(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Arachnida"

Limnuw-rz 









THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



INCLUDING 



CEYLON AND BURMA. 



Published under the authority of the Secretary of 
State for India in Council. 



EDITED BY W. T. BLANFORD. 



ARACHNIDA, 

BY 

R. I. POCOCK. 



LONDON: 
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



CALCUTTA : 

TIIACKER, SPINK, & CO. 



BOMBAY : 
1 II V EBB ,* 00., LIMITED. 



BERLIN: 
R. FRIEDLANDER & SOHN, 11 CARLSTRA89E. 

1900. 




VRINXED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 










O 



PREFACE. 



This volume contains descriptions of all the species of 
Aracbnida of the orders Scorpiones (Scorpions), Uropygi 
(Whip-Scorpions), Ainblypygi, Solifugae, and of most of 
the larger and otherwise conspicuous species of Aranese 
(true Spide-rs) known to occur in British India, Burma, and 
Ceylon, together with diagnoses of the genera, families, and 
suborders into which they fall. The only innovation intro- 
duced into the usually accepted classification of these groups 
is the ordinal separation of the Uropygi and Ainblypygi, 
which are generally united as one order Pedipalpi. 

All the described species of the first four orders are dealt 
with in full. The Aranete, however, are less thoroughly 
treated, only the larger forms being included in the present 
work. These embrace all the Mygalomorplue, a group 
comprising the species commonly known as " Mygales " and 
Trap-door Spiders, all of which are of medium or large size, 
and also a relatively small number of the described species of 
Arachnomorpha). This latter group contains a va«t number 
of species and is still very imperfectly known — so imperfectly 
that no satisfactory account of it can at present be 
given. All that has been attempted is to afford means of 
identifying the larger, commoner, better known and more 
widely distributed forms. As regards size no species which 
when adult falls short of 5 mm. in total length has beeD 



IV PREFACE. 

included, and a preference has been given to those forms of 
which specimens were available for description. It is to be 
hoped that the present work, by facilitating the study of 
Indian Spiders, will increase the number of observers and 
collectors, so that at some future time a far more complete 
account of these animals may become practicable. 

I welcome this opportunity of expressing my grateful 
acknowledgments to those who have rendered the work 
possible by lending or collecting specimens : to Major Alcock, 
I.M.S., Superintendent of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 
for the loan of typical examples of species described by 
Stoliczka and Simon, and to Dr. R. Gestro for extending 
to me the same kindness in connection with types of 
species described by Thorell and preserved in the Museo 
Civico at Genoa. The help that I have received from many 
friends and strangers, too numerous to thank in detail, is 
acknowledged in the following pages. Especially am I 
indebted to Mr. R. C. Wroughton, of the Indian Forest 
Service, and to Mr. H. M. Phipson, Honorary Secretary of 
the Bombay Natural History Society, whose influence and 
energy in procuring material have vastly increased our 
knowledge of Indian Arachnoiogy. 

R. I. POCOCK. 

October 16th, 1900. 



LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS QUOTED IN 
THE SYNONYMY. 



Abh. Ver. Hamb. Abhandlungen aus clem Gebiete tier Naturwissen- 
scbaften, berausgegeben Tom naturwissensehaftliehen Verein in Hamburg. 
Hamburg, 1846-1900. 

Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. Actes de la Soci6t6 Linneenne de Bordeaux. 
Bordeaux, 1820-1900. 

A. M. N. H. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London, 1838- 
1900. 

Ann. Mus. Genova. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di 
Genova. Genoa, 1870-lUtHt. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. Annales de la Societe Eutomologique de France. 
Paris. 1832-1900. 

Atti Soc. Ital. Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze naturali e del Museo 
Civico di Storia JS'aturale in Milano. Milan, 1859-1900. 

Berl. ent. Zeits. Berliner entomologische Zeitsehrift, berausgegeben 
von dem entomologischen Verein in Berlin. Berlin, 1857-74, 1881- 
1900. 

Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. Bulletin des seances &c. de la Societe" Eutomologique 
de France. (Attached to Annales.) 

Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital. Bullettino della Societa Entomologica Italiana. 
Florence, lSf.U-iyoO. 

Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France. Paris, 
1876-1900. 

Cambridge, Araneidea. Second Yarkand Exped. Scientific Results 
of the Second Yarkand Mission: Araneidea. By the Rev. O. P. Cam- 
bridge. Calcutta, 1885. 

C. Koch, Arachn. Die Arachniden. Getreu nach der Natur abgebildet 
and bescbrieben. Von Karl Ludwig Koch. 16 vols. Nuremberg, 
1831-48. 

De Geer, Mem. Hist. Ins. Memoires pour servir a l'Histoire des 
Inseetes. Par Charles de Geer. 7 vols. Stockholm, 1752-78. 

Fabr. Ent. Syst. J. <_'. Fabrioius, Entomologia Systematica. 4 vols, and 
Suppl. Copenhagen, 1792-98. 

Hempr. &, Ehr., Symb. Phys., Scorp. Symbolae Physica? seu Ieones et 
Descriptiones corporum aaturalium novorum aul minus cognitorum qua- 
ex itineribus per Libv;iin. .Egyptum, ke. Frid. Gul. Hemprich et Christ. 
God. Ehrenberg. Zoologica : Seorpione9. Berlin, 182 v . 

Herbst, Nat. ungefl. Ins. Xatursvstein der ungefliigelten Inaekten. 
J. F. W. Herbst. Berlin, 1797-1800. 

J. A. S. B. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Calcutta. 1832- 
19U0. 



VI WORKS QUOTED. 

Jb. Ilamb. wiss. Anst. Jahrbuch der Hainburgischen wissenschaftlichen 
Anstalten. Hamburg, 1884-1900. 

Jour. Bom, N. H. Soc. Journal of tbe Bombay Natural History Society. 
Bombay, 188(i-1900. 

Jour. Linn. Soc.Zool. Journal of the Linnean Society, Zoology. London, 
1857-1900. 

Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. &-C Das Tierreicb. 8 Lieferung. Scorpiones und 
Pedipalpi von Prof. Karl Kraepelin. Berlin, 1899. 

Latreille, Gen. Crust. &-C. Genera Crustaceorum et Insectorum, 
secundum ordinem naturalem in familias disposita, &c. 4 vols. Paris, 
1806-9. 

Latreille, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. Histoire natureile, generate et 
particuliere des Crustaces et des Insectes ; ouvrage faisant suite aux 
CEuvres de Leclerc de Buffon. 14 vols. Paris, 1802-5. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. Caroli A. Linne, Systema Naturae. Stockholm. Ed. x., 
1760 ; Ed. xii., 1766-68. 

MT. Munch, ent. Ver. Mittheilungen des Munchener entornologischen 
Vereins. Munich, 1877-81. 

Nat. Tijdschr. Nederland. Indie. Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor 
Nederlandsch-Indie. Batavia, 1850-1900. 

Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Natureile, 
applique aux Arts, &c. 24 vols. Paris, 1803-4. New ed., 36 vols., 
1816-19. 

P. Z. S. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. London, 1830- 
1900. 

Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign. Histoire natureile des Araignees (2e 
edition). Par Eugene Simon. Paris, 1892-1900. 

Thorell, Spiders of Burma. Descriptive Catalogue of tbe Spiders of 
Burma. British Museum, London, 1895. 

Tr. Ent. Soc. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. 
London, 1807-1900. 

Verh. Nat. Vereen. Nederland. Indie. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke 
Natuurkundige Vereeniging in Nederlandsch-Indie. Batavia, 1856-6(3. 

Walck. Ins. Apt. Histoire natureile des Insectes : Suites a Buffon. 
Apteres. Vols. 1, 2, 1837, par M. le Baron Walckenaer ; Vol. 3, 1844, par 
M. Paul Gervais ; Vol. 4, 1847, par M. le Baron Walckenaer et M. Paul 
Gervais. Paris. 

Zeits. ges. Naturw. Zeitschrift fur die gesammten Naturwisseuscbaften. 
Halle and Berlin, 1853-81. 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



ARACHNIDA. 



Order SCORPION ES 
Fam. 1. Buthid.e . . 



Subfam. 1. Bnthince . 

1. Buthus, Leach 

1. australis, Linn 

finitimus, Pocock 
baluchicus, Pocock 

2. dorise, Thorell 

ndonturus, Pocock 

3. macmahoni, Pocock 

4. caucasius. Pitcher . 

persicus, Pocock . 

5. atrostriatus, Pocock 

6. acute-carinatus, Simon 

rugosuius, Pocock 

7. alticola, Pocock . . . 

penjabenaia, Birula 

8. nigrifrons, Pocock 

9. tarn ul us, Fabr. . , 

concanensi?, Pocock 
sindicus, Pocock 
gujaratensis, Pocock 
gangeticus, Pocock 

10. henderaoni, Pocock 

11. rufri.scuti-. Pocock . . 

nigritus, Pucock . . 

12. pachyurue, Pocock. . 

2. Butheolus, Simon .... 

1. melanurus, Kessler 

fuscip'>. Pocock. . 

2. pallidas Pocock. . . . 
■ k tlavfscens, Pocock . . 
4. bicolor, Pocock .... 

3. C harm as, Kartch .... 

1. laneu.s, Kartell .... 

4. Stenochiru.s Kartell . . 

1. politus, Pocock .... 

2. sarasinurura, Kartell 



Page 



12 

12 

13 

15 

16 

10 

L6 

16 

18 

19 

19 

20 

20 

20 

21 

22 

22 

23 

25 

25 

25 

25 

26 

26 

27 

27 

2* 

2 s 

29 

30 

.-in 

3] 

31 

32 

32 

33 

33 



Page 

5. Hemibuthus, Pocock .... 34 

1. crassimanus, Pocock . . 34 

6. Lychas, C. Koch 35 

1. mucronatua, Fabr 36 

2. scutilus, C. Koch 37 

3. scaber, Pocock 38 

4. nigristemis, Pocock . . 38 

5. rugosus, Pocock 39 

6. tricarinatus, Simon . . 40 

7. henderaoni, Pocock . . 40 

8. sboplandi, Oates 41 

9. lpevifrons, Pocock .... 41 
10. f'eae, Thorell 42 

Subfam. 2. Centrurinee 42 

1. Plesiobuthus, Pocock .... 43 

1. paradoxus, Pocock. ... 44 

2. lsometra9,Ilc//i/tr.^\Flirenb. 44 

1. europpeus. Linn 46 

2. thurstoni, Pocock .... 17 

3. aaaamenaia, Oatea .... 48 

4. thwaitesi, Pocock .... 48 
•"i. basilicus, Karsch .... -Ill 
(i. brachycentrus, Pocock. 50 

7. vittatus, Pocock ~)0 

8. acanthurus, Pocock . . 51 

9. rigidulua, Pocock .... 52 

Fam. 2. Ch;eiulidje 53 

1. Clinerilu-, Simon 53 

1. granosua, Pocock .... 56 

2. anthracinua, Pocock . . 57 

rufescens, Pocock . . 57 

3. margaritatus, Pocock. . ~>* 
\. insignia, Pocock "> v 

5. tricostatus, Pocock . . 59 

6. gemmifer, Pocock .... 60 

7. pictus, Pocock 'il 

8. cevlonensis, Pocock . . 62 
'.». birmanicua, Thorell . . 62 

10. truncatus, Kartell .... 6 •"• 



Vlll 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



E 



am. 



3. Vkjovid-e 

1. Scorpiops, Peters 

1. hardwickii, Gerv. . . . 

2. insculptus, Pocock . . . 

3. crassimanus, Pocock . 

4. leptochirus, Pocock . 

5. petersii, Pocock 

6. montanus, Karsch . . . 

satarensis, Pocock . 
tenuicauda, Pocock 

7. longimanus, Pocock . 

8. asthenurus, Pocock . 

9. bingbamii, Pocock . . , 

10. anthracinus, Simon , 

11. lindstroemii, Thorell 

12. affinis, Kraep 



Page 

64 

, 64 

, 66 

. 68 

. 68 

. 69 

. 70 

. 70 

. 71 

. 72 

. 72 

. 73 

. 74 

. 74 

. 74 

. 75 



Order UROPYGI. 



Page 
100 



Fam. 4. Ischnuridje 

1. Hemiscorpius, Peters 

1. lepturus, Peters 

2. Chiromachetes, Pocock . . 

1. fergusoni, Pocock .... 

3. Hormurus, Thorell 

1. australasipe, Fabr 

suspectus, Thorell . . 

2. nigripes, Pocock 

4. Iomachus, Pocock 

1 . lseviceps, Pocock .... 

malabarensis, Pocock 

2. punctulatus, Pocock . . 

3. nitidus, Pocock 

Fam. 5. Scobpionid^ 

1, Palamnseus, Thorell .... 

1. swammerdami, Simon . 

lucidipes, Simon .... 
flavimanus, Pocock . 

2. fulvipes, C. Koch 

madi'aspatensis,PococZ; 
bombayensis, Pocock. 

3. wrougbtoni, Pocock . . 

4. latimanus, Pocock .... 

5. gravimauus, Pocock . . 

6. liurus, Pocock 

7. xanthopua, Pocock. . . . 

8. scaber, Thorell 

kanareDsis, Pocock . . 

9. bengalensis, C. Koch. . 

10. phipsoni, Pocock .... 

collinus, Pocock .... 

1 1 . barbori, Pocock 

12. indiis, DeGeer 

13. serratus, Pocock 

14. csesar, C. Koch 

1 .">. longimanus, Jlcrbst . . 
16. oatesiij Pocock 



76 

77 

77 

77 

78 

78 

79 

80 

80 

81 

81 

82 

83 

83 



84 

84 

86 

87 

87 

87 

88 

89 

89 
90 
90 
91 
92 
93 
93 
94 
94 

or, 

95 
96 

97 
97 
97 

98 



108 
109 
110 
111 



Suborder Urotricha 101 

Fam. 1. Thelyphonid^e . . . . 102 

1. Thelypbonus, Latr 103 

1. sepiaris, Butl 104 

indicus, Stolicz 105 

muricola, Pocock . . 105 

2. cristatus, Pocock .... 105 

3. sclinebagenii, Kraep.. . 105 

2. Uroproctus, Pocock 106 

1. assamensis, Stolicz. . . 106 

3. Labocbirus, Pocock 

1. proboscideus, Butl. 

2. tauricornis, Pocock 

3. cerviims, Pocock . 

4. Ilypoctonus, Thorell . 

1. oatesii, Pocock 112 

2. bingbami, Oates 113 

3. woodmasoni, Oates . . 113 

4. saxatilis, Oates 115 

5. sylvaticus, Oates .... 115 

6. ranguuensis, Oates. . . . 116 

7. formosus, Butl 116 

insularis, Oates .... 117 

8. andersoni, Oates 117 



Suborder Tartaxides 118 

Fam. 1. HtJBBARDIIDiE .... 119 

1. Scbizomus, Cook 119 

1. crassicaudatus, Camb. . 120 

2. Trithyreus, Kraep 121 

1. suboculatus, Pocock . . 121 

2. grassii, Thorell 122 

3. cambridgii, Thorell . . 122 



Order AMBLYPYGI .....'. 123 



Fam. 1. Phrynichidje 

1. Plirvnichus, Karsch 

1. lunatus, Pallas . 

2. phipsoni, Pocock 

3. pusillus, Pocock . 



125 

125 
126 

127 
128 



Fam. 2. Charontid.e 128 

1. Stygophrynus, Kraep. . 

1. cavernicola, Thorell . 

2. Catageus, Thorell 

1. pusillus, Thorell 

3. Sarax, Simon . ■ . ■ 

1. sarawakensis, Thorell 



129 
L30 
L30 
130 
131 
131 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



IX 



Page 

Order SOLIFUGjE 132 





135 


1 . Galeodes, Ofir 


136 


1. fatalis, Liehi.$ Eerbst. 


L37 




l:;> 


rufulus, Poeock . . . . 


139 


3. sabulosus, Poeock 


L39 


4. a<rilis, Poeock 


140 


5. :ifu-hanus, Poeock 


140 


6. macmaboni, Poeock . . 


141 




142 


obscurior, Poeock . . 


143 


australis, Poeock . . 


143 


8. nigripalpis, Poeock . . 


144 


9. bacillifer, Poeock .... 


144 



3. vittatus, Poeock . . 

4. nigriceps, Poeock . . . . 

5. nigrocinctus, Bernard 
<'). annulatus. Si nam 
7. phipsoni, Poeock . . . . 



OPIST ii o I II K i. .v: 



156 



Suborder Mygalomorphae 157 



I'.iiu. 1. Atvimilk 

1. Atypus, Latr 

1. doraualis, Thorell . . . 
•_'. ( !alommata, Lucca 

1. truculentum, Thorell 



Fun. 2. Ctkni/.iii.k 
1. 



Acantbodon,&ueV. . . . 

1. craasua, Simon . . . 

2. opit'ex, Poeock . . . 
:',. constructor, Poeock 
4. ibrtis, Poeock 



158 
158 
158 

I.V.I 

L69 

L60 

L61 

id 
162 

]«;:; 
168 



Fain. 2. Solpugidje 145 ■ 

Subfam. ] . Dcesiin<c 145 \ 

1. Gluviopsis, Kraep 146 

1. atratus, Poeock 140 

Subfam. 2. Rhagodince 147 

1. Rhagodes, Poeock 147 

1. semiflavus, Poeock. . . . 14'.» 

2. brevipes, Gerv 14'.' 

150 
150 
151 
152 
152 



Order AKAXE.E 153 j 

M K sot II E E ^E 155 

Fain. 1. Lii'iiisxiiDiE 156 

1. Lipbistius, Schio'dte .... 156 

1. birmanicus, Thorell . . 156 



Page 

5. lessor, Poeock 1*M 

6. designatus, Camb. ... 164 

2. Seligmomerus, Simon .. 164 

1. taprobanicus, Simon . . 164 

2. prolans, Simon 165 

3. Conothele, Thorell 1 1 i -~ . 

I. birmanica, Thorell. . . . L65 

4. Acattyma, L. Koch 166 

1. cryptica, Simon 166 

■">. Scalidognathus, Karsch.. 166 

1 . radialis, Camb 167 

2. oreophilus, Simon .... 167 

6. Neinesiellua, Poeock .... 167 

1 . montanus, Poeock .... 167 

7. Atinetocbilus, Simon. ... 1»> V 

1. foaaor, Simon, 168 

2. atriceps, Poeock 169 

8. Datuarcbus, Thorell 169 

1. oatesii. 'Thorell 169 

Fun. 3. DlPI4TJB.lD.as 170 

1. [schnotbele, Ausser 170 

1. dumicola, Poeock .... 17 J 

2. Macrothele. Ausser 171 

1. maculata, Thorell .... 171 

Fain. 4. Rakychelidje .... 172 

1. Sason, Simon 172 

1. robustum, Camb 173 

2. cinctipea, Poeock .... 17;'. 

3. armatoris, Poeock .... 174 

4. andamanicum, Simon . 1 74 

2. Diplothele, Camb 174 

1. waFlii. Camb 175 

2. lialvi, Simon 17-0 

•">. Plagiobotbrus, Karsch . . 175 

1. semilunaris, Karsch . . 176 

4. Sipalolasma, Simon 17*> 

1 . greeni, Poeock 17ti 

2. I'lliuti, Simon 177 

5. Sasonichus, Poeock 177 

1. Bullivani, Poeock .... 177 

Fun. 5. Thebaphosidje . 178 

Subfam. 1. Theraphosince . ... 178 

1. Pblogiodes, Poeock 17'.» 

1. validus, Poeock I 7ii 

2. robust us, Poeock .... 180 

2. Heterophrictus, Poeock .. 180 

1. milleti, Poeock 180 

•">. Plesiopbrjctus, Poeock .. 181 

1. mill inli. Poeock 181 

• 2. sericeu8, Poeock 182 

•'!. colliuu8, Poeock 182 

4. tenuipea, Poeock .... 182 

5. fabrei, Simon L82 

b 



SYSTEMATIC INDEX. 



