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Full text of "Arabic manual. A colloquial handbook in the Syrian dialect, for the use of visitors to Syria and Palestine, containing a simplified grammar, a comprehensive English and Arabic vocabulary and dialogues. The whole in English characters, carefully transliterated, the pronunciation being fully indicated"

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



IN MEMORY OF 

Gerald E. Baggett 






CO 



? 



.Sk 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2008 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/arabicmanualcollOOcrow 



LUZAC'S ORIENTAL GRAMMARS SERIES. 



LUZAC'S ORIENTAL GRAMMARS SERIES. 
Vol. I. Manual of Hebrew Syntax. By J. D. 

WlJNKOOP and C. VAN DEN BlESEN. 2S. 6d. 

„ II. Manual of Hebrew Grammar. By J. D. 

WlJNKOOP and C. VAN DEN BlESEN. 2s. 6d. 

„ III. A Modern Persian Colloquial Grammar, 

with Dialogues, Extracts from Nasir Eddin 
Shah's Diaries, Tales, etc., and Vocabulary. 
By F. Rosen. \os. 6d. 

„ IV. Arabic Manual. By F. E. Crow. 






ARABIC MANUAL 



ARABIC MANUAL 



A COLLOQUIAL HANDBOOK IN THE SYRIAN DIALECT 

FOR THE USE OF VISITORS TO SYRIA AND 

PALESTINE, CONTAINING A SIMPLIFIED 

GRAMMAR, A COMPREHENSIVE ENGLISH AND 

ARABIC VOCABULARY AND DIALOGUES. 



THE WHOLE IN ENGLISH CHARACTERS, CAREFULLY 

TRANSLITERATED, THE PRONUNCIATION 

BEING FULLY INDICATED. 



F. E. CROW, 

I.ATE II. P.. M. VICE-CONSUL AT I'.EIUUT. 



LONDON : 

L UZAC & Co., 

PUBLISHERS TO THE INDIA OFFICE 

46, Great Russell Street 

1901. 



PRINTED BY E. J. HRILI>, I.EYDEN (HOLLAND). 






c 



cor- 



PREF A CE. 

It is hoped that the present work will supply a want, 
which has long been felt by those, who, for purposes 
of business or recreation, have been led to visit Syria 
and Palestine. The extensive scope of English and 
American missionary development, and the yearly in- 
crease in the influx of tourists to this country may, 
perhaps, render both useful and acceptable any means, 
which facilitate the acquisition of colloquial Arabic. This 
manual has no classical pretensions and is, by no means 
exhaustive. It is intended, merely, as a practical guide 
to the spoken language, which may serve to enable 
those, who wish to deal directly with the natives, to 
do so, without being obliged to have recourse to the 
medium of an interpreter. The limited compass of the 
book has, necessarily, restricted the selection of the vo- 
cabulary, and the words chosen will merely satisfy the 
ordinary and most practical requirements. In using it, 
allowances must be made for local differences of pro- 
nunciation. It should, also, be borne in mind that collo- 
quial Arabic is never written, and that both its pronun- 



VI PREFACE. 

ciation and terminology are loose and undefined. English 
characters are used throughout the work, which places 
it within the reach of those, who have made no study 
of Oriental languages. As regards spelling and pronun- 
ciation, a system of transliteration has been adopted, 
for purposes of uniformity, but local difterences of dia- 
lect and the arbitrary disregard, in spoken Arabic, for 
the rules, which govern the formation of the classical 
language, necessarily preclude an absolutely rigid adher- 
ence to it. 

I take this opportunity of expressing my grateful 
appreciation of the kind assistance which I have re- 
ceived, in the compilation of this work, from Dr. 
WORTABET, Messrs. ESPER and FUAD Shoucair and 
Mr. Const ANTINE KhouRI of Beirut, and from Messrs. 
Nesif Bey and Michael Meshaka of Damascus. 

British Consulate. F. E. C. 

Damascus, October i. 1899 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Orthography and Pronunciation 3 

Etymology 10 

Paradigms of Verbs 22 

Numerals 58 

Prepositions 60 

Adverbs 63 

Conjunctions 70 

Interjections 71 

Seasons, Months, and Days of the Week 73 

Time 74 

English and Arabic \'ocabulary 79 

Dialogues in English and Arabic 305 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



a. 


adjective. 


ad. 


adverb. 


c. 


comparative. 


c. p. 


collective plural. 


com. 


common to both genders 


con. 


conjunction. 


contr. 


contracted. 


d. 


dual. 


f. 


feminine. 


imp. 


imperfect. 


imper. 


imperative. 


lit. 


literally. 


m. 


masculine. 


n. 


noun. 


neg. 


negative. 


P- 


plural. 


p.p. 


passive participle. 


pass. 


passive. 


per. 


person. 


pr. 


preposition. 


pres. part. 


present participle. 


pro. 


pronoun. 


pro. suff. 


pronominal suffix. 


s. 


singular. 


sup. 


superlative. 


V. 


verb. 


V. a. 


active verb. 


V. n. 


neuter verb. 



ARABIC MANUAL. 

PART I. GRAMMAR. 



ARABIC MANUAL. 

I. Grammar. 
ORTHOGRAPHY AND PRONUNCIATION. 

The oriental character is not used in this Httle work. 
The Arabic letters are represented by their approximate 
English equivalents and the transliteration is completed 
by figuring the vowel sounds as pronounced. The system 
of orthography adopted for this purpose has been fol- 
lowed as closely as local differences in pronunciation 
will admit. It is, however, not rigid and the aim is 
rather to reproduce, as correctly and as intelligibly as 
possible, the sound of words as pronounced, than to 
give a forced rendering of the Arabic letters by the 
substitution of arbitrary equivalents. 

Alphabet. 

The Arabic alphabet consists of twenty-eight letters, 
which are figured throughout the book by the cha- 
racters represented in the following table. 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



Arabi 


c letters. 


English 
equivalent. 


Figured. 


elif 




a 


a, e, i or u (modified according 
to the vowel sound). 


be 




b 


b 


te 




t 


t 


se 




s, th 


s or t 


jim 




J 


J 


ha 




hh 


h 


khe 




kh 


kh 


dal 




d 


d 


zal oi 


- thai 


z, th 


z 


re 




r 


r 


zayn 


'V • 


z 


z 


sin 




s 


s 


shin 




sh 


sh 


sad 




s 


s 


dad 




dd 


d 


ta 




t 


t 


za 


It 


z, th 


z 


'ain 


■■■ '. \ 


none 


' placed before a vowel (gives 
a hollow sound like the at- 
tempt to pronounce a vowel 
without a consonant). 


ghain 
fe 


'^0<T 


f 


f 


kaf, ' 


'af 


k ("a) 


" when the k sound is omitted, 
and k when it is pronounced, 
which is rare. 


kef 




k 


k 


lam 




1 


1 


mini 




m 


m 


nun 




n 


n 


wow 




w, oo 


w, u, u or ow 


he 




h 


h 


ye 




y. i 


y or i 



GRAMMAR. 5 

The hemza is a soft breathing or point of disjunction. 
It creates a hiatus before the vowel which it introduces 
and its effect is very similar to the sound made when 
attempting to pronounce a vowel without a consonant. 
It is either a radical letter or an inflection prefixed to 
verbs and is joined to the letter elif, which has no 
sound of itself in Arabic. When it comes in the middle 
of a word it is represented by the breathing ' and has 
a sound very similar to the 'ain, e. g. 
mu'min a believer, 
ma'kulat eatables. 

In the vernacular the hemza in the middle of a word 
is often replaced by ye e. g. je'iz lawful (pronounced 
jeyiz); le'i" proper (pronounced leyi"). 

Vowel sounds. 

The Arabs have only three vowel signs which are 
unwritten. They are called fatha, kesra and damma. 
The fatha has an open sound like the 'a' in 'ashore', 
e. g. hadd a boundary. The kesra has the sound of 'i' 
in 'in', e. g. hibr ink. The damma has the sound of 'u' 
in 'puir, e. g. kutub books. 

As the oriental character is not used in this book, its 
object being merely to reproduce the sound of Arabic 
words as pronounced by means of a system of transli- 
teration, it will be sufficient to note that there are ten 
vowel sounds and three compound vowel sounds, for 
each of which a specific character has been adopted, 
as follows: 

a long as in father, far written a 

a short „ „ ashore, china „ a 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



e french 




as 


in 


egal (li 


ike 


a in 


fate) 


written e 


e short 




w 


•n 


merit 










V e 


i long 




n 


11 


marine 










1 


i short 




» 


V 


ill 










« i 


o long 




n 


V 


old 










6 


o short 




n 


n 


or 










« o 


oo or u long 


n 


n 


too 










V u 


u short 




1) 


11 


pull 










» u 


ai, ay is 


pronounced in • 


this 


book as 


in 


aisle. 


ey 






n 


n 


V 


n 


V 


n 


prey. 


ow 






n 


V 


n 


V 


V 


n 


powder. 



Observations on pronunciation. 

se (figured s or t) is sometimes pronounced *s', e. g. 

suls a third, and sometimes 't', e. g. ti"il heavy. Its 

proper pronunciation is 'th' as in 'thick' but it is 

rarely heard in conversation, 
jim (figured j) is pronounced in Syria like a soft 'g' or 

like the *z' in azure, 
ha (figured h) has an open guttural sound, somewhat 

akin to 'kh'. 
khe (figured kh) has a deep guttural sound, resembling 

the 'ch' in the Scotch word loch. 
zal or thai (figured z) is generally pronounced 'z' on 

the plain and 'th', as in 'them', on the mountain. In 

some places it is pronounced 'd'. 
'ain (figured ' before a vowel) has a deep hollow sound, 

e. g. 'ind-i with me, I have, 
kaf (figured " when the 'k' sound is omitted and k 

when it is pronounced). The 'k' sound in this letter 

has completely disappeared in most parts of Syria and 



GRAMMAR. 7 

is only retained among the Druses. It is pronounced 
like the Arabic hemza with a deep hollow sound, 
e. g. "iddem-i before me; wa"aft I stood; kadir 'ala 
kill shey The Almighty. 

y followed by a vowel is pronounced as in yes. 

•• diairesis, denotes that the vowel, over which it is 
placed, is to be pronounced separately, as in 'naive', 
e. g. t'ai come, (imper. fem.) ; mai water. 
The acute accent is used to indicate the letter or 

syllable on which the accent falls. 

Termination. 

In Syria, after the following letters, the final te (called 
te marbuta or tied te) the sign of the fem. sing, and 
the general termination of all fem. words, is changed 
into ye in the colloquial language and pronounced short 
like the 'y' in merry. It is here written i : 



after 


be 


e.g. 


darbi 


a 


blow. 


77 


te 


77 


nebti 


a 


plant. 


77 


sc 


77 


ba'asi 


a 


mission. 


77 


jim 


77 


merji 


a 


meadow. 


77 


dal 


77 


wardi 


a 


rose. 


77 


zal 


77 


khuzi 


a 


helmet. 


77 


zayn 


77 


lowzi 


an 


almond. 


77 


sin 


77 


jilsi 


a 


sitting. 


77 


shin 


77 


nehshi 


a 


bite. 


77 


fe 


77 


rejfi 




trembling 


77 


kef 


77 


ka'aki 


a 


cake. 


77 


lam 


77 


baghli 


a 


she-mule. 


« 


mim 


77 


rah mi 




mercy. 



8 ARABIC MANUAL. 

after nun e. g. hafni a handful. 
„ wow „ serwi wealth. 

„ ye „ zabiyi a gazelle. 

Note. These words are properly darbeh, nebteh, ba'aseh, 
etc. and darbet, nebtet, ba'aset, etc. before a word 
beginning with a vowel. 

After the following letters the final te is dropped 
altogether and the fatha or open sound of the preceding 
syllable is alone pronounced. A fatha always precedes 
the sien of the fern. sing, whether te or elif. 



after 


ha 


e.g. 


tiffeha 


an apple. 


•n 


khe 


V 


ferkha 


a chicken. 


•n 


sad 


11 


fursa 


an opportunity. 


V 


dad 


It 


"urda 


a loan. 


n 


ta 


n 


nu"ta 


a dot. 


« 


za 


V 


lafza 


an utterance. 


n 


'ain 


V 


bu" 'a 


a tract of land 


n 


ghain 


w 


latgha 


a list. 


» 


"af (kaf) 


n 


hal"a 


a ring. 


V 


he 


» 


shubha 


suspicion.. 



Note. These words are properly tififehah, ferkhah, fursah, 
etc. and tiffehat, ferkhat, fursat, etc. before a word 
beginning with a vowel. 

After the letter re the final te is sometimes changed 
into ye, pronounced 'i' short as in ill, e. g. kbiri big 
(properly kbireh), zghiri small (properly sghireh), and 
sometimes omitted altogether, leaving only the fatha of 
the preceding syllable, e, g. jerra a jar (properly jerreh 
or j arret before a vowel). 

In all words, which have the ending of the fem. sing.. 



GRAMMAR. 9 

the 't' sound of the original termination reappears, when 
the word is immediately followed by another word be- 
ginning with a vowel, e. g. jneyni the garden. 

jneynit al-khuri the priest's garden. 

Shortening of words. 

The tendency of the spoken language and especially 
of the Syrian dialect is to clip the words as much as 
possible. Hence the vowel sound, which properly belongs 
to the initial letter of a word, is only pronounced when 
the second syllable is quiescent (called in Arabic sukun) 
and the word would be unintelligible, if it were omitted. 
Thus, the kesra belonging to the letter 'k' in kiteb a 
book is suppressed and we have instead kteb; sha'ir 
barley becomes sh'ir; resasa a bullet becomes rsasa, and 
so on. This is especially noticeable in the passive past 
participles of certain forms of verbs, in which the middle 
radical letter is doubled, when the damma of the first 
syllable is invariably dropped, e. g. mkesser broken in 
pieces {not mukesser), mshedded tightened [not mushed- 
ded), msellem surrendered [not musellem), m'owwad 
compensated {)iot mu'owwad). 

Note. The pronunciation of vulgar Arabic varies greatly 
in different parts of Syria. That adopted in 
the grammar and vocabulary is used in Beirut 
and the dialogues at the end of the book are 
given in the Damascus dialect. The pronunciation 
in the coast towns and in most of the Christian 
villages of the Lebanon is very similar to that 
of Beirut. Among the Druses the sound of 'k' 



10 ARABIC MANUAL. 

in the kaf is invariably preserved but, in other 
respects, their pronunciation differs Httle from 
that of the Damascenes. In Beirut, the plain and 
parts of the Lebanon elif is usually pronounced 
like the French 'e' in 'egal' or like the *a' in 
'fate' e. g. uled children, ken there was, msefir a 
traveller, de'imen always. Whereas, in Damascus, 
it has the sound of 'a' in 'far' e. g. ulad, kan, 
msafir, da'imen. The negative particle 'mush' 
(composed of ma hu shey) is used in many parts 
of Syria but never in Damascus, where they say 
'mau'. In Beirut the letter wow is generally pro- 
nounced like the 'ow' in 'how', e.g. hown, here; 
yowm, a day; jow", a band, etc. while, in Damas- 
cus, it has the sound of the 'o' in 'bone', e. g. 
hon, yom, jo". The 'ain in 'ind takes a kesra in 
Beirut and the Lebanon, e. g. 'ind-i I have, but 
in Damascus and other parts it is pronounced 
with a fatha, e. g. 'and-i. 

Etymology. 
The Article. 

The Arabs have only one article 'al', which is definite 
and is prefixed either to the singular or plural, e. g. 
al-fcrruj the chicken; p. al-fererij. 

When followed by any one of the letters t, d, r, s, 
sh, z, n and colloquially j, the sound of the '1' is assi- 
milated to that of the succeeding letter, e. g. as-sit the 
lady; at-tilaghraf the telegraph; ash-shighl the work; 
az-zuruf the circumstances; aj-jim'a the week. 



GRAMMAR. 1 1 

The Noun. 

There are two genders of nouns in Arabic, masculine 
and feminine. 

Nouns are feminine either by signification or termi- 
nation; e.g. by signification, imm taiyibi a good mother; 
ikht latifi a pleasant sister; or by termination, e. g. 
jneyni kbiri a big garden; uda kvvaiyisi a pretty room. 

There are three numbers in Arabic, singular, dual, and 
plural. The dual is formed from the singular by adding 
eyn, e. g. walad a child, dual, vvaladeyn ; bint a daughter, 
dual, binteyn. 

In words having a feminine termination the final vowel 
is either changed into 't' or a 't' is intercalated before 
eyn, e. g. mdini a town, dual, mdinteyn; se'a an hour, 
dual, se'ateyn. 

When a pronominal suffix follows the dual the final 
n disappears, e. g. id a hand, dual, ideyn, my two 
hands ideyi; 'ain an eye, dual, 'aineyn, your two eyes 
'aineyk. 

There are two kinds of plurals, regular and irregular 
or broken. The regular plural for masculine nouns is 
formed from the singular by adding in. 

e. g. nejjar a carpenter, p. nejjarin. 
khaiyyat a tailor, p. khaiyyatin. 
khiddem-ak your servant, p. khiddemin-ak. 

The regular plural for feminine nouns ending in 'e' 
(vulgar i ; sec introductory note on tertninations) or 'a' 
is formed by changing these letters into at or et. 



12 ARABIC MANUAL. 

e. g. bereki a blessing, p. bereket. 
kelbi a female dog, p. kelbet. 
hara a house, quarter, p. harat. 
ghasseli a washerwoman, p. ghasselet. 

The plurals not formed as above are very irregular 
and varied, so that a thorough knowledge of them can 
only be acquired by practice. Those in common use 
will be found in the Vocabulary. 

The Adjective. 

There are many forms in Arabic for the adjective, 
e.g. sahih true; kerim generous; sabur patient; hiilu 
beautiful, sweet, but there is only one form of adjective 
derived from substantives. This is formed by adding i 
to the substantive, e.g. ward roses, wardi rosy; shems 
the sun, shemsi solar. 

The comparative is formed from the positive by pre- 
fixing 'a' and lengthening the last syllable of the adjective; 

e. g. sihl, 

heyyin, 
kbir, 
tawil, 
kwaiyis, 

'than' is expressed by the preposition min, e. g. beyt-i 
akbar min beyt-ak my house is bigger than yours. In 
the case of participles, used as adjectives, and various 
adjectival forms, which do not readily admit the regular 
comparative, the latter is formed by adding the word 
aktar, the comparative of ktir much. 



easy. 


c. 


as-hal. 


« 


c. 


ah wan. 


big, 


c. 


akbar. 


long. 


c. 


atwal. 


pretty. 


c. 


akwas. 



GRAMMAR. 1 3 

e. g. meshghul busy% c. meshghul aktar. 

ikhtiyar old, c. ikhtiyar aktar. 

'atshcn thirsty, c. 'at.shcn aktar. 

deficn warm, c. dcficn aktar. 

Comparative measure as to the difference in quahty 
of various objects is expressed by adding the prepo- 
sition bi, e. g. al-hawa akhaf min al-mai bi ktir, air is 
much hghter than water. 

The superlative is formed by adding the article to 
the comparative, e. g. ahsan better, sup. al-ahsan ; akbar 
bigger, sup. al-akbar, or by adding the article to the 
word following, e. g. ahsan an-nes, the best of men ; hui 
akbar al-kill (akbar min al-kill), he is the greatest of all. 

The adjective agrees with the noun in gender and 
number. 

The feminine of adjectives is formed by adding 'a' or 
^e' to the masculine, the e being changed in the Syrian 
dialect into ye pronounced i {see introductory note on 
terniinations). The feminine is figured short i or a. 

e. g. kwaiyis f. kwaiyisi pretty, 
taiyib f. taiyibi good, 
mabsut f. mabsuta well, happy. 

When an adjective stands next to a substantive with 
which it agrees, it is placed after the substantive and 
not before it, e. g. jneyni kwaiyisi, a pretty garden. 

Adjectives denoting colour form their feminine as 
follows : 



14 ARABIC MANUAL. 



abyad 


white, 


f. 


baida. 


asfar 


yellow, 


f. 


safra. 


ahmar 


red, 


f. 


hamra. 


akhdar 


green, 


f. 


khadra, 


azra" 


blue. 


f. 


zer"a. 


'aswad) asvvid 


black, 


f. 


sowda. 



The plural of adjectives like that of nouns is regular 
or irregular and is formed in the same way. Adjectives 
of relation formed from nouns and ending in 'i' form 
their plural by adding the feminine termination ye, e. g. 
fransewi french, p. fransewiyi. Rjel fransewiyi or franse- 
wiyin Frenchmen. 
Note. They say in Arabic beyt 'aali, a high house ; al- 

beyt al-'aali, the high house; al-beyt 'aali, the house 

is high. 

Colloquially the adjective is often placed in the mas- 
culine plural with nouns which are feminine or with 
broken plurals, thus violating the rule of the written 
language. 

e. g. niswen taiyibin good women, 
(benet) benat kwaiyisin pretty girls. 

al-kiitub lezizin the books are interesting. 

Cases. 

No use is made colloquially of the case endings. The 
relation of words to one another in a sentence is de- 
termined by their respective positions or by means of 
a preposition. The following examples will sufficiently 
illustrate this : 
Genitive. Ija ahad khiddemin al-"onsul. One of the 



GRAMMAR. 1 5 

Consul's servants came (lit: there came one of the 
servants of the Consul). 

a'ala jibel ad-dunia. The highest mountain in the 

world (lit: the highest of the mountains of the world). 

'aded sukkcn beled an-nemsa. The number of the 

population (lit: inhabitants) of the country of Austria. 

beyt at-tejir u jneynt-uh. The merchant's house and 

garden (lit : the house of the merchant and his garden). 

se'at Yusuf aj-jdidi. Joseph's new watch (lit : the 

watch of Joseph the new one). 

bwebct al-medini. The town gates (lit : the gates 
of the town). 

beb khasheb. A wooden door (lit : a door of wood), 
'ati-ni kibbeyi mai. Give me a glass of water, safifeyn 
ashjar. Two rows of trees. 

A common way of expressing the genitive is by 

the use of the word 'teb'a', belonging or appertaining to. 

e. g. al-beyt teb'a sherik-i. The house of my partner 

(lit : belonging to my partner). 

al-kiteb teb'a Butros. Peter's book (lit : the 

book belonging to Peter), 
al-miftch teb'a as-sandu". The key of the box 

(lit : the key belonging to the box), 
haida mush teb'ai. This is not mine (lit : this 
does not belong to me). 
Some, one of, is expressed by ba'ad followed by the 
article, e.g. ba'ad an-nes, some people; ba'ad at-tijjar, 
one of the merchants; ba'ad al-liyeli, one night. 
Dative. The dative is formed by means of the prepo- 
sition ila (li) to. When the word is preceded by the 
article al, the 'a' of the article disappears before the 
preposition, 



1 6 ARABIC MANUAL. 

e.g. khud hal-kirsi lil-beyt, take this chair to the house, 
hal-hisan Hl-bey'a, this horse is for sale, 
khud haj-jurnel Hr-rijjel, take this newspaper to 
the man. 
Vocative. The vocative is formed by adding the inter- 
jection ya to the noun, 

e. g. ya abu-na ! O our father ! (used to priests), 
ya habib-i ! O my friend ! 

ya 'y'^n-i! O my eyes! (a term of endearment). 
Ablative. The ablative is formed by means of the pre- 
positions 'an, of or about, min from, etc. 

e. g. tkellamna 'an al-beyt, we spoke about the house, 
terjam hal-kiteb min al-'arabi lil-fransewi, he 
translated this book from Arabic into French. 

The Pronouns. 

Personal pronouns are : — ana I ; inta (f. inti) [in the 
vernacular inti is used for either genderj thou ; hu (hui) 
he, it; hiyi she; nahn (nahna) we; intum you; hum 
(f. hinni) they. 

Pronominal suffixes are : — i (ni) me or my ; ak (f. ik) 
thee or thy; uh him, it or his, its; ha (a) her; na us 
or our; kum you or your; hum (um) them or their. 

When joined to a verb these pronominal suffixes serve 
to express the accusative case of the personal pro- 
noun, e. g. darab-ni, darab-ak (f. ik), darab-uh (f. ha) 
darab-na, darab-kum, darab-hum. He struck me, thee, 
him, her, us, you, them. 

When joined to nouns and other words they serve as 
possessive pronouns, e. g. kiteb-i, kiteb-ak (f. ik), kiteb- 
uh (f. ha), kiteb-na, kiteb-kum, kiteb-hum my, thy, 
his, her, our, your, their book. 



GRAMMAR. 1/ 

They also serve as reflexive pronouns when joined to 
the word zet self, e. g. zet-i, zet-ak (f. ik), zet-uh (f. ha, 
a), zet-na, zet-kum, zet-hum myself, thyself, himself, etc. 
They are also joined to many adverbs, prepositions and 
particles, such as weyn where ; m'a with ; min from ; 
minshen for; beyn between; "iddem in the presence 
of; 'ind by or with, etc., e. g. weyn-ak where are you? 
m'a-uh with him; min-ha from her; minshen-na for us; 
beyn-kum between you ; "iddem-hum before them ; 
'ind-i with mc ; 'ind-ak with you ; 'ind-uh with him. 
The personal pronouns are sometimes added to the pro- 
nominal suftixes, when the latter are preceded by a 
preposition or a noun for the sake of emphasis, e. g. 
il-li ana to me myself; il-luh hui to him himself; 
kiteb-i ana my own book. 
The pronominal suffixes are joined to the cardinal num- 
bers, e. g. itneyn-kum you two ; tletit-na we three ; 
wahd-i I alone. 
When a verb is followed by two personal pronouns, as 
in the sentence 'He brought it me', the indirect object 
is placed immediately after the verb and the word 
ye is prefixed to the direct object. 

e.g. b'ati-h yeh lit: I will give him it. 

'atat-hum yeh „ She gave them it. 
'atu-ni yeha „ They gave me it (f). 

'ati-ha yehum „ Give her them, 
jeb-li yeh „ He brought me it. 

Reflexive pronouns are expressed by the words zet, hal 
or nefs joined to the pronominal suffixes. 

e. g. "atal hal-uh He killed himself. 

rah hui bzet-uh He went bj' himself, 

ken ar-rijjel zet-uh It was the man himself. 

2 



1 8 ARABIC MANUAL. 

Demonstrative pronouns are: — haida (f. haidi) this; 
haidak (f. haidik) that ; howdi these ; haidolik those. 

When the demonstrative pronoun is joined to the 
article it contracts into hal, e.g. hal-kiteb this book; 
hal-bint this girl; hash-shajara this tree; hal-kutub 
these books. 

But they say haidak al-beyt that house; haidik al- 
bint that girl; haidolik an-nes those people. 
The relative pronoun 'who, which' has only one form in 
conversation, which is uninflected, illi, pronounced 
more commonly halli. 

e. g. ar-rijjel halli fil-uda. The man who is in 

the room, 
at-tijjar halli "iddem-kum. The merchants who 

are before you. 
al-uled halli jit inta u yehum. The children with 

whom you came. 
Interrogative pronouns are: — min who, whom? limin 
whose, to whom? esh, shu which, what? ay (eni) which 
one, what ? 

e. g. min hownik, who is there? min shuft (inti), whom 
did you see? limin hal-beyt, whose house is 
this? limin "ilt, whom did you tell? ay kiteb, 
what book? shu al mes'eli, what is the matter? 

The Negative. 

The negative is expressed by the words ma 'not', la 
'no' and mush (a contraction of ma hu shey) or mau 
'nothing' e. g. La, ana ma kint hownik. No, I was not there. 
Ana mush mabsut, I am not well. The syllable sh (a 
contraction of shey thing) is in parts of Syria frequently 



GRAMMAR. 1 9 

added to give emphasis but is never heard in Damascus, 
e. g. Ma intish mabsut. You are not at all well. Ana ma 
kintish hownik. I was not there. An-nahr, ma hush 'arid. 
The river is not wide. 

The Verb 'to have'. 

The present tense of the verb 'to have' is formed by- 
means of a preposition and the pronominal suffixes, and 
the past tense is formed by adding to the present the 
3rtl pers. sing, of the past tense of the verb ken 'to be'. 

Present. 

'ind-i khibz I have (lit: there is with me) bread, 

'ind-ak (f. ik) lahm Thou hast „ „ „ thee) meat, 

'ind-uh (f. ha) imbid He has (she has) „ „ him) wine, 

'ind-na bird"an We have „ are „ us) oranges, 

'ind-kum fweki You have „ „ „ you) fruit, 

'ind-hum tififeh They have „ are „ them) apples. 

Past. 

ken 'ind-i injas I had (lit: there were with me) pears, 

ken 'ind-ak (f.ik)dirre" Thou hadst „ „ „ thee) peaches, 
ken 'ind-uh (f. ha) kerez He had (she had)„ „ him) cherries, 
ken 'ind-na jowz We had „ „ „ us) walnuts, 

ken 'ind-kum khowkh You had „ „ „ you) plums, 
ken 'ind-hum 'inib They had „ „ „them)grapes. 

The future tense is formed in the same way, by adding 
the yd pers. sing, future tense of the verbs ken 'to be' 
or sir 'to become' to the prepositions li (ila) 'to' or 'ind 
'with' joined to the pronominal sufExes. 



20 ARABIC MANUAL. 

e. g. yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) li or 'ind-i 

I shall have (lit : there will be to me), 
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) lak f. lik or 'ind-ak f. ik 

Thou shalt have, 
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) lull f. la or 'ind-uh f. ha 

He (she) shall have, 
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) il-na or 'ind-na 

We shall have, 
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) il-kum or 'ind-kum 

You shall have, 
yekun (bikun) or yesir (bisir) lum or 'ind-hum 

They shall have. 

The Verb 'to be'. 

The present tense of the verb 'to be' is formed by 
means of the personal pronoun and an adjective, verbal 
adjective or participle used as an adjective, e. g. 

ana mabsut f. mabsuta. I am well. 

inti keslen. Thou art lazy, 

hui f. hiyi meshghul f. meshghula. He (she) is busy. 

nahna so'ada. We are fortunate. 

intum ta'isin. You are unlucky, 

hum f. hinni mahzunin. They are sad. 

The other tenses are conjugated as follows from the 
verbs ken 'to be' or sir 'to become' e. g. 

Future. 

akun (bkun) z'alen I shall be angry, 

tekun f. tekiini (btkun f.btkuni) 'atshen Thou wilt be thirsty. 
yekun f. tekun (bikun f.bitkun) defien He (she) will be warm. 



GRAMMAR. 



21 



nckun (niinkun) mcsruriii We shall be pleased, 
tekunu (btkunu) mkhaiyerin You will be puzzled, 
yekunu (bikunu) meskinin They will be miserable. 

Past. 

kint t'aben I was tired. 

kint f. kinti neyim f. neyimi Thou wert asleep. 

ken f. kenet zghir f. zghiri He (she) was young. 

kinna tai'yin We were obedient. 

kintum (kintu) jein You were coming. 

kenu raihin They were going. 

Note. In Syria the letter 'b' is prefixed to all persons 
sing, and pi. of the present tense except to the 
I St pers. plural when the letter 'm' replaces 'b'. 

Imperative. 

kun 'a"il Be quiet, sensible, 

(neg.) ma (la) tkun bulit Do not be noisy. 

The Verb 'to become'. 



Present or Future. 




Past. 


asir 


(bsir) 




I become 


(I shall become) 


tesir f. 


tesiri (btsir f. 


btsiri) 


Thou 


becomest etc. 


yesir f. 


tesir (bisir f. 


bitsir) 


He (she) 


becomes „ 


nesir 


(minsir) 




We 


become „ 


tesiru 


(btsiru) 




You 


become „ 


yesiru 


(bisiru) 




They 


become „ 






Past. 




sift 


I became. 




sirna 


We became. 


sirt (f. i) 


Thou becamest. 


.sirtum (u) 


You became. 


sar (f. silrat) He (she) b( 


jcame. 


saru 


They became. 



22 arabic manual. 

Imperative. 

S. 2. sir Become. 

P. 2. siru „ 

(neg.) ma (la) tsir Do not become. 

The Verb. 

In dealing with so complex a subject as the Arabic 
verb, reference to its theoretical construction or to the 
elaborate rules, which govern its formation, has been 
purposely omitted. Ample information on the subject 
will be found in any treatise on Arabic grammar by 
those who contemplate a deeper study of the language. 

The majority of Arabic verbs are formed from three, 
and a few from four radical letters. The root of the 
verb is the 31"^ pers. sing, of the past tense. From this 
root other forms are regularly derived by the addition 
to the stem of certain prefixes, affixes or infixes. The 
meaning of each derivative varies according to its form 
and is fully conjugated. 

The various derivative forms, as used colloquially in 
Syria, are, as far as is possible in so small a work, 
embodied in the Vocabulary and the vocal inflections 
are written as pronounced. Practice alone can render 
the learner familiar with these forms and inflections, 
and rules regarding them would only burden the me- 
mory of a beginner. As the present work has no clas- 
sical pretensions and is merely intended to meet the 
practical requirements of those who wish to learn enough 
of the spoken language to enable them to hold direct 
intercourse with the natives of the country, without 



GRAMMAR. 23 

employing the medium of an interpreter, it will be 
sufificient for ordinary conversational purposes to give a 
few paradigms of verbs, which arc likely to be of ge- 
neral use and which sufficiently indicate the peculia- 
rities of the Syrian dialect. These may serve as rough 
models for the rest. 

To WRITE. 

In/mitive or Noun of action. Participle or Noun of agent. 
kitebi the (act of) writing, ketib f. ketibi p. ketibin a writer. 

Present or Future. 

(I write or I shall or will write, etc.). 

m. com. f. 

/ I. biktub 

S. 2. btiktub btiktubi 

' 3. byiktub bitiktub 

!i. mniktub 

2. btiktubii 

3. byiktubu 

Note. In Syria the letter 'b' is prefixed to all persons 
sing, and pi. of this tense except to the ist pers. 
pi. when 'm' takes the place of 'b'. In dependent 
sentences or when preceded by another verb these 
prefixes are omitted. 

The dual is not used in conversation and is 
thus omitted throughout. 

In order to give this tense the exact signification of 
the present, e. g. I am writing, the participle or noun 



24 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



of agent 'ammal doing, often contracted into 'amm, is 
commonly added to it without inflection. 



Present. 



(I am writing, etc.). 



f. 



m. com. 

!i. 'ammal ('amm) biktub 

2. 'ammal ('amm) btiktub 'amm^al ('amm) btiktubi 
3. 'ammal ('amm) byiktub 'ammal ('amm) bitiktub 
!i. 'ammal ('amm) mniktub 

2. 'ammal ('amm) btiktubu 

3. 'ammal ('amm) byiktubu 

Note. The present can also be expressed by means of 
the personal pronoun joined to a present parti- 
ciple, e. g. ana raih I am going ; raihin we are 
going, or to a verbal adjective, e. g. ana 'atshen 
I am thirsty. 

The exact signification of the future is commonly 
expressed by the word bedd (bidd) contracted from bi 
wudd 'it is the desire of'..., joined to the pronominal 
suffixes and placed before the present tense. The prefix 
'b' attached to the verb is more correctly dropped in 
this locution but is generally retained in the vulgar 
language. 

Future. 
(I will, am about to or wish to write, etc.). 



m. 



I. 



com. 
bedd-i iktub 



2. bedd-ak tiktub 

3. bedd-uh yiktub 



bedd-ik tiktubi 
bedd-a tiktub 



p. 



GRAMMAR. 

bedd-na niktub 
bedd-kum tiktubu 
bedd-hum yiktubu 



25 











Past. 








(I wrote 


or 


have written, etc.) 






m. 




com. 


f. 


^■\ 


I. 






katabt 




2. 


katabt 






katabti 


\ 


3- 
I. 


katab 




katabna 


katabet 


p. 


3- 






katabtu 
katabu 










Imperative. 





(Write). 

m. com. f. 

S. 2. uktub (ktub) uktubi (ktibi) 

P. 2. liktubu (ktubu) 

Note. The ist pers. plural imperative is taken from the 
present or future tense, e. g. niktub hal-mektub, 
let us write this letter (the prefix 'm' is omitted). 
The 2ntl person of the imperative, when used 
negatively, is taken from the same tense with the 
addition of the negative particle ma or more 
correctly la, e.g. ma (la) tiktub hal-mektub, do not 
write this letter (the prefix 'b' is omitted). 

The imperfect is formed from the present or future 
tense by adding the verb ken with or without 'ammal. 



26 arabic manual. 

Imperfect. 
(I was writing or I used to write, etc.). 

m. com. f. 

!i. kint ('ammal) biktub 

2. kint ('ammal) btiktub kinti ('ammal) btiktubi 

3. ken ('ammal) byiktub kenet ('ammal) bitiktub 
II. kinna ('ammal) mniktub 

2. kintu ('ammal) btiktubu 

3. kenu ('ammal) byiktubu 

The pluperfect is formed from the past by adding the 
verb ken. 









Pluperfect. 






(I 


had written, etc.). 






m. 


com. f. 


I. 






kint katabt 


2. 


kint 


katabt 


kinti katabti 


3- 


ken 


katab 


kenet katabet 


I. 






kinna katabna 


2. 






kintu katabtu 


3- 






kenu katabu 
Conditional. 



The formation of the conditional present and past by 
means of ken used with the present or future tense or 
with the past will be seen from the following examples. 



I. If the weather is fine 
to-morrow I shall go to 
the country. 



I. Izaken at-ta"s hulu bukra 
bitl'a al-berriyi. 



GRAMMAR. 



27 



2. If I should go to France 
I will let you know. 

3. Although you are going 
to Dubbaich you can 
write the letter before 
you start. 

4. I would go with you if 
I had time. 

5. If you would go with 
me I should be glad. 

6. He would have gone 
with us if we had told 
him. 

7. If you had been ready 
I would have taken you 
with me in the carriage. 

8. The minister would have 
given him the post if he 
had asked for it. 

9. I hoped that you would 
have come here. 

10. I do not know whether 
I shall go to the moun- 
tains to-morrow or not. 



2. Izakint bruh ila Fransa 
b'arrif-ak. 

3. M'a in-nak raih ila 
Dbbaiyi bti"dir tiktub 
al-mektub "abl ma truh. 

4. Kint bruh m'a-ak low 
ken m'a-i wa"t. 

5. Low kint btruh m'a-i 
kint ibkun mabsut. 

6. Ken biruh m'a-na low 
"ilneluh. 

7. Low kint hadir kint 
bekhd-ak m'a-i bil-'ara- 
biyi. 

8. Ken al-wezir 'ata-h al- 
merkez (al-matrah) low 
ken talab-uh. 

9. T'immelt in-nak btkun 
jit lahown. 

10. Ma b'arif izakint bruh 
'aj-jebel ') biikra am la. 
i) Contracted from 'ala aj-jebel. 



The passive. 



The passive, properly speaking, with the exception 
of the past participle, e. g. maksur broken, maktub 
written, is not much used in conversation, as the Arabs 
prefer to give an active rendering to their sentences, 
e. g. the old woman whose son was killed, is rendered 



28 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



in Arabic by, al-ikhtiyara halli "atalu ibn-a (lit: the 
old woman of whom they killed her son). A passive 
signification is however given to active verbs by adding 
the syllable 'in' and this form is in frequent use, e. g. 

katab he wrote ; inkatab it is written. 

keshef he uncovered ; inkeshef it is uncovered. 

sha" he split; insha" it is split. 

jerah he wounded; injerah he is v/ounded. 

wajad he found; inwajad it is found. 

keser he broke ; inkeser it is broken. 

There is also another form of the passive derived 
from the active verb, e.g. "at'a he cut; ta"att'a he was 
cut in pieces. This is however rarely employed in con- 
versation. 

The regular form of the present or future and past 
tenses passive, which only differ from the active by the 
substitution of damma for fatha or kesra in the first 
syllable, is as follows. 

To BE KILLED. 

Present or Future. 
(I am or shall be killed, etc.). 





m. 


com. 


t. 


I. 




bu"tal 




2. 


btu"tal 




btu"tali 


3- 


byu"tal 




bitu"tal 


I. 




minu"tal 




2. 




btu"talu 




3- 




byu"talu 





p. 







GRAMMAR 










Past. 








(I 


was killed, 


etc.). 




m. 




com. 
"utilt 




f. 


"utilt 








"utilti 


"util 




"utilna 
"utiltu 
"litilu 




"litilet 



29 



The following verbs in common use are conjugated 
in a brief form. With the help of the preceding para- 
digms the reader will be able to supply the remaining 
tenses. 







TO COME. 








Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


Sing. 


2. Ta'a 


(Come). 

Present. 


Ta'ai 




m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




biji (I come, will come, etc.) 


2. 


btiji 




btiji 


3- 


byiji 




bitiji 


I. 




mniji 




2. 




btij u 




3- 




byiju 





30 



P. 



S. 



m. 

ija 



ARABIC MANUAL. 
Past. 

com. f. 

jit (I came, etc.) 

jiti 

fjit 

jina 
jitu 
iju 

TO GO. 

Imperative. 



Sing. 2. ruh (Go). 



f. 

ruhi 



Present. 



m. 



com. 



btruh 
biruh 



m. 



riht (ruht) 
rah 



bruh (I go, will go, etc.). 
btruhi 
bitruh 

mnruh 

btruhu 

biruhu 

Past. 

com. f. 

riht (ruht) (I went, etc.). 
rihti (ruhti) 
rahit 
rihna (ruhna) 
rihtu (ruhtu) 
rahu 



GRAMMAR. 



31 



TO STOP (Transitive). 
Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. wa""if (Stop). 

Present. 



P. 



m. 



btwa""if 
biwa""if 



com. 



1. 

wa in 



f. 



bwa""if (I stop, will stop, etc.). 

btwa""ifi 

bitwa'"'if 
mn\va""if 
btwa""ifu 
biwa" "ifu 



S. 



Past. 

m. com. f. 

wa""aft (I stopped, etc.). 
wa""aft wa""afti 

wa""af wa""afat 

wa" "afna 

wa""aftu 

wa""afu. 



m. 



TO SIT. 
Imperative. 



Sing. 2. u"'d. (Sit). 



f. 
u" 'uddi. 



32 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



Present. 



S. 



S. 





m. 


com. 


f. 




I. 




bu"'ud (I 


sit, will sit, 


etc 


2. 


btu"'ud 




btu"'udi 




3- 


byu"'ud 




bitu"'ud 




I. 




mnu"'ud 






2. 




btu"'udu 






3- 




byu"'udu 







m. 



Past. 



com. 



I. 




"a'adt (I sat, etc.). 


2. 


"a'adt 


"a'adti 


3- 


"a'ad 


"a'adat 


I. 




"a'adna 


2. 




"a'adtu 


3- 




"a'adu 



TO STAND UP. 

Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. "um. (Stand up). 



Present. 



m. 



f. 
'ijmi. 



f. 



bf'um 
bi"iim 



com. 

b"um (I stand up, etc.). 
bf'umi 
bif'um 

min"um 

bt"umu 

bi"umu 



GRAMMAR. 



33 



P. 



r a s t. 



m. 


com. f. 




"umt (I stood up, etc.). 


unit 


"umti 


am 


"amat 




"umna 




"umtu 




»»- A 



amu 



P. 



TO ASCEND, GO or COME UP. 
Imperative. 





m. 






f. 


Ding. 


2. tl'a (Go 


up). 
P resent. 




tlai 




m. 


com. 




f. 


I. 




bitl'a (I 


go. 


will go up, etc.) 


2. 


btitl'a 






btitl'i 


3- 


byitl'a 






bititl'a 


I. 




mnitl'a 






2. 




btitl'au 






3- 




byitl'au 







m. 

tl'at 
til'ia 



Past. 



com. 



f. 



tl'at (I went up, etc.). 
tl'ati 
tiTiat 

tl'ana 

tlatu 

tiriu 



34 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



TO DESCEND, GO or COME DOWN. 
Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. inzel (Go down). 

Present. 



f. 
inzelli 



S. 



S. 



p. 



m. 



I. 




binzel (I go, will go down, etc.) 


2. 


btinzel 


btinzeli 


3- 


byinzel 


bitinzel 


I. 




mninzel 


2. 




btinzelu 


3- 




byinzelu 



m. 



Past. 



com. 





nzilt (I went 


down, 


etc.) 


nzilt 




nzilti 




nizil 


nzilna 
nziltu 
nizlu 

TO EAT. 

Imperative. 


nizlit 




m. 




f. 




kol. ( 


Eat). 


kili. 





GRAMMAR. 



35 



Present. 



S. 



P. 





m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




bekol (I eat 


will eat, etc.). 


2. 


btekol 




btekoli 


3- 


byckol 




bitekol 


I. 




mnekol 




2. 




btekolu 




3- 




byekolu 
Past. 






m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




akelt (I ate, 


etc.). 


2. 


akelt 


. 


akelti 


3- 


akcl 




akelit 


I. 




akelna 




2. 




akeltu 




\ 3. 




akelu 

TO DRINK. 
Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


Sing. 


2. shrab (Drink). 


shrabi 






Present. 






m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




bishrab (I drink, will drink, etc.) 


2. 


btishrab 




btishrabi 


1 3. 


byishrab 




bitishrab 


I- 




mnishrab 




^. 




btishrab Li 




* 3. 




byishrabu 





36 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



Past. 





m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




shribt (I 


drank, etc.) 


2. 


shribt 




shribti 


3- 


shirib 




shiribit 


I. 




shribna 




2. 




shribtu 




3- 




shiribu 

TO PUT. 

Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


ing. 


2. hutt 


(Put.). 

Present. 


hutti 



P. 



m. 



com. 



bthutt 
bihutt 



bhutt (I put, will put, etc.). 
bthutti 



bithutt 



m. 

hattait 
hatt 



minhutt 
bthuttu 
bihuttu 

Past, 
com. 



f. 



hattait (hatteyt) (I put, etc.). 
hattaiti 
hattat 

hattaina 

hattaitu 

hattu 



GRAMMAR. 



37 



TO SAY, TELL. 
Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. "il (Tell). 



f. 
"iUi 



S. 



P. 



s. 



p. 



I. 

2. 

3- 



Present. 



m. 



com. f. 

1. bi"il (bi"ul) (I tell, will tell, etc.). 

2. bf'il (bt"ul) bt"ili (bf'uli) 

3. bi"il (bi"ul) bit"il (bif'ul) 



min"il (min"ul) 
bf'ilu (bf'ulu) 
bi"ilu (bi"ulu) 

Past. 



m. 


com. f. 




"ilt ("ilit) (I told, etc.) 


'ilt 


"ilti 


al 


"alit 




"ilna 




"iltu 




"alu 



TO DO, MAKE. 

Imperative. 



m. 



Sing 2. 'amul ('amcl) (Do). 



f. 

'aniili 



38 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



S. 



m. 

bt'amil 
bi'amil 



m. 



'aniilt 
'emil 



Present. 

com. f. 

b'amil (I do, will do, etc.). 
bt'amili 
bit'amil 

mn'amil 

bt'amilu 

bi'amilu 

Past. 

com. f. 

'amilt (I did, etc.). 

'amilti 

'emlit 
'amilna 
'amiltu 
'emlu 



TO RETURN {come back). 
Imperative. 



m. 






f. 


Sing. 2. rj'a (rj 


e'a) (Return). 
Present. 




rj'ai 


m. 


com. 




f. 


/ I. 


birj'a (I 


return 


, will return, etc.) 


1 2. btirj'a 






btirj'i 


1 3. byirj'a 






bitirj'a 


I- 


mnirj'a 






' 3- 


btirj'au 
byirj'au 







s. 



s. 



p. 





GRAMMAR. 








Past. 






m. 


com. 


f. 






rj'at (rj'et) (I 


returned, 


etc.). 


rj'at 




rj'ati 




n'j'a 


rj'ana 
rj'atu 
rij 'au 


rij 'et 





39 



TO RETURN (give back). 
Imperative. 



Sing. 2. rajj'a (Give back). 

Present. 



f. 
rajj'i 



m. com. f. 

brajj'i (I give back, will give back, etc.). 

btrajj'i btrajj'i 

birajj'i bitrajj'i 

minrajj'i 

btrajj'iu 

birajj'i u 

Past. 

m. com. f. 

raj j 'at (I gave back, etc.). 
raj j "at rajj 'ati 

rajj'a rajj 'at 

rajj 'ana 

rajj' at u 

rajj 'a u 



40 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



P. 







TO TAKE 








Imperative. 




Sing. 


m. 
2. khud (khod). (Take). 


f. 
khudi 






Present. 




I. 

^ 3. 

I ^' 
' 3» 


m. 

btekhud 
byekhud 


com. 
bekhud I 

mnekhud 
btekhudu 
byekhudu 


f. 
take, will take, etc.) 
btekhudi 
bitekhud 



Past. 



com. 





akhadt (I 


took, etc.). 


akhadt 




akhadti 


akhad 


akhadna 
akhadtu 
akhadu 

TO GIVE. 

Imperative. 


akhadat 


m. 
2. 'ati (G 


rive). 


f. 
'ati 



p. 



p. 





GRAMMAR. 


I 




P 


resent. 




m. 




com. f. 








b'ati (I give, will give, 


etc.) 


bt'ati 




bt'ati 




by'ati 




bit'ati 
mn'ati 
bt'atu 
by'atu 





41 



m. 



Past. 



com. 





'atait ('ateyt) (I gave, etc.) 


'atait 


'ataiti 


'ata 


'atat 




'ataina 




'ataitu 




'atu 



s. 



p. 



TO TAKE AWAY, REMOVE. 
Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. shil (Take away). 
Present. 



f. 
shili 



m. com. f. 

bshil (I take away, will take away, etc.). 

btshil btshili 

bishil bitshil 

mi n shil 

btshilu 

bishilu 



42 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



Past. 





m. 


com. f. 


I. 




shilt (I took away, etc.) 


2. 


shilt 


shilti 


3- 


shel 


shelit 


I. 




shilna 


2. 




shiltu 


3- 




shelu 



TO LEAVE, LET, ALLOW. 
Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. khalli (Let). 



f . 
khalli 



m. 



btkhalli 
bikhalli 



m. 



khallait 
khalla 



Present. 



com. f. 

bkhalh (I let, will let, etc.). 
btkhalli 
bitkhalli 

minkhalli 

btkhallu 

bikhallu 



Past. 



com. 



f. 



khallait (khalleyt) (I let, etc.). 
khallaiti 
khallat 

khallaina 

khallaitu 

khallu 



GRAMMAR. 



43 



s. 



p. 



TO BRING. 
Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. jib (Bring). 



m. 



btjib 
byijib 



m. 



Present. 



com. 



f. 
jibi 



f. 



bjib (I bring, will bring, etc.). 

btjibi 

bitijib 
minjib 
btjib u 
bijibu 

Past, 
com. f. 



jibt 
jeb 


jibt (I brought, etc.) 
jibti 
jcbet 

jibna 

jibtu 

jebu 




TO BEGIN. 




Imperative. 


m. 

bellish 


f. 
(Beein). bellshi 



44 



ARABIC MANUAL. 







Present. 




m. 


com. f. 


I. 




bbellish (I begin, will begin, etc.) 


2. 


btbellish 


btbellshi 


3- 


bibellish 


bitbellish 


I. 




minbellish 


2. 




btbellishu 


3- 




bibellishu 



P ' 2 



m. 

bellesht 
ballesh 



Past. 

com. f. 

bellesht (I began, etc.). 
belleshti 
balleshet 
belleshna 
belleshtu 
balleshu 



TO FINISH. 

Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. khallis (Finish). 

Present. 
m. com. 



S. 



P. 



f. 
khallsi 



f. 



bkhallis (I finish, will finish, etc.). 
btkhallis btkhallsi 

bikhallis bitkhallis 

minkhallis 

btkhallisu 

bikhallisu 



s. 



khallast 
khdllas 



GRAMMAR. 

P a S t. 

com. f, 

khallast (I finished, etc.). 
khallasti 
khallasct 

khallasna 

khallastu 

khallasu 



45 



S. 



TO CUT. 

Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. "uss (Cut). 



m. 



bt"uss 
bi"uss 



m. 

'assait 
'assa 



Present. 



com. 



f. 
'ussi 



f. 



b"'uss (I cut, will cut, etc.). 

bt"'ussi 

bit"uss 
min"uss 
bt"ussu 
bi"ussu 

Past. 

com. f. 

"assait (I cut, etc.). 

"assaiti 

"assat 
"assaina 
"assaitu 
"assu 



46 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



s. 



p. 







TO MEND. 








Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


ing. 


2. sallih (M 


end). 

Present. 


sallhi 




m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




bsallih (I mend, will mend, etc.) 


2. 


btsallih 




btsallhi 


3- 


bisallih 




bitsallih 


I. 




minsallih 




2. 




btsallihu 




3- 




bisallihu 





Past. 



m. 



com. 





sallaht (I mended, etc.). 


sallaht 




sallahti 


sallah 




sallahat 




sallahna 






sallahtu 






sallahu 






TO BREAK. 






Imperative. 




m. 
ksLir 


TBreak). 


f. 

ksuri 







GRAMMAR. 




47 






Present. 








m. 


com. 


f. 




I. 




biksur (I 


break, will break, 


etc.). 


2. 


btik.sur 




btiksuri 




3- 
I. 

2. 

3- 


byiksur 


miniksur 

btiksLiru 
byik-suru 


bitiksur 





Past. 



m. 



com. 



P. 



[ ^' 




kesert (I 


broke, etc.). 


I 2. 


kesert 




kescrti 


1 3- 
I. 


kescr 


keserna 


keserat 


1 '? 




kesertu 




!3. 




keseru 

TO LOSE. 

Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


Sing. 


2. khsar (L 


ose). 

Present. 


khsari 




m. 


com. 


f. 


( ^• 




bikhser (I 


lose, will lose, etc.). 


) 2. 


btikhser 




btikhseri 


(3. 


byikhser 




bitikhser 


I. 




minikhser 




2. 
1 




btikhseru 




1 3. 




byikhseru 





48 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



Past. 



S. 



P. 





m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




khsirt (I 


lost, etc.). 


2. 


khsirt 




khsirti 


3- 


khasir 




khasiret 


I. 




khsirna 




2. 




khsirtu 




3- 




khasiru 
TO FIND. 






m. 


Imperative. 


f. 


mg. 


2. ujad (Find). 


ujadi 






Present. 






m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 

2. 

3- 


btujad 
byujad 


bujad (I i 


Ind, will find, etc.) 
btujadi 
bitujad 


I. 




mnujad 




2. 

3. 




btujadu 
byujadu 





Past. 



m. 



com. 





I, 




wajadt (I found, etc.). 


S.j 2. 


wajadt 


wajadti 


( 3. 


wajad 


wajadet 




I. 




wajadna 


P.' 


2. 




wajadtu 




3- 




wajadu 



GRAMMAR. 



49 



TO CHANGE, (transitive). 
Imperative. 



Sing. 2. ghaiyir (Change). 

Present. 



f. 

ghaiyiri 



P. 



com. 



bghaiyir (I change, will change, etc. 



btghaiyir 
bighaiyir 



m. 



ghaiyert 
ghaiyir 



btghaiyiri 
bitghaiyir 



minghaiyir 
btghaiyiru 
bighaiyiru 

Past, 
com. 



f. 



ghaiyert (I changed, etc.). 
ghaiyerti 
ghaiyeret 

ghaiyerna 

ghaiyertu 

ghaiyeru 



m. 



TO SEND. 

Imperative. 



Sing. 2. b'at (Send). 



f. 
b'ati 



50 



P. 







ARABIC MANUAL. 






Present. 






m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




bib'at (I 


send, will send, etc.) 


2. 


btib'at 




btib'ati 


3- 


byib'at 




bitib'at 


I. 




mnib'at 




2. 




btib'atu 




3- 




byib'atu 





Past. 



m. 



com. 



P. 



I. 




ba'att (I sent, etc.). 


2. 


ba'att 


ba'atti 


3- 


ba'at 


ba'atet 


I. 




ba'atna 


2. 




ba'attu 


3- 




ba'atu 

TO PAY. 

Imperative. 




m. 


f. 


)ing. 


2. df'a (Pay). df'ai 






Present. 




m. 


com. f. 


I. 




bidf'a (I pay, will pay, etc.). 


2. 


btidf'a 


btidf'ai 


3- 


byidf'a 


bitidf'a 


I. 




minidf'a 


2. 




btidf'au 


3- 




byidf'au 



GRAMMAR. 



51 



s. 



m. 



dfa'at 
def'a 



Past. 

com. f. 

clfa'at (I paid, etc.). 
dfa'ati 
def'at 

dfa'ana 

dfa'atu 

def'au 



TO BUY. 

Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. shtri (Buy). 



btishtri 
byishtri 



shtrait 
shtera 



Present. 



com. 



f. 
shtri 



f. 



bishtri (I buy, will buy, etc.). 

btishtri 

bitishtri 
mnishtri 
btishtru 
byishtru 



Past. 



f. 



shtrait (shtreyt) (I bought, etc.). 

shtraiti 

shterat 
shtraina 
shtraitu 
shteru 



52 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



TO SELL. 
Imperative. 



m. 



Sincr. 2. bi'a (Sell). 



m. 



btibi'a 
bibi'a 



Present. 



com. 



f. 
bi'i 



f. 



bbi'a (I sell, will sell, etc. 
btibi'i 



bitbi'a 



minbi'a 

btibi'u 

bibi'u 



P. 



m. 

be'ut 
be'a 



Past. 



com. 



f. 



be'ut (I sold, etc.). 
be'uti 
be'at 

be'ena 

be'etu 

be'u 



m. 



TO CLEAN. 
Imperative. 



Sing. 2. Naddif. (Clean) 



f. 
naddfi 



S. 2 

' 3 

/ I 

P. 2 

' 3 



S. j 2 

' 3 

'■1' 

' 3 



m. 



btnaddif 
binaddif 



in. 



naddaft 
naddaf 



GRAMMAR. 
Present. 



S3 



com. f. 

bnaddif (I clean, will clean, etc.). 

btnaddfi 

bitnaddif 
mnaddif 
btnaddifu 
binaddifu 



Past. 



com. 



f. 



naddaft (I cleaned, etc.). 
naddafti 
naddafat 

naddafna 

naddaftu 

naddafu 



S. 



TO PREPARE. 

Imperative. 



m. 



Sing. 2. haddir (Prepare). 

Present 
m. 



f. 
haddri 



com. f. 

bhaddir (I prepare, will prepare, etc. 
bthaddir bthaddri 

bihaddir bithaddir 

minhaddir 
bthaddiru 
bihaddiru 



54 



S. 



P. 







ARABIC MANUAL. 








Past. 






m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




haddert (I prepared, etc.). 


2. 


haddert 




hadderti 


3- 


hadder 




hadderet 


I. 




hadderna 




2. 




haddertu 




3- 




hadderu 

TO SPEAK. 
Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


Sing. 


2. hki (Speak). 


hki 






Present. 






m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




behki (I speak, will speak, etc 


2. 


btehki 




btehki 


3- 


byehki 




bitehki 


I. 




mnehki 




2. 




btehku 




3- 




byehku 





Past. 



P. 



m. com. f. 

hakait (hakeyt) (I spoke, etc. 
hakait hakaiti 

haki (ihka) hakit 

hakaina 

hakaitu 

haku 







GRAMMAR. 








TO HEAR. 








Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


Sing. 


2. sm'a (H 


ear). 

Present. 


sm'ai 




m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




bism'a (I hea 


r, will hear, etc 


2. 


btism'a 




btism'i 


3- 


byism'a 




bitism'a 


I. 




mnism'a 




2. 

3- 




btism'au 
byism'au 





55 



Past. 



m. 



com. 



I- 






sma' at (I h 


eard, etc.) 


. 2. 


sma' 


at 




sma'ati 


* 3. 


simi 


a 




simi'at 


/ I. 






sma'ana 




■i;: 


m 




sma'tu 
simi'u 

TO SEE. 
Imperative. 


f. 


Sing. 


2. shuf ( 


See). 


shufi 



56 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



Present. 



S. 



m. 


com. 


f. 




bshuf (I see, 


will see, etc 


btshuf 




btshufi 


bishuf 


minshuf 

btshufu 

bishufu 


bitshuf 



Past. 



m. 



com. 



P. 



I. 




shuft (I saw. 


etc.). 


2. 


shuft 




shufti 


3- 


shef 




shefet 


I. 




shufna 




2. 




shuftu 




3- 




shefu 

TO KNOW. 

Imperative. 






m. 




f. 


Sing. 


2. 'arif (K 


now). 

Present. 


'arifi 




m. 


com. 


f. 


I. 




b'arif (I kno 


w, will know, etc 


2. 


bt'arif 




bt'arifi 


3- 


bi'yarif 




bit'arif 


I. 




mn'arif 




2. 




bt'arifu 




3- 




bi'yarifu 





GRAMMAR. 



57 



m. 



Past. 



S. 



i * 


'arift 


C4.1X1C y* X^X.^. 


'arifti 


' 3- 


'araf 




'arafet 


( ^• 




'arifna 




'• 




'ariftu 




« 3. 




'arifu 
TO SHOW. 






m. 


Imperative. 


f. 


Sing. 


2. ferrji 


(Show). 

Present. 


ferrji 




m. 


com. 


f. 


2. 

' 3- 


btferrj 

biferrji 


bferrji (I sho 


w, will show, etc.) 
btferrji 

bitferrji 


\ 2. 

' 3- 




minfcrrji 
btferrj u 
biferrju 





Past. 



m. 



com. 



S. 



P. 



I. 

3- 
I. 


ferrjait 
ferrja 


ferrjait (ferrjeyt) (I showed, etc.). 

ferrjaiti 

ferrjit 
ferrjaina 


2. 




ferrjaitu 


3- 




ferrjia 



58 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



TO BE ABLE. 

Present. 

m. com. f. 

1. bi"dir (bu"dir) (be"dir) (I can, etc.). 

2. bti"dir (btu'dir) bti"diri (btu"diri) 

3. byi"dir (byu"dir) biti"dir (bitu"dir) 

1. mni"dir (mnu"dir) 

2. bti"diru (btu"diru) 

3. byi"diru (byu"diru) 



Past. 

m. com. f. 

"edirt (I could, etc.). 
"edirt "edirti 

"ider ("eder) "idrit ("edrit) 

"edirna 

"edirtu 

"I'dru 



NUMERALS. 
Cardinal numbers. 



I. 


wehid (ahad). 


8. 


tmeni. 


15- 


khamst'ash. 


2. 


itneyn. 


9- 


tis'a. 


16. 


sitt'ash. 


3- 


tleti. 


10. 


'ashra. 


17- 


seb'at'ash. 


4. 


arb'a. 


1 1. 


hid'ash. 


18. 


tmunt'ash. 


5- 


khamsi. 


12. 


itn'ash. 


19. 


tis'at'ash. 


6. 


sitti. 


13- 


tlitash. 


20. 


'eshrin. 


7- 


seb'a. 


14. 


arb'at'ash. 


21. 


wehid u 'eshrin 



GRAMMAR. 



59 



30. tletin. 

40. arbc'in. 

50. khamsin. 

60. sittin. 

70. sebe'in. 

80. tmcnin. 

90. tise'in. 
100. miyi. 
200. miteyn. 
300. tletmiyi. 
400. arb'amiyi. 
500. khamsmiyi. 
600. sittmiyi. 



800. tmcnmiyi. 
900. tis'a miyi. 
1000. alf. 
1 100. alf u miyi. 
1250. alf u miteyn u khamsin. 
2000. alfeyn. 
10,000. 'ashert elef. 
20,000. 'eshrin alf. 
100,000. miyet alf. 
200,000. miteyn alf. 
1,000,000. miliyon. 
2,000,000. miliyoneyn. 
4,000,000. arb'a melaiyin. 



700. seb'amiyi. 

The cardinal numbers from 3 to 10 inclusive are 
followed by the noun in the plural. All subsequent 
numbers are followed by the singular. 

e. g. Tlet urtcl sikker. Three rottels of sugar. 
Arb'a rus kheyl. Four head of horses. 
Khamst'ashir ras kheyl. Fifteen head of horses. 

Ordinal numbers. 

I St owwel. 4th rab'i. 7th seb'i. lOtl^ 'ashir. 

2nd teni. 5th khamis. 8th temin. 

y^ telit. 6tli sedis. 9th tcs'i. 

After ten the cardinal numbers are used in conver- 
sation instead of the ordinals. 

When an ordinal number is used it precedes the 
noun, e. g. teni marra, the second time. 

half, nu.ss ; whole, kill; quarter, rub'a ; add, jm'a; mult- 
iply, drub; divide, u"sum; subtract, trah or us"ut. 



60 ARABIC MANUAL. 



a; a o ci 2 > 3 ^ ^^ cj ^ ^ V, y^-^ 



CD 



^ 



a 



O ^ :^ ? ,^ V-^ ^'2 s d:n-r I ^ :-n 6| 
w '2 . G ^ o 5 S" irt J. ■? ^ --z: ^ ^^ ^ . ji :b -u^ 

3 c 



-— V 


.r. 


^ 


-5 


"0 


nS 


^nS 


11 




1j 


^ 




> 


c 




13 





a 


!b 



3 
O 

< 



bove, 
cross, 
fter. 


'3 


<< < 


< 














-d 


"rt 


••— > 




3 


X 




• 




^ 


XJ . 


d 


** 


..V 


. •;: c 


.r. 


^ '^ 


05 


3 .0 >. "^^ 


-o 


XI 


-03 


•? .Si> oj •;= 


c 


S^ 


C ^ XI c 


^'~' 


•- 


"' 


<u 








'O . • 












6 


'6 
c 


6 § ° n 




^ 


^ 


b/) -i; c c/2 


•!-> 


OJ 


<u 


< < < < < 


PQ 


FQ 



GRAMMAR. 6 1 



•-. >^ CL, 



H 



^ P a . o o ^ 



'J 



3 






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62 ARABIC MANUAL. 






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GRAMMAR. 



63 



ADVERBS. 



The following adverbs and adverbl\l locutions 

ARE IN common USE. 



absurd. 

accidentally; by accident. 

afterwards. 

ago (long). 

ahead. 

again ; besides. 

almost. 

aloud. 

already. 

also. 

altogether. 

always. 

anew. 

apart. 

apparently. 

around ; all round. 

as. 

average (on an). 

awake. 

backwards. 

before. 

below. 

besides. 

better. 

beyond everything. 

briefly. 

certainly; without doubt. 



bila m'ana. 

bi sudfi; bil-'arad. 

b'adeyn. 

min zemen. 

