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Full text of "A practical grammar of the Arabic language"

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A 

PRACTICAL GRAMxMAR 



OF THE 



ARABIC LANGUAGE. 

WITH 

INTERLJNEAL READING LESSONS, 

DIALOGUES AND VOCABULARY, 

II Y 

FARIS EL-SHIDIAC, 

A NATIVE OF MOUNT LEBANON, STRIA; 

FORMERLY PROFESSOR OF ARABIC AT THE UNIVBRSITY OF MALTA ; 

TRANSLATOR OF THB WnOLB BIBLE INTO ARABIC, &C. Ac. 

SECOND EDITION, 

BY THE 

REV. HENRY G. WILLIAMS, B.D., 

PROFKSSOR OF ARABIC IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE. 

LONDON : 
BERNARD QUARITCH, 

ORIENTAL AND PHILOLOGICAL BOOKSELLER, 
15, PICCADILLY. 

1866. 



^ /-^ O C^ \ 




(ijLiUy-t^dUy luAJ^^^JLU^'^'^ 



-^ 



LONDON : 
W. 31. WATTS, CROWN COURT, TEMPLE BAR. 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



^^^^^^^^^t^t^t^^^v^r^f^r^rm 



The little Arabic Grammar by Faris El-Shidiac has met 
with considerable success, the whole of the former edition 
having been for some time exhausted. It has been well 
received, both in Egypt and Syria, and found useful, as 
well by travellers in those parts, as by others whose 
business has led them to seek a temporary home in the 
East. 

The small extent of the work, together with the prac- 
tical character pf it, precluded the introduction of any 
but the most necessary elements of Arabic Grammar. 
The present Editor, keeping this in view, has been careful 
to preserve its simplicity, while he has scarcely added to 
its bulk, but has found space for additional matter that 
seemed requisite, by expunging or abbreviating where 
occasion warranted. 

While the book is primarily intended to supply the 
want of such as do not contemplate any extensive pro- 
gress in the language, it is also hoped that it will fur- 



11 PREFACE. 

nish a. solid fouudation to such as may be induced to 
have recourse to a larget treatise on Arabic Grammar. 
Space would not allow, nor has it been deemed expedient, 
to make more than an occasional brief allusion to difi'e- 
rences of usage in Egypt and Syria. - Such differences are 
not great; and when (as it frequently happens) the 
Arabic language has several words with the same mean- 
ing, a little observation will soon determine which of 
them has the general, or perhaps exclusive use in any 
particular district. " Nor is there so great a difference 
between the dialects of Arabic spoken in different coun- 
tries as some persons, who have not held intercourse with 
the inhabitants of such coimtries, have imagined : they 
resemble each other more than the dialects of some of the 
different counties in England."* 

* Lanes " Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians," Ch. IX. 



GRAMMAR 



OF THE 



ARABIC LANGUAGE. 



CHAPTER I. 

The Arabians^ in common with many of the Eastern 
nations, write from the right hand to the left. Their 
Alphabet consists of twenty-eight letter, differently shaped 
according to their position at the beginning, middle, or 
end of words. The names and powers, and the order and 
figure, of the letters may be seen in the following Table, 



11 



(■ 3l ) 

ALPHABETICAL TABLE. 



NAME. 


FINAL. 




MED. 


INIT. 


POWK 


Alif .... 


Connect 

.... I 


Uncon. 

\ 


Connect. 

I 


1 


« 


Ba 


. . . . U.A 


K^ 




• 


h 


Ta . . . . . 


. . . . CIa 


^Z> 






t 


Tha . . . . 


.. . . viA 


O 






th 


Jeem . . . 
'Ha 


.... ^ 
.... ^ 

• 

.... ^ 


• 


^ 


• 


h9 
hh 


C'ha.... 


• 


a. 


ch 


Dal 


J^ 


J 


d 


Thai... 


• 

. . . . ^ 


• 


« 

J. 


• 


th 


Ra 


— J- 


>> 


J- 


^ 


r 


Zay 


• 

— J^ 


• 


• 

J- 


• 




Seen .... 


. . . . ^;m- 


u- 


*M 


•*• 


s 


Sheen . . . 


A 

. . . . ^J*^ 


ft 


A 

MMk 




sh 


'Sad .... 


.... u^ 


u^ 


^a 


«d 


s 


'Dad. . . . 


.... u^ 


(> 


«a 


«^ 


d 


'Ta . . . . . 


.... i^ 


L 


I2 


L, 


t 


Tha ... . 


.. . k 


ii 


k 


ii 


th 


Aine. . . . 


.... J 


p 


X 


C 


a 


Ghine . . 
Fa 


• 

. . . . ^ 

L_i 


V 9 


• 
• 

A 


• 

9 


9 

f 


'Kaf. .... 


. . . . J 


J 


A 


9 


h 



ALPHABETICAL TABLE. 3 

NAME. FINAL. MED. INIT. POWER. 
Connect. Uucon. CuiifiecU 

Kaf. i^ is) iC f k 

Lam J. J J- J / 

Meem ^ ^ -^ * m 

Noon ^ ^j i j n 

Waw *. J y. J w 

Ha A ft -^ .4. ft A 

Ya ^ ^ - i «/, t 

Lam-Alif, V or 51, which is composed of J lam and 
1 alf/. 



OBSERVATIONS. 

1 has a scarcely appreciable sound, which may be com- 
pared with that of k in the English word hour, 

O is pronounced like tk in thick, 

-. is pronounced in Syria as our soft g in gem; in 
Egypt as the g hard in get, 

— is a strong aspirate. 

-;. is a strong guttural. It resembles the sound of ch 
in the Scotch word loch, 

S is equivalent to th in this, 

^ is a strongly articulated palatal s, somewhat like ss 

in hiss, 

b2 



4 OF VOWELS. 

^jo the trve sound of this letter must be learnt 
ear. It is like a strong d. 

]o the power of this letter is that of z, pronounce 
a hollow sound from the throat. 

c resembles alifj but is pronounced with greatei 
tion of the throat. 

p. is a hard guttural g. It somewhat resemb' 
sound of the Northumbrian r, 

J is a guttural k, 

^j this letter, when followed by c->, takes the so 
^ ; as v,^ gamb, not ganb, 

s this letter has two dots over it when it is use 
grammatical termination ; thus (»). It is then sc 
like t : but in common conversation its sound is alto 
dropped. 



CHAPTER ir. 

OF VOWELS AND ORTHOGRAPHICAL SIGNS 
The Arabs have only three characters for vowels, 
they call i^ Fatha, i^ Casra, and l^ Damma, 
first is represented by a small oblique line over the 
the second by a similar stroke under the letter ; a 
third by a small curve, like a comma, as follows : 
Fat'ha. . (-) sounding as a ; e.g. {^ laka, 
Casra. . (-) sounding as i; e.g. ij bihi. 
'Damma (-) sounding nearly as 0/ e.g.y^ howi 



OF VOWELS. O 

It should be observed that these vowel-points, as they 
are called, are seldom written, and therefore a difficulty 
is presented at first to the learner, which, however, will 
soon be sufficiently overcome. 

They are sometimes doubled in the final letters, which 
doubling is then called ^^yZ tanweeuj or nunationy be- 
cause the vowel is then pronounced as if terminated 
^ by ^j, as J>.^ rojoloUj " a man ;" J>.^ rajolin; iU^ rajolan. ; 
The first (®) marks the nominative case ; the second (-) 
the genitive, dative, and ablative; the third (-) the i 
accusative. It must be observed here that the final 1 adds 
nothing to the sound when the accusative is pronounced. 

Fafha, with an alif, lengthens its sound, as JU 'k&la, 
" he said ;" casra, with ^j, is equivalent to long t, as : 

iifly " in;" damma, withj, to long o, as J^i ya'koi^ 
" he will say." 

Fat'ha before ^ and j forms the diphthongs ai and 
an : e. g. u-ij-o (summer) and uJ^ (fear) are pronounced 
nearly as if written in English 'sifsy 'chowf. 

When the fat'ha is written perpendicularly, it lengthens 
the sound of the a, as eJJ J ihdlik, " that " (demons, pron.) 

SiXlS tashdid ("*) doubles the letter over which it is 
placed, as J^ nazzala, " he brought down ; j*:^ il/o- 
hammed, 

5^ hamza (') is placed generally over the 1, and 
sometimes over the • and ^5, and indicates that such ' 

^^ mm 

letter is to be pronounced almost as c. 

I 



6 OF THE ARTICLE. 



• o^ 



iUj wasla ('*) implies conjunction^ and is only in- 
scribed over 1 at the beginning of a word, to mark an 
union with the preceding letter, 1 being then silent, as 
'i:^ ^\^ kitabU'lldhiy "the book of God." 

ijb* madda ('^) implies extensiouy and is placed over \y 

<^ 
giving it a long sound, as j»ji ddam, 

HJx^ socoon (°) signifies a pause, and is placed over a 

letter that has no vowel. It is called also i*>. gazma ; 



CHAPTER III. 

OF THE ARTICLE. 

The Arabs have but one article, Jl (al), which is definite, 
and is prefixed either to the singular or plural; as, 
i^b^\ alkitaby "the book;" c-i^I alkotoh, "the 
books." When the article is followed by any of these 
letters, viz. ^^, k, L, ^y ^^ yi, ^j-, ^,^, i, ^, cl>, o, 
the sound of the J is dropped ; or, rather, it is assimilated 
to that of the succeeding letter, which assumes the jj jJiJ 
tashdeed ; as ^-a^i arraheeniy " the merciful " (i,e, God) ; 
olj4-Jl assammcat, "the heavens; ^^jjl diajik'hoddeen, 
" knowledge of the religion." 

iV. JB. The word to which the article is annexed does 
not admit ^^^1 the tanween. 



OF NOUNS. 



CHAPTER IV. 

OF NOUNS. 
In the Arabic, nouns admit of variation in regard of 



gender, number, and case, and may be either definite by 

Si ^9 

nature, as y^-^ Mo'hammad ; or may be made so by the 
addition of the article Jl, as ^ nabiy, "a prophet;" ^\ 
annahiyy '^ the prophet." 



OF GENDER. 



J3 y 9 



There are two genders, .^9 j^ mothakkary " mascu- 
line," and eJj* modnnath, " feminine." Nouns are 
feminine either by signification or termination. By sig- 
nification : 1st, names of women and female appellatives, 
as ^n* Mar-yam, " Mary ;" J owm, " a mother j" ^jL^t 
hint, " a girl ;" ^\ ocht, " a sister :" 2dly, the double 
members of the body, as jj yad, " the hand ;" ^^ aine, 
"the eye;" k^JcS catif, "the shoulder:" 3dly, names of 
countries and towns, as jux^ Misr, " Egypt ;" 
"Mecca." 



5 ^ 



5>' 



By termination ; 1st in », as a:^*. jannah, " a gai*den ;" 
iVb tholmah, " darkness :" 2dly in 1 servile, as K^hy'dA, 
"white:" 3dly in ^ servile, pronounced like \, as ,jS'^ 
thikra, " remembrance ;" ^j\ ula, " first. ' There are 
a few words which are to be learnt by practice and obser- 



8 OF NUMBER. 



yation^ being used as femiiiines neither by signification nor 
by termination ; such as ^X ara, '^the earth ;"»•». 6hamr, 
" wine ;" c->^ Karb, " war ;" Jj ndr, " fire ;" ^ 7'eeHy • 
" the wind ;'' ^j^».t» shams, " the sun," &c. &c. 
All other words are masculine. 



Feminines are formed from masculines chiefly by the 
addition of », as u>Jb ty-ih, "good/' XJo 'ty-ihah; i^jjLo 
cc / maktnby " written ;" d>j:X-o maktubah ; diU malik, " a 
king /' SxJL malicahy " a queen." 



OF NUMBER. 

There are three numbers, singular, dual, and plural. 
The dual is formed by adding to the singular ^^1- in the 
nominatiye case, and ^^- in the other cases. The plural is 
either perfect or imperfect. The perfect plural is that 
which ends in ^j - in the nominatiye case, and in ^^ in the 
other cases. The perfect feminines form their plural by 
adding c:A-. The imperfect (or broken) plurals are such 
as are not formed by the addition of ^^jj- or ^-, and are so 
extremely irregular and various, that no rules can greatly 
assist the memory. 

A few of the more common forms of the imperfect 
plurals are given below. A more extended list will be 
found farther on. 



OF NUMBER. 9 

EXAMPLES. 





SINO. 


DUAL. 


PLURAL. 


Nom. 


tJrtr(one) writing (m.) 






Gen. 
Ace. 


• 




• ■ 


Nom. 


iJ\r(one) writing (/.) 




• 


Gen. 
Ace. 




• • 


• 
• • 


Nom. 

Gen. 

Ace. 


kza^ a house 


• • 





Observe — As the final vowels are not sounded in the 
common language^ the distinction of the cases is not 
rendered appreciable in conversation. 



FORMS OF BROKEN PLURALS. 



99 



SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


J-jfc. a mountain 


JW 


XmI a lion 




^j a foot 




0-' 

af--» a mosque 


• 


Jdf2i book 


J^ 



10 OF THE NOUNS. 

Note. — The Arabs use the word Jjcj (to do) with the 
necessary vowels, and modified by the addition of ser- 
vile letters, as requisite, when describing the particular 
form of a word : thus, JL*. is of the form JUs . 

OF THE NOUN OF PLACE AND TIME. 

The same form of noun is used to denote time and 
place, and is regularly derived from the triliteral verb 
upon the measure JjiL ; as, u.*:^^ " time or place of 

writing," from t-^ *• he wrote ;'' l-okU " time or place 
of playing," from c-^ "he played;" jjcEa "time or 
place of sitting,'' from jjdl " he sat." Or upon the 
measure Jsti* ; as, \^j>aj^ '* time or place of beating," from 
\^ju> " he beat." 

OF THE NOUN DENOTING THE INSTRUMENT* 
The noun denoting the instrument is derived from the 

yO yo 

triliteral verb, and has three forms : 1. Jxio ; as, :i/<A " a 
file," from ^ " he filed ;" 2. jUL ; as, ^IsL " a key," 
from xi " he opened." 3. aIxa^ ; as, 5LjX-« " a broom," 
from J«l^a " he swept." 



OF THE NOUN DENOTING A SINGLE ACTION. 
This noun has the measure of jJbtf ; as, 2i^ " once 



OF THE ADJECTIVES. 11 

striking," from k^jJ, " he struck ;'' iJ> " once writing," 

from K^ " he wrote," &c. &c. 

N.B. All these forms are regularly derived from the 
verb which has three letters. 

OF THE DIMINUTIVE. 

The diminutive is formed in general by inserting * after 
the second letter of the primitive ; as, ju-c " a little ser- 
vant," from juc " a servant ; Jl» . ** a little man," from 
Ja^ " a man." 

This form, although very convenient, is very seldom 
used, even in books. 



CHAPTER V. 

OF THE ADJECTIVES. 
There are many forms in Arabic for the adjective : the 
most common are J-j«» ; as, ^5 " generous ;" J^ "hand- 

9y 9^ X py 

some ;" and J^ \ a8,^^Xj;» " thankful ;" jy^ " patient' 

There are also the forms jUs and J-xs, denoting fre- 

^^ ^^ . 

quency or intensity ; as, u^j^ "one who strikes often;" 

jX^ " very drunken :" Jx9 ; as, ^j.^^ " beautiful :" Juj 

as, -y " glad, or merry :" ^j%t3 ; as, ^^llkc " thirsty." 



^ OF COMPARISON. 

The form JUs is the model for words denoting trades ; 

a^ ajx ax 

e. g J^ " a carpenter ;" LLi. " a tailor ;" c->U» " a 
butcher." 

The Arabic language^ rich as it is in words and in 
modes of expression, has only one form of adjectives 
derived from substantiyes. It is formed by adding ^5 
with ("* ) to the substantive ; as, for instance, ,j^j " rosy ;'' 
j^^U "watery;" ^..^.t. "solar;" ^^1 "earthen," &c. &c. 

The most usual way of formin<^ the feminine, as has 

been stated, is by adding 5- to the masculine, as, m. wi >^», 

^»i. i»^. Some forms of adjectives, however, are the 

• py fy 

same for both genders; e.g, .^^ J».. "a patient man;" 
jy^ »i^i " a patient woman." 

Note. In Arabic, the adjective, as a rule, follows the 
noun it qualifies. 

OF COMPARISON. 

The comparative is formed from the positive upon the 
measure Jujl; as, ^^y,^ "good; ^j.^ " better ;" ji-^» 
great;" j^:^sa\ " greater. 

o 

Than is expressed by the preposition ^^ ; as, 
(sIUl ^ -feftl" greater than the king." 

The superlative is of the same form as the comparative, 
but it is used without any addition ; as, As\ 4111 " God 



OF PRONOUNS. 13 

(is) most wise.*' Or it is followed by a word in the 
genitive ease ; as, ^\J\ ^^^-^i " the best of men.*' 



N.B. A word preceding another in the genitive case 
does not admit the article; thus, above, rjmA\, not 






CHAPTER VI. 

OF PRONOUNS. 

The Arabs acknowledge only three parts of speech, 
namely, the Verb, the Noun, and the Particle ; including 
under the noun the pronoun and the adjective. 

Some pronouns are separate, some affixed to other 
words. 

The PERSONAL PRONOUNS are as follows : 







SING. 


DUAL. 


PLURAL. 






H. F. 




M. P. 


1. 


I 




• • 


9 0^ 


2. 


Thou .... 




U3l 




3. 


He (she) . 


y^9 • 


^9 

U 


o9 St 9 



N.B. The dual and the plural feminine are not used 
in the vulgar Arabic. 

The DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS are Ijjb " this,'* and 
csUi " that,'* declined as follows : 



14 OF PRONOUNS. 

SING. DUAL. PLURAL. 

Masc \jjb ^j\jjb ^JlSJb *iy^ 

Fern SJA ^llA yjCSb 

N.B. In the vulgar Arabic the singular only is used, 
and the plural is sometimes replaced by the word Joa, 
and at other times by J.^, or ^jj jjb, or J^Ja, &c. ; while 
for the singular ^^^ is frequently employed j as, Ja!1 ^^ 

" this pen -;' a^^ ^^ " this story." 



^^ Mf 



SING. DUAL. PLURAL. 

Masc dJj dblj dbi e)i5Sjl 






Fem. diSj cii3U dU-J 






THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

^^ jjl " who," is thus declined. 

Masc (^jJl lijIjJill ^^.jJl 

Fem Jl eJ^i ^3^1 

N.B. All these forms are replaced in the vulgar by 
the word Ji. 

o y 

^ who, he who, those who, whoever. 
U that which, those which, whatever. 
^ who, which, what, of what kind. 



zJi\ ^^ " who are you ?" <J^ ^^ " which book ?*' 






OP PRONOUNS. 15 

The last three words are . used interrogatively ; as^ 

For U as an interrogative ^\ (contracted from ^ ^^ 
" what thing ?") is more general ; as, jj^ ^\ " what do 
you want?" The same word takes the preposition J 
before it, to express why ? as, c:*-». ^j^jV " why are you 
come ? 



?" 



0-' .^ 



N.B. U is also a negative; as, \^^\ U " I do not 
know." 

THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

The possessive pronouns are expressed by means of 
affixes to the nouns 3 thus — 

e^uT" a book." 

SING. DUAL. PLURAL. 

. lU mv book. \J^ 

ttb\ir thy (m) book.| \^JsL\£ \ f"^ 
ei^li^thy (/) book.) ' \ ^^\£ 

AjliS his book. ^ 99 ^ c ^\^ 



\^^ her book. ) ( \j^y^ 

The dual, and also the plural feminine, are seldom 
used. 

The 'Damma of s and v>, &c., is changed into Casra 
after Casra; as ajII^ss "of his book." 



•• • 



16 OF PRONOUNS. 

The same affixes are used with prepositions : for instance^ 

^ « of/' or " from." 





8IN0. 


DUAL. 


PLURAL. 


•k 


from me. 


• • 


ll 


^ o 

o 

• • 


from thee (^^0*) 
from thee {fy 


\J^:^ 




o 


from him. ^ 
from her. ) 







X X 



So, with the preposition J "to," we have J, csW, dJ, 

a), &e., or with x:c " with ;" as, j-Ji* (^x^ " with me 

(is) money," ?.e. " I have money." 

N.B. The same affixes serve as the accusative case 
after verbs (except that instead of ^^ the first person is 
expressed by ^), e.g. l^j^ " he struck." 

^^ he struck me. 
csb^ he struck thee. 
AJ KK^ he struck him. 



&c. &c. 
The reciprocal pronoun is expressed by ^jj!i "self," 

ox 

joined to the pronominal affixes ; as, ^-ii " myself," &c. 



( 17 ) 



The 



CHAPTER VII. 

OF THE NUMERALS. 
Cardinal Numbers are the following : 





MASC. 


FEM. 




MASC. FEl 




9 


9x 




X 


1 


f^l, 


ftJ^lj 


20. 


UJLr^ 


X( 


1 i:f 


x o 




X ^xx 




(^^[ 


30. 


u)>^ 




o 


x o' 




X f'o'S 







^k-Jl 


40. 


oy^J 




0^ ^' 


9 x 




X ^ o '' 


3. 


2^% 

9 x-^o; 




50. 




4. 


Iaj^I 


e;^' 


. . 


• • • • 




S" ''O'' 


Sox 




^''. 


0. 


" * 


u-^ 


100. 


;i5U 




A — ' 


9 




X 




9 M 


ul 




X 


6. 




C2A.AI 


200. 


ejUU 




-'C 


9 0'' 




X 
X ^ XX 


7. 


A y^.M 


t- 


300. 


•^ X 




9'' • 


X 




9 OJ' 


8. 


IoUj 


CJ^ 


1000. 


u-ftJi 




yo 


%o 




^ci 


9. 




&. 


2000. 


cjLiJ' 




9^x X 


9 o ^ 




X— ^ X XX 


10. 


E^JLc 


^ic 


3000. 






^^^ XXX 


^^ o-* ''O 




^ 


11. 


^;^ J».l 


i;ic ^^j»l 







Observe : The Cardinal numbers from 3 inclusive to 
10 take thejT^TTi. form when the objects numbered are of 
the m(i$c, gender ; and conversely, the masc, form, when 



c 



18 



OF THE JMUMERAL8. 



9^^ ^^ 9 ^ 



9^^ 



the objects numbered dire fern. ; e.g. ljL& JU^, or JU. l^j 
" ten wew/' (lit. men, a decade, and, a decade of men) ; 
jLs. Lj or Lj yis. " ten womenr 

The numerals that indicate numbers compounded of 
the units and the tens, are formed by prefixing the unit 
to the ten, and uniting them by the conjunction j, *' a«rf;" 
as, i^yicj »x».i " one and twenty, twenty-OJie, 

The Ordinals are as follow : 



1st. 
•2d. 
3d. 
4th. 



MASC. 
1 



3\S 



£f ^ 



i-iJ\S 



9^ 



tl'^ 



lxi\ 



10th. 






MASC. 
9 



^;' 



2Uth. cj^^/^ 

30th. ^^* &c. 

Observe : The Ordinals from twentieth inclusive to 
ninetieth are identical in form with the Cardinals; as, 

9 o 9 o O^ 

^jj^ " twenty/' cJJ/^^ *^ ^^^ t^'^^tieth.'* 

12 3456789 10 



( 19 ) 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OF THE VERB. 

The Arabic verb, in its several conjugations, consists of 
three letters or more, up to six. The triliteral verb is 
divided into seven classes, named by the Arabs as follows, 
the names being derived from the circumstance of the 
verb havinor a letter doubled, or containing one of the 
letters, 1, •, or ^j. In treating of the verbs, as well as in 
the other parts of the grammar, as before mentioned, the 
different forms of the verb J«5 **he did,'' are referred to 
as models. On this principle, the first radical letter of 
the verb is called the Fa, the second the Aine, the third 
the Lam. 

1.. JUI (whole) as c-^ he wrote. 

2. . <— flgU-il (reduplicate) j^ he stretched. 

3. . Jj*f-^^ (hamzated) . . jo.\ he took. 

4. . yi JjaJLl (weak of the Ij) . . jcj he promised. 

5 . vyjjJl Jiat-Xi (weak of the^^^oi) . . JlS he said. 

6. . ^\ jitJii (weak of the ^V) . . tfj^^^ threw. 

7 . »i«fl-ftll\ (complex) Jj ^® preserved. 

The verbs are either triliteral or quadriliteral ; the 



20 



first consisting of three radical letters, as those already 
instanced; the other of four, as -^^ " he rolled.' 

The derivatives are divided into three classes ; the first 
being augmented by one servile letter, the second by two, 
and the last by three, as in the following manner : 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 



y^^ 



•J.. . 



J*aJ 



G. 
7. 

8.. 

9.. 

10., 






The first conjugation has a transitive sense, where the 
action has an effect upon some other object, as GG) l_. 



X 4f 



tH^''? 



" he wrote a book,*' and it is called (^Jooa (transitive), and 
also an intransitive one, where the effect is confined 
within the agent, as ^^ " he mourned/' and it is called 
^\V (intransitive). 

The second and fourth form transitives, as JjJ or J^\ 
" he brought down," or " he caused to go down ;" with 
this difference, that the ("") indicates the action to have 
been done gradually, and the 1 gives the idea that the 
action was done at once. But if the verb is originally 
transitive, the (^) then gives it an intensitive sense, as 
j^ " he broke to pieces ;" or it makes it transitive in two 
degrees, as l,»t<^ " he caused somebody to write.'' 



_21 

The third conveys the idea of a reciprocal action, as 
\j^ jjj ^J^ " Zeid heat Amr," implying, at the same 
time, that Amr beat Zeid in return ; also an intransitive 

? O *• t.< ^ • X #/ 

s^ense, as \^ jjj ,^U Zeid sat down with Amr." 

The fifth has sometimes a passive signification, as^^-Xj 

" it was broken," beinpr the passive of the second conju- 

gation^^; and sometimes an active sense, as \^j^ *' he 
expected." 

The sixth denotes a co-operation or mutual action, 
nearly corresponding with the third, as ^^\ c-j.UJ "the 
people beat each other." 

The seventh denotes a passive sense, as .■.■<=^)1 " it was 
broken." 

The eighth has sometimes a passive sense, as iu^ it 
was collected ;" and sometimes an active one, as f-J^ 
"he invented." The reason appears to be insuffitdent 
why most of the grammarians take it to be always passive. 

The ninth form denotes colour, as juo\ " it became 
yellow ;" it implies also deformity, as .^1 " he became 

one-eyed." 

Tlie tenth has generally two significations : the first is 

^O" o 

petitioning and desiring, as^^aii->;l " he asked pardon;" the 
second implies considering the thing to be such as is ex- 
pressed by the simple verb, e, //. ^j>*J^^ " he considered 
(it) to be pretty ;" \iuJ\ " he considered (it) to be dear." 
The Arabs arrange their moods and tenses differently 



22 

from the Europeans, dividing their conjugation into five 
parts : 1st, the Preterite ; 2d, the Future; 3d, the Impe- 
rative ; 4lh, the Participle ; and 5th, the Infinitive. 

Excepting the infinitive, they all have three numbers — 
singular, dual, and plural ; and two genders — masculine 
and feminine. Their persons, as in other languages, are 
three ; but the third being the root, precedes the second, 
and the second the first ; all which will appear sufficiently 
obvious from the following paradigms : 



CONJUGATION OF THE FIRST FORM OF REGULAR 

TRILITERAL VERBS. 



\ 



9 y^4^ 



PLURAL. 
F. M. 

