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.' *'• 





co:«8isTiMo or 











Wm. n. ALLEN & Co., 13, WATERLOO PLACE, S.W. 


Loudon :— \Vm. II. Allen & Go., Printers, 13, Watcrioo Place, Pall Mall. S.W. 










There is no occasion to say much in the way of preface to 
the following compilation. It is a species of work that has 
long been very much needed, as we have never had anything 
of the kind in this country adapted for the use of beginners. 
The " Arabic Selections," by the late Mr. E. V. Schalch, are 
liable to objections. The book gives by far too few extracts 
with the requisite vowel-points ; the Vocabulary to it is very 
incorrect and defective ; and lastly, its price has been fixed 
at a ridiculously high figure, considering the very meagre 
quantity of matter given as an equivalent. 

The present work includes all that is in Schalch's Selec- 
tions, correctly printed^ and at least as much more matter 
extracted from other sources. The Vocabulary is propor- 
tionally enlarged, so as to contain more than twice the 
number of words to be found in Schalch's. We have also 
added a few Annotations, chiefly with a view to draw the 
learner's attention to such parts of the Grammar of the 
Arabs as differ from that of our own language. 


In a work of this kind, in which such a multitude of 
vowel-points and other orthographical symbols are employed, 
it is quite probable that a few tyi)ographical errors may have 
escaped the eye unnoticed. I believe, however, that the 
number of such is very small indeed ; and for this unwonted 
degree of accuracy my best thanks are due to Professor 
Francis Johnson, late of the East India College, Hailey- 
bury. That gentleman, with the most disinterested kind- 
ness, examined every one of the proof-sheets as the work 
was passing through the press. 


58, BuBTON Cresobnt, 
17th April, 1864. 



N.B. — ^As a general rule, the words in the following Yocabulary are to be 
looked for under their appropriate triliteral roots. At the same time such 
words as involve a little irregularity, or more strictly speaking, a little 
peculiarity, are given in their appropriate place in the alphabetical order, 
together with a reference to the triliteral root from which they emanate. 
Por example, a mere beginner might feel at a loss where to look for the word 

ffi^ •• 

^LiJl . Well, that word I have given in its regular place together with a 

tif y ^ 

reference both to its root ^^^^ and to the paragraph of my Grammar (re- 
cently published), where its peculiarity is explained. The same remark 

applies to CUJJ;^, (-^^^^U aiid many others. The vowels in Italics, a, 
f, and u, included in parentheses, and appended to each triliteral verbal root, 
indicate respectively the middle vowel of the Aorist Active. Finally, the 
Boman numerals i. ii. in. etc., indicate successively the various formations 
emanating from the primitive root. I have frilly explained in my Grammar, 
§ 122, etc., my reasons for denominating these derivatives from the primitive 
root, EoBMATioNs — not C05 jvgatioks, as they are most stupidly called in most 
works that I have hitherto seen on the subject. 


\ {interr, partick) what? whether? 
(Lat. an f num f) either ; to which 

replies a\ (or) ,* as, /^\ v^ J Jaa? \ 
whether wilt thou do that, or ... ? 

JT for JU race, family, people. 


s^ i 

^T for iLll\ an instrument, a tool. 

Cj\ (for y 1 ) a father ; (in construc- 

tion) wm. ^\ ; gen, ^\ ; ace. bl . 
See Gr. § 66. 

sA (t.) he was eternal ; JjI age, time, 
to come, eternity without end; 

1 Jji eternally, for ever. 







^A leprous ; a leper. 

4jjl (com^. of Cif^) niore or most elo- 
quent ; very eloquent. 

^vja^^i Gt>^^\ i^u5) the 
deviL s 
^\ a son ; ij\ a daughter. See^^. 

^sjl {a, & ».) he rejected, refused, was 
" averse from. 

tUiJl humiliation, abasement, from 
^5 SeeGr. §116, a. 

^^ (».) he came; there passed ; when 
construed with the prepy^^^ it is 

equivalent to "he brought," as^l 

« ** 

c^u^ he came with a book ; t . e. 

he brought a book. 
j\ (f. & u.) he alleged ; he warned or 
reminded ;^\ {pl»j^\) a trace, ves- 
tige ; ^1 (J on his steps or track,after 
him, behind him. 

di\ (a.) he was wicked, he sinned. Jj\ 
sin, iniquity,' ^T a sinner. 

jjUil^ and fern, j^uiil^ two, from ^-ij 




he doubled. 


►1 (w. & ».) he remunerated ;^^1 re- 
muneration, wages, hire; fare. 

J^l (u. & t.) he appointed, fixed a 
term ; J^l a cause, reason ; J^J 

v..^ J on that account ; J^t the 
destined period of life ; fate, death. 


Jy>^ 1 better, best, most excellent. See 

jU^t contempt. See^A>>. 

»x>.i (/«». i/J^>"\ ) one, any one. 

See rt. Ji^. iX>>i the name of 
a mountain near Medina. 

*X>^\ more or most violent; sharper, 
sharpest. See 

f /t^. more or most laudable, 
highly praised, A^mad, a man's 


/x o 

1 very foolish, an egregious fool. 
\ bandy-legged; also a man's 


^\ for 43- W brother. (In construction) 
wow. 4£^1; ffen, .^^; ace, U^l. 


f^^y>-\ and i?^^ (l?/.) brethren; 

<,J.Arw^ for syi^] a sister. See 
Gr. § 66. 

^ ^ "% >. y y ^ 

*X>^1 (tt.) betook; he began -vh. jdr! 
he assumed, he adopted. 

^\ (».) he was last; i.^l he kept 

s X^ 
back, he retarded; r:?^'^ delaying. 


postponing; iv.^u he drawback, 

he delayed; ^^1 (Jm. i^j^^) 

another, other ; ^ I last, final ; 

^S\ -s-i j^ at length, in short; 

/** •.o* 

i-ri^li the world to come; r^\ 

(^/. j^ijl) last, latter. 

cjI (tf.) he was polished, and well- 

informed; c-^Ji good breeding, 
education, polite literature; ^...-ojt 



(/il. *Wl) polite, accompluhed, of 
good education. 
J j1 aar. apoe. of ^^J he knew, qx. 

I*J| (^M.and(HTe.|*J])Adain,thefizBt 
mao. Proper names of foreign origin 
when introduced into Arabic are 
diptotea, like the dngulars of classea 
4thand5Ui. See Or. §§63 and 64. 

|Jj1 {eomp. of jJj j.p.) more or 

most base or vile. 
t^oS (i.) it was copiooB; t. i^o\ he 

paid, performed. 
o1 vhcn, then, at that lime ; i»terj. 

*lo! behold! 

\o\ and t3l j^ When ; then. 

^j1 (a.) be gave ear; he proclaimed 
the hour of prayer; he permitted, 
allowed; lu^ij I beproolaimed, an- 
nounced; iz.^jc.!!i1 he asked leave; 
yjjl permission, leave; ^^jl {pi, 
y^lol) the ear. 
^*^iil (a.) he waa horlv injured; in. 

^■i\ be hnrt, injured; Oy% nox- 
ious, injurioua. 

iojl (/«».^_;1) four; j^jl forty. 

^j1 and fj\ he dated (an epistle or 

book,etc.) ^s(j/.-i^ly) dating, 

a data ; history, annids. 

earth ; land ; a coontry' 
, ^~^Ji (jrf. *--^'jl) B bare. 

aCj\ (^. i_£3^1) a conch; a throne. 
ULJJJjt TU. of t>|^ f.r. be incnased. 
t.i-jjjjl Tu. of l_jj j.r. be de^sed. 

See Or. § 116, a. 
lUjl {pi. of i^li^) camels' halters or 

reins (rt.|*J ?■»■)• 

s-^ si.* 

•Xd) (j)/. J>-i1) a lion; also the name 
of an Arab tribe. 

jJi (t.) he hound, look captive; ^1 
8 ligament, a joint; that by which 
one thing is fiutened to another; a 
rein or bridle; v^ywithbisbridle; 

hence, the whole, entirely; j~it 
hound ; a captive. 

C^A^I (ft.) h^onnied, grieved; i.J-it 

grief, sorrow. 

See j^. 
ujlaname. SeertU-i. 

\Ji\ ^11.) be felt grieved, he was sorry 
' or sad, he regretted. 

ilJbll {pi. cil -iJ-^ from Jm ;.e.) 
intense: strong, violent, powerful. 

^.JjAS eminent, most noble ; also a 

man's name. - 
'?)p.l {pi. of i^«i) things, affairs. 
cULual mf. vu. of ^^ q.v. 

J-1 (m.) it was firmly rooted ; J.*! 
the fonndation or base, root^ origin, 
Bouroe or first principle of anything 

(opposed to f/»); (J*#^ the even- 
ing ; a noble steed. 



^ x ^ o 

Jjc**^! (quadnlit.) h« yanished, dis- 
appeared (m. formation). 

^^^^jsPi. See i^f^ a barbarian, 

more especially a Persian. 
fUac\ inf. HI. of \hf (for^llft j'.v.). 



J^l (f?/. of ^Jlc) diseases, infirmities, 
r • ^l tn/. Till, of -.yi he was 

crooked; wryness, curvature, ob- 

^J Ucl pret of ni. of ^ (q,v.) with 
^ the afiSxed pronoun ' me.' 

^<xci«om^.&«t(^. of j<ic rich, wealthy ; 
richer, more or most wealthy; 

:f Ujil (pi of JjJ from /Ui q.v.) 
lt>J^^l *^® philosopher Plato. 
4^JaAJ 1 Utpers.pL of th. ^Jj 

(^•t?.) with the interrogative \ and 
the particle (^ prefixed. 

%\y^ inf. of ni. of i^^ j'.r. strength- 
ening, etc. 

:tU ylf?/. of 4^y strong, very powerful. 

J^^ See J^ he confirmed. 

J^l («.) he ate ; imp. J^ ; J^U eat- 
ing ; J^\ whatever is eaten, food. 

<U^\ blind from one's birth. See <U^ . 

JT (see rt. Jjl) fiimily, race, etc. 

' Jl the definitearticle The, indeclinable. 

^ i\ verily, be assured ; ll\ for ) ^\ that 

not; X^ for X ^\ (*» non or nw») 
if not, unless, except. 

i\ (a.) he was deficient, he fiuled; 


ni.^1 he swore, he vowed jSLlJl 
an oath, a vow. 

.-i'Ull (pi. of l2J) hearts, intellects. 



4^*i!l (f?/. ^^ jJl) he who, him whom. 

^UiJl (^/. of ^UJ) tongues; languages. 
<U t a tool, an instrument, implement. 
Li] \ (a.) he frequented, resided in ; 

P foyi* / y^C% 

f^jSU}] ^^^ the land we live in, 


home; uJll a thousand. 

1!J (a.) he was in pain; ^1 pain- 
ful, grievous. 

dl (a.) he adored, worshipped; <Jd! 


a god, a divinity ; <)d)l the God, the 
true God; JUj <)dJl God the Most 

High ; ^\ (in prayer) God ! 
jJl (j?r<3?.) to, towards, up to. 


II a mother; jJ^l i*l the mother of 

children; a law-term applied to 
the female slave who has borne 
children to her master. 

^Ox ,^, 

Ul but, yet; J^ ul but after; a 
form used by the Arabs in letter- 
writing, signifyiug "these things 
being premised." 

U\ either, both. 

j«ul a chief, generally means a chief 

priest, Imaum; a sovereign ;l;q 
the Office or dignity of chief priest. 


j^\ (u.) he ordered, commanded; v. 




jy\y he determinedi resolved; yn. 

j^^!^ he submitted, obeyed; j^i 
an affidr, subject; an order, com- 

mand; j^ {pi. ^y«i) a com- 

mander ; a prince ; y^y^y^\ ji^\ 
commander of the faithful (a title 
assumed by the Caliphs). 

^i or ^1 a man ; * j^l ft woman 
(rt. ^^ q,v.) 

yjt^ the day before; \j»t^\i yester- 

(^^^ go, march ; imp. of l<^ ^^v* 
J^i and J^i hope, expectation. 
^] he confided, he trusted; ^i (a.) 

he was secure, safe; ni. ^1 he 
made safe or certain ; he beHeved ; 

^y a true believer; ^J^ safety, 

j^l time; ^\ now, at present. 

•* f o , , «* 

j^i that, to the end that; jji^ if; jji 

and <0 ) because, smce ; ^^ and tj\ 

indeed, truly; Uj\ certainly; it is 
only this. 

Ui [y%ipeTi. pron, eotn.) I. 

»^ — 

f U\ (^/. aJT) a vessel, a cup. 

1 {2nd pers. pron. maso.) thou; 
0».) l;^U 


/♦ui^l (from mAj) revenge, retaliation. 

^^\ (a.) he became familiar ; ni. he 
associated with, he made friendship ; 

s V 

^j»*j\ the human race, mankind; 

S .^ i^. 

^w^ a human being (as opposed 

to a brute) ; {pi. ^\j\ gm^rally 
contracted into (jmU) 

ij\ {a.) he disdained, scorned; nc. 

he renewed; it recom- 
menced; u-iJl the nose. 

S 9%fl S f-t^ 

^jM\ {pl. ot^jtiJo) souls; selves. 

^Vj^^yl name of a Persian king of 

the Sassanian dynasty who reigned 
in the sixth century of our ssra; 
he was famed for his justice. 


^ \ and V. ^ \tj he delayed, tarried, or 

lingered (by the way); ^J^\ tardi- 
ness, slowness. 

S ixO, 


r^\j\ {pl. of c^^U) teeth, especially 
those of a dog ; canine teeth. 

LjJ {pl. of ?U1) vases, vessels. 

JAI («. & f.) he married; jJaI 
people ; a person ; a master, lord ; 

i1jJ\ jjjbl people of the house, 
domestics, attendants. 

X ^ x- \i 

3^1 or JT (w.) he returned ; jT a 
family, race, people ; Jjl first; the 
beginning. Djl firstly. 

•1 conj, or, either, whether. 

X / ^ X -; 

l«XaS^1 (^^. of cInJj) demonst. pron. 

those. Bee Gr. § 85. 

cil that is to say; id est; i^\ {pron. 
com. gen.) whosoever, whichsoever; 






interrog, who? which? mSJ\ which 
of you ? 

LI and \i\ (a pleonastio particle pre- 
fixed to pronouns of every gender 

and person) \ as ^\i\ I, or me ; 

cL^Cl ^^^» ^' ^®®> ®^' » ^*^?l 
take care, be on your guard ; con- 

strued with ^j^ orj. 
i»bi (^^. of i*^J days; times, seasons. 

<0l (|?Z. CL^bl) a sign; a miracle; 
a verse of the Kuran. 

^jt*j\ (a.) he despaired. 

y^oA likewisOi also ; the same, ditto. 

^Jb\ (comp. and sup, of jj-a>) more or 
most certain, truer, truest; quite 


\^1 or ^JA {pi. ^Jo\) a stag; a 

species of mountain goat, chamois, 

s ,^ 

^U5^ faith, religion. See ^j^l. 
^j where? whither? ^\ ^ whence? 
\^\ {interf.) ! hear ! listen ! 
j^\^\ (Persian ^^^.^) a palace. 

-> («»«tf/7. i?r^.) in, to ; by, with. 
See Gr. § 178. 


jb (a.) he dug a well; Ju a well. 
J;b a cold. See J^. 


^ . > -^ •• 


X •#' 

cb for w^ (t.) he sold; also he bought; 

he trafficked, 
^u for ^ (t.) it was manifest, dear, 

or evident; i.^^ he made manifest, 
shewed, or declared. 

(jM^ for (jmu (tt.) he was courageous ; 

^^yuJJ (a.) he was miserable; /^b 
valour, ardour, force, violence. 

^ S 9 9 S. ^ 

7 {pLj^s^ and ilfliC) the sea. 

iC(«.)it exhaled;J^ (i?Z.(l^\jjic) 

perfome, fumigation; j\^ exhala- 
tion, fume, steam, vapour. 

jic avarice; 3-^ {pi ^l^) avari- 
cious ; a miser. 

Jj (fi.) he separated, disjoined; JJuJ 
being dispersed, being scattered; 

Jj separation, avoidance ; Jj i) there 
is no avoidance or escape, it must be. 

iJj (a.) he began, commenced; in. 
ijji he produced, he created; he 


shewed ; vii. 1 Jcji he commenced, 

began; ^jj and •t\j beginning, 

drigin; fiJojl a commencement 
jSi {u.) he hastened, he anticipated; 
n. jJb he hastened to perform 

(anything for another); iii.jJjI 
he did (anything) when the moon 

Soy "^N^^^i^'' 

was full ; J Jj the full moon; v^ jLmi 
haste, precipitation. 
Jjj {a,) and i. J JJ he changed, ex- 

D-^y jr. cy 

JJ and Jj Juj substi- 
tution, permutation, exchange. 





S ^^ 

^Jj (fi.) he was corpulent; ^^JJ (f?^. 

J^IjjI) the body; strictly speaking, 
it means the trunk, independent of 
the head and feet. 

J jj (». & tf.) he bestowed, expended, 

lavished, squandered. 
J («.) for^ he was just, virtuous; 




J dry land, earth (as opposed to^acT 
^*^)» jL^' Gp^Oj^^ righteous, holy 

men; <U j the country, the open 

plain, a desert; c5^ of or belong- 
ing to the desert. 
|j (a.) he recovered from sickness; 

he was cured; niN^i he cured, 
healed, or restored to health. 

dji (tt.) it was cold; J^ the cold; 

J;y cold; Jo^ a couner, post. 

garden, a pleasure-ground ; ^^^^^, 
a gardener, a florist. 

Iomj (tt.) he expanded, stretched out, 

it was wide ; tuj a cushion, car- 

pet, rug, or mat; anything spread 
out for a seat. 

^«mj (t.) and IV. ^»«uuo he smiled. 
^^ (fi.) and i*^;^ he announced 
glad tidings, he greeted; ^juLj a 
human being, man. 
j>ay (tt.) he saw, he beheld ; j»ai {pi, 

jU^l) the eyesight, the ejeij^ 

a seer, one possessed of sight; ij^^ 
inward perception, penetration. '*'' ' 

y» ^^ 

^ o^ 

ij (a.) he cut off (a portion) ; <U*i^ 

X ."• 

X ^y 

^ y ^ 

a piece, a morsel. . 

J^* (a.) he cast down, felled; vi. 

^**^2 he fell prostrate. 
messenger^NJ^ a file. ^ <\^^ (^.^ ^e was mirthful, he bore him- 

'y S^^y 

self haughtily or insolently; iii. 
Jai\ he annoyed, made insolent. 

Jkj (tt.) it was abortive, void, of no 

y ^ y 

effect; i. Jlaj he abolished, caused to 
cease, made void. 

^Joj (fi.) it was hid, it lay concealed ; 

cr^ C/'^- U^) *^® ^®^^y» interior. 

J (a.) he sent; he raised (from 
the dead). 

kX« (fi.) he was remote, distant ; rv. 

<>A^ and V. «\£W he went to a 

distance, he withdrew ; Juu after ; 

x^ far, distant; Juu distance. 

^^ (i«.) it glittered, it shone; ^^ 

S 9 9 

{pl. fjjfji) lightning, the thunder- 

bolt; (j^,A an ewer, a water-jug; 

^^^ILdf a rich silken robe, brocade. 

cjT^ (u.) he stood firm ; he kneeled, 

bent the knee; ii. c^u he blessed; 

t«5^U^ blest, prosperous, thriving. 

c^^j the name of a noble family 
who flourished at Baghdad under 
the caliphate of Harunu-r-Rashid ; 

yj^ji belonging to the Barmaki 
family ; a Barmecide. 
j^uuaJ (from the Persian ^tu-jy) a 


y »y 




s o^ 


^JaM {pi. uo\m\) a certain one, some 

one; ^^, and (noonof unity) 6^fo^ 
a small fly, gnat, mosquito. 

Ji Jl^ the city of Baghdad, vulgarly 
called Bagdat. 

^jibx{ (tf.) he was hateful, he hated; 

S ^9 

^joki hatred, maliciousness. 
Jju (^Z. J w) a mule. 

^^ju (t.)he transgressed, he sought ; 

vi. i<«f3l it was desired; it was 

^ * X ^ ^^ • • 

meet, it behoved ;^^^ injustice, 

mutiny, rebellion. 
sj (pi. j^ ) an ox, (collectively) 

cattle; 2rJb a cow. 

^«AJ («.) he remained; iii. ^a^i he 
caused to remain; he preserved, 
saved; iw duration, continuation. 

^ »^ 


Sj (fi.) he rose at dawn, he did (any- 
thing) betimes; J^ (^Z. jl^l) a 


virgin; j/^ the time of dawn, 

^ S 99 

morning f^^, hastening, a doing 
of anything betimes, diligence. 

^Jj («.) he wept ; v. l/ w he was 
moved to tears, he joined (others) 
in weeping ; i\^ weeping. 

Jj but, yet; h without. 

Jj (w.) he wet or moistened. 

jjj he sojourned, he abode ; he was 
stupid ; jJj and f jL {pL jL) a 

country, district ; a town ; Jub 
stupid, stolid, dull, obtuse. 

^ (a.) he swallowed. 

^ (tt.) he reached, attained; came; 
(used impersonally) it came to one's 

knowledge; 4)b that which comes 
or is brought to any one; w«b 

S 99 k*"'» 

fluent, eloquent; ^^ maturity, 

^^tbhewassiUy; ^lfoolish,a simpleton. 
L for yj (tf.) he tried, he tempted, ho 
afflicted; vn. jJ^\ he was involved 

in trouble, he suffered adversity ; ^L 
proof, experience; evil, trouble, ad- 

versity ; <^b an experiment, trial ; 
also sorrow, affliction by which men 

X ^ 

are tried ; ^^ yes, verily. 

I XX •* 9 

uj (».) he built, founded; ^ (for 

9^y «? O "^^XX 

^P a son; l::^ (for ir^) a 

S O. «» XX 

daughter ; ^^ (for ^) a son (jpZ. 

^ 9^ XX 

^^ oJ;. CM* ^j-^) ; (in construc- 

, ^^ X «* X# 

tion) ^ and ^-iJ ; ^ {dimtn,) a 

V <J X/ .X 

little son;V^ b my (dear) 
little son ; f uj a builder, an archi- 

• S m. S 

^^ > ijV^ building pijiJ or^^ 


an edifice. 

V xxxo 

""^^ (fl>) and vn. V^l he was glad 
or delighted. 

I ''■' XXX 

l^ for^ (fi.) it was beautiful, it shone; 

^^ X 

^ beautiful, good, fair. 

<U^ (j?^. ^\^) a beast of burden; 
a brute ; an animal. 



S ix 

S .^c. 

->U {pi. Lj\yi\) a door, a gate; a 

chapter; S^V^l c-^V ^^ S^^ o^ 
gates; tJie name given by the Arabs 
to the strait called Ported Caspiao 

by the Eoxnans, and Jcj;*^ by the 
Persians ; between the Caspian Sea 
and Moiint Caucasus. 

(li^U for lL^^ (a. & t.) he abode dur- 
ing the night, he passed the night; 

Li^ {pi. ^^jt^j a house, a tent; 

(pi, cii'wl) a verse or couplet. 
(jM#b (from the Persian ^jj) he 

kissed, embraced ; (j^y a kiss, 
u^ V ^^^ u^ (♦•) it was white f\:L^\) 
\ (thehen,etc.) laid eggs; ^jouj white-, 

ness; ^\ {pi. Jaj) white; 
i% an egg. 
cb for «1^ (».) he sold ; vn. he pur- 

S o^ 

chased j^^ act of selling; 

^b (fi. & t.) it appeared ; it was dear 
and distinct; i. ^^J he elucidated, 

he explained, related ; iii>^bY he 

revealed, manifested ; iv. ^j^ it 

was evident; it appeared; ^^ 
between, among, in the midst of; 

u^ and U^ whilst; ^uj expla- 
nation, relation, eloquence, expres- 

sion; ^U^ anything manifest and 
clear, convincing; demonstration; 
^^^:*<^ manifest, dear. 

jb and IjQ a time, a turn ; once, one 
time ; ij^ at one time, one while. 



x» • 


''^ < 

aIj (•.)hehadatwin; |%ly (*<.^ol^|>^) 
a twin, twins. 
J> (a.) and vn. ^^l he followed; 

;15 a follower, a sectary. 

jT;-J straw, hay, fodder. 
sT (fi.) he traded, trafficked ; j>'\i 
{fl, j\af* and jlaT) a merchant, 

a trader ; ^j\sfl commerce, traffic, 

z.'^ssr {prep,) under, beneath. 

^^ (a.) it was earthy; ijji soil, 

earth, clay ; c—^y (jp^. ^jb^ and 
ib^i) dust, soil, earth. 

A£>y quadrU. he translated from one 

language into another; (^U>-^, 

j^U>^ , or ^U>-y an mterpreter, 

or as he is vulgarly called, a drago- 
man, or drogueman. 

CJ^ (tf.) he left, abandoned; he made 
or deemed. 

(ma90. <UmJ) nme. 

(a.) he was fatigued; (^ 



s ^^ 

fatigue, labour, pain ; ij V^ wearied, 


^jAj nature ; skilful, perfect ; Bi. ^^\ 
he perfected ; ho made skilfully and 



(.3-^ (dem, pron. fern,) that, -^f 
P («.) it was complete, concluded; 

^Uj the whole, completion. 
(iJj for cl>y (u.) he turned back, 

reformed, repented; he changed; 

!• L^y he caused to repent or 

^jlyi (rt jJ^ q.v.) delay, slowness. 

::^ (ti.) it was firm, it remained, 
was permanent; l::.^u firm, fixed. 

J;^ (^^^^ti;^^) * dragon, a large 

species of serpent. 

^ ^ ^^ 

(jpj, (J^Uj) a fox. 

"^ {P^*j^) ft ro^ of teeth. 
ih confiding, trusting (rt. 4^^)* 
Jaj (fi.) he was heavy; Jju weight, 
heaviness; J^ heavy; grievous. 
cL>)U {maso.) iJ)l5 three ; uiJJ a third. 
^ (w,) it snowed; "^ (f?^. ^jIj) 

snow ; ^15 -r^ heavy, thick snow. 

O ^, 

^ and w::^v«j then, afterwards. 

jAi it was fruitful; J^andJ^(jpt 



jUj, j^, and J Uji) fruit; hj^ 
a single fruit. 


j^Uj for jJ Uj (fwwtf. ioUJ) eight ; 

j^yUi eighty; ^ price. 
^ («.) ho bent; he doubled; ^^15 

second; Suil the midst; the middle; 
^llSl^ (/wi. ^tiJp two. 

i^\i for c«3y (ti.) he turned, changed ; 

c^^ (j7^^^w andV'lP^ clothes) a 

coat, a garmeni?^\-^ly reward (in 
a future state) for good works done 
in this life. 

|A « ''^i 

jU for^y (w.) it was stirred up (dust, 

anger, a tumult,etc.) ; jy (^/. ^];-5) 
a bull ; frenzy, madness ; a fool. 


:: 9 

S «x 

yy y 

y^^ (l?Z. c->U>") a draw-well, a 
pit, a cistern. 
^ (ti.) he bound together, re-united; 

jLcf- powerful, haughty; a tyrant. 
^ y • 
J.fC>- (tf. & t.) he formed, created; 

J-^ (jP?. J wj-) ft mountain. 

«x>" (».) he was great, powerfrd; it was 

new : i. J4X>- he made new or reno- 

vated; O^J^ new; i*X5f- violently, 

>- («.) he drew, dragged. 
>- (a.) he wounded, tore up; ^ji^ 

birds or beasts of prey; 'Apr ft 
surgeon, a phlebotomist. 

y y y 



X ^ ^ 

JjS^ (i«.) he took away, stripped off; i. 

J^ he caused to be pulled off (his 
clothes; he unsheathed (his sword); 

J]^ (collective), i^]/^ (noun of 
unity) a locust. 

\^)^ (j?//^ 1 J^ ) a species of field-rat. 

^2/r ft^^^dl© (especially of hay, grass, 
or fii'ewood). 

i^> (t.) it flowed; it came to pass, oc- 


curred; ijj^ (j>l ^j\^) a girl, 

a female slave; j\i- flowing (water) ; 

^j>- running U race;. 

^^^ (t.) he slaughtered; j|^ a 
butcher (especially of camels). 

\y>' he recompensed, repaid ; n. l^ V>- 
the same; I^^-it*- *lj^" ^^^ prayed 

(God) to recompense him ; i\>- re- 
compensing; requital, reward. 

^ (tt.) he passed over; he was bold, 

he ventured7^Cu*5>- a bridge. 

>- (tt.) he was fat, large, or bulky ; 

A-wifc>- (j??.^u*>-i) the body; aj-^^ 
large, corpulent or portly. 

^ s ^ ^ 

>- he had curling hair ; t>A>- curly- 
haired, crisp-haired, frizzle-haired. 

Ja>- (a.) he placed; he made; he 
appointed; he feigned. 

^:;*^ (i?*. ^;;U:^i) an eyelid. 

Jj>- («.) he was great; J-l:>- (l?^."^^^) 
great, illustrious. 

JJL>- (»'.) he flayed ; he scourged ; he I 

^^^ ^ 

^ 9 ^ 

ff O 

>» ^-^ 

I ;^iir (jpZ. J^ 

) the skin. 

the hide. 
^^Jb>- («.) he sat down (on the ground 
in the Oriental manner, — Juw ex- 
pressing the European fashion) ; 

C/4^ (jpZ. ^j-Jlsr*) the time or 
place of sitting, a sitting-room, 

an assembly, session; (j^y^ an 
assembly, a sederunt. 

>- he collected, united ; u. ^^V>^ 




^ ^ ^ 

^ ^ ^ o 


he had connection with; vu.\ 
they assembled, agreed; 

number, multitude ; %-^^\ all, en- 

tire, whole ; ie-a^«^>^ collected, the 
whole; vx;'^^ together, altogether, 

entirely pic U^ a body, a band. 
i>4^ (w.) he was comely, beautiful , 
(Jisj" a camel (especially when full- 
grown and strong); J U^ beauty, 

comeliness; Ot"^ handsome,grace- 

^j5>- (fi.) (the night) concealed or 
veiled ; ^^ a spirit, genie, demon 


(as being invisible); ^v^ genii, de- 
'^ a garden, paradise. 
(».) he shunned; v,,,v>^ and 
^l5j- (/?/. v.^l4p-) the side. 

-u^ (^Z. ^^^) the human hand or 

arm ; wing of a bird, fln of a flsh. 

:j>- \ph ^y^) an army, a legion. 

S f 9 A .^ ^^ 

{ph (jw^i5j- and j^U5j-») 
genus, kindred, race. 



S ^y y^ 

io ^ 



^^ • 


(f •) he shot (from a balista) ; 

a balista or catapulty for 
diBc harging missileB. 

iX^ (a.) he stroTo; he laboured; 
yn. «Xf;f^l he took pains; he 

strove; (^jfs^l J«3j he put forth 
every effort 


j^ (a.) he rushed on (a woonded 

foe to despatch him) ; i.J^ he ap- 
pointed, equipped, he despatc hed. 

(J^ (a.) he was ignorant, silly; J^^- 

(pi. Jl^) siUj; an ignoramus. 
L^\^ for (..^4>* (tf) he outy spHt; ni. 

(Jl>l^l he answered; he asserted; 

he granted. c-Mjp^ananswer,reply. 

J\^- for ^^ (tf.) he was generous, 

bountiMj good, or famous ; i*^^ 
goodness; Juf>" good, excellent; 

A^ for U^ (•'.) he came ; t-^ uij *V^ 

he brought a book ; ^^s^ arrival, 

• XO 

J4^\ best or most excellent. 

*»#' • 

^V5j- ioTjjp^ («.) he transgressed; he 
erred ; he was unjust (inhis decision) ; 
he acted tyrannically as sovereign ; 

n.jj^l^ he was neighbour to (one); 

he associated with (one) ; j^ in- 

justice, tyranny; jl>- a neighbour, 


a partner in trade ; ^j^ a pool or 
basin in a running stream. 
JIp- for J^ («.) he went, passed by ; 

also vn. JU5J-1 the same. 

ft V5J* for c^ (w.) he hungered ; i. ^^ 

hekepthungry; he famished; O^-^ 

hungry, starvmg ; & •>- hunger; > 
Uj^ in a state of hunger^ starving. ' 


^ ,^ ^ 

S . X 

for «— 5y>- (t«.) it was h ollow ; 

9^ the inside of anything, the 
belly> a concavity. 



mm wX 

>- internal, (opposed to c5;J ex- 
ternal). ^ ^[ 


S. 9 9 

U**t^ {P^* U^^iPr) ^ army, troops. 


« • 

X ^^ 

(t.) and in, 

desired; ^^^.^^ and 
regard, affection. 

^ he loved, 

S 9 9 

(a.) it (the field) flourished \jyt»- 

S 9 l^ ^ 

joy, gladness ; j^-^sr* joyous, filled 
with joy, overjoyed. 

X y ^ 


^ ^ ^ 

^jt*0^ (».) he confined, imprisoned; 
confinement, imprisonment, 
unto, until (time or place). 

(ti.) he sought ; he performed a 

pilgrimage to Mecca; vn. he ai^ued, 

ssr'7 ' *■ 

the pilgrimage 

^ " 


insisted that; 

5^ 9 

to Mecca ; l^ pr oof, arg umen t. 

y • 



• y 

(ti.) he interdicted, guarded; 
the bosom, the lap. 

« X 

«• X 

S 9 9 

Jk>. (».) he limited; Jk>. (i^/. fc>^«X>-) 
boundary, limit, goal; «>2A>. sharp, 



pointed, violent; iron ; «X^1 more 

or most sharp. J)«x>. a worker in 
iron, a blacksmith. 

(a.) it happened, it came to 
pass; I. CjJk>* he related, nar- 
' ' a tale, tradition. 

ja>* (w.) and VI.J j^a^^ he descended. 

•■ x^ 

• •• 

s , • 

JfA>. (f.) he was circumspect; J^l^^ 

• " o 

acute, clever, skilful ; Jf A»>-t more 
or most skilful. 

(a) he bewared, was cautious ; 

he shunned ;jt\>>caution,ayoidance. 
(».) it was hot; it glowed; (a.) 
he was free, of noble race ; ^ {pi, 

jjlj^ and jjv>.i) heat, fervour; 

^ ^ y 

y-y^ (tt.) he waged war; 

5" Cx 

(tt.) he ploughed, cultivated; 

C^ tillage, agriculture; C^K^ 
a plough, a coulter. 

j^J^ and ^^^js^ a lizard, a land 



** • 

(t.) (strife) was raised; ni. 


^/'^^ he exasperated, he irritated, 
excited anger. 

(a) he was covetous ;jjfi^greedi- 

ne88,avidity,avarice; (J^^^ greedy, 

J^ (». & «.) it was burning ; in. 
4^;»-i he set on fire; he burnt; vii. 

• ••w 


X ^^ 

cir^^ it caught fire ; it was burnt. 

CJ^ (m.) it was in motion ; it shook; 

i.CJj»- he moved ; he set in motion. 

/tj^ (».) it was forbidden, unlawful; 

/^\j>- and ^U^ that which the 

law prohibits ; (i;^^ sacred, inter- 
dicted ; name of the first month in 
the Arabian Calendar, during which, 
warfare was prohibited. 

yy y 

X^ (».) he bound, restricted. 
/♦^ steadiness, vigilance, caution. 
^j>^ (a!^e aorrowed^xnoumed; i^^ 

*"^^ tiiP" (i'^' v:;]/*^ ') sorrow, grief. 
(jM.»- for ^;«<aM>. (fi.) he felt, he per- 
ceived, he thought, he knew. 

^.^la.'v. (».) he reckoned, was of 
opinion, accounted., 

^ '^ y 

(f. & tf .) he envied p3uu>^ envy ; 

S 9 ^ y S .^ spy 

Jyus^ envied ; JusV^ and J^au». 

y 9 y 

^^j***^ (u,) he was good, handsome. 

^ X c 

excellent; ui. ^^;^wm,>>i he made good ; 
he did good; he was liberal; ix. 

^^J*M>AJ\ he accounted good; he 

^ S ^9 

approved; ^;***«r* benevolent, good, 

, J» O 7 S ^ y 

virtuous; ^^;***^ beauty; jj«*>- 

good, beautifril, splendid; ^;am>^1 
{^fem. _:mua»>) better, foirer; beit; 

^jumsu in the best manner. 
(j2yL>- (u.) it (the grass) became dry; 

S y 

foTOQe, fodder, hay, straw. 

* * 





aAsw (a.) and th. ^<u%f>^t he had 

S y • 

many attendants; ^»duL>- and aIu*^\ 
a retinue; a lai*ge establiBhment, 
servants and attendants. 

X X 

X • •• 

(tt. & t.) he reaped; 

S O X 

• X ^ 

(a.) it happened, arrived, came 
to pass; I. j^a^ he produced, made 

manifest ; XJuT^thestomach, maw, 
cropj craw. 


(a.) he walked barefoot, was 
sore in the feet by much marching. 

(».) it was right and proper; iv. 

\x ^^ X ^ SOX 

^}Assr it was proved true ; Jfja'aiT 

<•* X S 9 9 

verification; j>- (/?/. J^^) 
truth; God; a right, a lawful claim; 

real, propej,^ true ; 

reality, truth; 4>^iSu^ meriting, 
deserving, worthy of. 

X X 

^ 9 ^ 

an<r>^.-a>- (w.) it was strong 
or fortified; ^^y^^ a fortified place; 

S X / 

^ j ^M^3 j» > a small fort, a redoubt, 
he understood, comprehended 


in his mind; iii. he knew, he 

X • X 

(tt.) he was present; he ap- 
peared ; it was near at hand ; m. 

1^1 he made present; he pro- 

xx o 

(».) he contemned, despised; vn. 
J?R::i>-l he deemed contemptible; 

despicable; ^U»- andjUb>-* 

^ M X 

^»i^ (ti.) he exercised dominion ; he 
passed judgment; he ordered; he 

was learned and wise ; i. «i^ he 

^x O •• 

duced ; he summoned ; hj3s^ pre- 

sene^, majesty; ^vf^. present, 
at hand, ready ; on the spot. 

1^^ ,<i X* 

]a>- and m. )a!>A ( u.) he set down, 
he laid down; he alighted^ settled. 

(t.) and vn. c— ■^n"'^! he col- 

"N^r X 
Iccted wood for fuel ; c,^h>" fuel, 


gave (to another) power, control, or 
right (over his property) ; JL>^ an 
order, a law ; <uils^ science, skill, 

s ^ ^ 


^ ^ 9 

art ; ^4^ ^P^* ^Uil»-) a sage, a 
_ philosophe r ; a doctor , a physician, 

j^^j^ («.) he told, he related ; il^ 
" a tale, a narration ; a fable. 

^. " 


he lived in affluence and 

dignity ; he was honoured^; 
a married man's concubine. 

•♦ X 

■W- X 

(u. & ».) he surrounded, carried .. 

s^ ^ s ^ ^ 

round; ^l>- {ph CjUU>-) a bor- 
der, brink, margin. 

J^ (fi.) he loosened ; he descended; 

S ^ 9 

it was due ; Jl»- striped garments, 
the vestments of the blessed in 

X.l X 

L^ ttL^ (a.) he swore; he made oath ; 

cjil^ alliance, a sworn treaty of 

J^ (tt.) he was meek, and long- 
suffering; vNpli^ he feigned 



meekness; fJ^ meek, mild, long- 
8ufferinfl^ clement. 

Ia, for j£>- (u.) it was sweet; iji^ 

(pi. ci^ljJ^) sweetness, a sweet- 
meat (more especially that in which 
hon ey is fr eely used). 

^Idi. (t.) and i/Sl.>- he adorned, he 

decked ;^Jl3- \fl, ^J^) an oma- 
ment, a female or nament . 

aAi. (fi Jiie heated (the water) ; he be- 
came enraged; IX. 

^ ^ 

(a.) it was hot or burning. 

- JSL;,"^. (pi. ial^-) wheat. 
— ^. ^ ^ 

(».) he was inflamed with anger ; 
rage, vehement anger, wrath. 


s y ^ 

s 9 

a whale or any large flsh (in 

contrast with t»\4>..i which denotes 
the smaller species of fish). 

^ I ^ 

•^ ." o 

\ he bathed; 
aU^^ a warm bath (hence the 

«^ \^ ^ 

word hommums) ; ^U^ a dove, 

». y 

1U5- (pi. jt^^) an ass. 

<U^ (pi. CL^U^T^fenom of a scorpion, 
v Bting; of a bee or wasp, et c. 

^l^ (w.) and vn. ^^^! lie was in 

want of, he n eeded, wasnecessitons; 


4>L>^v>- (pl. ^\^) anything ne- 

cessary; necessity, want; *^^i>s^ 
needy, indigent* .__ 


L\^ for \s^ (fi.) he guarded; he 
surrounded; he girded ; bjl>- (pl. 


^^UL^) a wall, an enclosure. 

X X ^ 

S o • 

(a.) he praised ; (X«i>- praise ; 
iSA>si* much praised; a proper 
name; ^^,4^^ praised, praiseworthy. 

(a.) he was silly, foolish ; j; 

Jl^ (fi.) it passed ; it was turned or 

changed ; he was crafty; 'vn. jl^\ 

he devise d stratagems; he laid snares ; 

folly, silliness ; 

/ • o 

\ a fool. 

^. /' -^ 

J-i^ (».) he carried; he sent; he 
excited ; he imputed ; (a female) 

was pregnant ; i. ^ja,^ he caused 
to carry or convey (a burden, 
epistle, etc.). 

U^ (t.) he defended ; he was modest; 
<0 U»- modesty, shame, a nice sense 

of honour ; protection ; iU^ (pl. 

^9 ^ i^ ' \ 

f^*'^ and c:l?U>.} venom ; the 

sting of a serpent, wasp, or bee. 

jl^ (pl. J^^O a state, situation, 
or posture (of affairs); J 5^ around ; 
dL». stratagem, deception, art, 

s %>^ 9 

trick ; JUe^ impossible, absurd ; 

NiJli^ guile, evasion^iJlir^ 51 with- 


^ for 

^ ^ ^ 


(u.) (the bird) flew 

. « 

a roun^, skimming in circles. 


^ *» 

^^ for tej-ab. (a.) he felt ashamed ; 

he lived; m. he restored to life; ' 

IX. i5^«^^ he preserved alive; 
he was ashamed, he had a senso 
of shame ^^^^^ alive ; an animal ; 


f I- 

iu^ modesty, ehame; i^^^ and 

2^U^ life; bashfulness ; ^^^ya^ 

KpL CL^Uu*^) a Hying creature, 

an animal ; A^ Eve, tlie mother 
of mankind. 

4U>- a serpent ; du. ^u. 
♦ - or* 

^. • 

\^^^^ tf 


where, in whatever 

jv>- for -^5»- (a.) and iv, 
was confounded, amazed. 

^U^ for ^j-5>- («.) the time arrived ; 
\.^^^jj>. time, a period ; ^^^^ at the 
time when. 

.^\iv^ an Emperor ; the great Khan 

(this title is especially applied to 
the Emperor of China). 


^^ " 


Us^ and I. UdL he concealed. 

(tt.) he was depraved and 
wicked ; lL^'^^ and ^UUsw malice, 
perfidy; C^j^jk perfidious, wicked. 

^ (u.) he was acquainted with ; i. 

.icL and lu. ^^^1 he informed, ac- 

quainted, told ; ^ (pi. j\^\) 

news, information; ,«m^ well-in- 

formed, knowing, or conversant 
with (matters). 

^ (t.) he baked; J!:! baking ;J^ 

>^ (•'.) and I. ttl^ (a quadruped) 
pawed the ground with his fore-feet 

^^ ^ 

s . ^ 

m:j:>^ he scaled ; aJIL a seal ; a seal- 

Jj^ (a.) he was ashamed, abashed; 
^^<^J^ modesty ashamed, abashed. 
PA:>- (a.) he deceived ; zmj^ and 

cljksw fraud, deception plcljL 

fraudulently, treacherously. 
^ J^ (ti.) he served^ tended, waited 


on; ^UJk^ service, duty; a^^^ 

(pi. a1jl>- and /»J^) a domostio 
servant, an attendant. 

X' x» X 

Jj^ (a,) he was disappointedi he 
was destitute of aid or hope. 

^ (».) he fell prostrate (in adoration); 
he fell (dead). 

^L»T^ the country bordering on the 



Oxus; . jL)\^ a man of Khurasan. 

X • >» 

X <i^ 

-^ •.*• 

i^ (a.) and i. c^i^^^L he laid wast^ 
he devastated. 

^ (u.) he went out ; he rebelled ; 


m. ^ r^ 1 he sent out ; he expelled ; 
^5f-ili. an insurgent, a rebeL. 

*— llr^ Vi'^. j^vi^and iij>A) alamb. 
X^'oj X autumn, fall of the leaf. 

y yy 

jo^ he stored, hoarded ; ^Js^ (p/. 

j^jlflbr*) a magazine; a store-room ; 
^\j^ a treasury, a store-chamber. 