4. Iscbnocolus, Ausser. 

1. linteatus, Simon 

2. brevipes, Thorett 

3. ornatus, Thorell . 



Subfam. 2. Thrigmopceince 

1. Haploclastus, Swiom . . 

1. nilgirinus, Pocock . . 

2. cervinus, Simon. . . . 

2. Thrigmopoeus, Pocock 

1 . iusignis, Pocock .... 

2. truculentus, Pocock 



Page 
183 

183 
183 

184 

184 
185 
185 
185 

1st; 

186 
186 



Subfam. 3. Selenocosmiince .. 87 

1. Pcecilotberia, Simon . . . 

1. r ufi lata, Pocock 

2. metallica, Pocock . . . 
.'!. miranda, Pocock . .. . 

4. subfusca, Pocock . . . 

5. regalis, Pocock 

('). striata, Pocock 

7. formosa, Pocock 

8. vittata, Pocock 

9. fasciata, Lcdr 

10. ornata, Pocock 

2. Chilobracbys, Karsch. . . 

1. fimbriatus, Pocock. . . 

2. femoralis, Pocock . . . 

3. pocoekii, Thorell . . . 

4. bicolor, Pocock 

5. flavo-pilosus, Simm . 
Ci. furaosus, Pocock . . . 

7. niasoui, Pocock 

8. andersoni, Pocock . . . 
'.). nitelinus, Karsch . . . 

10. hardwickii, Pocock . 

1 1. stridulans, Wood- 

Mason 

I 2. thorellii, Pocock. . . . 
I.",, brevipes, 'Thorell . . 

1 I. sericeus, Thorell 

:;. Selenocosmia, Ausser. 
i. himalayana, Pocock 
2. fuliginea, Thorell . . 
'.',. iavanensis, Walch. 
4. Phiogiellus. Pocock. . . . 
1 . subarmatus, Thorell 
■'). Lyrognathus, Pocock . . 

1 . crotalus, Pocock. . . . 

2. saltator, Pocock. . . . 
:'). pugnax, Pocock .... 

Subfam. I. Ornithoctonina 

1 . ( iyriopagopus, >sim<»i . . 

1. paganus, Simon .... 



188 
1 89 
L89 
190 
190 
190 
191 
191 
192 

l'.e 

192 
192 
195 
195 
L95 
196 
196 
196 
197 
197 
L97 
198 

198 
L99 

L99 
199 
200 
200 

201 
201 
202 
202 
202 
203 
203 
203 

203 

204 

205 



PagP 

2. Melopoeus, Pocock 205 

1. minax, Thorell 205 

3. Ornithoctonus, Pocock . . 205 

1. andersoni, Pocock .... 206 

Suborder Arachnomorphae. 206 



Fam. 1. Eresid.u 

1. Stegodypbus, Simon . . . 

1. mirandus, Pocock . . . 

2. pacificus, Pocock . . . 

3. sarasinoruni, Karsch . 

4. socialis. Pocock 



tibialis, Camh. 



Fam. 2. Psechrid^:, 



1. Psecbrus, Thorell 

1. tonus, Camh 

2. gheeuanus, Thorell , 

3. alticeps, Pocock . . . . 

2. Fecenia, Simon 

1. travancoria, Pocock 

2. cylindrata, Thorell . . 

Fam. 3. Augyoi'ip-'e .... 

1 . Tetragnatba, Lair 

1. gracilis, Stolicz 

2. geniculata, Karsch 

3. mandibulata, Walck. 

2. Argyroepeira, Emert<m 

1 . fasti gat a, Simon .... 

2. tessellata, Thorell . . 

3. eelebesiana, Walck. 

4. ventralis, Thorell . . 

3. Nephila, Leach 

1. maculata, Fabr 

2. kublii, Jhlesc 

3. imperialis, Dolesc. . . 

4. clavata, L. Koch . . 

5. malabarensis, Walck. 

4. Herennia, Thorell 

1. ornatissinia, DolesC 

5. Argyope, Sav 

1. ardiata, Simon 

2. lobata, Pallas 

3. pulchella, Thorell . . 
I. undulata, Thorell . . 

5. anasuja, Thorell . . . . 

6. taprobanica, Thorell 

7. semula, Walck 

8. catenulata, Dolesc. . . 

6. Araneus, Clerck 

1. laglaizei, Simon 

2. unicolor, Dolesc. . . 

3. debaanii, Dolesc. . . 
I. moluccensis, Dolesc. 



208 
20s 
209 
209 
209 
209 
210 

210 

210 
211 
211 
212 
212 
212 
212 

213 

214 
214 
215 
215 
215 
216 
216 
216 
216 
217 
217 
2 is 
218 
218 
210 
219 
219 
220 
220 
221 
221 
222 
222 
222 
223 
223 
223 
221 
225 
225 
220 



3T8TBM \TIC IXDEX. 



XI 



5. feae, Thnrell 

6. cicatrosus, Stolicz 

7. citricola, Forsk 

8. exaothematicus, Dolesc, 
'.'. bilunifer, Pocoek 

10. nauticus, i. Koch 

11. rumpfi, Thorell 

7. Cyrtarachne, Thorell 

1. raniceps, Pocoek 

2. inaequalis, Thorell . . . . 

3. cingulata. Thorell 

8. Ordgarius, Keyserl 

1. hobsoni, Camb 

2. sexspinosus, Thorell . . 

9. Caerostris, Thorell 

1. paradoxa, Dolesc 

10. Gasteraeantba, .S'«/?<7 

1. arcuate, Fabr 

2. dalyi, Pocoek 

3. sororna, Z>?/^/ 

4. remifera, Zfall 

5. hasseltii, C. Koch .... 

6. geminate, Fabr 

7. frontata, II lack n- 

8. diadestuia, Thorell. . . . 

9. unguifera, Simon 

10. leucomelaena, Dolesc. . 

11. brevispina. Dolesc. .'. . 

11. Poltys, C. AWi 

1. illepidus, C. AV// 

2. pannuceus, Thorell 



Page 

226 
226 
226 

227 
227 
228 
228 
228 
229 
221 1 
229 
230 
230 
230 
230 
231 
231 
232 
232 
233 
233 
233 
233 
234 
234 
234 
23-5 



Fam. 4. Theridiuxe 



1 . 1 .athrodectus, Walck. . . . 

1 . hasseltii, Thorell . . . 

iDdicus, Simon . . . 
elegana, Thorell . . . 

2. geometricus, C. Koch 

Fam 5. Pholcidje 



1. Artema, Walck 

1. atlanta, Walck 

2. Smeringopu.*, Simon . . 

1. elongatus, Vinson . . 

■ ',. Crossopriza, Simon .... 

1. lyoni, Blackw 



Fam. 0. Hersiliip^e 240 



1. Ilirsilia, Aud 

1. savignyi, Lucas . . 

2. pectinate, Thorell 

3. clatbrata, Thorell 

2. Murricia, Simon 

1. indica, Lucas 



241 

I'll 
241 

2*2 

242 

■1 J 2 



236 
236 

236 

237 

237 
237 
237 
238 

238 

238 

2:38 
239 
239 

240 
240 



Pag 

•">. Tama. Simon 242 

1. variata. Pocoek 242 

Fam. 7. Fhocteii'-E 243 

1. Uroctea, Duf. 243 

1. indica, Pocoek 243 

Fam. 8. LvrosiD^E 244 

1. Eucamptopus, Pococh . . . . 244 

1. coronatus, Pocoek .... 245 

2. Hygropoda, Thorell 245 

1. procera, Thorell 24-1 

•'!. Perenethis, L. Koch .... 245 

1. uuiuisciata, Dolesc. . . 240 

2. indica. Svnion 240 

4. Dendrolycosa, Dolesc 240 

1. stauntoui, Pococh .... 247 

2. robuste, Thorell 247 

5. Tbalas.^ins Simon 247 

1. phipaoni, F. Comb. . . 248 

6. Euprosthenops, Pocoek . . 248 

1. ellioti, Camb 249 

7. Hippasa, Simon 24'.' 

1. pantherina, Pocoek .. 250 

2. lycosina, Pocoek 250 

3. olivacea, Thorell .... 250 

4. pisaurina, Pocoek .... 250 

5. agelenoides, Simon . . 251 

6. holmerae, Thorell .... 251 
B. Ocyale, Aud 25] 

1. atalanta, Aud 252 

0. Lycosa, Latr 252 

1 . phipsoni, Pococh .... 253 

_. wrougbtoni, Pocoek . . 253 

3. nigrotibialis, Simon . . 253 

4. indagatrix, Walck. . 264 

5. catula. Simon 254 

0. chaperi, Simon 254 

Fam. 9. Oxyopidje 2">4 

1. Peucetia, Thorell 255 

1. viridana, Stolicz 255 

2. graminea, Pocoek .... 256 

'■'•. prasina, Thorell 256 

4. procera, Thorell 256 

Fam. 10. Clubio.md^e 257 

Subfam. 1. Sclcnopincy 267 

I . Selenops, Latr 267 

1 . radiatue, Latr 257 

-. montigena, Anion .... 268 



Xll 



SYSTEMATIC INJ)i:x. 



Subfam. 2. Heteropodince 

1 . 1 leteropoda, Latr. . . . 
J . venatoria, Linn. . . . 

2. phasiua, Simon . . . 

3. sexpunctata, Simon 

4. fabrei, Simon 

5. kandiana, Pocock . 

6. prompta, Camb. . . . 

7. smythiesi, Simon . 

8. languida, Simon. . . 

9. leprosa, Simon . . . 

10. plebeia, Thorell . . . 

11. lutea, Thorell 

12. umbrata, Karsch . 

1 3. eluta, Karsch 

1 4. subtilis, Karsch . . . 

2. Spariolenus, Simon . . . 

1 . tigris, Simon 

3. Pandercetes, L. Koch . 

1 decipiens, Pocock . 

2. celatus, Pocock . . . 

3. inacilentus. Thorell 

4. Palystes, L. Koch . . . 

1 . kochi, Simon 



Page 

259 

259 
260 
260 
261 
261 
261 
261 
262 
262 
262 
262 
263 
263 
263 
263 
263 
264 
264 
264 
265 
265 
265 
2(35 



6. 



2. flavidus, Simon 
Sparassus, Walck. 

1. lamarcki, Latr. 

2. senilis, Simon . . 

3. hirtus, Karsch . . 

4. wroughtoni, Simon 

5. phipsoni, Pocock 

6. impudicus, Thorell 

7. puuctipes, Simon 

8. luteseens, Thorell 

9. tener, Thorell .... 

10. tarandus, Simon . . 

11. stimulator, Simon 
Thelcticopis, Karsch 

1. nalandicus, Karsch 

2. paripes, Karsch . . 

3. canescens, Simon 

4. birmanicus, Thorell 

5. pictus, Thorell 



Fain. 11. Platohida: 



1. Plator, Simon . . . 
1. indie us, Simon 



Pair 

266 
266 

267 
267 
267 
268 
268 
268 
268 
269 
269 
269 
269 
270 
27<) 
271 
271 
271 
271 

272 

272 
272 



CORRIGENDUM. (Pp. 206 207.) 
Sections a'. & 5 , «' ; , 6 6 of Synopsis to be altered aa follows :-- 

a'. Posterior spinners absent or much shorter than 
anterior. 
a 8 . Upper lip membranous; maxillae without 

crest on upper side Zodartidai. 

//'■. Upper lip horny; maxilla' with crest on 

upper side . .' • • ■ Valpimanida-. 

If. Posterior spinners present, not perceptibly 
(shorter than anterior. 



ARACHNID A. 

The Arachnida maybe distinguished from the llexapoda (Insects), 
Chilopoda (Centipedes), and Diplopoda (.Millipedes) by the entire 
absence of the pair of feeler-like appendages, known as antenna), 
which are affixed to the front of the head in these three classes of 
animals, and also by the fact that there is no differentiated head 
furnished with two or three pairs of appendages modified so as to 
act solely as jaws. In the remaining great class of Arthropoda — 
the Crustacea, — which possesses numerous terrestrial species, there 
are two pairs of antenniform appendages at the anterior eud of 
the body and at least three pairs of appendages modified as jaws. 

The Arachnida may be characterized in detail as follows * : — 

Arthropodous animals in which the body in the adult is never 
composed of more than eighteen segments (somites) and is divisible 
into two main regions — an anterior or cephalothorax,and a posterior 
or abdomen. 

The cephalothorax consists of six somites, each of which is pro- 
vided with a pair of appendages. The somites are usually welded 
together and covered above by a dorsal shield or carapace; rarely 
the posterior two somites remain distinct from the others, and are 
furnished with one or two dorsal plates, separate from the main 
portion of the carapace. The carapace is then said to be segmented. 
The ventral surface of the cephalothorax is typically supplied with 
one or more median plates (sterna) ; sometimes the sterna are 
partially or wholly obliterated by the ingrowth of the basal 
segments of the appendages, which meet in the median ventral 
line. Sometimes the sternal plates are united, and form a single 
ventral plate to the cephalothorax. 

Eyes. — Except in some degenerate forms, the fore part of the 
carapace, sometimes called the cephalic or head-region, is furnished 
with simple eyes, which in undegenerate species are usually eight 
in number, two being situated close together in the middle line 
{median eyes), and three on each side (lateral eyes), set in a cluster 
or separated from each other. 

Mouth. — The mouth is a minute aperture placed near the lower 
part of the anterior extremity of the cephalothorax. it is bordered 
above by a membranous or horny upper lip (Jabrum), and usually 
below by the anterior sternal plate which acts as a lower lip or 
labium. 



* Sonic of the degenerate Mitts and Ticks furnish exceptions to many of the 
characters contained in this definition. 

U 



2 VltACHNIDA. 

Appendages. — The appendages forming the first pair (mandibles, 
chelic&rce) are situated close together beneath the front edge of the 
carapace above the mouth. Each consists of two, rarely of three, 
segments, and is very frequently pincer-like or chelate, the terminal 
segment (movable finger or digit) closing against a prolongation of 
the penultimate segment. This prolongation is called the im- 
movable finger. In other cases the terminal segment closes against 
the penultimate segment without the interposition of a finger-like 
prolongation. The appendages forming the second pair (the 
palpi or chelce) are usually large, but are very variable in function 
and form, being sometimes prehensile and pincer-like, when they 
are termed chela?, sometimes tactile and leg-like, when they are 
termed palpi. Each typically and almost invariably consists of 
six segments, which, although strictly homologous throughout 
the class, have unfortunately in descriptive works received different 
names in different orders, largely on account of the failure of 
authors to recognize this homology. The basal segment is termed 
the coxa, or, when it acts as a masticator of food, the maxilla. It 
is often furnished with a process, the maxillary process, which pro- 
jects forwards beneath or on one side of the mouth. The second 
segment is termed the trochanter ; the third the femur or humerus; 
the fourth the tibia or brachium when the limb is chelate, or patella 
when it is pediform ; the fifth and sixth are termed respectively 
hand and movable finger in the former case, tibia and tarsus in the 
latter. To the tip of the sixth is typically affixed a claw, which 
may be either freely movable or fused to the segment and scarcely 
distinguishable from it. The remaining four pairs of appendages, 
spoken of collectively as the legs, are generally similar or subsimilar 
in form and subserve locomotion. The first of these four pairs, 
however, sometimes acts as a tactile organ, and is not used for 
progression but is carried raised from the ground. Typically these 
limbs consist each of seven segments, named from base to apex as 
follows : coxa, trochanter, femur, patella, tibia, protarsus, tarsus. 
The tarsus is tipped with two or three claws, rarely with one, and 
may be secondarily subdivided into two or more segments. 

Abdomen. — The abdomen is generally without appendages. 
When present they are of small size, are set apart for purposes of 
reproduction and silk-spinning, and are never used for locomotion. 
The abdomen is either distinctly segmented, being furnished above 
with a series of dorsal plates (terga) and below with a correspond- 
ing series of ventral plates (sterna); or no such plates are developed, 
and the visible external signs of segmentation are either wanting 
or obscure. At most there are twelve distinct somites in this 
region, though sometimes there is a skeletal piece movably articu- 
lated to the last, above the anal aperture. When this structure is 
present, the last segment and two or more of those that precede it 
are narrowed and form with the postanal sclerite the so-called 
tail. Both terga and sterna of the abdomen are generally pitted 
with a pair of scars (ttigil/a or impressions) which mark the point 
of attachment of a series of internal dorso-ventral muscles. 



\l( \( II M DA. 3 

Infernal organs. — The generative organs open upon the ventral 
side of the first or second abdominal somite, beneath either the 
sternum or a movable plate, the genital operculum. The respiratory 
organs also open upon the ventral side of the abdomen, communi- 
cating with the exterior by means of apertures (stigmata) situated 
upon or behind some of the anterior sternal plates. Barely there 
is a pair of stigmata on the ventral side of the cephalothorax. 
The organs themselves consist either of horny branching tubes, 
the tubular trachea', or of pulmonary sacs supplied with tine leaf- 
like lamella). 

The Arachnida are viviparous or oviparous. The young are born 
or hatched from the egg in a form substantially resembling their 
parents, and, except in the case of the Acari (Mites and Ticks), 
growth is not accompanied by metamorphosis, the characters of 
the adult being gradually assumed with each successive moult of the 
integument. 

Classification. — (Setting aside the marine form Limulus, and also 
the two degenerate groups Tardigrada and Pentastomida, whose 
claims to be regarded as Arachnida are somewhat slender, the 
members of this class may be grouped iuto the following orders : — 

1. SfORPIONES; 2. UrOPYGI ; 3. A.UBLYPYGI; 4. ArANE^E ; 5. 

.SoLirroK: <>. Pamugradi ; 7. Pseuboscorpiones ; 8. Opiliones; 
■J). Acari *. With the exception of the Palpigradi, which, so far 
as is known, are confined to Central and South Europe, all these 
orders are represented by numerous species and genera in British 
India. They may be briefly diagnosed as follows : — 

a. Abdomen very long, consisting of twelve 

distinct somites, of which the posterior 
five are narrowed and compressed to 
form, with the postanal sclerite or 
vesicle, a distinct tail ; postanal sclerite 
with two poison-glands ; a pair of comb- 
like abdominal appendages SCORPIONES. 

b. Abdomen typically short, usually not 

'tailed,' at most the posterior three 
somites narrowed to form a short mov- 
able stalk to support the postanal 
sclerite; the latter never provided with 
poison-glands ; no comb-like abdominal 
appendages. 
a 1 . Postanal sclerite retained as a single 

unsegmented piece or in the form of 

a many-jointed flagellum supported 

by the posterior three segments of 

the abdomen, which are narrowed to 

form a movable stalk UROPYGI. 

. —t . .. 

*»Tbe subclasses and superordina] groups under which these orders have 
been rightly arranged are, for the sake of simplicity ignored in this volume. 



AEACHNIDA. 

/.'. Postanal sclerite absent ; posterior 
abdominal somites not narrowed to 
form a movable stalk or tail. 
a'. A deep constriction separating the 
cephalothorax and abdomen, these 
regions united by a narrow waist 
or pedicel ; a pair of breathing- 
organs, almost invariably in the 
form of lung-sacs, forming a trans- 
verse line with the median genera- 
tive aperture * ; sternal area of 
cephalothorax large, usually sub- 
circular. 
a 3 . Appendages of 2ud pair spiny, 

prehensile and subchelate, unlike 

the legs ; those of 3rd pair (1st 

pair of legs) very long, antenni- 

form, distally many - jointed : 

abdomen distinctly segmented, 

without spinning mainillse ; no 

poison-gland in mandible AMBLYPYGI. 

b z . Appendages of 2nd pair pedi- 

form, not prehensile and not 

subchelate, modified in male as 

reproductive organ : appendages 

of 3rd pair like the following 

pairs and constituting the first 

pair of walking-legs : abdomen 

usually unsegmented. always 

furnished with appendages in the 

formofspinningmamilke; poisou- 

gland in mandible ANANE^J. 