"iddem. 

karnen; b'ad. 

"arib. 

'al al-'ali. 

"ablan. 

aidan; kamen. 

killun sawa. 

de'imen. 

min jdid. 

'ala wahd-uh (with pro. suff. 

zahiran. 

'ala de'ir. 

mitl. 

'ala m'addal. 

we'i; faiyi". 

ila wara. 

"abl. 

taht. 

ma'ada; kamen; fadlan 'an, 

ahsan. 

fow" kill shey (shi). 

bil-ikhtisar. 

m'alum; ma" fura; ilia. 



64 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



chiefly. 

commonly. 

comparatively. 

completely. 

conditionally. 

confidently. 

constantly. 

contrary (on the). 

day by day. 

day (by). 

day (all). 

deliberately; slowly. 

directly. 

double-faced. 

doubtless. 

downhill. 

downstairs. 

early ; in the morning. 

earnest (in). 

easily. 

endless. 

enough. 

entirely. 

especially. 

et-ccetera. 

even. 

ever (for). 

exactly. 

exceedingly. 

excessively. 

face to face. 



bil-akhas; khususan. 

'umumen. 

bin-nisbi. 

bil-killiyi; tamemen. 

'ala shart. 

bil-emniyi. 

de'imen; 'ala dewam. 

bil-'aks; bil-khilaf. 

yowm b'ad yowm. 

fin-nahar. 

kill an-nahar. 

'ala mahl-uh (with pro. suff.). 

halan. 

bi wejheyn wilseneyn (with 

two faces and two tongues), 
bila shekk; bidiin shubhi. 
ila taht; fi nezli. 
taht. 

bekkir; 'ala bukra ('a bukra). 
min jedd. 
bis-suhuli. 

bila niheyi; ma luh ekhir. 
bikeffi (it is sul^cient), 
bit-tememx; bil-kemel. 
bi now' khususi; khususan. 
ila akhiri. 
hatta. 
de'imen. 
bit-temem. 
ktir ktir; lil-ghaiyi. 
bi ziedi. 
mwajiha. 



GRAMMAR. 



65 



fact (in), 
far, from afar, 
fast, 
finally. 

first, at first, in the first place, 
foot (on), 
force (by). 

formerly, previously, 
forwards, 
future (in), 
general (in), 
gently (slowly), 
(kindly). 
God forbid. 

„ (thank). 

„ (would to), I hope, 
goodbye, 
halves (in), (by), 
hardly, 
hence, 
here. 

here and there, 
hither, 
hitherto, 
how. 
however, 
how many, 
how much. 

immediately, at once, 
impunity (with), 
incognito, 
indeed. 



bil-ha"i"a. 

min-be'id. 

bi-sur'a; seri'an. 

bil-ekhir. 

owwel ; owwelen. 

meshi. 

bil-"invi; jebran. 

"ablan. 

ila "iddem. 

b'adeyn. 

'umumen; 'itiyadiyen. 

'ala mahl-uh (with pro. suff.^ 

bi lutf. 

Allah la yismah. 

al-hamd ul-illah. 

inshallah. 

m'as-salemi; khatir-kum.. 

bin-nuss. 

bi s'ubi; bil-kedd. 

min hown. 

hown, howni. 

hown u hown. 

ila hown. 

li hadd al-wa"t. 

kif (keyf). 

m'a zelik. 

kam. 

"add esh. 

"awcm; fil-hal. 

bila "isas. 

mutnekkir. 

bil-ha"i"a. 



66 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



indirectly. 

inside. 

inside out. 

instance (for). 

intentionally. 

inwards. 

just so. 

justly. 

land (on). 

last (at). 

late. 

lately, latterly. 

lengthwise. 

less. 

literally. 

little by little. 

matter (no), never mind. 

meanwhile. 

merely. 

moreover. 

namely. 

naturally. 

nearly. 

necessarily. 

never, not at all, on no 

account, 
nevertheless, 
not quite, 
now. 



bil-wasta. 

juwwa; dekhil. 

'al al-"elb. 

meselen (metelen). 

bil-"asd. 

ila juwwa. 

bit-temem. 

bil-'adl; bil-ha"". 

'al al-berr. 

akhiran. 

la"is. 

mu'akhiren. 

bi-tul. 

bin-na"is. 

harfiyan. 

shwayi shwayi. 

ma biseyl. 

fi hal-fursa; fi esna. 

bes; fa"at. 

aidan. 

y'ani. 

tabi'i. 

"arib; min "arib; ta"riban. 

daruri; daruriyen. 

abaden. 

m'a zelik. 

lissa; b'ad ma. 

halla" (contr. from haza al- 
wa"t, at this time) and issa 
(contr. from haza as-se'a, at 
this hour). 



GRAMMAR. 



67 



now and then. 

now or never. 

now-a-days. 

officially. 

often. 

only. 

openly, publicly. 

ordinarily. 

otherwise. 

outside. 

outwards. 

partly — partly. 

particular (in). 

per cent. 

perhaps, possibly. 

personally. 

plainly. 

plenty (in). 

positively. 

present (at). 

presently. 

privately. 

probably. 

purpose (on). 

quickly. 

quietly. 

quite. 

random (at). 

rarely. 

readily. 

really. 



ahiyenen. 

wa ilia fa la. 

fi hal-iyem. 

resmiyen. 

ghaliben. 

bes; fa"at. 

jehran (jiharan). 

'adeten. 

wa ilia. 

berra; ila berra; min berra. 

ila berra. 

ba'ad-uh haik-ba'ad-uh haik. 

bil-khusus. 

fil-miyi. 

yumkin; belki (berki). 

bi zet-uh (with pro suff.). 

sarihan. 

bi kitra. 

bi te'ekid. 

halla"; fil-hal. 

b'ad shwayi. 

sirran. 

al-arjah. 

"asdan. 

"awem ; bil-'ajeli. 

'ala mahl-uh (with pro. suft".). 

tamemen; bil-killiyi. 

bila "asd ; bila fikr. 

nediren. 

'al ar-ras wal-'ain (on head 

and eye). 
fe'elen. 



68 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



reason (in). 

regularly. 

repeatedly. 

rule (as a). 

safely. 

same (all the). 

scarcely. 

seldom. 

separately. 

seriously. 

short (in). 

shortly, presently. 

sideways. 

simply, solely. 

singly. 

slowly. 

so, thus. 

so and so. 

softly. 

somehow. 

sometimes. 

somewhere. 

still, yet. 

straight, in a straight line. 

suddenly. 

thank-you. 



then, 
thence. 



sawab. 

haseb al-"an6n. 

tekraran. 

'adeten. 

m'as-salemi ; bil-amen. 

sawa ; mitl ba'ad-uh. 

bil-kedd. 

nediren. 

wahd-uh wahd-uh. 

bi jedd. 

bil-ikhtisar; al-hasil. 

b'ad "alii ; b'ad shwayi. 

bil-'ard. 

bes; fa"at. 

killwehid wahd-uh. 

'ala mahl-uh (with pro suft".). 

haik (heyk). 

fulan (f.) fulani (of persons) ; 

keza wa keza (of things), 
bi hudu. 
kif ma ken. 
ahiyenen. 
fi meken. 
kamen; b'ad. 

rasan; 'ala khatt musta"im. 
baghteten: fajaten. 
kettir khair-ak; sellim daiyat- 

ak (lit. may God preserve 

your hands) ; eywah (eywal- 

lah). 
sum; b'adeyn. 
min hownik. 



GRAMMAR. 



69 



there. 

therefore. 

thither. 

time (up to this). 

„ (at the same) 
time (in), 
together, 
too Httle. 
too much, 
totally, 
truly, 
trust (on), 
turn (in), 
unanimously, 
unawares, 
unexampled. 
unintentionally, 
unwillingly, 
up hill, 
upstairs, 
useless, 
vain (in), 
very, 
well, 
what ? 
whatever? 
when ? 
whenever? 
whence ? 
where? 
wherever. 



hownik, howniki. 

li zelik. 

ila hownik. 

lissa (contr. from li haza as- 

se'a, to this hour). 
fil-wa"t zet-uh; fi nefs al-wa"t. 
fi wa"t-uh. 
sawa ; ma'an. 
"alii ktir. 
bi ziedi. 
bij-jumli. 
ha" "an. 
'al al-ameni. 
bid-dowr; bin-nowbi. 
bil-ittifa". 
'ala ghafli. 
bila mitel. 
bila "asd. 
ghasban 'an-nuh. 
ila fow"; fi tal'a. 
fow". 

'abes; bila fe'idi; ma biyinfa 
'abes; batilan. 
ktir. 
taiyib. 
esh; shu. 
esh ma. 

aimtin (aimta), eymta. 
ay wa"t. 
mineyn (mneyn). 
weyn. 
weyn ma. 



70 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



whether or no. 

whither? 

why? 

word (in a), 
yes. 



yes certainly, surely. 



iza ow la. 

liweyn (leyn). 

lesh (contr. from li ay shey, 
to what thing). 

al-hasil; bi kilmi wehdi. 

n'am (said to equals and su- 
periors). N'am also means 
"what?" or "I beg your par- 
don?" when the repetition of 
any thing said is desired. 

eh (said to inferiors); ey n'am 
(ay n'am); eywah (aywah) 
contr. from ay wallah, yes 
by God. 



yet; not yet. 


b'ad; lissa ma. 




Conjunctions. 


after. 


b'ad ma; b'ad ann. 


although. 


m'a inn (with pro. suff.). 


and. 


wa, u. 


as, because. 


hais ann. (with pro. sufif.). 




kif ma. 


as if. 


ka; ka ann (with pro. sufif. 


as long as. 


madem. 


as soon as. 


bes; limma; hal ma. 


before. 


"abl ma. 


but. 


lekin; wa amma. 


either — or. 


imma-imma. 


except. 


ilia. 


if. 


iza; low (with past tense), 




izaken, inken (with pres.). 



GRAMMAR. 



71 



in so far as. 

instead of. 

neithcr-nor. 

or. 

perhaps. 

provided that. 

since. 

so that, in order that. 

than. 

that. 

unless. 

until. 

when. 

whereas. 

while. 

without. 



"add ma. 

bedel ma. 

la wa la. 

ow; am. 

rubbama. 

'ala shart ann (with pro. sufif.) 

b'ad ma; limma. 

hatta, ta. 

min. 

inn or ann (with pro. sufif.). 

low la; iza ma; izaken ma. 

hatta ma. 

'indama; halama; limma; 

wa"t illi. 
hais. 

beynama. 
bidun ma. 



Interjections. 

a; akh. 
wallah. 

Allah yahfaz-ak 
Allah yusellim-ak. 
God give you a safe jour- Allah yuwassl-ak bi-salemi. 
ney ! 

Bismillah. 
minshen Allah, 
towwil 'umr-ak. 
khatir-kum; owd'ana-kum (we 
have placed you in God's 
hands, said on leaving anyone). 



Ah! alas! 

By God! 

God preserve you ! 



In God's name ! 
For God's sake! 
Long life to you ! 
I beg your leave. 



72 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



By your leave! 

Look out! make way! 

Take care! 

Come on ! go on ! let us go ! 

Capital ! 

I congratulate you. 



Farewell ! goodbye ! 
Fire! Fire! 
Help! help! 
Look! look! 
Mercy ! 

Please! I beg of you! 

O neighbours! 

O my friend ! 

O boy! waiter! 

O my soul! 

O my heart! 

O my eyes! 

O light of my eyes! 

O my father! 

O my master! O Sir! 



destur. 

ua ua. 

dahr-ak (your back). 

dir bel-ak (turn your attention). 

yallah (lit. O God!). 

mashallah. 

heniyen (said to any one after 
drinking water). 

de'imi (said to a host after 
drinking his coffee "may 
you always have guests"). 

m'as-salemi. 

hari" hari". 

ya ahl al-muruwi; aman aman. 

wai wai. 

aman aman. 

dakhl Allah. 

'amul m'aruf; dakhl-ak. 

ya ahl jiri. 

ya habib-i. 

ya walad. 

ya ruh-i. 

ya kibd-i. 

ya 'y'^^'i- 
ya nur 'ain-i. 

ya abu-na (said to priests), 
ya khowaja. 



O sir! (servant to his master) ya sid-i (lit. O lord!). 
O treasure of my heart! ya muhjet "elb-i. 
Shame! shame! 'aib. 

Disgraceful ! mu'ib. 

Well done! bravo! aferim. 



GRAMMAR. 



73 



Welcome! 

Would that 
What a pity 



The seasons. 



ar-rabi'a. 
as-saif (seyf). 
al-kharif. 
ash-shita. 



ahla u sahla. 
bismilli; 'ala ras-i. 
Inshallah (if God wills). 
dey'an-uh (lit. we have lost 
it); ya khsara. 



al-f usul. 



Spring. 
Summer. 
Autumn. 
Winter. 



The months. 

kenian at-teni. 

shubat. 

adar. 

nisan. 

iyar (nuwar). 

hazeran. 

tammuz. 

eb. 

ailul. 

teshrin al-owwcl. 

teshrin at-tcni. 

kenun al-owwel. 



ash-sh uh u r. 



January. 

February. 

March. 

April. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

August. 

September. 

October. 

November. 

December. 



Days of the week. 

al-had. 

al-itneyn. 

at-tleti. 



1 y e m a j - j i m a. 



Sunday. 

Monday, 

Tuesday. 



74 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



al-arb'a. 
al-khamis. 
aj-jim'a. 
as-sebt. 



This year. 
Last year. 
Next year. 



Two years ago. 
Three years ago. 
Every year. 
All the year. 



Wednesday. 
Thursday. 
Friday. 
Saturday. 

Time. al-wa"t. 

has-sini. 
') sint al-madi. 
sint aj-jei. 
sint al-"admi. 
min sinteyn. 
min thet snin. 
kill sini. 
kill as-sini. 



I) In Damascus 'am al-ow\vel. 

Next month. 

Last month. 

Monthly. 

This week. 

Next week. 

Last week. 

Every week. 

A few weeks ago. 

This day next week. 

In a fortnight. 

For a long time. 

To-day. 

To-morrow. 

Yesterday. 



shehr aj-jei. 
shehr al-madi. 
kill shehr. 
haj-jim'a. 
jim'at aj-jei. 
jim'at al-madi. 
kill jim'a. 
min kam jim'a. 
b'ad jim'a. 

ba'd khamst 'ashir yov/m. 

middi tawili. 

al-yowm. 

bukra. 

imbereh. 



GRAMMAR. 



75 



This morning. 
This evening. 
All day. 
Every day. 
Two days ago. 
Three days ago. 
Early. 
All night. 
Late at night. 
Mid-night. 
Sun-rise. 
Sun-set. 

The day after tomorrow. 

The day before yesterday. 



al-yowm'a bukra. 

al-yowm min 'ashiyi. 

kill an-nahar. 

kill yowm. 

min yowmeyn. 

min tlet iyem. 

bekkir. 

kill al-leyl. 

ekhir al-leyl. 

nuss leyl. 

tlu'a ash-shems. 

ghiyeb ash-shems. 

b'ad bukra. 

owwelt imbereh. 



The hour, as-se'a. 



What time is it? 

It is 12 o'clock. 

It is I o'clock. 

It is 2 o'clock. 

It is a quarter past two. 

It is half past two. 

It is a quarter to three. 

It is ten minutes to four. 

It is five minutes past four. 

It is 6 o'clock exactly. 

The clock is fast. 

The clock is slow. 

The clock has stopped. 



"add esh se'a. 
se'a tn'ash. 
se'a wx^hdi. 
se'a tinteyn. 
se'a tinteyn u rub'a. 
se'a tinteyn u nuss. 
se'a tleti ila rub'a. 
se'a arb'a ila 'ashra. 
se'a arb'a u khamsi. 
se'a sitti tamem. 
as-se'a bittsabbi". 
as-se'a bitta 'akhkhir. 
as-se'a wa"afat. 



PART II. 



A COMPREHENSIVE 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY ALPHA 
BETICALLY ARRANGED. 



ENGLISH-ARABIC VOCABULARY. 



A. 

abandon, v. a. bitruk, tarakt, truk, p.p. matruk. 

abashed, to be, v. n. bikhjcl, khijilt (min), p.p. makhjul. 

abbreviate, v. a. bukhtisir, khtasert, khtisir, p.p. mukhtaser. 

abdicate, v. btnazel, tnazelt, tnazel ('an). 

ability, n. shatara; mahara. 

able, a. mu"ticlir; "adir ("edir); to be able, v. n. bi"dir 

(bu"dir), "edirt. 
ablution, n. vvudu; to perform ablutions, v. n. bitwaddu, 

twaddait, twadda. 
abolish, v. a. bbuttil, battalt, battil; abolished, batil; 

niulgha. 
abounds (it), mowjud; wajd bi kitra. 

Note. Verbs are given in the i" person singular present and past 
tenses and the 2"** person singular imperative. When other parts are 
given they are indicated. 

When a verb is followed by a preposition the latter is given in 
brackets after it. 

Only passive participles in use are given. 

Plurals of nouns and adjectives not indicated are regular. 

When the pronunciation of words greatly varies an alternative is 
given in brackets. 



8o ARABIC MANUAL. 

about, ad. "arib; ta"riban; pr. bkhusus; 'ala. 

above, pr. fow" (fo") ; above all, fow" al-kill. 

abscond, v. vs.. bihrub, harabt, hrub(min); bfirr, ferrait, firr. 

absence, n. ghiyeb. 

absent, to be, v. n. bghib, ghibt or kint ghaiyib, ghib 

('an); absent-minded, fikr-uh ghaiyib. 
absolute, a. mutla". 
absurd, a. mustahil; ad. bila m'ana. 
abundance, n. kitra; abundantly, ad. bi kitra. 
abuse, v. a. bbahdil, bahdilt, bahdil ; bishtum, shetemt, 

shtum. 
abuse, n. msebbi; behdeli. 
accelerate, v. a. b'ajjil, 'ajjelt, 'ajjil. 
accept, V. a. bi"bel, "ibilt, "ibel, p.p. ma"bul. 
accident, n. hadisi p. hawadis; 'arid p. 'awarid; by accident, 

ad. bi sudfi; bil-'arad. 
accompany, v. a. brefi", refa"t, refi". 
accomplice, n. mushtirik fi zenb. 
accomplish, v.a. bkemmil, kemmelt, kemmil,p.p.mkemmel; 

btemmim, temmemt, temmim, p.p. mtemmem. 
according, to, ad. haseb; bi mowjab; according to cir- 

ctunstances, haseb az-zuruf. 
account, n. hiseb p. hisebet; (story) riweyi p. ruwaiyet. 
accumidate, v. a. bijm'a, jem'at, jm'a, p.p. mejmu'a. 
accuracy, n. sahha; zabt (dabt). 
accurate, a. sahih ; mazbut ; dughri. 
accusation, w. tehmi p. tehmet c. p. tehm ; shekwa p. 

shekwet. 
accuse, (of), v. a. bit-hum, tahemt, t-hum (fi). 
accuser, n. mushtiki ; sheki. 

accustom (oneself to), v. n. bit'owwad, t'owwadt ('ala), 
p.p. mu'ated. 



VOCABULARY. 8 1 

V. a. b'ovvwid, 'owwadt, 'owwid ('ala), p.p. m'owwad. 
ace, n. ass. 
ache, V. n. (3^^ per.) biyuj'a, waj'a or ken yuj'a; my 

head aches, ras-i biyuj'a-ni. n. waj'a p. owje'a. 
acid, a. hamud f. hamda. 
acorn, n. balluta p. ballut. 
acquaintance, n. m'arifi p. ma'arif. 

acquire, v. a. bhassil, hassalt, hassil; v. bihsul, hasalt ('ala). 
acquisition, n. tahsil. 
acquit, v. a. bbcrri, berrait, berri, p.p. mberra; to be 

acquitted, bitberra, tberrait. 
acquittal, n. tebria. 
Acre, Akka. 

across, ad. niiii jeha ila jeha. 
act {action), n. 'amel p. a'mcl ; to bring an action against, 

V. bitlub-Lih, talabt-uh lil-malikemi; v.a. bhakim, hakamt, 

hakim. 
active, a neshit (nishit). 
actual, a ha"i"i. 

adapt (to), V. a. bwefi", wafa"t ('ala), p.p. mwefi". 
add, V. a. bzid, zidt, zid ; added, zc'id ; add up, v. a. 

bijm'a, jem'at, jm'a, p.p. mejmu'a. 
additio)i, n. jem'a. 

address, n. 'unwen ('ihvan) p. 'unwenet. 
adjective, n. n'at. 
adniirable, a. 'aal. 
admiral, n. amiral p. amiraliyi. 
admire (to praise), v. a. bimdah, madaht, mdali ; / admire 

(am pleased zvith) anything, bi'ajib-ni, "ajab-ni 

admissible, a. jeyiz. 

admit, v. bi"bcl, "ibilt, "ibel (fi or bi), p.p. ma"bul ; 

bsellim, scllemt, sellim (fi), p.p. msellem. 

6 



82 ARABIC MANUAL. 

adnionisJi, v. bnebbih, nebbeht, nebbih ('ala). 

admonition, n. nasiha; tenbih. 

adopt (of measures), v. a. bittikhiz, ttakhazt, ttikhiz ; [of 

a child), V. a. bitbenna, tbennait, tbenna. 
adoration, n. 'ibedi. 
adore, v. a. be'abed, 'abidt, 'abed. 
adorn, v. a. bzeyyin, zeyyent, zeyyin, p.p. mzeyyen. 
adulterate, v. a. bghishsh, ghashshait, ghishsh, p.p. 

maghshush. 
adultery, n. zina. 
advance (money), v. a. bsellif, silleft, sellif ; (proceed) v. n. 

bit"addam, ta"addemt, ta"addam; advance guard, ta- 

li'at aj-jeysh; advanced in years, ta'in fis-sinn. 
advantage, n. fe'idi p. fwe'id. 
advantageous, a. nef'i ; mufid. 
adversary, n. khism p. akhsam. 
adversity, n. msibi p. msaiyib. 
advertise, v. a. b'alin, 'alant, 'alin. 
advertisement, n. e'alen p. e'alenet. 
advice, n. nasiha. 
advise, v. a. binsah, nasaht, nsali. 

affair, n. shighl (shughl) p. ashghel; "adiyi p. "adaiya. 
affected, a. mutsann'a. 
affection, n. mahabbi ; hunu. 
affiance, (to), v. a. bkhattib, khattabt, khattib (ila) ; af- 

Jianced, a. khatib. 
affidavit, n. hilfen ; yemin; to make an affidavit, v. n. 

biUuf, lialaft, hmf. 
affirm, v. b'ekkid, akkedt, ekkid (li) p.p. m'ekked. 
affix, (to), V. a. blazzi", lazza"t, lazzi" ('ala). 
afflict, V. a. (31'^ per.) bikeddir, kedder; it afflicts me, 

bikeddir-ni. 



VOCABULARY. 83 

affluence, n. ghina. 

affront, n. ihcni ; v. a. bhin, hint, hin. 

afloat, a. feyish ; 'aiyim. 

afraid, (of), v. n. bkhaf, khift (dont be afraid) la tkhaf 

(min); bifz'a, fze'at (min); a. fez'an; khaiyif. 
Africa, Afrikia ; african, afriki. 
after, pr. b'ad ; con. b'ad ma, b'ad ann. 
afternoon, ad. b'ad ad-dohr. 
afterwards, ad. b'adeyn. 
again, ad. kamen ; b'ad; aidan; again and again, kamen 

u kamen. 
against, pr. 'ala; dudd; against my will, dudd khatr-i. 
age, n. 'umr; (century } jil p. ajiyel; 'asr. 
agency, n. wekeli p. wekelet. 
agent, n. wekil p. wukela. 
agile, a. herik. 

agility, n. sir'a ; khiffi ; hareki. 

agony, n. neze'a. 

agree, (to), v. bi"bel, "ibilt, "ibel (fi or bi); bircla, irdit, 
irda (fi or bi). 

agreeable, a. mlih p. mlah; ma"bijl. 

agreement, n. teswi ; ittife" (ittifa"). 

agriculture, n. fleha (felaha). 

ague, n. dowriyi ; berdiyi. 

ahead, ad. "iddem. 

aid, n. mse'adi. 

ail, V. n. biskhun, sakhant. 

aim (object), n. "asd ; ghaiyi; gharad ; (in shooting) nishen ; 
aim (at) v. n. bitneshin, tneshent, tneshen ('ala). 

air, n. hawa; (of music) \z\m; (appearance) manzar; v. a. 
bhowwi, howwait, howwi. 

alarm, n. khowf; fez'a; r'abi. 



84 ARABIC MANUAL. 

alcohol, n. sbirto ; alkoliul. 

Aleppo, Haleb. 

alert, a. mutiya"iz. 

Alexajidretta, Skenderuna. 

Alexandria, Iskenderiya. 

alien, n. ejnebi p. ajenib. 

alight, (from), v. n. binzel, nzilt, inzel (min); alight at, 

V. n. binzel fi. 
aliglu, a. sha'len. 

alike, a. mutsewi; ad. mitl ba'ad-uh (with pro. sufif.) 
alive, a. taiyib. 
all, n. and a. kill (kull). 
allegiance, n. ta'a. 

alleviate, v, a. bkhaffif, khaffeft, khaffif. 
alliance, n. ma'ahedi ; mhalif. 
allow, V. bismah, semalit, small (li). 
allowance, n. ma'ash; ratib. 
alloy, n. khalit; mezij. 
allure, v. a. bistemil, stemelt, stemil. 
allurement, n. istimeli. 
ally, n. halif p. hiilefa. 
almanack, n. riznemi p. riznemet. 
Almighty (the), "adir 'ala kill shi. 
almond, n. lowzi p. lowz ; almond tree, lowzi. 
almost, ad. "arib. 
alms, n. sada"a. 
aloe, n. sabr (subber). 
alone, a. wahd-uh (with pro. suff.) ; / let him alone, bi- 

truk-uh wahd-uh ; ad. 'ala wahd-uh. 
along, pr. 'ala tul (at-tul). 
alongside of, pr. bi-jenib; jenb. 
aloud, ad. 'al al-'ali. 



VOCABULARY. 85 

alphabet, n. elifbe. 

already, ad. "ablan. 

also, ad. kamen ; aidan. 

altar, n. medbah p. mdebih. 

alter, v. a. bghaiyir, ghaiyert, ghaiyir. 

V. n. bitghaiyir, tghaiyert, tghaiyir p.p. mutghaiyir. 
altercation, n. mkhascmi. 
although, con. m'a inn. 
altitude, n. irtife'a; 'ulu. 

altogether, ad. kill-un sawa; jumli; 'ala ba'ad-uh. 
alum, n. shebbi. 
always, ad. de'imcn. 

auiass, V. a. bkowwim, kowwamt, kowwim. 
ambassador, n. sefir p. sufera. 
amber, n. amber. 
ambition, n. tam'a. 
ambitious, a. tamma'a. 
amble, v. n. (3rd per.) birahwin, rahwan. 
ambler, n. rahwen. 
ambuscade, n. kemin. 

America, Amerika; american, amcrikeni. 
amiable, a. latif p. lutafa. 
anujiunition, n. jebakhani; zakhra. 
amnesty, n. 'afu. 
ainong, pr. beyn. 
amount, n. mcblagh p. mbeligh. 
ample, a. kcfi ; wcs'i. 

amputate, v. a. b"uss, "assait, "uss p.p. ma"sus, 
aniulet, n. hirz p. huruz. 
amuse, v. a. bselli, selleyt, selli ; v. a. {y^ per.) it amuses 

me, biyubsut-ni, basat-ni ; to be amused, binbusit, in- 

basatt. 



86 ARABIC MANUAL. 

aimisemeiit, n. tesliyi ; lahu. 

ancestor, n. jidd p. ajded. 

anchor, n. yatir ; mirsi ; v. n. birsi, rsit, irsi ; at anchor, resi. 

ancient, a. 'ati" p. 'utu"; "adim p. "udm, 

and, con. wa; u. 

anecdote, n. "issa p. "isas; hikeyi p. hikeyet. 

anemone, n. sha"shi" (shi"e"). 

anew, ad. min jdid. 

angel, n. melak p. melai'eki. 

anger, n. ghadab; za'al; ghaiz. 

angle, n. zewi p. zawaiya; "irni p. "arani. 

angry, to be, (with), v. n. biz'al, zi'ilt (min); binghaz, 

inghazt (min). / am angry, ana z'alen, kint z'alen ; to 

make angry, v. a. biz'el, za'alt, zu'ul. 
animal, n. haiwen p. haiwenet; dabbi p. dawab. 
anivwsity, n. 'adewi. 
ankle, n. kehil p. kewehil. 
a7inex (to), v. a. busul, wasalt, usul (usil), (bi), p.p. mowsul; 

bdumm, dammait, dumm (ila). 
announce, v. a bkhabbir, khabbert, khabbir ('an, of the 

thing), 
annoy, v. a. biz'el, za'alt, zu'ul ; it annoys me, biyiz'el-ni, 

za'al-ni. 
annul, v. a. bbuttil, battalt, battil; annidled, a. batil 

(battal). 
anoint, v. a. bimsah, masaht, msah. 
another, a. ghair-uh (with pro. suff.). 
answer, n. jeweb p. jewebet; v. a. bjewib, jewabt, jewib. 
ant, n. nemli p. nemel. 
Antioch, Antakiyi. 
anvil, n. sidden (sinden). 
anxiety, n. inshighal bel ; "ala". 



VOCABULARY.- 87 

anxious, a. meshghul al-fikr; "al"an; (desirous) a. mush- 

tah (li). 
any, a. ahad ; anybody, hada ; any tiling, shi (sheyj. 
apart, ad. 'ala jcnib; 'ala wahd-uh. 
aperient, n. mus-hil (mis-hil). 
apologise (to), v. n. be'itizir, etazert, e'itizir (ila). 
apology, n. 'uzr; 'itizar. 
apoplexy, n. sakti. 
apostle, n. resul p. risl. 
apothecary, n. farmashyeni ; saidcli ; apothecary's shop, 

farmashia; saideliyi. 
apparent, a. zahir; apparently, ad. zahiran. 
appeal (ask for help) v. a. bistenjid, stenjedt, stenjid; 

(judicial) v. n. bistc'nif, ste'neft, ste'nif. 
appear, v. n. bizhar, zahert, izhar. 
appearance, n. zuhur (zahir) ; laha. 
appetite, n. "abliyi. 

applaud, V. a. bza""if, za""aft, za""if (li). 
applause, n. tez"if. 
apple, n. tiffcha p. tcffeh. 
apply (use) v. a. bista'mil, sta'melt, sta'mil ; v. a. (put on) 

bhutt, hattait, hutt ('ala) ; {ask) v. a. bi"sud, "asadt, 

"usLid. 
appoint, V. a. b'aiyin, 'aiyent, 'aiyin p.p. m'aiyen ; to be 

appointed, bitwazzaf, twazzaft. 
appoint))ient, n. wazifi p. wazaiyif; ma'nuiriyi; merkez 

p. merakiz. 
apprentice, n. san'i p. sunna'a. 
approach, v. b"errib, "errabt, "errib (li). 
approval, n. istahscn. 

approve, v. a. bistahsin, stahsent, stahsin. 
apricot, n. mishmshi p. mishmish; apricot-tree, m\'i\\x)\'i\\\. 



88 ARABIC MANUAL. 

April, n. nisan. 

apron, n. wazra; ( child's) mariul p. marawil. 

aqueduct, n. "anayit mai p. "anawat. 

Arabia, beled al-'arab ; Arab, n. 'Arabi p. 'Urben ; arable, 

a. 'arabi; classical arable, 'arabi fasih; vulgar arable, 

'arabi derij. 
arbitrary, a. mustebidd. 
arbour, n. s"eli p. s"eyil; "ibbet khasheb. 
arcli, n. "antara p. "anatir. 
arcJibishop, n. raiyis asa"fi. 

archer, n. "uwwas p. "owwasa ; rami sihm p. rumet sihm. 
architect, n. mhendis. 
architecture, n. hendisi; resm; na"sh. 
archives, n. p. sijillet; owra". 
ardour, n. liamesi. 
area, n. mseht al-ard. 
argue [about] v. bjedil, jedelt, jedil (fi). 
argument [proof], n. burhan p. berahin; (dispute) jdel. 
arithmetic, n. 'ilm al-hiseb. 
ark, n. [Noah's ark] filk Nuh. 
arm, n. id d. ideyn; fore-arm, dr'a p. udr'u; zind p. 

znud; [weapon] sleh (slehi) p. esliha; arms alet harb. 
armour, n. dir'a. 
armpit, n. bat p. batat. 
army, n. jeysh p. jiyush; m'asker. 
around, ad. howl; min de'ir; all round, 'ala de'ir. 
arouse, v. a. bfeyyi", feyya"t, feyyi"; bnebbih, nebbeht, 

nebbih. 
arrange, v. a. bdebbir, debbert, debbir; bsewi, saweyt, 

sevvi p.p. msewa. 
arrangement, n. teswi; tedbir p. tedebir. 
arrears, n. p. ba"aiya. 



VOCABULARY. 89 

arrest, v. a. bikmish, kmcsht, kmush; bimsik, mesakt, 

msuk. 
arrival, n. wusul. 
arrive, v. n. busal, wusult. 
arrogance, n. tekebbur; kibriya. 
arrogant, a. mutkebbir; muta'ajrif. 
arrozo, n. sihni p. sihem. 
arsenic, n. zernikh; semm al-far. 
art, n. fenn p. finun ; {craft) san'a p. sanaiy'a. 
artery, n. shirien p. sheraiyin. 
articJioke, n. ardishowki. 
articulate, v. n. bilfuz, lafazt, Ifuz. 
artificial, a. istina'i. 
artillery, n. topkhana ; medfai'a; artilleryman topji p. 

topjiyi. 
as, ad. mitl; ka; con. mitlma; hais ann (with pro. suft".) ; 

as long as, madem ; as soon as, bes ; limma ; halma ; 

as if, ka; ka inn (with pro. suff.). 
ascend, v. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala). 
ascent, n. tal'a. 
ascertain, v. bistakhbir, stakhbcrt, stakhbir ('an); v. a. 

bha""i", ha'"'a''t, ha""i". 
ash (tree), n. lisen al-'asfur. 
aslianied, to be (of) v. n. bistilii, stahait (min) ; ashamed, 

a. makhjul. 
ashes, n. p. rimed. 
ashore, ad. al-berr; 'al al-berr. 
ash-tray, n. sahn sikara; manfada p. rnnahd. 
Asia, Asia; asiatic, a. asiawi. 
aside, ad. 'ala jenib. 

ask (a question), v. a. bis'cl, sa'clt, is'cl. 
asleep, a. neyim; ra"id. 



QO ARABIC MANUAL. 

asparagus, n. haliyun. 

assassin, n. "etil p. "utela. 

assassinate, v. a. bi"tul, "atalt, u"tul p.p. ma"tul. 

assassination, n. "atl. 

assault, V. bihjum, hajamt, hjum ('ala) ; n. hujum; mhajemi. 

assemble, v. a. bijm'a, jem'at, jm'a; v. n. (3rd per. p.) 

biyijtim'u, ijtem'au. 
assembly, n. jeme'i; ijtima'a. 
assent, v. birda, irdit, irda (fi or bi). 
assessor, n. mtemmin ; mkhammin. 
assets, n. p. mowjudet. 
assist, V. a. bse'id, se'adt, se'id. 
assistance, n. mse'adi. 
associate, n. sherik p. shureka. 
assurance, n. te'ekid ; {boldness) jesara. 
assure, v. b'ekkid, akkedt, ekkid (li). 
astern, ad. wara; astern of the ship, wara al-merkeb. 
astonish, v. a. (3rd per.) bidhish, dahesh p.p. medhush ; 

it astonishes vie, bi'ajjib-ni, 'ajjab-ni; to be astonislied, 

V. n. bit'ajjab, t'ajjebt. p.p. mut'ajjib. 
astonishment, n. dehshi; t'ajjub. 
asylum (for the insane) n. meristen. 
at, pr. f i ; 'ind; bi ; ad. at all, abaden; mnowb. (mnob). 
atheist, n. kefir. 
Athens, Atina. 
attach, (to) v. a. burbut, rabatt, urbut (bi) ; {hang up) 

V. a. b'alli", 'alla"t, 'alii" (bi). 
attack, V. bihjum, hajamt, hjum ('ala); n. hujum. 
attempt, v. n. bijtihid, ijtahadt, ijtihid; bjerrib, jerrabt, 

jerrib; n. ijtihad; tijrubi p. tejerib. 
attend (be present at) v. n. behdar, hadert, hdar (fi) ; 

{pay attention to) v. bintibih, intebeht, intibih (ila). 



VOCABULARY. 9 1 

attention, n. intibch ; pay attention! intibih li ; dir bel-ak 'ala. 

attentive, a muntibih. 

attest, V. bsadi", sada"t, sadi" ('ala) p.p. msadda". 

attitude, n. haiya; hala (hali). 

attorney, n. wckil da'awi; avokat. 

attract, v. a. bijzub, jezebt, jzub. 

anction, n. mezcd ; to sell by — , bbi'a, be'ut bil-mezed ; 

to buy by — , bishtri, shtrait bil-mczed. 
August, n. eb. 

aunt, n. {paternal) 'ammi ; [maternal) khali. 
auspicious, a. sa'id. 
Australia, Ustralia. 

Austria, Nemsa ; austrian, a. nemsewi. 
author, n. mu'ellif; ketib. 
authority, n. sulta. 

authorize, v. a. bfowwid, fowwaclt, fowwid. 
autograph, n. imda. 
autumn, n. al-kharif, 
avarice, n. bikhl. 
avaricious, a. bakhil p. biikhal. 
a'venge, v. bekhud, akhadt at-tar; I avenged you, akhadt 

bi tar-ak. 
average, a. m'addal; on an average, 'ala m'addal. 
avert, v. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a. 
avoid, V. bib'ud, ba'adt, bu'ud ('an) ; bibt'id, ibt'adt, bt'id 

('an or min); bitjennib, tjcnncbt, tjcnnib ('an or min). 
azvait, v. a. bistanzir, stanzert, stanzir; bintizir, intazert, 

intizir. 
awake, v. n. bfi", fi"t, fi" ; bu'a, \va'it,.\vu'a; a. we'i ; faiyi". 
azvkivard, a. ghashim ; [difficult) s'ab. 
axe, n. ferra'a ; fes p. fus; balta. 
axle, n. m'awcl. 



92 ARABIC MANUAL. 



baby, n. tifl p. atfal ; walad zghir. 

baclielor, n. 'azeb p. 'uzben c. p. 'azzebi. 

back, n. dahr; "afa; beJimd my back, wara dahr-i. 

backgammon, n. da"" towli. 

backivard (tardy), a. himil; buti. 

backiuards, ad. ila wara; go back, rj'a la wara; back- 

ivards and forwards, la wara u la "iddem. 
bacon, n. lahm khanzir. 
bad, a. 'aatil, c. 'aatil aktar; redi c. arda; to go bad 

[of fruit) V. n. (3i"d per.) biyihtiri, ihtara; [of meat) 

V. n. (3rd per.) biyirwih, arwah. 
badge, n. nishen p. nieshiii; 'alemi. 
bag, n. kis p. kyes; shanta. 
baggage, n. 'afsh ; howeyij ; hmuli. 
bail, n. kefeli. 
bait, n. tu'um. 
baize, n. jukh serj. 

bake, V. a. bikhbuz, khabazt, khbuz p.p. makhbuz. 
baker, n. khabbez; ferran. 
balance, n. [of weight) mizen; (^y account) rasid; v. a. 

buzin, wezent, uzin p.p. mowzun ; to jnake balance, 

b'aiyyir, 'aiyyert, 'aiyyir al-mizen. 
balcony, n. tarasina ; balkon ; rowshen ; kishk. 
bald, a. ajlah p. juluh; asl'a p. sulu'. 
bale, n. beli p. belet ; tard p. trudi. 
ball, n. tabi p. tabet; [dance) ballo. 
ballast, n. sabura. 
balloon, n. balun; mintad. 
ballot, n. "ur'a; v. n. birmi, rmait, rmi "ur'a ('ala). 



VOCAIJULARV, 93 

balustrade, n. drabzin (drnb/.un). 

baviboo, n. khaizcran. 

banana, n, mowzi p. mowz ; banana tree, mowzi. 

band, n. rabta p. rabtat; [of music) jow"; nowbi ; elastic 
band, rabtat mighait. 

bandage, n. rabta p. rabtat. 

banish, v. a. bserkil, serkelt, serkil p.p. mscrkcl ; binfi, 
nefeyt, nfi p.p. minfi. 

bank, n. bank; {river — ) hafii p. haffet c.p. hafefi; Ot- 
toman bank, bank al-'osmeni. 

banker, n. serraf p. saiyerif. 

banking, n. srafi. 

bankrupt, n. miflis; maksur. 

bankruptcy, n. iflcs. 

banquet, n. 'azimi p. 'aze'im ; walimi p. walc'im. 

baptise, v. a. b'ammid, 'ammedt, 'ammid p.p. m'ammad. 

baptism, n. m'amudiyi. 

bar, n. "adib p. "uclben ; shilf p. shlufi. 

barbarous, a. mutwahish ; berberi. 

barber, n. halla". 

bare, a. {naked) 'ariyen ; zlait; {of land) jcrda; "ar'a. 

bargain, n. bazar; msewami ; to make a bargain, v. a. 
bfasil, fasalt, fasil; bbezzir bezzert, bezzir. 

barge, n. maon p. mwain ; jurm p. jrumi. 

bark, n. {of a tree) "ishri ("ishr); {of a dog) "awi ; howsh. 
V. n. (3«^ per.) biyinbah, nabah ; bihush, hesh. 

barley, n. sh'ir. 

barn, n. anbar p. anabir. 

barometer, n. mizcn al-hfnva ; barometre. 

barracks, n. "ishli". 

barred, a. mshebbck bil-hadid. 

barrel, n. barmil p. baramil; (^/ ^ ^//;/) hadidit al-barudi. 



94 ARABIC MANUAL. 

barren, a. {of lajid) 'a"im; {of women) 'a"ir. 

barricade, n. sidd p. sdud ; {niilit.) mitras p. materis. 

base, a. dun (deni) ; bottovi) ases p. aseset; {of moun- 
tains) sifl ; k'ab. 

bashful, SL. khajul. 

basin, n. tusht p. tshut ; lekken p. Iken. 

basket, n. selli p. slel; clotJies — , sebet p. sbet. 

bastard, n. bandu". 

bat, n. wutwat p. watawit. 

bath, n. hammem p. hamemim ; bath-woman, belleni ; 
bath-man, hammemji; mkebbis; batJi towel, manshfi. 

batJie, V. n. bt-hammam, t-hammemt, t-hammem. 

battalion, n. tabur p. twabir. 

battle, n. wa"'a p. wa"'at; m'areki p. ma'arik. 

bay, n. khalij p. khiljen. 

bayonet, n. singhi p. singhet ; harbi p. harbet. 

bazar, n. su" p. aswa". 

be, V. / was, kint; he was, ken; be, kun; there will be 
bisir; tJiere was, sar {^oide grammar, verb 'to be'). 

beach, n. shatt. 

beacon, n. "abuli ("abili) p. "abebil ("abe'il). 

bead, n. kharazi p. kharaz; habbi p. hbub. 

beak, n. min"ad. 

beam, n. jisr p. jesura. 

bean, n. {french) lubiyi ; {haricot) fasulia. 

bear (to produce, of the earth) v. a. (31^ per. f.) bitghill, 
ghalHt ; {endure) v. a. bihtimil, ihtamelt, ihtimil ; {carry) 
V. a. behmil, hamelt, hmul; n. dibb p. dibeb. 

beard, n. da"n p. du"un; lihiyi p. liha. 

beardless, a. ajrudi. 

bearer, n. hamil ; ne"il. 

beast, (wild) n. wahsh p. wuhush; {beasts in gen.) behe'im. 



VOCABULARY. 95 

beat, V. a. bidrub, darabt, drub; {overcome) bighlub, 
ghalabt, ghlub p.p. maghlub; to be beaten, bindirib, 
indarabt. 

beautiful, a. zarif p. zuraf; jemil c. ejmcl; bedi'a. 

beauty, n. jemel. 

because, con. bi hais; hais aim (with pro. suff.) ; li kiin. 

becouie, v. n. bsir, sirt, sir; to suit v. [y^ per.) biyilba", 
libi" (li). 

bed, n. {bedding) fershi p. fershet; bed-clothes, n. ghata; 
lahaf; bed-room, n. udat an-nom ; bed-stead, n. takht 
p. tukhut. 

bedouin, n. bedewi p. bedu. 

bee, n. nahli p. nahl ; bee-hive, n. "afir an-nahl. 

beef, n. lahm ba"ar; boiled beef, lahm maslu"; roast 

beef, lahm mishwi. 
beer, n. bira. 
beeswax, n. sham'a asfar. 
beetle, n. khinfsi p. khenefis. 
beetroot, n. shmendur (shwender). 
before, ad. pr. "abl ; {of space) amem; "iddem ; before 

and after, "abl u b'ad ; con. "abl ma. 
beg, V. a. bitrajja, trajjait, trajja; to beg of, v. biltimis, 

iltemest, iltimis (min.). 
beggar, n. shahhad. 

begin, v. a. bbcllish, bellesht, bellish; bibtidi, btedeyt, btidi. 
beginner, n. mibtidi. 
beginning, n. bdeyi. 
behalf, on (of), pr. minshen. 

behave, v. n. bisluk, salakt, sluk; bitsarraf, tsarraft, tsarraf. 
behaviour, n. tesarruf; sluk; siri ; his behaviour, sirt-uh. 
behind, pr. khalf; wara; bi "afa. 
Belgium, Beljika; belgian, a. beljiki. 



g6 ARABIC MANUAL. 

belief, n. 'iti"ad. 

believe, v. a. bsaddi", sadda"t, saddi"; to believe in, v. 

bu'min, ament, emin (fi or bi). 
believer, n. mu'min. 
bell, n. jaras p. jras. 
bellows, n. menfakh. 
belly, n. batn. 
belong to (to) v. n. {^^^^ P^r.) bikhuss, ken bikhuss; it 

belongs to me, bikhuss-ni; teb'a-i. 
below, pr. taht. 
belt, n. zinnar p. znenir. 
bench, n. bank p. bnuki ; ma" 'ad khasheb. 
bend, v. a. bilwi, laweyt, Iwi; v. n. to bend the head, 

bnikhkh, nakhkhait, nikhkh. 
benefit, n. menfa'a p. menafi'a. 
bent (crooked) a. 'awaj f. 'owja p. 'uj. 
berth (on board ship) n. srir p. aserir (sraiyir). 
berry, n. kibsh p. kebush. 
beside, pr. hadd; "arib; jenb. 
besides, ad. ma'ada ; kamen ; fadlan 'an 
besiege, v. a. bhasir, hasert, hasir. 
best, a. sup. al-ahsan ; ahsan min al-kill. 
bet [on), V. n. brahin, rahent, rahin ('ala) ; n. rahn p. 

ruhuni. 
Bethlehem, Beytlahm. 
betray, v. a. bkhun, khint, khun. 
betrotli {to), v. a. bitlub, talabt, tlub (ila) ; bkhattib, 

khattabt, khattib (ila) ; betrothed, a. khatib. 
betrothal, n. khitbi. 
better, a. ad. ahsan; afdaL 
betting, n. mraheni. 
between, pr. beyn. 



VOCABULARY. 97 

beyond, jjr. b'ad ; [of space) "at'i ; beyond vicasiire, fow 

"al-hadcl; fow "al-"iyes. 
Bible, n. {old Testament) d^t-iowrdi; {nezv Testainent) 3.\-'u-\]\\. 
big, a. kbir c. akbar p. kbar ; 'azim. 
bile, n. safra. 
/;///, n. "a'imit hiseb; /;/// of exchange, kimbieli p. kim- 

biclct; bill of lading, bolsit shahn p. bwalis. 
bind, V. a. burbut, rabatt, urbut pp. marbut; {to roll) 

V. a. bliff, lefifeyt, liff, pp. melfuf ; {of books) v. a. bjellid, 

jelledt, jcllid pp. mjellad. 
bird, n. tayr p. tuyur; bird-liuie, dib". 
birtli, n. ulcdi; the birth of the child, ulcdit al-walad; 

birth-day, 'eid mowlid ; milad. 
bishop, n. mitran p. matarni. 
bishopric, n. abiashiyi. 
/;//, n. {piece) nitfi ; sha"fi ; {of a bridle) fekk; bit by bit, 

shwayi shwayi; {piecemeal) nitfi nitfi. 
bite, V. a. b'add, 'addait, 'add. 
bitter, a. murr. 

black, a. aswad (aswid) f. sovvda p. sud. 
blacking, n. boya. 
blacksmith, n. hadded. 

blade, n. shafra p. shafrat; nasli p. naslat. 
bladder, n. metcni ; mebweli; {iyiflated) n. marara. 
blame, v. a. blum, limt, lum {used to inferiors); v. a. ba'atib, 

'atabt, 'atib {used to equals and infer io'>'s); n. lowm; 'iteb. 
blameless, ad. bila lowm. 
blank, a. abyad; in blank, 'ala baiyad. 
blanket, n. hram p. hramct. 
blaze, n. sh'ali ; lahib. 
bleach, v. a. bu"sur, "asart, u"sur pp. ma"sur; bbaiyid, 

baiyadt, baiyid pp. mbaiyad. 

7 



98 ARABIC MANUAL. 

bleed, v. n. (31^ per.) bisil, sel min-nuh damm; v. a. bufsud, 

fasadt, fsud. 
bless, V. a. bberik, berakt, berik. 
blessing, n. bereki p. bereket. 
blind, a. 'ama ; v. a. be'ami, 'ameyt, 'ami; to go blind, 

V. n. b'ama, 'amit. 
blindness, n. 'ama. 
blister, n. hara"a. 
block, n. sidd p. sdud ; block of wood, "it'at khasheb ; 

V. a. bsidd, seddeyt, sidd pp. inesdud. 
blockade, n. hisar bahri. 
blockhead, n. abhel ; mebhul ; belid. 
blood, n. damm ; fidl-blooded, a. dammawi. 
bloody, a. mlattakh bi damm; bloodshed, n. sefk ad-dimma. 
bloom, n. tarawi. 

blossom, n. zahra p. zahr (zuhur). 
blot, n. latkha. 

blotting-paper, n. wa.ra"neshshesh (neshshaf). 
blow, n. darbi; latmi ; v. n. binfukh, nefakht, nfukh 

pp. menfukh. 
blue, a. azra" f. zer"a p. zir"; dark blue, azra" ghami"; 

ligJit blue, azra" fetih. 
blunder, n. ghalta p. ghaltat c. p. ghalat. 
blunt, a. kell ; mau (mush) madi. 
bhish, V. n. bikhjel, khijilt, khijel. 
boar, n. khanzir berri p. khnezir berriyi. 
board, n. lowh p. Iweh; sideboard, khizenit sufra. 
boast, n. fashr; fakhr; v. n. biftikhir, iftakhert, iftikhir; 

bshuf, shuft hal-i, shuf hal-ak. 
boaster, n. feshshar. 

boat, n. feluka p. fleyik; "arib p. "awerib. 
boatman, n. bahri. 



VOCABULARY. 99 

bodkin, n. mdckk, p. mdckkct. 

body, n. jism p. ajsem; {corpse) jifi p. ji'ef. 

boil, V. a. and n. [of liqjiids) bighli, ghaleyt, ghli pp. 
mighli ; {of solids) v. a. bislu", sala"t, slu" pp. maslu"; 
V. n. {y^ per.) biyinsili", insala". 

boiler, n. dist p. dsut. 

boiling, a. ghali. 

bold, a. jcsur. 

bolster, n. mkhaddi ; wusedi. 

bolt, n. sa"ata (sa"Lita) p. sa"utat; da"r p. d"ura. 

bomb, n. killi p. klcl. 

bo)id, n. scned p. senedet; sakk p. skuk. 

bone, n. 'admi p. 'adam ('adm). 

bonfire, n. "abili ("abuli) p. "abebil ; tenwir. 

bonnet, n. birneyta p. buranit. 

book, n. kiteb p. kutub ; book-binder, mjellid; book-case, 
kutubiyi; khizenit kutub; book-keeper, mhassibji; book- 
keeping, mcsk ad-defetir ; book-seller, bey'i kutub ; 
bookshelf, reff p. rfuf. 

boot, n. sirmeyi p. sarami ; bootlace, shrita p. shrayit ; 
bootmaker, kinderji; topboot, jezmi p. jczmet. 

booty, n. ghanimi. 

border, n. haftl p. haffet ; hadd p. hudud; hashiyi. 

bore, V. a. bibkhush, bakhasht, bkhush pp. mebkhush ; 
{of metals) bi"dah, "adaht, "ideh; {to zueary) bit'ub, 
ta'ebt, tu'ub pp. met'ub ; // bores me, biyit'ib-ni, ta'ab-ni. 

born, to be, v. n. bikhla", khili"t; bulad, walidt. 

borrow, v. a. bista'ir, sta'art, sta'ir. 

bosom, n. hudn (hidn) p. ahdan. 

Bosphorus, Boghaz. 

both, a. kill wehid (wahid) ; itncyn f. tintcyn. 

bother, n. t'ab ; si"Ii. 



lOO ARABIC MANUAL, 

bottle, n. "annini p. "ineni. 

bottom, n. asfal; "e'a ("a'a). 

bojigh, 11. ghusn p. aghsan; fer'a (fir'i) p. fru'a. 

boundary, n. hadd p. hudud; takhm p. tkhum. 

bouquet, n. ba"et (be"at) zuhur. 

bozv, n. "ows p. a"was; [of a necktie), 'u"di ('i"di). 

boiv [reverence), n, haniiyt ras; v. n. binhini, inhanait, 

inhini. 
bowels, n. am'a ; ferigh; sijuk. 

boiul, n. tasi p. taset; kesi p. V^o.'&kX; pipe ^^za/, ghaliyun. 
box, n. sandu" p. snedi"; [small) 'elbi p. 'eleb; [box on 

the ear) kefif. 
boy, n. sabi p. subiyan; walad p. uled (owlad). 
boyhood, n. siba. 

bracelet, n. isvvar p. asevvir; sleti p. sletat. 
braces, n. "ishat. 

brackets, n. p. hileleyn ; in brackets, beyn hileleyn. 
brackish, a. melih ; brackish zvater, mai nielha. 
bradaivl, n. berrimi. 
braid, n. jedel; habk. 

brain, n. dmagh; nkh'a; sheeps' brains, nkh'a kharuf. 
bramble, n. 'owsaj ; shok. 
bran, n. nkhali. 

branch, n. ghusn p. aghsan ; fer'a (fir'i) p. fru'a. 
brand, n. wasm ; nishen ; damgha ; v. a bhutt, hattait, 

hutt wasm. 
brass, n. nahas asfar. 
brawl, n. khna"a; toshi. 
brave, a. shuje'a (seje'a). 
bravery, n. sheje'aa (seje'aa). 
bray, v. n. (31(1 per.) bishenhi", shenha". 
bread, n. khibz ; loaf of bread, rghif khibz. 






VOCABULARY. 10 1 

breadth, n. 'ard. 

break, v. a. biksur, kesert, ksur pp. maksur; to break 

in pieces, v. a. bkessir, kessert, kessir ; to be broken, 

(31^ per.) biyiiikisir, inkeser; to break a promise, h\Ca\\\, 

khalleyt, khill bil-w'ad. 
breakfast, n. tcr\vi"a; ftur; v. n. biftar, fatart, ftar. 
breast, n. sidr; breastplate [of a Jiorse) sidriyi. 
breath, n. nefes. 

breatlie, v. n. bitneffes. tneffest, tneffes. 
breech-loader, n. barudi khal'a. 
breed, n. jins p. ajncs; asl. 
breeze, n. nesim. 
bribe, n. bartil p. baratil ; reshwi ; v. a. bbcrtil, bertelt, 

bertil ; v. bshuf, shuft, shuf khatir-uh. 
brick, n. "armidi p. "armid. 
bride, n. 'arus p. 'araiyis. 
bridegroom, n. 'aris p. 'irsen. 
bridesmaid, n. shbini p. shbinet. 
bridge, n. jisr p. jesura. 
bridle, n. Ijem p. Ijemet c. p. lijim; v. a. biljum, lajamt, 

Ijum (Ijom). 
brief, a. mukhtaser; briefly, bil-ikhtisar. 
brigade, n. liwa p. ehviyi. 
brigand, n. "att'a at-tari" p. "atta'in. 
bright {brilliant), a. lem'i. 
brim, n. haffi; brimful, melen li shiffi. 
bring, v. a. bjib, jibt, jib. 
brink, n. haffi. 
brittle, a. "ebil al-kesr. 
broad, a. 'arid; wes'i. 

broker, n. simsar p. smasra; dcllal (dellel). 
brood, n. sus p. sisan. 



I02 ARABIC MANUAL. 

brook, n. se"i (sa"i) p. swe"i (sawa"i). 

broom, n. mikinsi p. mkenis ; m"ashshi ; belleni. 

broth, n. mar"a. 

brother, n. khey (khay); akh p. ikhwi ; {of the same 

father and mother) .sha"i"; br other -in-lazv, suhr. 
brown, a. asmar p. sumr. 

bruize, v. a. brudd, raddait, rudd p.p. mardud ; n. radda. 
brush, n. firsheyi p. firsheyet; tootli-brnsh, firsheyit snen; 

V. a. bfershi, fershait (fersheyt), fershi. 
brnshiuood, n. bellen. 
bucket, n. dalu p. idilwi ; satl p. stuli. 
buckle, n. bzim p. bzimet; v. a. bbekkil, bekkelt, bekkil 

p.p. mbekkel. 
bud^ n. zirr p. zrar. 
buffalo, n. jemus p. jwemis. 
bug, n. ba"a p. ba". 
bugle, n. nefir. 
build, V. a. b'ammir, 'ammert, 'ammir, p.p. m'ammer; 

bibni, benait (beneyt), bni p.p. mibni. 
builder, n. m'emeri p. m'ameriyi ; benna p. benneyin. 
building, n. 'amara p. 'amarat ; bina p. binaiyet. 
bulb, n. basli p. basl. 

Bulgaria, Bilgharia ; bidgarian, a. bilghari. 
bull, n. towr (tor) p. tiran (tuwar). 
bidlet, n. resasa p. resas. 
bidrusli, n. ghazzara p. ghazzar. 
bump, n. waram; [knock] sadmi ; v. a. bisdum sadamt, 

sdum. 
bunch, n. [of grapes) 'an"ud p. 'ane"id ; (flowers) dummi. 
bundle, n. hizmi p. hizem ; rizmi p. rizmet c.p. rizm. 
bung, n. fellini p. fellin. 
buoy, n. shmandura p. shmandurat; 'awwemi. 



VOCABULARY. IO3 

burden, n. hi ml p. hmcl (hniuli). 

burial, n. defn. 

burn, v. a. bihru", hara"'t, huru" p.p. mahru"; v. n. 

(31^1 per.) biychru", hara" ; biyihti'ri", ihtara"; the fire 

burns, an-nar bitish'ul, she'elit. 
burst, V. n. {y^ per.) biyinfijr (biyinfizr), infajr (infazr); 

biyinfel'a, infcra. 
bjiry {of persons), v. a. bidfun, defent, dfun, p.p. med- 

fun ; {of ani)nals) btumm, tammait, tumm p.p. matmum. 
busJi, n. 'illey"a p. 'illey". 

business, n. shighl (shughlj p. ashghcl (ashghal). 
busy, a. meshghul. 
but, con. lekin; wa anima. 
butcher, n. lahham ; "assab. 
butt, V. a. and n. (3rd per.) biyintah, natah. 
butt-end, n. "anda" ("inda"). 
butter, n. zibdi ; clarified butter, semm. 
butterfly, n. frashi p. frashet. 
button, n. zirr p. zrar; v. a. bbekkil, bekkelt, bekkil p.p. 

mbekkel. 
button-hole, n. bikli p. bikel; 'irwi p. irwet. 
buttress, n. d'ami p. da'aiyim. 
buy, V. a. bishtri, shtrait (shtreyt), shtri p.p. mushtera; 

buying, n. shraiyit. 
buyer, n. mushteri; sheri. 
buzz, V. n. (3i"d per.) biwazwiz, wazwaz. 
buzzing, n. wazwazi. 
by, pr. 'ind; jenb; hadd ; {instrumental) bi ; bi wastat. 



104 ARABIC MANUAL. 



c. 



cabbage, n. melfufi p. melfuf; yakhanai p. yakhana. 

cabin, n. [ship's) kamara; uda zghiri. 

cabinet, n. khizeni p. khzeyin ; cabinet council, wazara. 

cage, n. "afas p. "afas. 

Cairo, Kahira. ' 

cake, n. ka'aki p. ka'ak; "urs p. "uras. 

calamity, n. msibi p. msaiyib ; belwi p. belwet. 

calculate, v. a. bihsub, hasabt, hsub p.p. mahsub. 

calculation, n. hiseb p. hisebet. 

calendar, n. riznemi d. riznemet. 

calf, n. 'ijl p. 'ujul; [of the leg) batat al-ijr. 

caligraphy, n. khatt. 

call, V. bindah, nadaht, ndah (li) v. b'aiyit, 'aiyett, 'aiyit 

(ila or li); [to name) v. a. bsemmi, semmait, semmi 

p.p. msemma; [to call out) v. n. bsarrikh, sarrakht^ 

sarrikh; [to visit) v. a. bzur, zirt, zur; [a visit) n. zi- 

yara p. ziyarat. 
calm, n. hudu ; [of the sea) ghalini; a. rekiz; hedi; v. a. 

bheddi, heddait (heddeyt), heddi ; bsekkin, sekkent, 

sekkin. 
calumniate, v. bushi, washait, ushi ('ala). 
calumniator , n. nemmem. 
calumny, n. nemimi. 
camel, n. jemel p. jmel; b'aiyir p. abe'ir; she-camel, ne"a; 

camel-driver, jemmel. 
camp, n. khiyeni; [milit:) m'asker. 
camphor, n. kafur. 

can, n. tenaki p. tenket; v. n. {vide: to be able), 
canal, n. "anayi p. i"niyi. 



VOCABULARY. 105 

cancel, v. a. bbuttil, battalt, battil ; cancelled, a. batil. 

cancer, n. saratan p. sratin. 

candid, a. selim al-"elb ; selim an niyi ; mukhlis. 

candle, n. shama'a p. shama'at. 

candlestick, n. sham'aden. 

cane, n. khaizeran ; sugar-cane, "asab sikkcr; "asab mass; 

{zvalking stick) 'asa p. 'usi. 
cannibal, n. ekil lahm al-beshr. 
cannon, n. medf'a p. mdef'i. 
cannot, v. n. ma bi"dir, ma "cdirt; / cannot do it, ma 

bi"dir 'amil-uh ; it cannot be, ma bisir. 
cap, n. ta"iyi p. tawa"i ; 'ar"iyi; p. 'ara"i ; "ib'i p. "ibc'a. 
capable, a. mu"tidir ; "adir ("edir). 
capacious, a. wes'i ; fasih. 

cape, n. {headland) ras; [cloak) burnus p. baranis. 
caper, (plant) n. "abbar. 
capital, n. {of a country) 'aasmi p. 'awasim; "asabi p. 

"asabet; {of money) rismel (rismal). 
capittdate, v. a. bsellim, scUcmt, sellim taht shart. 
capsicum, n. flaifli. 
captive, n. esir p. lisera. 
captivity, n. isr; scbi. 
capture, v. a. bi'sur, asert, isur p.p. ma'sur; bisbi, sebeyt, 

isbi p.p. misbi. 
caravan, n. "afili p. "awafil. 
carcass, n. jitti p. jittet; {/iuma}i) jifi p. ji'ef. 
card, n. wara"a p. wara". 
cardboard, n. kartun. 
cards (playing), n. p. wara" I'eb (I'ub) ; pack of cards, 

shiddi. 
care {anxiety), n. hemm; {attention) n. e'atina; take care! 

dir bcl-ak. 



I06 ARABIC MANUAL. 

careful, to be {about) v. n. be'atini, 'etenet, e'atini(fi). 

careless, a. mush mbeli. 

caress, n. mlatafi ; v. a. bdellil, dillelt, dellil; bghannij, 

ghannejt, ghannij. 
caretaker, n. natur al-beyt. 
cargo, n. shahn ; was". 
carnation, n. "arunfli p. "arunful. 
carpenter, n. nejjar. 
carpet, n. {large) bsat p. bust; {small) sejjedi p. sejjedet 

c. p. sijjad. 
carriage, n. 'arabiyi p. 'arabiyet ; karrusa p. karruset; 

(freight) n. nowulun ; (porterage) n. 'ateli. 
carrion, n. jifi. 
carrot, n. jezera p. jezr. 

carry, v. a. behmil, hamelt, limul p.p. mahmul. 
cart, n. {large) karro p. karrat; {small) tumberu p. tma- 

bir (tunber p. tnabir). 
cartridge, n. fesheki p. feshek; khartushi p. khartush. 
farve {of stone) v. a. bin"ush, na"asht, n"ush p.p. men- 
"ush ; {of zvood) V. a. bihfur, hafert, hfur p.p. mahfur. 
carving, n. na"sh; hafr. 
cascade, n. shellel p. shellelet. 

case, n. sandu" p. .snedi"; {small) 'elbi p. 'eleb; {legal) 
d'awa p. da'awi ; statement of case, 'ard al-mes'eli ; 
in no case, abaden. 
cash, n. na"diyt ; in cash, ad. na"den ; v. a. bi"bad, 
"abadt, i"bad p.p. ma"bud ; cash-book, n. defter p. 
defetir; cash-box, n. sandu"hadid. 
cashier, n. .sandu"ji; amin as-sandu". 
cask, n. barmil p. baramil.' 
castle, n. "al'a p. "il'a 
castor oil, n. zeyt kharw'a. 



