a of the final ti before the 
consonantal P terminations, except before the and and 3rd sing, of the Impf., 
where Gu^a only is admissible. Before the vowel-terminations it follows 312, but 
Guna is retained before the vowel P terminations, excepting in the ist sing. Impf. 
Hence the stems 4nMtu, itrno, Hr^u, and lir^uo (Pres. Par. i. 'Ql^f'T or Woffii; 
Du. I. "^R^^; PL 3. inft^fir, see 310. Obs. ; Impf. i. wfi^or 'TO^by 351 . a, 
2. ^foiy, &C.5 Pot. I. "^I^'IT^^; Impv. S. I. wi^nf^, 3. BI^TJ or ^Rfffg. 
Pres. Atm. 3. ^k^n, ^l^^^Tn, II^W). 

317. ^ ' to go/ ^ * to protect,' W^ * to eat ' («fo), '^ffT^ * to sit,* Atm., and other 
roots having aoT d for their vowels, cannot be changed, but are themselves the 
inflective stems (Pres. i. "^^ yd+mi^zydmi^ see 644; ^^ ad-^-nUz^admi, 2. ad-^-si 
z=atsi, 3. ad'^tiz:zatH ; Du. 3. ad'\-ta8z=atia8, &c., see 652). With atti compare 
Laf: edit, 

a. Ifft^ 'to sit' is similar; thus ds+e^dse, ds-\-s€^dssef ds-\-te^d8ie. The 
final of ds\a dropped before dh, hence PI. 2. WW ddkve, &c. 

b, W^ 'to eat,' before the terminations of the 2nd and 3rd sing. Imperfect, 
inserts the vowel W a by special rule, see 652 ; and some other roots of this dasa 
require peculiar changes, as follows : — 

318. ^fV^i daridrdy 'to be poor,' follows 310. Obs., making its stem daridri before 
the consonantal terminations not marked with P, and daridr before ati, u$, atu 
(Pres. S. Du. PI. 3. ^fftjlftr, ?ft%il^, ^ft^J Impf. i. W^ftl^Ti^; PL 3. W^- 

ft:^; Pot. 3. ^^ftcfipm^; impv.i.^ftjrftr; Du.i.^fbjw; Pi-a-^ftjl)- 

319. Jft^ didM, ' to shine ' (Atm.), and ^^ ' to go ' (Atm.), change their final to 
y, and not to ty, before the vowel-terminations (compare 312) ; but in the Potential 
the final i coalesces with the / of the terminations (Pres. Sing, i . ^^W \ ^^ ; PI. 3. 
^?^1fl^; ^^n^: Pot. i.?fNhl, &c.) 

320. T>^va^, 'to speak,' changes its final palatal to a guttural before all the 
hard consonantal terminations, in conformity with 176; but not before the soft 
(except dh). It is defective in the 3rd pi. Plresent and Imperative, where its place 
must be supplied by 1{^at 314, 649. Hence the stems va6 and vdk. See 650. 

321. 'p^mpy, 'to cleanse,' is vriddhied in strong forms, and optionally before 
the vowel-terminations having no P. Hence the stems mdrj and mfij. See 651. 

322. ^ md, 'to weep,' besides the usual Gui^a change before the P terminations, 
inserts the vowel ^ t before all the consonantal terminations except y, and optionally 
a or ^ in the 2nd and 3rd sing. Impf. Hence rodi, rvdi, rud. S^ 653. 

a, ^ES^'to sleep,' ^^ and ^Tr^'to breathe/ and ^If^'to eat,' are similar, but 



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VERBS. — GROUP II. FORMATION OF STEM. 163 

Without Gii^a. The last conforms to 310. Ohs. In the Epic poems, forms like 
^lifii are found as well as ^ftt(if, while in the Veda other roots (besides the 
above five) insert 1 (as ^tffftf, ^ftffil, Wftrflf , l^ftfir, Sec) See Pd^. vii. 2, 76. 34. 

3^3- ^ ^^> 'to 1^/ makes its stem ^ ha before t or th (by 57.0); ^^ffhn 
before anti, an, antu; and Ifja before f^. The last change is to avoid the 
proximity of two aspirates. See 654, and compare 25a. b. Obs. 

324. ^1( voi, * to desire/ * to choose/ suppresses the a, and changes v to u before 
the terminations which have no P (see 290. a) ; and ^11 u^ becomes '9^tf«ft before 
/ and th by 300. See 656. 

3^5- t!^^ ' to praise ' (Atm.), not gunated by 28, inserts the vowel ^ i between 
the root and the terminations of the 2nd person %, ^, vky and V^i Pres. i. ^9 

2. fft^, 3. ff (see 48. h. Obs.) ; Du. 1. 1?^ i Pl« 2. ^flld ; Impf. 3. ^, &c. ; 
Pot. I. |i1^, &c.; Impv. i. ^, 2. ^ftP^, 3. tffl'^; PL 2. ^fwnt. 

a. Similarly, ^^<i, *to rule* (Atm. only) : Pres. i. ^, 2. ^^^9 3- 1^ by 300 ; 
Impf. 3. «, &c. ; Impv. 3. ^IT'^, &c. 

326. ^^r^^6dk$h, *to speak ' (Atm.), drops the penultimate h before all consonantal 
terminations, except those beginning with m or © (Pres. i. '^W* 2. ^^+ % = ^^» 

3. Wf, &c., see 302. fl, 303. a ; Impf. 3. W^lf ; Pot. 3. ^^BJf^). K6ty4yana con- 
siders W^Tthe original root, whence is formed Wl\\ the latter being substituted 
for ^n^in the Creneral tenses. 

327. ^1^ (», ' to be' (Parasmai only), a very useful auxiliary verb, follows 290. a, 
and rejects its initial a, except before the P terminations. The 2nd pers. sing. Pres. 
is ^rf% for wfw* The Impf. has the character of an Aor., and retuns the initial 
a throughout, and inserts ^/before the 9 and / of the 2nd and 3rd sing. ; see 584. 
The 2nd sing. Impv. substitutes e for a$, and takes the termination dhi. This root 
is found in the Atmane-pada, with the prepositions vi and ati, when the Present 
is Sing.^vfw^, -%, -^; Du. -^f^, -ifT^, -ini>, -^i^, -d, -'^; Pot. '■rfWhT, 
&c. (Pip. VIII. 3, 87). See 584. 

328. 1(11^ ids, ' to rule,' in Parasmai (but not in Atmane), changes its vowel to 
^ t before the consonantal terminations having no P, except that of the 2nd sing. 
Impv. Before that and aU vowel-terminations, as well as in the strong forms, the 
vowel of the root remains unchanged ; and, after 1, 1(^ becomes ^ by 70. Hence 
the stems l(IT^ and ftfP^. See 658. 

329. ^nin^,'to shine,* is Pres. I. '^^iftR, 2. '^^iftR, 3.^l^iTftj; Du. i.^'IT- 

^p^; PI. 3. ^^nrfir (310. Obs.) j Impf. I. wnrai?, 2. ^rwr^ or ^11^^^1(^(294), 
3. m^^Tf^; Du. I. w^wrar; pi. 3. vronp^; Pot. i. ^niroi^; impv. i. 
^raraiftr, 2. ^^nfv or ^nirfii (304), 3. ^'swj; Du. i. ^nHBrn, 2. ^ro^; 

PL 3. ^^IMJ. 

330. ^ duh/ to milk,' and fcT^ lih, 'to lick,' form their stems as expliuned at 
305, 306. They are conjugated at 660, 661. 

331. Class 3 (containing about 20 Primitive verbs). — Rule for 
forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Y 2 



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164 VERBS. — GROUP II. FORMATION OP STEM. 

Reduplicate the initial consonant and vowel of the root^ and 
gunate the vowel of the radical syllable before the P terminations 
only, as in cL 2. 

Obs. — ^This class resembles the and in interposing no vowel be- 
tween the root and terminations. It is the only class that necessarily 
rejects the nasal in 3rd pL Pres. and Impv. Parasmai (see 292)9 and 
takes tis for an in 3rd pi. Impf. Parasmai, before which us Gu^a is 
generally required. See 292—294. 

333. Thus, from ^ bhfi, 'to bear' (<^€p«, /pro), is formed the stem of the Present 
singular ^V^ bibhar (i. bibhar-\-ini=:fwf^), and the stem of the dual and plural 
fk^bibhri (Du. i. btbhfi-^vas^fk^f^l PL i. W6Ap+ma«=f^^«f^; PL 3. btbhjri 
+a^»=ftwfif by 34 and 392). See the table at 583; 

a. Note, that bibharii bears the same relation to bibhfimas that fert does to 
ferimus, and vult to volwnus, ^ 

333. Similarly, from 4t bh{, 'to fear,' come the two stems bibhe and bibkfj from 
J ftii, ' to sacrifiee,' the two stems juho and juhu. The former of these roots tmj 
optbnally shorten the radical vowel before a consonant, when not gunated. See 
666, The latter may optionally reject its final before vas and mtis, and is the only 
root ending in a vowel which takes dhi for hi in the 3nd sing. Impv. See 663. 

a, 1^9 'to be ashamed,' is like ^9 but changes its final ^ to ^«y before the 
vowel-terminations, in conformity with 133. See 666, a. 

334* ^ r*> '^ RO}' 18 ^he only verb in this class that begins with a voweL 
It substitutes iy for ft in the reduplrcation, and makes its stems ^^ iyar and 
^ iyri (Pres. Sing. Du. PI. 3. ^^, ^^n<^, ^^l Impf. i. ^'IT^, 3. ^1|^, 
3. iW^; Du. 3. ^^^ilT^; Pot. 3. ^^^nn^; Impv. I, ^4i<.i(^). 

335. ^ dd/iio give ' {iiivfJU^ do\ drops its final d before all excepting the P 
terminations. Hence the stems dadd and dad. It becomes ^ de before the Id of 
the Impv. See 663. 

336. V! dhd, ' to place ' (TiOfjfJH), is similar. Hence the stems dadhd and dadk : 
but dadh becomes H?^ before t, M, and Si and dhad before dkve and dkoam by 
399. a, b ; and dhe before the hi of the Impv. See 664. 

337- ^ hdf^U} abandon,' changes its final d \x>%i before the consonantal 
terminations not marked with P, and drops the final altogether befwe the vowel- 
terminations, and before y of the Potential. Hence the stems jahd, iakiy jah. 
Before hi of the Impv. the stem is optionally jahd^ jaM, or jahi. According to 
some authorities, IH^ may be shortened into ^ff^ in Pres., Impf., and Impv. 
See 665. 

338. m md, 'to measure' (Atm.), and ^ Ai, 'to go' (Kim,), make their stems 
fN^A mimi and P*ff1 jih£ before the consonantal terminations not marked ^th P. 
Before the vowel-terminations theur stems are mm and/tft (Sing. Du. PI. 3. ftf^tw^ 
ftf?n^, ftf^ ; Impf. 3. w(Vc1m ; Impv. 3. r^l^MI^). See TT at 664. a, 

339. iP^yaTt, ' to produce ' (Parasmai-pada), rejects the final nasal (see 57. a). 



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VBRBS. — QBOUP II. POEMATION OF STEM. 165 

and lengtheiM the i»dica] a before / and tk and h£, and optionally before y. Before 
eooaonantal terminations beginning with m or o the radical jan remains, but before 
Towel-terminations not marked with P the medial a is dropped, and the nasal 
combining with j becomes palatal (compare the declension of rtdan at 148). 
Hence the three t^xm8jajan,j(i^d, nndjajn. See 666. b. 

340. Hl^ bhaSf 'to eat/ 'to shine/ like Jan, rejects the radical a before the 
vowel-terminations not marked with P ; and bh coalescing with 8 becomes p by 
44 (Pres. S. Du. PL 3, W^Tftff, W^H^, ^mOl). The same contraction takes 
place before terminations beginning with Wy IKy but the final s is then dropped, 
and the usual rules of Sandhi applied ; thus, 'ip^ 4* 111'^= W3ITi^ by 398. 

341. ftn^'to purify/ fln^*to shake/ fll^'to separate' (identified with vij), 
and ftl^'to pervade/ 'to penetrate,' gunate the reduplicated syllable before all 
the terminations, and forbid the usual Gu^a of the radical syllable before termina- 
tions beginning with vowels, as in the ist sing. Impf. and the ist sing. du. pi. 
Impv. (Pres. i. %^ft»!, 2. ^ftlf, 3. ^^fll; Du. i. itftnfl(, &c. ; PL i. %ftTi»l^> 
3. %finffw; Impf. I. ^B^flnnf, 2. wHn^f &c. ; PI. 3. W^ftf^H, &c.; Impv. 

i.^ftnnftr; Du. i.^ftniw; pi. i.^ftnim). 

34a. C1.A8S 7 (containing about %4 Primitive verbs). — Rule £br 
forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Insert «T na (changeable to HI 9a after fi &c. by 58) between the 
vowel and final consonant* of the root before the P terminations^ 
and «^ n (changeable to ^, ^^ ^» i^, or Anusvaraf, according to the 
consonant immediately succeeding) before all the other terminations. 

Obs. — ^This class resembles the and and 3rd in interposing no vowel 
between the final consonant of the root and the terminations. 

0. The insertion of nasals is common in other roots besides those of the 7th class 
(cf. 370. d, a8i, 487. b), and of. certain Greek and Latin roots ; as, (mB^ fACOfOaifw ; 
koLpy Xafjifioaw; iiy^ Oiyyavv; teidy sdmdo; fid^fndo: tag, tangos liq, Unquo, 
ftc. See 360. 

343. Thus, firom ^ bhid^ * to divide/ * to break/ is formed the 
stem of the Present tense singular fW«!^ bhmad, and the stem of the 
dual and plural fir^ b/dnd, changeable to bhinat and bMrU by 46 
{ubhinad+nUssfk^lfiay ^.bhinad + ti^if^^mfw; Du. i.*Atnrf + t?a*= 
fii^l^, 3. bhi9ul + tas=fk^m^^ or fim^ (298. c) ; PL 3. bhind + anii = 
ftn^f^). See the table at 583, 

344« Similarly, from ^ rudh^ * to hinder/ the two stems ^m^ 
rw^adh and ^^rundh^ changeable to rw^, rwgtady and rund {i. 

* All tiie roots in this daas end in ooBsonants. 

t The change to Anusvlura will take place before sibilants and ^. See 6. a. 



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166 VERBS. — GROUP III. FORMATION OP STEM. 

runadh + nd=-'^^illf^^ 2. rw/iadA + « = ^^irfw, 3. rti^rfft + /t = i^irfil ; 
Du. 3. rundh + tas = ^FV^) ; see 671. So also, from fill, * to grind,* 
the two stems fiR^ and f^ (Pres. 3. ftnT^+flr = ftnfflf ; Impv. 2. 
f^+fW=ftr^ftr or fiiftj). 

345. Observe — Roots ending in 1^/ and ^ d may reject these letters before th, t, 
and dhi, when n immediately precedes; see 398. a, b. c, 

346. ^If ' to eat,' ^n ' to join,' fr^ ' to distinguish,' conform to 296. Hence, 
from hhuj come bhunaj and bhunj, changeable to bhunak and bkimkj see 

668. a. 

347. HW *to break,' W'^'to anoint,' ^^ *to moisten,' 1^^ *to kindle,' 
f^ 'to injure,' IT^ or IT^' to contract,' fall under this class; but the nasal be- 
longing to the root takes the place of the coi^ugational nasal, and becomes «T na 
in the strong forms. Hence, from bhanj come the two stems bhanqf and bkanj, 
changeable to bhanak and bhankj from und come Mnad and und (Pres. 3. unaUi^ 
untas, undantis Impf. i. aunadam, 2, awMS^ 3. aunat: Du. 3. auntdm, &c.) See 

669, 668, 673. Similarly, from ^^, Pres. i. indhe^ 2, intse^ 3. inddke; PI. 3. tA- 
dhaie; Impf. 2, ainddhds, 3. ainddha; Impv. i. inadhai, &c. 

348. 1^9 'to strike,' 'to kiU,' inserts io instead of 19 before all the consonantal P 
terminations (P&o. vii. 3, 93), but not before those beginning with vowels. See 674. 

GROUP III. CONJUGATION III. 

349. Class 5 (containing about 30 Primitive verbs). — Rule for 
forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Add ^ nu (changeable to ^ by 58) to the root, which must be 
gunated into ijt no (changeable to ^) before the P terminations 
(290. a) *. Roots ending in consonants add nuv, instead of nu^ to the 
root before the vowel-terminations. Roots ending in vowels may 
drop the u of nu before initial v and m (not marked with P), and 
always reject the termination hi of the Imperative. See 293. 

350. Thus, from fv (fi, ' to gather/ are formed the stems 6ino and 6inu (Pres. i. 
dtfio+mt=r^ni(^, (^no +5t=r^«f)rM by 70; Du. i . 6nii+ o(»= (^ ^J*!^ or f^f^^; 
R. I. (fiiitt-|-m(w=f^F^H^ or f^f^, 3. 6inu + on/i = P^ •^ f^fl by 34 ; Impv. i. 6no 
•\'dniz=f^:H^f^ by 36. fl, 2. fw^ 6inu by 391). See the table at 583. 

351. Similarly, fr. ^du/io bum/ come duno^ dunu^ and dunwo ; fr. V1^<^, ' to 
obtain/ oome dpno^ dpnu, and dpnuv^ see 681 ; fir. ip^^'to satisfy/ tfipno, tf^% 
and tfipnuv, see 618. 

* The change of nti to no before the P terminations is represented in Gr. by the 
lengthening of v before certain terminations, as in ^fvy'vi-fJiif Sc/ic-yv-jiAiy but 
fep^-vv-jEACv, $€iVyu-/A6V. See 260. 



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VERBS. — GROUP IIL FORMATION OF STEM. 167 

353. ^ iru^ * to hear ' (sometimes placed under the ist class), substitutes ^ ^ 
for the rooty and makes its stems ip^o and ijiffu. See 676. 

a. ^'^'to deceive,* I3li»^and ^y»^*to support/ ^»>^'to%top/ and ^J'^'to 
astonish,* reject their nasals in favour of the conjugational nu; thus, dabhnu, 
$kabAnUy &o. 

353. Class 8 (containing 10 Primitive verbs). — Rule for forming 
the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Add 7 ti to the root» which must be gunated into ^ before the 
P terminations (see 290. a). 

Note — Only ten roots are generallj g^ven in this class, and nine of these end 
in «^» or ?^n«* hence the addition of u and will have the same apparent effect 
as the addition of fi» and no in d. 5. 

354. Thus, from Ht^/an, 'to stretch,' are formed the stems tano and tanu (Pres. 
I. tttno+mi:=l^^tf^y 2. <fliio+«=WHtf^ by 70; Du. i. teiMi+pa«=lig^or IH^J 
PL I. tcmu-\-fiiasz^n^n\ or WW^; Impv. i. /afio4-<6tt=Tnr!nftT by 36. a, a. IT^ 
teiwi, see 293). Cf. Gr. Tavt//iU, towju^v. 

' a. The root ^ fan, 'to give,' optionally rejects its n, and lengthens the radical 
a before the y of the Potential ; thus, M^\\ganydm or ^im^sdydm, &o. 

b. When the vowel of a root is capable of Guna, it may optionally take it ; thus 
the stem of ^^*to go * may be either '(p^ ^^ ^"^ ('• ^TOfftf or ^^piftfiT). 

355. One root in this class, ^ Aft, * to do/ * to make/ is by far 
the most common and useful in the language. This root gunates 
the radical vowel fi^ as well as the conjugational u^ before the P 
terminations. Before the other terminations it changes the radical 
fj to ttr. The rejection of the conjugational u before initial m (not 
marked with P) and Vj which is allowable in the 5th class, is in this 
verb compulsory, and is, moreover, required before initial y. Hence 
the three stems karo^ kurUy and kur. See 6Sz. 

356. Class 9 (containing about 5a Primitive verbs). — Rule for 
forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Add «fT ^ to the root before the P terminations ; «ft n( before all 
the others, except those beginning with vowels, where only «^ n is 
added (see 290. a). 

Obs. — ^tfT, tft, and 5^ are changeable to irrr, nff, and ^, by 58. 
357. Thus, frt>m ^ y«, 'to join,' are formed the three stems yvnd, yuiU, and yun 
(Pws. I. yund+mi^z^Affk I Du. i. yt«i^+©fl«=g«rt M^; PI. i. yim/-|-iikw=5lft- 
H^, 3. yun+anti=z^nr*n, Pres. Atm. i. yim+essj^; Impv. i. yund+dni=z 
ipnftf, 3. ytjiir+Ai=5^f , &c.) 

a. Obs. — Roots ending in consonants substitute dna for their 



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168 VERBa — GROUP III. FORMATION OP STEM, 

oonjugational sign in 2nd sing. Impv., and reject the termination At; 
e. g. ^I^|T«T * eat thou/ from in|(^ ^ to eat ;^ ^[Win * nourish thou/ from 
H^; i^pmr ^ shake thou/ from l|)T, &e. See 6965 698, 694. 

358. d *to go,' ih *to go,' ^^ *to go,' *to choose,' id *to choose,' tH *to ad- 
here,' ¥ft *to fear,' *to bear,' t^ft 'to destroy,' ^'to shake,' f^*to purify' (583), ^ 
*to cut' (691), ^*to go,' ^ *to hurt,' '^'to sound,' If *to grow old,' W 'to split,' 
ij^'to lead,' T^'to fill,' ^*to bear,' *to blame,' ^ *to kill,' i^or ^'to choose/ 1[ 
'to iigurc,' IS? 'to spread,' ^or W or ^or ^*to hurt,* shorten the radical vowel 
in forming their stems ; thus, from ^' to purify' come the stems pund, pn%{, and 
pm; see the Ubk at 583. 

a. ift 'to buy,' ift *to lore,' ift 'to cook,' 1| <» ^t 'to sound,' IJ^'to hurt,' do 
not shorten their vowels. See 689, 690. 

359. il^, 'to take,' becomes ^> and makes its stems \^\f ^Cit ^^ TG* 
See 699. 

a, i^, 'to grow old,' becomes f^iy and makes its stems jind, jM^ and jim. 

360. 1^, VF\9 '^j 'f^* W^^ *°^ '^'^ t^itfA the radical nasal in fsvour 
of the conjugational ; thus, from hmM are formed the three stems hadhmd^ badM, 
and badhn. See 692, 693, 695. 

361. m 'to know,' in the same way, njeets its nasal in fEnroor of the conjugi^ 
tional, and makes its B^vmn jdnd, jdtU, and jdm. See 688. 

363. W^9 'to i^>pear as a spectre,' is said to make its stems Ihawui^ hhaunC, and 
khaun. 

PRIMITIVE VERBS OP THE FIRST NINE CLASSES IN 
THE BIX GENERAL TENSES. 

363. The general rules for the formation of the stem in the Per- 
fect, 1st and 2nd Futures, Aorist, Precative, and Conditional, apply 
to all verbs of the first nine classes indiscriminately ; see 250. a. 
The loth class alone carries its oonjugational characteristic into most 
of the Geno^ tenses ; for this reason the consideration of its last 
tenses falls most conveniently under Causal verbs. See 289. a. 

Rtdmplieaied Perfect {Second Preterite). 
Terminations repeated fix>m 246. 
Parasmai. Atmanb. 



a (an) 


*w« 


*ima 


e 


*ivahe 


*i$mke 


iiha or tha 


atkui 


a 


*uhe 


dthe 


*idhve or *i4kve 


a {mi) 


atus 


ns 


e 


dte 


ire 



t ^, hoarever, may optionally diortsn H. 



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VBKBS. — KEDUPLICATBD PERFECT. FOBMATION OP STEM. 169 

364. Rule for forming the stem in verbs of the first nine classes. 

In the first place^ with regard to reduplication^ if a root begin 
with a consonanty double the initial consonant, with its vowel, accord- 
ing to the rules given at 252 (but a is redupUcated for a radical a, 
d, ft, ff, Ifi, and even for radical e, ai, 0, if final; i for i, (, e; u for 
«, ^> 0) ; e. g. 

- F^m V^pa6, * to cook,* papa6: fr. 'TT^yrf^, * to 9A,^^yayd6: fr. ^ ifcfi, * to do,* 
6ikfij fr. 'JH^npV, *to dance,' nanjit; fr, 11 tjri/ to cross,* taijr{j fr. "y^^frtp, *to 
be able,^ dakljip j fr. H me, ' to change,' mame ; fr. ^ ^at, * to sing/ jagai ; fr. ^ so, 

* to finish/ saso j fr. fe» »idA, * to accomplish,* sishidh (70) ; fr. llif^j^v, * to live,* 
jy^i fr. %^«er, *to serve,' siskev; fr. ^ dm, *to run,* dudruj fr. ^/w^ * to purify,* 
/n^ni / *fr. ^ ^ifiiA, ' to know,* bubudh : fr. cSt^ foib, ' to see,' luloh : fr. ftR nut, 

* to smile,' ntAmi / fr. 9T s^M, ' to stand,* tasthd. 

aj And if it begin with a vowely double the initial vowel ; e. g. fr. 
^ as, *to be,^ comes a a« = iBn^ (if by 31 ; fr. Wl^dp, *to obtain,* 
a dp^dp; fr. ^mA, *to wish,* iish^Uh (see 31). 

b. In the second place^ with regard to changes of the radical 
vowel, if the root end in a consonant ^ gunate* the vowel of the 
radical syllable, if capable of Guna (see 28), in 1st, 2hd, and 3rd 
sing. Far. ; but leave the vowel unchanged before all other termina- 
tions, both Par. and iitm. 

c^ If the root end in a simple consonant^ preceded by short a, 
this a is lengthened optionally in ist and necessarily in 3rd sing. ; 
and before the other terminations it is either left unchanged, or is 
liable to become e (see 375. a). 

d. • If the root end in a vowel, vriddhi the vowel of the radical 
syllable in ist and 3rd sing. Pftr.f, and gunate it in 2nd sing. 
(optionally in ist sing.) Before all other terminations, Parasmai 
and iitmane, the root must revert to its original form, but the 
terminations must be affixed according to' euphonic rules X • 
365. Thus, fr. ^l^^ttJA, d. I, comes the stem of the sing. Parasmai ym^6ti6o(IA, 

* * The gunation of the vowel is indicated by the P of W{j ^f^, ^Sm^ in tiie 
singular terminations. See scheme at 345. 

t Vfiddhi is indicated hj the ^ of IQ^^aP. See scheme at 345. 
. X Greek affords many examples of verbs which suffer a kind of Gui^a or Vfiddhi 
change in the Perf^ ; but this change is not confoied to the singular, as. in 
Sanskrit. Ck>mpare X€Xoi7a,(fr.. Ae/vo), €Xiwov),V€woiOa (tr.,V€iOwy hnOp), 
T€Tpo<f>a (fr. Tp6<^»), riBiiKO. (fr. TiOrifU)i Sec. 



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170 YBBBa — ^REDUPLICATED PBEFBCT. FORMATION OF STEM. 

+ ithu s bubodkitha, 3. bubodk + as=, bubodka : Da. i • bvJmdk + mhi = bMlbvMivaf 
a. bvbudh + athuM^ bubudhatkus, &c. Aim. i . bubudh + e = bvbudhe, &c.) 

Similarly, fr. "ftl^ vid, d. a, 'to know/ oome the two stems W^ vived and 
ftrPt^ rtwJ (i» 3. viveda: Du. i. tnvtJtray PI. i. vividima, &c.*) 

From H^, *to cook,* the two stems V!^T^^papd6 and V!^^pc^a6 (i. papd£a at 
papaya, 3. papd6a, Sec) 

366. Again, fr.^ ilp, 'to do' (see 684), oomes tiie stem of the ist and 3rd sing. 
Par. ^iRiT^ 6akdr {2^. b), the stem of the and sing. ^#^^ar (which is optionally 
the stem of the ist sing, also), and the stem of tiie rest of the tense ^f 6akfi 
(i. 6akdr-\'a^z6akdra (or dakard), a. 6akar'{-tha^6akarthaf 3. dakdr-^-ax^dakdra : 
Do. I. 6dkj[%-^va:^6akjioa{3l^\ a. 6ak^'{-athiu^6akr(UhMS by 34. Atm. i. 6dkj[% 
-Yeiszddkre; PI. a. <fer*r»+^«=^'^« See 684). 

a. Observe — ^The roots enumerated at 390. a. reject Gu^a in the 
iznd sing. ; thus, f%9^ makes i. 3. f^nw, but 2. fiff^fw^. So if or ^ 
^to cry^ makes i. ^pim or ^iR, %. ^fftm. 

367. We have seen at 364. a. that if a root, ending in a single 
consonant) begin with a vowel, this vowel is repeated, and the two 
dmilar vowels blend into one long one by 31. But when an initial 
t or « is gunated in the sing. Par., then the reduplicated % becomes 
iy before e, and the reduplicated u becomes uv before o ; thus^ fr. 
JJ{ish^ * to wish/ come the two stems iyesh and (ah (i* 3. ^W; Du. 
I. ff^i ^^^ ^37) f ^^^ ^' Tn(^ukhf^to move,' uvokh and Mh (i. 3. 
"W^tm; Du. I. WSnw). 

a. The same holds good in the root ^ t, ^to go,' which makes 
the reduplicated syllable iy before the Ypddhi and Gui^ of the sing. 
In the remainder of the tense the stem becomes iy (cf. 375. e\ which 
is reduplicated into iy (i. 3. ^UPT, 2. l^^lftR or ^^; Du. i. fjm). 
But when the prep, adhi is prefixed, the Per£ is formed as if from 
gd, Atm. only (Sing. Du. PL 3. adhyage^ -jagdte, -jagire). 

b. And if a root begin with m a, and end in a double consonant, 
or begin with '% fi and end in a single consonant, the reduplicated 
syllable is Wl«^a»; thus, fr. iR^ar<5, ^to worship,' comes the stem 
W^\dnar6 {u 3. WH^) ; fr. ^ fidh, * to flourish,' comes m^c^norcJA 
(1.3. imr$; Du. I. w^ftR, &c.) 

* One Greek root agrees very remarkably with tiie Sanslqit in restricting Ova^ 
to Ibe singular, viz. Fii (e?^), ' to know ' (== Sk. i^rf above) ; thus, 01^ oZxtfo, 
•i^ ; #<rroy, itrr^v ; tafji^f, lorc, Jaaai. Rt. vi^f has a contracted Perf . nsed for 
the Present, which agrees exactly with oJia; thus, vedih vettkoj 6tc* See 308. «. 



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VBBdS. — BBDITPLIOATED PEBFSOT. FORMATION OF STEM. 171 

e. W^^Atm. 'to pervade,' aliliough ending In a skiffle consonant ^y follows the 
last rale (i. 3. ^ITSf^). 

368. Obs, — ^In the Perfect the ist and 3rd sing. Par, and i^Ltm. 
have the same tennination^ and are generally identical in form ; but 
when V^iddhi of a final vowel is required in both, then there is 
optionally Gu^a in the first; and when a medial a is lengthened, 
this a may optionally remain unchanged in the first ; thus if 'to do* 
may be in 1st sing, either ^fUR or ^ii^, and 11^ * to cook* may be 
^WT^ or im in ist sing. ; but in 3rd sing, they can only make 
^?IR and MMI^* 

369. By referring back to the scheme at 363, 246, it will be seen 
that all the terminations of this tense (except optionally the 2nd sing. 
Par.) begin with vowels. Those which be^n with i are all (except 
the 3rd pL Ktm.) distinguished by the mark *, because eight roots 
only in the language (viz. ^ * to do t/ ^ * to bear/ q ' to go/ ^ ' to 
surround/ ^ ' to hear/ ^ * to praise/ 1 * to run/ ^ sru, ' to flow ') 
necessarily reject the i fix»m these terminations. 

Some roots, however, optbnaUy reject • from these tenninations, see ^11^371* 

Byeciion of i Jrom itha {2nd sing. Perfect^ ParasmaS). 

370. The above dght roots (except ^ vri when it means * to cover/ 
and except ^ kri, Uo do/ when compounded with the prep, samfj 
also reject i from the 2nd sing. Parasmd* 

a. Moreover, ihe 2nd sing. Parasmai is formed with tha instead of 
itha afl^r roots ending in ^ ft (except after the root ^ ri itself^ and 
^ vri and 9|Tf jdgrij which only allow itha ; thus, dritha, vavaritha, 
jdgaritha ; and except ^ at £) ; 

b. and optionally with tha or itha after tjie root ^ svfi/\x) sound ^ 
{sasvartha or sasvaritha) ; 

c. and optionally with tha or itha afl:er roots -ending in'mdy^e 
(except ^ rye, which allows only t/Ao), and afl«r roots in ^ a«, wt 0, 
^ty f £, 7tf, and the root ^' to shake^ (except those indicated at 392, 
as neeeasar^ inserting i in the Futures &c.; e. g. fff, which makes 
atrayitha only, and so also most roots in 9 ^ ; 

d. and optionally with tha or itha aft;er those roots enumerated at 

t But ^^ to do,' if ^ is inserted after a preposition, as in W^y does not reject t, 
nd ft^lewi 374. ib; tlHi8,.a. VW^ift^* 



z % 



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172 VERBS. — ^EEDITPLICATED PBRFBCT. FORMATION OP STBIL 

400-414, which have a medial a, and which reject i either necessarily 
or optionally from the Futures &c, (e. g. ^, iekiiha or iaiaktha; 
^, iakshamitha or iakshanthaj &c.) ; but not ^ and '?^, which 
can only make dditha, jagharitha ; 

e. and optionally with tha or itha after most of the roots enume- 
rated at 415, as optionally inserting t in the Futures &c. : 

/. but all otiier roots, which necessarily take t, and even most of 
those (having no medial a) at 400-414 which necessarily reject % in 
the Futures &c., must take itha only in the and sing, of the Perfect ; 
thus 5?» is ifhnfri tottdsi in the and sing, ist Future, but Jlftfir^ tuto- 
ditha in the 2nd sing. Perfect (Du. i. tutudiva). Some few of these, 
however, are allowed the alternative of tha, as ^ * to create* makes 
^Rifit^orTOw; ii^*tosee,*5^ff^orir5f; both these roots requiring 
the radical ri to be changed to T ra, instead of gunated, when tha 
is used. 

ff. if^n * to dip* and ^ *to perish,* which belong to 370. rf, insert 
a nasal when tha is used ; thus, niff^if^ or ifihra, %fi|j^ or ^R¥- 

A. ^*to be satisfied* and '^'^'to be proud,* which belong to 
370. c, either gunate the radical fi or change it to t ra when tha 
is used (inr^ or KW^ or inrft^). 

Obs. — When tha is affixed to roots ending in consonants, the 
rules of Sandhi (296-306) must be applied. 

Optional rgection ofi, in certain cases, Jrom the dual and remaining 
terminations {of the Perfect, Parasmai and Atmane, marked with *). 

371. The roots enumerated at 415, as optionally rejecting or in- 
serting t in the Futures &c., may optionally reject it also from the 
dual and remaining terminations of the Perfect marked with * in 
the table at 363 ; thus '^ makes ^nj^fi!^ or ^HHF , ^rij% or ^iffiv^^ 
^qfi^cil or ^V?p|V^ ; but the forms with the inserted t are the most 
usual, and all other roots, even those which necessarily reject i from 
the Futures &c. (except the eight enumerated at 369), must take % in 
the dual and remaining terminations of the Perfect marked with *• 

Observe — ^The i is never rejected from the* 3rd pi. Atmane, except 
in the Veda. 

Substitution of ^ for ik {2nd pi. Perfect, Atmane). 

372. ^ ihoe is used instead of «9 dhve \>j tiie eight roots at ^6^^^ 



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VBKBS. — REDUPLICATED PERFECT. FORMATION OF STEM. 173 

also in certain cases by the roots mentioned at 371. The usual xules 
of Sandhi must then be observed, as in ^nn^ from w^. 

fl. 1^ for ^ may be optionally used by other roots when a semi- 
vowel or A immediately precedes, as ^c^Hlv^ or -f^ fit)m gp, fwfiif^ 
or -fti^ from nft. 

Anomalies informing the stem of the Perfect. 

373. Roots ending in W rf (as IfT dtf, 'to give ;' VI dhd, 'to place ;' IT yd, *to go ;' 
WT stkd, 'to stand ') drop the d before all the terminations except the tha of the 
and sing., and substitute W au for the terminations of the ist and 3rd sing. Parasmai. 
Hence, from ^d£^ comes the stem 1^ dad (i. 3. ^^, 2. ^fij^ or^^m; Du. i. ^^fl^. 
Atm. I. 3. ^, a. ^{flpt, &c. See 663). 

a. ^ftjT *to be poor* makes i. 3. ^^fiji ; Du. 3. ^^jfr^g^; R. 3. ^^ftjH* 
or more properly takes the periphrastic form of Perfect. See 385. 

b. mj 'to grow old ' has a reduplicated stem ftliin (i. 3. f^Titn, a. ftfiirnf or 
niflRnf ; Du. I. ftrfsipi). Similarly, an uncommon root jnt Atm. ' to instruct ' 
makes i. 3. flT^. 

c. f^ 'to throw,' vft 'to destroy/ 'to perish,' must be treated in the sing, as if 
they ended in dj and ^ d. 9^ 'to obtain,' may optionally be so treated; thus. 
Sing. I. ^w, a. HHm or Hftnr, 3. HHi; Du. i. ftlft^W. But tft is i. Hw or 
ferJTV, a. c5c5r*J or coPcom or fplwV or ffraftni; Du. i. fnfSW. 

d. Most roots ending in the diphthongs ^ e (except 7> h ' ^9 ^' ^<^*> ^® ^* /)» 
^ at, ^ o, follow 373, and form their Perfect as if they ended in dj thus, V cl. i, 
* to drink/ 1st and 3rd sing. ^Vt, a. ^fWor l^VTV, Du. i. ^fvi; *t d. i, 'to sing,' 
I. 3. iPTi, 2. Hftni or ll'll^; y cl. i, ' to fode,' 1. 3. 1|p; )(r^ oL 4, 'to sharpen,' 

I. 3- ^' 

e. But ^ ' to can' forms its stem as if from |[, see 595 (i. 3. «j^i«i, &c.) 

/. ^ Atm. 'to pity,' 'to protect,' makes its stem digi (1.3. fij'M, a. fijftlfH, &c.) 
g, ^'to cover' makes vivydy, invyay, and wry (i. 3. ftn^HI, a. (^^Mr^i^; Du.i. 

ft^fM*! or ftfrW, &c.) 
il. ^ ' to weave ' forms its stems as if from vd or vav or vay (i. 3. ^^ or ^mn, 

a. ^rfini or ^nrt or ^Wftnr; Da. i. ^rftW or /^if^ or '9f^^y &c. Atm. I. 3. ^ 

or 1W or w, &c.) 

f. XR Atm. 'to be fat' makes regularly ^TO, ^iftrt, &c.; but the root ^m^, 
meaning the same, and often identified with ^, makes f^f f^lfw^> Sec. 

374. If a root end in 1^ t or ^ ^ this vowel does not blend with the initial t of 
the terminations in du. pi. Parasmai, sing. du. pi. Atmane, but is changed to y, in 
opposition to 31 ; thus, from fw <ft, cL 5, ' to collect,' come the stems 6i6ai, 6%6ey 
and <ft<$, changeable to 6i6dy, ^4ay, and 6%^ (i. 3. ^iddya, a. 6i6ay%tka or 6i6etha: 
Du. I. fvf^^ 6i6yvDa^ a. H6yathus by 34. Atm. i. 3. 6%6ye. See the table at 583). 
Obs. — f^ may also substitute flHini for P^^m and f"WI for ftr^. 



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174 YEBBS. — ^BEBUPLICATSD PERFECT. POKICATIOK OP STEM. 

4JU Similarly, tft n<;' to le»d' (1.3. iiMw^a/ Dtt. I. mtjiytpfl. Aim. i.iiiiiye»&c.); 
and c3^ li (Du. i. Ulyiva: Atm. i. Uiye). 

b. ftl Jt, * to conqutf ,' makes its «tem f^rf^, M if ftom ^ (i. 3* T^**"** 5 Du. i. 
fwftlT^, &c. See 590). 

c. f^ W, * to go/ * to send,' makes ftrN, as if from gki (i. 3. "Pn^TO). 

d. ift Atm. 'to sink,' * to decay,' makes its stem fi?^ throughout; thus, i. 3. 

l^qM, 2. I^^I^Hy &C. 

e. But roots ending in l^t or f ^ and having a double initial consonanti change 
t or i'to 1(l|[ty before all terminatioiis, except those of the smg. Parasmai; hence, 
from fw cL I, 'to resort to,* come the three stems ^Urai, Mre, and iUriy (i. 3. 

f^rani, a.f^^srftnij Du.i.fi|rft»fw,&c.) SonftcL9,'tobuy'(i.3.ftn«n^ 

a.f^niftniorf^^; Du.i.f'lf^BRfW, &c. See 689). 

/. fsB ^*, * to swell,' like i^ at 373.6, forms its stem as if from ^, but only op- 
tionally ; thus, 1. 3.f^Wni or IJipW, 2. ff^n or 0(1^^^ ot TJipN or ^piftf^. 

g. And dU roots ending in 9 u or 9t^ change « or t^ to ^9^uo before the termina- 
tions of the du. and pi. Parasmu and the whole Atmane (except of course ^y ^ 
^, ^, in the persons marked iidth ♦ at 246 ; and except ^' to be,' see i. below) ; 
thus, fr. \dh4, ' to shake,' come the stems dudhau, dudko^ and dudhuo (i. 3. ^^^fl^y 
2. g^fW or J^t^ ; Du. I. JSftW. Atm, i. 3. J^). Similarly, ^ «, Atm. * to 
sound,' makes i. 3. "V^, a. ^f«i*l. 

A. But ^ makes i. 3. "^pn^, a. IJ^ft^; Du. i. ^fj^t a. "^'S^T^' '**'"• '• 3* 
»^^; and similarly, ^, '^y and ^ 9ru. 

t. ^' to be ' is anomalous, and makes its stem ip|^ throughout; see 585, 586. 
So ^* to bring forth* makes in the Veda ^H^- 

j, ^S^ * to cover * (although properly requiring the periphrastic form of Perfect, 
see 385) is reduplicated into Wg^. In the and sing, it may rejeet Gu^; 

thus, -ai^^rPr^ or ^i^f^, 3rd sing, ^fffi^^; Du. I. "^i^^ftr^, 3. '3»^5'i5^; 

h. Roots ending in ^ ft, preceded by a double consonant, and most roots in long 
^ f<, instead of retaining this vowel and changing it to r by 364. d^ gunate it into 
ar in the and sing., and throughout the whole tense, except the ist and 3rd sing, 
(and even in the ist there may be optionally Guna by 368) ; e. g. ^ tmcit ' to re- 
member,' I. sasmdra or satmara, 2. stnmarfka^ 3. tasmdra : Du. i. sagnmrica, Stc 
Atm. I. 3. sasmare, 

L But >{ dkfi, ' to hold,' not being preceded by a double consonant, makes regu- 
larly I. Sing. Du. PI. ^f¥ft, ^fiw, ?fftnf. 

m. ^' toffli,' 1^' to injure,' and ^ ' to rrad/ may optkmdify retain ^, ehangeabls 
to r; thus, Du. ^WfW or ^ifiw. 

%. ^Th*^ go,' takes Vpddhi, and makes its lAem ^91^ (&* throughout; tiras, 

1. 3.^rnc, a. wft?^; Du. I. ifrfiw. 

o. ij Atm. ' to die,^ although property Atmsne, is Parasmai in Perfect ; thu^ 

1. 3. «nnt, a. innt. 



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TEBB& — ^REDUPLICATED PISnCT. POfiMATIOK OP 8TSM« 175 

p^ WTf 'to awake/ which properiy takes the periphrastic form of Perflset 
(UPRnrat, see 385), may also take the reduplicated form, and may <^oiially 
drop the reduplicated syllable; thus, i. 3. ^illlli or WITTT, 9. MilNlfVvi or 
tU'lfi.^ (370.0). 

q. '^'to swallow* may optioDally change l^to 7f^; thus, lITRor 1I1I?I. 

r. T^*to pass* follows 375.«, as if H^weie W^; thus, i. 3. WUTT, a. ^ft^; 
Dn. I. irirw* 

«. If *to grow old' optionally follows 375. a (3. IMK9 a. ^Hlft^ or ^fic^; 
IHi- 3- ''nitj^ or WJ^). 

375. We have already seen, at 364, that roots beginning with any consonant 
and ending with a single consonant, and enclosing short W a, lengthen this vowel 
in the 3rd sing, and optionally in the ist; as, fr. V[^pa6j 'to cook,' VmX^papd6; 
fr. fy<9, 'to quit,* tatydj (i. 3. tatydja, a. tatyajitha or iatyaktha; Du. i. iatya- 
jwa. See) 

a. Moreover, before itha and in du. and pi. Parasmu, and all persons of the 
Atmane, if Uie initial as well as the final consonant of the root be single, and if 
the root does not begin with ^ 0, and does not require a substituted consonant in 
the reduplication, the reduplication is suppressed, and, to compensate for this, the 
W a is changed to ^ e * ; thus, firom pa6 come the stems Hm\papd^, papa6, and 
V[^pe6 (i.papd6a otpapa6a, 2,pe6Uha otpapakiha by 2^6^ ^,papd6a^ Du. i,pe6%va, 
Ktau I. 3. pe6et &c.) SimUarly, from W\ labh, cl. 1, Atm. ' to obtain* (cf. Aa/x- 
fiaiWy eAajSov), the stem ^^/e6A throughout (lebhe, kbhishe^ lebhe, lebhivahe, &c.) 
So ^ nak, 'to bind,* makes i. namdha or nauaha, a. nekUha or nanaddha by 305, 
5. nandkaj Du. i. nehwoj &c. Atm. nehe, kc. 

Similariy, '^^^nai, 'to perish,* i. nandia or nanaiOy a. neiitha or nanoBshfha 
{W^), 3* nandia, &c. ; see 6ao, 370. g. 

b. Roots that require a substituted consonant in tiie redupHcation are excepted 
from 375. a (but not ^^^^bhqf and ^1^ phal, see g. bdow) ; thus, H^'to speak * 
makes i. 3. WIH; I>u. i. "WftTO. 

c. 1^* to speak,* if^^ 'to say,* ^*to sow,* ^*to wish,* ^*to dwell,' ^ 
'to cany,* be^^nning with o, are also excepted. These require that the Tedupli- 
cated syllable be V a, or the corresponding vowel of the semivowel, and also change 
Ml of the root to 7 a b^re every termination, except those of the sing. Parasmai, 
the two a's blending into one long 9 i^/ thus, fr. ^H^imf^, 'to speak,' come the 
two stems 9H\^^wjd6 and ^l^i^ (i. uvdda or mvada, a. uta6itha or woaktka, 3. wodda; 
ly^. ^. ddatui : PL 3. i65m). 

Obs.— This ohange of a semivowel to its oorresponding vowel is called Sampra- 
siia^a by native grammarians (Pd^. 1. 1, 45). 

d. ^ t>ah^ ' to cany, • changes the radical vowel to Wt o before tha (see 305. a), 
optionally substituted for iika (i. 3. ^^n^y a. ^^OjHI or «Vl»). Compare 434. 

Obsr--'l|^9am, 'to vomit,* is excepted from 375. c (thus, 3. vavdma, vacamatus^ 

* Bopp deduces forms like jw^6mi, frompapo^wo, by supposing that the second 
p is suppressed, the two a's combined into d, and d weakened into c 



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176 VEBBS. — KBDUPLICATBD. PEBFECT. FORMATION OF STEM. 

vavamus, Pdi^ vi. 4, 126) ; it may also^ according to Vopadeva, follow 375. a (3. va- 
vdma, vematiu, vemus). 

e. ^(^^yaj, 'to sacniice/ is excepted from 375. a» and follows the analogy of 

375. c (i. 3. iydja : Du. 3. ^atus; PL 3. ^us) : the 2nd sing, is ipiftni or ^W by 

297; Atmane i. 3. ^, 2, ^f^> see 597. Yej is allowed optionally in the weak 

forms, and optionally in 2nd sing., esptoially in the Veda. 

/. ^^ 'to ii^ure' and ?[^ Atm. 'to give' are excepted from 375. a (^B9I9> 

g. ^H^'to honour/ W^'to loosen/ ?ni,*to be ashamed/ 1|R^ ' to bear fruit/ 
necessarily conform to 375. a, although properly excepted (thus, JIftnJ, HftpT, 
&c.) The following conform to 375.0. optionally : IVQF 'to go/ ^R^'to sound/ 
(according to some) ^fl*^ 'to sound/ ^^^'to wander/ ^'to vomits' and (accord- 
ing to some) W^^ and ^5n^ ' to sound/ ^g^^ ' to tremble * (thus, ^TOftW or W^^^ 
HHiT^uq or wTO, &c.) 

h. The following also conform optionally to 375.0.- IF'J^'to tie/ ^Bps^'to 
loosen/ i^*^ ' to deceive / and, when they do so, drop their nasals (thus, ^iir^HlVJ 
or ^ftnr, HU*^^ or d^)« 

•• The following, although their radical vowel is long, also conform optionally 
to 375* <> ' ^ni^> ^n*^ Atm., ^9X^^ and yTSr, all meaning ' to shine ' (T0f^ or 
TftTT, &c.) 

J. TT^y when it signifies 'to injure,! necessarily conforms to 375.0 (2. if^l 

Du. i.\ftn, 3-^v|^; PI. a-^:^)- 

ib. W ' to pass ' follows 375. a, and \ ' to grow old ' may do so. See 374. r. s, 

376. '^^gam^ 'to go,' "if^jan, 'to be bom/ ^n^Jr^on, 'to dig,* and l^A«n», 
'to kill' (which last forms its Perfect, as if from ^ ghan\ drop the medial a 
before all the terminations, except those of the sing. Par. (cf. the declension of 
rdjan at 148). Hence, gam makes in sing. du. pi. 3. jagdma, jagmatus, jagmns; 
jan mdkeBJajdna,jajnatus, jajnusj khan makes 6akhdna, Mhnatus, Mknus; and 
han makes i. s. jagkdna, jaghnatus, jaghnus, 2.jaghanitha or jaghantka^ 

377. ^(^^ghas, ' to eat,' is analogous, maidngjaghdsa,jakshatus,jaksh»sj Du. i. 
jaksMva. See 44 and 70. And in the Veda some other roots follow this analogy ; 
thus, ^'to fall' (ijftl^&c.); Tf^* to stretch' (1ff?n&c*.); ^'toeat'(^f^&c.) 

378. inS[^'to adhere/ ^9^ 'to embrace/ and ^S(^'to bite,' can optionaUy drop 
their nasals in du. pL Parasmu and all the Atnume; thus, 4*^011*1 or iraf^, 

379. t^'to perish' and If^Atm. 'to yawn' may insert a nasal before vowel- 
terminations {jjyVy T^;fw^ or TiCy ; Du. i. TSP^VI or tW, see 371 : i. 3. inn&). 

380. ^'to dean' makes its stem ^HV^ in sing. Parasmai, and may do so be- 
fore the renuuning terminations (1.3. Wl^, 2. •ftfif'SM or 1«n¥; Du. i. iWTm^ 
or Wf^ or Wpi, see 651). 

381. Tf^pra6h, 'to ask,' makes its stem mV^* (becoming ^IK^ before a vowel 

* This rests on Siddhdntafkaum* 134. Some grammariana make the stem in 
du. and pi. &c. ^1^. 



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VBRBS. — PERIPHRASTIC PERFECT. 177 

by 51) throughout; see 631. «H bhrajj, d. 6, *to fry,' makes either Wli^ or 

^V^ throughout. See 632. 
a. ^[^ 'to go' gunates the radical vowel throughout; thus, i. 3. WMily 

a. W'tiritvi; Du. i. ^IRfOT- 
38a. W^^svap, * to sleep,' makes its bases ^ps^I^and ^J'^* See 655, 
a. fV^ or 1^' to spit' may substitute H^t for ^ f in the reduplication; thus, 

I. 3. fzn or fniq, ftl^ or fif¥t^. 

383. '■IV * to pierce,' 'R^ ' to encompass,' * to deceive,* '^^ Atm* * to be pained,' 
make their reduplicated syllable vij and the first two roots change vya to vi before 
all the terminations, except the sing. Parasmai; thus, from vyadh comes sing. 
du. pL 3. f^^nv, flfq^J^, W^^; Atm. "W^, &c. : from vya^, f^'^Oi^, 
W'l^^, "ftrPr^: from vyath, fW^, ft'BTOT^, f^Wftrt. See 615 and 629. 

a. ^i^cL I. Atm., ' to shine,' makes its reduplicated syllable di (i. 3. didyute), 

384. Jf^ grahf cl. 9, ' to take,' makes its stem ^iflH^ and 1|^ (S. Du. PI. 3. 
^f|i^> ^!'i54H> ''^[J^)* ^^^ "°g* 2» 'Rlf^- See 699. 

a. ^ ' to conceal' lengthens its radical vowel instead of gunating it in the sing. 
Parasmai, ^PJJf , ^'jf?^* &c. 

b. yx^ ah, 'to say' (only used in Perf.), is defective in sing. du. pi. i. and pi. 2, 
and forms and sing, from ^n^^(2. WlrVI, 3, IBHE; Du. 2. Vl^^, 3. Vlf j^; 
Pi. 3. ^nj^). 

c. H^' to say ' has no Perfect of its own, but substitutes either that of ^^(375. c) 
or the above forms from ^17. Again, ^ * to eat' has a Perfect of its own, but 
may substitute that of ^ 377. Similar^, Wi^'to drive' (ago) may substitute 
that of ^. 

Periphrastic Perfect. 

385. Roots which begin with a vowel, long by nature or position 
{ewcept the vowel ^, as in W^ * to ohtaiUy 364. a, and in ^n^ * to 
stretch ;' and roots having an initial ^ be/ore two consonants, ^6y. b)y 
and all roots of more than one syllable [except 'm^^to cover ^ 37 4. J; 
and except optionally irnf * to awake^ 374./?, and ^frjT * to be poor^ 
373. a), form their Perfects by adding ^n^ dm to the root or stem 
(which generally gunates its last vowel if ending in i, u^ fi^ short or 
long), and a£Sxing the Perfect of one of the auxiliary verbs, fr^ as^ 
*to be ;^ **At^, * to be ;^ ^hri/io do.' 

a. This dm may be regarded as the ace. case of a feminine abstract 
noun formed from the verbal stem. With ^iitt it becomes vi^4ili. 
or wNnnt by 59. Thus, ^ir, *"to rule,* makes ist and 3rd sing. 
tfTFVTff or ^ipr^T^ 0^ I^IN^IT: the last might be translated ^he 
made ruling/ and in the former cases the ace. may be taken ad- 
verbially. So also, ^|iira[, *to shine,' makes "i Hil^ l ^^lK ^he made 
shining.' 

A a 



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178 VERBS. — FIRST AND SECOND FUTURE. FORMATION OF STEM. 

Obs.— The stem with thn may sometimes be separated horn the auxiliary rerb ; 
e.g. IT 'mirva inW^ isra 'first he caused him to ftll* (Raghu>y. ix. 6i), and 
JW^RT ift "H^ 'WTC (Raghu-v. xiii. 36). 

b. When the Aimane inflexion has to be employed, if only ia 
used; thus, ^ -^tm., *to praise,* makes ist and 3rd sing, ^inil 

* he made praising or praised.* 

c. Roots of cL 10 also form their Perfect in this way, the syllable 
dm blending with the final a of the stem ; thus, firom ^ dur, cL 10, 

* to steal/ Soraydmdsa, * I have or he has stolen.* 

d. Also all Derivative verbs, such as Causals, Desideratives, and 
Frequentatives. See 490, 504, 513, 516. 

e. Also the roots ^W^oy, 'to go;' ^^^^ day, Atm. *to pity;* ^n^<&, Atm. *to 
sit;' '^X^^kds/io cough,' 'to shine' (^R^T^ &c.); see Pi^. iii. 1, 37. 35. 

And optionally the roots ^ bh{, el. 3, * to fear ' (ftniTT or fWH^I^Wi) ; iff hri, 
cl. 3, *to be ashamed ' (fH^I^ or ftipTTOTOT) ; ^ bhri, cl. 3, *to bear' (^Wor 
rWHilM4K) ; J Att, cl. 3, * to sacrifice' (^^1^ or ^f^PWR) ; ftP^ vid, cL 2, *to 
know' (ft^ or ft^Wrtt) ; -^ush, cl. i, 'to bum' (^^ or ^fhTHWrt). 

/. The roots VT Atm., ^J^, ^p(^ ftl^, XR^, ll«^, whose peculiarity of conjuga- 
tional form is expluned at 271, and ^{l^Atm. 'to blame,' may optionaUy employ a 
Periphrastic Perfect, not derived from the root, but from the conjugational stem ; 
thus, ^^ or %iHl|l^fli , gnt^ or inMll(l^4iK, jpp or ^pniWPinC, ftrfiw w 
ftRKPTWmC, W or q4UI44l%|«|iK (according to Vopa-deva M^IMWm ), ^ or 
M«f|4||^<4iK, ^JTSfS or ^JlfhlTlTI. 

g. Observe — Stems ending in t, u, or ji, short or long, are generally gunated 
before dm; but !(hft * to shine' and ^^ 'to go* make ^luilMfliy ^mM%> &c. 

386 First and Second Future. 

Terminations of First Future repeated firom 246, 
Parasmai. Atm an e. 



tdsmi 


tdsvas tdsmas 


tdhe tdsvahe 


idsmahe 


tdsi 


tdstAas tdstha 


tdse tdsdthe 


tddkve 


td ' 


tdrau tdras 


td tdrau 


tdras 




Terminations of Second Future repeated from 


246, 


sydmi 


sydvas sydmas 


sye sydvahe 


sydmahe 


syasi 


syathas syaiAa 


'syase syethe 


syadkve 


syati 


syatas syanti 


syate syete 


syante 



Obs. — The First Future results firom the imion of the Norn. <^k8e of the noun 
of agency (formed with the suffix ^ tri, see 83) with the Present tense of the verb 
^B^fl», ' to be;' thus, taking 1^ ddtji, 'a giver' (declined at 127), and combining 



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YEBBS.— FIRST AKD SECOND FUTURE. FORMATION OF STEM, 170 

its Nom. case mth vftff asmi and ? he, we have ddtdsmi and ddtdhe^ ' I am a giver/ 
identical with the ist pen. sing. Par. and Atm. of the ist Fut.^ ' I will give.' So 
also ddldsi and ddtdse, ' thou art a giver^' or * thou wilt give.' In the ist and 2nd 
persons da. and pi. the sing, of the noun is joined with the du. and pi. of the 
auziliaiy. In the ytd pers. the auxiliary is omitted^ and the 3rd sing. du. and pi. 
of the ist Fut. in hoth voices is then identical with the Nom. case sing. du. and 
pi. of the noun of agency ; thus, ddtd, * a giver,' or * he will give ;' ddtdrau, * two 
givers,' or ' they two will give,* &c. ♦ 

Hence this tense is sometimes called the Periphrastic Future. 

387. The terminations of the Second Future appear also to he derived from the 
verh ^W^ jobed, as in forming the Passive and 4th class, with the y of root ^ * to 
go,' just as in English we often express the Future tense hy the phrase ' I am going.' 

388. Rule for forming the stem in verbs of the first nine classes. 

Gunate the vowel of the root (except as debarred at 28, and 
except in certain roots of cL 6, noted at 390, 390. a) throughout 
all the persons of both First and Second Future ; and in all roots 
ending in consonants (except those enumerated at 400-414), and in 
a few ending in vowels (enumerated at 392), insert the vowel i^ t 
between the root so gunated, and the terminations. 

389. Thus, from ftf /», cl. i, 'to conquer,' comes the stem ^ Je (ist Fut. je+ 
tdsmi^zihnifWySec.; JLtm,je'{-idhe=:^l(T^. and Fut. je-^sydmi=: ^ <MI (H , &c. ; 
Atm. ye-f «ye=inR, by 70). Similarly, from ^ ^, cL 5, 'to hear,' comes the stem 
^^o (ist Fut. ^o+^££jm»=^ftmftR, &c.; 2nd Fut. iro+«y/£m«=THhaTft?, &c.) 

a. So also, firom ip^fturfA, cl. i, * to know,* comes the stem wtfW bodhi (ist Fut. 
bodki + tdsmi = 1I fv il I Pm, &c. ; Atm. bodhi-^tdhe^^hmt.' 2nd ¥vLi, bodhi -\' 
«yc6i»t=W)r^V||fV, &c.; Atm. ftoc?W+«yc=^ftf^). 

390. The roots ending in 9 u and 9 tt of cl. 6, forhidding Gupa, are ^ or ^ ' to 
call out,* ^ or ^*to void excrement,* ^ or ^* to he firm,' ^ or «|^* to praise,* ^' to 
shake.* These generally change their final 1^ to tiv; thus, ^ftflTI^ &c. from "^> 
but ^bi^ &c. from ^ ; ^|flnnftff &c. from 1^, but ^HlfW &c. from ^. 

a. The roots ending in consonants of cl. 6, not gunated, are ^^ to contract,* 
•ni^^'to sound,* ^ 'to make crooked,' ^ 'to resist,* ^ or 1|^ 'to cut,' 5^ 'to 
quarrel,' ^ 'to break,' ^ 'to embrace,' 5^ or ^ or 5^ * to pound,' ^^ *to burst 
in pieces,' cj^ *to roll,' ^^ * to play,' W^ or Tf * to be immersed,' IJ^, ^, "^^ 
If » if » "Sf > ^» ^» ^> 'Tf > ^ meaning 'to cover,' ni^ 'to guard,* ^? 'to 
hinder,* ^ ' to bind,' ^ * to strike,* ^ 'to emit,' cj^ * to adhere,' J^ * to collect,* 
fini,' to throw,' »J^ A'tm. * to make effort,* "^ * to cut,* ^^^ or ^<5 ' to vibrate,* 
^ * to be firm,* ' to go,* ^ ' to eat,* — nearly all uncommon as verbs. To these 
must be added f^if cL 7, ' to tremble.* 

* The future signification inherent in the noun of agency ddtd, seems implied 
m Latin by the relation of dator to daturus, 

A a 2 



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180 yEKBS. — FIKST AND SECOND PUTURB. FORMATION OP STEM! 
' b. 9^ ' to cover' may either gunate its final or change it to uv C^I^finnfl^T or 

^RifliftR, m^PuMirn or ^ftwrfc). 

c. ?fhft Atm. 'to shine,' q^ Atm. ' to go,' drop their finals before the inserted i 
(^WiwtI? &c.) Similarly, IffiC^T *to be poor' (^(If^Hin^ &c., ({nLPftiq i rH &c.) 

d. Roots in ^ e, ^ at, lA o, change their finals to <£; thus, If ' to call ' (d|ini(VjN, 

e. ft? 'to throw,' ift 'to perish,' and ^ Atm. 'to decay,' mu$t change, and t^ 
' to obtidn ' may optionally change their finals to d (RTinf^y Nimif^, &c. ; qiiii^> 
&c. ; HWrftR or f5T?ITftR, &c. ; rt^mft or coit^ilf^, &c.) Compare 373. c. 

/. Roots containing the vowel n, as ^[^*to creep,' ^'{['to handle,' ^"^ *to 
touch,' ^^' to draw,' are generally gunated, but may optionally change the vowel 
p to ^ ra : thus, ^ftlfw or ^Mlfw &c., TTMSlfif or ti^-tmf^ &c. 

g. Reversing this principle, Hfi^ * to firy ' may make either WHfiw or wHw &c, 
VmjIlfJf or H^ftl &c. 

h. The alternative is not allowed when % is inserted ; thus, ^' to be satisfied ' 
makes TfHTftR or ^nnf9?9 but only ?rf§TfTf^. Similarly, T^' to be proud.' 

i, ^p^' to let go,' ' to create,' and ^^!^ to see,' necessarily change riiora: thus, 
Hflftff, €re5nfi?, &c. ; 'S^FTfer, 5^nsifif, &c. 

j, ^f^io rub,' 'to clean,' takes Vyiddhi instead of Gupa (•nr^nifiw or TmfJw). 

k, fH^^'to be immersed,' and «nf 'to perish' when it rejecte i, insert a nasal; 

thus, wmfmy irenfir, &c. i ^fmftR, ^rerrftr, &c. ; but w D H flirw &c., ff^pnfiT &c. 

h Vr^ Atm., ^, ^, ftr^, '^^y V^^ ^J^^, at 385./, may optionally carry 
their peculiar co^jugational form into the Futures (^f^ni^ or ^i^iRifli^y 'HMlfWl 
or jftfVKI l lVf or iftmfinnftR, faPqAJ l lfa or ftl^ir4HHrw , lrfSin| or ^pftfil- 

Tn%, &c.) 

"*• ^ '^ conceal ' lengthens ito vowel when t is inserted. See 415. m. 

n. ^1^ 'to be,' l^and ^^'to speak,' have no Futures of their own, and sub- 
stitute those of ^9 ^r^, and ^7T respectively ; ^ 'to eat ' may optionally substitute 
the Futures of ''Er^, and ^' to drive ' of ^ (irftfinftR or ^HlffR &c.) Cf. 384. c. 

o. The rules at 396-306 must, of course, be applied to the two Futures ; thus, 
tff ' to tie' makes HMITh &c. See 306. h. 

Observe — The above rules apply generally to the Aorist, Precative (Atmane), 
and Ck)nditional, as well as to the two Futures. 

HULES FOR INSERTION OR REJECTION OF 1^ t IN THE LAST 
FIVE TENSES AND DESIDERATIVE« 

391. These rules do not apply to form 11 of the Aorist at 435^ nor 
^e Parasmai of the Precative at 442, which can never insert t. 
7. The insertion of the vowel % (called an dgama or 'augment/ 
I technically styled i^) before the terminations of the General 
ses constitutes one of the most important and intricate subjects 



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TBBBS. — ^EULES FOB INSERTION OR REJECTION OF 1{ i. 181 

of Sanskrit Orammar. The manifest object of this inserted i — which 
can never be gunated or vriddhied, but may occasionally be lengthened 
into ( — is to take the place of the conjugational vowel, and prevent 
the coalition of consonants. Hence it is evident that roots ending 
in vowels do not properly require the inserted t. Nevertheless, even 
these roots often insert it ; and if it were always inserted after roots 
ending in consonants, there would be no difficulty in forming the 
last five tenses of the Sanskrit verb. 

Unfortunately, however, its insertion is forbidden in about one 
hundred roots ending in consonants, and the combination of the 
final radical consonant with the initial t and s of the terminations will 
require a knowledge of the rules already laid down at ^96-306. 

We now proceed to enumerate, ist, with regard to roots ending 
in vowels ; andly, with regard to roots ending in consonants : A. those 
inserting i; B. those rejecting i; C. those optionally inserting or 
rejecting t. As, however, it is more important to direct attention 
to those roots (whether ending in vowels or consonants) which reject 
i, the paragraphs under B. will be printed in large type. 

Obs. — In the following lists of roots the 3rd sing, will sometimes be given 
between brackets, and the roots will be arranged genertdlj in the order of their 
fifuil vowels and comonants. 

Note that if the ist Future reject ^ i, it is generallj rejected in form I of Aorist, 
in Atmane-pada of Precative, in Conditional, .Infinitive, Past Passive Participle, 
Indeclinable Past Participle, Future Participle formed with the suffix tavtfa, and 
noun of agency formed with the suffix tfi; and often (though not invariably) 
decides the formation of the Desiderative form of the root by s instead of ish» 
So that the learner may always look to the ist Future as his guide. For example, 
taking the root kshipy ' to throw,' and finding the ist Fut. to be ksheptdsmi, he 
knows that t is rejected. Therefore he understands why it is that the 2nd Fut. is 
kshepsydmi; Aor. akshaipsam; KtinB.iie of'pTec9Ltive,k8hips{y a j Cond.akshepsy am; 
Infin. ksheptum; Past Pass. Part, kshipta; Indecl. Part, kshiptvd; Fut. Part. 
ksheptavya ; noim of agency, kaheptfi ; Desid. ^ikshipsdfni. On the other hand, 
taking root yd^^ ' to ask,' and finding the ist Fut* to be ydditd, he knows that % 
IB inserted, and therefore the same parts of the verb will be ydSshydmi, ayddi" 
iham, ydSsMya, ayddishyaniy ydditum, yddiia, yd6itvd, ydStavya, yd^ji, yiyd6ishdmi, 
respectively. 

A. Bopis ending in Vowels inserting 1^ i {except as indicated at 391). 

' 39a. Five in 1^ t and f {, viz. ftl * to resort to' (^WftUfT, ^rftwfil), ftf * to swell,' 
^ * to fly,' ^ * to lie down,* ft? * to smile' (in Desid. alone). 

a. Six in 7 «, viz. "^ 'to sneeze,' ^ 'to sharpen,' ^ 'to praise,' ^ 'to join,' 



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182 VBBBS. — BULBS FOR INSEETION OE REJECTION OP \i. 

^ 'to sound/ ^snUy 'to drip ' (the last only when Panuimai ; when inflected in Atax^ 
it may reject t)* 
Obs. — ^ 'to praise,' and ^ 'to pour out/ in the Aorist Parasmai. 

b. All in 9 fi, as ^^ to be' (Hf^iWr, HpT^Cfif), except ^and ^ (which optionally 
reject t), and except in the Desiderative. See 395, 395. a, 

c. All in short ^ ft, in the and Future and Ck)nditional, &c., but not in the 
ist Future, as ^ 'to do' (^r^^lfif, but ^R^). 

d. Two in short ^ p (viz. ^ ' to choose ' and ifPJ ' to awake ') also in ist Future 

(^fon, ^fiwfir, irmfcm, &c.) 

e. All in long ^K> *» TT* to pass' (nftifT, flf^liril). 

393. Observe—^ * to choose/ and all roots in long ^ rt may optionally lengthen 
the inserted i, except in Aorist Parasmai and Precative Atmane (^fTifT or ^Oili« 
^fillfif or ^T^^ofir, ifftill or irtJWT, &c.) See 627, note ♦ • 

B. Boots ending in Vowels rejecting ^ L 

394. All in ^ a, as ^ ' to give^ (?nfT, ^TOTflr)* 

a. Nearly all in ^ f and f {, as ftf ^ to conquer/ tft ^ to lead' (^KT, 
iNffir, &c.) 

b. Nearly all in short ^ «, as ^ ^ to hear' (tftuT, tftufw). 
c« Those in long n u generally in the Desiderative only. 

rf. All in short ^ fi (except ^) in the ist Future only, as if * to 
do ' (iTHT, but i|rft:«rfif). See 39a. c. 
e. All in ^ tf , ^ at, wt 0. See 390. d. 

C. Boots ending in Votoels optionally inserting or refecting ^ i, either 
in all the last five tenses and Desiderative, or in certain of these 
forms only. 

395. ^or ^ cl. 3, 4, Atm. 'to bring forth' (^ftlfT or Trf%WT, irV'IW or ^ftp^nr). 

a, ^* to shake' (vftiiri or VhlT, vftP^rflf or Vt'lfw, &c., but i must be inserted 
in Aor. Par., see 430), ^* to purify/ optionally in Desid. only (^^^ ftT^Pi^Atm.) 

b, '^ Atm. 'to grow fat ' (^iTTifT and wftnH, ^"HFIW and WftPW ; but neces- 
sarily inserts t in Desid.) 

c, ^ ' to go/.^ or ^ ' to spread,' 'to cover/ and ^ * to sound/ all in ist Fut., 
and the latter two optionally in Desid. also (^St, ^xfuci or (?) vOdI; W#l, 

^trftnTor^ff^ftirT; ^rSTor^rftin; fflwlSOf or fii^xifVHni or TdwOifH; ftw- 

ftTftf or ^5^tfw). 

396. ^f<5l * to ^ poor' optionally in Desid. (f^J^ftjrt^ or fij^^ftf^). 

397* All roots in long ^ f{ optionaUy in Desid., as i^ makes fwirfxi^rfw or 

fiinMfw. 

398. fir, H> ^> ^> optionally in Desiderative. Ckunpare 392. 



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VBKBS. — ^BULES f OB INSIRTION OB BBJECTION OF \i. 183 

A« Boots ending in Consonants inserting i[ i. 
399. As a general nile^ all roots ending in ^kh, 7^^, \ffK ^jh, 7^ ^ tK \4f 
7f^4k,W(^n, "H^^, ^M, lipA, ^d, l^y, 15 r, c^t^r/ thus, "fe^* to write' makes 

^fmr^^fWi, &c.; ^' to leap' makes ^r^mr^^f^n^fir. 

a. U^ 'to take' lengthens the inserted t in all the last five tenses, except Free. 
Parasmai (^^^WTy Q^^WflT), see 699. It rejects t in Desid. 

B. Roots ending in Consonants rejecting ^ i. 

Obs. — The rules at 396—306 must in all cases be applied. When a number is 
given after a root, it indicates that the root only r^ects t if conjugated in the class 
to which the number refers. When a number is given between brackets, this refers 
to the rule under which the root is conjugated. 

400. One in ^r *. — ipi^ 5. * to be able^ (^nw, Tff^fn 679). 

401. Six in ^^6. — ^'to cook' (inw, ^rerfir); ^* to speak' (650) ; 
ft^ 7. *to make empty' (W, \^B5rfir); ftnt 7. 3. 'to separate ;' ftr^ 

* to sprinkle ;' 5^ * to loosen' (628). 

40a, One in 15 6h. — n^* 'to ask' (ott, IT^ir 631). 

403. Rfteen in ^^j\ — ^nn^^^to quit' (596); h^^* to honour;^ ^Ji^'to 
sacrifice' (597) ; «^t 6. *to fiy' {637,) ; *I^ *to be immersed' (633) ; 
ir^ * to break ' (669) ; t^ * to colour,' * to be attached ;' inE(^ * to adhere' 
(597* «) 9 ^^ 'to embrace ;' fV|^ *to cleanse' (^Wy %wfw) ; ftfi^J 3. *to 
tremble' (^,&c.); ^6. 'to bend,' 7, 'to enjoy '(668* a); gn^'tojoin' 
(670) ; ^ * to break' {ttm, &c.) ; ^ ' to create,' * to let go' (625). 

404. One in ^^^ /. — ^ ' to be,' * to turn,' but only in i?nd Fut. 
Par., Cond. Par., Aor. Par., Desid. Par. (This root is generally 
iftm. and inserts t, 598.) 

405. Fourteen in^rf. — ^*to eat' (652); ^*togo' (inrT,^WT^) ; 
^ *to perish;' n^ *to sink;' ^r;?^ i. Parasmai, *to leap;' ^ 'to 
void excrement;' ftrf *to be troubled' (^TWT, &c.); f^ *to cut' 
(667) ; 6?5 * to break' (583) ; ft^ 7. ' to reason,' 4. 'to be,' * to exist,' 
6. *to find;' ftr^ 4. 'to sweat;' ^^ 'to pound' {j^, T^tmflf); f^ 

* to strike' (634) ; g^ * to impel.' 

406. Thirteen in ^dA, — ^W^ *to bind' (692) ; «r^*to pierce' (615) ; 
TT^'to accomplish' (TiriTT, Xjmfjf) ; ^tp^5> *to accomplish ;' f^4. ' to be 
accomplished'(6i6); f^*tobeangry'(iftiT,Tftwf?r); Tjw' to be hungry;' 

* JC^ inserts t in the Desiderative. 

t ^ni^ optionally inserts t in the Desiderative. 

X When f^ belongs to cl. 7, it takes t; as, ffflfVT, f^fifirfll. See 390. a. 



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184 VERBS. — RULES FOR INSERTION OR REJECTION OP ^f. 

1^4. Atm. * to be aware* (614)*; ^-^tm. Ho fight;* ^*to obstruct' 
(671); w^*to be pure;* ^*to increase,* only in and Put. Par., C!ond. 
Par., Aor. Par. ; ip^ * to break wind,* only in 2nd Fut. Par., C!ond. 
Par., Aor. Par. (both these last insert t throughout the Atmane). 
. 407. Two in J^n. — 1^(4. -^tm. ^to think* (617) ; ?5^ 'to kill* (654), 
but the last takes i in 2nd Fut. and Conditional. 

408. Eleven in ^/?. — ^in^*tobum*(TnrT, iTOilftr); ir(,*to sow;* ^j^ 
*to curse ;* ^l^'to sleep* (655) ; im^'to obtain* (681); ftj^*to throw* 
(635); fTIH,ilLtm.*to distil;* ftl^*to anoint;* W^'to touch* (i[hlT, 
'Sft'^'lfi') ; ^ 6- ' ^ break* (c^ftiiT, B^irfir) ; ^^ to creep* (390./). 

409. Three in ^^bh. — ^^ * to Ue with carnally* (^wr, ^n^rfw) ; T?f 
Atm. ^ to desire* (with m\ ' to begin,* 601. a) ; ?5^ -^tm. * to obtain * 
(601). 

410. Five in ^^fn. — J\^ * to go* (602), but takes t in 2nd Fut. and 
Cond.; "sn^'to bend* (^nifT, Am^^) ; ^'to restrain;* v^Ktm. *to 
sport;* nn^^^to walk* in the j^tmane (nwn, 11^). 

411. Ten in '^i. — ^5(*to bite* (iprr, i;?^) ; fifS^ 6. 'to point out* 
(583) ; f^ *to enter* (^, h^); fti^'to hurt;* ft5S^*to become 
small ;* l|5( * to cry out* (limy ift^rfir) ; ^ 6. * to hurt ;* -^ i. ' to 
see* (390. i, 604, ^, -fmfK); ^^*to handle* (390./); ^^6. 'to 
touch* (390./, 636, ?wSt, ^n^fir). 

412. Eleven irn^M. — fw^^to shine* (^, ^^rfw) ; fk^'to hate* 
(^57); f^7. 'to pound;* ft^' to pervade;* fijr^ 7. 'to distinguish* 
(672) ; ftr^ 4. ' to embrace* (301, 302) ; g^^ 4. ' to be satisfied* (iftn, 
Wtwfii) ; 5^4. ' to be sinful ;' ^4. ' to be nourished t* {itwi, ^wfii) ; 
^4. * to become dry* (^ftCT, ^^^9rfw) ; f^ * to draw* (390./, 606). 

413. Two in ^*. — ^ir^'to eat* (iTOT, vmflf); ^ i. 'to dwell* 
(607) t 

, 414. Eight in 1^ A. — ^ *to burn* (610) ; ^ 'to tie* (624); ^ 
' to carry* (611) ; fl^ * to anoint* (659) ; fiR[| ' to make water* (^ 
305. a, ^^5ifw) ; f^ 2. ' to lick* (661) ; 5^ 2. ' to milk* (660) || ; ct 
'to ascend* (thrr, trtefrfw). 



♦ When ^ belongs to cl. i, it inserts t. 
t When ^belongs to d. 9, it takes t (^tf^J'^, M^rHVlOl). 
t Except in the Past Pass, and Indecl. Participles Tf^lT and 7f>lil|T (6oj). W^ 
cl. 2. Atm. * to put on/ * to wear/ inserts % (^^IJi^, ^f^^). 
II 5^ cl. I, * to afllict/ inserts « (^^HlUT, &c.) 



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VBRBa — ^BULBS FOE INSERTION OB BEJBCTION OP \i. 185 

G. Boots ending in Consonants optionally inserting or rejecting \ i, 
either in all the last five tenses and Desiderative, or in certain 
of these forms only. 

Obs. — Wlien no tenses or fcarma are specified^ the option applies to all except 
to form II of the Aonst and the Precative Parasmai, which can never insert t. 
415. Two in ^ A— Tl^or K^^ 7. ' to contract j' 11^ * to cut * (630). 

a. Three in 1^ j. — ^11^ 7. ' to anoint * (668, but necessanly inserts i in Desid.) ; 
^^*to dean' (390. j, 651); OTH^'to fty' (optionally in Desid. only, necessarily 
rejects i in other forms). 

b. Four in H^t — ^^'to fall' (optionally in Desid. only; necessarily inserts t in 
Futures and Ck)nd.^ and rejects it in Aor.) ; ^f\6, ' to cut' (optionally in and Fut., 
Cond.« and Desid.; necessarily inserts i in ist Fut. and Aor.); ^P^'to kill' (op- 
tionally in and Fut., Cond., and Desid. ; necessarily inserts i in ist Fut. and Aor.) ; 
ip^'to dance' (optionally in and Fut. and Desid., necessarily inserts t in ist Fut» 
and Aor.) 

c. Four in ^ d. — ^l|^ * to flow ' (optionally in all forms except and Fut. and 
Ck>nd. Par., and Desid. Par., where % is necessarily rejected); ffj^ 'to be wet/ 
yp^ * to shine/ and ^ ' to injure ' (the last two optionally in all forms except ist 
Fut., which necessarily inserts t)* 

d. Three in ^dA. — ^*to perish;' ftl^ i. ' to restnun ;* ^^^'to prosper' (the 
last optionally in Desid. only, necessarily inserts i in other forms, see 680). 

e. Two in «( «• — Iff^ * to stretch ' and IR^ ' to honour ' (both optionally in Desid. 
only, necessarily insert t in other forms, see 583). 

/. Five in \p* — JX\' to be ashamed ;' ^i. * to defend ;' ^H.4* * to be satisfied ' 
(618); "^4. *to be proud^' y^^'to be capable' (when it rejects t, it is Parasmai 
only). 

g. Two in ^bh. — ^^4. * to desire ' (optionally in ist Put., necessarily inserts t 
in other forms ♦) ; ^1^' to deceive ' (optionally in Desid. only, fif^ffeniflf or ftwfll 
or Vt^vflf 9 necessarily inserts i in other forms). 

h. One in *! m. — ^1|H i . 4. *to bear ' (^ffifllT or '^[^f l^fiWff , -ftf, or ^if^QWy -fir). 

t. All in ^ f9 (but only optionally in Desid.) ; as, fif^' to play,' fll^' to spit,* 
ftl^'tosew.' 

j. Two in '^Jf, — ^^fl^* to honour ;' ^fl^^ or Wf^ * to be fat * (but both necessarily 
insert t in Desid., compare 395. b). 

k. Three in 9^/. — ^^V9^5. Atm. * to pervade f ' (but necessarily inserts i in Desid., 
see 681. a); •T5(4. 'to perish' (see 390. *, and 630); flPSV 9. 'to torment' (697). 

L Seven in H**. — ^trU* to pervade;' Ifl^* to form by cutting/* to carve '(irfifW! 
or ITT, Wftniftl or irerfW, &c.); W^'to create/ ^|^with fif^ 'to extract' 
(otherwise necessarily inserts t) ; l['^6.'towish' (637); fic^' to injure;' ^i.'to 

* Except the Aorist, foBowing form II at 435. 
t ^>T^ cl. 9, ' to eat,' inserts t. 
Bb 



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186 VERBS. — ^AOBIST. FORMATION OP STEM. 

injure' (the last three optionally in ist Fut., but necessarily insert i in other 
forms). 

m. Twelve in ^ k. — Bf Atm. ' to bear ' (optionally in ist Fut. only, necessarily 
inserts i in other forms, see 6ii. a); ^ ' to gamble' (3^C<^ O' W^* Sic); VH^ 
*to penetrate;' 11^ 'to measure' (HlfijAI or ^nn, &c.); ^^8^ snih, *to love' 
(W%jfT or ItniT or WZJy &c.); ^ snuh^ * to love/ *to vomit;' ^ 'to be per- 
plexed ' (612) J ^ * to conceal ' (^[f?HT or 'ftTT, ^jfisird or ^Jh^rfff* see 306. a, 
390.W1); ^ 'to seek to injure' (623); T|^ 6, 7. or if^ 6/ to kill' (674); ^ori[| 
* to raise ;' 18^ or ^^ 6. * to kiU.' 

Aorist {Third Preterite). 

This complex and multiform tense, the most troublesome and 
intricate in the whole Sanskrit verb, but fortunately less used in 
classical Sanskrit than the other past tenses, is not so much one 
tense, as an aggregation of several, all more or less allied to each 
other, and all bearing a manifest resemblance to the Imperfect. 

416. Grammarians assert that there are seven different varieties 
of the Sanskrit Aorist, four of which correspond more or less to the 
Greek ist Aorist, and three to the 2nd Aorist, but we shall endeavour 
to shew that all these varieties maj be included under two distinct 
form^ of terminations given in the table at 246, and again below, 
and at 435. 

417. Form I is subdivided like the terminations of all the last 
&ve tenses into (A) those which reject i, and (B) those which assume 
it; A belongs to manj of those roots at 394, 400-414, which 
reject t ; B to most of those at 392, 399, which insert it : but in the 
Jatter case the initial s becomes sh bj 70, and in the 2nd and 3rd sing, 
the initial s is rejected, the i blending with the (, which then becomes 
the initial of those terminations. Moreover, in the case of roots 
which insert i the stem is formed according to rules different from 
those which apply in the case of roots which reject i. 

a. Form II at 435 resembles the terminations of the Imperfect, 
>and belongs, in the first place, to some of those roots rejecting t, 
-whose stems in the Imperfect present some important variation from 
<the root (see 436) ; in the second, to certain of the roots rejecting », 
jvhich end in 3(^i, \sh, or ^ A, and which have f, w,. or fv for 
their radical vowel (see 439) ; in the third; to verbs of cl. 10 and 
Causals* 



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VERBS. — A0RI8T. POBMATION OP STEM. 187 

Form I. 
418. The teiminations are here repeated firom 246. 
A. Terminations without \ i. 
Parasmai. Atmanb. 



1, 8am sva sma 

2. sis stam [tam] sta [tal 

3. sit stdm [tdm"] sus 



si svahi smahi 

sthds [thasl sdihdm dhvam or ihvam 

sta \ta\ sdtdm sata 







B. Terminations with \ i. 




Parasmai. 


Atmanb. 


\.ithatn 


ishva 


ishma 


ishi ishvahi ishmahi 


2.(9 


ishfam 


ishta 


ishthds ishdihdm idhvam or iihvam 


3. ft 


ishtdm 


ishus 


ishta ishdtdm ishata 



419. Observe — ^The brackets in tbe A terminations indicate the rejection of initial 
s firom those terminations in which it is compounded with t and tk, if the stem ends 
in any consonant except a nasal or semivowel, or in any short vowel such as a, i, u, 
or ft. Observe also, that initial s is liable to become sk by 70, in which case a 
following ^ or M is cerebralized. The substitution of 4hvam for dhvam and 
i^am for idhvam, in certain cases, is explained in the table at 346. 

420. General rule for forming the stem for those verbs of the 
^rst nine classes which reject ^ i and so take the A terminations. 

Obs. I. The augment Va must always be prefixed, as in the Imperfect; but it 
wiU be shewn in the Syntax at 889, that when the Aorist is used as a prohibitive 
Imperative, after the particle md or md sma, the augment is then rejected. See 
343. a. 

Obs. 3. When a root begins with the vowels ^ », 7fi, or ^ ft, short or long, the 
Augment is prefixed in accordance with 251. a. 

In Parasmai, if a root end in either a vowel or a consonant, 
Triddhi the radical vowel before all the terminations. 

In Atmane, if a root end in ^ f , ^ C, 7 ti, or ii t/, gunate the 
radical vowel ; if in 'i^ rt or any consonant, leave the vowel unchanged 
before all the terminations. Final consonants must be joined to the 
.A terminations according to the rules propounded at ^^96-306, 

a. Thus, from «A 'to lead' come the two stems anai for Parasmai and ane for 
Atmane (anat+'am =^R^by 70; Atm. aji«+«=lRftr, ane -^^ sthds zs-^Mni^^f 

b. From ^ cL 8/ to make,' come the two stems akdr for Parasmai and dbft for 
Atmane (<i*rfr-|-«aiii=Wlrt'^ by 70, &c.; Atm. a*r»+«=^J^ft by 70, ii*ft + 
iA<£f =^Bnpn^by 419, akfi+ta^z^SRpf, &c.) See 682. 

Similarly, ^ cl. 3, ' to b^ar.' See the table at 583. 

B b 2 



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188 VERBS. — AORIST. FORMATION OF STEM, 

c. So, from ^l^'to join' come the two stems ayauj for Parasmai and ayti/ for 
Atmane (Par. aycn^-^iom^^^^^ by 396, flyaii;+»ra=WiiTl^, (nfa^j+iam=l 
^fSmW^^hy 419; Atm. ayuj'\^9i=z^t^f^ by 296, flyi{;+tA<fo=«l3*^l^, ayuj-^ta 

<f. From ^^cl. 7, ' to hinder/ the stems araudh and ariM^A (Par. aratt<fA+tam= 
^TOW^^by 399, Du. araudh'\-svaz=z^[^tl^y araiu^A+tom=VlijlH,; Atm. artu/A+ 
<s=^r^1W> arMJAH-fAiff=^W^lT^, &c.) 

«. Similarly, from ll^'to cook' come the stems apd6 and apa6 (apd^+samzs 
Wn^l^by 296; Atm. apa/^'^8i=::^C^f^y apa6'\- thds = HM 4^ i^, &c.) 

/. From ^ *to bum' (610), the stems addh and adah {addh+samszXtHl^^hj 
306. a, addh'\'tamz^^t^fT^^hj 305; Atm. fldfl^+« =^iniftf by 306.0, adak+ 
thds=m^J^ff^^y &c.) 

421. By referring to 391. 6. it will be easy to understand that most roots in «, 4 
short «, and short ft, take the A terminations. Most of those in 4 e, at, o, do so 
tit the Atmane, and a few of those m.d also in the Parasmai. 

a, i7 or ^ ' to spread ' takes either A or B ; and in Atmane when it takes A, 
changes f< to ir. See 678. 

b, ^ or ^ ' to choose,' 'to cover,' changes its vowel to tir, under the same circum- 
stances. See 675. 

c, Roots in «, at, o, change these vowels to (f as in the other General tenses ; 
thus, from ^ ' to cover,' W^mOHMl^ &c. (see 433), ^^^nftr &c. Similarly, ft, »ft, 
^, and optionally cJ^, see 390. e (Wnftw^&c, Wnftf &c.) 

d, !JT 'to give' (see 663), if! 'to place' (see 664), WT 'to stand' (see 587), ^ 
' to protect,' % ' to drink ' (if in Atm.), ^ or Iff * to cut ' (if in Atm.), change their 
finals in the Atmane to t (wfi^, 110(^11^419, nR^iiy nflf^ffif ; 2nd pi. llfij^^). 
In Parasmai they follow 438. 

e, fTi used for 5{ *to go,' with irfv prefixed, signifying *to go over,' 'to read' 
(Atmane only), changes its final to ^(WUpftftl, -'Asi^, -'ftw, &c.) 

/. ^ Atm, 'to cry out,' ^ 'to void excrement/ and ^ 'to be firm,' all cL 6, 
preserve their vowels unchanged (ll^ft, &c. ; xi^^i^, ^^ii» &c. ; ^njVT, &c.) ; 
1^ may also make mihl^, and ^ may also make IHjt^l^s but the latter root is 
then generally regarded as ^« 

422. The following roots of those rejecting t, enumerated at 40&-414, take the 
A terminations only, both for Par. or Atm. : ^I^; H^; W^^, Hl^, vrS(^ ^^^9 
TSB^, ^, T?[, ^, ^5^ Atm., ^, ^, ^; ^ Atm., ^ Atm., ftf^, ^, 
^; ^^^y '■n^, UV, ^, -5^4. ^tm., g^; W^ 4. Atm.; B^,^^ 5i^,^r^, 

ftri, fH^to-. ^; ^» '^^ ^5 ^'i^; ^; ^> ^> ^. 

a. The following take in Par. either the A terminations of form I or optionally 
form II ; but in Atm. usually the A form of I, sometimes form II : ft^, ft^3, 

*^* ^3> ^K^^j ft^> ^> ^> ^» "Pl* V\* ^?^y f^- 

h. The following take in Par. only form II ; but in Atm. the A form of I, or 
sometimes the B form of I : ^^ (Atm. doubtful), ftP^, ^, ft^ 6. 'to find' (Atm. 
doubtful), 4. 7. (only Atm.), ^1^, 11^, f^, fm% 4. t^, ftl^ 4, f^» Vl> '^ ^'^^ 



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VBBB8. — AOBIST. FORMATION OF STEM. ,189 

424. b J W^wtth the 6 tenniDations is generally used for Par., but ^I^^TH occurs 
in Epic poetiy), W^^ f^H^ cj^ ^, V^, ^. 

423. The following of those inserting or rejecting t, enumerated at 415, take either 
the A or 6 terminations : IP^ or K^y TSHf^ ^fp[^f ^QT^ generally Atm. only, f^, 
II^Atm., ^Jt^, ip^Atm., "J^, "J^Cthe last three in Par. take also form II), ^pf 
generally Atm. (may also follow form II in Par.), ''Hin^(or ^) Atm., W3B, W^, 

gf , nif , «nf , ^. 

434. The rules at 396-306 must in aU cases be applied, as well as the special 
rules applicable to certun roots in forming the Futures at 390 and 390. a-^ : thus, 
W^ makes HHHJ^^ by 397. b (see 630) ; 1^ makes HHI|[*^ by 390. k (see 633) ; 
•n^ in Atm., HHf^l or ^R%P^ ; WB(, WSTTBIW or lWT8f If , Wfl9 or ^V^ff^ by 
390.y / ip^^, tniTBi»^ hy 39aj (also Wnfi^ip^) ; ^, ^Rmn^ by 306. b. 

a. VP^ Atm. *to go,' ^ip^ Atm. *to awake,' If^ Atm. *to be born,' may form 
their 3rd sing, as if they were Passive verbs (see 475) ; thus, Wmf?f , Du. 3. ^IR- 
Wnn^^; ^nWv (or optionally ^H^), Du. 3. V^mini*^; xnfftf (or optionally 

6. Roots ending in «^ and ^T must change these letters to Anusv^ before $, and 
Jl^ becomes 5^ before W| ; thus, W[^ makes Wfftr, W^n^, ^^B[^^ (or if in cl. 8. 
Wlfi^, or by c. below VIW) ; ^ipr makes Wfffti &c., Du. 2. WQf^S^i^. 

^^ (generally Par.) drops its nasal before the Atmane terminations (V^fTr, 
V^^n^, &c. ; initial t being rejected according to 419). 

^does so optionally (Wlftl ot Wlflff, viW4^ or ^m^iIE^, &c.) 

c. Roots in f^ and ^ of cL 8, which properly take the B terminations, are allowed 
an opticm of dropping the nasal in and and 3rd sing. Atm., in which case initial $ 
is rejected (419) ; e. g. 1l«l[ makes 3* HflftlS or WiflC (Pii^. 11. 4, 79). 

d. Similar^, ^^^ makes 3. W|(4llf at V^W; and If^, ^lOtSv or WTW. 

e. ^R«(' to give' is allowed the option of lengthening the a, when n is dropped ; 
thusj Sing. a. VUfVII^ or IWftffT^, 3. VflM or ^fTlftl? . Compare 354. a, 339 
(P49. II. 4, 79). 

/. The nasal of 1^'to bite' becomes 1|^ before "^ and 1^ before ^; thus^ 
W^l^, Du. 2. ^I^ff^; Atm. I. ^^r^9 Du. 2, "^^w^n^ See 303. 

425. If? 'to cany' (see 611) changes its radical vowel to wt before those 
terminations whidi reject an initial s by 305. a: thus, avdksham^ aodk^hh^ avdkshit 
(Lat. vexit), mdhshoa^ avo4ham^ &c. ; Atm. aoaksU (Lat. ve^rt), avfxjhds, avoi/ka. 

a, HW Atm., ' to bear,' generally takes the B terminations {asakishi, 8ic), though 
the form ^nitS is also given for the 3rd sing. 

426. tf^ ' to tie,' 'to fiisten,' makes andt$am, andtsd^ andtsit, andtsva, andddham, 
&c ; and Atm. anatsi, anaddhds, &c., by 306. b (compiyre 183). 

a. ^*to dwell' (see 607) makes avdtsamy &c., by 304. a, 

4^7. General rule for forming the stem for those verbs of the 
first nine classes which assume i, and so take the B terminations 
at 418. 



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190 VERBS. — AORIST. FORMATION OP STEM. 

a. If a root end in the vowels ^ «, f ^, T «, 1i «, 'f n^ ^K vriddhi 
those vowels in the Parasmai before all the terminations^ and gunate 
them in the Atmane. 

Thus, from ^ ^ to purify ' come the two stems apau for Parasmai and a^o for 
Atmane (<ipaf«+t-|-«om = ^ m fq h«^^ by 37, apatt+f+6=*im^1^, apfftt+»+ft= 
^nirth^, &c.; Atm. flrpo+»+«=^^|ftrft?, &c., hj 36), see 583. 

From II cl. I, 'to cross,' comes the stem at(h' for Parasmai (a/rfr-|-»-|-sam= 
^i(|(VhH, &c.) 

So, from ^ ' to lie down * comes ^^ifufn, W^ffiHT^, &c. ; but roots ending 
in any other vowel than u and loag fi more frequently take the A terminations, as 
they generally reject i. 

&. If a root end in a single consonant^ gunate the radical vowel 
in both Parasmai and Atmane (except as debarred at 28, and except 
in the roots enumerated at 390. a). 

Thus, '^^budh, cl. i, 'to know,' makes its stem abodh {abodhisham, &c.) See 583. 

^vft^y ' to be,' makes avart {avartishi, &c.) 

^^ edh, 'to increase,' makes aidh {aidhishi, &c,, 251. b). See 600. 

428. A medial a in roots ending in ^ and 7^ is lengthened in 
Parasmai, but not in Atmane. 

Thus, ^ *to go' makes V^ITftTn^; W<^ 'to blaze,' fnfrfeilH. The roots 
^ 'to speak' and IT^'to go' also lengthen the a in Parasmai (fl^lfijM*^^; but 
not in Atmane W^fijft &c.) 

a. But those in ^^ ^^ ^ never lengthen the a in Parasmai; thus, ^^IH^ 'to 
sound' makes ^I^RfiW^. The following roots also are debarred from lengthening 
the a. ^, ^, J^y c5^, ^, WT, fif, |pT, ^, ^, ^, ^, in(, IT^, 
^9 ^> "^i^* ^^' O"!® or two do so optionally; as, W^and «!^ 'to sound.' 

4^(9. Observe, that as the majority of Sanskrit verbs assume i, 
it foUows that rule 427. a. b. will be more universallj applicable than 
rule 420, especially as the former applies to the Aorist of Intensives^ 
Desideratives^ and Nominals, as weU as to that of simple verbs. 

430. The special rules for the two Futures at 390. or-o will of course hold good 
for the Aorist ; thus the roots enumerated at 390 and 390. a fff^ &c.) forbid 
Gupa ; and 'J^, ^, \f ^ generally change their finals to uv (l^H^H*^ &c., 
WjftV^^&c); but when 'J^is written ^ it makes ^BPT^&c., see 421./, and ^ 
may also make ^Wlfw*^ and ^, ^B^nftw^. 

a. TX^ makes ^ift^Slf^V^or ^fV^H^or ift^ftv^&c., and in Atmane ift^ftft 
or w^f^rfW. 

b. According to 390. c. ?fN^, ^^, and ^ft^T drop their finals (W^fM^lft, 
^^rvP^^i^t^, &c. ; see also 433). 

431. In the Atmane, ^ ' to choose/ 'to cover,' and all roots in long ^r/, sucb. 



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VERBS. — AORIST. FORMATION OF STEM. 191 

as ^' to spread/ may optionally lengthen the inserted i ; thus, V^rftf^ or WlQf^ 
&C-, ^lifrftf^ or IWtM^; but in Parasmai only ^WftW^, ^BRffTftv^- 

43a. f^ ' to swell' and lin^ ' to awake' take Gui^a instead of Vfiddhi (VmnmH 
&c., see also 440. a : HifNlflMH^ &c.) 

a. Jf^ according to 399. a. makes Hii^HH,* ^^^ ^7 39^* ra. ^ makes ^njf^i|>r . 
The latter abo conforms to 439 and 439. b. See 609. 

b. ^^ * to kill' forms its Aorist from il^(*l^fti^«^ &c.)» but see 42a. b. 