/>\ No deep constriction forming a 
narrow waist between cephalo- 
thorax and abdomen ; breathing- 
organs always in the form of 
tubular tracheae, the first pair on 
the abdomen, never situated in a 
transverse line with the generative 
orifice; coxa; of cephalo-thoracic 
limbs in contact or separated 
by a forward prolongation of the 
anterior abdominal sternite bearing 
the generative orifice. 
a*. Body elongate; abdomen consist- 
ing of from 10-12 somites ; 

generative aperture situated well 

behind the coxa) of the last pai:- 



* Except in the spiders of the genus Tetragnatha. 



>' oBPlON'ES. •' 

of cephalothoracic limbs ; coxae 

of posterior four thoracic limbs 

in contact. 
a' . Carapace distinctly segmented; 
mandible articulated to the eidee 
of its anterior plate ; append- 
ages of 2nd pair leg-like and 

tactile. Of large size SOLIFUGM 

b\ Carapace not segmented, merely 
transversely grooved : man- 

JO 7 

dibles not articulated to the 
carapace ; appendages of the 
2nd pair chelate, like those of J PSEUDO- 
tbe Scorpions. Of small size . \ 8C0BPI0NES. 
b*. Body short ; abdomen either un- 

segmented or consisting of only 

five somites : generative aperture 

thrust forwards between the coxae 

of the cephalothoracic limbs. 
a*. Abdomen segmented ; mouth- 
parts not modified to form a 

suctorial proboscis OPILIONES. 

b*. Abdomen not segmented ; 
mouth-parts usually modified 
to form a suctorial proboscis. . ACAlll. 

The present volume deals with the Scorpiones, Uropygi, Amblv- 
pygi, Solifugae, and with the larger or otherwise conspicuous 
species of Aranea? (Spiders). 

The Acari (Mites and Ticks) are not likely to be mistaken for 
any other order. The Opiliones (Harvest Spiders), sometimes 
called Phalangidea, are, however, frequently confounded with the 
true Spiders; and the Pseudoscorpiones (False or Book-Scorpions) 
are often similarly regarded as diminutive Scorpions. Neverthe- 
less, the key to the orders given above will enable naturalists and 
collectors to refer any Indian arachnid to its proper systematic 
position in the Class. 



Order SCORPIONES. 

Integument horny, smooth or granular, usually scantily clothed 
in parts with short tactile hairs, which are generally longer on the 
legs and tail than on the trunk. On the segments of the chelae 
the hairs are often long and bristle-like, and emerge from circular 
integumental pits with a thickeued rim. The number and posi- 
tion of these pits, known as setal, setiferoue, or brietU pores, are 
often of systematic importance. 

Carapace uneegmented and furnished near its centre with a 



b SCOKPIOKES. 

pair of median eyes, and on each of its antero-lateral angles with' 
two or three large eyes, and sometimes one or two small eyes as 
well ; the triangular area between the eye-groups is termed the 
frontal area or the anteocular triangle. The anterior border of the 
carapace is often notched in the middle, forming a right and left 
frontal lobe. Mandibles chelate, consisting of three segments, the 




Fig. 1. — Carapace, chela, and mandible of Palamneeus svjammcrdami. 

a, median eyes ; b, lateral eyes ; c, frontal lobe of carapace; d, second segment 
of mandible ; e, movable, and /, immovable finger of mandible ; g, coxa ; 
h, trochanter ; i, humerus ; k, brachium ; /, hand; on, movable finger, 
n, immovable finger of chela ; o, lobe of hand. 



basal small and concealed ; the second, larger and swollen, furnished 
in front with a strong process, the immovable finger, which is 
armed with an upper, and sometimes also with a lower, set of teeth ; 
the third segment, the movable finger, which works in a horizontal 
plane, is also furuished with one or two rows of teeth, an upper 
and a lower, along its biting-edge. 

The appendages of the 2nd pair (chela) are pincer-like and move 
for the most part in a horizontal plane ; the segments are named 
as follows from base to tip — coxa, trochanter, humerus, brachium, 
hand, movable finger. The coxa is freely articulated to the mem- 
brane on each side of the mouth and acts as a jaw or maxilla ; the 
humerus and brachium are generally furnished with granular 
crests or leeels. For descriptive purposes the humerus is regarded 
as set at right angles to the long axis of the body, hence it has an 
anterior and a posterior surface ; whereas the brachium and hand 
are regarded as resting in a line parallel to the long axis of the 
body, hence they have an outer and an inner surface. The hand 



SCORPION F.S. i 

is very variable in form ; the flattisk area of it that lies immedi- 
ately behind the joint of the movable finger, and usually rests upon 
the ground, is called the underhand. This underhand is generally 
separated externally from the upper side of the hand by a strong 
crest or keel, the keel of the underhand. The upper side is some- 
times evenly convex ; sometimes, however, its outer portion above 
the keel of the underhand is flat and vertical, and its inner portion 
flat and horizontal, the two areas cutting each other at right angles 
and separated by a ridge or keel, called the finger-keel, because it 
runs forwards on to the immovable finger. Frequently additional 
keels are developed both upon the outer and upon the inner 
portion of the upper surface. The upper surface is generally 
bordered internally by a sharp edge, known as the inner edge- 
or border, and the area beneath this edge and between it and the 
underhand is called the inner or inferior surface of the hand. 



B. 



A. 




Fig. 2. — A, upper, and B, under 
side of hand of Scorpiops orasamamis. 

a, outer portion of upper surface ; ft, 
finger-keel ; c, inner portion of 
upper surface : d, keel of under- 
hand ; e, underhand : /, inner sur- 
face of hand. 




.' / .->C 



a:. 



Fig. 3.— Movable finger of chela of 
Lychas scutilus. 

a, external ; ft, median; e, internal 

series of teeth. 



according to its position when the hand is normally at rest, anil 
according to the shape of the particular hand under description. 
The movable and immovable fingers are provided with teeth along 
their biting-edges. The arrangement of these teeth furnishes 
valuable specific and generic characters. The armature tisualh 
consists of several rows of small teeth arranged longitudinally and 
partly obliquely along the middle line of the finger, sometimes set 
end to end, sometimes overlapping to a greater or less extent. 
These constitute the median series of teeth. Moreover, the anterior 
tooth of each row of the median series is often enlarged ami 
separated from the rest of the row to which it belongs. This 
series of anterior teeth thus enlarged and often isolated constitutes 



8 



SCORPIONES. 



the inner series. An outer series similarly results from the enlarge- 
ment of one or two of the posterior teeth of the median rows. 

The four legs are practically alike in structure and act as loco- 
motor organs. The coxae of both 1st and 2nd pairs are furnished 
with a for\vardly-directed maxillary process, which underlies the 
area immediately below the mouth. The coxae of the 2nd pair 



d 



A. 



i k 9 




Fig. 4. — A. Diagram of Scorpion's leg. a, coxa ; b, trochanter ; c, femur ; 

d, patella; e, tibia; J, protarsus ; g, tarsus; h, claw-lobe ; i, superior 

claw; k, tibial spur ; I, pedal spur. 
B. Side view of posterior tarsus of Palamnceus swammerdami. m, lateral lobe 

overlapping base of claw (?i). 



A. 



B. 




Fig. 5.— A. Lower side of tarsus of Hetniscorpius, .showing (a) single anterior 
pedal spur ; and B, of Charilus, showing (1>) anterior and {<■) posterior 
pedal spur. 

meet each other in the middle line. The coxsb of the 3rd and 4th 
pairs are welded together ; they do not meet across the middle 
line of the body, but are separated from each other by the sternum 
of the cephalot borax, which has the form of a triangular or penta- 
gonal plate, and anteriorly abuts against the coxae of the legs of 
the 2nd pair. 



SCO ItPJ ONES, i) 

None of the seven segments of the legs are subdivided. The 
seventh or apical segment (tarsus) is furnished on its lower side 
with hairs or spines. Three claws are articulated to the membrane 
at its distal end, two superior and one inferior, the latter being 
often partially or wholly worn down. The upper side of the tarsus 
is generally produced at its distal end into a process (the claw- 
lobe) overhanging the base; of the claws, and the claws are soine- 
timea overlapped laterally by a lobate expansion of the side of the 
tarsus. Attached to the articular membrane which unites the base 
of the tarsus to the adjacent extremity of the segment that precedes 
it (the protarsus) there are one or two pale but dark-tipped claw- 
like spurs (the -pedal spurs)*. In many cases there is a similar 
spur (the tibial spur) between the protarsus and the tibia. 



Kig. (i. — Ventral surface of cephalothorax and of anterior end ol 
abdomen of Palamnteus. 

/', 1st abdominal sternum ( = sternum of 3rd abdominal somite) ; k, respiratory 
stigma; c, trochanter of 4th leg; d, coxa of 4th, e of 3rd, / of 2nd, 
q of 1st leg; h, maxillary lobe of 2nd leg; i, maxillary lobe of 1st leg; 
/. pentagonal cephalothoracie sternum: /, genital operculum: m, seg- 
mented shaft of peeten ; n, fulcra ; 0, teeth of pecten. 

The abdomen is anteriorly as broad as the cephalothorax. It 
consists of twelve distinct somites, the last five of which are narrow, 
tubular, flexibly jointed together, and constitute, with the post- 
anal skeletal piece, the tail. This postanal skeletal piece consists 
of two distinct parts — an enlarged, usually globular ba^al portion 
(the vesicle), which contains a pair of poison-glands, and aspiniform 
distal portion (the acuZeua). Beneath the latter, on the vesicle, 
there is frequently a tooth-like process, the vesicular spin,. For 
purposes of description and measurement, the vesicle and aculeus 
are regarded as extended in the same straight line as the tail, the 

* These spurs must not be confounded with the thinner blacker spines most 
frequently seen in their vicinity upon the extremity of the protarsus. 



10 SCORPIONES. 

aculeus pointing backward. The anus is placed beneath the 
vesicle, at the end of the 5th tail-segment ; the edge of the latter 
adjacent to the anus is termed the anal border. All the caudal or 
tail-segments are as a rule carinate, crested or keeled at the sides 
and below ; the keels, when fully developed, being eight or ten in 
number on the first four segments, whereas the 5th has only five 
complete keels, one of which occupies the middle line of its lower 
side. From above downward on each side the keels of the first 
four segments bear the following names — superior, superior lateral, 
median lateral, inferior lateral, inferior median. The keels of the 
5th caudal segment are named superior lateral, inferior lateral, and 
inferior median (see fig. 8, p. 17). 

Although the tail is in reality part of the abdomen, the latter 
term is, for descriptive purposes, restricted to the seven somites 
that precede the tail. The last abdominal somite is narrowed 
posteriorly, and is usually crested both on its tergum and sternum 
after the manner of the tail-segments, each being furnished with 
four keels. Each of the four sternal plates that precede the last 
is provided with a pair of elongate or circular respiratory stigmata ; 
on the inner side of the stigma there is a distinct groove, the 
muscular impression. The sternum of the 2nd abdominal somite 
is very small, but bears a pair of comb-like appendages (the peetines). 
These consist of a handle or shaft and a series of movable teeth. 
Between the bases of the teeth there are small rounded skeletal 
pieces called the fulcra. The shaft is usually segmented. Between 
the sternum that bears the peetines and that of the cephalothorax, 
already described, is situated the generative orifice : this is 
covered by a single or double movable lid, the genital operculum. 

Measurements. — In the specific descriptions the measurements 
are taken as follows :• — Total length is taken from the anterior 
border of the carapace, not including mandibles, to the tip of the 
aculeus when the vesicle is depressed so as to lie in the same line 
as the caudal segments ; the carapace is measured from the side of 
its anterior border to a corresponding spot on the posterior border, 
and not along the middle line. The tail-segments are measured 
laterally along the carinate portion, the measurements not includ- 
ing the short un keeled cylindrical portion situated at the anterior 
extremity of the segments, and frequently covered by the posterior 
extremity of the segment in front. Humerus and brachium of 
chela are measured along the upper surface ; the underhand along 
the keel that borders it above or externally, and the movable digit 
along its outer edge. 

Sexual differences. — The male is, as a rule, a little smaller than 
the female and has a narrower abdomen. Moreover the chela? are 
frequently longer and the hand is either broader or narrower : 
when broader, the fingers are, as a rule, separated at the base, the 
movable being furnished with a lobe-like tooth which fits into a 
corresponding notch on the immovable. The tail is generally 
longer, sometimes very much longer, less commonly stouter at its 
posterior end ; the vesicle may he Longer and thinner, or more 
globular or otherwise modified. The pectinal teetli are either 



SCOEPIOXES. 11 

larger or more numerous, sometimes both. Lastly, the genital 
operculum is always formed of two movable halves, whereas in the 
female the two halves are frequently united. 

The young are born alive. 

Distribution. Scorpions are found almost all over the world to 
the south of a line represented roughly by the 40th or 45th parallels 
of North latitude. None, however, occur in New Zealand or 
in Oceanic islands, unless artificially introduced, or in the extreme 
south of South America. They are strictly carnivorous, feeding 
for the most part on insects, and live under stones, fallen tree- 
trunks, the bark of dead trees, in deep burrows that they dig in 
the soil, or in shallow depressions excavated in the loose sand. 

The Scorpions of British India are referable to five families, the 
characters of which may be tabulated as follows : — 

a. Legs furnished with a pair of pedal spurs, one in 
front and one behind. 
a 1 . Sternum almost invariably triangular, narrowed 
in front ; 3rd and 4th legs usually furnished 

with tibial spurs Buthidae. 

ft 1 . Sternum pentagonal, parallel-sided, tibial spurs 
never present. 
a 1 . Maxillary process of 1st leg anteriorly ex- 
panded, with broadly truncate border; two 
lateral eyes on each side : stigmata circular; 

shaft of pecten scarcely segmented Chaerilidas, 

//". Maxillary process of 1st lejr anteriorly nar- 
rowed, apically pointed : three lateral eyes 
on each side ; stigmata narrow, elongate ; 

shaft of pecten distinctly segmented Vejovidae, 

h. Legs furnished with a single anterior pedal spur, 
the posterior always absent ; sternum pentagonal. 
a'. Distal lateral edges of tarsi not produced into a 
lobate prominence overlapping the base of the 
claw, but straight and forming a right angle 
with the claw-lobe ; body and chelae flat ; 
hand with strong finger-keel ; tail weak, com- 
pressed Ischnuridae. 

/>'. Distal lateral edges of tarsi produced into a 
rounded lobe overlapping base of claws and 
forming a very acute angle with the base 
of the claw-lobe ; body and chela; not flat ; 
hand without strong finger-keel ; tail strong, 
not compressed Scorpionidae. 

Note. — The following species, belonging to the family Chactidae. 
which, with the exception of the Mediterranean genus Scorjiiu$ 
( = Eiiscorjrius, Thor.), \s confined to Central and South America, 
were originally recorded from India, but certainly erroneously : — 
Ohactas quinque-dentatus, Karsch, Zeits. Naturw. liii, p. 405, 1880. 
Chactas schawnii, id. ibid. p. 40(5. 

The generic position and specific validity of the first-named is 
still a matter of doubt. The second, however, which is possibly 
identical with it, is, according to Kraepelin, specifically the same 
as a species from British Guiana which I described in 1893 as 
Iladvv roclutctas sclateri. 



12 BUTHIDJt. 



Family BUTHIDJE. 

Cephalothoracic sternum small, nearly always narrowed in front 
to a point, and hence triangular in shape. In two of the genera 
that occur in India, namely, Butheolus and, more especially, 
Gharmus, it is more parallel-sided and pentagonal in form, as in 
the rest of the families of Scorpions ; hut the true position of these 
genera in the Buthida? is shown by the sum total of their cha- 
racters, more especially by the presence on the legs of the 3rd and 
4th pairs of the tibial spurs, which are never found outside the 
limits of the Buthidae. Legs with a pair of pedal spurs, of which 
the anterior is often double, being furnished with a secondary 
branch. Very frequently a spine beneath the aculeus on the caudal 
vesicle. 

Distribution. Temperate and tropical regions of the world south 
■of the 45th parallel of North latitude. 

The Indian genera may be arranged under two subfamilies: — 

a. 3rd and 4th legs furnished with tibial 

spurs ButJiiiue, p. 12. 

b. 3rd and 4th legs without tibial spurs .... Centrurince, p. 42. 

Subfamily BUTHIN^. 

Buthini (sensu stricto), Pocock, A. M.N.H. (0) xvii, p. 428, 1896; 
Kracp. Tierr., Scorjt. etc. p. (.!, 1899 (Buthime, in part). 

Characters as above. 

Distribution. Confined to the Old World*. 

Synojms of Indian Genera. 

u. A strong triangular spine on the caudal vesicle 

beneath the aculeus Lychas, p. 35. 

b. No triangular spine, at most a small tubercle 
beneath the aculeus on the vesicle. 
a 1 . Frontal area of carapace sloped downwards 
from the ocular tubercle to the anterior 
edge; area of carapace behind the eyes 
impressed with a strong transverse groove ; 
sternum of cephalothorax much smaller 

than genital operculum Butheolus, p. 28. 

b 1 . Frontal area of carapace horizontal ; area 
behind eyes without distinct transverse 
groove; sternum about as long as genital 
operculum. 



* I propose to eliminate from this subfamily the isolated Neotropical genus 
Ananteris, which differs strikingly Prom the rest of the family in the structure 
of the pectines. The subfamily Ananterinte may he created for its reception, 



IH THUS. 



IS 



or. Abdominal terga with three crests; all 
the caudal segments keeled. 
a a . Immovable finger of mandible with 
two teeth below ; carapace with con- 
spicuous keels ; not variegated BuTHUS, p. 13. 

h'. Immovable finger of mandible with 
only one tooth below ; carapace with- 
out keels ; variegated yellow and 

black Hemibuthtts, p. 34. 

Ir. Abdominal terga with only one median 

keel ; tail scarcely keeled. 

a 1 . Sternum pentagonal: median rows of 

teeth on fingers of chela? scarcely 

overlapping ; trunk and tail thickly 

granular Charm rs. p. :;1 . 

/>'. Sternum triangular; median rows of 
teeth on fingers of chela- largely 
overlapping ; tail and body smooth, 
polished, scarcely granular Stenochirus, p. -*52 



A. 



Genus BUTHUS, Leach. 

Buthus, Leach, Tr. Linn. Soc. xi, p. 391, 1815 (and of most subse- 
quent authors except 0. Koch). 

Androctonus -\- Liurns 4- Prionurus, Hempr. $■ JEhr. Symb. Phys., 
Scorpiones, pp. 3-5, 1829. 

Androctonus, Thorett, A. M. N. H. (4) xvii, p. 7, 1870 : Kraepelin, 
J/>. Haml>. wiss. Anst . viii, p. 173, 1891. 

Prionurus, Peters, MB. Akad. Berlin, 1861, p. 513 ; Pocock, P. Z. s. 
1890, p. 120. 

Two teeth on the under edge of the 
immovable mandibular finger. Terga 
with a median and two lateral gran- 
ular keels. Carapace with strong 
keels (at least in all the Indian 
species), an anterior pair in front of 
the ocular tubercle, a shorter median 
and a longer posterior pair behind 
it, also a single lateral keel on each 
side. Tail keeled; no spine beneath 
aculeus. Sternum triangular, not 
shorter than the genital operculum. 
Armature of digit of chela consisting 
of numerous median rows of teeth, 
an outer series consisting of couplets 
Fig. 7.— A. Diagram of cara- f ] al . ge teeth, and an inner of single 

teeth, set in advance of those of the 
outer series. 

Type, B. occitanw, Amor.,S. Europe, 
&c." 

Distribution. Mediterranean area of 
Palsearctic Region ; China; Ethiopian 
Kegion down to Zambesi ; India, but 
absent from Ceylon and Burma. 