,^^4^ (^'^ ^^ feared, dreaded; Aa. 
fear, dread, awe. 


y. y 

(».) he sewed together; he 
clothed (himself) in leaves. 




S.. ^ 

JLL^ (pL JUi:^) condition, quality 

(good or bad). 

M^a£>^ (» J ho disputed ; y. i^^aXar he 

engaged in altercation ; he disputed 

^ X o 

-aci- (fl.) and vni. -a^ \ it was green ; 
-.i^l (/«». ^L-^oci^) green. 

^^k=>- for IL^ (a.) he erred, sinned ; 

^Un"w error, mistake, failure; Sj^aS- 

or ^jk'v. (/?/. blk:>-) sin, crime. 

c,.>.V>< (fi.) he made a discourse ; he 
preached a sermon ; iiNJ^I:^ he 
spoke to, he addressed, he accosted ; 

^Lk^ a short formula of prayer 
or benediction offered up in the 
mosques on Fridays. 
Ja:>- (w.) he was in peril ; ii.Jo\s^ 
he encountered or underwent dan- 
gcr; jk=>-imminentdanger,jeopardy; 

^Isr* mutual danger. 

^fthS^ (».) and Tii. L, Ph-;< ^ he 
snatched away, he carried off ; in. 


>-\ it deviated from the mark. 

c/ ..7 9 

>-adepredator; Satan; c^lL^ 
a swallow. 

Ik^ for J^ (tf.) he stepped ; ifftLsL 

(^/. c:^ljk£>.) a step, a pace, 
cftrw (t.) it was of light weight; 

<U^ lightness, agility, nimbleness; 
(.^UsdLt holding light; contempt. 

^J^ (f.) and nC^^ylsA he con- 
cealod ; i5Jfi>- hidden, occult. 

^ y 

j£>- (tf.) it was spoilt, corrupted ; 

he was intimate with; Jl^ dis- 
turbance, disorder, defect; Jtri^ 
an intimate, chosen friend. 

X >• 

i- (tt.) he wounded, or carried 

off with his claws; v,,.^^ \fl. 
dJUcr*) a claw or talon. 

• • 

* y 


ji>- (fi.) he was eternal ; i. jJl£>- he 
immortalized, made eternal : jJl^ 
eternal; jJLsr^ rendered immortal. 

^^^^J^si- (w.) he was free ; it was pure 

and unadulterated ; i. ^j^j^^ be set 

• y O 


free, he saved from evil ; vi. ^iarl ; 
he was freed, delivered. 

• ^ ^ 

^''^ y 

U^ (».) he mixed; u. iJU;^ he 
associated, connected himself with. 

jlci- (a.) he stripped off; he abdi- 
cated ; he deposed ; he bestowed a 

dress of honour ; «Jl£>- abdication; 
4<Ls. a dress of honour. 

• y • 

he followed, succeeded (to 
another); n. uilU- he opposed, 

rebelled against; ujiltfv opposition, 

-»• o • 

hostility; c— djv. after, behind; 
JLijig>> a successor ; the Caliph ; 
iiLii^ succession ; rank or dignity 

of Caliph, the Caliphate; ^Ur« 

opposition, rebellion ; 
various, different, diverse. 

ji:>- (tt.) he created, formed ; Jid- 

all created beings (pcculiaiiy) man-* 


r\ •• «B^ 

O ^ 




^O 9' 

kind; jJls^ innate disposition (in 
a good sense). 

c;-^ (jP^- (j!rf^) a large brass 
cauldron (from the Greek xaXxeJbi/) . 

ILi- for ^L^ (tt.) it was empty, void ; 
he was at leisure, disengaged ; he 

was alone (with another) ; i. ^J^ 
he let alone ; he set free : he left 

at liberty ; it. y^^-s^ he was set 
free or separated from. 

(tf.) it fermented ; 
fermented liquor. 

X^ ' 

so ^ 


•? o • 

«■* o • 

^ * c ^ 

^^,ykA/«^ (ma«0. <U^«c>^) five; ^^aamic>« 

JA^ («.) he was obscure, vile. 
ji}^ ipl.'jlj^) a hog, a pg. 

u*>^ ^i'^' i./^i'-^) ft young or 
sucking pig. 

a:^ Kpl, ^^^Ls^) the scarabeeus 
or black beetle. 

(tf.) he strangled, throttled, 
suffocated ; he overcame. 

for (^^ (a.) he feared, he 

stood in fear ; \^^ fear, dread. 

L^\^ for c— ■^^"^ («.) he was dis- 
appointed and balked ,* he failed in 
his object; i>v— ^^^ he disap- 

9^ O 

choice, election; .^c^l better or 


good; better; a good 



ul^i^ a cane, a rattan, 
l^li. for £1^ (».) he sewed ; ^\1^ 
sewing, stitching, needlework ; k^ 

thread, a string ; )o\^ a tailor; a 

Jbw for t>-^ («•) he imagined ; JuaL, 

a shadow, a phantom, phantasm, 
dream, imagination; a vain fancy, 
empty notion. 

• • y 


pointed, frustrated, confounded. v^''i*. - , , . 

^5 ^l ^ ' ^^^ ft cloak, an outer garment, 

jli for^;-5^ («.) he was well, or well 

off, and in good circumstances; i. 

j^ he gave the option ; he offered 

the choice; vu. jli^i-i he chose, 

he adopted ; ^U^\ choice, free 

il J disease, sickness. 

c«91j.(a) he laboured, strove; (1j\^ 
state, habit, manner. 

iljl J (f?/. c^\^fc>) any living creature 

that moves on dry land (more 
especially cattie, sheep, horses, 

camels, etc. ; from the rt. l^J yu.) 
he walked, he crept). 

j>y\\» was behind, and in the reai; ; it 

passed; i^ J he disposed, arranged, 

managed ;^ JJ managing, manage- 

ment; disposing, disposal; counsel, 
advice; prudence, good sense. 


not worn next the skin. 

y y 

icA^i^ ipl, -p-U-j) a domestic fowl; 
a hen. 

y. y y 

< ^ o, 


J^L J (w.) he entered ; ni. J^ j1 he 
caused to enter; he introduced, in- 




f f 

aerted ;^Jj£>« J entering, entrance, 

^^J (a. & fi.) it smoked; ^J^*^ 

(/?/. Ju:>^ j1) smoke ; fumigation. 
J J (t. & w.) it flowed copiously; it 

streamed forth ; j J any good thing ; 

an action ;\l3;«3 aJJ how hountiful 
hath God heen to thee ! (a form of 
praising equivalent to excellent! 
wonderful!) J\)<\ a causing to 
flow; a stipend, allowance, ap- 
pointment, exhibition, or pension. 

^jUjJ \ph <Uj]^j) a door keeper, a 
porter or janitor (Persian ^^Vj^). 
CJj*^ he followed ; he attained, over- 

took, reached ; in. cJ; j1 he com- 
prehended; he hunted (it) down; 
he understood; he attained the 
years of discretion ; he lived suf- 
ficiently long to be cotemporary 

with ; T. cJ;^ JJ he reached, over- 
took ; he repaired, mended. 

^J Kpl. (^y^) a dirhem; a silver 
coin, or drachma, of the value of 
about fourpcnce. 

1;J (f.) he knew, was acquainted. 

Uj (ti.) he called; he invited; he 
prayed; he invoked (a blessing); 
vn. ^c j1 he claimed ; he arro- 
gated, pretended to, he boasted; 
IX. jtfC J^l he invited, entreated ; 

if^J a feast; a call, an invitation. 
^\}^J fraud, vice, deception. 

^ < ^ 

«-5 J (a.) he repelled ; <UiJ act of 

repulsion ; <U3 J once, one time ; 
one turn or bout. 

^J (f.) he hid ; he buried. 
J J (f.) it was slim, slender, light, or 

graceful; ilj J slimness; lightness, 

^l^J (|?/. ^^S) a shop, warehouse 

(Persian ^^^ or ^*^\ 
J J (u.) he led the way, directed ; 

S ' 

pointed out, indicated; fji^\ re- 
liance, conviction ; JJ J proof, argu- 

ment ; J)t j a broker, a salesman ; 
a conductor, a guide. 

<t«!l J darkness, blackness ; ^)j aJ^ 
name of a celebrated poet. 

Xj (u.) he let down (a bucket) ; iii. 


'^'•^^^jl he let fall; he dropped; ho 

allowed to hang; iv.^jJ he was 
letdown; it hung down wards ; ^J 
a bucket; (Jx« for ,JJ^) a 

thrower down; >yJ^ allowed to 
hang down ; loose, dishevelled. 
^ J for pi J (|?/. f U j) blood. 

<u^J. See <U^J 9 aUS. 

^^J (a.) it was foul and dirty; 

S y 

^^^J fllthy, nasty. 

l3 J (fi.) he approtched ; it was low, 
base ; in. he rendered vile, he abased ; 

wJ the world; the present world 


(as being nigh to us) ; _3 J base, 
ignoble ; ^^i J near, approaching. 




-JbJ \^l, of jujj or jUJ g-.i;.) 
^J (<i.) it befell ; it occurred ; ^J 
(|?Z. jybJ) time, age, period. 

ji^^ a court, an area ; the open space 

between the outer gate and the main 

jjJbJ (u.) he anointed, greased ; ^J 

(^/. j^lijl) oil, butter, grease, 
ointment, unguent. 

^iljJ an inkstand, inkhom. 

A^ for ^^J (u.) he was low, base, 

and abject; he subdued, he sub- 

jugated; i. ^^O he made base and 

abject ; he overcame, subdued, and 

jj J for j^ J (w.) he encircled; he went 
round, made a circuit, moved in a 

circle; jlJ (/??. jbj) a house, 

so ^ 
habitation, dwelling; jf^<^ a cycle; 

a period : a revolution. 
/i*»u for jHj^ (u.) he trod out com; 

<U}b J treading out com (by means 
of oxen). 

Ju for JjJ (u.) it revolved ; ^^ J 

(j»?. J^^) a cycle or revolution 

of years ; a period ; dominion ; a 

i%U for i*^J («.) he remained, he 

continued or persevered (in any 

course); U51 J always, perpetually ; 

^U U as long as endureth ; whilst, 


^^U for ^jj^J (w.) he was base, low; 
^j J under, short of, near, before. 




<u J the price of blood, or mulct for 


homicide. See rt. c^J^ 

^--^.^ (jp^* uijjj) a cock; a male 


j^l J for j^J (t.) he was indebted ; 


he submitted, obeyed; ^^J re- 
ligion, religious observance. 

jujj (/?J.^Uj) a dinar, a ducat, 

(a gold coin, the medium value of 
which may be stated at nine shil- 
lings.) There is also a wh,iU or 
silver dinar, the value of which is 
nearly equivalent to that of our 

tj {demonst, pron.) this; ujojj 

that; IjU or 1jU3 why? where- 
fore ? for what ? 

i^^ J ( jp?. ^-^uy ) a wolf. 

-> J (u.) he guarded, defended ; 
guarding, protecting; keepinjg off. 

^J ((I.) he sacrificed; he slaughtered; 

^ ix X 

« * 

<^£CU J a sacrifice, a victim. 
JjJ (w.) it was withered, flaccid, or 

dried up (a plant, etc.) ;^^i act 

or state of withering. 
^ ^ ^ 

j^J (a.) he stored up (for future use); 

^£>.J and ijt^t} a store, a hoard. 
J J («.)he8cattered,strewed,sprinkled; 

i>jj progeny, offspring. 





^J (tf.) he remembered, recollected; 
he related, mentioned ;^J and^J 

memory, mentioning, record; jj^ J 

mindful, of good memorypi^ jj 
reminding; a remembrancer, any- 
thing which recals to the memory ; 

admonition ; jf^ mentioned ; 
worthy of note. 

J J (i.) he was base, abject; he was 

humble and submissive ; i. ^ J he 

brought low ; ni. J jl he humbled, 

subdued; (JJjJ a lowering, a bring- 
ing down. 

cJxJj that; same as v«Jol j q^.v. 

^"Z . ^ . " 

/•J (tt.) he reviled; i*J reviling, re- 

proach; <UJ subjection,clientelage, 

• ^ 

s ^ % 

^J (t. & II.) he followed; v.^j 
(j»/. cLUjI) the tail; lIJj (i?/. 

&• / 

c-;y J) a fault, an offence. 
u^^JbJ (a.) he went; he passed; i. 
(•^.^J he gilded, he ornamented 

With gold ; e-^vto J gold ; money. 

' ' -ff • '^ 

^J possessed of/ endowed with; iJLS\i^ 

{feni.) nature, essence, reality. 

c-^i J for c-J»j J (fl.) it melted, became 

jlj for jjj (ii.) he tasted. 

Jj J the train, skirt, or border of a 
robe; the extremity of anything. 


^j^j (a.) he was chief; he governed; 

s\y s -if 

{j*»\j {pi. ij*j>^u) the head, the 

summit; the source; ij*^J ^ chief, 

captain, leader, principal; JLU^ 
superiority, headship, authority. 

iS^j (a.) he saw, he deemed; i^\j an 
opinion, judgment, wisdom. 


L^j a master, lord ; a possessor. 
^,j profit, gain, advantage (rt. t^J)* 

^j (f.) (cattle) rested, reposedJSay 
down with the feet tucked under 
them ; ^jcij any place wherein cattle 
are kept; a cowhouse, sheepfold, etc. 

uij (a. & tt.) he bound, tied, fastened. 

^j (0.) he was fourth ; he took one 

quarter; i. ^j he quartered; ^Ji 

(ma«^. <Uj^^) four; ^j^^J^i forty. 
Ujj often, sometimes, occasionally. 

u J (f.) he grew up, was educated ; i. 


^j he brought up, educated ; ^Ji 
also <— V education, rearing. 
^rj (^0 h® returned; he repeated; 

X X -X 

II. j-^]^ he returned, or caused to 
be returned; he replied; he con- 

versed with ; v. \ft^\Ji they re- 

S 9 9 

turned together ; ^frj returning, 

X X -^ ^^ S o 

J^ (ii./4ie tied the feet; J^ (f /. 

^ X 

\^j\) the foot; D4-J (j»tD^j) 




S At <* 

a man ; J vp-j attendants, footmen, 
>. people. 

^j ^^^ ^j (<*•) *^® hoped, lie con- 
fided in. 

(^.^^o^^ (a.) it was wide, roomy, ample, 
spacious, convenient ; i. c^^rv-j he 

greeted with the salutation \^y 
welcome; all hail! make yourself 
easy, there is plenty of room. 

O^j (a.) he departed, he marched ; 

v^lo^^ a journey, departure. 

^j (a.) he pitied; he was compas- 

sionate; <U>y pity, compassion; 
^^Ud-j (often wntten ^^y^^j) and 
A;«i^ merciful, pitiful,clement,com- 

J; (tt.) he returned r he returned an 
answer ;iie sent back ; vn. JJ^^ ho 


Ml ^ 

returned; he apostatized; J^ return- 
ing, drawing back. 
qJj (a.) he prohibited ; he rejected, 
drove off, pushed away. 

X ''X 

fjjj («.) he bestowed (what was need- 

ful for subsistence) ; ^j whatever 

is necessary for the support of life ; 

stipend; pension; ^\jj a bostower; 
God (as the Giver of daily bread). 

Xj XX 

(U^ (fi.) he sent intelligence ; he an- 


X. xo. 

nounced ; m. J^j] he despatched, 

X. XC''0| 

sent; ix . J«^^\ he let down ; made 

use of; (Jy^j {pi* o^j) ail ambas- 
sador, an envoy ; an apostle ; a mes- 

s^ * 

senger ; a prophet; XiL^; anything 


sent (a letter, missive, tract, etc.) 
m>^j (fi)hemarked,stamped,impressed; 

e^j {pl* (^y^j) <»iaracter, manner, 
custom, stamp. 

^ X 

^j {u.) he sprinkled, he watered. 


i^J^j {u.) he was in the right way ; he 

was well-directed ; Ju^ the right 
path ; the straight way to salvation; 

S X 

direction ; Ju^j a sure and trusty 
guide, director, or conductor; an 

epithet of the CaUph ^^yj^ of 
Baghdad, q.v, 

X X 

_^ (a.) he was satisfied, pleased, 

content; iir. t<^' he satisfied, gra- 
tified, pleased. 

,^j (a j4ie frightenedj^rrified. 

X X ^ X X ^ O 

iXsj {a, &u.) it thundered; vii.JmJ^\ 

he was confounded, alarmed; he 
trembled, quaked. 


^j (a.) (cattle, etc.) grazed, pas- 

^ Ox 

M ^ 

tured ; i^y pasture-ground; <Lx^ 
a flock ; subjects, people ; a ryot, 
(a.) he desired; he liked; i. 
£; he rendered desirous; xho 
incited pclJ^-^ liked, desired. 
U£^ (a.) he was in affluence, he led 

a? ox 

an easy and comfortable life; iXsj 

affluence, plenty, abundance ; ease, 


^j*^j {u, & f.) he struck the ground 
with his feet ; he pawed. 

y -fX 

w5^ (a.) he raised ; he removed ; he 
left off; vu. «-A^j\ it raised itself; 




• •• 

^ -f-^ 

he was raised ; luAJf^ raised, ele- 
Tated; lofty, sublime; wi^l more 
or most lofty, elevated, or powerful 

(from LX lofty). 
^jSj (f.) he was kind, he aided, bene- 

fited; he associated with; (j^i; a 
traveller; a companion, associate. 
^j (ti.) he fastened by the neck; 
iU9 f the neck. 


^ If" 

f Vi' 

^^ (a.) he patched (a garment) ; <U3; 
a piece of paper on which anything 
is written ; a tablet on which any- 
thing is drawn. 

^j (0.) he ascended, mounted; he 
enchanted ; 'VII^SA^\ he ascended ; 

^^J (P^' \^j) magic, enchantment, 
philter, charm. 
Sj (a.) he rode; he mounted; 

L-L^y ^^® ^^0 TideB (on horseback, 
etc.) or is conveyed (in a boat, etc.); 

^j he arranged, ho disposed, 
he placed. 

^j (a.) he bowed himself; ij^j an 
inclination or bowing of the head 
or body (as an act of worship). 

^&^ it was sun-bumty^l^^ land 
scorched by the sun. 

^j (f .) and ui. jc^^ he cast, threw; 

he shot, he hit; , xfi^ thrown or« 
fallen down. 

cSjht (a.) he feared, he reverenced ; 

iv>^i.«JbJ he devoted himself to 

the service of God ; he became de- 
vout; he feared greatly. 

y •-* 

y ^y 


r> ^'^^ r2^ (^'^ ^^ rested ; he went ; he 
smelt ; m. ^j^jl he caused to rest 
or repose ; ix. ^]/^^ he took rest; 
he reposed himself; ^<^ (P^* r^}j^) 

soul, spirit, life; ^j {pi. -rU^\ and 

Cui) the wind, air, vapour; odour, 
smell; 6^Aj rest, repose; j^»^ 
(p/. MRi^Vj) c^ odoriferous herb; 
^^}j {pi* ^li;) smell, odour. 

j\j for Jjj^ (1*.) he sought ; ni. *^\j\ 
he wished, willed, desired, intended ; 
he pursued. 

^\j for fjoy^ («.) he trained or broke 

in (a colt); i^^ {l^u^^J) a gar- 
den ; a meadow, a flowery mead. 

M^ Bome, Greece, the Turkish Em- 
pire (generally applied to Asiatic 

Turkey) ; y^^j a Turk, or Grecian. 

i«ij for z*^ (t«.) he was desirous, he 

wished or intended. 
^^^ (f.) he related, told, recorded. 
^s desiring to be seen ; hence, hypo- 

crisy, dissimulation, fraud (rt. i^j)* 



"^^j {^') he repelled; he chode; he 
drove away (fowls), he scared away 

(sheep) by crying * shoo,' or some- 
s' «• 
thing similar ; he forced ; ^j re- 
pelling, driving off. 




^^ ^ 


fJJ (^O ^® sowed ; cjj sowing, agri- 
culture; ^jj a sower, labourer, cul- 
tivator, husbandman. 

\jj (a.) and vn. y*^\ be despised, 
scorned, contemned, or undervalued. 

^j (a.) he moved, disturbed; vi. 
'^jA lio was disturbed, moved, 
alarmed ; ^^/^f confusion, alarm. 

cjcj qmdril, (tho wind^hookVclis- 

turbed, or violentl^sigitated (the 

j^J (tt.) he was of opinion ; he sup- 

posed; M^jXpl.^U^j) a spokes- 
man ; a leader ; a chief. 

s V 

c::-^ resin, bees-wax, pitch. 

\^J for j^ (a.) he was pure, holy ; i, 
^Jj he deemed pure, he justified ; 

he rendered pure; il^ and i^J 

alms, purification. By the Muham- 
madan law, it is incumbent on every 
individual to give, for pious pur- 
poses, a certain portion of his pro- 
perty in nature of tithes, not less 
however than a fifth, by way of 
purifying and securing a blessing 
on the remainder. 

Aj (u,) ho bound, ho fastened, or re- 

strained ; /^Vnj a (camel's) bridle or 

r*j ^P^* jy^j) * so^S accompanied 
with instrumental music ; a flute. 

^j^j (a.) he was worn by time or age; 

y^j and j^Uj (^/. j^t«ji) time, 

S xO^ 

jlj^j intense cold, hyperboraean cold. 

0^:^^^} gioger; name of a fountain 
in Paradise. 

^j (t.) he committed whoredom; 
f Uj fornication, whoredom. 

jJbj it shone, glittered ; j^bj (j?/.jUj^ 
the flower or blossom of a plant 
(especially a yellow one). 


^j beauty, fairness of countenance; 

^tj a mate; a fellow; a husband; 

<^^ a wife; i. --.jgj he united, 
coupled ; ho gave in marriage. 

j]) ^^^JV (**•) ^® visited; he made 
a journey or pilgrimage; j\y^ a 
place of visiting, a holy shrine. 

J]j for Jjjj (m.) he removed, de- 
parted; he quitted, left; he ceased; 

o.y^ o^ 

J^ J thou didst not cease; thou 

•. <* y ^ ^ 

y . -^ o- 

j]j for Jjj (t.) and vn. Jl J;^ it was 

enlarged or increased. i^jl|J in- 
crease, addition. 

c;lj ^"0' (jrlj (*0 ^® adorned, oma- 
mented ; h^j ornament^ decoration. 



(jM or wijMS a particle, prefixed to 
the aorist of a verb ; restricting it 
to a future signification. 




J Li (0.) he asked, lie inquired; he 

begged TNLIuI^ a questionpquery, 
demanct^srequestlvproblem, propo- 

(u.) he cut; ^^^.^ {pi i^UJ) 
a cause; an instrument; means; an 

utensil ; v^^^^i reproach, abuse, out- 
ting reproof; also a man's name. 

.^fuj (a.) he swam ; i. ^•«3 he prayed ; 
he praised and glorified God. ^jUs^ 

praising, glorifying God ; <dJ \ (^^^^^ 
O God ! Merciful God ! holy God! 
Good God I Far be it from God ! 

^ ^y 

S C^ 


^ /o >" 

^(w<wc.<U-%-j)seven ;j^^«-Mrfseventy; 

f-t^ (j»/. ^V^) f^' <^^V^ A wild 
beast, any ferocious beast, a beast of 
prey ; a lion. / . 

fj^ (1. & M.) he went before, pre- 
ceded, took the lead ; he excelled ; 
ii.uiuLj, V. 1 JbUuJ and yn. \^l^\ 
they strove to excel or get a-head 
of (each other); they emulated; 

they preceded ; ^jA^ preceding, 
former ; fore-mentioned, foregone. 

1^0^ a road, a way ; one's proper course 
of conduct in life. 

\*^ (t.) he took captive; ^^-»*-) (/?/. 

\bu-o) a captive, prisoner. 

{ma%o, <C:^) for (jmJc^ six ; ^f^ 

(tt.) he covered, he veiled ;^^ a 
covering, a veil. 

p' (tt.) he prostrated himself; he 


X • ^ 

s 9 9 , 

adored; <^j^ prostration; adora- 
tion, worship; jus**^ a place of 
worship, a mosque. 

^^^Bf^ (u.) he imprisoned; ^j^ a jail, 
a prison. 

<Ulsr» (^?, c-;ls?-») a cloud, vapour. 

-i^ (a.) he jeered, ridiculed, held in 

derision; \,js:r^ he subdued, brought 
under subjection; he compelled to 


work for nothing ; HjS***^ a jest, 

joke ; a laughing-stock, 
k^ (a.) he was incensed, enraged. 
Isr* for jjb-» (m.) he was liberal or 

generous ; ifjlsr» liberality, gene- 

Jua (m.) he stopped, blocked up, ob- 

structed, closed; JiJuj rectitude; 
the right way; prosperity, happiness. 

(jmJu«} See c:^o • (jm JLa the sixth. 

y-j (m.) he cut the navel-string (of a 
new-bom child) ; he was cheerful 

and joyous ; ui. ^i he concealed, 


secreted; --) a secret; a mystery; 

S 99 " S 9^ ^ 

jl^ joy, gladness ; j^;^*^ joyful ; 

a man s name. 

r^yj^ a peculiar vapour of the desert, 

which at a distance appears like a 
sheet of water ; the mirage. 

-^j^ (m.) he' saddled; ^y^^ a saddle; 

Lt^ ( j9?. ^;|^) a lamp, a lanthom ; 
a torch. 

^ 9 ^ 


cywd (fi.) and lu. Cy^l he was quick, 
active; he made haste; <U^ quick- 






• ^^ 

nesSy bastei celerity; v£^ qoick^ 

promptiexpeditioos^Cu^ quickly; 

ft^\ quicker, speedier, Tery quick. 

Q^ (t.) and v^^^l2!l^ he stole ; he 
took by stealth. 

J^^ (a.) he spread out ; ^r^^ (j?/. 

^yxi^) a flat roof; a terrace, a plat- 

(a.) it was propitious; J^ (a.) 
he was happy and fortunate ; m. 

X •<* 

Juudl he blessed ; he made happy ; 
he aided ; Juxi^ happy, prosperous, 
(a.) he kindled, excited (flame or 

war) V'^^J^ a burning Are ; name 

of the fourth heU, the appropriate 
abode of Sabsans (there being seven 
hells in all, one above another). 

(a.) he endeavoured, laboured, 

strove ;>**ij endeavour, effort, ex- 
ertion, pains. 

X X 


^^ (a.) also (^^fl..i (t.) he poured 

out, he shed (blood); -.U^a a blood-"^ 

shedder, a cruel tyrant ; an epithet 
applied to the first of the 'AbbasI 
Caliphs, and the extinguisher of the 
d3ma8fy of BanI XJmayya. 

^ ^ ^ 

fji^ (0.) he flapped or clapped his 
wings (a bird, etc.) 

<_^^ * (f.) he shed (blood); see^'^. 

^^Ji-j (tt.) he was low, base, inferior; 

^LIaIj orSLlLA-j the lowest of the 

people ; canaille, rabble rO^^ "^" 
ferior ; lowest ; tbe bottom. 

9 ..-'x 

s «^ 

aaJ disease, sickness ; ^^^ sick 

_L« (f.) and ni. ^J^ he irrigated, 
watei^ ; he gave to drink ; ^^jla 

watering; giving to drink ; jjL» for 
^ui a water-carrier ; a cupbearer. 

ijlS^ (tt.) he was silent, he held his 

peace ; CJyL» silent, tranquili ta- 
citurn, quiet. 

JCj (a.) he was intoxicated; f^ {pi. 

di^i^^) the agony of death; faint- 

ing; ^\^(j7^.c^lC9)intoxicated; 
a drunkard. 

^jCj (tt.) he was flxed, settled ; he 

abode, dwelt, inhabited ; in. ^jLJ\ 
he caused to dwell ; he gave as a 

habitation; ^jiSL^ or ^J^^ a place 
of residence, a habitation, abode ; 

poor, miserable, wretched. 

if Uier^ (jfl. uii>.)L») a tortoise ; a crab. 

j/^ (n. & 0.) he flayed, skinned ; vi« 

^^^***^|hewasflayed,skinned; ^*^'**^ 
a place of slaughter, shambles. 

(J«mmJu> name of a tbuntain in Para* 

s .< p 


iU juJL ^i vW* 4,)-»***>) A chain. 
bL) (a.) he was vehement, bold; 
^ILLj a monarch, emperor, king. 

Anj (a.) he was sound and nnblcm- 
ishcd ; he was safe, secure ; i. Ju«a 



he saved, made secure; he delivered, 
committed, consigned ; he saluted ; 

he blessed; he submitted, became ^s^jlt^^gp^^j^^^rich or costly silk; 
subservient; ni. Juoi he submitted 

vanced in years; ^j*^ old, aged, 
stricken in years. 

listened,obeyed; w4m} hearing; the 
ear;>.*««M> a hearer; cUmj act of 

hearing, listening ; ^U^ name of 
an Arab tribe. 

^J^i^ he cleansed; he dug out; he 

tore out or knocked out (an eye) ; 
he gouged. 

^ (a,) he was old and full of years ; 

<Un« for <i^f»Mi {pi, f^y^ and c::.^i^1m>) 
a year. 

u»i> for y^ (tt.) it shone, was splen- 

di ^V^l^ splendid, precious, emi« 

obeyed; he yielded submission to 
the will of God ; he became a Mu- 

hammadan or Moslem ; aL^ peace, 

safety; a salutation; (^^\ resig- 
nation, submission; the Muham- 
madan religion ; the true faith ac- 
cording to the Musalman creed; aLa^v^^^ /- 7 ' '\1^\ f 

a believer; a Musalman; ^UJui 

^>^Umj name of a place between Ku& 
and Syria. 

X X' y> <i <^ 

(a.) he heard ; i. ^^ he caused 
to be heard ; ivNu,^iyuJ he heard. 


^[^ (fl.) he was fat^j^^-^ also^C Niill a court, quadrangle ; an area or 

fat, corpulent. 
U^ for v«^ (tt.) he was high, emi- 
nent,con8picuous; i._^«^ he named; 

fU^ {fL CL^UU^) heaven; the 

sky ; ^J\ (j9l. ^ uLi) a name. 

^ (ti.) he formed, fashioned; he 
polished (a sword) ; he bit with the 
teeth; in. ^] he was aged, ad- 

« y 

J^ (tf.) it was plain, flat, smooth, 

easy, or simple ;^>f-) (j»/. J^) a 
plain ; level ground. 

^L) for 1^ (tf.) he did evil; he sinned ; 
he was wicked, vicious ; in. 'U)\ he 

rendered bad, he vitiated ; ^UU and 

^•--^ . • -\^^ \^^ ' 
•uUmi a sin, crime ; t\y^ , %\y^ , ^j*«) 

and f^ evil, sin, deformity, nusery, 
wretchedness; ^^^ wicked, bad; 

wretched pi*U»^ (l?/. j^.U^) vice, 

^. '' 

open space surrounded by buildings 
(rt. ^L» for ^^)* 

jC for «Jy> (u.) he was chief; he 
was black ; i. <Jyo he blackened, he 
made black ; vhi^J^l he became 

black ; «Ju«i» (jpZ. £ JU) a chief, lord, 

noble ; a descendant firom Muham- 
mad (such persons are styled Seyed) ; 


^i ^ 

^ s^^ 

J^l (/rm. ' \ J^) black ; a Negro, 
an Ethiop ; ^\f^ blackness. 
jU» for jy^ («.) be scaled (a wall) ; 
be rosbed on, be attacked ; J\y^ (ph 

jjU) a bracelet; bjy^ astractore; 

a course (of bricks), a row (of stones) 
in a wall ; a cbapter of tbe Knr'an 
(of wbicb tbere are in all 114). 

^U> a space of time; an bour; a 
moment (rt. 9L} for ^^)* 

a prefix. See (jw and Gr. § 194. 

X .X X XX s I X 

jjU» for jji-j («.) be drove ; j;L» (|?/. 

^ |X S / 

^^U^) tbe leg ; j|^ a market. 

X I X xxx 

/•L» for Ay^ (ju,) be asked for, de- 
manded, or solicited. 

X X 

1^^ (a.) be intended, proposed, de- 
Signed; i* i^^ be made equal or 
like ; be proportioned ; be perfected; 

mm^ X X 

1 jm9 equal, straigbt ; ^^r^ besides, 
jC for ^'I'Kd (t.) be went, departed; be 
travelled; i^^tr*** '^^ ^e^^ despatched ; 

Smt X 

J L) remainder, rest (altbougb often 
employed to signify tbe whole); 

S" X 

jii*^ departing, going a journey, 

travelling; a journey; ij^ 
duct, mode of Hfe. 

S ,0 X 

ujL««9 a sword, a scimitar. (Tbe author 
of the lexicon, entitled Kamus, as- 
serts that in Arabic, the words for 
a sword exceed a thousand). 


JL» for J--) (t.) it (blood or water) 
flowed, gushed out. 



i* Ui the left side or quarter ; a\«D T 

or aIuJI Syria (being situate to the 

left of the Arabs as they looked 

i? *'x ^ I *' s S ^ 

(^^ (i?/. ^U4 and ^^)9 an affair, 
thing; habit, character, disposition. 

t (f.) he was young, in tbe vigour 
i ,x 
of youth ; c-^Ll a youth ; a man 

between the age of twenty-four and 

S |Xx 

forty; u^lJii the season of youth. 
J^ (a,) ho was satiated, sated ; his 

" . X xoS 

appetite was satisfied ; m. w^ 1 he 
satisfied, he filled, he satiated. 

X^ X ^ 

^ similitude, likeness ; iv. <UmJ he 
was like, he resembled. 

s^Ji» (f.) be was separate, distinct; 

X tf • ■© xl 

I. c:>^r^ and m. f^^] he sepa- 
rated, he dispersed. 

(1.) he reviled, abused, vilified. 

l^ for ^ (u.) he wintered ; f^ 

and Ijs^ Cp^' j^^') * ^'^^^ 

p^ he was brave or valiant; jls.*^ 
bravery, valour ; a species of large 
serpent; brave, intrepid. 

^^ («. & ♦.) he was avaricious, nig- ^ 

gardly \^ avarice, greediness. 

X ^ 

^^^s^ (fl.) he filled; he loaded (a ship 

with cargo) ; ^ ui*^ enmity, hatred. 
X ^ :: 

(a.) he gazed with fixed eyes. 

• X ^ 


i? 1 

X # 

(29 ) 


he stared; hb sight was immovable; 
he arose, appeared; he departed; he 
went from one country to another ; 

m/^to^l he conveyed; ne sent 

from place to place ; ^^/osr^ {pi, 

^lc-»l) a person, individual. 
(m. & t^yiie tieJ^he bounoVhe 

strengthened; vnrocJ*^ it waxed 

strong; it became intense and severe; 


2r«x^ violence, strength, greatness; 

s ^ -^ ? 
intensity,severity; Jj Jj^(|7/.:( t Ju^i ) 

intense ; vehement, violent, strong ; Nr^ (a.) he was very greedy; 

Jl^i stronger, more violent. 

^N^jJ;, (l??.^llil) that part of the 

face adjoining the mouth ; the chaps 
or comers of the mouth (especially 
in a hound, or lion, etc.) 

ijdJ^ a particle or grain (of gold) ; a 
small pearl. 

J^ for j^ (tt. & f.) he smned; he 

was wicked p^ {pl- j}j^) ^^^ 
wickedness, harm ;^ity^ wicked, 

vicious; ^i very wicked; most or 
more wicked, 
c^ Ja (u.) he drank ; (.^ J« drinking ; 

^L^U^ drink, liquor ; wine ; <0^ 

sherbet,negus; any refreshing drink. 

^JU (a.) he explained, elucidated; 

laid open ; ^^ explanation, com- 

in. u.5^) he looked down upon ; 
he was over against ; he impended, 
overhung; he was near, at the point 

of; u.5^ eminence,nobility ; 


and (.-9^ ^ J noble, emment. 

^ ^x 

fjjJ^ (ii.) (the sun) rose; (JjJ^ the 

place of the sun's rising, the east. 

^jJU (a.) and vii. (.J^^^ he became 

an associate; {pi, and du,^ they 
became partners, entered into part- 
nership or association. 


X * 


CjJ^ (a,) he ordained; ho legislated; 

ifuji» the divine law. 

iyl (tt. ) he was high, eminent, noble ; 


avidity, cupidity, greediness. 

\ Ja or j^^ (t.) abo vn. sJj^\ he 
purchased, bought. 

^JaJ^ (u.) ho was proud, rebellious, 

disobedient; ^ua^ (|??. ,j^U^) 
Satan, the deviL 

jJu (m.) he knew; he understood; he 
perceived ; he was acquainted with ; 

knowledge ; poetry, verse ; 

L (pl.j^^ ) hair ; j£\Ji» a poet ; 

ti barley (as being bearded). 

Jai^ (a.) and m. JjLII he kept occu- 

pied, employed, engaged ; v. lylcliS 
they were reciprocally occupied; 
they engaged with each other; they 
kept each other employed, and dis- 
^ tracted the attention of one another; 


• ,«' -^ 

V ^ 

JaiC) occupation, business, employ. 
(jkL (tf.) he acted kindly; he com- 
miserated; ^(jkL and JU^I con- 
dolence, kindness, compassion. 




^< ^ 


iXti (a.) he was idle, anoccupied ; iA^ 
for <Ui;> or <^a^ (/y?. 2fU^) a lip. 

^jJ^ (f*.) he split, he clove; "to^jhSJI 
it was split or cleft ; Jh^i splitting, 


breaking; ^Ll painftil, grievous. 
_L1 (a.) he was miserable, wretched ; 

VsJu and jrjU^ wretchedness, pain, 

misery; nnhappiness; ic^ miser- 
able, hapless, wretched. 

1 he doubted ; (LSJi^ doubt. 


JCl (tt.) he thanked, rendered thanks; 
^^Li (^^. ^y^) thanks, acknow- 
ledgment of a favour ; j^f^ grateful ; 

«? ^ o ^^ 

j^JL^ praised, acceptable,rewarded. 

jLl (tf.) he fastened; ii. J^Ul he 

resembled, he was like unto ; ^jLL 
figure, form, shape ; similitude. 

xK-1 foryLl (fc.) he complained; he 
lamenteo^e stated his grievance. 

^ (a.) he smelt, inhaled, snuffed. 

^ (a.) he rejoiced or exulted at 
the misfortunes of another * he re- 

' J? 


^ (i'^* ^^^) ^6 Bun. 
w«J« or w^Ja (i?/. ^UJa) wax; a 
wax-light, a taper, a candle. 

'^.^ y 

JaJ^ (ju.) he comprehended, included, 

surrounded; J^ the whole, to- 

tality; JUJ;> the left quarter; the 

4Xfi (^.) he witnessed ; he gave evi- 

y y 


dence ; m. J^l he called to wit- 
ness ; he solemnly attested ; Jk^Ll 
(l?/. O^fl) a witness; 2FJVf^ testi- 
fying, witnessing ; testimony ; J^ 
and «\f^ (i?/. OlfMi) honey. 
Vf^ for j^^ (fi.) he longed for, he 


t'm y 

wished; vii.^^fj«1 the same; ^^ 
desire, lust. 
jUi forj^ (ii.) he acquired, obtained ; 
m. jUi 1 he pointed out ; he advised, 
counselled; he ordered jS*^ advice, 

s ' 

suggestion; ^j.lwL^ deliberation; 

s , -^' 

}ijylL/% counsel, consultation. 

cm ibN3^ («-)^t punctured; 

xli^ the prickle of a thorn, etc. 

jU» for J^ (ii.) he raised; he re- 

moved, took away ; J\^ name of 
^ the tenthmonth in the Arabian year. 

^^ a species of kite or small vulture. 
«i^ O^uu) he wished, he willed; 
i (i?;.;fjilil)athing;"!^ 

^\L for ^...j^ (f.) he became grey; 

he grew hoary ; \_ -r vr hoariness, 
grejness of hair. 

^11 for ;^ (u.) he was aged ; ,^Oi 

{pi. '^\j^) an old man ; an elder ; 

a chief; iS^y^xJ^ and <ui^ old 
age. ^ 

JU> for Ju^ (f.) he plastered; i. ouJi 
he built or raised up; he erected, 

X • 

C -" 

y . y 

y .y 

y. '' 

(31 ) 


« ^ 



(ti.) he poured out. 
Li0 the dawn; m^L^ the morning; 
the early part of the dawn. 

(t.) he was patient; he endured; 
he abstained or kept himself away 
ftomjj;:^ patience. 

for jf0fi (u.) he was an mfant, or 

child; j««^ a boy, a child; ^Um^ 
a girl. 

^ (i.) he was sound in (body) ; he 

was sincere; ^^ and Xsf^ sincerity; 
good health. 

1-,,^^^ (a.) and yn. L--%sr^^^ he as- 
sociated with or was a companion 
to (another); u^-^W a companion ; 
a master, or owner; possessed of, 

endowed with ; ^^i^'*^ society, inti- 
macy, cohabitation. 

Aiss^ {pL uJlsT^) a plate, dish, or 

lif^ for ^ («.) it (the sky) was 
cloudless and serene; r-v^for, «> 

^ ^t ^ 

^ .^ ^ 

x. y ^ o. 

X ^ X 

one possessed of a serene mind. 

jdk^ {u.) he proceeded, flowed, ema- 

nated; jJutf (pt-j**^^) the breast; 
the upper seat, or chief place. 

cju0 (a.) he split ;^i«Xi^ a headache, 

X X ^ 

^Ju^ (fi.) he was sincere and true ; he 

spoke the truth; i. JfX^ he gave 
credit to ; he believed ; ho verified ; 

u, ^ jUd he behaved as a friend ; 

he cultivated friendship ; iv. ^•X.^ 
he bestowed alms ; he gave in charity ; 

J Jl^ truth, veracity ; <U Ju^ alms ; 

whatever is dedicated to pious pur- 
's^, ^ s f ^ 
poses; iSSs^ fiiendship; j^ Ju^true, 

S y 

sincere ; (Jh£ J^ a friend. 
t^^j^a (fl.) he screamed or roared r^^]^ 
roaring, bellowing. 

jbL^ (pt^^^j^) a road, way, path. 

(f.) he changed ; he turned ; yi. 

A he turned himself; he re- 
turned ; he retired, he departed. 

Jut.0 and in. Juu^l he ascended, he 

mounted, he climbed ; Jyua ascend- 
ing, going up ; ascension. 
jM (ti.) he was small, mean; ix. 
jkndTH^A he deemed little; he de- 

spised 9j^^ {pl.yjua) small, little ; 
junior, minor. 

is^c quality, description (rt. c^j). 

^fT^ (fl.) he forgave, pardoned. 

jLa name of the second month in the 
Arabian year. 

fjk^ (f.) and i. JU^ he clapped his 

hands; he flapped his wiogs; he 
beat one thing against another. 

U^ for^ii0 (t«.) it was pure, clear, 

bright; IX. ^Ji^a:^^^ he took the 
whole; he exhausted; he confiscated. 

\^A*o (f.) he crucified ; t^^Ju^ he was 

strong, robust, hardy; (^ J«g (/?/. 

(,,.4^1 and (_^)L?i) the loins. 




,^ (w.) he was good, honest; m. 

' ' he amended, fitted, hettcred ; 
he reconciled, made peace; ^U? 

just, sincere, honest; JLc\ amend- 
ment, amelioration, emendation, cor- 

JtL^ a contraction of the formula 

JL» J dJic <d!l ^Ju0 may the bless- 
ing and peace of God be upon him ! 

\c for ^ (f<.) he thrust into the fire ; 

he roasted; ^^^ he prayed; he 

prayed toGod ; he blessed ; he sanc- 
^ ^ put «^ 

tified ; aJi <d51 ^Jl^ may God be- 
stow his blessing upon him ! iLc 

and iy-tf prayer. 

(ti.) he corked or closed with a 

(tf.) he was silent ; \jl^*a^ 

(m.) he sought ; he made for ; he 

i -^ X 
stroTe to attain; tX^^^ a master; 

eternal, everlasting; sublime, 
a chest, a coffer. 

',^ (a.) he made, formed, constructed ; 
he did; vn. he benefited (another); 

iUL^ (^Z. M^) ^^' invention, 
work, workmanship. 

Uw^ (^^. ulill>^ 1 ) a species, sort, kind. 
^«^ {pl. i^UM.^!) an idol. 
lIJCc for ^-^;-tf (w ) it went straight 

or direct; in. (...^L?! he reached^ 

/• ^ 

•? /o • 

overtook ; he came upon, found, or 

acquired; it befeliVs^^*^ hurt, 
afflicted pa^iction, visitation (from 

God); <U;m^ an accident, misfor- 
tune, affliction, calamity. 

cDU for ^^^ {u, & a.) he called ; 

S OX' S .''Ol 

he cried out ; LZJya {pi. lz^]^]) a 
sound, voice, noise, shout. 

jU? tor jyo (f*.) he cut and divided ; 
I. j^ he formed, fashioned ; he drew ; 

he painted pi«j-tf {p^y^) ^ form. 

image, figure, species y^yoj draw- 

ing, painting ; a picture ; jy^^^ a 

painter, a limner. 

< ,y < ^^ 

i Ud for ^yc (w.) (the metallist) cast, 

formed, founded. 


iU? for i^yo (u.) it was woolly ; 
\yc wool, a fieece. 