Si 9o^'^ 

Uha3 



o9o^^ 



\jj.Ai 



y o 90-^ y 9 90^ 

tm mm 

9 9o^ 



jttLJ 



jAi " He helped. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

Preterite, 

DUAL. 



» 



F. M. 

9Qy^ 



W^ 



P. 
o <^^^ 

Oua3 



SING. 

M. 



CJmAJ 2 



9 O'"' 

OwiaJ 



Present or Future, 

9o.^ fo^ ? 9o^ 

xo 9oy 

mm 






990^ 



P9oy 



jtOui 2 



990^ 



23 

Imperative, 



PLURAL. 


DUAL. 


8IN0. 


F. 


M. 


F. M. 


F. M. 


^ofof 


f poy 


yfo* 


1 ■ 1 


Cj/-»*^ 


\j^\ 


Participle. 


t5^> j<M\ 




^ f 


Infinitive. 

5o^ 





OBSERVATIONS. 

All the vowels are given in the ahove paradigm, as 
well as in those that follow. But rememher that, as a 
rule, the final vowels are not sounded in the vulgar 
Arabic. 

The vowel of the second radical, both in the preterite 
and the future, is not always as above. Some verbs, 
both transitive and intransitive, take - in the preterite, as 
Ac "he knew," — ^ "be rejoiced;" some, chiefly in- 
transitive, take -,"a8 ^^J..^ "he was handsome." The 
second vowel in the future is also sometimes - or ^ , as 
^Jlj " he will rejoice," ^j^, " he will beat." The second 
vowel of the imperative is always the same as that of the 
future. If this be % the prosthetic alif takes - likewise; 



24* 

Otherwise it takes -, e, g, fut. -ojj, ^-^-i, cj>-ai; imp. 

^^ ^U t_^l. 

In the vulgar conversational Arabic, this initial alif is 
altogether suppressed, so that the imperative becomes 

^ o9 99 y^ 9 9 o? 

The form given above for the infinitive is the most 
common one. There are, however, a great many va- 
riations in this part of the verb, the same verb frequently 
having several forms of the infinitive. 

[The following remarks are applicable to all the 
conjugations :] 

The form for the future of the verb is also used for 
the present. The modern Arabs, therefore, make it a 
real present by joining to it some other word. Thus 

9 9 o '^ ^f 

^^^zj^ss^^ jtb signifies he writes, or, he will write. But 

9 9 o y' rt^ 

i_."^^^ ; JUc jtb has the single signification of he is writing; 

9 o^ i3^ 

SO, AiJ JUis it is raining. 

The letter cj is also frequently prefixed to the future 
in common conversation. In this case, the 1 of the first 
person disappears ; as dJ l^as.^? lj\ '^I will wnte to you," 
(ciJ u-i;su> '* do you know how to read?" In the first 
person plural, instead of t-j, m is prefixed. 

The words »jj , jjJj , &c., placed before a verb, add to it 
the signification of is going. — Ex. -.^ » jj yb " he is going 
to go out. 



?> 



25 

Although in the classical Arabic there are two parti- 
cles, jj*. and u«»j-., employed to confine the verb to the 
future signification, they are very seldom used in ordinary 
books. 

The pluperfect in Arabic is expressed by the addition 
of the verb ^j^" to be/' to the preterite of the principal 
verb. 

Ex. C^ y^ " he had written." 

The imperfect, by the addition of the same verb to the 
present tense. 

Ex. v-^^ijfeu y^ " he was writing. ' 

The dual forms and the feminine plurals are not used 
in common conversation. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

The passive voice differs from the active chiefly in the 
vowel points, as may be observed by comparing them 
toscether. 

Preterite, 

PLURAL DUAL. SING. 

F. M. F. M. F. M. 

\jjtOi Jj^ 'J>*aS jwoi Cj^ >*ai O 

S9o 9 o9o 9 'o 9 o 9 ^ o 9 

'^ o 9 " ' ° '. 

l3^ o^ 1 



26 
Future. 



PLURAL. 


DUAL. 


i 


SING. 




F. 


M. 


F. M. 


F. 


M. 












9^o9 


3 




9^09 




^ o >'o' 




2 


9 ^a9 


^ 




9^09 


1 



Part\cvple. 



'"*' Hfrt'--* !•!< t<irt<l.» iOUi««alA I'll 



The imperative passive is formed from the future by 

O ^O 9 o ^o9 o -^O 9 

adding J to it, as^^-oLJ , ^^^V , ^oJ . 



It will be sufficient, in place of enlarging the grammar 
unnecessarily with a number of whole-length conjugations, 
to give the first word alone of every tense, leaving it to 
the learner, by way of exercise, to fill up the other parts, 
which he may find to be a considerable help to his 
memory. 

OF THE DERIVATIVE THREE-LETTER CONJUGATION. 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

First Class. 

PART. IMPER. INFIN. FUTURE. PRET. 

S,J.y9 o^^ ^ C 9*'^ 9 •CSX 



27 



PART. 

S o9 

\xAa 

^/ WHO 



imp£r. 

o o-^ 



INFIN. 

aIcUo 



FUTURE. 

9 t 






Second Class, 

^•"^ '" "^ -^"^ ^ "'"'■' J. 

O^ ^ '^ 9 ^ 9 ^ ^ ^ 

JaIaj jUIa} Jflftl^Ji 



o ^o 









v:^i 



9 ^O ■^ 



PRET. 

>li 3 



•5 X 



J*aJ 5 
JxiJl 7 

• X^ o 

v>^i 8 

J-1 9 



Third Class. 



JyQV,»0 JxAly^l VUftl.*>i JyftLMMi) JjcklMtt 10 



y ^ 



y ^ 



PRET. 
\xAa 



PASSIVE VOICE. 

First Class. 

FUTURE. 

VxA> 
9 ^ ^9 

? -'o9 



PART. 

Jf 2. 

^ 9 

v» 3. 
J«l 4. 



28 



^ ^9 



CONJUGATION OF THE VERB uJgU^ (DOUBLED, HAVING 
THE THIRD RADICAL THE SAME AS THE SECOND.) 

"^ " he collected/' 
Preterite, 



PLURAL. 


DUAL. 




SING. 


F. M. 


F. 


M. 


F. M. 








o 5-^ w-^ 


2 Po^-^ ■o<'o'''' 








UJ 


• • • • 

Future. 




^'c^^ 

o«^ 


PLURAL. 


DUAL. 




SING. 


F. M. 


F. 


M. 


F. M. 
















yo<t»^y vi^y 

itpy 

(J' 



Imperative. 



^ Si y 



^9 



y ui y 



C>9 



c^« 



Participle, 



PART. 



Passive, 

FUT. 

i^p 



\nfi 



dp 






PRET. 



r" 



29 



"°9 



CONJUGATION OF THE VERB /ill Jix* (Jit. " WEAK OF 
THE FA," HAVING THE FIRST RADICAL j). 

Preterite. 



PLURAL. 

F« Ma 



y o ^■^ 



9 ^'■^ 



o/'^ 



Uj^i 



DUAL. 
F. M. 






U 



y y 



i ^'^ 
ljj^« 



SING. 
F. 31. 



o ^^^ 



• •/' 



^3 






Future. 



PLURAL. 


DUAL. 


SING. 


F. 


M. 


F. M. 


F. 


M. 


^ o ^ 


y 9 ^ 


, < . '' 


^ X 


/» ^ 


yjS»l 


UJ'^i 


^j'Jjo cj'J^i 






>» C X 


y 9 ^ 


, -' 


• O /^ 


o y 


Vj"^ 




• • 

Imperative. 


c;^-:^f 




^ o 


^ 






o 


u;^ 


1^^ 


Ijii 
Participle. 


^?.^f 






(jj^!^ 


Passive. 


ij^lj 


i.. 




PART. 


FUT. 


FRET. 






^o^ 


/»>' ^ 


^ 7 





.ijc^ 



^Ji 



•^J 



30 



CONJUGATION OF THE VERB \jj^ Jijt. (Z?7. " WEAK OF 
THE AINE/' having THE SECOND RADICAL j). 





Preterite, 




VLURAL. 


DUAL. 


8JN0. 


F. M. 


F. M. 


F. M. 


^o9 ? 


^ 


• X 


Ji IjJU 


Uli v^ 


cJl5 Jli 


iPo' o9o9 


/»o? 


o.? X o9 


d^ (^ 


Uln 




^o^ 




^ of 


V. « 


i'Viwre. 


cJ5 


PLURAL. 


DUAL. 


SING. 


F. M. 


F. M. 


F. M. 


yu9^ ^ f ^^ 


M '^ ^ {^ 


9 9^ 9 9^ 


Jh u>>. 


yjij^ ^jjfjW 


ub" J^ 


, o9^ ^9 9, 


v'^" 


'' .*• >> ^x 




U^w 


vyOjflJ J^ 


9 f^ 




9 9^ 


Jb" 


Imperative, 


ay' 


>.o<» ^ ^ 


..°' 


o>' o^* 


^ yji 


Participle, 


d/ Ji 




Passive. 


iJi5li JJli 


PART. 


FUT. 


PRKT. 


•• >'^ 


9 ^9 


^ 


J^i* 


J^. 


^ 



31 



CONJUGATION OF THE VERB J^\ Jijm (lit. " WEAK OF 
THE LAM," HAVING THE THIRD RADICAL ^j). 



PLURAL. 



F. 



M. 



Preterite, 

DUAL. 
F. 






PLURAL. 
F. M • 

Ox 



u: 



M. 



^0>v 



Future, 

DUAL. 

F. Ma 






Imperative. 



SING. 
F. M. 

X-' ''*' 



oxx 



• Oxx 



^ Oxx 



'J 



SING. 

F. M. 

Ox Ox 

X X 

XO Ox Ox 



c;:t*> 



»^> 



cx 



(^>^' 



XO o 


/»o 


o 

Participle. 


o 

1^4 


O 

• 


5 X X 
•x^ 




X •-^ T^ x"^ 

Passive. 


S X x 

" y' 


/^ 




PAET. 


FUT. 


PRET. 






5 ox 


xo? 


X / 






^J' 


LSVi 


«^^ 





32^ 

REMARKS ON THE MODE OP EXPRESSING "TO BE'' 

IN ARABIC. 



The word ^^s» is the usual woi:d in Arabic for 
" to be." It is conjugated regularly, like JU (page 29). 

Examples : ajlU ^^ aJ ,jl^^j ^W ^^l^o " there was 
a merchant, and he had (lit. there were to him) three 



sons'* 



• ' i ^ _ ei . 



^•^ c^* (J lii?^ *^^ ^^ " what advantage will there 
be to me from this?" 

A.M >; ^^ ^U^'t^ tcJjr^Uc 1jj\S i-^, (3 y:L^^=s» U "when I 
was in Rome, they were building a church." 

But when " to be" is in the present tense, followed by 
a participle, an adjective, or an adverb of place, the 
verb is not expressed, e, g. 

CO y P o^ 

Jy^Lc J-^1 The Consul [is] engaged. 
Ja.\jA ^\ My brother [is] ill. 

yo9Q ^''O-' 

^jL*J\ j, ^VjVl The children [are] in the garden. 

Or, if- there is no noun preceding the verb, then the 
requisite personal pronoun is used without the verb, e, g. 

fjoij* Ul I [am] ill. 

X-Ox Oy 

^jl-jcj c>3l Thou [art] tired. 

cy o - 

jij^=ol ^J^ We [are] English. 



• See p. 24. f See p. 24. 



33 

The preposition ^J (in), joined with the personal pro- 
noun », is used in vulgar Arabic to express *' there is.*' 

Ex. : i aJ U " There is nothing." 

A oi 

\iy^\ ti («^ A-9 " Is there meat in the market ? " 
Answer : ^^ " There is." 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE MODE OF EXPRESSING 
" TO HAVE " IN ARABIC. 

The Arabic language has no word precisely answering 
to the verb " to have." An equivalent to it is obtained 
by using ^\^ " to be," Jli " to be," " to become," &c., 
with some preposition. In the present tense, the verb is 
not expressed, except in rare instances. Examples : 



• ^ 



y^ fjxsi I have bread (lit. with me [is] bread). 

(sJjlIc You have a knife. 

iru^a^i^ a) d^l Your father has a large house (lit yoiu* 

father, to him, [is] a large house). 
4;)ljJ^ a) ^jl^ di« A king had two sons (lit. a king, there 

were to him two sons). 
^^ *Sji\^ He has a fever. 



^»>. J^ld He had a fever. 



(ji;c f^j^ jfc. jjmJ I have only a piastre (lit there is not 

[,j«J] with me, except a piastre). 



D 



34 



»Ju^ »jl& A^ 



You have a good custom (lit. an 
you [is] a good custom). 
Jj>i>. %J>\^ A-9 He has much humility (lit. in 

[is] nmch humility). 



9^ y 



The following is a list of a few of the most useful v 
They are all given in the 3rd pers. sing, of the pret< 
When a numeral is added, it denotes the conjugatior 



u^.^ 


to be 


u-^ 


to sit down 




to do 
to eat 




to know 




to drink 


'J^ 


to think 


tS 


to hunger 


6 


to sell 


u^ 


to thirst 


UE^I(8) 


to buy 


• 


to come 


1'' 


to read 


vulg- J\j ) 


to go 


• 


to write 

to laugh 

1 




to enter 




to weep 




to go out 




to walk 




to raise 


5^ 


to run 


r^ 


to rise up, to 


r 


to pass by 




stand 




) to give 



35 



• X 



1^=0 (5) 



• ^ 



ft?' 

r 



.u 



x** 



to beat 
to send 
to dress 
to weigh 
to ask 
to say 
to speak 
to touch 
to hear 

to see 
to look at 
to fall 
to collect 
to understand 
to learn 

to teach 
to sleep 
to open 

to shut 
to take 
to arrive 



• 


to play 


j^' 


to kill 


yj" 


to forget 


• 


to seek 


^3 


to find 


oU 


to die 




1 to begin 


5^ 


to finish 




to assist ; 



"''O. 



fend 
JiaLjl (8) to wait for 

^ to remain 



5/ 



a.iW^o^^ve 



yo^ 



^jai)\ (4) to hate 
^j to bury 

ftk* to cut 

J\L (3) to travel 
to ride 
to return 






^> (5) to man y 



3G 



^x 






OF PAR 


nCLES. 




to cook 




to set 


to steal, to rob 


yy 

> 


to rain 


to worship 

to rise (the sun) 


I 


to snow 



OF PARTICLES WHICH AFFECT THE VERB. 

In the conjugation of the verb, as given in pp. 22 — 31, 
the future of the indicative is exhibited only in its simplest 
form. It is, however, subject to the loss of the ^ from 
these five forms, the verb taking a subjunctive significa- 
tion ; namely, e;Jxw ♦ ijjW ♦ c)jlxai * ^^iU« ♦ ^J^^ ' the 
other forms will then end in a fatha, except the plural 
feminine. 

[Note : In consequence of the omission of the final 
vowels and other terminations which distinguish some of 
the persons of the verbs, in the vulgar conversational 
Arabic, the following remarks need only be less carefully 
noted. Attention to tlie examples will, however, amply 
repay the learner.] 

The particles which make the verb subjunctive are as 
follows ; 



-^ 9 o S o7 f P 



^\ any " that,*' as l^:^^1 J\ jjJ\ " I wish to write," (lit 
" I wish that I should write*" 



OF PARTICLES. 37 



jjl laUj "not." — Ex. cj^ ^ "He will not strike." 
(Some say that ^ is a contraction of ^)1 V, and the above 
expression is equivalent to c-j^ ^^ ^J^^ V " It shall not 
be that he should strike.") 

^;31 ithariy " therefore/' " then." — Ex. a •. U ji.jj ^il 

" Thou mai/- 
est then enter 
the garden." 
J'ky " that."— Ex, jX^I ^^^ kzJ:>, « I am come that I 

might receive instruction." 
jj*. %atta, "that," " so that." — Ex. aa^ ^ ^^^ " I 

beat him that he 
might return.'* 
J " that," " for that."— Ex. ^J!^ dbJl " I came to 

thee, that thou mightest 
honour me." 
jl az*, " until."— Ex. jJ«f jl di^lil V " I will not leave 

thee till thou shouldstgive me "he. 

The verb is also made subjunctive when it is employed 
in connection with the seven following forms : 

1. j^\ , the imperative, — Ex. eL^U Jl, ; " Visit me that 

I may honour thee." 

2. ^^\ , the negative imperative. — Ex. ^>i\*::9 c^JLll u^jJ V 

" Disobey not 
the law, lest thou 
he punished" 



38 OF PARTICLES. 



3. jjjl , the negative. — Ex. xJjl^ l^'JQ\ J$S V " Let not 

the liar speak^ lest he 
be belied." 

oo ''y o P 9 o^ 

4 A^s):lm)1\ , the interrogation. — Ex. fj^^ JiJ ^u J» 

" Shall Zeid come, 
that he 'may he 
honoured?" 



^•^ • jS^x ^ • x^ 



5. ^^Jl , desiring. — Ex. jXaJls VL J dJ '^ O that I had 

wealth, that I might bestow 
it in alms !" 

G. ^j^\ 9 hoping.— Ex. ^ J^*:* *^y^ ^ "Perhaps 

I shall repent, that my Lord 
may forgive m£" 

7. ^j^l, offering.— -Ex. 1^ il^^ Ijji: J^ Vi "Wilt 

thou not come down to us, 
that thou may est find good ?" 

Some particles apocopate one verb, while others apoco- 
pate two verbs in connection with each other. Of the 
first kind we have the following : 

y o y o -^ ox 



J , as u-*:^^) J He has not written. 

U . . ^*-V ^ ^® "^® ^^^ y®t returned. 

Ow X XX 

^Vl ^V . . A^=^ ^^^ ^^™ speak. 

o ox 

^_c-^l V . . L-j^ V Let him not strike. 



OF PARTICLES. 39 

The following is a list of the second kind. 

^^1 . . c-^jl^sdI c,*:^> ^^\ If thou wilt write, T will 

write, 
u . . Lyo^^l e^jg^=p^ U Whatever thou ridest, I 

will ride. 

c/* ' • u^ c^*Ji c/* Whosoever believeth shall 

be saved. 
U4« . . J«j| J«« U44 Whatever thou wilt do, I 

will do. 
v^i . . Sir*^ Si;^ ^ Whomsoever tliou shalt 

beat, I will beat. 
Uw . . 1^ uJ^LJ Aa.ja Uii^ Whithersoever thou shalt 

turn, thou wilt get good, 
^j* . . ju*^ ju-i^ jj^ When thou shalt act up- 

rightly thou shalt be 
praised. 
Wil . . ^j^ ^jJbss 1^1 In whatever place thou 

shalt sit, I will sit. 

5'' O ^O^ O ^O'' Si 

(ji . . Jjbl Jji) ^\ Wherever thou shalt act, 

I will act. 



ovt ^ y^y o*ii X X x^ ^9 ^ 



A>^1 ^j-iJ Uij> Wheresoever thou wilt 

turn, I will turn. 



40 



CHAPTER IX. 

OF PREPOSITIONS. 
The prepositions in Arabic require the genitive ea 

•»''ii 9 99 

them. They are called^' *— tt^ > vcirticles ofattn 
and the word which follows them is said to be j^j 

9y o 

is marked with a casra, e.g. J>.. ^ "from a 
J^\ ^ "from the man." The following is a list 
prepositions : 

L-> by, in, with. 

izi by (only in conjuring), as 4lllJ *' by 

J by (only in conjuring), as 4illj " by 

J to, for (sign of the dative). 

d like, as. 

These five particles are prefixed to the word 
govern. 

The pronominal suffixes s and ^ become s s 

O X 

after t^ , as a* , ^ . Before them, J becomes J , as 
himy dJ to yoUy U ^o us. The suffix of the 1st pen 
absorbs the vowel of the proposition, as J f o me. 



OF PREPOSITIONS. 



41 



c;* 


971172, 


from. 


J 


i/a, 


to. 


d^ 


^w. 


of, from. 


^ 


j:flk, 


upon. 


• 


/, 


in. 




ro&Ja, 


it may be. 


!• 


mo<A, 


since. * 


x^ 


7W071/4, 


since. 


U.U 


'Aii^Aa, 


except. 


\sc 


Qxzday 


except. 


5U 


'chalay 


except. 


c^ 


'hattUj 


even to. 


If^^or^^ 


o ^ ^ 

is prefixed to ^^ or U, the ^ is assimilated 


to the j» in pronunciation, 


and the two are usually written 


\ 


O u* S <^ 


o -^ o ^ o •^ 


as one letter; 


as, ^^^^ Uc 


, &c., for ^^^J^y U^^, &c. 


The following words, many of which have the force of 


prepositions, also require 


the genitive case after them. 


y 


coUj 


every, all. 


e 
^ 


wiac, 


with. 


jami^ 


all, altogether. 


j«. 


hac.df 


after. 


j^ 


'kahl, 


before. 


j> 


fou% 


above, over. 


«• 


ta'hty 


under. 


jIs 


'kodddm, 


before. 



42 



OP PREPOSITIONS. 



lj 


waray 


behind. 


^ 


viiihlj 


like. 


• 


shihhy 


like. 


J^ 


nathir, 


like. 


• 


na hoWy 


about, like. 


SiA 


pind. 


at, with. 


iSj-^ 


siwa, 


except, besides. 


J^ 


ghire, 


except, besides. 


Tj* 


^hithdj 


by, by side of. 


2lU 

• 


'hohdlah, 


opposite. 


Ij' 


izdy 


near, by. 


• 


tujdhy 


opposite. 


15L- 


tiVkdj 


opposite. 


• 


thoo, 


having, possessing. 


C5^ 


lada, 


at. 


c)jJ 


ladon, 


at. 


AMf 


wasatf 


in the middle of. 



( 43 ) 



CHAPTER X. 

OF CONJUNCTIONS. 
The following are the conjunctions in most common use: 

J " and." — Ex. ji^j jjj U "Zeid and Amr came.' 

uJ "and." — Ex. jS^U c-J^i o]^ "I have read etymo- 
logy and syntax. The particle J is 
irrespective of order: v-J, on the con- 
trary, distinguishes it. I have read 
etymology ^r^f, and then syntax. 
^ thumma, " then."— Ex. ^Lllt ]1^ JUjjf oU " The 

men came^ then the wo- 
men. 
^ 'Aa«a, " even."— Ex. l^\, ^ S^IIjI vll^l " I 

have eaten the fish^ even 
its head." 
jl aw, "or." — Ex.ji^'jl c-JjaJ1 ,j»Ji "Be dressed in 

wool or silk." 

o^ i yt 

J am, "or." — Ex.j^ J ^l5 jjjI "Did Zeid stand up 

or Amr ?" 

Vj tt'a/a, " and not," " nor."— Ex. gi^l Vj ^j JU U 

" A man did not 
come to me, nor 
a woman." 



44 



OF CONJUNCTIONS. 



J), bal " but."— Ex. 51^1 j| J*i (JW ^ " ^ ™an did not 



» 



come to me, but a woman. 
J^ldkin, "but."— Ex. gy ^^:^=J iU^ ^\j U "I did 

not see a man, but a woman." 



The following words and particles, many of which are 
nouns in the accusative case, though used adverbially, 
will be of considerable use to the learner : 



Gil 

^ o* 

liUl 

dU3\ 
Ul 

Ul or ^J'^\ 
Ll 

Jvi 

Si 

U Si 



ibiidd-an, 

abadan, 

a%ydnan, 

achiraUy 

dchira 7 awir, 

ith, 

ith thdk, 

ithdf 

ith ma, 

ithan, 

asfalf 

aslan, 

i'd'tirdran, 

al'dn, 

Hid, 

Hid an, 



In the first place. 

never, for ever. 

sometimes. 

lastly. 

at length. 

when. 

then, at this time. 

if, when, behold. 

when. 

then. 

below. 

never, not at all. 

by force. 

now. 

but, except. 

unless. 



OF PARTICtSS. 



45 



J' 

Mil 



^^ 



d^ 



^U1 

■ 
« 

JuJU 

if. 



al youm, 

ila 'hithe, 

ila ghire thdlik, 

ila al'dn, 

ila huna, 

immdy 

ammdy 

amdm, 

inna, 

innamdj 

aicwalan, 

awalayn, 

ahlan, 

eye, 

iydk, 

eyedan, 

eyen, aine, 

hatilariy 

hilha'k'ky 

albattah, 

badalan min, 

harray 

haoda-kdtha, 

hac,da e/had, 

bap.idf 

bokrah, 



to-day. 

whither. 

et caetera. 

hitherto. 

hither. 

either. 

but, as to. 

before. 

certainly. 

but, only. 

at first. 

is it not ? 

welcome. 

that is, viz. 

take you care, 

also. 

where ? 

in vain. 

justly. 

not at all. 

instead of. 

without. 

after this. 

after to-morrow. 

far off. 

earlv. 



4t) 


OF PARTICLKfl. 




[JH *^ 


3me, Mnamdy 


between. 


if 

A 


thomma, 


and,thenytheref< 




tharnma, 


there, in that pla 


1^ 


jabran, 


by force. 


<I^ 


jiddan, 


very, in earnest 




jomlahyji ^Ijomlak, 


i totally, upon 1 
I whole. 


•• 


jami^an, 
^hdska, 


altogether. 
except,God forb 


K 


'hAlan, 


presently. 


Tj* 


'hithd, 


over against. 


• 


kasby 


according to. 


iL 


'hakkaUy 


certainly. 


J^ 


'houle, 


around. 


.A ,«^ 


^haithe, 


where. 


\ '• -W 


'haithoma, 


wherever. 


•• 


'hina-ithin, 


then. 


U>or^^lili 


chdrijanjfi 'Ichdrtj 


, without. 


j^V^ H' \^4irfl^ 


ehassahf chohosan, 


r especially, peci] 
I liarly. 


5U*iUL 


chala, ma chala, 


besides, except. 


(.JU 


chalfy 


behind. 


Ui^ 


dd-imany 


at all times. 



OF PARTICLES. 



47 






doon. under, besides. 

min dooUj without. 

sdbtkan, formerly. 

sabikan wa-lahtkan, before and after. 
sariexin, quickly. 

samcan wa-'tdcah^ obediently. 



sharpxinf 



legally. 



^.^^ ■m'K^'mx {"^If^r^ 

'touraUy 



Ijie * lj«U 



u 



c.djilan, 

pada, ma c.ada, 
c.ala 'l(/h6sooSf 
c,ala 'ddawdm, 
c,ala ^ If our, 
c.ala colli 'hot, 
exila eyei 'hdl, 
e,an 'kasdy 
c,an 'karihy 
ghdliban, 
ghibh, 

gkihban, 
ghadttf 



{ 



E 
once. 

hastily. 

except. 

particularly. 

alway8,continually 

quickly. 

on every state, in 

every manner, 
intentionally, 
in a short time, 
generally, 
after, 
seldom, 
to-morrow. 



48 



OP PARTICLES. 






ghire an^ 

min ghire, 

highire, 

ghire hacXdy 

fardan, 

fakaty 

fou'k aVhadd, 

fouh aVkiydSy 

ji athnd ihdlik, 

Ji gho'doon thdlik, 

Ji ^I'hdl, 

Ji 'I'hakikah, 

Ji 'Irvdkic., 

Ji colli macdriy 
fimUy 

kabl, min 'hahl, 
Jimd hapd, 

'kabl aldn, 

'kady 

'kodddrrty 

'kariby 

'katty 



} 



} 



kafcan^ 



except that. 

without. 

not far. 
singly, 
only. 

above limit* 
above measure. 

in the mean tim 

immediately. 

truly, in fact. 

in fact, really. 

in every place. 

in what ? why 

before. 

henceforward. 

before now. 

certainly. 

before. 

near. 

never. 

never, in no sha 



r 

or 



OP PARTICLES. 

