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Full text of "A practical treatise on materia medica and therapeutics, with especial reference to the clinical application of drugs"

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A PRACTICAL TREATISE 



ox 



Materia Medica and Therapeutics 



WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE CLINICAL 
APPLICATION OF DRUGS 



JOHN V. SHOEMAKER, M.D., LL.D. 

iljr i^lijq in Eht Vedi'>o-C1iinir|iTal Cu:it]r« nf Philbklphii: Phjtldan tii tli« Utdloo-Cblrarcinl lln«pltal; 

Vvinbvr Hif tite American Uvilical Ai«uetktloii, or tlia l^iiiii3']Tiinlk ih^l MJnnBHoU llt4H H«dEi-Al 

r^ii-ivhcf. l^ AnuTliAii Acudflinj of M*01chh«. th* l)rtci*h Msdtul AMiiuiAtlcf d j 

FfIIow rT til* M*iLi«L Sodst/ of l^mditB, V^., «tr. 



FIFTH EDITION. THOROUGHLY REVISED 







PlIlLADBLPHIA 

F. A. DAVIS COMPANY, PUBLlSHKItW 
1901 



••• : ..: ..: :• :."■•... 



CriFYHIUIIT, igiii. 

V. A. JMVIS COMFAKY, 

fK/igiilcrolat SI3tlH>utn' JlkJI. Lndun. Enf,] 



miadalrklL Pi.. U » A ' 

W4-ltCb>iT7Su>». 



■J ■. -2^^ 

i2> o\ 



THE MANY PUPILS 

WHO HAVE ATTENDED HIS LECTURES DURING THE PAST TWENTY- 
EIGHT YEARS AND ARE NOW PURSUING THEIR PROFESSION 
IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND (N 
MANY FOREIGN COUNTRIES 

THIS VOLUME, 

ILLUSTRATING AN ALL-IMPORTANT AND PRACTICAL 

DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE, PHARMACY. 

AND DENTISTRY, 

IS 

RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED BY THEIR TEACHER, 



The Author. 



PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. 



In order to render the fifth edition representative of the 
present state of our knowledge the literature of recent years 
has been carefully reviewed. The progress of discovery, 
application, and experiment in the field of Tiierapeutics has 
continued with uninterrupted activity, and we have been 
placed in possession of many new drugs and preparations. 
Important chemical modifications of some of the older prep- 
arations have also been introduced. In certain instances such 
alterations have produced notable improvements, retaining 
the virtues while removing or lessening the defects of the 
original drugs. New applications have likewise been found 
for some of the older articles of the Materia Medica. Re- 
-searches concerning the physiological action of remedies have 
been studied and their results incorporated into the text 
wherever positive additions had been made. A number of 
new medicinal plants have been brought to our notice, and 
those endowed with decided efficacy have been succinctly de- 
scribed. 

The preparations of tlie British as well as of the Amer- 
ican Pljarmacopceia have been enumerated in this volume, 
antl the doses of all drugs and preparations are given in terms 
of the metric system in addition to those of the older notation. 

J. V. S. 



(V) 



TABLE OF COXTEN'TS. 

Classification of Kemedies 

Pharmaceutical Tlierapeutic Ageuts, or Drugs 

Xon-pliarmacal EeiiiedicB and Expedients Kmploved in Medicine 

Classed witli Drugs 

Klectricity in Medicine — Electrotherapeiitics 

PI ly Biological Effects of Currents 'of Electricity 

Methods of Electrodiagnosis in Various Xervous Affections 

Clinical Electrotherapeutics 

Electricity in the Treatment of Paralysis 

Elcctrodiagnosis in Paralysis 

Electricity in Gynaecology — the Apostoii Method 

Electrolygis in Medicine 

Application of Electricity in Dermatology 

Removal of Superfluous Hair^ — Hypertrichosis 

Hemoval of Foreign Bodies from the Eye with the Electromagnet. 

Electricity in Xose and Throat Diseases 

Elwtrical Illumination in Medicine and Surgerj- 

Kinesitherapy ; Mechanotherapy; Jfassothcrapeuties; Massage 

Rest-cure 

Technique of Masso therapeutics and Mechanotherapy 

Physiological Eftects of Mechanotherapy 

Thernjicutic Applications of Mechanotherapy 

Massage in General Medical Practice 

Synergists with Massage '. . 

Contra -indications to Massage 

How to Prcscrihe Massage 

Pncnmotherapy and Pneumatic Differentiation 

Oxygen 

Preparation of Oxygen 

Physiological Effects of Oxygen 

Therapeutic Applications of Oxygen 

(vi) 



TABLE OF COKTEiTS. vii 

PAO> 

Apparatus and Technique of Administration 939 

Ozone 940 

Physiological Effects of Ozone 941 

Ozone in Medicine 941 

Xitrogen and Nitrogen Monoxide (Nitrous Oside) 943 

Pneumatic Differentiation and Treatment by Inhalation 946 

Medicated Vapors — Atomization — Inhalation 947 

Formulie for Inhalation 948 

Hydrotherapy and Balneotherapy 951 

Phj"siological Effects of Water 954 

Clinical Applications of Water in the Treatment of Disease 956 

Hydrotherapy in Nervous Diseases »(J7 

Mineral Springs 97U 

Physiological Effects of Mineral Springs 974 

C'limatotherapy and Climatology : 978 

Climatotherapy 984 

Choice of Climate for the Treatment or Prevention of Disease 986 

Diet in Disease 989 

Formula for Fluid Foods 1001 

Fredigestion of Food 1003 

Psychotherapy; Hypnotism and Suggestion; Metalloscopy and Metal- 

lotherapy 1005 

Hypnotism lOOti 

Hypnotism in (.Jeneral Practice 1010 

Metalloscopy and Metaliotherapy 1015 

Heat and Cold as Therapeutic Agents 1U16 

Heat as a Kemcdy 1017 

Physiological Effects of Hot Applications 1017 

Therapeutical Applications of Heat 1018 

Effects of Abstraction of Heat by Cold Applications 1020 

Therapeutics of Cold 1031 

Light and Darkness 1023 

I'liysiologit-al Effects of Light 1024 

Therapeutical Deductions Concerning Light 1025 

The Roentgen Bays in Medicine 102G 

Music 1028 



VUt TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PhyBiological EffectB of Music 

Therapeutic Applications 

Various Therapeutic Methods More or Less Mechanical and Lt 

their Effects 

Acupuncture 

Antiseptics 

Aquapuncture 

Aspiration 

Bandaging 

Baun Scheldt i am 

Blood-letting and Transfusion 

Hypodermoclysis 

Enteroelysis; Irrigation of the Bowels, Injections, Clysters, and 

mata 

Formula; for Enemata 

Rectal Alimentation and Intestinal Inhaustion 

Setons and Issues 

Suspension in Diseases of Spinal Cord and Nervu-stretcliing in Xi 

Disordere 

Kervc-stretching 

Formulary 

General Index 

Clinical Index 

Table of Doses 



Therapeutics and Materia Medica. 



OENEEAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

THEUJI'Kfnt-s is tlie applicaiiou of kiK-wJcdgt- to the treainient of 
the ac);. It t-ouiprwi-* in it* wi(J(r>|. !^(-i>itf cn-rytlnng ivlikliug Iw the |iii>- 
vcntiOD, cure, or allevlatioQ of diseasp. The special phannaceuticat aganu 
employed in the trvntmcnt of )(i«.'kui'M jii the liuman eubjuct, lukeu iu tlic 
•^rcgati?, coDstituto the Maieria Medica. AtnuDg these are nianj iuot;^^c 
ckraeuts atid their compouiiJ«; but by far Uic larger jjruportioii Is made 
np of or^nic suU^tancea, eepeeially certain vegetoble ftmctures. These 
enidc dni)f» and their ilerivaliTts form the priucijiiil pan of thir varioiii? 
daaws of otiicial pliarniaeeutical preparationii. A smaller portion is sup- 
plied by aiiitual bodies, such iis l\\u orgimtc cxlrui'tis uutiloxins digestive 
unnenU, etc. 

Thv drug» and prcpitnttious wbtcli tniiiiiitute tJie Uiiilt'd Stiitis I'hiir- 
iiHCQp<Eia are, in iliis country, spoken of ss official. Ml other rL-medifS 
ate uiiofririai. In tlic following piijfi-s the remcdiw of the Britinh I'hiimia- 
fvpo^ia are also systematically considered, but these are only official where 
tbe British ri^ndanl aiithorily governs. Thv uHU-ial renieilic.* represent a 
ttlcct class of tlierapL'Ulic ajjents, the value of which has been established 
by careful iuvi^tigntion and cliniiul cxijevicnce- The results of the cxcvU 
lent work of the Committee on Uevisjon of the United Slates I'harmacopteia 
deccrve high dppreeiation. 

The Materia Medicu docs not represent tbe sum-tolal of the resources 
>( inodrjn me<licine. In addition to \m knowledge of the actinn of drugs 
tkt ptiyeician must understand the value of hygienic measures, which add 
ereAtly to the comfort of tho patient and facilitate bis n^covery. The 
DttDian liody is an assemblage of organs designed collectively as an ap* 
fwatQS for the tramfumuilion and ovolulion iif energy. The activity of 
ihe vilal forces gives the living body recuperative power which, when |)rop- 
trly directed, tends to restore disturbid functions to their normal condi- 
tion. A kniiwledgv of physiology often enables the physician Ui anticipftle 
Nature's methods and to place tbe ]uitient nnder eircumstancee roost favor- 
able for III* reeovery. 

Morlcrn therapeutics is not based upon mere theorj". but upon a very 
wlid and scientific [mnidation of physiologv' and clinical experience. Pbar- 
DMCblogy i* alliltiiled with the other natural seiencea, and its facts, whicb 
ur determined by true scientific methods, are cniwible of dcmoujilration in 
ihe blMtntort' and clinically. 'Hiey also agree with the general experience 
of mankind. In bis early iilriiggltts for existence man learncil by accident 
the aedieinal <|ualilii> of mineral springs and some vegetable sulistancea. 
In tbe course of ceDlurie« the ctTccts of tbt-se drugx liei-nuie thoroughly 
•Mabliihed hv esperifuee, and their application to bodily disorders wae 
better delin«d. it is to be noted that tbi-»e action* of drugs upon the 
bninaD body and its (unctions are elementary' facts and are c«i«ntial char- 

(1) 




TKBIATEirriCS AND MATKBU MEPICA. 



mcUin of till' Dubslaiicire in ijuestioo. Tb«v are supported hy 
ohnrat'tcr of widfncv an thv KUtomi'iit tUnt »iigir UMv* «weetj 
bitlvr. Thvv are grnuino, biochemical pb«ootneDA. ' 

Ttii- irilnii.-n<^- of ttio mind iigiutt the body. eii|MVuIly ^iati^ 
tit ■Imtii; cmotidtiA or nf siiix-onscioua utiention, is full)" recoj 
]>iillioIo-;i»U and (?lini<nl ubwrvcn*, iii> o cnarv of diitordtTi-*! func 
BH iij>liiii)iii, [ttinilysiij of »ematii<n or motioii, and various neuro9i 
Ixwii Nhowii \iy mpini-nci' thai, fniiuciitlr, such e*»c« may lie 
iiii;ci{(.'"lioii, or by siniply sctinc on the mind of the patient. Tb< 
IrMon to be li.-&'nii^l itt that tiic mind Ja ft powerful factor in ( 
inlonsifyinf; dlsturliancefl of the body, and, on the other hand, 
vaJiiablr Hdjiiiict in UifrnpirulicK. Dr. Jamc» Kiimh appreciated tl 
hipbly that lie always, before Kiving & remi-dy to a patient, took 
care to improut upon tht- individtmrg mind the cffecbt whith he 
to follow ita administration. This practice is now followed by n 
are nt'knowledged to be the ni<*t itucccwful expoinntt of moder 
Bcience. 

It haa often be4-n obM-rvcd that amon^ patients a( highly 
nerrous oiyanizalion the administmlion of some almost inert r 
even Ihu utic of wime myitleriou* agent (»ueh as Perkins'* tract 
garth's imitation tractors, the iron ring for rheumatism, the horse 
or potato carried in the pocket tar other di«onlers, amber necV 
HIh, etc.) may be followed by apparently marvelous results. The 
Amenntn Htir^'i'nti, .lom'pli Paix-oii^t, in lovtunng to his clna^, po 
that sonic uulieiils siiircnd discomfort or disease, without having a 
disorder; out he iiisinted upon the cHnira! fact that, whether a 
tick in biti body or lus mind, he is ><ii.'k, iind appropriate tK^tmei 
be administered. 

Thfire cjiii bo no iitcce«« iu Uirrapeuttes without recogjiiKing 
portance of the psychical factor in disease. Sometimes a suddei 
ahock will rcjitorf upcech to an aphonic jf>atient, or it may be « 
attention alone that accomplishes the result. Sir Humphry Davj 
an intcrfiliin: case of a paralytic ptitient. wh" ri-markcd, after cxpi 
the novel sensation of having a clinical thermometer placed u 
tongue, thai he fell better. I'pon re|N'iiIing the procedure daily h( 
improved and fully recovcrcti at ihe end of a fortnight witJiout a 
trealmenl.' Patients of neurotic ancestrv-, without being actimtl; 
often have delusions, or morbid fears, about their health. In su< 
what ifl calK'd the morxl treatment is of the highest importance'. 
to obtain the be*-t results in thera;>eutics, it is essential that the \ 
ahall oso pvcn- proper means to secure the coiiitdence and, if poss 
co-operation of the patient. 

DiM-ase is fre()uenlly causied or maintained by certain stat«l 
blood.' The*« may be provisionally divided into three classes. 1 
in which there Ia a diniinulion or absence of iTrlnin principU« in tl 
which arc necivsary for eell-devolopnicnt and metabolism. Thira, a 



"^n Sup«nl)tkHnii CnnnivtHi with Uvr llittorj aim! Prmrtk* of MHi 
SargvT-" ^T l'l>o*na« Jt<M-pli ivuijirvii, Plii1iidcl|<hu, 1M4. 

*Abatnctr<) fmm aa adilivat on "Our Tbrraprtit !<-*." delivrmi bv tli 
Irfare tW Ohiu Sliiu- .Mi<diriil Socwtj'. Jotirmat u/ tAr Amiirican Jf^ioit An 
JuiH 3, 



CUSSinCATtON OP RRMEDIBS. 3 

ntorbid condition (cachexia Etrumipriva) ]iu» been obscncd to follow ru- 
moTal, ur de^ nicl ion by disease, of the thyroid gland, apparently because 
tbe blood ifi deprived of fiome importtinl cuni^titiicnt or lutcmal xccrelioa 
which thi» g]»nti olaborali^ and which is neneasary to health. This con- 
dition ba& been shown to be amenable to trt-utment by myaiis o/ thyroid 
extnet obtained (rom the oi;gan3 of sheep. When we treat anieniia with 
inm, rickets with lime-salte, scun-y with 1 cmoii -juice, or nciirusthcnia with 
livpopbo«phiie$, thi.4 principle is followed of eupplying to thv blood ctjrlain 
proiimale principIcH which are needed for hcultfay mcltibulii^TU. In a similar 
nuiiDer ve may su])piy to the blood some substance which enables it to 
: - t iitfcctioi] or throw oft the coni-cinicnct^ of infection. Thn*, anti- 
'.-jAiQ h usod in diphtheria and similar bodies tn ervsipelas, tetanus, Qmhoid 
Urn, pbgtu.', pneiinioLiu, tubcrcidosiB, cholera, and yellow fcvor. 2, There 
u iBolher cla.is iif ca.'t-i in whii^h certain elements normally present in the 
bkod ar* in such eieess us to cause symptoms of disorder. Tn diabetes, 
^^Kf>f sample, there i> an excels of ;.'liicoee in the blond, and the result is 
^^PBnuTntMl iu glyco^nriii. Id gotit and lilha'mia we hove evidt-ncc of excess 
of uric acid, or of other compounds of the xanthin group. In jaundice there 
BUMcvss of bile lu the eirculsUng fluid. Tho object of treatrntnt in 
rati uses b to diminish the quantity of the pathogenic element by admin- 
iHHWii drugs which reduce production and uuj^mcnt excretion, thu* placing 
tht patient in a condition approaching the normal, 3, In a third class 
tfcere are pr*wnt in the blood tubstunctrs which are not among its ordinary 
((OutiliKnts and which cause disturbance of cell-action (alcohol, nicotine^ 
nmarinr. motatlic poisoDV, etc.). There is a large clui« of Hubstanccs of 
keterial orifrin which cause sj-mptoms of disease when introduced into 
Iil^ blood. In addition lo the group of infectious discnsi'j', which are famil- 
itr intuners. there are oIm) toxins absorbed from the alimentary tract and 
pwdnctive of symptoms, the origin of which h often overlooked. Tliud, 
•neat* may be produced in this manner. A case has been reported in 
•luili, after the reraoTal of a Fallopian tube, which was distended with pu*, 
t lopDi of the faci- underwent a spontaneous cure. Albuminuria is likc- 
«ue m-CKMonally due to toxins. In all these instances it is seen that when 
ibeaclivi; cauife of the difensc.' is recognized and removed the symptoms will 
Jianpear. How dnip? may be utilized in bringing about ibis result it will 
t» (Ii« otijt-ct of thiTaiieuticx to show, as will be made manifest in the fol- 
iffwiag sections on the ui-es of drugs. 

Classification of Ri^ukdixs. 

DilTerent methods of elnssificat ion of the articles of the Materia llledtea 

bare been employed for diHerent purposes. Thug, » botaiiieal basis may be 

Miofitfd or druiH and prejinrations may be arranged according to iheir 

(lieiBical and pharmaceutjcal relations: or remedii's ntay be elfi^sified ao- 

oifding to ibi'ir most pnmiineiit physiological or therapeutical effect.s. It 

■ BWi'Tslly rfH-n^nirfd that drops altect funclion hecanse they contain cer- 

— , <ir e\lraelivef, by virtue of which they produce 

*' . n and their therapeutical powers. A cinchona-tree 

•bich ie grown tn n botanical jnirden. and on this account contains no 

qninine in its bark, will have no medicinal value, and preparations of such 

liari will exert nn therapeutic cfTcet except it may be through mental im- 



4 TUEHAPEI'TICK XSU MATEUU UKDIC.l. 

1 

riKHWiM Upon tlic patient vlio Lliiulu that hv iuis taken nn an 
n juiEtiin]; it may b« mcntifned ihat one of ilie gr«at i^ourit's of 
clinii.-al ibrrnjiiruliti' vxijli in Uic vunin^ qujility o( (inijcs untl I 
quvnt tiBcerlainlj- as to their effects, lliia may be obviated 1 
extent l(v unin^ pn-caiitiouK to olitnin only tlie \>v*l (juulily of ( 
to use wliat are calte<I standardized preparstions. in «-liicfa the ] 
ol thv netive priuajili* it uM-iTtainnl and guamntee<l to he unifoi 
■ It ia only proper to state that tJie therapeutical cla^iiicutiui 
iarily only a gvnerul oni\ and many exceptions can be tHki.'n. , 
is it to b« noted that it is not to he inferred Ihat this cisssificaf 
elusive, and that, litvaujie tli« principal aetinn of a r«medy undei 
circumHttiiK'i^it is such a^i to warrant its Wing places] under n »p0 
inij, it itii^ht not slao Ik- cnlitU'^l t» ii I'laee uuiUt auothiT hi-adi 
diliiculty arUea from the multiple action of drugs, and that t 
ael upon several organs gimnltaiieously. Thiu a Orug. like quii 
l>e an antiseptic and it may alm> be a iitininlant, or an anliperiodi 
incidental effect it may act as a deprwisant or eausc certain eni 
the -kin. The oil of tur|H»»tine is an uiitiM!ptic and a stimulant 
gestive organ§ and the heart, it is also a diurvtic; but it is ctipahl 
caMui of eauding toxic Minptomn and gi-nirul iiifiammation of th 
rtraiiffiirT and nephrilis, even from small doses. With rcfcrcw 
peculiar pf^rsonal stiftceptiliitity of individuals to the action of drt 
for convenienie idiosyncrai'y, no naltsfaelory explanation can 
Thus, opium, inctend of acting iiri a naroolic m it ^ncrnlly docs, t 
sets as a slimuUnt; moriihine in some individuals eauses wakcfi 
vomiting and annoying itching ot the skin. Cannnbis Indica i 
dcliriiini and nervous exeiiement instead of «>othing the nervoi 
In soiin- iJKcs alcohol acts like a narcotic poison, in others it prodi 
mania, In thf ('iirxiili-ralion of Ihe actions of drugs in the ne; 
many siah examples will be referred to. Enough have berii mcnti 
to prove the statcnK-nl that claKKiHwrtiou of drnga according to th 
upon tile human body is only ti-ntative and suggestive ul the bt 
subject to many corrections as applied to individual cases. The 
list, being aware of the incidental effect* of drugs, is constantly oi 
to modify his treatment when they are manifested. 

Hcinidies may he divided into cliisses (after Oarrod): — 




CLASSIFICATION OP REMEDIES. 



AmcTiHO 



IniiH*!. 
BuuDin. 



Medicibu 
Actrao 

THBODQB 

rnk 

KUTOOB 

SlITXH. 






Chuicil 



InlluiU. 



ClatiificaHon of Remedies. 

Blood tonld (hanutlqlo). 

AlkiUoi. 

Acidt. 

AMrlngoiti. 

BatHgouU. 

Autiprivtics- 

Altentlfa. 



TbtBrmln. 



^dnilOnd. 



r EihUuBDti. 

i RrpDOCIo md ADodrna 

I AniMttaeths. 



f StlmulinU. 
tSedsUTH. 



„ __. ( AntUpMioodli* 

Nsr<«-OeiitT«B 1 xoDl(3lind 

ud GmgUonio Orrtem. ^ Antlperlodj™. 



Htut lod CIrcalilorr 
SjnsDi. 



' ViKuIU lUmiiUilU. 
Vuculu- MdnUtu. 



AUmeuUTT Cuul. 



Tba Ufct. 



ADtbliQics. 

EmBtlix. 
Antt-Emstlc*. 

PUTgHtlTa. 

Antlirimlntk*. 
Stomicblcs. 



f Hcpitlc (tlmaluU. 
t Hepmtic depr«»»nt«. 



^Kclll Orgaiu. 



(ExpectoruiUUiulni. 



CuUneoui Bjilem. t, Dlipbor^o, 



Drlnirj Bjitmi. 



0«ncr*tlT« STiUm. 



Sedul'o. 

DcniulcmU. 

EBOlllfllU. 

AitilngBDU ud StTpUcf. 
AnUFVultla. 

( AatlHptla ud 
\ IHaliilMuiU. 



Tin EjM. 

EplapiitU» or bllsteilng igenlo. 

Puatnlinu, 

EKbirotli* BOd CuiMicB. 



fDluretlo. 

1 Utliooirlpllia. 

Embolica. 

EmmaiugogaH, 

EcboUcs. 

Aphiodiiliw*, 

AniiphrodilUCK 

fUTdrUUis. 



PART L 



PRAUCACEimCAL THEEAPEUTIC AGENTS, OB D&nOS. 

In this BectioQ will b« considered, sy^teinaticalty and in alphabetical 
«der, the ivmi.tliul agcnU <ir drugs iu prexonl ukc in the treatment of dis- 
■•M. All n( the drugs and preparations made oHicial by the United States 
•fid British rhurmacopa-ias rccoirc uotice and considoTation in proportion to 
tbcir ijnitortance. Some of the most valuable of the new remi'dieii wbich 
■» comut^ larg<rly into luc by the profofsiun have ulso bii-u inlroduL-ed, 
thwc bein;; distinguished from the omeial agents by Uie abaenee after them 
rf ibf IclU-re r. S. P. or B. P. 

Eftch drug will be considered indlviciually and from three dillerent 
points of liew: (1) the botanical or chemical deiimtioD and physical char- 
»etm of the remedy, vith the strength and dosage of ita various prepara- 
tioaa; (t?) tlA physiological actions, including toxicology and sntidotcs, with 
■pecia] effects, if any, upon individual organs and tissues; and (3) the thera- 
protical indications, with illustrative formuhe, comments, and suggostiont 
•I to rli;;ible forms of administration, or cautions concerning ite use. This 
■wagrmcnt is the one which has been found by experience to be the most 
MaTrnienl to facilitate reference and study. 

ABSUS. — Jeqairity, Wild Idoorice, or Abrus precatorius (Legumiuosie) 
■I a «ma]| plant or shrab, a native of India, hut naturalized cWxvhcru in 
Bb* tro{ii4S. The part used in medicine is the aeeds, or beana. Theite are 
§n*U. nearly round, of a bright-red color, with a black »pot ot the hUum. 
nicj contain Abrie Add, a paraglobiilin. and an sibumose, the action of 
•4i>>-b cjo^flv rew;mbli-s that of toxin* vf liiti-ti-riiil origin and to which the 
of tlie infusion appears tn be principally due. The latli'r two 
■ pf similar chemical composition, atw both toxic, and their i^ystcmic 
!i,(-. >• bet-B likened to those produced by the venom of the snake. 
-:ijM?raturo i» lowen-d and the blood remains tliiid after dvatb 
and Wiiifenden). The «ee<ls do not contain an alkaloid. The root 
-■.ainius plyeyrrhizin. 

TJictspy. — The infusion is made by triturating three seeds in a mortar 
rni^e of ctdd water, to which is added an ounce of hot water, 
tin; doluiion is filten^d; Ihi' r<-.'«itltii)K filtrate coniainTi tbe 
'■■ or fcmiciit. which, if iutroduccl into the eye. is highly 
causes a purulent inflammation. It litis, acf-onlingly Ix'^n 
tuilv ufL'd in o[iblhH]mological practice in the treatment of jfriiDiiIaT 
ir trachoma. It is itpjilivd Ihn-o limoa the firet day and Kpeati-ii on 
^ud artti ihini days, if necessary. This powerful application should 
^j,^- w-jtii care, sine Pr. T. K. Xhirrtill describes three case* of strict- 
nf the ruwal iluct that had resulted from its careless use or too frequent 

fi^-atjon. 

y^ Citato in which jcquirity is apt tn prove most seriiceable are the 
of trai'lir.ma «t the fibrous slate rtf the coiijiiiiitiiH following 
GonH fi-iuUs also follow its cautions use in vascular keratitis 



PHARMACKl'TICAI* TflBRAPBtPnO AOESTa OR DRrOft. 

proiliieed hy a hum. Thp powclerc-il drug iiiny be njijiHod by n 
canivtVlialr bru§li to tht- evertixl lid, a very small i|uaiitity Wii 
fimt in order to avoid nn i-xccfiiiivo reaction. Jcqiiirily hai nho 
[iloyed in the treatment of chronic euppuntion of the middle i 
chronic inctnti*. i 

Abrne is not used internally. Injection ol the infu^oa 
circulation or the loucr iinimnU wiuhck death. 

ABSINTHUrM (tT. S. P.).— Wormwood : "the leaves and topi 
misia Absinlhiiiiii" (Coinpositn!). 

Pr*pfU»tion».— Wormwood has no oflicinl pr<'pBrntion*. 

Pharmacology. — An herb, hitter and aromatic to the taste, il 
to Europe, but nattiralixcd in thie country, and common along waj 
contains the aldehyde Absinthin, a very bitter, yellowish-irhite powi 
is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. Wormwood also contains 
volatile oil, more in the dried plant than in the fresh state. The oc 
largely of Thujone. or abunthol, with a blue coloring principle. 1 
Bavorcd with aroniatie^, cnlh-d Absinthe, is used to a large extent 
toxicant in France, where its pernicious effects have attracted the 
of sanitarinna. The coiiAtant uite of abi<inthc prtiduces profound' 
of the nervous s.'t'stem, epileptiform convolsions, and renders the 
phyHical wreck. These efTecis arc similar to thoie produced by th 
oil of wormwood upon the lower sninmls, in which it acts as a dc[ 
nervous energy, followed by stupor, clonic muncular spawn*, and fa 
According to the experinienlti of Cadi-ac and Albin Meunier upon 
the oil of woniiwood, in small and large doses, possesses decided i 
properties. 

Toxicology. — Poisonous effects may he counteracted by cold ; 
followed by friction of the skin and sinapism:^, with careful admii 
of ammonia by inhalation, or by the mouth, or by injection under th 
into a vein. Evacuittion of the contents of the stomach should be 
by stimulatins emetics, or, if these fail, by the stomach-pump. T 
mcnt of abainthism calls for hygienic and restorative measures, pin 
nerve-tonics, in addition to the usual treatment of alcoholism. Tl 
absinthe as a stimulant ><bould be dtscoui-a^ed on account of the } 
terioration, moral and plivBical, which it produces. 

Therapy. — Wormwood has been used medicinally in the for 
fusion (4 to 8 lini. to 473 c.cm., or ."ii-ij to Oj), a wineplnssful b 
dOTO, Uf tt Ionic or as an nutlielniintic. for children. The infitsiot 
wise employed as an enema for the destruction of thread-worms 

Hiccough due to flatulent distension may be checked by the 
trstion of a few drops of the volatile oil. The dose of the powderi 
i8l.30to2.fiOGm. (orgr. xx-xl). or, of the oil, 0.06 to 0.18 c.cm. (o 

It is a domestic remedy for flatulent dynpepsia and weak digesti 
temallv, it has been used as a «linndant application to indolen 
According to Dr. 3. L. Corning, the volatile oil of wormwood i.s a 
local aniesthetic, and may be scrviceably applied for the purpose of i 
rheumatic pains. A wine slightly tinctured with wormwood, k 
Vermouth, ie sometimes given to increase appetite and hasten conva, 
Absinthin has been employed recently as a bitter tonic in doses of O.i 
(or gr. '/») before meals. 




jkCAClA. 



9 



ACACIA (17. S. P.).— Aoaoia <Oain Arabic). A gummy exudation 
tivm .Kau:ii Svnefin], WiDdenow (Legiiminofite). 

ACACLS OVlOn (B. i*.). — Oum Aetcia. A gummy esudation from 
tbr ttem uid branchnc of Acncift Scn^ol ond of other species of Acacia. 

Preparationg. 

SyntviM Acacia: (U.S. P.). — SyTn|bo[ At«cui (mucJIiifte of acacia, 28 parlJ, with 
•fraf, TS jiaR»K Do**. 2 to 7^ c.cai, (or f3««-ij|. 

Piilti* I'rHar Coinpoiiloii t L'. S. P. | .— Cvnii'ound Oialk I'uwilcr < pr«p&rcil clialk, 
it; •rarU, 2(l; iill|[sti. Ml. Tor makioK rhiilk mixlurr. 

UuriU^) AcMciip il'-'sP.. B.P.). — Macila|<i of Acacia lU.&l*. FontaSn« 34 
wf. tijr ircifkt. nitli wmlrr Minujch to make 100 pnTt>). Daup, 2 (o T.ft rxm. |i>r 

ThcM ar« tlie cnly official fttfontitma of acacia, and arc i>iiiipty used ■■ vehidei. 
TW Iwhj of tlM MlBUon of gun aralile enablM it l» be lued to'sufpcnd iniolnbl* 
ftmietn or fifk; in ||m> Utltr oue tbe multing niixturc in an tmnltion. 

PltanuMlSfT. — Cum smbic com^ in white, or nearly colorl^w, trane- 
tacent, irregnlar lumps, which arc brittle, odorless, and almost tastelcn. Jta 
miation it raJuc^ for its adhesive qualities. Acacia also possesBes some ou- 
trr;,- r^T.-.r>erties, and in the Eiirt it is cnten as food. It ii soluble in water, 
be.' >le in alcohol. It has a faint odor and a mucila^inaus, insipid 

»• rF:ia coniistB of a peculiar principle cnlle<l arabis, or arable add, 

KL ': calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Arabin is described as an 

matphoat. ^laNv, and transparent suWtunce vhen dry and of a milk-white 
aalor when moUt. The solutions of acacia readily undergo acetous fer- 
■wtabon. nnlese some antiseptic is added to preserve them. Aa a nile, they 
flkxsld brfrtdilr made. 

Tliezap;. — In bowel disorders nnd fevers, n thin muciiagp, flavored with 

i™.. . . ., 1 cirn-t4-nfd, rnnkc* a nourishing, bland drink which relieves thirst. 

n the throat is relieved by ^m-arabic troches. Coryza is cheelced 

ii: of acacia and bismuth subnitrate, to which a little morphine can 

J, aa in Ferrier's snuff: — 



^i.' 



or 

or 5>j, 
or IvJ. 



a ICotiAIbm mlpliati* 32 Gm. 

Padv«ri> acacue 8 Gm. 

BianuUil (obnitralia S3 S£ Qm. 

M. rt.h. pulvia 

S^: A few pftiiM to be tnulTed into tbe aoitrils, at dlrMt«d. 

For aore nipples, a good combination is as follows: — 

S PlUrrrii aoK-lai 15 It Om. or Sir. 

Pttlvrria aodii boralis 4 Gro. or Sj. 

PuhrMii Htnphoiw U Gm. or gr. v. 

pitl«*rt> inamiiw . 8 Gm. or Sij. 

\f Sig.: [>iut ortT tlia •arfacc. 

AoothieT aerriceable applicatiog, in some diseases of the skin, is: — 

B Polrcria acacin ...,,..„.... 12) Gm. or 3iij. 

Pulvcn* ainci cilealia 2 Gm. or Sua. 

j ^jt nliai -..-- |iSJ5 Gm. or Jw. 

H- Big ■- Ointment for Mr* Bip|>l«ii. 

^.•■-(Trr«] jftini arable may be used to check bleedinj; from leech-bites, 
t _ e acU aa a protective to slight burns and excoriations. 



PHARMACEUTICAL THBRAI-EirnC AOEXTS OB BBI 

The vmiiUion may likowuc be umployed ae 8 demulcent vehlclt 
chitie, and in irritation of the genito-urinai? pftsiages. 

Gum nrsbic is cliiolly employed for pliamificcutical purpose 
preparation of emulsions, pills, etc 

ACETAmUDUM (r. S. P., 11. P.).— AcctanUid, or Phenyl-t 
Aoetanilide (It. P.). 

DoM, <i J3 10 1 dm. (orjrr. ii-xv). B. P., O.or,.", lo 0.2 Gm. (or 

Pharmacology. — Acclanilid is an ncctol dfrivnlive of aniline 
white powder, of neutral reaction, slijfhtly pungent, nithoiit odoi 
Eohibic in water and freely soluble in ether and in alcoholic solutic 
not i^hnn^ed bv aciil:- or alknlicfli. 

Physiol^cal Action.— Id ordinary dosC. the action of acetanili 
leN marked ujion a jicr^on in health than when fever in present, ai 
evident action is to reduce t«mperature, possibly by converting < 
globin into methnimoglobin in the red blood-corpu«clc and intcrfe 
oxidation. The effect doea not depend upon sweating, since it oce 
no pentj)imlion it produced. "Wh«n o toxic iiunntily hn* been ab» 
patient becomes prostrated, the lips and finger-nails are dark col 
pu!t>c rapid and comprc«siblc, and the skin pale and moi»l; the 
of the blood is lessened, the red corpuscles destroyed, the hsemi 
librraled and eventually appears in tnc urine, which bocomea da 
in color. 'Hie quantity of uric acid and urea present in the unne is i 
iMTgt ic»t$ cau«c diastolic itrrcst of the heart, preceded by trorr 
vulsione, depreBsed temperature, coma, and motor and sensory para 
BTualler doses, tho a^^Iion of the skin and kidneys it! inercaBod: t 
pressure is at first elevated, but soon falls, and the heart's action 
slower. It ia claimed that, in moderate amounts, ncotanilid acts as i 
and vasomotor stimulant without causing any subsequent ill efi 
some cases, however, whether owing to peculiar susceptibility or 
in the drug, symptoms of poisoning — cyanosis and collapse— havt 
even from small doses. Vomiting or profuge sweating, aocompuiue 
found prostration, have also been witnessed as the elfect of model 
of acctanilid. Toxic symptoma ars especially apt to occur when ai 
is present as a contamination. Acetanilid is, in some instances, 
iipiin the skin in crystalline form, or, it the substance is not aectni 
some product which results from its decomposition. The ill effci 
drug must be counteracted by use of externa! heal, vigorous aicoli 
ulation, together with the hypodermic use of ether, atropine, an 
nine, in order to support the re*pirntiou and circulation. In pat 
fering with fatty or dilated heart, it should only be used with grea 
if nt all. Owing lo its action upon the blood-cells, it should no 
repeatedly or in large doses, in the low fevers. The prolonged ad 
linn of acctanilid gives rise to congti^lion of the liver, spleen, and 
In animals poisoned by acetanilid the heart, liver, kidneys, and oth 
have been found affecled by fulty degenernlion. It is climinut< 
kidneys. According to the observation of Picciorini the ingestio 
tanilid producw peptonuria. Wlicn u^ed ae a dusting-powder. 
with an equal quantity of starch or zinc stcarate. in the treatment 
trigo of infants, it luie caused death from absorption of the drug, 
cases {Journal of tht American Mtdxcal Association, feb. 1, 189G 



A 



ACETAXILTDUU, 



11 



Thenpy. — Avotunilid p<sfie««c« antiseptic properties aai miiy be «d* 
mn(a;;(!oU5JT used as a local remedy. It it »n efficacious local application 
to c)iaiicrnid« and ulcvrated cliancres, uwd sb a diisting-powder. In the form 
of ui aintitiftil c'oiiiaiiiiii]e 1.30 Gm. (or gr. x.\) to 3l Gm. (or .^j) it is of 
•TW* it) ub^tiiialc and irritable ulcere, erysipelaB, ecxema, herpes, iirticario, 
-I, IT diseases a3Wctat«d with considerabli; irriCutitin. roiuhiiicd with a 
: ml it exercises b beiie:Scial inflaesce upon the lesions of psoriasis. A 
. : ■ , •^ntainin^; 0.25 (im. (or gr, ir) of utxitnnilid t« 3U ccni. (or fjij) of 
< ■ iiijv be beueticially employed in pharingitis. Finely-powdered uc«- 
tu litatcH an exct-llcnt drnaing to burni!, Kcalds, contused and small 

kc<.^>^-i 'ouodfi. In many caseis it haa been found to prevent the produc- 
tion uf pua. It hat a l»e»eJicial influence! upon ulcere and ha« bi-en applied 
vi*; -A to mucons patches. In sinjtlc doses of 1 Oro. (or gr. xr) or less, 

«r ; n doMt (0.80 Gm., or gr. iij, or less) every hour, it will usually be 

loUoorcd by prompt reduction of the tcmpcralitri^ to the normal. It is also 
ai>li*pa*mrHlte. and tia« Wen used in small doses iii epilepsy, asthma, and 
•I i^u^h. In whooping-cough ii is given in the dose of 0.03 to 0.32 

,^i „ ■ ss-v), according to the age and condition of the child. Improvc- 
lakt-n place in chorea, also, in consequence of its administration. 
■ rvlii-'f of pain it has been employed in nervous affections, and relierw 
attack* of facial neuralgia, locomotor ataxia, sciatica, etc., in doses of 0.65 

■ '- r 2T. X-.VV). In migraine, or neuralgic headache, it ie also an 

:v. Acelanilid is highly esteemed in the treatment of dys- 
. especially of young girU. In do««s of O.SO to 0,3S Gm. (or gr. 
.' daily it is of value in relieving seaKi<;kne«^ Acetamlid may be 
Ftoed vith lupiilin for the affections just named: — 



B AcrtanlHd., 

L-apnllni 

Sy.: Oiu! Uf two <«{Kiiln <very two or tlm« botin. 

It may be employed with camphor, as — 

9 C^npbone . 

AcrUnilM. 

V. rt R- aiipptMitorii) no. x. 

^tf 1 iBKit one into ibe Innrd every two or tLr«a tioun, for the pain ot neu- 



aa 8|50 GiD. or gr. c. 



3|£S Gm. or gr. 1. 

6100 Gin. or gr. «. 



' •-nmatJc tetanus, dose* of 0.2f. to 0.38 Gm. (or gr. iv-vj) of oce> 
te. :y third or fourth hour, in conjnnction with hypodermic injec- 

m* M cATh-^iu- Bcid, have befo used with successs. 

A romliination of value in the treatment of nenralgia, headaches, mus- 
Inla; aod acute Hrticulnr rhouiiiiUtsm, dy»mr'n<>rrh<VH, tnfluenia, and various 
Ifctnle affunions ie thus given by Dr. \V. Blair Stewart: — 

% iLMtaaOM.. 

Quialmr biMilitliat., aa [066 Gm. «r gr. i. 

CoHda. brilrwhlotaL |D04 Gm. or gr. V,|.— M. 

The in^Teilieats are compressed into the form of a tablet triturat4>, and 
- ■ ' ■ an lip admmietcred every three or four hours according to its 

ie nature ol the case, 
Atftan'fj^ is said to be of value in the treatment of obstinate vomiting, 



12 



I'UABMACBimCAL TUKairEl'TIC AOBSTS OR DBCOS. 



eepeciatly when dne to nervous distTirbance or extreme irritabili 
Etoniarh. It lias iili<o broD vinployt-d with siioccM in order to r< 
vomiting: which follows Burgical operations or the use of an anaetl 
Dr. Hollopctcr rccommcDdf, in simple fever« of chili)r«n, the. 
combination: — ' 

20 Om. or g 

Oao Oni. or f 

TS Gm. IV g 

On. «r I 

1 



B ArciBnilid 1 

Hj-ilrui^. chlor. mltit 

Scidii bicnrb >...<.., 

S«rcli. Imt- , 

M. et ft. chart, no. xii. 

Sig.t One rvi>rj two lioiiri until thnr niv takvn. 



Acetanilid often proves very useful in acute infiaminatory rlw 
rviliiciD^ Ihc lonipcratiirc and relieving: the pain and (dwelling, 
infreqnentiy speedily elficacious in cases which have received no bei 
aalicyliL' ncid or the Mtlicylates. It it; capuhlc of notubly amoltor 
actuid BufTering, though it is not always able to prevent relap 
remedy it likowiKc cfTicacions in neuralgic and muscular puin of i 
orifrin and in pain caused by comprGsaion or alteration of nerve-i 
The headache snd dy»pha^ia of tonsillitif arc allayud by the ii«c of i 

It has been used in croupoiu pneumonia by Wroczynski. wh 
that, in addition to rt-diuing the temperature, it favorably infill 
pathological process in the lunc. It often proves of service in red 
JicctiL- (I'vtT of pulmonary tiibcrcidoi^is. In K-urlutina and oth 
affections araong children acetanilid has given very excellent result 
here, al#o, it mii^t be watched carefully, as a number of cases of ini 
from the drug have occurred among children. Griin claims to hai 
rapid improvement in acute bronchitij" from ihe adminislration of 
stance. It has also proved beneficial in allaying retlcc cough. 

ACIStJU ACETICUM i U. 8. P., B. P.).— Acetic Acid, compo 
per cent., by weight, of absolute acetic acid, V. S. P.; 33 parts of 
acetate. U. P. 

ACIDUM ACETICIJH OLACIALE (U.S. P., B. P,).— Olaci 
Acid, nearly or quite absolute acetic acid. 

Prf pa rations. 

Acidnm AMtirum Dilutum (U.aP., B.P.)-— Uiluted Acetic Aclil con 
tmil., Ii,v wpiKlit, ol absoluic acetic avid, U.S. P.; 4.2T mith of liydrue 
B.P. 

I.itiitiipniuiii TtTi-liiiitliin* AoeliVum iB.P.l.— I.iniinpnt ofTiirp»nlin« 
Acid IcotiLfnintd (if oil ol tiirtirntinr. glaoini ntctic neid. nnd llnlmpnt nf 

Tllliiti- ni^lio ticiil ■<• tlii^ 1iiiHl> ot tli« ui'Ka, or orili'iiil vim-iparii. pxce 
CaDtlmridi* ilJ. P.J. iirhii^h rontnlns (jUpinl nwljc ncid. 

Pharmscolo^ and Poisoning. — Acetic acid i* a clear, color 
having II strouir viucgnr-hke odor, with acid taste and reaction. It o 
water or alcohol in all proportions. Glacial, or absolute, acetic 
cryflalline solid at 59* 1'".; it attracts moisture from the atmosp 
should therefore be kept in well -stoppered bottles. Acetic aci 
etrongest form nets as an escharotic to tlie tissiiefi: and. if taken i 
is a violent corrosive poison, causinjj; vomiting of sour-smelling lie 
intense pain, followed by convuldone and fatal coma. If the ca 



i 



ACtUUil ACETlCtTM. 



13 



longed, gastro-enteritis is produc«d by the acid. It lia« soni« aoliEepttc 
qualities, and slifihtly incTeascs the acidity of the urine. 

Tliv 1". S. I', aternni. «r vinegar, which cuntaiii^ from 6.3 to 7 per 
cmi- of acetic acid, has a decided inhibitory etfcct upon the growth of 
iiucro-oTysiium#. The tise of a fiU-iier-oent. awtic ntid ii* rccninniciided by 
good autaority a* a men*tnium for extracting the active principles of drugs, 
with which it sweiiist, in many in^tancc^ to form soluble compounds. 

PyroliRneous acid, or crude acetic acid, a dark-brown fluid having a 
tVj odor, obtained from the deatnictirt- diitt illation of wood, may be utted 
•dnntage as a disinfectant. Glacial acetic acid is partially eliminated 
ihe inteitlinni canal, but chietly hy the kidney^- In ca^te^i of poisoning, 
milk or 9our and water should be freely given, and vomiting cncouragea. 
Weak alkaline »olutionji should be aduiini^icrerl as choinical antidotes. 

Thenpy. — Glacial acid is used succ<-K»fully as an appliculion (a lupus 
cpillie}i<ima, uleer«, papilhminla (or narl.xl. and iia.^al hypertro|ibie«. and 
•Mitan application to ringvronn and other forms of tinea. A mixture of 
Slparts of acetic acid and 2 part^ of >«licyli<^ acid ii* e#ti-cnied aii ctHcacious 
afftication to venereal warts. Vinegar (not official), or dilute acetic acid, 
ue beat given internally to cbi-ck niKbt-nueat; and to rt'lieve dtarrhcea. 
After eon^tigmtion has been overcome vinegar lias been employed with good 
•Jert in the treatment of lead colic. Vinegar in a convonienl antidote for 
BoiaDniog by caustic ijlkalic*. It is also used externally for the relief of 
uidscbe. and the entire surface of the body may be sponged several times 
aiiiy with rincjjar and water to reduce high teuificralurc and acid sweating. 
It nil also prevent the formation of bed-sores. The vapor of vinegar dif- 
fMtd tfarotigli the sick-room is, according to Dr. $. J. Bumstead, of Decatur, 
m. beneficial in cases of catarrhal, merabranoua, and diphtheritic croup. 
Eiijcclmann claims that the din-ct appliciitinn of vinegar nnvwers a good 
pvpoae in diphtheria. Warholm recommends the me of vinegar for the 
fftfott of relieving or preventing nniisi-u, vouiitinK, and headache following 
the inhalation of chloroform. A compress saturated with the liquid is placed 
•«T the Roac and kept in th»t poiition until conscious nesi^ has ix-tiirned. 

The following liniment is useful in chronic rheumatism of the joints. 
Itii Stokes'a nr St. John Long^s liniment, the Linimentum Terebinthinffi 
AcMictun of the National Formulary: — 

B 01. trrebinttt COJ P-cDi. »r fJUj- 

Ovum n-wiit.. 

DL ilmoniii i (-.cm. ur [3j. 

Ariil. >o«lic. ,.... lanO ccm. or f3v. 

.iquic Totm 7S ccm. or ISH\t». 

U. ti ti. lintmentUBi. 

Ptoperly diluted, acetic acid is sometimes able to mitigate the intense 
jiraritiit o( urticaria. It is capable aNo of checking moderate bleeding, as 
iTom leech-biiea, superfleial wounds, and epistaxis. In post-partum hfcro- 
orrfaagt, weakened acetic acid, or vinegar and water, exprci<sed from a mop 
offpoD^ into the cavity of the womb, will cause that organ to contract and 
prevent the low of more blood. Acetic acid may be of service in bleeding 
Eran the stomach. Ur. E. Maguire reports goad residls in acute gonorrhuui 
tram the naa of injections, consisting of 1 part acetic acid to 4 of water.' 

'"Aaaual cl th« L'nivivnial Medical Science." lAOO, vol. v. 



H 



PltABUAreUTICAI. THKUAI'EUttC AUKNTH UR LlltUOS, 



-1 



ACIDind ARSENOSnU (U. S. p.).— Anenout Acid (ArKiiie 

White Arsenic). i 

Lose, *)M'^ to 0.005 Gm. (or gr, VWu)- j 

ACIDUU ARSENIOSDK (B.P.).~Amiuous Anhydride. 

Dwe, 0.001 to 0.004 Gin. (or gr. V„-Vm)- J 

U. S. /*. Preparations. 

Annil Icdidiim.— Arwnip lodid*-. Dom.-. 0,0027 lu 0.008 (Jin. (or gr. 

Sodii Arwn»».— Suilliiiii Ar>i'iiiH*. Hfiiw. O.iMiiT to O.OOft Gm. \m gr. 

MquoT Addi Aiscnosi.— Solulion ot AracnouB Aoid ll per cvnt.). O 
0.00 iMTiu. (or »ii-x). 

Ijqiior Poto'sii .ArjcuilU. -Solution ul I'otawiiuiii Antcnilv (I per 
lw'» Siohition. Vim; IMW to 0(10 'r.riii. (or n»i\l. 

Liquor Soilii Arii-nnlU. — SuluUon of Soiliuiii Aftnenutc (1 per cent. 
KKlhini). Dose, O.IM to O.iW ecm. lor Mix). 

Liquor Arovui *i Hfilmr^yn lodiJi. ^Solution uf ArwnU- «n<l .Mors 
ll p«r cent, each of anu-nlu iouidn itnd led mercuric iodide). Donovmn^ 
I)v»«, O.OU to V.SO F.ciii. tor mil). 

B. P. Prtpanttiom. 

Ferri ArwnM^— Iron Aracruiti'. Doac, 0,004 to 0.015 ror gc '/„■'/,), 

AnmU lodldum.— .\rHniou» lodidf. Ih.np, d.(k>.i to 0.013 Um. (or 

$m1ii ArM-DSit.— Dom. O.OOIO tu O.OUO Uiu. (ur i;r. V»-*A<I. 

Liquor Anwniralli'. — .\rMTnlcn1 SdIuiIoii, Fuwlvr't Solution |1 per cei 
0.00 Ul 0.50 c.cui. (or nii-viij). 

Liquor Sodii Araemtlii. — Sulution of Sodium Anciuitc ll per cent.). 
to 0.50 cciii. (or nilvllj). 

l.iqtior An^nii «l llj^drargyri lodidi.— KolutioD of ArMflions ari 
lodidpt. Dosp. 0,30 to 1.20 c.cni. ior mv-xxi. 

Liquor Art^'iiici Hyjroi'hloripu*.— Hydiotliloric Solution ot Arwnli: 
coiituiu 1 Gm. o( nriciiiouii nnhj-dridel. Ijohp. 0.13 to li.AO com. |or mii-ri 

Pharmacology. — A white, almottt tasteless, heavy powder, or 
mass of crj-Htnis, eoliiblc in 30 parts of cold water or 15 of boiling w 
in glycerin and in hydrofrhloiie-acid solution. It is arsenic 
(A,0,), and i* prepared by roasting the ore and sublimation. Wht 
upon burning charenal it volatilizes, the garlicky fumes being very ] 
It is recognized by Uanh'i test : by the ptneration of hydrogen in 
ence of a solution conlaining ai-seuic, arsenureiod hydrogen is 
which leaves a dork ring on a cold plate hold in its flame; thie a 
Iremely poisonoua if inhaled. Beinsch's test conBisIs in adding a : 
of hydrochloric acid to the suspected solution, and immersing in it i 
plate of copper; the solution being healed, metallic artcnio is depos 
the copper. Arsenic possesses antiseptic qualities, and preserves bo 
decay; when death occurs from its effectt;, it, thert'forc, remains f 
time m the stomach, iivcr, and other organs. Owing to its taetelcs 
want of color, ai^enoiig acid is frequently given with homicidal in 
it is the most easily recogniz4.'d by ita tests of all the mineral poisoi 
green, or Scheele's green, is an impure copper arsenite, used U 
potato-bugs, and as a pigment in wall-paper«, and is a frequent 
poisoning. 

Clemens'! solution of arsenic bromide is made by hoiltng ; 
arwnnus acid and puia.'i.'iiuiii cfirlionate (of each, 4.t4 (Jm., or gr. 
distilled water (tiO ccm., or fSij), and the resulting sohition cooli 



1 



ACrOt'U ABSEXOSl'M. 



15 



29fi c.cm. (or fjx) of water, then bromttie, 7.7 Gm. (or gr. 117), and aft«r- 
«mnl cmrugh vat^T to nmki' \T<i (..cm, {or i>j). Thv tlui<l is kopt four 
vwkn, briii^ {T<.->|ucntlj hhakfn (turlng the fir^t veek, or uiitil it [orms a 
prmi«n«-nUT-clear solution, The doso is O.Ofi to 0.30 ccm. (or mi-r) daily, 
frvi'ly Oilutrd am] jfivoii afl^r mt^nlo. 

Oacodyle, or kakodylic acid {»et Aoidam Cacodylicum). is a white 
CTjMailuti- rKiwdi-r. ^oiiiljlr in water. 

PhTtiolo^cat Action. — To the surface of the skin, if moistened, nrscnic 
act* M an irritant, and produces inflammation and sloughing. Antcnic ia 
wdily alisArbi-d, and i« supposed to enter into combination with the red 
Ueod-tforpuacloa. It diminishes the elimination of carbonie acid and prob- 
ably of urea. 

Taken in small doses, arsenic exerts a tonic effect upon the nervous 

^$teBi, EtitDtilates the circulation, and permits an increased amount of ex- 

ttciM In be taken without fatij^ue or short breathing. Large doses depress 

the action of the heart and diminish blood-presstirc. The rcspiratorv cen- 

Irt ia atitnulmt^d br small and depressed by targe quantities. Jliledicina! doses 

4tat*Bt. and exoi-«<ivc nnmuiits increusi-, the metamorphoeix of nitr(>gcnoua 

tmoK. Wht:n ailmint-Htered for a long time, the sj-stem becomes habituated 

Id iU use and much krger doecs may, in some cases, be taken without eeri- 

ou cu&aci{ ueQt-es. The arsenic-eaters of Styria can take 0.50 to 0.G5 Om. (or 

gr- Tiii-x) at a dose. It is «aid that but few can tok-rato such large doses, 

and thaj are cartful not to drink water afterward; so that absorption prob- 

Mj goc* on Tery slowly, at the same time that it is eliminated rapidly by 

Uff kidocyf. It is possible that the tolerance may be partly explained by 

heredity, as itnilaiora of the arseniceaters, sooner or lati^r, expt^rienc^ the 

; affrcta of the drug. Inflammation of the stomach is one of ihe reMilta of 

I jpjtnUDfi by an^nic, e^cn when introduced per enema or »hiKirbt.-d Ihrough 

Ibe geacrsl surface. The urine becomes scanty, albuminous, or bloody. 

n« skill is affected by arsenic; superficial tcdema, especially of thu face, 

mrmn, and may be followed by vczcma, urticaria. h«rpes zoster, bronzing 

M f«tchc», or fxfoliation of the epidermis. The hsir and nails may fall and 

I v^'imctiTitt* may occur. If the remedy is not discontinued at this lime 

I &t puffiness of liie eyelids and face may increase until a general anasarca 

x£^ r^nilt. Cascs of idios^^'ncrasy have occasionally been observed in 

'he prolonged administration of aiBenic in medicinal doses has given 

urethritis, which gradually abated when the use of the drug was 

ijon«d. Thr dift^iive organs are stimulated by small dosen, but large 

. eatMe tfSfLro-entcritis. with bnming pain in the epigastric region, Tom- 

anrsixig, and collap£« resi'mbUng Asiatic cholera. In fact, when eymp- 

.- •■■■■ kind appear in the absence of an epidemic of cholera, lliey 

. ly canned by arsenical poisoninj;. and should always excite sus- 

. jjj^ 'adniini^ration of arsenic. ArM-nical poisoning is occasionally 

jjj^j i>v pnrah'sis of one or more extremities. According to the ob- 

. f/r. Thomas Ruward, the continued »sc of arsenic will occa- 

tj-t*^ 111 multiple neuritis. Arsenic is eliminated from ihir nys- 
nnd can lie rcfldily defected in the wriTic, when recently 
tind Dearden' have shown conclusively that arattnic <*• 
Vhe •V*'*"' 'hiongh the hair. Their metliod employed was not 




3f«r<-A 



£3. tMl. 



18 raARMACBlTICjlt TOKIUPErTlC A0ENT3 OR DHUOl 

only «no of detection, but also cetiination, ami oblained as high 8 
of ar»eiiic lus 1 to lU.OOO. Tliurv if iiUo at tlie ^roiiciit time ali 
(leiicv U) «liow tliAl the fate of arsenic in the body is partly in tl 
this fact canoot but hv of Uie uttDtwt iniport^mec: in mvdidiu 
in tosirology. j 

ThL> neuritis and paralycie bo oftuti observed in nlcoholics a 
he liin', not to alrohol, hut to a contamination of arsenic in* 
bevexajic*. The attention t>( th« |»rofct*iiiii hii» niimtly been on 
importoiit [.uljjeel by Dr. K S. itcynulds, of Manehcsler, Kn^hii 
nounced at the nieclinji; of tbt- Miinelu'stcr Mi'dical Hociuly on St 
l!JUl>, that till.' e[)ideinic of multiple neuritis then esiiitiiig in tl) 
caused by arsenic in the beer drunk by tho«c u afTc-cted; ho fgil 
arM-nic«l contamination was due to the use of sulphuric acid emp) 
preparation of Rlueoee being made from arK-nic pyritec. tlie aiid 
luminuti'd with araenous acid to the extent, in some instances, 
cent, of its weight, the niYcnlzed glucose currying with it »* h 
(Jni. (or j-r. ij) of arM;nou» oxide to the RalJon of beer. This 
occurrence, it is hoped, will serve as a warning' to iircwer* of ih 
tubstiuiling oiti'Hp and impure produila for the proper in^ed 
general ajjpearuncc of the jmtivntii wna dcwcribed' a» fri-qui'ntlj 
nieiini' always, iluit of pcrAons sulTi'ring with alcoholism. Usuf 
tients walked with difliculty. in au ataxic manner; pigments 
ficin in variou." parls of the body was observed in almost every i 
of exposed parts and of the uxilla\ the groins, the areola- of tliO ] 
the region .■"iirnnniding the uinbilieus.. In many rases there ' 
erylhenin. or an eruption of pflpule*; cmmp!* and pnins re^ici 
gurant pains of tabes dorsalis were common: and the soles of tli 
cxcceilintily lender, *" that walking, lii-side* being ataxic, was 
painful. Other symptoms noted were tremors, exaggerated refl 
niition or ahsinci! of kneo-jerk, and u condition resembling cryth 
nausea and vomiting were often complained of, but in many eas< 
no vomiting. The vxaet number of cases poisoned in Manche!! 
not definitely known, though at one time more than three bundn 
been under observnlion. 

The vagina also has been used as a route for the introduetto: 
into the system, and a number of cases have been reported in w 
thus administered criminally, either in solution or in cry.-itals, 
century a pcasBnt in Hungary, as reported by Mangar. poisoned 
by iolrodueing areenic into the vagina after coitus. Hanerda' re 
of a young wnmaii wlio apparently had committed suicide in tl 
the autopsy there was found aeute infliimmation of the snrrouui 
and a paper package containing arsenic crystals «us found in 
vault, imbedded in thick fibrinouR exudations. The patient died 
tomi^ of pt'rilonitis, 

In exceptional cases of poisoning by arsenic the gastro-inte( 
tome are not prominent, but profound collapse or stupor may I; 
manifestation and herald a apeedy death. .After recovery from 
ditte clTect« of overdoses of arsenic various disorders, especii 



' A'cir lor* MnlUiil Jnunial. Uei»iiil>«r 15. 1900. 
'Cmlwlblatl far r.ynahiUigte, No. 60. ISdfi, 



ACIDUM AUSEXOei'M. 



17 



•limentar; canal and nervous system, may occur aa a mult. Myelitis, 

peripheral U(.'uritis motor panlytu, liypeneKthpsiu, or aassthegia are among 

Uh after-effects of this drug. A case fell under the observation of Dr. Roget 

ta wliicb cpjlep«y occurrea as ouo of the secondary effects of the poi&on. 

Chronic arsenical poisoning is not uncommon among workmen ou account 

ai ifae extcnvive employment of thie Eubstnnc<.> in tho arte. A summary of 

Utemoet typical manifestations of this form of toxaimia is thus given by tho 

bu Profeetor Taylor: "Dryncac and irritation of the tlirvut, irritatian of the 

luoous membranes of the eyes and nostrils, dry cough, lan^or, headache, 

lat of appetite, nausea, colicky painic, numbness, cramps, irritubility of the 

bowels attended with mucous disdiarges, Rreat prostration of strength, a 

ferouh condition, and wuting of the body." 

In vorkmen employed in making arsenical dyes local affections are 
produced by conxlautly lisndling the substance. Among lliesu ctTccta arc 
oloos about the roots of the nails, papular and eczematous eruptions, and 
a^pcbut. To thcM local diJticultics the const it utional symptoma of chronic 
inloiication may subsequently be added. After death from arsenic, fatty 
dcguexation of the henrt, liver, kidneys, and other orgUDS hat been found. 
TV temperature is depressed by toxic doses. Fly-poison, or cobalt, an im- 
pnn arfienical oxide, is »<>nH-limee ewuUowed by mistake; so is rat-poison, 
Dude by mixing arsenic and meal ("rough-on-rats" contains 50 pur cent.). 
AiKiuc it excreted from the body by the kidneys and inteslinnl ciinul. It 
iIh escapee by way of the skin, and it has been found in different secretions, 
HtheiaUva, tears, and milk of nursing women to whom it had been admin- 
iHtni. 

At arsenical intoxication i» occasionally due to wall-paper, the follow- 
ilgtestisof easy application in suspicious cases: A small piece of the paper 
puted in strong ammonia-water will gire rise to a bluish color if nrsenlte of 
tsfpper be prw«-nt. A yellowish deposit upon a crj'stal of silver nitrate. 
muBtened with a drop of the tluid, points to the presence of anienic. Death 
lus b(«n caused by the ingestion of 0.13 (im. (orgr. ij) of white arsenic. On 
the other hand, considerable amounts have been taken without fatal conse- 
oCDcee, the immunity being, in all probability, due to prompt cmesis and 
iLeform in which the poison was taken. Death from arsenic usually occurs 
nthtn from eighli>rn hours to three day», but it has taken place in twenty 
minutes, while, on the contrary, the patient has lingered until the aixtecstb 
to twentieth day. 

Aatidotes. — The antidotes to arecnous acid arc the fri'shly-prccipitated 
•esquioudc of iron, or the ofTicial ferri oxidum hydratnm rum magnesia, of 
which about 1.30 Gm. (or gr. xx) must be given for eiieh grain of arsenic 
fvallowed. Tho solution of diKl^'2ed iron is also a convenient preparation 
for this purpoee. Calcined magnesia and milk may bo fncly administered, 
and the stomieh emptied by the stomach-pump, or by free vomiting. 
Oleaginous or macilagiDons drinks are also serviceable. If purging has not 
accuired, the bowels «honld be emptied by magnesium sulphate or Rochelle 
«1L The ease subsequently may require Irculmeut for rebutting gastrin 
inflammation. The autopsy reveals lesions of the a?sophagus and stomach, 
Willi erosions and ecchymoscs, congestion of the lungs, aud fatly degeiiera- 
tino of differvnl organs. The arsenic may be detected not only in the con- 
lent! of the stomach, but also in the urirn^- and in the tii-siies, ivpccially the 
liT«r and great nerre-eentree. The antidotes to Fowlers solution are the 



PHABMAOEUIICAL TH£KAP£DTIC AOENTS OB DRC08. 



ferric boUs, eapccially the official nolution of fciric acetate, to whi 
ammonia should bo oidti to Beutralize the free acid. 

Therapy. — When sdmioistered intisrnuljy, arsenic ba« oc 
shown considerable powiT over morbid growths, and is the only r 
bare at out command that has any effect upon the development 
of the viscera. In epithelial cancer and other superflcial growttu 
paste has been employed (cinnabar, 70; dragon's blood, 22; arac 
8), but, as previously *1ated, it is a very painful treatment, and 
be applied to it smalt area at a time on account of the danger of ' 
toxic effects. The cxcewive uee of an areenical paste or powder 1 
death by absorption of the poison. 

Dr. Wight regards anenic bromide as the most eflicacions age 
venting the diKSomination and extension of malignant growth. I: 
he recommends a combination of this preooration with calcium i 

In ague and chronic malaria! disoraerx, and aUo as a pri 
against malarial poisoning, areenic is used very effectually in small, 
may be combined with quinine and iron:— || 

a tJq- potawii nriHinitii .,.....• (18 to ISO ceto. or fi 

Tr, mchoniL ci>iu|) (jOO c.cai. or ( 

M. Pru doii. 

n Bodii Hrwnatls i> [06& Gm. 

Maw. trrri carbouaUs IS Om, 

Quiniun Bulpli l|3 Gm. or i 

M. et (L pll. no. xx. 

Sigi: One ttirw times a day. 



^ .^raoni eulphiil) .......4........ 

.\Iniini •■•■ 

^'urri pyrophocpliatit 2 

M. ct ft. pil. no. xs. 

Sig.: Ona thr^'e time* h day. 



13 Otn. or | 
006 Gm. or J 

SO Unu or } 



Dr. C. F. Brj-au beiicves thnt arsenic acts as a prophylactic agi 
let fever and, perhaps, n^nin^t diphtlicriB and influenza. The use 
in pulmonary tuberculosis is advocated by I>r. Karl Hochlmlt, v 
that in fifty cases the appetite improved, the weight increased, and 
dimiiiixlutd while I'owler's solution was being administered. In 
awcnic frequently exercises a very happy effect, especially when gi' 
form of the solution of sodium arsenate. Larger doses are reqiUrec 
cases of chorea, but the effect is very marked. According to Di 
Murray, of Ncweatille-on-Tyne. the most effectual method of treat! 
is by the administration of large doses of Fowler's solution. He 
giving 1 or 1.20 c.cui. (or mxv-xx) three times a day. iu Uie mi 
meal. lie claims that these heroic doses may be given for n few da) 
disturbing the stomach, and that it almost infallibly cures chorei 
WMk. 

A course of arsenic has a valuable tonic influence in organic 
ease, and under ita use dyspnoea, palpitation, and oedema improvi 
correct* intcrmittency of the pulse. This remedy is of service : 
forma of chronic albuminuria. Dr. Phillips has employed it with i 
for many years in albuminuria following scarlatina. " Arsenic wi 
frequently succeed in relieving ha-morrhoids. 



ACI017U AB&B^iOiVH. 



19 



It any be administered with advantage thus: — 

n Uq. •odii ancnatift, 

Eit. houic-iun fld i.... na 41 cum. or fSj. 

nU. goitiBJUe ICOl I'-cui. or (S<r. 

IL SIg.. OiM t*a«iioonful In WBtcr mfter mealu Uwd in ncuralgiA and ehono. 

SswTcr' liighlir extols arsciiic in gu^triilgin, where puiii exists wticn thv 
Itodurh is pmpiy and i* relieved b.v taking food. He gives 0.0027 Gm. (or 
J- 'yiJ. in pill with some vegetable extract, three times daily, baU-way 
fta mcolf . 
A pill highly extolled in the treatment of neuralgia is; — 

R Arwui iodiiL 1006 Gm. or gr. J. 

F^t. lirllndoniiiB tol. ale, 



Merpfam. vakrianat. • a» 

Pnh*. net. gratinnie 

Pah-. txU aponiU 

IL (t ft. piL nix Ix. 

%. Ow to thr«e |>l1li during Ui« day. 



Wl Om. or irr. vlij. 
32 Ciiii. or jfT. V. 
32 Gill- or gr. v. 



Some spasmodic disorders of respiration, asthma, hay fever, and ohronic 
oterital bmnchitis ore controlled by urscnic, and, if there is no acute in- 
iuuntion, it mar be used with the atomizer. Arsenic is of service is 
oiBTlial pneumonia. Cu«-s of ixTiodiml KUet'/ing, di-pendent upon reflex 
inioii,)i8ve l>een cured by the use of this remedy. 

Is irritativo dyi^pi-peiu, with morning vomiting and clean, red tongue, 
maae u of service; also in the diarrhoea cominj; on immediately after 
■Mil^ In skin ditteaw^ arsenic is valuabit: in proportion to tlit.- ab«encG of 
iniiation or acute intlammution. In alt chronic procesGi?^, egpecially when 
Mcea|ttnied by desquamation or infiltration of the skin, such us pK'riBsia, 
4e persistent use of small doses is ott*'u curative; also in the dry form of 
NMutnd impetigo, as well as in pemphigus and lichen. In the veificulnr 
vbuDoDB eruptions of children Kmull uud repeated doses of arsenic are 
muIIt followed by speedy improvement. It is contra-indicated in the early 
Mft (if mch of tlnwo alTeciions except psoriasis. Sawyer' rccoiriiiicnds 
irwDoiu acid for gaatralgia given in pill form with gentian or other vcge- 
J*ecilrtct. 

Prof. O. Lassar* gives an account of three coses of cancroid in which 
the >Bt«mal use of nn^i-nic was followed by a disappearance of these growth*; 
• PBe ttuv section* were made of the growth before treatment, which upon 
ountnatiou gave the appearance of a beginning epithelioma; the arsenic 
v»>admitiiotered in pills containing 1 millipmmme. increasing the dose to 
Ike ptiftiologieal limit and continuing treatment for several months. In 
•• patient there had not been a recurrence of the growth at the end of 

right tl-OTS. 

Eiiennatitifi herpetiformis and recurrent herpes are benefited by the ad- 
nuoiftntion of arwnic It is generally of service alao in the treatment of 
^nnic ttrticaria. The internal administration of arsenic will prove of 
hoKfil in chronic »caly affections. The pendatent administration of unall 



•ImmM. Julr4, laOfL 
'UtitH.Jvjfrt. leM. 
• BfTlttirr tllnifhr WartifTitdirift. Mnreh II. IWl. 



20 PHABMACErTICA^L THEBAPKCTIC JLOENT6 OR PBrOS. I 

dOHi of irwmic i« usuallj of •crrice in the Rmall piutular and pa^ 
of «cne, especially in ca»a dq)endem upon debilitv or aitKmia. 
The following iirv Mrviccablv formula] in the discaefti ntvmi 

B Uq. |Mt«Mll anaBlll* 4^ e.cnt. oc 

TJoet. nucui vooiIck TiM cem. or 

H. %.i liyotn IC to SO dN(« tn waur thrae tinM* ■ day. 

A Sulphurit Bublinutj , .. ajM Gm. or| 

Acidi aj>ena«i ....* |08S Om. or | 

U. et ft. cantuta no. xjc. 
Sig.t One art«r meaU. 

In diabetes mt-HituA. the solution of Brsenic bromide {not oflte 
in Vichy water aftor each meal, ha« product KmarkAblu re«ult« ia 
of Clemens, probably on-in^ to its action upon the liver. ^ 

Quinquniid Iios experimentally domonMratcd that, in animo] 
anenic, diabetes cannot be produced by lesion of the bulb. Ia< 
the liver or kidnt-yi, capecially the early gtagea of cirrho«i», ancnic: 
baa a very decided effect. In romitinj; and diarrhtca, especially 1 
copper araenit« in infinil«aimal doiea (0.0005 Gin., or gr. '/i:i> io 
com., or f^v, a teaspoonfut being given every hour or less) has 
Inwod by good rc^nlta; but the older method of uxiug Fowler's « 
the same way is probably better, because less poisonous than t 
.aracnite, the elTect being largely duo to the antiicplic action of tl 
which acts more efficiently m the soluble form. 

ITie vomiting of pregnancy is often remarkably relieved by ( 
ietration of a drop of Fowler'* solution immediately before each n 
aarne preparation is valuable in rhronie gastritis (esijeoially when i 
produced by alcohol), in chronic gastric ulcer, ana cancer of thi 
Arsenic in Bomctimea beneficial in chronic rheumatism. In r. 
arthritis ]*hltlips li'slifxcs (hut undur the continued use of this di 
known tlie joints to return to their natural size. Id angina pectc 
Bseerted that arsenic wa* of di-cidcd scrvico in mitigating the scve 
tacka, ospecinlly in anemic patients suffering from overwork an 
Syphilitic affections nic t^omi'timCH better treated by the combinati- 
cury with arsenic than by mercury alone. Donovan's solution is 
useful in old Byphilitic skin li-jiions. 

Dr. II. Smith ha* reported a case of secondary syphilis, in whi 
produced 11 rapid improveiueni, after mercury and iodide of pota 
failed. An isolated case of tricbinosia was successfully treated by 1 
by means of FowItT'* foUilioi) in i\(»c* of 0.3U e.eui. (or «iv) Ih 
gradually increased until constitutional effect? were produced, 
to its administration the palionl was sti-adily gmwiiig worse. 
Bolvtion in doses of O.iiU c.cra. (or mx) three times a day is said t 
in gh-ct. Kinully, in chlorosis' and nmrmia tho tonic effects of or 
well ho combined with those of quinine and of iron. The u»ui 
arsenuus ncid is 0.0027 Oni. (or nr. V'j,). to be caiiiioiislv increa 
best method of administration is in solution. Arsenic iodide hajs b 
t-xlrrmely clTectivc by It, St. Vliilippe in caws "f ebroiiic eezoro 
niation of (he eyes, intestinal catarrh, ami other manifestations O' 
From 0.30 to l.SO ccm. (or mv-xx) a day. of a l-)>cr-crn(. soliitio 



ACJDUH ARSCNOgiry. 



SI 



lUr. of oriienie io(]i(]« were adminiMtorcd, with no local tivalnicnt except 

Id b case of leukipinia which Dr. Drew tr«fttecl by mpdns of an areenical 
itKin in n«cvTi(IiDg Aoscs iiQtil the phrsiolof^cal limit was reached, the 

i-n. whirh had been greatly enlaripi't], Wojime. in the course of Ihreo 

SMtiihf. ilimiRighf] in »xe, the proportion of white blood-corpnscles waa 
^jgcr* ■ jfd . and rhe nuinlierof r<>d corpuscles was augmcnlcti. When amcnor- 
l^kn U milled by conpi-Etion of the uterus, anemia, or chloroRS. the sdinin- 
PHmlion nf arsenic will uHually be followed by a rotum of the catBmrnial 
Sow. Pn>f«(i«or Ttcnatit, of Lyoni<, advocates the adminiglration of arsenic 
hx Thv nrctum. Three injection* may be given <Inily, of a goliition contain- 
[lag o Ibird of a milligrnnime (gr. '/,,o) in 5 com. (mbtxv). The treatment 
ntinui'd for inonthii. Should any rectal irritation be canned, the 
f a few drops of laudanum will obviate it. This treatment is 
■rien<l<.-d by Kenaut in the early stage of tuberculosis; also in 
tus. and in exophthalmic ^^oitre.' 
Uaijflttfc wna the first to une ar*ciiic bypodormicftlly for Uie relief of 
«a, in IBliG. and since then it has been frequently used in scaly skin 
t*». lympha'lcnomata, an<l nervous diMnlon. This method is also of 

- ■■ in ihe tteatmenl of obstinate cases of malaria which have resisted 

of quinine. Very marked hypertrophy of the liver and spleen 

■.\\.,'::r-.i Mijy be reduced by the injection of I'owler's solution. Dr. 

i.'iij- 1!.- NHwl hypodermic injections of 1 to 1000 solution of ar*en- 

1 >c-rable cancer. In a case of epithelioma of the cheek he claims 

■ <] n complete cure, Plnm-l obtainctl the same result in a co#e 

|ni>c«r of the breast- This agent has also bicn UH-d in t-cvtral taM-s of 

M* of cancer; in some the progress of the disease has been distinctly 

tit others the treatment had nn effect. Hu£ used the following 



Add. ■iMnon i20 Gm. or gr. iij. 

Cmtmit^ hvilrodiloraltq 1| Qm. or |rr. xv. 

JU^p^ dcMiltalw 90| cnm. or (3Sij. 

Of thi'. 1.30 to i.Stt c.cm. (or mxx-xl) were injected into the substance 
111 inti'nal^ van ing from two to eight days. In the successful 
loma above mcnlionud Hue gave daily injections during 8eT>! 
nx'oths. 

The oinraicnl nf (di'utc* of ancnic is nUo a lueful application in th« 
tnsiBMnt of old ulcers, epithelioma, and lupus. The following combina- 
m will be fouml of senice in the diseases just named: — 

B itirwp*-""*' nolrl^illii |13 Gni. or gi. ij. 

Xmci • !*2 Cm. or kt. v. 

j^lv, - ■"U. ., 4| Om. or 3J. 

^'ffg*. aravwi olcaii* li^ Qm. or b». 

^ Sif.-. Api^ij no «lil musUn for wvoral hown. 

j^f^gttic ioAida (0.25 or 0.33 Gm. to 4 Gm., or gr. iv or t-3j) in oint- 

fl. ISM. 
>ii'>, LijirrUIlv In Skin Di*M«*»." 1>y Ihe anthnr. P. A. 



22 



FRABMACEUTICAI. THF.RArRmC AOEXTS OS RltrOH. 



ment » m vahublc iriiinulating nppticaiion in old dry eczema. Ii 
11107 ^^ made stronger, or we may combine it with corrosiTe Hub 

Cm. or 311 



It Hydrarg. clilor. oorroa. 10; 

Addi •nenoti 4 

H)-dr»rK- culphidl rabri .>... t 

Mix with witur to * puts aad apply villi s bnuh. 



Gm. or Sf, 
DO <im. or gi 



In wnrt«, Unna advi«fs the application of mercurial ointment 
iag from & to 10 per cent, of areenic. K. Man^l Symp»on declara 
internal admin isl ration of email doses of aisenic has a curative et 
varte. After a week or two of thia treatment the growths bejnn to ( 

ACIDUM BENZOICUM (i:.S. 1'., B. P.).— Benwic Acid (fl 
.\a orf^nic acid tisuall}' obtained from bcnziiin by ^ublimatioi 
pared artificially, chiefiy from toluol. {Bee BenzoinniD.) 

ACISUH BOBICnX {V. S. P., B. P.).— Boric Acid (II.BO,). 
Boraoio Acid. 

Do<e, 0.32 to 2 Om. (or gr. v-xsx). K. P.. 0.32 lo 1 Om. (or^ 

Preparations. 

Glyetritum Borogljcerini (U.S,P,).— GlyceriW of Glyctiji Borate, f 
BoroB'yreridp. Kor cxtrmal me. 

Soilii horao (t;.8. P.).— Solium Iturule. Hurat. Dose, 038 to 8 
*xxx). 

llorax (11. P.).— Ilnrax. Sodium BllKimtp. Dom-. 0.32 to 2 tim. lor gr, 

Ulyocrinum Add: Boriei (B.P.). — Glyerfin of Boric Aeid. 

Olyocrimini BnrnrU (R P.|.— Glywriii of Bomx (1 to fi). 

Mi-I Bumcis |B. P,).— Botax Honey (trarax. SO; glycerin. 25; claril 
400 Gm.l. 

I/ngiinntum Addi BoricI (B.P.). — Boric-Acid Ointni*nt (10 per (ent., 
alGn oinliiiriit). 

Phannacolo^. — Boric acid is in Iranjipari'iit, c«lork\*s, $ix-sld< 
soluble in '^5 parts of wntor or 15 parts of alcohol, and in 3 parts c 
wolor or ■> of Vioiiinj; alcohol. The jilcoholic Kohttiou (fives a gre 
Borax ia soluble in IS parts of cold water, but not in alcohol. The i 
of boric acid if ^rt'fttly increased by the addition of borax. Wlicn c 
of etjual parts of boric acid, boras, and water are heated together a 
ia obtained known uk the tetraborate of sodium, which is apparent 
Bait, as it is of neutral reaction. Sodium tetraborate h a white, 
powder, readily sohihlo in water and free from caustic or toxic pt 
Boric acid has a fccbly-acid taste and boras a sweetish, alkaline 1 
alkaline reaction. Boro^lyceride i» n combianlion of boric ncid (' 
and glycerin (92 parts). When diluted with an equal quantity of 
it niakoB the official nolution of boroglycoridc, in which form it is ui 
antiseptic. Lister's antiseptic ointment for dressing wounds is 
addtni; 1 pari rauh of boric ncid and whit* wax to "J parts each ol 
and almond-oil. Borated lint or boratcd cotton-wool (alworbent c 
made by stooping the substance in a witnrutcd solution of boric 
allowing it to dry. 

FhyBioloerical Action and Therapy. — Boric acid is entiitepttc. 
ing to the observations of (iaucher, it arrests the progress of tub 
in animals. The prftwncc of borax in fnoii notably retard* the ] 




ACIDDU BOniCCK. 



83 



MliTft opon slarcli, as shown by exi>eriinenls maJc I))* C. T. Fox, nndcr tin 
direction of Professor Weber, of Columbus, Ohio. 

Chittenden and Gies' found lliat modcmtn <1um« of boric acid (up to 3 
Gs)., or gr. xlx, daily) are practicslly without influence on proteid metabolisn^j 
or upon general nutrition. The nmc is tnie of borax, up to daily doses ' "^ 
i Om. (or gr. Iixv), Larger doses of borax from 5 to 10 Gm. (or 5i'/»-ii88)( 
dailr. liavK a dini'ct stimulating clTt'Ct upon proteid nK-tabolifm, and lead tol 
facte arc d excretion of nitrosen; also of Eulphurio and phosphoric acids. 
Tbc7 rtrtanj the ouimilation of proteid nnd fatty food:*. With vi<ry largo 
4a*c* there is a tendency to diarrha^a from increased secretion of mucus. 
B^nx decmsce the volume of nrinc, gives it an alkaline reaction, and, owing 
to its excretion by this channel, raises the specific ;;ravity. Neither borazi 
iwr boric acid have any influence tipon the pulrcfactive processes of (he in^' 
taitillc. The; are rapidly eliminst«l from the body {twenty-four to Ihirty- 
aiz hours). 

Boric acid is rapidly eliminated in the urine and is said by Max Gruber 
to inczcAsv the elimination of urea and the quantity of urine paired. Acci^ 
dcBts from its use are rare; but a few cases have been observed in which^ 
korie acid excited cutaneous eraptions. The eruptions which may he ex- 
«itod by I he internal use of boric acid assume a number of forms. Erythema,, 

Kales, blcb«, gent'ralizfd urticaria, and confluent rubeola-like rashes havi^ 
a obferved. Disturbances of the nervous system have also been causedl. 
The symptoms have been attributed to non-elimination of the acid by tht] 
Udna j *. Suppuration of the ear, or running from tlie ear, is cured by 
the canal end iUHUillutin^ fincly-powdored boric acid. In the 
tt of aural suppurations and wounds Dr. Jaenicke, of GorlitE, 
ad* Eodium lotrnborale, which i» aliw con^iidered as a valuable appli- 
in conjunctivitis and keratitis and is said to restrain the formation 
_. ^.is. Dr. J. Harris Pierpont suggest* that finely-powdered boric acid i». 
» ready mesne of diagnosticating small perforations of the membrana tym-f 
■Uti. After the exKrnal ear has been eleansed and dried the powder is 
thii II into the canal until the membrane is completely coated. When an 
oxBiiBatian i» made, a few hour* suli*«<|uenily, the perforation, if present, 
«in Bppear as a dark or discolored spot upon a white field, the dischorge, in 
maptag thmugh the op«nin^, having iMiriiiTlly or tiholjy 'lissulved the acid.J 
T^w^ervd boric acid is rcganled by McCutidlit^g' a« an cxcrlK'iit applicntioQJ 
la irg alecTs. It is entiivly nnirrilating wlu''n applied to the skin, and haaj 
iso i»ed w a dressing for wounds in powder or ointment. 

B. B- Wild.* after citing a number of cases, including some of his own, 
fcljili iiithrn two forms of intoxication fixim boric acid — one in which a 
hnc onmntity of the drug is rapidly abtorlMd from the alimentary canal, 
^^g^ r, '- or other cavity, or from an extensive raw surface; in thesej 

^MB *> - ^°'' 'li'iCTha'a, general deprc^ion, and partial paralysis of tli< 

ivraos KOiI iniuieular systems occur, ana may cause death. A rash is noted! 
■» »rnn» Inrtiinccc, i-specially when the pulient recovered or lived acme dayt^ 
rption of the drug. The other class of cases results from the 
mrjuDi'iiBi'-'^ °f bfific acid or borax in comparutivoly small doses for long 



, _.^a«M Jaurtiat of ntftMagg, Jan.. 1SU3. 
: *'Tf- i.?«. ,-1932, n 23. 



u 



EUTICAL TDBRAPECnC AQB.VTS 



periods, and the symptoms appear at a Tsriable time after the ct 
aient of the drug. In somr (>( thcM cases it )« in«ntioti«d liuit Ih 
were diseased, and the author gives, as a poefiible reaeon for the i 
to ihe injurioud effects of boric acid, its very rapid eliminstion b; 
kidneys.* FitrtliL>nnorc, it is possible that cnse^ of intoxiciition oe 
fieqncntly than U at pr««ent recognized. Boric acid may imwit 
taken in food and cause a toxic skin-eraption which may be mttf 
ecicma, psoriodie, or exfoliatiTC dermntitis. It may l)C noted that • 
solution corresponds to 1,13 Gm, (or gr. xxim) per pint of the ad 
large dote for an infant on milk diet and one likely in some cum 
duee distnrbance of the alimentary canaL It should also be ascerts 
the milk ordered in cases of kidney disease is fr«c from excew of h 
or borax. The use of boric acid or the borates in surgery and theil 
administration ought to be carefully guarded in patientu with dise 
neys, and immediately discontinued on the appearance of dennatitii 
toxic symptoms. In suspected ca«es examination of the urine m 
valuable evidence of the presenee of the druj;. 

A solution of boric add i.'* an agreeable application in conjn 
and ia venr efficient in the treatment of bums, applied upon lint or a 
cotton. The saturated solution is used in rnrious chronic, scaly, n 
sitie akin eruptions, and is the best remedy for bromidrosis of tli 
fetid perspirntion. Among the beneficial combinations are: — 

R A(4<U bond ' 2| Gm. or Ssi 

IJlywrini, 

Tlnct. opii as 161 CjNii. or fji 

All. camphor. 30| c.cm. or fjj 

M, Big.: Ten ilrops to bo instittpd Into the m for onracho. (Dr. Prom 

B AcWi borld, 

Bisinuttii aubiilt aa 12| tiiri. or Sh, 

M. SJg.; For running from the car and in excesrivc and fetid pcrapin 

B Acidi borici ;...•..■.>>•■ .■.■■■.>••. SI Gm. or Sij 

Ptitr. ilnd carb. imp. ISJS (im. or Jm 

U. Sig.i In acute ecMiua and erytJieui&. 

B Acidi Imrk'i 41 Gm. or !j. 

.\iiuic hnmnnii^Udl* dwt. lfio| c.«n. or (Ji- 

M. Sig.: Um in fetid pempiratlen and la an oily state at Uie altin. 

In pharj'ngitis Dr. Capart prescribes the following combinatio 

B Sodli bOTktis 41 Gm. or 3]. 

Sodii inlicylntis ,. (,,........ 21 Gm. or 3i)i, 

Dfrortionit nltlmet 180| e.cm. or fjv, 

*M. Sig.t To be giyim in divided portion* through the day. 

Whitla, Ki'cgan, and others have employed boric acid in typho 
with pood results. The temperature was lowered and the diarrha-Ji c 
Dr. Tortchinsky' has used thi* remedy in S40 consuculive cases of 
fercr, and reports very favorably of its action. It is stated that tht 
of the disease was considerably shortened and that complications vn 

' Ut^rrk't An-liUcA, .Jan.. 1h[)!(. 

^BrtlUh Jfrrfinil Jvunial. Jan. U, 1863. 



ACIDCU Donicuu. 



S5 



Om. or Svi'/,. 
Gni. or gr. xv. 
ZS Gm. or st. ir. 
com. or 01'/,. 



HR. The effect of the boric acid vas enhanced, in the late «fn^Git accom- 
psni«d ))j cerebral ^ymplomic and in relapses, by a combination with quinine. 
Tlie same wrilcr haa obtained equally ^ti&factory resnlta from the use of 
boric idd in the sumtncr dinrrhcca of children. 

OMid resnlts have been obtained in erysipelas, even of the phlegmonons 
form, by tht- opplicmtion of lotiun» containing this remedy. 

Borai in snbBtance, mixed with white sugar, is applied to aphthous sore 
nmth in infants. Aiifn^cbt roeommcinlic the internal administration of 
bom ia the etomatitiA at elderly and debilitated persons in whom the di»- 
caKGzlenda to the cc«ophaguK and atomach, causing dysphagia and dcft'ctivc 
tatrition. A piece of borax of about 0.J3 fo 0.2« Gm. {or gr. ii or iij) placed 
iniheiiioulh isaiid to be nseful to eipeakersand dingers by producing saliva- 
vm nd teUeving hoarseness; its solution is a cooUng application to super- 
ftailiaSainmationi^ of Die tVin, and for pit>Tiasis versicolor and seborrhcea 
of the scalp, or dandrnff. 

Hie late Dtijardin-ReaumoliE u»ed the following as a favorite prescrip- 
tko far a dentifnee: — 

Sltfd. bortcl £I>I 

itid, ewbdki >..■•..••>.... I 

n^"^ ■■•■■ — - 

itfrna «...8SS 

Sp. menUug. >..>•■ in.!, ••••^ii.. •■■.><••• ICO cent, or nix. 

SjiuiM 0|s5 vxm. or fSiiiia. 

Cctrl .,,,.,,,........,.... q. fi. nd colornnd, 

Sp. Twi reet 80[ ccm. or fjiij.— M. 

The above author lays stress upon the importance of attention to the 
■dbIIl ivpfvislly in diabetes mellitns, in order to avoid lesions of the mn- 
om nembrane, gum.*, and teeth. 

A lotion containing borax may be used in order to allay the itchinj; of 
iTtictria and pancBtheata. Intomally, bornx, in 1.30 Om. (or gr. xx) doRca, 
t^tm trritable bladder and reduces the acidity of the urine. It has. in 
MK is^ances, given encouraging results in epilepsy. Thn general tend- 
txyof borax is to diminish the number of attacks. It will sometimes sue- 
WW ia cases which potassium bromide ha» failed to relieve. A combination 
(f tW nro drugs has disappointed uxpcctalton. It is recommended t4 bi.'gin 
■ftkdoces of 0.50 to 1 Gm. (or gr. viisa-xv) and rapidly increase the amount 
■til the limit of tolerance or a decided effect upon the disease is produced. 
Praf««soT Mairet, of Montpelier, states that when daily doses of 8 Gm. (or 
S}) ire iRinnieifnl to hold the altaclcs in check it is to be feurud that larger 
W!« irill prove no more auccessful. When the paroxysms have been re- 
tinmei, he advises the reduction of the amount to about -1 Gm. (or 3j) pur 
*<■. Among the disadvantages of the prolonged administration of borax 
ucaliiation, impairment of appetite ami digestion, diurrbiea. emaciation, 
weSiig of the face, cedema of the lower extremities, cutaneous rashes, con- 
jiOMtiiilif, iissiu-es of the lips, tall of tbe hair, and alterations in the noils. 

.\«ording to I>r. 0, l*raoine, a bine line, resembling (hat of lead poi- 
Miiiu;, may form upon the gums after the prolonged use of borax. 

Ooirers has, when administering borax in epilepsy, seen psonasia de- 
nlep in tevi-ral instances, and ic disposed to attribute the disease of tbe akin 
XUieinflaeDceofthedrug. Both psoriasis and eczema have been attributed 



PHAB«ACETTTICAIi THERArBmC AOEXTS OR DSPOS. 

bjr oUier writers to the ingestion of borex. Boras is said to be bfl 
wheo sdminiatcred in ^Ivcerln instead of a<|ueou4 stilulion, or wi 
tiul antisepsis is conjoined. Dr. Ch. F^-ic, after on experience ol 
with borax in epilepsy, re^rda it &■ distinctly inferior to the hi 
«fficacy. The reniil trouble excited by prolonged use of the druf 
always subside on suspension, and one case is mentioned which t 
fatally from urtL-mic coiuu. When the epileptic attacks arc noututl 
tton of the drug should be given during the ni^ht. In order to 
tacte of borax M. Uay rcoommends solution in un infusion of lie 
the addition of a liltle glycerin; in sweetened milk and strong od 
#yrup of oronge-pccl with julep. Synip of orange ii; said to bl 
vehicle, I'rofeseor Lashkevich considers the borate of ammonium 
in phthisis. It is iiuid to reduce the expectoration and, in some 
fever. lie combines it with conium, byoEcyamus, or some othei 
Dr. Golding-Biril asserts that borax cannot be employed with in 
women, as it has a stimulant action upon the uterus, and states tj 
instances he has itccii it produce abortion. Some have employed 
the purpose of exciting uterine contractions in protracted casei 
It has ai» b(Hrn adminiytered in amenorrhcea and djrsmenorrlm>a. 

Dr. Sacaze, of Montpelier, reports sn excellent result from ' 
borax in a ease of paralysis aptans. It was first given in 0.2.1 Gm. 
dose* tJiree times a day. ;Uter a few days the dose was gradually 
to double that qiiBnliiy. Improvement wa* rapid. 

Several cases of poisoning, some of them fatal, have beta 
apparently due to the local application of boric neid or its soluti 
temal cavities: the vagina or gtomacli. The Eymptoms wer« ret 
temperature, depression of spirits, sioknees of the stomach, feeble ] 
in some inttance», hiccough and ecchymoscs. llie nitnd usually 
clear, but coma sometimes occurred. 

Solution of boroglyceridt! (50 per cent.) is a pleasant and cfTici 
cation for conjumlivitis, pharjngitis, and as a dressing for wc 
granulating surfaces, having the important advantage of not bei) 
OHH. It is especially recommended for the local treatment of d 
Boroglyceride ointment, made by adding to it unguentum rnjuas 
' pK'a.iant application for sunburn, pruritus, and other skin affection 
aeid ointmtnt (in lanolin or xiiic ointment, 1 to 6) is used a* a dr 
wounds and ulcers. The solution of borocrlyceride is a valuable a 
in chroiiif rcwma of tho pnlma of the hanil= and the soles of the i 
also useful in subacute and chronic eczema of the genital organs, 
when the scrotum is invaded. It can be preeoribcd with wilch-ha 

The addition of borax is said to increase the laxative effect o 
suppositories. 

ACIDUM CACODYLICUM.— Cacodyl, .^r Kakodylic AcH, i 

CTysialliuc' pt>wder. odorless, s-jluble in wiitcr. and tontaiuing 64.4 
of nietullic arsenic, which is ei|uivaU>ut to 71.4 per cent, of arse 
Cacodylic acid and sodium cacodylate have lately been occupying 
tion of Continental investigators as substitutes for the usual pn 
of arsenic on account of being less toxic in their effects. The nan 
waa suggested by Bcrzelius on account of the extremely offensiv 
Cadet's liquid. 



JICIDL'U l-AKBOLICT'M. 



Dr. Dsntos,' of Paris, Fraiice, made a second report of hie invcstigatloiu 
widi ihe use of the eodium cacodylatt- before the i'aris Medical Society on 
June lli, 1900. Ha lia« trtiatt'd mme sixly iii!'*!:' of jisionAKU, with good 
reeulu, tlthougb he lias to note a tendeucy to relapse, the method of ad- 
ninitlittion iH-ing by hyinxicnnio ijiji'otion.*. Internnlly this uuthor has 
and cacodylic acid with good resulta in lupus erytbcinatosus, and in tuber- 
cuIoiUof the «ktn. 

Dr. M. If. Billet,' attached to the military hospital at Constantim-, 
AI^OM, report* thirteen c-a»i'* of malarial cachexia more or leji* pronounced 
thU k«d been tn?ated with cacodylate of sodium. This dniR following 
immcdialely ujioii in-almt'iit by iiuiiiiiK', )ini1 reetori.'d the n'A hlood-cells 
boo tbout 3.500.000 per luiiiimetre to normal, in the space of from liftfen 
toiafBly day*. Thi- immlicr of injirlioru' vnit from four to six, at intervale 
o( three or four days, the doae employed being 0.23 Gm. (or gr. iii */,) for 
nth ilijeclioD. The hifmoglubin propitrtion IiikI been mised fimiillaneouiily 
vitlitlK increase of red blood-corpuocles, and the bodily weight had like- 
vinfollov-ed an ascending progre«tiion. It has nUo been noted that the 
tAauiTe garlic smell of the breath when given internally is obviated by 
hTpodemiio medication. 

iCIDUX CARBOUCUU (U.S. P., B. P.).— Carbolic Acid,. Phenol 
*C,II,OH). 

Boie, 0.03 to 0.13 Gm. (or gr. *«-ij). 

A constituent of coaUtar, obtained by fractional distillation, and sub- 
•fsmtlT purified. 

iCISUH CABBOLICUU CBITDUU (U. S. P.).— Crude Carbolic Acid. 
A bquid consisting of Tsrioua constituents of coal-tar, chie0y cresol and 
ihtoo], obtained by fractional diKtillation. 

ACnilTM CAKBOUCUU LIQUEFACTUU {U. P.).— liqacfied Phenol. 

DoM, O.Oti tn 0.18 cc-m. (or mi-iij). 

Contains 10 parte of water to 100 parta, by weight, of phenol. 

Preparations. 

Vtnnitam Add! CnrboUd (U-8. P.j.—Glvcerite of CaiboKc Arid (20 per cnit.). 

*C*i Sali^iomrbolu (U.S. P.).— Sodium Sulpliwnrbolate. Uoet'. 0.33 to 8 Gm. 
<<tp.txxx). 

l«lwnU(m Aeldi Cftrbollci IV. S. P.. B. P.).— Olnlnient of Csriwhc Acid (U. S. P., 
•(»i«M.». Plicnol OicliiKMit. B. p. (I [fi cent,). 

TrsrhlKUfl AeidI C«rUi>llci (B. P.I.— Plirnnl l-owriRi? (0.1W3 Oiu.. or cr. I, witli 

Qlreuisum Andi Cattiolm IB. P.I.— Glycerin of PliMiol (20 per <*Tit.). 
SappOMloria Aeldl Oifli<>lici IB. P.)- — PJivnol !>iippoaStories. Kach contains 
•••SOi. (or gr. j) Yfilii nliilc liMii-wux and cacmibuttrr. 

Pianaacology. ^Carbolic acid ie a liquid obtained during the distilla- 
^m of coal-tar lietween the loni|ierature* of 1X0" and 190" C. (356° to 
37*' F.). What is called crude carbolic acid is distilled at a somewhat lower 
IwBpersrare, and containit also cresylic acid and other substances which 
Wwer it dniit for medicinal use, except as a disinfectant for drains, etc. A 

"Boll. »t MfmoLres." vol. xvl. p. 688. 
'Vm rori- Mriiail Jounmt. Aug. sa, IWU. 



»8 rn.iRiucEtiTicAL tekbapkutic aoests on drugs. 



mixture of coal-tar constituents has. under the name of saprol, 
posed m n cheap di^nfectant. Saprol is n dnrk-brown, oily sulial 
floats upon thi- surface of water, which extracts from it carbolic aol 
and other lohibtc producti> of ooul-tar. In l-ptT-ccnt, sohuion, kaj 
energetic ageot, and ts well adapted to the di^nfection of dejecta ia 
prisons, nnd «chooU. It iiiui^t be borne iu mind when using lhi« flu 
)6 of an inllamnuible nature. 

Pure cnrli'ilio noid h rrvttnllinc at ordinary tempcnitiirOK. at 
is colorlees, but reddens after exposure to the kir. It has s chai 
odor nnd |nmjrent tnetcj it ik very toluble iu nil the \\t\ie\ mcnrtni 
the peculiarity of being ljquefie({ by 6 per cent, of water; but th 
addition of water prodiiocs turbidity until the proportioni> are ro 
to 20), when it remains pennanent'ly cloa:r and is not affected b. 
dilution. It rf«emblee creosotii in ilvdininfcctant propcrtif-*, hut di; 
it by beinj; converted info picric acid when nitric acid is added to it; 
with creosote, nitric ncid (onii'* oxalic ocid. Ue«orcin i* nlno of 
character, but is in the form of a pawder. Both creosote and reoi 
be considered separately. 

ITie following unofficial preparations are sometimes used: — 

Uno^ciat Preparalitms. 

Aqua Addl Cnrbolid (8 Gm, in 473 t^.m\. of wat«r, or 3ij in Oj). Dos 
com. lor rSi-iJ); rIsci u a wnoh, kiiikI*. or spray. 

Cnibiiiui Acidi Cnrbolici ignuKc. conluininK nirbolu add. 1-, miun, S 
T part*). 

Utrtim Afiili Onrbiilici (I iii SO of oIiv«- or cottoti>mvd' oil). 

t>jrbi>lic*Ai.-iil Ciiiii|<li<.<r,— Itix'-ulvi.- |>Hrt>i fttiil iu 1 uf aluoliol, and m 
farta Cflmphoi', (omiintc n dcnr, oily lolution. 

Liigliur sixlii Curbululus IN. F,|.— Solution ot OirbolitW of Soda tear 
12.00 Gm.. or f(r. fUxxviiJ: cuuBiii? sodn. 2 Gin., orgr. xxxj: nul*r, 120 c.ci 
FW fxl'mnl iigp, properly dihili^iJ, Phfnol.sodlquc. 

Liquor Sodii Boiatia Compuiilus tX. F.).— Uobi-U's Solulioti tbumx ni 
tiimrbonnti', oich, S 6ni,. i>r Sij: onrbolic acid. l.S.I Om.. or gr. xxiv, in n 
c.clu., or Oj). For c.^tcnial itti- tri tpirny fur now Bnd thront. 

TribromojihcnoL — A com|M)uii<l of Btiiminp with Cnrbolic Acid with » 
luiiie odor. In tliP form of wfl, wlilli- iioodlM; uwd M an antlMptlc *Xt«) 
intcniallj'. Dobp. OJiO Gui. (or jtr. Jijl. 

Painplilorplinniil. ,V* nn nnliupptii-. 

Calcium Curbolaituiii. — Carbi'lutcd Lime. For diHinlcctlng purpouc*. 

Physiologrical Action. — Carbolic acid and its preparations ai 
gui?lic(l by their di-slnictive action upon Ihc lower forms of lifi'. bi 
to their tarry smell and toxie effects, they cannot be used for preserv 
and ore not popular in the household. "When applied to the skin, 
acid causes irritation, and sometiinea siouRhing. fiangrene somet 
lows the use of carbolic acid as a surgical dressing. According t< 
senrations of Dr. E. T. Keichert. this result is most apt to be causf 
UM of tnoist applications and occurs especially in weak subjects, wo 
children. According to some reported cases, the presence of chro 
holism or diabetes seems to favor the occnrrence of this accident, 
acid is a local anasthetic. It is also readily absorbed through the ( 
toxic effects have teen produced in this way, although much more fr 
by the absorption through the raw surface of a recent wound. T 
ot coma due to the application for a variable time of a 5-per-cent. 
have been reported by R. Clement Lucas and W. Arbutnnot Lai 



k 




ACIOrU CABBOUCCJI. 



29 



it dimiiiiehed in quantity^ and on Etandiag acquirer sa oUTe-gre«n 

this 13 (generally the earliest symptom of iiitoxicatioi). We alsn notice 

Ins of appi.'titc, tiBusGs, vomiting, frothy «iliviition, difTictilty in evallow- 

iag, and nen'ous symptoms. Th« pupils are ooniraoted and the functions 

of tli« brain and spinal cord are affcvtcd, liiispondfd rffli-xee and impaired 

•^MibiJity and motility beinf; obeerred. Lar^e doaes exert a depressant in- 

4amc« upoo the circulation, and aftvr lutlial umounhs the heart stopo in 

^wtole. Death occurs from respiralopi' paralysis; the temperature is at 

Ictt iorrvaE^. but aftiTvord is ri-diioi>d. In sorcnt coecs IIktc it nhock. 

(Mat pallor, and eiudden death. At the autopsy the drof; may be recognized 

«T it* ponotrating odor; evidences of corrosive action may be scon it taken 

A concentrated form, but even in small qiuintitiee it produces gastritis. As 

tkninatioD takc» place prinnpally by the urine, the kidners may be COD- 

IfMtcd or iiiQamed: the blood is dark and imperfectly coagulated. 
According to the ob»tT>-ation of Dr. W. J, Wilkinson, the number of 
fad blood-corpuscles is reduced, but the percentage of hemoglobin remains 
■BaJtvml. ZwaanU-maker has shown that ruts and cats arc particularly sus- 
rrptiblv Ui the action of carbolic acid. After a poisonous dose death some- 
biBM cotnce on with great rapidity. In rare coacs it is delayed for several 
hMTt or days. The fatal dose varies within wide hmits, the minimum being 
latbvr more than -1 Gm. (or 3j). 

Tnataent of FoiMmiatc> — When carbolic acid has been swallowed 

pTDOipt trvatmcut i« required. The soluble eulphatn (soda or magnesia) 

■R the bcflt antidotes, but the liquor calcis sacchnratus, or eyrup of lime, is 

also nscfuJ, if at hand. Alkslies, ^oap, albumin, flour and water ina;^ ^^ 

pvas, and the stomach wadicd out with the stvmach-pump. Oils should 

■K be giTcn, as they favor absorption. The bowels should be freely opened 

with magnesium, or Mdium, sulphate. Collap«e i« relieved by hypodermic 

is^etiooa of atropine, by hot appUcafions, arterial stimulants, and friction. 

Tarn toloble sulphates should be admiuigtercd in t^insll doocc for Kcverul days, 

m f>rder to remove the carbolic acid from the .qyatem. Professor Carleton, 

if Nnr York, staleB that vinegar i» an cxoillt'iit anlidote to phenol. When 

Ufiied to a cutaneous or mucous surface which has been burnt by the acid 

ia cfaaract eristic whitish appcaranc« prudueetl by the cauiitic at once dis- 

■Mean and subMHiuent ecarring is to a large extent prevented. Vinegar is 

^u wd lo be equally good sh an antidotv when the acid has been taken into 

(W alomacb, and it is recommended that the patient should as soon as pos- 

mUt drink some vinegar nii.iod with an equal part of water, after which other 

ammanm nay be taken to more fully counteract the poison. Drs. Phelps 

^bd Powell state that alcohol i« nn absolutely safe and sure specific against 

5- e*<'liarotii; action of concentrated carbijlic acid. Dr. Gross, of Fort 

further »nggcata the use of alcohol imemally as an antidote for ear- 

n-,,cid poisoning. Cases suecessftilly treated by alcohol given freely, botli 

month and hypo<lermieally, have been reported by I>r. Kelly, of 

and Dr. llair, of Bridgeport, Conn.' As cases of poisoning by this 

becoming quite common, it haa been suggested that erer^- physician 

cm hand Hulphate of soda, which is a prompt and safe antidote. 

^^___ ■. .^The antiiryuiotic and antii«ptic qualities of carbolic acid 

Jteeii fMrgslj atiliied in atirgery, although it has now been nearly super- 



,^^ tfrMt^i B-IWJ*. Feb.. 1000. p. 87. 



80 



PHARILICKL-TICAL TBBBAPBDTIC AGBKTS Ott WIUUS. 



Beded by the eotutiocs of mercury, which hiiTC no offensive odor, i 
th« Bpray of carbolic wntcr wa« conritl^rcd an indigpentMiblc fcati 
IJstcrian method, but tliia liaa been found to be unneeeesar^' and 
abftadoiied, n« asicpsis can bo iti.'cured without it. The i<o1utiOD is 
as a detergent and as an uppliMtion upon dressings. In the trei 
earbtincic or niiili>rnnnt puittule, after incision and scraping, the a] 
of puie earbolic acid not only acts as an antiseptie, but also as a U 
thetic, relieving; pain. 

Dr. Oscar II. Allis, of Philadelphia, and Dr. B. 1-". Gardner, a 
burg, Pa., apply undiluted cnrbolie acid in the treatment of wo 
bums. The tissues turn white immediately alter its application anc 
cle^nited by douching with sterilized water. They have witnei«*oi 
use in this manner neither shock nor eystemic absorption. It also 
hnmoiitnlic effect, especially upon the capillary vessel*.' C^icruj 
three cases in which carbulic-acid solution was applied to the fil 
caiigreno resulted. In two of the casea, a 3-per-cent. solution wai 
but it was kept on for several days. The duration of the applieatio 
important ihun the concentration. Dr. Houscll" has collected ft 
eases of carbolic-acid gangrene and calls attention to the fact tl 
been caused by solutions a* weak a« 1 or 2 per cent. He warns j 
to dbcard its use as a dreeeing for the extremiiics in all suenffthi, 
acid camphor, being free from offensive odor, may be used a« a subl 
the pure acid. In weak solutions carbolic acid has been used a 
eiticido in various forms of linea; nud it has also been used topical 
prevention of pitting from small-pox. An ointment conlaininn 
acid and camphor has proved of service al^o in mitigating the pn 
eompanying variola. In the treatment of burns, in the form eapi 
carboUzcd oil, it ifi much employed. In acute vesicular eczema, < 
and in dermatitis, especially from various poisonous substances, tl 
has employed this combination with great service: — 

B Addi pnrbolic-i |38 Giii. or ji' 

l^ilv«ris zind cnrb. [mp 31| Gm. or Sj 

Liq. cnlei*. 

Oljorrini sa 00| ceni. or fS 

U. Big.: Slial(« well, and mop frequently orer the aurfav«. 

An ointment containing oarboiic acid, sulpluir, and camphor 
effective in many pruritic diseases of the skin, especially papulai 
ptiorinsis. liciien, and urticaria (or nettle-rash): — 

H Arlill cBrboUcl ., 32 Out. or gr, 

8ul|)liuria oubl 2 Gni. or 3«» 

Oiinpliorw K5 Gm. or gr. 

Vngt xliici oxidi 31 Om, or 3j- 

M. Big.: Apply tiequcntly to the irritable surfMc. 

Lotions containing carbolic acid also allay the itching whid 
panics jaundice. 

In the vidvitis or leucorrhroa of young girls lotions or injectioi 

' Spc iinwr bj- llr. (Unit H. AIU*. on "CxTboltc Acid Uwd in FulLI 
Surgery,'" in Mf>liral lliillrlin. Jbo., 1S94. p. 4. ^*" 

' Uiinfhffirr mnliciTiUfhr ffocAmscftrt^f, April 20, 1897. 
' Bfitrape ctir lliniicfie Vkiitirffie, B. IB. H. 8. 




lOlDtrU OiRBOLICrU. 



31 



[boUc Bcid in tb« Etrength of 5 parts to 1000 of vater are beneScial, pads of 
''~' Mtnsmt«d in the fani« solution being u»ed in separate tho JoHuTncd part* 
inltfrvmls. The gonorrhcea of fomnles has aim been euccessfully man- 
by the applicftlion once or twice a day of tampons moistened with the 
vwini; mixture: — 

Arid* csiboliri 1| Om. or gr. xr, 

Aloobul. rcl ip. odoraL.... 304 a.0in. or f^j 

AqiM* 73| ««ii. or [jibs.— M. 

Scabiet has been cored by friction with a 1-to-lji carbolized oil. 

Internally, carbolic acid, sometimeH, rather unexpectedly produces 
^nptoiiut •>( poisoning, which fact restricts its use. In fermentation accom- 
pBSyiaf; Ilntaicnt dy^pepiia an<I in dilated stomach, carbolic acid will check 
tbr pr"cr-i» and relieve the gymptorae. It is ueeful in irritable vomitini;, 
f^- (iicntly in broken do«««. Tlic author suggests the following pre- 

■cr.r-- --^ >n the Tarietjr of dyspepsia rcfeired to: — 

B Acidi MrbotM \t» Qm. or ir- iv. 

Pnlv. ■ttuuaKcl |7$ Ota. or ^. xij. 

M. ri n. pll. no. xij. 
Sty.: Otw bclor* mcoJa. 

a Addi otMid I f3S Gm. or gr. V. 

AifOMT dsBaiuonil aa4S| c.nn. or IJih. 

M. Sig.i One tMjpooafal b«fM« mrala. 

Carbnlic acid i^ also of service in the treatment of diarrhcEa. It has been 

•ad in pili form in the treatment of tape-worm. It is part of the so-called 

jyfiri5" ncntment of typhoid fever in extemporaneous combination with 

StActntv of iodine (1 to 'i of i'ldiiie) in ioMis of 0.1'^ to 0.1^ c.cm. {or mii- 

iqi ervery ihrti- or four hour*, given in mint-water. The acid has been 

pm in tjphoid fever nnat«ociat«d with iodine. Surgeon R. U. Qitill, of 

At British army, has usmI in typhoid fever a combination of carbolic acid 

md chloroform (the proportion of acid to spirit of chloroform bdnj; as 3 

» 10), and gives the moist favorable reports of this method. In puerperal 

■pCieamia, alone or alternated with quinine, it has been thought to answer 

aaaad pvTpow. Carbolic acid has been recommended by some writerB as s 

ij^blc prophylactic againat scarlet fever. In offensive breath, the cstise 

■^ff be in the mniilh. throat, or bronchi, and in any of these cases the use 

rf lb« «te«in-atomirer with a &-i>er-CGnt. solution of carbolic acid will often 

i^ere U»e p«tii-nt vtry promptly. Caries of the leclh may be relieved by a 

^^ah-wmfh containing carbolic acid or phenol -god iqne, well dilated. The 

^mt applied with a brush or atomi:!er has been used in diphtheria and vari< 

«w farata ot »otv throat. Vti-ak solutions are used in hay fever, chronic nasal 

1 ^Mflrrh, corrza, and influenza, and afford marked relief; the one known as 

' . ' - -(.o is widely u«d for the purpose, and for cleansing the nos- 

ro making local applications. 

dobcntane*'"^ injecUoM of a 2-per-ceni. solution have been made for 

P.i^^;„,_. ifjf. prrijrress of er>'Bipc)as, and piirtnchymatous injections into the 

ry ])hthi»s. In the early .atajie of furuncle, and i(i en- 

, , _ ;^-iandfi. the hypodermic injection of the Mme solution will 

^^^ ■; ctiuU in prevoniing the formation of pus. The same method 



32 PnARM^OBLTICiL TUEItArKUTIO AGENTS OB DRUOS. 

has beoQ emplojred with eucceee in the treatment of chronio eyn 
it has proved of scrrice id ccrt«in fortiu of functioiinl spium. not 
by lui'ubz^'d pain, tlie injection being made at the painful spota: 
tetanus linve been Bucoetafully trcntcd by the subcutaneous inj« 
joined with wann baths and cnemata containing chloral and 
bromidL'. 

Dr. F. E. Place has treated successfullj tetanus in horses by h; 
injections of pure carbolic acid. His raetJiod Is to inject in the dcu 
of the nvck and shoitldera 4 Gm. (orSj) every two hours, for the fl 
two houra of treatment, and leut frequently later. A large awdlil 
at the site of the injections, but disappears in about fourteen da] 
times there is a loss of hair over the spota, but it i» not pennsneaj 
never administered less than &4 Qm. (or Sxvise) in a successful cose, 
and Amyx' hare reported 4 coses of tetanus in the human subject' 
iajcctions of 3-pcr-cent. solution of carbolic acid under the sk 
neighborhood of tht: wound. The patient who received the lar^ 
vraa the only one to recover. In each case chloral-hydrate and ' 
bromide were given simultaneously in large dosea. The case wh] 
tred reooivi'd 17.30 Gm. (or gr. cclivij) in eight daj's, of which S. 
gr. e) were given in the flnl twentj'-totir houn, witliout untowan 
any kind. ' 

l>r. Flave] Woods,* of Philadelphia, reported teoeiitlv a ^ 
recovery from letanus by means of large doses of carbolic acid. Tb 
was introduced by Baccelli. Babds* speaks of it in very high ti 
says that the statistics of the antitoxin treatment do not show any 
suitft, Bab^s injected 0.50 Gm. (or gr. viiss) of a '/i-per-cent. solul 
the spinul column every two hour*. Arcoti injectt'ii a 2- or 3-per-c 
tion in small doses, the patient receiving 0.32 Gm. (or gr. v) a d 
Accnd«iii» Mt'dica, of Borne, pubUdhed these stnliglic^: One dei 
cases with Uaccelli's treatment; 8 deaths in 40 with Tizeoni's ser 
11 cuscjg with Bi'hiing's serum No. 1; 2 in 9 ea.ses wiih Beh ring's sen 
Lieutenant-t'olonel W. G. H. Henderson' reports success with the 
acid treatment of tetjimis in both man and animals. Of 20 paticn 
three times a day with injections of 0.13 Gm. (or gr. ij) of carbol 
1J80 c.cm. (or mix) ni xiiter, 7 recovered. "Kilasnto has demon.sti 
carbolic acid acts as an aniesthetic, then as an antiseptic, and as an 
to the toxin of tetanus." 

J. M. Atkinson recommends large dosca of carbolic acid hypod 
in treating the bubonic plagnc, and reports n successful instance o: 

Subcutaneous injections of carbolic acid were found very efE 
Skullecki in 2 cases of severe erysipelas and 1 of septic puerperal 1 
recovered promptly, and he recommends the treatment as strongly 
already heiii lauded for tetanus and anthrax. The erysipelas pui 



'/rfinivf. Feb. 2^. liMlO, 

*St. Louis Ueiliail Rrririi: ttec. 180fl. 

'Ktitorinl in Mriilml Kivord. Opt. 21. IflBO. 

*"T«*i-nlii'lh Ci'utiirv I'rnctico at Sli^iiiyinw." 

•Utnerl. .Ixintt 3. Irti'm. 

' Lancrt, Dee, 9. 1S»1'. fti- nls" arlirlf on the "liiibo Plajtii*," hv I 
tevitoit »dilion of "Hcfprpnce Handbook on Vlie Mvdical SciPuce*."' Willi 
t Co.. New Yott, IWKi. 




ACIDUU OlRBOLtCtrsr. 



33 



m^td WTentr-two lo ei^btj-four injectiom, a total of l.ll to 1.68 Gm. 
ffanicacid (or gr. 3JtiV«-3t]ivj), in a 2-pcr-c*ut. solution, I c.cm. (or mxv) 
tun fonr hours. The puerperal fever was troJited vrith 0.38 Gm. (or gr. vj) 
if phenic add every ihrpe houre, the lirst day, and afterward vritb 0.30 Gm. 
(«rgr. irse) every four hours, for a week, when the cure was eomplete.* 

A. Sirubell tx'porle a severe case of gangrenous and necrotic anthrax 
ipKuiing from liie lip of the nose, with chill.*, fever, etc., completely cured 
vitliKarcely a scar, by frequent injections of a 3-per-cent. solution of car- 
kdkadd, a total of 4U0 Pravaz nyringcfiiU in eighteen day», combined with 
ctfiooistimulants, warm baths, and hot cattiplusms at a temperature of 50" 
toM* C, applied locally every ten minutes, night and day. The growth 
Wlbcanthras bacillus is checked at 40° and permanently arrested at 43°. 
Utorei Ironi the noae were very virulent, but no bacilli were found in the 

faaautn recommends in tonsillitis the injection into the substance of 
tht^d of 0.50 c.cm. (or mviij) of a 3'pcr-cent. solution. Relit-f i» rapiil, 
oftaifter only a single injection h^s been made. As a prophylaxis against 
bi^nnt rcciinent attacks of tonsillitis, gargling the throat with a carbolixed 
•Infatliesolation has been advised. The pure acid (1 to 1.30 Gm., orgr. xv- 
n]hub(«n use<l by Levis as on injection into the tunica vaginalis, in cases 
<f hjdtocele, with successful results. In haemorrhoids, carbolic acid, either 
piKcr diluted with oil, has been employed with Hitisfactory results; but 
thtrt bate been some accidents. It has also been recommended in weak 
EtlntioD fur the treatment of a«carido» by enema, but the danger of absorp* 
tin is too great for its use in this way; it may, however, be applied ex- 
tol^, as it is an cxoellent unlipruritic. 

The vapor of carbolic acid may be inhaled for whooping-cough or 
ptiBiili*, in the pliiee iif thv spray, by placing a few drops upon sQme ob- 
Mfbttt totton in an inhaler. 

T>T. H. Ern«'iit Schinid relii-i' entirely, in every stage of whooping-cough, 
>pn the use of a spray composed as follows: — 



• Aali t«rlio1iei 

Utathol <4 pprccnt. *ol,) ,. )6 

Cmia. hycbnchlor, (S-pcr-cent. toL 11 

C);«mn. 4 

Ai{. lanroccraiii • ■■ q. i. ad 30 



38 Gm. or Kr. vj. 
c.cm. or rSiv. 
c.cm. or (Siij. 
crm. or (3J, 
c.cm. or (Jj. — M. 



lie solution is tised by means of an atomizer every third hour, the 
unit of the instniment being directed as far as possible into the mouth 
<4 <hv ptttent. The use of a weak tohittou of carbolic acid by atomixation, 
umUmiI with its internal administration, is of service in ptilmonary gan- 

pfBt 

!aU» septic diseases. — stnall-pox. seplicf^mia, puerperal fever, etc, — 
(hf (ulidiix^'Xrboletes have been used with awerted .4iicces.i. In typhoid fever 
fif. (Ttugh has bad good results from zinc snlphoearbolatc, in doses of 0.13 
' '".''jr.m. (orgr. ii-iij), four or five times a day. It has the advantage, over 
the a.'botic-acid-and-iodiac treatment, uf being less depressing to the heart 
od kti tDJurioiL* to th« kidneys. 



•«fM(M ITMtoiJc. May 2fi. ISM. 
'VnrAntn- mntitiiiitchf M'oelieiudtrtft, Nov. 



S9. 



PEABUaOBCXICAL THBRAPECTIO AOKNTS or DHtJC 

Prof. 11. Chartoris, of Glasgow, belicvos that pure carbolic i 
good resultj in lh« treatment of t}-phoid fever, lie ^ivee it in tl 
« pill containing U.16 Gm. (or gr. iist) of pnrv acid made np witl 
nocuoust powder and covered with keratin, for the purpose of deli 
tion until it hai- poeted into (he bowt-t. He is nUc of the opini 
tcav be useful as a prophylactic and therapeutic a(;ent iji choWis 
it might, with advautugc, be tried in diphlherin in doses ol" 0.13 C 
ij) every two hours. 

Maj^iimtim sulphocarbolitc 18 «aid by Dr. G. Taro7.«i to be an' 
laxative and inleatinal antiseptic in doses of 1 to 2 Gm. (or gr. x* 

Parachlorphenol — obtained by llio action of chlorine on phen 
by Girard, of Heine, to be more stable, energetic, and constant in a 
other drugs and ita toxicity \s much Ices than mercury, cre^ol, i 
Subcutaneous injections of 1 Gm, (or gr. xv) per kilogramme of be 
are required to form a loxie do*i' for n dog or rabbit, A 2-pfr-coa 
kills the spores of anthrax in an hour, whereas a S-per-cent, s 
phenol rciiuirv* Uvwity days. It ronn* a valuable antiecpltc dl 
wounds or for cleansing surgical instruments. 

A combinaiion of nubslancea possf^iiiing antiseptic properties 
been proposed for the purpose of securing increased action, leMent 
greater solubility, elo. Dr. J. de Christnias, of (he Pasfonr In 
Parii, has devised a mixture which he terms phenosalyl, the formul 
IE as follows; — 

Carbolic arid 90 

Lactk add : SO j 

Saluylio mM 10 j 

Mi-nthol 1 ] 

Fhenosalyl is a clear, syrupy liquid and partially crystallizes a 
peratnres. but upon thy addition of a small quantity of glycerin a 
tion rcKiilts. This will not again cn,'8tallixe and readily dissolve 
water, alcohol, and ether. In cold wat^'r it is soluble to the exter 
cent. Kxperimenis have shown that phenosalyl is considvrnbly h 
ous than carbolic acid. It has Ixeu used in 1-per-cent. solution f 
infection of hands and ingtruments, for irrigations, etc. A sohit 
same strength proved rapidly curative in a ceae of impetigo, w 
5-per-cent. phenosalyl pcncib' were beneficial in endometritis and 
Phenosalyl has been advantageously used a« an antiseptic in obstc 
A 2-per-cent. solution injected into the bladder was productive ol 
results in purulent cy.*titis. An ointment of 1 part of phenosalyl 
ICO parts of vasclin was suoccssfully Huployed by Dr. Bergpr in 1 
eoilis and a 0.2- to 0.4-per-efiil. aqueous" solution in different 
conjunctivitis. Scheurlen and Ilechmen, a few years ago, publish 
suits of experiments proving that the germicidal action of carbo 
decidedly increased by the addition of sodium chloride, A soh 
per cent, of carbolic acid with S+ per cent, of common salt gi 
results than 6 per cent, solution of carbolic acid in plain water. 




ACtOrit CIJHOSilCUU. 



35 



ACIDUH CHROMICUM {U.S. P., B. P.). — Chromic Aoid (CrO,), 
Cknaic Thoxide, Chromic Anhydride. 

I'rcparalions. 

PeUMii Kchromu (U.S. P., B, P.).— roUmiiUU Bipliroiuuti-. Dow, 0,006 W 
OettGm, tor gr. V»-V,l. 

Llqumr .Vddl Oimmkl IR. P.).— ^TiiHoft at Cliromlc AM r2fi prr nent.). 

" FharmaooloBy.— Chroinic acid ocnir* in tin; (orni of wiinll, erimnon, 
DK^e-shaped cmtaU, deliquescent and very soluble in water. Tliev ehould 
aa fce tdded to uK-olinl, n* itiutuAl decomposition take* plnec, Fomelimea 
tjytoarelT. An explosion results instantly from a mixture of 1 part of 
OTieic aeid with 2 pnrl!» of jrlyoiTirt. Fur ilu- i^amc ri-fl!ii>n chromic acid 
•iinBid never be combined withl spirit of nitrous ether. 

njnologrioal Action and Toxicology. — On account of its marked 
tSattr for waier and ii? conlaincd f>\y};i'ii, thromic acid rapidly d«jtroys 
tiaoa, forming an eschar, and it iii a powerful aniiaeptic. In solution 
(ttam S to 30 per tvnt.) it acts as a caustic. When swallowed it is a cor- 
nsTc [<oi»on. and reijuircs prompt Irealmcnt by demulcents and alkalies, 
■ilh inigation of the stomacn. If death docs not occur at oiicc from shock, 
tt BUT re»nli from intlammation and snhacclation of the mucous coats of 
IbfEomarfa. Workmen in factorii.'s wIutl- chromic acid is used arc liable 
iDhite perforation of the nasal septum from the local action of the acid 
ifplkd Bccidonlally upon the finger*. Kcx^ma of the hands is liable to 
•ear in tha>« enframed in makin^r the bichromate dilution used for dyeing 
farpOMc. Cloth dyed with this material i* apt to produce tilct'ratiiin of the 
Meanest. The electropoion fluid (Liquor Electropoeicus. X. F,>, or 
mny^aid, contuii>» {K>1a.<(riiini bidiromate in powder, 186 Om. (or jvj); 

"'■n-ial sntphuric acid. J80 ccm. (or (ovj); cold water, 1419 c.cm. {or 

1 1. Bi-inj; of en attractive red color, and in such common use among 
fi.ttinoii. it may be svallowed by mistake, and instdbces of poisoning in 
(bny are not unc-ominon. In such cawa, soap'Suds and milk may be giwo 
>«K«.and the stomach carefully washed out with a soft tube, as vomiting 
■iTnntitir the ■tomarh. .\rteriat Htimulants and external counler-irrita- 
tios ua hot applications may bv required. Chrome yellow, or lead chro- 
tK(. has br«n u»ed by bakers in order to give a rich color to cakes A 
: of caeee arising from this aduItcTnlion have been investigated by 
■< D. Stevart. of Philadelphia. Though mentioned here incidentally, 
tumnptoinc are principally indicative of lead poitoning. 

, nenpy. — The solution of chromic add is an •■xcetlent remedy for warla, 
(JlUrtie mucous patches, and enlarged tomiils (0.6.5 to 30 c.cm. of water, 
nra-.xadaq. f?J), applied with cotton or a cunelVhair brush once or twice 
i^t. It has also been itsed in gynKcologietJ practice in uterine ha?mor- 
rtap and atdocerrieitis, and has been injected into hsmorrhoids, and ap- 
fM to bjpertrDphice of the naial chnml>ers. and aUo to nome malignant 
tnmhi. SVeatii^ of the feet (hyperidrosisl is relieved by sponginR the feet 
Wt «iih a veak solntion. Para.iitic skin diseases, sycosis, lupus, timra cir- 
nsAi. aad condrlomata require a stronger solution {6.50 to 30 c.cm., or gr. c 
t"<S]> As the caostir action lendf io spread, it should be um^ with cantion, 
nmmt the neighboring surface with ointment, and promptly removing 
Woi sf add with an aikalin* wash. 




86 PHAKMJICBDTICAL TTIKRAPKCTIC AOSSTS OH DRrOS. 

In favug, nflcr the cmats have been removed, an ointment con 
follows has proved eerviceable: — 

B Potus. blchcomat. Ij <:ra. or er, 

Adipi* 3)j Cm. or Jj. 

M. H. ungt 

A 1-per-cent. solution of chromic acid in water Ims been 1 
ProfoMor Kaufman, of Alfort, to he an excellent remedy in easea 
bilea. As an application to chronic iilccnt the following comhinatii 
ommcnded: — 

B Acid, chromic. S| Gm. or |p 

Acid, tannic. 1|30 Urn. or gt 

Morph. tulph 32 Gni. or ip 

Chloro). hjrdnit. 83132 Uni. or oi 

AqvM V-- ^'■'1 c.cm. or O, 

M. Sig.: Appl^ freqntntlf witli M&ielVhair brush. 

Chromic aeid h8« been snccflftsfully usid by Dr. W. K. H. S 
the treatment of ranula and cystic goitre. After the tumors had bee: 
their contents washed out, and after hremoirha^ had c^Hiied. a 
solution of chromic acid was freely applied to several points of the 
Chromic acid is not used internally; but (he polaii»iitm bichromate 
administered in doses of O.OOfi to 0.012 Gm. (or gr. '/,„-'/.): it 8 
emetic in doses of 0.0-18 Gm. (or gr. '/»)- H 'ms been uncd in chro 
matism and syphiliji, made into pill with some vegetable bitter, 
doublfnl utility in these conditions. 

Potaiiiam Bichromate. — Dr. Joseph II. Hunt, of Brooklyn, p: 
action of potassium bichromate as an expectorant in catarrhal com 
the respiratory tract. To children of a yejir old, he i» accustomed 
in 0.0033 Gm. for gr, '/,,,) doses. When the respiration is serious] 
raseed, he rfpfnt* itn- dnse every fifteen or thirty miimli-!! until t 
toms are ameliorated, when he diminishes the frequency to hourly 

Following ihe .'(uggestion of Vutpian. ProfiWdr Fru*<;r, of E( 
has, with advantage, made use of po^ssium bichromate in nuraei 
of aggravated dyspepsia,' some of which were ai*ij»)ci»ted with d 
symptoms of gastric tilcer The remedy was generally given in tli 
0.005 Gm. (or gr. '/ii)i sometimes increased to 0.01 Gm. (or gr. ' 
times a day. Professor Fraser advises that the remedy he Riven du 
ing, while the stomach is, as far as p0!«ible, empty. He states that i 
bichromate is capable of relieving, and often iii a short time of i 
the entire group of flymptom.i, exio-pt ccinstiiiatidu and anwrnia, em 
in dyspepsia. It is particularly useful in alleviating pain, nausea, 
iting. In gastric ulcer it did not sucreed in ehfciiing hiemorrl 
obstinate vomiting, gelatin cnpsuks, each containing O.OOG Gm. (or 
have been given every hour or two, with good results. In gnslr 
they have been successfully given, 1 three times a day. on an empty 
by llradhury, of London.' Professor Fraser, of Kdinburgh. reat 
before the International Medical Congress at Rome on the use of 
n'commending it in certain aftecfions of the stomach.* 

Potassium bichromate has likewise been administered with 
benefit in locomotor ataxia. Dr. Diago reports very favorable res 

' /.oncrt. April U. 1804. ' l^ncrt. Sept. 14, IS»S. • iMMCrt. April U, 




ACIDDU CITRICUU. 



37 



tbtnclmive admJDigiration of this remedy in seven cases of h»inaiocIi,vluria, 
Ihnt of which dvpendcd npon thi- prtwiifc of filiirin?. It was given in the 
dweof O.OS to 0.03 Gm. {or gr. '/fSe) in half a pint of water. He regsrda 
ttenltuof vdlue in thelrealnivntof p<Tniciuiis niularini an»-Diiii. In case* 
at faieamng by potassium bichromate the same means are employed as in 
chnmic^cia poisoning;. 

ACmUM CITRICTJM(U. S. P.. B. P.)— Citrie Aoid(H,C.H.O, + H,0). 
Dwe. O.ijfl to 2 Gm. (or gr. i-5es). H. P., 0.3g to 1.30 Um. (or gr. v-xx). 

Preparaiion. 
Syniias Addi Citrici (U.&P.).— One per cent Dow, T.fiO to 30 c.nn. (or 

omit, 

PhftrauMlogy. — Citric acid is an organic acid, usually prepared from 
bDSD-jutce; it occurs in the form of colorlciia cr^'»lnU soluble in lect than 
IbcirciK'n weight of water. Citric acid is soluble likewise in alcohol and 
•flwr. It is not infreijuently aduUeratt'd with tartaric acid, which may be 
Kpatcd in the form of bitartrate by the addition of a strong neutral soln- 
lUB of carbonate of potaRsium. It liais a .lour taste, not unpleasant in weak 
nMinu. In Eub«tancc it is irritating to the gastro-intcstinal mucous mem- 
kiae, and may thus act as a poison. It renders the urine add. It is elim- 
iwied to somv extent by Iho bowels, hut principully by the kidney*. 

Therapy. — In the proportion of 3T fim. (or gr. olxi) to 473 c.cm. (or 
0]'| o( distilled water it forms a solution of the average acidity of lemon- 
JBCt which may lie further diluted and sweetened as a refrigerant drink for 
fnct. Il has bevn used aliio as a substitute for fretih UmoD-juice in the treat- 
Bwt of fcurvy, but is less efBcient, 

Citric acid has likewi«r bwn employed for the purpoM of relieving in- 
•rtfilTof the liver and catarrhal jaundice. A 1-per-cent. aqueous solution 
tftincu-id is Mtil to he usefnl a* on injection in gonorrho&a. 

CStrie acid has the power of sterilizing polluted water. 

iCIDUM OALLICirM(ir. S. P., B. P.).— Oallic Acid (HC,H,0. + H,0). 

Soie. 0.13 to 0.«.'. Cm. (or gr. ii-x). B. I'-. 0.33 Ut 1 Gtn. (or gr. v-x?). 

\n organic acid nsually prepared from tannic acid (C S. P.l. A tri- 
MiiroiyL-iixoic acid. Il may he prepar«i by the action of diluted sulphuric 
>ai uo tannic acid (B. P.). 

PhanLMolo^.— Oallv are lumps or node-i upon the oak-tree, caaied 
*•? iowcts. They contain about 50 per cent, of tannic acid, which, chem- 
icdr, in BD anhydride of gallic acid, and, in fact, is convertible into gallic 
*cid It acids or dimply by immersion in water. Its solutions strike a black 
"iloriD Iht- pn^enee of iron, and they ahould not be prescribed in comhina- 
two with ehalyl>eates. Gallic acid is in the form of long needles, nearly 
'qMmk. ^iichtlr acid, though les.^ nMriugent than launin; it i» xohible in 
IWpini of cold water, 4'/, parts of alcohol, or 3 pari* of boiled water. 

ihawpf. — Like tannin, gallic acid ha* the ellei-i of restraining itecre- 

iMc, mjnring swelling^, and hardening tissuL-s. It is eliminated by the kid- 

'"'" inder its own form. In solution, as the glycerite (1 pari to 8 of glyo- 

'\ forms a favorite application to sore throat or tonsillitis: and the 

••caunnil of gallic acid is > good application to hiemorrhoid.*, being an im- 



38 rllARHACEtlTICAL THKRAPRl'TtC AOKXTS OH DIirnf>. 

provcraent upon the oiatment made of powderod pnlU. The alcofc 
lion is useful as a. local npplieation to llir itu-mlirum'« in diphihci 

Internally, gallic acia U given in hietDorrliajje (1.30 Gm., or gr 
doBc) from the nliincnliirv canal, kidney*, or lungs; also in menorrb 
here it iB interior to ergot. J 

In hafmoptygis, ulcer of tlie stomdch, lisemorthage from t!h 
especially in (ypnoid fever, the following formuUe can hv usod:^ — 

B Add. nalllc 8 fSm. or 3 

Acid- lulphurie. trom 4 ccm. or t 

Moqihlnie iiilpli ....>.... IWfi Gni. or u 

Tinot. Mrdamom. to , 30 c.mi. <ir t, 

AquK rQ«a' 60 p.cin. or t 

M. Sig.: One tciupooDful In n-aUr «i-CTy hour or twc. I 

R Acid, ipillic 81 Om, or S 

Glyc*riiii Ml ccm. or i] 

U. 8ig.: On« t«aspoonIut every halMiour or liour until rtliercd. 1 

It has ttlao Wen uteH to n/dnco tint ([uaiility of albumin inj 
disease. On account of its astringent eSecta gallic acid i» useful in b 
of disorders attended by czccesiw secretion or transudation, as chrot 
chitis, cystitis, chronic diarrhosa, dysentery, and the nijiiht-sveats oil 
It is likewise son'iceable in purpura hiemiirrhugifo. It retards tl' 
of pyelitis or pyelonephritis, and diminishes suppuration. Coml 
opium, it ha* been fount! liencfieinl in diahcK-*' iii^ipidu*. 

ACIOUU HTDRIODICUH.— Hydriodic Acid. 

I'rfpitratiijii. 

ttyrupus Acl(i! Hydrimlici (U.S.P.I.— Syrup o( Hydriodk Acid (cunln 
1 p«r ewit.. by ivcialit. of ub^olttti.' *d<l). Uoss. 2 to 15 c.cui, lor rnxxs-fSi 

Pharmacology.— II yd riodtc acid \& a gas which may be prepare 
fiction "f iodiiip upon phortphoruH in the pi-e:<«'nci* of water, with tl 
gentle heat. It is colorless, but prG<hiccs white fume? in air; it can 
ficd or even n ndeu-d *olid by strong prt-ss.uri! inid a Ifiw ti-mpera 
solution of hydriodic acid in water, if exposed to the air. soon bec( 
colon'd, and after a titno (lirf)0!iiis crjstnls of iodine. The solutie 
oBicial. but the V. S. P. recognizes a gyrop. 

Therapy. — The syrup of hydriodic acid is a valuable means ■ 
ducing iodine into the sTstem. When administered in this way the 
liberated in the body, and is pocidiurly aclive in its nascent form, e 
cially adapted for administration to scrofulous subjects and cases of i 
pneumonia of the chronic type. In gome skin diseases o( the same < 
the syrup of hydriodic acid, when properly made, has proved of gre 
It is Tcry efficacious in spasmodic asthma, especially of that variety 
linked with the gouty diathesis. 

The ?yru|) of hydriodic acid is an efficient remedy in tertiary 
acute and chronic rheumatism, lumbago, rheumatoid arthritis, ohrc 
poisoning, bronchitis, exophthulmic goitre, and other stfccltous i 
iodine is indicated. 

Dr. James Craig, of Jersey City, speaks very highly of the i 
hydriodic acid in acute rheumatism. He gives from 7.5 to 11 cera. {oi 




XClDVit HVUBOBROMICCU DILCTUH. 



39 



iBi«in«cla9s(ulofwatereTery two or three hnun until rclkf j« experienced, 
■ftnvird mincing the (}osc snd continuing the remedy for several days if 
teawcd. The pain and fever are reduced within forty>eight hours, and he 
Mrrctthflt this treatment exerts an important influence in preventing ear- 
£k com plica tionti. Ita power over serous oxudaticm and fibrous adhesive 
■immation is well illu»lrated in plevtrisy with large effusion, or in plastic 
flmnty with adhesions. As the latter is a prominent predisposing cause of 
pbUiius, it is important that it should receive attention c^rly and be over- 
tme br the administration of iodine, especially in the form of syrup of 
hfdtiouc add. Wile has used this preparation with success in various forms 
m lead poisoning. 

4CIDUM HYDBOBBOMIC0M DILUTTTM (U.S. P., B. P.). — Diluted 
ijdtobromio Acid (lib, + LHiOJ,). 

How, 2 to 7.60 c.cm. (or mi-TX-foij). B. P., 1 to 4 c.cm. (or mxv-f5j), 

Fhannacolo^. — IIy<lrobromic acid resembles hydrochloric acid in 
leii{ official only in Holution, each being a ga^ous substance. Diluted 
^dnbromic acid contains 10 per cent., by weight, of absolute hydrobromic 
iM(hydrogen brDmidi\ B. P.). It is a oVar, colorless solution with an acid 
tiiM, tiid can be given in Icmon-syrup or simple elixir. 

Ilieitpy. — Hydrobromic acid should he an excellent antiseptic for 
iamg wounds, being sedative, non-poisonous, and bactericidal in its 
idion. !t wan introduced as a substitute for the bromides, hut it has not 
hUUid the expectations of its projectors, although it has some anodyne 
■dbjpnotic effects. It is more pIe8.iHnt to take than the bromides, is leas 
nt to produce an eruption or ph}-Eical depression, but it is more irritant to 
tu stinnach. In some cases of nen-ous cough, neuralgia, headache, and 
DBTOQEDcs it has a good ctTvcl, but is ordinarily given in too email doses. 
Itiictkiti in epilepsy may be compared to that of the bromides, but the^ 
REttie irritabiirty nliich it excites is a. bar to its continued use. Dc 
Sdivtiaiti.has found it useful in headache due to eyestrain. In cases of 
BowTi&g tinnitus after taking quinine it is »aid to give prompt relief, 
■mogb it often fails in relieving tinnitus from other causes. Two flui- 
dac^ (7.50 cxns.) arc equivalent to 18 grains (1.16 Gm.)(if potassium bro- 
mii^. 

T« lelieve irritative cough in phthiais: — 

> CbWnn 106.1 Om. or gr. J. 

AcUi hydrobronuci dU. .......„,.r SOl ccm. or fSJ. 

^. •urantii .- C0{ c.cm. or tjij- 

M- DoK, I or i trv^fxxmbiW 



ACnm HYBROCHLORICHM (V. S. P., B. P.).— Hydrochloric Acid, 
tonatrly Moriatio Acid (contains 3J,9 per cent, by weight of absolute hydro- 
rUorir icid, with water, 68.1 per cent.; B. P., 31.79 per cent,, by weight, 
of ivdttgri, chloride). (HCl + [H.Ol.) 

Prtpamtion. 

JuUaia HfiIr<i«titorfciiDi Diliilum (t'.S.P.. B, P,).— Diluted Ilydrochloric Aeid 
IMMtani to im cvnl. of nbiolutp hydroFhloriF nciil in water: It. T. oontoins 10,3S 
pBita W bjrdrngFo ehloorUv in JUO par'u ol wntir). Do*v, O.nO tu 2 cxm. lur mx-xxx). 



40 



PHAHlIACBin-irAL TllBltAFECTlO AGBKTS OR DBUOS. 



1 

PhwTiiMoIogy.— The official U. S. P. bydrocblorates are o^ 

Sliint% iii<ir|>liin(>, pilocarpi lie, und quiiiino. Aqiiu olilori i« oho a 
. P.). Hydrochloric acia itself ia an irritatinj;, irrespirable gas, ' 
aw Aolutione arc clear, eolorlees, und di-cidcdly acid. When appli 
skin they are aotieeptic and aHtringeiit; in some penwns with del: 
hydrochloric acid i* irntiititit: mid plifrhlly cau«tic, 

Fhyiiological Action and Toxicology. — When taken intemall 
Bonous doif*, it ncU us n violent irritunt, causing burning pain, 
acid taste in the month, red and swollen tongue, and discolorati> 
lips. Vomiting occurs at once, and may be accompanied by blccdi 
patient is at lirBt feverish, but »oon falls into collapse, and dies of 
exhaustion. Violent ga«tnc inflammation it found after death, 
cesophagUB and mouth show the effects of a corrosive poison. 1 
of ammonia escaping near the vomited matters produce* a white 
ammonium chloride. The treatment is the same as for other corrt 
eral acids, — demulcent drinks, flour or soap and water, mill(, oil 
llic carbonates may be given cautiously, for fear of rupturing tht 
by the escaping carbonic-acid ga*. The stomach Wing miftcncd liy 
it should be evacuated by the tube rather than by emetics, if vomi 
not occur spontaneously. There it, moreover, danger that, in t 
Tomiting, a portion of the acid may find its way into the air-pesi 
thm stilt further extend the mischief. Subsequently, the patient 
treated for the resulting lesions, which are not limitea to the inteeti 
since congestion of the kidnev.t and lung:* may also occur. Medic 
stimidale the appetite and promote digestion. 

Therapy. — Topically, hydrochloric acid is applied to septic wo 
tecting woundti, or bites of rabid aniiiinls. It has also been u»cd, m 
an equal proportion of honey, as an application to the throat in di 
It is iniporlant that this apjilication should be made only to the 
'surface. It ia a good addition to hatha in cases of skin disease, as 
versicolor or tinea, and in full strength it is used to destroy war 
hands of children. The undiluted acid has been successfully used i 
ter-irrilaiit in sciatica. I)r. fiennatis, of Montpelicr, applies thre 
coats by means of a small brush, along the affected nerve, and wra 
part in cotton. The application may be repeated in twenty-four 
eight hours.' 

T>r. Morris, of New Yiirl(, has, in some cases, utilized hvdroch 
for the removal of carious and necrotic bone. Through a sinus o' 
a £- or 3-per-cent, solution of hydrnchloric acid in distilled water i: 
every two hours or at bed-time, according to the circumstances of 
The exposed portion of bone is rapidly deciilcified, afler which th 
jected every second day an acid-pepsin solution made by adding 
(or mxv) of hydrochloric acid and 2 Gm. (or 5«s) of pepsin to 120 
f^iv) of distilled water. The decalcified bone with caseous or fatty 
is digested out within a few hours, leaving exposed clean dead boi 
can be attacked in the same manner. 

When hydrochloric acid is given well diluted, it is acccptab 
stomach, being one of the constituents of the gastric juice. When i 
lion of llic food takes place, causing flatulence, or "windy dyspepsia 



• Lanoft. Nov. 20. 1M7. 



ACIDrU nTDKOCIIt^RICCU. 41 

doe to « de6ciency of thie element. At all events, cases of weak digestion 
' '- •■ "'-i« nn w>metiines much boncfltcO by 0.60 to 1.20 c.cm. (or mx-xx) 
ted acid will) half the (|UBiitity of tincture of nux vomica, after 
WiitTi' Jieid lit'iiiiafh i» cnu»<-(l hy ihir {ironenee n( baetoriu, Ihc 
;(^iioii is bett obtained by adminifitLTing the hydrochloric acid 
i.ii-h ij. .-mj><y. *ln>rlly bi-forc irttiiifi;. It if also held Uiat the 
■ii.n of hyiirochloric acid (which forms one variety of acid 
itaaucb) r [>rcvcntf<l by admin ixtcriiiji; an acid ttohttion ju«t before 

•■ ■ .:. that acids check acid secretions. Uydrochioric acid some- 

_rf-iil relief in iiaim-*. In iiitcMinal indigeiilion with diarrhcea, 
lit 1^ iiisn very effective, given one or two hours after meals. The 
ry atliuiiiiFtrntiou of pep«in in combination with tlxi aeiil t# of great 
i-SKS of this kind, but the pepsin should not be continued too long, 
p*ptic ftlaodi may lo»e their (unctionit. 
A digestive mixture which is very beneficial is: — 

B Arkd. hydrochtar. diL ICj o.«m. or IMv. 

P*p«ln. Mir IS ft Obi. or Siv. 

QtyetTiiti 90| c.em. or (Jilj. 

It, 8i|t: One tcufioonhtl in water nttcr mcnlE. 