^ 1 ^ 

X y^ 

^JCc for j^^ (w.)heguarded,pre8erved. 

-.u^ for .^v^ (f.) he screamed, or cried 
out ; he called aloud. 

Jutf for JuMtf («. & d.) he hunted or 
fisheo^oC^ a huntsman ; a fisher- 

SOX , 

man ; Ju^^ anything caught by hunt- 
ing or fishing ; prey, game. 

lU? foTj^ \i.) he became ; he went ; 

he departed ; r^^a^ departure. 
uJ w for ^-p.;*^ (i.) he spent the snm- 

S,o X 

mer ; he summered ; \^^su^ summer 

s " 


( May and June) ; &su\^ the sum- 
mer ; a summer-campaign. 

^jjMtf China; ,<^-^ Chinese. 





^ («.) he oried out ; he groaned. 

^^ ^ 

(a.) he became tired, wearied, 
(a.) he laughed; he derided. 

Isf^ (tt.) it appeared ; it was dear and 

conspicaoas y%^s£f the morning, 
forenoon, when the sun has ascended 
half-way to the meridian. 

ji (m.) he hurt, injured >^j^j^ 'bl'^ 

oessary, indispensable; ifj^d^ {ph 

jL3^)harm, hurt, injury, detnment, 

c-^ (t.) he struck, beat ; ^j^ beat* 
ing ; a blow. 

^ ^ c ^ 

9 quadril, he humiliated; he 

9 (w.) he was weak, infirm, 

powerless ; ii. t^jicU he doubled ; 

^ ^ O ^ C A 

X. (^.om::;*.}^ he contracted illness ; 
he was weak, infirm ; ^, at , ^ weak- 
ness, infirmity; ^ .h %J> weak, feeble. 

"J^O • 

St %^ 

lost and undone; <u^ (|?/. cw) 
a plain, a field ; a farm. 

liU for clfil^ (t.) he yisited ; he 
was a guest ; (— fi^ a guest, visitor. 

(^^ for \^^X* (t. & tf.) h^prac- 
tised medicine; he was skilful, 

scientific ;\lw£ (/?/. ^"GtO a 

doctor, physician; <^U^ the prac- 
tice of physic, the medical art. 

.^vb he cooked \S^ja/% place for cook- 
ing, kitchen. 

wJb (a.) he stamped^ marked, im- 
pressed; f%r^ impressed (by 
nature) ; stamped, printed ; wl? 

or 9Ub and «tty.V> impress, charac- 
ter, nature, disposition. 
JmI? (a.) (the hand) was closed ^£^1 
he covered, overspread. 

inflm ; :J^ double ; as muohl^y- 'J^'^ * ^"^ «' t"^"'; _^ , 

^^|Sr (fl.) he ground, crushed ; ^^ys9 
grinding, pounding, crushing. 

-.^ (a.) he cast, threw ; he fixed, 
placed, laid (a foundation). 

J^ (a.)he drove pell-mell ; he hunted. 

uJ^ («.) he averted ; turned aside ; 
he closed his eyes; he winked; (-J»^ 

theeye; aglance; uJ^(|7^.uJ|^u 
a side, quarter ; a district. 

J^ (•*.) he wandered, or deviated 
(from the right way) ; he erred and 

strayed ; jU erring, straying. 
\i-lJ (a.) he was strong, robust; 
«Jl^ {pL ''^i^) a side ; a rib. 

^w (tt.) he gathered up, or tightened 
(his garments). 
cU for w^ (t.) he perished, was 



• •.• 

4^ (w.) he came by night ; jj;>^ 

^pl^jo) a road, a way. 

c:.^wu*jb a basin, a large cup or bowl. 

^ (a.) he ate, he tasted food ; in. 

iUtlhefed; hegaye toeat; ^^ 
food, meat, victuals. 

^«Ab (a.) he transgressed ; he rebelled ; 

^It for ^J^ (pi if\ji£) a sinner, 

transgressor; a rebel; a tyrant (ap- 
plied by the Muhammadans to the 
Greek emperors of Byzantium or 

pSff («.) hebegan,set about,engaged in. 

Jib (tf.) it was soft or tender; it. 

Jmoj he acted like Tufail, i.e., he 
came where he had not been in- 
vited ; Jib a child, an infant. 

JPaAb gmdrxli he hooted, uttered a 
tumultuous noise. 

1JJJ9 (tf.) he sought ; he inquired ; 

he begged ]^^b^Ui' a seeker ; also 

aman'sname ; c^JJ? pursuit,searoh; 

u,.^\h^ intention; desire, demand, 
request ; means. 

vJJ? (a. & i«.) it (the sun or a star) 

ascended, appeared, or rose; c^ 
ascending, rising ; rise, ascent. 

d^^Ug (tf.) she (a wife) was dirorced, 
dismissed ; in. jii£l he dirorced, 

s '^ 

repudiated, set free ; j)!!^ diyorce ; 
IaUi^ absolutely, wholly, simply. 


^^ or iLL (f .) he anointed, smeared. 

J? (tf .) he blocked, stopped, or choked 
up; he filled. 

^^^.^x^ (•*.) (the hon^ was long in the 

body and back ; in.^^1 bespoke ^ 
with sublimity, or hyperbolically. ' 

Jf? and Jf? (tf .) he was pure and un- 

defiled; j^ that by which any 

thing is purified or cleansed ; ij\^ 
ablution, cleanliness, purification. 

^ xix 

(jmIL for (jM^ (ti.) he fiourished, he 
conyalesced ; {j^^^ or (jm^ju? \pU 
^/*^yo) a peacock. 

ftlL for ft^ (w. & a.) he obeyed ; ni. 
ft \bt he followed, obeyed, submitted ; 

^ i,«^XO 

IX. ft \bL«it he was able, and capable ; 


he could ; is!^ obedience, submis- 
sion; worship. y 

(^U? for (li^ (tf.) and mNcIilM 
he surrounded, went round, circum- 
ambulated; he approached softly, 

he stole upon; X^U? (pi. (— 4|y9 
a people, nation, party, body, class ; 

an itinerant band ; \^^ surround- 
ing, pervading all things ; a fiood, 
the universal deluge. 

jl^ for j^ (tt.) and in. j\£i he was 

s ^ 

able; he endured ; he could ; <iuilb 
power, ability, strength ; power of 

Jvfc for Jjb (w.) it was long; it 

lasted long; it continued; in. ^jbl 



&\ %< 

he prolonged ; (D^jl? long, lengthy; 
J^1 longer, longest; very long; 
Jjb length, extent, duration. 

c^lL for L^^jU (t.) it was good, 

pleasing, or delicious ; i. ^.^jh he 
pleased, gratified, .delighted; he 
found good or beautiful; he ap- 
proved ; cI>%jU good, pleasant, grate- 

fill, agreeable, sweet, fragrant; ^ul^ 

(fom. of Lj-4*^) (p/. i<i^) good ; 
a thing good, lawful, and excellent ; 

c,,.^jWl more or most delicious, or 

Jl£ for^^ (t.) he flew, he was borne 

rapidly along ; ix.^\hi^1 it flew 
far and wide; it dispersed itself 
abroad ; j^ \P^»j}t>^) & bircL 



A C.< 


^««l9 a wild buck, chevril ; lU^aroe, 
a doe ; Tabitha, Dorcas. 

Ji? (a.) he ceased not, he persevered ; 

I. JjJ9 he shaded, he shadowed; 

IT. jUaJr he shaded himself, he 
sought or he enjoyed the shade; 

J^ Cp7. J^) a shade, a shadow. 

^io (t.) he was unjust, tyrannical; 
^U^ a tyrant, oppressor; a sinner ; 

fi^ extremely tyrannical ; Ji? 

and 1UIU9 injusticOi oppression, 
tyranny, injury. 

^ («.) he thought; he was of opinion. 

j^ (tf. & t.) he appeared, was con- 
spicuous and manifest; i* jft? he 
displayed, manifested ; m. J^1 he 
revealed, made known', declared; 

j^ {p*'j^) the back ; j^ noon, 
mid-day, or a little time after the 
sun has passed the meridian, when 

it is most sultry; ^U^ exterior, 
outward, external; clear, conspicu- 

ous; \j^^ apparently; outwardly; 

jl^t a declaring, shewing forth, 

making manifesti revettogi pub- 


• x^ 

ff C^ 

^ (a.) he adored, worshipped; Ju 
(ph JUe and Ju^) a servant, a 
slave; 'Abdu-1-Malik, a man's name; 


ar JUe adoration, devotion. (In ad- 
dition to these two forms of plural^ 
the wor4 «V^ has thirteen others.) 

a£ (tf.) he passed over, he crossed ; 
he went up toV^l^ one who passes 




^jtt0^ (•*.) he was harsh and austere 

in countenance; {j**yt^ austere, 
crabbed; dismal, calamitous. 

(i«.) he was prepare^^ady ; in. 
Jcxfr 1 he prepared, made ready. 

'X Xy'CS 

jlifi («.) he was freed ; m. J^l he 
fr^d, set free, manumitted. 

• • 



^ • 


and ui. t^^.^-^!, and it. 

• • •o. 

^'''js^ t also Tn. V— ,.*2^U\ he 



dered, he marvelled, he was aston- 
ished ; it pleased him. 

'^ (f.) he was weak, impotent, or 
destitute ; JysP weak, frail, feeble ; 

ifjysf- a frail old woman. 

sP- (a.) he hastened; Jj^U hasten- 
ing, hasty; L^U hastily; (J>-lc 
and Xls»-U (opposed to ^is»-t ) this 


transitory, fleeting life ; l\s^ pre- 
cipitation, haste, hurry. 

^sP- a term applied generally to such 
people as are not Arabs, and more 
especially to the Persians; it is 
equivalent to what the Greeks 
termed ''Barbarians." 

^ • 

S O 

^^^ (f. & u.) he kneaded; ^ 

Jlc (tf.) he numbered, counted, reck- 

^ xx 

oned up; in. J^l he prepared, 
arranged; ix. Jucl^I he prepared, 

got ready; JiwVti>.t\ preparation, 

readiness, aptitude, dexterity, skill, 

J Ac (f.) he dealt justly; he adminis- 
tered justice ; he deviated, turned 

aside; vn. JjclcI it was temper- 
ate and moderate; it was equal; 
JjU a just man; an epithet of 
Nushirivan, who was king of Persia 
in the time of Muhammad. 

^ ^ 

^ Jtf (».) he was deficient, or wanting ; 

he was without ; aj J^ deficient, 
wanting (in intellect). 

j^iXft (f . or M.) he dwelt permanently 

(in some place) ; ^)*X«^ (l>^. ^'^^^^i 
a mine (of gold, etc.) 

Idc for^dc (tf^e passed by, or over; 
he transgressed ; he erred ; he was 
unjust and inimical^ i. c/«X£ he 
caused to pass; he turned aside 
(hisfiEuse) ; 1 Jic beside, beyond, save, 

except ; Jj^ {^pl, *T Jtfl ) an enemy, 


a foe; ^jlAc KpV cl>i^iJlc) enmity, 
hatred, hostility, strife, animosity. 

(f.) he prevented, forbad, hin- 
dered; (-.^Ij^e punishment, torment, 
torture. - r i^ <^ ' 

he was brisk, lively, and joy- 

fill ; ^-^ &n Arab, peculiarly, one 

inhabiting a city (the term d-^]^ 
denoting an Arab of the desert). 

2fJj^ brutality, rudeness, violence, 
uproar, quarrelsomeness; (in Anglo- 
American phrase) rowdyism. 

^jS- (i«. & t.) he constructed, framed, 
erected (a booth or an edifice of 
wood) ; \j*^j^ a throne, seat. 

(j<3^ (u.) he met, or came against ; 
it occurred, happened ; it appeared, 

or presented itself; n. ^Js^J^ he 

s o 

opposed, he contended with ; \jojSl 
odour, effluvia (of the body) ; repu* 
tation, honouTi character. 

X X 



^ .^^ 

»-c (f.) he knew, was acqaainted 

with; he discovered ; i.u.5^ he made 

known, informed, taught; u.^ 

known, notorious, acknowledged; 
the name by which a person or 
thing is generally called (or known) ; 

^JS' noto- 

riously,confe8sedly; uJj^ known. 

ij/$ (^/. Jjj/^) 'oot (of a tree, etc.) 

cJ^ (u.) he attacked ; he rubbed. 

i^jS. (a.) he was naked ; ^^ naked. 

S O 

j£ (».) it was precious, excellent; he 
was noble, eminent ; ^j^- he hon- 
oured, held in esteem ; J^ precious, 


dear, valuable ; mighty, powerful ; 
a king (especially of Egypt). 


M^ (f.) he designed, he determined, 
intended, resolved, purposed ; he 

f ^ X 


vowed ; ^ J^ (i'^* (^U^) <^ incan- 
tation, spell, charm, amulet. 
yjjS. (a.) he received consolation ; iv. 
^0(} he received consolation, he 

was consoled, comforted ; $1^ con- 
dolence, lamentation, mourning. 

S , X X 

(>mc honey ; also the honey-oomb. 

Cy^mc grass, green crop (as opposed 
to A*^ flr.r.) 


yu(b£ (tf.) he decimated; n.^lc he 
associated with; he was intimate 

with; yuk£ and hum^. ZjILs. ten; 
*^*yuc i^J^^-l />»». eleven ; j^^j/^ 

^x ox ^ l'^ ^ 

twenty ;yuj«^ (p/.^bt^) a crowd, 
an assembly ; society, company. 

U^c^r j^wu^^.) he came in the even- 
ing ; ^ blx the afternoon, evening. 

X ^ • 

(t.) it (the wind) blew violently; 
and ^a.Ar. the force or fury 

of the wind ; i^jif u a fierce wind, 
j^i-oc (^/. J-iliAc) a spiuTow. 

X X . ^ ^ 

y^^s, (f.) he disobeyed ; he rebelled 

against ; Uoc a staff, stick, cudgel, 
bludgeon; a mace. 

^ X 

^^ (a.) he crunched or ground with 
his teeth. (a^e aided ohassisted ; if Ju^U^ 

• ,AxXS/x 

assistance, mutual aid ; Juic or Juoc 
the arm fh>m the shoulder to the 
elbow, the upper arm. 


ui£ for y^ (i«.) he cut into pieces; 
he dissected; j^ and y^ {pi. 
fl^d) a member, a limb, a joint, 

^Jjjia^ (a.) he was thirsty; ^JLiae, 

S I X |0 X 

thirst; ^LuJofi thirsty. 
Ike (u.) he received into his hands ; 

he took ; m. ^Joa 1 he bestowed ; 
he gave. 

S X ^ 

iioj^ admonition, exhortation (from 
)a£j q.v.) 

' A^ (tf.) it was grave and important ; 
sjae. great; grievous; Ja^ and 

^Ula^greatness,magnificence; Jm^ 
the greater part (of anything). 

^ X 

is. ((.) he abstained (from any thing 





forbidden); Bhe was modest, chaste ; 
IsA abstinence^ chastity. 

Jls. (t.) he cast on the ground ; \j:^JiA 

a gigantic or horribiSmonster, a 
hideous spectre. 

u& for «A& («.) he obliterated ; he 

' s 

pardoned,, forgaye; <U3U safety, 
health, welfare. 

c^Uc \pl. ^Uac) an eagle. 

AAc (».) he knotted ; he tied in a knot; 
Tn. tXA:ix\ he beUeved firmly ; he 
was confident. 

c->^ib (j?/. c-i^vAc) a scorpion. 

* -^. 

Jac (f.) he was sensible and intelli- 

gent ; he understood ; Ja£ under- 
standing, senseT^UA a rope which 
binds together the feet and neck 
of a camel, to make him obedient 
when disposed to be untraotable ; a 

y^^ (•'.) it was turbid or muddy (water, 

etc.) ; i>^ he rendered muddy, 
he dirtied, polluted, defiled* 

JLlfi (jp7. jLc and J)Ui) a disease, ill- 
ness, ailment; a cause, motire. 

^ he overcame; u. ^U he man- 
aged ; he treated (a disease) ; ^Ic 

and XsJU^ medicine ; treatment of 
a disease, cure. 

2!^ (a.) he pastured ; he foddered ; 
he fed himself; he was nourished ; 

i— gift and ti^ (ph lm^ and 

#' .< ' 

ii!^ ) hay, fodder, food for cattle ; 

a stable, crib, boose, stall, 

J;Lc (fi.) he depended, or hung from ; 

he adhered, he dung ; I. ^Jic he sus- 

pended; (J^^ suspension; exhibi- 
Ac (a.) he knew ; he was learned, 

or well-informed ; i. U.c he taught, 

informed ; m. Juci he published, 

revealed, made known; aLu he 
submitted to be taught ; he learnt ; 

J^ science, knowledge, learning ; 
IJl^ (^7. ^Uic) learned, wise ; a 
sage ; JU the world ; all created 
things; A^ knowing, omniscient. 
^^Jlc (i*. & ».) it was divulged ; it was 
published ; m. ^^1 he discovered, 

revealed ; iu3lc that which is mani- 
fest ; outward behaviour, conduct. 
%£. for jLc (tf.) he was high, lofty, 
sublime ; v. ^ vxJ he was elevated, 
exalted, supreme; Jlc (/«».d*Jlc) 
high, lofty ; jJu& l the highest ; the 


summit ; , ^Jlc upon, against ; ^J^ 

noble, eminent ; name of Muham- 
mad's son-in-law, the caliph All. 

Aft {aTyhe lived long ; ^^4^ life, age ; 

'J^^ («j*Hie cultivated, built, re- 

paired TN^lft an inhabited place 




S ,-f. 

(opposed to j^lc) ; also a man's 

name ; ^U^ a buildings mansion. 

JU^ U.) it was deep (a well, etc.) ; 

JU4X deep, profound. 

Ja£> (a.) he acted, did ; he composed ; 
he laboured; he constructed; ix. 
jAXiJ\ he used, employed ; J.4^ 

{pi. JU^i) work, labour; a deed, 

act, action; J>^U (pL JU^) an 
agent ; an officer ; a goremor. 

^^4S' (a.) he was blind ; ^<«x.l {fim. 

^ wi^) blind ; f^Ji<^'i\ a man's name 
(or rather his epithet). 

^ off, firom, from off; concerning, 
about, of, touching. 

JU£ with, near, at, among, aocordingto. 

y^\pL jys,)^ also ar^ a she-goat; 
a fawn, or doe. 

^ X 

X ^^ 



the neck ; the throat. 

• X 


_^originallyy^&, (M.)he was wearied, 
tired ; lu£ care, labour, distress. 


^fXe (f .) it signified, it meant ; ^^^ 

it means, that is to say, to wit; 
_:.A^ or IJL« meaning, moral (of 

a tale, etc.) ; iihv^l it concerned 
or referred to. 
j^ (a.) he stipulated ; n. JJ^U he en- 
gaged ; he entered into a compact 
(with any one) ; he pledged himself; 

j^ a promise ; a compact ; a will 
or testament; commission, appoint- 
ment to office ; time, reign. 

^ys. (a.) it was bent, distorted ; i. ^ys. 

he curved ; Tm. ^^1 it was bent ; 
^U^^l crookedness, deformity. 

4)U for Jj^ (wiyiie visited (the sick) ; 

^4ie returned ; he repeated ; ii. J^U 
he came back ; he returned accord- 
ing to habit]SjuU by way of yisit- 

ing ; if jU custom, habit, usage. 

[jy^ {P^' c:.^];5^)thenudities(rt^U). 

^y^ the bramble-tree or bush. 

^\S' for ^ys, (tf.) he exchanged, he 

Bubstituted ; \joys^ a compensation, 
recompense, exchange, substitute. 

Jlc for J^ («.) and i^cJ^ ^® ^^- 
fided in, trusted. 

U (tf.) he swam, floated. 
J^lfi for ^^^ (i*.) he helped ; ^^^lc 

and ni. ^Ul he aided and assisted ; 
IX. ^Us^^ he implored aid, he 
sought assistance, he demanded or 

prayed for help ; ^^ {ph ^|^1) 
assistance, aid, help. 

<he hesitated ; he was incapable ; 
• (^'^ ^® was tired; IlI^^wi^ he 
c^lc for L^i^^ f . (•'.) it was defectiye, 

faulty, bad ; l^^ a fault, defect, 
blemish; a vice. 

^j**t^ Jesus, our Saviour. 

j^U for (j*i-*c (».) ho lived ; he en- 
joyed life \^L^ ' {pC^^}j^^ ) 
also^^uL« living, life; livelihood. 



\f^ ^ 

i.b^ he Yociferatcdycriedoatyslioated. 

jjU for ^j^ (the water or the tears) 
flowed ; "^ {pi 1^^) an eye ; a 
fountain ; ii. ^,U he saw clearlj. 


S 1 -^ 

j^lc ( the reverse of -^U ) an unin- 

hahited region; a place that has 
been hud waste by a flood. 

<oU end, extremity, termination, flnal 
point, goal, terminus ; extreme, ut- 
most, ne plus ultra. 

^^^ (f.) he deceiyed, he defrauded; 

^UJf mutually deceiving or de- 
frauding; the inflicting of loss upon 
one another. 

1 Jki (ti.) he came in the morning; i«X£ 
to-morrow ; in the morning. 

' )A£ (u.) he ate; he fed, etc. 

-c (w.) he deceived, beguiled ; j^ 

deception; vnS^l he was de- 
ceived, beguiled, cozened, cheated. 

^^ (<<•) he was absent, distant; 

(the sun) set; c—j]^ a crow, a raven; 

^^^^ an alien, a stranger ; ^J^ 

the west ; sunset. 
QijS. quadril, he sifted ; J u^ a sieve, 

a scarce ; (JJj^ sifted, cleansed. 

(jw^ (».) he planted; ^/j;^ planting. 

fj0^ (a.) he desired; he sought ear- 

nestly ; (joJ' aim, end, object, pur- 
pose, design, interest, business. 

• • 

^^ he was plunged, immersed, or 

submerged ; ^|^ submersion. 
^«^ (a.) he was involved in debt ; ui. 

/«^i he made addicted, or devoted 

(to anything) ; /^jk.^ desirous, wish- 
ful ; addicted^ given up to. 



Jji (f.) he spun; JJi spinning; 

fj\ji {pi. IJ'J^) a gazelle^ a fewn, 
a young deer. 


\^ for j^ (m.) he attacked ; he in- 
vaded ; he warred, he waged war. 

4>mc (».) he washed. 

\Jix. (w.) he deceived; ^jUs^ deceit; 

^yMX^ adulterated, counterfeited, 
falsified; deceitful. 

^tfUfc£ (a.) he veiled or covered. 

^■'^onr (f.) and vn. ^.lon-.pi he car- 
ried off by force or fraud. 

(j*^^ (P^' (j;^*^"^') ft branch, a bough. 

Vy^^ nV " (a.) he was angry, incensed ; 

I. ^ -^onr and m. 5_ -^^^ he made 

* ^ i" 


^^ ^ 

angry ; he incensed ; 
ire, rage, wrath. 

^Ac (f.) he covered; he pardoned, he 

forgave ; ix.^^A«Lo^he asked pardon, 
he besought to forgive and absolve; 
j^Ac merciful, forgiving, pardoning. 

jAc fa.) he was negligent, heedless. 

idle ;\)a*^ destitute of genius, at- 
tention or presence of mind ; care- 
less, thoughtless, heedless, incuri- 
ous, ignorant, dull, stupid. 




^. < 

Ji {u,") he inserted (one thing into 

another) pj^c (i?//£)lljtl) a collar, 
or any thing put round the neck 
(wheUier of iron, wood, or a skin 
with the hair on) ; a yoke. 

^, 4 r. (f.) he OTercame, conquered, 

was superior ; ti. ^.»^U3\ he was 

conquered, etc. ; c^lclC/wi.^LLc) 
superior, more or most powerful, 

stronger, strongest ; t^Jf^l _3 for 
the most part. 

jlc («.) and m. J;ii1 he shut up ; 
he locked or fastened (a door). 

aIa (a.) he hurned with lust ; he de- 

sired ; |*lc (|?/. J^Uii) a boy, lad, 

youth; a servant; adolescent, pu- 

,^ji^ (ti.) he afilicted, distressed; yn. 
^^^1 he suffered auction ; he was 

glum and sad; he grieyed; ^ 
grief, sadness, distress. 

^^ (w.) he covered ; he roofed ; in 

the passive ^m ^^^ and in. i<^c' 
^Jcc he swooned, fainted (synony- 
mous with aJic ,c4^). 
_^ (a.) he enjoyed; he was con- 

tented, satisfied; ix. _:jc«id\ he 
was contented ; he want^ nothing ; 
he was independent, or able to do 

without, and to dispense with ; ^^^ 

wealthy, rich ; S ui a song ; music ; 

^^:^contentednes8of mind; wealth. 

^1 -' 

s .^ 

S^K y 


jU (^Z, ^jfJ^t also jU^ and ^U^ 
(^/.^UU) a cave, a cavern ; a den. 

^^U for ^ys- («.) he dived ; ^\y^ 
a diver ; also name of a bird. 

i U^amob; tumult, uproar,confusion. 

JU for J^ (fi.) he surprised; he 
attacked insidiously and destroyed ; 

^Ju«x a treacherous or unexpected 

1^^ (f.) he erred ; he was deceived ; 

^ error, sin ; <uU the extremity ; 
the extreme limit ; ne plus ultra. 
c->\i^ for v,,,>ijr (f.) he was absent, 

invisible ; he disappeared ; c^^^ 
whatever is hidden from us and in- 
visible; mystery; futurity ;isUj4 
slandering of the absent, backbiting. 

^. y yy ■r 


jU foTj^ (f.) he was jealous ; i. i-^ 

he changed; iv-j^ it was changed, 
altered (generally for the worse) ; 

j^ alteration ; different, other, ex- 
oept ; jJu without, besides. 

^li for Isle («.) he was inflamed with 

anger ; he was incensed ; la^ anger, 
indignation, rage. 

uJ an inseparable particle, signifying 
then, therefore ; so that, in order that. 

o So 

j\i (fern, iyj) a mouse. 




Z -i^ 

^ (a.) lie opened, unclosed ; <(s^U 
an opening or beginning ; the first 

chapterof the Kor'an ; ^v:^ a key. 

^ (f .) he tried ; he proved, or tested; 

ajCLJ a trial, temptation; trouble, 
strife, sedition, tnmult, insurrection, 
cabal ; evil, pest. 

jS? (ti.) he poured forth ; he was false, 

Ticiou8,or dissolute; r>jsf he caused 
to burst forth, he set a-flowing; he 
allowed (water) to run and diffuse 

(itself); •-osr' adiflRising, a causing 
to flow ; j^ dissipation ; debauch- 
ery; f^^ and i«i:^ dissipated. 



fe? (a.) he gloried over ; yu,jS^^ 
he boasted ; he took credit to him- 
Belf;^£>^\iprecious,excellent; fine, 
gorgeous, or sumptuous (apparel), 
splendid, showy (dress). 

^ ,^ ji a yoke of oxen ; a plough. 

]Sj (•'.) he ransomed; he devoted 
himself for another. 

y (».) he fled away ; j\^ flight, run- 
ning away. 

l^(a.)hewasjoyftil,cheerfiil; i.^ 

he exhilarated, delighted; ^^ joy, 

gladness, delight, glee ; ^J'^^ joy- 
ful, joyous, happy, pleased. 

Jy (w.) and VI. jJS^ he was sepa- 
rated, withdrew, retired, was alone. 

^j (♦.) and vn. ^j^\ he (the 
Hon, etc.) grasped by the neck ; he 

o ^< 

tore with his teeth ; ^^ a horse ; 
a mare; ^)^\ the Persians, Persia. 

^^ (i«.) he spread (a carpet) ; he 

paved, he laid down (flag-stones) ; 

s y^ 
j-j^ a bed ; a couch ; any thing 

spread out, on which one reclines. 
^j0i (a.) he cut, he cleaved, he split, he 

tore ; ^^^i opportunityr-occasion, 
fit time, convenience'V leisure^NSus- 
pension of public business for a 
season; freedom^ease, relief^^rest ; 
a time, turn. 

c^ (a.) and rv. cj!ft7 he excelled, 

overtopped; SjJ the summit or 
apex; the branch of a tree (espe- 
cially* the top) ; any thing arising 
or produced from another; effect, 

result; c^j^ J^pUoot and branch; 
cause and effecty principal and ac- 

^2^ji Pharaoh; any cruel tyrant; 
imperious, haughty, overbearing. 

< ^< 

Cji (a.) he finished, brought to a close^ 
concluded, terminated ; he ceased; 

^u3 leisure, disengagement ; ces- 
sation from labour; freedom from 

care, ease. 

j^ (i«.) he separated ; he parted ; n. 

^U he quitted ; he departed from ; 

vn. ^^j^\ he was separated ; y^j^\ 
removal, absence, distance, separa- 


Js (t.) he retired, he departed; he 



X ^'C 

tool ; (Jyos abusy, meddling spirit; 
follj; iippertinent interference. 

/** (a.) he widened ; J**' broad- 

sprang up ; lie was roused ; ix. 
jX:>J\ he alarmed ; he roused. 

Ju«J (ti.) it was conrupt, vicious ; ni. 

Ju««3i he corrapted, vitiated, de- 
stroyed, spoilt ; he practised evil ; 

jlli corruption, depravity, evil, 
vice, iniquity; mutiny, rebellion ; a 
diseased state, distemper, unsound- 
ness (of mind or body). 

i^MiA («. & «.) he committed sin (es- 
pecially fornication) r^^^ & ^^ 
solute, worthless, impudent fellow ; 
impious, abandoned, profligate. 

uJ (w.) it was divulged ; it extended; ^^ \a^ he was lively, gay, merry, fac» 
it became pubUc ; m. ^1 he di- ^^^^ .^^. ^ ^^^ J^,jJ^ ^^^ 
vulged, revealed, or spread abroad. 

tf^ (fi.) he was eloquent ; <U-l.aj elo- 
quence, perspicuity, dearaess. 

headed ; hence, ^' ' the bulL 

Jbu (0.) he did; he acted; J^ (/'JL 

Jui & J^i) a deed, act, action. 

«\fti (f .) he sought and found out (what 
he had lost) ; he desired ; he missed. 

J^ (w.) he was poor ; m.^Ail he im- 
poverished, he reduced to indigence ; 

indigenti poor; JS poverty, 

••• . 


^.^^ < 

J^ (•'.) he separated ; he dissected ; 
Jmoj a section ; a division ; chapter 
(of a book). 

4Uii silver (rt. ^joi «.) 

,^ (tf.) he exposed to infamy; '^y^ 
disgrace, ignominy. 

Ji^ («.) it was redundant ; it ex- 
ceeded; I. J^ hepreferred, exalted, 

distinguished; iv. ^yoAJ heexcelled, 
was eminent ; he conferred a favour, 
he favoured, he obliged; he pre- 

Bumed, was arrogant ; J^ exoel- 

lence, superiority, knowledge ; jLi5 

even, in the least, at all; Qy^ 
busy, meddling, officious; a tom- 


[!^ such a one; so and so (whose 
name is known, yet not mentioned). 

^ (a.) he ploughed, he tiUed (thi 

ground); «^' he prospered; he 

was blessed ; i^f^ successful, pros- 
perous, happy. 

f^ (f .) he cleft or split ; vi. ^^SJ\ it 
was split or shivered, it burst 

^ and *i the mouth. In construc- 
tion, it is declined like cJi as; 

pf 9^' 15?* ^' ^ (i'^-^'y^) 

as if fi»m 2fy , of which ^ is said 
to be a corruption. 

^ he drove ; i>\J^ he classed ; he 

distributed into orders ; ^species, 
form, kind ; art, science, skill, trick, 







^ < 

^^ for ^-iJ (a.) it was destroyed ; 

it disappeared ; m. ^^] he made 

disappear; be wasted^ consumed, 

^s^ (a.) he comprehended, he under- 

v^ stood p{«^ understanding, sense. 

LU\j for CL>y (ti.) it passed by ; it 
elapsed, escaped, slipped away; it 

perished; djy failure; death. 

Jb for Jy (tf.) he obtained possession 

of; he enjoyed; Jy triumph, vic- 
tory; happiness, enjoyment. 

j« for jy (w.) he was superior ; he 

excelled; m. jUi he recovered 
(from sickness, swoon, intoxication, 
etc*) 9 <Jy &^^e, over, more than ; 


^\i poverty, destitution; starving, 
extreme hunger. 

Jjy a species of bean. 

,Jpr^. in,into,among,conceming,on. 

J\i for Jk^ (f.) he derived emolument; 

he was benefited ; in. jQl he bene- 
fited ; he enriched ; he instructed ; 

jFjjU advantage, benefiti profit, 
gain, emolument, use.^^ 

Xjui andfe IftJ (pi. ^C5) a plain, a 
desert void of water. 

^ he was ugly, deformed, base; 
IX. .^yi:^\ he deemed base ; he ab- 

horred; .^vJI deformed, hideous, 

ugly, abhorrent ; X^ ugliness, de- 

^jo^ (f.). he took; he seized; he 
grasped, clutched; ^ja^ taking, 
seizing; capture, seizure, distraint; 

Ji^ (a.) he approached ; he admitted, 

accepted, adopted ; m. ^J^l he ap- 
proached; he advanced towards; 

V •ox ol • 0<f 

he began>J-<j before ; ^^1 J^ be- 

ox b 

fore that ; J-o ^ formerly, be- 


.• cr^ 


fore ; J^ at, near, with ; 

in respect of, through, from ; ^3uiJ 

(/?/. Jjto) a tribe, family, race. 

J^ («.)he slew; he killed; n. JjU 

and T. JjU7 he sought to slay ; he 

fought.or contended with ; in. JI3 1 
he put to death; he exposed (to 
danger or destruction) ; he gave up 

jx> be killed ; vii. J^\ he fought, 
combated; Jl^S war, battle, conflict. 

ox ... 

Jj an affirmative particle, signifying 
truly, indeed, verily. See Gr. § 195. 

. Jj' a cup, glass, drinking- vesseL 

• X 

jji (t.) he was able ; he was power- 

^^ X 

ful; i.jjj he measured; he fixed ; 

S X 

he decreed ; j£ Jo powerfuli able, 

ommpotent jl*^ measurement, 
proportioning; decreeing; supposi- 



tion, hypothesis; ^jJ power ;^J^ 
\^/. jj Ji5) a kettle, pot, or cauldron. 



^ ^ ^ 


(jutf Jj he was pure, holy ; i. (jm JJ he 
sanctified; he consecrated; heglori- 

s ^ t , , • 

fied ; \j»*S5 purity, sanctity. 

^ji (tf.) ne preceded, went before, 

^was prior to ; i. .♦ Ji he brought for- 
ward ; preferred, promoted ; he of- 
fered, presented ; he served up, set 

(food) before; irt ^jJU he stepped 

forward, he advanced; aJj (|??. 

^IJJi) the foot; a step;^iJL5 be- 

fore, in front of ^V A3 old, ancient, 
olden, former. 

\S5 for J JJ (ti.) he moved on rapidly ; 
n. he imitated ; he took for his 

model or exemplar (^^J^). 
jSi («.) it was impure or unclean ; 

S 9 

^ jU impurity ; a dunghill, mixen. 

JS (•• & a.) he rested ; he remained 

firm and still ; it was cold ; in.^i 
he fixed, established, appointed ; he 
confirmed, ratified ; he averred, he 

affirmed ; ix. ^^^^ he was fixed ; 
he abode, sojourned, dwelt, settled ; 

S S a 

X« a place of residence; ^j^J^ 

(/y^.jj^ly )a vase, flask, glass bottle, 

decanter ; a glass urinal, in which 
the urine of a sick person is shewn 
to the physician. 

2^ "(». & i«.) he' read; heintoned; 
^|y5 readmg; the Kur'an. 



^ c 

^Ji (a.) he approached ; he drew 
near ; i« ^^ji he brought forward ; 

he advanced ; he placed near ; v. 

ij^U? they were near to, or adjoin- 
ing (each other) ; they approached 

(one another); «»-*^ {ph 'b^i) 
near, nearly related ; a relation. 

^3 (•'.) he recompensed ; he repaid ; 

in. <jo/1 he lent; {jOj5 a loan; a 



fjij3 (f.) he joined ; he umted ; ^i^ 

{pL ^^j^f a horn ; an age, period, 


t^t: ^ ^ c 

Uj for yu5 (u.Wthe heart) was hard, 

obdurate ; n.^L^li he endured; he 
suffered ; he became callous. 

^ c 

(f.) he cut in pieces or joints ; 
(__>u^ a butcher. 

s • 

<t^ (|9i. fjAos) a tale, narrative, his- 

Ju33 U*.) he pursued, made for, aimed 
atyWenttowards; Juos aim,tendency. 

^^ f. 

j^ (u.) he was deficient, fell short ; 
he was unequal to ; i. ^^ he failed ; 

he did less than he ought, he was 

Si** (^ S P S 

deficient ; yii£3 (^pl.jyoj) a palace; 

iU3Safuller,bleacher; a washerman. 

he diverted himself; he danced 

^^ and VI. ^JasiJ\ he rushed on (the 
enemy) ; he pounced on (the prey). 

(f.) he decreed, determined ; he 

concluded ; vi. i^^l it was con- 
eluded, determined,finished; $L3&}| 





completion, tennination^expiration ; 

yiU for ^^IS a judge; ^5f^^ 
the Kadi, or jadge. 
^£j f «}M»llaS^ a male or female cat. 

l^Jlj (f.) he turned; he inverted; 

VI. l_-^q'*1 it was inverted, turned, 

tranfiposed ; c^^Jlai^ returning ; fu- 

turity; l^^(i?/.c^.»^) the heart; 
the mind. 

j^ (l>^« j^^) the moon (especially 
from the third day to fi^ end) ; m. 

^^1 it was hright moonlightyjie 
had the fiill moon shining on him. 

bunch of grapes; iL^ (^/.^ '>^J^ a dismal, calamitous day. 

(a.) he cut; he separated; vi. 

«.Hftil it was cut, broken, inter- 
rupted ; it ceased, stopped, failed. 

k^clsi (•*.) he picked; he gathered 

(grapes)N^fi^ {ph vlijiJ) grapes, . 


L^Uod) velvet; a kind of cake 
made of flour, honey, and oil. 

^ (w.) he inhabiteifh^^ an in- 
habitant, a settled resident. 

Jue (u.) he sat down. 

\ — 

•aS he tracked; hcT followed ;jii {pi. 

^^3^) a desert destitute of water 
and herbage. 

(a.) he was shrunk. 

3*5 (f. & «.) he returned from his 

journey J^lib a caravan, a com- 
pany of travellers, a coffle. 

Ul for^ («.) he followed; Us the 
hind-head; back part, or nape of 

the neck, the nuke r>uS _U after 
him, behind him. 

Ji it was small, little, few, deficient ; 

J^ small, little, wanting, few; 

J31 less, least ; more or most defi- 

cicnt; fewer, fewest; iSi small- 
ness, scantiness, paucity, fewness. 



(a.) he was contented ; 
tent, satisfied, contented. 

j^ (a.) he vanquished, he overcame ; 

^^l5 a conquerorT^S^liLll victrix; 
the city of Cairo in Egypt. 

tS\j for <jy («.) he led ; he governed ; * 
he retaliated ; vt. JW\ he was led ; 
he obeyed, he was submissive ; ix. 

^JUiuijI he took retaliation ; he in- 

demnified himself; J^b {^pl. oly) 
a leader, ruler, commander, chief; 
^s)yi retaliation; lex talionis. 

jli for Jy (m.) he said, he spoke ; 
Jy (^/. ^j^j?) speech; a word, 

^ s^ ■ 

saying ; JuU and <UlL« speaking, 
saying; a speech, discourse. 

M^ for /•y (i«.) he stood; he arose; 

III. |*\j1 he caused io stand, he set 
on foot; he raised; he erected; he 
stayed, rested, abode; he was earnest 
and persevering in prayer and sup- 




1 •• 

plication ; /*IL« a place ; a station ; 


JUui-9^ erectness; rectitude; con- 

if ^^ if f 
Btancy, stability ; a^^aim^ erecty np- 

right, straigla^X>4U (pi. |4^^) ^® 
fore or hind foot of a quadruped ; 


Mj\ staying, standing still; /«^ 
{pi. /«iy i) a crowd, tribe, multitude. 

' s 

K^f (a.) he was strong, powerM ; ify 


(i?/. 1^^) force, strength, exertion ; 
c^y strong, powerful, robust. 

JjyuMj strength, power ; a man's name. 

jA^ the Kolaap or ruler of the By- 
zantine Empire. 



he forged; S^ {pi. ^lli) a girl ; 
a female slare, singer, or musician. 

cJ partieU of itmtMude, like, as ; cJ 
maso. and ^J fem. affixed pran. 2nd 

pers. thee, thine; ^\d as if, like. 

(jM o a drinking-cup ; a wine-gla]BS. ^ . . ^ 

^'^ / X , I I . ^K >/ («.) he was generous, munificent, 

^ (tf.) he was large, corpulent; i.^ pr v / o^ » > 

he magnified ; he highly estimated ; 
he expressed surprise, etc., by ex- 

claiming Jot d]i\ God is Great ! it. 

Jfij he was haughty, presumptuoul; 

jJl? haughtiness ; J^ greatness, 

pride ; Jj^ grandeur ;^ (i?/. jl^) 

great, large; adult ; \j^ and |^CS 

greatly, very much ; ^1 greater, 
greatest, elder, eldest. 

C/^ (/''* c/^ T^) ^ ™^® lamb, a ram. 
"^ •• - ' 

L^ («.) he wrote ; C^l^ (i?/. l-^) 

a writing ; a letter, book ; a law : 

c^u^ t the book, the sacred volume. 

(.-fi^ {pi, ^Jc^and uJli^t ) the shoulder 
or shoulder-blade. 

^ (m.) it was abundant; irjSd and 

in.Ji^t he multiplied ; he increased ; 
he used a plentiful supply ; j^ 

numerous, many, much ; 1^ ex- 
ceedingly, in a high degree; ij^^ 
much, abundance ; Ji£\ more, most. 

Jo (ti.) he laboured^S)^ labour, work, 
diligence; f&tigue. 

t J^ like that, so, such. 

Ci-> j^ (»'.) he lied ; i. c-> j^ he accused 
of falsehoodi called a liar, gave the 

lie, declared &lse ; Cj'^ and (^^«j^ 
falsehood ; c«» JlS and s-^Jo a liar. 

liberal; i. ^ he honoured, he 

revered ; m. Mf\ he honoured, re- 
spected, venerated ; he treated with 

attention and ceremony; ^$ {pL 

a\^) generous, bountiful, benign, 
beneficent, gracious (one of the epi- 
thets of God). 




2^f (a.) he abhorred, detested ; he was 
averse from. 

K^ for ^ («.) he placed ; vn. kJj^\ 
he hired, he rented. 

Ll^ (f .) he gained, he acquired ; 

m. \_ v'^^ he gained for another ; 
he caused to gain ; he conferred. 

Is (».) he broke to pieces. ^ 

\^j>*^ and sj^f*^^ the name of several P\Jj 

Persian kings, more especially of 
Nushirwan (the Chosroes of the 

iK-iuuS (f .) he cut ; it underwent an 
eclipse ; he was in an evil plight. 

J-u*^ (a.) he was lazy ; J-ui^ laziness, 
idleness. S^ 

iy^^ an upper garment ; a large veil ; 
^ raiment, clothing. 


S f'^ 

^. -"^ 

blasphemy; Jri and j^ an un- 

believer, an infidel ; j^ infidelity. 

^jii («.) he wrapped (a dead body) in 
a winding-sheet. 

^<K (•'.) it was enough, it sufficed ; 
n. j^u he compensated, he remu- 
nerated ; VII. kJ^\ he was satisfied, 
he was content. 

he was fatigued ; (the vision) was 
dim, (the sword) was blunt ; 

blunt (sword) ; dim (vision) ; J^ 
the whole, all, entire, universal, 

total, every, each ; UK as often as, 

by no means, not in the least 
iiK pasturage, green crop, grass. 

S 9 


fji^ (j>l, S-'^) a dog, a hound. 


c-jI£^ (f.) he exposed, he laid open ; 

yi.,Jl^\ it was open, bare, ex- r^(''-)'^««°«^d«"°^*ly(^'«'y 

(».) he restrained (his wrath), he 
compressed (his anger). 

uJ^ {pL uJy^) the hand, or palm of 
the hand ; the fist. 

U^ {a.) he turned back ; he inverted ; 

\^ like, similar, equal. 

^ («.) he believed not (in God); he 
was unbelieving, impious, and un- 
grateM ; x>jiS he expiated a crime, 
or the breach of an oath (by doing 
penance or paying a mulct as an 

atonement) ;jSO impiety, infidelity. 

undertaking) ; he was engrossed (by 

any thing); i. ujii^ he imposed 
labour or trouble; he compelled 
and obliged (another) to undertake 
(something) difficult or above (his) 
strength ; and also without making 
(him) any remuneration for it. 

XX <ix 

J^ (ti.) he wounded ; i. Ji^ he ad- 


dressed, he spoke to ; ^)b a word, 
speech, discourse ; logic ; rhetoric ; 

metaphysics ; ^uK a saying, a word. 