'kalilan, 
kaannUf 
kathiran md, 
kathdy . 
kathdliky 
kalldf 



49 



little, 
as if. 
oilen. 
so, thiis. 
likewise. 

not at all. 



koll ahadjkoll wd'hidf every one. 

as oflen as, when- 
ever. 

every day. 

how many, how 
much. 

as. 

in order to. 



kollamd, 
koll youm, 
kaw, 



kamd, 

kaye, likaye, 
kife, 

kayefamdj 
kayemd, 
la hoddy 



J^V ♦ ^\ ^^ li-ajl, min ajl, 






Id shy, 

Id mahdiahy 

IdkiUy 



{ 
{ 



how. 
any how. 
that, 
necessarily. 

{on which account, 
for. 
nothing, 
undoubtedly, 
but. 

E 



dO 



} 


OF PARTICLES. 




2x 

U 


lamma, 


not yet, when. 


liU 


li'indthd, 


why. 


J 


lOtLCy 


if. 


V*(i^ 


hue lay loite lam, 


unless. 


— 


lite, 


would to God. 


LTT 


lise, 


no, not. 


vyy^ 


ma bine, 


between. 


^bU 


ma ddm, 


as long as. 


v^ 


mata, 


when, whenevei 


o 


mithl, 


like, as. 


fk'i\ C5A. 


madaH ayyAm, 


at all times. 


Lay* 


mar haba,7nar haban, welcome ! 


Ml 

•• 


marrah, 


once. 


l^ 


macan, 


together,along\i 


CJ^i ^^ 


min aldn. 


from this time. 


Ij^LaS (jVl ^ 


min aldn fasAcxdan 


'", henceforth. 


c;»J cr* 


min eyne, 


whence. 


^ a^ 


min bac,(l. 


after. 


o^^^ 


min taht. 


from below. 


ii^c;- 


min 'hithe. 


since. 




min doon, 
min ghire, 


\ without. 


i5>c;* 


minfou'h. 


from above. 





OP PARTICLES. 




\jjt ^^ 


mm Ao7t(i, 


hence. 


e)U* ^^ 


min hondk, 


thence. 


U- 


mdhmdy 


as often as. 


• 


nahou, 


near about, as. 


(^ 


napam, 


yes. 


diJ 


wiUj 


fie. 


U 


hd, 


behold. 


> 


haly 


"whether ? 


u* 


hand, 


here. 


(»)La « (sUbb 


hondk, kondlik, 


there. 


IS^ 


kowa-thdy 


behold. 


ci*i 


yacni, 


that is to sav. 

• 



51 



CHAPTER XI. 

GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

[E verbs in which one of the three letters, viz. .j 1 
;urs, present the greatest difficulties to the Arabic 
dent, as they are sometimes changed one for the other, 
dropped altogether. A little practice and observation 
II, however, put the learner in possession of these 
egularities better than any rules with which to burden 
I memory. 



52 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The most difficult point connected with nouns is the 
imperfect plural, which is not formed by the addition of 
^JJ or ol. It is so extremely irregular and various that 
no rules can greatly assist the memory ; but those forms 
which most generally occur will soon become familiar, 
and a dictionary will afford every necessary assistance 
with regard to the more uncommon. 

The principal forms, however, are comprehended in 
the following table : 

SINO. PLURAL. 

hjs, a parlour uJ;P 

99 

Jsa^ a wall , jj*. 

'°\ red °' 






u^ a bladder \^J 

'^ It 

J>. a man JW^ 

c^ 9 9 

Li^uj a house o««-> 

Si9 

uj;U Striking t.^ 

J*\r perfect iU> 

9 

Jj throwing »u^ 

^ an ape l^ 

^J^ a branch ^jLaftl 

J«». a mountain JL».l 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 53 



SING. T1A3BJLL. 



• 



JU. a seal J\^ 

9 o 

-•5U a boy ^jUic 

^ ««"■• ^ 



^^ wounded ^fj^ 

Further, it is not at all an uncommon circumstance for 
the same word to have various forms of the plural ; 
^' 9' ^ ^^ ^e forms JU., JU.1, ^\. 



[Note: The last form (J-».l) is called a plural of 

So 'o ^ 

paucity (aIaII &«».) and is restricted in its application to 
three to ten (incl,).] 

With regard to the quadriliteral nouns, all the simple 
ones, and many of those which are augmented, together 
with their feminines, form their plurals by inserting I after 
the second letter, the first having (-), and the third (;), 

as u->f^ljS, from \^^y "a star;" ^^j^, from ^^ "a 

dirham ;" »x>U«, from j^jto " a worshipping place," &c. 

The modem Arabs use no particle for an interrogation, 
but denote it by the tone of voice. They sometimes, 
however, employ ^ (which is a corruption of ^ shy, " a 
thing ") both in interrogative and negative sentences. 
Thus, they say, «jdc *^i ^J> cua.^ rolitish al-youm cindoh^ 
** Did you go to hira to-day ?" Also, %xs> *jJ\ ^ oo^ U 



54 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

ma ro'htish aUyoum c.indoh, " I did not go to him to- 
day." In the latter case, the yi of the Arabs is used as 
* pas ' with the French. 

It has been remarked (p. 11) that the use of the dimi- 
nutive form is of rare occurrence. The contrary, how- 
everj is the case in Egypt, where it is frequently employed 
unnecessarily; as^^JL^, for^^-i^ "small;" t-^ for t-^ 
" near." 

The Arabic language abounds with synonymes; and, 
of a number of words which are synonymous, one is in 
common use in one country, and another elsewhere. 
Thus the Egyptian calls milk ^^; the Syrian calls it 
^^Jk. The word ^J^ is used in Syria to denote a par- 
ticular preparation of sour milk. Again, bread is called 
in Egypt ,ji-c, and in other Arab countries j-i., and 
so on. 

It may also be mentioned that the same word is some-^ 
times differently pronounced in different parts. But, in 
spite of these irregularities, far less variation is found in 
the vulgar Arabic than in the English spoken in the 
different counties of England. 



BOOK II. 



SYNTAX. 



CHAPTER I. 

OF THE NOMINATIVE CASE OF THE NOUN. 

The nominative case is principally employed to 'express 
the following : 

1. Iju^Ji the subject. 

2. j^ the predicate. 

Ex. t-ob Jjj " 74eid (is) writing ;" where jjJ is the 
subject^ and i^'^the predicate. 

3. JcUll the agent, as Si\ u^ " -^ei(i beat" 

4. Jclflll v_^li the substitute of the agent — the subject 
of a passive verb. — Ex. jjj u^ '^ Zei^ was beaten." 

5. (^iUjI the vocative^ as jjj " O, ZeidJ' 



( 56 ) 
CHAPTER II. 

OF THE GENITIVE CASE. 

When two nouns follow each other, the second being m 
the genitive case, the latter is made j,jj^ by a casra, as 
JftJl t-jla " the book of the man ;" or by ( ^ ) if the noun 
is indefinite (p. 9), as Ja^ l-jIij *' the book of a man." 

Note — The noun preceding a genitive case never ad- 
mits the tanween; thus, in these instances, we have 
liTnot cjli5\ 



9 ^ 



The use of the genitive in Arabic is very deficient ; for 
if an a'djective be placed after it, it may be referred either 
to it, or to the preceding substantive. Thus, in the ex- 
pression xiaxli J>.^1 c->l:5^ the word xJaJl may be taken as 
a qualification either to u->u or to Ja-^l. The modem 
Arabs, in their vulgar conversation, seeing the defect of 
this construction, remove the ambiguity by inserting the 
word cls) or els* " property." Thus, J>^\ cb ^sJbJI kJ^^ 
" the excellent book, the property of the man ;" 4«>\:3oi 
xskxll Jft^l cb " the book, the property of the excellent 



man." 



Note — The ambiguity above spoken of, arises from the 
omission of the last vowels in the pronunciation, as is 
usually done. Otherwise the expressions xslaxll \^}\ c->b5 
and ^jWaJl J*^\ t-jlif are sufficiently explicit. 



( 67 ) 
CHAPTER III. 

OF THE ACCUSATIVE CASE. 
The following instances will exemplify the uses of the 
accusative case : 

^ of fo^ ^ o^ 9 o^ ^ 

1. jLkJl Jtx^i^ the absolute accusative^ as l^ vza^^ 

* o ^ 

" I beat heating ;" where \)j^ is the accusative of the 
verbal noun^ and gives force to the expression. 

2. A) Jj3«iJl, the object of the action^ as \jjj cu)^ " I 
beat Zeid:' 

3. jui J^K^ly the time or place in which any thing is done. 

# X / o 

Ex. Uji O;-* *' I travelled otic day." 

9^ 9o^ 

4. aJ Jj«ftjl,the object for which the action is performed. 

Ex. aJ L)^Ij \ Jij c>^ " I have beaten Zeid for /n- 

struction to him." 

5. Ax« Jj3«iJl, the person or thing in whose company 
the action was performed. 

Ex. 5ulsJ|j iUI ,j?^i "The water was equal with 

the wood. 
In such cases J , and, has the signification of it* zri^A. 

The accusative case is also used to express the fol- 
lowing : 

^9 ^ o ^ ^o 9 -^ ^ 

1. (^^UJ\, the vocative^ as j^ ^J), jjj b O, Zeid, son 
of Amr." 



58 OF THE ACCUSATIVE CASE. 



Ex. \jjj VI j^\ Js " The people rose except ZeidJ 

3. Jlil the state or condition. 

Ex. L^oAj ji^ »U *^ Zeid came riding J^ 

4. jt:^\ the accusative of specification. 

Ex. Uii j^ t-^lL " Zeid's sowZ was cheerful," (lU. 

Zeid was cheerful as to the soul). 

5. AjlifeOi the accusative of metonomy. 

Ex. I j^ (J r " JJbec T/mwy servants had I ?" 
Uap IjS (tfjdc " I have ^wcA awe;? such dirhems,*' 

6. jjjtll number. 

Ex. 5U^^^ j>.\ ojI^ " I saw eleven men,^' 
l.jS^^ caution. 
Ex. ju-VI e)l>l '^ Take care of the lion. 

There are several verbs signifying " to be," " to con- 
tinue," &c., which require the accusative case after them, 
as the following : 

jCf as 0\5 Sij J^ Zeid was standing. 

^^\ . . L^s»L Sij ^ Zeid was crymg. 

*^1 . . ^U Jjj ^i Zeid was laughing, 

jtf^^ . . USU jjj c/^^ ^^^^ '^^^ hungry. 



OF THE ACCUSATIVE CASE. 59 

JJ9 as Lu jj^ Jk Zeid was fatigued. 

z^^ . . U^li Ji^ olf Zeid was repenting. 









^jmJ . . ^U. jjj (JnJ Zeid is not ignorant 

.U . . Ulfr Jj» ; jU Zeid was knowing. 

# ff ^ ^ 
J]^ U . . j^L» jjj Jh U Zeid was watching. 

5^ . - ^ ff -* 5^ r Zeid continued to be 

preaching. 

^ U . . tJjli jjj '^ U Zeid continued reading. 

-.^ U . . LlL ^j ^j>^ Zeid continued walking. 

,*» o;*/© o ^ ofi^r Learn as long as learning 
» X r ^ r r J IS possible. 

There are several particles which have the same effect, 
as in the following : 

^)1, as Jl5 \sij ^jl Zeid is standing. 

jj\> . . Jm^I Ijjj ^jb Zeid is as a lion. 

*^i ^11 1* ^ V-T 'i^.^i f The people got up, but 
^ w"^ >^ »^^ w^ p ^ 2eid IS sitting. 

^U. 1 jjj cuJ O, that Zeid were present. 

JjJ j*i5 Ijji} JjJ Perhaps Zeid is coming. 



o^ G ^ ^ ^ o^ 



( 60^ ) 
CHAPTER IV. 

OF THE VERB. 
When the subject precedes the verb, the latter agrees 
with it in gender and number ; but when this order is 
reversed there are various exceptions, of which it will be 
sufficient to note the following cases. 

1. If the subject be a perfect pluml, or a broken 
plural denoting persons of the male sex, the preceding 
verb is usually put in the sing, masc, particularly when 
one or two words are interposed between it and the 
subject; as jj^i*jjl J6 the believers said; JU; ^ji oU ^U. 

X S X o ' 

ifeu ^ there came one day (some) men from Mecca; 

^l4iJl ^^1 US ^^y\ shall we believe as fools have believed? 

2. If the subject be a broken plural, no matter whether 
derived from a masc. or a fem. sing., the preceding verb 
may be either masc. or fem. ; as Jju ^ r^==^ ^^"^^ ^ 

dJ j then, after this, your hearts became hard (from c-J^i 
masc.) 

3. If the subject be a feminine noun in the plural 
number, whether a whole or a broken plural, the pre- 
ceding verb may be put either in the masc. or fem. sing. 
Ex. yu^ U oL*i ^Uli the evil consequences of what they 

did, came upon them ; ijijji ^ ly^ Jl5 (jsome) women in 

S 9yo i. "^ y ^^ 

the city said; ^^y^ ^JUj j^^=v ^^^ ^^ daughters lor 
mented their misery. 



EXERCISES. 61 



St^f^ ^^ -^ o ?;• ft^ 



41)1 4i^ i^d^ ^J»\J 

The beginning of wisdom [is] the fear of God. 

^jjj the beginning of, subst. masc. without tanween or 
article^ because it is followed by a genitive case, 
(p. 56). 

I^^ajl wisdonfy subst. fern, with article, and therefore 
without tanween (p. 6). The mark over \ is wasia 
(p. 6), denoting that it has no vowel, the vowel of 
the preceding letter being carried on to the J ; thus 
ras^oL This is always the case with the article. 

2fU^ the fear of subst. fem. See remarks on ^1^ 

41)1 Qod. The last letter has, grammatically, a casra, 
being the genitive case of Allah. 



o9 o^ ox o o' ©>* o 



He who does not act well to himself, does not act well 

to another. 
^j^ he who, rel. pron. (p. 14). 

J not, neg. adv. apocopating the following verb (p. 38). 

'o o9 

^.w^uss acts well, does good, 3d pers. sing. m. of the 4th conj. 
of ^j„A (p. 23), The particle J never admits of the 
pret. after it, but always requires the future. 



62 EXERCISES. 

am^ to himself. The prep. J governing ^jjn self, (p 16), 

in the dative (p. 9) ; t the pron. suffix 3d pers. sing, 
m. with casra in place of 'damma (p. 16). 

HjJd to another, j^ a noun denoting another than ; tjJi , 
<o another than himself. 






^Lj\ subst. masc, a man, 

OjJl5 and death J j conj. jl def. art. o^ subst masc. 
The article prefixed to it displaces the tanween (p. 6). 

ijl^ once on a time, subst. fem. accus. of time (p. 57). 

J^ was carrying, 3d pers. masc. sing. pret. 

ij jh. a faggot, subst. fem. without tanween, because pre- 
ceding a genitive. 

K_Jn^ of wood, subst. masc. gen. case. 

^ y9 

eiJ^* • and so it was heavy, uJ denotes more than j ; and 



EXERCISES. 63 



o ^9^ 



SO — i,e, in consequence of his carrying it. vsJ^j 
3d pers. fern, pret sing. ; note the vowel of the 
second radical. (Obs. p. 23.) 

iJe. upon him, the prep. ^ with pron. suffix 3d pers« 
sing. m. 

VJLf and so when. 



'f^ 

^ 



\jb\ he was opjrressedj 3d pers. sing, pret m. 4th conj. 

Mix 

of j:. 

j^j and was weary. Note the vowel of the second 
radical. (Obs. p. 23.) 

e 

^J^from. 

l^U^ carrying it, jl». a verbal noun from the verb JX ; 
the last radical has casra^ to denote the genitive after 

O y 

the prep. ^J^; U pron. suffix fem. sing, agreeing 
with »j/j- 

(^ lO ^^ ^^^ *^' ^^ P^^' ®^"& masc. construed with the 
prep. c-». It might also be used with an accus. 
absolutely. 

l^from. 

xkv^ his shoulder, subst. fem. (p. 7) sing, with pron. 
suffix in the gen. case, governed by prep. ^^. 

IftSJ and called, conj. j with verb in 3d pers. sing. pret. 
masc. 



64 EXERCISES. 

^ ufon. 

9 9 , ox 

A^j . himself, -j^ self; same meaning as ,j^ (p. 16), 
t pron. suffix ; they are in the gen., being governed 
by the prep. Jc. 

OeJb ^ea^A, u^ prep, governing o^ in the gen. — The 
verb Ici might also be used without the prep. ; thus 

jj^ai*^ 50 }ie 'presented, himself uJ 50 — in consequence of 
the call — with verb in the pret. sing. masc. 3d pers. 

aJ to him (p. 16). 

5)1515 saying^ part. act. of J\5 he said (p. 30). The final I 
is not sounded (p. 5). The word is in the accus., 
denoting the state or condition (Jl>), p. 58. 

V^y^ behold 

li U why 

^j^i have you called me ? 2nd pers. sing. pret. m. of 
verb Ifrl with pron. suffix of Ist pers. According to 
the above remark it might have been ^ o^^. 

X 

^^ so he said, conj. «^ with verb, 3d pers. pret. sing. m. 

X ? XX XX 

dJ^^ / called you, Ist pers. pret sing, of Ic^ with pron. 
suffix, 2nd pers. sing. masc. 



OF THE VERB. 65 



o'-'O^ 



fSj^ that you might lift, J that — a particle making the 
verb subjunctive (p. 37) with verb «j^ he raised, 

sjjb this, demons, pron. fem. sing. (p. 14). 






Ijj^ faggoty before a gen. and therefore without tanween 
or article. 

Cy^hU of wood 

^ upon, prep, governing the gen. 

my shoulder. 



9 fix ^ o 9 o X <* fi 



was he that Moptasun the to happened what strange from and 

him it reached so his hand in cup the and his friends sitting, in sitting 

of place 

9 9 o o o o ^0O ^ * • o y f ^ O0O fi-' 

of barba- of a barbarian with bondage the in noble a woman that 
riansthe 

toy O^"'" ^ >^ X 9 fix X fi ^ X ^ 

a day her face upon her struck he that and Amoria in Room the 

^ JS U. Ji « — 11 L4J JLiJ »\ > ^ ; ir ,» \j dA-a^Lo-s 

he will come not barbarian the her to said and Moptasim O she cried so 



* All the European nations, with the inhabitants of Asia Minor, 
are often called Komans by the Arabian writers. 



66 OF THE VERB. 

^ r ^ r ^-^ • vp • • - X 

cup the Hoptasim sealed so a piebald horse upon bat yoa to 

delivery after but it I wiU drink not said and cup-bearer to the it gave and 

he was in the when and barbarian the kill- and bondage the firom noble the of 
morning ing 

go out not that his troops ordered and Amoria to marching the for called 

COO" 9 '^ '^ ". ^ o" ^^ ^ 9 o ^ ^ 

.1000 70 in they went out so a piebald horse upon but them of one 

AJ^j.,^ .78) A-jjJLc ti'-^-J A^l ^— ^^ » \ > \ 4 (3-H^ 

Amoria conquest of by him upon be high God gave help when and 

J-xJl vJLL J ^LwJ (£L--J J^-Li ^^^ L^- 1 > ^ 

sought and here I am says he and her he entered 

(it) 



bonds loosed and his neck struck and noble the ofimprisoner 

uIj '.\ LJ ^^1$' JyVT ^^^ oift jl_Ljl_j ju j 

her with came he so my cup now me to bring cup-bearer to the said and 

(it) him to 

9 Si ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ xo^wi^'x' 

drink the it is good now said and drank and her seal broke and 

(its) 



OF THE VERB. 67 



ANECDOTE OF MOcTASIM. 



And this was one of the strange adventures which hap- 
pened to Mo ctasim ; that he was sitting in an assembly of 
his friends^ with a cup in his hand ; and it was reported 
to him that a noble lady was in bondage with a barbarian 
of the barbarians of Rome, in Ammoria, and that he had 
struck her on the face one day, and she cried, " Help, O 
Moctasim !" And the barbarian said to her, " He will 
not come to you unless on a piebald horse." And Mocta- 
sim sealed up the cup, and gave it to the cup-bearer, and 
said, " By heaven, I will not drink of it till after the 
delivery of the lady from bondage, and the death of the 
barbarian." And when it was morning, he gave orders 
for marching against Ammoria, and commanded his 
troops that not one man of them should go forth except 
on a piebald horse : and they set out upon seventy 
thousand piebald horses. And when he conquered, by 
the taking of Ammoria, he entered it, and he said, 
'* Here I am, here I am ;" and he sought the barbarian, 
the imprisoner of the lady, and struck off his head ; and 
he loosed the bonds of the lady, and said to the cup- 
bearer, "Bring me now my cup ;" and he approached 
him with it, and he broke the seal of it, and drank, and 
said, " Now delicious is the wine." 



68 EXERCISES. 

: 1000 the stones of from 100 the after 60 the and 2nclthe night the 

a night and night 

her sister to Dinazad said following the night the was when and 

y », y ■y y o ^ o J^ o 9 

us for finish then asleep not you were if sister O Shahrzad 

dJLJi L^il .fr.jQ— ) A— U^j I ...» UJ oJLs iiUixJ' 

king the O me reached It honour and love her to she said story the 

a — }Li ^j<< ft\ <' ^ >i L^^i J Jli ^^J » 11 ^1 J J T .III il 

he indeed 5th the my brother as to and said barber the that happy the 

men the begs of poor a man was and ears the cut off was 

9 y ^ 9 99 9 9 o y f oy 

our father was and by day it takes he what by subsists and by night 

' • L^ 




left and died and fell ill so age the in going far great old 
one every took and us between it we divided so dirhem 700 us to 

2 ^ y' 9 v!^ ^ It y \dy y y y 



dirhems the took he indeed 5th the my brother as to and dirhem 100 

2 yyy y9 ^ o ^ y o y o y y y Oi* 

j^s^,^ \ » • ■ J ) j L-4-J JjtAj I — • ^j«j» ^^ J jLl^I J 

thinks he whilst and with it does he what knows not and was and 
it amazed 

^9 y o y ^ y ^ S yo 

glass it with he \Till buy that his mind in fell when money the that in 



EXERCISES. 69 

it put and glass the he purchased so. ft by gain and it sell and sort every of 

his side to and it of .sells he a place in sat and large basket in 

him self in said and thinks he sat and it upon his back leant and a wall 

400 for it I sell glass this my money (of) head that soul O know 

me with reach that till sell and buy I cease not 1 that then dirhem 

place to them carry and goods it with ;buy I and 1000 4 

^o^ 6-* 9 ^ a 9 .^o -.^ • ^ o '^ y 

I buy until desist not then 1000 8 for them sell and such 



©>* XM O ^ O y O 9 

^ Vi y 31 ujLl-*»l J ^\jsf ' j^ ^^ L^--J (^^i i«cl 



■n ■> 



I>erAmie (of) kinds and jewels all of her in other merchandise 



a house 1 will buy that at and much gain them by gain and them sell and 



drink and eat and horses and servants and attendants and fine 

S ^ y Mt ^ 9 y ^ ^ ^ 9 id y 9 ^ o-^ 

but ' city in female-singer — male-singer leave not and make and 
be high Crod will if my money (of) head make and me to them I brought 

9 tf if , 9 9 oy ^ 9i, 9 y y 

basket and his mind in it reckons was be it all this 1000 100 

(of) he 



70 EXERCISES. 

JL-S J ^l^ i i\ ^ ^°^ aJU}; a-j.!^ oi ', 5^P' 

said and reckoned he indeed then 100 by his hands between glass the 

Ca-x-jI dJi J> ;,. y ^ ^i u^i iJU je-J\ • jl— * iSi J 

I send that at then ' 1000 100 my money has when and 

Deoome 

f ^9 9f ^ 9 o^ ^ 9\\ ss 

\jj)\j edjXJl oL_i_, ■■■. \, r,\j i.. U J' J oVVi__H 

the and kings the daughters demand in and weddings in female-broken 
vizirs (of) marriage 

A \ 4>o V H \] A~I 1— ) ^^ ^^ •. y ,.1. .1 jis wi^jj W-^k-iM 4 • 

(of) perfect she that ids daughter of it me reached as our yizir espedally 

o^ , 9 o9^ o*'. o \ ^ o 9\K 9 o ^ o^ 

»_iJl S-^l, ujl;-WVl JljJ-J- ,;^^ i^t-jA-T «-i>— jVI 
1000 her offer and parts the beautiful Cof)beauty (of;wonderfUl descriptions 




nose putting in upon her I took if and was they consent if and dinar 
(of) the dust not 

young servants^ 10 I will buy my 6ouse in she has got when and her &ther 

jewel with the set gold of saddle and kings robes tiien 

the (of) 

cH= J 15-'-^ J 15^-^ "^y^^ ^r-^J" H C>^^-^' 
on and me before and me behUid attendants I make ride then yaloable 

and caused me for stood me he saw when and my left and my rl^ht 
me to sit 

X , 9^ '9 o m-^ o9 ^9 ^ ^ ^ 9^ X 

j^Jt-^ J i.}^ »; ft ^ ^^ n j^J^ J* X*i ^ AJl^flU 

me with I take and his son-in-law I because me below he sat and his place 

Oxo °i°'^i ** 0x0 9 ^ ^ 9 Ox 

portion for 2000 them in two purses them load and two serrants 



EXERCISES. 71 

^S'^j^ j • ■ "7 * b * ^ * 1 ^y^-* ^^-^» ^'-^-^ ^' c5«^— *'j 



mysonlCof) greatness they know so that other 1000 1 give and 

my house to I retire then my eye in world (oO smallnessand 
clothed and him to I gave my wife (oOside from one came when and 
I indeed then him upon it I gave back a present with came if and him upon 



I commanded that they did when and state my arranging them command 
them with 

retirement (oO time came when and my house to arrange and to go in 

procession 
with her 

. silk cushion of upon sat — my clothes the best I put on v^th my wife 

(of) 

<j^!;>u ;5-'-^r jj-V-l vu V J u-w. v=^i V ii^«- 

my gravity my prudence (of) excess for left nor right turn — reclining 

•^ ^9^ at '^o^o/» 6 o<« ' 9 y 

— I robes ornaments in moon the like standing ' — - wife be will and 

^ - ^ -^ c^* C^ J>^- (i-* ^ ! > ■ ■ T^ H^i^H^' 

was present who ail say so that pride for pride her to look 

S y o^ ^ ^ ^ y ^ ^ o Ox y ^ ^ t 



she for her upon bend in thy maid - thy wife — lord — our master oh ! 

pity 

hurt for a look — — upon favour thy 2 hands between standing 

•Jo-* o ** 9 o^y yo^ y o -* 

one a look; \ look— —head I raise that at standing 



72 EXERCISES. 

then — clothes change and I I rise so her room to — they go and 

Pa-Jl V iJlill ijcL^U iJlili iiJl oU UU L^ ■■; ; ^^,-^1 ,j«Jl\ 
I look not robe second time came — they than better put on 

I look so times several me ask— my 2 hands between th^ stand till — to 

desist not — earth to bend my eyes then my eye (of) comer with 

that servants (of) some command I then — decoration finishes till this like 

tire women to it gave and 500 it in purse they bring 

sleep and her to I look — they went in let me alone — 




9mif9vt^9x ^ 



— Soul that of me it may be said that her to speak her side to 



9 -^ y «*•' 9 y if 




my master O; say and my hand kiss and her mother will come and great 

— mind recover they approaching .wiulies she for thylnaid to look 
9 ^ ^ 9 ^ „ y©-^ ^ 4' M o^x ^9^ y 

u->-^ ^.^-i-J ^ — • (a> — li ol^ iSL-9 Lj1j>. L^ ^^1 5^ 

she will — she rises me firom that she saw when so answer 1 give — 

kiss ^ back 

dU, oJ; L*j i--^ Lf-^^-^l ^?*^-j— ''^- o^J Vj^y cr^ 

man saw not — young my daughter my master O say — several my fool 

times 

w^ I : yy ' \j 'y i' y ^ 

bend so her heart will break frown that thee from she saw if and 



EXERCISES. 73 

cap her mother her give will then — mind heart Boothe — apeak - her to 

^^^ ii^Li ^ ■ a Ij^ e)J^ J^ ^_^1 UJ J^ L-»l^ 4-j 

me to if and give him to thy lord upon conjure her to say wine it in 
she came drink 

look — reclining I and my 2 hands between standing her I leave 

her leave I powerful she says until Soul pride 

*»o^ X y o y 9 y 5x ^ ^ o ^ 

know subjection (of) taste she may taste that my 2 hands between standing 

•«/ <^ o y ^ S Hi X wx ^*'>' o9 yy 

give back . thee upon Grod (of) truth by my lord O she says sultan 

9 y a -^ ^ ^ 9 y 9u, -^ 9 y y ^ y yy 

me upon she urges bo — I speak — thy slave cup 

y 9 oyy y m^f o 9 Si 9 



in I shake my mouth she brings it near drink escape — 

came it and spumed then so do my foot with her spurn her face 

oy y yo 9 ^ ^ ^ y y ^ y 

^Ji\ ^^ ^^^ c)^^«*^ li U^^*J C^^ J-f-^ J-^ 
earth of high place it was glass (of) basket upon 




oy y y y y 



h U^J^ o^> J> 



it in that all was broken gronnd to it went down 



74 EXERCISES. 

THE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-SECOND NIGHT OF THE TALES 
OF A THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS. 