433. Many roots in ^ rf, ^ e, Wk 0, and ^ at, with three in '^m, viz. '^^yam, 
JJ^ram, ffV^nom, assume », but tn the Parasmai insert s before it; final e, 0, and 
u%i being changed to'^d; thus, from ^ * to go' comes IRTf^R^, &c. (see 644) ; 
fit>m ^ * to sharpen,' ^T^ltftf^, &c. ; from V^ ' to restrain,' ^rtftlV^, &c. 

l^ftr^ ^to be poor' makes adaridrisham or adaridrdsisham, &c. 

434. In the Atmane these roots reject the t and the s which precedes it, and 
follow 418 ; thus, from TT 'to measure' comes ^HTTf^, &c. (see 664. a); from ^ 
* to cover,* 'fWUfe (see 421. c) ; from T'^* to sport,' ^tpR, ^wbWT^, ntw, &c. 





Form II. 


435- 


Resembling the Imperfect. 




Parasmai. Atmanb. 


I. am 


dva [t?a] dma [ma] 


e \t\ dvahi dmahi 


a. as [s] 


atom [tarn] ata [/a] 


athds ethdm \dthdm\ adhvam 


3.at[t] 


atdm \tdm\ an [«*] 


ata etdm [dtdm] anta 



436. No confusion arises from the similarity which this form bears to the Im- 
perfect, as in all cases where the above terminations are used for the Aorist, the 
Imperfect presents some difference in the form of its stem ; thus, ^n^'to go' makes 
aga66httm for its Impf., agamarn for its Aor. (see 602) ; f^?^ ' to break' makes abhU 
nadam tot its Impf., abhidam for its Aor. (see 583). So again, cl. 6, which alone 
can shew a perfect identity of root and stem, never makes use of this form for its 
Aorist, unless by some special rule the stem of its Imperfect is made to differ from 
the root; thus, f?l^'to smear' (cf. aXe^pec), which makes aUpam in Aor., is 
aUn^pam in its Impf.; see 281. (So in Gr., cf. Impf. eAe/X'ov with 2nd Aor. 
eAnrov; €\afA0a»oy with €\al3ov; iiaixvvjv with eSa/xoVy &c.) 

Obs. — ^This form of the Sanskj-it Aorist corresponds to Gr. 2nd Aor. (cf. asthdm, 
asthds, asthdt, with ean^v^ eaTrj^y ^^'^X and the first form is more or less analo- 
gous to the ist Aor. The substitution of i for e, and dthdm, dtdm, for ethdniy etdm, 
in Atm. of form II, is confined to a class of roots mentioned at 439. 

437. Rule for forming the stem in verbs of the first nine classes. 
Prefix the augment, and as a general rule attach the terminations 
directly to the root. 

Thus, in agamarn &c., abhidam &c., see 436. So also, «ni^'to perish' makes 
^n^«\(also V^^if^y see 441, 424). 

a* Observe, however, that most of the roots which follow this form in Par., 



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192 VERBS. — AOBIST. FOBMATION OP STEM, 

follow form I at 418 in Atm. ; thos^ f^ 'to break' makes obkitM, &c., in Xtm.$ 
see the table at 583 : similarly, f^ * to cut/ see 667. And a few roots, which are 
properly restricted to Atm., have a Parasmai Aorist of this 2nd form; thus, ^^ 
Atm. ' to shine/ ' to be pleasing/ makes Par. aru^tmiy as well as Atm. aro^hi, 

b. One or two roots in W <^, ^ «, and ^ e reject tiieir finals; and one or two in 
^ fi and ^ fi gunate these vowels before the above terminations ; thus, IffT ' to 
tell' makes ^V^R'^&c., Im &o. ; f^ ^to swell,* ^TQi^; ^ * to call' makes ^V^l^ 
(see 595); ^ *to go/ ^HlM^i ^ 'to go,' ^tt^^; 1^'to grow old,' smi^^. 

c. '^H^ ' to see ' gunates its vowel (H^^, see 604). 

d. Penultimate nasals are generally dropped ; thus, ^91^^ ' to stop' makes V%I*I*I^; 
W^ 'to distil/ ^W^; W^ *to mount,' W'Qi^; WS^'to fall,' ^WTB'T. 

e. A form Vl^^occurs in the Veda, from ^^'to eat,' the medial a bemg dropped. 

438. In the Parasmai certain roots ending in long w d and ^ e con- 
form still more closely to the terminations of the Imperfect, rejecting 
the initial vowel, as indicated by the brackets in the table at 435. 
In the 3rd pi. they take tis for an. 

Thus, ^ cl. 3, ' to give,' makes addm, adds, addt, addva, &c. ; 3rd pL adrng, see 
663. So also, Vr cl. 3, ' to place,' makes adhdm, &c., 664 ; and 91? cl. i, ' to stand,' 
makes asthdm, &c., 587. 

a. Similarly, ^cl. I, ' to be,' except ist sing, and 3rd pL (^T^}?nv, ^i^^^, ^^'^U^.y 
ll^Jjr, &c. ; but 3rd pi. W*},^, see 585). 

b. Observe, however, that some roots in d, like yd, 'to go,' follow 433. 

c. And some roots in ^ e and ij^ 0, which follow 433, optionally follow 438 ; in 
which case e and are changed as before to dj thus, ^dhe, cl. i, 'to drink,' makes 
either adhdsisham Sec, or adhdm &c., also adadham, see 440. ay ^ so, cl. 4, 'to 
come to an end,' makes either asdsisham or asdm, see 613. 

d. In the Atmane-pada, roots like ^, ^, ^Hl, ^9^9^ follow 431. d, 

e. ^ 'to go' makes its Aorist from a root TT; thus, agdm, affds. Sec, 

Note — Adaddm, Impf. of c2tf, 'to give,' bears the same relation to its Aor. addm 
that eiiiw does to eScuy. So also the relation of adhdm (Aor. of dhd, 'to place') 
to adadhdm (Impf.) corresponds to that of (Oriv to eriBvpf, Of. also abhavas and 
abhiis with €0t;f ^ and €0vf . 

439. Certain roots ending in 91 i, '^ «A, v h, enclosing a medial », 
Uy or ft, form their Aorists according to form II at 435; but 
whenever concision is likely to arise between the Imperfect and 
Aorist, » is prefixed to the terminations, before which sibilant the 
final of the root becomes * by 30a and 306. 

Thus, fi^' to point out,' the Impf. of which is ^vf^^l^H^, makes ^llS(^|^ Ac ia 
Aor. (cf. Gr. ist Aor. eSe/f a). Similarly, ff^ d. 2, ' to hate,' makes Mdmktkam 
&c., 657 ; ^ cl. 2, ' to milk,' makes ^I^^BV* adhuksham Sec, by 306. a. See 660. 

a. This class of roots substitutes t for e, and dthdm, dtdm, for ethdm, eidm, in 



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VERBS. — PRECATIVE, FORMATION OP STEM. 193 

Atmane tennmations ; thus, adikshi, adikshathds, adikshata, adikshdvahi, adikshd- 
tkdm, Sec. ; 3rd pi. adikshanta. 

b, A few roots in T A (viz. f?J^> fi^Tj ^5 J^) optionally in the Atmane regeot 
the initial a from the terminations of the 2nd and 3rd sing., ist du., and 2nd pi. ; 
thus, f^ may make ^rf^f^y wAS'l^y ^RcAv; Du. i.^rfc?3ff^; PI. 2. ll?jl^, 
661 : and g^ *to milk/ ll^ftf, ^fJ'W^, &c. See 661, 659, 609, 660. 

c. According to some authorities, a few roots (e. g. "^^ ^^ ^^ which gene- 
rally follow form I, A, in Atmane, may optionaUy conform to form II, taking the 
terminations t; dthdm, dtdm, rejecting initial a and d from the other terminations, 
and taking ata for anta : thus, a^ftpt, atiipthds, atfipta, atfipvaki, &c, 

440. Causal verbs and verbs of cl. 10 make use of form II, but 
the stem assumes both reduplication and augment (as in the Greek 
Pluperfect); thus, ^cl. i, *to know/ makes in the Causal Aorist 
nyjVi^, &c. This will be explained at 492. 

a. A few Primitive verbs besides those of cl. 10 take a reduplicated 
stem, analogous to Causals (see 492). 

Thus, ffl 'to resort to' makes fl PyfanH^ &c; f« 'to swell' makes ^ fiMpMHH^ 
(also IMR^ and IT^rfiniH, see 432, 437. 6) ; "^ cL i, * to run,' ^J|^; ^ ' to flow,' 
^^^^H; % ' to drink,' H^V^; W^ * to love,' H^'K^, &c. This last is defective 
when it belongs to cl. 1, having no Special tenses ; but when it belongs to cl. 10 
(Pres. Vnky &c.) its Aorist is ^l^ftw^. 

441. The following Primitive verbs take a contracted form of reduplicated stem : 
^^cL 2, *to speak,' makes *l<ft^*f^,at>o^am (from VTT^n^for ^WW^W 650); ^HT^ 
cL I, * to fell,' innw (from VMMd^; compare Gr. ariirrov) ; ^IT^cl. 2, 'to rule,' 
V%^(from VfJ(r^R|l^» but the Atmane follows 427; see 658); H^ d. 4, 'to 
throw,' Vitn^ (from fimw^, contracted into HIMIH^for WrWl^304.a, whence by 
transposition ^WTO^^) ; «!?l cl. 4, * to perish,' ^^^^(^(from IW'T^V^^for IRftW^). 
See 620, 436. 

Precative or Benedictive. 
Terminations of Precative repeated from 246. 

Atmanb. 
stvahi aimahi 

sfydsthdm stdhvam or s(4hvam 
siydstdm stran 

442. The terminations of this tense resemble those of the Potential in the scheme 
at 245. In 2nd and 3rd sing, they are identical. In the other persons of the 
Parasmai a sibilant is inserted, and in some of the Atmane, both prefixed and 
inserted. In 2nd pi. Atm. tCfkvam is used for Mhvam when immediately preceded 
by any other vowel but a or d^ and optionally isk(4hvam for isMdhvam when imme- 
diately preceded by a semivowel or k. The only difference between the Potential 

C C 





Parasmai. 




ydsam 


ydtva ydsma 


siya 


yds 


ydsiam ydsta 


sUhthds 


ydt 


ydsidm ydsus 


sUhfa 



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194 VEBBS. — PEECATIVB. FORMATION OF STEM. 

and Precative of verbs of the and and 3rd groups, at 290, will often be that the 
Potential will have the conjugational characteristic; thua, bkid, cl. 7> ^to break,' 
will be bhindydt in Pot., and bMdydt in Preo. (Ck>mpare the Optative of the Gr. 
Aor. iotriv with Optative of the Present hioiriv.) 

443. Rule for forming the stem in verbs of the first nine classes. 

In Parasmajy as a general rule, either leave the root unchanged 
before the y of the terminations, or make such changes as are 
required in the Passive (see 465—472), or by the conjugational rule 
of the 4th class, and never insert f . 

In Atmane, as a general rule, prefix i to the terminations in those 
roots ending in consonants or vowels which take f in the Futures 
(see 392, 399), and before this i gunate the radical vowel. Gunate it 
also in the Atmane in some roots ending in vowels which reject i : 
but if a root end in a consonant^ and r^ect i, the radical vowel is 
generally left unchanged in the Atmane, as weU as Parasmai. 

444. Thus, from ^cl. I, 'to be/ come the stem of the Parasmu bM, and the 
stem of the Xtmane bhavi, by 36.0 {bhu + ydsam = ^Mi<i«i &c,, bhavi-^-sfya:^ 
HPrt^ll by 70). 

445. Frequently, as already observed, before the y of the 
Parasmai terminations, the root is liable to changes analogous to 
those which take place before the y of cl. 4 at 272, and the y of 
Passive verbs at 465 ; and not unfirequently it undergoes changes 
similar to those of the Perfect at 373, &c., as follows : — 

446. A final Vr (f is changed to ^ e in Par., but remains unchanged in Atm., 
as before the $ of the and Future terminations; thus, ^cl. 3, 'to give,' makes 
^^III*^ &c. for Par., but ^T^^ &c. for Atm. ; ^ ' to drink ' makes ^^IH*^ Ac. 

a. But Hn ' to become old' makes HI^IH'^ &c., and ^(V{[l ' to be poor ' drops 
its final even in Parasmw (^ftjIIH*^, ^(Xfijifl^, &c.) Ck>mpare 390. c. 

447. Final 1( • and V « are lengthened in Par., as before the y of Passives, and 
gunated in Atm., as before the s of the 2nd Future ; thus, fw ' to gather' makes 
^HIW^ &c., ^h\m &c. ; and J * to sacrifice ' makes fTOH^ &c., IfWhl &c. 

a. When ^ 'to go' is preceded by a preposition, it is not lengthened (^m4l<^ 
&c.; otherwise ^Miti*J^). 

b, ^^Vt and ^^ drop their finals as at 390. c (^P^^Ih &c.) 

448. Final ^ ft is changed to f^n in Parasmai, but retained in Atmane; thus, 
^ 'to do' makes flKmV^ &c., and ^pfhv &c. After a double consonant r« is 
gunated in Parasmai, as well as before inserted t^- thus, ^ 'to spread' mak« 

w^Tini^&c, ^41 <i &c., or ierfidrt^ &o. 

a. It is also gunated in^n» 'to go,' and 1|P{ 'to awake' (wStV^, «iMi4i.tiii^, &€.) 

b. ^ 'to cover,' 'to choose,' makes flTOin^or ^^Sw^, ^\^ or ^ft^ or ^j(h« 



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VERBS. — PRECATIVB. P0RMAa?ION OP StBM. 195' 

449. Fintl ^ K is changed to ^ tr in both voices, but i^ ganated before 
inserted i in Atmane; thus, l^cl. i, 'to cross,' makes iMlTPf &c,, lrt<ff^&o., or 
irfbrt^ &c., or ITTfWhl &c. 

a. One root, ^d. 10, ' to M,' makes ^(^HH? &c. Compare 448. a, 

450. Of roots in ^ tf, ^ * to drink ' makes V^n^&o. (which is also ttie Precative 
of ^'to hold'); ^ * to protect,' ^^ITPj^. 

a. But 3^ 'to call' makes ^^Tra^&c.^ and J|l^^ &c.; ^ 'to cover' makes 
4l<«i««^&c., and 'mifhl &c. ; and ^ * to weave' makes WIl^&c., and ^iWIm &c. 
Compare 465. c. 

451. Final % ai and Vto are often treated like final d at 446; thus *i 'to sing' 
makes ^Hlfin^^&c. 5 « * to waste' and ^ 'to destroy* make irtW^; ^ ' to cut,' 
like ^ * to give ' and ^ * to protect,' makes ^^fPEW. BUt sometimes they are changed 
to d; thus, ^' to preserve' makes ciitil«< &c. ; ^ 'to purify* makes ^tAiti*^; w 
' to think ' either IqiHiti^ or WIW|^; *I * *^ ^® weary ' either «niHiti«i^or ^Miti«^. 

452. As abready stated, if a root end in a consonant, there is no change in 
Parasmai, except the usual changes before y ; moreover, unlike the 2nd Future^ 
there b no Gu^ in Atmane, unless the root take i ; the other changes in Atmane 
are similar to those applicable before the s of the 2nd Future terminations (390. 0) ; 
thus, W 'to milk' makes JW^W &c., and ^^m &c., by 306. a; flP^* to hate' 
makes OfVllH^&c., and IV qf*)^ &c., by 30a ; and ^^' to know' makes 'JWItil*! 
Ac, and ''ftfWH &c. See 443. 

ff. Roots of the loth class, however, retain Gu^a in Par., as well as in Atm., 
rejecting the coigugational ay a in Par. only ; see under Causals (495). 

453. According to the usual changes in cl. 4 and in Passives, roots ending in a 
double consonant, of which the first member b a nasal, generally reject the nasal ; 
thus^ H9 bhanj, cl. 7, makes bhajydsam, &c. Compare 469. 

a. So again, according to 472, 9f: ' to take' makes in Par. ^HT^VT^&c. ; Vn^ ' to 
ask,'^«^nw&c.; Vre^'tofry,' ^JlilTT^ (63a) ; W^'to cut,' 'J«ira^(636); 
^*to pierce,' fWHI^; '^^'to deceive,' fWHTH^; ^(rR( 'to teach/ f^pin^ 
&c. In the Atmane they are regular, 

b. So again, ^t and 7 u before r and v are lengthened; thus> ^^'to sound' 
makes ^;^^; and fif^'to play,' <^^l^*l^- Compare 466. 

454. ^Bf^'to speak,' VIZ 'to say,' ^*to sow,' ^f^'to wi8h,'^'to dwell,' ^ 
'to carry,' and ^f^'to sleep,' substitute Tu for ^ ra in Par., and ^n^' to sacrifice' 
substitutes i for ya ; thus, f^lH^^, ^«^i^, ^i^HW, &c. ; cf. 471 . In the Atmane 
they are regular ; as, ^Wfht from ^ ; 4^^ firom IH^. 

a, 1|5^, >BH, and ?R^ conform to 470 ; thus, »i*«iitk'(^or ^fWHW &c. ; cf. 424* c. 

Observe — ^In addition to these rules^ the other special changes 
which take place before the $ of the 2nd Future terminationff, 
noted at 390 and 390, Oj-o, will apply to the Atmane of the Preca-* 
tfre ; thus, ^ or ^ at 390 makes ^iftl? or ^jWNT; «^ at 390. ff. 

c c 2 



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196 YBBBS. — INFINITIVE. FORMATION OF STEM. 

makes >snf\^ or HT^; w^ at 390. /. makes ^mHiiflil or ^rfififN ; and 
^may be yimnf or nhlTOT^even in Parasmai. 

CondiiionaL 
Terminations of Conditional repeated firom 246. 





Parasmai. 






Atmane. 




syam 


sydva 


sydma 


sye 


sydvahi 


sydmahi 


syas 


syatam 


syata 


syathds 


syethdm 


syadhvam 


9yat 


syatdm 


syan 


syata 


syetdm 


syanta 



455. Observe, that this tense bears the same relation to the and Future that the 
Imperfect does to the Present. In its form it is half an Imperfect, half a 2nd 
Future. It resembles the Imperfect in prefixing the augment W a to the stem 
(see 351), and in the latter part of its terminations : it resembles the and Future 
in the first part of its terminations in gunating the radical vo\^eI, in inserting 
1[ i in exactly those roots in which the Future inserts i, and in the other changes 
of the stem. 

456. The Conditional is most easily formed from the 2nd Future 
(388-415) by prefixing the augment a and changing sydmi (shydmi) 
into syam {shy am) ; e. g. karishydmi, akarishyam. 

457. Thus, ^^ cl. I, *to know,' makes VrtftlHl^ &c.; §^ *to milk' makes 
'BVivSJI*^ &c. (see 414 and 306. a); ft^'to hate,' ^llf^^HI &c. (see 412); ^ 'to 
conceal,' WjRsi*j[^or 1IM1v!*I«(^(4I5. m); iRi^'to be immersed,' W^^fPI (390. k), 

a. The augment will be prefixed to roots beginning with vowels according to the 
rules given at 351 ; thus, "'SRJ ' to cover' makes wJ^r^P^or w^ftfinW, cf. 390. b. 

b, \'io go,' with irfv prefixed (meaning *to read'), may optionally form its 
Conditional firom the root IT (wW or IWll^, see 421. e). 

Infinitive. 

458. The termination of the Infinitive is '^tum ( = the tum of the 
Latin Supine). It is used as a verbal noun with the force of 
the accusative or dative case. 

Obs. — ^The suffix turn is probably the accusative of the suffix tu (see 82. VIII), 
of which other cases are used as Infinitives in the Veda. 

459. Rule for forming the stem in verbs of the ten classes. 

The stem of the Infinitive is identical with the stem of the First 
Future, and where one inserts ^ t, the other does also ; thus, budh, 
cl. I, * to know/ makes ^"WvjiT bodhitum ; fnf^ ^Atp, cl. 6, ' to throw/ 
makes "if^ ksheptum. Moreover, all the rules for the change of the 
root before the / of the Future terminations apply equally before the 



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PASSIVE VERBS. — FOEMATION OP STEM. 197 

t of the Infinitive. Hence, by substituting um for the final a of the 
3rd pers. sing, of the ist Future, the Infinitive is at once obtained. 

Thus, ^rasr, m^^i iw> wp^; 'sft^, ^iVj'^^; ^n^rftnn, v^rftri'r. So also, g^ 

makes ^tr^; ^, ft^^or "jt^or "^tfiEliT ; f^, ff^J*!. See 388-415. 

a. In the Veda, Infinitives are abo formed hy the sufiftxes 1f%, 1R, ift^, ^, %, 
HH, WR, ^IP^, F, %, ^B^, which are really cases of verbal nouns (see 867. a. b). 

b. The following examples will' shew how remarkably the Sanskrit Infinitive 
answers to the Latin Supine. S. mi^H * to stand/ L. sfatwn j S. ^^Tf^ ' to give/ 
l^ datum ; S. MIJ*! ' to drink,' L. potum ; S. F^ ' to go/ L. itum : S. ^T^f ' to 
strew/ L. stratum; S. ^^•^ *to anoint/ L. unctumj S. "ifftTJ'^'to beget/ 
L. ^enitum; S. ^rftfJH *to sound/ L. sonitumj S. TlgW *to go/ L. serptum: 
S. ^ftfji^ 'to vomit,' L. vomitum, 

DERIVATIVE VERBS. 

460. Having explained the formation of the verbal stem in the ten 
classes of Primitive verbs^ we come next to the four kinds of Deriva- 
tive verbsy viz. Passives, Causals, Desideratives^ and Frequentatives. 

PASSIVE VERBS. 

461. Every root in every one of the ten classes may take a Passive 
form, conjugated as an ^tmane-pada verb of cl. 4, the only difference 
being in the accent, which in Passives falls on the inserted ya, whereas 
in the Atmane of Primitive verbs of cl. 4, it falls on the radical 
syllable. 

a. It has abready been remarked, that the Passive may be regarded as a distinct 
derivative from the root^ formed on one invariable principle, without any necessary 
community with the conjugational structure of the Active verb. Thus the root 
bkid, d. 7, *to divide,* makes bhinatti or bhintte, *he divides/ dvish, cl. 2, 'to 
hate,' makes dveshfi or dvishfe, * he hates / but the Passive of both is formed 
according to one invariable rule, by the simple insertion of ya, without reference 
to the conjugational form of the Active ; thus, bMdyate, ' he is divided / dvishyate, 
' he is hated.' See 243. a, 

b. In fact, a Passive verb is really nothing but a root conjugated according to 
the rule for cl. 4 restricted to the Atmane-pada : and to say that every root may 
take a Passive form, is to say that roots of classes i, 3, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 
may all belong to cl. 4, when they receive a Passive sense : so that if a root be 
already of cl. 4, its Passive is frequently identical in form with its own Atmane- 
pada (the only difference being in the accent). 

e. It might even be suspected, that the occasional assumption of an Intransitive 
signification and a Parasmai-pada inflexion by a Passive verb, was the cause which 
gave rise to a 4th class of Primitive verbs as distinct from the Passive. Instances 



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1^8 PASBIVB VBBBB. — ^PCmMATION OF STBM. 

Bite certainly found of PassiTe verbs taking Parasmax-^pada terminations, and some 
Passive verbs (e. g.jdyniie, *he is bom,' fir. rt, jaw j p4ryate^ *he is filled/ fr.pjrij 
and tapyate, ' he is heated,' fir. tap) are regarded by native grammarians as Atmaiie 
verbs of cl. 4 *. Agun, many roots appear in class 4 as Intransitive verbs, which 
also appear in some one of the other nine as Transitive. For example, yii;, ' to 
join/ when used in a Transitive sense, is conjugated either in cl. 7, or in l^e 
Causal; when in an Intransitive, in cl. 4. So also, push, 'to nourish/ ksluibh, 
*to agitate/ klU, *to vex/ sidh, 'to accomplish f.' 

rf. There are said to be three kinds of Passive verbs, 

I. The Passive, properly so called {karman); as, firom ^9 ^[1^ 'he is struck' 
(i. e. 'by another'), where the verb implies that the person or thing spoken of 
suffers some action firom another person or thing ; e. g. Wl^ni ^l^Tn ^^l * rice is 
cooked by me/ 

II. An Impersonal Passive {bkdoa), generally formed firom an Intransitive verb, 
and only occurring in the 3rd singular; TRTn 'it is gone;' ♦[«« ' it is danced;' 
^9Wn ' it is cooked ' or ' cooking gees on,' where the verb itself implies neither person 
nor thing as either acting or suffering, but simply expresses a state or conditioii. 

UI. A Reiexive Passive {karma-kartri^ 'object-agent' or ' object-containing- 
agent'), where there is no object as distinct firom the subject of the verb, or, in 
other words, where the subject is botii agent and object, as in ^iq«i; H-^n 'rice 
is cooked;' B i||«in 'he is bom,' &c. In these latter, if a vowel immediately 
precedes the characteristic y, the accent may fidl on the radical syllable, as in d. 4. 
They may also, in some cases, make use of the Atmane-pada of the Active, and 
drop the y altogether ;' thus to express 'he is adorned by himself,' it would be 
right to use >f^ ' he adorns himself.' 

Obs. — ^According to Pd^ini the Passive verb is merely an Atmane verb witii ihe 
Vikara^a yak in the four tenses, and karman merely expresses one idea of the 
Passive. The object is expressed by the termination of the Passive in such a case 
as ' the house is built by me,' where the object of the agent me,, viz. house, is 
expressed by the terminations of the Passive. But no agent might be mentioned, 
as simply ' the house is built,' in which case it would be a bhdvOf not a karman, 

462. Passive verbs take the regular Atmane-pada terminations at 
346^ making nse of the substitutions required in cL 4. 

In the Aorist they take either the A or B terminations of form I at 418, according 
as the root may admit the inserted ^ » or not ; but they require that in 3rd sing, 
of both forms the termination be ^ t in place of sta and ishta (see 475). 

* The Passive not unfirequently takes the terminations of the Parasmu-pada in 
Epic poetry; e. g. 6hidyet for 6hidyeta, 'it may be cut;' mokshyasi for mokshyase, 
' thou shalt be liberated ;' adfiiyaty ' he was seen.' 

t The forms given for the Aorists of such verbs as pad, 'to go,' hudk, 'to 
know ' (which are said to be Atmane verbs of cl. 4), could only belong to Passive 
verbs. The forms given by Westergaard are, apdd&, abodhi. See 475. 



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PAfiSIYE YBSBS. — ^FORMATION OF STBK. 199 

Special Tenses, 

463. Rule for the formation of the stem in the four Special tenses, 
Atmane-pada, of roots of the first nine classes. 

AflSx m ya* — lengthened U}iiC[yd before initial m and t; — ^to the 
rooty the vowel of which is not gunated, and often remains unchanged. 
(Compare the rule for cl. 4 at 249 and 272.) 

464. Thus, from ^oL i, ' to be,' comes the stem ^ hkuiyu (Fires. 5Xifya+t=^, 
hk6ifa'^$e=^^!iky kcr, Impf. a5At^a+t=ll^, &c.; Pot. bMya^4ya=:^^PBi^ &c. ; 
Impv. 5A»ya+at=^» &c.); from 1^ cl. 6, 'to strike/ oomes tudya (Pies, tudya 

+f =fi^, &c.) 

465. The root, however, often midergoes changes, which are generaUj uuJogoiis 
to those of cL 4 and the Precattve Parasmai-pada (see 275 and 445); but a final d 
is not changed to e as in the Precative. 

Six roots in Vr <^, and o^e or two in ^ e, ^ at, and wt 0, change their final 
vowels to f <: thus, 5|^ *to give,' ^ *to protect/ and !^ 'to cut/ make Pres. ?^, 
^f|l|i>, ^^^^, &c. So also, VT* to place' (3rd smg.^hTW); ^m ' to stand/ IT ' to 
measure/ ^ 'to drink,' and ^ 'to quit/ ^ 'to drink* (3rd sing. V^H^, &c.); 
n 'to sbg' (*it^n) ; Tit 'to destroy' (t(Nw). 

Obs. I. ^ cl. 3, 'to bind,' makes ^Hn, as it is not a ghu and does not come 
under Pd^. vi. 4, 66. 

Obs. 2. 1^ ' to go ' {phdn) makes hdyate, though ^ * to quit ' {ohdk) makes My ate. 

a. But other roots mWJd remain unchanged ; and most others in at and are 
changed to dj thus, mT 'to tell' makes 3rd sing. Himh ; and 9T 'to know/ 
Vnn^; HI 'to protect,' Ht^i); w ' to meditate/ VITOf ; ^ 'to sharpen/ ^fpfk. 

b. ^ftj[T, IfWt, and ^'ft drop their final vowels as at 390. c (^ft]Ha> ?(hRi^, 
&c.); and mi 'to become old' makes i. *l1^n. Cf. 446. a. 

c. ^ 'to call,' % 'to weave/ ^ 'to cover,' make their stems J^, Wf, and '^ff^ 
(3rd sing. 1^)* Compere 450. a. 

466. mnal ^ » or V 11 are lengthened, as also a medial » or « before v or r ; thus, 
from fif, 5, ^^\9 ^» come ifhr, f^, ^'■l, '^. See 447 and 453. b. 

a. But fv *to swell' makes 3rd sing. ^5" > and ^ 'to lie down,' ^«ia. 

467. Fmal '^ r» becomes ft rt, but if preceded by a double consonant is gunated ; 
tiius, ^ makes 3. fllili ; ^, fiRa ; but ^, Vf5i^. Cf. 448. 

a. The roots ^ (3rd sing. nW) and HT^ are also gunated. Cf. 448. a. 

468. Fmal ''^K becomes ^^; thus, ^ 'to scatter' makes 3. *lW ; but ^*to 
fill,' ^[^* See 449 and 449. a. 

* This ya is probably derived from ydj ' to go,' just as the Causal aya is derived 
firom t, 'to go.' It is oeriun that in BengHH and Hindi the Passive is fonned 
with the root ycf. Cf. Latin oma/iMi «rt, &c. See 481. 



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200 PASSIVE VEBBS.— FORMATION OP STEM. 

469. Ropts ending in a double consonant^ of which the first is a nasal, usually 
reject the nasal; as, from W^, ^Bf^T, ?l^, come the stems ^m, &c. (W*i, &c.) 

a. The roots at 390. 1, carry their peculiarities into the Passive (^H^ or ^EVV^y 
^'inf or 'iIhi*!!*, f^^Wn or ftratTOW, ^M or '^Hl^in). 

470. Hf^ *to produce,' W^ 'to dig,' K^ 'to stretch,' ?R^ 'to give,' optionally 
reject the final nasal, and lengthen the preceding aj thus, IfTQW or H»<ln, &c. 

471. ^Tt 'to speak,' ^ *to say,' ^'to sow,' 'Tl^'to wish,' ^' to dwell,' ^ 
' to bear,' ^T^' to sleep,' ^iH^ ' to sacrifice,' change the semivowels ^> '^ into their 
corresponding vowels and accordingly make their stems H^, 7V> 7«Vy '^pt, 
"^> ^^9 ^T'y ^^ respectively, (9^), &c.) 

Obs. — ^This change of a semivowel into its corresponding vowel is technically 
called Sampras^pa. 

473. Similarly, ITf 'to take,' W^ 'to ask,' OTI^'to f^,' iq^* to deceive,' H[^*to 
pierce,' W^'to cut,' make their stems ^IT, ^^8N> ^JWT, fil^, ftW, ^Vf respec- 
tively, (^Hw, &c.) 

a, ^ 'to reason ' shortens its vowel after prepositions (91fn ; otherwise ^Rfli)). 

b, ^n{^ forms its Passive from ^; ^ ftt)m ^; fj^ ftt)m ^l l|^from ^[^; 
and ^V from IffT. 

c, ^n^ 'to rule' makes its Passive stem f^^. 

General Tenses, — Perfect of Passives. 

473. The stem of thb tense in the Passive verb is identical with that of all 
Primitive verbs, in all ten classes. The stems, therefore, as formed at 364-384, 
will serve equally well for the Perfect of the Passive, provided only that they 
be restricted to the Atmane-pada inflexion ; thus, ^^> ^^> &c. 

a. When the Periphrastic Perfect has to be employed (see 385) the auxiliaries 
^ra and ^may be used in the Atmane, as well as ^. Compare 385. 6. 

First and Second Future of Passives. 

474. In these and the remaining tenses no variation generally occurs horn the 
stems of the same tenses in the Primitive, Atmane, unless the root end in a voweL 
In that case the insertion of ^» may take place in the Passive, although prohibited 
in the Primitive, provided the final vowel of the root be first vriddhied ; thus, horn 
fv Ht cl. 5, 'to gather,' may come the stem of the ist and and Put. Pass. 6dif% 
{6dyitdke &c., 6dyi$hye &c.), although the stem of the same tenses in the Primitive 
is 6e {6etdhe &c., deskye See.) Similarly, from J kn and ^ kfi may come hdm and 
kdri {hdvitdhe, hdritdke), although the stems in the Primitive are ho and har. 

a. In like nianner ^» may be inserted when the root ends in long ITT <^ or in ^ «, 
%at, ^0, changeable to VT(£, provided that, instead of Vpddhi (which is impossible), 
y be interposed between the final d and inserted t ; thus, from ^ d(f, 'to give,' may 
come the stem of the Put. Pass, ddyi {ddyitdhe Sec), although the stem of the same 
tenses in the Primitive is dd {ddtdhe &c.); from % hve, 'to call,' may come kvdyi 



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PASSIVE VBBBS. — FOBMATIOK OF STEM. 201 

(Sflf^nnV &o.), although the stem in the Primitive ia hvd. But in all these cases 
the 8tei9 of the Primitive may be taken for that of the Passive, so that detdhe or 
edifitdke may equally stand for the ist Put. Pass. ; and similarly with the others. 

h. In the case of roots ending in consonants^ the stem of the two Futures in the 
Passive will be identical with that of the same tenses in the Primitive verb, the in- 
flexion being that of ^a» Atmane. Ip^ ' to see/ however, in the Passive, may b^ 
^nvni^> ^fjM*** as well as '^[Vl^y ^{[^9 and ^S^ * to kill' may be Mlftf HI?, ^TTftf^ 
as wdl as l^^llf , ^fi^; and Jf^ ' to take' may be UI^WT^y 9rf)p^, as well as 

c. In verbs of cl. 10 and Causals, deviation from the Atmane form ci the Primi- 
tive may take place in these and the succeeding tenses. See 496. 

Aoriit 0/ Passives. 

475. In this tense, also, variaition from the Primitive may oeour when the root 
ends in a vowd. For in that case the insertion of ^ t may take plaee, alUiougk 
forbidden in the Primitive vc^b, provided the final of the root be vriddhied ; thus, 
from fv 6i may come the stem of the A.or. Pass. a6dyi (a6dyi8hi.tce., 4J7), althougk 
tiie stem in the Atmane of the Primitive is a6e (a^ski &c., 420). So also, from 
J hu and ^ kjri may come ahdvi and akdri {ahdvishi, akdrishi, 427), al&ough th^ 
stems in the Atmane of the Primitive are aho and akfi {ahoski, akfishi, 420). Agun, 
t may be inserted when the root ends in long W (f, or in )? e, % at, ^ 0, changeable 
to in <^ provided that y be interposed between final d and inserted t; thus, from ^ 

* to give,' ^ ' to protect,' ^ ' to purify,* ^ ' to cut,' may come addyi {addyishi &c.), 
although the stems in the Atmane of the Primitives are difPerent (as adishi Sec) 
But in an these cases it is permitted to take the stem of the Primitive for that of 
the Ptesive (so tiiat tiie Pasmve of 6i may be either a6dyi9ki or a6e$hi\ except in the 
yd per$, ting,, where the tenninaitions ishfa and sta being rejected, the stem, as 
farmed by Vfiddhi and the inserted i, must stand alone; thus, a6dyi, *it was 
gftthered;' ahdvi, 'it was sacrificed;' akdri, 'it was done;' addyi, ' it was givmi,* 

* protected,' 'purified,' ' cut.' 

tf . Sometimes the usual form of the Aoiist Atmane is employed tiuroughoot (see 
461. IIl)« This is the case whenever the sense is that of a Reflexive Passive, not of 
the real Passive; thus, W(l ' to teU' in the 3Td sing. Aor. Pass, is ITlVTftT, but in 
the sense of a Reflexive Passive-H^V ; ftr ' to resort to ' makes ist sing. Aor. Pass. 
Wfilf^^ but Reflexive irf^fVR; and H^'to love' makes 3rd sing. Aor. Pass. 
ll*r*l or Wllfif, but Reflexive H^VI. 

b. If the root end in a conionant, the stem of the Aorist Passive will always be 
identical with that of the Atmane of the Primitive, except in the 3rd sing., where 
^ f being substituted for the terminations ish^a and sta of form I at 418, generally 
requires before it the lengthening of a medial a (if not already long by position), 
mnd the Gfufui of any other short medial vowel*. Hence, from ton, 'to stretch,' 

* A medial vowd, long by nature or position, remains unchanged (by aS), and 
in one or two cases even a short vowel; as, akmi for aidm, 

Dd 



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202 PASSIVE VBBBS. — ^FORMATION OF STEM. 

18t> 2nd, and ^d sing, ataniiki^ ataniskthds, aidm; from Uhip, 'to thiOw/ ak$hip», 
akskipthds, akshepij from vid/ to know/ avedishi, aoedishthdiy aoedi, &c. 

o. The lengthening of a medial a, however, is by no means universal; and thera 
are other exceptions in the 3rd sing., as follows ; — 

Nearly all roots ending in am forbid the lengthening of the vowel in the 3rd sing. ; 
thus, VnfiT from T|li[' to walk;' ^H^ftl from Hp^ ' to bear;' H^ftl from ^'to 
.be cahn' (but in the sense of * to observe/ ^W^piftl). 

d. Similarly, WWfif from Y^and W^f^ from i|t(^. The former may optionally 
substitute Wff«Tfrom 1p^. 

e, ^f^BXkd 5f lengthen their vowels (Wflf^, IPjf?). 

/. The roots at 35)0. L will have two forms, ^OTrfH or WUCftl, M^ftN or ^'ilm^, 

^ftfW or nftfwrftr, &o. 

p. T?^'to perish,' ip^^'to yawn,' ^*to desire,' insert nasals (wtf^, ^Hfrf, 
^iJW). Similarly, H^ *to receive,' when it has a preposition (e.g. Ulc^W), 
and optionally when it has none (Hc^ftH or ^l?ITfW» Pd^. vii. i, 69). 

h. Hl^ ' to break' may drop its nasal, in which case the medial a is lengthened 
(V)l%orWITftr)* 

t. i[^ *to clothe' may either retain the e or change it to /or t (^^f* or wffk 
or Wlf^). 

j. \ to go ' substitutes IT} and optionally does so when adhi is prefixed in the 
sense of * to read ' (wu|inft| or WHlTftl). 

k, ^fl^'to blame' makes miffAl or Vrfft. 

Precative (or Benediciive) and Conditional 0/ Passives. 

476. In these tenses the same variation is permitted in the case of roots ending 
in vowels as in the Aorist; that is, the insertion of ^t is allowed, provided that, 
before it, Vfiddhi take place in a final vowel capable of such a change, and y be 
interposed after final dj thus, from f%dt may oome the stems <%t and a4dyi {6(fyi$hfya, 
a^fyiihye) ; from ^ hu, hdvi and ahdoi; from f kfi, kdri and akdrij from ^ dif, 
ddyi and addyi. But ^eskfya, a6e$hye, hoikfya, ahoskye, &c., the forms belonging 
to the Atmane of the Primitive verb, are equally admissible in the Passive. 

Passive Infinitive. 

477. There is no Passive Infinitive in Sanskrit distinct in form from the Active. 
The suffix turn, however, is capable of a Passive sense, when joined with certain 
verbs, especially with the Passive of ^P^ ^ak^ 'to be able.' It b also used passively, 
in connection with the Participles drabdha, niriipita, yvkta, &c. See Syntax, 869. 

Passive verbs from roots of the 10th class. 

478. In forming a Passive verb from roots of d. 10, although the oo^jugational 
Wl is rejected in the first four tenses, yet the other conjugational changes of the 
root are retamed before the suffix ya; thus, from ^ d. 10, 'to steal/ comes the 



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CAUSAL VBKBS. — FOKMATIOK OP STBM, 203 

stem iorya (^Jt^). In the Perfect VIT is retained (see 473. a), and in the other 
General tenses the stem may deviate from the Atmane form of the Primitive by 
the optional rcjectbn or assumption of WIT, especially in the Aorist. See Causal 
Passives at 496. 

CAUSAL YEBBS. 

479. Every root in every one of the ten classes may take a Causal 
form, which is conjugated as a verb of the loth class ; and which is 
not only employed to give a Causal sense to a Primitive verb, but 
also a Transitive sense to an Intransitive verb ; see 1289. 

Thus, the Primitive verh bodhati, * he knows' (from root budk^ cL i), becomes ia 
the Causal ifhnvfk bodkajfatiy * he causes to know/ * he informs ;' and the Intransi- 
tive verb kshubhyati, * he shakes/ ' is shaken' (from kMhubh^ cL 4), becomes if^^HlflC 
'he shakes' (transitively). 

a. This form may sometimes imply other analogous senses. 

Thus, kdrayati/hA allows to take/ mC/aya/t, 'he suffers to perish/ ahh%Bhe6a' 
yati, ' he permits himself to be inaugurated / kshamayati, ' he asks to be forgiven ;* 
Mfn^W^ VIWIH^ * allow yourself to be inaugurated.' 

Obs. — ^To say that every root may take a Causal form, is equivalent to sapng 
that roots of the first nine classes may all belong to the loth, when they take a 
Causal sense ; and that if a root be originally of the loth class, no distinct form 
for its Causal is necessary, the Primitive verb and the Causal being in that case 
identical (see 289). Possibly the occasional employment of a Causal verb in a 
Transitive, rather than a Causal sense, was the reason for creating a loth class of 
Primitive verbs. Certunly the subject of coi^ugation would be simplified if the 
addition of apa to the root were considered in all oases as the mark of a Causal 
verb ; especially as aya is not the sign of a separate coi^ugation, in the way of any 
6ther ooi^jugational Vikarapa (see 950. b) ; for it is retained in most of the other 
tenses ot the verb, not only in the first four, just as the Desiderative ish is retained. 

480. As to the terminations of Causal verbs, they are the same as 
those of the scheme at 246 ; and the same substitutions are required 
in the first four tenses as in classes i, 4, 6, and lo. 

Special Tenses. 

481. General rule for forming the stem in the four Special tenses 
of roots of the ten classes. 

If a root end in a vowel, vriddhi that vowel ; if in a consonant, 
gunate the radical vowel before all the terminations, and affix ^sn ay a * 

* * This may be derived firom root ^ t, ' to go,' just as the Passive ya is supposed 
to be derived from root y4« See 463, note *^ 

B d % 



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104 CAUSAL VERBS. — PORMATIOK OF STEM. 

(changeable to ayd before initial m and v^ but not befoi^ simple m) 
to the root so vriddhied or gunated 

483. Thus, from tft *to lead* comes the stem •THHTby 37 (Ptes. ndyayd-^mizs 
HIMmPn, ndyaya + si^^pmf^ &c.; Impf andyaya-^m^^RUTVpf^^ &c.; Pot. 
ndyaya + iyam z^ni^H*\ &c. ; Impv. 9ufyaya+(lnt=tTnnnf«f &c. Atm. Prcs. 
liifyaya+tz^rnR &0. In Epic poetiy a doub^l form Vfiq^mfM is found). Simi- 
larly, from ^ ' to lie down ' comes ^IHR ddyaya (^nPITf^ &c.) ; from ^6Aif, ' to 
be,* comes HT^lI bhdvaya (^n^raxftr &c.); and from ^ 'to do' and ^ *to scatter' 
the stem ^i<.M kdraya. 

But from ^* to know ' comes the gunated ^M^hodhaya (whniTfi!) ; and from 
)^cl. I, ' to creep,' the gunated ^RIT warpaya, 

Obs. — '^1^ to celebrate,' and other verbs of the lotb class, will take the changes 
already explidned at 285-289. 

483. Roots ending in Wf (f, or in ^ e, % crt, ^ 0, changeable to WT 1^ cannot be 
vriddhied, but frequently insert \p between the root and the suffix uyoi thus, ^ 
' to give,' ^ * to love,* and <^ ' to cut,' all make qiHMifn ddpaydmi, &c, ; M * to drink,' 
Vnnnftf dhdpaydm, &c. ; 5t * to sing,' f npnftl gdpaydnd, &c. See 484. 

a. So also other roots in d insert p, except ^ cl. i, to drink,' which inserts ^y 
(^innnftr &c.) ; and m cl. 2, ' to preserve,' which inserts c^ / (^lIcWTfil &c. ) ; and 
^ cl. 2, in the sense of * to agitate,' which inserts IV (^l^ljlfii &c.) 

b. So also other roots in at insert p, but most others in e and insert y; thus* 
7 ' to call* makes SfHRITftf &c. Similarly, % * to weave,' ^ * to put on.' ^ * to 
sharpen ' makes ^ll^llllll &c. Similarly, "^t * to cut,* ^ * to destroy.' 

484. "TT ' to know,' W or ^ ' to stew,' Wl * to bathe,' and ^ * to languish,' may 
optionally shorten the d, the last two only when not joined with prepositions; 

thus, iinnnftf &c., or ^r^nnfH &c. ; jnnnfH &c., or ipnnfii &c. (but with ^fc 

only, lyftijqinft). ^' to waste away' makes only ^nnnftf. 
' 485. Some roots in t, /, ft, also insert p, after changing the final vowel to ^«' 
thus, ftf *to conquer* makes HIMMlRl &o. Similarly, ft? 'to throw,* ift *to 
perish,' Tift ' to buy ' (linnnfir, TiHRTftf, &c.) 

a. f^V ' to smile ' makes WnmrS? &c., and TTTq^ &c. 

b. f^'to collect* has four forms ; i. ^HTOfif &c., 2. ^Wnft? Sec, 3. "'Illltllfil 
&c., 4. ^TO^nfif &c. ' 

c. ^ cl. 3, ' to fear,' has three forms ; i. HTWrfi? &c., 2. HHR &c., Atm. only, 
3. 4hR &c., Atm. only. 

d. ^ cl. 2, 'to go,' makes ^iMm|(^ &c., especially with the preposition irfW 
' over,' ^WnWrft? * I cause to go over,' * I teach.' 

e. Three roots ipsert n; cH cl. 4, 'to embrace,' 'to adhere,' making (with prep, 
ftf in the sense of 'to dissolve') -c«flH^lfM &c., as well as -»i^«fktli, -c^nnnfl?, 
and -cJlTWrftr &c. ; in some senses, however, <4IM'Ml5l only can be used : 4^ cl. 5^ 
*to please,' makes UlUfillRl (also Tirwrftf) ; and \c\. 5 and 9, * to shake,* ^pnnftf . 

- 486. 'ft cl. 3, * to be ashamed,' ^ * to flow,* ]S(t * to choose,* and ^ cL i, * to go,* 
insert p after gunation ; thus, RM««i(i| &c., V«hlTfH &o« 



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CAUSAL TEBBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 205 

a. ^Wt and ^^ and ^ftjT (see 390. c) drop their finals (^Iv^lftl, ^^nnflf , 
^ft^UTfi?, &c.) 

b. ITTJ ' to awake/ ^ in the sense of * to long for,' If cl. 4, ' to grow old,' ?f in the 
sense of 'to fear,' 1^ *to lead,' take Gu^a (HUKlllOl). But ^ * to tear,' ^fTCmftl. 

e. '^'to swallow' makes illimOl or 'IIM^lfH. 
- 487* Roots ending in single consonants, enclosing a medial ^ a, generally 
lengthen the aj thus, ^HV d. i, ' to cook,' makes ^HWinfii &o. There are, however, 
manj exceptions; thus, W^ 'to be sick,' il^ 'to hasten,' &c., do not lengthen 
the vowel. In 1V<^ ' to blase,' and some others, the lengthening is optional. 

a. Roots in m generally do not lengthen the a; thus, 'l^cl. i, 'to go,' makes 
^nnnflf &c. ; Hl^ 'to be weary,' HWItfil &c. Some, however, optionally do so ; 
as, in^ ' to bend,' &c. One or two always lengthen the a ; as, Wl^ ' to love ' makes 



b. The roots T^, If^, ^, and W\ (see 475-^) vOAert nasals (T'Wifif Ac.) 
488. Other anomalies. — ^^ 'to grow' makes OH^lflf or ^^HlfA; fP(or B 
'to sound,' lltM^lfH; 5^*to be corrupt^' |[^^nfiT; l«^*to kill,' Mlfflllfil; TO 
'to fiOl,' 'to perish,' imRlfiT; ^ 'to quiver,' fqffrmfiT or^qhwfi!; ^qw^ 
'to increase,' fmf i|lf)l ; "W^'to shake' as the earth, HPIMMlfH &c.; •p^'to 
rob,' urihnftf {390. j) ; 2f * *^ conceal,* 'JJ^^Tftl (390. «). 

a. The roots ^, ftr^, ^, ^, ^, ^^, at 390. 1, will have two forms 
pftVllftl or 'Amil^lfil dcc^, see 390. 1). 

b. A^'to be fini^ed' makes its Causal either VIMlllfll or, with reference to 
sacred rites^ihnn^; ^Ri^^ * to firy' either ^raRfflf or H^in6?; but the last form 
may be from )|1^« 

c. T^' to clothe' makes f^Wlftl; T9in the sense of * to hunt,' ^CWnftl- 
Obs^-^The Causal of verbs of d. 10 will be identical with the Primitive ; see 289. 

The Causak of Causals will also be identical with the Causals themselves. 

General Tenses. 

489. The changes of the root required to form the stem of the 
Special tenses are continued in the General. Moreover, aya is re- 
tained in all these tenses, except the Aorist and except the Precative, 
Parasmai ; but the last a of aya is dropped before the inserted ^ i, 
which is invariably assumed in all other General tenses. 

Perfect qf Causals. 

490. This tense must be of the Periphrastic form^ as explained at 
385; that is, ^r^dm added to the Causal stem is prefixed to the 
Perfect of one of the three auxiliary verbs, ^ * to be,^ ^' to be/ or if 
';to do;' thus, ^'to know' makes in Causal Perfect ^' ^HUl^mii or 



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206 CAUSAL VEBBS. — ^PORMATION OF STEM. 

ihfillll^ or "Whnnv^. IJi^ makes in Caus. Perf. 3rd pL TP<nnip{|: 
* they extinguished* (Raghu-v. vii. 45). 

First and Second Future of Causah. 

491. In these tenses the inserted ^ t is invariably assumed between 
the stem, as formed in the Special tenses, and the usual terminations ; 
thus, 5^ makes wtvftnnf^T &c., ^'iMrn^llft &c. 

Aorist of Causals and verbs of cl. io« 

492. The terminations are those of form II at 435. In the 
formation of the stem of this tense* the suffix ay is rejected ; but any 
other change that may take place in the Special tenses, such as the 
insertion of p or y, is preserved. The stem is a reduplicated form 
of this change, and to this reduplication the augment ^ a is prefixed. 

Thus, taking the stems hodhay K[\^jdpay (Causal stems ot budk, 'to know/ and 
ji, 'to conquer'), and rejecting ay, we have bodh and jd^; and firom these are 
formed the stems of the Aorist ab^udh and aj^ap (H^M'H abiibtMam &c, 
^1^3^ ab4budhe &c., inftll^ aj^apam Ac, ^rthf^ aj0<i^e &c., cf. the Greek 
Phiperfect). 

493. The rule for this reduplication is as follows: — ^The initial 
consonant of the root, with its vowel, is reduplicated, and the redu- 
plicated consonant follows the rules given at 252 ; but the redupli- 
cation of the vowel is peculiar. 

RedftpUcatum of the vowel of the initial consonant in the Causal Aorist^ 

a. Causal stems, after rejecting ay, will generaUj end in dy, do, dr, or a consonant 
preceded by a, d, e, 0, or or. The usual reduplicated vowel for all these, except o, 
is ^ t« But 7 » is reduplicated for 0, and sometimes also for dv. The rule is, that 
either the reduplicated or stem syllable most be long either by nature or position ; 
find in general the reduplicated vowel t or « is made long, and, to compensate for 
this, the long vowel of the Causal stem shortened, or, if it be Gupa, changed to its 
corresponding short vowel ; thus, the Causal stem ndy (from ^, rejecting ay) makes 
the stem of the Aorist aninay (^•iI«ih#^ an(nayain &c.) ; the Causal stem hhdn 
(from ^) makes aMhav {^n\n^9^ &o.) ; the Causal stem kdr (from ^), a6Ckar: 
gam (from 1^), ajigam; pd6 (from 1|^), ap(pa6: pdl (from V^), ap{pal; ved (from 
ft^), avMd. But bodh (from '^)j ahdbudh; and sdo (from ^), asdshan, 

b. Sometimes the reduplicated vowel is only long by position before two conso- 
nants, the radical vowel being still made short ; as, Mv (from ^) makes aMrao or 
oMrav: drdo (from 7), adudrav or adidravj WH^, abibhraj (sHao ababhr^), 

c. Sometimes the reiduplicated vowel remains short, whilst the vowel of the 
Causal stem, which must be long either by nature or position, remains unchanged ; 



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CAUSAL VBKBS. — FOBMATION OF STEM, 207 

thus, the Causal stem jio (firom ift^) may make ^l\in1«^ (also ^nAi^if^); 6mt^ 
u^6hU: ^a^, a6ikalp. In such cases a is generally reduplicated for a ot dj as, 
laksk makes alalakih; ydd, ayayd6; vart (from v^it), avavart^ &c. 

d. Obs. — If the stem has ar, dr, 4r^ al (from radical rt» K> or Ifi), these are either 
left unchanged or or, dr, ir may be changed to ^ ft» and altoHlfi: thus, vari 
{from ^) may make woivfit as well as avavarij ktrt (from '^) either lUikirt or 

e. The following are other examples, some of which are anomalous t from pd^ 
(Cans, of jN^ ' to drink '), H^NH^ &c. ; from sthdp (Cans, of sthd, ' to stand '), trfil- 
fkH«^&c.j from^^rip (Cans, ofghrd, 'to smeU')* wftlftRi^&c, and ^iftni^&c. ; 
from adhydp (Cans, of t/to go/ with adU), HUHflUMl^&c.; fit)m (fetAf (Cans, of 
^Af, * to make effort '), V^^fi^ or UPl^JI^; horn hvdy (Cans, of A»e, * to call'), 
"9?'^*^ or ^ngr^H; from tvar (Cans, of tvar, 'to hasten'), 1IAHK<I^; from stdr 
(Cans, of stji or stji, *to spread'), ^niHTS^ or wfiraf^; from ddr (Caus. of rff/, 
*to tear'), ^B^l^t^; from dyot (Caus. of dyi**, *to shine'), ^rf^np^J from iv<fy 
(Cans, of M, ^to swell'), V^IH^H ^' ''f^'^^H* fr^°^ '"^ (Caus. of smft, 'to 
remember'), llimii*^; from 9v<^ (Caus. of ^T^^'to sleep'), H^ill^; from katk 
(cl. ID, •to tell'), W^flW^ or W^1VI«^; from ^^(cl. lo, *to count'), ^nnnO«l[ 
or ^i l lni P *^ ; from pro^A (Caus. of M^'to spread'), irqir9>^. 

BedupUcaHon of an initial vowel in the Causal Aorist. 

494. Roots beginning with vowels, and ending with single consonants, form their 
Causal Aorists by a peculiar reduplication of the root (after rejecting ^n). The 
rule is that not only the initial vowel, as in the Perfect at 364. a, but the final 
consonant also be reduplicated. In fact, the whole root is doubled, as it would 
be if it began with a consonant, and ended with a vowel; the consonant is redu- 
phcated according to the rules at 953, but the second vowel is generally ^ t. 
This i (which probably results from a weakening of a) takes the place of the stem 
vowel, which then becomes the initial of the reduplicated syllable, and combines 
with the augment ^ a, according to 351. a; thus, 1^^ ' to infer' makes the stem of 
Hs Causal Aorist sHll^ t^'tA; and with ^ prefixed, Vmfl^ (wf^Tf^ * I caused to 
infer'). So also, V1^ cl. 5, ' to obtain,' makes ^iPmh^^ ' I caused to obtain ;' ^ 
d. a, *to praise,' makes ^fin^ *I caused to praise.' *Cf. Gr. and Aor. riyayov 
from oyw, and wpopov from opvt//A/. 

a. If a root end in a coi^unct consonant, the first member of which b a nasal 
or r, this nasal or r is rejected from the final, but not from the reduplicated letter ; 
thus, ^I^ * to be worthy' makes ^iMt'^ ' I caused to be worthy,' ' I honoured ;* 
so ^R^» Causal stem frt)m ^f^'to prosper,' makes HTffvC^ ' I caused to prosper;' 
imd ^9^ 'to moisten' makes iflrKJ^*^ * I caused to moisten.' 

b. But when the first member of the compound is any other letter, then the cor- 
responding consonant to this first member of the compound is reduplicated by 
353. e; thus, ^^*to see' makes ^PfUflj^atdiiUAam, ' I caused to see;' IT^'to go' 
makes ^VTfW^ 'I caused to go,' 



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208 CAUSAL VERBS. — FORMATION OP STEM. 

c. Roots consisting of a single vowel, form their Causal Aorists from the Causal 
stem (after rejecting ay a); thus, the root ^ ' to go ' makes its Causal stem arp^ * tq 
deliver over;' and its Causal Aorist Ulf^MH ' I caused to deliver.' 

d. ^9^ 'to cover' makes its Causal Aorist W^^^ ; ^P^ol. lo, ' to he blind/ 
VI^HH^; and IF^d. lo, 'to diminish/ w^PH^* 

e. When the consonant which follows the mitial vowel has another vowel after 
it, this vowel must appear in the reduplication ; thus, from V^Nt^d. lo, ' to des« 
pise/ comes tiie Acnnst Wl^iq^iil* 

Precative (or Benedictive) and Conditional of CausaU. 

495, The stem of the Causal Precative jd^tmane, and of the 
Causal Conditional in both voices, does not differ fix)m that of the 
General tenses ; but the last a of aya is dropped before the inserted 
^ iy which is always assumed. In the Precatiye Parasmai both 
aya and t are rejected, but any other change of the root is retained; 
thus, ^ * to know^ makes in Caus. Prec. bodhydsam &c., bodha* 
yishfya &c. ; in Cond., abodhayishyam &c.y abodhayishye &c. 

Infinitive of (Jausals. 
a. The Infinitive may be most easily formed firom the 3rd sing, 
ist Future, as explained at 459 ; thus, from ^ comes ij^Mf^Al ' he 
will cause to know/ ^Mfil}^ * to cause to know/ 

Passive of Causals. 

496. In forming a Passive verb from a Causal stem, the Causal 
suffix ^nr is rejected, but the other Causal changes of the root are 
retained before the Passive suffix ya. 

Thus, from Caus. stem ^TIPI pdtaya (from ^11^ 'to &11*) comes the Pass. IVTH 
pdtya, making ist sing. ^Iln ' I am made to frdl,' 3rd sing. Vjmi 'he is made to 
frJL' Similarly, ^n ' to stand' makes IWIM^ffl ' he causes to stand/ FTTBlw ' h« 
is caused to stand/ and 9^ 'to know' makes V^PlfV 'he causes to know/ and 
ipxHt 'he is caused to know/ 'he is informed.' 

a. In the General tenses, the stem of all the tenses, excepting the 
Perfect, may vary fit>m the Atmane form by the optional rcjectioa 
of the conjugational ^n. But in the Perfect, the Atmane of the 
usual form with dm and the auxiUaries (490, 385) is admitted foi^ 
the Passive. In the Aorist, the usual redupUcated form (492) gives 
place to the jd^tmane form which belongs to those verbs of the first 
nine classes which assume i. 



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DBSIDBRATIVE YEBBS. — FORMATION OP STEM^ 209 

Thus, from mw^f the Causal stem of ^ ' to be,' come the Passive Perfect 

ifm^rraiii or m^inmi> or nnnnfl^i? ; ist Fut. nnfinni or mf%in% ; and Fut. 

Hfffftro or HTfil^; Aor. WIWfilfTI or ^Wlf^ftl, 3rd sing. WItPi; Plpec. WT- 

ftrth? or HTftrthi ; Cond. iwrrftw or wnftn^. 

b. Similarly, frt>m ^V^Vl!, Causal stem of 'W^ ' to know,' come Passive Perfect 
wPnUTI &c. ' I have been caused to know;' ist Fut. ^fNftnn^ or WtftUfT^ &c. 
'I shall be caused to know;' and Fut. V^vfA^ or iftfv^ &c.; Aor. ^BHThlfilftl 
or ^nnfvftl * I have been caused to know,* a. ^Bnfhfftnn^ or vftftWT^, 
3. ^nftftl &c. 

c. So also, from ^m^9 Causal stem of ^P^'to cease,' come the Passive Perfect 
Vnmik 0^ ^iflllHI^ &o. ' I have been caused to cease,' &c. ; ist Fut. ^INflllll^ 
or ^firm^ ; and Fut. ^ifftw or ^jfli^ ; Aor. H^lfftlftl or IT^rfHftl, 3rd. smg. 
^^r«f; Prec. 7<rflNhT Sec: and the radical a may be optionally lengthened; 
thus, let Fut. ^Rfmn^ or jiwrnffl^ &c. 

d. So also, ^\nfk or Wf^lf^, 3rd sing. Aor., from Causal of ^. 

Obs. — Even T^, ^f^y li*^^ tmd some other roots which end in a double conso- 
nant, may optionally lengthen the medial a ; thus, Aor. 3rd sing. VTf^ or VClt^* 

Desiderative of Causals. 

497. When Causals and verbs of cl. 10 take a Desideratiye form 
(see 498), they retain ay^ and are all formed with iiha ; thus^ ^niRTfk 
^I cause to falP makes rqqmrqmfil 'I desire to cause to fall;' 
ijUMillDl * I cause to sleep' makes ^vqnvfwfN ^ I desire to cause to 
sleep ;' ^ cl. 10, * to steals' makes 'ytWwfi? * I wish to s;teal/ 

a. The Desiderative stem of the Causal of Wifty 'to go over,' is either HWrM- 
^iftWor^lfilfifnmftW; of the Causal of i| ' to call,' ^^nfMM (as if from IT^); 
of the Causal of ^ ' to know,' |jb9 (or regularly f^glMf^M or ftnnrfiR) ; of the. 
Causal of ^ ' to swell,' w^i^Pmh (or regularly f^^Wftni). 



DESIDERATIVE VBEBS. 
498. Every root in the ten classes may take a Desiderative form. 

a. Although this form of the root is not often used, in classical composition, in 
its chaxacter of a verb, yet nouns and participles derived from the Desiderative stem 
are not uncommon (see 80. 1, and 82.YII). Moreover, there are certain Primitive 
roots which take a Desiderative form, without yielding a Desiderative sense; and 
these, as equivalent to Primitive verbs (amongst which they are generally classed), 
may occur in classical Sanskrit ; e. g. jugups, ' to blame,' from ^^^ ; dikitSs * to 
cure,' from ftlT^iW; iUiksh, *to bear,' from fw^^tij; ^Mi^^m{mdBS, 'iq reason,^ 
ftrom m{^wumj hibhats^ * to abhor,' from ^IT^or ^1^. 

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210 DBSIDERATIYE VERBS. — FORMATION OP STEM. 

499. Desideratives take the terminations at 246, with the substi- 
tutions required in classes i, 4, 6, and 10; and their inflexion^ 
either in Parasmai or jd^tmane, is generally determined bj the practice 
of the Primitive verb. 

Thus, root ^ budh, d. i, ' to know/ taking both inflexions in the Primitiye, 
may take both in the Desiderative {bubodhiskdmi Sic, or bubodhishe &c., 'I desire 
to know'); and W^labk, 'to obtun/ taking only the Atmane in the Primitive, 
may take only the Atmane in the Desiderative {Upse &c., ' I desire to obtain'). 

. 500. Rule for forming the stem in the four 3pecial tenses. 
Reduplicate the initial consonant and vowel of the root, and gene- 
rally, though not invariably^ if the Primitive verb inserts ^ t (see 
39^—415), affix ^iM or in a few roots ^ (see 393); if it rejects t, 
then simply ^s, changeable to 1^ «A (by 70 ; see, however^y), to the 
root so reduplicated. The vowel a is then added, as in classes i^ 4, 
6y and 10 ; and, agreeably to the rule in those classes, this a becomes d 
before terminations beginning with m and v (but not before simple m). 

a. Thus, from f^l^kship/ to throw/ comes the stem Skskipsa {6ik8hipsd+mi=i 
r^(\l|mi(^ dikshipsdmi &o., 'I desire to throw'); but from f^ vid, 'to know,' 
taking inserted t, comes vividisha {vividishd-^-mi = M^ 0^ ■ii f^t vividishdmi &c. In 
Atm. the stem is vivitsa). 

b. Some roots, however, which reject the inserted i in other forms, 
assume it in the Desiderative, and vice versa. Some, again, allow an 
option ; thus, ^ ' to be^ makes fnfS^ &c. or f^r^mrftl &c. See the 
lists at 39^-415. 

c. The reduplication of the consonant is in conformity with the rules at 253 ; 
that of the vowel belonging to the initial consonant follows the analogy of Causal 
Aorists at 493 ; that is, the vowel \i is reduplicated for a, d, i, /, ft, f/, Ifi, e, or at/ 
but the vowel 7 » for u, 4, and 0; and also for the a ot av or do preceded by any 
consonant except j, a labial or a semivowel; thus, fr. ^HT 'to cook' comes Desid. 
stem pipakska by 296; fr. tJT^ 'to ask,' yiyd6isha: fr. ift^ 'to live,* JUMshaj 
fr. 'fj^'to see,' didfiksha: fr. if^ 'to serve,' sisevisha: fr. ft 'to sing,' jigdsaj 
fr. 9T 'to know,' Jijndsa (yiyvwa-KOO): but fr. ^1^ 'to join' comes yvyukihaj fr. 
^ 'to purify,' pupfkha: fr. ^ d. 4, 'to know/ ^^W bubhuOMa, see 299. a: 
fr. n\^Hy Causal stem of ^ ' to praise,' nvndvaytBka: fr. l|PT7, Causal stem of ^ 
'to purify,' inpii^ayMa. 

d. And if the root begin with a vowel the reduplication still follows the analogy 
of the same tense at 494; thus, from ^ni comes ^Rf)(l9l; and with i»ha added, 
^(^On^. Sknilarly, from ^ comes arjikisha; from Wl^, ^^ikiska: from f^, 
{6k$ki$ka ; from 7«^, undidisha ; see 494. 



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DESIDBRATIVE YBEBS. — FORMATION OP STEM. 211 

Obs. — In reduplication the vowel t takes the place of a, as being lighter ; see 
353. d. Obs. It is probably the result of a weakening of a. 

e. In Desiderative stems formed from the Causals of ^ 'to fall,' 7 'to run,' ^ 
^ %^y 5 * ^ ^«*P*' ^ * ^ hear,' ^ ' to distil/ and ^ * to flow/ aord may be repre* . 
sented by either u or i ; thus, the Causal of ^ makes fwn^ftUT or ^^mflW. 

/. Observe — When the inserted 8 becomes sh by 70, the initial ^of a root wiH 
not be affected by the vowel of the redupticated syllable ; thus, 9%6 makes sisiksha^ 
not sishiksha ; and sev makes sisevisha. Except, however, ij, which makes ^^l 
and except the Desid. of Causals, as ftl^vfiR fr. Cans, of f^. 

501. When a root takes the inserted t or { (393)9 &iid forms its 
Desiderative with isha or isha^ then the final ^ fi is gunatecl 

Thus, 1^ 'to cross' makes titariska or titarUha (also iiHrska, see 503). 

a. Moreover, initial and medial i, ti, ft are often, but not always^ 
gunated if followed hj a single consonant. 

Thus, ^n^*to go' makes o6ikh%sha: ^ *to wish,' eskishisha: fi?^*to play,' 
dideviska : ^1^* to dance,' ninartiska : but f^ * to know,' vividiska, 

b. An option, as to Gu^a, is however generally allowed to medial t and u; thus^ 
^ 'to rejoice' makes either mmmodiska or mnmudiitka; fff^ 'to become moist' 
either Skttdiska or 6ikledi$ka; but roots in w (e. g. siv) are peculiar, see 503. b. 

e. ^ *to go^ and ^ *to sound/ having no consonant, reduplicate 
the characteristic letter of the Desiderative with t ; thus, ^f^ (used 
with the prepositions adhi and prati), so isfWiV. 

50a. When a root rejects t and forms its Desiderative with 
IT sa, this say if affixed to roots ending in vowels, has the effect of 
lengthening a final ^ t or 7 u; of changing ir e, ^ at, lit 0, to W d; 
^ fi or ^ r{ to f^ £r, or after a labial to ^ ur. 

Thus, from f% comes HSUka; from ^, iuiruska: from ^, 6ik{rskaj from 9, 
jigd»a: fmmlUtUirska; fiom'^pup4rska: hom'^ybubk^rska; from^,miimt2r«Aa. 

a. When it is affixed to roots ending in consonants, the radical 
vowel generally remains unchanged, but the final consonant combines 
with the initial sibilant, in accordance with the rules at 296. 

As, frxmi ^ comes yuyutsa (399); from ^ comes didkdkska (306. cr); from ^, 
drndhukska: from ^1(, bvbkvkska. 

b. A medial long f^ becomes /r, and final iv becomes yii or is gunated; thus, 
from in comes dUc&tayiska ; from fs^, susyHska or siseviska. 

c. Many of the special rules for forming the stem in the last five tenses at 
390. a-^ spply to the Desiderative; thus the roots at 390. a. generally forbid 
Go^a (dukudiska &c.) 

d. So ^1^ makes bibkrakska or btbkarkska or bibkrajjiska or bibkarjUka (390. g) ; 
IHi^and «n(^, mimankska and ninankska (390. Ir); ^, ninatsa (390. o);^fsjt.U, 

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212 DB8IDEKAT1VE VBKBS. — POEMATION OP STEM. 

didaridriska (390. c, but makes also didaridrdsa)', IRI^y ^ikamisha or 6ikdmayishaj 
^^yjugopisha or jugopdyisha or jugupsa (390. 1), 

503. The following is an alphabetical list of other Desiderative stems, some of 
them anomalous: ^sfzftM fr. W^ 'to wander;' vf^QsM fr. ^n 'to transgress;' 
Wflcftw fir. ^ 'to go;' f^ fir. tTT^'to obtwn;' ffft (or regularly ^rf^filW) fir. 
^^T^* to prosper;' ^PWw or fftRftW fir. t'^'to envy;' ^1^^ or ^^^if^^ or 
^^^Hm (390. b) fir. "^S^ ' to cover ;' f'lRft^ (or regularly f^^^) fir. f% * to col- 
lect ;' ftnrra (or regularly ftriftni) fir. ^n^ * to go ;' ftntftw (or regularly ftpift^ 
fir. n 'to swallow' (cf. 375. 9); ftfrt^ fir. fn * to conquer ;' ffnWfir.'^'to cat' 
(used as Desid. of ^); fif^hir fir. "^i^'to kill;' ftNN fir. f^ *to send;' Pn^HI 
fir. V^ 'to take ;' ^|[i| fir. i^ 'to call;' finrfTT (or regularly finfftni) fir. TH^ * to 
stretch;' flt^fir."^ 'to kill;' •fijWT fr. ^ * to give,* ^ ' to love/ and ^ 'to cut;' 
fif^fW fir. "5* to respect;* f^^ffw or fij^^N or f?;^ftf fr. ^ ' to tear ;' flj^fiWor 
r^wkfif^ fr. ^* to shine ;' f?f^lft^ fr- ^ * to l»old ;' J^ (or regularly fis^rtM) fr. 
fi?^ 'to play;' ftlW fr. VT * to place ' and ^ ' to drink ;' fv^ or ^INf (or fij^fr?^ 
fr. ^p^^^'to deceive;' ftn^ (or fmfilR) fr. 11^^* to fall' and ^ *to go;' f^nfin 
0'1?5fr.I.*to purify;' fil^PaCTfr.ir^' to ask;' fw*»fti| or ^ fr. ^ 'to 
bear ;' f^W fr. HT * to measure,' ft? ' to throw,' »ft * to perish,' and W ' to change ;' 
ftnnfwW or fii'pi fr. ^^ * to rub ;' ift^ fr. 5^ (in the sense of ' desiring release 
firom mundane existence,' otherwise f^); ftl^fl^ or 5^ fr. 5 * to join ;' ftw 
fr.^^ to accomplish;' ft^ fr. T>^'to take;' fi^^^ fr. H^*to obtwn;* ftwft^ 
or f^iO^or^l^fr. ^ 'to choose;' fv[^nf fr. "S^'tocut;' f^HI fr. ^^*to be 
able ;' fSp^ftm (or f?l^«ftw) fr. fw ' to have recourse to ;' ftRTO (or ftRTftT*) fr. 
^ ' to obtun,' ' to give ;' f^WPmi fr. ftff ' to smile ;' fTOrfC* (or ^t^) fr. ^ 
'to sound;' ^^ fr. ^H^^'to sleep.' 



General Tenses of Desideratives. 

504. The Perfect must be of the Periphrastic form as explained at 385; that is, 
^n*^ dm added to the Desiderative stem, as already formed, with sa, iska, or tiha 
(500), is prefixed to the Perfect of one of the auxiliaries kfi, as, or bk4 (see 385) ; 
thus, firom pipaksha (root pa6, to cook') comes the Perfect pipakshdn6akdra^ ' I 
wished to cook ;' firom bubodhisha (root budh, * to know') comes bubodhishdndakdra, 
bubodkishdmdsa, bubodhishdmbabkdva, ' I wished to know.' 

a. In all the remaining tenses it u a universal rule, that inserted t be assumed 
after the Desiderative stem, whether formed by sa or isha, except in the Precative 
Parasmai ; thus, firom pa6 comes ist Fut. pipakshitdsmi &c. ; 2nd Put. pipakski' 
shydmi &c. ; Aor. apipakshisham Sec. (form I, B, at 418) ; Prec. Par. pipdkshydsam 
&c. ; Atm. pipdkshisMya &c. ; Cond. apipakskishyam Sec. So also, taking vwidish 
(formed with isha firom vid, 'to know'), the ist Fut. is vividishitdsmi ; 2nd Fut. 
vividishishydmi ; Aor. avividishisham &c. Similarly, from bubodkisha, ist Fut. 
hubodhishitdtmi Sec; 2nd Fut. bubodkishishydmi ; Aor. abnbodkUkisham Sec. 



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FEBQUKNTATIVE VERBS. — FORMATION OP STEM. 213 

h. The Infinitive may be fonned regularly from the ist Future; thus, from 
bubodhishitd/ he will wish to know,' comes bubodhishitum, 'to wish to know.' 

Passive of Desideratives. ^ 

505. Desideratives may take a Passive form by adding ya to the Desiderative 
stem after rejecting final a; thus, from hvbodhisha comes JmbodhiBhye, ' 1 am wished 
to know/ &c. The General tenses will not vary from the Active Atmane-pada 
form of Desiderative except in the Aor. 3rd sing., which will be abubodhishi instead 
of abnbodhishiskta. 

Causal of Desideratives, 

506. Desiderative verbs may take a Causal form ; thus, dvdy^ahdmi, ' I desire to 
play' (from div), makes in Cans, dudyushaydmi, ' I cause to desire to play,' &c. 

FREQUENTATIVE OR INTENSIVE VERBS. 

507, Most roots may take a Frequentative form, except poly- 
Byllabic roots, and except those of cl. 10, and except certain roots 
beginning with vowels. 

Obe. — TR^ 'to cover/ however, has forms Wll«j^ and ^ROf^* Some few roots 
also beginning with vowels take the Atmane form of Frequentative s see examples 
at 511.0.6, 681. a. 

a. The Frequentative form is even less common in classical composition than 
the Desiderative. In the Pres. Part., however, and in nouns, it not unfrequently 
appears (see 80. V I). It either expresses repetition or gives intensity to the radical 
idea; thus, fr. ^^'to shine' comes the Frequent, stem dedipya (Pres. 3rd sing. 
ded^pyate, 'it shines brightly'), and the Pres. Part. ded(pyamdna, 'shining brightly :' 
so also, fr. ^ip^'to be beautiful,' hhbhya and iohbhyamdma; fr. ^ *to weep,' 
rorudya and rorudyamdna. 

508. There are two kinds of Frequentative verb, the one a redu- 
plicated jd^tmane-pada verb, with ya affixed, conforming, like Intran- 
sitive and Passive verbs, to the conjugation of cl. 4, and usually, 
though not always, yielding an Intransitive signification ; the other 
a reduplicated Parasmai-pada verb, following the conjugation of cl. 3* 
The latter is less common m classical Sanskrit than the former, and 
will therefore be considered last*. 

a. The terminations for the first form of Frequentative will be 
those of the Atmane at 246, with the usual substitutions required 
for the 4th class df verbs. For the second form they will be the 
regular Parasmai-pada terminations of the scheme at 246. 

* Intensive or Frequentative forms are found in Greek, such as vaivdXka, 
iatidXXcOy IMttfJia^v or [ua$[JLd»y iraiJL<l>al¥COy aXa\a^v. 



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214 FREQUENTATIVE YBRBS. — PORMATIOK OF STEM. 

iTTMANE-PADA FREQUENTATIVES, FORMED BY REDUPLICATION AND 

ADDING ya. 

509. Rule for forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Reduplicate the initial consonant and vowel of the Passive stem 
according to the rules for reduplicating consonants at 25 2, and 
gunate the reduplicated vowel (if capable of Guna), whether it be 
a long or sfiort vowel. 

Thus, from the Passive stem ^(f^ (of dd^ 'to give') comes the Frequent, stem 
dedfya (Pres. i. rf«%a+i=^^^, 2. (2e(%a+<e=^^)^ &c.); fr. 1^ (Pass, of 
hd, * to quit *) comes jehiya {jeMye &c.) ; fr. ^3^ (of ^ ' to spread *) comes testirya 
(also tdstarya); fr. "Jir (of ^ * to purify'), popuya; fr. ftw (of ftpj *to know*), 
vevidyaj fr.'5H|(of ^i^'to know'), bobudkya (Pres. ^frj^, Wt^«l%, ''Ttyni, &c.) 
The conjugation of all four tenses corresponds exactly to that of the Passive. 

510. As to the reduplication of the vowel, if the Passive stem contain a medial 
^ a, long d is substituted ; thus, pdpadya from pa6ya: sdsmarya from tmarya, 

a. If it contain a medial WT (^, I? e, or ^ 0, the same are reduplicated ; as, yd» 
yddya from yddya; seshevya from sevyaj loloSya from lo4ya, 

b. If it contain a medial ^ ft, then ^TT^t oH* is substituted in the reduplication ; 
as, ^^^"^^ from djrUy a; m0^9^ from spfUya, &a ; ^ifl^^T from "S^; wO^HV 
from H^. Similarly, aU is substituted for H Ifi, in |p^ making ^rtfljui. 

511. If a Passive stem has ft ri before ya, this ft ri becomes T^ rt'in the Fre- 
quentative stem ; as, ^qil^i from ffPl (Passive of ^ * to do '). 

a. If the stem begin with ^ a, as in ^T^ afya (from ^ ' to wander'), the initial 
a( is repeated, and the radical a lengthened; thus, tl^l^ afdiya (3rd sing. 
V^l^)). Similarly, ^HJIT^ from W^ ' to pervade.' 

b. ^ W, ' to go,' makes its stem lll.i5 ardrya, 

512. If the Passive stem contain a nasal after short a, this nasal generally appears 
in the reduplicated syllable, and is treated as final ^nij thus, fr. f^'to go' comes 
H^fni * to walk crookedly j' fr. W? ' to wander,' W*«W? ; fr. TJII^* to kill,' ^f^. 

a. The Passive stems ^TVy ^P^^ ^» and some others formed from roots con-, 
tuning nasals (as ^^y ^TlRf ), may insert nasals, instead of lengthening the vowel 
in the reduplication ; thus, 'TO^, "T^^, ^«t^w, &c. 

b. Anomalous forms. — ^^ 'to go' (making VIWi) inserts •ftn/; thus, Hnln^. 
Similarly, ^'to faU,' ^ or T^T 'to go,' «^'to fell,' H^'to drop,' «i^'to 
fall,' «^ 'to go,' ^ *to deceive' (IFNw, ^iPrtW^, ^pft^TR, WlftB^, 
l^^^fM^, ^^tNot, &c.) ^ 'to go' makes ^^. 

c. f^ * to kill' makes viitlq ; W ' to smell,' ihft^ ; *«n * to blow,' ^urtH 
(^wft &c.) ; 'T * to swallow,' l|f»rai. 

* This seems to support the idea that the original Gupa of p is art. See 29.6. 



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P»BQUEKTATIVE VERBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 215 

General Tenses of Jimane-pcula Frequeniativea. 

513. In these tenses Frequentatives follow the analogy of Passives, and reject the 
waS&x IT ya. Since, however, the stem of the Perfect is formed hy affixing ^V^dm (as 
usual in all polysyllabic forms, see 385), and since, in all the other tenses, inserted % 
is assumed, a coalition of vowels might arise were it not allowed to retain y in all 
cases in which a vowel immediately precedes that letter * ; thus, from ^^1u| is 
formed the Perfect ist sing. ^^Im^A &c., rejecting ya: but from \^A comes 
^<;1m^sii &c., retaining y. Similarly in the other tenses : ist Put. ded{pitdhe, 
dediyitdhe, &c. ; and Put. ded^pishye, dediyUhye^ &c. ; Aor. aded$pishi, adedfyishi. 
Sec. ; Prec. dedCpishCya^ dedfyishiya, &c. ; Cond. adedipishye, adediyishye, &c. In 
the 3rd sing, of the Aor. ^ t is not allowed to take the place of the regular termina- 
tions, as in the Passive form. 

a. Hie Infinitive, as formed in the usual manner (459)9 will be ded^pitum, &c. 

PARASMAI-PADA PREQUENTATIVES. 

514. Rule for forming the stem in the four Special tenses. The stem is here 
also formed by a reduplication similar to that of Atmane-pada Prequentatives ; 
not, however, from the Passive, but from the root; thus, from root V[^pa6 comes 
pdpa6: fr. f'l^ vid comes vevid; fr. ^91^ comes daridfii; fr. ^ comes dttr{kfi. 

a. But in the Parasmai form of Frequentative, trft art and ^ ar as well as ^R^ 
ar{ may be reduplicated for the vowel ^ ft; so that "^Tl^ may make ^0 ^51 or 
^Pi^M or ^^m^l and ^, ^^^ od ^ft^ or '^ (Pap. vii. 4, 92). 

Similarly, |p^may make ^V^jt^p^or ^fc9f^or ^1^^. 
. b. Again, in roots ending in long ^f{, dia reduplicated ior ^ K> ^^^ ^^ ^ u 
retained even when f< becomes tr; thus, V ^, 'to scatter,' makes i. 6dkamd: 
PL 3. 6dkirati, Similarly, frt>m II ' to cross' come tdtamd and tdtirati, 

c. In the Special tenses Parasmai, these Prequentatives follow the coi^ugation of 
cL 3, and in accordance with the rules for the and and 3rd class (307, 331), the 
radical vowel is gunated before the P terminations of the scheme at 246. Hence, 
from vid come the two stems veved and vevid (Pres. vevednd^ veoetsi, vevetti; du. 
veoidoasy &c.; Impf. avevedam, avevet, avevet, avevidva, &c.; 3rd pi. avevidus; 
Pot. vevidydmy &c. ; Impv. veveddniy veviddhi, vevettu, veveddva, vevittam, &c.) 

d. Again, the stem will vary in accordance with the rules of combination at 296- 
306, as in ^p^6tu2% (Pres. bobodkmi, bobhotsi^ boboddhi, bobudkvaSy &c.; see 298). 
So also, ^ vah makes in 3rd sing. ^TJtf? vdoo^hi (see 305. a) ; ^ make« !^hf^fHf 
(305); '^ makes ^TTffiff (305 note); "J^ makes ^^^fij or ^dipfrv; and fti^, 
%^ftr or irtlfni (305.6). 

e. And in further analogy to d. 2 (313, 314) long / is often optionally inserted 

* In Passives this coalition of vowels is avoided by the change of a final vowel 
to Vfiddhi, as of 6' to <%, of hu to hdv, and of At* to kdr; and by the change-of 
final (f to (fy, as of da to ddy; see 474. 



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216 FREQUENTATIVE VERBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 

before the consonantal F terminations (Pres. vevedhni, vevedMi, vevedHij du. 
vevidvas, &c, ; Impf. avevedam, aveved^s, avevedit, avevidva, &c. ; Impv. veveddni, 
veviddhi, veveddu), 

515. Lastly, when the root ends in a vowel, the usual changes take place oft 
and {toyoriy: of ti and 11 to uv: and of n to r (see 312) : as in the roots ^ bh{, 
^bhu, ^ ibft (Pres. ist sing. bebhenU, bobhomi, darkarmi; 3rd pL bebhyati, bobku' 
vatiy darkrati), 

a. Observe — Many of the anomalous formations explained under Atmane-pada 
Frequentatives must be understood as belonging also to the Parasmai-pada ; thus, 
^ (512. ft) makes in Parasmu MHllMfti, ^HflMPiW, VllMftl, &c.; and so with 
the other roots at 512. b. 

b. ^^ 'to kill,' ^ 'to swallow' (512. c), and some others have a separate 
Parasmai-pada form (Wiff^^ m*iR; the last identical with Pres. of ^n^). 



Oeneral Tenses of Parasmai-pada Frequentatives. 

516. The Perfect follows the usual rule for polysyllabic roots (385), and affixes 
tnf dm with the auxiliaries; thus, from ^1^6im?A, 'to know,' comes bobudhdmdsOf 
bobudhdmbabhfitva, bobudhdndakdra; from f^ vid, 'to know,' comes veviddmdsa. 
Gu^a of a final and sometimes of a penultimate vowel is required before dm; thus, 
bobhd (from ^) becomes bobhavdmdsa. So also, ^ makes vdoartdmdsa. In the 
other tenses, excepting the Precative, inserted i is invariably assumed ; and before 
this inserted i some roots are said to forbid the usual Gupa change of the radical 
vowel in the ist Fut. &c. ; thus, btidh is said to make bobudUtdsmi; bki, 'to fear,' 
bebhyitdsmi, &c. (374) ; 2nd Fut. bobudhishydmi, bebhyishydmi^ &c. ; Aor. dbobu" 
dhisham, abebhdyisham, &c.; Prec. bobudhydsam, bebhiydsam, &c.; Ck>nd. abobu" 
dhishyamy dbebhyithyamy &c. The rejection of Guna from the radical syllable, 
however, admits of question; thus, bhd, 'to be,' makes, according to the best 
authorities, bobhacitdsm^ &c. 

a. The Infinitive will be formed in the usual way from the ist Fut., see 513. a. 



Passive f Causal, Desiderative, and Desiderative Causal form 
of Frequentatives. 

517. Frequentatives are capable of all these forms. The Passive, when the root 
ends in a consonant, will be identical with the Atmane-pada Frequentative formed 
by reduplication and the sufi^ yaj thus, fr. Frequent, stem totuda, 'to strike often,' 
comes totudye, ' I am struck often ;' but fr. loluya (^, *to cut'), loldyye, &o. Again, 
fr. totuda comes totudaydmi, 'I cause to strike often;' totudtshdmi, *1 desire to 
strike often ;' totudayishdmi, ' I desire to cause to strike often.' 

a. The ya of the Atmane-pada Frequentative if preceded by a consonant is 
rejected; but not if preceded by a vowel; thus, loktya. Frequentative stem of U^ 
' to cut,' makes loUyishdmiy ' I desire to cut often.' See 252./. 



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NOMINAL VERBS. — FORMATION OF STEM. 217 

NOMINAL VERBS, OR VERBS DERIVED FROM NOUNS. 

518. These are formed by adding certain suffixes to the stem of 
nouns. They are not in very common use, but, theoretically, there 
IS no limit to their formation. They might be classed according to 
their meaning; viz. ist. Transitive Nominals, yielding the sense of 
performing, practising, making or using the thing or quality expressed 
by the noun ; and. Intransitive Nominals, giving a sense of behaving 
like, becoming like, acting like the person or thing expressed by the 
noun ; 3rd, Desiderative Nominals, yielding the sense of wishing 
for the thing expressed by the noim. It will be more convenient, 
however, to arrange them under five heads, according to the suffixes 
by which they are formed, as follows : — 

519. 1st, Those formed by affixing ^ a (changeable to d before 
a syllable beginning with m and-t?) to a nominal stem, after Gu^a 
of its final vowel (if capable of Guna). When the stem ends in a, this 
vowel takes the place of the suffix a. A final d absorbs the suffix. 

Obs. — ^The terminations of Nominals will be those of the scheme at 246, both for 
Par. and Aim., requiring the substitutions of the ist, 4th, 6th, and loth classes. 

a. Thus, irom ^^ ' Kpshpa,' Pres. i. ^«qi|(H ' I act like Krishna/ 2. ^CQfTT, 
3. ^i«rfl , &C. So, from ^i^ * a poet,' Pres. i . l^^tftT * I act the poet,' 2. ^^^1% , 
&c. ; and from ftl^ ' a father,' Pres. i. fMrtilfe * I act like a father,' 2. fTHtftl^ 
3, f^nncfir; Atm. Pres. i. ftniT, &c.; from TH^T 'a garland,' Pres. i. fTHlfiT, 
2. Nlc5ir«, 3. JHclTfir ; Impf. I. V»n<!n^, 2. VHHTWT^, &c. ; Pot. Hlc6<l>^ , &c. : 
from 9 ' own,' Pres. 3. ^fn ' he acts like himself.' Sometimes a final t or u is 
Bot gunated; as, from ^iftf *a poet,' Pres. <8|f^T6f, <*^lftr, &c. (P4n. vii. 4, 39). 
Words ending in nasals preserve the nasals, and lengthen the preceding vowels ; 
as, ^ivunfn ' he acts like a king,' ^^vfTif ' it serves as a road,' ^!^fir 'he acts 
like this.' 

5^0. 2ndly, Those formed by affixing it ya to a nominal stem, 
a. If a word end in a consonant, ya is generally affixed without change ; as, 
fi^m ^T^' a word,' ^T^lfif ' he wishes for words ;' from fif^ ' heaven,' fij^fir * he 
wishes for heaven ' (or, according to some, ifrB^filf) 5 from TH^ * penance,' nHtmfn 
* he does penance ;' from •W^ * reverence,' H**^^ * he does reverence.' Final 
II is dropped, and the next rule then applied ; thus, from <|i|f^ * a king,' Pres. 

Tnfhnfir, Pot. tmftii^; from vf^' rich,' u^fhnfir, &c. 

b, A final ^ a orw d is generally changed to ^ {; final ^ i or 7 tt 
lengthened ; final 19 ri changed to viri; ^0 to av; ^ au to dv. 

Thus, from '^ *a son,' Pres. i. ^^fh^fii *I desire a son,' 2. 5?fhlfiff, &c. ; 
from ^Elfw ' a husband,' Pres. i. ^llfhnf'T ' I desire a husband,' &c« So also, fron\ 
m^ * a mother' comes Hl^jfl'dflT, &c. 

Ff 



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218 NOMINAL VERBS. — FORMATION OP STEM. 

c. This form of Nominal has not always a Desiderative meaning. The following 
are examples of other meanings, some of which properly belong to the next form t 
JTOT^hrflt 'he fancies hhnself in a palace ;' irtNfif *he ad» like a poet ;' cn^^tG? 
or -n * he scratches ;' H'J^rfw or -ff * he sins* or ' he is angry j' ft??fhnl * he acts 
the part of a friend ;' ^^fhrfu T[T?n^ ' l^e treats the pupil as a son ;' ftfOTlfir flni^ 

* he treats the Br^man as if he were Vishnu 5' filTFTfir * he vanishes ;' T«|fll * he 
seeks cows' (from 'ft *a cow'). 

d» In the sense of 'behaving like,' acting like,' doing like,' a final V a is 
generaUy lengthened, a final W d retained, and a final t^w, ^t, or TJ^/ dropped ; 
thus, from «^r^fi ' a wise man,' Pres. i. hD^aih ' I act the part of a wise man,' 
a. ^OkAN^^ 3. Mf^ 1111(1), &c.; from ^If *a tree,' Pres. 1. 'I'TT^j &c.; from 
Ift^ * a noise,' Pres. ^«^iM * I am noisy ;' from <l^«^ * a king,' Pres. i. TT^fPI, &c ; 
from TWR^ * sorrowful,' Pres. 5*ilHN, &c.; from ^^* great,' Pres. «j4|l*), &c. 

e. This Nomina) is sometimes found with a Transitive sense, especially when 

derived from nouns expressive of colour ; as, from '^fW ' black,' ^fOUnin or -fll * he 

blackens :' and sometimes in the Parasmai with an Intransitive sense; as, from fflil 

crooked,' ffHrnrflf * it is crooked ;* from <?TH * a slave,' ^^THHrfif ' he is a slave/ 

It corresponds to Greek Desiderative Denominatives in louo, as Oavariav &c. 

521. 3Tdljy Those formed by affixing m^ aya to a nominal stem. 
This form is similar to that of Causals and verbs of the loth class, 
with which it is sometimes confounded. Like them it has generally 
an Active sense. A final vowel must be dropped before aya ; and if 
the nominal stem have more than one syllable, and end in a consonant, 
both the consonant and its preceding vowel must be dropped. 

a. Thus, from ^RgT * cloth,' Pres. i. ^^pnftf ' I ctothe,' 2. ^RBf^, 3. ^PgprfWf 
&c. ; from ^^ * armour,' Pres. i . «ifi^iftf * I put on armour,' Ac. ; from IHIW 

* authority,' UTTHnnfiT * I propose as authority ;' from W^^ * a garland,' tilf^lf^ 

* I crown ;' from VZ ' a jar,' W^^lRl * I make a jar ' or ' I call it a jar,' &C. 

h. In further analogy to Causals, ^p is sometimes inserted between the stem 
and aya, especially if the noun be monosyllabic, and end in a. Before this ^^P9 
Vriddhi is required; thus, from ^ *own,' Pres. 'isHM'^llfH *I make my own.' 
There are one or two examples of dissyllabic nouns; thus, from ^EfTT ^true,' 
HiUIM^ l ft , &c. ; and from ^ * substance,' H^ I MMlfa , &c. 

c. If the stem be monosyllabic, and end in a consonant, Gu^ may take place ; 
as, from TJ^ ' hunger,' IBftVinftT. 

d» Whatever modifications adjectives undergo before the sufi&xes iya$ and Uk^ha 
at 194, the same generally take place before aya; thus, from ^^ 'long,' ^i^Mifn 
' I lengthen ;' from vf^iiqi ' near,' n^m(if * I make near,' &c. 

e. This form of Nominal is sometimes Intransitive, as f^i.^lQl 'he delays* (f^m 
f^ 'long'). According to Bopp, Greek Denominatives in «», c«, o», i^» cor^ 
respond to this form ; as, voXeiA-ow^ yvvouK4l^o), 



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PBESBNT PARTICIPLES; PABA8MAI-PADA. * 219 

' 5aa. 4thly, Those formed by affixing ^ 9ya or ^tm asya to a 
nominal stem, giving it the form of a Future tense, generally with the 
sense of * desiring/ ' longing for.^ 

a. Thus, fr. Hl^*milk/ Pres. i. H|1 1.1^10 ' I desire milk/ 2. ifkjmf^, &o. ; 
fr. ^ *a bull,* fW^lftf *(the cow) desires the bull;* fr. f[ftl 'curds/ ^^Wnftl 

* I desire curds/ &c. Cf. Greek Desideratives in o"€/». 

523. 5thly, Those formed by affixing m^ kdmya (derived from 
kam, *to desire') to a nominal stem ; as, from ^ *a son,* Pres. i. 
^^^hiPh * I desire a son,' 2. a<f<HW|fa , 3. a^^ i mO ff, &c. ; from irjr^ 

* fame/ ^j^njfci^qifa « I desire fame/ 

a. The General tenses of these Nominals will be formed analogously 
to those of other verbs ; thus, from ^mftf * I act like self comes 
Perf. Tot ; from TjiTTTiTTfiT * I play like a boy' comes Aor. WJ^pHTi^, 
&c. A long vowel in the stem generally remains unchanged, and is 
not shortened ; thus, Hl^mfil (from in?n * a garland') makes viHHlcM^. 
So also, frfilfimrT *he will wish for fuel' (Guna being omitted), 
^4irH|lll ' he ¥rill wish for a son/ 

b. Nominal verbs may take Passive, Causal, Desiderative, and 
rrequentative forms. The Causal of those formed with aya will be 
identical with the Primitive Nominal ; thus, ^rSinft? *I put on armour' 
or * I cause to put on armour.' In reduplicating for the Desiderative 
or Frequentative, sometimes the last syllable is repeated, sometimes 
ihe first ; thus, ini|5 ' to scratch' makes its Desiderative stem ^niff^- 
fiR, and '^it^ 'to treat as a son' makes ^^^fim or jeiflftiniif. Accord- 
ing to some, the middle syllable may be reduplicated ; thus, ^fwf^fiR. 

PARTICIPLES. 

PRESENT PARTICIPLES ; PARASMAI-PADA. — ^FORMATION OP STEM. 

524. Present Participles are the only Participles the formation of 
which is connected with the conjugational class of the verb. The 
stem in the Parasmai may be most easily formed by dropping the 
final i of the 3rd pers. pi. Pres. Par. and rejecting the nasal in cert^n 
cases (see 141. 0, 84. 1); e.g. 

From M'ntm padanti, ' they cook ' (3rd pi. Pres. of ^1^, cl. i), comes Vl^^^pa6at, 
'cooking;' fr. irf^ ghuanti, 'they kill' (3rd pL of han, cl. 2)^ comes JUf^gknat, 
*kping;' fr. IffW santi, 'they are' (3rd pi. of as, cl. 2, 'to he'), comes ^#a^ 
'heingj' fir. ''rf'ir yantiy * they go' (3rd pi. of ^, cl. 2), ^yai, 'going;' fr.^J'^l^ 

P f « 



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220 ' PRESENT PARTICIPLES; a'tMANE-PABA. 

ydnti, 'they go' (3rd pi. of ^, cl. 3), ^^Hf^ydt; fir. ^^fd juhvati, 'they sacrifice' 
(3Pd pi. of hu, cl. 3), ^S3fl[^ Juhvat J fr. •jiqfm njrityanH, 'they dance,' d. 4, 
W9n{^nrityat ; fr. f^^^^f^n Hnvanti, * they gather,' cl. 5, f^T^WH^^nvat j fir. W^^fiif 
dpnuvanti, ' they obtain,' cl. 5, ^tT^WSapnuvat j fir. ^^fm tudantiy * they strike,' cl. 6, 
tudatj fir. ^^MPyf rundhanti, 'they hinder,' cl. 7, rvndhat; fir. ^qfoir Irtcrvan/t, 
*they do,* cl. 8, kurvat : fr. ^nr^if punantij 'they purify,' cl. %punat, 

^25, The same holds good in Derivative and Nominal verbs ; e. g. 