B. 





in, median, p, posterior, /. 
lateral keel; x, lateral, anil 
z, median eyes. 

B. Abdominal tergum of same. 
h, median, /«•, lateral keel. 

C. Triangular sternum (,s) of ce- 
phalothorax, and (g) genital 
operculum of same. 



14 HUTMD/E. 



Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Dorsal surface of 5th segment of tail with 

compressed, elevated lateral keels ; the area 

between these keels strongly concave B. austraiis, p. 15. 

b. Dorsal surface of oth segment of tail with 

rounded or at most slightly elevated and 

granular lateral edges ; the area between the 

edges flat or lightly convex, with a median 

longitudinal depression. 

rt 1 . Inferior median keels of 2nd and 3rd caudal 

segments and the anterior border of lower 

side of 4th furnished with large paired 

lobate teeth ; anterior terga of abdomen 

with a transverse granular crest B. donee, p. 16. 

i) 1 . Inferior median caudal keels evenly or 
almost evenly granular ; anterior terga of 
abdomen without transverse granular 
crest, 
cr. Inferior lateral keels of 5th caudal seg- 
ment not evenly granular, the granules 
increasing in size and becoming denticu- 
liform or lobate posteriorly. 
a 3 . Median and posterior keels of carapace 
in contact and forming a pair of con- 
verging, nearly continuous ridges ; 
distancebetween posterior ends of these 
keels less than distance between pos- 
terior margin of carapace and ocular 
tubercle ; hairs on underside of tarsi 

longer, not spiniform B. macmahoni, p. 18. 

f/ J . Median and posterior keels of carapace 
forming a pair of irregular interrupted 
crests ; distance between their pos- 
terior ends about equal to distance 
between posterior edge of carapace 
and ocular tubercle; hairs on under- 
side of tarsi short and spiniform. 
<('. Intercarinal spaces of tail smooth; 
granules of inferior keels of 2nd and 
3rd caudal segments increasing in 
size posteriorly ; inferior lateral 
keels of 5th more strongly lobate . . B. caucasius, p. 19. 
//'. Intercarinal spaces of tail finely gra- 
nular ; granules of inferior median 
keels of 2nd and 3rd caudal seg- 
ments not increasing posteriorly ; 
inferior keels of 5th caudal seg- 
ment less strongly lobate B. atrostriatus, p. 20, 

'r. I oferior lateral keels of 5th caudal segment 

evenly and finely granular throughout. 

a . Hand granular and furnished with 

finely granular keels; abdominal sterna, 

finely and closely granular: median 

and posterior keels of carapace forming [p. 20. 

an unbroken line It. acute-carmatus, 



BUTHUS. 1 5 

b s . Hand smooth, not granular; sterna, 

except the last, smooth ; median and 

posterior keels of carapace not forming 

a continuous unbroken crest. 

« G . Brack ium of chela with two distinct 

keels on the upper side. 

a". Carapace and terga, except the 

last, blackish green ; posterior end 

of tail not darker than the rest; 

hands yellow B. alticola, p. 21 . 

fi. Median portion of terga and cara- 
pace blackish green, lateral por- 
tions yellow ; posterior end of 
tail deep brown, much darker 
than anterior portion ; hands and 

ringers, excepting their tips, black. B. niyrifro/m, p. 22. 
h" . Brachium not crested above, or fur- 
nished merely with a weak crest in 
front. 
« 8 . Tail thinner, 2nd and 3rd segments 
usually distinctly longer than 
wide ; total length of adult from 
about 65 to over 80 mm. ; pectinal 
teeth from as low as 28 ( $ ) up 

' to 39 ( c? ) B. tumulus, p. 23 

6 8 . Tail thicker, 2nd segment as broad 
or broader than long, 3rd almost 
as broad or broader than long: 
total length of adult less than 60 
mm., average about 50 ; pectinal 
teeth from 18 ( £ ) up to 29 ( J ). 
«°. Tail thinner ; movable finger 
longer, as long as carapace, fur- 
nished with 14—15 rows of teeth 
as in tumulus; pectinal teeth 

23-24 ( 2 ), 24-26 ( J ) B. hendersoni, p. 26. 

b*. Tail thicker ; movable finger 

shorter, with 12 rows of teeth; 

pectinal teeth 18-24. 

</ 10 . Colour yellowish brown to 

blackish on body ; legs, chelae, 

and tail never dark B. ruyiscutis, p. 26. 

b 10 . Colour black, blackish green, 
or very deep brown on body 
and limbs B. pachyurus, p. 27. 

1. Buthus australis, Lin,,. Syst. Nat. ed. x, i, p. 625, 1758 (Scorpio,); 
Lonnbery, A. M. N. H. (7) i, pp. 87-88 (Androctonus) : priamus, 
C. Koch, Arachn. v, p. 45, 1839 (Androctonus) : hector, id. Arid, vi. 
p. 6, 1839 (Androctonus) : australis priamus, Pocock, Journ. Linn. 
Soc, Zoo/, xxv, p. 305, 1895 (Prionurus) ; Kraep. Tierr., Xeor>>. 
etc. p. 15, 1899 (Buthus). 

Loc. Algeria and Tunisia (of typical form) ; Egypt; Syria. 



16 BUTHIDiE. 

Subspecies fillitimus, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. II. Soc. xi, p. 108, 1897 
(Prionurus) ; Kraep. Tier?'., Seorp. etc. p. 10, 1899 (Buthus). 

Colour a tolerably uniform yellow, the legs and chelae clearer 
than the trunk ; tail with its 5th segment and vesicle pale greenish 
or brownish black, the dark pigment spreading on to the sides and 
lower surface of the 4th. Carapace coarsely granular, the area 
between the anterior and posterior keels smoother than the sides ; 
anterior keels and superciliary crests granular, posterior keels- 
running in the same direction as the median keels but not quite 
meeting them. Ten/a coarsely granular ; lateral keels obsolete on 
the anterior segments. Sterna weakly granular laterally, the last 
with four granular crests. Tail powerful, with strongly elevated 
dorsal keels, increasing in width to the middle of the 3rd segment 
(which is as wide as long), the 4th either slightly narrower than 
the 3rd ( 2 ) or equalling it in width ( 6 ) ; normal keels well 
developed and granular, the superior keels of segments 1-4 ending 
in a dentiform tubercle ; median lateral keel represented by only 
a few granules on the 2nd segment ; inferior and lateral inter- 
carinal spaces finely but not closely granular ; 5th segment with 
superior keels high and compressed, granules of inferior lateral 
keels becoming gradually dentiform posteriorly ; vesicle small, 
granular. Chelae with granular crests and granular intercarpal 
spaces on humerus and brachium ; hand smooth, its width in adidt 
equal to length of underhand, which is about half the length of 
the movable digit ; the latter basally lobate, about as long as the 
carapace and furnished with 13 rows of teeth. Legs distally 
hairy ; lower side of tarsi naked or furnished with a single row of 
bristles. Pectinal teeth ( 2 ) about 23, (j) about 30. Length up 
to 80 mm. 

Loc. Sind : Hyderabad, Kotri, Kashmor Bund, and the Kelat 
frontier {Ryan, Kemball, Corbett, JDewan Kaseram). 

Subspecies baluchicus, nov. 

Closely resembling the preceding in colour and structure, but 
with much more black round the ocular tubercle and in the middle 
of the depression behind it ; the anterior surface, too, of the 
brachium is infuscate above, and the superior crest of the anterior 
surface of the humerus also; the extremity of the femur of the 
legs and the front of the patella usually lightly infuscate. 

Loc. Northern Baluchistan (Maijnard 4' MacMahori). 

2. Buthus doriae, Thorell, Atti Soc. I/a/, xix, p. 107, 1877 ; Kraep. Jb. 
IIa»il>. torn. And., xi, p. h~. ', 1891 ; Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. II. Soc. 
xi, p. 104, 1897; Kraep. Tin-r., Scorp. etc. p. 27, 1899. 

Loc. Persia : Teheran. 

Subspecies odonturus, Pocock, Jour. Bom. K. II. Soc. xi, 1897, p. 104; 

Kraep. Ticrr., Scorp. etc. p. 27, 1899 (Buthus). 

Colour: carapace yellow, with anterior border and ocular tubercle 



BUTHUS. 



17 



black, and sometimes the area both behind and in front of the 
tubercle infuscate ; dorsal area of abdomen yellow or lightly 
infuscate, with clear posterior border ; tail entirely clear yellow ; 
chelae and legs either entirely clear yellow or slightly infuscate in 
parts. ($ ) Carapace as long as the 1st and half the 2nd caudal 
segments or as the 5th; anterior keels granular, abbreviated in front; 
ocular tubercle very wide ; the superciliary crests granular and 
continued behind the eyes by a pair of converging series of 
granules ; posterior keels granular, very widely separated, their 



A. 



B. 



C. 




/" T— • ''*"*'.. 

I 
f 

/ 



Fig. 8. — A. Vesicle, 5th caudal segment, and part of the 4th caudal segment of 
Bvthus tainulits. 

B. 2nd and 3rd with part of 1st and 4th caudal segments of Buthus doria, 

subsp. odonturus. 

C. 4th and 5th caudal segments and vesicle of Buthus australis, subsp. 

finitimus. 

(Anterior to the left, posterior to the right.) 

a, inferior lateral keel of 5th segment ; b, median lateral of 2nd and 3rd seg- 
ments ; c, superior; d, superior lateral; c, inferior lateral; /.inferior 

i Indian. 

anterior extremities turned externally in the direction of the 
lateral keels ; intercarpal spaces weakly and sparsely granular. 
Terga weakly granular mesially, more strongly and closely a1 the 
sides; the three keels distinct and granular, the laterals diverging 
and on the anterior terga passing in front into a curved transverse 
crest ; external keel on the 7th tergum weak and not united to 
the internal. Stermi smooth, the last with four subequal granular 
keels. Tail (fig. 8 B) about five times as long as the carapace, 
1st segment wider than long, 4th less than twice as long as wide, 
1st and 2nd segments with 10 keels: median lateral keel weak 
on 3rd, absent on 4th, inferior median keels weak and posteriorly 
abbreviated on 4th ; inferior median keels of 2nd furnished with 

c 



18 BUTHIDJE. 

about 6 dentiform tubercles, of which the posterior three are Jarge 
and triangular, but unequal in size, becoming progressively longer 
towards the posterior end of the segment : lower surface of 3rd 
segment also furnished with 6 large dentiform tubercles on its 
median keels, and a transverse row of 6 becoming smaller externally 
on its anterior edge ; anterior edge of lower side of 4th also furnished 
with a transverse row of 6 similar but rather smaller tubercles ; 
granules of inferior lateral crests of 2nd and 3rd segments increasing 
in size and becoming tuberculiform posteriorly ; inferior lateral 
crests of 5th segment strongly tuberculate, three of the tubercles 
being especially large and dentiform and close together, anal rim 
of this segment elevated and lobate, the upper lateral lobe large and 
bifid ; upper surface of tail smooth, lower surface of 1st, 2nd, aud 
3rd segments smooth, lower and lateral surface of 4th granular. 
Chelce with humerus and brachium granularly crested, elsewhere 
smooth ; hand smooth, about as wide as brachium ; underhand 
considerably excelling the width of hand, and less than half the 
movable digit; digits not lobate, rather strongly curved, furnished 
with 12 rows of teeth. Legs with granularly crested femora; 
distal segments of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd legs thickly hairy ; lower side 
of tarsi sparsely hairy. Peetinal teeth 19. 

J . Differing from the $ in having the tail longer and thinner, 
being about six times the length of the carapace, which is shorter 
than its 5th segment and only as long as the 1st and \ of the 2nd ; 
1st caudal segment longer than wide, 4th twice as long as wide. 
Coxae of cephalothorax and abdominal sterna finely and closely 
granular, the 4th and 5th sterna furnished with four finely-granular 
keels: the tuberculiform teeth on the tail are the same in number 
as in the female, but are smaller and more widely separated, and 
the upper lobe of the anal border of the 5th segment is more deeply 
bifid. Peetinal teeth 28-29. 

Measurements in mm. — J . Total length 58, carapace 6, tail 37, 
movable digit 8. 

Loc. Sind : Kelat Frontier (Kemball); Karachi; Ormara, on 
the Mekran coast, 130 miles west of Karachi (Toivnsend). 

The typical form of this species occurs in Persia at Teheran. 
The female only is known. B. odonturus was based upon a male ; 
but the subsequent discovery of the female at Karachi shows that 
the differences between B. odonturus and B. dorice should probably 
be regarded merely as of subspecific importance. In B. dorice the 
inferior surface of the 4th caudal segment has four large and two 
much smaller teeth on its anterior border, is much less granular, 
with more complete median keels ; on the 5th segment the infero- 
lateral teeth are more widely separated and less acute, and the 
upper half of the anal lobe is undivided. 

:'>. Buthus macmahoni. sp. n. 

Colour yellow, keels of carapace and of upper side of humerus 
black, those of terga slightly darkened ; inferior keels of 2nd — Ith 
caudal segments and the three inferior crests of the 5th black. 



BUTHl T S. 1 9 

Carajiace with anterior border scarcely emarginate, the inter- 
carinal spaces finely granular ; anterior crests complete and 
granular, superciliary ridges granular, some coarse granules be- 
tween the lateral eyes and the ends of the anterior crests : 
posterior and median crests in contact, forming a pair of slightly 
converging, nearly continuous ridges ; distance between the 
posterior ends of these keels less than distance between ocular 
tubercle and posterior border of carapace ; carapace about as long 
as the 5th caudal segment, and as the lst+.j the 2nd. Terga 
granular, the crests strong and granular, subequal, and nearly 
parallel, posteriorly spiniform. Sterna almost smooth, the last 
with four finely-granular crests. Tail slender, about five times as 
long as the carapace ; 1st segment longer than wide, 4th twice as 
long as wide; the intercarpal spaces scarcely granular; keels 
evenly granular, except the inferior lateral of the 5th, which 
posteriorly becomes gradually but not strongly dentate ; median 
lateral keel traceable, but anteriorly incomplete on 2nd segment ; 
r<sic?e weakly granular, about as wide as high, narrower than the 
5th caudal segment. Chelce with upper side of brachium smooth, 
scarcely crested except for the anterior granular crest ; hand 
smooth, not crested, about as wide as the brachium, about two- 
thirds the length of the underhand, which is about half the length 
of the movable digit ; movable digit longer than carapace, weakly 
lobate at base, furnished with 11 rows of teeth. Legs with hairs 
on the underside of the tarsi. Pectinal teeth 17-19 ( $ ), 
20-21 ( 6 ). 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 46, carapace 5*2, tail 27, 
movable digit 58. 

Loc. Northern Baluchistan (Maynard Sf MacMahon). 

Allied to B. jparthorum, Poc, from Northern Afghanistan, but 
much smaller, tail thinner, &c. 

4. Buthus caucasius, Fischer, Zoogn. i, p. 401, pi. iv, fig. 1, 1813 
(Scorpio): cupeus, C. K»ch, Arachn. v, p. 127, fig. 419, 1839 
( A ndroctomis) ; Birttla, Ann. Mus. St. Pitersb. i, p. 238, 1896; 
Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 23, 1899 (Buthus) : ornatus, Nordman 
in Dimidoff, f'»i/. Rmsie, iii, p. 732, Arachn. i, fig. 2, 1840 
(Androctonus). 

Subspecies persicus, Pocock, Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool. x.wii. p. 404, L809. 

Resembling the following species, B. atrostriatus, in colour and 
most structural features, but with the intercarpal spaces of the 
carapace and tail smooth, the sides of the terga only granular, the 
median intercarinal spaces being smooth, the inferior median keels 
of the 2nd and 3rd caudal segments with the granules posteriorly 
increasing in size, the tubercles on the interior lateral keels of the 
5th caudal segment much larger, and the tubercles on the lower 
surface of the segment between the keels also much coarser ; inter- 
carinal spaces of humerus and brachium also smooth. Pectinal teeth 
18-21. 

c2 



20 BUTHIDJE. 

Measurements in mm. — Total leng'h 51, carapace 5*5, tail 30, 
back of hand 4, movable digit 5-5, width of hand 3. 

Loc. Northern Baluchistan (Maynard Sf MacMahon). 

Originally recorded from Seir on Lake Urmi in Persia (R. T. 
Giinther). 

5. Buthus atrostriatus, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xi, p. 105, 

1897. 

5 . Colour yellow, variegated with black bands and spots ; 
carapace with the anterior border, ocular tubercle, and keels black ; 
keels of terga black, usually an additional black spot on each side ; 
keels on lower side of tail irregularly fuscous, the dark pigment 
spreading on to the sides of the 4th and 5th segments ; vesicle 
lightly infuscate at the sides ; chelse yellow, the upper and posterior 
sides of brachium and of hand irregularly lined with fuscous, patches 
of the same colour beiug also present upon the upper side of the 
trochanter and humerus and upon the femora and tibise of the 
legs. Carapace granular, with the anterior keels complete and 
granular, the area on each side between them and the lateral eyes 
more coarsely granular ; median and posterior keels forming an 
irregular series, distance between their posterior ends about equal 
to that between ocular tubercle and posterior border of carapace. 
Terga, granular throughout, crests granular and parallel. Sterna 
smooth, the last granular at the sides and marked with four finely 
granular crests. Tail of medium thickness, about five times the 
length of the carapace ; 1st segment wider than long, 4th one-third 
longer than wide ; the keels well developed and granular ; median 
lateral crest almost absent on the 3rd segment, occupying the 
posterior half of the area on the 2nd ; intercarpal spaces of the 
sides and lower surface of tail finely granular ; inferior lateral 
keels of the 5th segment furnished posteriorly with small lobate 
or dentiform tubercles ; anal lobe quadrituberculate ; vesicle sub- 
globular and granular. Chela', with normal granular keels and finely 
granular intercarinal spaces ; hand smooth, punctured, hairy, 
considerably wider than brachium ; movable digit about one-third 
longer than underhand; both digits lobate, furnished with 11 
rows of teeth. Legs granular and granularly crested ; tarsi fur- 
nished with two rows of setiform spines. Pectlnal teeth 18-20. 

$ . Smaller than § ; digits more strongly lobate ; tail five and 
a half times as long as the carapace. Pectinal teeth 22-26. 

Measurements in mm, — $ . Total length 48, carapace 5, tail 27. 
Loc. Kashmor Bund in Upper Sind (Kcmball, Deivan Kaseram). 

6. Buthus acute-carinatus, Simon, Ami. Mas. Genova, xviii, p. 245, 
pi. viii, fig. 18, 1883; Thorell, Hull. Soc. ent. Ual. xxv, p. :!(U, 
L894; Pococ/:, Jour. Linn. Soc, Zoo/, xxv, p. 292, 1895; Kraep. 
Tierr., Scorp. etc p. 18, 1899. 

Subspecies rugosulus, nov. 

Colour a uniform ochre-yellow throughout; keels of the body 
sometimes darker. Carapace as long as the 5th or as the 1st and 




BUTHUS. 21 

half the 2nd caudal segment ; entirely covered with fine close 
granulation ; anterior crests complete and granular ; posterior 

crests joining the median crests and form- 
ing almost a straight line with them, 
posteriorly spiniform. Terga closely 
granular throughout ; keels long, granular, 
subparallel, and posteriorly spiniform. 
Sterna and ro.r"' closely granular, the last 
steruum with four long granular keels, 
the 4th also subcarinate. Tail about five 

_.. q_p , . l times as long as the carapace, 1st segment 

Interior "abdominal scarcely longer than wide, 4th not twice 
terga of Butkus acute- as long as wide; finely granular through- 
carmatus. out ; keels complete, evenly granular, 

inferior lateral of 5th evenly granular to 
posterior end, and passing without interruption into anal lobe ; 
median lateral keel traceable on the 4th segment, strong on 2nd; 
vesicle coarsely granular, subangulate near base of aculeus, about 
as high as wide. Chelce closely granular throughout ; brachium 
grauularly crested above ; hand with distiuct granular crests 
above and externally, slightly wider than the brachium ; under- 
hand barely Half the length of the movable digit, which is 
basally sublobate (more strongly so in d) and furnished with 
1 I rows of teeth. Legs with femora and patellae closely granular 
and grauularly crested ; tarsi armed beneath with short bristles. 
Pectinal teeth 15-17 ( ? 6 )• 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 50, carapace 5 - 5, tail 27, 
movable digit (j, back of hand 3'2, width of hand 2-2, of 
brachium 2. 