When the following night arrived, Dinazad said to her 
sister Shahrzad, " O, sister ! if you are not asleep, finish 
to us the story." She replied to her : " With great 
pleasure. It is related to me, that the barber spoke thus : 
* O king of exalted dignity, As to my fifth brother, he 
was crop-eared, and was a poor man, who begged in the 
evening, and subsisted on that by day. Our father wbb 
an old man, greatly advanced in years, when he fell sick 
and died, leaving to us 700 dirhems, which we divided, 
each 100 dirhems. As to my fifth brother, when he 
received the dirhems he was amazed, and did not know 
what he should do with them. But whilst he was medi* 
tating upon the money, it came into his mind to buy 
with it glass of every kind, and to retail and gain by it 
He purchased, therefore, glass, and put it into a large 
basket, and seated himself in a place in which he might 
sell it. And by his side was a wall ; and he leant his 
back against it, and sat meditating and saying to himself, 
Know, O soul, that the capital amount of this glass I 
sell for 400 dirhems. Then, however, I will not stop : 
I will buy and sell till there mount up with me 4000 
dirhems ; and I will carry it to such and such a place, 
and will sell it for 8000 dirhems. Then I will not give 
over till I buy goods as before ; and I will purchase with 



• • 



EXERCISES. 75 

it all sorts of jewels and perfumes^ and I will sell them, 
and acquire great gain. Then, after that, I will purchase 
a fine house, and I will buy slaves, and attendants, and 
hortses; and I will eat, and I will drink, and I will 
make merry; and I shall neither want for the male 
singers nor the female singers of the city, but make them 
to come to me ; and I will increase, God willing, my 
capital sum to 100,000 dirhems. All this he reckoned 
in his imagination, with the basket of glass before him 
of 100 dirhems. Then he still computed in his mind, 
and said, When it shall become a capital of 100,000 
dirhems, then upon that 1 will send out female brokers 
in marriage, and I will demand in marriage daughters of 
kings and vizirs; particularly of our vizir, as it is 
reported to me concerning her that she is perfect in 
accomplishments, wonderful in beauty, and graceful in 
shape ; and 1 will offer to her a portion of 1000 dinars. 
If they consent, let it be ; but if not, I will carry her 
away, in defiance of her fe.ther's anger, by force ; then, 
when she has entered my house, I will purchase for her 
ten yomig slaves : afterwards I will buy robes of princes, 
and a saddle of gold, adorned with jewels of value. 
Then I will cause the servants to ride behind me and 
before me; and I will go round the city, and the 
people will salute me and will pray for me. And then I 
will return and enter to the vizir, servants behind me and 



76 EXERCISES. 

before me, and on my right hand and on my left ; and 
when he sees me he will stand before me, and will cause 
me to sit in his seat, and place himself below me, because 
I am his son-in-law. And I will take with me two 
slaves, and I will load them with two purses, in which 
will be 2000 dinars, for her portion ; and I will present 
1000 dinars afterwards, that they may know my gene- 
rosity and my greatness of soul, and the littleness of the 
world in my eyes. Then I will return to my house ; 
and if one shall come on the part of my wife, I will 
present him and clothe him with a rich dress ; and if he 
comes with a gift, I will give it him back. Then I will 
give them directions to set in order the things apper- 
taining to my dignity. And when these things are 
performed, I will give them orders for the marriage night, 
and for the arrangement of my house. Then when the 
hour comes for retirement with my bride, I will dress in 
my most magnificent robes ; and I will sit in dignity, 
reclining upon a silk cushion, not turning to the right or 
to the left, with grave prudence and majestic wisdom j 
and there will be my spouse standing like the ftill moon 
in her robes and ornaments, and I will not look upon 
her, out of pride and haughtiness, so that all those who 
are present will say, O our lord and our master, bend 
in pity towards your spouse and your servant, for she is 
standing before you : favour her with a look : standing is 



EXERCISES. 77 

indeed painful to her. Then I will raise my head and 
look upon her with a single glance. They will then 
retire with her to her chamber, and I will also rise up, 
and I will change my clothes. Then I will dress more 
handsomely; and when she comes a second time in 
second robes I will not look on her till they stand 
before me, and entreat me several times as before. Then 
I will look upon her with the comer of my eye ; after 
which I will bend my eyes upon the ground, and I will 
not desist thus till her decoration is completed. Then 
1 will order some of the servants to bring a purse with 
500 dinars, and I will give it to the tire- women : then 
I will order them to leave me alone with her. When 
they have brought her in, then I will look at her, and I 
will sleep by her side, and not speak to her. So that 
mention will be made of me, as to the haughtiness of 
my mind, and her mother will come and will kiss my 
hand, and say, O, my lord, look upon your servant, as 
she wishes to approach you and recover her spirits : but 
I will not give her any answer. And when she per- 
ceives that from me, she will arise and kiss my feet 
several times, and will say, * O, my lord, my daughter 
is a virgin, and never saw man ; when, therefore, she 
perceives from you those frowns, it will break her heart. 
Bend to her, then, and speak to her, and soothe her 
heart and her mind. Then her mother will give her a 



78 EXERCISES. 

cup of wine, and will say to her, Take this cup to your 
lord, and present it to him. When she approaches me I 
will let her stand before me, whilst I, reclining, will not 
look at her, from the pride of my heart ; so that she will 
say that I am proud, and my soul is proud ; whilst I 
will not relax, but leave her standing before me, that she 
may taste subjection, and know that I am sultan, and 
say to me, O, my lord, by the truth of God do not 
refuse the cup from my hand, I am your servant ; and I 
will not speak to her. Then she will beg me earnestly, 
and she will say. You must drink it; and she will 
advance it to my mouth, and I shall shake my hand in 
her face, and spurn her with my foot, and do thus. My 
brother, being thus employed, pushed with his foot, and 
struck with violence upon the basket of glass, which, 
being on a place elevated above the ground, fell upon the 
pavement, and all that was in it was broken." 



( 79 ) 



DIALOGUES. 



FIRST DIALOGUE 






ASABIG PARLANCE. PRONONCIATION. ENGL. KQUITALENT8. 

,js^\lj^ -Ltf 'sahd'h aUchire yd Good inorniDg^ 

sidi, Sir. 

CjjJU ^1 aish 'hdlakj How are you ? 

Ctli^ 4lll^^ds! c-J» 'ty-ib hi chire Allah Well— may God 

yosallimak, save you. 

jfi^ <*-if keif asbahtoniy How were you in 

the morning ? 

JCJ ^b 4U Jy»il al'hamdu lilldh Praise be to God, j 

ddpi lakom, praying for you. , 

Jl^\ ftljj^ Jft halcindak achbdr, Have you any ! 

news ? ! 

^^ ^ V /<^ shy mohimm, Nothing of impor- ! 

tance. 



^ c^x*^! Jft hal samioi shy, Have you heard 

any thing ? 
JU (^1) «— «:p ^^ (az5A) 'hdl How is your bro- 
e)^l achook, ther ? 

\jj>. ^jtfi^ maridjiddan, Very ill. 



80 



DIALOGUES. 



\ 



ARABIC PARLANCE. PRONUNCIATION. 

4^1 tlft^ shafdh Allah, 



(ji}s) ^Ji\ aine{far-aine)kont 
fj^ aIVI al eyydm dij 
JjiJLo ^::^ kont mashghooly 
^% vi*fti Jft hal shoftfoldn, 



i^ ^ nae/im shoftok, 
c*)Ua J*3o jj^ii awA yaojnal 

kondkf 
Jjci yetoxjdlamj 
Ua ^ ^a^ mata yaji hond, 

\ss. ghada, 
(^jj£ ^ jJc JL sallim c,aleih min 

c.indif 
aJI jI:l1« ^I a! Jij wakol loh inni 

moshtdk ileih, 

^ xmJI U ma ansashf 
aa'XJ] ft« mac.as8aldmahf 



ENGL. EQUIVALENTS. 

May God cure 

him! 
Where were you 

these days ? 
I was husy. 
Did you see So- 
and-so ? 
Yes^ I saw him. 
What is he doing 

there ? 
He is studying. 
When will he come 

here? 
To-morrow. 
Salute him on my 

part. 
And tell him that 

I am desiring to 

see him. 
I will not forget. 
Go in peace. 



DIALOGUES. 81 



SECOND DIALOGUE. 



ABABIC PABLANCE. PBONUNCIATION. KNGL. KQUIVALKNT8. 

j^^ mSo j]j\} t/d walad 'talac, Boy, is it morn- 

alfajr, ing? 

^jU)^c:Aicil9(j«^l ashshams 'tala^at The son has risen 

min zamdn, for some time. 

i^yU AfUJi ^\ U lammd aftah at- When I open the 

'tdcah tashoofj window you will 

see. 
(J* ♦ ^Sh^ 'sahihj 'ha'h'ky True. 

cs^ ji* aWhah'h mac.ahj You are right. 

* ^^ (j^y J *-r^ jf& Zi thidhi lidlan Bring me my 

(J^^.) (bilcajal), clothes quickly. 

^U Ia ♦ ^ ^^1 fliTie /fci^ hiafaine, Where are they ? 

jjX-Jl (Jc- (ftlUft hondk exila 'ssan- There, on the box 

eL»i^ X^ doo'kc,indrdsak, near your head. 

U J ^-^j U^^ fV ^^^ ^^^^ wa;ift Z* Now go and bring 

J.*xl ^ (*ij*) md(moyahyhat' me some water, 

j^jjj ir4^j ^^ a^to7 Wflr/Ai that I may wash 

wa-yadiyttf my face & hand 9. 

^s-» jjjj toridoh sochrij Do you want it 

warm? 
^^j> Ul U V /^ wi<^ awa barddn, No, I am not cold. 



G 



82 



DIALOGUES. 



ARABIC PARLANCE. PRONUNCIATION. ENGL. EQUIVALENTS. 

Jojali ^Ji\ aine difoo'tahy Where is the 

towel ? 
ujUai Ly aJ U mAJih fowa t ni- There are no clean 

thdfy ones. 

JUxU j^pizcl aatytohomlilghaS' I gave them to be 

sdlak, washed. 

j-^^— L) ^:i- « ^ * naththaft fdsoO' Have youcleaned 
(iS^M*) mati(markoobi), my shoes ? 
Uiikj U LJ Im&md naththafU As yet I have not 

/^, cleaned them. 

c;j^)u-^"^ J^ «^«-^^^*» cahlamd But before you are 
Lflkil (us*-J talbas(takoonla' dressed I will 

bisi)onaihthifhd, clean them. 
VU. >/AW) naththifhom lid- Now clean them 
/an, quickly. 

I (sK*l CLmrahy I obey your order, 

jTij ^\^'^ ^i6 ^(w«i, Bring a chair. 

jjtiil J-flAi tafa'd'dal olt^ody Pray be seated. 
(j3--ali diJU. jji>l ««** 'A(!^/aA ya sidiy Well, Sir, how are 

you? 
jjl x^ aVkamdo lilldh, Thanks. 
4^\> jjJ ^orwZ lidjahy Do you want any 

* thing ? 



DIALOaUES. 83 

AKABIC PARLAKCS. PRONUNCIATION. ENGL. EQUIVALENTS. 

I 

1 



ttJ;-*.^:^* V Idy hathir cheirak, No, thank you. 



1, eJbUifc ^ {S^]/^ morddi min jand- I have a request 

bah $hyy to make to you. 

jft J!j\ aish howa, What is it ? 

Jii ttJj:^ L ^^^^J\ in Mn md cmdak If you have no- 
jI)^^ {}^ {S* J^ shoghl taadl thing to do, 

mac,iila' Ibdzdry come with me 

to the bazaar. 
Ui»l jjiwj jj^^ nashtari bac,'d We will buy some 

ashydy things. . 

\Jj^ ttl^l^ ,^1 aish morddaktash' What do you wish I 

tari, to buy ? 

Aal:;s^ oUU 'hdjdt mochtall- Different things. 

fahy 

f-y kS^ \j* ^*^ ^^ nowG,f What kind ? 
c«»^lj Ji^ HI ahl waslishorby To eat and to drink, 
jic U L-o.i ahabb md f^lyya, Very well, with 

great pleasure. 
(JU) \t\ -. tp nareo'h ithan (om- 

mdl)f Let us go then, 

djuc (j-jli ^J* ,1)\ aish min foloos What kind of mo- : 

cindahy ney have you ? 

0VI3 . riydldt, Dollars. ; 

g2 



84 DIALOGUES. 

AEABIC PAKLANCE, PRONUNCIATION. ENQL. EQUIVALENTS. 

^-A-i yad'h'hy It will do. 

c-ij^i ^^Ji. challini ashoof^ Let me see. 
Jc^ 1 jjb hdthd zaghalf This one is false. 

J4J0 jjjljt aisk na^maly What shall we do ? 

cj^i L wi^ aerify I do not know. 

JUi^ij j^ cAo^A wanthor al- Take and look at 

5<i'Ae, the rest. 

lycJe J^A ^0/ 'tyiUriy These are good. 

^jp^ U . ; \j^ ckallind naroo'h Let us go, it is late. 

\ (li>.lj>) ^^^ wachri (ta- 

ackckamd)f 

oS- U i> U ^^ ^*^* ^^"^ There is no more 
j wa'kt, time. 

OS f \Mo) aJ Q ^^^^fi^ (^^ ^^0 There is yet time. 

(jliJJ^Ui Jftoi UL5 '^«Wa»i(i yoV«^ Before the bazaar 
ij albdzdr^yogldk) closes we will 

nasily reach it. 

I uJ^ *^ namshi bil^ajal, Let us walk 

quickly. 
*i5iSAtUi assdoahthaldthahj Is it three o'clock? 



DIALOGUES. 85 

THIRD DIALOGUE. 
-ARABIC PAELANCE. PRONUNCIATION. BNOL. KQUIYALSKTS. 

'(jbV\ oijll i^ dalwakt alrathan^ They are now call- 
ing to prayers. 
iS^ j3 u_iy^ Uk. challind nashooffi Let us see in this 
^Si\ di 'ddokkdny shop. 

oWl^l* Jo Lay* mar'hdba bikom You are welcome, 
\jJiLj jjlii ya-chawdjdt gentlemen. At 

aish tanthoroOf what do you 

look? 
l^ oblaf^ c^-^ c%;2ri» sajjdddt We want some 

'saghirah, small carpets. 

^^^«M».l 4-^ L «..j^ shoofmdfika'hsan See^there are none 
JjA ^^ mm ddZ^, better than these. 

^JJ^ jj ^;^sj c^,l» '^yt6 /a^in 'kaddr Oood, but what is 
^;»J1 flwA asdeTy its price ? 

il». [j^j rcLchi'sjiddan, It is very cheap. 
Jlc jft ♦ jjiil awA, Aowa ghdliy What ! it is dear, 
jjajj jjl»\ jij hi'kadaishtac,'tihy For how niuch will 

you give it ? 
vi^i WaJ ^\ ji '^a^ awA fac'ii What do you 

anta, offer ? 

lA/ »y!?^ ?r t ^- chamsah wa ihald- Thirty-five pias- 

thin 'kirsk, tres. 



8G DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC PARLANCE. PRONUNCIATION. ENGL. EQUIVALENTS. 

^j^sA^, lo oU^ji. li yd ckawdjdt md Gentleman, not 
^yw^ ^jA ^jAflSlj yomhin hianhas less than fifty, 
\ f^ \:^ 7n ',91 chamsin in if you please. 
^ acjabkom, 

\jf^j^ Sc^J ^J torid tachoth ar- Will you take 

haoXn, forty ? 

CiJ;!dU. V]^ wa ilia chatirahy If not, adieu, 

jtr-^ (J^J^^ ^sxicr (li yochas- I shall lose by this 

sirni, price. 

^ (^.*-*.^sj) ^^ tarhah (taksib). You will gain by 
8^ minghyroh, something else. 

^ 030 U J.J1 «/ youm md bic,t To-day I have sold 

shy, nothing. 

(wJill jju nac.odd alfoloos, Let us count tlie 

money. 

V^^^sJlj ^Ul ^%B^ p«^« 'ttamdm Quite right. 

jjj 8jji »nc?a/i walady Call a boy, 

n Ji Ui>.\i ^:^ 'Afl^^a yachothhd that he may take 

«7a' /^iVe, it to the house. 

(^li. chd'tirak, Good bye. 

4jl\ ^;)l«l J ^ ttwawi 7/«A, With the peace of 

God. 



DIALOGUES. 87 

FOURTH DIALOGUE. 
ARABIC PARLANCE. FROMUMCIATION. ENOL. EQUIVALENTS. 

j^^ u^j»> jihfotbor^ Bring breakfast 

\ss> u-A^ jih ghaddf Bring dinner. 

(J^)ji^ s-*^ j^^ cAo52f (ccwA Bring bread. 

Egypt), 

(v^) c^ V^ y^ft ^^«» (lialib), Bring milk. 
j^a^M ]aA\ ae,'ti soccar. Give sugar. 

(sJllft Ji^ AoZ aashdky Eat your supper. 

JL %^jl\ ishrab 'halib, Drink milk. 

--I^ljji 7iai(?2(?ir assirdjj Light the lamp. 
AX4JJI J^ nawwir ashshani' Light the candle. 

AjK^i ^\ atfi 'shshamoah, Put out the candle. 

^j^ V ^ tansa, Do not forget. 

Ijfc 3^ tacdla hondy Come here. 

kJ^ 'karrib, Come near. 

C5V c;i^ c;* ^»^ at/i^^y^yi, Where do you 

come from ? 

^j d'^ J^ *^« «*«« ^^*'^> Where are you 

going ? 

^llli>il 'had'dir ashshay, Make ready the 

tea. 
^yuJi jl J^ mil ila n yamin, Turn to the right. 



88 DIALOGUES. 

A&ABIG PARLANCE. PROS UNCI ATI ON. ENGL. EQ0IYALEXT8. 

, JU^I J^ J* mil ila 'shshimdlf Turn to the left. 

I VU. «j>Ji Jl --; ro'h ila *lbeit 'hd- Go home quickly. 

Ian, 
c^J CU »jj1 in^aA aVhammd' Call the porters. 

» jSUi ^* nah'hi al mdidah, Take away the 

table, 
orf^l ♦ ij^/i^l thtarisy Be careful. 

4-#j jCll jl^ 'had'dir al karroo Get ready the car- 

«aA, nage. 

^\f cs-Jl antafd'diy Are you at leisure? 

^^L» eU^^ '^nin karamah sd- Be pleased to for- 

mthniy give me. 

xl^i e >U p ^milt alfarshah, Have you made 

the bed? 
i^Ul jKA darbiz al bdb. Fasten the door. 
(jjA hdthi modbahy This is a misfor- 
tune. 
'^^ ^ horn johaldy They are ignorant. 

.^A^ Jib kitdbiy Bring my book. 

j^i Ji ^j ro% ila 'ssoo'ky Go to the market. 
^ li^ u.As»> jib showyyat Bring a little meat 

lahmy 



DIALOQUES. 89 

FIFTH DIALOGUE. 
ARABIC PA&LANGE. PRONUNCIATION. ENOL. EQUIVALENTS. 

izj^ ^j^ man anty "Who are you ? j 

o-». (ji^V leyskjeetf Why areyou come? / 

ij' J Jj"* *H>* toridtakool li shy^ You will say some- 
thing to me. 

J-iJ JxJV Id iakon tha'kU, Don't be trouble- . 

some. ' 

-^^1 lil a;w achrqjy I will go out 

iS^ L-^-a- yt6 thidhiy Bring my clothes. 

(2i)bb^*ft Aow collohom ho* They are all there. 

ndh, 

y^ [j^ man hoo. Who is he ? ^ 

dliA j».i Jfc ^aZ a'Aa(£ hondk, Is any one there ?; 

c)^ L^-* J» 'Ao/ di kamdn. Say that again. 

CV ^ ^^^n^^oo'hgha' We shall go to- 

c?a, morrow. 

»JA ^ nah'hi hdtha, Move this way. 

»^lf A^^slt j^jjb A^^Ai fdkihah fd- This is a very fine 

chirahy fruit. 

i-*-sP xi. IjA ^<i^Aa 'chdbar cxi- This is wonderful 

jiby news. 

vyo\Jic«vyolcj8^^j^ na'hn joucdnin We are hungry 

waaa'tshdnin, and thirsty. 



90 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC PARLANCE. PRONUNCIATION. ENGL. EQUIVALENTS. 

u-A-^ J-^ j-fe howa rajolmo'htor He is a careful 
((j^i^) ris ('harts), man. 

jli^vycjljJ^^ horn kaththabin ' They are great 

kibdr, liars. 

^^^ aJS 'halhoh mdhzoom, His heart is 

grieved, 
li*^ ^;V1 (sLsJ*** maslahatak al-dn Is your business 

tammaty now completed ? 

<_^r5 aJc JJjJi Jjb ^«^ addalil c,aleih Is the proof of it 

'kaivi, strong ? 

iiaali ir jc ^ ^-ti'^ GXidimat alfi't' She is very impu- 

waA, dent. 

(j^U) ^^U jil al'jouw 'sdji {^sd- The sky is quite 

'hx)j clear. 

AjiVl lj-5s ^Vjl Jji ^^^ 0M7Z(i^ ydhih' These are mis- 

5(7 aZ athiyahy chievous children. 
ui«^ Ijw ^JT koUohom hdftoo They all remained 

mochtafiriy hidden. 

J^ aJs 'kalboh 'haVkdUy His heart is rest- 
less, 
jj^i jft howa dhmdky He is a fool. 

JA* v5>>j'^ ^^ hdtha 7 wara'k, This paper is 

mdblool, moist. 



DIALOGUES. 91 

ARABIC PARLANCE. PRONUNCIATION. ENGL. EQUIVALENTS. 



i^ J^lc ^^ man c,dmil 'daj- Who is making a 

jahy noise ? 

J^ JUc ^^ ««5A c.avimdl ta- What are you say- 

'Icool, ing ? 

i^i J*-^! *-»! (jijl aM Mwi arrajol What is the name 

£?/^ of this man ? 

VK**^ l^^ ^^ J-A halcaladihhaash- Is there much fruit 

jvi^*^ shajarah tha- on that tree? 

mar hathir, 

SIXTH DIALOGUE. 

a)j^ JSj tahallam bisohoO' Speak easy. I 
lahy 

dUft Ji ^jj Jjo V /a ^acoc? taroo'h Go not there 

?7a hondky again. \ 
dlift ^^^^saUi jfc ^^ TTian hoo sdkin ho- 

ndky Who lives there ? 

loj i-J iy;» c-*-». <//& showhyyat Bring some wine 

nahith wa md, and water. 

K^^ AX\ ^^ barridalmd'ty-ib, Cool the water well 

iJ^Ul^ \s. ljj\ aZ ^^acZa ca/a aU The dinner is on 

md-ldah^ the table, 

el^l ^^ aish ismaky What is your 

name ? j 



92 BIALOGUBS. 

ARABIC PARLANOE. PRONUNCIATION. ENQL. BQUIYALSNT8. 

\j^ ^iU. jA horta 'h&thi'k jid- He is very clever. 

dariy 
KSy iSj^ {S^ sah'hini badri Wake me very 

'hawiy early. 

^ A^l al-youm sahow, It is fair to-day. 
ji\ * i^J^l iciarafy dkarry He has made con- 
fession. 
^j^j^\ i'sbir showltyyahy Have patience a 

little. 
jLj-^ Jl ^,^1 ibcathhom ila Send them to my 

' heitiy house. 

U 2^^ ^ rosJish showhyyat Sprinkle a little 

mAy water. 

43jj\ l|^ cJlSl f^Zi^ (£iAtAa 7 wa- Turn back that 

ralkahy leaf, 

r*^^!^ (tiji^^jii loj^l orhot eydihom wa- Tie their hands 

arjolhom, and feet. 

c^Ul ^^jJa Uib Aona fakir cxila Here is a &kir at 

7 5^, the door. 

\^ #•♦-» j» ^ott^a fahim jid- He is very intelli- 
e2an^ gent 

S^ (>»•) lA^ ^5-* diceish {'chobz) This is very good 
^j;^ 'tyib 'cam, bread. 



DIALOGUES. 93 

ABA BIC PARLANCE. PRONUMCIATION. ENGL. EQUIVALENTS. ' 

{j^ A^suJl ^ aa^l irjac, fi ^ssihkah Come back this 

diy war. 

f^yi^ l^^a.) J^ c hoth dikha 7- Take this letter. 

maktoohf 

ojji ^ —^1 ochroj min al heity Come out of the ' 

house. ' 

^sU^jj os^J^l J^^ «/7A.«7 yadeik wa- Wash your hands 

wojhaky and face. 

J5i5^c->1^' »Juc c.indoh ds'kdb ha- He has many 

^/iir, friends. 

tJ cji^ '"^^ LTi^ ^**'* fd'\dah ta- What benefit will 

l^^ss^ koonji dikha, there be in that ? ; 

,/P ^^ !^ J^i^ kdbadoo 'hozn ka- They have suffered 

i/tzr, much sorrow. 

j^Jio ii a) loh li'hyah 'tawU He has got a long 

laky beard. 

\jj^j^ ^J* jj^i aish min 'teir hd- What bird is this? 

thtty 

ji^su» •» AoM'a sikMry He is a great 

drunkard. 
\i». ^^ J5>. 'ha'kl man hdtha, Whose field is this? ' 
e)bb y-\i vj^j^ ^am kdn mds ho- How many people 

ndky were present ? 



94 DIALOGUES. 

SEVENTH DIALOGUE, 
ARABIC PARLANCE. PRONUNCIATION. BNOL. EQUIYALEKT8. 