VOCABULARY. lO/ 

castrate, v. n. bukhsi, khsait, khsi pp. mikhsi. 

casual, a. 'aradi. 

cat, n. bseyn p. bseynet; "att p. "atat. 

catalogue, n. jedwel p. jdewil. 

catastrophe, n. nekbi p. nckbct. 

catch, V. a. bikmish, kmesht, kmush; bimsik, mesakt, 

msuk p.p. memsuk ; bukhtuf, khataft, khtuf. 
cauldron, n. [large] khal"in p. khlc"in ; dist p. dsut. 
cauliflower, n. "arnabita p. "arnbit ; zahra p. zahrct. 
cause, n. sebeb p. asbeb ; 'illi p. 'illel ; v. a. bsebbib, 

sebbebt, sebbib p.p. msebbeb ('an). 
caustic, n. mikwi. 

cauterise, v. a. bikwi, kweyt, kwi p.p. mikwi. 
caution, n. hazr ; ihtiras. 
cautious, a. haris. 
cavalry, n. p. khaiyeli; fursan. 
cave, n. maghara p. mghaiyir. 

cease, v. n. [y^ per-) biyikhlas, khalas; biyintihi, inteha. 
cedar, n. erzi p. erz. 
ceiling, n. [of masonry) sa"f p. s"uf; [boarded] tawan 

p. tawanet. 
celebrate, v. a. bihtifil, ihtafelt, ihtifik 
celebrated, a. mesh-hur. 
celerity, n. sur'a; 'ajeli. 
celery, n. krefs. 
cellar, n. "abu p. i"biyi. 
cement, n. tin; mlat; simcnto; v. a. btaiyin, taiyent, 

taiyin p.p. mtaiycn ; bmallit, mallatt, mallit p.p. 

mmallet. 
cemetery, n. ma"bara p. m"cbir; turbi p. tiirab. 
censure, n. lowm ; v. a. blum, limt, lum p.p. melum. 
centipede, n. imm arb'a u arbc'in. 



I08 ARABIC MANUAL. 

centre, n. wast ; merkez. 

century, n. jil p. ajiyel; "arn p. "urun. 

ceremony, n. [function) ihtifel ; {behaviour) teklif. 

certain, a. akid ; {some) ba'ad-um {zvith pro: snff.). 

certainly, ad. m'alum; ha" "an ; ma"fura. 

certificate, n. - shehedi. 

certify, v. bish-had, shahidt (fi). 

cJiaff, n. {chopped straiv) tibn. 

chaiii, n. jenzir p. jnezir; silsli p. slesil; v. a. bjenzir, 

jenzert, jenzir p.p. mjenzer; b"eyyid, "eyyedt, "eyyid 

p.p. m"eyyed. 
chair, n. kirsi p. kerasi; rocking chair, kirsi hezzez. 
chalk, n. tbashir. 
chameleon, n. herbeyi. 
chance, n. sudfi, p. sidaf; fursa p. furas. 
chandelier, n. traiya p. traiyet. 
change, taghiyir; {of money) n. fart; v. a. bghaiyir, ghai- 

yert, ghaiyir; v. n. bitghaiyir, tghaiyert, tghaiyir p.p. 

mutghaiyer; {to change money) v. a. bisruf, saraft, 

sruf. 
channel, n. mejra p. mejeri. 
chapel, n. kenisi zghiri; kabella. 
chapter, n. fasl p. fusul ; (/;/ the Bible) is-hah p. is- 

hahat. 
character, n. tab'a p. atb'a; of good char act er,m\i-Alz2\i; 

his character is bad, tab'a-uh redi ; a bad character, 

sha"i p. ish"iya. 
charcoal, n. fahm. 

charge {accusation), n. tehmi; {custody) n. istilam. 
charity, n. rahmi ; haseni ; {alms) sada"a. 
charm {amtdet), n. hirz p. huruz. 
chart, n. kharta. 



VOCABULARY. IO9 

clias))i, n. huwi p. huwct; shi" " p. shu"u". 

chastise, v. a. b'eddib, 'eddebt, 'cddib p.p. m'cddcb; b"asi.s, 

"asast, "asis p.p. m"asa.s. 
cJiastisement, n. "isiis. 
cheap, a. rkhis c. arkhas p. rkhas. 

cheat, V. a. bghishsh, ghashshait, ghishsh p.p. maghshush. 
check, n. mcn'i; v. a. bimn'a, mcn'at, mn'a p.p. mem- 

n'u; bsudd, saddait, sudd p.p. masdud. 
check-mate, n. met (mat). 

cheek, n. khadd, khudud; cJieek bone, wejni p. wejnet. 
cheer, v. a. bfarrih, farraht, farrih ; bibsut, basatt, bsut. 
cheerful, a. farhan. 
cheese, n. jibn; a cheese, "clib jibn. 
chonist, n. farmashyeni ; S2i\de\\; chonisfs shop,{3.rn\disK\di; 

saideliyi. 
cherry, n. kcrezi p. kerez ; cherry tree, kerezi. 
chess, n. sataranj (shatranj) ; to play chess, bil'ab, Tibt, 

Tab sataranj; chess-man, hajr p. hijar; king, shah; 

nefs ; queen, firz ; castle, rikh ; bishop, f il ; knigJit, faras ; 

pawn, bayda" p. biyedi". 
chess-board, n. ri" 'at as-sataranj. 
chest, n. sidr p. sduri ; {box^ sandu" p. snedi". 
chestnut, n. kestaneyi p.kcstana; chestnut tree kestaneyi. 
chezv, V. a. bimdagh, madaght, mclagh p.p. mamdugh. 
chicken, n. djeji p. djcjct c. p. djcj ; firkha p. firakh; 

cliicken-pox, jidrit al-mai. 
chief, n. raiyis p. ruasa. 
chiefly, ad. khususan; bil-akhas. 
child, n. walad p. uled (owlad). 
childhood, n. waldeni. 
chill, n. berd. 
chilly, a. bcrid f. berdi; {of persons) msa" 'a ; berdcn. 



no ARABIC MANUAL. 

cliinmey, n. dekhun p. dwekhin ; medkheni ; [of a lamp) 

"izezi p. "izezet. 
cliin, n. da"n p. du"un. 

China, as-sin ; cJiinese, a. sini; [porcelaiii) n. khazaf ; sini. 
chintz, n. shit; yemeni. 
chisel, n. zmil p. azamil. 
choice, n. ikhtiyar. 
choke, V. a. [of creatures) bikhnu", khana"t, khnu" p.p. 

makhnu" ; {of things) v. a. bsidd, seddeyt, sidd p.p. 

mesdud. 
cholera, n. hawa asfar. 
choose, V. a. bna" "i, na" "ait, na" "i p.p. mna""a; bukhtar, 

ikhtart, ikhtar p.p. mukhtar. 
chopper, n. satur p. swatir. 
chord, n. watar p. owtar. 
Christ, Yesu'a; al-mesih; 'Isa. 

Christian, n. nusrani p. nasara; mesihi p. mesihiyin. 
cliurcJi, n. kenisi p. kneyis. 
cigarette, n. sikara p. swekir; a^^r^//^ /^^/(s'^r, biz sikara; 

cigarette case, 'elbit sikara. 
cinders, n. rimed. 
cinnamon, n. "irfi. 
cipher, n. shifra; ra"m p. ar"am. 
circle, n. de'iri p. dwe'ir. 
circulate, v. n. (3rd per.) bidur, dar. 
circumstance, n. zarf p. zuruf. 
cistern, n. sahrij p. saharij ; [well) bir p. biyara. 
citizen, n. ibn beled p. uled beled. 
citron, n. kubbedi p. kubbed. 
city, n. medini p. mudn. 
civil, a. meleki; civil service khidmi milkiyi ; {polite) a. 

mhazzab ; mrubba. 



VOCABULARY. 1 1 1 

civility, n. tch/.ib; lutf. 

claim, n. tcilab p. talbet c. p. matalib; [legal claim) n. 

d'avva p. da'awi ; v. a. bitlub, talabt, tlub p.p. matlub ; 

[to pretend) v. biddc'i, idda'ait, iddc'i (fi); to claim 

[legally) v. b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul d'awa. 
claimant, n. trdib p. tullab ; mudde'i. 
clamour, n. dajji (doji); saiha. 
clap [applaud), v. bza" "if, za" "aft, za""if (li), 
class, n. sinf p. asnaf. 
claiv, n. difr (zifr) p. adfar (azfar), dafir. 
clay, n. tin; [earth) tirab. 
clean, a. ndif c. andaf p. ndaf; v. a. bnaddif, naddaft, 

naddif p.p. miiaddaf. 
cleanliness, n. nadafi. 
clear, a. wadih; zahir; [transparent) a. sih&^dii ; [of liquids) 

safi ; raiyi"; v. a. browwi", rowwa"t, rowwi" p.p. 

mrowwa"; clear sighted, nazr-uh taiyib. 
clerk, n. ketib p. kitteb. 
clever, a. shatir, c. ashtar p. shuttar. 
cli})ib, V. n. bit'amsha", t'amsha"t, t'amsha" ('ala) ; bit'ar- 

bash, t'arbesht, t'arbash ('ala). 
climate, n. menekh. 
clock, n. se'a di"a"a; clock-maker, se'ati ; clock-toxver, 

birj as-se'a; face of a clock, mina; Jiands of a clock, 

'a"rab p. 'a"arib. 
close, a. "arib p. "urab ; {to fasten) v. a. bsekkir, sekkcrt, 

sekkir p.p. msakker; {to shut) v. a. bughlu", ghala"t, 

ghlu" p.p. maghlu". 
closet, n. khizeni p. khzeyin. 
cloth, n. jukh; saddle-cloth, libbcdi; [for luiping) n. 

memsaha ; futa. 
clothe [to put clothes on), v. a. blabbis, labbest, labbis; 



112 ARABIC MANUAL. 

[to provide zvitJi clothes) v. a. biksi, ksait, ksi p.p. 
miksi ; clothed, a. lebis. 

clothes, n. p. tyeb; n. keswi; bedli. 

clovd, n. ghaimi p. ghiyum. 

clove {spice), n. kibsh "arunfuL 

club, n. nebbut p. nebebit ; {place of meeting) debesi 
p. debeset; {of cards) sbeti. 

coachman, n. 'arabaji. 

coal, n. fahm hajr. 

coarse, a. khishin. 

coat, n. sitra p. sitrat (sitri p. sitari); saku p. saket; 
overcoat, kebbiit p. kbebit ; jibbi p. jibeb. 

cobbler, n. sekkef. 

cobweb, n. 'ankebut; sidi 'ankebut. 

cock, n. dik p. diyuk; {of a gun) dik. 

cockroach, n. sarsur p. srasir. 

coffee, n. "ahwi; {in the berry) benn {h'mn); ground coffee, 
benn mat-hun; coffee boiler, ghiWeyi; duli(d61i); coffee- 
mill, mat-hanit benn; coffee roaster, xvL2i\\vi\2iSd.; to roast 
coffee, V. a. bhammis, hammast, hammis p.p. mhammas. 

coffin, n. tebut p. twebit. 

coin, n. 'umli ; v. a. bsikk, sekkeyt, sikk 'umli; bdu"", 
da" "ait, du""'umli. 

cold, n. berd; a. berid f. berdi ; {of persons) a. berden; 
{in the liead) n. resh ; {in tlie cJiest) nizl ; to catch cold, 
V. n. bibrud, baradt, brud ; / have a cold in the head, 
ana mreshshah. 

colic, n. maghs. 

collar, n. "abbi p. "abbet; {of harness) kiddeni. 

colleague, n. refi p. arfa". 

collect, V. a. bijm'a, jem'at, jm'a p.p. mejmu'a. 

college, n. medresi p. mederis. 



VOCABULARY. 113 

colonel, n. niir alay. 

colony, n. lown p. el wen. 

colt, n. nuihr p. mhur (mahari). 

coliDiDi, n. 'amud p. 'awemid. 

co)nlf, n. musht p. mshat; v. a. bmashshit, mashshatt, 

mashshit p.p. mmashshat. 
come, V. n. biji, jit, t'a; come up, bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala); 

co)iie doivn, binzel, nzilt, inzel; come back, birj'a, rj'at 

(rj'et), rj'a (rje'a). 
comet, n. abu denab. 
comfort, n. {case) raha. 
comfortable, a. mlib ; bi raha ; mirteh. 
comical, a. mucUiik. 

coming, pres. part, jci; coming and going, raih u jei. 
comniand, n. amr p. awemir; v. a. bi'mur, amert, emir 

(umiir). 
comma)ider, n. amir; "cyid ; kumandan. 
cojumend, v. a. bimdah, madaht, mdah p.p. memduh. 
comvieyidation, n. medh (medih). 
coninierce, n. tijara; metjr. 
co)?imission, n. 'umuli [allowance to an agent). 
common, a. derij c. adraj ; {universal) 'umumi, 'am ; 

(plentiful) wajd (mowjud) bi kitra; ghazir; commonly, 

ad. 'umumen. 
communicate, v. a. bbelligh, bellaght, belligh p.p. mbellagh. 
communication, n. tebligh p. teblighat. 
companion, n. refi" p. arfa" ; zmil p. zumela. 
company, n. shirki p. sheraket; {milit:) buluk p. bulukct. 
comparatively, ad. bin-nisbi. 

coinpare iivitli), v. a. bi"ebil, "abelt, "ebil (m'a). 
co))iparison, n. m"ebeli ; /// comparison luith, bil-m*'ebeli ; 

bin-nisbi ila. 

8 



114 ARABIC MANUAL. 

compass, ii. bikar. 

compassion, n. shefa"a; ra'fi. 

compel {to), V. a. bijbur, jebert, jbur p.p. mejbur ('ala). 

compensate, v. a. b'owwid, 'owwadt, 'owwid p.p. m'ow- 

wad ('ala of tJie person) ; to be compensated, bit'owwad, 

t'owwadt. 
compensation, n. t'awid. 
cojupetence, n. salahiyi. 
competent, a. "adir ("edir). 

complain (of), v. bitshekka, tshekkait, tshekka (min). 
complaint, n. teshekki (shekwa) p. teshekkiyet. 
complete, a. kemil ; v. a. bkemmil, kemmelt, kemmil p.p. 

mkemmeL 
completely, ad. bil-killiyi ; tamemen. 
co^nplexion, n. lown al-wijh. 
complicate, v. a. blebbik, lebbekt, lebbik p.p. mlebbek; 

b'arbis, 'arbest, 'arbis p.p. m'arbas. 
complication, n. irtibek. 

compliment, n. teklif p. teklifet; v. a. bhenni, hennait, henni. 
composed (of), a. murekkeb (min). 

co7iiprehend, v. a. bifham, fahimt, fham p.p. mafhum. 
compromise, n. ittife" (ittifa") ; msewa ; v. a. bsewi, sa- 

weyt, sewi p.p. msewa. 
compulsion, n. ijbar. 
conceal, v. a. bkhabbi, khabbait, khabbi p.p. mkhabba; 

bikhfi, khafait, khfi p.p. mikhfi. 
concede (give), v. a. bimnah, manaht, mnah; [allow) v. 

bismah, semaht, smah (li). 
concern, v. a. {y^ per.) bihimm, hamm; it does not con- 
cern me, ma bikhuss-ni; ma bihimm-ni; ma biy'ani-ni ; 

it did not concern me, ma ken bikhuss-ni. 
concerning, pr. bkhusus; 'ala; min khusus. 



VOCABULARY. II5 

conccssio)i, n. imtiycz p. imtiyczet. 

conciliate, v. a. bselim, selemt, selim. 

conciliatioji, n. msalaha ; silha. 

concise, a. mukhtascr. 

conclude, v. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis ; binhi, nahait, 

nhi. 
conclusion, n. khatmi ; netiji p. nete'ij. 
condemn, v. bihkum, hakamt, hkum p.p. mahkum ('ala 

of the person, ila of the thing), 
condition, n. [state) hali; [stipulation) shart p. shurut. 
conditionally , ad. 'ala shart. 
condole [with), v. a. b'azzi, 'azzait, 'azzi ; bselli, selleyt, 

selli. 
condolence, n. t'aziyi. 
conduct, n. sluk ; siri ; her conduct, sirt-ha ; to lead {to), 

V. a. bekhud, akhadt, khud (li). 
confectioner, n. hilwenji p. hilwcnjiyi. 
confectio7iery , n. halawiyet. 

confederacy, n. jumhuriyi; muhalifi p. muhalifet. 
confer [ivitJi), v. n. bitbahat, tbahatt, tbahat (m'a) ; 

bitzekir, tzekirt, tzekir (m'a) ; [to give) b'ati, 'atait, 'ati. 
confess, v. be'itirif, 'itaraft, e'itirif (bi)"; b"urr, "arrait, 

"urr (bi). 
confession, n. i"rar ; 'itiraf. 

confide [to), v. a. bsellim, sellemt, scllim p.p. msellcm (li). 
confidence, n. ti"a ; emniyi. 
confidently , ad. bil-emniyi. 

confine, v. a. bihbus, habast, hbus (hbis) p.p. mahbus. 
cotifinn, V. a. bscbbit, sebbett, sebbit p.p. msebbet. 
confiscate, v. a. bihjuz, hajazt, hjuz p.p. mahjuz. 
confuse, v. a. bkharbit, kharbatt, kharbit; [morally) v. a. 

b'arbis, 'arbcst, 'arbis. 



Il6 ARABIC MANUAL. 

confusion, n. kharbata; [moral) teshwish. 

congratulate, v. bhenni, hennait, henni ; bberik, berakt, 

berik (li). 
cojigratiilation, n. tebrik; tehniyi. 
conjecture, n. takhmin; v. n. bkhammin, khamment, 

khammin. 
conjurer, n. mz'abir. 

connect [with), v. a. busul, wasalt, usul (usil) p.p. mowsul (bi). 
connection, n. ittisal ; 'ala"a ; [relation) "arabi p. "araiyib. 
connoisseur , n. khabir. 

conquer, v. a. biftah, fataht, ftah p.p. maftuh. 
conscience, n. damir. 
conscious, a. we'i (wa'i). 
conscription, n. "ur'a. 
conscript, n. 'asker "ur'a. 
consecutively, ad. bit-teb'aiyi. 

consent, n. rida; v. [to) birda, irdit, irda (fi or li). 
consequence, n. netiji p. nete'ij. 
consider, v. biftikir, iftakert, iftikir (fi or H). 
consideration, n. [thought) ta'ammul ; [respect) 'itibar. 
consign (to), v. a. bsellim, sellemt, sellim p.p. msellem (li). 
consignment [of 'goods), n. irsaliyi. 
consisting {of), a. murekkeb (min) ; m'ellef (min.) 
consolation, n. t'aziyi. 

console, v. a. b'azzi, 'azzait, 'azzi ; bselli, selleyt, selli. 
conspicuous, a. zahir; wadih. 
conspiracy, n. mu'amera; hareki; kemin. 
constancy, n. sebet. 
constant, a. sebit ; [continual) de'im. 
Constantinople, IstambCd; al-isteni. 
constantly , ad. de'imen ; 'ala dcwam. 
consternatio7i, n. khovvf; r'abi. 



VOCABULARY. II7 

constipation, n. "abd ; kitem. 

construct, v. a. b'ammir, 'ammert, 'ammir p.p. m'ammer. 

consul, n. "onsul p. "anasil; Consul General, "onsul 
jeneral; Vice-Consul, "onsul zghir (wekil "onsul); con- 
sulate, kunslato ("unslato). 

consult, V. a. bshewir, shewert, shewir. 

consumption, n. [disease) sil ; [food) ma"tu'iyi. 

contact, n. ittisal. 

contagion, n. 'adwi. 

contagious, a. m'edi. 

contain, v. a. {-y^ pei'.) bise'a, se'a. 

contaminate, v. a. be'adi, 'adait. 

contemptible, a. dun (deni) ; lia"ir. 

content, n. rida; "ana'a. 

contented, a. radi ; "en'i. 

contest, n. mnazera. 

continual, a. de'im ; mustmurr. 

continually , ad. de'imen. 

continue, v. a. bdewim, dcwamt, dewim ; v. n. (3^1 per.) 
bidum, dam (dem) ; bitul, trd; bitowwil, towwal. 

contraband, n. tehrib. 

contract, n. kontrato; mu"awcli; to contract zvith,W3.va\\ 
kontrato m'a. 

contradict, v. a. b"e\vim, "ewamt, "ewim; b'arid, 'aradt, 
'arid. 

contrary [to), ad. mkhalif ; pr. cludd ; on the contrary, 
bil-'aks; bil-khilaf. 

contrive, v. a. bdebbir, debbcrt, debbir. 

contrivance, n. tedbir p. tedebir; teswi; instinbat; [in- 
vention) ikhtira'a. 

convalescence, n. shifa; na"i. 

convenient, a. mwefi"; mnesib. 



Il8 ARABIC MANUAL. 

convent, n. deyr p. diyura. 

convention, n. ma'ahedi. 

convei'sation, n. liaki p. hakiyat. 

convert, n. muhtidi; v. a. [of religion) bihdi, hadait, 

hdi. p.p. mihdi; {of money) bhowwil, howwelt, howwil 

p.p. mhowwel. 
convey, v. a. bin"ul, na"alt, n"ul (n"il) p.p. men"ul. 
convict, n. miznib p. miznibin. 
convict {to), V. a. bkhatti, khattait, khatti ; v. bilikum, hakamt, 

hkum p.p. malikum {' ala. of t/ie per son, \\2, of tJie punishment), 
conviction, n. hukm; {belief) i"n'a. 

cook, n. ashji p. ashjiyi; v. a. bitbukh, tabakht, tbukh. 
cool, a. berid ; v. a. bberrid, berradt, berrid. p.p. mber- 

rad; V. n. (31^ per.) biyibrud, bered. 
coop, n. "afas p. "afas. 
copper, n. nahas. 
coppersmith, n. nahhas. 
copying, n. nsakhi. 
copy, n. niskha p. nisakh; v. a. binsakh, nasakht, nsakh 

p.p. mansukh. 
coquette, n. ghannuji; to coquet, v. a. and n. bgliannij, 

ghannejt, ghannij." 
coral, n. mirjen. 
cord, n. maras. 
core, n. "elb ("alb). 
cork, n. fellini p. fellinet c. p. fellin. 
corkscrew, n. berrimi p. berrimet. 
corn, n. "amh; {on the foot) mismar. 
corner, n. zewi p. zawaiya; "urni p. "arani. 
corporal, n. on bashi ; a. jesedi. 
corpse, n. jifi p. ji'ef; jitti p. jitet. 
corpulent, a. smin p. sman; nasih c. ansah. 



VOCABULARY. IIQ 

correct, a. sahili; mazbut; v. a. bsahhili, sahhaht, sahhih 

p.p. msahhah; bsallili, sallaht, sallih p.p. msallah. 
correspond with, {by letter) v. a. brasil, raselt, rasil ; {to 

agree with) v. n. (31'^ per.) bitabi", taba" (li). 
correspondence, n. m rasil i. 
correspondent, n. mketib; mrasil. 
corridor, n. ma'addiyi; memsha p. mcmeshi. 
corrupt, a. {of persons) murtikib. 
corruption, n. {bribery) fesed. 

cost, n. s'er; kilfi ; "imi; v. n. (3rd per.) bikellif, kcllef. 
cotton, n. "litun. 
couch, n. diwcn; ma" 'ad. 
cough, n. s'ali ; v. n. bis'ul, sa'alt, s'ul. 
council, n. mejlis; administrative council, mejlis al-idara; 

council of state, showra 'ad-dowli. 
counsel, n. nasiha ; meshura ; {to advise) v. a. binsah, 

nasaht, insah; v. bshur, shirt, s\\\xx ^dXdi); to take counsel 

with, V. a. bshewir, shewert, shewir. 
count, V. a. be'idd, 'addeyt, 'idd p.p. m'adud. 
counterfeit, v. a. bzowwir, zowwert, zowwir p.p. mzovvwer. 
country, n. beled p. bilden ; {as opposed to town) berriyi ; 

countryman, ibn (p. uled) watn. 
couplet, n. bcyt p. abiyet. 
courage, n. sheje'aa (seje'aa); jera'a. 
courageous, a. shuje'a (seje'a). 
courier, n. se'i (sa'i). 
course, n. {of a river) mejra; {way) tari" ; race-course, 

miden; {in driving) mishwar; of course, ad. inin kill 

bidd ; ma'Tura; m'aluni. 
court, n. {of a sovereign) blilt; {of a house) dar p. dur. 
court of justice, mahkemi p. mhakim; de'iri p. dwe'ir ; 

civil court, de'irit al-hu"u"; criniinal court, dc'irit aj- 



I20 ARABIC MANUAL. 

jeza; commercial court, mejlis at-tijara; court of ist in- 
stance, de'irit al-bedeyi; court of appeal, de'irit al- 
isti'nuf; court of cassation, de'irit at-temiz. 

courteous, a. adib. 

courtesy, n. adab ; lutf. 

courtier, n. nedim p. nudema. 

cousin, n. {by paternal uncle') ibn (f. bint) 'amm; {by 
pat. aunt), ibn (f. bint) 'ammi; {by maternal uncle') 
ibn (f. bint) khal ; {by jnat. aunt) ibn (f. bint) khali. 

cover, n. ghata p. ughtiyi; black silk cover worn by 
women, habara ; {coloured) melaiyi ; v. a. bghatti, 
ghattait, ghatti p.p. mghatta. 

covet, V. a. bishtihi, shtahait. 

coveteous, a. tamma'a. 

covey, n. reff p. rfuf. 

cow, n. ba"ara p. ba"ar. 

coward, n. jeben p. jiibena. 

cowardice, n. jebeni. 

coxcomb, n. ghewi (ghawi). 

crab, n. salta'un (sulta'an) p. slata'in. 

crack, V. a. biksur, kesert, ksur p.p. maksur; v. a. 
(3rd per.) bishi"", sha" " p.p. mesh"u"; bifsukh, fasakh; 
p.p. mafsukh; n. shi" " p. shu"u"; fiskh p. fsukh. 

cradle, n. sur p. aserir (sraiyir). 

craft, n. {trade) san'a p. sanai'ya ; hirfi ; (fraud) hili. 

crane, n. kirki p. kraki. 

crawl, V. n. bdebdib, debdebt, debdib. 

crazy, a. mef'ij'a. 

cream, n. "ishta. 

crease, n. j'adi p. j'adet; v. a. bja'wid, ja'wadt, ja'wid. 

create {cause), v. a. bsebbib, sebbebt, sebbib p.p. msebbeb 
('an) ; God creates, Allah biyikhli", khala" p.p. makhlu". 



VOCABULARY. 121 

creation, n. {of the zoorld) khal" al-Vilam. 

creator {the), al-khSli". 

creatures, n. p. makhlu"at. 

credentials, n. mektub towsiyi ; shehedi p. shehedet. 

credit, n. {consideration) 'itibur ; {of money) emniyi ; kre- 

dito ; debit and credit, luh wa 'aleyh ; to give credit 

to {money), v. a. bdeyyin, deyyent, deyyin; {to believe) 

bsaddi", .sadda"t, saddi". 
creditor, n. deyyen, p. deyyeni (medainiyi). 
crescent, n. hilel. 

cress, n. irshed; {zuatercress) "urra (hurra). 
crest, n. [of a bird) "unbra. 
Crete, krit; Cretans, ahli krit. 
crier, n. (public) dellel (dellal); mnedi. 
crime, n. zcnb p. znub ; jneyi p. jneyct. 
criminal, a. jeni; n. mijrim. 
crimscn, a. "irmizi. 

cripple, n. 'ajiz p. "ujjez; mukarsah p. mukarsihin. 
crocodile, n. timseh p. temcsih. 
crocus, n. z'aferan. 

crook, n. {shepherd's) 'asa; {of a stick) mihjeni; 'akfi. 
crooked, a. 'awaj f. 'owja p. 'uj. 
crop, n. mowsam p. mwasim. 
cross, n. salib p. sulben ; {out of temper) a. z'alen ; v. a. 

bi"t'a (bu"t'a) "at'at, u"t'a; cross road, n. msallabi. 
crow, n. ghrab p. ghurben. 
crowd, n. jemhur kbir. 
crowded, a. melen; mezhum. 
crown, n. tej p. tijcn. 
crozier, n. 'ukkaz. 

crucify, v. a. bislub, salabt, slub, p.p. maslub. 
cruel, a. "asi. 



122 RABIC MANUAL. 

cruelty, n. "asewi. 

crumb, n. kesra p. kesr. 

crupper, n. hiyasa. 

crusaders [the], n. p. as-salibiyi. 

crusades [the], n. p. liurub as-salibiyi. 

crush, V. a. bis-ha", saha"t, is-ha" p.p. mas-hu" ; bizhum, 

zahamt, zhum. 
cry, V. 11. {to weep) bibki, bakit, bki; v. a. {to call) hn€d\, 

nadait, nedi; v. bindah, nadaht, ndah (11); n. sowt 

(.sot) ; srakh. 
crystal, n. billowr (bellur). 
C7icuviber, n. khiyara p. khiyar. 
cue, n. {billiard) 'asa biliardo; {hi}it) ishara. 
cuff, n. {blozv) latmi;keff; (j-Z/Zr/) kimm (kumm) p. kemem. 
cuirass, n. dir'a p. dru'a. 
culprit, n. mi'znib; mijrim. 

cultivate, v. a. biflah, felaht, flah p.p. mafluh. 
cultivation, n. fleha (felaha). 

cunning, a. dehi ; muhtel ; a cunning rogue, n. hielji. 
cup, n. finjen p. fnejin. 
cupboard, n. khizeni p. khzeyin. 
cupola, n. "ubbi p. "ibeb. 
curdled, a. rab. 

curds {ctirdlea milk), n. rowbi. 

ciire, n. shifa; v. a. bishfi, shefeyt, shfi; cured, a. shift. 
C2irl, n. j'adi p. j'adet; v. a. bja'wid, ja'wadt, ja'wid; 

bliff, leffeyt, liff; curly, a, j'adi. 
currants, n. p. "ashlamish. 
currency, n. 'umli derji. 

current, (of a stream) n. mejra; (of money) a. derji. 
curry (a Jiorse), v. a. bhiss, hassait, hiss. 
curry-comb, n. mhassi. 



VOCABULARY. 1 23 

curse, n. I'ani p. Tanet; v. a. bil'an, la'ant, I'an p.p. 
mcl'un. 

curtain, n. birdeyi p. birdeyet; stara p. stcyir; curtain- 
rod, n. 'asa. 

cusliioyi, n. mkhaddi; [large) mesned p. mescnid. 

custoDi, n. 'adi p. a'adet c. p. avve'id. 

custodier, n. zbun p. zbuiict. 

custom-house, n. gumruk ; customs, n. p. rusumet. 

cut, V. a. b"us.s, "assait, "uss p.p. ma".sus; bu"ta (bi"t'a) 
"at'at, u"t'a p.p. ma"tu'a. 

cutting, n. teksir. 

cutlass, n. seyf p. siyuf; yatakan p. yatakanet. 

cymbal, n. sunj p. snuj. 

cypress, n. serwi p. serwet c. p. seru. 

Cyprus, "Ubrus ; Cypriote, a. "ubrusi. 



D. 

dagger, n. khanjer p. khncjir. 

daily, a. yowmi (yomi); by the day (of work) yomiyi. 

daisy, n. a"h\van. 

da)n, n. sidd p. sdud. 

da))iage, n. darar ; v. a. bdurr, darrait, durr p.p. madrur ; 

bsa"it, sa"att, sa"it p.p. msa"at; damaged, a. sa"at 

(of goods). 
Damascus, sham (shcm) ; Dimcshk ash-sham. 
damp, n. rtubi; a. riitib c. artab v. a. brattib, rattabt, 

rattib. 
dance, n. ra"s; v. n. bir"u,s, ra"a.st, ru"u.s. 
dancer, 11. ra"ils. 
danger, n. khatr. 



124 ARABIC MANUAL. 

dangerous, a. miikhtir, khutir. 

Danube, Danub. 

Dardanelles, Dardanil. 

dare, v. n. bisterji, sterjeyt, sterji; btjaser, tjasert, tjaser; 

btjarr'a, tjarr'at, tjarr'a. 
dark, a. 'atm f. 'atmi; m'atem f. m'atmi; to grow dark, 

V. n. (3rd per.) bit'atim, 'atamit ad-diniyi [the world). 
darkness, n. 'atmi; zulmi. 
darling, a. 'aziz; habib. 
darn, v. a. birti, ratait, irti p.p. merti. 
dash, V. a. bishlah, shalaht, shlali ; birmi, rmait, rmi. 
date, n. (time) terikh; (fruit) h€[di\ (f res Ji); tamr (dried), 
daughter, n. bint p. benat (benet) , daughter-in-law, kinni. 
dazvdle, v. n. bmasiy'a, masiy'at, masiy'a ; blowt'i, lowt'at, 

lowt'i. 
day, n. yowm (yom) p. iyem (iyam) ; fete-day, 'eid p. 

'aiyed; fast-day, yowm sowm (yom som); day and 

night, ad. nahar u leyl; day by day, ad. yowm b'ad 

yowm; by day, fin-nahar; all day, kill an-nahar; day 

of judgment, n. yowm al-"iyemi (for days of the week 

vide grammar), 
dead, a. me'it p. amwat (mota). 
deadly, a. muhlik; "attel. 
deaf, a. atrash f. tarsha. 
deafen, v. a. btarrash, tarrasht, tarrish. 
deal, (wood) n. snowbar; a great deal, ad. ktiri ktir; 

bi-ziedi; v. n. (to deal in) btejir, tejert, tejir (bi); 

V. a. (of cards) bdowwir, dowwert, dowwir; bfarri", 

farra"t, farri". 
dealer, n. tejir p. tujjar. 
dear, a. 'aziz; (expensive) ghali c. aghla. 
death, n. mowt (mot). 



VOCABULARY. 12$ 

debt, n. dcyn p. diyun; /;/ debt (a debtor) a. and n. 

mediyun. 
decanter, n. kraf. 

deceased, a. (of mosleiiis) merhum ; (christians) mutwaffi. 
deceit, n. ghishsh. 
deceive, v, a. bghishsh, ghashshait, ghishsh p.p. magh- 

shush. 
deceiver, n. ghashshesh. 
December, n. kcnun al-owweh 
decency, n. leya"a. 
decent, a. Icyi". 
decide, v. be'itimid, 'ctemedt, e'itimid ('ala) ; bsammim, 

sammemt, sammim fikr ('ala). 
decision, n. hukm ; "arar. 
declaration, n. ta"rir; tasrih. . 
declare, v. a. b"arrir, "arrert, "arrir. 
declivity, n. nezli. 

decorate, v. a. bzeyyin, zeyyent, zeyyin p.p. mzeyyen. 
decoration, n. zini. 
decrease, v. a. b"elHl, "allelt, "elHl ; bna""is, na""ast, 

na""is; V. n. {y^ per.) bi'ill, "ell; (in value) {y^ per.) 

biyun"us, na"as; (of disease) bikhuff, khaff; n. na".s. 
decree, n. amr p. avvemir. 
decrepit, a. 'ajiz p. 'ujjez. 
deduct, V. a. bitrah, taraht, trail p.p. matruh; bnczzil, 

nezzelt, nezzil. 
deduction, n. tenzil; is"at. 
deed, n. 'amcl p. a'mel; (title deed) hijji p. hujej ; (deed 

of sale), hijjit bey'a. 
deep, a. 'ami" (ghami") c. aghma" p. ghma". 
deer, n. ghazel p. ghizlen. 
defamation, n. t'an ; iftira. 



126 ARABIC MANUAL. 

defame, v. bit'an, ta'ant, ta'an (fi). 

defeat, v. a. bighlub, ghalabt, ghlub p.p. maghlub; to 

be defeated, binghilib, inghalibt ; binhizim, inhazamt 

p.p. minhizim. 
defect, n. na"s ; 'aib p. 'uyub. 
defective, a. na"is p. nu"as. 
defend, v. a. bihmi, hamait, hmi ; (in a legal sense or 

to stand up for) v. bhami, hameyt, hami ('an). 
defendant, n. mudde' 'aleyh. 
defer, v. a. b'ekhkhir, ekhkhert, ekhkhir p.p. m'ekhkher; 

b'ejjil, ejjelt, ejjil p.p. m'ejjel. 
deference, n. ihtiram. 
defile, n. madi"; v. a. bnejjis, nejjest, nejjis; defiled, a. 

nejis. 
definite, a. bett; "ati'. 
degree, n. dereji. 
delay, n. 'a"a; v. a. b'owwa", 'owwa"t, 'owwe" p.p. 

m'owwa"; V. n. bit'owwa", t'owwa"t, t'owwa". 
deliberate, a. himil ; mihil ; (to reflect) v. biftiker, iftakert, 

iftikir (fi or li); deliberately, ad. 'ala mahl-ak (loith 

pro. snff.). 
delicacy, n. nahafi; (weakness) du'af. 
delicate, a. nahif p. nuhafa; (weak) da'if p. da'af. 
delight, n. bast; farah; surur; v. a. {y^ per.) biyubsut, 

basat; biferrih, farrah ; delighted, a. mesrur. 
delightful, a. mferrih (mufirih). 
delirious (to be), v. n. bihzi, hazait; bikhlut, khalatt 

fil-kelem. 
deliver (to), v. a. bsellim, sellemt, sellim p.p. msellem 

(li); (liberate) v. a. bitlu", tala"t, tlu". 
deliverance, n. khalas. 
deluge, n. tufan (towafan). 



VOCABULARY. \2J 

demand, n. talab p. talbct c. p. matalib; bitlub, talabt, 

tlub p.p. matlub. 
demolish, v. a. bihdum, hadamt, hdum p.p. mahdum. 
demon, n. shaytan (shcytan) p. shaiyatin ; iblis. 
de7i, n. maghara p. maghaiyir. 
denial, n. iiikar. 

Denmark, Denimark; Dane, a. danemarkt. 
dense, a. smik p. smak. 
dentist, n. hakim snen p. hukema sncn. 
deny, v. a. binkur, nakert, nkur p.p. munker. 
depart, v. n. bsefir, sefert, sefir. 
departure, n. sefer. 
depend (on), v. n. '{y^^ per.) biyitwa" "af, twa" "af 

Cala). 
depopulate, v. a. bikhrub, kharabt ; depopulated, a. kharab. 
deposit, n. amcni; wadi'a; v. a. bud'a, wad'at, ud'a p.p. 

mowdu'a. 
deptJi, n. ghum". 
descend, v. n. binzel, nzilt, inzel. 
descent, n. nezli. 
describe (to), v. a. bishrah, sharaht, shrah (li) ; described, 

a. mazkur. 
description, n. vvasf. 
desert, n. shol ; v. n. (milit:) bihrub, harabt, hrub; v. a. 

bdeshshir, dashshert, deshshir. 
deserter, n. herib. 
desertion, n. harab. 

deserve, v. a. bistaha" ", staha""eyt; bistehil, stehelt. 
deserving, a. mustehil. 
design, n. ghaiyi ; "asd p. ma"asid; (sketch) rcsm p. 

rusLim. 
desire, n. rughbi ; v. a. birghab, rghibt, rghab. 



128 ARABIC MANUAL. 

desirable, a. marghub. 

desk, n. mektebi ; beshtakta. 

destroy, v. a. bikhrub, kharabt, khrub; bihdum, hadamt, 

hdum p.p. mahdum. 
destruction, n. kharab; hadam. 
detach, v. a. bfikk, fekkait, fikk p.p. mafkuk. 
details, n. p. tafsilat. 

detain, v. a. b'owwa", 'owwa"t, 'owwe" p.p. m'owwa". 
detest, V. a. bikrah, kriht p.p. makruh. 
devil, n. iblis ; shaytan. 
devise, v. a. bdebbir, debbert, debbir. 
devotee, n. zehid. 
devotion, n. 'ibedi. 
dezv, n. nidi. 

dexterous, a. shatir, p. shuttar; mehir. 
dialogue, n. hadis; mukalemi. 

diamond, n. ilmazi p. ilmaz (ilmas) ; (cards) dined. 
diarrhcEa, n. is-hal; jeriyan. 
diary, n. yowmiyi; jurnel. 
dice, n. zahr. 

dictionary, n. "amus p. "awamis. 
die, V. n. bmut, mutt, mut. 
differ (from), v. n. bikhtilif, ikhteleft ('an or m'a) ; v. n. 

(3i"ci per.) biyifri", fara" ('an). 
difference, n. far" p. fru" (fru"at). 
different, a. mukhtilif. 
difficidt, a. s'ab c. as'ab. 
difficulty, n. s'obi (s'ubi). 
dig, V. a. bihfur, hafert, hfur p.p. mahfur. 
digest, V. a. bihdum, hadamt, hcium p.p. mahdum. 
dignified, a. jelil; wa"ur. 
dignity, n. wa"ar. 



VOCABULARY. 1 29 

dilatory, a. buti ; liimil. 

diligence, ijtihad; ihtimam. 

dilute, V. a. bkhaffif, khafteft, khaffif p.p. mkhaflcf. 

dim, a. muzlim. 

dimension, n. "iyes. 

diminish, v. a. bna" "is, na" "ast, na" "is ; v. n. (3rd per.) 

biyun"us, na"as; diminished, a. na"is. 
dine, v. n. {at mid-day) bitghadda, tghaddeyt, tghadda; 

biftar, fatart, ftiir; [in the evening) bit'ashsha, t'ash- 

hait, t'ashsha. 
dining-room, n. udat sufra; beyt at-towli. 
dinner, n. {mid-day) ftur; ghada; {evening) "3.s\\a.; {dinner - 

table), sufra; towlit al-ghada. 
dip, V. a. bghammis, ghammast, ghammis ; bghutt, ghatteyt, 

ghutt. 
direct, a. dughri; v. a. (to) bdull, delleyt (dellait), dull 

('ala); direct me to the road, dull-ni 'al at-tari". 
direction, n. tari"; derb; jeha p. jehet; (;«^«rt^^;«^«/) idara 

p. idarat. 
directly, ad. halan ; halla". 
director, n. mudir. 
dirt, n. wasakh. 
dirty, a. wisikh ; v. a. bwassikh, wassakht, wassikh, p.p. 

mwassakh. 
disagree, {with) v. n. bikhtilif, ikhteleft, ikhtilif (m'a). 
disappear, v. n. bghib, ghibt (kint ghaiyib), ghib ; dis- 
appeared, pres. part, ghaiyib {nsed as an adj.). 
disappearance, n. ikhtifa. 
disappoint, v. a. bkhaiyib, khaiyebt ; bi"t'a (bu"t'a), "at'at 

amel-i {zvith pro suff.) ; disappointed, pres. part, khaiyib 

(used as an adj.). 
disappointnient, n. khaibi. 

9 



130 ARABIC MANUAL. 

disaster, n. msibi p. msaiyib. 

discernment, n. futni. 

discharge, [send away) v. a. bish-hat, shahatt, shahat, 

p.p. mash-hut; b"airi, "all'at, "all'i. 
discipline, n. nazam. 
disclose, v. a. bizhir, azhert, zaher; bbeyyin, beyyent, 

beyyin. 
discontent, n. adem n'da. 
discontented, a. ghair radi. 
discount, n. tenzil. 

discourteous, a. bila adab; "alii adab. 
discover, v. a. bujad, wajadt, ujad; v. biktishif, iktesheft, 

ikti'shif ('ala) p.p. mukteshef. 
discuss, v. bitzekir, tzekert, tzekir (fi). 
disease, n. marad. 
diseased, a. marid p. murada. 
disengaged, a. fadi. 
disgrace, n. mu'ib. 
disguise, v. bsettir, settert, settir ('ala) v. n. bitsettir, 

tsettert, tsettir p.p. mutsettir. 
disgust, n. kirih. 
dish, n. jat p. jatet. 

dislocate, v. a. bifkush, fakasht p.p. mefkush. 
disloyal, a. khaiyin. 
disloyalty, n. khiyeni. 

dismal, a. mughimm ; {of persons) keddir. 
dismiss, v. a. bitrud, taradt, trud p.p. matrud. {see discharge), 
dismissal, 11. 'azl. 

dismount, (from) v. n. bhowwil, howwelt, howwil ('an). 
disobedience, n. 'isiyan; mkhalifi. 
disobedient, a. 'asi ; mkhalif. 
disobey, v. a. bkhalif, khaleft, khalif. 



VOCABULARY. 13! 

disorder, n. 'adem tcrtib. 

dispatch, v. a. bib'at, ba'att, b'at; n. tahrir p. tahrirat; 

mektub p. meketib. 
dispensary, n. farmashia. 
disperse, v. a. bferri", ferra"t, ferri" p.p. mferra"j to be 

dispersed, v. n. bitferri", tfcrra"t. 
displease, v. a. bkeddir, keddert, keddir p.p. mkeddir; 

// displeases me, bikedder-ni ; to be displeased, v. n. 

bitkeddir, tkeddert. 
displeasure, n. keder. 
disposition, {temper) n. tab'a. 
dispute, n. jidal; toshi (towshi); v. a. {to quarrel witJi), 

bkhasim, khasamt, khasim ; bkhani", khana"t, khani", 
disrespect, n. 'adem ihtiram. 
dissolve, v. a. bdowwib, dowwabt, dowwib; v. n. (31^ per.) 

bidub, dab. 
distance, n. mcsefi. 
distant, a. be'id p. ba'ad. 
distinct, a. wadih; zahir; beyyin. 
distinguished, a. mumtaz. 
distress, n. di". 
distribute [among], v. a. bferri", ferra"t, ferri" p.p. 

mferra" ('ala) ; bvvazz'i, wazz'ait, wazz'i ('ala). 
distribution, n. tefri". 
district, n. mu"at'a. 
disturb, {morally) v. a. bshowwish, showwesht afkar-uh 

p.p. mshowwesh ; {of things) v. bkliarbit, kharbatt, 

kharbit (fi). 
disturbance, n. kharbata. 

ditch, n. khenda" p. khanadi" (khnedi"); hafra p. hafr. 
ditto, ad. sherh-uh ; mitl-uh {zvith pro. suff.). 
divan, n. diwcn; ma" 'ad. 



132 ARABIC MANUAL. 

dive, V. n. bightus, ghatast, ghtus. 

diver, n. ghattas p. ghattasi. 

diversion, n. tesliyi. 

divert, {to amuse') v. a. bselli, selleyt, selli; to be diverted, 

V. n. bitsella, tselleyt, tselli ; {to change the direction of) 

V. a. bhowwil, howwelt, howwil. 
divide, v. a. bi"sum, "asamt, u"sum p.p. ma"sum; to be 

divided, bin"isim, in"asamt. 
dividend, n. faiyiz. 
divine, a. dini; ilahi. 
divorce, n. tala" ; v. a. btalli", talla"t, talli" p.p .mtalla"; 

to be divorced, bittalli", ttalla"t. 
dizzy, a. deyikh. 

do, V. a. b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul ('amil) ; it will do, biyiswa. 
doctor, n. hakim p. hukema ; tabib p. atibba. 
document, n. sakk p. skuk. 
dog, n. kelb p. kleb ; female dog, kelbi. 
doll, n. 'aiyibi p. 'aiyeb ; Tubi (I'ebi) p. lu'ab. 
dome, n. "ubbi p. "ibeb. 
domestic, {not wild) a. juwwi. 
domicile, n. beled ; watn ; beyt ; mesken. 
donation, n. 'atiyi p. 'ataiya. 
donkey, n. himar p. hamir; slie donkey, himara. 
door, n. bab (beb) p. abwab (bweb) ; trap-door, beb sirr ; 

door-keeper, n. bawweb. 
dot, n. nu"ta p. nu"at. 
double, a. mda'af; v. a. bda'if, da'aft, da'if p.p. mda'af; 

double-faced, bi wejheyn wilseneyn (lit. with two faces 

and two tongues), 
doubt, n. shekk p. shukuk; shubha; v. bshikk, shekkait, 

shikk (fi). 
doubtless, ad. bidun shubhi; bila shekk. 



VOCABULARY. 133 

do7tgh, n. 'ajin. 

dove, n. hanicmi p. hamemet c. p. haniem ; ring-dove, 

hamem mtovvwa" ; turtle-dove, hamemi stetiyi. 
dower, n. sda"; mahr; jihaz. 

doivn, ad. ila taht; doiun-hill, fi nezli ; down-stairs, taXyi. 
doze, V. n. bin'as, n'ist, n'as. 
draft, n. muswaddi. 
dragoman, n. terjuman. 
drag, n. [for carriages) shaht; v. a. bis-hab, sahabt, 

is-hab p.p. mes-hub; {to draw) v. a. bjurr, jarrait, 

jurr p.p. mejrur. 
drain, n. balu'a. 

draper, n. khurdeji; bey'a jukh; jawwakh. 
draught, n. mejra hawa. 

draw, V. a. bsowvvir, sowwert, sowvvir p.p. msowwer. 
drawer, n. jarur p. jwarir; draivers, n. kalson. 
drazving, n. rcsni ; sura. 
dreadfid, a. mukhif; ha'il (heyil). 
dream, n. menam p. menamat ; hulm p. ahlam. 
dress, n. tycb ; keswi ; v. a. blabbis, labbest, labbis ; v. n. 

bilbus, Ibist, ilbus p.p. melbus; dressed, a. Icbis. 
drill, n. t'alim. 
drink, [drinking) n. shirb ; v. a. bishrab, shribt, shrab; 

{to get drunk), v. n. biskar, sikert. 
drive to, (in a carriage) v. n. biruh, riht, ruh, m'al- 

'arabiyi; birkeb, rkibt, irkeb bil-karrosa. 
drive, n. mishwar; driver, n. 'arabaji. 
drop, n. nu"ta p. nu"at; v. a. birmi, rmait, rmi; v. n. 

u a, wa at, u a. 
dropsy, n. istis"a. 
dr on gilt, n. "aht. 
drown, v. n. bighra", ghara"t (ghari"t), ughra" ; v. a. 



134 ARABIC MANUAL. 

bgharri", gharra"t, gharri"; drowned, pres. part. ghar"an 
{used as an adj.). 

drug, n. ijza; dawa. 

druggist, n. saideli ; farmashyeni. 

driun, n. tabl p. tbul; [small) dirbekki. 

drunk, {intoxicated) a. sekran; drunkard, n. sikri. 

Druse, Derzi p. Druz. 

dry, a. neshif c. aiishaf; yebis; v. a. bnashshif, nashs- 
heft, nashshif; bycbbis, yebbest, yebbis; v. n. (3idper.) 
biyinshef, nishif; biyibes, yebis; bijiff, jefF; {of clothes 
before the fire) v. a. bihmi, hamait, hmi — 'al an-nar. 

dual, n. mtenna (msenna). 

duck, n. batta p. batt; {wild duck) batt berri. 

due {to), a. mustahi" (li). 

dull, a. belid; berid; (dim) lown-uh kiddir. 

dumb, a. akhras; deaf and dumb, atrash u akhras. 

dtm (horse), a. ahmar f. hamra. 

dung, n. zibl; [of horses) fishki. 

duplicate, n. niskha at-teni; in duplicate, niskhateyn. 

durable, a. de'im. 

during, pr. middi. 

dust, n. ghabra; dust-cloak, biirnus p. baranis; dust-pan, 
mejrud p. mejerid; duster, n. memsaha. 

duty, n. wejbet; custom duty, resm gumruk. 

dwarf, n. "azemi; "asir al-"ami. 

dwelling, n. {habitation) beyt p. biyut ; mesken p. msekin. 

dye, n. sbagh; v. a. bisbagh, sabaght, sbagh p.p. masbugh. 

dyer, n. sabbagh. 

dynasty, n. seleli. 

dysentery, n. zintariyi. 



VOCABULARY. I 35 



eacJi, a. kill (kull) ; each one, kill wchid (wahid) ; each 

other, ba'ad-um. 
eager, a. raghib. 
eagerness, n. rughbi. 
eagle, n. nisr p. nusur. 
ear, n. izn (idn) p. izneyn (adaneyn) ; ear-ring, hal"a 

p. hala". 
early, a. bckkir; ad. 'ala biikra ('a biikra); to be early, v. n. 

bbekkir, bckkert, bekkir; early in the morning, 'a biakra. 
earn, v. a. birbah, rbiht, irbah; bikseb, ksibt, kseb. 
earnest, a. mujtihid; jad; n. r'abun ; in earnest, m\n]c6.d. 
earth, n. ard. 
earthenware, n. fakhkhar. 

earthquake, n. zelzeli p. zelezil; [a shock) hezzi. 
earwig, n. abu m"as.s. 
ease, n. suhuli ; {comfort) raha. 
easily, ad. bis-suhijli. 
east, n. mishri"; eastern, a. shar"i. 
easter, n. al-fasah. 
easy, a. heyyin ; sihl. 
eat, V. a. bekol, akelt, kol. 
eatables, n. p. ma'kulat (me'kulet). 
eating, n. akl. 
ebb {tide), n. jezr. 
ebony, n. abnus. 
eccentric, a. gharib p. ghurb. 
eclio, n. si da. 
eclipse, n. {of the sun) ksuf ash-shems; {of tJie moon) 

khsuf al-"amr. 



136 ARABIC MANUAL. 

economical, a. mwaffir. 

economy, n. tufir (towfir). 

edge, n. haffi p. haftet c. p. hafefi. 

edict, n. firman p. firmanat c. p. firamin. 

educate, v. a. brabbi, rabbait, rabbi p.p. mrabba ; b'allim, 
'allamt, 'allim. 

education, n. terbiyi. 

eel, n. hanklis. 

efface, v. a. bimhi, mahait, mhi. 

effect, n. netiji p. nete'ij. 

effects, n. p. howeyij ; 'afsh ; awe'i. 

effort, n. himmi; ijtihad. 

egg, n. baida (beyda) p. baidat c. p. baid (beyd) ; boiled 
eggs, baid maslu" ; poached — , baid m"ashr; fried — , 
baid mi"li; soft-boiled — , baid brisht; hard-boiled — , 
baid mistwi ; yolk of — , sfar baid ; wliite of — , zlal 
baid ; eggshell, "ishr ; egg-cup, zarf p. zrufi ; to break 
eggs (for cooking), v. a. bif'us, fa"ast, lu"us al-baid ; 
egg-plant, n. bettinjan. 

Egypt, Misr; Egyptian, a. misri. 

either — or, con. imnia — imma. 

eject, V. a. btall'i, taH'at, tall'i. 

elastic, n. matat; mighait (mugheyt); a. (z^«^?/^) mubhem. 

elbow, n. ku'a p. akw'a. 

elder, a. akbar fil-'umr. 

elect, V. a. bintikhib, intakhabt, intikhib p.p. muntakhab. 

election, n. intikhab. 

elegance, n. zarafi. 

elegant, a. zarif p. zuraf. 

element, n. mebda p. mabedi. 

elephant, n. fil p. afiyaL 

elevation, n. mahall 'aali; tclli p. tellet c. p. tlel (tlal). 



VOCABULARY. 1 37 

elm-tree, n. bu"isa. 

eloquence, n. fasaha. 

eloquent, a. fasih p. fusaha. 

else, ad. ghair; something else, shey (shi) ghair-uh. 

embark, v. n. binzel, nzilt, inzel fil-merkeb ; v. a. bnezzil, 

nezzelt, nezzil (li). 
embarrass, v. a. blebbik, Icbbekt, lebbik p.p. mlebbek. 
embarrassment, n. lebeki. 
embassy, n. sefara. 

embrace, v. a. b'ani", 'ana"t, 'Sni" p.p. mu'ani". 
embroider, v. a. btarriz, tarrazt, tarriz p.p. mtarraz. 
ejnbroidery, n. tutriz. 
emerald, n. zmurrud. 
emerge, v. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a. 
emergency, n. hadisi fow" al-'adi. 
emetic, n. mnatti". 
emigrant, n. mhejir (mhajir). 
emigrate, v. n. bhejir, hajcrt, hejir; v. binzah, nazaht, 

nzeh (mill). 
emigration, n. mhajera. 
eminent, a. mesh-hur; shehir. 
emperor, n. imberatur. 
empire, n. imbcratoriyi; saltani. 
employ, v. a. bistakhdim, stakhdamt, stakhdim p.p. 

mustakhdam. 
employer, n. mustakhdim. 
employment, n. shighl (shughl) ; khidmi. 
empress, n. meleki p. meleket ; imberatura. 
empty, a. fadi; ferigh; v. a. bfaddi, faddait, faddi ; bfer- 

righ, ferraght, fcrrigh. 
enamel, n. mina. 
encatnp, [on or in) v. n. bhill, hallait, liill ('ala or fi). 



138 ARABIC MANUAL. 

enclose, v. a. {luitk a zvall) bhowvvit, howwatt, howwit 
p.p. mhowwat; v. bhutt, hattait hait howl — ; [one 
thing inside another') bhutt — wast — ; enclosed {of 
papers) wast-uh ; leffen tay-uh [ivith pro. siiff.)\ [of land) 
a. msowwan. 

enclosure, n. taswini. 

encourage, v. a. bjerr'a, jerr'at, jerr'a; bnashshit, nash- 
shatt, nashshit. 

end, n. ekhir; niheyi ; [of things) taraf; ras; v. a. bkhallis, 
khallast, khallis; v. n. (31'^ per.) biyikhlus, khalas. 

endless, ad. bila niheyi ; ma luh ekhir, 

endorse, v. a. bzahhir, zahhart, zahhir. 

endorsement, n. jiro. 

endure, v. a. bihtimil, ihtamelt, ihtimil; v. bisbur, sabert, 
sbur ('ala) ; / will not put up with him, ma bitowwil 
bel-i 'aleyh. 

enemy, n. dushmen ; 'adu p. a'ada. 

energetic, a. neshit (nishit). 

energy, n. neshat; himmi. 

engage [to bespeak), v. burbut, rabatt, urbut ('ala) ; en- 
gaged, [busy) meshghul ; [betrothed) makhtub. 

engagement, n. shighl (shughl) ; [betrothal) khitbi. 

engine, n. makina; engine-driver, mikinist. 

engineer, n. mhendis. 

England, Inkilterra; English, a. inklizi. 

engrave, v. a. bin"ush, na"asht, in"ush p.p. men"ush. 

engraver, n. na""ash; haffar. 

engraving, n. na".sh. 

enjoy {oneself), v. n. binbusit, inbasatt. 

enlarge, v. a. bkebbir, kebbert, kebbir p.p. mkebber. 

enmity, n. 'adewi. 

enormous, a. kbir ktir. 



VOCABULARY. I 39 

enougJi {to be), v. n. [y^ per.) bikcrti, ken kcfi; ad. bes. 

enrich, v. a. bighni, ghanait. 

entangle, v. a. b'arbis, 'arbest, 'arbis p.p. m'arba.s; e7i- 

tangled, a. msherbek. 
enter, v. n. bfut, fitt, fut (li) ; bidkhul, dakhalt, dkhul 

(li) ; come in [lit. honour ns), imper. tfaddaL 
enterprise, n. meshru'a. 
entertain, v. a. be'izum, 'azamt, 'uzum. 
etitire, a. kemil ; sahih. 
entirely, ad. bit-tcmcm ; bil-kcmek 
entrails, n. p. masarin. 
entrance, n. madkhal. 
entreat, v. a. bitrajja, trajjait, trajja. 
envelop, v. a. bliff, leffeyt, liff p.p. melfuf. 
envelope, n. mughallif; zarf p. zuruf. 
environs, n. p. atraf; n. howl. 
etivions, a. hasud. 

envy, n. hasad ; v. a. bihsud, hasadt, uhsud. 
ep idem ic, n . w e b a . 
epitapJi, n. kitebit 'al al-"abr. 
equal, a. msewi ; {to be equal to) v. a. (3"^ per.) biyitl'a, 

til'i ; biyisvva, sawa. 
equalise, v. a. bscwi, saweyt, sewi p.p. msewa. 
equality, n. msewa. 
equator, n. khatt al-istiwa. 

equip, V. a. bjehhiz, jchhazt, jehhiz p.p. mjehhaz. 
eradicate, v. a. bista'sil, ista'selt, ista'sil p.p. musta'sel. 
erase, v. a. bimhi, mahait, mhi. 
erect, v. a. bibni, bcnait, bni p.p. mibni ; b'ammir, 

'ammcrt, 'ammir p.p. m'ammer. 
err, v. n. bighlat (bughlat), ghlitt (ghlutt), ghlat. 
errand, n. misluvar; gharad. 



140 ARABIC MANUAL. 

error, n. ghalta p. ghaltat c. p. ghalat. 

erudition, n. 'ilm. 

escape, [from] v. bikhlus, khalast, khlus (min) ; bitkhallis, 

tkhallast, tkhallis (min); biflet, felett, flut. 
escort, n. ghafr; hifz ; under escort, taht al-ghafr ; v. a. 

bighfur, ghafert, ughfur. 
especially, ad. khususan ; bi now' khususi. 
essence, n. ruh. 

establish, v. a. biftah, fataht, ftah p.p. maftuh. 
estate, n. p. amlak ; n, riz" p. arza". 
esteem, v. a. be'itibir, 'etebert, e'iti'bir p.p. mu'eteber. 
estimate, n. tetmin ; v. a. btemmin, temment, temmin 

p.p. mtemmen. 
et ccEtera, ad. ila akhiri. 
eternal, a. abedi. 
eternity, n. abediyi. 
eunuch, n. tawashi. 
Euphrates, Frat. 

Europe, Urubba; European, a. franji. 
evacuate, v. a. bitruk, tarakt, truk; v. n. binsihib, in- 

sahabt (min). 
evacuation, n. ikhla ; terk. 
even, a. sehili; msewa; [of numbers) n. jowz; odd and 

even, jowz u ferd ; ad. hatta. 
evening, n. 'ashiyi ; in the evening, min 'ashiyi ; al-masa; 

to spend the evening , v. a. bis-her, sehirt, s-har. 
event, n. hadisi p. hawadis. 
ever [for), ad. de'imen. 
every, a. kill (kull) ; everybody, n. kill an-nes ; everywhere, 

ad. weyn meken. 
evidence, n. beyyeni. 
evident, a. wadih ; zahir ; basit. 



VOCABULARY. I4I 

evil, n. shcrr; a. red! p. rcdaiya; shcrrir. 

ezve, n. n'aji p. na'aj ; ghanimi. 

exact, a. mazbut ; temem. 

exactly, ad. bit-temem. 

exaggerate, v. a. bbeligh, balaght, beligh. 

exaggeration, n. mbrdighi. 

examination, n. imtihan ; fahs; cross-exa)ni7iatio7i, \sWn%di\ 

examine, v. a. bifhas, fahast, fhiis p.p. mafhus; cross- 
examine, V. a. bistanti", stanta"t, stanti". 

example, n. mesel (metel) p. emsel ; mastra p. msatir 
(msetir); for example, metelen (meselen). 

excavate, v. a. bihfur, hafert, hfur p.p. mahfur. 

excavation, n. hafra p. hafr. 

exceed, v. bzid, zidt, zid ('ala). 

exceedingly, ad. ktir ktir; lil-ghaiyi. 

excel [in), v. a. bisba", saba"t, sba" (fi). 

excellence, n. fadl. 

Excellency ( Your), sa'adt-ak ; His — , sa'adt-uh. 

except, con. ilia; ma'ada; v. a. bistcsni, stesnait, stesni 
p.p. mustesna. 

exception, n. istisna. 

exceptional, a. mustesna; nedir. 

excess, n. ziedi (zod) ; to excess, bi-kitra. 

excessive, a. ze'id; excessively, ad. bi-ziedi. 

exchange {of money), n. kambio ; in exchange for, pr. 
bedel ; v. a. [for) b'awid, 'awadt, 'awid (bi). 

excite, v. a. bheyyij, heyyejt, heyyij p.p. mheyyej ; ex- 
cited, a. heyyij. 

excitement, n. heyyijan. 

exclude, v. a. bikhruj, kharajt, khruj ; bitrud, taradt, 
trud p.p. matrud. 

excrenicnt, n. kluira. 



142 ARABIC MANUAL. 

excusable, a. m'azur, 

excuse, n. 'uzr; 'itizar ; v. a. be'azur, 'azert, 'azur; excuse 

me, 'azur-ni ; to exciisc oneself [to], v. n. be'itizir, 'etazert, 

e'itizir (ila). 
execute, {to kill) v. a. be'idum, 'adamt, 'udum p.p. m'a- 

dum; {to perform) v. a. bkemmil, kemmelt, kemmil 

p.p. mkemmel. 
execution, n. 'idam. 
executioner, n. jelled. 

executor {to a will), n. wasi (wiisi) p. usiyi. 
exempt {from), v. a. be'ifi, 'afait ('afeyt), 'ufi (min) p.p. 

me'afi. 
exemption, n. ma'afiyi. 

exercise, n. temrin ; {of a horse) mashshi ; v. a. {of sol- 
diers) bmarrin, marrent, marrin ; {of a horse) btall'i, 

tall'at, tall'i — ila berra. 
exertion, n. jehd. 
exhausted {to be), v. n. bkill, kelleyt; / was exhausted 

with fatigue, kelleyt min at-t'ab; bihlak, hlikt. 
exile, n. serkili; nefi ; v. a. bserkil, serkelt, serkil p.p. 

mserkel; binfi, nefeyt, nfi p.p. minfi. 
exist, V. n. {y^ per.) bikun, ken ; biyujad, inwajad. 
existence, n. wujud. 
exorbitant, a. fehish ; ghali ktir. 

expand, v. n. {y^ per.) biyimted, imted p.p. memdijd. 
expansion, n. imtided. 
expect, V. a. bintur, natart, ntur; bintizir, intazert, in- 

tizir p.p. muntazer. 
expectation, n. intizar. 
expedient, a. nefi ; mwefi". 

expedite, v. a. b'ajjil, 'ajjelt, 'ajjil p.p. m'ajjel. 
expedition {milit:), n. hamli ; tejridi. 