OXW ^ c'T 1^ 

aji^J • <LLaS the Arabian name or 

X ^ ••X 

title for the work known as the 
" Fables of Pilpay." 




fS how much ? how many r 

fS (oblique S) affixed pran, 2d pers. 
pL masc. 70a, yours. 

^ («.) he covered ; he concealed ; 
the sleeye (of a garment). 

U^ as, like as, such as. 

ij^ (u.) it was perfect, complete, en- 

tire; J-^u perfect, accomplished, 

full ; adroit, expert; JU? perfec- 
tion, excellence, accomplishment. 

jiS (t.) he hid (underground) ;^ji a 
treasure, more especially gold or 
silver hidden underground. 

^u^ a species of sweetmeat. 

c^ {pi. uj^) a cave, cavern, grot 

^ (a. & u.) he predicted, he pro- 

phesied ; ^l^ (pi. i^) a sooth- 
sayer, augur, astrologer, sorcerer; 
a priest, a prophet. 

T^j^ (P^- S^^i^^ A <^up» A bowl, a 
vessel without handles. 

Jo for Jjf (tf.) he was just on th 
point, he was little short of, he did 
all but. 

S 9 

dijS name of a celebrated city in Ira^. 
^ for jjjS (fi.) he was ; he became; 

^^ being, nature, essence \Xi^^ 
on account of his being, because 
he was. 

Jo for Jud (t.) he deceived; Ju^ de- 
ception, deceit, fraud, treachery. 

^ how ? in what manner ? 




J on inseparahle particle (generally 
used in the middle of a sentence), 
indeed, truly ; also for J to, for ; a$ 

d! to him ; c33 to thee; J on m- 

eeparahle particle, to, for, towards; 
on account of; (prefixed to the aorist 
it gives it the force of an impera- 

tive), as j » n\ »} let him assist. 
i no, not ; there is not. 
^ because, since, in order to. 

the hearty mind ; a kernel. 
t^ (a.) he delayed, he tarried. 
^jAtJi (a.) he put on (a garment) ; i/>»u] 

(pl.iuJ^ \) a garment, dress, clothes, 

robe, vesture, raiment, habit, garb, 
apparel, attire. 

J (f) (a camel) struck or pawed 

the ground with his fore-feet p^aJ 
a striking or pawing of the ground. 

« 9 

jJ(l?/.^Ul)milk; the sap of a tree. 

»jaJ (i?/. d^ Uj and c:^\^) a uoness. 

Is! (a.) he fled for refuge ; uiSQl he 
drove away ; he compelled, he forced. 

aIsH (Pers. (*^) a bridle, reins. 

^JL^ (a.) he licked with his tongue. 

^ -'. 

^ ^ ^ 

is) (a.) and iiMa^^X he viewed, be- 
held, looked or glanced at. 

^^£^ (a.) he overtook , he reached ; in. 






fjj^\ he caused to meet; he joined ; uJj (ti.) and Ynr&ZcrJl he wrapped 

* he a ffixed, he suffixed ; he conveyed. 

^-^ I SOI 

A^ (a.) he fed with flesh; ^^ (i?/. 

S' ft 

A^) flesh, meat» animal food. 

1J^ (i??. (jl^^) a sound, tone, note ; 
melody, modulation. 


•» 5*^ 

himself up, he folded up ; 



was delicious ; it. J jjj he took 

pleasure ; he enjoyed himself; Jj jJ 

delicious, agreeable, pleasant; JJl 
sweeter, more or most delicious. 

j^IuJ^I?^NlLJ\) the tongue; lan- 

guageTN ls2 \ ijy^, with the tongue 

of the condition (not with that organ 
itself; but, for example, with ragged 
clothes or a haggard countenance, 
etc. ; see, moreo ver, Psalm xix. 1-6.) 

fS^ (•.) he turned ; he twisted ; vii. 

he turned towards one, he 
regarded ; he paid attention. 

c^ d^Z/c^liilf) a surname, title; a 




Ja! (t.) he slapped ; he smote on the 

cheek ; iuLJ a blow, slap, box. 
L-^ (a.) he played, he sported. 

\|};*1 (a.) he licked (his finger, etc.) ; 

N^iul one single lick (of the finger). 

J«l perhaps ; LXW perhaps thou. 

nick-name, by-name; i. c-^^ he 
gave a surname, style, title, or 
nickname; hesurnamed; he dubbed. 

*XRj verily, truly. 

^UbAJ name of a celebrated sage ; the 
Arabian iEsop. 

/^aJ (a.) he met ; he opposed ; he saw ; 

iu.^aJI he threw down; he im- 
parted, communicated ; he injected, 

he infused ; he inspired ; ^uJ see- 
ing, meetipg, encountering ; aspect ; 
face, countenance. 

J^ also ^ but, yet, stilL 

S ^ 9 


J not (when prefixed to the aorist it 
usually gives it a past signification). 

uJ for what? why? wherefore? 1 juJ 
^ (a.) he cursed ; ^ a curse, im- I ^fof^^ reason? why so? 

precation; ^^^ accursed, execra- - ^ 7^^^-' ^^^ ^^^V^ ?^^-I?*.! 

ble. abominable. i >w^ (tf.) he touched or felt with his 

U!(for ^/(«.) ho talked triflingly hand; vn. (Ji*^^ ho sought for, 

and nonaensicaUy ; iiJ language, \ ^f«««=l^^«4«?s'!:?4i.he>_8ought.._ 

Bpcech, dialect, idiom ; ^' vain, |^**^' ""^ *" '^°°*' ^""'''*"- .. 
frivolous or nonsensical tiilk. ^V^ (<* ) ^o swallowed quickly; ho 

I • 





galped down ; IIX^^^ \ be inspired ; 

he revealed. 

^J for y^ («.) he played, sported, 

diverted himself p^ amusement, 
diversion, play, sport, fun, 

J if; if but, bad but \i^yi not, unless. 

"jJ ^or JjJ ](«.) ho fled to ; he took 
refuge With ; he was under the pro- 
tection of another. 

" c^ 

jJJ an almond; ^^f^jJ a confection 
of almonds ; a sweetmeat prepared 

^ t*. 

with almonds (Pers. ^J^). 
JJapearl ; a precious gem. 

aH for A^ («.) and i. a^ he blamed; 

he reproached, he chid ; ^y blame, 
censure, reproach^ reproof. 


^^ (pi. loV') colour; species, sort. 

^^mJ he (or it) is not ; l£^wuJ I am 

not; dl-'vuJ thouartnot,etc.(through 
each person of the preterite). See 
Gr.Sl73. . 

JJ and aLLJ (p^. JU) night; LI by 
night; <L LLH to-night. 

Ui that which, what, whatsoever; 
not, no thing; what ? how ]^ what ! 

Ui how delicious ! 

fU \pl, h\^ and ^ij^i)for hy water; 
liquor; jjiicejBag^ 


X • • 

(^U (•'.) he extended, stretched ; XjL« 
a hundred. 

^jt^ (j?/. fc^v-w*) a file, rasp. 

(a.) he enjoyed ; ix. ^jv^.';**?) he 
took enjoyment ; he reaped fruit. 
^z^ when r if at any time. 


J UL« name of a weight of nearly one 
drachm and a half; also the name 
of a gold coin (rt. Jij). 

jL/% (tf.) he was like, he resembled ; 
fjL/j likeness ; similar, resembling ; 

jL« (pi, Jl^l) like, equal to ; a 

proverb, an adage; Jvl^ simili- 
tude ; a representation, description ; 
a form, figure. v 

(u.) he excelled ; v^ glory, 
splendour, excellence. 

^js^ (a.) and vii. ^^yi^^^ he tried, 
he proved, he put to the test; ho 
BtrucK>^^^:i«^ experienced, skilled ; 

experience ; labour, toil, moil ; 
calamity (by which men are tested) ; 
^l^u«^ test, trial, examination. 

i^Jls^ ( pi. i..j^lir<) a claw or talon. 

iX« (tf.) he extended, he stretched out; 

9X^ space of time, period ; season ; 
length of time, intervals 

^ • 

• y -^ 

e. X 

,jX^ he stayed, he sojourned; <^[<X^ 
a city, a town. 

j^ (u.) he passed by ; he departed ; he 
went on yy^ a passing by^*^^^ a 

place of passage ]\^ once upon a 
time; formerly. 




]j^ (a.) (Food) did (one) good, digested 

well ; ^yt easy of digestion ; nutri 

tious. SeeUi; f^^aman; it^] 
a woman. 

i*]^ hypocriticallyi deceptively (rt. 

rf» • 

r^ (a.) he was cbeerfuli lively, joy- 
ous rV/* mirtb, memment. 

^U he sported or jested (with 

another); ^^ jesting; ajoke, jest, 
T'^, J fun, frolic. 

^^'^^ (a) he drew his hand over his 
head ; he wiped (his head) ; he 

anointed; <^w« anointed ; <^wk]\ 
the anointed; the Messiah. 
^u«Cyu« (t.) and in>k3Cl^l he seized. 

^^ ^^^ — v^tj-' . grasped, held, laid hold of. 

^^r« (^0 Mid i/Vj^ ^® anointed i-'^^ ^^^ , -'^r.., 

*«< ^ ^^^-^ w^ for yAfc^ and j****^ («.) he came 

(with oil) ; JiTyu an anointing. . .T» ' ^ xi. 

^^ in the evening ; f U^ the evening. 

stubborn, disobedient, or rebellious. ^ 

•^ ^ 

. ^X^ (-P^'^^^ilrj) ® sledge-hammer. 

^ ^»^< 

^J% (a.) he fell sick ; v. JoJ^ he 

feigned sickness ; \jo>y disease, ill- 
ness, sickness; hypocrisy; unbelief. 

• ^ for yi (tt.) he was manly, virtu- 
ous ; l^y manliness, valour, virtue. 

y^sf a man's name ; the fourth Caliph 
of the Umayyad dynasty. 

i^y% (f.) he inflicted blows; II^^U 

he disputed, contcndedT^i^ con- 
tention, disputation. 

aj^ (the Virgin) Mary. 

IJ^ (tf.) he mixed; he tempered; vn. 
^j^\ it was congenial ; it agreed 
with one; he was disposed or in- 
olincd ; ^^U^ temperament, consti- 
tution; amixtQre;whateveriBmixed 
with wine. 

I.) he jested ; he sported ; n. 

{pi. ^UJ« 1) mixed ; a mixture, 

iJ^ (•.) he walked ; he wentT'V^ 
and <Uu«^ walking, marching, pro- 

cecding ; <Um> U {pi. ^J^\y) a quad- 
ruped; cattle. 

w^ (a. & II.) be chewed ; he masti- 

cated ; w^ the act of chewing. 

• ' ^ 

^Si^ (f.) he passed byY^ wenVhe 

yL^ («.) it rained; Ja^ (fI.j\L«l) 
ndn ; a shower. 

UL« for jSo^ («.) he drew; he ex- 
tended; Tv.^^xiJ he*8tietdied 
himself; he yawned. 

together with. 
^JIm CfL^Im) a cave^ cavenL 

i[C« the city <tf Meooa. 

plottadt he devised; he 

c -» 



-^ ^ 





decciyed, he cheated ; ^^ fraad,de- 
ceit, contrivance, machination, art, 

stratagem; jl^ a deceiver, knave, 

^jL« («.) he was powerful; i. ^^^ 

and in. ^pUi he gave power, he 
enabled, he rendered capable; iv. 

^^L«J he was able ; he had in his 
power, he possessed anthoritj, he 
was powerful ; he settled, he took 

up his abode; ^^^2^ {jpL ^j^i 
and ^X«1) a place, spot, station. 

«. ^ 

J^ (a.) he became disgustedi he felt 



)U (a.) he filled ; vn. ILi^f he was 
filled; %L% a concourse of people, 

i?»*> (ox 

a host, assembly ; ^^U and f^Li^ 
full, filled. 


11^ religioui &ith ; a sect ; a nation, 

mt^ (a.) he salted ; he seasoned with 

salt ; J^ salt 

j;L« he flattered, soothed; (Jj^ 
flattery, fawning, blandishment, 

LijC£« (t.) he possessed; he had 
dominion and power ; he reigned ; 

I. L.xL« he caused to possess ; he 
constitutedking; L^Xl^andaiCl^ 
akingdom,dominion,power; v_^W 
(ph LJy^) a king; (.1^ {pi 

s^ • 

i^ht) an angel ; u^U a king ; 

a lord ; a possessor; Sil^ a queen; 

fJL^Jij^ kingdom, dominion, em- 
pire, sovereignty. 

lU for X« (u.) he went rapidly; 

i>^ lasting long ; a long time. 

Ik^ for t« ^ froB^ thal^ which. 
See Gr. § 27. 

^ pronoun of eommon gmtder, «fn- 
yuAir and plural^ he who, they who, 

^ from, from out of, of, for, than 
{after theeomparativedeffree) \j^ ^ 

without; (oi rr^ «j-^ besides, not- 

^ (fi.) he was kind or liberal (to- 

wards another) ; ^ a gift ; manna. 

Jjki^ {ph Jj[jlL«) an enchanter's 
circle described on the ground; a 
magic circle. 

(a.) he prevented, he hindered; 

IV. w:i4>J he was inaccessible; ho 
kept himself aloof; he drew back, 
he abstained. 

j^ (a.) he was quick in understand- 
ing ; JtX^ skilful, expert, clever, 

acute, excellent; ^V* ^^^^) ®^' 
cellence, expertness, proficiency. 

Ji^ (a.) he did anything slowly and 

by degrees; in. J^l he deferred, 
prolonged, granted a delay; vn. 

^ ^ ^ 




JfL«[ he evinced patience, shewed 







lorbearance; J^ delay; a^ or X^ 
gently, softly, dowly. 

c£>U for i£)yt (u) he died; cHj|^ 

death; cr^^^^^ (j?/. fJLJ\y%\ and 

yj^y^f dead; extinct; dying, 

JU for j^ (tt.) he was wealthy; 

Jli (j?/. J'j^i) wealth, riches. 

Jl« for Ju^ (i.) he served up food ; 

iljuUi (j?/. Jol^) a tray or table 
covered with victuals. 

S ,x-» 

ci^uJ vegetation, herbage; grass, 

-* - j^ (t.) he raised up, he exalted; 

^% ^ 

x*' • 


jli forj*^ (».) and i. J*^ he dis- 
criminated, reflected, considered. 

Ju for J*^ (i.) he inclined, he 

leaned ; iii. J t«i he caused to lean, 
bend or incline, he gave a bias. 


^U for (jw«Ui men, mankind; the 
human race (as opposed to irrational 

animals). See under rt. ^/m^T . 

^"^XjtiyXi and <U»^u a gnat, midge, 

w (a.) he went from one country to 
another; he announced; he pro- 

claimed; ^ announcing, declaring; 

^^ a prophet ; tf^ prophecy ; the 
prophetical office or gift. 
l:u«J (tf.) (vegetation) sprung up, 
was produced, grew; <^w and 

f <^v 

for . «2Ct« a liberator. 

a pulpit, a reading-desk. 

Lr^%^ (•.) and m. LS^^^ac U l (the camel 
or mare) foaled ; (the sheep) yeaned. 

^ (tf.) and ni. ^\ it smelt badly, 

it stunk ; ^j^:^ stinking, fetid. 

^ (tf . & t.) he scattered ; he dispersed ; 

v.^uj it was dispersed ; (the hair) 
flowed loose and was dishevelled. 

{j»*^ {a,) he was dirty, nasty, filthy, 
unclean; A-jUf*' impurity, filth, dirt 

lac** for 4flKr» («.) he escai 
and nfS^^an he liberated; he 
savedj^^Ct for yjff^ 

Jo;:^ and <LLsr the honey-bee. 

# o >- 

J^^a^ pwr%, jpron. of the comm. gender^ 
dual and plural f we two, or we. 

VflsT' for^fl^ (a. & «.) he went towards; 

^** — < ** ^ 
he aimed at ; yas^ as, about, to, to- 

wards; <Ur^U {^pl, jc^V) ^ ^^" 
trict,quarter, tract,extent of country . 

Jar, J-jaT, and 4J^ a palm-tree. 
J jj (ti.) he remained alone ; j Ju sin- 
gular, unique; rare, uncommon, 

unusual ; jt)ul \ _3 rarely, seldom, 
^Jj (a.) he repented; he regretted; 

' s 

i«jj and <C«iJj penitence, regret, 




sorrow; aj«>j a boon-companion 
intimate friend. 

S P f^ 

, an N*aJ (j?/. j|^) the eagle or vnltnre. 
3 a gentle breeze, a zepbyr. 

J jJ (•'. & tt.) be vowed ; be dedicated 

to Gk)d; jJj a vow; a promise ; a 
present or o£Pering from an inferior 
to a superior, boly man or prince. 

X i^y 

cj3 (i.) be removed ; be stripped ; be ^ 

tore out; v. yijuJ tbey disputed to- 
gether, altercated, wrangled, liti- 

gated; fj w altercation, disputing, 
litiga tion. 

^^ (g.) be forgot; be neglected; 

M UJ and ^tyw (for tbe singular of 


wbicb ^''jA is used), women, tbe 
female sex. 

• y» 

UJ (a.) be grew up ; be was brought 
upj be was educated. 

^ ■^ y 

< -'-' 

dj3 (t.) he sowed dissension; be 

slandered, reviled; 9^ suggesting 
of evil ; exciting to what is bad ; 
te mptation. 


^p (•.) he descended, be alighted; 

. Qjj be made to descend, be sent 
down ; be revealed (from heaven) ; 

"^^Mi. J^l he caused to descend ; he 
brought down ; he invited (a guest) 
to alight, he entertained, he re*- 

ceived hospitably ;^"y^ causing 

to alight ; receiviug and entertain- 

ing hospitably; JjJij sending down, 

revealing; Qj^ an inn, caravan- 
sery, or place for travellers to alight; 

hotel, stage, station ; <U^ a bouse 

of accommodation for travellers ; a 
step, post of honour ; rank, dignity, 

aut hority ; (J^ . 4!?^c??5i. 

3 (tf. & •.) he referred ; he de* 

-^ (f*. &t.)bcwove; ^***^ weaving. 

jLJ (tf.) he spread out, extended ; be 
scattered, dif^sed ; he promulgated, 

X <^ y 

3 (tf.) he placed, set up, planted. 


^^ (a.) he admonished, be coun- 

. selled, he advisedT^e was sincere ; 
^^ ^--^ \ *. o/ 

s * ^ s * 

0^^ also ,^^ advising, admonisb- 

ing ; ^^u a monitor,Ni faithful 

adviser ; a>incere friend ; V**a; sin- 

cere, genuine; 4.^1^ admonition, 
^^dvice, counsel. 

^ y ^ 

S »y 

*» X 

j*aj (u,) he assisted, he aided ; j^\j 

{ph jUu 1) an assistant ; a helper, 
defender; an ally (applied par- 
ticularly to those citizens of Medina 
who assisted Muhammad when he 
fled thither from Mecca). 

*'. ^^ 



rived ; he attributed. 


3 («.) be halved ys^^Laj a half, 
a moiety ; the middle. 

V (u,) oryaj (a.) it was bright, bril- 

liant, blooming, and beautiful ; j .»aj 
splendour, brightness, bloom, fresh- 
ness (of complexion) ; opulence, 



• » • 


(a.) he buttod with his horns, he 
gored ^wvLJ batted, gored to death., 

a sheet of leather, dressed and 

prepared, which serves for a table 
or table-cloth, c? 


^— p J a J (t. & u.) (water) flowed ; <Un3 
pure water; clear water, lymph; 
sperma genitale. 

fjiaj («. & w.) he spoke, he articulated 
distinctly r'^jkJ speech, eloquence, 
pronunciation ; (J^a:^ a discourse, 
oration ; ^Ihx^ a belt, zone, girdle. 


Joj (t«.) he looked, gazed, beheld, 
observed, regarded ; Jaj sight; re- 

gard, consideration r^y^x^ aspect, 

cjuoj («.) he was clean |-cjl 
clean, pure. 

f^ (a. u. & •'.) it was convenient, 

soft, easy, agreeable; iii. axji he 
bestowed abundance ; he conferred 
favours and benefits ; he enriched ; 

he was bountiful ; ^ excellent ! 

good ! well done ! ^su a particle of 
affirmation, good, well, be it so, yes. 

j^\j convenient,agreeable,delicious; 

< ^< 

musical voice, melody, song, modu- 
lation, soft intonation. 

delicate living, luxury ; ^4^ {pi. 

j^) wealth, riches, opulence, 
abundance ; favour, a benefit. 

Ju Ku. & t.) ho read or sang with a 
low soft voice ; ^Uju a sweet and 

LSj (i. & ti.) he (the necromancer) 
blew (when making incantations or 

playing tricks); 41iu^ conversa- 
tion, talking together in private. 

yy -'^». 

u,^Xayne blew, he puffed; he in- 

spired or breathed into; vn. ^^i 

he was inflated or puffed out ; he 

was swollen. O 

SAJ (the arrow) penetrated, pierced 

through and through, coming out 

' on tho other side; he pervaded, 

passed by or through ; lu. sij\ he 
caused to pass, penetrate, or per- 
vade; he transmitted; he despatched 
(a letter or messenger). 

jij (ti. & f .) he shunned ; he fled in 

terror ; i. jSj he terrified ; ho 
scared ; he put to flight, he drove 
away ; vHj^IIji they fled from each 
other, they shunned one another 
(through panic,etc.) ijSu a number of 
persons, from three to ten ; a per- 
son, individual ; one of the common 
people ; a private soldier. 

^/Jtj \pl' (j^^ and ^j*Jl)\) the soul, 
spirit ; self; ^JuJu _3 to himself; 
within himself. 

f^M affluence, pleasure, enjoyment, \ ^ ^^ 

» '*"' a \jisj («.) he plucked or teased (wool 

SI <y 

y yy 

or cotton) with his fingers ; ^Jisu 
wool (plucked or picked, not shorn). 

^^joso («.) he shook (the tree) ; vn. 

a^\ it was shaken ; he trembled ; 
he shivered. 



^ -f 

^M (a.) it was nsefuli profitable, 
serviceable; it availed; ^a3 also 

<Uai^ (p/. ^ w«) advantage^profity 
use, benefit. 

fJJo (tf.) it perished, failed, was lost, 

or spent; ni. ^JJuy he expended, 

disbursed ; he laid out in the cause 
of God ; he bestowed (his goods) 
for the support of others. 

JAJ (u.) he. paid ready money ; vn. 

^vjJl5:;j1 he separated (good coin) 

from bad ; JJJ cash, ready money, 
prompt payment. 

^'ij (a.) he painted, printed, or 
stained (of two or more colours) ; he 

drew; he designed; ^Jj!tsj painting, 

printing; carving, engraving; /^Ia) 
apainter; a draughtsman; a sculp tor. 

i^^afij (a.) and vii.\,aibj^ it was de- 
fective or deficient ; it was dimin- 
ished; it suffered loss; was damaged; 


damage, diminution. 

\^ violation (of an agreement), 
breach (of faith). 

ijA) (u.) he transported, transplanted; 
he carried from one place to another; 

ii, fJXijVhe was transported, trans- 
planted, translated ; he was carried ; 
he emigrated. 

Ai3 (f.) he was angry; he chid, re- 

proved; vn. (J^\ he punished, 
chastised ; he took vengeance; he re- 

he cleansed ; ho sifted ; he trimmed, 
weeded (the flowers, etc.). 

ci.CO (tt.) he violated (an agreement), 

he rebelled; cLX; perfidy,rebellion, 
violation of agreement. 

Jyi (a.) and iii. yJi he denied, he 
ignored, he disowned, he disavowed ; 

he rejected, repudiated ; J^ one 

who denies or is ignorant of; 3^^ 
disallowed, unlawful, evil (theoppo- 

site of uJ^^yc^) ;^5J) more or 
most offensive, displeasing, grating 
to the ear, unpleasant 

^j^Zj («.) i>(jS^ and ni, jJJ21 ho 
turned down, he inverted, he placed 

topsy-turvy; (,/M^fi^ one who casts 

J^ (•.) he took example ; ho received 

chastisement ; i>Jl3 he made an 
example of; he punished in an ex- 

emplary manner. 

J ^ 1^ "' 1 J X • i. %^ («*•) lie calumniated, he slandered; 
and ^juaAj loss, detnment, \ s ^^ 

\^Uj a slanderer, calumniator, whis- 

so S 9f 

^/M^ {jpl. (jM^) a kind of large 
weasel or rat ; the ichneumon. 

j^ (a.) he dug a canal; he checked, 

chid, cried out (to cattle) ; j^ {pi. 

jV{Ji) a stream, river, canal, water- 
course, rivulet, rill, brook ; abusive 
language addressed (to horses or 

beasts of burden) ; j\^ the day (in 
opposition to JJ the night). 

,Ji (a.) it was clean or pure ; i. ^Jj 

taliated; /♦u^^ revenge, vengeance, \jft.y (a.) (the serpent) bit; he punc- 
tured ptt^l^ijbuj they bit or stung 

(each other). 



^jd^ (a.) he rueed himself np ; he 

b_^ (t.) he committed excess ; he 
afOicted ; he tortared, tormented ; 
he punished Beverel^; til i_^'' 
he harassed, vexed; he enfeebled, 
he emaciated ; he violated (honoor, 
virtue, or respect). 

^ Co.) he forbad, he prohibitedr«j\ 
forbid thou; tu.^^I itcametoan 
end, it ooDcladedT%e abstained, de- 
sisted, refrained; _jj prohibition, 
interdict; itJ^ extremity, end, ter- 
mination; term, goal, boundary, 
limit, utmost point; excess f^ilj 
(fiT)mjj$lj)aforbidder'J^l(i.i for- 

(_)U for (_>^ (».) he supplied (an- 
other's place); l-jI) {pt. b-'U'i) a 
dog's tooth; a canine toothTSLjU 
(pi. t_^ly )an acudentfmisfortnne, 
disaster, calamity. 

—I) for .jj (h.) he lamented, com- 
plained j he mourned and sorrowed 
(for a deceased relative). 

j\i for jjj (».) it shone; it waa bril- 
liant; jU Sie-fjji ipLJljA) light, 
splendonr, refulgence, brightness ; 
i;W* a candlestick; a lightbonse ; 
a minaret or tower from which the 
muezzin or crier proclaims the hour 
of prayer; j^ shining, illontina- 
tiug, enlightening, splendid, illue- 

J^y (incorrectly J^^) the Pcrsinn 

New Tear's-day ; a grand fAtival 

held on that day. 
cy i,pl, f\yi) species, bind, sort; 

manner, mode. 
jU for Jy (a. & u.) he bestowed, he 

gave i he presented, was liberal ; he 

took ; be got, he obtained ; v. JjUj 

ho look (meat or dtick) ; he le- 

ceived (gifts) p^jty a gift^ present. 
*b for |*y ,\u.))he slept; *Jli (pi. 

•Ci) sleepmg, asleep ; a sleeper; 

*jj sleep, dreaming. 
JU for Ji (a. or i.) ho acquired, he 


a (and t when preceded by iatra) ; 
affiled pronoun, 3dp»n. mate, him, 
bis, it; U/mt. her, hers. 
U behold ! here ! well ! she ; it 
Lijltt give. 
'll&lj& here, in this place. 
t.,^ (».) (tbe wind) blew ; (t.) he 
began ; < 'j'»- a fresh blowing of 
the wind, stiiF breeze, smart gale. 
jj^ («.) he left, abandoned, deserted, 
forsook; he spoke deliriously, he 
raved, he talked at random. 
*i? (t. ) he attacked, invaded, charged, 
rushed upon; he came upon una- 
wares, he surprised ; he undertook ; 
tU^^ and |*jf^ a sudden assault, 
^ a violent rush. 
1 fiiA (a.) he rested, he rpnmined qnict, 


JUbJJb the hoopoe, the lapwing. 



11^ (a.) (his food) was light and easy 

of digestion ; i. uJb he cansed(food) 
to digest and to nourish ; he congratu- 
lated; he wished health, saying 

may it do you good;" vr, Uff 
he throve; he was refreshed with 

food ; he digested easily y^^J^ 

(food) light of digestion, nutritious; 

\j ^ J u^ a form of salutation ; 
a good digestion to you ; much good 

may it do you ; iuft being joyful, 
glad, merry ; pleasure,, enjoyment. 

^5JUb (f.) he directed, guided ; he led 

into the right way ; i^J^ direction, 
guidance (into the path of salvation). 

iJJb nuue, and asi^fem. this. 

Jb (tf . & I.) he abhorred ;^^ a male cat, 

a tom-cat ; iJb a female eat. 

c^ (tf.) he fled, he ran away, he 

absconded, he vanished p^i^U a 
fugitive, a runaway. 

^v^jw Jb he pounded, he bruised ; <U-»J;A 

a kind of thick pottage made of 
bruised wheat, meat, and spices. O 

^^A^ old age, decrepitude. 

\^ for ^ and iv. t^j^ he beat with 

a stick, he cudgelled. 
Ilib (a.) he mocked, derided, ridiculed, 

laughed at, made game of; ^J^^^^Ii there (at a distance). 
• derision, mockery, ridicule, irony. 

Myb (f.) he put to flighty he routed ; 

VI. (tj^\ he was routed, he was put 

to flight and discomfited ;^)j^^ 
act of running away ; rout, flight ; 
^^s^'.f»^ routed, put to flight. 

^^ j^ in this manner. 

Jjb an intertogative particle ; whether 
or not ? Latin nu/n ? 

lJCu (t. & a.) and il^^Jb (a.) he 

perished, he died ; ni. c^Jjbl he 
caused to perish; he involved in 
ruin, led to perdition; he killed, 

destroyed ; t_,>^»> destruction ; 

^H_l>^{-* ruinous, destructive. 

ijb (u.) he revolved in his mind ; he 

anxiously considered ; he cared fur 

or tended; he resolved; viiS^y 
he concerned himself; ^ \ph 

(^y^) anxiety, care, serious con- 
cern, solicitude. 


^% pron. Sdpers. he, it; ^^ she, it. 

Jyjb for Jyb (t«.) he repented ; he re- 
turned to his duty; he became a 
Jew ; O^fJ Jews. 

Uy> lo ! behold !\il \jyb behold me ! 
here am I. 

^U for j^^ («.) it was light and easy ; 
it was insignificant, vile, or con- 
' temptible ; i. ^yb he made light of ; 
he reviled; he facilitated ; ni. f\li1 
he despised, contemned ; ^^i more 
or most easy, or tolerable ]^llto 
contempt, scorn ; misery, distress ; 


^\jb\ contempt, indignity, insult, 
scorn, slight, afiQront;\^;^ igno- 



miniouSy degrading (punishment) ; 

jjlf« despised. 

... * ^ 

'jjJb pran, they, those. 

^jyA (i.) he soared-; he fell from a 
— '• 

height; f I yb air, atmosphere, sky; 

^jlb desire, wish. 
*U for uto (♦.) it was prepared, made 
ready ; it. U^^ he prepared himself; 

he got ready ; <U^ external form, 
aspect, appearance, bearing, manner. 

como hither ! approach. 

<" o ^ 

^ and; too, also; (in swearing) by; as 

aiUjby God. 
u tn^tfi^. oh ! alas f 

Jl^ ( Ju£) he dug a grave, and buried 

a daughter alive (a custom with the 
Pagan Arabs); he was heavy; he 

moved slowly ; r^\y he proceeded 

gently and slowly p^yf precaution, 

<^1j (from 4^fc?\j) a valley ; a river. 

fji^ he perished ; in. fjiy he de- 
stroyed, he killed. 

iJi} ^uti' ^® struck with a stick ; he 

inflicted punishment by blows; Ju^ 

a crime, sin; punishment; harsh- 
ness, severity. 

u^j (u.^^) he sprung upon, he as- 

saulted, leaped ;N»^^ and>b^^ a 
leap, bound, or spring (as of a lion) 

fji^ (j;i)) he trusted or relied upon ; 

dflj confiding, trusting; confldence; 
trustworthy; a trusty friend, one 

to be relied on ; J;jj1 {Jem. ^J^^) 
firmer, firmest, very firm ; ^^^ i<jjS> 

a very strong handle ; (jiy* a com- 
pact, agreement, treaty, or solemn 

>j K^^^'^j it was necessary, it 

behoved ; ix. L^^^y^*)^ he deemed 
necessary ; he deserved ; was worth, 
merited ; \_-^\; necessary,needful, 

proper, incumbent ; \^\^ necessa- 
rily, properly. 

>-j («^sc) he found, he discovered ; 

it was found, it existed; ^fry 
found; extant, existing. 

^5>-^ (^jjr)hewasinpain; m. jjj-jl 

he hurt, he pained; he beat ; 
pain, ache, sufifering, disease; - 

a ^ ^ 

y / X 

^ ^ ^, 

s ^ ^ 

painful, grievous (blow). 
^^ (fi.) he was in honour; vn. 
it pertained, it belonged; 

r^ (i'^* ^yrj) ^^ ^^^®» visage, as- 
pect, countenance ; a mode, manner, 
reason, cause; a leader, chief per- 

son, chieftain ; a noble ; i. <^-j he 
turned towards; he despatched or 
sent ; iv. ^y» he turned to, he set 
his face towards. 
.• (j^) he was sole, alone, sepa- 

rate; J^ij one; *J^ unity; 
solitariness, solitude. 


(CI ) 

^ ^ . f 



cA^j (^^uo^) he threw away (doak, 

arms, or spear) in flight ; ix. 

>^^jL>"yLrf^ he was gloomy, melan- 

choly, sad; he shunned (society), 

/ ■ \ SOX 

he avoided (company) ; ^j^uk?^^ (^pl. 

S 9 9 

U^i^i^ a wild heast ; a fierce, shy, 
untamed, or untameahle animal. 

i^} and in. ^<^ji he suggested, he 
reyealed, he inspired. 

wj (o^) (hoariness) sprinkled a 
few white hairs over (his head). 

Jj (tf.) he loyed; he liked; he es- 

teemed ; it. J jy he showed love ; 
he gained the affections. 

O^ (^Jj) he placed; he deposited; 
he left at liherty; he permitted; 
he ahandoned, he quitted; i. sJ^ he 
hade farewell ; he took leave ; ix. 

^^Jy;^)^ he requested (another) to 
keep a deposit ; he committed ; he 
commended; he entrusted, he de- 

xo ^ 

posited ; ^ J imper. leave, let alone, 
permit, grant ; si J^ adieu, farewell, 

leave-taking ;>^j:ua^ a person with 
whom, or a place where any thing 
is deposited; a depository; a re- 
ceptacle, depot 

1^ J^ (v/^) ^® P^^ ^® mulct or com- 
pensation for homicide ; iS J the fine 
paid to expiate murder; the price 
of hlood ; sj^^^ a valley ; a river. 

ij (jjj) he left, he quitted. 

*T^i hchind, hoyond, after ; hesides. 

^J^ (P^- j1^!?^)^ ^^ iP^ ^ tree or 

^ ^ p ^ 

jjj ((^il-y.) he became heir ; ho suc- 
ceeded by inheritance ; i. C^^ and 

m. ^^jy he made heir; he be- 
queathed as an inheritance. 

i^j^ ( J^) he approached ; he arrived ; 

he was present ; J^ ij one who comes 

to draw water; one who goes on 
before to draw water for a caravan. 


of paper). 
jy and bj^ a goose. 

Jjy ClJi^ ^® ^^^ (* burden) ; he sus- 
tained; ix/^jy;-oi he appointed 

vizier ; y>J^ {ph '^\jj^) a vizier, a 
minister of state, premier. 

uii ^ciji) ^® weighed; he paid or 
weighed out money ; ^^ weight ; 


hLi^ the middle, the centre. 

X • / ^^ 

^3 (wMuj) it was made capacious, 

wide, spacious ;^^ij or j^^^ ex- 
tensive, ample, spacious, roomy. 

C^} (/*>mj) he excelled in beauty ; 
Sm^^ handsome, beautiful, comely ; 

distinguished by or sealed with a 
wen or large wart on the body 
(characteristic of a prophet and 
heavenly messenger). 

cJ«0^ {yjuai^ he described; \mJ^^ 

{pi uJUjl) and 4i^ {pi. CJU^ ) 
description ; quality ; property 
(physical or moral). 

J^j (Jmia^) he joined ; he united; he 

reached, attained, or arrived at ; lu. 




jl^y he conveyed, caused to arrive ; 
vn. J-*flJ \ he adjoined or was con- 

S^ 9 9 

tiguous to ; J^j arrival. 

L<^^ (l<^) ^® joined, he connected 
together; i. ^j and in. ^^^» 
he enjoined, commanded, charged, 
recommended; he made a will or 
testament ; he hequeathed ; /^j a 
testator, a guardian ; an executor, 

administrator ; a trustee ; <U^^ a 
precept, command, mandate ; a last 
will or testament ; instruction. 

^^j (t^^) he placed ; he deposited ; 

VII. «^*iJl he Washumiliated,aha8ed ; 

^^j position, situation ; ^^y^ ( j?/. 

^0o\y%) a place ; 9y^y^ placed ; an 
. object ; subject (of a speech), text. 

\S^ ((jW) ^® abode, he resided (in 
a place) ; ^j a country, residence, 
dwelling, homo. 

X X ^ 9 • 

Jicj ( J^J he promised ; he threatened ; 

he foretold ; he prognosticated ; J^j 
a promise. 
$U^ a vessel, case, sheath; a sack. 

lacj (Imj) he preached; he admonished, 

exhorted ; vn. )cxj\ he was admon- 

ished; he received admonition; lie* 

admonition; a sermon, homily; lieu 

a monitor, a preacher ; <Lnc 4^ ( j?/. 

\is^y^ and la^l^) admonition, good 

Jiy (jbj) it was ftdl, copious, abundant ; 


jTiy abundant, plentiful, exuberant, 
copious; rich, opulent. 

C?5j (d^) ^* ^*® suitable, apt, con- 
venient ; it succeeded, it prospered ; 

I. ^j he directed, assisted, pros- 
pered; n* Jh^ij he assented,he agreed 

to ; vir. (JJif\ it happened, it oc- 
curred; he agreed, he consented; 

jjuJl consent, concurrence, agree- 
ment ; bUJt by chance, accident- 
ally; fj^y more or most suitable, 

or advantageous, better ; (Ji^y the 
favour or guardian grace of God. 

j; (^:) and m. ^^Ue performed 
his promise, he fiilfilled his engage- 
ment ; he paid ; he satisfied ; he 
gave full (measure) ; iv. ^y (God) 

took (the believer) to himself; he 
made to die ; passively, he paid the 

debt of nature, he died ; ix. ^yJ\ 

he demanded, received or paid the 
whole of what was due ; he satisfied 

completely; ^\L^] a final settle- 

ment; i\ij performance of a pro- 
mise, observance of good faith, 

fidelity, sincerity; iMj decease, de- 
mise, death. 

CU9j (pi. C^bj)) time, season; an 


hour]S^y^ ^ immediately, at 
this moment. 

j3y (jAj) he was venerable, dignified, 
modest ; y9j deafness, heaviness of 





hearing; jbj dignity, gravity, mo- 
desty, sedateness, seriousnesa. 

^ 1j (^) he fell; it fell out, befel, 
or happened; he fell upon or at- 
tacked ; mS^jl he surpiised ; he 
attackco^^yj a fall; an occurrence ; 

"f^ an eyent, incident, occurrence ; 
news, history, story. 

ujuj (^— ^) he stood; he stopped, 
halted, paused ; he was stationary ; 
ujiifj standing. 

served ; vu^^yRjl he was devout ; 
he feared Qod. 

l^ he leaned upon ; III^^^ i he caused 

to recline ; vihA^ 1 he leant against, 
he reclined upon. 

j^ (J^) andl^^^!!|^ he established, 

confirmed, strengthened; ho was 
instant and urgent. 

J^ ( J^) he entrusted, he committed 

(his affairs to anothery^'^fv. J^y 
he trusted, he confided (in Qod); 
he was resigned ; J^j an advocate, 
attorney, pleader ; a governor, pro- 

tector; a witness; JS^::^ resigned, 
confiding; reliant; also a man's name. 

-f J (-if7) he entered(his hiding-place); 

I. ^^ and III. M^ji (Qod) caused 
the day to enter into the night, and 
\xce versd (according as the days and 
nights lengthen and shorten). 

CL.*jIj (jJL?) she brought forth, bore, 

^ \^ 

produced; v. ijjJ^y they generated 
again and again ; they begat and 
brought forth in great numbers; 

they increased and multiplied ; jJj 
{^pl, Ji^1) a son, a child ; JuJ^ {pi. 
^f JJ^) a son ; a boy, lad, servant ; 
jJJ^ a father, a parent; (^'^Jj pa- 

rents, father and mother; ^yy^ 
bom ; offspring, a son. 

jjj (j^Uyiie presided over, he go- 
verned ; I. /Jij he appointed to a 

government, he set over ; he turned 

the back, he fled 7^. ^y he was 
appointed, he received an appoint- 
ment; he assumed; he undertook 

or took in hand; he withdrew, 
he ran away, he turned tail; he 
shunned; he fled, he turned his 

back; izNJy^l he had complete 


power and authority ; he mastered ; 
he obtained possession of ;^Jj a 

helper, protector; trustee; J^*!^ ^^J 
an heir apparent, a destined or ac- 

knowledged successor; ^y a lord^ 
master; afreed-man; manumitted 

slave; \^y my lord; <o)^ a region, 

government, empire ; J^ \ lA^ the 
rank of heir apparent (to a throne), 
nomination to the succession. 

l5^J (t^iti) he became faint or tired ; 
v.^^ly he lingered or delayed; 

^ly (from j^U; or ^^jl^) fatigue ; 




u^j (H-^) ^g gave, he bestowed ; 
** "^ . 
Ai_^Jb imjper, give, grant. 

(^3 (i*^) he conceived, he thought, 

he imagined ; i^Vbj he made to be- 
lieve ; he persuaded ; he caused to 

S b^ 


^j weakness, feebleness, faintness. 
\^3 (l5^.) ^^ ^^ broken or tom7>|\j 
(from t«A)j) weak, broken (heart). 

jjj woe, misery, misfortune pc-OjJ 

woe to thee ! fie upon thee r^^ \ 
alas ; woe (unto me, etc.). 

^5 affixed pran, me, mine, 
u inteiy. ! tell me ! 

^^mJj he despaired; vn. (jwwUj\ he 
was sad and grieved, and foU of 

fjttJh dry, shrunk, withered. 
c:L3yb a ruby, 

a2j[ ( aSu^) he was deprived of his father; 
A^ fatherless, an orphan. 

j^VasT he takes under his protection; 

' " •'I " 

aorist of ii. of ju»- («.). 

JJ {pi. Si] for i^J^i) the hand; the 
paw or fore-foot (of a quadruped). 

jMtj {j^M^) he was easy, gentle; he 
played at dice; vr. jm»^ it was 

prepared, made easy ; it came easy 
and handy; j\^ the left hand; 
the left sidery^ easy, trifling; 
jMjj] more or most easy, easier; 

iyt^j the leff; hand or side. 
)aA} (a. ) he was vigilant ; he watched ; 
I. ah he awakened or roused up ; 

IX. aS,» r M rf \ he was roused up, he 
became awake^i^^«^\ awakening ; 

j^UaL vigilantY^Uaaj ^1 father 

watchful (an epithet of the cock, 
or of the ass). 

d;^ («0 1^^"^ and ir^^J^ he was 
certain, he firmly believed, he knew 
for sure and certain ; he felt fully 

S „y 

assured ; ^^jM^ sure, certain ; cer- 

tainty, truth ; the true faith ; ^JkA 
surer, surest, more or most certain. 

^j^ (a.) he approached on the right 

sMe; ^^ {pi. ^\Z]) an oath (as 
pledged with the right hand) ; the 

right hand ; «U^, the right hand ; 
the right hand side. 

t}y^ the Jews. See jlib. 
f^^i^^ Joseph. 

first day, Sunday ; ^^*Mi\ a^^ the 

second day, Monday, etc. ; /^^\ to- 
day ; t«jJ on one day. 


[N.B. — Our reasons for inserting this Supplement are fully explained in pages 14-16 of 
our Annotations to the Text.] 


i\j\ (pi of 4J!) fathers ; ^\^ du. 

parents, father and mother; both 
fathers, t.^. father and grandfather; 

UL^^ li father! my fiatherl 

^\A Abraham. 

'v^jlJ^l a water-jug, ewer. 

iuji {ph of jj^^for^) sons. 

^T (ni. of ^J 1 he came) he caused 
to come, he brought ; he gave. 

jj\ («.) he preferred. 

\c\ behold ! if, in case ; 1 jt then, in 
that case. 

^^Xii'l J c\ then, at that time. 

^i^ (i. of j^j\) he cried; ^^yc a 


\j{^^,«:u.4^ a kind of thick satin ; satin 
embroidered with gold. 

suA grief, sorrow. 

jyt\ {pL of j/9] ) affairs, matters of 

ij^l amen ! so be it. 

^j^ 1 Mthful, trusty ; a confidential 
agent, a commissioner, superinten- 

^1 lest, that, in case that. 

J^ a family ; a wife. 