From Cans, ^^tv^rftf * they cause to know ' (479) comes WtV^H^ * causing to 
know ;* fir. Desid. ^fftfimfV (499) comes ▼Wtfit^' desiring to know ;' fir. fqwif*!! 
(503) comes n^W^* desiring to give ;* fir. Frequent, ^ftf^ffif comes ^fnfm^'throw- 
ing frequently ;* firom the Nominal ^|Wftf * they act like Kpshi^a,' V^ * acting 
like Krishna;' fir. iiM^r*n 'they do penance,* IHT^Vl^' doing penance.' 

a. In corr6boration of the remark made at 461. c, that the Passive verb appears 
in a few rare instances to assume a Parasmai-pada inflexion, and that many of the 
Intransitive verbs placed under cl. 4 might be regarded (except for the accent) as 
examples of this form of the Passive, it is certain that a Parasmai-pada Present 
Participle derivable firom a Passive stem is occasionally found ; thus, ^^^H^* being 
seen,* firom the Passive stem '^p[^ dfiiya ; ^^ft^* being gathered,' fitMn ^fhl d^c 
(Passive stem of (ft). 

h. The inflexion of Parasmai-pada Present Participles is explained 
at 141. The first five or strong inflexions (see 135. a) of this parti- 
ciple in nine conjugational classes retain the nasal, shewing that the 
stem in all the classes, except the third, and a few other verbs (141. a), 
ends in aid as well as in at. The Parasmai-pada Frequentative, as 
conforming to the conjugational rule for cl. 3, also rejects the nasal. 

Obs. — In the cognate languages the n is preserved throughout. Cf. Sk. bharan, 
bharantam (fir. bhri), with ^cpcuv, </>€povTa, ferentem ; also, bharantau ( Ved. bka- 
rantd) with (f>€povT€; bharantas with <l>€povT€^yferentesj bharatas with fpipofra^; 
Gen. sing, bharatas with <^6d0VT0^, ferentis. So also, Sk. vahan, vahantam, with 
Lat. vehens, vehentem ; and sa%y saniam (fir. as, 'to be*), with Lat. -sent of ab-sms, 
pra-sens. Cf. also the strong stem strinvant^ with aropvwT-. 

PRESENT PARTICIPLES ; a'tMANB-PADA. — FORMATION OP STEM. 

526. The stem is formed by substituting TRm mdna for ^ nte^ the 
termination of the 3rd pi. Pres. Atm. of verbs of the 1st, 4th, 6th, and 
loth classes, and Derivative verbs (see 527, 528, below); and by 
substituting WR dna for ^ ate^ the termination of the 3rd pi. Pres. 
Xtm. of verbs of the other classes (see 246) ; e. g. 

From ^"^ ^/'a<^n/e(cl. I ) comes '^fW[^ pa6amdna, 'cooking;' fir. fKW^(sthd,f^,i\ 
filWPT * standing ;' fir. ^i'W (cl. 4), "•JiM'IM ; fir. ft^Hf^ {lip, cl. 6), rf4*MHM. 



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PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. 221 

a. But from ^^ bruvate {\o\, a), Tj^l^ bruvd^ (58); fir. f^HT^ (^ with "ftf 
d. 3), ftWR ; fr. ^[VW {dhd, cl. 3), ^^VR ; fir. fn^ (cl. 5), f^^Tf ; fir. g^ (cl. 7), 
S«i«i; fir. ?|%ii (cl. 8), 'ftnr; fir. 'Jpn^ (cL 9), ^fPf. Root ^Sr^cl. 3, 'to sit,' 
makes 'viitlln for ^itii«i ; and ^ d. a is ^ttl^ in 3rd pi. (see 315), but ^IVim in 
Pres. Part. 

Obs. — ^The real suffix for the Pres. Part. Atm. is mdna, of which dna is probably 
an abbreviation. Cf. (Jr. -fxcvo- in (p^pO'fJLev^^^zbhara-mdi^a (58). 

527. Verbs of class 10 and Causals substitute ifTH mdna; as, fr. 
"Wtv^ bodhayante comes iiv^'il«f bodhayamdna : but occasionally 
mx^dna; as, fr. ^f^ir^, ^;$^IR ; fr. ^^^, ^^iIR ; fr. hl«4i|H), f^WI^IM; 

fr. ^pfw, ^inrnr . 

528. Passives, Desideratives, Frequentatives, &c. substitute HTH 
mdna for the Atmane; thus, from fim^ Hhey are made' comes 
fliinn^ * being made' (58); from ^to^ * they are given,' J^^^IV[^ *being 
given ;' from the Desiderative "fin^r^ * they desire to give/ fin^Pfni 
'desiring to give;' from Omfn^ 'they desire to kill,' ft|Mf^*IH 

* desiring to kill;' from the Frequentative Yt^vi^ *tliey know 
repeatedly,' W^wvihi^ * knowing repeatedly.' 

529. The inflexion of Pres. Participles Xtmane follows that of 
adjectives at 187 ; as, N. sing. m. f. n. ^l^ifnT^, ^nnilHT, M^HM^. 

PAST PARTICIPLES. 

PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. — FORMATION OP STEM. 

530. This is the most common and useful of all Participles. In 
general the stem is formed by adding ir ta directly to roots ending 
in vowels, and to most roots ending in consonants ; as, fr. in yd^ * to 
go,' iniT ydta^ ' gone ;' fr. ftf ' to conquer,' fifw * conquered ;' fr. i(\ 

* to lead,' iftw ' led ;' fr. f^^kship^ * to throw,' ftfR kshipta^ * thrown ;' 
fr. ^ * to do,' fir ' done' (see 80. XVII). 

a. But if the root end in ^ Ky ^7 adding ^ tui^ changeable toJSfna 
(58); as, fr. M *n, *to scatter,' niW Arfrwa, * scattered,' see 534. 

531. Some roots in 5HT rf, ^ i, and "51 ti, some in % ai preceded by 
two consonants, with some of those in ^ d, ^ r, l^/, one in i^ ^ {^)$ 
and one or two in ^ <$, "^ 6h (see 541, 544)9 also take na instead of 
ta ; see 80. XXIV, 532, 536, 540, &c. 

532. Roots ending in vowels do not generally admit inserted ^ i 
in this Participle, even when they admit it in the Futures (392, 
395, &c.), but attach ta or na directly to the root ; as, fr. HT * to 



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222 PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. 

protect/ vm; fr. ftr 'to resort to/f^; fr.^ *to hew/ ipi; JjL^to 
become/ ^; f *to do/ ipir; w *to smell/ inm (58); H *to fly/ 
?^; ?ft * to decay/ ?fhf; iftHo perisV''^; ?rt* to embrace/ i^; 
ift 'to be ashamed/ ftm; ^ *to cut/ ip ; 5 'to be afflicted,^ gif; 
fii * to swell/ ^, 

a. But when they do retain i, gunation of the final vowel is 
required as in the Future ; thus, :^ ^ to lie down^ makes ^rftnr ; and 
^ ' to purify/ ilPnr (also Jjf); and ifif * to awake/ ifmftl. 

533. In certain cases the final vowel of the root is changed ; thus, some roots in 
^n a change dioi before ta ; as, ftrom ^TT stkd, ' to stand,' (Vwa sthUa ; firom 11 
' to measure/ fifW ; from ^frjT * to be poor,' ^ftJPjJTI. 

a. VT * to place ' becomes f^ff ; ?JT ' to gire,* ^. 

Obs. — When prepositions are prefixed to datta, the initial da maj be rejected ; 
thus, dtta for ddaUa, 'taken ;' pratta forpradaUay * bestowed / vydita for vpddatia, 
'expanded;' tUtta for nidatta^ given awaj/ paritia for paridaita, 'deUvered 
over/ siitta for tudatta, 'well given,' the t and n being lengthened. 

h. HT 'to drink' makes ^rtw; but ^ *to quit,' Jtt^\ and 5^1 'to grow old,' 
1ift<T; ^ 'to go/ ?T^. 

c. Some roots in (f take both ita and fa ; as, fr. "WT 'to smell,' WIT and WW ; fr. ^ 
* to blow,' with prep, ftf^, f*WIIU and f'wff ; fr. W (or Wj 'to cook,' W^ or ftlW. 

534. Roots in ^f/ change fiio ir before ita, which passes into IIT iia by 58 ; as. 
from 1[ 'to pass,' H^ 'passed.' But when a labial precedes, f< becomes 4r: as, 
from ^ or ^, ^ or ^ ' full,' ' filled.' 

535. The root H dhe, 'to suck/ forms >ftll; 2| koe, *to call/ ]^; ^ re, 'to 
weave,' ^Tf ; ^ rye, ' to cover/ ^ftlf ; H * to barter,' "ftfiT. 

536. Roots in % at generallj change at to (f before na or fa / as, from V^ mlai, 
' to fade,* Wm m/(£ita ; from ^ ' to meditate,* vqiW (in the Veda ^itti) ; from ^ 'to 
purify/ ^Tif ; from ^ * to rescue,* ?fTO or ^THf ; from ^^ 'to gfrow fat,' ^WW, &c. 

a. But fr. •! ' to sing,' 'ftw ; fr, % 'to waste,' fftw ; fr. "^ ' to waste,' HW, see 
548 ; fr. 1^ * to coagulate,' ^ftw or ^jh? or ^^i«i ; fr. ^ 'to accumulate,' 4iqtn, 
(with H) ^^ or ^rftf . 

537. Of the four or five roots in liV 0, A 'to destroy' makes ftef (as also 
ftl 'to bind'); ]p^ 'to sharpen/ ftjIW or ^ITW; ?J^ *to tie/ fi^J l[t 'to cut,' 
1^ and ftnr ; lift ' to instruct,' 9^. 

538. Those roots ending in consonants which take the inserted i 
in the last five tenses (399), generally take this vowel also in the 
Past Pass. Part) but not invariably (see 542) ; and when i is assumedf 
ta is generally aflSxed, and not na ; as^ from in^/>a/, ^ to fall,' lyfinr 
patiiay 'fiaJlen.' 

a. ^ i, V t«, or 119 ft preceding the final consonant of a root may 



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PAST FAS8IVB PARTICIPLES. 223 

occattonaUy take Gupa, edpecially if the Participle be used imper- 
sonally; as, fr. f^ *to sweat/ #f?^ or fiarw; fr. ft^r^ 'to be 
unctuous/ wt^ or ftiw ; fr. 151^ * to shine/ jf(fint or \gfinr ; fr. fW * to 
bear/ nfht ; fr. fW * to sprinkle/ ^. See Syntax, 895. 

6. Hf 'to take' lengthens the inserted i, making ^[^» See 
399. a. 

539. Roots ending in consonants which reject the inserted i in 
the last five tenses (400-415), generally reject it in the Past Pass* 
Part* They must be combined with ta, agreeably to the rules 
of Sandhi at 996, &c. Whatever change, therefore, the final con- 
sonant undergoes before the termination td of the ist Fut. (see 
4CX)-4i5), the same will often be preserved before the ta of the 
Past Part.; so that, in many cases, the form of this Participle 
resembles that of the 3rd sing, ist Fut, provided the final d be 
shortened, and the vowel of the root preserved unaltered; thus, 
taking some of the roots at 400-415 ; ^ (^TIiT), inR; ftrir (%w), 
ftWi; l^('ftw), 5»5 -FT^, 7m; fi^, g«; ^, ^; ^ and ^s(, tp; 
<«^»ftni; Tl'T*' 3^>i»5 f^,ft|H; ^,^; ^^,^; f^,?w; 
WT, ^w; ^>^5 fln^, fw; "^^^ "5^; f»(, f?; fll^, f¥f ; 5^^ 
Py f^> ^5 ^> ^^ ^» ^5 '^^ ^ (4^5. »»); ^. ^m (414)5 
mf, nnr (415- »»); fit'f , t^; fij^, fi?^; f^, fwv; ^, ^y; ?j{i^, 
^ or q[ni (415. *n); 51^, jm ; ^, TO (415. m). 

540. Most roots ending in ^ d, forbidding the inserted ^ i (405), take na instead 
of ta, and are combined with na, agreeably to 47 ; as, fr. ^ ' to go,' Vn ; fr. f^ 
* to find/ ftPH (also ftlW); fr. "^^ 'to impel,' ^W (also gW); fr.6l^*tobreak,*ftnrj 
fr. ^ 'to sit,' *to sink,' ^TW, with ft, f^TTO (70, 58); fr. ''Bf^ *to pound,' 1|ir; 
fr. '^ ' to play,' * to vomit,' ^^ ; fr, W^ ' to eat,' ^WW (unless IFV be substituted). 
IP^ 'to rejoice' makes IfW. 

541. Roots ending in ^ ^ or 1( ^ of course change these letters to k before ta; 
see examples at 539. Similarly, those which take na^ change ^ and j to ^ before 
ma; as, fr. •H^ 'to be ashamed,' ^Ff 'naked;' fr. fwi^ 'to tremble,' f%r^; fr. 
^V 'to break,' ^'^; fr. ^^*to thunder,' ^Pf^J fr. ^I^'to move' (in some 
senses), WS. So, fr. Tli^ ' to be immersed,' rejecting one j, W^ ; from cm( ' to 
be ashamed,' JS^ (as well as T^flVH). c9^ ' to adhere' also makes c9^. But 
f^ 'to forget,' ^"1^; 5^ ' to be crooked,' ^. 

54a. Some roots which admit i necessarily or optionally in one or both of the 
Futures, reject it in this plortioiple ; thus, >[i^ ' to be bold' makes IfV. Accordmg 
to Pip. Yii. 3. 34, ^ ' to move' makes V^an^na after the prepositions $am, nt, and 
vft, and in every other case irf^ oriifa, so that after d prefixed, it becomes WTT^ 



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224 PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. 

(Wn ' pained' b thought hy some to he ftto> fr. rt. ft, with prep, d prefixed, and 
hy others is regarded as an anomalous form of rt. ard; by native grammarians a 
form H^ artta is referred to rt. ^^^ ; "CT * to make firm/ "^J W * to extol,' ^; 
H^ *to be mad,' HW ; ^(t^* to shine/ ?[^; «ni *to perish/ •!¥; *f^ *to faint/ HJr 
as well as ^f%7r; ^^ 'to speak barbarously,' f^ as well as fffffir] ^^ ^o 
dance,' 'JW ; ^ ' to strive,' ^TW . 

543. If in forming the Passive stem (471), the v or y contuned in a root is 
changed to its semivowel u or t, the same change takes place in the Past Pass. 
Part. ; as, fr. ^T^vad, *to say,' "^li ukta; fr. ^ * to speak,' ^fijff ; fr. ^1|^* to wish,* 
V%!l; fr.^'to dwell,* ^ffRW; fr.^'to sow/ ^JW; fr. if^ * to carry/ ^W (with 
'^9 WT> 38. «); fr. ^I^'to sleep/ ^; fr. ^*to sacrifice/ JW, 

Obs. — ^This change of a semivowel to its corresponding vowel is called Sampra-* 
slirapa by native grammarians (Pis^. 1. 1, 45). 

a. Some roots change "^with a preceding or following vowel into "9; as, W^ 
* to be feverish,' 1^; W^ ' to hasten,' TgS ; fe^ ' to dry,' ^; W^ * to protect/ 
'WRIf T^'tobind/^. 

b. Some roots ending in ^also substitute "9 for ^; as, fi^ ' to play,' ^jK and 
1|«T(the former only in the sense of 'to gamble'); ftl^'to sew,'^if; ftf^or 
H^'to spit,' ^Spr; fif^or 1B^*to spit/ ^^. 

544. Some other changes which take place in forming the Passive stem (472) 
are preserved before ta; thus, fr. TJll^ 'to rule,' f^; fr. 'Q^'to pierce,' ftW; 
fr.«l^* to deceive/ f%f^5 fr.«i(*tofry/^f?; fr.lT^'toask/iJf j fr.lT^'to 
cut,' ^im (58). 

a. When a root ends in a conjunct consonant, of which the first is a nasal, this 
nasal is generaUy rejected before ta; as, fr. ip^'to bind,* "WMl fr. WF(*to fall,' 
OT; fr.tt^'tofall,'STOr; fr. ^' to move' and Wl^' to anoint/ ^HIR; fr.^'to 
adhere,' ^Hli ; fr. T^* to colour,' ^IR ; fr. ^7«(^' to kindle,' ^ ; fr. "^ * to be wet,* 
^TW or inff ; fr. ^W * to flow,' ^TO; fr. ^|5^ * to ascend,' ^SRT ; fr. ^^S*^* to stop,* 
^S^; fr.H'^^^'tostop,'^^; fr.?r»^* to deceive,'?^; fr. H^' to break,' >?nf; 
fr. ff^l ' to bite,' ^; fr. 11^* to contract,' K%, 

b. But not if 1( t is inserted ; as, fr. ^R^ ' to break,* 4i(Wn ; fr. JH^^ nf^H 
(except 'i'^* to chum/ making iftHT; and ?3F^ * to tie,* ilftni). 

545. Many roots ending in ^m, f^ it, or ^9 reject these nasals before ta if t is 
not inserted ; as, VC^^gam, 'to go,' VKgataj 'P^yafit, 'to restrain,* ViWyataj T?( *to 
sport,' TW; in^'to stretch/ HW; 15^*to kill/ ^; tf^'to bend/ fTW; If^'to 
think,' mf; ^^ro * to hurt,' Jfff : but W^ * to breathe' and W^ * to go * make ^BPiT 
(the latter also wftflf ) ; and ^5|t^ 'to sound,' ^Sfftfir (also tsi*fi with prep.) 

a. Iff^'to be born' makes WM] and W^'to dig,' WW; ?l«^*to give,' WHy 
medial a being lengthened. 

546. Those roots ending in l^m, of the 4th class, which lengthen a medial a 
before the conjugational su£Sx ya, also lengthen it before ta, changing m to 11 as 
in the Futures ; thus, fr. 1F^' to step,' HiPIT ; fr. ^ ' to wander,' tfFif ; fr. 1^^* to 



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PAST PASSITE FARTICIPLBS. 225 

he apptased/ flTW; fr.^'to tame/ ^T^ (also ^^ftflf); fir. t^'^*to be patient,' 
Hfir; fr. IR^'tobesad/VPir. 

a. SimUarlj, V^ 'to vomit/ U^l V[^ *to love/ IsniT; ^f^* to eat/ ''IPir. 

547. From Fin^'to swell' is formed ^iftW; fr. ^BTH^* to shake/ "^gmf; fr.^'to 
be putrid/ ^ ; from W? ' to weave/ ^lil ; fr. ^BIT^ ' to be fat/ ^(hf (with ^ and 
W, -''■nf); fr. Ijn^'to stink/ ijir. 

ff. ^or 'JJ 'to make effort' forms iJjB; ^' to kill/ like WT *to hasten/ ^; 
^|\'to bind or tie' makes ^; ^T^'to wash/ ViW. 

b, TR^ * to open ' makes "^W (P69. viii. 2, 55) ; and ^ * to eat/ IFV (fr. ^1^). 
Obs. — From the above examples it appears that sometimes several roots have 

the same form of Past Pass. Part. The following may also be noted : ^' to stink ' 
and ^'topmrify' make ^; «n * to measmfe' and H' to barter/ ftlW; ^* to wipe/ 
i|l(^* to touch,' and ^'to sprinkle/ all make ^ (T^*to bear' making irflw by 
P49. 1. 3, ao); ^fh^'to recite ' and IP^' to kill/ 9^ > ^T^'torule' and f^f^'to 
distinguish^' f^', ^ 'to destroy' and f^ 'to tie/ fwiT. On the other hand, 
^1^ * to enjoy* makes ^|li ; but ^^ * to bend,' ^Hf . 

548. The following, though regarded as Participles by native grammarians, are 
mQreproperiya4Jectives: ^,fr. Vt j)o^,*to cook;' ^J«l,fr. WW 'todry;' iJN, 
fr. 10^ 'to be drunks' ^, fr. ipr' to grow thin/ ^|W, fr. 4| ' to waste.' 

549. In forming the Past Pass. Part of Causals^ the Causal suffix 
wni aya is rejected, but the inserted i( i is always assumed ; as^ fr. 
wnffy Causal of ^ * to make/ comes mftn kdritOy * caused to be made -/ 
fr. fwnm, Causal of WT * to stand,* W(f'^ sthdpitay * placed ;' fr. wanw 
(^ with wr), muiirim ' increased/ * refreshed/ 

550. In adding ir /a to a Desiderative or Frequentative stem, the 
inserted \iis assumed, final a of the stem being dropped ; and in 
the case of roots ending in consonants, final ya being dropped ; as, 
fr. ftniro *to desire to drink' comes ftnrTftnr; fr. f^vtt *to desire 
to do/ f^witflir; fr. 1;^ *to desire to obtain/ ^fw?r, &c.; fr. T^n^ 
* to cut often/ cShff^ ; fr. "^HW ' to break frequently/ ^fnf?^. 

551. ir ta with f is added to nominal stems, final a being dn^ped ; 
as, fr. f^ftiFJ ^ loose/ f^rftlftOT * loosened ;* fr. ftfW * crooked/ ftrfim 
' curved/ These may be regarded as Past Passive Participles of the 
Transitive Nominal verbs fiRf^TcinTfir, ftnRfw (5^1). So again, from 
iffiTW * to do reverence* comes HUtO^ff or ifirf^. 

Obs. — ^Moreover, as na sometimes takes the place of to, so Mia is added to some 
noans instead of ka; e.g. ^ff^PI 'soiled,' fr. 179 'dirt/ ^(fV^ (58) 'horned/ 
ftom^'ahora/ See8o.XLIII. 

a. Corresponding forms in Latin are barbatn$y ofa/iw, cordatut, tMrritus, &c. s 
and in Grsek, ifi^>aXoniff Kp^tcwro^, aihMTO^f kc 



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226 PAST ACTIVB PARTICIPLES. 

• 

552. The inflexion of Past Passive Participles follows that of 
adjectives at 187 ; thus exhibiting a perfect similarity to the 
declension of Latin participles in ius ; thus, ^ kfita, Nom. sing, 
masc. fern. neut. ^fW^^ ^fHT, <Jin(. 

a. The resemblance between Sanskrit Past Passive Participles in ta^ Laitin Par- 
ticiples in tu-s, and Greek verbals in ro-f , may be seen in the following examples : 
Sk. jndta-s=zlAt. {g)notU'S (ignotus), yvmo-g'^ Sk. datta-*=Lat. dahw, SoT^; 
^nUa'8z:zclutus, /ckvTO-g ; bhdta'S=:(l>VT0'g;yukta'8z=zjunctU'S,^€VKT^f; labdha-s 
=zXvprTO-f; p{ta'S=voTC'f; bhrita'8=(f>€pT^^; di8hfa'S=zdictU'$,^€iKT0'g. And, 
like Sanskrit, Latin often inserts an t, as in donUtu-s (=Sk. damUa-s), monitu-s, &c 
This is not the case in Greek, but f is inserted in forms like /it€V€TO-f, epvero-g. 
There are abo examples of Latin and Greek formations in nu-s and VG-^^ corres- 
ponding to the Sanskrit participle in na; thus, plenu-s (=/n£r^-«), magnu-s (cf. Sk. 
rt. mah), dignu-s (cf. Sk. dii, dik, Gr. hiK) ; and (rrvyvc^^y (TTcyvc-^, <r€fJLVO-f, &c, 

PAST ACTIVE PARTICIPLES. 
These are of two kinds : A. those derived from the Past Passive 
Participle; B. those belonging to the Reduplicated Perfect The 
former frequently supply the place of a Perfect tense Active (see 897). 

553. A. The stem of these Participles is formed by adding Vf^vai 
to that of the Past Passive Participle ; e. g. 

From ^K 'made,' ^Hm^* having made>' 'who or what has made j' fr. !{n|* burnt,' 
^nj^* having burnt ;' fir. "^li ' said/ ^fli^* having said ;' ft:. fWw 'broken,' ^^qi^ 
'having broken;' fir. ^nftHf ' placed,' IWlfUfl^f^'having placed/ &c. 
a. For the declension of these Participles see 140. a. b. c. 

554. B. In these Participles, either ^t'cw or ^J^ivas is generallj added to the 
stem of the Reduplicated Perfect, as formed in the dual and pliural. Vas is added 
when the stem in the dual and plural (as it appears in its unchanged form before 
the terminations are added) consists of more than one syllable ; thus, firom 6akfi 
(root kfi, 'to do'), 6akrivas; firom ^i6i (374), 6iHvasj firom naufit (364, compare 
45. a)f nanritvasj firom sasmar (374. k), sasmarvas, 

a. And ivas is added when the stem in the dual and plural consists of one 
syllable only; as, firom ten (375. a), tenivasj firom ghas (377), jakskivas, 

Obs. — Certain roots are said optionally to form this Perf. Part, with ivas or voa, 
whether the stem in dual and plural consists of one syllable or two (see P&9. vii. 
2, 68) ; e. g. fir. gam (376), jagmivas or jaganvas; ft, han, jaghnivas or jaghanvas: 
fr. vid, cl. 6, 'to find,' vHndvas or vividivas: fir. rt/, vivihas or vivUhas; fir. dfi£j 
dadrihas or dadfUwas, 

b. When vas is affixed, it will be necessary to restore to its original state the 
final of a root ending in t, {, u, tc, or p, if changed before the terminations of the 
du. and pi. to y, v, r, iy, w, or tiv; thus, ftf hi, changed by 374. e. to £iny, 
becomes fipftn^; itt, changed to ^ikrig, becomes P^iJBh^ Skrioas: ^, changed 



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PAST indeclinable; PABTICIPLEfir. 22T 

hj 374.^. to dudhuVf becomes j^^i^ dudhihas; ^, changed by 374* »• to babhth, 
beoomes W^t?!^ bcAhikas^ In declension, the 3rd pers. pL with its termination us 
is the form of the stem in the weakest cases (135. a), and in the fein. final s becoming 
sh by 70 } e. g. 3rd pi. jagmus, I. jagmushd; 3rd pi. tenus, I. tenushd, &c. See 168. 

c. Roots which take the Periphrastic Perfect (see 385) form the Participles of 
this tense by adding the Perfect Participles of k^i, bhu, and as, to dm; thus, firom 
Aw, cl. 1O9 6oraydm'bab1iuoas, doraydn-dakfivas, 6oraydm-dsivas. 

d» There is an Atmane-pada Participle of the Reduplicated Perfect most easily 
formed by changing ire, the termination of the 3rd pi., into dna: thus, mviddnay 
66ydna, jagmdna. See 526. a: and cf. Greek Perf. Part, in ]X€VO (T6Ti//xfA€V0^ = 
tutvpdna), 

e. The Parasmai-pada form of these Participles is inflected at 168. Those of the 
Atmane-pada follow the inflexion of adjectives like hhha at 187. 

PAST INDECLINABLE PARTICIPLES. 
555* These are of the nature of Gerunds, as * carrying on the 
action of the verb.* They fall under two heads : ist, as formed by 
affixing 1^ ivd to uncompounded roots ; as, fir. ^ bhi^ * to be/ ^gpn 
bhitvd^ * having been* (see 80. XXI): 2ndly, as formed by affixing 
IV ya to roots compounded with prepositions or other adverbial pre- 
fixes ; thus, fir. ^C^ anubMy * to perceive/ ^(^fg^ anubhuya, * having 
perceived;* ^.Wftt^sajjibhu^ *to become ready/ WfW\^ sajjibhiiya, 
^having become ready.* The sense involved in them is generally^ 
expressed by the English *when/ * after/ * having/ or *by;* thus, 
B^^^WT tat kfitvdy *when he had done that,* * after he had done 
that,* ' having done that,* * by doing that.* See Syntax, 898. 

a. The suffix tvd of this participle is thought by some to be the instrumental 
case of a suffix tva (see 80. XXI). The Indeclinable Participle has certunly much 
of the character of an instrumental case (see Syntax^ 901). 

Obs. — In the Veda WHT, i^M*^, rfl«i*^ or iilt are sometimes used for WT. 

'Indeclinable Participles formed with tvi/rom uncompounded roots. 

556. When the root stands alone and uncompounded, the Inde- 
clinable Participle is formed with tm tvd. 

This suffix is closely allied to the Ti ta of the Past Passive Parti- 
ciple at 531, so that the rules for the affixing of ir ta to the root 
generally apply also to the Indeclinable suffix i^ tvd^ and the forma- 
tion of one Participle then involves that of the other. 

Thus, ft|R kshyi>ta, ' thrown,* f^'Vp kshiptvd, * having thrown / ^ ' done ' (rt. ^ ),. 
^fff' having done/ f^TW (rt. WT), felWT ; "5^ (rt 'J'l), fJT ; ^(rt.^),![Wi 

G g 2 



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228 PAST INDBCLINABLB PARTIClPLBS. 

iftif (rt.''n),^ftwT; Hinif(rt.TP^),TisrwT; ^^ (rt. 9^), ^iO w ; ^^rfiiircrt^), 
vPwt; ^(1*.^),-^^; ^(rt.^),^; tw(rt.^),"»ft; nfii(rt. V), 
f^i^; ifni (rt. '^), irW; tlT (rt. 'n^545), TW. 

a. Where i is inserted, there is generally gunation of final t, f, k, 
li, and of final ^f{ and of medial ^ n; ^uid optional gunation of 
medial i, u (except as debarred by 2,S). 

Thus, 9^1141 fr. ^; l|6vFfT (abo ^JTTT) fr. ^; IfftWof •lOrilfr.'t^; fi^rHMI 
or c^rWt^i fr. ftjl^; ^ftWf or iftftfW fr. ^J ijNWT or lf%W fr. ^. 

A. But from fi^, \(km and IJWT; from fir^, ^fTr^TT and ^5|W. 
So fir^ &C. The root mT makes iimftWT (53a. a); and initial t, ti, 
before single consonants, must be gunated ; as, ^ makes i^fiiirT. 

c. The roots in the Hst at 390. a. do not admit Guna ; thus, fti^ 
can make only f^ftfrVT* 

d. When there are two forms of the Passive Participle, there is <^teii only one of 
the Indeclinable; thus^^ makes «JW and ^ffwiC, but only •ffifWTJ c5^ c^nf 
and of^n, but only c^PdlKIl; and, vice versa, ^(543) only "^ftfTT, but ^fMi^l 
and ^yr; ?I^, iftr, but ^rf^WT and ^ft^ ; ^i^^, ^, but fTfitWT and ^JT. So, 
some roots in nasals optionally insert »,• TT5^, WWT or ifPtfr^l'; 1|^, ^B|r^ or 
^(Vii«il; IS'^, 4i«^^ or irfNWT; W{9 Al^l or llrWT or TlifiWT; >S5^, ^flrtl 
or tfffTW. 

e. The penultimate nasal, which is rejected before ta (544. a\ is optionally so 
rejected before tvd in Tl^, irs(> ^fl^y IH^ or W^y and ^V^; thus, front Tf^oones 
TJi> but tWor TW; from ^T^, vf^Tn, ^m or IHW* 

/. I^and «TV(^ optionally insert nasals ; ^W or inP» ^ffV or vfY^, 390. h» 
g. Some few roots necessarily retain their nasals 1 thus, ^K*^ makes HkHAY ; and 
^W^, ^IFWT or ^5Prft??n. 

557. The only important variation from the Past Passive Participle occurs in 
those roots, at 531. a, which take na for ta. The change of fiXoir and ur (534) 
is preserved (unless % be inserted), but tvd never becomes nvd; thus, ^, lihfty 
but ifftjWT (or ipftRT) ; from *?[> "ifW, bu^lrtm; from ^, ^p8, but ^frtT; from 
ft(^, ft[W> but ft[W; from ^, Unf, but HW or HW (556. e) ; from ^, T5»W, 
but ^^lET; from ^9 ^^y but P^itil ' having quitted' (not distinguishable in form 
from t^ni * having placed,' root VT). 

558. Observe, moreover, that verbs of cl. 10 and Causals, which reject the 
characteristic ay a before the ita of the Past Pass. Part., retain ay befbre itvd: thus, 
^nrNll' made to stand' (fr. Cans, stem^m^ni), but mi mHMi^ I 'having made tostand;;' 
f^ftinr 'thought' (fr.f^cL 10, 'to think'), but P^^irftrm * having thought,' 

a. All Derivative verbs of course assume «, and form their Indedinable Participles 
analogously to Causals ; thus, ^Wtfvf^WT (fr. Desid. of y^), and Wt^fWT (fr. 
Freq. of ^). In regard to the Atmane Frequentatives, co^cJTftlWT is formed fr. 
?5t^t|, and ^?(tftCTT fr.^^'H {ya in the latter being preceded by a consonani). 



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PAST IKDEOLlNABLB PAM10IPLE8. 229 

b. There are one or two instances of compounded roots formed with Hod; thus, 
VfjUlli^l (fr. iS), Rdmdj. i. a, ao; abo VH^W^ Rkmiy. i. 74, 23. Especially in 
Ihe case of Causals; as, fff^rvfOm* 

c. When V a, ' not/ is prefixed, tvd is always used ; as, WfiWT ' not haying 
done/ 'without having done;' Kf^WI 'not havmg giren.' 

Indeclinable Participles formed vnth jB,/roTn compounded roots. 

559. When a root is compounded with a preposition or any 
indeclinable pre6x (except V a, * not/ see 558. c\ the Indedinable 
Participle is formed by affixing if ya, and the rules for annexing it to 
the root are some of them analogous to tho86 which prevdl in other 
cases in which ya is affixed ; see the rules for forming the Special 
tenses in cL 4 (272), for Passives (461), and for the Precative (443). 

560. But if a root end in a short vowel, instead of lengthening 
this vowel, 1^^ / is interposed ; as, fr. wrftw dhi, * to take refuge* (rt. ftr 
with mi), wrf^ dhityoj ' having taken refuge ;' fr. fHf^ (rt fV| with 
fif^), ftfftw ; fr. "W|, **U* ; fW>m 9^ (rt. ^ with IP^), ^^n ; fr. ftn^, 
fVntjm. The lengthening of the radical vowel by coalition does not 
prevent this rule ; as, fr. wft at( (rt. i( with ^), isnthn atitya. 

a. nt^ 'to awake' gunates its final as in TrerFT^; ttnd fq *to 
destroy,' ' to waste,' lengthens its final as in inq^iT, T^rq^^ 

561. K a root end in long VT <{, ^ f , or 'V t^^ no change generally 
takes place ; as, &• f^, f^fTV ; fr. ^n#, ^mft^ > fr. ftn|^, f^^. 

a. If it end in long ^ f(, this vowel becomes (r, and after labial 
letters Hr; thus, fr. ^W«|, titnA4 'having scattered;^ fr. wt[ (root 
^ *to fill'), IRT^ (compare 534). 

562. Final diphthongs pass Into HfT i; as, h. >9(^> ^fWI^I (also ^if^A^; 
fir. frfiw, ^rfWuinr ; fir. IHRlt, ^BRin^. 

a. But 2f with WT makes ^iJj^H. In Epic poetry, ^ with ^Bq^ makes ^n^. 

*. fif * to throw,' 'ft * to kill/ HT * to measure,' and ^ 'to barter,' all make -iTni. 
Similarly, ^ *to decay,' -^H? ; but eft * to adhere,' -c5T^ or -ej'hl (see 390. e), 
fVg and ^ conform to the rule for the Passive (*^^9 ''W()f v(V|Mi| 'having 
redined upon/ Kiri^. i, 38. 

563. A penultimate nasal is generally rejected, as in Pkissives (see 469)^ as, fir. 
4im^^ samdsanjt WUm^ samdsqjjfas fir. inn^» IW«I (used adverbially in the 
sense ' violently'). 

a. Some few roots retain the nasal ; thus, VI V^ makes ^Vn(l^ ; and VlfiVV, 

b. ?^ ' to acquire' may insert a nasal after the prepositions W and "97 ; thus, 
IHHW* &c. (otherwise -eJWI). 

564. If a loot end ma consoiiant the general role is, t^at no change takes plaee; 



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230 PAST INDBCLINABLB PABTICIPLBS. 

as, fipom ftrftp^ nikship, ftfftpi nikshipya : from W^ (root ^n^ with H), UTO ; 
from 'ihB^(root ^^with f^), 'ft^. 

• a. But roots in ^ or ^, preceded by % or if, lengthen these vowels, as in hGi^^ 
from i^, ftre^ from '^X- 

h. Four roots in ^V^Ctv^) ^l^y ^1^9 T^) optionally reject the nasal, and interpose 
/ between the final a and ya : as, from ftPi'^, ftpm or fnfl^i. The roots ^, 
l'^, im, ^C^ "^pr, ftpiT, ^^y ^yi^, ^^, ^pi^ always reject the nasal 5 as, from 

c. ^«^ 1|^, and ^ optionally reject the 9^; but instead of interposing t, 
lengthen the final a, as in Passives (see 470) ; thus, from TRVi^y VWI^ (or 9rti«4). 

565. The changes which take place in certain roots before the ya of the Passive 
(47 1 > 47a) are preserved before ya; as, from P^WV, -JW; from 0^*1^, ^^ \ firom 
'WT^j 'ft^ \ frona H«J^^, ^^^ \ from Pqfify f^^ > from ^VT1V^> WT^'^W ; from 
VW^, Wftw; and so with all the roots at 471, 472. 

a. The roots at 390. /. have two forms; thus, fit)m^[J^comes -•nHi«4 and -^"1, &c. 

h. There are one or two instances in which an uncompounded root takes ^^ as, 
isnft 'having reverenced,' Manu i. 4; vii. 145: Mah4-bh. iii. 8017. Tl| 'having 
resided,' >fala v. 41 (frt)m ^f^); ^{IT ' having taken,' Astra-sikshd ai. 

566. In afBuung ll ya to the stems of Causal verbs of d. 10, and the 3rd class of 
Nominals (521), the characteristic VIY is generally rejected ; as, fr. inf^V^pro^o- 
dhaya, V^^Wprahodhya : fr . IWTC'I, "WA \ fr . ^'^f^, ^^^^^ ; fr . fil^TT?!, ftl^rt. 

a. It is, however, retuned when the root ends in a single consonant and encloses 
short a: thus, ft^RW 'having calculated' ('F!^ with f^); Vl*c4«l 'having 
imagined' (^If^ with ^); ^^^VT 'having narrated' (V( with ^)* and also 
sometimes in other cases; e. g. nih«4 'having conducted,' Raghu-v. xiv. 45. 

h. The final a of Frequentative stems is of course dropped, and the final ya of 
both Frequentatives and Nominals, if preceded. by a consonant; as, from colcj^s 
comes -c«»l<j^«H ; fit)m W^^^, -^A^pfl \ from WTOT, -flM^. 

Adverbial Indeclinable Participle. 

567. There is another Indeclinable Participle yielding the same sense as those 
formed with tvd and ya, but of rare occurrence. It is equivalent to the accusative 
case of a noun derived from a root, used adverbially ; and is formed by adding 
H^ am to the root, before which suffix changes of the radical vowel take place, 
similar to those required before the Causal suffix IR (481) or before the 3rd sing. 
Aorist Passive (see 475); thus, from ^ft n/, * to lead/ •iN*^ ndyam, * having led ;* 
from Vli * to drink,' hi<i«^' having drunk ;' from ^y 3fnn^; from V^, VX^^ ; frt>m 
f^^y W^ ' ^^^ ^ ' ^ ^iU/ ^»n^. It often occupies the last place in a com* 
pound ; as in the expression ^l{^c4W1ff^ 'having totally exterminated ;' and in the 
following passage from BhatU-k. ii. 11 : 

'The descendant of Kakutstha, smiling softly, repeatedly bending down the 



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:puturb passive paeticiplbs. 231 

creepers^ would pluck the blossoms ; descending to the streams^ would sip (the 
waters); seating himself on some variegated rock^ would recline in admiration (of 
the scene)/ Compare also S^akuntali,- Act V^ verse 131, m{[rl||H Hif^^ H^lfl 
'repeatedly throwing up her arms she began to weep/ Other examples are 
vfl^illf^ 'mentioning by name/ and Ifl^KliS'^' taking alive.' 

0. These Participles generally imply repetition of the action, as above, and in this 
sense are themselves often repeated ; as» ddyam, ddyam, * having repeatedly given.' 

FUTURE PASSIVE PARTICIPLES. 

568. These are gerundive in their character^ and may be called 
verbal adjectives. They may be classed under three heads : ist^ as 
formed with the suffix inq tavya (80. XVIII); 2ndly, as formed with 
mfhi aniya (80. V); 3rdly, as formed with i| ya (80. XXVIII). 
These suffixes yield a sense corresponding to the Latin Fut. Pass. 
Part in dus^ and the English able and iblCy and most commonly 
denote * obligation^ or * propriety^ and * fitness/ 

a. In some of the Latin formations with twm, the Passive sense is preserved, as 
in capHvuif nativus, coctivus. Cf. Sk. ddtavya with daHvus (dandus), iorio^; 
yaktavya with {conjjunctivus (jungendus); janitavya with genitivus (^^neiMfitf); 
dkdtavya with 0eT€Of, &c. 

Future Passive Participles formed with inq (80. XVIII). 

569. These may be formed by substituting THif tavya for m tdy 
the termination of the 3rd pers. eing. of the ist Future ; e. g. 

¥W>m IfKT ksheptd, ' he will throw,' ^h<«< ksheptavya, * to be thrown ;* ^iSr * he 
will io,' '^^n * to be done ;' fr. KfiniT * he will be,' ^fnw ' about to be ;' fr. 
^ff^^lrt^ ^ff^T (see 390. a); fr. ftrftlffT, f^fun^H. 

ObSk*— In the case of those roots ending in consonants which 
reject i, whatever changes take place before td^ the same take place 
before tavym, and the special rules at 390. a-o will equally apply to 
this suffix. 

Thns^ TVliF, T^nm (relinquendus) ; HIT, Hf^ ; "JfT, "5^^ ; Wt¥T, ^ftW^ f 

ipin, ^fnw ; ^^t^% ^It^^ ; ^rftniT or ^iwftnrr, iiftnw or ifTHftnn^ ; ffJftun, 

^{MiliW; in#Tormf^,inS^orl!Tf>Wr; andf^mCau^ 

from Desid. "yWvftin, ^VtM^Hf ; from Frequentative ^^Pmhi, ^H^IVrW ; 

from iftHftai, ^W^nW. See the rules at 388, 390, 491, 505, 513, 516. 

Future Passive Patiidples formed with ^B^rt^r (80. V)* 

570. This suffix is added directly to the root, and generally with- 
out other change than gunatioti (if Guna is admissible). 



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832 FUTUEB PASSIVE PARTICIPLBa 

Thu», fr. f^ 6*, * to gather/ '^M'iIm 6ayan{ya, ' to b^ gttthored ;' fr. ^ H^tftn ; 

fr. ^, ^wijrfhi (58); fr, fv^i ci««fl^i; fr. ^, ?ftvfhi; fr. ^?(, wit^rt^; 
fir. ^, ulirihr; fr. ^(d. 10), ^^^cilN: but >[i^» huNN; ^, ^jHN; ?{hft, 
i?1wfhi; iii^,win<NiMid winrlir; ^ji^, WMN and nhwrt^, &c. See 

390.y. /.m. 

a. A final diphthong is changed to ^ d, which blends with the 
initial a of a/^fya ; as, from 1^, Hrnftij ; from St, J|l«i1^. 

J. The root9 at 390, 390. a, of course fcrbid Gu^a ; thus, ^pRlhl 
from ^f^; J|<t«ft^ from »J, &c. 

c. As to Derivative verbs, aya is r^ected from a Causal stem, and 
a ftx)m the stems of other Derivative verbs, and ya, if a conjsonant 
precedes. 

Thus, ^H^^ from the Causal stem "wbR; ^■ftftlUlul^ from the Desid. 
Wtftni; also 'ft^pnr^, ^ftpwfN, fr. the Frequeutatlves ^ft^f ^ftjl^; and 
WiIWf(N or IRF^ fr. the Nominal 'K^m» 

RUtart Pa$9we Participle^ farmed with n (80. XX Vm). 
571, Before this suffix, as before all others beginning with y, 
certain changes of 6nal vowels become necessary. 

a. If a root end in w <£, or in ;f e, ^ at, ^ 0, changeable to VT <f, 
this vowel becomes ^ e (compare 446); e. g. 

From 1? mdy *' to measuve,' RlT meya, *' to be measured/ ' n^asurable ;* fr. ^ hd^ 
* to quit,' ^ heffa; fr. 'm dhyai, *to meditate,' VW dhytya : fr. J 'to be weary/ 
^; fr. ^ *to give,' ^ * to pity/ and ^ *to cut/ ^. 

i. If in ^ t, ^ f, 7 tt, or "^l ti, these vowels are gunated ; e, g. 
From fw A', ^ rfeya (in the Veda ^TDR with T^); but ^rt with ^, -trt^. 

But the Guna "vft is changed to av^ and sometimes ^ e to ay^ 
before ya (as if before a vowel); thus, from ^J^, H«l; fix)m ftf *to 
conquer,* ipir ; from nft * to buy/ WK ; from ftl * to destroy,* n«i. 

And the Guna isft passes into dv before y, especially when it is 
mtended to lay emphasis on the meaning; as, from ^, ^m; from 
^, ^rr^; from ^, hibi|. But ^^to shake* makes ^. 

c. If in 15 fi or ^ fi, these vowels are vriddhied ; e. g. 

From ^ 'to do/ IW^; from ^ 'to support/ Hrt (also ^, see 572); fr. ^ *ta 
choose,' ^rt (also ^W)- 

cT. The roots at 390. r. drop thdr finals (^hQ, i^fft^ir). 
. 573. Sometimes if a root end in a short rowel no diange takes place, but i is 
interposed, after the analogy of the IndeoUnable Participle formed wil^ y<i at 560 ; 



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FUTURE PASSIVE PABTICIPLBS. 23S 

80 that the stem of the Future Participle is often not distinguishable from the 
Indeclinable ; thus^ from ftl/t, 'to conquer/ fw^jitya (alsoj^ya), * conquerable ;* 
from ^ siUf *to praise/ ijW stvtya, 'laudable/ from ^ ifcr^ *to do/ ^ kfitya 
(as well as wA), 'practicable/ from ^ 'to go/ fVT 'to be gone/ from WTJ 'to 
honoYir/ VI^W ' to be honoured/ 

573* If a root end in a single consonant with a medial a, the latter may be 
yriddhied ; as, fr. 1(1 grah, ' to take/ UW grdkya ; fr. ?f^' to be ashamed/ Wl \ 
fr. W^ 'to love/ ^ifWT : but not always; as, fr. 5R|, 1{rW; fr. ^, BIT; fr. ''f^, 
'W^l fr. 'n^, VM : and not if the final is a labial (except V{,y V^y ^''O J ^» ^* 
»m, Wf^l fr. ^n?^ ^^; fr. W^'to receiye»' W^ (and f5»WI). The root ll^ 'to 
be mad' makes <nir after prepositions, but otherwise HV. Similarly, 1^ and ^• 
The root Hl^' to serve' makes HilT and HFlf (see 574). 

o. If with a medial ^« or 7 «, these are generally gunated; as> from ^{IT » M^ ; 
from f^> HIT; but ^^9 ^S^ • and sometimes only optionally ; as, ^ makes ^H 
as well as Whv; and ^, ^ and ^fhlT. 

b^ If inth a medial ^ fi, no change generally takes place ; as, fr. ^9^» ^^'pR > 
fr. '^m, fSR> fr. ^Ji^^i ^iT (after ^R and ^, ^^)l fr. T^> ^5ir (also IHT^) : 
but fr. ^^ ^f or ^^. 

c. The roots at 390, 390. a. are, as usual, debarred from Guna ; thus, ^pHT» &c. 

574. A final ^6 may sometimes be changed to "^ ib, and final ^J to ^^, when 
the Past Passive Pkirticiple rejects is as, from ^T^piKf, mWipdhya and VJ^pdSifa]; 
from ^pB^t ^t^ or ^^* When the final is unchanged, as in pd6ya, the obligation 
implied is sud to be more absolute; but the two forms may have distinct meanings; 
thus, hhojya (fr. hhuj) means 'to be eaten,' but hhogyOy^Xo be enjoyed ;' vd6ya (fr. 
iMi^) means ' proper to be said,' but vdhya, ' that which is actually to be said.* 

o. Again, W^ (fr. 71^) is used after the prepositions f^ and IT, otherwise MH4. 
Similarly, ^Iftiir (fr. ^^) after f^ and IT9 and Vl^ at ^IHI (fr. '^^) after the same 
prepositions* 

b. Other anomalous changes may take place, some of which are similar to those 
before the ya of P&ssives; thus, fr. Q^^ ^ as well as ITHir (472); fr. ^, TV 
(471, also ^H); fr.^,^(47i); fr.^T^,f^(473-c); fr-^'todig/^OT; fr. 
^^'to praise/ ^9^ or :^^; fr.«m*tofry/«i$orW^ir; fr. f5^, ¥«l or "ifTW* 

e. The roots beginning indth^J^ai 390. 1, have two forms; thus, 'ITOor «i^hi«4. 

575. Many of these Participles are used as substantives ; thus, ^TVT n. ' speech ;' 
hHiT n. 'food/ 4tnn f. 'a harlot;' ^mi f. ' sacrifice;' ^N n. *a ditch;' HWT f. 
* a wife,' fr. ^ ' to support,' &c. 

576. The suffix ya may be added to Desiderative, Frequentative, and Nominal 
stems in the same way as anfya (570) ; thus, ^wHw, ''ft^il^Tf ^^|4> TfTOI. So 
also, from 9^R9 ' a pestle,' <|fl^ ' to be pounded with a pestle/ 

a. %( a added to a root after gunation (if Guna is possible) givea 
the sense of a Future Passive Participle when in composition with 

Hh 



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234 PARTICIPLES OF THR SECOND FUTUKE. 

^, ^y and |Wf^; aB, ^T ^ easy to be done/ |«vt ' difficult to be 
done/ JHT ^ difficult to be crossed.' See 80. I» 

b. Again, a suffix %9hm added to a fiew roots has the same force 
as the suffixes of the Future Esssive Pftrtidple ; e. g. il^ffVlil ^ fit to 
ripen^ or * to be cooked/ fil^fcW * to be broken/ 

577. The inflexion of Future Passive Participles IbUovvs that of 
adjectives at 187 * thus, ic^«i| ^to be done;' N. sing. m.f. n. karta- 
vyaSy 'd, -am. Similarly, karatf^ijfos^ 'dy -^m; and kdryas, -d, -atiu 

PARTICIPLES OF THE SECOND FUTURE. — FORMATIOlf OF STEM. 

578. These are not common. l%ej are of two kinds, etther Parasmai-pada or 
Atmane-pada; and, like Preaent Participlea, are most easily formed bj dianging 
^Vi% anii, the temiDation of the 3rd pL of the and Put., into ^n^ at, ftir ^e 
Par. ; and by changiog VW anU into IPflW mndnm, for ^e Aim. ; tbns, from ^rf!^ 
^r*n karishyanti and llft^Tm karishyante, .'tiiey will do,' come ^iftni^ktariMkyMt 
and vr<^i|im kamhymndiiM (58), 'about to do/ firon tbe Paaaivs and Fot ^^9^ 
'they will be said' comes ^erv^mv 'about to be said' (see 84. L and 8o.XXVU). 

a. In their inflexion (see 141), as well as in their forma^n, they rssemble 
Present Participles ; see 524 and 526. 

Obs.— Cf. Greek in iooao^fjLivazszddsya'fndna'S, 

PARTICIPIAL NOUNS OP AGENCY. 

579. These have been ah-eady incidentally noticed at 80, 83, 84, 85, 
87, As, however, they partake of the nature of Participles, and are 
often used as Participles (see Syntax, 909-911), a fuller explanatioD 
of them is here given. They may be classed under three heads : ist, 
as formed from the root ; andly, as fiurmed from the same stem as 
the 1st Future; 3rdly, as formed from the root by changes similar 
to those which form the Causal stem. 

580. The stem of the first class is often identical with the root 
itself; that is, the unchanged root is frequently used at the end of 
compounds as a noun of agency, / being added if it ends in a short 
vowel ; see examples at 84. III. and 87. 

a. Another common noun of agency is formed fi^m Uie root by 
affixing V a (as in the first group of conjugational classes at ^57), 
before which a, Giina, and rarely Viiddhi, of afinal vowel is required; 
as, from ^ji, * to conqu^,' m j^a, ' ccmquering/ Medial vowels 
are generally unchanged ; as, from ^ vady * to say,' l^ vada, * saying ;' 
from ^ tudy * to vex,^ gif tudoy * vexing' (see 80, 1). 
: .&» And final mi dy w^^ am^ or ^ an are dropped ; as, from i;t 



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PABTICIPIAL NOUNS OF AGENCY. 235 

dd, *to give,^ 5 da, 'giving;^ from im^ffam, *to go/ n ffa, 'going;' 
from Wljany *to be born/ M JOy 'being bom/ Their deolension 
foDows that of adjectives at 187. 

58 1. The stem of the sec^Mid class (see 83) may be always inferred 
from the 3rd pers. sing, of the ist Fut. of Primitive verbs, the vowel 
^ri being substituted for the final vowel rf, the nominative case being 
therefore idetttical with the 3rd pers. sing, of that tense (see 386). 

Thus, HhRT bhoktd, 'he wiU eat/ Hi^ bhoktfi, 'an ester;' ntWJ 'be wiU fight/ 
'it^^ *a fighter;' ^^ifwi 'he will ask/ 'Tlftl^ 'an asker;' TTtel 'he will bear/ 
m^ ' a bearer>' &c. They are inflected at 197. 

582. The stem of the third class is formed in three waiys. 

a. By adding ^ tn to the root (see 85. II), before which suffix 
changes take place similar to those required before the Causal suffix. 
6^(481,482,483); as, from^j^^wfti^Mrtn, *adoer;^ from ^(488), 
"mfffB^^ffhdHfiy ,*a killer / from ^, ^rftl^ ' a sleeper :' y being inserted 
after roots in d (483); as, from in, infin^ 'a drinker,'* from ^, 
ipifvi ddyin, * a giver.* They are inflected at 159. 

b. By adding ^m aka ta the root (see 80. 11), before which suffix 
changes take place analogous to those before the Causal aya (481, 
482, 483); as, fr. ify mt* kdrakoj ^a doer,* * doing;* fr, ;jft, ^^m^ 
ndyaka, * a leader,* ' leading;* fr. a|, ijT?^ grdhaka ; fr. fiftw, ^ffWl; fr, 

^> Via* ; fr. jw, j^; fr. np^, npns; fr. H^, 'F^*; fr. ^WT, ^rm^. 

ff. By adding %r^ ana to some few roots ending in consonants 
(see 80. IV), after changes similar to those required in forming the 
Causal stem; as, fr. «fs^, in^ fumdana, ^rejoicii^;* fr. ^, J[TO 
'vitiating;* fr. wv, ^jt^ 'cleansing.* 

The inflexion of the last two follows that of adyectives at 187. 

EXAMPLES OF INFLECTED VERBS. 
583* The following tables give a synopsis of the inflexion of the 
Friioitive forms of the ten roots: '^budliy cl. I, *to know;* ^nfi/, 
d. i^ ^ to dance ;* f^ rfii, cl. 6^ * to point out ;* ^ y«{;, cL 10, * to 
unite;* fl^ vid^ cL 2, * to know ;* ^ JAfi, cL 3, * to bear ;* fi|?f bMd, 
cl. 7, * to break ;* f^ <ft, cl. 5, * to gather ;* iTf^ tan, cL 8, * to stretch ;* 
^p^, cL 9, * to purify :' classes i, 4, 6, and 10 ; 2, 3, and 7 ; and 5, 
7, and 9, being grouped together as at 257—259. Then the Passive 
forms of these ten roots are given, followed by the Present tense of the 
Causal, Desiderativci and Frequentative forms, tmd the Participles, 

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CONJUOATfOH Of WB Y»B8 ^f^^^T^ BB/ 949 

PAB^aHAi-pApA (^ee jji;)- 

584. Al^bQugti tbis ¥oat b«lo|igt tQ ^ 3> itf in^iiUP^ is ^xhibHe4 |im> \>f*^ 
because it is sometiines used as ^ au^dli^iy^ fkn4 boQause it is desirabfe to study 
its inflexion together with that of the other substantive verb ^hhdf *to be' (585), 
which s«ppUes manjpof the tenses in whic^m^ is deibctivt* TwaoHker ix^ are 
Bometivies emplQj94 m siibstai^t^ve verbs* with tl\e sense ' to be/ viz. infT q1. i, 'to 
stand ' (see 269, 587), and m^ cL a, * to sit' (see 317. a). Indeed* the root ^ as, 
here inflected, is probably onlj an abbreviation of ^RT^ ds. 

The cognate languages have two roots similar to the Sanslqnt for Ihe substantive 
verb 'to be.* Gf.^andea-inGreek, et(Mm)and^(yte')inLatai} and observt 
how the dStbtmA pavts of the Sanskfit verbs oonMpond to the Qmik wl h^i 
thus, asm, an, asHj if*'lMf io'ffi^ iari; sum, es, est. Cf. also smiii with sunt: 
dstam, dstdm, with ^aroy, ^on^y; dsma, 4sta, dsan, with ^fi€y> ^are, li<ra», &c. 

Potential, * I ma^ be/ &c. 

BIHO. DUAL. PLUBAL. 

9n*(8y<6ii Wr^sydta W^sydma 
^fPt^syds WTK^^sydiam T^IKW sydta 
^Iffff^sydt W^n^^sydtdm ^^syus 

Imperative, * Let ne he J 
WWffHasdid 'wiq asdva mRHoM^iia 
^f^ edki ^Sn^ stam W sta 

^n^astu W^stdm WKsantu 

Perfect*/ 1 bave been/ &c. 
Pabashai. Atmans. 

Vnr dsa Hrf^ dsma ^flfWHdsma 
MlUi^dsUha fUmWidsathus ^KV8 dsa 
WW dsa WV^f^dsatus W^^^dsus 

Obs.— Th^ root its, *to be/ has no Denv^tiyc fprms* and onljr two J^jirtifiiples, 
vis. in^fo/, Pres. Par., ITR sdna, Pres. Atm. (see 534, 526). The Special tenses 
have an Atmane-pada* which 19 not |i9e4 u^ess t)|e p)^% is compounded with 
prepositions. In this Pada T A is substituted for the root ^i ist ^ing. Pres.^ and 
^ « is dropped before dh in and pi. ; thus, Pres. he, se, stej svahe, sdthe, sdte; 
smahe^dkve,sate: lmptdsi,dsthds,dstaj dsvahi,dsdthdm,dsdtdm; dsmahi, ddkvam, 
dsata: Pot. sfya, sithds, s(ta; skald, sfydthdm, sfydtdmj s6naki, stithvam, errant 
lmpv.astti,sva,stdmj asdvahai,sdthdm,sdtdm; asdnuihai,dkvam,satdm: see 337. 

^ The Perfect of as ia not used bj itself, but is empbyed in fbrming the Perfect 
of CSaosals aad some o^er verbs, see 385, 490; in which ease tbe Atmane may be 
natd* llie other teAses of Of are wanting, and ve suppUed Ibom AM at 585. 

K k 



Present, ' I am.' 


} 


FIBS. SHrO. DUAL. 


FLUBAL. 


i«t, Wft» asms WS^ soas 


WPf^jmoM 


snd, vAl asi ^^ sthas 


BTs^Aa 


2^, Wf^ asH ^t^^ St as 


irfHrtofih* 


hnfierftU, *I was.' 


^nHV^diMm W^dssa 


mmiCfma 


^ITlft^ii£r WB(l^dstam 


^[^dsta 


^Vii\ddt 'Wn^dstdm 


wra^cCfoii 



W^dse ^\^^dxioal^^\^^dtmdke 
tnftra(imAe ^IT^Im dsdth^ Wlfef^ dsidkve 
Win dse WWXndsdte Wftntdsire 



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25d 



INFLEXION OF THE STEM. OF VERBS. 



Group L Class I. 

EXAMPLES OF PRIMITIVE VEEBS OP THE FIRST CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 261. 

585. Root ^ bhi. Infin. )lf%3'( bhavUum^ ^ to be' or * become.' 

Pabashai-pada. Present Tense/ 1 am' or * I become.' 

naS. 8INO. DUAL. PLUBAL. 

pnd> H^fe bkavasi H'^n^^ bJuwatkas im bhaoatha 

3rcl, ¥nfff bhavoH HWII^ bhmatas >^:^!f^ bkamnti 



VHII^ abhacam 
HMCII^ abfuxeoi 

^f^m^bhaoes 
>nf(bkaoet 

WXtfHbhaodni 
>nbhaca 



Impeirfeci^ *I was.' 
"Wn^^ abhofodoa 
HH^ f|l^ dbhacatam 

Potential^ * I may be.' 
H^ bluneoa 
^^n^W^bha»etam 
nkw^bhaoetdm 



^WS^im dbhandma 
immi abhax>ata 

HkHbhaoema 



Imperative f * Let me be.' 



Perfecty * I have been,' *I was.' 
"VfHi babh^a ^V^^^ 6ii6Ai{rfPa W^|[f^ babhMma 

i^r«/ JPb/ttre, 'I shall or will be.' 
HftniT% bhaoUdsm ^frm^ bhavitdsvas Hf^KV^f^ bhtwUdsmtu 
Hftjilfti bhaoitdti Nfttfim^ bkavUdstkoB Hf^HT^ bkaoUdstha 

wf%1fT bkamtd HPlfllO 6Aaot^a» HfifilK^ bhamUtras 

Second Future, *I shall or wUl be.' 
Hf^nrfiv 6ikamAyi6itt Hf^^lTl^ bhavishydvas M(H^\H^^ bkaoishydmes 
^n|V|(Vl bhamskyati Mt^^^^ bkavishyathas Hftn^TV ^AootfAyo/Aa 
H(^^r« 6Aa9ttAya(i ^vftnmv^ bhaviihyatas Hf^mf^ bhaviskyanti 



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CONJUGATION OP YEBBS. — GROUP I. CLASS I. 



261 



Aortaty ^I was* or * had 
V^ abh4$ ^I^PV'^ ahh4tam 



/ &C. 



Precafwe or Benedictive^ * May I be.* 
^Mi«*\ bh^ydtam 93^19 bh4ydsva ^jJWft bhiydgma 

^?n^ bk^di ^|?nin^ bh&^dstam ^fjmS bkdjfdsta 

H^bh^dt ^}7rmn^ bkkfdstthn 9?nf^ bMtydsus 

CandUional, (H) * I should be/ 

WN Ol m^ abhaviskf/at ^Mf^f^W^abhamskyatdm WrfV^P^ a5AaowAyafi 

586. Atm ANE-PADA« Present Tense^ * I am,* &o. 

^ bhaoe M^l^f 6AatMfbaA« HHH^ 6AatM6iiaAe 

Hw bhaoate ^HT 6Aapef< HWm 5Aapafi/« 

Imperfect y *I was.* 

^■W oftAove Vnnifl[ abhavdvahi IW^TWfil o&AavimaAt 

^PUnVt^ oftAopa^A^i^ ^BH^ ^i^^ abhavethdm W^^H^^abkavadhvam 

WnW abhavaia ^M^ifP^ abhavetdm ^nAm dbhavanta 



^^^^bhapeJfa 

^Hm^^bhavethds 

V(^Mbhaveta 



^bhavid 
Wqfgi bhavoiva 
h^ni^bhacatdm 



Potential^ *I may be,* &c, 
H^qf^ bhavevahi vi^HJ^ bhavemaki 

H^^THnv^ bhaveydthdm ^^S9>( bhaoedkoam 

M^M\n\^ bhaoeydtdm HMi*( ^ibapfrafi 

Imperative^ * Let me be.* 
^^Nf bhavdvahm WTR^ 5AaiM^Aat 

H^^n^ bhavethdm ^fWRI^ 5Aavad%tMim 

Hq in*^ bhavetdm MMHilH^ bhavtmtdm. 



Perfecty * I have been/ * I was/ &c. 
"V^ babhwe ^^f^^ &a6&fn7toaA« ^V^ff^HV^ 6a&At«inmaA« 

W^ MAm^e ^9!^ babh4vdte i|)ff^ fto^Mb^ 

K k a 



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£52 CONJUOATKH^ OF yBl»i.«-M}tU)UP t. (^ASS L 

Iir$t Future, 'I flhall or nviH be/ &c. 

Hf^TW1% bhavitdte ^r^AIHI^ bhatUdtdthe HfvWld hhomtddkn 

Second FiUure, *I shall or will be/ &c. 
^rf^V^ bhavishye M}H^\^\ bhavishydvahe Wt^\M% bhatnikydmake 

^vfV^W bhaoiskydte MftlW bhaoiskyete Hf^[^(m bhacishyante 

Aoristy *I was' or *had been/ &c; 
imf^ d^AomAf IDff^l^ d6^k««^JtotoAi unfiling a^ilaowibiMiib' 

PreWffW or BaietSeMtH?, ' I widi I lAaj be.* 
^if^rAll bhaoishiya Hf^pft^f^ ftAovifA^oJU Kftfifll^f^ bhcBouhimald 

CofuKtumal, (If) *I should b^/ &c. 
IWftii abkaviihye ^Mf^raT^rf^ a&Aavif Ay^a&t ^WftuwHl abhatiihydmaki 

^M(k^^\^abkavi$kyatkds Wl^^fw^m^^abkaviikyetkdm ImDiiIVII^ abkaviikyadkv^m 
^MfTmf ii6Aavi9ily«la 'n^iP^^ni*^ a6AtrMy«^(6n IWPl'MWI abkamskfania 

Pftsinve (461), Pre^* >^, ^fj^ij, &c.; Aer. yd nng. (475) IM1N. 
Causal (479), free. )imiVTftf» vn^RVffr, &c,; ^or. (492) irtblV^, &c. 
Deriderative form of Causal (497) rwHl^PimilVj, &c. Desiderative 
(498), Pres. ^f]^> ^S^yrt*^* &c. Frequentatire (507), Pre*, wt^, 
wWtfiT or *wriW*f*. Participles, P^e*. n^ (524); Pa*/ Pto*. ^ 
(531); Pa9l Inded. «?it (55«)> -«?» (559); ^^- -P«^». ^<^1W (569), 
^^'nfti? (570), W» or H«il (571)- 

Obs. — ^The followiDg examples are given in the order of tbeir final letters. 
^87. Root mnr (special stem fwT, 269, %6i). a). Iff. ^9IT3>( ^ to 
stand.* Par. and Atm. Pres. finnftl, ftnrftr, finrfir; fifing, ftim^, 
fiflW^; urtW^ frt^M, fiffffw. Kim, fro, fwTO, fww^; filWlF, fllW, 
fifw; firtrt^, ftfWft, fwv^. /fwg/*. 'wflnF'^, ^rfin^, &c. ^tm. ivflrl, &a 
Po/. nijii*^, Qiv^, firdi^^; fliw, &c. Atm. fnir^ fiii^i!^, fifiif ; fii^^, 
firnnn'^, &c. /itipr. fvirf^y fir?, fwij; fi¥W, &c. Atm. fii%, fimri 
fTrtwi'^; firvnf , &c. Perf. irW^ (373), irfFnr or w^onr, ire^; ifi^qwi 

* Thmtt I>etivative verbs wiU be inflected at fidl si 703, 705, 706, 707. 



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COKJTTOATtOK OF TBKBa— GBOUP 1. CLASS 1. 263 

tUf^f 1V^T|^; tftW, IW, inEJ^- Atm. Ifd, nfH^y ^W; >fi5W^j 
iftrti^, W^f^; nfiwi^, wfiwd, Wfi^* 1st Fut, ¥HMi\UMi WniTPlf> &c. 

Xtau ^nwi^^ ^itin%9 &c. ofirf Fkii. ini4flifti^ mi^mOH) ^nreifify &c. 

Aim* ftT^y 9nW%i KWn^^ &c. ^or. (438) WW^, ^^Flf^, '•WIH^; 

*ww, wwnf^, trwiii*(; ^w«w> nn^rnr^ ^wj^- ^tm. (438. <^ 421. d) 
wftsfPt, ^vfi9rVr^» ^iflrtii; vfitfuffS!, <il^iwn*^, -■iid!*(; ^ftWMiJ\[, 

&C. Cbfidl VIA 191^9 'WHfWP^> &6. Aim. V4ffl^, ^(Nmm^^ &c. 
Pass., Pre$. ?rt^ (465) 5 -/ior. 3rrf *insf; ^mnf^. Caus.^ Pres. wn* 
«ilfti, -^5 Xo»*. mrilAfy^^ trfWfMi D^^. ftwnfll, &^. Frftq* iitfA of 
iT^ftl 6r irranftr. Piurt, Pr«^. flltn^(l4i. Obs. 1); Piw/ Piwa fror; 
Past Indetl fSww, -«m> *ftii; JW. Paw. ^WH^, ^Wrth?, ^. 
58S» Root n? (special stem flnr> 269)* /i|^. m^^ 'to smell.^ 

Par. Pres. ftrmfti, ftmftr, &c. I»y^. wftnn^, ^iftnR(;i 8cc. Pou 
ftli^, fl|i^> 4c. impr. ftrarflv (58)> ftni> &c. Pe?/. mft (373)> 
^flnr or intnTy wn ; iiftnc, ww^, ^nf|^; iftw, ini> ^np^^ 1*^ -fW. 
wrtlpi, vT^iTtay fibc. 2*irf .FW. HMiRiy inmAi» &o. ^dr. (438) ^TOP^, 
wiii[, wvTi(^; wirv, wvnn^y wfnn^; ^ww^mnw, 'w^. O^ by 433, 
^twf^fv^, tntrift^y wwrtrti^; wnftw, wwft(f^> -ftwn^; wnftw, *fiwp, 
-fiif^- Pv'ea. m^lTm[> W^lf^, &c. Or ^^ra^» &c. Cof^. VHv^i^y 
inrr9l^,&(^. Pass., P^w. 111^(465. a)} -4dr^ ^frf^. wnftr. CJaus,, 
Pre9. WifMlOl ; ildr. vf^HU*^ or IBjftffVltn^* Des* ftfimiftT^ IVeq. 

^Wft, nmrftr or nr^. Ptot., Pi^t. ftnii^; P«^ P<wt. *w or nw; 

P<w/ IndecL WW?, *««} *W. Pa#*. "m^, WlN> ^. 

589. Root ^ (special stem ftnr^ 269)* Jii^. in|>( ' to drink.' Par. 
Pre$. fVpnftl, ftwftl, &c Jiwp/. ^if^, lirfWl(, &c. Pot. fqf^, 
ft^, &C. Imjw. f^itfif, ftw, &c. P^f/. (373) ^, tifini or xiWl, 

aarf JW. tfrmfif ) w^ir%> &c. -4dr. (438) mr^, v^i^, ^WTn^; ^wnr, 
iWiii'^, ^nmfp^; viw, iwtw, ^tj'H* Pt^t. 4ii^, 4<^^» &c. (]imd. 
wwren^, vm^q^, &c. Pass., Pre*. ^ (465); -^^. 3»'rf «»y* ^WtN 
(475). Caus.,P^e*.irnwiftl,-^; -4«r.^rttt*^(493.e). Des. f^RnrtA. 
iVeq. ^^, m^ or ^qrofif . Part., Pres. ftwn^; Pa*/ Paw. ^ (533. *); 
Pa9t IndecL trtWT, -^*m; Put. Pass, t^nw, ^infttr, ^. 

590. Root fti (special stem im ^ 263). />|/1 ^j^ * to conquer.' Par.* 

* ftr is not generaUj used in the Atmane, excepting with the piepoBitions vi or 
pard. See 786. 



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254 CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GBOUP L CLASS 1. 

Pre$. niiiPvy inrf^» inrfw; *f*ii^^, ^w^, inw^; iniw^, iwi, 
wiPTif, vi|i(«^. Pot. i^ip^, fi^» 1^; n^, wnf^, iR?nfl[i iwi, 

ImW, n4gt^. Impv. ^Hlftf , IW, ^HIJ ; 1419, Wnf^, nMm*\ ; WW, iraw, 

ini^, P«yi fulfill (368, 374. b)y (^^lt^^ or ftnni, finifi ; W*hn (374)> 

9iAiM^9 ififwr^, iJmO; ihniw^, innw, ^hnr^. 2nd -FW. ^^rfti, 
ir^rftVy imOi; ilm^^^, iNnw[, ntii^; inw!^, ^■ni, ^ir«*. Aor, 
^A^^^ (4^0), n^ift^, ^iw^fh^; ^w^, w^fi^, ii^vfi^; iw^» ^^, 
ww^. Prec. ifl4|i4ii^y iiN!^9 ifNin^; ifhir^, ifliiw^, ifrTOffT^; WIhivi, 
ifhirar, iImi^^^. Cond. ii^ii^y ww^i^y ^iw^m^; h^'mi^, ^i^^nn^, 
^r^iq^n^; VfimHy v^inr, ^iw^rs^. Pass,, Pres. irt^, &c. ; Aor^ 
yrd ring, ^aRfrfir. Caus., Pres. winnf'f ; Aor. viflimi^. Des. finit^Tfiv. 
Freq. iNA^, ^(^ or iNr^Aflr, Part, Pres. im(} Peat Pass, ftw; 
Past IndecL ftlrfT, -ftrw; Put. Pass, inw, iRFfHl, ihl or ftrw or m 

a. like fif may be conjugated id. I^f, ^t^ ' to kad/ But the 
Causal is ^|i|i||(i|; Caus., Aor. wfhnn^; Des. finfhnf^. In Epic 
poetry the Perfect is sometimes ^nrRPir for fiprni, and the %nd Fktt^ 
TlftnmfH for ^unfiT (especially whep preceded by the prep, w), 

591. Root f9? (special stem ^qn), Ji}/*. ^^^ ^to smile.' ^tm. 
Pres. Fl^, W^y &c, Iiwfi/; v^, vmiivii^, &c. Pot. w^, wk^n% 
Slc. Impv. ^, WW, &c. P«/. (374. e) ftrf^*, fWifftl^, flBrf^ ; 
ftif^ifftmt, ftrftroi^, ftlftRiHT^; ftiftRftw^, ftrfMild or -f^, ftrfW^. 
ist Fut. ^in%, i^in%, &c. 7,nd Fat. ^^, f^ii|%, &c. -^or. iRf^MW, 
v^ifm, w^^; v4)(^f^y iHWMiiii*^, -innn'^; n4i^(^, ^1^5^, ^i^Mir. 
Prec. ^ifhr, &c. Cond. irt^, &c. Pass., Pres^ vX(^ ; Aor. yrd sing. 
^mnf^. Caus., Pre*. ^niniTftr or ^innnfil; Aor. ufa i min or nftumi^ ^ 
Des. (ViwOil^. Freq. iWft, %^wT <m* %wnftfi|. Pwt^, Ptes. mi|i4M ; 
P(w/ P(w*. fiwir; Pfl*/ /iirfect f^RiWr, -f^m; Fut. Pass, ^iw, 

59 a. Root *« (special stem -j^). Jn/1 '^tg'^ 'to run.' Par, Pres. 
ijf^lTfti, "j^^rf^, ^[;wfii; "5^1^, "5^^, ^[^ni^; "fWi^, "51^, ^jc^ftr. Impf^ 
W5^, W5^, &c, Po/. "5^^, "S^j &c. Jmjpv. "J^^ (5^)* 'S'* ^^^ 
P«/. yjm, jijiir, 55m J 51^ (369), 51^^ (374- ^)> fg^^i 515^, 
5^, J5f^« I*' Fut. "^ftlTTfERt anrf JW. 'jtmftf, "jt^lfti, &c. AoTx 

* When f^ is prefixed, the Perfect is fttfttfiw^ against 70, 



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CONJUGATION OP VBBBS. — GROUP I. CLASS I. 255 

^^55^(44o.o),^yr^,^^; ^^i^^^ ^'S^^y ^ 51^ > ^51^» 

1^1^^, ngf^pr^. Prec. 'I^rnn^, f!'^* ^* Cond* ^^5^^. Pass., 
Pre*, wi; Aor. 3rd sing. w^th. Caus., Pre*, •jrrnftf ; Aor.^s^^f^ 
or nOji^^i^. Des. JT^rfk* Freq. '(^^j ^IjIfH or ^[hj^ftr. Part, 
Pres.i;^; Past Pass, "^i PastlndecL-^,-^; I\a.Pass.i(amy 

a. Like 7 may be conjugated ^ (sometimes written ^). Inf. 
^ft^ ' to flow/ 

593. Root 9 (special stem f^). Inf. f|i( ^ to seize/ ^ to take.* 
Par.andiCtm. P^e^.^nfll^ Atm. f^, fxi, frii^ ; fTI^, &c. Imp/, 
v^TT^y in^t^, ^i^tiii^; vfijiy&c. i^tm* ing^y vf c^i^, v^ur; iifx:i^r^» 

&C. Pot. f^ini[« Jitau ft'l, it^, &c. Impv. fnflj (58), ft, &c. 
Atm. 1^, ft^, &c. Per/, ^flt, Hf^ (370, a), HfTT; nfpr, ff^, 
wff^; nfff, wf , ii|^* Atm. n^, nff^, nt; wff^, irp^, wfn^; 
Wfl'lWf 'rfp^ or iirtf, ilffi. I*/ J^/. f#lftR. Atm. f3lt> ffttity &c. 
Jwrf /W. fft:iqif)f. Atm. ffti^, ffni, &c. Aor. Wft^y Wgnflf^^ 
Wfrth^^; '''ST^f ^Jllt'^> ^^ili*\5 Hfl^f ^'^it, ^»?lf^. Atm. v^f^, 

«fiq!^, ^ifH; ^Bf^rtf , iifirgin, nf^mr^; ^ir«rff> ^w^^, ^rfw- 
P^ec. ffiini9(. Atm. ^^, f^^T^, &c. Cond. m^ftV{. Atm. 
^ifft^, Wjftcinm^, &c. Pass., Pre*, f^; ^or. 3rrf sing. ir|Tft. 
Cans., Pre*, ip^^nf^, -^; Aor. W^tfT^. Des. fnfMrfir, -V* Freq. 
liKl^, ^•lt^W«» or irthpftfil or frftf^fir or ntWii or irft- or nffl. 
Ptort, Pres. ifT3(j Pass. fpi«ira; Past Pass, jpi; Past Indecl fWT, 
•^ ; J^. Pa**, ft^, ftflft^r frt. 

594. Root ^ (special stem ^Rt)* /^* ^'I'l. ^ ^ remember.^ Par. 
and Atm. Pres. W^n^. Atm. ^. Itnpf. H^lti^, W9IT?G(» &c. 
Atm. im^« Pot. wk^<^ Atm. ^ibl, &c. /f?3pt;. 19?TT% (58), Atm* 

^, wc^, &c. P«/. fr^iTT, ^ra^ (370. a), fr^ntj B^?ft^, ^mr:^, 
ir9it|^; '4iwft.H, ^w?t, fiwij^. Atm. ^tm., nwTCf, ^rat; ^wfi;^^, 
HWil^, iWtnJ ; 4iwrm^> ^Rifftw or -ft^, n^ru. 1*^ Fut. vi^iIVh. 
Atm. ^irtlf . wd Fvt. ¥^{Km\[H. Atm. ^Hfln^. Aor. ^mn^, &c. 
(see 9 at 593). Atm. V9}f>r, H^^ (see f at 593). Prec. ^iftra«^. 
Atm. ispfhl or ^irfMhl. Cime^. WHtmif^. Atm. ^wnfti^. Pass., Pres. 
^nif; Aor. yrd sing, wmtft.. Cans., Pre*. ?HKinftf, -^ ; -4or. inwrci^* 
Des. f9^. Freq. 'm^y TlT?iffS or ^ifHOfH. Part., Pres. ^TO(^; Pa*/ 
Pass. ^ ; Pa*/ IndecL ^RiIt, -ijw ; jFW. Po**. vA^, WTs(hr, ^RT§. 

595^ Root % (special stem ^). /9|/*. Jft^ ^ to call.^ Par. and 
Atm. Pres. 3[niT^. Atm. 3|^. Imp/* ^onr^^ &c. Atm. ^m. 



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256 CONJUGATION OF VKBB8.— OBOUP I. CLASS I. 

Pot. df^nv^. Atm, 51^. In^. ipnhl. JCtm. 1^. P^f* (373* *) 

nw> »l«r«w or ^piim, ^pstf ; !lf<^» U^^» ^^W; f|hH, ^w, 

^jNd or -fti^, Ijf^. i«^ i^. vinft>i- -^to. 3iTn%. a»rf JW, 
;fr^qT9f « iftm, ^t^. -^or, (438. c) lOfH, mr^, m^; ^i^w, ^»iin, 

^mH* ^Wrtf > ^3^«i^^» vapr. Or ^ofrfv (434X ^3|wrw[, V9W> 
141^ ns> ^■3|T^iiii*(, nsfRrnn^; iu|iwf)|, 'i^rv^, ^iQliinr. Pree^ 
f^m^. Aim. afnfN. (^mT. ^ofi^. Atm. fi2|T«l. Pai^s. f^ii^ 
(4^5»^); ^(^' 3rd Mnf.'w^jfn or iKOftf^w or ww^ or ^BQ^ vmifW. 
5P^or;|Tftrni(474.a). Caua^Pre#.3|WiTfil{483.A); .^. 5ii^[!Pl«(. 
Dob. ^Sf^rfki ^^. Preq. Wt^9 iftftfif or vtf^Aftl. Pwt, Prei. 
^f^^J Pa$i. f^mw; Pa«* Pa#f, p; Pofl Jvd^ci. piTT, -ft; Fut. 
Pass, ifxw^f W^^f %^» 

a. ^ (special atem 'inr, %6S), Inf. infn ' to ring/ foUowa the axialogj 
of %^ the final diphthong being changed to d before all terminationa 
beginning with ^ or a. Pres. nraffll. Inqtf. wv^, 8^c. Pot^ ll^n^. 
/ii^#»ninftr. Pa/. (373.^)^1^, ^M»i^ or ipiw,vft; ^ff'tw^HT^ 
Hff^; nftw, Hf, 13^. la/ JR<^. ^nwrfpr* anrf ^/. iwnfii. -^(w. 
(433) ^vnftr^. ^pinft^, imrth^^; winftnsf, Mmftnr^, vnftnn^} 
vnftnf, ^wnrfljf , miif^jn. Prte. ihnv^ (45i)« Cbi»4. iijihih(,. 
Pasa. iftin^ (465) ; -4©r. yr4 rimg. unrf^. Caua., Pra#, snunfw (483) » 
^or.^lift'ni^. Des, ftfiinBlftf . Preq, iWft, wiiftf or HPnfii. Piort, 
Pre*, nwn^; Pa**. »fhnrnf ; Past Pass, iftw ; Past Jndecl* »ftilT, -IW; 
fku. Pass, vw^p 'iTsftir, ihr, 

b. like ^ may be co^jugat^ |[ ^ to be weary ;^ il^ ' to meditate ;' 
^ * to fade '/ and all other roota in oj (see i;68)* 

c. Root ^(special stem ^. J^f.v;^' to coc^.^ Pir, andAtm, 
Pres. mnft?. JCtm. ^if. Imjff. ^ff^^, ^ra^i &c. Xtm. IR^. 

Perf. vm^ or i^w, innw or ^^w (370. rf), iliiri ; ^^IW, ^^^1 

^f^, ^fvl, ^P^. istFut.^^mfm. Kxm.^imk^ %nd Fut.^^fS!^. 
Ktax. Tm. Aor. (4^0. e) iRTW^, winnlT(, iRin^; wms, wmr^, 
fRimw; iRnp, ^nmi, iiiii^4^. i^tm. ^nfw^ ^Mawn, iwi; ^wwfrff * 
im^li^, irwrnw^; ^wwf?, ^t^^w*^, wn^w. Prec nianr^. ^tm. 
^1ft^* Cbnrf. lairenir. Atm.^ini^. Pasn,, Prea, inil ; It/i^.w^; 
Aor. 3rd ««^. ^RTpf, Cans., Pres. VJ^^(f^, in^ ; Aor. inft^^t 



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CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS I. 257 

Des. rMM^lPH, ftwi^. Freq. imnft, ^IHlftn or ivnnftfif. Part., Prea. 
^^; Ktm. ^HHR ; Pass. ^^VRim ; Pa^t Pass. mi (548) ; Past Indecl 
^w, -vm; Fui. Pass, ^iw, innftn, vrm or vjm (574)- 

d. Root imv (special stem tirv). Inf. VJ^f^ * to ask.^ Par. and 
Ktm. Pres. ^mrfH. Xtm. in^. Imp/. inn^» wm^, &c. Aim. 

win^. Po^. in^in^, ^n^> &c. Atm. iinN* Iiwpr. tfrtrftT, irw, &c. 
Atm. in^. P«/. int^f ^nnf^, ^nn^ ; ^nnf^, 'nn^rj^, ^nirts^; 

^'n^; ^nrrfqn^, 4iiff«d, ^nrf^. yft Put. ^rf^mftR. Xtm. 

ilff'Wl^. 2nd Put. iiiNiifH . Attn. infn). -4or. (427) mn- 
f%i^, ^rtV^, mn^; irqif^*f, ^rqifw^, -l^^; ^innf^^^, -f^, 
-f%3^. Xtm. irwftiftr, wmftm^, ^nni^; wmf^na^, im i ^nwn , 
-wnnn; ^roftrwrff , w^vrf^w^, iRrf^nr. Prec. iimiii^. ' i^tm.nTf^- 
irtn. Oimrf. nn i N^iH . Pass., Pre*, uni. Caus., Pres. ^imnfil; 
^or. inrar^. Des. ftwifmiTftr, -^i. Freq. T^r^y wmif^ {3rd sing. 
minflK). Part, Pres. W^; Atm. ^n^HR ; Past Pass. '^iNw; Past 
Indecl. Hffwr; JW. Pass, nrf^ira, ^n^RfHl, VJ^. 

e. Root ^ (special stem ^H). Inf. "^fifw^ * to grieve.* Par. 
(Ep. rarely ^tm.) Pres. ^rNrftr. Iiwfi/l ^WJjH'^, '•npH^, &c. Pot. 

ift^^, ^i^^> &c. Impv. nfHiftr, ^H, &c. Per/. ig^^> ^pitf^> 

^3B^; ^^f^, ^'J'iS^j ^^^4H» ^^8^^> 1^> W5^* ^'^ ■^• 
tni^aifaf . aiM* Ft*/. ^W^Jmfti. Aor. (427. *) ^r^ftrn^, w^jN^, 
w^iWh^; ii^ftf^i^, w^tfVrn^, n^'^P ni i ^ ; w^ftPwr, w^ftPw, inpW^ij^. 
Prec. ^pm^. Ckmd. wifUN^. Pass., Pres. ^ ; -4or. 3rd «i^. 
«^itf%. Caus., Pre*. ^H^nAi; Aor. «lfm|^^* Des. ^^f^mfiT or 
^iftfwiTftr. Freq. ^ft^, Ijt^^ (3rd sing, ^ft^ftflj). Part, Pre*. 
|it^; Pass. ^pq«TR; Po*^ Paw. ^fw and ^ifm; Past. Indecl. 
^[f^iWf or ^^tf^fiT, -^p? ; jFW. Pass, ^^tfmm, 9*^^«Ai|, ^pN|. 

596. Root nn^. Ji|^. ?q^ * to abandon,* * to quit.* Par. Pres. 

mil^. Imp/. vTTin^, iiT?ii^, &c. Pot. Tv^in^. Jt»pr. MmPif, ?iir, 
&a Pei^. imrHy TDwftni or wn^pv (370* ^)> ^""nn ; wwftpi, ifwirj^, 
vviifg^; Tfwftn?, W7VW, mo^. ist Put. niurw. and .FW. Tn^nfii. 
-4on (42a, 296) inqn)V(, ^imraf^, wm^; vrnur, vTmsi^, mmia^; 
wmp, ^TTinK, ^mn^. Prec. THin^* Ctmd. ira^r*^, &c. Pass., 
Pre*, ini^ ; Aor. 3rd sing, morftr. Caus., Pres. mnnnfiv; Aor. wflr- 
Win(. Des.fwOTirftf. Freq. HTUn^, KTWflil or irrniftfif . Part, Pre*. 
m\; Past Pass, im; Past Indecl. iqw> -W^l fW. Pass. 
(573)- 

Ll 



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268 CX)KJirGATION OP VERBS- — QROUP I. CLASS I. 

597. Root ^. Inf. ^in * to sacrifice^^ * to worship/ Par. and 
Atm. PfW. innftT. -^tm. ni^, Iin/pf. Wiling, Wnr^, &c. Atm. ^1^, 
Po/. 'liN'^. Atm. niN. Iw/w. inirftr, ^W, &c Xtm* ^. Po/. 
(375» ^) ^^^^ fJjftR or ^ftnr or ^w (397), l(iTm ; tftrw, t'f^t t*f^; 

^f^, ^fif^. 1^/ JW. inrT% (403). Atm. ^m|. anJ J^. ^tonfw 
{403). i^tm. m^. ^or. (422) ^iiiiTi|i^, 111111(1^9 winifh^^; vnnit, 
iiMif*^, innfin; viT9> iniTF, niii^i^. -^tm. infftfy inifT^y ini^; 
innwf?, wnunn^, innpin»^; h^ihOi, wh^^, w^* Prtc. f^mni't* 
Xtm. nqt^. Cfenrf. mn^. ^tm. inre^. Pass., Pr€f. ^ (471)1 
hn/pf. ^aik (251. tf) ; Aor. yrd smg. wrftf. Oaus., Pra. ^rmrfifr, -^ ; 
Aor. ^wft^9i^. Dcs. f^ninrflr, -if. Freq. ^vrnv, ^wft^i or miiilft« 
Part, Pre*, imn^; Ktm. innrpr; Paw. fiquPT; P«#^ Pa«. ^; Pew/ 
Jndecl. xjpy -^; Pt</. Paw. iiwr, ^Hlfh?, ^HHT or irwr. 

a. Root Wl^ (special stem l[ir> 270. rf). /i}/:^^^* to adhere.' Ftur. 
Prw. m^ifii*. Ii?|p/. imnn- J^o/. iriNFR[. Iwpif. irtnftf . Pe^.ww, 
wrfw^jorBHi'Tj^iw; mrf^y^mw^yirairg^; iwftni , ww, *h^- 
i9t Fut. wmfm, &c. 2nd Fut. TOnfti, &c. Aor. Wfrfr^^, -i(l^, -l(h^; 
iwh^j mrhn^, -w^; w^rtip, vnf^, nni^^. Prtc. ^nvni^, &c. 
Cbfirf. HVIS'^, &c. Pass., Pres. Hf^. Cans., Pre$. Wtm^l -^^^ 
V99in(. Des. f^RlNn^^ &C. Freq. unra^, ^nif^il. Part, Prer. 
mn^; Pa««. iraifiiR ; Pa«/ Pa«9. irii; Pa^Z/n^fec/. irworirVT>-iriV; 
Pi*/. Pa*«. ^Nw, irmfhr, #nr or ?hir. 

^. Root ^ (special stem 11^) . Zii/'. wVfl^ * to shine.' Atm. (and 
Par.in-rfor.) Pre*, iffi^. Jiwp/ urffi^. Po/. iWhr. Jo^w.lftT^. Pa/- 

W (3«3«), -ft^, -i^; *^lfli^, -m^, "in»; fi^lfiw^, -ftd, -fi^. 
i«/.7W.«tflnnt. 2n</J^.«tfirft. ^or. irarHM^, vil^fkvnG(, vvtfkv 
iWnftwfiE, -fflmviin, -fluniP^; -fipifflj* -fiw^, -fiRK. Par. n^^pi^, 
-i^f'-TfH^; -nw, -win^, inn'^; -Kfi, -inr, -in^. Prec. wtfW'i. Cbnrf. 
mtfin^. Pass., PrtB. ^; -/ior. 3rrf wnjr. mftfw. Caus., Prti. 
ftii^lPil ; AoT. ilR;^A^. Des. fi;^|fll^ or n^i^fn^. Freq. ^^» ^wWw 
or ^^ififir. Part, Pre». iftimnr; Pa*/ Pa^s. ^fim or vK^; Poi/ 
Indecl. ^fiiiWT or wtfinwf, -ifW ; JW. Pa**, rftfinril, vhNtu, «tw. 

c. Rooting. /i|/Inflr5i^'tofall.' Par. Pre*, ^iirftl. Iiwp/^WIW. 
Po/. itNw[. Iwyw. HTftftf. P«/. 1TOW or Hq?r (368), ^firw, ^^H; 

♦ The final j b sometimes incorrectlj doubled (Pres. ^^|(h, ^^Hffiff, imtfly 
ftc); but tbe root must not, therefore, be confounded with an uncommon root 
mi^^or mS!^, meaning ^to go/ ^to move/ also cL i, and making ^niTft> &e. 



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CONJUGATION OF VBRBa — GROUP I. CLASS I. 269 

wfiW, hV^I^i hI^; nfiw, mW, mJ^. isi Fut. wfwvTf^* aurf Fut. 
^fiwrfw. Aw. w^m^ (44^)9 ^iniii^, vini^^; n^mi, ironn^, vmhiii^; 
^TOIW, iranr, wqini(. Prec. ^m?^. Ckmd. V^finn^. Pass., Pre9. 
^; Awfi/*. ^rod; Aor. yrd sing, vnfir. Caus., Pres. ^mnnf^, ^tr 
andimniTfil, ^ni^; .ior. wA^1li(. Dea, Mft i mfli or fwinftl> Preq. 
W«ft^, Vftlftn or qiflMlllfil. Ptot., Pres. ^mfj; Pass. Jmmm Past 
Pass, ^flnr; Past Indecl. ^f)n«T> "Vim; Fitt. Pass, nftnm, innfhl, 
^fir or vm» 

598* Root ^ (speoiAl stem wft). /^t/I ^lfll]il[ ' to be/ ^ to exitt/ 
iftm. (and optionally Par. in 2nd Put, Aar.y and Ckmd., when it 
rgecta t), Pres. irHf. Imp/. wHi. Pot. ^fiPg. Itnpv. ^. Per/. 
1^, i^fiR, ^Tfk; ^Pi^, tf^ai^, i^iiTW; ^flWi» i^jflrd, ^PA* 
j#/ -Ft*/, ifffint- 2nd Put. ^k^. Aor. Wlftf%, ^wftfl^, iK^fhi 
WWnWff , -fwiTWI, *ri>IIR|i|^; -flNlf^, -fRui'^» -fninf. Par. ^i^pi^^ 
-w^, -TfH; -Tiw, -inn^, -miT^^; -ww , -ww, -in^. Prec ^fW%^. Ckmd. 
^nflA or ^mifti^. Pa88.» Pres. ^. Cans., Pre*. ''iS^Tftr; Aor. 
w4l^li^ or mRrtif. Des. ftRfW or nv^raiDl. Freq. wt^^» fOfM 
or tO^aIRt. Part, Pres. ^Ihr ; Past Pass. ^; Past Indecl. '^f9m 
or YPn, -^5 Put. Pass. ^vfSm, ^riWhr, ^. 

599. Root i!j. It\f. ^[f^^ 'to speak.^ Par. Pfe#. w^n^. Jtwaf. 
Wi^, ^1^^, &C. Pot. 'I^^. /m/w. ^^[Tftr. P«/. (375. e) Tfmr, 

iwfif^, 1^; ^flpf, "'•^y^j ''■^W^ •^**> "*?> ''S^* ^*^ •'^^ ^fln^fT^^f 
vf^Rlfti, &c. 2nd Put. ^HjiliDly wfif'ifti, &c. ^or« (428) Vfrflpn^y 
vfi<()^y w^ii(h^; nfiRjur, nfin^fn^, ^wifljOT^^; n^ifi;^, im^, wiii- 
fif^. Prec. mmn^, W1^, &c, Cond. vrflpow, ^wflj^, &c. Pass., 
Pres. -9^ (471); -4or. yrd sing. vnf^. Caus.^ Pret. "vr^inSl; Aar. 
«^1^^. Dcs. ftrafipiTftf , -^. Preq. ^rni, imrfti or ^rnn(Wl- Part, 
Pres.-^^, Pass.-mmn; Pa*/ Pom. vfi{W (543); Past Indecl li^^y 
-^w; P«/. P«w*. ^firnv, ^Rpftn, ^m or ^w. 

a. Root n^ (special stem ift^, 270). /ij/l ^qp^ ' to sink/ Par, 
pres. nft^lfif • Itnj/. wiO^^. Po/. ^fl^iFl. hnpv. lO^lfif. P«^ 41111^ » 
^►flf^ (375* ^) or inm^ iwn{; iffij^, iq^^, it^; %fip», irtf, ij^c* 
w/ Put, inrrPw. anrf JW. vi^rrftr. Aor. iw^ (436, 437), w^, 
WH^; ^TO^TWj wiRfin^, iwfin^ ; ninfw, wii^a» wi^H,- Prec. whp^. 
Oomd. wwm\' Pass., Pres. «i^ ; Aor. 3rd mg. ^WTfif. Cans., Pres. 
^ST^HtAv ; ^or. irrt^^*(. Des. fliiriiiiOi. Preq. onm, ^Pffftl or wxWr 
ifiXn. Part, Pres. i^, Past Pass, w (540); Paet Indecl. wm, 
-iw ; Put. Pass, ^m^f iRfifrflf, wm. 

L 1 2 



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260 CONJUGATION OP VERBS.— GROUP 1. CLASS I. 

b. Root ^ (special stem ^). Inf. ''^f^l^ * to increase/ Xtai. 
(and Par. in Fut., Gond.y and Aar.) Pres. ^. Inqff. Wff^, liwt^, 
&c. Pot. wi. Impv. ^y ^9w, &c. Per/. ^, n^, ^; 
^r^ffwl, ^^VT^, ^^; n^jrwky ^i^fiw^, ^^fnt. i*/ 2^. ^f^. 
Par.^fJifTftff. andJW.tif^. Par.^j^hftf. -4or. inWn, Vlf^fT^, 
^nt9w; m^f9^y fi^fSm t iin , ^wrPhniP^; ^RfS^, inrfH4«(» wrfOwir. 
Par. v^HV^^ ^■T'^» ^T^'l' T^> 'T^'^'l^ ^B^Vflfn^; H^WI, ^B^W, 
W|V5^, Prec. ^rf^iftn. Cbnrf. V^f^. Par. Vli^s^, ^ni^» &c. 
Pass., Pres. ^; Imp/, ^l^; Aar. 3rd nng. fl^. Cans., Pre$. 
'rt'lTftr; -4or. n^rt^^ and ^rf^9'(. Des. fnfft, Ot^wiRi. Preq. 
^[<l^, ^rS^M or ^^^^^IHif. Part, Pres. ^Qnpf ; Pass. tpmrPT; Pott 
Pass. ^ ; Past Indecl. nf^, ^, -^ ; FtU. Pass, ^^1^t^, irflm, ^. 

600. Root in^. If^f. ^ftl|s^ *to increase/ *to flourish.* Atm. 
Pres. ^, ^, &c. Jinp/. ^ (251), ^imR(, &c* Po/. i!^. Impv. 
1^, w^, &c. Per/. (385) wwnk, WTlf^, wniik; ^l!vmf^, 
wwiw^, c^rrann^; ^i!vnif^, ^wif|, fwwftit. ist Fut. ^fim^. 