Is feTers, where the secretions are ven,' much diminished and hydro- 
tUonc acid is not secreted, its administration is of great s(Tric« in nHisting 
Jtmltuo. In iT]ihoid fever dilute hydrochloric acid is very useful (0.60 to 
1_M ccui.. or Nix-xs, ever)* thr«e hoiirv), and it exercises an important id* 
tHnce npuQ tbc rontenis of tbc bou'eU, beiu^ »It<!htl.T astriii^eni, aud pr^ 
vtatiag ittt moltiplicalion of bacilli. Relapn.- is li-** fnijucnl uniU-r this 
tnatneiit beraofe autoinfectinn is less likely to occur. In other infectious 
Ifamtic di*^«»«i — m Marlet fever, itmall-pox, or diphtheria — hydrochloric 
•sd mar be administered in Ihe same way. 

Tt 1.: >4rTiceably combined with the tincture of iron in the treatment 
al ria, and the mixture may be used both internally and as a local 

•Bp-.i'jaiiiTD. The presence of n mineral acid has been shown to diminith 
fit nmlence of the toxins of diphtheria. 

In nbthi^ift it is •ervieeablc in disinfecting to some exlent the alimentary 
flea] r-h'f^cinir ^'vcesrive sweafinp. or watery diecharj^es from the bowels, 
ft ■istraclive mctamorphoaiii. 

< :al combination for phthisis is: — 

U AeiiL faydroehlor. diL, 

11iK-t. nucii rooiicfl >. aa 12-30 e.eta. or mcc. 

Yiiu^i- capaicri 4' i-.cm. or tJj. 

Tlaet. riwititoam 190j con. or ISv. 

M. Siff-: Two Ua«(Monrulii la water after laMls. 

■n.B f.irtnerly official liquor pepsini contained »accharatcd pcpnn, 40 
ichlofic acid, Vi parts; glycerin, 400 parts; and water, to make 
It may be prescribed cxtemporaneottsly. The usual doM is a 
wofal after eating. 

ilnrine. fT bleachinit or diBinfeoting purpofc*. can be obtained by 
_4 hydroclil"rin arid upon maniranese binoxide. It is a greenish-col- 
uttKn*rlv' irritating gas. {S*l- Cblorinom.) 



PnAnUACECTICAL TIIEH.\PKnTIC AOE!rtB OR DnUGS. 

ACIDUM HTDEOCYANICUM DILTTTITM (C. S. P., B.P.).-J 
Hydrocyanic Acid (Ptuttic Acid). (liCii -^- [H,0].) 

DoM, 0,06 to 0.30 com. (or mi-v). 

PbarniAcolQgT. — ^A liquid composed of S per cent., by w(iigh(| 
late liydrocyunio iioid (hydrogen cyanide, B. P.) and 98 per c<'nt. 
It is colorless, faintly acid, with taate and odor of peach-kcrncli 
lo«c8 the ToUtilc Hcid when exposed to the uir nm) ti^ht, and de 
if kept too long; so that the dose is variahle. We shoiild always 
with the iDininiiim doec and cautiously iiicrx-iii'o, ljcoau«c of thei 
degrees of activity of this preparation. Cherry-laurel water (Aq 
ceruiii) is olTic-ial in Ihe British PhArnincopreia, but not in l'. S. P.;" 
of very variable strength, but is used in somewhat larger doses {0.3 
ccio., or mv-xx). Diluted hydrocyanic neid iti al« present in the 
of chloroform and morphine (11. P.). The cyanides of mercury, p 
and nilver are oJTiciol (V. S. P.). By ihe addition of an ocid to nnj 
salts, it will be decomposed and hydrocyanic acid set free, as in th 
ing pro»eriptii)n; — , 

H PotiiMll 9-(U)rdi jOGS Cin. or gr; 

Add. citnc. |32 Gm. or kt. 

SjT. Tolutani MI vd eO| cnii. or (Jll 

M. Slg.: A t««upoonlul a* a. doao for an irritable cough. I 

Phyiiological Action and Toxicology.— Hydrocyanic acid is 

eonoiiE US a gas, and even in the ordinary solution, in sufficient t\ 
to cause death, it is almost immediately fatal. In cuecs where it 
cause death at once, there is great prostration of bodily powere; w 
tering pulse; cold estremittes, and impending collapse. Atropii 
dennicully, is the iihysiologieal antidote. 

According to l>r. Johann Antal, cobalt nitrate is an cfllcaciouf 
antidol*', but un time should be lost before emptying the stomach 
aid of stirauiatinR emetics. ('a]d affusion.* to the spine, with frict 
sioapisms to the surface, and hot applications are also efficient. Th« 
bitter-almond odor of the ej'ecla indicates (he character of the poisor 
generally occurs by sulToculiou, from paralysis of rcspinition. Elii 
as well as absorption, of hydrocyanic acid is very rapid. Kinger st 
if life can bo supported for half an hour recovery will usually occ> 
feseor Kobert advocates the use of hydrogen dioxide as an antidote I 
cyanic ecid. He usca a 3-pcr<eent. solution hypodvrniically and i 
cent, solution for washing out the stomach. Vomiting is to be eni 
and urlilicial respirnlion practiced. This method depends upon 
Tersion of hydrocyanic acid in the system into oxamide. Where | 
has occurred by inhalatiori, it will not be necessary to wash out the 
Kobert'a method of treatment has been used for several years in 
milting and smelting works, where a great deal of cyanide is used. 
ommenda a cabinet containing both solutions in hermetically sealt 
with hypodermic syringe, also a stomach-tube and funnel, to be li 
stanfly ready for immediate use in chemical laboratories, phot 
studios, gnld-bniling establish men t». where the ueid or cyanides a 

Locally, hydrocyanic acid at first slightly irritates the skin, b 



• Utntl^f ArtiMvff. March, IMM, p. 04. 




ACIDUU LACTICCU. 



43 



nrd uU as a eodativc. It should cot be used in skin diseases when the skin 
Bbntei, for fear of absorption. It \iui *onie action xipoii th« brain, cuiis- 
itgTertif^ and hi^bi'tiidc: the reepiratorv centre is enfeebled and the motor 
iSTCi paralj^ed, producing great muRoutar f('obIcne>u>. Tlic conducting 
pettr of the senjiory nerves ip diminished. It is a decided cardiac sedative, 
till pulse becoming slow, with lowered arterial tension. The poison oUo 
ictiBpoi] the respiratory function of the red blood-carp iigcles, and pierents 
tbm ^m carrying suDicient oxygen to the tissues. 

Hunpy. — Hydrocjiiuic acid hu« been used as an auti«paemodic in 
nriDBS forms of reRex vomiting, such as the vomiting of pregnancy and 
6a of phlliisis. It hsK also been emphiyod In ncrt'ous cough, in irritable 
bait, and asthma. Whooping-cough, acute mania, and melancholia may 
ibo be relieved by the admmiKtraliuu of liydrooyauic acid. As it in rapidly 
diniiuted from the system, the dose should be repeated at short intervals. 
htiedttive effect upon the ^a^^Iric iniieou« mcmbrHnc renders it vnliiuble in 
jMiiM aSections of that organ, such as gastralgia, ulcer, and cancer. The 
■Dcbenefit is obtained from it« use in enternlgia. For f'xternal use it may 
beiiUed to ro6c-water (7.50 to 340 c.cm,, or fSii-foviij) with a little glycerin, 
to in applied in c«ie* of troublcsoine pruritus. 

ACIDTTM HTPOPHOSPHOSOSUM DILUT0M (U. S. P.).— Dilute Hy 
popluifihorous Acid. 

DoK, 0.60 to 2 com. (or mx-xxx). 

-H liquid containing about 10 per cent., hy weight, of ahsolute hvpophos- 
flunsoi acid, and about 90 per cent, of water. (Sfe Acidom Ftaosphoricam.) 

ACIDTTM LACTICUM {U. S. P., B. P.).— UcHc Acid. 

Dme, 1.20 to 2 ccra. (or w«-f3«»). 

-Vn organic acid, usually obtained by subjecting milk-sugar, or grape- 
•api.l* lactic fermeiilation; eompowd of 75 per cent , by weight, of abso- 
lve Uctic acid (hydrogen lactate, B. P.) and 25 percent, of water. 

Preparations. 
^nqiiu CUcii LAct^botphatuRi (U. S. P.J. — Syrup of Cbldiim Lnctoplioiiphate. 

IWri Lacfau (U.S.P.).— PcrrciuR lAirUte. Dow, 0.13 to 0.12 Gm. (or gr. U-t). 

naimacoloify.^A colorless, odurlces, syrupy liijuid. with un aeid ta#ti\ 
0* mount of careleeeness in manufacture it may contain hydrochloric, aul- 
pfavic, or Mrcolactic acid and truci-* of metallio impurities. It is soluble in 
nlfraod alcoholic eoUitions. The ordinary dose is from 1.20 to S ccm. 
<0T»u.(3ss). di)ute<l and Kweetencd. 

IliyRolo^CRl Action. — Lactic acid is present in the stomach during 
^iltprti^in of carl. "hjit rates, especially during the first stage of gastric 
jyfra. When in ejtcees, it forms one variety of aour stomach, and causes 
inn JB dUterent parts of the body, headache, etc. It ha* been afweHed that 
■Ixanalum is dne to an excess of this acid in the svBlem, and the fact that 
tfcratnttic mnptoms sometimes develop after partaking of aonr milk or 
Itttie acid seems to lend support to this view, huch patients are benefited 
b? the nee of alkaline treatment. I^rge amount* act as d^-presaors to the 
•WTOue lyriem and decrease the normal alkalinity of the blood, thus favor- 
iae mralgic and neuralgic attacks. 



44 



PHARUACECTICAL TBEBAPECTIO AOESTS OR DRrOS.' 



Therapy. — liocally, InL-lic acUl, dilutctl villi wattr iir 
beeo uaed in tuberculosis of the throat and larynx and in 
croup ti» a solvoDt of false mcmbninc In Uiput; or Inborcular ulc 
the tongue it has been found very useful, as welt aa in lupus aj 
diluted (Vj to 30 per ceol,). 

A Bolntion of lactic acid varviiij; in stren^h from 10 to 30 
is alto a bpncfieieJ application to many lunngcal tumon. In a 
per-cent. eolution it lian been employed with good result in si 
otitis ftud ulci'rv of thu na^al fo^su'. Muscltg-Moorhof Ims used col 
lactic acid locally- in caries, lupus, and epithelioma. 1 

In the cxtonial lesions of luberculoKis, Dr. Zippel, of Hnni 
fers the appltcatton of gauze tampons soaked in lactic acid. In 
mcut of tutrcrculoue fiMtultc the Mine writer recommends the inl 
of rods composed of a paste made by gently healing 50 grammes (, 
of gelatin, tactic acid, and water, and then adding 30 grammes (j. 
thol. The rods made of the congealed paste are covered with 
collodion. 

In dyspepsia, with deficient secretion, pepsin may be comb 
lactic acid at mcAl-time. lactic acid i» of utility in litlm>iiiia > 
phaturia. In the green diarrhcea of infancy, attributed bv Hi 
microbe, this agent well diluted (4 ccni., or f.^j, in a tumblerful o' 
boiled water, sweetened with white sugar, of which solution a t< 
may be given every half-hour or hour, according to the ca^ie) is fi 
cient remedy, controlling irritability of the stomach, relieving 
changing the character of the dli^cliarge.'i. It has been shown, hov 
*ome of those cases nre duo to (i specific microbe, while others dej 
hepatic disorder. In the latter class of caaes the remedy is of 
Lactic acid is ulno of value in Ibi- vnmilini; of newborn babes rau*e 
gestion. It is likewise useful in the diarrhoea of typhoid fever, 
catarrh, and intcstinii] tulKTculosis. Br. N. V. liojkin regards lac 
of great value in the treatment of chronic dysentery. 

From theoretical consideration, the u»e of lactic acid in diabet< 
was proposed by Cantani. Cases have been rejiorled in which, 
with approprijile dirtetic reginim, it ajiiicnn-d to favorably infl 
disease and lessen the quantity of sugar excreted. In other cases 
proved a fuilDre. 

Dr. Foucaiit, of Orleans, suggests the use of lactic acid as 
lactic in gout. He gives 4 com. (or f.~>j) a day for three weeks or 
when the remedy is discontinued for ten or eleven days, after v 
resumed in the sflnie manner. It is said lo reduce the number of at 
to render them less painful. 

Lactic acid ha* Win sueeeNifiilly iwed in arthritic dctorraai 
torin,' in a case of ten years' standing, the last year of which tl 
kept her bed, began with ti.fiO c.cni. (or tnx) on an frnptv ctoriiael 
being allowed for an hour and a half afierwanl. and gradually inci 
io*e to 2.50 C.ein. (or nixl) a day. In three wwki! the wornjin enu 
of bed and walk a little, ilie pains being much relieved and the 
cnmfcrence slightly diminished. The improvement lasted luitil tk 
required, and ordinary duties could Ims resinned. Xo internal niedi 
than lactic acid was given, and no external placebo except slight n 

• /^ MfJrcdtr iliult^rnc, vol. ix. 



WltMCOM (V. S. 1'., B. P.).— Hitric Acia (UNO,J 

Preparation. 

Afidam Kitricaai Dllutttm {V.ap., B. P.).— Diluted Nitric Acid (conUlot 10 
Ifjr w*i]|rhl. of ali*olute ntulc «cUi a F,. 17.44 per cent.). Di>v, 0.3(i to 
\ar mv-xx). 

Pharmacology. — N'Uric acid (U. S. P.) contains G8 per cent., by wciglit. 
toluti- uiinc noil! ami 32 piT cou). of wat<;r. B. P. ruiiluioe 70 per 
by w».'i;;hl, ft livdrogen nitrate. 

rii»- aniRimiiiini. k-mi, and Hxliiim iiitratcd nnd ii i t roll vilrnclil uric acid 

oinrinl III lilt? r. S. !'.; potiiMiuiu and silver nilralps, Apirii of nUmiis 

bivuiutli sul>iiitrale, nnd ddutvd Ditml)ydn>chlorii' »i.'id in V. S. I*, 

H. 1*- lilt-" ft"liiiioiii of ferrit; and of pierenric nitrate are official in the 

K. P.. nti<] solution of ferric Bitrate and acid Euhition of murctirir nitntv 

Phjruolffipical Action uti Toxicolo^;. — Diluted nitric acid when ap- 
^Xiir flkin produces a y.lI.'wi.Hh diHioloriition. Slronj^er applications 
^___ bulluiis t-niption r<-«'itililin;^ tn.-iii|iluyii^, 

fntroduc«il into the Htomach in a concentrated solution, nitric acid is a 
it corro«iv<; poi^nn, dnd producer vomiting, pnin, nnd cliKtrcse, at onc«, 
by inflammation end sloughing of the mucous membrane of mouth 
owuphagrufi. .Mkniii-^, dcmu!c«nt«. and milk diet constitute the 1ri<at- 
atet. Fatal accidents occasionall}' happen from inhaling the fumes of 
^jj.^ ..- ■>iormii>L>ni), acid«. In email dotw» nitric acid Htimulates the iu- 

i\ uvn H- \'.f-- hii> b«pn too-loD^ continued, nitric acid causM BaliTatioD. 
and II" i:)^- cums. with loimcnin;; of the teeth, foulneas of tb« 
dvM" !"-'*■ L-fltic. Iitsadachc. and d<0)ility. These untoward effccta 
^Bui|iji. .ir whfn the remedy is suspended. 

niTkpy-- Vi'ru-acid i" an oxidi/injtiigi-n) in (be tnhorttury, and wbi-n 

.(r. n ■ 'mion it has a decidedly caustic action, staininp theskir 

I'lred eaniitj<> for veDdreal tarts, varta. noisoned wound 




46 



PnJkBMACKl^TlCAL TTIERArEUTIC AOBN'TS OB D&vas. 



S Acidi nitrici diL >.. IS 

Tlnctutw Upps wm to 

Tinrt. xttDthoxyli , 60 

M. EIk-: tvio tcnipoonluU in water three timn a dujr. 



30 r,i-iTi. or I 
c.cm. or 1 
C.CII1. or 1 



In dilate solution (O.GO or l.SO to 30 can., or mx-xx to i 
1)rcn ii»C(I ill oii»c« of phnsplintic cslculi, to waeh out tlie Iiladder, a 
be iiBcd as an injection into einnses connected with dead bone. A 
of nitric neid to 30 ccm. (or f^jl of waier \» an expelleni sltmiilant a 
to indolent ulceTS, In whooping-cough, or bronchial catiirrh, it 
ndvoi'uti'rl. tind in hooTHenewi of public s))i-akerfi a fen- drapii in 
water afford relief. It ie inadvieoble to continue too long the admi 
of nitric acid, «», in that case, it excites ^Htro-intetitinal catarrh, 
remark applies to the other mineral acids. 

In many t^in (lisen»eii, such as impetigo, lepra, acne, the » 
nitric acid to the bath has been found useful in addition to its i^ 
miniiitration. ' 

Kiitnm Camphora Aoida (X. F.). — Hope'* camphor mixture 

R Ai IJi niUiii' , 2| c cm. or ( 

Tincture upii , 130 r,cra. or i 

Annie eanifihoTtB 120| c.cm. or f 

yt. I)0A«, M. U-Hipoonful to a Inbli-Jipoonful pv«ry hour or tiro, if 
■ymptom*. 

Diluted nitric acid will often reliev* chronic diarrhrea, and i 
mar be increased by the addition of witch-hazel, thus: — 

R Acidi nitrici dil 101 C.cm. or I 

Ext. liiimitiiiclidiH It. ..,.,,,,,... Ill crm, or 1 

Syiup. Durantii 120J ccm. or 1 

M. SIg.: From ono to two triu]HionfuU In wat^T tlirM or four tima 

In Ihe daily dose of 4 to 15 c.cm. (or f->i-iv) dilute nitric acid 
[inii-s pr"vi-d sucw*sful in di«belc» insiprdii*, uud it is said to allay 
of saccharine diabetes. 

Full doiivd of nitric acid, ercry fourth or sixth hour, have bi 
useful in intemiitlent fever. After the paroxysm has been brol 
(jiijnine, nitric acid may be serviceably given, in order to relievs 
of the liver and intestinal glands. Small doses of nitric acid are 
in aphtha' and uli-cralivi- stoinnlitis. 

\itric acid reddens morphine, and probably decomposes it; a 
fore, (ihiiukl not hi.- prcuci-ihcd in solutions with this agent, tis the i 
nitrites have a decided lowering influence upon the temperatuf 
cnlation; they will be congidered in connection with amyl nitrite. 

ACIDUM NITROHYDKOCHLOHICmiir (f. S. P.).— Nitrohy 
Acid. Nitromariatic Acid (nitric acid. 18 parts; hydrochloric acid, 

Preparatioti. 

Acidum Xilrohyilmfhlorlciim Diliitiim (U.S.P.. B. P.).— Diluted ] 
chloric Acid (Diluted Nitiomuriatic Acid). Dow. 0,30 to 1.20 c.cm. (or TO 



'Tlic origiimt (•■rmiilft ffir (1]ii« prp]inrntioii fiillcd for iiStroiiB acid. li 
mtroial nitric ncid unuullv coittiiini! some iiilrou', il lin.i lircomc rUJitomnT 
nitric acid. 




ACIDDU OLBICL'II. 

PhanoHcoIo^ and Therapy.— This combination of nitric und hydro- 
(Unnc tcid« is ofiicial ouly in the V. S. P., the diluted form (L'. S. P.) con- 
waang 4 parts of nitric acid, 18 of hydrochloric acid, and 78 purts of dis- 
tiSti water. It should be allowed to stand for two veeks after mixing, 
ndkejit in a cool place. The conc«ntrii1ed vijiitiuii n-udily dissolves gold 
Wvhrn immersed in it; it is not used for medical purposes, the diluted 
'Ibanbein^ preterahle. It is nuppoaed lo lia^v a ftpi.-cial action upon the 
bptic functions and is a good tonic and astringent. It has been applied 
ipoD rompresse^ in chronic Hvor disorders, in a solution (15 com., or fjss, 
lo-lISe.ciu., or Oj, of water). 

blemailT, the dilute nitrohydrochloric ncid is given in torpidity of 
fit liter, th« chronic hepatitis of the tropics, and in the early stage of 
W|«ttc cirrhosis. It is of service in chronic dtarrhcr-a and dysenteric Jior- 
tni. This and has been occasionally known to produce salivation. 

Sjinptoni- "I poisoning and methoda of treatment Raise a» given under 
Actdain Hydrochloricam. 



4CIDUM OLEICUU (U.S. P., B- P.).— Oleic Acid (HC„H,.0,). 

An organic acid, prepared in a sufficiently-pure condition, by cooling 
(Mmnerdal oUic acid lo about 5° C. {11° F.), then separating and preserv- 
ing Uie liquid portion. 

Preparation*. 

Obatarn Vcntiin* (D. S,P,).— Olrate of Vcratrine (2 ji*r cent). 
riUaium Ziofi (f. S. P.). — Olcnl* of Zlno !!> per ci'iil,). 
(HMluni Hnlraivyri (U.S.P., B 1'.),— OlcBte of Mt-rtuTj-. 

I'lgucatum UvdrarnyTi QlpntU (B. P.). — Mpreiiiio-Olpaip Olntmrnl (t to t of 
hUMMM lard). 

ri^entiim Ziaci OI««U> (B. P.).— Zine-Olcalc Ointment. 

Fkimaoologj. — Oleic acid is an oily, yellowish, tasteless liquid, grad- 
mIIt betuming brown, rancid, and acid when exposed to the air. It is 
iMdnble in water, btit soluble in alcohol, ether, etc. Equal volumes of the 
•od nd of alcohol, hcatc«] to 77* F., should give a clear solution, without 
•Ocnriag the appearance of free drops of oil upon the surface. 

Owe Bfiid, fresldy prepared, is o bland and unirritating application 
to theikin, and was brought forward as an addition to ointments and lini- 
neatt to increase Ihvir penetrating power, but lanolin has now largely taken 
*U phot tor this purpose. Lately, greatly through the influence of the writ- 
ing of the author, it has been much us^i\ in the manufacture of oloalcs, 
rtieh m now produced in the form of true chemical compounds, instead of 
•UBpIe Duxturen, as heretofore. 

Tbt foUowiog is a summary of the action of the oleates, from "Oint- 
meBts ud Oleates, especially in Diseases of the Skin"*: — 

The OUatts. 

A'VitJB* Olcate.^ — Not xttv Bi-tive. On be txet^A in neuTalgU, 
Ahajnm (Hette,— Dilutrd on^hsH with Inrd or »oine fntly •ubstnni*, it fortnn 
Ativfjat OI«at«- — Not vfty arllvr. Con'titiitional vffiict« nnt produced except 
vkn lti|ii Rtfacn «re Bnointed. 



'&md Edition. Pkilsdvlphia: Tb« F. A. Tlavit Oompony, Publisher!. 
■k>>a*'udStMikiitft'BMMlr-Rcl«raK«S«riM. 1800. 



Phy- 



48 



PltABMACEUTICAL THKWJEOTIC AOEWTS OB BBOOS. 



tb* ellrtnmt of th* oleate «( aluminuin. which is dcritlcdlf Mtringont. 
in ehMklng lh« niuco-F>iirulmt dinclmrKM ot dtrnuutiUi >ud ecwm>, kndj 
or intertriph Mpvciull.v in iiidinU nnil yoiin^ chtldrrn. In liypcridroHia uf 
droris It ts very cfFrctirc. Thii oinlmmt » alsu a uiM>tu1 drpMitif to bumij 
ebilblaitiH. and »inUMK. 

Aticnuni OI«ate.— A nltuibl» alteialive nnd rurharoltc. but it mu 
Willi i-mitlon. The olnnl*. when melted with laid ur vintm«iit Uxo |l to 4 
foniiB th« vinlniniit of nrti^num olcate. ThU han little aetiun upon a he 
but when the epidcrmiii hat bwn Knioved, or nn gruiulntln^ ■urlncvu. 1 
lolUiniiiatlon nnd dectroj'* the vitulily of the tiiiUM to a n)Ti»l dent hie dej 
«-«)) diluted, it *x«rU it nio«l «xrrl!i>nt allcriitiTfl tmprowiion upon the ii 
Mtd nlui in alceTBling epithet iunia. in lupus (tift«r wrnpinKl. and in old 
ulcers, this Is ol gnax. utility. In syeoui. ■cborrhiea. and chronic eczenie 
wiK of Herrin. After acraping or piincturine Iha atroeled area, It enii 
dmtroy war1>, conn, horna, coDdylomalu. old gTBiiulatlon*, and meri. 
adv&nt»geou»ty combined with o|)ium, belladonna, hyoacj^unus, kmica, 
cmphlol, rU- (Kor tonnulte. »ee HUtlior'« IxHik «t\ "Okaleft.") 

BSunuth Olralc. — Emollient and 9lit;htly iLBlriii^-ol. In all puHtulH 
in aycoua, it relieve* (he iU-hlnj^ and ollrn nhoris Ihf pustule*. It allnj 
in eryaipelni and sunburn. In ai'iie niMcea. it relieves liie iuflaniiuaUl 
conjunction uith ncnrill.-ntioii of the surface, i* curative. In nrulc ecxemo, 
ii eonrideied indiBpeiiaabli* in arresting tli<> progn-Hit of the malady. Cnick 
oippleaarr usually healed by the oleote-of biuiiuth uiuluicnt {1 part of bin 
to 7 pW(a of ung. aquw nwm]. 

Otdmium Olcftto i« ■timulatintt nnd irritating. It haa been ua<4 
CCieina ti Ith ^rrnt intlltnilion, cxubrinnt irrnnulations, and mla(|[«<l i 
■tnngth ot the ointmi-nt bciti;; adapted to each casi'. , 

Cocaine Oleatc. in the form of a S'lJcT'Cvnt. alkaloid, with oqiul |M 
ment or lanolin, hits not niHW«>red expectations as n local anodyn« or 
but ha» bteo used with tome benefit in pruritus pudeudi and ani. or A 
irlDntiim. I 

Cojiper Okale, in the form of 10- ur 20- per •cent, ointment, baa no V 
upon tb<- bpallhy skin, but iienelrates deeply into the follideti. where 
i.tiniu!nlin(i and nntiieptic nction. It i» drcidcdly astringwit to tho brol 
raw siirfHCP. reducing r^ubemnt granulations, cjiei'kin^ hu^uiorrhafce frc 
lores uiid old ulcers. Owing to its para.aitiride netion, it is the best rem 
VBrioui form* of rintiwonii. In tinea vcTiiralor, pvpn in favuK. it is ei)ual 
In destroying lh« pninsite willioul epi1atii>n. Copper oleatc. uicltrd and 
plaster. Mill very often cure warts, eornpi, bunions, and Ihlcknnpil condU 
rpiili'ttiin. The ointment ahovp referrpil to in alwj uwful in freckles unl 
colonitiona of the skin. It is Msentiul that the suit shmlld be made fn>n 
acid, as otherwise the application may be nccompanieij by irrilatioiL or it 
of llLf skin, The weaker ointment |0.32 lo 0.i55 l!m., to ,11.1 (Jm.. or gr. 
should bo first tried and the strength gnidxiully increiiipd. 

Iron Olpate is n. lahiahle ttyptic and a^tritigetit. The um of k wel 
in the inflummatoty form of »v7emn, in which the surface is raw sind 
followed by good rosiills; also in puslulnr ccicnia. ayeoais. furuncles, and II 
sores, Mix<^d «ilb the oil of ergot or any hlnnd oil, the Iron oleats Is i 
vantnge in dry selMirrhiro and in jintches of alopecia. The early atBgei o( I 
are often eiitirelv relirvcd by the weak application of ointment of 
In ulcem enused by anenioal poisoning, this hits (tiven better results thai 
remedy in tlw hands of the writer, especially with tlic addition of I | 
carbolic acid. 

I.enil Olcate, meli4>d with equal parts of lard'Oll, or lard, forms a en 
semisolid ointuient, which is »upcrior (o (ioulard'a cerntc or Hcbra's litha^ 
It allays irritation in papular or pustular eexem*. and also in flsmrrd ec 
hands or fill. In hsird and induraled papules, ns in nrne of the face, necl 
it ia rscellent in its elTei-is, Tliymol. naphio). carbolic acid, ull of ehunu 
of cade mil) lie combined ivith it. aceordinft to the rase. 

Manganese Oleatn has been med (a 10- to 20-per-cent. solution tn O 
a remedy in ainenorrha-a and other uterine ntfedinnH. applied with Mt 
abdomen. Probably its aurrl/'il ([ood cUpcI, are to be iitlribuled to | 
rather than to any constitutional eflefi from tlic manean«*e, ns Uiere la 
o( iU abaorption. 



ACIDCM OXJLUCCJt. 



49 



Hmoiic CMmU (U. S. P., B. P.).— The i>tDtmenl o( meKurlc olMte' b « TtJlonitih 
idiUDM of btt}' coiubtMicG. It ii (timulating to the. ikiii. and Iiai h deciaed bIIvT' 
■ttrliM Bpoa tha clondular MriK^turi^n. In <ild fexrinn, ujtii Ibir-krninx of the ikiii. 
Ui l««loM a«t(oa u very l>eiiirlit.'iiil; aUu in pupuliir niid tubcruular l««ion>, and 
irfhntion attendant upon atuccum. In influinitiutinn at the hui^folliclv*. avcwia, 
uc wrofulodrnnata It i* i|iiK'klj i-iiiativv. [t« liiii'li'rk-iilHl action makM it vAluabls 
■ 111 CUM ol ptMrilic invajuoD of the ikio; mid, in the trvatment of luusiiiva«, the 
iJtilMi ot picrotoxjn ['/• of I per cent., or gr. i-Sj) U advimble. In otdcr to dcntiay 
titntilitT ol (he nits. If it is d<«ire<l U> pimlucv a ei>niititulioiinl inipre«>)ion. lannlln 
Ml l« added, ur mcrcuroui oleiile substituted. In faet, mercuric olente ti absi^rbed 
aif ntj atovlj. iMTgn qunnlillts linve Ixvn applied to the nurfnco without pro* 



bote cotiatituliODal elleots. 
Utfcuiciiu Olcatc.- 



I.— Thi» oiiHntcnt eontains a higher percentugc o£ inercury tlian 
IttfwwdJng (41.0 im c<-nl.)i it is substituted »lii?n it is dixiri'il Tj> make a more 
inMud inprcBMOD upon (he atruelures of tlie ikiu. or to pru^^tiee the iuuiictlon 
UmtmBt M «7pUIitk aSccUoni, and (or this is fur ouperior to cither the ordinary 
Im dotauBt or th» mcrouric olMit«. In old spots <>f usorlosis ainl cbroni.,- plantar 
■4 Mlnar tatma, it eaji be ngcd ulonc, or combined with soiue form of tar or 
iqlUL 

ItinhiiM Olot« has only a feeble at'liuu upou thi* iulfguuiciit, and lias no 
ftaii •dvantage. 

mtktl OIe«l<>, in the form ot oinlincnt with soni^ fatty base, bat a veiy decided 
Hnapot aetion upou abraded ■urlnceB. In the proportion of from S to JO grainii to 
lk««M> of Utd it acts well in epithelial ulccrntion*, old callous ulcers, or chronic 

(tnnnp Oleate haa alight stimulaut and antiseptic action, but haa no special 
■4>attp«. 

Sllrar Olcttt* coA^latM aJbuuin, and, when sprinklvd over sonNS, ci>ats th« sur- 
ki nd catdudta the air: at the uune time it atimulatei granulationi and cleans off 
SiHtlaML DlMOlTVd In olHc add and mlxril with lard (Q to tlO grains to thn ounci^), 
JttaMS ft 4aric'brown. pliable ointinHnl, which muy lie applied in otisn of erysipelas 
tikn thr InCamtnation from spreading, lu superfleial lupun it sometime* lesieni 
sD-IUltnttOB and reduces active inflaminntlon. In liolts, carbunclrs, ecieiiin. around 
^Motsb or OD the buttoclu, especially it attended by irritation or itching, marked 
ntW Motra the application, cither alone or coinhined with opium, bellaJonna, or 
■gwrnnua 

StiytliBine Oleate has no special value as an oiiilnient. 

Ifai OUata. — The ointment (O.IU to 4 Gm., or gr. x to IX'Sjl la a grayish-brown 
MMnai, poMcariag aonie HS(rJne«nt and tonic action. It is of ««pecial svrvke in 
Amm of th* n«ila and in Irrilatioa of akin around the nails (agnail, etc.). 

Ttralrine Oleate tU. S. P.| U ofHcia! in 2 per cmt. volution in ointiueiit. it has 
Mdid eonnter-irritaiit and benuuibtng eltfQU u]ioii the skin, making it useful in 
■■i <W(* of neuralgia or tender spots. 

Ztat OlF«t« (U.S.I'., B-P.). is a line, pearl. coloiTd pon-di>r. soft aiid soap-like to 
IhtlnA. is astringent in its rlTects. and can be used us n dusting- powder in hyparl- 
drail ud brMQidron*. In local ■weating of the luillie, t^nitnlia. hands, or feci, 
••Mitllf when atl«nded by maeeration of tli' rpider'niis, tins agent is very uieful. 
Mndl, ol London, has also used it in the lueattng of phthisis, combined with thymol 
II t*M|. Salleytie acid (3 per cent.) or French ehnlk may be sddtxl (o it. for 
(W tmtnoit ol local affections, such aa comedo and acute vesieular ecxema. In all 
Mek ance iaflftBiniatarT alTeetions it can ba used with advantagti, where gn>HSy 
•tylJBitioM cuinot ba borne. It has niso been used in gynAc-ologe as an apulieation to 
laBnnu nlcnBlioB ol tlie cervix uteri. Hrre it. may be eoinbined with iodoform 
loMthaU.t; iodoform. 8 parta) , 



ACDTnC OXAZJCmC.— OxAlic Acid. 

nmiiMUiiry And Therapy.— Oxalic adA ia an IrrUnnt poison, and is 
taken by mistake for Epsom salts. Its antidote is lime, chalk. 



'OhatiiB faydraritjrrt of lh« U.S.P. contains 20 prr mnt. of rellou- roerenri« 
«Ua wHb M p«r cent, of o1ei« acid. 

4 



60 



I'UAnUACBCTICAL THKKArELlIC A(IBKT8 OR DRHOB. 



or whitewash. Tsylor states that 4 Gm. (or 3j) is the smallcol 
which 18 known to have causi-d dontlt. 

Oxalic acid has, at the sugflfcstion of Dr. F, Poulct, been en 
an cinmenngOEUC. Dr. A. W. Mari^li hus foimd it uei-ful in am< 
He remarks that the remedy is not unpalatable, and, in nivdioi 
ix uiiirritanl to the stomach. Dr. Muivh aleo recommends oxal 
the treatment of acute c^^ttli.i from whatever caute. He 
to prcscribt':— 

H Aciili uxAlid 1| Cm. 

Syr. ■tiiuii, cort. i. 3fl[ ci,cni. or t 

Aquio (fluvial. , 90] c.cm, or I 

M. tt ft. M>1. I 

8ig.: Tcnapovnful ercry four hmirii. 

In some castfH where nxalii! acid was given in 0.033 Gm. ( 
dosn's Dr. F, \V. Talley. of I'liiladclphia, observed that the reme 
naui<ea, ga.itralgia, ami an iTtiptioii rc.-'umbling urliairia. When 
terod in solution the acid must be dissolved in either rain or distl 
in order lo avoiil the depo:tition of oxalate of culoiuni. 

Poulet has found oxalic acid useful, likewise, as an expet 
asthma, capillary bronchitiH, and tuberculous bronehttiii. He rei 
the following formula: — 

It Acidi oxuUci , .,>... 2 Uin. or 1 

!n(u6, rnioplliai .,...180 c.cm. or 1 

8}T. «uninU corL 60 t.cui. or I 

M. ct n. »ol. 

Sig-! A tMif[iounful every hour. 

Dr. Talbot Jones, of St, Paul., has reported four cases in wl 
articular rheumatism was apparently produced by prolonged cont 
solution containing oxalic acid. The piilicnts, engaji;ed in maki 
were accustomed to keep the handii and forearms inimersi^d whi 
the solution. 

Dr. F. J. L. Hart* reports two cases of poisoning by oxalic 
instance was a boy. a^ed 15 years, who had taken about 12 Gm. ( 
the Hcid; he hiid several convulsive eeizurcs, bi.s pupils were dila 
jaw fixed in a tetanic spasm, froth exudiug between the teeth, 
could not be fell — stomach- washing and the hypodermic injcclii 
morphine, 0.006 Gm. (or gr. '/,„). were resorted to as well as bram 
nine, and digitalis. The patient in a few dnvK made a good reci 
the second case the quantity taken was unknown, the .patient dy; 
one hour. 

According to Taylor, 4 Gm. (or oj) is the smallest quantitj 
acid which has been known to destroy life at the age of sixteen y« 
occurring in eight hours. X'nder three minutes is given as thf 
known period of survival after on unknown ciuantity of this f 
been taken, 

ACID1TU PHOSPHORICUM (U. S, P.).— Phosphoric Add. 

AdDTTH PHOSPHORICirU CONCENTBATUU (B. P.).— Cdt 
Phosphoric Acid. ' 



•/,an«f, Oct 1. 1898. 



JlCIOCU phospuobiruu. 
Frtparaiiong. 



51 



Ictdiun n^pophoiphtiriHiiiiii Dilutnm (l'. S. P.).— Dihilnl Hypoplioiphoroui 
Ji(U Imntsins 10 pvr tmU hy nt'i);lil ut al)«ulule acid, witli IN) uf wulerj. Uotv. 0.00 
to!cAi. (or mx-sixt. 

Jtiidnn PluMphoriram Ulluliun (U.S.P.. R. P.).— Diluted Phncphcirie Add ilO 
)nmt, bj wtiglil, of ortt>u|>hu8uhorle Acid: it. P. ountaiui I3.S parto of hydrui^ii 
oilmptinifluit*). DiMP, 0.12 to 1.20 c.vm. |or ntit-xx). 



nunnacology.— Phoiiphoric actd in iht- solid form, glndnl phosphnric 
iaJ,Unot official in the pr^^pnt edition of tlie pharmacopctia, on account 
tditi nnrclialiilitj. Th<! <ri)ii'ia1 pluifiphoric acid is n culorl(-ji», odorless, 
iJTOpy liquid, containinj^ not less than S5 per cent., by weight, of absolute 
tithophaip boric acid and no) more than IT) per cent, of water. The British 
NBOtntrated phosphoric acid contains only 6C.3 per cent, of hydro|;en ortho- 
[Aiqihatp. The diluted acid coiit^ius 10 per cent., by weight, of abiiolute 
atbephoaphoric acid and 90 of wotcr (13. S parte of hydrogen orthophos- 
fhilf in B. P.). 

Ph<r>ioli>g1c»l Action. — Phosphoric acid, locally, le an irritfint, and 
nnttHine escharolic effect. When taken internally, well diluted, it aids 
aitritkiii and growth, as it is an cu^cntiul clement in all bony and vascular 
rinctOKii in the fomi of phottphates. it is also, like nitric acid, a slimii- 
Int tc oiidation. It improvcH the appetite and the digestion, ittcrcu«cs 
McntioD, and is synergistic with the vegetable bitters. Phosphoric acid has 
ben kiii>wn to give rific to an eruption resemblinfi ihut of pemphigus. 

Ttwnpy. — In all debilitated conditions of the system, in nniemia, in 
theakaostion of prolonged laetntion, in bronchial catiirrh of the aged, phoe- 
siodc acid is an excellent tonic; it is also useful in struma and wasting 
oetM. Its action being different from pho.iphoruR in Riibatancc, tt is less 
(Aamt in the treatment ot neuralgic conditions. 

t%U(phoric acid is especially valuable as a tonic in th« following for- 
■ill:— 

B J*Ui phoapboriei dil , ID O-em. or tjM. 

Ihtt. Ditcl* rominr 12 SO com. or mcc. 

Tlitl ferri ehloridl BO con. or (31)' 

8)r. pruni Virg. 78 t'.tin, ur fjiiw. 

H. Sif.: Frnoi nne-b>K to on«' iMipoonful in n winrglaas ot Huln-, taken through 



B AcMi pliMpkario ilil 11 

Sli;tkiunn! nalpb 

Oljwrioi 34 

ijt. »uraiim 106 

V. S^: One tfiupoonful in winrglaM ot water, talutn through a tub« after 



c.cin. fir fSiij. 
03 Ghi. or bt. •• 
ccin. or ISfi. 
e.tin, or fjiiin. 



TaiUr the name of liquor acidi phosphoric! compositus (K F.) an «x- 
••HMtloBic is furnished, composed of the following ingredienta^ — 

B«»*di 1000 poniL. 

MAnrie acM '.. TW) j^iU. 

W«*« 4000 port*. 

vkicii ii approitRtated by the following formula:- — 



B2 



FUARHACBL'TICAt. TUEHAI'BUTIC 40KST8 OR ORU09. 



or gr. 3M. 
oi gr. 94, 
or iir. S2. 




B OlHI phoiphnUii ....- 85 Qui. 

Mogneftiie phMjihatia 429 Gm. 

Polaini phosphaUa S 10 Om. 

Farri phoxphntiii 4f£S iim. vt gr. M. 

AeWl phoapliorici \»p. gr., 1.710) »)] o.cm. i>r m 808. 

Aqun q. «. nd 4T3| cmii. or fjxvj. 

M. Sig.: Tbls preparation majr be gtv«D In t«s*poonful dowa, veil diluted iritli 
WBter. 

Given before mealfi, phosphoric Bcid i# beneficial in hyperscidity of ihe 
stomnth. wltotber due to incrouscd prodia-lion of hydrocJiiorif «dil or the 
result of fermentative changes In the food. Phusphoric may reasonably be 
preferred to the other mineral ueidfl in the treatment of Irplioid fever when 
the nr«doniiuont symptoms denote great nervous prostration. In diabctee 
mcHitus phoEphciric-acid lemonade unswerH a usefid purpose by ussua^og 
thirst. It has been employed in rickets. 

The diluted solution muy be applied as a stimulant to indol«nt tilcert, 
and it has been proposed to inject it into enlarged glands. 



ACIDtIM ?ICRICUM.— Picrio Acid. 

Pbarmacoloiiy. — I'uvii-, or earbniotic, acid (trinitroplienol) is in the 
form of pale-y^Ilow t.id •^. soluble in water, and has a very bitter taste. 
Owing to its power ui' i;oiigulating albumin, ilit watery solution forms a 
convenient test for albumin in the urine; it is also a test for peptones. It 
should be used as a conllrraatory test in conjunction with the heat te»t 
and Heller's test with nitric acid. 

Therapy. — The application five to ten times diiily of a 6>pcr-oent. 
solution of picric acid has been found useful in erysipelas. Picric acid eon- 
stiliiK-* iilso n good drfii.«ing to Biiperllciftl burns, and has bewn used for 
several years for this purpose in the Charity Hospital of Paris. A satu- 
rated Holulion (about 0..") per cent.) of picric acid in applied upon com- 
presses. It exerts an analgesic etfoct upon the surface. It UBually give* 
riae to no irritation, and the only disadvantage of the method is that the 
solution communicatee a yellow stain to the tissues witJi which it tiottif* 
in contact. Dr. Charles Willems, of Ghent,' t^peaks favorably of its use 
in bums of the first and second degrees; he uses it in the form of an oiiii- 
menl in the strength of 1 to 2 per cent.; he has never observed any toxic 
aymptoms from its use, and the only inconvenience has been a yellow dis- 
coloration of the skin, whieh niav lie got rid of by alcohol washing or by a 
watery solution of carbonate of lithium. The late Dr. Quinquaud rocom- 
roeuded picric acid an a local remedy in epithelioma. In chronic eczema 
Calvelli claims good results from the application, several lime* a day, of 
a solution of J Vj pfirt» of picric acid in 2.j0 parts of distilled water. 

Tiie ammonium salt has been highly praised in the treatment of 
whooping-cough and malnria. the average dose being 0.038 (Jm. (or gr. 9) 
four iir live limes daily. iJr. Marten Clark anerts that this salt has proved 
efiieien! in nialanal neuralgia. Picric acid should be used, either internally 
or eili-nially. with caution, since it is apt to excite urticaria and other symp- 
toms of systemic intoxication. 

Shoes lined with leather dyed yellow by picric acid have been known 
to excitft violent dermatitis, the feet becoming swollen and being covert 

'Annaletilr bi HoWiTC BWirerfe CMrvrgir. Mnv 15. 1888. 



4 




U iimDrafmljlr Vf»iclw, uliich ctwiU'ewl aud became filled with purulent 
Kniio. Coast ilutional leactinu vas also occasioned. 



ACTDTTM SAUCTUCtm (V. S. P., B. P.).— Salicylic Acid (nC,n,0,). 

Dote, II, ;i',; to l.^o l.;iii. (orgr. t-xx). 

Preparalionn. 

LittiU SaliejrtM (U. S. P.).— Lithium SaliejrInU. Dom. 0.32 to 2 Gm. (or gr. 
t-nil. 

SoiUi 8«ljcv)a> (U.S. P.. B. P.) .—Sodium Salicylutc. Dow. 0.05 lo 2 Giu. (or 

Cag:u«iituiii Avidi SaIu^>■IiGi {B.P.)-— SAtfcrlic-Aciil Ofntnwnt (I! pn <s«nt.). 

Ib»tmAto\ogj. — Salicylic acid ig an organic acid cxUting natiirollj in 
MobiaBtion in Tarioiu |i!sni«, but meet largely prepared synthetically from 
oibiiiie acid. It occurs as 6at. white, needle-shaped crv»tale, soluble in 
HO parts of cold or 14 parts of hot water; and in alcoholic solutions in 
Stptrts of chloroffinn. GO parts of glycerin, and in "i part* of oHvc-oil (by 
lid of heat). Thirty ceni. (or f^j) of aweet spirit of nitre will dissolve l.O-t 
tim. (or gr, xvj) of salicylic acid. The solution remuius clear even upon the 
■dditwn of water. Cry^lalliied salicylic acid a pure and without odor; 
ptecijrilated acid has a rather peculiar, disagreeable taEtc; the sublimed acid 
» own pink colored, and smelb of phenol. Dialyzed salicylic acid is pre> 
fened. It is claimed that the salicylic acid made from the oil of gaultheria 
iitk best and purest fvnn in which to prescribe ii. 

Tk^itolocical Action. — Salicylic acid is an antiiieplic and antiferment, 
•ad prercnts souring of beer, cider, or milk, or the putrefaction of urine. 
It amrti the action of sahva upon stnrchy food. It is injurious only when 
n«d ocmstantly and in relatively large doses. It is Tcry irritating to mucous 
tvbc«^ and i* not to be administered in pill, powder, or capsule, but 
dvtri in solution, and preferably with ammonium or potassium acetate, 
y*Miuiii citrate, or ammonium pliosplmte, which iucrcasc» it« sotubility 
« wWct. or it may he given in some syrup or elixir of orange. 

tkVta internally, it reduces abnominlly high temperature. In health 
thfi action is not observed, although some obscn'ers UM-crt that a slight re- 
dncbn if produced. Sonieiimi's headache, giddiness, and ringing in the 
wahavt been noticed, but usually no marked effect is seen upon either pulse 
wn^inttoR. According to Vanden (Jorpul. salirylic acid diminishes the 
fnKtMBal activity of the testes, although it is believed to cause conges- 
lioa of th« uterus and ovaries. It may produce abortion and, therefor*, 
(faonld be cautiously given in pn^gnancy, especially when a teodencT to 
•hltian or premature confinement exists. Toxic doses c«use slowing of the 
bradiltig. Convulsion;, natisca. buniing in the throat, vomiting, and gas- 
trit initahihty have also been observed to occur, followed occasionally by 
•nraniouria. Wmaturia. or almost compb-ti' stoppage of urine. This is a 
demtion from the normal action, for in ordinary- cases it acts as a diuretic, 
■ttb ilight intTca**- of i-liminiiliou of IIk- iir(itc!i and urea. Piccinini stale* 
thU. after ifae administration of sodium salicylate, peptone is to be found in 
iW arine. Salicvlic acid is absorbed with rapidity, but slowly eliminated, 
la tcnte nephritis it diminishes the quantity of the urine and increases the 
proportioo of albumin. It if stated that deleterious elTects are particularly 
•pt to ooonr in dmnkanls from the use of salicylic acid. 



B'l PHAHHAClUTrCAL mSBAPBiniC A0EXT8 ORDSCOM 

The treatment of intoxication bv thin ft>rent ia that for an ij 
son: the stonmeh should be washed out with warm wdtcr, decoctlj 
administered, and the patient treated iymptoniatically. The effii 
paM oH ik« (he acid is carried out from the «yitom by the uriniy 
without change, partly also as ealicin and salicyluric aoid. Prii 
also escapuK iii tik' «went itnd euliva. After uxce^Give dowH the ud 
olive-green in color, from the presence of indicao and pjnocatecl 
subBtancui) result from the action of the pnncrealic juice upon «] 
or it may indicate the presence of phenol in the salicylio acid, 
of chloride of iron «tnKe» a rioli't color with urine which contai 
acid. In the body, the add combines with glycocol in the live 
where, and become* converted into Mhcyhiric acid. The iu^C 
cylic acid, or sodium Ealicylate, may be followed by the developnu 
ous cutaneous lesion*. P>ythcmn with oedema, intolerable itchii 
gling of the skin, and fever have been caneed by large doses of i 
salt. OthiT effects which have been ob»erved arc vcHclee, pa 
patt'lic!- of I'cehymosis. < 

Therapy.— For eiternal u»e salicylic acid may be combined' 
as a dentifrice. A similar mixture may be used for the relief ol 
spiration (feet or axilla), or with talc or corn- or rice- flour. In g 
eiougbing cancer it may be applied full strength or dihitei). Dr4 
be saturated with an alcoholic i<olution and subsequently dried, 
powerful at carbolic acid, yet it hiu the great advanta^ce of beil 
and freer from danger of toxic symptoms followinK absorption, 
nscd in solution u« a substitute for carbolic acid in the details of i 
intiseplie meihud. (A solution can be made h_v adding 8 parls > 
100 parlM of boiling wattT, and, wiun di^^olvcd, adding 10 parts 
acid, and filtering when cool. On account of its irritant actioa 
good applicalion for diphtlKria or croup.) A saturalfd solution 
acid, in collodion, is a very effective tipplication to corns and warts 
of cannabis Indiea h often added, but it oroducct an unyightly sti 
conferring any additional advantage. The solution of salicylic i 
lodion is jikewine a-saerted to be an eflicacious application in ticabt 
liaving previously been cleansed by means of a hot alkaline bath 
meni containing this substance is sometimes of benefit, espt-ciatlj 
eczema and in ulcerated lupus vulgaris. A similar applicalion ii 
in hipu* erythematosus of the face and eyelids. A powder con 
parts of saUcylic acid, 15 parts of xinc oxide, and 30 piirfs of powd 
may be employed in order to relieve the itching and smarting a 
From 0.S2 to 4 Gm. to each 31 Gm. (or gr. v-Lx lo .^j) of lard, lanol 
eicipient will sometimes remove freckles. On account of its 
virtue, it may l>c advantageously used in the treatment of tinci 

It has been found useful as a topical application in thnish ac 
stomntitiE, in which conditions it act* ns a lonil anodyne. It allay 
ing pain of the erosions left after the vesicles have ruptured. T 
is made by diesolviug 1 part of acid in sutricii'nt alcohol and addin 
of water. Salicylic-acid solutions have likewise proved of value ii 
of the largo intestine for dysentery. .\(ulp intc^liual calarrl 
treated in the same manner with very successful results. In 
malady the internal use of the remedy may be conjoined. 

Salicylic acid may also be employed in feted bronchitis as oi 



i. 



56 



PHAtlJlACBUTICAL TUBRArEimc A0BXT9 OB DRCGS. 



R Acidi Mlicylici, 

LKnolin mi 101 Gm. or Silw- 

OM tM«Wnthl]w reatillcat. fl £6 e.<-m. or fSSlM. 

Ailipi> 7I[6 Gtn. or iiiiit. 

It iiiii»t be noted, howi?T<?r, that cases of intoxication have occurred u 
n r«Eult of the excessive local use of the remedy. 

WhCD the salicyhitc catu«s gastric disturbuuco, it may be given by lh« 
rcclum, which should be previously washed out by means of a purgative 
enema. It is well to combine Imidanum with tbo salicylate in order to pre- 
vent irritation of the bowel. I^abeeb has witnessed benefit from the local 
use of salicylic acid in sprains, irrespective of the presence of the rheunistic 
diathesis. 

Salicylic acid, or its sodium »ult, hDi< been found useful in those effec* 
tions HO often associated with or dependent upon the rheumatic diatheda, 
as the various forms of neuralgia, especially mtgrnine, trifacial neuralgia, 
and sciatica, chorea, tonsillitis, urticaria, and erythema nodosum. Sodium 
salicylate is serviceable alsA in erythema mnltiforme, esm^eially when, at it 
frequently the case, the disease is dependent upon a rheumatic diathecis. 
The remedy suppresses the eruption and relieves the articular pains. In 
Bcialica, Ringer prefers it to any other remedy. Rheumatic iritis may alto 
yield to its influence. 

Gay has successfully employed this remedy in Meniere's disease, giviae 
0.20 Gm. (or gr. iij) three times a day. The attacks of vertigo, which baa 
been very frequent, rapidly diminished in number and severity. As improve- 
ment progressed, the remedy was suspended during considerable intervals. 

In the experience of Dr. Striiower, salicylic acid is an excellent remedy 
in the treatment of gall-stones. He is accustomed to give it in 0.65 Gm. (or 
gr. x) doses three or four times a day in the intervals between attacks of 
colic, and states that it prevents the formation of concretions and hastens 
their expulsion. 

Salicylic acid has been successfully used as an anthelmintic. Tmua 
solium has been removed by five hourly doses of 0.50 Gm, (or gr. viij) each, 
preceded and followed by a dnse of castor-oil. Round-worms and seat-worms 
are deetroycd by the *amD agent, the latter by the local effect of an injection, 
the former by the internal use of the drug. 

Salicylic acid may be given in 0.32 Gm, (or gr. v) doses in order to purify 
the foul breath sometimes present in phthisis. Improvement has sometimes 
followed the administration of salicylic acid, or its combination with fodium. 
in diabetes. An antidiabetic powder employed by Dr. Monin is composed 
as follows: — 

B 



Sudii bicnrbonAt. .••>..■■ 03 

Sodii Wnxoat. i 3D 

Sodii inlii-ylttt 11) 

LiUiii mrlwuat. 16 

U. 81^ i Ttupoonlul at Meh Btttl. 



Om. or Xij. 
Gdi. or 3x. 
Cim. or Sv. 
Gm. or Js*- 



I 



The same remedy is of service in diabetic neuralgia. It is also em- 
ployed for its antipvrctic effect in typhoid fever, pneumonia, eiysjpelas. and 
phthisis, but it is regarded as especially serviceable in blood-poisoning and 
tDnrmio, pya*min, etc., and the eruptive fevers of children. Dr. de Rosa 
ibutes prophylactic virtues to this substance in case of exposure to scar- 
fever. Dr. C. A. Brycc ustocms salicylic acid as of decided efficacy in the 




ACtDDM SaLIOTLICVU. "^^^V 57 

trabnent of nnall-pox. lie states that it reduces t«inperature, relieves pain, 
ud limitB the deTelnpmcnt of pustules. In rdapsiii)^ fever it is said to 
roder the relapse shorter and of less severity. It promptly checks the 
jwtj Tomitini; dependent upon the ^owth of Sarcina ventricuH. Some- 
lina kHous disturbances of the circulation occur from medicinal doses in 
aH6«t ferer. it is v*Ty pmliablc that in coioo of these cases the resmlts 
MilHibuiable to impurities in the salicylic acid. Urticaria, erythema, and 
Teanilar cuianeous symptnma have been noticed after its admini^trntion. 
Tm toquiimatTon has sometimes followed the erythema. In exceptional 
OMstheexhibiiioDof salicyhc acid is followed by hfemorrhage, usually from 
Ibe^mt or noae. The soda salt is believed to dc frc<r from this objection. 

Beroheim makes use of hypodermic injections of salicylic acid in order 
torriieve the ni£ht>sweBt« of phthisis. The wilution which he employs con- 
tuc 6 Gm. (or oiss) of the acid in 30 c.cm. (or f^j) distilled water, to which 
siddtd 11 ccm. (or foiij) of glycerin and 15 c,cm. (or f5i»») of alcohol. He 
i^MsS c.cm. (or mccs) of the solution on four or five succes-iiTe evenings. 
Tie MDie writer has reported five cjises of incrpcrublc cancer of the c«r\ix 
Mtfri itt which the injection of salicylic acid into the growth was followed by 
dissMwannce of the hiemorrhagcs and offensive discharge, with diminution 
a the &ie of the tumor. Sodium fialicylate in 0.6S Om. (or gr. x) do»e» will 
flnaetintc assuage the pain of carcinoma. 

De Becker n«s treated a number of cascK of acute pneumonia with sali* 
tylkacid. He gave to a child of four years 0.10 Gm. (or gr. iss) every hour 
Tilk snccessfo! letnlt. In adult.<) he ^ivcs 0.50 Om. (or gr. viij) every two 
or thtte hours. As soon as the expectoration is free, he diminishes the dose, 
flotmer, coffee, tea, chocolate, and milk are good vehicles for the medi- 
cuie. lie bclieres that if salicylic acid is given early (on first or second day) 
it will be found a true abortive of pneumonia. He treated twelve cJises, with 
oaedtaili; the fatal result was due to meningitis. The others rapidly recov- 
fied.' 

The granular effervescent form is a good one in which to administer 
^iilicylates, or thev may be given in effervescent draughts, or in combinA- 
tioB like this: — 

Ra4fiMUc7l«ti 61 Om. or 31}. 

TIart. lanitdulic eaoap. IfU con. or fSiv. 

Sjn[|i. annntii lOSJ ccm. or (Jiliin. 

M. Sj.: Gir»r b tnt>ln)K>on(ii1 ffrcry thre« (or four) hour* (or acute TheunialluD. 

^following prescriptions may likewise be recommended as benefleial 
<""Wiutioa» in aculo rhuumatism, gout, and neuralgia:^ 

BAdainlk/lld 81 Om. or SH. 

M- Mberfi ttilrod ISO c.cm. i>r fSiv. 

TWi. rardBiDuni- co. 30| c.cm. or fSj. 

)L %-: Two tnupoonlttls In wAt«r evtry two hours. 

S 4«Mi wliryiki 13| Gm. or gr. cc 

lif, kssioTi. BCctatU, 

Mam MiDphom n* 18150 c-em. or f3v. 

Sft. atlimi Dilroil q. ■. nd (id] ccm, or fjij. 

K. Sig.: A tmi-pocnful la iim(«r •very t«0 or tlirpc lioura. 
'BrttUk Medieal Jovmat, Epitome, 10S2. 18t)S. p. 87. 



68 



PffASUACEtmOAL TnEHAPRTTIO AGENTS OB DRUOST' 



The appended formula is eervicesblo in chronic rheumatiem an 

H Acidi iftUoylld lat «m. or B 

Elix. coscone MgradK 180) c.cnL or ( 

M. Slg.: A tAbUapoonhil Ui wtUx two or throe timci a, do.}'. 

On nccouDt of its influence upon the titero-oranan circulation 
insy 1)0 advantageously giv«n in eusoe of ftmcnorrhu?'ii and dy^m 
Sodium salicvlate has been iL^ed with t-xcollent effect in chroni< 
It promotes alieorption of th« efTiii^ion Ijy a poworliil diaphoretit- ae 
parable to that which it exerts in rhenmaliem. 

Since the tiae of salicylic acid has finintttimec been followed b 
Professor Peahody, of New York, combined it with iron, as follo' 

B Add. talicrlic 1|30 Gni. or f 



Fvrii jiycophofph. 

Bodii pbo^hat. 3 

AqiuB -. > 19 

M. 8ig.: To bo takvn »t « dOM 



32 Gnu or ( 

■ill Oni. or 1 

e.cm. or I 



I 



ACIDirU STEARICtTM (U. S. P.).— Stearic Acid (nC„H,»( 
Stearic acid ie an organic acid which, in its cinnmercial, mi 
impure, form, is iisiiollv (.ibtaincd from the moro solid fats, cliie 
It is a hard, white, soitipwhat glossy, solid; odorless and tasteless 
mancnt in the nir. lii>'iliib1o in water, it dii^olvcs in about 45 par 
hoi at 15° C. (6a° K); it is readily soluble in boiling alcohol am 
Stearic acid has no physiological action upon man and is en 
mcdicinu only in the manufacture of glycerin suppositories, Th 
fatty oils, of either animal or vegetable origin, consist mainly of 
of three fatty principles. — olein, patmitin, and stearin, — which 
erides of the corresponding acids. Immamie! Mnnk has shown 
acids alon« are competent to produce the nutritive efTeets of fat, th 
being unnecessary and somc-limcs injurious. Senator has advo 
cases that cannot tolerate codliver-oil. the administration of the f 
which can be civcn in keratinized pillt so as to pns.4 through th 
unchanged. lie regards the saponified fat acids, or soda-soaps, as 
cither to fats or pure fat-acid.4. Being already in a soluble and > 
condition, tliey make no demands upon the digestive capacity ' 
testines. 



ACIDITM SULPHOEICINICITM.— Sulphoricinic Acid. 

Pharmacology. — This derivative of eastor-oil is only slight! 
to the .nkin, though rtipidly fatal to aniitinU when injccled inlo 
pleura, or peritoneum. Tiie sulphoricinate of sodium is made 1 
neutralising sul|ihori<'inii; acid with «oda. 

Physiolo^cal Action. — The salt is antiseptic and deodoriziii 
here* w.-ll lo the skin. Borlioi found that a 10-por-cent. soliilio 
deetroyed the odor of five or sis times its weight of very fetid pi 

Therapy. — The sodium salt hnn been used as a topical i 
oiiicna, diphthi-ria, and laryngeal tubereuloi*!*. Sev<Tal antise 
pounds have been prepared with the sulphoricinate of sodium. 
ricinatcd naphtol forms an eiiuil;iinn which ha* been twod in 



_ VA <4m»si>«rH0. i^ \jvuM Mij Hi MVH Vi *v IJIII ig 1/4. 

' 1»TtP <*T pr<-<«w»tc or lerpin hydrate, and 80 parts of etilpkoricinale 
litmi IS ulso Berricpiibic as a to{)ical application in (liiihtlicria. 

ACIBtrM Sin.PE1TBICirX (U. S. p., B. p.).— Snlphurio Add. 

Preparations. 

lum SalpliarlcuiD Uilulniii (V. S. P., B. P.).— Vilutrd Sulpliuric Arid [V. S. P. 
lu ix-r fi-nt., by vteiglht, of al>w>luu> oulphuric iK-idj U. P., IS.IlS [ict cMit. ot 
ulphktel. iio'*, OM to 1 r.riii. luT nv-xv). 
. SulphuHcum AroiatUcum lU-S-P., B-P,).— AtomAtlc Solpliurio Aold. 
Till) ( I.'. S. I*. I'oiitAiiiii aiilfiburk acM, 1O0 e.fm.; wiili ilnvturv of gingar, 
I ^... . .>il u( cmonnMni, 1 c.cid.; and akobo], t{, •. to matte 1000 Cjmi.). Dvie, 
la LSO c.cm. (or imx-kx|. 




i 



Phumscolog^. — The official V. S. P. aciil C'Oi)lflitii> not hfn than 9S.S 

— nt.. Ly wi'i^lit, of absolute sulphuric acid ami not more than 1,5 pi-r 

water. The B. P. acid contains 98 per wnt., by ni^ight, of hydro- 

' 'i'. It irniBt W colnrlcea, without odor, and of an oily consistence. 

.lUstic- nud corrii*ivo, aiul ihould h« kept in i;l<u^«-K[(>PI><-'rod hot- 

rcial acid (oil of Titriol) conlaim various impunlies, — 

■' arid, i?lc. 

it;iil Action and Toxicolo^.—Sulphiiric acid, in full strength, 

rli-tiiiic-,. mill liii* II dirutij; afTinily tor wutt-r. Applied to the 

- at a cnustic. rvdUsolving the coaj^Ium formed and pcni-trating 

r-" llit> Kurfooe black, ^^llca taken internally, the lips and other 

■ utli arc blnckoned. and Bymptoma of oorrosive poisoning ar« 

i(ii'r« is inlciLK' pnin, with efforle at vomiting. Collapse and ilealh 

Dv cnf'ue from the intense conjjeftlion of the <»sophaRUH and stom- 

I iir iK-condarilj from the re»iilting ga»tric utccntion and 

"phapufl, 

Bcaai Ie»iwit3 ■ ■ n found bv Drs. Eiixcne Friinki'l ond F. Ilcicho 

t« cflM^ of J" "-, from sulphuric acid, one of which caii&ed death 

I—-* «^hilp iheothgrtwoeasetiirprefa talin from two to fonr months- 



r 



J 



THABHAOBtTTOAt THBBArSTTIC A0EXT8 OB VBVW. 



wpccinlly in the face. In such a case water is fo be freely used td 
the excels of acid, and an slkaline wd^ applied; to rclii;vL- pain,i 
tumally will be needed. The subsequent treatment is that of aq 
bum. 

Sulphuric ocid ie eliminated to a small extent by the kidneys i 
ably also l>y the lower bowel end »kin. , 

Therapy. — On account of the pain following its application, I 
acid U not much used as a cauAtic, «llhriti);li it is an etilcient clai 
tiKiuc. Vclppau used it in cancer, and Iticord for chancres, the a 
mixed with s^mt- abtorbinji substance like sawdust or charcoal. ; 
and necrosis, and tuppiirufing csntiee or siausce, it may either ti 
upon a Rlasfl rod or on tint, diluted with 4 to 6 parts of water. 

Tntcrnally, dilute sulphuric acid acts as an astringent and a 
The elixir of Vitriol is the preferred form for checkinR the night- 
phthicii!, and in some cases of dinrrha'a. Sulphuric acid, with wat 
ened so as to make a pleasant drink, ia a valuable prophylactic agi 
poivoning, often u^d by opcratiTc^ in lead works. It also has be 
to be a preventive of attacks of Asiatic cholera, when taken regular 
the prevalence of an epidemic:^ 

B Add. RUlphurici dllutl VZi r.cm. or 

Tr. opii deodorati 4 c.cni. or 

E3ixir aromatici 30 aiMii. or 

Aqii« , q. «. ad 1B() e-cni. or 

M. SJ^.: Take a tablMpocnful for dyteaiay, every hour or two. 
care Uie netion of the opium. 

Sulphuric aeiil is very commonly given in typhoid fever. I 
prefened to hydrochloric acid when the diarrhcea is excessive. 1 
is relioved by the use of sulphuric aciiJ, and the constipation of lea 
ine is effectually treated by a combination of diluted sulphuric acid 
sulphate, and magnesia sulphate. On account of its astringent i 
it is benefieial in hicmorrhage from the uterus, stomach, or intestii 
and in purpura. Thf following prescript iouB have been found ben 

B Add. 8ulph. DToniBt T|U c.ctn. or fS 

Exx. liHRiniiiplidl« II., 

Ext, ergutsp 11 ita 60] p.rm. or fj 

M. Sig.t Two tcnspoonfuU In water every two or Uiree houn. U«e 
In hninon-hnge trom lun([>, Btoninch, or vroiub.' 

e.rm. or fj 
Gm. or Sij 
com, or fS 
e.cmi, or fj 



B At'td. milph. nroniat. 15 

MngnF«ii sutph 02 

8pt. chlorotiinni II 

Inf. rOMC tcnllkn <|. g, md 240 



UBefiil in hiemorrhimo trn 



M. Sig.: A tabWpoonful every three hour}, 
and eonilipation. 

B Aiid, sulph, dil , 15 

Quininic luiph ..-,.,,... 

Tlnct. opii : 

Sj'nipi vt nquK q. a. ad D(l 

M. SiK-! A rrnopoonfal In water every four hours in enteric (ever i 
tney to diarrhwa ani] suenting. Alio uicfut in iwenting oi plithisie. | 

Liquor Acidi Sulphnrioi Halleri (TIallcr's acid drops) — not oi 
a rai-xture of equal parts, by weight, of acid and alcohol, gradi 



r.cm. or fJ 
IS Om. or gt 
SO cent, or i3 

ccm. or IS'. 




AClDVa SCLPUUBOSt-'ir. 



61 



fil&TOartant stirring, taking care tlint tli« lempcnitiire of the mixture doe* 
iut^t»o high Bs to vaporize the nicohol. It contains ether, alcohol, sul- 
fhuTW acid, and aulpho-elhvlio acid, and \» uHcd for the «aine purpose n» 
ttf iTT'inatic acid, in about half the do»e, on account of the larger amount 
'rf tcid. 

icidom Sulphorinicum, or cthyl-sulphnric acid, is prepared ly adding 
silphoric acid to alcohol in combining proportion. It is freely soluble in 
imol, and mixcR with water (1 or '-i parts) without losing its oily character. 
It b ■ yelloviah liquid, with slighlly astringent ta»te, and iii neutral in re- 
MiM. The ethyl gulphatcs are crysCallizablc and soluble in water. The 
ft^-totpbate (or sutphovinate) of eodium haa been used as a saline ca- 
diitie. Etliyl-^ulphuric acid is an example of an acid ether, and ie a solvent 
hrtamphor (85 per cent,), iodoform (3 per cent.), sulphur, naphtalin, chry- 
makai, rtv., and can be uccd as a vehicle for these remedies in tiiu treat- 
mat of skin diaeases. 



ACIDUH SULFHUROSUli (U. 8. P., B. P.)-— Solphuroas Acid (SO, + 

m 

Dote. 0.30 to 1 com. (or mv-fSj), well diluted. 

?rep«ration(. — In combination with a base sulph"rou« acid makes sul- 
pfaitN. Of ii* combinations, the following are olTieini in ilii- U. S. P.: So- 
ciam sulphite, sodium bisulphite, and eodium hyposulphite. 

fkarmaeolo^. — Sulphurous-acid gas (sulphur dioiide, SO,) abaorbed 
bf ntei forms the official acid. It has a sour, sulphurous, somewhat astrin- 
gtit taste, and contains 6.4 per c«nt., by weight, of the gas, and not more 
thiB 95.6 per cent, of water. The B. P. acid contains G.4 percent, of hydro- 
npnilphile, corresponding to 5 per cent., by weight, of sulphurouit atiby- 

Phjiiological Action. — This acid and its salts are very destructive to 
lovforais of animal and vegetable life, owing to their affinity for oxygen. 
It ii not well borne by the stomacii, and should be given freely diluted with 
nttr, IS its taste and odor are very iinpleu«aiit. Locally, it docs not excite 
MDth irritation in medicinal doses, but inhalation of air containing from 1 
toJpatis of gulphurotu acid per IDiX) produces in animals intense iuflom- 
nutiao of the respiratory passages and lungs. Injection of a 5-per-cent. 
■lition into the stomach was found by Dr. I>. Pfeiffer to excite severe gas- 
Inlil. Animals not lulled by the acid recover very rapidly from the imme- 
diitt effects, though they may subsequently pcmb from inflammation. 
Pfdffa has demonstrated that 9". 5 per cent, of sodium sulphite is elimi- 
Mti in the urine as sulphate, the remainder only &s sulphite. Nearly all 
odlnrge quantity of sulphite administered was eliminntCfl in five hours. 

Therapy. — As a local antiseptic or bactericide, sulphurous acid is highly 
Ijoud in those forms of skin dieeasc caused by purasitic invasion, such as 
tod tomurans and tinea versicolor. It may be effectively used in tinea 
fanaby the eimwle device of Dr, Schuster. .\ net of strings it stretched 
tarn the lower third of a card-hoard box made to fit the head. A saucer 
Bntuniag burning sul))hur is laid upon the net of strings and the box cov- 
fnd. The patient must sit still for half an hour. An abundance of sul- 
I^Broas^eiu gas is generated, the sulphur ceasing to hum, of course, as 
»0D as all the oxygen is exhausted. In various forms of sore throat it is 



62 PnABHACEl-nCAI. THKHAPEDTIC AGENTS OR DRrOS, 

Useful, but pnrtiotilntly in diphtheria, where it cnn be used topil 
also taken inti-mulU*. 

It i( beneficiariy applied to unhealth]^ or Bloii^hin]; wounda ( 
Four to 7.5 o.cin. (or fSi-ij) of the olTiduI acid to 3y ccni. (or (Jj) 
or water and pijcerin. is of service in chilblains and chapped hani 
phuTOUgacid, he Rin^'cr pdintK out, muv be ui-cd in »iich u tuuiiner a 
i<oabi<-« with the iitmoi^t rapidity. This mi;lhod consists in expc 
patient, his head excepted, to the influence of sulphurous-acid gas, g 
tiv burning 46.7 Oin. (or 3xij) of aulphur in a !<iiilablc closed apparnt 
ciothee should be, at the Bame time, put in boiling water. Dr. Di 
, Dtumeiidf equal parts of gulphurou» acid and of water as an vtllcicat 
in eryEipelas. { 

In fermentation of food in the stotnoeh. flatulent dyepep«ifl i 
stomach, pyioeis. dilated stomach, etc., giilphuroua acid, properly 
hat been recommended. In typhoid fevir it lini- b1«o been used, t 
aaserted, with success, and may be tried in measles, scarlatina, and si 
In Eone bronchial aftectionji — catarrh, whooping-cough, dilated 1 
tubes — it may be inhaled with a steam-atomizer, it is also of t^ree 
in many skin alTcctioni, «uch ao urticaria and purpura, after other 
have failed. 

The author would recommend the following forinula; for t]ie 
just referred to: — 

li Acicli lulphum*!, q 

Syrup. zinKibcTi* an A')' e.cro. OT-I 

M. Sig.r Krutu unc to two tea* poon tula la o'atM' tliioo limes a day. \ 

n .\cidi eulphiiroii, 

FjtL *rgot<B fl„ 

Synip. iiurantii nn 30| c.cnL or 

M. Sig,; Tna tenspoontuls in water thr«« or four timca n day. 

The sulphites and hyposulphites arc employed to fulfill the sa 
cations. The adniinisiration of the sulphites in pyemia was advo 
PoUi. but later oliniciil observers have not been able to obtain the 
suits that he promised. (The sulphides will be considered under ihi 
Sulphur.) 

ACIDIIM TAUNICDH (ir.S.P., B. P.).— Tannic Acid (Tann 
DoM, O.OG.-J to 1.30 Gm. (or gr. i-sx). B. P., 0.13 to 0.32 On 

ii-T). 

Prsparaliona. 

Collcidiuin !-typtlriim iV.S P,).— Styplii- Onltoilion [ooodsta of 20 

tannic arid. & nl alcohol. 2.1 of rthirr. uiid 50 of vctllodionl. For «xtpriinl 1 

BttriiuKTit 

finKVicntuni Airidi Tnnnld (U.8.P.).— ^intnifnt nf TnlInt■^ Acid (coi 

per cvM. of Innnlr aHdi. 

Glj-wTitiim Ai'idi Taiinici lU. S.P.|. — Glywrin and Tnniiin .\cid (M f 
Tiophisfl AHd! TaiiniH (I'.S.P.. B. P. ) ,— TrodiPB ol Tuimic Arid (- 

Qm„ or sr. i; R P.. 0.03 Giii,. or pr- a*). 

Olynnriniim Addl Tnnnid (t). P.*.— Olyccria of Tunnk' Add (20 per r^ 
SappoMtoria Addi Tannin (B. P.). — Tanni«.Acid StippoidtoriM |0.£O Gi 

lEj, of tannic acldi, 

Fhannacolo^. — Tannic acid is a common constituent of vegcl 
ganiams, especially those noted for aatringency, such as oak-bark 



ACIUL'H TASSICUM. 



63 



oitaii about 50 per cent, of tannic acid, whicli cun be obtained by exposing 
pradend gnlls lo dumpDcs and afterward disflolring out the tannic acid with 
ilfUfl of ether. It occurs in light-ydlowwli *c-fllc«, soluble in 16 parts of 
nld water, and iilighily soliibk- in alcohol. It is likewise soluble in glycerin. 
liouguUtee albumin and gelatin, and Hlrik<-»i a black color with pruparalions 
mitsiiiiDg iron. SoltilionE containing tannic acid (infusion of black tea or 
(At) arc antidotes for poisoning by some mt^tnllic ioHt, end especially 
aliiuny or ortiir '-mitic, and the alkaloids. 

Phjuological Action. — Tannic acid, when locally applied, has an 
otiinRiit action npon the tii>«iics, owing to its affinity for albumin. In- 
teulJf, it acts «s a weak acid upon the digestive tract, but when it* chem- 
ioiiffinitieit arc ntisficd by comuiuaiton with a base or neutralizing it with 
lOnmin. it ia no longer capable of precipitating albumin, and therefore no 
IngCT CxerciMV an aMriiigont action upon the parts with which it comes in 
cnnUct. Hence, according to Stockman, it can exert little, if any, action 
apoD tlie vaflcuiar system, and, a* it i* not excreted by the bronchial mucous 
otalmiK, Tory little, or none, upon the flow of the bronchial secretions. 
Tith regard to ita action upon the kidncv-i, a« it i» excreted principally by 
thii ehasnel, it is conceivable that it may have some influence in diminishing 
AuMinima, although even this he regards as doubtful. Ijewiti, however, 
HMOBends the adminirtration of tannic acid in the form of an albuminate, 
vlikh is free from irritation and is more readily absorbed (tannic acid, 2 
pott; water, 90; mix well, and add white of egg. 10 partx). The external 
oriWenal use of tannic acid may occasion erythema or urticaria. 

Ihenpy. — As a louil ai^lritigent, tannic acid heads the list. A com- 
biiution of iodoform and tannic acid (3 to 1), finely powdered, is a good 
d«tiig-po«der for tnui^t eniplionH, some forms of oc:;ema. and for insuffla* 
tioa into the nose to reduce secretion in catarrh. After tlie severity of the 
infltmoMttOD has somewhat subsided, the glycerite of tannin 18 a good ap- 
plialmi in acnte eczema. It may be applied twice daily, and ailays the 
ttintii^ pain and itching. A solution of tannic acid and camphor liU'' hm-n 
used rrth good results as a topical application in erysipelas and lymphangitis. 
A njotion of tannic acid in glycerin (1 to 4) is a good topical np;i!icntifln 
totainllitis or pharyngitis, ft may also bo used as a spray, properly diluted. 
is lumo[ihiis. For disorders of the lower bowel, ulcers, lia.iures, h»mor- 
riuM^ jnotapsiis, and to expel thread-worms, a solution may be injected, 
or Rppotiitone» used, each containing 3 to 6 grains, with cacao-butter or 
■UrelL 

iJct^rsohn has obtained good results in severe acute dysentery from 
tbtueof hot enemata of tannic and boric acids. The injections were given 
<vftT tbrec hours an^ consisted of a 4-per-eent. solution of boric acid, in 
*bcfaO.G5Gm. (orgr.x) of tannin were dissolved. A few drops of laudanum 
voe added to each enema. The effect was to arrest h^morrliage, diminish 
F>iii and ttncsmus, and materially ahridge the course of the disease. A plan 
■Imalineiit introduced by Cantani has been used with advantage in the 
ottf itag« of cholera. Ijirge enemata of tannic arid are thrown into the 
boielWvond the iteo-caecal valve. From 6 to H).5 Gm. (or3is*-v) of tannic 
•eid, distolvcd in 2 litres (or Oiv) of water, with the addition of 2 c.cm. (or 
uxxi ut laadanum and 46.5 Gm. (or $m) of powdered gum arable, are in- 
)mM Bt toitflblc inten-als. 

A lolatiaa of tannic acid is useful in caees of kucorrhoea. The gljceritfl. 



M raABMACEUTICAL TUEBAPSnTIC A0EST8 OR DBr08. 

or iodoform-lamijn, is an excellent application for ealflrrhsl inflt 
of the cervix ut«ri. Etvii in oarcinoinA titeri the glycorito of t«iu; 
efficient in moderating ducharge and allaying odor. Its virtoil 
assisted by comlijniiig it with lific glyccritc of carbolic acid. ' 

The odor of OKtena and other stfections attended by fetor mag 
ing to Or. B. W. Richardson, be oveivomc by the application of ccn 
previoiisly moistened in a saturated watery solution of tannin and, 

In gonorrh(ea, after the acute etflgc has parsed off, tannic «ci( 
fill mi'dicami;nl. In men it may be sdministered, dissolved in w 
urethral injection. l>r. Hanika, of Munich, him treated gonorrhn 
iug the urglhra with a powder consisting of equal parts of tannia,j 
and thallin sulphate. x\ie powder is introduced ihrongh a melnlt 
or twice doily immediately after the patient has emptied his bit 
vomen a waterj' solution may be used as a vaginal injection, or t! 
may bo packed with gauze covered with lannm. Solutions of ta 
may also be employed for the purpose of hardening tender nipples a 
feet. A concentrated solution of tannin miiy iin»wcr a u»clnl put 
palliative remedy in inRrown nail. A lotion of tannic acid is fret| 
ecnice in herpn-s. It is useful in phagedenic ulcers and ulojiccii 
scripta. Made into a pomade, it has been found of benetit in 
Ringer recommends the glyccritc of tannic acid in otorrhcea, not,j 
daring the acute stage, but after this has been relieved and but ai 
discharge it left. The remedy i« more benolicial when the membi 
pani is intact. The canal is tilled with the solution, which is re 
cotlon-wool. 

With alkaloids tannic acid generally forms insolubli? comp( 
should not, therefore, be prescribed with preparations containinj 
quinine, strychnine, elc. 

Xotwilhalanding the chemical argumenta urg«d by Dr. S 
tannic acid has long been sucoi'ssfiilly adminislercd u* un aetringen 
As, however, it enters the blood under the form of gallic acid, ii 
effects are, in rcalily, due to the latter acid. Tannic acid is prefei 
ployed as a local application, gallic acid as a systemic remedy. T 
peiitical uses of gallic acid have bct-n iiln-ady dwcribcd, and need nt. 
repeated. 

Tannic acid has been uied in tuberculosis under the ides that 
to destroy the bacillus of the disease. M, Arthaud has detailed tl 
obtained in two thousnnd cases from this im-thod of treatment. } 
that tlic effect of tannin is superior to that of creosote. 

. ACIDnU TARTABICUM (U. S. P., B. P.).— Tartaric Acid. 

Dose, (<.'32 to l.ao Gm. (or gr. v-xi), 

Preparations. — The I'. S. P. ofticial sn\ls arc antimony and j 
tartrate (tartar emetic), iron and ammonium tartrate, iron and } 
tartrate, potassium tartrate, potassium and sodium tartrate (Rochi 
and piilassiuni bilnrtrate (cream of tartar), Spidlit/ pmvder. < 
efferveicens compositos ( II. S. P.), palvis sodse tartaratte efFervescea 
is dispeniied in two small papers, a blue one containing 8 Gm. (l 
potassium and sodium tartrate, with ".GO Om. (nr gr. xl) of sodiv 
bonate, and a white one containing 8,25 Gm. (or gr. xkxt) of tarti 
When administered these are separately digsoivcd. each in aboi 




ACIDUU TRlCHLORACETlCril. 



6$ 



otI^j) of water, aud the two solutioDS mix^d and drunk while efferTeseing. 
iiltie of Iiiiiiiii impnui'.-* tin- rtiivnr >>( ihi- iliw. 

nannBcalofy and Phytiolo^ical Action. — Tartaric acid is obtained by 
ik (kcota|)osition of crL-ani «f liirlnr (polawiuin bitiirlratf) found in old 
varoKks. It IE laxative and slightly diuretic. It reduces the alkalinity of 
:k blood and make&lhe urine acid, "in lur^vr doifi'* it i*an iirilunl; iudwd. 
aitttSixts it resembles oxalic acid, and the morbid appearances are a1.4o 
nrfBiKh iheMnie. I» exc«K«ivi> amounts tartaric and rctHrd»and wnikcns 
At moremente of the heart. Ita saturated solutions are irritant even to thte 
iim. In a few ini^tanoeti death ha^ re^ultfd frnin thv ingestion of this «ub- 
RiMc. The symptoms are best relieved by demulcents, the alkalies, mag- 
KBn. chalk, aottp, milk, etc. 

Tkenpy. — Certain of the tartrates arc used as laxative*, magnesium 
utltste affordinf! a good substitute for the titrate. Hochello salt, in 15. ,5 (Ini. 
t*r J«) doecss before brcoikfast, is a good remedy for habitual constifmtion. 
PMisanm bitarlrate (in doses of 0.G5 to LSD dm., or p: x-xi) exerts a de- 
cAxi diuretic action, and iu combinalion with washed sulphur (1 to S) it 
forms an excellent laxative remedy for ha'niorrhoida. 

The combination of diuretic and cathartic virtues renders potassium 

^iUrtnie very useful in the treatment of chronic Bright's di.ti^n^e. ll re- 

^^pocedcma and delays Ihc manifestation of ur^vmia. For a similar reason 

^nitoeful in ascites. l'otas.Hiuin tartrate, or Itochelle sail, proves of utility 

inlirpalic indigestion »ccompnnied by an c\cc» of uric acid in the tirim". 

ACISUM THICHLORACETICmi.— Trichloracetic Acid. 

Fharmacology and Therapy.— This acid, a crystalline aud deliques- 
fcji wM^t.mci'. r.M'lily soliibk- rn wntcr, is nn I'lGcaciouB caustic aud astriu- 
ji-"i. It has iict-n iucce.isfully employed in the removal of enlarged ton- 
alfi, hyiH-nrophii'd follicles of the phiirynx, and polypoid excrescences. It* 
aetioD ran be more strictly limited than that of some other caustics, but 
il !* loo slow for us« when large masses of tissue are to be destroyed. It 
<u be applied to the pharynx without any previous anaistheti7.ation. (n 
thcaarts, however, the surface should first be loiiehcd with a 10-per-ecnt. 
toi the larynx with a 20.per-cent, solution of cocaine. It is notable for 
llw 4i7n««e of the eschar which it produces. Trichloracetic acid is a 
«»nicMblc ap[i)ication to warts, vascular nsvi, pigment patchea, and in* 
Aileat ulcers. 

■\xui a«lring4^nt, the following combination is recommended:— 

B Wl 15!.^ Gm. or S». 

r*u«iit iodid. 1114 Gill, or 5v. 

Afiitl irichlonntlel IS^^S to 31 Gm. or S">'J. 

<il««TUii - - - imi c-cin. or IJiJ. 

M- iig.; Apply to Ui« affcvtt^ *iiTtii«« on a plrdg*t of cutton. 

Df. Adolph Bronner employs trichlnracptic acid in the Ireafment of 
H4' Biake* one of a 10- to l.'i-per-cent. aqueous solution and applies 
it to tlii> mucous membrane covering the »e]itiini uiid turbinated bones, 
T>i.' ripcnlii>n i* rejH-ated two or three times a week for several weeks. 
t'ju»IiDo rerommenib the use of trichlorHcettc acid in epistnxis. touching 
tkr Unding-jtoint with a piece of cotton saturated in a solution of 1 fim. 

(«)(r. n) of trichloracetic neid to 30 com, (or fjj) of water. 

t 



P 




ACONITI RADIX ilJ. I'.).— Thi- roots ot Aconitnni Xi])«Ilu 
in autunrn from planln ciiltivnte<] in Britain, and dried. 

Preparationa. 

Ebttraclum Aconitj lU.S. P.)-~Exlraet of Aconite. Do». 0,016 te 
gt. V.-V,). 

Exlraclum AcouiU Fluidun (U.S. P.).— Fluid Kxtntci of Aconitf. 
to 0.00 con. («r niV»-j). 

Tinrturn Acnnitl (U.fi.P^ B.P.I.— Tiin-tiir«> o( A<;iiiilu. Domp, 0,00 * 
(or nti-v|. 11. P.. 0.30 to 1 F.cm. (or niV'Xv) ; if freqiii-utlv miculiil. 0,12 1 
(or mii-vl. tTlic ['. S. P. formiiln ii *e\va tiaw* tnc ilri-niitli o( thn R. 1 

Aootiittiia Ml. P.l,^ — AiMmitino: nii Hllmloid obuiiicrt frtitn Hrunitc-ni 
iag thi> formula CHiluKO,,. (l*rcpanition« voiy *o much In rlToct Uin 
c«niiol be drfiuilely 9tiili>d,| 

Ungiicntiim Aconitinm (B, P.). — Aconitino Olnliiipnt (^ JP*'' crnt.). 

LlnSmrnlum ArciiiiLi lH-P-l.^-Linimrat of Aconite (500 Gin, in T50> 
vxlvraal uu. with caution. 

PharmAcolo^, — The tulieroue root of Acnnittim Napeilus 
Iccete), a perennial pinnt indigenous to Europu, but «omDtiin«« 
here lo gardens for it^ ornameiiial spike of blue flowers. All pi 
plant nrc poisonous, but the- uctivo principle, on nlkuloii), Aoonit 
in greoter proportion in the root. (Napelline ia probably onlj 
aconitiii(^) Aooniline crysDilHws in rhombic or hexngonal plut<.-s: 
in akohot, ether, and chloroform. 

DuRstan and Carr have found that ditTerent samples of acan 
estrcmt'ly as regards toxic properties. What has been termed " 
aconitine" contains but a very small proportion of true, or cmtall 
tine. The lyime writcn- have ascfrtained that when aconitme is 
its melting-point there is obtained a new alkaloid, which they 
call mnieonilinc. Thij- snbstunce rotidily di»olv«s in acids, for 
whicli can be cri-stallized. The solutions of these salts have a h 
and arc not toxic in small do!<w. When heated with diluted acii 
water in a closed tube, pyraconitine and its salts are converted ii 
acid and an alkaloid, wliicli bus be>in ramcil pvraconinc. Pyi 
soluble in water and ether. It combines with acids to form cryati 
which are very i^ohiblo in water. 

All the species of aeonitum are, as a rule, virulently acti 
napellue is the only oflicial one. TIil- root of Hconlte in winti- 
been dug up in the garden and eaten in mistake for horse-radish, 
conseqnenceii. It i» only necessary lo be aware of this liability i 
efTectiialty guard against the error. The aconite-root is premo: 
not taperinK throughout its length, as the root of urnioracia i«; i 
a brown color, and when scraped does not give out the irritating 
is so characteristic of the latter. Poisaning in this way apparc 
only occur as the result of grossest carelessness or of criminal int 
' Fhysiologiical Action. — The effects of aconite are those of 
prineipli-, aconitine. JIany researches have been made to dett 
exact action of the aconite nikaloids, but the results have differec 
on important points that it is evident the various investigators hs 
with more or less impure or different substances. In the recent 




AC(»XITITII. 



tkio by Prof«£6on Cash ani] Danttiin,' tho grcatvHt etie Uns bi!«n xakeo to 
SMort the alknloidg iwed Iwing chemiciilly pure. They found That acoiu'tine 
blls mtniuutlia liy it« iictinii on lliv ru«ipirfit»ry rt'iilrc, <1iuc«t>'l-aconitine 
W tnacb tile Himc actiun. but U not bo powerful, while benzocoaine and 
atftnine an.' much wt'jiker. On the hciirt ml hnvo finally n iKtjircnniiig cifect. 
ini acomtit, compureil with the othen-, jiTOved (o be relatively barmlees. It 
w»r f^iiiiil tliat atropine und (ligitHlis i-xf^noiM'd a certain umoiuit »f ant8)E- 
»: •:t to acoDitine. The addition of the tiro dincetyl groups to scont- 

tu.>. ..^;.i1t weakens ila action, but pixKttt<:e4 no radical chan|[i>. The re- 
Buiil ut an ncctyl group from aconitine to form b(.-nxaconinii greatly re- 
4a(T6 tta loxie power and greatly altera many of it» minor effects, although 
t* a ifrnvral way it« dcpri-^iiin); action on the r<-epinition and teinpeniture 
nvmblni that nf amnitiite. It is no longer a atrong heart-poison. Aconine 
• T*-r* mtx'h Iet«- pi>iM>noui, it hai! a curare-like action, atid sclunlly 
«T > huart and oppoges the aeequence and inco-ordination which 

». . luce*. The introduction into ita molectile of bensojl, and 

K<n^ uf acetyl, to form the other alkaloida heightens its lethal 
_. .- and nio<lifii.-« its action to a very remarkable dii-grue. The au- 
tkM» kImi found that there is a c«rtain aniagonism in action between 
•eoainr ant) brnxaconinc, on thi; one hand, and aiionitine, on tho other. 
It abould he mentioned here, in explanation of the difTerence in effect 
frws i: ~ :' fiH-c-imtns of aconite, thai the alkalnidsl iitri?ngth and 
ibr p:. lal activity of the plant are much affected by circum- 

ul It- growth, tile wild vuricticK being more poixontnii^ than the 
(«1. In this way the well-known differencts between the aotirity 
W^HTrrvtit kind.4 of aconitine are comprehenetble. Murrell haii cnlh-d at- 
aatioo to the fact that the English drug is *vvruteun times stronger than 
tk G«mian, while the French is variable, but generally between iheM; the 
^THaltine «ancty (Oiiiiiiei'ni'i's or Merck's ai'onitinc) i* thorcfort- to be pre- 
VfTid whrn prescribing, on account of its uniform strength. Aconite re- 
does cardiac action and litood-pn'stiure, diminit<b<'K excilubility of cerebral 
•■tm. tbe aenaor? tract of the cord, and the pcnphetal terminations of sen- 
nerves. It b1»o promoti-s tho action of the skin and kidney*. The ex- 
application of preparations containing aconite has sometimes been 
t>T rcdm^w and The deyelopment of vesicles, puitules. and blebv. 
intfituil use of aixmite will occasionally produce decided diaphoreeis 
Imlln I vilh vrviciitalion and more or less itching. 

iMde EffceU. — 11ieodorc Caith' thinkii that th<* uncertainty of nconi- 
toK it dii« to lb'- mixture with the other alkaloids of aconite, which differ 
%«f]v9t <>xlent in potency and physiological action. The dilTerence in the 
d«M« i' shoM n by ihe following table: — 

BAsarr. fboo. 

-„.,. „ f 0.00058B Gro. March. 

AcooiUne 0.00O12 Gm. jyo^j., q^ j„jy 

Bfonwonine 0.02;2 Om. 0.%84 Gm. 

^-«ni)n« probtbly 0.28 Gm. 1.055 to 1.75 Gm. 

"i-^mrue of bo<)y>wvig)it. Aconitine U about 200 tim#« as toxic as 

.* JtfMtlml JmtrtMil. Nm. », 18M, p. 3«S. 
•«nf*^ Mnlfnit JnwrMl. On, 8, ISM. 



l_J 



68 PUAUJiACKL'TICAL TllERArBtTIC AOBKTS OR DUCOS. 

benx&coni&e, and 3000 times at toxic os nuoninc. The acooitii 
doK*, slow* ttuiJ steadies (he pulse, with a slight decrease i>( pr 
laconine has a like efTcct, in a much more markiil degree, nliik- acd 
this propcrij-. The 6rst produces the characteristic tinglinj: of th 
memDrane and impairs sen><ii[ion, ^<-iuTfllly bv ili< action nn Ihr | 
KDiarv nvrvcii. The other two have no such action. They all hai 
taste, but the la^t in not mi marked. ])ea(h from acunttiiii' k prin 
to respiratory fniliiri.-, although in sinoli doses it at first stimtilat 
spiratory centre, then linnlly dcpr<**cii it by paralyzing the s^^D-sor; 
the pulmonary va^i. Bcnuiconine acte much like the above, exec 
has very little effect upon the sensory nerves, while it deprejse* | 
group and al»« the nniKlc-Sbres. It aUo locks the antipyreliel 
ficoniline. Aconine is not such a cardiac depret^anl as are the ti 
but, Hi above- «atod. actually sircngthcns the heart and oppo^ei 
quence and inco-ordination which aconite produces; upon the ii 
tern it iit a decided drpr^»sant nud acts like curorc. 

Applied to the skin or mucous surface, aconite fir*l is Eli^htl 
but this it soon folloncil by numbiic^ff. which may be ai'companii 
gliug sensations. If a hotile coniainini; aconiline be held to the not 
irritation of note and eye^ rcsulli^. In relatively large dosce dea 
.' very promptly, and, if given hypoderniically, the fatal result may 

less than a minute, according to U'ood. It is destructive to all fori 
nial and vegetable life: sometimes vcn,- aniall doRes produce extrem> 
cymptoms. A case of dcciOedly marked iiupTO-^Kiiin from u quan 
to 0.18 c.cra. (or miij) of ihe tincture has been reported hy Woo( 
which vomiting; loss of pnvver of extrf-niitics, with panesthysia a 
ness; loss of sight, mild delirium, weak pulse, and threatened si 
collaptc occurred, life being saved apparently only by very promp 
orous treatment. The first symptom observed in a cuf-e of poisoniu 
ing or tiujiliitg in the mouth and throat, soon extending to the e> 
and sometimes over the whole body. The surface of the extreinit 
or clammy and numb, hut at the same time the patients complain 
feel as if the limbs were flayed. Siglit mtty lie lost and hearing d 
ordinarily the intellect ri'mnins clear, (.'onvulsions occur occasioni 
pulse becomes weak and vfirifible; fli^hi cxvrtion may bring on a 
cope. The miwcuiar strength i§ early atfeclcd, so that the patient 
to stand. Owing to the lowering "f ihe lilnud-iire.wure and the dil 
the arterioh'J! Cdusied by the aconite, the heat of the body is at first 
with the increased blood-flow, to the surface, and there the blooi 
heat by radiation and ihe temperature of the interior of the body 
lowered. The deprcMii)n is aw-ompanied by increase of perspirati 
still further reduces temperature. This occurs more obviously w 
is pyrexia present than when the temperature is normal to be 
Death re*ulls from failure of respiration generally, imt it niav ( 
denly from syncope, «:• already stated, .\conite, applied locally, flrsl 
the sensory nerves, beginning with the end-organs and MM'cn<iint; 
to the centre. The motor nerves are next affected The reflex (i 
the cord is impaired. Uncertainty rtill exists, however, concerning 



' "Pruweding* «I the CoUege of PhvBitiHiiB of Pliilndrljihia." Ihinl 
X. p. -WO. 



i 



ACOKITDJI. 



en 



|on3rr in whicli nconilc nllfcu the different portions of ihe wr^.^,-,,™ 
Rtn^f r conclu<](^. upon ihe basis of hi» ana Dr. Murrdl's oxpeiSSt . 
troQitine pnmlyzfg all nilrogt-noue lief^iiee, abolisbio;; the functions, 
iSnt. of the «m6ori-perceptiTe centre, nctinj; next upon the ncn-ce, and, 
[toallr. upon the iuiim'Io. Siniiliirly. flnit thi- ganglia of the heart are «t- 
1 ite nervee, and laatlj- ila muscular siniotiire. After n fatal dose 
iki-ii iho nyni))torns UMislly uiiiki.- tbt-ir nppi-urance very rapidly, 
i'i'uiii iiiuy rc-eiilt in half an hour. The average time required to prodnce 
ifi i» mthcr iiiori- iliiin ibrci* bniin?, tin- Innj^c^t east? on record being fiv« 
i half hours. 

Antidotes. — Xl»e antidolw to aconite are tannic acid, astringent iu- 
aIc4ihot, and ammonia. Digitalis appears to he the physiological 
•ti4i^"mst t<» i'"»inlefuel the depnsMint vdccX upon the heart, or tinctura of 
! lu^iihiinihiis tiiiiy be subetittited. The h)-podemiic injection of atropine 
:i tilt- t*amv manner. Inhalatioiu of amy) nitrite, adminidered 
' jirt'd lo save hfe in Dr. Elliott's case. The patient Ehould be 
til M n-fiinilH-nt position. The i>toniach-pitnip. artlminl r<-«pirationi, 
or nlciihol. nnd tincture of digitalis hypodermically, and a hot pack, 
all ct'iue in rutjui-iition; even faradization over the epigastrium and 
, region nii^ht be ni^ofitl. 

ipy. — I..cically, the benumbing eiTects of aconite havp been utilized 

"tTi-nlinvnt of ncnralgia. the bert comhination, probjibly, being the 

.«• lininnriit, or the lintmentum aconiti et ehloroformi (N. l-.): — 

R Tr. m-fltuti. 

< hV-irol«>nn» aa 7130 e.cin. or (JiJ. 

i iiiiriwni. •«ponli q. a. ad M] c.ciii. or iJIIi. 

U. ^m-: Poiao^. For extenial uaa. To be applied along tlie eourae of tbe 



The oleate ot aconitine (4 per cent.) ha* 8l*o been used with a»#erted 

^ti rMull? for ncitrnlgia. An ointment of aconitine is official in the British 

Ibrmaenpo-ia. This preparation contains O.fi.') Gm. (orgr. x) lo'id Gm. (or 

' '.ird. the aconitine being dissolved in 5.30 dm. (or gr. Ixxs) of 

le hfing rubbed up wtih tlii-fal. Aconitine ointment will often 

lin of chronic rheumatism, gout, and mj'algia. it serves the 

fll=o, in herpes zosii-r, hiilL-ar^' niutit be taken, in thi* affection, 

!v it tit the nlirnsions produced by rupture of the vesicles. The 

,.:uioni Bi**> affotds relief in neuralgia of the »kin, pancflhesia or 

.. papular eczema, and prnri]^. It must never be placed upon a raw 

- control over the circulation places aconite in the first rank in the 
..f the fever process; in manv mibm wc may get the he«t results 
f nn*tional do«w (c^ery ten, fifteen, or twenty minutes, give a tca- 
■ r from a tumbler in which 0.60 to 1 c.cni., or mx-xv, of 
lici-n driipjH'd). This is inrahiable in the treatment of 
.■roi I'l-'vers of childhood and hyperpyrexia attendant upon the 
: a. J " aduIlH the n-sults are also very positive; so that aconite ha* 
ri'Iv lak'-n the place of thi' lancet in the antiphlogistic treatment. 
.wpver, should be abided in typhoid fever or other diecases of 
.irwcter. 
In ihi: trarly •tsjre of innammatoijr pnceaws — pneumonia, jdeuriiy, peri- 



TO 



PHAKMACEUTlCAt TnKRAPBfTlr A0KST8 OS DBCO*. 



rsrrlitU, })cntont1iK. erysipelas, rhvuniatUm, meninj^itis — and in childreB> 
diseuses. it modifies materially Uie severity of llie •jmiplonis rcducn U-in*^ 
peraturo, and moi^tras the ekin. M 

In the treatment of rheiimatir iritifi Dr. Jonathan Hiitohin«>ii rMom-^^ 
mend« the tinclnri.' of tuoiiite in 0.<iO-i-,cni. (or mx) do»c*' three limes a day 
(equivalent to tineiura sconiti, ['.. S. P., O.OS c.cm., or miss), given in com^'^ 
binatioD with iilknJieir aii'l the iodide of polHSsiiim. lie lookfi Upon aconite^ 
aa of service in mitigating the pain of carcinoma. It also serves a useful 

imrpiMc in ncule congestion of the brain. In spasmodic croup aconite rc- 
ieves the dyspntea within a few hours. Aconiti' ha.* been teeommcnded a» 
of Mrricc in relieving the voinitm;; of prcgnuncy. It is asserted that aconite^ 
is an antidote to the sting of the scorpion. fl 

A#thins, especially in chiMrcn, nnd preceded hy cory«i. is jtonerally^ 
lenefited hy ihe use of this remedy. Kinger states that a drop of the tincture, 
vvery hour, i* ui^cfiil in aculi- gonorrhwa. In c«nT;a and ijiiinsy. or aeiiti' 
tonsillitis, it is hi;;hly prized for its influence in shortening the course of 
the ili«'M«'; and it bus al*o been givi.n to uhori or prevent urethral feverS 
after the use of instruments. It affords prompt relief in eongeetive dysmen-B 
orrhtt-a; and in amcnorrlm-u, produced liy i-xjicwiin- in lold, it i* often efli- 
caciotis in re-eatablishing the flow. In facial neuralgia the c-Ttract may lie 
given inlernally, in eombination with ijuinlne and a carminative, vii.: — 

B Rxtnicll Ri^nnitl ,,. 

(juinlTuo bisulpliat. ,i...,'. 

^p«rin 4. ...... >•-.(. 

Dlv. In pil no. xx. 

Sig.: Givi> KDU every tuo IjuurB imttl n-liwed. And ucn on? fvnry four hoa 
■B loag a* needed. 

In migraine, or sick headache, it may be combined trith eannahii 
Indica: — 



125 Gin. or p. ir. 
I Gm. or Sj. 
ISS ISui. or gt. V. 



B Tr. aMHiiti IS e/'iu. «r mIJ. 

Tr. eannabi* [adiMS ., , 1 c.cni- or hixt. 

Tr. cardamom, oo ." ' q. ». ad 4 e.nii. nr I3J. 

M. Par one doM, to tw repeated crcry hour, or two huun. until palirnt 
f«lipved. 

Tincture of aconite will relieve the pain of epididymitis and of othe 
glandular structures, commencing with 0.1$ c.em. for "liij), lo be follrtwe< 
by 0.06 c.em. (or wij) every half-hour until pain is relieved or the heart shows 
its effects by lowered rate and diminished arterial tension. In nervous pal- 

Eitation and overnctinn of a heart somewhat byperlrophiod, and in the to- 
acco-heart. aconite cautiously ii*eil gives niiirii relief. 

Aoonitine should never be given, even in the nnallest dose, where ther« 
is a weak or fntty heart. It was used by Gubler In the treatment of facial 
neuralgia, and Seguin also advocated the crvstaUized aconitiue in trigeminal 
neuralgia, in dos« of 0.0002 lo 0.0002-1 Giii. (or gr. '/mo «r "'jso)> to ^Rin 
with, repeated cautiously, and gradually increased until numbness is felt 
through all the body, with chillinetis and, in some instances, even nausea and 
vomiting. Xapelline has also been used in facial neuralgia in do'Cs of I>.03m 
Or — S3), r<'|«n|i'd everj' two hours until the pain ha* disappeared. ^| 

-w o( aconitf of tlie Itritjili PhBrmu™].i(rin )■ fttily oni!-«evMilh tb* 
Clirni RffHilti Ol t)ie L'allrd Slnloi Fhaniiftcnpo'ln. 




A»BP8. 




Ttsor haa employed the crystallized aconitine nitrate in the treatmeni 
of facial cmipt'liu, imd n,-p»rt:« that i( iilmo«l invuriably diminiehee the 
dmlion of the di£ea^ and prevents the occurrence of conipiicAtionii. It 
ill voy cDCrgulic- mU, but it can hv rt>»dily administered And regiilutcd as 
t^u^ (io« by difisolTing it in a mLxture of distilled water, Klycerin, and 
ilnhal, hftving vxitelly the dcnitlty of dl-'^litlcd waior, ^n tlmt .^.tO c.pni. (or 
•ItemiRin 0.001 tim. (or gr. '/m)- It may. therefon:. be iiwd in the dose 
ttOM^ii dm. (or gr. '/.im): I minim of th« suhition. He iifuoUv adds 
(1(01 Gm. (or ;rr- '/•») of aconitine nitrati- to a mixture, and givw it. in 
MM d'W'*, in Ibc r«urin' of iweniy-four honre. 

Araiitine cannot be regarded othorwti^e thun as u dangerous remedy, 
fi&itbefj) found that the Aase. TarieH greatly in dilTerent tmbjects. 

ADEPS (U. S. P., B. P.).— Lard. 

Preparadims. 

Adlpl* (U.S,P.).— r.-rd-cill. 

IVnziitiuituB (IT. 8.1'.). — B«n«'>irinli.'rl Lniii (Ijen^niu. 3 fxr evnU During 
tA per wnt.. or tnotr, of Ihc Inrd thould bp repluMnj bj- wUitc wax). 
Adfp* |{enjKintu» (K P.). — llviicoftled Lnril ilientolii. 3 per n>nt.). 

Pltumacolo^.^ — Lard is the prepared iniernal fat of the abdomen of 
Swicrofs, Lium'; (clu««, Mammalia; order. Pnchydtrmata), puritU'd by wa»h- 
ag vith water, melting, and otraining. The speciilc gravity of lard is about 
•iJS. Il is entirely rojiible in elhcr. lit-nzin. and disulphidc of carbon. It 
lodli It or near 95° 1". to a clear, eolorletis liquid. Ii consists chemically 
rf fii pt-r cent, of olein, or fluid fat. and 38 ptT cent, of the bard fat*, 
ptlmtin and stearin. The olein may be separated by pressure, or by the 
■(tot Wiling alcoiiol. Thi- salt with whidi il it frc-ijucntly impregnated 
■•» be removed by boiling the lard with twice its weight of water. The 
tmaej to rancidity h obviated bv tin.' ndililidii n( Itonzoln; it may aUo be 
owwioe by digesting the lard witK betanaphiol or poplar-buds. As a coii- 
*nKiil inimal fnt, Isnl is largely ui^t'd in pbnnnacy us tlu- hit*i» of ointini-nta 
■ndcwiles; and in domestic practice it i* universally employed as a lubri- 
cani. By Uie addition of benzoin it i* prevented, not only from becoming 
BKid,t(iit an agreeable odor \s also imparted to it; dehydrated lard is prt^ 
btni vbtrv Uie presence of water i» connidered objectionable. Lard-oil is 
WMrtiiwe used for illuminating purposes. It can be administered, in casua 
•f (nn«rirc poisoning, as an antidote, except where phos])honja or carbolic 
Mid his been Ewallowed. Lard is tin article of food, or, more correctly, it 
lirjelv amptoyed in preparing other articles of food. 

nmpy. — Lard hus more penetrating power than petrolatum or vaitelin, 
uiartiTe agents (such as meicnry op the alkaloids) can be combined with 
It far aibninistmtion by Innnclion. Wasbi-d lard, bcatfn up with an equal 
qiaatity of lime-water, and a few drops of oil of bitter almonds, thymol, or 
•!caib)lic acid added, mak«« an elegant subnitnte for i-nrron-oil us x dress- 
in* hs boms, or for fome acute inflammations of the skin. Stiffened with 
i }ittlr yellow wax, it for:ii.4 thv simple oiniiii<-nt of th<t U. S. V. Tbi* 
pvptntion is well adapted to fulfill the general indications of a fat, and to 
Krr«»an excipicnt for mon- ai'tiie injfrcdienl*. When the secretory func- 
tion' of the sldo are suppressed, inunction with lard serves as a partial sub* 
.for (he natural secretion, softens the hard tiMue. and rcducce its 




n 



PUARJiUOliLTICAL TM>:R.\rSrTIC AOENTS OH ORDOS. 



heat, II ahentliH (he ruirfucc, nnd prevent* the contact of tlie at 
■ir with its floating germs. It leesena or preventB the efTect of ir] 
charges, l^ard anflenit ami rcmovce «cohi. The free uprilicAtion 
oinlmciit ri.'li»v« the intense heat of the skin and ilchinR in scarli 
at the aanie time it tmm in n-flucing the pulsc-ruto and tompcrut| 
body. Inunction k likewise of value in meaeles. It has been cU 
it is useful as an antidote to iitnThnine, and that n dog which 1 
poisonous doxc of strvchnine will recover if given lard freely. \ 

ADEPS lAHM iB, P.) —Purified cholestcrin-fat of sheep's » 

ADEFS LASX HYDEOSUS (l'. S. P., B. P.).— Hydrous Wg 

Lanolin i£ the purified fat of the wool of the sheep, mixed with 
than 30 per cent, of water. 

Pharmacol o^. — la the waehings of wool is found a variety oft 
owing to the presence of cholesterin, combiner readily with mon 
own weight of water; it doee not become rsncid, and resists sapoi 
It is neutral and is a good vehicle for remedies to be used by inu 
it pants readily through ihi' «kin; it ie not adapted as a prot> 
this reason. The sheepy smell of ihe fat is removed by repeated 
and pure lanolin is now obtainable that is nearly odorless. 

Lanolin used as a medicament contains from S5 to 30 per cent, 
which ii not, however, ohc-mioally combined, and is readily scpi 
heat. Anhydrous lanolin is completely soluble in ether, benzol, an 
form; sparingly soluble in stronger alcohol; and insoluble in wnt< 
lied lanolin is of an unctuous, tenacious consistence and whitish c< 
A. Gottstein, of Berlin, has demoDGlraled that lanolin i« indestn 
impermeable by micro-organisms. Its employment may, thereto) 
garded as an aseptic measure. 

Physiolo^cal Action. — Lannlin has a soothing action on it d 
irritable skin. It i? not used internally, but only as an unguent. 

Therapy. — Lanolin la a serviceable dressing in cases of burr 
erysipelas, frost-bites, erythema, and dermatitis. Its property of i 
water, its blanilness and aseptic nature, render it an excellent me 
or base in acute eczema. In chronic ec£cma with intlllration and in 
lanolin softens the skin and favors the action of remedies with whi' 
be combined. Lassar highly recommends it in the treatment of 
contagiosa. When suitably diluted and perfumed, it is an admira 
pomade. It rapidly heats chapped hands and lips, and may Ih' )-pr 
the face before retiring at night in order to soften the skin after ex 
cold and wind. Lanolin, in conjunction with appropriate internnl 
restores the lustre or gloss of the hair when it has been lost in cor 
of systemic disease. It is valuable in the treatment of atrophy of 
and counteracis that dry, harsh condition of the hair which is n 
some individuals. Senile atrophy of the »Vin may he benefited by 
»i»tent and systematic use of lanolin. Inunction with this substan 
of the best means at our disposal for the obliteration of wrinkle*. 
favor* the prup^-r performance of the glandular functions of the i 
is eEBcacious in nnidrosis and comedones. In ichthyosis and sclerc 
£often« the surface of the integument. It is an exceHenl vehicli 
parasiticides made use of in tinea versicolor, tinea favus, and the 
o( tinea triehophytina. It is admirably adapted to sen,'e as an ointm 




ADHATODA .irSTIClA. 



73 



trboIeaU! of miTCury or copper in Ihe troatmcnt of the aSeoUons ftp«ci- 
iA On account of the ready miscibility of lanolin with mercury ana its 
pactnlive power, it i» pfcutiurly Kcrviwablc in the inunction treatment of 
mildlis. In affections of the nasal and genito-urinary tracU Innoltn i« ciften 
(opcil advantaxe combined witli cocainv liydrochlorutc. 

]| is a gooa vehicle for the anodynes — atropine, cocaine, morphine, 
flt— in cues of neuralgia or rheumatic joints. As an ointment alone 
fw the eye, lanolin is too thick, tenacious, and sticky, and to remedy 
tixK defects a combination of 1 part of bcniioiniited lurd to 3 parts of 
Inudia baa been preferred: this makes a fine, smooth oinlmeni, which haa 
Wn found a g^ood vi-htclc for eye oiutnicnts, uiid, even wtonc. is often used 
bi^ly at night to the eyelicU in conjunctivitis and almost all external 
Ulnniutions. lanolin contnining a large i>mporf ion of water i» efFictent in 
nEnms the itehinp which accompanies mcaBles. scarlet fever, and chicken- 
pii. Tlw; ^dtial evaporation of the water produces a cooling efteel upon 
thcikin. In these affections Dr. Klein adds to 31 Gm. {or SJ) of pure an- 
l^diMi lanolin Vi Gm. (or?iij)of va»elin and 18.5 com. (or f3v) of distilled 
win. Liebreich recommends the injection of a lanolin cream into tha 
lowl for till' relief of inflammntion aod erosions of the rectum and hiemor- 
Amis. Lanolin eeems to heighten the efficacy of mtiny of the driigs for 
■JuA it b employed a« an oinlmeiit-basfi. This is especially the case as re- 
jedi cfaiysarooin. Applied upon a bougie it haa been found of advantage 
la lie treatment of gonnrrhnn. 

ADEATODA JUSTICIA.' — Adbatoda vasica, A. gendarussa, or A. 
pBbcteeat. 

PhftrmaeolOfT and ?hyaiolO(ioa! Action. — The leaves of this plant 
il^lwipng to the Acanihact-a?, indigenous to India and neighboring 
■•(>t«ki) have K-en imed irilh assiTted lien(;tlt in piilitionary and catarrhal 
■ftctiocie. It contains an alkaloid. Vasicine, combined with adhatodie 
•cii Hooper found it poisonous, when ii*ed in infusion, to flica, frogs, and 
*llibe smaller organisms, but harmlow to large animals. 

Thotpy. — In asthma. 0.G5 Gni. for gr. x) do*i;s of the powdered 
Imim. giren three times daily, afford great relief, the patient beinfr also 
ftnnitted to smoke the leaves in a pipe, or to inhale the smoke. On ac> 
M«l of it? bacloricidal properties, Dr. H. H. Rusby haa recommended 
die OK r>f adhatods infusion in diphtheria, and it has been suggested tlmt 
it nigbt alw be efficient in typhoid fever, and by inhalation of the spray 
fnmt 1^ atomizer in cases of phthisis and fetid bronchitis. It is proh- 
lUtthal it might tlta b« n«<>ful in infoctiousi dyspepsia due to the abnor- 
wl fermentation of food in the stomach. 

AMHIS VEKHALIS. — False Hellebore, or Pheasant's Eye. is a 
^Dtiial herb {Wlonging 1o the Rnnnnculaccicl, indigenous to Europe, 
wring bright, showy flowers. There are two species, the A. vernalis, 
II«weriBg in May. and the A. nutnmnalis, flowering in September; the 
'nsrr has yellow, the latter red, flowers. 

n^riowgieal Action. — The active principle. AdonJdin, appears to be 
t^iKOcide (ahhongh it has been a.4serted that this is not a simple, bnt a 



"Asiraal 0* the UnivCTial Medical Sciences." 1890, vol. v, p. A-T. 



T4 PHARMACEDTICAL THEBAPECTIC AGENTS OR DBTTOE. 

compound, body, containing picro-adonidin, a slucoside, and other antlo 
tormiiR'd subtftuuvpt;). Adouidin is a vcUowii^h-uliiU-. hygroscopic, bilie 
powder, devoid of odor, soluble in water and alcohol, insoluble in clhct 
cltluroform, and btuzio. Merck hu« ii^olalud n crt^lalHiic principle terinet 
Adonite, which ha^ been shown to be a pentahydric alcohol, converted int 
a eii^ar by oxidatiun. Adonite is very soluble in water and hns a slightly 
swi'i-l taste, hut, lUiording to Kobcrt, has no decided physiological action 

Whether used, ng the pcusunts of l{uii:-in are said to be in the habi 
of doing, a» an iiirii'tion, as the tluiii extrait, or in the forin of adoaidir 
adonis nets upon the heart as n stimulant or cjirdiac tonic, resembling i 
it« action digitalis or strophaiithut'. .Adoni^t i» «nid to increaBt> the arteria 
tension and in lar;;e doses causes diastolic arrest of the heart. In larg 
doR-if the finjt riae i* wicceeded by a decided fall of arterial preSBure, wit 
parnlyais both of the heart and blood-vessels. 

ll is claimed that, in niodernie doocs. adonidin lit devoid of dangc 
from cumulative effect, and that it asreea well with the digestive organ 
Iluehard. however, found in some case*, that It canned vrtmitiilg or Aim 
rha-a. In a case in which 0.20 (ini. (or gr. iij) of adonidin was taken \ 
niistnlcc. vomiting and diarrliij?U were prominent nyiuptomii. The action i 
this drug is very promptly manifested. In accordance with the observ 
tion thai it increases arterial prcKnure, ihcre is dn inoreased ftow of unci 
but adonidin U said to have no effect upon ihe secreting structure of tl 
kidneys. 

Therapy,— 'Internally in cases of mitral or aortic regurgitation it 
claimed to be of great value. In functional irregularity of lh« heari 1 
Cflsla has found much benefit from adonidin (in lioses of 0.003 to O.O 
Gm.. or pr. '/-o-'/a- thrice dnily). In cardiae asthma il also affords n-l i 
to the dy*pnu'n. The iluid exlract (normal) is a good preparation in do«? 
of O.OG to 0.12 c.cm. (or wi-ij) cautiously increased. 

Profoimnr BckhtcrefT hnii observed a favorable influence from th 
addition of adonis vernalis to a bromide solution in the treattueiit c 
epilepsy. The combination which he hac for several years employed is:— 

B Poui*. liromlil 8| to I2( ()ni. or Xil-HJ. ^ 

Tinct. B(!onii 41 ccm. im- fSj. I 

Coilpin)^ sulph ...._. ISO Gm. or itT. Ilj. m 

Aquie '....•>.... H0\ I'.cta, or ESvltj. M 

M. H n. fnl. ■ 

Sig.: Tablnpoonlul fioni four I* eigUt timn n day. ^ 

The tincture of adonis testivalis. nn allied «pecit«, in 0.60 c.eia. (or mx' 
doses three times a day. is reported lo be efficient in reranvinE fatty tiMae 
from the heart and relieving the dyspnina which accom)ianie;i obesity. 



XSCULtrS HIPPOCASTANUM. — Bippooadannm, Hone<cliutnii 
Bark. 

Pbarmacology and Therapy. — The horse-chestnut, .-Esvulii* hippn 
eastanum <IUj*pofa.Blaii.>a'i. 1;^ a large tree cultivated in Europe and Noril 
.■\mericn hi a shade-lrce; its "rigiiinl hwhitat t* unknoMii, The bark con 
•IS tannio acid and two neutral bitter prineipk-s — ^£sculi& and Fnzii 
^ir *dTect# are those of the vogclablo bitters: the bark also ha,* som 
periodic powers. A fluid extract, with dilute alcohol, is the best prej 



^ 



jBTUKK. 



75 



,iIiDD. The iluid extract has been adniinistored jn niulHriul rljsorders and 
iDtunJfu.- sffwtionjj in Ji>»i.'» of 1.20 to 4 e.cm. (or mxx-f3j). ..^i^itculin 
ieciia ihe form of brilliant, white cry^talK iind h mUihiv iii hot n-utcr. 
EvMiiI to have bcoD given vrith gouil result us a suUelitule for quinine 
Inhml fevers, especially of ihc- ri-iiiitti;ril fiirm. 

STEER <V. S. P., R, R).— Ether {Either Fortior., L". 6. V. 1880). 

iTHEB PUaiFICATUS (li. P.).— Purified Ether. 
Sbk, 0.60 to i c.cui. (or mx-six) for repeated ndraiiiii-t ration; for B 
■oiilcidBaiQiflrstioii, 2.40 to 4 cciii. (i>r nixl-lx). 

Prsparationa. 
tXnaa JEthrnatu IV.6.V.). — Ellirn-iil Oil. Euuul rulumn of utbi'r and he«i'V 

Sfiiiuui .-nbcris (U.S.P„ B. P.).— Spirit ot Kthrr. 1>um. O.HO to E cem. inr 

^^Sfifitw AUhnit ConilHMituH ir.S.l'.. B. R).— CompounU 8|uTil of Kther. or 
'MTBiaa'a Auodriw iL'. S. I'.. muipuiMil of fthri'. Sib v.mi.'. hU'oIiuI. iloO c.oin.i hikI 
*- mOtmtm, 2i c.tm.l. Dow. O.lVi Ii> -X im-ih. (or mv-xxxt. 

^^ i»lrilii« .'t:ihtTi4 }t'ilruii (f.S.ir, II. P.I.— S|Hril of Nitrous Ktb«r, of 8wwt 

Tfc^ot Nit(*. Doic. ^ to 4 can. <ot Rm-j). 

n*nBtCQlog7. — Ether is a liquid composed of about 96 per ceut.. by 
^^l, of abaoliit^ ether, or ethyl-oxide, and about •) per cent, of alcohol. 
Mining a little water. "A volatile liquid prepared from ethjlio alcohol 
niersdion with sulphuric acid. It conlains not less than V'i per ci'iit. 
toliime of ethyl-oxide. It was formerly termed sulphuric ether" (B. P.), 
" ether i*: '"ether from whieh most of tlie ethylic akohol has been 
itfd by washing' with distilled water and moat of the water by sub- 
1 distillnt-ion in the presence of caleium chloride and reeently-pre- 
■•rrf lime" (B. P.). It is a thin, very diffusive, clear and colorless liquid, 
*ilh 1 rrfredhing, cbaneteriRtic odor, a burning ami cweelish lajite, after- 
^••t^dightly bitter, with a neutral reaction. It is soluble in all proportions 
ia ilrohol. ehloroform, bi'mud, bciutin, fixed and volatiU' oils; dissolves in 
•liMHen tiroes its volume of wnttr at 59" I-'., and it boils at 98.G° F. It it 
^ aitnunable, and its vapor, mixed with air and ignited, explodes vio- 
wh. The vapor is slightly irritating to the conjunctivsc. and at first to 
^Immehial inucou* membrane. 

ftynologioftl Aotioa.^AVhen cth«r i* ponred over the skin it cvapo- 
'We w quielily that a sensation of eold is experienced, and when its applica- 
'Wistoatinueil, as with the atomiiier, the temperature of the part i* lowered 
n'ttnajbe frozen, which is announced by sudden blanching of the skin. 
VW Ihe escape of the vn|ii>r iii prevented ether acts lu a cuunlcr-irrilant, 
Bnmg Rddening; even vesication may be produced. 

When taken internally, ether is a dilTu«ible »lTmulniit. resembling nlco- 

^ in its effects, which, although manifested earlier after ether, are more 

Imaitory. When introduced into the cireiil.ilion. by alwirption from Ihe 

ifiimncli or the rectum, by inhalation, or bypodermically, it is found terapo- 

< iDorrsi'e nrleriul K-nsion and ittiA us a cardiiu- stimulant, the heart 

■ L- TO beat after failure of respiration. In tbe*e respects it is antag- 

'rurorm, which loweni artciiiil ]in's.iMri- and i* » cardiac fedolive. 

-tajwr IB inhaled pure, while chiorotonu-vapor must he combined with 




76 



I'UAItHACEI-'TICAL TUEBArEmC AGENTS OB DRUaS.1 



95 to 97 pfirts of atmospheric nir. Upon tlio ncrve-tcntrc* ethi 
much like nlcoliol, Dlfocting (1) the cerebnim: (S) the eenaory. an 
motor, functions of the »pinnl cord; (3) ihe sensory centre* in tl 
oblon^aln; siiil (4) finally the motor centres in the medulla. K« 
a decided increase in tho nnioimt of indicau excreted after cthi 
the tifc of itie oncomelor di-monflrated a special eontraetion of th< 
of the kidney, and danin^'o to the nepretory cell*. Therefore th 
of nllitimiiuiria or piilmonnry wdema is iisualt]? legarded as « 
contra-indication to its use. 

The State of Anestheiia. — Ann-Ethi-^iB produced bj the inl 
ether-vapor, when coinplule, nearly approximatei' the state of cot 
proiicJics hy wcll-dfrined stages, the first being one of e.xcitemen 
aration; the second h narcosis; the third i* abolition of ^ens 
reflexes, ttnd, eniried further, it ends in paralysis and death frori 
respiration, owing to paralysis of the (i-ntr*"* in the medulla oblon 
ner\x-c'en tres are iiffectcd in the fo!lowin<r order; The hipher cec 
brain, the motor and sensory centre* in the niednlln «pinaliiL 
mately. the ecnsorj' and motor centres of the medulla oblongtia. ' 
of ether is at the bej^nning of Ihe inhalation irritating to the a[ 
and may cause strangling ».>nsatians to the patient, but this soon | 
as ansetheeia becomes established; it may be noceiisary, at the 
allow some admixture of uii-, so as not to frighten the patient, \ 
as may be possible the pure ether-vapor is to be administered, ec 
vent efTortB at vomiting. Owing to this irritation of the bronch 
membrane, there may be produced congestion or wdema of the I 
cially wlion the patient la not kept warm dnring the operation, or ; 
may follow. 

The presence of bronchitis contra-indicates the use of ethei 
ing to the obscnation of Poppert, (cdemft of the lungs is the fp 
mediate eanse of death from ether, and is due to the toxic inflw 
nDfeslhctic. Senger draw* attention to the danger of cerebral h 
during ether-narcosis, in patients suffering from arteriosclerosii 
operations upon the mouth, and pnrlitiilnrly in the extmotion of 
blood running down the throat may cause asphyxia. A few "don 
be borne in mind when adniinistirring itber:— 

1. Don't give it to a patient whose kidneys are diseased. 
S. Don't give it when the jitoniacb contains undigested fofl 
tient should be fasting for at least four hours, if possible. 

3. Don't give it without removing arlificinl teeth from 1 
which are liable to fall into the throat. 

4. Don't give it unb-sa tht clothing is bo loose as to allow 
respiration. 

5. Don't give it when the pleural cavity is full of fluid. 

6. Don't give any ana-sthetic to women, especiully young i 
eept in the presence of witnesses, who can testify as to your acti 
the period of unconsciousness of the patipnt. as under such ein 
women sometimes acquire fixed delusions which can only be vu 
mony absolutely proring their falsity. 

7. Don't forget that etlier-rapor and air make an inl 



'JTw rort .VwMcal Jnum^l. N'ov., IftflH. 




.ICTKKIl. 



3lMi«e mixture, out! that ether niay lake lire from the actual cautery as 
i w Irom » candle. 
8. Don't forget that there are different qualities of ether, and that 
IJud for surj^tcfl] {iiiri>o<ie« i« the otTicial ether of the best make. 
• ;i't forgot thnt ctht-r, like alcohol, lowent lemperaturc, ami that 
jtr f>«t)Tj:>t should not lie too much exposi'd to cold diirin<; operation. 

10. IMn't forgvt thiit i-ther ouiises death by respiratory failure, and 
the t-olor »f the lipe and ears i» a better guide to the stale of the blood 
lh« rmdiat pul*v 

11. Don't fori;et that the an«sth«lie aiate le a «iate of danger, and the 
|ttWsi u not Mff until the vfTt-cte of the ether hare entirely passed olT. 

13. Don't for^jet that ether is eliminated rather slowly bv the lungs and 
&t kidney»: ao the patient ohould be watched for several hours after the 
•fatBististion. 

Ihe Choice of AnswthetioB.— The aiw<tl»-tie agent should be suited lo 

(keopersiiiJD and lo lllel'i^cunl^lance3 of each ca.'ie. For maity triviiil oporn- 

tma. or tJtioae which are rapidly jHTformed, pure nitrous-oxide gas is siifli- 

<rVs: and moch safer than the others. In young children chlorofonn-vnpor 

r of administration than other, and comparatively free from danger 

■ -Triy administered, ll also is preferred where the actual cuulery 

I, or wherl^ lightx are Te«iuirifi »i-ar the pativnt. In midwifery 

fQLticv i\ also is the preferred ans^thetjc, For all ordinary cases ether is 

•ftr than chlorofonn, and ii> by far the mo»t frequently used. 

iblu pajMT has been published by Dr. Julliard.' of Geneva, upon 

■ naifty of ether and irhloroftirm. I'rom the record* of several 

thousand adminii^t rat ions of ether and chloroform it was shown 

the ranrtality from the latter is from four to five times greater than 

kaa ethrr. Molliylonc birliloridc ha# boon tried in Knxluiid to ttomc extent, 

' ''v sold it appears to be merely an alcoholic solution of cfaloro- 

<;omide l* of more recent introduction, and when pure 
»eii :or short operations, but docs not Have decided ad%-antages 
tb« b>f«t ether, exoopt in having a slightly more agreeable odor. For a 
nn it is well to precede the onipsthetic by the adniini drat ion 
-<i c.cm. (or fSii-iv) of whisky. In a similar inunnor an hvjw 
n of morphine 0.015 Gm. (or gr. '/,) and atropine O.0D05 Cm. 
: iiy lic given before operating (NusubatimV nicthnd). Various 
anesthetics hate been proposed, the best known being the A. C. 
of the I.ondon hospitals, containing alcohol, 1; chloroform, 2; 
ctber, 3 parts; but, owinp to the different density and varjnng rates of 
mm. it It impxKniblo to tell just how muoh of each is i>eing given; Ihere- 
ihca* mixinres are not rcoommended. Gurlt finds that when a mixture 
^aU vas m«d thv proportion of accidents from asphyxia was greater 
vboi chloroform alone was employed. By the use of an inhaler, ether- 
nixed vilh oxygi'D can Ih- adniini-ilered. the fiait passing through a 
coataining the ether; by this method asphyxia is nvoide<l and 
tma ufetT set^iired. 

Wberv a |uitient dulikrs ether, or takes it badly, the adminial ration may 
^Biiii , sitb nitrous oxide and ether substituted later, or it may be pre- 
^Ad kr a few wbifls of chloroform. Dr. A. Diax de LiatVo has invented an 



^TlHL 



MMteclr 4r (• SwlMT Rtmuitif, Febi, IWl. 



rs 



■■UjHIUACKUHCAL rilHRAriEt'TIC AGENTS OK DRCUSi 



apparatus by means of which ether can be mImtnUteTvil at a Imi 
8ri° F.. and claiinit that liv liii; methoi] the dieadvantages both d 
and chtoroform are obviated. Jt is claimed by soDie cliniciutis tl 
Itmiiiarv appliciition of cocninv «ohition to the Dtisal mucoua met 
vculfl irritaiion, and the unpleasant after-eflecti are, to a large' 
vented. 

The production of aurjeicnl anteath«'sia by abiwrption of 
from the miicona of the rectum wa« advocnicd bv Pirogoff in 18 
prominently called to ihe attention of the pro'fet»i»n by .\xel 
Copenhagen, and Daniel Mol!i*rc, of Lyons. More recently, 9 
Ihe Sheffield Hospital, made a plea for thiii method. It i.« acoo] 
attnching to a rectal tube ■ rubber pipe connected with a buttle, 
with ether, which ia placed in a bucket containing warm vraler. ' 
of trrilalion of air-pasaage*, struggling. Hnd vomiting by this t 
gesls its adoption in suitable cases. On the other hand, it \i slo 
requiring from five to thirty-five miiiuten. and it may be ncce^au 
ment it by ordinary inhalation. At least two deauis have be^ 
rectal etherization. In another caite, death resulted from rul 
intestine at the site of an old cicatrix from an ulcer which yi: 
prcwure of Ihe vapor. Caldcron* believes ether-narcosi* bv th 
be of special service for surgical operations about the hea(I, a] 
mastoid operation done «uccew<fu]lv upon a child wiih it» aid. 

What is called "primary amestWia" occurs early in the ad 
of the ether, at the time whi-ii nnrcoftis iK^^ins. During this i 
is very brief, small operations, incisions, punctures, etc., may bi 
out waiting for completft nnn?sthesia. In order to ascertain whi 
the patient is directed to extend one of hi» arms pcrpL-udiciilarly 
to hold it up as long as he can. At the moment when narcod 
arm falls, wriich is the sigual for the operator to cut and for t 
[ration of elher to cease. The patient regains consciousness t 
generally there is no vomiting or other ill effects. 

Treatment for Toxic Effects. — When a patient appears i 
rhythmical traction upon the tnngiic liy Laborde's method, a 
pirfllion, inhalation of ammonia, slupping the expnsed surface 
with wet towels, and the application of the faradic current to tl 
region will usually restore him. Rubbing the body so as to ke«] 
culation, or the use of slimutnting enemata, ia also of service. O: 
be administered, or a mixture of osygcn and nitrogen monoxide 
amy! nitrite cautiously inhaled so as to flush the brain and medu 
with blood. Nitroglycerin, 0.0006 Gm. (or gr. '/„o), may be gil 
mieally. 

Ill Effects of Ether. — The unpleasant results which somoi 
the administration of ether, such as nau^t-a and vomiting, may 
by giving the patient a eup or two of either strong, hot coffee o 
states that often the bud elTeel* of ether may be avoided by i 
keeping Ihe eyelids closed for a time after regaining consciotisn« 
dieting the use of water, cither to waiih out the mouth or to dr 
planalion he wtales that he has obsen'cd, in many cases after 



• (^uarlrrlv UniUytl Juurnal, Sheffield. Jan. 18, 1896. 
'Paeifle J/frfhwI Journal, Murch, 1900. 




.ETHER. 



79 



fif opcntion*, *$p«i«lly in extrneting tcetli, nausea and voraitinR follow 
ban Ui« eiDplo3mient of wat«r. In IJie event of nausea, Toiiitting, or evtii 
nlMAilnc«« #ui>enening. Dr. Dorr iKiminisfi-r* almnt l.iiu Gin. (or gr, xxv) 
ttpMudum bromide in sirong eoBee. At times the eame authority give« 
hoiBi few minima to -1 c.ciu. (or f3j) of coinii'mni^ sjiint of cihor in water. 

The author can nbo commend sodium bromide (1 to 1.30 Gm., or gr. 
iMi, in eoda-watcr, todn^miiit-wKtrT, or eiiiniimou -water), eemphor- water, 
iW iromaiie spirit of ammonia, caffeine citrate or hydrobroniate (0.085 to 
WiGm., orgr. i-iv, at » dun-), tiiir.tvin' of coii*icuiii (U.fiO to I. So c.cm,. or 
"HI. SI a dose), or thf elTervoscent salts of sodium or caffeine bromide, all 
(<thH« being Mpccially tiiitabk- for the treulment of the iI1 i-tTi'cts fntlowing 
;k(idministraiion of ether. In order to control hiccough and vomiting 
im^iitmtlH-ftii, Dr, Hiriinnl Jim* i* in the biibil of making di);iiat com- 
poBon of ihe phrenic and vagus nenea against ihe sternal end of the clav- 
iiJf. He states that, af a nilc. vomiting immwl lately ci'a*p»- The jirowure 
iinetiniied for a few moments in order to prevent a return of the sickness. 
y Fittimck SilkV concliisions on "cthiT pneumonia" arc: 1. Klher in- 
Uition ia only one of the minor exciting cnui*es of croupous pneumonia. 
Tlieitimulaiing properties of the vapor may even help to ward olT an attack. 
i. CitHrrh&l conditions of ihe mucou.* mi-mbrane of the air-passages are uni- 
wbI under ethi-r. and their tendency is to subside on withdrawing the 
npir. In a small proportion of cases, however, an inflammatory condition 
■ produced, and the patient's life is in jeopardy. Other concomitant cuukos 
«i!i then generally be found at work: e.if., cold and exposure, 3. To limit 
dit tenilencT, careful priKmutions will usually suffice, eepocially in tlie direc- 
ti» of sToi^ing esposme, cold, and draughts. 

Therapy. — Ether may be nawl locally for its refrigerating or detergent 
•fat before a surgical operation. It dissolves fat from the skin, and is ap- 
FU to wash the surface after ii»ing soap. The ether-ijirtiy may be used 
hbtnamb a part of the skin before making an incision: and. in thorca, 
lAn^nv hit Wen applied to the npine with good results. The ether- 
■JOJ IS also often very serviceable in allaying the puin of neuralgia, espe- 
filly irhen seated in a smpertlcial structure. Tlie ether i» directed immedi- 
Bdj upon the course of the aching nerve. Sir James Sawj'cr points out 
tte etbcr i* the best menstruum for the Kohition of many remedies to be 
■d upon the skin. Ether is a good solvent of the active principle* of 
ttn drugs and also of sebaceous matter. It may be used as a menstruum 
If nuking ethereal tinctures or liniments. In strangulated hernia, 'iO to 
•tan. (or fji-ij) of eiher may be sprayed upon the tnmor, as successfully 
aajloyed by Finklestein* and GusseDbauer, or allowed to fall upon the sur- 
btt imp by drop^ 

Dr. Charles K. Iluphes. of St. Louis, has had good effect from lavement 
wb «ther for the relief of pain: thus, in severe headache he hat poured 
•ftwoo the scalp freely with prompt cure. . 

A ate in which a fistula remained after an operation for cholecystot- 
•ojW recently been described by Dr. John W. Walker. Seven months 
hkt a {tone again entered the duct and was dissolved by a mixture of cijual 



•PtartdioiMT. Marrh. IflOO. 

"Tnalmrnt c^ SlmicutaI«(I Brraiti br Applkations of Ether, after tli* Method 
llUdiOna,' fMsrtfe UMimIe de Slmttwurj), No. 3, March 1, 1806. 




80 



PUAItMACBmCAi, THEIUPECTIC AGENTS OB DBUOS. 



parts of ether and glycerin placed in a small ^lass tube cttsohcd to a n'riiige, 
tlu' tube pro**«d directly upon the stont; and the ether-glycerin injected drop 
by drop. 

Ethcn'til propBrnlitjii* may be used inttrnally for liysteria. colic, and lb( 
passage of biliary or renal calculi. Durand'.t remedy for gall-iitoncs u (uiiul 
pfirts of filler and tiirpeuliiie-oil, givun a li-UKpoonful ut a doee. 

Kther is a diffusible slinuUaut, and can be used hypoderniically in liMtt' 
fniUirc (1 ail to 2 ccm,. or m\x-xx.x). Taken with wster or syrup (S lu i 
cum., or foas-j), it affords relief in flatulence, spasmodic asthnui, or colic 
It has «milur cfluels to tliusv of alcohol, and n habit of cthcr-drtjiking:' lia 
in like manner been established in same persons (ahhoup;h the odor of thi 
breath plainly announces to others the fact that it has been taken), but it 
effects are more transitory than those of aleohoi. 

The internal administration of ether iE capable of relieving mild attack 
of an>:iiiii pectoris. It is a good plan to combine O.tiO lo 1.20 c.cm. (o 
mx-o) of ether with codlivcr-oil when the latter subi-tance is not well boro( 
Klher racilitatt-tt the digestion and absorption of the oil, iinibabiy by inere* 
ing the secretion of pancreatic fluid. Hoffmann's anodyne in 2 c.em. (<: 
(oBs) doses is usitfn! in sick headache. The hypodermic injection of from 
to S c.cm. (or /nxv-foe*) of ether in the neighljorhocd of the atTcctcd nen 
ha» proved of value in sciatica, gastralgia, and various forms of rhtMimai 
neuralgia. Itarth obtained very excellent results in typhoid pneumonia froi 
tliot: nubiulani'ous injections of <-)her. The injwtionji nen.- given from t» 
to four times daily, and were followed by notable increas^e in the sirenfc' 
and votuiric of the pulse. Castel rejiorU favorably of thi- winie method 
sm«ll-po\. AftiT puerperal, pulmonary, or other severe hsemorrhage ctli 
thrown undiT the skin stiinulatea th*' heart and may avert faiul syiiciipc.^ 

The following combinations of ether will be found serviceable: — 

ft Spt. R'tberi^ corop 00 c.eui. or f3>j. 

Tlnpl. capdci 4 c.cm, or fJf. 

SpL ammnit- arnm ,,>... 1'2 2S e.cni. nr laee. 

Aqun sodw iiientli BO c.um. or tSij- 

M. Sig.; A tcnspoonful in wnt*r rvrry (frw mimilM uniil iriipved. Thin p 
wrlplion is egpecinlly iiwfiil [n tlii- Iri'ntoieiil ot tyiirojie, llatiilenee. and aen-oV* 
hyilcriciil puruxjBiDB, 



t 



B ^vt. telliiTiB cninp., 
Elix. hipulini. 

Tinrt, valerian, ammnn an 90[ c.cm. or fSJ. 

M, Sig.; Two tcHBpofiuful* in unttr t-very lirin-n or tweiily mioutn. For ^' 
tci'iu and ncrvoiu niclt hcadachf. ni-urmtliniin, angina pectoris, and ■pniinndir ■»(■>' 

The diagnostic use of ether is resorted to very frequently in suffterj^ 
order to examine fraotnres, explore cavities for morbid growth* or forc> 
bodies, and to detect malingerini;. Knieriion E, Sutton has suggested * 
fm(doynient of ether-vapor, in place of hydrogen in Senn's method of ^ 
termining the presence of perforations in the intestines, after laparoto. 
for gnnsbot wounds.* 




1 



'itrrfntinji: adilTCM tm "Ktlier- drinking, its Prvvalcnc* and Rnraita." ^J 
dciinrr'-d iR-fi'i* liii" Snoitly for (he .''tiidy and Cun; of In^hrfely, •■ 
Vrdinll Jouruai. Nov. 1. 1890. 

•I" anxrimii Mrdliiil .Umciattoii . .tiily 23. 18118. 




Spiritui ^therii CompiMitiis (V. S. P.. B. P.). — In hj'steria, flatulent 
n'it.iud iifrviiii:iiii-iMt tliU *oliititm iii niin-li iu ilc-mAiii]. Compound Bpirit 
if oiler is likewise T«ry wn'iceabJe in the treatment of hiccough, riineliuiinl 
plnniion ut Ihv heart, or «jraci>ue. It will uftcii iilTord rHief in gastnlgia, 
gnvin somelimefi prove of marked benefit in angina pectoris. 

It is a diffusible Mimulant nud nnliMpiixui'idic. 

The (oUowiog formula?, coutaimng compound spirit of ether, are use- 

BSedii bicwbonsiiit if, Uin. or 3iss. 

^L ammoii. atnllL, 

iWt. ijfi)cib«iis aa 4 ccm. or IS'f, 

tfitita* Ktberii camp I20| r.cta. or fS>v. 

It Si;-: Two t«ispoonfula in water fur hj'iWria or llatulenc«. Kepvat wli*ii 



K Spirituf atlicria Mmp^ 

\ ini tone »a 60| p.ciu. or (Jij. 

V. Kg.: Fram oo^balt to a Uble»pomiful In «'at4-r i-virv hour or two ■* a 

Sfiritai Mtkttis Nitrwi (U. S. P.. B. P.). spirit of nitron.^ othi-r, 
^pnlarlr known an swei'l npirit of nitre, ii* an alcohoHo solution of ethyl- 
litritt'. yielilin^, when freshly prepared and letited in n uitromiler, not 
lestt tban eleven times its own volume of nitrogen dioxide. It is made bv 
the ittion of mlphuric acid upon eodium nitrite nnd deodorized aleohol. 
r'poD the human system it aou as a diaphoretic nnd diuretic, the ethyl- 
nitrite Wing a fcdalirc to the circulation, fspt'cinlly when fever is prevent, 
rhepharmadipipia.^ direct that it should he kept in emali, glass-stoppered 
BObln, in a dark plai-e remote from lights or fir«. Vory much of the sjiiril 
Bf nittDOs ether dispensed is deficient in strength, and has become acid 
f^xnoip;. Wlivn this has occurred it should not be used. The low of the 
Kttrl-nitrite is prevented, to a large extent, by a combination with an alkali 
or tamonia acetate or citrate. When good, it renders excellent service as 
Anmic, espeoially in scanty secretion of urine in elderly people. 

Kitroua titlier rcsK^mblva the othvr nitrites in iU sedative i'ITi>ct8 upon 

*h« !Tstem, but its action is overcome or modified in this form by the com- 

pamively larp' quantity of alcohol accompanying \i. which wally make* 

th»(jMn't of nitrous ether a dilTusible stimulant. For this reason ^Vliitk 

•■pKially commcndK it in thv dn)p«y of debilitated subjects. In fever it 

Jttii be given in cold water or lemonade, or in combination with other reme- 

ditE.u aconite or Tcralrum viridc-. It aetii upon the skin as well as upon 

tilt firculaiion, and reduces the temperature. It is useful, above alt, in the 

IcWile tlTrctions of infimcy nnd childhood. It enters into Brown mixture 

0(i«. glycyrrhizK co.), of which it constitutes 3 purts in 100, forming a 

V¥^ rraw-dy for acute bronehitia. 

Spirit of nitrous ether can be employed in the following comhiuations 
Tft Mvantagi-: — 

K Spirilna »ihrt\a aitr<aj. 
A^VB Mnphon*. 

til). •lamon. acrUtin , •■ nOI com. or ffij. 

Aitimaaii tt pntauii tart |OSS Gm. or gr. ^ 

Uc«thlBM fulplMil* |a? Gtn. nr gr. «•. 

IL Si|!.i A taU««p<M)4ititl In water eveiy hour or two until nlicvrd. For acut« 
"'■UUi. mmU tWumatimi, and In fcrtra. , 



82 



PRARUACEDTICAL TBCRAPEVTIC AOEXTS OR DRCOS. 



B Splrllua «lherl» nltrotl, 

Dtx- huiDuli, 

Syr. Inetucurii a» flO| com. ot 

U. Slg.: From a half to • UblMpooaful cvvry hour wh«a unable to • 
icuble in ituomuiB, K«:ii«ral imrrouuicu, and driiility. 1 

a:THER ACETICUS (l". S. P., B. P.).— Acetic Ether. I 

Doie, initrnalij, l».60 to 2 c.cm. (or mx-xxx), 

Aevtic iftlior is & liquid compotn.-'il ot about 98.5 per cent., I 
of etbyl-acetate (C^«C,jI,0,) and about 1.5 per cent, of alcoho 
ing a little wuter (U. S. P.). It i» i^ulublc in o put! of wtlar (■ 
and mixes in all proportions with alcohol, ether, chlorofonn, am 
volatili: oiU. U enters into culogiu' tinil tinctiir** of ft-rric acotut' 
fiimilar effects upon ihe sy^lein \o ethvl-oxide. and also can be ut 
lialutiun ai^ an ann'.'llu'lio, but is i-loMcr in Us action. 