Lot-. Hyderabad in Sind {Ryan) ; Gwalior in Central India 

(type), 

Differs from the typical Arabian form in having the 5th caudal 
segment entirely pale yellow and the hand larger. 



7. ButhllS alticola, Pocock, Jour. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxv, p. 802, pi. ix, 
6g. •'!, L896; Birula,Ann. Mus. si. PSterab. ii, p. :>77, 1897; Kr«r/>. 
Tterr., S C orj>. etc. p. 21, 18 ( J ( J. 

<3 . Colour: Carapace and anterior six terga blackish green; 
7th tergum, tail, legs, and chelae flavous, with the exception of the 
digits which are brown with clear yellow tips, and the lower side 
of the tail which is subolivaceous. Carapace coarsely granular 
and carinate, as long as the 4th caudal segment or as the 1st 
and ~ of the 2nd. Terga coarsely granular and strongly carinate, 
the three keels on all the segments except the Lsl strongly denti- 
form posteriorly; the granules on the -ides of the terga suh- 
serially arranged. St' ma smooth; median crests of the 5th 
smooth, lateral crests weakly granular. Tail long, Blender and 
low, nearly six times as long as the carapace : 1th segment twice 
as long as wide ; median lateral keel complete on segments J , 2, 



22 buthidjE. 

and 3, represented by a few granules on the 4th ; all the keels 
granular, the inferior medians on the 1st and 2nd segments almost 
smooth ; intervening spaces of segments weakly granular, granules 
on the lower surface of 5th forming two subsidiary crests ; vesicle 
globular, wider than high, granular below. Chelae (in <S ) long ; 
humerus as long as carapace ; brachium three times as long as 
wide, with two superior crests well developed and granular, upper 
crest of posterior surface also present ; hand long and wide, much 
wider than brachium, smooth and punctured, its width about 
two-thirds the length of the underhand, the latter about two- 
thirds the length of the movable digit ; digits separated at the 
base, lobate and sinuate, furnished with 14-15 rows of teeth. 
Legs with granularly crested femora ; tarsi with two rows of 
black spinules beneath. Pectinal teeth 29. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 81, carapace 9, tail 52-5, 
length of movable digit 12, width of hand 4*8, of brachium 45. 

Loc. Chitral in the Hindu Kusb, 5000 ft. {Younghusband). 

Subspecies penjabensis, Birula, Ann. Mus. St. Petersb. ii, p. 382, 1897; 
Kraep. Tien-., Scorj). etc. p. 21, 1899 (B. alticola penjabensis). 

Described as differing from the typical form in having the tail 
not more than five times as long as the carapace ; with the 1st, 
2nd, and 3rd segments convex at the sides, the 1st segment by 
one-half wider than long, the 4th only by half longer than 
wide ; the hand narrower than the brachium, with the underhand 
scarcely half the length of the movable digit, and the humerus 
shorter than the carapace. Pectinal teeth 24-25. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 86*5, carapace 9. 

Loc. Punjab. 

The diagnostic characters of this subspecies may prove to have 
nothing but a sexual significance, the only known example of 
B. penjabensis being a female, and the type of B. alticola a male. 



8. Buthus nigrifrons, sp. n. 

5 . Colour : anterior portion of carapace and median area of 
posterior portion blackish, median portion of anterior six terga 
also blackish, lateral portion of carapace and anterior terga and the 
whole of the 7th tergum yellowish ; caudal segments 1-3 and 
anterior end of 4th yellow, posterior half of 4th, the whole of the 
5th, and the vesicle deep brown ; maudibles deep brown ; hand 
and fingers of chelae, with the exception of the yellow tips of the 
latter, black ; ventral surface and legs entirely yellow. Carapace 
crested as in B. alticola, but with the intercarinal spaces almost 
entirely smooth ; longer than the 4th and nearly as long as the 
1st and half the 2nd caudal segments. Terga with the crests 
granular but scarcely spiniform posteriorly ; area between them 
smooth; sides of terga sparsely granular ; intercarinal spaces of 7th 
smooth. Sterna smooth, the last with four granular crests, 'lad 



BTTTHL'S. 23 

thickly hairy, about five and a half times as long as the carapace ; 
4th segment about twice as long as wide, 1st a little longer than 
wide ; intercarpal spaces smooth except on the lower surface of 
the 5th ; all keels finely granular ; inferior lateral on 5th con- 
tinued up to anal border without interruption and without 
enlargement of granules ; median lateral keel incomplete anteriorly 
on 2nd, practically absent on 3rd. Vesicle about as wide as 5th 
segment, as high as wide, granular below. Chelee long and slender : 
upper surface of brachium bounded in front and behind by a 
granular keel, a weakly granular keel also present upon the upper 
portion of the posterior surface ; hand small, scarcely as wide as 
brachium, not crested, smooth, punctured; length of underhand 
much exceeding its width, less than one-third the length of the 
movable digit, which is very long and slender, not lobate, and 
furnished with 16-17 rows of teeth. Tarsi furnished beneath with 
two rows of tine spines. Pectinal teeth 26. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 58, carapace 6*5, tail 35, 
back of hand 3, movable finger 1 1 . 

Loc. Northern Baluchistan (Maynard § MacMahon). 

9. Buthus taniulus, Fabr. JEnt. Syst. Suppl p. 294, 1798 (Scorpio) : 
oigro-lineatus, JJnfoio; Mem. pres. Ac. France, xiv, p. 570, 1856 
(Scorpio) : marteusii, Pocock, A. M. N. If. (6) iii. p. 335, 1889 ; 
id. Jour. Bum. X. H. Sue. vii, p. 303, 1893 (nee marteusii, 
Karsch, 1879) (Buthus): grammurus, Thorell, Ann. Mas. (ienova, 
xxvii, p. 567, 18tt9 ; Kraep. Tierr., <S'< vrp. p. i'U, 1899 (Buthus). 

5 . Colour variable ; upper side of trunk blackish, reddish or 
yellow, with ocular tubercle and keels on the carapace black, the 
adjacent areas also sometimes tinted with black, also keels on terga 
and adjacent tubercles black, the black of the lateral keels often 
extending forwards and forming a large patch on each side of 
the fore part of the terga ; tail yellow or reddish yellow, the 
inferior keels and to a less extent the lateral keels black ; sterna 
entirely pale except for the black keels of the last ; chelae and 
legs entirely yellow, reddish yellow , or partially infuscate ; man- 
dible with faint or deep reticulation of pigment and pigmented 
granular crest above. Carapace scarcely as long as 5th caudal 
segment, finely and closely granular throughout, with more or 
fewer coarser granules on its sides and many on the anterior 
portion both between and outside the anterior keels; the keels 
granular; sides of tubercle just above eyes smooth; posterior 
keels forming an irregular line with median keels. Terga with 
three keels, the keels smooth or coarsely granular ; the laterals 
curving outward at their distal ends, and dividing to form two 
smooth or granular irregular transverse crests ; the rest of the 
terga finely or coarsely, closely or rather sparsely granular ; 
the anterior marginal ledge of the terga smooth or finely and 
closely granular ; keels of the last tergum strong and granular. 
Sterna smooth and polished, the last finely granular at the sides, 
weakly or scarcely granular in the middle; with 4 nearly smooth 



24 buthid^:. 

or granular keels. Tail robust ; 1st segment wider than long, 
2nd very slightly or scarcely longer than wide, 3rd one-fourth 
longer than wide, 5th twice as long as wide ; intercarpal spaces 
granular, the upper very sparsely so ; keels evenly granular 
or nearly smooth, the inferior sometimes quite smooth ; median 
lateral keel traceable on the 4th segment ; inferior lateral keel of 
5th evenly granular throughout and passing without interruption 
into the anal lobe ; vesicle large, granular below, as high as wide, 
a little narrower on the 5th caudal segment, often subgeniculate 
below the aculeus. Chelie : humerus finely granular above, with 
granular crests ; brachium, hand, and digits rather thickly hairy 
and without crests, except for one subdenticulate crest on the 
anterior surface of the brachium ; hand narrow, about as wide 
as brachium ; digits long, movable, more than twice as long as 
the underhand and furnished with 14-15 rows of teeth. Legs 
finely granular ; tarsi with two rows of spinules beneath. Pectinal 
teeth from about 28-39. 

cT . Differing from $ in having the tail longer (that is to sav, 
about six times as long as the carapace), the hand rounded, thick, 
considerably thicker than the brachium, the length of the under- 
hand about three quarters that of the movable digit, and the digits 
lobate and separated at the base when closed. 

Length of adult from about 65 up to 90 mm. 

Distribution. India, from Sind in the North-west and Dehra 
Dun throughout the whole of Western, Central, and Southern 
India at least as far south as Madura. Certainly absent from 
Burma and Ceylon, and apparently also from the Malabar coast 
below the Western Ghats in Southern India, though occurriug 
below the Ghats in the Southern Konkan. There are no data to 
show the limits of range of the species in Eastern Bengal. Several 
subspecies are recognizable. 

Subspecies Buthus tamulus typicus (— ? grammurus). 

Southern form : usually pale yellowish red in colour, with the 
keels of trunk and areas adjacent often infuscate ; frequently the 
median area of the terga is as a whole darker than the lateral 
portion. Terga very finely and closely granular, both laterally and 
mesially, a few coarser granules at the sides, but scarcely any 
between the keels ; keels nearly smooth, running externally into 
a pair of irregular and obsoletely granular, sometimes nearly 
smooth crests ; keels of last abdominal sternum and of lower side 
of anterior caudal segments weakly granular. Pectinal teeth28-30 
( $ ), 30-34 ( o" )• Length up to about SO mm. 

Distribution. Southern India: Sal.ira (J)oria) ; Kollnipur State 
(Wray), and Belgaum above Ghats; Dowlaishweram on the 
Godiivari ( Wgbrotv) ; Secunderabad {Roberts, Ricardo); Madras 
(Henderson, Thurston); Nellore, Tanjore, Trichinopoly (Popert) ; 
Madura. 

Fabricius cites merely "East Indies" as the locality for Ji. fa- 
mulus. 1 have here restricted the term tamulus to the southern 



BUTHUS. 25 

form of the species, because its name appears to have been derived 
from the Tamil race of South India, and Fabriciiis is known to have 
received specimens of other Arthropods, e. g. Polydesmus stigma 
and Heteroi>oda regia, from Trauquebar ou the Coromaudel coast. 

Subspecies concanensis, no v. 

Darker in colour and smoother than typical form. Upper side 
of trunk greenish or reddish brown, approaching black, paler at the 
sides. Legs, chelae, and tail, with the exception of the inferior 
keels, flavous or reddish yellow. Terr/a finely granular at sides, 
anterior marginal ledge smooth throughout ; keels quite smooth, 
shining, the laterals passing externally into a pair of irregular 
smooth crests resembling a dried stream of tar ; inferior keels of 
last abdominal sternum smooth, also of 1st and 2nd and sometimes 
also of 3rd caudal segment ; all the caudal keels and intercarinal 
spaces of tail less granular thau in typical form. Pectinal teeth 
29-32 in £ , 30-35 in d • Length up to 91 mm. § ; 77 mm. <5 . 

Loc. Ratna^iri in the South Konkan (Drew). 

Subspecies sindicus. uov. 

Paler yellow- than the average B. famulus typicus, the keels of 
the abdomen, carapace, and underside of tail blackish; an indis- 
tinct dark spot on each side of the terga in front of the lateral 
keel. Terga much more coarsely granular than in the typical 
form, the keels distinctly granular, the laterals breaking up an- 
teriorlv in coarse granules, which become lost amongst the general 
coarse granulation of the dorsal surface. Pectinal teeth more 
numerous than in the typical form: 31-34 in $ ; 34-39 in <3 . 
Length up to 93 mm. $ ; rather smaller in $ . 

Loc. Valley of Lower Indus : Kelat frontier in Upper Sind 
(Kemball); Hyderabad and Kotri (Ryan); Sujawal and Jati in the 
Karachi district (Kemball). 

Subspecies gujaratensis, uov. 

Eeplacing B. sindicus to the south. Coarsely granular as in that 
subspecies and in B. gangeticus, darker in colour thau the former, 
the trunk being often nearly black ; tail thinner and less thickly 
hairy than in B. gangeticus. Pectinal teeth fewer in number than in 
B. sindicus : 27 33 in $ ; 31-30 in J . 

Distribution. Karaghora in Katty war (Bulkley) ; Panch Mahals 
in North Guz,erat (TFi^ ///;/;/./•), thence spreading south-east wards 
as far as Khandes (Madan \. 

Subspecies gangeticus, nov. 

Represented by both dark and light forms; the former deep 
reddish brown with black keels; the hand and brachium of chela 
and also femora and patellae of legs partially infuscate : paler form 
coloured like B. tamulus typicus. Terga coarsely and closely 



2Q -BVTB.IDJE. 

granular throughout, the anterior marginal ledge closely granular, 
except in the middle; keels coarsely granular, the laterals breaking 
up into granules which become lost in the general granulation of 
the plate. Tail and its crests coarsely granular and thickly hairy, 
the segments broader and with sides more convex than in the 
other subspecies. Pectinal teeth 26-32 $ ; 31-36 <3 . Length up 
to about 90 mm. 

Distribution. The area drained by the Upper Ganges and its 
tributaries; Dehra Dun (type, Gleadoiv); Bareilly (Cambridge); 
Allahabad (Gates); Gwalior ; also Bhopal and Satna in Central 
India (Dane). 

10. Buthus hendersoni, sp. n. 

2 . Nearly intermediate in characters between B. tamulus and 
B. rugiscutis. Kesembling the typical form of the latter in size, 
granulation, etc., but with the tail a little thinner ; fingers longer 
and furnished with a larger number of rows of teeth. Chelae 
and legs uniformly yellow 7 ; terga infuscate, with paler posterior 
border ; inferior caudal keels black. Carapace shorter than 1st 
and 2nd caudal segments taken together, as long as the 5th. Tail 
with 2nd segment as long as wide, 3rd the merest fraction longer 
than wide, width of 1st equal to length of 3rd, less than length of 
5th ; height of 2nd less than its width ; 5th not twice as long as 
broad. Chela with rugulose brachium ; hand as wide as brachium, 
its width about three-fourths the length of the underhand, which 
is half the length of the movable finger; movable finger a little 
longer than carapace and furnished with 14 rows of teeth as in 
B. tamulus. Pectinal teeth ranging from 21-26, usually 2-1. 

J . With similar sexual characters to those of B. tamulus ; 
pectinal teeth ranging from 23-29, usually 24-26. 

Total length averaging about 50 mm. ; male usually less than 
50, large females rarely exceeding 55, in one case up to 59. 

Distribution. Madras Presidency ; Madras, Yercaud in Shevaroy 
Hills (Henderson), Cuddapah, Trichinopoly, and Tanjore (Pojjert). 

Though nearly allied to B. tamidus, B. hendersoni cannot be 
regarded as a subspecies or variety of the former, seeing that 
it co-exists in the same locality, without blending. 

11. Buthus rugiscutis, Pocock,Juur. Bom. N. II. Soc. xi, p. 106, 1897 ; 
Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 20, 1899. 

Allied to the preceding, but smaller, rougher, with thicker tail, 
fewer pectinal teeth, and fewer rows of teeth on digits. 

§ . Colour varying from reddish yellow to yellowish brown, the 
keels of trunk and underside of tail usually black. Upper surface 
of body entirely covered with coarse granules, amongst which the 
normal keels stand up as granular ridges ; anterior keels of carapace 
not traceable for more than halfway across the frontal area. 
Tad short, about live times the length of the carapace, thickly and 
coarsely granular below and at the sides ; the inferior intercarinal 



BUTHUS. 27 

spaces of the anterior segments sometimes smooth, especially in 
male ; upper surface also granular, but less so than the sides ; the 
segments wider and higher as compared with their length than in 
B. tamulus; 1st, 2nd, and 3rd segments wider than long, 4th very 
slightly longer than wide, 5th about one-third longer than wide; 
width of 1st exceeding length of ;ird and almost equal to that of 
4th ; 1st, 2nd, and 3rd approximately equal in width ; height of 
2nd equal to its length (in B. tumulus the length of the 2nd far 
exceeds its height, and the length of the 3rd exceeds the width of 
the 1st). Ohelce with bracbium finely granular above; movable finger 
only about as long as the carapace, less than twice the length 
of the underhand, furnished with 12 rows of teeth. Pectinal 
teeth 18-21. 

J with the same sexual features as in B. tamulus; pectinal 
teeth 21-24. 

Measurements in mm. — 5 • Total length 53, length of carapace 
5-5, of tail 27. 6 ■ Total length 44, carapace 5, tail 25-8. 

Loc. Mahubleshwar (Wroughton) and Satara (Wilkins) in the 
South Deccan. 

Subspecies nigritus, nov. 

Allied to the typical form of B. rugiscutis, but with the upper 
side of the body black ; chela? yellow ; upper side of tail yellow, 
lower side with the keels very strongly infuscate, the black from the 
inferior median keels spreading over the intermediate area and 
giving rise to a broad median longitudinal band, which is especially 
distinct on the 4th segment; legs infuscate. with the tibiae, pro- 
tarsi, and tarsi pale; sterna clouded with black. Pectinal teeth 
(?) 19-20. 

Loc. Panchgani in Satara District, South Deccan (Phijjson). 

12. Buthus pachyurus, Pocoek, Jour. Bom. X. H. Soc. xi, p. 107, 
1897 ; Kraep. Ticrr., Scorp. etc. p. 20, 1899. 

Most nearly allied to B. rugiscutis, but recognizable by being of 
a tolerably uniform black or brownish-black colour; the vesicle, 
hand and ringers, and extremity of legs inclining to reddish brown. 
Upper side of body granular, as in B. rugiscutis. Tail also as in that 
species, but distinctly thicker ; segments 1, 2, and 3 considerably 
wider than long; the segments, when viewed from above, much 
more parallel-sided than in B. rugiscutis : the 4th segment is 
almost a square, its anterior and posterior ends being almost as wide 
as its middle, whereas in B. rugiscutis the sides of this and of the 
other segments are distinctly convex, the segments being wider 
in the middle than at the ends. In sexual characters, numbers 
of pectinal teeth, and of teeth on digits approximately as in 
li. rugiscutis. 

Total length up to about 46 mm. 

Loc Manilla and Kamptee in the Central Provinces (Caccia) ; 
Nasik (Millard), and Satara (Wilkins), in the Bombay Presidency. 



28 BUTHID.E. 



Genus BUTHEOLUS, Simon. 

Orthodactylus, Karsch, Berl. ent. Zeits. xxv, p. 90, 1881 ; Kraep. 

Jb. Hamb. iviss. Anst. vii, p. 215, 1891 (nom. preeocc). 
Butheolus, Simon, Ann. Mus. Genova, xviii, p. 248, 1883; Pocock, 

P. Z. S. 1890, p. 121 ; Kraep. Tierr., Scarp, etc. p. 34, 1899. 
Orthochirus, Karsch, Berl. ent. Zeits. xxxvi, p. 306, 1891. 

One or two teeth on the underside of the immovable mandibular 
finger. Carapace without granular keels ; its frontal area sloped 
downwards from the tubercle to the anterior edge ; area behind 
the eyes with deep transverse groove. Tail very powerful, 
generally posteriorly incrassate ; the vesicle very small, much 
narrower than the 1st caudal segment. Sternum subpentagonal, 
wider than long, shorter than the genital operculum. Chela' very 
slender ; armature of fingers consisting of median rows of teeth 
which do not overlap, an inner series consisting of single teeth, 
aud an outer of teeth arranged in couplets. 