2nd Fut. irfW. Aor. ^^ (4^7.*, 251), ^fk»Tl(, %ftlf; ^fv^, 

^finmn^, ^ftrmTiP^; ^Mif^, ^flw^, ^fimr. Prec. irfv4hr. Cond. 
%ftA (25i)* Pass. ^; -4or. 3rrf «ny. ^. Cans., Pres. ^n^nfw; 
-4or. ^flfVH (494). Des. iffl^ft^ (500. b). Part, Pres. v^RXm Past 
Pass, ^ftnr ; Past Indecl. ^fviirT, -vm ; Fut. Pass, i^tam, wft^, ^m. 
a. Root Tf^. In/, ir^ * to bum.* Par. and Atm. Pre*, IRTf^. 
i3(!tm. ir^. /wr/I Wf^. i3(!tm. mi^. Pot. irw^. -^tm. 1^. Impv. 
TRTftr, ini, &c. Atm. IR. P«;/! imm or THR, ini^ or l^f^, miTO ; 

iNii;.Trftw^, itf^, itfii^. istFut.innf^j&c. i^tm. inn^, &c. 2nd 
•FW. wx^nftr (Ep. also vftrin^). Xtm. tto^. Aor. mn^, mrN^, 
WHrtRi^; WHn^, wifnr^, vflim'^; iwnw, ^nnw , inn^^- Aim. nffOQ, 
^nr^r^,^iinr; wtix^, ii^ i mi^in , nflmiHi^ ; wireRff , w^> vinnr. 
Prec. fluiiw. Atm. in^hv. Cond. HA^M^. Atm. ^nn^* Pass., 
Pre*. ir^; /mfi/l ^nr^; -4or. 3rd sing, wwrftr. Caus., Pre*, wnnnfiv, 
irvA; -4or. mrtiRH, wiftll^. Des. finwrft? , flnr^. Preq. htw^, imrf^ 
or imrafHiT* Part, Pres. wm^; Atm. inmR; Pass, inqnm; Pa*/ 
Pa**, mr; Pa*< IiMfecZ. h^, -iri; Pk/. Pass, mwi, iMhr, TW. 
601. Root T?H (270. e). In/; ;S5^ * to take.* Atm. Pres. T^, 

^Riv^nn^, Hc^^nr; ^Wcwwfig, ^rawn'^, Hc4*iflc»(; irawrff, vcv^w^y 



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CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GBOUP L CLASS I. 261 

^WW^, cWT^. Ifnpv. ?w, T9^^y ?WifT'(; ?WI^, ^WP^, iWWf^; 
fWW^, WWP^, Wmn^. Perf. %S^ (375. a), %My ^ ; ^fim^, ^>IT^, 
wni ; ^fii'i^, ^6id, ^fii^. ist Fut. isafi% (409), fRn%, cWT, &c. 
%nd Fut. T5^ (il99)> H«5I%, &c. Aor. iwftj (400, 1199), ^IHan^ (298), 

crtlhl, M^ftvi^y i*Hflf, &c. Ckmd. w^f^^ &c. Pass.^ Pres* TW; 
-4or. unta, Wc5W^, in^Tfil (475) or Vc9i)^j &c. Caus.^ Pre$. H»^ 
^ITftlj Sec. ; Aor. ^R9HA|i^. Des. r»i (S^s)* '''^« HTOW, HTSHrfMif • 
Ptot, PreM. BmfPr; Pat/ Paw. iwi; Past Indecl. najT, -Hwr; -FW. 
P€i$9, nan*, Twr^Aify wi« 

a. lake W\ is conjugated T>^ (with prep, wt), ^intsjH * to begin/ 
60a. Root vc^ (special stem vnti, 270). /i{/I ip^ * to go.^ P^. 
Pre$» TOrrftT) iwfe, 'i^mOi; TWI^, 'RCT^, Tnr^; ^ratRi^, IWI, 
srarf^* Iffijif* vpB^, vn^H, &c. Po/. vrvp^f iw^, &c. Impv, 
^ntjhff JfW, &c. Peffi {376) «i«ii«i, ipfftw or ifmiy iinw ; nfrw, 
il'if^l^, VlJ^; wfrff, W^f i|'i|4^. I*/ JPW. ii^iOjH. aiM? JFW. 
fftunfti, *iO*iffti, ifftrnfif, &c. Aor, (43^ ^iw*(, H'W^, wifn^; 
wniw, iiwi*^, n'liiAi'^; vww, vww, vnis^. Prec. jim[I4Ii^. 
Cbfuf. llJlOmi^. Pass., Pr€$. ifi^; ^or. 3rrf sing, imflv. Caus., 
Prct. immAl ; Aor. ^nfbnn^. Des. ft | J|Owfli . Freq. Wg^, WWf^ 
or inpft^; see 709. Part, Pres. ^fm^J Past Pass, ifir; Past 
Indecl. »nm, -iwr, -mq (563. a, 560) ; FkU: Pass, imrn^ TfnfN, »!W|. 

a. Root ifi^. Inf. irjn * to bend.^ Par. and JCtm. (* to bow one's 
self ^. Pres. ifinfiv. jfl^tm. ^. Jm//. v^fip^. jfl^tm. ipii. Pot. 
'fi^ms^. JLtm. '9^^. Impv, H^iOh. Atm. i|W. P«^. (375- ^) «iHI*l 
or ififif, TT'I or %ftnr, •IHW; nftw, w^, n^t^t^; %fin?, ^, %^« 
Atm. if^f niW, nf; Hi*f«i^, n^iH, nHTIf; nlWf, ^BftWi, ntilt. 
1st FiU. iVinf^. KtoL. ifiin^. ind Fat. ^iNcnfil. -^tm. if^. Aor. 
v;fftni«(, v^Hrt^, wiWh^; ir^ftrwr, ^niftn^, w^iftw^; intftrm, 
w^ftnr, iniftr^. Kim. w«tftr, ir^^R^, v^w; viNrf^, irhn^, 
wi^iAl'^; Wtf^iff , iR»m, inhErw . Prec. ^miih^. Atm. ^^iv. Cbmif. 
mt^P^. -^tm. ^R^. Pass., Pres. ^fi%; Impf. IRT^; ^or. 3rrf sing. 
Wiffti or mnfif* Cans, ^^nnnf^ or ^STPnnfil; Aor. W^m^ or V7fhrR«(. 
Des. ftnhnftr. Preq. inn^> ^TO'ftflf or Tfwf^. Part, Pres. ifm^; 
Atm. nimnr; Paw. irnimf; Past Pass, nw; Pat/ Indecl.imjf -^fs^ 
or -ifW ; -FW. Pass. 'spiWr, 'finfhj, ^TWI or lfs^. 

b. Root ^. Iij/I ^vff^ *to move.' Par. Pres. ^nrflf. Impf. 
wvn'l[. P<^/» ^w^H- Imp^* ^TOlftf, ^fc5, &c. P«^. ^^1^ or ^T'l?!, 



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262 CWNJUGATIOK OF VERBS.— -OROUP I. CLASS I. 

^fWv, '^^Rj; ^ftw> ^c*5^> ^"^si^* ^rftew, ^fH, ^^^« i^ f^* 
nfmnfm. and Fat. ^ffwiqift?. Aor. ^r^rftOT^, ^ninrt^, w^nrti^; 

Conrf. n^fTraH. Pass., Pre$. ^f^. Caus*, Pres. ^IcWlflf or ^iM^lfii. 
P€». fH^fi91!f«T* Freq. ^TW^, ^^mfw. Part., Pre$. ^mn^, Pa$i 
Pom. ^wfwwj Pa$t Indecl. 'ifiwwT, -^fW; Jto- Pat#. ^rftww, ^m^, 

603. Root i|^. /i|/*. iftf^vp^^to live.' Par. Pr€9.i!t^:fi^• I^"^* 
^nA^. PoU irt^^. Jmjn^. fft'iifif , iftw, &c, Perf. ftnfN» ftrttfww, 
ftnft^; ftnftf^, fWN^, ftnft^fj^; ftnftftw, ftr*^, fiiiftp[. i#< 
i^.iftfinnf^. andJW.wtfTOiftr. -4or. ^nftf^, mfrft^. W*i^; 
mftPn^, niftf^, wftftw^; wiftftfwf, wiftfw. mrftfti^. Prtc. 
ifNlir'^. Cburf. mflfumn , ^^"-^ ^^^'^^ ^'^ » -4or. yrd rififf. inftf%. 
Cau8.,Pretf. ifhrmfiv; ^or. ir f ^ifl^H or i nflfn^*( . Des.fWWlWlftl. 
Freq. iNt^. Part, Pre$. iftm^i Post Pass, irtftw; Past Jndeel. 
iftf^wr, -ifN; Put. Pass, iftftiw, ifN^ft^, iftiq. 

a. Root vt^. /i{/I MTf^fi^ * to nm/ * to wash.^ Par. and Kim. 
Pres. Hmfki. iftm. vi^. Imgf. ^niFn^. Atm. irn^. Po/. Ml^^. 
iftm. M1^. Imjw. ynnf^. Atm. ml. Per/* ^piFT, ipiff^, ^?HPl; 

i(;tm. vrf^niT^. 2nd Fut. vif^^qiftr. Xtm. mfw^. Aor. wvrftr^, 
^IVT^, irvnlT^^; ^wrf^, -f^, -fVflTi^; ^^^ Xtm. 

^wf^ft, -f^wi(i -ft^; ^wft*^, &C. Prec. vmnv^. ^tm. mf^^. 
Cond. wwfv^* Xtm. imrf^. Ptoe., P^e*. VT^. Caus., Pres. 
vnmf^; ^or. iRfhw^. Dea. "fijvrftn^Tftf, -^« Freq. ^IMW* Part, 
Pres. "V^, Xtmnm Past Pass. MTfw, 1^ (* washed^) ; Past Indecl. 
Vlfmr or whm; Fut. Pass, vrfmrar, VW»ft^, VW. 

604. Root -pr (special stem mR, 270). In^. '5|»^ * to see/ Pir. 

Pre*, ^rimfti, ^?^, mprfir; ^i?m^, ^nrr^» ^?^^; m^iw^^, ^ir^, 
mprf^. Jwy?/! wn^^, w^^ir^, wii^m^; ^ropiw, &c. . Pot. vn^[^, 
Vlf^l^^f ^H^; ^1?^, &c. Jmpv. ^^mftr, tr, ^^hri; '^ptnr, &C. 
Perf. ^, ??[fi^ or ^^ (370-/)» ^i ^^ff^j Tf?r|l(t T^W^* 
^T^filW* T55> T5W- ^^ ^^' "jwrfiw. 3tw/ JFW. ^ia<iir^. Aor. 
(437* ^) ^'^^f ^?lf^» ^?^> ^'T^j ^^^tn'^* iB^iSlF^; ^^^l*v> ^q5»> 
n^. Or w^[rHi^ (4^0, 390./), wji^, w^mfh^; w^w, m^pw^, 
w^fOTf ; wjT^f "^Tf, 1151 ^n. Pree. ^ypn^. Owjrf. wjno^* 
Pass., Pres. ^^^ ; Aor. yrd sing. H^f^. Caus., Pres. ^^i|rf«f ; Aor. 
^P^r^^^ or m^:$«(^; see 703. Des. filT^. Freq. ^p^^pi^> ?[tfil*' 



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CONIUGATION OP VBRB8. — GROUP I. CLASS I. 268 

Part, iVet. ^|^; Pait Pass. Tpr; Past Indecl. Jft, -"pi; Fut. 

Pass, ifnf ^[^Whi, ijpP'* 

605. Root fn. /n/ fP^|i(*to sec* Atm. Pres. ^. Ing>f. 
H {251). Pot. t^. Impv. tt- P«/- t^T^, &c (385, and 
compare iri^ at 6oo). i^^ fW. ^ftlWl^. aiMf i^. |ft|i^. ^or.^A|f% 
(a5i), ^fi^¥i^, kfwi; %ftp^, ^ftfimin, ^ftimrn^; ^f^wdr, 
^PH0n{, ^ftjiw. Prec. ^ft|*l, &c. Gond. ^f^. Pass. fi|^; 
Aer. yd sing. ^f^. Caus., Pres. f9(mtfk; Aor. ^N?r^ (494)- I^s. 
^f%ftn (500. i). Part., Pres. fnnw; Po^/ Paw. fftfi; Past 
hsdecl. ^f^iWT, -fi^r; IW. Pass, ^^^m^ t'P'ft'* t?'5r. 

606. Root 'Sf^^ (special stem lA). htf. ^i^ or ISf^ 'to draw,' 
^ to drag/ Par. and Ktca. Pres. irilAr. Atm. ^. Ifnpf. irAi^. 
Atm. miV. Po/. ^¥q«^. Atm. iiiN. Impr. ^Iifig. Atm. iM. 
Psrf. ^nA» ^iW^, ^wt ; ^i^fftw , ^T^Tt^> "^T^^* ^i^fftw , ^^> 
-^^j^. Atm. ^f 4, ^*pW, ^^4 ; ^iffVwf, ^f mt), -^^"nn ; '^^fPw^, 
^fW^, ^Iffti^. ist Fui. lAffm. Ktm. nH or iirr|. %nd Fui. 
mwft or inonfll. Atm. ^if^Tor in^. Aor. wwn^^y mn4^» nwifl^; 
wnnft, iTiif'^, msitf^; ^wsni^, iwit, winj^. Or vmif^, vninfli^, 
&c. Or ^v^> vfVM,> ^IF^; ^fww> wfnin>^, vf^rnn^; ^fww, 

^•'¥^> '>'T^?'l* Atm. H^ftf, Wpnrn^ or wptl^, vy^ or V^; 

wpii^ or Hffirff , ippjimw, nfwnnn^; ^"fWl <» iifimf^, 

mpiup^ or m^^^, Hf^fiir or v^niw. Prec. f aiiw^. Atm. ^^fllfhv. 
Ckmd. mn^ or inil9>^. Atm. «i|ii§f or win^. Pto9., Pres. ^; 
Aar. yrd sing. w^fk. Cans., Pres. '^A^t^ ; Aor. innpH^ or iiiflfm^. 
Des. f^fVftf -^. Preq- ^^S^, ^ithlM or ^wrfhiPfl. Part., 
Pres. wh[; Past Pass, ifw; Past Indecl f^, -fil; Put. Pass, 
'stmi or WS^j uWN, ipi. 

a. Root HTi^. Iij/*. mfWgiv 'to speak.' Atm. Pres. uA. Imu^ 
iwi^. Po/. miNr. Impv. urt . P«^. ^>ii^, '*fif^, ^m^l ; ^wmf^ml, 
-1!^, -^5 wiflwt, -f^, -f^. iH Put. mfltmt. and Pitt. 
iflfin^. Aor. ^•nOvfV, -fllfl^, •fll¥; iwiftwif^, -f^HW^, -ftlMilfli^; 
vffrf^mf^y -^^wn^> -flrw. Prec. mf^nA^. Cfanrf. vmf^. Pims., 
Pres. nr^; Aor. yrd sing. mmfH. Cans, mimfk; Aor. ^nmnp^ 
and ^«4hni^. Des. I^mf^). Preq. ^wH^, WWtPii {yrd smg. WPHflr). 
Piurt., Pres. minmr; Past Pass, mftm; Past Indecl. Hlf^, -nmj 
Fut. Pass, mftnm, HPnfhi, wm. 

* This root is also conji^ted in cL6: Pres. ^^flV> &c.; Pot. ^|f^^» &c. 

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264 CONJUGATION OP VEEBS. — GROUP I. CLASS I. 

b. Root ^. If^f. Tftiji^* to preserve/ * to defend.' Par. Pres. rvTftr* 
Imp/. WC^^^. Pot t^. Impv. nipftr (58), tW, &c. Per/. ^CW, 
V<ftl|V|, ttW; t^cftl^, TTWl^j t^m^; TXftp, XTW, ^^t^- i*^ -^'^* 

tftjitrfw. anrf Fut. rftpuflr. -4or. wrftf^, UT^, mt^; ^atfti^, 
wf^F^, iRft^fpr ; irt^, iBtftlf, ^Wftr;^- -Prer. irwiw. Otwirf. 
iKfuiiiil^. Pass., Pres. v^. Caus., Pres. V^mfn, &c. ; -4or. ^mcq'T. 
Des. fttftfUTftr, &c. Freq. TTt^^ TFXftp. Part, Pres. msf^; 
Past Pass. Tftrr; Past Indecl jfnpm, -^w; J^. Pass. Tffim, 

607. Root ^. Inf. ^[^'to dwell/ Par. Pres. nmTn. Imp/* 
%WBi^. Pot. iiiftir. Impv. ^TOlftf, ^ &c. P«/. TTOT (368), n^fn 
or T^^j '9^J^ ; irfinf , ^w^|^, ^^wj^; ^irf^, wi, ^i^* i*^ -PW. irarrf^. 
find Fut. ^ipnfir (304. a). Aor. w^mr\ (304. a, 426. a), vmirt^, 
^nmrti^; irow, irwrp^, ^wniT^; ^rt?9i, ^tow, n'lii^i^. Ptec. v^nwv. 
Cond. mnm^ (304. a). Pass., Pre#. ^ (471) ; Aor. yrd sing, v^irftr. 
Caus., Pres. ^nniTf«r, -^; -4or. il4hr^. Des. frvTRnfR (304.0). 
Freq. m^r^, "^fnfm or ^n^nflfir. Part, Pres. nm() Past Pass. ^Pnr 
(with fl, w); Past Indecl. vftlWT, -"Wl (565); JW. Paw. TOW, 

608. Root ^. I^f. ilf%s^ *to deserve.* Par. Pres. tififii. 
■'iwfi/'. '»Tf»^. Po^. iBfilH. Impv. nfrftl (58). P«/. (367. b) wirf, 

wrfifiT, «im|; iiHf|*i, ^Tft^, ^'iff^; wrfil*?, hhI, hihI^^. 
i*^ JW. ^rffinftR. anrf Fut. ^BfffiqTftf. -4or. wf|l^, ^WT^, ^m^; 
inft^, fiir|is^, viffsi^; nrf^^, wrfff, ^nffw5^. Prec. m^tv^* 
Cond. mff^. Pass., Pres. ^1^; ^or. 3rrf sing, wrff . Caus., Pre#. 
wfinfil, -^ ; Aor. ^nfftfi^ (494)' Des. vr^ffinril, &c. (500. d). Part, 
Pres. vfn^; Pa*/ Piw. wffw; Pa*/ JiufecZ. ^rffm, -^; Fut. Pass. 

609. Root ij^ (special stem i|jf , 270. i). Jn/1 'jf)[g'l[ or jftji^ * to 
hide.' Par. and Ktm. Pres. njpftf. Kim. ijf. Jmj9/1 WJ]!'^. 
Atm. ^J'J^- Pot. 'jN'^* ^tm. '^^. Impv. 'fjjplhi. Atm. i|^. 
P«/. ipjf (384-«), ^'if^ or ^pftv {y>s.a\ ijij?; ijgf^ or ijipj 

(371)* ^Rr?ip(» ^ra?w> ^rafip' or ipjw, ij^? , ^^15^. -^tm. ij^, 

ijgftn^ or ir^, &c. 1st Fut. (415. m) ijfipiT% or ifhnflw (305, a). 
Atm. ^jf^in^ or 7Thn^« 2«rf 1^. ^jffi^Tft or ^h9lf«r. Atm. if^ 
or^hii^. ^(>r.^in|ff^»^,ii^^,^i^j^; W|f^, vjfffH, ^njf^in^; 
^Plf^, ^njfl?, ^r^f^. Or iqpin (306. a), w^H^, ^^^; ^^^|W, 
H^IIWH, wj^WT^; ^if^W, ^r^HW, ^»f^5^. Atm. wijf^, ^w^f^fl^. 



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CONJUGATION OP VBRBa — GBOITP I. CLASS I. '265 

^^, &c. Oriiiff^(439. i), Wfipm^or^wq^ 

W^prir. Prec.r[m^. Atm. nf^*i| or i^jt^ (306. a). C(md.^P^^V{ 
orw^t^jr^. Aim. vjf^ or vijh^. Pass., Pre«. ij^ ; Aor.yrdHng. 
W^. Caus., Pre««9j]|niTl^; ^or. ^nfjjfi^. Des. i[^i|Tf«r, -^. Freq. 
Wl^, ifWW» (yrd sing. ifNtftr) or ijt^i^. Part, Pres. ijfn^; Past 
Pass, ijjr (305. a) ; Pm/ IiMfec/. ijf^ or tjjt or ^[ffWT, -^; FiU. 
Pass, ^{f^inv or ifl^r^, ^JP1^9 ^ or iftn (573« <»)• 

610. Root ^. Ii{/: ^»y( * to bum/ Par. Pres. ^ififtl. Img/l 
^5^. Po<. i;^i|^» &c. Impv. ^flftf, ^, &c. Perf. ^?»if , ^ff^ 
(375- «) or ^^ly (305), ^?^; ^ff^, ^1^, ^^5^; ^f^, ^, ^. 
i$t Fat. ^nnf^r. %nd FiU. M^^nfH (306. a). Aor. ^snxwp^ (4^^^), 
^wnp^, inriT^i^; winr, n^pv^y v^mvi^; iwt^p, ^■'H^* ^ivi^^. 
Prec. ^irni'^. Cond. ini^P(. Pass.^ Pres. ^ 5 Aor. yrd sing, inn^* 
Cau8., Pres. ^ifinDr, -^; Aor. ^af):^;^. Des. fl;vin0l (50a. a). 
Preq. i;^^, ^f^ or ^i^^lftfH {yrd sing, ^i^ftv or ^i^^tfil). Part, 
Pres. ;»fT^^; Pm/ Pass. ^»V; P«/ IiMfec/. ^nm, -^; i^. Pm*. 

611. Root ^. /ij/; ^ftji^ *to carry/ Par. and -^tm. Pres. 
^fffif. Atm. ^. Impf. v^Hi^. -^tm. ^Wl^. Po/. fi^in^. jfl^tm. 
^. /m/w. ^frftr, ^, &c. Atm. nt. P«/. (375. c) ^wif (368), 
wfJl^ or vw^, ^Wlf 5 «fl?y, «€^^> "fW* '•f^* ^> ^5^- -^to- 
^, ^if^^y ^ ; ^rf^lW) 'IIT^* ''ifll ; vHlnf, ^rf^niv or "orfl^, ^r^t* 
ist Fat. iflvrf^. Kim. ^ftvi^. %nd Fat. y^9nf«T. Atm. ^^. Aor. 
(4^5) ^■w('^, ii4iii|1^, v<ii^1<^; inniir,infti'^,^inftiT^; w^i^, iRhr, 

iWlSfif, ^^"^j^^, ^R1|W. Prec. ^in^. Ktai. T^fhl. Cond. mre^v^. 
iftm. w^. Pass., Pres. (471) ^; Ihir/I ^ft^ (251. a); ^or. 3rrf 
wnjr- ^Wfij. Caus., Prc#. mfinf)T> -^5 Aor. w(t^^. Des. fnWTf^> 
-^. Preq. in^» ^mfi* (3rrf «n^. iiHtfe; cf. 425). Part., Pre*, 
^f^^; j9^tm.irffPT; Pa##. '^rumif; Past Pass, mf; Pastlndecl.wp^ 

-'v (5^5) ; ^PW- -P«**- 'ft'^* ^1^, ^W. 

a. ^, Inf. irt^or irfV^Ji^' to bear,' is Atm. only, and, like vdh^ makes 
irhn% &c. in 1st Fat. : but in this tense optionally, and in the other 
General tenses necessarily inserts t ; thus, ist Fat. irflnnt » ^^ -2^^* 
Mft^; Aor.m^f^; Prec.lsfplt^; Cbnrf. wirf^. TheP«/. isil| 
{375- ^)» ^rf^> &C. Part, Fat. Pass. iStm or ?rf^im, ^f;^, ws {573). 
The other tenses are like thie ^tm. of vah; thus, Pres. n^, &c. 

M m 



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266 



CONJUGATION OP VBRBS. — OBOUP I. CLASS IV. 



EXAMPLES OP PRIMITIVE VERBS OP THE FOURTH CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 272. 

61 2« Root m muh. Infin. ^tf\i[^mohitum^ 'to be troubled.^ 

Pabasmai-pada. Present Tense^ * I am troubled.' 



^VP^ muhyoii 
fHflr mukyati 

^^^^ amuhymn 
'^•iw^ amuhyM 
^Sf^mamuhyat 

^^fiPV{^muhy9yem 
%M\ mmkyu 
^l^^fMkyet 

finf^ mukydni 

^^nuhya 

^IS^mukyatu 



^Wm\miAydoa8 
firil^ muhyaihas 
4|9IAI^ mukyataa 



^91 1H4(^ nmhydmoB 



Imperfect^ *I was troubled/ 

H^WW amuhydva ^fl^WH amukydma 

H^^nn^ amuhyaidm ^^^\ amuhyan 

Potential^ *I may be troubled.' 

^[^ mnAyeiMi ^|lN ifMiA|F«iiitt 

<|WA^ nmhyetam ^^fitW nmkye^ 

^nr^nrnkyetdm ^W^^muhyeyms 

Imperative, ^ Let me be troubled.' 

1(911^ muhydva ^[9V^ mnhydma 

9911^ muhyatam l|9lil micAya/a 



9pn^ fiNiffioAa 
^mfVt mwnohitha ♦ 



Perfect, * 1 have been troubled.' 

^[^f^ mwnuhiva 99^^ mtifitiiAtma 

l|*mj^ mumuhathus <||fS mttmif Aa 

JRr*/ JWtiret, * I shall or will be troubled.' 
liftfWmf^mohitdsmi ^tftlfm^^mokUdtVM ^tf^[inm^^mohiidnut8 

^atfffHf^ mohUdsi Hir^MimH^ mokitditka* ntft^tl^ mohUdstka 

^ft^Ktmokitd ^f^WVU mohitdrau «ii(^iiiM( mokUdras 

Second Future -f, * I shall or will be troubled.' 
IvH^imf^l mohishydmi ifH^^QT^ mohishydvas vTH^E^nH^ mohuhydmas 
Ifff^vrftr mokishyasi «!^f^^9^ mohishyathas IT^ff^m moAitfAya^An 

Iftflp^fil mohishyati •ftPj'Irtl^ mohishyatas •JlP^^f^n moAMAyontt 

♦ Or ^pftl" (305. a) or ^iftm (305). 

t 'Hie i8t and and Fututes may optionally rcgect the inserted ij see 415. m. 



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CONJIJOATION OF VEBBS.-=-GROUP I. CLASS lY. 267 

Aorist (435)9 'I became troubled.^ 
* ^^^*l amukam Vf^ll^ amnkdoa Vf^ll^ amuhdma 

Precative or Benedictive^ * May I be troubleA^ 
«|« I « 9^ mu^iCfffm ^[VT^ '»iiA)f<£09a «|«it!»i muhydsma 

^fii^ mfiAy<£r ^[ITM^ muhydstam «|iii« muhydsta 

^mif[^muhydt ^WkH l^ mmhydstdm ^S^T^fmhydgiu 

Conditional^ ^I shQuld be troubled.^ 

Pass., Pret . ^; ^or. 3rrf «i^. ^nM^. Cans., Pte$. whniTAl ; -4or. 
•^t*(. Des. ^pfrt^^irfiv or i|^rfm(H or if^pvrftr. IVeq. 4^^, ^MMk 
{yd tmg. ifM^ or ifMHnr, 305). Part., Pre9. ^m^j Pari Pass, ijjr 
{3P5' «) or ^; P««< /n*cZ. iM^ or ^ffiWT or yw or ^, -pr ; 
JW. Pom. litf^ifiq or if^nii^, 'AtJ^ftif, 'ftn. 

OTHBR EXAKPLBS OF CL. 4 IN THE OEDEE OF TUEIE FINAL LETTEES. 

613. Root ?ft (special stem ;5I, 1^6. a). Inf. ^njn 'to finish' 
(with prepositions vi and ara, * to determine/ * to strive'). Par. 
Pres. ^inflf . Impf. w^. PoC. ^C^. Impv. Wtf^. Per/. (373. d) 
Wt, ^f^ or ?Rn^, wit; ^Rflaw, ^wrj^, ti«i§^; ^ftw, fw, ^^* 
1*/ Fut. wKxfm. and Put. ifn^urf^. Aor. (438. c) w^, ^nrn^, 
wwn^; ^Hunr, iwmn^, inning; w^iw, wnw, ^i^. Or vmffRs^ (433)1 
mmsft^, wmfh^; iwnftrwi, ^wnftre^, w^nftw^; ^ranftw, wmftw, 
«?nf«^. Prec. i^VRi^. Cond. ^mm\. Pass., Pres. ify; Aor. 
yrd sing, wmfn. Cans., Prea. ^EmniTf^; Aor. ^Rf/Hni9|[. Des. ftrm- 
Tuftr . Preq. irtfft, ^nirfiT, TiWTftf . Part., Pres. mf(^ Pari Pass, ftnr ; 
Past Indecl. ftn^, -Tim ; Fat. Pass. WiW, ^lt^<l, ihl. 

614. Root ^ (special stem ^). /»j/!wh|'^* to perceive*.' Ktau 
Pres.'^. Imp/.m^. Po/. ^whl. Impv."^. Per/. Ji^; Bee 
the tables at 583. ist Fut. wtlT%. 2nd Fut. H^ (299. a). Aor. 
(420^ 299. a) ll^fw, WWIT^, H^ or W^ftfVi (424. a) ; H^mff , ^H^WTHni^, 
^i^nnWT'^; w^Twfif, ^^^^ (299. b), ^npsir. P^ac. ^riIm. Cbnrf. 
^m^. For the other forms, see ^ at 583. 

* ^is also coQJugated in th« ist class. See the tables at 583. 
M m 2 



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-^68 CONJUGATION OF VERBS.— GBOUP I. CLASS IV. 

615. Root wi^ (special stem ftur, ^^i). Inf. mn * to pierce* 
Par. Pre*, "ftrnnftr. /flip/. wfTO»^. Po^fwn^. In^w.fwrfi!. 
Per/. (383) f^iqiv, f^wfw or f^vTI, f^^mi ; frftrftw , ftrfwj^, f'ifw- 
V5^; ftrftrftw, f^rfw, ftfti^. w^ Fut. «ni% (298). 2«df i^. 
^nmrOir (299). -4or. (420) hvitfr^^ vmnfti^, ii«iiiiAi^; nwir^, 
^rqrii^ (419, 298), wiqTiT»( ; wiTOW, ^ff'OT, ^i^m^i^. Prec. fvnm^. 
Cond. imi^« Pass., Pres. f^ ; Aor. yrd sing, mmftl. Caus^ 
JPres.wOPnffi] Aor.^Bif^^v^. Des. f^^TWrftl. Freq. ^fri, im^fw. 
Part., Pres. ftrvn^; Past Pass, f^; Past Indech fVqjT, -f^m; 2^. 
Pa«*. «qnr«r, 'wfhr, ^ or «tnHi. 

616. Root ftn^ (special stem ftw, 273). /n/. il»^ *to succeed.* 
Par. Pres. fwvnfn. Imp/. mfwxp{^. Po/.ftrw^. Jmpr.ftrunftf- 
Per/, ftr^, fti^fVni or f^, ftpw; ftrf^rfiw, ftrftiv^, firfwg?^; 
firfWw, ftiftv, ftrftf^. w/ JW. imftff (298)*. anrf JW. %?eiTfii 
(299)*. -4or. wftpfi^*, iiftrH^, ^rf^Mi^; wfiwR, wfeviiH,iifHVifP^; 
wfmm, wf^rari "vfiffii^* Prec. ftw^Rr^^. (Swrf.niwn^. Pass.,P>-«». 
fWw; ^or. 3rrf «i^. iiirfv. Caus., Pres. ihrafw or iiiiKlir«i; Aor. 
wAfk^. Des.ftrfwrTfii. Freq. ^fwi, ititfw?. Part, Pre*. ftiwn|^; 
Past Pass, ftn; Pa*/ Indecl. ftR|T or %fviWT or ftfftiWT, -fw; F«/, 
Pa**. ^IW, ihnrtu, ^. 

617. Root ni^t (special stem ^^). Inf. n^ *to think,* *to 
imagine.* Atm. Pres. w^. Imp/. ^fH^. Pot. W^n. Impv. w^. 
Per/. ^ (375* «)» ^ftfij ^; ^ftnt, ^'H^, ^flT^; ^ftpi^, ^ftld, 
^fVf^. 1st Fut. w^. 2nd Fut. if^. Aor. (424. b) mfftrf, ^WWP^, 
wrar; wNrf^, ^nhrnn^, wmnn»^; irf^ifif, ^wwr»(, inNnr. Prec. 
1NN1. C4>»rf. ^riNr. Pass., Pres. ^^; Aor. yrd sing. vurf^. Caus., 
Pres. imnnfiT ; Aor. ^h\ha\. Des. fifift or ifbri% or finfftfi^. Preq. 
t(m^, nnvfiif. Part., Pre*, inun^; Past Pass, mr; Pa*/ Indecl. 
ifiWf, -IW5 Ptt/. Pa**. i?^W, «nn(hl, iTRI. 

a. nn, Iij/1 irftfj^^ * to be bom,* makes Pres. m^; /m^. mn^, 
&C. ; Pp/. irnhr ; Impv. ifA. But these may be regarded as coming 
from Passive of Jan, cl. 3. See 667. 

618. Root 7^t (special stem ^). Inf. j[^ or ^51^ or irnj^l^ 

♦ When ftn^ belongs to cl. i, it optionallj inserts ^ ij WiffW or %fWllTf^9 
ftiOrrf^ or^^ftlllft, 'TOf^nn^ or IWT^. 

t The root ^^^ is rarely ooigugated in cl. 8, Atmane (see 684), when the Aorist 
is. Vff«ffW, Vlf«TfW( or Vnn^j WIPhJ or WifW, &c. See 424. b. 

X Also conjugated in cL g, Par. ^TJtfW) 8co. 



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CONJUGATION OP VBBBS. — GROUP I. CLASS IV. 269 

* to be satisfied.' Par. Pres. foflftf . Impf. Wff^{. Pot. l^kV{; 
Jmpv.'^v^^ P«yi Wirt, mrf^ or wi^ or irjfBq, mrt ; T^f^onr^, 
H^^, H^pifl^; 'Wf(c^^ or ir^, wj^, ii|s<^. i*^ Fut. (390./) iiAif^ or 
?|H!f9Yorirf^ilT%(390.A). 2n^fW.in^^or?rc9nf<rorirfWftr,&c. 
Aor. (420) 1111)4^, ^nirtff^, innNd^; ^nn^, miiih^, ^nntff^ ; UNmA, 
.imrft, ^nrr^. Or ii(sim^, nvi^^, v^mfli^y &c. Or niirQm^y 
wrll^t winffi^^ &C. Or ^n{^, ^*Vl» ^Q^v ^T*^* ^fw^> ^ijMfli*^ ; 
.mmw> W^[HW, ^i^^- Prec* fvn^. Ctrnd, ^imj^ or VA44|i^ or 
Wf^iQ^. Pass., Pres. ff^tk; Aor. yd sing. inrf9. Caus., Pres. irt- 
iTffti; -4ar.^nfhpi(orwinrt«^. Des, ftipnfii or fSwwnfir or fmif^ ^i fa . 
Freq. 1l<^, irrtlrf^ or iftt^ff^. Part, Pres. j[^; Past Pass, pi ; 
Past Indecl. ^, -^; Fut. Pass. Ti#«r, irt^fhr, ^. 

619. Root ^ (special stem ^WT, 275). I^f. ^ifivgi^ *to be 
Uppeased/ Par. Pres. ipT^^Tf^. Imp/, w^rrq'^. Pot. ^cn^^ 
fn^. immrfiT. Perf. iRTW (3<58), ^ftnr (375. a), ^19^1 ; %fti^, ^^^, 
^ilgt^; %ftw, ^, ^f^* I*/ Fut. l^finrrf^* %nd Fut. iirHviiPn, 
:4or. w^'i'^, ^^•it^, ^f^'n^; n^'OT, w^fin^, v^hiii^; ^v^|i«im, v^vnr 
^mni^. Or v^irfvi^, v««ft^, ungifti^; w^rftw, &c. Prec. ^vitnn^ 
CbndL V|rf^nq«(. Pass., Pres. ^; ^<?r. 3rrf sing, w^rftf or ^i^nfir 
Caus., Pres. ^irarfif ; ^or. v^^Mi^* Des. f^nfrf'niTfir. Freq. |fv%: 
|h(ri^ {yrd sing. ff^f^). Part, ^^«». in«IH; Pfl*/ Pm*. :|mir ; Past 
Indecl. VTn^T or ^rf^VWy -^fl ; JPW. Pa«9. ^ifinm, ^(PrfN, ^wj. 

620. Root im (special stem inpr). Jn/l 7|fi(r^ or ifji^ * to perish.* 
Par. Pres. inpiTftl. Jrwfi/*. ^Pnpp^. Pot. if?^^. /m/w. if^inf^. 
P«/- (375* «) 'nrrn or inr^, ^fi^m or infw (375. a), inini ; ^fi(w or 
'Nr, %5r^, ^94M,> ^f^ ^^ ^^> ^> '^^^ i*^ -^^ 'rf^TirftR or 

iffTf^l (390. *). 2nrf Fut. ^rfitnqrft or ifwriw. -4or. (437) ^rti^y^, 
w^ni^, innrn; ^nnjTW, wt^^in^, v^ym^; ^iRW, ^'f^, ww^. Or 
H^^IH, &c. (437, 441). Predf^nWR^. Cond. n^r^Kij^&c. or IR^^* 
Pass., P^e*. iq^ ; ^or. 3rrf sing. winf^. Caus., Pre*, ^n^rnf)! ; Aor. 
^nfbdP^. Des. r^^r^mfa , f^ihiTftl. Freq. i!T^, ^TRfipi (3rrf «iy. 
iimff omnfff). Part., Pre*. vnRI^; Pa*/ Pa**, iff; Pa*/ Indech 
i|fT or ijp, -^npr; Fut. Pass. ^9?m, Tf^ifhr, ^rr^. 

621. Root ^* (special stem ^). I^j/l ntf^ 'to be nourished,* 
' to grow fat.* Par. Pres. ^iqift?. Impf. ^f^^. Pot. 91^. 
Impv. 9«<iOii. Pel/, yftw, yitf^, yqtw; Ijftw, fS^^, ?i^l^; 
SJftw, 15^, WT^* ^*^ •^^* ''J^Tfw. 2»rf jR</. "q^^jnfii. -^or. (436) 

* This root is also conjugated in the 9th class. See 698. 



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270 CONJUGATION OF VBBBS.— GBOUP I. CLASS IT. 

'•S^ ^^H» ^S^^ ^'S^wr* ^wyw^* ^f^wp^; ^i^tw, ^^wr, ^^^. 

Caus.^ P^tf*. if^^infir; ^or. lif^pn^. Des, jiJIhmrH or ^jAriT^ or 
gfi|f^. Preq. id^> wrtWir. Part., Pre$. ^^n^; Pa»t Pass. ^; 
PaH Indecl jyt, -^; -FW. Pass, iftfur, nWNr, ifN. 
, 622. Root W( (special stem i»w). in/*- ^■ft'S't * *<> throw.' Par. 
Ptes. ti^inftVy &c. Imgf, fnfQ*(. Po/. iwi^l*^. Impn, wmrfv* P^rf. 
^ww, HTftnr, WW ; wiftw, nm^jf^y wTfig^; wrftw , wr, wt^« it/ PW. 

wftmifw. 2nd Fut. vIVimfif. ^or. (441) 111^^^, WT^qE^, Wf9n^; WWf, 
WIWW^, WTWnw 5 WTOTR, wnwif, wnw^. Prec. V^IW^. Oo/nA* wflwi^. 
PiU8.y P^et. w^; Aw. yrd sing, wrftr. Caus., Pres.mm^tf^; Axjt. 
WTflEni«|. Des. nftirw i fl !. Part, P^w.w^; Pay/Po^^.WW; Pot^ 
Iimf^. wftnfT or wwT, -tw; JW. Paw. wftnnr> w«irtw, wwr. 
. 623. Root "CT (special stem '^)^ htf. '^ft'^ or '^jflffllS'^ * to injure/ 
\ to bear malice.^ Par. Pres. ^inf)?. i«^. ^^^piH^* ^^^* "S^^* 
impt^. ^Wftf. Perf. j^, Jl^fipf or Jjtnf or 5^, y^if j Jlftf'i 

SI*^' fpi^' 5l'^» SI'* 5I!^- '*' ^^* (415- «) l^^'^Wl^ » 
^j^tarrftR or ^rfAiftff,'&c. anrf JW. llt^sinfil (306. «) or ^n^mlli. 

Aw. wpi(, w^f^> ^*fl5 v|?w, ^"l^* ^"^iwi^; ^i^?w, w|iTr, 

W^[fi^. Pr«c. IHFB^, &c. Clwirf. WM^^S!n^(3o6. a) or H^lO^vi^. Pass., 
Prts. ^ ; Aw. 3rd sing. wftf^. Oaus., PreSi ^^^iiOi 5 ^or. 'fj^f^* 
Des. gg ^f ^mfH or 5^f\!HTlH or f^WT^ (306. a). Freq. fft^gi^, ^^^ 
{3rd sing, ift^jflfrif or IfhfMr, 514. rf). Part, P^-e*. "JPH^J Pfl^^ P«#. 
ijjni; Pof/ Indecl. ^mm or "if^ilT or ^Pi^i, -^5 J?W. Pam. 'jtni^, 

624. Root 7|| (special stem ifn). Jn^. iqp( ^ to tk/ ^ to bind,' * to 
fiisten.' Par. and JCtm. Pres. ivinftr. iftm. ir^. Irngf* mnw^* 
Atm. Wi!#. Pot. ird^. -^tm. "^1^. Jm/w. "s^nrfil. i!ftm. i|^. 
P^. TfT^ or ^^^, itf^ or 1RI, ^TfTf ; ^H\pi, ^?^^, ^fg^; 'M^, 

or-^, %fi!^. ist Fut. JHUfm. -^tm.iTr%. 21M? Ptil. (306. 4) iwmflf . 
Atm. H3^. Aar. {426) viillU^, HHfUftn, wifTF^f^; WfTW, ^«ii««^j 
VHin^; w^in^, wn¥, 'i'f ifg^. Atm. w^w, w«t«i^» ^n*; ^nwsilV, 
n^wi^i*^ , iiv f w r ai*^ ; wwrwf^, w^np^, wronr. Precimwi^. Jitm. 
^frit^. Cbnrf. WffWH. Atm.w^. Pass., Pre*, n^; Aw. 3rd sing. 
Wtfffig^. Cans., Pre*, illf mfil ; ^or. wfhnp^. Des. fVpnurftr, -1^. 
Freq. ^nr^, ifRftr (3rrf «njr. TfTRfl). Part., Pres.i(m(} Past Pass. 
^fW; Past Indecl. 'H^ty -^nr; Fut. Pass, mw, ^Tf^, 'mr. 



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CONJUQATIOK OF VERBS.— QBOUP I. CLASS VI. 



271 



EXAMPLES OF PKIMIHYE YBRBS OF THE SIXTH CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT «J8. 

625. Root ;^ ifij. Infin. Bf^ 9raslt(umj *to create/ * to let go.* 
Pabasmai-pada only. 
Present Tense, *I create.^ 
^^lf^ Sfijdmi ^9(t^9iijdva8 ^l[9fVf^srijdmas 

^nf^ sfifasi ^P*^ sjfijathas ^1f^ sjriiatka 

^flffi sjrijati ^fffX^^Sfijatas ^nfm Sfijanti 



Imper/ecty * I was creatmg/ or * I created.' 



^«it^ asjrifaM 









Potmtiialy * I may create.' 

^W «rv«7a ^^ sfijemu 

^ihf^ srijetam ^W!l ^fv^a 

Tmperativey * Let me create.' 

^Ifni Jf^'<foa ^^tlf trijdma 

^^n^ sjfijatttm ^IfW «r^ara 



MMf^a 



ini4 

mf^ sasaryUha or IRW * 



Perfect J * I oreated,' or * I have created.' 

J?r«/ JVifwre, * I shall or will create.' 
CmffR fTMAfcifmi (399. t) . Btnm^srashtdsvas WWi^^ trashfdsmas 
9ithS grashtdsi fWTW^ sraskfdsthas OTtFT «rMA^<£9^Jka 

Wn traskfd 0fTO sraskfdrau BtK^ srash^dras 

Second FiUure, * I shall or will create.' 
^ranrftl srokskifdmi fg^^a^\^n^srak$kifd(oa$ HWy^^srakskjfdmoM 

ignsf^ sr^kskyam ^ll§m^ srakBhyaihoB ^ ^[^C^ srakshyatha 

♦ As to sasrashfka, lee 3701/. 



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272 CONJUQATIOir OP VERBS. — GROUP I. CLASS VI. 

Aarisi, * I created/ 

^t«i«i|«\ asrdkskam W^XW asrdkshva ^KBfW asrdkshma 

JfBT^t^^ asrdhehii .iraTf^ asrdshtam V91V asrdshfa 

Hirnfti^ asrdksMt ^«ii«l^ asrdshtdm HHT^ asrdkshus 

Precaiive or Benedictive, * May I create.' 
^iin^n^ Sfijydsam ^iOTW siijydsva k^^m^H sjrijydsma 

^mm^Sfijyds ^JH i9a*\ fjfijydstam T^^WH^ frijydsta 

Conditionaly ^ I should create.' 
IIW^*^ asrakshyam WW^n asrakshydpa VfJ^HIIH turakskydma 

^^^^ (urakshyas ^tai«?ifli«\ asrakshyatam V^VHA asrakshyata 

^fBWff^asrakshyai WE^SPMt^^a8rak8hyatdm ^¥W^ asraiskyan 

Pass., Pres. q^; -4or. 3rrf sing. mrf^. Caus., Pre*. ir^inAl; 
-^or.iRWrilHoriRft^Hi^. Des. ftrq^n^, -^. Freq.^n^^. Ptot, 
Pre*, qnn^; Pa*/ Pa**. ^ ; Past Indecl. ^, -^nr ; Put. Pass. BWm, 

OTHER "examples OF CL. 6 IN THE ORDER OF THEIB FINAL LETTBRS. 

626. Root n (special stem ftR, a8o). /ij/l nj»^ * to die.* ^tm. in 
Special tenses^also in ^ior. and Prec; Par. in others. Prc*.ft|^. Imgf. 
irf^. Pot. fn^« Jwipv. ftR. Per/. ^Hlt,9 'nrt, vitc; 'iflw, i^^, 
iTij^; ^f^^, «w, •J^' Atm. ii^, wf%^, iT%; iftn^, imr^, i^ni^; 
irfvi|,«rfiEldor-|,i|f^. I*/ l^tt/. irihftl. unrfPtt/.irft^qfftf. Aor. 
inift, n^HT^, n^; ^*iw*nj, ^m^i^, '^l^tiii*^; n'^'iifig, ^i^lf^, ^'^^w. 
Prec. ^ift^. Cond. mfritv^. Pass., Pre*. fW ; Aor. yd sing. wmft. 
Cans., Pres. HlK^l^H ; Aor. ^liftin?^. Des. fl%rftr (50a). Freq. 
^^, Hftr or inJt- or H^fit. Part., Pre*. f^nnTO; Pa*/ Pass, ipr; 
Pa*/ /7u/ee/. ^i^, -^ ; 2^/. Pa**. irfW, iTOOfh?, «rrt. 

627. Root i| (special stem fine, 280). /ij/1 %fK^ or W^^s^ *to 
scatter.' Par. Pres. fmtifw. Imp/. %(fmv^. Pot. fwkyi^^* Iff^. 
fVTTf^. Per/. (374. k) ^nwT, 'fiift:^, 'Wl^; ^'sto, ^ift^^, ^W^'^i 
^ift?r, ^wt, ^mn?^. 1st Put. (393) nfiarrftff or wi^irrf^i. 2nd Fut. 
(393) TrfnRTfif or mOtmfw, &c. Aor. Wlrftv^, wlrfN(, iniT^; mw- 
ft*^, iwftf^, ^nirftfn^; inirflw, ^roftf, ^nrft5i^♦ Prec. nMr^. 
Cbnrf. mftun^ or ^wrx!N*^. Pass., Pres. ^5f ; -4or. 3rrf sing, m^oft. 
Cans., Pre*, v^inftr ; -^cw. ^iNhll3H. Des. fwft^rftl*. Freq. ^4fif, 

* With regard to 393, 501, V and vf are not allowed the option of itha. 

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CONJUGATION OP VBRBS. — GROUP I. CLASS VI. 273 

^mrfH. Part., Pres. f%n^; Past Pass. iA4 (530. a); Past IndecL 
ifti^T, •^iM ; Fut. Pass, iifbi^ or inchw, wc^nftii, 'wA* 

62S. Root ^ (special stem fV, iSi). Inf. vft^T^ ' to loose/ * to 
let go/ Par. and jS^tm. Pre^. fWTT^. Xtm^ ^. Imp/. ^I^|V^* 

Perf. filH, fiftf^, ?rfN; f5<^» H^TW> 9f^W> w^*** ff^i 

9i|(^d, 'JlP'rt- I*' -PW. 'ftwflw^ jfl^tm. iihRI^* 2nd Put. ^tVlf^. 
Atnu ift^» ^^it^* (43^) '^l^'l* 'V^* 'Vl,' vi|^i^ ^B^^W^f ^•I'^niH ; 

wi|9|lAli^; v^wfft i^'^'lH* ^"^W^' Prec. ^nii^i^. Xtm. f?(N (45*) ♦ 
CoimI ^nft^^C^. Atnuvftw. Ptas., Pre*. ^; Aor. 3rd sing. ^pitN. 
Cans., Pre*. ifHmfir ; Aor. ^^Uf^. Des. ffinfw, -W» '^ {503)^ 
Freq. iftj^, iftiftf'^ (Srrf «ny. ifW^ Part, Pre*, f^; Past Pass. 
^; Pa*/ Imfec/. fw, -fiR; Put. Pass, ifhw, «fH^, «Nr. 

62,9. Root ^ni (special stem frt, 282). In/. '"rf'^S'^ *to deceive.* 
Par. Pres. ftntifti. Jmii/. wfinn^. Pot^ f^^tvpf{. Impvp frffftf. 
jP«/* (383) fiwnr, flnqfwn, ftmn;. f^ftrf^, ftft'*^, W^^ij^; 
ffPrfw, fiflnr, f^ftrjl^* i*^ Fut. ^^fwmflw. anrf Fat. ^irfqiRTfiT. 
-4or. (428) ^ivrf^vin^, ^wNt^, &c., or nimP^m^ , &c. Prec. f^mit^. 
Oond. iimNuin . Pass., Pres. flnft; -4or. 3rrf wny. vqrf*. Caus., 
P>"e*.iirniinfi!; ^or.vftig^. Des. fwr^finftr. Freq.^f%^,^mf^ 
or ^T«NKH. Part., Pres. fTW\; Past Pass, ftfw; Past Indecl. 
ftiNfiii, -fnii; i'i*/. Pa**. *i filial, fnnfri, ^ir«i. 

630. Root m^ (special stem ^, 282). If\f. <Rf^^ ' to cut* Par. 
Pres. ^wtAi* !»%/• ^TV^* Pot. T^^^* /»»iw. ^^rftf. Per/1 ^ww, 
^vfv^ or ^ir^, Tiw ; ^nf^ or ^nrw (371), ^nii^^, ^fl^il^> iflftan 

or ^W^, ^?ni, ^ir^. i*^ J?W. (415) wfBWlf^? or nT%. 2nrf Put 

nOvvnf^ or ?ra9iTfif . Aor. nnnomi^, mr^t^, ^w^fh^; iwftr^, &c., 
3ee 427. • Or ^VHTW^ (4^3)> 'wnif^f ^nm^; wnur, wwTf( (^97), 
winii«^; mmp, mnt , wrni^^. Prec ^vrra^. Cond. wwfW^ or 
VTreP^* Ptos., Pres. ^ (47^); -^^* 3^rf '•^J^- ^wf% (475* *)• 
Caus., Pres. ?nmf^ ; -ior. wf^m^. Des. ftmr ^ wmfti or ftiniTftl. 
Preq. ^^ft^, irtl^^iW?. Part, Pres. ^w^; Past Pass, ^pm (544* 
58) ; Past Indecl. irPwwT, -^ (565); JW. Pa**, wftnw or irrq. 



a. Root ftni^(specialsteQiftrv, 281). Ji|/l%|rii!(Uo sprinkle.* Pa^ 
and Atm. Pres. fimfil. Xtm. ftw>. Imp/. ^«ftr«i^. -^tm. irftrai. 



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274 CONJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP 1. CLASS 71. 

Pot. firaii'^. Xtm. f^^. Impv. ffnrf^. Aim. HbA. Per/, fin^, 

iitm. ftrfini, ftrflffn^, frtW ; ftHW^iilt, &c. jst Put. iwft?, iwftr, 
&c. Atm. %in^. and Fut..^[^(i9p(. -^tm. )^. Aar. ^rftr^, -^, 

nr^wii^yirf^; wftrairflf, -ifniP^, -wiwi'^; wfiwjcff , wftw^^, irf^rani. 
Prec. r^ufini^. Atm. ftnif)w« Cond. WH^^P^. Atm- nihi^* Pass., 
iVe*. ftr^. Cans., iVe^. i^infty; ^or. i i ^lfli^*^ . Des. ftiftmiifn , 
-^* Freq. %ftr^, it%fti|. Part, Pret. f«V(^,ftr«mi|; Past Pats. 
ftiu; PiM^ Ifufec/. ftnp, -ftrar; P^t. Pass, irtw, %^f^, ^. 

631. Root n^ (special stem xpsi, 28a). /i|/l Vf^ 'to ask.' Par. 
Pre*. YWftl (51). Jm/j/ln^pKH. Pof.^^ftv^. Impv.^pnf^. Per/. 
(381) iimt, "TOPiCT or TOf, ^nrat; ^wftw, mi4t^^, ^nratj^; ^nf^BW, 
^mt, ^m^. I*/ Put. mf^?. imif 1^. m^rAr. Aor. wmp\, «m- 
nf^, mm^; viiitPy wff^, wnffn^; wnVy wiif, ^vnr^. Prec. 
^pSE^l^. Ocm^* ^nn^^. Pass., Pres. ^p^ (473^); -4or. 3rd sing. 
mnftv. Caus., Pre*. irai:inftr; Aor. UMll^^* Des. ft^f^nrftl- 
Preq. iqtti{lR, muf^. Part, Pre*. ^^; Pa*/ Pa**. ^; Pa*/ 
Indecl. iflrr, "T'W (565); 1^. Pass. Hfur, UWtN, WW. 

63a. Root ^ni|[ or «i(^ (special stem ipt). Inf. ^s^oth^* to ^.^ 
Par.andAtm. Pre*, ifurfir. Atm.^^. Inq)/.wfmp{. JCtaumtpSt. 
Pot. ^f^PPf. Atm. ^«R. Iiw/w. ipiTf^. Atm. ifft. Per/. (381) 
'w^w, wtffani or WOT, wsw; w^rfniw, wvi^^, w^ranf^; wwftiiw, 
''WW, W«5^. Or w«t, WHfyhr or w>, wit; WirftN, &c. Atm. 
W«^, w«f^, &C. Or fHW, W^rMft, &c. ist Put. «fif9r or ^hf^. 
Kim. >swik or >i#T^. %nd Put. vra^irfk or m^rfw. KXxsl «^ or >i«b^. 
Aor. vumi^, wwnrfi^, wwi^; mT9, "v^n*^, v^iTfT'^; mnw, ^wmr, 
w«T^^. Or ^r^rnl'^. Atm. wftv, ^qott^, ^wot ; ^nmrf^, mi||iii^, 
wwn^nrn^ ; w«!!f^, vn^f^, ^rai^w. Or virf^, im#i^, ^wJ; iPnAfj^, 
wn^FWn^, ^nrilnnn; ^Bim^f^, ^m^^, ^v)n|w. Prec. ^liilT^. Atm. 
«fi| or ^^ffn. Cond. mm^ or 1M^^« Atm. ^nra^ or vn^. 
Pass., Pres. vp^ (472). Caus., Pres. ^ranitfif; Aor. vwOTiW or 
WWliw. Des. fW8|TftT, -li^, or filM^lftv, -'^l'; or fw^rffVWrfH, -^, or 
f^ilfrihnftr, -^, &c. Preq. vd>}B^, wraftiR (3rrf sing, wnrfir). Part., 
Pres.rfw\; Past Pass, ^fw; Past Indecl^, -if9sm P^*Pass.}Swm 
•or ^^hffy H#^ or «ranihr, WiJ or WR^. 

633. Root ivn^ or iv^ (special stem inv). tn/ if^ 'to foe 



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CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GBOUP I. CLASS YI. 275 

immersed/ *to sink/ Par. Pres. sntrfH. Imp/. Wf(Wf* PoL 
wwfin{^» Itnpvm inirfH. P^f* iirHf wfn^ or inHi^y iTHf ; wPni, 
•iHUjH, 'nm^; •wOwi, vnrnf, <v^iifi(« i*/ Ji*/. inirfisR. 2«rf I'Vi^. 
ih^irfW. -4or. (424) whv^y finii^i^, vninOi^y inrfi^, vihiniy ^t^fupv ; 
wifo^ry viHiy wii^i^. Prec* hiviiiii^. Owirf. wra^. Ptos., PreM. 
i|^^« Cans., Pre*. iifii||(ii ; Aor. wwiii^. Des. PwivilfH. Freq. 
UPlSi^y UTRftm (srrf ««gr. wnHlii). Part, Pres. nwi^; Pfl*/ Pomb. if^ ; 

634. Root 5^. Inf. ift^ * to strike,^ * to hurt^ Par. and Xtm. 
Prta. Q^rfw* i^tm. |^« Imjf. ^K^g^ Atm* ir^. Pot. |^^. ^tm. 
^Ti. Jfi^. j^^iPn. i(^tm. ^. P«/. jifhf, giV<;Hi, igift?; fjfi^* 15** 

I5^> 15^; 3|fi?i%> Ijf?*^* 55^' ^*^ ■^^' Tft^^rfiBR. -^tm. ifhn%* 
anrf jFW/. wtionftf • jfl^tm. ihv^. ^or. fi^iriiii|[^ vfliflfl^> viuNft^; Wiroi, 
wimiH, wRnre^; mihw, wiiHi, ^nnF|^. Atm. vjfw, ^Hf?i!^ ^ifpt; 
^SmHi, ^ijwtw^, njiwiwi'^; wgnwr^, ^§^«i^, njwir. Prec. ^vnnv. 
Xtm. jwfhl (452). Gond. wih^. Atm. Wifl?^. Pass., Pre9. fi^ ; Aw. 
yrd ring. mitf^. Caus., Pre$. id^^^rftr ; -4or. "V^J^^ Des. f3nrTfir> 
-T^. Freq. iftjir, tMM^ (srrf «i^y. llMtfHl). Part., Pres. nn^; Pa*/ 
Pa*#. ft; Pa*/ Inded. |W^ -f»; JFi«/. Pa>*. ifhnq, l^^T'rt^, iftw. 

635. Root ftfi^^. I»j/li|^* to throw/ Par. and i^tm. Pre*.ft|HTftr- 
i!^tm. f^. Imp/, %[f^^^. Jitm. wfwiH. Pot. f^i^^. ^tm. f^|^« 
In^. ftf^afm. j^tm. f^. P«/. ffiH, f^w^frnr, f^iH; r^nnfM^, 
f"^rftin^, fwftns^; ftrf^ftw, f^rftn, f^»ft»i^. ^tm. fwfti^, f^t^r- 
fti^, fift|^5 f^ftfftml, fnftRT^, fnftiw; fwfi^ftwl, ftifsjfq*^, 
NfirfVi^. I*/ JW. -^mfi^i- iftm. ilmt. anrf Fta. i^xOTfw. -^tm. 
^i^. .4or. ^i^'^P^, h^hH^, ^i^Hfti^; ^fip^, iRifini, w^HW ; ^np^fy 

^fftr^rnmr ; wftpwff , ^rf^aff, irfw^nr. Prec. ftr^n^, &c. Xtm. 
f%|whl* Cbm/. iR^t^nv. ^tm. wq^. Pass., Pre*, ftf^; u^or. 3rd 
Ming. w^. Cans., Pre*, ^q^nfk; Aor. iiP i rtmn . ^^^- r^fsimiftf , 
-^. Freq. ^if^, ^iff^ (710, 43. e). Part, Pres. ftnn,; Past Pass. 
ftfW; Past Indecl. ftjy, -ftR; -FW. Pa**, ^iw, if^^, ifur. 

a. Root ftrn- Inf. ^ji^ * to enter.' Par. Pres. fir^rAv, ft^H, 
&c. Itnpf. wPf^i^, vfVfJir^, &c. Po/. fll^ifiT, f^n^, &c. Impv. flniTftT, 
ftm, &C. Perf. ftr^, ft^f^, ft^; fifWi|R, f%ftnpfq[, fifftWf^; 
flW^, f^ft^r, fwf^^U^. 1st Fut.^wifm. znd Fut.^^^a^. Aor. 

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276 



CONJUGATION OP VBBBS.— GROUP I. CLASS X. 



-flf^in^. Cond. Jf^iWi: Pass., Pre$. f^npt; Aor. yrd ring. iRffT* 
Caus., Pre$. ^^pnft ; Aor. v^i^fw^* Des. f^f^^rf^. Freq. ^f^, 
^Wfipi {yrd ring. ^^). Part, Pre$. ftnfn^; Past Pass. f%¥; Past 
Indecl. ftrfT, -ft?ir; Put. Pass, ^fi^, ^infhr, ^. 

636. Root^s(. /ij/lwfi^or^iijif^totouch.* Par. IVet. ^^^iftl. 
Itnpf. ^l^^^« Pot. ^!!^:^^. Impv. ^i^^sgtfH* Per/. ^9r9, ^iwfi^, 
vm^; ^T^ff^, /R^5I5^, in^^ ^Wjlf^, ^1^, ^l'^^ istFkit. 
^mfw or Bwrft?. 2ndFut. ^vi^ifii or fUViiilfM* ^or* Vi^iit^, iifmi||A(, 
•W^il^ffn; IB^fWlJ, HWlJ*!, WiMldll^; W:l||ll$, imT$, VHIIV^I^. Or 

.^wiqi«i^, «^ih|)4(, &c Or ^n^ip^, m^^, isr^^; ir^^iw,W4{W|ff«^^ 
^n^HlflW^; ^I^^^JW, iw^Bpr, ^F^ifH. Pree.wp^m^. (hnd.mm^i^oT 
mm^^^. Pass., JVe*. ^^[^ ; Aor. 3rd ring. m^^i^. Caus., Pres. 
^qijNrftf; Aor. ilM¥ll(l«^or v^i^lli^. Des. ft^ilfTftr, Freq. ^<h5^^^, 
Wflwf^ or ^ifhllf^. Part, Pres. ^^f^; Past Pass. ^; Past 
Indecl. ^p, -^E^; JW. Pass. «|ni or ^tnr, wt'rt'l, ^5^» 

637. Root ^(special stem fv, 282). If|/1 ^ftlji^^or ^jif * to wish.* 
Par. Pret. ^vrfiv. Img/lHp^. Po/.^^fti|i^. /m/n?. |[«f7r* P«/. 

^fknir^worwfftff. 2nd Flit, ^fk^itn. Aor. ^fw^, ^■rt^^, 5^i|^i WTOf, 
^ftlfT, ^fwi*|^; <Pi^, W^, ^^5^- P^ee. f^min^. CbnA i^Dmiii* 
Pass., Pres. jj^; Aor. yd ring. %ftl. Caus., Pres. ^nrfiv; Aor. 
$fWi. Des. ^ftrPwrflf. Part, Pres. ^^; Pfl#/ Pfl##. n»; Past 
JndeeL jg\ or l^fliWT, -f^; Put. Pass, ^wr or ^Ninr, i^nftl, i!it. 



EXAMPLES OF PRIMITIVE VERBS OF THE TENTH CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 283. 

638. Root ^ 6ur. Infin. ^fW^ Sorayitum, * to steal* 

Parasmai-pada. Atmanb-pada. 

Present Tense, 'I steal.* 





















Imperfect, *1 was stealing/ or ' I stole.* 









ii^ 1i.n^i4( ii^1ii> i ii ^^linmn^ 



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CONJUGATION OF VERBS.— GROUP !• CLASS X. 



277 



Potential^ * I may steal/ 



^«lt^^ 


^fti^ 


^f^OTI 


•'ftolt^ 


^*h^ 


^hlffiC 


^ftro^ 


^thi^mn 


^Vctj^ 



^th^^ ^1ii>4inq i n ^h^ai»( 



Imperative^ * Let me steaL' 









^*h?w ^i^'m*^ '^li^w^ 

^<*lil*^ ^ftCTUT^ 'TO^nifP^ 



Perfect^ * I stole/ or * I have stolen/ 



^^CTmnr ■ <\<niii i ftin ^IcniHiftiH 












Fir$t Future/l shall or will steal.* 



^XftHirw ^ VDn i WH ^l.(Vflmi4( 
^ Uftmifti ^VriiH r iw4^ ^ lirn^ i iw 
^trfim ^fkfinrrft ^ifttftunr:^ 



^ift**!^ ^<ri(Aii4i^ ^iOiiAw^ 

^fkftnnir ^ lifiminiiil ^vh:f)nni^ 
^f^Tftnn ^fttftniTO ^"fttftrro^ 



Second IkUure^ * J shall or will steal* 



^Vftl^lft ^ Vftll^^ ^liPl^W^^ 
j ^ Vft ^ Mfti ^liftii^n ^Irftriw 
;wkProfii i^WVnmw[ ^iW^wftr 



^rhcftw% ^ftrftrW ^^kftroi 
^^Win^i ^ikfti^ ^t^fiw* 



Aorist, * I stole.* 



.*T5^H ^Ty" ^T5^ 
^■TS^ ^»T5^^ '•TSW 
«T5^ ^T5^^ 'TS^ 



^riT^ ^"»TI^ ^TWl 



Precative or BeneHctive, * May I steal.* 












^iWirthi -flrthrff -ftrtW^ 



CkmditUmal, * I should steal* 



H ^WHHH^ H^iftlll^ H^liftUHlH 

^li^irnnn ii^1i^i<n ^^^^i^ ^ ti 
n^'^iftij;^ n^liHu i ^a i n n ' ^li.ftint^ 



inikftni -flr«n^ -ftnrorff 



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278 CONJUGATION OF VEKB8. — GROUP I. CLASS X* 

639. Pass., Pres. ^5f ; Aor. 3rd ring, ^r^ftft. Caus. same as the 
Primitive verb, Des.y^Wwftr. Part., Pre*. ^ftr^; PastPaas.-^^ 
or ^ftftar; Past Indecl. ^ikNWT; Fut. Pass. ^dtftnPR, ^ftrsfhi, ^. 

OTHER EXAMPLES OF CL. lO IN THE CmDER OP THEIll FINAL LETTORS. 

640. Root ^ or ^ (stem jp\). Inf. ^tf^l^ *to fill */ Par. Pres. 
iJOTftr. Ifnpf.^[jp^. Fo/. fT^iT^. /mpt?. ^ppnfiir. Per/. ^M\n\^. 
1st Fut. ijijcftrtrPw . 2nd Fut. ^(tftpqiftr. Aor. ^SJS^- ^^^^' f*'^- 
Cond. WfTfinf{. Pass., Pres. ^; Aor. yrd ring, ^l^ or ^wU[ft». 
Caus. like the Primitive. Des. ^^pdwftr. Part, Pres. fT^; Past 
Pflw^.^or^ftwor^; Parf Iiufecl ^ftm or ^, -^ ; Fut. Pass. 

641. Root fii^ (stem f^^(^. Inf. { ^ H i {^%\ *to think.* Par. 
Pres. fVfiinnftr. /mp/. l»f^iini»l[. Pot. f^Rf^^. Iw/w. ftpjnnftT. 
Per/. F n ^illH I ^ . !«/ i^/. fW'ifftnrTfiw. 2nd Fut. f^^iffqurftl. -4or. 
iBfqfVnin^. Prec. f^ntfTP^. Cb»rf. ^N4 i rMm*^ > Pass., Pres. f^. 
Caus. like the Primitive. Des. f^f^f»irftnnf^. Part, Pres. f^^iPIn^; 
Ktsxi.f^nfm^{S^*j)\ Past Pass, ffffmn; Past Indecl. f^mf^mf-f^rm; 
Fut. Pass. firirftni«Br, f^Rnfrj, fvw. 

64a. Root w^ (stem v^). In/1 ^[^ftTf»^ (with prep. ll,lir^,lir^fiig«^) 
* to ask,' * to seek.* Atm. Pres. ^rt^. Ingif. ^rr^. Pot. m^^^. 
Impv. w^. Perf. ysA^X^ 1st Fut. w*ftnn%. 2nd Fut. w*fim. 
-4or. infS^, ^rrfN^, &c Prec. w^ftwfhr. Cbnrf.^m^fil^. Pass., 
Pre*. JK^f. Cans, like the Primitive* Des. mfhthm^H^ -^. Ptot, 
Pre*. vNt^ (527) ; Pa«/ Pa«*. wPftr; Pa*/ Indec/. ^r^fWT, -^; 
Fut. Pass, w^finr^y w^'ftiT, ^ii&» 

643. Root ^ (stem vr). Inf Vrfnj*^ * to say,* * to tell/ Par. 
Pre*. V«niTftr. Imjif. mrmH. Po/. vrW^. Impv. inmfn. Perf. 
vnimnar. i*/ Fut. w^ifimfwf. 2nd Fut. wiftwrfir. Aor. %rww^ 

orn^rhc^. Prec. ^pimsw . Owrf. mwrftnqi^. Pass.w«^, &c. Caus. 
like the Primitive. Des. fnT^rf^rmfiv. Part., Pres. ^i^nn(^; Past 
Pass, liftnr ; Past Indecl. ^irqfiTWT, -^pqtg (566. a) ; Fut. Pass. Utifinrsi, 

a. Root '5^ (stem ^iM). Inf. tf)^ftT3'l[ * to proclaim.* Par. Pres. 
litiRTf^. I»i8/; ^r^^mw. Pot. wtn^^n^. Jmjyv. vhnnfiir (58). P«/. 

* This root forms its stem '^(^pdraya irom ^, and ^[T^ p^aya horn ^; but 
,the meaning, of ^WHTft? is rather *to fulfil/ 'to accomplish/ 'to get throngb.^ 
The Caas. of;^ pfiy d. 3, is also iflCTlfH ' to cany over,* ' to aceomplidi.' 



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COKJUGATION OP VERBS. — GHOUP 11. CLASS II. 



279 



1st Fut. iftMftairm . %nd FiU. iNftrarAr. Aor. mffm^. 
Free. %«lHm. Cond. HM^Mfnn*^ . Pass,, Pres. ^ft^; Aor. yd sing. 
irwH^. Cans, like the Primitive. Des. i ^iftMhmO i. Part, Pre$. 
liN^; Past Pass. "itfHw; Past Indecl iftifilW, -^5 JW. PasM. 

i. Root «ni^ (stem ^npr). /n/1 mrftlfi^^to eat^' 'to devour.' Psx. 
Pres. minifiT* Imp/, munp^. Pot. vnfkni9{^. Impv. n^m^. Perf. 
)n|ininir. ist Fut. >in|fimfai . am/ JPW. mifaiifn . Aor. wwvf,* 
Pree.mwKm^* Ckmd.mH^^^m^. Pass., Pre*. iiw. Des. fw^ftwrfli. 
Part^ Pres. ^nfVi^^; Past Pass. ^A(ir; Piw/ iikfcc/. HwftlWT, -wm; 
FW. Pom. tfiif^nmy mfiihr, hv. 

EXAMPLES OF PRIMmVE VERBS OF THE SECOND CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 307. 



644. Root^yii. lafm.7n^y(Uum^ 
•to go.' 

PABAftMAI-PADA OIllj. 
Present^ * I go.' 

^^fftr ffdsi HiM^^ ydthas W9 ydtha 
irrfk ydti H\n^ ydtas ^fif^n yciiift' 

ImpeffecU ' I was going/ or ' I went.' 
WIP^ i^<& Wnn^ aydtam vHia ay(iif a 

Potential, * I may go.' 
^iras^y<fy<6a anHW ydydoa VJWf^ ydydma 
%ni!^ yifyiff ^l^li'^yifyii^Mi limii ydydta 
^fHRf^y dydt MlUll^l^ydydtdm VX^ydyus 

Imperative, * Let me go.' 
^fftf ydm ^TW ydea ^nt yc^ma 

inf^ye^ A\K^^ydtam VXEydta 
If!] yifii ^TA?J^ ydtdm VJ^ ydntu 



645. Boot \% ^lo). Infin. FJ*^ 
etum, * to go.* 

For ^ with oMi, 4, &c., see 311. 
Present, ' I go.' 
^fifemtt IJl^tww ipi^tmat 

^ftl e$M T^^ i*^^ V^ *'*« 

Imperfect, * 1 was goipg/ or ' I went.' 
Uni'l rf3fai»(37) Vmawa{2^i,a) vm aima 
K^^ oiff (33) ^I'( aitam Wit aita 
^m^ait WltU^aUdm -xnm^^dyanX 

Potential, * I majr go.' 
ipin[ iydm ^3||T^ lyifpa ^^ni| <3f<^ 

^^mi^ty<^ ^4imi^^iCfi&ii ^f^ iyus 

Imperative, * Let me go.* 
WIIPh aydni ^^(f^ aydva -mAm aydma 
jf^ihi ^in^tVam J[lt ita 

1^ etu ^ai*\ ttim 'PJ yoiifii 



* Or HJH ayiw (flee 310. Obs.) 

t This root is also of the ist class, making WinfiV, Wfff, kc, in P^res. tense. 

X Foster gitas W^. See Pi^ini (vi. 4. 81), and compare Laghu-kaum. 608. 



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280 



CONJUGATION OP VERBS- — QROtlP II. CLASS IL 



P«/. inff (373), iRI^ or vfif^f inff ; 
it^fw. ^liiifVHy^BnwifVyinwTy&c. 2nd 

Fut, ^TO^lftf, ITOlftfy wwfii; ilWh 
^,&c. iior.^nnftnn^(433),^rTOfl^, 
inmfti^; winfti«T, innftifi^, mm- 
f^xwt^} iniiftiiii,VR!ftnp,«infti|^. 
Prte. vmnx^j mm\f vmn^i inin^y 

Vnftl. Caii8.» Fret. MIM^lRly &c.; 
ilor. H4I^M*^, &c. Des. ftRfHTftf. 
Rpeq, ^inn^, ^innftf or H\H^ (3rd 
9mg. Ifnirfll or IfWftr). Part., Pret, 
^m^(Nofii. COM ^119^); Paf# Pas$. iflV; 
Piwl JjM^ec/. IJTW, -tOT; Fitf. P«f. 

a. like 1|T may be coi^jugated HT ' to 



P«/. X^ (3^7« «)» If'iftW or 1^, 
J^l ^ftw, |4^H> t^W* ^^% 

^^161, &C. ilor. (438. e) li1l*(^, ^'ii^f 

^nnw^ ^^^. Pi'w. ^'IW^, Ac (see 
447.il). C<md. W^^ Pass., Pret. 
^; igt Fui. WHl^ or Vlfilfll^ (474); 
2nd Fui. wA or UlAl^^ Aor. 3ri jtii^. 
Vnfti or WHUlf or mPMA. Cans., 

Prts, ^^^t(^ (from i^^ai 602) or wn* 

lirfll or VIM^lOl; Aor. Hlfl'lHl^ or 
mft^or ll|(\|M*^(with acttt prefixed, 
HWIHl'IM^^ 493. e). Dee. ftntftwifil 
(from IW afc 60a) or ^(V^nBi, -W. Part., 
Pres, nif^iNom. Tp^); Past Pa$$. JjUl 
Past Indecl. I^> -fm; Fnt. Pass. 
W<l, liH«rt^, ^W or CT. 
shine:' Prts.m^; Perf.'^A; 1st Fut. 



OTHER EXAMPLES OF CL. 2 IN THE ORDER OF THEIR FINAL LETTERS. 

646. Root 1^ (special stem %, 315). If^f. llflvg>^^to lie down,^ 
« to sleep.' -^tm. Pres. Tj^, ^, ^ {Keirai) j ^i||, ^^RT^, :^ini ; iw| 
{K€lfA€6a)y ^y ^Kk. Imp/, v^, ^J^^, ^r^; ^»$^, ^i^Hinrnf, 
nnniHii^; ^B^ffif , ^^w^, ii$<ff* Pot. yiflii, jiiifl^if^, unftw ; ^rfNfif, 

Ij^n^, ^^iii«^, iNiiii^^; ^nm9> $^» ^tin«^. Pei/. f^r^, f^rftpiw, 
tfi^; f|rfipRf , r^^Mi5,f^ifinT^; ruf^nH^, f^frfpKd or -f^pr^, fiRftpi^. 
i#/ Fka. irftnnl. an^ J^. nftr^. Jor. m^iW^, rnigfnv^, ^v^rftiv; 
^ryftn^, "w ^in i mmni^ imPumain^ ; w^ifWf^j^w^iftiiii^or-fq^i^^ii^- 
fTOr. Prec. ^rf^^hr. Ckmd. m^ifvA. Pass., Pret. ^; -4or. 3rrf 
twy^. W|iTftl» Caus., Pres. ^PRlfw ; -^or. n^^H^. Des. f^[n|rf^« 
Freq. ir^T^, ^^ or ^ipfHw. Part, Pres. ^nm {52,6. a) ; Past Pass. 
Iirftnr; Past Indecl ^fnm, -^[^l Put. Pass, ffinnil, ^RFftn, ^. 

647* Root ^ or ^ (special stems ^and ^, see 312). Ifff. ift^ 
or ^sfl^ * to bring forth.* i^tm. Pres. ^, ^, ^ ; ^^, 9^> 
f^; ^p%, fd, flT^. In^f. w^flr, ^if^> ^ifw; v^^if^* u^^ll^i^, 



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CONJUGATION OP VERBS.— GROUP IL CLASS 11. 281 

f?^> V(» fiTR^, ^'n^, f^mn^; fwif , f«^, fWHP^. Per/.^^/ 
15^^*11^; ^RPnt,fyn^,^l5^; i^ftwt, fjflni or -fti^, ^^ftft. 
lit Ra.Titw^ or ^^mk' andlka.ihAarnf^. -4or.iRrW^,iRlfl-' 
fi^^'v^rfivf; nnH i mf^ , nnr^M ii i i H , nnftumiH ; 'i^rq^rt , ^wrfln^nor 
"jm^ iwrftRir. Or^wftfti, w^^vT^> ^mhf ; witb^flf , ii4i\mm*(> inAiiwp^; 
nnh^f^y inn^y ^w?Nw. Prec. ^Mhi or nielli 4|. Oond» wim or irar- 
fti^. Pa88.y Pre». ^ ; Aar. 3rd ting, mmf^* Caus., Pret. imnnfti ; 
Aar. 1195^. Des. ^^^, -^. Yrt^. ^, ^itiJMii or ilfK^m. 
Part.) Pre#..f^lPT; Past Past. ^ or ^ or ^; Past Indecl. i^ or 
^Wff -^5 .P^« P<M*« ^AlW or vf^nm^ ^^5nrti|, irw or ^ff|. 

648^ Root ^ (special stems W^ or ^sNt, ^ and i|^i see 3i3)» /i}/** 
Wtf^^^ to praise.' Par.andi^tm. Pres.'mH^ or wfifii,Wt^ or wftfw, 
vHirorirAfir; ^jt^or^pft^*, iJ^orij^N^*, ip^or ipftw^*; 
H«l^or ^'ft'lH*, ipr or lj^rt^*f ij^ftr. Xtm. ^, H^ or ij'ft^*, ijl^ 
or mrft*; ij^ or H^ftl^*, T^> ^5^ ; ?SJ^ or fj'ftft** ^p* or 
ijTO**, ^Bjfw. Ifnp/i ^nj^ or iii7^> ^rar^ or mEfnft^y ^wn^or iWf- 
^ft^; iRj^ or ^fi^41«« *, ^""l^'l ^^ ^m^1ll*(^ ^'Wpn'^ or Wi^^lfli^; n^JH 
or^n^^ftf*,mjiiorwij^rtTf,iRj^. ^tm.^njf%yi|i^|in^orm{4hn^, 
^f^orw^^rtw; ir^^wf^or vfijql^ni*, vi^^ll^li^, iil|^iii1«^; iwjiff^or 
iR^'ft^*, wj«n^ or iRS(^Avn^*9 mjw. Pot. ^^pn^ or ^j^^Np^*. 

Aim. iq^N. Ifnpv. il^rff or ^nrfW^ ijf^ or ^Jlf^ , WJ or 4A4tjf 
^m^> ^^\ or l{4hli|^» ^^\ ^^ ^J^tlP^^; IB'^IH, ^IJII or ^4tii> f|^. 
i^tm. iw, IJ^I or ipft^*, iJUT^ or ^^fhlT'^; ^wnif, ij^nin^, ^^llflH; 
«rwwt> n«^or ^U^f ipnnw. Per/. (369) jfw, prb^, jii^ ; jpr, 

jyti^f IT'^* U^ (37*)> 15^* ist.Fut. vtinf^T. Atnu isftin^. 
ami JFW. ^isfNlTfir. -^tm. ^ift^. Aor. (427. a) iWTPnn, iwrtN[, 
iwpf^; ^rorrftw, mrrfiff^, WETiftifP^; wwrf^, iranfw, ^wirrftif^; 
Atm. ^JToftNy iwlii^, ^vii^9 wfll^^ff, nidlmmi^i irefNnn'^; iroft- 
^ifil, ^wtj^, iwAiif . Prec. ^l^t^^^ Atm. ^gV^fhr. Ckmd. w^ft^t^^ 
Kim. wgft^. Pass., Pres. ^ ; Aor. 3rd sing. mmtN. Caus., Pres.- 
¥immt^ ; -4or. HJI^. Des, Jflffir, -w. Freq. lhf^» whftft. Part, 
IVe». ijiin^; Pfl#/ Pfl#«. ^; Pa** Indecl. ijWT, -ijw; J?*t«/. P^w*. 
whw, WWfhl, IJW or ^gnf or ^j'lf. 

649. Root \ (special stems irtt, n^ T^ see 314). Inf. ^yi^ 

* Some authorities reject these forms. 
o o 



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282 CONJUaATIOK of verbs. — OBOUP IL class II. 

(borrowed from ^at 650) 'to say/ *to speak.' Par. and Atm. Tre$. 
Wftfti, 'W^ftfw*, iwlfH*; HJl^, ^9g^i U'^^J 'OT' ^* l'*^** 
^tm. ^, i|^, ip^; H^l, f^,'iniT^ ; ipl, ^, 1^. /iwp/. ^w^or 

wi^oi^, w^^. Po/. if^P^f T?'^* ^' -^tm. ^'rtif, "f^Nr^, &c. 
Impr. iRtft (58), ^, ^^; WW, ipTi^, njn^; iiw, fir, 15^. 
-^tm. n^, ^, i[iin(; vmi^, fwni!^, 'j^niin; 'M^mt, ^p^, f^n'^* 
The other tenses and forms are borrowed from 11^; as, Terf. ^^rv, 
&c. ; \$t Fui. invf^, &C. ; see T« at 650. But the Pres. partidplea 
are f^ and flTir. 

650. Root ^(3:10). /i|/:^^* to say,** to speak.' Par. In the 
General tenses Atm. also. Pre$. nf^f ^, ^fn ; 'R^ WT^ ^W^ I 
W^»W(, ^1^, f^ftr (borrowed from l|^ at 649). /mg^. vr^, wnf 
(«94)> ^^ (^94); ^f'^r^, ^Wfli^, ^WIW^; iW^, wm, ^W^t^ 
Pot. ^mn^, Tm^, ^"^m^, &c- impv. ^'irtftT, ^ftv, ^; ^^m, ^nn^j 

W»^^; ^mw, ^H, ^^ (borrowed from ijj. P«/. (375. c) 'mm, '9^f^^ 
or 9^w, viw; ^rf%w, '^SH,9 '•''I'^J ^rt^, "SW, ^l^- ^tm. '51%, 

fel. -^tm. inni. 2nd FkU. il9T^. -^tm. ^Ti^. Aor. (441) VJHi(, 
^ra^^, ipiW?^^; n'ft^i^, vrhun^, mft^iii'^; ^wi^if , iriWii, ^nft^n^. 
i^tm.ii^,irifN^,iiwWir; irt^W^, W%in^,wfk%irn^; vfWwfi, 

^■whmn, ^BWHmr. Prec. 9V||||*^. JLtmm'W^ft^• CotuL M^^^^. ^tm. 
mn^. Pass,, Pre*. ^(471); Aor.3rdsinff.'9mf^. Cans., Pret.^n^- 
J^f^; Aor,w(hnn^» Des. 'PnHTfw, -^. Preq. ^wir, ^iTffPI. Part, 
Pres. "5^; jSCtm. f^iro (borrowed from i|^at 649) ; Past Pass. ^9%; 
Poii IndecL wm, -"Ttf; FiU. Pass. RHW, ^^nft^i 'S[^^ or ifiw. 

651. Root iii(^(special stems in^ and ip^, 321). /fi/lmfv^ormflli^ 
* to wipe/* to rub,'* to clean.' Par. Pres.w^^wlf^{%^6),^(fi{2^j); 
l^i^j V^* I^^J 'P''^> Vi •ii^r»n or ^wftr* Jiwg/l nfrtl'^, ^wn^ 
(294), mn^; ^njw, ^w|fH,^i^Fn^; ii^,^Pif,wirtf^orii^in^. Pot. 

'Hihf, iff, ifrt'j or ipn^. Peiyi innw, 'wif^ or inni (37^ v> '^■'•J 
ii^ftw or innf^, "'ITW ^' wrt^f *milJ4^ or isn^J^; ''^ftw or 

* For these forms are sometimes substituted and sing. ^RTT^, 3rd sing. Wf ; 

and du. HI^^H* 3^^ ^^ ^'^^S^' 2^ pl* ''^JH* ^ ^°^ ^^ Perfect of a 
defective root ^SCfy with a Present signification, 
t According to some, the 3rd pi. of the Imperfect is also wanting. 



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COKJUGATION OF VBBBS. — GROUP II. CLASS II. 283 

'wrfilif , wpt or invr^y ''TS^ ^^ w»rrj^. i$t Put. mtifl^Y or infftnrfvi 
(415.11). 2nd JFW. If iHJIiriV or inOftiliril. Aor. wm^^, ^H I Hfl^, ^Hl ffinj 
^nmt, ^nn^H, ^nnJfn; vnn^^ iwrf, wiiv|i^. Or wnfftf^, ^nmfl^, 
^wnfll^; HHir^^, &C. Free. fiqnR^. Cond. mm^ or VHinK"!^* 
F^ueuy Pret . ^3^ ; Aar. yrd ring, vnfil. Caus.^ Pre$. urNlfw ; Aor. 
WlWh^ or ^nftipnf* Des. OlHIlflfil or (i|i|i|iril or flnnfi^mftl. Preq. 
'i<h|;5W>,«i^-ori!ft-orii^Tfil8(3rrf#i»yr.-^^ Part, Pre*. «n^; Past 
Pom. Iff; Past IndecL ffT or mfl^, -ipr; Ptf/. Pom. mi«q or 
irfiiipii, wfw'rt'i, iF^ or ipif. 

652. Root ^ (317). Ifif. n^ * to eat/ Par. Pre$. irftr, irfW, 

iii;^(3i7.6); iiiT>^nin^)^vnn'^; ^nVyHnryWi^. Po/.^nmi^. Impt>. 
iR[TftT,^wfii,^i^; v^yinn^yirin'^; ^w^ti,wii,w^. Pei^. 111^,11105^, 
in?f ; nrfiji, ^^^TJ^* ^n^9^5 inflpi, in^, ^nj^. i#/ i'W. inirfi^i. 2nd 
J%rf.il»nftf. -^or.WTOi^ (borrowed from root 1|^),U1^,WTO1^; Wlh 
mw, ITTOWW, iiil^A|i|^; Wl^TH, Wl^lW, 1I1M«^. Pree. nvnn?. Oond. 
UTilP^. Pass., Pre$. nj^ ; ^or. 3rrf ring. wtfi?. Caus., Pret. wi^^nftl ; 
Aor. infl^. Des. ftmvrftf (borrowed from n^). Part, Pret. n^; 
Pat/ Pdtt. uni; Pot/ Iit^bc/. wun; Put. Pass, iniii, m^, wm. 

653. Root ^ (special stems ^, ^Ifif , ^5fif , ^, see 32a). /f|/I 
:ftfl;[gi^ * to weep.* Par. Pres. ^Kijftf, ^ftflffi, ttf?jfw ; ^fijl^> ^5^?^, 
l^f^V^; ^^fipi^ ^fif^, >5?fiir. Jmg^. irthjH,irft^orwd?fl^,^d^or 
mct^ (Pfi?. VII. 3, 98, 99); w;?fiw, n^flfif^, Wi?i»l^; W^f ''^ 
fiyir, H^^. Pot. ^vn^. Impv. ^hflftf, ^5f^ft?> ^f^fi?? 5 ii^w> ^'fi;Ji'( 
^fl^WT'^; ^hfm, ^fijir, ^?^. Pei/.^?ft!r,^dfij^,i5^; ^^5fi!^»F5^^3 
^P^^W** ^^'R?**> ^^> ^'^l^- '*' •'^^ Of^AifViH. 2nd Fut. (ji(^mf^. 
-4or. ^^t^'^, ^^^, ^^^t^; i^^i^, ^■^^^w'^, ii%^«|i^; n^'^w, ^^^n; 
w^?^. Or wdf^T^y nO((tn, w^h^t^^j vCin^uiy vORsf^y urtflffP^ 
wtlApir, ndfifF, wtW^. Prec. ^vnii^. Cond. mtfiB[V{. Pass. 
P^et. ^5 Aor. yrd ring, wtlfij. Caus., Pres. €t^inftl ; -4or. il^^!;'^. 
Des. Tf^fipnfil. Freq. ^d^, ttdftr (3rrf sing, ^ttfw) or th^^ftfif 
Part, Pres. ^^5 Past Pass, ^fi^; Past Indeel ^fi^, -^W; Fut 
Pass. OA^fl^, Ttai'fN, thi. 

654. Root fi^* (special stems fi^, f , w, and W, see 323). In/I f^ 
* to strike,* * to kill.' Par. Pres. fftii, ^, ?flir* ; f^, fl^, fTW(; 

^ It must be borne in mind (with reference to 333) that han only loses its nasal 
before t and th^ if not marked with P. When the prep. HT a is prefixed, this root 
may take the Atmane, in which case the 3rd sing. Pres. will be HT^. 

002 



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' 284 CONJUGATION OP VBBBS.— GBOUP 11. CLASS II. 

f^> f^, Hftif* Ifnigf. ^Tf'nt, 1»f5^, W^5^ (294) ; ^1^, ^^IT^, ^^•"•^J 
Vfiffy HfW, mii^. Po/. I^^, &i5, /in/w. ftuPff, nf^, ^*; ^fW, ?ini, 
^wi'^; ffw>iw,ir^. Pel/, wwrsi (376), iRfir^ or irfwr,iRnf; nfiw> 

AoT. (43a. i) ^iwftroi^, ^iw^lt^, wi^rti^; ^wwfw, ^wfflnn^, vwRiiii'^; 
WwfVwr,WTftlF,iniftl5^. PrccWHTO^l* Owm?. ^Bijftrqi^. Pass., P^et. 
1^ ; Terf. n^ (473) ; -4or. yrd wng. wm^ (or Vlf^, borrowed from 
^V^\ \9tFut.^^ox'Usfi^xik\ anrf Ptt/. fftp^ or ^iftri^. Caus., 
fres. '^nnnftr ; ^or. infNw^. Des. ftrahirf'T. Freq. iflfi^ or Hip^, 
mfftFTorifff^or wipftftr; see 708. Part, Pre*. w^; 'P(ut'P(a9.X^\ 
Past Indecl. ?Fn, -fW; Fut. Pass, f^iw, i^nfHr, ^TW. 

655. Root ^n^ (special stems ^n^ and ^ifi|, 322. a). Inf. ^TJ^ * to 
sleep.* Par. Pres. ^orf^, ^iftrftr, iiftifir; ^rftn^, wftw^, ^rfiw^; 
^rPw^> ^rf^, '^niftr. Impf. ^vw^^^^ iir5nw[ or msrft^, ^ra^ or 
w^nrti^; iwftnr, &c. (see ^ at 653). Pot. ^nRf^. Impv. ^onafiir, 
^stWtj, ^ftij; ^nr^, ^Brftra^, ^aftrHP^; ^nnf, ^rftnr, ^m-j. P«y. 
(38jj);|^rm,;|^finior^pflP^, ;|^rm; f9An>fTT^»lf^5^; fffinif 

Pree. |[HT^. Obmf. VifliMI^. Pass., Pre#.;|i^ (471); Aor.yrdsmg. 
iimTf^* Caus., Pre*. ^innnfW; -4or. ^i^5^, &c» Des. ^^^Blfil. 
Freq. ?itg^, m^sfm or in^nftftr. Part, Pre$. ^^Rl^; Pa*f Paw. f»; 
Past Indecl. fjT, -^; Fw/. Pass, iinw, ^oripfhr, ^TO. 

656. Root ^ (special stems ^[11 and 99(, 324). In/*. ^%9>( * to 
wish.* Par. Pre*, wf^, wftf (302), ^ (300); ^f^B^, ^1^, Wf^; 
?»^, ^snr, ^^ftr. Imfi/*. ir^^n^, ^w^ (294), n^; whr (251. a), 
wi^, ^Rifiw; w^, wf, w^. Po/. '^^'ir^, ^'I'n^f &c. JiT^. 
iDBTfti, ^^ (303), iiy; ^^rw, ^11^, '^:wr\i n^w, ^snr, vi^. Pei/. 
(375* ^) ^^'TO, 9^r^iN, ^nrnr; ^rfJiw, ^^jry^, ^99^; ^■fip'^, ^wj, ^^. 
ist Fut. ifO^nnf^. 2nrf Fut. ^^EnvrfiT. ^or. VWlfiR^, W^!^, ^Wh 
Tftf(^ &c. ; or W^rf^pl^, -^ft^, -^ft^^, &c. ; see 427. Prec. W\mfi¥fl\. 
Cond. ir^filpqiT. Pass., Pres. T^ (471); Aor. 3rd sing. V^lf^ or 
^nf^. Caus., Pre*, ^njniifif ; Aor. il4)^9H,* Des. flwf^infil. Freq. 
^H^, iwfipi or ^rmi^tl^. Part, Pres. ^^; Pa*/ Pa«*. ^fip; Pa*/ 
/ndee/. ^f^, -v^; Fut. Pass. ^f^jrw^V, ^ITJ'fHl, ^inR. 

* It must be borne in mind (with reference to 333) that htm only loses its nasal 
before t and. M, if not marked with P. 



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CONJUGATION OP VBBBS.— GEOUP U. CLASS II. 285 

657. Root ffii (special stems fg^^ and fi^, 309). /f|/l %W^ * to hate/ 
P^. and -^tm. Pres. %ftR, wftf (302), %fir (301) ; fk^* fln^» ftW[ 

flpR^, ftrf , flrtftit- ^tm. Art, ftf%> fCT; flrt^» flnw, fkro; ftfHl 
fk^> fln^. Imj9/l n^^y ^wIr^ (294)9 ^"1^ 5 ^wftn'tf ^rfkf^* wftw^ 
^iftnw, vfkVy irtir^ or v fi ji^. Atm,irtwftr, wftmH, wfln; nOii^f^, 
wflrmiin, irff^TWP^; ^Bftr^, wflr^, irfkur. Pot. f|nm»t. -^tin. 
flr4hi* /i7^. ImlViy (k^ri , %^; %mw, flrv^i fwip^ ; Ifww, "ft[¥, ftrw^ 
^tm. 1^, tiWf fi¥W(; Itunif » rm^ii^, f^mm*^; Imif, flr^^y fFwirp^, 

f);ftPi|ii|,f^firfid,fi^^ 1st Fut.iwtfm. i^tnuvn^. 2nd Fist, 
««5nfii. ^tm. Irt^. Aor. (439) vPm^y -H^, -^; -"^(W, -'^■ITf'^ 
-ifmn; -i|if , -i|w, -ip^. i^tm. (439. a) wfyftf, -^B|^nf^> -^?w; -wr^f^i 

Oond. ni^ni^* i^tm. ^lihl^. Pass., Pres. fw^. Sic.; Aor. yrd msg. 
nirfw. Caui., Pres. IrnnfiT; Aw. wfijfFW^. Des. f^jf^mnf^, -^ 
Preq. ^fW, ^%fif or ^fWHVf. Part, Pres. fw^^ Past Pass, fww 
Past Indecl. flip, -ftw 5 Fut. Pass, itfwr, iN^lrtiTy %y^. 

a. Root ^. ' Inf. ^rftrg^ * to wear,* * to put on (as clothes, &c.)* 
-^tm. Pre*. ^, ^(6a.*),1ra^; l^j^mr^j'THIT^; ^^it^^or^ 
(304)> ^raii. Im;/. iwftr, ^wnwT^, m^m ; m^imt^y inronn^, vwmn»^; 
wTOrf^,^Iln^»^or^TO«»^, w^wnr. Potwiftn. /nyw. ^. Pei/.ini%, 
mrftnl, &c. I*/ JW. irftnnl. and Fid. ^fti^. .4or. w^iftrftr, n^fth 
n^, ^wftrt ; iwftn^, nqftim^ i n , n^ftum ii n , &c. Prec. wfWhr. 
Cbfu/. iRftl^. Pass., Pres. "^ng^. Cans., Pres. ^vnnnftr or -^. Dcs. 
fvwfM. Freq. ^T^, ^nrfl^. Part, Pres. ^fTO; Pa** Pa**, ^ftrjr; 
Past Indecl. ^flmr, -^^; jFW. Pass, ^rftnm, ^infN, ^!^. 

658. Root irr^ (special stems ^in^ and f^pi, see 328). /i|f. ^iftrgi^ 
^to rule,* * to punish.' Par. (With in ' to bless,* Atm.) Pret. ^nftR, 

lirrfWy ^nte; fifw^, ^^i^> ^^1^5 ^^t'i^j ^^> ^iRrfw (310. Obs.) i^tm. 
91%,^|n^(62.6),9l^; J[ll^^» 111411^, ^itiil); ^n9i%»)^or|nd(304), 
irnri^. Imp/. wsfj^% winn or w^rt^ (294, 304. a\ 11^ (304); 
nflfT^, wf^Tf^, irf^JfT^; wflip?, ^0(19, ^v^ITT^. Atm. n^rflfr, &c. 
Pot. f)f«n>(« Ktoi. irnrtn. Impv. ^irarflTy ^rfii (304), ^wj; irroTW, 
^f^, r^vi\; ^\mny f^, IfnVS* Atm. ^T^. Per/. |n|nv> fJ^lfXlVy 
iinnv; ^^nf^, ^^rwj^, ^VIvah^; nr^nrftw, ifW^$ F^Pl^* ^t^» 
991%, ^mrflBw, &c. 1st Fut. inftnnfiw. Atm. ^nftnnt. and Fat. 
^irftrinf^. Atm. stflfii^* -^or. (441) wf^wn, irf^W[, wf^j^; iif^w. 



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286 CONJUGATION OP VERBS.— GROUP H. CLASS II. 

winftrr; mufafc^H; , ^^uPhh i hiih , muftmtdiH ; ^irinftTOfii, i^nftwn, 
^qnfmr. Prec fipiqwi^. Atnu |rT%i<N. Cond. inilftin*^ . Atm. 
vvir««l. Pass., Pre$. HjA {^yz. e) ; Aor. yrd ring, n^rftr. Oaus., 
Pres. niwmftr; Aor. irir^rra^. Des. nHUlfamfa . Preq. ^tf^n^, 
VY^nf^T or vinnArn. Ptot, Pre$. '^m\ (141. a); Past Pan. f^; 
Pa$t Indecl. ^Tf^iffT or f^, -f^; Fut. Pom. ^^inv, ^IWifhi, f^. 