Accordin)^ to the experiments of Krautwig on rabbits, model 
titJes of acetic ether greatly incrva«G the respiratory capacity, the t 
menting in proportion to the dose. There was no influence from 
quantities upon the hlood>pres#UTe and no ill cllectii upon the h 
halation of the vapor of acetic ether allays laryngeal and oroncbial 
In n<.TVQU8 cough aUu it may be u^cd with good elTect. It it r^ 
irritating to the skin than ordinary ether. I 



£TH£K CHLORICnS.— Chloric Ether, or Ethyl Chloride. 

Ethyl chloride jk it loinrle** lluid of an ethereal odor, and be 
i\ It produces local anivetliesifl by its freezing effect. The 6k 
reddened, after which it hccouiei* perfectly white, and a snow-w 
ing fonns upon its surface. Ethyl chloride is put up in hcrmeticH 
plnKS tubes tontiiining D.-jri c.cni. (or (Sitw). one rud beiiif: drawn 
fine point. When this is broken otf the heat of the opcrut' 
projects a line spray upon thi' surface lo be nnjeslhctJ/'-d. Kihy 
naa been used euccessfully to allay the pain of neuralgia, luml 
nitgraiue. It hm uUo been found serviceable in minor surgery 
tistry. 

[Ethyl chloride niU(!t not be eonfouiided with Spiritug Ch 
{flpo Chloroformnm). which by the Uritiah Pharmacopeia ia d 
"Chloric Ether," or "Spirit of' Chloric Etlicr."] 

JETHEB HYDRIODICUS,- Hydriodic Ether, or Ethyl lodi 

This is MTV iitiJilogouti 111 I'llivl bromide, iodine nicn-ly repi 
bromine. It can be administered from a vial in drops on a han 
or by gelatin capsules containing 0..10 ccm, (or mv) t'ai'h. It ia 
for producing aniesthcsia. but may be cautiously inhaled for syph 
chilis, phthisis-, ealnrrh, whoopinji-roiigh, usthmii, nr olhi-r spttst 
orders. Dose, 0.3 to 1.3 c.rm. lor mv-x.\), by inhalation. 

JS-TEtS. HTDaOSEOMICUS. — Hydrobromio Ether, or E 
mide. 

Fharmaoology. — This liquid has rathi-r a pli-ariant odor and 
taste. When pure it is colorless, volatile, non-inflammable, and 
ether or chloroform in its effects when taken intemallv or bv ii 



A 



JETIIKR UYUItOIiROUICrii. 



63 



btftety slightly soluble in water, bat freely soluble in ali?o)iol and ether, 
dfanfoun and oil. Air ami tuoiifluri.- c-unsc it^ decomposilioQ. Under 
iknAnence of li^ht tht> bromine gradually sc'ijaralp!«, oaii^ing disoolorii- 
an ot tile ethyl, when it becomes unfit for u»-, owing to ihe poisonous 
tiMUof brotiiiue. (It muiit not be eoufounded with Ethylene Bromide.) 
Ili«l»py. — For anesthesia, the pure ethyl bromide only ebouid be 
wi. It daiigvrous *yniptoni*. even fatal renull*, have been aiicribud 1o 
cWnie of impure preparatious. It is thought that some, at least, of the 
tiultfl£«« may have bucn (■»n«cd by the yinployniont of ethylene bromide 
nmistake for ethyl bromide. An easily applied test for the purity of ethyl 
knzoidc ii given by StenibtTg: if a drop of ethyl hroniidu hv Id fall in a 
lolation of potassium iodide 3 centimetres (about 1 '/, inches} deep, it 
limiild teach the bottom without bfiiigiolortd viob.-t. In ex|H'ririient» upim 
uimtli tthyl bromide ban generally proved fatal bv arrest of respiration, 
KfcUrr, however, has reported a case in which death ooounvd from a 
nikn rfjisation of ihe heart'-s action. Chemical examination demon- 
ilnl«d that a pure sample had been employed. In other cn«cs. which did 
oot iKiiiiinale falally. the inhalation of ethyl bromide occasioned nausea, 
Twiitiiig. collapse, spasm of the glottis, cyanosis of the face, or other di«- 
Intao): symptoniK. In i^ome iiiKlanct'» irrilnbility of tin- stomach, loss of 
ippHile, and prostration continued for days after the amesthetic had been 
pwn. 

!■ dosage, it stands between ether and chloroform, and probably 
mofies the same relative position with regnrd to safety. It* cbarai-tor- 
itbc eSeclf. when inhaled, are the rapid approach of anEsthcsia, its brief 
Jnntiat). and the rapid return of consciousness. It is, canswiuently, ill 
•fapted for use in prolonged operations, li^ien sprayed upon a part it 
fmwet local auiesthesia. It may he inhaled in epilepsy, chorea, and 
atUr««gmodic diseases (about 4 c.cm., or foj, at a time), lleing unin- 
luwile and not unpleasant, it may be used instead of ether for minor 
Mnktl operations. One advantage which ethyl bromide possesses is that 
it itti not irritate the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract. 
Ibvmt is not appropriate for use in the reduction of fractures and dis- 
botiwis. ac it is liable to e.vcite muscular spasm. It is unsafe in the case 
«f Jmakarde and those sufTering from disease of the kidneys, heart, or 

From * Kiies of experiments relative to the action of ethyl bromide, 
I- ttoinzbonrg coucludcs that small (luautitics produce narcosis without 
»5tvlinjr artfriai pn'usurf. Ijirge amounts diminish blood-prfsxun- by 
■ng the peripheral vasomotor constrictor system. It is without 
ijion tbi- ('■■niral vaw>molor dilator sysliiri or upon the vagi, Toxic 
i»w disturb the action of the heart, but, as a rule, produce arrest of respi- 
ntiaB before that "f the bearl. The saine precanlions should be taken 
■ «diainuitering ethyl bromide as when giving chloroform. 

CotyL— Pnder this name a mixture of methyl chloride and ethyl chlo- 
ridr haa be<>ii employed as a local amesthetic in dentistry and minor sur- 
gOT. Though it doi-s not produce a* much cold ns methyl chloride, it has 
the adrantage of l)ejng a fluid at 33' ¥., while the latter boiU at a much 
iwer temperattit*- 

Ethylene Bromide. — This fluid has at first a sweetish and »ubsc- 
ifWBiIy a burning taste, and an odor which resembles that of chloroform. 



S4* PUAJtUACBUIICAL TUBHAFBUTIC AQBXT6 OB DBUG8. 

It clissaltes ID water and mixea with oil or alcohol. Kthylenv broniiile 
bi'cu usfd with Kuccui^ in ti iiiimb(.-r of vxaes of epilepsy h« n «ubslitutc 
potn^Aium hroiiiiilc. Tlit> than fur ndiiU.^ is fnnn D.IK to U.5 nxm. (or m 
viij) thrice daily, and can he jn'adually and cautioui^ly increased to 2 vj 
(or fow) two <ir tlirce linn-* a day. It ((in hi- adiiiiiii»iiTt?ii in wint or 
capeules. It is never used by inliaUtion. It contains 90.9 per cen 
bromine. 



1 



£THER VALEEIANICUS.— Valerianic Ether. 

Pharmaeolo^ and Therapy. — Valerianic ether, or the ethylic Pl 
of iHo-vaii-riuiiii: iicid, \» n loIorU-.'iA Huid, liiivln^ an odor rt-Hcmbltn^ thai 
valerian. It is a less volatile fluid than ordinary ether. The dose of vbI< 
anie ethor i* 0.12 c.cin. (or niij), Imt in pracliic It i« found |)referable 
dilute it with sulphuric ether, and it is thus prepared and put up in avla 
cansuk-it by M. Vin], each lapitiili- cimtiiining hIkiui 4 ilrnixt. VaWria 
ether is a serviceable remedy in dysnienorrho-'a, nervous headache and 
citemeut, asthma and other spasmodic dii-orders. neural^d. and nent 
vomiting. It is of advantage in mania a potu. by controlling arterial I 
nervous exciU-UK'nt and tremor. In periodic hay fever Dr. J. P. Chi 
man, of Allentown, I'a., found it decidedly uftcfuL' 




AOARICTTS ALBUS.— Forging Agaric. (Polypom^ officinalis, Bol« 
larieis: order. Ba»idiomycetes. Hyiniinunyeeles.) The European In 
haiii a fungus whieh grawi^ in large, hoof-shnju-d ma^st^it horkontally fi 
the trunk, and penetrates, with its mycelium, deeply into the wood. ' 
massefl are coIIi^oIimI in l!!nni|)e and .Aniii Miixir, and. aficr pi-i-iing ' 
drying, they form yellowish-white, friable, spongy, irregular balls, fi 
the me of an orange up In that of a cocon-nni. I| hai> a h<-«vy. fuiif 
like odor; a sweetish, followed by a bitter, nauseou§ taste: and ile pow 
is irritnting to eyes and nose. It largely e.on*i*t« ot rcsinoui' maB 
Agarioin. In doses of 0.G5 Qm. (or gr. x) or more it acts as a purgati 
in finall doKi.'« in toiiie and anhydrotii-. I 

Fhysiological Action.^ln small doses (0.065 to 0.32 Om., or gr. 1 
agHricMi mis like utrnpinr. liiil d«e» not dilate ihe pupil, II i« a ct)mpOt 
body, the active principle of which is termed agarieic acid. Hoffmeister I 
shown that the subslam-e iniJiilly employed under the name "( agariein 
agaric acid is an impure product. Pure agaric acid is a white, light, cr 
talline powder, of a silky luKtre. It erytlallixes out of absolute alcohol 
groups of tuft-like needles or as distinct rosette-i. Its melting-noint 
138' C. (2S0.I' F.). The free aeid it but slightly soluble in cold w«t 
but is moderately soluble in boiling water. It.* alkaline conihinaliAm i 
freely soluble, but its heavy metallie salts are insoluble. It is a «inj 
Int-ai irritant, and its suheutaneoiis injection results in active intUmt 
tion, with the production of pus. On aeeonnt of its slow absorptioi^ 
produce* no grave symptoms in warm-hlooded aninial». The TiiihcutanCi 
or intravenous injection of a soluble salt tirst excites, and then piaraly: 
the vagus and vasomotor oentri?». Death is preceded by eonvulslnm;. t 
results from cessation of respiration or. in animals when artificial respi 
lion is kept up, from the extreme fall of blood- pressure. The influc 

' Me/tlMl ftuUftln. .Tun., \fiSi2. 




AUAKICC8 CQJBUItGUJit'M. 



85 



I the ««crc-tion of sveat te not centra), but is «]c«rt«(l upon the sccrc- 
'iHb. 
npy.— Asaricin, in doses of 0.006 lo 0.065 Gm. (or gr. Vn'j). >« 
wl to ch«ck niglit-fwefltin^, and ^onu^tlnivB to suppress laetetioa. 



n A^rli-ln 

Aciil. «ul|iti. aronMl. ...l 
E&iir - 



(ItUi (!iiL or BT. j. 
c.cin. m' Stir, 
cviu. or IJiHii. 



H Sj^: Take one drachm M-rry four houts in water. 

.Agiridn aUo Btiiiprc***-* p^Tn]iiriili<»n due to other morbid caueoe. A 

I of Sfraricin in aleohol has lici-n sucj:osti-d as of value in hypr-ridro- 

Ii lia« aUo biH>n rfcommended to comtine a small quantity of Dover's 

■drrxith each dooe of agariein, when there U a lendi-ni'y to Ioosi;n««« 

ttbr bnwflE following its use. 

b order to redue* the fever and resiriet the nifihl-awealx of pul- 

Mv iab«-n-iilu»i«, lir. J. M. Anders sometimes resorts to the following 

Dhioation: — 



B l^liIIiD. tulpkit., 

ABtipi'rin .....••• 

dfinciD. 

X. K tL rap«iikr no. xij. 



|)0 Gm. or gr. itm. 



A01SIC1IS CEIRUBOOKUK.— Folfponis Igniarius i^ nn allied fun- 
p»to ih<- prwpdinj;, bm is used sololy on account of its porous texture, 
II W been employed a« a nu'ehanicJil hn'iiioslHlic ami for il.< xlow bvirrdng 
***BOM. It may be soaked iu potassium uiiratc or chlorate solution, 
■hid nuikf» it niurv inRninmablu. 

46AKICTIS ICUSCABIUS.— Amanita Muscaria, or Ply-funeus (Bn^id- 
jtwtffc. Hynienomyceles), is a poisonous mushroom, consisting larj^ely 
lignM-cllidrii'^-. It* nctive principle is a synipy alkaloid. Hnicarine. 
rb without laste or odor, but produces poworfnlly-intoxicating effects 
*«'>™hai nnalogoui^ to pilocarpine in its action, and antagonized by atro- 
*iT»e alkaloid U soluble in water, and it is said that mushroom 

ig nioy W prevented by soaking the mushrooms in water slightly 

**Miiit«d with vinegar. In cases of poinonin^ Whitla has successfnily 
' litn^pioe and diffusible stimulants. Digitalis may also be given hjrpo- 
ninlly. and Mimnlating eneniata admiuiittcred. 

Phyiiolo^ca] Action. — The action of the heart and the respiratory 
"imeii!* nr>- rlimiMi>hi-d bv largo done*, the heart being finally arrculed 
lole. Smaller doses diminish blood-pressure and reduce fempera- 
llhongh iIk- bodily hcnt may bo *oi'ondorily irRTowoit. Tlic nct-rc- 
rof the skin, the liver, and intestinal tract are increased, while that 
jflfce kidneyc t* Hometimc* rcdinfd or suppressed. The muscular system 
^ftUiwi. hut conyulsions may occur from accumulation of carbonic acid 
blnod. T'pon Iho bruin a marki'd narcotic or stupefying effect is 
',ta that ii has been used in Asia as an intoiicant. The pupil con- 
Ffrom the clTcots of the internal a r1 ministration, while the local 
^fiKnion of muscarine may cause dilatation. 

Therapy. — Administcrc"! medioinally. muscnrine has some reputation 



rnABMAfEl-TICAL TflBRArBl-'TIC AOKSTfl OH DRC09. 



in checkinjK ihi' fever Hnd sireatin;; »( plilliiitis. It ruoy l)p u««(] 
tioDB of the respiratory tract where there is a deliciencv of secrwl 
diflordiTH of tho fllinu-ntnrv I'anal where tho oniiie iniliailion i* t 
and tn iivt-rcoitie a tendency to constipation. Mtii^carint: can Iht 
coiuhinod with sutli drvigs an bclhiduiiiin, hyoAvaiiiUK, ^Irychnj 
cosc&TB Mgrada, or tiulpbur, witli advantage, as la the following f< 

B Miucarinn |30 Gm. or c 

Kxt. iKnniJn ...i |W5 Qm. or g 

Aloini. 

Rxt. twlludnnnm follor. b1& ra tO '^!ni. nr g 

Est. gttiitimu! .,,..... 1 (.im. ui g 

M. rt (1. |ilL no. xvj. 

S\g.: Oiie ]>ill two or Ihrw tiowt n do}'. Donendnl in coiuti|>fttion an 
rh»I juundiet 

Thf dose of muscarine is uauallv 0,008 to 'J,13 )iin. (or j;r. 
solution, or iiiu»can'tic nitrate may l)c given in uomewhut wnal 
For the sweating of phthisis, Murrell uses a 1-per-ceiit. solutioD. 
the dose is 0.30 ccni, (or mv). i 

AOATHIN i« the name bcHtowod upon a new vyiithetical c 
discovered by Dr. Israel Roos, of Krankrort-on-the-5Iain. It is a i 
of Mlicylie acid, and its cli€tnteal composition is expressed by: 
•%alicyl-aidehyde-methylphonylhydraxin." 1 

Ajnlhiii occ;irs in the form of small. Itght-tn-^cn. cryt^txllt* 
destitute of smell or taste, insoluhli' in water, Holulde in alcohol a 
and iriHlinjiHl Tl' C. (1(15' V.) 

Physiological Action and Therapy. — Moderate doses have no 
ujiim Hiiiniiilif, When tidniini^lcred to the human subject, agAth 
ally increasL'd the appetite and ex(7retion of perspiration. It v, 
bcnelii.'iiil flinically in uc-iiraliiia and rhenmiitism, being gcncru 
in the dose of 0.50 Om. (or gr. viij) two or three times a day. 
was not inimcdiately cserteil, nnd itM use. it is claimed, does iic 
appear to be aceompanied by any drawbacks. On the contrary. I! 
Badt have observed cases in which iigathin gave rise to licadaeht 
insomnia, vomiting, diarrhtea, thirst, sensation of heat, and ^mar 
during micturition. 

AILANTHirs GLANSULOSA— AilanthUB-tree, or Chinese 
Tho Ailnnthus, or Tree of Heaven (belonging to tho nalunil ordei 
baceK<), brought from China, is now naturalized in this country as 
tree. Ilic inner htirk, which is the part used, eonlains an oleorei 
volatile oil. 

The Hiiid eslnict (0,60 to 4 ccin., or mx-f3jl and the tincture 
of a to 7.5 c.cni., or f5sfi-ij) have been used. The bark may be 
doses of from 0.32 to 0,65 Gni, (or gr. v-x). 

Physiological Action. — When taken in full doses, ailanthns i 
nnd pur{;<'^; it sUo givi.-s rise to vvrligo. heiirlHchc, pnins in the 
limbs, and prostration, with numbness or tingling. Itoth respira 
pulsc-rntc are reduced; death results from arrest of respiration. 

Therapy. — The fresh hark has been used in the treatment 
worm, in decoction (13.5 Gm. to 4T3 c.cm., or Siv-Oj) or the oieon 




un., or f5j, doa«5). It has also been uiif^d in timli^imnt »itiir1iiliiiH, in 
tfuoiwlic di«or(lur», and in i],vipc[>itin. An infusion of ihe Icavt-s has hccn 
aploTed in dvsenterr. 

US. — A mixture of ox}-f[cn nnd nitrn^cu, with t^mtillcr quuntitit-s 
1^ ctrbon dioxide, argon, and watery vapor, togetijer with acoidenlal 
ntfuac and inorganic oon»tiluent-i, rnnijioi^in^ Ihi^ ntniosphtn-, u'tiit h uu 
hnlhr. (For tlio effpct* of air, sct> section devoted lo CUmatotherapy, 
iIm Puunotherapy and Pneumatic INfFerentiation. Kur I.iiiuid Air, tve 
fitimon Heat and Cold ai Therapeutic Agents.) 

AIBOL. — This ia a trade dcai^nntinn for liiamuth-oxyiodogallate, 

in II grnyi»)i-grci>n, odorlose, tiistcleiri; powder. It is ineoliiblf; in 

i), vater, etc. It has been employed im a Rtir^ioal antiseptic dusting* 

foider »r a« an emulsion with plycerin (10 per t-ent.). or also as an oint- 

bent, at a substitute for iodoform. Airol hn» iilso been used internally as 

ai iBtcttinal astrinfjcnt, in doacs of 0.13 lo 0.3'i Gm. {or gr, ii-v) several 

tiott daily. Iti ophthalmic pnurti/c Bouivcnlo had ^ond roMuU# in forty 

WM of iiifectious, ulcerous keratitis, the lenjedy being lightly dusted 

^tbe affwilod area after preliminary antiseptic eleHiising. It* applica- 

I it usually painless. 

AlCOHOL (U.S. P.), SPIBITirS RECTITICATDS (B. P.).— Alcohol, 
Sfint of Wine. 

Prtparatiorit: 
Otodoratum (U.S,P.)-^Dcoiiori»d Alcohol (7.8 per ouuL. by weight, 

Dilutiun (U.8-P.).-— Diluted AlcolioL (6fl i*r cMit,, by weigbt, wntW). 
biriliu Frummli (U.S. P.).— Wbiskj tconldin* nbnut AO percent of alcoliol). 
Urttuf MvTdiB (U.8.P.).— Bsy-ruoi. For «x tenia 1 uuf, 
Thnan Albam (U.S.P.I.— Whitr Whip (iO to 12 per wiit nUiohoI), 
Vnum Rubmtn {U.S.P.).— RH Wine 1 10 tn 12 por cent. «Icoh<>l). 
Alcohol Ateohitiun (U.S.P.. B.P.). — Absolulv Alcohol (containing not iiior« 

'^ 1 o«r tmtl^ l^ nrtight. o( wnter) . 

^pfrlUis VIni Oalllcl lU.S. P.. B. P.).— Bmmly (cnnlniiis nhout BO per e^nt, of 

TBttam Splritu* Vini nallid (n.P.).— Mixturn of Itrnntly (binndr, 113 ocm.; 
^■H»-«at»r. 113 «jnn.i cvfin^d sugar, 14 Gra,; two ;pelks of egga). Dow, 30 to 
■ uB. lot ISi'ijl. 

Timun Auraatii (B.P.t.-^Orange-wini* (contalno 1ft lo 18 p«r ovnt. alcohol by 

VtauH Saricani (B.P.1. — Shfttrv Winr (contniin not Inw thon III por rent. a( 
•Wdbr volnnw). 

Sot OfflrUit. 

Sfiritm Gpiwidf. — Gin (dilute alcoliol flnvorcd by junipcr-bcrrici). 
Sidrilnii .lanukvrtiiik. — Inmnira Itiim (npirlfj frnm nioInsMS). 
i SJAriliu Odnrntu^t.^Kav-de-Vtilogru!. Cologne- w a tor. 

^^ Akiohol ia a litjuid composed of 91 per cent., by weight (94 by volume). 

^BeArl-alcohot, and of 9 per cent- by weight (G by volurne), of water. 

P^iprmc xn^ity, 0.82l> at .59° F. It i* a tronnparent, colorless, volatile. 
ialtiBiinable aubetance. with a charaeteristie, pungent rather ngrueuble 
iMteaod odor. The Brili«h Pharmacopu-iu recognizes absolute alcohol atul 




PBAKMACEliTICAL THBRAPBUTIC AOKNTB OB DBOOB. 

rccfifii'd epiril^ tht- latter containing 90 per cent., by Tolunje, 
hydroxidfi. 

Pfaarmacologry. — The hydrate of the hydrocarbon radical 
ordinurily uinit-rstoiid to he meant liy thd tonn alcohol, although m 
nwhfXances are know-n to the chemist. EtJiyl-alcohol, also, is tb 
of brandy, whiiiky, wjnt-, and various epirits and cordials. Its c9 
the organism are leae toxic than those of other alcohols, such i 
methyric, or bulylic. During dl^iiltntioii of grain, unlesM carefully 
considerable amylic nlcohol will pass over with the etbylie, espedt 
process be continued too long. By keeping whitiky stored for si-v* 
the amylic alcohol becomes largely changed into various ethers, i 
part a flavor or bouquet to the spirit. The United States Pban 
therefore, directs that grain-spirit (whisky) sliould be at least two 
and the spirit from fermented grapc« (bnndy) at leart four years ol 
is made by fermentation without aistillation. Red wine is a deep- 
holic liquid, made by fermenting the juice of colored grapes In th« 
of their skins; white wine is of a pale-wnber or straw color, and is 
by fermenting the iinmodiSed juice of the grape, free from seeds, >i 
eicins. Spiritiis Genevje (gin. or Hollands) is not official: it is ob 
adding juniper-berric* to dilutisd alcohol. Kum, or molasses spirit 
fuscus, or Jamaicencis). is made by dietillation from sugar or molaS 
has undergone alcoholic fennentaiion; it is about the rame . 
strength as whisky. j 

.Alcohol dissolve* alkaloids, fatly and rennous iiubstanees, and' 
used as a menstruum in obtaining the active principles of drugs in 
able form for adtninislralion. It is the basis of the t'. S. P. spiri 
iir«, and elixir?; spirits being solutions of volatile siibstaucee in 
tinctures, sohilions of active principles of plants, generally obt 
maceration «nil percolation. An elixir is a cordial flavored wit] 
and syrup, generally used as a vehicle for other remedies. Matt liqu 
beer, porter, etc, — are produced by fermentation of malt and hops, 
tain nutritive material, together with a small proportion of diastai 
makes them useful in ci'riain cases of weak digestion. They con 
from t> to 10 per cent, of alcohol. Malt liijMors can be taken by t 
suffer from the cenibral elTeets of wine, hut to some they are unpl 
their effects upon the brain, owing lo the oil of hops which thcj 
(Bossbach). 

Absolutely-pure alcohol is rarely found, even in the lahoratoi 
chemist. Owing to its great affinity for water, it will in lime ul 
from the air. Absolute alcohol, of the shops, usually contains abc 
cent, of waler. It is a colorless, pleasant-smelling liquid, with a sha; 
taste. When added to water, heat is developed, and the mixture 
measure ns much as the sum of its constituents, owing to combinati 
sides its atCnity for water and its power as a solvent, it has a eoa 
action upon alliumin, and is an antifermeot when in solution conti 
least 18 per c«nt. of akohol. 

Physiological Action. — Owing to volatility,'it gives a cool Bern 
the akin at first, but afterward, if evaporation be interfcrt'd wilh, 
irritation and beat, and, if continued, produces inflammation. 
hardens the integument by abstracting water from it, coagulating 
its albuminoid constituents, and dissolving its fat. It has the eat 




ALCOHOL. 



89 



ifta nuooiit iDcmbrancf, tliue enabling it to act &s an astriti^ent. It has 
LMOtuuKlhetic action, possibly bv reducing the rongertion by iU cooling 
rceofliiiijir'nt vtlvd^ upon the sntalkT blood-vcs^elf. 
After alcohol, in the Btrength of ordinni^' spirit!*, is swallnwcd, in email 
ntitr 41.) 10 60 c.cni., or f^^^ij), there is a seni^tiot] of heat in the epi- 
fiatn, which soon diffuses tt$«ir over tho body. The experiments of t)r. 
uoni fhowcd that Kmnll amounts increased the vaficularity of the stom- 
land stimtilalcd the flow of gasitric »ecrciion«. I'ndir fitvi'inbli.- circiim- 
thiMx'fori', ak-ohol iucrcuwK the digestive power, cousinjj iin aiig- 
BMOted gastric juice. If taken in large qiianlities, sppt^lilf i» lout and nausea 
■pr**"! ind the digwlivf power is tutpcnded. Ae a rei-ult of long-coa- 
ucufd indulgence in alcohol, the eiomaeh undergoes ehanges in itsi coats, 
new arenlar liwui- bring formed, which, by its subBeqncnt eontrDCtiou, 
«47asgnlat«6 the gastric glands; hence, dyspepsia and gastric catarrh, with 
morning vomiling, arc very common among druDkarii». In addition to 
E'XrKtQral changes, alcohol, in excess, precipitates pepsin from the gastric 
juiK, and lliiw increu«'K digestive dillieiiUies. 

IL Wendelsladt,' of Itoun, as a result of some eiperinients made to de- 

lezniiiie the inlhicnc*' of alcohol on the respiration iu nian. found that there 

^raimuch individual variation, but in "it cases in which pure alcohol was 

infUfd. T showed diminution of respiratory uetivily; hut, when the alcohol 

^HK taken in the form of wine, only 'i showed such diminufion. while the 

anmnt of incrcuw in every ca*c in which it occurred was greater. The in- 

CRMewas also more marked in cases of fatigue or debility, lie therefore 

amidadit that in dobiJitalvd ftate^ of th<? body, alcohol, e«peciaU; in the 

hiaof wine having much aroma, is the best stimulant. 

Dr. GloMT has recently studied llie etTert of alcohol upon (he kidneys 

I nd urine. lie finds that a moderate quantity of alcohol causes irritation 

[tfthe kidnevi' and allcm ihi' i'oluhility of thr urinary sails, favoring the 

'ijiritof oicalflte of hme and uric acid. The iuRucnce does not extend be- 

m thirty-tiix honr*. but the eontiniied use of alcohol produces a cnraula- 

Iwtfftct, Dr. David Cenia, who has also investigated the action of alcohol, 

ndvivt that in large doscii it enhances coagulation of the blood, while in 

■*iiF >)uantitiei it <}estroys the ozonizing power of that fluid end ciiiim<)' a 

''puiiMn of hiEmogluiiin from the corpuscles. Over-indulgence in alcohol 

M«lnng be*n thought to impair the sexual power, and there seems resaon 

•" infer from ei-nain experiments made by il. Bouin and M. C. QarniBr' 

tte it mar actually cause decided degenerative cli«nge» in the testicles. 

fining induced chronic alcoholism in a number of white rats, in two of 

tkciDtmals they found atrophy of the tc'-ticleK. with almost complete de- 

rttwtion of ihe epithelium of the seminiferous lubules. 

Dnbois noticed Ihat certain plant* exuded droplet* of moisture over 
lWiiir(ac« when exposed to the influence of chtorofomi, ether, beniin, and 
llmhol. Ue considers the procew an indication that the vapors penetrated 
tfce protopWma of the plant-tissues and forced out the water, taking its 
jitet. Meyer* bases a theory in regard to the effect of narcotics in man ou 
Ike obatrvation of this phenomenon, suggesting that certain aubatonccs in 



■ /^Bo^t. tvb. 17. ismo. 

■fVtMr J/MiMlr. Jun. 17. lOOfl. 

■JraMr f. Srp. Palh. 1. P/iartmilMloilie. xlti, Z to 4. 



90 rUARUACGUTICjlI. THERAPeilTlC JLOEN'TS OB DRt 

the protoplasma of the cotlf — tlie lutiithio, etc., — eo important to th 
functioning of tlic cell, are dissolred out of their normal proportion 
lion and conibtnalion in rosiK-ct to the otluT components of the t 
water, ealte, albumin, etc.,— by the tension of solubility lietwecitjj 
chloroform, alcohol, and other nurcoticti. analo^oug to the effect! 
the organism. If ihia theorj- ig correct, then all chemical Eubatani 
dissolve fat and hoiHes rescmhlin); fat — lecithin, protagun, etc — i 
ducc ft narcotijiin;! effect on living pmtoplasma, and the effect 
most marked on the cells which contain the lorgcst proportion of I 
stan(«i<: the nurvc-cellB. The effect would also depend on the ni 
affinity of the narcotic« for the other constituents of the cells Ix 
fatly mutters, CEpccinlly the water, and aUo on its co-eilicient of d 
a mixture of water and fatty suliKtance*. 

Upon the nervous system alcohol first has an exciting effect, 
bj narcotitim or coma. The arteriole arc dilnled, thus admitting n" 
io the brain, and this ie succeeded by diminution of mental activi 
to the elTecta of the alcohol upon the ganglion-cellii, weakening th' 
A similar ofTcct is seen on the spina] cord, usually occurring later 
soinetimeit preceding, the brain symptoms. The reflex action o( 
is reduced and the power of co-ordination impaired, so that wall 
a staggering gait, and finally Ihc knco^ will no longer support 
This paralyzing effect is sUo seen in the sympathetic system, sinct 
lation of certain vaKCulnr nrcss muHt he due to the loss >if functi 
vasomotor nerves. The action upon the centres in the medulla 
the lowered temperature, the slowing of the pulse after a prelimit 
oration, and the sighing r<!spiration or sterlnr. Donlh is produc 
spiratory paralyais and lowering of the bodily heat, from this it ii 
ueohol will not protect from cold, but will actually hasten the ( 
of death from cold. The experience of Arctic voyagers ia to the i 
those pcreon* endure the rigors of the winter best who ahstnin froi 
Dr. Parkes, in the'Ashantee campaign, also found that the fatigue 
ing in the tropics is borne better without the aid of n spirit rati 
to the diminution of muscular and nervous energy and capacity 
due to the physiological action of thi* agent, Tlie only advantaj 
from its use was to take away the feelings of fatigue after the 
come into camp, and thus enable them to eat. It is also useful, ir 
of hot drink, to revive a person, who has been exposed to coldj 
exposure has ceased. 

As to the changes that alcohol undergoes in the body. An 
that s variablf amount (1 to 15 c.cm., or f5i-iv) disappears, or is bi 
the blood or the tissues; this quantity may be increased by hi 
excess is thrown off by the lungs, kidneys, howels, and possibly b; 

Prof. W. (). Atwater, of Middletown. Conn., has recently ma 
experiments to determine the relation of physiological or mode 
of alcohol to general nutrition, conducted with the aid of a c 
chamber in which the subject of the experiment was confined. 
1. That extremely little of the alcohol was given off unconsumcd 
in the oxidation all of the potential t-nergy of the alcohol was tr 
into heat or muscular ener<;y. 3. Tliat the alcohol protected th 
of the body from consumption just as effectively as the con 
amounts of sugar, starch, or fat. It is, however, to be home i 




AUXtnoL. 



91 



Ike nflaeDoe of the alcohol upon the circulatory and nervous function* '» 
ttpKUllf important and that these mntlere did not come within the limits 
« Alwater'a experiment*.' Tho infcrt-ncf sought to be drawn from these 
ixpenmenls that alcohol is a safe and useful food is quo(tton<>d by Wood- 
mj and Egbert, who e#si>r1 thut alcohol at the beet is useful only as a 
tiaaltnt and excitant to the circulation and nervoun Mystt!in« during cnicr- 
gtadvs^ out) they tguote anthoritic!^ to prove that as a food its objectiom ont- 
>eijh lis tlU'^'d adrantagcs.^ 

loxiMlo^. — The symptom* and irciilnu-nt of acute poisoning by 
•Icohol dillcr (o much from tboae of the chronic form of alcoholism that 
Cttch stale musl he ^parntely ronsidcrcnl -.^ — 

I. Acuif poisoning by alcohol munifcsia itself by an exaggeration of 

|tlie physiological action. The rapidity with which gnivi> symptomM appear 

lis ID proportion to the quantity of alcohol taken, its form, and, to some 

h^Elat, its temperature, as hot drinks more rapidly intoxicalv than cold. 

^iVktK a iargf quantity is taken at once, as when a whole bottle of whisky 

9 innk on a vager, or a comparatively large quantity administered lo a 

:l^!ii, th* ntHgc of ('xcitemi'nt is too brief to be noticed, and the patient fulls 

■it once into a stupor, which may be followed liy coma or fatal eonvulsions. 

"Wltfe the iiilminisirution is spread out over a lonjier period. drunkenncM 

cows on progressively, but ends in unconsciousness and insensibility, and 

^be patient i» snid to be deud-drunk, because of hi* complete helidiwiiess. 

SiMe alcohol increases the blood-supply of the brain (and especially since 

<J»iiBkfn men arc apt to full hearily and strike Iheir heads), the utate of 

•iMfcolic coma may often be accoinpanied by meningeal hiemorrbuge or 

*Ml(zy. Intoxicated persons xhouUl never he allowed to sleep olT their 

dnokeoDess, but shouhl be treated as if they were poisoned, us — in fact 

— ^bejatt. The trMlment couitist* simply in evacuating the stomach with 

*«ftiM (mustard, etc.,) or the pump, and administering ammonia, either 

tlenntnatic spirit or the carbonate, both by the month and by inhalation. 

Ilttpirit of Miudererui likewise fulfills the same purpose. Digitalis may 

btpien hyiK>dcnniiyiHy; or, if the patient is noisy, morphine and atropine 

niudfnte dosee. It is said that 30 or (!0 e.em. (or fji-ij) of eider-vinegar 

^•iohcring effect; and after emptying the stomach with the stomach- 

|«6p it is well to introduce a pint of warm coffee, — it should not l)e hot 

wfc», for fe«r of injuring the stomach during nneonsciouaneas. .\rtificial 

M^inlion and electricity may be required to keep up the breathing and 

lamnt the undue accumulation of carbonic acid in the blood. Cold affu- 

Mi should be ueed with care, on account of the lowering of temperature 

htheakohol; but hoat and sinapisms arc of great utility. Apoplexy, or 

••nbral hsmoirhagc. may be suspected when there is marked deviation of 

tbtcyes or unequal dilatation of the pupils, especially if there is co-existing 

futlYsie of one side of the face or of the arm or leg In such a case the 

fDtttiaii of surgical interference would come up, to decide upon the prc«- 

(9ee of fracture of the skull or memngenl ha>morrhage and the appropriate 

taataient therefor. 

8, Chronic poisoning by alcohol may be shown by the changes taking 



•BalMiM Xo. 09. »/ fhr F. S. Dtportmmt '.f AiiriciiItuiT. Xor.. 18». 
•Jmnat »/ (A« AmerttMn l/rdlcat .1 xwidnHon, Murch 31, lUOO. 



98 I'HARMACBfTICAL THKRAPEmC AOEXTS OR DttCOS. 

place in the stomach, liver, and Icidntye; incrcsgc of Gbrotie o 
(i*8ii«, followc<d by contraction and destrnction of the clinractfrist 
inp cells, and fatty infiltration; or. in other wonU, the tyjio of cirr 
to the long-cou tinned action of alcohol upon the tissuefl. Gastrii 
indigefition due to defiriinl iiction of the livtT, and ulbitminuria ( 
Inct4id and erippled )iidneys are commonly met with In old alcol 
jectB, Chronic laryn^iti« und bronchitis. al»o chronic calorrlial jn 
and Tibroid phthii-iH, are also frequent in such subjects. The offe 
ever, are most marked upon the norvoii!* ttytt^m. Dr. Wilks has 
cases of paTapte<;ia and numbness. Ana?«theeia and violent Ehoot 
have followed Ihft long-eontinur-d and excewive uae of alcohol, 
vasomotor disturbance due to the habitual use of alcohol haa been 
by l>r. Q. Kaempfer. A man, who bad hca-n on excessive drlnke: 
tucked, within half an hour after taking any alcoholic fluid, by an 
on the &kin conttisLing of patches of erythema of variable size a 
also injection of the pharynx and distension of the veeacis of tl 
The Hush upon the skin faded within an hour after its appearai 
form of insanity accompanied by puclivmcningitifi may be caused b 
'Hie damage produced by the habitual consumption of alcol 
confined to the drunkard, but ii; transmitted to his children. It 
abundantly shown that the oiTspring of alcoholics are degenerate! 
with morbid craving for drink and subject to cpilepity, idiocy, ch' 
teria, and physical defects. When alcoholic poisoning is ment 
^oncrnlly understand it to mean deliritim trement< or mania u pot 
are not identical; the latter is, to all intents and purposes, an aci 
of mnnia caiued or incited bv alcoholic excess. Delirium tremer 
contrary, is a milder form of delirium, due partJy to the action of tl 
upon the brain, but also verv largely to anicmia of the great cei 
the former the patient Is viofent. and requires several men to con 
but once controlled, and the inojicr medicines given (potassium 
hyoscine hydrobromate. or chloroform inhalation*), the pntieni 
period of sleep, uitiiaily rapidly recovers. In delirium Iremens 1 
toms are mainly those of nnieniia of the brain: it is apt to occi 
bout of drinking lusting .K'Vi'ral dny:", during which very little foo 
or is rejected by vomiting from the excess of alcohol. Here tl 
has a quiet delirium, and ba* hullucinations of sight and hearii 
in many cases may not greatly annoy him. but, on the other 
visions may be horrifying and very dislrcs.iing. These patients 
treated with ditriialis, and aroyl nitrite may be cautiously given I 
tion. or nitroglycerin by the mouth. NouriiJiment must be given 
readily assimilated and at short intervals, hot broths, well season 
the most acceptable to the sloinaeb. If, as is usually the ease, tl 
haa been a steady drinker for a long time, alcohol should not b 
withheld from him, lint given In combination with food. In siicl 
the blood-vessels are generally the subject of atheromatous cha 
the heart reqiiircs its accustomed stimulation in order to carry o 
culation. If the patient cannot sleep, he may be helped by sndiun 
and chloral (au 0,(15 Gm., or gr. x), by hop-tea with capsicum, o 
moniated tincture of valerian. For the debility and tremor, nv 
haa proved very usefid in comparatively large doses of the tinciun 
or f3»», or more). Hypodermic injections of etrychnine nitratt 



i 



ALCOnOL. 



B3 



••efnt After death from chronic alcohoiifltn the or^^aDism tihowa changes 

meterypart, whieh BarUioIowaiiniflupin \v/a wor(I*"libn»»i»un<l Ktvutosis." 

Bj inhaling the vapor of alcohol complete anesthesia may be prn- 

dnc«d,ai>)i the tliSerent negreeit of intoxication up to in»en!iihility. lit »iich 

oscf the etomach need not be emptied, but artiticial respiration in the open 

>air,or the inhalation of oxygen vill soon i-t>iit(ire the patifnt in consdnniineM. 

jTlwiDaT be hd<ten«d by a stimulating enema. 

[ Aheinthiam, a form of alcoholic poinojiin^t attended by epilepay, follow- 
Izkg iodulgrnce in abMnthe. has been alreuOy d ii-ciii-jred. 

Tlunpy. — Alcohol may be used as an evaporating lotion in eases of 

^otftl inflammnlion, or of bruise or spruiii. Diliitid alcohol (DO e.cni., or f.^iij) 

^ritii Wd-waler (30 c.cm.. or [,\j) and morphine acetate (O.Gj Gm., or j,t. 

tty, (I^UmI upon s single layer of cloth or absorbent cotton and allowed to 

^▼twratc, formfl an excellent lotion to keep down intlnmmation, and in point 

of clMDliness ismuch better thun the old lead-woter and laudanum. Abitoluta 

#l(ohol is UM-d a.4 an a.4tringent application to exuberant granulations (polypi) 

I'in the «r, and also applied as just directed to control acute inflammation 

I of efUnlar lisAuc, and in OTysipebi^. Ordinary alcohol is a. good application 

to wneDt bed-sores, and for thi» purpose it is customary to add a little aliini 

(4bni. to 473 c.cm.. or ^i-Oj). Hot applieations of alcohol relieve pain, and 

in (icitt neuralgia, cold in the face, or toothache, the employment of u smnll 

tendlMg containing ho^Kt and dipped in hot whisky will generally afford 

"•t'H relief. In some akin diH'«sc». as ulcers. lo«< of )iair. fro*t-l>ite, ex- 

secretion of sweat or oil, fetid sweating, freckles, and vegetable pora- 

iu alEtctions, concentrated alcoholic preparations may lie used. Some 

n^fomuUe are here added: — 

HAkdholls. 

EA boroglytvridi (SO jwr «PBt.) ah 60{ e.cm. or fjij- 

U. Sf.: Applf Insbr ID txcetniv^ or fHid nwcatiiig, and in i-fgctable paraaitic 
*^mt at tli# »kia. 



ITwo glycerin does not agree, we may prescribe: — 



» Ahobolh 60 

Cvniiiir hjrilroclilorati* 

Afidi borici i 



c.pm. w Wj. 

32 Qm. or sr. y. 

Gm. or 3J. 



^ Slff.: Uw with oM miwlln nr cottim (n (rost-bltn, oJty «ccTvtion, fr>d[)M, 
••* «Wr pgntenlary drpusiu. 

• ^«tal|^lllri 120| ccm. or (Sv. 

liacU unci* vmuioe, 

Tlnn. tafiei «a ISj r.wii. or (Jm. 

S- SIg.: ^pJoy tt OB l)i« sc«Ip tor Iom o( Imlr. 

Uoir recommend.4 the local application of alcohol or an alcoholic solu- 
te at an effective abortive measure in herpes. The aamc treatment will 
■S(tp (he pain of herpea soater. 

L XcuftadI' reports n ea>c confirmatory of Biere and Salzwcdel's cx- 
fmmt* as to the great valne of alcohol dressing in tubercular lesions. 
ui the case referred to thor<t were tcndo vaginitis and ostciti* tubcrcukwa 
ef the led liand. After the daily apphcations of a compress wet with alco- 
kiA for six weeks, it wa« completely cured, although it had been pronounced 



'Pngrr mrdUlaUflK WodiruMhritt, Fob. 13, 1000. 




94 



PHARUACEirnCAL TSKBAPBL'TtC AGENTS OB DRaOB. 



fl proper case for amputation previous to the Irentnivnt. Ad};ci 
reported 7 custe of local tiiberculoeis treated bj alcohol, 3 of 
cured and 4 remarkably improved. 

Its iintiscptic virtues and the astrinKeucy which it possccM! 
sequcnci^ of its power >>f (.'iiii;(ii[alirij( ultininiu rfiidtrs alcohol, wher 
diluted, on excellent frargle in phorynKitis, stoniaiitis, seun-y, and i 
It 13 also useful to iipl'ly tin flli'olioliir lotion to th« nipplet; of unrein 
in order to prevent the formution of fissureG. Alcohol pf^sessei coi 
value as an ha-mostatic, and may be utilised in om-t where cspiU^ 
occurs, the follovring prcMription being very valuable: — I 

n Ali-oholif, 1 

I. ill. vipcnit, T 

ExL hnmnroplidU 11. nn SO] e.om. or l| 

M. SIg.: Riiigiloy its ft styptic in local hwmurrhage. 

To the actioD upon tho digmilive or^ns and the Etimnliiting el 
UiA nervous mtem and the circulation are to he ascribed the uac| 
Ihe Ireatmcmt of diM>a»c of alcohol judiciously ^iveu It is no 
sickness to reduce temperature, altbonjjh it accomplishes this i 
nor is it ^ivcn m a nurcotic, although it# sedative action may n 
desired. In almost all cases it is intended to act as a restorative, a 
fore, its adniinislration must he kept well within pbysiiilogical li 
some cutvf. espeeiully in typhoid fever, unfortunate results hav* 
its use wilh too froe a hand. In most cases of O-vit, (rom (>0 to 
(or foii-iv) of whisky daily is amply sutlicient for an adult, and i 
this does harm. It is judicious, however, to make allowance for lln 
previous habits. One flccuslonicd to the daily use of alcoholic 
will, ifeiierally speaking, require proportionally larger doses thi 
stuiner when atluukei) by any severe disease. 

In phthisis a tolerance seems to exist, and patients can take 
Iiirge qiiiintities without showing symptoms of intoxicalion. The h 
Flint reported the case of a younfi lady who took a pint of whisky 
nearly two years for piilmcmary phtliisis, and wns finnliy cured 
course of a disease, when the powers of life are succumbing, the f 
of the heart is weak; the pulse feebip, soft, and irrejjutar, but 
rapid; when syncope or delirium threatens, alcohol should be ; 
denvoring to combine it with food, such n» brolh, milk, gruel, 
period at which these symptoms generally appear is, in typhus fe 
the end of llic first week; in typhoid, at the end of the second 
small-po.t, when the secondary fever commences. The e.tcellcnl 
rules formuhited by Dr. Armstrong for the use of alcohol in fev 
confidently followed. Alcohol is beneficial when ihe dry longnt 
under ils ii;<e, the rapid pulse becomes more slow, Ihe skin less pal 
the respiration more tranquil, and, it might be added, where it 
patient, If opposite results follow, the remedv should be auspei 
the above rules. Hinger adds that alcuhol does good when it prod 
and quells delirium. In measles, when the eruption turns dark i 
rhagic, alcohol is best given in as large doses as will be borne, ai]| 
intervals, as puinU'd out by Vr. John M. Keating- In acute infll 
as in pneumonia, when the heart begins to fail inid symptoms 
appear, alcohol can u»tially be given with marked benefit. 



ALCOHOL. 



95 



omeatioi] of tlic Inngf. Ij-phoid pncumoDie, or the pneumonia pt thi? nged, 

ilnuolic siimulntion is particularly indicnted. Diplitlicriii, phlegmonous 

ttjnfdit, and tubcrculotis of bouc!<, joints, or •;Und& are affections in whieh 

finulatjon is demanded. The 9lron;:er alcoholio hcvcragcs—vudi ae wino, 

rtitlET, or britnd)'' — on; vuhiubk' in old uge, when digestion is weak and in- 

mnut marked. Hot spirits and water, cautiously ndminiatored, is uKcfu! 

imtorativc in (he condition of «hock Ihc ri-»ult of iujiiry. During con- 

ice Irom ferers, when the structures of the heart and stouiadi have 

tllcred hv the fevcr profje.iit anil digt-stion is weak, it is often found 

i( nult liquor in some form increases appetite and digestion, improves 

BQtiitioD, and enables the piiiient to ssleep better ut night, lu tho *unie way, 

penaoB who follow sedentary occtipatione. and whose bodies are insufli- 

ci«nily nouri^hHl, often lind iiiiich hciiufit fmin llu) mv of akobol in niod- 

vntcquanliticE. given just before or after or taken with their meaU. llsanti- 

*«j>tK powen are useful in infectioui^ dyspepsia, where digestion \* Htopped 

by th« growth of micro-organisms, which scjt up excessive fermentation in 

tmnninach and intestinal canal. 11r acknowledged value in the zi'motic 

diintM, and pre-eminently in diphtheria, is partly due to its untiecptic 

c6oa in the alimentary tract. In a similar manner, in cholera epidemics, 

aXctliol has decided prophylactic cfTvcts. and this is not controverted by 

Uieticl that persona weakened by debauches and alcoholism are most liable 

to pcTuh from tfat- disease. In cholera intanlnin, also, hnindy exerts an 

C3c<lknt influence; and, indeed, in many bowel disorders among adults 

(wbeli an often connected with the growth of micro-organisms) nieohol in 

tlKforai of brandy or red wine (port or Burgundy) is of great assistance in 

'Uutr^-elment. ^'^len flatulent colic or neumlgic pain« occur in the ahdo- 

)itti,(lothB wet with hot whisky externally and some hot loddy internally 

ginpmmpt reliff; in inf>inl>, gin and hot water i» a remedy often used for 

Mlif by old nurses. 

Fonni of AloohoL — In order to estimate the effects of different forms 
q( iloetiolic liquors, the following comparative strength should be reniein* 

BriDdf. vtibkf, nun, gin. cordinto.. .30 to 50 por cent, of nbsulule alouhoL 

Stratah aad Il*lian sw»«t wInM i:i to IT " " " 

Botk ud claret 8 to U 

Un» portar -t to B " 

llwl or bMT 4 lo S ■' " " " 

KconiM 1 to 3 

Champagne contains from 8 (o 10 per cent., but the presence of the 

(■fbJiiic-acid gas makes it more "heady"; that is to say. the cerebral stini- 

■btini is proiiuci'd inorv quickly, and with a smaller quantity of alcohol 

Atn by ihc still wines, and th« after-effects in the way of headache or 

nnim] congestion are Icm apt to occur. Moreover, the carbonic acid acts 

Mkicdative to the stomach, thus making champagne cspeeinlly serviceable 

■doe the stomach is irritable, and where prompt stimulation is rei^uired, 

• is setficknes or in yellow fever, ftliere the expense is an insupenihle 

tb}(ctii>i). a gowl suhstiiule may be made extern porn neoiisly by the addition 

cf orbnnic-acid water or koumiss to wine or brandy. 

Special Applications-^Ao un antidote in snake-bite, alcohol enjoys an 
cttesfiti: reputation, which has not much scientific foundation, The liquor 
AkH be givfi) only, a vincghissful or so at a time, repeated at intervals. 



9G 



PHABHACEariCAl, TBEBAPKCTIC AGENTS OH DHUQS. 



[jut »)ioiil<l uot bf given iB excessive quantities on account of the danger * 
fatal alcoholic eoina. A ligalnn.- slioulil bu thrown around the limb or men 
b«r bitten, if possibU-. and the part cut out or oauierized; if a finger, it migl 
be safer to amputate il. It nm, the ligature should ofter uwhitc be loosenc 
gradually, and immedifltcly lightened upon the reappearance of the sjro; 
toms. In this way the .^yslem will be able to throw olf the poieon; wherea 
if the whole quantity were to be introduced at once, it would he overwhelm© 
The alcohol here ams, not a» an antidote, but as a stimuhnt to kvcp up U 
ciroulotion until thv poii;on i« eliminated. 

In septic poisoning — »eptiea'niia, saprtein [a, dissecting wounds, ctc.~ 
alcohol a considered to have an antidotal effect, and, with quinine, const 
tutea the great reliance for overcoming the tendency to a fatul r«:<uU an 
keeping up Uic strength. Alcohol is. in some measure, antidotal to the pw 
son of the hnoillus tubi^reulosiii, and it n to rlti.i action ihat it" unquc-jilioiiaU 
^'ahie in prolonging life in phthisis is due. . 

Phelps and Powell' claim that alcohol is the best antidote for carboii 
acid poisoning. Phelps declares that it is a safe and sure preventive again 
the escharotio action upon ihe skin and mucous membranes. Several " 
Etauccs have been reported in which a fatnl dose of the acid had been lakrai 
but, owing In prompt use of whisky or brandy, the patient recovered. (S 
Aoidum Carbolioum.) 

.AJcohi)! whould not he given in eaaej" of liver disease, nor in nephrit 
In gout the sweet wines and malt liquors are inndmissihte, but, if a stir 
lanl be rttquired, whieky may he used cautiously, on account of the tenden 
to kidney disease. Malt liquors and sweet wines are injuriuns in diabct 
but dry wine, whisky, and brandy sometimes answer a useful purpose in thai 
disease by promoting nutrition without increasing the loss of sugar. Durinj 
the course of a gnnorihiea or urethritis, it is ciutomary to forbid the nw « 
alcohol in any form. It should not be used in hypertrophy, with overactioi 
of the heart. 

For the relief of cancer of the hroiwl, Hawe, in 1873 {nt a mealing o 
German Physicians' and Naturalists' Association), presented a communica 
tion advocating injection of alcohol. The subjeet of ihe treatment of c«nce 
by interstitial injections of alcohol lias since been reviewed editorially by Di 
C. K. de M. Sajou*.' Hr. Kdwin J. Kuh has reported a case of primary' canc« 
of the nano-pharynx cured by injections of alcohol," but subsequently report 
serera) failures of the treatment.* 



ALETBIS. — Star^irau, Biasing-star. Uealy-starwort, Colio-rottt 
Aletris farinosa il.iliaces) is an indigenous plunl, the leaves of whid 
spread upon Ibc ground iu the form of a stai'. The rhizome contain 
•tnroh and a bitter principle, hut appears to he free from tannin. Th 
Tirtues of the root arc extracted hy nlcohol. In HUiatl dose* aletris is i 
hitter tonic; it increases ihe appetite, loosens the bowels, and promote 
the secretion of urine. In larger i|iiautitics it acts a* a cathartic am 
emetic. Aletris has hci'n used in lolic, chronic rheumatism, and dropq 
It is said to he serviceable, likewise, in dysiuvnorriuea. The dose of tbi 




• Uerck-t Arxhtvft. IVc., ISJW. 

'Monihtu CvrilnpirilUi nf I'rafticnl Mr4M-nf, Jan., 
'ITi^trtir Krcorii. April IT, INUT. 

• PhllaatlfiMa MHical Journal. Maj- 28. 1898. 



I89S. 




ALura. 



97 



r is 0.65 Uin. (or cr. x). An infusiuii (1-lti) ift given in UliluspooDful 
The NaUonsI 1- oruiulury coiitaiiig u lluid extract. 

f AUi™ (U. S. P.).— Garlic. 

Preparation. 

^nvpus AItU (U.8.P.). — The syrup of garlic con^Jiw garlic (20 per cent.), 
■U duuterf antic Add, uid augar. Dvw-, 0.00 to 4 c.cm. (or mi-foj}. 

Pharmacology-— f'tiriic i» the bulb of tlio Alliwm witivum (Lilincusc), 
iMlive oi .\-i& and Eppt, but now naturalized in Kurope and .America, 
id teiemble* the onion und l«ck iu its ('bi'riiii.'ul chiiniekTv, as ils nctin: 
i&dple ifl a volatile, oily substsnce — sllyl-Bulphide. Qarlic is more active 
aa the others, owing to poucKSing a largi-r projwrtioii of tbc uotivu prin- 
ple. TTie bulbs may be kept unchanged for years by placing them in large 
ttn bottles ooniaiuing a i^mnll nmoiint of alcohol and ttcciircly cloftlng the 
•ttl*8 by stoppers of glass or cork, as proposed by Mr, A. P. Sharp (Proc. 
. P. A., 18&1). The plinrmacopa-iu directs that garlic ohuuld be u.ied with* 
■t betog drie^. 

IliTBoliieical Action and Therapy. — Qarlic is antiseptic, but its eSecte 

^chiefly tho«e of a stimulnlinj; cxpectonint. Wliilc Us antiscptie prop- 

rtitthave been trieil in phthLnis without succeaeful results, it is useful as an 

Kptctoiant in chronic bronchitis, or in cnfTuuutive catarrh (capillary broii- 

kutif of infants). Here it may also be made one of the ingredients of poul- 

■cs to be applied to the chest, or the oil may be wwd externally, hut the 

ifleniive odor of garlic will in moet families be a bar to its use. A garlic 

l!«ritic« may also be sucecwfully t-inphiyecl in infantile convulsion «, and 

rdims the pain of gaatro-enteritiB, The syrnp is a good addition to cough 

votntt, but cannot be used in conjunction with alkalies, such as ammonium 

nAante or the bromides, on account oF its containing free acetic acid. The 

Ipif efgsrlic can be adminl«tered thus with service in the treatment of 

InKhiiis, especially of children; — 

R Sjtwp. allii 60] c.em. or fji]. 

!pt albcr. nitron, 

BfyreriBi - - IB 30| com, or (Jj. 

it Sig.; Ftooi one to two t(«<ii)Oon(uls in water ernry lionr or two, 

8 BrnpL allii UOl c.cm. or fjlij, 

^^ ^mf. pieia liquid* Ool o.cni. or [Jij. 

^^■L Sl(.: A tca^MMafnl or two in water every two or three hours. 

H'tbe joice of garlic in the dose of 2 to 5 drops has been given for the 
Wfe of nervous vomiting. 

CarUc, like the onion, has antiscorbutic cfTects. and is a stimulant car- 
omiilite. Do^e, 2 flm. (or gr. xxx): beat given as a syrup. It is destructive 
Co imbncoid or round worni«. It is also cflicicnt against a«curidcs when 
MbunittrTed by Ihe rectum. Garlic is a domestic remedy in whooping- 
BOngb, and a garlic poulticv applied to the perineum h '«sh\ to relieve 
bugttty. 

Alljrl-tri bromide. — Thie compound, otherwi*o known a» tribromhvdrin, 
bKlj relit«d to the oil of garlic, is a colorless or faintly-yellowish fluid, 
rfaid 1mi a specific gmvitj of 2.43, soIidiGes at 50" F., and boils at 423° F. 



PHABUACEUTICAL TUBBAl'KUTIC A0KST8 Oil DRC08.1 

Allyl-lribronude diEsoIves in ether, and in S-drop doses, inclosed i 
hflfl been uivtn with adrantuge in vnriuus spasmodic nffectioni!, t 
uthma, wliooping-cougb, infantile convulsiens, and angina pectH 

ALLIUM CEFA. — The onion (Lilincea) is cultivated everyi 
the bulb is coinmonly used att a food. Oiiionjt arc uUo largd 
domestic practice as a catuplnsm for "earache" or for acute ■' 
also added to sugar and wnlcr and giwn as a cough-^yruj 
("Practical Hygiene") states tiiat "on account of its volatile oila 
tribe in largely ufl«-d, and in a rupilnl condiment, nod has an at 
nntiscorbulic. The oil appears to be identical with that dei 
garlic, (C,H,)rS. OnioiiM eoutniii phosphoric acid, citrate of l£ 
^^e, and sugar, in addition to the allyl sulphide. 

According tn tlie curcftil studies of Dr. Pilacki, th<! codsv 
onions causes a decrease of the assimilation and metabolism of n 
material. The a»»iniilutirjn cxccvdi; the loss of nitrogon. The ui 
endly increased. Thi: diminished assimilation may be due to thi 
effect of large uiiaiititiee of ouion upon the gnstric juice and 
Dr. Popoff has shown that onions neutralize the acid of the gai 
In a email quantity, howcvttr, ouious promote digestion. Oi 
especially garlic, produce a decided augmentation of .secretion 
Siocria great di;pcndence is placed on the onion as a propbylac 
scurvy. 

l)r, Whitla points out that, owing to the large proportion 
which it contains, the Spatiish onion mav he iitit ii^ fit e tori ly ci 
tho$e cases of skin d;»euse in which it is desirable to administi 
The action of the volatile constituents enhances that of th 
Boiled Spunish onion, cniun freely at bed-time, is an excellen 
The author mentioned values the onion particularly in chronic 
the larger respiratory tubes. According to George Covert, ( 
removes the odor of onion from the breath. 

The raw sliced onion can be used as a counter-irritant; 
constituents are especially irritating to the conjunctiva. 

ALinjS.^Alder-bark. The bark of the Ameriean iilder ot 
AInus serrulata (lietulnceie), contains tannic acid, a resin, and 
i« uBvil for its aslringont efti'ds, chiefly in the form of fluid exl 
fusion (diluted freely), as a mouth.wash for spongy gums, a 
BOrc throat, an injection in leucorrhipa. and for applications 
Internally, it has been given in diarrha?a and hienialuria. It i 
to have allerulive effects, and has been nsed successfully in sent 
xUs, and some cutaneous diseases. The dose of fluid extract is 
c.cm. (or mx-xl), 

Alnuin, an alcoholic extract, composed principally of the 
been employed internally in doses of 0.0(15 to O.SO Gm. (or gr. i 

AI0£.~Al9eB. 

Aloe riiriat-ula m.BLP.).— Piirin*d Aloe*: a Straiued Alcoliolk KkI 
0.06fi to 1.30 Gm. (or gr. i-xx). 

Alw BarbudpuuB (U. 8. P.. B. P.).— BsrliadMB Alo«. Dose. ai3 lo ( 
gr. U Jt). 



a 



ALOE. 



99 



Bm-utrln* (U.S. P., R.P.>.— l^ocolrlne .UoM. Dow, 0J2 to 1^ 6m. {or 

. «-n|. D. 1'.. U.13 to OuSi: <;in. (or gr. ll-v). 

V. S. /*. Prti>aralion$. 

AMaun. — Alola. Dow, OJOtHi to ».I3 Um. (or gr. V»-ij). 

ExtTsi^um Alum,— EaUikI of Alovs. Dot-, DjQS to OM Um. (or |[r. m-V). 

PtIuU- Aluvk.- rilU of Alon. Dok, I to 9 iiilU. 

PlfaalMi Altwq vt A-alipllOH-— Pi1l> at AKm'h unil AvifrtiiU. Dniw, t to 5 filUt. 

mnka .\)(>e> •■t pPtri ^I'ill* of Alon aiiil Irun. I>oi«, 1 to & pUts, 

Nulw Aliwo i-t Xla>l>'-lir>.- rilU ill Alxrh nnd Mattir. Dow, 1 to 5 plIU. 

ifluW Aliica rl Myirliup. — I'illii of Alum Hiiil Mjiih. l>u«p, I to 6 pillB. 

I^lului H>H-t (Vui|io*iU-.- -L'oiD pound TilU of Itliubarb. Uuu, 1 lo A ptlln. 

Tkantitm Aloeo- — Tim-luM of Altin 1 10 |i«r cviit.). Da'«, 2 to TJiO <Mni. (or 

Tkortur* Aloo n M)rrrh«.— Tlnotuf* of Atoi-a Mid Hjnh |nl Murh. Id per 
L.I . V*a*r, 'I to T^ c-cjii. (or fSMt-ij). 



DOH, <MM9 lo 




*^Va 



kon. — AMa. Domv ftM to 0.13 Gm. (or (rr. M-lj). 

tam Alov* Uaibiiiltiul*. — Kxtfact ol BarliiMlora AloM. 
lor ex. iivi. 

rthiU AW* ltatb«den*i».— Pill ut B«>b«doM Aloes. Do«e. U.25 to O.SO On), 
■fr. tv-vttj). 

I*llu)> AloM SocolrUur.— PUI o( Socoirim Alo<-«. Dow. 0^ to 0.S0 Chu. (or 
ir-rilj 1 . 

l*UaU Alovn oK AMfirlidir.— Pill of Atuca and AMfctldn. Dow, O.SS to 0.60 
k, (or %t. t*-vit)l. 

nitiU AltHO «t Fmt— I'll! of Aloca and Iron. Dom, A.£3 to O.OO lim. for gtr. 



Do*e. 0.sa to 0.00 Unt. <ar 



Ilia A]«ei ft Mfrrbv.^l'ill ul Alucs kbA. Myrrli. 

Tartars Aloe*. — Tiocliir* of Ato«ii. Dow, 2 lo 4 c.cm. lur t3>">-J) tor rep«at«il 
Uon: tor stngjv aitmitiiainlion. (I to I.S ccn. (or fSiM'ij). 

DavoctUBi All)** riiupoutun (K P.), or Bourn* do \ve, t'ontaiiis abuul Q.S5 Gin. 
^. i*| aim to 30 t^.t-m. (or 13j), with enrdunioni, Ucoiice, (oiTTnn, and myrrli. 
C 15 lo 00 vxta- (or IJuiJ). 

Aln— bUo Mit«>r> into totnpuond eitiaH of fQlopfittb and conipoiiml Ilii(>liir(> 
I ■■mill (t>'. 8. P^ B.r.)i comtioiind pitl of ralocynth |B.P.). SO parlii; compound 
•4 bjriM«f«inua IB.P.}) and compound jiill of gamboKo (B.P.)- 

[nttraULooIO(7. — nnrliii<lo(.« aloes is the impifsated juioe of tlie leaves 
Tera, «1sa ^Uoe chinensis flu<l otlier njM.'cio« (B. P.), and Socotrine 
i* the UifpiFNiU'il jtik-i; of ihp Aloe Penyi (Liliacee). Owino; to the 
kIim^ frwjuenllj- eonlniit.'! fortngii iduKitk. tht* I'nitoa States 
ifMpjji direct) that fur insking pteparationti [iiinftt^l uIocm only 
Lied (obtained by di»«iilvin^ Riiontriiic aloo» in alcohol, paasin; 
■■- through ■ ftroiiM-r, and nllowin); the alcohol to evaporate). 
?ark masses of a vello wish-brown rojor, the fracture prescot- 
.ipptarani-e (hrncc wmL-timea c:aUed hepatic aloe«). It has 
- uij-tf , is soluble in alcohol, leas Miluble in water (unless boiling), 
. Aloin, or sixaloin, a volaltle oil. and a resin. Barbadocii aloes 
.08 each contains a variety of aloin, and the farmer is officiiU in 
I iHted Stalin ami Hritiih Phannacu[>u<ias. 
AMnmm (t.'. S. P.. K. P.), or Aloin, in a neutral prineiple obtained fmm 
of nloefi. chiefly Barbadoee aloea (yielding bartwloin) and 
I -ar al™-s (Tictdinj* eocaloin), differing more or less in chem- 
[ wmpautHio aad physical prnpertici according to the source from vhich 



100 PHARMACEITTICAI. TUERAPBUTIC AGENTS Olt DllVOa. 

it is derived. It is a vellowish-white, or brownish crystalline eabstaace,! 
ble in hot water and alcohol, sparingly soluble in ether, chloroform, 
bencol. It i^^ of neutral reaction, destitute of odor, and its taetc, wki 
Bwceti'h at fir§t, suliBequently becomes very bitter. 

PhyBioIopical Action. — The principal cllcct of aloes is th»t of ■ all 
actin-; purgative, principally a!TGctin>: the large intestine. It increasa 
P(-ri)itaItic movcmi-nts without producing excess of accretion; so that 
feces are formed and only slightly softened. It is a true cholagoguc 
creasing the Rccrction of biliary salts, and renders the bile more water}' 1 
given in large doees. As it sometimes gripes, it is beet to combine i 
carminative with it. It may cause irritation of the bladder, diminuliii 
urine, and albuminuria from renal congestion. It also has emmenaj 

firopertics. Following large doECS, the nteniK and app<;ndngeit are moi 
ess in a state of congestion and hiemorrhoids are apt to be irritated, 
there has been an overdose and these symptoitig art- aggravated, it woul 
sufficient to give large draughts of demulcents, and an anodyne in the i 
of an opium suppository. It is stated that such phenomena do not fa 
the administration of aloia, which requires only about one-third or on*- 
the dose in order to produce the physiological effects of aloes. 

The chemical and physiological investigations of Professor Meyetl 
to indicate that aloin itself is not an active purgative, but that it bec( 
gradually decomposed in the intestine into a more energetic aubstanct! 
is thought that this may account for the slowness of its action. 1 

Powdcri'd nloi'!', dusted upon an abraded nr blistered furfnce, IIU| 
absorbed and exert a purgative effect. Aloin has been detected in the H 

Therapy. — Alocii, or aloin, is a slowly-acting purgative, and, there 
ahouid generally be administered at bed-time; in this way it operates dt 
alwpi and griping ia avoided. For the same purpose it is well to con 
it with a carminative, as in the compound decoction, or the compound 
barb pill, which is a useful purgative for an ordinary attack of constipi 
The following are likewise excellent formula; to use in the same cui 
cases : — 

B Vini nloi^H. 

Est. <-«B<^iir *ii|iraila> fl «« S2| p*in. or (3vi. 

FAix. otOTiiivtie q. ». nd 180J ccw. or 0»j. 

M. Big.: A tublcspuonful moming Bnil evening. 

BPulv.»Io#8 Itl Om. or 3Hj. 

Ptilv. glycytrhUir comp 1241 Gtu. or Jir. 

M. S)g.: From oixr-hall to thrco t«a«pooiiIul( In WAtcr or mUk, sari; In Um I 
{ng or on rvtiring. 

Kohlstock has ejcperimented in the clinic of Ptofes«r>r Senator, of Bi 
with aloin and other cathartics applied locally to the rectum. ITie aloii 
dissolved in a small quantity of glycerin and subsequently la formami 
Gm. (or gr. xv) of the former to 10 Gni. (or gr. cl) of the latter. A 
representing, of the aloin, 0.38 to 0.50 Om. {or gr. vi-viij), was found 
cient, in all mild eases of constipation. 

The pill form is aUo useful for the oxpuision of asearides, whid 
apt to lodge in the csecum; with this may be combined injections of ala 
solution (4 Rm. to 4?3 c.cm., or 3i-0j) and irrigation of the bowel. Fa 
latter purpose, in young children, a soft catheter can be inserted beyoni 




ALOE. 



101 



aid Sczore of tlir colon. Id una'iniii afTecting young girU (chloroeis) Sir 
r Clarke claimed that constipation hn# mudi to do with itn causation; 
btcillnl it fa.'cul intoxication. Here slotv, in combination with iron, is of 
LWMhKnrice: — 

B Ho** |niTiA<«l« 8< Gm. or 3tj. 

UuuE frrri corbooMtiii £60 Gm. or Kr. xl. 

PuiT. aionutici ,.,,,,,,,,.,,,,., 1{30 (ini. ur gr. xs. 

Km ft. pll. ii<i. XI. 

^1 Take (iiMi or two ml btrd-boar. 

Sr Andrrw ClarkeV pill ie likcn-iee valuable: — 

B AktB^ 
fffTi Milfih. extit., 
Eit. btludoono! ale. (B.P.), 

CtL BUOU VOOL, 

Piilv. ipecac, 

M*. myrrli, 

StpoKi* Kn |(K! Oni. or gr. m. 

K <4 rt plL no. ]. 

V' One pill omv hour bc(<ir« Init ukuI, ■honid the bowcia not act during the daf. 

Ipecac is omitted if there U anj cardiac wcakneci. 

ui (•«» of hysteria, with ansmia and conHtipatJcm. the pills of aloe*, 
n&uafetida. may be ritcd (3 to 6 daily). Theat? have aluo a carminative 
tin. An atonic condition of the muscular coat of the lar^e intestine may 
lOtrit* contents to accumulate, t» preiu upon the common Ijile-thict, and 
thtract the pMHgc of the biliary ^pcrction into the upper bowel. Thi5 con- 
fitinand (be jaundice which is its result are relieved by the adminiHtra- 
bnet aloes, with which belladonna and str^'chnine, or hyoecyamus and 
ipaeusnha, may he very usiefully combined, in such fominln! aR the follow- 



* 



S AIms puriflpatir .,. 2 

bL belladoonte (olior. ale. 

$if;{hnin« ntlphati* 

U.nft. [rtl. no. sij, 

9f.: A pill Uin* ttniM • dajr. 

B AlMt 

Ext. hjeacfani ,.....,,,, j. 

bLinatw T.... 

hlr.lprracnRilhn 

tftft, ])j|. (ift I. 

Sb: a i-ltl thm UaM« a iby. 



Gm. or 3m. 
OOG Oin. or gr. j. 
Cp3 Gm. or gr. m. 



HS Om. or sr. j. 
ns Om. or gt. X. 
DOS Gm. or gr. i. 
13 Om. or gi. Ij. 



13 Gm. or gr. ij. 
40 Om. or gr. xxx<r]. 
ccm. or Bj. 



Alofs is an excellent emmenagof;a«; given for several days before the 
ojMXttd period, it w genenlly »uccc«(ful, vspcciully wlirn employed thus: — 

BAUni 

Hub. f«rrl raib. S< 

AjAel 4 

U, <t ft aipaul«c MOk xij. 

Sit.t A Mprale morning and crnilng for fire or «lx dnvn b«(or« th« tnonitrunl 

Ill icuity menEtritation, depending upon anwmia, the chalybeatea 
da«ld iIm be pushed, preferably u»iing the pix-pnratioD* of iron which are 
iwteaiulipating. such ae the dialywd iron, or the carbonate, or pyrophos- 
pihrie,niticr tlian the sulphate, which is contained in IheoHicial pill. When 



Mi 



* 



102 



PHAHMAOBCTICAl. THI 



A0ENT3 OR DRCO 



into»<tiiiHl indigcEtion is causikI b)' dolicient secretion of bile, oloes 
ciui vnliie, and I'njoja a reputation as «ii in^credient in "(iinner-pilW 
kindx. Wlu-rc the mental i^yiiiptomif of dycpcpeia — drowsiness, dcp 
epiritfi, or toeiancholia — are marked, the use of a pood aloelic j 
diatch' nftcr dinner is often cffeelive. i 

In cases where there arc biemorrhoidH, the aloes eometima 
them ; iind^-r such fireum«t8n<'W the proper course to pursnc woj 
to neglect such a valuable remedy, but to operate surgioally upon 
and ri-movc Ihem. Tlie po^^ivc turf;c»ccncc of the inferior hren 
vessels, however, is not infrequently relieted by the use of aloee 
eponks of having obtained ^urprLiin^ results in okstinate dlarrha 
dren or adults from the administration of a few 30- to GO-ccm. j 
doses of the compound deeoclion of aloes. Wc may prcucribe thej 
for an adult with obstinate diarrhcea: — j 



B Alolni 

Sulphum niM O 

ICxt. bclladnnnat follw. >Ic 

M. el ft. rapiulte no. xx. 

Sig.: A cppnUe thne timca « dkjr. 



13 Gm. or gt 
SO Gin. or ||fl 
13 Om. or gc 



Tn small doses aloes acts as nn hepatic and intestinal tonic. W 
rhcea is maintained by the action of germs of fermentation, the 
flow of bile exi-rtsun antiseptic elTtct and the dinrrlitva may be chei 
a preliminary purge ; although the rule is that, where diarrhroa is d 
tffltion from nbiiunnnl oontlition nf the contpnts, the cause of di 
should be removed by a more prompt cathartic, such as sulphate of 
{or the citr-ite) ur bj an aniiBeptic purgative like calomel or b 
Aloetic purgatives stioutd be used with care during pregnancy and 
The milk of women taking aloes will purge babes whom they suck] 
may be used as a derivative in cerebnil disorders. 

A glycerole of aloes is prepared by evaporating the tincture ai 
glycerin. This mixture may be applied l<i fissures, abraiiions, ai 
The bitter taste of aloes is sometimes utilized by applying a soluti 
fingwr-ends of children in order to break them of the habit of bil 
nails or sucking their thumbs, or to the nipple when it is dcsiruc 
sn infant, which is unneceesary cruelty. The compound tincture o 
contains 2 per cent, of aloes. This fact should be borne in mind wl 
ing cracked nipplfs with this preparation, as the infant may be wi 
early. 

ALTHJEA (V. S. P.).— MarshmaUow. 

Preparation. 
Sjmipu* Althmo (U.S.P.).— S>-Tup of AIUim (9 per eeitil. 

Pharmacology. — The root of Althiea officinalis (Malvaceie) c 

mucilaginous principle, with about 2 per cent, of asparagin, but n 
Altha-u is a constituent in massa hydrargyri (blue muss) nnd phospht 
Therapy. ^The powdered root treated with hot water may be 
poultice, it is slightly diuretic, on account of the aspiiragin, whi' 
make it of service in children's discBsc* in the fnnii of a fresh infiifli 
cially in Brighfs disease. The confections are useful in sore throat 



^ 



ALCMBS. 



, ud diphtheria. The sjTup is an agreeable addition to eough-inixt- 
Duw. indof]nito. Allium combim^d wrjih tienzuinnlod lurd is a bland 
bmof for skin di»esHe«. Aeparagin has heea recommended as a diuretic 
BjDDt ud cardiac dropKy, in dosi^ of U.0G5 to 0.13 Om. (or gr- Uij). 

AiraES (IT. S. P.> B. P.)— Alum (AI,K,[SO«]. + 24H,0). 

Preparitlionx. 

Alunitil Ujdna (U.S. P.).— Aluminum H>drate. Dom, 0.20 to 1.30 Gm. (or gr. 
lui. 

jUmuni Sulphaa (U.S,P.J. — Aluminum Salpliate. Fbr Mtwnftl use. 
Alumrn Kxiimttnni lU.&P., U.P.).^Dricd Atum f'^incii uituu). or burnt 
■I Dow.OOOS lon.3::Gw. lor^. i-r). 
HTwraiim AlaniinU |B. P.).--(>lycrrin of Aluni (about 13 pvr ci^ut.). 

fbunuology. — The U. S. P. ofilciiU alum ie potu^i^ium uiuia (ulumj- 
iinj potaninm sulphnte). The Rnlii'h P)mnnncopa^ia n-cognizcs potas- 
*Iam (aluminum and potasifium-giilphate). or ammonium alum (alu- 
suumaDd ammonium »iilphHlc). It in in {hv form of trnnflJiioenl, white, 
KtlMnl cnslals, with a sweetish. astriiiRynt laale and acid reaction. It 
Mtuunnlcr of cr^iitullixiilion, nhti-h i-an lie (lnv<-ii olT l>v liiiit, forming 
teddmn. Anunonia alum, which was formerly the official alum, has very 
Wib the M&ie pitipcrtiw, and i« ofti-n dijipi'uwd for ulnra, Tlic mctnl alu- 
■BMH not official. In appcarancf- it is like silver, but is much lighter 
aimn durable; is u«erul for tnaltiiif eurgical iD^trumentx, in nl^rrc of 
OKt. 

Phjnfllopcal Actios. — Dried alum i; sstringent, nnd iii a mild eacha- 
Miefer fungous granulations. The glycerite (20 per cent.) is useful in cases 
rffanuillilis nr pharyngitis of fiiliacute diariK^trr. In solution alum con- 
fauet liniies by coagulating their albumin, and acta as an astringent. 

Tbuipy. — It checks exoea^ive nwr-iiling in phlhixid when applied with 
* W*jc (1 Gm. to 4 J3 c.cm., or 3i-0j of whieky and water). It is used as an 
■^(m in leucorrho'a mid in gonorrhea, and o wntety solution of the glyc- 
nit* » useful as a colljrium in conjunctivitis. In the lalter affection ftlnm* 
fni If Kmetimes applied (2 Goi.. or Ses, bt-aton up with the albumin of 8 

In chronic gnnnlor conjunctivitis. Dr. W. T. Montgomery, of Chicago, 
iKeof: — 

% bfti Mlphat., 

Zlid svlpfanL, 

hnJMlphat., 

ihmiai* a* 138 Gm. or gr, v. 

Ai).4«atiL 30] e.cm. m- Qj. 

IL Sg.: RruA Qptin tli» tosiile of lfa« lida oni.<«> lUily, 

Applied tocallv in the forin of powder or saturated solution, alum in an 
csedknt itypUc. A most useful alum styptic combination is the follow- 



i^ 



B JUomiida glrnritt. 
Lib. itiMiiiis D*. SO] 



e.cin. or Qij. — M. 



Compr e s se s soaked in the preparation just formulated, or a solution of 
tima, inaT be used to restrain capillary htemorrluige from wounds, blueding 



lOI 



PHARMACBUTTOAL THERAPBimC AOKNTS OE DBUOS. 



from the ^iiri«, or Ii>ech-bitci<. In cpiHtnxis n pluj,' of cotton mc 
alum-water may be pauicd into the nsres; a solution niaj- be t)u 
iojcction orpowderwl alum lanv be sniilTccl. Th«o mcaGum will 
proTO BUCccBsful. In cbronic phar^-nsitis, tonsillitiH, and na^al o 
local action of powdcrod alum ih iK-ncficiiil, A prcHoriptioii compo 
often elf eetual : — 



a Acidi MrboUd 

Aluminw gljrceritl DO 

Ariatot S 



IS e.tta. ar 
con. or I 
Gin. or i 



M. Big.t 
the tuTfacA. 



Apply with cotton or a ounclVhair brush once or IwiM 



It may also be used in solution oa a gargle with good effecL 
application of n GOtntion of nlimi is of bvnolit in ca»?B of mercurial 
Mr. Corson asserts that KarglinR the throat with 4 to 8 Gm. (or 5i-i; 
dissolved in about ISO to SIO c.cm. (or Jvi-vij) of a decoction of I 
the addition of 7.60 com. (or fSij) of honey of roses, is a scrviceab 
in the case of epcukers and eingers, shortly bcforv using th» void 

An injection of alum is a serriceable astringent in hiemorr 
the rectum or in gonorrhu-u. For gleet, tho following formula 
mended: — 



B Pulv. ilumiaii 8 

Ext Kcrnnil lluidt IS 

Aqute To«te 13G 



Or>. or : 
ecm. or I 
com. or 1 



In the vulvitis of children n solution of a dnichm of slum t< 
water ii^ u serviceable local application and may from time to tin 
as an injection. A solution of 0.05 to 473 c.cm. (or gr. x to the 
useful injection in chronic cystitis, as it relieves vesical puin and 
of micturition, while decreasing the production of ropy mucus. 

A lotion containing alum may be successfully employed in tho 
bowel of children. From 4 to 8 (im. (or 3i-ij) of alum to 473 c.cm. 
of water, or alcohol), is a beneficial application in hypcndrosis. 
that 0.65 flni. (or gr. x) of alum, placed upon the tongue, will i 
arrest a paroxysm of asthma (Ringer). According to Ringer, mar 
chronic ozmna are rapidly relieved by irrigating the nasal chamb 
solution containing a drachtn of alum to the pint of water. The d 
checked and the fo>tflr removed. Pruritus of (he vulva sometimes 
hot alum solution. The local astringent action of this substance is i 
found benotlcial in purpura. .An ointment containing alum is oftei 
herpes, and the same preparation removes the offensive odor of br 
The following formula; are of service in the diseases just namcd:- 



B Pulv. nlumiius ..•.. 4 

Sulci 4 2 

Biunulh. Bubnit .■.....■.....'.. ,,.,,, n, 4 

Ungt xinci oxidi 31 

It Pulv. aiuminii ., 16 

Glycerini 30 

AigiiiR iiRnianielldls d««tlliatw 150 



Gm. or I 

Om. or t 

Om. or 3 

Gm, or 3 

Otn. or S 
crm. or t 
cciu. or 1 



In chilblains, also, a solution of alum has been used with am 
vantage. 



A 



ALtmsx. 



Ids 



As an emetic in croup, a Itcsping tcaspoonfiil of alum may be dissolved 
'"> e.cta. (or fS'v) of §tmpl<^ synip, of which a teaspoonfiil is given every 
minuK-s until vomiting; ie produced. It is useful in bronchorrhcea 
in whfKipinK-PouRh, especially where the »eeTetioa \» excessive, (liven 
iT pallY. slum checks hKmorrhagc and profuse diecharges. ^\'hitla c-Gteems 
I be«t remedy in hxraorrhage of the bowel due to typhoid fever. It may 
rro with good result in the hmniDtvincsiE dependent upon cirrhoGis of 
' &e tiTCT and in hvnioptrsis. The local action of alum may be aided b; its 
laMtntml adminietrntion in the night-Kwout» of phthisii<. It cheeks cxccseive 
I Bodoction of mucue in chronic gastric and intestinal catarrh, and it relieves 
\me Min of gastnlgia and cnteralgia. Alum it an etficient remedy in 

Clrstun rnntaining alum hove been succefwfully employed in chronic 
4TKDtenr. and even in the acute form of the disease have sometimes been 
(ovad of M.T% ice. The drug may likcvise be given internally in the manage- 
stfit of dysenten*. 

WliitU eonstder« the internal exhibition of alum of setviee in leucor- 

m. The following formulie are advised: — 



B INiIt. ■ttimfnt* IS Om. or Siij. 

.\4Hdi fulph. atom 4 cjchi, or fli, 

KiL K^nnii llaidi 60 e;cn). or fjij. 

SjTup, iiii(fb«rl* 90| CX1U. or f3i>j. 

IL 8i|C.; Oae to two t«Mp«<iB(u1s ia w*t«r every halt-hour or hour until turtnor. 
^ la » f T u (*d. For iaaaafAjtu, hmnatuTw, mcnorrtugia, and uterine hnmorrtia^. 



R rnlv. ■Inniinia, 

8»iaL . aa 6j50 Uai. or gr. e. 

M. vt It. (apcnliB »o. xx. 

&K.I A capuile IhrM or (our ttntta a day. Employ MpccUlly in calAtrli ol th« 
litf aad prartatitia. 



B Pti)'- kluminu 13 Gai. or rt. cc 

ItecL kino 4S c.rnt. or JJIm. 

TI*et. opiicUBplu SO «.<■»■. or fSj. 

ibddl anliih. arom. 4 cj-m. «r fSj. 

apt. rini ^Illrt q. s. nd ISO| cxni. or t)v. 

SC On« to too tcuKpoonfuli in iKai«r *verj thr«« or four houii. Scrvjcrnble in 
m^ tUBirlitta, djracntfty, and in liamaturia. 



Sume auf» have been reported in which alum vit* thought to be useful 
a diahrtcs tnellitiia. It would probably prove of more decided utility in 

Is con "ly large doses (2.60 to 4 Gm.. or ^r. xI-Sj) alum acts as a 

ratitr. m '^cn used in colica pictonum. In this condition it irlievea 

rp«in and oTprcomc* the constipation. Dr. Phillips speaks of its being 

'il fD other forms of gasiralgta and colic. It hatiprovedof benefit in inter* 

fifver in 0.32 Gm. (or gr. v) doses, although its action is not uniform 

. affw'tif'n- Iron-alum lia« been employ^ in intermittent hiematuria. 

[UI« in tf"^ "*'' * •"lution of aluminum acetate (35 per cent.) may be 

I..' e«r freqw'ntly, and the canal phigjied with eotton. Alum 

d u» an adulterant of baking- povder, and undoubtedly cauKea 



106 



rnARSCACEUTICAL THKRAFEOTIC AOEXTS OB DSnOB. 



Tlie nluminuni «jilt« itrc untixi-ptiv iiikI c-tin Ik- ui-cd us injoctiom 
corrhu-a (0.65 Cm. to 30 ccm., or pr. x-f5j)- anti saturated aolutioc 
C8U8ti<>s. The olcate of aluiuiiuim «rrc«tK mnrbid discliurgcg. 



ALTTUKOL. i« the trailc-nnmi- givon lo o suLstnnce diec< 
Filehue, of Itreslau. It coQiiiats of a iniiittire of alumiiiuni salts of 
8til))honic acid, and coiituiiis <• per cent, of nlumitmm and 15 per 
Hiilphur. Alumnol ocoura in the form of n fine white or light piiilf 
powder, frw from odor, not hygroscopic, readily soluble in water 
in glycerin, less so in alcohol, and insoluhlv in ether. lt» iiohitinn 
hoi ojthibils u bcantifid blue fluoresconco. The solutions poBse§8 
reflction. The tast<> of ninninol is gwcetinh iind atttringcnt. Aluir 
cipitatcs albumin and gelatin, but is rcdiesolved in excess of th 
stances. It poflUftifli^ nmrkvd pem-lralivc action. It strike* a bl 
with Kolutione of ferric chloride. Alumnol darkens upon cxposut 
air, nit1i"iii losiiiii.' its pr«]nTtii'''. 

Phyiiological Action.— This Bubstance is antiseptic, astringt 
in coiici'ntriili.'(i fuiTn. ijiutcrunt, 

Alumnol exi-rl* no toxic influence, except when employed 
Urge qiiuntiticg tind under very favorable conditions for absorpt 
practice, no aluminum was found in the urine of patients who^ 
Ircfttcd by large doses and for a considerable period. 

Tbenpy. — It may be used as a lotion, ointment, or plaster. 
is a serviceable npplicattou to ulcere, wounds, and absce»«es. 
irrigntiou of absc-ess-oavities it may be usod in a 10- to 30-per-M 
lion. A I*per-ccnt. solution is beiicfidul us an injection in goi 
and in endometritis, duo to gonorrInea, sticks or bougies contain' 
S to 5 per cunt, may be employed uilli udvuntage. 

A 4-per-cent. solution dropped into the eye arrests the flow 
for several minutes: n property which will, in certain inetsuccs 
ally faeilttiite examination. 

Dr. Stipanies, of Itudapest. has used alumnol with advanta; 
Ipoalinent of chronic rhiniti*, hypertrophic rhinitis, simple ozffli 
and chronic pharyngitis, tonsillitis, etc. This writer regards th( 
as of special clTicacy in affections of the larynx. Hoarsen<'wi due 
geal catarrh was speedily removed by inhalations of '/,• to 1- 
aqueous solutions. Dr. WollTbcrg recommends a 4-per-eeiit. soli 
the purpose of cleansing the eyes in gonorrhccal ophthalmin. 
Brieger alumnol has been used with success in the treatment of 
inflatinnalion of the middle ear. 

M. Chotiten has reported his experience with this remedy in n' 
three hundred caees. He describes it as a beneficial application 
cres and chancroids, balanitis, and erosions. Solutions continnin 
to 5 per cent, are of value in moist and papular eczema, acne, and 
losi.s. An alcoholic solution of 2.5 lo 10 per cent, is elTeetivc in > 
sycosis, and psorinsi^. Tncorjioratod wiih lanotin, in the strengt 
5. 10, and 20 per cent., it is successful in ecitcina. seborrliaifl capil 
asis, and favus. In crjsipt'loK and lupus alumnol is also emplo 
good ri**ulta. In these alTecfiona Dr. Cholzcn applied the remcd; 
ing to the following formula:— 



I 




ALVKLOE. 



107 



& ilBBOOl 4{ 

IudUd. Biilijrdr 10 

hnffin Hnuhl 13 

tVwiia" 2 

II. rt ft ungt. 



Cm. or 3j, 
Giu. or 3v. 
c.cm. or niiiM. 
liui. or 3m. 



Aluninsm aeetioo-tartariouni. — This uoinpound occurs in tlii' form 

I"! ilmurt -colorless piwis. Iiaviug an gdor resomWing that of vinegar, a 

^bllT-acid and not di^a^t-i^ablu tniitc. It is solulile in water, but not 

■tiicvhol. It is chicfiy us*d ae a mouth-wasU and gargle. A 50-por-cimt. 

•tiariMi i* rot-om mended in the treatment of frost-biie. This siihstauce 

WbtCD applied also as a dressing to wounds. It is non-toiic, astringent, 

*>i(initi«ptir. 

Bonl and Cotol. — ^Alnrainum borotartrate (under the name of boral) 
aoil jiuiiiinuiii Ixiniiiinnnlc (iimier the tillf of cutwl) have bwii lirouaht 
fftmni as anli^-piie and astringent preparations, suitable for use in der- 
•notrfo^ry. Boral i* wlublc nnd cntol i» insoliibU- in wnttr. The iHltcr 
?»aybe rendered soluble by the addition o( tartaric acid, in which form it 
t* ciaimcd to be ii«eful ns an injection in gonorrhceu, Cutol hds been ein- 
plmtd with alleged success in facial erysipelas. 

AliMinani boreformate. — This compound is made by heating to- 

Reiher boric acid, formic acid, and alumina. It oceur* as large crystalline 

•<»i«. Mluble in wnler, eontuins 3;t.5 per cent, alumina, and has b«en u«'ii 

*fc4nibstitnte for other pri^-parntions of aluminum. A solution of boro- 

Inarte, eaturated with ammonia and evaporating the clear fluid, consti- 

tUctalnininHm ammouiu-bnroforinate. 

SottL — I'nder this name an organic salt of aluminum has been in- 
MdoGcd for ute a« an niitiseplic application. Soxal i« oV>tained by dissolv* 
iVtltmuDim hydrate in phenol-sul phonic acid. It is a crystalline eub- 
ain». readily soluble in waler, glycerin, and alcohol. SokoI has an astrin- 
(at l»«te and a faint odor of carbolic acid. A l-per-cent. solution was 
tMad bcDcGcial as on injection in ab8ce«i<, tuberculous ulcerit, etc. 

AITCLOZ is the milky juice of Euphorbia heterodosa, belonging to 
tiL»Riip(i(irt>iaeeiX': a native of Brazil. The usual irritating effects of the 
juice of ptante of this genus is very marlfod in alveloK, which is said to aci 
« • caustic upon the skin ven- ranch like zinc chloride. It has been used 
in trtating concerou? and sypiiiiilic legions with asserted success, and the 
application is comparatively painless. 

AMBEAOBISEA.~AmbergTis is an odorous, fatty substance, found 
in larjre masses Hosting upon the water, and is believed to be produceii 
ii tbe inle^tincfl of the spormacot i-whale. Tt hax a consistence like wax, 
'^'^'"■•r\s at the temperature of the hand, and melting below the boiling- 
f iiatrr: it ID «lmo«t entirely volatiliKed by heat, and is inflammable. 
13 "/mpoeitioD it i* like choleslerin, and is not «nponifiable. It is believed 
la hate (omc anlinpacmodio efTcetn, and is official in the f>ench ("odev as 
I IO-per<ent. tincture. The dose of ambergris is 0.38 to 4 <Jm. for gr. 



'C»f»4iii >» a Bnturot niinrriil product whkh elcMcly rpurmblc* wliilp wnx. II 
nsiM* ttl » mixture of wiliJ paranin with sonio OKTgcnnlml (khIIP'. and i>> fniind In 
CaKria aad (outhttn I'lah. 



bM 




Eniulsuiu Ammoniaci iU.8.1',).— Eniulsiftn of Ammoniac (4 per ten 
4 to IS F.rm. ((IT f3i-lv|. 

KmpUfllrum Aiiiinoiiiaci oum HyAr».rgyra (U.8. 1'., 1). P.I.-— Ammonia 
etuy Iluitrr (U'.S.P. coouiina ninmunia«. 78: inervurir, ISj with olcatv a 
8; dSltitcil Htf'tli:' acid. 100; ami J«nil jilaittm. 

iMi-tunk Amiiiuniarri (it. I'.i. — Ammoiiiuvum Mixture (amtiitiniAo, 6; 
Tolu, 10: di>lill<^d wntci, IM). Da*o, 15 Lo 30 c.cm. (or I3"'jl- 

Fhannaoolog7. — Ammoniap is a jrum-resin obtaioed from Doj 
moniac-tini (UinlH-llifi-ric). cunUining a volatile oil. It occurs in tli 
tears, of variable size, hard and brittle, having a faint, unpleasant 
n bittiT-swtTi, sonifwliut acrid, lastc. It form* a niilkv cmuU 
rubbed up witit water. . 

Therapy.— Tt is u stimiiUting oxpcctornnt ami laxative, and' 
aBafetida in il» elTeels upon the svstem. It has been used, with a 
relieve chronic broncliilis anri asthma. It is wpeciully bencfieial i 
bronehitis associated with emphysema, or occurring in aged persi 
algid ttufic of cholera has been treated in the Finnic HoKpitel by 
moniac internally, conjoined vith stimulanla and the hypodermic 
of ether. Wnrni bnths werir also iidniinifttcml. The plocters are 
glandular and joint ewellin^. By fti^inj: ammoniac and other ri 
caustic polassa resorcin is obtained, which is a valuable antiecpt 
otScial. 

AUUONITJU.— Metallic ammouium h kuuv.'n only in its com 
which are nuitierons and important. According to Ampere, its co 
ia NU,, therefore b compound radical, uud as tiueh it forms talis 
analogous to potassium salts. 

V. S. P. Pnparationt {LiijutJ). 

Aqua AiiiiiiDnite. — WoUr of Ammonto (containH 10 per cent, of gun- 
nial. lloitc, U.1-2 to O.eO (•.eiii, (or mil-tl. 

Anna Aiimicinisf Fortior. — StroiipT Wnlir of ,\miiioniii (2S ptr per 
nilimoniik 1 . KxIcniHl uw. 

I.iiiitnpniiiin AmmoniiP. — l.iniinMit of Aiiimouiu, (iiiiimoniu*«Mtpr, 3J 
5; eoltwriweil oil, (10 <".i-iii,|. For pii)Bni«l imp. 

Spiritu* .\inmoiiiiL-. — Spirit of Amtnoiiiu (10 jwr ceiit.t. Do-ie, 0,30 
(or iiiv-xvi. I 

SpiritUH Aiiiiiioiiiie A lo ma lieu*. — Aroiiintii.' S[iirit of Atiiiiionla. Do) 
C'.cm. (or (Ju'ijI. 

l.iiiuiir Ainiriunii Awltitia. — tlulution of AminoniiiTii AMatP. Spli 
dcn-niit. Do»c 4 to 15 i-.vm. (or fSi-ivl. 

'I'iiicliirH i.iii»iH<-i Ainiiiriuial«.^l)i)>w, 2 to 4 e.om, (or niijtx-lxl. 

Tiuflii™ Vnlcrinnip Ammoniatn. — Do*c, 2 »o 4 c.cm. lor t3ia-j|. 

}{. P. Prtparation* {Lifjuid). 

liquor Animoniie. — Solution uf .Ammonia [contains 10 per c«Rt» by 
ammonia, NH,I. 




AmrotatTH. 



U;aar Ammoniw PoiUs. — titT<>ng Solution of Aimnoiiis (3S.5 per cent., by 
«ri(lil. of ttnmoaw, KH,|. 

IJijunr Ammotiil j\<'FtMli«.— Holutiou of Aniiiioniurii Aivtatv. Uo»«. T.S to IfS 
tjim. tor Bn-Tj} . 

Uquiir Ainmonii CitratU. — Solution of Ainnionlum Cllrat''. Dom?, 7J> 1o HH 
um.\ataSiTii. 

Sjurili)* Amnion iic Aiomntkiw.^Aromntk Spirit of Ammonia. Spiritui Ammo- 
■r (ranpncrtw. ^rit of tU Volatili^. Dusir. I.SQ to 2.40 vvm. (ur rnxx-xl). 

S|iirilu» Anmionioi Fcrtidua. — Fttid Spirit of Aniitionin. Dose, 1.21) to 2.40 vjum. 

LifiiniHrtuni AiiuiioiuiE. — Liciment of Ammonia taulution of uiunonia. SS ccnui 
ilMoU-oil. i>«jun.-. olirc-oil. SOccm.). 

imaonis is contained iu twvi-ral of tlie B. F. ofGdul tinctuivs, al«u in th« Ata- 
aiaktri LiQinmt of Camphor. 

r. S. P. and Ji. J', i'reparationa (^'o/lrf). 
imnemU lodldum (U. S. P.}.~Aniniunium Iodide. Dok, 0,32 ti> O.OS Gm. (or 

p. T-l,, 

Amnonii Kitru |U. S-P.).— Ammoninm N'ltrat«. Doie, OM to 2 Gm. (or gr. 
iBmonu Valeruuiu (U.S.P.).— Ammonium VnlcriaiiaU. Dose, 0.13 to 0.32 Gm. 

lH«rl]i>oi Ammonii Cliloridi (U.S. P.I . — Troche* of Ammonium Chloride. 

Clmnhiiiniini AmDianiatum (U. B. P.).— Aminoni.iti>d Glycfrrhizin. Dow, D.03 
■*U1Gbi. iw gr. «»-vt, 

Bfdnrgynini Aiumoniatum (U.&P.). — Ammoninted Mereuty, White Pr««i|>i- 
fck I'wd only citrmBllj-. 

Anoioaii ficnzoa* IV. 8. P.. B. P.).— Ammonium Bcnxoatc. Dok, 0.13 to 0.65 Gm. 
"p. iiii. 

.\uiniunii Urvuiidum |U-&.P., B.P.). — Ammonium Bromide. Dom, 0.05 to 1 Gm. 

Anmonii CnTbonn* IU.&.P., B.P.). — Ammonium Carbonate. Dom, 0,13 to 0.32 
•UnOm. (or gr. ii-r or xi). 

Aiunonil Chloridum (U.S. P., B. P.).— Ammonium Qiloridc. Dow. 0,32 to 1.30 

•^iwp. T-XI). 

Asiuonii Phoirphaj (B. P.).— Phosphate of Ammonln. Dotte, (l.'ii to 1.30 Gm. 
I "p. T-XX|, 

Pb&nnacoli>E7 and Fhyciolo^cal Action. — .Atnmi^nia is a ksspoub bodj, 
ItfUt imlating. even sutTocating, to the air-passa^oe, and may ca\ise aoute 
■nmmatton with oedema of the t;lotti«. It stimiilnte; the trlfocifil nerve, 
^mmt the blood-tension bv reflex action upon the vasomotor centre, and 
pmnti syncope. If applte<J to the skin it ih nibefni'ii'itt, and, if dilTii»i<in 
I •BfUnted. it will soften nnd vesicate the skin. The strong solution also 
pUgect vesication and softens the cntiele. .Ammonium chloride, on the 
*Aslund. is cooling and absorbent. The chloride, after absorption, hastens 
^ilbthal proliferation of the bronchial mucous membrane and ItqucifteB 
IwifBed mucous Mcretion*. The enrbonote in probably decomposed in the 
t^tfna tract, and ita effects ate identical with Ihoee of the ga» or of aqua 
^nmia in stimidnttng the hcjirt and circulation. 

Ammonia acta upon the panclionie nervous system especially, and has 
OTe tflfect upon the higher centre*, thu» diiTcnug from alcohol. It in- 
BWet the functional activity of the spinal cord and is a promplly ncting 
Ofiie stimulant. It* aceelerator ni-rvi's and the heart itself are stimulated 
^medicinal do«e« of ammonia. Blood-presBure is moderately inereatied, but 
it Itiigv doecd ammonia interferett with the i>xyg<-n -carrying power of the red 
Uwd^orpaselee. and if long continued produces emaciation, .\mmonia 
Sfctnie stimulates the respiratory centre. In »mall do«e» the aromatic spirit 



110 



PHARUACETTICUI. THERAPECTIO A0EST9 OR DHCOS. 



of ammooia Ket« ai- nn antncid ani3 a canniaative; but the protract 
anunonta, hy neutralizing the gai<tric juice, (!nfeelile« djjcostion, 
originatv gti«lro-ink-8tmal catarrh. Injected into the blood-rei 
blood- corpusc leg are Uablp to become cllaBolved, ami after death ( 
rc'iiiiiiiis fluid. Ammnuia likt^'K'isc nK-iEts in maintsining the soltiti 
fibrin of the blood. Such injections are likelv to be fothiwed by 
The carlKiiiiiti; may be given for the tame purpose by the mouth, but 
doseB is apt to cause vorailing. Ammonia iniTpases Ihe seerelions 
of Ihc broiichinl mucous nii-mbran«H, but also thv inloslinaK and m 
iliarrhtfB. The Eolution of ammonium acetate acts upon Die ekiu, < 
in fever. Ammonia has no *p»;cifll action upon (he kidney*, vxcepf 
urea is increased by oxidation of ammonia, according to the obaei 
Dr. llencc Jone.4, uho aUo found Dial nitric acid made it« appearai 
urine after the administration of ammonia or its salts: it is elimin^ 
cialiy by the kidneys, broncho-pulmonary tract, and skin, Anini 
weaes mark«d antiseptic virtnes. 

Poisoning,— A !* tlie ammonia-water, or "spirit of hartshorn,'' 
in every household, cases of poisoninj; by accidental ewallowing i 
occur. When the stronger solution.^ are swallowed, there is grea 
burning pain alon^ tlic cc«ophagtts and in the t-tomach, with choki 
tions from inhaling the sas or the admis-ilon of a few drops into tl 
After death there are evidences of softening and acute inRamnmtJ 
stomach. 

Treatment.. — ^Vomiting ii likely to occur immediately, but u 
administration of large quantities of bland liquid, such as water, (w 
would he sorvicpnbl<>, and if the solution of the pas has boon tak- 
be neutralized willi vinegar or lemon-juice. TreatmenI should bc 
instituted ill order t" avoid such a decree of inllammation as wou! 
stricture of the trsophagus. It the piilicnt is in u state of shock, 
fusion of colTei- mav be administered by the mouth or rectum ani 
of digitalis or tlrvclininc given hypodi'nnicully. 

Therapy. — The local uses of ammonia have been already intin 
sprains, bruises, and old rheumatic swellings the liniment is of ser 
eifdiy if »oine oil of turpentine or chloroform be added. 

The water of ammonia may very s<rr\'icciibly end-r into the co 
of a stimulaling application in alopecia. In the headache which at 
ordered menstruation or the menoiiousi- Dr. Tilt has seen Itas-pnil' 
lotion aflord much relief. This preparation contains tiO c.cm. (c 
stranger ammonia, fili.8 Gm. (or .^ij) i)f couinion sail, S,2Ti c.cm. (oi 
spirit of cflniphor, and 1 litre (or OiifSij) of water. The liquid may ' 
upon a sponpe or linen cloth. Weak solutions of ammonia will i 
relieve the ilcliing of urticaria. For this purpose 7.3 c.cm. (or fJ 
official water of ammonia may be added to a pint of water, or 
carbonate may be employed in the strength of I Gm. (or .y) to 130 
it^iv) of water. The foltowing combinations of ammonia are also 
for external use:^ 

H Aquw aninionlts, 

Ext. srninc II., 

T.ln. oniMinU. 

Otei tetrbinllilnw ,,,..i..t....i. 

M. ^.: Itub in well Mvcral tlni«a ii day. 



...1..... ML 401 exm. oi 
For rlieuffialiani, brulMS, ( 



A 



AHtiONirv. 



Ill 



9 Ub. vnmonUa mi rem, or fSij, 

SC ctaloratonni 301 cvm. or ti). 
n. lamthal* SOl (.cm. or (Hi. 

Tinrt. upli dO\ vxm. or fjj. 

M. ftt|;.i Applj* well over Ike mirfAce, vh«n ntccMnry (or lumfaaga, iwutbI^U, 
I tUHim 



Tine 



rinrt. oipiid mt 19 

Spt. laTUDiluko ,,.,, 3Q 

tUii'L. nuvid TOBiioe ....>,.., 19 

Lin. «unpbiM« TG 



cttn. or (Km. 
(.cm. or fj}. 
o.em. or (Jin. 
c-riD. or fSiiw- 



M. 8%.: Applj' niUi frlrtioo to the scalp for toM of hair and for dKntdralT. 

In DcunlgU thii]ible-bli.<ii«ring niny be pncticed over the painful 8poU 
Vallcix. br Orupjiing some stronger aqua aminonife upon absorbent cotton 
~ eonlioiii^ il with s watch-glnia or thimble iti rontuit with ihe Mkin. 
'»piht of nmmimia is ■ good appli<-4ition to wounds caused by stings of 
or gnako-bitea. In the latter eaue, aininonia-wat«r tan abo be inject«d 
rnn in ordvr to counUnict the d«.-pre»j^ing <jiFecte of the venom. In 
ing by f^^vrer-naa intravenouii injection of the official aqua ammonia has 
A minoriitira -chloride solulton (8 to 15.5 Gm. to 473 c.cm., or 3ii- 
nil i-...,tr,ves ecchymosif from contuxiom. ITii* Mlution is applicable 
.i>]ymiti« aft^r the acute stage has subsided. Jt is, in fact, 
■111 'in-RBiDK in the latter stage of Duperllcial inflammation, and jprO' 
nh¥<>Tptton of exudation. Dr. J. II. Frvcman, of Nevada City, Csl., 
- ammonium chloride in the treatincnt of rhu»-toxi> 
IIcdiK»ohv6$Gm. {or5ij) of the salt in 120 c.cm. (or 
I of wati^r, ami directn it to be applied to the affected parts two or three 
m day. Thv swelling and Uie hnniing pain rapidly disappear. 
Intemaliy. ammonia is invaluable as a cardiac and nervous stimulant in 
imonia and all typhoid eondilion^. in poisoning by pni»ic acid, in syn- 
, «od in heat-exhaustion. The carbonate is the most eligible form, given 
■ of 0.3:^ to 0.6,5 Cm. (or gr. v-x). In capillary l>n>uchiti« in infants 
I faOuwin; answers a good purpose: — 

K Amtnonii nrl»mUa •ii» |7S to ItGO Gm, or cr, sii-xxiv. 

Arrap. TaluUnt ^ i& ecu. or fSiv. 

1*1. aBiinoaU acotjitb - - . Ts] c.cm. or fjilw. 

SC Stg.: Give a tMapooaful tjtrj hour or every two boun. 

.Acror«ling to Dr. Beverley UobiniMm, ainmoniuni carbonate, in rather 
rar'^ '■■ ■■■ntly-r*pcatrd do«c», is vcrj' efficient in aborting a cold. The 
ru.. la is often most eflicient as an expectorant, especially in the 

> ttagc ijl troncliitia:— 

% jUKBKMiii nub. , 

SJrr. aeo^J* - . . . 

r-HdipeMc. ... 

*Tr. To!ot»ni 

•p«. chlnm'"""' 

Ati auap^'Mi^ H- 



Qm. or 3J. 
v.via. or Bit. 
c.era. or fSllJ. 
cciii. or fSj. 
t.rm. or Oil], 
ecm. or f3iv, 



aunpbonB q. B. ad 120 

IL Ste. : One to two t«a«)>oonfiila trrT; hour or two until rvti«r«d- 

la the broncho-pneumonia of children, >farfan ordersi: — 



l^^^^ntam raentliol a* •uj^rf^i'^l to M«irlia<lAl« (too "The Riirn Phsmia- 
w i^QodtiBi ia MMDp<«J of nutitliDl. 3 partai chlotofonn, 4 partsi aail olivc- 



PHARMACKmCAL TQERArEUTTC AOEKTS OR DBtNlS. 



B Annion. amUt., 

Sodii bcitMikt •« tlOO Gm. or pt 

8p. Tinl rail <.......... I... 4] ccm. or Q 

Syr. Tulnuni. 

8)T. aenctn ma 401 r.f m. or fj 

M. SIk.: DrMrrUiioonful erety hour or two aceofding to age. Tbe (| 
bruLd>' IB >lw> legulBUd atvarding to age. 

The vnluc of ummonium carbonate in ecarlet fever has been 
by Peart, Willdns<iii,and Witt. It na-i employed in 0.20 to 0.32 Oi 
iii-v) (lospd, hourly, or at longer intervals, according to the severi 
caee. It reduces fever and <"erelir«l exeilemu-nt nnd promnle^ de 
solution of ammonium acetate is also highly recommended in e 
The plan is to administer the remedy in lar^c doiii(*, which have be 
to be well borne, even by children. The carbonate has likewise 
played in measles, in which disease Kin)^r slates that he han used 
witii considerable bcm-fit. The same salt ie valued by gome pnictil 
the treatment of small-pox and erysipelaa. 

Delirium Iremen*. oeing UKunlly associntcd with cerebral aiU 
weakened cardiac action, may be benefited by the use of ammot 
bonate. JU value in thi« nlTection is oonitpicuoii«. according to tl 
ncnce of the symptoms just mentioned. The solution of ammonia: 
was preferred by the late Dr. \ormnn Kerr. 

Ammonium carbonate and acetate have been used in diabetee 
Kichhorst vditi-:' that in two of hia case* the use of the carbonati 
lowed by rapid disappearance of the sugar from the urine; yet thi 
of the pulmonary lesions waa not interrupted 

Pcrcira iwys that liquor ammooii aci-tatis is available id thoB 
fever of a continued type where all violent action has subsided and 
is not much disordered. Its diaphoretic action should he proi 
diluents and by warm clothing. 

Thf aromatic spirit "f ammonia may be given in thriiatenei 
and .ihould be well diluted wilb water when administered. It is a 
in hcat-exbaiislion with mtiall quantities of tincture of capsicum, v 
relieves nausea. It is likewise of service in the sour stomach and ty 
which not infrequently occur in hysterical women. Nervous he 
often relieved by the same preparation. Ammonium chloride may I 
istercd thus as an hepatic atimulant: — 

Gin. or 3 
Om. or S 
e.t'ni. or t 
e.cm. or fl 
H. Sig.: A dtesvrtspooulul to a tablespoonful in water tliree or four t 

The chloride increases the flow of bile (Ringer), and i*, thereft 
in torpor of the liver. *ick headache, biliousness, and also in jaund 
obstruction of the Rnll-ductB. It has some reputation as an cmm 
Ammonium chloride is esteemed of value in catarrh of the stoi 
bowels, and Barlhulow considers it useful in the first stage of cirr 

M. Marotte esteems this salt as of value in cholera. He adm 
in doses proportionate I0 the severity of the disease and staten tV 
duce.« a return of warmth and perspiration and also stimulates th 
to action. Dr. J. J. I'rus.'wwitach regards ammonia an one of the hi 



it Ammnnii chlor .........••>•■.■• 18 

Sodii rblorid 4 

V.xL tamx. R. ^i... 60 

IVfocti ftlocs CO. fld 240 




AUMOKICM. 

rtimnlciiU in cholera. lie gives it b)' hypodermic injection, making use of 
StvSifrop* of th« satuntcd solution diluted with a eyriBgcful of water. 
Tk(ff«cl iG prompt, and continues for some time. It may altio l>c given 
ffll«mil]j in the »omc dUcaxe. 

Ui iayal]^ and neural^a this salt is capable of aflording relief, and 
ibaoid be gitffn in r«pi<ily- increasing dose« until the etfert is ohtjiined or 
Ht ^cm Decomes intolerant of the remedy. It has also been used in in- 
tBiuHnit brtnaturia. It is b«at given in capsules, on account of it« »au- 
ntto^ Ks-water ta^te. 

Dt- il. CanipbeH'a favorite prescription for neuralgia of the fifth n«n,-e 



I Anaraoii cUoridi 2 

Tioet. getenBti ...,,,,.,.. >...... 

TImL BMiiiiti ^.> 

to. glvcyrrhloa fl 4 

ifua q. «. ad 30 

N. Sigr.: To bn takra In oat i}(if» tvcrv bnnr n-h«ii the pain conis on. until 
ttnJNa (Tr uken.' 



Gm. or gr. xxx. 
50 c-cni. or mviiM. 
06 ccm. or mj. 

ccm. or (3J. 

c.pm. or ijj.— M. 



Dr, G. Come states that ammonium chloride is an excellent remedy in 
litii from varioini causcK. Ho gives it in doncs of 1 to 2 Om. (or gt. xr- 
a^ud obtains marked and rapid relief. 

Is Vronchitis in it» fir»t stage, with deficient secretion, it may be com- 
Vuiu foUows:— 



B AdumbU chtOfidi S 

Mmbm iodidi I 

Itact. Inracnanhn i 

UiH. BlycyRhitw comp. .....q. ■. ad ISO 

U. Sig.; Dime, a ULbUspoonful every four hours. 



Om- at Sij. 
Gm. iiT gr, xvj. 
ccm. or mxxx. 
O'Cni. or IBiv. 



This formula i^ of special service in acute catarrhal pneumonia. The 
^intt is piarticularly valuable in chronic bronchitis accompanied by pro- 
vtMrction. It ts averted that the continued use of large doses of this 
iBir excite ulceration of the stomach. It is also a remedy of great utility 
Itnpical or mabirial fcvvrs, such as are encountiTCfl in India. In thc>ie 
^of a highly inflammatory type, it must be given in doses not lees than 
It* 1.30 Gm. (or gr. xv-xx) veveral tinioi* daily. 

Dr. Attjgate,' of Colombo. Ceylen, reports excellent results from am- 
_MiiOMi chloride in »cuti>, tropical dvwintery. given in -i Gm. (or 7t)) dosea 
r tow hours and the patient placed on mi !k-and -arrow root diet. In the 
_ , ftlT af cases blomi diwippcand from the sIooU on tbv thini or fourth 
JiT- Id a few cases this treatment was supplemented by small doses of opium, 
la India ammonium chloride is esteemed to be especiaily valuable in malarial 
famof a highlr-inflammable type; itshotdd be given in doses of 1 to 1.30 
fim. (or gr. xv>xx). 

In catarrhal conditions of the respiratory tract Kra);auer recommends 
Ik UK of ammonium chloride in the form of a ^pruy. .Ammonia carbonate 
MT also be used as an emetic in such cases. In the later stages of pneumonia 
oprdiiration ia promoted by the same remedy. Liquor ammonii acetatis is 



'JTnr rof* UnlimI Jiivntal. Srpt. 23. 18W- 
• BtttUh Uniiail Joia-nal. Hay 7. 180B. 



PHARUACKCTtCAI. 



RIUPRUTIO AOBK 



OB DBt 



one of our moxt reliable diaphoretics, anA vnlcn into lite cor 
many fever mixtures: — 

B KxL HpoDiti II . . IS cMii. or I 

Sbt. chlarnfnrmi IS txra. «r 

I.i^. ammonii aoeUtia 7i (.cm. or 

M. Sig.: Give a detterUpoonful eitry two or Uirce hooni in fever. 

Both tb« ammonium chlorido and Ihc eolution of tho amin 
tate are efleclively given for the purpose of quickly removing th 
aliiohol or sobering a drunken person. 

Ammonium bromide bae a special influence over vhooping-i 
may I>c substiluled for the potn*li salt in epilepfiy and ncrvoua nfte 
double ealt, ammonium and rubidium bromide, has recently been i 
8« a remedy for epilepsy. I'he nubf^ancc is readily aoiulile in water 
is that of the other bromides. Active doses arc from 2 Gm. (or gr 
ward; as much a:^ 8 Om. (or r>ij) daily, or even more, may be given, 
in syrup of lemon and vater. Laufeuauer hoe used it in all thi 
states with the exception of bystero-epileptty.* In acute rhcumi 
Dervous symptoms Da Costa reported good results from the use of d 
bromide (1.30 to 2.60 Gm., or gr. xx-xl) several times daily. | 

A very suitable prescription for insomnia and In gouty subject 



a Sodii bromldi 21 

TSdcI. lupulini 00 

S])! chlorofamil 

.Aqute ctiniplione 00 



&0 Gm. or I 
con. or 1 

SO con. or 1 
c.iKi. or 1 



M. Sig,: Two bMupoonful* in water «vcty hour or two when neceM 

The valerianate enjoys some reputation for its influence over 
manifedatione, and may be given in capsules (0.32 to 1.30 Gm., oi 

or tif an elixir" (not official): — 

K Aniinoiiil Tftkrianati^ 6(S0 Um. or c 

RlUir mirantii rubri .,,....,.,.,...,,...,,,,.,.S40| com. or I 
Aquie ammonii q. (. ad ivnct. ne 

H. Sig.i Dow, n tahlMpooaful. 

Of the remaininj? salta little need be said. The phosphate i 
and has been used in goiil, which may be connected with deficient 
of urea. The bcnzoate.. where the urine is alkaline, as in cystitis, 
cates, 08 it is cxcreled as hippuric acid, and thus pryveni* pho«j 
posits. The nitrate is only used to prepare nitrous-oxide gas. whic' 
by exposure to heat. The sulphate is usfd in mnkina; other salts. 1 
may be employed in syphilitic affections, where the other iodidi 
depressing. 

In the strength of 2 Qm. (or Ses) to 30 c.cm. (or fjj) of glyt 
monium iodide is recommended os an efficient local application to 
tonsils, being painted upon the glands once daily with a eamel's-hi 
Ammonium borate, nccording to Professor LaslikeTich, reduces f 
tion and, at times, the pyrexia of pulmonary tuboreulosis. 

■ Mrdiral ButUlin. July. ISM. 

'In l)i<' Nntionnl Pnrmiilnry the elixir of amnionin vslirJ-inAtr c 
and a little rhluroforiii to cover the odor and Innle- of the fn\{. at 
present 0<13 Gm. (or gr. i;i to 4 c.cm. (or tSj), a> in the formula 



oA 




AMYGDALA SUAHA. 



115 



Ai(ia untuotuK mnv be udministerecl by cautions inhftlation, bypodcr- 
ts vt \>\ th«.- mouth, ill ^hock. Id ctilorofona-BarcosiE, in poisouin); by 
ic »cid or hydrogfin sulphide, and also in heart-olot, thrombosis. 
ftl(t-ix>iv<>ning. Wlicre a prompt effect is needed, the remedy should 
i:(vtl directly into a vein (O.tiO to 1.20 c.cni., or mx-xx) diluted with 
lilisMl wal«T. 



iirrODALA AMABA (V. S. P., B. P.).— Bitter Almond. 

AlCYOQALA DITLCIS (EJ. S. P., B. P.)-— Sweet Almond. 
I ' )tharumcopa>ia£ roco^ize two varieties of almond (BoMCCie): 1. 
.la omnrn, \hv *<s-d vl I'runu* Amvgdalus; variety, Amar*. i. 
hili'iK, or sweet almond, which is the seed of Prunus AmygdaUu; 

Freparniions. 
OUtiin AlBjrgfUlK AlBinB IV. S. 1'.).— Oil of Bilttr Almona. Dow, OOIS to OjM 

A^«a Anvgdala Anarv (U.&P.)- — Mtter-AhiiODd Wat«r. Itow, 16 c.cn. («r 

ftyni|MM Atuvirdabn (U. S. P.).— Sjrup of jMnumd, "Ormf Syrup (containing 
I Mk Mvt and bittrr abBuodil. Do»«. T.6 la 16 r.«n. (or l3ii-(3u). 

Sfaritu* ARiyi:>Ula> Amatm (U-S-P.K Spirit ot BItUr Almond*. DOM. IXW to 
|4e«.««. lor OM'XX). 

■oktun Atnygdahe <U.S.P.).— Eranlfton of Almond (>wMt Blmonda). Dom. 
' ~?to IS KMn. (or ntl-QM). 

CMmm AmjgdalK ExnrtMnm (U.S. P.t,~ExpmMd Oil of Almond (cither bitter 
nmri al»«mb(. Dow. 1.6 to IS com. (or ail-tSMi. 

r«rMuia A<)un> Row (U.S.P., B.P.). — Ointment ot Row-water ("Cold 

Ui««Bi Aniy^t* (B.P.).— Almond'oU (oxpresu-d from tho Bitler or Sweet 

lUfAnra Amrtrdalw IB.P.I. — Almond Mixture leompound povilrr of alnioadis 
> •im.^ dMitlnl iialttr, 100 c.vra-|. 

Pallia AtaffAmin Compasitun ^B, P.). — Compound Powder of Almonds (cootalna 
-ft al«Mjada. SO Qm.; »ti^r, Id Om.i acacia, 'ZM lini.). 

n&rmaeolofy. — Both t'amrtivK of almond contain fixed oi! and emul- 

1, but only the bitter variety has also amygdalin. Hydrocyanic 8cid is 

3Md «bm amygdnlin and cmiilKin react upon each other, and it is to 

^ acid thus formed that the sedative and anttBnasmodic effects of oil of 

■iKr almoDd are due. ItK toxic effects arc ul»o iai-ntic-al with hydrocyanic 

fH, tod call for the same treatment. 

Tkcrspy. — lilt- volalite oil of bitter almond mutt not be confounded 

• :■ ihr III id oi! obtained from either variety by eipres-sion, the latter being 

• ' !-'■] application, especially in the form of ting, aqiuc rn»a', to irritable 

tiapprd hands or Upe. In doeea of 4 to 7,5 c.cm. (or f5i-ij), it is laxa- 
- uiU OUT be ii»d as a fliibstitute for olive-oil. The oil of bitter almond 
ftecn empUifeU in emulsion as a local application in pruritus, and in- 
"" - ' same pttrpoccs a» hydrocyanic-acid solution. The oflicial 
witli sweet almonds, forms a soothing application, and may 
««Bbij>r<l a<<:ording to these formuln: — 

a r—l*. amntdate 301 c.cm. or I3j. 

fli^^h —■*-"" 41 Ora. or SJ. 

fli^nl *l ^""^ or Jj. 

jf^ |ita: For kical apFlicatloii to tr«ckln and akin (>igR»etttat]«BA. 



116 



PHARUACKUTICAL TSEBAPBI'TIC AOEiCTli OH DKC0S.1 



H Buiult. BTiiyK'l'ili^ • • 30 

liydnirK. Mot. eniroi 

Ammon. cliloridl 

M. Sig.: \'i>luable in kkin pigmi^nUUonk. 

B Uydnirg. ehlor, mitoi \iMi tu 113 

Emuli, aniygdaln 120[ 

IL Big.: Pot cxUrnal urn In acno roM««R. 



ccni- 
Gm, 



Gm. ni 

C-dtlp <v 



,1 



Under the name of Rcsorbin Lebermann has introduced 
which if) said to be very readily iiliKorbt-d by Ihe i^kin. It is madi 
nitying purot almond-oil wiUi dktilled water, a small quantity 
vox, K(^]atin, aad Boap,-and is brouzht to an exact constiitcnce by tb 
of a little lanolin. It ia recommended aa an excellent vehicle for ac 
in medication n( Ihe skin, and may l»e u«cd in iclithyo«i«, pilyria 
derma, sclerema neonatorum, seborrhieic eczema, pnirigo, and* act 
sorbin will, it ia claimed, promote the absorption of mercury bj 

Bitter-almond water is a good vehicle in which to adminiet« 
drugs. The syrup of almond may be upiironriately addvd to cough 
The «mulEioQ of almond ii; un agreeabiG demulcent, and may re 
employed as a vehicle o( more active remedies. 

Flour prepared from blanched sweet almonds ia used in mak 
cakes, and puddings for diabetic patients. Almond-meal is 
Hoap for the toilet, rendering the skin soft and smooth. 



4 



AMYl NITEIS (U. S. P., B. P.}.— Amyl Kitrite. A liquid ) 
about 8(1 per cent, of amvl nitrite, together with variable quontil 
determined compounds^ (('. S. P.). 

Dose, 0.015 to 0,06 e.cm. (or m'/^-j), internally; by inhalatii 
0.30 com. (or miii-v). 

Fbannscolo^. — A clear, pale-yellowish liquid, of an ether 
odor, an aromatic taste, and a neutral or slightly-acid reaction. II 
ble in watpr. hut snliible in alcohol, ether, and chloroform, in all pi 
It volatilizee at ordinary tcmpcratiirov. and ehoutd be kept iu a 
pered hoItl«, or in small glass pearls, each containing 0.18 to 0.3C 
miii-v), Veiwels or tubes containing this fluid must be handled wi 
it readily explodes at ordinary temperatures. It results from the i 
nitric acid upon amylic alcohol, and may be cootaminalitd witl^ 
hydrocynnic acid. 

Fliytiological Acttoa.— Xo local etTcctg are aHcrihed lo thi« re 
when lukoti internally, by the digealive tract, or by inhalation o 
very remarkable phenomena are produced. Tiiere is at once observ 
ing of thi! face, with fulness and throbbing of the temporal v 
patient complaining of li™iiuebc. fuliies*. and oppression, with 
and confusion of ideas. The reflex excitability of the cord is d 
The brain is indirectly influenced, and its functions <'xnlted by the 
congestion. The action of the heart becomes excessively rapid, wit 
ing of the pulae and marked lowering nf arterial tension, owing i 
«ral enlargement of the vessels, due to action of the drug upon the 
coats of the arteries, and not to the nervous system or vasomott 
larger doses occaKon failure of cardiac action, arrest taking place i 
According to the invest ign lions of tb»- late Pmf. Leech, of Mancl 



i 



AUYL NITBIS. 



in 



irtnin affect eg)>eciaUy the blood and inuftcks. They depress the serre- 
eaon anS nerves; but tbvir uction in tliitt n-ypt-ct is lc«>t marked. Amy] 
\ ■oite diminishes oxidation, and the arterial and venous blood both become 
ifAtmse dark Oolor. Itespiration iind tcmpcnilitrt; »rr both reduced. 
I hpr a)>pesn in the urine after inhalation, probably as the result of in- 
Omd circidation in the tiver. It incrcaiiw trie tlow of iirine, pocsibly, in 
tktane way, or because the lirer-sugar may act as a diuretic. In poisoning 
tnatmyl ni1ril« the blood a»iimc« a cliaractcrirtic chocolate color, due U> 
4ifmnatioii of met hemoglobin. 

la K>m«- patients the nitrites excite gastric irritation and diaTrhoea. 
IWcatir Leech rejtrards these compounds as useful, unirritatin;: diuretics. 
Jstl oitritc is iibsorbi-d and elimiouted with gn-ni rapidity. 

Tbanpy. — t>om a consideration of its physiological action Dr. Lauder 
BnctoD TTis induced to recommend the u«e of amy! nitrite in the parox- 
jBf of anfnnn pectoris, and clinical experience has shown the value of fhe 
■Btdy. Whether Ihc relief be due to lowering of adi'riul U'n*i(in. an Bninton 
maii, or to the alleviation of the neuralRic condition, as claimed by Johr- 
p*. is not vcn- material, since by inhalation of a few drops of this remedy 
tkpttient has complete control over the attacks. Dvspnrea due to oth«r 
hu of cardiac dii^me and to pulmonary legions i» also relieved by admin- 
.italiim of this remedy. It is particularly adapted to symptoms- dependent 
iditMse of the miimi valve, but aortic inoom|ietenre. accordinK to Pro- 
Leerb, offers no objection to its use in small (juantitlei^ when the 
ilWna tf npprcjix-'l. !n BKlhuia, where the spfl.iimodic element is strong, 
iBjl nitrite promptly affords amelioration. 

nttmann nvommended as an injection in chronic cystitis, where the 
•nttion is catarrhal and has a bad odor: — 

I Imj-J nilrit ISO tern, or mv. 

iq, dentiHat. ; ISO] c.nn, or (JW. 

K fig.: Tnblefpoontiil In water •uffldftnt for a vhicbI inji^liun. 

Anyl nitrite can often be resorted to with benefit for Ecasicknese, e^pe- 
eiHf in this fonnula, pven by Marlindale: — 

Blmyl nitritlt 11 c.cm, or ihtvj. 

Ah«h(Flio TJS c.cm. or fSij. 

Fulr. Iraffaranlhtt 138 Oni. or gr. vj. 

A^Off <l(«lillatir q. s. aiJ 120] <.CTn. or liiv. 

TW povttMTd sum tnmaeanth should Iw in • drr four ounce bottle, into whioh 
I^ uil ulntion is poured, and the watn added grailiially alttrwnrd. Sltak* irolL 
tw t to r.S f-otn. (or f3i-ij). 

In epilepsy, telnnus, neumlgia. chlornform-narcows, nnd in strychnine 

piHoinjc omyf nitrite has been tried with (ratifying resuHs; in whoopinj;- 

_n^gi it has failed. Benefit results from its inhalatinn in muraljric dysmtn- 

Wa. and it is re<^ommended by Dr. Winterburn for the relief of after- 

Dt His practice is to satuntte a small piece of tissue-paper with 5 or 6 

iftf the nitrite and place it in a tightly-corked 8 Gm. (or .lij) vial, from 

ibd the patient csn inhale when the pain is severe. Professor Benedikt 

Koatnenas n mixture of H parts of amyl nitrite with 10 partg of volatile oil 

•f fouel, lor the relief of angiospastic hcmicnnia. Five drops are to be 



118 rHARttACKDTIOAL TRBnAPkOTIC AOBNTS OK DBCGS. 

poiirud Upon a handkerchief and cautiously inhaled. Amyl nitTi( 
ficial in migraine dependent upon locul vaHomolor spaitin, 1 

In aneemic epileptics the inhalatian, immediatelv before a fit, i 
time« prevent the fit, Th« remedy should not he given to pld 
Upticfi, nor to elderly people with brittle arteries. It is particulan 
to thofte ca*C8 of epilepsy in which an uppnviiibK^ intirvnl occnt 
the aura »nd convtUBion. Dr. S. Weir Mitchell states that amyl a 
be advant«e:«ously caiployed as a me^n» of i!iaj;iio^)» bi'tw<-i;n imdot 
mat and attacks Btmulatio^ that disorder, but caused by temporal 
tion of nerve-centre*. In the latter cloM of ca»cfi amyl nitrite intta 
paroxysm. Sir Crichton Brown has found this agent specially sen 
the status epiUptieat. 

Inhalation of amyl nitrite is serviceable in stimulating the \A 
event of sudden failure, which may occur In fatty heart or after ha^ 
It has proved beneficial in intermittent coryza. In intermittent f«r 
avert or suppress the chill, but is without inflni'nce upon Ihi; hot i\ 

In the trtalmcnt of epidemic infliieuKa, or grippe, where pneu 
eurred as a complication. Dr. S. Soliit-Cohen' had succefiiful res 
the adminislmtion, intentalir, of 5 drops of amyl nitrite in aloa 
three huurs, asisnciatiifl with iitropine sulphate, 0.0005 Gm. (or gr. ' 
atrychninc sulphate. 0.003 Orn. (or gr. V»o)> every five hours; also, i 
ammonium carbonate, 0.G5 Gm. (or gr. x), every hour, at first, aft 
longer interrals. Although recovery was delayed by infection 
sipelas, the patient made a good recovery. 

In case of unpleasant, or serious, symptoms after the use ofl 
amyl, the exhibition of ammonia by inhalation, by the mouth, < 
enous injection, and the hypodermic injection of atropine or cth< 
hydrate) with cold water or ice-bag to the head, sinapism to the 
region, a mustard foot-bath, at the same time keeping the patic 
recumbent posture, will very soon be followed hy relief. 

AUYL VALERIANATE. Valerianate of Amyl, is an active 
tion, whirh \* regarded as ft viiliiiihlir liypnotii- and anti^pasmod 
combined, according to Dr. W. F. \Vade"s formula, by taking 1 par 
valerianate to IS of alcohol, to which is added amyl acetate in th 
tion of 0.06 c.cra. (or mj) to (iO c.cm. (or f.vj). Dose, 0.37 to ( 
or mvi-viij). This dissolves cholcsterin retubly, and is cM>nsiden 
in cases of gall-stone than either chloroform or ether. 

Amyl valerianate relieves the pain of hepatic colic and prevei 
rences. It has been found of advantage in muscular rheumatisi 
dysmenorrhtBa. It is useful likewise in relieving hysterical numifi 
Amyl valerianate is a colorlcsa liquid of pleasant taste. flfil 

AMYLENE HYDRAS.^ — Amylcne hydrate is tertiary amyli( 
(dimethylethylearbinoll. 

PhwmiRcology and Physiological Aetion.^It is a mobile, 
liquid, with a camphor-like odor. It boils at 102,.r C. (SIK-S" 
at SOO* C. (393" F.) is decomposed into sniylcne and water It foi 
pounds with chlorine, bromine, and with iodine. Oxidation coi 

' PhWadtiphla ntapHal Rrporli, vol. I, ISDO. 




AMYl-Olf. 



119 



intoicetic acid and amtone. Miscibic with alcohol in al! proportians, and 
HMlable in pighl parU of water. 

Hannack and Meyer state that aniylenc hydrate at first excites, hut 
■Amrerd euccpseivply paralyzes, all the nerve-centres. It likewise de- 
^nscs Ihi; tempt* rat ure. In medicinal doKC^. 3 to 4 c.cm. (or mxlv-foj), 
rt itcaid not to affect the respiration, the frequency of the pulse, or tue 
tetim of the heart, but aet« principally upon thi- cerchruin. In excc8*ive 
iettB it depresses the medulla and spinal cord, and causes death by respira- 
tott failure. According to the experiments of Peiser, HTnyli-nu hydrule 
disintihes the waste of mtrogenous tissue. He therefore regards it as 
particularly adapted to those cases in which an hypnotic is needed for 
pnlonged use, and in which decided nitrogenous waste occurs. 

lacrapj. — ^It may be used as on anlispusitiodic in doses of 1 to 2 c.cm. 
(artiiT>ixx), given in capsules, in alcoholic solution (mixed with beer or 
wot), or with mucilaginous preparations. It has been used in insomnia and 
waia. In mental afTections Dr. Hans Eveusen esteems amylene hydrate 
ttumevhat uncertain, but finds it particularly useful in cerebral ansmia. 
It ha.* been given also in delirium tremens, and in nocturnal epilepsy. 
Sidi coincided with Wildermuth as to the efficacy of aniylcne hydrate in 
H fcmmt and severe aliacks of epilepsy, especially where the brnmide^ 
Ktnt foiled. Ue thinks that pelil mal and nocturnal epilepsy are much 
^■kt£ted by tlie drug. It has also been reooinmcndod for whooping-cough 
^^M lo relieve the cough of plithisis. No dangerous after-effects have been 
W iherred from the use of this remedy. 

AMTHTM (V. S. P., B. P.).— Starch. 

Preparations. 

0);«rit(un Amfli (U.S.P.), — Glj'Cfrite of Starch (10 per cent). Loctl uae. 
Glfemmim Amyti IB. P.).— Olj'ocrin of Starch (about 1^ pnr cont.]. 

Rareu»colog7 and Therapy.— The official (L*. S. P.) starch is the fecula 
*ftlie«f<-d iif '/,^■^l Miijs (llramintw). The British Pharmacoptciu directs 
Ikfiilarcfa be procured from the grains of common wheat. 'IMtieum sativum; 
■UM,ZesUay8; and rice, Oryza Mtiva. It is an important clement of food, 
•nd fonns a Lug^ P^rt of rice, wheat, barley, arrowroot, and other eommonly- 
Dd carbohydrate* for administration to the sick. Starchy food should not 
'«p»<-n to young infants, who have not sufficient saliva or intestinal juices to 
^fut tbem, for thvy may undergo putrefactive changes in the bowel and 
tnte colic and diarrhcea. Starch is a fine, white powder, becoming adhesive 
*ka rnoift, and U a good aupliculiflu for hums or scalds, and for intertrigo, 
«rckl£ag in infante. With boiling water the starch-granules swell and burst 
ad a homogeneouM man retults, which answen very well an a poultice for 
lOnkting local inflammation. The glycerite is a useful application in some 
dia affection!, though the glycerin sometimes proves irritant, on account 
rf ill aflinity for water. Starch is a convenient antidote to most corrosive 
(ABona, when mixed with water; it is a test for free iodine, as it turns blue 
*liai brought in contact with this agent. Starch-water is a very good basis 
far hndanum injection or uime other form of medioateil enema, especially 
*fcoi it is combined as follows: — 



120 riiARUAcerriCAL TnEtiAPECTic aoekts ob dbcos. 

R AqiMF omfii 30[ com. nr t 

Bluniithl mbnll -, '. 2 Gm. or 1 

Tinct Dpii |30 to |0D fxtit. or il 

M. Sig, : Injmt into the bowel when nccMcarjr. Uie ftfter a fttuol id I 



ABAC AKDIUM.— Cashew-nut. 

Fhannacologry and Therapy. — Anacardium occiHonlale 
ihiu'fit) ii- » smiill trci'. intligvnoutt to tropical Ainericu. mid n 
in certain pnrtti of Africa. The nut iii mclo^od wilhiti two Aht^ilQ 
which i£ coatained an acrid, oily liquid, vhich turns black nhcii t 
with the nir. The pnitcipal ci>n»tiluont); of this fluid urc Anaoa 
a white, crTrtallJDe substance, and Cardol, n yoUowish or reddish' 

Tin; jiiioi;. or oil, in iin iictivc local irritftlit. imd lia* bci^n' 
for the destruction of coma and warts, for the cure of obstinate n 
riii^iwonii. It him n]n) bi-i-n ii#cd n* a loiiiriii ngi-nt in ihc trw 
leprosy. The tuberclea and a portion of skin surroundinf; j 
painted with the nil, which iit then nibln-d into ihc «kin. Aft( 
oozing s ecab forma, and when it falls it ia aeen that the tiibercld 
itihcd in etxe. The oil should not he applied to a surface of moll 
inches square. In young persona and upon parts where the iulej 
thin the oil gires rise to violent irritation. 



J 



ANETHI FHUCTUS (B. P.).— Dill-fruit 

Preparations. 

OIniiii Anotlii (B. P.).— Tlic Oil dUtilJpd from Dtll-fruit. Dow, 0.03 U 
(or niM'iij). 

Aqua ADelhi (aP.).— IMH-watcr. Distilled from the fruit. Tib to 
Mnnmnlivc nnci iilimiilniit nf;<^nt ordinnrily rmfiloyi-d to rflii-ve nutulfm 
Kll-vtaler is un u^rvcnblp vi^liiL'le uhich dnii-ea ila vuluo from thv vulalitu 

Phftrmaoology and Therapy. — Dill is the Jried ripe fruit of Pei 
graveolens: a native of Spain, Portugal, and the south of France. ' 

M the fruit is eomuionly called, hiivc a (.Irong aromatic odor, les* 
than fennel-seed and a moderately pungent taste. The principal 
ent is ft volatile oil, of a pnlc-ydlow color, having a hot, swcctish-ji 
Dill-fruit has the property common to all aromatics, but is ra 
in this country. In flatulent colic of iufunts the oi! can be givei 
of 0.06 to 0.18 c.cm. (or mi-iij) on some supir; (he dose of the fruit 
14 from 1 to 4 Gm. (orgr, xr-oj). 



i 



ANHALONIUM.—Mescal Bnttons. ''Pellote." The dried to 
haloniuiii Iu'wiuii (Cact:n'Oii-i liavc been used in the relijiious ee 
of the native Indian tribes of the Southwest as an intoxicant, 
and Morgan' e.vamined into the physiolodcal action of ihe druj;, a 
that three "huttons" were usually sufliicient to produce char 
effect*. -■Vmong these are hallucinatinna of viaion, oolor-phenon: 
dominatinji. bnt with remarkable figures and forma. The mind ■ 
parativclj- unimpaired, but the muwiilar xystem was much dopresn 
papila were dilated. The heart-action was at first slower and 



' yedlcal Iltcrd. Aug, 22. 1808. 




AXtllAL ^ECBRTIOMS, BXTlUCrS, AND J(;iCE& 



121 



IhtD me lo noriiiftt, aiitl v»» nvwr <lepn'»s«cl. There wae a sentie of inti- 
HHottbe alomai'U and occasiODally nauaoa and vomiting. Duration of 
lim-nu uniioiit'vd and in^onmis existc'd for twelve to twentr-four houn; 
B ikia respect, and in theab6euc« of any merry cliaracUT from tho visions, 
1 fhirp contniri i» offered to vauiiRbiti Indies, tijimilar rcsulta were re- 
jMlfdbT Weir ^[itcheil. Three alkaloids have been isohitvd: AnhadoninCi 
oMUtine; Ketcftllne; and u third unnuiucd; aleo a resinous B(ibe(au<!e, 
tkidi appfar? to In- the nioi<t iwportnnt couetitiunl. Atihalonine, in 
Jiddtd dofiee, acta like sirychniue as a conndeant and totanizing agvnt 
Itttogt. Id man ii acU a# a ealmant, {irnducin^' oidy wvuriiK'ss and tern- 
pmn aleepleaeDeea, in dosea of 0.045 to 0.0J9 Gin. (or gr. V,o-Vio)- After 
ftnonal experience Dr. Unvelock Ellis decliind that the phenomena of 
■Mtal intojuealion are mainly a saturnalia of the specific senses, and 
(bdyaa orjiy y( vision. Per»oiiiiHy, he ha* found the penalty of a single 
hi* Hirprisingly light, though, having learned what the experience haa 
(d latch, hi- hue no «pveijil inclination to renew it. But he fully agrees 
■itliDr. Weir Mitchell, that there in every likelihood that mescal will be- 
au jwpular. It certainly has a great future before It with those who 
oltiTRle the vinon-breeding drug^. At the .lame time it in of mi little in- 
tswt to the physiologist and psyehologist. 

Therapy, —The pnudvix-d biittims and extruets and tinetnreB made 
IntlieiD have been used in the treatment of varioua conditionii dependent 
■9*0 Bcrvous iriitabilily, and nitb eonsidurable succl-ss. In therapeutic 
*M, 0,50 to 1 Gm. (or gr, vii-xv), it does not produce insomnia, but fre- 
tHxtlt removes its cause, and so conduees to natural sleep; it has been 
•f nwst lue in »vmptoniatie treatment, as in eases of nervous headache and 
covtb, ictiTc delinuui, mania, hypoehondriasi!<. tinil melancholia. The taste 
•(^bquid preparations is very bilier, but is rc^adily di.sguised. 



UnUL SECRETIONS. EXTEACTS. AND JITICES. 

Ikumacologj. — \'.iiiL<u- reniedii-^ ul iiiimii!l orifjin are now made use 

"( in llirrapeutics. They contain certain complex organic compounds of 

iwrfin.. phosphorus, nitrogen, etc.; in unme inKlanc-ttx jiroduct." «( hnttt-rial 

■ (ptomaines, toxins, antitoxins, etc.). and in others some proteid 

'•^■^i.iwvnt of normal glands or organx, whicli have hern ascertained by 

r'ment and obeervation to be available for the treatment of disease. 
. coflstst of extracts of orgniis, serums, and disease products. For in- 
flBut, the extract obtained from the sheep "s testicle by U. Urown-S^quard, 
ui tmplcyo) by him and others for the relief of organic and functional 
iMftiiH dtiorders and certain oonititutional diM-axes, oweti il« activity to and 
■ JcHTibed under the title of spermin hydroehlorate. the virtue of testicnlar 
fad having been ?hown to depend upon the presence of spvnnin: a sub- 
flisce irhirh is also contained in other glands, especially the pancreas. 

AyiiologicRl Actios. — The injection into the human hotiy of exiracu 
obteoftl from animal tissues may prove of service by modifying the consti- 
rtlion of the blood, or by supplying to it elements of which it stands in 
■<*t It IS conceivable that, when the functions of certain organs, espc- 
tiiU/ tho** concerned in nutrition and sanguification, are suppressed, the 
atndiictfoo of the corresponding tissues, secretions, or extracts derivi-d 
fna health; anirnala may prove bencrieial. Acting upon thia theory. 



li» 



rilAtlUACKCTICAL TUKBAFKltTIC AOKNTS OB DRUCiS. 



preparations representiag muscular, nervous, cardiac, supiarem 
and thyroid enbslance have been employed in practical therapei 
to the manner of formation of antitoxins, A. C. ()'.Sullivan holds 
toxin atiinulutcs the cells of the body to produce the antitoxin, ai 
is not the blood-cills, but the tissue-col Id, that do so. When wc 
inquire what the partioular cells are uhich produce aiititoun, wi 
by greater difhcultii-s. Tetanus atTonli^ the inoi<t promising field 
ing ihia queetion, because it is evident that tetanic poison acti 
on iliR M^ntrat nervous syittem. Wa8«crnian ban shonii thut an en 
the bruin of an animal which is sensitive to tetanus has strong ai 
propertiea. while if ihe animul has been poisoned by tetanus it« b 
this power. Here we have a ease of neutralization of antitosin 
and ihi.*. not in thi; scrum, but in the brain-ecll« thcni»clve«, < 
periments tend in the same direction, and we may say that in ll 
tetanus, al all events, the cclli* of the brain, which arc those att 
the toxin, are also those which produce the antitoxin. It is ea 
that such a thing is extremely hard to prove or disprove in othe 
where no speeitle cells are especially attacked, and. of course, 
goes counter to all the work of MctsehnikofT and hie pupils on 
tective action of the wandering cells of the body. As to tl 
question, how do the antitoxins act? the fact« which have been vi 
arc the following: 1. The toxin enters into chemical, or molect 
bination with the cell-protoplasm, and when in this combinatio 
tralized: i.e.. is innocuous for other celln. 2. The toxin enters it 
ical combination with the antitoiiDj and when in this comMnatii 
tralized. 3. The antitoxin ia produced hy the cell, and is thro' 
the cell into the blood. 4. The cells «hich produce the nntitoxl 
aame cells as those which combine with the toxin. We are aim' 
to the conclusion that the element in the blood which proceeds 
cell and neutralises the toxin in the blood is the ume elemi 
neutralizes the toxin in the cclh And so we arrive at the fin 
Khrlieh's hypothesis: "That element or group of atoms in the ( 
plasm whicti combines with the toxin when it is thrown off h; 
into the Wood is the antitoxin." But we hate seen that it is i 
of the toxin on the cell, and that only, which stimulates the ct 
duco the antitoxin; that is to stiy, when any of ihi- conihining 
the cell-molccules are taken up hy the toxin, they are replaced^ 
and replaced in very much increased numbers, as usually happ 
tissuft-rej;encration. Ehrlich suppoaen that these combininj; gro 
they become numerous, lose their hold on Ihe cell-molecules and 
into ooinhination with the moleciilex of the fluid in which t 
bathed, and so get into ihe blood, and that the injection of a gi 
tity of toxin will stimulate the cell* to produce many hundred ei 
of antitoxin. Hut there is more than this, for toxin docs not mt 
bine with cell-proloplastii. It also destroys it. There is plenty o: 
to show that the part of the toxin-molecule which poisons is not 
as that which first combines with the cell-niolcoule. The toxin 
Iberia and ttttanii*. when kept in the liquid state, gradually lose I 
power down to a certain point, but they do not lose thvlr pow( 
biuing with antitoxin. It takes exactly the same quantity of ao 
neutralize a given quantity of toxin, no matter how long it hn 




AXIIUI, 8BC«ETi«fXS, BXlHACre, AKU JUICBS. 