3 J 1 (i. of jT for 3 jl) he interpreted ; 

Jjjvj interpretation. 

i^y (t.) he repaired, he resorted to 


for shelter or protection ; ni. ,^^\ 
he received hospitably. 

tXA (i. of Jt for Jo]) he strengthened. 

S •'' 

^Uj\ Mth, religions belief. 

^ (m.ofJH)hesware. 

l^^\ time, an interval of time. ' 
I commanding; a commander. 

^N5^\ dominion, anthority ; jCil im- 
perious, obstinate, headstrong. 
^\ safe, secure. 

^b just, righteous, holy. 
{jiA) seventy, vengeance; Ca« v2j1 (vn. 
of (^/M-Xj) he was afflicted; ^^^mJU 
out upon ! fie upon ! j **^] c/^ 

miserable is the abode whither they 
will return! 

heart, mind, thought. 



(c,,^;>) he gave, he bestowed ; 

b ^ 

•XX / X 

^ f mp^. give, grant. 

* 9 ^ 

aJ^j (^) he conceived, he thought, 

he imagined ; i*\^j he made to be- 
lieve ; he persuaded ; he caused to 

^j weakness, feebleness, faintness. 
1^3 (j<f>) it was broken or tom7>{[lj 

(from itfAij) weak, broken (heart). 

Jjj woe, misery, misfortune^SlXLj 

woe to thee ! fie upon thee r^^ \ 
alas; woe (unto me, etc.). 

^5 affixed pron, me, mine, 
u tn^'. ! tell me ! 

^^^*Jj he despaired; vii. (jwwUj\ he 
was sad and grieved, and full of 

^jmJU dry, shrunk, withered. 

c:L^y u a ruby, 

aSJ (aSmj) he was deprived of his father; 

S X 

A^ fatherless, an orphan. 

j^VasT he takes under his protection; 

aorist of ii. of ju»- («.). 

Jj {pi, Si\ for c^J^i) the hand; the 
paw or fore-foot (of a quadruped). 

• XX S C'' 

jmj^ {j*»f^^) he was easy, gentle; he 

X ^Xx 

played at dice; iv.^mmJ it was 


prepared, made easy ; it came easy 

S| X X 

and handy; jUmj the left hand; 

the left sidei*'^^:^ easy, trifling; 

jmJ\ more or most easy, easier; 

l^^^ the leff; hand or side. 
)ah {a,) he was vigilant; he watched ; 
I. ksh he awakened or roused up ; 


. XOXO. 

IX. iaLrMrf\ he was roused up, he 
became awake^i3UL^1 awakening ; 

j^UaL vigilantY^Uaaj ^1 father 

watchM (an epithet of the cock, 
or of the ass). 

^V X xci x.'' ftxx 

^ ..'' 

^ (a.) m>^^l and iv.^^" he was 

certain, he firmly believed, he knew 
for sure and certain ; he felt fully 

S „x 

assured; ^^y^M sure, certain; cer- 

* *xo« 

tainty, truth ; the true faith ; ^\ 
surer, surest, more or most certain. 

XX ^ 

^jAi (a.) he approached on the nght 

side; ^^ {pi. j2,Uj1) an oath (as 
pledged with the right hand) ; the 

right hand ;^U^. the right hand ; 
the right hand side. 

J^, the Jews. See JUb. 
uJ««>^^ Joseph. 

(•Ji (P^- (•y) a day; As-3^ ^jJ the 

first day, Sunday ; t^il /♦y. the 

second day, Monday, etc. ; a^\ to- 

.^ X ' 

day ; UjJ on one day. 


[N.B. — Our reasons for inserting this Supplement are fully explained in pages 14-16 of 
our Annotations to the Text.] 


jIjT (pi of cLl) fathers ; J^^ du. 

parents, father and mother; both 
fathers, t.^. father and grandfather; 

l;^] li father! my fiather! 

^»^]^l Abraham. 

'v^jlJjl a water-jug, ewer. 

iuji {pL of jj^^for^) sons. 

^ 1 (ni. of ^J 1 he came) he caused 
to come, he*^brought; he gave. 

^ -51 (u.) he preferred. 

\3\ behold ! if, in case ; \j\ then, in 
that case. 

^^\^1 J j\ then, at that time. 

j^Jl (i. of jjJi) he cned; f^^^yo a 


\j{^^,«:u.4^ a kind of thick satin ; satin 
embroidered with gold. 

suA grief, sorrow. 

jl^) {ph of ^1 ) affairs, matters of 

ij^t amen ! so be it. 

,j^ 1 faithful, trusty ; a confidential 
agent, a commissioner, superinten- 

^1 lest, that, in case that. 

Ja! a family ; a wife. 

Jjl (i. of jT for 3 jl) he interpreted ; 

Jjjvj interpretation. 

v^jl (f.) he repaired, he resorted to 



for shelter or protection; ni. f^^\ 
he received hospitably. 

— ^^% 

*xA (i. of Jt for Jo]) he strengthened. 
|1^Uj\ Mth, religious belief. 

^b just, righteous, holy. 

\^JT (in. of JH) he Bware. 

^^^ . 9 

^•1 time, an interval of time. ' 

"N^J^I commanding; a commander. 

^Ni^\ dominion, authority ; jUil im- 
perious, obstinate, headstrong. 
^1 safe, secure. 

s I 

(jyw u seventy, rengeance; i>v:y \ (vn. 
of i>mJU) he was afflicted; iimJU 

out upon ! fie upon ! j ^*^] u^ 

miserable is the abode whither they 
v^ will return ! 

\Jb heart, mind, thought. 



(60 ) 


J he dispersed abroad, he diffused, 
dis8ominated;\i^ grief, sorrow. 
sT small, scanty, deficient; trifling. 
)jj (a.) be began. 
\;Jcj1 (vn. of jJ^) he ran hastily (to 

attack) ; he prepared for ; j^^^^ fiill 
(moon). *^ 

)JJ for jjj he (or it) appeared; (the 

idea) entered the mind ; lu. c^J^i 
he made or he allowed to appear, 

produced, shewed P^ Jj a desert. 

\ \jj (i. of ]^) he absolved, acquitted, 
he justified ; he healed. 

^ji (a.) he quitted. 

^vjiy a clear judgment or decision; 
demonstration, proof; conviction. 

jMjj (u,) he announced good tidings; 

j^jmj or jml^ a bringer of good 
tidings, messenger of good news ; 
^c^ good tidings. 


M^ ^ 

;%^ an evident and convincing proof; 

1^ a small number; ts\6i a capital 

or stock in trade, a share in a mer- 
cantile adventure; purchase-money; 
money or money's worth for pur- 
chasing (com). 

J^u vain, false, Mvolous. 
^\j inward, inner; the heart. 

S ox 

i^ a raising of the dead. 

Jju\ (lu. of Juu) he put to a distance; 
he alienated. 

c -' 

j-ftXj a full-grown male camel. 

M suddenly, unexpectedly. 

1^ {pl. of HjA) ) ozen,beeve8,cow8. 

*. .■^y^ 

iJAj pot herbs. 

^b 1 more or moat eloquent. 

i for 1^ («.) he returned; iv. \y^ 

he settled, he obtained a settlement; 
he provided himself a dwelling ; he 
obtained (a wife). 

— b for —y («.) he divulged, he dis- / 
closed, he revealed. 

^^ tfx 

^jLj (i. of ^jou for ^jo^^ ) he whitened ; 
^^Aj-i-j the act of whitening ; vui. 

^ja^\ he became white; ' udu^ blank 

.j4^ (n. of ^ for ^^ he sold) he 
struck hands in making a bargain ; 
hence, he saluted and acknowledged 

one invested with authoritj^V^y 

pai%. he was inaugurated ; <U^ in- 


used in swearing ; as, <tJc31 c^J 
by the Lord of the Kaaba ! 
^^J^ reproach. 

\ (ni. of 4-^) he fatigued, he 

\& (a.) and vii^^j he leaned against; 

S^ ^m * 

ISc^ a day-bed^ a cushion, couch, 
sofa, or anything against which 
people recline ; hence, a banquet 

\j for jL (u.) he read; he rehearsed. 

,^\ (m. of ^) he completed, he per- 
fected ; he fully accomplishedrs^ 
completing; a perfecter. 

<Uy repentance; u»^u penitent. 
if\jy the Pentateuch. 




v^l (ni. ofyiJ) it bore fruit, 

,^^ price, or yalue. 

4j:y^ a dwelling-place, a habitation ; 

i\f^ aJi] he received him hospi- 

tably; t^'^ liT***^^ ^6 ^^^^'^ >^6" 
ceived me hospitably. 

As^ (Pers.) a cup, a goblet. 

^^ o 

Usj- he collected (tribute). yn,^^fi^^ 
he chose, selected, elected. 

he denied, he disowned. 

^jl^- (n. of Ji>-) he contended 
with, he disputed with. 

>- he scraped; i fflf" {pi- c->;lar) 

experiment, experience ; trial, pro- 
bation; temptation. 

(^j^K!^ ^^ ^^^ ^^' (V^ criminal; 

a sinner, malefactor. 

sjjs>- (t.) he ran ; hasted in his course. 

^Jy>' (t.) he gave an equivalent; he 
satisfied, made satisfaction ; he fur- 
nished a substitute; he rewarded, 
requited Njl>- from «^^ who or 
what suffices, or makes satisfaction. 

jumj>- the body. v 

Jji>- (a.) he began ;\)^l^ placing, 
about to appoint or constitute. 

^*v^l>- (n. of ^^Ji^ ) he sat along with. 

>'1 (ui. of ^^) he agreed, he 
concerted; he concluded. 

JUJk^- {pi. iJLSiX^) a sentence, a 

complete proposition ; J^l £urer, 


^ ^i ^ 

^^ ^ 

jJbl^ (ii. of J^) he fought (espe- 
cially against infidels in defence of 
the faith) ; ho contended with, he 
sought to compel, he urged. 

j^ (i. of U^) he equipped, he fur- 
nudged X'despatohedjiv.j;^ he 
was furnished ; he prepared for, he 
set out; J4>- travelling equipage; 
provisions for an expedition. 

^A&1>- ignorance; paganism, heathen 

darkness (as prevailing in Arabia 
before the time of Muhammad). 

c^lscUl (iz. of c-^b^ for c->^) he 

listened to, or received a petition, 
he granted an answer (to prayer). 

jyj- (i. of Jcj- for J|^) he did well; 

a doing, or executing well. 

Juf.forj^ (u.) it was lawful, per- 
mitted, allowed, or allowable; v. 

jjlaT he passed beyond. 

j^^ (Pers.^jS) matter, substance, 




5« " 

^j^ {pi' of yuj-) neighbours, 
an army, a host. 

S" O • 

^ ^ 

Ll^ (n. of -tf^) he argued ; vn. -fJ>"l 
he pleaded, he argued, he urged as 


a plea or argument ; ^l>. a pilgrim 
(or a company of pilgrims) to Mecca. 

s ^ 

l>-\>- a wish, want, desire. 

A dearer, more or better beloved. 

a grain, a seed, 
a barber ; a cupper, a bleeder, 
in order that. 

I - ^ 



• • 




a distinctive character ; J^^- _!lc 

according to rule, on the principle 
of analogy. 

A (m. of cI^iXp*) he produced, 
originated, brought into existence ; 

ij^jL>-l {pi, ci^jl^l) a story, 
tale ; a parable or dark saying. 

Ci-^\>- (n. of c-^/^) ^e waged war. 
(jd^ he greatly desired. 
(j<0^ at the point of death. 



^ ^ ^ 

^j^ (i. of (^;^-) he prohibited, inter- 
dicted, made or declared unlawful; 

«•*/ 9 

4,^^ honour, reputation, character. 
>%jl». wise, prudent, caiitious, disdreet. 

S 9 K* ^ 

^jjj^ grieved, sad, afflicted. 

yj»* ^ ss ^ (iv. of ^^yMb>-) he made enquiry, 
he explored, examined. 

fjM*^ goodness, excellence; ^J'**s^ 
beneficent; a benefactor; ^\jss^ 

S U 9 

{yrreg.phoi^ju*^ )beauties,charms; 

£uadril. (the truth) appeared, 
became manifest, came out. 

.V. c 


j-Lir* (iv. of ^Jl^) he was adorned; 
h~e plumed himself. 

JiA>- a load, burthen ; (J^\^ preg- 
nant (female), with young, in foal. 

pride, haughtiness. 

L^j^^ {p*» (jX^\p-) * disciple or an 
apostle of Jesus Christ. 

^ ^[^ God forbid ! 

bl^ for h^ (u.) he encompassed. ' 

^^U. for j^ (w.) it surrounded ; (an 

• • 

^ X 

• •• 

JUd»- reaping, harvest. 

CS y 9 ^ 

>-) (ni. of ^j*fii^) he kept safe. 


m2w (a.) he guarded; m». guarding, 
protecting, taking care of, preserv- 

s ^ s ^ 

ing; custody; loiW or la;*i>> keeper, 
guardian, preserver, protector. 

aSv>. a judge, chief magistrate, ruler. 

sV 9 


-To* .X 

11^ (j?/. ^)b^f) a dream; A^\ U 
how meek ! 


Jl»- an ornament (of a sword, es- 
pecially on the hilt and sheath); 

affliction, or a snare) lighted upon, 
and overtook. 

x.x. ^ 

>*. i ^ 

JjU^ (u.of jl:>- for J^)he wished, 

desired, sought ; Jls^l J imme- 

diately; iS\^ state, condition^ pos- 
ture of affairs. 

Ji^^ craft, wile, sagacity. 

iU^ 1 (i?/. of L5>-) the living; alive. 


jli^ a gross deceiver, arrant knave. 

J^ the cheek. 

cOl>- (n. of ^^3^) he deceived, cir^ 
cumvented ; he sought to deceive. 
J JUL routed, put to flight 

-^ • c i ^ X <^ 

— ^1 (m. of '^J^) be brought out, 
produced, shewed; ^^j^ outside; 
^jss^\ (IX. of ^^;£^) he drew out. 

J J^ mustard. 

j^sL a rent, fissure, hole. 

9 y f >- X 

(ji]j^ (i?/. oilj\ys^) magazines, gra- 
naries, storehouses. 



j^\^ one who loses. 

an opponent, antagonist. 

s <* ^ 

;-mL (i?J. of-JrLl and^ ! -as;.) green ; 

«^ o 


iXy-ds^-l it was green ; -td^sr^ green, 


^■^^^l^ B^s^inner, transgressor HLrLl 

(m. of ^^^^^) he erred, sinned, 
trespassed^ transgressed. 

:L a thing, affi&ir, matter, cause; 

:;«. t« what is thy business 
(or thy design) ? 

J^L^ heart, mind, soul. 

^^^\ (vu. of ^^) he hid himself. 

j^^fliicU)! (ix. of ^j^^ ) he appro- 
priated (to himself) ; ^j^^^si^ sin- 
cere, candid, pare ; demonstrative 
of sincerity; (^^^JLir* pure, unsullied. 

^.aL^i (m. of i^JXfL) he broke his 
promise, he disappointed. 

(^^ creation; mankind. 

Xi for^li^ (t<.) (it) was clear. 
J^-«b^ obscurityrV-^l^ obscure. 

j^ (i. of jlfi^- for jy^-) he bellowed, 
he lowed. 

^jolfi^- for^jo^ (w.) he entered, waded, 
forded, plunged into (a river). 

itaJ^l^ fearing ; afraid. 

jjls^- for ^f^ (t<.) he acted perfidi- 
ously, he deceived, broke a promise, 

betrayed a trust; ^y>- faithless, 
perfidious, fraudulent, deceits. 

self-important, vain, haughty, 
proud (rt. Jli for JJJX). 

'Xj'Tj custom, habit )^ 
<Uj|^U (less correct than «)^ijJ). 

^J the hinder part; );J ^ fix)m 
behind, at the back. 

Qs^\^ (n. of J^ J) he was intimate 

^ with ; ^1 J inside. 

ifjj (j?J. ci^UJj) a step, a stair. 

^ J he paid, he handed over. 

j*j) J (II. of j*u for AjJ) he was as- 
siduous and unremitting; JUjIjL* 
assiduity, continuance. 


^J law; judgment; ^.jJl ^4^7 the 
day of judgment. 

/*,, f , "T 

jjjuoli otj whatever revolves in 
the breast. 

)^J leave ye (rt. jjj ). 

•y* ^' 

^ J^ (vn. of^J) he recollected him- 

s ,^^. 

-^Uj departure, loss; t«.^1j going 


away, making off ; \l^Ci\ (lu. of 
K^^S) he gilded ; v.^ ju« gilt. 

jjO ( J?/, of J J in compos.) endued with, 
possessing, possessed of. 


^j\ for ^^\J\ (in. of 4^5^) he shewed; 
A>JyJ^ that he may make you see ; 

v<^ a vision. 





3 ••^<»i 

l^UJl {pi of c-^j) lords. 

y ^^ 

fjj {a.) ho roamed or strolled aboat.\ s ^ 

^ r^ A-xJ a sponsor, a surely ; a leader. 

y x" ^ 

i». o • 

S / o^ 

ft return (to God) (rt. j^>v)' 

L>^J (i?^. J^^) a small camel's 

Ad^j or (^j the womb ; /^y com- 

passionate, merciful; (*^i more 
or most merciful, or compassionate. 

J;l (ui. of Jj) he brought back, he 

restored ;^jn3\ jljJ^t the twink- 
ling of an eye. 

J*rf^^ (ix. of tM;) (the stiflfened 
joint) relaxed, or hung down. 

<U-aij (jpj. jc^jj) firm, solid (moun- 

t^j he strewed (litter) ; ^/^y^j^ li^ 
tared; strewed. 

held together by cramps (of 
iron) ; soldered (rt. y^J)* 
Wi content, satisfaction, good pleasure ; 

jjcij (from L<f 'j) content, satisfied, 

gratified, acquiescent, complying, 
consenting, agreeing. 

c-jyy« terrified (rt. u»^). 

& ^j/% removed ; redressed (rt. ^J)* 

c^l^ (j?/. of ^JL^\j) passengers on 
board a ship. 

Ip mercy; ^Ijt (iv. of pj forl^) 

he caused to rest; t^j^M*^ reposing, 

J^lj (ii. of S^j for Jj^) he begged, 
solicited, wooed. 

L^JJ?/* headed,commanded(rt. (jwl^). 

s. ^ 

<Ujl (^/. of ^Uj) reins, bridles. 

J^]j one who esteems lightly; indif- 
ferent, nnconcemed. 

-K-'jjj ' (i?/. of l.jjj) wives, spouses. 


X .••• 

J\j for J^ (a.) he ceased* he desisted; 
" — .Jjjj transitory, fleeting, evanescent. 

^yy (v. of j\j for JJJ) it increased, 
it grew. 

^J for ^J (t.) he deviated, he de- 
clined (from the right way) ; ni. 

\y\ he caused to decline; he made 
to" swerve. 

J.. I ^ 

J5u» an enquirer ; J\^ a question, 

an interrogation ; J.^ {imp,) ask. 

^«««9) (ni. of ^t^) ho completed ; he 
conferred (favours) in abundance. 

J^L) ( j?/. Jusr") worshipping; awor- 
shipper; one who does obeisance, 
magic, enchantment, sorcery. 
jLas^^ Isaac. 

S^ • O • 

^^y^^r***^ a buffoon, wag, facetious joker. 


iar^U angry, indignant, incensed, hos- 
tile, spiteful. 

'(^^\ (in. of ^»)he boiled (water), 
he heated. 

^jLj (n. of c-rf) he made haste, he 

hurried ; ^jUm!^ a making haste, 
hurrying J jy»*»^ expeditious. 


■S" ,^ 


J lU a thief, a robber. 
^ssXa ^ in the same hour. 


UjU^ a cup, a drinking-TesBeL 

^liLs (pZ.of^j^) inhabitants; ^j:^ 

a knife; (jSUm» ( j?^. ^jXM^)abodeB, 
dwellings, habitations. 

iJLy\y\»A {fil.)\Ltii^^%VL%\ ^4yM^ named, 
called, styled. 

^J-^Mi^a or <^ 1,^:^.1 (^/. ci^jLOmmj) an ear 
of com. 

2^1^ (j?Z. di^)8ecretpart8,pnvitie6. 


uy^ (^' ®^ J^ ^'^'^ Jj^) ^® suggested 
(eril); he devised or contrived. 

p^U} (n. of \^y^ it was worth. 

s^ ^ 

a lord or master. 

St ^ 

^^"v^U) a stem, a stalk. 

9 ^ %« 

^*^jJ>-U*3 (v. ofyS-*) they contended, 
disputed, wrangled together. 

jIjc^ (p^. of J^^) sore, severe; 

-scarce; Jul) strength and powers 
(applied chiefly to a young man 
between 18 and 30). 

jL he began, 
lilpil (i?/. of (^^) nobles. 

jj^ 1 (in. of J^) (the sun) arose, 

shone forth, became radiant and re- 

(3^ 1 (m. of K^jL ) he gave partners 

^.<' < 


ax^ (a.) he wounded in tho peri- 
cardium, or in the heart's core. 

Id for^Ll (m.) he complained, he 
stated the case of his maladies. 

^ the sense of smell ; ^y^JL^ per- 
fumed; smelled; odoriferous, fra- 
grant (as pastils, etc.) 

J^ a collection ;N^^U.i <uH ^ 
may God breakup their confederacy ! 

will, good pleasure (rt. IL^). 

,^^1 (lu. of ^.^itf ) he rose betimes ; 

he became, he came or did (a thing) 
early in the morning ; he entered 
on Uie morning ; he became. 

J w very patient \jf^\ more or most 

W for y*^ (f«.) he acted like a boy ; 
he felt a juvenile aflbction for. 

5;ULi a body of travellers, a caravan. ^"V^ (».) it was right, straightforward. 

^,^'>-l.g (n. of V— ^^^) he cultivated 
sociableness with, he bore company; 

cLlfi-»1 (i?/. of cf-fi^l^) friends, 
companions, associates. 

if^^r^ a rock (noun of unity). 
^ JU0 a speaker of the truth, veracious; 
j;j»Ju0 a faithful witness of the 

im^jM^ a polytheist, an idolater. 


^ / 

truth; Joseph; Abu Bakr; JA 
confirming; a connrmer; jJuaj 
(iv. of Jf Ju0) he bestowed alms ; 
^N^ judc^ an almsgiver. 



(i. ot j^) he made a wry face 
in contempt. 

orawociates; ul^^ PoVthei8m;^N^^;^^,^^„jptible; one who submits 

tamely to indignant treatment. 



the back-bone, the loins ;[ (met- 
aphorically) capital, principal. 

f^\ (in. of f^) he cooked, prepared 
*^ (food). ^ 

\i^l (ui. of ^) he rendered deaf. 

Ati«tf workmanship; ^^^^^1 perform- 
ance; the rendering a service, doing 
a kindness. 

(— ^jv>^ (^/. of (^jUm^? or (^jUi^) diffe- 
rent sorts or forms. 

^^cl^ a drinking-yessel. 

^ Ju*aj (it. of JW for Ju-tf) he went a 
hunting, he looked about for game. 


fio\ (ni. of jil^) he loosed, he gave 

the reins. 

>'•''•• ^ 


*»• ^ x-* 

"cJ^sr^ (iv, of cjCs^) he laughed 

j^ damage, loss ; famine; j^\ (vn. 
of^) he compelled, he forced. 

c^ylaJi (vn. of <-r^) he knocked 

himself about, was agitated, dis- 
turbed, restless, and fidgetty. 

Jjt^\ weaker, weakest 

^c*.^^ .xo* 

\^\ ^<lJ^\ confused dreams which 

<• "f 

cannot be interpreted. 
J-^1 (m. of ijS) he made to err, he led 

astray, he seduced ; Jli error. 

7 ll^^ (ix.ofll^forTp) he afforded 
' light. 

'^ \ ^ 

-^ X -^ 

aJ I. and cwl III. of cU for 

he suffered to be lost, he allowed 
to perish. 

% OS 

ut^ (ni. ofj^^) he extinguished (a 
fire), ho put out (a light). 

jj ILj .( v« of J IL for JJt ) he was long; 
he exalted himself; he unjustly 
usurped another's right. 

j^ {pi. ofjiya) birds. 

^^ {ph JU?) a covering; a shady 

thing; J^\ (m. of J3i) he (or it) 

ht&c redress of grievances ; Ji^t more 

or most unj ust, or iniquitous ; JuUi^ 

• • 

{pi, J,^^^ oppression, wrong, in- 
justice ; requisition of justice ; re- 

dress of wrongs ; (^^^^ oppressed, 

« z 

J^'J^ triumphant, victorious ; J^Uall 
apparently, evidently \j^\ (m. of 

J^) he exalted, rendered superior, 
made to triumph. 

j^ he interpreted (a dream) ; ij^ 
an instructive example, warning. 

l^U weak, puny, feeble. 

AsfM {ph L-Jl^) lean, emaciated. 
Ji.^ (i. of J^) he made haste ; 

J-*i2*^ a making haste, hastening. 

JjJut^ numbered, counted; few, 
limited in number (rt. 4X£). 

jLfi justice, equity; J«Xu^ tempe- 
rate, middling, moderate. 

^ Jlc a permanent dwelling ; Eden. 



" «• 

^yft Arabic^ Arabian. 

^jA a Beat of state ; a throne. 

(x.o£fjOjc) he opposed, objected, 

gave trouble iQ^jM^ averse. 

i^ knowledge ;^.J^ i more know- 

^r <'^ 

ing, better acquainted ; djjM^ know- 

ledge, science, learning ; <— '^/^^ 
known ; just, acceptable ; kindness, 
courtesy, fayour, benefit. 


HjjC a handle ; a loop. C? 

s ^ 

je, glory, dignity, grandeur ; JijC- a 
king (of Egypt), a prince ; a lord. 

"tiffi («.) he removed from office, he 

^jy^\ (^jS- the divine purpose concern- 
ing human affairs. 

^ X 

x-^ ^ 

^us. it may be, perhaps. 

a body (of men), from 10 to 40. 
^Jas- (».) he squeezed, pressed (grapes). 

^Si,^JitL»l (IX. of ji-Aft) he preserved 

himself from sin, he abstained from 
what is unlawful. 

O i^Mt* perishing ; destruction. 

^Uillc end, issue: c,'^ft*) (rv.ofv— ..BrO 
he followed, he came at the heels 

^ (^-4^) ; M^ Jacob. 

^\s' intelligent, sensible, wise, pru- 
dent ; an intelligent man. 

^^jil-.frUvn. of v-jULc) he ate provender. 

tXAX' {pi. of '■^y^) columns, pillars. 

jAS. (tt.) he built up; \\i. jAsa he 
cultivated, he rendered habitable; 

jUbcl (j?Z. oijAs) lives. 

^ on the authority. 
iMjjlft as a visitorT^iW (ni. of 5lc 

for J^) he performed a second 
time, repeated, said, did over again. 

J]l JbU Ood forbid ! 
N^U a year ; j^UU two years. 

^jU^ assistancep^VjcuM/t one whose 
aid is implored ; hence, Gt>d. 

$Lc difficult, incurable (disease); 

^<'< ^ -^ . « 

^^\ (ui. of ^) he was weaned 

(with travelling). 


^j^ a caravan. 

"^ jl^ a deceiver ; Satan, the devil. 

Im^ overwhelming: duLc LjujL« 
fainted away, unconscious. 

&c he cast down (the eyes); he 
lowered (the voice). 

.^^<«.a£ vengeance ; L^yoM irritated, 

incensed; iJk& l^^^m^ odious; 

one against whom anger is felt. 

JiU remiss, neglectful, negligent, 
careless, senseless, imprudent, off 

one's guard ; Jiw (v. of Jii) he 
was intentionally negligent., listless, 
and indifferent. 

ff 1 •< 

vJU U overcoming, prevailing, vic- 
torious ; capable of effecting. 

l&Ai coarse, gross, rugged, rough. 

\j^li uninhabited, uncultivated, waste, 
abandoned (the opposite of ^U). 

^ plunder, booty, prize-money; 

^ ^y 

^,2^ (vn. of A:ii) he obtained spoil 

(as booty or a prize) ; he seized an 




"jjiil (in. of ^«^) he supplied the 
place (of another) ; he sufficed ; it 

availed ; ^ Lixl (j?l of JUfi) rich; 
fic) richer, richest. 


^Lc the bottom (of a well or valley). 
cl^li>for\i.>v»/ (Ood) gave rain, made 
it to fall jXi.^. rain widely spread. 

^jjjji (lu. of (^/m15) he became insol- 
vent, he was reduced to bankruptcy. 

thou dost not cease to remember 
him (used also without Uf). 
1^ victory. 

(jAOi (i. of (jmSJ) he searched dili- 

^zji\ (rn. of j^is) he resolved a ques- 

" tion of law, or a case of conscience ; 
he expounded; he interpreted; hein- 

structed; ix7^>^''*>*>^ he consulted a 

lawyer (mufti), he took an opinion, 
he asked for a fatwa; ^^i du. 

^\cj pi. i^ a young man, a man 

servant; ^bj his servant. 
Lmust whoredom, adultery. 

ing, ablactation ; (^s*^ a distinct 

JuioJ grace, favour ; o^\^ excellent, 

virtuous, pious; learned; J-^1 
more or most excellent, better. 

Ja3 he created ; Jo^ creator. 

Juoi (f.) he missed; *i>A3 loss, miss, 

v^^ ^, .-- . , . , . strength (rt. J Ji). 

^^ir boaatfuljvain-glonous ; a boaster, s^^ -^^^ \ ^ ^J 

(JUU.U Persia; the Persians. 
ii^X a bed, a couch. 

b^ (i. of b^) he acted carelessly in 

the performance of duty; he be- 
haved perfidiously. 

fJjXiyt dispersed, scattered; miscella- 

neous, vanous (rt. ^Jy*). 
^J^\ (▼K* of 4/ r») he invented (alio). 

^Jii of, or belonging to so-and-so ; 
of such a place. 

(i. of Ji:^) he regarded as a dotard, 
he suspected of dotage (from indis- 
position or from age). 

^ (see p); UJ whilst; ^ Uj 

between, betwixt; \js- U^ over 
and above. 

Ju5 the fore part; Juji ^ from 

before, in front; J-5 (i. of Jfi)he 

^Jj (u,) he tore (agarment)lengthwise. 

jIJlA^ quantity, sum, amount; power. 

*^. *^r 

ij*ai he departed,set off ;^L3i wean- 

^ jJu* (iv. of (jw J^) he was sanctified. 

aJc5 (c. of /•Jj) he sent before; he 
laid up as a future provision; he 

X til '"' 

provided beforehand ; m^ (iv.) he 
preceded, he went before. 

^j\i (n. of ^js) he approached. 

tj^ (j?/. of <0y5) towns; 7^^ 1 JJbi 

inhabitants of cities, townspeople. 
^ ^ g 
mmJ (f.) he divided, he apportioned, 

* allotted. 


. ij-uj hardnesa of heart ( y^U (from ; ,^1 { lU. of i— ^) be fell proitraie. 

_,U) bard, cruel. 

^joi (w.) be fold, related, narrated ; 

hai ipt-ijo^) Bstoiy, &ble,tale; 
an afliair ; a case. 

•i-ai be kept or steered in Ibe straight 

and middle path ; be was moderate ; 

be act«d uprigbtlyp<t>.a:ui4 one who 

keeps the middle path, or ona who -I ^ Ui^ a concealing. 

halts between two parties. *^ 

l(^ («'.) he performed ; be paid. 

^a» (i. of ^1^) be backed, be cat in 

BCTeral pieces or in sundry places ; 

iiiN^Lu) he assigned lands on 

feudal or copyhold tenure (as a 

prince to a snt)ject); ^\x^ cut, 

parted from each other, separated, 
jli (i. of JiJi) he pnt a wreath or 

chain aronod; be entrusted (the 

reins of govcmment). 


Ji (pi. »h\) a pen. 

^.4^^ bright, moon-shine (night). 

^-j;' a shirt, an inner garment. 

jlj» powerful?5^1 the omnipotent, 
or avenging (God). 

tiJy (pi. tiJl J*l) victualfl, food. 

J^U saying, speaking; a speaker. 

*^ people ; »J trne, right ; tj\» up- 
right, stauding, erect ; established 

(market) ; Lt\>^ asetting up, fixing, 
establiabiDg, putting in execution. 
i^Jm stronger, more powerful. 

jji'S camphor. 
1^1^ bow many? 

^ (u.) it was great \^^j^ »t was 
grievous, painful, annoying, dis- 
agreeable; Tn. jiS\ be viewed as 
great, he honoured; he praised; 

ix.JIj^lj^ be was proud ; j—^ very 
aged ; jJSm^ d 

ilj^ false, deceitfiiL 
"e-fS a ohui ; a seat of state, a throne. 
s^l (in. of «;S') he forced against the 
will, be compelled; al^lcompnlsion. 
•L2^ oppressed with grief. 

'i\iS (LU^?) a sufficiency, a supply 

equal te wants. 

lie (rr. of fii) be spoke. 

JJS entire, full, complete. 

fJJS be awept ; (_^-i^ sweeping. 

ile^ a osve;"%i|i31 (_»W*1 oompo- 
nioDB of the cave, the seven sleepers. 

ul^jf a star. 

j\^ for J^ (i.) be lud snares, he de- 
vised a plot p^u^ a plot. 

Jl^ for 'J^ be measured (grain); 
vri^^c^l he measured (com) ; he 
measured for another ; be received 
by measure ; ^JlS measure. 

J ' 

t__>C!1 {pi. of «JJ) hearts. 
tXJ he remained, be continued. 



• * • 

jjd\ (m. of ^jjs) he joinedi he added, 
he followed (it) up. 


\S^ or c/SS to, at, nigh ; wSS with us. 
(J^^y subtile; clear-sighted; gracious. 
(th. of LaI) he picked up. 


V^^Ji! (ii. of ^) he cast, or shed upon; 

lu. Jll he met, encountered. 
J wherefore ? UJ surely not 

^J verily not, assuredly not. 


^SiT* (w.) he was gracious p^^^ a re- 
proaching, twitting, or casting in 
the teeth of benefits conferred. 

J Ju.^ (more correct than Jj Ju**). 


|X^ of Mecca ; (reyealed) at Mecca 

* X 


j« ox 

(a.) he forbade, prohibited, 
^j^ a wave, a billow. 

^ X. X X XX 

fSfc)t« for Ju^ (♦.) it quivered, undu- 
lated, played, rocked to and fro. 

^t« lOTj^ {%.) he purveyed food for ; 
he brought com from a distance. 

JjU inclined (rt. JU for J^). 

X ^ X 


(i. of ^x^) he permitted freely 
to enjoy; he bestowed, conferred 

i |X X 

upon, granted; ^b^ merchandize, 

goods, wares,effects^baggage,clothes, 
chattels; provisions. 


_(V« (<>.) he praised, lauded, extolled. 


rJ J^ of Medina;(revealed) at Medina. 

C / XxS 

y {mper, of j^i) command thou ; 
\^j^ do you bid. 

^ xiu. f jr* bitter} /bitterness. ^ 

l»^ jauntingly, insolently. 

\ L5*r/* C/^' *^^r/*) small, trifling. 

^» X 

<^,to^ he touched ; it pressed. 



(fl.) he declared ; i. w he prophe- 
sied; he announced, informed, made 

acquainted; w {pi. % \J\) news,ad- 
vice; ^ u-J1 {pi. of j^) prophets. 

X ^* "" r XX "^ 

::^i (m. of l:: ^<» j ) he made (com 
or grass) to spring up and grow. 

S X 

the communication of a secret ; 
a private conference, carried on in 
a whisper ;'Nj.U from ^^^sj-U one 
who escapes ; escaped, saved. 
j3 he sowed discord. 

\J^ a receiver of guests ; ^y^ {pi. 




^^^ • -f" *1 (ix. of u.NaL«) he laid 

hold upon, he held firmly. -i^ ^^'l ^ < 

X^ a deferring, putting off, pro.^";^Uni.of^) he made to forget. 

crastination. ^^ advice, good counseL 

odium, hate, hatred. V^^^^-r ., , , 

, ^ ^yaj aid, help, assistance. 

^lC;8tate.conditionj;4;adweUer;Nv^r .^ ^^j^^^^ j^ ^^^^ ^ . 
settled, estabushed, firmly fixed ; 'jujjj ^^ m. 

\ (m. of ^jiw«)it was possible. ^jck^AA^ii of ^^^caJ) he shook himself. 

X % 

X ^ or 


[N.B. — The few contractions occasionally used in these notes are sufficiently ohyious. 
The symhol § denotes the paragraph in my Grammar where the subject in hand is discussed. 
The letter v. denotes vuU; Par. for Paragraph; pret. for preterite; aor. for aorist; imp. 
for imperatiye; masc. for masculine; fern, for feminine; together with some few more of 
that description.] 


Title. — <UbL5sr» LLpLi^ : here the adjectiye is put in the feminine 
BingulaTy acoording to § 267. 

Far. 1. In the first five sentences of this paragraph, as in several of 
par. 2 and elsewhere, the substantive verb ^o is not expressed, tfide § 158, a. 
— ^Line 3. .y ^a 'U oJ i etc., thou shalt not underrate an enemy, even if he be 

weak:" here the aorist apocopated, preceded by D, denotes prohibition, as 
stated § 315, a. c»ftt^ pret. is here used in the sense of the fixture, or present 

subjunctive, being preceded by ^^1 , v. § 307. — Line 4. J^Ul ili : here the 
verb agrees, not with the apparent nominative, but with the word which it 
governs, as is often the ease, v. § 339. 

Par. 2. ^^j ^, etc. : here the preterite is employed to denote present or 
future indicative, as it very firequently is, v. § 303. — Line 2. y^ J^ : the 
attribute after the verb ^J^, etc., is put in the accusative, v. §§ 347 and 


^ P ^ ^ .. mm 

348. — Line 6. ^-^ (ni. of ^) he blocked up," he was deaf:" here it is 
used in the causal sense, " it deafens or renders deaf/' iito. 

Par. 3, line 1. JiyJl Ja : here the positive form of the adjective Ja is 
used for the superlative, as is often the case, more especially with^^ 
* good," and J* " bad." Adjectives thus employed, if followed by the par- 
tide ^, indicate the comparative degree; if by a word in the genitive case, 
the superlative, v. §§ 81 and 82. — ^Line 4. jJlt ^ {j^t etc. : for this 
idiomatic use of the particle ^ in expressing a negative proposition, v. § 192. 

Par. 4, line 1. iSSU, f.*. ^u-^ i iJiU " (there are) three things," etc, : I 
cannot see the reason why the pronoun ^ fem. pi. should not have been 
l^ , according to De Sacy, who thus states in his Syntax, Tome II. page 
263, viz., *^ If the substantive be a plural masculine, provided it be not a 
regular plural, or if it be a plur. fem. (of any sort), it is usual to make the 
adjectives and pronouns agree with the same in the singular feminine." 
— Line 2. cJ^uU etc. : This idiomatic employment of cJ^ul may be ex- 
pressed in two ways, viz., 1st with the particle ^ followed by the accusa- 
tive, as in the text ; and 2nd with the particle ^ , followed, of course, by 

the genitive. The meaning here, in either case, will be, ' beware thee of 

-^ ^ 
the love of the world." — Line 5. >1 Jl^ii : this word, when not definite, is a 

diptote ,' but here being definite, it becomes a triptote. Let the student bear 

constantiy in mind that a common Arabic noun becomes definite in two ways ; 
viz;, 1st, by having the article Jl prefixed, and 2nd, by being in a state of 
regimen with the word following, v. § 68, a., and § 282. — Line 6. (J1JI>- 
"sit thou, or associate thou with** (n. of ^^uJjf*), r. § 111, a. 

Par. 6, line 1. uJhSJ^ ji "the possessor of nobility," i.e. "the noble," 
i;. § 66. — ^Line 2. 9'^\ ^\^j^ ^ • ^® subject here is a broken plural, and 
the verb is used in the fem. sing. v. § 331.— Line 6. c-^l^ (/?/. of cl^b)' ®^°*' 


O 9 

Mm O ~ t» 

like mose who are being conveyed in a Bhip." — Line 6. ^ preserve 
thou," 2d person singular imperative of the concave verb ^w for ^^y 
r. § 153 to § 155y both indusive. 

Par. 6, line 1. ^*^ ify] ^<^^ he opposes the (wicked) instigation 
of his own soul." — Line 4. Ls.^y^l^ (n. of ^^) when thou arguest," 
etc. The n. and vu. of this root denote he argued/' a meaning 
which, as sometimes happens, differs considerably from that of the primitive 
root — ^Line 6. Ja^ : here the verb is put in the feminine singular, in 
accordance with § 335, a. — Last line. ^Is^ ^ <J^ij9 etc., but bolder 
than he (with regard) to danger (is the man) who hath entered himself 
among kings :" here sjb\^ is put in the accusative case, as stated in § 273 ; 
this is a well-known Greek construction, and to be met with, not unfrequently, 
in the Latin poets. J^b (u. of J^^) "he introduced or entered himself," 
V. § 111, a. 

Far. 7, line 1. (jmUJ^ Jju, etc., who teacheth mankind virtue:" the 
verb f^jo, being doubly transitive, governs two accusatives, v. § 342. — 
Line 5. ^^^ ^i /*/ may Ood glorify his face :" the pret. used in a bene- 
dictive sense, v. ^ 309. — Lines 7 and 8. ^b^ in both lines is put in the 
feminine singular, the subject of each being a broken plural, and not expres- 
sive of rational creatures, v. § 335, a. and h. 

Par. 8, line 3. cjCtJ l^xIc ^\j ^j, etc., ''he gratifies himself with, 
(or respecting) the blemish which is not in thee," etc., i,0. "he will 'be 
delighted in attributing to thee," etc. — Line 7. J^ ^JLc Jc^j, etc., "there 
was found on a (certain) statue (something) written," $,$. "an inscription." 
There should be a small stop after L^tpS^, in order' to separate it from /^\;^* 

Par. 9, line 1. iLi^, the inchoative case for Jl>^ ^)U, or Jj JU^, 
''three persons:" as the subject here denotes rational beings of the masculine 


gender, hence the verb that follows is put in the mascnline plural, as stated 
in § 335, h. — ^Line 4. J^^^^ (i, etc., "it does not pass or penetrate beyond 
the ears," i.e, when a word is not spoken from the heart, it does not reach 
the heart. — Line 7. Here the verb wic^i , whose nominatiye is a masculine 
plural, is used in the singular, as stated in § 331. 

Far. 10, line 2. J^«^ D, etc., ''do not load (or lade) upon thy day the 

„ ^ ._ ^ ^ . L->J ijyyJ Uj u-J*^ Uj what (avails) 

thy anxiety about that which is not to thee?" %,$. not under thy control. 
This sentence should end with a note of interrogation. The whole passage 
savours strongly of Epictetus. I have, I believe, met with it before in some 
of the Stoic writings, though I forget in what author. 

Par. 11, line 2. ^^^^^y/iiX j^ Jb, etc. There is a curious coincidence 
between this saying by 'All and a passage by Cicero written some 700 years 
previously, viz. : " Hsbc studia (alluding to polite literature) adolescentiam 
alunt, senectutem oblectant, secundas res omant, adversis perfugium ac sola- 
tium prsebent, delectant domi, non impediunt foris, pemoctant nobiscum, 
peregrinantur, rusticantur." Cio. Orat. pro Archia Poeta, YIII. Edit. Yer- 
burgii, 4to, Amstel. 1724.— Line 7. ^^f^^ etc., "let the first thing thou 
shalt acquire, after the true faith, be a sincere friend." The sentence would 
have been, perhaps, more logical if ^^f^^ came in after ^X^V\^ and thence 
the reason why )L^ is put in the accusative case would be abundantly 
obvious, V. Par. 2, line 5. 

Par. 12, line 3. :(UuJ) i^msd c— nU7 j : here the subject being a broken 

plural feminine, the verb is put in the feminine singular, but it might option- 
s' -^-^ .^ 9^^'^ 

ally be in the singular masculine, 9. § 331. — ^Line 4. Jlj^, %.6. (jA3) ISH^ 
" there are three (individuals) who are not known except under three circum- 
stances :" here the subject is a broken plural, masculine and rational, hence 
the verb is put in the plural masculine, v. Par. 9, line 1, above. 

Par. 18| line 3. JaL) ^l^ y^ "even if he should have been removed;" 


/^ <'>'i^**- _ _ -__- -- _^^^ 

V. § 305. — Line 6. JU^^-jU ''when thoa jokest with him'' (n. of r}^)f 
V. § HI, a. 

Par. 14, line^5. <— ,C»lf»1 U ''how very meek thou art!" For an ex- 
planation of verbs of admiration and surprise, v. § 175, and § 352. — line 5. 
aJltst* d^ ''l am not meek," v, § 178, where this idiomatic nse of the 

prefix c-^ is explained. — ^Line 6. UH! IfS ^u and I am triply vexed at 
it." In Bosenmnller's Grammar, p. 379, this phrase is translated "propter 
qnod per tridunm snecenseo," ' at which I feel enraged for (the space of) 
three days." I am not aware of having ever seen the word Ij)U employed 
in this sense. 


Fahlei of Zukmdn the Sage. 