659. Root f^ (special stems f^ and ^). I^f. ^^^^to anoint,' 
* to smear.* Par. and -^tm. Pre$. ^, itf^f (306. a\ ^frl (305) ; 
fll3|^,fipv'^, fipv^; flrw[> ^^9 fi^fftr. Ktax. f^^ fW^, flp^; ff^J^, 
ft[fl^, f^fik ; fl^, fvd (306. d), f^. Imgf. ll^f•^, ^1^ (^94), 
n^; wf^, fiRj'V^, wfijnnn; irf)^, ^>rfipv, wflj^i^. i^tm. irfijf^, 

^. Pot. fJfW^, fifin^> &c. Atm. f^lfhr* Jfwpr. ^^pfif, fijfrv* \^\ 
^^, "fipwn, fipvp^; ^1?W, fijnf, fijf^. -^tm. ^, fvijr, f^J»vn^; ^ftif , 
fi^frqi^, fijifTrn^; ^^wf, fvn^, f^jfwi^. P«/. f?^, f^i^fli^, f^; 
fW^» f^fi!!^, f^[fi?^W; WtP, f^t^, f^f^- -^tm. fi^, 

fljfl^f^, fiffi^; ftrft[i^[^, fljflffT^,fl?fi;iTi; firfijftp^, fi?fi?ffd or -^, 
ft[fiffilt. i#' JW. ^Tinf^. ^tm. ^nn^. %'ttd JPW. iNonfir. -^tm. 
iNi^. Afyr. (439) nftii^, ^■ftwi^, ^»f^wJH5 nftniw, nfVi^fl^, ^rfVi- 
IfRP^; ntwiWy wftl^, irfvun. -^tm. (439* V) nftirn, H^H'MIH or 
iifipW(, ^rftwnr or ^wfiyni; ^fV ii |Nr# or ^nfljJlff, nftwu i n , wff- 
^PWTH; irfwijwff, iJftin»n^ or irfiirsnn, wftra^r. Pree. f^^m^. 
Kim. fv^. Ckmd. min^* i^tm. il^^« Pass., Pre$. f^; .^fl^r, 
3r«f #111^.1^1^. Cans., Pre«.^finf«f; Aor. m^t^^H^. Des. f^^f^nfrfil, 
-l|. Preq. ^f^, ^^fil {3rd ring. ^^fni). Part, Pre$. fl?^; Atm. 
fijfR; Past Pass, fijm ; Pew^ /iwfcrf. f^iwn, -fi»iy j Pt«^. Pott, ^nn^, 

660. Root ^ (special stems ^ and ^). Ji}/*. ^^t*^ ^to milk«' 
Par. and Atm. Pre*. lyHw, ^ftftf (306. a), ^^tfm (305) ; jjf^, jni^, 

5^; 5*^'^5^»5'^* -^^D^S^j^^y^J S'^'S^'Sf^' S"^* 

yii (306. rf), jfi^. /flip/. ^115^, wt^(«94),WJ^; ^^'^^'HSt, 
^J"'™''^' ^*» ^5^> ^S^n,- Atm. 1^, «S'MI4^, ^i^»H; ^IQpirf^, 

Atm. ji^* Jmpr. ^^fiftf, jfiif (306. c), ^t*^; <;*t|m, 5'V(, j'^w^; 
^?^fw> y^f 5^' '^*°^* ^» l''^' 5*^* 'f^fwtf 5^i^i*\, 5<fii^; 

SJ'IR' SP?R' S5*^> S5*» JSr^* -^*°** S5^> S5*^> ^' 55^!^» 



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CONJUGATION OF TBBBS.— GKOUP II. CLASS IIL 



287 



jjft^, sjin^; ggf^^^, S5^f*^ ^^ "V 55^* ^*' ^^' ^^Mifiw. Atm. 

^tnn^, 2nd JPW. iJlniTftl* i^tm. vh9* ^o^* (439) ^'Vi'l* ^"^W^j 

'•^1^; ^fOT^> ^^Vin'^j ^"^wm; ^OT^t ^!i^"> ''Sl*l* ^*"^ 
(439-*) 'i1tf^*^*W^OTi5nn^,il5i|Wcnrii^ 

^•IWniP^, ^"l^JTwm; ^inr^wff , ^sf^V^P^ or ^Pgnif^ ^Ppm- Tree. 
IpiTRn^. i^tm. ^q^. CimJ. wii^Q'^. lL\m. w^(m* Pass., Pre#. 
5#; AoT. yd sing, n^tff • Caus., Pres. ifhrnfiv ; ^or. ^iJ^J?^* Des. 
jfldOf, -^. Freq. f[^, ifhfMw (arrf wijjy. ^fcf^frv). Part, Pre*. jfT^, 
j^m; Poet Pass, jni; Pa*/ /lufec/. jnuT, -JH; -FW. Pom. ^^tw, 
iiW^f ^ or jn (573. a). 

66i. Root f^ (special stems ft^ and ^). If^f. ^^'to lick.' 
Par. and -^tm. Pres. (329) iirftr, ^f^ (306), ^ft" (305. «) ; ftR|^» 
?fll^ (305. a), c^jhn[; fc9V^> rtte, f(p|{(V« i^tm. fti^, fRril^ l^ftc ; 
f^m^i fidfrt, Pcifii ; ft5ii^, isfl^, fisfw. i»fi/I ^i^^i^9 ira^ (294)> 
^K^fZ ; nfcd^y ^»1«^» Hffl^l*^; ^Bfftw, ^wfty, vlVlfl^rf i^tm. wflnrf^y 
mFfUn% w?*¥; iiftwrfl^* irftefrqn^, ^■fl^^rar^; '■ffwfli, i^iftfi^, 
vRi^fi. Po/. fiwn^, f<f9in^9 &c Atm. ft5f^. Impv. ^k^ff^^ ?Aftr 
(306.1:), ^r^; ftfi^, <<A««\, mI^i*^; wpf, ^»^, ffJt^. Xtau ^ft^, 

P«/.fiw^,fcraf^,ftwf ; fWWiw,feft?r9^,fiwft^^ fisrf?iflpT, 

fcVfrif , fc9fcS|J^. Jitm. f79f?S^9 fnftvf^, &c. 1st Fut. ^SWlfw. ^tm« 
£441^* %nd Fut. w^(tf^. Atm. ^^* -^or. (439) irfH^'^, "W^> 
'WO -^iw» -^in^, -mm^; -Tjiir, -i|w, -n^^. Atm. (439.*) ^Bfiarftf, 

u fa^ t llM, or TO^CT^, Hfiwpr or iRft9] ufaHiqfij or I»ft53|fi|, -Ifnnn, 
-ijlHf^; nfiwfwf^i wft^^W^ or V^f^y iirc4Q|Hl* Pree. f^iimi^. 
Atm. flFl^lfN, &c Ccnd. iR^q9«i[. Atnu n^^, &c. Pass., Pres. 
ft5^; AioT. yd sing. n^f^. Caus., Pres. ^^l^inf^i; Aor. VflUMfi^, 
Des. fafa l l l fti , -l|. Freq. i^fipi^, H^ftr (3rrf #i«sr. ^Hft). Part., 
P^cf. fV91ll(^; Atm. ft^lPf ; Past Pass. rH^; Past Indecl. «itjT, -ftw ; 
JPW. Paw. wrq, ftl'fN, ^. 

EXAMPLES OF PRIMITIVE VERBS OF THE THIRD CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 331. 

66%. Root J hu (333)* Lifin. ftgi^ Ao/itm, ^to sacrifice.' 
Pabasmai-pada. Present Tense, * I sacrifice.' 
yj^lf^juhom ^j^^^jnkuvas or ip|^ w^n^^jukwrnu or ^W( 

W[l^!lfRJMho$hi ^g^jukmthai ^^Hj^jukutha 



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288 



CONJUGATION OF VERBa— GROUP II. CLASS III. 



Imperfect^ *I was sacrificing/ 
'wW^'i ajukuva ^'Tf^ qfnkiima 

W^^JV^ ajukutam ^"^[J^ qfuhtUa 

^9^gKP\ajukutdm ^^^%\(i{iuhaims (331. Obs.) 

Potential, * I may sacrifice/ 

^Hini^juhuydtdm ^y^/ti^ttf 

Imperative, * Let me sacrifice/ 

^n^iJuhUam ^^Jukuta 

P^f* {374'Si) 1I?W> !Rft^ or 5^, ijf!^; ^Jjft^, ^IJ^TJ^* 
^5^P(; ^^n, ig^, ^[J^. Or i^^qi^^Ky &c,; see 385. e. 1st 
Fut. ^turf^* anrf JW. fhorfW. Aor» vfT^^ wgnft^, ^ifNh^^; ^i^*^, 
^i^fi^y il(i>l>^; iRsN?, iBiTlP) ^'■IT^IR. Prec. ^^ni^. Coi»rf. in^t^Pi* 
Pass., Pres. ^; Aor. 3rd sing, ^iflfr. Caus., Pres. ^n^ff^; Aor^ 
^i|j{M. Des. W||^mr«i* Freq. ij\|i|, lltf^ or iitf^irH. Ptot, 
Pre$.^pff(; Past Pass, jif ; Pastlnded.jm.-^i Fta.Pass.ftwm,. 
finrhv, fii or irq* 



^j^JM^Mdhi (293) 



OTHER EXAMPLBS OF CL. 3 IN THB OBBBR OF THEIR FINAL LETTERS. 

663. Root ^ (special stems ^, ipj, see 335). Jii/I ^TJ'^^to give.* 
Par. and XtoL Pres. ^^itn, ^(^lOH) ^^Tfw; ^^T^y ^^^^, ^^5 ^'"^i- 
f[7^I, !»![fir. -^tm. ^, ^, ^; ^l%, ^ifT^, ^^; ^H^, ^^ ^. 
Imp/. W^^, ^^^it^, ^sqiii^i ^^> ^f^^^f ^i?W!W; ^R^,^R^, ^^ 
(331. Obs.) -^tm. ^!ffly, w^T^, w?fii; ^w^wfif, Wi^^jnnn, w^![Tin^; 
W^[lrff , ^"^^^t ^^^n. Pot. f^VP^. Atm. ^[^fhl. Impv. ^^iPf, ^ff , 

^^ ; ^i^> ^^» ^[^n'^J ^^> ^» ^* -^toi. ^, ^w, ^[wn^; ^5^^* 
^^WT^, ^^lAIH^; ^^rw^, ^^f ^^IIP^^ P«/. (373) 1^, ^fij^ or ^^, 

w J ^^> 'J^IR* ^^T^» ^fl?*^* ^> ^S'l' '^*™- '^^ ^5*^' ^5^ » 'ffij^i 
^^1m, ^?pT^; ^fipf^f ^fij^> ?fi?^* ^*' '^**^' ^nnfiw. ^tm. i^nnt* 
2nd Put* ^ronfir. Atm. i^r^^. Aor. (438) iRfl'^, ^wn^> ^^11^; ^K^f 
tii^Tin^, ^i^TifPi ; n^m, ^1^9 ^"^S^* -^tm. (438. rf) wfijfw, nfijiiii^, 
mf^; ^rf55«^, ^ifif^^, wfi^ron^^ irfi?^, irfi?^, wfifw. Prec 
^in^. i^tm. ^T^* Cbntf. n^l^q^. JLtm. m^^* Pass., Pre^. ^; 
Aor. 3rd sing. yK^jfn, see 700. Caus., Pres. ^J^^[f^ (483) ; Aor. 



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CONJUGATIOK OP VBBBS. — GROtJP II. CLASS III. 289 

infh^. Des. (503) fi^nrrftr, f^. Preq. ^^, ^r^rfif or ^(^(fR 
P^., Pres. ^(141. a); Kim. ^^; Fast Pass. ^; Past Indecl 
i?W, -^ ; Fnt. Pass. ^HTO, ^T'fN, ^. 

664. Root VT (special stems ^, ^, see 336). Inf. vry^ * to place; 
Rur. and Ktm. Pres. ifvifil, ^viftr, !jyifir ; ^ui^, v?^W[ (299. «), >nR( 
(299. a); ?»m^, Hw, ^vfir. -^tm. ^, vw, vi^\ v^> V^y V^ 
V^y m| (299. *), ^. Impf. "w^^y w^HP^, ^»^v^^^; 'J^, ww^, 
innrn^; ^n?^, nvw, ^w^^* -^tm. ^w^fti, tniro^, 'wnw ; irjiiiff 

^^- Jwpr. ^vrftf, %fif, ^vij > ^vwr, vw^, ^nn'^; ^vni, vw, ifvj 
^tm. !»v, vw, ^nn^^; ^vni^, ^w^p^, ^fwif^; ^;vfri^, v^j^^i ^^vwi^ 
-P«/-(373)^»^'^or^vni,!n^; ^,^v^,^U8^; ^?fw,^,^P!^. 
Ktoi. ^, ^fv^, &c. 1st Fut. VmftR. ^tm. MTWl^, &c. a«rf i^«*^- 

in^irrftf . iLtm. vi^. -4or. (438) ^nn'(, ^wr(, ^>nin^; ^wnr, nvnn^. 
wiifli»(; wfiH, mir, 'J^* ^tm. (438. d) irfwftr, ^rfipn^, ^rt^ 
^sftr^f^, vfMMfiii*^, ^rfvTOiT'^; laftfwif^, ^vfv^» wftww • Prec. ^in^ 
iftm. vnihr. Gbntf. mnFI^. iLtm. ^im^. Pass., Pretf. ^ ; 1st 
Fut. WTftm^ or vnn^ ; Aor. yrd sing, ^rarf^* Caus., Pres. vpRtfif 
Acr. mjhni^. Des. f^lMTfif (503)* Preq. ^^fft, iJIVlftf or qi)r«i 
Part, Pre*. !pin^ (141. a); il^tm. ^unf ; Pa*/ Pass* Apr; Pa*/ Indecl 
ffwr, -vnr; 1^. Pa**, vtiw, vnfN, %ii. 

a. Root in (special stems finft, ftp^, see 338). Inf. inj^H *to 
measure.^ ^tm. Pres. f^, fWfil, ftnrft; ftnfN^, ftwrt, ftnWW; 

wftwnir^, nftnmrp^ ; ii(H*flHff, irfMt«in, ^BfNiiw. Pot. fWhj, fi!«ft^rR(, 
fif*ftii, &c. Impv. fw, ftnft^, ftpfhrf^; ftww^, fiitrw^, fwiw*^; 
ftniw^, ftnftsi'^, fiRWifP^. Perf. w, hww, w ; fftw^, fiffN, ifin ; 
^^m^y irfifd, trfift. 1st Fut. mwT^. 2nd Fut. mm. Aor. (434) 

fmmir* Prec. mr^fhr. Cond. tmr^. Pass., Pres. «(ft ; Aor. 3rd sing. 
wnfir. Caus., Pres. m^inftr ; Aor. "mfhr^. Des. fimrrfir, -t^ (503). 
Preq. ^irA, UTRlft? or fi^. Part, Pre*. fiquHT; Past Pass, finr; 
Pa*/ Indecl. firWT, -mn ; l^t*/. Pass. imrBq, Hpftn, ^. 

665. Root ^ (special stems HfT, ^njt, i|^, see 337). I«^. J^^ * to 
quit^ Par. Pres. if^lftr, if^rftl, in?Tfir ; if^hw( (or ifff^, see P&j. 
VI. 4, 1x6), if^hr^ (or wfir*^)^ ll^tw^ (or tBrf^i^); ^r|lH^ (or nf^pi^), 
W^t^l (or nPftr), ifffir. Impf. ^TiT^, ^ffifgl^, WiTp^^; ^Wf^ (or 

^\ iwifhn^ (or nfif^), ^nrthni^ (or vfrtTpmO ; vw?lw {or 

pp 



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290 COFJUGATION OF VERBS. — GROUP II. CLASS III. 

fipr), Wif!^ (or wirfipr), ^■'ij^* Pot. iren^» iw^, &c. Impv. «i^ir«i, 
if^rtf (or irf^f^) or ir?Tfi5, 'T^rg ; ^np^, ^njtiP^ (or irffi^), mfhrrn (or 
iff^TiT'^) ; ^r?w, "^dt^ (or nfipr), inj. P«/. in^> iif?*! or nfrv^ in^ 

^'^^^j "ni^, f??^> ''rff'Tj 'HE, 'tj^* i'^ J^**^* ^iinJW. ^»rf FtU* 
fTWftr. -4or. (433) ^wpftw^, ir^nrt^, w^rrf^; ^«^Tft»wf, ^fifiarfu, 

Pass., Pre$. ftk ; Aor. 3rd ring. w^ri^. Caus., Pre». fnniT% ; Jor, 
witfn'{. Des. finfrorfir. Preq. ii^, nrflftr or m^. Part^ Pre*, 
inp(^(i4i. a); Past Pass, fh^; Past Indecl figWT, -^; J^. Pass, 

666. Root Mft (special stems ftw, f|>ft, fW?, see 333). In/. ifJH* to 
fear.* Par. Pre*, ftwftr, f^l^fw, fwfw ; f^>THR( or f^rfil^y f^WH^ 
or f^ffWiJ^, fWhr^ or ftrftiir^; ftpftir^ or f^r*nf«^, fWh? or "Pffirtl, 
ftn^vfw (34). Imp/. ^xfw^^^V^j wfwM^, wf^^; irfW^^ or isfwfiw, ^rf%- 
tfhn^ or ^rftrfinn^, irf^^ftin'^ or ufwfiTin'^ ; ^rfWhi or ^Rfwf^, nfiWIn 
or wWiiir, wfwj^ (331. Obs.) Pot. fWhn^ or ftrfinnf^, &c. Impv. 
flwinftf , f^nftftj or firfiifif , fwj ; fW*fMi«i, ftiWhin or fwfHW^, f^^ 
in»^ or ftrfinn'^j fwrm, f%>ftif or ftrfHir, ftrwij (34). Per/. (374) 
ftpin?, fwftri or fti^, ftprn? ; fMS^fW, fw*i^, fv«i|^; ftrf«w, "Nw, 
ftrwf^. Or fwiTWRWi: (385. e). 1st Fut. 5hnftR. c^nd Put. Hiqrfll. 
Aor. w^, w^t^, wifh^^; wb^, w^, ww^; w^, w7y ww^. 
Prec. Wtumn. Cwirf. ^si^vn^. Pass.^ Pres, >ift ; j4or. 3rrf ring. "mnfn. 
Caus.y Pre*, mipnfil or -^, or m^ or >ft^ ; Aor. %m^HMH^ or ^nA^f^ or 
vrtfiWT. Des. fWhnfi?. Freq. ^h1^ or ^^fif or ^MMif. Part, 
Pres. ftrwn^^(i4i. a); Past Pass. >ftir; Past Indecl. ^ftwT, -WN; FiU. 
Pass, ^iwr, mnfliT, JN. 

a. Root 'ft (special stems fti^, ftllf^, ftrfp^* see 333. c). Inf. 
^51^ *to be ashamed.* Par. Pres. ftl^, ftllft, ftflft; fwf^t^, 

ftn^, ftns^; fttifN^, ftn^, ftiffufir (123. a), imp/. ^«f^iw^, 

^rfill;^^ ^Brfti^; nffifelciy iirii|()Ai|, nftffTfli*^^; wftn^, ^ftflfhf , wfw* 
15^(331. Obs.) Po^.ftrit^. /wiJt;.finnnfiir,ftn^,fiRl5;ft^^ 

fnflfl^, ftff^^in^; fwpiW, f^glkf, ftff^TJ. Per/, fifinv, ftlfftw 

or f^, ftnrm; ftffffinr (374- «), f^FTj^, ftrifF«l^; fnftf^, 

^nN^> ^t^> ^"'l^; ^I^> -^* -»W; ^hI^, -», -^. Prec. 
|{Nrei(. C4mrf. ivt^. Pass., Pres. i(ft; -4or. 3rrf m^. Wfrfir. 
Caus., P^e*. trorfif; -4or. nftff^nin^. Des. fvnfNrfif. Freq. 
^|(^y ^(f)v or i^fiftfir. Part, Pres. fnf^pn^ (141. a) ; Past 



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CONJUGATION OF VERBS.---OBOUP II. CLASS TIL 



291 



Pass. ifNr or 1^; Past Indecl. jfim; Put. Pass. tlW, fH* 
^rtf, FT. 

*. Root ^ (8pec5ial stems i|i|5^, mfT, Hir^, see 339)* Iitf. ifAigi^'to 
produce/ Ptar. Pre*, miftn, wiiftr, nnfiir ; irin^»inn^,iiin«^; 
mw^, invpVy i^^fn. /mfi/l viniffify wwiP( (^94)9 ^■nnii^; ^niiit^f 
^•i*nfi#^, viiiiaiT^; ^niifwr, wirinvy ^inn|is[. Pot. niRn^ or iiinin>^. 
i»!pt^. ^Wfiftr, wnfip, inr^; ^hrft, innTP^, winrw; innrni» irnnr, 
^■'S' -P^* Tunr orinR, inrftf^, wwR ; wftw, 'hbtjh, irsrj^; wflimi 
iw, nf^. I*/ jPW. nftmrftFr. %nd Put. irf^nqriir. ^or, wnf^nw, 
^fnfti^, vnnAl^; vinftrwr, &c. Or inrftro^, &c. ; see 418. B. Pree. 
^^n^ or irnrrai^. Chnd. wirftnoi^. Pass^ Pres. m^ (cf. 617. a) or 
ir^; Aor. yrd sing. ^Bnrftr. Cans., Pres. ^iRinfir; -4or. wilW^. 
Des.ftnif^. Freq.i|nn^or^ra^,irwf^. Part., Pre*. 11^(141. a); 
Past Pass, ^nw, nftfir; Pa*/ InrfeeZ. irftnWT, -IRI, -ITR; J?W. Pa**. 



EXAMPLES OF PRIMITIVE VEEBS OP THE SEVENTH CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 342. 

667. Root fi5^ (hid. Infin. i^ SAettum, ' to cut' 

Parasmai-pada. Present Tense^ *I cut.' 
fVnfti ihrnadmi fW^aMtoas fwpf(^^^lmima$ 

fiprfk dftmam* ftpq^ <f««/A<w (345) fipi (fJUiU^ka (345) 

ftRftr <JW«iittf f^Pif^ dW«^a« (345) flF^fiir 6himdamH 

Imperfect^ * I was cutting,' or * I cut' 
^tftlf^ a66kinadaM (51) irf^B:^ ad^hindoa ufaK^W a66hindma 

^f^RI^ a<<»ma# (394) vf^aBT^ a(f(<&tft/am (345) nft^JiT a<$(SUfi<a (345) 

^f^RI^ «<5<ai»a/ (394) Vfae^in't a^6kintdm (345) flPdH l l*<t^ a^indan 



ftRVT^ 6h%ndyd$ 
f9^U\^6hkidydl 



Potential^ * I may cut' 
ftpWnr 6h%ndydva 
fWy'mf^6kindydtam 
n^HHIAl^^ 6hindydtdm 



Imperative, * Let me cut' 

fWNr (f*«M«*» (or Mndhi, 345) ftpiFi^ <f/U'fitom (345) 
ftf^I (fAtfia/^ f^Pirr'^ <$^<<fm (345) 

B p a 



(V«iqi«i 6kinaddma 
fiPir dlMi#a (345) 



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292: 



CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GROUP II. CLASS VIL 



P«/. fiRfc? (51), firifl^, f^^; fwfiKf^, fwftRnp[, f^ftwiW; 

^rf^wpr, wf^Sf^y wftwtT^^; , nr^L^m, nfti^in^, nfwjin^J vftB^w, 
vfyt^A, wf^8^. Or ^vwi^, invi^hB^y vAaAi^; iiAwa» ^rara^, 

Atmanb-pada. Present Teme^ *1 cut/ 
f^K^ Mnde ftfrV^ Mndoahe fW^^tk Mndmake 

f%«w dhmtse f^S^^fjM 6h%nddthe ^^^ 6kmddkDe 

f^[^ 6kinie (345) f^Fi^ 6h%nddU ftR^ dkimdate 

Imperfect^ * I was cutting/ or * I cut/ 
^^facff^ a66hindi (51) ^ri^K^Vf^ a66hindvahi ^rf^aS^lf^ addkindmaki 

wftBF^(wf<J»i:ii*A<f*(345) «rdd«<|V||l^ (U!6hinddthdm Wff9^ff{a^hinddkvam 
«P**ff addhinta (345) WftK^F^niT^ a66kinddtdm wr^^il a66hindata 



fW^^f^ 6hind{ya 
Pitn^ln 6hindUa 



'Potential^ * I may cut.^ 
ri^<l^l«l*^ 6hind<ydtdm 






Imperative^ * Let me cut/ 
ftrTirn^ <<%tn^im (345) r«^^IAI»(^ 6hinddtdm ftR^in^ 6kmdatdm 

Per/, fwf^, fwfarf^, f^f^; fqfarf^, f%f%^, fnfw^; 

wftj^, ^tf^gjmn. Prec, fro^rhr. Cb»rf. ws&s^. Pass., Pres. flK^^; 
-4or. 3rrf ring, virfif. Caus., Pre*. %^^nfir; Aor. wNPaR[i^. Des. 
f^rdAWlPH, -T^. Freq. ^ftjd, '^^fffff. Part, Pres. ftp^lf^; Atm. 
fw^^^nf ; Pfl*^ Paw. ft[W; P««^ Inefec/. fsw> -f%W; -FW. Pa#*. itlHR, 

OTHER EXAMPLES OF CL. 7 IN THE ORDER OP THBIR FINAL LETTEBS. 

668. Root ir^ (special stems W^^ H^, see 347). Inf. ^4y^ *to 
anoint,' * to make clear/ Par. Pres. m^fmy iRftif (296), iRflR; 
^^^, ^"N^, ^Nf^; wr^, ^N^, iRW%. Imp/. w^RTip^, «n^ (^94)i 
*in^ ; wtw, ^rtin^, ^rtww ; trinr, ^rfii> 'n^*^. Po/, tottw. /mp». 



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OOKJUGATION OP VBRBS.— GROUP II. CLASS VIL 293 

W!W, m^iHin or imfip^y in^W; wpffiff^, viiiii^^^, VMUg^; ^PffllR, 
WW, ^nif^. ist Put. ^iwf^ or vf^irinf^v. and Fut. ^mi^ or 
nflil^Tlif- Aor. inftn^, iirrfh(, WWfh[} ^Klf^r^, &c., see 418.B. Free. 
mm(m\ (453). Cond. irt^ or in%^. Pass., Pres. w^ (469); 
Aor.yrdHnff.mrfiK. Caus., Pr^«. wiRrf<l ; -^or.^nftlHW. Des. ^rfw- 
fn^rf^. Part., Pres. nw^; Past Pass, mn; Past Indecl. mfstm or 
^m or mm 9 -^»iir ; JW, Pass, liwf or ^rfffim, winrt^, ^NiT or ^ny. 

a. Root ^ (special steins ^ip^, ^^, 346). Jn/I H't^ * to eat,' 
* to enjoy.' Par. and ^tm, Pres. ^ifAir, ^fftf, ^Iffii; ^'l^, ^''^» 

^I^; 4'^» ^'''^ ^wftir- -^tm. ^, ^^, v^; ^n^, ^m^, ^pni^; 
SP*'^> ^^, ^w^- ■%/• w^T'np^, ^pfH^ {294)9 ^^'Hf ; ^Kt^, ^^w^, 
ii^iRii(; ^r^, n^, v^FFt. -^tm. ir^%, ^w^win^, ^i^; ^i^wf?, 
'i^'ffW^, ^^^^tW!^; n^iiiflf, ^^'WP^, ^»^WI. Pot. ^iirn^. Atm. 
^Wl^. iwi/w- ^finftf , ^fni, ^^ ; ^[«!irrf, ^w^, ^vf^; ^fUTW, ^, 
^l^ij. Atm, ^^, ^If, ^ISf^; ^ffWI^, ^m^i*\, ^WW^; ^firrof , 
W^y ^iwn«(. P«/. ^^, 'yitftnr, ^^^^ i^f^'«> ^^T5^» "W^J 
T^Sf^y TP^* ^W^- -^*™* l^y ^if^y T^f -ftnt> -^> -wn>; 
-ftnif , -fi^, -fli^. w/ 2?W. HhlTfiw. Atm.i^iHt. anrfJW. iftfljiTflf. 
Ktm. Ht^. Aar. irar^, -^f^^> "^(^> WTur, vrniri^, -w^; mhp, 

^qiini«^; n^^srfip, n^nfli^, ^r^ifw. Prec. ^urnni* Atm. ^psifhi. 
Ckmd. mihonv. Atm. wnt^. P&ss., Pres. }f^ ; ^or. yd sing, untftr. 
Cans., Pre*. Ht^invrfiT, -^; -4or. ^V^^- Des. ^pp^TfiT, -%. Freq. 
W^^, wbitfiw. Part., Pres. ^Wl^; Atm. ^9R; Past Pass. }j%; 
Past Indecl. ^w, -^W ; i^/. Pa**, nhw, ^ftipfhr, rfh^ir or >f|iir (574). 

669. Root H^ (special stems h^, ^, 347). In/. >i^ ' to break.' 
Par. Pres. Wiff^, >nrf^, Hirftl ; 4ii^, *W^, HW^; WR^, w^, nirftr- 
JiwR/^. ^Mif^, ^wifi^ (294), ^wifi^ ; WW, ^»4w^, wrai^; ^nm, ^arfu, 
v»vii9(. Po^. ^fiirn^. Impv. tninTftf, >tfni, ^rrf ; Hinn^, >hi5^, ^hwn; 
wfirw, 4ii, ¥m%. Perf. WW, wfiinr or -wiiw, ww; ^wftnr, 
'w^'W^, w^vw;^; w^fftw, whw, ^*»^- i*^ -Pi«^- >hKrfij?. anrf jFW. 
)iwnftr. -4or. w^ifw'^, -''^, -^^t^^; w«fi^, w^hm^, -w^; wufwr, 
WHhR,W)Th|^. Prec. >iiin^ (453). Conrf. wrf?5ir»(. Pass., Pre*, m^ 
(469) ; AoT. 3rd sing, mmfsi. Cans., Pres. UlRlftf ; Aor. w^mw^. 
Des. fWwTflr. Freq. 'jpn^, wfiw. Part, P^-c*. HW^^; Past Pass. >inf ; 
Pfl*/ Indecl. ^iw or ^nrr, ->nir; Put. Pass. j*||w, Hinrtu, ^. 

670. Root ^ (special stems jifi^, f ^, see 346). Iij/l ift^ ' to 



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294 CONJUGATION OF VBBBS. — QROTrP 11. CLASS VII. 

join,' *to unite.' Par. and jLtm. Pre$. fiffVR, ^^if^, &c. ; like ^, 
668. a. Xtm. f^, ^, &c. Imnf. wgifH^, n^ini (294), ^l^f^; 
m^y &c. Xtm. ^irgfir, ^IJ'W^* &c. Pa/, ^^in^. Atm. futa. 
I«^pw. gfurftf, jfhi, 5^; fnnw, &c. Atm. ^p?^, gur, ^iinw, &i% 
P«/.5^, ^^tfinr^fftil; ^fftrr^&c; like ^,668. a. iCtm.^fw. 
ist Fut. ^it^irrfe?. Atm. ^ftwl. a«rf i^^. ^frwfil. Jitm. ^ftm* 
Aor. v^nsi^, -n^, -11^^; -nn", -Win^> -nm«^; -WW, -inr, -1^'^. Or 

&C. Prec, ^^jfpm^l* Atm. ^ii|^. Oond. V4uvi§|i^* Aim. ^nni^. 
Pass., Pre». fi^ ; Aor. $rd sing, ^nvtfir, see 70a. Cans,, Pre*, iftii- 
^rtif ; Aor. v^iii^. Des. ^^HfiOl, -if. Freq. ^Ajl^, iJhftflNi. Part, 
Pres. gm^; Atm. fW^; Pa*/ Pass. 5I1; Pa*/ /«<fec/. fw, -fWj 
JFW. Paw. ^ftli«l, ^ftw^, ^ft^ or iftiir (574> 574- «)• 

67 1. Root ^ (special stems ^^lO^, ^^, 344)* ^'H/* ^^^1*^ ^ ^ hinder.' 
Par. and Atm. Pres. ^mruT, ^lrfw» ^^irf^; ^^'MI^, ^5*1^*> ^•l^^* ; 
^WR^, ^'€*> ^'*^t^- Atm. ^^, ^«i^9 ^'ir** ^'•'l^f ^5^*W> ^'wi; 
^^Twi^, ^55^, ^''in^. Imp/. w^^tH^^, ^i^W^ OJ^ wi?^ (a94)> ^'^'^ 
(294); m^^, w^^l^*, ^■^'fi^*; 'J^'W, ^i^^*, w^^- Atm. 
v^f^y n^^i^*, ^J^^*; ii^'i'Rf^, w^'^Hnn'i, w^s'^wiht^; ^i^smfi, 
v^«iii, •W?5''Wf. Pot. ^rUiM. Atm* ^5^^* Impv. '•^'4UMirH> *^f^» 
i^Q^; ^^row, ^J'l'^** ^HH*!^* ; ^iwm, ^P¥*, if'wi* -^tm. ^iw, 

4^«M9, ^'W^*; V^MWIj ^^iVfllJ^, t^v^ini*!^; ^?9MTR^> ^^\f ^'WIW. 

P«/. ^5^, ^ttfinr, ^dM ; ^F5f^> ^^^J^' ^^^'WJ ^^ftw, 5^, 
^C^. Atm. ^5^, ^f^, ^^^; F5*^w^> ^5^> 'f ^'Mi^ ; ^^ftwt* 
¥^^^9 C^fv^. i^i f^t. ^hnf^. Atm. ^tll^. %nd Fui. ijmt^* 
Atm. tlj^. Aor. v^in^, -v(> -v^^; -v^> -Ml'^, -wwtn ; -vm, -W?f , -V3^. 
Or v^onn^y irowft^, ^wrth^^; ^TOr^, ^idi'^y ^TOU'^; w?w, ^mv, 
n^h^. Atm. li^fw, n^ii^, 11^; «^wftf, ngwi i rin , iigwitf i n ; 
w^rwr^y UCT'^* ^r^''^' -P^^' 5*inv^. Atm. ^nfN. Oond. vOm^* 
Atm. IR^. Part,, Pres. "^ ; Aor. 3rd sing, vdftl. Cans., Pres. 
Om^iIh ; ^or. v^^M*^. Des. ^^Wlf^, -W. Freq. dl^, ^&dftil» 
Part., Pres. ^^; Atm. ^'OTiT; Past Pass. ^; Past Indeel. ctt, 
.5m; RU. Pass. 6v^, 6vft^, ^^. 

672. Root fi(|tr (special stems %^, f^). lit/*. $ip^ ^ to distinguish,' 
* to separate/ * to leave remaining.' Par. Pres. f^iff^, f^RftlT , fi|RfV ; 

AJ«f^f fiiiv^ *^ff^; fijT^, fi{nr, fij^ftr. Iiwp/ vflfRv^, wfliR^ (294), 

* ^^^H^ may be written for ^««t^. Similarly^ 1^^ for C^, &c. See apS. a. 



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CONJUGATION OP TJIRBS. — GROUP II. CLASS VII. 29& 

^fin^i^; ^tV^> ^^rf^fh^j ^rf^ff^w^; nl^^j ^"rf^^j ^wfijhn^. Pot. f^^sn^^. 

Im/w. f^jifW!ftr,f^f^orfijfip (30^ f^B^WW,f^, 

HfJci^; f^fiTO, fijTf, f^f^. Per/. f^%w> f^ir^f^, %^; %%ftlW, 
%fi|r^, <¥^n3^; flirfijrfw, f^rf^, ffti^^. ut Put. W^. 
2nd FiU. $^nfir. Aor. wf|r^> -^, -^; -^Tw, -i^im, -'nn'^; -iw, 
-HW, -^. Prec. f^vnn^. Ciwirf. v^r^n^. Pass., Pre$. f^ ; ^or. 
3rrf sing. ^1^. Caus., Pre*, ^mnftr ; Aor. mrtfiBH*( . Des. f^jfippfii. 
Freq- ^^fi|r^^ $?H^. Part., Pre*. fi|hn(^5 Pa*/ Pa**. %?; Pa*/ 
Indecl. %yT, -f^ ; i^/. Pa$s. $iiq, ^MN, ^. 

673. Root fp( (special stems f^^, fi^). /n/1 fl^ftlj'^ * to injure.' 
Par. Pres. f)pT%r, ffHTw*, f^sfflBT; ftNr^, fi!^J^> ANt^; fi^F^, 
flfW, fifuftr. Imp/. vG^HUH^y ^'rf^T'^ ^^ wfff^ (294, 304. a), ^rf^fn^; 
^HflNf, ^»ff^, nfijwi^; wfitw, irfl^, frf^fm. Pot. fi^act^^. Impv. 
f^'wrftr* r^r^r or f^'sif {304), (^^^ ; Or^^ii, fiNn^, fpaT^; ftjHfiw, 
fi^,f^. Pej/.ffrffv,fWff^,f¥iN;fW^ 

ftrfi^f^, ftrftN, ftif^*^. I*/ i^- fi^ftmrtfi??. anrf Put. fisftrmfii. 
-4or. wfi^ftnn^, ^Bfijift^, ^wfipfti^; wffftw, wfi^f^, ^rflfftmn; wfif- 
ftw, nfi^ftif , irf^tftif^. Prec. f^^^m^. Cond. nfi^ftw^. Pass., 
Pre*, ff^ ; Aor. yrd sing. ^vfi^. Caus., Pres. fiwvif^; Aor. wftr- 
flpR*^. Des. ruPfftlM i rii . Freq. iH^^, itfifm. Part, Pre*, f^; 
Pa*/ Pass, ffftnr; Pa*/ JnrfecZ. fitftfilT, -f^; Put. Pass, f^gftnnq, 

674. Root ^ (special stems ^pB^, ^^, ^^, see 348). If^f. irffji^or 
nl^^ * to injure,' * to kiU.' Par. Pres. '^ifm^ f^ftf (306), l^fk (305. a) ; 

1^> T^> T^ (^98- *); f«^> ^> ^?%. /»»/?/• ^rf^> ^"^^ 
(294), ^ipff^; ^irj;f, ^si^pp'^, ^»?^pn^; ^njw, ^^, ^aif^'^. Po/- 

^|fnH« Impv. fUJ^irHy ^m (see 306. c), ^p^; ^''F^, ?'''^> ^'IT'^; 
^'J^''^* "^9 ^?^' -P*^* ^^> inrft^ or nrt, iriff ; wjf^, ''T^T^j 
wf^^^; Tf^fipr, w^^, iF^nj^- I*' -^W. irftvrf^i or nfrfi??. 2nd Put. 
wffmftf or iraftrfii. Aor. infftv(, -^if^, -^ft^^; -ff'^, -flfi^^, -fffi^; 
'f^> -ffv> "*^t?^- ^ "jl*!* "^> "W^^> "WW, -ww^» -W''^; -WW, 
-ifir, -)5i|;. Pree. ^^mw. Conrf.mrff^orww^. Pass., Pre*. ^; 
^or. 3rrf *tf^. mrff. Caus., Pre*, irfinft? ; Aor. ^nfwt<v or Hlft^ffir. 
Des. nmrtnifa or fil^iBjlfil. Freq. irt^, inSuft (3rrf Hnjr. irthrft). 
Part., Pres. i|^; Po*/ Pa**. (305. a) ^; Past Indecl. irflilT or j^y 
'fig; Put. Pass, wffinil or nfn, wt^/hl, ^. 

* Final ^ * preceded hj a cft d remains uncbanged before the terminations si 
and se; see 62. b. 



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296 



CONJUGATION OP VBKBS. — QBOUP lU. CLASS V. 



EXAMPLES OF PRIMITIVE VERBS OF THE FIFTH CLASS, 

EXPLAINED AT 349. 
675. Root ^ vri. Infill, '^ftlgi^varitum or W^)^ varittim, * to cover/ 
* to enclose^' * to surround,' * to choose */ 

Note, that the conjugational ^ nu becomes ^ nu after ^vjihj 58. 

Pabasmai-pada. Present Tense^ * I cover/ 

Imperfecta * I was covering/ or * I covered,' 

^l^iV otTrtfMifiia I 



^ OVftSUIfMIIII 



Potential^ * I may cover/ 

Ifnperative^ * Let me cover/ 

Per/. (369) ?RTt, ^W* (Vedic) or iRftw (see 370), ^^[Tt; ^, m^, 
"5^ ; ^> ^W, ^^ or ^^^T- i«^ J^^ (39a- rf) 'rftifrf^ or 
'^^"fw (393). anrf JW. ifftwfif or ^^tNnftl (393). Aor. iRTft^, 
m^rtll^^ mmti^; w^ift^r, inrftji^, ^nrrftfn^; virftv, ^wrto, im- 
ftj^. Prec. ftnrrai^ or \^Tli«(^ (448. A). Cond. ^B^ftw^ or ^wrfhqi^. 

Atmanb-pada. Present Tense, * I cover/ 

^^ VfVfMte ^^ifl vfVfvdie ^ffn vfiifvate 

* In the sense of 'to choose/ this root generally follows cl. 9; thus, Pret. 
^^aifif, ^pnftr, ^pnfir; ^'rt^, &c. See 686. 

t Or ^vt^rn^vo*. J Or ^^^ vfiifmas, § Or H^4H avjrvfva. 

II Or ITJW <irrttM»«. 

IT ^ vft is sometimes written with long f<, in which case 374. k may he applied. 

** Or ^IPI t vfrpfvahe, ft Or ^W^ rft^imflAe. 



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CONJUGATION OP VBBBS. — GROUP III. CLASS V. 



297 



Imperfect f *I was covering/ or ' I covered.* 















Potential^ * I may cover/ 

^Iffl^llVIIH vfiiiniydtkdm 
^qJl^im*^ vfii^ydtdm 

Imperative, * Let me cover/ 

P«/. W^ (369) or ^t, ^, ^ or w^; ^1^, nw^, ^Wlii; 
'^Cf^y ^^f ^fti^. I*/ .PW. irfian% or ^^vi^. and Fid. ^fti^ or 
w<t^. Aor. viftft, ii^ftft^, iwrfti; ^wftwff , imdniMim , mflcpiF- 
WP^ ; wift^Rj, v^Piuii^ or -flcjfi^, HiifVmi* Or iR^fv, n^iftfTH, &c. 
Or vjPir, ^T^, ^w; ir^i'rf^, it^ir^, ^n^mmn; ^T^* ''T?^* 

^i^fr^, W^Jhr. Free. ^ftA^ or ^irtiT or ^jffii (448. i). Cbmf. uPlfri^ 
or mtH^. Pass., Pre$. ftl^ ; Aor. yrd ring, wwtft. Caus., Pres. 
WCmfH or \ or ^^TTHrfif or -^ ; Aor. wfhn?^. Des. fwr<itirn or -^, 
ftRrfNrftl or -?^, f^*?flf or -^ (503). Freq. ^Tfft (511) or tft^, ^%fl(|, 
P^., Pre8. ^W^; -^tm. ^^FR ; Past Pass. ^; Pim^ /n<2ec/. ^, 
-^; JW. Pfl**. ^iftll^ or ^Rfhm, iPClfNy ^. 

OTHER EXAMPLES OP CL. 5 IN THE ORDER OP THEIB PINAL LETTERS. 

676. Root ijj (special stems ^^pjt, ^, see 352). If^f. lftp[ *to 
hear/ Par. Pre*. ^pifK^y ^po^^ ^jpftfif ; T|^^ or ^;?pi^» ^(^^1 
ipiv^; ^^i^or ^n*!^, ^,%^* ^w'ftr* Impf. v^4u^i^, ^i^pA^i ^'^po^f 

«^^ or ^^^, ^^^n^> H^^fllH,; ^^^iPPf or ^IPW, V^I^, ^W^PH'^. 
Pot. ij^iiii^. Jm/w. i(pmif^, ^, ^^pift]; ^(pv^rT^y ^[^Pf'tj ^B^'n'^; 
^^innH* ips^y ^PF^- P^« (3^9) ^'n^* ^^^> ^^^^^ f^» W'W* 

^or. iria^y Hw^fl^, iwrN^^; ^Wwi^, irwf^y -tP^; ^wiW, iRwf, 

* Or V^f^Tf ooff^voAt. t Or H^wfil flWfi|M»iaW. 

. X\w sometimes written with long fi, in which case 374. h may be applied. 
§ This roQfc is placed by Indian grammarians under the ist class. 

aq 



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298 COKJUGATION OP VBBBS.— -GROUP IIL 0LAJ3S V, 

W^. Free. ^JJiimi^. Oond. wiAni^. Pass., Pres. i^; Aor. 
yrd swg. mnrf^. Caus., Pre$. HiwmfH; Aor. irf^RTI^ or V^[W^. 
Des. ^p^. Preq. ^jt^, ^Nftfil or ^rh^Wr. Part., Pres. 1fm^^; 
Past PasB. ^; Past Indecl ^Wf, -^; i^/. Pa*#. i«tam, ^niA^, 



677. Root ^* (special stems ipft, ^. /«/: vfliy^ or wtj^ *to 
shake/ *to agitate/ Par. and -^Ltm. Pre$. ffAf^, 1?W^> ^pftfir; 
^ci^^or ^pn^, f<]M^> 13^ > f3''^or^pi^,>|g^,^|^f%. j^tm.^; 
^ra^> 13^; ig'^ or ip^, fp^, t?^> T3^ o^ ^P"^* ^^* Ir^' 

or ^V[my VfijA, n^^t^. i^tm. Vffi^y v^^i^, 'TH^'j wyiff « 
wprf^, ^wpirni^, w^p^nrn^; iit3^» ^T3^» ^T?^- ^^^- 13^- 
Atm. i|«4ii. Impv. ^pnrftr, ^, ^prlf ; ^pnnw, ^Hif^, fsjm^; fji^i^, 
^B*> ^P^- -^^ni. ^p^, i|3«^, ^nwT»i5 ^i^nrnit, ip^r^, fj^nm^^; 

5*f^> Sl^nw* S^'^RJ 5^*^> 51^^ 5^5^- -^t™- 5^. 5«<''^» 5^» 
51I*M>5«^»S«^; S¥ft^» 5^1^^ w -|, 5«fi^. l9tFut.yS^r 
irrftpv orijhnf^T. iiitm, vfinn^or^din^. i}nJ.FW.iift[«n9rorifNnf«r. 

^tm. vfw^ or hHr. -4or * innftv^, WV!ift^, Wlrt^; WHlflnB^,lWI- 

fif^, wnftifT'f ; wnftw, ^nif^t, iwif^y^. Or wrN^^^ •''H* -^^h^^* 
.ip^, wjbw, -fF^; w^, wiftt, ^ni^, Atm. wrfirfw, wrf^ti^, 

f^nnr. Or wfrfw, wtir^, wtv; ^wvi^^f^, wNnn*^, -iwp^j wNifti, 
W^, wNl. Prec. ^[iniP^. Atm. iffw^ftii or vHhi. Oond. w^ 
f^^ or mjtiq'^. Atm. nvftr^ or fiVW^. Pass., Pres. f^; -4or. 
3rrf ring. iraf%. Cans., Pre*. iftnirAr or VT^rinfiT ; Aor. ^VJ^^pVH or 
UJ^TO^. Des. J^^nftf, -^. Freq. ![^, ifNMi? or iJtvWH. Part, 
Pre8. ^U^; Kim. fffR ; Past Pass. ^ or t|iT; Past Indecl. ^^JJWT, 
-^; JW. Paw. wf^fTRi or Vtim^ V^^'ftf, WW or iw. 

a. Like ^may be conjugated ^ ^ to press out Soma juice/ which 
in native grammars is the model of the 5th class ; thus, Pres. ^^fHH, 
&c. The two Futures reject i ; 1st Put. irhnf^T, &c. 

678. Root ^ or i^t (special stems fjpift, ^5^). -6|A ^"rtt5»^ or 

* This root maj sLbo be f^>ftf^ Sco., and also in the pth class ; Pres. ^Wlfif, 
9^1 f^, ^l^rfW; ^hIm^, Ac; see 686: and m the 6th (^Wfftf 280). In the 
latter case the Aor. is H^ft'l^^, &c. ; see 430. 

t This root may also be conjugated as a vetb of the ^ dass ; thus, Pkes* 
^pnfil, f|llll^, ^|inftr ; ^Spft^, &c. See 686. 



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COITJUGATION Or VERBS.— -OKOITP UI. CLASSY. 299 

'"'f^ or ^r|h *to spread/ *to cover.^ Par. and Jitm. Pres. f|liWl, 
&c ; like ^ at 675. Jiim. ^^^ igp^, &c. Imnf. w^snt^. JLtau 
^w^. Pot, fv^^i*^* ^tm. «^«i. hnfi9. 4fiU^lOi|. Atm, ^|1IT* 
P^f. (253. e, 374. *) Km^ty TOrt, iWR; Twrflw, iwr^, wt:|^; 

iRVf^^iTy iHrfftw or-^, mBrfi^. at Fut wtVili^ or 4dAiiiAH oar fj^iiAjH. 
iSftm. ^vf^ml or wrtwtl or w*t|. 2ml Fut. irfcwfir or wft^ffdk. 
Xtau ^sftyk or v^^. Jor. WMitiM^, -^^ -<h^; ironfiw^ &c. ; see 
675. Or nuiQi^, "''Jh(, -^ll\j ^TOTf^, -4*^, '^^9 ^wrA, -t, -f'^* 
Aim. H^frfrf^ or vidOrii or ^nc|fw or iR^rftf^. Prec, 4i9lll^ or ^A^nsv^. 
Xtm. ^|irt^ or ^di:4hr or^rfWh. tSmrf. ^wftn^ or irr<Ni(. Jitm. 
MmfkA or %m(iyk. Pass., Pres. (467) w^; -4or. 3rrf smg. mrft. 
Caus., PrM. ^n:^?^ ; Aor. ^wfireR^ or ^wraT?^. Des. fkvft^nf^, -^ ; 
or fkv^Nrfiv, -1^;. or fMHiliT, -W. Freq. nmV or iNA^> in^ffft or 
ipQlff^. Part, Pres. ^|?ifl^; Jitm. ^|l«ni; Past Pass. ^ « iM 
(534); Pa«/ J«fec/. ipr, -^rfW, 'ipr; jFW. Paw. wfbw or ^vdm 

679. Root ^* (special stems 9iit, T^f T^^- W^'^^'^ ^ 
aWe.* Pto. Pres. iSfnirtir, ^nitfw, ^IiWhj 1S1W(> ^Bf^t inpW( 
•fiH^, :|l|[ir, ^pf|[qf{^ Ii»r/1 ii91V^9 ^WK, **ll«^; ^^if^j ^»*11 

w(, ^5iyn»^; ^TiqpT, ^v^tifnr, ^nirf^* Po^. ^ff^* -%w. ^Hft^ifH, 

If^f llji^J; IfWP^y y^W^^ T^jp^y ^WfW, ^1^, 9|i«t^/ Psrf. 

jst Fat. igmfm. 2nd Fat. ^renftr. At)T. ^s^[m% -^, -iHH^; -UPTj 
-^nii»^, -inim; -^Hw, -^wr, -hbh. Or ^vipf^ni^, -lAi^, -^fti^; n^fifHij 
-flinn^, -¥ii(; n^iOimi, -ftit , -"Pi5^* Pr»c. ^nniip^. Cond. VIW^ 
Ptos., Pre*. 919 ; ^or. 3rrf Hiitjr. m^irfti. Caus., Pres. "^tmwi^i Aor. 
w^ftfV{. Des. rjlHiriimrt l or fijr^irftr, -^t {3^s\ Preq. ^[Tf^ 
^milfiV or fURftftr. Part, Pre*. lUf^; Atm. If^f^m; Past Pass. 
^m; Pflw/ Indecl. ^r»r, -?R«r; *W; Paw- ^IW, ^PrtN, fw. 

680. Boot ^ (special steins ifiJV, ^, ^I^^)* •'V** ^rf^ ^to 
prosper,' *to flourisV *to incr^ise.' Par. Pre#. ^^Ififtr, ^|vHw» 

^nftft' > ^S^> ^i¥^» "v^s^ > ^^Pf^y ^"W^ ^fl'rf^* J^ii/*- (^51- «) 

'I' 91| is also coi^ugated in the 4th class, Pansmai and Atmane (Pres. ^^fi(^ 
(cc., ^HW); bat it maj then be regarded as a Passire verb. See 461. h. 

t This form of the Des. generally means ' to learn,' and is said \xj some to com^ 
firom a root f^f^• 

Q q a 



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800 CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — GROUP IIL CLASS V, 

\ 

WTJ^, WTM^> wiWi^^; ^ij't, ni§**(, ii|*i*( ; ^n^, wfr, ^n^^« 
Pot. ^^in*^. Impv. ^umfVr, ^fff, ^vii^; ^wnw, ^^irs^> -1^'^; 

wnpig^; ^BT^fw, wppi, ^VP]^. !#/ i^tt/. wflwiftR. 2nd Fui. ^- 
^nflr. -4or. mnSM^y in4l^, in^fli^; wifJ^, nifQii^y -ot^; wifi'if, 
^f^f^f ^nf^J^. Or inQs^, -^, -^; -^, &c. Prec. ^p/m^. 
Cond. iil(Q«|i(. Pa88.y Pre*, ^^iq ; -4or. 3rrf sing. wif}. Oaus., iVe*. 
W^infir; Aor. wrf^v^. De^. irf^ftnrfil or^?#Tftl (503), Part, iVet. 
ifgin^; P<w/Pa*5.^i; Past Indecl. wf^m or ^^t,'^[m; F%d.Pa$9. 

681. Root m^ (special stems imft, m^, ^"yO* ^**^' ^"W * *^ 
obtain/ Par. Pre*. unfM^^ iRnftfii, unftfk ; ^n^^* ^in^^j vi^Ai^; 
^'3**^* ^'9^» wiyiftir. Jiwr/*. wnnp^, inift^, iiiNti^; ^w^^ w^ja^i 
-HF(; wyf> ^njif, 'n^^. Pot. wi^ini^. Impv. vrmrf^y ^ii^P^^ 
him) J ; WM^m, ''T5^^^, -wf^; wnwi, wipr, viy^^* Perf. w^, 
Hiftr^, Hni; Hiftfw, ^■n'TJ^j ^n^S^* ^rfiw, in^, htj^. i#/ JPW, 

VIHir^f* Wd Put. HmMlfH. ^or. HIMI^y HT^^, ^1^5 HHIW, WHTin^, 
-Wf^; HTOf, HTOf, Wl«^. Prec. viuiini^. (hnd. vmjU^. Pass., 
Pre*, wn^ ; -4or. 3rrf wnjr, inftl. Oaos., Pre*. lO^ilTfH ; Aor. vifW^. 
Des. (503) ^Wh. Part., Pres. WT^^; Pa*/ Pa**, vm; Pa*/ Jnifee/. 
wi^, -hhr; FtU. Pass. HTirRi» Hm'fl^, wro. 

a. Root V^ (special stems WW>, ^, H^)- •'H/* ^fiPS'^ o' ^'f't 
^ to obtain,' *to enjoy/ * to pervade.' jSftm. Pres. W^^ H^> ^"^i 
w^^, H^m^, fi^Hl^ ; -m^n^, H^> ^^^^- J»wp/- ^i^f^j '''^'"H* 

"^fii^, ^»^g«ni> ^■^^'n'^. Pe»/. (367. c) HR$, i»mfi|r^ or wnril, 
imr|>; mpil^nt or HPTvl (371), HFW!^, wnnm^; inifff^ or 
VM^^y Hlff^iu^ or WH^> Hl^f^i. 1st FkU. vOlliil or iifif. 
2nd Fut. irf^ or m^. Aor. fnfti, Vtf1^» WTf ; vmrff , illllfl^i«(, 
HiifiAi'^; HT^irf^, wFifli^, vnv^. Or HTfljrft, mr^ti^, virfif ; 
HTf^wff , HTfinnirw, mntwa i ^ ; inf^r^ifV, wf^«j^, 'wrfinnr. Pree. 
vf^mftil or yn^. Cond. ^Sffi^ or WT^. Pass., Pres. w^\ Aw. 
yrd sing. HTf^. Caus., Pres. WTip^ ; Aor. HTf^^. Des. wf^f^. 
Freq. v^nit (S". «)• Part-, Pres. ^P^rm Past Pass. mfifM or 
mw; Past Indecl. irf^iWT or w^, -H^; Put. Pass, mfffnn or wn, 



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CONJUGATION OP VERBS.— GROUP III. CLASS VIII. 



301 



EXAMPLES OF PRIMITIVE VERBS OP THE EIGHTH CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 353. 

6S2. Root If kfi. Infin. ^i|i| kartum^ 'to do' (SSS)' 

Pababmai-pada. Present Teme^ * I do.' 
Vuftf karomi ^P^* kwrva$ W^* kumuu 

Wiifk karoiki IPP^ kuruthas ^^ kurtUka 

Wdfif karoH V^^ kurmtas ^WiT * kurvtmH 



Imperfecta * I was doing/ or * I did.' 



^« <q«^ akaravam 
Wttf^^akaroi 

^^w* kmydm 
^^%^kmyd$ 

Vmiill karaodifi 
^l^kmru 



^^* akurma (73) 
^K^^ akuruta 
'm^'k^^akurvan 



: 6akdra (368) 
^n^ 6akartha 
^nnt6akdra 

wtff^ kartdtm 
iM^ hartdn 
lAlkarid 

llfx^nftr kariskydm 
l|fV^f)9 kariikyoii 



H^ oAiiroa (73) 
V 9^ N^ aihcm/oni 

Potential^ * I may do/ &c. 
9^11 kmydva If^PI ihifyi6iui 

^l^nn^ihtrycCfaifi ^^TW kwrydta 

^jktK^kwrydtdm ^ff^ihirytif 

Imperative^ * Let me do/ &c. 

VT^IW karavdva WTWHT kartwdma 

Perfect, * I did,' or * I have done.' 

First Future, * I will do.' 
'^SilW(^^kartd8vas Wi«fl4( kartdsmas . 

'^dtrwt^^ kartdstkas ntl^ kartdttka 

*#li) kartdrau wTT^ kartdras 

Second Future, * I shall do.' 

l|fVm^4( kamkydooM ^fXmH^ i(artiAy<6iiaf 

l|(Vv|f|^^ ibarfffilyaf ibof *fV.11 itorifAyaf Aa 

Wftroi^ kariikyatas l|fiC«rfiir kariskymUi 



* ^tt^^ W^^* ^^^y^ ^^*» would be equaUj oonreot ; see 73. An obsolete fcma 
jfA fqr Hdfti is found in Epic poetry. 



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302 



onr JTmAmnr or Tsma — aaouv nk clas yiil 









V4(li|l^ ahaiihjfttm 
imfmi^ akarishyat 



PreetUwe or BenetSdipe, * Mqr I 

CondUianal, 'I ihoald da' 
H tfilll l akanskydva 



do.' 

flMll^l^ hriifdnu 
WTv^^ mvi injf AMI 



683. 
^p^kwute 



i^TMANB-PADA« Present Tense, * I do/ 

^^H kurvdtke ^[^^ kunMve 

^jktn hurvdte ^fifk kurvate 



hnperfeciy * I was doing/ or ^ I did.' 



\ ahmfi (73) 
llf^^ akuruthd$ 

^^(^kuro(ya 
yf^tt^f^kurvUhdM 

^p^^kwruMkoa 
"^l^ipK^kwrwtdm 

^^6akr€ 



W^t^akwnM 

W^^JVX\akurvdihdm 

W^m^^akurvdtdm 

Potential^ * I may do/ 

^^^ I Ul ^ kufviydthdm 
^^H\n\^ han(ydt4m 

Imperative^ * Let me do.' 

#i^l^l kartwdvahai 
^% \^\^ kurvdthdm 
T/WJK^^kwndtdm 



W^^up^akwmdkoam 
W^jkft akurvata 

^f^t^f% kun^naki 
94r«q«^ kmv^dkvam 
^4(Kn^kur9^(m 

WK^P^ karaodmakai 

^^^^kurudkpom 

i^kurvatdm 



Perfect/1 did,' or *I have done.' 

^wA&akrdthe ^l^ Sakfifkoe 

^mW 6akrdte ^Vfl^ 6akrir& 



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CONJUGATION OP VERBS. — OBOUP UI. CLAflS VIII. 



808 



"^St^ kartdke 
^AAkaridie 

IBRC^ isttriskye 
mTk^H kttrishyase 
irfT!^ karishyate 



lakfishi 
WfWakfita 



IiXtHI kttrtdtffoke ^itm^ kart^smake 

"^llkm kartdram ^IhK^Junidrtu 

Second Future, ' I shall do/ 
liftm^ karishydvahe ^SvmH\ kariskydmake 
JV^^ karUkyetke ^^K^^k kariskyadhoe 

^Ftint kariskyete T$ftjl^ karUkyante 

Aariat, '1 did.' 
Wp^ri^ akpikvaki 
HfMI^I^ akfiMikdm 
mfWnn^akriikdtdm 



W^ffR^akfi^am 
WIfmt dkfiskata 



Precatwe or Benedictive, * May I do/ 

^f|tWC^^kri$kiskfkd8 ^4imW\ kriMydstkdm ^^lty(\kr%$k(dkvam 

YftW kfisMskta ^[4inmT^kTisMydstdm f4lT?( AritMtm 

OondUional, ' I should do/ 
^nsft^ akariikye ^mftWlfij oAram Ay (^to^' WlrfVnwf^ akariskydmaki 

m^ftTlt^akaritkyatkda m^^uknt^akariskyetkdm W^St^ViB(^akarishyadkwim 
H^f^lHI akariskyata M^lAfi^akarUkyetdm V^Tm^ akariikyanta 

Pass., Pre*, flift; -4cr. 3rrf «njr. ^nirft (701), Caus., Pre$. 

^lA or ^iftnW or ^rthlW or i|*<Kif or ^nftirtfil or ^<Nnftfil (Pi^i. 
VII, 4, 92). Part., Pre*, fli^; j«Clm. ^W; Pa*/ Paw- fi; P»«* 
Indeet. ^pir, -^ ; Pti^ Pa$s. mim, iVTHA^^ ^. 

684. Only nine other roots are genesallj given in this class. Of these the 
commonest is IH^'to stretch/ conjugated at 583. The others are, ^Qll^'to go/ 
Tl|l(^and 'P^^*to kill' or 'to hurt/ ^W 'to shine/ ^^^'to eat grass/ l!«^ *to 
imagine/ Atm.; ^ 'to ask,' ^«( 'to give.' As these end in nasak, thdr 
coi^jogation resembles that of verbs of d. 5 at 675 ; thus — 

685. Boot iqp^ (special stems ipif^, i(^). Jft/I wAqp( 'to kill,^ 
* to hiurt' Par. and iftm. Pres. "^fitffl, WM^* VfOMr ; ^^^PR^y &o. 
Atm. ^5i^, lf^9 &c. /iwR/I napu^^) iwpit^, &c. Aim* Wf(f^. 
Pot. l|^^IP(. Atm. l|?|AiT. Itnpv. ^^ntf^. Ktm. ipi^. Pei^^ 



^, liim. ^19^, ^iffio^, ^ni^ ; ^mfN^f ^ ^ipif^, lif^nii^; ^vwfii^> 



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304 



CONJUGATION OF VBBBa — GBOUP III. CLASS IX. 



^fWflffd, ^n^fo^. 1st FkU. ^rminr^i* -^tm. qPiQfll^. 2nd FiU. 

-fP(; w^fijpR, -ftlf?, -ftlj^. -^tm. ii«|f>oriy Wl^finn^ or v^^f^ 
(^74. c), wifftrr or wmr; wifftri^, -ftmron, -ftnmiT^; iwfliwftt, 

-ftr«n^, -ftww. Free. ^Iivnn(. -^tm. ^fW^. Cond. U Hlfal^ ^ 
^tm. ini|f?n^. Pass., Pre*, nipl ; ^or. 3r£fnn$r. vififir. Caus., Pre*, 
ifwnnftr; -Aw-, irfwiiw*^. Des. f^nfftRifti, -^. Freq. ^ini^, ^^fiw. 
Ptot., Fres. ^(im^; -^tm. i^nvm; Pfl*/ Pas$. hit; Po*/ IndecL HWI 
or ^(f^niTi -nw; Ptt^. Pa*e. ^(ftwii, ^(^iplhr, ^inn. 

EXAMPT.KS OF PRIMITIVE VERBS OF THE NINTH CLASS, 
EXPLAINED AT 356. 

686. Root ^ yu. Infin. ^rf^r|'( yavitum, * to join,^ * to mix.' 
Fabasmai-pada. Present Tense^ * I join/ 

Imperfect^ * I was joining/ or * I joined* 
^iJ^TTl^ m/vmd» V^^A^ aytmCtam ^y«Aii asfufi^ 






Potential^ * I may join.* 
g«fl<iiii«^yiifi^y{^am 






Imperative^ * Let me join.* 
-P«/. ^^n^, yiftf^ or jift^, ^'iw; 35^> IS'rj^* "^^W^ 31*^> 

Wmilh(^y "^ft^> "^ftH> '•^iftlMf -f^f^, -ftHT^i WHftll, -f^, -ft^« 
Prec. ^^iras^* Cond. miOmif^. 

( ^ Some auihontiee give mIhiCw &o. aa the only form. See Laghu-kaum. 734. 



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CONJUGATION OP VERBS.— GROUP HI. CLASS IX. 305 

687. ^TMANX-PADA. Present Tense, * I join/ 

ffft ifimMe Jin^ yimdthe ^^Ad ifuiUdkve 

Imperfect, * I was joining/ or * I joined' 
"^K^ ayum m^4\Hr^ ayvnhahi ^^A i H^^ ayun^mahi 

^tflih^ayimakds m^Him^ayvndtkdm m^^ftUfS^apmidkvam 

^yftW aymn^a ^l^flWI'^ ayundtdm ^f^^ ayunata 

Potential, * I may join/ 

Imperative, * Let me join/ 
^jfVfiat 9«li^9 ffwuivahai ^pVlf(^ yundmahai 

^•11^ ffuntskva ^[fflVJ^^yimdthdm ^p(iW{^ yim^hvam 

^pftWP'l^ytmitdm Y^fUfl^^ywuStdm ^|HHT^^yunatdm 

-^^- 11^> W"» 11^> 3t^^> 11^t^> H^tth; ^|^n«vf, 5J«^* 

-f^5 tmfifi^, i mft i m t iin , -unnn; wqPmff , -fw^ or -ft^, -ftnr. 
Prec. ^ftrthi. Owirf. wnPl^. Pass., Free, t^; i$t Fat. HTftml; 
Aar. yrd sing. ^niTf%. Cans., Pres. in^inf<f ; -4pr. ^r4hnn(. Des. 
J^jnftf or ftnrftnrrftf- Freq. ift^, ^iWWl or iftirrlflf. Part., Pres. 
Tf^, ^tm. fTTPf; PiMi;Pa«*.5W; Pa«/./iMfec/.^iWf,-fW; Fut.Pass. 
^^fwiw, 'Wfhiy ^HW or in, 

OTHER EXAMPLES OP CL. 9 IN THE ORDER OP THEIB FINAL LETTERS. 

688. Root ^rr (special stems HPfT, irnft, 1IF[, 36i), In/1 IQTT^^ to 
know.' Par.andAtm. Pres. m^\[M, fllHirH, ilMlPA; ilPftl^, inJN^, 
ilT^fhr^; . ifpfhl^, m«(lir> mnr»ii» Atm. i|m, nrWlM, HPfhf; «ii«0^f » 

Wfi^> WRTi; wfhi^, wrt*^, 11^0. Imp/. ^(mm9{^, ^tmmt^^ hiihih^; 
^wprtw, ^wnrtin^, vm^iiii^; vfiitflu^ wii«Ofl» iwrnn^. Atm. ^wfrftr, 
wrffhn^^^mrthr; nm^^nj , ^ h ihiiii*^ , w i i^mn ; nnT'ftHf?,imT- 
WNv^> iwrnnr. Pot. m^liiii^. Atm. m^rtii* Im/w. ninrftir unftf^ 
wnj; iPiiw, UMli^t imIai'^j wrni, uprtw, ini'j. Atm. nin, 
ifPrt^r, m^flwiH,; iRn?, hihiiih,* ii^i*i*i» infw^, ii^ui'^, •nnin\» 

ir^. Atm. iri^, nf^, n^ ; ^f^q^yinjrT^yiiQiA; if^^i^jifisw, nfiu- 
1st Put. 9Tm%. 2nd Put. vT^inflr. Aor. (433) nqrfinvi^, ^i?in(h(, 

R r 



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306 CONJUGATION OF VEBB8.--G10UP III. CLASS IX. 

^■?irt^; wjrrftw, mjirfinn^, -1P^; nwiftwi, -ftw, -ftrj^^ Atm^mprfii, 
wyn^m, wjfm; n^rarfi, ngiii i^ n , -mw^; mjn^ifi, ^ifw^, nwxn. 
Prec. 9^n^ or 91^^- -^tm. ^N. Otmd. m^mf^. Atnou inpT?^. 
Pass., Prei. (465. a) ^ ; Per/, ifw (473) ; ut Fiit. ^m^ or irflll^ 
(474) ; and Fui. ^T^ or inf^ ; Aar. yrd nng. wwff^* Caus., Pres. 
UnnnftTor^qHTfr; Aor.'^ffwf^^ Des. ftnni% (-^iTfif , Epic), Fr©q, 
MUTO, m^rfti or m^. Part, Pres. m^; Kim. niifR ; Pfl#^ Pa#t. 
imr; Pa*/ Indecl. ^riiiiT, -fTO; J^/. Paw. 9nm> |IT^, iw. 

689. Root lA (specif steins iJNlT, iJWt, iftir, 358. a), /n/. ikj^ * to 
buy/ Par. and ^tm. Pres. lA^QT^, lA^9Tf^> Tftunfir ; lMt^» l<WNl^» 
iMhi^; ifrrfhf^, iM)ii, lAivftr* Atm. iftd, iA?ft^» lA^ftv; tIWH?i 
iflin^, lAiuTii; iiM)>v^, iMtd, lA^. In^f* wiftiBi^, wiAiuii^, 
^nft^; ^rtSWhr, mlNftii^, irtWhn^; ^nftuX wiriMtir, ^rtNF^. 
Atm. ^nftftr, ^rtWhn^, irtSWhr; u rt^^f; , ^THShonn^, ^nftnnm^; 
inMt«ff^> wpWh^ii, wiftmr. Po/. iWNn^, Atm. iMN. J«p». 
iA^if^» liWtf^, sA^ig; iftin^, iWhn^, iWhn'^; iftin^, ifrrfhr^'rfNnj. 
Xtm. 1TO, HMt^, iMtwi^f lA^i^l, lAiiimi^^^ lA^mm^; lAmnf , 
iWNi^j ifrwni. Per/. (374. «) f^mni, f^iiftw or f^iinr» f%*ni; 
fnftiftw, fwfiCT^, f%ftWfl(; fwftifiw, Nfw, ftiftig^. Atm. fViftlft, 

r^rnHv^. ist Fut ^mrftR. Atm. iqn^. amf i'W. %inf)i. Atni; 
ir^. Aar. nA^^, -^ft^j "^ft'^^; ^nlw, -w, -wii^; ^rtw, -¥, -^. 
Atm. inlrf^, -¥W(> -w ; viimfi5> -^fn'^> -"TOn*^; iRlwf^, ^■niKj'x* ^•^^i''*'' 
Prec. iftiinm, Atm. ^iifN. Com/, tiim'^. Atm* vim. Pass., 
Pres. nfft ; Jor. 3rd sing, vugfir. Caus., Pres. wm^lfii; Aor. vPmiiMH. 
Des. f^^nrfi?, -1^. Freq. ^ift^, ^ift or ^hrtMil. Part, P^. 
Wtlt\; Atm. ift^rni; Pa#/ Pa#*. ifti; Pa#< /fufec/. litem, -1<N; 

. 690. Like ift is iA * to please.^ Pres. iftunf^ ; Atm. irt^. Caus., 
Pre*. ift?nnftl or in^mfti; -4or. irf^raqv^ or vfMlft^^*. Des. ftmlmOi . 
Freq. ^ift^. 

691. 7^ (special stems ^pn, 151ft, «y^, 358), * to cut,* fdlows ^, 
*to purify,* at 583; thus, Pres. cpnfi?; Atm. :i|i|. Pet. IJ^t^; 
Atm. ififNr. P«/. ijTinr; Atm. ijpi^. 1st Fut HftMifW. aurf 

692. Root w^ (special stems -WHT, ^flft, Wl^). I»/l l^f^ ' to bind.* 

♦ Forster ^ves ^Ijftnwni ; Westergaard, vftnftvw. 



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COKJtTGATlON OF YSRB8. — GROUP III. CLASS IXi 30T 

Wtfftir. /iti/j/1 wWr»(, vwMT^, ^wwtT^^; wwrihr, wwfhn^, -mn; wtfilhf, 
^•Wlftir, ^srwiw^. Pot^jih^, Im/w.wwTftf,'WVR(357. a),WW5; www, 
^nftir^,-in^; w«m,wrfhr,win5. Pei/.wfi^,*inrftOTorww«f onr*^ 
(998. a)i Wf^; imff^f ^^*^!3H> '^•^SHj wwft^, ww^, ^f^w^- 
f«# JW.wsvrffR. anrf -FW. >wjpmftf (299. tf). -4or. ^mniir^ (299. a), 

Prec. tfiqmi^. Ootid. mf^VOP^. Pass., Pret. (469) "wd. Oaus., Pres. 
¥^W!ftr; Aor.mn^[^V{. Des. 1%n*WTf«f (199. fi). Freq, WTvi, WtWftwi, 
WlWiftOf. Part., Pres. "WW^; Piw^ Pi»*. ini ; Poit Indecl. '^^ -'wm; 
iFW. Pa**. W51«^, WM*W, TW. 

693. Root U5^ (special stems Ijy, ?T^, ft^, 360). In/l irfV^Jp^ 
* to string/* to tie.* Par. Pre*. ?ryft^>?r5rfB,1I^TfTff; IT^t^,?!^^^ 
t4^n^; IT^fHr^, T^, IT^ftif. Imj!?/'. ^Wy^, ^^ll^t^^ ^'^f^^* ^■W^j 

(*57- «X ff^ ; ^ly > inpir»i» -^; T''* '^^ ^5^* ^^* ^375- *) 

mw^^y lUrwitforflftR^lRini*; Hy PfViii or ^fw, lil-^g^ or ^^^9 
111*^4^ or dwp[; imrfV^in or dftnr, mr^ or ^, 1W5^ or d^* 

1st fkit. ur^mytm . 2nd Put. <<r>ninfn . ^or. 'w^rft^w, -^^, -^»ftn, 

&C. Pre^. ;|tqnm. Obnrf. iRlftim*i. Pass., Pres. (469) ?ii^. Caus., 
Pres. rr^mf^; Aor. mifp^. Des. rminniH it>i> Freq. imn^, 
'llF'fltftr, lilpifHif. Part, Pres. ij^; Pa*/ Pa**. nPw; Pa*/ Iitdec/. 

a. Like ipi^ is conjugated ws^ *to loosen,' i??^ * to chum.' 

694. Root l|^t (special stems "^^y 1^^, ^^l^). In/! l^^firgi^ * to 
agitate.' Par. P^e*. ij^rftf , ^wftr, ^[Wfif ; IJlfhf^, ^^rft>a^, ^|^^ 

-TiP^; ^t^i^rtu, irs|^^, ^v^^. Pot, igWhrn^. Impv. V¥Tf%, tjwj 
(357- «> 58), ^wi; ^Ww, ^?*ii^, -m^; ^vw, w^, ^^5. Per/. 

1st I^it.'^itSimfm. anrf 1^. wtfimrftr. -4or.i»tsftfi^,-^,-^»&c* 

Or W^pl^, -H^, -m^^; -OTf , -HTfi^, -mn^; -HPH, -WW , -xW^. P/*ec. i^pilTfril. 
Cbiuf. vqirHVlH. ^Pass., Pres. ly^; -4or. 3rrf wny. fr^fi?. Caus., 
Pre*, ifhnnf'r; -4or. ^Brjvm^. Des. ^BftfWmfif or ^yjfiiWTftr. Freq. 

^ Some authorities give the option of inTTW in the ist and 3rd of the Perf. 
^^^ompare 339. 
t Also cL 4, Intransitive, 'to be agitated f Pres. '^^^nftl, 612. 

R r 2 



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30a C50NJUGATI0N OP VERBS.— GROUP III. CLASS IX. 

^tt^, ^hftfiir {3rd ring, iftwtftv)* Part., Pre^. ^ynfj Poit Pa$8. 
^ or ijfkw ; Past Indecl ^pjT or ^fkrlT, -'^; Fut. Pass, ijtfinm, 

695. Root ^P>^* (special stems lann, H¥ft, ^TO^, 360). Inf. wrf^Qi^ 
'to stop/ *to support.' Par. Pres. HVrSf ; like ^, 694. /mfif, 
^■wirp^. Pot. w^ttmf{. Irnpv. Bvrfifi w»m (357. a), ^srvt;; www, 
inftif^, -wp^; www, w^ftir, wvs* P«/. ww^, irerfiwi, iraPH; 
irarfrnr, wwwj^, -»>^^; iiwffeif, iraw, nw^. i*/ Fut, nfwn^i, 
anrf J?W. w t Wi i fa . Aar. nwftw^, -'^, -'^f &c. Or ws^^ 
-^»-^; -*ITW,-H?r^, -HiTH; ->fm, -w, -w^. Prec.wmw9[. Oond. 
wstf^^Pf^. Pass., Pre*, w^. Caus., Pres. w^nnftf ; Aor. ^n!W^« 
Des, flmrf^^T^rfk. Preq. 1ITW^» WlW^ftl or nraMlfn. Part, Pres. 
m^; Past Pass. «ar; Past Indecl. WWT or wf«iim; Fut. Pass. 

696. Root W|^t (special steins IWT, wift, il?^). In/, wfi^f^ *to 
eat' Par. Pres, ^nnifii, iRnftr, wvrfir; ^R^ftw^, w^ftip^, wfftif^; 
wrtu^, inrfN, wfrftr. Impf. wrvrn^, wrfin^, wrfm(^; wirftw, wrnfhn^, 
-WTH ; wffN, wrtw, inw^. Pot. vfO^i^* /m/w. wfnfw, ib^ir (357* ^)> 
wpfftj ; WWTW, wsftini , -WP^; w?itr, isrfftw, wwj. Perf. ^nip> Tff^fw, 
^n^r; ^nfinr, 'nirj^, ^nin^^ ^irfifR, inip, ^n^|^. i*/ jFW. wfiinnftff. 
2nd Fut. ^iflminfif. -4or. wrf^^, ^iT^, ^»T^; ^nffiw, iiTfijn^, 
^if^ifiH; vrf^rwf, irrfijTP, vir^iji^. Prec. w^WT^. Cond. in%m^« 
Pass., Pret. m^. Caus., Pres. wr^mfk; Aor. ^rrf^ip^. Des. w%- 
f^TMrfir. Freq. ir^TT^ (511. a). Part., Pre*. mw{; Past Pass, wri^; 
Pa*< Indecl. wf^HT, -^»^; 1^/. Pa**, wf^nnw, w^J^fhl, ^BHR. 

697. Root f^ .(special stems f^Rn, fvvfty fiP'^). I^f* ^^ifW^ or 
^flg^ * to harass.' Par. Pres. ffPfdf^ ; like Wl^, 696. Impf. vfpwii^, 
^wfijTin^, wf^Rm^; irfirttw, ^rfwrfhrw, -wm; irfWhi, iifwftw,iifiPiFt. 
Po^ fWhn^. Imjpv. fiiwrftf , finppf , &c. Pei/. fw^, f^lrf^R or 
f^, f^; f%fi%w or fwfiro (37^), fwfiqf^, -iff^; fnfgf^ 
or fnf^, fwfinr, fwf»^. i*< Ptrf. |rf^n!T% or l^fTfiw, anrf 1^, 
V^viirii or Irejnfir. Aor. ^siW^rv^, -^Ti^, -^pi^; ^wiW^, -f^f^n, 
-fijw^; ^|rf^, -%¥, "f^irg^. Or wfipiif, -ii^, -^; - vw, -^w^, 
-^Urni; -VW, -HW, -^ (439). Prer. fanpT^. Cond. fjitf^r^or 
^rifc^. Pass., Pres. ffin^ ; Aor. yrd ring. ^si^. Caus., Pres. ite|RTfii; 
Awr. vPwfJUn^. Des. fwfllf^frWTfir or NK^ I MiPh or fnfipfrftr. Freq. 

* This root also follows cl. 5 ; thus, Pres. WV^. See 675. 
t This is a different root from V9^cl. 5. See 683. 



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CONJUGATION OF PASSIVE YEBBS. 809 

^fin^^^irfipf- Pfitt,Pres.ftmn} Pa*/ Pa#*. finporfTpfijnr; Pastlndecl. 

698. Root y^ (special stems ^W, ^W^, ^^)- If^» ^ftftll^ * to 
nourish/ Par. Pres. ^wrfw, jmife, ^wrftr; ^W^, flA^, 
yiiflfl4(; ^^Biftir^y 9^Qft^» 5Wlf%. Imp/. ^R^pRT>(, ^WIT^, ^^^m^; 
^Hft^, HgiilA^y "^H'^; ISIJUftir, vgviOny ^HF^. Pot. ^[^fhlP^. 

Impv. ^wrfif , 5^OT (357- «)* J^^ y J^sm^ }i^(i% "'^f ?wim, fwihr, 
Ji^nj. For the rest^ see 9\cl. 4 at 621. 

699. Root n| (special stems ^^, ^^, ^, 359 ; see 399. a). 
-^S/** Vl^^ * to take.* Par. and Atm. Pre*. ^CiTflf> TW^* TC^i 

TG!N^» TCiNi^> TCftw^; Tli^t TCf^f TBrf^- -^^"^ TO> TC^* 

^»7«n^> ^T^sn^; ^wj^, ^^rcfhi^' ^TCfh»T»^; ^^^ftw, vjisfhr, 

'i^«inrRl;^iT«iW^,wT^«iH,wTBiW. Po/.^^fhin^. iS^tm^^^fN. 

TC^. Atm. Jj^, ^i#i^, TC^ll»^; TW^> TGf»^» TWHlii; 
TWi^> TBi**''^' ^il»«'H- P«/- (384) 'Rn^> itir^'*, tmf ; i^ff^, 

^> 'Plfl^f i^Ifn^i W'T'^F^* i^f^*^ or -^, ip[f\^. 1*/ jFW. u^Aif^f 
(399- ^)- '^^™- ii^^in^* ^»^ ^«'- in^'nfti. Atm. ir^. -4or. 
'w^NHjiBirt^,^!!^; ^ti^1^» ^ii^»*^, '•ij^*!*^; ntf^l^innf^, 
iill^ty(. Atm. iRi^, ^wwftfT^, win5^; wg^Mg, miflHur i n , 

C!w»rf.^«irtN^. Atm.iTOifrt. Pass., Pre*. i|;^; P^/.^Pjl; 1st Put. 
Vt^ or inffirri ; ^nd Fid. vtt^ or mf^; Aor. 3rd $ing. imrff , 
3rrf pi. WWEHw or vinf^. Cans., Pre$. in^nrfw ; -4or. vf^mfi|[. 
Dcs. fil^wrf*^, -^ (503)- Freq- 'rt^* 'fWftr (3rrf «ii|sr. unnflr) or 

irnn^ (711)- Pa^» -P^"^'- T5n^; -^tm. i|c;i^; Pa*' P«w. ipftw; 
Po*/ /lufcc/. 3;^hm, -ipi; Put. Pass. jf^tK^, in^ifhr, inir. 

EXAMPLES OF PASSIVE VERBS, EXPLAINED AT 461. 

700. Root ^ dd (465). Infin, ifTji^ ^fe^/tim, ' to be given.* 

Present Tense, * I am given.* 

^hiidfyate fffiUld^yite ^M^ diymUe 



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310 



CONJUGATION OF PASSIYB T£AB6. 



Imperfect^ * I was given.' 

W!(^9nrflr aeUydvM wftwmfi aiiydmM 

Potential^ * I may be given.' 

IJ^^^flf diyevaki ^IqWfi} dfyemaJd 

T(^;mV[t^^d(yeydtkdm f^ik^i^dfyedkvam 
^f^mim{dfy€ydtdm rifi^diyerau 

Imperative, * Let me be given.' 

?fhn^ dfyikakai ^^TPV^ dijfdmakai 

0^*111 dfyeikdm ^^tV!V[ d^^adhpam 

%iiimi\d4jf€idm J(t^9fnl^^dfyaM$dm 

Perfect^ * I have been given/ 

^tq^^ dadivahe ^fit'V^ dadimdke 

^^^daddtke ^;f^dadidk9t 

^l[^Tir daddie !^A(^ dadirt 

First Future^ * I Bball be given.' 

^lAlH^ ddtdnahe ^IWim^ ddtdsmake^ &e, 

^Tf^nn^ ddyitdwahe H\f^H\\H\ ddyitdsmaJke, &c. 

Second Future, * I shall be given.' 

^^l^qFlt ddtydoahe ^JWmk ddiydmake, Ac 

^ i fMm^^ ddyi$hydoakt ^ l (^ iq iH| ddy%ikydmtiki,iLc 

Aoriat, * I was given.' 
Wfij^lf^ adiskvaki 
Vf^rAn^lf^ addyiskoahi 
^ttf^^^Cr^adishdthdm ^l^f^adiikvam 
Xm^fim^addyishthdi n^ \ [^H\^\Ha ddyukdthdm^K^k^m^ 



"tf^^tnV^ad^ttthdM 
H^IMA addyaia 

fjl^ W^ diyetkds 
jf^ikf( diyeta 

1^ diycd 
l^tl^ d(ya9ua 
l^t^B^KP^diyatdm 

' J^dade 
^p^dadiUhe 
^ dade 

(^fjni^ddtdhear 
1 ^ifinn^ ddyitdke 



f^J^ddtyeor 
\^^tf^^ ddyi»kye 

f %tt^f^ adiski or 
\ <ll^lfV|ni addyiiU 
J vP^tll^^ adiikdi or 



V^lfll^r^ addyukmaki 



^V^jf^addyi,^ it was given,' 



1 «^lfVmi|l|l^ai%MA^f(^ ll<;iri|ll4 addyitkata 



Prec. ^[wfti? or ^tftnftil, &c. Ckmd. v^l^ or fi'^jiOiv). 

701. Root ^ Aft (467). Infin. ii|i^ kartum, * to be made' or * done.' 



Present Tense, * I am made.' 

nipnr mwi ninici 

fiimir Afi^ fiR^ 



Imperfect, * I was made.' 

irfii^^^ irf^^^ni^^ vfiE^Mii 



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COKJUGATION OP CAUSAL VERBS. 



311 



Potential, * I miay be made/ 

Imperative, *Let me be made/ 
ftwHTi^ ftA?[P^ finning 



Per/ec/. 
^'^ wn^ ^^^ 

nrst Future. 
Second Fut. vfic^ or ^irflcw, &c. 



snro. 



wrf^ ^ it was done * 



Aorist. 

DUAL. 



. PLUBAL. 



nyiff; or n ^iPi ^ urg 
H^5*|^ or WITft«n'|[(-^) 

wf inr or fWTftinr 



wy^ or m^iflmPf 
iiynn»( or ^mrfbmm^ 

Free. yfN or nrftirt^. CSomt iB^iftA or ^«rf^. 

7oa. Example of a Passiye from a root ending in a consonant ; 
Root ^ yty. Infin. 4t^ yoktum, * to be fitting/ 

Poi. fiftl. Iw/w. f^, fiir^, l^i^in^, &c. P«/. 3fi|, ^ff^> Sfii, 

EXAMPLE OP CAUSAL VERBS, EXPLAINED AT 479. 
703, Root ^bkS. Infin. Hnif^l|i^ bhdoayHwn, * to cause to be.^ 
Parabmai-pada. Atmans-pada. 

Present Tense, * I cause ta be/ 









WW 




J 


Imperfect i *I 


was causing 


' to be/ <Mr 


* I caused,' &c. 






wwnnr 


iwwni 






Potoih'a//Im 


aj cause to 


be.* 







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812 



OOKJUGATION OF CAUSAL VERBS. 



Imperative, * Let me tause to be/ 





HT^ 


Ml^fMlM 


*nmw?« 


^lw^ m^^fm wmmr 




>IISM^I«^ 


HWW^ 


Hwirj m^mm^ mw^% 




HW^llfl^ 


^fwiwm^ 


Perfect, * 


I caused to be/ 


Hl^^l^f^ 




Hiq^l^A 


^iq<ii^7^f 


^If^l^fii 




HP^mwk 




4i^ni^r*t 


First Future^ ' 


I will cause 


J to be/ 


Hi^Piiiimf 


unftnnfti mrftmrwn w^finnw 
Hi^ftwT m^ftnn^ »iwftniTT?n 


^* 






•fiqi^mi 




^i<iniAiM(^ 


Second Future^ ' I shall or will 


cause to be/ 


^■urfai«iMi^ 


m^|l|«||TI1 vii^i^^m^ ^l^m^Wm 


HT^nrnf 




1 ...r.^ "i 






HWHHHI 


^om/,* I caused to be/ 




irtbn^ «ii1*w^ wJilmni 


wAh^ 


nwiH^iwrf 


HiflHlllHr; 


mfhwi^ ^wftiniw w*bwH 


iwftwin^ 


^Jln^^i*^ 




w4Nwi^ ^Vl«i^mn, ^nrtH^ 


w^bmr 




h^Ih^hi 


Precative or Benedic 


tive/Mfij] 


'. cause to beJ 


» 








Hmr^ HT^^ren^^ ^wiw 






nmn^ Hwwan'^ hi^i^4( 


m^firttf 





Conditional, ^ I should cause to be/ 



iwnrfti^nn^ inn^ftTN^f^ ^s^i^Amw^ 

WHI^f^lW ^WT^ftpRTTP^ vHi'^riiiim 

704. After this model, and after the model of Primitive verbs of 
cL 10 at 638^ may be conjugated all Causal verbs. 



^wwftw^ ^wnftrin^ ipnwftwif 
w^iniftinn^ ^WT^fiiinnw nHT^ftw^ 



EXAMPLES OF DESIDERATIVE VERBS, EXPLAINED AT 498. 

705. Root ^ bhu. Infin. W^rf^ff'^ bubhushitum, * to wish to be/ 

Parasmai-pada. Atmanr-pada. 



Present Tense, * I wish to be/ 





















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CONJUGATION OP DBSIDBBATIVB VBEBS. 



313 






Imperfect^ * I was wishing to be/ or * I wished,^ &c. 


















Tl^ 

TiM 
"S^^^ 



Potential, * I may wish to be/ 






'■pj^^ l^i^^in^ l^i^*^ 



Imperative^ * Let me wish to be/ 






1«^ 






Perfect, * I wished to be/ 



TJ^T^™^ T«5T^ra^ TJJ^'f^ 












First Future, 'I will wish to be.' 



^r^nifw ^pjf^wrar^ "J^fMfllw^^ 

^^jf^wrftr ^^jftinw^ ^^[f^nrw 



T?^ ^fftwrd ^«Ptot^ 






Second Fixture, * I will or shall wish to be/ 









W>j[f^^ 



Aoriat, * I wished to be/ 









Precative or Benedictive, * May I wish to be/ 












Conditional, * I should wish to be/ 












♦ Or^^^WlTT. 



S s 



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814: CONJUGATION OP PRBQUBNTATIVB OR INTENSIVE TERES. 

EXAMPLES OF FREQUENTATIVE OR INTENSIVE VERBS, 
EXPLAINED AT 507. 

706. Root ^ AAtf. Infin. Wtg:ftl5'^ bobhdyitumy *to be repeatedly/ 

Atmanb-pada form (509). 

Present Tense, * I am repeatedly/ 

wtqiiif wtq^ '^l^jTid 

wt^in^ wl^i^ wt>jii^ 

Imperfect, * I was frequently/ 

vft^jjnn^ iiwiy^iii*^ nwtjfjw^ 

Potential, * I may be frequently/ 

^frjjciin^ wt^^^nin^ wt^j^w^ 

Imperative, * Let me be frequently/ 

Wl>J?W ll*},^^l'*( wtyiiui«^ 

il^Aiii'^ Vl>j^Tfn^ ift^j^nirp^ 

Perfect, * I was frequently/ 

ift^prni^^ iH^^i^iiii) ^l^iii^f^ 

iTl^m^iK iftyL^i^m* ^^Mi^fiiil 

First Future, ' I will be frequently/ 

wl^jftnn% ^l^fufliinii wt^iifwd 

wt^jftmr wt^jftnrro wl*|finirci( 

Second Fixture, * I wiU or shall be frequently/ 

Wt^jfiPQT^ w^^fti^ wt^jftrii^ 

Aorist, * I was frequently/ 

iR^^jftinH iil^rmnHiin ^rit^if^w^ or -^ 



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CONJUGATION OP FREQUENTATIVE OB INTENSIVE VERBS. 316 
PrecaHve or Benedictive^ * May I be frequently/ 

*V ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ ^ *fc ^ 

Wi^jnninf wi^jpnn^nf wt^jniwnii^ 

Conditional^ * I should be frequently/ 

^rwt^jftjiTO^ iif)^ni«|tmi^ ii^^riiiiwi«^ 

wn^jftr^nf wn^jftn^in'^ ^w^iftnror 

707. PaRASMAI-PADA FORM (5i4). 

Present Tense, *I am frequently/ 

'wiHiftfiT or '9ftiitf^ ^it^jji^ ^i^^ijwt 

l1*l4)ni or ift^H^ Wt^pi^ ^^t>j?l 

^W^nOl or wwfil ^f^S?*^ W^^^Ol 

Imperfect, * I was frequently/ 
niintin Wf^^ iN^ 

Potential, * I may be frequently/ 

ift^pn'^ wl^jjiw ^t^pim 

wt^j?n^ ''fk^jjini'^ wt^jjnw 

Imperative, * May I be frequently/ 
Wt*niftl wt^i^TW WWt^W 

^bnftj or ifhJ^ wt>i3IT^ ^%^i 

Perfect, * I was frequently/ 
ift^'H^RP, &c. "Wl^I^RRjfif^, &c. ^^^IV^HtH, &c. 

or or or 

lhm^ or -^^ "^ft^ftn or "Wt^jf^ ^t^[ftf or ^^Ujf^ 

'Wt^Sf^ wl^[^^orTfl^i?r5^ Wt^ orift>j?r 

^^Hnorift>j?r ^t^^3^or^ft>j[^5^ ^ft^P;or''Tl^|g^ 

First Future, * I will be frequently/ 
ift^iflmrfiR tj\Hf<iAi4fl^ whrfnfTO^ 

wW^irrfti Wi^Rmw^ whifinnw 

wWnn wW^inn wIhOhik^ 

8 8 2 



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316 CONJUGATION OP PREQUBNTATIVB OB INTENSIVE YSBBS. 
Second Future^ * I will or shall be frequently/ 



wW^igrftf 


^fbrftwni^ 


ifl^n^m^^^ 


wW^ffti 


^AiPmiii^ 


wW^nw 


'iW^wfir 


Aoristy * I was frequently/ 


wliTftwftir 


wift>l^ 


^ini^ 


v^fl>pi 


^nA«^ 


w^t>uin 


irri«?r 


^wtw^ 


^^W^ 


W'***?!^ 


or 


or 


or 




HWlMlftwi 


v'flmfiTwi 


vrNnft^ 




*i^*lmrtf 


WwTPftH^ 


^Rtmft¥T*( 


wiAmf^^ 



Precative or Benedicttve^ * May I be frequently/ 
i|^yjll^*( W)^«iif9 Vl^^i^ 

W^^iJin^ «ft^MI%l*^ ^^JJIWrT 

Conditional^ * I should be frequently/ 
wift^ff^^Q^ ^rft*?ftrRT^ ^nft^rfif^iw 

wifWPw^ wffhrf^f^nn^ v^lMfM'^w 

viflHr^vii^ wjflft^ftnwn^ ^Twfii^n^ 

708. Root ^ ' to kilP {323, 654). Parasmai form of Frequenta- 
tive, * to kill repeatedly/ Prei. i(^fm or inpftfif , wjff^ or Hlpftftl, 
^^r*n or mpftf? ; Hlf**!^, ^1^^, Tifll^ ; Tf^* 'Hf* ^^H^Tfil or 
wnfir. Imp/, vifipii^, ^'^Tf'l ^^ 'lift'fl^, wqf5Hor Wiif «Aii^; ^f^df^f 
^wnpn^, -TiT^ ; ^Riipwf , ^BnnfiT, ^nrf^^or ^v4f^. Pot ^ftum . Impv. 
mpnftf, iNf?, ^npS ®^ ^npftj; 'npn^* 'npr'^* -"^j iipnw, mpir, 
nf^ or inrg. P«/. ^ifUTO' or iif^rw^w, &c. &c. 

709. Root iTi^*to go' (60a, ci7o). Parasmai form of Frequenta- 
tive, * to go frequently/ Pres. iqgfm or inpftfiT, ifjff^ or wv^itf^, 
'ajrlVi or if^prHw; flF'f^, 'HP'^* ^'HP^j 'Hf^* 'HP'j 'HP^ or 
iinrfTi. Impf.^swff^y^smw^oT'm(ip(i:^^,ysn(f^ 

innpn^, -"fTT*?; ^bhtHPI, 'nnFir, v^fl^m, or mr^. Pot. Hjp^iin^. 
/mpv; HJflTThT, 'W^Vj H#»J or sijfil^ ; *nfT^> 'nP''^> 'WH'? ; lljf*ll*l, 
'W* 'HPS or ^nig. Per/. ys(yp(rs^ or inpn^niVT, &c. &c. 

710. Root "ftj^* to throw' {^35)* Parasmai form of Frequentative. 
Pfes. ^^fur or ^ftpftfii, ^irB(f^ or ^ft^ijtfii, ^fii or ^Iftjiftftr; 



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INDECLINABLE WOEDS. — ADVERBS. 317 

v^^ or iwftpft^, w^^ or ii^ftrftn^; ^r^fftfw, ^ft|ii»^, -urn; 
in^fttm, ^i^ftfw, ^v^f^irp[. Pot. ^f^^, &c. Impv. ^^^mfiir. 

Per/. ^fwWi? or ^ l\KMW^ l i , &c. &c, 

711. Root n| * to take' (699, 359). Parasmai fonn of Frequenta- 
tive. Pres. iimftr or unnW?, nmfiai (306, a) or imr^tf^, irwTfir 
(305- «) or imnfKir; ir^^i^, fppr^, wr^^; ^fPiW(, 'n^, irr^[ffw. 
Ifnpf. ^mwfw^, ^nirer (306. e) or vMiii^^, innw^ or inng^; 
^wippr, ^nrrpn^, -^; ^nn^, ^nmpr, wirmf^ (331. Obs.) Pot. 
in^irP(. Impv. in?Tfi%» iPifir, minj or ^nnl^ ; irirenr, wr^?R(, 
-n'^; wnifw, 11^, tr^lS* &c. &c. 



CHAPTER VIL 
INDECLINABLE WORDS. 