1S3 



ftr how weak it may have become. In Ehrlich's terms, the haptophoK 
groQp in llie loxin-niolc'iili- r<-iiiMiii# iiiiii]u-re<^, wliilv tht- toxuphoru group 
tt duni^, Tbu», lh(! toxophori: jjroup i» tmicli U-ttst stable and lem rapi^ 
in cMubiain^ than Un; ollior, iiui) hcnou is probtibly miicli mori* comphix. 
Hmj facU connected with the infeetious diaeases receive a ready explaiia- 
ti«k b;f meant of iIiih hyputhi-sis: t.g., what is a nuturully-immiiiie aiiiinal? 
A natarallT-immuQe animal in one whose protoplasni-moloeule contains 
f e« or none of tlic groups capable of coinbiuing with the toxin in question. 
Ajun, the incubnt ion-period o( a disease, whieh appears in poisoning by 
touHts well as by the hviog organism, is the time in which it tnkcs the 
P^iitKUiig group to ijet to uurk after Ihr toxin huR been amhorcd on the 
ccO-inolccule by itt- combining group. Again, it is found that the produc- 
tin of immunity and of antitoxin, ullhcmgli the oiuhc of both i» tht; name, 
d* tot at all run par«llel to one another in amount. An animal in the 
eol;uag«» of immiiniKAtion may be liypcr«en*itivc lo the poimon while it« 
Vni is full of antitoxin; and. on the other hand, in the later stages ani- 
Mh aie often found to be pnu:tieully completely iiiimnne, while th«ir 
Uwd yields no antitoxin at all. 

nienpy. — I. Organic Eriradi. — A glycerin -ex tract of gray mflttor of 
tlftfi'g brain has been used by M. Consiantin Paul with encouraging re- 
nin in nuunuthenia. locomulor ataxia, and senile debility. Dr. Dana has 
WBlMHid amendment in the »inie claiu of ense^ frnni the uite of k glycerin 
biiB^itrad, and invtauecs particularly a case of rapidly-advancing bulbar 
in which marked improvement was etToeled. Seven months after the 
ing of the treatment no trace of the disease remained except slight 
after long conversation or mssttcntion. In regard to sonic of the 
ttM ft is specially slated that the injection of water had been inefreetual, 
a proof that the amendment was not due, as thought by »ome orilins, to 
■ere iBggestion. Dr. Juliux Allhaus. of London, has aleo given favorable 
iHttmoay conc«niiug Ihe efTcit of inji-ctions of nervous r<ubslance. The 
kiii^ttract, which he terms Cerebrin-dlpha (in order to distinguish it 
feon the alkaloid ccrcbrin obtained from brain-mutter), was prepiirt'd by 
^aBa% 1 part, by weight, of rabbit's brain with 1 part of glycerin and a 
*Si»t-0!nt. carbolic solution. The extract of the eonl is made in the 
nop nanner and is called MyeUn-alpha, to avoid confusion with the mye- 
bovkich is one of the constituents of the central nerve-fibre. Dr. AUhau>< 
fonml that ibe extractji were of no benefit when swallowed, as they were 
itWBipiMeti by the gastric juice. When injected into the substance of 
■Mcle tbey were active in the average dose of 0..tO c.cm. (or m\). Hotli 
•gnti *«emed of equal service in cerebral and spinal diseases. They were 
bnefidal in locomotor ataxia, progrrasive muscular dystrophy, and in 
Ifcaae maladies and conditions mainly characterized by loss of nerve-power. 
Ii factional nervous disorders good results were ohtnined from the use 
*(&(« extracts atone, but in organic affeclions they seemed to aet chieSy 
Hadjinnts to other treatment. They were useful also in promoting eon- 
^imetftce from acute diseases and in relieving the disabilities of aid ago. 
Rumlns experience Dr. Althaus also dissents from the idea that the rt- 
*Il» arp simply due lo suggestion. 

nabrs lias employi>d an emulsion nindr by mixing normal brain and 

Ccord witK broth in the proportion of 1 part of nerve-tissue to 5 of 
.^bont 4 exm. (or f<ij) of the mixture was injected and proved useful 



184 



rUARUACKl'TICAL TUEUAPEUTIC A0BST6 OR UHU06. 



in cases of epilppar, melancholin, «l»tinjit<> innomnin, chmnic hi 

«;intiiii. iini! i>tlnr 'tUoT'li-rs of tht- ncnous (iVfitpm. 

Spermin bydrocblorate nr miirinti:, iK-coniing to Dr. G. Arcliii 
well, of Ik-troit. ii; tlie tnio factor in indticiti); the phvi-iolopicul [iln^ 
ohroniclcd bv M. Itronn-^cqiinnl, in hi* cotintiuniciitioii to the 
Acudi-mj. It u obtainc-d from the ttsticulnr juice of the lowor 
hy * oaix'fiilly-condu'ifO procciw. which iirolvctn the product (n 
inminution liv infeotiou§ micro-orgauisms and isolates it, chemical 
tm a salt «f hydrochliirif »rid. SjKTinin ix n crvi'tiillinc juihutiinc*, 
in water and absolute alcohol, Itut insoluble in ether. It absorbs w 
cBrboiiie acid from the iitmoBplierc. From exiiiTimciili* upon rohl 
StockweU di'clares that this agent invariably produced powerful i 
lonjtcd tliniulatioii i>( the Kyniiuilhctir ihtvouk ny^tcm, nmst e^trftng 
fested throiiRh the speriuatic plesus. It fltiitiutatcfl the vasomotoj 
imrt-ttsc)' lilnod-prpMiirc. niid addt; oxidation, In toxic doses it 
distressing tetanic spasm and interfercH with respiration by spasm 
Ation of miiHclc«. inoludinf; the diaphragm. Cutaneous hypcne^th 
increased muscular activity wi-re ohaerrcl. Sexual prethinni was 
in many ioftance*. The hypmiermic injection nf nn extract f 
recent testicles of nianinials was found by Hrnwn-S/'ipiard' to have 
lating effect upon nutrition, and to be especially active as a r«sto; 
failiiiK niftritjon due to old age. Dr. H, T*. Loiiini*, of Nrw Yor 
that the injections, "as claimed, produce nutritive modilicationi 
tiwuipf of ilderly men. due, prob«bly. to stimulation of the iiervc-< 
In tuberculoeis this substance has aleo been recommended.' Mai 
provenient has been reported as oo<'urrin(( in some rases of lepr< 
the injection of testicular fluid. In locomotor ataxia and varioi 
of paralysis thi- »anii- tri-atim-tit hai' bi-en followed by aim-ndment. 
hundred cases of tabes have been treated by this method by diff« 
ficrvers and in n very li>rjic proportion the iiviuptonm of the disci 
unmistakably relieved. In hysteria, on the contrary, little or no j 
rceidted from the injection*, Tlicy were al»o found iiu-fTicicnt in j 
In delirious epilepsy and in various forms of insanity the practice 
followed by improvement. In una-miu, also, good results have 
tained. Brown-S^quard claimed that testicular fluid had been ui 
decided advantage in about 100 cases of cancer, in nearly all ' 
eessniion of pain and ha'niorrhajre and cicatrisation of ulcers demo 
the eflicacy of the method which he advocated, lie also asserted 
was eoirniiant of casi-* of disappearance of uterine fibromata and o 
deposits of connective tissue in the heart, arteries, and muscle 
stated by those who have prBetic<'d this method that belter resu 
as » mle, been obtained in organic than in functional diseases. Ii 
however. Professorii Oilier and Tci*sier and otbrr writers hove v 
rapid improvement in eon.'^equcnce of these injections. Notable a 
tion lias, in a large nnmber of case* of lubcrenlotii», followrd th 
thtw injectious. l'rore.4.*or Pochl. of St. Petersburg, is of the opii 



Tkr 1 



■Si^e jitjm by the niithor «n "Tlic Cime of Dr. Brown -Pfquard; 
SepM/r. Nov. 30, TSHl), 

' Bfp Irdiirc bv Dr. I). f»pcn»ki. on " Brown- Sfqunrd Fluid !■ Tulwi 
Deutscbf tM^liimiXritunff. Deo. 8f>. I8«l. 




ANIMAL SKTIthmUN'S, EXTK.KTTS, ASD JCICES. 



IKS 



r inJM-tion of spermiti ia of »i(>rvic« iu Asiatic choleru, i>artii:uluirlj in the 
r" ■■ iliecuM.'. 

- »( till cxlrtft wen.' (rtll«w<'fl hy relief in cases of in- 

t! |MiL-lii>iiilriii, fL'fble hi'srt, curxiiac a^ihmu. and apiiial irritftiion, 

r , i by Dr. H, ('. Bruiiicril. of (.'luvi-liiini. 

Thi- nittal det-idcr] rusults from thn aae of aiiiiiinl (ii>i'ii[-K or cxtrui^tji 

Wt« b<r«n abkvrviil following the ndminiHtrntioD of Thyroid prv|)uni1ioni<, 

Ittvially in the tn-armeot of myxoedema.' Thi^ diMetiflL* dojx-iul* iipoii 

oJiiinn cif tliv [(iiK'tii>it>i uf llie thvroiil <!lun<]. Dr. Mtirrny. of New Castlv, 

Sa|tl>n(l, diMiion^iraied Dtat grafting ol ii liciilthy thyroid uiioii llic hotly of 

tfc» 'or the injection of an fxtrucl made from ttio ^'land in followfd 

tn -. .<lilf and riijiid a int-lio ration. Tlivroid <-.i:triiL't i* oukIi' )iy cuiting 

Or «iaii<l into tliin h]ic;iv, Itruiiting, and adtfiiig about 4 i-.i-ni. lor [r>j) i-ik;)) nt 

elyvnji ami ntrriliw-d water to each ginnd. After titniidinjc for twi^nty-four 

B«un tiie tluitl, whieli is tliiik and of a dull-n-d color, is ^tniiiied. Tho 

(fuuttity of thr i-xtmct ttirown in i» 1.55 vxui. (or fnxxv), and the operation 

i* rrpc^aUil oncv or tvi<.'c ■ wt-ck. according to tbc oeverity of the casv snd 

'"^ r.' of imiirovraifni. At tlio<;nd of a month oritix weok* the condition 

norully (iti-n so si^ully benefited that the pmccdiirc can he practiced 

%'. -riHTTal*. The extract it prcpiitxl hy uiinoinj.' Ihe Jtland, frwhly 

^- a healthy animal, maceration, and Bilration undpt pressure. The 

] am! injivticiu nliioild Ixr made with i-veri' anlistptir pTccaution. 

iijus favorable cases, in all stageti. which have been reported, leave 

ra for douht that iu this method wc liavu a4-i|uired an effective weapon 

,_i;_t a disease which hud been unamenable to any other mode of treatment. 

It haat been deraoDstrated br i>r. Hector Mackenzie, of Ijondon, and 

I>r. K. Li. Fos. of Plymouth, that the udministralion of the thyroid or a 

; tr^nn-^slract of the gland, by the mouth, is, pfirhaps, as etlicacious as the 

■ ■ ' The pland may be given raw, finely chopped, sciii^oned. and added 

-I. or it may be lightly fried. Thorough cooking would probably 

. lis Tirluc. ft is not ncccsMry that a large ijuaritity of the remedy 

1><- taken. Eialf a gland or, el mo)^t. one gland, or an eqiiiralent 

f ihe exttacl. twice a week, is suDicietit, and if a proper amount 

.i..J vuruiting and increaired fre<(iiency of the pulse are produced. 

u must b<' enjoint-d an regardji the sudden resumption of physical 

. hi-n improvement lakes place. A sudden or excessive strain upon 

1 heart may occasion syncope. 

i-h I'harmacopo'itt recognixes as oflicial Thyroidcum Siccnm: 

ir>*-l frnm the frc^h and healthy thyroid gliMi<l of the tihecp, 

!ng th*' fat with petroleum spirit; also Liquor Thy- 

' iitain» the prcnlucts of the gland with gly<'i-nn ntid h 

*Vf«i^-cenl. phenol solution. The dose of the powder is O.iiO to 0.^ Uin. 
- =^ .,i.^ I and of the lii^uid H'M} (o 1 c.em. |or mv-xv). 

~ - is-Cohen has observed that thyroid extract has a very decided 

-itr.r, and has employed it with satisfaction as a diuretic in a 

ii na apparent diwade of the thyroid gland. He speaks also of a 

in which the adminiatrtition of the same remedy alleviated 

--sts that it may beof wrvice in a recent case by preventing 

_- (.-ulnrfifejnenl of the pituitary boily. 

^.rt u( l^mAaa (lininl 8ari*ly, lM>%rtt, Vt\K 4, 1608: alM the BritlMk 
...il. Kcb. 4. IS93. 



IH 



rHAltUACROTICAt. TlIKRArBCTIC AGENTS OH OltCllB. 



Hurtoghc, of Antwerp,' has ioimd that the continued admiiii«li 
the thyroid extracts exenii n dt'|iri-sflin^ cfT^-ct upon the fiinctiou* of tl 
orf[aiii> aii(] u stimidaling cfTccl upon thL- Uclcal inlands; in er 
menorrha^ia woa oun^d hv thi-m tmd iii(-iii<trii8tion bccninc mirnml, v 
lucU-4il H'C-relions wito romiirkaliij incrcasi-d. He aUo rwummoiu 
all oongi'slive dtsturlinnces of thv jielvic organs. J 

In Home forms of amenorrhwa. (.■spi-ciatly of thi^ eongeetivv 
thyroid extraet in t.ma\i doflea nuiy be <'iiii>loyed with averted jfoo^ 
At n ri-ccnt meeting of the Liverpuol Mcdital Iniiticuliou Dr. Glyni 
that in young girU in whom teniporaiy amenorrhcea, or a delay 
alruation in confcqiK'nee of flight dcvelopnienlal change* occur 
administration of thyroid extract in dosee of 0.03 Gm. (or gr. aa) 
time proved eiiflloient to roH'etablivli or to institute the funi-tinn 
etniatioD. 

Byrom firamwL'll and Arthur T. Oavies have reported wvoral 
stubborn psoriaaia and eczema whicli wore cured by thyroid feedin 
u<c of tableU of thyroid extract. Branmi,'!] was led to make use of tl 
OD account of its favorable effect upon tlie akin in myx<edema. 

Bruce' Toporta his oheervnIionH with thyroid extract in Iwei 
cflBO-S of insanity, ineludinj; mania, general paralysis: puerperal, lac 
cliniaeterie, »yphililic, ami aleoliolic int^anity; hi.^ found that, t> 
benefit from this treatment, it was nccessarj" in some cases to give 
doKS (4 Gm,. or gr. Ix, daily). Itn admintatratifln i» conlra-indi 
cases of mania w here the e.wilement is acute, the loss of body-weigi 
and danger of exhaustion from nmhisKimilatiun of food; but when 
covery was protracted, or where a tendency to drift into donicntis 
Bod especially in the insanity of the adolescent, elimaeterio, and p 
periods, a course of the thyroid treatment led to ultimate recover; 

From an iuvrsligBtion of the chemieul conipotiition of thft tliyro! 
Dr. Frederick Oourlay states that it contains no ferment capable ol 
ing mucin, that the wily pruteid which can be obtiiiiitd from it in s 
albnmin, and is inclined to Iwlieve that its usefulness in the treat 
niyxa-dcma in due to the pn-wnco of the niieleo-alhuniin. Tfe as»e 
that the secretion of the gland docs not consist of mucin. The d 
powdered gland has also been employed under the name of Thyroid 
powder is of a gTayish-yellow color and a peculiar odor. It is thouj 
letter tok'rated than the gland. The virtues of an entire gland of 
size arc said to be represented by 0,59 6m. (or gr. ixl of the powd' 
officttcy of the gland doeii not *eem to be lusit by drving. The po\ 
been usually administered in the form of pills in daily doses of 0,11 
Gm. (or gr, i(*-ivw), which amount may be gradually doubhtd. Di 
Bramweil has derived the same results from the use of this prcpui 
from llie Kland il«clf or its extTiiet. 

I>r. J. D. Meniies, of the British navy, reports several cases i 
thyroid tablets were of advantage in tireeociou* malignant Ryphilis^ 
medication being nispended. Dr. N. Yorke-Duvies asserts that, in t 
ment of obesity, the uw of these tnbli-lii i* of great n^istance. 

According to experiments and extended clinical obsenations o) 



'Cult, de VAeait. de SIM. lie Bfloiqw. 
'Journal of Mfnfnl Sefmee. No. xH, IflOS, 




JllillUL BECftmOXS, EXTRACTS. AStt JinCB3. 



127 



b/ruid vJttnct. though often cBicAcioue, is still not « euitablc remedy for 

tin the treatment of obe*ity or adipo&ity. Dividing th« patient* BlTcot«d 

"lu wny into tno clasei-s, he finiu that a Iar;ri- number experience no 

BproTi^mi-nt wtiaievvr unrttT thiit tiyalment, ultile another M-t n-ii<rt <]iiickly 

)» tbv dru^ Hnd appurently derive benefit from its ueo; thifi lutter class 

PtOBiiti mmtnly ol individuals in whom ionie traces — distant, it is true — 

. DTXirdi-inatous tendency are dcmonstrabk': very email or non-palpoMu 

o'm, dciuithineaa of the skin, imd flubcutani-oiis liiisues, etc. The advan- 

.^Laimcd for the mvthod are that it effects positive restdlH, and this 

in any nay restricting the patient's diet or his ordinary habits of 

rrgKTtls exercise and occupation, — ^matti-re often of great importance 

ivol»" prBttiee; hut certain well-marked subjective disturbances — suoh 

1]' re^tU-i«n<-N>, tri'mor, and intoiDuia — go hand io hand with 

i]». ' nte. and give the individual more or less discomfort. The 

■t«Bt cnntra-indivation ift to be found in constant, great ly-increued 

>i.<i-ii •'xcretion, an index of pathological albuminous brcaking-dovn> and 

u(fl bo terminati-tl by umply cutting off the drug, but continites 

.1. ..xiv-linite length of time after its adromietration has been stopped. 

ThjrTco^ofanluL eunatitulvs about 10 per cent, of the gland (wet) and 

— T^'^i the iodine constituent of the thyroid in the original form it has 

totJw ^lBti43. Act-ording Io Oswald,' thyreoKlohulin vm fuund to have the 

mt influeoee on the excretion of nitrogeu in animals in metabolic eiiuilib- 

DVB M the i-ntitc glaud. His view is confirmed by its action in two cas^s 

W mrxirtlema. lie obtained from thyreoglobulin a prodact resembling 

iiAjthTriji (ruppowd to be the bearer of the specific qualities of the gland), 

ntainitig 14.3 inntead of 9.3 per cent, of iodine. 

I >r. Charles Macaleeter, of Liverpool, lieed preparations of the Tbymos 

6aad vitb advantage in caM« of pseudohypertrophic paralyei^ und gcncml 

iriVpbsde u iinia . 

Utlculicz. in ten caMS of goitre and one of Graves's disease, obtained 
•onnging ri^sult^ from the uih; of thymus glands. He gave at one dose 
IV«r ITi Om. (or 5it '/ri^') '^f '^*^ sheep's tbymiin, finely eut up and spread 
B Icart. llie ijuantity wasgndually increased to SS Gm. (or 3viKs). 
■iphriit. a Mime glycerin extract of ihi^ cortical Kubatance of the kidney. 
. bem pntposed as a remedy in cases of nephritis. Subcntsneoua injeo- 
at nephrin will, it is thouuhl, prove of service in the treatment of 
M. l^ienlafoy has described the reenlts of his experimental use of 
in an aggravated cane of unrmia. The {nitiont suffered from sup- 
iif ufiue. o^ema of the lung. copioiiE perspiration, and diarrhoea, an 
3C« at im-u V-iiig conlained in tht- t-xcreted fluid«. After injections 
srin orine u^s again wcreted, sweating of urea ceased, the mind 
. >nd the pati<-nt na^ able Id «pe«k. The cans was too far advanced 
t«BT inethM of trcalment to be of avail, but the decided effi'Ols produced 
a patient «i-tualiy in tjriremis undniibti^dly uarrantii a continuation of 
I iDler^ting ( hers pmit leal experiment. Further clinical experiments have 
iin*d« bjr T«-i>*ii-r and Kraenkel. Tlicw obwrvers found that the injee- 
lof n ^Ircfrin-extract of sheep's kidney in patients sufTertng from nephri- 
t »ntp<i til'- jitiwer to exirrete loxic nubstam't-v in the urine. The sub- 
I tjxptfiivoev^ a Mmse of general amelioralion. Albumin, at least in some 



188 



fUAttUACBUItCAL TUEIurKUTlC A0£KI8 01 DRl'GS. 



cases, disappeared from the urine during the diiys when thv in 
were pvea. There wu liUle or no i&flwnce upon Ihe iiiiaiititjj 
passed. I 

Thv drk<d and pulvi-rucd Saprannkl Gland, ohtainod from tit 
has heeo found to poafless exlraordinary Jintrinj,'i,'ut powers ujHin Ihi 
blood-vnMU, CRU«iDg iDtenitc annmiu whim upplicd to the »iirfai-c M 
membraoeB. The adi«nal extract, owin;; to its conrenience and ac 
largely used in order to produce bloodlcM operationii in nasal iurgt 
tensive operations upon the eeptuni, or upon the turbinated bodies, 
performed without Wntorrhagv \>y ineana of a [irdiminarv app)i( 
a aolution, which may be prepared as follows: — 

Urn. or 3j. 
Gin. nr j|T. 
«.(?iii. or (3a 
can. or 13J 
e.cii>. or (jl 



R Adrenal* (.\riuuur'«) il«9iCGktCd 4 

Acid, borle " I 

dimamon- water ... >■■■■' 16 

CHiii|>lior-u-at«r Ihot) 30 

Diatitlcd (vai«T (hu() •' q. •■ kd 00 

aiMMTHtc lor lour lioan. ihm Alter. 



i 



Dr. K. A. Peters' liaa used a JO-per-ceiit, solution of the sv 
extract for the pnin in cun-inonia of the inammii', i^tric-tur<.- of ihe a<i< 
tubiTculoftis of iht! huynx, and periodontitis. In none of these pat 
there any apjMirciit ddflerioiis I'tTwts. 

Siiprart^Dnl extract has also been used in Addison's disease, wi 
fying results in some casvt, bepuuinj; with 0.1.3 Oin. (or gr. ij) th: 
a day and ffradually increa.iini; until 1.3iJ Cim. (or gr. xx) are tak 

I>r, Jokichi Tukamine i«olatL*il what ht- coiisiilemj the adivc 
of the suprarenal giand. Adrenalin, which otLurs u§ a light, whit 
ciystallinc powder, of a «li^hlly4iitfori!*h tai«ie, li'aviitj; n iiumlifii 
on the spot of the tongue where it is applied. Kxperiments shi 
phyeiolopicnl sdivily «f ailn-iiiilin wa.-^ ustouinHngly strong, a fri 
a drop of an aqueous solution in the strength of 1 to 10,000 blanc 
normal conjunctiva within thirty to *ixly second*, llr. Euiil Mn,ii 
his results with the use of this agent in thirty-live rhinologioal of 
He found that uii iipplication of n 1 to 10(H) wjiilion produced h 
of the tissues within a few seconds, the operations beint; cither 
or attended with viri' little lia-inorrhagc, and in no injiancf was t 
constitutional di^liirliancc. 

I'r. E. Flclvh<r Tngab" su^ge^ts that, it adrenalin is dissol 
normal salt solution, it lesscfns the pain ami smarting. He has fo 
fl 1 to 5(>U0 ill iionnal t-ah solution acts with the same rapidity 
tensity a.* the jioluriim made with 2 tim. (or gr. xxx) of the desiccal 
to 30 c.cm. (or f'j) of water. In acute coryxa. acute laryngotrachi 
acute laryngitis this agent has promptly reduced the swelling au( 
tion. and in a few da)*s the patients were well. In order to prevent 
fonnntiouH in IIk-jv wtlution* Dr. Injnil* hax suggested the folk 
part of adrenalin to 5000 of liquid containing 0.50 (Im. (or gr. viij' 
iicid, cinnnnuin, and camphor- water, of each, 7.5 e,cm. (or f5ij); 
tilled water, 15 cem. (or fSss), 

'Lnnrrt. MhttIi 2, IMI. 

'Mfluc/.l/.Aw MwHrtiF Junrmil. April 27. 1001. 

'Journal nf the .Imi-rdviH Vcdicol Agsoclatton. April 27. 1901. 



A 



AKIMAL SSCHETIONR, EXTRACTS, AX» jriCRS. 



1SB 



AM* ^Tc the iiutuc of Eptnephrin to a body he ieoliiUtI rrom nd- 
luiract, aiicl to uhi(.-li hi; Hltrilnitc^ lliP wi'll-ttnnwn I'lTcris on hlood- 
[ of thie fubstancf. Ftom the reactions of cpincphriii it would seem 
toMong to the frnjup of aniinnl iilknioii);', am] the fonnula C,,1I,,^NU, has 
i&lcnnin«d for it.' It U obtained from uquoous oxtructs of the ■druuaU 
Fibe action of bentoyl-chloride, and from the benzoyl combination thus 
hm) Abid isolated the free bu«L>, and uinilv u picrate, bib'idphatv, h}'dro- 
lUmte, and bydrobromate, aa well as a Inacetylnepbria and a phcnyl- 
Mmin dcrivotivi;. Its vsiious decomposition Tcuctions Kcvni to OMiiixn to 
mi^thnD a place amonp the pyrrol or skatol hasefl: treatment with dilute 
•bliea forms n dark pigim^nt, which thi; author dt-noniinnlea a^i i^pine- 
fkriaic acid, and a base of coniin- or pyi'idin- like odor. On fusion with 
ftUisiiun, apprvciablv iiuaiuiticn of likiiliil result. 

The fr*e base cannot be produced except at the expense of ita physio- 
fcpal eRicacy. On the other hand, moi't of its enlU react on the system 
nj cBcgeiically; they have a slightly-bitter taste, cause a partial ancs- 
io( the tongue, and produce n local viisoconsLrlction. Wlicu introduocd 
I the circolation. fmall do^cs at first excite and then centr»lly deprcwi 
NqinUon; heart-fuilurc follow* larger amounts. The insolubility of the 
mantton. howerer, which increases on keeping, unfortunately renders it 
rfnsatail therapeutit^ally than might otluTwiiii; be expected; since the 
tocc iloee is far above that required to produce the physiologieid action. 
Tnerjihrin, the aoniiai pigment principle of the urine, in part exhibits 
nulu properties to epincphriu, and the probability of a rclntioiitihip be- 
■nco the two bodies seemti very great. 

A certain proportion of cases of diabek^ are dependent upon or at 
ImiI aMociated witli diiteaso of thi:- pancrcRS. It has been demonstrated by 
Ukkixnlu and von Meriug tliat removnl of the pancreas chukch glycosuria, 
BMpectiTe of the nature of the diet. If, however, only a Hmall proportion 
•f the gland it left behind, diabetes Joes not develop. Furtlurmorc. when 
funcof the pancreas taken out of the abdominal cavity were piafted into 
ibe abdomiDal wall the advent of dJabt^tcs wu« prevented. Minkow*td was 
W to beliere that the pancreas performed some function indisi>ensably 
McHiry to tho nonual trannformation of iiugar within the organism. Pro- 
ItHr lupine has ingeniously arj^ued that the pancreas genemtes a ferment 
*Hnti is Dcc«itsar}' to asniniilation of amyUceouM foodit. In view of thei>e 
tKUaod hypotheses it was thought that the ingestion of the pancreas or 
fnfsniions derived from that viscus might prove seniceablc in thi> treat- 
iBKit u{ sotne forms of diabetes. Ciinjciil experiment? hare been accord- 
ieftynuidrin that direction and the results, which, unfortunately, fall far be- 
la* expcctatton. have been jiublishcd by Mackenjric, Hnlc-Wliite, Neville, 
T»«d, Battistini, and N. S. Davis (Jr.). The patients subjected to this 
Mkod hsTC generally experienced improvinuent of Nubjcctive symptoms, 
»i eome have gained in weight, The quantity of urine was not, as a rule, 
iMRaM-d: in one caw reported it wa* even increased. The specific gravity 
ui u«a were uninfluenced, and in most cases the amount of sugar wa? not 
oatetially IcssenL-d. In one case ingestion of raw pancreas was followed by 
iwftn erythema, accomiwiied by fever. U'emay, nevertheless, agree with 

'Mtorir. f- phmiotog. CUtmie, xxtiU. p. 318. 
'Sn Jtrrvfc** Arthlm. 1, No. t. p. 47. 



130 



PHARMACEUTICAL TUERAPEUTIC AOBKTS OR DRITGB. 



the conclusion of Mackenxie: "¥or myself 1 would rather Sod an 
mfnt in lh<? goniTnl coiiilitiou of the pdlioiit, iiiLTfai^Ml elrttogU: 
iiilic'd thirst, ami diminished ^jiinutily of urine as a result of trratmi 
a mere dimimilion uf the nmoiint of sugar in llio iiriuo without 
iirovciiiciil. . . . It is evident that liquor [lancreaticiis is no 
but the i'ITl-cIs in these ctutcs tire encouraging enough to induce mo 
further trial of it, and it is po&sifale th^t in cases of Itue pancreatic 
the benefit might be greater." | 

The Uiiitfd Slate* Phamincopneia rccogniEes aa official fanov 
a powder whicli eonsii^ts of the cnzvioes iiaturally existinf; in ( 

EiiiHnvix (if wiirtii-liloiidod aiiiumln. The llritiiih Phnrmacopcela 
iquor Fancrettit: n liquid {-onlttining the digestive principle* of 
paiieri'M of the pij:. Thi->e iircpiinitioiis are used mostlv as difteatii 
eapeciall)' in [hone dit-oaseii and conditions where Glared and fat & 
fectiy digested (sec Fancreatinnm) . As these preparations contain t 
principles of pancreuri. and are moie palatable than the raw gland, ' 
be administered in thoM* >nf>A of lumcrentic dinbetea where irritabil 
stomach is a prominent feature. 

An e-xtract prepared from the Parotid Gland has been used in 
0.13 to 0.3'i Gm. (or gr. ii-v) iu some of the functional disorders of i 
viscera, especially ovarian neuralgia, with grmifyinK results. Imp 
has also heen noted in acromegaly after the use of an extract 
Pltlitmry Gland; and preparalinns of CanJiac Tiuue have been 
hypodeniiiciilly for the relief of weak heart. 

BenC'taarrow has been given with decided advantage in &f 
Dr. J. Uiokeon Mann, of Manchosler, and Professor Frasor, of Va 
The part which marrow performs in the development of red corpwsc 
U8 to believe that in this substance wo have gained n valuable rem 
Mutin tliiiiks that, as the tisjuc- forming power is more active in yc 
in old animals, the bones of the former are preferable as a source oj 
cxfnicl. The exlrar-i which he employed wai- made from 1.h« he«e 
bones of animals freshly killed, together with other portions of be 
conlfiiu red nuirrow. The bones are broken into small pieces unc 
in glycerin with frequent agitation. Several days are required to a< 
complete extraction. The ri'^nlt, after filtration, is of o red or redd 
color and has oo unpleasant taste or odor. It may be given in te 
doses once or twice a dnv, eilher by itself or onrend between thii 
bread. Dr. Mann gives tlie results of a ease of fi^mophilia in whii 
of bone-mnrrow was employed. A boy had been repeatedly tr 
attacks of haemorrhage which had left him the subject of pi 
antemia. After a few weeks of treatment by bonc-raarrow a marke 
in the number of red corpuscles had occurred and his face acquired 
color. Thi- Slime result was obtained in aniemia from other causes. 
Fiaser's ease was one of pcrnicioos nnii'mia. which had lusted for a 
months, when the patient entered the hospital. Treatment by mea 
and arsenic, both alone and combined, was altogether inefTectual 
proportion of red globules and hamoglohin steadily fell. After tl 
istration of bone-innrrow — which was given, uncooked, by thtt 
improvement was almost immediate, the quality of the blood 
change, and at the end of six months the man was praclic«lly in 
condition. Dr. W. G. Bigger has publwhed the history of a case at', 



1 



AMIUL SECXeriOXS, EXTJL\CrS, AXD Jt'ICBfi. 



131 



flhicA m apparently cured br the nee of bone-ttnrrow, given raw, spread 
open thin *Iioes of breaii, mid pnKiucwJ a reniarkiihii- inijiruvi-mmt in ibe 
rjBfUOil u( the difi-ofv. Al llw^enil of several maiillii^ the boy was reported 
tMifeetly well and the spiwii of normal nizt!. Tlic cxlraol of bont-iiinrrow 
iwlmii cmpioycii by Killcaii in tuliereuloi-i!-. The Armour laboratory sup- 
fkMs^lyc«riu extract of ri=d bone-marrow, which Dr. J. A. Bobison, of 
Ckio^o, kt* wvd sueei-t^cfiilly in viirioni; forme of aiiiemia. 

S. Sfruma and Aniiioring. — An intereatinK *'el<l of investigatioa re- 
kutto the oinploymi-nt of Blood-terom iik n Imctericiilul iigctit and l» titc 
SiJlfinition of the blood by means of baelerinl produeU and the production 
tf Bnmtinily or cure, Thv fiiiidBmenlnl prim-ijilt! is the nlleralinii of tlie 
anm in such a manner as to render it destructive to certain speeilic bac- 
toiil products. This mclhoi! of rcfcari'h has been iipplicd vxiHTiini-ntiiliy 
UKveral dangerous infectious diseases. Tetanus was one of ihe first mala- 
ieslobi'thiii^t^t tidied. ltchringha» conducted n serifs of cxprriniiritswilh 
it)f» of first rendering an animal immune to tetanus by inoculation with 
tkloiin elaborated by the bacillus of that disease, and, soeoiidarily, iililizinff 
Qtieniiii of the immunixed animal as a curative remedy for the established 
tNue in another animal or in man. Inimunily it eccured by *neeessiv« 
Bjirtkins with the toxin of tetanus in gradually-increasing doses. He 
min» that he has proved that injeetioii* of the immiini/cd m-rum into 
Atfabjecia of tetanus will cure that disease. The tjuiiutity of the modiUcd 
■asm aittt hcur a certain proportion to Ihe hody-weijuht; so that much 
■tnitiequiifid for men than for small animals. Dr. Uehring has succeeded 
■ pnpanng a fumdnrd ^I'nun fram tlie horse. The longt'r the Kiagc of 
ianliBtioD and the more chronic the course of the malady, the more favor- 
lUtulhe effect of the injections. A number of cases in the- human subject 
bw bwn reported in which recovery oppeared to be due to the employment 
''tWit method. ITie injection^ are said to be in tbemselves harmless. In 
«eof the successful ca^es tlic period of incubation was only n'lx days. Dr. 
Jwfpll F. Hotison. of t'leveland. reports the successful treatment of a case 
t'lctiBne, which developed on the tenth day after a compoiiml fnicturc of 
Ailibta. An injection of 10 e.cni. (or f5ii "/,) of the serum was given, aud 
opctlcd at intervals »r four to six hours for llie next five or six days, when, 
«Hi(t to improvement, they were given with less regnlarity, Uesides the 
v-'« fhloral hydrate, i (ira. (or gr. xv), and hyoscine hydrobromate, 
i.m. (or gr. Vm»)> w''™ givi-n every four hours; nUo morphine smI- 
rMii- tiypodermically. 0.016 Om, (or gr. '/,), was given about four timea 
^Itlrwbpn the patient was slecpli'.** or nervous. The local wound was not 
liiivpcn. as it appeared healthy. Itecovery followed, the serum being dis* 
nttoiied on the tenth dity. These pnieedun^ and Ibcir results have not 
4bM to meet with adverse criticism, but in view of the inadequacy of for- 
arrnelhods the path of inijuiry is cfnainly legitinialc, and il is probable 
litit it will lend to an effectual means of combating a severe disease. The 
Jti ltlanic serum is now also prepared in a dry state and sr-nt out in tubes 
^M containing 4 or 5 Gm. (or 5i-iV,]: a quantity rather larger than the 
PWiBuin do6« re>n>nled as curative in the case of a man. The dose varieB 
leeording to the severity of the symptoms, and is repeated for several days 
■ Boaller quantity. Thi- dried serum is to he dissolved in distilled wafer 
" eobcntani^nusiy injected. Several (mses of recovery from tetanus of 
tic oiigin hate been reported, in which intracerehrai injeelions of 




ISS 



l-IIAUUACUUTICAI. TIIBBAPEUTIC AOENTB OR DHDOS. 



antitoxin were given, in tonnt-ctioti with oiIrt tn<ntincnl. Ruux i 
rei, from experiments at the Paris Pasteur liiiititute, demonstrated 
tolanic toxin is t-xtruc-ted from ihi.- blooil iind h lixed by the nt^ 
while tiie tetanie antitoxin, when injecled into unimats, renuiEi 
blood; so thut the unliilole does uol vntm- in contml with the pOf 
the two Hubiitnneeii, though so in-ar to each other, fnil to meet, 
plsiiis wh_v, in nun ae well as in animiile. the stibcii to neons und ini 
injeetioua so often fail, for when they are rosorted to the nervous tt 
pointed out also hy I>r. George G. Iljimbaud, hue already lixcd a ti 
^ri-nier quantity of (he toxin, and while the antitoxin, thua admi 
neutralizes llie toxin circulating in the blood and liniitu the Jioli 
docs not reach that whieh in attached to the cerebral or spinal celli 
tetanized guinea-pigs, treated with intraeerybnil injeetions, 35 r» 
of IT others, tn-ated wilh jiiinph- siibcntaneous injections, only 2 i 
of 1> not treated with antitoxin at all, all died. 

The Iechni*|uc of the upcration in inun i» siinplff. After tho 
of a snisl! button of bone by a trephine {'/, inch), the intracereb 
tion is nmde, into a neutral area, such as the fon^'part of the fron 
The quantity of the serum injected is small (■> to 6 e.cni. of a com 
MTUm made by drj'inc 11) parls and thus rcdissolving in 5 part*) by 
introduclion of whieh any undue compression is avoided. In ad 
the intracerebral injection, it is neoeseary to give antitoxin intn 
or sitbcutancoii^ly for a few days, »o thnt ibereby the toxin eircu 
the blood and any that may later be secreted at the site of injury 
neutralized before it (.nu nlfect the nervous centres. Out of 9 c 
treated, wllected by ITambaud. 4 recovered nnd 5 died. Snccew 
have been likewise rejtorted by Dr. Charles A. Church, of i'aseai 
Dr. E. Forgal, MontpelHcr, France; and Dr, Scniplc of tho .\rnij 
School at Xetley. England." 

TTie same principle* have been extended to the treatment of di 
Behring obtained a curative serum trrfm the blood of sheep which 
rendered imnuine to diphtbcriii. Tliis scrum bup bei-n rlinically 
by lleubucr. Henoch, vou Uorgmann. Kossell. and other obser 
encouraging results. In a scries of thirty lam* Ibe Tnortiility wai 
per cent. In another scries of eleven patients there were two dea 
nearly the same propdrlion. Three out of four traeheotomies recov 
a more recently reported series of 220 cases the mortality was 44. !t 
among those tracheotomixed and 23. (> per cent, in the cases whic] 
require operation. 

Uigbly-safiBfactory results have been reported from tbo use of 
toxin made also from horse-scrum. Dipbtheria antitoxin of good 
now manufactured in this country by 11. K. Mulford & Co., of Phil 
Parke, Davis & Co., and Frederick Stnirn* S Co.. of Detroit, and ot 

Profesior Uoux, of Paria, and a number of Knglish and 
physicians have borne testimony to the oflicHcy of antitoxin injt 
diphtheria. The author has had the opportunity of witnessing 
experiments with this remedy, and i» favorably impretscd as to ita 

The use of diphtheria antitoxin is not altogether free from 
The injections may occasion erythema, urticaria, fever, swolle 

■0rir(*A MrdiNti Jnnrmit. -Ion. 7. ISIIO, 




AXIMAI. gECIIGTI0.\8, BXTKACTS, AND JUICBS. 



133 



utlinlK, benutuiia, and albumiuiiria. They have also been Ihouj^ht to 
&niruiticrea»<-i] Icndeiicv lo iinrnly*U. Si'voral ilculhif have Iuh'ii repoHcd 
dnttlr /olio trill K this method o( Ireatnient, perhaps due to some iinfortli- 
au ermr in thi- methoil of ]ir<<iianittiJii of (he n-nindy. Owin^ to the 
lions taken at prc$eul ia the maouf act lire. fiUch aceidenttt are now 
it rare. Ihv jicneral i^nnnt-niiw of o)iinioii of aulhcirjliirs upon the 
Djtct appears to be f;reatly in tavor of the iii^ of thiii a^jent. The H§iial 
(Otuoi i* to administer a manininm iIom; once ilnily (IDUU to 1*^00 unil»), 
to Dr. John II. Uu^ser advocates Ihc safer uonree of RinDg fimaller dot-es 
(MluitU) and rep<-ating them erery fotir or »ix hours, ac^cordin^ to ctTetti. 
Enrrcare should be taken to obtain fresh antitoxin and to stenlize thor- 
Mghh tho hypodennio needle and plaet- <>! injr<^tion, which i.-i uiiunlly in 
ttehunbar re;{ion, or buttocks, or between the shoulders, or under the skin 
4{|&«ilidoininal wall. Ttit- K^iitliiijj prim-iph- in the admiiiislnitiim of the 
wnm is that it mutit l)e ;^ven until ihe ebarncterislie effects are produced, 
DodT: »hrivnling of the membrane, dimiiiiition in nasal discharge, correc- 
tm of fetid odor, and general improvement in the condition of the patient. 

Kilttin liuiK-Mihal' bus taken much painx in obiaininK utiiliNtiial in- 
(■aatian respecting the mortality records in cases of diphtheria, and with 
tii< (Dd has obtained reports from one hiindrx'd and fifiy-sevon eitiiw, in 
't» Lnited :*iaieti, having organized bureaus of health. A summary of the 
imIu is Kfi follows: — 

Xiimber of cases previous to the eerum period, 183.856, with a mop- 
litj of 3i<. I per «!nt. Xnmber of cases since the antitoxin period. 1S2,.V1S, 
•ilh a mortality of H.6 per cent, llie latter were not all treated with 
tnoi: in computing those cases treated nilh the eerum ulonu the mor- 
ttliiT wa* y.8 jjer cent. 

JclTeris Turnrr' reci>r(!(i his experience of the treatment of diphtheria 
B ihc Children'* Iloi^pital. Brisbane, and oomnares the re.-ults obtained 
Bbce the injection of aniiloxin wa* begun In IliiU in*tHiition nitb those 
«6wTed in the same hospital in thff preautito.vin period, from July, 1889, 
'sJiaoarr, IHS.i. As n-gards laryngeal cosch, in the author's experience an 
■ttafia mortality of '>d.2 [it-r c«nt. for the preantitoi^in period has been 
ndocM tn an avfrngi* nmrliility of 18. li per cent, since the use of aniiloxin. 
tlltilg the same periods, wberefls formerly only 8.4 per cent, of Ihe laryn- 
IRil nses recovert'd wiihout operation, since the intrndwction of antitoxin 
ttiTerajEC of 38.4 per cent, have recoxered without operation. As regards 
*Mnli«n rases alone, whclber intubation or tracheotomy, or both, the avftr- 
^F mortality of 63. T per cent, for the preantitoxin period has been reduced 
•*« avcraee of 2S.4 per cent, for the antitoxin period. The author stales 
in in the five Tears that have elapsed sinee the introduction of the use of 
n, "tJie ilimmntinn in the hospital mortality of diphtheria has been 
.; short of marveloii:i t-t all but a few who had made theiii«'Ives nc- 
4uiated with the thorough and unimpeachable experimental busi' on which 
tWnnr in^tiuent had been hasi'd." He emphnsines (be importance of its 
wij administration, and concludes that, with certain necessary <|ualtlica- 
nuns, such »i the occasional dil!lculty of diagnosiit during the early stages. 
In child ought to die of diphtheria." 

'Ueiltnt Prr»». S«pt. 19. )900. 

^ lalfrmatUmal ileaknl Jourual of .Iwflifilail'i. Vm. 20. 1800. 




I'llAHKACKUTIClL TUBHArEt'TIO AOBHTS OR UBC09. 

Dre, 0. and !■". Kleajperer hare wsayi-d lo obtain an imtnunix^ 
which should be ciirutivv of croupous jmi-muoiiia. Iminumty was j 
by injections of 6flli\-a from patients, a glycerin extract of piicumouo 
under certain conditioiui, botii lion •culture?. Immnnii'.ed serum a 
moie certainty when injected directly into the btood-current, and is 
to ntulniliiu.' the poiaonoun products u( Ihc pnctimflcoRei. These inve 
concludt! that "ue have in the serum of immune rabbits, the p 
action of which wc ure abk- to destroy, a upecifii- a;;aiust pneumonif 
uctioD of the material nae tried in »ix patients t-iilTiring from pn< 
and ill every case there vrax a conuderahle rednelton of tcmperatui 
and respiration. The effect was mauifcetcd in from eix to twelve lie 
in two ca^cs the tcinperatnre remained normal, while in the remain! 
it rose at the end of six hours. In ecverul cases treated by other ( 
an improvement followed the use of this method. In other cases fa 
resulted. In onu ca«c of pneumonia following inAuenxu, Fuurrtvrc 
benefiE from the injection of 11 c.cm. (or fjiij) of goat's blood, the o 
being repeated fmir day^ later, the blood pr^^sumubly acting by virli 
bactericidal i|uatily of its serum. 

An tuitipiieiiniococciceenim now in the market i« obtained by i 
living cultures of the pneumococcuB into the veins of a horse, aq 
immunity has became c»lubli«bed, separating the »criun from thef 
drawn blood of the animal, and, after the addition of a small an 

SrciKirTativc (tricresol), it is scaled up in small flanks. This remed; 
y hypodermic injection (dose, 10 to 20 e.cm., or f5ii V«-v) in cases 
croujious pneiimonin. Tlie result* reported by Dr. Janie« C. WiU 
not very eucouragiup, allording a morlaiity of 22.? per cent, flpaini 
C^nt. by otla-r toelliDd?; btit Ibiit h priiiioiiurecl ii t(-Tii|itiii}; fiehl fn 
investigations in serum-therapy. I)r. Louis de I'lasse, of New Yor 
to Uttw (Uinousliated tiie curative cITecl* iif Culmetle's serum in rat 
bite. 4 

Similar experimenls have been iondi% vrith excellent ro»ulH 
treatment of glanders in the horse by means of iiumtinized licnun, 
not yet been exlcndcd to thi? human nubjecl. Mallein, ii« it i» ealle' 
employed principally for diagnostic purposes, but it should not be in 
the lempemlun; i* above normal, Rcrtiheim has made u.ie of 1 
method in the treatment of more than lOiJ cases of tuberculosis an 
that the effect was beneficial, and stale.K thai in thirty patients the 
signs and symptoms had shown improvement for Bve months. 

Prophylactic and curative iuoculaliomt have hinm recently ( 
against typhoid fever. Fracnkel and Manchot obtained a stcriliz* 
from a culture of typhoid bacilli in bouillon, made from the thymus 
a calf. They employed it clinically upon fifty-seven cases of fyphc 
administering 0..^ c.cm. (or mviiss) of the sterilized fluid by deep 
into the buttock, without unfavorable local or gi'Ueral effects. The 
1 c.cm. (or nixv) was similarly injeoled into tiie buttock of thfi ot 
In the majority of cases the second injcclion produced chilly b9 
elevation of temperature, followed by a di'cided fall. The injectii 
given every other day, with umelioratiim of symptoms and early < 
ccncc Klenijxrer and Levy subsetjuontly injected similar bouillon 

•Journal of Ihe American Urdicat Aaso^tion, Sapt. 8, IOOOl 



A 



AXIXAL SECBBItOXS, KXTUAUI'K, JLMJ Jl'ICBS. 



13& 



(-..i...;j v--,-jiii jntn doRaand obtained a blood-eeraiu capable of iinmaniz- 

iiniiusU Htid of trcaiiiig the (]i»«u«e, after infection. 

tu aouui -Vfrica this prerentive antityphoid inociilatioit was carried on 

(• Mfflcere and men, during the aioge of l^dyKinitti, of wiiicli Dr. A. K. 

' v«e some statigtio;, in tabular form, lie states tiiai whito it js at 

iinpfusibic to rletennine preeisely that the inociilalcd iicr« pro- 

*-t the reeult^ would appear to be distinctly eneoiini<:iiig, irniKmuch 

»how that the proportion, on the one hand, of atiao.k», and, on the 

■tbvr luind. of deaths, from typhoid, vns seven times smaller in thi- inocu- 
-'• ■ ^iah in the uniniM.'ulat<<d. Or. A. Conan Doyle, in a letter from South 
to the Briliik MedifalJoiirnal, reffreti; that Inocnlaliuna for enteric 
waa not made compult^try, and considers this a mistake, which will not 
pvatrd in any «iib»ei]Ut>nt nimf>{ii^'n. If it had bi-en niadc compulsory, 
annjr wouhl have escaped from iimst of it* troubles. The strong im- 
boacd upon exptiiinrv, i« "thai, ultliough it ia by no mcam an 
ute preTentive, it certainly modilies the conrse of the disease very 

CkoL^a ii another infection which it ia aought to control by injection 

w tacrinatinn with products dcrivt^l from the cholera bacillus. Prof^^or 

SMm haa separated from cultures a material which he terms snticholerin: 

»d««r. brow niiih-yt'l low vi«cid liquid, which has hc.ttn ptintled by removal 

rfpnducU deleterious to the animal or^ni^m. Auticholcriu has no toxic 

n tuan. but 19 thought to antidote the viru^ of choK-ru. .\ tritil 

''■urg hospital, limited to seriou« cs««a, is said lo hare given 

11^ rwulta. 

iiiilkinu faoB devised a method of Taceination with matter derived 
:>un* calturee of cholera bacilli, and ia now engaged in prosecuting 
'.^..mcntf Oil a lar^ itmlv in India, with what bi-ni'lk remain* yet to be 
«ca The theot7 is now advanced that the bactericidal power of liJood- 
^mm resides in llio nuclein, (tie reproductive eltmenl of blood-eclls, and 
dat th« nuclein contained in immuuii^ed t«nim acts by stimidating the 
l^poa of aaofpiifioiiticin. In response to this stimulation u fresh supply of 
■ilBti is sivvu to the blood. 

1 ' -.I of the blood of the lamb and the ox lui* been injected 

BlA »\ , •'ub]ec-t», in a number of cases, by Italian cUniciuus, and the 

^■ptoms of tiie malady have undergone decided improvement. The 

faaslilj employed was about 6 com. (or foi^s), thrown, upon alternate 

Mca^ms, inio tlie subcutaneous tissue of each buttock. No other medica- 

tafB.wa* used in these experimental cases. ColteroU made use of dog's 

*i-ain In two cast^ ot recvnt syphilis. The ranh and other niaiiiruMalions 

■ ■! under the influence of the injection. Some observers 

1 improvement followed the injection of dog's serum in 

pamonary iuLx;rculosis and neurasthenia. The serum of the dog was 

liyerun«n tally employetl by Tommasoli in three caitcs of lupii». The 

atbml, however, proved of doubtful utility. Though the lesions were 

kweablj (ncxiified, eapecially in one case, the di»eaKit took on fresh activity 

«tlw pnd of A month. I1ie subject deserves continued investigation. It 

le that thu blood of animals ini(u»oeptiblc to $yphilU may have an 

tic action to the vims of that disease. 

MHiUl^ J/rdfMl Jonnat, JdIt 14. 1000. 




186 



rUABlUCEtmC.il. THBHAPKUTIC jKIBXTS OR DRCUe. 



A roport upon thr ])n)jicrtie« and vg<?g of Huolein him bocji i 
Gcmiiiin iiiK. It lia« bei-D ulttaincd Xrom the nuchi of celtt-. tliL- pul 
spleen, and the yolk of the egfj. It i» ili!ilinguiiiht>'l from other albi 

firoUrid« by the prt'seufe of phm-jtlioric acid. Nuclem i^ a colorlew 
owiflh tiowclcr, iiiiioluble in wator and alwihol, but goluble, after long 
iu woaK olkatiiic eolutionii and iii water. It is givcii in the daily 
8 to 3 flni. (or ^r. m-xlv}, and caUBe« a considerable increatte in the 
of white corptisdcfi. IVeBiiniably for this rcafion it ia ellicBdoiis in | 
pncunionia, and oilier inft^ctious di^caseii. Kucloin a thought to be ^ 
of dinguoEtic value in latent tubcrcutaiiit-, producing a trantticDt fcv 
coogeation of the apiece. The aetir>n <if imclein upon micro-organi 
been studied by Dr. Victor C. Vaughun. who, by its use. sHcce«ded ii 
j^uinea-pi^H sufforiiig from tuberculoiiis produced by inoculation, 
vevtigator uUo titalee that the iiijtctioD of iiuck>in loto guiiMta-pig» 
them immime to pncuiuonia. The sttme method of therapy lias been 
to tuberculosis in thv human subject, with very L-iicountgi'ng remits 
streptococcic serum brouRht out by Msrmorek as a remedy for scar! 
And luppurating diseases 'iun bi-cn used by Baginsky in scarlatina, wt 
that it is not a specific in the sense that antitosia is against dip 
JM\n6 Fischer has reported unfavorable experiences with ihi« ageni 

Adamkicnic/ hns endeavored to arrest the progress of carcin 
iujcction of a subjumce wliicli he cjiIIs Cancroin and which is a pri 
the living cancer-cell. In respect to chemical composition, eon 
identical with or elo*eIy related to nebrin. As prepared, canero; 
aaueous solution of neurin, to which carbolic and citric acids ha 
added. Blood-iternni or toxins from horses inoculaied with erysipe 
lately been used by parencbyinatons inicclion in cnrcinomn. llw 
reports are conflicting. A serum antidotal to streptococcic infed 
bnn administered subculancoiisly by Roger, with reported favorabli 
iu sevpral caHcs of pvierperal fever, erysipelas, and suppurative tonsil 

Sareoniii hus Ufii successfully treated by Coley, of Xew Yort 
original method. The followinij are his directions for use of the c( 
toxic products of crysijielus and prodigio&uw: Inject dosc overy day 
tumor, or in its neighborhood if inaccessible, aiming to get a rise 
perature to 102° to lui" F. Begin with 0.03 c.em. {or mss) and 
dose as required. If the patient shows little or no reaction, the dosi 
increased beyond O.S coin, (or mviij) without danger. If too great 
sion follows the injections, they may be given at longer intervals: t 
or more. Shake the bollle before using, and keep well stoppered ii 
dark place,^ — on ice is best. Tlie lucdfe of the bypodennie syringe 
be patsctl through an alcohol-tlame before and afurr uning. After n 
stopper place steriliaed needle of the hypodermic tiyringe into the bo 
witiidruw enough, or a little more than enough, for the ri'ijuired di 
quickly elose ihe bottle. For tiist few duscs, up to U.IS or 0.!ii com. 
or iv); dilute with boiled water. 

Anttvencne is a eiinttivc serum obtAtncd from a horse which h 
immunized ii^iost snake-venom. According to Dr. Joseph McFnr 
is a very ellieicnt autidolc against Ihe poison of venomous snakes. 
J nternalional Mtdieai Maijazine, Sf])teraber, ]!*00, he give* the re 
experiments upon animals, and demonstrates the protective value 
venenc. The followiug is the treat ment to be pursued when a pati 




AKIODOU 



137 



baiiltcn by «poiscnoua finak«: I. I ni mediately etop the circulation in 

lltbiltai part of the bodj, so as to pn-veut nbKurption of tlic poiiton. 2. 

Idcw iQi! enlarjce tli<: fAiig-wmiiid and extract the poison b^ gtictioi) 

tptftnUj by a cuppinj^-^las^. or with the mouth, if the mucotu membrane 

iiftiataaQd). 3. Inject hyiiodermicaily 0.18 to 0.37 c.em. (or miii-vj) of 

tmA IR-per-cent. aqueous solution of calcium chloride into about u doxei) 

Ihceiantind Ih4> vound. 4. Give gtrvchnine liypodermicaliy to etimuUte 

^KTOtntory centre. Whisky »houli] not be given at a!], or only in very 

uU acM8. i>ecau»e an exce^ of alcohol »till further depresseti the heatt 

ilrmiy deprt-titied by the venom. 5. Immediately inject 1" to 20 c.em. (or 

3ii ', ,-TS6) of ftntirenomoua nerum, and r<*peat the injection frequently. Mo- 

)''iilm) advi««6 people living or going into regiona where there it; danger of 

nube-bite-i to carry n bollle of nutivcnommis (vniiri ivith them. He pro- 

SflMCet ponriaiiganatc-of-potassium injections of little value. 

ANIODOZ.. — M. Svdan, of Marseilles, has recently introduced an anti- 
■«fiir antler this uBine, for which he claims remarkable power aa a safe and 
Amji reliable antiseptic and an cicellent deodoriser, even the most fetid 
'•wiuooa or gangrenous wounds becoming odorless. This new product is a 
^itioB of trimcihanal. In a fohitivn of 1 to 100 it dcKtroys, within Hve 
Bniott*, nearly all microbes; in the strength of 1 to 10,000 or even 1 to 
StWO it Rterilizeg any centre whatever. The exact bactericidal proportion 
h»! i*rn fixed by M. M^rieux, director of the Pasteur Institute ut Lyons, at 
1 oSliOO; but numerous exiH'rimenti* prove that the tubercle bacilli, con- 
5^ri in saliva, arc dcslroyeu in six hourii by a solution of 1 to 500. which 
Ml verv satisfactory result. 

It IS Dvcessary to uudcrntaml Ihc notion of the »1rength solution used; 
"^Kt that are too titrong will stenlizc a wound, hut will dry it and prevent 
«»itriiing. A moderate doac, 1-4000 to 1-3600, on the contrary, acU ex- 
'^«tDply well. For the nostrils or mouth, a aolution at 1 to 15,000, at the 
■*=•«*, anil 1 to 3000, at tho (ttrougeml, produce cwmplcle disinfection. For 
*• hude and surgical instruments a proportion of 1 to 2000 generally 



UBOK {V. S. P.).— AniM. 

UI8I FSnCTUS (B. P.).— AniM-fruit 

Preparations. 

t/Ham AiW lU. 8. P.. B. P.).— fKl of AniH. Done. 0.30 to &00 ccm. (or mv-x). 
^- iqua Anlsi tU.S.P.. B.P.).— AuUe-waier (oil, i partH per lOOO). B. P.. dEo- 
»»mi (ran ttnit- 

Spjritns Ani>i ll^S.P.. B. P.).— Spirit n! ,\n\*v (HI pvr cent). Poon, 4 to 7A 

lorrai-nl. H. P.. 0.30 to 1.30 p.cin. lor »rv-ii.\ i. 
L^^ Aotir ■lu) rntrr* inio !!»■ V. S. P. olDrinl kpiritiin auraotll ci>ni]io>itiit Mid 
^^*<liu» opu aunphunitii. 

-^ fhaznaoology and Therapy.— .\iiisc i* the fruit of Pimpindla Auisum 
Wmbflliferw). The physiological eflecta are due to its volatile oil, which 
'■kalound in »Inr-ani«* (lllicium vcnim). It is carminative, and, having 
^•ertetble odor and taste, is much used, in sweetened infusion, in treating 
^Mnt colic in infant*. Anise miiv be iinUicd thus for the latter dis- 



138 



vuxmii 



JBBAPBOnC A0BKT8 OR DRtHIB. i 



B Mfij(ii(«ii rairb. , ,,., 2 

8pt, chlorofornii •- 

S;trup. simpltd* T 

M\iw naiai , q. t. id 30 



00 Gm. or gi 

no r.otn. or ni 

3 F.nn. or ti 

ccm. ur (! 



M. Sig.: A inupoonful, for • i^hlM un<l*r one ytor, ev«ry liour. 

In bronchial catarrh, auiso U expectorant and slightly sedati 
therefore iiaed in cough-inixturo«. It liu« likcwiiic been regarded e 
ing Ui« power to etimuUte the secretion of milk. 

ANTHEMIS fl". S. P.).— Chamomile. 

AKTHEMITIS FLOEES {B. P.).— Chamomile-fiowftM. 

Preparalions. 

Extrkctiim Anthomidit [B. P.)-— E^traol of Cliamomilp. 1)om, 0.13 t 
(orgr. ii-viij). 

Oleum AnUiemidU (B.P.).— Oil o( Chmnoniil^ I)o»o, 0.03 to O.IS 

Fbarmacolo^ and Therapy. — The flowcr-hendi< of .\nlhcn 
(CompoGita>) coHucted from cultivated plants. The oil. which ia 
principle, haii s powt-rftil lowering action upon thu reflex c-xcitahil 
spinal cord. The hot infusion acts as an emetic when freely used, 
quantity it is aromatic and earminntive, and favon pcrgpiratioi 
action of the kidneys. It checks reflex cough. A very good co; 
after a severe cold, in simple fever, and often in acute rheiimntia 
pared by pouring 473 c.cm. (or 1 pint) of boiling water over 31 G 
each of chanioniile-flowera and the leavea and flowering tops of boD' 
patient (should drink about onc-hulf, hot, on retiring, us a diophore 
entire pint, should emeeis be desired, A very escellent prescr 
flatulence, and especially flatulent colic in children, is:— 

R TnfuH. BtitlipnildU. 

Mist, bchI« uit^ntli, . , . .' aft 1K>| ccm, or 1 

M. S\g.: From oni^-hnlf to two titble«|ioonfu1a when neeeguiy. 

Locally, a chamomile eafaplaam may be used when heat and 
with some ecdative uction, are desired. The recent iiifiL<ion i* 
either hot or cold in domestic practice, in the treatment of colds, 1 
and intestinal diwrder*, or dys|K'pein. The oil baa been proposed i 
dote in strychnine poifioning, and is useful in spasmodic asthma 
of chamomile, on nceounl of its aedative action, is a very good a 
fatty preparations for various inflammations of the skin. Used ir 
mcnts named, it will prove of value: — 

H 01 ftiith«iniilii (30 to 160 ccm. or i 

Itiamutb, nibnit. i 4 <im. or I 

Vngt Jiinci oitidl 3l| Ooi. or 1 

M. Siff.T Apply well over Ui« aurCtuw tor ei7sipolas, acut« 0C)wm», ao' 

B 01. «TitU«midi« .,,, {37 to TS e.eiii. or i 

ntdrarfr. chlor. mitia .,.. US dm. or j 

of- •iicnIypU • 30 c.inn, or I 

Lnnotini' 31 Om. or I 

M. S\n.j Um upon old mualln. nnd npply to the turfacc in inf&nUle 
in seborrluvo. 



i 



.ISniBAROBlxm. 



139 



AirTH&ABOBINlTlL— Anthr&robiB i« a jeUowisli powder, iiot Miluble 

- < r M awT, l<ut aolublf in alkalteB, glvcerin, and alcohol. Authrarobin 

! to vhrjearobiu, for wlik-li it U a vueUil eiibflittite a:« on nppliralion 

• •.111 iliscaM^a. It [irodactis l«se irritation and staining than diry^arobiD, 

d u taiil tu horc tio toxic effmits. Antliarabin i* excroted, (or the most 

It. bjr th« urine uncliunifL-'d. tliou(;h gome of it i& oxidixed to form alistarin. 

ool'-r* Of jtkin jf-lluw niid itii- hair ted. lii psoriapi*, tinc-a vemicolor, and 

Ti' I n Hf-piT-cenl. oinluivnt «r alcuhulic solution, wliich should 

t, i li'8»l evi-ry Ktek. 

AtitbrKrobm can be prt-iteribi-d tliuK at times with advantage: — 

a Avilininiblni 4 



Gm. nr 3]. 
Gm. or Si^*. 
Urn. or Si- — H- 

Gni. or Si. 
Gill, or Sj.— M. 



ITnitt. hvijnrg. nttntia • ■ • iW 

Ungt. tioci uxull ai] 

tat cbrunic menM •nd pMriui*. 

R .Ixtlmtvbini 4t 

UafC hj-dnrg ob«ti> (lOptrMnt.) 3li 

I'v ID tiar» •roioilof. a* (r«ll At in ring'o-drm anil (hvii4. 

HydroxjrlamiB Hydrochloride. — An allied subetatice to anthrarobin and 
imliin, this coinpoiinii owiint in the form of colorlew hygroacopic 
•filubU in water, alcohol, and glycerin. It has the advantage of 
ing the tiktn, but tK highly irritnnt and is rajiahle of jiroducing 
It haa been ii«d in peoriasis, lupus, scabies, and vefretablo para- 
^dtaMa«*. Hydroxytamiu hydrochloride diould not In- applied, to benin 
»ti fiitater strcn;:tli ihiin '/le "f 1 per tint, diewdved in cqiial parte t>f 
[ and glywrin. The pniporlion niay be gradiinll)' increased uritbin the 
uf tolerance. This compound it not adapted to internal use. 

AJnTXONIUlI.— Antimony. 

U. S. P. Pnpantuma. 

Anuii>aMti vt PotmMli Tattnta. — AatlMionr and PoIhmEuiii Tarlrate, Tartar 
Mate. Powr, ».ooii> to 0.06>t On. lor gr. V.-jt. 

iLBtimaau Uuduiii. — AnUinony Trloxlile (rarfty uwdl- Dot*, 0.13 to OJiO Uia- 
tft. a-Oi* 

Artiifti ™" Sulptiiilutn.— Antlmoajr ^Iplildn. tor tnaklnfi the OxIiIp. 
JLsUmiMiii Sulptiidum I*urt11ci>tuiu. — I'lirifii-d Antiinunv SulphiMr. Uicil in Rink- 
r 'Adi^nintml Antininnv. 

' iifkoniuni 5ulpburaluiD, — Sulpliuratixl Autimonf {KernK^ji Mint^ivl). Dom, 
■ S» i:m. lor gT' i'iij). 
Ptiivi* -'i- 'liR- — Anllniontal or Jkum'* Powder lantinKinii oxiduai, '.',; 

m (mrii. t" */•)- !><»«. OJMS to 0.38 Gm. (or gt. i-vj). 

tfibila Afii t 'oBipo«ll«). —Cora pound Pll'* of Anlimony. or Flutnmcr't Fllla 

•ulfiburalrd anliiiKin.v and mIoidtI. cucIi. about 4 Gm., or Ij; jnuunr. 8 
J. in nnv butidmi jiilli). Dom. 1 to i pllln. 
_ Antii»oi>i>~ — Aniinionutl Wine lci]nlniii» aboiit 4 Gm. tarur emetic to 
I ifjTii.. or 0-13 Gib., or gt. i], iii mrti 30 c.cia-, «i IJji. I>um>, O.IS lo 0,60 e-em. 

■ MnKtc *!■« ent«n into mrrupua ■cilbn compoiltni (V- S.P.I. MUlur* 
cmtipnifta ll'.i^P.), nr brown mixlure. cuntainii antinionial wine. 
I), or i*rtar cnKie, about OSIOS Gm- in 30 ejem. for ftr. 7, )>nr ounor), 

S. p. Preparations. 

Bitnium TttrLaratum.— Tartaralrd AntlinoB>', Tailur Enicli«'. Dow, at a 
nwKT ta OjOM Gn. (or gr. V„-'/,): »■ an proctic O.iMiS lo 0-13 Gm. 



140 



lARUACnmOAI. THBIUrBmo A0ENT8 OB DRt'OT. 



AntiTiioiiii Oxiduni. — .AnUnioniauii Oxidir. Dow. 0.0U& lo 0.13 Gm. 

Antimonii Ni|p-iini riiiiflcalum.— Antlnioiiloiiit Siitphidv ilui' pliur 
purpo»e»). 

Antiiiioniuiu Sulphur* tum.—H ill iihurAtrd Antimonr tn mixture foaVt 
mony ■ii1pliiil''H mid oxidva, and nulphur). Dosr, O.ll'tri lu i>.i:t Uiii. (or ^ 

I'ulii^ Atititiioniul.— Aotiniookl I'owdrr. Uosc, «".2n to lUS Gm. (or 

I'ilula HydmrKyii 8ulirhloridl Ci>iiipo*it«.— »;i>miji>iiiiil Fill of MeiVU 
ridr, I'liiinmcr'i I'ill. Dow, 0.2:3 to 0.50 Uiii. lur gr. iv-vii]). 

VixiUEii Anltmi>ninlc.'- AntJinonial Wina. Dom-, O.UU to 2 fjtta. (oi 
ii> an fnittic, 7.S to IS cvm. (or f3ii-ir). | 

Ffasrmaoolog;.^ — Antimony and poUusium tartrate, or l&rtsn 
luoiij (l'KjSbi)JU,ll,(), -f liS>). Ua powcr/ul irritant, ami, appl: 
skin, cauKoe rodncss, followed by a puatular eruption, resembling i 
When swallowed, it is a ilepuityiiig vmctic, nlso cnuKin)^ an inerci 
secretions of tht- intcEtinal tract, with occasional diarrhcea. It has a 
diaphoretic action, and in clitninutetl by the bile, milk, Rwnit, urJm 
)titr>linul Kccrclions. L'pon the circulation it is depre§eiof,' : unc 
lluence the heart's action becomw ueok and irrcjinlur and tin- arl 
eion lowiTcd. The puliitttions arc likewise retarded. Itespiratioc 
slower and Ihe bronohinl secrplionsi arc iiicreanod. Thy brain ii* U( 
alTfuted, fxcepl that nndtr certain conditions, especially when 
with opium, tartar emetic exerts a. sedative action. Large dnaes 
reflex excitability of llie spinal cord, and may produce paralytis. 
action has been noticed upon the liver, the waste of nitrogennus 
being inoreasi'd, with diminished oxidation of the non-nitrogenous 
Excesaive doses have a toxic elTect ttpon motor nerves and muscle 

Toxicology. — Poiitonoiis doneit of lartar emetic (u,0(!j fini., 
or more). cau*e vomitinj;, with burning pain at the epif^ustriu 
colic, pursing, and smiiU, freijucnt pulwe and early ci>lbip!<^. with tr. 
(ration of muscular system, rapidly occur. Itespiration is shalloi 
in cholera, the patient suffer* from cranipinj; pain in the calves ol 
In some cases furious delirium has occurred. Death is tisually pr 
stupor or convulsions. Toward the close of the case the urine las 
bloody and scanty or may be suppressed. In some instances vomit 
sent and there is profound nervous prostration. Hepeatcd small 
tartar emetic may occasion a chrotiic intoxication, evidenced b 
purgation, a small, frei|uent pulse, and. finally, death from exhaui 
this class of cases suspicion should he aroused that Ihe drufr has bd 
istered for criminal purposes. Ab.wrption and elimination are ra; 
drug is eliminated by the mucous menibninc of the slomneb and bi 
especially by the kidney. Death may result from exhaustion, or 
eulting gaslro-intcelinal inflammation. The antidote is tannic ac 
rendent (he salt insoluble, to he followed by demulcents and ao' 
relieve the pain. Depression is counteracted liv alcohol and diicitali 
emetic i» incompatible with acids, alkalies, and dniL's containing ta 
Infusions of colTee and lea are both physiological, and chemical, an 
tarlar i-melic. 

Therapy.— Turtar-cmetic ointment is a powerful counter-irr 
i« seldom uncd on account of the danger of producing sloufrbing i 
The treatment of inilammation by tsrlar «;nielie in large doBe.s 
abandoned, hut fractional doses (O.OOIC Gm., or gr. '/„) alone or in 
tion with Dover's powder (l).13 Gm,. or gr. ij) or nitre (0.20 Gui., 



i 



ASTISEBTW. 



i41 



but BMTtd ver>- MTvici-able in Gth^nic pneumonia and in pleurUy. In 

InBUial infiammation iriih deficient nvcrction itie vhw of tiiitinumy, or 

Dunii jyrup of eijiiilU, is frctiuently given. Dr. J. li. Davis writes with 

I o( the aeiion of the golden sulphuret of antimowy in clironiu bron- 

Hc administers it in doses of O.O012 to 0.008 Oro. (or gr. Vm-'/m) 

tahmted with sugar of iiiillc. 

Ttitai emetic should not be jfjven in erouii (especially diphtheritic), as 

_ tfi too depreasin^. For broiK-liitis in children, Kingcr udvi*cs a solution 

'•f 1.065 Gm. (orgr. j) to iTi c.cm. (orOj) of water, of which a teaspoonful is 

Vkniven eveir quartt^'r- or half- hour. Tarlur cmelif should ruroly, if ever, 

k ilnuu«terea to infante or very young children. 

&n8ll doMS of tartar emetic have niso been rccommendeil in oroliiti«, 
tummitis, tonsillitis., parotiditis, muscular rheumatism, and spasmodic 
Mknu. A combination of tartar emetic «ud opium is vi-ry servicenblc in 
litfarioas delirium which attends some cases of typhoid and typhus fevers. 
A smilar condition in delirium treiin-us is reiicvcil by the Kam<- trealinent, 
tilth has aUo be«>n used with sur^coss in puerperal mania. Hinder states 
ftil chorea is sometimes benefited by tartar emetic given in doses sutFicient 
bfrDdiice vomiting, once or twice a day. Administered in the same man- 
6^. it has been found capable of relieving rebellious caseii of lumbago and 
BiKiiUr rbAimuti»m. In acute gouorrhna Surgeon-Major T^awrie regards 
ium. (or fflxv) of antimonial wine, given every second hour, as an excellent 
nmiij. 

In wme skta diseases — as chronic eczema, psoriasis, and other scaly 
fcardfn— tiie uw of tnrl«r emetic, or the oxide, or sulphurated antimony, 
nimall doses, and frequently repeated, is of much sen-ice. 

Tlie so-called toleraiicp of anliniuny vtm Aw- (n the fact that after the 
"iitlity of the system became lowered by its action, comparatively large dose* 
*»ld be jwallowed without producing vomiting. 

AVTINERVDI (Salicylanilid-bromacetaailid). — Antinervin is a com- 
waitiou of acetandid. salicylic acid, and liromine, with the formula C,H(NH 
fC,H.(nH)(CO)J +C,H.Br.NH.(.'H.(M>, according to its introducer: 
i*«- S. Itadiauer, of Berlin. It is a white, crystalline, granular powder, with- 
^Qtodor, and almost (aslelfi>s. This substance is soluble in alcohol, dilute 
*l«olioI, and hot water, and olmoHt insoluble in cold water; it is more *oIulile 
Winter slightly acidulated with hydrochloric acid or in dilute solution of 
*»»itic pota.s^'1. The dose i? 0,'i'J t>i "..ill Gm. (or gr. v-viij). 

Fbyiiological Action ud Therapy. — Its physiological action is similar 
^ thst of othvr remcdii'S of this clasa: it is antisentic. antipyretic, and hvp- 
ttutit It resembles antip)Tin in its effects upon tne sensory nerves and has 
Wa BEvd clinically (1) to relieve pain; (2) to produce sleep; (3) to allay 
^yaodic cough; (4) to reduce fever; (5) to arrest fermentation in infec- 
tou dj-spepsia. In Ihi.* itniall doses n«ualiy given (0.32 to 0.50 Gm.. or gr. 
'■Tiij), it relieves headache and restlessness and produces natural sleep. In 
11)( imtmvnt of influen7.a, or grippe, thtf salt reduces the fever and allays 
fUB and restlessness. Where cough becomes spasmodic and paroxysmal, 
otiBtfTin exercises a sedative effect and produces sleep. It is of advonla^ 
a vtioopiiig-cough (0.lHi5 to O.l.'i Gm,, or gr. i-ij. every two hours) or in 
Mhoa, whether of cardiac or bronchial origin. It has been u*e.A in Ger- 
amy, wHk euccewful mulls, in diabcteK, reducing both the sugar and the 



M2 I'MAIIHACKUTICAL TUEBAI'EfTlC AOKNTS OH nilCOS. 

uiiiount of urine: and it is stnted to be pariiciihrl^ »crvicoublo 
articulnr rlK-uniali»m. Dr. Ludwig Sior, of Dannetadt, aeccrtaii 
when aiitiiKTvin wae Riven in 1 Urn. (or gr. xv) doftcs at Iiowrly i 
for three hours, be^iiinin^ iihout noon, il ixtTDiMd H decided infli 
reducing kmjjcratiin;. The iinninnim temperature watt gonerally 
from six to nine hours «(ti-r t!ir Hiiministration of the fir§t dose, 
twt'lve tioiirs from the same period the temperature began grad 
uBocnd. The reduction of lciii;icriiltirc was not aecumpnnied by no 
iTiumri'i^laiionH. As u rule, copioiiE perepiralion and, fre<(Uently, n 
several hours were produced. In acute rhttuniuti^m its action woe 
that of sodium salioylutc. It woe beneficial in trifacial neuralgia, d 
the pain of transverse myelitis, and in headache from vunoiis causi-s 
anulgcvie it was usually given in doses of 1 Gm. (or gr. xt), repestc 
needed, twice during the day. In the cases wbert- it vran U8cd no dc 
clfcct« upon the- heart or nervous system vrero delected. 



^ 



AFOCYmnc (U. S. P.).~Apocynum (Canadian Hemp). 

Preparalion. 

Extrnptum .^pocj^t FluBum (U.S. P.). — Fluid Gxtrnct of Apo<-ynui 
O.30 t" 2 c.cm, (or niV'XJixl. 

Pharmacology and Therapy. — The root of Apocynum'Cani 
(Apocyiiiicrsc), a plant belonging to this country, contains Apooj 
Apocynein, the former soluble in alcohol, the latUr in wuIot. Thi 
cipleii in Email doses act upon the circulation, like strophanthus, as 
In larger aiiiounta they arc emetic, cathartic, and diuretic. 

Apocynum usually, but not coniituntiy, increases arterial teiu 
acts as a diuretic without irritating the renal epithelium. It is 
that the emetic and cathartic effects of this drug are due to npocyi 
its diuretic virtue to apocynin. The decoction of apocynum is in 
the stomach and bowdsi, but the tincture in free from this di«ad 
The tincture (1 to JO) has been employed in the daily doses of 4 tc 
(or mix-xc). A decodion has been used in the dose of 3U to 60 e 
fji-ij) in the treatment of dropsy. 

Dr. W. T. Richmond regards apocynum a* of vnhio in tlic ti 
of ascites, Bright's disease with or without dropsy, and valvular hi 
ease with general anasarca. He employs the fluid extract, beginni 
7 or 8 drops, and gradually increasing till the desired effect is c 
Toleration is established bv continued use, and the dose must thet 
raised from time to time. l3r. Richmond has also seen it of service 
dice. In the dose of fl-Ol.") to 0.03 (Jm. (or gv. V«-Vi) apocynin has b 
as an expectorant. 

Ilr. J. Glin.'*ki Iian found (hat apocynum relieves the funetic 
turbances which accompany organic heart disease and diminishes 
of dullness in dilatation. The drug seems to have no cumulative efl 

APOMORPHINffi HYDROCHLOBAS {C. S. P.).— Apomorphini 
chlorate (C.Jr.^NOJICI), 

APOMORPHIRa: HYDROCHLORIBUM (B. P.). — Apomorph 
drocUoride. 

Lose, 11.003 to O.OOS Gm. (or gr. Vto-'Ao) by hvpodermic injecti 
the mouth O.OOG to 0.015 Gm. (or gr. 'Ao-'/.). 




AKiMORrnnt'.fi iiydhoouloius. 



143 



PhArmacoIo^ and Therapy. — Apomoqihine is obtained by noting upon 

Btorphme by pure hydrorhiorii- jicid, 20 purts of the latter being added lo 1 

faitgf the former in a slrou;; t;ia?j tube and espoaed to a high temperature. 

ApODwrphitie hydrochloraiL- ooi-ut^ in the form of colurlegs or gmyig]i-whit« 

c^itab, colublr in water and alcohol, almost insoluble in ether or chloro- 

•Ofm. 

-According to the inTCstigationE of Snichert. toxic quantities of spotnor- 
^' Aiie ];ive riae to conruUiotu followffd by paralysis, chiefly of xpinnl origin. 
Sim Then given in ordinary medicinal amounts extreme prostration and 
notntrollable vomiling may follow, with weak, Ihready puiste and low 
VMri*] pressure. Poisonous doses rause rapid (ind irregular TL'spiration. 
ipnnonihine hrdrochlorate ia a aystemie eraetic and can be ii-xed hypo- 
itaueuly in the dose of 0.008 Om, (or gr. '/») to empty the stomach. In 
mBh doses it can be given as an eipertorant in bronchitis. It is of value 
iBilie treatment of dr}', hacking coiigli, (illcndcd with little or no secretion. 
lithe result of a series of clinical esperiment?. Murrell' has ascertained that 
tponnrphiDe, given by the mouth, i» tolcrnti-d in much larger do^cs than had 
' infapnoe^. He Was able to administer O.0G5. 0,10, or 0,13 Qm. (gr. i, iss, 
'^Hbnee daily without exciting naiieca. In these qunntitip* he found apo- 
."line hydrochlorate an excellent expectorant in chronic bronchitis, bron- 
(farrlwa. and i-mphyMma. Murrell usually prescribes the npomorphine in 
^ip of wild cherry, of tar, or of lemon. The addition of a few drops of 
ftmhydroehloric acid to the mixture is ndvantagcou.*. Thi' same observer 
W tnrployed apomorphine as a spray with very satisfactory results. He 
iis fmjiiently given as riuich a* 2 com. (or f.'fes) of a 1-per-cent. Golution in 
iGltle water for each inhalation. A combination of apomorphine and mor- 
[tiac it Taluable, and Iihn been employed by RoKi<haah in jilithisis. The 
misbecomes less frequent and the sputum more fluid. 

Apomorpliine liydrnehlotate is often aeniocable in the treatment of 
*tlun>, the writer prescribing it thus: — 

S Apunorphin. hydrocliloKl. ,.,r -■- >- 13 

.\cid. bydrMhloric. Jilut >.> •■••.. 6 

Morphinv h;drocli1o»t ( 

Byr. Toluiani 80 

Juq. eUotoianni q. >. ad 240 

M. Sij.: Ft(l*»n cubic wntiin«tiv«, or halt nn rmiiM-, fvitry third hour until 
*9i|aca m r«U«v«L 

Dietalifl or atrophanthus may be combined with the above if there is 
■Bftaraiac debility. 

Apomorphine shonid not be continued too long, as it is liable to pro- 
4itt pnlmonaTy oedema. 

w. Alexander V. Samuels has written of the value of apomorphine in 
^wmnHc croup, giving O.IHtJ.I dm. {or gr. '/«) every five or ten minutes 
tttitmniiting is produced. If the child i." unable to swalliow, the remedy 
■nlje introduceu beueath the skin. J. S. lIor*ley has found Ihi^ alkaloid 
ftmroe in controlling conTulsions, lie successfully employed hypodermic 
I^KtkBi of O.OW to 0.006 (Jni. (or gr. Vi»-'/,o) in a case of strychnine poi- 

"Oo the Action f>l AponioTphlnn nnd Aporoddnft. with Ri-frrcnce to thair V«Iub 
w EnntonnU In tb* TrMttmmt of Clironk ItroDchHit," by Willinm Mum)l. M.D., 
'^£F. in tlM irerffM) SunWin, KUroh. 1891. 



Gm. or gr. ij. 
e.cm. vr fSiM. 
Mfl Om. or bt, j. 
e-cm. or Fjj, 
tcm. or fSviij. 



t 



144 niABHACEUTICAL THRBAPEUTIC AOBMTS OB UnCOB. 

soaing. Tliis writer recommends apomorphine in the treatment ol 
saons and minor phenomena of livateria. 

Ajionwrphinf haa been usea, on account of its depressant ei 
maniacal delirium, hretero-enilepsy, chorea, and pertii«t«nt hiecoi 
has been ndminitk-rcd to pruducv relaxation of a rigid 06 uteri. 



AttUA {U. S. P.).— Water (H,0). 

Natural water in its purest attainable state. 



J 



AttUA DESTILLATA (U. S. P., B. P.).— Biatillwl Wttcr. 
A i.'oIorU-Ma liitipid liquid, vithoui odur or tIl^tL■, and pvrfcctlji 
to litmus-paper. 

AQUA HYDEOGENn DIOXIDI (U.S. P.). LIQUOR HYDR 
FEROXIDI (B- P.).— Soluiiuii of hydrogen dioxide. {Snifi Barii Die 

ABAROBA (B. P.). — Goa powder, or crude cliiysarofain, ia a s 
found in ihi; cavities in the trunk of Andira Araroba, frcud at : 
notaihle from fragments of wood, drie<l, and powdered. (Sec C 
MnniB.) 

ARASA is a native of Brainl and Uruguay. The portion ti«G 
bark of tbo root. It is omiiloyod in South America in cases of metre 
2 Om. (or 3«s) of the bark being boiled iu a cupful of water and adm: 
for aeverol day» before and during the menstrual period. The tast 
to resemble that of cascarilin, and no unpleasant sccondnry eSecto hi 
observed. 

ARECA. — ArecB-, <;.r BeteU nut, the seed of Areca Catechu (Pa! 
contains nn nil and at) iicid constituent in addition lo tnunic fioid. J 
has extracted three alkaloids from areca-nut: arecoline, arecaiai 
third, the quantity of which was too small to permit chomical inves 
lie regards arecaine as the active principle. It is a crystalline body 
in water, insoluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform. Arecaine is ft ] 
tsniadde and poison, dcpre^sin^ the action of the heart and res] 
produoiiig tetanic convulsions, and incroasinfi intestinal peristaleii 
dered areca has for a long time bicn used as a tn^nlacidu in vcterina 
ticc. More, recently this remedy has been used for the same jmrpot 
human subject. Dose, 0.32 lo l.^D On,, or gr. v-xx (4 to S Cm., or 
a vcrmifiij;!'). The fluid extract ia the best preparation. Its adn 
tion should be preceded and followed by a purgative like castor-oil. 
nut in bclii'ved aUo to tncreas(< the seereliontt from the salivary glai 
has a slishtly stimulating cllcct upon the cerebral centres. 

Arecoline bromhydrate it a myotic. When applied in '/i-F 
watery solution it cnuses a alight stinging sensation for a few mome 
leaves no conjunctival or ciliary congestion. Chetwood-Aikon' com 
superior to eserine in the treatment of glaucoma. It^ action is rao' 
and more powerful, but its clTect is of shorter duration, and is d^ 
headache and the other unpleasant after-effects so often noted with 



■ Brtll»h ilrdUal Journal. Jun. U. 189B. 





AKOEXTt'M. 



143 



' dt.>«cr)bca thu action of arecoUne. u drug extracted from thv 
Jtalian arvc-tm). Friilinvr (oiiiid bomo timv ago that arccolitm 
tbu 1ml aialsftoKUV) being eupmor to pilocarpine, and thai it cquiila 
liiM u • Iftxativc. 

l>r. LmvaguA now reports that the inelilJatiaD of a drop of a l>per>e«iii. 
■twn of ih« hydrolmiiiiatc into the conjiim-tival «c nusutt a «cnKation of 
mtb, and afterward eome lacrymation and epasm of the ejeltdti. The 
itauoa Imtt* scarceiy more iban a minutv, and id followed by slight hypci- 
u of the conjunctiva and Bubcorneal injection, which disappear after 
fflinulv^. After 2 minut<>« violent clonic spiisms of the irio arc prn> 
ad and there is distinct diminution of the pupillary space. The tayoeia 
W17 nuticv«blc after !> minutei, and reaches it* maximum in 10 minutvii. 
maximum is maintained for 25 to 30 minutefl. after which the pupil 
inc lu viilur^, and becomes normal once more after about 70 minuter. 
the end of iiO minuter the pu]>il is aliout ou<shalf millimctro liirgcr than 
.1. Or. l^vsf;na baa not noiiced any modifications in intni-ocular leu- 
I do« to thu drug. iU-fori.* acting nn the iris urt'culiiie causes a spasm of 
aluirjr iiiusck', which gives rise to increased refraction in tlie eye for the 
• being. 



ABQEimnC.— SUTer. 



Prtparalions. 



A»«titl CruiMm (U.S.P.).— surer Cyanide. Dok. O.OOIO to 0.003 Gm. (or 

AcgraU lodiduni (U.S. P.t-— Silv*i Iodide. Dow. 0.008 lo 0,015 Gm. (ot gr, 

-■.'- 
jtrfvnU Nilni FuMs {U.S.P.>^>Ii>liM Silver Nlumt«, Lunar Caustic [tor M- 

J OMl. 

ArpMiU Nitna Diiitttw fU. 8. P.>.— Diluted BUvrr N'ltrato lallvcr nitrate, 1 part: 
iinlaMMiiiii nitrat*. i F«itel. RMpttmI iu*. 
AipnU Nluu 1U.8.P.. B.P.).— Silver Kttrate. IXwc. OAII tn ».03 Qui. (or gr. 

_-uU OxidtMi (U.S.P., B.P.).~SilvM- Oxidr. Dow, 0.03 to 0.13 Oin. [or 

nli Xilia- >liti^tu« IK.P.).— Mitit!at«l ruii*ti«. 
- : _ . nli N'ilra* Induratiis <B. P.). — Tou^cncd CauMic <flO to 5). Rxlmuil uor. 

V%MrmMeQl<tgj. — Metallic silver is a white metal taking a high poliith, 

aot oraally afToctnl by acids or by oxygrn, although readily tarnished 

^..'..i.M- It It nflirial only in the form of nltfi, of which th<- nitrate i* 

iisetl. Silver nitrate is an anhydrous salt which crystallizes in 

rnombie platei. It is readily soluble in cold water, and httf a 

, fiyptic taste. Tpon the addition of hydrochloric acid or a soluble 

to a mlmion of the nitrate, a while, curdy precipitate i.i formt^I. 

: orrirtpttate is wholly sotubk- in ammonia. The crA'»tals, fused and cast 

twildir prc*cnt the form of round, grayish sticks. 'Vhe cyanide is eon- 

■t#nt for tbe extrmiioraneotts prvpnralinn «f hydrocyanic acid, by adding 

- of some mineral acid to the solution containing this salt. Metallic 

iiswl in sTirgeri- in the form of silver wirt' for sutures and for can- 

- fracheoloniy. catheters, etc. • 

fhjnological Action.— Silver aitratt, in weak Mlaliont, acts as an 



Clmrmalr drlla H .IrrndcMia 41 VnflrflM rff Ft>rm«, 180S, Xoa. 3 and 4. 




PlIARMArerTICAL THERAPEimC AaETTTR OB DlirOS, 



aetrinsent, and, in iiiibstaiice, congiilnl«s the ftlbiimin of Ihe tiraitcfi 
stroj'K thftr vitiility. ucting as a caustic. The mitigated stick of luiiai 
is mild and superficial in iU action; th«! pure nitrate may caii*i; sli 
or ulcoTution. One objection to its use is the discoloration it leaves 
the skin becominj; blaok after exposure to Ibc light, (Wlit-n the pV 
Hagcn arc stained with nitrate of silver in making; an application, t 
may be removt^d by at once wnahiii); uitli a Kohition o{ cyaiiiilo of poti 
According to Ilaho, the stains way be removed from the skin or i 
by a solution contalnliiK 5 (iin. (or gr. Ixxv) eneh of corro<>)ve Kublin 
timtnonium chloride in 37 c.cm. (or f3x) of distilled water. Local 
tions of silver nitrate wliiten niiicou$ mcmbrfliic. When swallowed 
toms of irritant poisoning appear, with pain, disti«ffi, and vomiting 
mon salt is the antidote, and vomiting Khould heeiiOHurneed by adiniD 
wonn salt water; after cleansing the stomach the bowels should be 
by ail. When any of the silver salts (but especially the nitrate) h 
taken for a length of time, a slate-colored line appears along the gi 
there is darkening of the conjunctiva, and soon afterward the ontiro 
of the body becomes dingy or slate-colored, due to the deposit of met 
ver in the pigmenl-lnyer of thv «kin and in all the const itueuts of 1 
below the Malpighian layer. This condition ie known as Argyria, ani 
manent. The patient should therefore he carefully observed dtii 
administration of silver, and the remedy from time to time inte 
Argyria has also resulted from the local use of silver nitrate, »» rcp' 
Hutchintion, in the AnnaU of Surgtry for April, 1892. In medicin 
the stiver salts act as a tonic to the nervous system and changes oecu 
Iiloni!; tinsiie-chaiiiire is increiised; the flow of hilp ia also inerpawid 
larger doses there is cnibarraeement of the respiration, depression of 
culntion, and reduction of temperature. Tetanic convulsion* or i 
may be produced by overdoses, the paralysis being of central origii 
Therapy. — Silver foil, or metaHte silver in very thin sheets, is ei 
as a surgical dressing for wounds. At Johns Hopkins Hospital the 
originated of applying silver-leaf dressings for hums, tlie lesion bet 
ply covered wilh the leaf without the use of any adhesive materia 
un excellent protective dressing which may be painlessly removed 
newed. It prevents suppuration and is said to reduce shock. In 
HoBpifol it bus been used as a dressing for laparotomy wounds, the le 
followed by a gauze compress and bandage. Silver nitrate is uncd b 
2-per-cent. snlittion dropped into the eyes of newborn infants to 
purulent conjunctivitis (ophthalmia nconatonim) after the method o 
G. E. De Schweinitz' has seen marked conjunctivitis neonatorum 
after the employment of Credi!"s method and has also observed sev( 
of conjunctiviti* with haziness of the cornea, and one case of persist 
junctival hemorrhage, which nearly proved fatal. He insists that 
method should be reserved for the eyes of those children who hav» 
through a birth-canal known to be infected, or from which the BUSf 
infection contd not be positively eliminated prior to the birth. W 
infection, or the suspicion of infection, can he excluded, Credo's m 
not necessary,. milder methods of prophyla-tis being sufficient. Tl 



'WHIoitelp*Hi Mrrficnl Joiirnnt, vol, ill, 961. 





AROKXTITU. 



147 



M stick i* a good applicAtton to granular lids, cliancroide, emall-pox vee- 
■i (in order tu prevent pittiog), and in funeral (o exdtc u hejillhy action 
l^nulAUni: -urfMcfi*, lu gyniti'Ology, (lie lunur ojiustic. in solid form, it 
• 'I' cerx'ic-Hl caiarrh and in venerval sores. An applicAtinn of 
. to tht.- N.-riitiiiii hof A good ttttci in nciitv L-|iuli<lvuiiti« or 
, nLiMi filoiiK tli*^ iHiurst- of thi' affected ^eRscU in lympliiuixitin of the 
I. from a poisoned wound of th«; finger. Thoroughly applied to the 
'-vuseft by the bite of a mbid animal, it is claimed by Voualt to Uv n 
-••r r>r»tec-tion ngnii>*t hyilropliobra. For na>a) catarrh it may hv 
atl «itti ^tiin acacia, pulverized, and blown into the throat or noso. Id 
tit, lonsilliliF, and laryngitiv, foliitions (imide with water or apiril 
ether of 1.30 to H.tiO Urn. to each 30 c.cm., or gr. xx-xl per ounce) 
ili«^ wit]i i.xr<-IIi.>nt rciiidti»; Dr. Horace Grccu advocahd the stronger 
a appli^-'l with a prohang to the lanux in diphtheritic croup. In 
riatc c«s<'6 theiw «olution« ar« also vafuablv in gonorrha-a, urethritis, 

An abortivo mtfthml of trruting gonorrhii-a hw had its advoeatt*, and 
^1^1* vMf ntinlly in the injection of a strong f^lution of silrer nitrate dur- 
«( tb* «*rly etiig* of the ditnitc. Profciwor Didny. who was in th« habit of 
(rating gonorrhu-a in this manner, insiEts upon the importance of the fol- 
Wiac pointji: Tho ntrrngth iif the iiolutioii «houM be 1.60 Gm. to 30 e.ctn. 
X31V to f^j) of dii-tiltcd water, which, in moet cases, will cause but 
pain at thv lucimiiit nt injection; if ^haq) p«in Ic produced immcdiutely 
ahoulil not t>e allowed to remain for more than IS or 30 seconds; 
tka pain is mudcrsli* it is allowed to remain for I or 3 minutes, accord- 
lb* tolerance. Diday states that he has often succeeded in aborting 
, er^n when it was in rather an advanced stage. 
In «ry»ipela.<i the disease may sometimes be arrested by delimiting the 
,rea with silver nitrate. It has also been used with good results in 
vuItw, herpes, rcz«mB, and lichen, when they occur in eircnm- 
patcbt«. BoiU may omelimos he aborted in this vray, and a stye 
v]rr may be checked by an early application. Buboes are treated by 
■, whethrr cupptimlion hni* occurred or not, by puncture, through 
2-[xr-cent. solution of silver nitrate ia injected Kecovery is said 
W rapid and the formation of an unsightly scar is avoided, .\ftcr disin* 
of the wound. Simmons recommends the injection of a solution of 
nitrate, with a view to presenting the derelopment of tetanti* from 
retl wonnds. The solution which he employs contains 0.65 Om. to 30 
frt- pr. I to f^). Dr. laizaro pn)po«n) *ilveT fluoride aa an efficient local 
D in anthrax. It is a brown or blackish-brown hygroscopic mass. 

_ aolnble in water, anliHptic, equal in caustic effect to the ntlni[<', and 

^IwiiiH fim to the anthrax liaoilius, while hnrmleas to the human organism. 

Tint aolid stick nitrate is us«fu] in restraining the bleeding fmm leech- 

TThtn. in the course of a chronic iltneoa, bed-sores threaten to form. 

-> >'-[dicati<>n of a solution containing 1.30 Gm, to 30 c.cm. {or gr, xx 

vcr nitrate will avert the mischief. Ringer has fonnd the same 

-:ui III whooping-cough < A solution may be applied to the throat by a 

r tfoufK, or it may be n»ed in the form of a spray. The latter method, 

ia ioapplieable to children less than three ycsts of age. The slain 

moreover, ii a iii-riouK ol>je<:tion to the spray. A strong solution, 

Mlid stick, is a good stimulant to indolent ulcers and to ulcer of the 




148 



PIIAnUACCrTICAL TUEBAFEt'TIC A0EXT5 OH DRCQG. 



rectum. A S.CO Gtn. (or gr. xl) solution in nitroue «thtT has bcGi 
tine« tricliophytoEis. A ealution containing from 1.30 iim. (or gr. i 
ccm. (or fSij) to 30 coin, (or fjj) ot woter inny ba Buecr^fiil)}- cmpl 
injection of small quantities (a few drops) imo lh<^ »ae: of an hfA 
cjr&tic tumor. A sponge probang sattiriik'il with d very weak sol 
stiver nitrate is somecimcs of service in siiasmodic fliriclure of the aa 
Applications »liouM be made uccsHonully. at interval;- of several ( 
pK'iidomembnmous enteritis it is a Rood practice, in the intcn'sla i 
ysitxi, to irrigate the bowel wiih a 0.34 to ">.(i5 Gm. (or gr. v-x) so 
silver nitrate. Prolapsed rectum, especially in children, is bencfltei 
terizalion with mitigated silver nitrate. 

On account of the staining of the skin, silver nitrate is but li 
internall}', althoutch it has acknowledged cfTects upon the ncrvoui 
Caccianiga baa collected 60 cases of acute lobar pneumonia in whi 
inent by *ilver nitrntc seemed to be clearly hencficiiil. Of llie groii 
died. Thedosp n as from 0.10 Gm. (orgr, iks) in children (cigbl toi 
up to 0.25 li> iX.ta Gm. (or gr. iv-v) in adiilt«, given in pill or stispcn 
cascB of urgency, a 0.50-per-oent. solution of protargol was inject 
derniically. Riyond some vomiting, no ill effect* wore observed 
treatment either by silver nitrate or protargol. The most marked 
the silver salt was the reduction of the teniptrBture, which bego 
first twenty-four hours and was noticed in all the cases. Apyrctia 
by crisis in -18 cusp*, by IvMHi in 12. When Mmill doi^s were given, 
generally occurred by lysis, with larger doses by crisis. In tlie defe 
due to silver the \'\iUv did not come down at the same time, but late 
oxide is said to be Ices subject to this objection and equally cfliciont. i 
in the early stages of locomotor ataxia and in epilepsy. A double 
Bodium and silver hypostdphile, has been recommended by Ciirci ai 
as cfficaciouH in locomotor ataxia, and free from the disadvantage oi 
the skin. It is very soluble in water, docs not coagulalc albumin, 
be given by the mouth in doses of 0.045 to 0,80 Ora. (or gr. Vr'ij) 
dennically from 0.01 to 0.045 Gm. (or gr. */,-"/,) in the course of 
In gaalralgia. also, the silver salts are sometimes remarkably curati' 
have effected improvement, likewise, in chronic gastritis and ulc 
•tomach. The silver nitrate has been successfully given for the p 
allaying yeasty vomiting. l\'hpn, in typhoid fever, sjiuptoms of 
in the alimentary tract become prominent, and peritonitis or hie: 
appears imminent, the following prescription was used by Peppc 
Pbiladeljihia Hospital: — 

B Aieentl nitrutU 113 <';iii. or tP 

MucIImiI!: nonciic 60| o.i-m. or jj 

M. Sift,: A teospoonful thn» or four tiniM dslly. pumblned with 1 
o|iiuin or l)?llAil»nnit, if necessary, (or diarrhoMt or comtijiatioD. 

Silver nitrate sometimes yields good results in enteritis or col 
oially if ulceration is present. Silver nitrate or oxide may also be 
followa: — 



B ArjrentI nltntis, 

Extrart! flpU »■ 

H. «t ft pil. no. viij. 

Slg.: A jiill every [our houn, for gaMric ulcer. 



113 Gm- or [ 




iII11KNTt-M. 



1(9 



B Atsvati «xMi ■..• 113 Oin. or gr. ij. 

Eit. bcUadoBMB M. ale. lOtiS Gm. or gr. ). 

EiL gmliMua L..... I 9(> Om. or gr. xx. 

U rt ft. pll no. xvj. 

t^if . A I'M tliT*« tiioM a d«y. 

Aa rtficipot prescription for neuralgia nnd chorea: — 

E AncvBti mirotiii .i i20 Urn. or ir. Uj. 

Brraf\ tiwar _.....,, . 9o! c.na. or Ijj. 

Morjihinv sulplinti* lOCo Gm, or gr. j. 

Hofil mrmtim On[ cent, or ISi}. 

M. Si^. ■ A leaapoooful in water, thr*e limn n day, b«foK mcnls. EscrU inarkfd 
0««r rhroMM dlBTThCM, MpMbiUf ol phtliuig. 

gtstrie catarrh, the gastn-intesUna] catarrh of phlhisie, uleor of the 
1, or chronic diarrhcn wc may combine it as follows; — 

S CndeUue jSO Gm. ur gr. iij. 

Atvvati nitTkt. ■ fstt Qm. or gr. vj. 

PbTv. •ra«'i«' ...,,..,.. q. «. 

HI*. In iiiL no. xtj. 

9if.i Giy* MM fvay tno lo four lioun. 

Id catarrlml jntiiiiliui' sitrtr Ditrate hae been i^ivon in 0.005 Gm. (or gr. 
p, u) AiMr9 with adrantflge. 

lo pill fonii ihc cITcct ie more euetained and the remedy can be given 
, knrvr dfjws than when in Kilmion. When used in affcctionti of the «tom- 
ihr n*nifdy re lH-«t givtn half an hour or io before mcaU, in order tliat 
tssl eBevl may he sooured. 

t>r»enterj\ »ilh iilceralion of the large bowH, is very much benefited 

injections of weak solutions of silver nitrate (O.OOTS to 0.015 Om., 

,-'/*. to 30 c.cm., or f^j, of niiicilugo). Burlholow advifCK the internal 

of tbe nitrate, combined with opium, in addition 1» the treatment by 

According to the some vriter, cither the nitrate or the oxide it 

I in RervDua dyspepsia, cholera infantum, and jaundice depending upon 

rh of the bilo-dncl*. Silver is (Omctimce beneficial in chorea. SiItw 

it ocrafionally able to check profuse perspiration, and may prove uee- 

I is tti<mnrr)iagia. The nitrate hait given relief in obi-tinatc cnteralgia. 

Dr. Cn>cii, of Itniseela. claims that silver nitrate is a valuable remedy 
i|ditlib(i«. promoting appetite and digentitm, iliminishing cough, espectora- 
,and ni;rl>t-«*t-ats. He administers from 0.009 to 0.03 Gm. (or gr. */■,- 
rinc the day. Mr I*. A. Brndy, forly years ago, regarded this salt aa of 
vaJoe io the treatment of phthisis. He was accustomed to give it in 
of 0.01 Om. (or gr. '/,) combined with O.aO Gm. (or gr. iij) of Dover's 
thr^e timea a day. Dr. Thomas May^, of Philadelphia, reporta aome 
ilr results from hypodermic injections of eolutions of silver nitrate 
>«fctn of tlie neck, over the pneumogastric nerve, in the treatment of 

pulmonalii». In some case* slriking benefit was noted. 

Tanoue int-thoda have Wen propoBcd for ihc removal of the hine dit- 
krir n :.ro-iuc«-d by nilvtr, rnfwrtunately, none has proved reliable, and 
.1 jority of crhcs the atain prove* pt*niiitnvnt. It ho* been claimed 
,,t.-.iiji w-ill lighten xhv color. I>r. Kichmann states that in two eases 
dioapp'sred after the use, four times a week, of potash-and-eoap 



UD 



PBARVARBUTIOAL THKRAPKirTIC AOENTIi OR DBUOS. 



baths. PotaJMium iodide has been givcu inlerDally for the «ai 
Argyria is by no means as common now as fonnerly, since it is no! 
largely employed in the treatment of cpiletwy and locomotor ataxii 

l)r. (Hear Werler' wannly advocates the use of the lactate ani 
of ailver, for the power of penetrating the entire organixm and elT 
general disinfection of the entire body. In sepsis he obtained gooi 
by inunction and the tt'»»ihing of Ibe vound wilh citraKr-of-Mlver 
(1 to 4000). The method by inunction with un^icntum Crcdt' (inj 
soluble metallic xilver) and local applieallon to the wound of ailvc 
solution, is i-uitcfl both to chrniiic sopsis and funmcuto^iti. 

Ethylenediamlne-Silver-Fhosphate Solution. — This new combii 
brought forward as a substitute for the silver nitrat«. Etfaylcnedii 
a clear, colorleHs fluid, readily soluble in water, of an alkaline reac 
ammoniacal odor. It has the powvr of dissolving albumin, and 1i 
slight caustic action. The solution of ethylenediamine silver phoe 
u clear, colork-i's li»juid, and, according to Dr. Scbalfer, pos9es.*es 
cidal properties which will render it valuable in the treatment o 
rhoBa anil diphtheria, lliis fluid contains 8 per cent, of nitver ph 
and ia detomposi'd when it is expoeed to the light. 

Ai^^tum Cred^," or sohiblu nn-lnlUc silver (colloidal silver), 
nally recoinnionded by B. Crede, of Dresden, at the Moscow Con 
used in medicine as a lO-per-ceut. ointment: the iingiientuni Crod 
employed by inunction, uning 3 Gm. (or gr. xlv) for an adult, or for 
1 Gm. (or gr. xv), especially in septic cases. More recently Cred6 1 
colloidal silver in a pill, containing* O.dl Om. (or gr. '/„) wilh 
milk, glycerin, and wstfr. q. »., givmjr 2 pills two or Ibrct' times 
acute eryftipelaa, and in cases of gastro-int«6lina! disease in which it I 
cnstonuiry to give llie nitrate of nilvi-r. Argynn wan not observed. 

Argonin. — An organic combination of silver with casein h 
introduced under this niinie by Drs. Itobmunn and Liebrecht. Argo 
tains one-fifteenth the amount of silver present in Xhr. nitrate. It J! 
in water, non-irrilunt. not precipitated by salt, and is claimed to be t 
to the Rouococcua. l>r. Johann Jeilinck. of Budapest, Hung) 
written on a new preparation of argonin called ".\rgonin L." H 
thin preparation aw having the advantage of not decomposing afti 
kept in solution for several months, and again containing in per 
silver instead of 4.2 per cent, as in ordinary argonin. Tlie aiitbo 
1-pcr-cent. solution in urethritis, both anterior and posterior. ( 
lArgin.) 



ARISTOL^Dithymol Di-iodide. .VH^tol it mode by adding a 
of iodine in pata»-ium iodide to an aqueous solution of sodium hydr 
taining thymol, when it is thrown down as an ainmdant. red-browi 
phout; precipitate. In the reaction an iodine atom is substit 
hydroxyl. The proportion of iodine present in ariatol ha.H been cs 
by Carins at 45.80 per cent. 



' DeuUche medleinUi-br vroithrntclwiH, Oct. H, I80S. 

' Tills is nlse cnllcd "( "oIIutk'.'Iuiii." ns jin-gisred bv von UEnleii- 

•JEHh. Therap. Woehciiidiiijt, laos. 




ARISTOI.. 



tSJ 



.Vrutol i» inAulublr in vntct end ^hxHTin. »li^htly «olul>lv in ulcoliol, 
rMdily *o in ether. The addition of alcohol precipitates it from ita 
HhtTfml solution. It tM very mIuIiU' in chlomrorm und oils, but the solution 
tact b» uuidc bj- friction without the aid of hout, since aristol ia decomposed 
»h«- action of hi-at or of h^ht. The chiiriictor of it.'i oheiiiiral conibinntion 
it an unslsblc compound. Aristol is decomposed in contact with 
lis, alkftlii-* and t-iirlmnatrH, mrroHtvc Kitblimiite, mctHllic Dxidctt, and 
fdarrh. It po Bccof ' C s but a slipht odor, which aKTceably recalla Ihal of thymol. 
Ia Ihi* r*^i>«.-t it i.- dwidi'dly prx-fi-niliU' to iodoform. 

FhTStolo^cal Actios. — Aritito) adheres very roadily to thi- Mkin, and 
«. ih*refiire, well adapted for use a* a diislinc-powder. It is free from irri- 
laot action upon Ihc unbroken ekin. Applied to the niucnus membrane, it 
fffMnot<« M^cretiiin. It is not absorbed, either through mucous membranes 
we law fturfni'ei'. am) therefore produwii no tonic effect. It hn* been )(ivvn 
tBtrmally by Neisser with no appreciahle result. This experimenter found 
that. vh<-a dimolved in suitable mentitrua and itiji-cted into the blood, il 
hitanii doroitiposed and iodine appeared in the urine. 

The abwrn-x' of disaicrecablo odor and it» freedom from toxie inllwence 
a: r«i which pive aristol a Rieat advantage over iodoform, and. from 

tii . - .'..net: now beforv ut and eoulinually ■(.'cumtilatin^. it seems probahle 
itat in a wide range of conditions it may eventually supplant the latter 
■h rt anc*. 

T bw rmpy. — The attention of tUe profession was first drawn to aristol by 
T>r >!•< liboJT, of IdlH'rfrld, who wannty I'ommcnded its local action in a 
i=,3i^ir -.r affections. Jlis experimeuis have been conSrmed by rarioug 
ihaartr ir. hnth in Europe and America. 

Arieto) is remarkably elTieacioiis in promoting rapid cicatriitalion. 
Tarieo*e olcers of the Icr. so <«mnion in the old or decrepit, heal very (juickly 
iiali r the application of an oiuinient euiitniniiig 10 per ocnt. of aristol. A 
h-prr-^rat. ointment proved equally efficacious in the case of open buboes. 
!■ lapita ulrvn> a ■mouth, imund, and hnaltby sear i* at timvs obtained by 
tka na* or aristol. either as a powder or in the form of an ointment. Eichhoft 
paiBi* oat the fact, which utu Mnfirmed bv the InvestiKations of NeiM>er, 
dkat the remcily is ineffective in lupus which has not advanced to the 
liDcnlive Kinjt*-. 1*he •'xplannliun i^ that iirislcil I1114 no o'>rriiiii vo power. 
hi* ni>t i-apable of destroying or penetratini; an intact cuticle, and there- 
Ihc ean pxrrt no influence niion the ci'IU of the lupus nodule. It« action 
• Bot upon lupus a* «urA, but npon the ulcer which is the consequence of 
ta adiaDcrd i>!a;ic of the diseaii«. Kiehboff iu several oatea anticipated the 
iwalt br ihe formation of an actifieial ulcer by the use of the sharp epuon 
«I^i>el>f>'a cautery, in Mnifuloderma excellent results have been obtained 
tf the tuv of the remedy under discussion. Overhanfnnt? edges should b« 
tTMmrrl away, and if the grannlationa are flabby the bajM- of the ulcer should 
feaenp^ before the aristol is applied. Vinnl recommends a 20-per-cent. 
_pot of aristol in the treatment of fUsured nipples during lactation. 
Upon Ihe ulc«T» of late secondary or terliiiry syphilis thia remedy ex- 
A rrinarkable intlutnce. KiebhofT, indited, expressly aaeerts that aa' 

[ ■pplii.-ation in tertiary syphilis it is suiwrior to any other agent. It 

^rftgnat value in the ulccra of the conftenital form of the disease, and in 
B, Urer. inoi^t papultx of herrditarr or acquired i^yphiliit. Another mani- 
butioo of thia malady, which may be amenable 10 the influence of aristol. 



PHAHltACBtmOAL THRHAPEDTIO AOKKTS OE DRrOS. 

is ozsna. Witliin a fiw (lays the fcetor and difwhurge may diKtipp 
scabs c-pflite to fonn. Simple oucna aUo is notably improved by tl 
treatment. Tho intiuQIation of aristol Inu been found beneficial in e\ 
In dr}- rhinophtin-ngitii), atrophic rhinitis, and dry laryngitis the inm 
of aristol is of decided benefit. 

The wntcr is by no means desirous of advocatin;; injudiciou 
prematurely the virtues of anv mudieament, especially in leferenoe 
H inulign ufT<'ctioii as cnncer. Sut. from the testimony of excrllent ol 
and from bis own clinical experience, aristol appears to have a po' 
hitJiortrt cxhibilid by other rciiitrdic.-iT that of onjpnating apparently 
(granulations and cicatrisation of some canoeixms ulcers. Eichholf n 
H pr<ini|it cure of chancres of the penis and lipe. but etraugoly enongh 
good ejects from tlie use of aristol in chancroid. His experience as 
thnncroid has been corroborated by NoiitMr. It is reported that th 
is very ^od in ulcers of the cornea, in an ointment of 0.06.* to 0.13 
•I Gm. (or gr. i-ii to oj) of lanolin and bcnzoirmted lard. He has 
great benefit from it in pare powder on the ulcers of the lid and b 
causes such to IicbI up very quickly. It acts, he adds, like iodoform, i 
not such a very nenetrating and unpleasant odor. 

Dr. James Widhice hiid einploy<-(l aristol powder with success 
purpose of clearing up corneal opacities in the chronic stage of infi 
JccratitiE. Thi# substance is likewise an excellent and prompt niitixcp 
tinea tonsnrans anil tinea sycosis it generally proves efficient in the : 
in ointment containing from 5 to 10 per cent. In favus, however, 
little or no avail. In balanoposthitis, after the preputial sac has bee 
oughlv cleantted, \hv appHmtioii of aristol in the form of a diisting- 
ie of decided service. 

Kiclihoff, La.t.'iar, (Jaudin, Xeisger, and others have witne8-*ed ■ 
improvement from the use of this ag;ent in psoriasis. The author hai 
it at least as benefii'inl hk chry^arobin, while, unlike the liitler, it d 
stain the skin and clothing, and is free from the danger of e.tcitii 
junctivitis. In eczema Ht{uaniosiim, likewise, notabb- amendment 
tended its use. It serves a good purpose also in erj'sipclas. Itoh 
employed aristol by insufllation with very satisfactory results in si 
and acute inflammation of the middle ear. Tlie discharge speedily 
ished, the mucous membrane became smooth, and the perforations 
Inflammation of the external ear was also very amenable to its in) 
(luerra y Kstaiie obtained excellent results in twenty cases of disease 
children, to wuom iodoform is so repugnant, and, in fact, dangeroB 
extcne>ive ulcer over the parotid gland healed in seven days, a chronic 
in six days, and in the case of an unhealthy ulcer over the thorax 8i 
tion ceased in twenty-four hours and cicatrization soon began. No ill 
were seen in any of the cases. Pollack, of Prague, has found aristol 
scs« marked sorbifacient virtues. An enlarged thyroid gland was perc 
decreased in less than two weeks and soon afterward the neck wa 
normal in si/e. In epididymitis, chronic tubercular adenitis of th' 
paiametritis. and typhlitii- equal snccess attended the use nf the remi 

Thi* author' has made use of aristol with advantage in hyperidro 
bromidrosis, either prescribed alone as a dusting-powder or combine 



'S<* pappr oil "AriBlDi" in tlio Wtlfiytl Hullrttn, June, 1801. 




AR18T0I/. I^^^HH^ '^^ 

Uficind. It restraiBS profuse secretion and overcomes offcngivc odor. An 
t<DlBmt conMining 2 Gm. (or gr. sxx) of sri^tol to th<? ounco of excipient 
» mieeftble in acne and rosacea. Dr. Kejzlar ha.< employed arUtol in 
ioAUyoii account of ite antiseptic properties in gnn^i'nous pulps, in dis- 
iateting the root-canals and carious cavities, before introducing Ihe filling, 
rtt On gan^enous pulps h«; duitted nrii^tol by mcini* of a fine brush: for 
eltiuiDg the canals and carities he used a 10-per-cent. solution in ether. 
He ether evaporates and the aristol 18 left in Uic cavity as a uniform coat- 
Of. Dr. B. M. Kandall, of Oraceville, Minn., derived satisfactory rei<iilta in 
dneic ^venter; from the use, three times daily, of a supjiository contain- 
ii^O.£0 Gm, (or gr. iij) of ari»toI and O.OS Gm. (or gr. '/,) of morphine. 

At the U&pital Saint-I<ouis, in Paris, an aristol plaster )ia« Ix'eti n^ed. 
TWfoUoviug 18 the mt-thod of ite preparation: Finely-powdered aristol is 
mud with a small quantity of oil, and to the mass i» added lanolin and 
OMlchoue pIsKler, prexlou^ cooled and made very fluid by the addition 
afbtuin. The beozin is eufncieotly evaporated to leave a preparation suit- 
■Uelor qjreading upon miwlio. An aristol gau-/.e has lately been brought 
■Ua BK aa an antiseptic dressing. It is made by impregnating gauze with 
■itluttal lolution, and cuntaine from 1 to 2 Gm. (or gr. xv-xxx) per square 
JUi. 

Tie following formnlie containing aristol will be found of great 
Wriw:— 

Pidr. linei oub. impur. an 1S|S Otn. or !«a. 

IL ttf.: Diul orer tli« tnrtac*. Employ a« a dre«Hiiig lo wounda: alio, in 
■"•■In taraUi^; and oily ttnte of the iilcin. 

I ArUol SI Gm. or So. 

Uogt. nncl OKidi, 

Vugt- plmnlM HUbatvlaUs «a ISjS Um. or Shl 

H Sir.; Applr well lo the surfaw. Beneficial in inrnntile and chronic ecieioa 

S Ariitol . . 3125 Gm. or gr. 1. 

Ext. VUndonniP foliar, ale i jlT Gtn. or jn*- H^. 

Ot Ibeobrooimti* ...•..••.■•••■••••■■i q. •. 

K K f L mppoa. n«. x. 
^ % -• Inirrt vat in lie bowel when ntt«.'««iiry, to relievo pftin. For ey«UU« and 

Dr. Brooke has employed aristol internally with decided advantage in 
■tcieiUDer diarrhcct of children, typhoid fever, in simple and complicated 
•nfiwaBi, and dreentery. He regards it as valuable in ca*e» of offensive and 
Nwdy muco-purnleot di»charges from the bowel. He gave it in doses of 
tJtGm. (or gr, v) to the adult and in proporttonul doeeit to children accord- 

iDtonaphtol,— This name ha* been bestowed by G. Braille upon a new 
bofy, analogous to arii'to!, prepared by adding an aqueouI^ »olulioii of iodine 
nd potaaeinm iodide to a solution containing betanaphtol and pota««ium 
^diale. To this mixture is gradiialiy added a solution of sodium hypo- 
Uvrilc containing ten times il» volume of combined chlorine. The new 
tdyoocurk in the form of a greenish-yellow pulverulent precipitjite, which 
odorins and tajiteleju, insoluble in water, partially soluble In alcohol and 
Kt^ aod. It soon darkens upon exposure to light. 



154 



FIIARHvlCKUTICAL THEBAPEmc AOESTS OR UniraS.l 



ARHORACIA RADIX (ti. P.)— Horse-radish Boot. 

Prcparalion. 

Spirit)!* Armonoia CompontUB IB. P.). — Compciuml Spirit of 
DoH, 4 to 1^ G.cm. lor (Si-iji. 

PhArmaoology and Therapy. — The (rcKh root o£ Cochleurla A 
oollecled rroin lultivnti'd jilnntx. 

Ilorecr- radish, in its fresh state, ffrated to a pulpy inses, to whk 
viiie|;ar is added, is a tamiliar oondiinottt as & dressiiiK for meat at o 
It is pungent, and excites tlic How of eecretione of sahTar>' and ga$ti 
and Htitnulateo the appctile. It ooiitjiinit an nctiTe principle aBalog< 
volatile oil of muBtnrd, but yields no oil oil distillation. Extemali 
Tftdish U rubefacioRt. Inlernallj, it ia a condiment to tiie atonae) 
crva£cs the iirinarj- flow. The addition of grated honse-nidish to dd 
it actively diuretic, and useful in dropsy. The dried root i> not i 
in medicine. ^ 

A&inCJE FLOBES (U. S. P.).— Amioa-flowert <Leopard't-be 



A&NIC£ RADIX (U. S. P.}— Arnica-root. 
ARKIC£ RHIZOMA (B. P.).— Arniea-rhisome. 

Prtiparalioiiii. 



4 



Tinrlura Arnica: Florum (U.S.P.). — I'mctur* of Arnloa-flowere (80 
Dow. 0.B0 to 2 e.<im. tor mx-fZM). 

Tinctum Amieit Itadk-iii (U.S. P.), ^Tincture of ArnicB-it>ot (10 
Dow, 0.30 li) l.ao c.cni- (cir mv-xx). 

Bxtractum Arnirn! Rndicjs (U.S. P,).— Extract of Arnica-root. Do* 
0.13 Gm, (or gr. I IJ). 

Extractum Arnicie Bsilicis Fluidum (U. S,P,).— FluW Extract of J 
Dow, (l-SI) to 1.20 ccra. (or mvxx). 

EiupluHtium Amicv (U.S.P.). — Arnica Plaster [extract, 1 part; rv 
C parU). 

Ttnctiira Arnioc (B. P.). — Tincture of Arnica (6 per cent.). _ 

Pharmaoolof7.— Arnica? flores, the flower-heads, are official i; 
and Amitii.' radix, the rhizoniL' and roots of Arnica montanii, are 
both the !'. S. P. and B. P. The plant belongs to the natural oi 
positjD, and it is indigenous to northern Europe and Siberia an< 
northwestern part of the United States. The flowers are oran 
disk-shaped, with rays, of feebly aromatic odor and bitter, unpica: 
Trimethylamin has been oblaim-d frnm the flower*, but the prini 
slituent to which its local effects are due is probably a volatile oil 
this there i» a gtucoetde. Amioin, and »!«!> innlii), lannio ncid, i 
(ither unimportant elements. According to some writers, arnica 
tains two atltaloids, amicine and cytisine, the latter of which is u 
identical with the principle of the same name derived from the I 

Fhyiiolo^cal Action. — Applied to a delicate skin, arnica I 
produces redness and inflamnintiun n'-aembling erysipelas. A puat 
tion may aluo be produced by the application of this remedy. It 
counter-irritant and revulsive. InternaUy. in small doses, it has so 
Inliiig influence, raii^ing (he blood-pressure and the action of the f 




AtiAm:TII>A. 



1&5 



_ of wnrtnlli over th« body nnd ini.'rea»ini; (he Mcrclions. It 
t shown that small quandtiee of arnira exert a sittinulatin;; influence 
tW (Jitfumot^astric iicrvw. larger (Iomb onu»e ticprwsioii, paralvsiB of 
tsgi. foMuw<*<i by vomiting and collapet'. Death results from the cessa- 
[boB of ill* lu'arfs ai-tion, ntid in iinrt from llic aci-uiiiiilution o( farlioiiit acid 
lib* bloiMl. Atrnpine is tht pliysiolopcal antidoto, with stimulants, arti- 
■piration. and cuu»t<^r-irri(atioii. 
Thar&py. — Tijioture of arnica is largely used in domestic practice and liy 
w irrv^^ilar practitionerii as a rL*medy for i>pniinH, coDliuiiona, myalf^a, or 
lihruiuativm and local paralysis, and it is also believed to have some influence 
|*«frh»inorrbtt({cs- It >!* afserlH hy »onne authorities that any ))ow«r it mar 
Ibw in ca\i*jn^ absorption of ccclnino^s is really due to the alcohol of the 
Isactiu* which i-i ronimonly used. I1te author, from clinical experience, 
■*■• iKat aniicii lia« most eSevtive local action upon the tissues, parlicu- 
iti. l>i)its, absetsMs, and in nil thieW-nod conditions of the 
fnltowing combiDatlons are especially of voluc: — 
K I^lX. amlcMi n^ck fl., 

Tlad. opU «a 30| o.cn. or fjj. 

M- Slf.: Applj- vltli friction tor bolls, abaMWM, and Uilckonliig of the •kin. 

B Ext. amkis ndiFi* fl.. 

AqtM* hatnauMtidis dcit na DO] e.eiii. or fSJij. 

M. Wc.: V** OH nnistiii or lial ior hmionha^. A rliftimatlc joint may Im 
■v«4 with cloth* nlvratrd with tbe arnica and witch'haMl. tli« combiiuitioii oftm 
Wf wtat w cSnclivn whMi apptlMl liot. 

Arnica hat been used internally in large doses in mania with high arte- 

t' ' nt. in delirium cbriooum, and in acute rlioiimalium in Mtbenic 

- ;ill dii*<-» of the tincture are useful in (ever attcndrid with much 

■iuu. This remedy may likewise be beneficially employ*^! in chronic 

faiiliii a. chronic dysentery, and in various fonus of haemorrhage. It has 

haat tlMiu^bt to be useful in paralysis of the bladder. 



ASSESl lODISUlC (U.S. P., B. P.).— Arsenic Iodide (Asl,). <See 
iotam Araeiuiiiun.) 

ASArtETIDA (U. S. P.), ASATETIDA (B. P.).— Asafetida. 
Saae, ".i;o Um. (or gr. x). 

Preparations. 

fcrit*—"" Au/<Ftido 1U.S.P.}.— Ekniitsion of AMf«tld* <4 per efnU). Vote, 
Cto JBcjesi. (or Om-)). 

-Slato Aaatotid* lU.a P.t.— Pill» of AtatHlda (mcIi oontalnInK Q.SO Gm., or 
efaMfrtiaa). Dow. 1 to 4 p4Ua. 

inMur* AaafiKlidn lU.S.P., a P.|.~Tinclurc ut .KiwtMiiln i20 per <#nL). 
: U* 4 e-nn. tor fSw-l). 

' Juke Ato^ rt Asafelidv (U.&P.. ».F.).— PilU of Aliw.i and Axafrtida (of 
10 Om^. or gr. i '/•. U. 8. P.). Dow, 1 to 4 pllU. B. P.. o:ii to OM Gm.. or 

• 'Uj- 
«|icrilu* Amniania FortUIaii (B.P.),— Pptid Sgilrit of Ammonin jmnuiii* TJ (>m. 
■■ MlWid* If ■ mpiMtniMn of in |iartii of stroo); solutUm of Btntnonia nitli 00 part* 
, J: IMi p^r pml.1. Oiwr, 1.20 to 2.B0 p-fiii (or nixX'Xl). 
, ,iiil^ GaJbonI rompuitn «U Pi— -OuBipouwl Pill of Galbanuin Icoatain* 33 
ct mm»tetU»4. 1>om. A35 to 0,50 Om. (or gr. Iv-vllj). 



IM 



PHiaMACEmCAt THeBA?ErTlC A08NTS OB DBUC8, 



Fbamiaoolog;. ^.Asnfetidii i« a gum-rcsin derived from the 
Ferula fcctida {Umbellifene), usually obtaiiiod, by incision, from ill 
root. This plaut is a native of Pensis and ncighborins countriea. 111 
Df the asafetida of commerce muiit still be conudertd doubtful; it 
ifl brought to this country from fndiu. The drug occurs as rough, u 
rather soft maases, of brown color, ."'uncvi'liiil jrnrlinky odor, and ncri 
taste. The odor depends upon n volatile oil, which appears to I 
persulphide. 'J1ie a^ent sUo cuntninK ferolaic actd, rosin, j^um, I 
with truce* of ucid calcium malate (Pclletier). 

Fhyiiolo^cal Action. — The effectsi are moderately ^timulatio 
$pii.«iiioi1ie, und cxpcclomnt. Large doses cause vomiting and diarrhc 
cially in persons unaccustoroed to its use. In medicinal doaeg il 
miiialjvc. mid increases the quantity of the gastric juice. The sexu 
tions are said to be stimulated, and a genersJ feeling of warmth is 
through the body. AKufdida increases the action of the heart and 
pressure, stimulates the funclioni< of the tikin and kidneys, and if 
cerelirfil t^-Tcitant. It is eliminated by the limgs, bowels, skin, and 

Therapy. — Asafetida is not used locally (although the plaster 
morly official), since, to those unaccutftomed to its use, the odor 
offensive. This, however, makes it additionally useful in treatii 
nervous disorders, such as hysteria. Ooodell advised that a tenspo 
the tincture be mixed with hot water under an hysterical patient's n 
wtoi cither by the stomach or per enema. In nervouMiees of chiti 
pilts are serviceable, and in colic or oonyulsions the emulsion or 
flsafotida may be used freely as an injection, The mixUtre of magn 
asatotidfi (not ofRoial) is used as a. carminative for infants with Oi 
the opium in it must not be overlooked. The pil. galbani comp. is 
flatulence and intestinal indigestion in elderly people. The com 
with aloes is theoretically useful in amenorrhtea, but, practically, i 
in these cases that osafetida can only rarely be used, on account of 
and taste. Italian physicians recommend the systematic administt 
flsafetida during pregnancy, when there is a history of previous al 
or when abortion is immediately threatened. It is given in doses g 
ascending from 0.2D to 1 Gm. (or gr. iii-xv) a daj. after which the ai 
in the seme manner, reduced. Its use is not advocated, however, 
dependent upon sypliilis, tuberculosis, or disease of the uterus ani 
pendages. The favorable influence of asafetida in these cases has h 
firmed by Warman, who found that the drug rediiced h^Bmorrbag 
tranquillizing effect, and was particularly useful in cases of habiti 
tion. Small doses of asafetida are valuable in the later stages of br 
especially that occurring jn old people. Its combination of expecto 
carminative virtues likewise renders it of service in emphysema. 
often be ndvantageously employed in spasmodic asthma, especially 
follows: — 

B EmuU. ii>at<tt;diB 80{ ccm, or fj) 

Elix. nminon, Valeria nnti*, 

Elix. liumuti ML 4S\ c.«n. or Qi 

H. Sig.: A tmipoonful or two in wot*r every hour or two. 

Ai an antispasmodic and expectorant, asafetida has been cmp 
vfaoopiiig-cough. It may also be given with advantage in chorea, e 



i 



ASAPEOL. 



nt 



■bee Utat alT«cUon on-ure in weakly girU nbout the period of puberty and 
•■ecuud with menstrual difficulty. In the flatuli-ncc arnl constipation of 

I kjjmboDdnui*, it i« u good remi-dy, and is e^peciailv appropriate on account 
(f tb undoubted eshJIarant effect upon the brain, the mistuii? »S asafetida 

L iifJKt«d into the rectum i« ctTictent iii promoiing the cxpuUion of flattix. nod 

j Bi? be resorted to in the tympanites of typhoid fever. It can be prescribed 

linimully, thus: — 



8 nnrt. onfo^liilir. 

Ttnct eariliiiiioiii. co, ,,..,,. , a& 301 

6pt. aunmoa. trem. 4| 

Aqim niBntli. ^Ip (Hl| 

H. Sig.; On* U> two Uvapcmnfulii in water vrery two or llirn' lioura. 



e.em. or (J . 
i-.cm. or 15 
c.cm. or fj 



ASAP&OL. — A Biilt ol calcium with naphtol and monusii1|ih(mic acid 
*•«, for convenience, been termed ajaprol. It occurs as a white powder, very 
*DlDbk in water ond alcohol, and is dcirtrvctivc to many formv of hnctoria. 
« if admlnifitered in daily doees of 3 Om. (or rt- xx\). gradually increasing 
*<i 4 Cm. (or 3j). Ai^iipnil i» incumpatihlc wiih alkaline iodidcK. ^tilphateg, 
■nd with moat of the alkaline mUs. Quinine and iu salts are also incom- 
patible with this compound. Asaprci! rcdutcs febrile temperature and ang 
BMnti the secretion of urine. This substance has rendered service in the 
l3TBtm£nt of inlluenzs, gout, a^lhina, hoilx, carbunokr.1, tonMlUlis, etc. A»a- 
prol igof advantu)^ in acute rheumatiam, and in chronic forms of the disease 
it- is Qseful in relieving pain. It in useful, aim, in atonic dy^pvpsia. Thii 
T«iiii.-dj has been employed as no antipyretic in typhoid fever and pneumonia 
■ad as an analf;esic in sciatica, intercost^al netiral^in, and tic doi)]i>iiri>iit. 

A8CLEPIAS (U.S. P.).— Pleurisy-root. 



Preparation. 

btimctaiB AMlHiiulia FluiiluDi lU. S. P.).— Fluid Extract of ds(-lpp<n». 
lutcxm. (or mxv-(3j(. 



I 



l>o«p, 



nunaacoloty. — Thi; root of Asclcpias tuberosa (Asclepiadeae) contains 
■as and fatty matter. Aiclepidin appears to bo impure resin, precipitated 
« aJcohohc tincture by the addition of water. It has been given in doses 
viOM5 to 0.32 Gm. (or gr. i-v). 

feTIlysieIogi«al Action. — The infusion is used in the southern portion of 
country as a diaphoretic and expectorant; in hr^io quuntitici^ it is emetic 
eatbartic. It dcprtsi^cs the heart's action and increases the functional 
rity of the skin and kidneys. 

Therapy. — The R-wut infusion (31 Gm. to 473 c.cm., or 5j to Oj; dose, a 

(qM^laf^ful) is used in domestic practice for colds and pulmonary affections 

I fin inHammatory and catarrhal character. In diarrhf^a, dysentery, and 

I fi^vi diiiorders of the stomach or bowels it is often effective, a very gwxl 

I fmctiption being :^ 



It Ext- a^clrjiuuli* ft. 
Spt. vini nllici ■ . . 
Sjmili. ruDi itei 



60 
31) 
00 



I'.tin. or (Xij. 
e.cm, or 15j. 
<^JVi. ur tSiij. 



M. ag.: A tmipCKinfu] to a toblMjiooiiful every hour or two, for diartfawi •»* 
'.•"amy. 



158 rUAIIMACKl'TICAL TUF.BAFBUTIC AGENTB OH DRUOS, 

As a diaphoretic, it 'n tiR'd in the exanthemata, in order to f 
the eruption iind reduce the (ever, and it is said to be advant«f;eous ii 
lar rheumatism, in controlling the inflommstion and reducing th( 
actios. 

A decoction, made from the rnot-bark of Asiflcpia^ syriucn, i 
Besses diuretic properties, and has bc^n found UEeful hy T>r. G. D. M' 
in the relief of renal dropsy. In tedenia of cardiac origin it appei 
o{ no avail. A tincture of the root of Asclepias vcrtidllata has a 
reputation in the South as an antidote to the bite^ of viinomoua 
and initocts, as well as in hydrophobia. Thr«e hundred and sixty c 
fS't'i) of a saturated decoction are said (o relieve ])ain, produce pers 
and promote sleep. 

ASEPTOL. ^ — Sosolio Acid. A synipy, dark li()uid, freely so 
^jp^gl, vatcr, and glycerin. [1 contain)' urthopltcnot-sulplionie aci< 
pi^CMt.) diluted with waler, and resembles carbolic acid in odor, 
i&inter. It is leim caustic, but is decidedly antinoptic, and i# mid t 
toxic. When used, it is to be diluted (1 to iO of water) for surreal 

ASPAEAQU8.— Asparapnt. The root of Aspar«?u» offiHnalis(L 
when freiJi, is used in demtlion or infusion (.11 to fi2 fJm. t« 473 i 
^i-ii to Oj) as a diuretic. Juxative, and blood -purifier. The frei^h st 
u«ied as fuod, and increase the How of uHue, whili- imparling to it a 
ht«vy odor; in some cases it has apparently caused con<!estioi) of the 
with hipniaturia. Asparag^ which is obtained principally from t 
hail a ccdativu notion upon the circulation, ndiioing the force and fi 
of the heart's action, and causing frontal headache. The pecul 
emitted by urine pai^^ed after the ingugtion of aspaiugu.'* depend 
probability, according to i'rofessor Nencki. upon the presence of 
niercnptan. This euhBtam-e is tliought to be produced in the alh 
dieinlcjrration which accompanies the germination of the plant. 

Therapy. — Asparagus wilh ln'iit-vtHJ by Ibi- ancients to have 
aphrodisiac properties, and was used as an emmenagogue; the wr 
firms the observation of Ehrhardt. that a dischargi! resembling that ^ 
rhcea or urethritis may be caiiaed by eating asparagus. Asparagus i 
oonnidcred bannful in gonorrhtea. Though it increases or even excii 
ing, yet its action appears to be very uncertain. Berkcly Hill,' ii! 
ti[ twenty cases, aliowod one-half the number to eat avparagnii an 
that some could partake of it with impunity, while in others it j 
increased congestion and flow of discharge. 

It has bcf'U claimed that asparagus has special offecta upon tl 
na an oxvtocic after miscarriage, or in laV)or. A tincture (1 part of I 
topa to S of proof-spirits) is used as a diuretic, in doves of 3 to 4 i 
fSKS-j) by I>r. Jefferson, of England. Asparagin, in doaes of 0.13 to ( 
(or fiT. ii-iij), may be used as a diuretic in dropsy, and, according tc 
appears to act in gout like weak doses of colchicum. It is alan 
service in cardiac dropsy, chromic rheumatism, and gout. The eom 
of asparagin with one of the bromides for the latter affections in 
acription is often of value: — 

* "Chniiie UKthritii and its Tn-atiDenl," t^ondun. )S90, 




ASPIDIUM. 



1S9 



R .Anan^ ill 11 Gm. or p. xtj, 

$Mii broDiidi IB 4 Gm. or Sv. 

Sjnip. MumuUi 120| crm. or fj'^- 

U. Slg.; Tnn t«a*poonfuIii in water thrw or four timn « do}-. 

Th« iogvetion of aepaniguE ia capable of causing, in some individuals, 
Idfttnibuice of the functions of the kidney flnd a notable decmiuw iu ihu 
[ of uriiic cxcrt-tvd. 



ASPIDIXTH (U. S. P.).— A«pidiuin. 

mix HAS rB. P.).— Male Fern. 

Due (in grnvdcr), 2 to 6 Gm. (or Ses-i£8). 

i*r*j»(if«(t(>»*. 
Olrtmina AnpUil (U.S.P-). — 01coi«Aia of ARpIdiiiin. Dom, S to T-5 com. (or 

. ijtnctum Fllida I.iiiuiduin |B.P.]. — Liquid RxlTnrt of Main Frm. Dow, 3 t« 
■*«B.(or mxlv-xc). 

Pharmacology. — A'pidiiuii is the rhixomc of tbc Drj-optcris Filix-DuiE 

f*^ of Uryoptem marginalia (Filicea), 11, S. P.; the rhizome of Aspid* 

'^Un Filix-maf, B. P.: plaJita found iu almost every portion of the 

^wld, especiali.v the former, the latter heiiitr indigfimue to N<irUi Ajinjr* 

*C«. The rhizome, the portion employed {which deteriorates on being re- 

3*iiied for a long time), has a *wei^ti!*U-liitli'r. asirioK<'nl tflati*, with some 

t odor. It contains an active principle, Filicie acid, a iixed and volatile 

miD, tannic and gallic acids. Its virtues arc due to the clh<;rral (extract, 

in. The root of a^pidium contains intercellular gtand^, which hold 

%gR«nish secretion. When mcIIorr of the root are preserved in glycerin, 

tmul* an formed, which are soluble in ether. It is to this secretion that 

■hie iDtheUnintic qualities of the druR are due, according to Ijauren.' The 

tUtctaiB of upidium is a dork, thick fluid, of a bitter and nauseous tast«. 

AonrdiHK to Professor Kobert ita virtues do not depend entirely upon the 

ifidc acid pT(«eot, but also upon the ethereal oil. Fiom his chemical and 

fbjiiological investigations E. Poulsson cimotudes that tho cry.itn!lin(' sub- 

lUnee heretofore known us filicie ncid is really the anhydride of the acid, 

nrf he proposea to call it Filicin. IVue iilicic acid precipitates from en 

tlhlinc Milutioa as an amnrphoui<, whilv powder without tast« or smell, in- 

icCcble in water, soluble in boiling alcohol, and it is this substance which 

Poaltton rcgardo as the principal poiwnous and In'niacidc constituent of 

oltorcsin of male fern. 

n^iiolo^cal Action and Toxicology. — Aspidiimi poseewes the power 
ofupelling. and perhaps dcatroying, ta;nije. Harley beJievea that it is only 
■Ueto detach the enloz^iiin from the intestinal wall. It is especially active 
ipinst the bothriocepbalns latu.-. 

iMlge doHTS of the ethereal extract, or oleurcsin, may occasion nausea, 
WBiitiBg, and choleraic diarrhtea, followed by death from the congestion 
oi inflanmation of the gaslro-inlestinal tract by the irritant action of the 
iaj{. Id the Wi»ner klinisflie Wochetisfkrift is reported the case of a child, 
J'/, years old, to whom 7.5 ccm. (or fSij) of the oleore«in were given, in 



•ncnvmftttikp lfoiMf«H«/t. April. 18B9. 



160 



i>nAii»ACBt*ncAL TQ&nA?Btmc agbkts on uituoe. 



three doees, witbio one hundred minuke. In an hour and a haU, par 
taseworm wok exiicllcd, thun vumituig occurred, and somuuk-ucc, wb 
followed by twitohtng, sopor, and trismus of ten minutes' duration, en 
dcaUi five hours after the last dose of tho extract. 

A post-mortem exanunation of a case of poisoning and death fro 
fern revealed congestion and ccchymo»vK oi the stomach and blo' 
over its surface. Poisoning from male fern should be treated by the 
tstration of magneuum sulphalv and by the hypodcnnic injection c 
of ammonia, from 0.60 to i c.cra. (or mx-f5Bg), properly diluted. . 
ing to Prevott and Binet, death usually results from pnnilyi^is of th< 
which is found, after deitb, lirmly contracted and unresponsive to in 
Klnlc fern generally rcducMis the amotmt of urine secreted. 

Therapy. — As « tieniacide, the ethereal extract, or oleoreein, is t 
acceptable preparation, but, beini;: a thick, bitter, nauMoue sub»lan 
best given in capsules. It con be given, but not eo well, in milk or m 
It can be acceptably adminiitcred with an equal quantity of aromat: 
of rhubarb. The dose should be preceded and followed by a pu 
Calomul may he given as a preliminary purge. A full dose of caKtor- 
hours after the administration of the remedy, will iiKunliy bring r 
entire parasite. Trousseau and Pidoux ndviiie tho rcntriclinn of fo 
milk diet for a day or two previous to the institution of the trc 
Whitia hue found that male fern is efficient among children, in a 
dose, when combined with turpentine, 

This combination of male fern often acts well; — 

B Olcominn nipidii SI a.na. or ISai 

01- pRpanis cxpTCisi IS ccni. or IJu 

01. terebinlbina -. fi| com. or mx; 

M. SJg.: Tftlce at n doM after tatting, and follow hy » piugative. 

Lanura claims good results from the uppliculion of male fern in 
The formula which he employs is as foilowa: — 

B Ett filirU liquid) 281 ccm. or Svii 

AleoliolU isj c.cm. or (S" 

Eit. luyrrb., 

Bxt. opii aa 4| Gm. or 3j. 

M. Sig,: For external use. 

In several cases of cysticercus disease Dr. R. Felotli has obser 
provement follow tho use of ethereal extract of male fern. The rei 
especially favorable when the lesions were situated in the subcutac 
muscular tissues. 

Jn Finland the aspidium spinulosum is used as a tsniacide m 
quently than the official drug, as it is a more conimnn varii-ty in thla 
It was found to be equally efficient in doses of 1 to 4 Gm, (or gr. xv-h 
extract, by Laun.*D oud Schumann. 



ASPIDOSPEKMA (U. S. r.).— Aspidosperma (ftuebraeho). 

Preparation. 

Extraotuin Aapi(Io«[>«rniiitis Kluiduin (U.S. P.).^F1iiId Extract o( A*pld 
Dow, S to 4 c.cm. (or fSssjI. 




ASniMlfPHBUA. 



161 



fh&nnacology. — The Uirk of AKpidosperma Quebracho-bianco (Ai»o- 

MxU ■ large tree of Jlrazii, It contains twn alkHinids, Atptdospermine 

ttewMliiite, and oIIkt priiK'iplcs not yet stmiicrl. 

AipidoEpvrmine occurs in the form of colorli'fs crvstulu, iiisolulilo in 
nttr, Bodejalcly »o|iiIi]v in ulcobol and ether. (Accordinjj to Dt. 0. BoiJet, 
it Hpidoepenninc of commerce i$ a mixture of acveml products derivvd 
fen quebtacho-bnrk.) 

n»ne states that thr^ other alkaloids are also present, viz., espid- 
^RBitine, aspidoMmino, and hyjioquebruchinc. (Juebrachine is saia to 
Ulbtnon powerful of these alkaloid.^. Qui^brachnmine h also found pr««> 
m ii th« bark. 

Quebracho is also found in Catanmrea, of the Argentina Itepulilic, where 
It bn ■ popular rrpulalion as a febrifuge and antipcriodic. A fluid extract 
■^ wet preparation. 

Phjsiological Aotion. — Quebracho is bitter and stimulant to the jiativarj" 
tiudE, attriajfent to the intcstinni tract. In lar^c doaeit in animals it pro- 
•m paralym of the limbs, of central origin,' It al^o eaueoe Eutivstion, 

Sjm of respiration, and diminished frequency of the heart's action; 
1 IR caumhI by paralysis and coiirulfiions due to upnwu. Mudenitc doses 
Btti4 breathinR, and make inspiration slower and fuiler. Aspidospermine 
■cntMi the rt.-spir8tot7 mov^m^'nttt in the higher auimals by stimulating 
IW ncpiratory centree. It is said also to cause an excess of oxygen to be 
>tea np by the red blood -ei>l In, and may thus induce npncfia. In man it 
hi BO influence upon the temperature or the frequency of the pulse, but is 
■>) fiT Hale U> "impart *onie tonicity to the hpart." 

Ikenpy. — The special action upon the motor apparatus of respiration 
quebracho valuable in trentiiiy dysjincra of nil kinds, whether bron- 
eardiac, or nervous. In emphysema, with or without asthma, it has 
»ery RTviccatUe in the form of rtnid i-xiraet, 1.20 to 2.S0 c.cm. (or 
•n-il), several times a day, Quebracho is also of seniee in spasmodic 
otts^ Dr. Pioot «latt-s that it i» advantag«ou4 to t)ie rftspiratimi when taken 
" t hill-climbing. The effect of quebracho in relieving eynno»is is ver^- 
;td. In the case of a child, suffering with double pneumonia, Dr. Law- 
vitneesed decided improvement of the respiration and eireulation foU 
the use of this remedy. This dnig very sensibly diminishes the pulse 
IdDperatiiie in acute rhenmutism and iiiflnmniations of semus mein- 
hmt. An elixir, a wine (6 per cent.), and a tincture (40 to 50 per cent.) 
Wftalra been u*ed, Ttie ulkaloid, aspido^pcrniiin', hu* been employed na 
ibkifn^ and, according to Gutlmann, its dose as an antipcriodic is l.'iO 
6ia.(orgr. iviij). the oniinary dotn; bein^' O.Ofi.'i to 0.13 Om. (orgr. i-ij). It 
• nlibU in oils or 50 parts of pure alcohol. IJiirdel has piven aspidospcr- 
■Bein dr£pn<ra with good results. In >ei'i<>ij> ca^e^ the dnrg can be well 
■JBuninwJ by hypodermic injection. Qucbrachine hydrochlorate has been 
pwn both by the mouth and by hypoderuiie injection for the relief of dysp- 
■iQa.theda«« employed being from O.OfiS to 0.13 ftm. (opjtr. i-ij)- Tritural« 
•('/„ and V,4, of aspidosfwrmine (all the nlkaloiiU) are also used. The solid 
otnct is fl useful priM>arnlion for asthma, given in 0.005 Cm, for pr. j) doses 
Ibtt ttmes a day. The ollicial Buld extract is also an eligible preparation. 