Lul^man holds the same rank among the Arabs that ^sop held among 
the Greeks. In fact, there are several points of resemblance between the 
two sages, if we may believe the accounts handed down to us respecting 
them. Tradition has it that both of them had been originally slaves ; and 
that each had procured his liberty by the brilliant sallies of his wit and 
genius. It is further said that both were short of stature and deformed in 
person. Finally, several learned men have viewed both as mere myths ; and 
have considered the collections of fables attributed to them, not as really 
theirs, but as an accumulation of writings of that dass handed down from 
remote antiquity. 

Muliammad has devoted a chapter of his Ku,ran to the subject of Lukman, 
which will be found in Section lY., together with Sale's translation and 
notes. Of the &bles themselves it is needless for me to say much ; except 
that I consider them admirably adapted, when accompanied by a vocabulary, 
for the use of beginners in the study of the Arabic language. Since the 
time of Erpenius, some two-and-a-half centuries ago, till the present, at 



least a score of difEerent editions have been printed abroad, bat none, as far 
as I am aware, in this country. Seven of these editions I have by me ; and 
from a careful collation of their contents, I believe I have succeeded in giving 
a text more correct than any that has yet appeared. I have merely to add, 
that the arrangement of the fables in former editions being merely conven- 
tional, I have here arranged them according to their leugth, beginning with 
the shortest and ending with the longest. 

Page 10, line 5. ^mJj\^ J^j, etc., 'he was standing in the water bathing 

himself," v. § 312. — Line 7. fj-la^l' ^Ji, etc., "with regard to the natural 
impress its character does not change," v. § 867. — Last line. >JJaJ \ ^\mJ\ ^Ji 
''as to the man of evil," etc. : this does not seem to be good Arabic, but I 
have here given it as it stands in Perceval's edition, as well as in those of 
more recent date. 

Page 1 1, line 8. w«/* (from kJy^) cast down, or fallen down (on the 
ground)," r. ^ 159, etc., on the defective verbs. — Line 12. (^/Jjw (m. of 
ijjj) " until he is (totally) impoverished." The in. is here used intensively, 
in the same sense as the primitive root ^;Jl9, which is a modification of the 
Greek o)3oXo9, and signifies, as we should say, that 'he was reduced to his 
last farthing." — Line 14. \^^\ ^J^t etc., they were in the habit of 
coming," etc. : the imperfect or continuative past tense, r. § 813. 

Page 12, line 4. 1^C>1 <-r^^ • ^g>^ ^o subject precedes the verb, which 
accordingly agrees with the former in gender and number, r. ^ 335. — The 
moral, line 6, applies to " those who exult over people of exalted rank when 
they are reduced in circumstances." It may be observed, once for all, that the 
tnarah vary in different editions. Thus, the moral of this fable- in Perceval's 

edition is, ^^\ ^J^ Mjf^^ uJL^!^ h -y^^^CjH ^^^^ crft^^' 
viz. " those who vilify people who have died, and are unable to answer for 
themselves ;" which I consider to be fully as appropriate as that given in our 


Page 13| line 8. CLfU\ ji, etc., verily thoa hast acted (or managed) 

for ij-a. — ^Line 12. j^mJI, etc.: the 
inchoative case, v. % 252. 

Page 14, line 5. y for J, owing to the wasla that follows, v, % 36, a, — 
Line 7. <U^ ^ but he is a (or one) lion :'* j^ for j^, r. ^ 83, a. Erpenins 
reads iU^ seven," instead of <U^. This mistake is easily accounted for, 
as his copy of the fables was most probably unpointed ; at the same time his 
translation, or what he means as such, becomes a very tame affiiir, viz., " if 
(my offspring) be only one, yet he is seven," i,e, worth seven of yours. Some 
of the German savans £sincy that there is a jeu de mot" intended here. 
Now, I venture to say that the author never intended anything of the sort. 
What ! a lion is worth seven hares, is he ? Why, if he made it 70, or 700 

hares, it would be all equally absurd. — Line 8. ij^ ^)j1 : here the adjective 
is in the feminine singular, the preceding substantive being a broken plural 

c ** t ^ it 

masculine, v. ^.267. — Line 10. a>-U>-J one single hen:" noun of singu- 
larity, from .^v^^^, which denotes, in a collective sense, the hen species of 
birds," as we shall see hereafter, v. % 208. 

Page 15, line 9. c^^ t« ''what thou possessest," v. % 349. It may be ob- 
served in passing, that about one half the editions read the preceding phrase 
as two words, and the other half as one word, u«^U '/ thy wealth, or sub- 


stance," either of which reading comes to the same thing.*— Line 15. ^fc3K>- 

€t ^%^ ^ tt m 

a (or one) locust :" noun of singularity, from Jiy>- the locust genus, or 

Page 16, line 5. f^jjl^ " a dunghill." Li the edition of Erpenius, edited 
by GK>lius, Lugd. 1656, the reading is \j^}^i which signifies ''a glass bottle, 
cruet, or jug." This reading, however, being altogether inadmissible, the 
learned editor suggests that it ought to be translated "two cocks were fighting 
on aeemmt of a cruet!" {i.e. of the food contained in the cruet.) Strange 
enough, Perceval has \jyj^ in his otherwise very accurate edition. The correct 


reading is given by Bask in his edition of 1831, who, for the first time, so 
far as I am aware, gives ^yJw ^J in sUrqutlinioJ* — Line 12. ^^o Ulj, etc., 
lit. now when it was the essence of a day,'' meaning " on a certain day,'' an 
idiomatic expression. — Line 13. dju^^j^ "it flew away entirely." 

X O ^ S ^ 

Page 17, line 2. ^j^ (j>l- of ^^j^f common gender) : it is pnt in the 
plural because ^^vsf-J, being a collective noun, has a plural signification, 
V. § 270. — Line 6. t\jj "hypocritically:" here used adverbially, v. § 194.— 
Line 10. ^j^ for ^^ ^ my fear is of him who is with thee," v. § 19. — 
Line 11. <U yb Uj of that which is in his power." 

Page 18, line 6. J^ $U ij^ ^A ''in & stream of water that they might 
be moistened, v. ^ 312. Jl>-1 ubjjyc ^/^^ ^^^ there was no one near 
them :" here, both the verb JuJ and the pronoun U, each of them referring 
to i^yp^f a broken plural masculine, are put in the feminine singular, agree- 
ably to what we stated in our note to paragraph 4, q,v. The same remark 

applies to Uji^ u in line 8. — Line 9. \y^ Jj '' and they did not reach {or 
arrive at the hides):" here the aorist apocope bears a past signification, 
V. § 99. — Line 13. fj/i\ ^X^ uli^l "he was on the point of sinking:" the 
verb (.J^i is here used as an inchoative, v. § 353. 

Page 19, line 5. if\i'MJ H "they did not afford him the power of entrance 
between them;" O^vi, etc., and he stood aside by one of them." — ^Line 6. 

L5^^ ui (^* ®^ ^ for y^) "if he would separate himself, or be separated, 
from his companion," v.% 113. The iv. formation, like the seventh, is some- 
times employed in a reflexive as well as a passive sense. 

Page 20, line 5. $U |^!^ "filled as to water:" some editions read ^U 
"fuU of water," which, though in accordance with the Prench and Oerman 

idioms, is less el^;ant Arabic. — Last line. ^jxJ J, etc., he did not take rest, 
nor did he linger in the race :" here the particle J gives the aorist the sig- 
nification of the past, as we have already noticed. 


Page 21, line 6. >yj\ im^ ^"O dog of eyil !'* A similar expression 
occurred before in the last line of page 10. — ^Line 9. ij\^ ^7^ ^ 'Vhat 
oontribates to his wel&re.** — ^line 13. (Jk^^ c^Jls : here lzJU for i^b, 
on account of the following wa^h; and in the singular feminine, according 
to § 334. 

Page 22, line 8. ijJj jlxll Ji ''that the whole world/' i,e. ''all man- 
kind/' or perhaps in a more general sense, "all living creatures;" the phrase 

ij>Jj jUll is highly idiomatic; it literally signifies "the world, bridle (or halter) 
and all," i.e. "the world entirely." — ^Line 23. U^ " their grandeur or mag- 
nificence;" the feminine singular of the pronoun applied to the broken plural 
masculine as formerly stated. Par 4, line 1. — Last line, ^aj^ etc. : the verb 
here is put in the singular, its subject being a regular masculine plural, 
agreeably to § 331, q.v. 

Page 23, last line. iZJyi ^ UJ " whilst it was in a dying state," or 
" at the point of death." 

Page 24, line 3. ^*^^ etc. " and (who) pretends to (the performance of) 
any task that occurs to him." — ^Line 6. Usr**^! " they (two) became com- 
panions," tu. of i^^y^, the servile C^ changed into b according to 
§ 116, a, q.v. 

Page 25, line 1 ^jJSaJ for ^^i^ (pronounced a^ttanl), v. § 27, a. 
—Line 8. 4; l<V^ ^^^ ^® threw it away;" the particle c-^ is here used 
idiomatically, agreeably to what is stated in § 357, a, q.v. 

Page 26, line 1. (-^uiS) ^wJ 1 <^/sC (^1 that he might strip the man 

•#>• 9 

of his clothes ;" here the verb ^J=^t being doubly transitive, governs two 
accusatives, as stated in § 842, q.v. — ^Line 5. j(f31 : this word generally sig- 
nifies "day," or "daylight," in opposition to Jj "night," or "darkness;" 
i%jj , on the other hand, denotes day" as a portion of time, one half, at an 


s ^ 

average, of the natural day of twenty-four hours. — Page 27, line 6. fj^J ^\^ 

s ^ 

here the subject h^*^ being merely a grammatical feminine " the verb ^\S 
may optionally be used in either gender, v. % 330. — Line 8. u-Ci^»iuJ etc. 
**thatwemay regale ourselves this day together."— Line 13. ^ Jiik; > ^^j^ ^ 
"many (people) act the part of Tufail, bui come away repulsed," etc. Tufail 
was a celebrated parasite (or what the bcottish people call aanier, and the 
Yankees hafer) of the city of Eufah. He is mentioned in the Makamat of 
Hariri; v. De Sacy's edit. p. 55. 

Page 28, line 4. f^^J^ ^^f^ ^'^^ ^ anxious to seer l^ere the 
aonst ^3/^ IS equivalent to our mnnitive, v. ^ 312. — Line 8. J^^^l ^^ J 
''there was not any one;" the verb m the aorist bears a past signification, on 
account of the particle J, as already stated. — Last line. ^^UcJ and ho 
feigned himself sick," 9. § 114. 

Page 29, line 1. ^j>-j^\ ^j^ i^^ ** any one of the other animals," lit 
" anything." — Line 3. 1 JjU " visitingly," ♦.*., " by way of visiting." — 
Line 5. .j'^^\ Ul IJ '' father of the little stronghold;" some editions have 

. m '^] lil li "O father of beauty,** a reading quite passable, for it is a very 
common complimentary mode of address, like our expression, my fine 
fellow." — Line 6. cJj^ C^v^ "l should have trusted thee as to that 
(matter,) were it not that I see near thee traces of a great many feet," etc. 
— ^Line 7. J^^ : feminine singular, the substantive being a broken plural. — 
Line 11. if-^ ,Jlb on a beast." The word <U^ is very often used, as 
it still is among ourselves, in the sense of a beast of burden," or any 
domesticated quadruped, such as the horse, the camel, the ox, and the ass. 
Per instance, in old-fashioned country inns, especially in the North, it is not 
a rare sight to see written on the sign-board, '' entertainment for man and 
beast,", " for man and horse.** 


Page 30, line 5. ^^J^ ^jJI ''those who are immersed;" some editions 
read ^j^/^ those who are known for sins and trespasses." — Line 6. 

^^*iA (JU'V«JJ ^\ "which their own hands have committed;" here the verb 

is put in the feminine singular, the nomlnatiye being a broken plaral ; but 
it might have been optionally put in the masculine singular, v. § 331. The 

relative pronoun ^\ , whose antecedents are broken plurals, is here put in 
the feminine singulari agreeably to what we stated in par. 4, line 1. 


The Htscdlaneous Aneedotea contained in this Section have been extracted 
chiefly from the '' Nafhatu-1-Yaman," an Arabic miscellany of compositions 
in prose and verse, selected or original, by Shaikh Ahmad bin Muhammad 
SharwauIyu-l-Yamanl : Calcutta, 1811, 4to. pp. 603. It is a work admirably 
adapted for the use of beginners, but it has no yooabulary; and besides, it 
is now exceedingly scarce. 

Page 31, line 9. ^j^^ ^^ "he was made ruler of Bahrain." The 
^x ^ ^ ^ 

verb ^^ (i. of JJ^) in the active voice governs two accusatives; hence, in 
the passive, the second accusative still remains, agreeably to what we stated 
in § 343. 

Page 32, 1. 3. J^i ^ etc* ''how tall the builders (were) m former 
times !" etc. : verb of admiration and surprise, v, § 352. — Line 6. Jlf>- b 

the vocative case being merely the nominative, without the nnnation, r. § 67. 


ifyc^ ij:,yXaj\j and at was inverted a min&ret." The accusative is here used 

in accordance with what we stated in § 348 respecting ^l^ and "her sisters." 

Page 33, line 13. i:»^j^ for 6:^j^\ : vide note on par. 3, line I. 

Page 34, line 5. lf[(X|V **^ ^^^ hands (or paws) :" the pronoun feminine 
singular is employed in conformity with what we stated in the note to par. 4, 


* .i^^rr Vif 

line 1, q^,v. — ^Line 9. JjlLDl LlJ^ etc. ^* when the cats were admitted,'* etc. : 
the verb and also the pronoun U are put in the feminine aingnlar, the subject 
being a broken plural; the final hwra in cuXo is on account of the fol- 
lowing wasla, — line 10* j\x5 etc. '' and it nearly happened that the house 
was set on fire :" Jo is one of the approximate yerbsi 9. § 354. 

Page 35, line 9. U^ for U ^ and they withdrew from what they had 
been (urging) upon him." — Line 14. ^<^ etc. bestow me upon him (as 
his wife):" u^^ the imperative of ^^^j loses the initial j ; vide the Simile 
Verb, §§149 and 150. — Last line. ^£/^ "verily thou shalt see:" the par- 
ticle ^ prefixed to the aorist gives it a positive or emphatic fiiture signifi- 
cation, 9. § 105, top of page 169. 

Page 36, line 14. l^|^l uJk\ ^ \ ^ Ji etc : J^ is the aozist apocope of 
1^1;, a verb doubly imperfect, and of very frequent occurrence, v. § 169: 
"and the king did not see good (or approve of) compelling her to sell it, and 
therefore allowed her house to remain," etc 

Page 37, line 3. ^^^ J etc. there has not been chronicled in what 
(time) has passed about any king, nor will there be chronicled in what (time) 

^ ^ ^A it 

remains," %,b. about any future king. — Line 12. ^^jkr i most assuredly no 
one shall go out :" the aorist paragogic is here used with J in an energetic 
prohibitive sense, § 101. 

Page 38, line 5. J^m\ c/J^ ^^, lit. " between the two hands of As- 
Safiah," i,e. "in the presence of As-Safia^." Abu-^l 'Abbas As-Safiah was 
the first Caliph of the Abbaside dynasty ; he reigned from a.d. 750 to a.d. 
754. Abu Dulamah, the poet, was bom at Kufah during the reign of the 
latter Caliphs of the TJmmaiya dynasty. He afterwards attached himself to 
the court of the first three Caliphs of the race of Al 'Abbas, by all of whom 
ho was held in high estimation, and loaded with honours and presents, on 
account of his ready wit and bright genius. 


Page 89^ Ene 8. y»iAS^ i.e. JIIl^ v/**^ ''there are five qualities/' 
ete. — lAne 7 — (jao^ )j etc the eontrivanoe of evil shall only encompass 
the anthors thereof v. Kor^ftn zxxv. 41. 

Page 40, line 5. c r ^ Mr ] etc. I gave nnto A^imad, etc. the broker, a 

garment) and said (to him), sell it for me;" the yerb ^Jt^i (m. of l^) 

goyems two acoosatiYes; ^ imperative of the concave verb ^b for ^^p 
9. § 151, etc. 

Page 41, line 4. UuJ« c/jW It "it was worth nothing," lit. "it was not 
equal to anything." 

Page 42, line 4. y>^^ etc., passive of ni. of j.a>^, "and he was sent 
for to the king, and the painter was sent for, also the painting." — Line 5. 
^y^ti etc. (imperative m. of ^^^) "and cause to come out," i.e. "point 


Page 43, line 2. 'Abdu-1-Malik bin Marw&n was the sixth Caliph 
of the race of TJmmaiya; he reigned fi^)m a.d. 684 to A.n. 705. — ^Line 13. 
aSujJj i% ^Ifis over what have we constituted or installed you;" the 
interrogative pronoun t« is sometimes contracted into a when joined to a 
preposition, as in this instance. 

Page 44, line 3. Aiter j\^ put a fall stop.— Line 4. Jjsf^^ etc. "divine 
rights would have vanished, or disappeared." The subject being a mas- 
online plural, the verb is used in the singular, § 331. 

N.B. — In the preface to my Grammar, page vii., I gave a few directions 
for the guidance of self-instructing students, at a time when the present work 
was not even commenced, yea, scarcely contemplated. I there recommended, 
(from the want of a better), Mr. Schalch's "Ajrabio Selections," or Eosegarten's 
" Chrestomathia ;" both of which books are rather scarce. Instead of 
these, I can now recommend for the use of the student, without, I trust, any 
undue presumption, the first forty-four pages of my own Selections. When the 


learner has read np that hi, and has carefully examined and impressed on his 
memory all the references pointed out in the KoteSi it would ho well if he 
were to read over the whole a second time, and also to peruse the Grammar 
most attentively from beginning to end ; for I have presumed that as yet, he 
has read only those portions of it which are printed in large type, as I advised 
him to do in my Preface. By so doing, he will be enabled to proceed with 
satisfaction, profit, and pleasure, through the four Sections of this work which 
follow. Let him always bear in mind that in the acquisition of any learned 
and highly cultivated language, but most especially of a language constituted 
like the Arabic, the Grammar is his sheet anchor. The Arabians, in the 
Grammar of their language, appear to have absolutely run riot; as if they had 
intended to hold up to ridicule the plausible lucubrations of some of our 
Western sages, who have £sivoured us with what they are pleased to call 
Treatises on ' TJmversal Grammar;" their notions on such matters being 
founded merely on the Grammars of the Latin and Greek. 


JExiraeU from the Kwrfin, 

With regard to this Section, we have a few preliminary observations to 
offer before we proceed further. When we sent our manuscript of the 
whole work to the printer, it was discovered that he had not in his press an 
adequate supply of the necessary vowel-points and other orthographical 
symbols. Such of these as he possessed were really fitted for the smaller 
type used in our Vocabulary; but utterly disproportionate to the larger type 
employed in our text. This deficiency delayed the printing of the latter 
for some six weeks or so, till such time as a complete new set of vowel- 
points, etc., adapted to the larger type, might be cut and cast. In the 
meanwhile, in order that no time should be lost, we deemed it right 


to go to press with the Yocabolary, which in reality ought to have been 
the last step in the process; for by tho printing off the Yocabolary first 
of all| we debarred ourselves fh>m the admission, in their proper place, 
not only of such words as might have been previously overlooked, but 
also of such additional words as might be requisite, in consequence of addi- 
tional enlargements of the text. It was our intention at first to have 
given only three chapters as our Euranic specimen, viz., those included 
from page 45 to page 49, all the words of which wiU be found in the 
Vocabulary. On further consideration, howeveri we deemed it highly 
proper, for two good reasons, to extend considerably our extracts fh>m 
this source. In the first place, the Kur,&n is looked upon by all 
Muslim nations as the ''well of Arabic undefiled." Witness what Mr. E. 
Lane, the very first authority in Europe on such matters, says in the 
Introduction to his ''Selections from the Kur,an," 8vo. London, 1843, p. 87. 
" The Kur,an is universally allowed to be written with the utmost elegance 
and purity of language, in the dialect of the tribe of Euraish, the most 
noble and polite of all the Arabs, but with some mixture, though very 
rarely, of other dialects. It is confessedly the standard of tho Arabio 
tongue, and as the more orthodox believe, and are taught by the book 
itself, inimitablo by any human pen (though some sectaries have been of 
another opinion) ; and therefore it is insisted upon as a permanent miracle, 
greater than that of raising the dead, and alone sufficient to convince the 
world of its divine original.*' 

In the second place, the Eur,an is the mine or quarry from which the 
native grammarians draw most of their examples in illustration of such rules 
as they deem requisite for those who wish either to speak or to write pure 
and uncorrupted Arabio. In fact, the Arabs consider Grammar to be "a 
well arranged and methodical series of precepts, deduced from the word of 
God itself, for the instruction of all such as wish to acquire a thorough 


knowledge of the Arabic language." Such being the case, we trast the 
reader will see the propriety of our having added eighteen pages of JBIaranio 
Extracts to those which we had originally intended to have giyen* 

The eighteen pages of new matter thns added to the text, necessarily 
contained many words not preyiously inserted in the Yocabulary. The only 
remedy left us^ theni was to add a Supplement to our Yocabulary containing 
all such new words as had not been previously inserted, together with some 
others that had been overlooked. Finally, in order that the student may 
have every conceivable means of mastering our Zuranic Extracts, which we 
strongly recommend to Ids perusal, we shall insert at the end of our anno- 
tations, Sale's translation of the same, which is allowed to be very accurate, 
together with all Ids explanatory notes, which are both learned and interest- 
ing, evincing vast and profound research on the part of the translator. 

Page 45, line 6. f^^\ J^\ ^t |^ "in the Name of God," etc. : 
mmJ is for j^\) (v. % 36, a.), the initial dlif being in this case entirely 
omitted. This formula is prefixed to every chapter of the Kur,an, with the 
exception of only one, viz. the ninth, entitled Eepentance." It is pronounced 
by the Musalman people when they sit down to their meals; at the com- 
mencement of any important undertaking ; also when they kill any animal 
for the purpose of food or sacrifice, otherwise the meat is deemed imlawM. 
It is also prefixed to all their literary compositions, otherwise the latter would 
be deemed highly heterodox. It is with them what the sign of the cross, or 
the formula "in nomine Patris, Pilii," etc., is among Christians. We are 
told by Savary that a celebrated Muslim author says that "when these words 
were sent down from heaven, the clouds cleared away on the side of the east, 
the winds were lulled, the sea was agitated, the animals erected their ears to 
listen, and all the devils were precipitated firom the celestial spheres." — 
line 9. X*C« "of or relating to Mecca." Some of the chapters of the £ur,an 
are said to have been revealed at Mecca, and others at Medina; and some 


parUy at Mecca and partly at Medina. There are also a few chapters^ among 
others the present one, on which the commentators are not agreed as to what 
city they belong. The word ^T is put in the accusative case singular, 
according to ^ 257, q,v. 

Page 46, line 12. ^yl ^ y etc. and whoso shall believe/' etc. The 
aorist apocope is here used after the pronoun ^ according to what we stated 
in § 99, a. 

Page 48, line 2. )U1L> '' chains," a poetic form for J^La • 

Page 60, line 5 : the word m^ my people," is used instead of ,<^y > 
the final pronominal afilx 4^ being suppressed, agreeably to what we stated 
in § 290, page 248, line 9. So in page 59, line 7, the word Cj% is used 
instead of rr^* 

Page 56, line 3. KS^^JLs. (X>-1 '' eleven stars;" the numerals firom 11 to 
19, both inclusive, govern the noun following in the accusative singular, 
^ 261, a. There is something connected with this expression that requires 
explanation, which I myself am unable to furnish, and which, so £ar as I 
know, no commentator has as yet ventured to offer. The Hebrew text of 
the Pentateuch, the Gh*eek Septuagint, the Arabic £ur,an, the Arabic version 
of the Old Testament, and the German version by Luther, which is a care- 
fidly executed translation from the Hebrew, all agree in employing the above 
phrase in an indefinite sense, viz., Eleven Stars." On the other hand, our 
English version of the Book of Genesis, as well as the apocryphal *' Book of 
Jasher," and the English version of Josephus, all interpret the same phrase 
definitely, i.e., " The Eleven Stars." I may further mention that in all the 
versions of the Celtic dialects of the Britannic Isles, viz., the Gaelic, the 
Manks, and the Irish, the definite article is used, which, I am afraid, proves 
that in all of these, the translations were made, not from the Hebrew, as they 
all pretend on their title pages, but from the English version. The Welsh 
translation I have not got by me ; but I dare say it does not grefitly differ 


from its neiglibotirs ; howeyeri as the natives of Wales insist upon it that 
their lingo bears a strong affinity to the Hebrew (qnod credat Jadaens), of 
course they may be expected to have given us a tme translation of the above 
phrase. Well then, the question is, why does our English version, as well 
as those founded upon it, differ so materially from those of the older tongues? 
For my own part, I have been all my life quite satisfied with the explanation 
of '' the eleven stars " given to me by my grandfather, more than fifty years 
ago, when I was made to read the Bible through once a year, with a view to 
keep me out of mischief, viz., " that the eleven stars mentioned in the Book of 
Genesis were what we call the swen stars (or Pleiades) ; and that though we, 
in this northern climate, can see no more than six or seven, yet in the purer 
skies of the East eleven stars might easily be seen by the naked eye." This 
may, or may not, be true ; I never thought anything about the subject till 
within a few months back, when I had occasion to read over the present 
chapter of the Kur,an preparatory to its being sent to press. 

Page 59, line 4. \jJj^j iJJb U this is not a (mortal) man;" the word 


UuJ is put in the accusative case, because the negative U has here the effect of 
i^mJ. Last word, u-^i^ ^t tjJb ^ etc.: here something is understood before 
^ such as "we vow," (or '' we do declare,") that this is nothing else than an 
angel." — Line 7. UjCl is a poetic form for ^^^ or ^^ • — ^Line 12. 
\j^:^jp^ ^ji! " I see (or saw) myself pressing wine" (from grapes). 

We may here observe, in conclusion, that we are not likely to meet 
henceforth with many more grammatical peculiarities requiring special notice. 
With regard to notes explanatory of the text of the present section, we 
refer the student to the learned remarks appended to Sale's translaition. 


The Book of a ** I%au8and Nights and a Night^*^ or "Arabian Nights' 
Entertainments," became known for the first time to European readers about 


160 yean ago, throtigli the French translation of a portion of the Tales by 
M. Gallandi Professor of Arabic in the Boyal College of Paris. The extra- 
ordinaiy nature of the work, combined with the limited knowledge of Arabic 
literature then possessed by our learned men of the West, caused it for a long 
time to be regarded as an amusing and harmless literary fraud. Time, how- 
ever, has gradually dissipated all such suspicions ; and within the last forty 
years we have had, in print, no fewer than three different editions of the 
whole work, all of which I briefly mentioned in page z of the Pre&ce to my 
Arabic Gbrammar.- 

For a full description of the Arabian Nights, we must refer the learner to 
Mr. £. Lane's translation of select portions of the work in three volumes, 
large 8yo. London, 1838. He concludes, on solid grounds, no doubt, that the 
earlier portions of it were composed in the latter half of the ninth century of 
the Hijra, and completed in the first half of the century following, or between 
▲.D. 1456 and 1550. He is also of opinion that the work was both com- 
menced and completed by one and the same author, which we should say is 
rather doubtftiL The style is not strictly classical, as some Europeans have 
supposed, nor is it, as others have imagined, that of familiar conversation. 
It holds a middle rank between the pure Arabic of the earlier centuries of 
the Hijra and that of men of ordinary education of the present day. 

Li this Section and the next, we have considerably reduced the supply of 
the vowel-points, hitherto given in full ; and in our concluding section we 
mean to omit the latter entirely. The student should bear in mind that he 
must, at last, qualify himself to read Arabic without vowel-points, or any 
other orthographical symbols; for in the great body of Arabio literature 
which we possessi with the sole exception of the £ur,an, we rarely meet with 
any pointed composition, whether manuscript or printed. 

^x ••OS ^ xo^ 

Page 69, line 8. ^^]j^^ plural of JX^ji • The Barmaids or Barmecides 
were a noble family or tribe that flourished at Bagdad under the Caliphate of 


Harunn-r-Eashld. They were distingmshed among their countrymen by 
their munificence, nrbanityi and liberality. The tyrannical and atrocious 
conduct of Harun towards them has left an indelible stigma on his otherwise 
popular and brilliant reign. Of this we shall have more to say in our 
seyenth and last Section, of which the history of Harun's reign forms a part 

« Page 70, line 8. ^j^ [^f**^ ^^^^ ^^ countenance :" the student is 
recommended to peruse with great care what we have stated respecting the 
varieties of which this mode of construction is susceptible, &om the middle 
of page 235 to the middle of page 240 of the Grammai*. 

Page 73, line 5. ci^\j\^^\^ M^ < ^ HH ^^ understood the language 
of beasts (of burden), and of other animals," such as birds, etc. The Mus- 
lims, learned and unlearned, to this day beUeye that all kinds of beasts and 
birds have a language of their own by which they can communicate to one 
another such ideas as they possess. Now, we ourselves believe (fbr we 
have read authentic proo& of the fact), that several classes of animals, 
especially those of the dog species, and some others, can and do, by some . 
mysterious process, reason and communicate their thoughts and wants to each 
other, to a small extent. From the present tale, however, we are left to 
infer that animals in general possess a ** Ungua franca*^ common to various 
species and genera, such, for example, as the ox and the ass, or the dog and 
the cock. This belief on the part of the followers of Muhammad most pro- 
bably originated from a verse in the twenty-seventh chapter of the Kur,an, 
where Sulaiman or Solomon says, " that he has been taught the language of 
birds,'' and, as the ** true believers " infer, of all other animals. 

Page 75, line 1. These four hemistichs are given only in the earlier Cal- 
cutta edition, containing the first 200 Nights. As this is the only fragment 
of verse that we have admitted, we may as well add the translation of it, 
viz., '^I occupy myself every day and night, anxiously, towards one in 
whose prosperity I have no enjoyment; like the bleacher who blackens 


his own face in the Bon, watching over the whitening of the clothes of 

li^am the Jj^wdnu-f-Safd. 

The original work firom which this Section is extracted, forms, when 
complete, a large Encyclopedia containing fifty-one distinct treatises on 
yarions snhjects relating to Divine and human knowledge. One of these 
treatises was piinted at Calcutta, a.d. 1812, in large 8vo. pp. 442, under the 
superintendence of Shai^ A^mad, already mentioned in our 11th page. 
The present Section is the introductory chapter to Shai^ Ahmad's puhli- 
cation, a hrief outline of which last is given as follows, in an English preface 
to the work hy Mr. T. Thomason, one of the Shaikh's pupils : — 

' The Arahio Student is here presented with a work, which is at once 
instructive and engaging. The most interesting truths of natural history are 
so skilfully introduced, and are made to bear their part in this allegorical 
controversy between the Men and the Animals with so much ingenuity, that 
the reader is insensibly engaged in the controversy himself, and is delighted 
with the animated descriptions and beautiful pictures from nature, which 
open upon him in almost every page. Pine maxims of conduct are inter- 
spersed, as well as frequent appeals to the heart tending to promote the 
interests of virtue; justice, mercy and truth, appear truly amiable; fraud, 
tyranny, and falsehood are shown to be at once foolish and detestable. It is 
impossible to rise from this book without feeling that the moral habit is 
strengthened ; for who can look abroad into the field of nature, and contem- 
plate the varied and surprising marks of wisdom with which it abounds, 
without offering some tribute of admiring gratitude to the Great Creator } 
And will not this elevation of sentiment necessarily strengthen our love of 


virtue ? It will be doing, perhaps, an acceptable servioe to the reader, to 
present him with a brief outline of this beautiful work. 

** The Animals and Men are here supposed to bring their mutual com- 
plaints against each other before the king of the GeniL The former complain 
of Man's injustice and cruelty. The latter, of the Animals' insubordination 
and dereliction of duty. The point to bo determined is whether the Men 
possess the right of dominion over the Animals. The Animals assert that 
they are by nature free, and that Man's pretensions to lordship are unjust. 
The Men, on the contrary, maintain that they possess a natural superiority 
over the Animals, which they accuse of having relinquished their service, 
and which they, therefore, claim as their property. 

''The king having summoned a council, the cause is opened. The claims 
of the Men are first brought forward, to which the Animals reply ; and the 
arguments appear to the monarch so nicely balanced, that he determines on 
taking the advice of his most able judges and lawyers. The Animals are 
alarmed; and, considering how much depends, in all law-suits, upon the 
skill and eloquence of the pleaders, and knowing too their own inferiority in 
these respects to their opponents^ they resolve on summoning the tribes of 
animals to their aid. Accordingly, messengers are despatched for this pur- 
pose to the six different classes of Animals, the wild beasts, the birds, the 
birds of prey, the insects, the reptiles, and the fishes. The account of these 
embassies will be thought, perhaps, by far the most engaging part of the 
work. The embassy to the birds in particular, is fuU of life and interest; 
not only on account of its beautiful descriptions, but also for its fine moral 
sentiments. The feathered songsters raise their notes, one after another, in 
praise to their Creator, and admonitory addresses to Man. The reader is not 
only pleased, but charmed and delighted^ to find the thorny road to learning 
strewed with such beautiful flowers. 

''The envoys from the tribes of Animals are at last assembled, and the 


court is opened. The king, looking round upon the company, before he 
actually enters upon business, asks some questions concerning the contending 
parties. Observing Men of different habits and appearance, he enquires 
who they are. And here the representatives of the different nations of the 
earth, pass in review before the reader. They all give an account of them- 
selves, in succession, in strict conformity to historical truth. Observing next 
the envoys of the Animals, these form the subject of his enquiries. And 
these also are described, in conformity to natural history, as it was known to 
the author. After these preliminaries, which occupy a great space, and 
would be tedious to the reader but for the liveliness of the style and the 
interesting nature of the subject, the pleadings commence. The Men produce 
all their strong arguments, and insist on their noble arts and sciences, their 
numerous comforts and luxuries, their knowledge of religion and practice of 
Divine worship, their ornaments and rich clothing, their laws and govern- 
ments, their poets and philosophers, their grammarians and orators, their 
artisans and mechanics, their attention to education, their knowledge of 
astronomy, etc., as affording so many distinct and incontrovertible proofs of 
Man's natural superiority and right of dominion over the Animals. To these 
arguments the envoys of the different Animals reply in their order, and the 
reader is entertained with a series of descriptions wherein the skill of the 
Animals is exhibited, and their powers shown in many points greatly to 
exceed those of Men. The arguments, indeed, are such as naturally suggest 
themselves to the mind, yet they are so ably brought forth, and so nicely 
adjusted to their places, that they cannot fedl of amusing the reader, in his 

" The termination of the cause is finely conceived. It appears at length 
that Men are destined for another world in which they will be rewarded or 
punished according to their actions in this present state of existence. This 
determines the suit in their &vour. By the common consent of Qie Genii, 


and of the Animals thomselyes, the sovereignty U decreed to Man. The style 
is easy, copions, elegant^ and perspicuous. The Student will derive con- 
siderable advantages from the study of this book. He wOl not only be 
assisted in learning a great quantity of words, but will become acquainted with 
synonymous terms and expressions which will prove useful towards reading 
and writing Ajrabio with accuracy. Before the elegancies of composition 
can be discerned, it is absolutely necessary to be acquainted with the native 
force of words in their common acceptation. Here this may be learned, 
almost on every subject; for all kinds of subjects are handled, in their 

The work is said to have been composed by a select society of ten 
learned men, residents of the city of Basrah, the period rather uncertain, 
but believed to have been about the tenth century of our SDra. The portion 
of it edited by Shai^ Al^mad, was translated into Hindustani by Maulavl 
Ikram 'AlT, who in his preface gives the following brief and satisfactory 
notice of the whole collection : — " The authors of it were ten learned men, 
viz., Abu Salman, Abu-1-Hasan, Abu Ahmad, and (seven) others who dwelt 
in intimate friendship in the city of Ba$ra ; and always devoted their time 
to the investigation of science and religion. In this manner they produced 
fifty-one distinct treatises, which as a whole work they entitled \sua\ ^y>'\ 
i.e. "Brothers of Sincerity.'' One treatise out of the collection is the 
present work, which relates to the dispute that once took place in the 
presence of the king of the Genii, between man and the other animals on 
the score of supremacy in the scale of Creation." 

Page 84, line 3. ^^)js\ " the Janns, Jinns, or Genii," according to Musal- 
man belief, constitute one of the three worlds of rational beings alluded to in 
the opening chapter of the Kur,an. They are said to consist of five grades 
or dassesi viz., 1. the Janns, who are the least powerful; 2. the Jinns, who 
are next in power. Both of these classes apply their powers to good or evil 


according to cucnmBtances or mere oapnce ; and as a general rule fhe term 
J&nn or Jinn may be indifferently applied to either grade, as we see it done 
repeatedly in this Section. The third class is that of the Shaif^s or Devils, 
who, as we all know, are entirely given to mischief. The fourth and fifth 
grades are those of the 'Ifrlts and Marids, who are generally of hideous 
aspect and gigantic size. They are said to be the most powerful of all, and 
they uniformly exercise their power in the perpetration of every kind of 
wickedness. — Line 5. jJLiS ^\ J^ J-i "before the creation of the 
&ther of mankind," that is, of Adam. It is said that God created the Jinn 
or Jann species out of fire, more than two thousand years before Adam was 
created out of earth. It is further said that there were, and still are, among 
them, true believers, infidels, and numerous sects of various kinds, such as 
exist among ourselves at the present day. It is generally believed that the 
pre- Adamite Jinns were governed by a succession of more than forty kings, 
to each of whom the Arab writers give the name of SulaimSn. 

Page 85, line 3. ^j^\ (^/«4)'i ^j^j^ " 'Azazil Iblls the accursed ;" this 
is the name generally applied to the Arch-fiend himself. He is said to be the 
father of the Shaitans; and both he and his offspring, though not quite im- 
mortal, are yet distinguished from the other classes of the Janns by a longer 
term of existence, the duration of which is uncertain. They say whenever 
Iblis dies, (and the Scottish proverb says, " it will be a lang time ere the 
Deil dee "), all the Shaifans are doomed to perish along with him. 

Page 90, line 3. J-jU J-jIS JiS Uli "now when Cain slew Abel." 
I cannot help thinking that the word \^)^ , which is the name given to Gain 
by the Arabs, originated in the blunder of some copyist, which might have 
easily happened in this wise. The right word is ^j^o U ; and supposing the dia- 
critical points to have been omitted in some copy, as often happens, especially 
in the case of proper namesi just where they are most needed, the two forms 


^\j and Jt-jli (without the dots), would become almost identical. We may 
add as a further inducement for this change^ the strong temptation held out 
by the jingliug rhyme of the two words J^U and J:*jU ; and these things 
being considered, I think this conjecture of mine will not appear to be 
altogether void of probability. — Line 9. (j**i^*^l is the Arabian name for 

^ysS^S "the prophet Enoch."— Line 13. ^\^\ ^^Ujlall "the second flood." 
This is supposed to have been a partial flood, that at some very uncertain 
period, overwhelmed the Arab tribes settled in Yaman. It is frequently 
alluded to by Arabian writers. Mr. Lane thinks it happened about the 
second century of the Christian sera; Sale says, soon after the time of 
Alexander the Great; and, if we may credit the writer of our text, we aro 
to infer that it took place before the time of Abraham. Such floods must 
have occasionally occurred, firom the bursting out of large mountain lakes, in 
almost all parts of our globe, ever since the time when it assumed its present 
shape millions of years ago. The most recent of the kind took place, on a 
comparatively small scale, near Sheffield, within the last few weeks. — ^Last 
line. ^9;^ "Nimrod," according to Musalman belief, was not merely a 

"mighty hunter," as we have it, but a most cruel and oppressive tyrant. 
He is said to have oast the patriarch Abraham into a flaming flery furnace, 
which the Almighty instantly converted into a bed of roses. Probably this 
Muslim legend is founded on what we read in the book of the Prophet 
Daniel respecting Nebuchadnezzar, and the three good men who refiised to 
worship his golden image ; or it may be founded on the history of Daniel 
himself, who was cast into a den of lions by the Median king 

Page 91, line 8. The letter & here represents a very common form of 
benediction used by the Arabs after mentioning the name of any great or 

holy personage deceased. This formula is aILJ\ ^A& " on him be peace." 
When two personages are alluded to of course it will be aLJ\ UfJlf "on 


them both be peace !" and in the case of three or more personages, it will be 
^U( AfJifi ''on them be peace." I have not met with it as applied to 
deceased femalesi though there is no reason why it should not be so. — ^Line 
13. tm^ j^, JJ^t 'WUS ''when the lapwing came (to Solomon) with 
tidings of Bil^Is (Queen of Sheba)." The lapwing or hoopoe is believed to 
be so acute and sagacious as to be able to discover where water is to be 
found underground. Sale says in a note to Chapter zzvii. of the Kur,an| 
which gives the whole legend of Solomon and BilkTs, that '^ after Solomon 
had finished the building of the temple of Jerusalemi he went on a pil- 
grimage to Mecca; and thence proceeded towards Yaman. Having left 
Kecca in the morning, he arrived by noon at the city of San% the metro- 
polis. On his way, being in want of water to perform his ablutions, he 
looked among the birds for the lapwing, whose business it was to discover it; 
but she was nowhere to be found, for she had taken a trip to the eastward 
to the city of Saba (Sabaaa or Sheba), where Bill^Ts reigned in all her glory. 
The lapwing, having seen the spendour and magnificence of this queen's 
court, immediately returned to Solomon with the intelligence alluded to in 
the text. 

Page, 92, line 2. ^^y\ ^^ ^jlx^l : some of the commentators on the 
Eur,an will have it that the 'I&It here alluded to was not (juJLc\, but^^^ 
or ifjS^, an extremely ugfy devil, whose name to this day is proverbial on 
that score. It is fhrther said of him that he once attempted to steal 
Solomon's signet-ring, in which attempt, if he had succeeded, he would 
have been enabled to deprive that monarch of his power over the whole race 

of the genii. — ^Line 4. l*^y ^ uJ^^t ^'A$af, the son of Barkhia," was 
Solomon's grand wazlr. It is said that he, as well as his master, knew the 
Jail j^\ or " the Most Mighty Name or Epithet of Gh>d," by the uttering 
of which, the greatest miracles may be performed, and all other charms and 



spells are thereby rendered of no effect. — ^Line 12. ^yi^^ Lfi^^ "with plul- 
ters and enchantments/' etc. Solomon had absolute power over the whole 
race of the genii, by virtue of the talismanio signet-ring above alluded to, 
which is said to have been sent down to him from heaven. This fiilly 
accounts for the thievish attempts of the " ugly devil " }ijSi^\ above-men- 
tioned, who I believe was, along with several others of the more refractory 
among his con-frhrti^ shut up in bottles sealed with the awful signet-ring, 
and then pitched into the sea, from which they were afterwards occasionally 
fished up by such unlucky wights as those of whom we read in the enter- 
taining and authentic history of the '< Thousand Nights and a Night." 

JStsUfiedl Extracts. 

Isma'll Abu-1-Eida, from whose works we give our first historical ex- 
tract, was bom at Damascus, a.d. 1278. He was of that branch of the 
Ayubite dynasty that ruled over the principality of Hamah or Hamat in 
Syria, now included in the Pachalic of Damascus. He was a direct de- 
scendant from Shahinshah, the brother of the renowned Saladin. He 
formed a rare exception to the generality of Asiatic princes, for he was 
distinguished at once as a brave soldier, an accomplished scholar, and an 
enlightened statesman. His works are not only very voluminous, but also 
held in the highest estimation. His life of Mul^ammad, from which this 
extract is taken, consists of seventy-three chapters, of which this is the 
sixty-second. It was published at Oxford, in large thin folio, by Joannes 
Gagnier, a.b. 1723, accompanied by a Latin translation, and numerous notes 
and illustrations, displaying vast learning and extensive research. Abu-1- 
Fida died in 1331, aged 58 solar years. For a full and accurate account of 
him and his various works, the reader is referred to the learned preface by 
Gagnier above-mentioned. 

Page 94, line 3. The letters ^g^ stand for JUj aJic <0J1 ^Jup v. § 309. 

Our second extract, which treats of the reign of Harunu-r-Rashid, is 


taken firom a yery excellent General History by Abu-l-Faraj, whose &ther 
was a Christian^ and a physician by profession, in the town of Malatia, in 
Armenia Minor, where the historian was bom in the thirteenth century of 
our SBra. His work was published at Oxford, by the learned Edward 
Pocooke, in 2 vols. 4to. 1622, under the title of "Historia Gompendiosa 
Dynastiarum Orientalium Arabicd et Latind." It is divided into ten dynas- 
ties, and comprises a dear and well-arranged history of the world, (as then 
known in the East,) from Adam down to the author's own times. Abu-1- 
Faraj, though a Christian, has ever been held in high estimation as a man 
of profound learning, even among the followers of Mul^ammad. 