712. There are in Sanskrit a number of words used as nouns 
having only one inflexion, which may be classed among indecUnables; 
e. g. m^SPf{ * setting/ * decline ;' wftj * what exists/ * existence ;' ^B^ 
* the sacred syllable Om ; ' ^R^ * satisfitction,' * food ;* ifi?^ * reverence ; ' 
^ifVd * non-existence ;' ^ftf or ^ * the fortnight of the moon's wane ;* 
ij^^sky;' ^ 'earth;' ^'ease;' #^'ayear;' ^or^^the 
fortnight of the moon's increase;' ^IVT an exclamation used on 
making oblations to the spirits of the dead ; ^ ' heaven ;' 9% 
'salutation' (see Gana Svarddi to P^. i. 1, 37). Others will be 
mentioned at 713-717. 

ADVERBS. 
a. Adverbs (nipdta)^ like nouns and verbs, may be divided into 
simple and compound. The latter are treated of in the next Chapter 
on Compoimd Words. Simple adverbs may be classified imder 
four heads : ist, those formed from the cases of nouns and obsolete 
words; 2ndly, other adverbs of less obvious derivation; 3rdlyy 
adverbial suffixes ; 4thly, adverbial prefixes. 

Formed from the Cases of Nouns and Obsolete Words. 

713. The Accusative neuter of many adjectives; 

As, ^W^' truly;' Ij'much;' ^^hn^,ft|Wl^, 'quickly;' ^tl^' fitly/ ^«fl^ 



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318 INDECLINABLE WORDS. — ADVERBS, 

'near;' ^^ 'certaiiily;' W^ 'lightly;' ftfSni^, ^TWiH^, ITV^, 'f^* 'exceed- 
ingly;' ^R?^ 'certainly;' r«im^ 'constantly;' P^iU{ 'for a long while;' 
WH^H * strongly ;' >J?I^ ' again,' * repeatedly ' (194) ; iNcP^ ' only/ ' merely ;' 
^ic*^ * very well/ 

a. The Ace. neuter of certain pronouns ; as, IfW 'therefore,' 'then;' ^?l 'where- 
fore,' ' when/ * since ;' TTT^* so long,' * so soon ;' ^H^' as long as,' ' as soon as ;' 
ftli^'why?' 

b. The Ace. neuter of certain substantives and obsolete words ; as, T!^ ' secretly;' 
mn*\ ' willingly ;' ^m\ * of one's own accord,' * of one's self,' ' spontaneously ;' 
'nt 'by name,' 'that is to say;' mt mK^ * repeatedly;' f'll?^ 'long ago;' 
^^IT'^ 'pleasantly;' tii^nn*^ 'now;' Hli*^ 'by night' (noctu); FRH^ 'in the 
evening' (this last may be an ind. part, of «o, 'to finish'). 

714. The Instrumental of nouns, pronouns, and obsolete words; 
As, vJfe 'virtuously;' ^ftf^if^ 'to the right,' 'southwards;' W^ 'north- 
wards;' iniliiilU 'without;' Tir^ 'above,' 'aloud;' trt^^* below;' ^R^ or 
9«|%^ ' slowly ;' n^ ' therefore ;' ^ ' wherefore ;' ViTO or Vllw ' without,' 
' except ;' m^^ ' instantly ;' f^w * for a long time ;' nWiU ' in a short time ;' 
ir^iw ' entirely ;' fifTT * by day ;' fi^eni ' fortunately ;' ti^tvi, WIRTIT, ' quickly ;' 
^BT^^ * now ;' ftl^l^^l ' in the air ;' )§[tT ' formerly ; ' HffT ' on the ground ' {'xofjuu). 

a. The Dative case more rarely ; 

As, f^ttni ' for a long time ;' r^i<i«|iH * for a period of many nights ;* Wwl 
' for the sake of.' 

715. The Ablative case of nouns, pronouns, and obsolete words ; 
As, 1R5TH^' forcibly;' ^^TT^ 'joyfully ;' J[tT1^ 'at a distance;' IIWm^'th«c- 

fore;' IJ^mi 'wherefore?* 114k IN I i^' without cause,' 'unexpectedly;' ^fWtlT^ firom 
the north;' f^TOl^'for a long time;' 'Q^Tl^ ' afterwards ;' flWf^ll^'at that 
instant;' HHWII^'from all quarters.' 

716. The Locative case of nouns and obsolete words; 

As, TJW 'at night;'* ^ 'for off;' IWTh 'in the morning;' 111%! 'in the 
forenoon;' ^Tl^ 'suitably;' 11$ 'in front;' ^IW^ 'at once;' TRfif 'instantly;' 
^w 'except ;' IPilT 'within ;' ^fftflj 'towards the south ;' wSs or IWm 'near;' 
CT^ ' in private ;' IfT^TJ ' in the evening ;' ^Tu ' by reason of.' 

Other Adverbs and Particles of less obvious Derivation. 

717. Of qffirmation. — «JtT»^, 11^, ftl5J,CT,Wlf,' indeed;' HVlP^H 'certainly.' 
a. Of negation. — «T, •ft, Iff^, * not.' *n, 'H ^ are prohibitive ; as, ifT ^^, 
«n ^Srt!^, ' do not.' See 889. 
h, Oiinterrogatum, — filH^, fll^» ^"iftnT, ^> •T^* ^^9 ftSJ''^ 'whether?' 



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INDECLINABLE WORDS. — ADVERBS. 319 

c. Of e<mpari$(m. — ^ * like ;' 1!^, ^W^, * so j' f^WJ^^ * how much rather ;' 
H^ (tRT + CT) ' in like manner.' 

d. Of quantity. — ^Wlrt^* exceedingly;' flT^^'a little' (cf. 726.6). 

€. Of wumner, — 1^, W^, *8o/ *thu«;* ^ff^ 'again;' HHI^ 'for the most 
part;' 'ifT'lT* variously;' ^J^ 'separately;' I^T, ftWT, 'falsely;' 'piT, ^VT, 
* in vain ;' Wt^ 'enough ;' VRjfTTfWy ^TO (cf. «^vf ), * quickly ;' ^piftl^ ' silently ;' 
flni^ * reciprocaUy,' ' together.' 

/. Of time. — WB 'to-day/ *now;' ^W[ * to-morrow;' H^ 'yesterday;' 
1|C^^ 'the day after to-morrow ;' WVfil ' now ;' yCI * formerly;' ^t^, J^IWTH, 
Hn^y 'before;' ^^Hl^ *at once;' «ii^ 'instantly;' WR 'after death' (lit. 
'having departed'); ^^ 'afterwards;' WJ 'ever;' •! HTJ 'never;' ^H^^^y 
in!^|^» 'another day,' 'next day;' ^H^'once;' ^W^j ^'^^ 95^' '*g»"» 
and again/ ' repeatedly.' 

Obs. — ^ is used with a Present tense to denote past time. See 351. 6, 878. 

g. Of place. — ^'h»e;* B* where?' ^if^^ 'without.' 

h. Of doubt. — fia^, ftjfftr^, nftlHW, Til, ^Tfl^, ^WT^ fe^, ^Tlft figf^, 
'perhaps/ &c. 

t. ^rf^ ' even/ W ' indeed/ If 'just/ are placed after words to modify their 
sense, or for emphatic affirmation. ^9 f*^, ^ are similarly used in the Veda. 

Observe — Some of the above are properly conjunctions ; see 737. 

Adverbial Suffixes. 

718. frc 6idy ivf^ apt, and ^iT iana may form indefinite adverbs 
of time and placey when affixed to interrogative adverbs ; 

As, firom HT^fT 'when ?' li^lf^, ^qifn, and llf^T^HT, 'sometimes;' fipom ^?| 
and B 'where?' ^f?rPl^, ^dlP^i 1if^> wTh, 'somewhere;' fipom ^flT^ 
'whence?' ^nPm^ and ^fi^H 'firom somewhere;' fipom ^iflf 'how many?' 
^OlP^'a few;' firom ^rf^ 'when ?' if^tf^ 'at some time;' firom 1^ * how ?' 
Wnifti, VWf , ' somehow or other/ * with some difficulty.' Compare 328, 330. 

a. wf^ following a word, generally signifies ' even/ but after numerals, ' all/ as 
If^sft ' aU three ;' ^9f^ ' aU together.' 

719. 1!^ tM maj be added to the stem of any noun, and to some 
pronouns^ to form adverbs ; 

As, firom ^IJf > 'W^ ' with effort ;' horn Wiflf , HlP^A^ ' firom the beginning ;' 
firom Tl (the proper stem of the pronoun 1f^), TITI^ 'thence/ 'then/ 'thereupon,' 
'therefore:' similarly, ini^ 'whence/ 'since,' 'because;' Vff^, ^!^9 ^^^V^* 
'hence/ 'hereupon.' 

Obs. — In affixing tas to pronouns, the stem If is used for TC 9 IV for ^ipr> 1( for 
IPC^, H^ for ^B^, 1 for 1^, ^ for ftn^. 

a. This suffix usually giv^s the sense of the preposition ' firom,' and is often 



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320 INDECLINABLE WORDa — ADVEKBS. 

equivalent to the ablative case; as in IflT^ 'ftt>in me;' iHI^ 'from thee'*;' 
fMijflt^ * from a father ;' 9^11^ * from an enemy.' 

b. But it is sometimes vaguelj employed to express other relations ; as, ^ii<^ 
' behind the back ;' V*4ff^ * to another place/ * elsewhere ;' inpni^ ' in the first 
place;' ^nttrn^'here and there,' 'hither and thither;' HHHIA^'on all sides;' 
wlMfl^*in the neighbourhood;' ^Tir^f IRJH^, 'in front;' HftVH^ ' near to;* 
flwni^ * in pomp or state.' 

c. im^is a suffix which generally denotes ' place' or ' direction ;' as, from ^TH^> 
' HMWm^ * downwards ;' from 'W9ft (which becomes '^^'ift^), ^mPi^ISIH^* above ' (cf. 

84. V). 

720. ?r tra, forming adverbs of place with a locative sense fixMn 
stems of pronoims, adjectivesy &c. ; 

As, ^l?f ' here ;' 1W 'there;' ^5f 'where?' IRT 'where;' ?I%W ' everywhere ;' 
^RW 'in another place;' ^«a<| 'in one place;' ^JZf 'in many places;' M^ 
' there,' * in the next world.' 

a. ?n irdj as, \m?n * among the gods ;' H^m^l * among men' (Pip. v. 4, 56); 
lfJ?|T ' amongst many.' 

721. y^ thd and ^ tham^ forming adverbs of manner ; 

Aa, inn ' so,' ' in like manner;' ^HIT * as ;' ti^^i * in every way,' ' by all means ;' 
iniRT 'otherwise;' IW^'how?' ^F^'thus.' 

722. ^ fW, ff rhiy rfh^ nfoi, forming adverbs of time from pro- 
nomis^ &c. ; 

As, infl 'then;' '^^ 'when;' WS^t 'when?' CTR^ 'once;' "ftrW?! 'constantly;' 
^%?^, ?l^, * always ;' Wft, liqi«l1*^, ' then ;' ^<^i»fl«^ ' now.' 

723. VT dhdy forming adverbs of distribtUion fix)m numerals ; 

As, ^'Wl 'in one way;' fifVT 'in two ways;' trWi 'in six ways;' ^r^i 'in a 
hundred ways ;' ^^BTVT ' in a thousand ways ;' WJVT or ^n««^ ' in many ways.' 

a. '^p^^f signifying 'times,' is added to VP^, 'five,' and other numerals, as 
explained at 315. ^I^fl^» 'once,' may be a corruption of ti^iqt^ ('this time'); 
and only ^ is added to fT, %» and dropped after ^f^ ' four times.' 

724. ^ vat (technicallj called vati) may be added to any nominal 
stem to form adverbs of comparison or similitude (see 922); 

As, from ^, ^[^^ * like the sun ;' from ^» ^[^^ ' as before.' It may be 
used in connexion with a word in the Accusative case. 

a. This suffix often expresses 'according to;' as, fq f^^ 1^ * according to rule;' 
n4^i|«mfl ' according to need.' It may also be added to adverbs ; as, l|V||^^ 
'truly' (exactly as it took place). 

'*' These are the forms generally used for the Ablative case of the personal pro- 
nouns, the proper Ablative cases ll^y ifl^ being rarely used. 



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INDBCLINABLB WOBDS. — CONJUNCTIONa 321 

7^5* ^ ^^> forming adverbs of qucaUUy^ &c. ; 

As, ^^^^ 'abundaoily;' V^nH^ 'in small quantities;' ^Bl%9^ 'wholly;' 
l!^l^ 'singly;' ^flllf ^l||l^ ' by hundreds and thousands ;' H^T^^' by degrees;' 
f^m^ 'prinoipally;' ^Hl^^l^ 'foot by foot;* fini^*twoby two;' f^HI^'by 
threes;' IRIQI^ 'in great numbers;' VWHIT^ 'syllable by syllable;' Wl^V^'in 
so many ways;' lifklT^'howmany at athne?' 

a. Wl^^is added to nouns in connexion with the roots if > W^, and ^> to denote 
a complete change to the condition of the thing signified by the noun ; as, Hf'^f- * 
mi^' to the state of fire.' See 789, and cf. 70. t. 

Adverbial Prefixe$. 
y26. V a, prefixed to nouns and even to participles with a priva- 
tive or negative force, corresponding to the Greek a, the Latin in, 
and the English in, im, un; as, firom i[m ^possible/ H^V 
'impossible;^ firom ^^^^ * touching' (pres. part), ^R^pni(^ *not 
touching ;' firom '^mt ^ having done' (indecL part), iTfiVT * not having 
done/ When a word begins with a vowel, m^ is euphonically 
substituted ; as, firom mm * end/ iRiir ' endless/ 

a. mfk cUi, * excessively/ * very ;' as, wfinnp^ * very great' 

b. mi dj implying * diminution ;' as, ^vnn^ ^ somewhat pale/ 
^^ is prefixed with the same sense ; as, ^^^ ^ slightiy warm/ 

c. mt kd or '^ ku, prefixed to words to imply * disparagement;' 
••> ^•'J^ * a coward ;' ^iCT * deformed/ 

d. ^ du$ (or 2^ dur), prefixed to imply * badly' or * with difficulty;', 
as, jHfw * badly done' (see 72); jSfir 'not easily broken/ It is 
opposed to ^, and corresponds to the Greek di/o--. 

e. f^ nis (or ftp^ nir) and f| rt are prefixed to nouns like v a 
with a privative or negative sense; as, filel 'powerless;' fifVi^ 
'without firuit' (see 72); f^Hfl^ * imarmed :' but not to participles. 

/• 1 ^9 prefixed to imply 'well,' 'easily;' as, ^|^ 'weU done;' 
^« ' easily broken.' In this sense it is opposed to ^, and cor- 
responds to the Greek ev. It is also used for wfir, to imply ' very,' 
' excessively ;' as, ^[«f^ * very great/ 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

Copulative. 

727. ^ 6a, 'and/ 'also/ corresponding to the Latin que and not 

to et. It can never, therefore, stand as the fir$t ward in a sentence, 

but follows the word of which it is the copulative. ^ (^ wm), ' tdso/ " 

is a common combination. 

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322 IKDECUKABLB WORDS. — PtlFOSFnOKft. 

a. vir ^and,' *alsO)' is aomekimee oopnktare. Sometimea it 
.impliai doubt of mterrogation. 

b. itn * so/ * thu8»^ ' in like manner' (see 721)9 ia not unfirequcntly 
used for ^, in the sense of *also;' and like ^ is then generaDy 
placed after the word which it connects with another. 

c. ^w^ ' now/ * and/ w^ ' then/ are inceptive, being frequently 
, used at the commencement of sentences or narratives. vi| is often 

opposed to j^y which marks the dose of a stoiy or chapter. 

d. ff , * for/ is a causal conjunction ; like ^ it is always placed 
aft^ its word, and never admitted to the first place in a sentence. 

e. vX^y %^, both meaning * if/ are conditional conjunctions. 

/. inR( *upon that/ *then' (719), H^ *then/ V^ni, flw, W^W, 
^n, wftrw, * again/ * moreover/ are all copulatives, used very com- 
monly in narration. 

JH^unctioe. 

7^8. in vdy * or' (like -ve in Latin), is always placed after its word, 
being never admitted to the first place in a sentence. 
^* 3» ^^*^> * ^^^ 9^ ^b^ former is placed after its word* 

b. irarf^ 'although/ TTOfti ^Devcrtheleas/ *y^' sometimes used as a cor- 
relative to the last; WlWf, ft! ^, *or else/ •? ^ 'or not/ 'if^ W! Whether/ 
'whether or no.* 

c. WIRT may also be used to correct or qualify a previous thought, when it is 
equivalent to * but nO>^ ' yet,' ' howevar.' 

d. 9T» ^) f 9 Y are expletives, often used in poetry to M «p tha verse^ 

PREPOSITIONS. 

7%g. There are about twenty prepositions (see 783)^ but in later 
Sanskpt they are generally prefixes, qualifying the sense of verbs 
(and then called upasarga) or of verbal derivatives (and then called 
ffati). About ten may be used separately or detached in govern- 
ment with the cases of nouns (and then called karma-pravaianiya); 
e.g. ilT,tlfir, ng, wfir,^Brfv, ilftl,iqrft,^ni,ilftl, andv^; but of these 
the first three only are commonly found as separable particles in 
claasical Sanskrit 

730. HT d, generally signifying * aa far as,* * up to,* * until,* with 
AbL ; aa, HT ^l)^ ' as fiur *as the ocean ;' m «nd^ ' up to Manu;^ 
HT iflow^nrn^^ ' as fiur as the wrist ;* ht il?jh( * till death ;* m\ mm 
4l«llM^l<^ * till the completion of his vow :' and rarely with Ace; u, 
^nt^^ HT unft^ * for a hundred births.* 



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INDSOUKABLB W0BD8. — ^PBBPOSITIOKS. S28 

a. m\ d my sometimeB exprtsg ' from ;' i^a, ir? fisii^^ ^ from th« 
beginning;' in UW;4i*VI\'from the fint aight;' ht Himi^ ^from 
birth.* 

b. ItinayabobecompoimdedwithawoTdintheAecuBatifeneuter 
fonmng with it an ATjayi-bhivft (see 760); thus, "W li^Wd ^ ^ 'as tar 
as the girdle* (where ^frB>( is for ^fni9P^)« 

c. ifftfpratif generally a postposition, signifying * at/ * with regard 
to/ 'to/ ^towards/ ' against/ with Ace.; as, nyf vfWat the Ganges/ 
^ Vfl * with regard to justice / V^ vfv ' against an enemy ;* irf vf^ 
' as fiff as regards me/ When denoting * in the {Aace of/ it goveraa 
the Ablative. 

d. jr^ * after/ with Aoo., and rarely with AU. or Oen. ; as^ nffim 
m^ * along tHe Ganges ;* Hff^ or yrih^^ * after that* 

e. Vflf » and more rarely H^ and trfW, may be used distributively to signify 

* each/ * every / thns, ^t|*l*| * tree by tree.' They may also be prefixed to form 
Avyayi-bh&vas 5 rt^RWO^ or **J1IH<*^ * eveiy year,* * year by year/ See 760. 

/. irfir^ ^Vftf^ ^f^ are said to require the Accusative; ^fffv the Locative or 
Accusative ; Wl| and lift, in the sense * except,' the Ablative ; '9^ the Locative and 
Accusative : but examples of such syntax are not common in classical Sanskrit. 

g. Instances are common of prepositions united with the neuter form or 
Acousaitive of noii&s, so as to form compounds (760. h)i as, uTi'^iV^ 'upon the 
shoakhn/ Vf)l^pR( ' Imc to ISmc ;' lllV|^9|^ ^upon the tne ;' ^''ir^ ' sloag 
thsGaag^k' 

ADVERBS IN GOVERNMENT WITH NOUNS. 
731. There are many adverbs used Hke iiie preceding prepositions 
in government with nouns, and often placed after the nouns which 
they govern (for examples see 917). 

These are, ^Hff * before,' ' in front of,' with Gren. ; ^BIVmIT ' under,' with Gen. or 
Ace; ^niH or HMW^^* below,' with Gen. (^01^ is sometimes doubled; thus, 
^wt»V^) ; innJfT?^ 'after,' 'afterwards,' with G«i. 1 flWf^ ' within,' with Gen. or 
Loc. ; Wilvff ' without,* 'except,' 'with regard to,' with Ace. ; wftpH^ 'near,' with 
Gen.or AbL; irfWll^ '•& both sides ot»' with Ace.; WBllJIf*^ * in front of,' with 
Gen. or Ace. ; IWTO ' near,' with Gren. ; W^ or ^rtni or ^Hi ' on aocount of,' 

* for,' with G«i. ; ^B^T^ ' after,' ' beyond,' with AbL j ^Wni^' to the north,' with 
Gen.; ^IWF 'to the north,' with Gen. or Ace.; T^ft 'above,' 'over,' 'upon,' 
with Gen. or Ace. (sometimes doubled; thus, ^Hiyific); ^*^' above,' 'over,' 
'upon,' with Gen. or A«c.; 'after,' 'beycmd,' with AbL; ^ 'besides,' 'without,' 
'axoept,' mA Aee., sometimei with AbL; ^imTl^or ^ 'on account of,' 'for,' 
with Gen.; ^f^ffim^'to ^ south,' with G«i.; ^ff^^ 'to the right,' 'to the 

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324 INTBEJBCTIONS. — COMPOUND WORDg. 

BoutV with Gen. or Ace; ftffllW 'for the sake of,' 'for,' with Gen.; ^TOI^ 

* behind,' with Gen. ; ^i|n^ or ^w * after,' * beyond,' with Abl. ; ^IWIT^* after,* with 
Gen. or AbL ; IIIT 'on the farther side,' with Cren. ; . ^TV^ or ^[n( ' before,' ' in the 
presence of/ with Gen. ; ^[^^l^ ' before,' with Abl., rarelj with Gen. or Aoc. ; lt<{fW 

inde a,' ' from a partiouhur time,' ' beginning with,' with AbL ; HH^ ' before,' with 
Abl., rarely with Gen. or Ace.; H^ 'in the middle,' with Gen.; ^f^ 'oat,* 
'outside of,' with Abl. or Gen.; lim^'up to,' 'as fur as,' sometimes with Aoc. ; 
HRT ' without,' with Inst, or Ace. or sometimes with Abl. ; fl4i|)l^ 'near,' witii 
Gen. ; ^41^ 11^ 'from,' with Gen. ; mi l|^' before the eyes,' * in the presence of,* 
with Gen.; ^HP^ 'together with,' with Inst.; 9l4l mi ^ or ^Rifhp^ ' near,' with Gen . ; 
9^ ' with,' ' along with,' with Inst. ; 4l|l|^ ' with,' with Inst. ; ^nfllf' before the 
eyes,' ' in the presence of,' with Gen. ; ^HMi^ ' along with,' ^h Inst ; ^ift^ «r 
^In ' on account of/ ' for the sake of,' ' for,' with Gen. 

Obs. — Many of the above, especially ^w^*, ^1^, 4JiAII^, ^, ftffllW, llft^, 
^m, &c, are more usually found at the end of a compound, after a nominal stem. 

a. The adverb WTS*^} ' enough,' is used with the Inst, (see 918). 

b. Some of the adverbs enumerated at 7x4, 715, may be used in government 
with the cases of nouns ; e. g. ^(VlIU^, 71IT9 above, ^fiiii^, 'without,' i« 
generally placed after the stem of a noun. 

INTERJECTIONS. 
73a. ^, Wt, ^ are vocative; \, 11^ less respectfully vocative, 
or sometimes expressive of * contempt.^ fyn^ expresses ^ contempt/ 

* abhorrence,' * fie !' * shame !* (with Accusative case) ; ini(, ^Blft, V^, 
'surprise,* *alarm;' fT, U^, ^, mfmfy mf, 'grief/ ^HT^, ^, 
.' approbation / ^ifw, * salutation.* 



CHAPTER Vin. 
COMPOUND WORDS. 

733* Compounds abound in Sanskrit to a degree wholly unequalled 
in any other language, and it becomes necessary to study the prin- 
ciples on which they are constructed, before the learner can hope te 

* * ^fl*^ is generally found in composition with a nominal stem^ and may be oom- 
pounded a^jectively to agree ^th another noun ; as, Pflll^: ^1|^ 'broth for the 
Br6hman ;' fflfl^ ^IR^ * milk for the BriUiman.' See 760. d. 



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COMPOUND NOUNS. 325 

understand the simplest sentence in the most elementary book. In 
the foregoing chapters we have treated of simple nouns, simple verbs, 
and simple adverbs. We have now to treat of compound nouns, 
compound verbs, and compound adverbs. 

0. Obsenre, that in this chapter the nom. case, and not the stem, of a substantiye 
terminating a compound will be given ; and in the instance of an adjective fonning 
the last member of a compound, the nom. case masc, fem., and neut. The 
examples are chiefly taken from the Hitopadesa, and sometimes the oblique cases 
in which thej are there found have been retained. 

SECTION I. 
COMPOUND NOUNS. 

734« Hie student has now arrived at that portion of the grammar 
in which the use of the stem of the noun becomes most strikingly 
apparent. This use has been already noticed at 77 ; and its forma- 
tion explained* at 80-87. 

a. In almost all compound nouns the last word alone admits of 
inflexion, and the preceding word or words require to.be placed in 
the stem, to which a plural as well as singular signification may be 
attributed. Instances, however, will be given in which the charac- 
teristic signs of case and number are retained in the first member of 
the compound, but these are exceptionaL 

b. It may here be noted, that while Sanskrit generally exhibits the first member 
or members of a compound in the stem with the final letter unchanged, except by 
tiie usual euphonic laws, Liatin frequently and Greek less frequently change the 
final vowel of the stem into the light vowel t/ and both Greek and Latin often 
make use of a vowel of coi^unction, which in Greek is generally 0, but occasion- 
ally /; thus, eaU'Cola for c(BlU'Cola or cato-cola: lani-ger for lana-ger; XCtkKi- 
yoo^j ij(fiv-<Mt>ayoff fotder-ufragus. Both Greek and Latin, however, possess 
many compounds which are completely analogous to Sanskrit formations. In 
English we have occasional examples of the use of a conjunctive vowel, as in 
'handicraft' for 'hand-craft.' 

Obs. — ^A dot placed underneath words in N^ari type marks the division of the 
different members of a compound. 

735. Native grammarians class compound nouns under six heads : 
I. DvAOT)VA, or those formed by the aggregation into one com- 
pound of two or more nouns (the last word being, according to 
circumstances, either in the dual, plural, or neuter singular, and the 
preceding word or words being in the stem), when, if uncompounded. 



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826 COMPOUND NOUNS. 

they would all be in the same case, connected bj a oopabtm 
conjunction; ia» ^4;;(Vl<d 'master and pupil^ (for 5^ %««v); 
*fai,iq r rM|i1<H: * death, sicknesB, and sonrow' (for wi^ i^fiftn ihnm); 
M i nil.M I ^*^ * hand and foot' (for nrfit: m^). 

11. Tat-PUBUSHA^ or those composed of two nouns, the first of 
which (being in the stem) would be, if uncompounded, in a case 
different from, or dependent on, the last ; as, ^PC^WT ^ moon-light' 
(for ^i^fFT'lWT * the light of the moon'); ^l^^^fyd: , -W, -t^ ' skilled 
in arms' (for Ig^t^ ^^jlc^); 'ffiD^^jfinn, -WT, -iH^, * adorned with gems' 
(for irftrfii^ ^jftnn)- 

in. KAEAiA-DHiCRATA, or those composed of an adjective or 
participle and substantive, the adjective <Hr participle being placed 
first in its stem, when, if uncompoimdedi it would be in grammatical 
concord with the substantive ; a% irripR: ' a good person' (for WT^ 
W^); ^Aymi^ *all things' (for ^%iftj ^m^). 

IV. Dyigu, or those in which the stem of a numeral is compoiindad 
with a noun, either so as to form a singular oollecttve noun, or an 
adjective; as, i^lTpir^ * three qualities' (for wil ^:); ftll^w:, -«f, 
-in^, * possessing the three qualities' 

y. BAHU^TBfni, or attributive compounds, generally epithets of 
other nouns. These, according to P&qini (ti. 2, 94), are formed by 
compounding two or more words to quaUfy the sense of another 
word; thus, mw)^ UPR for w^ 9^ 4 WIHf^ ' & village to which 
the water has come.' 

YI. AyYATf-BHiiyA, or those resulting from the combination of a 
preposition or adverbial prefix with a noun. TOie latter, whatever 
may be its gender, always takes the form of an accusative neuter 
and becomes indeclinable. 

a. Observe — ^These names either furnish examples of the several kinds of com- 
pounds, or give some sort of definition of them ; thus, i^i (scil. ««ii«:) is a 
definition of the ist kind, meaning 'conjunction;' ai^^^it^ his servant,' is aa 
example of the and kind (for W^ 9^^) ; V^VHTC is a somewhat obscure defi- 
nition of the 3rd kind, i. e. ' that which contams or comprehends (VTT^lftr) the 
object' {'^)f fins* is an example of the 4th kind, meaning 'anything to the 
value of two cows ;' ij'dlf^t is an example of the 5th kind, meaning ' possessed 
of much rice.' The 6th class, wai^^l^I avyayi-^kdot^, oieans ' «he indodumble 
state' (^that which does not change,' aa vyeii). 

736. It should be stated, however, that the above six kinds of 
compounds really form, according to the native theory, only four 



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aiJiPLy COMPOUNDBD NOUKa 827 

chases, as the 5nl and 4th {i. e* the Kwrn^'dhtmyu. and Dvigu) are 
regarded as subdmsions of the Tat-purusha class. 

As sudi a chumfication appears to lead to some confusion from 
the absence of soffident distinctness and opposition between the 
several parts or members of the division, the subject will be dis- 
cussed according to a different method, although it has been thought 
desirable to preserve the Indian names and to keep the native 
arrangement in view. 

737* Compound nouns may be regarded either as simply or 
complexly compounded. The latter have reference to a class of 
compounds within compounds, very prevalent in poetry, involving 
two or three species of simple compounds under one head. 

SIMPLY COMPOUNDED NOUNS. 

738. These we will divide into, ist, Dependent compounds or 
compounds dependent in case (corresponding to Tat-purusha)] 2nd, 
Copulative (or Aggregative, Dvandv(i)\ 3rd, Descriptive* (or Deter- 
minative, Karma^dhdraya); 4th, Numeral (or Collective, Dvigu); 
5th, Adverbial (or Indeclinable, Avyayi-bhdva); 6th, Relative {Bahu- 
vrihi). This last consists of, a. Relattve form of absolute Dependent 
eompounds, terminated by substantives ; i. Relative form of Gopu- 
iative or Aggregative compounds ; c. Relative form of Descriptive or 
Determinative compounds ; d. Relative form of Numeral or CoUectxve 
eompounds ; t. Relative fonn of Adverbial compounds. 

a. Observe — A list of the substitutions which take place in Ae 
find syllableB of certain wtMfds in compounds is given at 778. 

DEPENDENT COMPOUNDS (TAT-PUBUSHA). 

Accmaiivetfi Depefudmt. 

739* These compreh^^d all those compounds in which the relation 

of the first word (bemg in the stem) to the last is equivalent to that 

tif an accusative case. They are generally composed of a noun in 

tbe first member, and a paiticiple (but not a present or indec£nabk 

* As being oomposed of an adjective or participle preceding a substantive, and 
always deseriplive of the sabstaatiTS. Bopp ealli tiiem ' Detenamatira,' a word 
of innftar import. 



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328 DEPENDENT COMPOUNDS (TAT-PURUSHA). 

participle), root, or noun of agency in the last ; as, ^r'l;;9nr:, -HT, -in^^, 
^one who has obtained heaven' (equivalent to ^on} vnn); fll^^^ll^l 

* one who speaks kind words '/ ^j^ * <me who gives mudi ;* 
^1^^* god-praising;' ^I^Tjl^^one who bears arms;' ^riTHK, -WT, 
-in^, * committed to a. leaf/ 'committed to paper' (as 'writing'); 
fraTnn, -in, -H^, * committed to painting ;' ^[^^H^mtfl , -ftpft, -f^, 

* tliinlnng one's scIf haudsomc.' 

a. Vlf ' gone' (past pass. part, of 1^ ' to go') is used looselj at the ead of com- 
pounds of this description to express relationship and connexion, without any 
necessary implication of motion. In ^fi«in, fl^ffW above, and in others 
(such as f^<9rH?!7nu JRftrt *a jewel lying in the cleft of a rock ;' fUTn^TTin, 
-in» -1l^> ^ lying in the palm of the hand'), it has the sense of 91 * staying :* but 
it may often have other senses ; as, •n»1/irti, -IIT, -IP^, * engaged in conversation f 
H^Jli M^il^' something relating to a friend.' 

b. In theatrical language ^RTHniin^ and ^nilf^ (lit. ' gone to one's self) mean 
' spoken to one's self,' ' aside.' 

c. Before nouns of agency and similar forms the accusative case is often retained, 
especially in poetry ; as, ^wft^^, -'H, -W^, * enemy-subduing ;' ((^^JfHI, -HT, 
-IW * heart-touching ;' JHHIfT:, -tt , -CT, * fear-inspiring' (see 580. a) ; 4IMIiJpi«» 
-HT, -W^, ' going to the ocean ;' ^<Tfipinjn^, -tllT, -•'H^, ' one who thinks himself 
learned ;' T]rf?n*n<n * one who thinks it night.' 

Insirwnerdally Dependent ^ 

740. Or those in which the relation of the first word (being in 
the stem) to the last is equivalent to that of an instrumental case. 
These are veiy common, and are, for the most part, composed of a 
substantive in the first member, and a past passive participle in the 
last; as, «5t>riftffir:, -HT, -in^, 'beguiled by avarice' (for H^ 'W^); 
^W,^fti: ^ -HT, -1f^, * covered with clothes;' zm^lfwm, -IT, -iH^, 

* honoured by kings ;' ni«l,^l«f:, -^, -if^, * deserted by (L e. desti- 
tute of) learning;' "jftlJ^ftHR, -m, -ll'(, * destitute of intelligence ;' 
5:10*:, -*T, -S^, * pained with grief;' iRHvr^, -IT, -1P(, *done by 
one's self;' ^»lfi;?i;?npi:, -^, -^, *like the sun' (for wf?;^ ^r^9^> 
see 8a6); nwmnSa: , -WT, -il^, * acquired by us.' 

a. Sometimes this kind of compound contains a substantive or noun of agency 
in the last member; as, fTOI^nf^ ' money acquired by science ;' ^I^SJtlUfNt ^one 
who lives by arms.' 

Datively Dependent^ , 

741. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last 
is equivalent to that of a dative ; as, ^fblPITf^Vc^ 'bark for clothing ;' 



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dbpbSdbnt compounds (tat-pubusha). 32^ 

ifl((|^«i( * water for the feet;* T^^^ * wood for a sacrificial post;' 
ir^liniin, -m> -in^, * come for protection' (for ^flt^lini mum:). This 
kind of compound is not very common, and is generally supplied by 
the use of ^r*n (731); as^ ^R^n^ irmw:. 

a. Parasmaifada and Atmane-pada (see ^243) are instances oC 
compounds in which the sign of the dative case is retained. 

Ablatively Dependent^ ^ 

742. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the^ last 
is equivalent to that of an ablative ; as, fljjlHH: , -HT, -TH^, * received 
fit)m a father;* TTi«i;«rv:, -ITT, -««^, * fallen firom the kingdom* (foi* 
tran^ vnr:); A^jr.^Hc^di:, -tlj -TIi^, * tnore changeable than a wave ;^ 
m^ * other than you* (for OTlfts^); v(^lf^ ' fear of you* (814. e); 
^l|i;*IH^*fear of a dog;* ^lna,Mil«f i : » -Wt, -W^, ^turning the face 
firom books/ * averse firom study.* 

Oenitively Bependent^ ' 

743. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last 
is equivalent to that of a genitive. These are the most cpmmon of 
all dependent compounds, and may generally be expressed by a 
similar compound in English. They are for the most part com- 
posed of two substantives ; as, ^^(lfl<^ ' sea*shore* (for ll^[^[^ lftT«( 

* shore of the sea*). > 

a. Other examples are, WlB:^m'howe-back;' V^^' bow-string;' ^ftHi l /i^ l ^ 

* brick-house ;* r*i(V^«i^ * mountain-torrent ;' ^cJ.Tfll?^ ' water's edge ;' ^rtrnft 
or ^^fm^ni * acquisition of wealth ;* fM^fl^l * state of misfortune ;' ^^^^: 
'separation of friends;' <i^fiS *on whose brow' (locative); ICfm 'his words;' 
•i*^^*«in«^ orlHR^jftn 'birth-place;' ^pS^^* *with hundreds of fools' (inst. pi.); 
fft*l^*^'a couple of Slokas;' ^jTH^'^'the surface of the earth;' ^jftrft^lfif; 
*lord of the earth;' flvA^HN *for his support' (dative); miHU^^AK 'the sons 
of aBriUmian;' VWrj^^U 'our sons ;' WfjA 'thy deed ;'. Tm j,«l''IH*^ * a father's 
speech;' ^^IK^'the gate of death;' ^^l^4IM| ^ * fulfilment of wishes ;' 'TOT- 
•n^ * a mother's joy ;' ITcSpni: * a water-receptacle/ 'lake ;' fwpff * knowledge- 
seeker,' ' a scholar ;' ^fJnJp^ (for ^Tf^T^^) ' » hen's egg.' 

b. Sometimes an adjective in the superlative degree, used substantively, occupie{i 
the last place in the compound ; as, «Tt^^V: or J^M^HH: ' the best of men.' 

c. In occasional instances the genitive case is retained ; as, f^^rPflfw* ' lord of 
men ;' fij^WflK ' lord of the sky.' 

d. Especially in terms of reproach ; as, ^lfimt^^?n (or ^i^^dO * son of a slave 
girl.' ! 

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3B0 COPULATIYB COMPOUNDS (dVAKDVa), 

Loeaiively Dependent, 

744. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the kst 
is equivalent to that of a locative case ; as, M'f^^^'H^ -'W, "^V^y * sunk 
in the mud' (for il^ nrm) ; Jliim^ft l ^iO * sporting m the sky;* iTOT<hn 
* sport in the water;' ffPrWft *a dweller in a village;' in9^ 
*going in the water;' VtJUyii *bom in the water;' f^R\l^^ *gem 
on the head.' 

a. The sign of the locative case is retained in some cases, espedallj 
before nouns of agency ; as, Hlit^< ll ^ * a villager ;' IT^^TC * going in 
the water;' Wtf^t^gf^m, -HT, -in^, * ornamented on the breast;' ^9^: 
or "vd??^ *going in firont;' ftfftrTln(rt ^) 'abiding in the sky;' 
fiffii;^ (rt. f^) * touching the sky ;' jfv^irc * firm in war.' 

Dependent in more than one Caie. 

745. Dependent compounds do not always consist of two words. 11i6y mkj be 
composed of almost any number of nouns, all depending upon each other, in the 
manner that one case dq)ends upon another in a sentence ; thus> ^f^f^W^ITfT- 
HPin, -'ifT, -•ini[, ^passed beyond the range of the eye* (for ^WH flWf^ 
^Vf^ffUPm); «l,*im,4W: 'standing in the middle of the chariot;' ^ftWyiPtm^' 
tSJ^ram^^lfillin * skilful in oensturing the means of rescuing those in danger.' 

a, Ther6 is an anomalous form of Tat-purusha, which is realiy the result of the 
elision of the second or middle member (nttara'pada-hpa, madhyama-pMUhicpa) 
of a complex compound ; e. g. ^|l»^Mira<i: for ^H^/HH/llrt^: (see 775). 

b^ Dependent compounds abound in all the cognate languages. The following 
are examples from Greek and Latin; olvo^fcrj, oiKa^vXaJ^f Aitf^orpctfro;, 

auri'fodma, manu-pretium, parri-cida for patri-cida, parri-cidium, ma/rt-cidnfin, 
tnarti'CultWy mus-cerda, English furnishes innumerable examples of dependent 
compounds; e.g. 'ink-stand/ * snow-drift,' 'moth-eaten/ 'priest-ridden/ 'door- 
mat, writing-master, &o. 

COPUIATIVB (OR AGGREGATIVE) COMPOUNDS (DVANDVA). 

746. This class has no exact parallel in other languages. 

When two or more persons or things are enumerated together, it 
is usual in Sanskrit, instead of connecting them by a copulative, to 
i^ggi'^te them into one compoimd word. No syntactical depend- 
ence of one case upon another subsists between the members of 
Dvandva compounds, since they must always consist of words which, 
if uncompounded, would be in the same case. The only grammatical 
connexion between the members is that which would be expressed 



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COPULATIVB COMPOUNDS (dVANDVA). 581 

by the ooputative coojimctkm on^ in EngUsh^ or ^ m Sanakpt, 
In fact, the difference between this class and the last turns upon 
this dependence in ca$e of the words compounded on each other ; 
insomuch that the existence or abs^ice of such dependence, as 
deducible from the eontext, is, in some cases, the only guide by 
which the student is enabled to refer the compound to the one head 
or to the other; thus, J|^,(^ai,)<i4ki: may either be a Dependant 
compound, and mean * the seryants of the {mpils of the Guru,^ or 
a Copubttve, ^the Quru, and the pupil, and the servant/ And 
ilhr^frtflra^ may either be Dependent, ^ the Uood of the flesh,' or 
Copulative, ^ flesh and blood.' This amlnguity, however, can never 
occur in Dvandvas inflected in the dual, and rarely occasions any 
practical difficulty. 

747. There are three kinds of Copulative compounds: ist, in* 
fleeted in the plural ; and, inflected in the dual ; 3rd, inflected in the 
singular. In the first two cases the final letter of the stem o£ the 
word terminating the compound determines the declension^ and its 
gender the particular form of declension ; in the third case it seems 
to be a law that this kind of compound cannot be formed unless 
the last word ends in v a, or in a vowel changeable to v a, or in a 
consonant to which V a may be subjoined ; and the goidar is inva- 
riably neuter, whatever may be the gender of the final word. 

If^ected in the Plural. 

748. When more than iv)o animate objects are enumerated, the 
last is inflected in the plural, the declension following the gender of 
the last manber of the compound ; as, ^«^jrHM,4|i|{%i: ' Indra, Anila, 
Tama, and Arka' (for fs^sf^^t i|ift»%^); iW.fl i lH^M.HU i: 'Bimay 
Lakshma^a, and Bharata ;' nn^ i Mm^^^^ytu : * the deer, the hunter, 
the serpent, and the ho^! The learner will observe, that although 
the last membtf of the compound is inflected in the plural, eadi 
of the members has here a singular acceptation. But a plural 
signification may often be inherent in some or all of the wcnrda 
constituting the compound ; thus, ailWi^Hl Pw,^^,^fti : ' Br^hmans, 
Kshatriyas, Yai^yas, and S^udras;' f)f|j9)^l4n«l,l|l^^. 'friends, neutrals, 
and foes* (for ftWffiff W^frtHn: ^RSR^) ; ^ fM^^ <4 f M^ Pd fti. ^ytfir * sages, 
gods, ancestors, guests, and spirits* (for ^jwt^^n: finrdsfirqift ^jjrrfir^); 
ftif .*Hll.Hf\Vli: * lions, tigers, and inunense serpents;* HI.'|U.4i f ,«f4ii^ 

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332 COPULATIVE COMPOUNDS (dVANDVA). 

T^VRnffinf^^nwrT: * dogs, vultures, herons, ravens, kites, jackals, and 
trows/ 

• 749. So also when more than two inanimate objects are enume- 
rated, the last may be inflected in the plural; as, Vi||44III^h1s|I4^ 
^virtue, wealth, enjoyment, and beatitude* (for V^s^: ^m^ ^^h^^); 
^^juiMH^^HirH * sacrifice, study, and liberality' (for ^9in ^nwi 
^ni ^). In some of the following a plural signification is inherent ; 
as, yiMi|^MiMrf^ * flowers, roots, and fiiiits ;' wnnr^iT^piNn'^ * of the 
unborn,- the dead, and the foolish' (for HHIiImI 4{AHi i{Jlhirf ^); 
^^ITRt^'^nnw * eyes, mind, and disposition ;' O^l.nH^.MUdl M^^ hih,^ 
M^ir«f 'sickness, sorrow, anguish, bonds, and afflictions ;' WV^UfSTI- 
M,<t5«»^M^rvf * wood, water, fruit, roots, and honey/ 

750. So also when only two animate or inanimate objects are 
enumerated, in which a plural signification is inherent, the last is 
inflected in the plural; as, ^^;^«{«n: *gods and men;' ^^^mI^II: 
'sons and grandsons;' MIA^rMlili: 'falls and rises;' m^liiinLfH: 

* ramparts and trenches;' ^fTjlfij *in pleasures and pains' (for 
ffrj 5:^ ^) ; M I M^a^ l f^ ' sins and virtues.' 

i Inflected in the Dual. 

- 751. When only two animate objects are enumerated, in each of 
which & Hngular signification is inherent, the last is inflected in the 
dual, the declension following the gender of the last member ; as, 
I^ I H^MVa^^l ' Rama and Lakshma^a' (for n^vt cT^^nra) ; ^^71^ ^ moon 
and sun j' ^[n^^nd *a deer and a crow;' m^i;^ * wife and husband ;' 
H^jft y y f ^ ' pea-hen and cock ;' f f g H^I * cock and pea-hen.' 

^ 752. So also when only two inanimate objects are enumerated, in 
each of which a ^n^ru/ar signification is inherent, the last is inflected 
in the dual ; as, wrAinRn% 'beginning and end' (for WtM^s^nrnf ^) ; 
i lt|4JiijMij^l^ 'affection and enmity' (for ^igrnftsinjn^) ; ^^/l U l^ 
'joy and sorrow ;' ^iPMiqi^ ' hunger and thirst' (for ^ fwHT ^) ; 
^[SlNt 'hunger and sickness ;' ^^TRHRTWIPr 'by standing and sitting' 
(for ^tn^hr VI^^H ^) ; ««^pifi^ ' honey and ghee ;' ^ffl^:^ ' pleasure 
and pain ;' «(^<jrc4,^ii<^ * mortar and pestie ;' iriJTWRj^^n^TMVm ' by 
rising and saluting ;' i|ilflimii^ ' by earth and water.' 

Inflected in the Singular Neuter. 

- 753. When two or more inanimate objects are enumerated, whether 



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DESCRIPTIVE COMPOUNDS (KAEMA-DHi^tAYA). 333 

singular or plural in their signification, the last may either be inflected 
as above (748, 749, 750, 751), or in the singular number, neut. gender ; 
^y ^l^i^cl^ilc^ * flowers, roots, and fruits ' (for ^[«nfQr ifc^Tfif TtPStf^ ^) ; 
^^4ljl)^^m«H« 'grass, food, water, and fuel* (for ^nifitsinv '9^!^^ If*^ 
^); Hf^TTO'^^^a day and night* (for ^ Tjfisn. A fom> ^rskrw: 
masc. sing, also occurs); fif>^^ * quarters and countries' (for fij^jft 
^^9)9 %f^^, or (^mS^^H * day and night;* f^rtttfNi^ ' head and 
neck ;* ^f^^lhr^fH^ * skin, flesh, and blood.* 

a. Sometimes two or more animate objects are thus compounded ; as, ^^^MiAlj[ 
' sons and grandsons ;' ^Wj^*^ ' elephants and horses :' especially inferior objects ; 
as, m^^WM^'a dog and an outcast.' 

754. In enumerating two qualities the opposite of each other, it is common to 
form a Dv^dva compound of this kind, by doubling, an adjective or participle, 
and interposing the negative V a/ as, ^npnC^ ^ moveable and immoveable ' (for 
^^ W^ ^) ; V^TT^^ * good and evil ;' finnftW * in agreeable and disagree- 
able* (for flR irftR ^) ; ^>l^lf^ * seen and not seen ;' ^ni^n*^ * done and not 
done i* •jjgK.'i^ * gentle and crueL' 

a. In the Dvandvas which occur in the Vedas the first member of the com- 
pound, as well as the last, may sometimes take a dual termination ; thus, ^1917^- 
^w (see 97. a), ^^l^f^BJ^, ftWTnniro : and some of the anomalous Dvandvas 
used in more modem Sanskrit are probably Vedic in their character; thus, 
gl< 1l ,4ftnfl * heaven and earth ;' Hlffl/m i O ' mother and fiather,* &c. 

h. It is a general rule, however, that if a compound consists of two stems in ft, 
the final of the first becomes m, as in fiwrf^lilju above. This also happens if the 
last member of the compound be ^f as f^nrrjTn ' father and son/ * 

c. Greek and Latin furnish examples of complex compounds involving Dvan- 
dvas ; thus, i3arpa^6-/Avo-/Aa^ia, ' frog-mouse war ;' tu-ovi'taurilia, * pig-sheep- 
bull sacrifice ;' ^coo^vrov^ 'animal-plant.' Zoophyte is thus a kind of Dvandva. 
In Englbh, compounds like ' plano-oonvex,' 'oonvexoHX)ncave' are examples of 
the relative form of Dvandva explained at 765. 

DESCRIPTIVE (OR DETERMINATIVE) COMPOUNDS (KARMA-DHIRAYA). 
755. In describing, qualifying, or defining a substantive by means 
of an adjective or participle, it is common in Sanskrit to compound 
the two words together, placing the adjective or participle in the 
first member of the compound in its stem ; as, 4ll^i|^* ^ a good man' 
(for ?n^ iR:); fwTi4l?n^ 'an old firiend' (for firfc ftf?!^); ^^a^piN: *a 
troubled ocean;* I^^^^I^ *^ ^^Ij act;* VH^JWI *the infinite soul;* 
^r^lftfn: * polished speech ;* ^m.nilinu * holy acts* (for T^f^rrff IfSlfiir) ; 
^I I H^^iWI*^ *of the best men* (for Tmnrt iTrwn»^); Ug l ^MMiiH * a great 



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334 NUMBBAL COMPOUNDS (DVieU). 

crime' (see 778); Hfiniw: * a great king' (see 778); HlMytm: * a dear 
friend' (778); O l il^*^ * a long night' (778). 

a. The feminine stems of adjectives do not generally appear in 
compounds; thus, finiT?^! *a dear wife' (fiw ftm mil); Hfl^lf^ 
'a great wife' (for Hfift mkly see 778); ^MHIiJi *a beautiful wife' 
(for ic:imft ^mh); Ml^«.f^ * a female cook' (for VdiNm sft). 

b. There are, however, a few examples of feminine adjective stems 
in compounds ; e. g. C||i(t%m$l * a wife with beautiful thighs ;^ vf^ 
h\iih* 'an impassioned woman/ where fafiifil may be used sub- 
stantively (cf. 766. i), 

756. An indeoliDable word or prefix may take the place of an adjective in tiiis 
kind of compoond ; thus, ^I^T^ * a good road ;* ^fij^*^ * a fine day ;' ^'HlOlil*( 
' good speech ;' j^Rji*^ * bad conduct ;' lRmrR[ ' not fear/ * absence of danger ;' 
^r^;^^if'^*^ * external cleanliness' (from vaJUs, Externally/ and damSa, * purity'); 
1I**:^5m^*^ * internal purity ; ' ^M^^lHlf^ ' a slight inspection / ^^JpS^t * a bad man/ 

757. Adjectives used as substantives sometimes occupy the last place in 
Descriptive compounds ; as, MUl^MlfH^i * a very just man / MijHJ^HI^ * a very 
wonderful thing.' 

a. In the same manner, substantives, used a^Jectively, may occupy the first 
place ; as, ^M^{[a|ir4U ' impure substances / ^Hfftt * a royal sage.' 

758. Descriptive compoimds expressing * excellence' or 'eminence^ fall under 
this class, and are composed of two substantives, one of which is used as an adjec- 
tive to describe or define the other, and is placed last, being generally the name of 
an animal denoting ' superiority / as, j^^^ini * man-tiger,' S^^^.^ff^ * man- 
bull,' 9^4.RV^* ' man-lion,' ^^M^t*?! * man-bull,' i. e. ^ an illustrious man/ 

Similarly, ^jft,lsM^ ' sn excellent woman ' (gem of a woman) ; ^^*flM*^ * £soe- 
lotus,' i. e. ' lotus-Uke face/ 

a. So other compounds expressive of ' comparison' or * resemblance' are usually 
mohided in native grammars under the Karma-dhluraya dass. In these the ac^- 
tive is placed last ; as, f^l^ir^^dt > -^CT^ *79^> * fickle as a shadow / V^i^^^lllC, 
-'n, ''^^^ * dark as a cloud ;' ^VT^fiWcM;, -fr, -^^^ 'spread out like a mountain/ 

b. The foUowing are examples of Greek and Latin compounds fiJling under this 
dass ; fA€yaX^(j,'^rrip, lao-v^lov^ /JLeyaXo'Voia^ ^/JU^KvwVt saerh-porttu, nml<Ues 
(for meducUes), decem^ri, semi-deus. Parallel compounds in English are» * good- 
will,' ' good-sense,' ' ill-nature,' ' holiday,' ' blackguard,' &c. 

NUMERAL (OR COLLECTIVE) COMPOUNDS (DVIGU). 

759. A numeral is often compounded with a substantive to ftnrm 
a collective noun, but the last member of the compound is generally 
in the neuter singular ; thus, ^sff( * the four ages^ (for ^Tirft jmftf) ; 



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ADVIBBIAL OOlfPOUKDS (AVYAYI-BHA'VA), 885 

^9ff|F(' the four quartera;^ fii;fir'l^ ' Uum days^ (/ruiiitim) ; f^RTr?!'^ 

* three nights' (tW being substituted for nfw, see 778) ; ^m^ * three 
years* {triennium) ; "WTTfrT * the five fires/ 

tu Rarely the stems of numertli are oompounded with plural substantives ; as, 
^|^l« 'the four castes ;' ^M^^IHII* ' five arrows ;' ^1l4^ ^ the seven stars of 
Ursa Miyor.' 

b. Sometimes the last member of the compound is in the feminine singular, with 
iht termination ^; as, f^lfSJM 'the three worlds/ 

c. Compare Greek and Latin compounds like T€TpaoiioVf rpivvKTioVf riSptwwoVy 
tridmum, triennium, trinocHwn, quadrioium, qmnquertiam. 

ADVERBIAL OR INDECLINABLE COMPOUNDS (AVYAYIBHAVA). 

760. In this class of indeclinable (avyaya, L e. na vyeti, ^ what does 
not change') compounds the first member must be either a preposition 
(such as wfir, wfv, i»g, nfir, &c., at 783) or an adverbial prefix (such 
as inn *as/ in^*as fer as/ ^ or m^ *not,* ^ *with/ &c.) The 
last member is a substantive which takes the form of an accusative 
case neuter^ whatever may be the termination of its stem ; thus^ 
irmrnP^ * accordmg to fiuth' (fix)m Jf^ and ^Wt); Hl^T^y*^ * every 
night' (firom ufir and f^npr); llfirfij?n^*in every quarter' (firom wfir 
and fi^); ^ffK^ * beyond the ship' (firom ^rfk and ^). 

a. Many of these compounds are formed with the adverbial prepo- 
sition ^^ generally contracted into wt; thus^ fnjt^ ^with anger' 
(fipom ¥ and ^); m^TJfl ' with respect' (?l ^»l^t»0; ^I g li f Mm*^ * with 
prostration of eight parts of the body ;' ^shvfv (i. e. $a-upadhi) 

* fraudulently ;' infr^ * with fire.' P&iini (11. i, 9, &c.) gives some 
unusual forms with postpositions ; as^ ^|nifv ^ a little sauce.' 

b. The following are examples of indeclinable compounds with other prefixes ; 
^ ^^ '1 ' according to seniority;* HTHPl ^ owet eveiy limb;' Hftpn^ * every 
month' (730. «); ^TOll^ftl 'according to rule;' iRTIlflR or ^IFW^ (49) 

* according to one's ability ;' ^TOIT|^ * happily ;' innt»^ * suitably/ * worthUy ;' 
irvhlS^'as described;' H^^TJ^* every moment;' ^W^p^* before the eyes '(778); 
n Pi m^^ * upon the shoulders ;' wN^HJU^'upon the tree ;' TWnfc^'ftlftT?^ *near 
the banks of the M&lini ;' WIV^^ ' without doubt ;' f^T^t^^ ' without distinc- 
tion ;• IWIIP^ * in the middle of the Gauges.' 

c. Analogous indeclinable compounds are found in Latin and Greek, such as 
admodum, obviam, affatim, iim$triVy avr/jS/ov, vvipfMfOVy vapa'/pyJlJM. In these, 
however, the original gender is retained, whereas, according to the Sanskpt rule, 
^bvium would be written for obviam, and of ate for affatvm. In Greek compounds 



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336 RELATIVE COMPOUNDS (BAHU-VRIHl). 

like a7jfA€po¥, the feminine ^/c^^pa appends a neuter form, aa in Sanalqit. In 
English ' uphill.' 

d. The neuter word ^m\ *for the sake of,' * on account of* (see 731 . Obs.), is often 
used at the end of compounds ; thus, fsiMi^*^ * for the sake of sleep ;' ifljtJIfMJ^'^ 

for the sake of the performance of business.' See, however, 731, note. 

e. There is a peculiar adverbial compound formed by doubling a nominal stem, 
the final of the first member of the compound being lengthened, and the final of 
the last changed to ^ t . It generally denotes mutual contact, reciprocity, or oppo- 
sition ; thus, fV)^ 'fist to fist ;' ^^pn7% 'stick to stick' (%hting); «^K^ 

* share by share ;' ^^II^P^I ' pulling each other's hair ;* WJflfjf * body to body ;' 
WlJ^n^ftl 'arm to arm ;' «i^m(Vi 'scratching each other.' 

/. Something in the same manner, WSIT and 1|T, ' another/ are doubled ; thus, 
l|«lftfl|l^, ^HGRT?^, * one another,' 'mutually,' 'together.' 

RELATIVE COMPOUNDS (MOSTLY EQUIVALENT TO BAHU-VRIHI). 

761. The compounds in the preceding four divisions are generally 
terminated by substantives, the sense of each being in that case 
absolute and complete in itself. Most of such compounds may be 
used relatively^ that is, as epithets of other words^ the final substan- 
tive becoming susceptible of three genders, like an adjective (see 108, 
119, 130, 134. a). We have given the name relative to compounds 
when thus used, not only for the obvious reason of their being 
relatively and not absolutely employed, but also because they 
usually involve a relative pronoun, and are sometimes translated 
into English by the aid of this pronoun, and are, moreover, resolved 
by native commentators into their equivalent uncompounded words 
by the aid of the genitive case of the relative {^^). Thus, H^I^Mtf*^ 
is a Descriptive compound, meaning * great wealth/ and may be 
used adjectively in relation to ^?^:, thus vi^PR: ^^^ * a man who 
has great wealth ;' or to ^, thus «f^TV«IT ^ ^ a woman who has 
great wealth ;' and would be resolved by native commentators into 
^V^ or Ji^ «n^ VfP^. In English we have similar compounds, as 

* high-minded,' ^left-handed,' and the like, where the substantive 
terminating the compound is converted into an adjective. 

Relative form of Tat-purusha or Dependent Compounds. 

y62f Many Dependent compounds (especially those that are instru- 

mentally dependent at 740) are already in their own nature relative, 

and cannot be used except in connexion with some other word in 

the sentence. But, on the other hand^ many others, and especially 



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BlLAfrrVB COMPOUNDS^ (^AHT-yirfHl). 8*7 

those which are' genitivdy dependent^ oonstitttting by far the kurgest 
nomb^ of this- dlass^ of cOnipOundB, are in their natni*e absolute, and 
yield a 8en^ complete in itself Thei^e may be taade I'elative ty 
declining the final word after the manner of an adjective; thus^ 
'^^ET^fiir:, -fiK, -fk, * moon-shaped' (see 119), firom the absolute com- 
pound ^vfilfOi; ^ the shape of the moon*' 

a. Otiier examples lire, ^T^CTt, -V, -VP^, 'whose form is gocQike' (see 168); 
^[jhWTO, -V, "^, 'splendid tfs the sun' (108); ^fisd^MI^:, -T^, -^*, 
'dephant-foofed' (see 5^)5 ^PltWf:, -^, -^, * ending at the sea;*' mSH^, 
-IfT, -11^, *^ienninatedhy death ;** **^^yQl^Wo -Ht, -t^^, or W^T^^, -W, -Wi^, 
'headed by Kar^a;' ftl^^ln^HIHI, -fT, -T, 'named Vishi^usarman ' (see 154); 
J|.flil4jf|:, -T#^-HH, 'lotus-eyed* (see 778); ^fTCnTOTWtr-WT, -W^,icalled 
N&i6yana;' V5rtT|cfJ, -cIT, -W^,* founded on weakh;' c^H^^TWrftf (agreeing 
with VTlfif), 'money to the amount of a lacj' 'I^I^^^kIm "^^ '^^» 'having a 
dub in th^ hMd;' or ' (3lal>-^<-faand ;' 9Hbll^f^» -^ftlty -l^^^'anlK^in-hand;' 
WclJfH^-lTTy-W^i '*e*-iii-hand;' f"q:ftnTO, -HI, -^j 'dn thfc sub>d; of 
flowen,' 'rdltfting to flowerfl^* «Mm;HO, -H, -!•(, ' hanng: meditation for one's 
chief occupation;' Iffifmi, -VT^ -V(,> ' having his 'knowledge.' These examples 
are not distinguishable from absolute dependent compounds, except by declension 
in tbree*^ genders. 

d: Similar cbmpk)tinds'are'fbuifd in GM^ ; e.g. litno>f\dbd^\ilt^ 'Udrse-tongiied'.' 

763, Many of them, however,* are not found, exd^pt as relatives'; 
and if used absolutely would yield a different sense ; thus, #40i(fl^ 
means ^ the face of Karna/ but when used relatively, as 1|Ei§^[in mrR:', 
* the kings headed by Kar^a.^ So also ^R^r^ signifies ^ the eye of 
the q)y,' but when used relatively, as ^TT'lH^Tfin, * a' king who sees 
by means of His spies/ See 166. cl 

764. The substantive VlRll, ' a beginning,' when it occurs in the last member 
of a oon^ttttd of tMs natute, is iised relatively to<sbaie word ^t^rdMi^d <^ under- 
atood^and 3f;ield8 a sense equivalent to et cetera. It is generally found either in 
the plural or neuter singular; as,^*{[l^^: ' Indra and the others' (agreeing with 
the nom. case ^^ expressed or undeHtood, ' the gods commencing with Indra'); 
«*Jlt^l^*^'of Agni arid tlie others' (agreeing with tj^NftHHf^^ u'nderstobd; 'of 
tfaiose abofve-nartledthitigs^df which Agnl was* the ffrst'); '*^C;il3f«f 'tlicf eytes, 
&c.''(fagreeitig' with' ^ftjVfftB 'the senses ceminencing with' the eyes'). "Wbeti 
used 'in the nevt. dng. it' either agrees with ^iftn'^i ' the afSMaid;' thiderMood, or 



* ^t^^ may be substituted fof V^ in compounds of this kind, but not' after 
ISfiW*^. See 778. 

X X 



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338 BBLATIVB COMPOUNDS (BAHU-VBlHl). 

with a number of things taken collectively, and the adverb iH * may be prefixed ; 
M> ^^nf^fTfrf^ 'the word devdn, Sec' (agreeing with ^^IHbl^ understood, ' the afore- 
said sentence of which devdn is the first word'); <;i«llfi!l«fl 'by liberality, &c.' 
(agreeing with some class of things understood, * by that class of things of which 
^berality is the first')* See also 772. 

a. It may occasionally be used in the masc. sing. ; as, •ii«i«<iiG;i ' brooms, &c.' 
(agreeing with ^TraR: 'furniture'). 

b. Sometimes HTf^pi is used for ^RTfi( ; as, ^Hlf^H'l^ 'gifts, &o. :' and some- 
times ^Pnv ; as, l^'Srvn ^rn 'the gods of whom Indra is the first' 

c. The feminine substantive V^flTy ' beginning,' may be used in the same way; 
thus, ^^^U^A^: ^nt 'the gods, beginning with Indra ;' iNt ||IHrH^lftl^H*|rfl^l*^^ 
'of those villagers, &c,' 

d. Observe ^The neuter of W(f^ may optionally take the terminations of the 
masciAine in all but the nom. and aoc. cases; thus, tMHII^4i[ 'of elephants, 
horses, &c.' (agreeing with ^c«l4M gen. neut. of ^^ 'an army'). 

Relative form o/Dvandva or Copulative Compounds. 

765. Copulative (or Aggregative) compounds are sometimes used 
relatively; especially in the case of adjectives or participles; as, 
lPiC^> -W, -W^, * black and white' (cf. XevKo-fiika^); mm^thW.^ 
-HT, -in^, * bathed and anointed ;' 4)i^ilHM<;:» -^T, -^, * belonging to 
town and country;' flllMffl:» -IT, -TH^, *done and done badly;* 
^yi^> -m, -Hi^, ' good and evil' (754) ; 411^/fl'V:, -»UF, -np^, * thick 
and unctuous ;' ftn^^sBCftsrftnn, -ITT, -H'^, * noiseless and motionless' 
(night); ^j^rt^nOli| ^WI 'of him taken and let loose.' See other 
examples under Complex Compounds. 

Obs. — Many compounds of this kmd are classed by native gram- 
marians under the head of Tat-purusha (Pdn. 11. i, 69), though the 
accent in many conforms to the rule for Bahu-vrihi (vi. 2^ 3). 

Relative form of KarmordJidraya or Descriptive Compounds. 

766. A greater number of compound words may be referred to 
this head than to any other. Every style of writing abounds with 
them; thus, W^n^^r%, -ftlK, -ftl, * whose strength is small' (xi9)« 

a. Other examples are, •i^i«^<o!> *9T, 'W[^ ' whose strength Is great' (108, 
see also 778); H^l^nllK, -HH, -ifJ, 'whose glory is great' (164. a); llliM,M«f:, 
-•!T, -•!•(, 'whose wealth is small;' Ifp^T, -TUT, -W, 'high-minded' (151); 
9^K^^r<H:, -WT, -7n|[, 'of noble demeanour;' ^j^^im;, -iRT, -W^, 'having 

* Sometimes evam is prefixed ; as, ^^•ii^f^ l^coiHifn ' lamentations begin- 
ning thus.* 



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KBLATIVB COMPOUNDS (BAHU-VBfHl). 339 

many fish;' ^Qreraf?l?lty -W, -T^f * having very little water;* uOHN^^ri:, 
"f¥t> -fiPj * of wise intellect' (119); ftW^^TO, -^, -^, 'having a dear wife;* 
V||VI^4I^IH«9 "•n» -•n^j 'not to be reoondled;' W^pT^Nrtj, agreeing with 
Xrm, ' a king who conceals what ought to be concealed.' 

6. Occasionally the feminine of the a4jective appears in the compound; as, 
^J1*ii3; * having a sixth wife.' Compare 755. b, 

y6y. Although a passive participle is not often prefixed to a 
noun in an absolute sense, this kind of combination prevails most 
extensively in the formation of relative compounds; as, lllH^%lf4:> 
-c5T, -c5»^, * whose time has arrived.' 

. a. Other examples are, tWi)r«^<ii, -IIT9 -^» * whose passions are subdued;' 
^ITir^WK, -IK, -in, 'whose mind is composed;' ^(S^HHU, -^^IH, -•TJ, 'whose 
mind is rejoiced' (see 164); H^^sipift, -1(IT, "^[9 'whose hopes are broken;' 
^n^vi9«iM "WF, "I'n^* 'whose kingdom is taken away;' irfNlTnUT, -TTt, 
-IT, 'whose glory is boundless;' ^n^HHTpy, -ly, -TJ* * whose death is near;' 
^n,i«iti;, -IfT, "V^^f 'whose desire is accomplished/ i.e. 'successful;* ^pn^^- 
WfJ, -^, -•T^, 'one who has finished eating ;' ^RtWT^T^, -^, "W^* ^oue 
by whom the Siistras have not been read;' ftni,4^^i, -^, -IP^, or <;<4,(^^», 
* whose heart is pierced ;' f^flT^^!, -9^9 *^» 'who has conquered hb enemies ;' 
flKl^^Rjn, -IfIT, -^, 'having the hair cut;' ftnfpjRt, -fT, -"'H^, 'eating 
sparingly;* Ipl^n^M -^, -IPI, 'purified from sin.' 

b. The sufllx Mkah often added; as, flTaftutt, -1ST, -V^, 'reft of fortune;' 
^VfrV^^, -^pW, "^Vl, * shorn of (his) beams.' Cf. 769. a, 

c. Examples of Greek and Latin compounds of this kind are, fJieyaXo'KetfMXo^^ 
fueyaXo-fxi^if^ A€vif^-«T€po^, voXv^jfpvaoi, j^i;o'€0-o'T€^avo^, ijSiJ-yXwo'o'Of , 
epi7/xo-ToX/^, magn'Onimus, longi-manus, mMUi-comus, albi-comus, multi-vius, atri- 
color. In English compounds of this kind abound ; e. g. ' blue-eyed,' ' narrow- 
minded,' ' good-tempered,' ' pale-fi&ced,' &c. 

Bdatweform ofBrigu or Numeral Compounds^ 

768. Numeral or Dvigu compounds may be used relatively ; as, 
fli;^:, -iff, -^, * two-leaved ;' (^^c4)lti:, -^ or -^, -^, ' tri-ocular.* 

a. Other examples are, %7I!^*» *^> ~^» * three-headed' (^ being substituted 
for ^^(^ see 778); ^rgtfn, -ift, -in^, 'four-fttced;' ^j**!^:, -IH, -H^, 
'quadrangular;' ^11^8 KJ , -TT, -^, ' hundred-gated ;' ^jfflK, -IT, -W^,* pos- 
sessed of the four sciences' (108); ^^iJIVft, -^y ~^l'|^» * thousand-eyed' (see 778); 
M^^'il.W^fJf -^, -•fl, 'having the wealth of five bullocks.' 

Belative/orm of Compoundi with Adverbial Prefixes. 

769, The adverbial compounds most firequently employed rela- 
tively as adjectives are those formed with the adverbial preposition 

X X 2 



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<S40 RSLATITE COMPOUNDS (RAIiU-YRlQl). 

.^ ^ wWi/ cwiteacted into ^; thiw, ^x^^it^., -m, --m^ ^angty' <lit 
' with-aager/ * having ^ger*); ^inii^, -7W, -i^, ^fruitful* <io8); 
^'"T^** -''^> -^, 'possessed of kindred* (119); ^?W» -Wf -?P^> 
'energetic;* ^nrt^, -^, -^, 'possessed of life/ ^living;' ^pr?:, 
-^, -7^, 'joyful;' ?nifw:, -^, -^, * accompanied by mijiiiatew;' 
fnn4: 'accompanied by a wife/ 'having a wife;' ?rnn, -?«n, -^'P^i 
' strung* (as a bow, lit. ' with-bowstring*). 

Obs. — When adv^bial compound^ Uke ltnTiW^,(76o. b) are josed at the begin- 
ning of relative compounds, the final ^ is dropped ; e. g. TMhtT^rniJC^ -TJ, -T^f, 

* employed in the manner described.' 

a. The suffix M ka (80. LVI) is often added to this Idnd gf compound $ as, ^nrfhc, 
-W, -^» 'possessed of fortune;' WJ^0M9 -^, -IH^* * accompanied i)f women.' 
4. In some compounds ¥% remups; ap, <lf,WI<Hlt *with his ani^^ «^^di 

* along ^rith his son.' 

c. ?l is also used for W^^ *saine ;' as, ^7^1^^ -ZT* -^> *of the same £»inify.' 

d. lliere are of course many examples of nouns combined with adverbial prefixes, 
BO as to form relative compounds, which cannot be regarded as relative forms of 
Ayyayi-bhdva; thus, ^f^73^> "^> "^» *^*^ uplifted weapon;' «|i«ii^ii^i;| 
-TT, -T?^, *of various shapes;' a^Pn^iitit^ -^, -TW, * wjiere dwelling?' a^i^fiiy 
-wn, -^, 'where bom?' PHiigu:, -VT, -HiJ, 'without fault;' ftTO^HJ, -TJ» 
-T'^/havingnofood;' ^ni^,-^:,-fW,'fearl^s'(i33.6); JPH^yJ, -MT, -Vf , 
'of that kind/ 'ip such a state;' jf%t, -fV*i ""ftp> *weak-n^inded;' y^nffft, 
-ft:, -fir, 'ill-natured;' ^flT, rW or -^^ -^fW^ 'handsome-fiftced;' ^^r^i, 
-f^i "f^i * of good understanding,' Some of th^ above may be regarded as 
relative forms of Descriptive compounds^ fonned with indeclinable prefixes ; flee 
75(}. Similfur compounds in Greek and Latin are, av-^/4€pQ^, ev-'^ijkof, tfi-tifiH^, 
in-^felix, dissimilis, semi-plmu^, 

e. Observe— The adverbial prefixes J^ WJd ^ (736. 4/) impart a passive sense 
to participial nouns of agency, just as ova" and €1; in Greek ; thus, §*^< ' difficult 
to be done,' ^pR ^ capy to be done ;' jfrl * difficult to be obtained,' g<W ' easy 
to be attained ;* gfPC ' difficult to be cros^/ Cf. cy^^/^f^tobelnNrBe;' 
ov(nF$pg^^ ' difficult to be passed,' &c, 

/• ^TtfT^* ~^9 "^^f ' possessed of a master/ is used &t the end of compounds 
to denote simply ' possessed of,' 'ftimished with;* ^us, ftlflM^HHI^ (V<9fn(9^ 
'a stone-seat ftimished with a canopy ;' fijIWIMi.il'fr'ft ^^^ 'an arbour having 
a marUe-slab as its master,' i. e. ' ftnmished with,* ' provided with,' &e. Similarly, 
f j.^4,imiHit «U,Ml^l|: * a fig-tree occupied by a number of cranes.* 

g. Observe— The relative form of a compound woi:dd b^ marked in Vedic San* 
skfit by the accent. In the Karma-dh^raya compound mahd-bdhu, 'gceat arm,' 
the accent would be on the last syllable, thus flfRJ I but in the Relative mahd- 
d<^^ ' great-armed,' on the ante-penultimate, thus, TflWrJ. So, nativa com- 
mentators often ^uote as an example of the importance of right aoe^iluatk>i|« ike 



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COMPLEX OOMPOITND NOUSTS. 341 

wovd Mra^airu, whithy iMscented -on ihe first -flyllable, would be fiahn-THhi (see 
P49« VI. a, I, hj which the first member jretains Ha origHMl aecent); but accented 
4m ihe penultiinate iir,oqld be Ts^-pAruaha. The seost in 'the first case it ' havii^ 
Jndra for a ooaquooor or destroyer ;' in the aeoond, * the destroyer of Indra.' 

h. Note, that ^nivni and ^C^ (80. LXXIX) are used at the end of relative com- 
pounds to denote 'composed of/ 'consisting of;' but are more ^quently found 
at the end pf complex relatives ; see 774. 

COMPLEX COMPOUND NOUNS. 
770. We have now to speak of complex compound words, 
x)r compounds within compounds, which form a most remarkable 
feature in Sanskpit composition. Instances might be given of 
twenty or thirty words thus compounded together; but these are 
the productions of the vitiated taste of more modem times, and 
are only curious as shewing that the power of compounding wosrds 
may oflen be extravagantly abused. But even in the best specimens 
of Sanskrit composkioB, and in the umplest prose writings, four, five, 
or even six words are commonly compounded together, mvolving 
two or three forms under ope head. It will be easy, however, to 
determine the character of the forms involved, by the rules pro- 
pounded in the preceding pages. 

Instances of absolute complex compounds, whose sense is complete 
and unconnected, are not rare. 

a. TTie foHowing are examples: Wnj^ff il^f^.^^l^HI Hni 'good and evil 
(occurring) in the revolutions of the interval of time/ the whole bebg a dependent, 
involving a dependent and a copulative; 4«il.MrA^ilAIUI^i 'the general of the 
army and the overseer of the forces/ the whole being a copulative, involving two 
dependents ; V^^lvirti^^rM^^no*^* the protection from sorrow, enemies, and perils/ 
the whole being a dependent, involving an aggregative ; Hi^Hlll^^^^lW^ 'the 
disregarded words of a friend^' the whole being a descriptive, involving a dependent ; 
n Hj {| i^^f €V,({ m ' a white robe and a string of gsrlands,' the whole being a copu- 
lative, involving a deseripthre and dependent ; n'^^IHfl^MK^'U ' one who has gone 
to the opposite bank (pdra) of aE l^e 9>ibtras,' i. e. 'one who has read them through / 
H lf /^<ll! i ftrH ' the bones of a dead Hon.' 

77 1 « Complex compounds are generally used as adjectives, or 
relatively, as epithets of some other word in the sentence; thus^ 
nfi^aTWTRR:, -lf^, -^f * whose nails and eyes were decayed,' the 
whole being the rdative form of descriptive, involving a c(^[>ulative ; 
Jf^Jsnu^Wii: ^ having a throat emaciated with hunger/ the whole being 
the relative form of descriptive, involving a dependent. 



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342 COMPLEX COMPOUND NOUNS. 

a. Other ezamples aw, ^111.^1 ^{vJcoM^:, -^, -^, 'haying a white gariand 
and unguents/ the whole being the relative form of copulatire, involving a 
descriptive; nln^^ai'^^.fliiji * hroad-shonldered and strong-armed/ the whole 
being a copulative, involving two descriptives; ^I^HW^Jlt, -WT, -Tf^, * done in a 
former birth/ the whole being a dependent, involving a descriptive; f^VTf- 
4)^^11 1 9 -IT, -V^9 ' advanced in learning and age/ the whole being a dependent, 
involving a copulative; ^f^n^tJilj»i\^1*fJ^ -•?!, -•f^, 'having fresh garlands, 
and being free from dust,' the whole being the relative form of copulative, 
involving a descriptive and dependent; ^ifiwRTflf^rrn, -tlJ, -tJ, 'whose head 
was moist with unction ;' ^C^f^OTTpK, -^ or -^j "W^, ' having the face turned 
in any direction one likes;' ^^•^^S^^*' "'^^j "^5^> * spear and club in hand ;* 
^^.il^.rH^l^f^flt, -WT, -WT, 'sufficient for support during one night' (see 778) ; 
^i4|^«^4IIHI^^A^^{|«^l4|(^fl1I 'those who are acquainted with the meaning of 
the three Vedas, caUed Rig, Yigur, and Sdma;' ll«<9,<|HI«^,AI4l,^ai: 'biting 
their lips and having red eyes' (agreeing with THIPfJ); Mi^jO?.**^*^ * iiyuring 
another by action or by intention.' 

773. The substantive ^iR{» 'a beginning,' ofken occurs in complex relative 
compounds, unth the force of et cetera^ as in simple relatives at 764 ; thus, V^rVT- 
r<l||^^« 'parrots, starlings, &c.' (agreeing with ^(\^^* 'birds beginning inUi 
parrots and starlings '), the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving 
an aggregative ; flfMlTflil^jfi; * peace, war, &c.' (agreeing iwth IjpTW^ under- 
stood); 'Jl^^'^nnrrfij^gilK, -W, -W^> 'possessed of houses, temples, &c. / 
*OL;ji*l.*iH!fi5.Mri*^.3"fl ^, -1IT,-W^» 'possessed of property such as elephants, 
horses, treasure, &c.' 

a. Similarly, ^HV in the example 911^1^1111: (agreeing ndth 91T: ' garlands 
possessing the best odour and other qualities'). 

773* Long complex compounds may be generally translated by beginning at the 
last word and proceeding regularly backwards, as in the following : *ll^H^|*i/^!- 
^il^ltm,H>fll,RirMII^<>r#rt)<^ I M^4ia1fl^^^|^^> > -?T, -^, * causing pleasure 
by the music of the voice of the cuckoo, blended with the hum emitted by the 
swarms of joyous bees.' 

774. WIVHR or ^C^9 at the end of a complex relative, denotes * composed of;' 
thus, ?Wl^^i.H|^M^ir(H^*fi*ijw4 ^5l»^'a force consisting of elephants, horses, 
chariots, infantry, and servants / h i* ji ^^%^ njg ■^ii^^4 WWft 'the two actions 
consisting of the good and evil done in a former birth.' 

775. Complex compounds may sometimes have their second or middle member 
omitted ; thus, 'nI^^H^^^^nco*^ is really a complex compound, the whole bong 
a descriptive, involving a dependent; but the middle member ^Rif is elided. 
Similarly, ^H^I^Mlf^T. 'the era-king' is for ^l^fc^ftm^mW^: 'the king (beloved) 
by the era / fill l W^l^fl for ftflWHIwl^^ft ' Urvasf gained by valour.' 

a. Complex compounds expressive of comparison are not uncommon; as, 
} -9T, "W^i 'unsteady and trembUng as a drop of water;' 



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ANOMALOUS COMPOUNDS. 343 

»;, -HT, "W^f * tpemolous as water on the leaf of a lotus ;* 
the last two examples are complex. Compare 758. a. 

b. A peculiar compound of this kind is formed from Dvandvas hj adding the 
6uffix {ya ; thus, HHirwn^hn , -^, -^, ' like the story of the crow and the palm- 
tree ;* ^^^ITWWN;, -^, -"'H^, *like the story of the hawk and the pigeon.' 

c. The substantive verb must often be supplied in connexion with a relative com- 
pound ; as> nrn^T^l^pJ^^ ' his success was proportionate to his undertakings ;' 
Mlm^Hnu * on his drinking water,' for n^ WHfti w^ ^Bfw. 

776. Complex compound adverbs, or indeclinable compounds, 
involving other compounds, are sometimes found ; as, ^EV7prffff%^^ 
* not differently from one's own house ;* i(|«(4)^il.4U!«1Hli^^after utter- 
ing a sound ;* %«HHi^(^«iHfHUi;NjriH^H|>^ * regardlessly of the durving' 
of her waist bending under the weight of her bosom ;' nvj i flgwiiH 
' as seen and heard.' 

ANOMALOUS COMPOUNDS. 

777. There are certun compounds which are too anomalous in their formation 
to admit of ready classification under any one of the preceding heads. 

a. W9T, ^"^hVy ?^> T^TIV, in?f , affixed to stems, form anomalous compounds ; 
see 80. LVIl, LXX— LXXII, L3CXVL 

6. There is a common compound formed by placing IPiTt after a nominal stem, 
to express * another,' ' other ;' as, IWIHJ»H<*^ or ^pfft?f * another place ; ' n^|NKIU 
^ ' akmg with another king ;' >HfH|>fliiFm * other births.' 

c. Similarly, IT?! is added to express ' mere ;' see 919. 

d. ^ or ^^^ or 5^:^ (meaning literally 'preceded by') may be added to 
nominal stems to denote the nunner in which anything is done ; as, WMJ^^I ' with 
^^g®' ;' ^*''*S.^**f^ w * ^e gave food with reverence.' 

e. A peculiar compound is formed by the use of an ordinal number as the last 
member ; thus, flK^/lrfl^t ' accompanied by the Sdrasa ;' TftlTnpfhT: (agreeing 
with XXmt) ' having Slt4 for his third (companion),' i. e. including Lakshma^a ; 
V^ll/lin^; (^TfV:) *Nala made double by his shadow;' ^VT^^^VT: (^TT^^.) 
'the Pd^davas with their mother as the sixth;' ^ ^ I fMH^M^Hi: 'the Vedas 
with the Akhy&nas as a fifth;' ^i(HW^Vl 1T^* 'ten cows and one bull' (Manu 
XI. 129). 

/. The following are peculiar: WlTlftftfiniWa fighter who abandons life;' 
^i^lft^:, -HT, -^, 'having no fear firom any quarter;' xi^p^^^t, -%T, -^If , 
^ never before seen ;' ^JnrtJ?ftftnK * one who has lodged seven nights.' 
^. With regard to compounds like 'l^*IH * desirous of gobg,' see 871, 
k. The Veda has some peculiar compounds ; e. g. vidad-vasu, ' granting wealth ;' 
ydvayad'doeshas^ * defending from enemies ;' kshayad-v&a, * ruling over men.' 
These are a kind of mverted Tat-purusha. 



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S4t CHANGES OF CEBTALV* WOBDS IN CBRTAIN COMPOUNDS. 

CHANGEa OF CERTAIN WORDS IN CERTAIN COMPOUNDS. 

778. The following is an alphabetical' list of t&e substitutions and 
changes which take place in the final syllables- o£ certain wcwds 
wh^i used in. certain compounds. The j are called by native gram- 
marians Saoiiisiuita su£Szes. They are property only added to 
Tat-^Mirusha compounds (which inelude Karma-dh&raya). 

^V^ at end of various compounds for irf^ n. 'the eye;' e. g. ^14T^ ' a bnH's 
«fe(wiiifh)w);' eft flj^f W J^-H^^ "''P(> * red-^red.^— *WfWfor ^i^JWf. '^the'fiiHjer 5' 
e. g. W^5^2,.-W> -15'(i * mcasttitog two flng»s.'-**'WRW for- VRftl m. ^j<NBhi|^ 
the faaods . in rBVieflpence.'-***lW| for ^Nm^' nor; ' s> nMid ;* e, gu VMl ,, "'•W',. -Wlf^, 

* di«tMi1?(M. at rtiad)/ — 'Rf? int Bvaadfwicnt^n^ m. * a- ball / e; g.'^^«T|pP( 
or -1^ ' oow and bulL' — ^n^^il Kannai-db6iaya» foe ^^I^;Ik * a-odrt/ * a oaitiage^' 
e. g. if^TT^* a large cart' (Pip. v. 4, 94). — VTff in KarauMlhltfajraafor Wl^ n« 
' iron.'-^W^ in Kanna-dhirayas for WJHt^ m. * a stone.' — ITW for ^rf^ f. * an 
angle;' e.g. ^JT^t, -W^, -W^v * quadrangular.' — ^WfT' in Dvigus and relative 
compounds forlB^; e.g. Hfl^'IMf^'a car drawn by eight oxen;' WflTWTFK, 
-c5r, -•5'^> 'having eight receptacles.' — ^/l^in Dvandvaa for W^^m. n; * the 
knee;' e. g. ii^kl^'^'thigH and knee.'-*-t?^ for ^ffiw *^a bone.' — ^i^ or Wlf^ 
for ^np^ n. * a day ;' e. g. ^4i^;" * the period' of one day ;' ' JW^^f^ * a holy-day ;' 
inf^fiK * the lord of day.' — UJJ for IRp^n. *'a day ;' e. g. y[9l^» * the forenoon.' 
— ^^ for ^t^J. ' water ;' e. g. ^t^f[^ * an island ;' ^WrtNi^ * an island.' — ^^5^ for 
^ 'a wound' (Pdp. v. 4, 126). — ^^ni| in Karma-dhlurayas for ¥a|5^ m. 'an ox ;' 
e. g. llSrtlJ * a large ox.' — ^ for '^f^ n. * water ;' e. g. I^^^yn: * a water-jar ;' 
^lU^t 'the sefi of milk.' — ^RIT in Karma-dh^yas for "^X?^ n* 'the breast;' 
e. g. V^W:, -^1 -TW, * broad-chested as a horse.' — ^W^TOT an old dual form 
in Dvandvaa for 'W^^^L n. * thp dawn ;* e. g. Tf^RfT^p^ * dawn and sun' (Pip. vi. 
3> 3i)« — ^"V^ (f. "SUft) for W|^ n. ' an udder/ at end of Bahu-vrihis (Pip. iv. 
i» 35); e.g. xftfft^ 'having a full udder;' IjTlft 'having two udders;' ^Bl^JWt 
' having an exceedingly large udder.'-' — Wl for tn^f. ' water ;' *e. g. ^I^t 9 -^> -^, 
'near water,' 'watery.' — ^J^ *<>' V^i ^^ 779* — ^'•Tf^ ^or V^ m. 'the top/ 

* head ;' e. g. Q||^# f H^'three-peaked (mountain).' — m^ or ^ or W for ^ express- 
ing it^eriority or diminution; e.g. 4^ii^i or will or ^WtOff 'slightly warm;' 
1i^iBrC»^'a bad letter;' ^^; 'a coward.' — Wi^ at end of Bidiu-vrihis for 
419^ m. * the pakkte ;' e. g. Pq cm ^^' having no palate.' — ^^p| for ^|fft| m. * the 
belly.' — im for Wfl^; e. g. wftirn?^ ' half a khiri* (a measure). — nf^ for Jm 
m, 'smell;' e.g. "JfinTf^, -fw, -f^, 'fetid.* — Vn in Dvigus for 'ft m. f. 'an 
ox ;' e. g. lRPnf( ' a collection of five cows.' — ^l|^ for ^'IJ^ * four ;' see 779. — 
1W[ for unn ' a wife ;' e. g. iPfift du. ' husband and wife.' — ^PW^ for IPH * a 
tooth;' e.g. 'JH^I'HT, -«HT, -l»l, 'grass-toothed/ 'graminivorous.' — "Hlftf for 
^nn f. ' a wife ;' e. g. ^^Sflfii: ' having, a young wife.' — ^^ and ^jn Bahu-vrihis 



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CRAir OES OP CSRTAm WOBDS IN CBBTAIK COMPOUNDS. S4& 

for HI5 n. 'the knee -/ e. g. 1^, -y > -^, or Jt9*> -VT, -f^, ' bandy-kneed.' — 
W^for V1|i^ m/ a carpenter ;' a.g. WTiTlf: * a carpenter who works on his own 
aoeount;' IHHRil! 'the yUhge carpenter.' — ^IfV in Karma-dh^yae (preceded 
^7''l>'''><>'^''''')^^'''^n»'<l«'kne8»;* e.g.^Rnnra^' slight darkness.' — 
Wm for fi^» see 779. — ^(t ^)for ^m. * a tooth;* e.g. ^^-^, -^. 

* having beauttfU teeth/ — ^ for WHIT ' a wife ;' e. g. ^Wfift ' husband and wife * 
(acoording to some, ' the two lords of the dama or house '). — fi^ at end and flpn at 
beginning for fi?^m. 'the day;* e.g.'snirfi'^'night and day;' fif^rftf?!^ ' day 
and night.' — ^fif^l at end for f^, see Ga^a S^arad-ddi to Pd^. v. 4, 107. — J9 at 
end for J^ * yielding milk ;' e. g. inrjUT ' the cow of plenty.* — Wm\ an old dual 
form forf^f.'heayen;' HTWT^ftWT du. 'heaven and earth.' — V^^ at end of 
Bahu-vrihis for t|^n* 'a bow;' e.g. ^^^M^l, -•fl, -•*!, 'a strong archer.'—- 
wi^ at end for V# m. * virtue,* * duty ;' e. g. ^^HOJ^^il, -^, -§» * virtuous.' — 
^ for ^f. * a load ;* e. g. Tini^yj 'a royal load.' — ^ at the beginning of a few 
eompounds for ^ * not ;' e. g. •f^^WB * a eunuch.* — '^ for ^f^ ' a river ;' e. g. 
^Wn^'the Pafg&b.* — '^ or •f^ for cuf^w 'nose;* e.g. in^lRty -W:, -^1$ 
or mwi , -^, - V^, * sharp-nosed J — 'Hl^ for •flfil f . * the navel ;* e. g. ^nnTWt 
'lotus-naveled/ a name of Vishnu. — ^^fHI for «F f. 'a ship;* but only in Dvigu 
compounds and after ardha (Pi?* v. 4, 99, 100) ; e. g. fttfi^l^* two boats ;' V^tTT^^ 

* half of a boat.* — Vl^ for ^iftF^m. * a road ;* e. g. ^^HR ' a good road.' — ^ and 
in^ (fem. 'Wffi) for VJ^ m, * the foot ;* e. g. ^Tf5w^ * coldness of the feet ;* fk'm^^t 
"^^9 -^j 'a biped;* ^fJ^TT^^'a quadruped.' — ^^ for VJ^ m. 'the foot;' e.g. 
^IHT'* » *"^» "^^9 * g©Mg on foot-' — ^5^ in Dvandvas for ^ m. ' a male ;* e. g. 
^jft^w Bom. du. * man and woman.' — ^J^ for ^TRI f. ' an army.'— W^^ at end of 
Bahu-vrihis (preceded by ^, ^» or ^) for WWT t * people,' 'progeny ;* e. g. ^ffjh 
Wr#i -^f -'K, 'having a numerous progeny.' — ^HH for HV^ m. 'a Brahman ;* 
e. g. '^gV9l *a contemptible Brdhman.* — ^ for ^gfk f. 'the earth ;* e. g. ^^^^Ijn 

* land towards the north.* — ^ in Dvandvas for « f . * the eye-brow ;' e. g. ^Bfft|;^^ 
' eye and brow.* — ^^9 in Dvandvas for H^ n. * the mind ;* e. g. WT^flpW nom. 
du. n. ' speech and heart.' — ^'f^ and «?^ (preceded by f^TOT, WnfT, &c., 754. a) for 
H^'great;* e.g. ftflW?: 'grandfather.' — IT^ at beginning of Karma-dh£rayas 
and Bahu-vrihis for «f^m. f. n. 'great ;' but in Tat-purusha or dependent com- 
pounds iffT^ is retained, as in ^ff^fSTO 'recourse to the great ;* also before ^ 

* become,* and words of a similar import, as W^iin* ' one who has become great ;* 
but ll^l^il*^ ' an dement.' — 1|4 at end of Bahu-vrlhis (preceded by fT, "ftf, &c.) 
for Hjfts^m. 'the head ;* e. g. fiTT^* "^> "^ (^^ ^^- v. 4, "5 5 ^i- ^> ^91)- — 
^H^at end of Bahu-vrihis (preceded by ^, ^, J^, H'SPt, ^) for ^VT f. 'intellect ;' 
c. g. W^I^IIT:, -MH, -V . — ^TI^ for Tif^, after ^, W^, and HH; e.g. ^^tPBR 

* solitary.* — TJIf at end of Karma-dh&rayas and Tat-purushas for tnn^ m. * a king * 
(see 151. a) ; e. g. iTOTTHf : * a supreme monarch ;' ^^T^tHK 'the king of the gods/ 
But occasional instances occur of tHIv^at the end of Tat-purushas ; eg. f^V^H^I?! 

Yy 



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346 CHANQES OF CEBTAIN WOBDS IN CEBTAIK COMPOUNDS. 

gen. 'of the king of Yidaarbha' (Nala xi. 3i). — TX9 at end of Dvigus, Kanna* 
dh^yas, and Dvandvaa, for tvf^ f. 'night;' e.g. ^VfttRP^ 'day and night;' 
f^HTOP^ 'a period of two nights ;* fWRT^ST * midnight.' — c5tf (after W^j ^^y and 
Hfif) for fiiH^ n. 'hair;' e.g. H^tt^Hi, -ITT, -T'^, *with the hair.' — ^Tw in 
Tat-purushas for ^T^ n. * splendour ;' e. g. II«.M^4I*^ 'the power of a Br^Qiman.* 
— ^M^ in Karma-dhdrayas and Bahu-vrihis for wT^n. ' virtue/ * felicity ;' e. g. 
ftf: wWJ, -Tft, -^, * destitute of excellence or happiness.' — ^^ or ^ for ^TO^m. 
* a dog ;' e. g. ^wfTOt, -"^j -"V^, ' worse than a dog ;' ^IM^# ' a beast of prey ;' 
mi^*ni * a dog's tooth.' — ^ at beginning of Avyayi-bhdvas and Bahu-vrOiis for 
^ 'with;' e.g. ^*ll*^ 'with anger;' Vl^l 'accompanied by a son' (ti^^q* 
would be equally correct). — ^ for W\H * same ;' e. g. ^fwpt * one who eats the 
same cake.' — ^nFI in Karma-dhlurayas and Bahu-vrihis for ^?ws n. 'the thigh;' 
e.g. ^nnwt, -Vn, -W*^, 'having no thighs.' — ^WT in Tat-purushas and 
Dvigus for BfilT m. * a friend ;* e. g. KT^WIH * the finend of the winds' (Indra). — 
irnw in Karma-dhdrayas for ^T^n. * a lake ;' e. g. HfW<^*^ * a great lake.' — ^UTT 
(affcerW^y^RyVflT) for ?niT«^n. 'conciliation;' e.g.ll5^IHi,-'TT,-lT'^,* friendly.' 
— "^ for l^ftj m. 'a furrow;' e. g. U^Wt, -HT, -€5*^, ' unploughed.' — ^ for 
^^ n. ' the heart ;' e. g. IgWm ' sleeping in the heart ;' ^^m. ' a friend.' 

779. It is evident from the above list that the most common substitution is that 
of V a for the final vowel or final vowel and consonant of a word. Other stems 
ending in ^^, ^, H^, 1!^, ^, i^, ^, 1^ may add aj as, W^ for W^ in ^H^M^*^ 
'voice and skin;' 'I^ for l|^^ in V^^^I^ * tl^c ?ig »nd Yigur-veda.* AlsoT^ 
for tlT^, 'BI^H for ^^TJ^, ?JTi^ for HT^, &c. Also ^^ for ^^ in ^IT^^ , -^, 
hidf a verse of the Veda ;' and W^^t ' one conversant with the Rig-veda.' 

a. Some words as the first member of a compound lengthen their finals (see 
Pd?. VI. 3, 117 ; VIII. 4, 4) ; e. g. "^tZX before ^^ cftztT^'Wn^^ ' a wood full of 
hollow trees'); WSl^ before fllft (umifuPi: 'name of a mountain'); ft^ 
before TJl^and fiRf (fir^TTTO^ 'a universal sovereign ;' ftmiPua: * Visvimitra'). 
This is more common in the Veda. 

b. Some few shorten their finals, when they stand as the first member, especially 
nouns terminating in "V « or ^^y e. g. ^ for ^ in ^^fTt L ' a frown ;' ifwOu for 
ITT<mft in ^Ul^ir^uy^: 'the son of a harlot' (Pd^. vi. 3, 61): so n(\V«^^f« for 
MUJllHMlii: 'endowed with good fortune ' (Ram&y. 1. 19, 31). 

c. A few feminine words inWl d (such as nini, ^fMT, f«nRTy ^TTcVT, ^•^i) may 
be made neuter at the end of certain compounds ; e. g. ^^/VT^n^' the shade of 
sugar-canes ' (Pd?. 11. 4, 22) ; ll^|l|^ * a shady place ;' ^'ni,««n^ * an assembly of 
princes;' ^ffTM>^ 'an assembly of women;' Hl^r«f5l»^ (or -S[IT) 'a night when 
dogs howl.' 

d. A sibilant is sometimes inserted between two members of a compound ^ as, 
imrftniH (for lim.t^^H ) 'expiation of sin;' ^PClRTt^ 'mutually:' cf. IHFI^ 
'place.' 

780. Numerals, when preceded by particles, prepositions, or otiier numeialf, 



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COMPOUND VERBS. 847 

may change their finals to^aj or if their final letter be a consonant, may either 
drop that consonant or add W a to it ; thus, ik?r (nom. -?n^9 -?n^» -?nftlT) 
'two or three;' t|Hl[ (nom. -^IH^, -^"H^, -*flOO), 'five or six;' "^T^^J^ (nom. 
-n^) * nearly fonr.' 

781. ^f^H^ is found in the beginning of certain anomabus compounds (such as 
^mnpt, W?«lfNr, &c.) for ir^' I.' 

SECTION n. 
COMPOUND VERBS. 

782s. It might be supposed that 2000 simple roots (74. b) would 
convey every possible variety of idea, and that the aid of prepositions 
and adverbial prefixes to expand and modify the sense of each root 
would be unnecessary. But in real fact there are comparatively 
few Sanskrit roots in common use; and whilst those that are so 
appear in a multitude of difierent forms by the prefixing of one or 
two or even three prepositions, the remainder are almost useless 
for any practical purposes, except the formation of nouns. Hence 
it is that compound verbs are of more firequent occurrence than 
simple ones. 