*F. rnmUI. Berllnfr kUnUetif Wophnufjtrtfl. No. 19, 187*. 




1C8 



PHARMACEUTICAL TBB«AP£DTIC A0KXT8 OB 



ASFIBUT i« olitaincd by the action of awilic-acid nuhydride on 
ncid; il oLciirs io ihc form of wtite, fmtnlUne ncedlpj, which h&vt 
iug-point of 135^. 1» readily Holuble in alcutiol and eth«r, and gn 
fernc chloride, a blue color. Experimontit with an artJGciul gusti 
showed that ahpirin wan very »(ilul)lc in an acid nu-dium. 

Wolilgemiith' reports his results in 10 eases suHeriiig from rhc 
mani festal ions; in 2 cases of acme rheumatism in which salicylic i 
nnlipyrin had been used with u^gutive ri'!<uU»i, uapiriii wan given in 
3 Qm. (or ^t. xlv) daily: the patients improved almost immediate: 
and swelling diHuppeuied within a few day:<, without any gastric dint 
The remaining 8 cases were not true joint rheumatism; some hat 
fever, otherx aiphlhcna or angina; Uiesu patients were given 1 CJn 
xv) three times daily for eipht day* without fcehng any ill effec 
action of oRpirin on tiict rht-uniatio joint is identical with ^licylic ■ 
is, according to this author, to be preferred to sodium salicylate 
because of its non-irritating character when administered by iLu m 
should be given in powder, and not in a eolution. 



ATBOPINA (U.S. P., B. P.)— Atropine (C„n„NO,). 



1 



ATROPINE SBLPKAS [V. S. P., B. P.).— Sulphate of Atropii 
Belladonna.) 



i 



AURANTn AMARI CORTEX (IT. S. P.). — Bitter Oranje-pe 
rind of the fiiui uf Citrus yul^iiriB (Rutacete). 

AURABXn DULCIS CORTEX (IT. S. P.). — Sweet Orange-pe 
rind of the fresh fruit of Citrus Aurantiuni (Rutaceffi). j 

AURAKTII CORTEX BECENS (B, P,). — Fresh Bitter Oni; 

"The fn'sli rtiilur |miL ni' ihi- ]n'iii"nrp of Citrus Aiiniiiliuin," 

AURAHTII CORTEX SICCATUS (B. P.). — Dried Bitter Ont 
"The dried outtr part of the pericarp of Citrus Aurantium," 

f". S. P. Preparations. 

Olpuni Aiirnnlii Florum. — Oil of Orange- flowers [Oil of NcroHj. 

Oleum Aiiiniilii rortiois.^Oil of Oiftiict-pitel. 

KxtTiK^tiini Aururilii Aiiinii Fluiduin.-— r'luid Kxlrnet of Bitter Orangi 

Ai|im Aiirnnt.ii Florum. — Ornnftc- flower Water. 

Aqua Auiuntii Florum Forlior.— Slronjjer Onuige-llower WBter. 

Syrupun Aimntii Florum. — Sj-rap of Oranpc-flowcrB. 

Syni|>ii« dureotli (U.S. P.). — SyrYi]! ol SbwI Orange- peel. 

TitiPtiitn -Aiiianlii Dulcis. — Tincture of Swert Ornngr-ped (20 per ««i 

Tinrliirn .\urnntil .Amnrj. — Tlnctiir* of Hitler OrJinge-pevI (20 per cer 

Spirilun Auranlii.^ — Spirit of Orangt (oil of ornnge-peel. fi c.cm.; aIc 
dariKcd, fi5 e.cm.). 

t<pirllu» Auraulii Couipoftitun.— Cuinjwund Omngc Spirit. Utod in n; 
«lUir nromnlicuni. nnd alHo n< a. pleasant vchiclo. 

Elixir Aronmticum. — Aroinatii- Elixir. 

Tile dried ppel of bitter orantte enters into th* U. S. P. compound tt 
dnchonu nnd genl.lnn. 



' Th^rap. Mouat.. May. 1899. 




At'BI £T SODtl CHIARIDDU. 



163 



B. P. Prtparatimtt. 

JtqH AuTUtitii Fiona. — (.h-aiigp- flower Wutf r. 

S|nipv* Auraaiii.- ■''.vriip o( Ur«nt[c Dom-. 2 to 4 ccm. for fS**-j>- 

Sjnfm Aunntii Kluris. — 8>tuji uf UrHii^-c-llowei. Dom'. 3 to 4 cciii. (or 

i'- 

llBrlura Auntiitii.— TlriKliirp of OmnitP. Done, a In 4 p.oni. (or (3«-J). 

lofiiMUi AuruuliL — Infusion oE Oningc*pt'rl lilrlvil biltvr orHuge^prul. S Uin.i 
Ubc^MtUtMl irst*r, lINt r.etti.). Dotr. l.'i lo .t(l r.rni. (or rS»'j). 

lufuitim Aiitnnlii CunipunitiiTii. — t.'um|i(iiiiiil liilnaioii uf Oniiitr<^-f)eei i<>ritD}n- 
|«! ui4 lemon pprl, with cloven, in boiling (iintillcd wati-r). Uo«. 15 lo 30 ccm, 
■«0'--Ii, 

liaiuii Auianlii- — Oranife-wine {wine nindc hy Ihv fcrnientutioii of n Mm-bariiw 
Witiw lo whtrh trculi l>lltcr nmnttnponl han born addnl; 111 to IJ pir citnt. of 



ne dried bitter ornnKcpml enter* into the B. P. compound tincture* of cin- 
Am hmI ^Biiftn; th« tincture of orao^ into tironiMtic tyrup. 

Pfctramwlogy. — Th« T". S. P. iiri'jmrfitioLs uru obtaini'd from tlio bitter 
■tUffi, Citrus vuiparis. and the sweel araiiRe, Citrus aurunlium (Aiiranti- 
MMt): the [ruit of iirtiall trcvH which ^row in wnrin regions of thi'. Kaslern 
plVesicm Hemispheres, The li. P, preparations from the outer part of 
tiKprncnrv "^ Citrus .\iiruntiuiD. 

Ilienpy. — OrBnge-juice, with water and sugar, may be used as a drink 
iaiMven and a» an antiiicorbutic. Carc^ should be taken, after typhoid 
hw, not 10 allov children to suck tJie juice from the orauffe, as death has 
batauwd by thv pawu}^- of a *vvd Ibroii^di un iilccratod piitrh in tlic in- 
tM^. Drain has also been catised by a child's eating the fresh rind, which 
Wun* ihc voUlilt; oil. Krvthc-nia, (ciliTiia, vi-sitlc-M, niul pustuU-^ may h« 
*(attoaed by paring bitter oranges. The elixir is nn agreeable vehicle (or 
•iktmncditf«.)iariiig; iht,- nloolioJici^treii^th iit a curdinl. The other prepa- 
miiut are pleasant tiaTorinK agents. 

kVBI ET soon CHLORIDUM (U, S. P.).— Gold and Sodium Chloride 
Uoa, + XaCl). 

Dm, 0.001 (o 0.00« Gm. (or gt. Vm-'A.). 

fbiniucoli^T. — A mixture of equal parts, by weight, of dry gold chlo- 
nit tfid todium chloride. On account of its po«itJon among ni«t&le. 
pUhu been credite<I with having some special medicinal value, although 
rMiMnnal constituent of the human body. It is practically non-corrosive, 
^^HWfore the'era of antiseptic surgery, it wan used to some extent to pro- 
^^HiutTutDcnts from rutting. In a pure state gold is too soft (or most pur- 
^^■m, although it is the best material for wire and for filing teeth. The 
^^(|j pffpiralion official i« the chloride, mixed with chloride of sodium, cor- 
■vcMing with at least 30 per cent, of metallic gold. This forms an orange- 
"mni powder, slightly deliipiewient in tin- pn-x-nce of dampness, freely 
tbUe in water. It is easily decomposed by sunlight and by organic matter, 
ni b ln-<t di'pcn*.-d as a tablet trilumtc. Lainer hns recently prepared a 
Idtlid potatsinm chloride by dissolving pure gold in aqua regia by the aid 
<IWtnid adding n couccntruted «()lutii>n of [iutn.<!<iuin chloride. The com- 
land if «aid to be stable and neither acid nor deliquescent, but no clinical 
Jtfottt of its use have yet been made. 

Tkjsiologieal Aetion. — The cfTccts of the gold chloride arc very much 
like tkose of (he mercuric chloride. It has decided bactericidal powers. 
AtoBBiiDg to Sternberg, a aolution of 1 to -lO.OOO restraina the growth of 



IW 



PHARHACECTICAI. THEBAPEtTTIC AOEXTS OR DRUGS. 



anthrax bacilluit. nnd one of 1 lo SOOO dwlro^ it. This *t«lirtn¥nl liM h 
qucetionc'd bv L. Hekfoen, wlio found that 1 to 40,000 delajed the rtot 
but Hint 1 to 8000 rliij not doMroy it. A strength of 1 to 1000 dwtrojJ 
bacillus of diphtheria and 1 to 600 (he bncilUiB of typhoid tevor. GS 
and ShurU-y di'moni^lrati'd iU buctiricicliil poiver aj^nin^t baoillu^ tuber 
Iceis by phyeiological experiments upon animals.' In concentrated «olutJ 
it h^fl an cscharotic action upon ihe !>kin. Inlernnlly, in very »niaU dot 
it acts upon the gliindutar structures of the stomach and liver, — Etimulsti. 
nutrititm nnd as.iimilation; but, in Inr^cr dc«e«, it produces violent gattl 
enteritis without ulceration or salivation. These symptoms hare bpcnfl 
duced in an adult by 0.063 dm. (or gr. j], and thia same doae has prodi 
death in a dog in four minutes, as reported by Daniel R. Brower.* In I 
mia it increase* the percentage uf haemoglobin and the number of red bli 
corpuscles, but large doses reduce the oxidizing power of the red blood-4 
Large doses excite salivation, liut do not affect the teelh, checks, or gi 
This salt exercises a constipating ciTect upon the bowels. I'pon the h 
and Hpinnl cord ils etFci^ls an- tboite of a tonic. In «ome instances it pn>di 
decided mental exhilaration. When its use has been loo long continue 

fives rise to what has been termed '■auric fever," a condition character 
y profuse sweats and an increase of saliva and urine. The remedy 
upon the kidneys, increasing the urinary ilow, and the eecretion, after I 
doses, is colored yellow. Renal hypern-mia with albuminuria is cansei 
toxic doses. It is claimed that gold has aphrodisiac powers, causing pail 
erections in men and increasing the menstrual flow in women. Gold ill 
moved from the body chiefly by the kidneys, but to some extent also by t 
liver and bowels. For the gastro-cnteritis. vomiting, etc., similar to corrosi 
chloride of mercury, caused by large doses, the antidote is albumin b 
dem'ib.rnl^ 

Therapy. — Prom the physiological action upon the glandular eyttv 
the stoniueh and livi-r, and the resulting improvement in the power* 
similation, gold may be especially valuable in atonic dyspepsia, enabling 
patient to digest more food. It i» of decided service in nervous di 
Also, in gastric catarrh, chronic inadequacy of the hepatic functions ftoi 
liver), and early #lage of cirrhosis, the goM and sodium chloride is a nsef 
remedy. Administered in this prescription^ it often i^ mosit effective in 
trie catarrh and torpid liver: — 

B Auri »t nodil rhiortdi 103 fim. or gr. tt, 

I'Jit. rtieU vnmlwB 20 Gm. or gr. iij. 

Kxt. Uraxnd 4| Gtn. or ij. 

M. et ft Jill. r», ]H3(. 

Sig.: Two pilLi three tliues a day. 

In cirrhosis of the kidney and albuminuria due to interstitial : 
acconling to Millard, it has a special place. Culbcrtson rMMtrtsnlS^i 
case of albuminuric retinitis from gold and sodium chloride. This salt 
beneficial in arteriosclerosis and the vertigo of the aged dependent up 
atheromatous vessels, and aLso in vertigo due to indigestion. It ia oad 
in hvsleria and functional impotence. In spasmodic affections (whoopil 
cough, larvngixmus stridulus) it has some advocates. Where amenonlii 

'TirroiinitiK r,a:rlle. April 15. 1891, 

'Journal Amrrirnn Mnlirnl Aumivintifm. Oct, 1. ISOO, p. T64 





Al'RI KT tiOUU ClILOniDt'M. 



1G5 



20 Gm. or gr. iij. 

OOS Om. or gr. j. 

SO Giii> or gr. lij. 

Gm. or 3J. 



' d;r£mcDorrh(pa ia dae to d«Scient innen-ation, and not lo local lesion or 
miction, thus rvmi'dy lia* given good ri.'SiiJt*, and also in habitual abortion. 
"XiDiplicAled chronic ovaritis is benefited by the adniinistration of gold. 
I di>ubl« Milt it also luiid to afford rclii-f from ovarian neurulgiii. Follow- 
;oBt the pliysiolof^ical action, we find that, in spinal solc-rosis, prematnrc 
jiy, in dei>rtii*ii>n and hyjiodiund rin, it hn* a high degree of cllicicnoy. 
1 remedy haa also been given with iidvantage in neuraslbcnia, progreesirc 
; iMraly««, utero-OTumn congestion, mi-norrhagia, subacute metritis, 
ipfaomania. and epennatonfaa?a. Dr. John Strahan, of Belfast, su^r^eets 
ii it may be nM>fiil iu insomnia dejii-ndi'nt npon cerebral anaemia. In lh« 
llBtfinnit of impotence, Profe&sor Glenn, of the Univereily of Tennessee, lisa 
[fnnd the f(dlowing combiniilton "f M-rviec: — 

B A&ri ct aodii chloridi ,.... 

fujrcluilii. inlpbat >. 

Zisd pkaBphidi ..i. •.. 

Ext. damlanio ................ ,....,.. 4 

v. It H. in capnulos no. xtx. 
%; Dim captiile Uirire dntly. 

Oald and sodium chloride is, in some cases, an efficient substitute for 
ric chloride in the trtatmcnl of syphilis, and it has fwcu given iu thi« 
nation, uhere there was an undue susceptibility to mercurv, with de- 

ll»fl*fit: — 

9 Anirtaodii chloridi .......> [005 Cm. or gr. j. 

bL iB^utnariic 13 Gm. or gr. ij. 

Ext ralombw , ,,-..,,,,. s| Gm. w gr xxx. 

M. t* R. |)tl- no. xx(. 

S|.; One ]>ill thiro Hum a i»y. 

Cold sIh) proves of avail in the late mnnife»totion)i of Mvphilis, and is 
(VBdiiBH effecHial, afler failure of the mi.\ed treatment by means of racr- 
od iodine, or when these remedies cannot be borne on account of 
or debility. Il hn* been of service in ulcerations of the throat, 
ozffina. difcasfs of the bones, and syphilitic cHcheiia. Dr. J. A. 
reporta two cases of dinbi-tes mellitos in which gold and Kodium 
' caused a steady decrease and final disappearance of jrlycosuriu. In 
indria and melancholia Ibe double salt i* highly ri'ccininn.-ii(]i;d. In 
«w*of pyelitis. Dr. G. Frank Lydston. of Chieafjo, found the hypodermic 
IfaJKtion of (told and sodium chJoride to produce decided imptovemenl. 
chloride is usefnl in the treatment of chronic tobacco poisoning and 
' '□« addiction. 

From the dmuIIe of fifty-two experiments made upon various epecles 
[ nini-hlooded animals, ralmotte concludes that the subcutaneous injec- 
6i» »f gold is antidotal to the poison of the cobra di capello. He believes 
tbt Ih* rentini may be neutralized, even after it has been absorWd, and 
Iltt the treatment may be siii'C4-»<fulIy applied to human beings. His 
iMtbod (* lo cast an elastic lifraiure around the limb, to inject T.-IO to 9.85 
c*nL (or fjii-iiss) of a l-per-c-nt. solution of pold chloride into the wound 
oi betinth the surroundinf; skin, not more than 1 c.cm. (or mxv) being 
i^Mted at any one spot. Injections are nlao made at the level of the liga- 
tanaivellss Itetween it and the henrl. The solution may be thrown either 
inte the contKclive or miucuUr tissue. Aa scon as the injections have been 




pnARUACBUTiejit THERArErnc aoicsts ok drcos, 

nmdo the li(;atiire iimy be romored. The mclliod merits trial in th( 
bitM from other vunomous Ecrpunle, since, as Weir Mitchell has sho 
poisons are siibtiiantiallv of llie wime cliomieal coiiipo«itian. 

In appropriate casee (hia salt may be jrven under the Bkin. 
Gibbeti nnd Shiirley' have reported Buccwsfiil ro*uHs in twenty-*ev 
of pulmonary tiiberculosis, by Rold and eodium chloride jjiven hypo 
ally, in dt'«* of 0.OU3 to O.iil Om. (or gr. */„y/t). during thrt-L* ' 
months. Pepper also reported a ease of phlluBis apparently cured 
drug.' 

Dr. Joseph Drsewieeki reports the cure of a case of lupus by the 
adminixlration of tlie tame ealt in the doE« of 0.0003 Gm. (or gr. Vn 
times a day. 

AVENA. — Oat, the fruit of Avena Eatira (Gramine»), is used a 
in the ioiin of m«ii[, of which cak<-^, gnii'l, or poiridjri! is made, 
highly-nutritious food, coutaininf; oil. nitroj;cuizcd principU-s. carboh 
phosphates, etc.; but on account of iU ouncontrated form and the ) 
of irritating fragments of the outer coat, containing silica, oatmeal 
to cau»e indigestion, and in young children diarrhi^'a. T\>e habit o 
porridge with milk and large quantities of sugar is apt to cause sour t 
and pyrosis, which may be avoided by u*ing butter or cream and salt 
of the milk and sugar. Skin erupttans have been altributed to thi 
oatmeal, particularly eczema, in infaula, which is cured by a change 
An ukoholic tincture of onts hns been supposed to hav« a sedative actl 
the cerebral centres and to remove the craving for drink. For the ] 
would be more riitionnl lo recommend an iufuftcin than ii tincture, j 

AZEDABACH.— Aredaiach (Pride of China). The bark of the 
Melia a?i.'tlurnch (Meliaecw) is used in our Southern Stales in the fo 
decoction (124 Uni. to OHi com., or Siv-Oij, boiled down to 4"3 c 
Oj), as u rermifuge. in cases of round worm 15 e.cm. (or fjss) being j 
a child every two or three hours until tJie bowels arc freely moved, 
doees may cause vertigo, dilated pupils, and stupor. A fluid extract t 
also used (dose, 4 ccm., or fSj), but the fresh decoction is the best ] 
tion. 

BALSAHUH CAHADENSE.— Canada Turpentine. The tlr. At 
samen (t'onifera?), is indigenous to the northern part of the l.'nite< 
and Canada. The bnl.iiim, or olenresin, is uliiuini'd by eolIectiuK tli 
which nnlumllv exudes upon the tree, and through spontaneous evap 
It is a viscid, uciiHy !rnnB|iiirL'nl, ycllnwiiih liquid, of rather pieaaa 
and bitterish taste, completely soluble in ether, chloroform, or benz( 
balsam is suid lo contain abciiit 20 pi-r cent, of volatile oil. When dr 
a clear mass, entirely without structure; so that it is useful in miuro 
work. 

PhTsiological Action and Therapy. — In their actions upon the 
body the ^aritiua furms of tiir]it'ntine resemble each other so closelj 
to require separate treatment. It is probable that the good effects o 
by Mr. Clay and Paracelsus, in the treatment uf uterine disease witl 

'Vntwrtitif Mcitleat WnffurJa', D«., )8(I6, 




BALSAMt7J* PBBDTIAinW. 



line, might be obtained from our native turpenlin*. It may be ad- 
ed ID cap^ulo nr emulsion, ami iiiay aliio hi> iiiJ[>Iici! locullv. As a 
peal drc&^ing it alfo is iii^vfu), owing to ils sdhc^ive and antieeptic qnnli- 
, resetnbiinp, in this respect, the balsam of Peru. 

BALSAHim PERUVIANUM (U. S. P., B. P.).— Balsam of Peru. 
Doee, «.30 to 1 c-cin. (or mv'xv). 

thMrmMOoiogj. — A balsam obtaJDcd from Tolutfera Pereira; (Lefpi- 
I'W) U. S. P.; ilyntxylou PiTctra' (B. P.): u tree in Central Ami'ricn. 
^tui hoDcy-like liquid, of (ragmeni odor and a wanii, rather acid taste, 
auiaio^ ni^iii, volutilc oil, arid both ben/.iirc and dunnmiu uc-id^. It Is 
ihle, burning with a. white amoke and fragrant odor. It is entirely 
itiilt in 5 imtU of uktihol, and i^honld not diminish in vulunu^ whfn agi- 
"i«itb an equal bulk of benzin or water. Stockman states that after 
; Penn iaii haUum the nriiic givo*. with nitric acid, h pr^'cipilate which 
that due to albumin. The former is. however, soluble in alcohol, 
Phyriological Action and Therapy.— Peru vijin bul«im is carminative, 
nulant, and expectorant. It has been extolled in Europe by Landerer 
iSchnitzler in phlhitis pulmonuli« and ohronic bmnehial cutnrrh. given 
^Idpniles or emalsion. and also used in an inhaler. Professor Landerer 
'ktranTinced himself that the virluf of biii«ira of Pcni in tnhercuiosi* de- 
fadi upon the pretence of cinnamio acid, which he has of late employed in 
riiMof the balnm. Tlie finn.iniiir ncid nf which hi- makes use, however, is 
Lfteiiaed from etorox. It is cotorlcss, crystalline, feebly soluble in cold water, 
th soluble in hot water, alcohol, and warm oil. A .Vper-cent. emulsion 
tihe add ia prepared with almond-oil. yolk of egg. and common salt in »olu- 
Beforc uiie, the emulsion must be rendered alkaline by mixing with 
l2frpn-c«ot. solution of liquor potassa?. The emulsion is preferably thrown 
Htoa rein. The method is not applicable to the later stages of pulmonary 
Wocnloeis. From 0.12 to 0,37 c-cm. (or mii-vj) of the cmulnion are in- 
itetedtwicca week. Of 50 eases thus treated, Landerer reports 10 deaths, 
ll<iic8of improvement, and 2!) curcx. 1 case rcmmniug uuinlliiciictd. 1m- 
pnmcnt is raid to begin in the third week. The treatment is believed to 
pvdiiK capsulation and afaeorption of tuberculous depoeitf. In hipus he 
mbn an alcoholic solution of 1 part of cinnamic add, 1 part of cocaine 
l^incUoratp. and SO parts of alcohol, OM to 0.1'^ c.cm. (or mj-ij) being 
■j«t(d into Ihcnodulea till 0.60 c.cm. (or rns) have been used at one seanct. 
At the end of a week the procedure is repeated. As it is a dcodonint and 
Wittptic, it ia useful as a local application to open wounds and compound 
■JftiKtt, and also in the tjieatmt'nt of oza'na and old ulcere. In utoriiio 
I we may use: — 



SMofonni 16 

B*lMuni Ptraviftiri ,.... 7 

UmUdI OE 



Gin. or 3ir. 
c.em. or fSij. 
Gni. or Jjj. 



IL Hg.: For local aiiplication on nbaorbent cotton or rnrdcd nod. 

1b infantile ecicma wc may prescribe: — 

B Addi boric* S Am. or Sh. 

Bataami Prruvkal , 60 ivcm, ur nix. 

UnetM 31 Gm. or ."(j. 



01 aiDfgdalK ncpnatt 

t Sg,: Applj- freqaMiUf upon soft linen. 



. . q. *, ft. tiBgl, 



168 



niAUMACBDTtCAL TBBnAFEimc AGENTS OR DBUOS. 



BaUam of Peru is sometimes an efficieot application in pruriliu i 
Tulva and ^oiiilu parR-^thcsin. It is likewise emcucious ia ccabivs. 
coplskia, or local epithelial thinkeniii^ of tiie muoou.i membrane, is ; 
hy ajipIicntionK of Peruvian buli^um; in It'prosy it may be thorouglily nilih 
into the affected areas. It is also a ROod local application for diphthe 
Tlic iulernal i\tc of Peruvian bal*aru has been recommended by Tr 
and Pidoux in chronic intestinal catarrh and typhoid fever, Nuggia 
found it serviceable in the gaxtro-inteiitinal disorders of childltoo'). 
external application of balsam of Peru has, in some instances, been folio 
by an crylncmuUnis, uriicurial, or ccxemutous eruption. Dr. I.>ohaiu i 
reported a case of fatal gastritis in a sis-day-old babe caused by baUaai 
Peru whicli had been applied to the mother's nipples on account of ' 

BALSAMUM TOLUTANUM {V. S. P.. B. P.).— Balsam of Toln. 
Dose, U.33 to 1 Giu. (or gr. v-xv). 

Preparalion^. 

Tlnoturft Tolutona (U.S. P., B. P.)— "nneture o( Tolu (10 jwr cM»t.(. Dom,I 
7.6 c.cm. (or f3tii-ij|. 

Syruimn Toliitonii. |U.S,P., B.P.).— Syrup of Tolu. Dose, 7.5 exm. (oi I 
or nutre. 1). P.. 2 to 4 ccni. (or tSss-jl. 

Tinotiira Bcnmini Compositu (U.S. P., B.P.). — The comyounil tincture ot I 
tola containH Tnln. 

Pbannacolog7 and Therapy. — .\ ImlMiim obtained from Toluifera Ba 
mum (Loguminosa?: I'. S. P.): Myroxylon Toluifera (B. P.): a tree of Hi 
flranada. It \* a resiuouie exudation, containing n volatile oil, tolocae. 
cinnHmic and benzoic acids. It has an agreeable odor and taste. 

BaUam of Tolu is, when fresh, a thick, vi«id fluid, but is, in time, 
verted into a hard, translucent solid. It is slightly antiseptic and ex 
rant; the .syrup is a favorite basis for cnugh-mixturcs, chiefly on aceonni 
it« pleusiint tuste. The balsam itself may be administered in emuUion 
egff or mucilage. It itbould not he wet\ during acute attacks of inflamn 
lion. The syrup covers the taste of chloral or eroton-chloral {Bninton). 

BAFTISIA. ~ Wild Indigo. Tlio root of Boptisia tinctoria <l4 
minosffi), indigenous to North .\merica. Baptiiin, an impure resin, is e( 
sidercd to have cholagogic properties (do!^'.'. 0.'k>5 to (1.32 Gm.. or gr. i» 
and has been found of service in amenorrhoea. The decoction or fluid eiW 
may l>e used as a cathartic in large doses, or tonic astringent tn small, H 
tj-phoid fever and bowel disorders .small doses of a tincture have been uf 
hui not according to Ihc be¥t pnulici-. Tlie dccoctinn may he employed 
8 douche in nasal catarrh, chronic ulcers, leucorrhtea, etc., or as 
wash in stomatitis. 



BARn CHLORmUH.— Bariam Chloride. Barium, in its action nt 
the blood-vessel B, nscmiilos boih ergot and digitalis. It cauws the caru 
eontrnelions to become more slow and fim-ihle. Tonic spasm of involuo^ 
muscular fibre is produced, peripheial blood-vessels are conslricled. 4 
blood -presKun? rii^e»- Peri*tulsi* is likewise excited. Overdoses give riai 
iBalivation. thirst, vomiting, purging, embarrassed breathing, slow ptil 
IjdilntHl pupiU, and parulyMS of the extremities. In experiments upon a 





BARII DIOXIDirM. 



169 



I Pilliet md Molbcc found thnt banuni chloride. injecUd subcutflD«- 
rin toiic doses, caused diarrhcea, albuminuria and ha>niOKlobinuria. and 
enralsions, followed \>y riffldity. Afti-r dealli li-»ionsi wc-rc fonixl \t\ inoiii of 
Aeocgus. The plomeruTi of the kidneys were particularly affected, and 
baiMTfaage^ into thv ftrm^ht tubes wen; also ob«Trviil. Ai-ooiding to M. 
taitt, barium chloride occa^ionn eoaKUlalion of the blood, aud death results 
■Rhiaialij' fmm fiuboliMii. I>i'ath han ocLnrn-d in con!M:i|uenoe of fl.l? 
8b. (« gr. lies), the quantity not having been taken in one dose, but in 
U.TMrtion* of 0.015 Gni. (orgr. '/,), Thft symutomniif intoxicatinii mani- 
(sM tlicm&clr^s at the end of a week. Tbi$, however, must be regardt-d 
It a exceptional cane. Tlic tiniK, in #mull medicinal io»es. It dt'void of 
KtiTC poisonous properties. Barium chloride is n white, crystalline fub- 
.of «bitieranddi^a;^eabl(- taste, n^adily nohible in water. This fait is 
dj fioluble in absolute alcohol, but dii^Holves in rectified spirit. Thv 
"B^bttee are incompatible with IIk' ailU of biiriimi. In oaae^i of poiaooing 
tkndium, or magnesium sulphate, with white of egg, niny be used a* 
oiidoiet- 

nenpy.— Barium cliloride may be used as a cardiac tonic in valvuUr 
anffidene]' vith irregularity of the heart. The late Prof. Da Costa ob- 
iftni that, in thm conditions, it relieves pain and the scueation of un* 
**(iiua, acting as a fairly goo<l diuretic and capable of being given for a 
cuaiiiierable period without dii;turbing digi-i-t ion. In minute doses it ie a 
•tiamlant and alterant, and may be used in scrofula. 

From on administration of this salt to «t'venty-*ix children Ijclli con- 
cludes that it is eiKcacious in the gastritin which accompanies the torpid 
foni of H-rofuIa, but that it is injuriuu» in the florid form. In the bezin- 
Bi^ Ibe remedy irritates the mucous membrane of the bowel and renders 
tile pnceiH more acute, "but the membrane is finally favorably modified. 
B«aiD has been recommended likewise in chlorosi-i and in cachectic eon- 
ditutt. In amvnorrhccu it hn# been given with nd\nnlage. It has yielded 
0oai faults in varicose veins and aneurism. It affords relief to the vascular 
^fewoinraa of exophlhalinic goitre. 



BARn DIOXIDUH (U. S. P.).— Barium Dioxide (BaOS). 

Pnparationg. 
.■Jqw IljtlrogTDii Uiosiili (U. S. P.). — Solution of Hydrogen Diaxidr, or IVioxido 

Hjrdro^unii Peruxidi (E P.).— Solution of Hydrogen Pntixid*. Dow, S 
lor Owijf. 

Tbe dioxide, or peroxide, of barium should be anhydrom and kept in 

'^(•wl vr»els. It is used in the manufacture of the Bolution of bleach- 

*t!ifiud, or dioxide of hydrogen, now entering largely into u*e for medical 

[_**■) ratgical purposes. 

y PhanucologT. — 'Vhe commercial dioxide of hydrogen is a colorless so- 

fiwflf this agent in wat<,-r. U i», when undiluted, a synipy Suid, destitute 

<&», of a har^b, slishtly-aerid taate, has a spfcific gravity of iAH, and is 

oiulabJe composition. Its formula is 11,0,. and it decomposes into 

1 naicent oxygen, yielding 472 times il* own volume of oxygen and 

!b«hiDd 1 To1um« of water. Tlic freshly prepared ofTicial solution con- 



iro 



PltARUACECTIOAt. THBRAPBDTIC A0BXT8 OB D&VG». 



taJDS about 3 per rent., by weight, of the pure dioxide. This diliitb 
clear fluid, bsvinjr but little odor or ta.ite, end i» ofa sHglilly-acid re 
corresponding to about 10 volimice of available oxygen. The ueual et 
emplojed by aurceona is called the 15-voluiDe ttolution, because each ] 
of the solution yields 15 volumes of the oxygen. It is an active oxidizL 
antiaeptic asent. As it ^rraduaily decomposea it must be kept in a coc 
and in lootely-stoppcrcd bottles. 

Phyiiolo^cal Action and Therapy.— The afhilion of hydrogen ( 
destroys pus and thi- micro-organ isms, which excite suppuration, and 
lates the albuminoid components of the inllnmniatory products. It 1' 
the property of checking fermentation. It ia deelructive to the pi 
netic micro-organiHms and is nn excellent atcent for purifying drinking 
Dr. JakovlcS has ascertained by experiment that the solution of hy 
dioxide increases the general acidity of the gastric juie* and the pro 
of free hydrochloric acid, but diminishes the amount of lactic acid, 
duces a marked increase of the digi-siivc power of the gastric juice, 
pure and of oQicial elrcngth. it is free fr'>m irritatiug quuliticE, and 
poured over wounds, injected into sinusps, or into the ear. or used as 
in ulcerations of the pharynx and of thi- krynx. It produces o froti 
when it encounters pus, owing to the liberation of oxygen, and the o 
of this commotion indicates the removal of all the pus. The Mtrfaci 
wound or ulcer becomes blanched, but is not injured by the appi 
As u rule, the fluid t-xcrts an analgesic eiTcct upon the surface with \ 
is brought into contact. l^)betx;ular and mammary abscesses eepeci 
well trcali'd in this way. Boils, carbunclcit, felons, and ulcers are in 
and their pain assuaged by the use of this remedy. Unhealthy or p 
wounds and phlegmonous erysipelas receive decided benefit from tb 
hydrogen dioxide. This solution is a beneficial application in cases < 
gangrene, phagedena, and syphilitic ulceration. It is peculiarly adai 
injection into cavities, fistulas, and sinuses commuiticflting with h 
joints. This fluid, moreover, possesses the valuable property of disi 
mg carious or necrosed bone, uiul i*. therefore, of service in hip-joint 
Oranular pharvngitis and stomatitis are benefited by the same app' 
It has been utilized with adviinlagc for the purpo*e fif disinfecting 
in carious teeth, in the treatment of abscesses of the alveoli or antr 
for bleaching discolored teeth. 

For the last-named purpose it is made into a paste with chalk o' 
hone. It enables the dentist to treat and fill at the same sitting a ( 
pulp or cavity. Dr. H, F, Brownlee, of Danville, Conn., made use o 
gen dioxide with marked advantage in a case of empyetna which w 
•cterixed by the excessive amount of pus evacuated from the pleural 

In ulcerative tonsillitis, fetid breath, and in some bronchial at 
a apray of dilute hydrogen dioxide is productive of benefit. A epra; 
agent is likewise of utilitv in chronic nasal catarrh, oziena, and sci 
angina. Hydrogen dioxide ia a useful application in mercurial ai 
forms of stomatitis. It ia pnrticularly recommended by Boennccken 
infeclant to the mouth during febrile and wasting diseasi's. 

For comedones Uiiua advi.ses the use of a preparation containi 
20 to 40 mrts of hydrogen dioxide, 10 ports of lanolin, and SO 
vaselin. The application of the liquid is also of avail in acne. D 
dioxide, on account of its bleaching properties, may be used to decol 




iMDit moxiucu. 



in 



^■rk lano^ hitTv which not infr«queQtIy disfi]^re the faces of women. 
Toorhinc them with » camel 'it-ltiiir limsli which has been dipped in the 
ISotd will n-ndcr thi-m much less conapicuoua, aiitl this procemire may b« 
a*rtcd to when, for any resnon, electrolr*!* oiniiot bo performed. 

I>r. Oolnvin cnmmendf the action of hydrogen dioxide in various Sis- 

tt* of the conjtmctivs and cornea. In ulcew of the cprnea euppurttion 

i*dimiRiah«<l and healing promoted. InfiltrationB undergo absorption. The 

[TOBtdy is of TAlue in h^'popyon, and may render operntivc interference ud- 

»r>'. Hydrogen dioxide ii- likewise beneficial in phlyetcnulnr conjnnc- 

I ttvitiBan') fuMile fjonorrhceal ophthalRiin. It has been uHed with jiiood resultB 

I dacT in. It it serviceable in suppurative dieeatics of the ear. Uy- 

I dngai .1' has ^iven very favorable regulta in the treatment of mastoid 

t m n Mt, briufi duubly bviirfu'iiil by virtne of ils action, both upon the pun 

«>.? tbf hone. Care should always be taken to provide a free outlet for the 

< har^'e cauM-d by the peroxide, or pain will be increased and pus 

— . ,.r fiiven dwpt-r into the sinuBee. 

lo djpblhenn and croup itii value haii been eHtabli^hcd; » 2-volame 

■Inti'-- I I'ially recommended in younjt children aB a local application, 

■d pii '.y after Hieiianition of the membranes in ordi-r to remove the 

*An and dt^iDfcct the Gurfaee.' It is elated by Dr. A. Jacobi. of New York. 

tkat in rvrtain in-ilnnt-es even a weak .solution proves irritant to the throat, 

iknifs the □lucoiis membrane, and that it. consequently, eometitnce proves 

irtrim^ntal in diphtheria and mual be abandoned in such cases. In jiynte- 

■ah^^iril practice this remedy has effected improvement in vaeinitig and 

— ^-r^rlrili;*, and in chronic cTstitis. It may be beneficially employed, tike- 

:) BOptic ounditiont n-^ulting from abra«ionH or wound« of the female 

' : ict. It has been used with suceeas in the treatment of fionorrhcca, 

tP». It ii thoujrht to l»e fttpeciftily vnluabje in the chronic form 

ase. Or. Willard Parker Worstcr, of Xcw York, hns obtained good 

Til the tr^'alment of rhancre* by hydrogen dioxide. The nicer was 

.■rv day and in the interval kept covered with iodol, 

_ .. ^v'ajlian, of Sew Vork, has found hydropea dioxide of advantage 

a tbe trtaimeot of pas^fivc hemorrhages. Ttv MUKg<-.<t8 its ui^c in the form 

•r » tpny for the relief of pulraonar>' hxroorrha^, or injected in cases of 

tnMtnrui aod hsemorrha^ce of (he lower bowel, .'vpmying the post-nn^al 

with a 1- or 2-per-cent. or stronger solution will generally check 

evea of sovore lypc' In etrcinomu of the rectum or iiteru* it re- 

paiD and cleanses the diaeased surfaces. The use of a spray of a 10- 

«Ame Miliition is n-comuiciKled as a difinfectunt of the »ick-room in ease 

^smtivc fcvem and other infectious diseases. 

T: hap been admini*i<red, well diluted, in pa«tric affections, and has 

imH useful in flatulent dyspepsia, heartburn, catarrh of the stomach 

1^ (owrlf. vie. It would proljablv W of Bervice in the iK-ntment of gastric 

Ar. It has even ameliorated the symptoms of cancer of the stomach. 

_„ dioxidf. combined with tannin and injected into the intestine, ia 

il m chrtmic dysentery. Irriffstion of the bowel by means of liquid 

I^H, _, ' glycerin, combined with the internal administration of 

IwCtn ■ '** found by Dr. Elmer Lee to yield favornbU- re»ulls in 

.rt. » B. Pquihb, "On Uu JMlcal Um« at Hydromm Pfroxide." Galtionf* 

^jjmrwol. -KUrrix. 1880. 

^rJ^York J/rJfcfll Jmnnl, Xov. M. IM*. 



172 



PHAHMaCBCTICAL THBRAPEtmC A0KXT8 OB DBCOB. 



AHJatic cholvra. In eholtrTa nostrsE, typhoid and yellow tcxen, the lutl 
this a^ent either by irrigation or by the mouth promises to be of supen 
eiFicaey. i 

Sir Benjamin Ward Richardson, of London, has employed this Bgri 
(or more than thirty yi-are, beginning at a linn; wln^n it was rejrarded 4 
chemical curiosity, ile has reported a case of epilepey of long standing cnil 
by Ihu ust- of 7.5 c.cin. (or fSij) of a 10-vo!umc solution iwice daily in will 
He advises a systematic thai of this remedy in epilepsy, especially in tl 
Jacksonian variety. From a number of formula: wfiieh have been publialu 
by Dr. llichardson the following have been selected: — • 



B Acid, tannic ^ i>i.i>>.. 

(ilyci-rin 30 

Sp. vini rcctificat ■■.. 16 

Aq. dcstillnt. 120 

Aq. bydiag. dioic. (10 vol.) - .q. f> nil S-lfl 

M. Sig.: An uitiipptic und a&tringcnt gargle. 



OS CSm. or BT. X. 
c.cin. or Qj, 
C.CRI. or i^*. 

cxta. or I2vtij. 



(11) vol.) 16 



B Aq^ hydro^, diox. 

Acid, tannic, pur. 

Aq. rasuB 

M. Sig,: A u«ful collyrium. 

B Aq, JiydroB. diox. (10 voL] 76 

.Acid, aulphuric. dil. 2 

(liycciin i i I(r 

Aq. df^tillut. q. 1. ud 180 



O.Oin. or J3iv. 
3X Gdi- ov kt. v. 
c.cm. or Qritj. 



c-cm. or fSlifw. 

ccm. or ra™. 

c.nr. nr 13m. 

c.Mii- or (Jvj, 



M. Sig.: Ddh: two tnblrnpoon fills, w«ll dilutvd. An ^xecllvnt n»\tiirt In 1 
CoUiqunLivf SHi'iklliig of phttiisi*. 

R .\i|. hydrnK. diox T6| c.crn. or fStlM^ 

8jr. Tolulun 2i,| c.cni. or fSTj. I 

Aq. dcHlill. . - f). ». ud I8tl| i-.ciii. or fjvj. ' 

M. $ig.; Uow: one ounce, diluted with iced water. Reeommcndcd in utU 
liTUiiehiti* and plittiisia with ncvrr* cough and ■leepltnutntuu. "" 

B Aq. hydros- "IJo*- -^ 75| *■""- or ISJIu. | 

Syr. codnin 7|S ccni- or (5ij, 

Sp. vini rHFlilicHt. 

Olyccrin. , a> 22! ccm. or fSvj. 

Aq, dcaliltaU i|. •.ad 180| ccm. or ISij. 

yi. Sig.: Ddh-; one ounrr in ictn] unlir. A palliative ot decided nine i> A 
bctea, giving ninrli holler mulls tliiiu codeine alone. ?, 



B Aq. hTdrnft- dlox. 76 

Add, |iho»plior. dlL ,.,,., 4 

Syr. (t'rri miperphoi. ........<, ...,.,.,.. 'M 

Gljccrin. , 30 

Aq. dfMiU q. •. ad IH11 



M. Sig.: Dow: ono ounce in Iced %rii1er. 
with fldvanlagr In the early vtages of (ilitliiriii. 



can. ar t^iu. 
ccm. or (3J. 
e.cni. or (3ij. 
ccm. or lij. 
ccm. or (Jvj. 



BecoBiinended in aathenic eaaea. 



) 

Pyrozonc. — '1 his name h«« hi'^n pvcn to different standard solutitf 
of hydrogi.n dioxide in water and ether. Mrdicinal pyrozone contaiB^ 
per cent, of hydrogen dioxide in water. It is used interoallT and extend 
•( nn antiseptic remedy. Antiseptic pyroKone is a .Vjier-cent. solution] 
ether, and is reoonnnondcd as un application to ulcers, rhinitis, and din 
Ihvria. In this strength pyroKone is used by dentists during opcretJn 




BELLADONNA. 



173 



J bora found of decided assistance in arresting bleeding and keeping 

spirts perfectly dn-. CiiuKtic pvroKonc, a SS-pcr-ccnt. snlitlion in ether, 

B nefficscions remedy in common and syphilitic iile^^ra. sinuses, etc. In 

it lias h'cn employed for the purpose «t" Itlptieliiup the teeth, in 

itment of dental abscenes, and in pyorrhcea alveolanB (Higgs's dti> 

belladonna: FOUA (U. S. p., B. p.).— BeUadonna-leaves. 

BELIADOHN^ RADIX (tJ. S, P., B. P.)-— Belladonna-root. 

DoK-:i[ poviiiereii leaves or root, 0.006 to 0.13 Cm. (or gr. Vio-lj)- 

O. S. p. Pnparalions. 

I.KAVBH. 

EitnrtnnB B«IUiluniite Poliortini AtrutioUmm. — Alooholitr Extract ut Bella- 
l-hiTn. Dow. oMl:< to 0.0«a Gin. (or gr. Vu,-j). 

Ibumn Brtladuauie Kulioriiiti.— 'I'lni'luro ot HeUadoniia-leiiVM (16 per c««t.). 
Tlow.nsn lo 1.20 t.eia. |oi mv\x). 

L'nrnrni II III IVIUitiiiinii-.— Ointmmt nt RclUdonna (contiiliiB, of ihe alcoholic 
^otnit, III percent.). 

Emplattmiii Rrlla'lnnniS'.- lirllndonna Pla<>1or. 

BOOT. 
Lunciuin B«llai]nnnip RAdlrU PI iiiiliim,— Fluid Exti'a«t of Hal larinnnn -root, 
i lo 0.12 ccni. (or itlVm-ijI- 
Bimrntuin Itrllndnnnn'. — Ri>llailoiiiin I.lniniont (contains, of fluid extract, 05; 
;ipMts). 

/i. P. Preparationf:. 

I-EAVES. 

Knnrtum Rolladounap ^^^lde.— Orpen KMtiul ol Hi>llnilonna (Iroui fr*ith Imvm 
'."iun( hranphM). Ooib. 0.015 to 0.005 Gm. (or gr. '/.))- 
'intaa Itvlladoiinin. — Jiiicp of nrDnilonnn. Hum; 0.:I() tn I cem. lor mr-xv). 

KOOT, 

Sunciuni folUdonnu^ Akoliolkum.— Alniholli: Kxiract of Bellitiluiina (conlmiB- 
ttpv<*ut.o( alkalatdi of bflludoiiaa-ruot). Done. O.OlIi to O.OltS Gm. (or gr. '/i-jl- 
. •Dranum Kcllndonnn' Liijiildiim, — Liquid Kxtrai^t of HollBidonnA Icniilatus /a 
"^wol. alknloitlsl. Iloip, 0.03 lo 0.06 K.vm. (or nv-m-'y). 

Ijortum Bclladonnir. — Tinclurc of lit-llndoiinn. Done. 0.31) to I c.cio. (or nivsr). 
^UtifflentUD* BeIladuaii«F — Uoimi'iil ul lit'llMdonna ii-ou1tiiii)i llifuiil •^xtrai-l of 
~ a. 2S c.mi.: mmphor. 2.5 Gm.: lii^tillpd wiitrr. A c.em.: ulcoliol. 00 pnr 
■"^Jt. «d fiO o.cni.). 

, t^iuoHituui BolladuoiuF.^^BcllBilounii Uiiitmi^nt ( )00 |iarts cuataiu O.U ]iart of 
'**ll«kiid* of bcDBdonna-root). 

Kaplwinini Itellndonnw. — Liquid Extrai^t and Rpsin Piaster (contains 'A per 
■ <if Ibc alkntoid* of bpllndoniiii-rootf. 

hp^lInrU Itrlladonnii-.^ — ^lUllmlnnnn Sii pposit orieit (eacb eoatainn OlOOI Uiii.. 
fr-V_Dt tbc alkaloid* of IwlludcmiiB-rocitl. 

Active Prinripks and pTtparaiions. 

L Alnfiiw lU-S-P., B-P.}.— Atropine (C„n«NO.). Do«c, 0.0OO3 to 0,001 Cm. (or 
'■■-'/ J. 

AtnfiiMt Sulphan <U.B.P., D.P.). — Atropine Sulphnti-. Done, the Mme aa atro- 
^^ 

ITafnMitum AtTDfiinw iB. P.).— Atropine Ointmi-nt (2ptrccnl.l. 
liquor AtmjiliuB Sulphitu |]). P.I. — Solution of Atropine Sulphttte (1 per oeot.]. 
'W.OAl to niMl cjTU. (or niui-j). 

taadlv AlropiaB (B. P.).— JKscs of Atropine (each OJllS nigr„ nr |tr. '/^ ol 
<*qwnlptela). 



iM 



PHABUACKCTCCAL THERAPECTIO AGENTS OH DUCOS. 



Pliarmacology. — Tin- le«vfH iind the root of Atropa UcUadotina 
sacca), or deadly-nighuhade, are each ofHcial, and provide pbamtat 
preparatiuns. It it > native of Europe, and is ctdtivated here. A!) j 
llic plant are active, but the fleshy, creepiog root i* especially 80. Th 
purplish, branching fttinis »luiid about three feet hign, and the leaT 
t>hort stalks are in pairs of unequal eize, oval, entire; the flowera ar 
bell-sliaped, iieiidcut, and of ii dull'Tcddieh color, the short peduncles 
from the axils of the leaves. The fruit, somewhnt resemhling « cliei 
two cells containing numerous eecdt and a Ewci?lii<h, violet-colored ji 
has an adherent calyx at the base. The lar^e, cultivated leaves are 
have less of the active principle llion the smaller leaves gathered v] 
plant i« in flower. The roots are taken from plants at least three ye 
those which are tou^h and woody, breaking with a splintering f 
«hould be rejected. Belludonna contains atropine and hyotcyan 
belladonnine. The United Slates Pharmneopu-ia defines atropine 
alkaloid derived from belladonna. As it occurs in commerce, it ie 
accompanied by a smiill proportion of hyoscyamine i-xtracted along 
from which it cannot be readily separated." The sulphate of atrop 
more permanent salt, neutral to litmiu-paper, readily soluble in wa' 
IB generally preferred for medical purposes to the alkaloid. Atropin 
ically is tropyltropeine, and has been synthetically made from tron 
tropic acid. By substituting dilTercnt acide> Ladenburg obtained 
tropelne, benaoyl-trope'ine, cinnamyl-tropeine, etc. Atropine and 1 
mine are isomeric, but the former is the more stable form. 

PhTiiolo^oal Action. — Locally, belladonna atfeets the end-oi 
the sensory ntirves, and reduces paiiifii! seiisibilily, conlrnels tliu ves! 
checks the action of the sweat- and mammary glands. It is readily t 
tbroiigli Die unbroken ^kin, and symptoms of poisoning have appeal 
its topical application. When applied to the eyes, belladonna (or 
loids) widely dilates the pupil and relaxes the ciliary muscU-, i^o as 
porarily paralyze the power of muscular accommodation of the eye. 
to the throat, it produces dryness and choking sensations, and tlii 
of the first effects of its toxic action after it ha» been introduce^ 
system either by the mouth or by absorption. I 

Upon the brain it has an exhilarating elTect. and a talkative 
of mild form may appear. In some ease.t the delirium is of a violt 
Subsequently, sleep usually occurs. In the lower nnimaU (froi;*) 
produces a rre-st of breathing, followed by convulsions. The tranaie 
ing, or erythema, which appears after its uw, i» probably due to it 
upon the tympothetic system, as a stimulant. In some instances it 
a rash, which closely resembles that of scarlet fever and which may 
followed by dcsi|uamalion. 'ITie influence of the drug upon the h 
circulation is believed to be indirect thrmigh the nervous system, 
donna paralyses the inhibitory filaments of the pneumogastric nerve 
a nsuh, the heart, under the influence of the sympathetic plexuj, i 
rapid rate without being checked by the paralyzed pneumogastri. 
toTW of the heart's beat is also increased. Coincident wilb lhi», 
result of its action upon the blood-vessels, arterial tension is incret 
toxic doses, however, blood-pressure is reduced. The eontrnctioi 
fimaller vcsseU may be due to action upon the muscular fibres oM 
or it may be secondary to the aetion rjmn the nervous .ly.iiem. 




BBLLADON'N^. 



Its 



becunm more rapid, owing to stimulation of the respiratory centre. Con* 
tadicti" itit 1i«v« betn inaile in regsrd to thi- ctfcL-t of bL-Ilatlonnn 

ii_ Vfon U. . ifntie. I)r, Duvid Cerna, as a reauit of txperimentnl 

' rlinivmi »i u idis m iOi lla- oUvrvation of Bricliort, that "alropino 

upon the 1 : ry function m two opposing nays, one (peripheral) 

MDdmg to diiniiiiftii, the other (trcntrftl) tending to incrtmHC, the iiicrcae« or 
ih» .T«-r,.(.M' of the rcspiratjons in the normal animal depending upon which 
!«' ■' facturii predominates." 

1 Li>- liiiw of urine is incn-a^-d at first as the rceult of increased arterial 

tnnoD, but there is no increase in the solid constituents of the iirim^ I^r^er 

lam dcvrcn&v the ijuaDtity of urine, apparently by virtue of a paralyiiag 

■Siofi oo til*.- terminations of the vaRiis, if we may accept the experimental 

TOittt of Ltizaro and Pitini.' The Mcrelioiis gcnt-nilly are checked, notiblr 

Aoar of the mouth and skin; the flow of milk is also arrested by it. Though 

wtrttintl fiocrelion ii^ at fin^t diminished, it it. probably, iub»ci|Uontl^ in- 

rmMt^ •tinci> the alvine evacuations become more frequent and more liquid 

admiDislrstion of bvUndonna. In »m«U doses it stimutates to 

i movement the musctUar co«t of the bowel. Belladonna is etim- 

tiy by the kidneys, but partly by the boweU. like other alkaloids, 

i; i.i a certain extent, destroyed by the liver. 

Cffects uid Antidotes. — i'oisonoux symptoma occasionally appear 

Toduction into the svEtem of a very small quantity, 

>tated, or by pai^inK fiom the eye into the nose, and 

: ' ^at. In iuch cofiOB nothing mor« serious occurs than dry- 

. dilated pupils, possibly an erysipelatous or erjtiiematotis 

n upon the «kin, and «ome fever and re^tle^ness. Larger doses c*um! 

' — nefui, and aching of the fauces; flushing, rapid pulse, and hurried 

without decided inerase of temperatore, followed by coma or 

■-.d death. The physiological antagonists which may be cm- 

iotet are morphine, phyiwstigmine, muscarine, and jaborandi 

. iiic). McOowan reports a caw in which two injections of 0.03 Gm. 

I. of pilocnrpinc unqui-sitonably saved life. Chloral-hydrate has 

:9cd as an antidote. According to Binz, morphine is particularly 

,:..,._. .1 in •Haying the rertlessne** and mental excitement caused by 

Wladonna- Failing reepiratioa is combated by strychnine. External heat 

rin he Dtrftil if ■ state of collapse occurs. Animal charcoal, 6xed alkaliee, 

aid dEmuIctrnif, followed by free eTnouatton of the stomach aud bowels may 

ate be prPM^ribed. The comnound tincture of iodine is a chemical antidote, 

_-i [mtjnjT the atropine ana rendering it inert. 

tbermpy. — Belladonna ointment, or the liniment of belladonna, may 

j^^^ with cood results in neuralgia and chronic rheumatism; al»o in looal 

- In the form of atropine it is used as a mydriatic, but strong solu- 

„'tf liable to cauw glnuTOUia. The solutions of atnipine fur ophlhalmic 

"'■ or for uev hypodcrmically, should be freshly prepared and sterilixcd 

in order to avoid the development of penicillium in the liquid, 

rove the alkaloid, besides giving us an infected solution. M. 

s tdt:ocatt* the combination of alkaloids, believing that in this manner 

mme effects may be obtained by smaller doses. As a mydriatic he em- 



• m*4r«« 



4r Fmrm. f Ttmjriai r. Diifvnke iaedl:iBal-KeU*»f, Vah. 3, UB6. 



IM 



PHARMAceCTICAL TBERAPEtTTIC AOEKTS Oil DIICOS. 



Dubi^tio. oulpluit. MM 120 Gm. or gr. i 

COMln. hTdrobromac S Om. or rt. : 

Aq. itMUlUt. 90| c.cm. ur ISilj 

Id eye-pnctice bellndonsa is tucd to dibte ths pupil and relax 
commodation in order to facilitate examination of the eye and deten 
irfractioQ, nnd also to prevent ndlicvionK bi'tHtc-ii iht- pupilliiry bo 
the iris and the lens, or to avoid protrusion of the iris through an 1 
the cornea. According to tlit obsiTvation of Dr. Geoi-ge Carpi-nlfr, 
etillation into the eyes of infanta, thotif;h it mar cauee physiologic*] 
toms, i» unflitiiifoctory n» rcKanU it« acliou upon the pupil, diktotio 
generally very tardy and incomplete- 
Some oculists consider atropine fiantonate as the beat combinoti 
mydriatic, but atropine Kulpbate is the salt generallv employed, i 
0.015 to 0.35 Ora. to 30 c.cm. (or gr. '/,-iv to fSj). 'Fhe same soli 
benufu-ially lucd in 1r<;Mting iliM.-SKcs nf iJiv car, pnin from innammi 
the middle or external ear, or niembrana tympani. or earache, bt 
lieved by dropping it in wunn^ wlu'ti iiori'»iMirj'. {Hvn aUo Homatl 
Itigidity of the o» uti-ri during labor id said to be relieved by loci 
cation of belladonna ointment. The same preparation is useful in sp 
tile neck of the bladder or of tbe sphincter ani, and in Taginismns. If 
upon the abdomen, the extract of belladonna is said to check the v 
01 pregnancy and to r<!lieve other reflex disorders dependent upon thi 
uterus. In Icucorrhtea dependent upnn irflommtition of the ccrvi 
bulladonnn. in association with tannic acid, is a soothing; application 
strains di«chnrge. 

It relieves the pain of herpes zoster, and of irritable and mi 
ulcers. It also is serviceable in painful lijemorrhoida and fissure of tl 
It cheeks the suppurative process in boils, and promotes the rcsulutlo 
Urged glands. For any local pain, the appended formula, knownj 
low's ointment, is very useful; — 



R Atiopiim iiulplialit 

Acnnitinw 

01i>j tiglii .-. 

PctToldti 31 

M. 



03 Grn. or gr. 

10 Gm, or gr. 

12 c.cm. nr mij 

Gut. nr Jj, 

SIg.: To be UMd bj' rubbing in a pi«cc nbout the iiixc of tn ordinn 



This ointment may likewise be advantageously employed in ti 
of inflamed joints. The following are also good combinations: — 

tt Ungt. bpllndonnre 2 Gm. or 3ta 

l.aiiotini 16 5 Gm. or 3m 

Crrnti plumbi BUbawtat. •■•••■> ,,,... 12 Gm. i>r 31ij 

Ungt, line) axidi 16 6 Om. or S** 

U. et ft. uiLjEl. 

Servircnble in furuncle, nbicess, caibunde, and berpes xoster. 

B Cocninw bydroclilorat |32 Gm. or or. 

Ungt. boliiidonniv 3l| Gm. or |{^ 

M. H ft. iinet. 

A Rood upplicatioin in ulctrrated cnninoma or sarcoma, irrit«lilr Hlcsr*, «t 

The pupils and throat should be carefully watched when be) 
ointment i.* used upon open surfaces. Accidents, probably due to' 
crasy, sometimes follow the use of atropine solutions in the eye. 




BELLA UONK^. 



177 



unul manif (Elation of belladoooA poi«oniitg, M-lliilitie of the eyelids 
c« and (tpiKtsxid have been obwired. In some persons the use of even 
J»ctlv neutral soliitioiia of atropioe provu* markedly irritant to the con- 
ir» nn<] ^ivra riee to what is known as "atropine conjunctiTitis." It 
riw Mte »a an irritant in certain cases of iritis, especially tho«e oecurring 
rlietinuitic palienta with poetf^^rior Kyni^chiip. Its use requiree great caii- 
ui ftlaucoma. In chronic cases it may excite an acute exacerbation. In 
tory glaucoiua it increases intia-oculur tenaion. Bdladonna is an 
lent local remedy in intercostal neurali^ia or pleurodynia, and in the 
t-paina of phthi#iit. The liniment may ho applied with friction, and i# 
art! cleanly agent, bnt strapping the chest with belladonna plaster is 
lly mi>r« «'fliri<'nt in pleurodynia or ncumlgia. The plaster u«tiallr 
considerable relief in irritable heart. The aamo preparation is ef- 
ti»« ID lunjbagrt and myalgia. It may he spread upon the abdomen in 
orarian neuralgia, or, in theee afTcctions, the agent may be cm- 

irding to the method of Troiuwau. This consuls in comhininK 

tn ().13 Gm. (or gr. i-ij) of the cxtmct with 0,3s to 0.50 Gm. (or gr. 
{) of tannic acid, and applying it to the cervix uteri upon absorbent 
J, or introducing it into the vagina in the form of a suppository. This 
itinn ia fften valnablc in leucorrhcen: — • 

ft Sst. bvUadoBMS foUor. alo 1(60 Gm. or gr. xxir. 

Aeidi lanaki , 8| Om, or Sis*. 

OM tbcot>roR<atia •.>>.. q. a. 

IL rt ft. suppoaitaria no. xxlv. 

Tliiv* ur four ■uppoaitortM my b« UMd daily. 

A rappository containing the extract of belladonna, alone or in union, 
opium. i& rery valuable in dy^mcnorrha-a dependent upon spasm of the 
Dteri. Belladonna, locally applied, has the power of alleviating that 
inn of sensibility known u pancsthcsia, or pruritus. Hence, a lotion 
i«nt containing this agent may be successfully used in pruritus of 
r fmitai*. iirt ieaha. and chronic eocma, allendiil with excessive itching. 
. frncription like the following may be written: — 

B XsfthUtl- I|30 Gm. or gr. xx. 

Vttgt. rocnUial. ............... ......,, a& 81 Gm. or SIJ. 

rairt- tMttadma* lS>fi Gm. wr Saa- 

y Add. <MrboUM 21 fxm. or [3*s 

UMimMiti bflladoiuuE Mj can. or fSiy 

jlq. ra^ • - ' aa ISOj t.vm. or tS'v.— 3d. 

liniment of belladonna, appliwi itevcral time* a duy. hns n remark- 
in rtTStraining local excessive sweating. A solution of atropine 
parts <if nlcohol and chloroform, Uh- utrcngtb bring 1 per cent. (0.3? 
..- y. itf tlic alkaloid to SO c.cm., or fjj, of menstruum), will some- 
tip- iti Itartholow, allay oh><tin«1c cerebral or n'fiex vomiting. 
lariea-i of Wll*donna, atropine may be used in proper quantity in form- 
[wntP"*"** «i^*^ lotions, llie following it an elegant ointment for use in 
nrmrimn. ulfrine. or [telvic disease: — 

It 



ITS 



PIIARUACEL'TICAI. TtlKRAI'E'.rTIC AflKN'TS OR DRUOS. 



I) Atropto. flulphatl* 

01. neroU 

VagL aqiut roae . . 

U. et /t vngL 



la 



13 Oin. M gT' 
37 c.cm. or m»j 
& Oni. or 3m. 



It has I>cen aidrrt(>(] Ihnl atropine oleat* {mi'lv by diMolviD^ 1 
atropine in 30 ports of oleic acid and adding 80 parts of olive-oil) i 
suppository of fnr more uutfortn composition than when eitiact o 
donna is employed, 

BeUadonnn is chiefly employed intemallv to alleviote pain, roUu 
find ch(M!k exccefiivc secretion or morbid dtectiar^. It ie a valuable 
in neuralgia, (^specially of the trifacial nervo, though oUier forms 
qiuintly amenable to its influence. Anetic esteemed it superior to ai 
agent in neuralgia of the pelvic viscera. Belladonna ia beneiicially j 
the mouth in dysmenorrhtea, especially if the disorder is duo to Hpasi 
neck of the Bomb. 

Atropine is often productive of the happii-«t results in j^a^tral 
teralgia, and gastric ulcer. As neuralgia is often expreadve of ios' 
nutrition and is geuemlly associated with aiiitmio, a eoinbinnliou ( 
donna with iron, strychnine, and other tonic drugs ie frequently em 
A formula similar tp the following has been widely UMcd: — 



B Exl. tclliidonnn' fol, sl& 

<JuiDiiu tulphnt 

Feni DUlphot. cxnc 

Strychnin. 8ulplint 

Acid, uncnoni 

Olcorriinoi pipcris 

M. et rt |iSl. no. XV. 
8ig.: A pit! thrice dailf. 



S3 Om. 
to Mm. 
BO Gm. 
OlS Gin. 
013 Gm. 



or gc 
or gi 
or gt 
or gl 
or er 



SO c.cm. or in 



i 



For the relief of migraine. Trousseau was accustomed to ad 
0.01 Gm. (or gr. '/,) of the extract of belladonna, every hour, until tl 
tome vanished or vertigo made its appearance. The form cKpcciall 
able to this treatment is the congestive headache, in which the paii 
dull, comprcssivp character, made worse by Btooping over, with swi 
the face and throbbing of the temporal arteries, aggravated by n' 
movement of the body, efforts to read, or any intellectual exercise, 
cases the combined action of belladonna with a purgative like podopl 
aloio is especially effective. ITitt tincture or fluid estract of bellad 
atropine eulphale. is useful in relieving the spasm of laryngismus e 
hiccough, spasm of the u'sophagus, or local convulsive rnanifi'sta 
hysteria. Inteetinal. hepatic, or renal colic is ameliorated by this 
Belhidonnn is likewise of service in lead colic. A combination of 
and potassium iodide is recommended as possessing decided efficac 
treatment of plumbism. Belladonna has also been successfully e 
for the relief of strangulated hernia. 0,015 Gm. (or gr. '/.) of thi 
being given hourly, spontaneous reduction occurring after admin 
of four to aix doees. 

Atropine in dow« of from O.OOl to 0.0045 Gm. (or gr. '/„-'/») 
sueeessfully employed by Ur, Batsch, of Grossenhain, in cases of i 
obstnietion where the xymplonn* went .iiibiieut'r or where there was i 
to temporize. In some cases a single injection sufliced to produce ar 
tion, followed by recovery. In others, the injection n-giilted unly i 



k 



HHLI_lt)OKX.«. 



179 



oftttfiaxn* nnd a irniall «|iianlitr uf ficcc^. <Irtiiiito n<liof only followin;; a 
«wnd injpction on the nest day. 

Belladonna U of M^rvicc in vpilcpey, but needs to Im; given persistently 

■ pidually-increaBing doses for a long period of time. It is particularly 

jKUiable to the- felit mal or nocturnal (-pilcjiKy and to anR>inic «iil>jei.'ts. 

menheim reports a case of tlie treatment of epilepsy with combined usage 

tfittopine and patastfinm bromide. He con^^iden epltep^* in rdiopntliic caws 

K iJiif to »n autointoxication, producing an abnormal irritation on the part 

ut'ie cortical cells. According to his theory, the mechanism of the trent- 

Dnttfts follows: The bromides diminifih the sensibility of the corf ical cells, 

■hich have become hypera^thelic to variations in the blood-supply; atropine 

tttmilates the vasomotor centre!-, thereby making the blood-sii ppty mor? tini- 

fom. In the early stages of treatment bromides are useful to dull the irri- 

CaiKlity of the cortex until the proper vascular tonus is cslublishcd. When 

tlut point has be<n reached, they are of less importance, and may be reduced 

or nthdrown. Xcilhcr llic bromides nor atropine can in any way meet the 

eaonl indication. If ihe disease depends on a passing intoxication, these 

dnp will suspend the dwtriiclivc action of the epileptic seizures until the 

maUria pweanf has ceased to act; if there is a permanent cause, as socm* to 

exifl \a the majority of ctsiet, stich treatment will naturally be at best only 

■ lalliative. Belladonna is one of the most esteemed remedies for whoopinfc* 

ooi^ It vhould be exhibited in j^uiTiciently large doses to produce dilata- 

tiaaf the pupils, and is generally well borne by children in proportionately 

Uiipilow*: — 

S nnctnn belladoiuue fol - 3 e.cni. or nil 

Vln. |nac«caanha , I c.cm. «r niiv. 

8ft. Toluuni q, b. nd 60 c.cm. or fjij. 

Sf.i fitt« a t«a*poontuI every hour lo a child five j-ear* of nge until rclifvpd 
' '(igiMl ttltctt are obwrvcc), nnd Llien continue every Lhrr<- or four houn 
or htii Lb« quantity. 

Belbdonaa is sometimes of signal service in spasmodic asthma. The 
iBMi adnntageoos method of administration is that proposed by Dr. Salter, 
^'.KtCTo. (or mx) of the tincture being repeated every two or three hours 
*ilil iliiiurhance of vision oceiirs or relief i» obtained. The paroxysm may 
tiniM; be nlleviau-d. though less certainly, by smoking belladonna- leaves 
uipipp, or made into a cigarette. The tincture of belladonna is capable 
^'tforaing marked benefii in exophthalmic goitre. When nocturnal in- 
*(Blioeacv of urine is caused by spasmodic eontractinn of the bladder, the 
^tilnu-t of iH'lladonnn is the best remedy which can be employed. The 
*M treatment may be of avail in the incontinenee of the a^ed. Atropino 
tf^ate p«>««'»»i» considerable efficacy in spermatorrhrea and prostatorrhrea. 
flabett (piven at bed-time. Torticollis and muscular eramps are generally 
vriinnfMl by U-lladonna. I'recnrdia! pain and overaction of thi' heart are 
■leintemttl use of belladonna. This drug enters verv- servieeably 
I,- for habitual con.^tipation. In disease of the kidney it n'lievca 
'^S>^on by its action on the arterioles. In typhoid and typhus fevers Dr. 
i'ia Harlrv ha* derive*! decided advantage from the use of belladonnu, 
■liih rleans and moistens the tongue ajid quiets the brain.. Infbimmation 
*ftk|iharrnx and tonsils is lessened by the use of belladonna, which mayi 
*<tlignai utility. !■■ combined with aconite and given in a solution of pota^ 
■■cklotatr. A suitable prescription may be thus fonneil:— 




180 



l-IUBUACKtTlCil. TIIKILiP&UTIC A0EKT6 OR DRCQS. 



B PoUh. chloratla 6 

Acid. bydrodHoric. diL 6 

Tr tuoniti ,..., I 

Tr. brllailonntB lol. t 

Intut. rlioiB glaline q. a. ad )2(i 

M. ct ft K>1. 

Sig.: TablMpounful every Uiird hour. 



E0 Om. 4ir gr. 

Urn. or tiia 

c.cm. or mx- 

ccni. or f3M 

c.eni. or fjii 



4 



On iiccounl of its marked influence upnn the tliroaf, helludonna I 
used in scarlatinni an^inn. Much linn bctn written concerning its vt 
prophj-iactic in R-arlatina, but in the experience of the author no 
can be placed upon the drug a« a pruvcnlivc of that disease. It ] 
ionie virUif as an internal remedy in erj-sipelas, and in this alToctio 
nseftilly given in conjimctinn with Ht-onite, ei^pwially if niikrli fi 
dcliritim uro present. It is aomrtime^ ablo to check the vomiting 
nancy. Aphonia due to fatig^uc of tin' ccirdu man dixapprnnt under 
of atropine. Belladonnn ii^ iiiiefiit in allaying nervuue cou-^h. and, m 
to Uartholow and Kothergill, ha^ an excellent elleot in caaeoiia pne 
provided it bti given in the stage of deposit before softening has tak< 
Small doses of belladonna or atropine three or four timeii a day cl 
profuse discharge of mercurial ptyali«m. Prof. FI, Ki>bncr, of Bcrl 
that the administration of belladonna faeililalei) ihe treatment ol 
affections of the mouth, »» Ivukoplakia, mucous patches, i^v|jhilitii 
tions, etc., as it restraine salivation and the consequent rapi<i rcmnv 
dough produced by the enustic. He usually gives the extract of be 
dissolved in water, but atropine pills may be used with equal advan 

The free sweating which occurs in weakly children, after slight 
or during sleep, is suppressed by belliidonna. The copious watery ( 
of the first stage of acute coryza is controlled by atropine, which is o: 
best remedies also in the night-sweats of phtliisis, given at bed-tin 
dose of 0.0008 to 0.001 Om. (or gr. '/,o-V.o)- The free discharge o 
bronchitis is restrained by belliidoims. ColliquHtJvc diarrhisa is ar 
ibis remedy, according to M, Delpage. In certain cases of metr 
which had proved iiuanienable to oilier remedies, the hypodermic! 
of the atropine sulphate, in the dose of 0.0003 Gm. (or gr. V,oo) ^ 
has been attended with complete suocesa. Haemoptysis has also I 
trolled in the same manner. Atropine i^ usefu! in ulcer of the stomi 
accompanied by hyperacidity. Tjic remedy is beneficin! in hypen 
inflammHtory oonditions of the brain or cord. Li^geois and otht 
warmly recommend the inlcrnal administration of belladonna in chr 
cnria. Atropine sulphate is a valuable agent for dimii)isbing the 
shock. It may be given, in the dose of 0.0006 or O.OOOf* (Jm. (or gr. ' 
bypodi'rmically, after a severe injury or prior to a surgical opcral 
Lauder Bninton suggested that the hypodermic injection of atro 
prove of service in the algid stage of cholera, and cited the case of a i 
recovered apparently as a result of this Ireatnienl. Great caution i 
obson,'ed in employing this method, for, as pointed out by Professt 
gein, with the revival of the circulHlion ami absorbent capacity, to 
fwUtion might very readily be produced. In many cases it is advisi 
ject atropine into the affected lissims (piirenchymatnus adminii^Iral 
deep-seated neuralgia of large trunks, as. for instance, in sciatica, 
rapid relief i* obtained by this method. In sciatica and mvalgia it 



A 



HBN'XAN'IMD. 



181 



IfiMn lo ivailMOf a itinall qiiaiilitj (O.OUtt (iiu., or gr. */*) "f morphiiip enl- 

Ifihali' » Jilropinc eotiiHon (or Biibtiilaneous injcclion. Tho 4-fTt!cl of 

(*»«-h nil ti<-i^litcm-i1 tiy ll»' oomijiii)Hi<nt. Dr. I, L. Vau Zandt' uspb 

ilthati'. ii.odl Urn. (orgr, '/jo*. liJC«<''?n"'canj- in the algid Ktiilc 

>■* ■naliiriitl tvvvT. If no ilccii]f<i t-llvcts iiri; jirodiictrd in twenty 

(■rinirty minuter, the dose is repeated. As a synergist for th« atropine h.- 

• -mthnine eulphale, O.Wi to 0.003 Gin. (or gr. '/m-'/m). Stirling 

i :id till- hyiHidermic use nf 0.0004 Gro. (or gr. Viso) ol otropinv valu- 

u i-oM- •>/ liH-morrhage from the lungi:. In tic doulotireiu, likevise, 

' throwa under the skin in fit)>eeiiilly iiavful. 

ilorrtli rnommcnds the hvpodemiic injection of atropine in paraljTBis 

[iptani^ fisli-nnaycr e^lw-nis the winie |iiyiocduro ti» a valuable scdntirc and 

MMirr^t hypnotic in the ireatm^nt of inEanity. Massey has obtained good 

lt«alt» in BT);;ina pectoris from the siihcutaneoug injection of atropine com- 

1 •ilh niorplinie. r.<-Myn8ky has reported the eiiccessful employment of 

' iTiixIrrtiiie injections of Atropine in a caM> nf miiftcular torticollis, whidi was 

due to the influence of lead, as the patient was a painter. Various 

'. including electricity, had heon u*c(l without effect. In torticollis 

liT other catiM-s the same procedure 13 of advantage. Some writers 

!.-> '>: ihf opinion that belladonna retards the growth, a^ well as lessens tlie 

l«jn. of rnnecr*. and promotes the absorption of enlarged lymphatic glands. 

■. ioeably employed M an antagonist to a number of powerful 

nf, nn opium, morphine, physostigma, agaricus muscariuE, etc. 

BEJiZAinLID. — FbenylbenEamid \t a white powder, which melts at 

.cl_t° F,. u inwiIuKIe in water, »)luble in alcohol, and, wi(h difficulty, in 

■'-^•^ In chemical comrmiilinn it » clnsely allied to acetanilid. It is with- 

r and has a slightly caustic taste. It is given in single doses of 1 Gm. 

tr), and from 4 lo 6 Gm. (or Si-iss) may he administered in the 

fonr hour*. Though at first well home in ihew ainoiinls. intoler* 

on i* gent-rally manifested after several days' use. 

ThysiolopMl Aetioii.--H(;nr.anilid doprrsees febrile temperature. Ita 

' -Tianifested frtim half lo one hour after i-xhiliition; the maximum 

; n four or iivi- hoiitv: the temperature then begins to ascend, and 

vtehe* it« orifrinal height in ten to twelve hours. Keiipiration iii nol usually 

k*.— 4.-.I. though oceawoually it is hasteiicd. The pulse is rcndvrcd more 

I «ift. Itenianilid produces no alteration in the tiuantity or reaction 

urin«. but C4tmniunirjite« to that fluid a greenish or even blackish 

After hBTing been used continuously for several days it gives rise lo 

thi? (ace and cyanosis of the mucotte membrane. Dr. Luigi Cantu, 

fr<im his exprrienw with this drug, states that it appears to have 

itive elleet. 

Ykerapy. — The activity of benzanilid se^ma to be limited to the reduc- 

of ■ I lure, having no influence upon the eounn- of the dis^as*. It 

h««-T lU Ivphoid fi'Vi-r, rbi-umatism. pneumonia, neuritis, sciatica, 

cxe, Mr. ('aniu did not perceive any good effecle from its u«« in 

'■■oiHti*. and sciatica. It exerti>d no favorable influence in malaria, 

L-nrds the febrile paroxysms or the composition of the blood. It 

r^i 1 iif tmin of actile rheumatism, but did not prevent extension of the 

lo oiiMir jinnl*. 



'■Itfrdf* Arrhirrt, .Aflril. IMl. 



* 



JOB I'llARlUCeUTlCAL TUEBAmCTIC AGK.VTS OU UHL'OS. 

BEKZINUM (U. S. P.).— Bcnzin (PetroUum-benzin. Petroleum- 
(C«U,, HuU C,H,, oud homologous compuimdi-.) 

DoM, O.tJO to 2 c.cm. (or nix-f^s), in mucilage or cnpsuli.'. 

Pharmacology. — A ptirifiiid dietiflate from Amcricao petroleur 
sifitiiiK of iijdrocarbonB, chiefly of tbc mnr^ii-giis ^tL-noii, iind ha 
ipecific gravity of from O.CTO to 0.075, and boiling at SO* to 60° 
to 140* F.). ]tcni:in, or petrolt-iini -ether, id a clenr, coloHcm, (lifTusive 
yielding infloinniiible vupore, whicli, vhca mixed with air, are esploB 
therefore, should be kept in a cool place, remote from light* or Same 
soluble in alcohol, ether, and oils, but insoluble in uater. Fate, reei 
caoutchouc are diesolved by it. 

Fhysiolo^cal Action. — Benzin reei-mbit* oil of turpi-ntine in i 
effects, especially when applied with friolinn. It i* !ikewi.ae an irritni 
swallowed, but does uot ciiii«c vomiting nor diarrhii'a. It producef ii 
tion, faiotnese, headache, palpitation, or convuUionii, which may end 
death may aUo be catittcd by ga«tro-cntcriliK, though relatively large a 
haTe been taken and the poisonous action overcome. The treatment 
b« directed toward evacuating the xtomadi and bowcK and connU 
the effects of the agent by diffusible stimulants and atropine, or ethej 
derroicaily. 

Therapy. — Externally, benzin is used as a counter-irritant, appli< 
a flaniii'I tstiiidnni', nr with friction, for neuralgic or rhcumotic paina, 
odor is pcnetratinp and unplea§ant. Its action must be carefully » 
howcvi-r, as it has been kmnvn to i.-an8U extensive blistering and deal 
exlmuiftion. Internally it ie not ueed in medicine, althoujih it is n d 
remedy for lurabricoid worms and tjenia. It is claimed to be a ffoo 
aiticide in itch and pediciilo»i». (Scv Petroleum.) Bcnzin lias ht 
ployed with success in the treatment of trichinosis, and is thought 
Putt<T. fmm an <')LpiTioni'c with twi-niy-si-vfii jiorsoiis who had eate 
inous pork, to possess prophylactic virtues apainst ihis species of 
iiig. iJcnzin hiiif been udministcrod by inhuliilinn with asserli-d advai 
whooping-cough. It has recently been used for producing anxtt\ 
Schlcich's method, which employs u combination or mixture of etlit 
roforra, and benzin. It has been sliown, however, that the benxin 
cided toxic effect*, and that patients, Bomeiiini's. show a tendency I 
collapse, requiring artificial respiration to prevent a fatal acciden 
use of thi» mixture, then-fore, cannot be approved, and has been aba 

BENZOINtTM {U. S. V., B. P,).— Benzoin. 

Preparalioiif. 

Adppi BpDRiinAtiu {IT. 8. P.t,— lipiiKoinntcd l^rd (2 per cant.), 
■nnetum Rsnimiii (U.S.P.I.^ — Tinvturv of B«nn>!n. Don*. 2 i- cm. (fir 13 
Aridum Bciiioicuiii (U.S. P.. B. P.I.— Btiuoic .\cW. »«*«•-. 0.32 to I Gn 

T-XV). 

Ttnctura Brnroini rompoiilii [U.S. P.. B. P.). — Compound Tindure of 
(U.S,P.cniit«inB bfnxoin, 12 (Jm-; nloi-i.aOm.; <i<ornx. M Om.: Tohi. 4 On 
hoi. q. *. ad 100 c.pu].). A iiiiinlii-r of old r*inL'dii'« n-wmlilFii il in (■iiiup<i''ltl 
K> Turlington ■» balnatii, i''viftr'« ImUam, JciuitV dropB. etc. Dose. 2 to T.& i 

fSM-ij). 

TrochiKua Acldi Bcnroid (B. P.).— BniMic-Add tjoMtige lO.OS Gtn., <tr_ 
bMKotc acid in each, with fruit IxmIs). " 




BBXZOI-VVM. 



183 



Advp* llvBUMtu* IB. P.).— BcKOalnl L«rd (henxotn. IS On.; lard. MM Gm.). 
AmaMMiluin and Sodium BmiMt(« «r« allicUI in Ii«th phnrmiicopiriu, liHiium 
liMBBli IB Ch« V. ». F. only. 

Fhamuuiology. — Bcniotn it ■ balMmic resin obtained from Styrax Beu- 
ifiD (StrraceiE): a tree of the Hast Indies, oontainin^ nii iihundmico of 
RUBou* fluid, which «xu<lce from ineiDions made into the hark. The hest 
^iiAbtf K in Ueht lumpa or tear», but it also occurs lu Urge maafiCR. It con- 
UiBji. br«idr* rv*in and n volatile oil. from 14 to SO per cent, of benzoic acid, 
«)uch IHBT be extracted either by washinR the resin with lime-water or by 
^mtillBtion. It »honld not oontuin cinnumic acid in aprireciafalc quantit}'. 
fca i pie Aoid is in white, tustrou<i scales, or friable neeales, permanent in 
tjr I ... -.-.^ n flight, aromatic odor »f bcnitoin; a warm, acid taste; and an 
ac '10. It is solnble in 600 parts of water, 15 of boiling water, 3 of 

il£unt>i, 'ir 1 of boiliof; aloohol. in fixed oils and alkaline solutions Ronioie 
Kid melts at '^50* F. It forms neutral ^Its with the alkalies. 

It is voUtilixed bv heat Two other tourcef of the benzoic acid of com- 
MRcir art! IcTirtwn; it is a derivative of toluol and also of hippuric acid, the 
•^ !?pttric a. ■ derived from the urine of home* and cattle. The hi-nzoic 

(-11 may !■ .ne traces of its source, and, therefore, the pharmai-opcoia 

■ rrct» tliat ii Nhall *nieU of benzoin. Bvnxoin prevenln fat from becoming 
.-lac^d. and hrnce it is, in small quantity, a useful additioD to ointments, for 
vkirh thi' lH-nioina1e<l Inrd la a good basis. 

Fbjniologioftl Action. — In FoTulion in the form of the tincture, benzoin 

• protective to excoriated surfaces, and. like other guma, is antiaeplic. After 

ataafption it bAs a stimulating e^ect upon mucous membranes; pari of it 

a dcirom posed in the system to form hippuric acid, and, being excreted by 

iW kidneys, increafcs the acidity anil the iiuantity of the urine. Benitoic 

Kid hm* aoroe power in prevt'Dling the )^wth of bacteria, posseesing the ad- 

*uii»ire ovrcr carbolic arid of being non-poi»»nou«. Sodium benzoate has a 

itimaUtinfc effect upon the liver, and, according to the experiments of Carl 

Ttreliow, increases nitrogenous elimination (n^m the kidneys. Denzoie acid, 

«r aodiiim b^nxoate, inhaled or taken internally, may. in exceptional in* 

■anecsi, pixr riw to an erytheniatou*, or small papular, eruption. In some 

emm of idiosyncrasy, urticaria may be produced. 

Th*r»p7. — The tincture, espeeially the compound tincture, ia naed to 
faint over abrasions and excoriations in order to protect the surface, )uir- 
■" * rly in casw of lender nipnli-s. It may also be painted on the skin for 
lina after bathing the surface with 5-pcr-c«nt. solution of carbolic acid, 
I forrmerly employed as a dressing for ulcers. As an expectorant, we 
■5 K^v^ tincture of benzoin in chronic bronchitis. The official camphorated 
Kbarv of opium (paregoric elixir) contains henzoid acid. In troublesome 
v^t the combination with opium is necessary, although the opium checks 
Faaavtioo and expectoration : a better combination would be:— 

B OodaiiMe [M Gm. or gr- »j. 

AcMl brasoid .,^ -.. ,.-..^ U|S Om. or Siv. 

Sjrr- Tohrtanl, 

,^ttm mopbone «a MI e.«tn. or fjiij, 

X. Sg.! Tkke ft dtascrUfiMafnl every (bur hour*. 

rahataCi'"** of ateam impregnated with the compound tincture of ban- 
I trr tTneficlal in acute and ehronic laryngitis. Morell Mnckennie used 




184 



I'UAUUACKUTICAI. TJieilAl>Kb'TlC AGKNTS OB DUUQK. 



a vapor of the compound tincture of beiiKoiii, 1 teaspoonful to a pint of 

»t MO" F., inhaled frequcntlj", for aciitc laryngitis. ■ 

The following pargle is recommended in phaiyngitia: — ^ 

It 8odti brnxoot. Its Gm. ur rr. x 

Tinct. brnioln S (-.(in. or i3m. 

Inlus. roui td u] «jcm. or (3**'- 

Scidium bcnxonli; it aloo lucd with adTantage in chronic diarrba 
dyeenter)-. In 0.G5 to 2 (im. (or gr. x-ixx) doses it is very useful in lifi 
orders, litccwisc in chronic indigestion dupondcnt upon inactivity i 
liver and accompanied by an abundant excretion of uric acid. This salt 
of lervicc in H^ptic and febrile dii;LVit>c-&. in doeee of 8 to 15.S Gm. (or 
daily (Senator). Owing to iU (solubility, it i» priiferable to benzoic sci 
ia equally as cfTicicnt in acute rheumatisin. In ecarlct fever and smt 
sodium benzoate reduces the temperature and mitigate the severity 
disease. This salt hus proved very useful in the treatment of dipni 
administered internally, and at the same time applied by insufflation 
acat of the Iceion. Its employment has sccmea to bo attended nitt 
results in typhoid fever and whooping-cough. The same remedy in thi 
of a spray has been cJEtulk-d in phtliisis, out it has no such decided 
upon the tubercle badlii as had been hoped. Benzoic acid, in daily 
01 10 to 13 Gm. (or .^iiss-iij), has been found of service in acute rheuii) 
but is inferior to salicylic acid. In eryaipeUa, beiutoic acid has been 
with rcjiortcd good rcKUlts. It is of advantage in the treatment of e 
bronchitis. 

In its exit from the i^atem this acid acta as a gentle stimulant an> 
antiseptic to the bladder and urethra. In chronic cystitis with fcrmei 
of urine and deposit of phosphates, benzoic acid is extremely useful, 
ing the alkolinity of the fluid and the irritability of the bladder. For i 
reasons it sometimes proves of senice in chronic gonorrhcea, in obi 
irritation of the urethra due to the condition of the urine, and in 
tinence caused by an alkaline reaction of the urine. In all these con< 
sodium or ammonium bcn/oate may be used instead of the acid. B 
acid promotes the solubility of gravel, whether composed of urates oi 
phates. A favorite formula of Dr. GoJding-Blrd was: — 



B Sodii caibonnlte 6 

Acid, btrnzuici - - S 

Stidii phoBphatis ...'. ...••.•>.... 12 

Ai). t^rventis ..,,.,.'.... IGO 

Solve et adde: — 

Aq. i^innniijuiii SSSt 

Tt. hvoBcynmi .^ i... 15{ 

M. 8ig.; Two tabletpoourulfl three timet a day. 



Gni. or Sin*. 
60 Gm. or gr. s 
Gm. or 3iii 
G.cm. or 



3iij. 
fSiv. 



c.cm. or (Svli 
cem. or f3iv. 



I 



In uni'mic condition*, and what has been called lithn'mia, Utbiui 
loate )>a& a most happy effect, carrying off the excess of uric acid and 
•ctiogalso ns a diuretic. Even in albuminuria, the benzoates have bee 
with advantage, especially calcium benzoate. 

Freckles may be removed bv the topical application of tincture ( 
aoio, containing corrosive chloride of mercury: — 




BENZOL. 



185 



S Uidruj. ebioT. cottoi. |Q1 Gm. or ip-. h. 

Tiiwtan bcoMiiu 9ZS cent, or f^ilM. 

-Ql^rcartal 7 SO c.ctn. or fSij. 

Afm nme .~. ISO c,«m. or fgvj. 

)L 1^: -Vm ■« a lotion to affccUd *poU. 

The abore may also be used in pityriasis versicolor, or moth-spote, and 
! Drticarii. I1ie compound tincUirf of benzoin is sometim&s able to 
I the itchiDg of urticaria and eczema. A solution of benzoic acid in 
-vat«r makes a plea^tant application, freqiientir successfu] in urti- 
Uixcd with an equal quantity of glycerin, the tincture or the com- 
I tinciure is nsetul in chapped lips and hands. The compound tincture 
iipoi styptic, and yields excellent r«-sult$ when injected into old ginusen. 
'l disnffcts the tract, and promotes healing. Benzoic acid is an efficient 
itic application to unhealthy wuunde and ulcers. 
I a dentifrice, Professor Miller reconunends: — 



SAcid. \hjvihi 

AM. bcnsMci .' 3 

Tr. KlMlynt. (oL m 

AlMbol. >bMl«t. m 

OL KaulllMite) I 

H Sig.: A UHpooBhil or two in lialt a glaw of water. 



;25 Om. or gr. Iv. 

Uin. or fT- slv. 

cent, or R!*a. 

p.em. or fjilj. 
SS c.cm. 09 gtt. XXV. 



Bismnth benzoate is an excellent dres.4ing to chronic, unhealthy, or 
<I*V|IUBg nlccn, chancroids, open buboeti. chancre)>, and ulcerated lerions 
^Me^rpbilis. It is usually applied in the form of a powder, the surface 
Wfiiu prcTioutlv bwrn thorouglitv clconKcd bv n wcitk solution of corrosive 
•■Blrte. 

BENZOL (B. P.).— Benzol. 

Fkannacologf. — A mixture of liomologous liydrocarbanfi obtained from 
-i.\ii -.ml-iar oil. It oontains ahnul ''0 per cent, of benzene (C,II,) and 20 
f"30 jk-r ci-m. of iiiliiine (C(H,CM,). This is diistinct from and should not 
^coDtofiDded with iMinzin obtained from petroleum. It is a thin, colorleM 
™i4. Tery vdalilc and iutliimmable. and has »ii (iRimalic, not very unpleas- 
•t. fldor. It is almost insoluble in water, but dissolves in four part* of 
•fc»hol. It may be obtained by diftillin^ a mixture of benzoic acid with 
litte. nrl>T fmetionai diFtillnlion from naphtha: a derivative of coal-tar. 

Phynolo^c*! Action. — Benzol it niiliseptic and antijiarasitic, with but 
i>Uk local action beyond the extraction of oily matter? from the skin. Owing 
tt ill Mirent action upon many alkaloids, it mijjht be u.4t-ful in local medica- 
taobr enabling the remedy to penetrate the skin. Taken internally, benzol 
^^ees intoxication, anesthesia, and coma. 

Therapy. — It hw been givtn in a few drop doses as a remedv for dye- 

jh'I also in trichinosis. It is employed in phamiacy as a so'lvent, but 

•■ften administered, or employed in practical medicine. Dr. A. Da 

' -~. lias ospd. locally, with alle^a ^ood results, a mixture of 1 to 6 of 

tiKtnre nf iodine and benzol in diphthtfrin. Bcnxol ha« been advantageously 

|MiiD whooping-cough by Dr. Robertson, in doses of 0.12 c.cm, (or mij) 

*Mdlajtc to children six month.t of n^e. The «amt> writer reports good 

•Xilt* from Ihe use of txnxol in influenza. lie administered if in the form 

^ M emulsion in lemonade, 0.30 c.cm. (or ntv) at a dose, repeated every 

-oari. It was alwavs well tolenitt-d. It hod the effect «f reducing 



188 riUIIMACHUTlCAI. TUBHAI'KirriC AOBXTS OB OHU08. 

Ii-mpi-rature and relieTinj; the gen«rnl diitcomfort. ConvaleiceBce m 
eroliy rapid,' 

V)trol>eaBol. — ThU product, known cnmmerciallj Bi Ihe oil of u 
or unificiiil ■Imund-oil, is ii»cd txtcniiively in the manufacture;. of dy< 
fnintTj-, and L'iploiijve coiiijiouudA. ('a»r» nf a»>uli; iir chronic poiitoni 
low the aliKi>r])tion <i( nitrobcnznl. The workmen subjected to its in 
frequently sillier (roro a train of symptoms which have been studied 
Prosdcr White. The uitual manifo«lutions are deopincef, headache. Is 
and a sevurc form of aniemia. There is a decided lo»i of weight, the a 
becomeK cspricioun or altogether foilg, nnuMea and vomiting may occ 
urine becomes darki-ned in color and contains aniline. The tempera 
tlie body is (ilightly mined, but the cxtremitien beciunc very uHickiy i 
There is excowive waBte of the mueclee, especially those of liie estrt 
Uypcrn>3thi^iiia is n characteristic HVinptom. SrnKu(i<in in ihecxtrfiiiil 
he slijrhtly impaired. The sexual appetite is weakened or lost. The : 
are penerally enfeebled. The eye* are not unuiilly affecrtcd, though 
beiuiol may produce a peculiar form of retinitis, with great defect o 
The pui.io is feeble and thready, arterial len«ion l^ low, the blood is chc 
colori'd or black. The corjiusclee arc decreased. No dinict anti 
known. It is said that, when taken into the stomach, nitrobeniol i 
maiu for sonic time unabsorbed, and un emetic or the »tomach-pun 
therefore, be of service. A saline cathartic is also advisable, Itut oils, fi 
alcohol arc not recommended. Countcr-irritation to the chcBt, frie 
the liraha, and ammonia as a stimulant may he employed, Artifio 
piration i* of uvnil. Or. White states thiit 1 o.cm. (or «ixv), taken 
mouth, hag caused death. Letheby aud Filchne give the fatal dose ) 
ing from 0.12 to T..J c.cni. (or inii-f3ij). A case has, however, been r 
by Dr. E. Cissel, of Vienna, in which a woman, it is stated, took nca 
e.cra. (or fjiiis-s) of nitrobenzol and yel recovered. The symptoms we 
cyanosis, snpcrficiHl respiration, small pulse, and dribbling of iirinc, 
contained the tosic agent. Camphor injections were admini-ntered ai 
ficial respiration was practiced. ConscioitKnciw returned and rccovi 
lowed; on the fourth day the urine resembled that of a case of eystii 

BERBERIS.— Barberry, The root of the Oregon grape, or 1 
BqiiifnliuTii (l»rl".Tidiu;p!v), growing on the Pacific Slope of North A 
contains an atkaioid. Berberine, which also exists in Hydrastis. 

This drug, in the form of tluid extract (doee, U.60 io 2 e.cm., or n 
is tonic and diuretic, and is believed to have some power as an alt 
making it valuable for the treatment of blood diseases, dyspepsia, 
disorder, habitual constipation, and skin diseases dependent upon UD 
secretions or conditions of the digestive tract. Vehseraeyer claims 

Produced decided improvement in the ease of au infant afllicted w 
(cmia by tlio adininistratiim ■>{ berberine sulphate. Berboria h 
topically employed in conjunctivitis, and the berberine hydrochloi 
been used with advantage a.'* an injection in gonorrhcea. Internally bi 
or its bydroehlnratc may be piveu in doses of tt,U15 to 0,32 Hm. (or gi 

BERGAMOTTiE OLEUM (r.S.P.).— OU of Bergamot. (See 
Bergamottee.) 

' lAindan /xittevf, Xov. 11, 1803. 




UlflUUTDiru. 



18? 






BETA. — B«et-root. The 6«liy nu|)iform root of iieta vulf^am (C'heno- 



ivatt^l for food, as a vegetable, tnti from itsaicoliHrini' juic« 
: "iif^nr ii^ olitainecl. A strong infufitun of llie {n-sii root (&0 
i>t l^ii-iv, taken nt bi'd-time or i-arly in the nKirniiig) i» «aid hy 
tu Ix- uneltil ID the tn-utniciit of chronic coiietipatioD and h»ni- 
It is claimed that it does not cauae pain or nimblin);. 

BISXTITHUK. — Biimnth. 

t'reparaliona. 

RtuuaUii CiUM* iL'.S.P.I.—mniiuth Citrate. Dom, 0.005 to 0.3S Gm. (orn.l-T). 
Ehaiutki rt Amtotmim CittM \V.S. P.).— BUtnuth and AiniiioDium CilrmU. 

iliMrtiout <lMii*.K— K*inuUi Subrnrtuiiiatc. Doie, OX to IJSO 

KHiiiuihi i>ubniuu (U.S.P., aP,).— Biimuth Subnitral^. Dow. 0.32 to \M 

BiMvuIlii CailioiMii iB. P.p.~RLmiiuI)i OxyrArbiiiiatr. Dooi-, 0.32 to 1.30 Gm. (or 
' XK). 
"i-iHuthI S«)ic)rlaa laP.}.— Bi«niu(li Salic^liilc. Dom. 0,005 to 1.30 Gid. (or 

..AOHtUil Oxklua la P.).-^ili)f ot DUniulh. I)«p. 0.32 lo 1.30 Gm, lor gr. 
• n>. 

Uquur Htaniuliti «t Amnafili CItMtl* (a P.I.— Solution ol DUmulh and Am- 
■MtKtD ntraU'. or Ili|iMr Bkmtithi (0.05 Gib. in I ccid., or gr. iij of biMiiulh oxtd* 
tbOi* Paw. 2 to 4 i-.cifi. [or flM-j). 

-rhlaitM lUtnatiit CoiBpoaltiu IB. P.I.— Compouml KUmutli l^xen^ (bi«niitth 
date, nuganlBM GarbrawW, hearr, «( tacb. 0.13 Um., or gr. ij) prccipitaied 
vn-ui catbonaU, OSS On., m p. iv, witJi roee basU). 

PhJtrmaeoIorr and Fhytiotogioal Aotiou. — BiBniuth in the metallic 

it not offii^inl, and han no medical interest. lu salta, however, are of 

T&lue, thi- iusolubte ones ditTcring j^^aIIv in their applications from 

which ar« M>liilile. Thtr ixibnitrutc ami siiWarbonate are, or should 

h% in the form of white, impalpable powder, which has a alight astringent 

^ni absorbent m-Ami vtn-n dii»lf<l upon i-xcorintcd or ulcerated surfaces. 

Tbm takf-n internally, these salts have yery much the same effect along the 

^fiaoire trad a« upon the surface of the body, checking exceHive secretion 

ad «s«riiiiK a sedative influence. When injected under the skin, part of 

: aalt it alMor^wd and poiooning may result. Or, if large do«es are taken by 

|ft> atoDth, death may follow from g^ro-enleritis, the symptoms being very 

lilce thcHW caused by gold, Icsd, and mercury. Af(«r death, bismuth is 

I Inad in the liver and other viscera, and in the urine and saliva. A purplisli 

^vpon the gtims, recalling thai of lead, has been noticed. The treatment 

I ■ ||v drmulccnts, washing out the stomach, and the administnitiitn of the 

I Mllrtiili I to ai-M'Tiic. with which native bii^nmlli is uaually combined. When 

I &( lalabltr preparations are given for a contfidetable time, Ihc bismuth is apt 

■ McunuUtr in the liver; but this it not likely to follow the administration 

|*f dM huolubic salU. The solutions, or elixirs, purporting: to contain bis- 

WKlh io riinibination with pepin, are un^cientitic and may be dangerous. 

I tW dhcbMTflva from the bowels arc blackened by bi«niiith. Tlic tongue be- 

I enal*^ with a slate-colored fur. The prolonged administration of bi«> 

ft '•' ha* iH-rn known to cause a large intei<tinal concretion. It 

i^t, Bt) ' *^ circumstances, also give rise to sloughs in the mouth and 

l^trB-inlestiniil canal, al«o to dowiitamative nephritis and albuminuria. 



188 



rUAIIUACBUTICAL TIIBUAPECTIC AUKNl'S OH DRCGS. 



Thenpy. — In using bUmiitb it is e^ential that it shall he pure a: 
from iirHenic. When well miiil€, th« Kiibnitrnlf, or jubcarbonatc, is vc 
fill as a diistiDfit-powder for excoriated surfaces, anil as a dressini 
woiindi! or otnpiitationj; in this case its weight Ik an objection to 
ployment; but it ie very valuable in small wounds and in some old 
Comhinctl with mucilage (4 Gm. to 180 or 240 c.cm., 3j to JSvi-viij), 
frood injection for gonorrhtea during the early stage; or it may be m 
i^oluble boueie, or as a vaginnl xuppository for leucorrhiva. The am 
sration is likewiBe useful in ulcer of the rectum. 

The addition of a unnll proportion of carbolic acid or acetanilid ' 
liance ita antiseptic effect. In acne, intertrigo, and erythema in inti 
in vmculnr eczema, the subnitnitc, or Eubearbonale, of bismuth i 
lightly duiited over the surface. In the case of wounds, the red oxyii 
pn'fcrrcd by A. f^idncy Ucynolds' to iodoform, a« an antiseptic and 
an ointment in skin diseases. This salt is a loral ansesthetic and ant 
U docs not stain the skin or clothine, end may be employed ns a d 
powder or an ointment. It is an excellent application to chancre, chai 
open buboes, ulcers, unhvolthy wounds, and phl^monoua erynipc' 
following is a good combination: — 



B 



Naplilfilini Z 

Biimiithl Kubicitlidi 4! 



Om. or 



3 



Gm. or 3j. 

Ungurnti slmiiliclR S9| Om. or SvIm 

M. et ft. uagl. Uwful upon cliancrt*. chantrroids, and ayphUitlc uleera. 

Siilinitrate-of-bi«miilb powder has been used with mcces« in 
ozienn, snuffed into the nostrib, though it is inferior to other rcmed 
may also be employed in aphthons or nursing sore mouth, and in m- 
plyslism. It mny^o of service in chronic conjunctivitis and granul 
Made into an ointment, it i.<» an exeejlont application to chancroids, i 
ulcers, erysipelas, blisters, pemphigus after the bullie have ruptured, 
raw surtaees exposed, the erythematous and hnllons forms of hums, 
the first stage of dermatitis. In these conditions an ointment may 
composed:— 

B Bismuthi tubnitntii S Cm. or Sas. 

Piilv. mnrnnUe >... l&S Om. or So. 

Morphinn aul{ili)itiB .....'.. ..,,i 20 Om. or ct. I 

■..aiioltni 1SS Om. or S». 

M. et ft. ungL 

An ointment consisting of bismulh subnitrate and boric aci' 
lanolin and olive-oil. is regarded by Wertbeimer as particularly appi 
to the treatment of bums in children. An ointment containing thi 
of bittmuth is aUo valuable in diseases of the skin. It may be preset 
follows: — 



B Kxt. Mladonnie folior. ak 

Ext, opii ] 

Ungt. biBiuultii oleiitis 15 

M. For furunclra. cnrbunclra, and n<zema of tlie genitals. 



65 Gni. or gr. i 
SO Oin, or jr. > 
5 Gm. or Jm. 



The internal administration of insoluble bismuth preparations 
cipally based upon their local action upon the stomach ana intestini 



•Medical Xneg. Oct.. 1886. 




DISUUTHUM. 



189 



Gm. or !ij. 
Gill, or 3j. 
2A c.cm. Of miv. 



They form a coatinf; over the inflamed or irritated surfaces and keep theiu 
bmi coming in contact, while they al^o exert aii s«tniigcnt und sedative 
ilect. la gastnlKia, irritable stomach, and some dyspeptic conditions they 
Stofmach ralue:— 

B BiunuUti lUbnitrfttu 6 

Pcfuni Mcchanti ••. 4 

Q«M0(i 

ILctdir. in chartuln no. xij. 

St.: Qiv* one rnvrj hour until re1I«v*il. ITIie o|] of gtultlivrlo. may b« mb«tl- 
U Mt the cTMsotc, in case ot «hil(lii-u, anil llie puwdfra iiiuJv uiialler.) 

Id painful dyspepsia and gaatralj^iu Diijtirdin-Boatimdz prescribed: — 

B BiMnsltii subnllratix. 

IhfiiMue, 

(Mb pjiI^ 

Chlrii phu«{riiiitia an 10| Gm. or Siiiw. 

X.tt div. in chartnln no. xl. 

!«-: Oil* powdor b«(arv each meal. 

Biflnnth may be given in ])owder aUo, as: — 

B BdnwUi. «ubiii(.. 

Hiffiatl niTbonaliii oa 41 Gm. or 3j. 

Uorpbiii* Auljibalia jOOn Cm. ot gr. j. 

V, M (L chartuln noi. xij. 

%: A powdpr ev»ry lioiir or two. Employ in gnstraliila, dyspepsia i>ttAnd»d 
"i loditf . aiid in enntcr of the itoroach. 

^In children sufTering with irritable ttomnch, the result of improper 
" s, tg<Md combination is: — 

BBUnvth. •ubolL SI Giu. ur 3m. 

SoCi bkartd, 

Pol*. rh«i ea {US Gm. or gr. x. 

M. rt ft. diartnto no. i. 

%.: A powdrr vvny ti>ur faoura. 

Tkft following liquid conilii nation* of hitmnth arc hkcwiso of service. 
^•wllf in gastric catarrh and some varieties of dyspepsia: — 

B Bbmnth. cttratt* 8] 

Q^rili pcpMim K)| 

K Sjg.: A tnu|>ooBhil bcfoiv niMla, 

1 Bteintb. nibnit ., 8 

Pttlv. ihrl 

Puhr. acaci* ......,„...,,..,,....,,....,..,... B 

8pt mjTvtiftt ,, 

A)iu«iiwniJi. pip. 240 

M. Sg.: A lablnpoonfut In wafer «'ety four baurt. 

tilt Mlivylnto ie a soft, whito pnwd<^^; insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, 
•»i ehloroform, bnt soluble in acids, la gastro-enterltis, or Rummer com- 
Httt in younj; infants, the salicvlatr givos excellent results in email dosee 
(•fltttoi}.13 Gm.. or RT- i-ij)- This combination is likewiRo valuable in the 
■Bibcea (if tyi'hoid ft-rcr, in which it is servieeably given with naphtol, 
■BBitth >a1icylaie i^ u=efiil for the purpose of securing gantrie luitiscpsis in 
of the rtomaeh. It may Iw OMoeiated with hetansphtol or salol. 

■alt, oUo, is highly esteemed as a remedy in infantilo diarrhoea. 



Om. or SM. 
I'.cm. or W(I. 



Gm. or 3ij. 
(im. or Ilu. 
Gm. or 3ij. 
SO e.em. 01 (Sij. 
e.cm, or fjrilj. 




190 



PIIARUACSUTtCAI. TUERAl'BUTIC ACIINT8 OH DBITdS. 



Gastric uWr \e much benefited bj the eubnitrate in O.GS (o 1 4 
gr. x-xv) do8C«, giv(-n evt-rj- three hours, or oIt«ner, if then- h muc 
Where maligiunt ulceration is suspected, opium and belladonna maj 
minietered at the nine lime, Tlic vomiting of prpgnnncj may soi 
be relieved by bismuth subnitrate. It BcrveH a useful purpose in the 
gastritis «o common in dninknrds. In acidity of tin- nlomach it i* 
and also in flatulent dj-spepsia. A combination of bismuth with chs 
«f[lcaciouf in tin? loiter condition, as: — 



B BUmutlii nibnilrtttU, 

Pulv«(!s aromntii'l aa 81 

Cftrl>onU ligni <r«vrntU) ,,.., ISfS 

M. et div. in churluln no. xij. 



Gm. or Si]. 
Qm, or Sm. 



i 



In diarrhoea the »iibnilnilG is iisually a reliable mncdy. but, as 
advises, it should be preceded by a dose of castor-oil, in order U> rein< 
mcntiug material or otlicr caUKCi! of irritation. In the dinrrhava of G 
it cjin be (liven in combination with pepsin or pancrealin. It may b 
in hot milk to children; but il in aJmoi^t tastt-lcs^ and may be pi 
once upon the tongue and waalied down with water or milk. In 
diarrhtcn bismuth subnitrato not infrcttiicutly afTorda marked rcli< 
exocllent prescription for diarrhcea, particularly when acute, is: — 

B Ksmutlt. lubnit. T8j Gm. or giiw 

Pulveri* mjrnitkR 2100 Gm. or 3 ij 

Aqu» dnnaraomi, 

Byrup, ncaciiB na 60[ cem. or IJij. 

H. Sig.: Two tcfuipoonful* every linKhour, or hoiiT, until nlkrcd. 

In cacce of infantile diarrhuie, when the stools ure grceni)-h, 
casein, and are accompanied by abdominal pain, Dr. Ziunea relies U] 
following prcacriptions; — 

It BJamuth. subnitrat. , ,..t..L.. 3j Om. or gr. 

Lfq. oalciK ,,, S com. or JSiai 

Syrup. Runint ....'. 15 c.cm. or 1S» 

AqUK ficniiMili ..,...,.......,1.. 00 ccm. or fSi}. 

M. Si|r.: Tcfiepoouful ev«ry two houTB. 



R Bismuth. xubnitraL 3 

Syrup, ntitnnt i..^. > 15 

infufl. calumbw 00 

U. Sig.: One or two tfOspoonliiU every two houra. 



Gm, or gi. 
C-cm- or (Sn. 
c.cm. or fjij. 



In epidemic dysentery large doiea of bismuth have been admii 
with benefit- Trousseau was accustomed to order bismuth inject 
dysentery, 

A solution of hiamuth and ammonia citrate is official in the 
Pharmacopceia, An extemporaneous formula may be used, like the 
ing:— 

R BUmutbi ft ammoniiB dtnit. 32 Gnu or or. - 

Aavue clilorolomii 16 c.cm. or lita, 

Elixir auTnntii 4& c.i-m. or m^c 

M. Sid-: Talce Ifi ctm. {or Qm) three or four times dnily. for irritable ( 

This double salt has bei'U employed In the treatment of aeu 
chronic diurrhaa. P. Vigier has prepared a bismuth benxoate as a 




iHTBirDr iiKni. ii puwwiiiHnsiiiiiruigviii, iiiiiuH!)Jut% aiiu uoMicfHui prup- 

This luliMtnnc-t^ i* alM poMcMed of local anii<ethctic power. It is of 

%nluu in Icstoiifi attended by profose eccrclioii. as eczema, biirn^, 

vuonds, nnd disctses of tht eyv. nml ear. Dr. ECujjeae OoemberK^r 

fUvut results from its use in pemphigus, hvrpett zokIlt, and ah- 

IV Hkin occurritic in children. Dermatol has been advantagcoiuly 

I chant^roids nnd ulcerated chtiicres. to balauitis, varicoHO and other 

itf thf If);. Suspended in cnucila^. it has b(>eti used as an injection 

Find chronic gunoTrhtra. Mixed with an oqiist quantity of caRtor-oil, 

ha* employed it in tbe treatment of sore nipples. It is considered 

£ ft dreesuog lo Abdominal wounds and in perineoplast}'. Tampona 

'. gBQse impreftoated with dennstol an> of service in the treatment of 

itarrh. A powder compo»ed of ^0 parU of dcrmatol, 10 parts of 

70 parts of talc is a ftoo^ application in hyperidrosis of the hands 

DvrmittfW may be tuted ptir« n a dusting-powder, m a 2S'per-ceut. 

ft collitdiun emulsion, and as a 10- to 20-per-cent. ^uze. 

inti nnd Dutto reimrt favorably of llic internal employment of 

m different forms of diarrho-a, including that of typhoid fovur and 

It vn giren in daily doMK of 'i to ^ Oin. (ur gr. xxx-xlv) in 

portinns. Dr. Austin Flint recommends bismuth aubgnllute in the 

It of fi'mienlalivc dyi<p<-p.-<ia. He hn^ had ivxcelleut reiiuitji. from its 

efaroDic caw*, giving 0,3S Gm. (or gr. r) in c-opsiik- or tablet before 

' tmch tneal. A number of loose combinationK of bi-itnuth have lately 

intrtnluc*-*! m antimptic rcmvdicK, Phenol •bismuth, oresoNbiBinath, 

kphtol-biamath are decomposed in ihe siomacb, the phenot and 

sing; abeorbed and eliminated by the kidneys, while the bii-muth is 

oompletely removed by the bowels. Naphto! is partly elimiuated 

,the luine and p«rtlv through the intc»tinc. In daily doses of 1 to 3 

gr. xv-xlv) Ur, Jasenski, of St. Petersburg, gave phenol-bismuth 

.rantagc in tvphoid fever, acute and chronic gastric and gnstro-in- 

ratAirh, and in diarrhira. Tribromphenol-bismuth is a yellow, in- 

■ powder, without iwlor or ln»tc and nllll"^^ ir>f from toxic action. It 

.19.fi ner cent, of bismuth oxide and 50 nei cent, of tribromDhcnol. 



193 PUAlUUUKtrriCAL TIIGIUPEUTIC JL<]lfXT8 OR Duuas. 

BiBmutb chryaophanatfl tins U-i-n introdui-od undur the name oi 
II i» iiii iiiiuirpliiuiti vi'lliin* powdur of ui'ulml roactioti, ineolubk' in tl 
nary meDEtma. It is prophoeed for use in the form of ointment in i 
for which chryeophanic acid is employed. 

Thioform is a combination of bismuth, itulphiir, and salicylic ac 
occurs in the form of a hght, eniyitih-ydlow powder ini^dlubk- in 
alcohol, and ether. Thioform is (Tevoid of odor or taste. It is compa 
free fruiD toxic L'lfcct«, and liaR been UMd with iiiicccii^ upon burns, ulci 
toughing wounds. l)r. K. l-'romra rcpoits fnvorobly concerning itt 
in conjunctiviti*, piirultiit ophthalmia, and lln- xtnimoiis ophtlia 
children. Thioform has alao been employed as n styptic in the open 
eDUcU'Hting ibe i.-v<'l)nll. 

Biimnih sulphite has been found useful by Ceearis and ItsocI 
an int«i^linul anti«cplk' iind nnthclminlic. Eismuth tannate lin:t be 
internally aa an astringent in dJarrhcEa in doec-g of i'.tib to t Urn. 
x>z»). 

BOLDTIS.— Soldo, or Peumus buldu« (Monimisccge), i* an cv 
belonging to the western coast of South America. The leaves an 
»U-mt conttiin a bitter extractive, a volatile oil, and a billcr alka' 
glucoBidei'), Boldoin. A tinctnre {5 per cent.) is used in O.'iO c.cm. 
doiet or more, gradually iiicrnLsing, and prodiici'it vomiliiig and pui 
full do^es, and also a sedative or narcotic effect upon the brain. 1 
du)K'» it ii< i-iiruiinativc and stinuilanl to the stomach. 

Therapy.— In South America this plant has some reputation fo 
nui-nue ujiim gen ito-uri nary disorders, gonorrhn-a, glci't, cy*titi8, 
tarrhal iuHnjiimu lions of the kidncyii. It has also been used for rheu 
and as a tonic in dyspepsia and genera! debility. In cirrhosis it is es 
recommended by Cumpcnon. Htildgiii, the uclive principle, has h 
powers, and has been successfully tried in France as a substitute for o 
chloral (Juninville). 



BOBAX (B. P.). — Borax. (Sti- Acidnm Boricum.) 

BROMUM (IT. S. P.}.— Bromine. 

Dose, i'.J'i to 0.18 c.cm. (or mii-iij). well diluted. 



I 



Preparations. 
Valeii Dromidum (U.8.P.).— Onleiuni Uromide, Dow, 0.312 to 2 Gui 

V-IKX). 

Uthii Bromidum (U.8.P.}.— Lithium BTomide. Dok, 0.32 to 1.30 
gr, r-xx). 

iSnci Bromidum (U. R. P.).— Zinc Bromide. Dose, (l.Otis it> 0.13 Giii. (or 

Qunphora Mmotiromnltl (U. 8. f.).~-MuuobroiuM<t'tl Ciim]ilior. Dose. 
0,32 Gui. (or gr, 1 v|. 

Aniiiionii Bromidum (U. B.P., B>P.]- — Ammonium Itroiuide. 1>om. 0.0 
(Jm. (or gr- x-xli. 

rotoHiii BruDiidum (U.S.P., 6. P.).— PotaMiiim Bromide. Dow, 0,05 ' 
(or «r. x-3j). 

Sodii Bromidum (U.S.P., B. P.] ■—Sodium Bromide. Do««. 006 to 4 
ft. x-SjI. 

Ai-ldiitii IlTilrobrorniPum Diliitiim H'. 8. P., B.P.I. — Dilutfd nydmbm 
110 per wiii.l. UuBi-, l.iiO lu !■& o.cni. (or mxX'ISIjl, 




UHOUUlt. 

ClMdMnt rrtporttl iottn. 



193 



lum— S'lrkel Krc>4iilit«. Dote, O.OOS to 0.33 Gm. (or gr. f-v|. 
S}TU|'Uk K»Tri llruuiKlJ. — Sj'rtip of Trnva* Bromiil* III) |Wr conLJ. D««e, 0,(0 
It I mi. iiir mx'fSjl. i 

i.'dKiiiw tlydrubromu. — Cudiine llydmbromnte. Done, 0.001 to O.OOe Oin. |or 

BMMNrfurm. — TribramiBeUiaiM. Dow, 0.1S to 0.60 tu-m. (or niii-xl. 

Fkumacology. — Bromine, which obtains its name from its offensive 

u » litowTiish-red. non-tiietal!ic liquid cli'mtiil, nfjlaincii from si**- 

combining rcmlily with alcchol. fthor. or chlorofonn; and soluble 

lX3 ^ r waU>r at 59* F. When aiiiiitil Ui wator, ozt>ne. U tibcnit<.-<l. It 

ty. IniilixcM upon expo«uic Ut Ibeair, giving off a highlv-irrilating:, 

odor like toat of chlorine, with whi<:lk it may be coiitamiiiat«il. 

t pharnaccp'L-ial tou re^juiri' thu chlorine to bo not mure than 3 per cunt., 

itiat tln-Tc shall be only traces of iodine. 

Physiological Action. — It i» Mnfortuiinic that the »mcll of bromine is 
1 ubooxiou». einco it is a true disinfectant, rivslinK mercuric chloride, and, 
rlaitnc^I, has even more influ«ni.'e Ihan that ugeiil in preventing the 
rk>paii-Dt of Kporce. A S-per-csnt. solution in water destroys the spores 
[•aihrax. Applied to the skin, it i.* a pcnclrating caustic in its piirK »tote, 
dilutrH, i« iwtriugcnt and antiseptic. Internally, its effects resemble 
! ilorine, causiing paralysis of the brain-centre*, death kn 
:- of respiration. 
la naM-n of poisonin;; by swallowing this asent, the stomach must be 
i^hlv irrigated, and a purgative like croton<oii ndministcrGd in alkaline 
(Vichy water), ftlicn inhaled, vrarm vapor from the steam-atomizer 
I alkaline snlution (DobelFs solution) would afford relief to the irritation. 
' bnimidps taken upon an empty stomach in concentrated form eomctimca 
: pavtmJ^ia, which may be relieved by hot water and an hypodermic in- 
vvtt of morphtne. combined with atropine, if jtiipnr be prewnt. After 
.1 . - .-.;,!m are found in the brain, principally (Doyon). 

■ .il doM-s i1k* bromide* and hydmbromic acid exerl n ecdative 

upon the functions of the brain, prodnce insensibility of the mucous 

le nf the fauiv*, and allay irritability of senwry nerve*, as i* very 

Hawn by iheir effect in the treatment of tinnitus aurium after admin- 

o[ i)Utninc. It hiu a tipocial action upon the ^enito-urinary tract, 

ig M^usibility and preventing erections or ovarian excitement. On 

RcJirr haii'l. t;<>diimi bromide has, in a few instances, I>een known to pro* 

Bortumal erections and seminal emissions from relaxation. The bro- 

gti Ji' ■■na the spinal cord, reducing reflex action and, when 

■tied. (1 iig motor power and producing pnnityi>i« of the lege. 

jiatinn i» ni"0 affeeied by their action upon the caniiac ganglia. In 

■ >r i>r>tasLeium bnimidc, we have »u)H.'radded the toxic action of potash 

irt-muM"!*, by reason of which, when given in large doses, the 

,.ii>iiin is reduceil and the pul^e-ratc lowered. In the usual doses, 

Ihia effert is hardly observable. 

ordinff if the etndics of Germain Sec, potassium bromide causes 

]oa »f t^*^ hi*nrt. The right side of the organ appears to he more 

[Jr «ir«-clc<l. It is (laid {by Ilammond) to khIucc the cerebral circula- 

amiog niioeniia by contraction of the arterioles. It is probable that 

tic e(r<«'* o' bromides i* due more directly to their action upon the 



164 



l-UAJtUACKt'TlCAL TUBllAfHUTIO AOBHTS OR DBUOS. 



brain-cectrcfi, eapeciallj tbe motor and mteU€ctu8l portion of th« 
cerobri. To its fuc-ulty of reducing reflex nervous excitability ia to be a 
it« well-known antispasmodic effects in convnUive disorilerH. No 
cfftict upon ItrnptTuturc or respiration has been observed from ni' 
dofic-s: veri' large doses may reduce both, and al«o dimini*h tiwuir-wm 

Tlie rate and the force of the heart's action are likewise dim 
and arterial pressure reduced by excesaivc dofua. Wlien continually 
itterod in mudurately-large doses, the bromides sometimes excite nau 
diarrhoea. A sedative action Ih exerted by the broiuidea upon the 
Uiotic nervous mk-m. 

The bromidcfl have confiiderablc diffusive power, and ere found 
of the secretions and in the interior of rlanas liice the liver; aft 
ad minist ration they accumulate partieularTy in thlii organ, and the 
of bromide retained in the liver is very great. It has been surmis 
thi» flaturntion of tbe system by bromide predispoM* to tuberculoi 
Fere states that, although be has seen nothini; in patients to corrobo 
Huppo»ition, guinea-pigs saturated with poia»«ium bromide and iiK 
with tuberculosis succumb more rapidly than animals to whom the i 
not been griven, Tt has likcwiM been eliowa that the bromides acci 
in the brain and other organs. The glandular elements of the skin a 
uluted Hiid an acnciform eruption follow* their prolonged iwc. 

The use of the bromides is occasionally followed by the devel 
of erythema or a brownish discoloration of ihu v1<in. In other inst 
has caused an eruption siibtlar to that of eciiema, wbenU. or ulcet 
effect upon the skin may be produced within « day or two after adn 
tion of the drug, but usually occurs only after saturation of the systt 
eruption occasionally appears upon the body of a nuiiiing infant, w 
mother is upon a course of bromide tri'af ment. The bromides are eU 
from tbe system by the aecretiomi generally, but more particularh 
j;lands of the fauces, skin, bronchi, and bowels, and by Che kidnoj 
sorption i* nuidi HK^re rnjiid than eliminntion. 

Therapy.— I'or its caustic effect, bromine has been used in ali 
to 2 or 3) in hospital pnuu^rene, and in gyna'cology as an applicntior 
ccr ol the uterus. Diluted with sweet oil {0.60 c.cm. to 30 c.cm.. ( 
fSJ). it 's 8 sedative dressing for rhus-poisoning or chancroids. Bn 
employed, like carbolic aeid. as a disinfectant for drains, but is too i 
for use in this way in the siek-room. The bromides are not often 
topical remedies, though an aqueous solution of the strength of O.C! 
to 30 c.cm. (or gr. x-xx to f.>j) niny be serviceable in pnrffslbesin. 
powdered poiaasium bromide is stimulant to chronic ulcers, and 1 
advantageous in epitbclicinn It ha* been applied, nddfd to S piirla 
erin, to ha?morrhoids and fissure of the anus, in order to relieve p 
treating laryngeal diphllierin, or mombramnis croup, the following 
used: — 



B Brorai 

Potawll bromtdl 4 

^rupi «iinpUcis , S8 

Decoctt altlucn q. b. ad 120 



30 e.Fm. or ffii 
Om. or 3j. 
c.cm. or f3i 
c.cm. or (ji 



For a child of one year the bromine should be reduced to ose-tl 
Irom one to four years two-thirds, of the quantity in this formula, < 




BKOMIM. 



195 



i- (or li) *te lo be given erery hour, whil« the srinptoms «re urgent 
nbscher). The oflirial solution of hvdrobromio acid rms not aniwcrud 
topectation of Ihose who urged ita use ns a substitute for the bromides; 
'2inf be less liable to produce acne, but it is irrilatinj^ and k-Ks edicicot. 
. llluT be pTen for the relief of tinnitus auriiim, headache, or to prevent 
)'B|MsaDt Eyinptonis from the clTect« of quinine:^ 



B QnCnlMn h^robramat. I 

And. hydrobromic. dilut. 15 

Bixir aurantil lOB 

IL Sig.% Dow. a Ublmpoonful afUr iii«hI«. 



B5 Om. or gr- mli'- 
L-.oiTi. or fjss. 
e.tm. or t3iiUa. 



Special Applications. — The special use of the bromides is found in the 
tMlnent of conxoUive disorders, such as gpasm of the larynx or epilepsy. 
liihe former affection a few doses of O.GA tim. (or gr. x) or more in a child, 
er usually enfficieot to accomplish a cure: but in the lattor the treatment 
aftai eiH-ndu ovt-r monlhs and years. When the broinifli's are continued for 
•lu^time. bromim is apt to be prodtic-cd. the phy^iologicul action of bro- 
naebciDg shown by eruptions upon the skin, especially of the face; loss 
tlnflexee; ingging, heavy eeneatioDs; and dillkulty in locomotion, and 
DWnt ciwes special tendency to convulsive atlacks appear. It therefore 
iHMDtt neoeseary to infemiit the bromide or change from one to unother, 
od, if ihrre is too much depression of the vital powers, dijotalis may be 
Mcribed in combination, or strychnine given hypodcrmically in minute 
iwi (O.OU05 lo O.OUI Gm., or gr. V„o-Voo) several times daily. Brown- 
Sivtnil pi«fen«d a combination like tiie following, in treating epilepsy, for 
'ladld ten years of agei — 



Qm. or 3j. 

Gm. or Si. 

Gm. or 3iiiu, 
eO Oni. or fcr. xl. 
.50 p.t'tn. or Bij. 

c.cm. nr fjvj. 



S Pota«sii lodldl 4 

PoUaaii bromidi 31 

AmmoBii bromidi 10 

PoUMii blcarbonalla SI 

t^rilVB chloroformi 71 

btnai cnlumbK q. r. ad IHO 

IL Dav, T.5 cjm. (or fSij) morning nnd ronn and II c.eni, (or fSlij) at night, 
^"il*iliit thr ouanlHy allpr the conruhions ccnae. but coiiliiming the remedy nt 
MirnliL. («prrLiIlT at tItR limn when the 1^1* nm liable to i^dir. It tlie paUont be 
**k,tht intuiitm of digilnlis miiy in- Bubatiluletl for lli<! culutnlis. 

^K K. Ch. ¥6t4 states that most of the ill effects of the bromide may be 
^BU(d by the simultaneous administration of an iniestinal antiseptic. In 
^K Bitugement of epilepsy he has often mude use of lliu following com* 

B Pulaaii broniid. >..• 6| Gm. or Ziit. 

Nuihtol 4 Gm. or Sj. 

Soiii MikyUt s( Gm. or 3m. 

H Sig.; To be dividinl into thrr* doua. One dose to be taken thrpc tiniea a dnj. 

In trrsting epilrpi<y the partial insensibility of the fauces is the guide 
'* <I>r idminislraiion of bromides; this should be cKlahlished as soon as 
IjSie and maintained during the continuance of the treatment, which 
■■'UBDt be pnshed to the point of bromism. Small doses of nrw-nic will 
WWi, to tome degree, the eruption in persons especially susceptible to 



3»C rilABilACIiUTIOAt, TnERAPECTtC AOEjrre 0» DRtros, 

bromides, and it is well to nltcrnato the iodides with Ihi' bromides i 
to prerent undue accumulation of the lattc-r in the syatom. The hi 
action of the bramides is iiarticnlnrly m>irki:d when epih-psr is diii! 
order of the nexiial apparatus. On the other hand, tne peiil mal i 
Ion ami-nalite to their influence than the general conruleive seliures. 
Bium [jromide has a certain sphere of usefulness in whoopinu-cough 
of Da Rvuil when the bronohitie is severe, or when pneumonia is prcsc 
in simple uncomplicated pertussis, above all when convulsions araU 
to convuleions vxitt, this remedy is of ^rcat service in allaying the COI 
of the nen,'ous centres. Spasmodic axthma is, in some instances, ci 
ably benefited by the exhibition of bromida, and it* ellicacy is enhnl 
combination with the iodide. The bromides are of decided value in ii 
conruUions, especially when thwc ilepcnd upon rcficx irritation. T 
likewise of service in the convulsions symptomatic of simple meningi 
not altogether without avail in olleviuting those of ItiWrculur mei 
Urietnie convulsions may sometimes be successfully treated by potassi 
mide in combination with chloral -hydra to, assisted by active purg«t 
diaphoresis. When cholera infantum is associated with excessive 
trntubilily, potassium bromide servos a useful purpose, as it does also 
caaes in which flatulent colic of infants is connected witU marked ii 
spasm. Dr. Hurvey Vanutta. of Seal, Ohio, admin i»tcrcd potassium I 
irith succes.4 in a case of invagination of the bowel. 

In treating nervous irritnbilily. ri'i-lle^«nvsM, and insomnia it i» 
combine bromides with other hypnotic agents: — 

f) Potastii brODiidi ]| vel 1190 tim. m p. v 

Cbloralis [06 Cm. or gr. x, 

Aqum enniphorw, 

Syr. Incjlitmrii an 4| c.l-ui. or f3J. 

H. Sig.: Pro doti. For ncrvoua hcadadie vrith inMnmia. 

The sedative and antispasmodic effects arc increased by coniJ 
with gelseminni, asafetida, or valerian, and smaller doaea are reqnii 
when each agent is udministrred alone. In Menii-re's disease Ferrer 
good results from the use of larse doses of potassium bromide in con; 
with ferric ralerianale. In the nflvcliini? of thu geiuto-iirinary orj 
bromides are of especial value when spasm or pain is present. The i 
of urine is increased and also the proportion of urea. The Bexii:\t f 
are depressed; and the bromides are larsely used as anaphroduiaca 
pism and D>'mphomaniii, especially when given in conjunction wit 
«metic in minute doses. 

A pood formula iisi'd by the author for gonorrhcea with chordi 
following: — 

B rutasfiii bioatti , t2 Gm. nr 31! 

Pntaaaii tirnmliti IS 5 Gtn. or Siv 

TliictuTW liyiidcjAinl 30 c.cm. or IJj 

Spiritus cUlorofonni 15 ccm. or f3i 

Inf. Iiiidiu <|. •. ftd 240 ccm. or tfy 

'M. ^le.: A I«blMpoonfiit in )inilpy-wnt«<T every thrve or four bourt. ' 
btnation rtUcves icalding and chuiJti:. 

The following arc also valuable prescriptions containing t 
mides: — 




BBQUnU. 



197 



II Sodil liTOmrai 871 Gia. or SvU- 

Antimouii «t potauii UrI {03 Gtn. or gr. «i. 

ana: cunphonD, 
. im* «th«Tls nitrOHi lU 431 cjim. or Qiu. 

Gynipi aurantii W>| t.trn. or fjij. 

It Sig-i Tno tfiupoonfiiU tn UHtrr ov«rj two or three houn until rellpVMl. 
ibir In rpididyniilit, ryiliUs, and praatalitiR. 

R .Untii>Hui hromidt, 

&lol au ij Om. or Sj. 

]L ft n. cnpMilK no. xij. 

Stf: Tvo <ji|iaiiti-i ftfry lioiir or two. Eniptny in ^norrhira nnd all irribitilc 
■"" — I of the genilo-urinMTy organs. 

Hie menitet »n (Jcloyt'i] und rondi-roil lew in i]Uonlity> by tht; use of the 
Dides. When menoirhagia U caused by ovarian congestion. polasBium 
■nidi; ri-ytmine Ihv flow, (uid tlie )>ain<; ugcnt soinelimi'v pruvce of service 
lii«tronhagia. In the profuse and irregular menstrua! discharjieH, which 
I occur n» the incnopaiiM; is uoartnl, the same renit-d; u of value. The 
aches, Du^hiDi; of the face, subjective sensations of heat, and other 
0118 n'm{ilom# whitli fWractoriM the »ame period recinvc notable 
tma the bromidea, L'hordee occasionally yields to the same agent 
itptnnatorthcMi and atonio inipotcn«c, di'i:>i'Tident iijK'n irritation or sub- 
dc chronic inflatnniation of the deep urethra, the bromide is valuable by 
ihiitg the reflex irritability (if ihv jjonitnl centre in the cord. But, in 
" pollution due to debility of the fienilal centre, this remedy ia harm- 
ItadihouliI be avoided. In all ca*e» of reflex nervous disorders having 
I in ovarian irritation the bromides have a well-established reputation, 
[iKibouid not be giten freely in aotcinic subjects. In reflex cough — or ao- 
" Itterine couph, stomach-cou^b, ear-cough, etc. — we may give: — 

B iMaMii bmroidi [32 to \<Sa Gm. or cr. v vel x. 

Sjr. pruni Vitg. 7[5 ecni. or iSij. 

It Take aTny loiir to kix houn. Ttia ahoTv U at«o URrful tn thr cough of chU- 



Vlini it is desired, in lar(nKoIo;jj-. to make an examination or nn opera- 
tlioipoii ■ very w-n^ilivc throat, the itsf. for a few days, of full doscB of 
bromide will greatly assist in reducing such hyperseathesia. In 
ihyjlerical llinut afTccIiitn*, the bromidrs are of tlie greatest value. 
Ib irritability of the bladder in women who nse sewing-machines, or 
<lrt.tbe following i* vervicmblc: — 

it PaUMli rol *ix1ii brontlill 1|3« Gtn. or fT. xx. 

Intiiv uvu ur»i , ... i\ cj;m. or f5j. 

^ Sig.: T*k« tvery hour or two until relierrd. 

Ib Diiifniiiif th» combination with opium is valuable: — 

B Ti. sfU dradorat. 41 c.rm. or ISi. 

FMMin bromid r 81 Gm. or 3t]. 

Mi. lijrdroliraniic. dil 00| r.cio. or fStj. 

V antwttll ^ a. ad )20[ e.('io. or Qiv. 

^ Sim Take a dew«TtipooD(ul ia nater, trtry two or tliree houra. 

(^Mf of maniacal excitement, puerperal, alcoholic, or other, are relieved 
Lvftf dam of bromides. 



PIIARMACKDriOilL THBRAPBUTIC AOI 



OB Dftres. 



Many acute attacks of fever in children, with delirium, arc pr 
ctired by bromides in small doees given every few miniitOH. Seasickni 
the vomiting of pregnancy are controlled by small doses of brom 
eCFerreecent salt; large doses have occasioned temporary derangOR 
min<], and have brought this remedy into disrepute because improper! 
In poisoning by strychnine and in tetanus large doses of the bromid< 
proved successful in subduing the convulsions. 

In acute cerebral congestion potassium bromide is of grcnt value t 
ita influence upon the vasomotor system. It is very ser\iceahly given 
jonction with the 6uid extract of crgoU which aids its action by eonvti 
th« cerebral vesBels. 'ITie heatJaehe and wakefulness are also relieved 
bromide. The same drug is cfTicactous in otluyiug cerebral vomilinj 
(omnia, caused by nervous strain or exce.'sive mental application, is s 
fully treated by means of the bromide. The headache oi pachymenia 
generally best conlrolled by a eombiuation of potassium bromide and 
u: — 

B Potajuii iodidi > IT .1 101 Om. or 3iiM 

I'obusii biuiiiidi 1D|s Gm. or 3v. 

Bynipi aunntii, 

Sj^rupi Riinplidti na 00] com. or {JiL 

U. Sig.i Dooc, two teniipaonruU thrmi or four tlmu <Uily. m 

In exophthalmic goitre the excessive cardiac action may often 
strained by the bromide. This remedy may be useful in subacute an' 
rheumatism, especially when the acute form of the disease is accon 
by consttloralilc fever and (Jclirium, The resllpssm'jss and delirium 
third week of typhoid fever is often admirably controlled by a bromidf 
aame agent is very efficacious in i)reveiiting llir night-ternirs of ct 
It IB claimed that potassium bromide is useful in diabetes mellitus of i 
origin. The salt relaxes norvous spusm of Ihe oisoptiai;'!^ ""d allays th 
oug symptoms of rachitis. Potassium bromide and iodide are rccomi 
in eliminating metals — as mercury, copper, or lead — from the syeten 
bromide may bo useful in reducing enlarged lymphatic glands and 
thougli far inferior to the iodide. A bromide addition to a prescript 
creases the effect of hypnotic or narcotic medicines, and it is often 
obviate the unpleasant consequences of opium. 

Victor Augngneur has found potassium bromide of service in 
syphilitic maniftslatioufl. Dysphonia or aphonia someliiiics occur! 
cially in women, in the sixth or seventh month of the disease. In th' 
that it depends more upon disturbed innervation than upon the cr 
of the laryngeal mucosa, he is accustomed to give bromide in comb 
with potassium iodide with very good results. In serious tertiary dis 
the larynx the iodide may give rise to dyspna^a. In this condition i' 
Tantagcous to praetioe mercurial inunction and depend upon the hroi 
reduce reflex excitability. When the dyspnoea has been allayed, the b 
and iodide may lie administered in association. The addition of the b 
to the iodide is also of value in cerebral syphilis. 

According to Dr. Wilks, the bromides often have a good effect t! 
ing reduction of goitre. They have also been used with success in a 
diminish the volume of fibroid tumors of Ilie womb. 

During administration of the bromides the digestive functioi 




BBOSfClE. 



199 



tmone diiordereil^ and it is Deceesary to occaeioDally give cbolagogic cathar- 
tia CO keep the liver up to its work. 

In comparing the bromides we observe eome difference in their effect 
ad thenpeutic applicntians. 

Pixlasainm bromide is the most Irequcrtly prescribed^ and ia the moet 
(&>enl. Where the circulation is weak the otbnr saltH, especially the aid- 
■Htiain ult, are to be preferred. 

Sodium bromide it the least toxic, and i# preferred in cased where nutri* 
tin B poor, especially in anfemic women and children. It is not so efficient 
isates of a uric-acid diathesis or Uthaemia, as other salts, and notablv that 
■^litbia. 

lithium bromide has been thoii);ht to possess more hypnotic power than 
|)ota¥Eium bromide. Ammonium bromide combines the stimulating 
of the ammonia with the hypnotic etiect of bromine, and is useful in 
Mnbnl rheumatism. I'he manifestations of bromism arc not so readily ex- 
Mid hy the ammonium salt as by that of potassium or sodium. Ammonium 
kmnide it iiacful in whoopinjr-coiigh. 

Kckel bromide, introduced by Va Coata for the treatment of epilepsy, 

bitthe advantage of the smallncts of the dose, but the disudvuntfige of the 

B«t»Uic poisoning when too lon)i continued. It is best given in effervescent 

•It or in the form of a syrup mixed with orange-flnwer water. The salt i» 

gtra in color, deliquescent, and soluble in water. It is well borne by the 

■touuch, relicvea congestive houdnche* anil convulsive movements. Zinc 

lw««ide is little used; it is supposed to combine the well-known action of 

aacupon lh« ci-nlml norvou* syttem with the bromide action. The syrup 

of foTonfi bromide has been employed for chorea in anicmic children, with 

Enodretull*. 

Strontium bromide appears to hare decided advantages over the other 
bxoBidca in the Ireatmcnt of rpilepsy. Dr. Antony Koche has published' 
■MIk of successful eases and saya thst he has not met any case in which the 
tkmidde of strontium, given in the pre!*crihed doses and according to his 
ttuthod. has failed to diminish the number of the attacks. In many in- 
stances there luid been no return for periods extending to two, three, or 
Ota four years. He usually begins the treatment of epilepsy by ordering 
3 Gn. (or ^} of tlie strontium salt, night and morning in some vegetable 
tonic infusion. Should this dose not control the attacks, he rapidly in- 
cnasn it until he finds the quantity that will suit the individual ease. In 
QKmhere there is distinct warning btforc the attacks be gives 2 Gm. (or 
3i)it once, and directs this dose to be repeated every hour, if required, 
lllhii way he has succeeded in preventing un altiick. In order to get the 
M benefit of the treatment he has found it necessary to give this remedy 
■ iu|e do«M and to continue it for a long period. Dixon Mann in his 
%SQaI of Medical Jarisprudence"' says, with regard to the safety of this 
tRitneot, that drontium salt* cannot be regarded m poisonous. He had 
Wdf taken IS Gm, (or 5iij) daily for weeks without any unpleasant symp- 
lOK. Th* strontium bromide doc* not cause the depreswion that follows 
^fotassiunsalt. 

bmiuiud. — P'isehedick and Koechling have introduced a compound 
it Ike aniline group containing 75 per cent, of bromine and designated by 

■Unttt. Ort. le, JMB. pL 987. 




rUABUACKUTICAL TiIi:R.I.PliUTIC AUKN'TS OK DUl'US.* 

th«in a» lirniiiiiiiiii}. 11 i* olitnim-cl in llu- form of coIorK-iu. odorle 
Invlclt-ST' tu-i I llv-n lisped t-rvslals. ine<>lu)ile in wnlor. but toiulilc in I 
ak'olio], etiipr, rhloroforni. nnd (he fi)n-(! «ilti. It iiivlts nt 243* 1 
\'oIjitilr)[r« ut liHi" I', without L-liaji^c. So svmploiiig are proiiiiccrl it 
by (ioee« of S Gni. (or (TT- xxx). Tin- (jiilttc-rate ii<, in adiittH. retard© 
(io*i* of v.*io (Jm. (or gr. x). Jimmumid rodittcfl n fi-brile ti-mjuTiit 
to 2.5" K without excetmlvc gwcatinj;. It docx not diaonlcr dif;«st 
proiJuev diuresis. Thig EuhstuncL- liiu been fniploytd as an aiitipyrot 
nntinuuraigit.- in doses of 0.C5 to 1 (3m. {or gr. x-xv) several times 
to ndiiltii and O.OUR to 0,3S Gin. {or gr. i-v) to diildreii, nroniaini 
Ll- administi-r<^d in enjisule!" and waft-rs or fnispcndi-d in n lluid. 

Bronupin i» a cohition nf bromine in wiianK-oil (10 per cent 
has been ustd iBtPrnally in the trealmont of epiU'iiwy by Zimmerm* 
flanovor. The dox- ii^ 4 to 15 e.cm. (or foi-iv) three or fnni tiin« 
with epileptics the doee may be increaaod to double this qiiaiitily. 
t«bl«*pounfu] of bromipin ropremnle nliout 1.49 Gm.. or ;;r. xxiij, a 
bined bromide, eouivalenl to 9,20 flm., or pr. xxxir. of potassium bro 

Bromaform.- Tribromometliane. If to miHlmni\ or nmr^h-pia i 
lie added SatoniBof iinmuin' in substitution for 3 of hydrogen, we Ret i 
bromide, or brcutioforni (CTHtr,). anuin)c"<i»> chcrefori', in eiHHpo«it 
chloroform or iodoform. Itromnfonii i» an oily liquid, having an agi 
odor receniblin^ that eliloroforni. It ba* a sweet tustc, does not 8(T( 
mneouB membrane of the mouth, and has no irritant effect. It U i 
deeom)ii*i-d hy li^ht. Us denHily is 2.7T, and it boils at I. "ill' C, Ins 
in water, it i!is.«olves in akohnl and elber, its reactions being similar U 
rofonii. It usually is jireiient in omalt proporlion in eommcrciol bif 
AJid is made by adding bromine to a salution of an alkaline hydrate in e 
or wood -spirit. 

Bromoform was first introduced by Stcpp. of Xureinbcrg. in 1* 
a valuable remedy in whoopins-tough. In children aged from six n 
to one year, 0.12 c.cm. (or mij) may .be given three or four time* dail 
the dnae h increased hy about a drop for every additional year of age. 
dose for adults is (I.ril5 to OMu e.cm. (or mvii-xiij) in cHiisutc;, Rrimt 
diminishes the frei|iipiicy. severity, and duration of the paroxysms e 
titans, has a fnviiralde iutluentrc uimri the mueoim secretion, and gei 
abolishes vomiting and the hiemorrhages within a short period. Tht 
severe CHses are perceptibly benefited within eight day*, llr. S. Soli*, 
has used bromufonn with beneficial resuUs. as a local application, 
treatment of tubereuliir and other ulcers of Ibe Ihront. He reeommei 
combination with iodoform. The incal application of hromoform is i 
utility in ozieno. 

l)r. Fonticaccia reports that bromoform, given in daily dosei 
grcssively increasing from 1 to .I.So ccm. (or mxv-I), has an es< 
sedative effect in cases of acute mania. lie found the same remedy of 
in delirium tremens, in whielt it allayod realles.-ness and induced 
Several cases of poisoning from bromoform have Iwen reported, the p 
in each case being a child who had talcen a large ignnntity of the pure 

When bromoform is given suiipended in a gummy mixture, acc 
have hisppencd through negkct of the i-aution to shake the bottle ' 
ponrin;; out the medicine. It is insoluble in dilute alcohol, but may I 
solved by the aid of glycerin, and a formula has been proposed by Ih 




BRTOKU. 



201 



whicli fi)mi« a otrtccX and palatubl« solution (each fluidncbtn 
i*i.Aau., or iNJ, of liTomutotm): — 



Tt. mrilani. co. 
Gly*wi-lnt 



i| cxm. or MxrJ, 

Mk 7|S c.mi. or fSiJ. 

. . . -Uf n^m. or (JIm,— U. 



io Acid. — Thi? siihstanct?, otluTwiae known an bromogallot. 

In brititiu- mill, ill whitli two iitoiu^ of hydrogi'n liiiv.- hivu iv- 

by bromine. The blood of a do;; poisoneil by bromopallol was of a 

1 rolor and fontuiiK-ti n large <i«iiDtity of methieiuo^tnbin. Rv»]>imtion 

fii9t Decelerated, but afterward reUrdcd. L^-pin« and Cazencuve, of 

!«« miptoyc^l it ac u succetlatuum of potai^tiiuni bmmiilc. It aiipcan-d 

Iful in chorea, but laA vfUcifni in i-tiileptiy tbnn the Mill of potas- 

Thif preparation, known aNo as tfalloltroniol. ha?; bc<.*n iiK'd with 

locally in cvzeina rubriiin and other wtubborn fnrmH of t'czema in tht 

of m 1- li> 2-per-<-ent. volution, powder, or ointintmt. In c.viftitis and 

Ifnilis 3- to 4-ppr-cent. solutions have been employed by irrigation. 

vomol, rir Tribromphenol, in obtnineil by the action of bromine in 

ion lurlKflic and. Ii posseaeca antiseptic properties, and has been used 

l«ftnln}ir in Ihr local treatment of wouniIn, ulcere, and diphtheria. In 

■I'IuiumI allM-lioD Itadeinaker recommends a mixture of i part of 

with 2!> parts of glycerin. Bromol ha* been given internally in 

inf«ntuiii in cIohc* fnim O.liO.'i to d.OlS (Jm. (or gr. '/i,-'/,). On 

ind <tf his ei|)enmental and clinical involigations, T>r. IVchourilov 

tint trilimniphcnol m an cxi'f'lleni npplioolinii in erj'eipelfts. He made 

■o( it in the fonn of a 1-, 3-, or 3-per-cent. ointment. 

ISTOHU. (U- ^- P.).— Bryonia (Bryon;). 



n. 