\ -.i/Jl tj ^^^ ^ ^ ^*^* J^^^ zeitfi 'ssi- There is no oil in 

r«/, the lamp. 

JS diai ^^ ^^^^ acftlni minfa'dlak Pray give me a 

'kalarriy pen, 

■ *i^ c;i^ aine (hhhdnohy Where is his shop? 

^^ ,j-JL^ dLU\ al-malik jalas ca- The king sat upon 

^^\ Za ' ssar iVy the throne* 

^^^». aJ^ soutoh Itasariy His voice is good. 

f yjb ^)lj-,„g>. cjJ j^l e?yc nottc liaya- What sort of ani- 

1 JA 2re!^^ howa hdtha, mal is this ? 
(db]^U)dc;^^^^ a/sA na'sihatak What is your ad- 

(wa rdt/ak), vice ? 

d;^ ^\ ji 'kaddaish Gomrak, What is your age ? 
dli^ u- gj . i^ra ^-ei/* 'silihatak, How is your 

health ? 
(3>iy J*j^^ S-^ yi6 'hibr wa 'kalam Bring ink, pen, 

wa wardk, and paper, 

lift ^^ c)U^ 7^i5<i^;^ wan hdtha, Whose horse is 

that? 
^si^sVl \^^j^ ^J* man hoo dihha 7- Who is that Euro- 

ifranjif pean. 

jy uif^^ *^ h/ithih al ardhooVy This soil is barren. 



DIALOGUES. 95 

ARABIC PARLANCE. PRONUNCIATION. ENQL. EQUIVALENTS. 

J^ JUc Jii J^\ aish shoghl cam- What business are 

mal tapmily you doing ? 

»;ii^=3^1ic\ lyUc c.amalo aothdvy They made much 

kathirahy apology. 

^j»\j ft^ t^xic cmc?i wajae, rasy I have a headache. ■ 

^yj LJii. {j^jj^ 'sar vmchri chaU It is late, let us I 

Una nitwajjahy depart. / 

sS^\ «>j ^ L^^ yashtaki min wa- He has a liver ( 

yac al'kdbidy complaint. 

lj»jj^\ «jy iX^ cindoh wojac. He has a tooth- \ 

addirsy ache. j 

|;ii3 Lll jl^yi c^ fi 'I'bdzdr ashya There are many 

v_ ,sff\ l hathirahlUrlachy playthings in 

the bazaar. 

♦>^-iJi » JA hdthih attarja- This translation is 

\ss^ mah liasanah very good. 
jiddariy 

^.^W ^1^ (sLftUi sac.atak tanishi Your watch goes 

7y-tZ>, well, 

ft^ j^j tZe shammy This is a wax can- 

^ die. 

Ljjlali \>^» ^^s9 ham kira al'kdriby How much is the 

fare of the boat? j 



A l»M.^ 



96 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC PARLANCE. PRONONCIATION. ENGL. EQUIYALEKTS. 

/ ls\J!\ JT Icam assdcahy What o'clock is it? 

^\iJi «i^i irfac. dssatd-yer, Lift up the blinds. 

n\y^\ ^ na'hhi asso'hoon, Take away the 

dishes. 

»j5lli (V i&^^ ^a-*" '^'^^ sdc.ati c.ala Place my watch 

'l-7ndidahf on the table. 

A^U i^j&^Ull »Jjb hathith al-fdhihaJi This fruit is very 

lidmidah, acid. 

1 v;)L<ic cs-il ^V ^^*«^ «^^^« ^Aa'c^ Why are you an- 

hdn, gry ? , 

^rJ i_rrr Jii iS^ ^^ sJwghl 'sach This is a very dif- 

'kavri, ficult business. 

kS9 rjlj^ (^ ^*^^^ ma^^^/^Ti '^-a- They are very art- 

f m, ful. 

(jy iir^ ^^ M^Uftll (^l-^omdsh di clia- This cloth is very 

shin 'katoi, coarse. 

AiiJl Iflj c>Si Jjb ^^^^ <^^^ tasloh Are you fit for the 

lishshogJdy business? 

u»a\ .vo ^j)\ ^jJl <^^ yoMwi dbradmin It is colder to-day 

a?7is, than yesterday. 

U, .U U^. jb hia clmrsa wa- She is dumb and 

'tarsha, deaf. 

VJfl^AiO ^s^ dri liiMyah'hol' This story is all a 

loha kathib, lie. 



DIALOGUES. 97 

ARABIC PARLANGE. PRONUNCIATION. ENOL. EQUIYALBHTB. 

c^ u^j 1 jjb hdtha zaMb ty-ib, These are fine rai- 
sins. 
jjlSouj iju^ exndoh heit 'kabir, He has a large 

house. 
(j^ Aa^ duyVi ;^A <fi ^Uoudah shir- This room is very 

'hah 'katoij well lighted. 

j5j5 aJU a-»jV1 j^a (^i 'Iroudah cdli- This room is very 

yah 'kawi^ lofty, 

^li AsJo 'tabcoh 'kdsi, His disposition is 

cruel. 
ovLl^i.^ vy^JiL^j^ ^ow Aa«Mwt» wa- They are lazy and i 

motahdmiliny negligent. , 

objjjd^ JiflJ\ v^A dVl'kalamrachow This pen is too 

biziyddahy soft. 

\j> ^^JLi. ^j^\ Vssb hdtha *l wara'k This paper is very 

chashinjiddanf coarse. 

^y <3^^ (J^ ^^ ^^^^ /atoAa^/aw» You speak very 

bit'taanni 'hawi, slowly. 
(jcJ^Vl) JSiJ jji) ta'kdir tatakallam Can you speak , 

bilankleziy English ? { 

4tiJ VU JjJi twzi7 wa-illa Descend^ other- 

tahae,, wise you will fall. 

•^ rtL/ ^'^^ "^y ^ bodd annah ta- You must go with 

rooh mafiy me, ! 

H ^ 



98 



DIALOGUES. 



ARABIC PASLAKCE. PKOSUXdATIOV. 

di, 
Jb 43j6 naprifoh holloh, 

j^i^s ]f/o yacrifo kathir, 

j^ K^ ^^H^ kaUa/ani tacab 

kathir, 
V-- % els:^' JJ)l leuh ta'dhah bila 

sabab, 
^^y^ U Uft hatha ma hoo 

beiti, 
l/^\ iJ» ^1 ^^Jl». 'chaUini ashomm 

hdthik azzahrahf 
ic^^b ^^\ ^^\ idhan al horn biz- 

zeitj 
c^U\^l iftdhalb&by 
^ss\^\ ^ ^^ ba^'d min, alcasd- 
l^^l kit injara'koj 

Sijl\ I |^^> c^l tVr£& dikha 7 ira- 

^U Ijj^ Jli ^\ jja bacdam'kdlkdtka 



SSGL. KQUiyAKKXTB. 

Take away lias 

thing. 
We know it alL 
They know a great 

deal. 
He gaye me mach 

troable. 
Why do Toa lang^ 

withont cause? 
This is not my 

house. 
Allow me to ameO 

that flower. 
Apply oil to the 

chair. 
Open the door. 
Some of the sol- 
diers haye been 

wounded. 
Beat that lazy 

bov. 
Haring said thk 

be deputed. 



DIALOGUES. 99 

ARABIC PABLANOB. PRONUNCIATION. XNGL. EQUIVALENTS. 

eLLift. A«5li vmL J^ kam halaghat 'kd- What is the 

imat 'hisdbak, amount of your 

bUl? 

J^-* c^ {jj^^y^i^} ^^^ ^^w? al far'k What is the diffe- 

vyoVl bein dot al it It- rence between 

nein, these two ? 

G^ j^ JLd\ jft U^s> Aama how al mo- As the master^ so 

JaaU ^^^ ^allim kathdlik will be the scho- 

yakoon al mot a- lar. 

EIGHTH DEALOGUE. 

^jjfc ^j J-a5 ^^ ^^o ^aw 7w?!» ^ffiZ Ji In this book how 
\^\2^s=k\\ hdtha 7 ^ii^^, many chapters 

are there ? 
AcUJl s jjk ^ Jib AaZ caZa hdthih al- On these goods is 
c-jLil j3 Lli-i hi'ddcxih is'kdt there any dis- 

^ alhisdb, count ? 

s 

U-J\ »-:A-^ ^^^1 1 jjfc hatha 'habi mo- This boy is much 

Ija. 'habbab ileina loved by us. 
jiddan, 

tS^jiSJi\ 1 JJfc ti J* /ia//i A^^Aa 7 ^Aa- In this tank are 

dir saniak, there any fish ? 
h2 



I 



100 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC PARLABCE. PRONUNCIATION. ENGL. EQUIVALENTS. 

Lu) 2x«ui ojkitfl is'tatt samahak hi- I caught a fish 

^o,y ^ifli a rod. 

y^jj I4I U S^oJi »JA hdfhfh al bakarah This cow has no 

Twa ZflAa 'koroony horas. 
^jil i jjb c^i ^\ ^ mtw eye nowc hd- Of what kind is 

tka Hjoochy this cloth ? 

^LJ 4j1 dbwj j3 Ja hal fi niyatah an Do you intend go- 
\ijj\ 11 tosdfir ila ou- ing to Europe ? 

(ifli^^') Ij^l »jjfc ji^ Gollih kdthih atk' Hangup this lamp 
a^IaII (^ thoryia (anna" in the hall. 

jafah) Ji al- 
'kdpahy 
(3jljjl (},JLJ Jifc /taZ to.v4/?r ^ 7- Do you go by land 
^1 harrowjialhahrj or by water? 
Jm a) U elijjj-* 'sandoukak ma la- There is no lock 

^0 {loh) 'kofl, to your box. 

J>j j^i v-jJ© Aft Q,alataraf annahr There is much 
^;vi^3 tta'^/ kathtvy mud on the river 

side. 
^.jf\ \\ ^^ J( ^1^ kam kdn min al- How many pas- 
kJSX\ (sUi 4^ mosdjirinjt ikd- sengers were in 

lik al markah, that vessel ? 



DIALOGUES. 101 

ARABIC PA&LANCE. PRONUNCIATION. ENGL. EQUIVALENTS. 

^oyJljksJ iacjattar al belt The whole house 

kollohy was scented. 

>JA u,rfi».L0 ij>il Ja hal anta sd'kib Are you the owner 

^IjJi hdthih adddvy of this house ? 

eUa^a Jjbu U^a hama tafcal ka- Such as you will 
. Jil* <A<i/tA told'ki, do, so will you 

• find, 

jj.jjii. aLJI attaslim cheir ra- Resignation is the 

f^h, best companion. 

j^^}^ ^jJ^ addonya ddr gho- The world is the 

roory house of deceit, 

(ils?^^) j»>f^^ t;^ thamarat attahaw' The fruit of rash- 
i«ljJi wor{alc,ajalah) ness is repent- 
annaddmahf ance. 

».>^«^ iJu^^l a«ia6r man'kabah Patience is an ex- 

mahmoodah, cellent quality. 

^J^ j^,^ c\ » ■■■ !1 assamdc. cheir Hearing is better 

^ilL^sJ\ min al kaldrrij than speaking. 

(fell A f^ JJ^ U^a ^»»a tatakallam Such as you speak, 
-^^ kathdllk iaS" so will you hear. 

to.yi J^iftUflll aWkand^h mif- Contentment is the 

td'h arrd'hak, key of repose. 



102 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC PARLAKGIE. PRONUNCIATION. ENQL. EQUIVALENTS. 

*L>Vi o^ J^il al jcihl mout aU To be ignorant is 

dhydj death to the 

living. 
jK^ i/* J^i3 -i^Vi al-iktisdd fi coll Moderation in 

shy chei?*, every thing is 

best. 
\ iJJi*\ aj5$ x^^ail aWhakim takfih To the wise a hint 
I iskdrahy is enough. 

ijJLll ^^ (s)li.l scL* sdoUd achdk fi ^sk- Assist your bro- 

shiddahy ther in distress. 

^)jC U l^-i^»TjjJl addaicd kathiran Very frequently 

b ma yahoon ddy medicine is sick- 

ness. 
^js^^ v.J^^LjVi al'insdn yo^af Man becomes 

btdratohf known from his 

conduct 
iid^l Si^ «Jll ^^ min al'manc,tazid From prohibition 

arraghhahj desire increases. 

*-* ^JU V vi*-i*^' al-bacht la ydti Fortune does not 

mac. aUhikmnhy come with wis- 
dom. 



DIALOGUES. 103 

NINTH DIALOGUE. 
ABABIO PA&LANCB. PRONUNCIATION. ENQL. KQUIYALESTS. 

fujj^\ 1 jft ijy* (3 j^ moddat hdtha During this month 
jp^ ^shshahr wakac much rain fell. 

ma tar kathir, 
dbk Jl LaU **ajuJ ibcath chddim ila Send a servant 

honakj there. i 

»^:f^' »JA eu^ 'jjiSl okcX)d taht hd" Sit under this tree. 

thih ashshajarah, 
JiUI sJA ^^ . ^-^ hum thaman hd- What is the price 

thih al'la-dlij of these pearls? 

(cJi^^ ^) (Ja^l ^ ^^ aeiham (ma How heavy will 
^sT 1 JA JaJ yahoon) tho'hl this stone be ? 

Ad^Aa 'Whajar 
AjiJI sjjk ^1 ^jil «wA WW hdthih aU What is the name 

'haryahj of this village ? 

u>^l c)^ V^ ^*^ 'Aw^n arrO' Bring the riding , 

hoohj horse. 

Cj^ oljli-Jl yawl onfo'd assitdrdt Brush the curtain 
W Jhi ^ i5* ^y*^ 'hatta la well, so that no 

(jjii;)) ^j«|«li yoh'ha fiha nd- mosquito may 

moos(bargha8h), remain, 
^^^^.^sauj jjl Cj^b-aj ya;'i6 a» nahoon We ought to be 

mohsiniuy benevolent. 



104 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC PARLANCE. PRONUNCIATION. ENGL. EQUIVALENTS. 

A^kc olfjsttf (3 1:j^ wahaenaji 80C.00' We have fallen into 

hAt cathimak, great difficulties. 

u^^^sl^l ^JA jc^> kathir min at-ma" Many ships have 

jJl ^JA uJlaaJ rdkih tacat'ta- been damaged 

lat min annow, by the storm. 

&jl \^ i mr-^ J* ^owa yashrah fi He every day 
i^^ ^^1 hoU youm al- drinks new milk. 

laban aYtarif 

jji. ojCjl jt* ^j«flli aUho^ood mae, as- To sit still is bet- 
clpi ^J* sokoot ckeir min ter than quar- 

annizdc, relling. 

-♦Jji lljbl ^^^ t'^aw M^^a 7- Grind this wheat 
^^U 'kam'h birraha, in the milL 

J* c^* *'^ *— t^** taerif waktloh Do you know who 

wan howa (hoo), is his agent? 

(^^uljLx^iS;* (J^^ i^A^ari ^i shamo/i' Buy two candle- 

ddnein, sticks for me. 

jMlkl J LsJl lljb M^Aa '^'Ar^f Za- This cat has large 
i^u^a Ao (ZoA) ath&fir claws. 
kabirah, 

Jl ^^»*;^sJ) )3jk J^ eTAoM A^Ma 'i^ Take away this 
(j^V\ A^VI Aom i/a 7-ot«- chair into the 

'dat al-ochra, other room. 



DIALOGUES. 105 

ABABIC PABLAKCE. PRONUNCIATIOIT. ENGL. EQUIYALEKTS. 

4^ ijj^ ttbjl bl ana orik ioorah I will shew you a 

jamilahy beautiful picture. 

^ AJU Jj y djLul imdak la 'hodd Your signature is 

jiat)\ 1 jA minho (mink) necessary to this 

ea/a hdtha '/- bond. 
e/ikd, 
j3 cJ^ ^^jjXi p^i aUyoum yakoon To-day there is 8, 
*ft;b 'deiffi ddrihom, guest in their 

house. 
j>P\^^% .U *^^ wachri kathir, It is very late. 
iJ^ rtL/ O^' ^ ^^^ ismah lana hi an Permit us to go 

i-aJ\ naroo'h ila 'Beit, home. 

i^Li ^^V^ iJub ij, fi hdtha aUamr In this afiair there 
ij5lj 'kasdwah zd- is much cruelty, 

ibjL 5^ li«ljj 'kodddmana mf- We have before us 

raA 'taimlah^ a long journey. 1 

Ul J If g a) (jLjVI al'insdn laho cakl Man has reason^ a 
% l4^^\ amma al-bahi- brute none. 

mahfala, 
i^u^liftl dlLiJ ^^ minfa'dlak actini Please give me a \ 
l^y kitdb tousiyah, letter of intro- 

duction. 



106 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC PARLAXCE. PRONUNCIATION. KNQL. EQUIVALENTS. 

Jju Cy^;^^) ^V leish taktoh bika- Why do you write 

fj^j lamradi, with a bad pen? 

vyL-LjVl ^^i* fj\ ^y^ hdthein al-ith- Of these two, 

^j.^ nein ahsan, which is the best? 

djj ^ JjutJl jft.1 lil ana dchotk ash- I will take the 

sIjI AjVigl^ shoghl min ya- business from 

• JaA wa-octih you and give it 

t^aA, to him. 

jifi. dUfc Jl eLUS tkahdbak ila ho- Your going there 

^V waA ^A^V Idzim, is not necessary. 

ll». JjJU/Li. jA ^^"'^ chabir hiU He is well versed 

c,ilm jiddauy in science. 

1j!> JlcjA howa cdlim jid- He is very learned. 

dan, 

^j,^\ ij^^au Vxj^ hdthd yahoon ah- This will be best 

4» .^11 ^an al'jami^, of all. 

Jj*i U J Ji 'Ao/ Zt ma yakool, Tell me what he 

is saying. 

^)LJi -a^^jJLJJi 'AoZ lissdris y(h Tell the groom to 

'had'dir al 'hi' get the horse 

idny ready. 



DIALOGUES. 107 

TENTH DIALOGUE. 
ARABIC PAB LANCE. PRONUNCIATION. ENGl. EQUIYALEKT8. 

•yft.) ^l Sij\ (itll jTUI ana kathdlik orid I also i^ish to go 

an achroj, out. 

%JA J\ jjwJ fJLii leish ia'scad ila Why do you climb 
i;5p'" hdthih aslisha- this tree? j 

jarah, 
[^ J^^li ^)^-XJ ^ mafa takoon 'kd- When will you be 
y>^\ dir e,ala 'ssafar^ able to depart. \ 

^jloil ^ ^j^^ J* hal assarj cjila 7- Is the saddle on 

Vjl 'hi'mnowlay the horse or not? . 

j^JU.3 Sat} %a^j ^ nahnnarjac,hac.d We will return in 

da'kdye'kj a few minutes. 

]^U lj«ll (jL^9 ^1 m ^(^;t aUghadA If dinner is ready 

(^y^) Aj^ 'hd'dirjibohf bring it. 

Ja^l Ijft. (.J;x) Ja /taZ iacrif hdlha Do you know this 

'rrajol, man ? 

\^Jji\ ^JA J-a». 'hassal min aU He has acquired 

c/Ztti kathir, much science. 

ibj> 5^y A^- jamac, tharwah He has amassed 

jazilah, much wealth. 

vyoVl ^^ Ui. JU) tapdia challina Come let us two 
h%^ il>s^ na'hn al-ithnein have some talk. 

natahaddath 
showy-yahg 



108 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC PARLANCE. PRONUNCIATION. ENQL. EQUIVALENTS. 

jSh j^lj jjU^ Jft kal 'hhdn wd'hid Will one horse be 

Jio J.Xj^ ^ yakdir Q.ala able to draw so 

i JA yarr tho'kl mithl great a weight ? 

j^ ^^' dJi ^ takaddam anta You go on, we are 

na'hn naji, coming. 

^^ oU oUlU »JA hdthih aWhajdt These things are 

^j^ yaa^ wm orohha comefromEurope 

iUH s jft ^^ ^^1 et/i nak'di hdthih Where shall we 

al'leilah, pass the night? 

vs^j oVi Ujifi U ma cindana al-dn Wehavenotimeto 
V*** tt?a'^ IHlichy play at present. 

^;;arJ' ^lib Al»y j^\ ahrak rigloh hiU He has scalded 

wk^ 'ssochn, his foot 

l^ e;^^9)Ul sja hdthih assahdhin All these knives 

t^Jud hollaha 'sada-y are rusty. 

^jay^ ^VjVi Vj-ft hd-ould aUauldd These children are 
^1^1 J^ yosarricho 'tool screaming all 

annalidr, day. 

I JA ^ jii^ li^a Aowyia nofattish We were seeking 
^1^1 J^ caZa hdtha 'tool for this all day. 

annahdr^ 

(sXij^ vsa<^ Ja hal chatamt male- Have you sealed 

toohahy your letter ? 



DIALOGUES. 109 

ARABIC PARLANCE. PRONUNCIATION. ENOL. EQUIVALENTS. 

jf^^^ Jlla^ UiJ heitana mothalUd Our bouse is 

hishshajavy shaded with trees. 

^^Isi \l^ JoJc Jl^ mammal tarn tor It is raining, give 
ctljj^ challina nit-dwa us shelter. 

eindaky 

\^j elUft Ji j»jiJ takaddam ila ho- Go forward there, 

ndk wakify and stand still. 

^ oUlU »i» -.ji.1 achrij hdthih aU Bring out these 
^jj-Ji lidjdt min aS' things from the 
sandoo'ky box. 

>f-,^'^ JUllj J^f^gu iahallam hilcAli Speak loud, then 
d«4wi 'hinaithin asma- I shall bear you. 
paky 

^ aJb (^.> j^l ,jiil eiah ism di bilaa- What do you call 

rabiy that in Arabic ? 

i^l sjjb jAislj wdfakani hdthih He agreed with 

a/ marrahy me this time. 

ijl:53l 43 dLiJ L-j,jJ todarrib nafsakji You exercise your- 
iUllj Hkitdbah waU self in writing 
'kirdrahy and reading, 

^^il 1 JA -4^U-» x^ p^'*^ samds.iho7)i On bearing this 
^^.^ ^ J ^ '^ A^^Aa 7 chabar news they were 
JiJ-l 'ha sal lahom much frightened. 
roc6 shadidy 



110 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC PARLANCB. PRONUNCIATION. ENGL. EQUIVALENTS. 

jj>-r^M \sib ft^ S kam yasae, hdtha How much indigo 
(J^l) JLJi ^JA assandook min will this chest 

annily contain ? 

fir^ c^• !^^^ f^ hollohom ightdthoo They are all of- 
jjAJO wiw hae, 'dihom fended with one 

ha^d, another. 

jjJi jji ^^ lij^ najou7ia min yad We have escaped 

al'C.adoo, from the hand 

of the enemy. 
v:>5^ Ijb^b iJjtjJLl al-madinah bias- The whole city has 
Lil* riha ghari'kat been flooded. 

bil md, 
U>;s .il^^ \ j|j bikdtha t/azdddfa- With this our joy 

rahna, will be increased. 

iliU Uj^^^A* UlS 'kallalna ma sroo- We have much re- 

fana Wghd-yah, duced our ex- 
penditure. 
\^\ *\V -ftJ^jJl sJJfc Mf/tiA addardhim This money must 
aJI &9^ Za2:2m annaha be sent back to 

tarjao. ileih, him. 

V^ jC d5,j J»^ sattir warakak Rule your paper, 

thomma oktob, then write. 
^jA U>U j^JT jySlI aWkdum kollohom All the people have 
c^^ mdtoominaljooc,f died with hunger. 



DIALOGUES. Ill 

AKABIO PARLANCE. PBONUNCIATION. BNQL. EQUIVALENTS 

yAjtf (^ ct^ fh ^^^p haojiohom They have fidlen 

aola haejdf one upon ano- 

ther* 
IjxJ \jL^ c2^^^ yaeHshoon e£ish Thej live in great 

nakid, affliction. 

^1 Joli 1^ liJ Jj bana beit exila He has built a 

shdti annahvy h ouse on the bank 

of the river, 

ELEVENTH DIALOGUE. 

L^ft jj*J u^ *jift caZa wa nahrob Why should we 

^^ Ze/5 hahona (ma run away ? there 

^A hana) cha- is no danger here. 
'tar, 

*\sXc\js^ hajar asdikdh, He has abandoned 

his friends. 

^Vl ^^ J\ \jj^ sdroo ila hildd aU They went to Eu- 

jJL\ ASM* ^JA ifranj min sittat rope six months 

ashhor, ago. 

c^ Uiiw ^U-» Jic ciwrf samdQ.ihom On hearing a state- 

Ij.U Js-f-ftJi I JA fa'yfcrir win kd- ment of this sort 

^j^JsaA tha 'I'kaUl 'sd- they began to 

roo ya'd'hakoo, laugh. 



112 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC PARLANCE. PRONONCIATION. BNGt. EQUIVALEMTS.'* 

LiJ U«JUj ^ i->3J taoih fi taplimina He has taught us 
Ufec ^aca6 GatMm, with great la- 

bour. 
i>l^ 4lll A4^ l5j^ wajadna hirah- By the grace of 

Tnat allah rd- God we have 

'hah, found repose. 

» 
! l^il J*^ #»j:*« #»^1 alyoum maghyoom It is very cloudyy 

\/£)ajc foryaMamil an- perhaps it will 

rmha tam'tor ha- rain much. 

> 

thir, 

A^ Aftli^l jJI t'sh (3 ^ hdthih adddr In this house there 
(u^O ^^jsf 'kd^ah wa tha- are a hall and 

Z^^to hoyoot three rooms. 

1 jjb dlsL ^^9 j-i^ moTi^A ^a77( hala- How long is it 

j^ ghak hdtha ^Jr since you re- 

chahar, ceived this news ? 

<^Jl«J Ijjb juJ So bikam tahio, hdtha For how much will 

li sidif you sell this to 

my master ? 

ju^ ^ Uft ^1 i6'A;a A<ma 'hatta Remain here an- 

narjac., til we return. 



DIALOGUES. 113 

ARABIC FABLANOB. PROKUNCIATION. ENGL. EQUIVALENTS. 

(5JJI ^J* \j^^\ fi^ wakac, assikkin The knife fell from 

aJI J^ min yadi fi 'n- my hand into 

nahr^ the river, 

j^, V (^JJl jjLjVI aUinsdnallathi(il- A man who can- 

^Jlj]\ ^y^\ ij^) JCj li) la yakdir not speak the lan- 

o^j5*^^jCLj yatakallam hi- guage of the peo- 

Q,yX ^j^ loghat aWkoum pie among whom 

allathin yaskon he sojourns may 

beinahom 'had sometimes be in 

yamoot min ah danger of starv- 

joo^f ing. 

j^\^ 'ha'd'dir aUfotooTy Get the breakfast 

ready. 

{{jrtP^j^ hj^ j-^ ishwi showhy^yat Toast some bread, 

A-lc O*-*-) fi^j chohz (ceish) and butter it. 
»jjj wa 'ho'tt c,aleih 
zobdahf 

^ ULl Ja hal al ma yaghli, Does the water 

boil? 
j^li jjls^ A>-|^ ^i ac'fi aUShawdjah Give the gentle- 
st fi^j^n shdy d^ man another cup 
chaVf of tea. 
I 




114 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC PARLANOB. PROKUNCIATION. ENGL. EQUIVALEirn. 

djlfl^ajb ^ji aJL^I aomiloh 'hawi hiU Make it strong 

kifAyah wa itha enough ; and pat- 

wa!dae,tjih 'ha^ ting in it plenty 

libkathirwasoh' of milk and sugar 

haryajiddiman you will always 

'ty-ih bikeith makeitgood,pro- 

yakoon al-ma vided the water be 

yaghliy actually boiling. 

ky^j^j^ [J^ ^^\ aotinijinjdn'kah' Give me a cup of 

^J<^y^ wah wa-sho why- coffee, and a lit- 

yatsokkarkamdn tie more sugar. 