Page 99, line 6. m^\ v— ^l^j^jaJ ^ ^'Prom Nicephorus, Emperor of 
Bum," or of Byzantium, This epistle is more characteristically given by 
Abu-1-Pida, in his Annals of the Muslims, viz. ''Prom Nicephorus, etc. to 
Harun, Sovereign of the Arabs." After the usual greetings, the letter goes 

on to say, " The Empress Irene, into whose place I have succeeded, looked 
upon you as a Rukh^ and upon herself as a mere Fawn. She therefore sub- 
mitted to pay you a tribute, more than the double of which she ought to 
have exacted from you," etc. This letter is interesting, inasmuch as it 
proves that the game of Chess was well known both in Byzantium and 
Bagdad at that period. We may further state that on the Oriental Chess- 
board at that time, and for centuries afterwards, the Book was the strongest 
piece, as the Pawn was the weakest. Harun's reply to the above communi- 
cation is rather laconic. He immediately wrote on the back of the leaf, '' In 
the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. Prom Harun, the Com- 
mander of the Paithful, to the Boman Dog Nicephorus. I have read thine 
epistle, thou son of an infidel mother. My answer to it thou shalt «m, not A^or." 

—Last line. Ljr?^^ \J^>/*^ «-^> " ^^ ^® P^* ^ ^®*^ Ja'fiar, the son of 
Yahya" (the Barmecide). The best and fullest account of the reign of 
Harun will be found in the second volume of Price's Mahomedan History, 
8 vols. 4to. London, 1821. 


Agreeably to our promise given in page 16, we here present the reader 
with Sale's Translation of the Six Chapters from the Korean included in 
this section. We also subjoin Sale's own notes, with a few others from 
Savary. We have not deemed it requisite to alter the mode of spelling 
Oriental words in Boman characters^ adopted by the above eminent scholars. 
In fact, every writer on Oriental subjects appears to have a pet orthography 
of his own, setting at defiance the very accurate and rational system pro- 
pounded by Sir William Jones some eighty years ago ; and rigidly followed 
over since, with some slight improvements, by our best Orientalists, such as 
the late Sir Charles Wilkins, Professor H. H. Wilson, and many others of the 
present day, whose names we need not specify. 

1. — The Chapter entitled the Opening Prayer;^ repealed at Mecca. 

In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. (1) Praise be to 
God, the Lord of all creatures ;* (2) the most merciful, (3) the king of the 
day of judgment. (4) Thee do we worship, and of thee do we beg assistance. 
(5) Direct us in the right way, (6) in the way of those to whom thou hast 
been gracious ; (7) not of those against whom thou art incensed, nor of those 
who go astray.* 

1 In Arabic ai Fdtihat, This chapter is a prayer, and held in great veneration by the 
Mohammedans, who giro it sereral other honourable titles ; as the chapter of prayer, of 
praiUf of Ihanksffivinff, of treamre^ etc. ^ They esteem it as the quintessence of the whole 
Kor&n, and often repeat it in their devotions Doth pubUc and prirate, as the Christians do 
the Lord's Prayer. 

> The original words are SabbCldlamtnay which literally signifies, Zord of the worlds; 
but dlamtna^ in this and other places of the Kortn, properly means the tuee species of 
rational creatures, men, g^nii, and angels. Father Marracci has endearoured to prore from 
this passage that Mohammed beliered a plurality of worlds, which he calls the error of the 
Mamchees, etc. : but this imputation the leamea Reland has shown to be entirely ground- 
less. Savary translates it ** Sovereign of the worlds." 

3 This last sentence contains a petition, that God would lead the supplicants into the true 
religion, by which is meant the Mohammedan, in the Kor^n often called ihs right way; in 
this place more particularly defined to be, th$ way of those to whom Gh)D hath been gradous, 
that IS, of the prophets andf faithful who preceded Mohammed ; imder which appellations are 
also comprehendea the Jews and Christians, such as they were in the times of their primitive 

Surity, before they had deviated from their respective institutions ; not the way of the modem 
ews, whose signal calamities are marks of uie just anger of Ood against them for their 
obstinacy and disobedience ; nor of the Christians of this age, who have departed from the « 
true doctrine of Jesus, and are bewildered in a labyrinth of error. 

This is the common exposition of the passage ; though al Zamakhshari, and some others, 
by a different application of the negatives, reter the wnole to the true believers; and then 
the sense will run thus : The way of those to whom thou hast been graeious^ against whom thou 
art not incensed^ and who have not erred. Which translation the original will very well bear. 


2. — The Chapter entitled Mutual Deceit; revealed at Mecca} 

In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. (1) Whatever is 
in heaven and earth oelebrateth the praises of Gbd : his u the kingdom, and 
unto him U the praise due ; for he U almighty. (2) It U he who hath created 
you ; and one of you is predestined to he an unbeliever, and another of you is 
predestined to he 9^ believer : and God beholdeth that which ye do. (3) Ho hath 
created the heavens and the earth with truth ; and he hath fashioned you, and 
given you beautiful forms : and unto him must ye all go. (4) He knoweth 
whatever is in heaven and earth: and he knoweth that which ye conceal, 
and that which ye discover ; for God knoweth the innermost part of men^s 
breasts. (5) Have ye not been acquainted with the story of those who 
disbelieved heretofore, and tasted the evil consequence of their behaviour? 
And for them is prepared in the life to come a tormenting punishment. (6) 
This shall they suffer^ because their apostles came unto them with evident 
proofs of their mission, and they said, shall men direct us ? Wherefore they 
believed not, and turned their backs. But God standeth in need of no 
person: for God is self-su£Qlcient, and worthy to be praised. (7) The un- 
believers imagine that they shall not be raised again. Say, Yea, by my 
Lord, ye shall surely be raised again : then shall ye be told that which ye 
have wrought; and this is easy with God. (8) Wherefore believe in God 
and his apostle, and the light which we have sent down : for God is well 
acquainted with that which ye do. (9) On a certain day he shall assemble 
you, at the day of the general assembly: that will he the day of mutual 
deceit.' And whoso shall believe in God, and shall do that which is right, 
from him will he expiate his evil deeds, and he will lead him into gardens 
beneath which rivers flow, to remain therein for ever. This will he g^reat 
felicity. (10) But they who shall not believe, and shall accuse our signs of 
falsehood, those shall he the inhabitants of hell Are, wherein they shall remain 
for ever: and a wretched journey shall it he thither! (11) No misfortune 
happeneth but by the permission of God ; and whoso believeth in God, he 
will direct his heart : and God knoweth all things. (12) Wherefore obey 
God, and obey the apostle : but if ye turn back, verily the duty ineumhent 
on our apostle is only publig preaching. (13) God ! there is no God but he : 


1 The commentators are not agreed whether this chapter was reTealed at Mecca, or 
Medina ; or partly at the one place, and partly at the other. 

' When the blessed will deceive the damned, by taking the places which they would have 
had in paradise, had they been true belicTcrs ; and contrariwise. 


wherefore in Qod let the flaithM pat their trust. (14) true believers, 
verily of your wives and your children ye have an enemy :^ wherefore beware 
of them. But if ye pass over their offences, and pardon, and forgive them;* 
God u likewise inclined to forgive, and merciful. (15) Your wealth and 
your children are only a temptation; but with Ood is a great reward. (16) 
Wherefore fear Qod, as much as ye are able ; and hear, and obey : and give 
alms, for the good of your souls ; for whoso is preserved from the covetousness 
of his own soul, they shall prosper. (17) If ye lend unto God an acceptable 
loan, he will double the same unto you, and will forgive you : for God is 
grateful, and long-suffering, (18) knowing both what is hidden, and what is 
divulged ; the Mighty, the Wise. 

3. — The Chapter entitled Man; revealed at Mecca? 

In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. (1) Did there not 
pass over man a hng space of time; during which he was a thing not 
worthy of remembrance?^ (2) Yerily we have created man of the mingled 
seed of botii sexes, that we might prove him : and we have made him 
to hear and to see." (3) We have surely directed him in the way ; whether 
he he grateful or ungratefuL (4) Yerily we have prepared for the unbe- 
lievers chains, and collars, and burning fire. (5) But the just shall drink 
of a cup of wine, mixed with the water of Caftir,' (6) a fountain whereof 
the servants of God shall drink ; they shall convey the same by channels 
whithersoever they please. (7) These Mfil their vow, and dread the day, 
the evil whereof will disperse itself far abroad; (8) and give food unto 
the poor, and the orphan, and the bondman, for his sake, saying, (9) We 
feed you for God's sake only: we desire no recompense firom you, nor 
any thanks: (10) verily we dread, horn our Lord, a dismal and calamitous 

* For these are apt to distract a man firom his duty, especially in time of distress; a 
married man caring for the things that are of this world, while the unmarried careth for the 
things that belong to the Lord. 

* Considering Uiat the hindrance they may occasion yon proceeds firom their affection, and 
their ill bearing your absence in time or war, etc. 

> It is somewhat doubtful, yrhether this chapter was reTealed at Mecca, or at Medina. 

* Some take these words to be spoken of Adam, whose body, according to the Moham- 
medan tradition, was at first a figure of clay, and was left forty years to dry, before God 
breathed life into it : others understand them of man in general, and of the time he lies 
in the womb. 

^ That he might be capable of receiving the rules and directions given by God for hia 
guidance ; and of meriting reward or punisunent for his observance or neglect of them. 

^ Is the name of a fountain in paradise, so called from its resembling camphor (which the 
word signifies) in odour, and whiteness. Some take the word for an appellative, and think 
the wine of piuradise will be mixed with camphor, because of its agreeable coolness and smclL 


day.' (11) Wherefore Qod shall deliver them ^m the evil of that day, 
and shall cast on them hrightness of countenance, and joy; (12) and 
shall reward them, for their patient persevering, with a garden and silk 
garmenU: (13) therein shall they repose themselves on couches; they shall 
see therein neither sun nor moon;' (14) and the shades thereof shall he 
near treading ahove them, and the fhiits thereof shall hang low, so as to he 
easily gathered. (15) And their attendants shall go round ahout unto them, 
with vessels of silver, and gohlets : (16) the hottles shall he hottles of silver 
shining like glass ; they shaU determine the measure thereof hg their wish. 
(17) And therein shall they he given to drink of a cup of wine, mixed with 
the water of Zenjehil,' (IB) a fountain in paradise named Salsahil :^ (19) and 
yonthsy which shaU continue for over in their bloomy shall go round to attend 
them; when thou seest them, thou shall think them to he scattered pearls : 
(20) and when thou lookest, there shalt thou hehold delights, and a great 
kingdom. (21) Upon them shall he garments of fine green silk, and of 
hrocades, and they shall he adorned with hracelets of silver : and their Lord 
shall give them to drink of a most pure liquor; and shall say unto them^ 

(22) Yerily this is your reward : and your endeavour is gratefully accepted. 

(23) Yerily we have sent down unto thee the Koran, hy a gradual revelation. 
Wherefore patientiy wait the judgment of thy Lord; and ohey not any 
wicked person or unheliever among them. (24) And commemorate the name 
of thy Lord, in the morning, and in the evening : (25) and during some part 
of the night worship him, and praise him a long part of the night (26) 
Yerily these men love the transitory life, and leave hehind them the heavy 
day of judgment (27) We have created them, and have strengthened their 

1 It is related that Hasan and Hosein, Mohammed's grandchildren, on a certain time 
being both sick, the prophet, amon^ others, visited them ; and they wished Ali to make some 
vow to God for the recoTery of his sons : whereupon All, and F&tema, and Fidda, their 
tDaid-serrant, Towed a fast of Uiree days in case tney did well : as it happened they did. 
This TOW was performed with so great strictness, that the first day, haying no provisions in 
the honse. Ah was obliged to TOrrow three measures of barley of one Simeon, a Jew of 
Khaiber ; one measure of which F&tema ground the same, and baked five cakes of the meal ; 
and they were set before them, to break their fast with after sunset : but a poor man coming 
to them, they gave all their bread to him, and passed the night without tasting any thing, 
except water. The next day, F&tema made another measure into bread, for the same pur- 
pose ; but an orphan be^ne some food, they chose to let him have it, and passed that night, 
as the first : ana the third &y they likewise ^ve their whole provision to a famished cap- 
tive. Upon this occasion Gabriel descended with the chapter before us, and told Mohammed 
that God congratulated him on the virtues of his family. 

* Because they shall not need the light of either. The word Zamharir, here translated 
moon, properly signifies extrento cold: for which reason some understand the meaning of tiie 
passage to be, that in paradise there shall be felt no excess either of heat, or of eold, 

s The word signifies ginger, which the Arabs delight to mix with the water they drink \ 
and therefore the water of this fountain is supposed to have the taste of that spice. 

* Signifies water which flows gently and pleasantly down the throat. 


joints; and when we please, we will substitate others like nnto them, in their 
stead. (28) Yerilj this is an admonition : and whoso willeth, taketh the 
way nnto his Lord : (29) but ye shall not will, unless God willeth ; for God 
is knowing and wise. (30) He leadeth whom he pleaseth into his mercy; 
but for the unjust hath he prepared a grievous punishment. 

4.-7%^ Chapter entitled The Array; revealed at Medina. 

In the Name of God, the Hercifal, the Compassionate. (1) Whatever is in 
heaven and in earth celebrateth the praise of God ; for he is mighty and wise. 
(2) true believers, why do ye say that which ye do not ? * (3) It is most odious 
in the sight of God, that ye say that which ye do not. (4) Yerily God loveth 
those who fight for his religion in battle array, as though they were a well 
compacted building. (6) Bemember when Moses said unto his people, my 
people, why do ye injure me;' since ye know that I am the apostle of God 
sent unto you ? And when they had deviated ^om the truth, Gbd made their 
hearts to deviate from the right way; for God directeth not wicked people. 
(6) And when Jesus the son of Mary said, children of Israel, verily I am 
the apostle of God sent unto you, confirming the law which was delivered 
before me, and bringing good tidings of an apostle who shall come after me, 
and whose name shaU he Ahmed." And when he produced unto them evident 
miracles, they said, This is manifest sorcery. (7) But who is more unjust 
than he who forgeth a lie against God, when he is invited unto Islam ? And 
God directeth not the unjust people. (8) They seek to extinguish God's light 
with their mouths: but God will perfect his light, though the infidels be 
averse thereto. (9) It is \lq who hath sent his apostle with the direction, 
and the religion of truth, that he may exalt the same above every religion, 
although the idolaters be averse thereto. (10) true believers, shall I show 
you a merchandize which will deliver you firom a painful torment hereafter ? 

1 The commentators generally suppose these words to be directed to the Moslems, who, 
notwithstanding they hi^ solemnly engaged to spend their Hves and fortunes in defence of 
their faith, yet shamefolly turned their backs at the battle of Ohod. They may however be 
applied to hypocrites of all sorts, whose actions contradict their words. 

* Namely, Sy your disobedience ; or by maliciously aspersing me } 

> For Mohammed also bore the name of Ahmed ; Doth names being derived from the same 
root, and nearly of the same signification. The Persian parajphrast, to support what is here 
alleged, quotes the following words of Christ, I go to my JFather, and the Paraclete shall 
come : the Mohammedan doctors unanimously teaching, that by the Paraclete (or, as they 
chose to read it, the Ferieitfte or lUustrioue)^ their prophet is intended, and no other. 


(11) Believe in God and his apostle; and defend Qod's true religion with 
your substance, and in your own persons. This will he better for you, if ye 
knew it, (12), He will forgive you your sins, and will introduce you into 
gardens through which rivers flow, and agreeable habitations in gardens of 
perpetual abode. This will he great felicity. (13) And ife shall ohtain other 
things which ye desire, namely , assistance from Qod, and a speedy victory. 
And do thou bear good tidings to the true believers. (14) true believers, 
be ye the assistants of Ood ; as Jesus the son of Mary said to the apostles, 
Who will he my assistants with respect to Qod ? The apostles answered, We 
will he the assistants of God. So a part of the children of Israel believed, 
and a part believed not ; ^ but we strengthened those who believedi above their 
enemy; wherefore they became victorious aver them. 

6. — The Chapter entitled Lokman;* revealed at Mecca? 

IirtheNameofGod, the Merciful, the Compassionate. (l)A.L.M.* These 
are the signs of the wise book, (2) a direction, and a mercy unto the righteous; 
(3) who observe the appointed times of prayer, and give alms^ and have firm 

* Either by rejecting him, or by affirming bim to be God, and the Son of God. 

* The chapter u bo entitled firom a person of this name mentioned therein, of whom more 

* Some except the third Terse, beginning at these words, Who obttrve the appointed timee 
of proffer, and give alms, etc. And others three verses, beginning at these words, If aU the 
trees in the earth icerepena, etc. 

. * There are twenty-nine chapters of the KorlUi, which have thii peculiarity, that they 
begin with certain letters of the alphabet, some with a single one, others with more. These 
letters the Mohammedans belicTe to be the peculiar marks of the £or&n, and to conceal 
several profound mysteries, the certain understanding of which, the more intelligent confess 
has not been communicated to any mortal^ their prophet only excepted. Notwithstanding 
which, some will take the liberty of guessmg at their meaning by that species of Cabbala 
called by the Jews Notarikon, and suppose the letters to stand for as many words expressing 
the names and attributes of God, his works, ordinances, and decrees ; and therefore these 
mysterious letters, as well as the verses themselves, seem in the Kor&n to be called signs. 
Others explain the intent of these letters from their nature or organ, or else from theic value 
in numbers, according to another species of the Jewish Cabbala called Gematria ; the uncer- 
tainty of which conjectures sufficiently appears from their disagreement Thus, for example, 
five chapters, one of which is the second, begin with these letters, A. L. H., which some 
imagine to stand tor Allah lattfmaatd; God is gracious and to be glorified; oi^, Ana li minniy 
to me and from me, yiz. belongs all perfection, and proceeds all good : or else for Ana Allah 
dlamj I am the most wise God, taking the first letter to mark the beginning of the first word, 
the second the middle of the second word, and the third the last of the third word ; or for 
Allah, Gabriel, Mohammed, the author, revealer, and preacher of the Korftn. Others say, 
that as the letter A belonn to the lower part of the throat, the first of the organs of speech ; 
L to the palate, the middle organ ; and M to the lips, which are the last organ; so these 
letters signify that God u the beginning, middle, and end, or ought to be praised in the 
beginning, middle, and end, of aU our words and actions : or, as the total value of those three 
letters in numbers is seventy-one, they signify that in the space of so many years, the religion 
preached in the Korftn should be ftilly established. — Preliminary Dieeowrse, sect. iii. 



assurance in the life to come : (4) these are directed by their Lord^ and they 
shall prosper. (6) There is a man who pnrchaseth a ludicrous story/ that he 
may seduce mm from the way of God| without knowledgOi and may laugh 
the same to scorn : these shall suffer a shameful punishment. (6) And when 
our signs are rehearsed unto him, he disdainfully tumeth his back as though 
he heard them, not, as though there were a deafness in his ears: wherefore 
denounce unto him a grievous punishment. (7) But they who shall believe 
and work righteousness, shall enjoy gardens of pleasure : (8) they shall con- 
tinue therein for ever : this u the certain promise of God ; and he ts tho 
mighty, the wise. (9) He hath created the heavens without visible pillars 
to sttstain them, and thrown on the earth mountains firmly rooted, lest it 
should move with you;' and he hath replenished the same with all kinds of 
beasts : and we send down rain from heaven, and cause every kind of noble 
vegetable to spring forth therein. (10) This is the creation of God : show me 
now what they have created, who are worshipped besides him ? verily the 
ungodly are in a manifest error. (11) We heretofore bestowed wisdom on 
Lokm&n,' and commanded him, saying, Be thou thankful unto God : for who- 

1 That is, Vain and silly fables. The passage was reyealed, it is said, on occasion of al Nodar 
Ebn al Hareth, who, having brouffht from Persia the romance of Rostam and Isfandiyar, the 
two heroes of that conntrj, recited it in the assemblies of the Khoreish, highly extolling the 
power and splendour of the ancient Persian kings, and preferring their stones to those of 
Ad and Thamnd, David and Solomon, and the rest which are told in the Kor&n. Some say 
that al Nodar bought singing girlB, and carried them to those who were inclined to become 
Moslems, to divert them uom their purpose by songs and talcs. 

> A learned writer, in his notes on wis passage, says the original word rawdsit/Of which 
the commentators in general will have to sign^, stable mountains^ seems properly to ex- 
press the Hebrew worn meehonim, i.e. baset or foundatiimt ; and Uierefore he thinks the 
Kor^ Jias here translated that passage of the Psalms, ffe laid the foundatione of the earth, 
that it should not be moved for ever. This is not the only instance which might be given, 
that the Mohammedan doctors are not always the best interpreters of their own scriptures. 

* The Arab writers say, that Lokmin was the son of BaiXra, who was the son or grandson 
of a sister or aunt of Job ; and that he lived several centuries, and to the time of David, with 
whom he was conversant in Palestine. According to the description they give of his person, 
he must have been deformed enough ; for they say he was of a black complexion (whence 
some call him an Ethiopian), with tnick lips, and splay feet : but in return, he received from 
God wisdom and eloquence in a ^eat degree; wnicn some pretend were given him in a 
vision, on his making choice of wisdom preferably to the gift of prophecy, either of which 
were offered him. The generality of the Mohammedans, tnerefore, hold nim to have been 
no prophet, but only a wise man. As to his condition, they say he was a slave, but obtained 
his liberty on the following occasion. His master having one day given him a bitter melon 
to eat, he paid him such exact obedience as to eat it all ; at which his roaster being surprised, 
asked him how he could eat so nauseous a fruit ? To which he replied, it was no wonder 
that he should for once accept a bitter frtdt from the same hand from which he had received 
80 many favours. The commentators mention several quick repartees of LokmEn, which, 
together with the circumstances above-mentioned, agree so well with what Maximus Planudes 
has written of Esop, that fr^m thence, and from the fables attributed to Lokm^ by the 
orientals, the latter nas been generdly thought to be no other than the Esop of the Greeks. 
However that be (for I think the matter wm bear a dispute), I am of opinion that Planudes 
borrowed great part of his life of Esop from the traditions he met with in the East con- 
cerning Lokm&n, concluding them to have been the same person, because they were both 


ever is thankful, shall he thankful to the advantage of his own soul; and if 
any shall he unthankful, verily Qod is self-sufficient, and worthy to he praised. 

(12) And remefdher when Lokm&n said unto his son/ as he admonished him, 

my son, give not a partner unto God; for polytheism is a great impiety. 

(13) We have commanded man concerning his parents' (his mother oarrieth 
him tn her foamb with weakness and faintness, and he is weaned in two 
years), saying, Be grateM unto me, and to thy parents. Unto me shall all 
come to he judged, (14) But if thg parents endeavour to prevail on thee to 
associate with me that concerning which thou hast no knowledge, ohey them 
not: hear them company in this world in what shall be reasonable;' but 
follow the way of him who sincerely tumeth unto me.* Hereafter unto me 
shall ye return, and then will I declare unto you that which ye have done. 
(15) my son, verily every matter, whether good or had, though it be of the 
weight of a grain of mustard-seed, and be hidden in a rock, or in the heavens, 
or in the earth, GK>d will bring the same to light; for GK>d is clear-sighted 
and knowing. (16) Oh my son, be constant at prayer, and command that 
which is just, and forbid that which is evil : and be patient under the afflic- 
tions which shall befall thee ; for this is a duty absolutely incumbent on all 
men. (17) Distort not thy face out of contempt to men, neither walk in the 
earth with insolence; for God loveth no arrogant, vain-glorious person. (18) 
And be moderate in thy pace; and lower thy voice; for the most ungrateful 
of all voices surely is the voice of asses.' (19) Do ye not see that God hath 
subjected whatever is in heaven and on earth to your service, and hath 
abundantly poured on you his favours, both outwardly and inwardly?' ITiere 
are some who dispute concerning God without knowledge, and without a 
direction, and without an enlightening book. (20) And when it is said unto 
them, Follow that which God hath revealed, they answer, Nay, we will 

slaves, and supposed to be the writers of those fables which go under their respective names, 
and bear a ereat resemblance to one another ; for it has long since been obsenred by learned 
men, that the greater part of that monk's performance is an absurd romance, and supported 
by no eyidence of the ancient writers. 

1 Whom some name An&m (which comes pretty near the Ennus of Flanudes), some Ash- 
can, and others Mathan. 

* The two yerses which beein at these words, and end with the following, viz. And then mil 

1 declare unto you that iphieh ye have done, are no part of Lokm^n's aoyice to his son, but 
are inserted by wav of parenthesis, as very pertinent and proper to be repefU»d here, to show 
the heinousness or idolatry : they are to oe read (exceptme some additions) in the twenty- 
ninth chaj^ter, and were originally revealed on account of Saad £bn Abi Wakkds. 

s That 18, Show them all deference and obedience, so fur as may be consistent with thy 
duty towards God. 

* The person particularly meant here was Abu Beer, at whose persuasion Saad had become 
a Moslem. 

s To the brayinjf of which animal the Arabs liken a loud and disagreeable voice. 
> That is, AU kmds of blessings, regarding as well the mind as the body. 



follow that which we found our fathers to practise. What, though the devil 
invite them to the torment of hell ? (21) Whosoever resigneth himself unto 
God, being a worker of righteousness, taketh hold on a strong handle ; and 
unto God lehngeth the issue of all things. (22) But whoever shall be an un- 
believer, let not his unbelief grieve thee : unto us shall they return ; thon 
will we declare unto them that which they have done, for God knoweth the 
innermost parts of the breasts of men. (23) We will suffer them to enjoy Ms 
world for a little while : afterwards we will drive them to a severe punish- 
ment. (24) If thou ask them who hath created the heavens and the earth, 
they will surely answer, God. Say, God be praised I but the greater port of 
them do not understand. (25) Unto God hehngdh whatever m in heaven and 
earth : for God U the self-sufficient, the praise-worthy. (26) If whatever 
trees are in the earth were pens, and he should after that swell the sea into 
seven seas of ink, the words of God would not be exhausted:^ for God ft 
mighty and wise. (27) Your creation and your resuscitation are but as ih0 
creation and resueeitation of one soul:' verily God hoth hearcth and seeth. 
(28) Dost thou not see that God causeth the night to succeed the day, and 
causeth the day to succeed the night, and compelleth the sun and the moon to 
serve you f Each of those luminaries hasteneth in its course to a determined 
period : and God is well acquainted with that which ye do. (29) This is dedarsi 
concerning the divine knowledge and power, for that God is the true Being, and 
for that whatever ye invoke, besides him, is vanity ; and for that God is the 
high, the great Ood, (30) Dost thou not see that the ships run in the sea, 
through the favour of God, that he may show you of his signs ? Verily 
herein are signs unto every patient, grateM person. (81) When waves cover 
them, like overshadowing clouds, they caU upon Gk)d, exhibiting the pure 
religion unto him ; but when he bringeth them safe to land, there is of them 
who haltcth between the true faith and idolatry. Howbeit, none rejeoteth our 
signs, except every perfidious, ungrateM person. (32) men, fear your 
Lord, and dread the day whereon a father shall not make satisfaction for hie 
son, neither shall a son make satisfaction for his father at all : (88) the pro- 
mise of God is assuredly true. Let not this present life, therefore, deceive 
you : neither let the deceiver' deceive you concerning God. (84) Verily the 
knowledge of the hour of judgment is with God; and he causeth the rain to 

1 This paasago ia said to haTo been roTcaled in answer to the Jews, nho insisted that aU 
knowledge was contained in the law. 

s God being able to produce a million of worlds by the single word Kun, Le. Be, and to 
raise the dead in gonorul by the single word A'mm, i.e. Arise. 

• Namely, The deviL 


descend at his own app<nnUd time: and he knoweth what is in the wombs of 
femdUs. No soul knoweth what it shall gain on the morrow; neither doth 
any sonl know in what land it shall die:^ but God U knowing and ftdly 
acquainted with all things. 

6. — The Chapter entitled Joseph;^ revealed at Mecca. 

Iv the Name -of God, the Meroifuly the Compassionate. (1) Al. "SJ These 
are the signs of the perspicuous book ; (2) which we have sent down written 
in the Arabic tongue^ that, peradyenture, ye might understand. (3) We relate 
unto thee a most excellent history, by revealing unto thee this Koran/ whereas 
thou wast before (me of the negligent' (4) When Joseph said unto his father/ 

my father, verily I saw in my dream eleven stars/ and the sun and the moon ; 

1 saw them make obeisance unto me : (5) Jacob said, my child, tell not thy 
vision to thy brethren, lest they devise some plot against thee;^ for the devil 
is a professed enemy unto man : (6) and thus, according to thy dream, shall 

1 In thiB passage Ato things are enumerated which are known to God alone, viz. The time 
of the dar of judgment : the time of rain ; what is forming in the womb, as whether it be 
male or female, eto. ; what shall happen on the morrow ; and where any person shall die. 
These the Arabs, according to a tradition of their prophet, call the f/oe keyt of secret know- 
ledge. The passage, it is said, was occasioned by al Hareth £bn Amru, who propounded 
questions of this natlire to Mohammed. 

As to the last particular, al Beid&wi relates the foUowing story. The angel of death 
passing once by Solomon in a visible shape, and looking at one who was sitting with him, 
the man asked who he was, and upon Solomon's acquainting him that he was tiie angel of 
death, said. He seems to want me ; wherefore order the wind to carry me firom hence into 
India : which being accordingly done, the angel said to Solomon, I looked so earnestly at 
the man out of woimer ; because I was commanded to take his soul in India, and found him 
with thee in Palestine. 

*-The KoreiBh, thinking to puzzle Mohammed, at the instigation, and by the direction, of 
certain Jewish Rabbins, demanded of him how Jacob's £unuy happened to ^ down into 
Egypt ; and that he would relate to them the history of Joseph, witn all its circumstances : 
whereupon he pretended to have receiyed this chapter from heayen, containing the story of 
that patriarch. It is said, howeyer, to haye been rejected by two Mohammedan sects, bnmches 
of the Khfirejites, caUed the Ajdredites and Maimunians, as apocryphal and spurious. 

* See note 4, p. 6. 

« Or this particular chapter. For the word Kordn^ as has been elsewhere obsenred, pro- 
bably signifyme no more than a reading, or leetursj is often used to denote, not only the 
whole yolume, but any distinct chapter or section of it. 

^ That is. So far from being acquainted with the story, that it neyer so much as entered 
into thy thoughts : a certain argument, says al Beid&wi, that it must haye been reyealed to 
him from heayen. 

* Who was Jacob, the son of Isaac, and the son of Abraham. 

^ The commentators giye us the names of these stars (which I think it needless to trouble 
the reader with^, as Mohammed repe&ted them, at the request of a Jew, who thought to 
entrap hun by tne question. 

> For they say, Jacob, judging that Joseph's dream portended his adyancement aboye the 
rest of the family, justly apprehended his brethren's enyy might tempt them to do him some 


thy Lord choose thee, and teach thee the interpretation of dark sayings/ and 
he shall accomplish his favour npon thee and upon the family of Jacob, as he 
hath formerly accomplished it upon thy feithers Abraham and Isaac : for thy 
Lord M knowing and wise. (7) Surely in the history of Joseph and his 
brethren there are signs of God^s providence to the inquisitive ; (8) when they 
said to one another, Joseph and his brother' are dearer to our father than we, 
who are the greater number : our father certainly maketh a wrong judgment. 
(9) Wherefore slay Joseph, or drive him into some distant or desert part of 
the earth, and the f&ce of your father shall be cleared towards you;' and ye 
shall afterwards be people of integrity. (10) One of them* spoke and said; 
Slay not Joseph, but throw him to the bottom of the well ; and some travellers 
will take him up, if ye do this. (11) They said unto Jacob, father, why 
dost thou not intrust Joseph with us, since we are sincere well-wishers unto 
him ? (12) Send him with us to-morrow, into the field, that he may divert 
himself, and sport,' and we will be his guardians. (13) Jacob answisred, It 
grieveth me that ye take him away ; and I fear lest the wolf devour him,' 
while ye are negligent of him. (14) They said, surely if the wolf devour 
him, when there are so many of us, we shall be weak indeed.'' (15) And 
when they had carried him with them, and agreed to set him at the bottom 
of the well,' they executed their design: and we sent a revelation unto 

^ That is, of dreams ; or, as others suppose, of the profound passages of scripture, and all 
difficulties respecting either religion or justice. 

* Namely, Benjamin ; his hrother by the same mother. 

> Or, he will settle his lore wholly upon you, and ye will haye no riyal in his fayour. 

^ This person, as some say, was Judah, tne most prudent and noble-minded of them all ; 
or, accormng to others, Reuhen, whom the Mohammedan writers call Buhtl. And hoth 
these opinions are supported by the account of Moses, who tells us, that Reuben adyised them 
not to tdU Joseph, but to throw him into a pit priyately, intending to release him ; and that 
afterwards Judah, in Reuben's absence, persuaded them not to let him die in a pit, but to 
sell him to the Isnmaelites. 

* Some copies read, in the first person plural, that we may divert oureeheay etc. 

* The reason why Jacob feared this oeast in particular, as the commentators say, was 
either because the Ifmd was full of wolves ; or else because Jacob had dreamed he saw Joseph 
deyoured by one of those creatures. 

^ That is. It will be an instance of extreme weakness and folly in us, and we shall be justly 
blamed for his loss. 

B This well, say some, was a certain well near Jerusalem, or not far from the river Jordan ; 
but others call it the well of Egypt, or Midian. The commentators tell us, tlut when the 
sons of Jacob had gotten Joseph with them in the field, they b^gan to abuse and beat hun so 
unmercifully, that they had killed him, had not Judah, on his crying out for help, insisted on 
the promise they had made not to kill him, but to cast him into the welL Whereupon they 
let him down a little way ; but as he held hj the sides of the well, they bound him, and took 
off his inner garment, designing to stain it with blood, to deceiye their father. Joseph 
begged^ hard to haye his garment returned him, but to no purpose ; his brothers telling 
him, with a sneer, that the eleyen stars, and the sun and tiie moon, might clothe him and 
keep him company. When they had let him fall thence to the bottom, and there being 
water in the well (ihoiu;h the scripture says the contrary), he was obliged to get upon a 
stone, on which he stood weeping, the angel Gabriel came to him with the reyelation men- 
tioned immediately. 


liini,^ Baying^ Thou ahalt Ker$afUr deolaro this their action unto them ; and they 
shall not perceive thee to he Joseph. (16) And they came to their father at 
even, weeping, (17) and said. Father, we went and ran races with one 
another,' and we left Joseph with our baggie, and the wolf hath devoured 
him ; but thou wilt not believe us, although we speak the truth. (18) And 
they produced his inner garment etained with false blood. Jacob answered, 
Nay, but ye yourselves have contrived the thing for your own sakes:' how- 
ever patience is most becoming, and God*s assistance is to be implored to 
enable me to support the mufortune which ye relate. (19) And certain tra- 
vellers* came, and sent one* to draw water for them; and he let down his 
bucket,' and said. Good news !^ this is a youth. And they concealed him,' 
that they might seU him as a piece of merchandize : but God knew that which 
they did. (20) And they sold him for a mean price, for a few pence,' and 
valued him lightly. (21) And the Egyptian who bought him*' said to his 

1 Joseph being then but seventoen yean old, Al Betd&wt obtenres that herein he resembled 
John the Baptist and Jesus, who were also favoured with the divine communication very 
early. The oommentatom pretend that Gabriel also clothed him in the well with a garment 
of silk of paradise. For they say that when Abraham was thrown into the fire, by Sfimrod, 
he was stripped ; and tliat Gabriel brought this garment and put it on him ; and that from 
Abraham it descended to Jacob, who folded it up, and put it into an amulet, which he hung 
about Joseph's neck, whence Gabriel drew it out. 

* These races thoy used b]^ way of exercise ; and the commentators generally understand 
here that kind of race wherein they also showed their dexterity in throwing darts, which is 
still used in the East. 

* This Jacob had reason to suspect, because when the garment was brought to him, he 
ohsenred that though it was bloody, yet it was not torn. 

* Namely. A caravan or comuany travelling from Midian to Egypt, who rested near the 
well, three days after Joseph had been thrown into it. 

* The commentators are so exact as to give us the name of this man, who, as thoy pretend, 
was Malee Ebn Dh6r, of the tribe of KhozAab. 

s And Joseph, making use of the opportunity, took hold of the eord, and was drawn up 
oy the man. 

^ The original words jare Ta bothra : the Utter of which some take for the proper name of 
the water-drawer's companion, whom he called to his assistance ; and tiien they must be 
translated, Boshra. (Savar}''s translation agrees with Sale's.) 

* The expositors are not agreed whether the pronoun ike^ relates to Maleo and his com- 
panions, or to Joseph's brethren. They who espouse 'he former oninion say, that those who 
came to draw water concealed the manner of their coming by him from the rest of the 
caravan, that they might keep him to themselves ; pretending that some people of the place 
had given him to them to sell for them in Egypt And thev who prefer the latter opmion 
tell us, that Judah carried victuals to Joseph every day while he was in the well, but not 
finding him there on the fourth day, he acquainted his brothers with it : whereupon they aU 
went to the caravan and claimed Joseph as their slave, he not daring to discover that he was 
their brother, lest something worse should befall him ; and at length they agreed to sell him 
u* them. 

* Namdy, twenty, or twenty-two dtrhtnu^ and those not full weight neither; for having 
weighed one ounce of silver only, the remainder was paid by tale, ^i^ch is the most unfair 
waf of payment. 

>® His name was Eitfir, or Itfir (a corruption of Potiphar) ; and he was a man of great 
consideration, being superintendent of the ro}*al treasury. 

The commentators say, that Joseph came into his service at seventeen, and lived with him 
thirteen years, and that he was made prime minister in the thirty-third year of lus age, and 
died at a hundred and twenty. 


wife/ XTse him honourably; peradventore he may be serviceable to us, or we 
may adopt him for our son.' Thus did we prepare an establishment for 
Joseph in the earth, and we taught him the interpretation of dark sayings : 
for God is weU able to effect his purpose ; but the greater part of men do not 
understand. (22) And when he had attained his age of strength, we be- 
stowed on him wisdom, and knowledge; for thus do we recompense the 
righteous. (23) And she, in whose house he was, desired him to lie with 
her; and she shut the doors and said, Gome hither. He answered, God 
forbid ! verily my lord^ hath made my dwelling with him easy; and the un- 
grateftd shall not prosper. (24) But she resolved within herself to enjoy him^ 
and he would have resolved to enjoy her, had he not seen the evident demon- 
stration of his Lord.* So we turned away evil and filthiness from him, 
because he was one of our sincere servants. (25) And they ran to get one 
before the other to the door;^ and she rent his inner garment behind. And 
they met her lord at the door. She said, What ehaU he the reward of him 
who seeketh to commit evil in thy family, but imprisonment^ and a painful 
punishment ? (26) And Joseph said, She asked me to lie with her. And a 
witness of her family' bore witness, aayiny, If his garment be rent before, 
she speaketh truth, and he is a liar, (27) but if his garment be rent behind, 
she lieth, and he is a speaker of truth. (28) And when her husband saw that 
his garment was torn behind, he said, This is a cunning contrivance of your 
sex; for surely your cunning is great. (29) Joseph, take no farther notice 
of this affair : and thou, woman^ ask pardon for thy crime ; for thou art a 

They who suppose that Joseph was twice sold, differ as to the price the Eg7]^tiaiis paid for 
him : some saying it was twenty dindra of gold, a pair of shoes, and two white garments ; 
and othcrSf that it was a large quantity of silver, or of gold. 

1 Some call her Rail : but the name she is b^ known by, is that of Zoleikha. 

' Kitfir having no children. It is said that Joseph gained his master's good opinion so 
suddenly by his countenance, which Eitfir, who, they pretend, had great skill in physi- 
ognomy, judged to indicate his prudence, and other good qualities. 

9 Namely, KitHr. But others understand it to be spoken of God. 

* That is, had he not seriously considered the filthiness of whoredom, and the great guilt 
thereof. Some, however, suppose that the words mean some miraculous voice or apparition, 
sent by God to divert Joseph firam executing the criminal thoughts which began to possess 
him. For they say, that ne was so far tempted with his mistress's beauty and enticing 
behaviour, that he sat in her lap, and even began to undress himself, when a voice called to 
him, and bid him beware of her ; but he taking no notice of this admonition, though it was 
repeated three times, at length the angel Gabrid, or, as others will have it, the figure of his 
master, appeared to him : but the more general opinion is that it was the appantion of his 
father Jacob, who bit his fingers' ends, or, as some write, struck him on the breast, where- 
upon his lubricity passed out at the ends of his fingers. 

For this fable, so injurious to the character of Joseph, the Mohammedans are obliged to 
their old Mends the J ews, who imagine that he had a design to lie with his mistress, from 
these words of Moses, And it came to past — that Joteph went into the houte to do hie 
buetneeSf etc. 

A He flying from her, and she running after to detain him. 

* Namely, A cousin of hers, who was then a child in the cradle. 


guilty person. (30) And certain women said publicly^ in the citji The noble- 
man's wife asked her servant to lie with he: ; he hath inflamed her breast 
with his love; and we perceive her ^ ^ in manifest error. (31) And when 
she heard of their subtle behaviour, she sent unto them,* and prepared a 
banquet for them, and she gave to each of them a knife ; and she said unto 
Joseph, Come forth unto them. And when they saw him, they praised him 
greatly;* and they cut their own hands,^ and said, God! this is not a 
mortal ; he is no other than an angel, deserving the highest respect. (32) 
And hu muiresa said, This is he, for whose sake ye blamed me : I asked him 
to lie with me, but he constantly reftised« But if he do not perform that 
which I command him, he shall surely be cast into prison, and he shall be 
made on$ of the contemptible. (33) Joseph said, Lord, a prison is more 
eligible unto me than the crime to which they invite me; but unless thou 
turn aside their snares from me, I shall youthfully incline unto them, and I 
shall become one of the foolish. (34) Wherefore his Lord heard him, and 
turned aside their snare from him ; for he both heareth and knoweth. (35) 
And it seemed good unto them^ even after they had seen the signs of inno- 
cency, to imprison him for a time. (36) And there entered into the prison 
with him two of the king's servants.* One of them^ said. It seemed to me in 
my dream that I pressed wine out of grapes. And the other said, It seemed 
unto me in my dream that I carried bread on my head, whereof the birds did 
eat. Declare unto us the interpretation of our dreams^ for we perceive that 

1 These women, whose tongaes were so firee with Zoleikha's character on this occasion, 
were five in nnmher, and the wives of so many of the king's chief officers, tuk. his chamher- 
lain, his butler, his baker, his jailor, and his herdsman. 

* The number of all the women invited was forty, and among them were the five ladies 

* The old Latin translators have strangely mistaken the sense of the original word aeher' 
naho^ which they render m&nstruata tunt ; and then rebuke Mohammed for the indecency, 
cryine out demurely in the mamn, foedum et obacmnum propJutam ! Erpcnius thinss 
that tnere is not the least trace of such a meaning in the word ; but he is mistaken ; for the 
yerb cabara in the fourth oonjueation, which is here used, has that import, though the sub- 
joining of the pronoun to it here (which possibly the Latin translators did not observe) 
absolutely oyertbrows that interpretation. 

* Through extreme surprise at the wonderful beauty of Joseph ; which surprise Zoleikha 
foreseeing, put knives into their hands, on puxpose that this accident might happen. Some 
writers observed, on occasion of this passage, that it is customary in the East for lovers to 
testify the violence of their pas^on by cutting themselves, as a sign that they would spend 
their blood in the service of the person beloved ; which is true enough, but I do not find that 
any of Uie commentators suppose these Egyptian ladies had any such design. 

^ ^ That is, to Kitfir and his friends. The occasion of Joseph's imprisonment is said to be 
either that they suspected him to be guilty, notwithstanding the proofs which had been 
given of his innocence ; or else that Zoleikha desired it, feigning, to deceive her husband, 
that she wanted to have Joseph removed from her sight, till she could conquer her passion 
by time ; though her real design was to force him to compliance. 

* Namely, H is chief butler and baker ; who were accused of a design to poiwn him. 
^ Namely, the butler. 


thou art a beneficent person. (37) Jo%eph answered, No food, wherewith ye 
may be nourished, shall come unto you, but I will declare unto you the 
interpretation thereof, before it come unto you,* This knowledge is a part of 
that which my Lord hath taught me ; for I have left the religion of people 
who believe not in God, and who deny the life to come ; (38) and I follow 
the religion of my fathers, Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob. It is not lawfvX 
for us to associate anything with God. This knowledge of the divine tmity 
hath been given us of the bounty of God towards us, and towards mankind ; 
but the greater part of men are not thankM. (39) my fellow-prisoners, 
are sundry lords better, or the only true and mighty God ? (40) Ye worship 
not, besides him, other than the names which ye have named,' ye and your 
fathers, concerning which God hath sent down no authoritatiTe proof: yet 
judgment helongeth unto God alone; who hath commanded that ye worship 
none besides him. This is the right religion ; but the greater part of men 
know it not. (41) my fellow-prisoners, verily the one of you shall serve 
wine unto his lord, as formerly ; but the other shall be crucified, and the 
birds shall eat from off his head. The matter is decreed, concerning which 
ye seek to be informed. (42) And Joseph said unto him whom he judged to 
be the person who should escape of the two, Remember me in the presence of 
^hy lord. But the devil caused him to forget to make mention of Joseph 
unto his lord;^ wherefore he remained in the prison some years.* (43) And 
the king of Egypt^ said, Verily, I sa^ in my dream seven fat kine, which 
seven lean kine devoured, and seven green ears of eom, and other seven 
withered ears. (44) nobles, expound my vision unto me, if ye be able to 
interpret a vision. (45) They answered. They are confused dreams, neither 
are we skilled in the interpretation of swh kind of dreams. (46) And Joseph* $ 
fellow-prisoner who had been delivered, said (for he remembered Joseph after 

^ The meaning of this passage seems to be, either that Josenh, to show he used no arts of 
divination or astrology, promises to interpret their dreams to them immediately, even before 
they should eat a single meal ; or else, he here offers to prophesy to them beforehand, the 
quantity of the yictuab which should be brought them, as a taste of his skill. 