Preparations. 
Bt7<>itt« (C.&P.).— TlnMur* of ltr>i>ata 



Dow. 4 to 15 c.oni. far 



Cjttnrtam Br70DlR fluldum.—Fltikl Estracl d Bryonia. Ddm>, 0,30 to I c^ni. 
Bi7««in.— Tlu! Retire prindple. Dow, aoi to ixoe Om. (or gr. '/^/,), 

tlmtmrneohtf. — Bryonia alba and Uryonia dioiea (Cnoiirbitacctt) «re 
>ourcr» of the root known a» bryonia, which must be recently 
1 an oil] dniK is nseleaa; the /preen root is preferriHl hy »ntne as being 
-'- Brronin, a glucotiide, is the principal constituent; it appears 
laU or in white powder; it is very bitter; sohible in water and 
<.>n tHMiig Itoilcd with diluted Kulphuric acid, bryonin snlits up into 
■nd a resin. Bryogeoin. A second resinoutt principlf, iryoreoB, i.i 
in the root. 

slo^cal Aetlon.— The juice of the fresh plant hli*ler» the ikin. 

internally, act* as an irritiint. and is a drartic purgative. 

ihv (low of urine. Bryonia is wiid to produce an irritant 

croua membrane* and in toxic done to jrive rise to symptoms 

Ikctapy. — A* Ihifie arc better purgatives, bryonia is not required for 
tpupoM- ll i» re]«rted to Imve been nsed with auccen in atonic dj*- 



208 



PHARMACEUTICAL THaBAPECTIC AOENTS OB DRCOa. 



pepsin. It 16 usi-d, in small dosoB> in rhetimutism, pU-urtK}', and other i 
inflamiiiatioQs, after tlie fever Iiah abated. It appears to be especial!} 
iccabli' iu the muscular pains and EtilTucKs following colds. In cl 
bronchitiH it has been advocated. Bryonia has been recommended i 
catarrhal otaga of whooping-i-uugh and in cases of enlarged splcco 
chronic malaria, and, also, by Petreaco, in cases of hemorrhage, espi 
in epietaxi*. 

BtrCHU (U. S. P.).— Buehu. 

BUCHU FOLIA (B. P.}.~BaGhu-leavet. 

Prfparaliont. 

EstT««tum Buchu Fluiduni (U.S.P.).~Fliiid Extract of Buchu. Dow, 
4 ftcni. (or mxfS}). 

lntu»uiii Bucliu l]t.i'.)..~Infiwi'iu uf Biictiu. I)o««, 00 e.cm. (ur (SiJ). 




tor I3m-J 



Tinctum Buchu iB. P.}.— Tincture ol Bucliu (SO per ccnL). Do*c] 2 to 



iarosigH 
from H 



PhArmaoolt^. — The leares of Barosma betulina. and Itaros 
lata (Rutacvie); B. P., BsTOSQia bftuliuu onlv; derived from __ 
A&ica. They contain a volatile oil, which is tfte most active const 
Thvy also contain mucilage. A cumphoruceous substanco, BaroiBU 
phor, is depoeited from the oil, in the cold. The recent infusion ii 
in the strength of 31 Gm. (or 3j) to the pint. The fluid i-xtmct d< 
mix readily with water, on account of the presence of the oil and extn 

F&ysiological Action. — Buchu-leaves have a slron^, miut-lJke oA 
a bitter, pungent taste. When taken into the stomach a warming, ca 
tive efFect is produced by small doses, but very large onps cause irr 
The volatile oil diftueee into the blood, slightly stimulating the cirei 
and especially acting upon the kidni>yB, increasing the quantity of th 
(both fluid and solid constituents being increased), and imparting 
peculiar, aromatic odor. In process of escretion the remedy acts 
astringent and di&inlcctant upon the urinary organs, especially th 
der. As a portion is eliminated l>y the bronchial mucous membrane, 
ulating influence is also exerted liere in relaxed conditions accompai 
increased secretions. \Vhcn used to excess or for a long jierind, or 
large quantity, the kidneys suffer and degenerative or inflammatory 
tions are initiated. 

Therapy. — The principal use of this agent is for disorders of cs 
character nffccting mucous nicmlirnncs and diseases of thp genito. 
organs. In incontinence of urine, or want of tone in the bladder, g 
«ults iisnally promplly follow its administrntion. Buehu aftord* r 
irritability of the bladder, in subacute or chronic cystitis, and in ) 
Tiirough the enterprise of the owners uf propriolary remedies, buch 
popular reputation for the cure of gonorrhcca. but. owing to the quai 
alcohol contained in the fluid extract. Ibis should not lie used dur 
existence of acute inflommation, and only with great care in chroi 
thriti«, or glcct. 

There are many good reasons for believing that the much-ad 
"buchu-cures" for gonorrhcea contain no buchu-leaves whatever, 
made from the leaves of nva iirai and other domestic plants, Buchu 




nmtti rAH'roiiis. 



£03 



03 o( turpentine very much in its physiological effects, and is useful 
Ibcfa Ibc smme clasa of case*. Id g]c«t it appcara to be highly serviceable. 
ba has bc«o used with success in chronic bronchitis, atonic dy^pepia, 
mis; and in chronic rheunatlMD it i« said to be adminifltered sometimes 
I Mlvanlii^v. 

BUBSA PASTORIS.— Shepherd's purse is a small pIniU belonging to the 
eifrnv, a native uf Eurci]*, but growing liixurianlly in this country in 
ivatn) Unds during the months of April and May. Tliv plant hiiii a 
tr, a>>lrin^cDt, and strongly -pungent taste. It contains a volatile oil, 
mUing tut ijf tuuvlan), a giiico«ido, bilter principle, resin, etc. 

Ac«^otilitit; l4i Ton Oefele, the virtues of the plant depend upon the preg- 
» of boninio acid, the «alts of whioli. with iron and »odium, may be given 
M'J tim lor jir- ise) doaes several times a day. Of the tincture, made with 
■■HMa. thv dosf i* O.fit) to -1 or 15 e.cm. (nr mx>f.^i-iv), given in ca^s 
^^^^Kbaxe from the lung!<, kidneys, or uterus, and aUo in diarrhica and 
Iralrty. A tluid extrail it alao laadv, llic dotic of which is fmm 3 to 4 c.cm. 
ICiff-jt. Uotb prcparnliongare miscible with water without predpilatiou. 

BUTTX^HLOBAI HTDBAS (B. P.). — Butyl-oUoral Hydntta. (See 
IteaL) 

CACTUS, — Cactus. Night-blooming Cereuj^ the Cereus gmndiQoris 
I*-i.eBr). is a plant of Mcxtt^, with large, showy, nocturnal -blooming 
unv of {K-url-whiti: pctalit, which linvc n neavy perfume. A tincture i>( 
k fresh etcmf and flowers (l'2-l Gm. to ■\7'>i c.cm., or .Vv-Oj alcohol) ts 
by Kubini to be a valuable cardiac tonic in doses of O.O6 to 0.30 
or «u-v) tlirw tim«« u day. Probably thwe dose* might be much In- 
oa Kunge gave 1.30 c.cm. (or mxx) at once, and U. C. Wood wa* 
to perci-ive any effect from thcin at all. A difference might be 
ited Tor on the ground that some use the fre^h plant and othent the 
and li-a*i-s reii-ntly dried, the latter being the stronger preparation. 
■Mi that cactus increases the contractile power of the heart- 
,it4-» ilA rhythm, and improveii it* niitrilion. It in claimed to be 
Irani the unpleasant effect of digitalis. Uoinet and Boy-Tcissior deter- 
that in fn>g)i cacluii increases cardiac energy, but tiiat the eSect is 
hninrv- t'r. Reynold W. Wilcox states that the pbj-siologieal action of 
|tw MOpon the intracardiac ganglia and accelerator nerves, through the 

ftc plrxus of the sympathetic system, and that there is no interference 
th«- inhibitory nerves, nor does its administration produce any very 
Aad Ta^ximntor change^!. It shortens the ventricular systole and increaaeB 
Uood-; ' Sultan has extracted an activi' principle, which he temu 

E, frt- . ntinv' fli'wtm (if I he plant. Ik- slates that cactin increaaea 

■rgr of iliL- cardiac contraoiionsv heightens arterial teusion, and has a 
■eoon op*)" I h<r motor it'ntn-s nt the sjiinal cord. It produces reffexes, 
the gi-nerai ncnous tone, and can be used for a long period without 
^aatric symptoms or cumulative effect*. Both puls« and blood- 
are reduced by toxic amounts. The action of the heart is rendered 
and it is arrested in systole. Death is ]>receded by clonic and tetanic 
_n; rau^e«l by nvcrstimulalion of the motor tract of the cord. Dr. 
'mind it €Srpecially Dseful in tmeompetuatcd easea of valvular disease. 



i^nAnMAccmcAT. TnEBArEunc aoknts on nacos. 

in ntlniivi- iRc-otuiiclonoy ilnp to inuvcultir tlc^i-nonitiDn. in wi-iik hiiiHi 
typhoid feriT. in finiclionol heart disrases from alcohol, dyspepew, ( 
exnaiiMion, elr., nnd in tin- pal|(itiili(iit of i-xoplil!iiilmic goilre. In 
rrgiirgitution Ik- i-uiiitidvni it to be the ilriig par txefHuntr. while in 
etcDOHJ.-i it »<hni)M l)oav(iid(<tl. Wntcoii \Vi)liniii» hiix fmind lucIuk hcu 
in milt] cni-i.> <if uiiginu pectoris. C'aetUH hes stao proved iiei-U efGcii 
cardiac drujisy. 

CADUIUU. — Cadmium ii) usually found oonibinefl with ziuc, in th< 
It n-fcniLih-i' tin in t-t'iiiTul upiK'iinimc, and iIh t-nlt» nrc whit^- iind \ 
nent; they ai* i-oluble in water. They are astringent and resemli 
com!);p(>ndiDg xino willif, pitidiicing emiifii', but they arv principally fin 
for their local ellecte. Smul! doses of the salts of cadniiuni cxciti*, w 
given by tin; UKiiilh or liy|)')d<'rmii' iiijttction, i)il1riiinitalion of the f 
intestinal niucoui^ membrane, and tdccration may occur. In additioi 
may i'nii>e uidiliiu-Mi, 1i>hj< of e<>n*cii>ii>ni-Ki, and retardation of rirt^ulntic 
of respiration. Alkaline curbonatcK and urhite of egg are the prop«i 
dotei!, Thi- ointment of the iodide (1 to H of lard) or the olcjite may b 
in chronic enlarj;enieiit of jfland^ or joints, and especially in (goitre. 
aliK) been rt^commendud an an application in caeeti of enlart;ed splee 
is raid not to discolor the ckin. Linclce ha^ made niie of injections c 
inium *ulphat« in teueorrhu-a and gonorrhipa. The sulphate may I 
ployed as an a»tnng<.-nt wanh (in wiliilitms, '/» per cent.) or as an oin 
(1 to -H) beiizoinnted lard). The eolution ot the sulphate \» used as a 
turn. 

CAFFEINA (l.'.S.P., B. P.).--Caffelne, Theine {C,H,„N,0,+ 
Doe»,0.l3to0.85fim. (orgr. ii.x). li. P.^ 0.065 to 0.3S Gm. (org 

I'reparalions. 

Cair«JnA Cltmla (U.S.P.),— ntrBt«l C^tTcine. Dow. 0.005 to 0,32 G 
gr, i-T). 

Cnffcinii rittnln Kfrpn*CBt*us (U, H. P-J.^EfltrveBceal CUmU-d CalFi-inp. 
A to VI C-ii. I'-i' 3i'li]l. 

. Cnircitiw ritrnn (B. P.).— OitTeinM Citwlp. l>o»>'. O.la to 0,05 (Jin. (or f 

OtfretnH- Citrn« EfTm-pacen* (B.P.).— EtTtn-rxpcnt ruffpjnp Citratt, I)n. 
BOiu. IcttSMj). 

Pharmacology. — CalTeine i» e feebly-haMC proximate principle ol 
from llie dried leaves of Thea sinensis (Ternstromiaceip). or from th( 
seeds of ColTca arabiea (Hubiawn.-), and fouiii! aUo in utber pbinln (IT, 
an alkaloid 'nwually obtained from the dried leave* of (.'amellia Tbea, 
seeds of Collea arabiea (11. P.). Purapuay tea, or mate, tbc Itraziliai 
(Ilex Faraguensis). also contains oaReine, and is largely used as a ht 
cnige and stimulant in Smilli America. It evicts also in tlio kol«- 
Africa, ihc fniit of Stercidia aiunjinata (Hiereuliaeen;). Jt is closely i 
to theobromine, esixtinj; in iheobroma ciicao, and to eot-ainc, found : 
thro.'cyldii coca, both in ehemioal eomposition and effects upon the I 
body, 

Citrated caffeine is most frequently employed in medicine on a 
of its greater solubility, but Tanret lias recently shown that by th« o< 
of an eijual weight of sodium salicylate or benzoale the solubility of c 




CAFKEINA. 



SOS 



HfRttly in«Teaaed. Antipj-rin ha* aUo been found to have the ttme Action; 

Mtlut bv thif mc-sns the h^*podermic admin ietration is greatlj facilitflt«d, 

fuul a half <>m. (or ^r. xxiv) of anlipyrin will t;nnhlo 1 Oin. (or ar. xv) of 

Btine to diseolve in 30 c.cKi. (or fjj) of diEtilled water, with the aid of heat. 

:& permanent 1 7- limpid solution. 

CalTeine if in the form of coloricfi«, Eilky, inodorous ciyetals, Bporingly 

jHiiUe in alcohol and cold water (75 pHrt.i), but much mon- noluhle In boil- 

Lwnler (9.5 parts). It is precipitated from its aqueous solution by tannic 

H, or solution of potawium iodide nnd mercury; with the latter reagent 

l(it«oeit is ciyetalline, whereas, with other nlkaloids. the produet is always 

'■Mtpoous when thi.i tei^t in employed. OalTcine waK fiT»l extracted from 

oAk in 1S31, by Pellctier and Caveiitou, and by Itobiquet and Itunge. 

Jtourding to Wurtj;,' it ehemieally is melhyl-theobromine (or trimethyl- 

mihine). The caffeine of commerce is usually made from damaped tea. 

Fhysiolofical Action. — It hns been claimed by Dr. Maya, of I'htladel- 

phit, that the physiological effects of the ealTeme obtained from coffee dilTcr 

bm ihoKe following the ndmtniittration of the alkaloid from tea. It lia^ 

bwa held that the well-known differences in the physiological effects of 

_tatn<l coflec were due to other eonslituents, and especially to volatile oils, 

1 a the ordinary method of manufacture these might still contaminate 

tttReine. It has been shown that tea contains another base, theophylline, 

Mmehc, but not identicAl, with theobromine and paroxanthine. The pres> 

of this ba-te mi^ht also affect the physiolojt^ical resultj>. The experi> 

Itiof Dunstan and Shopheard demonstrate that calTcinc and theine are 

al in chemical properties. Mays claims that theine possesses analgesic 

ties which are absent in caffeine; and that the latter will not utfeet 

i, while the former causes palpitation. Theine, he has asserted, when 

^^fWed hypodcrmically. produces local ona'sthesia, whereas pure caffeine 

*tll Mt affect sensibility. Tanrel and Fauvel, on the contrary, regard 

^*lEriiie as an efficient local antucthctic. Investigations with caffeine prove 

« to ba»e very decided physiologieal powers. There in, after its administra- 

^on, tt first increase, hnt later diminution, of the activity of the reflex cen- 

'*** of the spinal cord. In frogs eon^-ulaions and muscular rigidity are 

*^»ird: the heart's action is at fir*t accclernled and afterward slowed. Artc- 

*i«I pressure at first rises, but subsequently falls. (Jaffcine stimulates the 

•••omotor centre and exert* a diri'ct influence upim the heart. It assists the 

•yitem to resist hunger and fatigue, ft has a decided diuretic action. The 

**tTrtion of UTCa is at first increased, nflcrvrard diminislied. Sobieranski,* 

•ltd a Kries of experiments in the line of Ludwig's theory of urinary secre- 

tica, fotmd that, in animals killed at variolic intervals afler (he injection 

«f i»digo<rarmin, this substance was secreted by the glomeruli alone; it 

*»i nercr found in the bdsut epithelium of the convoliilMl tubuk-s, which 

ptma izain that this epithelium does not secrete. Further experiments 

■pond tSat after the administration of diuretics, and while the system i« 

niDj gndcr their influence, the injection of indigo-carmin varies in its ef- 

titfiL With caffeine the cells of the convoluted Inbules were no bmjier 

*^ti, only a weak coloration here and there in the secreting epithelium, 

^ittlio explains by the fl^nm]itinn that eafft-ine paralyzes the absorbing 

fwnftf the corTolutcd tubules, and to this he ascribes its diuretic action. 



•CflnlbUiU fir fhvtMogit. April A. 1900. 



so« 



rHABUACBCTIOAL TBBR.lFEITTtC AOEN'TS OR DRCGS. 



The diuretic salts — sodium chloride, nitrate, and «cctnt« — produce 
effect through the blood's increasing the secreting power of the gloi 
while only dightlv affecting the absorbing function of the tubules, 
and kindred subgtances stand between theee, as they raise the osmol 
efficient of the g!orai-ruIi on one liiind, uhik- thi-y diminish the abu 
power of the convoluted tubules on Ihe other. 

When caffeine is given in nidinary dogc« the rate of respiration 
duccd. blood-preffiure lowered; temperature Bliphtly increased. aft« 
diminished. The cerebral function* are sliniuldled, and, in wme m 
wnkefulne»! rcf-ulls. Delirium^ alone or associated with Ti«ual hull 
lions, is sometimes excited by the udminiHtrnlion of caffeine. It count 
the effects of nai'colic remeaics. and is valuable in the troatment of 
poisoning, althou;ih not a complete antidote. When taken into the »to 
cufTcine diffuses readily into the blood, iind is eliminated by the kidnc, 
iJie liver, principally Small dosctt increase the appetite and facilitate 
tion; there is some irritation of the digestive tract, increasing peristalt 
in some cases causing venouii congestion and haemorrhoids. From a i 
0.75 Gm. (or gr. xij) of caffeine. Dr. Prutt experitnctd restlesGncee, alO' 
nees, mental depression, and tremor. A de&^ertspoonful of the citi 
caffeine produced nausea, stupor, extreme pallor and debility, soft 
slow and sighing respiration; but recovery followed Ihe use of emetii 
applications, and brandy. Zenetii' calb; attention to the dangers of cB 
\Vilh doses of 0.20 to 0.33 Gm. (or gr. iii-v), two or three times a di 
blood-pressure rises slowly, but steadily, and the quantity of urine 
creased, llelween the fourth and sixth days the patient complains c 
gtriction in the choiit, dy-ipimcfi, nnd restless ni;!;hts. duf to increased 
pressure. Death may result from tetanic contraction of the heart, C 
continue* to heexcntlcd, from ihf urine, for at k'Hst ten lo fideen day 
the last dose is taken: so that it resembles dipitali§ in producing a ci 
tive elTecU Caffeiiio should be used with CHUtion in all renal disea 
arteriosclerosis, and atheroma, and all cardiac diseases secondary to 
Another danger of caffeine eon.*i»t« in the existence of idiosyncrasy oi 
ing suBceptibilily. Zcnetz reports three cases of. in his opinion, deatl 
enlTiriue; in each the heart was found tn be so slrongly contracted ' 
could be cut with difficulty. One was a young man with croupous 
monia, who wa? only taking 0.20 (Im. (or gr. iij) three times a day an 
died suddenly on the third day. 

Therapy. — In migraine, caffeine citrata may be adminiatered, O.Of 
(or gr. j) every hour, with excellent effect; or a cup of strong tea or 
given. Where there is eo-existing liver, kidney, or stomach di^orde 
should aUo receive attention. Ifcmicranio may be relieved by the t 
ii^lration of calTeine, and the hypodermic injection of this atrent i^ snm 
efficient in neuralgia; or it may be administered as follows: — 

R CiilTrinw citrat .*■ I|30 Oni. or gr. ji 

Plipnncctin.. 

PdIv. arrrnintip an 2| Qm. or Sm. 

M. *t ft. eliHTitilio no. x. 

Sip:.: A powder cv<ry (no or tliri'c hour*. Scrviccalilc tn migTBinc. niiil 
rolgia nbniit llic sculp, larr, nn<l In ifinticfi. 



'Wlnier mrdleMnctle Vrochensehrifl. Dec. t), ISIM). 




CAFFEIXA. 



801 



B Ciffeiiw eit«t 1 

Arruntltd , 3 

Eit. cfliuiabii Indictt •>>.... 

U. (I A. cajAukc no. x. 

Sl|.: A Mpmilf BTtrj iwo or Uiree lioun tor neuinlgk. 

BQilTrin« dtrat 2 

AmmoitU broinldi 12 

Bbc. guuBue Oi) 



30 Gn. or gr. xx. 
25 Gm. or gr. 1. 
ao Gm. or gr. hj. 



Gm. or 5«s. 
Om. or SiiJ. 
c.i'in. or fjij- 



Jl tciupoontnl ererjr hour or two uotil rdicvcd of pnjn ot ncurulgiu. 

In defpondency and hypocLondriaEiB, enffcin?. or a cap of hot cofTec 
will Sometime* serve a good purpose. It may be jjivcn in order to 
•te ihe drowsiness which is often produced by a hearty dinner. 
As a cardiae itimiilant in valvuliir di^^eoac^, diluted or fatty hcnrt, or 
Itbr myocaiditie accompanjnng rheumatism, in low fevers, and in dropsy 
rtoweak hean, palTeim? may be given hypodonnicnlly (O.OfiS to 0.13 Gm., 
^p. j-ij, every two to lour hours), or the aodio-henzoate may be employed 
I lecomiiiendcd hy Huciiurd. When being ndmini»t,ered in these ca*ee, 
Itina vill sonictimes give rise to so much insomnia that its use will have 
i te abandoned, or, at least, temporarily sua[)endeil. Dr. Petrescii, of 
t. indeed, cinims advantaf;e from largely increasing the usual doses, 
titatH that h« hna adminiKlered nith good elTect as high as 2 to 4 Qm. (or 
jr.Di-lx) daily for several coiiseciilivc days. Misraehi recommends the use 
Itbesodio-bcnzoate in puerperal haemorrhage, and ethics that when given 
itcfllly it acts more rapidly than erfjot. In chronic Bright's disease 
i diminishes albuminuria and dropsy. It may be used in co-operation 
hjdrago^ic cathartics in ascites. TTripmic coma may sometimes be 
wed by the hypodermic administration of caffeine. The hypodermic 
lioo of caffeine is also of e^sislance in the treatment of opium poisoning, 
tuybe used durinf; the intervals of administmiion of digitalis, or, where 
lib jfng is loo slow, given in ihc following combinations: — 

!t CaScin* citrat. 3|2S Gm. or gr. I. 

I.iqunr potawH citTAtJa, 
E;4Titui wthrri* lutroii, 

ufiu. (ii]|iuli« a« SO] c.em. or fjij. 

.H Sg,: A liall-tviuipniinliil In vinler eVHy tlirn or four hours. Employ In 
I btnUicitncy. attvTidvd uith ilrupsy. 

Id T(«]c, dilated heart, with gouty tcndt-ncy, and in nephritis, the fol- 
I ire nsefol : — 



B tkffinw cifrat. 

I.ithii cilTatii ..Ilk. .. iin C 

Slrychnina? lUlphaL 

01. maltkerto .. 

^«t (I. (apuliD no. II. 

ft Oiirtiaw dtraL 3 

TIbcL (tropbiitthi ,... 4 

AqiuB MmpboM) 00 



50 Gm. 
Oln Om. 



or pr. c. 
or gr. v.. 



Sig.: A ItMpoonlQl Ihrae llmca a day. 
»ilU drop«7. 



30 ccro. or mv. 



Gm. or gr. I. 
Gm. or tnlxx. 
C.cni. or titij. 



D« in pnrenehyniBtoua nsphritU 



la poeumonia, or conceslion of Ihe lungs with weak heart, in elderly 
"■■", eaffeine is an exceUent remedy in moderate doses (0.065 to 0.13 Om., 



SOS 



PHARUACinmCAL THKBAPECTIC AflEKTS OR DRUflS. 



orgT. i-ij, pvcn hypoilcTinicftlly e-rery two to four houn). It ie likei 
value in the vfeafcened heart of typhoid ferer and pneumnnU. after the 
atnge hns pawod. In tlic dinrrhota of rclaxntiun, typhoid fever, »p 
cholera, etc., the eodio-benioate or eodio-ealicylatc may be used, in coi 
lion with mix vomicii or sitrychnine. 

Cholera infantum and the diarrhcea of phthisis are not infreq 
benefited bv onlToinc, An asthmatic paroxysm may often lie rchevcd I 
remedy. (Jn account of its tendency to produce wakefulneec it list 
erally in the form of a strong coffee (eilher given by the stomach or in 
into the rectum), long been a rslustile adjuvant in the treatment of 
poison inc- 

Caffeine Tri-iodide. — lliis compound, s dark-^rcen cryEtallin 
Rtance, readily soluble in alcohol, is a slimulant and diuretic, which ha 
need in cardiac dropsy in the do«o of 0.13 to 11.25 Gm. (or gr. ii-iv). 

Caffeine-tulphomc Acid. — 'riii.i coniiionnd, inlroduced by Drs. 
and Licbrccht, is claimed to etimulatc the secreting power of the k 
wilboiit incr<-n.4ing blood -preasure. It has been ^iven in the form ol 
dium combination, and, while acting as a ^ood diuretic, had no ill 
upon the digcRtive prooeosee. The salt in, therefore, well adapted 
treatment of cardiac or renal dropsy. CnlTeinc-aulphunic acid will alsc 
with lithium, and it is thought that this salt vill prove useful in lit 
gout, and gravel. 

CAJTfPUTI OLEUM (U. S. P.).— Oil of Cajnpnt. (See Oleum Caju 

CALAMUS (U. S. P.).-CalaBM (Sweet Flag). 

Preparalion. 

Kxlnctuni Calami Fluidum (U.S. P.J.— Flniil Kitrart of Calamus. Do( 
4 ftcni. (or ntsv-fSj). 

FhamiaoolOBfy. — The scraped and dried rhixome of Acorns ca 
(Aroidetfi) is slightly aromatic and quite pungent to the taste, and i 
minative. It contains Acorin, n nitrogenous principle, ■ volatile oil, b 
add, etc. 

Therapy. — In con«eiiucnce of its feebly-aromatic laslc, calamus Js 
times iisehil, and is popularly employed, in overcoming a tendency to 
lence, by chewing it *lowly siid swallowing (he saliva. It is eomi 
adopted ait a substitute for tobacco, by those accustomed to chewii 
■weed. It is a constituent in variuii* "bitters" used as appetiwrs and i 
lant«. An infusion (31 Gm. to 473 c.cm., or Si-Oj) may be administe 
wineglataful doses as a stomachic tonic. 



CAICICM.— Calcium. 

U. S. P. Salts and Prtparations. 

Cain.— T.ime. N«l uwd iiilrnially, 

i'»}\ Chliiratn.— Chlnrinntpcl Lime (nvajloblc chlarinr, 3fl p«-r i*nt.; ntt 

properly cullfd I'liloiiile 'if limi'). 

Calx Su!ptiiiraln.— ."^uliihuratpd Lime iCVurfi- Caldum Sulphide). A mbei 
Cnk'iuBi Miiiio-iil(ilii<li' Mini Siilphalp, aiiil Carbon, in vatyliij! pfoportioiw. Uom 
to O.i:! Om. rov gr. V.-ij'- 

CalHi Bnimidiiiii. — Tnlchiro llroniiilf. Dnw, O.dii to S Om. (or jn- \-xx.x. 



t,AlCilM. 



2(Kf 



CaUl I -■■-■--.^ PrNwipiUdiA— rrecipjutMl Cak^ium Carbonatr. Dmw, OjBB to 
• Oh. t«i 1 1. 

C^Ml <. L .:^ui. — ^CVlcitm Chliwid*. Uow. O.OU>S to 1^ Gul (or gr. i-xx|. 
Calait Uyt>(>phcM|ituiL — Cktciam Ily[>opha*pliitc. Done, O-Ofi to 1 JO tini. lor gt. 



-'ptiKB Pncc>|MtatiM- — PttcipitatMl Caldum PhoKplintc. 

LXXl, 



Dane, ft«S to 



' »>'ii -^iili'has Exnircatus.— Urinl (.^Iduni Stilptiate. CunUtDn ttS per ernl., liy 
:ht, ■! cttlctuni MilphaU' uni about 3 )wr cent, of waUi. <PIiL«l«r ul P«ria Xur 



I'Cvta i*TwiMnilB.- Tteparcd Chalk. Dotw, 0.«5 to l.ao tim. for gr. xxx). 

It«dr>r|cvruiii ram CVvta.— Mcmirv with Chalk [mnrciir)', 3S (iiii.; chalk, S7 
Ik, tWUwd b»nr,v, 10 tim.l. DoM. 0,065 to 1,30 Um. jor gr. i-xsl. 

1 in l tn" tifnTT ( 'ali^n. — Ijcne Liniment (eqiial partH o( limp-nnlcr adiI linM«d-«ll). 
RMviVmMl UH! IftirniFrly kuuHO ao iwiroD'Oill. 

LiifOtic C'ltlrto.-'i^iliilion <il linir, or Limo-wator. DoM), 1& to 00 &«m. (or 

MWiarw frrtic- -Ittalk Mtxlun (coiiipouod chalk-powder. cinnamon'ttntRr, anil 
«M(). UuB«. 4 t<i ir> r^m, lor (31-ivi. 

thrtai— (TUKi i-'^lcv.^l'otana with Liinc. Vienna or Caustic I'aita (equal purtn 
«H^ iia>a— «i Btiil Uincl. 

nlvW CrwtiP Comtiixiiiiw,— C'oiTipuiind CtiAlk'powdpr Ipreparul chalk, 30 Urn.: 
a^ Se Um : ■ufpir. M Gin.l. Diiu. 0.32 to 2 Om. lor gr. vxxx). 
— ,,..,. I ..|.^|«,'^)>r»p of LiiiMi. DoM. S to 4 r^u. (ui fSm-j). 

■ • il'ii |jictopho*{ih*tiii. — Syrup at CklduDi I,act€>pbi»pluitr. Dow, 4 
I i3i 1)1, 
■ . - IIj'i>oi>h<i)iphitiini.--Syniii of thf Hvpoplio*phitpi> tvakiiim. 45 tim.; 
ii>, ;.~i (id),; Hudlum, la Qoi.: dUut« hypophonphnrou* ai-ld, 'i (iin.; apirit o( 
><iiniT. and water to make 1000 &(«ii.). Dow, t to T.& c.cm. {or f3q-ij). 
ri>i<u- Hjrpopkoopbituni cuin Fcrro.— Syrup of Ilypapho«pMt4« with lion («on> 
'adat^, I art ovni.l, (low. 4 to 7,5 ccm. (or t3i-ij|. 
I I . r'lPif , — Trnch« of ('balk (pnparrd chnJk, 0l23 On., or gr. Iv, each). 

B. r, Satf;» and Preparalums. 

rxlTL — I.ittM (otilalard bv ralrlninji rhalh. liitirnlone. or marbl*). 

' ' rinata., — ChloriDHtcd l.iinv. pontaininx 33 jwr cvnl. of avail able ohlorine. 
.'Iiiirala, tfulphiiiali^ I.im* la mixtilrv containlns not inurh 1i>m lliull 
till <<f ralciunt Kiatphlde lCai>|, with cal<it)iii Fiilpliute ond <>>Tbuo). IV-*. 
iMiAA (;m. lot or. V,-j). 

■■-•.iiia< Pracipitatn*. — Prn-lpllat^d Calclwm Carbonate ( l'rBclpii«t«l 
■ to 4 Gin. 'or (tr. xix). 
:t . ■ ! um.— Calcium Hilortd*. Do**, 0J2 to I Oni, (or jr. v.xv), 

.tcii My lira*.— Calcium llydruxMr iSlakcd Unic). 

U |]y]M>i>l>iK^ibt>.- Calcium Ilypophoaplilt*. Dow, 0.£0 to O.OA Om. (or gr. 

C«Jril Phcwphaa. — l^lclnm Hiotpliatp. Doar, 0i32 to 1 Gm. tor gr. v-xr). 
t*rirparata.— I'rFpitnd (lialk. 1>om. 0.S6 lo 4 tlin. (or jrr. x-Ul. 
rdraryjniin cum Octa. Urrrury with rlialk. Do«p, OjCMU to 0.32 Gm. lor 

Liumrr <lalrl'». - Solntioo of I.imc I Limr'watcrK Pow. 3» to 120 c.cm. (or (Jiivl. 
^—■ar Calri* ttiloilnaiw.^^liitloii o( l1ilorinat<>il Uiuc (3 p«r (Vnl. o( avail- 
^^tiur I . I>i»c. I.S" lo 4 cent, lor mxx-fSh. 

T-iaaoT < aW'i Sacchaiatai.— SardMralml Solution of IJmf (calcium bvdroxlile, 
-Html Mijiar, 100 Gm.: dUlilbd iratvr, 1000 ccm-l- Uow. I.SO to 4 ccm. 

1 . 'Tim CBtria-^Unimml of I.imc (c^nal parts ot 1iriie>WHlGr and oliT«~oil|. 

I iir«tj;yi Flava-— VclloTT Waati (cormaivc nubliinDlc, 0.411 Gm.; liuip- 

w 1. ' 

I lrBiV5>~' Ni^rra.— Blnck Wa^b (cnlomcl. 0.685 Rm.; Blymriii. S cxm.; 

^_^i _. .(,.!n-, li-A f-em.; limp-wnlnr. <[. : ad IIW cjctn.l. For extamal inw. 

)l^'„ , — Chalk Uixlurr. Doiw. I.t to 30 c.cm. lor fita-j). 

Iv,j,,. .Vroinatku*.- Aromalii- Fawijer of Chalk I cinnamon-bark. 80 0«n.; 

1* 



4 



■ittiU 



810 



lAmi'TlC AGENTS OB DJ 



nu(nif);. 00 Gill.) dar«a, 30 Qui. ; oaiiLuniani'tredB. SO Otn.i sujcnr. 500 Uiii.i p 
rlinlk. ■•■21) ilni.). Dow, OMi to 4 Qm. lor gr. x-5j|. 

i'ulviit CT4-IW ArunmlicUH uuni Upio. — Aioinatlo I'owdrr i>( (.'linlk u'itb 
(HinUininu O.OOft Gin., or gt. j. of opium in 2.U0 tim.. or gr. xl). Dow. 0.8.1 
(jm. lorgr. x-xx). 

fij-iupu» t.^lrii I^(iopho*phutis. — Sjtu]i ei Cali-iiun Lactopliosjihate. 
to 4 c.pm, (i>r (3**-il. 

Fhjirmnoology. — Lime, or calcium oxide, is an alkaline earlli 
like potAs»)iiiTi niitl Mxliiim. dceompoei-fl wuUt nt urclitiAT? tempvr 
Calcium oxide, when fresh from the lime-kihis. is in large, hard, g 
white niai^fii-t-, conEtitiiCing what is known at, quieklimi'. which has { 
affinity for water, even lakin^ it from the air. I'nder the infla« 
moiHtiirc, lime ^encrati'^ heat and breaks up into & wet powder, whi 
mixture of calcium oxidi- and calcium curoonnteit, and conslitutea 
lime. Calcium oxide jb more soluble in cold than in hot water. Ch 
calcium oarhonatc, i» a valtuihb unlidote in caKC« of poifoning by ca 
Bulphuric. or oxalic acids. It is found in the housenold in tooth-p 
convenient tor {.irompt ndmini.itnilton. 

Physiological Action. — Some preparations of lime arc Bedatire, 
astringent or cuuKtic; (luicklimc it irritating and eaustic to mucouB 
branes. Lime-water and chalk are aetringent and alkaline: they redi 
acidity of Ihe contents of the Hlimcntary canal, thu« relieviog irTitati( 
also exert a sliRhtly astringent effect. In patients suffering from def 
of lime iu the fond, lime-water ie a useful and acceptable remedy, at 
be continued for a long time. Calcium phosphate Berres an importan 
tioa in promoting the nutrition of th« motor apparatus, — bone, ca; 
tendon, and muscle, The presence of a certain proportion of Wme-t 
the blood is essential to general nutrition. When this amount is n 
diBturbances arise, affecting particulorly the bony and lymphatic gls 
syateniB. Calcium chloride is more of an irritant; it ha.n a reputation 
inSucDcc as an alterative in strumous patients. Vienna paste is nscd 
gery as a cfiustic. According to the invest igations of M. Binet, the i 
the alkaline earths are capable of causing respiratory and cardiac afTt 
from which death may directly ensue. They may also cauae deranj 
of the gastro-intcatrnai syBtom. Evcntunlly they may occasion low o 
ons excitability and muticular contractility. Toxic doses of calcium 
the heart in systole. Culciiim exerts a special action upon the nerve 
tem, occasioning a condition of torpor with preservation of reflex excir 
and sensibility. 

Therapy.— Lime is an ingredient in depilatory powders, which a 
BUperieded by the process of removal of hair by electrolysis. Freshly 
lime absorb* the products of decomposition, and is used as a disinfec 
cesa-pools, manure-heaps, etc.; but the chlorinated lime, which preve 
composition by virtue of the available chlorine, is for better. In thi 
ment of onychia maligna Professor Vannetti recommends the applies 
caustic lime. Lime-water is a stimulating dressing for wounds and 
and, combined with oil, is uw-d as a dressing for burns. Oarron-oil ( 
of linsced-oil end lime-water. It is suggested that the addition of ' 
per cent, of thymol augments the value of carron-oil by rendering it e 
septic application. A better dressing is made by beating up lard {uc 
with lime-water and adding a few drops of oil of bitter almonds, 
good preacriplion to use in burns will be: — 




CAIflUU. 



ill 



B CUrIa pnpctn 4[ Gm. or Sj. 

Add) nrbolfci 8| Clm. or SiJ. 

OLoUvD. 

Aqm ealrit an 1A0| cent, nr fjv.— M. 

C)Rrron<oil alio relieves pain cansc-d by the stingy of wasps and other in- 
According to Dr. Joseph Bell, applied to the face on a niasti of 
hvool it will decidedly diininiiih the pitting in small-pox. 
Lime-WKter ie of undoubted value alone, or combined with glycerin, in 
ItTtfltment of acute vetiicular vczemn. It may be employed for this as 
juother varieties of eciema, especiully when the Burfuce is dry and irri- 
' .with very great relief. Pruritus, which often becomes intolerable in 
and other inflammatory affections of the ^kiu, and itching: present 
persons, may be relieved or cured by the application of lime-water, 
I rote-water, glycerin, or one of the oils. A very suitable application in 
FdiifflHc just referred to is: — 



H IJi|uor cnlcto tX) 

C^NMti 

Pntnrlii (iR(4 carb. limpur.) ,. SI 

Glywrini vrl ol, olirte SO 

X. SiE" ^akc u*cll and mop om tli« ■uriace. 



c.ca. or fjiij. 

00 cent, or mx. 

Gm. or Sj' 

c.i^i. or I3UJ. 



t. 



For the relief of pruritus ani, Dr. A. L. Bcrger advises the use of a 
fWW of cotton-wool soaked in the solution of chlorinated lime and inlro- 
^w into the bowel. In scborrhtt'a, hyperidrosis. bromidrosis. and in 
Wm of the skin and deeper structures, the preparation!* of tnlciiim are 
AsBwd with gwat benefit. The following are excellent combinations: — 

t Ckltii tarh. pr«t«ip. 3lj Gm. or JJ. 

Lk). tMroglfOfridii <S0 p«r c«nt.) 16] o.em. or 

K. Sg.: Snmr onr th« poiti bmiKd. 

B (kkit riiIori<U, 
(Urii tarb. pnccip.. 

Pair, smyll -. an 31| Om. or Jj. 

JL Sig.: Dost over U16 vuttavi-, ttpedall; in oily conditions of the akin and in 
' utd tctid penpiration. 

' htpurd chalk is emph>yed very largely, alosfl as well as an ingredient 
'MaT Tei7 good denlifriecii, on account of its antacid, astringent, and 
*blne action upon the gums and the mucous membrane of the buccal car- 
%• Guretson recommends the appended formiUa as being a good tooth- 

I Ct*M pvcpar., 

Pnlt. IrSdb llor. br ICIS Qm. or Sa*- 

Pal*. owi wpix 6l Gin. or Sij. 

Old litnoni* q. a.— M. 

htpaied chalk is a good dusting-powder in intertrigo and hyperidrosia, 
•iwy be ttwd upon the surface of ulcer* as n protective dressing. 

nr preparations of calcium are especially useful in childhood because 
^^dcoeieiiey of lime in the_ food of many ehtldreu. I.ime-water added 
••^ttgive* material for bone* and teeth, improves nutrition, and overcome* 
"■d«Bcy to rickets, ll relieves irritability ofthe stomach and vomiting. 



SIS 



PIUHMACBtTTICAL THERAPErnC AOKST* OH DBl'GE. 



The Bjrrtip of lime, or the Knglish MCcliaTiited aolulion nf linie. co 
more of the base than tho solution, and is a convenient antidote to poll 
bj ozalic, sulphuric, nnd other mineral ncids. In i^hildren'ii diarrhcea, 
due to flour stomach, chalk mixtare is very useful, and may be combinei 
an aiiti#cptic end opiate: — 



B CrpMoti ..!>. ■..■••.••■•..... 

Tinrl. 4|jii omph 4 

MUt. ncte q. a, ad 00 



24 c.^ni. or ntiv. 
can. or tSj. 
I'.i'iu. or tSij, 



M. Sig.: A tcimpoonful every two houi* to a child two j-ran old. 

The eame mixture is useful in adults, with coireEponding inert 
do8e and the iiddilion of a decided astringent, such sr tincture of kj 
fluid extract of colo-bark. 

The following combination is said to be useful in phthisis and c 
pulmonary affections; — 

5 OwoBoli 101 ccm. «r fSUnti 

AtcobolU (90 percent.) SO c-«Di. or fSliJ. 

Cnldi phoflphnt i.... 199 Gra. or Sv. 

AqUH- ilMtillata 1815 c.mi. nr fSv. 

Srnipi !■.•■■> >... 1051 c.nii. ur (Siiiw 

vini alba iMnlnga) q. s. ad lOOOf P.cin. or Oiifji 

Each tablu^poonful contuins about 0.16 com. (or mii>«) of crcosc 
0.33 Gm. (or gr. v) of monot-itlde phosphate.' 

Other very effective prescriptions contaioiug Umc are; — 



B Cnloil onrhonntls prtciclpltatl IS 

Tiactum csUchu 30 

Tiaetune <n>ii m.. 7 

Spiritua chlorofomil - lo 

Pulvi'Tia ni'svitp 8 

Aquip mcnth. pjp lOS 



Om. or 3ilj. 

CJ.1II. or fSj. 

f.CDI, (rr f3ij. 

p. cm. or fSiv. 

<im. or 3ij. 

cjcm. or f^vii 



M. Sig.i One or two teospoonhiU in water evsry hour or two, (or acu 
rheea. 

B Ijquor cnlci*. 

EkI. roln corticls H., 

Syrup, aoa(^la^ an. 30[ com. or tSj. 

M. Sig.^ From onft to two teitBpaontula in water or milk i<ver; thrwo 
boun, for chronic diHirliaia, 

Special Applications. — In veri' vounj; L-hildnii linnj-wntpr alone 
Gcient wht-rc tht motions arc too frequent and water}' and aoid in tl 
action. It is also oswd per enema ngninst th rend -worms, ami it may b 
as an injection in leucorrhtra. In diphtheria much relief is expe 
from the iw of a spray of lime-water, preferably with the Ktcam-at 
ilirceted to the fniiccs, or from inhaling the vapors from slaking li 
is filaimed that the lime loosens the false membrane and partially A 
it. It i» iilw useful in the same manner in croup and plastic lironchiti 
Tapor obtained from chlorinated lime is advantaneoupiy inhaled in ha 
In adiilts. where it is desirable to administer milk, it in often found m 
to add lime-water to it to prevent curdling. In the nrtiticinl feeding 
fants the addition of lime-water to cows' milk is of decided service 
dering the curd more soft and flaky, and conseijuenlly more cn^y of di, 

' Journal rf™ PraHrlent, Feb. 24, 1900. 




CALCWIX. 



213 



tnd lim«-wsier will not infrequently relieve ga*lnilgi{i. and even, id 

iii(1fln(.-V¥, the puin of gactric carcinoraa. In the latter affection it also 
the Tomiting- The prolonged administration of lime-water render* 
wme slkHltnc. and hence it may prove useful in lithiasis. It has been 
that, ander the fame cin?umiilani.t:»i, cnrbnmic acid may appear In the 
The acid is united to the lime and causes the fluid to emit an am- 
odor. In combination with opium and aromntioB, a» in the piilvig 
tntr ■romaticus cum opio of the British Fharmacopreia. chalk is of great 
niKin diarrbcea. The carbonate of ealoiuin is likewise lienefieial iu diar- 
Aut, and, finely powdered, is a good application in intertrigo and acute 
KWDa. Calcium phoiiphnte itt ufeful in rickets; aim in anmmln, general 
Militj, diairhrta, in small dosee.. given frequently; it appears to have a 
tisnltting effect upon Ihv liver, and should be given in preference to mer- 
m fn infants with day-colored stools, and in jaundice. I'he anarmia due 
l>pr«{ii»« suppuration, or to lactation, may be rcmedii'd l)y the- adminigtm- 
IMI of this salt. It is advantsgeoua, moreover, in mollitiea ossium. delayed 
nuBof fractured bone, caries and neerosis, and scrofulous inflnTiunation of 
ftthmphatic glands. The hydrated phosphate has been warmly recom- 
Mutd ai T«]ieTing the sickness of pregnancy. 

CUx eulphurata is useful in styes, acne, and furuncles; given in 0.015 
fcWGm. (or gr. '/,-»») dojcs several lime." a day, it hastens maturation of 
JMltlta. If given early, it prevents the formation of pus, but. if suppura- 
tahas occurred, oalrium sulphide limilx itit exieni rtnd fnvnr^ larly and 
W(toe evacuation. This combination is serviceable in both acute and 
«bwjc eczema. It is likewiM' bemllcial in the suppuralion of scrofulous 
fnb. Dr. Frank P. Sorbury finds it nseful in acute tonsillitis, especially 
<(Riiiniius patienls, u-ilh n tendency toward rn[)id suppurtiiion. It prt^venta 
• Snits the formation of pus. Dr. Withcrle, of St. Paul, slates that cal- 
ow nilphide is beneficial in the early #tage of pulmonary luberculosiH, 
pto itt dosca as large as can be tolerated. The swelling of the upper lip and 
^9 'd Di« nose so often seen in scrofulous children may be decidedly im- 
Jiwri b}' the exhibition, night and morning, of 0.015 Qm. (or gr, '/*) closes 
'falduin fulphide. In diphtherin, during ihe period when the membrane 
■ (naraing and suppuration is taking place, Phillips recommends the ad- 
■aiitrttion of thi.< jalt in dnsea of O.Ol to 0.015 Gm. (or gr. '/o-VJ every 
^ore*erj- two hours. A case of etephantiaais has been reported in whicn 
SiriiJt vag successfully employed. 

It is given with good effecta in ophthalmia and sores in scrofulous chil- 
Calx sulphurata is the otTicinl ei|iiivnlent of calcium sulnhidc, which 
Wen used in conjunction with defervescents by Dr. T. SI. Lloyd, of 
BrtaUyii, X. Y., in measles and scarlatina, with the apparent result of 
■Mfing the course of the fever. In pertussis the same remedy reduced the 
mbei and severity of jinroxysms. It was administered In dose» of 0.03 Gm. 
(•fjr.ai) half-hourly to children between two and five years of age. Rubbed 
^nth Mgar of milk it was taken without repugiiaiu r. Tlii" >^It will occa< 
■••IIj produce an eruption of vesicles, pustules, and furuncles. Dr. A. M- 
ftfca advocates the treatment of di)>hthena by Icical swabbing with a mixt- 
Biof carbolic acid, tincture of chloride of iron, and alcohol, and the internal 
tdniiuitraiion of calcium sulphide, 0.05 Gm. (or gr. V.). every half-hour for 
*9^od of thirtv-«ix hours, water being taken freely to help elimination of 
Attuio. 



r: 



214 



rilARHACEUTICAL TUERAI>BIJT1C AOKKTS OR DItVGS. 



Calcium chloride (not calx chlorata) is given, veil diluted, in g\m 
enlarj^cments, and is Kaid to be curative m oczcma aad lupus; it i» cli 
that it aida cicatrization in tubercular ulceralianii, and ia useful in c 
and colliquative diarrliwas in strumous childreii. Calcium chloride 
vomiting produced by the presence of sarciniE ventriculi. 

Dr. Crombic, of the aael Indian incdiLal ticrvic<-, has found ca 
chloride efficacious in the treatment of boils and pneumonia. Dr. 
Wright hsE ascertained by experiment that the addition of calcium ch 
to hlofld renders coagulation more rapid. He has given the salt inte 
with advantage in a case of haMnophilis, end Etif-^et-tit that it will prove < 
in the treatment of internal tiffimorrhage and aneurism. He has knc 
to arre*l an obslinatcly-rccurring epi«taxi« and a seven; case of ha'iiio] 
The same writer had prepared a "physiological styptic" by adding 1 per 
of calcium chloride to the fibrin obtained by whipping frethly-drnwn I 
This preparation occasions prompt coagidstion and occlusion of wound 
a case of ha^matemesis and gaetro-into«linal hemorrhage in a child i 
old, L. A. Parry' gave frequent doses of 0.32 Gm. (or gr, v) of cslcium 
ride everj' hour during the day and every two hours at night. The 
took 10.35 (5m. (or IHO grains) in three days, when the medicine was 6 
tinued because bleeding had ct-ased for twenty-four hours, 

Dr, S. Solis-Cohen prefers the calcium chloride to any other dt 
the trealmciU of tianioplysis, administering it in doses of tl.$h to 1 Gi 
gr. x-x\) every second hour in glycerin, simple elixir, and water, or in; 
of gentian. Dr. Saundby has employed the same salt with eucoom in pu 
heemorrhagica, admiaistering 0.38 Urn. (or gr. vj) every two hours d 
the day. Sir J. Suwvcr lius employed the chloride in chronic pulm 
tuberculosis with gooa results, and stateg that in addition to its other a 
iMget it will oft*-n suppress night-sweats. Both the chloride »nd th 
bonate have been serviceably given in order to restrain baimorrhage t 
by n fibroid tumor, and to check menorrhagiu. 

Calcium liypophosphite has a special reputation for the treatmi 
phthisis, and is a iigeful tonic in such cases. The compoiiml syrup i 
hypophosphitea with iron or strychnine, in appropriate eases, i& one ■ 
best general systemic tonics that we possess, especially when prescril 
follows: — 

B Syrup, hj |)oiilioap)itU comp.. 

Syrup, fprri inctiilis ■> 1201 tjna. or f^«, 

Strychnlnte iiuliihnti* iOI5 Gm. or gr. ■ 

U. Sig.i A hal(-tables|ioon(ul in wat*T three times n dny. 

Calcium bromide was brought forward, by Hammond, as a aubf 
for bromide of potassium in cases where the depressing effects of the 
would forbid its use, such as epilepsy or choieii, in anieinic subjects (in 
of 8 to 8 Gm., or 5s8-ij). Professor Germain S^e regards both the bn 
and chloride &s advantageous in the treatment of dyspepsia and man 
eased conditions of the stomach. This salt would, however, seem 
adapted to fulfill the indications of a bromide in rachitic sid>ject». Th 
mide is said to contain one-sixth more bromine than the potassium brc 
Hugh Woods prefers the calcium oxylodidcs to the other iodine prepam 
as containing more iodine. According to the testimony of Dr. Becbe 

' The Lonca, July 16, 16S8. 




CAIXIL'U. 



SIS 



mem- 



obormtod bv I>r. Lnvrence, the calciom iodide 

oup. These writers advisie that O.Ol to 0.0; . , - „ - ,. , .„ 
KMolvvd in water^ should be ffina ereiy fifteen, thirty, or eixtj minutes, 
taeofding to tbt> •ererit}' of the symptoms. Gnibe hits reported' good results 
■ £ab«C«e meUitus from what is called the "esK-shell" trcatnu-nt. the pa- 
tet talnng a leospoonful of povrdtred egg-sholl daily. lie has suggested 
I pvwder in imitation of egg-shells for the same purpose and haji obtain«l 
tan it vary viicoumging rwults. Onibc's powder contains calcium car- 
Waatc. 95 part«: u-ith calcium phoaphate ana magneaiura phosphate, each, 
ly, part*. Of thia* Gm. («roj) are to be taken daily. The syrup of calcium 
auaphate (made by dissolring calcium phosphate in lactic acid, with 
-flower watirr and syrtip) is a pleasant and very useful remedy for im- 
nutrition in young children, eapecialiy if there bo a scrofulous taint. 
Kins about 0.75 Gm. (orgr. sjj) of calcium phosphate in each ouncfi. 
I a valuable agent in treating many skin disea.ies due to malnutrition. 
tCDubinatioo may be advantageomily pTr«cril>ed, in vesicular cmphytcma, 
bronchitis, phthisis, debility, and waiting diseases, thus: — 

■ Sjrrvp. emiell lactopliovphatla 

OM (anltlMrri* 

Palvvria acAcuc 

Unaar paacrmtlci , 

OM BKirriaua^ 

H rt ft. emulKio. 

Sg.: A tablctqKMtttiil three times > daj, 

I>r. H. V. Knagga ascribes valuable nntisj>osinodic properties to calcium 
■^kttr, in apasmodic diseases. lie gives 0.O03 Qm. (or gr. Vm) ^o ^ child 
■eyear old £ttfr«ring with convulsions from dentition, mcnlngiti«,.aud even 
■to mbcrculosiE. A saturated aqueous solution of the bisulphite is an 
■BtOcnt non-poiAonoua di»inff«tAnt. Tlie preparotions of chalk, if given 
kkiXB daec* for a cousideiable period of time, may form intestinal concre- 
fm^ Calciom aalicylate, a salt which is sohihio in water, haa been rocom* 
■■dad aa a remedy in diarrhtea, eapecialiy that of children, llie dose is 
b^O 51) to 1.30 Gm. (orgr. viii-xx), and it 14 given either alone or combined 
■lb tnunatb aalicylate. It is a white, odoness, and tasteless crystalline 



00 


c.cm. 


or ISiij. 


2 


ccm. 


or mxxx 


4 


Gm. 


M 3i. 
wrt). 


SO 


ftt'UI. 


IM 


can. 


or IJv. 



Calrinm carbide has been need in inoperable cancer of the nterua by 
r, of St. Petersburg, for its caustic action when bn>nght in contact 
Ma water and th^ disinfecting properties of the acetylene. I'nder its use 
j^MarrbaiQe has b<K-n rheoke<] and the ulcerative proccKsc» retarded. 

Oaleia^ Eoiolate is a sulphosalt of the aliphatic creoAote esiere. 

lid to contain ZT> per cent, of creosote. Its formula is given ox 

Kt)a^'*a- '" large doses it produces griping pains in the intestines, 

The iherapcutic do*e is fmm 0.25 to 0.65 Gm. (or gr. iv-x) 

jur timea a day. It is a grayish powder, feeling to the touch like 

mxe<i pumice-stone. Its odor is slightly pungent and somewhat 

it* tartc a little acrid and leathery. It a soluble in from S to 10 

, at cold and in ? parts nf hot water. It is ven- slightly ^iluble in 

, u>d insoluble in chloroform and turpentine, but is readily dissolved 

Jfmani4e/te. Ma}-, I8M. 





*I8 PHARJIACRmCAL THBRAPBCTIC AOKNTS OR DRCOS. 

by hydrochloric, citric, and by eome other org«nic acids, while it dii 
only slowly in acetic acid. 

Dr. Hi'iimch Stern,' of Xi-w York City, gives the history of n w 
fthle esse of diabetes inapiduR, in a buy of iiixteen ycani, vho vim paasin 
one and oiic-liulf gullon^ of urin« per day that had a BpeciGc gravity 1 
than vater. He was dwarfed in ataturc to that of a cliild of seven yeai 
for a long time hud shown no etgnii of dovelDpmciit. (.'iidcr the ca 
eoeolatc treatment, in conjunction with 3 com. (or mxlv) doees of fli 
tract of ergot tour linieH a day, he for the first time in ycnni steadily 
to incieaee in weight, lost his nervoumeas, the hydnuia gradually < 
iiihcd; though occasional increases occurred for a brief period, tlicrc ' 
iucrease in the excretion of solids, and thirst was diminished. At th 
of the report the patient still coutinucd to improve. 

Five cases, reported by Dr. Stem, of diabetei; mellitns under trei 
with calcium cosotatc and n milk diet ceased excreting dextrose, goi 
weight, and improved otherwise. One of the cases at a later date c 
endocurditi^, Ten cai^ce of phthisis ^huwi-d di^cidi-d signs of improi 
under small doaes of the eosolate in conjunction with other remedies 



CALENDULA (U. S. P.),— Karigold. 

Preparation. 






Tinctum Cftlenduto (U.8.P.).— Tincture of CaUndula (80 per oent-J _^ 
io 4 c.ctn. (or tSnrj). 

Pharmacolofy and Therapy.— The florets of Calendula officinalis 

Eiflsito/) L'imtaiu a vcihitile oil, an amorphous bitter principle, CalnidllJ 
ow coloring matter, etc. It is used as an cittmenngogue and as a diaph 
in ract-nt infusion. In the form of tincture, it is reputed to be tonif 
spasmodic, and alterative, and may be employed locally as a rcvidi 
sprains, bruises, or in superficial burns and scalds, resembling amies 
applications, though less active. 

CALUMBA (IT. S. P.)— Calnmba (Columbo). 
CALITMBa: KADIX (B. P.)— Caiumba-root. 
Dose, O.iJa to 0.(j6 Gm. (or gr. v-x). 

Preparations. 

Bxtraclum OlumbB Fluidum (U.S.P.)— Fluid Eitract of Calumb*. 
to 2 c.em. (or mxv-ixK), 

llnctiira Cbluinbs (U.S.P., B. P.).— Tincture of Cnluniba. Dote, 4 to 7 
lor (3i-ij). 

l.li]iior Oiliimlm Conccntmtus (B.P.). — Concentrnled Solution of C 
(calumbM. 600 Gwi,; niooliol [HO per cent.], 225 c.eiii.; distilled wnlcr, q. a. i 
c.Cin.). DoM, 2 lo 4 c.i-m. (or tSw-J), 

Intusum Cslunibie (li. P.). — infuaion o{ Calumba (6 per cenL). Dose, 1 
can. (or fSn-j). 

Pharmacology. ^ The mot of Jalenrrhiza pnlmatn (Meniepem 
P. S. I'.: -Inliiirrhiza Columba (B. P.) of Africa contains, among it 



'Journal if thr .Iwrliviii IfrdiwiJ .^aimiHaliiin, xxxiv, p. 487. 




CAH80CIA. 



Sir 



it*, berberine. calumbin, calumbtc acid, and starch. It is free from 
, Bti'l ili.Ti'fnrv it«>fin-ii«nitt<>nsinay be combined willi Iron. 
Tk^tologicftl Action and Therapy. — In composition and pbydological 
Omni oklumba rescmbloK <iiifls«iA ami goiitinn, though lighti^r iind more 
ETceable than some of the other remedies of this class, and more acceptsble 
a the fftoniich. As a bitter tonic, caliimbii may be used during conro- 
■oeDoe. nr in atonic dvspcpiia or other enfeebled constitutional conditions. 
1 if belicTcd to be Hom««'hut wdative and antlsnosmodic; in cnKes where 
tm qvalitT is required it would be better to use the fluid extract or powder 
BkiB the tincture. A email do«« of the tincture or infiiKiou of cjilumba will 
tltea relieve nausea and vomiting. Atonic diarrhopa is benefited by cahmiba. 
Vkm the tincture is prescribed as an appctiter, the danger of forming the 
tfoobol habit should be kept in mind: — 

B Ext. CNinntMa 13 Gm. or gr. ij. 

9ndU U<«rt> as Gm. or ^. x. 

PkIt. rbei .... 32 Gm. or gr. v. 

PuIt. tjagibcra 95 On. or gr- X. 

M. rt fu chBrt. M<tt* UIm no. xxs. 

SC'! TaJce <ph brlore tath lolid meal, tor weak dlgmtion. 

Am ■ good carminative miiturc Dr. Crulchfield prescribes: — 



Tr. nUn^b* 

Sbl Mnnaii. BMnat 

TV. cardkin. <o. q. •. ad BO 

Doae: Tablnpoonfnl la vaur a> i«qair«d. 



p.vm. or f3iij. 
c.cm. or fSiu. 
c.cm. or f3IIJ. 



^BDt. SdiQltz hax had ver^ good rctults from the tincture of calnmba tn 
Vtmtmeot of ^stric catarrh. Calumba has been especially recommended 
■am rahublr tontc in convale»cenoe from influenxa. Dr. A. F. Myers,^ of 
ig; Olen. Pa., conpiders calumba as the best of the vegetable tonics; 
< a stntnachic in mild formi- of dyspepsia and as a general corroborant 
eoDTalescent stage of acute diseases and in general debility. 

CAMBOOIA (U. S. P., B. P.).— Gamboge. 
0.006 to 0.20 Om. (or gt. '/„-iij). 

Prepttnlion, 

ntNia Ckmbogin Conipo^U (B. P.).— ComiNnind Pill of Gamltogc (oontsinina 
^K. BarlMilor* alnr«, Mmpouni] rlniDnnnn powder, of Mcli. 1 |>«rt; hard luiap, 2 
with •jrBp of giiKxiM. I part. Mix to form » ma>i|. Do**, 0.26 to 0.50 Gm. 
i«-Tiij». 

loology. — Gamboge h a gum-resin, obtained from the Oarcinia 

((jntttfcnc): a tree of Siam, It consists largely of gambogic acid 

' crnt). and is partly soluble in alcohol and ether, and fonnn an cmul- 

Twitli water. It has no ofTiciuI preparations in the V. S. P.. and is rarely 

l)v itiielf. but is a constituent of the compound cathartic pill 

I pill containinE O.oi.i Gm., or gr. '/*. '•f gamboge). 

IkTrioloffiesl Action. — Gamboge i« not a syetemic, but a local, irritat- 

^itjrc It '* "' tir^t tftitclcse. hut afterward nroducea an acrid taste, 

taereued Accretion of saliva. In Ihe intestinal tract it has a drastic, 



'JTirflMl «M>' Siirfl<ol Feporter, Ma^ 1(1, 1RB8. 



ns 



PUAIIMACELTTCAl, tllKIIAPEUTIC AGENTS OH DRCOS. 



hydra gogic, cathartic elTocI. It stiinulatefl llic inteatinal glan<l3, but m 
liver (Bulhorford), and is also believed to have some power as a diurel 
it iinparte a bright-yellow color to the urine. It carriea off the bile i 
intcHtina] cansl and prevents reabsorption. Large doees cauee vomitio,' 
fpastro-enteritia. 

Therapy.— Gamboge hae no local eff4>ct beyond staining the skii 
v/ae (oMtii>rly uHod in cardiac dropiy ait an hydragogic oathanic to car 
large quantitiee of fluid and promote absorption, but the compound 

?[>wder aoeomplishe* this renult more quickly, agreeably, and cert 
he compound cathartic pill is a good remedy for constipation and i 
beginning of the tn-atmcnt of malarial jioJAOuing. In minute duies I 
Gm., or gr. '/,o, every hour or two) it is claimed that gamboge affords 
relii^ in flntnlcncu and intcKtinnI indigestion. j 

CAHEIXIA. — Tea. The cxtomporaiiooiwly- prepared infusion i 
dried Itavts of Camellia thea (Temstrcemiacea;). or Chinese tea-plant, i 
•0 widely u«ed at the table as a beverage Hint it hn)i yiven its name 
evening meal. It contains caffeine (or thiini'). theophylhne (Row 
Tolalik- oil. lunnin, etc. Green tea is made froni the younger leavex, 
with a moderate heat, so as to retain their color (^omclimea fraiidu 
colored with Prut^sian blue, turmeric, and copper), while the black 
made of the older leaves, and contains more tannin. 

Physiologioal Action and Therapy.— The i-lTcet* of tea are not 
represented by calfeiiie; probably theophylline, which is isomeric with 
bniniiiii-. und the volutile oil assist in pmdiicirig il(i |ihy*iological actioi 
the system. Br. Thomas 11. Mays claimi- (hat the physiological flcl 
calTi'inc di'riv<-il fnmi Camellia is dillirent in its tffectii from tliat of 
It is an antidote to narcotic poisoning by virtue of its caffeine, and b 
monv and many alkaloid* on account of its tannin; jt is also a physio' 
antidote to agents which depress nerve-function or the heart. In smal 
infused with boiling water, tea is an agreeable stimulant, removing a 
of fatigue and giving a feeling of well-being. It is useful in hcadachn 
overwork or worry, and will often relieve migraine. Tea is an accessor 
but. on account of its convenience, it often becomes th* principal art 
food for persons who think tliai they cannot sjinre time to jirepare 
meal, or have not the appetite to eat it. In many cases of what ha 
called tea-drinkers' dyspepsia, in sewing women, it is found, upon ii 
that the tea is drunk with every meal, and that very little food is lake 
it except bread or hot biscuit. Such caeeg of debility, palpitation 
heart, flatulence, anorexia, constipation, etc., are not really instai 
"theism," but cases of starvation and chronic indigestion, and requir 
food, sunlight, eiercise, and tonics. Men who deal in tea. and com 
taste it, only exceptionally show sj-mptoms of n«rve-disorder ascribi 
this cause; even then it may he due to idiosyncrasy, for persons ha 
fcrent degrees of susceptibility to the effects of tea. Some cannot m 
all; others are proof, apparently, against any ill effects. Many can 
black tea who cannot stand the effects of green t^-a. Strong green t> 
embarraes digestion and give rise to constipation. Tea may also di 
the tendency to sleep and in people of highly-m-rvous tempemmei 



'Ze((»chrift fur FhynMogit^ Ohrmle. Themprulle nasrite. March U^ 




CAUftlOHA. 



219 




■t ulMtiiiatt? wiik«rulni>M. Unliiiurily, itio idwUtiiI^ use of tMi rolicve* 
ifMr lutd di:ip(Mei> to nientxl cheerfulness. 

Ihe tluiil (.-xtract ut \va may Ue umsl with fiotxl i<lTect iii low fevcis u 
ri^nlnut. an<l in tvplioid j^iieiiiuouis, in the some cIas& of cases as uien- 

CJJCPHOBJl <U. S. P., B. P.).— CuBphor (C,3uO). 
DoM, 0.0G5 to 0.32 Gm. (or gt. i>v}. 

Preparatimts. 

Cmatfiimm (U.S. P.).— Civpltor C*rat«. 
ir>il|illiili SJonobroBuiU lU.S.P.). -Monobromated Cnniphor. Dom, IK0S3 to 
*». (or gr. i-r). 

A^aa (*>in[ilionr H'. i>. P„ IL I'.l.— ('amplior-niler |C. S.P. Mnlaiiia 3 (ini. to 
ks^Bu, nr irr. Iv-fjji, I>om. 4 lo IC r.ci». (or fSi-irl. 

SpMtMS CMnpfaot* (U.8.P., B.P.}^-8pirit vt Canphor (tO per cent.). Dom, 

»t> 1.90 CCM. tor MT 3UC). 

UalBKBtiun Campbone (U.S. P., B. P.).~~<.'Biti|ihoT Linimenl, Oampharetad Oil 
' r, SO: cottonarrd oil, SO part*). External uk. iln D. P. olive oH b lued.l 
Incatan Ounptiora Ammanlalam IB. P.). — AmmnnUUd lor Compound) 
LMf Ounpfaor leainpltor. SOGm.; oil of Utrndi-r. 3.5 r.mi.: lUong •olution of 
l^pMis. lOO «.»!.; Alcohol {BO per Mtit.], a nufllclcnl ({iinntitj In ninko 400 c.rm.). 
^■TtaftnrB Cmm^toK Compout* (& P.).— (.'<iiiii>c>iiiia TitK-lure of Camphor (Pare- 
^Pk«r taivgarle Dixlr: tinctars of opium, nilli bonuiic acid, camphor, oil of aniw, 
^■almko)). Eafli t v<m. (or drachnil contains th» «iiiiival«&t of 0.01C Gm. (or gr. 
PPtf «eliuD, or nsailf 0.5 iHilligraoiini; of anhydrou* morphine ia each cubic ccnti- 
Mk Dobe. S to 4 cnn. lor f3*a-J). 

fnnAnr U a coaatitu«»t in lh« foUonln^ oflieial pn-pamlion^: CamphomUsl 
tatvs irf tqrium, compouiul morphine powder, and enin]>ound inuMaril linltiient 
iCS-F.)-. ooap. betladuBna, and chlorofoini liiiiiiimt* il'.S.P,, B.P.); cumpourxl 
MAHVoC rwnpbor asd miutard llniinml <It.P.>. 

narmmeologj. — Cunphor is "a etearopten (having the nature of a 
■J obtamcd from the caiDphoMref. Cinnumomum Oamphora (Luu- 
' purified by sublinution." The tree is n nstive of the Kattt Indies 
It rontaing a solid, Tolntile, fatty eiibEtance. or stearopten. which 
mil parU of the plant and erTilalliEes naturally in llie wood and under 
Aj collected hy nativee, it is called crude camphor, which is sub- 
It pprifiiti imd itiibliDi<.'<l in thi« country. Camphor come* in white, 
t, partly-cri-stalline maaaee, of penetrating, aromatic odor and a 
•rrid tofle. It i« lighter than wetor, in which it is very ^parincly mIu- 
19 readily dissolved by alcohol and ethereal aubatances. Camphor 
•oluble in mtUc, which may often, therefore, be used as a coQvcDtent 
It » easily i^ted and hums with a smoky flame. With chlornl- 
mpbot combini.>« when triturated, forming an oily liquid. VTIkh 
^•rtv of camphor are rubbed with one part of crystallized carliolic aeid, 
laqoid ia formal. Camphor nnnot bo powdered by trituration alone, 
hrn mni-t-ned with alcohol, chloroform, or ether 
ical Action. — Wlien applied to the skin, camphor slightly irri- 
rvddens the surface, and probably dilTuae» through tuto the deeper 
so ae to Fieri u local sv(lative effect. In considerable doeee, nun- 
■■■ vertigo and confusion of )de«s. diaphorenn, delirium, or stupor, 
■-- ""ilepiiforin convuhione and maniacal excitement. There is 
refli'i excitability of the spinal fx>rd and mutcuUr weakness. 
ra^^ I he fint manifestation of ita toxic action has been a audden 



220 PHARMArRUTICAL TDKRAFBI.'TIC AOESTS OR Dlttroe. 

lorn of cotieeiomnc«« with or wilhout conviiUionii. rpon <hc circuUU 
EtiiDulatin^ effect is observed from small doses and the arterial tensii 
wiwd, bill Inrger doses cause prostration Knd wenknew of thit )ieart':« ac 
Camphor is autiepasmodic. and is a valued sedative in allaying abna 
nerroti* cxcitubility often (-ntountered in women. (Specially in caws « 
opium disagrees or is undesirable. It is, in full doses, a sedative to the 
crative functions and allays pain attending menstruation. Poisoninj 
followed the use of a Eatiirated solution in alcohol (Rubini's tincture, < 
called "motlier-finclure"), which should not be used for internal admin 
tion as so small a quantity as 0.fii) c.cm. (or mvij) has produced poise 
effects. Toxic doses jtive rise to inflammation of the stomach. In cat 
noisoning, if any of the dnig remain in the stomach it should bo ren 
Dy the itoiaach-tube, thi^' patient allowed to drink cold water freely cor 
ing ma^edum sulphate (31 Gm,, or 5j)> •nd the symptoms combated 
arterial stimulants and hypodemiic injections of morphine and atrc 
X^amphor is eliminated by the kidneys. lunRs, and sudoriparous gland; 
Therapy. — Camphor is highly prized iu the household, for head 
and various neuralgic pains, the spirit or "Eau Sedative" being applied 
a handkerchief or a flannel bandage. It is also a common ingredie 
popnlar liniments, Camphor-chloml is used in neuralgia and myalgii 
rubefacient and anodyne. It dissolves moq)hine readily: — 

R Morjihinm aulpliat 1130 Gm. or er. xx. 

Cain|)liorch1ornl. 8| Oiii. oi Sij.— U 

For local application to painful upot*. ■■ 

CavaKEani applies to chaucruide with excellent results a mixture 
parts of chloral -hydrate. 3 of camphor, and 25 of glycerin. 

A combination of camphor and carimlic acid (3 lo 1) is a valuable 
septic dressing for wounds, the odor being more pleasant than that o 
bolic acid, and, the solutimi being aiindyiic, it cannot be diluted with 
or glycerin, but mixes with oil or ointmenis. It is a beneficial applicat 
herpes and erysipelas, In vaginitis, vulvitis, and jiara^sthesia of the ' 
This liquid overcomes the fcetor of lochial discharges On account 
anteslhetii' pr(j[>trlii-s it is useful in tin' Ireiitment of invL-rted toe-nail, 
been successfully given by the mouth in doses of 0.30 to O.CO c.cm, {< 
T-i) for the relief of gastric and intestinal catarrh, Carhidic-ncid cai 
is a serviceable local remedy in pharyngitis or tonsillitis. Partestheeii 
often be relieved bj the topical use of this agent, either in its pure st 
weakened by some suitable escipient. 

Salol and camphor, ami belanaphtol and camphor, aI?o form fluid 
ing valuable antiseptic powers. By mixing equal parts by weight of cai 
and absolute alcohol, and dissolving pyroxylin in the solution (in th 
portion of 1 to 40), an excellent substitute for collodion is obtained. 
phoid is the name given to (he fluid, and it is also a good solvent for sa 
acid, carbolic acid, and iodoform. Oamphnid forms, in drying, an 
film, which is not dissolved by water and is a good coating for abri 
sup<Tlioial wounds, etc. A mixture of equal parts of camphor and roi 
diluted with a mineral oil is useful, according to Dr, Sctn S. Bishof 
lO-per-cent. solution in acute nasal catarrh and laryngitis. In hyperti 
rhinitis a SS-per-cent, solntion can be used, A 3- to 5-pcr-ccnt, solul 
lufliciently strong for injection into the ear for disease in the tymp 




CAMPllOKA. 



331 



A Mlation of camphor in ether (30 to 180) has been applied to erj- 
iakltm infliuninalioii with benefit. Camphor has bee'u used for the pnr- 

rofalxirtin^ boils, llie seat of inflanimntion i» toitchod thntc timi:.* n 
rrlh an alcoholic solution, anil, after this has eveporut«d, the surface is 
NRnd with camphorated oil. Powdered camphor, likewise, is an efRcient 
ndication to indolent ulccn;, and has betn used with success upon specific 
vKtsof the gentiaU. Inhalation of a solution of camphor in colo^e-water 
flTtsrriief in that form of headache, which may occur at the menopause, 
jiu^or and morphine, locally introduced or applied extemallj' on a hot 
ktR«d poultice, allays toothache. A liniment or ointment containing cam- 
phr is useful in chilblains. The camphor ointment of the National For- 
nlny (camphor, 'i'i; white wax, 11: lard. (i7 parts) may be used as an 
•{ahntion to indolent ukera. Camphor, either alone or combined as fol- 
lw», jieWs serviceable untiprurities in eczema and pancsthesia: — 



ft CaDiphone, 
BtUnaphlol. . 

<3L anUi«aiidift 

Bnnath. nibnit , 4 

fPulvFria DMrantie ..., 4 
ttngt. (ind oiidi -.. >• 31 



aa [OS Gill, or gi. x. 



80 «.em. OP 
Gtn. or 
Gm, or 
Gm. or 



mv. 



QotpliOTtD SS Om. or gt. x. 

HpliVTM ■ublimati S Gm. or 3«h. 

Q. cntalypti BO e.em. or mix. 

Cmmoll , no r.oni. rir invU], 

Uogt aqiuu roo, 

Dagt dnd oxldi aa 1315 Gm. or Sm. — M. 



Cimpbor with salicylic acid {14 to U) combines with the aid of heat, 
•tin the form of ointnu-nt, has b<;cn used in Inpiis and chronic ulcers. 
iTbsdor of camphor is inhaled with some relief in coryza. Camphor cerate 
'inwfal application for chapped bands and roughness of the skin, or th« 
*R|6cir can be incorporated in suet or lanolin: — 

B Cknipkonv ..^ Z' Gm. or Su. 

OL Brroli .....I.....,,. ,■,,...>,...,,• 18 c.cm. ur tniij. 

.WiiU carbolic! -- --.. 24 c.cm. or miv. 

hv\ , .,,, OS Gin. or 3>i> 

I K. 9ig.: Bull > smalt pircc in the pnlm of tba tend until loft, and Dpplv over 
I WBrfice lor chronic rriu'mn: rhnppfd linnilxi SwtRM VB th» tip4. nt tin- UTiglc o( 
. WMtlh, or arouiid th« nipjilM, anut. ur genital □rfrnns- 

8 &»pltone 

01.Junip«ri 

I Uuoljii. 

^HL Sg.i Uae id th« dianuca above named. 



Ij.lO Oiu. or gr. XI. 
120 ccni. <rr nixx. 
31{ Gin. or 3j. 



Internally, camphor is valuable as an anodyne, antispasmodic, and cnr- 
_ iIji*, in diHinliT* nf (he digestive organs attended with pain or cramps, 
** ii generally combined with aslrinsents and opiates. Velpeau"* diar- 
■*»ixtwre con^iMs of «iunl jiarts of spirit of camphor, tincture of opium, 
^ tnmpound tincture of catechu. 

ladiarthfca Hope'* camphor mixture in iiscfnl, cspeeifllly in diarrhwa 
I'l^mtion in elderly subjects. Parrish's camphor mixture (niistura cam- 
H*" iwnwitica, X. V.) it nl*fl valued: — 



tii 



rUARUACBUTtCAL TIIERArBimc AOEKTS OR BRCGS. 



fl Gin. or gr. xvj. 
)2fl Om. or gr. iv. 



R Tr. Uraadube 00. ISO* cmt. or t^ir. 

Sarchnri .... 1110 Om. ur Jib. 

AijiiM CHitiphorw 473 ccni. or fixrj, , 

M. Sig.: A tnb1e*poon(ul cvciy three hour* (or diMxha*. 

This remedy is lilcewi»e very serviceable in infantilo diarrliutn Ii 
' been found efficient in jVeUtic cnolora, provided it be given at the ince) 
of the disease. 

Camphor, in 0,13 Om. (or gr. ij) pills, ie serviceable in dj'emenon 
hyoteriit, uml obst-urc uervotis manifrstntions in wnmen. It may likevi 
given to relieve palpitation of the heart. Monobromated camphor i 
teamed n valuable remedy in c-hordec and irrituble bladder; it has also 
used in spaemodic affections, hysteria, epilepsy, chorea, delirium tiei 
whooping-cough, etc 

B Oamphonc 1{30 Om. ov gr. xk. 

.'f!theri« q. a. ad ft. pulv. 

Ammonij vniboant. •■... I| C 

Pulv. opll 

M. tl d\v. in clmrltilffi no. xlj. 

Sig,: Gh-e one evrry two or three hour*, in eorj-si. 

In ordor to allay the mental excitement of liystcrtn, M. Blocq orde 

B Camphor, monobrom ' 3| Gm. or gr. xlv, 

R\l. (|uaBitn> 2{ Gm. or 3nl 

Sj-rllpi q. (, 

M. «t ft pit. no. XXX. 

SIg.i One, two, or thr«e pills & iay. 

It has likewise been sticcei^fiilly omployod in s^omatorriust. 
Bourneville has obtained excellent result* from the kdmiDist ration of t 
bromated cumphor in the trcalmt'nt of epilepsy, accompanied by fre( 
attacks of verti(;o. As a result of his siudies. Dr. Bouniuville eonclud^i 
in vertiginous epilepsy the jidministration of monobromated camphor 
is remedial, but in the typical paroivsmal variety it should be giwn tog 
with a combination of bromides. It is a curious fact that the additiot 
few drops of camphor to a glass of water will, when injected into the ret 
produce a prompt evacuation of the bowels, thus offering a means of 
coming a tendency to constipation. 

Camphor has at times been successfully emploved in the msnagt 
of roaniii, mclnncbolin, and delirium tremens. A combination of can 
and opium relieves the after-pains of labor. The same drugs are a 
tageously given in the form of a suppository after operation.i upon thi 
thra, and in prostatorrhu'a (enlarged prostate), cystitis, and, in fai 
all diseases of the genito-urinary organs, according to these fonnuliB>- 

B Cnrnphorte, 

IMororm. vel arlstcl. vel iodol ■» 4| On. or SJ. 

01- theobroiuHtia q. S. 

M. rt ft. luppaf. no. xv. 

Sig.i Insert one, when neMssary, Into tho bowel. 

B Camphoric, 

I.upulinl , ak 4\ Om. or !}. 

IvxI. bfllBilonnw tolior. alc>. ..................... 116 Om. or gr. iiu 

Ol. theobrotnntU q. ». 

JX. et It. «upp(»itori> no. X. 

fig.: Insert one in the bowel every two or three hours. 



I 




L'AMrnodA. 

As camphor escapes from the system largely by tlie bronchial raiicous 
■mfafatt*. it » a ueofu] remedy in cbronic bronclutis, especially when 
amniaf in the weak or aged, or associated with cinphvgcmA. tt« Ktimulunt 
' taa* zcoder it useful, also, in capiUary bronchitis ana typhoid pneumonia. 
'Ytorahatance may be Tery wrviccahly administered in typhus or typhoid 
■ ■ the eruptive fercre, in ordi'r toBtreni^hen theactjonof the heart, 
iiaetx,* of Tokio t'niverjily, Japan, in fact, for fiv« year* has 
m omphor to the excltujon of all other medication, in typhoid fever, ad- 
■EUrtniniE 1 Gfn. (or ki"- "') daily. Hv consider* it superior to any othi'r 
^faf tint he has employed. 

Is influenza L>r. F. W. Uevereux Jjong prescribes; — 



I Mrltua cKTnpbotw, 

1¥. I*rand. co ., , Ml 

Kb. rbluruformi 4 

HiMiUs. trM«»««atk 00 

A«BM ^. •. ■<! 180 

v. H^.t X«ra tabi eapoon fab trtty fourth hour. 



ccm. or fUJ, 
c.cm. or I3i. 
c.cm. or fjij. 
can. or flvj. 



!- r.inivDt of camphor, or camphorated oil, is an ejccellent application to 
. Knd painful breasts during lactation. Injections subcutoncously of 
< mtt-d oil n re said by Alexander to be of benefit in tubeiculoBis, acting 
innc, ftrcnf^thvning tJie heart, and rcduciog fever. In laryngeal tuber- 
I be appliea it directly to the lesion. He injects 1 c.cm. (or mxr) daily 
Ftnnr i-nnAccutive days, and, after an interml of eight or ten days, repeats 
□t io the eanie manner. Dr. L. Gaussia has made use of this 
v^iiiUM\i'>n in threatened henrl-failure, in influenta, pneumonia, typhoid 
, and other debilitating diseases. This writer gave 2 to 4 c.cm. (or gtL 
t) daily of a l-per-cenl. to 5-per-cent. solution. B. Alexandet* linn for 
years used, in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, hypodermic 
■<>B « of the caniphoralwi oil of the German Pharmacopoeia (1 to 9), 
rcmarlcablc beni-til. The injeclione are made once a day, 1 to 3 eg. 
I It '/^'/,) each, in febrile or afebrile ca.ie9, or 1 eg. (or gr. '/») every 
rforfotir days and then suspended for eight. ImproTement is noted after 
neond injootiou. even in advanced ca»es. Dr. Courtin reports good re- 
in the treatment of tuberculous adenitis from injections of a mixtnre 
if J pan each of bctanajihtol and camphor and 4 parti! of 60° alcohol. 

ilomeol i» an artificial camphor obtained from oil of turpentine by treat- 
^ I*, vith bvf^rochloric ucid. It i* said to he identical in chemical compo- 
Kim. and to clo«ely resemble, in its physical characters, the natural cam- 
'inr. AceordiniT to Stockman, it has the same elTt-eis upon the circulation, 
u iliowa a tenrlt-ncy to depress or paralyze the pneumogastric nerves, and 
^Bcc9 palpitation of the heart. 

Ckmpboric Acid is the product of the oxidation of camphor with nitric 
t^^ It occnnt in the form of fine, white, cri|-«talline lamelln, melts at 368.6° 
> (.lightly aoliihle in valer, readily soluble in ethylic alcohol and ether, 
k a viihout odor, bat has a lompwhal and and slightly astringent taste. 
babnllhT person it produces coQ^estion of the face, neck, and conjunctiva, 
vitkaain in the brad. It checks the secretion of sweat even in the normal 
■a, Mt •oeni'* to have no influence upon the saliva or to cause drynois of 

'Awnul of <*0 AmtriMm SItdttat AfoeiaiUin. p. IS3S. vol. ssxilf. Nor. It, ISM. 
•■«M*n*^V mrdtcimUrht ITnchruokNri, F»4i. tl. ISOO. 



Mib^ 



PHARUACBLTICXL TKRRAPECTna AQEXTS OS DRUOS. 

the throat and ekiii. Camphoric ncul is etimiiialed in the urine and 
servi-s lliift fluid from uuderjjoing putrt'Iactive changL-t) for swi-ral days, 
may he giv«n in dosw of 0.50 lo 4 fim. (or gr. viil-lx). ITie 1-per-cent. t 
tion in water may be used in laryngological practice as a epray in catai 
alTi'ctivDM; it probably oxerts some antiseptic ta veil n» a aedative el 
The local application of a 2-pei-cent solution of camphoric acid is uj 
in aculc coryxa, Wi-nde recommend* the following ».» a. good applicatig 
intertrigo and acute eczema: — 

B Acidi camphorici 4| Om. or Sj. I 

Binnuth. BubniUat.^ 

Zinci cBrboant., 

Pulv. amyli, 

rvtrolaL, 

].Anolln. nnhydr aa S| Gin. or Sij.^ 

M. fiig.: Kor exltmal um, 

A l-per-cetit. solution ia a aerviceable gargle in many forms of 
tbroat. In combination with other remedies, such as boric acid or boi 
borate, it is valuable in trotting slnitigiirY and irritability at ibtt bla< 
and in the night-sweate of pbthieiM. The ammoniaeal urine of cyst! 
cTieeiiily ck-arwl mud rendered ncid by the adminiiilratton of 1 (Jm. (or gi 
three times a day. It is of avail, also, as a local rcmt^dy in chronic cy* 
the bladder being unshed out twice daily with a ', j-per-ci-jit. snliilior 
stronger solution than 1 per cent. i§ too irritant for use. In the □ 
sweats of pblhiHi» rampboric acid i», perhaps, superior lo any other rer 
From an elaborate course of clinical experiments on tiftcen phthisical 
aged from 18 to 5a years, Afanusii'lT has nscL'rtaiiied thnl. when it has 
tflki'ii fur Novcrnl successive days and then diseonlinued. the jweats reap 
but graduallj-, and only attain their initial intensity in from three 1< 
days flftiT the last dose. The remedy never gives rise to or increases 
rhtea or hffimoptysie. It causes no unpleasant effeets beyond slight heat 
and some uienlol excilement, which is succwded by sound sleep. The 
prcBsion of night-aweats is produced by daily doses of 2 Gm. (or gr. xx 
in"rt-; certainty by single doses of 2 Oni. (or gr. xxx), according to the m 
ments of Combemale. Ur. Howard has also seen camphoric acid n 
profuse pcrspiriitioTi in acnle rbenmatisin. In a case of myoma i 
uterus in which excessive nocturnal sweating had followed electrical 
ment. Dr. Ralph St'ieltmon, of Kdintiurgh, cmlered 1 Gm. (orgr. xv) of 
phoric acid at night, and afltr taking it for two weeks the tendency to s 
ing ci'inpjctely disappciircd iind never relunicd. The same aiitbo 
used it in cases of hvperidro-.is after influennB. and in other cases i 
there was certainly no lubcn-lf pre.sent, and, in all of tlieni, doees of 1 
(Jm. (or gr. xv-xxx) gave fairly sati^faclory or good results. Dr. Stoc 
emphasizes its value in non-tubercnlar cases, fte considers it as efSei* 
atropine, but in some obstinate cases it is leas powerful ns an anhydrotic 
picrotoxin. Its toxicity is very i^light. It may be used in spemiutot 
and in enuresis; and it has also been thought to have some influence 
epilepsy, chorea, hysteria, and other spasmodic affections. Wien a 
and camphoric acid are heated, they combine, forming mse-colored crj 
which are soluble in ether or sflyceriii, find nmv be used (dose, 0.065 t( 
Om., or gr. i-iv) in spasmodic atTectione. Sodium camphorate lias also 
used with similar, but less decided. ctTccte. 




C1XKABI8 WDICl. 



itB 



CAHVABIS INDICA (\J. S. P., B. y.).—UiUa C«iiiiabu, Indian Hemp. 

Pnparalions. 

Extfmrtum OumkkU Iadk« FlnUun (U.S.P.)— FtuM Extract ol ladian Cftn- 

L Urn*. n.CMt to O.OO ccm. lormj'S). 

E3.trKtuiii CkniMbU Ittditm |U.S.P., P. &).— Exlra«t o( Ii>diui CannabU. 
fca^l>.« Um. <ar jir. luj. H.P^ O.OIS tA <MM>5 Gni, (or gT. V.-JI. 

Tteetun CitBtiKbia Indiov (U.S. P., It. P. j .— Tincttue of Indian Dmnabla (It per 
MUU.&P.i a per root, a P.). DoM. O.IS toO.MQ.oin. (ormU-TllJ}, a&P.; Q.90 
kl r.tn. tor mvxv>, B.V. 



?tuirmacolofy. — Cotinabii! Indka ofGciulIj- is "thv flowering tops of the 
irnti*! lilnni of Canoftbis sativa (t'rticaceie), {erovii in the East Indies." The 
Aaencaa litrnip grown in th« Southern United Slatc« io Cnnnabie Anicr* 
' : 't there are no olticial preparationH. Indian hemp should not 
i with Asdcpias incarnata, trhich is egmctimce called white 
h^top, or wit]) ApocyDum or Canadian liemp. The flowering tops of 
ifasmlw pliLnt of Cannahis ratira, as etatod above, alonu conttitutca In- 
bemp. A confection made from it h called "hushiiih" or ''gunjah"; 
inr..ni<r VJn'l IS known as "bhang." The American and EaHt-ludiau ploiita 
. the same, bat the latter contains a larger quantity of the 
jiiti.>.4-i>'0. which un- a rc«iri. Cannabin, and a volatile oil. From the 
■MT be obtained Cannabcne, of which the hydride ia a cryatalUne sub- 
Thp resin app<-nr» to be or to contain the active constituent of the 
W<>o(3, Spively, and Ka.ner{ield, in addition to several terpenes, iso- 
[ I vnbetaiicc from the rvsin for which they proposed the name of Camia- 
bri. Bt oxidizing the resin with nitric acid, BoUa and France obtained 
a aystaUuitf sulxUiice, oxy-cau»abine' (CioHjaN^O,). Cannabin lanoate 
tefaKO employed in medicine in doses of 0.065 to 0.65 Qm. (or gr. i-x), but 
t Am* not Mppesr to have very active therapeutic powers. Churruv is the 
Hi*K name for the impare or crude resin. A watery extract (the Extractum 
(naaliu Indioe .'\i|U'>»uni Fluidum}t according to Dr. Cowun Lccs, has a 
—ifiit anodyne and hypnotic effect, white free from the intoxication, bor- 
tau on poisoning, which follows the i»c of the olcoholic prcparationi. 
TfedflMi for adults is from 3 to 4 Gm. (or gr. xxx-tx). It is claimed by Dr. 
Ifli to be especially valuable for the relief of cough in tubiriuloHiit of the 
tap and nl*o as a soporific in diseases of children. Uashishin is an unofli- 
■laleoholic cxtmct watihed with water, u««d in dyspepsia t&d gastric neu- 
«e. ( t>o*e, 0.04 Gm., or gr. */.. per day). 

n^rsiolopeal Action. — Indian hemp has no local action. Upon the 
^■ti nn an<l circulation no evident effect is produced. It acts like opinm, 
mitn ritmiiUting the nervous system and afleruurd depressing the vital 
tmsionM^ The primary stage of intoxication is accompanied by exhilara- 
rhich lasts for »ome time before sleep occurs. During this period the 
tion is aclirely engaged, intent upon visions of its ow-n creation, 
aC firet are pleasant, hut which after awbile may become terrifying. 
ic^nd, a« "B* of the first manifestations of the toxic effect, thai the 
space and time ere diMurbed and hcc-ome exaggerated; there ia often 
e^ns*^ ot double consciousness. Numbness and tiniiling in the ex- 
ftr<c obaerrnl, followed by anscsthesia and diminution of muscular 

^ ManUH. oa "th* AcUv* Priaclpl* ol Indlsn H^nip." Uneft. Jaa. 



SSfi 



PHARMACIfUTICAL TUEKAPEL'TIC AUE.VTS OR DRL'US. 



sense. Oanndbt* is antispasiaodic. a&algeuc, hypnotic, aD<I, in thi' Eo 
believed to be aphrodiAJac. If a Large dose be taken, coma or catalepsy 
BUiwrvene, but a fatal t-ffccl rarely followic. The Bubsi^iiui-ju rfcult* 
indtilgt-nce in tliis drug as an intoxicant are duUneae and lassitude, ve 
and headache, and cUurcKis, but not constipation. Frequent wt of the 
brings about mental deterioration and unfitness for labor. The abu 
Cannabis Indicn is a nrnlific cause of insanity in Eastern countries, 
irreeiatible impulse to kill ie, accordinj; to Dr. Thomaa Ireland, occaaio 
one of the characteristic symptoms of intoxication from this drug. I 
R. Mursliall reports an interesting personal experience in which the 
ucteristic toxic symptoms were produced bv a small dose of Cannal 
0.1 to 0.13 Um. (or gr. iss-ij').* A case has been reported by Dr. J, N 
Hyde ill which, after a dose of 0.06,5 Gm. (or gr. j) of Onnuahis Ind 
pupular and vesicular eruption made its appearance upon nearly eterji 
of the body, and pave rise to sevt-re iiohing. Tuxic Bymploms Sieve 
manifceted after taking two doees of 0.75 com. (or mxij) of the En 
tincture, four hour* apart, as in a case reported by Dr. Antony Rodie.' 

Therapy. — Owing largely to the uncertain quality of the drug, 1 
is not cnijiloyed to the extent that its physiological action would wai 

Cannabis Indica has been found extremely useful in acute dem 
due to mt'nial anxiety, and also in melancholia. Thiii a^ent aUo mi 
successfully prescribed in order to combat the wakefulness of del 
tremens, and good results hnvi.' bei^'n ascribed to it in the mnnagcmc 
tetann& It has been employed with advantage in chorea, and may i 
times be of avail in epilepsy, .\melioration has been produced by 
remedy in senile trembling and paralysis agilans. In neuralgia and mip 

food results follow its cautious use. In other painful affections Can 
ndica may be resorted to with advantage. Dr. Stephen Mackcnz.i 
found cannabis of value in the severe headache of cerebral tumors, in eh 
and persistent cephalalgia, and m the violent pains of locomotor ataxia 
ha.* found it of aerpiee al.io in gastralgia and enteralgia. It may be ai 
istered to mitigate the sufTcring caused by the passage of an hepatic or 
calculus. In acute or chronic rheumatism, in gout, and in carcinoma 
may often be very scrviccably substituted for opium, over which it hi 
advantage that it does not derange the secretions. 

Cannabis Indica quiets the delirium of cerebral softening. Dr. 
Edes, of Boston, has, in a number of instances, observed the use o 
drug to banish the tendency to bad dreams. It allays the itching of ec 
Til the itching which accompanies many cutaneous affections, and pa 
larly in senile pruritus, the internal administration of Ciinuabis Iodic 
otlen iifTorit relief. In various uterine disorders it is used to relieve 
and bring about contraction of uterine muscular fibre. The pain ol 
nn'norrhiea may not infrequently be controlled by Cannabis Indica 
influence upon the muscular structure of the womb renders it vnlual 
mcnorrhagia. It* virtue is enhanced, in this affection, by combination 
ergot. It has been found particularly useful in the abundant floodinga ' 
sometimes precede the menopause, and, in fact, it possesses consid) 
power as a general hemostatic. 



'tancrt, Jsn 23, laiiT. 
• Lancet, Deo. U, 1698. 




CAh'KABIS IXmCA. 



2£? 



CionibU IndicA has also been used with advantage in ut«rine Eiibin- 
•dndoD and chronic cmlonietritis. The hen(Iaclte« which nttciid Ibe ^rand 
doarinic will sometimes vitld to this remedy. In combiiiutiun with mix 
Ttmicait if reganU-d bv de Schweinilz ii> of vnliio in headache dependent 
■ftaietinal afthenopia. It may be productive of ^ood results in impotence 
unoBMted iriih grOM leiion. In ^pn^iii of the bladder and dyauria it ^ives 
aJttf.iad also, io acute gonorrhu-a with cbordec, wc see good effects from 
liabitMtion. It can be given in either of tbego combinations with marked 
taxSl for relieving the latter distressing symptom: — 

B Extnrti cnnnablt Indica H S ceta. or fSii. 

Sotii bram'tili .. ., ., 12 Gdi. or 3<1J. 

JbL (odie nujith. DO c.cm. or fSiij. 

tftVf. auruilil 00 c.rm. or (Jij. 



9^: A tablMpountul at 1)«I-liine. 



B«peut every hour or two uiilil relieved. 

Kr. Uj. 



R I'ttncti Mnmlib Indiv* >..> 180 Gta. or 

Chlontlu 4] Gtn. or 

£itr*rU opU |38 Om. or gr. 

01, Ihfotiroiiiatia q. «i 

H.ft ft. luppOMtArin! no. xij. 

Sf.: In*nl one in lh« bowt^l ou tvUriug, and tvery two or three lioura nbm 
" nitli chordee. 

I^ fome praciitioucri it io esteemed of value in acute and chronic 
' :'i disease, the presence of hematuria especially indicating its employ* 
■bL Trial hts bi.'eu made of the drug in diubete;; mellituii. Though it 
■f.it UmeB, be able to moderate cerebral irritability, it exerts no marked 
MKtux upon the coukc or severity of the diBca^e. The spasm of asthma 
>Mirtime6 veiy rapidly relieved by hemp. In whooping-cough, also, it 
■IJWOTe of ferviee. It is a good remedy in irritable or reflex cough. 

jUckenzie recommends tne use of Cannabis Indica in hay fever and 
|nathiBa. Gi-rmuin S6o warmly recommends CannnbiG Indica as a gastrie 
wtiTeof particular value in functional disorders of the stomach and bowels 
Hndtd with puin. acidity, and flutulenco. Hv advi«u3 0.04 Gm. (or gr. V«) 
inktextract to be given in three doses, or it can be prescribed in the form 
■Atflaid extract, and creosote added with great advantage:— 

B Eitracti canitahi* IndicBfl. ■■■ 3 10 crm. or ml. 

Ciraaoti ■•• 30 c.cm. or niv. 

SjTup. acociiE 90 c.cm. or fjiij. 

k, Ei|^. : A Iranpooitful brioiv mvnia. 

b » also of value in the treatment of gastric ulcer and may be com- 
■rfwith silver nilrate, the cllicacy of which it incren*cK. Cannabis Indica 
iiaidby Blacconnell to be of value in diarrhoea dependent upon indigestion. 
(^■Bttni Indica i^ mii\ to do good in (exophthalmic goitre, and to enrc, in 

iattatices. the opium or chloral habit. The tnnnate of cannabis is a 
l»J hjjrnotic, and lia* been u.ied for insomnia among the iniwnc. The rame 
pKpotT it shared by cannabin and cannabinone. both of which are given in 
■•bo/ 0.03 to 0.13 Gm. (or gr. ss-ij). The oil of hemp-seed (oleum cannabis) 
■•diTtni^ fixed oil expressed from the seeds; it is green in color, disagree- 
tUtio nanll, and bland to the taste. It is used in tlie manufacture of a 
pwn Mft-coap of deservedly high reputation in treating ecscma and other 
*iiidi«t»c*. 

Tilt tiueture of Cannabis Americana is regarded by some as equal in 



SW MtABMACKUTtCAL TUEBAPEtmC ACEST8 OB OTUOS. 

value to copaiba or esndal-wood in the treatment of gonorrhtea. The 
arntion should be made from tho fruiOi plant and be givt-n in dotre o 
H drops three or four times a day after subsidence of the acute sym) 

CANTHAHIS (U. S. P., B. P.).— C»nth»ridM. (Spanish I-'liw.) 

Preparaliaii*. 

CoUodium CMDtlividatum IU.S.P.).— Cuntharidal Collodion lOO per cent 

Oratum Cantliaridin (U.S. l*.!.— {'■ntliarldHi C>rat« (canthnHdcs, 3S Om 
low WKX and rMiii. au 18 (ioi.; lard. 32 Gin.: oil of turpviiline. IS ccin.). 

Eiiii>l&Mruiu PieiR Canthandatuin (U.S.P.).— PlBntcr of Pitch and Cnnth 
Wonuiug Ilnotpr (Iturffuudy piU'li, DS Gm.; cenitv of ounlliaridM. 9 Uiu.). 

TiDautn CuiUinndU lU.S.P., R P. I. —Tincture of Cniitb«nidM IS per 
Do«», ((/.&!>.). 0.0G to 0.00 ccm. (or mix J. (TIm Brltjth UaotOM is only 1 
crat.). Dow, 0,30 to 1 p.piu. (ur iiiv-xv). 

Acctum Cnntharldls IR P.).— Vin«)?]r ol CnnthnridM (10 m cont.). 

Liquor EpispsHticus (it. P.). — BtiBUiinc Liquid ISO p«r gctiI. uitli nctlie ' 

Ungucntuni Ciinthntidia (B. P.). — Can Umridc!* Ointment (cuntliaridc*, br 
Om,; benzoat«d lar<). |i) CIm.). 

Ein|)lniiituiii Canthaiidia (B. P.).— CanlliaridM PlatttT (35 per CMt.}. 

KiiiiilRHlrum Calclacicna (D. P.). — Wanning Planter. 

Colkwliiim Vctilcanf (B. P.),— DliatCTing Collodion tMlktorlng Hqiiirt. 4C 
pyroxylin. 1 Gm.l, 

Pharmacology. — Cantharis Tcsicatoria (claeu, ln.secta; order, ( 
tera), the dried beetJe, occurs in phnrmacy in a dried slate, either wl 
in a more or lew frngmontnry condition, or as n brownish powder, in 
the bright-preen fragntcnt« of the elytra are very noticeable. The ■ 
very irritaliitg, and the eyes should be protected whi>n ihc drug i« po 
in \he mortar. The p«rfcct flies are stronger than the powder, whiel 
has hixn damaged by the ravages of mitos or lower forms of life 
active j>rinci|)le u Cantharidin, u fiilty oryataili)!abI(; principle (di*( 
by Kobiqiiet in 1810) which is contained chiefly in the soft parts, an 
cially the gen<'mlivc appunitii^, the blood, and in the eggs (Lcidy), 
soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, etc. Besides this, which is th« 
agent, there is a gri,-cu oil, black matter t<oluh1e in water, u yclloir 
matter, fat, calcium and magnesium phospliatcs, acetic acid, and a ■ 
principle upon which the fetid odor depend*, and which, accorc 
Dragendorfl^, acta upon the syslem like cantharidin. The green c 
matter appears to be identical with eblorfipbyl. 

Physiological Action. — When applied to the skin, an active prep 
of cantharide? cuu.i..s binning pain with hyiKTR'inin, lo which, in th<i 
of a few hours, succeeds the formation of vesicles, exhibiting a tend 
nm together and form a large bleb corresponding with the area of i 
tion. if the action is continued, sloughing and ulceration result 
engorgement of the capillaries in the superficial slnictiircs i« as^ociat 
ansmia of the deeper striicturcs. When applied to the chest, the li 
demeath becomes pale and anemic, and, if its action be too long cor 
a bli-iter may cause inflammution of the pleura: or it may produce 
nitis if applied to the abdomen. Slight olevntion of temperature attc 
action of the blister, which may be followed by depression of iem^ 
and weakening of the heart's action, Constituti'mal eifect* may bo 
by absorption of the active principles throuijh the integument, AVhe 
diiced into the stomach, canthnridos is capable of selling up much ir 
and even gastro-enteritis. with vomiting, or purging and tenesmni 




OAKTBARItt. 



sciples soon pass into (he Moor], and at fir<l $lie;litly etiimilole the 
ion; but the vffect is moet marked upon the genito-urinary organs, 
kidnpyB are the chief orgnns by which thoy are t'xcrete<i. Cxtrome 
jt»n ul ili« bladder is produced, the urine is voided frequently, and, 
tn the con};i^ted stale of the kidneys, often conlsiRs nlliumin and 
There mny bv Eupprcfi^ion of urine. ^VsMciated with this is priapism, 
ilh puQ in the (;)»"» peiii», urethra, bindder, and aching in the renal region. 
b«(bu)»: i>( the; external genitals has been known to occur in consequence 
I UN administration of canthartde*. Toxic doses, according to Cnutieri, 
■■Kt rapid ■.liminuiiun of blood- preeeure, dctrcasiiig the force of the heart's 
0WD,\iut increasing ihepul&e-rate. In fatal ca8<j4 intlamtnatorychaugeRare 
hod in the alimentary canal, with inteme hypertemia of the bladder and 

Th* mlgar notion that cantharidc« causes erotic scntationi, or increased 

imwer, has no foundation except in the evidences of conceetion and 

ition of the urinary passages just rcfcm-d to. The resiiltfi of Evral- 

: • few )^ins of Spanish fiies may be quiie aerious, and it is regarded 

I law as a penal oSvmts toadmiui^ler this drug surreptitiously and with 

liBtenl. The treatment of poisonin}; by cantharides is by bland drinks 

l«ptal«« and a hot bath. Bismuth and cucuiiie are also of eerriee, Animal 

has aim been recommended as an antidote. An anesthetic may be 

nompy. — misters are usually spread with cerate of cantbarides, or 
ibly with the cerate of the extract of cantharidod, the prescription 
•• follows: — 

Ocrati caatbandis, q. t. 
litt iMplaatnuo 2 X 3 In. 
4ft i Aypij to dMlimaUil spot nnd kIIow It to rvmaiii tour hntin^ Thrn rtimovc 

Mhrtitate a poalUcc. 

Tie fikin oTCrlying the effusion should not be remuvod. but simply 

to allow the serum to escape; the spot is then dressed with some 

ttt. such as «uet or bcnzoinatcd lard. A good wny to raise a blister 

•la BK the blistering collodion and paint one or two coats over the desired 

Ma. and lay over it a piece of voieu paper, under which the blister raises 

X a !«w hours. Sain I- Philippe has snggeeted that the danger of strangury 

falcwenrd by the preliminury use of an alkaline diuretic until the urine 

Ikobw alkaline. It is likewise a good plan to sprinkle a few grains of 

.« and camphor over the surface of the plaster before it is placed in 

Blisters arc employed therapeutically to relieve pain, to reduce 

inn. and as revulinnts to promote absorption of inllammatory 

_ iKU. The warming plaster is very useful in pleurodynia. Meningeal 

•|lMr«l inflammation nuiy be checked by the prompt application of a good* 

k»d Ulster to the »alp or to the chest. In iritis, blisters behind the ears 

•fe ^tito •erriccabte. Dr. C. Zicm recomniend:> painting cantharidal «ob 

w^m Whind the ear. extcndin? downward as far as the jaw, in the treat- 

Bf oartxin aetile inflammatory affeetions of the eve. He makes use of 

method for relief in cases of abscess of the thyroid gland, and in- 

of the frontal sinns and antrum of Highmorc. In pericarditis 

nrliei may be afforded by blistering. A blister over the stomach will 

''-unali: >umiting; and gleet is sometimes cured by a blister to the 





S80 



I'ltARMACBCTICAt THKBAPEimO A0SNT8 OK DBCOB. 



perineum. Vesication of the back of the neck is said by Svaii to be a t 
measHiv in cn»« of incuntinrnce of uriin;. Nouralgia is promplly re! 
by ft small blister to the painful point; and neuritis is cured by flj 
ten; thai n to »ny, a »ucoe*iiinn of rmall blistcre along the cuiino c 
nerte. In acute rheumatism, marked relief is sometimes afforded to a ot 
joint by »Hrroim(Jiiig it with *niall blitlcre. A bli»lcr over the afr<>ctcd 
IS a good remedy in chronic synovitis. A larpe blister over the heart, a) 
early in the course of acute rheumatism, it often remarkably tuccee* 
reducing temperature and relieving pain; probably, also, it is of t 
obvinling the tendency to endociirditi*, or curinj; it it present. In p 
effusion, absorption may be hastened in a similar manner, and also the 
ing up of the lung after pncumonin. The warming plnxler here may be 
for several days, if the skin is not too sensitive. Blisters must be U8e<? 
caution in aged or dcbililutcd potienig; also in children. They shoul 
be appb'ed to parts deprived of vitality byparalysia, or to cieatricial I 
or whore the skin is poorly nourished. The poMibilitv of abwrptioi 
serious results should be kept in mind. Nor should a blister be atlov 
remain on too looir. Cnntharis should not be u«ed as s vesicating ag< 
the case of patients whose kidneys are damaged. The oemte. or tinctv 
cflnthai'idt'R enter* (lonii'timci' into the composition of pomad«« or lotio 
the treatment of alopecia circumscripta, and cantharidal collodion pi 
over ihu putcbea, eveiy week or ten days, is at limes efRcaciou*. 

In small doses, not exceeding 0.J2 to 0.18 ccm. {or mii-iij) daily i 
tincture, canthnridesi hatt been commended a« a stimulant to the m 
organs, in hrematuria, Bright's disease of the kidneys, pyelitis, cystit 
contiucDce of urine, gleet, and leucorrhcGa; but is contra-indicated in 
conditions of in Ham mat ion. Given in Ibis manner, it will usually i 
cbordee. Ringer recommends full doses of the tincture of cantharid 
combination with tincture of ircui and phosphoric acid or mis vonii 
the impotence due to old age. ?e\ual excess, or masturbation, ('arthai 
been employed with success in anu-norrhnia due to atonic conditions, ai 
auppreaeed passive seminal emissions of the same character. Cuts 
ofleutione, especially p»oria»i$ and olber si^nnmous diseases, are snmi 
much benefited by similar small doses of the tincture. It has been u 
produce abortion, and, in these small doses just mentioned, has ommeni 
properties. There is some evidence to show that the internal administ 
of tincture of cantharidea may check the proorresa of cancer. Several 
have been reported in which the tumor remained stationary and the 
toms improved, or in which, many years after removal of the growths, 
had been no recurrence. It was given in association with the wine ol 
phor. 

Potassium cantharidate has been introduced by Professor I^iebrc 
a remedy i7i titberculosis, especially of the larvnx. It is given by hypod 
injection, in doses of 1 to S deciroilligrammes (or gr. Vnoe-'Aod). T 
jeclion excites n moderate degree of pnin, but is not generally follow 
pronounced febrile reaction. In cases of simple inflammation and i 
culniis infiltration of the larynx, potassium ciinlluiridatc causes an e 
tion of senini. which is, however, quickly reabsorbed. Hoarseness dimi: 
and swallowing becomes loss difiiciiU. Tniii-rculoiis ulwrs show a ten 
to heal. In pulmonary tuberculosis it has been found without effect 
the fever, cough, ciiwctoration, or physical signs. The treatment is i 





uoimiHoua 



331 




I me. 



IS 



idle •It^tit Rlhutninuris and urobiUntirtB. Peterntti has reported three 
oil \^y him more than three years proviausly, sccordiug to thiE 
ilh. At till* time, iippamitly nnfarorublc results. He subsequently 
of the cases completely cured and the third so much improved w 
ininbte a cure. 

BcBoflt hns Bometimes resulted in caaea of lupii* and granular lid«. The 
I nethml is i^aid to tinvc occusionod improvement in non-tubercular 
tnoic laryngitis. Dr. Ch. Talamon states that, although he has trjtnofwed 
taionihl« ciTccts of potassium fanthnridate in tubercular ca«es, he has 
that the salt possesses a decided diuretic action, more eitpocially in 
oluUK pativnts. In ordrr to avoid the pain to which these injections 
', Dr. llenQi); has employed cocaine rantharidate in tuberculoaia and 
uthvr i:hrunic afToclions, ok o2sna, nusal and laryngeal syphilis, etc. He 
tolutioii of 3 to fi parts of the remedy in 2000 parts of chloroforra- 
'. and the qtiantitv injected is e<|ual to 1 to 5 dGcimUIignmmcs (or gr. 
'/,„) of cautharidin. Cocaine cantharidatc is rather a simple mixture 
a cni'tnical combiiuilion and occurs in the form of an amorphous, white 
iviitute of odor and having a saline and pungent taste. It dLiiolves 
culty >n cold water, but in readily soluble in hot water. It is in- 
ether, alcohol, and l>enzin. Cantharis tincture, internally, has 
made use of as a »y«teniiv stimulant ia adynamic conditions, or after 
or typhoid fever. 

CAOTTTCHOVC (B. P.).— India Bubber. 

I'rrparalion. 

LiqtMir Cwmlrhouc iB.P.I. -Solution of India Rublxr llriditt rubber, 00 Gm.; 
4 sad cBxboa bisiil(>hiil«, ot «acli, 500 ccia.i. 

nsmweology. — 11ic prepared niilk-juic« of Ilevea Ilrasiliensis, and 
' It other species; known in commerce as pure Para rubber. (See 

CAPSICrnf (U. S. p.).— Capsicum' (Cayenne Pepper, African Pepper). 

CAfSICI FRUCTirS (U.P.).— Capaicum. 
JkoM. O.04>5 to 1.30 Gm. (orgr- i-xx). 

Pnparalums. 
bxnctBtn Oipriei Flnidiun (U.S.F.).~-F1tud Bstnct of Cnpnoum (alcolioUc)- 
hOM to 0-30 c-cm. (or nl-r). 
Ofa^iilBa C'apiM <r.a P.).— OtoonwlB of CitpidniRi. I)nw>. O.OOS to 0.1« Om. 

baiplMtiiim Ckptlti (U-S.P.). — Cspsicum riMtn- (Mutaiu olMTMint, 
Dwlan Qipici IU.S.P., B. P.).— Tincture of CapMcum. Dow. OM to I ccn. 

C^timtnm CfttMiri fB. P.).— CHiMican Oiataimt (bTui««l ca{w!cuin' fruit, 18 
; ■|Mnnu*tJ, SGn.; olivT~oil, 44 Gtn.|. 

nansacoIocT. — The fruit of Capsiciim fasli^iatum (Solanace*). I'. S. 

rhr drill! n\»- fruit of Capoirum minimum (H. P.), <-onxtitule» capsicum, 

pepper, which j.tows in ihe East Indies and on the coast of Guinea. 

' T«rietir4 an- luttivati-d all over tin- world for culinary and niedic- 

' ^Qrf*i*f*- The Capsicum annuum is most common in this country, of 



>tm pap**" *>7 oulhot os "Capalcum" in the UfJienI BullrUn. Xov., 1R84>. 



J 



23S 



pnAKMXCSDTICAL THKRAPKtTIC AOENTS OR DBCCIB. 



which there aro u number of rarictics, having ()ifToroiit-filiiipo<l jkmU or 
berries, the latter heing pickc<1 green and used fnr picltliiig wiih vit 
The ehief eonetiliient of red pi-pper is u cni'Hiallixuble, acrid subri 
Ctptaioin (Thrci^h); also a yellow oil, resiQ, and n volatile alkaloid v 
in it¥ odor n.'seaiblcs oouiine. 

Physiological Action and Therapy. — Capsicum occasions irritation 
applied to till.- i-kiti. iitid niny produce vceication; it acts as a countor-in 
in relieving pain in the striicturea beneaUi, eapt-cinll^ in neuralgia, sub 

tout, chronic gout, rheumatiam, and bronchitis. In the mouth the ts 
ot and pungent, causing free flow of saliva, and similarly increasin, 
flow of gastric juice, producing wannth in the stomach, expelling flatut 
giving increased appetite and digestive power. Overdoses of capsicun 
give rise to subacute or chronic gastritis. Excessive amounts cause t 
pain, vomiting, and purging. 

Capsicum ^timtilotcs the action of the heart and increases the dig 
functions. It promotes the excretion of urine and posgeBses an apbro< 
influence. A prescription of much utility in debility of the sexual o 
is: — 



B Pulveria otiwic-i, 

Extncti eofie 

M. «t ft. piluln no, xxx. 

8lg. Two pilU tliwo or four t!m«« a day. 



aa 4| Gm. or 3j. 



I 



Capsicum plaster may be used when mild counter-irntalion is de 
The tincture of capsicum may be employed with advantage in chil 
when the surface i« unbroken. Dr. Rheims recommends that a strong 
lire of capsicum-pods should be mixed with an equal quantity of mU' 
of gum arable. The mixture is brushed two or three times upon tissue-j 
which is then applied to the affected surface and quickly relieves the it 
and pain. Discolored brui&es and chronic rheumatic pains are lil< 
benefited by the same treatment. Sawyer suggests a tincture of capi 
made with official, pure ether in place of rectified spirit. He reports' 
ether, by its action on the sebaceous secretion of the skin, is prcferal 
alcohol as a menelruum for drugs designed to produce a therapeutic 
on or through the skin, It has also the advantage that oil of turpenti 
a bland oil h easily miscible with it, if requisite tn add either. He 
that a mixture of equal parts of ethereal tincture of cRpaicum. liquo 
monite, oleum lerebinthinoe, and oleum lini forms an e-icellent rubefi 
liniment. An infusion of capsicimi pods applied upon a piece of Unt 
markably cfTicncious in acute torticollis. 

The tincture of capsicum is an excellent application to the mucous 
brane of the month and especially the gums. It enters into very many i 
washes, the following, tised by Garrctson, being very serviceable: — 

n Tinet. enpdd TjE com. or fSij. 

Spirltoe odorat, 

Alpoholis «a 00 c.i-ni. or fjij. 

Tinet. quillaJK .,..tt,,..t,.. , 46 con. or fjiss. 

Titipt. gvDtinnip comp. 30 r..ra>. or 1%}. 

Addi acplici diluti ....>.<.•. ...<■>. . 16 v.cm. or fjs^ 

Acidi cikrbollcl 12 acta, or mij.— 



'London Lancet, May 17, 1890. 




CABBO AKJMALIB. 



33S 



im infusion is used as an application to enrtutinal »orc tJiroat, 
as a gargle in tonsillitis, pharyngitis, or may be used as a gQrgl^ 



ft Tlit«t. e«p«icl 



Cjcm. or f3j 



or Stii. 
vjMi. or m]. 



ctan. or niij. 
ccm- or fSxij. 



IVrtwNli ehlorkUa 12 

»G»y»T>nt 60 
Acidi LydT«chlor djl - H 
AqvH roMB. «d»W 
Cb{irieum majr be used external); as a hair-lotion for promoting the 
ttpQlary growth: — 

K Ttort. capsicl 10 

TliMt. ■npooaria: qniL 30 

»01]re«Titii ■ 7S 
nnrl. (^antharidiv , II 
Sslrltom ronnurini .,,., •- 45 
Avim row 240 



cent, or fja*. 
com. or rjj. 
e.cin. or ISi'i. 
com. or fSiij, 
ccn. or QIm. 
cem. or fSvitj. 



M. Sig.i Drop OB th« hair nigbt and tnoraiiig nad bruah tli« tcalp woH. 

Cafwicuiti is ^rcn internally after a debauch or in cases of drink-cnr- 

Eaeabetitute for alcoholic drinks in vxtempornncotK infusion .tl Gm. to 

» {or 5i-Oij, fjij). Dose, 15 to 60 c.cm. (or fSss-ij). In chronic catarrh of 

Ittaauich of dnmkards, the tincture of capsicum, in 0.60-c.cm. {orgtt. x) 

bcfarc meaU, fiervea aji an appetizer. The tincture of capsicum is a 

•timulmit in delirium tremens. It may vcn* serriccably be admin- 

IB ))cef-tea, ani] supports the heart, allfivs restlessness, and promotes 

Capaicum. in fact, potec»tcs a slight narcotic power, and can bo given 

with marltid effect: — 

s 



cxm. or OH. 
Gm. or 3il], 
ecu. or tS\v. 



ia Gm. 
20 Gm. 

OlR. 



or p. xl. 
or or. iij. 
or Si. 



B Ttndunr MMld .--- Tl 

Sodu bromidi 12 

BUx. Inpnlini - 120 

^K. Sig.: T»o t««spoanhil« ia water every hour or two. 
It ia an excellent remedy in flatulent dyspepsia: — 
% IStlverii Mptlci 

Gstrseti oncu romUn .., 

Extrwrtl pBit«rcatia 4 

v. «1 ft. nptuUe DO. kx. 
Sf.t A capBolB alter nx*!*. 

Capaicum is brneficiBl in t>'phoid fever and typhoid conditions, as a 
inlant;. It aclK nUo as a im-ful adjuvant in the trratmcut of mulnria. As 
I caliaiaxice inTigorates the muscular coat of the arteries, it may be ad- 
sly employed in onler lo control hteniorrhnge from the lungs or 
gb. On account of its irritant effects, it is contra-indicated in acute 
ition of the atomach or bo«els. At excretion takes place by the 
itBl^aL capaicam should be prohibited in inffammatory conditions of the 
Lttiito-arinflrr (met; but in chronic digorderv it may often be employed with 
Knta^. In chronic nephritis, pyelitis, cystitis, and ptostatorrhtea it fre- 
HmIt proves d('ci<led]y lirneflcial. 

CASBO AJnMALIS (IT. S. P.). — Animal Charcoal. (Charcoal prepared 
^m. hoar- ) 





8M 



I'lMRUACEUTICAL THBBAPEUTIC AOKN'TS OB DRCaS. 



I'rtfiaralum. 

Oirlio Aninmlia Puriflratu* (U.S-P.).— Purifed Animal Chnreon]. 
AQm. (or gi. x-Sj). 



DoM, ' 



FharmRcology. — Animal charcoal is prepared from bone bv espi 
to lu'ul; und ytooA charcoal is obtained by a eimilar process from soft i 
The former occurs as a black powdiT or mass, the loiter in large frego 
piTscrving the shape of the billets of wood, or as a fine light powder. , 
lied animal charcoal is tbc charred bone after treatment wiln hydroci 
acid, which removes the earthy salts and leaves only the carbon, Rece 
liiinied charcoal resdily abfiorbs gusiist. It \% an excellent deodorizer, a 
dt's-truys organic impurities by oxidation, decolorizing solutions conta 
them and rendering Ihcni tnoflenKivi; lo tartlc or timell, but it \i not, 
criy speaking, an antiseptic. It is a useful filtering agent, when fresl 
purifying water, luteninlly, it is given in too small doaeg to exert 
effect of this kind in the intestinal tract, but it aids in purifying the stot 

grtlr by mcchanienl actiim. It increane* *ccre1ion and peristaUis. R 
Wild,' in a prize essay on "Charcoal as a Therapeutic Agent," sa, 
have in charcoal, whether dry or mixed with water, n powerful oxk 
sgeat, and one which, being non-poisonous, can be administered in 
doees. 

Therapy. — Charcoal is a good dressing to old or offenave gangr 
ulcers, as il absorbs the foul matcritil uud cleans the wound, It \i gen 
utilixed in the form of the charcoal poultice, being beaten up witK 1 
crumb or fla»ccdmoal; or a small bug lilUsl with powderi'd charcoal n 
laid upon the poultice when it has been placed in position. It is som€ 
used for tooth-powder, but it i* open to the objection of scratching the 
and discoloring the gums. Charcoal filters are useful in pharmacy, bi 
in the household, because, if not renewed daily, they lose their virtue 
only act as a breeding-place for germs of putrefaction and disease. Oh 
in powder or animal charcoal may be administered in cases of poisoni 
organic poisons. In flatulent dyspepsia recent ly-burned charcoal is 
times bpueticial, It has been used to relieve the pain of gastric ulw 
gastralgia. In France it is sometimes prescribed as magnesia noire, t 
England the term "lilack magnesia" is Bomctimes applied to powdered 
coal. 



CAKBONEI DISULPHIDUM fU. S. P.).— Carbon Bisulphide (OS 

CARBONIS BISUIPHIDUM i R. P.).— Carbon Bisulphide. 

Pharmacology and Therapy. — Carbon disulphide is a clear, vei 
fusivc inflammable liijuid. of strong, olfensive odor. It is a bighly-refi 
fluid, has a sharp, distinctive taste and a neutral reaction. It is highl 
sonons, and its odor is also an objection to its internal use. It gives : 
severe heudeeheand marked nervous excitement- Frequent exposure 
fumes occasions ansmia, physical and mental debility with, in some ins! 
amblyopia and epileptiform convulsions. Workers In rubber factori 
liable to be affected by inhalation of carbon disulphide. The sjth 
noted by Stadeimann' consisted of digestive dii^turbancea, muscular 



' Nrw York iledlml Joumal. April 4, Ifittil. 
'Btrliner Itllnltchf Wiwhrnsrfirift, Jum IS. 1890, 




OAUDAMOUUU. 



2K 



ilmMr, ttaxia, increaEcd muscular irritability, painful mnsculiir apasni, 
iwbtd seastition; altererl knefi-Jerk, toiiictimvs incrfuscd, Eomctimes 
4iRiiiidied, clc. Tlic« symptoms arc not uncommon in Germany. Bern- 
hrdt Mates that the poi«on may alTcrt tho peripheral nerves and ercn giro 
Mf lo a dcgcneratlTe neuritis or paralysis, llysttrical symptoms have been 
•kored. Stadelmsnn found do changes in the optic di«k. Poi«oning by 
tUi tgent is treated by means of bromide and chloral, with the addition of 
tin^U if the circulation is depressed, although it is a valuable antiseptic, 
ud has been used in typhoid fever, dyspepsia, and in gastric cancer. It has 
Koe anesthetic and anodyne properties when inbulod. Locally, the vapor 
Wbwn proposed to be applied for glandular enlargements and in defective 
wmtion of cerumen in the ear. Loeul auiustliesiu muy lie produced by the 
■or in neuralgia, etc, W, S, Cline claims that 15 ccm. (or fjss) of the 
otolpbide of carbon, being well rubbed over the painful parts, will cure 
■ntics. 

C&RDAHOUtru (U. S. P.].— CardnmosL 

CARDAUOId SEHINA (B. P.).— Catdamom-Beeds. 
^Bm*, i}.3-^ u. i I. 111. I'-Tgr. v-sv). 

^^^r Preparations. 

Tiactora Cafdamoini [U. S. P.).— Tlootura ot Cardamont (10 p«r wnt.). Dote, 
^|T^ «.ciii. l'->r fSi-iji. 
^■TiMtura Carilainanii roiiipn*[Ui lU.S. P., R. P.).— Compoimd Tinctura of Cardn- 

*>^ii in ililutF nl<T>liul. q. n. nd 100 jinrts). Udw, 4 to 15 ccni. (or fSi-ir). U.F., 
llttcno. \tn fSM-j). 

CuibMiom alio vnlcre into tlie eamptMitiun of nroinntic^ pou dcr t V. S. V. ; cardH- 
<n ud lilltlDr]C> SB 15 Git). I rinnnmnn iml gingx't, h.i ^ii IpMi.I nnil »\\\ir ndJilvDn» 

"VF.t. 

I Rumwcology. — Cardamom is the fruit of Elettaria repens (Scita- 
t), (-'. S. P.; the drieil ripi- seeds of RIettaria Ctirdnniomiuu { B. P.). It 
' from Malabar. althouf;h other sources are recoj^nized in commerce. 
I wed* arc iuclowd in iii[K»uIes, the latter being vuluelei»* exwpl an a 
for the former, which contain a volatile oil holding a campho- 
•WM! gub«laRoe lu .-(olulion. * 

IkiMpy. — The seeds of cardamom are sometimes chewed and swallowed 
jit^tve flatulence, or the tincture or compound tiuclure may be used, the 
'*ttr brinf; « valuable carminative combination. The compound fluid ex- 
'*i,{|»ogh not oiTirinl, is considered a better prepnration than the com- 
^itiacture in the treatment of atonic dyspepsia and flatulence. 

CAKDtmS BENEDICXUS.— Blessed Thistle. This plant belongs to the 

ita> and i* a native of .Asia and Kuropi\ The leavi>.'<, somi'limcs the 

"", are used in decoction (I to 8), and a fluid cstraet and solid 

■dno been used. A hitler neutral principle, Cnioiii, — crystal- 

■rif*s prisma, soluble in alcohol, less so in water, — appears to be 

inpal constituent; potassium nitrate is also present. 

^nwj' — Carilmui i« a bitter lonie used in Gerniiiny in digestive wcak- 

Itnrunie hepatic complaints; best given as the fluid extract (I to 

""^n-fSj, at a dose), in which the meniitruuin is diluted alcohol. 



■if 111 



PHARMACSDTICAL TllBBAPKUTIC AtiKKTS OK UnUGS. 

Cnicin lias been ^rcn in doflcs of 0.33 10 0.65 Gm. (or gr. x-x) in iiiti'rmit 
fevor, but in Dici^c qunnliticfi it is apt to cause nauKc-A, vomiting, and < 
Th<Ea. The Cardunt Haruutiu, or St. Marys Thistle, anolhiT variety, is 
fortfa*niii« piirpoKi.', but it is CEpudnlly in rcpulc for Irt^ntiiig coses of 
stores. It has also been extolled &a an hemostatic, laxative, and diu 
(Lobnch). 

CARUUTDU. — Carmine i« thu ml coloring mutter obtained 
cochineal, it iii vulir«l>- soluble in water. (See Cocoas.) 

CAROTA.— Carrot'frnit. The swds of Doucus raroia (I'mbcUifd 
a gniyi^ii color, about Vh ■'■*-''t in U-ngth, contain a volatile oil of 
odor and taste. Used in powder as a carminative and diuretic, 

CARUM (U. S. P.),— Caraway. 

CARtn FEUCTHS (R. P.).— Caraway.fniit. 
Dose, 0.65 to i (jm. (or gr, x-iix). 

Prtparations. 

OUunt Caii I U. 8. P.) .—Oil of Cnrawaj. Dow. O.OO to 0.90 a«m. (er lid- 
Oleum Cpnii (a P.),— Oil o( Cnruway. Uiw;, 0.03 to 018 com, lor Bnw-lfj 
/maa tnrui (B, P.).— (^rnwiiywntcr (.10 Oin. lo 1000 c-cm. dlnlilln] I 

Cnrnwny PnIi>rB In the conipoiiiid >pint of junipt-r ItT.S.P.], Ui4 com 
iiTP of nirdumum lU. S. P.. B.I*.), and spirit of juniEicr (B. P,l. 

Pharmacology and Therapy. — The fruit of Carum carvi (Umbelli 
contains s voUitUc oil, and h prized as a condiment. It is used as a stiro 
in flaluk'iioo, or in eotnbination to prevent gi'iping of other medicine 
case has been reported in which 4 c.cm. (or foj) of the oil of caraway proi 
cerebral c on g edition, delirium, and ri^org in a man. Caraway has, 
thought to possess gaUictagogic properties. 



r.em. 
tinctuTP 



CASYOPHYLLUS (U. S. P.).— Cloves. 
CARYOPHYLLUM (B. P.).— Cloves. 

Preparations. 



J 



Oleum OftiyophylU {U.S. P., B.P.).— Oil of Ooveit. Vom, O.M to 0.37 c,c 
mlvj). 

Infusum Qiryo|)liylli (B.P.).^Iilfu*iwi of Oovtt 127> per cent). DoM 
30 e.cri. {or (Ssaji. 

Ainu vrilvn iiitu I In- U. 8. P. )irti|)ar»tlan» ot compound tincture o( U 
aromatic tinctuic of rhubarb, aromatic nyrup of rhubarb, and wine of opium. 

Pharmacology. — Cloves are the tinexpanded flowers of Eugeni 
nialicii I MyrloL-Lie). U. S. P.; Ihc drit-d rtowcr-buds of Eiigenin caryopl 
(B. 1'.): a lai-gi? tree of the Spice Islands and Africa. They an 
hrnwn m color, about half an inch loiip. and have u strong, K|)ic] 
and punnent, aromatic taste, owing to the presence of a heavy volat 
(15 lo "in per cent.). They also contain Eugenin, tasteless crvstallin 
stance; salicylic acid; and a neutral, tastele&E, odorless body, Caryopl 
which crystallixcs in needles. Eugcnal, called also eugenic acid, ob 





CA6C1 CORTEX. 



237 



\h Midition from tho oil of clovc«, is an aromatic liquid, readily soliiblo in 
ueafaal and but slightly noluble in waMr. CloTi>-ttaIti£ arci the Hover-elalks 
rflfae doves; inothcr-clor«# onj tiie whole fruit. Uolh of these arc uttsd to 
itfiiltrnte ground cloves, 

Phynelo^cal ActioD. — Cloves aro stimulant, carminatire, and anli- 
Kftic The oil has some ansstheiic itifiueiice ov<t painful area£. In oTer- 
iw it will cause gastixM-ntcritis, has a soporific elleci, and occasions death 
- respiratorj- failure. The oil of cloves in elimiitat«d by the kidoeye, 
-. tirdnchial mucous membrane, and ekia. It posseeses antiseptic Tiitues. 
Therapy. — The oil of cloves is used to destroy stnMtion in ihe ucrre of 
^~^-w, aching tr«th, and quickly relieves pain. In combination vith lan- 
ds, it may be usvd for eczema. The infusion ia ueed internally as a stom- 
le^c tonic for the relief of flatulence and pain, but it is generally given in 
MBbinstiun with other remedies. It is said that 0.03 or 0.06 c.cm. (or gtt. 
•f the oil of cloTOG, given in a little water, will rapidly allay excessive 

Thv growth of tubercle bacilli ia retarded by tincture of cloves, and 

Vmaotti. in eighteen ca*cs of local tubcreulosia, obtained marked improve- 

'. from injectioiu of a 10-per-cent. emulsion of cloves in olive-oil. In 

" "'it-'arifi the repeated applicolion of oil of cloves is itid to cause sepain- 

epitbeliom and retrocession of the nodules. 

i he oil of clovea is a parasiticide and has been made use of aa an appli- 

'>& in pediculosis. Eugenol, a constituent of the oil of cloves, has been 

i^bioed, by n {Mtentcd procesf, to form a compound termed benzoyl- 

.-•■ool. ur t>eiiz-eugenoI. This product, it is thought, may prove useful in 

' * trvattucnt of tuberculum Eugenol has been u»ea as an antiseptic remedy 

■ the daily dose of 3 c.cm. (or mxlv), 

Tbe acctamide of eugenol, a crystalline subetance, is an active antiaeptic 
mai ia aUo an excellent local aiueethctic. This compound may be advan- 
Mfamislj employed ia dentielry and minor surgery. It is prepared by acting 
the »odium salt of euRenol n-ith monochloracetic acid, adding alcohol 
chlorine-gas and ^resting wilh a strong lolutton of ammonia. Another 
iM*"*'"" which has been introduced is einnamyl-eugenol, a colorless, 
■jililliiii Bubstauc«, destitute of odor and taste, toluhle in hot alcohol, ether, 
^ti cbltiniform. This compound has been applied to the treatment of tuber- 
iilm.in 

CASCA COBTEX.~Susy-bu>k. 

Pharmacology. — The ErvthrophloEum Guineense (Legununoss) is a 

-.■:- ■'.■ :■ tT '•' '■■'!: OH Ihc w>«st of AfHca. which furnishes the ordeal-bark 

.\ _- i!n -ni'twise cases, or aaasy-bark. It contains an alkaloid, Eiy- 

UTnphlorine. A tincture (10 per cent.) has been iimd by Brunton, in ^oec» 

. .1.1 1.. (m;o c.cm. (or mv-x). 

Phjnolopfial Action. — The powder causes sneezing when inhaled. The 

ifnoD or tinduTo ^ires ri<« to vomiting, purging, and intoxication, fol- 

wmJ Itr Heath durinj; mnvulnons. Upon the circulation vr^ihrophlocnm 

^ tn action like digitalis. 

Therapy. — In its native country sassy-bark is employed in the treatment 
-• -it fever, ftalnlent dyspepsia. diarrhwa, and dysentery. Brunton 
< tire uwfui in dilated liearl without valvuUr disease; uIm in 
-Jai dievo^c and dropsy. 




PnABVAOBUTICAL THSBAPBUTTO AOENTS OR DBUOB. 

Accontiiig to Pro(. Gi-rmuin Siv. Hi»fy-l)nrk is very useful in ilyspm 
markedly infreasinj; ihit depth of inspiration. It disturbs the digestion ml 
thnn di^tulii-. The liyilniehlonite of-erythrophlu-ine is & milt in the fO 
of a powder, soluble in water, which can be administered hjpodermicallj 
dosM of O.OUl to »,0i"5 fim. (or gr. '/ou-'/n) «» » I*""' analgesic, but H 
inferior to cncftine for this purpose. ^m 

CASCABA AUABGA.— Hondurfts Bark. 

Pharmacolog? and Therapy. — 'llie Cu^eara ainarf^ (SimarulucM;), 

niindurns hark, hu> wiiin! rej)iitation a.* a tonie and alterative. The fli 
extract (dose. 2 to 4 o.eiii,, -ir fl>ss-j. gevernl tinieif a ilay) may be iiKeil 
syphilis, chrnnie liver ili«<'.i^i', nasal catarrh, and skin diseases (ecxet 
piioria«ii>. cyphilodermuta, etc.). ^H 

CASCABA SAOBABA (It. P.). — Cascara Sagrada. (Stv Bhamnus E 
shiana.) 

CASCABULA {[■. S. p., n. p.).— CascarilU. 
Dose. 0.13 to 1.30 Gni. (or gr. ii-XJt). 

Prejmralions. 

Inhimm On«cflrlIIsi> Ill.P.I.—Iofuaion ot CnsforlUa (S prr crnt.). Dnnc, It ti 
c.cni. lOT fjas-jl. 

Tinrtum CB*cnrilla. (B.P.I-— Tincture o( CajMarlllA (20 per cent.). Do»e, 2 
o.cm. (or fSss-J). 

Pharmacolog:y. — The bark of Croton ehiteria (Euphorbiaceffi) from 
Bahamu Islands. It has a warm, rather bitter taete. and emits a fras^ 
odor when burned. Cascartllin is a bitter neiilrnl substance, with vola 
oil, resin, and tannin as the principal constituents. There are no offi 
pn-jiaratioii.% but the fluid extract, infusion, and tinrture are used, noni 
which is miscible in water. 

Therapy. — Ca^earilla is a light tonic, somewhat stimulant and CAna\ 
tive, and the infusion has been used in low fevers. It may be profitably 
ployed as a tonic in conTalesnence from typhoid fever or other cxhauHl 
disease. 

CASSIA FISTULA (U. S. P.).— Purging Cassia. 

CASSIA PULPA (B. P.).— Cassia-pulp. 

Dose, 4 tJm. (or Sj). 

Pharmacology and Therapy. — The fruit of Cassia fistula (Trfgumino 
a tree of the West Indies, is in cylindricnl pods of a dark-brown color, i 
taining from twenty-five to one hundred seeds in separate cells, and a di 
brown, coft, sweetish pulp, having an odor like prunes and containinR a1 
60 per cent, ot sugar. Good casda yields Jibout 3U per c<'nt. of the p 
which is the medicinal part of the drug, lliis ia laxative in its actioi 
dosea of a drachm or more. There are no official preparations of easia, 
the confection of senna contains IG per cent. Casaia fistula promotes 
secretion of bile and communicates a brownish or greenish tint to the lu 




CASTOREnSI. 



CASTA5EA (U.S. P.).— Chestnut. 

Preparation. 

btnrtnn Cb«Um« Fluldmu (U.S.T.).— fluid Extract ol CbHtaut Dose, 4 
tlium. (or (3i-ij), 

Huraacology and Therapy.— Tin? leaves of Castantm dentals (Cupu- 

e), Cf-Iieelfcd in Sepleiiiber or October, wliilo still green. They contain 

, gallic Mii, mils, and gum. A recent infueion has been employed 

iraccesa in wbooping>cough, and might, on acronnt nf its astinRency, 

laNd /or dianhcca of relaxation, but for the latter purpose the fluid ex* 

t »OTiM be better. 

USTOREUK.— Cutor is the dried secretiou of the preputial membraDS 

hhe i')Wi(>r fibiT or liriiver. It is of unctuous coiisi*tene_v, u brown or 

[h-brown color; a pungent, di»i<;reeiible i^iiiell: aud a bitter, naueeoua 

». It u Miluble in ftloohol and ether. Oistor e<>iitalii« a vojutilc oil, a 

nlilT principle, of erjt^lalline structure, termed castoriu, and salicylic 

rbldp. together with other c.irpiiiiii; uiul tiicirgiinii.' oniiMtituciit.*. 

Ihenpy. — Thii? substanci> has a certain stimulant effect upon the nen- 

liystem, and act« a« an antiikpn^modic. It hatt bct-n giv<;ii in doxeii of 

lio 1.30 Gm. (or gr. v-xx) to control the spasms of hysteria and other 

■"'ionB, the tremorii of typhoid fever, and those dependent upon an 

'^ condition. It may be given with advuntuge in tympanites. Castor 

, ,, ied to possess entnieuagogie projiertit-s. and han been admiui^tered 

liKRUTrhora and nterine colic. It is ocHt given as a tincture in doses of 

|toUr.cn. (or foi-iij). 

CATECHU (I'. S. P., B. P.}.— Catechu. 

Dne, u.utij lo 2 Gm. (or gr, i-xxx }. li. I'., u.ax to 1 Gm. (or gr. v-xv). 

Preparations. 

QMUia Cctcvba Compodtu (U.S.P.I. — Cumpotind Tincture of Catechu |c«t«chu 
''fm»M(g. In dllnlfid nloohol). Ddm, O.liO to 4 cctn. lor tax-fSj). 

Tnrtiiia Oleeliu {O.&P., E.P.).— Trcehw of Catecliu (0.065 Gin., or gr. J, 
*' l)aM, 1 or more. 

hliii C«l*cliu Oomposfttis (K P.|.— Compound Powder of CHt«e)iu fpateoKu, 
klna.iO; kimiiiCTii.60; cinuiiiuun. 25; nulmcic.S5). iJ(»«. O.QA tu 2,00 Gm. (or 

TbitHn Cilcliu (RP.}.— Tinctaie of Cntivliii (£0 p«r cent; oinnamoa, S p«r 
bntt. i to 4 cctn. (or (3n-j). 

'i*nnaool<^7.^Cat<.>ehu is an extract prepared from the wood of Acacia 
i*ia (Ij-^uniiuo-iiE-), V. S. P.; an extract of the leave.^ and young shoot* 
''^Wria Gambier (B. P.): a large tree of Pegu. It is in lai^e mmwi;*, hard 
1 htiule, gtu^ii}' and porona on fracture; taste strongly aiitringent and 
rt:.li; rpry little ixlor. The eonstitm'tus of black eatechii, nr cutch, are 
dtttin-tuinic Acid ami Catechin, the latter being insoluble in water; but 
atutnct IE entirely soluble in alcohol, though insoluble in ether. With 
on, jCTsenuh- brown precipitates are formed. 

nerapy. — Catechu is a valunble astringent. It may he used as a moutb- 
tMk fnr apongy gumfi, a gargle in pharyngitis, or as an injection in gonur- 
daaorkucoTTtian; but is most frequently employed in diarrhtBas of relaxa- 




2'in PHARUACBUTICAL THBEjLFBCmC jLQBXTS OU DBDOS. 

A* the yit'ld of catechu has become insullieicnt to supply the 
the Colonial Ministry of Fiance is now inaiij;wraling the culti\-a{ 
Cochin China, of a tree, the Bragniera gymnorhixa (a variety of maaf 
used as s dyeetutl), the bark of which yields an extract which has bt-cn to 
to an^jwcr all the purposes of catechu.' I 

CAIHA. — African Tea. A small ahrub of Xorthwestem Africa, i 
by the natives as a £tiniulunt and temporary substitute for food. Fori 
gave it the name of Catha eilulis (Celaeitraceie). The leaven are chewed 
those of the Krythroxyloii coca, and are iuvi^'orating and rvstomtive; 
recent infusion acts like that of tea, mate, or coffee. The plant haa 1 
iiniily^cd without delecting cafTciiU'. riiiokigiT has isolated a liquid nika} 
Katrine. An allcaloid, which seems to be the active principle, has been 
tniiicd by Prof. I'goliuo Mosso, of tJeiioa.' To thin subntanci; the diseot 
has given the name of CeUstrine. It is present in the plant in such e 
(luantiti«-« that it« exact chemical composition hu« not j-ct been detvrmi 
but it is probably related to caSeino. During a primary stage and in e 
doMS, celastrine is stimulant to the nervous »y»tem of frog;); during a 
ondary stage, and in large doses it is depressant. It produces an exci 
etfect upon the heart of the same nnimnl. In dog« and rabbits blood-pret 
and respiration were not notably inHucnccil, but iho activity of the 
pathetic nerve was modified. In hiH experiment* Profea*or Mor^o fi 
celastrine fatal in amounts in which cocaine is merely excitant. In into 
tion from cela»lrine sensibility ii' preserved to the last, and eonvijUion 
lacking. The stimulant effect of celastrine is essentially manifested upo: 
brain, without leaving a trace of depression or visible disturbauce of tunc 
The spinal cord, vagi nerves, and heart mny nhure the stimulant effect 
are less powerfully affected. 

in modii-inc cntha nii);bt be useful as nn art<-rial and nervous stimi 
like coca, and probably wo<Ud afford a cheap substitute at the table fo 
expensive Icji so largely used, if once introduced in this country. 

CATTLOFHTLLHU (U. S. P.).— CaolophyUom. Else Cohosh. 
Dose, 1 to 2.60 Gm. (or gr. xv-xl). 

Prrparation. 

BxtreictitiD Caulophylli Fluiiluiu (uiiufliriall. — Kluid Exlrnct o( C'auloph 
Dose, I tn 3.3t) c.cm (ornixv-xl). 

Pharmacology. — The rhizome and rootlets of Cnulophyllura f 
troides (Berberidacca.-), or squaw-rool, a plant indigenous to this coi 
It contjiine a glucoside, Saponin, and two resins, the latter constitutin 
substance supplied as Caulophyllin. 

Therapy. — Caulriphyilnm is t-nimenagogue, parturifacient, and dit 
It has some reputation in the treslment of rheumatism. It probabl 
some value as an cxpectomnt, owing to the presence of saponin, wh 
analogous to senogin found in Polygala senega, ond might bo valuat 
bronchitis and catarrhal pneumonia. 



■ Kiritg Jniirtuit nf ChnniKtrs nnd Fliaitnaca. 19nO. p, 313; Amrrimn Ji 
PharmaiTl, 1000, p. 178. 

'Sec Ualioal HulMla. .\ug.. IWH, 



J 




CKRA. 



«41 



CUBIV is a whilp, ralh«r soft ointnifiii-baee. coiuistinx of 1 part of 
: and 4 jihHn of ]k|ui(] [lamlTiii. According to r»#ilcil), it \* c1ii*iii- 
^vmbli-. ointments of potassium iodide (without aodium liypo- 
Dite)and of red mt-n-urii; oxiili! rt-tnaining unaltered fur eight monilia. 
[till itkt up about 15 per cent, of water. 

CEDROH. — Cedron-aeed. The Simuba cpdron (Simurnbai-^w) of the 

ut'<d Stales of Colunibin contains two nlkaloidal ^ub«tanceii: Cedrine and 

The wed"? have u bitter tOi<tp, 

Ibenpy. — CVdron-seed has a reputation in South America for curing 

' lalTi'clionji, and ii^ largely iiwd in (leningeiucnt* of the digejitivo or- 

rhtEa. cholera morbus, etc. It is also claimed to havK decided 

Dec over the eoume »i Jivdniphobia. and is nuid to be of value in treut- 

led wounds, bites of venomous suakes, insects, etc. The reniedv is 

Ibolii tnpicjilly and i:it<-rnnllv, the imual doi<e JK'ing D.O(i.'> to O.i:) Oiii. 

^p. i-ij): but Dr. I'urple gave it in doses of 1.30 to i Orn. (or gr, xx-sxx) 

intourhoury, in intermittent fever, with tiatiiifactorv rotnilt^ 



CEBA.— WAX. 



Prtparatumt. 



On Albft (U. S. P., a P.).— White Was Ivellow wax. I>1eavhed). 

&i»Fkrt (U.S.P.,B.P.|.— Velio* Wwt. 

tkntum 1U.8,P.).— Orate (white wax, 30; loTd, 70). 