)l^j^s>ij ^jo^ j^\ uli'kheidwal&kin Boil some eggs, 

^jM^ aJj^ la tochallih ye- but do not let 

hasj them get hard. 

( JLc) y.^^ oLft hdt chohz (c£ish) Bring bread,8weet- 

dia^ cAiJ^j waholtviydt meat8,and cakes. 

wakaok, 
jJa\ U A\ \^jto oil anta (ant) ta^rif You know I can- 

JiA {J* (i^ *rir*^ ^^^^ '"^ a'kdir not drink tea 

v^JL ashrab shay min without cream. 

gheir 'halih, 

cr* U^ ^^j j^ al-chobz radi maU The bread is bad, 
J^l &n min arraml, and full of sand. 



DIALOGUES. 115 

A&ABIO PABLANCE. PRONITNCIATIOV. EKQL. EQUIVALENTS. 

Uft 4J J^\ {jji\ \Jl\ almd aUathi inoa- The water with 
^J«2 (j^U (^llll maZ 2)i^ A4tAa which this tea 

ashshdy ma kdn is made has not 
yaghlij been boiling. 

^1 ^ a! U ma loh 'tapm as- It has no taste at 

lathy all. 

\^\jj»^^ ^LkU Ji 'kol li'ttabbdch yo' Tell the cook to 
ijJlsll AcUl j^ 'kad'diralghada have the dinner 1 

^ 'ssdaah ath' ready at three/ 
thdlithah, o'clock. 

j^\^ ijjl j^Ju-rfli yd-sidi alghada Sir, dinner is \ 

'hd'divy ready. ' 

ULAaj 'iijy^\ ^ji^ aine ashshourahah Where is the soup, 
ij^yJi wa-mil^akat and the soup 

askshourabah, spoon ? 

{jr t^ i-j^ ^>^ yift showyyat ceish Bring some bread, 
U—^^-^^ (>*') (chobz) wa-batd- potatoes, greens, 
^JJ^\ {jj ij^j tis wa-bhodrah asparagus, cab- 
kJ;5ll^ «-J;flJlij zy al'halyoon bage, cauliflow- 
J^JJltJ ^^^\ wal malfoofwal ers, turnips, car- 

'karnabt't waU rots, and cucum« 
lift wal-jazar hers. 
wal'chiydr, 
i2 



116 DIALOGUES. 

▲BABIO PARLA5CB. PROKUNCIATION. ENQL. EQUIYALBHT8. 

^)U^ ^ ^ k^^ jib la km hakar wa Bring some beef, 
9^^j dU*!^ J^j 'dAn wa'cigl wa^ mutton, veal, 

samak wa^dajAjj fish, and fowL 
<^^i i {jSksA \j^ ghada nataghodda To-morrow we 
(^ ^ vX <^*^^ Ji'rrifibGath koll shall dine in the 
i^ *%^ waktohy country : send 

every thing in 
time. 
^^ Sj^ SS^ jjVi aldn yomkinkom Now you may aU 
jj^\ ^^ato l^ilkJ koUokom an tan- depart, you have 

'talikoOy maer leave. 
kom ithn, 
Jcib i jjb j»--l J Js 'kol li ism hdtka Tell me the name 

biloghatikom^ of this in your 

own language. 
(^jJi J^V J-ftJ V la ta'hol liahad Do not tell any one 
yjoyo^, (!tU A-sJLi aliathi 'koUoh what I said to 

u^l:5^1 (!tU^ ^^ bichosoos you about that 

fA^/«A aZ A:i^a&, book^ 
Ljb ^ J JS 'X;o/ ZoA ya;e ^07ta, Bid him come 

here. 
^;c3 (^^ AJl a! Ji kol loh innok cha- Tell him he is a 

bith kabir, great rogua 



DIALOGUES. 117 

AAABIO PABLA5CB. PROKUNOIATIOir. XVOL. SQUIYALBNTS. 

oyl^ *>\J^ Jl ^ J^ chothni ila aUcho/- Take me to Mr. B. 

wdjahfoldn, 

{jij^^ {J^ ^^ vsJl ant tikt can attor You have lost the 

4:^ Jl ri'k ila beiioh, road to his house. 

151 ^^J ^J» ^ U Tfia ma^i fohos I have no cash 

dL*^ J^U ^^jjuj waWcinithata- about me, but if 

J-* vi bi^tani tachoth you will follow 

foloosakfi heitij me you will re- 
ceive your mo- 
ney at my house. 

lijUb J^ Ja AaZ tatakallam bi^ Do you speak our 

lisdnina, language ? 

JCjI Ijl c5*3uM»lji ^ naGamyd-sidi ana Yes, Sir, I can 

3U5 ^y^l> atakallam biU speak a little 

exirdbi 'kalUy Arabic, 

»jjb ;^ eU ^J ^ 'had eish lakfi hd- How long have 

^^1 tkih al'bildd, you been in this 

country ? 

c;L«lfi * c^clm sanateinj cdmein, Two years. 

LGI (^jie v*,,<^J omkoth e,indi ey- Abide with me ar 

(ryi r^ *y* y^''* 'kalilah, few days. 

(^ai» youm)j 

l^aS' iJbbI »jue cindoh ahliyah He possesses great 

Q£Lthimah, ability. 



I 



118 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC PARLANCE. PRONUNCIATION. ENGL. BQtTlVALSNTB. 

^^li J*.^ yt kowa rajol 'kddiry He is an able man. 

J«5 jjft i;ji* dJ lakmakdarah^a- Are you able to do 

Ijjb laji^l hdtha, this? 

iyts- L^lc ^--^* ^on^ ghd'ib pasha" I bave been absent 

aM rat ey-ydm^ ten days. 

Jjts <r^ u^ V^ y«;*i2> a/i natajan- We ought to ab- 

ji^\ nab Jicl ash* stain from com- 

skarVf mitting evil. 

CyU \sSjb J!i^sa]\ al'kaldm hdhatha It is absurd to 

( J^\ Xo) fdrigh {'didd aU speak thus. 

mac.'kool)y 

csLs?^ U jXi i-i. 'choth 'kcbdr ma Take as much as 



j\^ ^jXA yocjihah cindi you please, I have 

kathivy abundance. 

z^js, U* \s^j J* halraditbima pa- Do you accede 
)lj\ dLk racJ^ caleik ou to what I have 

la, proposed, or 

not? 
i (j^\ »->li^sJl al-kitdballatMba- The book you sent 
Jj-flJ^ J^ J ca^Af Z^ 'A<^s aZ- me was accept- 

'kabooly able. 

^J!;^ ^ i.^!/ (J c^^ ^'^ ^^ tordji'kni Except you ac- 

la aroo'hy company me, I 

will not go. 



DIALOGUES. 119 

A&ABIO PARLANOS. PRONUNCIATION. SNOL. EQUIVALENTS. 

(«^0 f^^ U^ *^*^ ^ ^^ 'hctdart an ah- I was not able to 
{S^]j» logh (otammim) accomplish my 

morddiy wishes. 

c^Ui* jjt» csbufi Ja hal c,indak maaoh Have you an ac- 

'hisdhy count with him ? 

^^ A>1 iJa (A^l oshtoki aaleih an- He is accused of 
Am no^ sarak mO' robbing his maa, 

e/zllimoh, ter. 

ii^i ^ dLii :>j|e pawwid nafsak Accustom yourself 
h\:^\j c,ala H'kirdrah to read and write. 

walkitdbahf 
]^ Lu\» l^\ »JJb hdthih aUfdkihah This fruit is very 

hdmi'dah jiddan, acid. 
iK^Tt-J^U* »JJ^ cindoh ma^nf He has many ac- 

kathirakf quaintances. 

Ji)^ t—5,l»« J-«> 'haksal ma^rif He has acquired 

jazilahf great knowledge. 

^j> V^^ J-«-a-J^ aUjiol atty-ib ja- A good action de- 

L* Uillj f^ir hiththand serves our praise. 

(^^ ^ lju>. j^ jft ho mojidd jiddan He is exceedingly 
(JJuLll)^Vl Ji tkdlik al-amr active in that 

(ashskoghl), business. 



120 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC PARLANCE. PRONUNCIATION. ENGL. EQUIVALENTS 

• ^:iS^ ^^^j zMatjamkiyatohf He has received 

an addition to 

; his salary. 

i l2». Ijjb hdtha chdtt yoor This is admirable 

jib, writing. 

\ 



cU j^j! du« i-.^* ataaajjah mink li" I admire him for 

wofoor aihnoh, his great learn- 
ing. 

J^ U) JLI V la osallim bima I do not admit of 

ta'koolj what you say. 

iUl 1 JJb ^^ftLJ^jiJ to'MiV toslifni hdr Can you advance 

tha 'l-mablaghy me this sum ? 

__ Jl ^ ^jiJ jfjjl al'Mcbo tahad- The enemy has 

£2am 'Aaf ^a ila — advanced as far 



as 



^J^ J cii^ »»>^^ (jl eyef&'idahyakoon Of what advan- 
I jjb Zi mtn hdtha, tage will that be 

to me? 
c^ Jij^ u^) U^ j^ ^^^ ^^ zamdn She has long been 

^3--a)l 'tawUfi 'ddik, in adversity. 

^ ((sl::sj^) (ftjbl^ L ma rdyak {na- What is your ad- 
ji^\ lift ii'Ao^fl^) fi hd- vice in this af- 

tha 'l-amr, fair ? 



DIALOGUES. 121 

A&ABIO PARLANCE. PRONUNCIATION. ENGL. EQUXTALENTg. 

\ijyb»j^\ ^jV v.jilS^ takallaf li-an ath" Heaffectedagreat 
i^-i^a har maoTOofko show of kind- 

thivj ness. 

* A!\3Ki)s^2Lafl)UJA hdtkik aUMssah This history is af- 
(iilU moaththirah{fac.' fecting, 
ediahy bdlighah), 
Ji>. i^jA yrtUl^^kj yothhir linnds mu' He shows great af- 

waddah jazilahy feetion for the 

people. 
^ji\ j^ uJli.1 tl a»a achdfmin at- I am afraid to go 
dbb jl tawajjoh ila ha- there. 

j» r '^^ U^ *H^^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ q;^a- I do not wish to 

(aa-JT) hoh (aksifoh)f affront him. 

c/* J^ J* ^ V*^ sinnaha md ho ak* Her age is not 
t:^ JLc ^Aar witw c£ishr more than ten 

^inin^ years. 

yt ^^ A^ s^j^ tacrif skeickoh Do you know who 

man ho, is his tutor ? 

J^ U Ac diwU owdfi'kah cala md I agree to what 

ta'hoolj you say. 

dL-e jj^T jl«l ^5! eyeittifd'kcdnbeir What agreement 
Aioj w«^ wa-beinoh, had you with him? 



1 



122 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC PARLANCE. PRONDNCIATION. ENGL. EQDIYALBBTS. 

J^l (JeV)>^" (J^ ^^ taghyeer {tab- What alteration 

dil) acmalj shall I make ? 

1 jjb ^ ( JJf) jJU ialahha (tasalla) Amuse yourself a 

iUj J^\ fi hdtha 'I bos- while in the gar^ 

tdn 'kalilf den. 

i^jj 5LljJ^ » J-Jb hdthih madinah This is an ancient 

(ifl-sc) 'kadimah (ca- city. 

1 jjb ctLasj Ja Aa/ yogh'dibak hd' Does this make 

f Aa, you angry ? 

^,|^ 1 jjb ^1 uJ;« ta^?nf ism hdtha Do you know this 

H-hayawdrif animal's name ? 

»JA Ljl^^^JojojJi* takdir toc!tini Canyon give me 

aI^I jawdb hdthih an answer to this 

« almasaalahy question? 

<.^S\ ^ (jlii (i ^t anafi 'haldh'haU I am anxious to 

ttlUft Jl ta athhab ila get there. 
hondkj 

S^ ^ jjocl L ma idtathar can He made no apo- 

solookoh, logy for his mis- 
conduct, 

i^^ a31 J^^ yathhar li annoh It appears to me 

gharib, very strange. 



DIALOGUES. 123 

ARABIC P4BLAK0B. PRONUNGIATIOV. ENGL. EQUIVALKNTS. 

J^\ U Lj»j.aiyJ Jft hal tastaswib ina Do you approve of 

akool, what I say? 

hy J5V^ 3,ji yoorid daldil 'ka- He uses very 

wiyahy strong argu- 

ments. 
j^jkAJ oai«w Jft AaZ samiot btko- Have you heard of 

doomokj his arrival ? j 

U*b v^ ^^ ®^^ aUmalik kdn ^la The king was at 
A.^ r'dsjeishoh, the head of his 

army, 
^1 etU jj i^ \ \m md li 'chibrah hir I am not acquaint- 

thdlik alfann, ed with that art. 
yyll:;^ ^ Aom mo'htdloon, They are very art- j 

ful. 
iiLa^ IsLtfl ^^j^Us) yatacd'toon amdf They deal in va- 

mochtalifah, rious articles. 

Ji ftUu ^jVI \:i^ challinaalrdnnaU Let us now ascend 
jjLl la^ ila aljabal, the mountain. 

1jK«s>l dj^l Ja| ahl alr'kar-yah y- The people of the 

tamaexyOy village assem- 

bled. ( 

IsX^ (oAi) \s^\ raeit (shoft) ja* I saw a great as- 
^Ui ^ A^kfi mdcah cathi" sembly of peo- 

mah min annds, pie. 



124 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC PARLAKOE. PROKUNOIATION. ENOL. IQVIVALEIfTS. 

f 

(sLij^ uJLt 'hahilt bi'ina^roch I assent to your 

'daky proposal. 

(»U ja A^l jfij zaoam annoh ca- He asserted that 

thdlik, it is so. 

La9u j^LJ ^1 u^ yajib an nosdoid We ought to assist 

Luu bacdna ba^dan^ each other. 

j\jL'i\ iS^i^U" bU limdtha tocdshir Why do you asso- 

arrif'hdh alrosh' ciate with eyil 

r<^r, company ? 

v3 u^ *^^ ^ ji**"' ohakkik lak an- I assure you there 

Ja».y»V\ \JA nohleUfi hatha is no danger in 

'Z-amr chatavy that matter. 

Uj«^^ jjjill 2lL». Shiydlat aU^adoo The enemy's ca- 

tktdhamoona, vahy attacked us. 

Ltf^ ^ V^lP ^ challina nowdthib Let us attend to 

exilafardiruiy our duties. 

Jxll ^ aaCu ^ hia monGakifah She pays attention 

Gala 'Z ctZ/7»y to learning. 



VOCABULARY. 



V. stands for verb. 

s. .... substantive. 



A. 

Ability, S^ja* * Aclku^l ma'h- 

darakf isti'tapah 
Able,^\i 'hddir 
Abode^ J^**** inazkan 
Above, ^jtfouk 
About, J^ 'houl 
Absence, u^Lc ghiydb 
Absent, ^Jle ghdib 
Absurd, Jl^ ♦ ^^j^Tnohaly 

gheir aVhak'k 
Abundance, ipkathrah 
Acceptance, J^ 'kabool 
Accident, c^j toakooG 
Ache, juy wajc, 



Acid, ^jA*U 'hdmtd 
Acquaintance (knowledge), 

iijMjt maprifah 
Acquainted, t^lc * ^^ «Jk» 

s,drifj motallic, aala 
Action, ^y^ififX 
Active, J^ ♦ l^ eamoolf 

mojidd 
Additional, i^U^ ziyddah 
Admirable, v-*ai^ ♦ fS\j mo- 

cjib, rdie, 
Advantage, i^fdidah 
^advantageous, jJU*ft5l3 mo- 

fidy ndJtG^ 
Adversary, j^\j^ mocMsim 
Advice, l^ nasi hah 



126 



VOCABULARY. 



Advise (to give notice), ^\ 

a6hhar 
Affection, »:^ mawaddah 
Affectionate, j^j^j wadood 
Afraid, Ud\^ chdif 
After, jju hac,d 
Again, dijT* UjI cathdlUc, 

ey'dan 
Against, ^ Gala 

Against (opposed to), Xo 
'didd 

Mi 

Age, ^^ »^ sinuy comr 
Agent, JJ5j wakeel 
Agree, ^^ Utafak 
Agreeable, ^^ 






« * il^sl 



(3*!^ 



mo$htaha, mowdfi'k 
Agreeement, L^ «Aar7 (pi. 

Lj^ shorooi) 
Aid, sjcL^ mosde,adah 
Air, 1^ Aa2£*^ 
Alive, V 'Aye 
Allovirance (permission)i 

»jl».^ * ^;ii ijazah, Uhn 
Alter (to), jjc ghayyar 
Always, U>i^ ddiman 



'hO' 



Among, \jo bein 

Amuse, ^^4^* ♦ jJ-j talakha, 

tasaUa 
Amusement,^ lahw , 
Anchor, ^m^ marm 
Ancient, fixS » 

c2eem, eMtee'k 
Animal, i^)]^ 'haywdn 
Answer, v, u^jU Jdwab 
Answer, s, u^Lk. jawdb 
Anxious, jflf 'kalik 
Apple, -.Iw toffah 
Approve, V. b^j.A::.i»li9to'«toa& 
Arise, ^li 'kdm 
Arms (weapons), ^^«t/(iA 
Army,^^lft ooskar 
Arrival, J^ « ^jji too'iool, 

'kodoom 
Art (trade), a«Li» « ^^ 'son- 

c,ahy 'hirfah 
Artful, u-i^l^ ♦ ^\^ nuh 

'hdrify ddhi 
Ashes, ^U. ramdd 
Ask, JU sa-al 
Ass, jl^fc. 'himdr 



VOCABULARY. 



127 



Assemble^ a^jama^ 
Assist; ^jlci aeAn 
Assure^ s^\ accad 
Astonish; V^ p^jj^^ 
Attack; V. ^ hojam 
Attention; »Lii ♦ ^\j;>\ in- 

tibdhf i'htirds 
Attentive; ^usu montabih 
Authority; A^ * ^^UaU sol- 

'tahf sol'tdn 
Autumn; cJj^ khareef 
Avoid; c^^ tajannab 
Aw^e; V. ka^i isteikath 
AxC; ^\3fds 

B. 

Back;^^ zahr 
Bad; ;5^ rac?i 
Bag; ^juSkees 
Baggage^ JloJl ath'kdl 
Baker; :L>. chabbdz 
Barber; jiU 'halld'h 
Bargain; a«^L^ « aj^ mosd'- 

wamah, sharyah 
Barrel; J-*/ barmeel 



Barley; jjjtl ska^eer 

Basket, J^j zambeel 

Beans, ^^fool 

Beard; iX^ lihyah 

Beautiful; J^ jameel 

Bed, fjt^farsh 

Bees, J^* na'hl 

Before, JJ ♦ Jji 'kabl, awwal 

BeggSLTyjJafakeer 

Begin, \jjj\ ibtada 

Beginning, *jj ♦TjujI ibtiday 

bada 
Believe, jx* 'saddak 
Bell, (jaj>.jaras 
Belly, ^ fta'^w 
BeloW; li^ ia'Ai 
Beyond, *l^j ward 
Big, ^ 'dachm 
Bird,>Jfi» 'teir{^\.jy2o 'toyoor) 
Bishop, e_ft£*.l oskof 

Ml 

Bite, ^jic ca'dd 
Bitter,^ morr 
Black; ^jJ\ aswad 
Blame; v. ^V ♦ ^ Idm, 
wabbach 



128 



VOCABULARY. 



Blessing, iSj harahak 
Blind, ^^1 aema 
Blood, ^^ dam 
Blossom (flower), .y nour; 

^^9 kimm 
Blow(a stroke) fhj^'darh ah 
Blue, fjj^\ azrah 
Body, ^^^ *x^jfsmfjasad 
Bold,^^«-jj. jasoor 
Bolt (of a door), e^ 'ddbh 
Bone, Jic QXithm 
Book,c^U^a kit Ah (pi. i^^ 

kotob) 
Bookseller, u^:^) s3\i bdic. 

at kotob 
Borrow, ^lai-*! istaodr 
Bottle, a.;/i 'kinntnah 
Bottom,^ '/tacr 
Bough, g;» /ar^ (pi. gj/ 

fovoo^ 
Bought, ^jJLm moshtara 
Bow (to shoot with) ^jp 

'kous 
Box, ^^x^ 'sandoo'k 
Brain, cU^ dimdgk 



'BrB,nch,^JMe>*c^gho'8nffarp, 
Brass, ^U na'hds 
Brave, ^,jjs^ jari 
Bread, j^ (Syr.) chobz; 

Breadth, ^^ pard 
Break,^^ kasar 
Breath, ,j^ nafas 
Brick,^! ajorr 
Bride, fj^j^ onroos 
Bridegroom, (j^jjc ♦ tfiij^ 

Q,aroo8y parts 
Bridle, J^ lijdm 
Bright, ^ bahiy 
Bring, inip.j.a^\ * oU a'A- 

'dir, kdt 
Broken, ^j-^ maksocr 
Brother, ^\ ach 
Brown, ^,4-^1 asmar 
Brush, iLj forshak 
Build, ^ bana 
Bum, V. a. and v. n. j(^l 

i'ktara'k 
Bury, ^^i dafan 
Busy, J^itJL* mashgJiool 



VOCABULARY. 



129 



Batter^ ^^^««m samn 
Button, •• zarr 
Buy, {j^\ ishtara 

C. 

Cabbage, u-j/» ^^yL ho- 

ronhf malfoof 
Cable, J^ 'hahl 
Cage, ^j^ 'hafas 
Cake, i^J^kack 
Calf, JsP ^jl (pi. J^ ^0- 

j'ool 
Calm(of the sea), ^JL» sakin 
Camel, J^ jamal (pi. Jlj*. 
. jimdl 

Camp, ^Xmou moc,askar 
Candle, «^ shame, 
Captain, ^jlki 'kaptdn 
Care, i^ljis ♦ ^U^l G.indyahy 

ilitimdm 
Careful, jj/^i^ * (•s^* harl'Sf 

mohtimm 

Mr 

Carpenter, ^lis najjdr 
Carpet, «^lsf^ sajjddah 
Carry, J^. 'hamal 



Cash, jiS 7ta'A(]^ 
Cask, J^ harmil 
Castle, Axii 'kalcah 
Cat, y '^i/^ (pi. Lliii 'Ai^^O 
Catch, «. j>l » jj^ achth, 

'kah'd 
Cause, u.<w^ «a2)a6 (pi. L^L*»i 

dshdh) 
Cautious, jj^ mohtariz 



Celebrated, j^^JL* mashhoor 
Certain, (sure) ji^ ??*o- 

'hakki'k 
Chain, aUL salsalah 
Chair, ^^korsee 
Change, v. Jjj haddal 

Hi 

Charge (to order),^^ ?r« ssa 
Cheap, ^jo^j rdchi's 
Cheat, V. ^jic ghashsh 
Chicken, ^^jfarrooj 
Child, jjj wa/ai (pi. ^Vjl 

ot^Zac?) 
Choose, ^1:^.1 ic'hfdr 
Chosen, ^Iss^ mochtdr 
Church, i^^kanisak 
Circle, i^b ddirah 

K 



130 



VOCABULARY. 



Circumstance, JU 'hdl (pi. 

Jlj>.i ahwdl) 
City, A :.o,.» madinah (p]. 

jjIjl* modon.) 
Civil (polite), i^jL:l^ wo- 

taaddib 
Clay, ^^ '^^/^ 
Clean, t^ijlai nathif 
Clever, ^li jSU sh'dtir, 

'hdthi'k 

Climb, IflJ,! irtakd 
Clock, AfiUi sdcxih 

Clothe ,L.> ♦ yrr ; ^^ /fflWflT, 

albas 
Cloud, i^Uf^ 5a'Aa6 
Coach, A-*5^* Ajtl)^ kai'roo- 

mhf c.arahdyah 
Coal, ^ fahm 
Coast, Ja-L. .<f(i'At7 (pi. J».[j-. 

sawdhil) 
Cock, (sJbi dik 
Coffee, ij^ liahicah 
Cold, ij Z^flrc? 
Colour, ^^J) Zoim (pi. ^Jl^l 



Comb, kl« mosh't 
Come, imp. JlaJ tapdla 

Comfort, i».l^ » bb rahah, 

hand 
Commence, Ij^l ibtada 
Commerce, j^ matjar 
Common, (shared by seve- 
ral) ^jiJL^ moshtarak 
Common (inferior,) ^ doon 
Communicate (inform), Jcl 

apJam 
Companion, j-»^ rafik (pL 

^\i3j r of aha) 
Company, s. hxa- jamciyah 
Compare, v. ^}i K&yas 
Compass, ^\^ hihir 
Compassion, lAil shafahah 
Compel, a)11 * rr^^ ahsam, 

ahwaj 
Competent, ^^Li ♦ j^j^^ 
'kd^diVf jadir 

Complain, ^j^ tashakha 
Completion, J-«^ takmeel 
Comply, c-iJJ ♦ ^j 'kdbUf 
ra'di 



VOCABULARY. 



131 



Comprehend, (understand) 

Conceal, ^J^ * ^^l^M^^ 

hatam 
Conclude(fini9h), ^ c^a^am 

Conclusion, ^lii. ehitdm 
Condemn (to death), ^^ 

cmJIj 'hakam hil mout 
Condition, (state) JU 'hdl 

(pi. Jlja.! a'hu'dl) 
Condition (of agreement) 

]e,Jl, shar't (pi. kjyl 5^0- 

roo't) 
Conduct (on the road), v. 

aJIi * J^5 shy-ya^fWassal 
Confession, jl^l i'krdr 
Confidence (trust), av thi- 

Conquer,^ * cJic 'kaharj 

ghalab 
Conquered, «->^ maghloob 
Consent, v. ^j ra'di 
Consent, s, ^j ri'da 
Consequence (in), i^ nati- 

mh 



9t 

Consider, j^\ ♦ J^U ieia- 

bar, ta-ammal 
Consult,^jli shdvoar 
Contain, Jiwl uhtamal 
Contented, ^\j ♦ ^ rd'di^ 

Continue (persevere), jiJ^ 

istamarr 
Contrary, ,_i5U. ♦ Xi childf, 

'didd 
Contrive, ij3^ irta-d 
Convenient, v-a-Ii* * J*^ 

mondsiby moldim 
Conversation, i-tUt» mochd- 

tabah 
Convey (remove), Jw na- 

'kal 
Cook, •li 'tdbbdch 
Cool, c-Jo, ratb 
Cord, J-a. 'Aa&Z (pL JV>^ 

ahbdl) 
Cork, ijlju*. sidddah 
Com, ^ 'kam'h, 
Cost, ^ thainan 
Cotton, ^jia5 '^o'^n 



132 



VOCABULARY. 