VOCABULARY. I 43 

expel, V. a. bilrud, taradt, XxwA i).p. matrud. 

expenses, n. p. masruf. 

expensive, a. ghali ; // is ■ — , bikcllif ktir. 

experience, n. khibra. 

experienced, a. khabir ; m'ovvwad. 

experiment, n. imtihan; tijrubi. 

expert, n. keshcf p. kcshcfi ; expertise, n. keshef. 

expire [of a term), v. n. (3"^ per.) biyikhlus khalas; 

biyintihi, intaha. 
explain, v. a. bbcyyin, beyyent, beyyin; bwacldih, wad- 

daht, waddih; bfassir. fassert, fassir. 
explanation, n. tcfsir. 

explode, v. n. (3rd per.) biyinfijr (biyinfizr), infajr (infazr) ; 
biyinfel'a, infel'a. 

explore, v. a. biktishif, iktesheft, iktfsliif ; bi.sta"ri, ista"rait, 
ista"ri. 

explorer, n. nuiktishif. 

explosion, n. infijar. 

explosives, n. p. mewad "abilt al-ihtira". 

export, V. a. bsaddir, saddert, saddir p.p. msadder. 

exports, n. p. sadirat. 

expose, V. a. bikshuf, kesheft, kshuf p.p. makshuf. 

expression, n. haiyit al-wijh; [phrase] 'ibara. 

expidsion, n. tard; ikhraj. 

exquisite, a. nefis. 

extend, v. a. btowwil, towwelt, towwil; binidd meddait, 
midd p.p. memdud. 

extension, n. imtided ; tutwil. 

extensive, a. wes'i. 

exterior, n. berra. 

extinguish, v. a. bitfi, tafait, tfi P-P- niutfi. 

extort [from), v. a. biblus, balast, blus. 



144 ARABIC MANUAL. 

extortion, n. bals. 

extra, a. 'alewi ; berrani. 

extract, v. a. [of teeth) bi'Ta, "al'at, i'Ta p.p. ma"lu'a; 

[of essence) bistakhn'j, stakhrajt, stakhrij p.p. mstakhrij. 
extraordinary, ad. fow" al-'adi. 
extravagance, n. israf; sarf. 
extravagant, a. miisrif; sarrif. 
extreme, a. shedid p. shidad. 
extremely, ad. lil-ghaiyi. 
extremity^ n. taraf p. atraf. 
eye, n. 'ain p. 'uyun; eye-brozv, hajib p. hwejib; eye-lash, 

sh'ar 'aini; eye-lid, jifn p. ijfen; pupil of the eye, bubu 

al-'ain ; eye-glasses, 'awenat; eye-tooth, neb p. anyeb; 

eye-witness, shehid p. shuhud ; eye-sight, nazr. 



F. 



fable, n. "issa p. "isas; hikeyi. 
fabric, n. hiyeki ; nesij. 

fabricate, v. a. b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul ('ami'l) p.p. m'amul. 
face, n. wijh p. wujuh; face to face, wijh bi wijh. 
facilitate, v. a. bsehhil, sahhelt, sahhil p.p. msahhel. 
facility, n. suhuli. 
facing, pr. "iddem. 
fact, n. ha"i"a; in fact, bil-ha"i"a. 
faction^ n. hizb p. ahzeb. 
factory, kirkhani p. kirakhin. 
faddy, a. mwaswas. 

fade, V. n. (3'^fl per.) bibukh, bekh; faded, a. beyikh. 
faint, V. n. bighma, ghmit; bitfah, tfeht; lie fainted, 
ghatt 'al "elb-uh (///. his heart zvas covered). 



VOCABULARY. I45 

fair, a. kwaiyis; zarif p. ■/.vuj^i\{just)''^<X\\\ {of complexion) 

lown abyad. 
fairy, n. jinniyi. 
faith, n. imen. 
faithful, a. amin. 
faithless, a. kczib; khaiyin. 
fall, V. n. bu"'a, wa" 'at, \x"' 3.; fallen, pres. part, we" 'i 

{used as an adj.); to fall out of favour, v. n. bis"ut, sa"at. 
fallozi' land, n. bur. 
false, a. kizb; {of persons) kezib. 

falsify, V. a. bzowwir, zowvvert, zowwir p.p. mzowwer. 
fame, n. sit. 

family, n. 'aiyeli p. 'aiyel ('ai'eli). 
famine, n. ju'a; maje'a. 
famous, a. mesh-hur. 
fan, n. marwaha p. marawih. 
fanatic, a. muta'assib. 
fanaticism, n. ta'assub. 
fanciful, a. mutwahhim. 
fancy, n. wahm p. owham. 

yi^r, a. be'id p. ba'ad c. ab'ad; from afar, min be'id. 
fareiuell, n. wude'a. 
farm, n. 'owdi; hanut p. hawanitj v. a. biflah, felaht, 

flah p.p. mafluh. 
farmer, n. fellah. 
farrier, n. bitar p. baiatra. 
fashion, n. moda; zey. 
fast, n. sowm (som); siam; a. seri'a c. asr'a ; {of colour) 

tebit (sebit) ; ad. seri'an ; bi-sur'a; v. n. bsum, sumt, 

sum; to be fast {of a z^'atch), 3rd per. f. bittsabbi" ; 

bitta"addam. 
fasteti {to), V. a. burbut, rabatt, urbut (bi) p.p. marbut. 



146 ARABIC MANUAL. 

fat, a. nasih c. ansah; [of ajiimals) smin p. sman; n. 

shahni; beef fat, shahm ba"ar; mutton fat, shahm 

dani ; n. clihni (duhn). 
fatal, a. miihlik. 
fate, n. nasib ; "adr. 
fated, a. ma"adder. 

father, n. ab p. abawat; bey p. beyit ; father in lazv, 'amm. 
fatigue, n. t'ab; v. a. {y<^ per-) biyit'ib, ta'ab. 
fatigued, a. t'aben. 

fatten, {of animals) v. a. b'allif, 'alleft, 'allif p.p. m'alluf. 
fault, n. zenb p. znub; ghalta p. ghalat; ta"sir; it is 

your fault, zenb 'aleyk; al-ha" " 'aleyk. 
favour, n. m'aruf. 

favourable, a. mwefi"; ma"bul; hulu f. hilwi c. ahla. 
favourite, n. 'aziz; mahbub. 

fear, n. khowf; fez'a; v. bkhaf, khift, khaf (min). 
feast, n. 'azimi. 
feastday, n. 'eid p. 'aiyed. 
feather, n. rishi p. rish c. p. riesh. 
feature, n. tekwin p. tekawin. 
February, shubat. 
fee, n. lijra (ijra). 
feeble, a. da'if p. da'af. 
feed, V. a. bit'am, ta'amt, ta'am. 
feel, V. bhiss, hassait, hiss ('ala) p.p. mahsus. 
feeling, n. hasasi. 
felt, n. libbedi. 

female, n. inta (inta'i) p. anata (anati). 
feminine, a. mu'annas. 
fence, n. siyej p. siyejet; to fence in, v. a. bseyyij, 

seyyejt, seyyij p.p. mseyyej. 
ferment, v. n. (31"'! per.) biyikhtimir, ikhtamar. 



VOCAliULARV. 147 

fermentation, n. ikhtimfir ; y.^w/^r//!//;/^'", a. mukhti'mir. 

fern, n. disluir; khinshaia. 

fertile, a. mughsib. 

fester, v. n. [y^^ P*-'r-) bi'ammil, 'animal; biyidghil, da- 

ghal p.p. midghil. 
festival, n. 'eid p. 'aiyed. 

fetch, V. a. bjib, jibt, jib; fetcJi me a chair, jib li kirsi. 
fetid, a. mintin ; mijwi. 
fetter, n. [for prisoners) jcnzir p. jnczir ; {for Iiorses) iron, 

"eyd p. "iyud ; rope, shabha. 
fend, n. khisam; dushmen. 
fever, n. himmi; intermittent — , himmi mutfettera; ;««/«- 

rial — , himmi malariyi ; to have fever, v. n. binhamm, 

inhammait; / am feverish, ana sikhanan (sakhnan). 
fezv, a. "aliL 

fib, n. kizbi p. kizbet ; barbuki. 
fickle, a. muta"allib. 
fidelity, n. amcni. 
fidgety, a. mutharrik ; taiyish. 

field, n. ha"al p. hu"Ld; bistan p. besatin (bsetin). 
fierce, a. shiris ; 'a"ur. 
fig, n. tini p. tin ; fig tree, tini. 

fight, n. "ital ; m'areki ; to fight with, v. a. b"atil, "atalt, "atiL 
fignrc, n. ra"m p. ar"am ; {statnre) "ami. 
filbert, n. bundu" (bindu"). 

file, n. mebrad ; v. a. bibrud, baradt, brud p.p. mabriid. 
fill, V. a. bmelli, melleyt, mclli ; btclli, tclleyt, telli ; {a 

pipe) b'abbi, 'abbeyt, 'abbi p.p. m'abba. 
filled, a. mclcn. 
film, n. ghashcwi. 
filter, n. misfaiya (misfcyi); v. a. bsaffi, sattait (saftcyt), 

saffi p.p. msafifa. 



148 ARABIC MANUAL. 

filth, n. wasakh ; "azr. 

final, a. ekhir (akhir). 

finally, ad. bil-ekhir. 

finance, n. meliyi. 

financial, a. nieli. 

find, V. a. bla" "i, la" "ait, la" "i ; bujad, wajadt, ujad 

p.p. mowjud; to be fonnd, v. n. [y^ P^r-) biyilta"a, 

ilta"a; find out, v. a. bistefhim, stafhamt, stefhim. 
fine, n. jeza na"di ; gharami ; v. a. bgharrim, gharramt, 

gharrim p.p. mgharram ; a. ref i'a ; da"i" ; [beautiful) 

zarif; jemil. 
finger, n. isb'i p. asab'i ; forefinger, shehdi ; little finger, 

khunsur. 
finish, V. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis ; bikhlus, khalast, 

khlus. 
fir, n. shirbin. 
fire^ n. nar ; [conflagration) hari"a ; to set on fire, v. a. 

bsha'il, sha'alt, sha'il; to catch fire, v. n. (31^ per.) 

biyihtiri", ihtara"; biyishti'il, ishta'al ; biyiltihib, 

iltahab. 
firearms, n. p. slab nariyi. 
fireplace, n. m6"adi ; mawa"id. 
fireivood, n. hatab. 
fireworks, n. p. shghal nariyi. 

firm, a. metin; sebit (tebit) ; "owi ; n. [business) mahall. 
first, a. owwel f. ida ; at first sight, min owwel nazra ; 

at first, owwelen. 
fish, n. samak p. samaket; v. a. bistad, istadt, istad. 
fisherman, n. saiyyed (saiyyad). 
fishing, n. said as-samak; — rod, "asbit as-said; — net, 

shebeki ; — hook, sinnara. 
fist, n. "abda. 



VOCABULARY. 149 

fit, a. mncsib; v. n. (s^'l per.) bincsib, nasib ; biyiji, 

ija ('ala). 
fix, V. a. bmckkin, mckkent, mekkin ; fixed, a. mckken. 
flag, n. bindcra; flag-stajf, 'amud al-bindcra. 
fiame, n. shu'ali p. shu'al. 
flannel, n. flannilla. 
flat, a. mbaltah. 

flatten, v. a. bmahhid, mahhadt, mahhid p.p. mumahhed. 
flatter, v. a. bmelli", mella"t, melli". 
flattery, n. temli". 
flavour, n. t'ami. 
flax, n. "innib. 
flea, n. barghut p. baraghit. 
flee, V. n. bihrub, harabt, hrub. 
fleet, n. 'amara, 
flesJi, n. lahm. 
flexible, a. leyyin. 
flight, n. harab; ferar. 
yZ////, n. sovvwani. 
float, {on) V. n. bfush, fisht, fush ('aki); bc'um, 'aimt, 

'uum (fi or 'ala). 
flock, n. "atiy'a p. "uta'an ; [of birds) reff p. rfuf. 
flood, n. hamuli; seyl; tufan. 
floor, n. ard al-beyt; marble floor, n. rhkam. 
flour, n. tahin. 

floiv, V. n. [y^^ per.) biyijri, jara. 
flozver, n. zahr p. azhar c. p. znhiw; flower-pot, sha"fi 

zuhur; hod p. hwad. 
fluid, n. se'il. 

fly, n. dibbcni p. dibben ; v. n. (3«1 per.) bitir, tar. 
foal, n. fell! p. efliyi. 
foam, n. raghwi. 



150 ARABIC MANUAL. 

fodder, n. 'alaf; 'ali". 

fog, n. ghtaita. 

fold, n. tay; sheep fold, siri ; v. a. bitwi, tawait (taweyt), 

twi p.p. mutwi. 
foliage, 11. owra" as-sajr. 
folloiv, V. a. bilha", lahi"t, ilha". 
follozver, n. teb'i p. atbe'a. 
folly, n. hama"a. 
font, n. jurn al-m'amudiyi. 
food, n. akl. 

fool, n. ahma" p. him"in (himu"). 
foolish, a. ghashim; belid. 
foot, n. ijr (rijl) p. ijreyn; foot-path, derb rijl ; foot-rule, 

mitr; "iyes ; footstep, khatwi ; {diskhdi; foot-stool, skemla ; 

barefoot, a. hafi; on foot, a. meshi; at f oofs pace, ad. 

eshkin. 
for, pr. minshen. 

forbid, V. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a p.p. memnu'a. 
force, n. "uwi; v. a. {to) bijbur, jebert, jbur ('ala) p.p. 

mejbur; bilzum, Izamt, Izuni ('ala); by force, ad. bil- 

"uwi ; jebran. 
ford, n. ma"t'a p. ma"at'a ; mkhada ; v. a. bi"t'a, "at'at, 

u"ta. 
forearm, n. dr'a p. udr'u; se'id (sa'id). 
fore-going, a. sebi" ; (fore-mentioned) mazkur. 
forehead, n. jbin; jibhi. 
foreign, a. gharib p. ghurb; Foreign Affairs, al-kharijiyi 

(vide minister); Foreign Office, nezarit al-kharijiyi. 
foreigner, n. ejnebi p. ajenib. 
forenoon, n. "abl ad-dohr. 
foresight, n. basiri. 
forest, n. hirsh p. ahrash. 



VOCABULARY. 15 1 

forfeit, n. gharruiii. 

forge, n. kur; bitru", tara"t, tru" p.p. matru"; {of wri- 
ting) V. a. bzowwir, zowwert, zowwir p.p. mzowwer. 
forgery, n. tezwir. 
forget, V. a. binsa, nesit, insa. 

forgive, v. a. bscmih, semaht, semih p.p. masmuh. I for- 
give you, bsemh-ak. 
fork, n. firteki; showki ; pitchfork, midraiyi. 
form, n. shikl p. shikel. 
formality, n. teklif p. teklifat. 
former, a. sebi" ; formerly, ad "ablan ; tJie former, a. 

al-owwel. 
fort, n. "al'a p. "il'at. 

fortify, V. a. bhassin, hassant, hassin p.p. mhassan. 
fortniglit, 11. jim'ateyn. 

fortunate, a. sa'id p. so'ada; .sahib bakht ; he is — , 
hazz-uh taiyib ; s'ad-uh "owi. 

fortune, n. hazz ; nasib, 

forzuards, ad. ila "iddem. 

fossils, n. p. mutahajjerat. 

foul, a. wisikh. 

foundation, n. ases p. aseset. 

founder, n. mu'essis. 

fountain, n. 'ain p. 'uyun; (jet) nofara; wayside — , 
scbil. 

fozvl, n. djeji p. djejet c. p. djej ; foiul-house, beyt ad- 
djej ; "unn ("inn). 

fox, n. t'alab p. ta'alib. 

fraction, n. kcsr. 

fragile, a. seri' al-'atab. 

fragment, n. "it'a ; .sha'"fi. 

fragrance, n. riha. 



152 ARABIC MANUAL. 

fragrant, a. 'utri. 

frame, n. birwaz p. berewiz. 

France, Fransa; FrencJi, a. fransewi p. fransewiyi. 

fraud, n. ikhtilas. 

fraudulent, a. mukhtelis. 

freckle, n. kelef. 

free, a. hurr; v. a. bdeshshir, deshshert, deshshir. 

freedom, n. hurriyi. 

freemason, n. fermasun. 

freeze, v. n. (31^ per.) bijellid, jellad p.p. mjellid. 

freigJit, n. nowulun. 

frequent, a. ktir; frequently, ad. marrat ktiri. 

fresh, a. tari ; taza. 

Friday, nahar (yom) aj-jim'a. 

friend, n. habib p. ahbeb (hibeb) ; sahib p. as-hab ; 

sadi" p. asdi"a. 
friendship, n. sada"a; mahabbi. 
fright, n. khowf; fez'a. 
frighten, v. a. bfezz'a, fezz'at, fezz'a; bkhowwif, khow- 

waft, khowwif p.p. mkhowwef; to be frightened, v. n. 

bifz'a, fiz'it ; frigJitened, a. fez'an. 
fringe, n. hashiyi. 

frock, n. tannura p. tenenir; fisten p. fsetin. 
frog, n. dafd'a p. dfed'i. 
from, pr. min ; 'an. 

front, n. wijh; wajih;"/r^«/ of tJie house, wajhit al-beyt. 
frontier, n. hadd p. hudud. 
frost, n. melleh. 
froth, n. raghwi. 
frown, n. 'abas; v. n. be'ibus, 'abast ; bhutt, hattait al- 

'u"di; frowning, a. 'abas. 
frugal, a. mwaffir; mesik. 



VOCABULARY. 1 53 

fruit, n. fwcki (faki). 

fruitful, a. miighsib. 

fry, V. a. bi"li, "alait ("aleyt), i"li p.p. mi"li. 

frying-pan, n. mi"lcyi p. ma"ali. 

fulfil, V. a. bkcmmil, kemmelt, kcmmil p.p. mkcmmel. 

fill, a. melcn. 

fun, n. tesliyi ; mezh. 

funeral, n. jenezi. 

funnel, n. "um'a p. "umu'a. 

funny, a. mudhik; muskhin. 

fur, n. feru. 

furl, V. a. bitwi, tawait (taweyt), twi p.p. mutwi. 

furlough, n. rukhsa. 

furnace, n. firn p. firan. 

furnisJi, v. a. bifrush, farasht, frush p.p. mafrush. 

furniture, n. atet al-beyt; firsh. 

fuss, n. dajji (doji). 

future, n. musta"bil; in future, b'adeyn ; bil-niusta"biL 



G. 



gain, n. ribh ; meksib ; v. a. birbah, rbiht, irbah. 

gaiter, n. tma" p. tma"at. 

gall, n. safra. 

gallery, n. ruwa". 

gallnut, n. jowzit 'afs p, jowz 'afs. 

gallop, n. khaiyel ; v. a. and n. bkhaiyil, khaiyelt, khai- 

yil; V. n. btarid, taradt, tarid. 
gallo-ws, n. meshna"a. 
gamble, v. n. biTab, I'ibt, Tab bil-"imar. 



154 ARABIC MANUAL. 

gambling, n. Feb al-"imar. 

game, n. I'ebi (I'ubi) p. al'ab ; {sport) said; taridi ; to make 

game of, v. bidhak, dahikt, dahak ('ala). 
gang, n. zumra p. zumr. 
gaol, n. habs; sijn. 
gaoler, n. sejjen. 

garden, n. jneyni p. jneynet; bistan p. bsetin (besetin). 
gardener, n. jneyneti. 
garlic, n. turn. 

garment, n. towb p. tuwab; {clothes) tyeb. 
garnet, n. liajr si ran. 
garrison, n. p. hurras. 
garter, n. rabta. 
gas, n. ghaz ; gas-pipe, aster al-ghaz; gasometer, mitar 

al-ghaz ; gas-light, dow min ghaz. 
gash, n. jurh p. juruh (juruha). 
gate, n. bwebi p. bwebet (bawwabi p. bawwabat). 
gate-keeper, n. bawweb. 
gather, v. a. bhowwish, howwesht, howwish ; gather up, 

V. a. blimm, lammait, Hmm p.p. melmuni; {to pluck) 

bla"it, ]a"att, la"it p.p. mla"at. 
gauze, n. keraishi (kereyshi). 
gay, a. mzeyyen ; {cJieerful) farhan. 
gazelle, n. ghazel p. ghizlen. 
gelatine, n. jelatina. 
geld, V. a. bikhsi, khasait, khsi ; {of Jiorses) btowshin, 

towshent, towshin. 
gelding, n. khassi ; tawashi. 

gem, n. jowhera p. jewehir; (johera p. jawahir). 
gender, n. jins p. ajnes. 
general, a. 'umumi; 'am; n. mushir; general of division, 

feri" ; major-general, mir livva. 



VOCABULARY. 155 

generally, ad. "uinumen ; 'itiyadi)'cn. 

generation, n. jil p. ajiyel. 

generosity, n. kcrem. 

generous, -a. kerim p. kurama ; khaiyir. 

genius, n. zeka (zika). 

gentle, a. latif p. lutafa ; leyyin ; [quiet) hedi. 

gentleman, n. khowaja p. khowajat. 

gently, ad. bi lutf; [slowly) 'ala mahl-uh [zvith pro. suff.). 

genuine, a. sahih. 

geography, n. jighrafiyi. 

geometry, n. 'ilm al-hindisi. 

geranium, n. khubbezi franjiyi. 

Germany, Almania; German, a. almani. 

gesture, n. ishara. 

get, V. a. bjib, jibt, jib; [acquire) btall'i, tall'at, tall'i; 

bikseb, ksibt, kseb; get up, v. n. b"um, "umt, "urn; 

get over, v. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala); get rid of, v. n. 

bitkhallis, tkhallast, tkhalHs (min); get into the zvay 

of, V. n. bit'owwad, t'owvvadt, t'owwad ('ala). 
ghost, n. khiycl; Holy Ghost, ruh al-"udus. 
giant, n. jobber (jebbar). 
Gibraltar, jebeltari". 
giddiness, n. dowkha (dokha). 
giddy, a. deyikh ; lie is giddy, ras-uh taiyish. 
gift, n. hediyi. 
gifted, a. shatir p. shuttar. 

gild, V. a. bdahhib, dahhabt, dahhib p.p. mdahhab. 
gilt, a. mdahhab; mutli bid-dahab. 
gimlet, n. berrimi. 
ginger, n. jenzebil. 
gipsy, n. nuri p. nawar. 
girdle, n. zinnar p. znenir. 



156 ARABIC MANUAL. 

girl, n. bint p. benat (benet). 

girth, n. hizem p. hizemet; tighten, loosen the girths, 

shidd, hill al-hizemet. 
give, V. a. b'ati, 'atait, 'ati; give it me, 'ati-ni yeh (yah). 
gizzard, n. "ansa. 

glad, a. mesrur; to be glad, v. n. binbusit, inbasatt. 
gladness, n. surur. 
glance, n. nazra, lahza. 
glass, n. "izaz ("izez) ; (for drinking )'k.\hh€y\-,'k.2LS\-, (field) 

nadur; nadara. 
glitter, V. n. {y^ per.) biyilm'a, lam'a. 
globe, n. kura; {of a lamp) kloba p. klobat. 
gloomy, a. muzlim ; [of persons) mkedder. 
glory, n. mejd. 
gloss, n. lima'an, 

glove, n. keff p. kfuf ; a pair of gloves, jowzi kfuf. 
glow-worm, n. serej al-leyl. 
glue, n. ghiri; glue-pot, bri"al-ghiri. 
gnat, n. sikket p. swetki. 
gnaw, V. a. (3rd per.) biyun"ur, na"ar. 
go, V. n. bruh, riht, ruh ; going, pres. part, raih; it is 

going to Jiappen, bedd-uh yesir; it is not going to 

happen, ma bisir ; there is going to be, raih yesir ; 

raih yekun; go up, v. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala); go 

down, binzel, nzilt, inzel ; go out, bidhar, dahart, dhar. 

goad, n. mesas; v. a. bidrub, darabt bil-mesas. 

goat, n. 'anzi p. 'anzat; m'aziyi p. ma'azi; goat-herd, 

ma'az ; ra'i. 
God, allah ; God preserve you, allah yahfz-ak ; God forbid, 

allah la yismah (la ya"addir) ; for God's sake, minshen 

allah; God willing, inshallah; tJiank God, al-hamd 

ul-illah. 



VOCABULARY. 157 

gold, n. dahab. 

goldsmith, n. saiyigh p. siyagh. 

gong, n. na"us. 

good, a. mlih p. mlah ; taiyib c. atyab; jcyyid c. ahsan. 

good-bye, ad. m'as-salemi ; khatir-kum. 

gooodness, n. judi. 

goods, n. p. badaiy'i ; bda'a. 

goose, n, wazzi p. wazz. 

gospel, n. injil. 

gossip, n. 'alk. 

gourd, n. "ar'aa p. "ar'aat. 

^c*;//, n. da'i al mfesil. 

govern, v. a. bihkum, hakamt, hkum ; {adnmiister) v. a. 

bdebbir, debbert, debbir. 
goverment, n. hukumi; local government, hukumi ma- 

halliyi. 
governor, n. hakim; mutsarrif; governor general, wali 

(weli). 
grace, n. zurf. 
gradually, ad. bitedrij. 
grain, n. habbi p. hbub. 
grammar, n. nahu. 
granary, n. hasil; beyiki p. beweyik. 
grand-daughter, n. hafidi; bint bint p. ulcd bint. 
grand-father, n. jidd p. jdud. 

grand-mother, n. sitt p. sittat (sittet) ; imm imm. 
grandson, n. haf id ; ibn ibn p. died ibn. 
grant, v. a. bijib, jibt, jib. 
srranted, a. msellem. 
grapes, n. p. 'inib ('inab); green grapes, v\..\\v\'ix\m.;bunc]i 

of — , n. 'an"ud (p. 'ane"id) 'inib. 
grass, n. hashish. 



158 ARABIC MANUAL 

grass-hopper, n. jundub p. jnedib. 

grateful, a. memnun ; shekur. 

grater, n. mabrashi. 

gratis, ad. belesh,; bila mesari. 

gratitude, n. shukr. 

grave, n. "abr p. "ubur. 

gravel, n. p. bahs. 

gravy, n. mar"a. 

graze, v. n. (31"^ per.) biyir'a, re'i (ra'i). 

grease, n. shahm; dihni (duhn) ; v. a. bidhan, dahant, 

dhan p.p. madhun. 
greasy, a. mid hi n. 

great, a. kbir c, akbar p. kbar; 'azim p. 'azam. 
Greece, beled al-yunan (al-arwam) ; Greek, a. yunani; 

rumi ; Greek clmrch, kenisit ar-rum ; Greek catholic, rum 

katolik; Greek ortJiodox, rum ortodoks. 
greedy, a. shirih; majfu'a; mfejj'an. 
green, a. akhdar f. khadra p. khudr. 
green-grocer, n. khudarji. 
greens, n. khudra. 
grey, a. rimedi. 

grey-Jiound, n. kelb slu"i (slai"i). 
gridiron, n. msabb'a. 
grief, n. ghamm ; hizn. 
grieve, v. a. bkeddir, keddert, keddir; to be grieved, 

V. n. binghamm, inghammait; it grieves me, bigh- 

umm-ni. 
grind, v. a. bit-han, tahant, t-han p.p. mat-hun ; bijrush, 

jarasht, jrush p.p. majrush. 
grindstone, n. jelkh. 

groan, n. 'anin; v. n. bi'in, 'anait ('aneyt), 'in. 
grocer, n. 'attar. 



VOCABULARY. 1 59 

groom, n. se'is (.sa'is) p. siyes; v. a. bhiss^ hassait (has- 

seyt), hiss p.p. mahsus; bsus, sust, sus; btemmir, tcm- 

mert, tcmiiiir. 
ground, n. ard. 

ground-floor, n. taba"i tahtcni. 
groundless, a. batil; ad. bila ascs ; ii is groundless, ma 

luh asl. 
group, n. {persons) jema'a; sirbi; {ino)iey) surra. 
grozi.', V. n. [persons) bikbcr, kebirt; {plants) {y<^ per.) 

biyinmi, nimmi; groivn up^ a. reshid (rashid); fidl- 

srrown, a. midrik. 
grumble, {at) v. bitdemmir, tdcmmert, tdcmmir (min) ; 

V. n. bit"am"am, ta"am"amt. 
guarantee, n. kefeli ; {person) kefil. 
guard, n. haris p. hurras; v. a. bihrus, harast, hrus p.p. 

mahrus. 
guardian, n. wasi (wusi) p. usiyi. 
guess, V. a. bihzur, hczirt, hzur. 
guest, n. daif (deyf) p. diyuf. 
guide, n. delil ; guide-book, delil sefer; v. a. {to) bdull, 

dellait (delleyt), dull (ala). 
guild, n. rabta. 
guilt, n. zenb. 
guilty, a. miznib ; mijrim. 
guitar, n. "itar; 'ud ; tanbur. 
gulf, n. khalij p. khiljen. 

gum, n. simgh (samgh); {of teeth) nirit as-snen. 
gun, n. barudi ; bund"iyi p. bnedi"; {double-barrelled) 

n. jift p. jifuti. 
gunboat, n. mcrkeb harbi. 
gunner, n. topji p. topjiyi. 
gunpoivder, n. barud. 



l6o ARABIC MANUAL. 

gut, n. misran p. masarin. 

glitter, n. mizreb p. mezerib; gutter-pipe, "astal ("aster) 

al-mizreb. 
gyvinasiuui, n. marsah (mala'ab) al jimnastik. 
gymnastics, n. jimnastik. 



H. 

habit, n. 'adi p. a'adet c. p. 'awe'id. 

liail, n. barad (bered); v. n. {y^ per.) biyinzel, nizil 

bered; hailstone, baradi ; Jiail-storm, zakhat bered. 
hair, n. sh'ara p. sh'ar; cameTs hair, wabr aj-jemel. 
hair-dresser, [barber] n. halla". 
hairy, a. mish'arani. 
half, n. nuss; in halves, bin-nuss; half-price, nuss at- 

temen ; half-way, nuss ad-derb. 
hall, n. dehliz; memsha. 

halt, V. n. bu"af, iV'ift, iV'af; bwa" "if, wa""aft, wa""if. 
halter, n. rasan ; ma"wad. 
haifi, n. janbun. 
hamlet, n. mezra'a p. mezer'i. 
hammer, n. shekush ; {large) matra"a; v. a. bitru", tara"t, 

tru"; bdu"", da" "ait, du" " p.p. mad"u". 
hammock, n. mejruha (marjuha). 
hand, n. id p. ideyn (daiyat) ; right-hand, id al-yemin 

left-hand, id ash-shimel. 
hand-cuff, n. "eyd p. "iyud ; hadid. 
handfid, n. [one hand) kemshi ; [both, hands) hafni. 
handkerchief, n. mahremi p. maharim. 
handle, n. meski ; "abda. 
handsome, a. jemil c. ejmel. 



VOCABULARY. l6l 

liandwriting, n. khatt p. khutut. 

hang, {up) V. a. b'alli", 'alla"t, 'alii" p.p. ma'alla" ; v. n. 

(ilown) bit'alla", t'alla"t. 
Jiappcn, V. n. (31^ per.) bisir, sar; biyijri, jara. 
happiness, n. kcyf; surur; Ikitjx. 
happy, ^- mabsut; farhan. 

harass, v. a. bit'ub, ta'cbt, tc'ib (tu'ub) p.p. met'ub. 
harbour, n. mina p. mien. 
hard, a. "asi c. a"asa; yebis; {difficult) s'ab f. s'ubi c. 

as'ab; Iiard up, ma'asur; mutdaiyi". 
Jiardcn, v. n. (3"! per.) bijift", jcff; biyi".sa, "isi. 
Jiardly, ad. bil-kedd ; bi .s'ubi (s'obi). 
Jiard mouthed {of a horse), a. ras-uh "asi (ti"il). 
Jiardship, n. mesha" "a. 
hardy, a. "owi p. "avvaiya. 
Jiare, n. arnab p. aranib. 
hareni, n. harim p. hurum. 
harni, n. clarar; aziyi ; there is no harm, ma biseyl (//'/. 

tJiere is no question), 
harniful, a. mdurr; mu'zi. 
harmless, a. ghair (mush) mdurr. 
harness, n. ta"m al-'arabiyi; v. bshidd, sheddait, shidd 

('ala) ; V. a. {^put the horses to) bikdun, kedent, kdun p.p. 

makduri. 
harp, n. kanun. 
harsh, a, "asi; jefi; khishn. 
harvest, n. hisad. 
has/i, n. yakhni. 
hasp, n. sukr (sikr). 
haste, n. 'ajeli; make haste, v. n. browwij, rowwajt, 

rowwij; bist'ajil, st'ajelt, st'ajil; hasten, v. a. b'ajjil, 

'ajjelt, 'ajjil; hasty, a. 'ajul. 

11 



1 62 ARABIC MANUAL. 

Jiat, n. birneyta p. buranit. 

hatch, V. a. [y^^ per. f.) bitfa" "is, fa""esit; to be hatched, 

V. n. (3^^^ per. f.) bitif'us, fa'"esit. 
hatchet, n. ferra'a; fes; balta. 
hate, V. a. bibghud, baghadt, bghucl. 
liatred, n. bughda. 
haughtiness, n. kibriya. 
haughty, a. mutkebbir. 
hatd down, v. a. bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil. 
Jiave, V. / liave etc. li ; 'ind-i, 'ind-ak etc. [vide grammar 

verb 'to have'). 
hawk, n. baz p. bezet. 
hay, n. hashish yebis. 
haze, n. dabeb (dabab). 
hazy, a. madabdbi. 
he, pro. hu (hui). 
head, n. ras p. ru'us (rus) ; at the head of, fi ras ; f i 

owwel; "iddem; head to foot, min ras-uh li "adem-uh 

(H k'ab rijleyh) ; head over heels, sha"labi ma"labi ; 

heads or tails, tura ow na"shi. 
headache, (/ liave, I had a) ras-i biyuj'a-ni, waj'a-ni. 
headstrong, a. 'anid ; ras-uh "owi. 
heal, V. n. {y^ per-) bitib, tab; biyibra, biri. 
JiealtJi, n. sihha (sahha) ; his health, suhht-uh. 
healthy, a. nasih ; suhht-uh taiyib ; [of place) hawa-h taiyib. 
heap, n. kumi (komi) p. kuam. 
hear, v. a. bism'a, sma'at, sm'a p.p. masmia'a. 
heart, n. "alb ("elb) p. "ulub; fuad; [at cards) kubba; 

by heart, ad. ghaiban; 'al ghaib. 
lieat, n. harara ; showb (shob) v. a. bsakhkhin, sakhkhant, 

sakhkhin p.p. msakhkhan. 
heathen, n. wateni p. wateniyi. 



VOCAHULARY. 163 

licavoi, n. scma. 

heavy, a. ti"il c. at"al p. ta"al. 

hedge, n. siycj p. siycjct. 

Iiedgehog, n. "linfuz p. "anafiz ("unfud, p. "anafid) ; ke- 

bebit shok. 
heel, n. k'ab p. ka'ab ; heel rope, shkcl p. shkelet. 
height, n. 'ulu; [of stature) tul; "ami. 
heir, n. weris p. wurra.s (warasi). 
hell, n. jchennam. 
Iielinet, n. khuzi p. khuaz. 
help, n. mse'adi ; v. a. bse'id, se'adt, se'id ; it cannot be 

Jielped, mush fil-id ; the matter could not be Jielped, 

hal-mes'eli ma ba'"it fil-id. 
helpless, a. 'ajiz p. 'ujjez. 
liein, n. hashiyi. 
hemlock, n. showkeran. 
hemorrhoid, n. basur p. bwesir. 
hei)ip, n. "innib. 
lien, n. djeji p. djcjct c.p. djcj. 

hence, ad. min howii; JiencefortJi, min halla" u raih. 
her, [pro. suff.) ha (aj. 
Jierb, n. 'ushb p. 'asheb. 
lierd, n. "atiy'a p. "uta'an. 

here, ad. hown ; here and there, hown u hown. 
hereditary, a. wurti (urati) ; bil-irs. 
Jieresy, n. harta"a. 
heretic, a. hartu"i p. harat"a. 
hermit, n. ncsik p. nussak ; zehid p. zuhad. 
Jiero, n. batal p. abtal. 
herself, pro. zet-ha. 
hesitate, v. n. bitwa" "af, twa""aft, t\v'a""af; bitrcddad, 

treddadt, treddad. 



164 ARABIC MANUAL. 

hesitation, 11. tcreddud. 

hicciip, n. hazzu"a (hazza"). 

hide, V. a. bkhabbi, khabbait, khabbi p.p. mkhabba. 

hiding-place, n. mikhbeyi. 

JiigJi, a. 'aali c. a'ala; liigJi-Jiandcd, a. mustebidd. 

Highness ( Your), simu-ak ; His — simu-uh. 

highzvay, n. sikki sultaniyi. 

hill, n. telli, p. tellet c.p. tlel (tlal). 

hilt, n. "abcla. 

him, (pro. suff.) uh (h). 

himself, pro. zet-uh. 

hinder, v. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a; bsudd, saddait, sudd 

p.p. masdud. 
hindoo, n. hindi p. hunud. 
Jiinge, n. mfassali p. mfassalat. 
hint, n. ishara. 
hire, n. ujra (ijra); kira; [let on hire) v. a. b'ejjir, ejjert, 

ejjir; bikri, kerait, kri; [take on hire) v. a. biste'jir, 

ste'jert, ste'jir; bistikri, stekrait, stikri. 
hirer, n. muste'jir. 
his, (pro. suff.) uh (h). 
history, n. tarikh (terikh). 
Jiit, V. a. bidrub, darabt, drub p.p. m.didv\xh; [not to miss) 

bsib, sibt, sib. 
hither, ad. ila hown. 
hitherto, ad. li hadd al-wa"t. 
hoe, n. mejrafi, 

hoist, V. a. birf'a, ref'at, irfa p.p. marfu'a. 
Jiold, n. "ar al-merkeb ; v. a. bimsik, mesakt, msuk p.p. 

memsuk; v. a. [contain) y<^ per. bise'a, se'a; to hold 

out, V. n. b"ewim "ewamt, "cwim. 



VOCABULARY. I 65 

Jiole, n. jura p. juar; tu"ub p. tu"ubi (ti"ib); {small) 
bukhsh p. bkhushi. 

holiday, n. 'eid p. 'aiyed; t'atil; btali; rukhsa; to take a 
— , V. bbattil, battalt. 

Holiness [to the Pope), Your — , "adesit-kum ; His — , 
"adest-uh. {Patriarch), Your — , ghibtat-kum ; His — , 
ghibtt-uh. {Metropolitan), Yonr — , siedit-kum; His — , 
sicdt-uh. 

Holland, Hulanda; Dutch, a. hulandi. 

liolloio, a. mjowwif; mjowwar; v. a. bjowwif, jowweft, 
jowwif p.p. mjowwaf. 

holsters, n. "ubur. 

holy, a. m"addas. 

home, n. {house) beyt p. biyut; {country) watn ; beled. 

hone, n. msenn. 

honest, a. amin p. limena; honesty, n. ameni. 

honey, n. 'asel ; Jioneycomb, "urs 'asel. 

honorary, a. ikrami. 

Jionour, n. sheref; [respect) 'ird ; improbity) namus; v. a. 
bukrim, akramt, krim; {to do the honour) v. a. bsher- 
rif, sherreft, sherrif; {to have the honour) v. n. bit- 
sherrif, tsherraft. tshcrrif ; zvill you do me the lionour 
of coming to see me, btshern'f-ni ; / liad the lionour 
of going to see him, ana tsherraft li "ind-uh; in Jwnour 
of, minshen; li cjl-uh [ivitJi pro. sujf.). 

honourable, a. musta"im. 

hood, n. {of a cloak) "ubu'a; {of a carriage) kebbut. 

hoof, n. hafir p. hawcfir. 

hook, n. shenkel p. shnekil ; killabi p. klelib ; hook and 
eye, bikli wa 'irwi. 

hoop, n. tiira. 

hope, n. amcl p. ilmel ; v. n. bit'ariimel, t'immelt. 



1 66 ARABIC MANUAL. 

hopeful [it is), fih raja (amel). 

hopeless [it is), ma fih raja (amel). 

hops, n. p. hashishit ad-dinar. 

horizon, n. uf". 

horn, n. "arn p. "urun. 

hornet, n. debbur p. dbebir. 

horrible, a. mukhif; ha'il. 

horse, n. hisan p. uhsni c. p. kheyl ; dabbi p. dawab ; 
{blood) kehil; {pack) kedish p. kidsh; {stallion) fahl 
p. fuluil ; {gelding) tawashi ; {bay) ahmar f. hamra ; 
{bay witli black legs) ahmar mharra" ; {black) adham 
f. dahma ; {dark cliestmtt) kestanewi ; (light chestnut) 
ash"ar f. sha"ra; {grey) azra" f. zer"a; {iron grey) 
azra" hadidi ; {light grey) azra" wadili; {dappled grey) 
mba" "aj ; {grey zvith black points) akhdar f. khadra ; 
{reddish grey) mawaradi ; [wJiite) hamemi ; {zvith tvliite 
stockings) mhanjal; on liorseback, 'al al-hisan ; khaiyal 
(khaiyel). 

horse-cloth, n. kuben (kuban). 

horseman, n. khaiyel p. khaiyeli. 

horse-shoe, n. n'ali p. na'al (n'al) ; nadwi p. nadwet. 

hospitable, a. kerim p. kurama ; he is — , beyt-uh maftuh. 

hospital, n. khastakhani. 

hospitality, n. diyafi. 

host, n. sahib al-beyt; hostess, sahbit al-beytj {among 
Bedonins) m'azzib f. m'azzbi. 

hostage, n. rahn p. ruhuni. 

hostile, a. khusm p. akhsam. 

hostilities, n. harb. 

liot, a. showb (shob) c. ashwab ; sukhn ; harr ; to be hot, 
V. n. bshowwib, showwebt. 

hotel, n. lukanda. 



VOCABULARY. 1 67 

Jiour, n. se'a p. se'at. 

house, n. beyt p. biyut; {large house [Beirut]) hara p. 

hariit ; v. a. bsekkin, sekkent, sekkin. 
household, n. 'aiycH p. 'aiyel ('ai'eli). 
Jiozv, ad. kif; Jioivever, m'a zclik; lioiv inauy, kam; Jioxv 

tnuchy "add csh. 
hotvl, 11. 'awi ; V. n. (3"! per.) bi'owi, 'owa; biyinbah, 

nabah. 
Jiulk, n. jism al-merkeb. 
/luiuan, a. insani; besheri. 

Jiuiiiajuty, n. insaniyi; he is humane, fih insaniyi. 
liuvible, a. mutwad'i ; humility, n. tawad'u. 
hu»ip [of a camel), n. hadabbi (hadbi). 
humpback, a. ahdab. 

Hungary, bcled mejer; Hungarian, a. mcjcri. 
hunger, n. jiVa. 

hungry, n. jiVan; to be Jmngry, v. n. bju'a, je'ut. 
liunt, V. a. bistad, istadt, istad. 
liunter, n. saiyyed (saiyyad). 
hunting, n. said. 
hurricane, n. zowba'a (zoba'a). 
Jiurry, n. 'ajeli; v. n. bist'ajil, st'ajelt, st'ajil; browwij, 

rowwajt, rowwij ; v. a. b'ajjil, 'ajjclt, 'ajjil p.p. m'ajjel. 
hurt, V. a. bdurr, darrait, durr p.p. madrur ; bwajj'i, 

wajj'at, wajj'i; to be hurt, v. n. bindarr, indarrait; 

to Iiurt, V. n. (y^ per.) biyuj'a, waj'a (wij'e), 
husband, n. zowj (joz) p. rjcl. 
hush, [imper.) bus f. husi. 
Iiusk, n. "ishri p. "ishr ("ushur). 

liut, n. kukh p. akwakh ; {for silkxvorms) khuss p. khsas. 
hyacinth, n. khazemi p. khazam. 
hyoia, n. dab'a p. db'a. 



1 68 ARABIC MANUAL. 

hjiiui, n. ternimi. 
hypocrisy, n. ri'a. 
Iiypocrite, n. mra'i. 



I. 

/, pro. ana. 

ibex, n. w'al p. wa'al. 

ice, n. jlid; snow ice, telj ; viannfactiired ice,\y\Avci2^r^Q\.; 

ices, buza; dondurma. 
idea, n. fikr p. afkar. 

identical, a. bi zet-uh ; bi nefs-uh i(ivit]i pro. suff.). 
idiom, n. istilah, 

idiot, n. ablah; a. m'atuh; belid. 
idle, a. keslen p. kesela. 
idleness, n. kesel. 

idol, n. weten (waten) p. owten; sunm p. asnam. 
idolater, n. wateni p. wateniyi. 
idolatry, n. 'ibedit al-asnam. 
if, con. izaken ; inken [luith pres, tense) ; iza ; low [zvitk 

past), 
ignorance, n. jeheli. 
ignorant, a. jehil, p. juhhel; mghaffaL 
ill, a. marid p. murada; sakhin (sakhnan) ; to fall ill, 

V. n. bimrad, maridt; biskhun, sakhant. 
illegal, a. ghair sher'i ; haram. 
illegitimate, a. bandu". 

illiterate, a. ghair (mush) mu'allem; miXu mrabba. 
illness, n. marad. 
illuminate, v. a. bzeyyin, zeyyent, zeyyin p.p. mzeyyen; 

bnowwir, nowwert, nowwir p.p. mnowvver. 



VOCABULARY. 169 

illuin'niatioii, n. tcnwir; zini. 

illustrate, v. a. bsowwir, sowwert, sowwir p.p. m.sowwer. 

illustration, n. rcsm p. rusum; sura p. suar. 

illustrious, a. shehir. 

image, n. timsel p. temesil. 

imagination, n. owham ; tesowwur. 

imagine, v. a. bitsovvwir, tsowwert, tsowwir, 

imitate, v. a. bi"cllid, "clledt, "cllid p.p. m'cllcd. 

iviitation, n. ta"lid. 

immediately , ad. "awcm ; fil-hal. 

immense, a. kbir p. kbar; wes'i. 

imminent, a. "arib p. "urab. 

immoderate, a. miifrit. 

immodest, a. "alii al-haiya. 

immunity, n. ma'clfiyi ; 'afu ; imtiyez. 

impartial, a. 'adil. 

impartiality, n. ha" " ; 'adl. 

impassable, a. mesdud. 

impatience, n. "illit as-sabr ; nar. 

impatient, a. nirani ; "alii as-sabr ; lie is impatient, tab'a- 

uh hazi"a (nar). 
impede, v. a. bsidd, seddcyt, sidd p.p. mesdud. 
imperfect, a. na"is p. nu"as. 
imperceptible, a. ghair (mush) mahsus. 
imperial, a. mulukaniyi. 
impertinence, n. wa"aha. 
i])ipertinent, a. wi"ih. 
implicate, v. a. bdakhkhil, dakhkhalt, dakhkhil; iinpli- 

cated in, luh dukhl f i ; a. m"arish. 
import, V. a. bijlub, jalabt, jlub p.p. majlub. 
importance, n. ehemiyi. 
important, a. muhimm c. ahamm. 



I/O ARABIC MANUAL. 

imports, n. p. waridat. 

importunate, a. lajiij; ti"il. 

impossible, a. ghair (mush, mau) mumkin; it is impos- 
sible, la yumkin ; ma bisir. 

impossibility , n. 'adcm imkan (imken). 

impose {on), v. a. bghishsh, ghashshait, ghishsh p.p. 
maghshush. 

impostor, n. mzowwir; kezzeb. 

impression, n. te'esir. 

imprison, v. a. bilibus, habast, hbus p.p. mahbus. 

imprisonment, n. habsi. 

improbable, a. ghair (mush) muhtimiL 

improper, a. ghair (mush) leyi". 

improve, v. a. bhassin, hassant, hassin p.p. mhassan ; 
V. n. bithassan, tahassant, tahassan ; (31^ per.) bisir, 
sar fih tahsin. 

improvement, n. tahsin; nejeh (nejah). 

imprudence, n. hama"a; jehcH. 

imprudent, a. jehil p. juhhel; ahma" p. him"in (himu"). 

impunity, n. berrat; witJi impunity, bila "isas. 

impure, a, maghshush; mush khahs. 

in, pr. fi; bi ; dekhil; juwwa; z';^ rtWir/ ^;';//, juwwa u berra; 
indoors, fil-beyt; in order to {that), hatta (ta); in so 
far as, "add ma. 

inability, n. 'ajz; 'adem imken. 

inaccessible, a. be 'id p. ba'ad. 

inaccurate, a. ghair (mush) mazbut. 

inadmissible, a. ghair (mush) ma"buL 

inattention, n. ghiflet; 'adem intibeh. 

incapable, a. 'ajiz p. 'ujjez. 

incapacity , n. 'ajz. 

incense, n. bakhur. 



VOCABULARY. 171 

i)icessa)it, a. dc'im. 

incident, n. hadisi p. hawadis. 

inclination, n. meyl. 

include, v. a. bdakhkhil, dakhkhall, dakhkhil. 

included, ad. min aj-jumli; i)icluding, ad. bi ma fih. 

incognito, a. mutnekkir. 

income, n. madkhul; dukhl (dakhl). 

incompreliensible, a. ghair (mush) mafhum. 

inconsistent, a. 'adim as-scbet. 

inconvenience, n. kilfi ; ti"l. 

inconvenient, a. ghair (mush) mwefi"; ti"H. 

incorrect, a. ghair (musli) sahih. 

increase, n. zod ; v. a. bzid, zidt, zid ; v. n. {y^ pci*-) 

bizid, zad. 
incredible {it is), ma biyitsadda". 
incurable, a. 'addal ; lie (it) is incurable, ma luh dawa ; 

falij la ta'aHj. 
indebted {of debt), a. mediyun ; {obligation) memnun ; 

/ am indebted to you, ana (mediyun) memnun-ak. 
indecent, a. razil p. arzal. 
indeed, ad. bil-ha"i"a. 

indefatigable {lie is), ma bikill min at-t'ab. 
indefinite, a. mubhem. 
indenmify, v. a. b'owwid, 'owwadt, 'owwid p.p. m'owwad 

('ala of tJie person) ; / will indemnify you for the loss, 

b'owwid 'aleyk al-khisara. 
indonnity, n. t'awid. 
independence, n. i.sti"lal. 
independent, a. musta"il. 
index, n. fihris (fahras). 

India, beled al-hind; Indian, a. hindi p. hunud. 
indiarubber, n. mighait; {eraser) mahaiyi. 



1/2 ARABIC MANUAL. 

indifferent {careless), a. ghair (mush) mbeli, it is indiffe- 
rent, mitl ba'ad-uh. 

indigestion, n. 'usr hadm ; su haclm ; to have — , v. n. 
bintikhim, intakhamt; bisir, sar li takhmi. 

indigo, n. nil. 

indirect, a. ghair (mush) dughri. 

indirectly, ad. bil-wasta. 

indiscretion, n. hama"a. 

indisposed, a. ghair (mush) mabsut ; / am — , ma H keyf. 

indistinct, a. sa"im ; ghair (mush) wadili. 

individual, n. zalemi p. zilam. 

industrious, a. mujtchid. 

industry, n. ijtihad. 

inevitable, a. lezim (lazim). 

inexperienced, a. ghashim ; ghair (mush) m'owwad ; ghurr 
(ghirr). 

infancy, n. tufuliyi. 

infant, n. tifl p. atfal. 

infantry, n. baiyada (biyeda). 

infection, n. 'adwi. 

infectious, a. m'edi. 

inferior, a. adna; owta. 

infidelity, n. khiyeni. 

infirm, a. 'ajiz p. 'ujjez. 

infliLence, n. nufuz; satwi. 

influential, a. nefiz; sahib nufuz. 

influenza, n. nezH sidriyi. 

inform (of), v. a. bkhabbir, khabbert, khabbir ('an); 
b'arrif, 'arraft, 'arrif (fi) ; inform me of tvJiat happened 
yesterday, 'arrif-ni filH sar imbereh. 

information, n. m'ahimiyi. 

ingratitude, n. inkar aj-jemil. 



VOCABULARY. 1/3 

inhabit, v. biskun, sekent (fi) p.p. meskun. 

inhabitant, n. ahl al bclcd ; inhabitants, n. p. sukkcn ; 

ahali (ahcli). 
inherit, v. a. buras (burat), warist (waritt) p.p. mowrus 

(mowrut). 
inheritance, n. 'irs p. miras (mawaris). 
injure, v. a. bdurr, darrait, durr p.p. madrur; bu'/.i 

(bi'zi), azait (azeyt), zi. 
injury, n. darar ; aziyi. 
injustice, n. zulm. 

ink, n. hibr; inkpot, daweyi (dawaiyi). 
inlaid, a. [zvith mother of pearl') mta'am ; {^^vitJi jezvels) 

mrass'a, 
inn, n. lukanda; khan. 
innocence, n. bera'a. 
innocent, a. bcri p. ibriya. 
inquire [about), v. bist'alim, st'alamt, st'rdim ('an); bis- 

takhbir, stakhbert, stakhbir ('an). 
insane, a. mejnun. 
insanity, n. jnun. 

inscription, n. kitebi ; khatt p. khutut. 
insect, n. debbebi p. debbebct. 
insecure, a. ghair (mush) amin. 
insensible, a. fe"id al-hasasi ; ad. bila ha.sasi. 
insert, v. a. bidkhil, adkhalt, idkhil; [of tvriting) bhash- 

shi, hashshait, hashshi p.p. mhashsha. 
inside, ad. juwwa; dckhil ; inside out, 'al al-"clb. 
insist (on), v. bharrij, harrajt, harrij ('ala). 
insolence, n. scfaha ; wa"aha. 
insolent, a. sefih ; wi"ih. 
insolvent, a. miflis. 
inspect, v. a. bifhas, fahast, fhas. 



i74 ARABIC MANUAL. 

inspection, n. fahs ; teftish. 

inspector, n. mufettish; fahis. 

instalment, n. "ist p. a"sat (u"suta). 

instance, n. meteli p. metel (mesel) ; for instance, mese- 

len (metelen). 
instant, n. lahza. 

instead of, pr. bedel ; con. bedel ma. 
instruct, v. a. b'allim, 'allamt, 'allim; bla""in, la" "ant, 

la in. 
instruction, n. t'alim p. t'alimet; tel"in. 
instrument, n. ali (eli) p. alet c. p. awe'il; 'iddi p. 'ided. 
insult, n. iheni. 
insurance, n. sikurta. 

insure, v. a. bsowkir, sowkert, sowkir p.p. msowker. 
insurgent, n. 'asi p. 'usat; te'ir p. te'irin. 
insurrection, n. fitni; tovvra. 
integrity, n. isti"ami. 
intellect, n. 'a"l. 

intelligence, n. zeka (zika) ; fahm. 
intelligent, a. zeki (ziki) ; 'a"il p. 'a"ilin ('u"ala). 
intemperance, n. ifrat; shirih. 

intend, v. n. bu"sud, "asadt; binwi, nwait (nweyt). 
intention, n. "asd p. ma"asid ; niyi. 
intentional, a. ma"sud. 
intentionally, ad. bil-"asd. 
intercede (for), v. n. bitwassat, twassatt, twassat (ila); 

bitsheff'a, tsheff'at, tsheff'a (ila). 
intercept, v. a. bihjuz, hajazt, lijuz p.p. mahjuz. 
intercession, n. wesata; shefa'a. 
interest, n. [money] faiyiz; [bias] gharacl; [liking) meyl; 

riighbi (righbi) ; / Jiave an interest i)i, li salih f i — ; 

interested in, a. mutgharrid (fi). 



VOCABULARY. 1 75 

interesting, a. mufid; Icziz; mlih p. mlah. 

interfere {ivith), v. n. bitdfikhal, tdakhalt, (bitdekhil), 

(tdekhalt) fi. 
interference, n. mudakhili (nidckhili). 
interior, n. dekhil. 
interminable, ad. bila nihcyi. 
i)itertial, a. dekhili ; juwwcni. 
international, a. dowli (ducli). 
interpret, v. a. bterjim, tcrjcmt, terjini. 
interpretation, n. tcrjemi. 
interpreter, n. terjuman p. tarajmin. 
interval, n. (place) mesefi; {time) middi; i)i the interval', 

fi esna. 
intervietv, n. mwajilia; m"abcli. 
intestate, ad. bila wesiyi. 
intestine, n. misran p. masarin. 
intimate, a. khususi. 
/V^/t*, pr. fi; dekhil fi. 
intolerable, a. ghair (mush) muhtimil. 
intoxicated, a. sekran. 
intoxication, n. sukr. 
intrigue, n. fesad p. mfesid ; dcsisi p. desa'is; v. n. 

{against) bmc"dih, me"diht, me"dih ('ala); bifsud, 

fesadt, fsud ('ala). 
intriguer, n, mufsid; mi"dah p. ma"adih. 
introduce {to), v. a. b'arrif, 'arraft, 'arrif (fi); b"addim, 

"addamt, "addim (ila); [of things) v. a. bmeshshi, 

meshshait, meshshi. 
intrust {to), v. a. bud'a, wad'at, ud'a (li'ind). 
inundation, n. tufan; hamiali; seyl. 
invent, v. a. bikhtir'i, ikhtar'at, ikhtir'i. 
invention, n. ikhtira'a. 



1/6 ARABIC MANUAL. 

inventory, n. "a'imi p. "awe'im. 

invest {in), v. a. bhutt, hatlait, hutt (fi). 

investigate, v. a. bifhas, fahast, fhas p.p. mafhus. 

investigation, n. fahs. 

invisible, a. ghair (mush) menzur. 

invitation, n. 'azimi p. 'aze'im. 

invite, [to) v. a. be'izum, 'azamt, 'uziim (li) p.p. m'azum. 

involioitaty, ad. bidun "asd. 

imvards, ad. ila juwwa. 

iron, n. hadid; n. (flat iron) mikvvi; v. a. bikwi, kaweyt 

(kweyt), kwi p.p. mikvvi. 
ironiyig-wojuan, n. kuweyi. 
irregular, a. ghair (mush) muntazim. 
irresolute, a. mutereddid ; da'if al-'azm. 
irrigate, v. a. bis"i, sa"ait, s"i. 
irrigation, n. sa"i. 
island, n. jeziri p. jeze'ir. 
isolate, v. a. bifruz, farazt, fruz p.p. mafruz. 
issue, n. netiji; hasil; v. n. bidhar, dahart, dhar; bitl'a, 

tl'at, tl'a; V. a. bsaddir, saddert saddir. 
it, pro. hu (hui); pro. siiff. uh (h). 
Italy, ItaHa; Italian, a. itahyeni. 
itcli, V. n. (31-d per.) biyir'a, re'i. 
itching, n, hakki. 
iteins, n. p. tafsilat ; mufredat ; item, n. [of an account) 

def'a p. def'at; nifdi p. nifed. 
itinerary, n. yowmiyi. 
ivory, n. 'aj, 
ivy, n. 'amsha". 



VOCABULARY. 1/7 

J. 

jackal, n. wawi p. wawiyi. 
jacket, n. jaketa; sitri ; bantu. 

Jajfa, Yafta. 
jam, n. tatli ; hulu; murabba; jam pot, kibbeyi tatli. 

jfanuary, kennun at-teni. 

Japan, belcd al-Yaban ; Japanese, a. yabani. 
jar, n. {large) jarra p. jrar; khabi (khcbi) p. khvvebi; 
"idri p. "idr; {small), hu" ; dweyk p. dweykat; (for 
table use) shcrbi (n'ara). 
jasper, n. yasb. 
jaundice, n. ri"an ; sfaira. 

jaiv, n. fekk p. fukuk; jaw bone, hanuk p. hanek. 
jealous, a. hasud. 
jealousy, n. hasad. 

Jericho, ariha. 

Jerusalem, "uds; urushlim. 

jessamine, n. yasmin. 

jest, n. mezh; hazl ; v. n. bimzah, mczaht, mzah. 

Jesuit, yesu'i p. yesu'iyi. 

Jesus, yesu'a. 'Isa. 

jet, n. silen ; (of water) fis"iyi ; nofcra. 
jetty, n. rasif. 

Jezv, yahudi p. yahud ; Jewish, a. yahudi. 
jewel, n. jowhcra (johcra) p. jewehir (jawahir). 
jeiveller, n. jowhcrji. 

jeivelry, n. p. mjowherat; imitation — , mjowherat kizbi. 
job, n. shughl (shighl) p. ashghel. 
jockey, n. khaiyel. 
jocular, a. rawcndi. 



178 ARABIC MANUAL. 

join (to), V. a. busul, wasalt, usul (usil) p.p. mowsul, 

(bi); bdumm, dammait, dumm (ila). 
joint, n. mafsal p. mafasil; (of business) mushterek. 
jolt, 11. khadda; v. a. {y^ per.) bikhudd, khadcl. 
Jordaji, nahr al-urdun. 
jouDial, n. yowmiyi. 
jonrnalist, n. mkctib ; muresil. 
journey, n. sefer, p. asfar; khatra, 
jovial, a. farhan ; mesrur. 
joy, n. farah; surur. 
judge, n. "adi p. "uda; ne'ib (na'ib). 
judgment, n. hukm. 
judicial, a. sher'i. 
judicious, a. 'a"il. 
jug, n. bri" p. beri" (eberi"). 
juggler, n. mz'abir. 
juice, n. 'asir; zum. 
juicy, a. mewi. 
Jidy, tammuz. 
jump, n. fezzi ; v. n. bnutt, nattait, nutt ; bi"muz, "amazt, 

"umuz; (over) v. bfizz, fezzait, fizz ('ala). 
junction, n. mel"a; mujtem'a. 
June, hazeran. 
juniper, n. sindrus. 
just, a. 'adil; just so, ad. bit-temem. 
justice, n. 'adl; 'adeli. 
justify (oneself), v. bberrir zet-i, berreyt zet-i, berrir 

zet-ak; (confirm) v. a. bsebbit, sebbett, sebbit; / am 

justified in doing so, ha" "-i 'amil heyk. 
justly, ad. bil-'adl ; bil-ha" ". 



VOCABULARY. 1 79 



K. 



kavass, n. "uwwas p. "ovvvvasa; uniform of — , bedlit 
al-"uwwas; loose jacket with hanging sleeves, demir 
p. dwemir; kebbut; jacket without sleeves, kubran p. 
kvveberin ; embroidered jacket, dcmir ma"assab ; vest 
witJi sleeves, mintian p. mnetin ; embroidery, "asab ; 
loose trousers, shirvval p. sheravvil; gaiter, tma" p. 
tma"at; sash, zinnar p. znenir; fez (cap) terbush p. 
trabish; tassel, sherrabi p. sherarib; sword, seyf p. 
siyuf; plated stvord, seyf mfaddad; sword-belt, bind 
p. bnud as-scyf; shirt, "amis p. "umsan. 

keel, n. "a'dit al-merkeb. 

keen, a. "aris; kheri" p. khawari"; 'asif p. 'awasif. 

keep, V. a. bba" "i, ba""eyt, ba""i; bkhalli, khallait, 
(khalleyt) khalli; (observe) behfaz hafazt, hfaz p.p. 
mahfuz ; keep accounts, v. bimsik, mesakt hiseb ; keep 
on doing, v. n. bdamm, dammait 'amil; keep waiting, 
V. a. b'owwa", 'owwa"t, 'owwe"; / will not keep you 
xuaititig, ma bitruk-ak tuntur-ni; (otie's ivord) v. ma 
bikhrum fi"61-i ("owl-i). 

keeper, n. haris p. hurras. 

keepsake, n. tezkar. 

keg, n. barmil zghir. 

kernel, n. "elb ("alb) p. "ulub. 

kettle, n. bri" p. beri". 

key, n. mifteli (miftah) p. mfetih (mefatih) ; key hole, n. 
tu"ub (ti"ib) al-beb (al-mifteh). 

kick, n. labta; v. a. bilbat, labatt, Ibut; birfus, refest, 
rfis. 

kid, n. jidi p. jdaiya; kid gloves, kfuf jild. 



l80 ARABIC MANUAL. 

kidney, n. kelwi p. kleywi. 

kill, V. a. bi"tul, "atalt, u"tul (u"til) p.p. ma"'tul ; lie ivas 
killed, "itil. 

kiln, n. atun. 

kind, n. jins p. ajnes; now' (no') p. anw'a; shikl p. 
shikel (ashkal); a. sahib m'aruf; latif p. liitafa. 

kindness, n. lutf. 

king, n. melik p. muluk ; (cards) rai. 

kingdom, n. memleki p. memalik. 

kiss, n. bowsi (bosi) p. bowset; v. a. bbus, bist, bus. 

kit, n. p. howeyij. 

kitchen, n. matbakh p. matabikh ; stove, uja" p. uja"at; 
m6"adi; bars of the grate, msabb'a; chimney, med- 
kheni ; (of iron) dekhun ; oven, firn ; cupboard, khizeni ; 
shelf, reff p. rfuf; sink, balu'a; table, towli p. towlet ; 
kitchen utensils, n. p. awe'i (nahas) al-matbakh. 

kite, n. taiyara ; to fly a — , btaiyir, taiyert, taiyir tai- 
yara ; n, (bird) shuha. 

kitten, n. bissi ; "atta zghiri. 

knapsack, n. jerabandiyi. 

knave, (cards) fi. fershakh. 

knead, v. a. be'ujun, 'ajant, 'ujun. 

kneading-pan, n. m'ajen. 

knee, n. rikbi p. rikeb (rikeb) ; knee deep, li rikbi; knee- 
cap, sabunit ar-rikbi ; on one's knees, 'ala n'keb (rikeb). 

kneel, v. n. birk'a, rak'at, irk'a. 

knife, n. sikkin p. skekin ; table knife, sikkin at-towli ; 
clasp-knife, mitwi ; mus ; pen-kiiife, 'uwaisiyi ; knife- 
sharpener, msenn; small knife, sikkin zghir; large 
knife, sikkin kbir. 

knit, V. a. bishtighil, shtaghalt, shtighil bis-sinnara. 

kjiitting, n. shighl (shughl) sinnara. 



VOCABULARY. l8l 

knob, n. meski ; tififehat al-bcb. 

knock, V. a. bdu"", da" "ait, du""; knock down or over, 

V. a. birmi, rmait, rmi; bibtah, bataht, btah, 
knot, n. 'i"di p. 'u"ad ; knotted, a. m'a"ad. 
knot {to), V. a. be"'ud, 'a"adt, 'u"ud p.p. m'a"ud. 
know, V. a. b'arif, 'arift, 'arif p.p. m'aruf; make knozvn, 

V. a. b'arrif, 'arraft, 'arrif; become hioivn, [y^ P^r-) 

biyinti'shir, intashar; bishi'a, sha'a. 
knowingly, ad. bil-"asd. 
knowledge, n. 'ilm ; m'arifi. 
knuckle, n. 'i"dit (p. 'u"ad) al-usb'a. 