Type, B. tlialassinus, Simon. 

Distribution. Eastern Mediterranean area of Pala?arctic Region ; 
shores of Red Sea ; Sokotra ; Western and North-western India. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Tail not uniformly coloured, terga with lateral 

as well as median crest B. bicolor, p. 31. 

b. Tail uniformly coloured; terga with only a 

single median crest. 
«'. Tail deep bluish green throughout ; trunk 
usually the same tint as the tail, or, at all 

events, very deep brown B. melanurus, p. 28. 

b'. Tail uniformly pale yellow ; trunk at most 
lightly infuscate. 
a 2 . 4th segment of tail granular below, 5th 
granular below posteriorly, 2nd aud 
3rd granular and crested laterally ( <S ) . B. pallidus, p. 30. 
b~. 4th and 5th caudal segments smooth 
below ; 2nd and 3rd smooth, neither 
crested nor granular laterally ( $ ) B.Jlavescens, p. 30. 

13. Blltheolus melanurus, Kessler, Trudni Russkago Ent. viii, p. 16, 
1876 (Androctonus) ; Pocock, P. Z. S. 1890, p. 121 ; Kraep. Tier,:, 
Scurp. etc. p. 35, 1899 (Butheolus) ; Birula, Ami. Mus. St. Petersb. 
1*1)*, ]i. 281 (Orthocheirus) : schneideri, L. Koch in Schneider, Nat. 
Beitr. Kaukasus, p. 61, pi. ii, fig. 4, 1878 (Pmthus) ; Pocock, Tr. Linn. 
Soc. (2) Zool. v, p. 117, pi. xiii, t i^r. 2, 1889 (Orthodactylus) ; Kraep. 
Jb. Hamb. wiss. Anst. viii, p. 215, 1891 (Orthodactylus). 

Colour: trunk and tail varying from blackish or deep reddish 
brown to deep green : lower side of trunk paler ; chelae and legs 
flavous, or with humerus and femora black ; brachium and patella 
infuscate, pale flavous distally ; hands flavous, infuscate at the 
base of the lingers ; pectines flavous. Carapace and terga thickly 
granular, ocular tubercle and area just iu front of each median 



TSUTHEOLUS. 



29 




C. 




eye smooth ; a single median crest on terga ; last tergnm strongly 
keeled, nearly smooth between the keels. Tail very thick, 
posteriorly incrassate, the 4th segment about as wide as long, 
3rd wider than long, 1st segment with 10 granular keels, 2nd and 

3rd with the superior and 4 in- 
ferior keels distinct and granular, 
the median lateral and superior 
lateral obsolete ; 3rd segment 
partially pitted ; 4th much more 
distinctly pitted than the 3rd, but 
less granular and almost keelless, 
the median lateral keels being 
complete only iu front, the supe- 
rior keel also traceable : 5tB 
segment with inferior lateral keel 
complete, but weak in front, the 
rest of the segment deeply and 
closely pitted, but scarcely gran- 
ular; dorsal surface of all the seg- 
ments weakly granular, of the 
posterior segments pitted; lateral 
surface of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 
segments, and in a lesser degree 
of the 4th granular ; inferior sur- 
face sparsely granular in the inter- 
carpal spaces ; vesicle small, piri- 
form, pitted. Sterna finely granular, smooth, and polished in the 
middle of the posterior half, more coarsely granular at the sides ; 
the last with four closely granular crests, the first punctured and 
bristly in the middle. Ohelce : humerus with granular crests; 
brachium with smooth crests ; hand smooth, punctured, narrow, 
narrower than brachium, underhand about half the length of the 
movable digit, excelling width of hand ; movable finger as long 
as carapace, furnished with 8-9 rows of teeth, the basal row long ; 
the large teeth arranged in pairs, the inner of each pair being 
distinctly in front of the outer, which is merely the enlarged 
posterior tooth of one of the median series. Leys with granularly 
crested coxod and femora. Pectinal teeth about 20. 

Distribution, Eastern Mediterranean Eegion ; Punjab. 
T\\n subspecies of this Scorpion are represented in the fauna 
of British India : — 

1. B. melanurus typious ; characterized by having the legs and 
chela? uniformly clear yellow. 

Loc. Punjab (according to Eraepelin); also occurring in 
the Transcaspian area and .Northern Afghanistan. 

2. B. melanurus, subspecies fuscipes, imv. ; characterized by 
having the humerus and the femora black, and the brachium 
and patellae infuscate. 

Loc Northern Baluchistan (Maynard \ MacMdhori). 



Fig. 10. — Butheolus melanurus. 

A. Carapace from above. B. Cara- 
pace from the side. C. Lower 
side of tail. D. Sternum and 
genital operculum. 



30 BUTHIDJE. 

14. Blltheolus pallidus, Pocock, Jour. Bom. X. H. Soc. xi, p. 109, 1897 
Kraej). Tien:, Scorp. etc. p. 36, 1899. 

£ . Colour entirely yellow throughout/with exception of the eyes 
which are black. Carapace granular throughout except for the 
ocular tubercle and a ridge on each side of the median frontal 
depression, which are smooth : groove surrounding ocular tubercle 
behind not so deep as in B. melanurus. Terga granular throughout, 
with a single median keel, the last not smooth on the inner side of 
the median keels as in B. melanurus. Sterna and coxa' smoother 
than in B. melanurus, the former finely granular both externally 
and on the inner side of the pulmonary area ; the last granular 
throughout, the granular crests much less distinct than in 
B. melanurus. Tail of much the same form as in B. melanurus ; 
segments 1-3 carinate as in that species, 4th segment covered with 
granules below and at the sides, not so conspicuously pitted as in 
B. melanurus; the inferior lateral crests developed, and the inferior 
medians also traceable ; 5th segment covered with granules below, 
with a median granular keel ; lateral keel more irregularly dentate 
posteriorlv than in B. melanurus, and more noticeably concave before 
the anal lobe ; vesicle larger, aculeus thinner, and pits on vesicle 
and 5th caudal segment fewer than in B. melanurus. Chela? with 
upper surface of brachium more granular, and movable finger 
shorter than in B. melanurus, the latter being distinctly shorter than 
the carapace, furnished with 8 rows of teeth, the basal of which 
is shorter than in B. melanurus ; the enlarged teeth represented by- 
transverse rows of three each, the inner of these not in advance 
of the enlarged posterior tooth of the median rows ; external to 
the latter and behind it there is a second tooth, so that the external 
series consists of two teeth, and not of one as in B. melanurus. 

cS . Differs from $ in having the median keels and adjacent 
parts of the last abdominal sternum and of the 1st caudal segment 
smooth, and the lower side of the 4th and 5th segments less 
granular and scarcely mesially carinate. Pectinal teeth 16-17 
in $ , 21-29 in 6 . 

Length up to 35 mm. 

Loc. Sincl ; Kashmor Bund and the Kelat Frontier (Kemball). 

15. Butheolus flavescens, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. II. »S'w. xi, p. 110, 
1897 ; Kracp. Tier)'., Scorp. etc. p. 36, 1899. 

j. Colour as in B. pallidus, but the terga slightly infuscate. 
Very closely allied to that species in all structural characters, but 
with the tail less coarsely granular : for example the sides of the 
2nd segment just external to the super o-lateral keel are furnished 
with only a few small granules and a few pits, the corresponding 
area of the 3rd and 4th is smooth and distinctly pitted, and the 
lower side of the 4th is furnished with a very few granules. In 
c? of />'. pallidus, on the contrary, the upper portion of the lateral 
surface of (lie 2nd segment is covered with tubercles, of the 3rd 
it is granular and rugose, and of the 4th distinctly though not 



CHAltMUS. 31 

closely granular, and the lower surface of the 4th is somewhat 
thickly granular both in the middle and at the sides. Moreover 
in B. pal!'"? us the median lateral keel extends as a granular crest 
at least throughout the posterior half of the 2nd and 3rd segments; 
in B. flavescens it is practically absent on all the segments except 
the 1st ; lastly the vesicle is relatively smaller iu B. flavescens. 

Length 27 mm. 

Log. Karaghora in Kattywar (Bulkley). 

16. Butheolus bicolor, Pocock, J<»<r. Bom. X. H Soc. xi, p. 108, 1897 ; 
Kracp. Tien:, Scorp. etc. p. 36, 1899. 

Colour : upper side of trunk deep bluish green, sometimes in- 
clining to deep brown ; ventral surface yellowish or yellowish 
green ; 4th and 5th segments and vesicle of tail also deep bluish 
green, but the 1st, 2nd, and usually also the 3rd, yellowish brown, 
the 3rd sometimes as dark as the 4th, and the 1st and 2nd some- 
times very dark brown ; legs mostly clear yellow, with greenish 
femora ; humerus and brachium of chela also tinted with greenish 
black, hand and fingers usually paler. Carapace coarsely granular 
throughout, the ridges over the eyes smooth above, groove defining 
tubercle behind shallow as in B. pallidas. Terga coarsely granular 
throughout, and with the exception of the anterior two distinctly 
tricostate. Sterna smooth in the middle ; 5th mostly granular, 
with a pair of smooth median keels ; lateral keels nearly 
absent. Tail much expanded posteriorly ; upper surface of 
all the segments finely granular in the middle, the superior 
lateral crests present and granular only on the 1st, evanescent 
on the 2nd; sides of segments 1-3 pitted, these segments 
with the four inferior keels strong, granular, and the spaces 
between them granular ; 4th and 5th segments smooth, without 
crests, but coarsely pitted below and at the sides ; the inferior 
lateral keel, however, present and tubercular on the posterior half 
of the 5th segment ; vesicle as in B. melanurus, but aculeus not 
so stout at base. Chela with humerus granular above ; brachium 
smooth with crenulate crests, the anterior of the upper surface 
sometimes granular : teeth on digit much as in B. pallidas. In 
S the inferior keels of segments 1-3 and the spaces between 
them are much smoother than in 5 • Pectinal teeth 17-19 ( $ ) 
19-21 ( 6 )• 

Length up to about 38 mm. 

Loc. Western Ghats of India: Kamlala Tal and AVai Tal in 
Satara ( Wilkins), and Poona ( Wroughton) . 

Genus CHAltMUS. Earscb. 

Charmus, Karsch, Ml'. Munch, ml. Ver. iii. p. KM, 1879; id. Berl. 
nil. Zeits. xxwi, p. 806, L891 j Kraep, Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 89, 

IS! ID. 

Heterocharmus, Pocock, ./. .1/. .V. //. (6) ix, p. 17, 1892. 

Carapace without keels ; ant. ocular area horizontal, QOi sloped 
as in Butheolus. Terga with single median keel ; no lateral keels. 



32 BUTHID.E. 

Sternum small, pentagonal, wider than long, about equal in length 
to the genital operculum. Pectines normal. Mandible with 
movable and immovable finger armed below with two teeth. 
Finger of chela furnished along the middle line with numerous not 
overlapping rows of teeth ; the internal series formed of single 
larger teeth lying close to the apices of the median rows ; external 
series of small paired teeth. Tail weakly keeled, 4th and 5th 
segments punctured below ; no spine beneath aculeus on vesicle. 

Type, C. laneus, Karsch. 

Distribution. Ceylon. One species only known up to the present 
time. 

Presumably on the strength of its pentagonal sternum — a feature 
which isolates the genus from the rest of the Buthidse — Karsch 
referred Charmus to the subfamily Iurini (= Vejovidce), placing it 
alongside Scorpiops and Ohcerilus. The rest of its organization, 
however, points unmistakably to its belonging to the Buthidse. 

17. Charmus laneus, Karsch, MT. Munch, cnt. Ver. iii, p. 104, 1879; 
Kraepelin, Tierr., Seorp. etc. p. 39, 1899 : cinctipes, Pocock, A. M. 
N. H. (6) ix, p. 47, pi. iiiB, figs. 2, 2 a, 2 b, 1892 (Heterocharmus). 

Colour : upper side of trunk blackish, variegated with yellow 
markings ; tail blackish ; vesicle ferruginous ; chelae yellowish, 
brachium marked with a black band, hand blackish ; legs blackish, 
yellowish at the junction of the segments. Carapace, nearly as 
long as the 1st and 2nd caudal segments, weakly but closely 
granular throughout. Terga more coarsely granular than the 
carapace. Sterna smooth and shining, the last beset posteriorly 
with coarse granules. Tail with segments 1-3 coarsely and 
thickly granular below and at the sides, upper surface much more 
feebly granular, 3rd segment without keels, its margins rounded ; 
4th and 5th segments without keels, 4th finely granular only in the 
excavation of the upper side ; 5th granular on the posterior portion 
of its lower and upper surface; anal border granular beneath, 
lobate at the sides ; vesicle coarsely punctured ; tail and vesicle 
thickly hairy beneath. Chela*- weakly granular and carinate ; 
hand rounded, narrower than brachium, smooth, not crested ; fingers 
long, the movable nearly twice as long as the underhand. Lei/s 
with weakly granular femora ; coxa? smooth. Pectines with 14-17 
teeth. 

Measurements in mm. — Total leugth 30, carapace 2"5, tail 1T5, 
5th segment 3, underhand 1-2, movable finger 2-5. 

Loc. Ceylon. 

Genus STENOCHIRUS, Karsch. 

Stenochirus, Karsch, Berlin, ent. '/.cits. \\x\ i, p. 300, 1891 ; Kraepelin, 
Tierr., Scarp, etc. p. 39, 1899. 

Two teeth on lower side of immovable finger of mandible. 
Carapace with frontal area horizontal, almost smooth, not keeled, 



STENOCHIRUS. 33 

at most weakly granular. Terga also almost smooth, at most 
finely granular at the sides and in the dorsal impressions, 
furnished with a single smooth median keel. C'ephalothoracic 
sternum triangular, a little longer than wide, as long as the 
genital operculum. Tail rohust, not keeled below ; no spine on 
vesicle beneath aculeus. Hand narrow ; fingei's long, the median 
rows of teeth overlapping each other by nearly half their length, 
ending posteriorly in 5 or 6 teeth. 

Type, <S'. sarasinorum,. Karsch. 

Distribution. Malabar coast of India and hills of Ceylon. 

Synojisis of Indian Species. 

a. Dorsal plates of abdomen finely granular 

laterally and in the depression on each side 
of the median keel, the last finely granular 
posteriorly ; humerus granular and weakly 
crested in front .S'. politus, p. 33. 

b. Dorsal plates of abdomen entirely smooth ; 

humerus of chela smooth, rounded in front 

(according to Kraepelin) S. sarasinorum, p. •'!•'! 

1 8. Stenochirivs politus, Pocork. Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, p. 262, 1899 

Colour a deep shining blackish brown on the tail and the upper 
side of the body ; legs, mandibles, chela?, and lower side of body a 
little paler than its upper side, the three distal segments of the 
legs quite pale ; fingers also pale, but brownish at the base. 
Carapace smooth, finely granular in the depression laterally and 
posteriorly. Terga smooth, finely granular at the sides and in the 
depression on each side of the median keel ; last tergal plate 
closely granular throughout in its posterior half. Tail a little 
more than six times as long as the carapace, and slightly increasing 
in width posteriorly to the middle of the 4th segment^ which is a 
little longer than broad (3 : 2-,5) ; length of 2nd segment equal to 
the width of the 4th ; the upper side of the segments mesially 
granular ; the rest of the tail smooth and polished above and 
below, entirely without keels, but distinctly though not coarsely 
punctured; vesicle smooth, punctured; aculeus thick at base. 
CheIo> slender and elongate; humerus weakly crested and weak 1\ 
granular in front ; brachium smooth, without crests or granules ; 
hand also much narrower than brachium ; fingers smooth, movable 
more than twice the length of the underhand, and armed with 10 
median rows of teeth. Pectinal teeth 15. 

Met inurements in mm. — Total length 33, carapace 'A. tail 20. 
width of 1st caudal Begment 2*3, of 4th 2-6. 

hoc. Kanara (Bell). 

19. Stenochirus sarasinorum, Karsch, Berl. <>nt. Zeds, xxxvi, p. 306. 

pi. xii, fig. SO, L892j Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. etc, p. 89, 1899. 

Kesembling the preceding in colour, but, judging from Kraepeliif- 
description, differing in having the carapace finely granular only in 

i) 



34 UUTH1DJB. 

the dorsal groove behind the ocular tubercle, aud the tergal plates 
smooth and shining, not granular. Last sternal plate thickly and 
finely punctured. Also the humerus is smooth aud rounded in 
front, not weakly crested and granular as in S. politw. Moreover, 
judging by the figures published by Karsch, the length of the 2nd 
caudal segment is much less than the width of the 4th. Length 
up to about 40 mm. 

Loe. Ceylon : Peradeniya (Sarasin). 



Genus HEMIBUTHUS, nov. 

Intermediate in characters between Buthus and Lychas; re- 
sembling the latter in the absence of keels from the carapace and 
the presence of a single tooth on the under side of the immovable 
finger of the mandible, and the former in the absence of a spine 
beneath the aculeus of the caudal vesicle and in that the teeth of 
the inuer row on the fingers of the chelae alternate with those of 
the outer row, being situated opposite the middle of the corre- 
sponding rows of the median series. 

Type, H. crassimanus. 

Distribution. India. 

20. Hemibuthus crassimanus, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xi, 
p. 110, 1807 ; Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 44, 1809 (Archisometrus). 

Colour blackish brown, without distinct yellow pattern; tail 
paler; vesicle, hands, and distal segments of legs clear yellow. 
Carapace somewhat finely granular, more coarsely so on the 
anterior border, its posterior border, like those of the anterior 
terga, tri-emarginate ; nearly as long as the 1st and 2nd caudal 
segments, and slightly longer than the 5th. Terga distinctly 
though not very coarsely granular posteriorly ; with conspicuous 
lateral crests. Sterna smooth and punctured, the last almost 
without crests and granules. Tail of medium length and thickness, 
barely five times as long as the carapace ; 1st segment as wide as 
long, 4th one-fourth longer than wide ; intercarinal spaces sparsely 
granular, punctured, keels strongly granular, median lateral repre- 
sented on the posterior half of the 2nd and 3rd by a series of 
granules, weak on the 1st; vesicle nearly smooth, only sparsely 
granular, punctured ; angulate beneath the aculeus. Chela', with 
hand smooth, rounded, large, much wider than brachium ; fingers 
short, the movable about equal to the carapace and to the under- 
hand in length ; with 8 rows of teeth. Pectinal teeth 12. 

J . With larger hand, and tail posteriorly incrassate ; pectinal 
fceeth 14-15. 

Measurements in mm. — (5) Total length 28, carapace 3, tail 
!4-5, width of hand 2. 

Loe. Western India: Panch Mahals in Guzerat (WaUinger). 



i. veil as. 35 



Genua LYCHAS, C. Koch. 

Lychas, C. Koch, Arackn. xii, p. •">, 1845 (in part). 
Archisonietrus, Kraepelin, Jb. Hamb. wise. Anst. viii, p. -\7, 1891; 
id. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 41, 1899. 

Carapace without posterior and lateral keels; anteocular area 
horizontal. Terga with two or three crests. Tail carinate ; a 
conspicuous triangular tooth on vesicle beneath the aculeus. Man- 
dible with one interior tooth on the immovable finger. Chela with 
movable finger armed with numerous rows of teeth set end to end, 
not overlapping ; also with an inner set of larger teeth, each set 
close to the distal end of the rows of the mediau series, and with 
an outer set composed of pairs of larger teeth, set close to the 
posterior ends of the median rows. Sternum triangular, longer 
than wide. 

Type, L. scutilus, C. Koch. 

Distribution. Tropical Africa ; India to Australia. 