Phanoacolo^ and Therapy. — ^Wax is a peculiar, concrete «nb»tance, 

by Apia meliifica (llymenoplera; class, Insccta). fonning the 

mb; also found in certain T)lant)>. It iK iniioliiblo m water and cold 

, but soluble in boiling stcobol. ether, chloroform, and oils. It is a 

ludid, liijuefying ■ little above the body-teniperature, ami i» unirritating, 

I inedunically, to the skin and raucous membranes. It is largely used 

k{itvcon«isiency to ointments and *uppo»itorie«. 

Epideniio. — This name has been given to a new ointment base, prv* 

ibjS. Kolm by melting lo.AGm. (or^a) o^Avhile wai and triturating it 

littnn mortar with an equal quantity of powdered gum arable until an 

ouit po<t<' \* produced. To thiii ma^s \* Ibon added a bulling mixt- 

t«(15 ^.cm. (or f^ss) each of water and glycerin, and the whole is etirred 

r until cold. The result is a «cmilluid, creamy substance which, when 

i to the surface in a thin layer, forms an adherent and flejible coating. 

'*hich are to be incorporated with epidemiin should be previously 

I up with glycerin. 

COtn OXALAS <U.S.P., B. P.). — Cerium Osalate (Cc,[CA]i + 

Dne. It-;.', to 0.65 Om. (or gr. i-s), 

ttArmacoIotT. — Cerium, or ceroiM, oxalate occurs as a white, granular 
r, odorleea and tasteless, insoluble in water or alcohol, but soluble in 
ehknic acid. 

Thcnpy. — Sir J. Y, Simpson brought forward this remedy as one of 
■I rali»e in treating the vomiting of pregnancy, in which it is sometime* 
sfol, but often fail*. It is useful in controlling excessive cough in 
I or chronic bronehitif, and in nervous disorders, chorea, epilepsy, and 



Sc8 rHARMACBtmcAL THERAP^trrio xasnTS or DBvas. 

dyHHifiiorrliixtt. Tliie Milt occasionally proves U8i;ful in vomiting dtpei 
upon uterine disease, or «ven in cancer of the stomach. Cerium oialat 
been eucct^esfully employ^ to relieve oketinate vomiting occurriog <ll. 
the course of typhoid fever and phthisis. Dr. Busey prescribed it for 
purpOM of reliering nousi-a mid headache produced by opium. It is a • 
tive to the ^astrio mucous membrane, and may allay the pain of gastrs 
It is bcnefR-ifll in dv^pcpi^in occoKionud by deprcHcd or deranged ioaerv^ 
of the sloinach. The following prescriptions, containing cerium ou 
have been employed with benefit; — 

B Orii oxulatia D Om. or liM. 

nUmuth. luboit 10 Qm. or 3itM. ' 

Suirltii* chlorofomil ..,,..... T5 e.cm. or f3ij. 

I.iquor ckldB, 

Syrap. Bcariie ■» 00| c.cm. or QiJ. 

M. Big.: Two tcAspocnfuli in «'iit<T whan necMMijr for imumb and diarrli 



R C«rit oxaUlis 2 CO Gin. or gr. xl. 

Ext. hyoii'vaml .....'.... SO Oni. or gr. ii). 

Ext, toiiii 38 Cm. or 

Ext. gent 13 Qm. or 

M. tt It. piL no. xij. 

8tg.: A ptil tvtry four houm for nauaea and vomiting. dpeciaUj of pregnu 



s;:j.- 



Cerium oxalate is also occnsionally efficacious in chronic diarrhces 
is liable to be contaminated with other metals, euch as arsenic, lantha 
etc., to which some of its therapeutic effects have been attributed 

If the remedy be pnro, it may be given in doses of 0.6fl Uni. (or j 
every four hours.- Failure from its uae haa been ascribed to the sinallni 
the do«' which is genernlly prescribed. Cerium nitrate was also imployi 
Simpson, who regarded it as useful in irritable dyspeptiia with gastroi 
and pyroiia, as well as in chronic vomiting. The dote is the same as tt 
the oxalate. 

CETACETTK (U. S. P.,'B. P.).— Spermaceti. 

Preparations. 

Ctrratum Celaiti (U. S. P.) .— Sperniatfti Cenite (10 ptr c«nl.). 
I'liKiic'iitiini .\.]iin. BuMo ll'.S.P.. I(. I'.i .— Rciso-wnlcr tlmi.nic.nt, 
Uiigucnluiii Cvluoei (B.P.I, — Spermaceti Ointment (l(>eimiiccti, 20 per 
with white wax, bcnioin, and nlmond-oil). 

Pharmacology.— Spermaceti is a peculiar, concrete, fatty substani 
tained from Phj'seter nwcrocephalus (class. Mammalia; order, Cetace! 
sperm-whale. It is a fatty aiibstance, with little taste or odor; can I 
duced to a powder by tin' additiim nf a liltle (ik'ohol. I'nlike other f 
does not yield glycerin when saponified, but Ethal. It is almost pure ' 
or pjilmitate of cetyl. It is not acted upon by a boiling dilute Boluti 
soda, and leaves no grease-apot on paper. 

Therapy. — Used almost esclusivi'ly as an ingredient in ointmen 
though an emulsion with was and yelk of egg is prepared sx a demulci 
irritation of the bowels. The ungnentum uijuw rosa'. or "cold cream," 
elegant application for excoriated surfaces and chapped hands and IJpt. 




< ETIIAKIA. 



S43 



CE7SAHIA (C.S. P.) —Iceland Moss. 

Preparation. 

Dmirlutn C«trariw (U.8.P.).— D«COClian of Iceland Mou [G |ior c^nt). Done, 
(i> lHOcrm. )« ijj.iv). 

Phumscology. — The eea-weed, Cetraria islandica (Lichencs). is foimd 
locnlMro lnlitiidt-». It coiituiti» Lichenin, or lich<^n-.ilarch {70 per ceBl.}t 
j rtxh forms a mucilage when hot water is ndded. Lichenin is a j'cilowith- 
|tlae powder vhioh «wi-ll« up in cold water and dixiiolvefl after eight hours' 
I iifmioB in hot water. There is also cetrarin or cetrarie acid, a bitter prin- 
Ibple (ibont 2 per ci-nl.), which can he ri^moved hy washing with a weak 
I lUi. Cetrarin occurs in the form of snow-white aciculor crystals. It com- 
[lanritb alkalies lo form salts. Cetrarin at^o containf email quantitioa of 
IMtttmc scid. 

IkinpT. — It ha» some value as a food, and its demulcent qualities have 
1 to its use in pulmonarj- affections and bowel disorders in the form of 
«lioR. In «iich dii^ordent Ii-eloud-mo^ jtlly h an agreeable demulcent. 
I^K made by adding to a quart of boiling water a handful of well-washed 
. th« jiiic4> if two It'iiionjit, one glai)» of wine, and a quarli^r of a teaspoon 
Vnoatmon. The mofs is first eoaked for an hour in a Uttle cold water, then 
'fiica] in ihc boiling water and allowed to simmer until dissolved. It is 
Lffco iweetened, flavored, and strained into molds. 

Cobert hiti ascertained that eetrarin inereaiies intestinal peristalsi.t, aug- 

I tbe number of red and white blood-corpiiscles. especially when they 

)bera n-dueed by disease, and is a mild stimulant to the ctintral nervous 

»m. It may. therefore, prove of service in chlorosis attended by loss of 

niT and ooni^lipation. The dose is given as 0.10 to 0.13 Om. (or gr. ias-ij). 

fin. when injected into a vein, causes an increased secretion of salivSt 

.tnd pancreatic juice. In accordance with this action it has been bene- 

' employed in djspcpvia. 

I Iceland cetraria i* esteemed prophylactic againet a prevalent form of 

tm. Dr. Eckfcldt slates that cetraria possesses ant ihscmorrhagie 

rod has be«n recommended in hKmoplysis. The powder, blown into 

iBOflrils. will arrt-st opi^tu^is. A tincture of cetraria is a good application 

gums. The therapeutical properties of the lichens have been 

by I>r. Evkfcldt. Itocclla tincturin is astringent, diuretic, and a 

Dt expe«iorant. Species of the genera Usnea and Alectoria are iise- 

klotally and Ky»U-micslly, in hicmorrhoids. Among the Parmclias, scv- 

l(«rt an aniiperiodic influence. Ueindeer-moss is a demulcent tonic, 

tit, astringcnl, and altrmtive. 



QAUUtOOORA-On..— Cbanlmoogra-oil. The expreMcd oil from the 
[Gyncicardia odorata (Bi.tinm.-) emiljiiiis gynooardic acid. The oil is 
^ in rlhcr, chloroform, and alcohol, 
firnocardic acid if a yellowish, oily i^iibslaoce, of au acrid, burning taste 
lutisct odor. In leprosy chaulmoogra-oil has been ii,*(>d with awnTtcd 
1 RtallB, both locally and inti-rnully. Tliough uuable to cure the dis- 
;tl ha» in M>me caae^i delayed tbe progresa and oiitigaKid the fymploma. 
[bu boen positivelv d i- mou kI rated that, under tbe influence of tbe internal 
•tntinn of chaiilmoogra>oil, the bacilli present in the blood have 



S44 



PHARMACEUTICAL TUURAPEUTlti AGENTS OB DHl'G^. 



diaiiniiOiod in number or have actually (iisnjijK-nreii. The remedy h jf 
in gradually-iQcrcasiiiR d-jscs, but in apt to excite intoleniiic«. Renn 
ex|ji'niTU'iit!> liiivr liii'i) timiie with cliiiuliuoii^m-oil in lejiriitiv \iy ^nlid 
Deous iDJections. Toiirtoiilis Hey. of Cairo,' relates the tase of a t'<»]it 
wliuii) llir li'pmtis niii(.-ij]i.-» ii|)]>(-iiri'd mitik' iUnf iimiitlH afti^r an altaia 
fever (evidently leprous fever) at the age of 15. There was no k-jir 
ill (he funiily history, liwt then* wen- U-pers in hi!> native village. He fl 
came under ol»feervalion at the age of 35. when he presented a eharacin 
tically-lcprous appeurunce. The patient wu* given subcutaneous injwiio 
of chanlinoo^a-oil. Tubes cantaiuinfi; 5 c.cra. (or fS '/,) of the flenlit 
oil were preptircd in Pari*. The inijiroveiiient wa* marked after 30 injeetim 
Further injeetions of 3 e.cm. (or fSi ',\) i-aeh followed, in all during U( 
lilSiiijei^lioiw; 106 in 18fl«, H7 in lH97,.'iO in IWIIW, when ihe patient refus 
to have any more, as he considered hinii.eU' enreil. Tourioulie peivuadeJ IJ 
jtatiunt to (itihniit tn -i'-i more iiijectioiw in 1H!>1I (I'lnit live nionilis). wi III 
altoj{ether in sis years he was injected 584 times, amounting to a lot»l 
8?20 e.cm. (or HAi) Huidraehni^) of tin- oil. The injitlion.i were madej 
the outer sides of the upper and lower limbs, with a long needle intiodUB 
«ubeutHiivotii<ly. They gave ri»e to but *tight pain. With ibeMMialanliwpl 
precautions. Tonrtoulis never saw abscesses follow. The author dow B 
wixh lo rciiieliiili- from this »iini;!e ease that ehanlmoogra Hubcutaneou^lT ■ 
cure leprosy, as there is alway» the possibility of sponlaneou.t retn^treuiin 
leproiinilii tw be borne in mind. In the diecussioii on Tourtoiilij'f retnat 
(Soc. de Derm, et de Syph.. Paris. .Iu!y Vi, 18S19J Ilallopcaii pointH a 
that Jeanselnie and he Inid injected chaulmoogra-oil. 1" c.em. (or fSi '/ 
week, into the buttoeks, hut in one ease there was a severe oiitb 
Dudulcs, and thi* led them lo give up this mode of treoluicnt. Du 
had tried the subcutaneous method at Saint-I^uis. I.rf>oalIy it nay] 
»erviet«ible, enmhineil with other ointment^ in treating ehronio «kii 
eases. Chronic eczema, psoriasis, and lupus are benefited by the apnlict 
of aji oinlnieiit containing chunlnioogrn-oil. ChatUmoogra-oil ha» heenl 

filled with success in cases of scabies and jiedicnloBi.s. The i>intiueni I 
ikewim- been uwil iipcm the enlarged glaudB of M-rofula and in ebfol 
rheumatic arthritis From 1.20 to 2 e.em. (or vixx-\xx) «( the nil to I 
ounce of c-xeipient \» the average strength of the ointment, 

R ZJnei (sriionat., 

Piilv. iiinraatw ., a» 41 Om. m Sj. 

Oki cli0iiIiii<Kii|T>F (rriaddl (Qmootrdld) 8] ex-m. or (3b. 

I'dkT- 1i,viliiir|r. diniuoaiat. %] Um. or Sj. 

Lunolini — lft(A Gm. or S"*. 

M. nt (t. ungU 

Fur chruiiii- ccnrma, pMirioiU, •cratulcHlfmiB, hipun, and Icpm. 

GynoeaTdie ncid ha» been used both externally and intemallr im 
roay, eyphilis. and rheumatic alTeetions. Its dose for internal use it 
0.03 to 't.2() fim. (or gr, »»-iij), and externally as a local apjdiealion »it 

(10 per cent.). 

CHEK&N. — Cheken. Thi- leaves of Myrtuii chckan, or Eugenia cli 
(jUyrtaceai), a j^hrub or small trtv of South America. It contains tani 




' Aunah* dr ftrrm. rl ilr Sjnik.. .Iiilv, 1H!>(I, 




CHELIDONICM. 



245 



liD«bcr«al oi); aleochtkcnon. chckeiiic acid, chekeii bitter, chckenctin. 
ftbtfeibe etlierea! oil nlon* otTer* iiiedidnal interest (Weiss), niii* is 
lie. dinrctio. Biid c-xpoflorant. 

Beniiy. — t'heken was introduced from Chili thmngli the cTili-riirii-e 

(tlmr> INrkc, fliiTis & Co., af a ivmviU- in rhninic c-atarrhal inHuTnmatioii 

lfR<])iraior>' pn«iaj;es. l>r. Miirrell, itf Londun, extDls it in liit- ivintrr- 

t«( ridcrlv ptopic. mid in ntliiT fornii- of tlironic bronchitis. In Chili 

^wmjoy^a repiiution in the irealment of rheninali^m. The ilwi-of tlic 

Ifitract ie -1 to 11 c.cni. (or f5i-iij), 

CEELntOHimi (V. S. P.) — Chelidoninm, Celandine. 
Boas, 0.65 to «.60 Gm. (or gr. x-xl). 

PharmBcology. — Celandine is the entire plant of Chelidonium majos 
iPijmt-riiii-ii-)- fi'und bolli in Europe and Norlli .Amencu. It contains two 
■iilctd^. Chelidonine and Sang:ainarine, in combination with Chelidonio 
A bitter, yellow. crv.itaUinv principle, ChelJdoxanthine (Probst). i» 
lpree«nt. besides tannic acid, starch, cellulose, etc. 
Pliyiiologioal Action.— It has a htlter, acid tmte. (ind stimwlates th« 
, of the plands along the intestinal tract, including the liver. In 
ndetablc doM»i it caiuts vomiting and purging, diuphon-^ji*, and increases 
Ininan- secretion tnd also the secretions of the bronchial raucous mem- 

Thcnpy. — The fresh, tnilky juice ma; be used as a local irritant, and 
ibetn applii-d upon wart» and corns. Internally, in do«08 of 0.65 Gio. (or 
ki)cf the extract, it acts as a drastic purgative, and has been used in jaun- 
' titt to catarrhal fweliing of the bile-duots. Dr. Joseph Rwdmond claims 
^km had good results from chelidonium in epithelioma of the tongue and 
Tftelip, and also in ca«cs diagnoitlicntcd at cancer of the a-sopliagttii and 
tilrt fiver. 

CREHOPODITTH (U. S. P.) — Chcnopodiam. American Womisccd. 
8«M, 0,65 to iM Gm. (or gr. x-xl). 

Prrparalion. 
dnun CbroopodJi (U.S. P.). — Oil o( Chcnopodium. D(mc, 0.30 to 1.20 c.cb. (or 



ftuniAcoIogy. — American wormseeil in the fniit of Chonopofliura an- 
^vt, variety Antheltniiiticiim (Chenopodiacete). a plant of ^Torth 
^■ttics and Europe. It haa a peculiar arnmatic odor and n warm, bitter 
^ Itc properties are due to the presence of a peculiar volatile oil, a thin, 
Mniah, offensively aromatic li((uid, which is ofTicial. 

Ajaologieal Action and Therapy. — The volatile oil acts as a stinmlant 
''At drculaiion and nervous system, making it serviceable in chorea and 
^■Uthenis. The oil of chenopodium has been employed in hysteria. In 
Mill cbenopodium in esteemed as an aid to digi-'^lion and a.s an emmc^na- 
l|it Dr. Hurillo r^rds it as an excellent carminative in the treatment 
*finbBiiIe colic. lis common uw is for the expulsion of tumbricoid worms, 
odil B beet given in doses of 0.60 ccm. (or mx), in capsules or i^mulsiou. 
&nt limes a day, castor-oil being administered the following day; or the 



at rHABUACBCTICAI. TBSaAI-ECrTIC A0KKT9 OH DSCOS. 

remedy mty hv administiTed night ond nioniiiig for several days, nnd 
lowed by a brisk cathartic. 

Chenopodium album, white goose-foot, lanili's quarter, or hog-we< 
plant common in cultlvnted ground, and llowering to July and Aiigiif 
poi^swsed of hiemoi^tatic propertice. A tincture made from tb« leaves 
ilowera by abfiolute alcohol is given in the doiae of 1 or 2 drop» freque 
repeated in acute hwmorrh&ge, and in the same dose, two or three tin 
day, for the purpose of preventing recurrence of bleeding. ^A 

CHIHAFHILA (L'. S. P.). — Chimaphila. Pipsisiewa. (Prince's P 

I'repaTaiion. 

Exinnrlurii Chiniapliilie Fluidum (U.S. P.), — Ifluid lulriicl. of Cliiiiiagihlla. 
1.20 to S.flO o.cin. (or mxxxl). 

FhHrmacology. — The leaves of Chiinsphiia umbellota (Ericacew) 
tain launin untl a coIork-£», hitler, crystallino. neutral principle. Aibi 
and a coloHees and taeteless siibetance, in yellow crystals:, Chimaphillil. 
fresh If-flvcji are also slightly irritjiting. 

Fhysiolofncal Action and Therapy. — PipHssewa is diuretic and at 
five. The urino in dnrki-ned by the use of this remedy. It hnn very 
effect upon the heart or circulation, I'pon the digestive organs it ia 1 
and astrinpcnt, Ai^ it is not an irritating diuretic, it enn he uwd in Bri, 
disease and nephritis: aha in hiemniuria. in liihn?mia, gout, rheuma' 
and kindred disunUrs this is a valuable remedy. As it favors eliinina 
it has produced good results in scrofula, skin diseases, gleei, leucorrhcea 
intemiiltent fever. A decoction (62 Gm. to 473 com., or S'i"^*i) nia 
used, but a good fluid extract is better. 



1 



CHINA-ROOT.— Thp rliizome of Smilax ginbrn and SniilaJC 
(Smilatfipj <>( CliJna Jind Japun bus the same inuNiii units and properti 
siirBaparilla, but is more active. It is best given in the form of fluid ex 
of Chi[iH-niot. in d"ses of 'i to A e.cm. (or fSss-j), a*veral tinu'* u day. 

CEIROISIinnil. ~ Chinoidin, Quinoidin, is a mixlttre of alkal 
mostly amorphous, oblainod a§ a bv-jinxltirt in the manutadure oi 
crystal lixablr alkaloids of rinohoim. (See Cinchona.) 

Chiuoidin possesseg tonic and autipcrimlie prnperlies. It is a i 
colored .lubstance, nnd is active in about double the dose of quinine, li 
apt to disorder the stomach. 

CHINOIIHA. — Chinolin, Quinolin, is a colorless, oily liquid, dark* 

on cxpnsiue lo light, and is a oou^iitiient of roal-lar. hut is prepared 
mercially by frealing aniline or nitrobenwl wiih glycerin in the prei 
of a di-iiyd rating a^enl. It may also be nliliiiui'd bv the dirilillntion of 
nine, cinchonine, and strychnine with potas^iuni. T'hc odor recalls th 
nitroben7i>l. It is slightly snhiVile in water, and the snhition noseee 
pungent tiif'Ic. Chinolin ie readily soluble in alcohol, ether, and cnlorol 
It is a hygroscopic substance. 

In its chemical charnctera it is so closely related to quinine as to 
tp its substitution in medicine. l>r. Julius Donnih claims that its ph 




itfKtl uid thiirapeutic effects arc uUn idiMiticol with lh« natural alkaloid. 
n* Uttnitc- U thv i-alt chiefly used, uhicli ii- in shining, eilky crjBtals, with 
■ting odor and ptmf;ent taste, permanent in air, and soluble in water. 
isti^htlT eoluble in alcohol; insoluble in ether and chloroform. The 
ts biielily irriiunt to the gitttrio inucou« mombniie. A salicylsto 
l>*'rn proparpd. 
njilologfical Action and Therapy. — Chinolin is a vnluabli' nnti»eptic, 
1 iu offvneiVL* odor has prevented its application in this direction in med- 
bowever, it i» iK.-tieTed that much of Ibia objection cnn be removed by 
' modce of preparation, Ii it could be obtained without odor or tasto, 
mold be s valuitble agent for the prc»crvotiou of food. The tartrate and 
urrlat*' ar« also poworful antizymotici^. Internally, these salts are nnti- 
X uid iintimTiudiL-, iu do»cs rather larger than those given of quinine 
: Cm., or See, daily, for adults). 

U may be jriven to children in peppermint-water, or synip and distilled 

fnitr, or to adults in capeu!c« or wafers. Neural^a dopondcut upon a 

Kilsrial tntiit i» often relieved by chinolin tartrate. In xymotic diseases, 

:bii than malarial, chioulia has not proved satisfactory as an antipyretic^ 

--iu»f it. has Ix-cn found to bo loo depressing in itii effects upon the heart. 

:: inpical application in diphtheria, it may be diluted with alcohol (S per 

-id u«.>h1 with a B>praj, or painted un with a bruiili, to the alTected part. 

]'jn of the tartrate (V. to 1 per cent.) has been used as an injection 

'•rrhn-ft. 

Aoalgun is the name given to a derivative of quinolin. It is a white, 

TKaltinc povrdor, insoluble in water, aoluble in hot alcohol and in acids. 

iWn miied with iiitrou.^ acid a yellow prrcijiiinti' i.s formi-d. It has bwrii 

■ed with t(ucrc«4a in neuralgia and has alleviated rheumatic pains. In some 

MM it caafio« tht^ urine to itsvumu a dark-ntd color. This tint is due to a 

Aaaae which analgen undergoes in the organism. The molecule may he 

««tirely destroy^'d or the benzoyl group which cnn-rn into its composition may 

ta Nrparated with complete oxidation of the residue. In the latter event 

A* nrine is rctldmed br the action of the free amido produced in the uric 

Kid. Doae is from 0.50 to 1 Om. (or gr. viii-xv). 

CHUiOSOL. — Chinotot is described by the maDufacturere as a neutral 

QMiind of ojiychinoliii. It is « bright-yellow, crystalline powder, readily 

:ble in water, not caustic or corrosive, and is said to be non-toxic. 

iwf* not com^lale nibuiiiin. It is very r<.-adily precipitated by alkalies. It 

am a tli^htly-antmntic odor and an astringent taste like carbolic acid. 

£ dam* the hands yellow; but the color is readily removed by fn^*h 

•ner. It i» reported to be forty times more active in checking fermentation 

AiB carbolic n<-id. 

nysiologioil Action and Therapy. — Ohiuosol is antiseptic, disinfectant, 
jt, and iiaeierieide. PMr«iMir« Emmerich and Kowmann, of 

have used it in surgical work, and prefer it to corrosive sublimate 

\w cmrbolic acid. Itonnema' »nys that chinosol oomhine^ large anti»fptio 
1909 with a relalivrly small power of doing harm. In frogs chinoaol 
••wed itptrlf to hi- a central |H>isiin; but he sd ministered to a rabbit 1 Gm. 
f „. XT J by the mouth and one and one-quarter hours later another do»e of 

. jXijjpcwrf— ■*' ilMVMhefu, Dec., tsse. 



248 



PUAltilACKCI 



IPELTIC AC 



S (im. (or RT. MS) withoiil nny i»a<l effi'ct. It has n dptfrrent notion U 
the t-uififiuUlidn of hIIuiiiuti. iin<1 liiiiOi^r* tlic (tniiver»i»ii of iiUmmimjidi' 
pcptonpE. Interitalty. it bax been \iAPti with some eucceiM in putmonun' tu 
ailiwi^ Dr. Ali-xnniirr Mno(i rc^for, of l^)n{Iiin, n'ii»r(i> clinicnllv on ti\ a 
and atafei- that, from the obt^crTationi! which he ms been able to make. I 
(-Qnvii)i'(<<) that it i»a valuabU' drug in tho tn-atnient of thi^i atlGction.' 



CHIRATA (IT. S, P., B. P.)-— Chirata (Chiretta). 
Dose, J to 2 Gm. (or gr. xv-xxx). 



I 



Prtparalicnt. 

Eilraclun. Clilratw FluWnin (U.8.P.)^FIuld RxtfWt of CUrnta. Do«. 
to 2 c.cm. lor ms-xxx), 

TinctiiTQ Chlrotir (U.S.P., B.P.).— TinHure of Chiratft (10 per cent). Da 
U) T£ c.ctu. lor fSi-iJ). 

liquor CbimtiF Cuncnilnttut IB, I*.).'~<'onoeDlrHlviI Suliiliun ot Chir^ttk. ; 
2 to 4 r.em. (or rSon-jl. 

lofumtn ChiTBlw (B.I'.).— Infusiftn of ChirclU (S per cent). Dot. IS i 
com. (or fju-j). 

FharmKcoIo^. — The entire planl. Swerlia Chirata (Ofntianejc) 
India, if ui^cd ue a bitter aromatic tonic in tlio East, but rarely prescribe 
this CDimti'v or En;;land. It conlainH two amorphous principles, Op) 
Add and (^iratm jHohn), but no tuiniii. 

Therapy.— t'hi rata resembles ucnlian very closely, to which it in a 
botanically, but it is more bitter. It has similar therapeutic applicatior 
atonic dyi^i)i;p*ift, etc. Chirata may often !« very *erviccably ctmibioed 
bismuth subnitratc. or with hydrochloric aeid, for the relief of the 
stomach of dninkards. It is useful in functional inactivity of the liver, 
its action on the liver it indirectly overcomes constipation. As it con) 
no tannic acid, chirata can be prescribed in combination witli iron, if des 



CHIOBAL (!'. S. I».).-^Chloral. 

CHLORAL HYDRAS (B. P.).— CWgral-hydrate (C.HCI.O 
Dose, 0,13 to 1.3U Gm. (or gr, ii-xx). 

Preparation. 



H.0} 



Synipus Chloml IB. P.).— Sjtup of Chlornl (0.66 Gm. in 4 c.cm.. or gr. x !n 

Dow, 'i to T.'! c.cm. lor f3»8-ij|. 

Pharmacolo^. — Chloral-hydrate (trichloraldehyde) forms coloi 
transparent cryi-tals; of bitterish, caustic tast<?; of pleasant, ethereal, 
Rlighlly-acrid odor; which are freely soluble in water and in alcohol. 1 
hydrate of chloral should be of a neutral reaction. The crystals volat 
slowlv at ordinary li'inperalnres, and should be kept in a tighllv-stopp 
bottle: Ihey melt at 135° F. and boil at 208° F„ and are at the same 
detomiioscd into aiiliydroiis chloral and water. Chloral for medical pur^ 
should be recrystalUzed, and the crystals should be dry, and not readil; 
tract moisture from the air. If concentrated gulphuric acid be adde 
chloral it is converted into a white, solid substance having the same ( 
position as chloral, but is not soluble in water. Chloral also combines ' 

' lionitoti I^HCrl. vol. II for IftflU, p. SO. 




CHLORAL. 



240 



Axttoi lo fonn cnttAlt of aleoholute of clilora], which are less soluble than 
, kjiutt of chloral. When triturated with camphor, menthol, thymol, or 
< ajttilt of csrliolic iicid, hydrate of ehlorul forms u pLTmanent. oily tic|uid. 
'bnotact with iron, even in Bmall i^uantity, crystals of chloral-hydratr oc- 
(mrei peculiar yellow discoloration in consequence of the liberation of free 
STrlrnchl'jricacia. 

fhytlolo^cal Action and Poisoning. — Chloral- hydrate ts unfieeptic and 

although slijihl irriialion may occur at first. It is an hypnotic, 

■HBg ile«p by producing uii ana^miL' condition of the brain, the patient 

nbng after several hours aa from natural sleep. Cnpleaaant afler-elTecta 

ACcwionally observed. The reflex activity of the spinal centres is weak- 

•nd this, ejttending to the medulla, cauoes paralyMs of the reapiralory 

\o effect is sceu upon the sensory nerves, but the motor nerves nnj 

pifnally alTecied, muscular weakness bcin^ one of iht; prominent phe- 

Btaraa atli-mling chronic chloral poisoning;. Chloral acts powt-rfnlly upon 

Se heart, lowering and weakening its rate of movement through a local 

JnAnaice upon the fningUon and muscle. With this there is lowerine of 

Mml preeeure. aided by dilatation of the superficial vessels. When death 

iiaiuM hy chloral, the heart is arrested in diastole. The decided fall in 

lAt bodily temperature ia probably aecondary to the cooling: of the blood 

|l;fiiUtioD of the cutaneous blooil- vessels. Dyspnea may be produced by 

'■pigtment of the lungs, due to the wenkened cardiac action and to the 

ibolfiiltr^meDt of the puJmonarv' vessel*;. Death is produced by respira- 

tanfaiJnre usually, although it occurs sometimes with such suddenness as 

l*nd lo the supposition that it is due lo syncope from direct action upon 

iWiwt. 

Is a few cas«». death appears to be due to some deleterious action upon 
^Uood, resembling scuny. as purpuric and scorbutic eruptions occur, with 
txilen, nWrated gums, gr«at prostration, und collapse. Wc treat the first 
(iHct cases of gradual respiratory failure, by artificial respiration and the 
i*^uniimtiDn of stimulants externally, by friction, local weniith, and sina- 
l(*^aBd internally by hot coffee, and artificial respiration, galvanism, etc., 
" liii» physiological antidotes, such ti* atropine and stTychnine. r>r, Colenso 
' •'ttllj reponed to ihe London Clinical Society, a ease of recovery from 
"fanl poisoning in consequence of the use of atropine and strychnine hypo- 
•*»e«ly. In the second class of cases, unfortunately, death occurs too 
WtUy for the action of remedies; but hypodermic injections of ether, atro- 
f*"*, or strychnine, with evacuation of the stomach by the pump and the 
r**Ddociion of hot alcoholic stimulants, might be serviceable in saving life. 
* tit third claffi of cases transfusion of blood might be required, or the 
"•ainiMrBlion of large doses of the tincture of feme chloride. Then- is a 
*4iarkable rariation as regards the quantity capable of producing a fatal ef- 
*ct Catea are on record in which from 15.5 Gni, (or .V") '" 31 Gra. (or 5j) 
prfaced alarming symptoms, though recovery took place. On the contrary, 
'••ft has been caused by a single dose of 'i Gm. (or gr. xxi). Chronic cblo- 
■!■•— prcfenting symptoms of muscular weakness or paralysLs, moral per- 
J^won, itebic heart, epileptiform convulsions, and delirium tremens — is re- 
••wi by prompt removal of the drug and the administration of tonics, cspe- 
*Bt otix Tomicfl or strychnine. Animals poisoned with chloral-hydrate 
^"T if they are kept warm. In some cases an erythematous rash follows 
I* •dmiiuatntioD of chloral, and desquamation of skin from the fingers 




HI ril-lKlIACECTlCXL THBIUPKOTIC AOEXTB OB DRUOS. 

around the extremitieo has been noticed. Other cutaneous munifcitlat 
which have been noticed in consequence of the administration of chloraj 
wheals, papules, vesicles, pustules, petcehlw, and ulceration Toxic i 
hare been folluned by s^'lllptoIns of purpura htciuarrbagjca. 

An eruption from ebloral it especially apt to occur id children, in i 
anil cachectic patients, and in those who suffer from disease of the ner 
system, as hvsteriu, chor«a, mycliti», or ^neral paraly»i«. The comiuc 
caH6c of sucli a rafh, however, is the ingestion of alcohol at the same 
with chloral. 

This Bubetancc ie removed from the system principally by th« kidi 
it also escapes by the breath, to which it givex a peculiar odor. In ] 
amounts chloral is irritant to the kidneys, may excite nephritic, and ( 
the passage of bloody urine. 

It is probable that some of the serious cITccts foUowinf* the admini 
tion of chloral are properly attributable lo impiiriticji hi the drug. I 
crystals have a pungent, acrid odor, they should not be used; recrystAl 
chloral -hydrate should be preferred for nn-dical Hs<t. Where the he* 
Borioiii-ly afTccted and its walls are thin and weak, chloral, as a rule, sV 
not be given. It is also dangerous to use it freely in alcoholic subjects. 
cording to the experiments of MM. Cad^ac and Mulct upon dogs, mor| 
admiuiatered by the stomach and soon followed by a rectal injection of 
ral produces complete aneesthesia, which contioues for more than ha 
hour. 

Therapy.— The antiseptic action of chloral is utilized in sur^ry, \ 
5-per-oeiit, si>hilion#nrcuseda«atimulating(lrosMii{;s for suppurating w( 
and foul iilecrs. This solution also may be applied to parasitic ?Vin 
tions (tinea versicolor). It is also u.ied to check itching in ecieme 
prurigo. In urticaria Qunujttaud uses a lotion contnining 30 parlx of 
acid, a parts of chloral-hydrate, and 180 parts of distilled water. Dr. 
8fe is in the habit of using an ounce of a lO-per-ccnt. solution for injt 
into the sac of an hydrocele after tlie fluid has been evacuated. In t 
three days a large cSuston takes place, but is soon absorbed. The same 
tion may be advantageously injected into the neighborhood of varicose 
The blood gradually coagulates and the vessels contract, Dr. J. Palvy, 
his cxpprienec in lift(M!n cases, believes that the injection per rectun 
solution containing from 1 to 1.60 Qui. (orgr. xv-xxv)of chloral-hydratt 
erticient remedy in hnjmoptysiii. In combination with other remedies 
used as an anodyne and counter-irritant in neuralgia and rheumatiun 

B ChloraL ., , SI Om. or Sij. 

Lin. nupoius 120] c-cin. or (jlv.^ 

For application to pleurodynia, lumbago, etc, the combination flf 
ral and camphor may be used: — ■ 

B Cam phone. 

Chloral m 4; Giu. or 3j. 

Lanolin! 31{ Gin. or 8J> ^ 

M. For nt>linil];1n. 

Mr. Lennox Browne praises the virtue of n mixture of equal pn 
chloral -hydrate and camphor as an application in neuralgia. The m 
forms a clear fluid, which is applied over the affected part. He has fo 




CHI.ORAI.. 



SSI 



Gni, «r |[r lixv. 
Gin. or gr. xlv, 
Om. or Sss, 
o.ciu, or (JiJ, 



■I wrvioG in neuralgia of tlie larjnx anil in relieving epoeniodic coiigli 
Itooibache. Chloral Jameful in tmmuit nnscontiiim, the cramps to vhich 
■nt women arc often subject, ein^iiltue, and gpa^modic antj noclunial 
Dr. Lyon I'lavfair recoiiiinends chloral fur the purpose of relieving 
ipitii of pMrliihtion. II may be jid ministered either by tin- month or 
D, and it ift asst'rtt'ii thai I wo or at moiii four doses of 1 (Jm. (or gr. sv) 
III intervuls of twenty minuteii minimise siilTerins: without weiikening 
fmergy of the uterine contractions. This remedy has also been used in 
i of rigiditj of the ob uteri. In Epasmodic croup Holt advises: — 

SCUoraL G 

pDta«*fl brmnldl 3 

AmBBOBii broiDidi -.. S 

Aqiue nnnBmomi , ....,,. 60 

M. Sg.t 0| thU the ilow tor a nhild ntiotit acvnn yran of age i* ant^ tcnapoonfiil. 
rtfpMltd in (upnly minutes it not rellev«d. 

b diphtheria a gargle of 3-per-cent., followed by application of a 20- 
nt., solution is Miid to cause prompt disappearouce of the falHc mem- 

Two or three grains of chloral to (he ounce ot wnter (0.1.1 tn 0.?0 Gm. 
wm.) has b*en aucceisfTilly used as an injection in gonorrhtpa. Garret- 
onplojrs the following combination, contnining chloral, with ofTect &» an 
ioD in gonorrhcEs: — 

SCMoraL. 

Pftmibi acctati* •« 150 tim. or kt. viij. 

.lj)Uip d#«l 2401 ccm. or iJviij.^M. 

The principal e3:mptom for which chloral is prescribed is ineomnia 
bm nental overwork, or occurring during the noiirse of tvphus or typhoid, 
■ Uiriinn tremens, in phthisis, or in the aged. In acute mania, especially 
tMcanaed by alcohol, v^^ry large dofiea have Ijepn followed by (he best effects, 
lea injeclpd (-1 to 8 Gm., or 5i-ii) into a vein, genera! ana<)<the«is is pro- 
^s4: but this method has no tpecial advantogv, and present!) tiome decided 
^■dnotages. The restleeEnees and insomnia present in general parulyvis 
if^inRane are allayed by the adiiiiniKirnlion of lhi:t n-medy, and it is also 
tstfitial in spai^modic a^ections. chorea, whooping-cough, asthma, uterine 
^Mitad tetanuR. A do^e of eiiloriil at bed-time is utieful in paralysis 
VSiBf, and may be able to ward «ff an attack of nocturnal epilepsy. Chloral 
•Wi reJief in laryngi.tmu.i stridulu,«. The hypodei-mie injection of 0.32 
••063 Gm. (or gr. v-x) of chloral-hydrate, in combination with O.OOS to 
' ''i- Gra. (or gr. '/,-'/») of morphine sulphate, is highly recommended in 
'^Vn iDorbas attended with collapse, and in the algid stage of Asiatic 
'^•Wq. If the patient cannot be made to »wal!ow, an emulsion may be pre- 
(•wi aith egg containing 4 to 8 Qm. (or 3i-ij) of chloral, and given pur 
VSL Tbii drug also acts as an antidote in eascH of poi.soning from physoa- 
^U, pkrotoxin, and strychnine. If, on account of spasm, the patient can- 
•IwiIloT, the antidote may he serviceably adniini.'itered by the rectum. 

b CHCC of undue arterial excitement, during the early stage of pneu- 

■*ua,n oreraction of an hyperlniphied heart, or in the increased arterial 

•■■oil of Bright'a disease, chloral judiciously used may be of service. It is 

"'" viih mnch benefit to allay the discomfort of seasickness. In con- 

tttadachc vitli insomnia a combination like the following is advan- 



252 



rHARllACBCTICAL THI!BAPECTIC AOE^lTfi OH DR0G6. 



B Clilonil 

MorpbiniB hydrobromat. 
AqiiK cKinpiiorN! 



eo 



Gm. 
DOS tini. or 
c.ciu. or 



or Sj. 



M. Sig.: A deuntspoonrul «v«ty Iwo hour* until reliered. 



It lin» been found useful in ^cnrkl fever l>y WilaoR, wlio given 0.04 
0.13 Gm. (or gr. i-ij) in n little syrup of lactucarium and water every tw 
three hours for a child five yenn of age. Sir Renjiimin Wnrd Richnn 
cgtcems chloral as a valuable antipjTetic in typhoid fever. In tetanus 
to 1.30 (im. (orgr. x-xx) should he given every hour or two, according t( 
gravity of the ease, gradually lengthening the intervale and aftenvarJ re 
ing the dose. In (lonvubion^ nfter lahur, an enema containing 4 Qm. (a; 
of chloral ehouid be thrown into the rectiun. or 2 to 2. GO Gm. (or gr. xx: 
given by the mouth. Dr. Deshagi-s, of Orleans, advocate* the hypode 
injection of chloral in puerperal eclampsia and also in eonvuleions from c 
caujies. In thi' convulsion)* of children it is n very prompt and vffit 
remedy. For rcftlce«nes« and insomnia chloral may be very advantage; 
prescribed with polassium bromide, oa: — 

tt Chloral 121 Gm. or 3I1J. 

PotAMii faromidi It)|5 Gm. or Iv. 

S,vrupl taotuoaril, 

Syrupi nurantii aa W| e.cm. or i$ij. 

M. SIg.: A doswrtapoonful at bed-tim*. 

Qioffredi recommends chloral-hydrate to be u»e<l as an antidote v 
cainc poisoning, giving do*c* of 3 to 4 Gm. (or gr. xlv-3j). 

For the reliof of night-BweaU of phlhieifi, 4 Gin. (or -ij) may be diss( 
in 90 c.cm. (or fo''J) "f dilute lathing- whisky and the patient's skin b6 
with it. This is also a good application to prevent bed-sores. 

The conipounds of chloral with camphor, salicylic acid, and with 
bolic acid are useful as antiseptics, especially the latter, which is free 
unpleasant odor Hnd is anodyne hs well as antiseptic. 

The unpleasant taste of chloral-hydrate may be overcome by raixii 
iolution with lemonade. 

Butyl •chloral -hydrate ( B. P.). chhiral-butylicmn. or croton-chtoral { 
O.IS to !.;{(> (Jni., or gr. ii-.\s), i» iihtniiH'il by the action of chl"nne 
acetic aldehyde and tollected by disiillntion. It is the hydrate of trie 
butylaldi'hydc, and is in the fi>nTi of while, i^hining, crystalline scalcf. 
ing a pungent smell and a disagreealile. acrid taste. Hutyl-chloral-hy 
is soluble in alcohol, ether, glycerin, and hot water. The action is like 
of ohlorni, but said to be less depressing to the cinulation and heart, 
more anodyne, and is especially useful in neuralgia. In neuralgia of (h( 
U.32 (!ni. (or gr. v) is given every half-hour. I.iebrcich, who was tin 
covcrer of this drug, praises it as an hypnotic in doses of 1 to 'i (ira. (c 
W-xxx). rroton-chlonil Kivc* relief in bcaduche due to eyestniin, 
liinger has found it very beneficial in migraine. It ban also proved set 
able in dysmenorrhcpa. 

The following combination ia recommended in neuralgia: — 



B Hot.vlchlor»l lif<lr*t 8 

AlcToholi. " 

Kitv. )[uarnl>» ■■ ,.,.. .r 90 

U. Sig.: A tvuipoonhil every Iialf-houT or hour. 



Gin. or 3fj. 
e.cm. nr (Sli. 
o.ciii. or fjilj. 




CULOKALAMril. 



S53 



Ixttin.' of butylK'hloral tind tincture af tainphor is Kcomincnd^j uj 
application iti tii'unilgiit. 
following; (orrnuta has been published as of servira in mignineN 



Ihilyl-rliltitMl hydnt. 

TV- x>rlii«>niii ....,,.... 

Tr. raamibia Ind- 

Cljrvrriti 

Aqu* 

IL Sif.: A tfaird to be Uken «l once. 



Gm. or gr. xv. 
c.cm. or mxxx. 
e.ota. or nxr. 
c.cm. or rJH. 
ccm. or IJilJ. 
Tbe doM to be Kpeawd in balf aa hour. 



It nwT also be ttdminiMtered in the form of a 8olutinn cont«inine 10 part 
ri butyl-ciiloral and 30 parts of glycerin to 11^0 parte of dietilted water, i^ 
jfol ri'preacnting 1 Gm. (or gr. xv) of (lie remedy. 
Jr-mi i'xi»«'riiiieiila upon trojte (Jrijjorefcu fitatee that biityl-cliloral is an 
etic phygio logical niitidotc lo utryclinine. 

~ ' i>nl-cafleine. — A muWiiliir c-ombination of chloral wilh onlTein^ 

tntk itself in tht' fi>rni of whit*:, shining i-ryslMlIin^ !>c-aloi<. easily soluble 

iiltl water. Prof»«or Knald, of Bi-rlin. has utri'd chiorfll-cnlFfini; diilc 

Jy is siiiglv di>i«-i of <K20 to 0.^8 (int. (or gr. iii-iv.^n), or in daily 

J.38 t» 0.87 t«m. (or gr. vi-xiiii<«}. Tht- iiijectiom- ordinarily wen- 

littlt! pnin. Ki-lief wha afTunled bv thi.« int'thod of treatment in 

iRUitory r>icunlati«ni, tciatioa, rnipbyfciuu, and m-;>hriti«. It was aleo 

of M'rviee in i-hronic cDiuitipalion. 

Dnmiol ■«> n foinbiitatiun of cbloraUhvdralc with utnvlcne- hydrate in 

ojol'.t ular [ir<i]w>rtinn. U is a oolorlesn oily Hiiid of n caitijiJiorui-foii* 

and uf u jtin-uliar. though not unpUii^antly, pungent taiite. Dr. G. 

the nriKinatiir of this combination, finds it less liable lo caii^ie toxic 

in chloral by it*i;ir, "alwut 24 per pent, more of chloral in thr form 

>| beins Imrne than when taken a.i uncombined ehloral- hydrate." 

Sw» i1m? (•«>nclu8ion tliat the l«»*r toicicity of the cnmbination is refer- 

the gradual tururrenoe and slow progress of disunion of llu- preja- 

l>r. J- Arnold Goldmnnn. of Vienna,' reports the u*o of dormiol 

reoty-ff>nr eawit. nrincijiully for its hvpnotie efleet. He found it to 

prompt and reliable hypnotic action and aUn an undeniable <ieda-i 

[efffwt. that it v»n be dq^-ndt-d upon to manifei^ii its action iii relatively 

milisl do*** of 0.3T c.cm. (or wivj); that larger dog*s, often up to 

< 3 c.cm. (or mzxi-xlv), vinployed occasionallv in individual cases, hare 

ril can«?<iuenoe». It is Raiu to hare no cumulative action, and its long- 

i\ u-e gifw riJte to no toleranw. He ali>ii found that O.T.'i ecm. (or 

iVinniol. given with 60 c.cm. (or f?iij) of gum mixture, an an enema. 

- rfiH'tlv Mtii'fiii'lory hypnotic action. Ihe «K*«p lai'trns; between 

II hours in a ca^ of a man. M yeani of age, suffering with 

ot ill'' ■tiiniadi. Itv the moutli it may lie givt-n in capnuleit of O.."} 

E^ (*>r mviij) t->t>-h. Une capule at night is usually sutHcient, but in mmv 

nacb rxi-'ileuieni, .uteh ii» hy^tcrin, lie gave :t capi'iiU'if three timeH a day 

only gmwl i"iilti!. 

mn^BALAMIB . — Chloralamid occurs in the form of white, granuUr 
tU. which iti'-lt at 2;J0° F.. and are nolwble in water and akohol. Hot 
nu>t not be iwed in making solutions, as the substance is destroyed , 



'Mtwrfm JrotJrM. Oct.. 1900, 



264 



PHARUACEDTICAL THRBAPKCTIC AdKlnS O^ DRt*aS. 



wficii the mercury uwcnds abovi; 1 10° K. It is dvcoinpofiod by c«u^tic a 
Iks and alkaline carbonateB. Whi^n heated to ite lueltiiig-poiut cblon 
libcmtcd. The doee of ohiorulaiiiiil rniigc* from 1 to 4 Gin. (or gr. xt 
It may be given in capsules or cachets, but a much better method of adi 
intration is to diwolve it in « portion of wine, whisky, or brandy, li* 
•rHoctfi are obtained when exhibited an hour or an hour and a holf be 
bed-time. 

Phyiiologictl Action. —CbJoruljimid ie free from local irritiint pro 
ties. Il liiis but n .ili^'bl tmtr- und cxi-rts Uttlv or no dvl*-t<.-ri()ue inllui 
\ipon digestion. It hue been given for monlhs continuou-^ly n-jthout van 
any ilecri-ace of tlie Imdilj- weight. Tbi' cimipnund liuKnii aclion upon 
howeU or IcidneyB. According to the tistiniony of moet observcre, it ei 
little or no depressant intluc-nce upon the circulation. Ijang^nrd and 31; 
und Bosc, however, etate that it reduces blood-prcesure, and enjoin cati 
in it« u*e whi-n organic heart dincaite exists. Clilorelamid is thought to '. 
a Etimulating eifcet upon the respiratory centra. The chief physioloi 
action of chliinilaniid is that of an liypnoiic. Slei-p it often proLhiced wi 
lialf an hour after its administration. (Sometimes drowsiue^ continues i 
tht- following day. Ijirge doses hnve occflnionully produced hcadarlic, 
tigo, sickuess of the stotnuch, thirst, incoherence, and cardiac diprcs 

Dr. i^ye-Sniilh ha.* n;portcd a case in which 5.20 flm. (or gr. Ixx] 
chloralamid, given in two equal portions at eight hours" interval, gave 
to Revere univerMil ikrmatiliH folhiwed by profuMc di'Huunmation. Thert 
fever which lusted a week, and the urine was slightly alhuminotie. 

Therapy. — ^Chlorniamid is principally employed in the treatmei 
insnniiita, especially when due to riervousneRS, iieuraKtheiiia, hysKri) 
chronic alcoholism. It has been beneficially used as an adjuvant in epili 
and i» of viiluc in relieving the paroxyeine of cardiac asthma. So far m 
yet been observed, the existence of organic disease of the heart is no pos 
i:ontra-indioation to it» employment. The effects of ehhiralamid, like t 
of every active drug, require to be carefully watched. Dr. W. Hate \\ 
lia« given it with advantage in several cases of cardiac valvular di^^ea^c. 
a rule, chloralamid will uot overcome sleeplessness caused by pain, thouf 
a number of inetances it has suiveeded in carcinouiu, rheumatism, neurs 
alcoholic nenritis, herpes rosier, and dysmcnorrha-a. 

Chloralamid is efficacious in bronchial asthma, emphysema, plet 
and pulmonary tuberculosis by causing sleep, and. consequently, prcsci 
strength. It has, moreover, been successful in overcoming wakefu 
attendant upon cirrhosis of the liver, ulcer of the stonisch. nephritis, 
pelvic disorders. It has likewise, in the same manner, been of aorvii 
typhoid fever. er}sipelas, and diabetes. This remedy has also a sphe 
iisefulncw in nervouB and mental disorders. It is mn.it useful in mclanc 
and chronic mania. In acute mania and progressive paralysis it often 
It is of service in idiiK'y with hnllueiiiallons, lU'ulc and chronic para 
periodic psychoses, and mtdtiple neuritis. Chloralamid is of scrvit 
senilf dementia, but i» uselesB in cases where excitement h a promi 
feature. 

In the cerebral disturbances of children it answers a very good mir 
and it has been given with good effect in acute simple meningitis. Dr. 
of Halle, has obtained satisfactory results from the u.fe of ehlornlam: 
chorea, and Dr. Ilexamer, of Stamford, Conn., employed it succeNsfvl 





rntOSALOBE. 



255 



4 




lie trrmor. A? «n hypnotic und xodalive it i* bencricial in whnoping- 

luHuirnxH. Inrjofiisintis stridulus, and pi-reiBtcnt tinnitus aurium. A 

p containing 2 um. (or gr. zzx) each oT chlnriilunui] and |iotii«»iuin 

l\\r tiuncc i» knowii under the nanK- of chlorolirom and is bi^hljr 

ded by Prfifessor ChartmB and others tt* tfrvivcnhW in caM-a of 

It has al»o be*n found of value in obetimite Toroiting from 

CSLO&AIX}SE. — ChIoralo«e (Anttydro-glnoo^hloral) h produoml by 

n of Anl)>dn)U« chloral on glueoM. It crygtallizpe in fine nMdl4>^. 

liitter to the Uste, readily soluble in hot water, hut dUaolvoH with 

ilty in I'oH wat«r. In the proc4.>«8 of manufacture a second substjincv 

itft- This in known as Paracbloralose, and cn'stallisef in the fotni of 

pcarlv iBrntllw. whi«h mtlt at 239° C. (412.2°* F.). The melting-point 

ri.|.^ra!.'.be is aixffn as 184'' to 186' C. {363.Z' to 366.8" F.). 

Physiolo^cal Aotion. — Aocording to the exporinicnts of Prof. Ch. 

and L>r. llanriut, chlomlo^ haH a marked hypnotic effect upon dogs, 

S' (cn iti small time*. lu large quantities it is toxic. Chloralost- stimu- 
ir spinal cord. Keflex action is not diniioiahed, but may even be 
oatURntvd. It is claimi^ that, even in Large do«ce, chtoralosp causes no 
Anioution of arterial pressure. Temperature is reduced from one-llfth to 
tttM-(|uart«T>i of • degree, Chloralusc is (aid to produce an iocrMti-'d 
cuvtKio tif urea and chlorides. 

Tbtfspy' — From <l.20 to 0.38 Om. (or gr. iiUvj) occasioned n dreamleoa 

■id rvfri'i-hing aleep, which was not followed by naimea or headache. It 

~ ailnunirtcireil aaTantacwngly in gome enso* whore chlnrd! And morphine 

badly home. Sleep is generally produced in half an hour after 

tioa of tlte drug, ix Ininqui], and unaccompanied by perspiration. 

futf ifiven diloraloee m doses from 0.75 to 1.50 Gm. (or gr. xii-xxiv) 

nt ill effects. The cileet ia maintaincfl from four to ten hours. Ijirge 

have been known to cause flushing of the face, tremors, epileptiform 

mlsiQiu, headache, uncertainty of speech, and urlic^aria. .\ number of 

erer, have occurred in which doeea of 0.20 to 0.38 Om. (or gr. 

ioned convulsion* or cataleptic symptoms, while cynnaiis with 

ha* also been observed as the result of moderate amounts, llys- 

individii«ls art; jiarticularly Auscepiilile tn it» inlluenei-. According 

b FlemminK, chloraloie is of benefit in ftmctional insomnia aud in that due 

■• pFychJcal exuitemenl, hyateria, neurasthenia, overwork, and functional 

»mc irritability. He found it of service also in attacks of epUepey and 

■ -' -:ii, but Etates that it fails in wakefulness dependent upon alco- 

* '-nt. multiple neuritis, and any painful organic lesion or 

ml irritation. 

In ni#»4 of iriMnily, without excitement, it produces doep; when ex- 

r*r«ent it will usually act as a sedative, and, at least in tome 

ipablt- of li»niJ>)iing hiilliiti nations. l>r. J. Sacaze haa observed 

tMBpTMaioD <if uight-fiwcats produced by the administration of chloralOM 

■a ^ihina. In bcclir' (ever he has used with adTODtage a combination of 

fBSiBa and chloraloee. This writer has aW fonnd chtotalose of aenicc in 

•Aer ehninie pulmonary allections. such as chronic bronchitis with bron- 

a>trta»i» and fetid secretion, accompanied by copious perspiration. 

k tkneliloraloM Kn« txH-'n thought to possess hypnotic prapertiee, bat. 





£66 rHARUACEmCAL TUEBArEimC AflSKK OB dudsb. 

Hfrcording to the i-xpiTimi-nlf of M. Hichei, it In «n eIiDo»t inactive 1 
with ni'ithoi- t'>\ic nor llKTiipi'iiIio cffwt, ' 

CHIORETOITE.— Thifl ia the trade dcflijiniatioQ of tri-ohlor-butyl ( 
hoi (iiL'c'ti)n-i^')i)(iriirunn). tl i» formed bv sjawlj adding eqtial weiglil 
chlnriiforni and act^tonu to ratiKtio potaHli, and i.i ii>olat«d Jiv diatilUtion 
i^ a while. (-ryBtnllini- i-ulid liutiiij; a canipliiinicoaiic odor. It ia span 
Bohi))l<? in <old water (I pt-r t*nt.|, ItuI fwfily induble In slrxnif,' aliohol. 4 
rofomi, I'tbcr, and jilacial uti-tie ooid. Us itolittions an- antitieptic C 
retone i& a local anesthetic, resemblinjj cocaine, w|)ecially as « fu\iM'. 
in infiltretiun aiia'i*ib(.vin. On tliv.' ci'iitral ncrvons i^yi-lfin it acts a 
anffstlietic and hypnotic, without depressinjr the nerve-centres. Do»i 
0.20 tu D.tig (im. {oT gr. iii-x) in lubJcl, cajiviili-. nr elixir. Ki^vn at n 
quiet nervousness and induce elet-p. Dr, freeman K. Wanl has a\s« U 
it t« be of gr«l *enice in quieting the irritation i.uw*ed by bypcracidif 
the fitoniach of nervous origin, lie stated that it aUo acted wi-ll in wli 
in^-ciiii^li, j(i%injr one or two doses diirint? the night. i>f 11, Kt (jin, (or g 
dissolved in a little brandy. It is also used in acute aleoholUni. 

CHLOHOFORMTJM (U. S. P., B. P.). — Cliloroform, Trichloromct 
(CHCl,). ■ 

Soac, O.GO to l,!iO ccm. (or mx-xx). B. P., 0.00 to 0.30 can. (or n 

Prvparatiotu. ^^ 

Eniulmm Chlorofomii lU.S.P.l-— KmuUion o( Chloroform (chloroform, 4 t 
fkprciued oil <it «lmind. ccm,; tm^^anUi, l.ii (.liii,; waiw q, s. ad 100 
Dose. 4 to T.6 c.ctn. lor f3i-it|, 

Splrltui Chloroformi (U.S. P., B. P.).— Spirit o( Chioroform (fl per cent., U. 
5 ]wr iviil,, II. K). noHC. :! to 4 e^m. (nr fSaa-j). iFor rrpoalrd ailniiniitrfttlon 
to 1.2(1 p.cm., or r'iv-\x. B. P.) 

I.iiiiniontiini Chlorofomii (U.8.P., B. P.).— Chloroform IJniini-nt |l.'.S.P 
la'uin diltirofuMM. 3() r,i-iti.; "OAp-)iiiiin«nt. TO c.cm.i B.1*. contniiw uliloraAMr 
p.tni.; linimont of eompluir, SO v.rm.t. 

Aqua Chlorofurmi (U.S.P., B. P.).— Chloroform-water. Dose, i to IS ceo 

Tiiitlura CUlnrofnrnii »t Mnrphlnn- Conip'milA (B. P.),— CotnpounJ Tincd 
Chloroform nad Morjihinc (c-hiorofonn. 75; tnorptiinc hydrochloride. 10; dilulnl 1 
cyanic ncld, GO; (inrturc of roiiiioum. 2Ai tincturo ol Initian hemp, KHl; oil o 

fiTMiiiil. I '■.',: Blvceriii, 2fil.>; »li*oli"l. i], ft. ad 1000). IX)W. o.3n to 1 c.cui. (or ni' 
n fui-h O.Oti ccm. (or mx] there i» 0.05 ccm. (or m*/.) of chloroform, 0.03 c.ct 
mwi ot diluted hydrocyanic acid, and 0.005S c-cm. (or gt. Vh) at morphine I 
chloride' 

Pliarmaoology. — Conimerciol chloroform i« impure, only containii 
per cent, of chloroforni, and ia used solely for phannaceutical purpou 



' Tho following formnln is gircn by Oldbcrft and Wall oa a gooA nulxitltti 
CulliB Broune's chlarodyn#: — 

GBI.OROFOKMt UISTrRA nYDROCTAXATA (COUPOCXD CULOBOFORM MIXTDK 

B Morphinic Bulphnl W Om. or gr. Iv. 

01. nicnthip piperita |60 ccm. or mriij. 

/Kthprts, 

Alcohuli* f_, an ()|(t0 ccm. or mcliv. 

Acid, hydrocyanic, dil SOiso ccm. or fjvtnxxxvj 

Chlorotorini puritlaat. •■■.. IISpo ccm. or (Jilimecxxi 

Syrupi ■ 603{ c^m. or fSxvi}. 

Uow. 0.30 to ailO ccm. (or m\-x). 



4 




CHLOBOFtJBUL'U. 



ssr 



kcolvent, or for external appticAtioD. Official chlorofonn » a purified chlo- 

1, |iref>arcd especially for tneJica! purpoece. It is "a liquid conaUling 

. W lo l>y.4 jwr ciiil,, by weight, of absolute clilorafonn and 1 to 0.6 per 

(>I alcohol." It is a heavy, dear, calorleas, diSusive liquid; of a char-j 

atic, pleiisant, ctli^rcal odor; u liuniing, Bveet taste; aud a neutrar 

ion. It is obtained by ad<!inj; chloral-hydrste to an alkaline solution, 

the action of clilorinntctl liino upon etiiyl-oxide, or nleobo], and di8> 

It is afterward purified by the addition of sulphuric acid, sodium 

ite. and liiuc, and rcdi»tiltiition. I'lilDfuform iii only sparingly »o\- 

in stater, but miies with alcohol and ether in all proportiouH. It is 

It • remarkable »olvent, diwolviujt moitl alkaloi<Ui, resim, gutta-nerclm, 

atchouc. paraffin, iodine, bromine, fixed and volatile oils, «tc. C'hloro- 

u not infUmmable, but when mi^td with nleoliol it may be burned, 

chlorine-gas will be evolved. Charles Martin has adduced reaEons to 

^•w that (lilomform-Tapor, in the pre^mce of a naked flame, is decomposed, 

tht ultimate formation of hydrochloric acid. The accumulation of the 

ID thp aimcmphcrfi may l>e tuitlicient to produce marked bronchial irrita- 

Chloroform-vapor i« much denser than atmospliGric air, and diiTnscij 

imly. Chlorofnnn is unfit for aniesthedc purposes unleai it be abeolutet] 

and fiillilU the tests of the pharmacopa'ias. "If 5 cubic c«iiunietr«4 

tt of purifled chloroform h« thoroughly agiuti^d with 10 cubic cend- 

I of distilled water, the latter, when Ecparuted, should not affect 

Mm < ' >3pcr (abaencc of uoidi^), nnr tcit-iiolulioD of silver nitrate (ab- 

^aet of chlorides), nor test-solution of potassium iodide (absence of free 

iUiirin>-l. 1-f a portion be di^sted, worm, with solution of potaijda, the 

'Uld not become dark colored (abtfcnco of aldehyde). On shaking 

. ,UL..._ fi-ntimetrea (nicl) of the chloroform with fi cubic cenlinwitres 

i »]tt J of sulphuric acid in a glaif«-»to]>pered bottle, aud allowing them to 

mnaiD in contact for twenty-four hours, no color should be imparted to 

toiusr liquid. If a few cubic cenlimetres be permitted to evaporate from 

UoClinff-pap^-rt no foreign odor should he perceptible after the odor of the 

fUiBoform ci-ases to be rccogniwd." The imrifiitl chloroform contains 

*A--ut o.(> lo 1 p<T cent, of alcohol. It must be kept in glas^stoppered bot- 

Uei in a cool and dark place. 

At the suggestion of Professor Liebreich. M, Pictet, of Geneva, has 
opUed hi* procefic for the liquefaction of g8e<-« to the production of aWo- 
lettdloroforni. At T0° C. (158* F.) a crystalline body separates from liquid 
cblvmfarni- The fluid, from which ih« crystals have been removed, re> 
(■yataltice* somewhat below 100* C. (213* F.) and the second crystallization 
Mmsests nbeolnte chloroform. At 15° C. (59° V.) the purified cumpound 
W m specific gravity of 1.51 and is said to be perfectly stable without ihe 
■Utbon of alcohol. It cannot yet be demonstrated as certain, however, that 
, ^ctet procesa ia superior to the methods of purification heretofore era- 
f^ To« decomposition of cblorofomi under the infitience of light and 
rc^rded by some chemistfi as a natural characteristic of the fiuid, and 
doe to the presence of impurities It hot, in fact, b«on demonatnled 
■ithout the addition of 1 per cent, of alcohol, Piclet's chloroform un- 

decomposition, and lluit no svosiblc difference exists between tbie 

'any otlier well-purified product. 
_ Chloroform was diKy)vered in 1831 by Mr. Sumucl Guthrie, of Sackett's 
^p^tr S. V^ and about the same time by Sonbeiran in l-Vance, and Liebig 



258 



niAnSIXOKCTICAL TUEUAl'BL'TIO AOKNTS OK UBUOS. 



in GomiuDV. It was first used as an ameethetic hy Sir James V. Simpson,] 
Ediiihiir^h. in 1817. 

Physiologioil Action. — W'hi-n kept in contact with the skin for 
time, it m»n-» irrilation nnJ, finally, vc«ication. After absorption it est. 
a Ecdativc effect. Internally, it proauces a feeling of waniith in llie nlomi 
and litis nn a caniiinnlivc, nnliK{>ii.-<niodic, and srtlativf:; large lioR-s ary 
tanl. When intrtjduced into the circulation, whether by alworpiion fr_ 
the bronoho-piilmoiinry mii(!oii« membmne during inhalation or by that/ 
the stoiiiiich, the effeels are the same. After a brief period of stiinulation t 
depr«'ii»iiig effect of thi' dru^ i* munifoHtt-d. iinil in overdosee it ie a card] 
poJBon. acting by dcstroyinp the contractility of the heart-miiacle. Po 
Julin A. MncU'illinm, of Ahertlcon, has dcmouHtrnted that, cwn when gvti 
administered in moderate (juantities and irith due admixture of air, chlq 
form CAUM's an npunxinble dilatation of the heart. Thit ditatiilion may pi 
cede the loss of the conjunctival reflex, and affects both sides of the he« 
It frei|iionUy occur* before »ny fall of blood-nrcuure. Artificial rcspiralil 
therefure. often faiU to revive the patient because the enfeebled and i 
tended heart if nnable to imiintain the circulation. The diliitntton is l 
produced through the pneiimogastrics, but ie the direct effect of the dl 
upon the cardiac niochaniitni.' In a later )!erie« of experinientE thiH writer 1 
shown that the primary stage of cardiac acceleration is due to a more or I 
comph't*' paralysis of the vngi produced by the ehloroform, Tlic (■iil)ee<(aj 
retardation occurs "throuph a deprcEsinj; or retarding influence CJcerted 
the inirinsic rbyllimicsl mechAt>i«ni of the organ " The occurrence of an 
theeia is announced by complete muscular relaxation and abolition of 1 
conjunctival and cremasteric reflexes. Dilatation of the pupils while i 
Riibject is fully under the inHuenco of chloroform is an ominotia si, 
Chlorofiirm is eliminated by the lungs and the kidneys. It proves irritt 
to the kidneys as it escapes from the system. ' 

The administration of chloroform, especially if prolonged, is often 1 
lowed by the appearanCB of albumin find casts in the urine: a fnct wh 
supgcsls that the renal secretion should be examined before the patieni 
placed under the iulliiince of the niitivthetic. It gcnentlly kills in Eur 
and Anicrica by heart-pamlysis, though, according to the recent report 
the Hyderabad Comniis.*i(in lo the Jirilinh MuHtalJaurnaU in India it k 
dogs hy failure of respiration. According to liinz, death under chlorofo: 
ameethesia is generally due to sudden paralysis of the re-*pirat"ry ecu 
Sometimeti, howerer, the heart stops before the respiration and again, 
other cases, paralysis of both systems take« place eimultauocusly. Hare 
demon*! rated, in the administration of both chlorofonii and ether, that 11: 
is a sudden fall of blood-prn'ssitre. during which sudden death may occur (7 
syncope, or heart-paralysis, at au early stage of the aniesthesia. It hag 
special effect upon the blood, unless the decided lowering of bodily tempi 
tuTC is to be attributed to its action upon the red blood-corpuscles, inter 
ing with their function as oxygen-curriers to the tissues, The absorptioi 
chloroform by different tissues of the body has been studied by Pohl. 
the blood of dogs profoundly influenced by the anicsthetic the blood ( 
taincd much less than it is capable of dissolving, but the red corpuscles 1 
about two and a half time* more tliun the serum. The chloroform is 



'Bnli»h Vnlionr J»uma\, Oct. II, IS, anil 86, 18S0. 




cni^noroRuru. 



2A9 



toed witb thr hK>nin]^)obln. but »'illi the lecithin and choieaterin of the 
■eiM. _or proi>nriiiin wfl* fotmd in tho htnin thnn in the lilowl, 

fbbl bt liul the chJoroform is retained by the choleslerin, leoithin, 

irio. KD*! otiirr >u)»itun»!* v«i^' jwlublo in chlortifonn. Tlip Hvcr con- 
A leM than the lilooti, snd only traces ueri' foiintl in the urine. A Iraa 
itily VA» prf acnt m the fnt (hnn in the blood, u-hich mny hv flltribiiti''(l to 
leaf- ' ''it-eup|)Iy of a(lipoM> tissue. Chloroform appears to be shsorbed 
\ r mi iitiiin'dsnllr by tis^ua rich in »uh»1itn<-i-# which are 8nliibl« 

iMl ii^uiu. After ■dminn^tration hascoasud, the chloroform ia reafaeorbed 
Ih* lilooil nv\<^ 4-liniinitl<'<l liv thi- kidneys. I'pon iho ncrvouB »y»lcn) the 

i>^itivi'. Chloroform first affects the brain, (hi-n the ecneory 

I. .iml fotd. ihvn tht- motor tract, then the sensory parts 

The turdulia oblon);alii. and finally the motor portion of the mvdulla, 
•r'r '. t.ri.iliioin;; death from feilure of respiration unleM the heart hoi 
tiilicti to the drug. 
iH-mii ii>>ni iiyncopc, ai ajready pointed out, not infreqaentlr happens 
E^loroform before complete anipsthcGia has been produced. Such acci- 
HUarv r. ■ 



A 



its 

•m. 



r.-e to fotirtimw more common from chloroform than from 
J I" Sir Benjamin Ward Hichiirdi-on. chloroform (;uus*'S 
-by apnoeal syncope, by epilcplifonn s^-ncopc, by 
■ •ck. That the toxic action of chloroform dc[H-nd« 
n the preaenci- of impurities in shown by the experiinen!!i of <tu 
mil. Tilt rct^idue left after the reparation of pure chloroform by 
-•• vt» fotind [o exert a much more powerful infliience upon Ih4 
I'l re«pinition than the puriRcd product. 
;: has been recently directed to the effect of chloroform and 
- on the liv?r, Bandlcr, of Prague, performed a herniotomy 
• snons. healthy man. who was, however, a hard drinker, usmg 
«£ the iina^^tbrtic, \ few day!* iifterwfirO iili-nis developed, and 
iMtimt (li«'(i with chola-mic symptoms. A^ leiiiin and tyro§in were found 
taa arine, intra riltm, the diji^o^i.t of acute yrllnu' atrophy of the liver 
Ti rriTtiJe, and it was confirmed by the necropsy. Handler has been 
^ the literature on the subject and experimenting on animals, 
;:tiiiu- ihe exact effect of chloroform narcosis on the parenchymatous 
He stBtce that every case of chlorofonn narcosis showed degeneration 
.-lis afterward, while this degeneration was absent or very slight 
irco»i». He therefore urge* the iniporlnnce of avoiding the use 
*.nii in cases where there is reason to suspect that the liver is not 

J oomiiil. and ii!<ing ether imil«ad.' 

it the rvi'i-nt niftliu;.' at Nancy, of the Conjiri-s de* Sotietcs Savantes,* 
't=»,__,r Carnier rclwirtt-d the r<--!<ult of a number of experinieiitv mode by 
„nd hiiu»elf Aftrrlhe inhalation of chloroform, the glycogen 
— !iH^. while Ihe «s!uctive power of Ihc blood increases. The 
rm upon the blood in vttro confirmed the resultn oblainrd 
•umi'T Ix^lie'c* that under thrac conditions h«Iroly«B of the glu- 
»-itli the formation of a fermentable sugar Moiiging to the 

, — Chloroform is wed as a local sedative, antiseptic, and cuun- 





»l of Iht Amtrinn Jtrdtail AmnetatUut. Fel>. 20. ISW. 
UMiraIr dr I'Kar, IMI, No. 8> 



£60 



rRABHACBCTICAl. TH Kit A PEL' TIC A(iBST3 OR DRCOS. 



t«r-iiTitaiit, iiD<I, owing 1o Its salnnt sclion upon the nlkaloide, it( 
Qseful vehicle for snodyneH. The soluiion of ^utia-percha in chlorof 
(liquor gtiltii-p<.Tcha') is Gotm-'timce utc-d as a. protective in »mul]-poxj 
Gryaipc-lnn. TIiIa h likewise a useful application in psoriasis, herpen vi 
Bupcrficial burni-, fiiruncliw, uu<] fiKKurvd uipplee. Chloroform is an 8} 
lent hfrniostntic and promptly checKs superticial IiiemorrhaRe when apj 
upon lint or ebsorbcnt cotton. A lotion containing chloroform is olttt 
aervice in urticaria, and a liniment made with chloroform, aconite, and i 
phor soothes the pain of neuralgia and chronic rhoumatisiu: — 

B Chlorotormi, 
Tinct. opii. 

Tlnct. aronit. aa ISj 

Liniment wponls Til| 

M. Sig.! Kor txirrnul upplicatioii. 



cnn, or (Jw. 
c«n. or ijiiss. 



Anolhrr good formula for a local aiurathdic it that devised by Dr. 
Bona: — 

R CliloToIonnl, 

Tinct. nconlL na 11| c.vm. or (3iiJ. 

Thict. capdel 4| cum. or tSJ. 

Tiuct. pyrethri. 

01 <!Hry«pliylli aa 21 com. or fSin. 

Camphotle S[ Gn. or 3««. 

M. 6ig.: For external uu. The camphor ia fint diuolved in the chlor 
and the oil of cloves and tlie tincl^ure* are tiian added. 

Chloroform may also he used, as suggested by Southworth, in thi 
lowing eombinalion to overcome a rigid |)erineum in labor: — 

. R Clilorolormi ............■.......>......... BO ccm. or fSij. 

.^herl* ,i... W c.cra. or fjj. 

Spiritu* odomt. ..>...........•.■>• .173 ccm. or Oj. 

M. Sig.: Apply locftlly. 

This mixture acts uuickly and wcH, lorge hcods passing the peri 
with no tear, which without it seemed impossible unless followed wit 
tensive ruptiu'c. 

Dohiach' recommenda a combination containing pure chloroforti 
spray for its local anwsthetic effect in minor surgical operations, incisi 
« paronychia, evacuation of a glandular abscess, extirpation of a supe 
epithelioma, as follows: — 

B Mentholl 41 Cm. or Xj, 

Cblorofonni ...,'. 37 ccm. or I3x. 

.^Ctli^rU &8| c.cm. or ISxv.~ 

The local nna-rthcsia lasts from two to six misutflB. 

Inlernntly it is useful in gaatratgia as chloroform-vater, or in con 
Hon with anodynes, as Ju chlorodync. It has also been giren in hyi 
Uthma, irrilnhlt! oough, and seasickness. 

Chloroform- water has been found serviceable in spasmodic cron 
few drop* af chloroform, taken in water or upon sugar, will often t 
vomiting when not due to inflammation of the stomach. Chloroform- 
i« often of service in alleviating the vomiting of pregnancy. Chloroto: 



'AUffcmetne mfdMnltrhr emtralZeihiasi, No, 14, 1890. 




CHLOROPORltrU. 



S61 



lo^nficii-xs) doece, is ^nid lo protnoie a rtpid diaappear- 
ituirin uik) nnaiaroi of prignnncy. Small dosM of cnlorn- 
n and check ihe vomitinR caused by f^stric ulcer. In 
■ iiiltf-ially cuiiliiiu'd with bismuth. Chloroform, inler- 
U'rvd. relicvrt the paroxysniH of whoopiuft-cough. In diai- 
.'f chluroform is Vncficmlly uddod to a mixture coni«int»g 
iti kml opium. The chill of isterniittent fe?er may often he averted 
MtlminUtratiim of « drachm of the spirit of ohloroform. The «nmc 
lioo. ^ivvn alone or ia combination with morphine, allays hiccough, 
lif niicroLicide acunn i>f chlorofonii makes it eon-iceabic )d some cases 
SuviL-n! nntl fermentative or infectious dyspepsia. It has even bt-cn 
■ ' uM^fiil in cholera in llii« wav. 

T ner has nwd chloroform in 1^0 cases of typhoid fever. It had 

Bnibic ini1ui.-nc<- upon the diurrhcca niid tympanites and leMened the 

manilefitatione. None of the patients died or aoffered a relapse. He 

jwl a l-pi-r-ivut. atjut'ous solution, of which he gave 4 lo 7.5 c.cm. (or 

Kvvry hour or second hour, increasing the intcrrals as improvement 

StiK-p alM reporiii gooii result* from ili» use in typhoid fovcr. 

rit of chloroform ia nsed with especial advantage iu the treat- 

l« ^•■ra morbiu, and often for its sedative action upon tlie system. 

llu- sj.trit of chloroform can be ad vantageoiialy combined and used with 

icatir» ani] other remedies:— 

R SpJiilDBrhlnrafornl 1S| P.cm. or ISsii 

Aqwr caniphor*. 

SpiHia« Kinrriaromp. ^ aa 001 c.cin. or tiij. 

Tiact. eapdci ..,,'. T|s c.cm. or (3) j. 

M. Siy.t A dMMrlApoonfu) ia water, wb*D«ver neoestary, lor choUra inoibus or 
■MMftchacIiC' or inUvUaal paina or flatulesM. 

ft Bfiiriiua dilorofonat lltso c.cni. or ISv. 



Ovoaoti 

%dHlua amiDoo. arogo. T 

Aqn* mralk. pip. q. a. ad 150 

Sig-: A Inupoonlul or two bctorc maala for nnniwa or TomiUng. 



37 c.cm. or «irj. 

fi c.ciD. or I3ij. 

cciu. or IJv, 



IS 



com. ov Qm. 
065 Gm- or (tr. j. 
c.cm. or fjiv. 



ffpiritiM rliloroformi .<-,, 

Mor^htnn nulpbatb 

Aqna: aniiaoDami . ..i). i>. iit) 120 

9ir-: Frotn on' (o two tfaipooDfuls evny half-bour for afttT-pauii or in 
• or fajvlerital attacfct. 

fever* the spirit of chloroform is useful to relieve rcstlosanesa and 
. citii^h in pneumonia, bronchitis, or pleurisy, usually pvcn in a 
-foivt ur'-"' fimKinaiion. * 

Application. — The important application of this remedy is for 
iag anaMhcsia during iiurgical opetations. It n the moi<t pleasant, 
active, and the most convenient an»«thetic. I'nfortunntcly, ila 
ard is so murh higher than that of its great ris'al, ether, that 
^nnrivnF in this countri' prefer to use the latter, although its odor 
a^re«ab1>', and il retjuires a much larger (|uiintity to produce uncon- 
, and il has a preliminary state of excitement or intoxication. 
apnn Tht *t8te nf ana-atiie^ia and the ehoicc of nnwsthetics may 
uii'Ur ihi In-ndof JEther.) 
Administistioa for Anattbetio Effect. — Tb« administration of 



2t>a 



PItARUACCUTlCAL IHERAPEUTIC AOENIS Ofi OBCOS. 



chloroform for Hurgiosl opCrntion» rvsjiiircK M\l, laieWigOMtr, and «xperiq 
The jjreater Dumber of fatal caaes, bv far, liave occurred in the hands of t^ 
who do not apprcL-kto the rcspoii^ibihtv thcv assume in iifiti}; this potr^ 
Bgent. The method to be followed is, iirst, to eliminate nil casi^B of weaj 
diKCaeed facurt; and, if Ihi- o|>i-rntian is to hi; a h^n^ one, ri-t|niring prolog 
sdministrstion of the anK-slhetic, CAses of kidney disease must also he 
eluded. The patient sfaoiild not be in a sitting pnxttirc, nor should 
chloroform be administered soon after a full men). The clothing about 
»Mk and waist »huiikl be loottc enough to allow rcipintor}' movements, 
the patient should not be loo niui'h exposed, on account of the loweriai 
trtupLTUturc and the powtibiiity of uougcctiou of the l»ng» ur kidni-vii »u| 
qnent to the administration.- The chloroform should be pure, and about J 
to 'I e.cni, (or rnxl-foj), poured upon a napkin or towel and held a little 
tance above the patient's noM or mouth, so that the denee vapor in fall 
»li»ll mix with air. 

According to Clover, the chloroforra-vapor should be diluted with 
volumeE of nir, and he has devised a special inhaler dt-sigut'd to accomp 
this dilution. An improved apparatus, now in u^e, is known as l>r. Juak 
Inbaler. In inauy ca«ee full anawthesia, or coma^ it not necdt-d for hi 
operations, nnrturition, passage of gall-stones, etc.; consciousne.^ ma] 
preserved while the sense of pain im tenipoiurily abolished. Dr. Snyrc 
Sew York, uses a much i^inaller amount of chloroform (0..S0 to 1.20 e.i 
or i^t. v-xx). but jidmniistcrs the vapor in as concentrated a form at he i 
avoiding the admission of air as far as possible, and speaks very confide: 
of the eflicicncy and safety of this method. If the patient struggles violui 
during: tlie inhalation, he is liable to gut an overdose, and tinder such 
cuinslunce« the adminislrution of the anivi^ilhfrlie vhotdd he entirely disi 
tinned until the breathing becomes normal and it is seen that tne ai 
thesia is becoming fiiintor. Tlie eX]nrrienoed ana-alheti^ier will d«vot« 
entire attention to his patient, and carefully note any change in the reef 
tion. pupil of the eye, or color of the skin. The patient')! pu!*e aim) *h( 
be waidied during the administration of chlorofonn. and, if it suddenly s 
or becomts fluttering, Seluton's method should he at onee cmnloyed 
which the patient is placed in a vertical position, with the head aownw 
while artificial respiration ii employed, which is iisunlly successful, 
horde'* method of rhythmical tongue-traction is very useful in restoring 
leepiration. Tracheotomy may be required, and inflation of t!ie lungs ' 
tho hollows has been succesafully performed. Sir llenjamin Ward H 
ardson regards arliflciiil n-spiration as the most impiirtant meiisurc for 
n.'lii'r of chloroform narcosis, Moulh-lo-mouth insufflation may be f 
ticed in the aGscncc of a convenient appiiratiis. ,\niyl nitrite or nmm 
inhaliition^ jihonld also be practiced, or ether, digitalis, or whisky inje 
hypodermieally. Etforts at resuscitslion should not be discontinued in 
than one hour, a* pnlii>nt» have recovered after artiUcial resniration had I 
continued for this length of time. The faradic current is likely to do c 
harm than good, a* it interferes with other mcjisurcs, and if applied to 
phrenic nerve may cause stoppage of the heart by inhibitory action. S 
ping the chest with the fringe of a tone! wet with cold water was the fsvi 
resource of the elder Gross. If vomiting occurs after the administ ratio 
chloroform, Ltwiu has found that by welting n towel with vinegar and { 
IDg it on the face of the patient the vomiting wilt be cheeked. 




;iiLuLtorouut'Jt. 



SA3 



I^^tal ily injei.Ii-<i, h a raliwWe agont in comhatinj; the 

»l • mi tijioii the hcnrl, llicojiijuiiuil \m- otilrjfch- 

hs» bv«u pracUce<l on account of itf etimiilant influence upon the cir- 

|cmluion and n.-vi>iTAt4uii. Small nmuuiii« oi nirohol arc vnluclcss in thi» 

»CT, wliile larpe ijuanlitiefl only seeist the paralyzing action upon the 

Wliun linn^cr thii-ati-n;, the anglo of the juw tlioiiM Ix- rniwd niid the 

drawn (.irwaH. <o lliat no niechanirol imppdiment ehnll be offered 

TTr«pimtii)n, In th* (iiilli!i;;<n i-itnii', Kiinig's mdhud of int«riiutti:nt 

-».i>'ii i^ praflioed in a raodilU'd form. Tlie prrpcordium ia rapidiy and 

'! Ht tin- rnl<.' of IW or more per mtnulo. Tin- nir-pnttigos ^ 

time, be f*diiloiiBl,v kept free from mucus and open. 

i'- : i(. Ry' pnfei> chloroform oTcr elher for g<iUTnI unii>i>th«eia, 

-K' f'l .1 ilisadvanlage of the former being the care required in the ad- 

•o. Thii principal contra-indiciilionH to trhlornronn arc hvnrt 

•-niphy»«nia, with dilated right heart; fatty depenoralion of the 

I !•■, un<) uncoiiipeniFuK-d valvular <liii<-iiiii>. Kthor i« nl»o contra- 

n ull these condition-i. Xeither ether nor chloroform eliould ho 

fil by iirtiticial lif^ht (roin an upon iliinie, the firKt hrcflUKO it in 

I lid the second Wcause it be<:onics decomposed and produces 

..■iji vaj>0Tii. which caiisi' )<pa»iit of tltu Inryiix, or in tin nim.it ion 

■■ii>Mii:eB. In administering chloroform, it U important to gain th« 

an'l co-oporinion of th« patient, liccauw; Klrugghn;; and )x-vi*t»ncc 

iirb the judgraeni and lead to the employment of a larger quantity 

M.^ircd. Chloroform ought ni-vcr to Iw adminiMorcd rapidly, for the 

I entmniNr of a »msll quanijty into the circulation is more dangerous 

■ml alworplion of n Inrgcr (luaiilitr. In iiiajor operations, I>r- 

ni^tratjon of the chloroform, it is customnry witn surgeons to 

jiK-nt 15 to 30c.cra, (or fS*"-)) of whisky a.%an arterial and cardiac | 

The adminiBt ration of a dose of nux vomica in the form of tinct- 

-tryclininc at a guorcl against accident >x reiiommendi'd by Milne 

.lAwurth. Chloroform is also often administered by inhalation for 

<'t infantile and puerperal convnUiong. in puerperal t»lanuit the 

of chloroform is a valuable measure. A combination of chloro- 

n in this manner, and rhloml, adniiniittercd V>y the mouth in larffe 

-^■j.. iius iM'en especially praised. Augustus D, Waller, on account of the 

rn»w1^fje<l dnnffen of chloroform, con.iident it unju.itifiable to employ it 

! operations, lie condemns the open method of adminie- 

: of the uncertainty of ihi- doMi^e nnd iIr incrcaiivd rtok. 

nncortninty of quantity ndrainietercd can be mo»t caeily avoided by 

ring the principit* of junkcra method, in which the quantity is ae« 

|t«lT iTirnfiur>:d and its do«Agc reguliited accordingly.* 

Tile naroxyi'mt of whoopinx-cough are chockct] or mod«nit«d by this 

K^rt. About 3 c.cm. (or tSfn) may be poured upon the hand of the mother 

' ''1 near tht- chtldV now, or it may be vaporimi by mt^ant of hot water, 

0.18 I'.cm. (or gtt. ii-iij) being used for each year of the child's a*:e. 

i««d in the latlT manner, four umff daily, it is said to shorten the parox- 

ll^i^ staiie. In severe cases of chorea, in which the convulsive movements 

[sitsfprr with dt*glutirion and rest, chloroform inlialutionf anfw4-r a rcry 



'Kfw: Tort Urdiml Journal. Nov. », lltOS. 
• jgt« Hritiah JVfrfbnl JotmMl. April 53, 1896. 



2IJ4 PHABUAOSDTICAt. TIIKRAPErTtC AOESTS Oa DHDOS. 

good purpose by indiiciii); sleep, which is follovred by notable improvcmd 
Adinitiis.lered nt fimt thrci; tinii-« n duy, end lew often bs the Kyiaptoras i| 

STovt, tbU plan U «aid tu cure the disease, on sn average, in tventy-cig 
«ys. Chloroform 19 of value in painful deliverjj, not eivcn »o «t to predB 
uQcoji£ciou£Des6, but merely to blunt the scmibility. Used in this way, t 
uterine contraotion* arc not weakened nor the danger of potit-parlum hteniq 
rhage increo^. Chloroform is better borne by women in labor than by a] 
otlier f.hsA of Rubjects. But if pushed (0 ana^Mhefia the contractions becod 
k-!« vigorous And hicniorrliagc is favored. It is asserted that the inhalnth 
of chloroform for a few minutex at a time, acvcral times a day, h bcneflcj 
ill phthisis, ri-licving the cough and rL'ducin^ the temperature. For tbie pD 
pose, Frascr recommendii also the hypodeniiifi injections of atropine {'/» ' 
1 nig., or gr. '/,,o-'/i)e) with morphiiti' hydrochloratc (0.005 to O.OO8 Gm., 
er. Vjj-Vii); for the latter Ur. Laborde auhstitutes narceine.' In sciati 
Bartholoir has given deep injections of 0,tiU to l.'iO com. (or mx-xx) of ch] 
reform, near the sheath of the nerve. In some cases this method has al 
afforded marked relief in facial neuralgia. I 

CHLOBUU.— Chlorine. I 

Preparaficns. 

Aqun Clilori (U.S. P.). — Cblorinc-wntcr |0.4 per cent, chlorine). Dose, Urgi 
diluted, 4 to IftJ ccin. (or fSI-v). 

Oilx Cfalontta |U. S. P.).— Chlorinnlsd Lime (36 p«r cent, of araUable chlorin 
DoM. aeO (o 0.38 Gm. lor gr. iiivjj. 

Lii]i)ur Sodn Chloniteu lU, S, P.).— Soltiti'tn of Clilorinaled Sodn. Ijiliarraiiii 
Solution (2.8 per cent, avniklilc ehlorinf I , Dour. 0,00 U> 4 com. [or nix-tij), latgi 
dilutt^d. 

ChIk Clilorlnata (B. I'.).— -C>ilortnat«d Liiiit< ironUIn* 33 per c«nt. of Mvailo! 
chlorine I. 

Uqiior Calcin Oh1orlnnt« (B. P.).— Solution nf ChlAdnated LJmo [About 3 ] 
t'trnt, at availabl<! vhlorinc when fivsli). 

Liquor Sode Chlorinatn (It. P.).— Solution of Chlorinated Sod* |2'/, pw M 
of aviiilubli! ohlurinv). Dum.-, 0.00 to ISO ir.cni. (or mx-Xi). 

Fharmacolosy. — Chlorine is not itself official. It is a gaseous eleme! 
with more than twice the density of air, of a greenish color, strong and si 
focuting odor, irrispirablc. and, even in a state of dilution, very irritati 
to the air-paasagee. For disinfecting purposes, it may be disengaged by ac 
ing hydrochloric acid to niaiifnincse dioxide. Chlorine is soluble in wat 
and under the influence of sunlight alowly decoiiiposea that liquid, combini 
with the hydrogen and setting the oxygen at liberty. Owing to the utlin 
for hydrogen, chlorine acts energetically upon organic substances, and oft 
destroys them. Coloring matters of organic origin are blenched when i 
poaed to its action. Chlorine 13 an efficaeious disinfectant, decomposi 
iiydrogen sulphide and destroying putrefying material. It also destroys I 
infeetioii.4 niiaiimH in the air, hut should he in excess and in a closed room 
order to be very effective. The generation of chlorine in the same roi 
with patient* i* of verj- little uae so far as disinfection is concerned. 1 
combination with lime (chlorinnl<-d lime, or bleaching powder) is lurg 
used for disinfecting drains and cess-pools. 

For the sick-room, the solution of chlorinated soda (Labarraquv's sd 



' Thetvpnilic Oturttf, Sqit., I80O, \\ «30. 






mor»- convcnii'Dl and lejs offensive, for use in comtnodee, bed-pans, 
tur mternnl iiilniiriiiitnition. The inhulatiou of aminonta-jins i» anti- 
tci dilorint) when absorbed Iir the air-paesaees, Dmmonium cnlori^e re- 
from their e<itnbi nation. In cams oi nccJiientBl poUoning from sval- 
a chlorine uilutioQ, albumin, in the form of mitk, eggs, or flour, is 
tratrdy nt «tir rommand. 

cal Actios. — Chlorine-gas, in concentrated fonn, when di- 
Qpon till- ttkin> cnuMs smarting and rcdne«», followed by er^thematoua 
Ifotiuar inllaiuniation. It is a disinfectant, destrojin;; parasitic v^ctable 
pvrtfat. Thv tnliolniicin of diluto chlorint- is irritating to the ]un;;s and 
risaiatea the end-or^ane of the pneuniogastric nerte, causing coughing and 
KaacliDg •ciUAttons. Internally, chlorine van formerly given in rarioiis in- 

EM dbeasea, but this is rarely done at the present day, although T.«l>iir- 
■ aolutioD ur (freahly prepared) chlorise'Water has decided influence in 
liniD)! the stomach in an aseptic stale during low forme of ferer. 
Iknapy. — Chlorine solution it ust-d to clean offensive ulcers and to re- 
{■•tchpa of pityria»B. This liquid is also an excellent disinfectant to 
iag woundKp and may be injected into absccits-cnvities, sinuses, or 
, fnr the purpose of removing and neutralizing unhealthy or decom* 
na. 

miilt-Himpler praises the action of chlorine-water as an antiseptic 
Otis upon the eye. He has found it especially useful in cases of 
tis. In plastic operations upon the lids, tiaumatisms of the eye, 
mppiiration. and M^rpiginous »dc<'r irrijtnlions with chlorine-water, 
time* n. day, have given satisfactory results. This liquid hu» the od> 
that it does not, like oorroiiive suhliraale. produee corneal infiltra- 
afler the installation of cocaine, but prevent* suppuration without in- 
die cornea. Chlorine-water was fonnd to be less irritant to the con- 
. ilian the mercuric chloridi.!, and. when kept id closely stoppered 
exdnded as much as possible from the influence of the air and light, 
stable and active for some weeks. It is fit for nse as long as it pre- 
ihe characteristic odor of chlorine. Prior to the operation the con- 
T«l cul-dt-aac and globe are washed with chlorine-water, and when com- 
the lida are covered with muslin compresses wet with chlorine- water 
n ateriliifd with oorrosive chJoridi-, the whole being fixed by a ster- 
tenda^.' As an antiseptic wash, ii may be employed in puerperal 
Ittritia. One part of I.al>iirraiiue*s »«hilion to 10 or 1'^ of water iit a useful 
D in ■vajrinitis. The same solution may be used as a prophylactic 
paiftnn from bilr* of serpents or insects. Chlorinalod oiP — that is, 
n saturated with chlorine — is a very efBcient remedy in scabies. 11 ' 
ithout irritating the «kin. 

impound known as Cblorophenel (tricblor-phenol) has be«R em* 

a local application in ervBiiwlas, in the form of a 1-, 2-, or S-per- 

•!• ' The resnlts are said to have been excellent. It is thought 

tt- , would be more eHicacioii.* if jjiven by ^subcutaneous injection. 

A BoanljittalioQ of chlorine and phenol is highly praised by Dr. J, E. 

. at Saint Louts, as a valuable lotion to ulwiatt-d mucous surface*, 

lautii, nose, and throat or as an injection into the vagina, nterue, 



bm Bmfttlo Unlknt (imf Hurgifil Jtmmal. May. ISOl 
■^CMnrUuttn) '^n' Bar paprt by (ho nulbor, «nl(cnl RhIMId, 1834, p. 271- 



2C6 



PRARHAORPTIPJt 



IBBAPEUTie AOI 



OB DRUOS. 



bladder, or rcdum, innn inHemmntory or ukfrBtod condition of thoHC 
A 10- or SO-per-Pent. solution was employed. The evaporation of m^ 
Itki'wiKc n-ndi-re tli« fluid b eorviccaWe dislnfoctniit. Dr. Burney Yoo 
bad good rcsulte from the u-rn »f chtorine-watcr in typhoid fever. iM 
laquv's (otution may bu feiniiUHy umiI, much diluted with wotcr. Thsj 
throat o£ Bcarlet fever is also benefited by the same methods. Oan;;re< 
the month or tongiu- in likwi^c am<iinblc lo thu »mie iiiHiionce, Arcoi) 
to same ahservcrs, ehlorine-water has an action upon Uie liver and is uf 
in chronic di«eacu of that <jr:gnn. , 

The solution of chlorinated lime' of the llrinsh i'harmacoincia i4 
of the beet anlidotes to hyfiroHiilplntric- acid, ammonium Kutpliyiliatc. p 
eium aulpbide, and hydrocyanic acid (Riven in doses of 1.2U to 4 ccm 
nixx-fSj). 8hcct8 wrung out of this !>olution may be wrapped arounj 
body of A person dead of infectious disease or in a decompoiiin!; condi 
Chlorine-gaeha»been utilized by Dr. Diver in (lie trentmcnl of chronica 
of the leg. A piece of absorbent collon was char^red with the gas by I: 
plfic-d in a bottle containing about S Gm. (or 5ij) of pota««ium chhiratc^ 
a (iTiichm or more of bydroehloric acid. The cotton was laid upon the i 
covtred witli giitta-pcrchu li«-itc, and secured by a bandage. Tlie Shu 
tiibhes plan of treating pulmonary tnberculosis ciinsists in Ihe inhalatii 
fihlorine-gs8 and the hypodermic injection of gold and sodium chloride, 
gaa may )>e evolved from chlorinated lime, from 2 to 23.3 (Jm. (orSss-vj)! 
EpiCfld out in a shallon- diEh and from 1 to 3 drachms of diluted hydracb 
acid tiddcd. alirring with a wooden spoon or sjiatnla. It is beat to he^n 
2 Gm. (or Sss) of clilorinalcd lime, incretieing the iiuantity each day un) 
or 15.0 (int. (or 5iii-iv) are uned. During llie inhalation of the gas the al 
pbere of the room »hoiild be charged with a epray of mturnkd ttolutii 
sodium chloride, llie patient should breathe through the nose, as o 
is thus !o»» likely to be excited. The time during which Ibc gaa Is «■' 
is at first about two minutes. This period is gradually lengthened to tv 
or thirty minute*. In mild cases and in laryngeal phthisis the inlialati 
chlorine-water aufficef . 

At the Harper Hoiipitnl, Detroit. Mich., a focc-inhaliT is einpl 
Chlorine inhalalions eeom to be of value in arresting the progress of < 
tion. llypodcnnic iiiji-climis an- iiwd in the Shurlcy-Gibbes method, i 
is begun by the preliminary administration of iodine. (See lodom.) 
gluten] region is fclcctwl us Ibc proper site of opcmtion. The dose of v 
generally used at first is '/j eg. (or gr. Vu) daily, increasing gradually 
0.03 flm. (or gr. s*) and in »omc cases O.OfSo Gm. (or gr. j) is reached, 
go Id-and -sodium aolntion is then injected daily, beginning with 2 or 1 
(or gr. V„ or Vm) ""'d Hsccnding until n dose of 0.012 or 0.02 Gm. (• 
V. or V>) is attained. At this point the quantity should he diminish 
fi rag, (or gr. Vi») daily if the treatment is to be continued. At this 
it is considered better to alternate the injections. If albnminuriu occu 
iodine should be suspended. Little or no tendency to haraoptysis has 
observed. Catarrhal msni flirtations and fever may, in the beginning < 
course, be temporarily aggravated, but improvement is said to follow 
|«ome instances, anorexia, listlcssncss, diarrh<ra, and asthmatic symptoi 



'Tlir Hlrpiigth vS IhU ■oluliuu is onv iivoiTdupinii pound uf i^litorinateil lime 




line alone cantiol be long cOiiliiniiHi. 11k- iiltt-inuk- luv of tlic rom- 

. fVolongs the eftecl ol the iodioi-, It is recommended that, aa a rule, 

aUcmate use tiliould begiu in thi' second or third week of the coiinte, 

I fndoally dircrvnEiug thfir u*« to once or twice a week.' The authors of this 

I vbm|>putical nivthoil tutri-, in n niinil>or of ctuc», iritDC^fvd improvcmt^^nl as 

npid* symptoms with diminution of physical eifn^s and diBappearance of 

W^Ui from the nputum. 

CEOnHBUS (U. S. P.).— Chondms. (Irifh Mom.) 
Phftrmacolog; and Therapy. — Iri^h laafs, or carragheen, ie CliODdrasI 
<r«pi» antl tiiynrtma m.iiiiillosa (Algft') hWchi-d and dried by cTptwure ton 
'J. It is in hard, translucent, yeliowish-white fragments of eeu-wced, 
> ""-itcleriAtic odor nnd nlinc, muciln^inoiii laMv. It contiiin» iodine 
iD« in small quuntities; its principal constituent is mucilag*.*, but 

^ M<i)Ta:nn QO Vtarch. 

Irish TDoes contains a peculiar priacipte called carmgheenin, which fa 

■ '■ ■ Ml gum Ity not ln-ing proinpitnicd from its waterj Milution 
in Etarch br not turning blue upon the addition of tincture 

mill; Hiid wattr (1 to 16) and proi>crly sweetened with 
■ d, it makes bla$>jc-man$t; or, in more dilute decoction 
. a deinukvnt drink for the i(tck. It has not much food^value, but 
- - ; useful in bronehisi affections. 

CHOPPARO AlUROOSO is a small, thorny Imeh (Simaruliaoew) which 

puw in e<mtli«.i>tiTti 'iVxne. It Iwurs pink fiow.-rs and red fruit. All 

' Iinvi' an intenfit?ly-biltpr taste. It seldoin PTraiv^ iifiiw'a. 

ilic bowels, nnd se«m.'« to be elimliiaied piint^ipnlly bv liic 

PT», as its odor is perceptible in the uriTie. It pm^f^i -i-h-s also some nntt- 

lic Tirtues, In largi* dotie> it causes llushinjr of the faee and a sense 

tftin»**9a in the hc«d. T>r. J. W. Mi.Ton, of Wnjilitshont, Texas, ro[)f>ris 

K.. I,,,* filttiiiiied encellent rt-snita from the adnii nisi ration of ehopparo 

- ry, and 8u^g<-«ls that it mtxht prove us«-ful iu typhoid fever as 

iinT..~nnnl antiseptic and tonic. A fluid extract of cliopparo amar;;o£o has 

fiivfuirr-d by Sluirpe & l>ohme, of Baltimore, the dose of nhich, as a 

■rom il.GO lo 15 c.cm. (or ms-f^ss), and as a stimulant from 11 to 

■ iv f5iii-f5j)- The plant vield« il» virtues to boiling water, and is 
loeiitl}- given in llie form of a decoction. 

CHBTSABOBITTOM (U. S. P., B. P.).— ChryiaroWn. 
Dote. u.ulJS til 1.^0 Gni. (or gr. */«-")■ 

Preparaiion. 

XJwmtMit»t» Cfanraatobuu lU. 8. P., B. P.). — Oinlment of ChryurobJa (9 per crat., 
HA Iwiimlwtr't UrtTl. (Tfao Pritluli olnunrnt U not to mronit. in-intc I to 34. or ottly 
a mUt wfwr * v** "^'^^ 

Pharmacolo^. — Chrjmrobin in its commercial, more or less impure, 

^CB is a neutral principle extracted from Ooa powder, a substance found 

^wited in the wood of the tnmk of Andira araroha (Leguminoae), a 

f the East Indies and llrazil. It is an orange-yellow powder, odorless 

■ Y%trmp*^**c fJ'KTttf. .\[>ri] IS, 1801. 



■itib 



IBlUrBUnC AOKXTB OR DRUUS. 



nnd without tfistc, nearly inaoluble in wattir nnd in alcohol, but soluc 
ether, sulphuric acid, and Folutiont; of dlkalk'^. 

Phymoloerieal Action.^In comparatiTely large doses (2 Cm., or Ses) 
caui'^H irntiiliiiii of lh<; mlvstiiuil Diucoue membraiie, end gives rise to void 
ing and purfiinK^ with large, bilious stooU. ,1 

U excite* inflnminotion of thv skin from its local application, nnd p| 
duces a ycllovisli-brown stain of the skin and clothing. (The elain iaj 
Ricvnblc with Q weak aolution of chlorinated lime or foda.) It is said t] 
hot benzol will remove the discoloration from hair and clothing, provij 
that no soap or alkali lias been used. A yellowish hue is communicated 
the urine by chrjaorobin. This color turns red upon the addition of alkaH 
The dermatitis majr be diffuse, or cxprcMod by follicular and furunco 
eruptions. Chrysarobin is parasiticide, and destructive to epiphytic i 
gaut»mx. I 

Thenpy. — The principal internal aae of chrj-sarobin is for its cattiB] 
action. It has bi-en udininittcred internally, in doses of 0.008 Gm. (oi gr. \ 
seTeral times daily in psoriasis. But its extremelyHrritant effect upon 
intestinal mucous memurane so soon compels its abandonment that it is pi 
tically valueless as a systemic remedy. When applied externally for a c 
sjderable period, a emalt portion may probably act by absorption. Chryi 
obin ointment should not be allowed to come in contact with the heal 
skin, but, in peoriosis. the disease for which it has been principally emplof 
should be carefully rubbed into the atTected area. Hie parts iihould t 
be covered by a bandngo in order to protect the linen. Another method 
applying chry^robin is by making a paste of it by means of water, nibb 
the paste upon the patches ofter the scales have been removed, allowing 
mixture lo harden, and, finally, pencilling collodion over the surface. 

Chrvsarobin is curative by its stimulating action on psoriasis, chr< 
acne, and vegetable parasitic skin diseases; hut the olficial ointment she 
be diluted wvcrul times before Appliciition, for fear of exciting too much 
flammatory reaction. Chronic eczema and the second stage of rosacea . 
receive benefit from chrysarobin ointment. The same preparation has so 
times proved of service in lupus vulgaris. 

A very good combinnlion in obninJe ociii'ma and psorioats is the foil 
ing:- 



R 01«i cttdini S 

dtryukrobini ••• 1 

Unjtuent, linci oiidi 31 



c.rm. or (5si. 
30 Giu. ur gr. xx. 
Gm. or !)■— M. 



A 5-per-cent- solution in liquor guttw-pcrchie has been used with 
vantage in chronic eczema and a 10-per-cent. .°iolution in psoriasis. Dr. ] 
James vfrites that the most cleanly manner of employinsi chrysarobin ii 
dissolving 1 part in • parts of chloroform, and stirring about an equal qi 
tity of soft petroleum into the mass. The preparation is applied by m' 
of a brush. Chrysarobin has been recommended by Dr. Robinson, of '. 
York, as an excellent application in alopecia circumscripta. It may be ■ 
vcnienlly iiscd in the form of a stick, made up according to the folloi 
formula slightly modified from that given by Dr. Leistikow, of Haml 



B Chrywrobini ■ 31 

Colophonii >.•■■•••■.,,.. 4 

On* ilav. , 31 

01. olim 30 



ibor 



Om. or 8j. 
Gm, or 3j. 
Qm. or Sj- 
o.cin. or I5j.— M 




CIMICIFUQA. 



S6D 



Eanbcn, or ohry»nrobin iBniiAtc, soluble id chloroform, acetone, and 
*<h < il as a 0ur.fi;daneunt fgr cbiysarobin, especiallr as a skin ranitsh 

lot >caly i^kiti irmpUoiis. 

CHaciFUQA (IT. S. P.).— Cimicifnga, Black Snake-root, Black Cohosh. 
CIiaCITITGS BHI20HA (B. P.). — Cimicifnga, Actteae Bacemoste 



]>0M, 1.30 to t Qra. (or gr. xx-xxx). 

Prtpaniiont. 

EstnebuB Clmlclfapp Fluldum (U. 8. P.) .—Fluid Extract of Cunicihigit. Dom, 
»JD tu * exm. lor nvfSo*). 

t'AttmcliiDi Omicihign (U.S.F.J^Extncl of amicifUKB. DoM, OJMU to IU2 
C«L (tx gr. i V). 

TlMTtur* CimkKutcn (U.S. P., B.P.).— Tir.ctuJO of Clmidfug* (20 p«t ecnt,; 
IkB BriUsli liucturv ■* unljr 10 p«r cent). Dom, 4 h> 7.& c.vtn. (ur ni-ij). B. P„ 2 to 
t rem. (or Om-}}. 

£str»etun Clmtrlfugw Uiiiiidaai (B. P.).— Liquid Extract of Cinikltugii. Done, 

'» to £ e.r.m. [or mv-sxx), 

Fhanimootogy. — llie rhizonie and rootlets of Cimicifugu rni:«mo»a 

iUauncuUccai), a plant coRimou in woods in norlhern United Stateti, con- 

a a m-'utral principle o( acrid taste, soluble in dilute alcohol, water, chlo- 

form. or ether. Itn chemical iintur*? is not known positively. Mr. Oeorge 

^i Unvis tu6 diM'ov^red a volatile oil in the recentty-pithercd roots; and 

I'rof. Ocorgc B. W(io<l thouKbt tlint thi.t might be the active principle, since 

ite dmf; dctiirioratos upon icctiping. It al»o contains two tx»im. So<called 

aautUngui, or EaaCTOtin, ie an impure resin, depoEited from the concentrated 

tiB«Cnr« upon the addition of water. There is iilso in the recent drug, he- 

dda the volatile oil, some tannic and gallic acids. 'I1ie odor of the plant is 

tMXher fetid. 

Fbycialogic«l Actios. — (,'imicifuga has decided effects upon the human 

tf sftem . Small dose* atimulule the digestive fntictiou und iucrcu^v socretions 

Idjoa^ the alimentary canal. The secretions of the bronchial mucoua mem- 

l^nac are also incn^M^, the aeliou uf the heart stimulated, and the iiriae 

ii anifTneDt^ in quantity, llie menstrual How is increased, and some aphro- 

Anae qualities hare been ascribed to the drug. Upon the heart and cireuls* 

I Dno mD effect is noticed resembling that of digitalis, though less marked. 

FvU cli)*e9 fIow the pulse and incrcaM its force, raise arterial tension, and 

tfimolate titerine contraction; the latter action recalls that of ergot, though 

<I If lv»» powerful. Cimicifuga lowers the reflex uctivtly of the )<pinal cord. 

Xit* pnpils are dilaled; dimness of vision, vertigo, intense headache, nausea, 

IBd *' result from large doecs. Even sojwrific effects hate been ob- 

IB iiiT ;< iief from ftain or spasm. Death may l>e caused by failure of 

myiiatmn. 

Tkcxmpy. — The applications of cimicifnga are in accordance with its 
ij^nologiral activity. Externally, a saturated tincture is said to relieve pain 
n dwamati^ni and neuralgia. In chorea it is of decided value, especially 
^ vflak aavmic children. It is, moreover, very applicable to those coses 
v^ieh manifestly depend u))on rheumatism, or to those which develop in 
^fi> at the Age of puberty and are associated with menstrual irregularity. 
b orural^ta, eapecially when the consequence of rheumatism, cimicifuga is 



PHARHACBUnCAL THRBArEVTlC AOKXTO OH DUUfiS. 



of iindonbicd Iwnolit. In certain cotes of wiatica improromeat follows 
admtntstntion of this agent. 

A formiiln of Dr. Molcnif for tcintioii is: — 



B Tr, ncoiilt., 

Tr. pokhic, turn., 

Tr. brilndona. lot, 

Tr. dtnli'llufw 

U. Sig.: Six drop* every tix boon. 



, 



n» 7}G0 com. ot fSij. 



Ciuiicifuga Mas introduced into ICn^land hy Sir J. Y. Simpson, q 
remedy for riironic rlicunmUsin, in,valgiii. nnd hy'rioeliondrigsii! with dep^ 
sion. It is bencficini in meluicholia, eepecially vlien that condition is a^ 
ciated with fiincTionnI or or^nic utorino or ovuriiin disorder. Ciinicifn{^ 
likewise serviceable in some cases of acute rheumaiism, and Kinger bas fofl 
it iiM-fid in rh.'uumtoid iirthritij. The iluid exlriict i# the bwl and in 
reliable preparation. In ulcrine eubinvolmion, ovarian neuralfjia. and «nH 
orrbii-n it h hiylily poiniiiendtd. It ha« a good cITect. also, in other conf 
tutional niani(e!-tation§ dependent upon disorder of the female jiencrat 
»y«tem, as, for instance, convulitiong caused hy disturbance of the cutamea 
function, and in puerperal nianin. CongeEtive dyemenorrhu>a ia likewise' 
Itovcd by this remedy. Citniclfuga i« uften beneficial in menorrha^ia i 
metrorrhajiia. By reason of its action upon the womb, cimieifuga may 
employed during pnrlurition 08 a jtubntitute for ergot. Though not m p< 
erful as the latter drug, it strengthens the normal uterine eontiaetions. I 
its totiie elTeet.*, it is uiu'd In Inhaling gastric catarrh iind irritable *louu 
of alcoholism: also in dclirinm trcmmK and functional impotence. In wt 
and fatty lu'art it. is safer than digilaJiB. On acooiint of its stimulatj 
effects upon the uterus, it should not be given during pregnancy. 

In headache from eyestrain ciniicifiiga has been given with beneRt, t 
is especially useful in acute bronchitis as an expectorant. Cimicifuga is li 
iriM valuable in chronic bronchitis attended bv profuse muco-pnndent sec 
tion. It may even be scrviccably prescribed m phthisis, as it facilitates 
pcctoration, sustains the appetite and dige-ition, and reduces fever. 

Cimicifuga may be adminiistercd in the appended fonnulic: — 

B Ext. dmk'ttugte f1 4C com. or tBisa. 

Tinct. inidn vomicic 4 tcin. or fJj. 

Tiiicl. ciavlionie i?amp q. •. ad ISO c.cin. or IJv. 

M. Sig.! A icMBpoonfu! or tvfo in wntn* every three or (our hour*. For «¥*i 
and utMinv neuralgia niiO nmciiorrhd'n. 

R Ext. clmirifugw fl >> 30| rrm, or fSJ. 

Mnrphinw sut{>hnliii , {005 Oni. or gt. j. 

Splrltnn iPthrrin niiro«i. 

Li<|ti'>r Hiiiiiinriii nrcUIJa , na OOf o.em. or tSiJ. 

M, Sig.: Two trojpoonfuU in natirr every three or (our hours. For Deura1| 
acute rhetiniallsm, and nnitc hronehUla. 

B KxL elmicKugip ..^ llSfi Om. *r gr. xx\v, 

Ext. bdlndoniiw [olior. ale (lOS Gm, or gr. J. 

Tiilv. enpiici [TS Gm. or gr. xij. 

K. et (t. pil. no. xiJ. 

'Vg.'- From one to two pills Uiree timea a day. For gulric catarrh, 
tmnm*. and f^incUnnnl Impntrnct. 




CTSCHOftA. 



871 



CI5CH0HA (U. S. P.),— Cinchona, Pernvian Bark. 

CaCHONA EtTBBA (T. S. IM— Red Cinchona. 

OKCHOHJE EUBRS: COETEX (H. 1'.).— Eed Cinchona-bark- 

U. S. P. PreparalioM, Alkahidf, and Sails. 

taatuutt CuKhonw. — Extract of Cftifhona. Dom. 0.065 to 0.66 Gm. (or gr. i-X). 
buictuni Cini-buiiH! Fluid uui,— Fluid Kxlraot <it Ciricliunfi. Dom, O.IK) to "iJi 

. llUMl-(3ijl. 

liliKuiii I'inrlKiwe. — InfiMlon of (,'liichonii |U per cmt. cinchona, 1 per e«iit. 
Hk lulfjiuric «cid. uiil wutvr, q. >. lul lUO p«r <'*ml.| . Uo««, IB to M vjem. (ur 

Trari^n 'luolKiiMF. — Tiuutun* of Clui'ltoun iiO i>«r c«ut,). I)o«», 2 to 7£ cent. 

iNobMUB C(i(n|ioMlA. — Compound Tlui'liiio ol Cinchona (nrd cinchoM, 
: viiMgr-peti, S; iHTt>fiilariu, 2i giyueriii, 7^\ »lculiol auij ivuter, i). •, wl 
i|. ItaM-. t t« 13 cciu. lor fSi'iv). 
^tliiinna. — (JViBinr. & wliilc. amurphuiii (lowilrr, •■otuUIi' in lUTO paitH of ynUT 
ltl«n> of akoliol. DoK-. U.OlMt to Q.tl.'i Um. lor j,T. i-H). 

^niiH* 8ulpba«.— Vuiniii* 15u1ii)iiklr. \><i'tf, ii.(llir> l» if.li.'i Qm, |fir ur. is). In 

>«Ulf; looiv, fiUform rtj'Atuiii. iragik'. und in » light, caMlj'-i'cmipiVBvitilc iniim: 

I loirinK to luprrtli^iul Hllorci'M'iK.-n I , ndiirli-u. liming a pcrkiitcnt liitti^r tiutc 

Blnl irai'tjon. i^lublc in T40 purtu of wutm, aud in (hi parln of alcokioi at 

, iJS' F.I, in nmnU proporlioni> of uHdulittci] wntcr. Vety (Ughtly *oluble ia 

Jqwona Milutiun, Mpvi'iiilly if Mi-i<!iiluU'iI uiUi oiilpliiiric: ai'iil. Iinib a viiid, 

i fc wi MM i w . When trmlcd firsl with fn-■^ll biutiiiDt-uulfr. and tlien wilU 

lotHi (>f vntrr of animonlA, llix kaIL priHluc-i'^ an i-iiirialil tirctrn color tlhal- 

(.'iT-tals an- (uriitril ul tlio Miiiie I'ulur by trviLliiig iili ni-iili]1att<d Hutuliuil 

ilmr wlphatc with MluniU'il alcoholic ■olulioii of iodine ikfra[MllkiU»t. 

I^IB fiimlpkaa^ — Uuiuiur llliiil|il>ul<-. l>u*i-, 0.ix>'< l« I (.im. (or jet- i-xvl. 

* I li: the sulpiiate. but much more loluhlc. diuolviUK ui lu purts of wdtcr or K 

Loh.ll «i3»* F. 

.ii« ity4robcuiDa». — Qninine Hydrobrarnnle. Vaur, 0.0G5 to 1.30 Gm. (or 
,p-iii,. 

>_ faniatt HyilrocUora*.— Ijuiainc Hydrwlilorat'r. Donv. O.Otlu to 1 tinu (IT ft, 
- iible to 3* p«tt* ol «■ntl^l■. 
:..iii) ^'alfTixna*. — Vu'niiif ValMnnatv. Itanv, 9.0415 t« 1.30 Qm. («r gr. 

(jUtUiai* 8utphaii.--Qiilii>illn« Siil{il«itt>. fJiinc. O.'i'l to !! Gm. (or ur. r-xxs). 

Uk^taloa. — C'ini^oninc. Uuve, 0.32 to 2 Um. (or gr. v-xxx). Wl>it« CTTatab, 
■Adkh 3740 {muU of water at AS" F. Ua* an alkaline iraction. Taslcltwi at flrat, 
mmi utl«r. 

(Mooins Sulplian. — Ctnchonine Sulphalc. Dow. 0.32 to 2 Gm. (or gr. v-juutl. 
■•UHnfafko, ■oliiblc in 6G parts nf wntcr nnil in 10 pailM of alvoliol. \'«iy hitt«T. 

I.Wbnttidiim Sulpfaaa. — Cini-huiiiditiF i^iilphalt'. Daw, 0.32 to 2.00 Gm. (or gr. 
Mil. 

fori H QutnlMp rhrn».^lr"ii mill Qiiiuiiir Citrate (i-ontninB 12 per cent, ol 
w. «S i>( Irnic citralri. Dimi-. LI.I3 to O.fifi Gm. (or gr. ii-X). 
[Ftni M i^uiinv Cilraa Sntubilin.— ,Si>liiU«' Iron and guinini! Citrate. Doea, OSO 

1 (in, lor irr. iii'l). 
, '. upua Frrri. Quininir, rt Stifi^hninn Phosplinttini. (See Fcrrvm.) 

MDDni Fvtri Aninfum.— Ulttpr Wine «f Iiuu. Dubc^, 4 tJ> T.5 exin. (or t3i-IJ). 

B. P. Preparation.^. AlkahitU. and Salts. 

Eunrtaia Ctiu^onn! I.lqniduni. — Uigiilil Exlrnrt <>t Ciui'liooa (fi p<-r i«nt. of 
telMJt) Dour. liJO to 1 c^ii. (or n>r xr). 

lateaun Clncfaonoe Adduin. — .^cid Intii*ion of Cinchona (mt.dnchona-hark, H 
t: aromatic ■alpharic acid, 13.1> c.nn.; dUlilM wat«r. 1000 c.rni.). Dow, Id to 
urn. <oi (J«*-i). 

Thct>T« C1nchiH»-.— Tinrl.urc of Clnchonu (1 Gni. of iilkuloiiU to 100 exm.. 
If wfth ml rln<'h»na'li«Tki. Votv, 2 to 4 c.em. (or (Su j). 

(.IncliiniH.- Com poflit a.— -Compound Tinrtiire of Cinchona (bittn' orange- 




272 rHARUACBCTICAL THKnAPEUTIC AGENTS OH DRCOB, 

pocli^O; ■(Tprntnrv. 2.>i cocbinml. 3.2: Hi6tron.IS.3i tincture of cinchanii. 900 1 
Aloohol. q. H. u<l 1000). Doiw. 1! to 4 c.cm. (or (3tt>-j). 

Quiniiur Siilphns.— yuiniiic Sulphotr, ])o»f tP.005 to 0.05 Gm, (or gr. i-x) 
8llkr.\w)iiii> lllilonii cij'ilaK tuMv viry liitwr, Soliilitf In alioiH (WO parts <rf i 
the notulion liaiiiifi: a t>1iii-<h lluorvici^nt'e : when watet is ariduluteil witii a in| 
ncid the salt iH nnlitviv imliihlc ^Mim Miliitinn of ammonin )> nildrd to ai^ 
HOlulioii* <il rjtiiniiic fiitlli, ii fonii't H wliilc [mnrntatc tiulublv in i-lli<^r unci in 4 
of lliR Boliilion of iininionia. ljuininc miliihiiti! tilipn cxponcd to dry air. the 19> 
ciileft of wfti*r are rvdui'pil to 4, Jue lo rtllori-c'npe^ 

Quinino) Uydrovliloridum. — (Quinine ll^rochloriUe. Dow, OtOtU to O.flS Gfl 
gr. t-xl. 

<Juinin» Hrdiochluritliini Addum.— Arid Qllininc Hydrochloride. Do«e, 01 
O-iUOoi. (orsr. i'X). \ 

I'incluni Quininw,— Tiiictuiv o( ()uinlD« |i|tiiniii« liydrochloride, !; tinrtl 
orange, 100). Duite. 2 to 4 e.cm. lor fSaa-j). 

Tlnctura (juininw Aiiiiiioninla. — Amnionluied Tiiirinfe of Quinine (<tiiialii 
phaI«,Si solution of ainnioiiU. 10; alculiul. Oi) c.cm.). Dow, 2 lo ■! c.i.'in. (or fl 

Svniptia Foni Pho*ptinlu i-iini t^iiininn et Strychnlnn. l8ee Ffrram.f 

VStiuin Quiuiiiit,— (juiniiit-ninir (quuiine liyd'roi'hiorid^, 2 Giii,i orang* 
876 e-ciii.). Dose. 11 to 30 c.eiu. lor ijiiifj). 

Piliila Qiiiiilni« tiuIpliAti^. — I'iil of Qiiiiiiiie Sulphate (r^iiinine «ulpliat', SO 
tarie acid. 1; KJj'ocrtn, 4: Iragacixmli, 1; to mnke a pill'ma»!<i. Doac, 0.13 t 
Qm. (or itr. ii->-li)l. 

Ki'Tri i-t Quiiiinie Cilras.— Iron and Quinine Citrate. Do»e, 0.38 to 0u6l 
(or gr. v-x). 

Some QnoAolal FreiMivtiont. 

Chinoidinutn, — Chinoldtne, How, U.iin to 2 Gm. (or ^'. llt-xxx). A mixti 
tlw alk^oidv, in an nniorphoui fonii, and dark colored; ciblniiicd from thit retidi 
from Uie manufacture of tli« crj'stall liable gaits, 

QuInlntB Hydriichlora.* OirtMinidata. — Double Bait ol Quinine and Urea. S 
in an tnaai part of water, and u»ed hj-podermioilly in cungestire ehill*. Doae, 
to 0.65 Gm. (orgr. i-x). 

Quinntoni, or lionpital Quinine, is tlie mixed alkaloids predpit«t«d by Ul 
largelv used as a febrifuge in Indin. Dose, about the same as quinine. i 

Cinch on ldin» Salirvlns.— Cinchonidine Salii-ylate. Doee, U.13 to OM Om. | 
il-X). 

Cinehoninie lodoeulphas. — C1nchanin« todosulphate (50 per cent. Iodine). . 
•tituta for iodoform. 

Pharmacology, — The Cinchonit of the t'nited Stntra Phannacopf 
the bark of Cinchona Culisaya (Wt-ildcll); Cinchona otlicinalig {Linn6); 
of hvhriils of those and of other iiijecit-s of cinchona (nntiiral order, 
acfw), vieltlinj;, wht-n ai^-ayed hy the official process, not less than 
Pent, of total alkaloids and at least S.,'5 per oenl. of quinine (CjbUj, 
+ 3IIiO). Cinchona rubra (F. S. P.) is the hark of Cinchona swcci 
(Ruhiawa;), containing not Kks than 5 per cent, nf its peculiar 
loids. Cinchona Eubne Cortex (B. P.) ja the dried bark of the 
and brunches of ciiltivutcd plants of Cinchona wiccirnhra; "when 
for purposes other than that nf obtaining alkaloids or their aalts, it a 
yield between 5 and 6 per cent, of total ulkatoids, of which not leSB 
half should consist of ciuinine and einchonidine." Cinchona flava 
ofReial). which is thi> hark of the trunk of Cinchona Calisaya, conta; 
least 2 per ci-nt. of (|iiinint'. Then- have been isolated from cine 
bark about twenty alkaloids, differing slightly in physical qualities, 
hility, reaction, and afTinitic*, but all possossinc to greater or lese di 
the characteristic physiological actions of quinine. They may be di 
into two g^roups: (1) quinine, quinidine, and quinicine; (2) cinch( 
einchonidine, and cinchonfcine. These exist in the baric combined 




CtKCnOKA. 



278 



••Utmic, kinic, and kinovic acids, vitb a tasteless, inactive sabsUnce, 
liona-red. While South America rcitiains ihc principal Hiurco of cin- 
Aata. TPl the cultivation of the tree has been so succeasfully carried on in 
lifit and Java that nconKiderable portion of (he supply is now derived from 
U (onrce. The constantly-growing demand for quinine has stimulated 
kuical invcstigaLion; and Inbonitory products, cliieHy nf the coul-tar 
kin, are now oSered in great variety, which closely approach the cinchona 
jkaloids in physical and chemical chamclcrs, and which also have been 
tvnA tmltiable as antipyretics. I'rominent among these are chinoline, anli- 
Ijnii, acelaniiid, re^n^in, krvutln, and nnphtaliu, which will be consid- 
Ind teparately under their individual titles. Thus far, however, no syn- 
factically-pro pared salt rival* quinine and cincboninc in their control of 
Hiuisl nianife<iiation£, or in their tonic elfects upon the system when given 
|wt length of time in small doHe». 

By ehcmica! modification of eupreine. a base found in the Itcmijiu 
Dculata, MJI. Ciriinaui: and Anmiid have, by synthi^itis, obtained a nub* 
absolutely analogous to, and perhaps identical with, quinine. They 
' al*o dmri.'d other bo<iic8 similar to ijuinim;, which are ether* of cu- 
jprac and are endowed with decided physiological properties. Quinine is 
ffattically the niethylic ether of eupreine. By followiug a similar proccsa 

E&at \^ which eupreine is transformed into quinine, two new alkaloids 
lebccn diwovercd. Elliytic eupreine has bwm denominatwl quinetbylinfi 
Impylic eupreine has been given the name of quinopropyline. 
With regard to the comparative alkaloidul value of the different bark*, 
tteC. C-alisaya contains the greatest proportion of quinine, the <J. succi- 
Nba the grt-fltc:^t amount of tannin and coloring nintier. Hnder the namt- 
l(|*le barks, the C. micrantha and C. condaminea were formerly official: 
mi IK inirnnediate between tho two jiLtt named, in llietr alknloidal 
. The O. pitayensis, cuprea-bark. and other quinine-yielding barks 
n (Bployvd in manufacturing the alkaloids, but are not ^pei'ifically 
ilbr the pharmacopceias : all are oflicial which contain at least 5 per 
odlu; total alkaloids of cinchona and i.'t percent, of qtiiriini'. 
Qvinine sulphate is a snow-white crystalline substance of a silky lustre, 
becomes somewhat opaque in dry air from i'fllore*eence. It becomes 
on exposure to sunlight, is phosphorescent on trituration at 330* 
I red heat it dceompoees and biirnn slowly without any residue. Thin 
fc aolnble in 740 parts of cold and 30 parts of boiling water, is readily 
in alcohol and acidulated solutionit. and in glycerin. It dissolves 
If in chloroform and is nearly insoluble in ether. A delicate test for 
is th*" production of an emerald-green color when a solution of one 
alts is treated with brominc-ivater followed by the addition of aqua 
in fxc-f-r^*. 
Aynolcgical Action. — The preparations of the bark are not fully lep- 
■itfd by the salt* of the alkab)ids becaaae they poaaesa a-itrinftenoy, which 
'ihnit from the latter, and because the physiological action is increased by 
basociatinn vt different principles in accordance with the well-known rule 
f eaBhination of synergistic remedies. For internal administration, how- 
iV^tbe bulk of the powdered bark ia inconveniently large. In 1820 Pelle- 
IT and Caventou first isolated quinine, which has since taken the leading 
■re is tbenpeutics of fever, and it second only to morphine in importance. 
I Ibe otlicr nits approximate more or less closelv to this, we may omit con- 




374 

eideration of their physiological action and simply take (|uinine a.i the t 
Qui»ii)c i» a powi'i-rul antiteptic, and a very do'struclivc to iDfiiKoriatl 
vegetable life, A solution of V, of 1 per cent., 0.066 Gm. to 30 c.cm. (oi 
i-f3j)i destroys micro-organi^mi^, and double this strength prevents ferme 
tion and putrefaction. Upon the ha»h of hi« numerous exuerimcntK, ] 
eoDcludcs thill the remedial action of quinine in malaria is due to Ite dj 
action upon the specific micro>»rganij>in of the disease. Upon the iwund 
very litlle efTcct is, ae a rule, produced, but upon a part denuded of 
dermis, or upon mucous meiiibranes, it is a decided irritant. Rashes, ] 
ever, may be caused by the direct action of cinchona. Workmen empl 
in making quinine are not infrequently attacked by erythema, vehicle 
pustules. It causes muscular contmclions when applied directly to 
muscle, but not when applied to a nerve (Kulenberg). It is therefore a 
clc-irrit&nt, and nut a ncrve-irritnnt. Taken into the stomach, it exei 
a. local effect upon its contents, checking abnormal fermentation and Ata 
iag infectious micro-organisms. For this purpose it should be g\vea in 
tion or in powder (capsule), so as to insure its solution in the stomach 
moderate doses it stiuiulutcs the muscular fibres of the stomach, increi 
its motor power, and also, by its irritant action, increases the secretii 
gastric juice and. nif a bitlcrtonic, improves the appetite. In large quaul 
hunger is abolished, and the excess of irritant action causes arrest of gi 
■ecretion. 

In excessive doses it may cause nausea and vomiting. Its prolonge 
in large amounts has been known to cause gastritis. No influence ha« 
noticed upon respiration, and very little upon temperature of a pers 
health. In cundilions of fever, thi' adminLetnition of ^cvernl full doa 
duces the temperature nearly to the normal; and there appears to be a 
ance during this condition, for the system can stand a much larger qui 
at a dose than it can in health, without producing toxic eflects. This 
in part, he due to the fact that absorption is checked by the fever. The 
upon the nen^ous system of small doses is best seen in cases of debility, ■ 
the agent acta as a tonic, invigorating the vital functions and aiding t 
gestion and assimilation of food. In larger doses, symptoms referable ' 
brain are noticed, such as fullness, frontal headache, deafness, ringing 
ears, and mental dullness. These symptom? are attributed to partial ai 
of tie brain, owing to contraction of hlood-veaseU and lowered heart -a 
possibly to direct action upon the multipolar cells, analogous to the 
of morphine. There is stimulation of the sympathetic and auditory 
(Oubler), With deafness there is associated disturbance of vision oi 
porary blindness, due to extreme contraction of the arterioles and a: 
of the retina, the optic nerve being perfectly white, resembling white at 
"Riis condition of the eye-ground is more or less permanent, but the fu 
of vision ie restored. Amblyopia has been produced in an extreme 
ceptible individual by so small a dose as 0.13 Qm. (or gr. ij). 

Large doses lower or abolish the reflex excitability of the spina.' 
Soon after l)eing introduced into the stomach it diffuses into the bloi 
may be detected in the urine, elimination takiug place slowly and '. 
for several days. The quantity of urine is slightly increased in pereo 
accustomed to ilselTeets; the uric acid is decreased and urea not coft 
affected. Medicinal, and especially massive, doses of quinine have, he 
been obBe^^-ed to cause a marked decrease in urea, and it i» thougl 




CIKCUOKA. 



275 



lb jiainiahptl elimiDation of citrogmous vsste depends upon a depressant 
afvcDcv rxerted by llii» drug upon tiKi)ue>changeii within the body. Full 
4o» ' Hint- may cau** congestion of the geni to- urinary tract. 

proliftliiy f»^-npL-3 from the hv^lem iiv othi^r routes, es it hu» been 
dd' : lie Bweai, tears, and milk of nursing women, It has been found 

il»i' md ii( driijimal etiusione. In llio blood, quininr arrests the mi- 

fntiou oi tlic %v)iit(_- i.'nr{>u»cle« and clmLkf ihcir amii'boid mov<MiientM; the 
M rdl* arv rcntlvrvd le>s adhesive and their oxvKen-carrying function >8 im- 
ftini. 'Hie experimt-nts of Sokoloff upon rabbits show that quinine exerts 
1 Eironblt- intliienct! upon the heallns of wounds. InflamiuGtory degenera- 
liMi of tiM-tie 15 notably decreased. It probably tends to destroy infectious 
cicTO-orgnQieiiifi in the blood and tissues. The pulse-rate is increaeed by 
u^rntF (lo*es, but lurger ones (4 to $ Gm., or 5i-i«») cau^c lowering of the 
'! of artcriul len.iiion. In animaU death results from paralysis of 
11 after large dose« of quinine. In the human sulijcet very few 
-tf»l ctii*^'s of death followinj; the ingestion of quinine are on record. ^ 
. . : hiiH followed the use of such enormous qunntiliet ag 15.5 or 46.5 
'Jtii. i-r ^---1--). though it is very probable that in such cases the entire 
UKTusi mub not absorbed. lu BazireV case death wue caused by 155.5 Gm. 
Wjr) taken in the course of ten days. In some pati«its various forms of 
<rutiau liavL- been noticed upon the tkin, cveo purpura.' A searUtiniform 
cnpiKio occasionully follows the ingeetion of a small dose of quioine. In 
•4Arr u)»tanct.-« the eruption lius resembled that of measles or cry»ipe1aft. 
IitMiuBtnjition is h flequenee, and may be prolonged. The rash is often at- 
kWM«(I bv seven; btiminj; and itehing aenjiation». 

Tbeortificial alkaloids derived from the cinchona bases generally exert 

lanre decided influence upon temperature than does quinine, causing a 

Ifidocbon of several degrees even in healthy individuals. When inject«d 

I abrutaseouely these snUtaoces give rise to total aniesthesia of the neigh- 

IWwod into which they are thrown. Cuprcine is slightly toxic, and does 

IMCtuon convtilsions. Quinethyline produces tremor and the sjinptoms 

l^mitune intoxication. Quinopropyliae i& the mo«t toxic member of the 

ks, and canees a profound stupor. 

Tvboning'. — The toxic ^vmpkmi^ prodticed by quinine and allied salts 

■R cpokeQ of collectively a.^ Cinchosism, which ordinarily is not allowed to 

■B further than tinnitus aurium. Where these s^'mptoms are annoying, or 

&e uii«nt 16 BufTerinje from an overdose, the alimentary tract should l>e 

dnnd by a purge, and brandy and a cup of hot coffee administered, or a 

i«a( en;ot. Wliero there is much irritation of the skin, urticaria, or ery- 

iVna. a warm bnth containing sodium bicarbonate is useful; an hypodermic 

m of luorphine may he necessary. Dilute hydrobromic acid {"i to 

in., or f56P-ij(. giv.-n with ordinary dose* of quinine, pr<-vent>i the 

nrrence «f ringing in the ears or headache. Some patients show idio- 

■..niT if> the effects of quinine; urinary irritation, even cniig<-t>t ion of 

I :i and huepiorrhages, may follow quite a small dose, ^ome, in- 

.iiiiKtt lake a i^inglf grain without great iiK-onvttnivnte from cin- 

-ru. It must, therefore, be given with caution when cystitis is pres- 

iin(^ will also, in some iudividuaU, occasion detided irritation of 

-intv>itinal mucous membrane. 



'Cm^* by Of- Fnnk ^Voodbuiv rrpoilMl to Slate Mrdj«al Society of Penaiyl* 
a, nkilndf IjiAbi Jfntfoal TfmM, 6epi. 18, 1880. 



276 



PUABUACKUTICAL TUEKAl'EECTIC AOUKTS OR DRUOS. 



A ease h«it been reported b^ Dr. Kwnnhnl* in which the «(lmini8trBti(n 
o{ 0.20 Gm. (or gr. iij) of quinine to a young woman was followed by higV 
ffiver, bloody vomiting, and bloody di«rrha*a- Rrlenmcyc-r hn* recently dfi 
scribed a case in which the nervous reflexes were greatly exaggerated aft 
the adminii>lmtinn nf a single doite of 1 Gm. (or gr. xv) of quinine, followg 
by i Gm. (or jp-. xxx) in hroien doK« on the Biicceediug day. Examination i 
the patellar rt-flcx at thnt time occasioned a aericK of general eonvtiUinng 
with violent contrartion of the arms and the entire body. Qtiinine is eltni 
iaated rather slowly and principally by the kidneys. i 

Therapy .-^Tlie application of powdered bark was formerly one of td 
accepted methods of treatment of ulcers, hnt i* now obnolete. A l-per-cenl 
solution of quinine sulphate is recommended as a topical treatment of dug 
gish, unhealthy, infected wounds. The powdered (alt, dusted upon chan 
cToids, has been found to promote rapid healing. 

In hay fever a spray of cocaine, followed by a spray of quinine hydn) 
chlorate (0.38 Gm. to 30 com., or gr. vi-fSJ), used frequently, i# luBhly re< 
ommended. A solution of quinine, sprayed into the thro»t, is attended iritj 
good results in diphtheria. Quinine has also been used as an injection I) 
gonorrhn>a for its antiseptic action. i 

Jn cystitis, irrigation of the bladder with a 2>per<ecnt. solution preveol 
decomposition of the urine. The hypodennic injection of quinine is of gra 
value in pernicious matariul attacks and in sun-stroke. The beet salts fc 
this purpose arc the neutral hydroch! orate, the hydrobromate. or the cm 
bamid-hydrochlorste (hydroebtoratc of quinine with urea). Injections hai 
also been made directly into a vein, in order to obtain prompt results. Di 
J. It. Gilbert, of Dallas, Texas, suggests that life may be saved, in dcspemt 
cases of malarial poisoning, by injecting 8 Om. (or 3ss) of quinine into ih 
circulation, ndministering cardiac stimulants by the raoutii ^imultaneousl] 
The solution should be freshly made and filtered and a perfectly-aseptic eji 
ingc used, as otherwise abscess or scpticiemiu, or even tetanus, may folloi 
The erretailized bisulphate may also be similarly employed. Freshly-pn 
vipitated quinine lactate, which is soluble in four time* its weight of w«t4 
■ is well adapted to hypodermic use, giving rise to little pain. The cr>*staUizi 
salt, however, is volume only in ii> to 20 parts of water. 

As an ordinary tonic, in conditions of debility or conraleseenee, tj 
tincture of the bark, either simple or eonipouud {the latter being more a*trll 
gent), is more useful than the alkaloids, for reasons already stated, and bl 
cause the alcolioi in the tincture is synergistic. In cases of diarrhixa tt 
antiseptic action of cinchona is very valuable, and quinine is of service i 
typhoid fever, especially during the second week; but it does not approae 
the eharaeter of a specific, as it does in malarial attacks. 

Some writers praise the action of quinine in summer diarrhipa an 
cholera morbus, and suggest that it would prove efficacious in Asiatic choler 
Professor Fullerlon has strongly recommended it.^ use in cholera, giving 
in doses of 1 to 1.30 Om. (or gr. xv-xx) in the course of two hours at the o 
ginning of the attack. He values it likewise as a prophylactic remedy. 

in ordinary chills and fever 1 Gm, (or gr. xv) daily of the sulphate, i 
bi«ulpbotc, or O.ITi Gm. (or gr. xij) of the hj-drochlorate or hydrobromat 
given in two or three doses, at least five hours before the time of the expect! 
paroxysm, will generally prevent its appearance, or greatly modify it. Tl 
treatment should be continued for a week or ten days, diminishing the dc 




ciNcaoxA. 



877 



tmf^'"'^~-'^iT it, if cinchoni^m oppcar, but rctiuming the full doae at sep- 
Uaaxj -. after the appearance of the liuit chill, for ■ inonth ur more. 

rfiiur>«)ng pri-scriptions may he used in malariu:^ 
: 



a (jBlaiiw* »ulph«ti. S 

Aridi otilphtifici aroin •■>••. 4 

i>l mirsth. pip 

lUt. ^ly^vRbine 4. 30 

r.lyiTrini ISO 

H. Sig. : A le«>poanhi1 or two werj throe or fouT houra. 

K Qnlniiue >ulplistis, 

Ft-m pyrophoa. an 

Aridi araenmi 



Gm. or 31]. 

c.cM. or 13]. 

30 e.cro. or iht. 

c.cm. or 13 j. 

c.ria. or (Sit. 



Pnlvrtia capMct 1 SO 



60 Gm. or p. si. 
MS Om. or gr- i- 



Gm. or gr. xx. 
Goi. or gr. 1}. 



Alolai 
M. rt f t. ^il. BO. XX. 
Oig.t .A {lill Uirci) or four litnrs a day. 

B Tinrt. cinclioiue comp. 1201 Ami. or fjiv. 

Tinrt. nurh voaili* .'.... 4| arm. or tSJ. 

Wn*X. oBram fl. aa60{ ccm. or IJij, 

E Si^.T A halt to a taU«ipoonru1 in irrater three or four tiicM a dajr. 

A pftUent once poisoned kj* nuilariK may find it necessary to take a 
w o[ quinine Tor svvcral weeks each yenr, at the seneon vhen llic attack 
«ppcarr<l: nn<l if imncclimflted pcrt^ons, wishin;; to stay in a mulnhoue 
jKslitv, or traveling; through one at certain eeasona of the year, will make 
of the ptophylactif action o( qwininp ihcy may «BCftpe infection by taking 
0.2A lo O.is lim. (or gr. iv-vj) daily. The late Dr. John B. uamilton 
,rreil cinchnnine preferable Ui quinine for Uiih purpoiic. In children, 
■ OS in adults having a weak or irritable stomach, it is more convenii-nt 
ter the remedy in KUppontorie« of cacao-butter, on account of the 

tMste and unpleasant effects on the digestion. The taste of quinine 

lidenibly well disgtii^ bv milk, and, a« Dr. F. E. Stewart suggests, by 

prepared with milk and sugar, the dose to be followed by a sip of cofTce 

contains no quinine. Kinger states that an equal portion of powdered 

coac««lfi the taste of quinine. In cnIare«meDt of the Bpk'i.'n (ague- 

3 quinine is very etlicient in moderate-sized doHeo. in Intermittent fever 

i i^atld not, as a rule, bo given during the paroxysm, bocauso its irritant 

i^as nuiy incrrsse the nervous disturbance; out in other fevers pyrexia is 

M «aitra-inilication to its itse. In infectious diseascc, hntmorrhagic meAslee, 

^■B-pox, diphtheria, and pyemia, quinine, combined with alcohol, is the 

daef r*Ii«npe. 

This dnig quite favorably inDuences the broRchc-pneiimonia of measles 

mi cDimtcracts Che tcndenc)* to caMOUs degeneration. It is a serviceable 

^■■djr in children in lobular pneumonia dependent upon other ctusea. 

Chaboictl with iron, quinino is vory serviceable in erysipelas. Sixty-five eg. 

tmgT' x) at quinine, given with Dover'ti powder, opium, or morpbine, ar« 

t in averting an attack of acute catarrh. The same quantity of qoi- 

,p*va at the beginning, will !»metimes abort acute tonsillitis and pie- 

u« fonnxinn of pus. A* quinine checks the principal phenomenon in 

tion and suppuration, which ia the eacapc of the white blood-cell, 

^y [rtiiif; liie excliange of oxygen by the red blood-cclls, reduce* 

t is wpecially serviceable in pneumonia and other Incaliic! 



278 



PIIABUACEUTICAL THIiRAPBCTIC AUKNTS OR I>«rOS. 



inflaminfitions, nnd al»o in reducing rliwliur^e from sbiiccsM^ and prcvcntii 
MpmmM or pymmin. Bartholow considers that a larger dose (1.30 to 3 Ci 
Qm., or gT. xx-xl) lias the power, i( atlminUlercd during ihe congestive stage 
before exudation hss occurred, of euppreeeing a croupous pneumonia, pleu 
, or endocaTditia. 

Ill this country quinine is rarely, if ever, given in such large doses as i 
. been in ORrmany for the purpose of reducing Mgli temperature in ery 
sipeUe, sourlntina, or rheurastiem, although Liobermcister regards it as heia^ 
8 better antipyielio than the cold bath, ll is not rouRidered adviiinbic to US 
such large amounts in typhoid, on account of the tndamroation of the patch^ 
in the smalt intestine, qiiinim^ b4>iug n pietro-intestinal irritant. In typhoi 
and othLT fevers it may be administered in the following manner, especial] 
if the action of the heart be weak: — I 

9 Extnct cinclionir <1 , S3 c.rm. or Rvj. J 

Ttnct. cardAinum, tainp. 16 c.im. or 13ir. 

Spiritu* Kthcru comp i...L 81) can. or (Sj. 

Tlnet. digitalis T TG c.cm. or fSij. 

Aqu» chloroformi od SCO p.wn. or fS». 

M. Si{[.: A linK to a. tabl«*poon(ul every three or four liours. 

In whooping-cough, which ia regarded by some as a parasitic infeetia 
its use has bi-fn nltendvd by much benefit in comparatively large docea, ca 
joined with the local use of a spray of quinine solution (llenke). 

In many di^onlm of atonic cliaraeter, such m neuralgia, dyspcpi 
night-sweats of phthisis, general debility, neurasthenia, quinine ia liigl 
Eerviocable. ll is particularly valuable in those manifcatfltinnfi of neiimlg 
which result from tina-mia or malaria, and is well combined in the fornii 
case with iron, and in the latter with arsenic, thus: — I 



K QiiiiiiDEC milpliatis, 

Mmuu fcrri eurboimti* , 

Tixt. nuclii voiiilcin 

Kxt. hcUmionTiiP (olior. «lc 

M. et ft. nil. no. xlj. 

Kg.) A piU lliree or four times a day. 

R Quinlnie vulphatj* 

An"'Lii 9iil].i|i.. 

Kxt. iKnutiiu nlc 

M, et ft. |)il. no, \x. 

Big.: A pill tliree liinea a day. 



oa 2{ Qui. or 3is. 
[SO Gra. or gr. iij. 
joes Oni. or gr, j. 



il3 



Goi. or Sj. 
Gin. or gr. i}. 



Dr. St. John Roosa has called attention to iht- dangers af the abu»e 
this drug, it causing mauy serious disturbances of the ear. even when tak 
in email, though long-continued, doses. Professor Charcot, however, n 
oramended the administration of quinine in M4ni^re's disease. His meth 
was to give 0.38 Gm. (or gr, vj) twice daily at mcEil-time for fifteen davs, T 
drug ia then diiicontinued for eight days, when it is resumed in tlie sai 
manner. The uoises in the ear and the vertigo may be aggravated at fit 
but this eiTect soon subsides. l"'our or five such periods of alternate exhi 
tion and discontinuance generally rvsidt in u cure. Many nkin di^ordi 
and eruptions are due to malaria, in which quinine produces good effect, 
pointed out by the late Dr. L. P. Ysndell, In old malarial cases the sulplii 
of cinchonine or cinchonidine may be snbstituted for the more expens: 
quinine »alt»:^ 




ft CMotvformi , , i\ txm. at mxxx. 

ChMhw a t dJMe «ulphu 8|ll) Gai. Or p. xMIJ, 

Tinct. cKrdmiBoiii. eomp 7111 crm. or tUJ, 

Md cl to y iab ftcwfae q. t. ad I20| c.cni. or Uiv. 

U 8i|f.i Take K dencrUpoonfiil every four hour* for malariul tniuDiiiia. 

S CktaoUlal 4 Gin, or 3j. 

CSncbonidins lolpli. 2 00 Gm. or gr. xl. 

PlpcriiMK - .. 3& Om, or gr. vj. 

CUpri atilpluiL 13 Cm. or fr. fj. 