L. 

label, n, unwen ('ilwan). 

laboratory, n. mahall al-kimia. 

labour, n. shughl (shighl) ; kedd ; t'ab. 

labourer, n. fe'il (fa'il) p. fa'ali. 

lace, n. mkeshkesh ; dantella; gold — , shrit dahab ("asab); 

silver — , shrit fidda. 
lack, n. "illi; v. (3rd per.) bi'uz; ma fih. 
lad, n. sabi p. subiyan. 
ladder, n. sillum p. selelim. 
lading (bill of), n. bolsit shahn. 
ladle, n. marghafi. 
lady, n. sitt p. sittet (sittat). 
lag (behind), v. n. b"assir, "assert, "assir ; /^^^/w^ ^^//z;/^, 

a. m"as.sir. 
lair, n. maghara. 

lake, n. bhaira (bheyra) p. bhairat. 
la}>ib, n. kharuf p. khirfen ; (sniall) "ar"ur p. "ara"ir. 



l82 ARABIC MANUAL. 

lame, a. 'araj f. 'arja p. 'urj ; to be lame, v. n. be'uruj, 

'arajt; the horse is lame, al-hisan 'amm bey'uruj ; lame 

excuse, 'uzr kezib. 
lament, v. bnuh, niht, nub ('ala) ; bibki, bakit, bki ('ala). 
lamentation, n. menaha. 
lamp, n. "andil p. "anadil; dow; lamp-glass, "izezit 

"andil. 
lance, n. rumh p. rmali; v. a. bibd'a, bad'at, bd'a (bi- 

drub-uh neshter). 
lancet, n. neshter ; mibd'a ; rishi. 
land, n. ard ; (property) riz" p. arza" ; viilk, p. amlak ; 

on land, ad. 'al al-berr; (arable) ^x<iv(\2.^\x\ydL; (pasture) 

mer'a; (waste) ard mahmuli ; (wooded) ard mshejjer; 

(nnwooded) ard sallikh (baiyad); Government land, 

ard miri ; public land, ard meshe'a ; private land, milk 

khass. 
landing-place, n. mina; (wooden) s"ala. 
landlord, n. sahib al-beyt. 
landmark, n. takhm p. tkhum. 
landowner, n. sahib al-milk. 
lane, n. zariib p. zwerib; dakhli. 
language, n. lughgha. 
languid, a. da'if p. da'af; 'aiyyen. 
lantern, n. (glass) fanus p. fwenis ; (paper) fanar p. fa- 

narat; (magic) fanus sehri. 
lap, n. hudn (hidn). 
lapse, V. n. [y^ per-) bifut, fat; tJie time has lapsed, fat 

(mada) al-wa"t. 
lard, n. dehn al-khanzir. 
larder, n. khizeni. 
large, a. kbir c. akbar p. kbar. 
lark, n. "unbra. 



VOCABULARY. I 83 

last, a. ckhir (akhir); (preceding) madi ; n. (slioemaker s) 

sidden (sindcn); v. n. {y^ per.) bitowwil, towwal ; 

bidum, dam (dem); at last, ad. akhiran; last price, 

ckhir s'er; last time, ekhir marra; last ivord, ckhir 

kilmi. 
latch, n. sa"ata (sa"Lita). 
late, a. (defunct) mutwaffi ; (of inoslenis) merhuni ; to be 

late, V. n. bitia" "as, tla" "ast, tla""as; bit'owwa", 

t'owwa"t, t'owwa"; yoii are too late, t'owvva"t (tla" "ast) 

ktir; lately, ad. mu'akhiren. 
latli, n. lowh (loh) khashcb p. Ivveh. 
lathe, n. makhrata. 
lather, n. raghwit as-sabijn. 
latitude, n. 'arcl. 
latrines, n. kenif; shcshmi; beyt al-mai; beyt al-fada; 

beyt al-khala. 
latter, a. teni. 
latterly, ad. mu'akhiren. 
lattice, n. sh'ariyi. 
laugh, n. dihki (duhki) ; v. n. bidhak, dahikt, dahak; 

laugh at, V. bidhak 'ala. 
laughable, a. muclhik. 
laugJiing-stock, n. maskhara. 

laughter, n. dihk. » 

launc/i, V. a. bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil fil-balir. 
laundress, n. ghasseH. 
laurel, n. ghar. 
lava, n. mewad burkaniyi. 
lavender, n. lawanda. 
lazv, n. (sacred) shcriy'a p. sheraiy'a; (civil) nazam; 

destur. 
lazo-court, n. mahkenii p. mhakim {vide court). 



184 ARABIC MANUAL. 

lawful, a. jeyiz. 

laivn, n. khadra; merj p. mruj. 

lawsuit, n. d'awa p. da'awi. 

lawyer, n. wekil da'awi ; avokat. 

laxative, n. mis-hil; sherbi, 

lay, V. a. bhutt, hattait, hutt ; [a table) bhutt as-sufra; 

{eggs) V. n. (3id per. f.) bitbid, badet. 
layer, n. taba"a; saf (sef) p. sefet; in layers, saf saf. 
lazy, a. keslen p. kesela. 
lead, n. resas. 
lead, V. a. b"ud, "udt, "ud ; btill, tallait, till; / led Jiim 

by the hand, "udt-uh bi id-uh ; (precede) v. n. bit- 

"addam, t"addemt, t"addam ('ala) ; v. a. bisba", saba"t, 

sba"; [conduct) to, v. a. bekhud, akhadt, khud (li). 
leader, n. "eyid ("a'id) p. "uwed. 
leading, a. owwel. 
leading-article, n. ma"ali iftitahiyi. 
leaf, n. wara"a p. wara" (owra"). 
leak, n. shi""; (in a roof) delf; v. n. (3i'd per.) (vessel) 

biyizrub, zarab; birowwih, rowwah; (roof) biyidlif, 

dalaf. 
lean, n. habr; a. da'if p. da'af; v. n. [on) bittiki, tek- 

kait, tikki ('ala); bistinid, stenedt, stinid ('ala); v. a. 

{against) bisnud, senedt, snud ('ala) ; / leant the ladder 

against the wall, senedt as-sillum 'al al-hait. 
leap, n. fezzi; v. n. [over) bfizz, fezzait, fizz ('ala); bi- 

"muz, "amazt, "umuz ('ala)- 
leap-year, n. sini kebis. 
learn, v. a. and n. b'arif, 'arift, 'arif; bit'allam, t'allamt, 

t'allam. 
learned, a. 'alim p. 'ulema. 
learning, n. 'ilm ; m'arifi. 



VOCABULARY. 1 85 

lease, n. ijar al-bcyt. 

leasJi, n. habli. 

least {the), al-a/.ghar ; at least, a "allama. 

leather, n. jild p. jlud; untanned — , jild ftir; Russian 

— , jild miskobi. 
leave, n. izn ; rukhsa; v. a. bitruk, tarakt, truk; bkhalli, 

khallait (khallcyt), khalli; take leave, v. n. bistarkhis, 

starkhast, starkhis; [of servants) bitlub, talabt, tlub 

izn ; on leave, f i (bi) rukhsa ; yon had no leave to do 

so, ma ken lak izn t'amil haik. 
leaven, n. khamiri ; leavened, a. khamir. 
leavings, n. p. fadlat. 
Lebanon, Libnan; Lebanese, a. libncni. 
lecture, n. khitbi p. khittlb. 
ledge, n. haffi p. hafefi. 

ledger, n. defter p. defetir ; istez p. asatiz. 
leecli, n. 'ala"a. 

lees, n. rasi (rasib) ; [of zvine) 'akr; {coffee) tifl. 
left, n. shimel; to the left, 'ash-shimel; left handed, 

'israwi. 
leg, n. ijr p. ijreyn ; [of animals) front-leg, id p. ideyn ; 

back — , ijr. 
legacy, n. wusiyi. 
legal, a. sher'i. 
legation, n. sefara. 
legend, n. kharafi p. kharafat. 
legible, a. mi"ri ; waclih. 
leisure, n. fadawi; leisurely, a. mute'cnni. 
lemon, n. laimuni (leymuni) hamda p. laimun hamud. 
leJHonade, n. leymunada. 

lend, V. a. be'ir, 'irt, e"ir; bu'Vud, "aradt, u"rud. 
letigth, n. tul; at full length, 'ala tul-uh. 



1 86 ARABIC MANUAL. 

lengthen, v. a. btowwil, towwalt, towwil p.p. mtowwal. 

lengthwise, ad. bi-tul. 

lenient, a. leyyiii; sihl; leniently, ad. bi lutf. 

lent, n. sowm (som) al-kbir. 

lentil, n. 'adasi p. 'adas. 

leper, n. abras p. burs; mejdum p. mjeddemin; ahl al- 
hadiri. 

less, ad. bin-na"i.s; a"el; more or less, aktar ow a"el ; 
he gave me less than you, 'ata-ni a"el miii illi 'ata-k 
yeh. 

lessee, n. muste'jir. 

lessen, v. a. bi"ellil, "allelt, "ellil. 

lesson, n. ders p. durus; meteli p. mete'il. 

lessor, n. mu'jir. 

let [allozv), V. bismah, semaht, smah (li) ; / zvill not let 
you in, ma bismah-lak tefut; [of houses) v. a. b'ejjir, 
ejjert, ejjir; / xvill let you my hoiise, b'ejjir-ak beyt-i; 
let alone, v. bkhalli, khalleyt, khalli wahd-uh ; let go, 
V. a. bdeshshir, deshshert, deshshir; bseyyib, seyyebt, 
seyyib ; let in, v. a. bfowwit, fowwatt, fowwit ; let out, 
V. a. btall'i, tall'at, tall'i ; let me {him) pass, khalli-ni 
umru" (khalli-h yumru"), 

letter, n. mektub p. meketib; {of alphabet) harf p. liuruf; 
letter-bag, kis meketib. 

lettuce, n. khassi p. khasset c. p. khass. 

level, a. sehili ; msewa; jelis f. jelsi; suvvi f. swiyi ; v. a. 
bsewi, saweyt, sewi p.p. msewa. 

lever, n. 'atili ; mukhl. 

lexicon, n. "amus p. "awamis. 

liar, n. kezzeb; mnefi". 

liberal, a. kerim p. kurama; sakhi. 

liberality, n. kerem. 



VOCABULARY. 1 8/ 

liberate, v. a. bitlu", tala"t, tlu"; bharrir, harrcrt, harrir. 

liberty, n. hurriyi. 

library, n. mcktebi p. meketib. 

license, n. rukhsa; izn ; [disorder) rezeli. 

lick, V. a. bilhas, lahast, Ihas p.p. melhus; n. lahsi. 

lid, n. ghata p. ughtiyi. 

he, n. kizbi p. kizbet; barbuki ; v. n. bikzub, kzibt, 

kzub. 
lie down, v. n. bncm (bnam), nimt, ncm (nam); lying 

dozvn, pros. part, neyim 1. neyimi ; v. n. bitla" "ah, 

tla" "aht, tla" "ah. 
lieutenant, n. mulezim (muklzim). 
life, n. 'umr; haiya (hiya); by the life of my father, 

bi haiyit bey-i (ab-i). 
lifeless (as if dead), ka in-nuh mc'it. 
lift, V. a. birfa, refat, iiTa; bshil, shilt, shil. 
light, n. dow; nur; a. khafif c. akhaf p. khifaf; {of 

colour) fetih c. aftah ; v. a. bdowvvi, dowweyt, dowwi 

p.p. mdowwa; {a fire) v. a. bsha'il, sha'alt, sha'il ; 

lighted, a. she'ili (sha'ali) ; co)ne to light, v. n. (3rd per.) 

biyizhar, zahar; biyinjili, injela; biban, ban. 
lighten, v. a. bkhafflf, khafifeft, khaffif p.p. mkhaffef; {of 

lightning) (3rd per. f.) bitibri", bera"it (kcnet tibri"). 
lightning, n. ber" ; flash of — , bcr"a. 
like, a. shebih p. ashbah ; ad. mitl ; v. a. bhibb, hab- 

bait (habbeyt), hibb p.p. mahbub. 
likely, a. muhtimil. 
likeness, n. mshebeha. 
lilac, n. zenzelakht. 
lily, n. zanba"a p. zanba". 
limb, n. 'adu p. 'uda. 
lime, n. (tree) zezafiin ; (fruit) laimun \\\x\\x; (cement )\i\\s,. 



r88 ARABIC MANUAL. 

liviit, n. hadd p. hudud; v. a. bhaddid, haddedt, had- 

did p.p. mahdud; tlie time is liviited, al-wa"t daiyi". 
limp, V. n. bekhud, akhadt min ijr-i. 
line, n. safif p. sfuf; [of writing) satr p. stur; straight 

lijie, khatt musta"im (dughri) ; v. a. bbattin, battant, 

battin p.p. mbattan. 
linen, n. kitten ; [underclothing) tyeb tahteniyi. 
liniment, n. duhun. 
lining, n. btani. 
lint, n. neseli ; ketit. 

link, n. zaredi p. zarad ; hala"a p. hal"at c. p. hala". 
linseed, n. bezr kitten; — oil, zeyt har; cruslied — , bezr 

kitten med"u". 
lintel, n. 'atabi. 

lion, n. seb'a p. sbe'a; asad p. usud. 
lip, n. shififi p. shifef (shifef) ; upper, lozver lip, shiffi 

fu"aniyi, tahteniyi. 
liquid, n. se'il p. sewe'il. 

liquidate [debts), v. a. bsaffi, saffeyt, saffi p.p. msafifa. 
liquorice, n. sus; root of — 'ur" as-sus; juice of — rub 

as-sus. 
list, n. "a'imi p. "awe'im. 
listen [to), v. bisgha, saghait, sgha (li) ; listening, pres. 

part, saghi. 
literally, ad. harfiyan. 
lithograpJiy, n. tab'a-i-hajr. 
litigant, n. sahib d'awa. 
litter, n. takhtirewen ; (for animals) fershi; zibl; in a 

litter, a. m'affashi. 
little [a), n. nitfi; shwayi; {time) burha; a. zghir c. azghar 

p. zghar; little by little, shwayi, shwayi. 
live, V. n. be'ish, 'isht, 'ish ; live on, v. be'ish 'ala ; he 



VOCABULARY. 1 89 

lives from hand to mouth, be'yish min id-uli ila 

timm-uh. 
livelihood, n. ma'aishi ; i>ieans of — , asbcb al-ma'ash. 
liver, n. kibid. 
livery, n. bedli makhsusa. 
lizard, n. hardown p. haradin. 
load, n. himl p. hmel (hmuli); v. a. bhammil, hammelt, 

hammil p.p. mhammcl ; {a ship) bish-han, shahant, 

shahan p.p. mash-him ; [a gun) bdikk, dekkait, dikk 

p.p. madkuk. 
loaf, n. {bread) rghif p. irghfi ; {sugar) ras ("alib) sikker. 
loan, n. {money) "ird ("irda) p. "urud ; {things) 'aiyeri 

('aiyari). 
local, a. mahalliyi. 
lock, n. glial p. ghalct; v. a. bi"ful, "afelt, "iful ("ifilj 

p.p. ma"ful. 
locket, n. kirdan; snoberiyi ; medalion. 
locomotive, n. makina. 
locust, n. jeradi p. jerad. 
lodge, V. a. bbeyyit, beyyett, beyyit; v. 11. {at) bibat, 

bitt, bat (fi); binzel, nzilt, inzel (fi). 
lodger, n. nezil p. nuzela ; daif (deyf) p. diyuf. 
lodging, n. mcnzil; beyt. 
loft, n. 'aaliyi ; taiyara; hay loft, tebben. 
loiter, V. n. bit'owwa", t'ow\va"t, t'owwa", 
long, a. ta^vil c. atwal p. tuwal ; long ago, min zemen ; 

for a long time, middi tawili. 
longitude, n. tul. 
look, n. nazra; lamha ; look at, v. bittall'a, ttall'at, ttall'a 

(f i) ; look for, V. bfettish, fettesht, fettish ('ala) ; bdow- 

wir, dowwert, dowwir ('ala) ; look after, v. bdir bel-i, 

dirt bel-i, dir bel-ak ('ala) ; look into, v. a. bshuf, shuft, 



190 ARABIC MANUAL. 

shuf; V. bunzur, nazert, nzur (fi); look like, v. n, 

bbeyyin, beyycnt, beyyin mitl; look upon as, v. a. 

bihsub, hasabt, hsub — mitl ; be'itibir, 'etebert, e'iti- 

bir — mitl; look lierel ttall'a hon; look out! u'a; 

dahr-ak; dir bel-ak; look sharp I rowwij ; intibih. 
looking-glass, n. mereyi (maraiyi) p. muri. 
loose, a. rakhu f. rakhwi c. arkha. 
loosen, V. a. bhill, halleyt, hill p.p. mahlul; birkhi, rkhait, 

irkhi. 
lop, V. a. bifr'a, fer'at, fr'a p.p. mafru'a; bsheffi, sheffeyt, 

sheffi. 
loquacious, a. ktir al-haki; ktir al-ghalibi. 
lord, n. rebb. 

Lordsprayer, n. as-sala ar-ribbaniyi. 
lose, V. a. bdaiy'i, daiy'at, daiy'i ; {money') bikhser, khsirt, 

khsar; {tJie way) v. n. btih (btuh), tiht 'an ad-derb; 

(/ lose my temper) v. n. (3i"<i per.) biyitl'a khil"-i, tili'a 

khil"-i. 
loser, n. khasran. 

loss, n. khisara; sell at a loss, v. a. bbi'a, be'ut bi khisara. 
lot, n. sirbi; jumli; [chance] nasib. 
lots [to cast), V. birmi, rmait, rmi "ur'a. 
lottery, n. "ur'a. 
loud, a. 'aali c. a'ala. 
louse, n. "amli p. "ami. 
love, n. ghuram ; mahabbi; v. a. bhibb, habbeyt, hibb 

p.p. mahbub; fall in love zuitli, v. a. be'ashi", 'ashi"t; 

he is in love with her, hui mughram fi-ha; 'ashi"-ha. 
loved, a. habib; lover, n. muhibb; habib. 
low, a. wati c. owta; deni (diin) c. adna. 
lower, a. tahteni ; v. a. bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil ; bdelli, 

dellait (delleyt), delli ; lower the price, nezzil as-'ser. 



VOCABULARY. 191 

loyal, a. tai'ya. 

loyalty, n. ta'a. 

lozenge, n. habbi p. hbub. 

luck, n. bakht; tof 1" ; hazz; bad luck, nahs. 

lucky, a. mvvafifa" ; hazz-uh kbir. 

lucrative, a. mufid; ma'ash-uh mlih. 

ludicrous, a. mudhik. 

luggage, n. 'afsh; hovveyij ; hmuli. 

lukezvariii, a. fetir f. fetii. 

luinp, n. kebshCd p. kbeshil. 

lunar, a. "ameriyi. 

lunatic, a. mejnun; {cracked) mef'u'a; [light-headed) 

mesh'ur. 
luncheon, n. ftur. 
lungs, n. riyi. 

luscious, a. hulu f. hilwi c. ahla. 
lustre, n. lima'an. 
luxurious, a. mutrafih. 
luxury, n. rifeh. 
/;';v, n. 'ud p. 'awed. 



M. 

mace, n. "ishr jowz at-tib; {club) 'asa p. 'usi. 

machine, n. makina; eli (ali) p. cict (alet) c. p. awe'il 

seiving-macJiine, elit khiyata. 
mad, a. mejnun (zz/V/t' lunatic), 
madness, n. jcnun. 

madonna, n. sitt-na meriam (al-'adra). 
magazine, n. neshera (ni'shra). 
maggot, n. dudi p. dud. 



192 ARABIC MANUAL. 

fnagic, n. sehr ; a. sehri. 

magician, n. sehir; sahhar. 

magistrate, n. "adi p. "uda; na'ib (ne'ib). 

magnet, n. maghnatis. 

magnetise, v. a. (3^^ per.) bimaghnit, maghnat. 

magnificence, n. jeleli; magnificent, a. jelil. 

magpie, n. kak ("a") p. "i"an. 

Mahomet, Muhammed ; seyyid-na [our lord) Muhammed 
resul-ullah {the prophet of God) ; Mahometan, n. mus- 
lim p. musulmin (islam), Mahometanism, islam. 

viaid, n. bint p. benet (benat) ; — servant, san'i p. sun- 
n'a; [black) jeriyi p. jeweri. 

maiden-hair (fern), n. kizbrit al-bir. 

mail, n. dir'a; (post) bosta. 

mainspring, n. {of a watch), zunberak as-se'a. 

maintain [support), v. a. b'ul, 'ilt; v. b"um, "umt (bi) ; / 
cannot maintain my family, ma bi"dir b"um bi 'aiyilt-i. 

maintenance, n. "ut; "iyam bin-nefa"a. 

maize, n. dara (dura). 

majestic, a. jelil; majesty, n. jeleli. His [Her) Majesty, 
jelelt-uh, jelelt-ha. 

major, n. bin bashi ; a. [of age) mi'drik ; beligh. 

majority, n. sinn al-bulugh; the majority, al-akteriyi. 

make, v.' a. b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul ('amil) p.p. m'amul ; 
— the best of, v. a. bihtimil, ihtamelt, ihtimil; — 
light of, V. bistakhiff, stakhaffait, stikhiff (fi); — mo- 
ney, V. n. birbah, rbiht, irbah; — ready, v. a. bhad- 
dir,. haddert, haddir; bwadclib, waddabt, waddib p.p. 
mwaddab; — a speech, v. n. bukhtub, khatabt, 
khtub ; — sure, v. a. b'ekkid, akkedt, ekkid p.p. m'ek- 
ked ; — zvay [for), v. bwass'a, wass'at, wass'i (li) ; — 
one's way, v. n. binjah, nejaht, injeh fi dunia. 



VOCAHULARV.- I93 

malaria, n. malaria. 

Diale, n. zckr p. zukur. 

malice, n. hi"d. 

malicious, a. ha"ud. 

mallet, n. hatura; nida" "a. 

Malta, malta; Maltese, a. malti. 

man, n. rijjel p. rjel. 

manage, v. a. bdebbir, dcbbert, debbir; bscwi, sawcyt. 

sewi. 
management , n. idara. 
manager, n. mudir p. mudera. 
mane, n. m'arafiyi. 
mange, n. jarab; mangy, a. jarben. 
vianger, n. ma'alaf. 

mangle, v. a. (31^ per.) biyimezzi", mezza". 
ma)ihood, n. rujuliyi. 
mankind, n. al-bcshr. 
manly, a. rijjel. 
manna, n. menn. 

manner, n. shikl p. shikel ; tari"a. 
maimers, n. p. adab ; n. husn suluk. 
mana:uvre, n. tedrib p. tedribat ; [military) mnowerat 

harbiyi. 
mantle, n. meshlah p. mcshclih; "aba p. 'ibi. 
manufactory, n. m'amel p. ma'amel; fabrika. 
manufacture, n. 'amel; shughl (shighl). 
manufacturer, n. sahib m'amel; kirkhanji. 
manure, n. zibl. 
manuscript, n. khatt yed. 
many, a. ktir p. ktar ; ma7iy times, marrat ktiri ; inany 

coloured, mlowwan. 
map, n. kharta. 



194 ARABIC MANUAL. 

marble, n. rkham ; mermer. 

March, adar; [military) n. meshiyi. 

mare, n. faras p. kheyl. 

margin, n. hashiyi. 

marigold, n. bakhur meriam. 

marine, a. bahri. 

mark, n. 'alemi p. 'alemat; marka; v. a. b'allim, 'allamt, 

'allim p.p. m'allam ; [commercial) bmerrik, merrakt, mer- 

rik p.p. mmarrak; up to the mark, leyi" lish-shighl; 

titl'a bi id-uh al-maslaha; near the mark, a. musib; 

wide of the mark, a. mukhti. 
market, n. su" p. aswa" (swa"). 
Maronite, maruni p. muwarni ; Maronite church, al-kenisit 

al-maruniyi. 
marriage, n. jewez (zewej); jizi (zija) p. jizet (zijet); 

ceremony of — , iklil ; — service, salat al-iklil. 
marriageable, fi sinn aj -jewez. 
marrozv, n. nkh'a ; marroiv-bone, n. 'admi p. 'adam 

('adm) ; vegetable-marrow, n. kusa. 
marry, v. n. bitjowwaz, tjowwazt, tjowwaz p.p. mjow- 

waz; give in marriage, v. a. bjowwiz, jowwazt, jow- 

wiz; [perform the ceremony) v. a. bkellil, kellelt, 

kellil. 
marsh, n. bata". 
martingale, n. kurfsan. 
martyr, n. shehid p. shuheda. 
martyrdom, n. shehedi. 
marvellous, a. gharib ; 'ajib. 
masculine, a. mzekker. 

mash, V. a. bihlus, halest, hlis p.p. mahlus; bihrus, ba- 
rest, hris p.p. mahrus. 
mask, n. wijh 'aiyeri; maskhara p. msekhir. 



VOCABULARY. I 95 

mason, n. m'emeri p. m'ameriyi. 

masonry, n. hejara. 

mass, n. [things) kunii (komi) p. kuam; [people] jemhur 

p. jemahir. 
massacre, n. mezbaha (medbaha). 
mast, n. sari p. sawari. 
master, n. [superior] ma'allim ; {of a trade] usta p. us- 

tavvat; v. bitghallib, tghallabt, tghallib ('ala). 
masterpiece, n. da"it shighl ; shighl al-ma'allim. 
1)1 as tic, n. 'ara". 
mat, n. hasiri p. husr. 
match, n. [lucifer] shahaitta p. shahat; kebrit; wal'a; 

[pair) jowz (joz) p. ajwcz; v. [y^ per.) biwefi", wafa" 

('ala). 
material, n. "imash ("imesh); [cloth] jukh; [biiilding]V&- 

resta; lawezim al-bina. 
matlie7)iatician, n. riyacli. 
mathematics, n. p. ar-riyadiyet. 
matter, n. maslaha p. masalih; mes'eli; "adiyi; zvliat is 

the matter, shu al-mes'eli; wliat is the matter zvith 

you, shu bek ; ma lak ; there is nothing the matter, 

ma fi shi ; it does not matter, ma biseyL 
mattress, n. fresh p. firsh. 
mature, a. reshid (rashid). 
mausoleum, n. ma"am p. ma"amat. 
May, iyar; nuwar. 
me, pro. suff. i (ni). 
meadotv, n. merj p. mruj. 
meal, n. [ground grain] tahin ; [repast] akl. 
mean, a. dun; [stingy] bakhil p. bukhala; khasis; [average] 

m'addal; v. n. [y^ per.) y'ani ; it means, m'ana-uh. 
meaning, n. m'ana. 



196 ARABIC MANUAL. 

means, n. imken (imkan); "udra; by ;;/^«;w ^/, bi wastat 

Dieanzvhile [in the), fi hal-fursa; fil-wa"t zet-uh. 

measles, n. hasbi ; himeri. 

measure, n. "iyes p. "iyeset ; tape — , mitr p. amtar 
[of capacity) keyl ; [zoeight) wazn ; [proceeding) tedbir 
p. tedebir; tari"a ; full measure, a. kemil; short — 
na"is; above ■ — , ad. fow" al-'adi; zvhat does it measure . 
shu "iyes-uh; v. a. bi"is, "ist, "is; bekhud, akhadt 
khud al-"iyes; [by weight) buzin, wezent, uzin p.p 
mowzun ; [by capacity) bkeyyil, keyyelt, keyyil p.p 
mkeyyel. 

meat, n. lahm. 

Mecca, mekki. 

medal, n. nishen p. nieshin ; medalion. 

meddle [in), v. n. bitdakhal (bitdekhal), tdakhalt (tdek- 
halt) m'a; bitahashshir, tahashshart, tahashshir (fi). 

meddler, 11. hishri ; fuduli. 

medicine, n. dawa p. edwiyi. 

mediocrity, n. hali mutwassta. 

meditate, v. bit'ammel, t'ammelt, t'ammel (fi). 

■meditation, n. ta'ammul. 

Mediterranean sea, al-bahr al-mutwassit. 

medlar, n. z'arura p. z'arur. 

meek, a. wadiy'a. 

meet, v. a. bla"i, la"ait, la"i ; {by chance) v. a. bisduf, 

sadaft; where shall zue meet? weyn minitla"a. 
meeting, n. ijtima'a; mula"a; meeting place, mahall 
ijtima'a; [rivers) mel"a. 

melancJioly, n. sweda; sovvdewi; msodan. 

mellow, a. mistwi. 

melodious, a. mutribi. 

melody, n. lahn p. alhan. 



VOCABULARY. I 97 

meloji, n. battikh asfar, {water-melon) battikh akhdar; 

{sweet scented) shenimcni; "aun. 
melt, V. n. (3rd per.) bidub, dab; v. a. bdowwib, dow- 

wabt, dowwib p.p. mdowwab. 
member, n. 'adu ; honorary — , 'adu ikrami. 
memorandum, n. mzekkeri ; ta"rir. 
memory, n. zakra; my memory, zakirt-i ; in memory of, 

tezkar li. 
menace, n. tahdid; wa'id; v. a. bitaheddad, taheddedt, 

taheddcd ; v. bitwa'ad, twa'adt, tvva'ad (ila). 
mend, v. a. bsallih, sallaht, sallih p.p. msallah; to be 

mended, (s^d per.) biyitsallah, tsallah; {of pens) v. a. 

bibri, bcrait, bri p.p. mibri. 
mention {to), v. a. bizkur, zakert, zkur p.p. mezkur (li); 

/ mentioned it to liini, zakert-illuh ych. 
merchandise, n. p. bda'a (badaiy'i). 
mercJiant, n. tejir p. tujjar. 
merciful, a. rahum; shefu". 

merciless, a. mush (mau) rahum; ad. bila rahmi. 
mercury, n. zaiba". 
mercy, n. rahmi ; shefa"a. 
merely, ad. bes; fa"at. 

merit, n. istih"a"; v. a. bistaha" ", staha" "eyt, stihi"". 
merry, a. farhan. 
mess, n. 'aj"a; lakhbata; {dirt) wasakh ; {fig.) irtibek; 

lebeki; in a mess, a. m'aju"; {fig-) murtibik. 
message, n. khaber; to sold a — , bib'at, ba'att H — 

khaber. 
messenger^ n. se'i (sa'i) ; mirsel. 
metal, n. m'aden p. ma'aden. 
metaphor, n. mejaz. 
meteor, n. shehab p. shuhub. 



198 ARABIC MANUAL. 

method, n, tari"a. 
metre {verse), n. beyt p. abiyet. 
metropolitan, n. mitran p. matarni. 

7)iew, V. n. (31^ per.) binowwi, nowwa ; w^^e^^';;^, a. nowwi. 
microscope, n. mikroskob. 
mid-day, n. dohr. 

middle, n. wast; in the middle of, pr. fi Vv^ast ; middle- 
man, dellel; simsar; middle course, tari" mutwassit; 
middle-aged, a. mutwassit fis-sinn. 
mid-night, n. nuss leyl. 
mid-way, n. nuss ad-derb. 
midwife, n. deyi. 

migrate, v. n. [nomads) birhal, rahalt, rhal. 
migration, n. mhajera ; {nomads) rahil. 
mild, a. latif p. lutafa ; leyyin. 
mildezv, n. 'afn ('ufuni). 
mile, n. mil p. amyal. 
military, a. 'askeri. 

milk, n. halib; fresh — , halib taza; boiled — , halib 
mighli; hot — , halib sukhn; cold — , halib berid ; 
sour — , lebn. 
mill, n. tahun p. twahin; hand — , jarushi p. jwerish; ;;«'//- 
stone, hajr (p. hijjar) tahun; mill-zvhcel, ferash at-tahun. 
miller, n. tahhan. 
millet, [vide maize). 

million, n. meliyun p. mleyin ; millionaire, sahib meliyun. 
mimic, v. a. bi"ellid, 'elledt, "ellid p.p. m"elled. 
minaret, n. medni p. mawadin. 
mince, v. a. bifrum, faramt, frum p.p. mafrum. 
mind, n. 'a"l ; v. [pay attention to) bintibih, intebeht, 
intibih (ila); [care about) binhamm, inhammait (li); 
[interest) v. a. [y^ per.) bihimm, hamm ; I doni mind. 



VOCABULARY. 199 

ma bihimm-ni; make up ones mind, v. n. bc'itimid, 

'ctamcdt ('ala) ; mind one's business, v. bdir, dirt bcl-i 

'ala shighl-i; speak one's mind, v. behki, hakeytfikr-i; 

never mind, ma biseyl, la bcs. 
mine, n. m'aden p. ma'aden ; v. a. bili,dium, laghamt, 

Ighum p.p. melghum. 
miner, n. m'adcnji. 
mineral, a. and n. m'adcni p. ma'aden; — ivater, mai 

m'adeniyi. 
minister, n. wczir, p. wuzera ; prime — , sadr'azam ; 

{foreign affairs), nazir (nezir) al-kharijiyi; {interior), 

— ad-dakhliyi; {finance), — al-meliyi ; {justice), — al- 
'adliyi ; {public iustruction), — al-ma'arif ; {marine), — 
al-bahriyi; {ivar), — al-harbiyi; {public tvorks), — 
an-nef'a; {pious foundations), — al-ow"af; {commerce), 

— at-tijara; {police), — az-zabta. 
minor, n. "asir p. "ussar. 

mint, n. {plant) n'an'a; {for coining) darb khani; sikki. 

minute, n. da"i"a p. da"ayi". 

miracle, n. 'ajibi p. 'ajeyib. 

mirror, n. mcrcyi (maraiyi) p. muri. 

VI is chief, n. chirar ; aziyi. 

misconduct, n. su siri ; siri rediyi. 

misdeed, n. zcnb p. znub. 

miser, n. bakhil n. bukhala; shahih. 

miserable, a. meskin ; {bad) shi"i. 

misery, n. sha"evvi; fu"r. 

misfortune, n. msibi p. msaiyib. 

miss, V. a. bifut, fitt, fut ; bfowwit, fowwatt, fowwit ; 
/ missed the opportunity, fatit-ni al-fursa; dont miss 
the opportunity, la tfowwit al-fursa; {aini) v. n. bukhti, 
khatait, khti. 



200 ARABIC MANUAL. 

mission, n. sefara ; {religions) risali ; irsaliyi ; ba'ati 

diniyi. 
missionary, n. "asis p. "usus; mursel p. murselin. 
mist, n. ghtaita. 
mistake, n. ghalta p. ghaltat c. p. ghalat ; khata ; make 

a mistake, v. n. bighlat (bughlat), ghlutt (ghlitt), 

ghlat. 
mistress, n. ma'allimi; my mistress, ma'allimt-i. 
misnnder standing, n. su fahm. 

mitigate, v. a. bkhaffif, khaffeft, khaffif p.p. mkhaffef. 
mitre, n. tej p. tijen. 
mix, V. a. bukhlut, khalatt, khlut p.p. makhlut; [drugs) 

bimzij, mazajt, mzuj p.p. mcmzuj. 
mixed, a. memzuj ; makhlut. 
mixture, n. mezij. 

moan [moaning), n. 'anin ; v. n. bi'in, 'anait ('aneyt), 'in. 
moat, n. khenda" p. khanadi" (khnedi"). 
mob [the), al-owbash (obash). 
mockery, n. dihki (duhki). 

model, n. mesel (metel) p. emsel; [fig-) "idvvi. 
moderate, a. mu'tidil. 
moderation, n. 'itidel. 
modern, a. jdid p. ji'dad. 
modest, a. mahshum ; modesty, n. hishmi. 
moist, a. riitib. 

moisten, v. a. brattib, rattabt, rattib p.p. mrattab. 
moisture, n. rtubi. 
)>tole, n. khuld p. menajiz. 
molest, V. a. bu'zi (bi'zi), azeyt (azait), zi. 
moment, n. lahza. 

monarch, n. melik p. muluk; sultan. 
monastery, n. deyr p. diyura. 



VOCABULARY. 201 

Monday, nahar (yowm) al-itncyn. 

money, n. mesilri (misriyat); m'ameli; — market, bursa; 

— changer, serraf p. saiyerif. 
mongrel, n. bandu". 
monk, n. rahib p. ruhben. 
monkey, n. s'aden p. sa'adin. 

monopolise, v. a. bihsur, hasert, hsur p.p. mahsur. 
monopoly, n. hasr ; al-yed al-wahdi. 
monster, n. wahsh p. wuhush. 

Montenegro, ]e.he:\ aswad ; Montenegrin, min jebel aswad. 
month, n. shehr p. shuhur (ish-hur); monthly, a. shehri. 
monument, n. asar p. asar (cter p. atar). 
moon, n. "amer; neiv — , hilel; — light, dow al-"amer; 

///// — , bedr. 
moor, V. a. burbut, rabatt, urbut p.p. marbut. 
moorings, n. marbat. 
morals, n. p. adeb. 

more, a. and ad. aktar; moreover, ad. aidan. 
morning, n. bukra; subh; in the morning, 'a bukra; 

tJiis morning, al-yovvm 'a bukra. 
Morocco, marakesh; Moor, mughrabi; Moorish, a. ma- 

gharbi, 
morsel, n. sha"fi. 
mortal, a. me'it; {deadly) "attel. 
mortar, n. {of copper) hewin (hawin); {stone) jurn. 
mortgage, n. rahn; v. a. birhun, rahant, rhun p.p. merhun. 
mortgagee, n. murtehin. 
mort(ras[or, n. rahin. 
mosaic, n. tenzil. 

Diosque, n. jem'i p. jawem'i; mesjid p. mesejid. 
mosquito, n. berghashi p. berghash ; neniusi p. neinus; 

mosquito-net, nemusiyi. 



202 ARABIC MANUAL. 

vioss, n. khazz, 

most, a. and ad. al-aktar; aktar min al-kull (kill); for 

the viost part, al-aghlab. 
moth, n. 'itti p. 'itt; to be motheaten, v. n. [y^ per.) 

bi'attit, 'attet p.p. m'attit. 
motlier, n. imm p. immet; motlier-in-laiv, 'ammi. 
motion, n. hareki ; in motion, a. mutaharrik ; meshi. 
motive, n. sebeb p. asbeb ; gharad. 
motto, n. kelimi; 'ibara. 

mould, n. tirab; [shape) "elib ("alib) p. "awalib. 
mouldy, a. m'affin; to go mouldy, v. n. (3id per.) bi'afifin, 

'affan. 
moult, V. a. (3rd per.) biyishlah, shalah ; biyibdal, bedel; 

the bird moults, at-tayr biyishlah rish-uh. 
mound, n. telli p. tlel. 
mount, V. n. bitl'a, tl'at, tl'a ('ala) ; [an animal)] v. a. 

birkeb, rkibt, irkeb. 
mountain, n. jebel, p. jibel; range of — , silslit jibel. 
mounted, a. rekib. 
mourn (for), v. behzan, hzint, hzan ('ala) ; bhidd, had- 

dait, hidd ('ala) ; wear mourning, v. bilbijs, Ibist, ilbus 

hided. 
mourning, n. hided; hizn ; in — , lebis hided. 
mouse, n. fara p. firan c. p. far. 
mouse-trap, n. masiyadit far. 
moustache, n. sherib p. shwerib. 
mouth, n. timm (tumm) p. itman ; fimm (fumm) p. af- 

weh; buz. 
viouthful, n. lu"mi. 
mouthpiece, n. biz. 
move, V. a. [put in motion^ bharrik, harrakt, harrik ; 

bmeshshi, meshshait, meshshi ; [transport) bin"ul, na- 



VOCABULARY. 203 

"alt, n"ul ; move aivay, v. a. bshil, shilt, shil; v. n. 

bitaharrak, taharrakt, taharrak; move about, bdur, 

durt, dur. 
Dioiv, V. a. bhishsh, hashshait, hishsh p.p. mahshush ; 

bjizz, jezzeyt, jizz p.p. mejzuz, 
Mr, Mrs, al-khowaja; as-sitt. 
much, a. and ad. ktir c. aktar p. ktar. 
mud, n. wahl. 

muddle, n. 'aj"a; {fig-) irtcbek [vide mess), 
muddy, a. muhil ; wehil. 
Diug, n. kuz p. akwaz. 
mulberry, n. tuti p. tut; [zuhite] tut hezez ; [black) tut 

shemi; — tree, tuti. 
mule, n. baghl p. bghal; she-mule, baghli ; kicking mule, 

baghl shmus. 
muleteer, [mule-driver) n. mkeri p. mkcriyi ; "ati'rji. 
multiply, V. a. [a number by another), bidrub, darabt, 

drub p.p. . madrub (f I) ; multiply J by 4, drub tleti fi 

arb'a. 
multiplication, n. darb. 
mumps, n. abu ka'ib (k'ab). 
municipality , n. bclediyi ; President of — , raiyis al- 

belediyi. 
murder, v. a. bi"tul, "atalt, u"tul (u"til) p.p. ma"tul; 

a murdered man, "atil. 
murderer, n. "etil ("atil) p. "litela. 
viurmur, n. ta"um"um; v. n. bitdemmir, tdemmert. 
muscle, n. 'adali p. 'adalet. 
museum, n. dcr at-tuhaf. 
musJiroom, n. futr; khibz al-"a". 
music, n. musika; [vocal) ghina; [church) tertil; psaltika ; 

musician, musiki ; [of a band), nubetji. 



204 ARABIC MANUAL. 

Diiisk, n. misk. 

muslin, n. shesh ; muslina. 

must, I must go [come), ana lezim ruh (iji). 

mustard, n. khardal. 

musty, a. m'affin. 

mute, [to be) v. n. biskut, sakatt, skut (vide silent); a. 

akhras. 
mutineer, n. 'asi p. 'usat. 
mutiny, n. 'isiyan. 
mutton, n. lahm dani. 
mutual, a. mutbedil ; mushterek. 
muzzle [of a gun), buz al-barudi. 
my, pro. suff. i (ni). 
myrrh, n. murr. 
myrtle, n. rihan ; as; myrtle berries, habb al-as (han- 

felas). 
myself, pro. zet-i. 
mysterious, [mystic) a. sirri; 'ajib. 
mystery, [mysticis)n) n. sirr p. asrar. 



N. 



nail, n. mismar p. mesemir; [of the finger) difr (zifr) 
p. adfar (azfar). 

naked, a. 'ariyen ; zlait ; stark naked, bi zult. 

name, n. ism p. asemi (esami) ; v. a. [to give a name to) 
bsemmi, sammait, semmi p.p. msemma; [to mention) 
bizkur, zakert, zkur; in the name of, bi ism. 

namely, ad. y'ani; ay. 

namesake, n. smi. 



VOCABULARY. 205 

)iap, n. [of cloth) zuglibera; {close) nown (nom) ghatta; 

to take a nap, v. n. bnam (bncm), iiinit, nam (nemj 

ghatta. 
napkin, n. futa p. fuat. 
narcissus, n. narjis. 
narcotic, n. mkhadder; mnowvvim. 
narrozv, a. daiyi"' c. adya" ; narroiu-niinded, 'a"l-uh 

daiyi" ("asir). 
nasty, a. wisikh ; mush (man) murdi; mush mhh. 
nation, n. ummi p. umam. 
national, a. watani. 
nationality, n. jinsiyi ; tab'iyi ; his — , jinsiyit-uh; tab- 

'lyit-uh. 
native, a. watani; native-land, n. watn. 
nativity [feast of the), 'eid al-milad. 
natural {naturally), a. and ad. tabt'i. 
naturalise, v. a. bjennis, jennest, jennis; to be naturalised, 

bitjennas, tjennast, tjennas. 
naturalisation, n. tejnis. 
nature, n. tabi'a. 
nausea, n. "irf; to be nauseated {zoit/i), w. n. be"raf, 

"irift (min). 
naval, a. bahri. 
nave, n. sahn. 
navel, n. surra. 

navigation, n. sefer (seyr) al-bahr. 
navy, n. 'amara al-bahriyi. 
Nazareth, an-nasra. 
near, a. "arib p. "urab ; pr. hadd ; "arib; jenb; "irb: 

"iddem; nearly, ad. "arib; ta"riban. 
neat, a. ndif p. ndaf. 
necessary, a. lezini; daruri ; // is — , lezim; it is not — , 



206 ARABIC MANUAL. 

mush (mau) lezim; n. lezim p. lawezim ; necessarily, 

ad. daruri. 
necessity, n. luzum; darura; t/iere is no — , ma fi luzum. 
neck, n. ra"bi; necktie, n. rabtit ra"bi ("amtit ra"bi). 
necklace, n. 'a"id p. 'u"udi. 

need, n. ihtiyej ; v. a. b'uz, 'izt; bihtej, ihtajt. 
needle, n. ibrij knitting — , sinnara; eye of a needle, 

ti"ib al-ibri; needle-ivork, shighl al-ibri. 
negation, n. inkar. 

neglect, v. a. behmil, hamelt, hmil p.p. mahmul. 
negligence, n. ihmel. 
negligent, a. mutahemil. 
negro, n. 'abd p. 'abid ; zenji p. znuj. 
neigh [neighing], n. sahil; v. n. (3i-d per.) biyus-hul, sahal. 
neiglibour, n. jar p. jiran. 
neigJiboiirhood, n. jiri; my — , jirt-i. 
neither — nor, con. la wa la. 
nephezv, n. ibn akh (khey) ; ibn ukht (ikht). 
nerve, n. 'asab p. 'asab. 
nervous, a. basses. 
nest, n. 'ishsh p. 'ushush ('ashesh) ; nest-egg, moda'a 

fil-"inn. 
net, n. shebeki p. shbek. 
nettle, n. "urrais. 

neuter, a. la mzekker wa la mu'annas. 
nentral, a. mutahaiyid. 
neutrality, n. hiyyedi. 
never, ad. abaden ; mnowb (mnob) ; nevertlieless, m'a 

zelik. 
neiv, a. jdid p. ji'dad; neiu fashion, zey jdid; modajdidi. 
Nezvfoundland, ard aj-jdidi. 
news, n. khabcr p. (akhber); good news, n. beshara. 



VOCABULARY. 20/ 

neivspaper, n. jurncl p. jurnclct; gazctta; jcridi. 

next, a. teni; "admi. 

Niagra [falls of), shclclct niagra. 

nib, n. rishi p. ricsh. 

nibble, v. a. {y^ P<-'''-) biyi"rut, "arat. 

nice, a. zarif p. zuraf; mlih p. mkih ; kwaiyis. 

niche, n. ta"a. 

nickname, n. tilbi"a ; libi'\ 

niece, n. bint akh (khcy) ; bint ukht (ikht). 

night, n. leyl p. liycli ; by night, fil-leyl; all night, kill 

al-leyl; tul al-leyl ; tJie thousand and one nights, alf 

leyli u leyli. 
nightgozvn, n. tycb an-nowm. 
nightingale, n. bulbul p. blcbil. 
nightmare, n. kabus (kcbus). 
Nile, nahr an-nil. 
nimble, a. neshit (nishit) ; herik. 
nipple, n. hilmi p. hilem. 
nitre, n. natrun. 
no, ad. la; nobody [no-one) hada; I saiv nobody, ma shuft 

hada; 710 where, wi'la bi matrah. 
noble, a. sherif. 
nobility, n. shcref. 
nod, n. haniyi. 
noise, n. dajji (doji); 'ayta; make a noise, b'amil, 'amilt, 

'amul dajji; bdowwij, dowwajt, dowwij. 
noisy, a. bulit. 

noDiad, n. nijri p. nawar; bedewi p. bcdu ; rahil p. ruhhul. 
nojninally, ad. bil-ism. 
nonsense, n. hels ; kelem fcrigh ; // is nonsense, bila m'ana ;. 

to talk — , V. n. bihlus, halcst, hlis. 
noon, n. ad-dohr. 



2o8 ARABIC MANUAL. 

noose, n. 'i"di p. 'u"ad ; rtinning noose, 'i"di shuta. 

normal, a. tabi'i. 

north, n. shimel (shimal); northern, a. shimeli. 

Norway, noruj ; Norivegian, a. noruji. 

nose, n. minkhar, inf. 

nosebag [of a horse), n. kis sh'ir; kis tibn. 

nostril, n. khaishum p. khieshim. 

not, ad. ma; la; not at all, abaden ; not one, ma hada; 
not quite, lissa ; b'ad ma. 

notable, a. mesh-hur; notables, n. p. 'aiyen. 

note, n. tezkeri p. tezekir; {observation) mulahaza ; {of 
vinsic) nota p. notat ; notes of a piano, sillum; note 
book, defter mfekkera; v. a. b"eyyid, "eyyedt, "eyyid 
p.p. m"eyyed. 

nothing, n. shey (shi); there is nothing, ma fi shi; it will 
come to nothing, ma biyistif id shi ; biruh di'an ; it is 
good for nothing, ma biyinfa shi ; ma biyiswa shi ; 
better than nothing, ahsan min belesh. 

notice, n. e'alen; khaber; v. a. [observe) blahaz, lahazt, 
lahaz ; give notice [about) ; v. a. bkhabbir, khabbert, 
khabbir ('an); give notice [to), v. n. bnebbih, nebbeht, 
nebbih ('ala); it is zvortli noticing, biyistahi" " az-zikr; 
short notice, middi "asiri. 

notoriety, n. shuhra; notorious, a. mesh-hur. 

noun, n. ism p. isma (esami or asemi). 

nourish, v. a. bit'am, ta'amt, ta'am p.p. mta'ama. 

nourisluncnt, n. t'am. 

novelty, n. shey jdidi. 

November, teshrin at-teni. 

novice, n. [religious) mibtidi; a, ghurr (ghirr) ; ghashun. 

now, ad. halla" ; issa ; now and then, ahiyenen ; noiv or 
7iever, wa ilia fa la; nowadays, fi hal-iyem. 



VOCABULARY. 209 

nudge, n. dcfshi; v. a. bidfush, defesht, dfush. 

nuisance, n. shcy (shi) muz'ij, miit'ib. 

null, a. batil (battalj ; }iull and void, la y'unicl fill. 

numb, a. khadran. 

number, n. 'aded p. 'adcd ; v. a. bncmmir, nammert, 
nemmir p.p. mnammer. 

numbered, ad. taht numcro. 

fiumberless, ad. bila 'aded ; bila numra. 

numeral, n. ra"m p. ar"am. 

numerous, a. ktir p. ktar; 'aded-uh ktir. 

nun, n. rahbi p. rahbet. 

nurse, n. mrabbiyi ; ivet-mirse, murda'a. 

;////, n. {hazel) bind"a p. bindu"; — tree, bind"a; [pi- 
stachio] fistu" ; {cocoa) narjil; jozit hind p. joz hind. 

nutmeg, n. jowzit tib p. jowz tib ; nutmeg grater, ma- 
brashi. 

nutshell, n. "ishri p. "ishr. 



o. 



oak, n. sindiani p. sindian ; balluta p. balliit. 

oar, n. mi"daf p. ma'"adif. 

oasis, n. waha p. wahat. 

oath, n. yemin p. aiyemin ; hulfan ; to take an oath, 

V. n. bihluf, halaft, hliif ; to administer an oath to, v. a. 

bhallif, hallcft, hallif. 
oats, n. shufcn. 
obedience, n. ta'a. 
obedient, a. tai'ya p. tai'yin. 
obey, V. a. and n. bti'a, tc'at, ti'a. 

•4 



2IO ARABIC MANUAL. 

object, n. "asd; gharad ; ghaiyi ; {any tiling seen) shey 

(shi); V. n. [to] be'itirid, 'itaradt, e'itirid ('ala). 
objection, n. 'itirad ; there is no — , ma fi men'i (man'i). 
obligation, n. memnuniyi ; to be under an — to, v. bkun, 

kint memnun-uh (lull) or taht memnuniyit-uh. 
oblige, V. a. [to) bijbur, jebert, jbur ('ala); {pnt anyone 

under an obligation) bij'al, ja'alt, ja'al-uh memnun ; 

bsaiyir, saiyert-uh memnun ; obliged [grateful) a. mem- 
nun; mutshekkir. 
oblong, a. mustatil. 
obscene, a. sef ih ; rizil (razil) p. arzal ; obscene language, 

kelem sefih (rizilj. 
observation, n. mulahaza. 
observe, v. a blahaz, lahazt, lahaz; [keep) behfaz, hafazt, 

hfaz. 
obstacle, n. men'i (man'i) p. mwen'i. 
obstinate, a. 'anid ; ras-uh yebis. 
obstruct, v. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a p.p. memnu'a. 
obtain, v. a. bhassil, hassalt, hassil; v. bihsul, hasalt 

('ala). 
obtainable, a. mowjud. 

obviate {a difficulty), v. a. bzil, zilt, zil al-men'i. 
obvious, a. wadih. 
occasion, n. fursa; to avail oneself of, v. n, bintihiz, in- 

tahazt, intihiz al-fursa. 
occasionally, ad. ahiyenen. 
Occident, n. al-gharb. 
occupant, n. sekin p. sukken. 
occupation, n. shighl (shughl), [niilit.) ihtilel; army of — , 

jeysh al-ihtilel. 
occupy, V. a. bshaghhhil, shaghghalt, shaglighil; to be 

occupied [with), v. n. bishtighil, shtaghalt, shtighil (fi); 



I 



VOCABULARY. 2 I I 

to ocaipy oneself {with) v. n. bitsella, tselleyt, tsella 
(f i) ; {milit.) V. a. {a place) bhill, hallait, hill (f i). 

occur, V. n. (3rcl per.) bisir (f. bitsir), sar (f. saret) ; biyi"a 
(f. biti"a), wri"a (f. wa"at) ; it occurs to my mind, 
biyiji, ija (biyiikhtur, khatir) fi bel-i. 

occjtrrence, n. hadisi p. hawadis. 

ocean the, n. al-muhit. 

o'clock {luhat o'clock is itr), "add esh as-se'a; shu as-se'a 
{vide grammar, time). 

October, teshrin al-owwel. 

odd, a. gharib; 'ajib; {not even) ferd. 

odour, n. riha p. rweyih. 

off (far), a. be'id. 

offence, n. {insult) iheni ; {crime) zenb ; {anger) ghaiz. 

offend, V. a. bghiz, ghizt (ghuzt), ghiz. 

offensive, a. {obnoxious) muhin (mhin) ; {foul) kerih ; {dis- 
pleasing) mukeddir; offensive and defensive alliance, 
ma'ahedit hujum u dife'a. 

offer, n. talab p. matalib; v. a. {to) b'urud, 'aradt, 
'uriid ('ala). 

off-hand, a. toshi, 

office, n. {post), wazifi p. wazaiyif; ma'muriyi; {commer- 
cial) mekteb p. mketib; {room) de'iri p. dwe'ir; ma- 
hall; gover)iment offices, dwe'ir al-hukumi; mahall ash- 
shughl. 

officer, n. zabit p. zubbat. 

official, n. ma'mur p. ma'murin; a. resmi ; officially, ad. 
resmiyen. 

joften, ad. ktir; marrat ktiii. 

oil, n. {olive) zeyt; {linseed) zeyt har; {castor) zeyt 
kharw'a; v. a. bzeyyit, zeyyett, zeyyit p.p. mzeyyet. 

oil clotJi, n. mshemm'a. 



212 ARABIC MANUAL. 

oil colour, n. lown zeyti. 

ointment, n. duhun. 

oke, n. 6"a p. o"at {400 drams). 

old, a. "adim p. "udm; 'ati" p. 'uta; (z>z age) ikhtiyar; 

ta'in fis-sinn ; old age, n. sheykhukha; old fashion, 

moda "adimi ; old maid, bint; old zvoman, 'ajuz p. 

'ajeyiz. 
oleander, n. difli. 

olive, n. zeytuni p. zeytun ; [tree) zeytuni. 
omelette, n. 'aijji. 

omen, n. {good) 'alemi taiyibi; {bad) fel redi. 
omission, n. ihmel ; sehu. 

omit, V. a. bfut, fitt, fut; bitruk, tarakt, truk p.p. matruk. 
on, pr. 'ala; on account of, bi sebeb ; minshen ; 'alashen, 

on all fours, 'al al-arb'a; on the other hand, minjeha 

teni ; 071 no account, abaden, 
once, n. marra; at once, ad. halan ; "awem ; once for all, 

bes marra; once more, marra teni; once upon a time, 

fi zemen al-"adim. 
oneself, pro. zet-uh ; nefs-uh (^ith pro. suff.). 
onion, n. basli p. basl ; {spring) basl akhdar. 
only, ad. fa"at; bes; a. wehid-uh {zvitJi pro. suff.). 
onyx, n. jaz'a. 
open, a. maftuh ; /;/ the open air, fil-fela; v. a. biftah, 

fataht, ftah p.p. maftuh. 
opening, n. ti"ib (tu"ub); shi" ". 
openly, ad. jehran (jiharan). 
operation, n. 'ameliyi. 
opinion, n. rai p. raiyat. 

opium, n. afiyun ; opium smoker, sherib afiyun. 
opponent, n. khusm p. akhsam. 
opportunity, n. fursa. 



VOCABULARY. 2 I 3 

oppose, V. a. bdadd, daddcdt, dadd. 

opposite, pr. "ibel ; a. m"ebil. 

opposition, n. m"awcmi. 

oppress, V. a. bizlum, zalamt, zlum p.p. mazluni; v. 
bibghi, baghait, ibghi ('ala). 

oppression, n. zulum ; bagha. 

oppressor, n. zalim p. zullem ; baghi p. bugha. 

or, con. ovv ; am. 

orange, n. [sweet) burd"ani p. burd"an (bird"an); [tree) 
burd"ani; {blood) mawaradi; [seville) sfeyr (sfayr); 
lainiLin bisfayr (abu sfayr); {bitter) narenji p. narcnj; 
{inandarin) yusuf Efifendi. 

orator, n. khatib p. khutaba. 

orchard, n. bistan p. bcsatin (bsetin). 

order, n. amr p. awemir; {arrangement) tertib ; nazam; 
{decoration) nishen (nishan) p. nieshin ; {commercial) 
talebiyi; talab ; iyi good order, a. mazbut; v. a. {com- 
mand) bi'mur, amert, emir (umiir); {goods) bitlub, 
talabt, tlub; {anything to be made), v. bwassi, wassait, 
wassi ('ala). 

ordinary, a. 'itiyadi ('atiycdi) ; 'aadi. 

ordinarily, ad. 'adeten. 

organ, n. lirghun. 

Orient, n. al-mishri"; ash-shar". 

oriental, a. shar"i. 

origin, n. mebda ; asl. 

origi)ial, a. asli. 

ornament, n. zini. 

orphan, n. yctim p. aitem. 

orphanage, n. der al-aitem. 

orthography, n. hija. 

ostensible, a. zahir; wadih. 



214 ARABIC MANUAL. 

ostricli, n. na'ami. 

otJier, a. and ad. ghair; othertvise, ad. wa ilia; the other 

day, ems; hidik al-yom. 
Ottoman, a. 'osmeni ('osmani); Ottoman empire, al-mem- 

leket al-'osmaniyi. 
ought, a. lezim; / ought to do [ought not) lezim (mush 

or mau lezim) 'amil ; / ought not to have done it, ma 

ken lezim 'amil-uh. 
our, pro. suff. na. 
ourselves, pro. zet-na. 
out, ad. berra; outside, kherijen; min berra ; outwards, 

ila berra; out of doors, berrat al-beyt ; out of place, 

fi ghair mahall-uh; fi ghair wa"t-uh. 
outpost, n. haris p. hurras. 

outrage, n. fehshi p. fawehish ; [indignity) iheni. 
oval, a, baidi ; bi shikl al-baida. 
oven, n. tennur; [kitchen) firn. 
over, pr. fow" (fo") ; 'ala; all over, a. kill-uh [zvith pro. 

suff.); over and above, a. 'alewi ('alawi); over again, 

teni marra; overhead, fow" ar-ras; [ended) v. (3i'd per.) 

khalas; inteha. 
overcoat, n. [European) saku p. saket ; bantu ; [native) 

kebbut p. kbebit ; tit"ili. 
overlook, [inspect) v. bnazir, nazert, nazir ('ala) ; [excuse) 

bghudd, ghaddait, ghudd nazr ('an). 
overseer, n. nazir p. nuzzar; [on a farm) khowli 

(kholi). 
oversight, n. sehu. 

overturtt, v. a. and n. bi"Iub, "alabt, i"lub p.p. ma"lub. 
overwhelm, v. a. bihdum, hadamt, hdum p.p. mahdum. 
owe, I owe {owed) you money, ill-ak (ken ill-ak) 'ind-i 

mesari ; you owe [owed) me money, ill-i (ken ill-i) 



VOCABULARY. 21 5 

'ind-ak mcsari ; liozv much do I oivc you? "add csh 

ill-ak 'ind-i. 
Giving, a. matlub ; oiving to, pr. biscbeb. 
owl, n. bumi p. bum. 
own, V. a. bimlik, melakt ; {admit) v. be'itirif, 'itaraft, 

e'itirif (f i) ; b"urr, "arrait, "urr (f 1) ; / oiK.'n a house, 

ill-i beyt. 
owner, n. mcllck; sahib p. as-hab. 
ox, n. towr (tor) p. tiran (tuwar). 
oyster, n. mhara; oyster-shell, n. sadafi p. sadaf. 



P. 

pace, n. sur'a; {step) feshkha. 

pacify, V. a. bheddi, hcddait (hcddeyt), heddi p.p. 

mliedda. 
pack, V. a. bdubb, dabbeyt, dubb p.p. madbub; [in 

bundles) bihzum, hazamt, hzum p.p. \\\;i\\7x\m {of cards), 

n. shiddi. 
package, n. rizmi p. rizmet c.p. rizm. 
packhorse, n. kedish p. kidsh. 
packing needle, n. mselli. 
packing thread, n. khitan massis. 
pack-saddle, n. {camel) hedeji p. hcdejet; {mule or donkey), 

jlel p. jlelet. 
pad {padding), n. hashwi; v. a. bihshi, hashait, hshi p.p. 

mihshi; b"uttin, "attant, "uttin p.p. m"uttan. 
padlock, n. "ifl p. "uful ("ifal). 
page, n. wijh p. wujuh. 

pail, n. satl p. stuli; {of a ivell) dalu p. idihvi. 
pai)i, {pains) n. waj'a p. owjc'a. 



2l6 ARABIC MANUAL. 

painful, a. muj'i. 

paint, n. [oil) boya; dihan ; {tu at er- colour) lown al-mai; 

V. a. [a picture) bsowwir, sowwert, sowwir p.p. msow- 

wer; {a house) bidhan, dahant, dhan p.p. madhun. 
paint-brush, n. firsheyit dihan (boya). 
painter, n. dahhan; [artist) msowwir. 
painting, n. teswir; — in oil, in zuater-colour, teswir 

biz-zeyt, bil-mai. 
pair, n. jowz (joz) p. jewez (ijwaz). 
palace, n. "asr p. "usur; n. p. blat. 
palate, n. sa"f al-hal". 
pale, a. asfar p. sufr. 
Palestine, Falastin. 
paling, n, taswini p. tasawin. 
pall, n. ghata an-n'ash. 
palm, [tree) sejerit belah; nakhli p. nakhl; [of the 

hand) kefif p. kfuf. 
Palmyra, Tidmur. 
paltry, a. deni. 
pan, n. [copper), lekken p. Iken ; [earthenware) m'ajen 

p. ma'ajin. 
pane, n. [of glass), lowh (loh) "izez ("izaz). 
pannier, n. seriji p. sreyij ; zenbili (zenbeli) p. znebil. 
pant, V. n. (3rd per.) biyilhat, lahat. 
pantaloons, n. shirwal p. sherawil. 
panther, n. fahd. 
pantry, n. beyt al-muni. 
paper, n. wara"a p. wara" (owra"); zvriting paper, wara" 

kitebi. 
parade, n. [milit.) 'ard al-'asker; t'alim. 
parade-ground, n. sahat al-'askeriyi. 
paradise, n. jinni; ferdows. 



VOCABULARY. 2 I 7 

paragraph, n. jumli p. jumcl. 

parallel, a. mawezi. 

paralysed, a. mafluj. 

paralysis, n. fclij. 

parasol, n. shcmsiyi. 

parcel, n. rizmi p. rizmct c. p. rizm. 

parchment, n. ri" ". 

pardon, n. afu; semeh ; v. be'ifi, 'afeyt, 'ufi ('an); to 

beg some one's pardon, bitlub, talabt, tlub al-'afu min; 

/ beg your pardon, la twakhid-ni (twakhiz-ni) ; {when 

asking for sometJiing said to be repeated), n'am; 

bitrajj'a-k. 
pare, v. a. b"eshshir, "eshshert, "eshshir p.p. m"esh- 

sher. 
parent, n. welid; parents, weldeyn. 
parliament, n. jeme'i al-'aiyen ; barlamento. 
parrot, n. dirra. 
parsley, n. ba"dunis. 
part, n. "ism p. a"sam (a"sem) ; jiz' p. ajeza; on the 

part of — , min "ibel; for my part, min jiht-i; partly 

ba'ad-uh haik, ba'ad-uh haik. 
partial, a. mutgharrid. 

particular, a. muda""i"; n. tafsil p. tafsilat; in parti- 
cular, 'al al-khusus. 
partner, n. sherik p. shureka. 
partnership, n. shirki ; sheraki. 
partridge, n. hajel p. hijel. 
party, n. [association) hizb p. ahzeb; [assemblage) fir"a 

p. fura" ; [entertainment) sahra. 
pass, [through) v. n. bmurr, marrait, murr (fi); [by) 

bimru", mara"t, mru" (fi or min); let pass, v. a. 

bmarra", marra'"t, marri" ; n. [mountain) tari" aj-jebel. 