Cough, JUmi socdl 

Count, (number, reckon) 

jc * L,M».> c.add, %asdb 
Country, ^% » l-rj^ hUddj 

reef 
Courage, l\j>. jard-ah 
Cow, IJj hakarah 
Cradle, ^^i^ sareer 
Credit (debt) ^^^ dine 
Crooked, ^js.\ ae,waj 
Crowd, ^\ zi'hdm 
Crow (a bird), c\j zdgh 
Crown, —IJ tdj 
^J*y? (to shout) ^j^ 'sa- 

rack 
Cry (to weep), \) hakd 
Cultivate, (the ground) tt>;&. 

liarath 

Cunning, .\Co makk^r 
Cup, ^S3 * ^J\s^ 'kadah, 

Jinjdn 
Cure, V. (tf«b ddwa 

Cure, s, \j^ dawd 
Curious, (strange) 
c/fjib 



Curtain, jijs^ sitdrak 

D 

Damp, c,^^ * (^«XJ rath, 

nadi 
Dance, v, ^j rakas 
Danger,^^ khatar 
Dare, ^W tajdsar 
Darkness, J^ thaJAm 
Date (fruit), j^ tamr 
Daughter, cu:** hint 
Dawn, j^ fajr 
Day, pj-i youm (pi. ^.U 

ayydm) 
Daytime, ^1^5 nah&r 
Dear (not cheap), Jlc ghdli 
Dear (beloved) <-*--^ '^&i6 
Death, oja mot^^ 
Debt, ^^i dine 
Deceive, pxi. chadac, 
Decide, ^j>^jjazam 
Deep, ^j*f e.amik 
Delay, ^U tdcMr 

U» Ml 

Delightful, ^Ui ♦ -^ *arr, 
mo/arri'A 



VOCABULARY. 



Delightedy j^j,^ masroor 
Deliverance, aLj taslim 
Demand, v. cJiL 'talab 
Denial, ^\^1 inkdr 

Ml 

Depend, u* jlaJ * ^^ ^JSy 

mm 

tapallakj tawak'haf 
Deprive, ^^^ 'haram 
Describe, s^Juaj wasaf 
Desert, s.ji 'kafr 
Deserving, jj^^*^ mosta- 

'hik'k 
Desire, s, "Lcj raghhah 
Desirous, s^\j rdghib 
Despair, ^jjjya-is 
Despise, ^^1 i'hta'har 
Destroy ,^i ♦ dlUi dammar, 

ahlak 

Detain, j^ * ,j**-ft. * dL**l 

c.aW'Wakj 'habaSy amsak 
Determine (decide), ^^j^ 

jazam 
Diamond, ^j-U ♦ jj*.ULl mds, 

almas 
Difference, j^*u35^/ar'^, 

child/ 



133 

Different, t-dlj^ mochdHf 

Difficult, ^,Altl0 'sapb 

Difficulty, hjx^ 'soc,oobah 

Dig,^^ 'hafar 

Diligent, s^a^ mojtahid 

Dine, ^^jJu taghadda 

Dinner, uc ghadd 

Dirty, >*»j wasich 

Disagreeable, i^J^mahrooh 

Discontented, ^\^j^ ghire 
rd'di 

Discourse, t->lk>. * a^jft. 
'chi'tdby 'hadith 

Discretion, 'y^ * jj^i. tarn- 
yeezj roshd 

Dishes, ^^^*^^\s^ 'so'hoon, 
'si'hdf 

Dishonest, ^^^1 jic ghire 
amin 

Dislike, v, lif karih 

Dismiss, (remove from of- 
fice) J^ oxJLzal 

Disobey, ^ac ca'sa 

Displease, ]o\zs\ ightdth 

Dispute, V. JiU jddal 



134 



VOCABULARY. 



Distance^ S*i hocd 

Mi 

Distinguish^ J-s-* wa?/- 
yaz 

Distress, 5. l->^ karh 
Do, ^fa^al 
Doctor, K_r \- 'tahib 
Dog, c-^JLT haJh (pL ^\^ 

hildb) 
Door, c->L) 6d6 (pi. «->!h^ 

Doubtful, u-A->^ ♦ (j«> . : 1 • 

moriby moltabis 
Dove, i«U». liamdmah 
Down (under), o^ taht 
Draw, ^,_». ♦ L-*^ y^r?'. 

Dream, 5. J>. * ^L« liolm, 

mandm 
Dress, v. a. \jf* ^j»J\ kasa, 

albas 
Drive (out of a country), 

^ 'tarad 
Drink, v. c,^ sharib 
Drink, «. (applied especially 

to wine) i^\^ shardb 



Drop, s. Ak£ no'h'tah 
Drum, JJo 'tdbl 
Drunk, ^^J^ sakrdn 
Dry, ^.Jlli n<i*A[/' 

Duck, ik) battah 

Dust, t->y <ord& 

Duty, ^^^ ♦ ^^j fard, 

wdjib 
Dwell, jd sakan 

E 

Eagle, y«J nfl«r 

Ear, ^J'^\ othn, (pi. ^jUI 

dthdn) 
Earn, (acquire by industry 

&c.) i^^^hasdb 

Ml 

Earnest, ^jidd 

Earth, ^j^l ar^i 

Earthenware, J^fac'hc'hdr 

Earthquake, dJ^ zakalah 

East, j;^ shark 

Easy, J^ «a/i/ 

Eat, jTl a^a/ 

Edge (of a sword), j^ 'hadd 

Education, l^J tarbiyah 



VOCABULARY. 



135 



Effect (trace), yl athar 
Egg, A-Lj* hy'dah 
Elegant^ ^^Jo thaHf 
Elephant, JJ fil 
Eloquence, hJ^fa'sd'hah 
Empire, XJaL sal'tanah 
Employ (make use of), 

J^xL^il istacmal 
Employment, Jssr^\ istich- 

ddm 
Empty, p^fdrigh 

Encourage, «-^ ♦ V^ 

shajjac,, raghghah 
End,^l * Ipl dkhir, intihd 
Endeavour, v. JjU * x^^ 

'hdwaly ijtahad 
Enemy, jSc cadoo (pi. \s^\ 

ac.dd) 
England, ijiiC\ Inhilterrah 
Enough, (sufficiency) h\j^ 

hifdyah 
Entirely, iJsIl) hil kolliyah 
Envy, JuM^ 'hasad 
Equal, (jrjL*^ mosdwi 
Error, iaU ghalat 



Escape, v. l^ * viJii naja, 

aflat 
Establish,^:*^ * lijl ihahhat, 

aiuka 
Estate, diUi * ^l5c amldk, 

^a'kdr 
Eternal, (^JjI Jjl ahadee, 

azalee 
Evening, L^ m^j;<i 
Event, Ajtillj wahic,ah 
Evidence, i^Li shahddah 

Evil,^ ♦^ 500, sharr 

Europe, \ijj\ aurobbo 

Exact, ]oj^ * j^ mad- 
boot, moliarrar 

Example, Jli« ♦ Ijks. mithdl, 
c.ibrah 

Excellent, J^l» * cjofadil, 
baric. 

Exchange (substitute), s, 
Jjj badal 

Excuse, s, j^^ aothr 

Exile, jjjo 'tar^d 
Expect,^^! intathar 
Expended, uJjy-** mas^*oqf 



136 



VOCABULARY. 



Experience,^L:S.l * hjS> ich- 

tihdr, iajrihah 
Explain, — ^ sharah 
Explanation, ^^uiJ tqfdr 
Express (messenger), -xU 

sdc.i 
Extensive, JjJl» madid 
Extent, iljgul imtiddd 
Extraordinary, »iUi «^5U. 

chilAf alc,ddah 
Extravagant, uJ;-** masrif 
Eye, c;i-c ^ne (pi. ^,j-^ 

coyoon) 

F 

Fable, iii^ « Ji* chordfah, 

matkal 
Face, i^j wajh (pi. 8^->j 

wojooh) 
Fag (tire), Lcl o^ya 
Faint, v. j|. * «-Jx*i wanoy 

'da^of 
Fair (weather), cJ-k) Za'/i/* 
Faithful, ^yL»l amin 
Fall, 5. c^ wohooo. 



False, jjj zoor 
Family, iLc c.eilah 
Famine, k^ '/ta'^^ 
Fancy, JU. * ^j chai/dl, 

wahm 
Fat, ^:;^JC*» 5awii» 
Father, c-*l a& 
Fatigue, i«aw ^acaft 
Fault, i»A:»c * A.a<iS cet&. 

Faultless, ^^a-c 51j fttZa petft 
Favour, ii* * i^ minnah, 
nioMah 

Favourable, ^g-©/* 

mardeey mostahahb 
Favourite, J.A a o « 

mofad'dal, mostahahb 
Fear, .9. t^ji. chouf 
Fearful, 5. <>-ftJL» * 

chdifj mac hoof 
Feast, j-j,.,c cii (pi. ^Lj-c^ 

flcyae^) 

Feather, ^.^ rish 
Features,^^Ul ♦^iU asarir, 



VOCABULARY. 



137 



Feed, v. y-alc * ^^L » ^1 
^lafy mdn, a't^am 

Fed, i^jl** macloof 

Feel, jj,*^ 'Aas5 

Female, JtSl ow^Aa 

Feny,^n3u machar 

Fetch, L->U^*<i6 

Few, JJ^ 'kalil 

Field, J5* 'hakl 

Fig, ^^ <i7» 

Fight, s. Jlis 'AiVa/ 

Figure (form), Ijy, 'soorah 

Fill, ^ malaa 

Find, j>j wajad 

Fingers, »AJ\ asdbip. 

Finish, i1 atamm 

Fire,^l3 ndr 

Fish, (<tUv«t « oj>. samaky 
'hoot 

Fisherman, jL* 'say-ydd 

Fix, ow-Ji ♦ j^ athbat, 
'karrar 

Flag, Jc QMlam 

Flame, ^^1 Za^^ 

Fling, ^j rama 



Flint, ^Jl^ 'saiowan 
Floor, jjAj-i*. 'hddi'd 
Flour, ^yj** » jj^ VaVan, 

Flower, Ijbj zahrah 

Fly, v.^O, 7<?.r 

Fly, t?.(run away ),uj^ karab 

Follow, %J tabic. 

Food, oj5*j,Ul» '^00^, 'ta- 

Q,dm 
Foolish, ^j^\ ahmak 
Foot, ^j rijl (pi. J-».^l 

arjol) 
Forbid, ^ ♦ «!• waAa, 

Force, «^ 'koowah 
Forehead, \jL^jdbin 
Foreign, i^^ ♦ ^1 gha^ 

rib, ajnabee 
Forest, h\t ghdbah (pi. c->lc 

^A(2ft) 
Forget, ^ nasi 

Forgive,^ ghafar 
Former J-jL- ♦ ^ji* sdbi'k, 
mokaddam 



ma- 



138 



VOCABULARY. 



Formidable, i^».^» * J>-«— • 

mahiby mahool 
Forsake, \^J *j^ tarak, ha- 

jar 
Fortune, cui£ * i«s-*i bacltty 

liismah 
Foundation, ^L»l asds 
Fountain, ^ycx * c^ c?«^, 

yanhooe, 
Fowl, jjJo 'tire (pi. jyt-^ 

'toyoor) 
Freedom (one's own will), 

J^\ ichtiydr 
Friend, u-*-a. 'habib 
Friendly, l^, bimahabbah 
Fresh, ij)o ♦ Jj j>. 'tari,jadid 
Frost, x\s^.jaUd 
Fruit, i^\3fdkihah 
Full, ^^ momtali 
Furnish, j^ jahhaz 
Furniture (of a house) ^^ * 

J^farshy jihdz 
Future, Jl» Jii^^ (i</, moS" 

takbil 



^^t^rnMH) 



G 

-3 kasah 



Gain, 

Garden, ^^Ii-mj bostdn (pL 

^^Lij basdtin) 
Gather, a^Jama^ 
General (of brigade), J1;C^ 

Generally, U^* \J\t aomoO' 

man, ghdliban 
Generosity, ^J^* \^ haram, 

sacha 
Gentle, uJ-U latif 
Gentleman (Mr.), ^j-^ 

chawdja 
Geography, iJ\^jaghrdJia 
Girl, cui) &iw^ 
Give, Wl ac'^a 
Glad, ^\».jfarhdn 
Glass, -.\»^ 2fo;4; 
Glory, j^ mo/ci? 
Gloves, r^ydkofoof 
Go, c->Jbi ♦ ^\j tJtakdb, rd'h 
God, aJLII allah 
Gold, (.^S thahab 

Good, u*-L '<y-i6 



VOCABU 

Govern, S^ 'hakam 
Oovemment, I.jSu. 'kokoO' 

mak 
Grand, ^pkc cal/dm 
Orandeur, 2tW aotkamak 
Grant, i^jo\ an^an 
Grapes, i_~:c exTtdb 
Grass, i_ic cwhb 
Grateful, jiSCli thakoor 
Gratitude, j*kJI J[^ fho- 

kerdn anni^mah 
Great, A^ calhim 
Green fj^\ ach'dar 
Groom, ,j-jL. s&is 
Ground, s. yi,l ar'd 
Grow, ^ nama 
Guide (direction), i!Vj da- 

Mak 
Guide (directer), JJj dakel 



Habit, i^W addah 
Hair,j«i shaar 
Half, ^i^ ni'*/ 
Hand, j^yot^ (pi. (^jjl a^t^i) 



LART. 139 

Handkercfaief,Jj;Ai>nanf£eeZ 
HandsoDie, ^j^jameel 
Happened (it), ,^^ • ju'l 

jara, ittafa'k 
HappinesB,!la^ • uU.^ ^At&- 

'iaA, sac&dah 
Happj, j^u »icii2 
Hard, ^ujIj • ,^1* y&hU, 'h&si 
Hardship, ijLi 'hat&wah 
Harvest, :>\.a>. 'ka's&d 
Haste, ilaP cajalah 
Hasten, J^^' istae.jal 
HarmlesSj^^^'ilj 6(Za 'darar 
Hat, *l>jj* bornei'tah 
Hate, ^jsiil abgha'd 
Have, j^ Jj* 'ha'ial aala 
Hay, iw,; IiaT-jim 
Head, u*lj rds 
Health, *^ sdh'hak 
Hear, bu. sami^ 
Heart, ^Ji 'iaft {pi. i_yli 

'iotooJ) 
Heavy, J^ tka'keel 
Heal, ^ jiq/a 
Heat, js. 'Aarr 



140 



VOCABULARY. 



Heel, i_ie aa'kab 
Help, V. .uUi sdaad 
Help, t. ij£l_ mosdaodah 
Hide, V. La. chabd 

High, ji* cdK 

Hill, jf(a(/ 

Hindrance, il^* ^jtjv mana, 

Hire, r. (^^ aAra 
Historj, i; jl' fdreeck 
Hold, D. (to seize) isL— . 

masak 
Hole, *. j^ c'kar'k 
Home, jyloj wa'tan 
Honey, J«.e casai 
Honour, yo,B • i_j^ atr'd, 

tharaf 
Hope, J*l amal 
Horn, ^^ 'karii (pi. ,;y^ 

'koroon) 
Hot, ^yi" roc'Aw 
Holy,^Uj 'tdhir 
Horse, ^la» 'hi'sdn 
Hour, icLi £(icaA 
House, yb • ii<j) rfficj &j(e 



(pi. _,LiJ « cy— J d'3"ir, 

&oyoot 
Humanity, i_jLj1 tnjiini^aA 
Hunger, ay^jooe. 
Hungry, ^^yfjouc&n 
Hurt, ti. i5JT(i(Aa 
Husband, p)j»J» eouj,bac.l 



Idle, ^tL/AasMn 
Idol, ^ 'lanam 
Ignorance, Jj* _?nAi 
Ignorant, ^li^Jdhil 
111, ijij^ mart'd 
Illneas, yo^ mara'd 
Image, i^j^ 'soorak 
Imagine, jj^ ta Mm-war 
Immediate, JU 'kdlee 
Imraense,^|j u'djir 
ImperTect, ^li n&'kis 
Important (affwr), ^ mo- 

himm 
Impossible, Jls* • J^ jie 

mo'hdl, ghirs momkin 



VOCABULARY. 



141 



Improbable^ J^s^ jic ghire 

mohtamil 
Improper, v-a-Ii* /^ ghire 

nwndsib 

Ml 

Imprudence, ij-4-> tahaw- 
wor 

Improve, ^j.„^ * ^ liassan, 
jawwad 



Impropriety, i_^.-*,LL-o ^XJi 
cxidam mondsdbah 

Impm'e, ,jaJl-a* Jl-c ghire 
chalis 

Incapable, .^L5 j^ ghire 
'kddir 

Incessant, A^ * J-^i^* ^^" 

im, motawd'sil 
Inclination, J^ ww'Ze 
Inclined, JSU m(^-iZ 
Include, ^^^ 'damman 
Income, j]^1 ♦ J_i.^ ^r<ic?, 

dachl 
Incomplete, ^»U^ ^ d p^tre 

Inconvenient, j«i^^ ^Aire 



• . ^ 



Incorrect, f^j^ ghire 
'hi'h 



sa- 



Increase, s, iAi\ ziyddah 
Increase, v, jh zdd 
Indifferent, j;y J^M highiri 

far'k 
Indisposition, -J^ uJl^l 

in'hirdf mizdj 
Infancy, iJyL 'tofooli-yah 
Infant, JiL 7?/^ (pi. JUL! 

Inferior, ^^^ * ^j j1 dooUyadna 

— 

Infinite, ^Ui*^ ^/Aire mo- 

tandhi 
Influence, i^ »^l; nofooth, 

taiheer 
Inform,^^! achhar 
Information, j<». chabar 
Ingenious, ^\ almac.ce 
Inhabitant, ^j>L. sdkin 
Inheritance, C^]^ mirdth 
Inheritor, ti^lj wdrith 
Inhuman, jLjLJl ^J^ cadam 

insdniyah 

Mi 

Injure,^ 'darr 



142 



VOCABULARY. 



Injury, ^> 'darar 

Injustice, Jl ithm 

Ink,^^-» liibr 

Innocence, iAj^ bard-ah 

Innocent, fj^) baree 

Insecure, ^j^^-a* ^n_i ghire 
madmoon 

Insensibility, ^)^ » asc jo- 
noon, c.aih 

Insincere, ^nlsi' ^ ghire 
mochli's 

Insolent, ^Ju*» safth 

Instant ( ready),^\». 'hadir 

Mi U( Mi 

Instruct, Jb * «-J;C * l^j^ 
pallam, parraf, dan^ab 
Insufficient, (^j^ ghire hdfi 
Intelligent, x^fahim 

Intention, iJ ni-yah 
Interest (advantage), S^U 

fd'idah 
Interest (of money), ^ j rib'h 
Interfere, Ji-ljJ tadac'hal 
Interpret, ^J tarjam 
Interpreter, ^J\».J tarjomdn 
Interrupt, «ki 'katac. 



Invent, cJisJ ic'htarac, 
Investigation, ti>^. ba'hth 
Invincible, c->ji*« j^ ghire 

maghloob 
Invite, Wi dac.d 
Iron, jj j>. 'hadid 
Irregular, ^-.j;-* j^ ghire 

morattab 
Island, Ijr^ jazeerah (pi. 

ji^js^ jcizd'ir) 

J. 

Jar, lj>.jarrah 
Jealous, ^^ gha-yoor 
Jest, -^ mazh 
Jewel,^j>. jouhar (pl.^lj^. 

jaivdhir) 
Join, J^j wa'sal 
Journal, jU^Jor7i<iZ 
Journey, ^,6*- safar 
Joy, ^J far ah 
Joyful, ^J^jfarh&n 
Judge, V. Ss*' * j<ai 'AaAawi, 

'kada 
Judgment (decree), S^ ♦ 

Ui 'hokniy 'kadd 



VOCABULARY. 



143 



Juice (lemon), j^,ac cxiseer 
Jump,^ ♦ ^j 'kafaZf wa- 

thab 
Just, ^^ * Jilt mo'hik'k, 

cddil 
Justice, fj>, * Jj^ 'hak'ky 

cadi 

K. 

Keel, Cy^fi^gyll j9a 'kac.r al- 

markab 
Keen (sharp), ^U 'hddd 
Keep, V. kfl> * ^\ 'hafiz, 

ah'ka 
Kept, Ujft^ mdhfooth 

Kettle, Ai^ ghalla-yah 
Key, -l:Ao miftd'h 
Kill, J» '^a/aZ 
Kind (sort), cy /lowc (pi. 

cljil anwdc.) 
Kindness, js^ * ^jLo-l r«/"^, 

King, dJU maZiVe (pi. (sJ^ 

molook) 
Kingdom, aCLc mamlakah 



Kiss, V. (jrfl ♦ JJ bdSf 'kab' 

bal 
Knee, iS\ rokbah 
Kneel, «J^ ♦ li*. rakap, 

jatha 
Knife, [jSm sikkeen 
Knock, V. c^ 'karap 
Knot, sjic Q,clkdah 
Know, u-i;C c,araf 
Knowledge, ii^ macrifah 

L. 

Laborious, j^ ♦ clCmo-jidd, 

kddd 

Labour, c^kadd 

Labourer, c^^kddd 

tit 
Lady, cu-» sitt 

Lake, 8;j^. bo'hirah 

Lame, ^js\ acroj 

Lament, — Ij nah 

Lamp, 6>^j^ masrajah 

Land, ^j\*J^\ard, cakdr 

Language, ^)U * ax! Zm^w, 

loghah 

Large, «—lj*H-^*(isic,AaZ>««r 



144 



VOCABULARY. 



Last,^l dchir 
Laughy V. (sl^ 'da'hik 
Lawful, ^^ ♦ JiU sharese, 

lialdl 
Lay up (store), ^il iththa- 

char 
Lazy, J^jTkasldn 
Lead, 5. ^^j rasd's 
Leaf, 55 .J warakah 
Lean, ac?;. Jj^^ * t-a-^* ma^- 

£rooZ, ndhif 
Leap,^ 'tafai* 
Learn, JjJ tac.allam 

Learned, Jit c<iZm (pi. UU 
coZama) 



Learning 



o^ 



^V 



Im 



Least, J5l a'AaZZ 
Leave, v, (permit), J:\ athin 
Leave (abandon), (sij tarak 
Left (hand), JUt shimdl 
Left (remaining), JIj M'^t 
Lend, <— i.l,.»» * ^Itl sallaf, 

ac.dr 
Leisure, ^)/Jard(jh 

Leg, jU 5^'A; 



Lemon, ^j^^ leimoon 
Length, J^ 'tool 
Leper, ^y\ abra's 
Let (a house), ij^ akra 
Liberty, hj>, horriryah 
Lick, jj*A. Za'Aa* 

Lie (to recline), fcl ittaJia 
Lie, 5. L^'Sfhathih 
Lie, V. c-> jS^ hathah 
Life,^ * SU*. 'comr, 'horydh 
Light (not heavy), u-iJ». 

chafif 
Light, 5. jj5 noor (pi. ^1^1 

anwdr) 
Lightning, j^ ftfl/A 
Like (similar), Jju mt<A/ 

Limit, jAi ^ladd 

Lion, jw«*l o^ae^ (pi. ^j^ 

osood) 
Liquid, jJU md-ip, 
Little, ^^ * JJS 'sagkivy 

'kalil " 
Live, (j!ilt Q.dsh 
Liver, xfkdbd 

Load; V, J^ 'hammal 



Loaf, L-i-c . raghif 

Lock, Joi 'hofl 

Lodge, s. (^U ma-wa 

Long, Jji^ 'ta-weel 

Looking-glass, 5]^ mirdhy 

mirayeh 
lit 
Loose, V, Ji. challa 

Lose, jis *j„^falcad, chasir 

Lost, jjM* ♦ «jL» maf'kood, 

'ddic. 
Love, .-?. l^ * jj^ ma hah- 

bahf cish'k 
Low, JiL» ^4/?/ 
Luggage, Jj^ * JlflSl ^^/sA, 

ath'kdl 

M. 

Machine, a)1 a/a^ 
Magazine, ^ja^ machzart 
Magic,^^ jfi'Ar 

Magician, ^l^ sah'hdr 
Magnificent, ^^Ar^jalil 
Maicl,e>ij»ii^\>. hintjdriyah 
Majesty, l^ae. c.athamak 
Make, J^ c.amil 
Made, Jj**» mac.mool 



VOCABULARY. 145 

Male,^ thakar 
Manage,^ J dahhar 
Mankind, ^jLil twa^/i 
Manner, Jl^ minwdl 
Manufactory, iiU^ ♦ J^jt. 

karc'hdnahj mammal 
Map, aL^ c'hartak 
Marble, ^,*^ marmar 
March, v, JL^ * ^J© v«i>^ 

masha, za'haf 
Mare, ^jajfaras 
Market, ^^ soo'k (pi. j|^i 

Marriage, -Ijj ^fiif?^/ 
Marry, —jjj tazaw-waj 
Martyr, x ^ ^ *»* shahid (pi. 

Ij4^ shohadd) 
Master, Jx« moeallivi 
Mean (sordid),(j^j.M'v chads 

Means (occasion), aL«^ ^'a- 

Measure, jj<»Li 'kiyds 
Meat, A.* j»Ulo Iahm,'tac,dm 
Meet, v. iV Z^i'Aa 
Melon, ^Jij hi'tticfh 



146 



TOOABULARY. 



Melt, v>^ thdb 

Memory, iS\i *Wi tkdkirak, 

thikr 
Men, |j«U nds 
Mend, J«1 a'sla'h 
Merciful, .jay ra'hoom 
Merchandise, 1,1^ • icLi 

tijdrahf H'ddcah, 
MerchaDt,^li t&pr (pl.^V 

tij&r) 
Mercury, ,3^ x^bah 
Middle, \^j wasa't 
Mild,|eL.*^JJ»J 'kalim,lali/ 
Mile, J^ mi^ 

Mil'k, fj^'ri.^^laban/halib 
Mill, jjj>.U> 'ta'hoonah 
Mind, s. Jb • Jic 6<i/, ca'Ai 
Mine, jjjju macdin 
Miracle, uj^\ uejUhah 
Mirth ,_^ *i.j^/ara'h,'tardb 
Mischief, ^ soo 
Miserable, ^ ska'ki 
Miseiy, ijU,^ ska'h&wak 
Mismanagement, jiljjJ >^ 

soo taMeer 



Mistake, y^ ghala't 
Mix, ->- « !»-Li ntosMj 

Moderate, u. Jj* cadAt/ 
Modern, lijjf • jiU. mo't 

daih, mota-ac'h chtr 
Modesty, t*la- 'hUhTttah 
Moment, iiJi da'Mkah. 
Monk, i_.al^ r&kib 
Moon,^ 'kamar 
Mosque, i^— • ma^id (p 

JaL^ mas&jid) 
Mother, A umm 
Mountain, J-r-^ jabal (p 

Mouth, ^fam 
Mud, J»j M'a'Ai 
Mule, J« fco^A? 
Musk, sL_^ mu& 
Mustard, Jj^ churdal 
Mutual, d>l- mosktarak 
Myrrh, ^ murr 
Myrtle, ^^ ds 
Mystery, j-.i sirr (pl.Jij. 
asrdr) 



VOCABULARY. 



147 



Nail, jdt • jU— • thofr, mis- 

m&r 
Kaked, ^li^ aorydn 
Name, -.1 um (pi. U-.I atmd) 
Narrow, ,j^ 'dy-tk 
Nation, !•! ommah 
Native, ^^ • ^^ baladee, 

motawaUid 
Nature, teJ> 'tabia&h 
Natural, -■■^- 'tabiaee 
Naughty, -^ 'kabi'h 
Navigalion,^' ^ 



,«/a, 



Near, 



s-i./ 



i 'hmih 



Neat, wjLU • i-a^ nathif, 
tharif 

Necessary, ^V l&zim 
Neck, iJ, ra'kahah 
Necklace,^ cifid 
Need, pU:»l i/itt-t/dj 
Neglect, J). J*ftl ahmal 
Negligent, J*^ dioAoti'/ 
Neighbour, _,la.jHr {pi. ial_,-. 