They are formed in two ways : ist, by combining roots with pre- 
positions or prefixes ; andly, by combining the auxiliaries ^ ^ to do^ 
and ^^to be' with adverbs, or nouns converted into adverbs. 

Compound Verbs formed by combining Prepositions and Prefixes 

with roots. 
783. The following list exhibits the prepositions chiefly used in 
combination with roots : 

a. '•ifw atif 'across/ 'beyond,' 'over;* as, ^ffiRT, Wift (pres. ^toAt, &c.), 
vfimi^, 'to pass bj,' 'to pass along/ 'to transgress.' 

6. ^Blftl adMj 'above,' 'upon,' 'over;' as, vftlfl 'to stand over,' 'to preside' 
(pres. Wftlftf^rftr) ; wftlCT ' to dimb upon ;' nfv^O 'to lie upon ;' wfini'^ 'to 
go over towards;' W^ 'to go over,' in the sense of 'reading.' The initial W a 
IB rarely rejected in Epic poetry ; as, "fiffini for wflfftw. 

c. Wg a«tt, 'after;' as, ^1^^ * to follow;' ^X^^ 'to stand by,* 'to perform;* 
Wgpf ' to imitate ;' H^H«^ ' to assent ;' ^S^^' to experience,' ' to eiqoy/ 

d. VJf^ojUar, 'between,' 'within' (Gr. h-rog ; Lat. in-tus, inter); as, WW^ 
* to place within,' * to conceal,' in pass. ' to vanish ;' ^PiT^' to be within ;' VlfW^ 
'to walk in the midst.' 

e. Wl| apa, 'off,' 'away,' 'firom' (oaro); as, ^nnW[, Vl^, W^ (from Wl| and 
^)> 'to go away;' W^pft ' to lead away ;' fniy|^' to abstract;' WW^ 'to bear 
away.' It also implies ' detraction ;' as, ^HV^ ' to defame.* 

Y y a 



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348 coKPO\jm> virbs, 

/. ^irfil opt, *oV 'oret^ («»'0> •nfy i>««d ^^ VI and ^; m» irf^WT *to cover 
orer;' nf^V^ 'to bmd oiu^ The initial V a is often njjeetwly lecving ftm, fHn|. 
' ^. ^h6? ttbhi, ' to/ * unto,* * towards ;* as, llfilHI,-wft, 'to go towards 5' 1^*1- 
VT^'to run towards;' wftl'^* to behold;* ^»l^ or wfilVT (see HT «t 664) 'to 
address,' 'to accost,' 'to sp^ to,* 'to saktte/ 

A. W^ ava^ 'down,* 'o£F;' as, ^R5^, ^'WTl, *to deseead;* IR^'to look 
down ;' Vn ' to tlirow down,* ' to scatter;* V^^^l ' to cut off.* It also implies 
'disparagement;' as, V49I *to despise;' ^iRfftl'^'to insult.' With MT, 'to 
attend.' The initial W a may be optionaQy rejected from IRTT^ ' bathing.' 

i. W d, 'to,' 'towards,' ' near to' (Latin ad); as, inf^^' to enter;* ^RTH^ to 
go towards;' VT^ 'to mount up.* When prefixed to l^^t 'Vl, and ^9 'to go,* 
and 1^ ' to give,' it reverses the action ; thus^ «ii*^, MiUi, F^ 'to come;' VH^ 

* to take.' With ^, 'to practise.' 

J. ^ ud, 'up,' 'upwards,* 'out* (opposed to ftf); as, TIT^ (48), vfij, 'to go 
up,' 'to rise ;' ^|^ 'to fly up ;' ^^«^ 'to strike up' (^ and ^, 50); 'W^ {9^ and 
(J, 50) 'to extract;' vf^H^ and 5*Hl€^ (47) 'to open the eyes;' "Ji^> '9^*^, 
'to cut up;' T^^ 'to root up;' ^fft? 'to lift up' (^ and fff, 49). 

When prefixed immediately to ^917 and fn«^ it causes the elision of $j as, 9rs% 
'to stand up;' TW^^to prop up.* In some cases it rereraes the action; as, 
from tf^ 'to bend down,* 9^^^ (47) 'to raise up ;' from ip^ 'to keep down^' QH^ 
'to lift up.' 

k. ^R vpa (opposed to apa), 'to,* 'towards' (t^o), 'near,' 'down^' 'under,' joined 
like W and w5t to roots of motion; as, ^nm 'to approach;' ^^Vl^ *to wait 
upon;' ^^TWT 'to stay near,' 'to be present/ *to arrive.' With ftn^ (d. 6, 
aHp T ^lQ l), 'to sit down;' with ^n^, 'to sit near.* 

Obs. — ^^R with Wy^fW (from T^) ^ T^Wk * he bmms ;* see 784. a. 

I. fn fit (thought to be for primitive awi; at Lat. tn, Gr. (V^ ^ ^^)» ' "»,' 'o^^' 

* down/ ' downwards,' ' under* (opposed to ^>; as> f^Rl^* to &11 down;' fdfl'J 
*to suppress;' ftfOn^ and ftfifh^ 'to close the eyes;* f^fftn, ftWT, <»l^, 'to 
lay down,' * to deposit ;* f»Tf^5^ 'to go within,' * to encamp.' With 'Jl^, * to return,' 
'to desist;' with ^^9 'to hear.' In some cases it does not alter, cor simply 
intensifies the sense ; as, ^f^ ' to kill outright.' 

IB. ftr^ nM, ' out ;' as, ftT*W^ (6^. a), f*ifl*^, Ofi^, ' to go out,' ' to come out ;' 
"ftr^H^'tocutup;' fn^i^ * to come to an end/ 'to cease;' fiffn'to determine.' 

n. ^irr pard, ' baek«' ' backwards ' (vopo), combined with flf and ^ in the sense 
of 'defeat;' as, V^Jtf^ 'to overcome' (cf. vapcanKOM); ilU^'to be defeated.' 
With ^ cL J, it signifies ' to retreat' (pres. ITtf^V); with 1( ogr V^ cL i, JLUxl, 'to 
TWa away/ pard being changed to paid (pres. sroi^)* 

0. '^ftpari, 'around/ 'about* (vept, per); as, ^ift^f ^^^^i *to aioroaad/ 
Itfr^j'lftilH, 'to go round/ inft^ 'to look xound/ 'to examine/ 'ift^'to 
turn round ;' ^fbll^' to run round.' When prefixed to ^ it signifiee 'to adom/ 
and ^ is inserted, ^?fc>f • With ^ *te despise,' and with ^» 'to aroid.' it 



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OOlCPOmSTD TSRBS. 840 

■ometimes merely grvw itAauaty or oompleteneM to tiie aGtaon; m, ^ftlQ^^to 
Abttndon aHogetber$' if^fll 'to atcorta&n oomplotelj/ 

p. "R proy ^before,* 'lorwird* (»/»o, /iro, jw«)5 m, HH^, 9^9 'to proceed;' 
inP^' to set before/* to preeeot;' VfP(* to begin;' H^' to proceed/ 'to begin;* 
. mfl^'toTonforwird;' Hl^if 'to eet out/ 'to advmaoe;' H^' to be superior/ 'to 
prevail ;' Wip^^ ^ to fereeee.' With W\y * to deeeire.' 

. 0]^.^**V with ^Q^SfV 'he goes/ in»kes VTlifw (or Vritfll) ' he goes on quickly' 
(38./) ; H with Wl, causal stem of H^^* to go/ mskee ftwuifil ' I sei|4** Similarly, 
V + inn^s^dlll^'hetremUes;' and "R + wWlf (fiKnu V<IQ c= MfpiHs 'ha bums/ 
See 784. c 

The r of j^rainfloenoes a following n by 59; flui,VP(^ to bend before,' 'to salute/ 
Bwoetimes H does not alter the sense of a root, as in HT^' to obtain' (9ee 68i)« 

q. Tf^ proH, 'against/ 'to/ 'towards/ ^near/ 'at,' *back agjun' (w^pV); as, 
irfff^'to fight against;' HTft 'to go towards' (pres. IlRf<f) ; nflfl^ 'to go 
towards/ ' to return ;' Hfif^' to dwell near or st / TiflRf ' to counteract / Hftf^ 
'to beat back/ *to repel/ TtflfW^'to answer/ nfiR^'to recover/ irfinft 'to 
lead back / nfipf^ ' to re-salute/ With ^, 'to promise / witii ^, *to arrive at/ 
' to obtain / with ^^9 ' to wait for/ ' to expect.' 

r.f^viy 'apart/ 'asunder/ implying 'separation/ 'distinetion/ ' di8tribiition«' 
'dispersioB'<La(andis-); as«fV|^ 'to wilder about;' "Pt^c^ * to vacillftte / "ftr^ 
'to ream iox pl«wure;' ftPI *to dissipate/ f^ 'to tear asunder/ fw^^'to 
divide/ frPQT^ ' to distinguish.' Sometimes it gives a privative signification ; as, 
r«i3«^'to disunite/ "ftf^ 'to forget/ fmSi 'to selL' Willi ^, 'to change for 
the worse.' Sometimes it has little apparent influence on the root ; as, f^^H^ ' to 
perish/ or 'to peiish entirely / W^W^ 'to i^iink.' 

s. ^ fam» 'with/ 'together with' (a«y, con); as» irfif, 'Hff > **® ooUeet/ 
irj^' to join together/ V JP^ ' to meet iogetiier / VP)I^ 'to happen;' ^Srf^f^'tp 
contract/ With If it signifies 'to perfect/ and ^ is ineertedi 9^> It is often 
prefixed without altering the senye ; as, fl^«|^ ' to be produced/ 

t, ^ diu, 'badly/ and ^ nc^ ' well/ are also prefixed to verbs or verbal deriva- 
tives; see 726. d,f. 

«. Also other indeidinable prefixes ; thus, 1IW*( ' decline ' is compounded with 
^in the sense of 'to go down,' 'to set;' fVT^ ' across,' with MT in the sense of 
* to conceal,' with f^ * to disappear,' with If ' to revile ;' \TH^ with VT ' to believe.' 

784. Two prepoeitionfl are ofikeu oombined with ft root ; as, ^mxx^ 
(f%+ilT) *to open;^ iiT^(d. 10) *to kill;* ^m»l^(¥^ + w) 'to go 
under,* ' to undergo/ * to arrive at ;* Tl^ (^ + ^ + rt. ^) ' to assemble ;* 
llfio^(TI + f5T, 58) *to prostrate one^s self;' iftl (11 + ^ + rt ^) ' to 
raise up:* and occasionallj three ; a8,inqn(i| + ^ + w) 'to predict;* 
mj^ (ttftf + ^ + wr) 'to answer/ Other combinations of three 
pi^positionfl, occasionally prefixed to roots, are 9 + TV + VT; trfk + 
f» + ^; ?J + wfH+Ti; iR+?ff4-ii; ini + ?l+f%. 



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350 COMPOUND VBBBS. 

a. Observe — Final W a and ^ <f of a preposition combine with the mttial 
^ ft of a root into dr^ and are rejected before initial ^ e and ivt o (except in forms 
from the roots ^ f» 'to go/ and ^^ 'to increase), see 38./.^/ and see V and 
'n above : but in other cases prepositions ending in vowels combine with roots 
beginning with vowels according to the rules of Sandhi ; thus, VT with ^ ' to go' . 
becomes ^ (32), and in pres. %ftj (^ + wfk 33), &c. ; in impf. Wip^, ^ (645, 
33)» &c. ; in pot. JHlf^ (^ + ^T'^'l)* ^^' '* ^ i™P^- ''l^lfW (^ + ^nftf), &c. 
Similarly, IR with ^ftf becomes IRftl by 33. 

b. Observe also, a sibilant is generally inserted between the prepositions ^f^, 
9^9 ^ftf Vfify 9^9 and the roots ^ ' to do' and V 'to scatter ;' see above under 
^ift and ^'^. Similarly, from W^ and W is formed IR^I^ * excrement.' 

c. The final t of ^Brfw» vfHy Vft, f^> is optionally lengthened in forming certain 
nouns from compound verbs ; as, VfflHK} Wft'int, ^rttfRf, 'ftHIT. 

785. In conjugating compound verbs formed with prepositions, 
neither the augment nor the reduplication change their position, 
but remain attached to the root * ; as, 'il^^Pl'^, impf. of ift, with iific; 
7qTf%^9 impf. of f^, with irq; ^H^^fire^, imp£ of WT, vfiih w^; 
ufk^Ml^, per£ of ^, with ufir; llHv^, perf. of f, with H and ^. 

a. In the Veda, as in Homer, prepositions may be separated from 
the root by other words ; as, ^ iWT flnnji * let them enter thee.' 

786. Grammarians restrict certain roots to either Parasmai-pada 
or ^tmane-pada when in combination with particular prepositions 
or when peculiar meanings are involved f* Most of the examples 
specified by Pdnini (i. 3, 1—93) are here added. The 3rd sing, 
present will be given, the termination either in ti or ie marking the 
Pada to which in each case the root is supposed to be limited. 

Vl^ 'to throw' is generally Parasmu, and 9f 'to reason' is generally 
Atmane, but combined with any preposition may take either Pada.^ — If 'to do/ 
anU'karoH, 'he imitates;' adhi-kurute, 'he overcomes;' ut^kurute^ 'he informs 
against,' 'reviles;' ud-d-kurute, ' he reviles;' upa-kuruie, ^ he worships;' t^ia-t- 
kurute (784. b), 'he prepares ;' upa^-karoti, 'he polishes ;' pard-karoti, 'he rejects ;' 
pra-kurute^ 'he offers violence,' 'he recites (stories).' — '^ 'to scatter ;' apas-kkate 
(784. b)f 'he (the cock) throws up earth;' but apa-kirati, 'he scatters (as flowers).' 
— H!'^ 'to go ;' d'kramaie, * he (the sun) ascends ;' but d-hrdmati when not in the 



* There are a few exceptions to this rule in the Mahd-bh4rata ; as in ^ 
(Johnson's Selections, p. 33, L 14). 

t In Epic poetry, however, there is much laxity; e.g. ^and 1IT^» which 
are properly Atmane-pada verbs, are found in Parasmai. Instances of passive verbs 
taking Parasmai terminations have been given at 461. c. On the other hand, 1p^ 
'to rejoice,' which is properly Parasmai, is found in Atmane. 



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COMPOUND YBBBS. 851 

* 
sense of ^ the rising of a luminAry, &c.;' vi-kramate, 'he (tHe horse) steps out;' 
but vt-krdmati, ' it (the joint) splits in two ;' vpa'kramate or pra-kramate, he is 
valiant ;* but typa-hrdmati, * he approaches ;' and pra-hrdmati, * he departs.' — lit 
* to buy;' ava-kHi^e^ pari-kr^e, *he buys;' vi-kHi^^e, 'he sells;' but itW alone 
takes either Pada. — ifff^ *to play;' d-kH^ote or anu^krufate, 'he sports;' pari- 
Mfate, ' he plays about ;' san-kr^te, * he plays ;' but san-kHdati, ' it (the wheel) 
creaks.' — ^ftjU^'to throw;' aH-kskq>ati, *he throws beyond;' abhi-kshipati, *he 
throws on ;' prati-kshipaH, 'he throws back or towards.' — ^ *to sharpen ;' san-' 
ktkifMte^ *he sharpens.'— ip^ * to go ;' d-gamayate, ' he delays or waits patiently ;' 
vyHiti-gad6hanti, 'they go against each other ;' san-gaSdhati when motion towards 
anything is implied, as ' he goes towards (the village);' but ^tm. in the sense of 

he goes with' or 'agrees with.' — 'T *to swallow;' san-girate/ he promises,' 'he 
proclums ;' but sart^raH, 'he swallows ;' ava-girate, * he swallows.* — ^^ 'to go ;' 
«^(for udy6ariUe, 'he goes astray;' u6-6aratiy 'it (the tear) overflows;' san^rate 
or sam-^tdH£'6arate, * he goes in a chariot.' — ftf ' to conquer ;' vi-jayate,pard''jayate, 

he conquers ;' with other prepositions ji is generally Parasmai. — 9T ' to know ;' 
apu'-jdnitet 'he denies (the debt);' pratijdn^e or san-jdnUte, 'he acknowledges.' 
Without a prep, this root is restricted to either Pada if certain meanings are 
involved; as, sarpisho (for sarpishd) jdn(te/ he engages (in sacrifice) by means of 
ghee ;' gdaf^jdmiUe, 'he knows (his own) cow ;' stodqi gdijijdndti oTJdnite, 'he knows 
hb own cow.' — ^^ 'to lead ;' un (for ud)'nayate, * he lifts up ;' vpa-nayaU, * he invests 
(with the sacred thread) ;' vi-nayate, ' he pays,' or ' he grants,' or ' he restrains ;' vi- 
nayati, 'he takes away' (the anger of his master) ; vi-nayati, 'he turns away (his 
cheek).' Without a prep, this root is Atm. if it means 'to excel,' or 'to ascertain.' — 
■g to praise ;' d-mUe, ' he praises.' — 11^* to bum ;' ut-tapati or vi-tapati^ 'he warms ;' 
ut-tapateotvi'tc^ate/ it shines,' 'he warms (his own hand).' Without a prep, this root 
is Atm., d. 4, if it means 'to perform penance.' — ^ 'to give ;' d-datte, * he receives ;' 
vy-d-daddti, ' he opens (his mouth) ;' vy-d-datte, 'he opens (the mouth of another) ;' 
san^'ya^hatey 'he gives' (as ddtyd, 'to the female slave,' the instr. being used for 
the dative). — "5^^**^ ®®® j' sam-paiyate, 'he considers thoroughly.' — ^'IT^'to ask 
for;' always Atm. if used with gen., as madhuno ndthate, 'he asks for honey.' — 
H^ to ask ;' d'pfid^hate, 'he bids adieu to ;' sam-priddhate, 'he interrogates.' — 
^l^'to eat' is Atm. if it means 'to eat,' 'to possess,' or 'to suffer ;' but Par. if it 
means 'to protect.' — ^*to bear;' pari-mfishycUi, 'he endures or forgives.'—* 
^n^ 'to restrain ;' d-yaddhate, '(the tree) spreads ;' d-yaddhate, 'he stretches out (his 
hand);' but d-yaddhatif ' he draws up' (as a rope from a well); upa-yaddhate, ' he 
takes (a woman) to ^e;' but upa-yaddkati, 'he takes the wife (of another);' 
d-ya^hate, 'he puts on (clothes) ;' ud-yaddhatCy 'he takes up (a load);' but ud- 
yaddhati, 'he studies vigorously (the Veda, &c.);' sam-yaddhate, 'he collects' (or 
stacks as rice, &c.) — ^'^^'to join ;' ud-yunkte, 'he makes effort ;' anu-yunkte, ' he 
examines ;' nuyunkte, ' he appoints ;' pra-yunkte, ' he applies ;' but pra-yunakH, 

he sets in order (sacrificial vessels).' — ^T?^ 'to sport;' upa-^amaii, 'he causes to 
refrain*;' d-ramaii^ 'he rests;' vi-ramaH^ 'he ceases.' — ^<^ *to cut;' tTy-ati- 

* This is an instance of a simple verb involving the sense of a causaL 

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36a OOMPOUKD VERBS. 

tuH^e, ' be performs outting (of wood) wliich waf the office of another/ — ^ 't» 
tfpetk;' tfnti-rada/e, 'he epetke alter or like' (with gm.); but ostM^adii/t, 'k» 
lAiltates' (as giram, 'a yoke,' aoc.) ; tqta-wuUae, ' he coaxes,' ' he advitea -/ ti-pra^ 
vadanU or pi^pra-uadanti, 'thej dispute ;' sam^pra-vadante, 'thej speak together;' 
but safn'pra-wuUmti,* ihey (the birds) sing together;' apa'Vadate,^heftmk8 im- 
properly ;' but apa-vadatif ' he speaks against/ Without prep, vad is Kim., 'to b» 
learned in interpreting' (the S^iistras), or 'to be earnest m the studj of anything' 
(as agriculture, &c.) — ^^ *to carry;' pr »-«aAa<t/ it (the liver) flows along/ — 
fW^ 'to knowi' sa^-vittif 'he is conscious;' saqi^wdate or stu^-vidruU, *thcj ar» 
conscious ' (308)."— f^H* to enter ;' id-wiaU, * he enters/— -?P^* to swear ;' 4ap<a§t 
'he swears at' (with dat.) — '^ 'to hear ;' setji-ifiii^ti, 'he hears (the ipeech);' but 
tan^ijtii^e, 'he hears well' (intransitivdy). — Wt 'to stand;' wa^H$k(kaU^ 'he 
waits patiently;' pra-tiskthate, 'he sets out;' vUttMhfkaie, 'he stands apart;' mm- 
tUhfhaU, ' he stays with ;' tqM-tishfhate, ' he warships,' ' he attends on/ Without 
prep. t/A^ takes the Atmane when it denotes 'adhering to/ ' giving one's self up 
to shewing amatory feelings' (P&9. i« 3» J3X m tUklhate gop< Kpth^a, 'the 
shepherdess gives herself up to Krishna / but vpa'i%$h^hati^ ' he watts on' (not in 
a religious sense, and governing an aco.); ut^tishikate/ hb aspires' (to sahniion); 
but ut'H$h^hatiy 'he rises' (ftom a 8eat).*^|['^'to strike ;' d-htUt (see 654), 'he or 
it strikes' (' himself or itself/ the object being omitted); but d-%miiH njriskabkam, 
'he strikes the bull/- — '^ 'to sound;' sw^-mjarate, *it sounds dearly.' — M*io 
seise ;' anu-haraie, 'he takes after' (the disposition of hk father or motberX other- 
wise anu'karatu'-^'^ ' to call ;' npa-kvayate or m-koaffate at vi-hvay€Ut or sam^ 
Tnayate^ 'he calls,' 'he invokes;' d-hpayate, ^ho chaQengea' (an enemy); but 
d-kvayaHp 'he ealls' (his son). 

a. Some eausals are also restricted to either Parasmai or Atmane, aoeonUng to 
the preposition prefixed or the meaning involved ; thus the causal of n with ^ift, 
meaning ' to bewitch/ is Umited to Atm. So also, ^ ' to be greedy,' when its 
causal means 'to deceive,' is restricted to Atm. : and the causal of '^^^ meaning 
' to deceive,' takes Atm. ; meaning ' to avoid,' Par. Again, ^ in the causal, when 
joined with nUthyd, and signifying 'to pronounce badly,' takes Par. ; but only in 
the sense of doing so once. In the sense of 'causing a false aham' it requires Atm.; 
but the above specimens will suffice to shew the little profit likely to be derived 
from pursuing this part of the subject fsrther. 

Compound Verbs formed by combining Adverbs loith ^ and ^< 

787. These are of two kinds : ist, those fonned by combining 
adverbs with ^ *to make* and ^*to become;* andly, those formed 
by combining nouns used adverbially with these roots. 

a. Examples of the first kind are^ irc9|f ' to adorn ;* ivrf^ ^ to 
make manifest* (see 72) ; ^ff^^ * to eject ;* ^t^ ' to pkioe in front,* 
'to follow;* fspfTip 'to deprive;* wtf^ 'to entertain as a guest;' 
^!i!^ 'to revere;* TlT^)T1|^ WJ'L '^ become manifest,* &c. 



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COMPOUKD ADYfiBBS. 363 

788. In forming the second kind, the final of a stfem, being a or d, 
18 changed to {; as^ from wntt ^niAf ^to make ready/ ^emft^^to 
become ready/ from fW, f^^l^ * to blacken ;* from ^ftm^ti ditch,* 
iffc^lftf ^to convert into a ditch :' and sometimes a becomes d; ss, 
finnip ^to please/ firom fm» A final t or ti is Jengthoied; as^ from 
^|fw, ^f^ft^J, * to become pure ;* from l^, H^ ' to lighten/ A final 
ft is changed to 4 ri; as, from HTf, «l79f)^'to become a mother/ 
A final as and cm become (; as, fifom ^pR^, ^'V^^. ^ to be of good 
mind / fit)m TT9|3(, tfift^ ^ to be a king/ 

a. But the greater number of compounds of this kind are formed from nominal 
fftems in a. The following are other examples; f^lftlf 'to esteem as a straw;' 
«i«0^ ^ to stiffens' ^irf^VW^'to fix the mind on one object;' Ifft^f * to make or 
daiiB as one'j own;' H^ft^'to become friendly/ Substantiyes are sometimes 
formed from theses as, ^^ffhVT^ 'the state of being finendlj/ ' tnendMp,* 

Obs. — ^This change of a final to i before kfi and bM is technically said to be 
caused bj the suffix 4vi, and the change to iC by ^. 

b. These compounds often occur as passive partidples; thus, Vc9VIT 'adorned ;* 
Hl^^^ become manifest;' ^rajt^ 'made ready;' M^R ^%ht6ned;' 4^1 •<- 
Hft^ * to be agreed to/ 

789. Sometimes ^971^, placed after a nominal stem, is used to form a compound 
verb of this kind; as, from WS 'water/ if^HIVf 'to reduce to liquid |' from 
H9li^'asbes/ H^TRITf ^57) 'to reduce to ashes.' Ct 735. a^ 

SECTION nL 
COMPOUND ADVEEBS. 

790. Compound adverbs are formed, ist, by combining adverbs, 
prepositions, and adverbial prefixes, with nouns in the ace. singular 
neuter ; andly, by placing adverbs, or adjecdves used as adverbs, 
after nomipal atems. 

a. The first kind are identical with indeclinable compoimds (760). 

791. Most of the adverbs at 731 may be placed after the stems 
of nouns ; thus, ^ i cl^^llitiM*^ * near the child -/ r^T^ * for the sake 
of protection;* iniT^ *for the sake of oflfepring;* ftinj^ *on what 
account?* ^^NnHQpTirti^^ after uttering a sound.* See also 777. d. 

J 793. The indeclinable participle ITO*"!, * having begun/ is joined with HW, ' to» 
daj' (frarrc^), in the sense of 'from this time forward;' and with the stems of 
fwords to express ' beginning from ;' see 935. IPfflT is used adverbi^y in the same 
■sense; as, Ipmnjffw 'from birth upwards;* ir^m^fll 'from that time forward* 
(see 917). . 

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654 SYNTAX, 

CHAPTER IX. 

SYNTAX. 

793. Sanskrit syntax, unlike that pi Greek and Latin^ oSen 
fewer difficulties than the other portions o£ the Grammar. In fact, 
the writer who has fiilly explained the formation of eompounds haa 
Ulready more than half completed his exposition of the laws which 
regulate die order, arrangement, and allocation of the words in a 
sentence {vdkgorvinydia^ vdkya-viveka^ paddnvaya). 

794. Observe — ^In the present chapter on Syntax, that the suliject may be made 
as clear as possible, each word will be separated from the next, and vowels will 
not be allowed to coalesce, although sach coalition be required by the laws of 
combination. When compounds aire introduced, a dot will generally be placed 
underneath, to miiriL the division of the different members. Mudi vagueness 
and uncertainty, however, may be expected to attach to the rules propounded, 
Vhen it is remembered that Sanslqit literature consists almost entirely of poetry, 
and that the laws of syntax are ever prone to yield to the necessities of metrical 
composition. 

THE ARTIOLH. 
;^95. There is no indefinite article in classical Sanslqnt; but 
Wf^ {22S) and in modem Sanskrit ^m (too) are sometimes used id 
supply the place of such an article ; thus, ^nf^Ii^ 11^ ^ in a certain 
country ;' irfoi^ ^pTTH: * a certain jackal^ The definite article may 
not \mfi*equently be expressed by the pronoun ir^ (220); thus, 9 ^^^ 
may mean simply ^ the man/ not necessarily * that man.' It is, 
Jiowever, more commonly omitted, and KE when joined to a noun 
must generally be translated by * that.' 

OOKCORD OF THE VERB WITH THE NOMINATIVB CASE. 
796. The verb mui^ agree with the nominative case in number 
and person ; as, ^ tl^^nfilT * I must perform.' 

a. Other examples are, )RP^ wq^H^ 'do thou attend;* ^ ^^iPit 'he gives;* 
Winf 1JJK * we two say ;' ^hIwi ll^t * the pigeons said ;' ^^ f^nms*^ * do you 
two ireflefct ;' ^JJP^ WrtTTT ' do ye come ;' 4l^«fK ^i^HI * good men are honoured ;* 
^rrftf ^TWt 'the wind blows;' ^\Cn I^T^lf! *the moon rises;' ^cfn g»<#^ *the 
flower bbssoms.' 

^ Obs. — ^Of course, therefbre, two nouns in the singular connected by ^ reqnii^ 
the verb hi the dual; as, THIT 'RT) ^ WH^l 'the king and minirtet wait;' 
^nr^ ^^nCpR Givni ' as long as the moon and sun remain.' 



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' (• Th^ podtioQ of the verb is pot ahraji the same as in Boglish. It may some-f 
times come last in the sentence* 

797* When a partioipte takes the place of a finite verb, it must 
agree with the nominatiye in number and gender; as, 9 Tin ^hq 
went ;' VX fm 'she went ;* in^ '^WxA *the two women spoke ;^ TPd 
fw: 'the king was killed;^ ^IHi^iP^ fVWlf^ *the bonds were cut/ 

a. Sometimes, when it is placed between two or more nominatiye cases, it agrees 
with one only ; as, ifl^l^: H^Afwrn 9?ni 'hb wife and son were awakened.' 

h. The foDomng is noticeable \ ilHP^ HIW! VI f^Pf 'fluif'! ITOTfT'^ * kingr 
dom, self, we, and wife were brought (neut. pL) to the state of a stake (to be played 
for),' Kirdt. xi. 47. See also 906. 

e. Very often the copula, or Terb which connects the sul^ject with the predicate, 
is omitted ; when, if an adjective stand in the place of the verb, it will follow the 
mks of concord in gender and number; as, ^A S^^ 'wealth is difficult of 
attainment ;' VHlf fUJ^W * we two have finished eating.' But if a substantive 
ftaod in tiie place of the verb, no ooncord of gender or number need take place ;» 
a^ kst^H^^i ^^ vm^|l( ' successes are the road to misfortune/ 

CONCOBD OF THE ADJBCTIVK WITH THE SUBSTANTIVE. 

798, An adjective, partici{de, or adjective pronoun, qualifying a 
Bubstantive, when not compounded with it, must agree with the 
substantive |n gender, number, and case; as, in^ ^^ir: ^a good 
man;' H^ j:^ ^great pain;' in>^ T^f^ ^^1^ *"^ *^®*® before^ 
mentioned countries ;' ?ftft9 fH?nAir * three fiiends/ 

COKCORD OP THE RELATIVE WITH THE AKTECBDENT. 

799. The relative must, agree with the antecedent noun in gender, 
number, and person ; but in Sanslqit the relative pronoun geAerally 
precedes the noun to which it refers, this noun being put i^ the^ 
same case with the relative, and the pronoun ir^ follows in the latter 
clause ; as, iV9l W^^ ^{^ 9 "Wn^F^ ^ the man who has intellect is 
strong' (lit * of whatever man there is intdlect, he is strong'). 

a. The noun refbrred to b^ t)ie relative may also be joined with W^, as <Q^ 
^[ftr ' fO ^co^i«^J or may be omitted altogether, as ^ WfinnW K^ MI<<I4 
* what you have promised, that abide by ;' ^^P[ ^WWlftl inftniftf wl (^iftffiu 
understood) ftnnVT ^SlITCSVT 'by those (birds) whose young ones were devoured 
an inquiry was set on foot;' VX ll%1i( #Wini^ VT1|^ ^ tnm^ 7^1fi^ TT^^ 
Bi^m4«|*t ^W^ ' he who woidd obtain all objects of sense, and he who desjnses 
tiiem, of the two the despiser Is the best.' 

800. ^e rdajkive jMim^stimes stands alone> an antecedent nou^ or pronoun beinf^ 

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85ft SYNTAX OP SUBS^ANnTES. 

understood, from wbidi it takes its gender and number; as/^^n^ f% in «T M^l^ 
^rr^TI^^ ' Of what use is scriptural -knowledge (to one) who does not practice 
▼hrtue ?' ^In^ f% ^ ^ ^[^TfW ' What is the use of wealth (to him) who does not 
give?' 

a. Sometimes, though rarelj, the anteced^t noun precedes the relative in the 
natural order; aS| If TIT ^^Al V[^ ^m if ^^ffir ^she is not a wife in whom 
the husband does not take pleasure/ 

8oi. KPfff^ and MmH^ stand to each other in the relation of demonstrative and 
relative ; as, ifrtftjr TOI l^TOT ^Wjftf flUOif Umi**^ ^9Tl%!WTftf 'as many 
products as belong to that island, so manj are to be brought to us/ See also 876. 

a. Similarly, HT^ and VT^ ; as, VT^ ^ 'HTJ^ WW llftnTPir: 'as the 
event occurred, so they related it to him/ Cf. 930. a. 

SYNTAX OP SUBSTANTIVES. 
80a. Under this head it is proposed to explain the construction 
of substantives, without special reference to the verbs which govern 
them ; and for this purpose it will be desirable to exhibit examples 
b^inning with the nominative case. 

Nominative Ckue* 

803. A substantive simplj and absolutely expressed must b^ 
placed in the nommative case; as, f^li^pQ^: *the Hitopadefo;' 
^ifj^lWH * the poem of Bhatti/ 

a. Two nominative cases in different numbers may bd placed in apposition to 
each other; as, g^ifn 9^ 'grass as a bed/ 

Accusative Case. 

804. Substantives are not found in the accusative^ unconnected 
with verbs or participles, except as expressing * duration of time^ at 
^ space.* See 8iu 

Instrumental Case. 

805. This case yields a variety of senses. The most usual is 
that of */Ae Ogent^ and Uhe instrument* or ^means* by which any- 
thing is done ; as, inn ^^9W^) *by me it was said / ^inN {vj^ ^itftnn) 
*by the fowler a snare was laid;* ^<jmi|^^ *by the study of the 
Vedas ;* 4g^^i|m * with one's own eye/ 

8o6» It also has the force of ^ with* in expressing other collateral 
ideas ; as^ W^AiRIT ^R^ * vying with the strong ;* fliiN ll^iw: * con-^ 
versation with a friend;' iMfW: ^mrnp^ 'equality with beasts;' ft|^ 



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fiTNTAX OF 8trBSTAimVB& 85t 

)fhi^ ^ with the knowledge of (his) fkther :' especially when *accomr^ 
panimeni^ is intended; as, flinq^ n^ Uhe master with his pupil/ 
WWHIM^h: * the fifth with myself* i. e./ myself and four others/ 

807. The other senses yielded hj this case are, * through,^ 'by reoion ofy 'on 
Uiccwmt of:^ as, ^f^T^ 'through compassion;' nif ^h^H«i 'on account of 
thafc transgression:' especiaUy in the case of abstract nouns formed with TT 
(80. LXII); as, ^lUnnn 'through infatuation/ 

a. 'According to/ 'by/ as, filftni? 'according to rule;' If ^•^dn 'accordmg 
to my opinion ;' IfTW ' by birth.' 

b, 'The manner* in which anything is done, as denoted in English by the 
adverbial afiftx * ly,' or by the prepositions * in,* * at ;' as, WTJwf * in abundance / 
nifilF 'virtuously;' 'wCTT or ^HbCTT *at pleasure;' ^^n *at ease;' ^R^ 
ftrfil^fT 'in this way;' W^ m^ (ftfWin) 'they both dwell together in great 
intimacy ;' (ipit ^l^^jjlirn llrfiimrfw) nlHI * a king surpasses all beings in 
glory ;' VR^ (^ ^i^ip^) * such a deed must not even be imagined in the mind ;' 
l||«J^^%Mfl * in human form ;' nfilW^ * for a hindrance.' 

808. Substantives expressive of * want ,'* need,* may be joined with the instru- 
mental of the thing wanted; as,^^^! f HlftUH'^'there is no occasion for inquiry;* 
VRT iN%^ ^ HlQllH^ 'there is no need of me as a servant ;' q^«i %|9^ 'there 
is use for a straw.' 

809. ' The price ' for which anything is done may be in the instrumental ; as, 
1|«ff)i: ^TW^ ('nfif <5nifl'^) * for five PuHliias he becomes a slave ;' ^jfi*^ ^w^ 
(fum) 'they fight for great rewards.' Similarly, HTH^lftnT'lTI]^ (^ ^ 
H^niw) ' fortune is not obtained at the price of the sacrifice of life.' 

a« So also '(li^ereiice^hoMii' two things; as, W^T 4l*|ft^ ^ 1?^ ^ii^*^ 'there 
is great diffierence between you and the ocean.' 

b. 'Separation from,* either with or without W^l as, ^loT PimI'i; ^separation 
from a husband ' (or H^ ^ f^^tft). Similarly, f^w^ ^fmi ^ ' separation 
from Hari.' 

c. The English expression 'under the idea that* is expressed by the instrumental 
case of the substantive *jfk; as, mH^JVl' under the idea that he was a tiger.' 

Dmble InstrwneniaL 

810. Sometimes when two substantives come together, expressing Sports* of a 
common idea, they are both placed in the instrumental, instead of one in the 
genitive ; as, ^^p^I ^^T ^T^Tn ' an odour is emitted by the Vakula-plants by 
thebr flowers * (for ^fMMf ^A). Similarly, iri*^ Himill^lHKI ^vnfin^ ^m- 
^it^ir: ' he caused her to revive by her attendants by sandal-water.' 

Dative Case. 
811. This case is of very limited fqpplicability, and its functions^ 
irrespectively of the influence of verbs, ar6 restricted to the expression 



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858 SYNTAX OF BUBfiTAiTTnFEft 

of * the object^ ^ motive,' w * cause' for which anythiiig id done, or 
^the result' to which any act tends; as^ ^W,fi<^iM "for self-aggran- 
dizement ;' HIMfllfn^KliI * for the coij^nteraction of calamity ;' jfffgi ^ 
^m^ ^ irfinnil^ * arms and books (lead) to renown/ 

a. When, as in the last example, Uhe result' or 'end' to which 
anything leads is denoted by this case, the verb i» seldom expressed, 
but appears to be involved in the case itself. The following are 
other examples: n9 mi^ f^^r^hflfs^ Tf^ «pw *where there is 
admixture of poison, then even nectar (leads) to death ;^ V^j^^ 
^tnoi Ulihim ff 9Pir^ * advice to fools (lead3) to irritation, not to 
conciliation;^ ^9 ^11^^ T^^* TPltqnr H HHTm^^Uhat old husband 
was not to her liking ;' ^ xmt wm IT^ ^ W^W * that king was not 
to her liking ;' f^ imi * go for the accomplishm^i^t' (of this matter). 

b. It will be seen hereafter that certain verbs of giomg and rekttinff govern tiia 
dative. Substantives derived from such verbs exercise a simUar influence ; as, 
li**IW ^nf^ ^ the gioing to another ;' ^TRTw *^^*^ * the telUng to anotiier.' 

c. Words expressive of ^satutation* ot^reverenep* are jmned with tho dative; 
as, 'ra^rni vfR ' reverence to Gai^esa;' %^A w ' health to thee.' 

Ablative Case. 
8i2. The proper force of the ablative case is expressed by '/rom ;' 
as, <9tmi^(litv: W^) *fipom avarice anger arises ;' fnt* ^Wl^ 'falling 
from a mountain ;' ^rcnoi ^^im^'from the mouth of the spies/ 

813. Hence this case passes to the expression of various correlative ideas; as, 
^i^iMi^ fufVll^ * a portion of (from) their food :' and like the instrumental it 
very commonly signifies '^ecaifffe,' *by reason 0// *in consequence of/ as, 
^ri,«i^"inul WVn^'on account of the slaughter of cows and men;' WffraT^W- 
Vl\ (^ f«n?^) 'he blames his son for entering inopportunely;' ((IH^H^Ii^ 
'through fear of punishment;' VWt^WJ^^m'by reason of my good fortune;* 
Wconl^ni^lMm^* because (there is) no difference as to the result/ 

a. * According to;' as, ITf^ilTnTSTTI^^' according to. the advice of the minister.' 
Abstract nouns in 79 are often found in tlus case to express some of these ideas; 
as, VvTOrfmi^f^riliirn^' by reason of the unsteadiness of his mind :' especially in 
the writings of commentators ; as, YC^ITnOFTn^' according to what wiQ be said 
hereafter;' fiJ8M^^NrS|Jl/i|C[A^|i^A^^<;ii^'according to the division of touched, 
slightly touched, slightly open, open and conlzacted.' 

814. It also expresses ^through the means* or ^ instrwmentaUtg qfs* as, ipilBTI^ 
^i^^^«i ' caught in the toils through the instrumentality of the jackal;' H whr 
,H,uOj|l«lf^ ('^t ^nf^ )i^1^ 'the alleriation of disease is not effected bylthe 
piere knowledge of the medidne.' 



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STKTl^ OP SUBSTAKTITBS. 85d 

«• ' Tie mam^er ' in wbioh toythmg is done is ohen expressed by tbe ablative ; 
it iaiben used adYerbiaUy(oompare 715)1 as, ^igni^'#ttbdilig«ice,' or "diligently;* 
'WcW^'fwciWy;' f ^t All(^'intb wonder;' 9 M^lill^' figuratively;' IJMI^ 91<^l( 
* tearing up by tbe roots :' or by tbe ablative suffix W^l as, '19^1 A* ' at one's own 
pleasure' (see 719. a. 5). 

6. Tbis case also denotes 'tffier;* as, ^Ol^f^'l^ll^' after separation from tbe 
body;' ffV^HOl^Hlilll^ 'after tbe imprisonment of the cbief;' V^ WPHin^ 
' since bis arrivaL' 

c. So also, in native grammars tbe ablative case is used to express * after j* 
thus, TfP^IP^' after tbe letters ra and Aa/ )|ni^'after tbe letter io/ ^^H^It^II^ 
Hf^^flQi^'it sbould be stated tbat after tbe letters r* Mid K tbe eerebral 9 1^ ii 
substituted in place of tbe dental «(«.' 

d. In reference to Hme^ * within j* as, f)|«««|ii^^ witbin tbree fortnigbts.* 

e. Nouns expressive of *fear * are joined witb tbe ablative of tbe thing feared; 
as, ^pJt^H^' fear of death;' ^TtlftH^'fear of robbers/ 

QenHwe Ca$e. 
815. This and the locativie case are of the most extensive applica- 
tion, and are often employed, in a Fague and indeterminate manner, 
to express relations properly bdiongnig to the other cases. 

a. The true fcrce of the genitive is equivalelit to * of! and this 
case appears most frequently when two substantives are to be con- 
nected, so as to present one idea ; as, f)|?r9 ^R^ ^ the speech of a 
friend \* HJh ^IT^: imf ^^^^S\ * the best ornament of a woman is her 
husband;^ i| HW? ^ ^wt ^TOB^ 5 11^91 *man is not the slave of 
man, but the slave of wealth.' 

8i6. 'Pofffetttoii ' is frequentiy expressed bf the genitive case alone, without a 
verb ; as, ?I%K li*MH^4^ TfPI nn^i 1IFI IHW^ *all riches belong to bim who 
has a contented mind;' ^fsA<l| ^IFI t!T^ ^^^ '^PJ sm I in possessing 
such a wifb.' 

«• It often, however, has tbe force of ' to,' and is very generally used to supply 
the place of the dative: as, OTBT HTHTlftSiATT: 'one's own lifo is dear to one's 
self;' ^ '^IMW^ J[t ^IWMIW fiP^f 'a hundred Yojanas is not fur to one 
bosttaawaybytbirst (of gain);' flkll91^VTS^Vf%f^ll^'Wbat isuiduiown totiie 
wise?* f^inMFl(9«nF^)V^'Wbatdoesalamp(Bbew)toablmdman?' 
flh <m m^^ TJirt 'What offence have I committed towards tbe king;' fi|l^ 
^np^ V9n% (^ 9>f^} ' What can this man do to us T 

b. And not unfreqnently of 'ta' or 'on/ as, fSft^ Oi^mi 'confidence in 
women ;' W^ nnnni'^ ' dependence on me.' 

c It is even equivalent occarionally to *frfm* or ' by^ as usually expressed bgr 
the ablative or instrumental; as» W IF^ITf^ (^^VHN 'Ital^HlJ 'one ought not to 



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360 SYNTAX OP SUBSTAKTIVBS. 

.accept a present from anj one;* ^n9irk(^miin0'^c^oodu to be abandoned 
by ti»;' ^ Wt ^;9| ^{^ni ^ nillOff f^^Hn *he is blessed from whom sup- 
pliants do not depart in disappointmsnt;' ^1991 ^W^ irf^'meat cooked by 
Jiala.' 

d, 'Difference between two things ' is expressed by the genitive; as, ihO^^^ipfhC 
Wf^ xtmtf^ ' there is great difference between the master and the servant ' (cf. 809. a). 

e. In native grammars it expresses 'in place of/ as, 7X?B t^Tl 'a^ in place of 
f» is followed by raJ 

Locative Case. 
817. The locative, like the genitive, expresses the most diversified 
Telations, and frequently usurps the functions of the other cases. 
Properly it has the force of * in/ * (wi,* or * at/ as expressive of many 
collateral and analogous, ideas ; thus, xj^ * in the night */ Qi^ ^ in 
the village;' ^ *on the back;* wftr fnVTV: * confidence in you;' 
H^^md^i ^fir: * rain on desert ground ;* l|V|H^<|^t|m i n * ^^ ^^ ^^^ 
desire of eating ;* ^fimf ^iftift ^BH ' a tree planted in the earth/ 

' 8i8. Hence it passes into the sense ' towards/ as, ^Ht 9^^ ^'^ ^ * leniency 
jtowards an enemy as well as a friend;' ^1^^^ ^pn 'compassion towards aH 
creatures;' ^V^ ^wftWR 'upright towards firiends;' ^f AJ^A^^ %^i^ T^'^*a 
hundred good offices are thrown away upon the wicked;' •fft'^^l^: *love for 
Nala ;' 1l^^l'^ ^•JiUU * affection for her/ 

819. Words signifying cause,^ ' motive,' or * need ' are joined with the locative ; 
as, ^RTHW t5» **^® ^^^^ ^ ^ modesty;* ^JJITcWtj f'RJ^ H^^^ ftf^Tf^ 
'your speech was the cause of the war between the two princes;' lll^^iNl^t 
?nftm '^lUi f^X^ ' the absence of a suitor is the cause of a woman's chastity ;' 
^fhinvf fift HlftilH*^ ' What need of a boat ?' Also words signifying ' employment * 
or ' occupation ; as, ^rtT^n Ifjfti: * engaging in the acquisition of wealth.' 

a. So words derived firom the root yiff usually require the locative; as, 'VW 
^il|^iU||i||'^ 7^"^^ ' I am of service in presenring the Idngdom.' 

h. This case may yield other senses equivalent to ' hy reason qf* ^for' &c ; as» 
^ fit55 *t*"fough my faults;' ^(TO Mi.'UIIW*^ V^m)%^ 'a spy is for the sake 
of examining the terrttoiy of one's enemies;' ^ lV?St<^ 'this is the time for 
battle ;* ^^l^lF'HI^it * disregard for advice ;' W f^^ 1^ Tw ' What anxiety 
about dying in battle !' lil^ H^ McilM*) ' I think the time has come for esca[nng ;' 
^?n9T V'lM ' with the consent of a son.' 

c* It is also used in giving the meaning of a root; as, IH^ 9m^l4 'the root 
grah is in taking,^ i. e. conveys the idea of ' taking.' 

d. In native grammars it expresses 'followed by / thus fvfiT means ' when any- 
thing having an indicatoiy n follows.' So again, •ii*nw Mqw W^Wm %f(F$ * m 
the room of m final in a word followed by any consonant (hal) there is Anusvinu' 
( s. The locative case is often used absolute ; see 840. 



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KOUHS OF PLACE ^191) DZSTAKCE. S&l 

SYNTAX OF NOUNS OF TIME. 

820. When reference is made to any particular division of time, 
the instrumental case is usually required ; as, f^fii^ ^: * in three 
years;' TT^^ffiit Hlft: ^in twelve snonthsl' ^^ ^in an instant;' 
flinnrT miR *In how long time?' Il^^lll: *m hundreds of years;' 
4lc«J^fi|4Uu (or simply m^) *in process of time;' ^v^ 'in a 
month;' vnirinj^ *in the i^ace of a month ;' rKl^ia ^okn ' in so 
much time.' 

821. When duration of time is implied^ the accusative .case is 
generally used; as, i^;^ 'for a moment;' V^44ilc4^ 'for a loi^ 
time;' fin4 WfP{ 'for some time;' rt 'iran *for one month;' 
fhgfik fTTO^ * for twenty months ;' l^ miS^ * for two months ;' ^frfrjjnn^ 
*for a hundred years;' ^^TOTlfh rlWi: * to all eternity ;' ^ nhfn! * fqr 
a hundred years ;' i|jf^ W^Tf^ * for many days.' The instrumental^ 
however, is sometimes used in this sense, and to express pther 
rdatipAs of time ; 3S^ TOf^rf^ ^ wftm ^pW! * having traded for 
twelve years ;' iGmMj^cill; * for a few days :' and even the genitive ; 
as, f^rC9T ^n^FI (or simply fWB?) * for a long time;' ^MM|C4;M "aftep 
a few days.' 

822. When any particular day or £tpoch is referred to, as the dat^ 
on which any action has taken place or will take place, the locative 
may be employed ; as, nMfs^ ff^ * on a certain day ;' (jrt^ flfq% 
*on the third day;' Vl^^^ ^on the twelfth day;' JWI ^nrj^sffif 
* seventeen days from this time.' X)r sometimes the accusative ; as, 

nf TiW i^ S[tn5 iftwftir m ^ id uftr h^ ^nft ijt: * on the night 
when the ambassadors entered the dty, on that night a dream was 
seen by Bharata.' 

a. ,The adverbs at 731 may often be foMnd expressing relations fff 
-iime ; as, ^iHT^ wip\ or TC'^ ^ after six months ;' imritTf or imi- 
Hl^^^iU ^[^ ^ six months ago ;' or (employing the localdve absolute) 
^jif ^t^I^li^ * after a thousand years.' 

NOUNS OF PLA€E AND DISTANCE. 

823. NouQS expressive of * distance or space between two places^ 
(according to Carey) may be in the nominative ; as, fffi llt^ 4tHHIVII<^ 
/a hundred Kos from Soman^th:' but they are more properly in 
the accusative ; as, iftif^ ' for a Tojana ;' lsh{H( ' iot a Kos ;' or 

3 A 



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362 SYKTAX OP ADJECTIVBS. 

in the instrumental ; as, lit^ n?fT * having gone for a Kos/ * The 
place* in which anything is done is expressed bj the locative;, as, 
ft^^inVidarbha.^ 

SYNTAX OF ADJECTIVES. 
Acctuative after the Adjjective. 

824. Adjectives formed from desiderative stems will often be found 
' governing an accusative in the same way as the verbs fix)m wUch 

they are derived ; as, ^P[i_ fWTf^ * desirous of going home '/ ^9*^ 
^R^ft^ 'desirous of obtaining a son ;* i.m\4 flr^^ Mesirous of seeing 
the long/ 

Instrumental after the Adjective. 

825. Adjectives, or participles used adjectively, expressive of 

* want* or * possession,* require the instrumental case ; as, ^sAh ^t^n 

* destitute of wealth ;* %r9: ^rm^W * possessed of riches ;* ^rrfbsn J^ 
inr: * a jar full of water/ 

826. So also of * likeness* ^comparison/ or * equality;* as, n^ 
^BT^^ liik •! >pft ^ H^«rfir * there never has been, nor will there ever 
1)e, any one like him in this world ;* Tdwm^ f^R^ ^R^ * he reads 
like a Brahman;' VJiAl W^ '9^ 'his success was equal to his 
undertakings ;* ifAl WHt ^I9I^ * a wife as dear as life ;* i^ wifftnvt 
^^ * more liberal than (other) kings ;* Xtri^Hm 3^: * equal to the 
8un«' These are sometimes joined with a genitive ; see Szj. b. 

Genitive after the Adjective. 

827. Adjectives signifying *dear to,* or the reverse, are joined 
with the genitive; as, TT^f Ann ^dear to kings ;^ «rtra fifhiri Arh 
^ husbands are dear to women ;* 7f lifoi^ ^Cf^^lTP^ irfinn * women dislike 
nobody ;* ifirt H^ lf%?RirP^ * he is detestable to his ministers/ . • 

a. Adjectives expressive of *fear* may govern the genitive or 
ablative ; as, ^^ >fhn * afraid of the sage/ 

b. Adjectives expressive of * equality y* * resemblance/ ^nmiiUtude/ sometiineB 
require the genitive as well as the instrumental (836) ; thus, ll%9 ^PTt ^equal to 
all;' TOI "vivj^h;/ like him;' ^^[^ ireU * rather like the moon;' •! W^ J^flU 
,WQ^ * nobody is equal to him.' 

c. So also other adjectives ; as, m^m^^! wM ^««fi ^HP^ 'giving advice to 
others is easy to all men ;' '^f^MI^ 7f^: ' worthy of happiness ;' irfn; MIHI^ 
'^ capable of toil ;' IfffTi ^fWtJf^ %nkn(non to Dhf ita-i^htn ;' ^rt'W iraR 'com- 
petent for duty/ 



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SYNTAX OF THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE DEGREE. 368; 

Locative after the A^ective. 
828, Adjectives^ or participles used adjectively, expressive of 

* power' or * ability/ are joined with a locative ; as, m^ ^^fifT ^hbt: 
'horses able for the journey;^ Hfftl ^a^ Ipft Txm *a king who is a 
match for a great enemy ;' Wfl^ TC*^ ^WT ^I^MH^ * unable to 
build a house, but able to demolish one.^ 

a. So also other adjectives; as, 9^3 W^ ^skUled in anns;' ^rai^ Wnj: 
'wise in trifles;* Wfti 'i^ftllt ftrt# ^ ^TPft * Is your master attacked or adoerse 
to yon V Wgiftftrj •i»^i^^ 'neglectful of his dependants.' 

SYNTAX OF THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE DEGREE. 

Sag. Adjectives in the comparative degree require the ablative 
case ; as, J^ W^^^f^ nrhrtt * a wife dearer even than one's life ;^ 
S^.^^^l, ^f^riTT: ^RnfH c9ti)r ^ f^wik * there is no pleasanter touch in 
this world than the touch of a son;* ^^iTT^ IIH I ,l>«<irf Wtl *the pro- 
tection of one's subjects is better than aggrandizement ;' tf inft (719.0) 
jrftnniT: yn^^ uftj * there is not a more wretched man than I -/ 
irfinf Wc^ ^c^fhnft * mind is more powerfid than strength.' 

830. Sometimes they govern the instrumental; as, m^ finnrn 
^dearer than life ;' ff wftff miT i|f^ ii(#|^h|JI|A<I ^ * there is nobody 
upon earth more imfortunate than I.* 

a. "When it is intended to express 'the better of two things* the genitive may 
be need ; as, ^nnn^ ^^Ai; ^ ^1^ H^[irC^ 'Of these two oonntries which is the 
better?' 

831. The comparative in Sanskrit is often expressed by * better 
and not' or ^but not;' as, ^ m4U^MritqiJi\ if 5^ tf^ ''^^ 'T^. 

* better abandon life than (but not) engage in such an action ;' ^ 
ilhf 'wA ^ ^ ^R«l^ "Vlil ^ ^'^^ ^ ^^ ^ better that silence should be 
kept than a speech uttered which is untrue \' f^nRT ^ ^^JUIIM^H 
^ «riW ^ 1 ^ amMH,4fti4l/^HMj^ ini!?rni ct! nfiRT?^ * a teacher 
of the Veda should rather die with his learning than commit 
it to an unworthy object, in the absence of a pupil worthy to be 
instructed in it/ 

832. The superlative degree is usually joined with the genitive ; 

as, TK[w6i ftroft "dit 'u^ ^fefi 'ij'M^i*^^ \ ^1^ Tflhroi ^v: 5?n w^Nirt 

i(C ^ a Br£hman is the best of all bipeds, a cow of quadrupeds, a 
Guru of venerable things, a son of things possessed of touch ;' but 

3 A a 



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364 NUMERALS. 

sometimes with the locative ; as, if^ ^M^m; ^ the most powerful of 
men :' and even witii an ablative ; as, VPind ?r[|C ^IPn 4l^^4li|fli^ 
' a store of grain is the best of all stores.' 

a. Rarely with as instrumental; as, <|Vlij5 ^pOfTt V1^ ^vfHfi '& liero deanr 
than the life of Knnti.' Henoe it appears that oomparison may sometimes be 
expressed by a superlative sufBjc. Another example is ^fQ>^ tiPv^n! mVK ' people 
weU-read in hooks are better than ignorant people/ 

b. A superlative degree may even take a comparative suffix, and govern the 
genitive ; as, ihlt l^lfifT: ' the eldest of them.' See 197. a, 

0. A comparative word may have a superlative sense ; as, ^^A4j 'very firm.* 

833. ^Comparison* is often expressed by an adjective in the poaitive degree, 
joined with a noun m the ablative or instrumental case ; Ss, «nfH H^ITi^ ^4I<II«^ 
'there is not a happier than he;' 9 <nn (719. a) 'VfT*^ 'he is greater than I.' 
Similarly, *i^ r^^MA! ' more excellent^ than alL' 

a. In more modem Sanskrit 'comparison' is sometimes expressed by the use of 
'^H>sjf 'regarding,' 'with reference to' (inded. part, of root ^ with W^), which 
may take the place of *than' in English; thus, ^^|)MIUINI«^ HMW 'WWI? 
^I'^|5^5[M*(^ ^R^ f^nn 'nT^^ Wfilft^ H^rfil * an Addrya ought to be higher 
in estimation than ten Up&dhydyas, a father than a hundred Addryas/ 

834. Many words have a kind of comparative influence, and require an ablative 
case, especially ^T?^, ^WC^, W»^, ^•^^i, WW, ^llt, ^, ^, ^fi^, Wf, 
^Wf^, ^ > ss, ITHn^fTT^^ ^'H^ ^i^lfW ^TT^ 'it is better not to touch mud 
than to wash it off;' ^if^ftH ^'^ ^tX^ini^' poverty is less desirable than deaik ;' 
^ Ti ImQI^ V^il^ ?ITJ >iw4t ' Who is able to rescue me, other than a finend ?' 
fti^ ^IW^ ^RK iro^ * What grief is greater than this ?' ^ ^9^ W^^ ^^V'l 
'one ought not to speak differently from what one has heard ;' A^ldl^ ^HV^ 'at 
another time than the present ;' •i<t«f •! WW Hi4SI^ HVlf[ * there i»iio cause of 
fear to man from any other quarter than from death ;' llll!CI<^(73i, 778) ^[^^f^ 
' on the day before that of the Sr&ddha ;' ^JtlPf^^niT^ ^rfHV^ ' more than a hundred 
Yojanas;' *IHf|^WII 4ljpil<^ ftlf^ ^R! 'intelligence of a lover is something 
less than a meeting ;' vwi^ ^^(^is*^* the remainder of the food ;' 'jJ^ITI^^ MM^IO*^ 
'five times more than the value.' 



NUMERALS, 

835. The syntax of numerals is explained at 306, 207. The following examples 
may be added : •TWT TCROT^ * of ninety men ;' w^ HUIHI^ ' of sixty men ;* 
^^titM vTCnni'^ 'of a thousand men;* H^^ f4?T^ 'a thousand ancestors;' 
KffW^ ^{flnW ^n*\ 'one hundred multiplied by three ;' Ulc^^lA^d 9 ^two thousand 
^its;' ^^ fflll^Oi iTWn^ ^Winn 'one of these three;' ^(^ TT ![?^ 'he g*ve 
ten thousand cows;' ^TV^ V^ W^VPI ' he killed five hundred deer.' 



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STltt!AX o> PKONCHnsrs. 366 

0. {Sometimes the plufal of the iramerals from S'Hnj^Ql upwards may he used ; 
■$, ^W^DS^. Wrot * with fifty arrows.* 

b. The ag^gregrstive nutiierab may he employed at the end of oompomids for the 
carcBnals; thus, IN;!^' two armies;' ftrnf:^IJprW(* four marriages/ Sce2i4. 

c. Numerals from nmeteen (^na-mniatt) upwards may take the genitive after 
them of the things numhered; as, WH! ^^inW^t^tf^ 'a hundred thousand of 
horses;' ^nfrsrf TTinprfif 'seven hundred foot-soldiers;' ^[TW^ m^l^nuiH *a 
hundred preceptors ;' vni ^W^ffinftT Vlfn 'five hundred and sixty cows ;' Vlwrf 
1^ !|fffir«f f^^lfliq * six hundred and twenty chapters ;' •ftwrf fcJ^I^Tv^i^lli it 
W^ ^ 'two thousand one hundred and thirty men;' IHI m^^inDu 'five 
thousand chariots;' ^^pTff 'PTt^ 'a hundred and one cows' (Manu xi. lap). 
They may he used at the end of genitively dependent compounds ; as» ^^l^lPif 
'eighty Tp^tf/ i. e« eighty of Tp^s. 

Ohs. — But the genitive is not admissible after numerals below nineteen; e. g. 
m^ •rot 'ten men* (not ^ •TOW^). 

d. When numerals are used comparatively they may take an ablative; as, 
r^^l^l^ fn^ ^* * ^ ^0 ^^^ double of that in dispute.' 

SYNTAX OF PRONOUNS. 

836. The chief peculiarities in the syntax of pit>n<nins have 
already been noticed at 2i6-iJ40, tod at 799-801. 

With regard to the alternative of ^^f^, &c. (see 223)^ it is properly- 
only allowed in cade of the re-employment (anvddeia) of this pronoun 
in the subsequent part of a sentence in which ^[i^ or ^^w^ has already 
been used ; thus, ^i^ m4i<HI^ wtll»( ^ ^BP^^vmR * the grammar 
has been studied by him, now set him to study the Veda' (c£ Nala 
^11. 31, 32). It is an encHtiCy and ought not to begin a sentence. 

a. In the use of the relative and interrogative pronouns a yeiy peculiar aitrac'* 
Hon is often to he observed; that is, when either a vehitive or interrogative 
pronoun has been used, and an indefinite pronoun would naturaOy b6 expected to 
foOow, the tehftive or interrogative is repetiitd, as in the following exam]^ ; 
^ ^IFI (for «atMp^c) HRt Fin^ ' whatever may be the disposition of whom (L e« 
any one);' ^ <l%n 'w 'whatever b pleasing to any one;' ni IW ff^TH 
Hfllffl 'whoever eats the flesh of any animals' ^191 ^ ^<AI* ^fff^ 'whatever 
ezoellenoes belong to any one;' ^ ^ gsnn 'whatever corresponds with any- 
thing ;* 'Wt fill ^n^>^ imniHllllH * What book is to be read by whom ?' 

837. The rehitve and interrogative are sometimes used together, in an indefinite 
distributive sense ; aSy^nfirmfifftlCnfir^ any friends whatever:' or more usually 
with f^ afiSzed to the interrogative; as, ^Tw Wwf^'to any one whatever.' 

a. The neuta of the interrogative (f%^) is often joined with the instrumental 



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366 SYNTAX OP TEBBS. 

to signify 'What is the use of?' 'there is no need of;* as^ ^(wT fit 'ft •? w'^ 
Wfi^ I fV^ IHTTHTT 'ft •! ftfWp^flft >i%1^^'0f what use is scriptural knowledge 
(to one) who does not practice virtue ? Of what use is a soul (to one) whose 
passions are not kept in subjection ?' f% W -mHn il^H 'What business have jou 
to make this inquiry ?' f% ^jni ' What need of more I' 'in short.' 

b. As already shewn at 761, a relative pronoun is sometimes rendered unne- 
cessary by the use of the relative compound; thus, n'lO ^f*ft*l,^n.^Hi is 
equivalent to n«iO 'l^HS^ ^r^i^l^MifllfH ^^iP^v ' a city whose palaces were 
silvered by the moon-beams/ 

c. The relative, when followed by a pluperfect tense in English, may be expressed 
in Sanskf it by the indeclinable participle ; thus, m^ ^^ ^IWT ' a lion having 
lulled a hunter/ or ' a lion who had killed a hunter.' 

838. The following examples will illustrate the use of pronouns of quantity and, 
pronominals : ITOT: (or 'TWWin^) 1TRIT«^ ^ WTOH (or inTOTO'O 'f^Tfil 
'as many mouthfuls as he eats, so many he gives away;' ifif CTT^ 'W 0**« 
V^ ifWT^ tlUIIM'^irH 'if so much is given to me, then I will give so much 
instruction;' n^ <i^«il inm^ <^n«ii ' one out of all those.' See also 801 • 

SYNTAX OF VERBS. 

839. Nothing is more common in Sanskrit syntax than for the 
verb to be omitted altogether, or supplied from the context. 

a. This is more especially the case with the copula, or substantive verb ; thus^ 

m^ il^/iwdi ^^ V!m^ 1311 ii?Vw« I ''PBT^ ^utk 'n^ tipi^ f^n^nc^ 

l[^^^ 'as long as the gods have existed in Meru, as long as the Ganges upon earth» 
as long as the sun and moon in the sky, so long have we (existed) in the fiunily of 
Brdhmans ;' ^ift^K^ llftpW^ * discrimination (is) wbdom.* 

Locative and Oeniiive absolute. 

840. The locative case is very commonly used absolutely with 
participles ; as, W^mA^ Hl^Pd ifNtftr ^ Iff^??^ f^ ^. 'he living I 
live, he dying I die;' iRRlwnif XXm *the night being ended;' ^if 
HTVft ^nj^ 'the elder brother being unmarried;' mrfv QMI^JwiX 
'there being no other expedient;' inn nfir * it being so.' Sometimes 
the participle is omitted ; as, |^ )|^ Hhe danger (being) distant' When 
the past passive participle is thus used absolutely with a noun in the 
locative, the present participle of w^^ * to be,' is often redundantly 
added; as, irm ^ ^ifw or 7(^ 'BgfW *it being so doneV 

* Possibly the object of adding the word $aH may be to shew that the passive 
participle is here used as a participle, and not as a past tense. So also in oom-» 
mentaries Tffir is placed after a word like V|J|^fH» to indicate the loc. sing, of 
the pres. part.^ as distinguished from the 3rd sing, of the pres. tense. 



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SYNTAX OF VBBBk 367 

o. The genitive is less commonly used absolutely; as, VIM^II^ V|ifA^1«1|l^ 
^calamities impending;' iTpnit ^0^1*^ 'the men looking on.' 

b. When the nominative appears to be thus used there are really two sentences ; 
ZBy ^?P( ^ ^Ml^lff. ^m^|f(^ vf^ ' my friend having airived^ I am happy.' 

c. It is evident that the locative and genitive absolute may often take the place 
of the English particles 'when/ 'while/ 'since/ 'although/ and may supply the 
place of a phupetf^ct tense j thus, Wf^n^ iniliT^ ' when he had departed.' 

Nominatwe Case after the Verb. 

841. Verbs signifying *to be/ *to become/ *to appear/ *to be 
called,^ or * to be esteemed/ and other passive verbs similarly used, 
may take a nominative after them; as, tnn llill;MI<4C ^9ni^ *let a 
king be the protector of his subjects '/ m fWrnp^ IvflPflfir * she 
appears sorrowitil;^ nnitsTli vfimfw *the village appears like a 
desert;^ tlUT v4 vfiiy^ilii ' a king is called Justice/ 

Accusative Case qfter the Verb. 

842. Transitive verbs generally govern an accusative ; as, fpit Trail 
^Vn * Brahmfi created the universe ;* ^[«nfiir fVHtfw tirft * the woman 
gathers flowers ;' iniQT«^ 9|^ ^^l * the dying man gave up the ghost ;' 
i|^ ^l4^ * one should avoid wine ;' ir?i 1[f|r * speak the truth/ 

a. Verbs of speaking to or addressing take an accusative; as, 
TH^ innftn^*he said to him;* 1^ TWm W^pn^ 'he thus addressed 
Aijuna.* 

843. So also verhs of motion: as^ HilOf ifbv ^f^H 'the holy man goes to the 
place of pilgrimage/ ^fVS ^^ J^fVi 'rivers run into the ocean/ ¥nifk T^)^ 
'he wanders over the earth.' 

844. V^bs of motion are not unfrequently used with substantives, to supply the 
place of other verbs ; as, ^TlfV VjfK * he goes to fieune/ for ' he becomes funous / 
^mWT'^ ^fk * he goes to equality/ for * he becomes equal/ THlt^ fk^flll^ ^tTWHW 
'he came to the friendship of those two,' for 'he became a iriend of those two/ 
inn# fin *he went to death,' for *he died/ ^fw jflf •Plfif *he leads the 
king to satisfeu^on,' for 'he satisfies/ &c. 

a. The follo^ring are other examples : H^M ^Alf MnL^Of ' he avoids paining 
others/ HHIUI^ J^sSft 'he desires what is unattainable/ f^vf f^vira^'he 
should think on wisdom/ inji^ ^lO^fn * he mounts his horse / %^ifVi UltWT 
'they began the business/ IWT'^ IT ^^ * grieve not for the departed/ ^%7«5^ 
WRmvn^ ^vffir 'he deserves the sovereignty of the universe/ m1|I,*«<J4.*^ 
idV^ 'he Ues down in a cave of the mountain / if ^ftt ftWiflf f ftWtST^ 
* one ought not to preveii/ a cow from drinking milk«' 



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363 SYNTAX OF yfiRB& 

845. Tliape ave oertain verbs winch take a ledundaot accnsatiye case after tbem 
of a substantive derived from the same root s as, Ifiwi ^ ' he swore an oatJi i* 
^^fir^lW^' he dwells;' ^m^Ni^' he conducts himself;' ^Erm ^^^'hespoaks 
a speech;' iftf^lif ifl^fii * he lives a life;' vPffl vfl^ 'he raises a erj' (of. th^ 
Greek expressions Ac^w A^ov, xeJfV yiof&ii^ &c) 

Double Accusative qfter the Verb. 

846. Verbs of aski$ig govern a double accusative; as, ^ ^ IIHrn 'he seeks 
a boon of the god;' SPi KXWVi vA^ 'hei)egs nsoney from the king;' V ^[mV 
'^psfK 'he asks whether he has had a good ablution.' Of speaking j as, TSWV^ 
^nH^^ Wfrftf(J he addressed a speech to the king.' Of leading: ap^ V ^ •nffv 
'he leads him home;' <lil^^lli TTHPiR fnniH 'he led the princess to another 
kmg.' 

a. Other examples of the use of verbs of this idnd are, if ff^O^ ^Rt 'he mtflb 
milk from ihe oow ;' ggjl. v/Md i^lPH ' th^ mt^M^ jewels out cf the eaHii' (cf. 
895.6); f^Vi^ «l^ ^n^S(' having ioon his kingdoB from Nala,'i.e. 'having bx 
play deprived Nala of his kingdom' (cf. 895. ft); ^B^f^fftfil ^^lUPw ^W^ ' •he 
gathers blossoms from the trees ;' K^^ w(|k^^ HH^Hf^^H ' he sent them to the 
abodeofYama;' H^^tfgj f lfil ift ^iggt f^Wrhtlf ^ ifyftr 'his own acts fegrf 
a man to eminence or &e reverse;' Hn-msmifi in«( H^pfrf'V 'he iawflU tiiem the 
use of arms;' W ^ImMffll^ nfiiOirMy 'th^ inaugwrated him general,' moisB 
usually joined ^h an aoc. and loc.; ^ Vfk .*l<*lfll ' she chooses a god for heir 
husband.' 

Obs. — ^When verbs which govern a double accusative are used in the passive, 
one accusative will remain (cf. 895. b); as, Ufl^fifftf^ ^1^ W^ 'the ocean was 
churned for nectar' (Kirdt. v. 30). 

847. Causal verbs; aSy^fnFvi H^fHfTll mn^'heeauses the guest to eat food' 
(see Pi^. I. 4, 5a); mf ^WHif^i ^ w fp^ ' I cause you to know what is for 
your interest;' fifPi ^f^H^ WmnHjflr ^^ '*^e Guru teaches his pupil the 
Yedas;' Hf^ IW^fRfW 'he causes her to enter the house;' lM^y"i^(!(% HHpif- 
inV WMJWilH, ' he presented the king's son with fruits, flowers, and water;' ^?n( 
^HIC^ W^M^fil ' she causes her son to sit on her lap' (literally, 'her hip'); f^WT 
^ '^ ^ipnvfk 'learning causes a man to have access to a king.' 

Instrumental Case after the Verb. 
848. Any verb may be joined with the instrumental, to express 

* the agent,^ * instrument/ or * causey' or * manner' of the action ; as, 
3^ ^TtN snifir * the flower fades by reason of the wind ;' m^. jfttf^ji 

* he plays with dice ;* ^»fr^ ^t^ fH^m^ni * the doud puts out the 
fire with its rain ;^ ^^ '9ft^fl( * he lives happily/ See 865, 

a. In this sense many caujsals take an insti^nmental; na, ft fvivifl^ H^^^IHlV 



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SYNTAX OP VERBS. 369 

he caused her to eat sweetmeats ;' ^iftffW: ftWP( Wf^f^lfw ' he causes the pieces 
to be eaten by the birds/ Cf. 847. 

849. After verbs of motion this case is used in reference either to the vehicle by. 
u>kich, or the place on which, the motion takes place; as, T^<T V^flf 'he goes in 
a chariot;* WVIf ^Tirfv 'he goes on horedfock/ ImlH iTirfir 'he goes on the^ 
road;' 9l^«^d^ IWflf *he goes through afield of com;' ^^ ^BTft •U'MI 
'he navigated the ocean tit a boat,' Similarly, ^iVTW ^T^* ^fclcS^ ' tears flowed 
through the eyes.' 

a. After verbs of carrying , placing, Sec, it is used in reference to ' the place' on 
which anything is carried ; as, ^ffK ^^ ^ ^*V^ * ^^ bears fuel on his head;' ^^C 
^SWf Qwri ' the dog is borne on the shoulders,' ^ is found with this case in the 
sense of placing; as, f^R^ 9^^ ^VIP^' he placed his son on his head/ 

The following are other examples: f^T^^ ^iTS^fir ip^ 'the master goes iti 
company with the pupil ;* H^mHlH if^^T^V: * he consulted with his ministers ;' but 
in this sense H^ is usually placed after it. Hit HlQlll ^llf^Rl ' the husband 
meets the wife;' ^hftmfll T:4 ^: 'he harnesses the horses to the chariot;' ^|vn^ 
^[V^fW: ' he fights his enemies,' or 9^[fW: H^, &c. ; qt «T ^^fvi^H^ 9^^ ' ^^^ 
ought not to be at enmity Trith any one;' if (ftM^ MPlJllllA 'he suspects me of a 
crime. 

850. Verbs of boasting, &c.; as, ftlWlT ftHTTO ' y ou boast of your learning;' 
"'^W M^¥i\ WTO 'you glory in the ftune of others.' 

a. Of swearing ; as, V^"^ '^ * ^^ swore by his bow.' 

b. Of thinking, reflecting ; as, H«f^l f^|f%^ ' thinking in his mind.' 

c. Of comparing ; as, IIThVIT ^h4I«iii W^I ' a beautiful woman is compared 
to a leeoh.' 

851. Verbs denoting liberation, freedom from, sometimes take an instrumental 
after them ; ia, M^^mnl HJ'Rn ' he is released from all sins;' ^^f figT^ri ' he is 
separated from the body' (more usually with ablative). 

852. Verbs of buying and selling take the instrumental of the price; as, «^d^ 
Wfti l^imi'^ ^rtf HfW^ mOhA^ * buy one wise man even for thousands of fools ;' 
W^ 1^99 ^ Hi nHun n ' he sells hb house for a thousand cows ;' lal^ul'M H^ 
^^6f: ^P^t * bvy that for ten Suvar^as.' 

Dative after the Verb. 
853. All verbs in which a sense of imparting or communicating 
anything is inherent, may take an accusatiye of the thing imparted, 
and a dative of the person to whom it is imparted. (Frequently, 
however, they take a genitive or even a locative of the recipient ; 
see 857.) 5^|m ift^lBt^ ^[^rfil * he gives sweetmeats to his son ;^ firnni 
it nfil^ptfMir ^he promises a cow to the Br&hman ;^ ^^r^lltn vt VRffic 
* he owes money to Devadatta ;^ usirf ir^ nfwm^ * consign the maiden 
to him,^ more usually with the locative ; see 86i. 

3 B 



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870 SYNTAX OF VBBB8. 

«. Oih«r exwnpl^i of th^ dalive are, i^ fW^ini m^qn IR: *h© <«<• Mt 
mind on their destruction ;' JW*II^ «rfw f[Vi * he set his mind on departure/ or 
with the locaifcive. H^ wi tN^ 'that is pleasing ta mei' fjl*!^ M^vmifH H|(^ 
' I will declare thia to my pupik;' ^ t]% fflflU^fVI ^he niakee known all to tha 
king/ these are also joii^ with the genitiye of the person* Vi^Him ViSIn *bo 
10 rendered Jit /or immortality s' WnfW TH ^WTO 'he has the power to kill me 5' 
Wn^ m^ "^VR W^hpiH^'be incited them to the murder of their ipother ;' ^Wni 
^urfk'heis anjrry with his son;' ^ Hin^^^A ilTWT S^^^AIM 'thia lump of fleah 
isprodnoedfor a hujodred sons;' «I1|I) f^WIHI ' I had na hopes qf suoeefi/ 

Ablative after the Verb. 
854* All verbs laay take an ablative of the object from which 
anything proceeds, or arises, or is produced ; as, ^gnprfir IHV^ ^'IPl 
nheleaf/oZiffrgon the tree ;^ ^5W B^nT?ni(* blood ^Iw* from the 
body;' m^nn!^ Tftivftr *he me* from his seat;' ^fvjW: (719) "^ 
^^ ^V[ l^[^Kftr ^ from the lump of day the artist make9 whatever 
he wishes;' ftrTTT^ ^nfir ^tnVWP^ *from education a person attains 
capacity ;* ftrtnTT iPITTH * ^^ ^^ ^^* fcom the city.* 

355* Verbs of fearing are joined with the ahlative» and sometimes wiUi the 
genitive ; as, ^H^ T TRT "pft^ fiwfif 'TO ^•jmi^'agood man does not /ear 
death so much as falsehood ;' HT ^^1^ fvWtw 'be not afraH of a noise;' 
\^\\ ^fyHW WH^^'the whole world standi in awe of punishment}' ^fllMIIA n 
fil^MWmiMIM f^ftl ' I fear liiee^ a cunning penitent j' see 859. 

856. Verbs which express superiority or comparison govom an 
ablative ; as, nnnini^ ^iumI 'rfCTinft M^^ ' the abandonment of 
pleasure is superior to (better than) the possession/ 

«u Other examples of verhs followed hy ahlative cases are, HkfiiQi^ ^wM^fo ' he 
descends from the palace ;' f^TB^t 49^1^ W^HWR * Vishnu descended from heaven j' 
^^•^^^ ^^W\ ^^*K^rg ' he takes off (causes to deaoend) the golden bracelet 
fipom his body ;' ftffSw 'ITOl^ * he ceases from wickedness ;' q^«iiG "Ntnt 
'he left off speaking;' «i<«iii^r^ni. ^imh 5?ft ViRqil *a virtuous s<m sotTet 
his father fifom hell;' WWV^^Il'OT^ WW|[ uftlfWiff 'truth is superior to n 
thousand saorifloes;' ii/(ill(^ Wfllfff 'he neglects his own hiterest;* fN?F^ 
V^^m^ fllHIJlini ' a friend guards one from evil.' 

Oenitive after the Verb. 

857. The genitive in Sanskrit is constantly interchangeable with 
the dative, locative, or even instrumental and accusative*. It is 

^ This vague uae of the genitive to express ' varioua relations ' prevails alao in 
early Greek. 



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8T5TAX OF TBRBS. 871 

more especially, however^ used to supply the place of the first of 
these cases, so that almost all verbs may take a genitive as wdl as 
dative of * the recipient;* e.g. tjficjW ^ ^tflr *he ffive» money to 
the poor;' 7i|f^ 'ftw^ *he benefit others.' 

858. It may be used for the locative after verbs of conmgning, as mHi^ 1W 
Wrtirfw 'lie deposits a pledge with me;* or of trusting, as ^ "^iftBH^ ^)fM 
^m^VrAf ' nobody puts trust in women :' and for the accusative in examples such 
as nf^r**Wirn JtWut Vl^lPW ^f^^l*^ ' unexpected ills cams upon corporeal 
beings.' 

859. It is sometimes used after verbs ot fearing; as, tWt f% 'H Ht|fll*Wby 
wilt thou not be afi-aid of him ? ' see 855. Also after verbs of longing for, desiring, 
ennying: as, V^^IIH^ W^Ji^l^'he should desite contempt;^ ^MJ^^ini ^t^Hlflt 
*'^^^'H* ^ ^^ ^'^^ ^^^ possess eyes.' After verbs of remembmng: as, fi^'ft 
^ wifm 'they do not remember heaven ' (Kir&t. v. 28). 

*. Other examples of verbs followed by genitive cases ai«, VIIHAI^ ^Wrfc 
Wm V9 ^ffftr Ht^T ' teU VLB, who art ignorant of lt» whose wife jrou are ;* 
IRSr (for ^Wm^) flfwifir vrflSlK 'Of whom an the righteous ^fMdf ^ 
W^R^I nHiiiiiOf) •! W^ V39^ ^Vni 'one should not give to one what one 
promises to another;' If ff ^Wtfn ' he does not hear me' (cf. the Greek usage); 
iVt 9it* ' remember me>' c(t with an accusative. ^I^ffnk iftJS W^fk ' death omt- 
€MiM us;' vfnf^ fT ^f^Vfv ^ITVRTI^ ' fire is not 9atUfied with fuel;' ii|i i^^^! 
*pfrgi9e them ^ ft IHO WW UMill^* What of ems koH I given hhnf 

Locative after the Verb. 

860. This case is very widely applicable, but, as elsewhere re- 
marked, is firequently interchangeable with the dative and genitive. 
The first sense of the locative requires that it should be united with 
verbs in reference only to ^the place' or ^tirne' in which anything 
is done ; as, ^ W9tht ' he sinks in the mud '/ ^ ffrfv * he dwelk 
in the city,*' tA;^ fwfflf 'he statkb in the fix>nt of the fight;' 
^^If^ iV^f^ '^ sunrise he awakes^^ 

86j. The transition from 'the place 'to She object 'or 'recipient 'of afiyaotioii 
Is natural; and hence it is that verbs aie found with the locative of 'the object ' 
to which anything is imparted or communicated, as in the foUowing examples : 
WT IHRK t[^ y^' bestow ftot money on Ae mighty;' irfwH mllHu ftff^ 
^nflf * I entrust my affairs to him ;' J?^ Iiw0^4 ^'l^uOl 'he consigns a ring to 
his son ;' ^ft»^ tlfsi% *Wrflf tJitpITt^ * he entrusts the burden of the kingdom 
to a oapabls ndnistar;' XXtlf or tni^ f^^^nOl *fae Isforsu the king;' if^ ^ 
'sag toNala.' 

Oi M ^Pu rH^UII^'oae should pkioe (bury) a dead man in the ground ;' ^ 
ipft ^Ph 'he applies his mind to virtue,' In this sense ^ may be used ; as, 

3B % 



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372 mSTEUMENTAL CASE AFTER PASSIVE VERBS. 

^ ^•Mffi^^ ^BT'iTtn^' ^® pteoed the wood on his back ;' «rfw ^ITO IRtfw ' he appUet 
his mind to sin.' 

862. When ^, 'to give/ is used for 'to pnt,' it follows the same analogy ; as, 
ITO ^^Kjd ?^ ^^ *p^ youp hand on the end of its tail;' H^l^^^ ^ W 
' he placed his foot on a heap of ashes.' Similarly, ^fdj^M ^{msf^ ' he was 
held by the skirt of his garment.' So also verbs of seizing, striking: as, ^^j 
'j^ilOl or vi^^ffi ' he seises or drags him by the hair ;' ^ H^^fif * he strikes 
a sleeping man ;' '|^HII W ^f^ ^Tm 'having taken hold of him by the right 
hand.' 

863. The locative is often put for the dative in sentences where the latter case 
stands for the infinitive ; thus, h|^ IH^TO rVT^ ' hasten to seek thy spouse;' 
•ico^5f ^nfm 4in<si 'strive to bring Nala hither;' f ^^^ ITO ^^^ tl^^ 
'they could not hold that bow;' ff 9^'^^^ f^T^RUT 'he was not able to 
prevent it.' 

a. Other examples are, 99 nnlVi ^^ ' he is engaged in a very severe penance ;' 
Ui:,*l^5 ^\ ^n^lft ^ 'da not husg yourself about other people's afliairs;* 
flW^ ^Wk *he is addicted to ol^ects of sense;' ?l%^?ftirf^ Tllli 'he delights 
in the good of all the world ;' jfljftl^it (^f^sllA ' he is (pointed to the com- 
mand of the fort;' WT ^|^nt ^^ Hi 4^111101 'he yokes two bulla to the pole;' 
ShI'IW ^ffilftw ^V\ * aitotfi^ me to the generalship;' ^HIT^ MIM/HU^ 'he strives 
to suppress evil-doers;' ^ftu^ ihlT^ ^IT?lT«^ <Jh 'they had anger against the 
king;' ^IXfh^f ^^"^V^^make trial of VihvkA;* IXPfl^ JWf^ ^t^^^* I wiU lay 
the blame on you;' ^T'W W VfjCm 'choose him for thy husband;' q^ H^A 
^I^^hH W^S 'the gods exerted themselves for the nectar.' 

b. «f Tf^ ^t(|^ ^iv«^ ^?.^'H ' ^^^^ language is not suited to a person like 
me;' H^W iWfil ll^fi^W 'sovereignty is suited to you;' ^ITHn ^mfinp^^'he 
recUned on a seat ;' ^^HC^'ni^^* * sit thou on a cushion ;' V^ ftwrfWW * he 
confides in his enemies ;' ^tSPftt Mnfii 'it falls at his feet ;' ^4 Hi hi^j ' it rolls 
at the feet.' 

(Change of Case after the same Verb. 

864. This sometimes occurs ; as, f^^O 1|ACISI4 ^pjft ^ AI^MI^U ^ •^^- 
Mni*\^ ' Vidhura and Kunti announced everything, the one to Dhrita-rdshtra, the 
other to G&ndh^ ' (Astras'ikshd 34), where the same verb governs a dative and 
genitive. Similarly, in the Hitopades'a, ^f^plrf Hi HI 1^1 •! 4lt^! ^H^ ^ * con- 
fidence is not to hepktced in homed animals or women.' 

INSTRUMENTAL CASE AFTER PASSIVE VERBS. 
865. The prevalence of a passive construction is the most remark- 
able feature in the syntax of this language. Passive verbs are joined 

* fmR9 Epic form for inW or W^. 



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SYNTAX OF THE INFINITIVE. 37^ 

with ' the agent, instrument, or cause/ in the instrumental case *, 
and agree with ^ the object ' in number and person ; as, irnhf TH 
^IRT^ *the dust is raised by the wind;' ihr ^l^ft^qiflu ^^Nl/fWH II H 
' let all things be prepared by him ;* ^5^^ Wlfi^s'ili^im * the sun 
was concealed by arrows/ 

866. But the past passive participle usually takes the place ot the past tenses of the 
passive verb, and agrees with 'the object ' in gender and case as well as number; 
as, ^?nftff HHI^Nlf*! ^rfWT * (their) eyes were suffused with tears ;* TR ^TlKl^ 
(^^ being understood) ' it was said by him.' Cf. 895. 

a. This instrumental construction after passive verbs is a ftivounte idiom in 
Sanskpt prose composition, and the love for it is remarkably displayed in such 
phrases as the following : ^^^ TRn, 'he is gone to by miseiy,' for ^ 'rarfW; 
and VWIHIaI ^^, *let it be come by your migesty,' for VWIVJ \t*1 and 
again, V^nfVl^ ^HRI Jrtl^fll*^^, ' let it be remained by us in one spot,' for ' let us 
remain in one spot ;' ^ Hl^hl ^ nH •i«ini*^ ' by whatever road it is desired, by 
that let it be gone.' 

b. Active or causal verbs, which take a double accusative, will retain one accusa- 
tive when constructed passively ; but the other accusative passes into a nominative 
case; thus, instead of ^ if m^^hP^ THIT^, 'he addressed me in harsh words,' 
may be written nH ^ h^<ii(Vi 'WW, ' by him I was addressed in harsh words.' 

SYNTAX OF THE INFINITIVE. 
867* The infinitive (formed with ^ turn) in Sanslqit cannot be 
employed with the same latitude as in other languages. Its use is 
very limited, corresponding to that of the Latin Supines, as its 
termination turn indicates. 

a. Let the student, therefore, distinguish between the infinitive, of Sanskrit 
and that of Latin and Greek. In these latter languages we have the infinitive 
made the sutgect of a proposition ; or, in other words, standing in the place of a 
nominative, and an accusative case often admissible before it. We have it also 
assuming diflSerent forms, to express present, past, or future time, and complete* 
ness or incompleteness in the progress of &e action. The Sanskrit infinitive, on 
the other hand, can never be made the subject of a verb, admits of no accusative 
before it, and can only express indeterminate time and incomplete action. Wherever 
it occurs it must be considered as the object, and never the subject, of some verb 
'expressed or understood. As the object of the verb, it may be regarded as equiva- 
lent to a verbal substantive, in which the force of two cases, an accusative and 

dative, is inherent, and which differs from other substantives in its power of 

___^ I 

* There are a few instances of the agent in the genitive pase ; as, If ^ fl^t 
' a crime committed by me,' for miT. 



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874 SYNTAX OP THB INPIlSriTlVE. 

^▼eming a case. Its use as a substantire, with the fofce of the aocu$athe case, 
oorresponds to one use of the Latin infinitiye ; thus, m^^ ^i*K ^F^^^ ' I desire 
to hear all that/ 'id <mdire ciqno,' where ^g»^ and audire are both equivaknt to 
accusatiye cases, themselves also governing an accusative. Similar^, ^rf^ nfHT 
' she began to weep ;' and m^ ^'3'^ VITH ' he began to conquer the earth,' where 
if^hnV^ ^nT?^> ' he began the conquest of the earth,' would be equally correct. 

b, Bopp considers the termination of the infinitive to be the accusative of the 
iBufi&x tu (458. Obs.), and it is certain that in the Veda other cases of nouns formed 
with this su^ in the dense of infinitives occur ; e. g. a dative in tavt or tavai, as horn 
han comes hantave, * to kill ;' fir. anu-i, anvetave, 'to follow ;' fir. num, mantavai/tb 
thmk :* there is also a form in tos, generally in the sense of an ablative ; e. g. f^. t 
comes etos, * firom going ;' fir. han, hantos, as in purd hantos, * before killing :' and 
a form in tvi corresponding to the indeclinable partbiple in tvd of the classical 
language ; e. g. fir. han, hatnf, ' kilting ;' fr. bhU, bhuM, ' being.' Infinitives may also 
be formed in the Veda by simply adding the usual case-terminations to the root; 
e.g. in the sense of an accusative, fir. d-ruh may come tfritAam, 'to ascend;' fir. 
d-sad, dsadam, 'to sit down :' of a dative, fir. d-dhfish, ddhfishe, 'to get at,' ' Subdue ;* 
fir. BQ^6ak$h, sahiftikshe, 'to survey:' of an ablative, fr, ava-pad, avapadas, 'firom 
falling down.' Infinitives are also formed by changing the final d of roots ending 
in this letter to aij e. g. fir. pra-yd, prayed, 'to approach :' or by adding se (liable 
to be (shanged to $he) to a root, as fir. ji comes jishe, 'to conquer:' or by 
adding ate: e. g. ft.j{v,jioase, 'to live :' or adhyai: e. g. fir. bhfi, bharadhycd, 'to 
bear ;' fir. yaj, yajadhyui, * to sacrifice,' &c. 

868. But the Sanskrit infinitive moat commonlj inv<dved a dense 
which belongs especially to the Sanskrit dative^ via. that of * the end^ 
or ^purpose' for which anything is done; thus, ^QI^W^ Hf^fji^ 
HIiimHh * he comes to devour the young ones ;' V^ ^ft^ ^ Wf^[^^ 
' he sent an army to fight the enemy/ 

a. In these oases it would be equally correct in Sanskrit to substitiita for the 
infinitive Uie dative of tile verbal noun, (brmed with tiie suffix ana; iihm,^nf^pny 
'Ibr the eating,' for Hf^|^ ; ^ifhnrnr^ ' for the fighting,' for ^i^[l^; and in Late 
the infinitive eonld not be used at all, but either the supine, denmOmn, pt^gmotm, 
or, still more properly, the conjunction ui with the subjufieUve mood, ' af de^oret,* 
* ut pugnurtnt.* The following are other examples in which the infinitive has a 
dative force in expressing ' the purpoie* of the action t WfM VH^ ^l^t^ ^niHI^ 
'he went to the river to drink water;* ^^ ^fWt VJ'^ ^M^^Ol *he cotties to cot 
asunder my bonds ;' 'if W^ Wrtt ' he is able to rescue me ;^ ^tl(lfH^^fft]| ^n^ 
*^^ 'he busied himself about collecting together the snares.* 

b. The best Pai^dits think that the infinitive ought not to be used when &e 
verb which is connected with it refers to a diflieMnt person, or is not mmiflimu) ; 
thus V Tip^ 1^91^9 'command him to go,' would bs better expressed by V 



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USE AND CONNBXIOK OF Tlf^ TONSBS, 375 

c. The in&utive caanot be used after an aceuoative to express ' that* as in 
Latin; thus, 'having heard that Duryodhana was killed' would be expressed bj 

869. Tht Sanskrit infinitive, therefore, has the character of a 
Supine, and in this character is susceptible of either an active or 
passive signification. In its passive character, however, like the 
Latin Supine in «, it is joined witii certain words only, the most 
usual being the passive verbs ^ * to be able* and ^ * to be fitting,* 
and their derivatives ; thus, w^ •! ffW^n^ ^ it cannot be abandoned ;* 
^inift T ini ^^ * tl^e snare cannot be cut ;* 7f ^riTO ^IWWTJ i^ iftTO 
^tbose evils cannot be remedied;' ^ if ^iq% 'it is not fitting to be 
heard;* %fH vd»^ *unfittobecut;* Fim W ^IH^ H^UPP^ V9ll|^ 
^ contempt is not proper to be shewn by thee for him ;* «lKft|g«^ ^A^r 
* worthy to be celebrated.* 

a. The Ibllowing are other instances : WIHVS V^I^SH ^1^^* '^® >bed was 
begun to be built;* tw ^rfWl^ HW^ ftrefllTIJ *your Honour has been 
selected to be inaugurated to the kingdom ;' ^^Pn li|>^ ' it deserves to be done ;' 
Wrfi^ Wl^fmH^ 'improper to be done' (cf. facHt indignum and voieiv auayjfOv)i 
Wl •ft^f^ •^IWT *she ought to be released;' fll^ 1^ hiPMh laj*^ Vhat is 
•ought to be d<HM,' The inSnilive of neuter verbs, which hare a passive sense, 
will of QoursA bf passive \ as, llh^ •! V^ftr * d«gn not to be angry.' 

870. The roQft ^ ' to deserve^' when used in combination with an infinitive, is 
usually equivalent to ' an entreaty' or ' respectful imperative ;* as, VHT«( In ^^•^ 
"^tfti ' deign (or simply ' be pleased ') to tell us our duties.' It sometimes has the 
force of the Latin dtbei; as» •! fTWft WT'^ ^rfwiji^ ^l^ftc * such a person as I 
ought not to address you;' f ii ^P^j*^ ^l^ftl *you ought not to bewail him.' 

871. The infinitive is sometimes joined with the noun lilWy 'desire,' to form a 
kind of compound acyective, expressive of wishing to do anything, but the 
final m is then rejected ; thus, {[{^IH:^ -fT, -in^, * desirous of seeing;' dg«ii«««^ 
•IT, -in^, * wishing to conquer.' 

a. Sometimes the infinitive is joined in the same way with HT^; tiius, 9 
5L5**^i>i ' he has a mind to see.' 

872. When kimk follows the infinitive a peculiar transposition sometimes takes 
place, of which the ist Act of SULimtsli furnishes an example ; thus« ^9lff w 
WJ^ !pWftf ftn^ ^nnn «inrtf hi ftl^finr^n^, * I wish to know t^y friend, 
whether this monastic vow is to be observed by her,' for 91}^ ^^saitii f% nwi\ W 
&c. ' I wish to know whether this vow is to be observed by thy Mend«' 

USE AND (CONNEXION OF THE TENSES. 
873. Pbesent Tense. — ^This tense, besides its proper uae9 *^ ^^ 
u«ed fiiff th^ future; as, % inirfti 'Whither «ba],l I go?' w^ mf 



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376 USB AND CONNEXION OP THE TENSES. 

^^^nfif * When shall I see thee?^ f% urdftf * What shall I do?* and 
sometunes for the imperative; as, Hl^^: Met us do that/ 

874. In narration it is commonly used for the past tense ; as, 9 ^f^ ^fP ^''^ 
r^^ifn Ig^ ^ 'he, having touched the ground, touches his ears, and says.' 

875. It may denote ' hdbUuaV or * repeated' action ; as, ^ HWf TW IWT ipi 
m^fA * the deer going there twerj day was in the habit of eating the com ;' ^1^ 
^ •if't*,^!^ ^^potfir 7^ ftlTTi ^^M^Hir * whenever he heard &e noise of the 
mouse, then he would feed the cat.' 

876. It is usually found after '^W^^ and ni^f^; as, mi^«\ i^ ^Q^ilT «T ^oifftr 
m^ IR VJ^ f^lprf^ * as long as my teeth do not break, so long will I gnaw 
asunder your fetters.* (Compare the use of the Latin dwn,) 

877. The present tense of the root ^VT^, 'to sit,' 'to remidn,' b used with the 
present participle of another verb, to denote ' continuous^ or * wmultaneonu* action ; 
as, ^njfrt WV ^|%1(^ ^n^ ' he keeps making a slaughter of the beasts;' ^Hl m^i^ 
mT39[^ mW ' he is in the act of coming after me.' 

878. The particle ^9 when used with the present, gives it the force of a perfect ; 
as, Hf^^jftif W 56*^ 'they entered the city;' "ftw^rf^ W 'they dwelt.' See 
251. Obs. 

879. Potential. — ^The name of this tense is no guide to its 
numerous uses. Perhaps its most common force is that of * fitness* 
in phrases, where in Latin we should expect to find oportet with the 
infinitive ; as, ^mk h4 1(^5? ^TO ^5t^ ^nftf^TH^ ' having beheld danger 
actually present, a man should act in a becoming manner.' 

880. It is also employed, as might be expected, in ind^nite general expresHomj 
as,^n9T ^ ^91^ ^qn^ ' whatever may be the disposition of any one;' V^ TTUT 
^nl 7T 7^^ •••*i.^5'**^ ' when the king may not himself make investigation of 
the case;' llH I H^4|lc«l,<I^H IJ^ m^^ WIITRI^ 'by uttering unseasonable 
words one may meet with dishonour.' 

a. Especially in conditional sentences and suppositions; as, Vif^ XJMt ^1^ ^ 
WWH^ ^1*4 ^Wnqp*!^ T ^RTT^ fl^^^fl^l^ fwT5^ ' if the king were not to inflict 
punishment, ownership would remain with nobody, and all barriers would be 
broken down.' Sometimes the conjunction is omitted; as, •! Hn 'should it not 
be so ;' T ^WTTI MM^lnJ 'were he not subject to another.' 