2l8 ARABIC MANUAL. 

p(7ssage, n. zarub p. zwerib; {of a house) ma'addiyi; 

[of troops) 'ubur. 
passenger, n. rekib p. rukkeb. 
passion, n. {anger) gliaiz; {love) hawa; ruling passion, 

meleki. 
passionate, a. hadd ; {of love) 'ash"an. 
passport, n. bazaburt. 
past, a. madi. 

paste ^ n. nisha; — diamonds, ilmas kizzeb. 
pastime, n. tesliyi. 
pastry, n. m'ajjenet. 

pasture, n. mer'a; {protected land) hi'mi. 
patch, n. ru"a'a p. ru"a'; v. a. bra""i', ra" "a't, ra" "i' 

p.p. mra""a'. 
paternal, a. abewi. 

path, n. tari" p. tiiru" ; derb p. drub. 
patience, n. sabr. 
patient, a. sabur; ruh-uh tawili. 
patriarch, n. batrak p. batarki. 
patriarchate, n. batrak-khani. 
patriot, n. muhibb li watn-uh. 
patriotic, a. watani. 

patrol, n. dowra (dora) ; v. a. and n. bdur, durt, dur. 
patron, n. hami. 
patronage, n. himeyi. 
patronise, v. a. bihmi, hamait, hmi. 
pattern, n. mastra p. msatir (msetir). 
pave, V. a. bballit, ballatt, ballit p.p. mballat. 
pavement, n. blat. 

pavillion, n. khaimi p. khiyem ; shedir p. shewedir. 
paw, n. difr (zifr) p. adfar (azfar), 
pawn, V. a. birhun, rahant, rhun p.p. merhun. 



VOCABULARY. 219 

pawn-broker, n. murtchin. 

pay, n. {salary) ma'ash ; {u>ages) ujra (ijra); v. a. {to) 

bidf'a, dfa'at, dfa (li) p.p. madfu'a; /<■?/ the penalty 

V. n. bit"as.sas, ta"a.ssast. 
payment, n. defa p. defat. 
pea, n. {green) bczella; {cliick) hummus. 
peace, n. sulh. 
peacJi, n. dirra"ni (dirre"a) p. dirra"in {'dAxx^'') peacJi-tree, 

dirra"ni (dirre"a). 
peacock, n. taus p. tawawis; pea-lien, djejit taus. 
peak {mountain), n. ras jebel p. rus. 
pear, n. injasa p. injasj pear-tree, injasa; prickly-pear, 

sabr (subber). 
pearl, n. lulu ; mother of pearl, 'ur" lulu. 
peasant, n. fellah p. fellahin. 
pebble, n. bahsa p. bahs. 

peculiar, a. gharib; peculiar to, khass bi; makhsus fi. 
pecuniary, a. meli. 
peddler, n. dawvvar ; sirrah. 
pedigree, n. seleli. 
peel, n. "ishr; orange peel, "ishr al-burd"an; v. a. b"esh- 

hir, "eshshert, "eshshir p.p. m"eshsher. 
peg, n. {tent) wated p. owtad ; {liat) shenkel p. shnekil. 
pelican, n. baja'a p. baj'a. 
pell-mell, a. msha"lab. 
pen, n. "alam p. "ilam ; pen-knife, "alam trash ; pen-case, 

davveyi (dawaiyi). 
penalty, n. "isas p. "isasat. 
pencil, n. "alam resas. 
peninsula, n. shibi jeziri.' 
penitence, n. tovvbi (tobi). 
penniless, a. tafran ; mi'flis. 



220 ARABIC MANUAL. 

pension, n. ma'ash ta"a'ud. 

pensiotier, n. muta"a'id. 

penury, n. fu"r. 

people, n. nes; sh'ab. 

pepper, n. fulfill; pepper-corn, habb fiilful; white — , 

fulfill abyad ; black — , fulful aswid. 
peppermint, n. "urs n'an'a. 
perceive, v. a. bshuf, shuft, shuf. 
per cent, fil-miyi ; 5 ^'/o khamsi fil-miyi. 
perception, n. shu'ur. 
peremptory, a. mshedded ; "at'i. 
perfect, a. kemil. 
perfidy, n. khiyeni. 
perform, v. a. btemmim, temmemt, temmim; [duty) v. 

n. b"um, "unit, "um bi wejbet. 
perfume, n. riha 'utriyi p. rweyih ; v. a. b'attir, 'attert, 

'attir p.p. m'attar; bhutt ila — riha. 
perhaps, ad. yumkin ; belki (berki); con. rubbama. 
peril, n. khatr; at yonr peril, 'ala mes'uliyit-ak. 
period, n. middi. 

periodically, ad. kill middi u middi. 
perish, v. n. bihlak, hlikt; biftus, fatist. 
permanent, a. de'im. 

permissible, a. jeyiz; [by religion^ halal. 
permission, n. izn; rukhsa; with yonr permission {said 

on rising to leave), bi izn-ak ; bistarkhis ; smah-li. 
permit, n. rukhsa; v. bismah, semaht, smah (li). 
perpendicular, a. "a'im ; 'amijdi. 
perplex, v. a. blebbik, lebbekt, lebbik p.p. mlebbek; 

bshowwish, showwesht, showwish afkar-uh. 
perquisite, n. berrani. 
persecute, v. a. bidtahid, idtahadt, idtahid p.p. mucltahad. 



VOCABULARY. 22 1 

persecution, n. idtihad. 

perseverance, n. scbet; mdcwami. 

persevere, v. bdcwim, dewamt, dcwim ('ala); bwazib, 

wazabt, wazib ('ala). 
persevering, ruh-uh tawili. 
Persia, beled al-ajem; Persian, a. 'ajemi. 
persist, v. bluhh, lahhait, lihh (fi). 
persistance, n. ilhah. 

person, n. shakhs p. ashkhas; zalemi p. zihlm. 
personal, a. shakhsi; personally, bizet-uh {ivitli pro. stiff .). 
perspiration, n. 'ara" ; in a — , a. 'ar"an. 
perspire, v. n. be'ara", 'eri"t ('ara"t). 
persuade, v. a. be"ann'u, "ann'at, "ann'a. 
persuasion, n. i"n'a. 
pestle, n. mda" "a. 
petitioji, n. 'ardhal ; m'arud. 
petitioner, n. mustedd'i; m"addim al-'ard. 
petrified {to become), v. n. [y^ per.) biyitahcjjar, tahajjar 

p.p. mutahajjer. 
petroleum, n. zcyt ghaz. 
petticoat, n. tannura p. tcncnir. 
philosopher, n. felosuf. 
philosophy, n. felsefi. 
phlegm, n. balgham. 
pJiosphorns, n. fosfor. 
photograph, n. sura p. suar; v. a. bsowwir, sowwert, 

sowwir, p.p. msowwer ; to have ones photograph taken, 

bsowwir hal-i. 
photograpJier, n. msowwir shems. 
photography, n. teswir shems. 
physician, n. tabib p. atibba. 
pick, V. a. [flowers), bla"it, la'att, la"'it p.p. mla"at; 



222 ARABIC MANUAL. 

pick Up, V. a. blimm, lammait, limm p.p. melmum ; 

pick out, bna" "i, na" "ait, na" "i p.p. mna" "a. 
pickaxe, n. menkush p. menakish. 
pickle, n. [anything preserved in vinegar) mkhallel ; v. a. 

bikbus, kebest, kbis mkhallel — ; zve %v ill pickle onions, 

mnikbis mkhallel basl. 
pick-pocket, n. harami p. haramiyi. 
picnic, n. seyran. 

picture, n. resm p. rusum ; sura p. suar. 
piece, n. sha"fi ; "it'a; [of works) by the piece, n. ma"a- 

ta'a; [of cloth) towb (tob). 
pierce, v. a. {make a hole in) bit"ub, te"ebt, tu"ub p.p. 

met"ub. 
piety, n. ta"wa. 
pig, n. khanzir p. khnezir; sticking — , khannus p. 

khnenis. 
pigeon, n. hamemi p. hamemet c. p. hamem. 
pigeon-hole, n. beyt p. biyut. 
pile, n. kumi (komi) p. kuam. 
pilgrim, n. {Christian) zeyir p. zuwar; [to Jerusalem) 

mu"disi p. ma"adsij {to Mecca) hajj p. hujjej. 
pilgrimage, n. ziyara ; {to Mecca) hajj ; to make the pil- 
grimage, bhijj, hajjait, hijj. 
pill, n. habbi p. hbub. 
pillage, 11. nehib ; selb ; v. a. binhab, nahabt, nhab (nhub) 

p.p. menhub. 
pillar, n. 'amud p. 'awemid. 
pillow, 11. mkhaddi. 
pilot, n. "alauz; delil. 
pimple, n. habbi p. hbub. 

pin, n. debbus p. debebis; hair pin, debbus sh'ar. 
pince-nez, n. 'awenat; kuzluk. 



VOCABULARY. 223 

pincers, n. kammeshi. 

pinch, n. "arsa; v. a. bu"rus, "arast, "urus. 

pine, n. snowbara (snobara) p. snowbar; pine-tree, snow- 
bara. 

pink, n. and a. "ariinfli p. "arunful. 

pious, a. ta"i (ti"i). 

pipe, n. "astal p. "asatil; anbiibi p. anabib; [mtisic) ze- 
mer p. izmura; mijwiz; {tobacco) shubu"; {long) ma- 
sura ; {Jinbble-bubble) arkili ; parts of the 'arkili' : — tcp, 
"ub'a; pan, ras; feeder, "alb ("elb); tube, narbish 
(nabrish) ; month-piece, biz. 

pirate, n, "ursan bahr. 

pistol, n. tabaiija p. tabanjet; ferd p. frudi. 

pit, n. hafra p. hafr; jura p. juar. 

pitch, n. zift; v. a. bzeflit, zeftett, zefitit p.p. mzeftet; 
V. a. [throw) bishlah, shalaht, shlah ; bzitt, zetteyt, 
zitt; — a tent, v. a. binsub, nasabt, nsub khaimi. 

pitcher, n. jarra p. jrar. 

pith, n. libb; {of an argument) zebed. 

pitiless, a. "asi ; bila shefa"a. 

pity, n. shefa"a; v. bishfa", shfi"t, shfa" ('ala) ; it is a 
pity, dey'an-uh (lit : ive have lost it) ; ya khisara. 

placard, n. e'alen (e'ilan) p. e'alenet. 

place, n. matrah p. matarih ; mahall ; v. a. bhutt, hattait, 
hutt; to take place v. n. (3r'l per.) bisir, sar; biyihdus, 
hadas; the affair zvill take place [took place), bitsir 
(saret) al-hadisi ; in place of, ad. bedel min ('an); 
'awad 'an ; out of place, mush f 1 mahall-uh. 

plague, n. ta'un. 

plain, n. sehil p. suhul; a. wadih ; jelli; [ngly) bish'i f. 
bish'a; plainly, ad. sarihan. 

plaintiff, n. mudde'i (mudda'i). 



224 ARABIC MANUAL. 

plait, n. jdili p. jede'il; dfiri p. dfaiyir; v, a. bijdul, 

jedelt, jdul p.p. mejdul. 
pla)i, n. tedbir p. tedebir; {drawing) resm. 
plane, n. [level) sat-h ; [tool) minhat; fara. 
plane-tree, n. dilbi p. dilb. 
planet, n. nejmi p. njum. 
plank, n. defif p. dfuf; lowh (loh) p. Iweh. 
plant, n. nebet p. nebetet; gharsi ; v. a. bughrus, gha- 

rast, ghrus p.p. maghrus. 
plaster, n. jefsin (jebsin); v. a. [with lime) bjeffsin, jefif- 

sant, jeffsin p.p. mjefifsan; {xvith clay) btaiyin, taiyent, 

taiyin p.p. mtaiyen. 
plate, n. sahn p. suhun ; table-plate, aweni fiddiyi. 
platform, n. mastabi p. masatib. 
play, n. I'eb (I'ub) ; v. n. [at) bil'ab, I'ibt, Tab (bi or fi) ; 

[an instrument) v. a. bdu" ", da" "ait, du" " [and with 

'ala) ; [a part) v. a. bshakhkhis, shakhkhast, shakh- 

khis. 
playfelloiv, n. refi" p. rfe" (arfa"). 
plaything, n. I'ebi (I'ubi) p. lu'ab. 
plea, n. hijji p. hujej. 

pleasant, a. taiyib ; mlih p. mlah ; latif p. lutafa. 
please, v. a. bibsut, basatt, bsut; to be pleased, [at), bin- 

busit, inbasatt (min); it pleases, (pleased) ;;/^, bi'ajib-ni, 

'ajab-ni; if yon please, 'amul m'aruf; dakhl-ak; do as 

yon please, stif il. 
pleased, a. mesrur; mabsut. 
pleasure, n. surur; farah. 
pledge, n. rahn p. ruhuni (rhun). 
plenipotentiary , n. sefir p. sufera. 
plentiful, a. ktir p. ktar. 
plenty, n. kitra; in plenty, bi kitra. 



VOCABULARY. 225 

plot, n. rabita (rabta); [of ground) deft" arcl p. dfuf; v. 

b'amil, 'amilt, 'aniiil rabita. 
plough, n. mihrat; v. a. bihrut, haratt, brut p.p. mah- 

rut; biflah, fclaht, flah p.p. mafluh. 
ploughshare, n. sikki. 

J>luck, V. a. [feathers] bintuf, nataft, ntuf p.p. mentuf. 
J>lug, n. sdedi ; v. a. bsidd, seddeyt, sidd p.p. mesdud. 
iplu»i, n. kliowkha (kliokha) p. khowkh ; plum-tree, 

khowkha. 
jpluniage, n. rish. 
^plumb-line, n. fedin p. fwedin. 
Iplu7np, a. smin p. sman. 
itlunder, n. nehbi ; ghanimi ; v. a. binhab, nahabt, nhub 

(nhab) p.p. menhub. 
ft>lural, n. jem'a. 

'docket, n. [coat) seyli p. syel ; [trousers) jeybi p. jyeb ; 
pocket-book, n. kitcb \Q.yh'\; pocket-money, n. kharjiyi; 
masruf jeybi. 
"yod, n. "ishri p. "ishr. 
"^oem, n. "asidi p. "asaiyid. 
wet, n. she'ir p. shii'ara. 
'oetic, a. she'ri (shu'ri). 
'oetry, n. sh'er (sh'ur); nazm. 

'oint, n. nu"ta p. nu"at; [object) ma"sad ; {iveapon) ras ; [of 
viezv) rai ; to point out, v. a. bbeyyin, beyyent, beyyin. 
ointed, a. mrowwas. 
oison, n. semm p. sumum ; v. a. bsimm, sammait, simm 

p.p. mesmum; bsemmim, semmemt, semmim. 
oisonous, a. msimm. 
''Poland, Bolonia; Pole, n. Boloni. 

^I'e, n. 'amud p. 'awemid; [of a carriage) 'arish; {geo- 
graphical) "utb. 

15 



226 ARABIC MANUAL. 

police, n. bolis; [policeman) zabtiyi. 

policy, n. siyesi. 

polish, n. lima'an ; sa"!; v. a. blamm'i, limm'at, lamm'i 

p.p. mlamm'a; bis"ul, sa"alt, s"ul p.p. mas"ul. 
polite, a. latif; adib. 
politeness, n. adab; lutf. 
political, a. siyesiyi. 
politics, n. siyesi ; bolitikiya. 

pollute, V. a. bnejjis, nejjest, nejjis p.p. mnejjes. 
pomegranate, n. rummeni p. rummen ; — tree, rummeni 
pomp, n. hafli; fakhfakha. 
pompous, a. mfakhfakh; pompous language, kelem fakh 

fakha. 
pond, n. birki p. burak. 
ponderous, a. ti"il p. ta"al. 
pony, n. hisan zghir. 

poor, a. meskin ; fa''ir; poorly, a. deblen. 
Pope, Baba. 

poplar, n. howra (hora) p. liowr. 
poppy, n. khishkhashi p. khishkhash ; — seed, bezr khish 

khash. 
popular, a. mahbub. 
population, n. p. sukken ; aheli. 
populous, a. 'amer; ktir as-sukken. 
porcelain, n. sini. 

porch (portico), n. rwe" p. r\ve"at. 
porcupine, n. "unfudi p. "anafid. 
pore {of the skin), n. mesam aj-jild p. mesamat. 
pork, n. lahm al-khanzir. 
port, n. mina, p. mien; bunt. 
portable, a. khafif p. khifaf. 
Porte (the Sublime), al-bab (beb) al-'aali. 



VOCABULARY. 22/ 

porter, n. 'attel p. 'attcli ; hammcl p. hammeli. 

porterage, n. 'atcli. 

portion, n. "ism p. a".sam ; jiz' p. ajcza. 

portmanteau, n. shanta. 

portrait, n. sura p. suar. 

Port Said, Bort Sa'id. 

Portugal, Bortughal; Portuguese, a. bortughali. 

position, n. mcrkez p. merakiz ; mahall p. mahallet. 

positive, a. akid ; m'ekkcd; positively, ad. bi te'ckid. 

possess, V. a. bimlik, mclakt. 

possession, n. {immovable) milk (mulk) p. amlak; [mova- 
ble) n. p. mowJLidet. 

possible, a. mumkin ; /V /or — , yumkin. 

possibility, n. imkcn (imkan). 

possibly, ad. belki; mumkin. 

/t?^/, n. {letters) bosta ; {situation) wazifi ; merkez ; [tiui- 
ber) 'amud p. 'awemid. 

posthumous, b'ad al-mowt. 

post-office, n. bostakhani; post master, mudir al-bosta. 

postpone, V. a. b'ekhkhir, ekhkhert, ekhkhir p.p. m'ekhkher. 

postscript (to a letter), n. sahh. 

pot, n. "idri p. "idr; hu" p. h"a"; dweyk p. dweykat; 
(for preserving fruit etc.) martaban ; coffee-pot, dolit 
"ahwi. 

potash, n. "ili. 

potato, n. batata. 

potter, n. fakhuri. 

pottery, n. fakhkhar. 

pouch, n. jrab. 

poultice, n. labkha; lez"a. 

pound, n. [coin) lira; [zueight) libra [i^o drams), v. a. 
bdu"", da" "ait, du" " p.p. med"Lr'. 



228 ARABIC MANUAL. 

pour [out), V. a. bsubb, sabbait, subb p.p. masbub; 

{away) v. a. bkibb, kebbeyt, kibb p.p. makbub. 
poverty, n. fu"r; sha"ewi. 

powder, n. budra ; (anything pulverised) mezhun. 
power, n. "udra ("idra) ; "uwi; (power of attorney) we- 

keli; to do all in one's power, v. b'amil, 'amilt jehd-i; 

burkud mejhud-i. 
powerfid, a. "owi. 
powerless, a. da'if p. da'af. 
Powers (the Great), ad-diiwel al-'azimi. 
practice, n. mumaresi ; tamrin ; pratika. 
practise, v. bmeris, merest, meris (f i) ; b'amil, 'amilt 

pratika (fi). 
praise, n. medh ; v. a. bimdah, madaht, mdah p.p. memduh. 
prank, n. sheytani. 

pray {to), v. a. arid n. bsalli, sallait, salli (ila). 
prayer, n. sala p. salawat ; prayer-book, kiteb as-sala. 
preach, v. n. bu'iz, vva'azt, wa'az. 
preacher, n. wa'iz ; keriz. 
precaution, n. ihtiyat p, ihtiyatat. 
precedent, n. seb"a p. sewebi". 
precious, a. temin; precious stone, hajr kerim. 
precipice, n. warta. 
preface, n. ma"addemi. 
prefer, v. a. bfaddil, faddalt, faddil. 
pregnant, a. na"il; hibli ; {of animals) ma'asheri. 
premature, "abl \va"t-uh. 
premitim, n. baj. 
preparation, n. istihdar p. istihdarat; ist'eded p. ist- 

'ededet. 
prepare, v. a. bhaddir, haddert, haddir p.p. mhaddar; 

bwaddib, waddabt, waddib p.p. mwaddab. 



VOCABULARY. 229 

prescription, n. rcshcta p. rcshctet; wasfi. 

presence, n. hadra; hatlur; in the presejice of, fi hiulur; 
presence of mind, n. ta'a""ul; Jiaving presence of mind, 
a. muta'a""il; wa'i. 

present, n. hediyi p. hedaiya; ikramiyi; {tense) al-hal ; a. 
hadir; v. a. {to) b"addim, "addamt, "addim (ila) ; 
bihdi, hedeyt, hdi (ila) ; / presented it to him, "ad- 
damt-ill-uh yeh; hedeyt-ill-uh yeh; to present arms, 
V. bekhud, akhadt, khud salam (salem) ; the soldiers 
presented arins, al-'asker akhad salam; at present, ad. 
halla"; fil-hal; for the present, lil-wa"t al-hadir; pre- 
sently, ad; b'ad shwayi. 

preserve, n. (jam) murabba; v. a. behfaz, hafazt, hfaz 
p.p. mahfuz. 

president, n. raiyis p. ruasa. 

press, V. a. be'usur, 'asert, 'asur p.p. m'asur; {on) v. a. 
bikbus, kebest, kbis p.p. makbus. 

presume (imagine), v. n. bzunn, zannait; bitsowwir, 
tsowwert (fi); (be presumptuous) (3rd per.) biyidde'i. 

presumption, n. zunn; takhmiii; (boldness) idde'a. 

presu)nptuous, a. muddc'i (mudda'i). 

pretence, n. tazahur. 

pretend, v. n. bitzahir, tzahert, tzahir. 

pretender, n. mudde'i. 

pretension, n. idde'a. 

pretext, n. hijji p. hiijej ; hili p. hiel. 

pretty, a. kwaiyis; zarif p. zurafj jemil c. ejmel. 

prevent, v. a. bimn'a, men'at^ mn'a p.p. memnu'a; //re'- 
vented him from going, men'at-uh yaruh. 

previous, a. sebi"; previously, sebi"an; "ablan. 

prey, n. ferisi; bird of — , kesir p. kawesir; beast of — , 
wahsh cliiri p. wuhush clawari. 



230 ARABIC MANUAL. 

price, n. temen p. atmen ; s'er p. as'ar. 

priceless, [it is) ma biyi"a 'aleyh temen. 

prick, y. a. binkez, nakezt, nkuz p.p. mankuz (binghaz, 

naghazt, nghuz). 
pride, n. kibriya. 
priest, n. khuri p. khawarni. 
prince, n. emir; princess, emira. 
principal, n. (money) rismel (rismal) ; a. (chief) raiyis; 

asl ; the principal thing, as-shey ar-raiyisi. 
principality , n. imara. 

principle, n. (maxim) "anon p. "awanin. 
priiit, V. a. bitb'a, tab'at, tb'a p.p. matbu'a: 
printer, n. tabb'a. 

printing-press, n. matb'a p. matab'i. 
prison, n. habs ; sijn. 
prisoner, n. mahbus p. mahbusin. 
privacy, n. wehdi. 
private, a. khususi. 
privately, ad. sirran ; 'al inferad. 
privilege, n. imtiyez p. imtiyezet. 
prize, n. jeyizi p. jewe'iz. 
probable, a. arjah; probably, al-arjah. 
procession, n. mowkib; (bridal) jelwi; (religious) ziyeh. 
proc2ire, v. a. bhassil, hassalt, hassil ; v. bihsul, hasalt ('ala). 
produce, n. (of the earth) hasil; mahsulat; ghalli ; v. a. 

(cause) bsebbib, sebbebt, sebbib; bintij, natajt, intij ; 

(show) bikhruj, kharajt, khruj ; (of the earth) (3rd per.) 

f. bitghill, ghallet. 
professio7i, n. [occupation) san'a p. sanaiy'a; shighl (shughl). 
professor, n. ma'allim ; mederris; isted. 
profit, n. menf 'a p. menaf 'i ; fe'idi p. fwe'id, to sell at 

a profit, V. bbi'a, be'ut bi ribh. 



VOCABULARY. 23 1 

profitable, a. nef'i ; mufid. 

profound, a. ghami". 

progress, n. nejch (nejah); ta"addun?. 

prohibit, v. a. bimn'a, men'at, mn'a p.p. memnu'a. 

prohibited (by religion), a. haram ; {by laiv) memnu'a. 

prohibition, n. mcn'a. 

project, n. murad ; ghaiyi; "asd p. ma"a.sid. 

prolong, V. a. btowwil, towvvalt, towwil p.p. mtowwal. 

promise, n. w'ad p. mawa'id ; v. a. bu'id, wa'adt, ww'id 

(wu'ud) p.p. mow'ud; zve promised to do it, wa'ad-na 

n'amil-uh. 
promote, v. a. bra" "i, ra" "ait (ra" "cyt), ra" "i p.p. 

mra""a; to be promoted, bitra" "a, tra" "ait, (tra" "eyt) 
proDiotion, n. tera" "i ; ter"iyi. 
pronounce, v. a. bilfuz, lafazt, Ifuz p.p. melfuz. 
pronunciation, n. lafz. 
proof, n. burhan p. berahin. 
f roper, a. mwcfi"; mncsib. 
property, n. (landed) milk (mulk) p. amlak; riz" p. arza"; 

(money) mal p. amwal. 
prophecy, n. nebuwi. 
prophet, n. nebi p. enbiya. 
proposal, n. talab p. matalib. 
propose (suggest), v. b"addim, "addamt, "addim fikr 

(rai) ; (intend) v. n. bu"sud, "asadt. 
proprietor, n. mcllek; sahib mulk. 
prose, n. nesr. 
prosecute, v. bishtiki, shtakait (shtekeyt), shtiki ('ala); 

bidde'i, idda'ait, idde'i ('ala). 
prosecutor, n. mushtiki. 

prospect, n. amel p. amel; (viezv) manzar; nazara. 
prostitute, 11. zaniyi. 



232 ARABIC MANUAL. 

prostitution^ n. zina. 

protect, V. a. bihmi, hamait, hmi p.p. mehmi. 

protection, n. himeyi. 

protector, n. mhami. 

proud, a. mutkebbir. 

prove, V. a. bsebbit, sebbett, sebbit p.p. msebbet; v. 

bberhin, berhent, berhin ('ala) p.p. mberhan. 
proverb, n. mesel (metel) p. emsel (emtel). 
provide, v. a. b"addim, "addamt, "addim ; / provided 

him luith all he required, "addamt-ill-uh kill lawezim- 

uh; V. a. (ivith provisions) bmowvvin, mowwent, 

mowwin. 
provided that, con. 'ala shart ami. 
providence, n. 'aneyi. 
province, n. wilaiyi p. wilaiyet. 
provisions, n. muni ; zakhra (zkhiri). 
provoke, V. a. {vex) bghiz, ghizt (ghuzt); (excite) bhar- 

rik, harrakt; v. bfowwir, fowwert damm-uh; bitahar- 

rash, taharrasht (fi). 
prudence, n. fi'itni. 
prudent, a. fiitin. 
prune, v. a. bsheffi, sheffeyt, sheffi p.p. msheffa ; (of the 

vine only) bshahhil, shahhalt, shahhil ; bizbur, zabert, 

zbur p.p. mezbur ; pruning, n. tesh-hil. 
psalm, n. mezmur p. mezemir. 
public, n. [tJie') an-nes; aj-jemhur; a. 'umumi; in public, 

bil-maftuh; jiharan (jehran). 
publisJi, V. a. binshur, neshert, nshur p.p. menshur. 
pudding, n. hulu ; hilwiyet (halawiyet). 
pujf out, V. a. binfukh, nefakht, nfukh p.p. menfukh. 
pull, V. a. bis-hab, sahabt, is-hab; bjurr, jarrait, jurr; 

[down] bihdum, hadamt, hdum; bhabbit, habbatt, habbit. 



VOCABULARV. 233 

pulley, n. bakera. 

pulpit, n. menber p. mencbir. 

pulse, n. nabd (nabt) ; to feel the — , bdiss, dassait, diss 

an-nabt. 
pumice-stone, n. khaffen. 
pump, n. tlumba (trumbi) v. a. bshaghghil, shaghghalt, 

shaghghil at-trumbi. 
pumpkin, n. "ar'aa p. "ar'aat. 
pwi, n. towriya. 

punctual, a. mazbut fil-\va"t (fiz-zcman). 
punctuality , n. zabt (dabt) fiz-zeman. 
pu7ictually , ad. fi wa"t-uh. 
punish, V. a. b"asis, "asast, "asis p.p. m"asas; (of chil- 

dren) brabbi, rabbait, rabbi p.p. mrabba. 
punishment, n. "isas; (children) terbiyi. 
pv.pil, n. telmiz p. telemiz. 
puppy, n. jeru p. ijriyit al-kelb. 
purchase, n. mushtera; v. a. bishtri, shtrait, shtri p.p. 

mushtera. 
purchaser, n. mushteri p. mushteriyi; sheri. 
pure, a. khalis. 
purgatory, n. mat-har. 
purge, n. mus-hil (mis-hil) ; sherbi ; v. to take a — , 

bekhud, akhadt, khud mis-hil (sherbi). 
purify, V. a. btahhir, tahhcrt, tahhir p.p. mtahhar. 
purple, a. urjuwen. 
purport, n. madmun ; fahwa. 

purpose, n. "asd ; ghaiyi ; on purpose, ad. "asdan. 
purse, n. jizden p. jizdenet; msarr p. msarrat. 
pursue, V. a. btarid, taradt, tarid ; bilha", lahi"t, ilha". 
pursuer, n. mutarid. 
pursuit, n. mtaradi. 



234 ARABIC MANUAL. 

push, n. defshi; v. a. bidfush, defesht, dfush p.p. med- 
fush. 

put, V. a. bhutt, hattait, hutt ; — away, v. a. bshil, 
shilt, sliil; — by { money}, v. a. bsammid, sammadt, 
sammid; — in order, v. a. brettib, rettebt, rettib 
p.p. mretteb; bsewi, saweyt, sewi p.p. msewa; — off, 
V. a. b'ejjil, ejjelt, ejjil p.p. m'ejjel; — out, {fire) v. a. 
bitfi, tafait (tafeyt), tf i p.p. mutfi ; — up {at an hotel) 
V. n. binzel, nzilt, inzel ('ind or fi) ; — any one up, v. a. 
bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil. 

putrefy, v. n. (31^ per.) biyirwih, arwah. 

pntrid, a. mirwih. 

puzzle, n. irtebek; (game) hazzura (hizzera); v. a. b'ar- 
bis, 'arbest, 'arbis. 

pyra^nid, n. haram p. ahram. 



Q- 



quack (doctor), n. dejjel. 

quackery, n. dejl; tidjil. 

quadrangle, n. mrabb'a. 

quadruped, n. zawet al-arb'a; dabbi p. dawab (daweb). 

quadruple, n. arb'at ad'af. 

quail, n. firreyi p. firri. 

qualification, n. ehliyi ; sifa p. silat. 

qualified, a. musta'id. 

quality, n. (persons) sifa p. sifat; (things), jins p. 

ajnes. 
quantity, n. kemmiyi. 
quarantine, n. karantina. 



VOCABULARY. 235 

quarrel, n. khna"a; toslii (towshi); 'ilcji; v. a. [with] 
bkhani", khana"t, khani" ; bkhasim, khasamt, khasini; 
b'alij, 'alajt, 'alij. 
quarry (stone), n. ma'Ta p. ma"ari. 
quarter, n. rub'a; (of a tozvn) hai ; hara; tJie Christian 

(Moslem) quarter, hai an-nasara (al-musulmin). 
quatrain, n. rubai'ya p. rubai'yat. 
quay, n. bunt. 

queen, n. meleki p. meleket; [cards) bint. 
queer, a. gharib ; {in the head) m'atuh. 
quell, V. a. bsckkin, sckkent, sekkin ; to be quelled, v. n. 

behda, hidit, hida. 
quench, v. a. (fire) bitfi, tafait (tafeyt), tfi p.p. mutfi; 
to be quenched, (3»"^1 per.) biyintifi, intafa; {thirst) birwi, 
rawait, rwi 'atash. 
question, n. mes'eli p. mese'il; su'el p. su'elet; {affair) 

"adiyi p. "adaiya. 
quibble, n. rewaghan; v. n. brugh, rught. 
quick, a. 'ajul; seri'a c. asr'a. 
quickly, ad. bil-'ajeli; "awcm. 
quicksand, n. rami rakhu. 
quicksilver, n. zaiba". 

quiet, a. hedi ; be quiet, v. (2nd per. imper.) hida. 
quietly, ad. 'ala mahl-uh {zvith pro. suff.). 
quill-pen, n. rishi p. ricsh. 
quilt, n. lahaf p. lihf. 
quince, n. sferjcH p. sferjclct c.p. sferjil. 
quinine, n. kina. 
quit, V. a. bitruk, tarakt, truk. 
quite, ad. bit-temem ; bil-kilHyi. 

quits, a. p. mutsewin; khalisin; zoe are quits, iiahn 
mutsewin. 



236 ARABIC MANUAL. 

quiz, n. maskhara; v. bitmaskhar, tmaskhart, tnias- 

khar ('ala). 
quotation, n. i"tibes p. i"tibeset. 
quote, V. a. bi"tibis, i"tabast, i"tibis p.p. mu"tebes. 



R. 

rabbi, n. khakham; chief — , khakham bashi. 

rabbit, n. arnab p. aranib. 

rabble, n. owbash (obash) ; ovvlad (uled) Baba Hasan. 

rabies, n. keleb. 

race, n. sbe" (seba") ; [lineage) seleli ; race horse, hisan 

seba" (sbe"); race course, mermah; miden. 
racing, n. as-sbe" (as-seba"). 
radical, a. asli. 
radish, n. fijli p. fijil. 

raft, n. towf p. atwaf; [of inflated skins) kelek. 
rafter, n. rumiyi p. rwemi. 
rag, n. khir"a p. khira". 
ragged, a. muri'tt; retit; lie is ragged, tyeb-uh muritti 

(retiti). 
rail [of raikvay), n. khatt. 
railing, n. drabzin (drabzun) p. drabzunat. 
railway [railroad), n. sikkit al-hadid. 
rain, n. shiti; matar ; v. n. (31'^ per. f.) bitshetti, shettit; 

bitmattir, mattarit. 
rainboiu, n. "ows "adah. 
raise, v. a. birf'a, ref'at, irf'a p.p. marfu'a. 
raisin, n. zbibi p. zbib. 
rake, n. musht; mejrafi. 
ram, n. kebsh p. akbesh (kebush). 



VOCABULARY. 237 

ramble, v. n. bdur, durt, dur. 

ramrod, n. mdekk al-barudi. 

rancid, a. miznikh. 

rancour, n. hi"d. 

random {at), ad. bila "asd ; bila fikr. 

range, n. mada ; mesefi ; at long (short) range, 'ala mada 

be'id ("arib). 
rank (degree), n. rutbi; dcreji; {milit.) saff p. sfuf. 
ransack, v. a. bfcttish, fettesht, fettish ktir; {jnilit.) bin- 

hab, nahabt, nhab p.p. menhub. 
ransom, n. fidiyi; v. a. bifdi, fcdait (fedeyt), fdi p.p. 

mifdi. 
rape, n. fadah (fatah). 
rapid, a. seri'a. 

rare, a. ncdir; rarely, ad. ncdiren. 
rascal, a. muhtel; khabis; n. ibn haram. 
rash, n. [eruption) tafra; a. 'ajul. 
rat, n. jirdown p. jeradin. 
rate, n. (speed) sur'a; (exchange) s'er. 
ratification, n. musada"a. 
ratify, v. a. bsadi", sada"t, sadi" ('ala) p.p. musada" 

'aleyh. 
rattle, n. tantani ; v. a. and n. btantin, tantant, tantin ; 

{childs' toy) n. khashkhashi ; death rattle, kharrara. 
raven, n. ghrab p. ghurben. 
ravine, n. wedi p. widian. 
raiv, a. (uncooked) ney; (unprepared) khami. 
ray, n. sha'a. 

raze, v. a. bihlu", hala"t, hlu". 
razor, n. mus (hala"a) p. mwes. 
reacJi, v. a. (grasp) btul, tult, tul ; [arrive) v. n. (3i-dper.) 

biyusal, wusil; zvithin reach, bi"dir tal-uh (///.- / can 



238 ARABIC MANUAL. 

reach it); out of reach, ma bitusal id-i ill-ha (///; my 

Jiand does not arrive at it) ; the parcel reached vie, 

ar-rizmi wuslit-ni ; to be within reach, v. n. (31^ per.) 

biyintal, intal m'a; it is out of my reacJi, ma biyin- 

tal m'a-i. 
read, v. a. bu"ra, "arait ("areyt), "ra. 
readily, ad. 'al ar-ras wal-'ain. 
reading, n. "araiyi ; reading the papers, "araiyit aj- 

jurnel. 
ready, a. hadir; make ready, v. a. bwaddib, waddabt, 

waddib p.p. mwaddab; get ready, v. n. bhaddir, had- 

dert hal-i, haddir hal-ak; ready made, a. hadir j ready 

money, n. na"diyi. 
real, a. ha"i"i; real property, n. mulk (milk) p. amlak; 

really, ad. fe'elen. 
reap, v. a. buhsud, hasadt, hsud p.p. mahsud. 
reaper, n. hassad. 
rear, n. mukhir; {bring up) v. a. brabbi, rabbait, rabbi; 

[of a horse) v. n. {y^ per.) biyij"af (biwa" "if), wa" "af 

'ala rijleyh. 
reason, n. [sense) 'a"l; [cause) sebeb p. asbeb; by reason 

of, bi sebeb. 
reasonable, a. ma"ul ; [moderate) mu'tidik 
rebel, n. 'asi p. 'usat. 
rebellion, n. 'isiyan. 
rebound, v. n. [y^^ per.) bituj, taj ; the ball rebounds on 

the ground, at-tabi bittuj 'al al-ard. 
rebuild, v. a. bjeddid, jeddedt, jeddid al-bina. 
rebuke, v. a. bwabbikh, wabbakht, wabbikh; n. towbikh. 
recall, v. a. brejj'i, rajj'at, rejj'i; [remejiiber) bitzekkir, 

tezekkert, tezekkir. 
recede, v. n. birj'a, rj'at (rj'et), rj'a (rje'a). 



VOCABULARY. 239 

receipt, n. wasl p. vvusulet. 

receive, v. n. (3»"(1 per.) {lit: it readies uie) biyusal-ni, 
wusil-ni ; biyurid-li, warad-li ; v. a. [uioney) bi"bad, 
"abadt, i"bad ; {visits) bista"bil, sta"belt, sta"bil. 

recent, a. jdid; hadis. 

recently, ad. min middi "a.siri ; mu'akhiren. 

reception, n. isti"bcl; reception day, yowm isti"bel. 

recess, n. ta"a. 

recite, v. a. bu"ra, "arait, "ra; / zvill recite it to you, 
bu"rri lak yeh. 

reckless, a. taiyish; 'ajul. 

reckon, v. a. bihsub, hasabt, hsub p.p. mahsub. 

recognise, v. a. b'arif, 'arift, 'arif j {admit), bsellim, sellemt, 
sellim (fi). 

recollect, v. biftan, ftunt, ftan (fi). 

recommend, v. bwassi, wassait, wassi (f i) ; / reconimended 
Jiini to you, wa.ssait-ak fih. 

reconnnendation, n. towsiyi; letter of — , mektub towsiyi. 

recompense, n. jeza; mkefa. 

reconcile, {to) v. a. bsalih, salaht, salih m'a; to be recon- 
ciled to, V, n. bitsalah, tsalaht , tsalah m'a; / recon- 
ciled thejn to one another, salaht-hum m'a ba'ad-hum. 

reconciliation, n. msalaha. 

record, v. a. b"eyyid, "eyyedt, "eyyid p.p. m"eyyed. 

recover, v. a. {get back) bisterj'i, sterj'at, sterj'i; bhassil, 
hassalt, hassil ; {health) v. n. bsuhh, sahhait, suhh; 
bishfa, shefit. 

recovery, n. shi'fa. 

recruit, n. 'asker "ur'a. 

red, a. ahmar f. hamra p. hunir. 

redress, n. tardiyi. 

Red Sea, al-bahr al-ahmar. 



240 ARABIC MANUAL. 

reduce, v. a. bkhafifid, khaft'adt, khaffid; bna" "is, na" "ast, 

na""is; b"ellil, "allelt, "ellil. 
reductioji, n. takhfif. 
7-eed, n. "asabi p. "asabat. 
reef, n. sakhra p. skhur ; {of a sail) taiyi. 
reel, n. kerker p. kerakir ; reel of cotton, bekeret khitan. 
refer, [to) v. a. bhowwil, howwelt, howwil (ila); braj'i, 

raj'at, raj'i; / referred Jihn to you, ba'att ill-ak yeh; 

/ will refer to you, braj'ak. 
reflect [think), v. biftikir, iftakert, iftikir (f i) ; [light) v. n. 

[y^ per.), biy'ekus, 'akas; the mirror reflected the 

light, al-mereyi 'akaset ad-dow. 
reflection, n. fikr; [light] 'aks. 
reform, n. islah p. islahat. 
refresh [revive), v. a. bin'ish, na'asht, ne'ish; brattib, 

rattabt, rattib; to be refreshed, bint'ish, inta'asht. 
refreshing, a. mun'ish. 
refuge, n. melja; to take — , v. n. biltiji, iltajeyt, il- 

tiji (ila). 
refugee, n. multiji. 
refund, v. a. brudd (bridd), raddait (reddeyt), rudd 

(ridd). 
refusal, n. rafad. 
refuse, v. a. burfud, rafadt, urfud; refuse to answer, 

bridd, reddeyt, ridd ('ala). 
regard, n. 'itibar; v. a. [esteem) be'itibir, 'etebert, e'iti- 

bir; [look at) bunzur, nazert, nzur; bshuf, shuft, 

shuf. 
regent, n. ne'ib (na'ib) melek. 
regirnent, n. alay p. alaiyat. 
region, n. jeha p. jihet. 
register, n. sijill p. sijillet; defter p. defetir; v. a. b"ey- 



VOCABULARY. 24 1 

yid, "eyyedt, "eyyid p.p. m"eyyed ; bscjjil, sejjelt, 

sejjil; {letters) bsowkir, sowkert, sowkir p.p. msowker. 
regret, n. asaf ; (penitence) nedcmi ; v. bit'assaf, t'assaft 

(bit'essaf, t'esseft) 'ala. 
regrettable, a. mukeddir. 
regular, a. muntazini; "anuni. 
regularly, ad. haseb al-"an6n. 
regulation, n. "anon p. "awanin. 
reign, n. (government) mulk ; (period) 'ahd ; reign over, 

V. a. bihkum, hakamt, hkum ; v. bimluk, melekt, 

mluk ('ala); [inflnence) v. n. (3rd per.) biyistowli, 

istowla 'ala; terror reigned over the people, istowla 

al-khowf 'al an-nes. 
rein, n. sir'a p. sru'a. 
reinforce, v. a. binjud, nejedt, njud. 
reinforcement, n. nejdi p. nejdet. 
relate, {to) v. a. behki, hakait (hakeyt) hki ila; / related 

hitn a story, hakeyt ill-uh hikcyi. 
relation {relative), n. "arabi p. "araiyib (ahl); {on the 

mother's side) nesib p. ansiba. 
release, n. khalas; v. a. bitlu", tala"'t, tin"; bdeshshir, 

deshshert, deshshir. 
reliance, n. ittikal; istinad. 
relic, n. zkhiri (dkhiri) p. zakhai}'ir. 
relief, n. mse'adi; is'af; bas-relief, na"sh beriz. 
relieve, v. a. bis'ef, sa'aft, se'if. 
religion, n. din (diyeni) p. adicn. 
religious, a. dini. 
relish, n. t'ami; lizzi, 
reluctance, n. nufur. 
rely {on), v. n. bistinid, stenedt, stinid ('ala); bittikil, 

ittakelt, ittikil ('ala). 

16 



242 ARABIC MANUAL. 

remain, v. n. bib"a, bi"it, ib"a; bwa" "if, wa" "aft, 

wa""if; V. n. bdull, dalleyt, dull. 
remainder, n. be"i (ba"iyi). 
remark, n. mulahaza. 
remarkable, a. mustahi" " az-zikr. 

remedy, n. 'ilaj ('ilej) p. 'ilajet; v. a. b'alij, 'alajt, 'alij. 
remember, v. a. bitzekkir, tezekkert, tezekkir. 
remembrance, n. tezekkur. 
remind, (any one of), v. a. bzekkir, zekkert, zekkir — 

fi; bfattin, fattant, fattin — ff. 
remonstrance, n. 'itirad p. 'itiradat. 
remorse, n. towbikh ad-damir; nedemi. 
remote, a. be'id p. ba'ad. 
removal, n. na"li; (from office) 'azl. 

remove, v. a. bshil, shilt, shil ; (put or take out) bdahhir, 
dahhart, dahhir; [to displace and to change houses) 
V. a. and n. bin"ul, na"alt, n'ul (n"il) ; [from office) 
V. a. be'azil, 'azalt, 'uzul ; to be removed, bin'izil, 
in'azalt. 
render, [cause to be) v. a. bsaiyir, saiyert, saiyir; bij'al, 

ja'alt, ja'al. 
rendezvous, n. multa"a. 

renew, v. a. bjeddid, jeddedt, jeddid, p.p. mjedded. 
renounce, v. a. bitruk, tarakt, truk. 
renown, n. shuhra. 

rent, n. kiri; ujra (ijra); [tear) shi"". 
repair, [repairs) n. taslih p. taslihat; v. a. bsallih, sallaht, 
sallih p.p. msallah; bsewi, saweyt, sewi p.p. msewa ; 
it must be repaired, lezim taslih-uh. 
repay, v. a. be'ufi, wafeyt, ufi. 
repeat, v. a. bkerrir, kerrert, kerrir p.p. mkerrer. 
repeatedly, ad. tekraran. 



VOCABULARY. 243 

repent, v. n. btub, tibt, tub. 

repentance, n. tovvbi (tobi). 

repentant, a. teyib. 

repetition, n. muraj'a; tckrar. 

replace, v. a. bridd, reddeyt, ridd ila matrah-uh. 

reply, n. jevveb p. jewebet ; v. a. [to] bjewib, jewabt, jcwib. 

report, n. ta"rir p. ta"rirat; {rumour) ishe'a; {Jireanns) 

tala"; V. b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul ta"rir; v. a. bkhabbir, 

khabbert, khabbir ('an) ; / zvill report to you about it, 

bkhabbir-ak 'ann-uh. 
repose, n. raha; v. n. birteh (birtah), irtaht, irteh. 
represent {explain), v. a. bbeyyin, beyyent, beyyin ; {as 

an agent) v. bitwekkel, twakkelt, twakkel ('an). 
representations, n. p. beyyenet; m'arudat. 
representative, n. mutawekkil. 
repress, v. bighlub, ghalabt, ghlub ('ala). 
reprieve, n. mihli. 

reprimand, n. towbikh ; v. a. bkeddir, keddert, keddir. 
reprisals, n. akhd at-tar. 
reproach, n. lovv^m. 

reprove, v. a. bwabbikh, wabbakht, wabbikh. 
reptile, n. hashra p. hashrat. 

republic, n. jumhuriyi; republican, a. jumhuriyi. 
repudiate, v. a. binkur, nakert, nkur. 
repugnance, n. nufur; kcraha. 
reputation, n. sit. 

request, n. iltimes; v. biltimis, iltemest, iltimis (min). 
require, v. a. b"uz, 'izt; bihtcj, ihtajt. 
rescue, n. khalas; v. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis; to the 

rescue! 'ala mse'adi. 
research, n. tcftish ; fahs. 
resemblance, n. nishebeha. 



244 ARABIC MANUAL. 

r€se))ible, v. a. bishbih, shebeht. 

reserve, n. ihtiyat ; {discretion) ihtiraz ; {milit.) redif ; tJi 

reserve, a. ze'id ; v. a. behfaz, hafazt, hfaz p.p. mahfuz. 
reserved, a. muhtiriz ; ras-uh ti"il. 
reservoir, n. howz (howd). 
reside [in), v. n. biskun, sekent, skun (fi) ; bisti"im, 

sta"amt (fi). 
residence, n. mesken p. msekin. 
resideyit, n. sekin p. sukken. 
resign, v. bista'fi, sta'fait, sta'fi (min). 
resignation, n. iste'fa; (patience) sabr. 
resigned, a. sabur. 
resin, n. simgh (samgh). 
resist, v. a. b"ewim, "ewamt, "ewim. 
resistance, n. m"a\vemi. 
resolute, a. 'azum ; sahib 'azm. 
resolution, n. 'azm. 

resolve [on), v. be'izum, 'azamt, 'uzum ('ala). 
resources, n. wesili p. wese'il. 

respect, n. ihtiram v. a. behtirim, ihtaramt, ihtirim. 
respectable, a. muhterem ; mu'eteber. 
respectful, a. mahshum; muhtishim. 
responsible, a. mes'ul. 
responsibility, n. mes'uliyi. 
rest, n. raha; [remainder) kemeli; be"i (ba"iyi). 

V. n. Tanem (bnam), nimt, nem (nam(; [on) v. a. bis- 

nud, senedt, snud ('ala) ; v. n. bistinid, stenedt, 

stinid ('ala). 
restless, a. 'adim ar-raha. 
result, n. netiji p. nete'ij. 

resurrection, n. "iyemi ; day of — , yowm al-"iyemi. 
retail, n. bey'a bil-muferra" ; to sell — , bbi'a bil-muferra". 






VOCABULARY. 245 

retain, v. a. bib"i, ba"cyt, ba"i ; bba" "i, ba" "eyt, ba" "i. 
retreat, n. ruj'u (rej'it); v. n. birj'a, rj'at, rj'a. 
retribution, n. mjeza. 
return, n. ruj'u; v. n. birj'a, rj'at (rj'cyt), rj'a (rje'a); 

V. a. brajj'i, rajj'at, rajj'a; bridd, reddeyt, ridd. 
reveal, v. a. bikshuf, kesheft, kshuf. 
revenge, n. inti"am. 
revenue, n. madkhul; dukhl, (dakhl). 
reviezv {milit:), n. t'alini ; 'ard al-'asker; yu"lama; v. a. 

b'urud, 'aradt, 'urud; b'amil yu"lama. 
revolt, V. n. bc'asa, 'asait ('asit), 'asa. 
revolution, n. {turn) dowra; [rising) towra (tora); harcki. 
revolve, v. n. {y^^ per.) bidur, dar. 
revolver, n. rivolver. 

reward, n. mkcfa ; {tip) hihven ; v. a. bkefi, kefait, kefi. 
rhemnatisjn, n. waj'a al-mafasil. 
rJiuharh, n. rawend. 
rJiyuie, n. "afiyi. 
rib, n. cjil'a p. adl'a. 
ribbon, n. shrita p. shraiyit. 
rice, n. riz. 

riclif a. ghani p. aghniya; zenghin. 
riches, n. ghina ; serur. 
riddle, 11. hazzura (hizzera). 

ride, v. a. birkeb, rkibt, irkeb [and ivith 'ala). 
rider, n. khaiyel p. khaiyeli ; rekib. 
ridge, n. dahr aj-jebel. 
ridicule, n. maskhara ; hazu ; v. {laugh at) bitmaskhar, 

tmaskhart 'ala ; [despise) bistehzi, stehzeyt (f 1). 
ridiculous, a. mudhik; ad. bila m'ana. 
riding, n. rukub. 
rifle, n. barudi msheshkhani p. bavvarid. 



246 ARABIC MANUAL. 

7-iglit, n. yemin ; to the right, 'al yemin; [truth) ha""; 
sawab ; a. musib ; [in order) mazbut ; you are right, 
al-ha" " m'a-ak (inti musib). 
rigid, a. mtwattir (mwettir). 
rind, n. "ishri p. "ishr. 

ring, n. haF'a p. haK'at c.p. hala"; [of a chain) zaradi 
p. zaradet; c.p. zarad; [signet) khatim p. khawatim 
(khawetim) ; [engagement) khatim al-khitbi ; v. a. [a bell) 
bdu"", da" "ait, du" " aj-jaras. 
ringlet, n. khusli p. khusl. 
riot, n. fitni. 
ripe, a. nadij ; mistwi. 

rise, V. n. b"um, "umt, "um; bitl'a, tl'at; tl'a. 
risk, n. khatr; mukhatera; v. bkhatir, khatert, khatir (fi). 
rival, n. khusm p. akhsam ; mnazir. 
rivalry, n. mseba"a; mnazera. 
river, n. nahr p. nhura (unhur). 
rivet, n. kharzi p. kharzet; rabta p. rabtat; v. a. bikhruz, 

kharazt, khruz p.p. makhruz. 
riveting, n. tekhriz. 
rivulet, n. se"i p. sawe"i. 

road, n. derb p. drub; tari" p. turu"; sikki p. sikek. 
roan [horse), a. mba" "aj ; (azra" mba""aj). 
roar [of laughter), n. "ah"aha. 
roast, V. a. bishwi, shaweyt, shwi p.p. mishwi. 
rod, V. a. bisru", sara"t, sru"; [on the road) bsheUih, 

shellaht, shelHh p.p. mshellah. 
robber, n. harami p. haramiyi ; seri" p. surra". 
robbery, n. sir"a; selb. 
robe, n. bedh. 

robust, a. "owi p. "awaiya. / 

rock, n. sakhra p. skhur; v. a. bhizz, hazzait, hizz. 



VOCABULARY. 247 

rocket, n. sahm nari; sarukh. 

rogue, a. khabis. 

roguery, n. khubs; mekr. 

roll, n. lefifi; [list] "ai'mi ; v. a. bliff, leffeyt, lift" p.p. 

melfuf; [of bread) bru"", ra" "eyt, ra" " ; v. n. [along) 

bdahrij, dahrajt, dahrij. 
roller, n. mahdeli p. mahadil. 
rollingpin, n. showbek p. shvvebik. 
Rome, Rumi; Roman, a. rumani ; Ro})ian c/nirch,:\.\-\i&n\s\t 

ar-rumaniyi. 
roof, n. sath p. stuh. 

room, n. uda p. uwad ; [space) matrah ; fus-ha. 
root, n. shirsh p. shurush ; {of a matter) asl; {up) v. a. 

bi'Ta, "al'at, i"l'a. 
rope, n. habl p. hibal (hibcl). 
rosary, n. mesbaha p. mesebih. 
rose, n. wardi p. wardet c.p. ward ; rose-colour, a. wardi ; 

rose-water, ma'ward ; ma'zahr ; attar of roses, 'utr 

al-ward. 
rot, V. n. {y^ per-) [of zvood) bisowwis, sowwas, p.p. 

msowwis; [vegetables) biyihtiri, ihtara p.p. mihtiri ; mihri. 
rotation [in), ad. bin-nowbi (nobi); bid-dovvr (dor). 
rough, a. ghaliz p. ghiilaza ; khishin ; [sea) heyyij ; {road) 

we'ir. 
roughness, n. wa'ar; khushuni ; ghala:^a. 
round, a. mdowwer ; p. 'ala de'ir ; howl (hawal) ; all 

round, 'ala de'ir ('ad-de'ir) ; der min dijr; turn round, 

V. n. bdur, durt, dur hawal. 
route, n. tari" p. turu". 

rozv, n. [line) saff" p. sfuf; in rozcs, bis-saft"; n. [distur- 
bance, khna"a; toshi (towshi) ; [noise) dajji (doji); v. a. 

[a boat) b"addif, "addaft, "addif. 



248 ARABIC MANUAL. 

royal, a. meleki (muluki). 

rub, V. a. bimsah, masaht, msah; bifruk, ferikt, fruk; 

[put) bimhi, mahait, mhi p.p. mimhi ; {scratch) bhikk, 

hakkait, hikk p.p. mahkuk. 
rubbish, n. {sweepings) knesi ; zbeli ; {nonsense) dun. 
rtiby, n. ya"uti p. ya"ut. 
rudder, n. deffat al-merkeb. 
rude, a. fazz; sef ih ; bila merba. 
rudiments, n. p. usul; mabedi. 
ruffian, n. ibn haram; sherrir p. ashrar. 
rug, n. {carpet) sejjedi; {covering) hram p. hramet. 
rugged, a. we'ir f. we'ri. 
ruin, n. khirbi p. khara'ib; v. a. bikhrub, kharabt, khrub; 

b'attil, 'attalt, 'attil. 
ruined, a. kharab (kharban). 
ride, n. "anon p. "awanin; v. a. {lines) bsattir, sattart, 

sattir; {govern) bihkum, hakamt, hkum. 
ruler, n. {governor) hakim ; {for lines) mastra p. msatir 

(msetir). 
rumour, n. ishe'a. • 

run, V. n. birkud, rakadt, urkud ; {a race) bsebi", seba"t, 

sebi"; {away) bihrub, harabt, hrub; {after) bilha", 

lahi"t, ilha" ; {risk) bkhatir, khatert, khatir. 
running, n. rakad. 

rupture, n. khilef; kksumi; {hernia) fta". 
rural, a. berri. 
rusk, n. ghurabiyi. 

Russia, Rusiya; miskob; Russian, a. miskobi. 
rust, n. si'di ; v. n. (3rd per.) bisaddi, sadda. 
rusty, a. msaddi. 



VOCABULARY. 249 

s. 

sabre, n. seyf p. siyuf. 

sack, n. kis p. kyes. 

sacred, a. m"addas. 

sacrifice, n. [religious) "urbcn ; [fig.) clahiyi p. dahaiya; 

V. a. [an animal) bidbah, dabaht, dbah; [fig.) bdahhi, 

dahhait, dahhi. 
sad, a. mkedder. 
saddle, n. serj. p. suruj ; [native) 'iddi p. 'ided ; — a 

horse, v. a. bshidd, shcddait, shidd 'al al-hisan. 
safe, a. selim; n. sandu" hadid. 
safely, ad. m'as-salemi ; bil-amen. 
safety, n. salcmi. 
saffron, n. z'aferan. 
said (preceding), a. mazkur. 
sail, n. "al'a p. "ulu'a. 
sailor, n. bahri p. bahriyi. 
saint, n. "addis p. "adisin; [before a name) mar; [Moslem) 

well. 
sake (for the sake of], pr. minshen. 
salad, n. salata; salad oil, zeyt as-salata. 
salary, n. ma'ash ; mehiyi. 
sale, n. bey'a; for sale, lil-bey'a. 
saliva, n. ri". 
sahnon, n. somon. 

salt, n. milh; salt-cellar, memlaha; a. melih f. mclha. 
saltpetre, n. milh al-barud. 
salute, n. salam (salem) ; v. bsellim, sellemt, sellim 'ala; 

[milit.) bekhud, akhadt, khud salem. 
salvation, salemi ; [eternal) khalas. 



250 ARABIC MANUAL. 

sa}iic, a. 'ain; nefs; zet {zuith pro. siiff.); all the same, 

mitl ba'ad-uh ; sawa : all the same to vie, la far" 'ind-i ; 

at tJie same time, fil-wa"t zet-uh; fi nefs al-wa"t. 
sample, n. mastra p. msatir (msetir) ; [of grain) 'aini p. 

'ainet. 
sanction, n. msadi"a. 

sand, n. rami; sand-storm, zowba'a (zoba'a). 
sandal, n. n'ali p. n'al. 
sandal wood, n. sandal. 
sane, a. selim al-'a"l; sahib al-'a"l. 
sanguinary, a. damawi. 
sanguine, a. wesi". 
sanitary, a. sahhi ; mwefi" lis-sihha ; — ojfice, nezarit 

as-sihha ; — cordon, kordon ; — doctor, tabib as-sihha. 
sap, n. 'asir an-nebet. 
sapling, n. nasbi p. nasb. 
sapphire, n. hajr as-safir. 
sarcasm, n. istihza. 
sarcophagus, n. naus p. newewis. 
sash, n. zinnar p. znenir. 
Satan, n. iblis (blis). 
satcliel, n. mahfaza p. mahafiz. 
satiated, [to be) v. n. bishb'a, shb'eyt, shb'a. 
satin, n. atlas. 
satisfaction, n. rida. 
satisfactory, a. murdi. 
satisfied, a. radi. 
satisfy, v. a. birdi, rdait, rdi; to be satisfied, v. n. birda, 

irdit, irda (fi or bi); birtidi, irtadeyt, irtidi. 
saturate, v. a. bbill, bellait (belleyt) bill p.p. meblul. 
Saturday, nahar (yowm) as-sebt. 
sauce, n. salsa; mar"a. 



[ 



VOCABULARY. 25 I 

saucepan, n. tanjara p. tanajir. 
saucer, n. sahn zghir p. suhun. 
sausage, n. ma"ani (na"ani). 
savage, a. bcrberi ; wahshi. 

save, V. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis; {life) bncjji, nej- 
jait (nejjcyt), nejji; [economise] bwaffir, waffert, waftir. 
savings, n. p. towf irct ; fadlat. 
savoury, a. leziz. 
saw, n. minshar p. mcneshir. 
sawdust, n. nishara. 
say, V. a. bi"ul (bi"il), "ult ("ilt), "ul ("il); behki, hakait 

(hakeyt), hki. 
saying, n. mesel (metel) p. cmsel (emtel). 
scab, n. "ishri p. "ishr ("ishur). 
scabbard, n. "irab p. "irabet. 
scaffold, n. meshna"a. 
scaffolding, n. sa"ali. 

scald, V. a. bihru", hara"t, huru" p.p. mahru". 
scale, n. mizen p. miczin (mowazin); (one side of the 
balance) keffi; [proportion] "iyes; [of a fish) "ishri; to 
adjust the weights, b'aiyyir, 'aiyyert, 'aiyyir al-mizen. 
scalp, n. "ishrit ar-ras. 

scandal, n. 'ilr. 

scar, n. eter jurh. 

scarce, a. nedir; "alil al-wujiid. 

scarcely, ad. bil-kedd. 

scarcity, n. "illit al-wujud. 

scarecroiv, n. fizze'a p. fizzc'at; khiyel p. khiyelct. 

scarlet, a. "irrnizi. 

scatter, v. a. bferri", fcrra"t, ferri" p.p. mferra". 

scent, n. riha p. rwcyih ; scent bottle, "anninit riha. 

schenie, n. tcdbir p. tcdcbir. 



252 ARABIC MANUAL. 

scholar, n. telmiz p. telemiz. 

school, n. medresi p. mederis; — felloiv, refi" fil-med- 

resi ; — )iiaster, ma'allim medresi. 
science, n. 'ilm p. 'ulum; [branch of) fenn p. finun. 
scissors, n. m"ass p. m"a.ssat. 
scold, V. a. bwabbikh, wabbakht, vvabbikh. 
scolding, n. towbikh. 
scorch, V. a. bshowwit, showwatt, showwit p.p. mshow- 

wat; to be scorched, v. n. [y^ per.) bishut, shat; 

scorching, n. shwit. 
scorpion, n. a"rabi p. a"arib (a"erib). 
scoundrel, n. sherrir p. ashrar. 
scout, n. delil ; [niilit.) ra'id al'asker. 
scrape, v. a. bhikk, hakkait, hikk p.p. mahkuk. 
scratch, v. a. bikhdush, khadasht, khdush p.p. makh- 

dush ; [of a cat) {y^ pei"-) bikharmish, kharmash. 
scream, n. saiha (seyha) v. n. bsih, suht, sih. 
screen, n. stara. 
screw, n. birghi p. beraghi; v. a. bifruk, ferikt, fruk; 

screiv-driver, mafrak. 
scrub, v. a. bimsah, masaht, msah. 
scruple, n. tereddud ; ihtiraz. 

scrupulous, a. mutereddid fi; [having scruples) m\.\\\iix\z{\. 
scull, n. mi"daf zghir p. ma"adif zghiri. 
sadpture, n. na"sh p. n"ush. 
scum, n. raghvvi. 
sea, n. bahr. 
seal, n. khatm p. khtumi; v. a. bikhtum, khatamt, khtum 

p.p. makhtum. 
sealing-wax, n. .sham'a ahmar (aswid). 
seam, n. derz p. druz. 
search, v. bfettish, fettesht, fettish (f i) ; bdowwir, dow- 



VOCABULARY. 253 

wert, dowwir (fi); search for, bfcttish, (bdowwir) 'ala. 
season, n. fasl p. fusul. 
seasoning, n. hashwi. 
seat, n. ma" 'ad p. ma"a'id. 
seaweed, n. 'ishbi bahriyi. 
second, n. {time) teniyi [vide niDnerals). 
second/land, a. musta'mel. 
secret, n. sirr p. asrar; a. sirri. 
sect, n. ta'ifi p. tawa'if; milli p. milel. 
section, n. "ism p. a"sam (a"sem). 
secure, a. amin p. limena; madmun. 
sedifnent, n. rasib. 
sedition, n. 'isiyan. 
seditions, a. 'asi. 

see, V. a. bshuf, shuft, shuf; bi"sh'a, "ish'eyt, i"she'a. 
seed^ n. bezr p. bzurat. 
seek, V. bfcttish, fettesht, fettish ('ala) ; bdowwir, dowwert, 

dowwir (fi). 
seem, v. n. (3i"<i per.) bibcyyin, beyyen ; biyizhar, zaher. 
seize, v. a. bizbat, zabatt, izbat. 
seldom, ad. nediren. 
select, V. a. bna""i, na" "ait, na" "i ; bukhtar, ikhtart, 

ikhtar. 
self, pro. zet; hal ; nefs [xvith pro. suff.); vide grammar 

p. 17 reflexive pronouns, 
selfish, to be, v. (3rd per.) bihibb zet-uh, 
selfishness, n. mahabbit az-zet. 
sell, V. a. bbi'a, be'ut, bi'a. 
seller, n. bey'i p. bey 'an. 
send, V. a. bib'at, ba'att, b'at. 
senior, a. akhbar. 
sense, n. 'a"l ; {meaning) m'ana; the senses, n. p. al-hawess. 