> That is, concerning the idols and imaginary objects of your worship, to which ye 
wickedly give the names, attributes, and honour due to the only true God. 

3 According to the explication of some, who take the pronoun him to relate to Joseph, this 
passage may be rendered, £ut the devil earned him ^i.e. Joseph) to forget to make his applica- 
tion unto hie Lord ; and to beg the good offices or his fellow-pnsoner for his deliverance, 
instead of relying on GUmI alone, as it became a prophet, especially, to 'have done. 

* The original word signifying any number from three to nine, or ten, the common opinion 
is that Joseph remained in prison seven yean ; though some say he was confined no less 
than twelve years. 

» This prince, as the oriental writers generally agree, was Biy&n, the son of al Waltd, the 
Amalekite, who was converted by Joseph to the worship of the true God, and died in the 
lifetime of that prophet. But some pretend that the Pharaoh of Joseph and of Moses were 
oae and the same person, and that he lived (or rather reigned) four hundred years. 


a certain space of time), I will declare nnto you the interpretation thereof; 
wherefore lot me go unto the person who wiU interpret it unto me. (47) And 
he went to the pruon^ and eaid, Josephy thou man of veracity, teach us the 
interpretation of seven fat kine, which seven lean kine devoured; and of 
seven green ears of com, and other eeven withered eare, which the king eaw in 
his dream; that I may return unto the men who have sent me, that peradven- 
ture they may understand the same, (48) Joseph answered, Ye shall sow 
seven years as usual : and the com which ye shall reap, do ye leave in its 
ear,^ except a Uttle whereof ye may eat (49) Then shall there come, after 
this, seven grievous years of famine, which shall consume what ye shall have 
laid up as a provision for the same, except a Uttle which ye shall have kept. 
(50) Then shall there come, after this a year wherein men shall have plenty 
of rain,' and wherein they shall press wine and oH, (51) And when the chief 
butler had reported this, the king said, Bring him unto me. And when the 
messenger came unto Joseph, he said, Eetum unto thy Lord, and ask of him, 
what was the intent of the women who cut their hands ;^ for my Lord well 
kooweth the snare which they laid for me.^ (52) And when the women were 
assembled before the king, he said unto them. What was^our design, when ye 
solicited Joseph to unlawful love? They answered, Gk>d he praised! we 
know not any ill of him. The nobleman's wife said, Now is the truth be- 
come manifest : I solicited him to lie with me ; and he is one of those who 
speak truth. (53) And when Joseph was acquainted therewith, he said, This 
discovery hath been made, that my lord might know that I was not uofaithM 
unto him in his absence, and that God directeth not the plot of the deceivers. 
[Xni.] (54) Neither do I absolutely justify myself:' since every soul is prone 
unto evil, except those on whom my Lord shall show mercy ; for my Lord is 

1 To prcserre it from the weevil. 

* Notwithstanding what some ancient authors write to the contrary, it often rains in 
winter in the lower Egypt, and even snow has been ohsenred to fall at Alexandria, contrary 
to the ezparesB assertion of Seneca. In the upper Effypt, indeed, towards, the cataracts of 
Nile, it rains very seldom. Some, howerer, suppose that the rains here mentioned are in- 
tended of those which should fall in Ethiopia, and occasion the swelling of the Nile, the 
great cause of the fertility of Egypt ; or else of those which should faU. in the neighbouring 
countries, which were ako afflicted with famine during the same time. 

> Joseph, it seems, cared not to get out of prison, tiU his innocence was publicly known 
and declared. It is observed by the commentiStors, Uiat Joseph does not bia the messenger 
move the king to inform himscli of the truth of the affair, but bids him directly to ask the 
king, to incite him to make enquiry with the greater earnestness. They ako observe that 
Joseph takes care not to mention his mistress, out of respect and gratitude for the favours he 
had received while in her house. ^ 

^ Endeavouring, both by threats and persuasions, to entice me to commit folly with my 

* Accordin||^ to a tradition of Ebn Abb&s, Joseph had no sooner spoken the foregoing 
words, asserting his innooency, than Oabriel said to him, Whttt ! not when thou wast dO' 
liberating to lie icith ftcr f Upon which Joseph confessed his frailty. 


gracious and merciful. (55) And the king said, Bring him unto me: I will 
take him into my own peculiar service. And when Joseph was brought unto 
th$ king, and he had discoursed with him, he said, Thou art this day firmly 
established with us, and shaU he intrusted mth our affaire.^ (56) Joseph 
answered, Set me over the storehouses of the land; for I will he a skilful 
keeper thereof, (57) Thus did we establish Joseph in the land, that he might 
provide himself a dwelling therein, where he pleased. We bestow our mercy 
on whom we please, and we suffer not the reward of the righteous to perish : 
(58) and certainly the reward of the next life is better, for those who believe, 
and fear Qod, (59) Moreover, Joseph's brethren came,' and went in unto 
him ; and he knew them, but they knew not him. (60) And when he had 
furnished them with their provisions, he said, Bring unto me your brother, 

* The commentaton say^ that Joseph being taken ont of prison, after he had washed and 
changed his clothes, was introduced to the King, whom he saluted in the Hebrew tongue, 
and on the lung's asking what language that was, he answered, that it was the language of 
his fathers. The prince, they say, understood no less than seventy languages, in erery one 
of which he discoursed with Joseph, who answered him in the same ; at which the king 
greatly manrellinff, desired him to relate his dream, which he did, describing the most minute 
circumstances : whereupon the king placed Joseph b^ him on the throne, and made him his 
Waztr or chief minister. Some say tnat his master lutfir dying about this time, he not only 
succeeded him in his place, but, by the king's conunand, married the widow, his late mis- 
tress, whom he found to be a Tirgin, and who bare him Ephraim and Manasses. So that 
according to this tradition, she is the same woman who is called Asenath by Moses. This 
supposed marriage, which authorized their amours, probably encouraged the Mohammedan 
divmes to make use of the loves of Joseph and Zoleikha, as an allegorical emblem of the 
spiritual love between the Creator and the creature, Grod and the soul ; just as the Christians 
apply the Song of Solomon to the same mystical purpose. 

s Joseph, being made Waztr, govemed with great wisdom ; for he not only caused justice 
to be impartially administered, and encouraged the people to industry and the improvement 
of agriculture, during the seven vears of plenty, but be^an and perfected several works of 
great benefit ; the natives at this day ascribmg to the patriarch Joseph almost all the ancient 
works of public utility throughout the kingdom ; as particularly the rendering the province 
of al Feyyiipa, from a standi]^ pool or marsh, the most fertile and best cultivated land in all 
Egypt. When the years of &mine came, the effects of which were felt not only in Egypt, 
but in Syria and the neighbouring countries, the inhabitants were obliged to apply to Joseph 
for com, which he sold to them, first for their money, jewels, and ornaments, then for their 
cattle and lands, and at lengUi for their persons ; so that all the Egyptians in general became 
slaves to the king, though Joseph, by nis consent, soon released them, and returned them 
their substance. The dearth being felt in the land of Canaan, Jacob sent all his sons, except 
only Benjamin, into Egypt for com. On their arrival, Joseph (who well knew them), asked 
them who they were, saymg he suspected them to be spies , but they told him they came only 
to buy provisions, and tnat they were all the sons of an ancjent man, named Jacob, who was 
also a prophet Joseph then asked how many brothers there were of them ; they said. Twelve ; 
but that one of them had been lost in a desert Upon which he inauired n>r the eleventh 
brother, there being no more than ten of them present They said, ne was a lad, and with 
their father, whose fondness for him would not suffer him to accompan^r them in their 
journey. At length Joseph asked them, whom they had to vouch for their veracity ; but 
they told him they knew no man who could vouch for them in Egypt Then, replied he, 
one of you shall stay behind with me as a pledge, and the others may return home with their 
provisions ; and when ye come again, ye shall bring your younger brother with you, that I 
may know ye have told me the tmth. Whereupon, it being in vain to dispute the matter, 
they cast lots who should stay behind, and the lot fell upon Simeon. When they departed* 
Joseph gave each of them a camel, and another for their brother. 


the ion of your father; do ye not see that I give full measure, and that I am 
the most hospitable reeeiver of guests? (61) But if ye bring him not unto 
me, there shall be no cam measured unto you from me, neither shall ye ap- 
proach my jpraenee, (62) They answered, We will endeavour to obtain him 
of his father, and we will certainly perform what ihau require^t (63) And 
Joseph said to his servants, Put their money, ^ which th$y have paid for their 
corn into their sacks, that they may perceive it, when they shall be returned 
to their family : peradventure they wiU come back unto us. (64) And when 
they were returned unto their father, they said, father, it is forbidden to 
measure out com nnto us any more, unless we oa/rry our brother Benfamin with 
us: wherefore send our brother with us, and we shall have com measured 
nnto us; and we will certainly guard him from any mischance. (65) Jacob 
answered, Shall I trust him with you with any better success than I trusted 
your brother Joseph with you heretofore ? But God is the best guardian ; 
and he is the most merciful of those that show mercy. (66) And when they 
opened their provision, they found their money had been returned unto 
them ; and they said, father, what do we desire farther f this our money 
hath been returned nnto us; we will therefore return, and provide com for 
our family : we will take care of our brother ; and we shall receive a camel's 
burden more than we did the last time. This is a small quantity.' (67) Jacob 
said, I will by no means send him with you, until ye give me a solemn pro- 
mise, and swear by God that ye will certainly bring him back nnto me, unless 
ye be encompassed by some inevitable impediment. And when they had given 
him their solemn promise, he said, God is witness of what we say. (68) And 
he said, My sons, enter not into the city by one and the same gate; but enter 
by different gates. But this precaution will be of no advantage unto you 
against the decree (/GkKl; for judgment belongeth unto God alone; in him do 
I put my trust, and in him let those confide who seek in whom to put their 
trust. (69) And when they entered the city, as their father had commanded 
them, it was of no advantage unto them against the decree of God ; and the same 
served only to satisfy the desire of Jacob's soul, which he had charged them to 
perform : for he was endued with knowledge of that which we had taught 
him ; but the greater part of men do not understand. (70) And when they 

1 The original word rienifying not only money, but all goods bartered or given in ex- 
change for other merchandize, some commentators tell us, that they paid for their com, not 
in money, but in shoes and dressed skins. 

' The meaning may be, either that the com they now brought was not sufficient for the 
support of their families, so that it was necessary for them to take another journey ; or else, 
that a camel's load more or lees was but a ^ifle to the kiog of £^pt Some suppose these 
to be the words of Jacob, declaring it was too mean a consideration to induce him to port 
with his son. 


entered into the presence of Joseph, he received his brother Benjamin as hia 
gnest, and said, Yerily I am thy brother :^ be not therefore afflicted for thet 
which they have committed against t». (71) And when he had formshed 
them with their provisions, he put hu cup' in his brother Benjamin* s sack. 
Then a crier cried after them^ eaying^ company of travellers, ye are surely 
thieves. (72) They said (and turned back unto them), What ii it that yo 
miss? (73) They answered, We miss the prince's oup : and unto him who 
shall produce it, shall he given a camel's load ofeom^ and 1 wiU he surety for 
the same. (74) JaeepVe hrethren replied. By Qod, ye do well know, that we 
oome not to act corruptly in the land,' neither are we thieves. (75) The 
Ugyptians said. What shall be the reward of him, who shall appear to have 
Holen the cup, if ye be found liars ? (76) Joseph's hrethren answered. As to 
the reward of him, in whose sack it shall be found, let him become a hond- 
man in satisfaction of the same: thus do we reward the unjust, who are 
guiUy of theft} (77) Then he began by their sacks, before he searched the 
sack of his brother : ' and he drew out the eup from his brother's sack. Thus 
did we furnish Joseph with a stratagem. It was not lawful for him to take 
his brother for a hondman, by the law of the king of Egypt^^ had not God 
pleased to allow it, according to the offer of his hrethren. We exalt to degrees 
of knowledge and honour whom we please : and there is one who is knowing 
above aU those who are endued with knowledge. (78) Mis hrethren said. If 
Benjamin be guilty of theft, his brother Joseph hath been also guilty of theft 
heretofore.^ But Joseph concealed these things in his mind, and did not dis- 

> It is related that Joaeph, baTing invited his brethren to an entertainment, ordered them 
to be placed two and two together ; by wbich means Benjamin, the eleventh, was obliged to 
ait alone, and, bon^^ting into tears, said, If mj brother Joseph were alive, he would have sat 
with me. Whereupon Joseph ordered him to be seated at the same table with himself^ and 
when the entertainment was over, dismissed the rest, ordering that thev should be lodged 
two and two in a house, but kept Benjamin in his own apartment, where he passed the 
night. The next day Joseph asked him, whether he would accept of himself for his brother, 
in the room of him whom he had lost ; to which Benjamin rephed, IFho can find a brother 
eomparabi4 unto thee f yet thou art not the eon of Jacob and kaehik And upon this Joseph 
discovered himself to him. 

* Some imagine this to be a measure holding a Sa& (or about a gallon), wherein they used 
to measure com, or give water to the beastk But omers take it to be a diinking-cup of 
silver, or ffold. 

' Both oy our behaviour among you, and our bringing again our money which was ro* 
turned to us without our knowledge. 

^ This was the method of punishing theft used by Jaco^ and hii family : for among tho 
Egyptians it was punished in another manner. 

* Some suppose this search was made bv the person whom Joseph sent after them; othexs 
by Joseph hinuelf, when they were brougnt back to the city. 

* For there the -thief was not reduced to servitude^ but was soourgcd, and obliged, to re- 
store the double of what he had stolen. 

7 The occasion of this suspicion, it is said, was, that Joseph having been brought up by 
his father's sister, she became so fond of him, that when he grew up, and Jacob designed to 
take him from her, she contrived the following stratagem to keep him. Having a ginllo 


corer tiiem noto tiiem : and he said tetthin hinutlf, ye are in s worse condition 
tMtm tM two : and Qod beet knoweth That ye diaconno about (79) They said 
tmto Jottph, Noble UrS, verily this iad hath an aged father ; wherefore take 
one of ua in his stead ; for we perceive that then art a beneficent person. 
(60) JoKph aoBwered, Ood forbid that we should take ant/ other than him 
willi whom we found our goods; for then diould we certainly It unjust 
(81) And when they despaired of obtaining Benjamin, they retired to confer 
privately leather. And the elder of them' said, Do ye not know that your 
&ther hath received a solemn promise from you, in tiie name of God, and 
how per&dioudy ye behaved heretofore towards Joseph ? Wherefore I will 
by no means depart the land of JSgypt, until my father give me leave to 
return wito him or Ood maketh known his will to me ; for he is the best 
judge. (B2) Betum ye to your &ther, and say, father, verily thy son hath 
committed theft ; we bear witness of no more than what we know, and we could 
sot guard against what wo did not foresee: (83) and do thou inquire in the 
city, where we have been, and of the company of merchants, with whom we 
are arrived, and tho» teilt Jind that we apeak tlie truth. (84) And whm they 
w*r» rtlvmed, and had tpoken thui to their father, he said, Kuy, hut rather ye 
yourselves have contrived the thing for your own sakes : but patience m most 
proper^ me; peradventure Ood will restore them all* unto ms; for he it 
knowing and wise. (85) And be turned from them and said, Oh how I am 
grieved for Joeepb I And his eyes became white with mourning,* he being 
oppressed with deep sorrow. (86) Hie tone said, By Ood, thou wilt not cease 
to remember Joseph until then be brought to death's door, or then be actually 
destroyed ly exeaeitre affliction. (87) He answered, I only represent my 
grief, whioh I am not able to contain, and my sorrow unto Qod ; but I know 
by revelation from Ood that which ye know not* (88) my sons, go and 

whidi had tnuw bdoived to Abitbtm, she rirt it aboat tlie child, and then pratanding Aa 
had lost it, cuusd itnct March to be made Tor it ; and it being at len^ fbnnd on Jaaeph, 
lie WIS adjudged, •eoordiotr to the aboTe-mentioned law of the nimil;, to be deliTeied to her 
H ber property. Smne, howerer, lay, that Joseph actually itole an idol ot gold, which 
belonged to tui mothei'i &ther, and deatroTed it; a ttarj probably taken bxim Bachel'a 
atealing the image of I^ban : and olhera tell oa that he once lUle a goat, oi a hen, to gire 
to a poor man. 

< Hamelj, Renben. But lome think Simeon or Jndah to be here meant ; and iottead of 
tA«iM>r, interpret it, the most prwhnt of thtm. 

* That ii, Joeeph, Ccnjamia, and Simeon. 

■ That ii, the pupils loat their deep blacknen, and became of a pearl ooloor (as happena 

Namely, Thai Jnsoph i» yet alive; ofirhich lome tell oi ha Tai aaared by the angel of 

h in a dream : though othen suppoae he depended on the oon^letion of Joaeph'a dream, 

which most have been frastratcd, had he died before big brethren had bowed d«wn before 


make inqniry after Joseph and his brother ; and despair not of the mercy of 
God; for none despaireth of God's mercy, except the nnbelieving people. 
(89) Wherefare JosepKi brethren returned into Egypt : and when they came 
into his presence, they said, Noble lord, the famine is felt by ns and our 
family, and we are come with a small sum of money : ^ yet give unto us full 
measure, and bestow com upon us as alms ; for God rewardeth the alms- 
givers. (90) Jbeefph said unto them, Do ye know what ye did unto Joseph 
and his brother, when ye were ignorant of the consequences thereof f* (91) 
They answered. Art thou really Joseph?' He replied, I am Joseph; and 
this is my brother. Now hath God been gracious unto us. For whoso 
feareth God, and persevereth with patience, shall at length find relief; since 
God will not suffer the reward of the righteous to perish. (92) They said, 
By God, now hath God chosen thee above us; and we have surely been 
sinners. (93) Joseph answered. Let there be no reproach cast on you this 
day. God forgiveth you ; for he is the most merciful of those who show 
mercy. (94) Depart ye with this my inner garment,* and throw it on my 
father's face ; and he shall recover his sight : and then come unto me with all 
your family. (95) And when the company of travellers was departed from 
Egypt on their journey towards Canaan, their father said, unto those u?ho were 
about him, Yerily I perceive the smell of Joseph;^ although ye think that I 
dote. (96) They answered. By God, thou art in thy old mistake.* (97) But 
when the messenger of good tidings^ was come with Joseph's inner garment, 

^ Their money bein^ clipped and adulterated. Some, howeyer, imagine they did not 
bring money, but goo£ to oarter, Bucb as wool and butter, or other commodities of small 

* The injury they did Benjamin was the separating him from his. brother; after which 
they kept him in so great subjection, that he durst not speak to them but with tiie utmost 
submission. Some say thai these words were occasioned oy a letter which Joseph's brethren 
deliTcred to him from their £Either, requesting the releasement of Benjamin, and by repre- 
senting his extreme affliction at the loss of him and his brother. ^ The commentators observe 
that Joseph, to excuse his brother's behaiiour towards him, attributes it to their ignorance, 
and the heat of youth. 

* lliey say thiat this question was not the effect of a bare suspicion that he was Joseph, 
but that they actually knew him, either by his face and behayiour, or by his foreteeth, which 
he showed in smiling, or else by putting off his tiara, and discoTering a whitish mole on his 

* Which the commentators ^nerally suppose to be the same garment with which Gabriel 
inrested him in the well : which, having originally come from paradise, had preserved the 
odour of that place, and was of so great virtue as to cure any distemper in the person who 
was touched with it 

* lliis was the odour of the garment above-mentioned, brought by the wind to Jacob, who 
smelt it, as is pretended, at the distance of eighty parasangs ; or, as others will have, three, 
or eight days' joume^r off. 

* Being led into this imagination by thy excessive love of Joseph. 

^ Namely, Judah ; who as he had formerly grieved his father, by bringing him Joseph's coat 
stained witk blood, now rejoiced him as much, by being the bearer of uiis vest, and the news 
of Joseph's prosperity. 


he threw it over his face; and he recovered his eye-sight. And Jaeol said, 
Did I not tell jou that I knew from Ood, that which ye knew not ? (98) 
They answered, father, ask pardon of our sins for us, for we have surely 
heen sinners. (99) He replied, I will surely ask pardon for you of my 
Lord ;^ for he ts gracious and merciM. (100) And when Jacob and his family 
arrived in Egypt, and were introduced unto Joseph, he received his parents 
unto him,' and said, Enter ye into Egypt, hy God's favour, in full security. 
And he raised his parents to the seat of state, and they, toyither with his 
brethren, fell down, and did obeisance unto him.' And he said, my father, 
this is the interpretation of my vision, which I saw heretofore : now hath my 
Lord rendered it true. And he hath surely been gracious unto me, since he 
took me forth from the prison, and hath brought you hither from the desert ; 
after that the devil had sown discord between me and my brethren ; for my 
Lord is gracious unto whom he pleaseth; and he is the knowing, the wise 
God. (101) Lord, thou hast given me a part of the kingdom, and hast 
taught me the interpretation of dark sayings. The Creator of heaven and 
earth ! thou art my protector in this world, and in that which is to come ; 
make me to die a Moslem, and join me with the righteous.^ (^0^) ^^ is a 
secret history which we reveal unto thee, Mohammed, although thou wast 
not present with the brethren of Joseph, when they concerted their design, 
and contrived a plot against him. (103) But the greater part of men, 
although they earnestly desire it, will not believe. (104) Thou shalt not 
demand of them any reward for thy publishing the Kordn ; it is no other than 
an admonition unto all creatures. (105) And how many signs soever there 
be of the being, unity, and providence of Ood, in the heavens and the earth ; 
they will pass by them, and will retire afar off from them. (106) And the 

1 Deferringit, as some fancy, till he should see Joseph, and hare his consent 

s Namely, His father, and L^, his mother's sister, whom he looked on as his mother, after 
BachePs death. 

Al Beid&wi tells ns, that Joseph sent carriages and provisions for his father and his 
family ; and that he and the king of Egypt went forth to meet them. He adds, that the 
number of the children of Israel, who entered Egypt with him, was soTenty-two ; and that 
when they were led out thence by Moses, they were increased to six hundred thousand five 
hundred and seventy men and upwards, besides the old people and children. 

s A transposition is supposea to be in these words, and that he seated his father and 
mother after they had bowed down to him, and not before. 

* The Mohammedan authors write, that Jacob dwelt in Egypt twenty-four years, and at 
his death ordered his body to be buried in Palestine |py his fatner, which Joseph took care to 
perform ; and then returning into ^ypt, died twent}r-three years after. They add, that 
such high disputes arose among the Egyptians, concerning his ourial, that they nad like to 
haTO come to blows ; but at length they agreed to put his body into a marble coffin, and to 
sink it in the Nile ; out of a superstitious imagination, that it miffht help the regular increase 
of the river, and deliyer them from funine for the future ; but when Moses led the Israelites 
out of Egypt, he took up the coffin, and carried Joseph's bones with him into Canaan, where 
he buried them by his ancestors. 


greater part of them believe not in God, without being also guilty of idolatry.^ 
(107) Do they not believe that some overwhelming affliction shall fall on 
them, as a punishment from God ; or that the hour of judgment shall over- 
take them suddenly, when they consider not its approach. (108) Say unto 
those of Ifecca, This is my way: I invite you unto God, by an evident 
demonstration ; both I and he who foUoweth me ; and, praise be unto God ! 
I am not an idolater. (109) We sent not any apostles before thee, except 
men, unto whom we revealed our wiUf and whom we chose out of those who 
dwelt in cities.' Will they not go through the earth, and see what hath 
been the end of those who have preceded them ? But the dwelling of the 
next life shall surely be better for those who fear God. Will they not there- 
fore understand ? (HO) Their predecessors were home with for a time, until, 
when our apostles despaired of their conversion, and they thought that they 
were Uars, our help came unto them, and we delivered whom we pleased; 
but our vengeance was not turned away from the wicked people. (Ill) 
Verily in the histories of the prophets and their people, there is an instructivo 
example unto those who are endued with understanding. The Eordn is not 
a new invented fiction; but a confirmation of those scriptures which have 
been revealed before it, and a distinct explication of every thing necessary, in 
respect either to faith or practice, and a direction and mercy unto people who 

^ For this crime Mohammed charges not only on the idolatrous Meccans, but also on the 
Jews and Christians ; as has been already oteerved more than once. 

' And not of the inhabitants of the deseru ; because the former are more knowing and 
compassionate, and the latter more ignorant and hard-hearted. 


In § 122, e. of my Grammar I drew the reader's attention to what 
I consider a serious defect in Freytag's large Lexicon, where he makes 
use of a number of contractions, without any key to their sig- 
nification. The following are the more important of such deficiencies 
as I have alluded to : 


ee, constraitar cum. 

eea, conBtmitur cum Accusatiyo. 

ccg. construitur cum G^nitiyo. 

ecga. construitur cum gemino Accusatiyo. 

ccap, construitur cum Accusatiyo persoiue. 

eear. construitur cum Accusatiyo rei. 

ccar. et l^ p. construitur cum Accusatiyo rei at c^ persons. 

There are a great many more contractions which, howeyer, are 
sufficiently obyious, such as Mas,, Fern,, Plur,, etc. It will be seen 
that Uiese I haye just pointed out, are perfect enigmas when un- 
explained; and are susceptible of any signification which the 
imagination of the reader may suggest. 

I find that Wilmet also in his yaluable Lexicon adapted to the 
Kur,an, Hariri, and the Life of Timur by Ibn Arab Shah, has been 
guilty of the same sins of omission. 



ft o 


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Misforical Extracts. 

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^ s ^s^-^-tf^ ^^9^^i^^,, 9{js. 

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g/O'^ ^ ^ 9 t 



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y^, 4 ^. ^ 9 O ^ ^ ^9t* 9 s^^ St, XX xGxx 

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^Vs ^^^^ ^\ ^^\^lJ3 ^J^ ^ ^\^ \ijj^ 

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^^x • *^ X ^ a TT » 

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G^SCxxi^^ S^x^x S X s x^-o^ /^-tfx 


ll, ^ I ^ X X xS X XX G O-cx xG^G«0 x xG^x ^Gx 

O X XX <* X <», X G* X ^ XX ^:fG-0 G X O 

' ^Gxx •GJG-oxxGS ^ X Gx G O ^ G-OX x G x 

! ^, ^ ^ ^ -O ^ G /x ^^ X x^ -O ^ J ^x GxJ xG-O 

^ «^ ^ X X XX * X • X G G /Gx X XX G x G^G^ ^ 
p.\J\ j^^ -A%\^^ £;A\ii U«3 j^Oi. ^\j f^J\ 4 

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c/G'« ^ ^9 

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^ ^ 

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A-L: ^Jcj V^W 1 ♦ t;-4-^ ^\bs. ^ ^^^^ Vj^ lAjvrfc^j 

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yrf^\ y>j \asi. AiJ\ ojij Ij-i t^^U. A * ^\ o\l3. 
\oui ^* ♦ j^^ -^ ijr j^ Ifei \:*i-jl3 SU *U>^\ ^^ 

^ 9 ^ m^ ^ 9 %0 ^ 4Le «^«^ ^ ^ ^ /S^ <l ^ / G 


O ^ G«« S ^ ^ O Cm^ ^ «^ G^ tfG**' O «^«^«^ ^ 

l\ ^^\ 'k^CJ\ ^J^ \lJ\ i^j W * ^jg«* ^yLa (j 

^ ^ 

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^ G.^ / .^ ^G ^^ I G <^ 1^ ^^O G 

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G Sf^ -^-^ tf*»^/^ ^G^ i^*^ <l^^^G«^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 9 

cr< (V^ J>-y V-V^j |]y=^^ c;^ (J*^^ t^ U) ISj^a^ 

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^ \osA y\5 oli^b *A«U. Uii 4>w«^^ i,^^\ j_^;X3u 

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o/o^ ^ ^ 9 1^ 

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^ 9 o 9^ « ^if 9 9^ ^ ^ ^ ^%0^ ^ 9 ^^^ tf^ ^99 

o 9 9 o 9 ^^ %^ m 0^^ m o «i^ ^^ ^ ^^ .o 

X«*iaJ UO^ ^ *i;tf-j^J ^'♦^^'^ \l*^l-j J-a- jjifi- |» 

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«^ 9^^ 9 ff ^o o c^^ 9 9^^ xo^ ^ ^ 9 ^ 

t^Pomo ^ ^9 

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^ &^^ •^<<'<r<^ ^o^ o «^ c^ ^ ^ o«0^ c^^ «•/>» o/ M*s\^ 
9^^^ s^i* if99^^S^ t, 9 9 ^i^S ^^ s ^ s 9^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

9 S^ 9 ^ G'O^^ o/o^^&«^ ^ .^'^ 9^^^ s ^ SI0S 9 ^i0 

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9 ^O'-o ^ «^ <> '^^ ^nH*^^ 9 ^ s ^ s 9^ 9^mO0' i0 9^ o o«^^ 


X V 9^^^ -^ .^ > 5^ «^ ^ G ^ -e^ ^ G 0-0 9^ 9 

O ^ ^ C G-o .^ G>' ^<* 0/g^S^G /«^ G«^ G ^ <iiO >• 

c^o«^ ^ ^ 9 ^ 

9^m^^ s i9 o9o >-£ ^ c/g ^ o9^^ ^ ^^ ^^ 47 > 

^\j Ij^yt Ji^^ji^ A^^l^ (%i^^i^ L^oJ^ j^ f "l;^^ 

^ s ^ 9^ ^^ ^ 9 o 9 ^ ^ ^ i^ 9 ^ 9^t, X «# gSg^«^ 


So^ G 9^ ^ ^ ^^ iS^^ G^ J»^ G^ S ^ tf 

o •*#>' If ^ ^ 9^% ^ \ s S s ^ 4^ t*9^^ G gS ^ «^^ 

^G^G-o^ G^^^^ 9^^^ ^^ 9 is ^ s ^ ^ % 9 ^^ ^«*^G^ o99 9 9 

9 ^o9 G*^ gJ Z^^- -^ ^-o ^•^ if ^ S ^ 9^ ^j^ /^-o 

9 ^^ m^ ^o^ ^ I G «^ G«i0 o^ o 9 9 4^0^ ^o,^ s ^ ^ 9 ^ is if 

9i, ia9^ S* ^ -^G ^ ij^^^ 9 tf *# is ^ is ^^ ^-o g * ^ is ^ ^ 

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Extracts from the Kurjan. 

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^^ ^ <^ 

<*^ <^^^^X^ <t^ io^^<' 

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o-o %*9 9 9o^ ^ ^ <L0 ^9t^% ^9 ^i^^ ^^ ^ 99t^^^^ 

^ %*9 ^ O^^O^ ^'.ox <IS ^ i^ 9 u9 ^ o ^ &;ft^ 

«^ «^ 

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^*^ s 9%^^ 9 9 i^9 4^^ s 9 I, ^ 99i,^ ^^ ^ 9 ^ ^^ o#^^^ 9 

^^^•0 ^ 9 ^ ^ ^^ ^ 9 ^ ^ ^ ^ 9^ ^ ^ ^9 o^ 

£^t«-J\^ cJUU JIa5 ?(iJc^W Ui _ *i J\5 J _ j^jCj 

^ ^o G^ ^ ^^^ Sis ^ 99 ^ ^^ Li0^ 99 ^x^ sG^ 99i,^^ ^^^ 

/^^^■«^ 9 ,, ^9 

«• «^ «^ C / S m^ x" 

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o ^^^ ^9 9 ^^9 ^9^ 9 ^ x^^^ ip^*^ ^^ 

<^ ^ «^G «^ ^ / Gf ^ G^ ^ U ^ S ^9 ^ Mj»o G «^ 

9^1,^ ^ ^^ ^ > «^G<^ I ^^^^ gSxg^ ^9 ^ ^ o9 

•• • 

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9 ^^ ^^ ^ 9 ^^ ^ 9 y^^ ^^ ^ ^G^^ ^ ^ ^ 

^ ^^ 

o9 ^ gS o9^o% 9 9 o% o9 9 of ^ o9 ^ ' ^u^^S 

9,K,^ 9 ^o^ ^G^^ ^^ o9 9 G^^ ••gS / % o9c9 g • 

«^ 9 9 o ^ ^ xG^ ^^G G«o 9 9 o 9c9 g^ 9 ^ l,^ ^^g^ 

^ <l S o9 ^G^^ ^ ^^^ ^ 9 9 O ^ ^ G^ •^ G-^ / G-c^ 

\^j\ ^IjoJi ^ iJ^ — lAj-^^iJt.^c— J (^^-^-^ <UixJ\ ^^j^^^ 

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o ^ ^ Urf 9^ij%^ ^aS-o // g/g ^ *K.f / G -^ 

s ^ ^ o P s ^ ^ 

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t^UJ\_^^\j <iJU)\ ^\j^ * 4-V^ *SJ ^Oui - J^^ 

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^^^ ^G G ^9o9 9 ^ 9 ^i^^ ^ ^00 f 9 ts^lH^ •! 

^ ^ m^9^»^^^i,% 9i^^^ ^ ^^ s 9 i, 9 ^^%d^^ ^ ^ ^^ 

4^9 i0 4-^ G«^ ^^^G<«0 ^^ ^ f^^ #^ G^^ ^ / G /G-o ^S 

^ ^ 9 O 9^^^^ ^ S G^O.^ ^ ^ ^ ^/g tf '^ ^ #^ G ' ^ / ^.K^ 

3Ju1mnJ^ ^Lj L-ft*-^ j(^LtfjJ\ ^Jii) l4il«\ 3Jui^ ^Ifi. Li^ 

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• Ju-j ciWb jJlc tiJL«3\ ^^\^ * i-«^\j 





9^ >cS &^^ &«i^< &^ 9 9%^^^ ^^ 9 i,9^ 9 yf- ^ ^ 

J\5 ♦ ^ \j **XKii\ ^i \ouk J3 i\^ Uii-A=.»^ls 

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^ 99^^9 tf^ G^'^^ G-tfi^ ^ G^^ ^ G^ ^ O «i^ 

^G ^9o 9 ^^ 9 ^g/ , ^x ' ^^^'^ ^ ^i*mo <^x > o^«c<«.o 

V^i^T^ 3Jui^ S^ 3ot5^ 3 *J (>iftii * Sil*J\ ^JlC'^^-ia£)\ 

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^ t,9^ G^^ ^ G /• /^-o ^ ^ %A- ^ ^ 


cJifti aJlc c^oi lW^ l^ cJL^ 3d9lSJ\ <^:'>««^j 2^>\> 
\o^^ \os^ ^y^ ^^ (j--«\ *::j;^ (JoJ\ jV^^ <-^\ - *3 


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XX ^Ox x^O xU-e XX *^ I XX /Sx ^^xx 9 9 O ^O %^ 

XXX ^xxS^ *Ox x^x S ^Ox / •^x ^Gxxx 

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XX ^xx^x ^ X X oJx ex X xOJx O«0 X ^ O^-tfy 

X ' 'X "^ XX X 

X 99'^^9 tf ^ oO'^x oOi^ X Oxx ^ Ox O Ox 

xO 4^9o 9 ^x ^ xC/ ^x ' X XXX *• 4«<mO x«^ ^ OxO«^ 

Slai^ 3Jui^ S^ 3ot3^ 3 4O j^>tftii ♦ i3UJ\ As'^^,^] 

X •♦ ^ 

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^ Ox j^9o 9 ^^ s 9 o 9 9^t */x x s ^S 9^^^ x 

^ xO^ X xCSx XX xC^x Otfii^ 9<^x X f O fo'^ 9 o9 


s ^ 

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# X O XX Ox Sxx X X O«o ^^x X O 


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c^l, U tiUoi ^\^J\ ^V 4 V«irf ywVi . ^1 ^ 


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s <^ ^^ s -" s ^i^ 9 Ai-^o % 9 ^ %* ^ ^ G^ * ^-i' 

Jili (^I5j j^jU. ^y\laL> _ «l-tj\ L-..*^ *-i ^^ \jJj 

G^ G ^ G $G #^ 5"^ ^ S 9 ^ ^ SG^^ 5 ^ S ^ ^ 

* a > k t 1 ••! 

•• i .15 

s ^ ^ u 9 s ^ If 9 

c ^ 9^% t^ 9 ^ ^ 0^9 ^ o 9 ^ t, 9 ^ ^ ^ 9^ ^ ^ 

i . ^mU - cJiii^ Uiii J ooots ^y\ _ iiki3\ jiJ«r Ju\ 

9 ^ %^ ^ ^ «^C^O «i»G 4^S o ^ ^ ^ ^«<^ ^ ^ ^ o ^c^^o 

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c^G 9 ^ %Jt 9 9 o ^ ^^ ^ 9 o^ ^^ ^ 9 .^ o^ g g^ 

^ 0^ ^ ^^^ ^ ^ 9^if9 ^ si^ ^^ %^ 9 G^ /g ^Gmo 

#• G ^ 9 ^^mo 9 ^^,9 ^^ G^G^ f^ G ^ ^ ^ tf .-o ^ <^g/ ^ 

<i ^ <i ^ ^ xG^ 

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tJ^\j ^^ ^^j ^ ^ ol^l^^ Uli _ oL«<c 

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s ^ ^ i^ 9 s ^ K^ 9 

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9 u ^ ^ 9 ^ c^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 9^S ^ X c«o ^ ^^ 9 «KoS 

c^^ JaWI,- W ^y\rAj^ Jam «-»> jJl«J^ r 

-ti^j^CiUjjJo: j^uuiu^y\ru*3^ ^^UJ\ 

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^ ^ ^ G«^ #• #>tfi^ «i»#> ^ C^O t* 9 ^ G^ G ^ 

^ # ^ ^ tf / «K««0 ^ ^ #• #• C S >» G^ G «<» G^ ^ ^ 

^^ G f *^*<#-c^ ^ ^ *<#-o 9 9 9^ G'O ^-^ • ^ ^ #• G^ /gJ^ gS 

tf^ ^ G G^ Gx ^ xG«0 ^Mj^^ G^ 

^ % ^ ^ ^G^ #• 9^ ^ 9%0 ^9 ^ ^ ^ ^ GfG'O ^^ 

5- G ^ G'O ^ « ^ ^99 %*mO #• ^ S G ^ i^ ^ G-^ »»G SG ^ 

C->\J'i\ <U L^j-i-jb\^\ L-JJ^\ ^j^^ SiX^jJ^ ^^cH^ 

^ ^ Oo>o f tt9^ 9^ «<..« / «>cSc<« 9 9<t4f^ 9^*^i^-o 

s^ ^ t^ 9 s ^ i^ 9 

^ 9 ^mo 9 9 ^o<o ^ ^ ^^f • ^ s ^ ^9 ^ •K#'0 ^ ^ 

^ 9 % u ^ ^ ^ <t«o<l«<'i^<^ o^ c/ Ooo^ >• ^o«o ^ ^%^9 o 9 Kj ^ 

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G #* ^ ^ ^ i^ 

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G^^^O G ^ ^ ^ G«<^ (f* ^ ^ xG-o 

% ^ ^^ f^ S #• i^^ • ^-GS G«^ #* -<»*<' G^ 

^ G^x X <t'^ ^ G ^ ^ / G^GS ^ ^ ^ G^gS ^ G^ 

G^ ^ ^ 9 %* ^ ^ ^G^ 

^^ U a ^ 4^ W^-C^«^\ J\3 

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j^\j (.j^\ *U^ ^^:uia. 



G.^G^^^ ^ 9 ^ ^ ^^G^ U-^^9 ^ ' ^ ^ 

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G i^ 4^^ G ^ ^ G #* S^ G <t^^ ^ ^^ 

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^^ /O'^ A- cSO'^ 9 ^ ^ ^ o X %^ ^o^ X 9 %^ 9 ^ ^ ^ 9 V<o X o X 

9 ^ K0 ^ ^ "^ G<0<^ X <^ '^O'O 9 ^ O^ ^XtrO^ ^ 0<0 ^ ^ ^ 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

^ xox^x^ tf ^ ^ 9 Cpo K* 9 9S ^ ^ ^ «o^ o «* '^ 

^99 o^mo ^ ^ ^ t^^^^^^99i* ^ ^ % ^ ^ o^< 

9 ^^0% 9 ^4^ ^ ^9 ^ 9^u^ 9^ •o ^ s 4^ ^ ^gJ 

L-ftX-^\ * ^^V^ ^ ^j ^^ ^ ^.CC^^.S « ^\^ ^4XjJ ^^^j^^\ 

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o ^ Oi^ -K*S^ •* ^oo^ ^ 9 ^ %0 ^ ^ 

^^ • s /o tf X #> i(/o^^ s • • /^ •<»• 

#* ^^ 

^ ^ x><«'0 9 9 9i^'^ 9i* ^ ^ ^ ^ o c-o • ^ o ^ 9^ %* ^ 9^^ 

J13 'j^^^ Ojs^^ *ila^^ }'*%^V '^y' U^ C*^J ''^^ 

^^ X o O'O X r xoS X / 99t^^^9 xox A^x ^9(^0-^ 9 c^ 

^ ^ ^ o^^ *»»*»»o^so G^ ^ '^ 9 9 9 xG«o ^ *i» 

.*jjL-. ij-jj cL)i-J_/-» -^ 4iL^ » ^y>^\ J\5 A 

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s^ ^ it9 s ^ i^ 9 

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tfG ^ G xG • x#>g/Gx ** /^ 

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0^ ^^^ G^ ^i^% 99 v9 at <* -o-^ 9 ^^^ 9 9 i^^9 ^ <»-o 

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!rf - u-*^ a f:^^ u-*^ • r^^^ *r^ ^joi\ 

^^ lSo*^ 9 iJcmo^ *^^ ^9c.^ 9 G «0^ 0^^^9o*^ 9 9 m^ 

^^^S o^ s ^9 o9 ^ t, 9^9 ^ ^ ^9^ ^(t* ^ 9 ut 

G^ ^^G ^ ^^ 9 {j %^ 9 i^^^i' 9 ^ It ^ ^ ^ ^ G** -^^ 

^G-^*^ ^x^-O G^-^ xxG-^ 9 t, 9 .*»G-o • ^ 9 i* 1,9 G^x 

9 ^ ij^ ^ ^««'G'0 ^ ^ G <^ G<^ ^^ *r# G *^ -^ ^ ^^9t^mO ^G'-O 

jlaij u..w-*iJ^ 4^\5.L,.vJjJ UiC^^qr^Uw b\.5ftA^\ 4^;^^ 

s ^ ^ u 9 s ^ o 9 

cl^^ ^ uJifi)^ (^-""^ (J^^ 4Xm^ U3oJ^ U-^v^ * U%3 

ji^ ♦ i^\ 4jL-A«Jj Jk^\ *^4xS3 U ^J\>^^ j^ r 

c*^o <* ^ 99 K^ ^ 

-S} J-J3\ ♦ 3;-3\«)\j L->L-iJ\ W*tXA3 ^j^ ^\ W4JUA5 

/ O If ^0^«0 ^ ^ O #* O^ «-GO<0 ^ 5C^ «^ <0 


'^^^ U ^ 9 ^ ^ ^ "^ -o^ 

9 ^^ 
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G*^ <* 9 9^^ t^4^^ 0^^ 9 ^ -^G-o ^^^99 Gx^ 

a.^ G -^ V y w^ ^ *^^ ^ 0^^ y ^ ^ G-^ 'V ^ V y y o ^ ^ 
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G G G $x ^ G X G'^ ^ G ^ G / G x G<^ G «* G < 

X Gx G^ / ^ G$<^ G ^ ^<K«S /^ «^ «^ G G'^ ^ S 



Miscellaneous Sentences. 

• ^ ^ ^ ^ s ^ 

^9 *^^ 9 ^ •'•••^ 9 ^ ^^^ 

t4^(J<^ \ jjjiyu^ "* y^ J^'^ "^j^t^ 

^ s ^ ^ ^ ^ 

CG^'O^^ o ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ #* sSA* 


^ 9 


^ .K.-0 ^ 9 ^^^ 9 ^ 0^9 ^ .K*-o 

•^ J-J3\^ ^ t_>\>J^ (J-^ J-^^ 

^ %0 9 ^ %*^^ 9 ^ '^ ^9 ^ c^Cx ** 0^ %4 ^ 

9 %* ^ 9 ^ % 9^ c ^ o-o ••'O /ix ^9^u9^^9 0, 

\ ^^ ^ ^ ^ 0.^ ^ 

%0 9^ ^ ^^^^9 i,9it^o9^^^i,9 o*^ ^G'*^ 9 ^ ^