881. The potential often occurs as a softened in^erative, the Sanskpt language, 
in common with others in the East, being averse to the more abrupt form ; thus, 
TBT:, 'do thou go,' for ^HK; and xitil^^lfnf^, 'let him eat fruits,' for ^K^l 
^ini^, 'let there be,' for 'there must be' (in comment, to P^?.) 

88a. Imperative. — ^This tense yields the usual force of * cam- 
tnand* or ^entreaty;' as, ^rnvfirff *take courage;^ ifP^ V^9VT 
'remember me.* 

m, and not t{, must be used in proMhition ; as, wjk IT fff ^ do 



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USB AlSfD OOITNBXION OP THE TENSES. 377 

not teU a falsehood;^ m HW9 ^be not ashamed;^ see 889. The 
first peraon is used to express ^lueeiHfy/ see example at 796. 

a. The 3rd pers. smgular is sometimes used inteijectionally ; thus, 
HifJ *Be it soP *WeU!* inj *Let it go!* *Come along!* 'Come!* 

88;^. The impeKative is aometimes used in conditional phrases to express ' eon/tn- 
#«sfy/ as>^I^WPft^'rf 'HKTftl'psrmit me, (and) I will go,' i.e. *if you will permit 
me, I win go;' VIVTM^ ^fNjf^lR'^* if you command me, I will kill the villain;* 
^Wl^ifT^ ^ irVC IWrfil 'if you give me a promise of security, I will go.' 

884. Ihpebfsct. — ^Although this tense (see 242) properly has 
reference to ^past incomplete action^^ and has been so rendered in 
the paradigms of verbs^ yet it is commonly used to denote ' indefinite 
past time/ without any necessary connexion with another action; 
^9 ^ VW^ ^>QP( miC^ ^ I made an effort to collect wealth/ not 
necessarily * I was making/ 

Obs« — ^The augment mi^ be cut off after m, as in the aorist ; thus, 
nr Jfi m^ ^ May he not become V See 242. Obs« ; Pdp. vi. 4, 74. 

885. Pbkpbct. — ^As explained at 242, this tense is properly used 
to express * an action done at some definite period of past time ;* as, 
41)91 ^1^41 ^[^ ^;:9l4 ^m^: ' Kau^alyfi and the others bewailed king 
Dafaratha.* It is firequendy, however, employed indeterminately. 

886. FiBST FUTUEE. — ^This tense (see 242) expresses * definite 
but not immediate futurity ;^ as, m^ fipf ^n'V^ "^ TiailAl * in those 
^gions thou shalt (one day) obtain the fruit of thy desire.^ 

887. Second Futube. — ^This tense, although properly indefinite, 
is employed to express *all degrees and kinds ofjviwrity^ immediate 
or remote^ definite or indefinite; as, ^9t;j ir: i|T9lf^ ^thou shalt 
drink sweet water ;' iqf W|^ il^ff *j|[^rfir / there certaiidy he will 
see his wife ;^ ^nff ifvpofia ^ this very day thou shalt go.^ 

a. It is sometimes used for the imperative ; as, ^ ^ 11^ ^T^^ 

* whatever is to be given, that you will give/ (do thou give.) 

888. AOBIST^ — ^This tense (see 242) properly expresses * time inr 
difinitely past ;^ as, wg^ ifT. 'there lived (in former times) a king.' 

. 889. It is slto employed to supply the plsoe of the imperative^ sfter the pvohi- 
hitive psrtide IT or IT ^> the augment heing omitted (see 242. Obs.) ; as, m ^piC 

* do not make ;' Wl 'Wtvftl WH^' do not lose the opportunity ;' IT W V^R TT^ 
' do not tell an untruth ;' TT-^PI! 'do noi be angry ;' Iff Tff^t ' do not grieve ;' Iff 

^Simii 'do not iigurei* ^ift^; 'do not destrc^;' *^^^ *de not speak so;* 
^ ft^ ' be isot sfrsid ' (ponteaoted into m h; ia Nsla XI V. 3). 

30 



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378 SYNTAX OP PARTICIPLES. 

890. Pbecatitb.— Only one example of this tense occurs in the Hitopades*: 
^^ f?*^ ^*c«4J^^^1HflK ' May he constantly he the ahode of all happness I' 
It is chiefly used in pronouncing henedictions. Also in imprecations. n 

a. In the latter case a noun formed mth a suffix aiis is frequently used ; thus, 
^nrfNftl^ ff ^P'TT^^' May there he loss of life to thee 1 * ' Mayst thou perish I ' 

891. Conditional. — ^This tense (see 343) is even less frequent than the last 
The following are examples : ^if^ TIHIT ^?|i T ITOmIT if^T ZJH HWT«^ 1['T WTWC 
jic6it|^ Wn^WTT! ' if the king were not to inflict punishment, then the stronger 
would roast the weak like fish on a spit;* or, according to the Scholiast, f^^nC^ 
^^uPv^f^' would cause injury;* ^ffS^^ Wlftnm^W^ ^f^Hfl^ ^HHftfUI^'if 
there should he abundant rain, then there would be abundance of food.' Acceding 
to P&pini (ill. 3, 139) it is used rnMlltdqW ' when the action is supposed to pass l^ 
unaccomplished * (fiwnn ^Hftf^nir Schol.) 

a, Lbt. — ^The Vedic mood, called Lef by native grammarians, corresponds to 
the subjunctive of the Greek language. In forming it a short a is inserted between 
the coiyugational stem and the termination, or if the conjugational stem ends in a, 
this letter is lengthened ; at the same time the augment of the imperfect and aorist 
is dropped, e.g. from kan comes pres. ind. kau'ti: but subj. han^-H: from pai, 
pres. ind. pata-tij subj. patd-ti: horn a/, impf. ind. (Uno-tj subj. o^fURME-/, L e. 
ainO'\- a-j-t. So also, frt>m pat, impf. ind. apatO't; subj. patd-t : from ^, aor. ind. 
atdrit (for atdrish-tf cf. du. atdrish-va, &c.); subj. tdrish-a-t It may also be 
mentioned that in the Atmane the final e may optionally be changed to at, e.g. 
mddayddhvai ; and that the subjunctive of the aorist sometimes takes the termina- 
tions of the present tense without lengthening a, e. g. from va6 comes aor. ind. 
(no6aU subj. vo6ati. 

Observe — The characteristic of Lef is the insertion of a. 

SYNTAX OF PARTICIPLES. 

892. Participles in Sanskrit often discharge the functions of the 
tenses of verbs. Thej are constantly found occupying the place of 
past and future tenses, and more especially of passive verbs. 

893. Participles govern the cases of the verbs whence they are 
derived ; as, mnt ^npi5^ * seeing the fowler f iffT^ ^TO^ * walking in 
the forest ;' Hl^ ^flRIi^ * he did that ;^ W^ ^vnnA ' having heard a 
noise ;* ^TPfhl'|[ ^r^)TVT fw: * he went away without drinking water.' 

a. In the case of passive participles, as will presently appear, the 
-agent is put in the instrumental case ; and the participle agrees with 
the object, like an adjective. 

Present Tartictples. 
. 894. These are not bo commonly used in Sanskrit composition as 
past and future participles, but they are often idiomatically employed. 



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SYNTAX OP PARTICIPLES. 879 

especially where in English the word * while* or 'whilst* is intro- 
duced; thus, ^ irftj'JITlsi ^ron wq^iP^ * whilst walking in the 
southern forest, I beheld,* &c» 

Past Passive Participle. 

895. This most useful participle is constantly used to supply the 
place of a perfect tense passive^ sometimes in conjunction with the 
auxiliary verbs as and bhU, ^ to be ;* thus, ^VTf?^sfi?l ' I have been com- 
manded;* ^ fiff^nn: ibr: *we were astonished;* Tfvifts^ *I have 
dwdt* (cf. 866). Of course the participle is made to agree adjec- 
tively with the object in gender, number, and case, as in Latin ; 
and the agent, which in English would probably be in the nomina- 
tive, and in Latin in the ablative, becomes in Sanskrit instrumental. 
Thus, in Sanskrit, the phrase 'I wrote a letter* would not be so 
idiomaticaUy expressed by ^ i||r fdc^fl, as by inn H|r f?5ftnn^ * by 
me a letter was written,* ' a me epistola scripta/ So again, i)fT W^VrfTf^ 
f^nrfVr * by him the bonds were cut* is more idiomatic than ^ ^HtHlftl 
f^nik^ 'he cut the bonds ;* and ihf ^IT^^* by him it was sidd* is more 
usual than ^ ^rtt^ *he said *.* 

a. This participle may often be used impersonally, when, if the 
verb belong to the first group of classes, it may optionally be 
gunated ; 1^, ^[finn^ or vtfffV ^pTO * it is shone by the sun.* The 
same holds good if the beginning of an action is denoted ; as, ^: 
H^finr: or mj^fwin * the sun has begun to shine.* 

b. When a verb goyerns a double accusative case (see 846), one accusative will 
be preserved after the past passive participle; as, ftpjTftwff ^F^lt TJH ^nfflf J 
* Dajaratha was asked for R4ma by Vis'vdmitra ;' TvfHM ift^ ^rm 'the sky has 
been milked of your ^sh,' i. e. 'your wish has been milked out of the sky;' f9nft 
XJl^i «i^r«i ^ ' deprived by defeat in play of his kingdom and property ' (cf. 846. 
Obs.) 

896* But frequently the past passive participle b used for the active past 
participle; in which case it may sometimes govern the accusative case, like a 
perfect tense active ; thus, 9 ^jWi, Vl^4t ' he ascended the tree ;' ^ ^ TiH or 
Wnnn 'he went home;* ^Tw ITTOt 'having crossed the road;* ^1^ ^qql^^^ 

*** This instrumental or passive construction, which is so prevalent in Sanskrit, 
has been transferred from it to Hindi, Mar&thi, Gajardthi, and other dialects of 
India. The particle ne in Hindi and Hinddst^i corresponds to the Sanskrit «Tiui»- 
the final lette» of the commonest termination for the instrumental case, and cai^ 
never occasion any difficulty if so regarded. 

3 C Or 



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68(J SYNTAX OP participles: 

^Wrfroftfjji * I have descended to the road 5* ^ T'rtH^ H^WHt * I readied 
the citj;' Vl^l^ WVM Itf^w W 'we two have entered the hennitage/ But 
observe^ that its use for the active participle is generB%» though not invaxiably* 
restricted to intransitive verbs which involve the idea of ' motion,* and to a few 
other neuter verbs. The fbllowing are other ^xan^les: M 01)111 TrVAllin 'the 
birds flew away ;' ^ ^J * he died ;' ^ipft ftf^|fK * the fowler returned ;* ^ ^«|ftl^ 
V^l *he proceeded to eat;' ^ ^ftnK 'he had recourse to;' ^ H%n» *he fell 
asleep ;* W f^nTK * they stood ;* Itfm ' he lodged^* 

a. This participle ha3 somelimes 9k present signification: thua, f^PTW 'stood' 
may occasionally be translated ' standing/ ^Av ' fearing/ f^TW ' smiling/ ^ifWv 
'embracing/ and all verbs characterized by the Anubandha fR may optionally 
use this partidple in the sense of the present. See 75. e. 

b. The neuter of the passive participle is sometimes used as a aubstaative ; thus, 
|l?VJ*agift/ fHlf^' an excavation;' IRH^'food/ jnil^'milk.' 

Active Past Participle. 

897. This participle is much used (especially in modem Sanslqit 
and the writings of commentators) to supply the place of a perfect 
tense active. It may govern the case of the verb ; as, ^ ^V^n^ * he 
heard everything ;^ vi^ vfi(9[ HiPc^Pjia^aI * the wife embraced her 
husband ;' TXit ^ "m^ ^7^^ ^ he gave the fruit into the hand o^ 
the king;^ HIT ^flRlft ^she did that/ This participle may also be 
used with the auxiliaries as and bhUy * to be/ to form a compound 
perfect tense ; thus, JR[^ ^(H^ni^ ^Jftj 'he has done that;* jn{^ ^ITIR^ 
Hflrilfil ' he will have done that* 

Indeclinable Past Particq>les. 

898. The sparing use made in Sanskrit composition of relative 
pronouns, conjunctions, and connective particles, is mainly to be 
attributed to these participles or gerunds, by means of which the 
action of the verb is carried on, and sentence after sentence strung 
together without the aid of a single copulative. They occur in 
narration more commonly than any other kind of participle ; and 
some of the chief peculiarities of Sanslqit syntax are to be traced 
to the frequency of their occurrence. 

899. They are generally used for the past tense, as united with a 
copulative conjunction, and are usually translatable by the Eng^h 
^ having,* * when,* * after,* ' by,* see 555 ; thus, if^ vrni ftfftiHH ^^ 
^ WS^ ^ ^^ W»t WW ITTRn W^ wSt 'having heard this, having 
thought to himself " this is certainly a dog,** having left the goat, 



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gtl^AX Of PABTiaPLBa 881 

lia^ng ba^edi be went to his own hotise.^ In all these eases we 
should use in English the past tense with a conjunction; thus^ 
' When he had heard this, he thought to himself that it must cer- 
tainly be a dog. He then left the goat, and, when he had bathed, 
went to his own house/ 

«• It it evident from the above ezsmple that the indecliwaMe pariidples often stand 
in ih» ^bce oftbpkipeffect tense, a tense which does not reaUj exist in Sanskrit. 

b. But althongh they always refer to something past, it should be observed that 
they are frequently rendered in English by the present participle, as in the fifth 
seatenoe of the stoiy at 930. 

900. Another, though less frequent use of them is as gerunds in do: thus, ^TH! 
yVHI^ ^nAVI* )nf% *i|ftpnrn 'men become wise hy reading the S^dstras;' 
m^ wfv mri|^ ^ifT ^^mi 'a wife is to be supported even by [or «»] doing a 
bundred wrong things;' i% M^^ ^rVf ^|in^'What bravery is there ta killing 
a sleeping man ? ' 

Observe— This participle is occasionally capable of a passive sense. 

5)01. Note — ^The termination ?^ tvd is probably an instrumental case, and bears 
much of the character of an instrumental, as it is constantly found in grammatical 
eonnexion with the agent in this case; thus, ^t ^r^[fil^ ftPMHfl f^lft fl^W: 'by 
all the beasts having met together the lion was informed;* ^l«l^ lircVlY VT^PI 
,9llMMi'^ ' by all having taken up the net let it1be flown away.' 
. n. Another and stronger proof of its instrumental character is, that the particle 
^VcS^, which governs an instrumental, is not unfrequently joined with the inde- 
clinable participle; thus, ^V^ Wln«ln, Enough of eating/ is with equal correct- 
iiess of idiom expressed by ^f^ ^W; see 918. tu 

Faivre Passive Participles. 
903. The usual sense yielded by this gerundixre particiide is that 
of * fitness,^ * obligations^ * necessity* (see 568); and the usual am-" 
struction required is, that the agent on whom the duty or necessity 
rests be in the instrumental, and the participle agree with the object ; 
aSy Fnn 1^1%^ ^ ftjiHn ' by you tiie attempt is not to be made.' 

a. Sometimes, however, the agent is in the genitive case; thus, fJnfTlfHff 
m^ ^nn^ ' boiled rice is to be eaten by Brihmans.' Compare 865, note. 

903. Occasionally the ftxture passive partidple may yield a sense equivalent to 
'worthy of* 'deserving:* as, Wf^ 'deserving a whipping;' TfTffN 'woi^ of 
being beaten ;* ^[^W * deserving death by pounding ;' W^ * iwirthy of deal^.' 

904. If tiie verb govern two accusatives, one may be retained after the hAan 

^ * As the Latin gerund is oonneetod with the fbture pavt. in dm, so the Sanskrit 
indedinable part, in ya is frobal^y oonnaoted t^th the f^ture paaiive part in yo. . 



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382 SYNTAX OF PABTICIPLBS* 

passive partidple; bs, H^^^H^M^ WIT ?JtW %in^ *the tear of the eje is to be 
brought to assuagement by thee/ 

905. Occasionally the neuter of this participle is used impersonally; in whidi 
case it does not agree with the object^ but may govern it in the manner of the 
verb ; thus, ^^t VJR TIW^, Mt is to be gone by me to the village/ for Wm Unft 
vpiRi:. So also, Wm W^ n^V^n^' by you it is to be entered into the assembly/ 

a. The neuter ^Pfn^^^ (from ^ is thus used, and, in accordance with 841, 
requires the instrumental after it, as well as before ; thus, iimTftl ^(T^d^T HOmH*^ 
*hj something it must become the cause,' i.e. ^ there must be some cause;* 
^nftRT ^rt^f^w nftniH'^ 'a ruler ought to be possessed of discrimination ;' 
Wn m ll^^w HftnW^ * I must become your companion ;' vi^«ii IW^lire* 
inn M(HliV( * the lady must be seated in the carriage*' 

906. Similarly, the neuter of ?9¥l may be adverbially used, and impart at the 
same time a passive sense to the infinitive ; thus, ^TRt ^vi^ HlfcirjIJ^f^ ^R|^ 
for ^TRt ^PPIt &c 'the breeze is able to be embraced by the limbs * (Sakuntala, 
verse 60). Again, ^vi^ VVjfl^fW: inj UWM 'the breezes are able to be drunk 
by the hollowed palms ;' ft^nMt ^^i*^ 1I^II|H * great successes are able to be 
obtained.' Observe a similar use of ^fWI^ in «T ^ H^lf^^l^^'his Highness is 
not proper to be addressed * (Mah6-bh. Adi-p. 27). 

907. It b not uncommon to find this participle standing merely in the place of 
a future tense, no propriety or obligation being implied, just as the past passive 
participle stands in the place of a past tense ; thus, ^Jf^ ^n«i <!j**ff 'pprf* 
tiiNfn <i«n^^ 'in all probability this hunter will go in quest of the deer's flesh,' 
where fin^n^ is used impersonally; Fit '^JT fiml f%Pl^ ^IW*^ 'when the 
people see you, they will utter some exclamation ;* '^f^ V!^ ^lifflf W^ 'PH UlCjfl^i 
' if the bird fSslls, then it shall be eaten by me.' See 930. xL 

908. The neuter of this participle is sometimes used infinitively or substantively, 
ms expressive merely of 'the indetenmnate action * of the verb, without implying 
'necessity' or 'fitness.' In such cases J^ may be added; thus, ^TfAnnm*^^ 
^ the bemg about to deceive,' ' deception ' (Hitop. line 416) ; •ill^*(^ ' the being 
about to die," dying:' but not always ; as, ifH^nnqi^ ' life.' 

Participial Nouns of Agency.. 

909. The first of these nouns of agency (580) is constantly used in poetiy as a 
substitute for the present participle; implying, however, 'habitual action,' and 
therefore something more than present time* It is sometimes found governing 
the same case as the present participle, but united with the word which it governs 
in one compound; thus, ^t^ 'city-conquering;' fllU^^^ 'speaking kind 
words;' nA^^i 'going in the water;' ^tftrH 'lake-bom.' But the word 
governed is often in the stem; thus, ^irarC, ' light-making ' (see 69), from t^(u 
and h[%: n ^^%^ ' mind-captivating,' from matnM and Ap (64); ^J7«' 'g^^>im^ 
much,' from hak» and Mi HnnV, ' self-knowing,' from Atman vadjnd (57. b)^ ^ 



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«YOTAX OF CONJUNCTIOirS^ PBBPOSITIONS, AD7BEBS, &c. 383 

910. The second (581) U Boinetiine8> but mrety, found as a parHciple governing 
the case of the verb; thus, ^IPrf 1W 'speaking a speech;' •fjjillfl^'ll ^^hf! 
'bearing the Granges/ 

911. The first and second species of the third (582. a.b\ like the first, have 
often the sense of present participles, and are then always united with the stem 
of the word which they govern in one compound; thus, 'nATSlfX^^ 'mind- 
captivating,' firom mamas and kfi: wQ^tuVna, 'effective of the business,' from 

Mrya and nd&. They may sometimes govern the case of the verb whence they 
are derived, and may then be compounded, or not, with the word which they 
govern; thus, UnwftR^ or 3JW ^ftftR^ ' dwelling in a village;' ^JppwftT ^^t 
'kisser of the buds' (Ratndvati, p. 7). 

SYNTAX OF CONJUNCTIONS, PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBS, &c 

Corgunctions. 

9I3. ^ 'and' (737) is always placed after the word which it connects with 
another, like 911^ in Latin, and can never stand first in a sentence, or in the same 
place as * and * in English ; thus, Mf^m^M ^«icol^ ^ * walking round and looking/ 
Unlike qw^ however, which must always follow the word of which it is the copu- 
lative^ it may be admitted to any other part of the sentence, being only excluded 
iirom the first place; thus, nnH*\ ^N<ii|^ m-^l ^ ITW H^ ^ ifPHT^ 'and 
having after a short time given birth to a pure son, as the eastern quaiier (gives 
birth to) the sun/ 

a. Sometimes two 6a*ti are used, when one may be redundant or equivalent to 
the English 'both;* or the two ^'s may be employed antithetically or diqunc- 
tively, or to express the contemporaneousness of two events ; thus, ^V^H nf^Ttl 
'both day and night;' « fft^HIRf ifKM ^ nQ t c^lfi « ^ 9tH[ 1^ 'Where 
on the one hand is the frul existence of fawns ? Where on the other are thy 
arrows?' APv^j ^ H^flT ^pfHI^^ ^ ^'ftfi^ vfiH^ ^^ VTPI 'no sooner 
had she began to weep, than a shining apparition in female shape, having snatched 
her up, departed' (S^akuntali, verse 131); W^HIJ^^^^^Hl^JfJ^^lllf^J^ilt'they 
reached the ocean and the Supreme Being awoke' (from his sleep), Raghu-v. x. 6. 

b. Observe — ^When 9, 'where?' is used as in the above example, it implies 
* excessive incompatihility/ or * incongruity * 

e. Sometimes ^ is used as an emphatic particle, and not as a copulative ; thus, 
fiir ^ «nn nftritW^ ' Was she indeed married by me formerly ?' 

913. K^ 'so,* 'likewise' (737. b), frequentiy supplies the place of ^; thus, 
WHPTH^f^Wnn ^ WJWl^ffif^ inn 'both Andgata-vidh&tri and Pratyutpanna- 
mati' (names of the two fish in Hitop. Book IV). 

914. f^ 'for,' g 'but,' ^ 'or' (737. d, 738. a), like ^, are excluded from the 
first place in a sentence; thus, ^[^ppAftW ^^ ^twt f^ Vft^^ 'for happiness 
formeriy scorned turns to misery ;' fni^ ) 'but on the contrary;' W^ W^ Wi 
sj^ra m ' either abandon her or take her.' 

' 915* ^1^ * if ' and ^ ^ if' (737. e) may govern the potential or conditional (see 



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884 SYNTAX OF C0NJTJ5CTI0N8; PBBPOSITIOBrS, ADVBBBS, &C. 

Sgi}^ but tte also lised with the iadioatiyei ihiui> ^vft[ Vlf)^^ )l^[Tftff XRprfk 
'if he live, he wiU behold proiperiiy ;' ^ «mi IPitWlF^ ^1% 'if there w need 
of me ;* ^IQIT ^^ MPljUfM lit ^flc^ ' If avarice were abandoned^ who would be 
poor?* 

Prepositions and Adverbs. 
916L Frepositionft oftoi gorem cases of nouns^ See 729, 730^ 
917. The foQovring exsmpks Olostrate the use of adverbs in con- 
struction with cases of nouns, as explained at 731. 

iri^ ^Q*n'9 rnPHHI^^* flesh thrown before the dog;' n^^i^ ^W *tmder the 
trees ;* "TW^ VMUI^ * below the navel ;' ^HW WM^Em^ ' beneath the tree ;* *itW- 
*fl«W<!^ ^qfter eating;' W^ W^lXk^ 'wiihoui fruit;' ^l|^ V«JHfill^ V^IR9 
^toithout the consent of her husband;' VflW Wm'^, or more usually VTw^* *for 
the sake of wealth;' fiWl^T^ v^i^ ' e^er marriage;' v^i^ ^WPRT^ V^IJI*^ 

* after collecting the bones :' ^^fV, irith genitive^ occurs rather frequently, and 
with some latitude of meaning; thus, «V1h^ 9l|f^ ' aboiee the navel;' t^Tf^ 119 
V^ir V[^^ * the lion fell upon him ;' ^R T^lfC rcf^lPui * changed in his feelings 
towardg me;' H^ 'W^ft V4l^9^^<lflO 'not behaving properly towards thee;' 
999 V^rft fWt'uigrjwUk his ton;' IflH^ wl*^ ' oto^t the nwvel;' H^^^ 
Wmv^^q/to that period;' li<llllt.l^ "Vuh^' t^er a year/ Le. 'above a year having 
expired;' «T <;VI^ ^^^ ^^PH ^ ^IM/MPtiil^: ' the restraint of orime cannot be 
made wkhoai punishment ;' TW HftWi^^* on thy aocomU ;' W^T: ^ or Rl^N '/or 
her *«*«/ ^Tf^4IVm t?ft|%W 'ft> Me n^Af qf the garden;^ Ifftjftw 'on fAof 
nceotfft/ ;* Hftl^MJ^m^TO^ ' q/)fer saluting ;' ^I^RHI ^HITW ' fl/ler us ;* ^WTTI^^jJ^'H 

* before bathing;' fWfTH^[^ 'before marriage;' VlwNw^tpjtT^ Vffif 'from 
the moment of seeing (him) ;' VUlTjfif 'from birth ;' WIK IPjftf 'yrom that time 
forward ;' ^tRIRH^^ l^ffW 'from the time of investiture ;' W^ f^^^HIH^* before 
telling ;• HP^ a^fflfHI^ * 6^orc investiture ;' *frtr'm^^ Wf ' before eating :* ^n| 
may take an accusative; as, in*^ f Kf^l^^Hi: * brfore twelve years are over;' ^ 
^ifltrfif ^flTT^ '/or a hundred births;' ^Q.Hlli. 'inn'iip to the serpent's hole;' 
fWn^ ^r^^ ftf:^W 'creeping out of the hole;' 1^ f^TT 'without cause;' 
^RT!^ f^ 'wUhout fault;' MlRll/(S4l|^«*ffllilU 'without injury to Uving 
beings ;' ftlj: ^^^li^ HT^ ^Wt^ 'he receives moae^Jrom his frther ;' W^ ^P<W( 
' in mj pruence J* XXm^SPfftm^^' near iA» long;* 9^9 Wl'aUm§witk ki« son:' 
.411^111^ may take an instrumental; as, ira: 911(1^' fte^bre oDieM;' fS^^lltV^ 
the sake of a son.' 

9x8. VbM^, 'enoii^' is used with the instrmnenlal, wiiii ^6 foce of a pn>- 
hUttl^ve par^e; as, ^R9 ^IflT 'away witii frar,' ' do not fear.' 

4b It is also used with the indedinable participle; as, W^ ^f^AI 'enough of 
weeping 1' ^n% f^HIT^ * enough of consideration !' see also 901. a. 

Obs.-*-W^i8usedinthesamew»j; e.g. IT^^iff ^ 1R9 ^n (Piu|^. ni* 4, iS)* 



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SYNTAX OP OONJUKCTIONS, PKBP08ITI0NS, ADVERBS, &C. 385 

b. It is sometimes followed by an infinitive; as, «T ViV^ fjftff ^^ fH^SftlJ^^ 
' I am not able to turn back my heart.' 

919. 'n?|>^ 'eyen/ 'merely^' at the end of a compound is declinable; as, ^^- 
^.•iicJ 1 ^fil ' he does not even give an answer ;' •! 9^^1911^ nif^W[ ' one ought 
not to be afraid of mere noise ;' ^K^^l^^ ' by mere sound ;' ^^H^HI^IU 'by mere 
words ;* fVi^^l^l ^^% immediately on the mere utterance of the speech.' 

930. irqr and Vl^y when used as correlatives, are equivalent to the English * so 
that,* and the Latin ita ut; thus, ^HIT ^TT^ft MI'iPJ THIT inn 'iSf^ * I must so 
act that my master awake,' i. e. ' I must do something to make my master awake.' 

So also, ?t ff ilHlfu inn ^f^V^i Vitfll * Do not you know that I keep watch 
in the house ?' 

^' ^%^*\9 WTJ^f^, and 'HIJ^'^ may be used in the same way ; thus, ni^^i*^ 
lk«ilj^ ^ fWir^ f^nn^ Vr^ ^KI'^IIJ^WHH^ * nothing is so opposed to length 
of life as intercourse with the wife of another.' 

b, in^, as well as Tm, is used for 'that;' thus, ^ 'J?'" inft ^ ITOfiff 
liVT ?Rrnn fw^ik 'this is a new doctrine, that having killed an enemy remorse 
should be felt.' 

931. ftn^i 'why?' may often be regarded as a mark of interrogation whieh is 
not to be translated, but affects only the tone of voice in which a sentence is 
uttered ; as, Hlfil^Hld^ ftk Vf^91(^ H<^^ ' ^^ ^y ^^^ honoured for mere birth ?' 
(Cf.837.a.) 

a. It sometimes has the force of ' whether ;' as, Ql^ffl ftl^ 9^}^% ^rti*l^ ^S«f 
TCiTfW V^^iyiit ^ 'let it be ascertained whether he is worthy to receive so 
large a salary, or whether he is unworthy ;' «Rft ^ftc fifc 'J^.S*^ ^^^^ ^ ^ 
' the minister knows whether the king is meritorious or not.' 

932. ^ (technically vati) as a suffix of comparison or similitude (734) may be 
compounded with a nominal stem, which if uncompounded would be in the accusa- 
tive case ; thus, ^BTFTTH ^W^ 41 V^^^ ' shewing himself as if dead ;' «i^^«i^ ^ 
M^^iPif ' he regards it as a wonder.' Also in the locative or genitive case ; thus, 
•IVJU^H^ ^pt m^lil ' a wall in Srughna like that in Mathurd.' According to 
P&^ini V. I, 115, it is used for the instrumental after adjectives of oomparison, 
when some action is expressed ; thus, AIHiDh gVjl|*^ V^Aw (see 836) may be 
rendered IVmy^ WiHtf but it would not be correct to say ^ci^if^ ^^J5: for 

^iNr fw: ^fk. 

933. The negative «T is sometimes repeated to give intensity to an affirmation ; 
thus, •! •! s^vifn ' he will not not say '=^ra5lflf CT * he will certainly say.' 

934. The indeclinable participle i9f\|^y ^ having pointed out,' is sometimes used 
adverbially to express * on aocoimt of,' * with reference to,* * towards,' and governs 
an accusative ; thus, ftp^ Vf^ipV ' On account of what ?' Tf^ ^f^^^ * with refer- 
ence to him.' 

935. The indeclinable participle VR!>^y ' having begun,' is used adverbially to 
express from,' ' beginning with,' and may either govern an ablative or be placed 

3 i> 



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886 OK THE USE OF THE PABTICLB ^. 

after a nominal stem ; thus, ftHRTOI^ Wt^ Wrf m^ * from the time of 
invitation to the tune of the ?WLddha/ P«!H««IUK«I would be equally conect. 

926. The inteijections ftl^ and ^ require the accusative ; as, ftl^ mi^iw^ 
'Woe to the wretch T and the vocative inteijections the vocative case; as, >itt 
^rwr*0 traveller!' 

a. Adverbs are sometimes used for adjectives in conneuon mth substantives; 
as, im ^irpmiP^ for TOlt ^THTUP^ *in that haU;* ^mk% ^pnP for mPTk% 
•|^g ' among the principal ministers/ 

ON THE USE OF THE PARTICLE J^. 

927, In Sanskrit the obliqua oratio is rarely admitted ; and when 
any one relates the words or describes the sentiments or thoughts <^ 
another^ the relator generally represents him as speaking the actual 
words, or thinking the thoughts, in his own person. 

a. In such cases the particle jhf (properly meaning 'so,' 'thus') is often placed 
after the words quoted, and may be regarded as serving the purpose of inverted 
commas; thus, f^T^T ^^ f M^i^iMI ^IP^ ^fn 'the pupils sud, ''We have 
accomplished our object;"' not, according to the English or Latin idiom, 'the 
pupils said that they had accomplished their object.' So also, ^k9C^«mO 1^ ip 
^T 'your husband calls you " quarrelsome," ' where %<4^^Wi1 is in the nomina- 
tive case, as being the actual word supposed to be spoken by the husband himself 
in his own person. So again, ^^115^ f^W^T^pPI 1[fir ^ ^ifi^lft If ^W 
n^l^rfv 'all the birds praise you in my presence, saying, "He is an object of 
confidence,"* where the particle ^fw is equivalent to 'saying,' and the word 
R|^l4l^*j*l^# is not in the accusative, to agree with 5^l*i> m might be expected, 
but in the nominative, as being the actual word supposed to be uttered by the 
birds in their own persons. In some cases, however, the accusative is retuned 
before ^fiT, as in the following example (Manu 11. 153): tnt wico^ ^fil Wljp 
'they call an ignorant man "child."' But in the latter part of the same line it 
passes into a nominative ; as, f^nTT ^flT ^ ) VRT^l^ ' but (they call) a teacher of 
scriptmre " father." ' 

928. In narratives and dialogues ^fw is often placed redundantly at the end of 
a speech. Again, it may have reference merely to what is passing in the mind 
either of another person or of one's self. When so employed, it is usually joined 
with the indeclinable participle, or of some other part of a verb signifying to 
think,' ' to suppose,' &c., and may be translated by the English conjunction ' that,' 
to which, in twcst, it may be regarded as equivalent ; thus, Hhi\ '^W^ qi^^ifp 
jht ^iftSPI 'having ascertained that it is a monkey who rings the bell;' ^^1^ 
nQ^^fi: iKKll^l ^fif fftl^ W^ ' his idea was that an increase of wealth ought 
again to be made;' vft'lj ^lOT CTTJ^ hAi ^ Hffti ftWR 'reflecting in 
his mind that 1 am happy in possessing such a wife.' The accusative ia also 



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EXEBCISBS IN TBAN8LATI0N AND PAB8IKG. 387 

vetained before ^ in this sense; as, ^pPf^ %fK ^F^ 'thinking that he was dead/ 
In all these examples the use of ^fw indicates that a quotation is made of the 
thoughts of the person at the time when the event took place. 

929. Not unfrequentlj the participle 'saying,' 'thinking/ 'supposing/ &c., is 
omitted altogether, and l(fw itself involves the sense of such a participle; as, 
'WrotS'ftl •! mnnrift W^ jfH ^jpfr. 'a king, even though a child, is not to 
be despised, iojfing to (nu^s sejf^ " He is a mortal;" ' llTfl^l^ m f^^ J^ ^ 
Wf^ V^lA^n^ ' either through affection or through compassion towards me, 
toying to yoursefff "What a wretched man he is I" * wi ^tKT^l I wi ^[i^ ^fil 
W^nnfir; «ir|IHm]) 'There's a boar! Yonder's a tiger! so crying out, it is 
wandered about (by us) in the paths of the woods/ 



CHAPTER X. 

EXERCISES IN TRANSLATION AND PARSING. 

930. STOET OP THE SAGB AND THE MOUSE, PBOM THE HITOPADE^A, 
TBANSLATBD AND PARSED. 

i. ^rf^'ftcmw^^wTil^ 

* There is in the sacred grove of the sage Gautama a sage named 
Mahfitapas (Great-devotion)/ 

?7! I * By him, in the neighbourhood of his hermitage, a young 
mouse, &llen from the beak of a crow, was seen.' 

iii. fflU <^I^^^H ^H ^fklT 'fHRTSIsSt ^sNfSiTJ I 

* Then by that sage, touched with compassion, with grains of wild 
rice it was reared/ 

iv. H^Hnll ijfMi iair<^H ^ijMNi^ f^RH^ 

nf^fTTf ?^! I * Soon after this, a cat was observed by the sage 
running after the mouse to devour it' 

^ft'St "TfcTtt f^RTFJ* ^* I *Perceivmg the mouse terrified, 
by that sage, through the efficacy of his devotion^ the mouse was 
dianged into a very strong cat.' 

3 D a 



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388 EXERCISES IN TBANSLATION AND PASSING. 

vi. ^ f?RT<!y: fftr^ f^r^ i wh: fft: fH: i 
ffTFi ^nirn^ h^ >i^ i n^^iiii ^ 'aim: fff : i 

^ The cat fears the dog : upon that it was changed into a dog. Great 
is the dread of the dog for a tiger : then it was changed into a tiger/ 

* Now the sage regards even the tiger as not diffaing at all from 
the mouse.' 

viil 55m: W^ rl^TOT 5RT^ ff ^ITO ^ ^^ I 

^Then all the persons residing in the neighbourhood^ seeing the 
tiger, say.' 

ix. ^R5T ^f PHHI ^ft^S'i ^IHHJ 'ftrf: I 'By this 

sage this mouse has been brought to the condition of a tiger.' 

X. IJfT^ ^ ^ ^ainr: ^a^l^Sf^TT^I The tiger 
overhearing this, being uneasy, reflected.' 

xi. in^ ^^ ^fkm ^tfkfm WR^ ij^ wi 

H>M.H^R H ^^ni^^t ^ ^t6\VM^^ I 'As long as it 
shall be lived by this sage, so long this disgraceful story of my 
original condition will not cUe away.' 

xii. ?Efff ^ITH^t^ gfH ^ ^1^?RT: I 'Thus reflecting, 
he prepared (was about) to kill the sage.' 

xiii. ^^ Hipi f^^iflff ^rm ^pr^ l|f^ ^^ 

^^ "^iigil tlfq^ 1^ apf ; I * The sage discovering his mtention, 
saying, "Again become a mouse," he was reduced to (his former 
state of) a mouse.' 

931. Observe in this story: ist, the simpUcity of the style; andly, 
the prevalence of compound words ; 3rdly, the scarcity of verbs ; 
4thly, the prevalence of the past passive participle with the agent 
in the instrumental case for expressing indefinite past time, in lieu 
of the past tense active with the nominative : see 895, with note. 

933. i. — AsHf '^ere is,' 3td sing. pres. of rt. as, cL 2 (584). Oautamasya, 'of 
Gautama,' gen. m. (103)* Munes, ' of the sage,' gen. m. (i 10) : final s remains by 



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EXERCISES IN TBANBLATIOK AND PASSING. 889 

62* Tapo-voHs, 'in the sacred grove' (lit. 'in the penanoe-grove')> genitiyely 
dependent oomp. (743); the first member formed by the stem tapas, 'penance/ 
as becoming o by 64 ; the last member, by the loc case of vama, ' grove/ nent. 
(104). MaM'4apd, 'having great devotion' (164. a\ relative form of descriptive 
comp. (766) ; the first member formed by mahd (substituted for makat, 778), ' great / 
the last member> by the nom. case masc. of the neuter noun tapas^ ' devotion * 
( 1 64. a) : final $ dropped by ^, a, Ndma^ ' by name/ an adverb (7 13. 6). Mumli, 
* a 8age>' nom. masc. (i 10) : final $ passes into Yisarga by 63. a. 

ii. — Tena, 'by him,' instr. of pron. tad (220). JUrama^sannidhdne^ 'in the 
neighbourhood of his hermitage/ genitively dependent comp. (743); the first 
member formed by the nominal stem dirama^ ' hermitage / the last member, by 
the loc. case of BannidlUkih 'neighbourhood/ neut. (104). The final a of tena 
blends with the initial d of ddrama by 31. Mdshika-4dwtkafLf 'a young mouse,' or 
'the young of a mouse,' genitively dependent comp. (743); formed from the 
nominal stem mdskika, ' a mouse/ and the nom. of ddoaka, ' the young of any 
animal ' (103) : final 5 becomes Visarga by 63. Kdka^mmkhddy ' from the beak (or 
mouth) of a crow,' genitively dependent comp. ; formed from the nominal stem 
kdka, ' a crow,' and the abL of mmkhoy ' mouth,' neut. (104) ; t being changed to d 
by 45. Bhrashfo, ' fallen,' nom. sing. masc. of the past pass. part, of rt. hhranti 
(544. a) : 0$ changed to by 64. DfisA^o^, ' seen/ nom. sing. masc. of the past 
pass. part, of rt. df%4: final 9 becomes Visarga by 63. a. 

iiL — Tato^ 'then/ adv. (719) : a$ changed to by 64. Dayd-yuktefui, 'touched 
with compassion,' instrumentally dependent comp. (740) ; formed from the nominal 
stem daydy ' compassion/ and the instr. of yukta, ' endowed with,' past pass. part, 
of rt. ffuf (670). Tma, see ii. above. Mvnmd^ 'by the sage,' instr. m. (no). 
Nivdra-kaifttifi, ' with grains of wild rice,' genitively dependent oomp. (743) ; formed 
from the nominal stem mivdra, ' wild rice/ and the instr. pi. of kai^a : final s 
becomes Visarga by 63. Sanvardhitaft, 'reared,' nom. sing, of past pass. part, of 
causal of vfidh with sam (549) i final $ becomes Visarga by 63. a. 

iv. — Tad-anantaratfif 'soon after this,' compound adverb; formed with the pro- 
nominal stem tad, 'this' (220), and the adverb anantaramy 'after' (731, 917). 
Mdshikoifi, ace. m. (103). KhddUumy 'to eat,' infinitive of rt. khdd (458, 868). 
Aumdhdvan, 'pursuing after/ 'running after/ nom. sing. masc. of the pres. part. 
Par. of rt. dkdv^ ' to run,' with anu, ' after ' (524). Vu/dh^ ' a cat,' nom. case masc. 
(103): as changed to by 64. Muniiuiy see iii. above. Dfishfaf^, see ii. 

V. — Tatj^y ace. case masc. of pron. tad (220), used as a definite article, see 795. 
MdsMkaiiif see iv. BhUamy 'terrified/ ace. sing. masc. of the past pass. part, of rt 
*^ (533)' Ahkya, ' perceiving,' indec. part, of rt. toJb, with prep, d (559). Tapaf^ 
prdbkdvdt/ through the efficacy of his devotion' (814), genitively dependent comp. 
{743) ; formed by the nominal stem tapas, ' devotion/ s being changed to Visarga 
by 63, and the abl. case of prabkdva, noun of the first dass, masc. (103). Tena, 
seeii. Jf ttnttuf, see iiL ifi^ibsibo,nom.m.(i03): at changed to o by 64. Balishtho, 
' very strong,' nom. masc of the superlative of baUn, ' strong ' (see 193) : as 
changed to by 64. Vi^dlali, see iv : final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kfitafi, 



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y 



890 BXEBCISBS IK TRANSLATION AND PARSING. 

* changed^' ' made,' nom. sing. masc. of past pass. part, of it. kp. (682) : final s 
becomes Visarga by 63. a. 

vi. — 5a, nom. case of tad (aao), used as a definite article (795) : final s dropped 
by 67. Vufdlaft, see iy* Kukkurdd, * the dog ' (103), abL after a verb of * fearing * 
(855) : t changed to d by 45. Bibketi, ' fears/ 3rd sing. pres. of rt. bk{, d. 3 {666). 
Tataiif 'upon that/ ady. (719) : as changed to o^ by 63. KmkkwrafLf 'the dog/ 
nom. m. (103) : final 5 becomes Visarga by 63. Kfitaft^ see y. Kukkurasya^ 'of 
the dog,' gen. masc. (103). Vydphrdu, 'for the tiger' (103), abL after a noun of 
'fear* (814. e): / changed to » by 47. Mahad, 'great' (143), nom. case, smg. 
neat. : t changed iodhj 45. Bkapawi, * fear/ nom. neat. (104). Tad-mumtaraiiit 
see iy. Vydghraft, nom. case : final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kptaf^ see y. 

yii. — 4thaf * now,' inceptiye particle (727. e). Vydghram, aoc. case. Api, ' eyen/ 
ady. Mibhika-nkvUeshmii, ' as not difiP^ring at all from the mouse,' reiatiye form 
of dependent comp. (762) ; formed from the nominal stem mdskika, and the aec 
of vUesha, difference,' with iitr prefixed : or it may be here taken adyerbially, see 
776. Paiyati, 3rd sing. pres. of rt. dfi/, d. i (604). Mmni^^ see i. 

yiii. — Atait 'then,' ady. (719). Saroe^ 'all,' pronominal a^j., nom. plur. masc 
(237). Tatra^Bthd^ 'residing in the neighbourhood/ comp. resembling a locatiyely 
dependent; formed from the adyerb tatra (720), ' there,' 'in that place/ and the 
nom. plur. masc. of the participial noun of agency of rt. sthd, 'to remain' (587) : 
final 8 dropped by 66, a, Jamds/ penona,^ nom. pi. masc. (103) i final s remains 
by 62. To^i, ace. of pron. tad (220), used as a definite article (795). VydghraJHf 
' tiger,' ace. masc. (103). Drishfvd, ' haying seen,' indec. past part, of rt. dfii (556). 
Vadantif ' they say,' 3rd pi. pres. of rt. vad, cL i (599). 

iz. — Anena, ' by this,' instr. of pron. idam (224). Munmd, see iii. J^Miko, 
nom. masc. : a$ changed to by 64. a, Ayatfi^ 'this,^ nom. masc. (224) : the initial 
a cut off by 64. a, Vydghratdnh 'the condition of a tiger,' fem. abstract noun (105), 
ace. case, formed from vydghrat ' a tiger,'^ by the suffix td (80. LXII). MtaJ^ 
' brought,' nom. sing, masc of past pass. part, of rt. ni (532). 

X. — Eta6, ' this,' ace neut. of etad (223) : t changed to ^ by 49. CknUvd/ omst* 
hearing,' indec. part, of rt. ir% (676, 556) ; see 49. Vydyhrafi, nonu case i final s 
becomes Visarga by 63. Sa-vyatho, ' uneasy,' rdatiye form of indeclinable comp., 
formed by prefixing sa to the fem. substantiye vyathd (769) : a$ changed to by 
64. 0. Adintayatf 'reflected,' 3rd sing. impf. of Snt, d. 10 (641) : the initial a cut 
off by 64. a, 

xi. — Ydoad, 'as long as,' ady. (713. a): / changed to il by 45. Anena, see iz. 
JintavyatUt ' to be Ifyed,' nom. neut. of the fut. pass. part, of rt jh (569, 905. a, 
5^07). Tdvad, 'so long/ ady. conrelatiye to ydvai (713. a), Idoffi, 'this/ nom. neat, 
of the demonstratiye pron. at 224. Mama, ' of me,' gen. of pron. akam, ' I ' (218). 
Svangi>dkhydnam/ story of my original condition,' genitiyely dependent comp. (743) ; 
formed from the nominal stem svaHipa, ' natural form' (see 232. b), and the nom. 
of dkkydna, neut. (104) : m retained by 60. AMrtH-karasii, ' disgracefiil,' aceusa- 
tiyely dependent comp. (739) ; formed from the nominal stem akfrtti^ ' disgrace,' 
and the nom. neut* of the partidpial noun of agoicy kara, ' causing,' from kfi, 'to 



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EXEBCI8ES IN TBAK8LATI0K AND PABSING. 891 

do* (580). Na, * not/ adv. (717. a). PaUyiihyate, * will die away/ 3rd sing, and 
fut. Aim. of the compound verb paidy, formed by combining rt« t or ay with prep. 
;Minr(783.«). 

xii.— J/t^ 'thus/ ady. (717. e; see also 928). SanuUo^a, 'reflectmg/ indee. 
part, of the verb iom^lo^ (559)9 formed by combining rt. M with the preps. $am 
and d (784). Muniiii, ace. case. Honiwn^ * to kill,' infinitive of rt. kan (458, 868, 
654). Samudyata^ * prepared/ nom. smg. masc. of past pass. part, of Bam'^d^am, 
formed by combimng rt. yam with the preps, foifi and ud (545). 

ziii. — Munu^ nom. caset final s remains by 62. Tatya, 'of him,' gen. of tad 
(220). CiMrskitaiji, 'intention^' aoc. neut. of past pass. part, of desid. of rt. kfi^ 
*to do' (550, 502), used as a substantive (896. b). Jikdtvd, 'discovering/ indec. 
part, of rt. jnd (556, 688). Ptinar, 'again,' adv. (717. e) : r remains by 71. d. 
MdsJdkOf nom. case : a$ changed to by 64. Bhava, * become,' 2nd sing. impv. 
of rt. bhd (585). Ity answers to inverted commas, see 927. a : the final t changed to 
y by 34. Uktvd, * saying,' indec. part, of rt. va6 (556, 650). M4shika, nom. case ; 
final $ dropped by 66. Eva, * indeed,' adv. (717). 



SENTENCES TO BE TRANSLATED AND PARSED. 

933* Note — ^The numbers over the words in the following sentences 
refer to the rules of the foregoing grammar. 

«> ^ TSMc ^ erg < fw m ♦ ^ arr ^ 

«>♦ ^ 6W m ^7WLJ.5W SW •v S19« • 

♦W If WK I ^pntRJ t^if^ HnlPBJH I "^ ^irniT'^ 

♦ 668wa «S,8Mib ♦ wa a »» 8Mwb • #\Se> S19 « • 

* f^ ^aM: I ^* # % I # ^?^ fPftn I 

881 ♦ _^ 768. b • 6H 



\ 



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392 SCHBMB OF THE MORS COMMOK SANSKRIT METRES. 

78S.J 

l^rarfWt^ fWT ##^ fHTOJ ^^ HV^ifi II 

tf^ ?i^ ^ ^R^: Tm ^ Hfvnrd II 

Mi^ II 
^ 3ng ^to: tiiWMi^j^ ^wt^ Vfwirri II 

«W5i^ ^ f^t^ ^TO^ ^!HT(; ^nal^ II 
Wi iF^t: ^r««i«i« ^3OT f^ii 

^ftlH ^TTffjTOT^rr II 

SCHEME OF THE MORE COMMON SANSKRIT METRES. 

934. Metres are divided into two grand classes : i. Vart^-^vfitta^ 
a. Mdtrd-vriita. The first has two subdivisions, A and B. 

Class I. — Varna^tta. 

A. MeireSy consisting of two haff-verses, determined by the number 

of SYLLABLBS in tlie Pdda or quarter-verse. 

Note-^It may be useful to prefix to the foUowiog Bchemes of metres a list of 
technical prosodial terms : W^ = the fomrth part of a verse ; TRIT := an instant or 
prosodial unit = a short syllable ; ^Rf = four Mdtrds ; Vfif -=. a pause ; ^p^ or T 

e= a long syllable (— ) ; W^ or cl= a short syllable (v) ; 1^= a spondee ( ) ; 

c9n=apyrrhic(v^ w); 1^ = a trochee (- v->) ; HT = an iambus (vj —) ; i| = a 
molos8U8( — -— ); H = a dactyl (— v^v->); «f s a tribrach (v^ v/w); iT=abaoch]c 

(o ); t=:a cretic (— w— ); ?l = an anapaest (wv->— ); 11= an anti- 

bacchic ( w); if=an amphibrach (y — \j\ 

^loka or Anushfubh (8 syllables to the P&in, or quarter-verse). 

935. The commonest of all the infinite variety of Sanskrit metres 
is the Sloka or Anushtubh. This is the metre which chiefly prevails 
in the great epic poems. 

It consists of four quarter-verses of 8 syQables each or two lines of 16 syllables, 



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SCHEMB OF THE MOBE COMMON SAKSEBIT METRES. 393 

but the rules which regulate one line apply equally to the other; so that it is only 
necessary to give the scheme of one line, as follows : — 

13 3 4 5 6 7 8 II 9 10 II la 13 14 15 i6 



Note — ^The mark • denotes either long or short. 

The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, pth, loth, nth, and lath syllables may be either long or 
short. The 8th, as ending the Pdda, and the 16th, as ending the half-verse, are 
also common. Since the half-verse is considered as divided into two parts at the 
8th syllable, it is an ahnost universal rule that this syllable must end a word,- 
whether simple or compound *. 

The 5th syllable ought always to be short* Thtf 6th and 7th should be long; 
but instances are not unusual in the Mahd-bhdrata of the 6th being short, in which 
case the 7th should be short also. But occasional variations from these last rules 
occur. 

The last 4 syllables form two iambics ; the 13th being always short, the 14th 
always long, and the 15th always short. 

Every Sloka, or couplet of two lines, ought to form a complete sentence in 
itself, and contain both subject and predicate. Not unfrequently, however, in the 
Rdmdya^a and Mah4-bh^ta, three lines are united to form a triplet. 

936. In the remaining metres determined by the number of sylla-- 
ble$ in the P^ula, each Fdda is exactly alike {sama)\ so that it is 
only neceasary to give the scheme of one Plula or quarter-verse* 

In printed books each Pdda, if it consist of more than 8 syllables, is often made 
to occupy a line. 

937. Trishfubh (1 1 syllables to the Pdda or quarter-verse). 
Of this there are 22 varieties. The commonest are — 

I 3345678 9 10 XI 

938. Indra'Vajrd, — — v^ — — v^v^ — v^ — • 

I a 3456 78 9 10 II 

939. Upendra-vajrd, w — w — — v^v^ — v^ — ♦ 

There is generally a caesura at the 5th syllable. 
Note — ^The above 2 varieties are sometimes mixed in the same stanza; in which 
case the metre is called Upajdti or Akhydnaki. 

I a 34 56789 10 II 

940. Rathoddhatd, — w — wv^w — v^ — w — 

941. Jagati (12 syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse). 
Of this there are 30 varieties. The commonest 1 



♦ There are, however, rare examples of compound words running through a 
whole line. 

3» 



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394 SCHBME OF THE MORE COMMON SANSKRIT METRES. 

I a 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 lo II 13 

942. Vau^a'8th<wilaf v^ — w — — ww — o — s^ -r* 

133456789 10 II li 

943. Druta-mlambita, \^wv^ — wv-> — v^n^ — \j -r 

944. Atijagatt (13 syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse). 

Of this there are 16 varieties. The commoaest are — 

I a 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II la 13 

945. Ma^jU'bhdshinC, yjKj — s^^K^s^sj — Kj'-yjT 

I a 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II la 13 

946. Praharshv^, — — — v-»wv^v-^ — v> — o — -r 

I a 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II la 13 
^4^, RuSrd OTPrabhdi>at£,\u — v — wwww — w — w-r 

948. Sakvari or §akkarl or Sarkart (14 syllables to the Pada). 

Of this there are ao varieties. The commoDest is — 

1 a 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II la 13 14 
949. Vasanta'tUakd, — — %./ — v-^v/w — ww— w — -r 

950. Atiiakvari or Atiiakkari (15 syllables to the Plula). 

Of this there are 18 varieties. The commonest is — 

I a 345 6 7 8 I 9 10 II la 13 14 15 

There is a caesura at the 8th syllable. 

952. Ashfi (16 syllables to the Pida or quarter-verse). 
Of this there are 12 varieties ; none of which are common. 

953. Aty ashfi (17 syllables to the Pfida or quarter-verse). 

Of this there are 17 varieties. The commonest are— 

I a 3 4 5 6 I 7 8 9 10 II la 13 14 15 16 17 

Caesura at the 6th syllable. 

1 a 3 4 I 5 6 7 8 9 ID I II la 13 14 15 16 17 
955. Manddkrdntd, — — — — |n./v->v/v->v-' — I — o — — w — -r 

Caesura at the 4th and loth syllables. 

I a 3 4 5 6 I 7 8 9 10 I II la 13 14 15 16 17 

Csesura at the 6th and loth syllables. 

957. Dhriti (18 syllables to the Pdda or quarter-verse). 

Of this there are 17 varieties^ one of which is found in the Raghu-vaosa — 

I 2 3456 7 8 9 10 II la 13 14 15 16 17 18 
958. Mahd-mdlikd, wwwv-^wv-r — v-^ — — w — — v/ — — w-r 

- * The mark t is meant to shew that the last syllable is long at the end of the 
P4da or quarter-verse^ but long or short at the end of the half-rerse. 



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SOHEMB OF THE MOKB COMMON SANSKRIT METBES. 395 

959. Atidhfiti {ig syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse). 
Of this there «re 13 varieties. The commonest is 



I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II la I 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 

Caesmra at the lath syllable. 

95 r. Kfiti (20 syllables to the Fdda or quarter-verse). 
Of these there are 4 varieties; none of which are common. 

96a. Prakfiti (ai syllables to the PMa or quarter-verse). 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 I 8 9 ID II la 13 14 I 15 16 17 18 19 ao ai 

Csesmra at the 7th and 14th syllables. 

964. Of the remaining metres determined by the number of syllables in the 
Pida, Akfiti has 33 syllables, and includes 3 varieties; VikfiH 23 syllables, 

6 varieties; SankriH 24 sylkbles, 5 varieties; AtikriH 25 syllables, 2 varieties; 
Utkri^ 26 syllables, 3 varieties; and Dw^ka is the name given to all metres 
which exceed Utkfiti in the number of syllables. 

965. There are two metres, called Gdyatri and XJshmh, of which the first has 
only 6 syllables to the quarter- verse, and includes 11 varieties; the second has 

7 syllables to the quarter-verse, and includes 8 varieties. 

a. When the Pdda is so shorty the whole verse is sometimes written in one line. 
h. Observe, that great license is allowed in metres peculiar to the Vedas ; thus 
in the 

966^ Odyatri, 

which may be regarded as consisting of a triplet of 3 divisions of 8 syllables each, 
or of 6 feet of 4 syllables each, generally printed in one line, the quantity of each 
syllable is very irregular. The following verse exhibits the most usual quantities : 

I 2 3 

a b a b ti h 

but even in the b verse of each division the quantity may vary. 

B. MefreSy consisting of two half-verses, determined by the number 
of SYLLABLES* in the HALF-VEBSB (eocA holf-veTse being alike, 
ardha-sama). 

g6y. This class contdns 7 genera, but no varieties under each 
genus. Of these the commonest are — 

* This class of metres is sidd to be regulated by the number of feet or Mdtr^ in 
the half-verse, in the same way as class II. But as each half-verse is generally dis- 
tributed into fixed long or short syllables, and no option is allowed for each foot 
between a spondee, anapaest^ dactyl, proceleusmaticus, and amphibrach, it will 
obviate confusion to regard this class as determined by syllables, like class I. A. 

3 B 2 



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396 SCHEME OF THE MORE COMMON SANSKRIT METRES. 

968. VaitdUya (ai syllables to the half-verse). 

I 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I II 13 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 so ai I 



There is a caesura at the loth syllable. 

969. Aupa66handasika (33 syllables to the half-verse). 

The scheme of this metre is the same as the last, with a long syllable added after 
the loth and last syllable in the line; the caesura being at the nth syllable. 

970. Pttshpitdgrd (35 syllables to the half^verse). 

I ^ 3 4 5 ^ 7 8 9 10 II la I 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 ao ai aa i$ 34 as 11 



\J ^ \^ s>j \j yj — yj — <^^— I \j \j \j \j — \j \j — \^ — y^ — •II 
There is a caesura at the lath syllable. 

Class II. — Mdtrd-vritta^ consisting of two half-verses^ determined by^ 
the number of feet in the whole verse {each foot containing 
generally four Mdtrds). 

971. Note — ^Each foot is supposed to consist of four M&tr6s or instants, and a 
short syllable is equivalent to one instant, a long syllable to two. Hence only such 
feet can be used as are equivalent to four M&trds ; and of this kind are the dactyl 

(— \j \j)f the spondee ( ), the anapaest (w w — ), the amphibrach (vy — «^), and 

the proceleusmaticus (t^ t^ w w) ; any one of which may be employed. 

Of this class of metres the commonest is the 



97a. Aryd or Qdthd. 

Each half-verse consists of seven and a half feet ; and each foot contains four 
MdtHU, excepting the 6th of the second half-verse, which contains only one, and 
is therefore a single short syllable. Hence there are 30 M&tr6s in the first half- 
verse, and 37 in the second. The half-foot at the end of each half-verse is 
generally, but not always, a long syllable ; the 6th foot of the first half-verse 
must be either an amphibrach or proceleusmaticus ; and the ist, 3rd, 5th, and 7th 
feet must not be amphibrachs. The caesiura commonly takes place at the end t)f 
the 3rd foot in each half-verse, and the measure is then sometimes called Pafkyd, 
The following are a few examples : 



{ .V- 1 

{ 
{ 



v-» «*y — 

I 

«*y w — 

I 

w w — 

w w — 



a 

w — v-» 

\J —' KJ 



3 

w w ^ 

KJ KJ — 



a 3 

WW — I 

— \j \j I w w — 

a 3 

— WW I 

w w v./ w I — w w 



4 5 

— WW I — w w 



4 
w w — 



6 

w — w 



5 « 

— w w I w — w 

5 6 

— WW w — w 
WW— w 



7 

— w w I — 

— w w I — 



u 



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I a 3 4 5 6 7 

\J \J I \J -^ \j \ \J \J -^ — WV*r I — wv-»| \j '~' sj I I 

I a 3 4 56 7 



vy 



ACCENTUATION. 897 

I 

973. The Udg^i metre odIj differs from the Atyd in inyerting the half-verses^ 
and placing the short half-verse, with 37 M&trds, first in order. 

974. There are three other varieties : — In the Upagiti^ hoth half-verses consist of 
37 M&tHU ; in the 6ih', both consist of 30 M&tHU ; and in the Arydgitiy of 33. 

ACCENTUATION. 

975. Accentuation {nara, 'tone') in Sanskrit is only marked in the Vedas. 
Probably the original object of the marks used was to denote that peculiar change 
in the ordinaiy intonation practised in reciting the hymns, which consisted in the 
occasional raising of the voice to a higher pitch than the usual monotone. Only 
three names for different kinds of accent or tone are generally recognized by 
grammarians ; viz. i. Uddita, * raised/ i. e. the elevated tone or high pitch, marked 
in Roman writing by the acute accent ; 2, An-uddtta, ' not ndsed,' i. e. the accent- 
less tone ; 3. Svarita, * sounded,' i. e. the moderate tone, neither high nor low, but 
a combination of the two {satndkdra, P69. i. 3, 33), which is produced in the 
following manner : In pronouncing the syllable immediately following the high- 
toned syllable, the voice unable to lower itself abruptly to the level of the low 
intonation, is sustained in a tone not as high as the uddtta, and yet not so low as 
the an-uddtta. A syllable uttered wiih this mixed intonation is said to be svarita, 
' sounded.' These three accents, according to native grammarians, are severally 
produced, through intensifying {djfdma), relaxing {viirambka), and throwing out the 
voice (dkshepa); and these operations are said to be connected with an upward, 
downward, and horizontal motion (tiryaff-gamana) of the organs of utterance, 
which may be illustrated by the movements of the hand in conducting a musical 
performance *. 

976. But although there are only three general names for the accents, it is clear 
that there are only two positive tones, viz. the ttddtta or high tone, and svarita or 
mixed tone, the an-uddtta representing the neutral, monotonous, accentless sounds 
which lies like a flat horizontal line below the two positive sounds. There remains 

* In native grammars the uddtta sound of a vowel is said to result from 
employing the upper half of the organs of utterance, and the an-wddtta from 
employing the lower half. In my recent travels in India I frequently heard the 
Vedas recited and intoned by Papdits at Benares, Calcutta, Bombay, Poona, &c.» 
and found to my surprise that the voice is not now raised in pronouncing the uddtta. 
syllable. Great stress is lud on the an-uddtta and svarita, but none upon the uddtta : 
and I was told that the absence of all mark on this latter syllable is an indication 
of the absence of accent in intoning. 



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898 ACCBNTUATION. 

no designation for the low tone, properlj so called, i. e. the tone which immediately 
precedes the high and is lower than the flat horizontal line taken to represent the 
general accentless sound. The foct is that the exertion required to produce the 
high tone {uddtta) is so great that in order to obtain the proper pitch, the voice is 
obliged to lower the tone of the preceding syllable as much below this flat line as 
the syllable that bears the uddtta is raised above it ; and P&^ini himself explains 
this lower tone by the term sannatara (compar. of sanna, ' sunk/ for which the 
commentators have substituted the expression anuddttatara\ while he explains the 
neutral, accentless tone by the term eka-druti, i. e. the one accentless sound in which 
the ear can perceive no variation. 

977. The expression anuddttatara, then, is now adopted to designate the lowest 
sound of all, or that immediately preceding the mddtta or high tone. But no 
special mark distinguishes this sound from the tm-uddtta. It must be borne in 
mind that no simple uncompounded word, whatever the number <^ its syllables, 
has properly more than one syllable accented. This syllable is called either uddtta 
or tvaritOy according as it is pronounced with a high or mixed tone. But if a word 
have only a tvarita accent, then this svarita must be of the kind called independent, 
although it may have arisen from the blending of two syllables, one of which waa 
originally uddtta, as in IRn (for tanu'd^ where the middle syllable was uddtta). 
A wcHrd having either the uddtta or the svarita accent on the first syllable is caDed 
in the one case ddy-uddtta, in the other ddi-svaritaj having either the one or otiier 
accent on the middle is in the one case nutdhyoddtta, in the other madkya-marita ; 
having either the one or other accent at the end is in the one case antoddtta, in the 
other anta-narita. All the syllables of a word except the one ^liiich is eitiier an 
uddtta or independent svarita are au-uddtta. Although, however, no one word 
can have both an uddtta and an independent tvarita, yet, if a word having an 
uddtta is followed by an an-uddtta, this au-uddtta becomes a dependent tvaritay 
which is really the commonest form of svarita accent. 

978. As to the method of marking tiie tones, the uddtta or high tone is never 
marked at all, so that if a word of one syllable is uddtta it remains simply un- 
marked, as ^t ; if a monosyllable is an-uddtta it has a horizontal stroke underneath, 
as ^ ; if svarita, it has an upright mark above, as at. A word of two syllables, 
both of which are an-uddtta, has two horizontal marks below, thus WH ) and if the 
first syllable is uddtta it is marked thus, J^* ; if the last is uddtta, thus wf^fT- 
A word of more than two syllables being entirely an-uddtta (sarvdnuddlta) has 
horizontal marks under all the syllables, thus Vf^^iT ; but if one of the syllables 
is uddtta, the horizontal stroke immediately preceding it marks the anudittatara, 
as in ^iM^ifiiy where the first and second syllables are an-uddtta and the third 
anuddttatara, the fourth being uddtta; and if the uddtta syllable is followed by 
another an-uddtta, this becomes a dependent svarita, and is marked by an upright 
stroke, as in 4HIMu4 (Rig-veda iii. 3, i). Similarly, in a word of three syllables 
like %mk^ the syllable ^ is anuddttatara, W is uddtta, and T is svarita. 



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ACCaBNTUATlON. 899 

It should be noted that in Romanised Sanskrit printing and writing it is usual 
instead of leanng the uddtta unmarked to treat that as the onlj accent to be 
marked, and to treat both anmdditatara and dependent ivarita as am-uddtta or 
without any accent at alL 

979. The foregoing explanations will make dear bow it is that in the Saiphtt& of 
the Rig-veda an amuddttaiara mark is generally the beginning of a series of three 
accents, of which the dependent svariia is the end ; the appearance of this anuddtta- 
iara mark preparing the reader for an uddtta immediately following, as well as for 
a dependent svarita. This last, however, may sometimes be retarded by a new 
uddtta syllable, as in fipiT UIkI^^^ where the syllable ^^ which would otherwise 
be a dependent svarita, becomes changed to an anuddttatara because of the uddtta 
syllable If foUowing. 

980. But if an independent svarita is immediately followed by an uddtta or by 
another independent svaritaf a curious contrivance is adopted. Should the syllable 
bearing the independent svarita end in a short vowel, the numeral H is used to 
cany the svarita with an anuddttatara under it, e. g. Hl^^f (Rig-veda x. 89, 2), 

^i^\i^iAk19 (iv. 17, 3); and should the syllable end in a long vowel, the 
numeral ^ is employed in the same way, but the auuddttatara mark is placed 
both under the long vowel and the numeral, e.g. f^^^ff *jiinit (i. 166, 11), 
^n^^v4 (IV. 55, 6), HT^ft: (VI. 21, 8). 

981. It should also be pointed out that the absence of mark is employed in a 
sentence to denote an-uddtta as well as uddtta; thus, in the Sainhiti of the Veda, 
at the commencement of a sentence a horizontal stroke underneath marks the first 
anuddttatara syllable of the sentence as well as all such an-uddtta syUables as 
precede; the next syllable, if without mark, is uddtta: and the next, if it has an 
upright mark, is svarita; but the next, if it has no mark, is an-^tddtta; and the 
absence of all mark after the upright mark, continues to denote an-uddtta until the 
appearance of the next horizontal mark, which is anuddttatara. In fkct, all 
the syllables, both in words and sentences, which follow the svarita are supposed 
to be pronounced in the accentless tone until the voice has to be depressed for the 
utterance of another uddtta syllable. 

With regard to the absence of accentuation, we may note that in direct sentences 
a verb (unless it is the first word) is regarded as an enclitic and loses its accent. 
The same rule applies to Vocative cases, which are accented only when they begin 
a sentence, and then on the first syllable. Verbs preserve their accent in con- 
ditional sentences and in a few exceptional cases. 

983. The system of accentuation in the Prdtisdkhyas often differs from that of 
P49ini. The rules given by these treatises for determining the accent when two 
vowels (each bearing an accent) blend into one are veiy precise, but are liable to 
exceptions. The following are some of those most usually given : uddtta -^uddtta 
^Luddttaj uddtta+anuddtta^:uddtta; anuddtta+anuddtta=zanuddtta; anuddtta+ 
uddtta^uddtta ; svarita+uddtta^^uddtta ; svarita+anuddttaz^svarita. 

When anuddtta vowels are pronounced with the uddtta tone, this is called in the 



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400 ACCBNTUATION. 

Prdtisdkhyas pra6aya» When the accent of two vowels is blended into one, this 
is called pra^Uthfa, samdoeia, ek{bhdoa. The expressions tairovyai^ana and 
vaivfitta are used to denote forms of the dependent svarita; while kshaipra 
and jdtya apply to the independent svaritas caused by the blending of the accents 
of two vowels, the first of which has passed into the semivowel y or v. 

983. A few compound words (generally names of Vedic deities) have two accents, 
and are therefore called dvir'uddtta, e.g. ^^wHllSy M<|ffi|il^y where the first 
syllable being uddtta remains unmarked, and the second being an-uddtta ought to 
become a dependent svarita, but the third being uddtta again the second becomes 
anuddttatara and is so marked. In flf?n^f%w both the second and third syllables 
are uddtta» A compound (called trir-uddtta) may even have three uddtta syllables, 
as in H^I^^M<<ff > 

984. In the Pada text where compounds are divided, if the first half of the 
compound ends in a svarita coming after an uddtta, and the second begins with 
an uddtta, the svarita accent at the end of the first member of the compound is 
called tdthdbhdvya. 

985. Observe — ^The accent in Sanskrit is not confined to the last three syllables 
of a word, as in Greek and Latin. 

Observe also — ^Although the Sanskrit independent svarita is in some respects 
similar to the Greek circumflex, it should be borne in mind, that the latter is con-* 
fined to long, whereas the svarita may also be applied to short syllables *. 

* See on the subject of Vedic accentuation. Roth's prefiice to the Nirukta : two 
treatises by Whitney in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, voL IV. 
p. 195 &c., and vol. V. p. 387 &c. : Airfrecht, de accentu compositorum Sanscriti- 
corum, Bonnae, 1847; reviewed by Benfey, Gottinger Gelehrte Anxeigen, 1848, 
pp. 1995-2010. 



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INDEX L 

ENOLISH. 



(The numbers refer to the paragraphs, except where the page is specified.) 



Abstract nouns, 80. xxviii, 

XXXV, Ixii, Ixviii, Ixix, 

Ixxvii, 8i. ii, iii, xi, 85. 

iv, vii, &c. 
Accentuation, 975-984* 
Adjectives, 186; syntax of, 

834-838. 
Adverbs, 713-725; syntax 

of, 917.933. 
Agency, participial nouns of, 

579-582. 
Alphabet, 1-34. 
Aorist, 416-441 ; syntax of, 

888. 
Augment a, 351, 351. a. h, 
Benedictive, see Precative. 
Cardinals, 198; declension 

of, 3O0. 

Cases of nouns, 90. 

Causal verbs, 479 ; termina- 
tions of, 480; formation 
of stem of, 481 ; passive 
of, 496 ; syntax of, 847. 

Classes, of nouns, 78; of 
verbs, see Conjugations. 

Classification of letters, 18. 

Collective nouns, 80. xxxv. 

Combination (euphonic) of 
vowels, 37-38 ; of conso- 
iiAiits, 39-71; of the finals 
of verbal stems ^nth ter- 
minations, 396-306. 

Comparison, degrees of, 191- 
197 ; syntax of^ 839-833. 

Compound verbs, 783-787. 

Compound words, 733-737 ; 
Tat-purusha or Depen- 



dent, 739-745 ; Dvandva 
or Copulative (Aggrega- 
tive), 746-754; Karma- 
dh&raya or Descriptive 
(Determinative), 755-758 ; 
Dvigu or Numeral (Col- 
lective), 759 ; Avyayi- 
bh&va or Adverbial (In- 
declinable), 760; Bahu- 
vrihi or Relative, 761 -769 ; 
Complex, 770-776 ; Ano- 
malous, 777 ; changes un- 
dergone by certain words 
at the end of, 778. . 

Conditional, 343, 455; for- 
mation of stem, 456; 
syntax of, 891. 

Conjugations of verbs, 348, 
349; three groups of, 357- 
359; first group of, 361- 
389; second and third 
groups of, 390-363. ist 
d., 361; examples, 585: 
snd cL, 307; examples, 
644: 3rd cL, 331; ex- 
amples, 663: 4th cl., 373; 
examples, 613 : 5tb cl., 
349 ; examples, 675 : 6th 
cl., 378 ; examples, 635 : 
7th cL, 343 ; examples, 
667: 8th cl., 353; ex- 
amples, 683: 9th cl., 356; 
examples, 686: loth cl., 
383 ; examples, 638. 

Conjunct consonants, i, 5. 

Conjunctions, 737; syntax 
of, 913. 



Consonants, i; method of 
writing, 4; conjunct, 5; 
pronun(»ationof,i3; com- 
bination of, 39-73. 

Declension; general obser- 
vations, 88-101; of 1st 
class of nouns in a, d^ {, 
103-109; of 3nd and 3rd 
classes in t and tf, 1 10-133 ; 
of nouns in { and «^, 133- 
136; of 4th class in ft, 
137-130; of noims in at, 
o, au, 131-134; of 5th 
class in t and d, 136-145; 
of 6th class iz 
146-163; of 1 
as, iSj and lu 
of 8th class ii 
consonant, 17: 

Defective nouns, 

Demonstrative 
331-335. 

Derivative verbsj 

Derivatives, pri 
secondaiy, 79. 

Desiderative ve 
terminations 01 
mationofstem 
sal form of, 5< 
80. i ; a(]yecti\ 
834. 

Euphonic comb 
vowels, 37-38: 
nants, 39-71. 

Frequentative v< 
Atmane-pada 
tives, 509 ; Par 



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402 



INDEX I.— English. 



firequentative8,5i4; nouns, 
80. i. 

Future, first and second, 
386 ; formation of stem, 
388; syntax of, 886, 887. 

Genders of nouns, 89. 

General tenses, 248, 363-456. 

Hard consonants, 18. a. 6, 
20. by 39. 

Imperative, 241; termina- 
tions of, 345, 246 ; forma- 
tion of stem, 261, 272, 278, 
383, 307> 330. 342, 349, 
353» 356 ; syntax of, 882. 

Imperfect tense, 242; for- 
mation of stem, 261, 264, 
272, 278, 283, 307, 330, 

343,349*353.35^5 syntax 

of, 884. 
Indeelinable wordsi, 712 ; 

syntax of, 912. 
Indefinite pronouns, 228,229. 
Indicative mood, 241. 
Infinitive, 458, 459 ; syntax 

of, 867 ; Vedic> 459. a, 

867. ft. 
Intensive verb, see Frequen- 
tative. 
Inteijections, 732; syntax 

of, 926. 
Interrogative pronouns, 227. 
Letters, i ; elassifioation of, 

18 ; interchange of letters 

in cognate languages, 25 ; 

euphonic combination of, 

27. 
Metre, schemes o^ 935-974* 
Moods, 241, 242. a. 
Nominal verbs, 518-523. 
Nouns, formation of stem, 

74, 80-875 declension of, 

103-183 ; defective, 184 ; 

syntax of, 802-823. 
Numbers, 91, 243. 



NumeAds, 198-215; syntax 
of, 206, 835; compounded, 

759- 

Numerical figures, page 3. 

Ordinals, 208. 

Partidpial nouns of agency, 
579-582. 

Participles, present, 524- 
529; past passive, 530- 
552; past active, 553; of 
the perfect, 554 ; past in- 
declinable, 555-566; ad- 
verbial indeclinable, 567; 
future passive, 568-577; 
of the 2nd future, 578; 
syntax of« 892. 

Particles, 717. 

Passive verbs, 243. a, 461 ; 
terminations of, 462 ; for- 
mation of stem, 463 ; ex- 
amples, 700-702. 

Patronymics, 80. xxxv, 81. 
viii-x, &c. 

Perfect (reduplicated), 364- 
384; (periphrastic), 385; 
syntax of, 885. 

Persons of the tenses, 244. 

Possessive sKi^ectivea, 84. vi, 
vii, 85.vi,viii; pronouns, 
231. 

Potential, 241 ; terminations 
of, 245, 246 ; formation of 
stem, 261, 272, 278, 283, 

307. 330. 34a, 349. 353. 
356; syntax of, 879. 

Precative, 242, 442; for- 
mation of stem, 443-454 ; 
syntax o{^ 890. 

Prefixes, adverbial, 726. 

Prepositions, 729, 783 ; syn- 
tax of, 916. 

Present, 241; terminations 
of, 246, 247; formation 
of stem, 261 



; tormation 
,^72, 278, 



283. 307. 330. 34». 349. 

353.356; syntax of, 873. 
Pronominals, 235-240. 
Pronouns, 216-234; syntax 

of, 836. 
Pronunciation, of vowels, 

II; of consonants,, 12. 
Pw)sody, 935-974. 
Reduplication, 252, 367. 
Relative pronouns, 226. 

Root. 74. 75- 

Sandhi, rules of, 27.71, 
296-306. 

Soft; or sonant letters, 18. a, 
ft, 20.^,39, 

Special tenses* 241, 248, 249. 

Stem, nominal, 74, 77 ; for- 
mation of nominal, 79, 80- 
87 ; inflexion of, 88-183 > 
verbal, 244; formation of 
verbal, 249-517. 

Strong eases, 135. a. 

Strong forms in verbal ter- 
minations, 246. e. 

Suffixes, forming substan- 
tives, acyectives, &c., 80- 
87; adverbial, 718-725. 

SuporlativQ degree, 191, 192. 

Surd coiwonants, 18. a. ft, 
20. ft, 39. 

Symbols, 6-10. 

Syntax, 793-929. 

Tables of verbs, 583. 

Tenses, 241, 248. 

Terminations* of newns, 91, 
g6 ; of verbs, 244-248. 

V«b, 241 ; syntax of, 839. 

Voices, 243 ; roots restricted 
to, 786. 

Vowels, i; method of writ- 
ing, 2, 3 ; pronundatioQ of, 
II ; combination of» 27* 

Weak cases, 135. a. 

Writing, method of, 26. 



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, * 



INDEX II. 



SANSKRIT. 



W or W^ prefix, 726. 
W augment, 251. 
Hflaj'eye/ laa. 
ufHf 'fire,* no. 
nd* before/ 731, p^?* 
W1^ * to anoint,' 347, 668. 
wfir prefix, 726.0/ prep 

783. «. 
^rfw^l^ 126.1. 
Ilf7r?l19fti26.f. 
IR'then/ 727. c. 
W^m 'jet,' 728. b, c, 
W^'then,' 727. c. 
H^'to eat/ 317,653. 
H^* eating/ 141.0. . n^ 
lR[^*thia/ 'that/ 325. 
^ra^ 'under/ 731, 
'WW^' under/ 731. 
Wfv prep,, 783. b. 
irft 'to read/ 311, 367. a. 
^Wrj^'aroad,' 147. 
^l«l('to breathe,' 33a. o. 
^nf||; 'an ox/ 182./. 
IRPirCH * after/ 73^1 9i7« 
W^ prep., 730. rf. e, 783. e. 
^1%1^'time/ 170. 

irc* within/ 731, 783. rf. 
C' another/ 777.6. 
IRItll 'without,' 731, 917. 
Hftrv^' near/ 731. 



WH' other/ 236; *1W238; 

^TR 236. 
wwfrain * mutually,' 760./. 
W^^' water/ 178.6. 
^ni prep., 783. e. 
llfiTprep.,783./? adv.,7 17. i. 
'I^ 833. a. 
WWS[ * a nymph,' 163. a. 
W6l prep., 730./, 783. g. 
^(ifn^' on both sides,' 731. 
irtivpn^ ' in front of,' 731. 
Wwni>'near/ 731. 
^VffT ' a mother/ 108. d. 
'•''^ 'to go/ 385. e. 
^I^'to worship/ 367. b. 
^iJ^'toa8k/643. 
^^•^'on account of/ 731, 

760.^,917. 
w5f or ^Am 'on account 

of/ 731. 
^rt^m'the sun,' 157. 
11^ 'ahorse,' 158. 
^I^'aft«r/73i,9i7. 
^ ' to deserve,* 608. 
^co*^' enough/ 901.0, 918. 
WSl'afew,' 240. 

^arawfir 119. 

W^ prep., 783. *. 
^r^>ft^ ' to despise,* 75. a, 
3 p ^ 



Vron^' a priest,' 176./. 
^RT^* southern/ 176.6. 
^*to eat/ 357. a, 696. 
W^^ to obtidn/ ' to pervade,* 

367. c, 681. a, 
H^H^'a stone/ 147. 
^ 'to be/ 327, 364. a, 

584. 
t»^ 'to throw/ 622. 
^5^* blood,' 176. rf. 
^TOT'^ * setting/ 712. 
Vf% ' existence/ 71a. 
nfVf'abone/ 122. 
H^^'we/ ai8. 
^ 'to say/ 384. 6. 
^IfJ^'aday/ 156. 
W prefix, 736. bj prep., 730, 

730.0.6,783.1. 
W*l| 'to stretch,' 385. 

wnr?i^ 126.1. 

VIW4 ' consisting of,' 769. 

*, 774- 
^nW^ *soul,' 'self/ 147, 

333. 

^nfi? 'beghming with/ *et 

cetera,* 764, 77a. 
infij^ or ^re (=irTflf) 

764. 6. 
^n^' to obtain,* 351, 364. a, 

681. 



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404 



I N D E X 1 1.— Sanskrit. 



^fWI ' begiDning from/ 

793, 935- 
^Jre 'tawny/ 126. f. 
Wfip^ ' a blessing/ 166. 
^T^*to sit/ 317 ; with pres. 

part., 877. 

^**ogo/3io>3^7-«>^45- 
^inserted, 391-415. 
^TR ' other/ 236. 
^ 'so/ 937-939. 
^* this/ 334. 
^*to kindle/ 347. 
l^l^n^^'so much/ 334. h. 
^'to wish/ 283, 367, 637. 
^*tosee/(5o5. 
tf* to praise/ 335. 
^5^ 'so like/ 334. 
t<l(* to rule/ 335. 0,385. a. 
t'm* a little/ 717. d, 736. h. 
^^ * to move/ 367, 
^?r* also/ 717. A, 737.11. 

^HR, ^nr^ 195. 
^incn^^or 9TR9 731. 

'^H|c*1^^ 166. c. 

^prep.,783.y. 

^5^ 'northern/ 176. 6. 

^I^^H *with reference to/ 
934. 

^T?^ *to moisten/ 347. 
^^ prep., 783. *. 
^nfc* above/ 731, 917. 
VllR^'ashoe/ 183. 

VH,tnn?' both/ 338. 

^r^R^ * Venus/ 170. 
^ ' to bum/ 385. e. 
^ruilC a metre, 183. b. 
IT^n^* the hot season,' 147. 
^5P^ ' strength,' 176. A. 



^ 'to cover/ 316, 374- /• 
"wSn* above/ 731, 917. 
^ 'to go/ 334, 374. n. 
'S^ 'to go/ 381. a. 
^JHf 'to go/ 684. 
^'except/ 731. 
^fi^^^* a priest/ 176. e. 
^IJV* to flourish,' 367. 6, 680. 
^^fi^f^'Indra,' i6a. 
^'togo/358. 
CTi 'one/ 300; *1fl! 336; 

«TR338. 
CT^ ' this,' 333. 
in^'to increase/ 600. 
^ff^ * the syllable Cm/ 713. 
*niP^^ ' a few,' 330. 
VI 'to say/ 386. a, 643. 
H'rt^, ^nn 194. 
T^'^ * to love/ 440. a, 
«aW«^ ' an action,' 153. 
^r^^ * any one,' 328. 
''R prefix, 726. c. 
W? 'desirous,' with inf., 

871. 
4iimil<^' on account of/ 731. 
'StflC'^ * doer,' 159. Obs. 
^IT^ * to shine>' 385. e. 
fiFJ ' but,' 728. a. 
flp^'who?' 'what?' 227, 
flp^'why?' 921. 
ftnni 'how many,' 334, h, 
^ prefix, 726. c. 
^^'to pain/ 360. 
f'n^*toplay/75.a. 
^pmS'agirl/ 107. 
^J^^n.'alotus/ 137. 
^* to play/ 371. a. 
^' to sound/ 358.0. 



f 'to do,' 355, 366, 369, 

683, 683, 701. 
^pil 'tocut/ 381. 
^Jl!^' who made,' 140. a. h, 
^ ' on account of,' 731. 
^m^ 'times/ 733. a. 
'pC 'to draw/ 606. 
V ' to scatter,' 380, 637. 
1|' to hurt/ 358. 
^'to celebrate,' 387. 
^^^' to make,' 363. 
citsfiT ' any one,' 239. 
Tift * to buy,' 374. e, 689. 
"5^* a curlew/ 176. c. 
ijtj' a jackal/ 138. c, 185. 
f^RI^'to harass/ 697. 
Ifir^'to kill/ 684, 685. 
iBra 'a charioteer,' 138. d. 
fB|?ir'tokill/684. 
ftl^'to throw/ 374, 279, 

635 ; freq., 710. 
^ ' to sneeze,' 393. a. 
^p^ ' to agitate,' 694. 
Idg 'to sharpen,' 392. a. 
?R|;'todig/376. 
in9^'asweeper,'i36.&, 190. 
fi^'to vex,* 381. 
WT'toteD/437.6. 
117 'gone,' at end of comps., 

739. a. 6. 

Tinrt 'fearless,' 136. A. 
n»^'to go,' 370, 376, 602; 

freq., 709. 
irthw^ ' heavier,' 194. 
ftl^ * speech,' 180. 
^*to protect,' 371. 
^ ' to conceal,' 370. A, 609. 
1^'to evacuate,' 430. 



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INDEX 1 1.— Sanskrit. 



405 



'j'to sound/ 358. 
n'tosing,'268,373.rf,595.a. 
W^'acow/ 133. 
m^ ' cow-keeper/ 181. c. 
mtt *the goddess/ 134. 
JF^'to tie,' 360, 375. h, 693. 
IT^ * to swaflow/ 386. 
V% 'to take/ 359. 699; 

freq., 711. 
Unwft 136. d, 
V to be weaiy/ 368, 595. b. 
^'to eat/ 377. 
^ 'to proclaim/ 643. a. 
^p^'to shine,' 684. 
W 'to smell,' 369, 588. 
^'and/ 737,913. 
^W^'to shine/ 75. a, 339. 
^*I4( 'brilliant,' 164. b. 
^*to speak/ 336. 
^1|^' eye/ 165. a. 
^^'foup/ 303. 
^T^ 'food/ 713. 
^i^ff^ ' the moon,' 163. 
^^* a host,' 135. 
^ 'one who goes,' 180. 
^^^ 'leather,' 153. 
^^ 'to move,' 603. b. 
f% 'to gather/ 350,374,583. 
fVi^l^ ' desirous of dobg,' 

166. fl. 
•^Wfe^ * a painter,' 1 75. a. 
I f^'to think,' 641. 

^ 'to steal/ 384, 638, 639. 

^'if/727-«>9i5- 
Wlf^ * a pretext,* 153. 
fti^ * to cut,' 667. 
^' to cut/ 390. a. 
'I^'toeat/ 3io.Obs., 323, a. 



lf!?(^'the world,' 143. a. 
1|«^ 'to be bom,' 376, 376, 

434. a, 617. a, 
1|«^* to produce,' 339, 666. 6. 
^W^ ' birth/ 153. 
Ht^* decay/ 171, 185. 
Ifc5^ 136. b. 
IfFJ *to be awake/ 75. a, 

3io.a, 374.j>, 393.rf. 
l4iKf^ ' watching,' 141.0. 
ftf 'to conquer,' 363, 374. b, 

590- 

ift^'to live/ 367, 603. 
^d(<^' sacrificing/ 141. c. 
^ 'to grow old/ 377, 358, 

375-*, 437- *• 
W 'to know/ 361, 688. 
im 'to grow old,' 359, a. 
t^' to fly/ 374, 393. 
in^ ' a carpenter,' 148. 
WIT^ 'then/ 719, 737./. 
inn 'thus/ 737. 6. 
TT^ 'he,' 'that/ 330, 331. 
in^'to 8tretch/354, 583,684. 
irg'thin/ 118, 119. fl, 
7^ ' a lute-string,' 134. 
W^'to bum,' 600. a, 
W^* a boat/ 134. 
ni^^i ' such like,' 334. 
iir^^l'^ ' so,* 801. a, 930. a, 
Tinn^'so many/ 334, 801, 

838, 876. 
flA^i'j6.b. 
g 'but/ 738. a, 914. 
f^* to strike/ 279,634. 
jmn^ 'Indra,' 183. e. 
^po^'to eat grass/ 684. 



^'to be satisfied/ 618. 
^' to kill,' 348, 674. 
1^'to cross/ 364, 374. r. 
?n^'to abandon,' 596, 
m^'he,' 'that/ 333. 
"fi^ ' three,' 303. 
^ ' to break,' 390. a, 
« 'to preserve,' 368. 
W^ 'thou,' 319. 
m^H 'thine,' 331. 
?fj 'a carpenter,' 138. d. 
!^'to bite/ 370. rf. 
?[fWi^^ or ^ft|^ *to the 

south,* 731, 917. 
^^T^76o.e. 
^^' giving/ 141. a. 
^'ghee,' 133. 
^^' impudent/ 181. 
^ * to be tamed,' 275. 
;?^ 'to pity/ 385. c. 
^fiC5[T 'to be poor/ 75. a, 

318, 385. 
!;^ 'to bum,' 610. 
^ 'to give,' 335, 663, 700. 
^ 'a giver/ 137, 139.^. 
^TT?^* a string/ 153, 
fif^ 'to play/ 375. 
ft[^' sky/ 180.6. 
•fij^'aday/ 156.0. 
fl|f5l 'to point out,* 379, 

439- «> 583- 
fl^ * a quarter of the sky,» 

181. • 

f^ 'to anoint,' 659. 
I^Wt 'to shine,' 319. 
5%fT^ 'evil-minded,' 164. a. 
5^ prefix, 736. rf, 783. t 
5^1 'to milk/ 330, 660. 



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406 



INDEX 1 1.— Sanskrit. 



5^ * a milker,' 182. 

'^'^'ft thunderbolt,' 126. c. 

15^ *to see,' 181, 270, 604. 

'd'HI'i * a looker,' 147, 149. 

^ * to split,' 358, 374. m. 

^ 'to pity/ 373./. 

^^^176. e. 

?fh^ ' an arm,' 166. d, 

^T^^'to shine,' 597. b, 

1* to run,' 369, 592. 

"W'to ii^ure,' 623. 

^ *one who injures,* 182. 

^T^ ' a door,' 180. 

fW'iwo* 201. 

fs^iiq ' having two mothers,' 

130- 
ff^'to hate,' 309, 657. 

fir^*one who hates,' 181. 
Vf^'rich,' 140. 
Vf^'rich,' 159, 160, 161. 
vSfq^* knowing one's duty,' 

137. 
VT ' to place,* 336, 664. 
UTR^I^ 'a house,' 153. 
VW * to run,' * to wash,'6o3.a. 
^ * understanding,' 123. a. 
V^iiH^'wise,' 140. 
^*toagitate,'28o,358,374.5r, 

677. 
If *to hold,' 285. 
^ 'to drink,' 438. c, 440. a, 
W^ 'a cow,' 112. 
vn 'to blow,' 269. 
^ 'to meditate,' 268, 595. b, 
^ 'to be firm,' 421./. 
•f^ * a river,' 105. 
«T9 'a grandson,' 128. a, 
•f^ * to bend,' 433, 602. a. 



•fl^ * reverence,' 712. 
«T5^'to perish,' 181, 620. 
•ll| ' to bind,' 624. 
•ll| 'one who binds,' 183. 
•n»i«\ ' a name,' 152. 
ni?m 'non-existence,' 712. 
fir prep., 783. /. 
ftr^'to purify,' 341. 
fiffHw * for the sake of,' 731. 
fil^ prefix, 726. e, 783. m. 
lit 'to lead,' 374. fl, 590. a. 
g 'to praise,' 280, 313, 392. a. 
^ ' a man,' 128. b. 
^*to dance,' 274, 364, 583. 
J['toletd,'358. 
H<l«<f^, •IT^ 194. 
•ft ' a ship,' 94. 
1|^' to cook,* 267, 595. c. 
iniH^ * cooking,' 141. 
^WP^* five,' 204. 
^'to fell,' 441, 597. c. 
ijfil'alord,' 121. 
ifftn^ * a road,* 162. 
i|^.' to go,' 424.0. 
inft 'the sun,' 126./. 
ITOI^* behind,' 731. 
IJT^' after,' 731. 
VTJinKt 126. a, 
lR^rT?( * mutually,' 760./. 
VXX prep., 783. ». 
^ I»ep., 783. 0. 
ilfr^H^ ' a cleanser,' 1 76. e. 
Tfftsn^ 1 76. e. 
'^k^t ' Biter,' 731. 
iren^' after,' 731. 
in * to drink,' 269, 589. 
in 'to protect,' 317. 
iin^'pale,' 187. 



in^ 'afoot,' 145. 

iir>m'sin,' 147. 

int ' on the further sidt^' 731 . 

fll^SII^ 164. b. 

ft^' a father,' 127, ij8. 

f^TT^ ' desirous of copking,* 

181. d. 
ftm^ ' thirsty,' 118. 
ftrH^'to form,' 281. 
TfN^'fet,' 147, 149. 
^ ' a male,' 169. 
^ ' to embrace,' 390. a, 
^pJW'holy,' I9I, 
^)|L'bom again,' 126. e. 
^W ' preceded by,' 777. d. 
5TH^ or ^3^ ' before,' 731. 
^^'aman^' 107. 
H^tin^ * a priest,' 181. a. 
^'to nourish,' 357.0, 698; 

'to be nourished,' 621. 
^'to purify,' 358, 364, 583. 
^ or ^^* 'preceded by,* 

'with,' 777. rf. 
^J[^'bef(we,'73i. 
1J^* the sun,' 157. 
^in^^'a deer,' 142. a. 
i(or^*tofill,'358,374-«, 

640. 
'^'to grow fe,t,*373.«, 395.6. 
U prep., 783. p. 
ir^ 'to ask,' 282, 381, 631. 
Hfil prep., 730. c, 783. q. 
inO^ * western,' 176. b» 
Jn\ 'superior understand* 

ing,' 126. g. 
Wffir 731, 764. c, 792. 
ir^nf^' quiet,' 179.0. 
imr^ 'a steer,' 182. c. 



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INDEX II.— Sanskrit. 



407 



1in|'befow,'7i7./, 731,917. 
RT^'lmaaker,* 176. 
m^ ' sastera,' 1 76. b. 
HT^ * worshipping,' 176. c. 
fin 'dew,' 187, 
ift ' to plM8e,'385, 358.a, 690. 
ft^* love,' 153. 
^'^'to bind,' 360, 692. 
^ftfW 'strongest,' 193. 
% col ^t^' stronger,' 167, 193. 
^J^ 134. a, 190. 
^jt'rich,' 134. a, 190. 
^j^Htrt ia6. i 
"5^ 'to know,* 267, 364; 
*cLi. 583; cl.4. 614. 
^ 'one who knows,' 177. 
^HT 'under the idea,' 809. b. 

^to speak,' 314, 649. 
*T^ 'to eat,' 643.*. 
>IH 'to break,' 347, 669. 
Wl^*yonr Honour,' 143, 233. 
^'^^^ 'yours,' 231. 
^ to shine,' 340. 
HT^'the sun,' no. 
HIT^n^ 182. c. 
*»rtT'awife,' 107. 
^'to speak,' 606. fl. 
fi'T^'tobeg,'267. 

fi»^'tobreak,'298.c,343,583- 

^ 'to fear,' 333, 666. 

Wt 'fear,' 123.(1. 

^rt^ 'timid,' 118. o, 187. 

^'to eat,' 346, 668. a. 

^' sky,' 712. ' 

^'tobe,' 263, 374. f, 585, 
586; cans., 703; desid., 
705; fireq., 706, 707. 



^' the earth,' 125.0. 
>Jjrfw'aking,' 121. 
>i[^' earth,' 712. 
^ 'to bear,* 332, 369, 583. 
^ ' to bear,' ' to blame,* 358. 
«(*to fell,' 276. 
«^'to fiy,' 282, 381, 632. 
OTi^ one who fries,' 176. g, 
^ ' to wander,' 275, 375.^. 
Wi^'to shine,' 375.1. 
«n^ 'to shine,' 375. i. 
«^ 'to fear,* 358. 
H^'n^ * Indra,' 155. c. 
Ta^ ' to be immersed,' 633. 
iffil 'the mind,' 112. 
'rftn^'a chuming-8tick,*i62. 
»!^ 'to be mad,* 275. 
»f^'l/2i8. 
nf(\M 'mine,' 231. 
Wg 'honey,* 114. 
•TO *in the middle,* 731. 
li^'to imagine,* 617, 684. 
ilT^ 'the mind,* 164. 
1^'to chum,* 360, 693. a. 
HfT^* great,* 142. 

I^THfH magnanimous,' 

164. a. 
Hf KI1 'agreatking,'i5i.<7. 
m 'to measure,* 274, 338, 

664. a. 
Ifl 'not,* in prohibition, 882, 

889. 
ifT W 242. a. 
Ifi^^lf ' flesh-eater,^ 176. 
in?| 'merely,* 'even,' 919. 
HW^ *niy,' 231.0. 
Hl*l*1«! ' mine,' 231. a. 
ftl^'tobe visad,' 277. 



5^ 'to let go,' 281, 628. 
5^ 'to be troubled,' 612. 
5^ ' foolish,' 182. 
^§3^' the head,* 147. 
^ 'to die,* 280,626. 
^ 'a deer,* 107. 
^'to cleanse,* 321, 651. 
^'tender,* 118.0, 187. 
^ * one who touches,' 181. 
^ 'one who endures,' 181. 
^fil«^' intellectual,* 159. 
W 'to repeat over,* 269. 
t'tofiuie,*268,374,595.*. 
^np^^'the liver,*«i44. 
in^'to sacrifice,' 375. e, 597. 
'W^ * a sacrificer,* 149. 
^WT 'as,* 721; at beginning 

ofcomps., 760, 760.*. 
^ * who,* 226. 
l|f^ 'if,' 727. 6,880.0,915. 
^ 'to restrain,* 270, 433. 
n^sR 126. b. 
^ 'to go,' 317, 644. 
^»T^'toask,'364,392,595.rf. 
^I^'as many,* 234, 80 r, 

838, 876; 'up to,* 731, 

917. 

5 'to mix,' 313, 357, 391.0, 
583, 686, 687. 

5H'toioin,*346,67o; pass., 

702. 
g^ * a youth,*