254 ARABIC MANUAL. 

senseless {lifeless), a. fe"id al-hiss; ad. bila hassiyi; [jiiea- 

ningless) ad. kilmi bila m'ana. 
sensible, a. 'a"il, 
sensitive, a. hasses. 
sentence, n. (phrase) jumli p. jumel; (judicial) hukm p. 

ahkam. 
sentinel, n. ghafer p. ghaferat. 

separate, a. munfiisil ; separately, wahd-uh wahd-uh. 
separation, n. mfara"a. 
September, ailul. 

sequester, v. a. bihjuz, hajazt, hjuz p.p. mahjuz. 
seraglio, n. {edifice) seraiyi ; [ladies of) hurmi p. harim. 
sergeant, n. showush. 
serious, a. [things) muhimm c. ahamm ; [persons) razin; 

seriously, ad. bi jedd. 
sermon, n. wa'az; kirezi. 
serpent, n. haiyi p. haiyat c. p. haiyaiya. 
servant, n. ijir f. ijiri; khadim f. khadmi p. khuddem 

(khiddem p. khiddemin). 
serve, v. a. bikhdum (bukhdum), khadamt, khdum. 
Servia, beled as-Sirb; Servian, a. sirbi. 
service, n. khidmi p. khidemet. 
set, n. ta"m p. tu"um (tu"umi); v. a. bhutt, hattait, 

hutt. 
settle, V. a. [a question) bisruf, saraft, sruf; bsewi, saweyt, 

sewi; [price) bufsul, fasalt, fsul (fsel); [conditions) \i^ix\\, 

sharatt, sherit; v. n. [of wine) [y^ per.) biyursub (bi- 

yirsib), rasab. 
several, a. ba'ad [zuiih pro. sujf.). 
severe, a. shedid p. shidad ; sarim. 

sew, V. a. bkhaiyyit, khaiyyatt, khaiyyit p.p. mkhaiyyat. 
sewer, n. balu'aj siya". 



f 



VOCABULARY. 255 

sex, n. jins p. ajnes. 

shabby, a. retit (retten) ; beli. 

shade, n. fei; zil (zul). 

shadow, n. khiycl p. khiyelet. 

shaft [of a carriage), n. 'arish. 

shake, V. a. bhizz, hzzzait, hizz ; {of clothes) bnuffid, 

nafifadt, nufifid p.p. mnaftad. 
shallow, a. fcyish (faiyish). 
shame, n. 'aib. 
shavieless, ad. bila haiya. 
shape, n. shikl p. shikel. 
share, n. sahm p. as-hem; hissa p. hi'sas. 
shareholder, n. sahib sahm. 
shark, n. kelb bahr. 
sharp, a. madi ; hadd. 

sharpest, v. a. bsinn, scnnait, sinn p.p. mesnun. 
sharpener {steel), n. msenn. 
shave, v. bihlu", hala"t, hlu" (hli") ila p.p. mahlu"; 

shave me, hli'"li ; / shaved lihn, hala"t ill-uh ; clean 

shaved, a. hali". 
shawl, n. shel p. shelet. 
she, pro. hiyi. 

shear, v. a. bjizz, jezzeyt, jizz p.p. mejzuz. 
shears, n. mjezz. 
sheatJi, n. "irab p. "irabet. 
sheathe, v. a. bhutt, hattait, hutt fil-"irab. 
shed, n. si"ifi ; v. a. {blood) bisfuk, scfckt. sfuk; {skin) 

(311^ per.) biyishlah, shalah. 
sheep, n. ghanam p. aghnem ; sJieep dog, kelb al- 

ghanam. 
sheet, n. sharshaf p. sharashif; {paper) tarhiyi p. tarahi. 
shelf, n. reft' p. rfuf. 



256 ARABIC MANUAL. 

sliell, n. sadafi p. sadaf; {bomb) "unbli p. "anebil ("un- 

bera p. "anebir) ; shell fish, n. sadaf. 
shelter, n. ma'wa; to take shelter, v. n. bita'awa, ta'a- 

weyt, ta'awa ila. 
shepherd, n. ra'i p. rai'yan. 
shield, n. turs p. atras. 
shine, v. n. (3i"d per.) biyilm'a, lam'a. 
ship, n. merkeb p. merakib. 
shipwreck, n. inkisar merkeb. 
shirt, n. "amis p. "umsan ; "amis kowi. 
shiver, v. n. birjif, rjift. 
shoe, n. subbat p. sababit; [peasant's) mdas p. mdaset; 

[long red) zarbul p. zarabil ; v. a. [horse) bbaitir, 

baitart, baitir p.p. mbaitar; (bbeytir, beytart, beytir 

p.p. mbeytar). 
shoemaker, n. kinderji. 
shoot, V. a. b"owwis, "owwast, "owwis. 
shop, n. dikken p. dekekin. 
shopkeeper, n. sahib dikken. 
shore, n. shatt. 

short, a. "asir p. "asar c. a"sar. 
shorten, v. a. b"assir, "assert, "assir p.p. m'assar. 
shortly, ad. bil-ikhtisar; al-hasil; [presently) b'ad "alii; 

b'ad shwayi. 
shortsighted, a. "asir an-nazr. 
shot, n. [lead) khirdu"; [discharge) darb p. drubi ; 

"ovvwas. 
shoulder, n. kitf p. aktef. 
shout, n. saiha (seyha) ; 'ayta; v. n. bsih, suht, sih ; [to) 

b'aiyit, 'aiyett, 'aiyit {\\di);zve shouted to him, 'aiyet- 

na-luh. 
shovel, n. mejrud p. mejerid. 



f 



VOCABUI-ARV. 257 

s/i07C', n. firji; {exhibition) ma'rad ; v. a. [to] bfcrrji, fcrr- 

jait, ferrji ('ala). 
sJiower, n. zakhkhar. 
shreivd, a. shatir p. shuttar. 

shrine, n. mazar p. mazarat ; ma'Tim p. ma"amat. 
shrink, v. n. (31^1 per.) bighibb, ghabb; bidubb, dabb. 
shroud, n. kefen p. ekfcn. 
shrub, n. sejcra zghiri. 
shut, V. a. {close) bughlu", ghala"t, ghlu" p.p. maghlu"; 

(fasten) bsekkir, sekkert, sekkir p.p. msakker. 
shutter, n. dcrfi p. derfet. 
shy, a. khaJLil; v. n. {of a horse) {y^ per.) biyijfal, 

jifil. 
sick, to he, v. n. bistcfrigh, stafraght, stefragh ; to be sea 

sick, V. n. bdukh, dukht. 
sickle, n. menjil p. mnejil. 
side, n. jeneb p. jeneb (jenib p. jewenib); right side 

{of material) wijh; wrong side, "afa. 
siege, n. hisar. 
sieve, n. {coarse) ghirbel p. gharabil; {fine) mi'nkhul p. 

mnekhil. 
sift, V. a. bgharbil, gharbelt, gharbil p.p. mgharbel ; 

binkhul, nakhalt, nkhul p.p. menkhul. 
sifter, n. mi nkhul. 

sigh, n. tcnahhud; v. n. bitnahhad, tnahhadt, tnahhad. 
sight, n. nazr; sight-seeing, firji; long-sighted, a. be'id 

an-nazr. 
sig)i, n. 'alemi p. 'alemet; v. a. bimdi, maclait (madeyt)^ 

mdi p.p. mamdi. 
signal, n. ishara. 
signature, 11. imda p. imdawet. 
signet, n. khatim p. khawatim (khawetim). 

17 



258 ARABIC MANUAL. 

silence, n, sukiit; v. a. bsekkit, sekkett, sekkit. 

silent, to be, v. n. biskut, sakatt, skut; be silent, [imper.) 

skut f. skiti ; khras; sidd timm-ak. 
silk, n, harir ; silk-factory, n. kirkhanit harir ; m'amel harir. 
silkiuonn, n. dudit al-"azz p. dud al-"azz. 
sdly, a. ahma" p. him"in (liimu"). 
silver, n. fid da. 

silversmith, n. saiyigh p. siyagh. 
similar, a. mitl ; shebih p. ashbah. 
simple, a. basit p. biisata ; simply, bes ; fa"at. 
si7i, n. khatiyi p. khataiya; zenb p. znub; v. n. bukhti, 

khatait, khti. 
since, pr. min ; ad. b'ad ; con. b'ad ma; limma. 
sincere, a. mukhlis. 
sincerity, n. ikhlas. 
sinew, n. 'asab p. 'asab; (fig.) "uwi. 
sing, V. a. bghanni, ghannait, ghanni ; [sacred music), 

brettil, rettelt, rettil. 
singer, n. mughanni. 
singiyig, n. ghina ; [sacred] tertil. 
single, a. ferd; [unmarried] 'azeb; singly, kill wehid 

wahd-uh. 
singular, n. mufred ; a. gharib. 
sink, V. n. bigliru", ghri"t, ghra" ; v. a. bgharri", ghar- 

ra"t, gharri". 
sinless, a. beri p. I'briya. 
sinner, n. miznib; mi'jrim. 
sir, n. sid-i {lit. my lord], 
sirocco, n. shlu". 
simp, n. sharab. 
sister, n. ikht (ukht) p. khaiyet; sha"i"a; sister-in-law, 

silfi. 



VOCABULARY. 259 

sit, V. n. bu" 'ud, "a'atlt, u" 'ud. 

sitting {of a court), n. jclsi. 

situation, n. mcrkcz. 

size, n. "add; [bulk) hajm. 

skein, n. shelli (shilli) p. shlcl. 

skeleton, n. heykcl p. hiyekil. 

skezver, n. sikhslaek p. siakhshek; sikh p. siyakh. 

skilful, a. mehir. 

skill, n. mahara. 

skin, n. jild p. jlud; v. a. bislakh, salakht, slakh p.p. 

maslukh. 
skirt, n. tannura p. tenenir. 
skittles, n. maliajj. 
skull, n. JLimjmi p. jemejim. 
sky, the, n. aj-jow. 
slack, a. rakhu f. rakhwi. 

slacken, v. a. brakhkhi, rakhkhait, rakhkhi p.p. mirkhi. 
slang, n. kelem derij. 
slap, n. latmi. 

slate, n. lowh hajr; slate pencil, "alam hajr. 
slaughter, n. medbaha (mezbaha); v. a. bidbah, dabaht, 

dbah p.p. medbuh; slaughter house, n. meslakh. 
slave, n. 'abd p. 'abid; female — , jeriyi p. jeweri. 
slavery, n. 'ubudiyi. 
sleep, n. nowm (nom) v. n. bnem (bnam), nimt, ncm 

(nam); asleep, pres. part, neyim. 
sleepless, to be, v, n. bi"la", "ili"t; ad. bila nowm. 
sleepy, a. n'asen ; sleeping, n. menami. 
sleeve, n. kimm (kumm) p. kemem. 
slender, a. refi'a p. rfa'a c. arf'a. 
slice, n. sha"fi. 
sling, n. mi'Ta. 



260 ARABIC MANUAL. 

slip, V. n. bizla", zli"t, zla"; n. {of a plant) shetli ; feskha ; 

[of the pen) zellit "alam. 
slipper, 11. shahata. 

slippery, to be, v. n. {y^ per.) bizelli". 
slit, n. khiz"; v. a. bishrut, sharatt, shurut. 
slope, n. nezli. 
slow, a. buti ; to be slow, v. n. (3rd per. f.) of a watch, 

bitta'akhkhir (bitta'assir) as-se'a; slowly, ad. 'ala mahl-uh 

{zi'ith pro. stiff.); shwayi shwayi; to be slow in, v. n. 

bitda" "ar, tda" "art, tda" "ar f i kitebi (meshi) in zvriting, 

walking etc. 
slowness, n. mehli. 
sluggard, a. belid; keslen p. kesela. 
sluice, n. sukr p. skura. 
slush, n. wahl. 
sly, a. muhtel; hielji. 

small, a. zghir p. zghar c. azghar sup. al-azghar. 
sniallncss, n. zughr; [meanness) denewi. 
smallpox, n. jidri. 
smart, a. [intelligent) ziki ; nishit; [spruce) ghandur; n. 

alem; waj'a; v. n. [i^^ per.) biyuj'a, waj'a. 
smash, n. dajji (doji); v. a. biksur, kesert, ksur p.p. 

maksur; to be smashed, v. n. (3i-<i per.) biyinkisir, 

inkeser. 
smear [with), v. a. blattikh, lattakht, lattikh p.p. mlat- 

takh (fi). 
smell, n. riha p. rweyih ; bad — , riha rediyi ; good — , 

riha taiyibi ; v. a. bshimm, shemmait, shimm; v. n. 

[y^ per.) ill-uh riha, ken luh riha. 
smile, n. tebessum; v. n. bitbessam, tbessamt, tbessam. 
smith, n. hadded. 
smoke, n. dukhkhan; v. n. (3"! per.) of a chimney, bi- 



VOCABULARY. 26 1 

dakhkhin, dakhkhan; v. a. [of tobacco) bishrab, shribt, 
shrab (tutun); v. ii. bdakhkhin, dakhkhant, dakhkhin. 

smoky, a. mdakhkhin. 

smooth, a. nc'ini (na'im); mili.s. 

smoothly, ad. bis-suhuli. 

smotJier, v. a. bikhnu", kliana"t, khnu" p.p. makhnu". 

smuggle, V. a. bhcrrib, hcrrabt, hcrrib p.p. mhcrrab. 

smuggling, n. tehrib. 

Smyrna, Izmir. 

snail, n. bezza"a; halazun. 

snake, n. haiyi p. haiyat cp. haiyaiya. 

snare, n. sherek; masiyadi; fikhkh (fakhkh). 

sneeze, v. n. bu'atus, 'atast, 'utus. 

snipe, n. shikbi p. shikkub. 

snore, v, n. bishkhur, shakhart, shkhur. 

snoiu, n. telj ; v. n. (31"^ per. f.) bititHj, talijit. 

snowdrift, n. kumi telj. 

snuff, n. 'atus ; sniff-box, 'elbit 'atus ; to take smff, v. a. 
bshimm, shemmait, shimm 'atus. 

so, ad. haik (hcyk); is it not so: mush haik (mauheyk); 
so and so {of persons) a. fulan f. fulani ; [of things), 
ad. keza wa keza; so that, con. hatta (ta). 

soak, V. a. bin"a', na"a't, n"a'. 

soap, n. sabun. 

sober, a. sahi. 

sociable, a. an is. 

society, n. jcm'iyi. 

sock, n. kelsi p. kelset; jrabi p. jrabet; pair of socks, 
jowz kelset. 

socket, n. tejuif. 

soda, n. "ili. 

sofa, n. diwen. 



262 ARABIC MANUAL. 

soft, a. rikhis; ne'im (na'im); leyyin. 

soften, V. a. {by %vater) btarri, tarrait, tarri; [by fire) 

bleyyin, leyyent, leyyin. 
softly, ad. bi hudu. 
soil, n. tirab; v. a. bwassikh, wassakht, wassikh p.p. 

mvvassakh; to be soiled, v. n. bitwassakh, twassakht. 
solace, n. tesliyi. 
solder, n. Iham; v. a. bilhum, lahamt, Ihum p.p. 

melhum. 
soldier, n. 'askeri p. 'asker; [private) nefer p. anfar. 
sole, a. wahid ; n. [of the foot) asfal (sifl) ai-"adam; [of 

a boot) n'ali ; n'alit as-sirmeyi p. n'al ; solely, ad. 

fa"at; bes. 
solemn, a. ihtifeli. 

solicit, V. biltimis, iltemest, iltimis (min). 
solid, a. metin. 
solitude, n. wehdi. 
sohition, n. hall. 

solve, V. a. bhill, hallait, hill p.p. mahlul. 
solvent, a. sagh; "edir 'al al-wafa. 
some, a. ba'ad ; so^nebody, wehid ; sometimes, ahiyenen ; 

somezvhere, f i meken ; f i matrah ; somehoiv, kif ma ken ; 

sotnething, shi. 
son, n. ibn p. benin (benun) ; son-in-lazv, suhr p. as- 

har ; 07ily son, ibn wahid. 
song, n. ghinniyi ; {sacred) tertil. 
soon, ad. b'ad "alii ; sooner or later, b'ad ktir ow "alii ; 

too soon, bekkir; as soon as, metama. . 
soot, n. shahhar. 
soothe, V. a. blatif, lataft, latif; [of pain) bsekkin, sek- 

kent, sckkin. 
sordid, a. tarn ma 'a. 



VOCABULARY. 263 

sore, n. jurh p. juruh; sore back, [of a horse), dahr-uh 

m'a"ur; to be sore, v. n. (31-^ per.) biyuj'a, waj'a. 
sorrozc, n. hizn ; i)i sorrow, haznan. 

sorry, a. z'aleii; to be sorry, v. n. bit'essaf, t'esseft, 

(bit'assaf, t'assaft) p.p. mut'essif ; ana z'alen, kint z'alen. 

sort, n. sinf p. asnaf; now' (no') p. anw'a; v. a. (arrano^e) 

brettib, rettebt, rettib p.p. mrctteb. 
soul, n. nefs ; ruh. 

sound, n. sowt; hiss; a. [healthy) sagh. 
soup, n. showrba (shorba). 
sour, a. hamud f. hamda. 

source, n. {zvatcr) neb'a p. nbu'a; [origin) masdar. 
south, n. "ubli ("ibli) ; southern, a. jcnubi. 
souvenir, n. tezkar. 

sovereign, n. melik p. muluk; [Turkey) sultan. 
soiv, V. a. bizr'a, zar'at, zr'a p.p. mazru'a. 
space, n. fus-ha. 

spacious, a. fasih; wes'i. 

spade, n. merr p. murur ; rafsh p. rufush ; [of cards) 
bestuni. 

Spain, Isbania; Spanish, a. isbaniyuli. 

span, n. shibr p. ashbar. 

spare, v. [do zuithout) bistaghni, staghnait, staghni ('an); 
a. ze'id (za'id); spare copy, niskha ze'idi. 

spark, n. sharara p. sharar. 

sparkle, v. n. (3^^ per.) biyilm'a, lam'a. 

sparrow, n. 'asfur p. 'asafir. 

speak, V. n. behki, hakait (hakeyt), hki ; bitkellam, tkel- 
lamt, tkellam. 

spear, n. rimih p. rmah. 

special, a. khususi. 

species, n. now' (no') p. anw'a. 



264 ARABIC MANUAL. 

Specimen, n. mastra p. msatir (msetir). 

speck, n. latkha. 

spectacle, n. firji; manzar; mash-had. 

spectacles, n. kuzkik; n. p. 'awenat. 

spectator, n. mutferrij. 

speech, n. khitab. 

speed, n. sur'a; 'ajeli; speedily, bi sur'a; seri'an. 

spell, V. a. bitahejja, tahejjait, tahejja. 

spelling, n. hija. 

spend, V. a. bisruf, saraft, sruf p.p. masruf; to be spent, 

(3i<i per.) biyinsarif, iiisaraf. 
spice, n. bahar p. baharat; tib p. atyab. 
spider, n. 'ankebut p. 'anekib. 
spill, V. a. bkibb, kebbeyt, kibb p.p. makbub. 
spin, V. a. bighzul, ghazelt, ghzul (ghzil) p.p. maghzuL 
spinach, n. sbenikh. 
spindle, n. maghziL 

spinning-wheel, n. dulab (duleb) al-ghazL 
spirit, n. ruh p. arwah; out of spirits, ma luh keyf. 
spit, n. {^for roasting) shish p. shiyesh; sikh p. siyakh; 

V. n. bibzLi", baza"t, bzu". 
spite, n. hi"d; in spite of, ghasb 'an; raghman 'an. 
spittle, n. bze". 
splendid, n. fekhir. 
splint, n. jbar p. jbarat; to put in splints, v. a. bjebbir, 

jebbert, jebbir p.p. mjebber. 
split, n. shi""; V. a. bshi" ", sha" "ait (sha" "eyt), shi"" 

p.p. mesh u . 
spoil, V. a. binz'a, nez'at, nz'a; b'attil, 'attalt, 'attil; 

V. n. (31'd per.) biyintiz'i, intez'a; spoilt, a. manzu'a. 
spoke, n. [of a wheel) 'arda p. 'awarid. 
sponge, n. sfinji p. sfinj. 



VOCABULARY. 265 

Spoon, n. mara"a p. ma'ali". 

sport, n. [fun) I'eb (I'ub) ; [shooting) said. 

sportsman, n. saiyycd (saiyyad). 

spot, n. mowd'a p. mvvad'i. 

spout, n. [of a jng) zcllumi ; [of a fojintain) sab'a p. 

asb'a (///. a lion). 
sprain, n. radda; sud'a; v. a. brudd, raddait, p.p. mar- 
dud; bisd'a, -sad'at p.p. masdu'a. 
spread, v. a. bmidd, meddait, midd p.p. memdiid ; [out) 

binshur, neshert, nshur; bifrush, farasht, frush p.p. 

mafrush. 
spring, n. [season) ar-rabi'a; [zuater) 'ain p. 'uyun. 
sprinkle, v. a. brushsh, reshshait, rushsh p.p. marshush. 
sprout, n. nebti ; firkh; v. n. (3rd per.) bferrikh, fcrrakh; 

biyinbut, nabat. 
spur, n. mihmcz p. mahamiz. 
spurious, a. mzowwer. 
spy, n. jesus p. jewesis. 
squadron, n. 'amara. 

squander, v. a. bbeddir, beddert, beddir. 
square, a. mrabb'a; n. [open place) saha; the municipal 

square, sahat al-belediyi. 
squeeze, v. a. be'usur, 'asert, 'asur p.p. m'a.sur. 
squib, n. fitteshi. 
squinteyed, a. ahwel. 

squirrel, n. "ar"adLin p. "ara"din ; sinjcbi p. sinjebet. 
stab, n. t'ani p. t'anct. 
stability, n. scbct. 

stable, n. yakhur p. yakhurat; istabl p. istablet. 
stack, n. kdis p. kidscn ; v. a. bkeddis, kcddest, keddis 

p.p. mkeddc-s. 
stag, n. aiyyel p. aiye'il. 



266 ARABIC MANUAL. 

Stage, 11. [theatre) mersah ; {jourjiey) mhatta. 

stagnafit, a. rakid (ra"id). 

stain, n. latkha; v. a. blattikh, lattakht, lattikh p.p. 

mlattakh. 
staircase, n. derej p. diraj ; spiral — , lulab p. Iwelib. 
stake, n. wated p. owtad ; [at play) rahn p. ruhun. 
stale, a. beyit ; yebis ; stale bread, khibz yebis ; v. n. 

[y^ per.) [of a horse) bibowwil, bowwal. 
stalk, n. se" (sa") p. si"an. 
stall {for cattle), n. ma'alaf. 
stallion, n. fahl p. fuhiil. 
stammer, v. n. btemtim, temtemt, temtim. 
stamp, n. damgha; [postage) bul; wara"it bul p. wara" 

bul; V. a. bidmagh, damaght, dmagh p.p. madmugh. 
stand, V. n. bu"af, u"ift, u"af; stand up, b"um, "umt 

("imt) "urn. 
standard, n. [flag) baira" (beyra"). 
star, n. nejmi p. njuni; shooting star, iiezi". 
starch, n. nisha; v. a. bneshshi, neshshait, neshshi p.p. 

mneshsha. 
start, V. n. bibti'di, btedeyt, bti'di. 
starve, v. n. bmut, mutt min aj-ju'a; v. a. bmowwit, 

mowwatt, mowwit min aj-ju'a. 
state [condition), n. hal; the state of affairs ; al-ahwal; 

[pomp) ihtifel. 
statement, n. khaber p. akhber. 
station, n. mhatta. 
stationary, a. wa"if. 
stationery, n. p. lawezim al-kitebi. 
statistics, n. p. 'idadiyet; ta"wim. 
statue, n. timsel p. temesil. 
stature, n. "ami. 



VOCABULARY. 267 

Stay, V. n. bib"a, bi"it, ib"a; bu"'ud, "a'adt, u"'ud; 

let stay, v. a. bba" "i, ba" "eyt, ba""i; v. n. bdull, 

dalleyt, dull. 
steady, a. rasikh ; scbit. 

steal, V. a. bisru", sara"t, sru" p.p. masru". 
steam, n. bukhar. 

steamer, n. wabur p. waburat; (babor p. baborat). 
steel, n. buled; [for striking fire) "addaha. 
steep, a. {downhill) msallat ; {uphill) we"fi. 
steer, v. a. bdowwir, dowwert, dowwir. 
stench, n. riha keriha. 
step, n. khatwi; [of stairs) dereji p. derajet; steps, n. 

sillum; dercj. 
stern, n. {of a ship) mukhir al-merkeb; a. sarim; "asi. 
stew, n. yakhni. 
steward, n. wekil kharj ; krarji. 
stick, n. 'asa p. 'usi; [small) "adib p. "udben ; v. a. 

blazzi"', lazza"t, lazzi" p.p. mlazza" ; v. n. (31^ per.) 

biyilza" lizi". 
sticky, a. dibi" ; mdebbi". 
stiff, a. [solid) jcniid; {hard) silib; "asi. 
stifle, V, a. bikhnu", khana"t, khnu" p.p. makhnu". 
stifling, a. ti"il. 

still, a. hedi ; ad. kamcn ; b'ad ; m'a zclik. 
stillness, n. sukun; hudu. 
sting, n. Ics'aa; 'a"sa; v. n. (31^ per.) biyils'a, les'a; 

biy'a"as, 'a"as; [of a wasp) biyu"rus, "aras. 
stingy, a. bakhil p. biikhal. 
stink, n. natni; v. n. [y^ per.) biyintin, natan. 
stipulate, v. n. bishturit, shlaratt, shturit. 
stir, V. a. bharrik, harrakt, harrik; v. n. bitaharrak, 
taharrakt, taharrak. 



268 ARABIC MANUAL. 

stirrup, n. rikebi p. rikebet. 

stock, n. {floiver) mentura p. mentur; [of a gun) "anda" 

al-barudi. 
stocking, n. kelsi p. kelset; jrabi p. jrabet. 
stoker, n. wa" "ad. 
stomach, n. me'di. 
stone, n. hajr p. hijar; {of fruit) bezri p. bezr; stone 

cement, hajriyi; {for floors) 'adasi ; {for roofs) zxey^'di. 
stony, a. mehjir. 
stool, n. skemli. 

stoop, V. n. bnikhkh, nakhkhait, nikhkh. 
stop, V. n. bib"a, bi"it, ib"a; v. a. and n. bwa" "if, 

wa" "aft, wa""if; {prevent) bimn'a, men'at, mn'a; stop 

up, V. a. bsidd, seddeyt, sidd p.p. mesdud. 
store, n. {provision) muni; {quantity) kemmiyi; store 

house, hasil; makhzen; {for grain) beyiki p. beweyik; 

store room, beyt al-muni. 
stork, n. lu"lu" p. la"ali". 

storm, n. 'asifi p. 'awasif ; zowba'a (zoba'a) ; {at sea) now. 
story, n. {of a house) taba"a; upper — , fu"ani; 'ulwi j 

lower — , tahteni ; ardiyi ; {tale) hikeyi ; teller of stories, 

hakawati. 
stout, a. jesim; smin p. sman. 
stove, n. uja" p. uja"at. 
straight, a. dughri; in a straight line, rasan; 'ala khatt 

musta"im. 
straightforzvard, a. musta"im. 

strain, v. a. {clarify) bsafifi, safifait, saffi p.p. msaffa. 
strainer, n. misfeyi (misfaiyi). 
strange, a. gharib p. ghureba ; stranger, n. gharib p. 

ghurb. 
strangle, v. a. bikhnu", khana"t, khnu" p.p. makhnu". 



VOCABULARY. 269 

Strap, n. seyr p. siyura. 

straw, n. "cshsh ; chopped strazv, tibn. 

strawberry, n. tut franji (frez). 

stream, n. se"i p. sawc"!. 

street, n. tari" p. tiiru" (tur"at) ; z"a" p. z"a."at. 

strength, n. "uwi. 

strengthen, v. a. b"o\v\vi, "owweyt, "owwi. 

stretch, v. a. bmidd, mcddait, midd p.p. niemdud. 

strict, a. shedid p. .shidad ; sarim; strictly, ad. bi ted"i". 

strike, v. a. bidrub, darabt, drub; {tents) bi'Ta, "al'at, 

i'Ta al-khaimi. 
string, n. khait massis; v. a. {beads, papers etc.) bshikk, 

shckkeyt, shikk p.p. meshkuk. 
strip, n. sha""a p. shi"a"; v. a. {naked) b'arri, 'arrait, 

'arri ; stripped, a. 'ariyen ; {rob) v. a. bshellih, shcllaht, 

shellih; {the leaves of trees) bjimm, jemmeyt, jimm 

p.p. mejmum; bjizz, jezzeyt, jizz p.p. mejzuz. 
stripe, n. "alam p. i"h"im ; striped, a. ma"allam. 
stroll, n. kczdara; v. n. bkezdir, kezdert, kezdir. 
strong, a. met in ; shedid p. shidad; "owi p. "awaiya. 
strop, n. {of a razor) "aish. 
struggle, n. khna"a; v. {fight zvith) bita'arak, ta'arakt, 

m'a; {of animals) v. n. [y^ pei'.) bikhabbit, khabbat. 
stubborn, a. 'anid. 
stucco, n. jefsin (jeb.sin). 
student, n. telmiz p. tclemiz. 
study, n. ders; v. a. bidrus, darast, ch'us. 
stuff, n. {material) "imesh ("imash); v. a. bihshi, hashait, 

hshi p.p. mihshi. 
stumble, v. n. bitd'atir, td'atirt ; {of a liorse) (3>d per.) 

biyit'as, te'is. 
stnudding block, n. hajr 'atcra. 



270 ARABIC INIANUAL. 

Stump {of a tree), n. "urmiyi p. "arami. 

stupid, a. ahma" p. him"in (himu"); belid. 

style, n. zey; [of zvriting) nefes. 

subject, n. 'mowdu'a; {of a state) r'aiyi p. ra'aiya ; 

teb'a. 
subscribe, v. a. bishtirik, shtarakt, shtirik; biktitib, ik- 

tatebt, iktitib. 
subscription, n. iktiteb; ishtirak, 
substance, n. maddi. 

substantive, n. ism p. isma (esami or asemi). 
substitute, n. bedel; v. a. {for) bibdul, bedelt, bdul p.p. 
mebdul (bi); — one thing for another, v. a. bistebdil, 
stebdelt, stebdil. 
subtract, v. a. bitrah, taraht, trah p.p. matruh. 
subtraction, n. tarh. 
succeed, v. n. binjah, nejaht, injah; {come after) v. a. 

bekhlaf, khalaft, khluf. 
success, n. tofi"; nejah. 
successful, a. mwaffa". 
successor, n. khalaf p. khiilefa. 
sucJi as, a. mitl-uh {i.vith pro. suff.). 
snck, V. a. bmuss, massait, muss; bmu"", ma" "ait, 

mu" ". 
sucking, n. mass. 

sudden, a. baghti; faje'i; j-z^^a'^/z/j/, ad. baghteten; faj'aten. 
suet, n. shahm. 

Suez, Sues; Suez canal, kanat as-sues. 
suffer, V. a. bihtimil, ihtamelt, ihtimiL 
suffering, n. alem ; 'azeb. 
sufficient, a. kefi; to be —, v. n. (3rd per.) bikeffi (biyikfi) 

ken kefi. 
sugar, n. sikker; loaf of — , ras sikker; liunp — , sikker 



VOCABULARY. 27 1 

she"af ; moist — , sikkcr nc'im (na'im) ; sugar cane, 

"asab mass ; "asab sikker. 
suggest, V. b'ati, 'atait ('atcyt), 'ati rai (fikr). 
suggestion, n. rai; fikr p. afkar. 
suicide, n. "atl nefs; intihar; to commit — , v. bi"tul 

nefs-i ; bintihir, intahart. 
suit, n. {of clothes) ta"m p. tu"umi; bcdli p. bedlet; 

V. a. [y^ per.) biwcfi", wafa" {and with 'ala) ; bincsib, 

nasib; it suits me, bivvcfi"-ni (bincsib-ni). 
suitable, a. mwcfi"; mnesib. 
suitor, n. talib p. tullab. 
sulphur, n. kebrit. 
Sultan, sultan. 
sum, n, {money) meblagh p. mebeligh ; {arithmetic) 'amcl 

p. a'mel ('ameliyi) ; {sum total) al-mejmu'a. 
summer, the, n. as-saif; to pass the — , v. n. bsaiyyif, 

saiyyeft, saiyyif; summer residence, n. mahall saifiyi. 
summit, n. ras aj-jebel. 
summon, v. a. bistahdir, stahdart, stahdir. 
summons, n. buslit (buslaiyit) ihdar; wara"it jelb. 
sun, n. shems; sun rise, shuru" (tlu'a) ash-shems; suu 

set, ghiyeb (ghurub) ash-shems (al-mughrib). 
Sunday, nahar (yowm) al-had. 
sunstroke, n. darbat shems. 
sup, V. n. bit'ashsha, t'ashshait, t'ashsha. 
superfluous, a. fadli ; ze'id. 

superintendent, n. nazir p. nuzzar; wekil p. wukela. 
supper, n. 'asha. 

suppose, V. n. bzunn, zannait, zunn. 
suppress, v. a. {conceal) bikhfi, khafait, khfi; {restrain) 

bimn'a, men'at, mn'a; {calm) bhammid, hammadt^ 

hammid. 



272 ARABIC MANUAL. 

sure, a. akid ; m'ekkid ; / aui sure, ana mut'ekkid. 

surface, n. sath; wijh p. wujuh. 

surgeon, n. jerrah. 

surname, n. la"ab p. aP'ab. 

surplus, n. fadli ; zod. 

surprice, n. dehshi ; v. a. bidhish, dahesht; {to take un- 

azoares) bibghat, baghatt, bghat ; to be surprised, v. n. 

bit'ajjab, t'ajjebt, t'ajjeb p.p. mut'ajjib. 
surrender, n. teslim; v. a. bsellim, sellemt, sellim p.p. 

msellem. 
surround, v. a. bhowwit, howvvatt, howwit p.p. mhowwat. 
surroiindings, n. jiri ; liis — , jirt-uh. 
suspect, V. bishtibih, ishtabaht, ishtibih (f i) ; bzunn, zan- 

nait, zunn (fi) p.p. maznun fih. 
suspicion, n. shiibha. 
suspicious^ a. (causing suspicion^ meshbuh ; [entertaining 

suspicion) zannan. 
swallow, n. snuni; hejeji; v. a. bibl'a, bel'at, bl'a p.p. 

meblu'a. 
swamp, n. bata". 
szvan, n. ghurnu" p. gharani". 
swear, v. n. bihluf (bihlif) halaft, hluf; bi"sim, "asamt, 

i"sim. 
sweat, n. 'ara"; v. n. be'ara", 'eri"t ('ara"t). 
Sweden, Esuj ; Sivede, esuji. 
sweep, V. a. bkennis, kennest, kennis p.p. mkennas; 

b"ishsh, "ashsheyt, "ishsh. 
sweet, a. hiilu c. ahla f. hihvi ; sweets, n. p. halawiyat. 
sweetheart, n. habibi. 
swell, V. n. buram, warimt. 
swelling, n. waram p. owram. , 

szvift, a. seri'a. 



VOCAIiULARV. 273 

swim, V. n. bisbah, sabaht, sbah. 

swindle, n. ghish; v. a. bt,^hish, ghashait, ghish p.p. 

maghshush. 
swine, n. khanzir p. khnczir. 
siving, n. marjuha; 'anzu"a p. 'anezi"; v. a. bmcrjih, 

mcrjaht, mcrjih; v. n. bitmerjah, tmerjaht. 
Switzerland, Swi.sera; Siviss, a. swisrani. 
szuollen, a. werim ; vvcrmcn. 
swoon, V. n. bighma, ghmit {vide to faint), 
sword, n. seyf p. siyuf; husem p. husemet. 
sycamore, n. jimmezi p. jmaiyiz. 
syllable, n. ma"t'a p. ma"at'i. 
symbol, n. ramz p. rumuz. 
symptom, n. alemi ; {of disease) 'arad p. a'rad. 
syntax, n. 'ilm an-nahu. 
Syria, Suria; Syriayi, a. suri. 
syriiige, n. {medical) hi"ni p. luf 'n ; garden — , trumbi ; 

mreshshi; v. a. {medical) bih"un, ha"ant, hu"un. 
system, n. nazam p. nazamct; tari"a p. turn". 



table, n. towii p. towlet ; table-cloth, ghata towli. 

tablet, n. lowh (loh) p. Iweh. 

tact, n. z6" ; man of tact, sahib z6". 

tail, n. danab p. adneb ; deyl p. dyal. 

tailor, n. khaiyyat. 

take, V. a. bekhud, akhadt, khud (khod) ; — azi'ay, bshil, 

shilt, shil; — off^, bishlah, shalaht, shlah. 
tale, n. hikej'i p. hikaiya; "issa p. "isas. 
talent, n. mowhebi. 

18 



274 



ARABIC jNIANUAL. 



talk, n. haki; v. n. behki, hakait (hakeyt), hki; bitkel- 

1am, tkellamt, tkellam; talk nonsense, bihruf, haraft. 
talkative, to be, v. n. bijrush, jarasht; b'allik, 'allakt; 

a talkative person, a. 'allak. 
tall, a. tawil p. tuwal c. atwal. 

tallow, n. shahm. 

tally [with), v. n. (3^1 per.) bitabi", taba" (m'a or 
'ala). 

talon, n. difr (zifr) p. adfar (azfar). 

tamarisk, n. turfaiya p. turfaiyet c. p. turfi. 

tambourine, n. deff p. dfuf. 

tame, a. elif; juwwi. 

tan, V. a. bidbugh, dabaght, dbugh p.p. madbugh. 

tangle, n. sherbeki; in a tangle, msherbek. 

tank, n. birki p. burak ; bahra; howd (hod) p. ahwad. 

tanner, n. debbegh (debbagh). 

tanyard, n. debbegha. 

tap, n. khanafiyi. 

tape, n. shrit. 

taper, 11. sham'a. 

tapeworm, n. dudi 'arida; dudi wahidi. 

tar, n, "atran. 

tarantula, n. rtaila (kirteyli) p. rtailat. 

tares, n. zewen. 

target, n. nishen; 'alem. 

tariff, n. ta'rifi. 

tarnished, a. mwassakh. 

task, n. shighl (shughl) p. ashghel; 'amel p. a'mel. 

tassel, n. sherrabi p. sherarib ; turra. 

taste, n. t'ami ; v. a. bzu" (bdiV), zu"t (di"t), zu" (du"); 
good taste, n. z6". 

taunt, n. tai'yir v. a. b'aiyyir, 'aiyyert, 'aiyyir. 



VOCABULARY. 275 

tax, n. resm p. rusumct; Iuxl's, mal niiri ; v. a. bckhud, 

akhadt, khud (khod) rcsm (niinj. 
tea, n. shay; strong — , shay ti"il; zveak — , shay khafif; 

tea cup, finjen p. fnejin; tea leaves, vvara" ash-shay; 

tea pot, bri" shay. 
teach, V. a. b'allim, 'allamt, 'allim. 

teacher, n. ma'alHin f. ma'alHrni; mederris f. mcderissi. 
tear, n. dam'a p. dmu'a; shed tears, v. n. bdamm'i, 

damin'at, damm'i. 
tear {rent), n. khiz"; shi""; v. a. bikhzu", khaza"t, 

khzu" p.p. makzu"; bkhazzi", khazza"t, khazzi"' p.p. 

mkhazza"; bshi", sha""eyt, shi"" p.p. mesh"u" ; 

bimzLi", meza"t, mzu" p.p. memzu". 
tease, v. a. biz'cl, za'alt, zu'ul; b'azzib, 'azzebt, 'azzib 

p.p. m'azzab. 
tedious, a. mut'ib; mumill. 
telegrajn, n. tilaghraf. 

telegraph, v. bdu"", da" "ait (da" "eyt) du"" (di" ") ti- 
laghraf; — office, beyt at-tilaghraf; — pole, 'amud 

at-tilaghraf; — zvire, shrit at-tilaghraf. 
telegraphist, n. tilaghrafji. 
telescope, n. nazzara (naddara). 
tell, V. bi"ul (bi"il), "ult ("ilt), "ul ("il) ila. 
temper, n. khul"; tab'a p. atb'a; bad temper n. hama"; 

khul"; good tempered, atb'a-uh leyyini ; tab'a-uh mlih ; 

bad tempered, atb'a-uh shirsi ; khur'uh daiyi" ; hot 

tempered, a. hami"; sahib khul". 
temperature, n. mizen al-harara. 
temple, n. heykel p. hiyekil. 
temporary, a. m\va""at. 
tempt, V. a. bjcrrib, jerrabt, jerrib. 
temptation, n. tijrubi p. tejerib. 



2/6 ARABIC MANUAL. 

tenacious, a. 'anid ; mutmessik, 

tenant, n. muste'jir. 

tendency, n. meyl. 

tender, [offer) n. talab p. talbet cp. matalib a. rikhis; tari. 

tent, n. khaimi p. khiyem (khiyem). 

tepid, a. fetir f. fetri. 

term, n. [delay) middi ; mihli; [condition) shart p. shurut; 

what are your terms, esh matlub-ak ; make terms luith, 

V. a. bsherit (bsharit) sharatt, sherit (sharit). 
terrace, n. sath p. stuh. 
terrible, a. heyil (ha'il); mukhif. 
terrified, a. khaiyif. 
terrify, v. a. bfezz'a, fezz'at, fezz'a; bkhowwif, khow- 

waft, khowwif. 
territory, n. ard. 
terror, n. fez'a; khowf. 

test, n. imtihan ; v. a. bimtihin, imtahant, imtihin. 
testament, n. wasiyi p. owsiyi ; Old Testament, at-towra; 

Neiu Testament, al-injil. 
testimony, n. shehedi. 

tether, n. twali ; v. a. burbut, rabatt 'al at-twali. 
text, n. metn ; khulasa ; [of the bible) mowdu'a. 
than, con. min. 
thank, V. a. bishkur, shakert, shkur; thank yon, kettir 

khair-ak ; eywah ; sellim daiyat-ak [lit. may God 

preserve yonr hands), 
that, pro. haidak f. haidik (hidik); con. ann; in order 

that, hatta (ta). 
thaw, V. n. 31^ per. bidub, dab. 
theatre, n. tiyatro. 
thee, pro. snff. ak f. ik. 
theft, n. sir"a. 



f 



VOCABULARY. • 277 

them, {their), pro. suff. hum (um). 
themselves, pro. zct-lium. 
then, ad. b'adeyn ; sum. 
thence, ad. min hownik. 
theory, n. htliya p. hi'liyat. 

there, ad. hownik (hovvniki); thereabouts, \.^.''v\hdin; there- 
fore, li zelik; bina'-in-'aleyh. 
thermometer, n. mizen al-harara ; termometre. 
they, pro. hum f. hinni ; these, pro. howdi. 
thick, a. smik p. smak c. asmak; tkhin c. athkan; {of 

liquids) khatir c. akhtar; [not clear) m'akur. 
thief, n. haram p. haramiyi; seri" p. surra"; luss p. 

lusus. 
thigh, n. fakhad p. fkhad. 
thimble, n. kishtbcn p. kcshetbin. 
thi)i, a. [of persons) nahif p. nfhafa; [lean) da'if c. ad'af 

p. cla'af; [of paper) ra"i"; [slender) refi'a c. arf a ; 

[liquids) khafif p. khifaf. 
thing, n. shey (shi) p. cshiya ; tilings, n. p. awa'i (avve'i) ; 

ighrad. 
tliink [of), V. biftikir, iftakcrt, iftikir (fi); v. n. bzunn, 

zannait, zunn. 
thirst, n. 'atash. 
thirsty, a. 'atshcn. 
this, pro. haida f. haidi ; (hai). 
thistle, n. hasaki p. hasak. 
thither, ad. ila hownik. 
thorn, n. showki (shoki) p. showk (shok). 
thoroughbred, a. asil; nejib; [of a horse) kehil. 
those, pro. haidolik. 
thou, pro. inta f. inti. 
tliouglit, n. fikr p. afkar. 



2/8 ARABIC MANUAL. 

thoughtful, n. sahib fikr; [considerate] sahib m'aruf. 

thoughtless, a. taiyish. 

thrash, v. a. [grain) bidrus, darast, drus; {beat) bidrub, 

darabt, drub. 
thread, n. khait, khitan. 
threat, n. tahdid p. tahdidat. 
threaten, v. a. bitaheddad, taheddedt, tahedded. 
threshingfioor, n. baider (beyder) p. biyedir. 
threshold, n. 'atabi p. 'ateb. 
throat, n, hal" ; zel'um. 
throne, n. 'arsh p. 'urush ; the patriarch's throne, kirsi 

al-batrak. 
through, pr. fi; throughout, min al-owwel il al-ekhir. 
throw, V. a. bishlah, shalaht, shlah ; bilhush, lahasht, 
Ihush ; birmi, rmait (rmeyt), rmi. 

tlirusli, n. simni p. simnet (simmun). 

thumb, n. behim p. bvvehim; my thumb, behm-i. 

thunder, n. r'ad ; v. n. (31^ per. f.) bitira'id, ra'adet. 

tliunderbolt, n. za"a. 

Tliursday, n. nahar (yowm) al-khamis. 

tlius, ad. haik (heyk). 

tliy, pro, sujf. ak f. ik. 

thyself, pro. zet-ak f. zet-ik. 

tick, n. "radi p. "rad. 

ticket, n. vvara"a p. owra" (wara"). 

tickle, V. a. bzekzik, zekzekt, zekzik. 

tide, n, medd. 

tidy, a. muretteb. 

tie, V. a. burbut, rabatt, urbut p.p. marbut; tie a knot, 
be'"ud, 'a"adt, 'u"ud p.p. m'a"ud. 

tier, n. taba"a. 

tiger, n. nimr p. nimura. 



VOCABULARY. 279 

tight, a. shcdid p. shidad. 

tighten, v. a. bshidd, shcddait, shidd p.p. meshdiid. 

tile, n. "armidi p. "armid ; (glazed) "ishani. 

timber, n. khasheb ; a piece of — , khashbi. 

time, n. wa"t ; zeman ; to be in time for (catch), v. a. 

bhassil, hassalt, hassil ; in time (timely), fi wa"t-uh. 
timid, a. jeben. 
tin, n. tenek. 

tin-opener, n. [key) mifteh ; {knife) sikkin. 
tinder, n. sufen. 
tinker, n. sankari. 
tinsel, n. shrit "assab. 
///, n. ras; taraf. 
tipsy, a. sekran. 

tiptoe, on, ad. 'ala ras asabi'-uh. 
tire, V. a. [y^ per.) biyit'ib, ta'ab. 
tired, a. t'aben. 
tiresome, a. mut'ib. 
tissue paper, n. wara"lcff. 
title, n. la"ab p. al"ab. 

title deed, n. sakk p. skuk; wara"it tabu p. owra". 
tittle tattle, n. la"sh; 'alk. 
toast, n. khibz mhammas; v. (a health) bishrab, shribt, 

shrab sirr (tvitli pro. suff.). 
tobacco, n. tutuii ; dukhkhan ; (for the hubble bubble) 

tinbak. 
to-day, ad. al-yowm (al-yom). 
toe, n. isb'a rijl (ijr) p. asab'i. 
together, ad. sawa; ni'a ba'ad-hum. 
toil, n. kedd ; t'ab. 
token, n. 'alcmi. 
toll, n. baj ; rcsm baj. 



280 ARABIC MANUAL. 

tomato, 11. banadura. 

tomb, n. "abr p. "ubur. 

to-morrow, ad. bukra ; ghadi ; the day after to-morroiv, 

b'ad bukra; b'ad ghadi. 
tongs, n. mel"at. 
tongue, n. lisen p. lisenet. 
tool, n. ali p. alet cp. awe'il ; (eli p. elet). 
too-little, a. "alii ktir. 
too-mucJi, a. ktir; ad. bi ziedi. 
tootJi, n. (front) sinn p. snen; (back) dirs p. diras; 

toothache, waj'a dirs; tooth-pick, miswek; to dratu 

teeth, V. a. bi'Ta, "al'at, i'Ta p.p. ma"lu'a; to stop 

teeth, V. a. bihshi, hashait, hshi p.p. mihshi. 
top, n. ras. 

topsy-turvy, ad. fu"ani tahteni. 
torrent, n. seyl p. siyul. 
tortoise, n. zilhfi p. zlehif. 
torture, n. 'azeb; v. a. b'azzib, 'azzebt, 'azzib p.p. 

m'azzab. 
toss, V. a. bzitt, zetteyt, zitt; v. a. bilhush, lahasht, 

Ihush. 
total, n. mejmu'a; totally, ad. bil-killiyi ; bij-jumli. 
totter, V. n. [y^ per.) biyihtez, ihtaz. 
touch, V. a. bid"ur, da"art, d"ur p.p. med"ur; bmiss, 

massait, miss; bilmus, lamast, Imiis. 
touchstone, n. magnatis. 
touchy, a. hami"; sahib khul". 
tough, a. "asi; yebis. 
tour, n. dowra (dura) ; make a tour, v. n. bdur, durt, 

dur. 
tourist, n. seyih (saiyih) p. suweh (suwah). 
tow, n. mesha"a; v. a. bjurr, jarrait, jurr. 



VOCABULARY. 28 1 

toivards, pr. ila; sowb. 

tozvel, n. manshfi p. mncshif. 

tozoer, n. birj p. abraj. 

town, n. {large) medini p. mudn; {small) bclecl. 

tozonsvian, n. ahl al-bcled ; fellow — , ibn beled. 

toy, n. I'ebi p. lu'ab. 

trace, n. asar (eter) p. asar (atar); {harness) jirrara p. 

jirarat. 
track, n. {road) derb; {trace) asar (eter). 
tract (of land), n. "it 'at ard. 
trade, n. tijara; metjr. 

traffic, n. {movement) 'ubur; {trade) tijara. 
train, n. tren ; babor; {of cattle Is) "itar p. "itarat; v. a. 

btabb'i, tabb'at, tabb'i p.p. mtabb'a; {exercise) bmar- 

rin, marrent, marrin p.p. mmarrin. 
traitor, n. khaiyin p. khaiyinin. 
transact, {business), v. a. b'amil, 'amilt, 'amul ('amcl) 

ash-shighl. 
transfer v. a. bin"ul, na"alt, n"ul p.p. men"ul. 
translate, v. a. bterjim, terjemt, terjim. 
translation, n. terjenii. 
translator, n. terjuman. 
transparent, a. sheffaf. 
transport, v. a. bin"ul, na"alt, n"ul p.p. men"ul; n. 

(freight) nowulun. 
trap, n. masiyadi. 

trappings (of a horse), n. selebend. 
travel, v. n. bsefir, scfert, sefir. 
traveller, n. mscfir p. msefirin; seyih (saiyih) p. suweh 

(suwah). 
tray, n. seniyi (sniyi) p. swcni. 
treachery (treason), n. khiycni. 



282 ARABIC MANUAL. 

tread, n. d'asi ; v. n. {to tread on), v. a. bid'as, da'ast, 

da'as {and with 'ala) p.p. mad' us. 
treadle, n. dosi. 
treasure, n. kenz p. kunuz. 
treasurer, n. amin as-sandu". 
treasury, n. khazini. 

treat, v. a. b'amil, 'amilt, 'annul ('amel). 
treatment, n. m'ameli. 
treaty, n. ma'ahedi. 
tree, n. shajara (sejara) p. ashjar. 
trellis, n. sh'ariyi. 
tremble, v. n. birjif, rjift, rjef. 
trench, n. khenda" p. khnedi". 
tress (of hair), n. jdili p. jede'il. 
trial, n. mahakemi; {test) imtihan; tijrubi; on trial, 'ala 

tijrubi. 
triangle, n. mtellet. 
tribe, n. "abili p. "abe'il; 'ashiri p. 'ashe'ir; {of Israel), 

sibt p. asbat beni Israel. 
tribunal, n. mahkemi p. mhakim ; mejlis. 
tribute, n. jeziyi. 
trick, n. hili p. hiel ; to play a trick on — , v. b'amil, 

'amilt, 'amul ('amel) hili 'ala. 
trifle, n. shi zehid ; it is a mere trifle, ma biyihriz. 
trigger, n. zunberak. 
trinket, n. hiliyi p. hila. 
trip, n. khatra; sefra. 
tripod, n. tlet rijleyn. 
Tripoli, Trablus ash-shem; {in Barbary) Trablus al- 

gharb. 
triumph, n. nasr ; triimiplial arch, "ows an-nasr. 
troop, n. zumra p. zumr; troops, n. p. jnud; 'asker. 



VOCABULARY. 2 S3 

trot, n. rahf; v. n. (31^ per.) biyirhuf, rahaf. 

trouble, n. t'ab; (grief) hizn; to take trouble, v. bc'atini, 

'etenet, c'atini (fi); to give trouble, v. a. bit'ub, ta'ebt, 

tu'ub; bte""il, ta""elt, tc" "il ('ala). 
troublesome, a. mut'ib. 
trough, n. jurn p. jran. 
trousers, n, bantalon. 
trousseau, n. sda"; jihaz. 
trowel, n. mara"a ; lozi. 
truce, n. hidni. 

true, a. sahih ; truly, ad. ha" "an. 
trumpet, n. nefir; bu" p. abwa". 
trumps, n. atu. 
trunk, n. [of a tree) sc" (sa") p. su" (si"an) ; {box) sandu" 

p. snedi". 
trust, V. bittikil, ittakelt, ittikil ('ala); busi", wasa"t(fi); 

b'emmin, emmcnt, emmin (ila) ; on trust, 'al amcni. 
truth, n. sid"; ha" ". 
try, V. a. bjerrib, jerrabt, jerrib. 
tub, n. tusht p. tshut; m'ajen p. ma'ajin. 
tube, n. anbubi p. anabib. 
Tuesday, nahar (yowm) at-tleti. 

tuft, n. (of hair) khusli p. khusl ; (plumage) "unbra. 
tug, n. babor (wabor) jerrar. 
//////, n. khizemi p. khizem. 
tumble, V. n. bu"'a, wa" 'at, u"'a; [slip) be'ater, 'atert, 

'atar. 
tumbler, n. (glass) kibbeyi. 
tumour, n. waram p. owram. 
tune, n. naghmi; v. a. bduzin, dozant, doziii; in tune, 

a. mdozan. 
tunic, n. "amis p. "umsan. 



284 ARABIC MANUAL. 

tunnel, n. tunnell ; "abu. 

turban, n. leffi p. leftet. 

tu7'f, n. n'as. 

Turkey, Turkiya ; beled al-'osmalli ; Turk, Turk p. atrak ; 
turkish, turki. 

turkey, n. dik habesh; turkey-hen, djejit habesh p. djej 
habesh. 

turn, n. dowra (dura); v. n. bdur, durt, dur; v. a. bdow- 
wir, dowwert, dowwir; — back, v. n. birj'a, rj'at 
(rj'et), rj'a (rje'a); v. a. brajj'i, rajj'at, rajj'a; — aside, 
V. n. bhid, hidt, hid; — off, v. a. bsidd, seddeyt, 
sidd p.p. mesdud ; — on, v. a. biftah, fataht, ftah 
p.p. maftuh; — over, v. a. a}id n. bi"lub, "alabt, 
i"lub ; — out, V. a. btall'i, tall'at, tall'i ; v. n. {become), 
{y^ pel*-) bisir, sar; — round, v. n. biltifit, iltefett, 
iltifit; turning round, n. fetli ; turning dervishes, fetlit 
derwish; turning point, n. madar; in turn, ad. bid- 
dowr (dor) ; bin-nowbi (nobi). 

turnip, n. lifti p. lift. 

turpentine, n. zeyt tirbentina. 

turquoise, n. firuz. 

turtle-dove, n. tirghalli p. tirghall. 

tutor, n. ma'allim. 

tweezers, n. mel"ut sh'ara (shoki). 

twice, n. marrateyn. 

twig, n. tarbun p. trabin. 

twilight, n. shefa". 

twifi, n. sha" "it towm p. towm (torn). 

twine, n. khait massis. 

twist, V. a. bitni, teneyt, tni p.p. mitni ; (cord) biftul, 
fatalt, ftul p.p. maftul. 

two-edged, bi haddeyn. 



VOCABULARY. 285 



tyranny, n. ziilum; jowr. 
tyrant, n. zalim p. zullcm. 



u. 



udder, n. dirri. 

jigliness, n. bshe'a; "ubh. 

ugly, a. bish'i f. bish'a; "abih. 

ulcer, n. "arha. 

ultimate, a. niheyi ; ekhir. 

iiltiinatujH, n. belagh resmi. 

tivibrella, n. shemsiyi p. shemesi. 

umpire, n. hakam p. muhakkemin. 

unanijHous, a. muttefi" ; unanimously, ad. bil-ittifa". 

unarmed, p.p. ma msellah ; ad. bila sleh. 

unazvares, ad. 'ala ghafli. 

unbecoming a. (of dress) ma lebi"; (i)nproper} ma leyi". 

unbeliever, n. kefir p. kafara. 

unbind, v. a. bhill, halleyt, hill p.p. mahlul. 

unbounded, ma lull hadd. 

unburied, p.p. ghair (ma) medfun ; (animals') ghair (ma) 
matmum ; ad-bila defn. 

uficertain, a. ghair m'ekked ; p.p. ma mesbut ; {of tem- 
per) a. muta"allib; / am uncertain, ana murteb. 

uncivil, a. khishin ; fazz. 

uncivilised, a. mutawahhish. 

uncle, n. (paternal) 'amm p. 'amem ('amam) ; (maternal) 
khal p. khweli. 

unclean, a. wisikh. 

uncomfortable, a. mut'ib. 



286 ARABIC MANUAL. 

uncovivwn, a. nedir. 

unconcerned, a. ghair miktiris; to be — , v. ma biktiris, 

iktarast (fi). 
unconditional, ad. bila shart. 

uncover, v. a. bikshuf, kesheft, kshuf (kshef) p.p. makshuf. 
U7icidtivated, (land), n. bur. 
uncut, a. sahih; p.p. ma ma"sum; {of grass) p.p. ma 

mahshush. 
undecided, a. muteredded. 
U7ider, pr. taht. 
underground, ad. taht al-ard. 
underliand, ad. min taht H taht. 
underneatJi, pr. taht. 

undersigned, n. al-mumdi; al-wad'i ism-uh. 
understand, v. a. bifham, fahimt, fham p.p. mafhum. 
undertake, v. b"um, "umt ("imt), "urn (bi). 
undertaking, n. meshru'a. 
undesirable, a. ghair meshkur. 
undo, (vide unbind, untie), 
undoubtedly , ad. bidun shubhi (shekk). 
undress (oneself), v. a. bishlah, shalaht, shlah at-tyeb; 

bi'Ta, "al'at, i'Ta at-tyeb; [another) v. a. bshelHh, 

shellaht, shelHh at-tyeb; bi"airi, "all'at, "all'i at-tyeb. 
uneasy, a. meshghul al-bel; fikr-uh mush (mau) murteh. 
unequal, mush (mau) "add ba'ad-hum. 
uneven, mush (mau) sehiH. 
unexampled, ma hih metil (mesil). 
unexpected, a. ghair muntazar. 
unfair a. mush (mau) 'adil. 
unfavourable, a. ma'akis. 
unfinislied, a. mush (mau) khaHs. 
7infit, a. mush (mau) leyi". 



VOCABULARY. 2 87 

unfold (unfurl), v. a. binshur, ncshert, nshur p.p. mcnshur. 

unforseen, a. ghair muntazar. 

unfortunate, a. ta'is; "alii al-bakht. 

unfurnislicd, p.p. ma mafrush. 

ungrateful, a. jehid (jahid) ; nekir aj-jemil. 

unhappy, a. maghmum. 

unharness, v. a. bshellih, shcllaht, shellih; bfikk, fckkait, 

fikk p.p. mafkuk. 
unhealthy, a. mclurr (mdirr) bi sihha ; ha\va-h 'aatil. 
unifonn, n. bedli resmiyi. 
uniformly, ad. 'ala nesa" wehid. 
unlniportant, a. ghair muhimm. 
unintentionally , ad. bila "asd. 
uninterrupted, a. de'im; p.p. ma min"ut'a. 
uninterruptedly, (at one go), ad. ferd sahabi. 
uninvited, ad. bila 'azimi. 
union, n. itihad. 
united, a. muttehid; United States of America, 2\-\x\\-2i\yQt 

al-muttahidi. 
universal, a. 'umumi. 
universe, the, n. al-kown (kon). 
university, n. medresit 'umumiyi. 
unjust, a. mush (mau) 'adil. 
unkind, a. "asi ; mush (mau) hanuni. 
unlazvful, a. mush (mau) jeyiz. 
unleavened, a. ftir. 
unless, con. iza ; ma; low la. 
jinlike, a. mukhtilif. 
unlimited, p.p. ma mahdud. 
unload, v. a. bnezzil, nezzelt, nezzil ('an) ; bhutt, hattait, 

hutt ('an) ; {of ships) bferrigh, ferraght, ferrigh ("an). 
unlocked, p.p. ma ma"ful; ma mda" "r. 



288 ARABIC MANUAL. 

unlucky, a. "alil al-hazz. 

unmarried, a. 'azeb f. 'azba ; [of priests) betul. 

unnatural, a. ghair tabi'i. 

unnecessary, a. mush (mau) lezim (daruri). 

unofficial, a. ghair resmi. 

unpack, v. a. bfaddi, faddait, faddi; bferrigh, ferraght, 

ferrigh. 
unpaid, p.p. ma madfu'a. 
unpleasant, a. mush (mau) murdi. 
unprejtidiced, a. 'adil. 

unprofitable, a. mush (mau) mufid (nef'i). 
unreasonable, a. mush (mau) m'a"ul. 
unripe, a. fejj; p.p. ma mistwi. 
unsafe, a. khutir; muktir. 
unsatisfactory, a. mush (mau) murdi. 
unseemly, 'a. mush (mau) leyi". 
unshod, a. hafi p.p. mhaffa. 
unsound, a. m'aiyub ; mush (mau) sagh. 
unsteady, a. ghair sebit. 
unsuitable, a. mush (mau) mwefi". 
untidy, a. ghair muretteb (mhendam). 
untie, V. a. bfikk, fekkait, fikk p.p. mafkuk. 
witil, con. hatta ma; ilia. 
untimely, ad. mush fi wa"t-uh. 

untouched, a. sahih; p.p. ma memsuk; ma med"ur. 
untrained, a. jeleb; p.p. ma mtabb'a. 
untried, p.p. ma mjerrab. 
untrue, a. ghair sahih. 
iintruth, n. kizbi. 
untrtithful, a. kezzeb. 
tmusual, a. gharib. 
unwell, a. mush (mau) mabsut; 'aiyyen. 



VOCABULARY. 289 

luizuilling, a. mush (mfiu) radian (radi). 

unwillingly, ad. <,dia.sb 'aii-nuh. 

unwise, a. jehil p. juhhel. 

nntoorthy, a. mush (mau) Icyi" (ahl). 

;// to (fit for ), kharj al-maslaha ; lie is not tip to the 

work, mush (mau) kharj al-maslaha. 
uphill, ad. ila fow"; fi trd'a. 

uphold (an opi)iion), v. n. bwcfi", \vafa"t 'ala fd^r-uh. 
upon, pr. 'ala. 
upper, a. fu"ani ; 'uhvi. 
upper luDid, the, n. al-ghalib. 
uppermost, the, n. al-a'ala. 
upright, a. wc"if; dughri; jelis. 

upset, V. a. bi"lub, "alabt, i"lub; [liquids) bkibb, keb- 
beyt, kibb; (fig.) {y^ per.) bi'akker, 'akker; the news 
upset me, al-khaber 'akkcr-ni. 
upside dozen, ad. fu"ani tahteni. 
upstairs, ad. fow". 
Jirge, V. a. bhitt, hattait, hitt; v. bharrij, harrajt, 

harrij ('ala). 
7irgent, a. dirik f. dirki ; mulihh. 
uri)ie, n. bowl. 
us, pro. suff. na. 
usage, n. 'adi ; ist'emcl. 

use, n. nefa ; fe'idi ; v. a. bista'mil, sta'melt, sta'mil p.p. 
musta'mel ; to be of use, v. n. (3rd per.) biyiswa; 
biyinf'a; use up, v. a. bkhallis, khallast, khallis; 
bfaddi, faddait, facldi. 
useful, a. mufid. 
useless, ad. bila fe'idi ; 'abcs. 

usual, a. 'itiyadi ('atiyedi) ; usually, ad. ghaliben. 
usury, n. riba ; faiyiz. 

19 



290 ARABIC MANUAL. 

Utensil, n. we'a (wa'a) p. awe'i. 

utmost, the, a. al-aktar ; to do o)us utjuost, v. a. b'amil, 
'amilt jehd-i; do your utmost, 'amul ('amel) jehd-ak. 



V. 

vacancy, n. fragh ; mahall ferigh. 

vacant, a. fadi ; ferigh. 

vacate, v. a. bfaddi, faddait, faddi ; bferrigh, ferraght, 

ferrigh. 
vaccinate, v. a. bta'im, ta'amt, ta'im. 
vaccination, n. tat'im. 
vagabond, a. battal. 
vague, a. mubhem. 
vain, a. she'if (sha'if) hal-uh ; mu'ijib bi nefs-uh; in vain, 

ad. batilan; 'abes. 
valid, a. sher'i ; sahih. 
valley, n. wedi p. widian. 
valuable, a. temin. 
value, n. temen ; v. a. btemmin, temment, tenimin p.p. 

mtemmen. 
valve, n. birghi. 

vanish, v. n. [y^ per-) bizul, zal. 
vanity, n. butl. 
vapour, n. bukhar. 
variable, a. muta"allib ; mutaghaiyir. 
variety, n. p. shikel; anw'a. 
various, a. mutnoww'i ; mukhtilif. 
varnish, n. vernish. 
vary, v. a. bghaiyir, ghaiyert, ghaiyir; v. n. bitghaiyir, 

tghaiyert. 



VOCABULARY. 29 I 

vase, n. we'a (vva'a) p. awe'i. 

vast, a. fasih ; wes'i. 

vault, n. "abu p. u"bwi ; {tomb) "abr p. "ubur. 

vaulted, a. me"bi. 

veal, n. lahm 'ijl. 

vegetables {vegetatio7i), n. khudra. 

veil, n. mendil p. menedil; xvonians zvhite veil, izar p. 

yizr. 
veiled, p.p. miyezzer; mghatta. 
z'^/;/, n. 'ir" p. 'iru". 
vellii))i, n. ri" ". 
velvet, n. makhmal. 
venerable, a. muhtcram ; wa"ur. 
venerate, v. a. behtirim, ihtaramt, ihtirim. 
vengeance, n. inti"am. 
venison, n. lahm said. 
venom, n. semm. 
venomous, a. msimm; sam. 

ventilate, v. a. bhowwi, howwait, howwi p.p. mhowwa. 
ventilation, n. tehwiyi. 
ventilator, n. nefida p. nawefid. 
venture, n. {cliance) sudfi p. sidaf; fursa p. furas; (risk) 

khatr; mukhatera; v. bkhatir, khatert, khatir (fi). 
Venus, zahra ; {Queen of Beauty) melekit al-husn. 
veranda, n. rwe" p. rwe"at. 
verb, n. f'el p. af'al. 
verbal, a. shifchi ; bil-lisen. 
verbatim, ad. harfi bi harf. 
verdigris, n. jinzar. 
verification, n. tah"i". 
verify, v. a. bha""i", ha" "a"t, ha" "i". 
vermin, n. p. hashrat. 