Net, iSCl jAa&aila& 

New, siiifjadid 

Next, ^^^ • (day), Jjt 'ia- 

Nice, ^J-m^ • 1^- _V 'ka$an, 

'ty-ib 
Night, JJfei? (pi. JUZayrf/) 
Noise, i^ 'dajjah 
None, i»lV W o'Aarf 
NonseuBe, ^_i» hathay&a 
North, JU^ ihimdl 
Nose, L_iil ««/ 
Nothing, ^J.'/ Id shy 
Notice, J. Jc 'jji siba, c'ha- 

har 
Nourish, uii gkalklha 
Novelty, li>.jiddah 
Number, am aadad 
Numerous, jjj* aodtd 
Nurse, *. m^ • *iU mw'dt- 

ca/(, ddyak 



Oak, Jw fto'fn 
Oar, t_fljii m 



rw<i/ 



148 



VOCABULARY. 



Oath, ^y^ * ^ yamin, 'ka- 



sam 



Obedience, acU© 'tde.ah 
Obedient, «5li> 'tdAe, 
Obey, c\Ll aide. 
Object, V, ^/s\ ictdrad 
Object,^. 6a^o^* ^ lidjahjshy 
Objection, ^\Js\ ic,tird'd 

Oblige, jjc ^J* mann oma 
Obscure, J*\> ♦ Jo^\t chd- 

mil, ghdmid 
Observe, la».V Id'hath 
Obstacle, ajU mdnic. 
Obstinate, j^ canid 
Obtain, J*a». 'ha'^sal 
Occasion, l^j* ^\^foi'' sally 

Occupy, Ji!» * J.»as--.^ «^a- 
ghal, istac.mal 

Occnr,ijj>,*a3jjara, wakae. 

Occurrence, oyj wokooe. 

Odd (strange), u^^ * (num- 
ber), ^ ♦ pJj gharibyfard, 
bide, 

Offence, »*U^ isd-ah 



Offend, p\J\ asd 

Offer, V. j»ji ♦ Aftl liadiamj 

ac!ta 
Office, Ia2oj waihifak 
Officer, ^U ♦ ia-kj jS '^<^- 

bi'ty thoo watldfah 
Oil, vi^ zite 

Old (ancient), j-sc cofi'k 
Old (man), ^^J:. sketch 
Old (woman), jj^ c,aJooz 
Olives, ^j^j zaytoon 
Omit, uJj>. 'hatliqf 
Omnipotent (the), jT^W^oli 

^ 'kddir Gala koU sky 
Open, -^sft* maftoo'h 
Opinion, c-aaIa » ^ ma^A- 

kab, thann 
Opportunity, %^jJor'sah 
Opposition, Ii^la« mohdba' 

lak 
Orange, ^J^^y^ borddhan 
Orator, l-^.jW» * cJjU cha'tib, 

hdtif 
Order (arrangement), v^ 

tartib 



VOCABULARY. 



149 



Order (command), l^cj •^•1 

wasiyah, amr 
Origin, J-^l asl 
Ornament, iijj zlnah 
Orphan, ^^ yatim (pi. j*1:j1 

aytdm 
Out, -.^U. ♦ \j) c'hdrij, harra 
Outside, -^lil ^fi'l chdrij 
Over, ^j^fouk 
Overcome, c-Jic ghalah 
Overflow, iL» 'tafah 

Overset, cJli ♦ ^jSj 'kalab, 

rakas 
Overtake, taJ^^I ♦ ^^ adrak, 

Wiik 
Owner, u-o.L» ♦ ctUU sahib, 

mdlik 

P. 

Packet (bundle), ij^sorrah 

Pail,jJj dalwo 
Pain, *s^j wojac. 
Paint, V. jyo saW'War 
Pale,y^l dsfar 
Palm (of the hand), lJ^ 
kaf 



Palm (a tree), Ji? nachl 
Parcel, 5^ ♦ i*j* 'sorrah, 

'hozmah 
Pardon, y^ c,afwo 
Parrot, ii^^ ♦ \ y . > dorrak, 

hahhagha 
Partake, j csJ/il ishtarak 
Particular, , ^«-a_i» mach- 



'soo's 



Partner, db^ shaHk 
Party, ls\^ jamde.ah 

Ml ^ 

Pass, v.^ *jic aahar, marr 
Passage (of troops),^j^ mo- 

Passenger, ^U ♦yL^ mdrVj 

mosdfir 
Passport, ^^1 i/jJ « jlj>. 

tathkirat assafar, jawdz 
Passion (anger), u-A-ic ^Aa- 

Passionate, ^yas. ghadooh 

Paste, 'SlL 'tild 

Path,^ ♦ isWL* mamarr, 

maslak 
Patience, ^K.» 'sahr 



160 



tocabulaht. 



Fadent,jj_a 'taboor 
Pause, r. t_£j wa'kqf 
Pay, ^ • (jl\ wafa, adda 
Payment, \», •T>l waf&, add 
Peace, JL^ » JL. «a^n, 

Pearl, jljl looho 
Peasant, -iifaMh 
Penalty, iJ/. * J^ ghard- 

tnakf nakdl 
Pen, Ji 'kalam 
Penknife, JDI i!;u mt&ritf 

aXkalam 
Pepper, JiU/oZ/bJ 
PerceiTe,^^ *,lfj'* *Aticar, 

dam 
Perfect, J.^Aiimtf 
Perfection, JUfiawwW 
Perform, J# camt7 
Perfume,».Jac •j*s ca'ttar, 

bac'kihar 
PermiBsion, i^WI *j(t«a& 
Pennit, ^Wl • js- ajAz, *a- 

ma-k ' ^ 
Perplexed, ^,1;^ 'hyr&n 



Persevere, <^\j wdlkab 
Perseverance, iJi\jt mowd- 

thabah 
Pereuade, tLi\ a'knaa 
Petition, Jla. ^^ card 'kdl 
Phial, jj^ 'hofyoor 
Phrase, l\t- • i,L» jomlah, 

eibdrak 
Physic, Aji dated 
Physician, >_.>-J> • uF}'J-> '(o- 

Hb, moddwi 
Pickles, JL^ mochallal 
Picture, i,^ 'soorah 
Piece, ijtki 'ki'laah 
Pig,__,y;i chinzeer 
Pillar, ijf aamood 
Pincere, koU mil'ka't 
Pious, ij; ta'ki 
Pit, t^ 'hofrah 
Pity, s J- •■ jAo/iiAaA 
Place, it^ji mou'die, 
Plague, gycli. • ly 'tdeooHf 

wabd 
Plain, J. b 

'*arf'A 



*d^ ' 



VOCABULARY. 



151 



Plank, ^ louh (pi. -^1 

alwd'h 
Plate, ^^^ ♦ Uu^ "sahn, 

'sa'/ifah 
Play, t?. u-aJ Zacifc 

Pleasant, ^^ *^L. mardi, 

sdrr 
Pleasure, » jj * loa. laththah 

'hazz 
Please, c^l ♦ ^j\ a^ab, 

arda 
Plenty, \^* j^^ kathrah, 

wofoor 
Plough, ii^ 'harath 
Poet,^U. shdc,ir 
Poetry,^^ shi^r 
Point (of a knife or needle), 

j». * ^1^ 'haddj rds 
Politeness, l-> jl ♦ iJ^adahj 

kiydsah 
Pony,^ mo/ir 
Poor, j\Jl^ fakeer 
Port, U-* mind 
Porter (doorkeeper), t->l^ 



Porter (carrier), JU». 'Aaw- 

Possess, diL malak 
Possible, jCr momkin 
Poverty, ^ /a'^r 
Power, »^j5 'kodrah 
Powerful,^jl; 'kddir 
Practice, S^W * i*»^W cAdah, 

momdrasak 
Praise, «?. J^s^ * -jw« 'hamidj 

madah 
Prayer, »jU * Ic^ saZ^A, rfo c<i 
Preacher, kclj wdeith 
Prefer, ^ ♦ J j^ ♦ rajjah 

fad' da I 
Prejudice,^^ 'darar 

Prepare, j^l acadd 
Presence, ^j ^ *>. 'ho door 
Present, s. ijjj^ hadi-yah 
Present, adj,jj^ 'hd'dir 
Preserve, v. \d>, * ^^U 'Aa- 

^^^, 'sdn 
Pretence, ;5jc^* Jl* daawa, 

tacallol 
Pretty, ^J^howyyes 



152 



VOCABULARY. 



Prevail, cJic ghalah 
Prevent, «;^ manap, 
Price, ^jj * X»J thaman, 
'kimat 

Print, V, 9l}o 'tabac, 
Prisoner, ^^u»l asir 
Private (in), »jjii. chalrvah 
Probable, J*^ mohtamil 
Proceed,^^l*j»jiJts^flfwar*r, 

takaddam 
Procure, J-o*. 'ha'ssal 
Produce, v, ^\ ♦ Jil antaj, 

aghall 
Produce, s, ilc ghallah 
Profit, iSi\9 fdyidah 
Promise, s, jpj wae,d 
Pronounce, kal lafath 
Proof, JJj ^/iZ 
Proper, U;>**.Lo mondsib 
Prophet, ^ nabi 
Prosperous, jij* * ^.U wo- 

wqffak ndji'h 
Protect, ^-^ * jW^ 'hamOf 



P^oud,jj^ motahahbir 
Providence, 411 ijUff ci*«^ 

ya^ Allah 
Province, ilU aydlah 
Provisions, »^i thachirah 
Prudence, j»j» ^e 5/<uij 'hazm, 

basirah 
Pull, ^Sa^ jathab 
Pulse, ^jkj nab'd 
Punishment, u^l je cathdb 
Pupil, XjjS talmith 
Purchase, v. ^^/Lll ishtara 
Pure, Jij ♦ j^\> na'Ai, Shdli's 
Purpose, Jua5 '^a'.«?(^ 
Purse, ,j»sSkees 
Pursue, ^U© 'tdrad 
Put, ft-tfj wadae, 

Q. 

Quail (a bird), ^jU«* «omm4» 
Qualification, aiio '^i/aA 
Quality (good qualities), 

dufljT hayfi-yah 
Quantity, ^1 ji* * l^ mi'k* 

ddvy kammiyah 



VOCABULARY. 



153 



Quarrel, v. cjli ndzac. 
Quarter (a fourth), «j . robe. 
Queen, aCL malikah 
Quench, liLl at/a 
Question, a, Jj^ soodl 
Quick, »ij^ saric, 
Quince, J>yft-» safaijal 
Quill, ^^ risk 
Quit, (&}J tarak 
Quiet, ^^»\?^ ♦ ^^l— wo7- 

?wa-twn, sa^ji/i 
Quote, J.ij ♦ ^jl na'kal, 

awrad 
Quotation, JEJ * ^1^1 nakl, 



A A -J 

trad 



R. 



Rabbit, e-o,l amah 

Rain, 5. and v.^^k* ma' tar 
Raisins, i«>-)j ^raJift 

Rank (soldiers), ^Jua 'saff 

Rare, ^^\i nAdir 

Rash, 



J^ 



motakaW'Wir 



Rat, ^^^j>. jirdavm 
Raw, »^ wye 



Reach, «L halagh 
Read, 1^ '^ra 
Reader, ^^^li 'At<iH 
Real, ji-5»» 'ha'ki'ki 
Reason (cause), ^^^ «a5a6 
Reason (intellect), Jic ca'H 
Receive, JLJ tasallam 
Recent, tl>^U * kloJ^ '/i<i- 

fifi^/i, 'hadith 
Reckon, w_^.,.». Ae7«/22» 
Recollect,^ jj tatkakkar 
Recompense, »\j^ * »l^l^ 

mohAfdh, mojdzdh 

m 

Recover, ^JLt\ * jUi istO' 

radd, afd'h 
Recovery (of health), asUl 

ifd'kah 
Red,^;**.! a'hmar 

Ml 

Reflect, Jis fahkar 
Refresh, ^JJo ♦ -.1^1 'tarra, 

ard'h 
Refusal, M ihd 
Refuse, v. lil aha 
Regiment, ^^Vl aldi 
Regret, r. «— a-U ta-assaf 



154 



VOCABULARY. 



Regular^ c-J^ morattab 
Rejoice, ^jfarxh 

Renew, ^^jaddad 

Rent (of a house), \f* i^l 

kir&y ijrah 
Repair (set in order), i» » 



rj 



sallah rammam 



Repeat, j^ karrar 
Repentance, a-*ljj nadd- 

mah 
Reply, V, Lj^j\».jdwab 
Reply, s, L^\y^jawdh[ 
Report, v,jj * cUil 'karrar , 

ashd^ 
Reproach, v. ^V ♦ ig ^ Uniy 

wahbach 
Request, v. vJUo ♦ ^^^1 'to- 

lab, iltamas 
Reside, eX» makath 
Resist, ^Ji * «3U 'kdwam, 

mdna^ 
Resolute, l^j^j^ thoo eazi- 

mah 
Resolve, v, ^j^ c/zzam 
Rest, V, Jl^\ istard'h 



Rest, s, ^^\j « X».!/ul rd'hah, 

istirdhah 
Restless, a>.1^^ bila rd'hah 
Result, s. is^ * J^U natU 

jahj 'hd'sil 
Retire, u-i^l irizaraf 
Return, v. «a^ ro/ae 
Return, s, c^ rojoof, 
Revive, ^^1 a'hya 
Reward, v, V^jazd 
Rib, ftU 'dalac, 

Rich, ^ ghani 

Rice,j,^ rozz 

Ride, c-iS^ rakib 

Rider, lJ^j rdkib 

Right (not left), ^Js^^yamtn 

Right (proper), ^-j^ 'saM'h 

Right, s, j». 'hak'k 
Ring, 8. xW chdtim 
Rise, V. a\S ^(!^77i 
River, ^;«^ na/*r (pL^L^Jl 

anhdr) 
Robber, ^ /»'«« (pi. ^jJ 

Wsocfs) 
Roof, J^ 'saih 



VOCABULARY. 



Rock,^^ 'sachr 

Room, uu^ * A^«l heitf ou- 

'dah 
Root, J-»l a si 
Rope, J-> 'hahl 
Rose, ^j trarrf 
Ruin, c-)l;>. char Ah 
Rule, (regulation), ^^jjJlJ 

'kdnoon 
Run, \jj>jara 
Rust, lju0 '5a(fa 

S. 
Sack, i^jzakeehah 
Sacrifice, «. ^i tfial/h 

Sad, c,^-j.-tj ka^edb 

Saddle, -.^ «ar; 

Safe, ^^U * xJL mamoon, 

salim 
Sail, cl^ shircLG, 
Sailor, ^5^. hahri 
Salary, l^^ jamki-yah 
Sale, suj hey^ 
Salt, JU 7/2ir^ 

Sand, J*^ ram/ 



Satisfy, *J; ♦ 
iktafa 



155 

^b»i shdbi^, 



Savage, ^^i^^'j wahsht 
Save, jjA^ ckallas 
Saw,^Llu miw«A<ir 
Scarce, ^jli n^£?e> 
School, ltfjjw« madrasah 
Sea,^. bahr 
Seal, «. ^ Shatm 
Search, ^Ji^fattash 
Season, ^Ijl az£7^n 
Secret,^ siVt 
See,^ nathar 
Sell, cl ftac 
Seek, ijik '^aZi& 
Seed,j|^ &a;2;r 
Seem,^^ thahar 
Seize, ^jaJ 'hahad 
Send, Ca«) baeath 
Sensible, J5U e<i^{7 
Sense, (understanding) Jac* 
(meaning) ^axo Ga'hl,maena 
Separate, c^ju * J-aiu mq/- 

rad, monfasU 
Serpent, l^ 'hayyah 



156 



VOCABULARY. 



Servant, Jj^ c'kadddm 
Service, I«j>. 'chidmah 

Shade, Jk thill 

Shake (a tree or a garment), 

jjflfli nafad 
Sliame, ^jj^ * c^-j,<t c/te>e', 

Shaip, jL>. ♦ uj.i hddd, 

tharih 
Shave, ^jU 'hala'k 
Sheep, ^ ghanam 
Shelter (refuge), Is?* ma(;'a 
Shine, «Jl * j^^l lamac., 

ashrah 
Ship, lJTJ-* markah 
Shoot, j^^ /ama 
Shop, o^U ♦ ^J^ 'hdnootf 

doJckdn 
Short, ^K-^ 'kasir 
Show,t?. j^jjI ♦^^l abda,ara 

Shut, V. jlcl * J.— aghla'k, 

sadd 
Sick, ^JalJ>• mari'd 
Side, t-Aid. ;am6 (pi. vj^ 

yowoofc) 



S ignal, ^^ * »^U*1 c.aldmahf 

ishdrah 
Silence, o^d sokoot 
Silk,^^ 'harir 

Silver, l^fad'dah 
Sincerity, jj^5)l».l ichlds 
Sin, 8, dift*. chatiycJi 

Sing, ^ ghanna 

Sink, V. j^ ghari'k 

Sister, oi.1 ocA^ 

Sit, jjtS ♦ ,jJk 'kac,adfjala$ 

Size, ^j>,jirm 

Sky, ^ ♦ *J^ yow, ra A;»p 
Slave, XA c.abd 
Sleep, 5. j%y noum 
Sleep, V. *U w<i7» 
Small,^Hi.© 'sagheer 
Smell, V. ^ shamm 



Smile, 



^•f^ 



tabassom 



Smoke (of a pipe), «. ^J^ 

'da'chn 
Smooth, ^Is ndpim 
Snow, Jj thalj 
Soap, ij^U saboon 
Society, l^ jamci-yah 



VOCABULARY. 



157 



Soft, ^\j * ^yO ndainif lay- Spot (stain), [j^ sliein 



Solid, ^Jil* matin 

Son, ^J)\ ibn (pi. ^^yj hanoon) 

Sorrow, ^Jy>. liozn 

Sort, c.y * J^ nouc,, shakl 

Soul, ,j^ nafs 

Sound, adj, ^^ sahi'h 

Sour, jj^U lidmtd 

South, L^^ janooh 

Space, (^j^ mac?a 

Speak, J^ takallam 

Spear, ^j romh (pi. --U, 

Spectacles, ol^liaJ na th" 

'thdrat 
Spend, uJ;-d i'araf 
Spice, .l^i bahdr 
Spirit, ^^j roo'h (pi. Jj^l 

Split, V. j-i ♦ pj^ shak'ky 
'sadac. 

Spoiled^^-M^s* * wftk« mochas- 

sar, motlaf 
Spoon, AAxL mil^ahah 



Spread, I2--J basa't 

Spring (of water), cj-ij ♦ ^j^ 

yamhoof,, osin 
Sprinkle, jji, rashsh 
Stairs, — ^^ daraj 
Stand, ^\i 'kdm 
Stay, K^^ makath 
Steady, j^^ * v;>)\j sdkiriy 

thdhit 
Steal, j;^ mra'k 

Stick, 5. lafi C<7«'<^ 

Still (yet), U;! eydan^ 
Stir, (s);*. * ^ lia7Tak, hy- 

Store, s, ^^ mdc'hzin 
Straight, ^j5 'hawim 
Stranger, u-o^ gharib (pi. 

\^ ghorabd) 
Straw, vyJ tibn 
Strength, iy 'hoowah 

Stretch, ju« »iae?c2 
Strike, i->^ 'darab 
String, s. k^ * ^J^^ liei't, 
viaras 



158 



VbOABULART. 



Strip (one s clothes), :fj^ 

jarrad 
Strong, ^^y 'kaivi 
Study, 1?. ^j^ daras 
Subdue, fua».i acKdac, 
Submit, ^':\ dthc,an 
Suceeed(prosper), ^ naja'h 
Success, -U? najdn 

Suck, ^jOA ma'ss 
Suffer, jj\^ kdbad 
Sugar,^^ soccar 
Summer, k^Ju^ 'seif 



Sun, ijrrt*' shams 
Support, V. (to prop up), 

ju^i asnad 
Support (succour), kiA^\ 

agkdth 
Supreme, ^L» * ^JW sdmi, 

cMi 
Sure, ^y^ mo'ha'lcka'k 
Surface, a».j wajh (pi. »^ 

Surprise, ^/la. ny-yar 
Suspicion, t-^^ * i^-i mft, 
shohhah 



Swear, ^1 * uJU aksc 

halaf 
Sweat, j^ e,ara'k 

Sweep, yjSkanas 
Sweet, jU. holow 
Swell, ioal * j»jj intafac 



warim 



Swim, ^H*» * (%W ^a&( 

cam 
Sword, c-ij-» set/* (pi. uJ 

soyoof) 



T. 

Table, ijjiU mdyidah 

Tail, L-J^ thanab (pi. (^ 
a^Aw(^6) 

Take, j^l achath 

Tailor, 1»L». khayyd't 

Taken, Sp.U machooth 

Tale, Aji\^ 'hikdyah 

Talk, t?. ci}j^ tahaddatl 

Tall, JjjU '<a2^*Z 

Taste, i?. jli <Aa'^ 

Taste, 5. jji ^Aotf'^ 

M 

Teach, Jb Gollam 



Tear, v. j^ • j^ 6kaz- 

isa'k, mazza'k 
Tell,,j>ii chahbar 
TLank,^^ shahar 
Thick, ^JJfi thac'hin 
Thief, j^L, s&r'ih 
Think, Jjfakkar 
Thirst, ji^ aa'Uk 
Thirsty, i^likc aa'tshdn 
TborD, el^ shouk 
Thought, Jjjikr 
Threat, v. a^ lakaddad 
Throne, ^1^ carsh 
Throw, ^ 'tara'h 
Thumb, -l^jj ibhAm 
Thunder, j^ racrf 
Tie, V. \uj raba't 
Tidings,^ ihabar 
Timber, t-^ii 'chaihah 
Time, oJj wa'kt 
Timid, (jLc » vjtH» f^"'* 

kayoob 
Tired, jy^ mahol 
Tobacco, jjlij • ii do'chdn, 



JLARY. 159 

Tongue, jjU lit&a 
Tooth, ^^J_u. «tnn (pi. Ji -, „-| 

Torch, J»l. mhkaal 
Total, ^l^/om/oA 
Touch, yj bmof 
Tower, ^^ Jorj (pi. ^j^ 

borooj) 
Town, jjjj.. madinah (pi. 

i;)j^ modon) 
Trade (profession), i-i^ 

Trade(commerce),ja?*niaf- 

Translation, IgrJ tarjamah 
Travel, ».^U sdfar 
Traveller, ^L^ mosdjir 
Tread, Jy wa'li 
Treacherous, ,^^ £hd-in 
Tribe, iLj kaHtah (pi. JjU 

AaJ(iyi7) 
Trifling, aj») za/iiii 
True, |3». ha'k'k 
Trust, o. ^^" « JsJl tarajja, 

ittakal 



160 



VOCABULARYw 



Truth, j» * iiia. ha'Kky 'ha- 

'Mkah 
Try, t^^ jarrah 
Turn, V. a.^bl addr 
Turnip, c>fl) lift 
Tyrant, Jib thdlim 

Ugly, itJLj * ^ bashfc,, 

'kabi'h 
Umbrella, ^Lmm^ * XU? 5^am- 

si-yahf thollah 
Unable, j:».W 9-dpz 
Uncertain, ^jJL^ j^ gkire 

mohakka'k 
Understanding, ^fahm 
Unhappy, ii shdki 
Unjust,y\>. j(^ ir 
Unlocked, j^.ii.^ jks. ghire 

makfool 
Unworthy, ^j^ j*e. ghire 

jadir 
Upright, Aj^^» mostakeem 
Urgent, ^;k-M mo'd'tarr 
Use, V, J«x:uii istaomal 



Use, s. JUj«i-»1 isticmal 
Use (custom), g^W cddah 
Useful, ilJIJ * juio nafip, 

mofid 
Useless, ^\jji^ ghire ndfip. 
Utterly, l^\j bil holli-yah 

V. 

Vacant, JU. 'chdli 

Vain, jilj*j-fe)-* 6A'<fi, 

Valley, (^^Ij it'^c^t (pL ij^l 

oudiyah) 
Value, 1^ 'kimah 
Valuable, ^j^ ♦ ^^ na- 

yi?, thamin 

Various, c^ motanou wta 
Vanish, Js^' tdmahaU 
Venture, v.jJ^ tajdsar 
Vexation,^jXj takdeer 
Vice, i^hj ratheelah 
Victory,^ thafar 
Vigilant, a^::i« mon/abik 
Vine, ^jS harm (pi. #y^;j 



VOCABULARr. 



161 



Violent, i_«jic aaneef 
Virtue, ilui fa'deelah (pi. 

Visit, i,lj; ziy&rah 
Voice, izjya sout 
Volume, jlai* mojallad 
Voyage, ^} ^ tafar al- 

W. 

Wages, ijf,\ ojrah 
Waggou, iU? aajalah 
Wait, ^^ I intathar 
Wake, V. a. )aii\ ey'katk 
Walk, V. -t* maiha 

Want, V. _U.I i'ktdj 
Warm, ^jk" toc'hn 
Wash, J^ pAfwai 
Waste, 1-'. .-iUl af^a/ 
Watch, c.^ mAi> 
Watch, s. (the instrument), 

«i:U sdaah 
Walchful,y.U sdkir 
Water, U • uj* m&, nwKhy- 

yah 



Wave, -j» hum) (pi. _lj.l 

amM&j) 
Wax, K*^ shama 
^^yt olJ> * J—- '(orf*, 

saiii (pi. J_-, |_^ '(oro'A, 

Wear, v. jj»J iaiM 
Weave, —1 noao; 
Weep, ^ 6a Ad 
Wdght, ^-j wazn 
Well (good), ^ '(y-fft 
West, i_j_|i* maghrib 
Wet, J^ mablool 
Wheat, -J 'ham'h 
Whisper, jj^j watkwash 
White, ,jijl a&ya'{£ 
Whole, ilj- • j.l< jomiah, 

tam&m 
Wide, .^Ij tt-^'e 
Wife, ia-jj zoujah 
Wilderness,^ 6arr 
Wind, *. ^_j H'k 
Wine, __>. • tjip c'kamr, 

thardb 
Wisdom, iSa. 'kikmak 



162 

Wise, jbS^ 'hakeem (pi. Ux». 

'hokamd) 
Wish, s. i-c, raghbah 
Wonderful, v^ eajeeb 
Word, l^halimah 
Work, J^ camaZ (pi. JUci 

Workshop, J^l Js:* ma- 
hall alcamal 
World, Jlfr c.alam 
Worm, 5^^ doudah 
Worth, s. i«i 'kimah 
Wound, ^^ jor A (pi. ^j^ 

joroo'K) 
Wounded, --j^ majrooh 
Wrath, L-^c ghddah 
Wreck (ship), v^i ^Uol 

inkisdr al markab 
Write, y^ katab 
Wrong, Uii. ♦ Jas^ 'chata, 

moc'Kti 
Wrought, J^^jM macmool 



VOCABULART. 



Y. 

Yard (measure), cl^i thirdc, 
Year, ii-- ♦ ^W sanah, cdm 

(pi. ^jji-. * *ljcl sanoon, 

aQ,wdm) 
Yellow,^) asfar 
Yesterday, ^j^\ * 5L^jL-J\ 

ams, al bdrihah 

Ml 

Yield, V, (deliver up) ^ JL 
Yoke,^ wir 

Youncr ^U» ♦ j-i* 5/l^W, 

You, *:il antom 
Youth, c^Li» shabdb 

Z. 

Zeal, 5^ gheirah 

Zealous, j^ gha-yoor 

Zephyr, L^ 'sabd 
Ze;YO,jBu> sifr 



n 



■s \ 




.^ ^UA^ VJ^^ ^ 



o ^t ^ 



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