M. «t ft. pU. rd oipmilje na xxx. 

■g.i Ob» or too tirry thrM or foiur hour* In coagMtire chills. 

OUwr evidences of chronic malarial intoxication— nt: iliarrhtca, Aywn- 
ttn, jaimdic^, and choreu — disappear tinder the administration of quinine. 
!:t<nniTt(-'nt hieinatunn. when du« to thix cau$c, is ciired by the judicious 
tdinmi^i ra tion of ijuiniuc. In view of its irritant effect upon the genito- 
utsuT »<rKtcm. i^uinine will M>mctimes (excite or a^^avat« hiematuria iaj 
cboae suffering from malaria. This fact should be remembered in Ihi* man- 
tpnrat of malarial bipmaturia; in fact, it hflji been claimc-d thnt the hiema- 
ana is really pnxliioed by large doses of this drug administered in the treat- 
aat of th4 dueosc. Alexander Haig points out the fact that ordinary acid 
■dpfaate of quinine contains 20 per cent, of xanthin, which is physiologically 
aa MtholojErically eiiuivalent to uHc acid, and vhich may therefore aid in 
A* mat ruction of rea blood-cetls and liberation of h^pmoi^lohin, which is tbe^ 
war (if lilaok water. Small doKi^ uf ([uiiiine, ti-m[)orariIy emploved, are tue- ' 
-aaes of catarrfi of the stomach, whether due or not to alcoholic excess. 

lion i« aidi-d by as»ooiation with s mintrnl ocid. Quinine i» an excel- 

Imt remedy in aphthous ulceration conseciilivc to enterocolitis, and in the 
jaautj Tomittng produced by the ^wth of sarcina ventriculi. The same 
ifi of Dtility in the trvatmout of asearide« aiid twnia, not so much, per* 
by Tirti>e of a direct toxic influence upon the parasites, sb correctioft 
□M unhealthy condition of the intevtinul mucous inenibntue, which favors 
Aeir ■ ■ueot. Tonic doses of quinine render excellent service in de- , 

Sriasi n». llie laryngismus stridulus to which rickety children art 

■ibjoct ts Bmcliorated by quinine hydrobromate. This salt is preferred by 
Hodiard* in the treatment of grip, in which he gives from 1 to 1.40 Gm. (or 
gt. n-ixij) ptf diem, for the first few days, or: — 



B UainitU! h^drobrORMtia, 

£:KU«c-ti cniitijD oqnoaM — >a 

M. •«. ft. ptl. MtU« UW no. XXX- 

Btif-i Sfx to tea in the counw ol the day. 



]I0 Om. or gr. i«a. 



In many ^in dUeases dependent upon lowered nutrition, — as, tor in- 

oncc, arnc, impetigo, or vcthymii, — small, daily doKcs of uiiininc aK bene>j 

inl. This n-inedy is of value aa a support to the system during the course^ 

af ■ prolmnced suppiimtion; and a full doso is prudently given before the 

b^ r.f a uithr'ier or Ixiugie, in order to prevent the occnrrence of a chill. It 

■'-I tonic in brouehorrh<ea. Good results have been claimed by 

)i phyucians from the nse of quinine in acute rheumatism, but 

' 'J of most ohsen-ors is unable to contirm these reports. It ts 

~. „n .>- .;■-.-. -led hrncfit in chronic rheumatism, especially when occurriog 

■ Bmiletlm de rieaJ^ie dr Uf4evinf, Pari«, Feb. «7. 1800. 



280 riUSKACEUTIOAL TUBRArSDTIO A0RHT8 OB ORt 

in Aged or debiliUted subjecte. Jn these cases it is best j{iven in conjiii 
witR the tincture of iron, or in the foriD of mlicylatc, or with pota 
iodide: — 

n Quiniow nuljihAtia • 4' Um. or Si. 

Tinct- tciri phlnrldi 30J c.cm. or (Jj. 

EUi. ca»oiiTn> ugradn IZflj ccin. or fjiv. 

H. Sig.: Tno tcMpoonfuli three or fonr tiniei B da.): 

n Potaani iedidi STI Om. or 3Tij. 

Gflritua clilocolorral 7ft v.tm. or fSiJ. 

Tinct. dnehoDie Mmp, , 300| c.irm. or tlx- 

M. 81g.: A tiRlf to ft tfiUMpoonhil In water thrco or four time* ■ dny. 

^eoiftl Applicstiont. — In obgtetrice, quinine is vnlued &* an oxytoci 
laenuio}: thi? cncr<;y of Ihe utL-rinc con tract ionti, Ihouf^h not capable of ii 
citing them, The bile Dr. Klleralie Wallace approved of quinine iii titeril 
inertia during labor when it aoconipenlt'K ^oncrul muscular atony. In sua 
casea it Increases the expiilfiive force of the uterus and greatly reduces tt 
danger from s^pt-is. Abortion hae bei-n produced by llip adminietration ( 
quinine iind strychnine as a tonic, the accident being attributable to tl 
latter agent. Quinine is alao useful in aiding in preventing putrid infectio 
from the uterine discharges, in the treatment of eo-called miltcfever (a mi] 
septicicniia) or milk-leg, and also in cases of uterine subinvolution after pa: 
tnrition. In small doees it stimulates the menstrual flow and acts n» a 
emmenogoguc. In annemic patients it may bo given combined with iron:- 



B Fcrri et qiiininw citmtis 41 Gm. or S], 

OL Unnc«tj JOU c.cni. or ntx. 

tl. et div. In pll. no. ix. 

Sig.: One (our times daily, or two morning «nd niglit. 



i 



Warborp's tinotate is highly prized in England in fevers, and in shoe 
or collapee. Thirty ccm. (or f^j) contain 0.C5 Gm. {or gr. i) of quinine, i 
combination with nromaticp. lialf of the quantity being given at s dose an 
the remainder in three or four hours,' Its administration is to be preceded b 
a brisk purgative. In severe cust-s of poisoning by malaria, large doeee ai 



'Th« National Fomitilarj' has tlic following formula for Warburg*a tindur 
under tlie name ot Tinctura Aiili|>«riodica (N. F.) : — 
R Rliubnrb, 

An^lku-serd .}.,.. i. na 3|i5 Gm. or gr. IvJ. 

EleoBinpanc, 
Baffron, 

Fennel U, l\SZ Gm. or gr. xsviij. 

Aq. extmct of aloes, 

Gentian, 

Zedoar^, 

Culwb, I 

Mvnli, 

W^iitfl agarii', 

Camphor oji 190 Gm. or gr. xjv. 

QuintnB Kiilphato ---.- 10{36 Gra. or gr. cts. 

DiluU-d alcuboi .....q. ■. ad 4T3J ccm. or Uj. 

M. SiR.: Si>p. art. 

The furiimla may be presciibed iCfMouI aleei. 




CIKCUOXA. 



281 



lely necessary to eare life vhen given bv itself, but when given in the 
rambtnatioD much Fmnllerqiinutittt-s (in- touni to aiiJ*wer the purposo. 
Cmcboniiline is usel'u! in malaria. The Theraptuiiscke WQchenachrift 
itoili. 1900) giv« the following fonniiln for interna] use: — 



B nndiaaidln« Milpli 

Afid. UrUrid 

Unt. acBcue 

It T»k» in Ui« ttiane ot Ui« daf. 



Gm. or gr. xv. 
i6 Om, or gr. «IJ. 
cxm. or 3iv. 



Gm. or gr. xr. 
n Om. or gr. xiij. 
c.eni. or mxl*. 



I Fcr raboutaneous injections the formula is: — 

6 Qncboaidiiw «ulph 

And. Urtarid 

Aq. de»UU 9 

H. T»rh ccm. of UlU M>lut)a«i conUtTw 0.3S Om. of cinch on Id inc. A dail; dow 
<(IGb. {cd' gr. i\] cinchonidine bj' the mouth U uaually aulUdeiil, but l.SiO to 1.40 
th,f<t[r. XTiii-lxij) can br tnkm uithnut dotrimrnt. 

CiKhonine lodosnlphate is the precipitate resulting from the addition 
ifluiDtion of iodstt'd polus^iiim iodide (Bonchardnt's rcag<'nt) to a vfstcry 
Mkmo of the cinchonine sulphate. It is collected and wa§hed free from 
liitiu,and driwi. The resulting product i* an amorphous, impalpable pow- 
hlrfa brownish color, without odor, insoluble in water, thoosh soluble in 
pW or chloroform. The do»<! of thi* propuretion is from 0.065 to 0.32 
(■■(flrgr, i-v). The interesting point in connection with it is that it con- 
IQIH per cent, of iodine. M, Ivon' has recently completed .4ome studiea 

Kibe antiseptic qualities made with thia a.^ent, which, on account of its 
i.be styles Antiseptol, and recomiiKiid* o» u substitute for iodofona 
■tnoont of the low price and superiority as a surgical dressing. 

Cinehoninc iodo»ulphate, or antieeptol, lias the notion of the two aub- 
■iBnthat eater into iu combination, being at the same time free from the 
Jwtffed, which follows iomclimes from the use of iodoform. Kxternally, 
IWbten used by the writer for its antiseptic action with eicellcnt results, 
i^KaUy in the treatment of chronic ulcers, sinuses, tibnisions. lupus vul- 
|ii)- lucesses. chronic acne, and various inflammatorj- thickenings of the 
meot. The following formulai may be rccommcDdud; — 

B CbAonin* iodoculphati* 41 Gin. or 3j. 

VtfL dnd ozidi ,,...,,.. 3l| Gm. or Sj- 

It ¥tr t)iroai« acn«, «e)mna, and pioiinidt. 



K Otdiooinje iodocutpbatia t 

tt. mealrpti 

UtoUal 31 

V' fur trpblli*. rhronie ulcen, and craema. 



Gm. or 5J. 
60 c.cm. or mx. 
Om. or Si. 



Contra-iDdicationi to the uae of quinine consist in: — 

kl. Idiosyncrasy, where nervous dlMurbancc!!, headache, «l(in eruptions, 
pirpnn are caused by small doses, and where this cannot be overcome by 
*■* »» of bromides, ergot, or arsenic. 
' !. Atnte inSammBtion of the genito-unnBry tract or congestion of (he 

3' Ante inflammnlions of the gastro-intestinal tract. 



■^ftsfrtt ytdltal, .luly 12, 1800. 




283 



PnARUACRVTICAL TUKOAFBUTIC AtiSMTS OU DUITOS. 



4. InfUmmation of the middle ear and dullness of hearing (nervo 
deafiaccB). ■ 

6. Infants suSeiiag with eczema. I 

It is stated on the authority of BrowD-S6quard and Alberioni tr 
quinine and cinchonidine increane the frequency of epileptic convulsions. 

The comparative antipcriodic value of the ulknlotds is thus eetimat 
bj Itartholow: Qninidine ih firat as no antiperiodtc; quinini^ comes ne 
Ciuchoniuc rcquirei- about twice the doee in order to cqiuil quinine. Q 
chonidine is a little stronger than cinchontne. Amorphous chinoidina 
ahoiit one-fourth the strength of quiDino. In the United States army] 
hydrochlorate ia generally given the preference over the sulphate on accor 
of its greater soluliility. The hydrobromate and valerianate arc suppoi 
(o cause lees nervous irritation in susceptible subjects than the other sa 
Thf addition of a few drop of dilute sulphuric acid to quinine Gulpb 
makes it much more soluble; or ths biaulphate may be prescribed in i 
form in thi< same doses as the sulphate. The borate, carbolatc. and salicyl 
have been introduced as especially serviceable in neuralgia, but possesft 
special advantage sndicient to compensate for their higher cost. Quin 
sulphovinale is a very soluble salt, requiring only twice its weight in vt 
to dissolve it, and might be used hypodermically. il. Grimaux has recol 
succeeded in producing some new double salts of quinine, the hydrochlj 
sulphate, the nydriodosulphate, and the corresponding phosphates. 

The hydrochlorosulphate is a granular, grayish-white, amorphous |l 
der and has an extremely bitter taste, is soluble in its own weight of wl 
is equal in strength to the nulphnte, than wliich it is more rapid in its ae| 
on ticfiiiHit of being morir rradily absorbed. The physiological and tb 
peutical efTecta are the same as those of the sulphate. Its solubility rem 
It purticiilurly serviceable for h)'podermic use. 

Cinchon amine, a new derivative of quinine, has been studied by 
Arnaud, who iindi- that it has us marked an etTcet and is more soluble t 
quinine. (Mnchonamine is obtained from cuprea-bark. It is said to ht 
times more toxic than quinine, is possessed of but slight antiseptic po 
reduees abnormal temperature, and may be serviceable in malaria. 1 
said to eiert a decided sislogogic influence. 

Clinical experiments with the salts of the .lynthetical alkaloids 1 
been carried on by Professor Bourru. of Rochcfort. The hydroebloral 
cupreine is efficient in malaria, but must be given from the beginnin 
doses of 1 to 2 Gm. (or gr. xv-xxx). This salt produced no ill effects. It 
without influence upon the pulse. The sul|ihale of quinethvHne appea: 
be superior as an antiperiodic to quinine. It was employed in maxii 
doees of 0.75 Gm. (or gr. xij). The sulphate of quinopropyline ia the 
energetic member of the series. In a case of typhoid fever it produc 
marked reduction of temperature. A dose of 0..^0 Gm. (or gr. viij) gavt 
to buzzing in the ears, vertigo, nausea, and general malaise. It is actt' 
about half the doge of quinine.' 

QniDiDEe Tannas.— The tannate is sometimes called "tasteless quin 
because ihe bitterness is almost entirely overcome by the combination, 
also, largely because of insolubility of the salt. Although insoluble in w 
it is soluble in the acid gastric juice, and when adminiMcred with foo 



'i« THiuMi JfMlcok, July 6, 1804; The Mtdicat BulUUn, Sept, 1S04. p. 




CtKCROXA. 



283 



it Buswcre equally well with (he othtr eall*. In the com- 
vith fiwtwt chocoliid! at) otij«ctionab!e taste is overcome, and, made 
IMa tivcbt^ or compreeeed tablcU, coch con t dining O.Oiio Gm. (or gr. j), wc 
im a mtrt of confection: probably the very best form in which to administer 
piciBc to children. It maj be made extemporsucotiftly: — 
1 



S QBiBte* ., 

A«*£ (Anniei 

ttfrvpt clnaamoiai 00 

M. E>^ tMutpoonfnl contains 0.066 Gn. (or gr. J) of quinine. 
i^>>i> M lurd, tii« Unnic n<-l>l niiut be doubled. 



S5 Giu. or gr. xxiv. 
75 Om. or or. xlj. 
c.cm. or Qiij. 

If t1i« iiuiiilii* 






B Qniain* hvdrochlorat. 

Aridi tanniri, 

GlrrTTrhizin. Baunoniat na 

■t (Iiv. in rtiartuiw DO. xl). 
Thrtv ilail}-. 



l|S{i Gm. or gr. xxiv. 
{75 Oni. or gr. xij. 



K Qntnitk* Miltibaiii I[&S (Im. or ){r. xxiv. 

Elixir Blycjrrrhizia ■jdiimii. SOI '^'(''■i' "^ ^'^i- 

IL Sig.: A t«*iipaaiitul to a tabla^ooittul, according to olrcumitancc*. 

[Bftgarding the method of administration of thiii rery bitter accent, sev- 

iccs are adopted to irnnblc pnlicnt^ to tiikv it. umoiig the best of them 

gelatin- or auf^ir* coated pill, the hard capsule, cachets de pain, or 

I'he (oUovtltg mixture is an agreeable method of administration 

lotioo :— 

Qahuiu« Biilpliati* 113 Om. or gr. ij. 

Acid, rltric. 38 Om. or cr. t; 

g jmip i aunntii Horum 4[ c.nti. or I3J. — M. 

to I'l* i'!a<'i'd in » nine-gUw contnininK •'O'liiim bitiirb'HiaK', 0.20 
(or gr. iii-v), in saturated solution, and then drunk during efTcr- 

aduTt can take a powder of quinine in a desflertapoonful of syrup 
i nran^, or ^yrup of wild cherry, without experiencing much unpleasont 
Same prefer to take it in a little whisky and water. Other prepara- 
rhieh may Ix: iired with more or lc«g tucecM in order to diszuito the 
tot *joininf are ca&cara cordial and the aromatic syrup of reriMi aanta. 
I ^n?n io powder, quinine may be render>'d nearly tastclesB by nibbinjj 
Jh nne-foiirth its weighi of ammoniated glyeyrrhizin. The ammontated 
' of jtlvcyrrhizin it aim a g'>od excipient for tht- sulphate, which is sus- 
td in til* mixlnre. No acid should be added when the extract is used. 
Ftegar-coated m gelatin -coated pille are mo«t commonly used, and, if 
fnavrlT nia<3e (und if they contain tlie full amount of the dru^), they answer 
al am Jinm ry demands. In ca«e« of irritability of the Btomach and diarrhcea 
l^etter to uaa* the remedy in the form of a solution. Pure einchonine may 
ibly empl<>y<-d in^itead of quinine, especially in the treatment of 
Cinchooine is effectual in malaria and does not occasion buzzing 
. «ftr¥i. though it gives rise to a sensation of dryness in the nose ana 
anrl Tnnv eausc paresis of accommodalion with alteration in the size 

T 

,,- i jnnat© of quinidine ia nlM almo*l ta»t«Ie$3 and may be used with 
lage in dyspepsia, dlarrliiva, and ncphritia. 





t»i 



PUASIUCKUTICAL TIIHBAPECTIC AGENTS DB DBCGS. 



Enchintn. — By the adion of tthyl'ChlorocaThoiiatc on miinine, ace 
ing to von Xoorden.' a valuable substance is formed uhion pocMsses 
ctirnttve properties of qiiinin« without it.i bitt«rnes», or producing nan 
noises in the eare, depreceion of spirits, etc. It has been therefore ca 
Euchinin. It ii a crrstallisuibie substance, sparinftlv soluble in water, 
readily soluble in alcohol^ ether, or chloroform. Ine chloride of Euchi 
however, ist estitlv Kolublc in water. Euchinin mnv he given in therrf-v 
milk, or coca, 'l^he dose is 1 to 'i Gm. (or gr. xv-xxx), which in healthy p«d 
producer no effect. Bcnpflcinl iwults have bi-en reported in febrile »tj 
and in whooping-cough. It reduceftemperaturc in pyrexia. In supra-orb 
neuralgia the effects were oflpeeially good. It ix given usually in tablet to 
St. George Gray,* of St. Lucia, West Indies, has found very good rceulti 
malarial fevers. He denies Iht* statement made by others that it will 
caiise cinchoiiism, as he had experienced tinnitus aurium, deafness, i 
otlter phfnoniena, ju^t as from ipiinine. He considers it a more powd 
antipyretic and antimalarisi agent than (luinine itself. i 



CTSVAXOWm CASSIA (U. S. P.).-CaHfa Cinnamon. The barl 
th? shoots of oii<- III' iT:iir>' iittili'ii'rniined specie? «f (.'itiitnniuiiuiiti, ^t'nwini 
China (Laurinew). , 

CnmAMOMtrM SAIQONICUM (U, S. p.). — Salgon Cinnamon. '. 
hark of mi ihiuli-li-niiiiird fjH'.-iw of Cinnnmomum jLaurinea?). 

. CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM {V. S. P.). — Ceylon Cinnamon. ' 
inner iiarli ^f tht- fh»o\s. v( Ciniiuuiymum zc-vlunicum (Lauriiii-a;). 

CINNAUOMI CORTEX (U. P.). — Cinnamon-bark. The dried ID 
bark of vbools frcini the truncated stocks of CinnHuimmiin xcvliniiciim. I 
tained from eultivate<l trees. Imported from (.'eylon and dietinguishiDJ 
eommerce a« Crt/hn cinnnmon. 

Preparaliont. 

PiilvU AroniBtklis |U. S, P.). — Arnmatic Powder ktnnnrnon. ginger, u SS fi 
raiilanioni uriil iiiilirw^, OA IB mH*|. Vir^v. 0,32 U> i Utn. (^r ^i'- v -xml. 

Kxtrnctum Arnmntidini Pliilduin |U.S. P.].— Aromntlc Iluld Kxtnict (oron 
powdnr cxliBiisii>d with nli'r>h(il. I (Jiii. ^ 1 com. I. Ili>*e. I !■> 4 cpiii. *<>r nixvfSj 

Oleum CionDinoiiii (U.S. p., B. P.}.— Oil o( annnmon. D<j»c. 0.08 to 0.18 e 
(or nl-hj). 

Tmcturii Cinnamomi (U.S.P.. B, P.}.— Tincture o( (Snnuiuon. Dow. 4 K 
cem. (or (3iivl. B, P.. 2 to 4 ccm. (or f3es-jl. 

Aqua CiiuiBinoini |U.8.P„ B. P.),— CinDnnjon*u*nltT. Duie, 15 to ISO e.cm. 
(S«(-iv|. 

tiuiritut Cinnamomi (U.S.P., B.P.). — Spirit ot Cinntimi>n |I0 per c«nt. of 
Dose, Ci.Oe lo 4 iMTiii. (or mxlZj). B,P.. 0,SO to 1.20 im-iii. (or rnv-xxi. 

Pulvia Cinnamomi Compoaitus (1L.P.). — Com))nand Powder of Cinnamon (di 
mon, caidnmom. and gingrr. equal parta). Dose. 0.G5 lo 2.60 Om. tor gr. x-\\). 

Synijiim .\romallcii* (R. P.I. — Amnnlio Syrup Itinctiir* o( Aranjii- nnd Hnnon 
wattr, rach. 250 coin.: syrup, 500 ci-ni. ). Vuxv. 2 tn i c.ciii. lor f3>>--.(i, 

The follow-inR V. S,' P. prtiMimtionii imnlnin einnamon ns a cmi«titucnt ; j 
mati'' >iiil|i]iUTir a<'i-t. i<onipi<un(l Ilni?tiiri' "f catni'liti. oixniKiiiii'l tinii.iiif of laren 
itvrup of rliuhnrb, ntDinntie tinrtiire of rliuboTb, nToinntit- bjtii|) of rhulmrl), iwrnpfl 
tinrturi> ill fardainom. I'liatk mixture, nnit \Tini> of opium. 



*CentmnMt fiir innrrt Iffdlcfn. Not. 28, ISd". 
■ Tht Britiih Mcdieal Journal, Fob. 211, 180S. p. S5l. 




CINXAUOUCU. 



2s:i 



(F>«r Clnuunic Add m-o Styrax.) 

Fhunaeology. — rmiinmiiii u tlio inner tnrk of the shoots of Cinoa- 
■ mil (Oylon cinnauion), the bark of an unileterminod 8pe- 
rTiiim (Ssi^on cinnnmon), or the bark of the shoots of one 
iiiintd npecie* of ('innamomuni (frown in China. Cinnsmo* 
I cat-- '. -la ciniiatniiii. or Chiiu-«e cinnsmon): large trcee boloDKing 
idw iMtunil onJ«r I^uriiiew. Iksidee the volatile oil, which h umxI for 
„.;^.. pttrp<i«ce. ciunamon contoiofi tsBiiic acid, muciU^e, coloring nutter, 
nn<l lignin. 
iiw Ci'jiDn ciniuimon is the choice varictj, but the prentor portion of 
[U laluf^i npiee )nx>u;^lit to thi» oniintry n ihe ca»aia cinnamon, the tlnvor 
liAkb is less ewcct and more puiii^nt and aelrin^-nt. Th« phj'siological 
tiM are the nme. 
Fkyiiologricml Action. — Ciniiiimnn is an aromatic, with c^nKidirnble 
i<-_v It art* a» an hnniostfltic, not «> much throUjKh its aalringent 
itttFTiU as bj virtue of the volatile oil, which may be used efficiently 

Therapy. — In ca«et>. i?«pcciiiny among cliildren. where counlcr-irritntion 
I »*:«1m1, tht- UM of a spice plaster i» recommended, as in croup, coHc, nea- 
i-tc- They am he oblaim-d alrcndy prepared for iibc. or may be pre- 
^Tt»-mporiin''"iii'Iy by pliicinj; aromatic powdor belw<t-n two Inyers of 
■nil tiioisieiiin^ it with hot vhteky. As a etomjichie. in flatulence 
lie dlgoKti<in. ciiitiamon in of iOme value, hut i1» canninative effect 
(rc4)uently utilized in combination with other remedies, especially 
ilivea. to prevent griping. It i» of service in diarrhcea, as in the chalk 
•. to which ntber agents may be added: — - 

Btenntbt MlirrUiL ;Oes to so Gm. or er. t-ilj. 

KMone crrtas -tj «.«iil or tSj. 

-pra doai. 

(rrltaCire iU>it)iii« of iafantt, capMiallj- BumuieT diarrhica, thU dote to b« 
I ■wiiiitinir to UTKcncy ever; boar or more. 

fniidr-poK-dered cinnamoD. given in do«es of 4 to 6 Gm.{or 3i-is8),mom- 
[aod ereniDi:. if *»i^ to be an efficient remedy in acute dysentery. It will 
i be found capable of allaying nansen and vomiting., or even of reliev- 
iekneee. In paiuive uliirine hiemorrhage we may give an cxtempo- 
infunon in milk, or give the oil upon sugar. The oil may also b« 
, at lesFt a>t an adjuvant, in pulmf)nary hwmorrha^r*'- 
r, J. C. Row daiiiLi that large doses of cinnamon, internally admin- 
ate of value in Ihe palliative treatinent of carciiionia of vuHouh in< 
in. He slates that pain is alleviated, the odor decreased, and the 
j Mttdilion improved. Dr. Rn>» direct* that from II to 13 ounccx of 
[ einiuimon he placed in 3 iiuarte of water, boiled down to a quart, and 
r itbout filtering. Of the mixture a pint it to be taken every lirenty- 
khaara. 
rariooa recetahle enencn have been ehovn by M. Chamberlnnd to poi- 
te«l antm-ptic power. The essence of cinnamon has been utilized by 
'Cliami'ionniere a# • durgical dreaaing. Employed in full strength 
rr irHfant. Imt dii^eolved in retinol to form a pomade it constitutes an 
It ' -iitured woundit after operatiiinn. I>r. J. Chalmen 

■Li -I. recommends the oil of cinnamon as an injection 



PIIARUACEimCAL TUBEAPKVTIO AOEKTS OB DRCGS. 



in gonorrhiM. He first cleansea the urelhnL by diluted hydrogen dk 
titter which he injects the oU of cinnamon dissolved in one of the liq 
petroleam preparations. The solution is roadij of the strengtJi of 0.06 1 
to 30 ccm. (or mi-fSJ) on ihc fir*t day, u,12 com. to ^0 c.cm. (or mii-fj 
the second day, and thenceforward O.lt) ccm. (or miij) to the same qua 
of menstruuiu. SpnylDg several tiniCH a day with tht; vsHunce of cini 
is said by Dr. paptiua to be of decided service in all forms of malaria, q 
which had proved uiiameuubk' to qiiininv and ari^i'iiic improving: willi 
few days. The following (ornmlse for antiseptic ointments have been ] 
lished by M. Champiouiii^e: — 



B lUUnoU 70 Om. 

Crri jit«Tiliat. 234 Gm. 



Clnnmiinl' 



1 



or SiUlJ. 
or 3vj. 



B RetinoL 701 

Ocri atailiuL 23 « 

ClniULinoI , .., 1 

BetaiMpht«l '. l[ 



c.cm, or tnxT. 

Om. or Sillij- 

Cro. or 3vj, 

vxm. or iiixv. 

Oni. at gr, xv.- 



Btitlnol. c-l«orl 0313 Gin. or Jiij- 

Ebi. ciniurniDini ....••■, l| v.oni. or mxv. 

Ete. orlitnnl, 

Em. g«ranU u -[HO c.cn. or mxi. 

Ea*. vetbeixti: 21 o.cm, ur tnxis.J 



Rptinol et c«ri 

KsH. ^rnuii. 

Eb». orignni, 

Es». ihj-ini, 

EsE. vcrlwnn •• an 



D3{3 Gm. or Jiij. 



I 
1|S5 COD. or mxxr^ 



J. Hilton Thonnpgnn clnims that the oil of ciiuiaRion is of great ral 
the treatnicDt of pulmonary tubcrcwlosis when administered by inhals 
1"he patients like the odor of the oil, and will wear the inhaler sliuost 
tinuoiisly. In addition he gives tonic remedies and continues the treat 
for months. Under this method of administration the bacilli becomf 
nnmeroiig nnd all the gymptoms improve. Several cases showing mi 
benefit are reported.' 

COCA (U. S. P.).— Coca. 

coca: FOLIA {B. p.).— Coca-leaves. 

Prtparations. 

FAtmptiim Cor* Fluidnm lU.S. P.}.— Fluid Estnwt of Coca, 
ccm. {or rax-Rj). 

Coi'iiiiiie Byilrdtrlilor&R (U. &P.). — Cocaine Hj-dro(;li1onit«. Dotw. 0.015 to 
Om. lor(tr. V.ji. 

Eatrnctum Cocfl: Ijquittum (EF.).— Liquid Kxinft of Cock. Dobc, 2 to 4 
(or fiM-j). 

Cocuina (B. P,). — Cooaine. 

Oominir nvdrDchloridum (B.P.I.— Omwiiie Hj-dnMhtoride. DoM, 0.012 t 
Om. (orpr. '/»-"»)■ 

Unftuentum Cocttitwi (B. P.). — Ointment of Cucninc (* p*r cent,). 

I.Mn«llie Cocainw (R.P.I, — Discs of COrsln« tench ooataiD», of covsliw ' 
cltlaride. 0.0013 On., or gr. '/■>)- 




'Cinnamol in lli« trfth I y •distilled emcnoe «t cinaainon. 
'BrilUh ifeilioai Juurroir, Nov. 7. 1898. p. !371. 




COCjL. 



«87 



lajactio Coc«tnai flypodPrmiM (R.r.)'--IIrpod«rmlo Injection ot Cocaiae (10 
frt (TMLI- I>(MM>. by KUbcnlnueMiB inj^vtloii, 0.18 to OM c.cm. <<>r uiit-v). 

TraehiAcu* KnunrtiE et Cocuosb (U. i'.).— KmnoriA and CacRlm LuMige (eon- 
»( krunvrln rxUsct, OXH& tin., or gr. J; coi-HiciK h}'dradili>rfde, 0.003 Gm., or 

_*. 

PharmacotovT' — Con is Iho Iciiree of Errthroxyloii Coca (Lineffi), a 
«hI1 tree of Pt<ru ntiil Hi>]i\ia. It ooBtoins a cryslultiznliU' alkaloM, Cocaine 
tvhifh has t>een ascertained by Loesen to be methyUbeEioyl-ecgoniiu'). he- 
lidc* other nlknldidnl dirivativca of ccffoninc. It al»o coiitiiin" wax. Com- 
tuaie aoid, nnd a concrete, volatile, odorous Bubetance. Tropaoooaiae, an 
■•aliiifoua atkaUiidal compound, has be«o found hy Giesel in the #inall-lcsvcd 

R»-plant of Java. Coca-Icaves are chewed by the natives of South America 
maUio their mn'ngth during long; journeys nnd to invigorate thvin when 
i^rd. and iht n-porta of travelers eBtablisJi the tnith of the obeervation 
thai with the HHxiHinncc of a siimil iiiianlity of tho Iwivc* they can endure 
^mtion from food and perform remarkable feste of endurance. The fsob 
that th« aatne cffrclii cannot be obtnlned in thix country from tlie imported 
diwl leavee makes it probable that the fresh leaves contain a volatile prin- 
opkr of couaidernble pbyniological activity, which is lost after a j«ea-voyagc, 
W partial fermentation and dri>'ing, as maintained by I>r. H. H. Ruaby. 
nry >Uo contain ooca-tannic acid and »onic oil, aromatic and coloring mat- 
1m. etc.; but cocaine, after all, is the most important constituent. As co- 
atsv i^ <iccomiio:«cd into bcniioic acid and ccgonine by the action of mineral 
■ekb. these ehould not be prescribed with the fluid preparations made from 
«acm-lvttTc«. A precipitate also resultii from a mixture of the Rolutiong of 
aaiiam bromide and cocaine hydrochlorate, The salts of cocaine ore incom- 
patibtc- with those of mercury. A mixture of cocaine and menthol is said to 
(arm a vexy irritant combination. Cocaine and silver nitrate are invom- 
»tit>l<-- 

Fliyilalopical Action. — Coca ond to a morked degree cocaine cau.se local 
■■nbae«8 or an^Ktheaia when applied to mucous raembranea and when in- 
Meted bjrpodrrmically. Wlivn cocaine i« applied lo the coujitiictivu-, iion^i- 
U^ i* reduced, the pupils become dilated, and the accommodation ira- 
fatni; it contlricts the lilood-vcwel*. diminishe* the intnwiculur icn^ioji, 
naaec enlargement of the palpebral lissure and prolrusion of the eyeball. 
b occacioiu an irregularity of the corneal Kurfaee, or haziiK^^, whieh doe« 
•of appear, however, to depend upon loss of epithelium. \Vhen applied to 
the toD^e, it cauM-*: numbness and \o» of tactile eensihility without ufTecting 
Um movemenls. llie application of cocaine to the pharyns, or larynx, and 
■val cb«niber«. reduces the »cn»ibi1itv so as to permit manipulation or opera* 
boo. and alao by its effect upon blooa-veeseU reduces congestion and innam- 
^■tion. Taben in nnall doses fretjncntly repealed, coca acta as a general 
t^ue and prevrni;. waste. In somewhat lar;;er do»s it is a ncrre-stimulant, 
incnaaiiifr tf'^ blood-supply to the ner\'e-ci'ntrcs, improve* the digestive pow- 
ai, inciwasee the force of the heart's action and arterial tension by its in- 
tmenc9 apan the vasomotor centres and cardiomotor ganglia. It also gives a 
•^« of well-being that enables the OTfranism to bear more fatigue and to 
^Maia the powers of the body with let-:* food or less sleep than luual. Coca 
[iji [in the Sow of arine, but the <)uantity of urea is lessoned; it thus acts 
m an indirect food hy preventing waste. After an overdose (he pulae becomes 
uid weak, respiration is labored and shallow, and oppression of the 



£68 



fUABMAUBUTIOiU. tTUBKAPKUTIC AGENTS OR UBUGfi. 



chest is compluned of, with llirvnlt^ning ooUiipee, clunmy skin, hntlucii 
liotiM, aid di'lirium. Clonic convulsions of cerebral origin arc occa»oi 
and the bodily temperature markodiy incToiLfled. [)ealb is due to tbe paral; 
of the heart, the t-piiul centres, or the centres in the medulla. Diarrha- 
produced hy large dooes, with hc-adaclie (Hammond). Accordin;^ to 
HtudicB of M. Maurcl, coca hu!! un action upon the lcucocytc«, causing thi 
Id become globular and rie:id and tn lose their property of adhering lo l| 
walls of the vcttseU. In this manner thrombi and emboli are formed SI 
death is apt to result from pulmonary embolism, ((ley has experiment^ 
determined that the liver diminishes tho toxicity of cocaine. In Home^su^ 
of poi&oning from cocaine, albumin has been found in the urine. J 

Poisoning.— The treatment is the same, genvruily speaking, ns for tol 
dofies of cafftine. Morphine, atropine, chloral-hydrate, panaldehvde, at 

Sihonal, amyl nitrite, chloroform, alcohol, and ether are piiyeiological anj 
lotes. I 

Ammonia and digitalis may likewise be made use of in order to cot) 
teract the milder toxic manifeatations of cocaine. In severe caseii Or. ' 
Mitchell has employed with service a Large tcacupful of clear coffee, whii 
can be administered cold or hot.' In some cases toxic etleets have apparent 
b»-n produced, with gn-at depression and imminent collapn-, by extreme 
minute doses, as where cocaine is used as a mydriatic, or applied to tj 
throat, noee, or urethra. They can only be explained by idiosyncrasy, a) 
the symptums usually promptly diaoppear after iht administration o( stii 
ulants, or the inbaialion of ammonia or ether. A form of protracted acu 
cocatnism has bei'U lately deicribed by Hallopeau, who has, in several t 
stances, observed the injection of a single small dose to produce distrussil 
aymptoms, which may endure for several months. The symptoms bear mm 
resemblance to those which immediately follow the injection, and consii 
above all, of persistent headache, accompanied by profound malaise, instH 
nio, numbness of llic iimb.-, vertigo, syncope, mental tjxeitement, and l(H|ua 
ity.' It occasionally hnppeni- tliat the application of cocaine swliilifm 
certain portions of tiic mucous nienibrane is followed by great niusoulnr i 
laxation, a weak pulse, dysphafnaj and pharyngeal paralysis without loss 
consciousness. This condition has terminated fatally in n U-w cases win 
the amount of drug absorbed could have been only a fraction of a grain, an 
therefore, the result wa« in some m»mier caust-d by refiex action and p<! 
Kbiy was partly psychical in its nature. The parts moat susceptible to tl 
action of cocaine appear to be the middle turbinate bone and upper fossa 
the nose, and the male urethra, A case of serious poisoning following tl 
injection of cocaine solution into the urethra for dilatation of a strielurc' 
reported by Brennan.* when morphine. nitn;iglycerin. Htid atnnionia we 
used as antidutea with sueeow. Magnnn bus called attention* to a pecnlii 
disorder of sensation attending chronic cocaine poisoning. It is a feelii 
as of foreign bodies, grains of sand, worms, or microbes under the skin , 
any part of the body. This has been called Magnan's symptom. There 
a generally recogniiod danger of forming the cocaine habit, and cmmplcs a 
not wanting of unfortunate caws of this kind among members of the medic 

^Wetteni iledical Beporter, Sept.. 1892 

'IjO Tribunr VftUnilr, IJm-. 4. ISIM): Ufdiml Hutlrttn, .Inn., ISIU. 

*y«c York ittilkyil Jviiriinl. Sov. 19. ISflS. 

'ilUnflicnrr inrdirimnrhF Wiirbnuibrift, \»m. f. 117.V 




COCA. 



SS3 



Cocainism, or the «vil n^ulu from coiiftiiiit Iv reporting to tliU 
• fltmulaot, requiree moral ireatmeot more Ihaa medicinal; potsibly 
Idiction may be, in some cakce at lettl, th<.- first iDauift'station of la- 
in n large number of cases, moreover, those who fall viciima to the 
:!■ habit arc abso addicted to the UKe of morphine, tho double iDtoxicu- 
"or to tlie most serious deterioration of health. Appetite and 
dccrt-R««. tremors nnd halUiciiiiitioue occur, und iiit^nttv may fmuUv 
tnu*. Medicinallr, cocaine addiction is most successfully trejited by 
dotes of cKl oral-hydrate, or iu>1ii»«iuni bromide id combination with 
k1. Cocaine is eliniinaled by the kidneys, much of it, however, being 
i>:d within thv t^yittt-m. 

tlurapy. — Tl\e application of cocaine as a local ana;»th«tic is due to Dr. 

tx, who 6j*»t calliil attention to it« ii««lulnv»8 io eye-surgery in 18&4. 

t then its influence in causing local snsmia and dilatation of the pnpil 

If been discovered, it is now one of the neceaary drun in eye-practice 

|m-cent. solution being the usual strength employed, as first recom- 

m by KoUer). An«)ithc«ia of the conjunctiva restilt-s in from one to 

nitnates after instillation of a solution of cocaine. Dilatation of the 

, doca not occur until ten or twenty minutes after the instillation: it 

noes for about an hour, and then gradually digappcars. Though im- 

tif the accommodation i« not paralysed, and is restored white the pupils 

remain dilated. The conditions of the eye in which cocuinu is particu* 

' appltcnble are diMiisc» of the conjunctiva and cornea, accompanied by 

and photophobia. By its local anesthetic properties it facilitate:* many 

w upemtions upon tlie l-v*-. The removal of foTei$;n bodies imbedded in 

oomea, the excigjon of pterygium, the cautcrizotion of conicttt ulcer*, 

of the Iacr)'mal canal; the operation for strabismus, staphyloma. 

on; iridectomy, and extraction of the lens may all be accomplished 

id of cocaine aniesthesia. 

.urding to Pr. Arthur G. Holib*, of Atlanta,' cocaine should never be 
_ en an abrasion of the cornea exists. He regards it as contra-indicated 
in anv corneal inflammation, and thinks that it should not be prcscribe<l 
tfce acute stage of any form of conjunctivitis. It is not so well 
for u»e when enucleation of the eyeball is to be performed, though 
ration may be done when the alkaloidal solution is injected deeply 
the orbit, Jkfr. I.eahy ha;' fmind <ocaiDe aeniceable >n gonorrhueal 
.Uniii- He incorporates 0.03 Gm. (or gr- es) of atropine sulphate and 
" ' or fCT. i'v) of cocaine sulphate in fi.50 Gm. (or gr. c) of va^elin (lard 
the writer suggests as a better Tchicle for the absorption of the 
, iniiirporatcd), and applies the mixture beneath the upper lids. Dr. P. 
nu^ Taylor, of fjouieville. esteems cocaine as superior to the mydriatics 
dlj irmployed in the treatment of iritis. He advises its use in a concen- 
" ft>rTT», as iu effect* in contracting the vessels limit its absorption. He 
1 to i-raploy a 25-per-ceni. watery eolutiim or an ointment com* 
pj iiirts of (waine to lOO parts of petroleum. The tablets or dis- 

ot cocaine now supplied by manufacturers are useful in making cx- 
iHtaO^ous and p^rfectlv i>icrile solutions of any desired strength. 
"^'in auml surgery a solution of cocaine may be introduced within tlie 



. ^T^TT- tJ>^ "ad .\l>Bv« o( Co(ain«. ntlli Hefermof to Muvom M«'iiit>mne» E>pe- 
, ■• rkc BMitMrrv Jf rdfcdt ffwortf. Nov.. 1892. 



290 



PIURMACECTICAL THESAPEUTIC AQES'TS OR DBUGS. 



extvmal mcotuE for the relief of acnte nnd chronic purulent otitis, ul 
the canal, or to render possible operative procedoree within the tym^ 
cavity. The application of this sohition to the lower nasal paanges and ti* 
orifice of the Eustachian tube is a valuable aEeistance in catheterization f 
the luhc through the no«c. Dr. Ticaso has reported a ease in nhich a f« 
drops of a 5-per-cent. solution of cocaine intjoduced through a catheter inl 
the middle rAr hooii vxoited vomiting and diarrhoea, which continued f< 
several hours, j 

Ry application of this remedy to the mouth of the tube, the inflation t| 
injection of remedial liquids into the tube and the middle ear are renderj 
much en«er of performance. BonaiQ*« local ansettheaia comprises the ana 
theeia of the external surface of the tympanic membrane with a mixture ; 
phenol, menthol, and cocaine hydrocblorate, aa 1 Gm. (or j;r. x\); or 3 Gi 
(or 3es) of the phenol to 0.5 or 1 Gm. {or gr. viias-xv) o£ the other ingredienl 
The internal surface of tlie membrane sad the mucosa of the tympanum | 
anssthetiied with 2 or 3 drops of a one-tentli solution of cocaine instilled 1 
an incision or incisions made in the membrane with a Hsrtman canni^ 
mounted on a small syringe. 

In chronic lunr'ngenl tuberculosis Professor Moure makes use of the fi 
lowing combination applied by meane of an atomizer: — 

[25 to 166 Om. or gr. Iv x. 



Qni. or sr. xxz-d 
o.em. or tiiat. 
c.cm. or fjvj. 



B Cocain. Iiydrochlorat. 

Chloral t>. 

PoUu. bromld ui 2] to 8 

Glj'cr^rin. 46 

Aq. dMtillat 180 

M, ft. Ml. : 

Sig.: To be used three or four tl&iei a day, from tht«e to 6ve minuUi on ti 
occasion. 

In dental aud uasnl surgery this substance fulfills numerous indicatioi 
The local anssthesia produced by cocaine permits operation for ingnr 
nails and the removal of jntralaryngeal tumors. 

The rectal injection of a cocaine solution relieves the tenesmus and pi 
of dysentery. Used on an injection, or applied upon a pledjiet of cotti 
cocaine allows many gynojcological operations to be painlessly perform 
"Vcsico-Taginal fislulae, lacernlton of the cenix uteri, and urethral canine 
have been successfully treated in this way without a resort to general an 
theeia. Cocaine likewise afTords relief in vaginismus. Dilatation and cut 
ling of the ntenis, trachelorrhaphy, colporrhaphy, and perineorrhaphy i 
likewise be performed in the same manner. A solution applied to the uter 
necic may relieve rigidity during labor. 

Shortly lifter the introduction of cocaine aa a local anipsthelic .' 
Ijeonard Coming, of Sew York, dcmouiftnued that it was possible un 
its influpnoe to remove large tumors and iwrfonu am|mtations. Continu 
his researches, he developed, in 18fi5. a method of injecting the drug i 
the vertebral canal between the spinous processes. Professor Rier, of K 
pwt Corning's suggestion to the test of actual trial and employed the lum 
puncture.' and his examplf wtis speedily followed by many of the disi 
guishi?d surgeons, notably Tufiier, Wchw. Oberst, Murphy, and Marx. '] 
method cnijiloycd is to introduce n r<uitabU- needle between the fourth i 
fifth lumbar vcrtebrro into the subarachnoid space, allowing a small quan 



^DeuUihf ZfittrHrlft fUr Ckirvvte, vol. U, p. 361. ISM. 




COCA. 291 

rfth* tvRhro-^pinal flui<l to cfrApe and injecting nith n hj-podenntc 8>Tin^ 

iwhuion containing 0,005 to <MH Gm. (or gr. Vii-'/«) »' cocniiif. Anal- 

-.uq fullnwfi in from five lo eight minutes and persists from onv-lialf to 

' hunrs. Xallior* putdislicii 12r> <-aM-«, including; 5if liipnrotoniirK at 

<-^iMr functuro with & dejilhn, though he etstcs Ihnt only 1 denth i» di- 

rtrtlT atiribtttnbl** t4i ihii' Ireaimi-nl. Spinal coniinixutioii hne iilso bwn 

«(4 In- Kri-ie nn<l Mtirx' ill obslutrical practice, irho (ouu<I that the cocain- 

lalion di'l not iiii.-rf«;t>' vrilh ihi- fiinolioui' of thi- uktii^. Tbc»« injoctioni; 

ut often uttt.-nilt<d with more or Ices svvere aft4?r-etT<?ct; headache, votnit- 

at, "irprvHfioii. iiikI rii-itij; IvnijHTnturc. In n numhi-r o( nM-.* olwertud by 

6t snihur a teried nf most ahiruiiiig symptoms followed the use of this 

r^tlioil «o tliAt it 10 not nilhout danger.' Six d<>iilh« have b«en recontly 

: by P. Reclus in his statietics of less than 3000 applications. Intra- 

^111 II injfctioiitt nf co<-ainen# a therapeutic method have bi>«n trivd w- 

■■•■\j by ItT. At-hnrd incastrsof eeiaticH. Marie and Ouillain* report its use 

- .^iwemec of scintioa. when .1 niitligramme.4 (orgr. V,,) wen- injected, with 

I'- imin«<liBt<> noticeable improvement, the man being able to get up and 

n;t olnMii without any appreciabli- pain. When a small do** in given then- 

» im u.-i..ii»ti-il cuianeoiis aniesthesia, nor are there any constitutional 

•Tffij t'.m- "t'casionc*!, wbili- the relief in a* prompt a» in the larger quantity. 

('•t-iiinf i» n*iV<\ aa an injection into the urethra in gleet and previous 

■.■nf-a^i- of inetmtnents or surgical operations. The injection of a few 

in.;,. ..f a 4-]>er-cent. i>olution into the urethra in caw of Mrictnre of large 

: ' rr iiiny succeed in relieving retention of urine. In such proceduree, 

'tTw.r. It min>t W I)i>rne in mind th»t the urelhrnl and nrlal tnucoua 

■_ nh-diu-i aiteorb with gn-at rapidity, and a strong solution must, ihere- 

' re. be avoiilnl. Itt-rgtT has reported a ca»e of death from injection of 

'■ Ora. (or pT. viij) of cooaine dissolved in a spoonful of water, the fluid 

■ Of: aUowcil to eiu-api- immediately and the entire (pinntity being ap- 

,4?cDtly re«iverc<l. l>with has been caused by the injection of a 5-per-cent, 

Hfsbcm of cocaine into the urethra. 

In a cmae of cystitis produced by the absorption of cantbarides Alharran 

inoded with advantage to the injection of a cocaine Mlulion into the blad- 

- - ■ iniions may be used in the bladder, provided they do not eonie 

!h the urethra, but arc carefuHr removed by irrigation. Thus, 

. Q of crushing for stone. Prof, ^''illiam S. Forbes has frequently 

: Ills melboii with advantage, injecting a Ui-pt-r-o-nl. solution 

firntra^ to Jiiholritr. 

Cocaine i* employed at a fpny, or in wafers with jrclatin, in the throat 
vame for viniple catarrh, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and for the relief of hay 
ieift (4- m ?(t-pi-r-tvnt »oluti'in>. Dr. Isidore Gluck avoids the toxic effect 
Am •Mnetinic* ensues by using the following iorauJa;: — 

k Addi i-arbotiei 112 t,vm. or mij. 

AqlM! ilralill- •••> 4j ccm. at IIj. 

C^r«ln« hTdrodUonlia |63 Gn. or gr. x. 

M- Pbenol rvad'T* Ih* •olatioa »s«ptlo and prwenta RbMrptloa of Um cocaiae. 

/., .^..n..r.'nt- UeJimlr. MnT Ifi, 1»0. 

y-ji--..-/ V*^», \u)ru*i )i5'. Iimo. nail J/niiml Itfwnl. Oct. B. IflOO. 
■ '...nuif -f '*■■ AmtriaiK Unttenl iuteKilion, Nov. 24, IBOO. 
ia*r^. A[.Ml IS. IKII. 



S92 



PIUBMACBUTICAL IHKUAPBL'IIC AGSIiTS OB DRUOS. 



A chemical comltination, cocaine phciiate, hsG been more rectntly intn 
cinced, and has been employed with advnntag« in most of the conditio] 
where the hydrochlorate has proved useful. Cocaine phenatc is a ycllowji 
anbstance, of the coD»t8tency of Iioney. It melts readily when heated. IH 
soluble in alcohol. The dose is from 0.005 to O.Ol Gm. (or gr. 'A,-'/.). 1 
may lie j;p]>Hed locally in soliilioD& varying in atrenglh from 1 to 10 per cei 
When placed upon the tongue it obtuuds both taste and tactile sunsibtlit 
It produces profound aniestheaia of the conjunctiva, with dilatation of fl 
pupil, partial paralysis of accommodation, slight lacrymation. and often tM 
porary ptoais. Anieathesia is of rather slover development than from |j 
use of the hydrochlorato, but is of longer duration. The uhcnate, also, 
much less apt to be absorbed and produce systemic effects. Cocaine pheni 
has bci-n used in operations upon the throat and noic with advantage by 2 
D. B. Kyle.' ^ 

Good results have Hkcwiee bees reported from the use of this ealt by ] 
C. A. ^'ea9ev and by German observers. , 

The following combinations arc recommended*: — ' 



It Cocoio. phmat, 

.Mi'iithol 

Alcohol. diluU . > '■ 8 



10 Gm. or gr. ias. 
En Gin. or j;r. iv. 
25 c.cin. or li'iia. 



U. Slg.: For iiihnlatlon In <liM«Bta of tbo lar,vnx nnd bronoliUI tubet. 



S Cocnin. phrnot ..j 

Pulvcris acidi borlol i, 

M. Sig.1 For iDMiffUtion id acute oad ehronie nnMil catarrh. 







Oin. 



OTRr. 
or gr. 



lij. 

ssx. 



Parker advocates a eombinatiun with reaorcin in order to overcome 
impleu^ant or toxic effects which sometinics follow the application of stn 
solutions of cocaine to the nose or throat. The association of these dr 
seems to add to the antiseptic and astringent action of the cocaine. 
Qauthier is accustomed to conjoin with the cocaine solution prepared 
injection 1 drop of a 1-pcr-ccnt. solution of nitroglycerin. Ue conceives t 
in this manner he is able to antagonize the influence of The cocaine «' 
the cerebral blood-vessels. Rignor asserts that acid solutions produce 
little anaesthetic effect, and advises that the ordinary solutions should 
rendered neulraL When an excess of sodium carbonate is added to su( 
solution, the alkaloid is liberated and forms a fiKcIy-divided mixture. 
terms this suspension "milk of cocaine," and states that, when freshly m 
it produces an excellent anesthetic effect. 

Dr. John Edwin Rhodes, of Chicago, makes use of a combination, w) 
he thinks intensifies the aniesthetic property of cocnine and perhaps has 
tho antcsthesit. His formula is as follows: — 



M. 



Atnypln. miljilintU .»... 

SUt>phflTiCliiui .1 

Cocnln. hvdrochlomt. 1 

Acidi cnrbolid 

Af). dcitillat q. & ad 30 

For hypodermic U». 



03 Giu. or gr. w. 

012 Gm. or gr. Vi. 

SO Om. or gt. xx 

32 Gm. or gr. v. 

cent, or IjJ. 



This solution ha."), injected in doses of 0.12 to 0.SO com. (or mii-' 



' "Plir-natc or CnrboUte of Cocaine tti a Local Anieslhetio." Tbrraprtttic Oo 
Jan. 1<!, mts. 

' Journal 4c ilfiUvittf de Porf*. 




COCA. 



293 



Itnd t\mo8t coniplvte local anssthesia without constitutional diaturl>- 
«. Ithu alfio boon u«cd by mcatU! ot as atomizvr in lliv phnrynx, Inrynx, 
' uA ami avity. 

Ib order to avoid tlirnwing thi> cocaine into « vein, Miigitot o<Ivi8c« that 
it be t&iKted into the eubetanoe of and not beneath the skin or mucottfli 
mtamat. Except in the caK of operntionH upon the hmd, the paticnti 
Aotld Ik i& a Tvcumbent position when the injection is made. The dose 
ifaoaid be in proportion to the (.-xtent of Kurlacc to be anKSthctiKed, but; 
■boold ectcr exceed 0.08 to 0.10 Gm. (or gr. i V«-i«). It is well to divide the " 
doM into i(>'v«r«l portions, ii-ftving an interval of severnl minut«i between 
<Mb injection. If toiic manifestations follow the first portion, further in- 
JKtioti nagt l»e abanduuid. 

Profesfor Schleich has devised a method of producing local anssthesia 
tor (Oipcal opentiona by marking out the line of incision by a succesaioi ' 
ti bypodcnntv injpctions of weak solutions of cocaine and morphine. 

The foilowins; nrc Ihc formulie for the iolution* used by Schleich for 
pndnciDg local aiuFsthceia: — 

No. 1. Strong:— 

E OKaiaK bjrdrochlontit |S Om. 

SlarpUac hydrorhlontUa 

Sodii «liliiridi (•torilixed) 

A^M tetUteta <*UTlllBid) q. a. ad 100 



»OUni. 
i Gm. 



or gr. iij. 
or gr. •/» 
or 



c.em. or 



S^jiis/iW-M. 



No. 2. Normal: — 

* 

B C«cua« hydrocUorati* 

UorvUaa hydroohlomtli 02a Gm. 

Sodit ehlori^i 'surilixfd) J2 (}m. 

Aqoc dcitillate |it«rilind) .q. ■. ad 100 



Gm. or gr. iu. 

or gr. V» 

or gt. iij. 
ccni. or IS'iilSliM. — U- 



No. 3. Wetk:— 

ft CoobHK hydrochloralii 

MorphiMF hydrocbloralii 

Sodtr cUan£ {itrT'ilii^dl . ..,>., 

Jutum dHtilUtn |»tcri1iH4> q- a. ad 100 



01 Gin. or gr. 'U 
DOG Om. or gr. Vn- 

2 Gm. or er. iii. 
e.cm. oor QiiifltiM. — M. 



One dmp of a -10-per-cent. nolution of fonnalln ahould be added to each 
9(ibttt eolutions to present' them. The fluid is injected in such n manner i 
taat the part to be op^rnted upon is completely surrounded by wheal? of the' 
^jwti^ duid. These whi-als may be carried into the di-cp Umucs. The area 
hr th« primary needle puncture may be ansethetized by a drop of SS-per- 
(mt. !>QlDti(in of carbolic acid. 

Bapif combines sparteine with cocaine, which obviates the depreesing i 
^Bct pf the cocaine on the heart, while rendering the ann>«thcsia more latt- 
■^ Bt ha» a powder prepared beforehand: cocaine hydrochlorate, 0.030 
GsL (ar^. V»). and fpartdnexulphnte, 0,048 Gm. (orgt. •/.)■ Wh^n readj 
Id sk, the powder is dissolved in 1 or 3 ccm. (or tnxv-xxx) of boiled water. 
la nscb as 8 to 12 eg. (or gr. i */,-i '/«) of cocaine can thu* be injected, in 
birtional injections, without accident. In operating on a tumor he injects 1 
un- (nr mxr) of the weaker solution on one side, und waits Mven or eight 
■not«i befure iniccting the other aide. lie can then commence the opera- 



•Omitt* U^tlieal de Ut«t, Dm. 1, ISOS. 



I>uk> 



I'lIAUMAOBUTICAL tnEBAPECTIC AGBNIS OH 

tion in a few minutee on the side first injected. If the i 
ovf>r tvremy miinit«», a third iiijeclion can be tuad«, vrfa 
anarathc^ia for thwc-ijuarterB oi an hour. 

An ointment or Wulton'of cocnice hu been eniiiloye 
of iclieving the pain of cracked nipples, but it hss been 1 
further effect of diniini^hiii^ the secretion of the milk. Fi 
of lactation. Dr. Joire, of Lille, rocommends the appticatic 
1 Gm. (or gr. xt) of cocaine iu 9.50 c.ciii. (or f3iid«) csch ( 
erin. 

An ointment containing coca or cocaine hydroclilnml 
local remedy in affections characterized by seTere pain or d 
The extract of coea (2 to 4 Cm., cr gr. xxx-Sj) may be incor 
(or 5j) of lard, or the mH of the mkaloid may be used in 
0.25 to 0,50 or 0.G5 Om. (or gr. iv-viii or x) to 31 Gm. (or 5j 

R EstracU coc« 2 

Crconoll 30 

L'tigl. rinci oxidi 31 

Ungt. plunnbi »ubacvtatU '. . . . 16 S 

M. For flulucute ecionui or piorUiiis. 

R Cocainic hydrochlontia 05 

Plumbl cnrbonntii 4 

Pulverii mnnuitM: .......i,. 4 

01. MiCTiljrpU 21 

Ungt. tinci oxidi ai 



UMful in ncuto rcKcma, dermntitla, buna, and Irrltabl* ^^, 



9 Cocaine b^diocbloratii ~i 

Atropinie sulptiatia W 

Addi rftrboHcl 30 

01. anthemidb 21 

Un^ ztnci nxidl 31| 

M. For bcrp<>e, hetyt* totUt, dcriiuitalgia, and panetthMia. 

B ExtracCi roc*) 4 

Zinci curboiiatit . S 

C«mnhor[B ,. 05 

Siil|iburi« aubliuiatt > • > 130 

Ungt. nquo! roue '. 31 

M. For ertemn around the genital organt. 

CocftiiuF bydrocbloTPtin 84 



.(.*- 



Mcntholi , , ,., 05 

Ititmulb. nibait. .>......>.... ,.,..,.... 4 

Vugl. iin«i oxidi, 

I.annllnl »n 19|5 

M, BciH^firial in urticaria, Ticrpei, and htrp«i to«t«r. 

B Cocninw liydrMlitoratu, 

Hydrarg, diloridi mltia ^, aa 105 

ZincI rnibonntia 4j 

Bt^UinnpbtuI,. 

Cnmphorai (A 132 

Ungt. linci oiidi 3l| 

U. Valuable In Jntanttk ar»n)«. 



NEW «»*' 
HO 

■ 

OP B 




These oinfmenls are serviceaWe in dermatitis, acute ecze 
herpes zoster, parii'sthcsia, urticaria, burns, and irritalilc nn 
Bleulcr recommends the use of a l-per-cent. cocaine saW 



Itlutt ^ 
PI* J 



Tfr* 



Tbor- 



i 




COCA. 



295 



tin and rnwliii iu caf«» of hcrpM zostor. The tendency 
•I iiniiii'^iiil'.'l.v. ami jmiii iit Oiki- ()i!-u[ipeure. i^ith a re- 
Bt cMv IU ifim ciglit Id ton iJays. CocaJn« ointiin-nt ulliiys the pain of 
it»Hl carciDnoM and ia Wneliciaily applied to painful haMJiorrhoids, On 
ml o( tu aflrinjient and slight ly-sumulant oction, coca oinlmciit is 
tinux an elGciest applicatton in acne and rosacea. An anodyne oint- 
tuy be thiu compowd: — 

H Cenina hTdrochkintii 
VtffUui tdtpkaik 



Gm. 

Om, 

llni|dM( (UlphAii* llMS Gtn. 

~ ' " Om. 



or Kr. X. 
or RT. ij. 
Iff XT. j, 

or Si. 
Oni- or 5J.— M. 



or 

or Ibu. 
or 3ij. 



XV. 



Vifonrtl tiuci oxidi 

Ib l}ie treatment of burns cocaine hydrochlorate ahould be preferably 
' 'ilh litwlin, since lh« latter Bubstance posMsses undoubted efficacy 
he tnataent of this accident. 

I Omiw hTdrochloratM I 

iMlU 46 

UHUnrboMtia 8 

a*f. q. 

It ft It. an^L umIIIb. 

B OMiaB hjrdrodiilaiTati* MS Om. or gr. x. 

tM«UBl 31^ Om. orSj. 

wiDIti mibaiL vel plumbl csrboa 8j Gnt. or Sij. 

**«*»■ q. a. 

" I It. Wgt tnoUU. 

^fi'une is a valuable remedy in pniritus ani or vylvne anJ in some en*c« 
la ihtis poieooing and eryihctna the solmion of cocaine promptly 
'*h< btunitio: pain. Cocaine can be employed in the form of a boIu- 
"""nJing to the foUoviog formulae: — 

*g»eaiB» fcjdxwcJlIOWtla 120 Cm. or gr. iij. 

■■■Hut* tMtatia JM Gm. or ar. x. 

"lyotiinl ■.. « cem. or fjiai. 

^Iiw dMtUiatf 13S| ccm. or IJirM. 

^'c r Uw u MI injectloB )B tiM tmtfara In ralMMUt* and chronic gononlKMk 

" ^25*ta« brdTOcblonitia I» Gm. or gr. Ij. 

Xf*oic«l 50 com. or mi-Uj. 

'■7t*iiBi » crm. or fSj. 

^« iMManMUdb d«at. M| c.rm. or (jilj. 

^ J u^'P" Spray Into tba mm* or tkrMt In nSmpIc catarrh, phftrjDgilii. larpisitis, 



* £?«*«* hydxodiloratii 



Pt 



""Si gljremA't. 



|2$ Gnu or gr. ir. 



'^*)>« kiHunrlidii dntt .na 60" c.cm. or I3ij. 

^^ -S^' ^W'y '*"'■ *''♦ "Urtac* on old muslin, tor buminft «biI Itching of ery- 
^^ '"'W^IH M tbe akin (roni rariou* planti, and in (unburn and BUiwrBcial heak 

* ^'^Im hrdrodilontin. 

"T^nuliL hydrocMeratEa aa BO Gm. or kt, ili. 

^**r«i»roi« Ifi0( ccm. or (Mr. 

^^It.: Mop ujKin th* Skin or apply with old niHilIn or cotton, for aeborrbc^ 
*'**««ri«. aonc, and rOH««a. 



»9i 



PUABMACEUTICAL lUeBAPBOTlC AGSKT8 OK DBCQS. 



tion in a few ntinntes on the nde fint injected. If the operation require 
over iwviity niinntw, k third injection can be made, which keeps up ihe 
ansethesis for three-quarters of an hour. 

An ointment or solution ^f cocaine ha« been emplo.ved for the purpose 
of relieving the pain of cracked nipplea, but it hae been found to have th« 
further t-fTeet of dimininliinj!: the secretion of the milk. For the suppression 
of lactation, Dr. Joire, of Lilte. recommends the application of a solution of 
1 Om. (or gr. xt) of cocaine in H.50 ccm. (or foiiu) cacli of water and glyc- 
erin. 

nent containing coca or cocaine hydroehlorate is an admirable 

I affections characterized by eerere pain or distressing itching. 

[coca (2 to 4 Gro.. cr ar. xjtx-5j) may be incorporated in 31 Gin. 

or the salt of the alkaloid may be ueed in the proportion of 

t55 Gm. (or gr. ir.viii or i) to 31 Gm. (or 5j), or o» follows: — 



<idi 31 

*ubftc«Utla IS 

^czmna or ptorluia. 



30 



Gm. or 5t8. 
criii. or >"v. 
Gm. or Sj. 
Oni. or Sm. 



SI 

n i. 
111' 




oratla [CS Giti. or p-. s. 

-I Gnu or 3i. 

*' Gm. or 3]. 

IS-l c.rm. or niiv. 

3l| Gm. or Sj. 

<«B, 4eni»tili«, buniB, nsd irrltahl* ulcers, 

73 Gm. or gr. xij. 
OGS Gill, or gr. j. 
30 c.cm. or mv. 
24 c.cm. or miv. 
Gm. OT Sl- 



at 



ilalgia, and panetthuU. 



.. 4 

e 

"!""!! 1 
31 



Gm. or Sj. 

Gm. or Sij. 

n& Gm. or itr. x. 

30 Gm. or kt. xx. 

Gm. or Sj. 



faiiB 



i 



OS On. or gr. x. 

Go Om. or UT. X. 

Gm. or Sj. 



*• 



M ISJS 
■t«r. 



Gm. or Sm. 



, 




nil jflfl Gm. or fir. x. 

4J Gm. or Sj. 



31 



Gm. or 



rr- 



lU. acute eczema, dermatalfnl 

irritabifi nnd painful iilcett 

cocaine i-ulvi.- made up irilj 



295 

parts of tnnolin htm) vaselin in cases of herpes sostor. I1ie tendency 

j>n«d b ti'tin'vcd iiiinn-Oiiiti'ly, and jiain ai oiic<- ili»>i)<)>i-or«, uilli ii ri- 

nitant cure in from eight t» ten days. Cocaine ointment allays the j>ain of 
iilrcrsTi-d orcinoma and is bciiL<Gciolly ajipliud to painful hKniorrhoiuK. Oa 
- of it« aelringcnt and slight ly-stimtilant action, coca oimment is 
..(DCS «n efEcient application in ac&c and rosocei. An anodyne oint- 
Bu; b« thiu composed: — 

A r<H-BinN hydioehloratii 05 Gtn. or gr. x. 

MortitiltiM auliihBtU 13 tim, or gi. ij. 

AUopitue Milphati* OOG Gtn. or or. >. 

PnlvrrU nurafttoi 4 Cm. or 3j. 

UB^tMnti tliKu okIiII 31 Gm. or Sj-— M. 

In llie treatment of hurna cocaine hydrochlorate should be preferably 
mixed with lanolin, since th« latter subitance posMHes undoubted efficacy 
B tb« treatment of this accident. 

B CMMinv bjrdrochlomtiB 1) ^ Cm. or or. xr. 

I Jinflliiii 4W6 Gm. or Jiia. 

Sodii bkcrtxmatii B| Qin. or Sij, 

OL oUvM q. I. 

3L at ft. lugt. iDoUls. 

B Ooeaiiuw hrdrotblanll* 65 Gm. or wc. x. 

Laaolini 31 Gm. or Sj. 

ntMintbi mbniL rel plninbl cartHM........ S Gm. or 9ij. 

Dt. oliv» !(■ •. 

M. et ft. nngL moUi*. 

Cocaine is a valuable remedy in pruritus ani or viilvge and in Bome cases 
' tf KSema. In rhus poisoning and en-thcmu the solution of cocaino promptly 
I «Cpt«s tbe btimini; pain. Cocaine can be employed in the form of a solu- 
li ^m according to the followiog formuUe: — 



S CtmiiUB hjdrochlontla 

Plumbi acvUtu 

Gfjiwrial 45 

Aid* datilUta 135 



Gm. or IP*, fij. 
Gm, or ar. n. 
cem. or ft in, 
c.cm. or fSiVMi, 



It. SIf.: Vte •■ at] IfljoctioB la tbt nrcllira In nibomtc and chronic gonorrhoM. 

■ Ceoliua bydrocblointi* 13 Gm. vr gr. I}. 

Creimatt ■ SO c.em. or mrijj. 

Glyt^riai ....>... 30 c.cm. or tSJ. 

.AqOK iMViamaUdb dnL SO c.cm. or liiij. 

IC S3f : !!pr*j Into Uit note or throat in slmpl* Mtarrh, phiir7n^tl>. larjufitli. 
C » fc"*- I*rrT. 

B CoeaiBar bfdrwhloratis \26 Gm. or gt. it. 

PliunlM grlToeroli. 

Aijvm bain«in«li<lU dMt. na 60[ cnn. or (Jl]. 

ft_ Sto-t Apfd^ ovrr tk» lurTaM on old mutlln. for burning oiid ildiin^ of er7' 
^^ iHrfMiiitui' of tbe >kin friMn variou* pUnta, and in ■uubnm and lUfwrflcial htal- 



1 riiLilw hydrophlontii, 

Hj^fwatiB. bjrdrtwhlnratla aa ISO Om. or p. II J, 

Aifta* ro«<» ■ *80( «.«u. or (Jiv. 

K 9te.: Mop upon t^ *kln or apply wlUi old mualln or cotton, for MborrhcM 
^ maiemri», »«»«. — "* 



and TOMna. 



COCA. 



£95 



puts of Intioliii una •ntuMn iii ciuc« of herpes 2i»t«r. The t«nilcncy 

rmd is reiiioveil inimiiiiiiliiy, uiid pain at once diMippL-srs. with u n- 

itt ctiTv in from eight to ten day*. Cocainu vintmcnt uHuvk thi.' i>sin of 

lied csrcinoDUi and is beceficially applied to painful iiKniorrhoidii. On 

It of its aHtringrnt nm) vlightly-i^ttinulant notion, coca ointmont is 

an efficient application in acne and rosacea. An anodyne oint- 

■mt may b« thus conipo«ed: — 



Cuetiiim hydrochloratb 

MorphlBB raJphatia 

AtrVfitMe nlpliali* r.... 

Pulnrte nafanto 4 

Vncntnti ciaei oiMi 31 



Hi Gm. 
13 Qin, 
uaS Gm. 

Gm. 

Gm. 



or K*- ^■ 

or p. y, 
or gr, i. 
or St. 
or S^.-M. 



or p. 
or Slw. 
or 3ij. 



XV. 



|Vlti the treatment of bumf cocninc hydracblonte should l>o preferably 
pned with lanolin, eince the Utter eubetance possesses nndoubled efficacy 
■ tkc treatment of this accident. 

Oacalw fajdrodilontia 11 Gm. 

LBBotini .40 Gm. 

^ Sodii bitarboMatia (^••■i. B Gm. 

fc 01. oHtw q. s. 

^fl. ct ti. (uigt. iBollia, 

H CoraiBM' hydrocbloratla 65 

I^UMlud 31 

BtanutU aubnlL vd plnmbi carbon 8 

Ol. nUra 4|. a. 

. vt h. iu|tt- moUt*. 

tocaine is • valoable remedy in pruritus ani or Tuhte ond in some cases 
In rhue poisoning and erythema the solution of cocaine promptly 
the bnminf; pain. Cocaine can be employed in the form of a solu- 
1 aeoarding to the falloving^ formoUe: — 



B Ctaaiiw faj-tlroclitoratia -.. ISO 



Plimtri aeetatM 

Olyorlal -.. 4S 

Aqum dtatiOata! 139 



8& 



On. or gr. ii}. 
Gm. or gr. it. 
c.cDi. or f^tM. 
p.cm. or Qina. 



Cm u an iaioctfam tit Iha ur*thra in nbteut* •nd chronic ^norrliiMt. 

Oara*— hydrochlofatii 18 Gm. or gr. Ij. 

OmmU 50 ccia. or nvlij. 

t^wrini 30 c-cul or (Jj. 

Aifo* banamdidi* dcat 90 r.mi. or fjiij. 

Sig : 8p*ay into Ui« note or throat !n aimple ratarrh, phanmgiti*, UryngiUa, 
I Imj intt. 

OMains Mrmktaratis Si Gm. or gr. Ir. 

FlMbi girnroll. 

*f— fcMiittilUHa d«at. aa 00- c.rm. or n>}. 

Vf.1 Af^J or«T the Burfat* on old muilin. for burning •nd ItclilnK of cry. 

fmmiaf of the ikin from raclout plant*, anil in aunburu a&<l Mip«rlli-Ul bMt> 



II). 



I CtealM' feTdroehtoraU*. 

BjJraMia. hrdrooUoratla aa ISO Gm. or or. ii 

-HwroH tSO| com. or fjlr. 

^ %-: Mop upon Ui« kkbi or appir with old mutlin or cotton, for •eborrlMaa 

a, anmrfa, acne. an4 roMCCa. 



2U 



FDARllACSUTICJU. TUEltAPBUTlC AOKMTS OB DHD08. 



Brushing the affected surface wiih a cocaine solution to which 1 pn 
cent, of carbolic acid has bei-u added is rcconunendi'd a« a useful metinA 
in QGiitc touEillttis. 

In gasiialgin the um of cocaine, or of a hot infusion of cocb-Imto, ii 
often highly sen-icoable and yields prompt relief. Cocaine hTdrocUonlt 
isnn eHicient remedy in uaiiicusnd vomiting. In the hand* of Dr. MsnawiB 
it yielded excellent results in the incessant 'vomiting and collapee of cbolm 
morbus. Prompt relief often follows its u«c iu migraine. In Heastdnuti 
and the vomiting of pregnancy the alkaloid is often useful. In the liltw 
condition it ha* bwn used by the moulli, by injection into the epigaMiinni, 
or applied in ointment form to the os uteri. Mr. John Phillips afforded pCT- 
manitnt relief by adininiatration of the following mixture: — 

OOS Gm. or gr. >/„ 



B Cacainie hydrocbloratii 

Tlnrt aurantli ,....,,.,,'. ,,, 

MUU chturofurmi 

Aqua q. •. ad 

U. l>ro dMi. 



SO 



cena. vr tSm. 
e.em. or fSj. 



A. Pozzi reported' that, at the Obstetrical Clinic at Turin, fiTo < 
pregnant vomiting, which persisted in spite of the hypodermic injection til 
TDOrpbiQe and t)ie internal administration of coenine, were rapidlv cured If 1 
Tibone by subcutaneous injections of 0.01 Gm. (or gr. '/•) of t^« co<«m| 
hydrochloratc in the epigastrium, repeated one*- or twice a day before aietii- 
Food was retained, and neither pulse, respiration, nor temperature was in- 
juriously affected. The general condition gradiiflily improved, the pttieot* 
gained weight, and the vomiting did not return when the injections wm 
omitted. Pozzi suggests that this treJituient may prove useful in other fon 
of vomiting. 

Dr. Carlson has reported a severe en*e of ptyalism accompany)! 
nancy, in which rapid and complete relief was obtained by a few hj 
injections of cocaine. 

As an analgesic mixture which may replace an opiate, Portier 
mends: — 




B CfMotDK hydiochlornUi 

Plii>nap«tiD. ■ ■ 

Exalgin. 

Add. Mlicflic I| 

M, «l div. in chnrt. no. x. 

8i^.: One powder every time houn until poin hn diMippeared. 



50 Gm. or gr. tiiml 



W» Oni, or ft. sxtta. 

50 Gm. or gt. tum. 

Got. or gr. xt. 



'IWt. H 

leaeedl 



VHian coca is used as a tonic in cases of dvbility, slow convalt 
after fever, weak digestion, etc. it is usually in the form of an elixir or ' 
the alcohol in these coses being synergistic, nnd powibly in manv instance* 
the more active agent in the combination. In these conditions the dangoa 
of the formation of nn alcohol habit must be borne in mind, and a change 
made to the solid extract or an infusion. In larv-ngeal tuberculosis oaaodatM 
with dysphagia the use of cocaine has been found of marked benefit. In the 
treatment of secondary syphilis Dr. R. W. Taylor often makes use of coca, 
especially in the case of debilitated subject<i, n* a tonic adjuvant to specific 
medication. lie employs the fluid eslntet and may combine it vith the 
compound tinctures of cinchona nnd gentian. The weak heart of typhoid 

' Atxh. d' Ott. e Gin*; 1B08. 





COCA. 

trdty 0.015 Gm. (orgr. '/*) doses, every two hourt, of cocuinc 
Aci-ordiDR to ThoringtoD, cocaine ie of decided efficacy' in 
T^lew rrrer, u it i|ai«U th« stomach and stLuulntes ihf lienrt. It ie useful 
s wziul dvbilit}'. 

A decided nphrodi^isc elTcct lta» sonKtimcs been a»cnl>cd to cocslno, 

■ - ■'- tt.. [■««■* Dr. Arthur G, Hobbs hns observed a contrary influence. 

, lence of an application to the throat and noso a rapid and penna' 

rvlitt of priipiEm followed after the usual remedies had been employed 

-: .410. The cocaine had, in each jn^nnce, been employed on account of 

«itDodcnt nsnl and pharyngeal intlamrostion. Wells oas likewise obserred 

the aine effect follow applications to (he nual and pharyngeal mucous 

-, This writer has satisfied himeelf experimcntulty that cocaine 

.-., >exaal excitability in men. He ha8 likewise observed the same 

■ follow the internal administration of the remedy. 

varioua nervous disorders — hiccough, asthma, chorea, paralysis 

- ~, alcoholic tremors, senile tremor — liartholow declares that cocaine 

•<* more favorable effectn than any other remedy. In a»thma Dieulafoy 

"?□ afforded relief by the applicution of a f>-per-cent. itolution to the 

iribers. Dr. J. K. TJauduy, of St. I.^uis, hHsi found the alkaloid of 

-vice in melancholia, though in the experience of most nt-urologista 

Txrmanent avail in this affection, 

.._j.cll. Iff London, recommends the local use in neuralgia of a 20- 

kr<«iit. toliition of the cocaine hydrochlorate (IiAaolve<l in oil of cloves. Of 

«■ (olntioD 0.30 to O.RO ccm. (or mv-x) is rubbed in with the linger over 

At Mat of pain. The pain of gouty joint* may alio be diminished by local 

Ippiiatioo of thi« remedy. 

*e-retal writers have testilied to the efficacy of cocaine in small-pox. A 

3 is given inlcrnally in doses proportiooete to the age of the patient. 

Pepper, of Algiers, states that a marked tolerance for the remedy 

n this du«a«e. He states that the wohition of the puetulet i» arrested 

-^at the conrse of the fever is shortened. 

Wangh ha» inecl eoi^a largely in the treatment of alcoholism. For acute 
be employs the folloving: — 



B Tmet ajMid 

VW tottt 

IL Br-: A tablMpoonfal ertry two to tour kour*. 



e.cm. or 
can. or 



To autat in overcoming the habit of alcohol drinking, he gives coca- 

IS to the form of a maetioiitorv, which can be easily carried and taken 

^VSAoot attracting; notice. He believes that the source of the longing for 

t»k 14 nftrn to be found in the mouth, and that coca when chewed exerts 

« W:al anvnhetic effect, as well as a general syxtetiiic action. The wine of 

Ma is nwlul in giving (one In tlio vocal cords and preventing hoarseitess 

I prafaMional speakers and singers. 

AB»»theHa of the lower extremities and of the lower part of the abdo- 

■ - ■ I'd by the injection of a very minute (juanlity of '/j-per-eent. 

fc^ i-aine bydriH<hl(irale into the spinal canal, as first pointed out 

Xo iTijurioUE effects were observed in six major sur- 

■ ne under this form of anesthesia. The average amount 



■ 'i'. fir CMfwrjrir, vol, 11. p. 344. 



298 



MC AGEX 



9RCG8. 



of the drug administerod was O.OO.j (!iu. (or gr. '/,.), and ntue«the^a of I 
the lowiT I'xtrcmitK'^ could be produced in about eight or tvu minute) ( 
the injection of the Aims into the lumbar resion of the spinal canaL 
witsch h«B also rcportcu' four fasfs in whicn he had suocf«fu!iy cmp 
this method for major operations, diich m a Pirogofl amputation of the I 
cxtirpiitionof inguinal glands for niclanoEarcoma, and a rejection of the I 
Sensation returnt'f] in every case u'ilhin a short time, and there were do sbJ- 
ous aftcr-cffvcts observed. The jinticnte Kutftrod only from a flight thil 
and elei-ation of temperature and puUe. Few had vomiting preceded kj 
vertigo and headache, tliough in ihc more recent investigationn these »Uw- 
eSecta have been more prominent (see pages 290 and iSl). 

Cocaine, or the fluid extract of coca, in conjunction with other remcdi^ 
is a nhysio logical antidote to narcotic poiiioning by opiates or chloral, uri 
may oe used hypodcrmically. The subcutaneous injection of cocaine hai beta 
found useful in cases of scorpion-bite. The treatment rapidly relievec in> 
and rcslricts it to the part ^tiiug. 

COCCXnUS— COCCULUS INDICUS.— Indian Berry, Fiah-bcrry. 

Preparation. 

Picrotoxinum [U.S.P., B. P.).— Picrotoicin (the active principle). Dwe. ' 
1 mjE. (or irr. '/,^-'/„l. B. P., 0.<HX)i(S to O.002T Om. (or gr. '/••■Vi.t. 

FhEvmacolo^. — Cocculus Indicus \* not official, hut its active prii 
is. It is the fruit of Anamirta paniculala (HcniEpermaccfe). a native of] 
Malabar coa»t and of India. In IfiVi Koullny discovered and isolated a { 
iar bitter principle, which he deuominated Picrotozin, — a while, cn>Ul^- 
able, neutral sub.4innce, soluble in 130 parts of cold water, or in 2^ of boiling 
and very soluble in alcohol and ether, but not soluble in oils. ^crMui 
does not form salts. Like digitnlin, picrotoxin appears to be inadenpcf 
several bodies, which vary in their chemical properties and effects. Buli 
and Kretschy assert that it contains at least three: (1) picrotoxin, a bUia. 
poisonous principle: {'-i) pierutin, a bitter, non-poisonous principle; ni 
(3) anamirtin. To these has been added cocculin (which is said to bo i<l(o- 
tical with anamirtin). These pharmaceutical bodies may have scientific in- 
terest, hut, prnctically, the prescriber is confined to the picrotona *I 
Boullay. which is oflicuil in the United States Pharmacopa>ia. In the f*i' 
carp have been found menispermis, paramenispermia, hypopierotosic kA 
rvEin, fat, uml fium, which do not possess mucli medical interest. 

Physiological Action. — Cocculus, or picrotoxin, is verj' destructiw* 
lower forms of life, and to many acts as an acrid, narcotic poison. In lovO 
animals death is preceded by conviUsions. and in a fatal case of a child is. 
years old, poisoneil by absorption of a strong alcoholic solution of the bit 
applied to the scalp, tetanic spasms occurred. Where this agent has bed 
swallowed, the usual treatment, by evacuating the stomach, should be pne 
ticed. with inhalation of ether or ammonia and the internal adminisnatioD 
of chloral or bromides. There is an untugouiim betw«en chloral and pint 
sin, and this can be utilized when poisoning has occurred from abMrptio 
rough the integument. 




> CentralMitft fur Vtilrurj/tr, B. 20. IsiKI, p. IIK). 




sw 



lu on art id* bv William Miirrvll, of London, on "Pjcrotosin and its 

Aoyartit^,"' this able auihoniy siateii ihat ihe peculiiir convulsions pro- 

iaivi by thiM c^nt "dilTcr c^cntiull}' from the tetanic condition caused by 

•iri.'f.iiiQr. Aod are due to stimulation of ihe motor centrei> in the cerebrum, 

- jikmIuUa and cord. They stKumv various forms, the enimtning, run- 

,..wg .-iLjEvard, and moying round in a circle beins the most common. Picro- 

bisui nt»r* the ti^mpt'rutUTc, stimulutCE thv rvsjiirutory centre, end in large 

iatm produces ealivatton." It acts as an nnhydrotic by MimuLation of the 

n^txatoTy centre. "It it allied to Cicatoxia— the active principle of the 

«UCT-hemlock — and to Coriamyrtin, dt>iived from Coiiaria myrtifolia. 

drug* Ktitnulato the ongni« <if thi- inhibitory fibrcj vi the vngus, the 

and re&piratory centres, and the motor aresB of the medulla ob- 

Iwfata. In its action on the secretions picrutoxin ii^ allidl to Pilocarpine 

x>i Xaacarine, and is aniagonited by atropine and other members of that 

troup. The b(»t antidotOH to picrotoxin are chloral •hydrate ond bromide of 

p^^Uwium." On account of its poisonous elTects, coccufus has been used, from 

•Boent timei>. made up into paste and thrown into the water, where the fi«li 

aiK nnpefied by it, and are easily captured. Death has occurred in a boy 

Inn eating a ainall quantity (40 grains) of vuch |Niste. but it i» «iid that the 

liA of the fiah so taJten is edible. This unsportamanlike method of Aching 

maoBe parte of this countn' i$ illopl. On accuuut of its bitterness, cocciiliis, 

■e ''fiafa-Wrry," is sometimes added to malt liquor to save hops and check 

iBmentation. Poxyildy Ihic may enter into the solution of the problem of 

«lMt M the matter villi a man when he is drunk, and still further emphasize 

(at uit[Kirtance of regarding intoxication as a condition of poisoning, de- 

— nHiny prompt, intelligent, and ekilKui tieatment. 

Uwrapy. — Coceulu* \» an ancient remedy for phtheiriasi*, or louitine«a, 
carv should be exercised in the case of children, or where there are 
on the «calp, not to um strong solutions, nor to leave them for 
'any minutes in contact with the skin. The hairy scalp, after being thor- 
Ir washeil with Map and water, is wet with a solution (lii to I'^O c.cni., 
of the tincture to f^ir water), or decoction (1 to Ifi). and after a few 
laies VBfibrd ofT with an abundance of warm water. Two or three daily 
tion* are Eufficient, especially in cases where the hair can be cut short, 
ebariuble institution) and nsylumf. It has been claimed tliat an oint- 
of picrotoxin is equally efficient with the decoction, but it cannot be re- 
" E being as *afe. Kor the same re-ason, cocculus is not advised in the 
t at tinea and other skin afTections, although still used for this pur- 
iB India- A (imall i|naniity, however, of picrotoxin — ^not exceeding 1 
cT,( — may l>e usefully prescribed, in combination with ointment of raer- 
Icate, for the relief of animal and vegetable parasitic diseases, as 
cu»«, pediculi, trichophytosis, and tinea versicolor. 

Picrotoxin in small dosca appears to act as a bitter tonic to the digestive 

' ha« therefore been aavbed in atonic conditions of the stomach 

-al indigestion attended by torpor of tlie intestinal walLs, and con- 

cuatjdu- Flatub-nce and colic are relieved by the use of picrotoxin. The 

^c^T bw likewise been succcfttfuliy used in painful dyspepsia, vomiting, 

and other reflex manifestations dependent upon imperfect digestion. 

i.1. etrilepe^yi chorea, alcoholic tremor, paralysis agilaus, and functional 



' rv jr«Weal BuUttlm, Nov.. 18«^ p. ««. 



300 PUABUAOEimCAt. TtlBRAPSDTIO AOEN'TS OB DRVOS, 

nervous disorders (mittrninf, ilj^meiwirrlifea) piorotoxin ha* been uaefl 
ec^sfully by Planat and Hammond, Gubler, Phillips, and othprs. It has be 
fotiDd beneficial in epilepsv, espi-cinily when the attacks occur by night 
lire line to ima'min. According to the experience of I>r, d'Amore, picrotoi 
19 of special br-ntfit in ndvnnctil c-nm-» "f Ihe di»«iiee. In ft nunib« o( c*t 
observed by d'Amore its effect was more permanent than that of atropii 
Semmola and Gioffredi have recently njported a cose in which picrotoi 
succeeded in checking profuse byperidroeis which developed consecutira 
an attack of inflnenia. There is good evidence in support of the slatei ' 
miidc by llurrdl a« to its value in controlling night-sweating in phtlti6id| 
doses of 1 mg. (or gr. '/,(,), is a pill with ^ugar and tragacanth (a single d^ 
at bed-time, or given three times a day). It does not have the disas 
action upon the throat and itkin that atropine ho*, and frequently sue 
where that fails: but it is slower in producing its anhydrotic effect, rcquirl 
several days. B6kai regerdd pic!rotoxin es nn excellent antidote to opium, 
reason of the stimulant action of the former substance upon the respirat 
and vasomotor centres. 

COCCUS (U. S. P., B. P.).— Cochineal. 

Preparation. 

Tincttura Cocci (B. P.).— Tincture of Cochinenl (1 to 10). Uom. 0.30 to t 
(or mvwj. I 

Fh«rni«colog7. — The dried females of Coccus cacti (class, Inieeta: Oli 
Hemiptcra), when crushed, produce a very brillinnt-red coloring niaj 
which coni?iEt£ principally of carminic acid, varioiie ealte, tyrodin, urea, ft 
matters, etc. The British Pharmacopoeia defines coccus as "the dj 
feeimdafcd female inwct Coct-us cacti, reared on Xopiilcii cocci nell if era I 
on other species of Nopalea." ITie pigment called Carmine is the coloi 
matter precipitated from the decoction by acids, and (he suits of tin. oi 
gelatin; and other colors — such as lake, piirple, and lilac — may be obtai 
by various reagent*. Il is highly prixed m trie arts as a coloring agent. 
such it is Bha used in pharmacy, and is an ingredient in the compound til 
ure of eardamom, ' 

Fhysiological Action. — The physiological actions of cochineal are' 
very evident, but it is believed to have antispiismodic and anodyne quail 

Therapy.^Cochinefll was used by a preceding generation of physic 
for whooping-cough and in neuralgia. Its brilliant color possibly might I 
led to its use under the old doctrine of signatures. 




COCHLEARIA. — Scnrvy-^ass, (Vicblcaria officinalis (Cnicifcnp), 
annual nr liicnninl plinil i.f n.iMlu-rn Eiirnpi; and t'nitcd States, eont 
tannin, a bitter principle, ^ali^. .titil a volatile oil. It is stimulanl. diur 
and laxative. Cochli'uria j> ]ni[>iilai!y ealtn as a salad, and is enicacioit 
scorbutus, chronic rhouinati^m. anil i-hrituic iniiliiriii. The juice has 1 
«»<'d r.vtenially for the purpose of stimulating indolent ulcers, and, dil' 
with water, as n motith-wasli for spongy gunit and ulcers of the mouth. 

COCILLANA.-Cocillana. The CneillBna of Bolivia, a Giiarea of 
deteniiiiird ^peciib:. is a large tree belonging to Ihe Meliacese. The K 
Sycocarpue Riisbyii, bestowed Upon liie trtv by Professor Hrittnn, iiaa i 




CODBINA. 



801 



e 



I«u>nll5 Nccvptcd. II wiu discovered nnd lirought to ibU ooiintry b,v tlie 

' — ■ ' ! T>r. ii. II. Ku§l)v. who also introduced pichi. onotmr volii. 

I iiu n-iwd_v. Tlu- ooiwiitiunt* of tlit bark !mvo no! Ijwd 

i, bui li is (probable ttiat it owea its effects to an active principk-, 

:i chariu'l<?r, unliibk- ill chloroform (Sohr«ak). or {K-rhujis un olkii- 

■y). The odor of the resitious principle is peculiar nnd charac- 

. . -tn t«iit<- i* hilti'r, niflwkiih, nnd «hxhtly agtiingeitt. 

Phyitoloifical Actios and Thcmpy.— ITie' hark is used as an cxpec- 

-'. having an intlui-iicc upon iht n^^piratory organs i^imilnr to ii)i'oa«, 

-ni>«rior lo it lu certain di^caees of the air-pa^sa^i-e, in nhicn the 

s '.ftvn us<'d," in (h« opiiiiun o1 I). D. Sttwart.' It bIku ha* « tonic 

:-iii ihi- digestive organs, and gives promise of meftilnoss as a lusa- 

.'Kiiivo Ri(i]i<:iiif cociiluna if used as an emctif: «ud catharlic. A 

' iiife of mucus, nausea, and gag^ging, with some tendency to per- 

<in. aino dlxxinvM and luf.'ritudp. were csuscd in ono cfl«e whore 1.3i) 

ur fzr. xs) irviv RiTcn. Larger dos«3 (8 to 3.2S Om., or gr. xxx-i) 

■ votmting at thu end of an hour, evacuations of the bowels, sneezing, 

i^rofitrotiuu. the effects resembling those of emetine. The active prin- 

» it fxcrtrtcd chiefly by the mucous ineiubrnue of the respiratory tract, 

a vthivh it acts a^ a stimulant. 

Stimtl f)o«e» improve the anoetitc and digestion. The alvine di«ehargea 
adi-r It J ii^.' contain mncus ana l>ile. This drug stimulates the andoriparoii* 
^.«nd> When given in con^derihle <|uuntitic£ it causes copious jierjpira- 
uia. jicoinpanicd by prostration of mu.tcular strength. Excessive quautitiet 
*tntr- M-v.T(- ^((--^''■''''■■'■-''tiii'l irritation, and have, in some reprntcd ca*e*, 
oa^ ilontK. 

Tbi* flrug finds its special usefulness in bronchitis, particularly the sub- 
ate ati<l cbronic ronn». The fluid extract is preferable to the tincture in 
■arte lironchial attacks. Cocillana is an effective remedy in coryza, spas- 
■M& cixiitp, ]>eriii»1fcnt hoar^enes* and ouiigh after moui«k'$, the ciuj^h o[ 
afWfnzB, astmna, hay fever, and in the decUning stage of pneumonia, it 
Hirrp* thv cough of pulmouart- tuberoulosis.* Small thwes of c-ocitlaiiu have 
•en used with euoce« in atonic dynpepsia. The fluid extract diluted 
_ . r and used aa a spny has been recommended ui a useful application 
Bi acQtc and clironic coryxa. 

CODEnrA (i:. S. p., B. p.).— Codeine <C„H„NO, + H,0). 
DoM. 0.015 to 0.13 Gm. (or gr. V,-ij). 

/*rf/tiira(ioii«. 
Cedrlmr PhiMfilus (tL P,).— PliOf|>hate of Codeine. Dow, MIS to 0.13 titn. (or 

- a* Oad«ia« (B. P.).— ^rritp of CoiMne (eod«inv phmpbattr. 4.ST Gm.; dU- 

_^ rr. IftJ exw.: •JTiip. BBiJ* o.em.; * CJna., or tSJ, = 0.015 CJoi., or gr. y,|. 

D^. 2 l« '.A o-iBtn. lor t3M-lJ|. 

An alkaloid prepared from opium. An alkaloid obtained from opium 
m fnmt morphine (B P.). Codeine does not disorder the stomach or boncli 
nd does not give rii« to sweating or ernptioiia upon the skin. A few casetl 

'Ut^irtl yritM, Mis- 24, ISSS. 

»frK p»p*-r IjT ■utbor OH TU* Tbrrapulk*! ApidkaliuM o4 CocllUao" in 



302 



PlIAItUiCEUTICAL TBBIUPEDTIC AOBXTS OB DBL'CS. 



hare been reported in which dixiinrsc, nausoa, vomiting, and proEtratii 
were caused bj* codc^ine m medicinal doneft. llt-liier has re]>orted a cate 
dtroDic codt'iiiii^m; but thetic untoward ciTecte aru ezceptional. It is mo 
antispasmodic than morphine and has Ichs narcotic etfect (D. Loewenmye^ 
It i* U8td pnrferably in the treatment of cuugh, crampe in the stomacbi 
bowels, and in nciiralfiia and painful affectionH uf the genito-urlnarv orgai 
In diabelOH it checkH the formation of tugtr, and in some cases permaneii| 
nrrcets it. In these cases it ia borne well in Inrger amonnis, as much as 
to 1 Gm. (orgr. z-xv) daily having been taken with benefit, l-'rsi-er do 
however, that equally good efTects may be obtaiued in smaller doses from : 
phinc hydrochlorate, which is also very much cheaper. 

Codeine is nlso employed in diabetes insipidus and has been founo. 
service in enteralgia and other painful affections of the bowuh. It is claim 
that codeine may be advantageously employed in the treatment of the opiv 
or morphine habit. Dr. Perininger finds codeine of value in pulmoni 
tuberculosis with insutTicient expectoration, troublesome coukH and cha 
peine. In bronchitis it also proved of «Tr^•icc, cau*ed no disorder of t 
stomach, and even seemed lo benefit some eases of dyspepsia. In perti: 
ita use Wilts attended with good results. 



COFFEA.— Coffee. The seeds or berries of Coflca Arnbica (Rubine 
are only officially recognized as one at the sourees of otlfeiae: its m) 
importnnt c-onsliiuent. Hefurc rousting, coiTec contain* Caffeine and calR 
lanuic acid. Dr. Pntladine has isolated a new alkaloid which he te^ 
oaffearine, and which oecun' in the form of crystalline needle*, ftolubl^' 
water and alcohol. CatTcine hydrocbloratc is very soluble in water, but cli 
not dissolve in absolute aloolioj. During roasting a volatile oil is develot 
and several substjuices formed, which give fi> coflcc its aromn and fla^ 
lhe-.e enipyreumatie substances being known eollectively aa Caffcone. It 
siipgi.'stcd. thiTcforc. that the use of cofTee may prove of tioni'' iimiiliylac 
value during epidemics of those infectious diseases which are commoi 
ItHiKiniilli'd tliritugh the nu'diuni of drinking-water. Strong infusions 
coffee, as Luderitz has §hown, are destructive to (he organisms of typlw 
fever, ery?ii)clHf!, and cholern. 

Fhysiolo^cal Action. — Coffee differs from caffeine in being more stin 
Iflting to llie inli'siiiml tract, especially increasing the jjeristaltic moveme^ 
which are not affected by caffeine. Taken in the morning, before riail 
coffee will often prnduce n laxative effect. It produces a general feeling 
warmth and well-being, dilates the supcrfieiul blood- vessels, and lowers at 
rial prcs*uf<'. It also .itimulales the nervous system, in some persons cauaj 
exhilarating effects upon Ibc eerc-bnim and incniising capacity for in) 
leelual labor, and frequently is the cause of headaches in persons who U 
it habitually or in exi-ess. A case has been reported' in which about 7 
(Jm. (or .Vi«a) of the ground berries were made into a strong infusion | 
swallowed by a vigorous man. Two and a half Imnrs later he was attacl 
by diKKiness. severe cardiac pains, palpitnlion, nausea, vomiting, and 
eralized tremors. The tremors persisted for twelve hour.'* after all o 
symptoms had disappeared. 

' Dent. mtd. VToeh. anil ICceHv Jferf. Bcrlne, Nov. 28, 1890, 
' rVrapcMf (nf-ftr iliinatirlirfir, ilnrch. 1801). 




COLCRICDU. 



303 



Tlif habitual use of coffee it one of the CHUM'S ot pruritiiit ani. Orer- 
• in ii* use is also apt to occasion iBactirity of the liver and the 
'one knowu n» "'bili<ni*n«**." 

.py. — It is valuable as a ^limulant in c«Be» of narcotic poifiouinf;> 
■HeiklW Sv opium. In norae cnse* ii prnduee^ fulhio** o( the portal cir- 
Ua- ' ' rfoniic with tlu- activitir of tht- lirpatic fiiiictions and caueing 

■tr- •. Itm tiixAttTi> i-ITei'ls ar« useful in pcr^onii li?adine sedentary 

:i«*, ID prevontin^ con»ti)>fl1inii. It ho« some astringent nnu uutiscptic 
|nabli«. Bad is believed to hsTc Home eHect in preventing malaria. Accard- 
' ic lo the <(liM.T\i>tion of Dr. Alici.- Mel^nii, Ihc «»* of eoffc* by nureing 
warn iliniinii^hee the aecretion of tnilk. The Huid extract of the unroasteu 
mCtr cnotnini^ cHffriiie, but no (-afTeonc. It i» used in anwmic hetdflchci<. 
mA is cases ol low fever as a cardiac atimulant vrhere collapse is threatened. 

COLCHICI RADIX (U. S. P.).— Colchicnm-root, Ueadow-taffron. 
COLCHICI SEKEN {V, S. P., B. P.).— Colohicum-Beed. 
COLCHICI COEMUS (B. P.). — Colchicum-corm. The fresh conn of 
aiitiimriaie collected in early ^ummtr, uiid the Htmc Stripped of 
: ,>-i-il tranjveriiely, and dried al a temperature not e:fceeding 190° 
i ii-J.'' C). 

OoK. <M3 to 0.32 Urn. (or gr. ii-r). 

Preparations from the Hoot. 

ExtnHuni Colchlri Bwlklt ll'.SL P.).— Extract «l Cabblc^im-rvot- Dot*, 1X019 
kiLOUdtu. lor ^r. ';,-)>. 

Extntvltiin Cokfavci Radk-It Flaidun (U. S. P.).— Pin 14 Extract of Colchicum- 
a«. Dc«». 0.12 lo 02* exm. <«r mii-ivi. 

Tunn ColrbldIUdicta(U.S.P.).— WiaeofCoIchicum-rool |40pw««it.). Do«, 
UitoSc.fm. lor mt'ISm). 

ExtfacMiiti Coldiid (B.P.).— Extract of Cololiicuni, U<^^, 0.015 to O.OUS Om. 
«fi ". jt. 

VntBU Colcbici |B.P.).— CoMiicum-wim (90 [icr cent.). Dom. 0.00 to S c.em. 

Prtparationt from tht Sttd. 

Evtrartuin Cokhtrl SnHlnh Flnlilun |U.S,P.).~Fluid Extract of Colchlcum- 
wd. Duv. n 12 to 0.30 r-cni. (or i»iii.v|. 

Tibrtor* Cotchkl Sammlf (U.S.P.). — Tincture ot Coldikum-iccd (15 per cent.). 
to lo 4 c.cm, (01 invJSj), 

::un Coli-htri Sctninw (U.S.P.).— Wiat Of Colcliicuin-M«d [IS prr cent.). 
-jimm, <■ dO to 4 con, <i>r iiix-(3j). 

Tlactnr* CokhW Scmiiiiiiiii (B, P,(^TInrtur« ot CokhlcuniMeila (20 per mat.). 
Ti — ..«i .„ 1 c.cm. <nr ntv-xv). 

iiut (noa-olUdal). — ColchMnff Ilk* Mlh-s principle). Dom, ■/, to 1 mg. 

yfca i-m »<!<i lopr .— ^ol ch i c u ni-root ia the conn of (lolchicuni autumnale 

<Iih»rw), or invflilott-faiTron, whole, or *liccd. and dried. This is an herb, 

i' .. V ia nAtiri' to the temperate pitrlx of Itotli Kiirope and northern -■Xfrica, 

i of which i» »l*o omcial. It contain? Colchicine frather more in the 

.an in the rnoii; and trace' of Veratiine in combination with gallic 

d ■ Hxed oil are found. The value of colchicum is teated by its 

' . lo the preM^nce of colchicine, an alkaloid, appearing in ^null 

r xnd Hr»<-): is soluble in water and alcohol, but changed 

1 Ai:itl& into Colchieeine, a neutral tubetance, and a resin, Iwth 



304 



FBASUACEirtlCAL TIIEIUFECTIC AQEXTS OB DBCGS. 



komoric with colchicine. Wine ond vinegar estract the medicinal pri 
ciples from lh« dnic, and the ofTicinl cxlrnct U made with tliu aid of »ctA 
acid. Probably eacli of them contains a amnll amount of colchicoiue. I 
onU-riu^' thv wine it is ncei'Mtiry to dcMitniutc which preparation is requin 
as the wine of the seeds differs in efTecis from that of the root, on aceou 
of lilt: diirvn-m-v in cunleut of colchicine, which ii> not entirely ci^nuHi 
by the pharmacopoeia! expedient of altering the proportion of crude dr 
in each. Tlie fri-sh :l^■L*d coiilaine o email porliou of volatile, bitl very actb 
oil, and the best piviwratiiin would be a tincture made from the fresh sQJ 
in alcohol: but oolehiciue. when iidministcred in granulet^ pill, or by hjt 
dermic injection, is said 1o secun- the full thi'rapi:utic pfTcct. ] 

PbyBiolo^cal Action.— When applied to the (kin. colchicum acts ad 
irritant, causing hypeia^niia and .nmartini;, and the diiat inhali^d cauaes 63M 
ing and conjunctival injection. In smuli doses it uccnEion» an acrid tasM 
the mouth, increased secretions from the salivary glands due to reflex actii 
and gastrn-iulesliiial dielurbance, which incrcaeos with the quantity t« 
The pulse-rate is decidedly reduced, and in some ea.'-es a diaphoretic el 
is obi^ervcd. A «inj^le lurgt- doe*.- or email ones long continued caiiMc via 
vomiting and purging (first serous, then mucous, then bloody), or 
gsstro-intostina] irritation. Murkud ».vmptoni« of collap«c HUpervene: f 
pulse becomes small, rapid, and thready; the skin cold and bedewed it 
»weat; respiration «Iow and painful. Death ensues from collopse, the hi) 
remaining clear to the last. Sometimes nervous symptoms, flyins; pains, | 
nunibncfs may appear, and occasionally, though rarely, conrulsiong (Bri 
ton). Pains in the joints and urinary passages also may be produced 
colphioum. 

In some instances the action of the kidneys is but slightly affected, 
other casei4 it is increased, and a^ain it may be diminished or suppren 
In fatal eases of colchicum poisoning the blood has been found of a d 
color and impaired coagulability. The intestinal mncona membrane 
highly indamcd, and this elTect is equally produced even wh^n the alkal 
has been given by the hypodermie method. A very large dose (iac» not ca 
a more marked effect than a moderately large one. The action upon 
alimentary canal is tlie same, wheiher the drug be swallowed or hypodem 
ally injected. When, during the administration of colchicum, there app 
irritation of the fauces, loaded tongue, loss of appetite, flatulence, uocjisin 
or pain in the stomach and diarrh'cu, the drug is beginning to exercise t< 
eifects, and should be discontinued or suspended for a time. Colchicum 
a selective action upon the sensory nerves and spinal cord, which are n 
or less paralyzed: the brain, motor nerves, and muscles are not atTec 
The inhibitorj" fibres of the vajfti* arc paralyied only by very large do 
The discharge of bile and of unne is largely increased; Kutherford c]« 
that it is a true cholagogue, and Christian and others assert that i 
diuretic, increasing the quantity of salts as well as the water, both of vi 
have been denied by Gubler, who dimply regards it as cathartic, only e; 
Rising good effects when three or four discharges from the bowels are 
tained daily through its action. When symptoms of poisoning make tl 
appearance, the patient should be kept in a recumbent posture, encoura 
to vomit, and allowed to drink freely of infusion of tea or coffee, on acec 
of the tannin they contain as well as their action as arterial stimula 
Morphine and atropine may be udmini^tercd hypodermically in small dc 




coLcaicfu. 



305 



The »dniiniiitratioD of oil it of terrioe on aceount of its cmollicot effect upon 
til* mncous membrane. If collapse occurs, heat and cardiac stimulanta are 

Knind. If thoro is much distro^f, sinapisms should be applied to the 
ossra and the patient kept warm. Poisonin;; may occur in refilling pre* 
enptione, ss the prcpamtions vaiy greatly in thdr activity; tome samples 
i( Suid extract contain rery little, if any, of colchicine, while others are of 
rd strength. Fatal cases have hccn reported from taking 9.:i5 to 13 
(or f3ii5»-iiisa) of the wine of colchicum-root. Dangerous symptoms 
b««n caused by dose« of 0.01 to 0.02 Gin. (or gr. '/,•'/)) of colchicine, 
0.O3 Cm. (or gr. as) of the alkaloid has caused death. 
Therapy.— -Cotchicum may be used iu ^mall dosc8 as an ingredient in 
. agogic pills, but its chief use is in the treatment of attacks of gout and 
the relief of s^'mptoms more or less directly attributable to gout, as dys- 
Mjwim, bronchilis. asthma, etc. In rheumatic arthritis or rheumatic goat 
( may g>'e: — 

B Tli>ctun( mkhld mu 160 e.«ni. or mx. 



fobuail lodidi 

Sjrr. Mnaparilbi comp > t 

Aqiuc i]*7still«tw S 



KOm. 



or Ki. X. 
c.em. or l3U«. 
C.cm. or tSca. 



%L Pro doaL Tnkr ci-tty thr*« or four hours, wdl dllut«d. 



S TIal Mtlchki wminu 19 

SodilMUcTlaUi IS 

Sodii todidi 4 

SplritUK chloroformi 11 

Int bnrhu ad S40 

U. SIf.: A tMspoonful em)* three or four hours. 

Svudamore'e gout mixture is al»o very eflicicnt: 

H M«p»^f fttlph < 

Mafrn<«i> onMiiatis ■ 

VIrI mlchlci •eminla '. i 

Aqa« mentiL pip nd SOD 

3f. Pi^-: A tablecpoooful cverjr four hour*. 



o.cin. or (3tv. 
Qm. or Sij. 
Oin. or 3i. 
ccni. or (3iii. 
e.CTn. or (JvllJ, 



Ota. or %ij. 

Qm. or Sij, 

va:io. or Bvi. 

c.cni. or fjxij. 



Gm. or Sh. 

am. or SIJ. 
cum. or (Jij. 
cem. at ISj. 
tit. 



c.cm. or 



Colchicum is generally given in acute attacks of gout, in combination 
.•Kh an alkali: — 

11 M«nEaii mtphat. ISfS 

MMftf^im 8| 

Tlnct. eokUd tau T2 

STTiifl iin|htwTt» 30| 

Aqii*! invfitW pip Ifi0{ 

' X. ^ig. : Take a tablenioonfu] ci-ery two houra, until Ih^ bnwcU nr» (rttly 
w*«4 tran (our lo six Uidm in twanty-foor hours. 

Or the- extract of the root may be giren (0.065 to 0.13 (Dm., or gr. i-ij) 
«*cfal titn«« daily, ur the wine of the hmb in 2-e.em. (or f3«e) doses: — 

S OnldiciDsr 03 Om. or gr. u. 

Cadeliue ■'•....•••■•... 05 Gm. or sf. x. 

QnhtiBM bjdrohroiMttis i Gm. or 3j. 

U-ttH-pU- BO xl- 

iif ; T»kM one VTttj two hour* for gouty luuralifla. 

The wine of the seeda is, perhaps, the preparation most frequently pre- 
«^d. and in a" acute paroxysm of gout is best given in a moderately Urge 



80C vsariuckctical therapeutic AQEXTS OB Dnuoe. 

dose (8 to 4 ccm., or f3fi»-j). Within a few hours the pain It allaye 
and the heat and ewelliog begin to subeide. In order to secure relief it i 
not necesaary that the drug should maiiift^t its diuretic or purgative effecti 
In chronic gout Bmall doses (1 to l.SO ccm., or wxv-xx) three or four tim( 
a day are appropriate. Though colchicuin exerts nn action which may b 
termed epecilic, it is nevertheless but palliatiTe, since attacks recur. C 
little or no value in acute rheumatism, colchicum !« sometime* of seri-iee E 
tlie chronic form of this disease. Xeuralgia dependent upon & gouty oi ihei 
matic condition is oiften etfKtually treated by moang of colchicum, a dniclii 
of the wine being given at bed-titne, together with a dose of morphine su 
phatc. The»amc preparation is not infrequently eerviccablc in gonorrha 
and 2 ccm. (or mxxx) at bed-time is an old treatment for chordee. f 

Ch. Abadie hae found very minute dosee of colducine (0.001 grenra 
= "/moo grain) two to four times a day to be of great ralue in sclcrili 
whether due to gout or rhcumati^ini. i 

F. Woodbur>' recommends its hypodermic injection in sciatica, iq 
the theath of the nerves, also in muscular rheumatism.' A comhinntioal 
colchicine with the natural salicylate of methyl is of value in gubacule al 
chronic rheumatitm. Jn goiily neuritis Dr. C. D. F. Phillips has found tl 
following combination beneficial: — 

B CoIehlciD 1001 Gia. or gr. */•■ 

Quinin. nulphnt .....•.• JDCft Gin. or gr. i. 

Kxl. coUH'.vnllildia ...^ jOOfi Gm. or ^. J. 

M. ct IL pil. no. j. MItte tntM bol xx. 

^. : One pill three limtri a dsjr. 

Colchicum lins also given good results in the treatment of ascites, gotb 
ilia:a, and chordue. 

COLLAROOLUU. {See Argentom Crede'.) 

COLLDISONIA CANADENSIS.-— This indigenous plant, belonging] 
the natural order Labiata?, and popularly known as stone-root, or knob-rot 

frowe from Aprd to OotoWr iu nchly-wooded soils throughout the Unit 
tates. All parts of the plant may be used, but its virtues reside chiefly 
the root, and depend piiiiiipaily upon the presence of a volatile oil. 
possesses a rank, aromatic odor, and a warm, somewhat pungent taste. 

PhyBiological Action. — Collin.'iciiiia is a local agtrlngent. It exerti 
eodativi' elTt'ct upon mucous membranes, and produces a sensation of want 
in the slomooh and bowds. Large doses give rise to diaphoresis, nausea, ai 
perhaps, vomiting. 

Therapy. — Collinsonia is a good local application to incised or contiif 
wounds. Four Om. (or 5j) of the powdered root to 31 Gm. (or 5j) of 1' 
constitutes a stimulant application to indolent ulcers. The fluid extra 
diluted with 4 parte of water and used as a rectal injection, eJIectut 
deslroi's asearides. 

i'his remedy, given intirnally, acts as an netringent tonic, antisp 
modic, and sedative. It increases the appetite, promotes digestion s 
eUmination, and is therefore useful in aniemia, chlorosis, the early stage 

' FtiilniMphin. .WrWIml Time». vot slii, p. 154. 

'^pe ]>nper bv authr-r. ill "TniBWifUouv of ILe KSnIh Inlprnatiounl Med 
Congrr^..' vol. ill, p. 711. W.ishinglon, D. C, U. S. A. 




OOI.LOI>It'M. 



307 



hUiuu, »od in canvolnccuci! from Ihe eruptive fcven. Relaxed uvula, 

phBryn^itifr, and lioarMtiess due to impuircd tonicity of the vocal 

■nl, ari- iMiit-thvU by ihc local action of coliinsonia. A ciiu of hot inftision 

I almrl an ordinary cold, or mild liimliago. The lluid extract 

•I ii-iii ihI in gftatr<>-)til<'>tinal catarrh, irhelher de|)endeul upon alc<>* 

■ ■r other causes. The remedy is especially iieetul in the former case, 

iir.vv ii ^n-riiv" In U-*-*'!! llie lioi'ire for liijtior. 

VBiiona fipuBmodic atTectioua are relioTed by collinsonia. The hot ia- 

kteioa ia • inK'ful n-medy in »pH^m»dio eroiip. In whooping-cough the 

^7«rnTr«ni5 nr*> nmelioriited. and it i& valtmblc in nenoiis cough and the 

!i ii( pharyns'itis. It is sonielimes of service in chorea. Spa6- 

tmn of tin- sphincter uni not uncommonly gite:* rite lo con- 

n, ha-iiiiirrhoida, nearalgis of the rectum, with vaRUe pelvic and 

iial i^yiiipiomif. Thi« ^]>iiiim iind the train of di»order« dependent 

I niJiy often be relieved by the employment every night of a eup- 

ivtnininf! from 0.f>5 to 4 dm. (or gr. x-.'j) of pciwdered collinsonia- 

n< cases of dysmenorrhiea are markedly benefited by the admin- 

( (111- fluid eximct for a week preceding ami during the period. 

>Ule that vaginal eiippo«ttories conlainiu)^ this remedy would be 

iti fiiK>"i"'i>">'- {"'xo-llent rcjulln are obtained from collinsonia in 

liitiary colic. Spni-m of the dtu-tii is rela»-d, and Ihe irritation 

miKiitiK membranes soothed. The increased floiv of urine induced ■ 

iUr* the expnlxion of small calculi. Infantile colic and Halitlont colic 

',ls are nlKn amenable to the inlluenee of this drug. In combination 

.-.unite and morphioc it is more lapidly efficacious than any uthcr 

. nt »f acute cystitis, and should be tried in chronic cy^lilis. 

Inconlini'iice of urine in children and the drippinju: of a few drops of 

arioe in n'lMlts after the act of micturition is apparently completed, due to 

ttpen "f the prostatic urethra or neck of the bladder, may hQ cffect- 

y ihe lluid citnii'i. Th«- writer has «•«! it arrest the discharge 

-toic gonorrhoea after the customary blennorrhelics had been ex- 

_ i in vain, li has likewise been found veiy beneHcial in Icucorrhoca 

taA prn^tatorrhwa. 

COLLODIITH (C. 3. P., B. P.).— Collodion. 

Prtparatiens, 

CMleaUmn SlTptictim (U.S. P.).— Styptic Collodion. KxUmiil mm. 
CoOaduun ranlliuriilBluni (U.S. P.i,-4'Antl>iiri<UI Colluilicin. E.vtmial tuc. 
■-onodlum yifxiia lir.S-P., RIM.— FlMible L^llodion. Eilcmtil ui*. 
' olIodiotD Ve^icaiu (RF.). — RlUtoriitff Collodion. K:(t«n)at um. 

Fhajmacoli^y. — ColUidion is nyrosylin. or ttnn-cotton (3 parts), dis- 
Mittd in ether (t.'i parts) and alcohol (25 parts). The British Phnrmncopnia 
putt the proportionK as pyroxylin, 10 Qm. (or 5\m); ether. 3G0 c.cm. (or 
^mt. an" ah-<>ln.!. 120 c.cm. (or f^'v). Blistering collodion (F. S .P.) has 
iM0»«rid<- '•>■) pHrt«), exhausted by chloroform and evaporated (to 15 parts), 
: !di-<l flexible collodion (S.l parts). Flexible collodion (T. 
" t9'i parts), to whiih Ctintnlii tiirgicntinc (5 parts) and 
,-- I have l>een added. Styptic collodion (V. S. P.) contains 

, -Ms) dissolved in alcohol (5 parts), ether (35 parts), and 
IS vudieienl quantity). Collodion is a clear, »yrtipy flnid, smelling 



^'u - 




308 



PHARMACBUTICAL TIIEBAPBUTIC A0£NT8 OK DIIU08. 



itroDf;!}' of cth(>r; and sliouH be kept in s glaas-stopfwred bottle, tightly 
corked, remote from li^liU niid fire. W'Ikii ])aiiUi;d upon «. t^urfiiot-, thv 
ifthur quickly evajwratee. k'avin;,' a film of [j_vroX)liii, wlikh i? adhesive and 
tends to cniirnict or iiui'ker up. 

Therapy. — Collodion is used to cover escoriated surfaces and to seal 
small wounds. I^rjfi-r wounds may be drawn together and kept in position 
by Btrips of gnuzo, the ends of which are made to adhere to the skin by seT- 
eral coats of collodion painted on with a i.-aincr«-hair pencil. Somi'limiii it 
givet) rise to pain, irritation, and even blieterinf; when a comparatively large 
area is thii» covered. The contraction caused by the drying of collodion u 
mode iiEO of in the treatment of the early stages of boils and styes, and the 
papules in small-pux, to prevent pitting. Whi-rc several costs are to bo ap- 
plied, the flexible collodion is preferable. It has also been nsed in herpei 
zoster and erysipelas, and the comprcf^ion exerted by it has been utilized 
in the treatment of epididymitis, painting freely over the testicle and cord 
A coating of colbdion is likewise bendlcial in the Buperfietnl variety o! 
bums. Tnie substance is an exceedingly useful application to scalp-wounds 
in which, besides approximating the edg«s and excluding the air, it doo 
away with the necessity for a bandage. The pressure produced by the con 
traction of collodion ha« been successfully utilixcd in the treatment of uu 
bitical hernia, varicocele, and spina biBda. In pruritus ani, if collodion ' 
applied, after antiseptic cleansing with solution of carbolic acid, marked 
hef will be alTorded. 

Several cases have been reported by French physicians in which tli 
repeated application of collodion to the entire surface of the abdomen ^ 
tuoerculous perilonitis wasi followed by recovery. In the nocturnal incoB 
tiucnce of urine in male children it is often advantageous to seul the orifice ^ 
the urethra or the end of the prepuce with collodion. This method will n< 
infrequently break up the habit within o few weeks. The styptic collodio 
may be u^cd on cracked nipples, or for small wounds where an aiitringoi 
may be desired. Extract of cannabis Indica (3 part^), with salicylic ad 
(11 parts) in flexible collodion (SI parta), is a popular remedy for soft corq 
under the name of the green solution for corns (eollodium salicylatum co^ 
positum, X. F.), which, however, would probably be quite as clfieient M'it| 
out the cannabis Indica. Iodine and iodoform have been used, disaolvl 
in collodion, as an application to gouty or rheumatic joints, but the foriig 
sometimes exerts an unexpectedly caustic action, and has been followed 1 
sloughing. 

Numerous collodion prcpji rat ions havfl been suggested and employ! 
for various purposes. Among these may be mentioned a lO-per-cent. chr 
sarobin collodion; a cocaine styptic collodion, containing 5 per cent, of c 
caine hydioelilorale, 15 per cent, of tannic acid and 30 per cent, of alcoh< 
diachylon. 10 per cent., each of lead plaster and alcohol with 30 per cent, 
ether; a collodion for freckles, containing 2 per cent, of sutphophcnyl-xia 
collodions in which oteate of mercury, nine, or other oleales are incorp 
rated: a 10-per-cent. salol collodion for chapped hands, etc. . 

Crystalline. — A solution of pyroxylin in mclhylic alcohol has bees i 
troduced under the name of crystalline. The preparation is similar to o 
lodiou. but the solvent evaporates more nlowly and the resultant pelUcle 
perfectly translucent. An elastic crystalline, corresponding lo elastic o 
lodion, has been made by Dr. Phillips, according to the fallowing formula: 




cowcrxtHiSr 

Sl ccm. or fSi'/t. 

ivtrTiiniii. i.aiiail^aA ftjiO Ci^m. or (31ls». — H, 

An vxccllrat white nmifih is nude by mixia^: — 

n CrTvUtUs. Ml 0401. or fSj. 

UL ricini 4 c-cin. or f3i. 

Zinc, mild 8| Om. or 3ij.— H. 

P}rr*)gallic aci<I, iialicvlic acid, chry.ifl robin, corroHtve aubliniate, flo^ 
leaKv III lift Bifdiciiml substances arc readily soluble io orvstallioG, which 
It -^torv, be used u-ith advantage t.» a vehicle for various substances 

ta i-.n uviitment of tiora toosuraiui, warts, eczt^mti, acne. lupus trjilii-'matoKut, 
tte. 

COLOCTNTHIS (U. S. P.).— Colocynth. 
COLOCTITTHIDIS PTJLPA (B. I*.).— Colocynth-pulp. 
Doic, 0.13 to 0.33 Gni. (or gr. ii-y). 

Prtparalions. 

CxLTMtuBi ColoeystliUiB (U.&P.).— Extract of Colacrnth. Dow, 0.13 to OM 
Gh. toe irr. it-iii). 

l^luW CnlWllric Coiiipmlba (U.S. P.).— Comiiounil CntlToitJc PHI* (ci>iii|>uuiiil 
...... I ,.f rnU^nlti, W) (im,: rnlmii«i. 00 (int.: vxtract. of jsUp, 30 Urn.i ami gam- 
in , t" niaki- UMI jiillii). UoH-. 1 hi 3 nilU. 

f (.'athittxm VcvvtahllM (U.S. P.|.— ^ r([p|alilp CnlhnrUc I'llU (coro|"imjii! 
^U«(-t of ntliK'.viilli. tiO lini,: (-xtrncta uf liytncviiiiiu* iiiiij jukip. i-ach, 30 flm-i e«- 
a*rt» trf Irfilanilin and pojojihj'lluiu, mcli, l.i llni. ; i>il of pcp|>rTiiiiiil, A r.cin.) ta 
^ikt tOOO pill^l. Ikw. I to 3 pillK. 

Rxtntcttint CoIocjmtJiUlii Compoailuni (U.S.P., B.F.).— Compound Esinet oC 
rrfwj mil E'ou', <f2i to O.ti run. (or dr. U-x). 

Pilnlir (.".>k>.-jnili»"il-' ( 'onipoMtft (K P.i.— C.uiipoiiiid Pill nf Cotocrnlh («ilo- 
^■tk-polp. 20 GDI.: Barbodoa «la«a, 40 Gm.: scunmony ruin. 40 Gm.; potAMlum 
1^1 till. 5 Gm : oil ol ctom, 6 c.cm.; and dtBllllcd waUr, q. «.). Dear, 0.25 lo 0.00 
Om. tnr C- iv-viijt. 

rtlulv C»locTiit]ildi4 H tijo*eynml (H. P.).— Pill or Colncynth and Hj'otcyamua 
iiiMj ml lilt pill of cotucynlli. fiO Cm.; exlnct of hfo«c,vainu». 85 Om.). l)(n«. 0.S5 to 
'SOGm- iot gr. ivTiijl. 

FharmacologT. — "The fruit (drird pulp of the fruit frvrd from tlic 

,U B- 1'.) of t'itnillu* Colocynthis (Cuoiirbitac<'«e) deprived of it* rind": 

■ wi**torn .\aia. but cultivated in various portions of the world. The 

.- fruit iiftvrwimrution («* din-irl.ii by ttii- Brttitih Plinnuncopa-iii) 

1.S, «h)<?b are ioert. coninin" a y.-ilo'r, either aniorphons orcrystal- 

.:: r, alkalmdiil pri»rif>le, ColocyntMne, soluble in water and in nlcn- 

aI*o s re^in. Colocynthein. and Colocynthithi, the latter insoluhle in 

-.-r nnfl ""t fK»i« >»,•;< -d <>' jiur>;utit"' itTcil*, a la^tele** crj-stalliiie body. 

Pfayijological Action. — In small doses. coloc\-nth acts a? a simple bitter, 

oeT«asin;r <'*^ isv-rtitions and improvinf; appetite. In larf^r doses, it aug- 

»nt« the fl'^v of ^ilc ■>"(' octa powerfully as a draiilic and hydnigogic ca- 

. fwrtic. OTerclof<-« cause gDAlnvtntcstinal irritation, griping^ and purging. 

ft is g*Der9liy comtuned witb other dni^ to avoid thit unpleaxnnl action. 

[cWocnsth hfts somi- diurvlic nrnjM^rlic* and indirectly seta as an emmena-- 

' r-.m^ tn eiCTJSsivc doses colocynth ha? cau^d Jeatb. I^ew Iban 4 Gni.j 

l>ee'n Idi'iwn to pnwhuH' a fatal rctull, though recovery has oe- 

'»;mi ii> oth«T ™«s after * considerably larger quantity. 



310 



PllARUACSUTICAl. TH&RAPBCTIC AOEKTS OB DKOOS. 



Therapy. ^C'olncynth is a valtiablc piirgatiro in chronic constipntit 
loipidilv of the bow*!!)!. It prodiiocs soft, pulpy stools by atiniitktinj; ^_, 
■talsie. Its griping tundL-nrv muv he overcome by canibiiiiiig it with ni 
nutics or n ^^inall {irnpiMitr^ii of hm^ryaniuii or bellsdonna: — 

B ExU««li colocjntii. cottip i Gni. or 5j. 

Rit. bclkdonnoi toilor. ale. 13 (im. or sV. ij. 

^poiiis Oo Om, or gr. x. 

01. cBJuputi 30 cj«n. or nir. 

M. H ft piL no. XX. 

8ig.: Take oiie or two kt iiigbt («r haUtual conntipatioii. 

In chronic drop^jr of Mrotu c«vitic», or cerebral congestion, the cot 
potind fxtmct may be given with compound licorice-powder. The compoiinc 
cathartic pilU are excellent for ca»es of embarras tjaxtrique, or .lo-called 
biliousnees. In chlorosie, colocynth is uwful with iron. A principle known 
oa Cttnillin, extracted from colocynth, exerciitei» n stimulant cftect unon the 
abdominal organs and especially upon the intestinal glands. It also act« 
upon the abdominal and pt^lvic vc^^sol* and nervi-s and quicken! perivinltio 
tnovcmcnte. XJiven in the form of a suppository, dtrulun is successful in 
relieving pernistent contitipatioQ and, according to G. Archie Stockwcll, ia 
of valuo in hernia when etrangulstion ia threatened. In solution citrullin 
has aUn been used a« an enema, and Kohtstock rcporls from the clinic oj 
Professor Senator, of Berlin, that it yielded excellent results. Colocynthiq 
has likewifii! proved of service, used in the same manner. Thwc !*iih*tnnce 
produce no local irritant effect nor occasion any tendency to constipatioD 
Small doses of colocynth arc *«id to be useful in sciatica, ovaralgia, and otha 
forms of neuralgia. 

CONDUBAHGO. — Condnrango. Of iW. sevcrnl plants known in N 
Granadu under ilie name of conduninpo. the Coiidurangw hlsnco ( .^wlcpia* 
dacesp) i* ilial uliicb hii.s the frr'-'ik-st medicnl iiiti'iT.^t. The Imrk id separated 
from the sitm by bealiup with a woodcu mallet, and afterward dried in th< 
aun. It is froiu one-tcnib to cini--siMh inch in thicknt-vs; its external sur- 
face is smooth and of an a^^hy-gmy color. It contains a yellow resin, 
extractive, tannin, etc. The root conlains 2 per cent, nf a glucoside. !iami>d 
Co&dnrangin, which causes well-marked toxic symptoms when subctiTane' 
ously injected, hut is harmless when taken into Ihe stomach, fiondinangiil 
is decomposed by the digestive fluids into innocuous compounds. 

Condurangiu may he separated into two parts, one of which is solubU 
and the other inBolublo in water. According to Kohcrt. i.-oiidurungin is i 
mixture of at least two gliico.'iideH. and ('arrara claims to have isolated aa 
other glucosiidc dilTi-ring from condurangin in solubility. Fliiekiger b«i 
found a small (juanTity of an alkaloid in conduranno-bark. ' 

Physiological Action. — To the res-in the cllcci of the bark i* ascribed 
as it yields its virtues to alcohol. In the form of a decoction representing 
8 or 12 Gni. (or 3ii-iij), however, it produces decided therapeutic effect. H 
has caused diaphoresis, increased secretion of urine, and even vertigo an^ 
disturbance of vision, with increased activity <>I llie circulation. Rrunto; 
failed to find any therapculic value in a specimen examined by him. 

Therapy. — .\bout a generation ago cmdurango was brought lo 
notice of the profession as a specific for cancer, and especially gastric 
and i«p<irls wen- |)ublished of its wonderful curfs in its native hab. 




oosinr. 



811 



no^ failed to fulfill the eztnivagaut eUimE that were made in its favor, 

so utlicr use l>oiiig then proposed for it, coti(Iuran;e:o vas allowed to 

pfiin into obscuritv alon^ with its introduces. Some years ago, hoverer, 

ivnraJ firtimiiiont (ivniuiii clinicianit — Uuhle. BiiU!, Immermaon, and Hie^ 

[ — Main dir*>cted attcnlion to i(. claiminc that it wne a good stomachic 

I lor 1 in « largi.- number of case* presfnliiig sjnuiioiiw of cancer of the 

f »to: n which ihe drug was used, the result Ka§ favoralik-. The remudy 

not without succe«« in a cingic one out of over a hundred cegea. This 

frrmedy seems to allay the digeetire disturbance and pain which accontpauT 

«n»nic iliseasc of the Ktomach. Iniim-nniinn sdrives the use of a wine of 

nwdnrBiiKo as a good preparation. The tincture U a valuable remedy in 

fsMric catarrh. 

CONIUK (C. S. P.).— Hemlock. 
conn FOLIA (B. P.).— Conium-leavea. 
CONQ FRDCrnS (B. P.) — Cottium-fmiL 

Prsparaiions. 

Kxtnctam Conii Flttidiun |U.& P.I.— Fluid Extract of Coiiivun. Voae. O.M (o 
UO ccm. lor mi-T}. 

Extf«<:tum Conii (U.S-I'.t^Extract of Coniuni. Dom, 0.03 lo CIS c.nn. (or 
|r.»lii. 

Ttneturm Coali (B.P.).— Tinrtun of Conltmi (SO p«r Cfnt.). Dom, ) to 4 Cjfsn. 

e^sccns Conii IR P.).— Ooi>lum-]alc« axprvmnl frnm fmh l«avoii and alcohol 
mUmi (doc-tliinl at (h« vuluiue) U> pnMn'F it. Uoae. 2 to 7.5 r.«iu. (or fSn^ii). 

UBenrtttum Conll itt. P.).— Ccmium Omttnvnt (coniuni' jui<c craporntcd to onc- 
■ifclk of ita volume and UitM tlimt lla wgight »( wool-fAt triturated with it). 

CVtithtft - — CoiiiiDP (th* apttTv priiidple). IXiM. O.OOfl to 0,06 c.cin. (or mV^-J). 

OooHnv B}rdn>l>rotnu.— Couiine Ilvdrobromat*. l>oae, O.OOS to O.06S Gm. (or gr. 

0^1n« njrdrooUorma.— Confine Bydrodilanitc. Dow, 0.005 to 0.065 Gm. (or gr. 
'Uif. 

Pharmaoolo^. — The fuU-^wn fruit of Conium maculstum (UmheU 
Una), ^thercd while yet green, is oGGdal as hemlock. Although the leaves 
HcatO] used, thi>y nrclejn active, the neediibein^ about Ihrfit i'nrn-* u* strong. 
The Biitiah Pharmacopcsia also rccoguizes the fresh leaves and young 
Insebes of C<>niuni inacubtum collected when the fruit begins to form. 
By faniistnff these, pressing out the juice, and adding '/, as much alcohol 
^ „v..,;r, ^ucctu Conii (B. P.). A tincture of the leave* {18 '/» per cent.) 
Wj rly official (dose, 8 to 4 ccm., or tSss-j), hut, like conium-juice, it la I 

■BTTiiAi'"^ in etrenglh, and should he abandoned in favor of preparations 
frnm the **^a. 'ihe habitat of hemlock is Europe and North America. It 
HOtains thrtv alkaloids and both volatile and fixed oils. The most impor< 
(■fff allcmloid is Coniiae, a colorless, oily liquid, alkaline in reaction, with an 
^nd, tobacco-like ia»l« and a ohnracterictic odor re«cral)lin|T the nrini; of 
art Coniinc is soluble in alcohol: only very slightly so in water. It is 
itrr volatile, and easily decomposed by li^ht or heat. It i^ nvft abundant 
9 \}>e D«arl.v-rit>e fruit of the plant in its second year. Kcthyl-coniiaa, 
nDtbcT alkaloid, in asMctatcil with the preceding, and also Conhydrine, a 
(natallaable oikaloid, convertible into coniine by abstraction of the ele- 
^BBto nf one molecule of water. Paraconiine has also been isolated. 

Another alkaloid haa been isolated by Merck. It is believed to be of 



31S 



PUABMACKUTie 



lUTIC AOl 



aimilsr compoaition to conhydrine, and h&s, tberefor«, been termed pceuflo 
oonhydrine. It fonns cn»ily-soIublc atiis. Their mcdiciDsl «ITcctii ur<.< h-»» 
evident ilian those of coniine. i 

Physiological AotioQ.^Thc local etTeele are sedative in puinfiil con' 
ditions. Ko influence upon secretion hes been noticed. Gastric disturbance 
iVEults from o full dooc of conium; nausea and vomiltng appear early. Fol- 
lowing this, there are staggering gait, weakne^ of the limbs, niimhuess, 
fatigue, ptOEitf, double virion, ptipiU slightly diluted, vertigo, loworcd rcspi- 
ration, and labored speech. After poisonous doaes, there are loea of pow«r ol 
muscles, commtnfing in the lower extremities; loss of sight and of spcce* ' 
and, finally, death from pnraly^i^ of respiration. The function of the se 
sory nerves is likcwii^c impairL-d by eicesslTe doses. No characteristic lesio 
are found after death from conium. 

The heart's movements ;ecm to be unaffected and the mind remains 
clear, until the brain ia overcome by accumulation of carbonic-acid gas in 
the blood. In a case of poisoning, the stomach should be emptied and coffee 

Sroniplly given, with hypodermic injections of atropine. Muscular exercise 
cluys the action of the poison. Free counter-irritation by mustard would 
doubllesi be serviceable. The physiological antagonists are strychnintU 
physostigmine, and atropine; tannic acid is incompatible. Upon the non3 
out s)'steR) methyl-con line acta slightly dilTerentty from coniine; the latter 

fiaialyzes the motor nei^'es from the extremities, gradually extending up to 
he motor centres; the former affects first the motor columns of the spinjil 
cord. The sensory aer^-es and muscular irritability remain unaffected. Tbfl 
excretion from the system of coniine is chiefly by the breath and the urind 
The use of conium Is sometimes followed by an eiytlicmaloUB or papulai 
eruption. i 

Therapy, — Poultices of the lenveti of hemlock and flaxseed (2 parts ai 
the former to C of the latter), with boiling water, have been used as a sooth- 
ing droiising to poiufiil swellings; lliey slibuld be applied with cnuttnn whert 
there are abrasions or ulcers. Oonium pojaessea hath anodyne and anti- 
epasmodic virtues, and has long been reputed to exercise h deolistruent in- 
fluence upon glandular and other enlargements. A hemlock ointment, madi 
by bruising the leaves with sulVicient woler, extracting and ineorporatinj 
the juice with lard or other escipient, is an efficacious local remedy in paiw 
ful maladies. It assunges the pain of canciT and iiiiiy bo beneficially spread 
upon irritable or painful ulcers and painful hsemorrhoids. It likewise affordi 
relief when applied over ihe seat of pain in neuralgia, herpes KO-tter, chroni( 
rheumatism, gout, or synovitis. The ointment is appropriately used in ordei 
to reduce the volume of enlarged scrofulous glands, enlarged mammary 
glands, liver, or spleen, and goitre. It may be spread upon the breast whcr 
the secretion of milk is excessive or requires suppression. In whooping, 
cough and asthma hemlock ointment may be applied to the chest to essia 
the action of other remedies. Cimium may be prescribed in form of oin" 
ment as follows: — 

B Extracti conii , 4 Gm. or Sj. 

CocniniB hydroctitorntk ,. !•■> 32 Um. or gr. v. 

Alr«[>1uw JulpliaUs ., .,■...... OtSS Om. or ip-. j. 

TMntriniF .,....,. 1 'SO Oiii, or ur. xx. 

Vagi, nqiiip ro«H! 31 Gm. or Sj- 

M. For ni.-uru1giH. chiuiiic ihtruiriHlUni, gout, and synovitis, a uii!>1l plore the 
of a fvSL Wing iiEi-il (or cnrh npplirotion. 




8 



cojcimr. • 318 

ExtnrtI coaU 41 Om. or Sj, 

Skntholi 3S Gm. or gi. r. 

£itr»eU liclliiilonae (oUor. tit. wS Om. or gt. x. 

L'nft. dnd oxlili. 

L.anolia iia 15|9 Gni. or S**. 

Pirr iMinhil v»tKtT, Mvofulou* glnndt, h*Tjw» latter, anil enlarged msmoinTy 



The vap«r o[ coniiii«, or the fluid eilred vritb hot vt&ler in an iiihal«r, 
itid* fiood r««ults in catDtrh, taryngitis, irritative cough, and acute bron- 
or the pereisient cougli of phthijiU. The local hypodennic injection 
oiine has hixn employed in order to quiet Uie intercostal muecles in 
■y nnd pnniiiiionia; but iho hydrobromnle, being more pennancnt, t« 
CT preparation. Other painful and spasmodic diseases hare been bene- 
by iht^ Minii- nii^thod. Amon^ ilie^ic inny be instanced angina necioTJs, 
ilibyaerua, asthma, aeutc mania, and tetanus. Dr. Karlcy warmly advo- 
M thv ute of conium in chorea; also in nervom tu'itcbiuKS, blepham- 
iBMm. and poet-hemiplegic tiemor. In various spasmodic alTections of chiU 
uro, conviiUioDS, lipa-'ni of the larynx, triamui, spa.imodic wrineck, and 
-' ' ns-conph it hns also been much approved. In ovaritis and in clys- 
:a'B ite ndmini-itration in the following prescription is frequently 
l-Uuii-d with great relief from the pnin: — 




B SiHx-l conii 22 

ISBlaasii bromidi ..■>.■■ 12 

Spirit u* rlilorofonn! ... ..i . 7 

AquM camphoiw ad S40 



c.cia. or (3vj. 
Gm. or 3ii^. 
cCTU. or fSi), 
emu or tSvllj. 



U. SIg.: From m Imlf to n l«bW|]c>oRful eveiy two or thT«« hoiin- 

Ctmintn hat \»^J> highly rf«ommen<le<] in pnruly»i:« sgitans and hysteria. 

kamte mnni.-i, mania a potu, and active delirium tremens it quiets motor 

■Btamrnt, nulling, a» it dovv, it-* prtncipal UM-f ulne»» in di«en#fs atlondird 

^excessive motor activity. In some cases it is well to combine it with a 

r^-\. •o.irphiop for il» eflfecl upon the brain, und in other* with pola«sitiin 

Conium has been employed in epilepsy, but here it is inferior to 

^Tiides. It may, however, prove of benefit in tho»c cottrt marked by 

und di^tnrbiance of the cerebral functions, Walshe has known it 

• le nain of gamine oanefr. For the latter dwcoso, as well t» gastric 

.y be used in this combination: — 

I B Tlnirlurw ronll 81 e«m. or ISw. 

I M«M^ii»» •«lpl>- "■■• pW Gm. OTgT.J. 

I AcMl cKrboUoi , li* c.cm. or miv. 

I fijrap* «cadH .', OOJ c.cin. or O'lij. 

I IL Sig- ■ A l<m•pocln^lI nhtiMver in (oh). 

^m ' n, of New York, recommended rapid increase of the doM until 

Wm, tTccln art- noted. He gave -I c.em. (or fSj) i>f the fluid extract 

^^^ow, aO'l never less than 1.30 c.cm. (or mxx). Otring to tlie very volatU* 
_.«r of the coniine, it i» possible (o admininler large dosca of tome old 
rxtract» without pelting any effects whatever. If the strong mousy 
i* mis»inR. the preparation will have very little therapeutic value. It 
• ■bo said tbnt preparations from cnltivated plants, such as the succus, or 
^KtVTV nf th<! lenves, are apt to be inert. Thi« explain* the enormou* dotes 
mA bT I>r- Uwrley (15 to 90 or 130 c.cm., or fSss to Isiii or f^iv) of the juice. 
ft W^ been likeirise noticed that children bear conium-jnice well. Dr. 



PItABMACBUTfCAL TBBRAPBL'IIC AOEJTW OB DRCtOS. 

Sqiiibb calls attention to the possible danjrer foUowing dilution of the ftuii 
extract, by which a precipitaK: is formed, so that toward the end a poitioaoui 
dose may bo accidentally taken. Death has been caused by the adminia 
tration of 9.25 c.cm. (or mcl) of the fluid cxtracl. TiiO poii>on adminititei 
to Socrates was apparently a strong, recent infusion of conium. 

CONVALLAKIA MAJALIS (U. S. P.).— lily of the Valley. 

Preparation. 

Sxtnctmn ConmlUriB Fluldum (U.S. P.).— Flmil Extract ot Conv*Ilnri«. 
Q.1B to 0.30 Q-on. (or mtil-T). 

Pharmacology. ^llie official di-finition is the rhiKome and rootlets o 
Convallaria uiajiilie (Liliaccie). This plant is a native of Europe, noHhen 
Asia, and our .\llegheny Mountains. It-* rhizome is the sixe of a quill, it 
flowurs bell'Shapcd and six-lobed. The flowers poesees a fragrant odor an 
a bitter, acrid taittc. All parta of the plant posMSS medicinal value, but il 
virtues reside principally in the floirerF. Two <:hicosides have been isoUtix 
known, respectively, an ConvalUrin and ConTaUamarin. The latter is th 
active principle of the plant, but seems to be unequally distributeil in il 
dilTercnt parts, and to be present in dilTerent proportions at different stagt 
of its crowth. 

Paysiological Action. — Convallarin, in dosea of 0.20 to 0.25 Om. (org 
iii-iv), acts as a purgative, but has no marked toxic effect. Convallamani 
in small (loaes, excites vomiting and manifests a special influence upon tl 
action of the heart. At first the contractions are suddenly retarded and t> 
blood -prt'ssu re increasec?; subsequently the cardiac pulsations are quickent 
and arterial pressure further augmented. Finally, Ihe be«t ie arrestci 
Death may take place within a fow niinute.* after introduction of the poisoi 
The reflex function of the cord is abolished; otherwise the aclion of tl 
nervous system seems but slightly affected. I 

Therapy. — In i^mtill doses this drug strengthens the hcnrt'e action; I 
larger quantities it reslr.iins excessive cardiac activity. It has been fou| 
of especial value in mitral insufficiency. It quickly relieves the dviipnipa at 
palpilation, and, after having been given for two or three days, may be di 
continued for a week or more without recurrence of the symptoms. Cc( 
vsllaria seldom disagrees with the stomach, and no cumulative action b 
been observed. As a rule, the appetite and digestion seem to improve uod 
its use and a regular action of the bowels is promoted. ! 

Convallaria, and especially convallamarin. have, however, in some i 
stances, been known to cause lifcinoptysi*, dyspncea, and other disagreeal 
symptoms. It increases the secretion of urine, and, when compcmiation h 
failed, invigorates the heart and reduces todema. In disease of the aoil 
valve, though of some service, the value of convallaria is less marked. J 
angina pectoris and various forms of functional heart disease this reme 
has proved beneficial. The favorable action of couvailaria majalis in drort 
of renal or hepatic origin has been announced by Janovvaki, who prescrij 
it in an infusion of 4 Qm, (or 3j) of the plant to ISO c.cm. (or f^vj) of wnt) 
a tublcspoonful every two hours, changing later lo a l-to-12 alcoholic tini 
ure, of which 45 to 80 drops are taken during ihe day. It aUo favorably i 
Aucnces the diuresis in hepatic cirrhosis. In chronic Bright'* di.iease^ 
strengthens the circulation, relieves dyspncea, increases the flow of ura 



coi-AiuA. 315 

_ dnipEV, and lessens the albuiDioum. Good results have also fol- 
iu ml mi nitration in cnnliiic ddiility, du« to pneuinoDia or typhoid 
fritr. In Eomv cases of idiopathic Sfithma it relaxes the fipeem of the art«- 
It !4»ni4'tiino« it wrviceahli- in tic douloureux ami other forms of 
in^nntnia, and in the restlessness of fever. The palpitation nnd 
of i>htht>ii> an* mitipli^I >>)' tilt uae of oonvaliaria. It i» ot utility, 
in the irregulurity of the heart dependent upon acute pn^unionin, 
teoacfaitiif or cuph^racmB, but it in«fr«ctiv« in fatty degeneration of the 
Wrt. 

B Ext. rowmlUrt* A 7|8 o.cm. or f3ij. 

STTupi anrajitii q, •. ad 60 g.fid. or tSi}. 

M. ^*g-: A UBtjMKinful to* tnUr^KHMilul tlirm timiu a ia.y. Useful in roitnil 
—nil li Ml J mud (luictional Iwail disenBc 

B pnlaMll blUrtraU4 ISti Gm. or Jm. 

i~ . ■ ctravaUarui i. •, ^ e.cm. or t3lM> 

4lii>l>U«b <|. «. ad 1S0( c^cia. or Wr. 

^t &ig. I From oae-half lo one labl««i>ootitu1. in walor, tlim or (our timei a day. 
^'i^t'<t« In ^t]«n] dropajT fiotn hrait or Kidnt}- diicatc. 

COPAIBA (U.S. v., B. P.).— Copaiba. 
Bom, 2 1(1 4 cem. (or fou-j). 

Prtparaiions. 

Uaaaa. Copalbn tU.6.P.).~-MiiM of Cojialba (copaiba, IM; mftga«*i«, 9 part)). 
9am, O.M lo 2 tim lor gr. x-3m). 

B*«i»« Copuibv (U. S.r.).— R^in of CopsiliB. Dow, 0.60 to 1 Gm. (or gr. 

Ottum CopailMB <U. & P.. B. P.).— Oil of Copaiba. Done, 0.30 to 1.20 GJ:ni. (or 
•■-as). 

Pbamucolog?. — Copaiba is the oleoresin of Copaiba Longsdorffii and 
mker apecips of Copailna (Ijegtiminow; U. S. P.) comini; principnlly from 
'" 1 "The oleoresin obtained from the trunk of Copaitera Lansdorfii and 
'apecies of Coinaifcru" (B. P.). It i» not, properly speaking, a linlfsm. 
iplljrnoil character it is a clear, transparent, o