292 ARABIC MANUAL. 

verse, n. bcyt p. abiyet. 

very, ad. ktir. 

vespers, n. salat al-ghurub. 

vessel, n. we'a (wa'a) p. awe'i ; [sliip) merkeb p. merakib. 

vest, n. "amis 'adi (tahteni). 

vestibule, n. dehliz. 

vestige, n. eter (asar) p. atar (asar); resm. 

vestment, n. bedli p. bedlet; liilli p. hilel. 

veterinary surgeon, n. beytar p. beyatara ; tabib al-kheyl. 

vex, V. a. bkeddir, keddert, keddir. 

vexation, n. keder. 

vibration, n. ihtizez. 

vibrate, v. n. {3rd per.) biyihtez, ihtez. 

vicar, n. ne'ib (na'ib); wekil. 

vice, n. rezeli p. reze'il ; {tool) melzemi. 

viceroy, n. wali (weli). 

vicious, a. razil (rizil) p. arz^l. 

victim, n. ferisi. 

victor, n. ghalib p. ghalibun. 

victory, n. ghaleba ; nasr. 

victuals, n.p. me'kulet. 

view, n. manzar p. manazir ; {opinion) rai v. bitferrij, 

tferrajt, tterraj 'ala. 
vigil, n. beramun. 
vigilance, n. intibeh. 
vigilant, a. nebih. 
vigour, n. "uwi; neshat. 
vigorous, a. "owi p. awaiya; neshit (ni'shit^. 
vile, a. razil (rizil). 
village, n. dai'a (dey'a) p. di'a 
villager, n. fellah p. fellahin. 
villain, a. shcrrir; khabis 



VOCABULARY. 293 

villainy, n. sherr. 

vindictive, a. ha"ud. 

vine, n. 'arishi p. 'arai'ish (ursh); daliyi p. tlauali. 

vinegar, n. khall. 

vineyard, n. kcrni p. kurum. 

vintage, n. "itaf. 

violate {a promise), v. a. bin"ud, na"adt, nu"ud kelem 

p.p. men"ud ; bis-hab, sahabt, is-hab kelem ; {ravish) 

V. a. bifdah, fadaht, p.p. f. mafduha. 
violence, n. shiddi; "uwi. 
violent, a. shi'ris. 

violet, n. bncfsaji p. bnefsaj ; — colour, lown bnefsaji. 
violin, n. kamenja. 
viper, n. af'a p. afe'i. 
virgin, n. bikr p. abkar; 'adra p. 'adara; the holy virgin. 

al-betul. 
virtue, n. fadili. 
virtuous, a. fadil p. afadil. 
visible, a. wadih; zahir. 
visit, n. ziyara p. ziyarat; v. a. bzur, zirt, zur; visit a 

sick person, v. bshi" ", sha""eyt, shi"" ('ala). 
visiting-card, n. \vara"a p. wara". 
visitor, n. zeyir p. zuwwar; [guest) daif (deyf) p. 

diyuf. 
vitriol, n. zaj. 
vizier, n. wczir p. wuzera. 
vocabulary, n. "amis p. "awamis. 
voice, n. sowt p. aswat. 
void, a. khali. 

volcano, n. burkcn p. berakin; jebcl nar. 
volley, n. tala". 
volume, n. mjellad p. mjelladet; (mass) mi"dar. 



294 ARABIC MANUAL. 

iwluntarily, ad. bil-ikhtiyar ; tow'an wa ikhtiyaran. 

voluntary, a. ikhtiyari. 

volunteer, n. mutatow'i. 

vomit, V. a. braj'i, raj'at, raj'a; bintu", nata"t, ntu". 

vote, n. sowt p. aswat; v. n. bsowwit, sowwatt, sowwit. 

voiv, n. nezr; v. n. binzur, nazert, nzur. 

vowel, n. hareki p. hareket. 

voyage, n. sefer p. asfar. 

vulgar, a. derij ; {low) dun ; a vulgar zuoman, mara dun. 

vulture, n. a"ab p. u"ben. 



w. 



wad, n. (cardboard) kartun (karton); (felt) karton libbed ; 
V. a. bihshi, hashait, hashait, hshi p.p. mihshi. 

wadding, n. hashwi. 

wafer, n. birsheni p. birshen. 

wager, n. rahn p. ruhuni. 

wages, n. ujra (I'jra); ma'ash. 

waggon, n. karro p. karrat; tiimberu p. tmabir. (tunber 
p. tnabir. 

wainscot, n. hala"a. 

waist, n. wast; khasr. 

waistcoat, n. sidriyi p. sidari. 

wait, V. n. bisbur, sabert, sbur; wait for, v. a. bintizir, 
intazert, intizir; bintur, natart, ntur; / am waiting 
for you, ana muntizir-ak ; ana natir-ak; zvait iipon 
{serve), v. a. bikhdum (bukhdum), khadamt, khdum. 

^vaiter, n. sufraji. 



VOCABULARY. 295 

wake, V. n. bfi", fi"t, fi"; v. a. bfcyyi", feyya"t fcyyi"; 

bwa' 'i, wa' 'ait, wa' '1. 
tualk, n. shimm al-hawa ; mishwar; v. n. bimshi, mshit, 

mshi; zvalk about, v. a. bmeshshi, mcshshait. mcshshi. 
walking, n. meshi. 
walkingstick, n. 'asa p. 'usi. 
tvall, n. [of a house) hait p. hitan; {of a toiun) sur p. 

as war (swar). 
wallet, n. kis p. kyes; leathern zuallet, jirab. 
zvalnut, n. jowzi p. jowz; walnut-tree, jowzi. 
wander, v. n. bjul, jilt, jul; bdur, durt, dur. 
zoant, n. ihtiyej ; 'azi; v. a. bihtej, ihtajt; b'uz, 'izt. 
war, n. harb p. hurub ; t/iey are at war, 'amm biyita- 

harabu; beyn-hum harb; to declare war, bish-hur, 

shahert, sh-hur al-harb. 
ward, n. "asir p. "ussar. 
w'arder, n. sejjen. 
wardrobe, n. khizenit tyeb. 
warehouse, n. makhzen p. makhazin. 
wares, n. bda'a p. badaiy'i. 
warm, a. {of the body ) dcfien; (places) defi c. adfa ; (^c^i?^/^ 

sukhn ; v. a. bsakhkhin, sakhkhant, sakhkhin p.p. 

msakhkhan. 
warmth, n. defa. 

zvarn, v. n. bnebbih, ncbbeht; ncbbih. 
ivarning, n. tenbih. 

warship, n. merkeb harbi p. merakib harbiyi. 
xvart, n. teluli p. tawalil. 
wash, the^ n. al-ghasil; v. a. bghassil, ghasselt, ghassil; 

V. n. bightisil, ightaselt, ightisil; wash grain, v. a. 

bsowwil, sowwelt, sowwil p.p. msowwal, 
waslierziwman, n. ghasseli. 



296 ARABIC MANUAL. 

ivasJi-Jiouse, n. bcyt al-ghasil, 

zoashing, the, n. al-baiyad. 

zuasp, n. zur"ta (zul"ta) p. zara"it. 

waste, n. israf; b'aza"a; v. a. bib'azi", b'aza"t, b'azi" p.p. 

mb'aza"; {money) bideddir, beddert, beddir; {thmgs) 

bitluf, teleft, tluf p.p. metluf; {time) brovvwih, row- 

vvaht, rowwih; bdaiy'i, daiy'at al-wa"t. 
zuatch, n. se'a p. se'at; v. a. bra"ib, ra"abt, ra"ib; 

(guard) bihrus, harast, hrus. 
watchful, a. muntibih. 
watchman, n. haris p. hurras. 
zvatchtvord, n. sirr al-leyl. 
water, n. mai'; running — , mai jeriyi; stagnant — , mai 

rakdi; drinking — , mai li shirb; fresh — , mai hilvvi ; 

salt — , mai melha ; cold — , mai" berdi ; tepid — , mai 

fetri ; hot — , mai sukhni ; boiling — , mai ghaliyi ; 

spring of water, 'ain p. 'uyun; neb'a; to pass — , 

bibowwil, bowwelt, bowwil. 
zvatercolour, n. lown mai. 
zuaterfall, n. shellel (sheleli). 
watering-pot, n. reshsheshi ; mreshshi. 
waterproof, n. mshemm'a. 
zuaterworks, n. kombaniyit al-mai. 
wave, n. mowji p. amvvej. 
waver, v. n. bitreddad, treddadt. 
zvax, n. sham'a. 
way, n. derb p. drub; tari" p. turu" ; in my way, bi 

derb-i. 
we, pro. nahn (nahna). 
weak, a. da'if p. da'af c. ad'af; 'aiyyen; the weak, 

du'afa. 



VOCABULARY. 297 

weaken, v. a. bda'if, da'aft, da'if; bi"cllil, "allclt, "ellil 

"uvvi. 
weakness, n. du'af. 
zvealtli, n. ghina; scrvvi. 

ivean, v. a. biftum, fatamt, ftumi p.p. maftum. 
zveaning, n. ftami. 

tveapon, n. sleh (slah) p. esliha; a iveapon, "it'a sleh. 
wear, v. a. bilbus, Ibist, ilbiis; wear out, v. a. bihri, 

herait p.p. mihri; v. n. {y^ per.) biyihtiri, ihtara p.p. 

mihtiri. 
zvearisonie, a. mut'ib. 

weary, a. t'aben v. a. {y^ per-) biyit'ib, ta'ab. 
weather, n. ta"s. 

tueathercock, n. duleb (dulab) hawa p. dwelib. 
weave, v. a. bhaiyyik, haiyyekt, haiyyik p.p. mhaiyyak. 
we^ (spiders), n. ncsij al-'ankebut; beyt ar-rtaila. 
weddijig, n. 'urs p. 'aras. 
wedge, n. sfin p. asefin. 
Wednesday , nahar (yowm) al-arb'a. 
tveed, n. 'ushb ('ishb) berri p. asheb berriyi. 
zueek, n. jim'a p. jim'a. 
weep, V. n. bibki, bakit, bki. 
zveigh, V. a. buzin, wezent, uzin p.p. mowzun; it weigJis 

so and so, wazn-uh keza wa keza. 
weight, n. wazn ; {0/ a scale) 'iyar p. 'iyarat. 
ice/come, ad. ahla u sahla; yoti are welcome, anast. 
zvcll, n. bir p. biyara; a. mabsut; ad. taiyib; mlih ; 

well done, ad. aferim ; get well, v. n. bit'afa, ta'afeyt, 

ta'afa; bsuhh, sahhait, suhh. 
well-bred, a. asil; kahail (kahcyl). 
tuell-off, a. meysur. 
zoest, the, n. al-gharb ; western, a. gharbi. 



298 ARABIC MANUAL. 

wet, a. mbellel; v. a. bbiil, bellait (belleyt), bill p.p. 

meblul; to be zvet, binbell, inbelleyt; bitbellel, tbellelt. 
whale, n. hut p. hiten. 
zvharf, n. bunt; zvharfage dues, ardiyi. 
zvhat, pro. esh; shu; zvhatever, eshma; mahma. 
zvheat, n. "amh; hinta. 
wheatmeal, n. tahin. 

wheel, n. duleb (dulab) p. dawelib ; water-wheel, na'ura. 
wheel-barrow, 11. 'ajilit id. 
tvhen, ad. aimtin; aimta (eymta); con. limma; 'indama; 

halma ; wa"t illi ; whenever, ay wa"t ; wa"t illi. 
where, ad. weyn ; feyn ; [ivhither) liweyn (leyn) ; {whence) 

mineyn (min weyn) ; tvhereabouts, weyn ; feyn ; whereas, 

hais (heys) ; li kon ; wherever, weyn ma ; whether or 

not, iza ow la ; keyf ma ken ; 'ala kull hal. 
wliich, inter, pro. esh ; shu ; ay ; which one, ay wehid ; 

eni; relat. pro. illi (halli); whicliever, illi (halli). 
while, con. limma; beynama. 
whip, n. "amshi ; kirbesh. 
whirlpool, n. dowwara; derdur. 
whirkvind, n. zowba'a (zoba'a). 
whisper, n. washwashi ; v. a. bwashwish, washwasht, 

washwish [and with ila). 
whistle, n. sufaira (sufeyra) p. swefir; v. n. bsowfir, 

sowfert, sowfir; bsaffir, saffert, safQr, 
whistling, n. safifir. 
white, a. abyad f. baida (beyda). 
whitezvash, n. tarsh; v. a. butrush, tarasht, trush. 
who (whom), inter, pro. min ; (ivhose) li min ; relat. pro. 

illi (halli); zvhoever, kill min; eymin. 
whole, the, n. al-kill ; a. sahih ; kemil. 
wholesale, n. bey 'a bij-jumH. 



VOCABULARY. 299 

lijJiolcsome, a. suhhi. 

ivhooping cough, n. sheh"a. 

why, ad. Icsh. 

zuick, n. ftili p. fte'il. 

wicked, a. sherrir. 

wickerwork, n. khaizeran ; a. mkhaizeran. 

wide, a. 'arid; wes'i. 

widen, v. a. bwass'a, wass'at, wass'i p.p. mwass'a. 

widow, n. armeli p. aramil; widower, armel. 

luidth, n. 'ard. 

zvife, n. mara; zowji; {inoslcjii) hurmi ; my zvife, mert-i ; 

bint 'amm-i ; hurmt-i. 
wig, n, sh'ar 'aiyeri. 

zvild, a. berri; wild beast, n. wahsh p. wuhush. 
wilderness, n. shol. 
wilful, a. 'anid. 
will, n. khatir; iradi ; {testament) wasiyi ^. 6\y?;\y\; make a 

will, V. bwassi, wassait, wassi ; b'aniil, 'amilt, 'amul wasiyi. 
willing, a. radi; raiyid; God willing, inshallah. 
zvillozu, n. sufsafi p. sufsaf; zveeping zvillow, sufsaf mist-hi. 
zvin, V. a. birbah, rbiht, irbah ; v. n. bfuz, fizt, fuz. 
witid, n. hawa p. ehwiyi ; (strong wind) rih p. rich 

(riah); v. a. (to roll) blifif, leffeyt, lifif p.p. melfuf; 

(a watch) bdowwir, dowwert, dowwir p.p. mdowwer. 
windfall, n. la"iyi. 
zuinditig, a. ma'arwaj ; zoindings (of road or river) leftet 

u 'owjat. 
zvindow, n. shubbek p. shbcbik. 
zi'ine, n. imbid ; khamr. 

zuineglass, n. "adah p. "deh ("dah); kes p. keset. 
zvi)icpress, n. m'asera p. ma'asir. 
zving, n. jcnih (jinih) p. jwenih. 



300 ARABIC MANUAL. 

zvink, n. ghamaz; v. n. bighmuz, ghamazt, ghmuz ; zvink 

at, (overlook) bghudd, ghaddait, ghudd nazr 'an. 
zinnner, n. ribhan ; ghalib p. ghalibun. 
luinnozu, v. a. bderri, derreyt, derri p.p. mderra. 
luinnoiving shovel, n. midraiyi. 
zointer, n. shita; to spend the winter, v. n. bshetti, shet- 

teyt, shetti; tlie season of ivinter, n. shltwiyi. 
zoipe, V. a. bimsah, masaht, msah ; {dry) bnashshif, 

nashshaft, nashshif. 
zoire, n. shrit. 
zvisdoni, n. hikmi. 
zvise, a. 'a"il. 
zuish, n. iradi; v. a. and n. brid, ridt, rid; v. n. bit- 

menna, tmennait, tmeniia. 
zuit, n. zeka (zika). 
zuith, pr. m'a. 
zuithdrazu, v. a. bisterj'i, sterj'at, sterj'i; bis-hab, sahabt, 

is-hab. 
zoither, v. n. (31^ per.) biyidbal, dibil; biyibes, yibis; 

zvithered, debblen ; yebis. 
zuitliers, n. kitf. 
zvitliin, n. juvvwa; pr. dekhil. 
zvithout, pr. bidun; bila (bela); con. bidun ma; [outside) 

n. berra; pr. kherij. 
zvithstand, v. a. b"ewim, "ewamt, "ewim. 
zvitness, n. shehid p. shuhud. 
zvitty, a. zeki (ziki). 
vuolf, n. dib p. diyeb. 

zjuoman, n. mara p. niswen ; hurmi p. harim. 
zjuonib, n. rahm p. arham. 

zuonder, n. 'ajab; zuonder at, v. n. bit'ajjab, t'ajjebt (min). 
zvonderful, a. 'ajib. 



VOCABULARY. 30 1 

ilw'nt, I zvo'nt, ma bcdd-i (bidd-ij; ma brid ; it wo'tit do, 

ma biyiswa; ma biyinfa. 
ivoody n. (for building) khasheb; (for fuel) hatab. 
wood cock, n. djcjit arc! p. djej ard. 
wooden, min khasheb. 
zvool, n. suf p. aswaf. 
word, n. kilmi p. kilmet c.p. kelem; word for word, 

kilmi bi kilmi; /;/ a zi'ord, bi kilmi wehdi ; al-hasil; 

word of command, amr p. awemir ; to give 07ie sword, 

V. n. bu'id, wa'adt, wu'id (wu'ud) ; to keep one sword, 

V. a. behfaz, hafazt, hfaz al-w'ad ; to break one's zvord, 

V. a. biksur, kesert al-w'ad. 
work, n. shighl (shughl); work of art, shighl da"i"; 

hard zvork, shighl sha""; kedd; v. n. bishtighil, 

shtaghalt, shtighil ; at work, meshghul; fi shighl. 
zvorkma)i, n. fe'il (fa'il) p. fa'ali. 
workshop, n. dikken p. dekekin. 
world, the, n. al-'alam ; ad-dunia (ad-di'niyi). 
worm, n. dudi p. dud; susi p. sus. 
zvormeaten, to be, v. n. (31^^ per. bisowwis, sowwas p.p. 

msowwis. 
worry, n. t'ab; "ala" ; v. a. bdajjir, dajjcrt, dajjir. 
worse, a. irda ; the tvorst, al-arda. 
ivorship, n. 'ibcdi. 
wortli, to be, v. n. (3rd per.) biyiswa; ivhat is it zcortJi .- 

shu biyiswa; "add esh "imt-uh. 
worthless, ad. bila "imi. 
worthwhile, to be, v. n. {y^ pei'O biyihriz. 
worthy, a. mustahi" " ; ahl. 
zvonld that, inshallah. 
wound, n. jurh p. juruh (juruha); v. a. bijrah, jeraht, 

jrah p.p. mcjruh; to be wounded, binjerah, injcraht. 



302 ARABIC MANUAL. 

luoven (stuffs), n. p. mensujet. 

zurap (up), V. a. blift", lefifeyt, liff p.p. melfuf. 

ivrappcr, n. lefefi p. lefe'if; ghlef (ghlaf). 

tvreath, n. iklil p. ekelil. 

wrecked, to be, v. n. {■y^ per.) biyinkisir, inkesar. 

wrestle {with), v. n. bsar'i, sar'at, sar'i (m'a). 

ivrestling, n. msara'a. 

zvretched, a. ta'is; meskin. 

zurmkle, n. j'adi p. j'adet. 

wrinkled, p.p. mja'ad. 

lurist, n. resigh, p. arsegh. 

write, V. a. biktub, katabt, ktub p.p. maktub. 

zvriter, n. ketib. 

zuriting, n. kitebi. 

wrong, n. darar p. adrar; v. a. bdurr, darrait, durr, p.p. 
madrur ; to be wronged, bindarr, indarrait ; a. mukhti ; 
yon are zijrong, al-ha"" 'aleyk; inti mukhti; // is 
zvrong, haram; mush jeyiz; this is zvrong, haidi ghalat. 



Y. 

yacht, n. yakht. 

yard, n. [court) dar p. dur; [jiieasure) zer' ; pik (27 inches). 

yarn, n. ghazl. 

vazun (yazvning), n. mtewabi ; v. n. btewab, tewabt, 
tewab. 

year, n. si'ni p. snin ; 'am p. 'awam; the nezv year, sini 
jdidi; nezu years day, ras as-sini ; last year, sint al- 
madi; 'am al-owwel; year by year, sini b'ad sini. 

yearly, a. senewi; ad. senewiyen. 

yeast, n. khamiri. 



VOCABULARY. 303 

yellow, a, asfar f. safra p. sufr. 

yes, ad. (superior to inferior), ey ; eywah ; (inferior to 

superior, and also more politely) n'am ; ey n'am. 
yesterday, ad. imbereh ; tJie day before yesterday, owwelt 

imberch. 
yet, ad, b'ad ; not yet, lissa ma. 
yield, v. n. bikhd'a, khad'at, khd'a ; bsellim, sellemt, 

sellim p.p. mscllem. 
yoke (for oxen), n. nir p. niyara. 
yoti, pro. intum; you (your) pro. suff. kum; polite form 

of address, hadrat-ak. 
yonng, a. zghir p. zghar ; fiti f. fitiyi ; n. [of an animal) 

jeru p. I'jriyi; young man, shebb p. shibben ; j'^/^«^ 

ivoman, sabiyi p. sabaiya. 
yourself, (yourselves), pro. zet-kum. 
youth, n. ftuwa; aiycm as-siba. 



z. 

Zanzibar, zenjcbar. 

zeal, n. ghiri. 

zealous, a. ghaiyur. 

zenith, n. owj. 

zero, n. sifr. 

zest, n. shehiyi. 

zigzag, a, ma'arwaj. 

zinc, n. tutia. 

zodiac, n. minta"at al-buruj ; signs of the zodiac, ■s\-hwxi\]. 

zone, n. minta"a. 



PART III. 
DIALOGUES. 



DIALOGUES. 

(THESE SENTENCES ARE IN THE DAMASCUS DIALECT). 



Ordinary phrases. inukaleuiet. 

Good morning; goodnight, nahr-ak sa'id; leylt-ak sa'idi. 

(nahr-ak sa'id mbarek). 
How are you? goodbye. keyf hal-ak; khatir-ak (bi 

izn-ak) ; m'as-salemi. 
Excuse me, give me that, la t\vakhiz-ni, haida il-li 'ati- 

it is mine. ni yah. 

I cannot understand you, 'ammel tist'ajil u ma li 'am- 
you speak too fast. mel i"dir ifham minnak. 

Please repeat what you said, inkan bt'amil m'aruf t'id illi 

"ilt-uh. 
Please speak slowly. 'amel m'aruf hki 'ala mahl- 

ak. 
Can you talk English, bt'arif tihki inklizi, franscwi. 

French ? 
Write it down please. ktib-ha 'amel m'aruf. 

What do you mean ? I do shu m"anat-ak, ma li fahman 
not know what you say. shu 'ammel t"ui. 



3o8 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



Very well ; thank you. I ; 
much obliged to you. 



I am 



Never mind, it does not 

matter. 
I am very sorry you are 

going (that you went). 
Please tell me your name. 

Where do you live? 
What o'clock is it ? 
When do you leave for 

Damascus ? 
Take care driver; go slowly; 

go faster ; stop. 

Turn to the right, to the left. 
Go on ; wait here till I return. 
Return for me at 1 1 o'clock 

p. m. 
How far is it ? 
Tell him to come and see 

me to-day. 
Tell her not to buy the 

newspaper. 
I told them to tell you that 

I was out. 
Did they tell you to tell 

me that ? 
I told the tailor to make 

me a coat. 



ktir mlih ; kettir khair-ak ; 
ana ktir memnun-ak; (ana 
ghari"t 'a Itaf-ak) lit: I am 
drozvned in your kindness. 

ma biseyl. 

ana ktir z'alen 'ala rewah-ak 

(illi ruht). 
btahubb tkeUif khatir-ak wa 

t"il-li shu ism-ak. 
weyn (feyn) sekin. 
"add esh as-se'a. 
eymta bidd-ak ttsherrif lish- 

sham. 
dir bel-ak ya 'arabaji; mshi 

'ala mahl-ak (su" shwayi 

shwayi); st'ajil; wa" "if. 
'a yemin-ak, 'a shimal-ak. 
su"; ntur hon hatta irj'a. 
rj'a la 'and-i se'a hid'ash 

min 'ashiyi. 
"add esh biyibe'id min hon. 
"ul-luh yiji yishuf-ni al-yom. 

(f.) "uli-la la tishtri aj-jurnel. 

"ilt-il-lum ta y"ulu-lak in-ni 
kintberrat al-beyt (ghaiyib). 
"alu-lak ta t"ul-li heyk. 

"ilit lil-khaiyyat y'amil-li 
saku. 



DIALOGUES. 309 

She told the groom not to "alet lis-sa'is in-nuh la yir- 

ride the horse. keb al-hisan. 

He said you were going to "al in-nak raih lil-kenisi 

church and not to the wa mau lis-su". 

bazaars. 

I am sorry he has gone ana z'alen (zi'ilt) illi rah 

away. (sehr). 

I am glad he has come to ana inbasatt illi ija yishuf-ni. 

see me. 

I wanted to see you yes- kint bidd-i ishuf-ak imberch. 

terday. 

Tell her to tell the cook "ul-la t"ul lil-ashji ta yishwi 

to cook the meat I gave (yitbukh) al-lahm illi 'atait- 

him last night. uh yah imberch min 'as- 

hiyi. 

I beat him well because darabt-uh ktir li kun wa"t 

he did not come when I illi nadaht il-luh ma ija. 

called him. 

I dismissed my servant be- "al'at (shahatt) khiddcm-i 

cause he would not do li kun illi "ilt-il-luh yah 

what I told him. ma kan y'amil-uh. 

If you do not do what I iza kint ma bt'amil illi bi"'il- 

tell you I shall have to lak yah bfettish "ala 

look for some one else. ghair-ak. 

I did not let him go on ma khallait-uh yiscfir. 

the journey. 

I am very late I must go ana t'owwa"t ktir lazim 

home at once. ruh 'al-beyt halla". 

You ought not' to have mil kan lazim tsawi hc\-k 

done so without my leave. bila izn-i. 

I saw the soldiers coming shuft al-'asker jei min al- 

from the barracks. "ishli". 



3IO 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



I heard the military band 

playing in the street. 
When I entered the house 

I smelt a disgusting smell. 
As soon as you have finished 

the work I gave you, 

tell me. 
Directly you arrive go and 

see him. 
I can no longer bear him. 

Close the door which leads 

into the garden. 
I should have been glad to 

have seen you yesterday. 
I hoped you would have 

come last week. 
He was well the last time 

I saw him. 
As soon as he comes send 

him to me. 
I recollected it w^hen it was 

too late. 



sma'at al-'asker 'ammel 
idu" "al-musika fid-derb. 

wa"t illi fitt lil-beyt shem- 
mait riha keriha. 

wa"t illi btkhallis ash-shighl 
illi 'atait-ak yah "il-li. 

owwel ma btusal ruh li 

'and-uh u shiif-uh. 
da" sidr-i min-nuh (min 

ihtimel-uh). 
sekkir al-bab halli biyinfud 

lij-jneyni. 
low kint shuft-ak imbereh 

kint ibkun mabsut. 
t'immelt in-nak kint btiji 

fi jim'at al-madi. 
ekhir marra shuft-uh kan 

taiyib. 
hatta yiji b'at-li yah. 

ftunt fih wa lakin mada 
al-wa"t. 



Travelling by train. 



sefer fil-babor. 



Has the train from Beirut ija al-babor min beyrut. 

arrived ? 

Please tell me when the 'amel m'ardf "il-li eymta 

Damascus train arrives. babor ash-sham byiji. 

It will probably be late to- al-ghalib al-yom biyit' 

day. owwa". 



DIALOGUES. 



311 



When docs the train leave 

for Damascus r 
Every mornini^ at 7 a. ni. 

Where is the station master 

I want to speak to himr 
Where is my place ? 
How many places do you 

require ? 
I am alone. 
I want a first-class ticket 

to — . 
I want a second class ticket 

for my servant. 
What luggage will you take 

with you in the carriage ? 
I will take my bag with me 

and you can put the rest 

in the luggage van. 
Please register my luggage. 
Where do we stop for lunch ? 

What is the name of this 

station ? 
Is this your first visit to 

Syria ? 
No, I have been in Beirut 

before but I have never 

visited the Lebanon. 
The view is very fine. 

Where is Mt. Hermoii r 



cymta al-babor bisafir lish- 

shani. 
kill yom 'ala bukra sc'a 

scb'a "abl ad-dohr. 
fcyn mudir al-mhatta bidd-i 

ihki m'a-uh. 
feyn matrah-i. 
kam matrah bidd-ak. 

ana wahd-i. 

bidd-i i"t'a bil-brimo li — . 

bidd-i wara'Mt sekondo ila 

khadim-i. 
shu m'a-ak hmuli ('afshj. 

m'a-i shanta wa al-ba"i 
btahutt-uh m'a al-'afsh. 

'amel m'aruf sokur-li hmiult-i. 
feyn biwa" "if al-babor lil- 

ghada. 
shu ism hal-mhatta. 

hai owwc! marra jit lis-suria. 

la, ana jit li bey rut "abl 
hal-marra lakin lissa ma 
ruht lil-libnan. 

al manzar hulu (jemil) (be- 
di'a) ktir. 

fcyn jebel ash-sheykh. 



312 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



When do we reach Mallaka ? 
We arrive at 12 and leave 
at 12.30. 

Will you go to Baalbek? 

What is the cost of a car- 
riage to Baalbek from the 
station ? 

1 5 francs ; it is too much, 
I will give you 12. 

I will leave my luggage at 
the station. 

How many hours does it 
take to drive to Baalbek? 

Please drive to the hotel 
Palmyra. 

Take the luggage to my room. 

You have forgotten my box, 
please go and fetch it. 

We will spend the night 
at Baalbek and return 
next day to Mallaka, in 
order to catch the train 
to Damascus. 

The carriage is ready, if 
you want to catch the 
train we must start at 
once (in half an hour). 

Please bring me the bill. 

Can you give me change 
for a lira? 



eymta mniisal lil-m'alla"a. 
mnusal se'a tn'ash franjiyi 

(ad-dohr) wa mnimshi b'ad 

ad-dohr nuss se'a. 
btruh la ba'albek. 
"add esh biakhadii 'al-'ara- 

biyi min al-mhatta la 

ba'albek. 
khamst 'ashar frank ; haida 

ktir ana b'ati-k tn'ash bes. 
ana bitruk hmult-i fil- 

mhatta. 
kam se'a min hon li ba'al- 
bek bil-karrosa. 
'amel m'aruf su li lokanda 

Tidmur. 
khod al-'afsh la udat-i. 
nesit sandii"i ruh dowwir 

'aleyh 'amel m'aruf. 
minnam al-leyli bi ba'albek 

u mnirja teni yom lil- 

m'alla"a hatta nilha" al- 

babor lish-sham. 

al-karrosa hadra inkan bidd- 
ak tilha" at-tren lazim 
mnirkab halla" (b'ad nuss 
se'a). 

'amel m'aruf jib-li "a'imit 
al-hisab. 

bti"dir tisrif li lira. 



DIALOGUES. 313 

You arc too early (too late) bekkirt (t'(ns\\a"tj ktir 'a 

for the train. at-tren. 

I want a carriage for three bidd'i karrosa tis'a tlet 

persons. ashkhas 

Put the luggage in the car- hutt al-'afsh bil-karrosa, 

riage, be quick. st'ajil. 

Arrival at tJic Jiotel. al-zvushl lil-lokanda. 

Can you tell me which is bti"dir tkhabber-ni eni lo- 

the best hotel ? kanda ahsan. 

I want a sitting-room and bidd-i matrah lil-isti"bal wa 

two bed-rooms. matraheyn lil-menami. 

What do you charge a day "add esh bidd-ak 'ala hal- 

for the three rooms? tlet matarih kuU yom. 

Twelve francs a day each bidd-i itn'ashar frank 'ala 

person, including meals. kull wahid kuU yom bi 

ma fill al-akl. 

I will dine in my own room, ana bitghadda bi udt-i. 

Let us have dinner imme- khalli-na nitghadda "awam 

diately wx want to go to bidd-na nam bekkir. 

bed early. 

Light the fire in the sitting- sha'il an-nar bi udat al- 

room. ma" 'ad. 

I want a hot (cold) bath. bidd-i ham mam sukhn (be- 

rid). 

If you take the rooms by arkhas iza kint btakluid 

the month it will be al-uwad bi shahri\-i. 

cheaper. 

The bed is damp, please al-fershi rutbi inkan bt'amil 

change the sheets. m'aruf tghaiyir ash-sha- 

rashif. 



314 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



Call me at five o'clock to- fe}')'i"ni se'a khamsi 'ala 

morrow morning, we want bukra bidd-na ruh ndur 

to visit the bazaars. fis-su". 

I want another pillow, (an- bidd-i mkhaddi teni (hram 

other blanket). teni). 

I want a candle, hot water, bidd-i sham'a, mai sukhni, 

a towel, a lamp. manshfi, dow. 

Ring the bell. di" "aj-jaras. 

Have you cleaned my boots, lamm'atil-li saramit-i, jib 

bring them to me. li yaha. 



]Vith a dragoman. 
Are you a dragoman ? 

What do you charge a day ? 

I charge 6 francs a day. 

Do you recommend this 
man ? 

Yes sir, he is honest and 
intelligent. 

I shall remain here a week. 

I want to visit the bazaars, 
the mosques, the town 
walls and to go for a 
drive in the neighbour- 
hood. 

Damascus is divided into 
three quarters, Moslem, 
Christian, and Jewish. 



vi\i at-terjnuian. 

terjuman inti (terjuman ha- 

drat-ak). 
"add esh btakhud min-ni 

kull yom. 
bidd-i kull yom sitti frankat. 
shu bt'arif 'an haz-zalemi, 

mlih. 
n'am ya sid-i hui amin u 

shatir. 
ana bidd-i ib"a hon jim'a. 
bidd-i dur fis-sia" wa ruh 

'aj-jawem'i wa shiif as- 

swar wa dijr li dura bil 

karrosa hawal al-beled. 

ash-sham ma"sumi li tlet 
harat hara lil-islam wa 
hara lin-nasara wa hara 
lil-yahud. 



DIALOGUES. 



315 



The Christian and Jewish 
quarters are very dirty. 

The streets of Damascus 
are narrow and dark. 

The citadel stands at the 
back of the bazaars. 

The Omeiyad mosque is 
open aril day. 

It is approached by a door 
leading out of the book- 
sellers' bazaar. 

In the centre of the court- 
yard is the fountain. 

The mosque has three mi- 
narets. 

The minaret of the bride, 
of Jesus and the western 
minaret. 

We want to climb the 
western minaret, there is 
a fine view from the 
top. 

We will drive to the gates 
of God and we shall see 
the meydan on the way. 

Saladin's tomb is a hand- 
some building near the 
great mosque. 

The Sinanieh has a cele- 
brated minaret. 



harat an-nasara wal-yahud 

wiskha ktir. 
z"a"at ash-sham daiy"a u 

m'atmi. 
al-"ara hakimi bi "afa as- 

swa". 
aj-jem'i al-amwi bidall tul 

an-nahar maftuh. 
biyinfeth luh min al-bab 

illi bitull 'ala su" bcy'an 

al-kiitub. 
bi wast ad-dar an-nofara. 

aj-jem'i fih tlct mawadin. 

al-wahdi ism-ha mednit al- 
'arus wa at-teniyi mednit 
'isa wa at-telti al-medni 
al-gharbiyi. 

bidd-na nitl'a lil-medni al- 
gharbiyi fi min fo" man- 
zar zarif ktir. 

bidd-na nitl'a bil-karrOsa li 
bawwabt allah wa mnit- 
ferraj bi derb-na 'al al- 
midan. 

fi "abr zarif li salah ad-din 
"iddam aj-jem'i al-amwi. 

fi medni mcsh-hura bij-jemi 
as-sinani\'i. 



3i6 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



The Khan Asad Pasha de- 
serves a visit. 

What is that building, hill, 
street, house ? 

You must be here at 8 to- 
morrow morning. 

Very good, sir, I will be 
punctual. 

Where is the silversmiths', 
saddlers' sweet, shoe-ma- 
kers' bazaar ? 

Where is the straight street? 

Is this the way to the eastern 
gate ? 

The lepers' hospital is out- 
side the eastern gate. 

Where is the English hos- 
pital ? 

On the Aleppo road. 

N.B. (Kassa , the naine of 
a fountain on this road). 

Please take me to the Brit- 
ish Consulate, the railway 
station, the post-office, 
the telegraph-office. 

Is there an English church 

here ? 
Can you tell me where the 

doctor lives? 



khan as'ad basha biyistihi" " 

al-firji. 
shu hal-'amara, hat-tell, haz- 

z"a", hal-beyt. 
bukra 'ala bukra se'a tme- 

niyi franjiyi lazim tkun 

hon. 
'ala ras-i ya sidi bukra se'a 

tmeniyi tamam bkun 

'and-ak. 
feyn su" as-siyagh, assrujiyi, 

su "al-halawiyat, al-kin- 

derjiyi. 
feyn z"a" al-musta"im. 
biyinrah min hon li bab 

ash-shar"i. 
khastakhanit al-ma'atalin 

berrat bab ash-shar"i. 
feyn khastakhanit al-inkli- 

ziyi. 
'ala tari" al-"assa'. 



bitrajja-k in-nak takhud-ni 
ila kunslato al-inkliz, lil- 
mhatta at-tren (as-sikki), 
lil-bosta, la mahall at- 
tilaghraf. 

fi honi kenisi inkliziyi. 

bt'arif feyn beyt al-hakim. 



lUALOGUES. 



J'/ 



Whose house is this ? 
Knock at the door, s^'o in. 
Go straight up the hill. 
The Russian Consulate is 
outside the town. 



H min hal-be)-t. 
du""al-bab u fut ftfaddal). 
tl'a dughri il al-jebel. 
kunslato Rusiya hakimi bcr- 
rat al-beled. 



Post- and Tclcgrapli-office. 



Bosta tea vialuill at- 
tilagliraf. 



When does the post leave 

for England r 
The post leaves dail}' for 

Beirut. 
Letters reach England in 

about ten days. 

When does the English 

mail arrive. 
Once a week. 
Please register this letter 

and give me a receipt. 
Give me twelve 20 para 

stamps (i piastre stamps) 

and five 2 piastre stamps. 

Take these letters to the 
post and stamp them. 

Ask whether the post has 
arrived. 

Are there any letters for 
me r 



eymta al-bosta bitsafir li 

Inkilterra. 
kull }'om fi bosta ila bcyuit. 

al-mektub bidd-uh hikai\-it 
'ashert iyam hatta yu.sal 
li Inkilterra. 

eymta bitusal bostat al- 
inkliz. 

kull jum'a marra. 

kellif khatir-ak sokur li hal- 
mektub wa 'at-ni fih wash 

'ati-ni itn'ashar buli min 
shiyat al-"emeri (min shi- 
yat al-"irsh) wa khamsi 
min bta'at "irsheyn. 

khud hal-meketib 'al-bosta 
wa hutt 'aleyhum al-bul. 

s'el li izakan I'jit al-bosta. 

fi il-li shi meketib. 



3i8 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



Please send this telegram cli""'il-li dakhl-ak hat-tila- 

to Beirut. ghraf li beyrut. 

Can I telegraph in English? be"dir du" "-uh bil-inklizi. 

What is the cost per word ? "add esh bitkellif al-kilmi. 



Presenting a letter of 
introduction. 

Is it far to the house of 

Mr so and so r 
No sir, it will take three 

minutes in a carriage. 
Drive to Mrs so and so's 

house. 
Go and fetch a carriage, 

choose a good one. 
Close the carriage, it is cold. 

C)pen the carriage, it is hot. 
Is Mr so and so (Mrs so 
and so) at home? 

No sir, he is out. 
When will he return ? 
Not before dinner (mid-day). 
Give him this letter and 

my card and tell him I 

will call to-morrow at 

10 a. m. 
Tell him I was sorry to 

find him out {that I could 

not meet him). 



to" dim mektiib tbsiyi. 
be'id beyt al-khowaja fulan. 

la ya sid-i bidd-uh tlet 

da"ayi" bil-karrosa. 
khud-ni li beyt as-sitt fulani. 

ruh jib karrosa wa na" "i-ha 

tkun mliha. 
sekkir al-karrosa ad-diniyi 

berd. 
ftah al-karrosa fi shob. 
al-khowaja fulan biyilta"a 

fi beyt-uh (as-sitt fulani 

bitilta"a fil-beyt. 
la tili'a ila berra (ghaiyib). 
eymta byirj'a. 
ma byirj'a lid-dohr. 
'ati-h hal-mektub wa hal- 

kart u "il-luh bukra se'a 

'ashra franjiyi bitsherrif 

li 'and-uh. 
khabber-uh in-ni tkeddert 

illi ma "edirt ijtim'a fih. 



DIALOGUES. 



319 



Very good. 

Please give him this letter 
and ask if he will see nie. 

How long have you been 

here? 
I arrived the day before 

yesterday ? 
How do you like Damascus? 
It is a very interesting town. 
It is very dusty and very 

hot. 
How long do you propose 

to remain here ? 
I want to make a journey 

to Palmyra. 
Is it possible to drive the 

whole way in a carriage ? 
It will take you five days. 
You should also visit Mt. 

Hermon. 
It will not take you more 

than three days. 
You should see the sunrise 

or sunset from the top 

of the mountain. 
There are some pleasant 

drives in the neighbour- 
hood to Dummar, Sal- 

hiyeh and elsewhere,, 

Damascus is not an unheal- 



taiyib (mlih). 

'amel m'aruf 'ati-h hal mek- 

tub wa shuf inkan be'Vlir 

shuf-uh. 
sar lak zeman jit (eymta 

sherraft. 
sar li yomeyn (tsherrafna 

min ow^welt imbereh). 
inshallah habbeyt ash-sham, 
ash-sham beled muhimmi. 
wiskha ktir u harra ktir. 

"add esh fikr-ak tduU hon. 

bi fikr-i safir la Tidmur. 

bitisal al-karrosa la honik 
(f i derb karrosa la honik). 

bidd-ak khamsit iyam. 

daruri in-nak truh li jebel 
ash-sheykh. 

bi tlet lyam btusal ila honik. 

lazim in-nak tshiif ash-shems 
keyf bititl'a wa keyf bit- 
ghib min ras aj-jebel. 

fi matarih zarifi bi "urb 
ash-sham li shemm al- 
ii a wa mitl dummar was- 
salhiyi wa ghair-uh ghai- 
rat-uh. 

hawa ash-sham bis-seyf mau 



320 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



thy place in summer 
though it is rather hot. 



Most of the foreign resi- 
dents spend the summer 
at Bludan or in the Le- 
banon. 



'atil lakin-ha mishubi (ma 
an-nuh ash-sham fi-ha 
shob bis-seyf hawa-ha mau 
redi). 
aktar al-ajanib biruhu bis- 
seyf ya la bludan yimma 
la libnan. 



Visit to a curiosity shop. ziyara li niaklizen al-antikat. 



I want to purchase a few- 
souvenirs of Damascus. 

Look and see what you 
would like, we have car- 
pets, brassw^ork, silver 
work and inlaid mother- 
of-pearl work. 

You can find some fine 
tiles and silk embroide- 
ries here. 

I want a carved table and 
a few brass trays and 
bowls. 

Please show me a brass 
bowl inlaid with silver. 

This is a very fine one, 
the engraving is well done, 
it has an inscription from 
the Koran. 



bidd-i akhud li kam shaghli 
min ash-sham hatta tib"a 
m'a-i mitl tezkar. 

fi 'and-na sijjad wa nahas 
men"ush wa 'and-na ash- 
ghal fudda u shughl ti- 
ta'im shuf shu bturid. 

biyilta"a fish-sham "ishani 
'aal u shughl titriz (harir 
mtarraz) mu'eteber. 

bidd-i towli meshghuli wa 
kam seniyi nahas wa kam 
tasi ghma". 

'amel m'arijffarrji-ni(arji-ni) 
tasi nahas meshghiil 'aley- 
ha fudda. 

hai 'aal wa na"sh-ha zarif 
wa mahfur 'aleyha kitebi 
min al-kuran ash-sherif. 



DIALOGUES. 



321 



This work is more expen- 
sive than the ordinary 
brass work. 

Most of the brass work is 
done by the Jews. 

The best trays are sent to 
Egypt. 

Tourists prefer to buy cheap 
articles and these are 
made here specially for 
them. 

If you want better work I 
can have it made for you 
but it will cost more. 

Make me a folding tea table 
and a brass tray. 

Can I see it being made ? 

If you will come to my 
workshop to-morrow af- 
ternoon you will see the 
tray being made. 

We first cast the brass in 
a mould and, when the 
bowl is made, we fill it 
with pitch; the design is 
then drawn on the out- 
side and carved with a 
sharp instrument, and 
beaten ont with a ham- 
mer and a nail. 



ash-shughl haida bikellif ak- 

tar min shughl an-nahas 

al-'aadi. 
aktar shughl an-nahas bi- 

sow-uh al-yahud. 
as-sawani al-mliha (al-ahsan 

ma yakun) biyib'atu-ha la 

masr. 
as-suwwah byifadcllu shrai- 

yit al-bda'a ar-rkhi.sa wa 

hai m'amuli minshan-hum 

makhsus. 
izakan bidd-ak shi mlih ana 

b'amil lak lakin bikellif 

aktar. 
'amil li towlit shay bitun- 

tiiwi wa seniyi nahas. 
be"dir shuf-ha u hiyi 'am- 

mel tinshighil. 
iza jit bukra b'ad ad-dohr 

lid-dukken titferrij 'ala 

shughl as-seniyi. 

bil-owwel minsubb an-nahas 
bil-"elib b'adeyn wa"t illi 
bisir tasi mintelli-ha zift 
b'adeyn mniktub 'ale}'ha 
kitebi min berra wa min- 
"ush 'aleyha bi ali haddi 
tkun wa mnihfur 'aleyha 
bil-matra"a u mismar. 



322 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



I want a frame inlaid with bidd-i birwaz mta'am u 

mother-of-pearl and a skemli. 

small table. 

What does this carved chair "add esh al-kursi al-hafir 

cost ? bikellif. 



Residence with a family. 

I want to find a family with 
whom I can pass the 
winter in order to learn 
Arabic. 

Do you want merely to 
have rooms in the house 
or will you take your 
meals with the family ? 

I want to reside among 
them and have my meals 
with them, so that I can 
hear them talk and learn 
the spoken Arabic. 

It is not the custom here 
to receive strangers, our 
habits are very different 
to yours ; it will not be 
comfortable for you. 

It is the only way to learn 
Arabic quickly. 

How am I to find a family ? 

I will enquire among my 
friends with pleasure but 
I fear it will be difficult. 



al-ind'islLi via ''aieli. 

bidd-i la""i li 'ai'eli iskun 
m'a-ha shitwiyi hatta t'al- 
1am 'arabi. 

bidd-ak bes tiskun yimma 
bidd-ak kaman takul m'a- 
ha. 

bidd-i iskun u akul m'a-hum 
hatta ism'a-hum keyf by- 
uhku wa t'allam al-'arabi 
ad-derij. 

ma fi 'adi 'and-na in-na 
ni"bel al-ghurb 'awa'id-na 
ma mitl 'awa'id-kum ma 
tinbusit. 

ma fi ghair hat-tari" hatta 
t'allam 'arabi "awam. 

kif bidd-i la""i 'ai'eli. 

ana bi kull ferah bis'el lak 
sahab-i lakin bzunn in-nuh 
s'ab. 



DIALOGUES. 



323 



I think I know of a house bzunn in-ni b'arif bcyt bi- 

which will suit you, we wati"-ak minruh al-yum 

will call there together b'ad ad-dohr sawa wa 

this afternoon. minzur-uh. 



Interviezv tvith the head 
of a family. 



tn'^abeli in' a raiyis al-aieli. 



Do you understand what I fahmanhadrat-akshu bidd-i. 



require 



I have taken a house which 
is too large for my fa- 
mily, and I can let you 
have two rooms. 

Can I have my meals with 
you? 

Yes, if you are able to eat 
our Arab dishes, you are 
welcome (there is no ob- 
jection). 

I do not mind anything as 
long as the house is clean. 

We have dinner at noon 
and supper at sun-set, 
and you can have coffee 
or anything else you re- 
quire in the morning. 

Those hours suit me very 
well ; what are your terms 
for the month? 

I cannot take less than 200 
francs a month and I shall 



akhadt beyt kbir 'ala 'ai- 
'ilt-i vva be"dir bistaghni 
lak 'an udateyn. 

be"dir bekol u bishrab 

m'a-ak. 
iza bti'"dir tekol min ekel- 

na ahla u sahla (ma fih 

man'i). 

shi li bihimm-ni in-nuh ye- 
kun al-beyt ndif. 

mnitghadda ad-dohr wa 
mnit'ashsha al-miighrib wa 
izakan bturid "ahwi ow 
shi ghair-uh *ala bukra 
minhaddir lak. 

al-wa"t 'aal "add esh btu- 
rid ash-shehr. 

ma be"dir bakhud a"el min 
mite\'n frank kull shehr 



324 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



gain very little (///: /:>/^^?// wa bkun ra'it-ak ktir. 

be treating yon liberally). 

I shall probably remain with al-ghalib bu" 'ud 'and-ak 

you three months. tlet ish-hur. 

I should like to come to iza jit li 'and-ak bukra bi- 

you to-morrow, will every- kun kull shi hadir. 

thing be ready? 



Visit to a barber 



'and al-Jialla". 



Cut my hair; cut it short, "uss il-li sh'ar-i; bidd-i-ha 



Do not cut it very short. 
Leave it long in front and 
cut it short at the sides. 

Give me a brush and a comb. 
Be careful not to cut me. 
Do not put any pomade 

on my hair. 
Wash my head. 
Dry it well or I shall catch 

cold. 
Shave me. 
Give me some hot water, 

soap and a razor and I 

wil shave myself. 
Your razor is blunt, give 

me another. 
Sharpen this razor for me. 



zghir. 
la tzaghghur-uh ktir. 
khalli li yah min "iddam 

tawil wa min 'al aj-jenab 

zaghgher-uh. 
'ati-ni firshaiyi u musht. 
dir bel-ak tijrah-ni. 
ma bidd-i riha taiyibi (dhun). 

ghassil li ras-i. 
neshshif-uh taiyib ahsan ma 

reshshih. 
hh"li. 
'ati-ni shwayit mai sukhni 

u sabuni u mijs u ana 

behli" la hal-i. 
mus-ak mau madi (hadd) 

'ati-ni ghair-uh. 
sinn il-li hal-mus. 



DIALOGUES. 



325 



In tlie cafe. 



fil-'ahiiji. 



Give me a cup of coffee. 

Do you want it with or 
without sugar? 

I prefer Turkish coffee with- 
out sugar. 

How much is it? 

Boy, bring mc a few sweet- 
meats, a glass of water 
and the chess-board. 

Bring mc a narghilch. 

I should Hke aglassofarak 
and a few pistachio nuts. 

Buy me a box of cigarettes, 
third quaHty, and give 
me a box of matches. 

Have you a newspaper? 

The Suria is printed in 
Turkish and Arabic and 
contains all the official 
news. 

I am tired and want to 
return to the hotel, fetch 
me a carriage. 



'ati-ni finjan "ahwi. 

bturid-ha hilwi yimma 
murra. 

bhubb-ha 'osmalliyi bela sik- 
ker. 

"add esh bturid. 

ya walad yib li shwayit hulu 
u kasit mai u hat as-sa- 
taranj. 

bidd-i nefes (arkili). 

bidd-i "adah 'ara" wa shwa- 
yit fistu" (maza). 

shtri li 'elbit sikarat nu- 
mero tleti wa 'ati-ni 'elbit 
shahat. 

fi m'a-ak jeridi. 

jeridit suria bitintib'i bit- 
turki wal-'arabi wa fiha 
kull al-akhbar ar-resmiyi. 

sirt t'aben u bidd-i irj'a 'al 
al-lokanda jib li karrosa. 



The waslierzvonian. 



al-gliasseli. 



How soon can you let me cymta btrijj'a li (awa'i) al- 
have my linen back? baiyad. 



;26 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



I cannot send the shirts be- 
fore Thursday, sir, the 
other things you can have 
tomorrow. 
Very good, but you must 
promise to send them all 
on Thursday evening. 
Here is a list of my things : 
8 shirts. 
7 collars. 
3 pairs of socks. 
12 pocket-handkerchiefs. 
2 pairs of drawers. 
2 undervests. 
6 white ties. 
You must put plenty of 
starch in the shirt fronts. 
(I like the shirts well 
starched). 
How much do you charge? 

20 paras a piece for every- 
thing. 

Dont leave my flannels to 
soak in the water it ma- 
kes them shrink. 

Wash them quickly and 
hang them out to dry. 

Don't put soda in the water. 



ma be"dir b'at lak al-"um- 
san "abl al-khamis wa 
ba"iyit al-awa'i bib'at lak 
yahum bukra. 
ktir mlih lakin bidd-ak tu- 
'id-ni in-nak tib'at-hum 
kull-hum khamis 'ashiyi. 
u hai "a'imit ighrad-i. 
tmen "umsan. 
seb'a "abbat. 
tlet ijwaz jrabet. 
itn'ashar mahremi. 
kalsoneyn. 
"amiseyn 'adi. 
sitt "amtat ra"bi. 
neshshi li al-"umsan ktir 
(bhubb al-"umsan yekun 
nisha-hum ktir). 

"add esh bturid ijra (shu 
btakhud 'aleyhum). 

bidd-i eshrin misriyi 'ala 
kuU "ut'a. 

la tkhalli al-flanella tghubb 
mai ktir ahsan ma tdubb. 

ghassil-hum "awam wa 
nshur-hum hatta yinshufu. 
la tahutt "ili fil-mai. 



DIALOGUES. 



327 



At tJie shoemaker's. 



\jnd al-kiiidcrji. 



Please make me a pair of 
shoes. 

Take my measure. 

These shoes are too tight, 
they hurt my feet. 

Do you want them made 
of black or brown leather ? 

Will you have them to but- 
ton, lace or elastic sides? 

I want high (low) heels and 

thick (thin) soles. 
This pair of boots wants 

mending. 
The soles (heels) are worn 

out. 
Put on a new sole. 
There are nails sticking up, 

knock them down. 
I want a pair of boot-laces 

and a pair of slippers. 



'amel m'ariif 'amil li sir- 

maiyi. 
khod "iyas rijl-i. 
hal-kiindura daiy"a bituj'a 

li rijl-i. 
shu bturid yekun 16n-ha 

soda ow safra. 
bturid sawi lak yaha bi zrar 

ow bi shrit ow bturid-ha 

mugheyt. 
bidd-i k'ab-ha 'aali (wati) 

wa n'al smik (khafif). 
hal-kiindura bidd-a taslih. 

n'al-a (k'ab-a) mihtiri. 

hutt il-la n'al jdid. 

fi mesamir nab"a du" "hum. 

bid-di joz shraiyit lil-kun- 
dura wa shahata. 



At the stationer s. 



^and bey' a al zvara' 



Have you writing paper, 
pens, envelopes, blotting- 
paper, pencils, indiarubber 
and ink? 



'and-ak wara" kitabi wa 
"ilam wa mughallifat wa 
wara" neshshaf wa "ilam 
resas wa mahaivi wa hibr. 



328 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



What size writing paper do 
you require ? 

Show me what you have 
and I will choose. 

I want some larger (smaller) 
paper than this and some 
envelopes to match. 

I will take this, please wrap 
it up in paper for me. 

Is there anything else you 
want ? 

Yes, I want some red seal- 
ing wax and some reed 
pens and Turkish ink. 

In Turkey they use sand 
instead of blotting-paper. 

I want a pocket-book and 

an account-book. 
Have you an almanac ? 
Where shall I send the 

parcel ? 



al-wara" "add esh bidd-ak 

yekun "add-uh. 
arji-ni illi 'and-ak wa ana 

bna" "i. 
bidd-i wara" akbar (azghar) 

min haida wa mughallifat 

'ala "add-um. 
bidd-i hai liff il-li yaha 

kellif khatir-ak. 
bturid shi ghair-uh. 

eywah bidd-i sham'a ahmar 

u "ilam 'arabi wa hibr 

as wad. 
fi belad al-'osmalli bista'- 

melu rami bedel wara" 

an-neshshaf. 
bidd-i jizdan byinhatt bij- 

jeybi wa defter hisab. 
'and-ak riznami. 
liweyn akhud ar-rizmi (al- 

hizmi). 



Travelling. 



as-scfer. 



I want a good dragoman bidd-i terjuman mlih illi 

who knows the road to biy'arif at-tari" la Tidmur. 

Palmyra. 

This man is honest and haz-zalemi amin (hal-insan 

his charges are moderate. taiyib) mau tamma'a. 

What is our best way of mneyn ahsan nruh la Tid- 

going to Palmyra? mur. 



DIALOGUES. 



329 



How much will it cost, we 
are a party of four ? 

You can drive or ride as 
you like. 

It is better to take tents 
with you. 

You should apply to the 
Governor for gendarmes, 
two will be sufiicicnt. 

I am ready to provide hor- 
ses, food and tents for 
all the party. 

We will start as soon as 
you have made all ar- 
rangements. 

The journey will take four 
days. We shall spend the 
first night at Jerud, the 
second at Karyateyn, the 
third at Khan al-lebn and 
reach Palmyra on the 
evening of the fourth day. 

We must ride faster or it 
will be dark before we 
reach the place where we 
are to sleep. 

The horses are tired we 
cannot galop. 

This is where we are to 
spend the night. 



nahna arb'a shu bidd-na 

masruf. 
btahubb truh kiiaiyal wa 

in habbeyt btriih bil-kar- 

rosa (bil-'arabaiyi). 
al-ahsan takhud m'a-ak khi- 

yam. 
al-ahsan in-nak tutlub min 

al-wali in-nuh y'ati-k zab- 

tiyi itneyn zabtiyi bike/- 

fi-k. 
wa ana hadir in-ni "addim 

li kull aj-jema'a al-kheyl 

wa al-akl m'a al-khij-am. 
metama waddabt kull shi 

mnimshi. 

bidd-na arb'at iyam hatta 
nisal minnam owwel leyli 
fi jerud wa at-teni leyli 
bil-'uriateyn telit leyli bi 
khan al-lebn wa rab'i yom 
al-masa mnisal la Tidmur. 

ahsan in-na nist'ajil "abl 
ma tmessi ad-diniyi wa 
ma nla" "i matrah an-nam 

fih. 

al-khe)-l t'abit ma mnc"dir 

ntarid. 
hon bidd-na ninzel (nhow- 

wil). 



330 



ARABIC MANUAL. 



Put the horses in the stable 

and see that they are pro- 
perly fed and attended to. 
Have you a clean room ? 
This is the largest room I 

have but it has no beds. 
We dont want beds, we 

have them with us. 
We are hungry, will you 

prepare us some dinner? 
I can give you a chicken 

and some rice. 
The meat is not cooked 

enough, cook it a little 

more. 
Send me the dragoman as 

soon as he returns. 
There is a great draught, 

block up the windows 

and light the fire. 
Put my bed in this cor- 
ner, the dragoman will 

sleep outside. 
We will start at sun-rise 

tomorrow, see that the 

horses are ready. 
We will have some coffee 

and boiled eggs before 

starting. 
Give a present to the owner 

of the house, he has been 

very obliging. 



hutt al-kheyl fil-yakhur u 
lahiz akl-un u tutmir-un. 

'and-ak uda ndifi. 

hai akbar uwad illi 'and-i 

lakin ma fi-ha firshat. 
ma bidd-na firshat 'and-na. 

je'na bthaddir-na al-ghada. 

bwaddib lak ferruj m'a , 

shwayit riz. 
al-lahmi ma-i mistwiyi sat- 

wi-ha shwayit al-ukhr. 

wa"t il byiji at-terjuman 

b'at li yah. 
fi hawa ktir sidd ash-she- 

bebik wa sha'il an-nar. 

hutt il-li fersht-i bi hal-"urni 
at-terjuman binam berra. 

bukra tlu'a ash-shems bidd- 
na nimshi shuf inkan ad- 
dawab hadra. 

bidd-na "ahwi u beyd mas- 
lu" "abl ma nsafir. 

sahib al-beyt kan ktir latif 
m'a-na 'ati-h ikramiyi. 



DIALOGUES. 



33' 



Saddle the horses. 

Tighten (loosen) the girths. 
This bridle is too small 

change it. 
Does this horse trip at all, 

is he fast, quiet, lame ? 
The horse has lost a shoe 

have him shod. 
I will hold the horse while 

you load the mules. 
Make haste and pack up 

the things, we are late. 
Can we cross the river here ? 
Yes, it is not deep and the 

bridge is some way ofif. 
Call me the headman of 

the village. 
Can you send a man to 

guide us ? 
How far is it to Nebk? 

How many hours shall we 
take to reach Karyateyn 
on horseback? 

The road is very steep, 
narrow and stony. 



wallif 'al al-khcyl f'al ad- 

dawab). 
shidd (hill) al-hizcmct. 
hal-ljam zghir bdil-uh. 

hal-hisan byisk'a shi, rak- 

kid, hadi, 'araj. 
al-hisan hafian min rijl-uh 

al-wahd-i beytir-ha. 
ana bimsik al-hisan wa inti 

hammil al-bghal. 
st'ajil wa dubb al-ighrad 

t'owwa"na. 
mne"dir nu"t'a an-nahr hon. 
n'am mau ghami" wa aj- 

jisr be'id. 
'aiyit li (ndah li) 'ala sheyk 

ad-dey'a. 
bte"dir tib'at m'a-na delil. 

"add esh tib'ed an-ncb" 

min hon. 
kam sa'a bidd-na lil-"uria- 

teyn 'al-kheyl. 

at-tari" sair daiyi" u wa'ir 
u kull-uh tlu'a. 



Shooting. 



as-seyd. 



Which way does the wind mneyn jei al-hawa (al-hawa 
lie ? keyf hakim). 



332 ARABIC MANUAL. 

It is in the North, which al-hawa shimali 'aal 'a as- 

is excellent for sport. seyd. 

It is in the South, the birds al-hawa jenubi wa at-tuyijr 

will now be up in the halla" bitilta"a bij-jebel 

mountains, there will be wa as-seyd 'abes. 

no sport. 

Have you got my cartrid- m'a-ak feshekat-i. 

ges? 

Have you loaded the gun? dakkeyt aj-jift. aj-jift musli. 

the gun is cocked. 

Fetch the dogs. jib al-klab. 

There is a bird on your fi teyr 'a yemin-ak (min 'a 

right (left). I have hit it. shimal-ak). subt-uh. 

I have wounded it. jeraht-uh. 

There is a covey of par- fi ruff hijal bi ras aj-jebel. 

tridges on the top of the 

hill. 

Do you see where they shaiyif-un feyn rahu. 

went ? 

They have gone over the rahu min fo" al-wadi. 

valley. 

Look out, there is a pig tall'a beyn al-'alley" fi 

in the bushes. khanzir. 

Keep the dogs back, dont khalli al-klab wara-na la 

make a noise. tdowwij. 

There he is. Here he is. leyk-uh honik. shahowki-h 

hon. 

Come along. He is wounded mshi ley-na, injerah ma 

he cannot get away. byi"dir yuhrub. 

Give me my knife, cut it's 'ati-ni mus-i, dbah-uh. 

throat. 

All right, I am ready. taiyi'b ana hadir. 



DIALOGUES. 



333 



How many woodcock did 

you get? 
It was too warm, wc could 

get no woodcock, we got 

five quail, a hare and 

three duck. 
We saw a bear but we 

could not get near enough 

to him. 
There are ibex in these hills. 
Take your rifle with you 

in case we see any big 

game. 
They say there are gazelle 

in the neighbourhood. 
Is there any game in that 

plain ? 
The wood is full of game. 
Take the bag back to the 

tent and prepare dinner, 

we shall be back in a 

quarter of an hour. 
I want to cross over to the 

other side of the stream. 
Walk down the mountain 

slowly. 
There is a good spring of 

water at the bottom. 
The water is icy cold (chil- 
ly) wait till the sun gets 

on it before you water 

the horses. 



kam djajit al-ard jibit. 

kan shob ktir ma "edirna 
njib djaj ard, jibna khamsi 
firraiyat arnab u tlet battat. 

shufna dubb lakin ma "edir- 
na n"arrib la nah-uh. 

fi bi hal-jibal wa'al. 

j ib m*a-ak barudt-ak mshcsh- 

khani berki shufna wu- 

hush kbar. 
bi"ulu in-nuh fi han-nawfdii 

fi ghuzlan. 
fi seyd bi haidak as-sahil. 

fi seyd ktir fi hirsh. 
khod al-kis lil-kheymi wa 

haddir al-ghada wa b'ad 

rub'a sa'a mnirj'a. 

bidd-i u"t*a li haidak aj- 

jeneb min an-nahr. 
inzel min aj-jebel 'ala 

mahl-ak. 
fi bi k'ab-uh neb'a mu'e- 

teber ('aal). 
al-mai mjeldi (msa'"a) la 

tis"i ad-dawab "abl mil 

tutl'a ash-shems. 



ERRATA. 



Page 



'3. 

58, 

58. 

97. 

97. 
100, 
103, 
104, 
104, 
107, 
233> 
245. 
317- 



3, 'atshcn 

23, hid'ash „ 

26, vvehid ^ 

1, fow "al-hadd ^ 

2, fow "al-"iycs „ 
7, haniiyit 

21, irwet y, 

2, uda „ 

10, d „ 

29, instinbat „ 
16, telmizp.telemiz„ 

23, serur 

18, 'at-ni , 



sJioiild be 'atshen. 
„ hid'ash. 



, wehid. 

fow" al-hadd. 
fow"" al-"iycs. 
haniyit. 
'irwet. 
uda. 

) P- 

, istinbat. 
telmizp. telemiz. 
, serwi. 
, 'ati-ni. 




58 00778 9513 ( Ol^ 



UCSOUTHERf. 



AA 000 668 329 b 



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