The genus Lychas was based upon two species, L. maculatus and 
L. scutilus. The first had already been made the type of the 
genus Isometrus by Hemprich and Ehrenberg. Hence scutilus 
becomes the type of Lychas. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

/(. Abdominal sterna coriaceous, the 4th and 5th 
granular throughout; pectinal teeth Ji } ; 
tarsi bearing two rows of bristles beneath. . L. rugosus, p. 39. 
i>. Abdominal sterna, with the exception of the 
5th, smooth and polished ; pectinal teeth 
15 25 ; tarsi with pad of bristles. 
u [ . Tibial spurs of 3rd and 4th legs very long, 
much longer than tin; hairs on the seg- 
ments. 
a-. < larapace evenly granular throughout. 
a 3 . Terga with three distinct keels ; 
underhand nearly as long as the 

movable linger L. tricarinatvs p. 40. 

//'. Terga with a single median keel: 
underhand only about half the 

length of the movable finger L. hendersoni, p. 40. 

b 2 . Frontal area of carapace nearly smooth 

or studded in front with a few large 

granules. 

n'. Terga with large tubercle on each 

side, forming a small lateral crest; 

legs and cliche uniformly yellow ... L. slwj/landi, p, 41. 
V. Terga without trace of lateral crest; 
legs variegated with black. 
O 6 . Chelae yellow: tail mostly yellow . L. l<, wifrons, p. 41. 
b h . Cliche with hand entirely black, 
brachiuui black above : tail al- 
most \\ holly black L. fern, p. 42. 

n -J 



36 BTJTH1D I . 

b\ Tibial spurs of 3rd and 4th legs short, 

scarcely longer than the hairs of the tibia. 

a". Abdominal sterna thickly marbled 

with black L. niffristernis, p. 38, 

b r \ Abdominal sterna, with exception of 
the 5th, uniformly pale yellow. 
a'. Last abdominal sternum with four 
granular keels ; hand with two 

granular finger-keels L. scutilus, p. 37. 

b" . Last abdominal sternum with only a 

pair of distinct keels : hand only 

obsoletely keeled 

a*. Cheke and legs uniformly yellowish 

brown ; movable finger much 

longer than carapace ; fingers 

scarcely sinuate m <S L. scaber, p. 38. 

b 8 . Chelae and legs variegated black 
and yellow ; movable finger only 
slightly exceeding carapace ; 
fingers strongly sinuate in J .... L. mucronatus, p. 36. 

21. Lychas mucronatus, Fair. But. Syst. Suppl. p. 294, 1798 (Scorpio) ; 
Thorell, Ann. 3Ius. Genova, xxvii, p. 566, 1889 (Isometrus) ; Pocock, 
in Weber, Beise Niederl. O.-Ind, iii, p. 85, pi. vi, fig. 1, 1893; 
Thorell, Bull. Soc. ent. Ital. xxv, p. 368, 1894; Kraep. Tierr., 
Scoip. etc. p. 46, 1899 (Archisometrus) ; Kraep. Jb. JIamb. 
iviss. And. viii, p. 223, 1891 (Archisometrus) : varius, C. Koch, 
Arachn. xi, p. 29, fig. 864, 1845 (Tityus) : Simon, Ann. Mus. 
(ienova,xx, p. 362, 1884; Oates, Jour. Bom. N. II. Soc. iii, p. 245, 
1888 (Isometrus) : atomarius, Oafes, Jour. Bom. A". H. Soc. iii, 
p. 245, 1888 (? atomarius, Simon, Ann. Mus. Genov. xx, p. 363. 
1884) (Isometrus). 

Colour yellow varied with black : carapace with ocular tubercle 
and interocular triangle black, the rest of it marked with irregular 
greyish-black lines ; terga black in the middle along the keel, a black 
patch interrupted by a yellow > -shaped mark on each side, and 
six yellow spots separated by black spaces ; sterna yellow, with a 
blackish patch on each side; tail darker posteriorly, the lower 
surface lined with black, the posterior ends of the segments 
blacker than the anterior; vesicle uniformly deep brown ; mandibles 
black; humerus of chela mottled with black above ; brachium mostly 
black above, yellow at the base ; hand yellow, with a few small 
spots ; basal half of fingers black, distal end yellow. 

§. Carapace, a little shorter than 5th caudal segment, as long 
as 1st and half the 2nd, granular throughout. Terga granular 
throughout, with single median granular keel. Sterna smooth, 
excepl the last, which is closely granular and furnished with a pair 
of median granular keels, the lateral keels obsolete. Tail about 
five times as long as the carapace, finely granular ; 2nd segment 
almost as wide as long, 4th not twice as long as wide ; median 
lateral keel present, but weak on the 2nd segment ; vesicle granular 
below ; spine beneath aculeus triangular, pointed. Chela finely 
granular, with granular crests ; hand almost smooth, with obsolete 



6 



I.YCHAS. 37 

finger-keel, a little narrower than brachium, width a little less 
than length of underhand : digits in contact, not sinuate ; the 
movable longer than carapace, at least twice the length of the 
underhand, armed with 6 rows of teeth, the basal very long, extend- 
ing over half the length of the finger; the outer row of teeth 
9 (8-10) in number ; the inner row only 5, situated in the distal 
half. Legs externally granular, with short tibial spurs. Pectinal 
teeth about 21. 

6 with tail a little longer than in § and stouter, the 5th 
segment and vesicle being scarcely granular and the former not 
cariuate. Chela' with hand much inflated, considerably wider than 
brachium ; the underhand more than half the length of the movable 
digit, which is slightly sinuate and armed with a large tubercle 
at the base ; immovable finger with its basal half strongly arched, 
so that when closed at the tip a wide space is left between the 
basal ends of the two fingers. 

Measurements in mm. — $ . Total length 58, carapace 6, tail 32, 
underhand 3, movable finger (5-5, width of hand 2. d" . Total 
length 53, carapace 6, tail 33, underhand 4, movable linger (>-5, 
width of hand 3. 

Distribution. Occurring in abundance in both Upper and Lower 
Burma and Tenasserim (Occtes Sf Feci), thence spreading eastwards 
into China and Siara, and southwards over the islands of the Indo- 
Malayan area as far as Flores. 




Soc. ent. Ital xxv, p. 367, 1894; Kraep. Tierr., Scarp, etc. p. 44, 

is; H") (Archisoi)H'tras) : weberi, Karsch, Berlin, ent. '/.cits, xxvi, 
]). 184, 1882 (Isometrus) ; Kraep. Jb. Hamb. iviss. Anst. viii, p. 221, 



1891 (Archisometrus) : mesor, Simon, Ann. Mus. Genova, xx, 
p. 371, 1884 (Isometrus) : phipsoni, Oates, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. 
iii, p. 248, figs, l, 2, 1888 (Isometrus). 

5 . Colour : trunk much more uniformly fuscous above than in 
mucronatus, the terga, however, marked with a pair of circular 
yellow spots near the middle, and one on the posterior lateral 
angles; the last tergum mostly yellow, blackish only in front; 
anterior four caudal segments yellowish red above, last segment 
and vesicle blackish; chela' mostly yellow; the extremity of the 
brachium, the hand, and the basal half of the fingers blackish ; 
legs yellowish, or blackish with yellow tarsi. Carapace and terga & 
little more coarsely granular than in L. mucronatus. Last sternum 
with 4 granular keels ; 3rd with rounded punctured spot in the 
middle of its hinder portion. Tail much longer and thinner, 
about six times as long as the carapace ; 2nd segment more than 
twice, 4th about three times as long as wide; keels stronger than 
in mucronatus ; the inferior lateral edges of the 5th cariuate. 
Chelai with hand granular and distinctly cariuate above, but 



38 BUTHIDJ3. 

narrower than in L. mucronatus, the width about half the length 
of the underhand, the latter less than half the movable finger, 
which is toothed as in L. mucronatus. Tibial spurs quite short. 
Pectinal teeth 16 and upwards. 

6 . With sexual features very different from those of L. mucro- 
natus ; no yellow spot on 3rd sternum. Tail very long and slender, 
more than nine times as long as the carapace. Chela' also longer 
than in $ , but otherwise of the same form. Pectinal teeth up to 20. 

Measurements in mm. — 5 . Total length 65, carapace 6, tail 37, 
underhand 3, movable finger 7*8. J . Total length 81, carapace 
6, tail 57, movable finger 8. 

Distribution. Southern Tenasserim (Gates), thence throughout the 
Malay Peninsula into Sumatra, Java, and adjacent islands. 

23. Lychas SCaber, Faroe/,: Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vii. p. 300, L893 ; 

Kraep. Jb. Hamb. wiss. Anst. xii, p. 86, 1895 ; id. Tierr., Scorp. 
etc. p. 51, 1899 (Archisometrus"). 

Colour : carapace yellow ; anteocular triangle and lateral margin, 
as well as ocular tubercle and an obscure stripe on each side, 
blackish ; terga yellowish or brownish, with six yellow spots 
separated by black intervals on the posterior border ; sterna, tail, 
legs, and palpi yellowish or yellowish brown, scarcely mottled ; 
the tail darker beneath posteriorly, the fingers darker in their basal 
half. Carapace coarsely and evenly granular throughout except on 
the tubercle, as long as the 1st + 4 the 2nd caudal segments, 
shorter than the 5th. Terga also coarsely and closely granular 
throughout. Sterna smooth, 2nd with median sensory area in $ ; 
last granular throughout, with 4 granular crests, the external 
short. Tail nearly five times as long as carapace, granular : 1st and 
2nd segments with 10 keels. Chela' granular and crested as in 
L. mucronatus ; hand weakly keeled, small, narrower than brachium, 
its width a little more than half the length of the underhand r 
which is less than half the movable digit, the latter longer than 
carapace, armed almost as in L. mucronatus, with 8 external, 6 
internal, and 6 median rows. Lee/s with short spurs. Pectinal 
teeth 17-19 ( $ ), 19-21 ( rf ). 

S . Smaller than 5 ; tail longer and thinner, about six times as 
long as the carapace, which is only as long as its 3rd segment, 5th 
segment practically smooth and keelless ; chela? with hand as wide 
as brachium, underhand quite half the length of the movable digit ; 
immovable digit slightly sinuate at base, movable not lobate. 

Measurements in mm. — $ . Total length 36, carapace 4"5, tail 22. 
6 . Total length 37, carapace 3*5, tail 25. 

Loc. S. India : Madras (Thurston), Secunderabad (Bicardo). 

24. Lychas nigristernis, Pococh, Jour. Bom. N. 11. Soc. xii, p. 265, 

1899 (Archisometrus). 

Allied to L. mucronatus, iveberi, and scaber. 

Colour varied black and yellow ; anteocular area of carapace and 



LYCHAS. 39" 

mandibles black ; tail spotted and lined with black, sterna marbled 
with black; legs black and yellow ; chelie with humerus black and 
yellow, brachium entirely black ; hand and fingers yellow, with a 
few spots of black on the outer surface of the hands. Carapace 
and terga evenly granular throughout ; the latter with a single 
median crest; sterna smooth, the last granular and furnished with 
four keels. Tail about five times as long as the carapace, 1st 
segment as wide as long, 4th twice as long as wide, intercarpal 
spaces granular, keels strong and granular; terminal granule of' 
the upper keels of the 3rd and 4th segments, and in a lesser degree 
of the 1st and 2nd, spheriform but small, median lateral crest absent 
on the 3rd, weak and anteriorly abbreviated on the 2nd ; vesicle 
coarsely granular below. Chehp with hand slender, narrower than 
brachium ; underhand less than half the length of movable finger, 
which is longer than the carapace and furnished with 6 rows of 
teeth as in mueronatus. Tibial spurs short. Pectinal teeth 15-16. 
Sternum with shallow indentation along middle line. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 37, carapace 4, tail 21. 
movable finger 4-3. 

Loc. Western Himalaya. Dehra Dun, 8000 ft. (Gleadow). 



25. Lychas rugosus, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xi, p. Ill, 1897 ; 
Kraep. Tierr., iS,-nrji. etc. p. 48, 1899 (Archisoinetrus). 

Colour black, varied wit h yellow ; frontal region of carapace black ; 
terga with four yellow marginal spots, an anterior median yellow 
patch, yellow x-shaped marks, and submarginal yellow band: 
t ail yellow, marked with black lines which posteriorly fuse 
together; humerus and brachium black, spotted with yellow; 
hand clear yellow ; fingers black with yellowish tips ; legs yellow 
banded with black; sterna pale, the 4th with a few spots on its 
posterior border, the last indistinctly lined with black. Carapace 
and terga much more coarsely granular than in the other species, 
carapace almost as long as the 1st and 2nd caudal segments, or as 
the 5th. Terga without lateral keels. Sterna coriaceous, 3rd and 
4th distinctly granular throughout ; the last with 4 granular crests. 
Tail short and slender, about four and a half times as long as the 
carapace: 1st. 2nd. and 3rd segments with median lateral keel 
complete ; the intercarinal spaces granular, the keels strong and 
granular, the superior subspiniform apically ; 1st segment about 
as wide as long, 4th scarcely twice as long as wide ; vesiclt smooth 
below. Chela with hand about as wide as brachium. smooth: 
movable digit not twice as long as the underhand, shorter than 
the carapace, armed with 8 rows of teeth, basal row quite short. 
Tibial spurs short. Pectinal teeth 12. Tarsi with two rows of 
bristles beneath. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 22, carapace 2*8, tail 12. 
movable finger 2*5. 

Lor. Eaipur, Central Provinces (Phipson). 



40 BUTHTB.E. 

26. Lychas tricarinatus, Simon, Ann. Mus. Genova, xx, p. 371, 

1884; Pocock, Jour. Linn. Soc, Zool, xxiii, p. 433, 1890 (Iso- 
nietrus) ; Kraep. Jb. Hamb. iviss. Anst. viii, p. 227, 1891 ; Pocock, 
Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vii, p. 301, 1892 ; Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. 
etc. p. 50, 1899 (Archisometrus). 

Colour variable, sometimes tolerably uniformly brownish yellow 
throughout, sometimes blackish varied with yellow, but not so 
strongly as in L. mucronatus, no black anteocular triangle as in 
that species. Carapace with its anterior border less emarginate 
than in L. mucronatus and L. scutilus. Terga 3-6 with distinct 
though short lateral crests. Last sternum with 4 finely granular 
crests. Tail of much the same form as in L mucronatus, about 
five times as long as the carapace ; the sides of the segments 
more convex, the median lateral keel on the 2nd stronger, and 
a distinct supero-lateral granular keel on the 5th ; vesicle very 
small, much smaller than in L. mucronatus, but more coarsely and 
more serially granular below. Chela' with crests on brachium 
weaker ; hand without keels, narrow ; fingers very short, movable 
much shorter than carapace, longer than the underhand by 
only one-fourth of its length, furnished with 6 rows of teeth, the 
basal row long, but not half the length of the finger. Legs with 
very long tibial spurs. Pectinal teeth 21-25 ( £ , 3 ). 

cj differs from $ in having the tail much longer, six or more times 
the length of the carapace, the width of 1st segment about two-thirds 
of its length ; carapace only slightly longer than the 1st caudal 
segment, and much shorter than the 4th. Hand a little wider 
than the brachium ; fingers not quite in contact at the base, the 
movable furnished with a lobe which fits into a sinuation of the 
immovable. 

Measurements in mm. (specimen from Madras). — $ . Total length 
57, carapace 6, tail 32, finger 4*5. J • Total length 54, carapace 
5, tail 35. 

Distribution. Central and South India ; Bhopal (Dane) and 
Xamptee (Caccia), Belgaum, Kanara (Bell), Mangalore (Battie), 
and Trivandrum (Ferguson), Tanjore and Nellore (Popert). Madras 
(Henderson) and Pondicherry ; Yercaud in the Shevaroy Hills 
(Henderson), Nilgiri Hills (Daly). 

Representatives of this species from the lowlands of the Madras 
Presidency (i. e. Madras, Nellore, and Tanjore) are paler in colour 
than those that are met with in the Deccan, Central India, the 
Malabar coast, and the hilly areas of the Caruatic. 

27. Lychas hendersoni, Pocock, Jour.' Bom. N. JI. Soc. xi, p. Ill, 

1897; Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 51, 1899 (Archisoinetrus). 

Allied to I j. tricarinatus in having the tibial spurs long and the 
cephalothoracic sternum small and indented throughout its length. 

Colour : carapace black and yellow in about equal proportions ; 
two pale spots on the front border as in L. tricarinatus ; terga 
with median yellow patch, yellow > < -shaped marking, yellow 



LYCHAS. 41 

spot on each side of middle line, and subinarginal yellow stripe ; 
last tergum densely varied with black and yellow ; sterna black at 
the sides, the last black on the keels ; tail ornamented with black 
patches above, below, and at the sides ; vesicle lined with black 
below ; chela? with humerus and brachium black, spotted with 
yellow ; hands and fingers entirely yellow : legs also black, spotted 
with yellow, yellower distally. Triad- and tail granular and cari- 
nate as in L. tricarinatus, but no lateral keels on terga ; keels on 
tail rather stronger, the median lateral on the 3rd being more 
distinct, the superior lateral on the 1st stronger, with the dorsal 
area of the segment rising considerably above it ; vesicle small as 
in L. tricarinatus. Chelce with fingers much longer than in 
L. tricarinatus, the movable more than twice the length of the 
hand-back, toothed as in L. tricarinatus. Pectinal teeth 17-18. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 34, carapace 3-5, tail 18*5, 
movable digit 4. 

Loe. 8. India : Tercaud in the 8hevaroy Hills (Henderson). 

28. Lychas shoplaildi, Gates, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. in, p. 246, fig. 7, 
1888; Thorett, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxvii, p. 502, 1880 ; Pocock, 
Jour. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiii, p. 434, 1890 (Isometrus) : Kraep. 
Jb. Hamh.'wiss. Anst. viii, p. 22o, 1801 ; Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. 
11. Soc vii, p. .'303, 1892 (Archisometrus). 

Nearly allied to L. tricarinatus, but with upper side of trunk 
either entirely black or with faint yellow marks ; legs, chelae, and 
upper side of tail reddish yellow ; lower side of caudal segments 
with keels, area between median keels and posterior half of area 
between median and lateral keels black. Upper side of trunk 
more coarsely granular than in L. tricarinatus ; some large granules 
along the front edge of the carapace and in front of the median 
eyes ; lateral crests on terga represented by one or two larger 
granules. Terminal granules of superior caudal keels not so large; 
no distinct supero-lateral granular crest on the 5th segment; 
vesicle distinctly larger. In the chela? the hand is more globular 
and the fingers more curved, the movable being about twice or 
h\ss than twice the length of the underhand. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 58, carapace 5 - 8, tail 31, 
movable finger 5. 

Loc. Lower Burma: Palone 53 miles north of Ivangoon; Entagaw 
near Pegu (Gates); Prome {Fed). 

20. Lychas laevifrons, Pocock, Jour. Bom. X. II. Soc. xi, ]». 113, 
1807; Kraep. T'urr., Scorp. p. 60, 1800 (Archisoiuetrus) : shop- 
landi, Pocock, Jour. Linn. Soc., '/.ii'd. xxiii, p. 435, 189] ; id. Jour, 
limn. X. 11. Soc. vii, p. 801, 1892 (Isometrus) (uec shoplandi. 
Gates). 

Nearly allied to L. shoplandi, but the lega marbled with black ; 
the terga marked with a yellow median keel, a patch of the same 
on the postero-lateral angle, and yellow >< -shaped marks. The 



42 BUTHIDJE. 

frontal area of the carapace is still smoother, the large granules 
noticeable in L. shoplandi being practically absent, the anterior 
border being polished and glossy ; the supero-lateral keel on the 
5th caudal segment and that on the upper side of the brachiuni 
are stronger and more granular, and the fingers of the hand are 
longer, the movable being more than twice the length of the 
underhand, the two together being considerably longer than 
the 1st, 2nd, and 5th caudal segments. In L. shoplandi they are 
subequal. Pectinal teeth 22. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 32, carapace 4, tail 20, 
movable finder 4. 

Loc. Calcutta. 

30. Lychas fese, Thorell, Ann. Mvs. Genova, xxvii, p. 569, 1889 
(Isometrusj ; Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. p. 51, 1899 (Archisometrus). 

Allied to L. shoplandi and loevifrons, with long tibial spurs and 
deeply impressed sternum. Colour of carapace and terga black ; 
sterna marginally black, the last almost entirely black, yellowish 
along the lateral and posterior margin, and marked with a crescentic 
yellow stripe in front ; tail nearly black, the segments yellow in 
front ; vesicle yellow ; humerus of chela yellow, with a few small 
spots at its distal end ; brachiuni yellow, with its upper surface 
mostly black ; band black all over, fingers yellow, also a black 
spot on upper side of trochanter of chela ; coxa of chela black 
apically and externally ; legs almost entirely black externally. 
Carapace and terga granular as in L. shoplandi, but no large 
isolated granule representing lateral crest such as is seen in both 
adults and young of L. shoplandi. Tail as in the latter, but more 
closely granular. Pectinal teeth 20. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 2fi, carapace 3, tail 15. 

Loc. Burma : Shwegoo, near Bhamo (Fea). 

Although the only known specimen of this species is certainly 
young, it represents a form differing in the blackness of its appen- 
dages and tail from the young of L. shoplandi. which resemble the 
adults in colour. 



Subfamily CENTRUMN/E. 

< Vntrurini, Pocock, A. M. K. H. (6) xvii. p. 428, L896 ; Kraep, 
Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. (!4, 1899 ( = Isomctrini and Centnuini, Kraep. 
Jb. Hamb. wiss. Anst. viii. p. 149, 1891). 

Legs of 3rd and 4th pairs without tibial spurs. 

Distribution. Eastern Mediterranean area( Plesiobvthus) ; Oriental 
ltegion, thence eastwards as Ear as Australia (Lsometrus); Sonoran 
and Neotropical Regions (Zabins, Tityns, and Centrums). 



PLE8IOBUTHU8. 43 

The two known British Indian genera* may be tabulated as 
follows : — 

a. No vesicular spine beneath aculeus : terga 

tricostate ; protarsi of anterior legs de- 
pressed and thickly fringed with hairs. . . . Plesiobutiius. p. 43. 

b. A strong vesicular spine beneath aculeus ; 

terga with only one median crest, protarsi 
of anterior legs not depressed and not 
fringed with hairs Isometrcs, p. 44. 



PLESIOBUTHUS, gen. nov. 

Superficially closely resembling Buthus. 

Anterior pedal spin- very long, stout, undivided but hairy, much 
larger than the posterior spur; a conspicuous spiniform process- 
from the protarsus projecting downwards alongside the posterior 
spur, so that there appear to be three pedal spurs. Protarsus 
of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd legs strongly depressed, with sharp fringed 
posterior edge; tarsi also depressed though to a lesser extent, 
and hairy; claw-lobe very short and tuberculiform ; claws very 
long, nearly as long as the tarsus and nearly straight. Immovable 
fang of mandible armed below with 1 or 2 teeth. Finger of 
chela armed with many rows of teeth, the enlarged teeth of 
the inner series placed near the middle of the rows of the median 
series. Carapace with straight anterior border, four lateral 
eyes on each side and carinate ocular tubercle, but without other 
keels. Terga tricostate, lateral crests weak. Tail as in ButJms, 
but somewhat depressed, the supero-lateral keels very strong on 
segments 1-3; vesicle without spine beneath aculeus. Stemwn\ 
triangular. 

Type and only known species, I', paradoxus. 

Distribution. Northern Baluchistan. 

This genus so closely resembles Buihus in a general way, and 
particularly that species, inhabiting the same area, which Birula 
has recently made the type of his subgenus (? genus) Liobutkus, 
that it is hard to believe the likeness is not due to actual affinity. 
The resemblance, however, is exactly paralleled by that which 
obtains between Isonu-trus and Lychas; and this, in the present 
state of our knowledge touching the constancy of the tibial 
spurs, is assumed to be due to similarity of surroundings and 
mode of life ; and since the resemblance in the latter case is 
attributed to the causes named, there appears to be no logical 
ground for doubting their efficacy in producing the similarity 
observable between I'/tsiobuthus and L/iobuthus. But if in the 
future it be shown that the tibial spurs have been lost indepen- 

* In the British Museum there is an example of a Central-American species 
of Centrums (('. infamatus) ticketed Ceylon. This locality is probabh 
erroneous, and clue to the misplacement of a label. If accurate tho specimen 
must ha\e been artificially introduced, and need not be considered in the 
present, work. 



44 



BUTHID^. 



Jently by Plesiobuthus and Isometrus, the former being a de- 
scendant of Buthus and the latter of Lycfias, it will be difficult 
to find valid reasons for upholding the groups Butbinae and 
Centrurinae. 





31. Plesiobuthus paradoxus, sp. n. 

Colour mostly a fairly uniform yellow ; ocular tubercle and 
frontal area of carapace infuscate ; middle line of tail and its 
superior and supero-lateral crests, as well as the sides of the 

vesicle and the three inferior 
C. B. A. keels of the 5th caudal seg- 

ment, infuscate ; chelae and 
legs yellow, with keels infus- 
cate. Carapace as long as 
the 5th caudal segment ; finely 
granular. Terr/a closely gran- 
ular. Sterna smooth, finely 
granular at the sides ; the 
last with two granular crests, 
the median pair being obso- 
lete. Tail about five and a 
half times as long as the 
carapace, the first three seg- 
ments subequal in width, 
4th much narrower than 3rd 
and 5th than 4th ; median 
lateral keel present only on 
the posterior half of the 1st 
segment, absent on the rest ; 
inferior median keels smooth on segments 1 and 2, scarcely 
granular on 3 and 4; the rest of the keels granular: intercarpal 
spaces of tail smooth, or at most finely granular; reside narrower 
than 5th segment, smooth, punctured below ; aculeus long and 
lightly curved. Chela' with humerus, brachium, and hand granu- 
larly crested ; hand wider than brachium ; underhand about half 
the length of the movable digit ; movable digit much longer than 
earapace, armed with 11 rows of teeth. Leys with femora and 
patellae armed with granular crests. Pectines long, furnished with 
37 teeth. 

Measurement's in mm. — Total length 56, carapace 6, tail 34, 
movable digit 6*5. 

Loc. Northern Baluchistan (Maynard 6f MarMalton). 



Fig. 11. — Plesiobuthus paradoxus. 

A. Extremity of 3rd leg, from above. 
B. Ditto, from the side. 0. Vesicle 
and aculeus. 



Genus ISOMETRUS, Eempr. & Ehrenb. 

[sometrus, Hempr, 8f Ehr. Symb. Phys., Seorp. p. •"!, L828; also 
of Thorrll, Karsch, Simon, Pocock, etc. (in part) prior to L891; 
Kraepelin, Jb. Hamb. iri.ss. And. viii, p. 244, 1891, and of 
subsequent authors. 

Terga of carapace with only a median keel. Tail with a large 



ISOMETBQS. 45 

spine or vesicle beneath the aculeus. Lmmovable finger of mandible 
armed beneath with 1 tooth. Finger of chela armed with only 
about five or six median rows of teeth set end to end without 
overlapping, also with an inner series consisting of six large 
teeth set close to the apices of the median rows, and an outer 
series of large teeth corresponding to those of the inner series, 
and placed in a straight transverse line with them. Protarsal 
segments of legs cylindrical, sparsely and irregularly hairy. 

Type, J. europceus, Linn. 

Distribution. Oriental Region, from India as far east as Queens- 
land. (The typical species, /. ewopcnis, has been transported all 
over the tropics and even to Europe in connection with shipping. > 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Posterior surface of brachium rounded, without 

crests ; 5th caudal segment wide and high . . /. rigidulus, p. 52. 

b. Posterior surface of brachium distinctly ciri- 

nate ; 5th caudal segment low and narrow. 
a 1 . Aculeus short, not more than half the 
length of the vesicle ; tarsi furnished 
with two rows of bristles ; pectinal teeth 
12-16. 
a'-. Dorsal keels of 2nd and 3rd caudal seg- 
ments armed posteriorly with an up- 
standing spine : pectinal teeth ]<i /. acanthurus, p. 51 . 

//-. Dorsal keels of caudal segments not fur- 
nished with posterior upstanding' spine ; 
pectinal teeth 12-14. 
a 3 . Vesicular spine acutely angular ; dorsal 
surface of abdomen ornamented with 
a pair of complete longitudinal pale 

bands /. vittatus, p. 50. 

b 3 . Vesicular spine with rounded apex ; 
dorsal surface of abdomen not orna- 
mented with two complete longi- 
tudinal yellow bands. 
«*. Colour black, variegated with yel- 
low ; tail and hand thinner /. Irachycentrup, 

1> X . Colour yellow, variegated with black; [p. 50 

tail and hand thicker /. basilicus, p. I'.i. 

b { . Aculeus long-, nearly as long as vesicle; 

tarsi thickly hairy beneath. 

a 5 . Superior keels of 2nd and 3rd caudal 

segments ending in an acute upstanding 

spine ; last abdominal sternum with 

only a pair of crests /. assamensis, p. 18. 

lr\ Superior keels of 2nd and 3rd caudal 
segments not spined; last abdominal 
sternum with four crests. 
a 6 . Pectines in § furnished at base with 

rounded expansion above firsl tooth. . /. t.'.wiitcxi, p 18 
//'. Pectines in § without lobate basal 
expansion. 
a'. Pectinal teeth 15-1(5 ; ante-ocular 



46 



BITH1D.E. 



area with a median elongate yellow 

patch ; hand in J thick /. thurstoni, p. 47. 

Pectinal teeth 17-19; ante-ocular 
area with a large triangular yellow 
patch; hand in c? thin /. europcem, p. 46. 



32. Isometrus europaeus, Linn.Syst. Nat. ed. 10, p. 625,1758 (Scorpio) ; 
Lonnberg, A. M. N.H. (7) i, p. 86, 1897 (Isometrus): maculalus, 
Be Geer, Mem. Hist. Ins. vii, p. 346, pi. xli, figs. !> & 10, 1778 
(Scorpio); C. L. Koch, Araehn. xii, p. 1, fig. 960, 1845 (Lvchas); 
Thorell, A. M. N. H. (4)xvii, p. 8, 1876 ; Simon, Ann. Mus. Genov. 
xx, p. 370, 1884 ; Oates, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. iii, p. 250, figs. 3, 4, 
1888 ; Kraep. Jb. Hamb. wiss. Anst. viii, p. 245, 1^91 (Isometrus) : 
dentatus & americanus, Herbst, Nat. UngefliigeLt Ins. iv, pp. 55 
& 60, pi. vi, tij>-s. 2, 3, 1800 (Scorpio) : filum, Hempr. fy Ehrerib; 
Symb. Phys,, Scorp. p. 3, t. i, fig. 3, 1828 (Buthus (Isometrus)). 

Colour yellow varied with black ; carapace marked in front 
with an anteriorly-expanding triangular yellow patch reaching the 
anterior border. Terga ornamented along the posterior border 
with five black spots, separated by six spots of a clear yellow tint. 
'Sterna yellow, the last obsoletely lined with black. On the tail 
the black on the upper side is represented mostly by small spots 
along the keels ; on the under side, the black forms a network ; 
hand externally spotted ; fingers brown, black at base, yellow at 
tips. 

5 . Carapace evenly granular throughout ; about as long as the 
1st and half the 2nd caudal segments or as the 4th. Terga evenly 

granular. Sterna smooth, the last 
granular throughout, with four 
granular crests. Tail slender, 
about five and a half times the 
length of the carapace, evenly 
granular; 1st segment longer than 
wide, 4th about three times as 
long as wide ; median lateral keel 
practically absent on the 2nd : 
vesicle (fig. 12, A) granular below ; 
the spine triangular-pointed, fur- 
nished with a single anterior 
denticle, separated at its origin 
from the aculeus by a space equal 
to the thickness of its own base or 
of that of the aculeus. Chela', 



A. 



B. 




Pig. L2. — A. Isometrus europtsus: 

vesicle and aculeus. 
B. Ditto : extremity of chela of 

male. 
< '. Isometrus thurstoni; extremity 

of chela. 



finely 



granular 



and granularly 



crested; brachium with an upper 
and a median crest on its posterior 
side; baud smooth, keelless, scarcely 
as wide as brachium ; underhand 

less than half the length of the movable linger, which is longer 

than the carapace. Pectinal teeth 17-19 ( tf , 2). 



LBOMEXBUS. 17 

j with well-marked secondary sexual characters. Tail ex- 
ceedingly long, eight limes as long as carapace; 1st caudal segment 
more than twice as long as wide, 4th about one and a halt' times 
as long as carapace and five times as long as wide. Chela also 
very long and slender ; hand (fig. 12, B) slender, parallel-sided, 
not wider than brachium, its width about one-third the length of 
the underhand, which is at least two-thirds the length of the 
movable finger. 

Measurements in mm. (specimens from Bombay). — 2 • Total 
length 4!>, carapace 5, tail 23, underhand 2-.5, movable finger 6. 
J . Total length 02, carapace 5, tail 42, underhand 4--5, movable 
linger 7. 

Luc. Introduced in connection with shipping from the Oriental 
Region all over the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, 
and America. So far as British India is concerned, the species 
has been found in Bombay, Karachi, Ceylon (Trincomali and 
Peradeniya), Burma (Rangoon, Akyab, &c), and the Andaman 
Islands. 

The wide distribution and sexual variability of this specie 
account, to a great extent, for its long list of synonyms. 

33. Isonietrus thurstoni, Pocock, Jour. Bom. X. II. Soc. vii, p. 2i)7, 
i -'.'.'): Kracp. Tierr., Scorp. etc p. 67, 1899. 

Allied to the preceding. 

$. Coloured very much as in I. europceus, but the yellow tri- 
angle in front of the ocular tubercle reduced to a small spot, which 
is slightly broader behind than in front and does not quite reach 
the anterior margin : the ground-colour of the body and its 
appendages is darker, the median longitudinal band on the terga 
more conspicuous, whereas the tail, legs, and chelae are not so 
variegated, being of a more uniform yellowish-brown tint. Struc- 
turally the 2 much resembles that of /. europceus, but the vesicle 
is very noticeably stouter; the spine smaller and farther re- 
moved from the base of the aculeus. Hand larger than in /. euro- 
pceus, as wide as brachium; length of underhand at least half 
that of movable digit. Pectinal teeth 14-10. 

J. Differing from J of /. europceus in the same characters of 
colour and form of vesicle as the 2 » and sexually modified in much 
the same way, with tail and chela? long. The tail, however, is 
not so long as in I. europceus, about 1\ times as long as the 
carapace; 4th segment not four times as long as wide. Chela' 
differing from those of /. europceus in having the brachium onlj 
about four times as long as wide, the hand (lig. 12, C) inflated, 
much wider than the brachium, its width at least half the length 
of the underhand, and the immovable anger Minions in the proximal 
half, so that when closed the two are not in contact at base. 

Measurements in mm. of 6 (type) from Shevaroy Hills. — Total 
length 67, carapace 6. tail 45, underhand 5, width of hand 2'5. 



48 buthidjE. 

Loc. From Central India, (Bhopal, Dane) southwards through 
Belgauin and the Kolhapur State ( Wray), into the Madras Pre- 
sidency : Cuddapah {Popert), Coonoor, Yercaud in the 8hevaroy 
Hills {Henderson), Trichinopoly {Popert), and Tinnevelly {Barber). 
There are also two specimens in the British Museum labelled 
Ceylon. 

Immature examples of this species are difficult to distinguish 
from those of the preceding. Moreover, the sexual characters of 
the male seldom attain the development presented by the type. 
Nevertheless, the chelae never approach the form characteristic of 
the male of europceus. 

34. Isometrus assamensis, Oates, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. iii, p. 250, 

1888 ; Pocoek, in Weber's Reise Niederl. O.-hid. iii, p. 90, 1893. 

2 . Coloured almost as in I. europceus, but with the yellow ante- 
ocular triangle practically obliterated and the tail much less 
spotted, the 5th segment being a deep uniform brown all over 
and the brown on the others restricted to the under surface and 
to the posterior end of the lateral surface. Chela? and legs 
less spotted than in I. maculatus; patella? of legs with only two 
black bands. Much smaller than /. europceus • carapace more 
deeply emarginate in front. Last sternum of abdomen with a 
pair of keels only, the median pair obsolete. Tail about five 
times as long as the carapace, granular and carinate as in 
/. europceus, but the superior keels of the 2nd and 3rd segments 
each ending in a distinct spiniform tubercle ; vesicle almost as in 
I. europceus, but neither the spine nor the aculeus so long as in 
that species. Chelce with brachium broader as compared with its 
length and finger shorter than in /. europceus, the finger as long 
as the carapace and about twice the length of the underhand. 
Pectinal teeth 14-16 ( 3 , $ )• 

c? . Tail about six times as long as carapace ; spiniform tubercles 
on 2nd and 3rd segments larger than in $ ; vesicle more parallel- 
sided than in /. europceus, the posterior (inferior) border of the 
spine and vesicle in the same straight line, whereas in I. maculatus 
the vesicle diverges at an obtuse angle. Chelce practically re- 
sembling those of the $ , and not strikingly modified as in 
/. euro i >it us and I. thurstoni. 

Meastiremenis in mm. — § • Total length 3(5, carapace 4, tail 22. 
c? . Total length 35, carapace 3*2, tail 22. 

Loc. N.E. India : Dhubri in Assam {Smart). 

35. Isoinetrus thwaitesi, Pocoek, Jour. Bom. N. II. jSoc. xi, p. 114, 

1897 ; Kraep. Picrr., Scorp. etc. p. t>7, 1899. 

Much resembling I. europceus in colour ; but the ocular tubercle 
marked with a median yellow stripe, and the anterior black patch 
gives off an obliquely longitudinal black stripe, which runs forwards 
and inwards to meet its fellow of the opposite side in the middle 



ISOMETIU'S. 



49- 



B. 



of the anterior border ; the black on the tail forms a more distinct 

network, surrounding circular or 
oval yellow spots ; vesicle black, 
with round yellow spots ; the 
chelae, too, including the hands 
and lingers, are black with round 
yellow spots. Structural features 
practically as in /. europcus, 
though the brachium is a little 
broader as compared with its 
length, being very perceptibly 
broader than the hand. Differing 
from the rest of the species in 
possessing a semicircular lobate 
expansion at the base of the 
shaft of the pectines, such as is 
found in the allied American 
genus Titjfus, where it is confined 
to the female. 
Measurements in mm. — Total length 34, carapace 3'8, tail 22. 
Loc. Ceylon (Tliwaites). 




Fig. 13. — A. Base of pee ten showing 
lobe (ft) of Isometrus thwaitesii. 

B. Tarsus and extremity of protarsus 
of 4th leg of Isometrus europceus. 



B. 



36. Isometrus basilicus, Karsch, MT. Munch, ent. Ver. iii, p. 113, 
1879; Simon, Ann. Mus. Genov. xx, p. 370, 1884; Kraep. Jb. 
Hamb. Wis*. Anst. xiii, p. 127, 1890; id. Tien:, Scarp, etc. p. 68, 
1899. 

Colour variegated yellow and black, yellow predominating; ante- 
ocular area of carapace mostly yellow ; terga with median keel, 
lateral border, ><-shaped marks, and a round spot on each side 
of the middle line yellow : sterna yellow, marbled with black ; 

tail yellow, darker posteriorly, 
slightly spotted laterally, more 
strongly lined beneath with black, 
vesicle slightly spotted below ; 
chela? yellow, a few black spots 
on humerus, brachium, and hand: 
hand at base of immovable finger 
black ; fingers black, with yellow 
tips ; legs yellow, with a few black 
spots. 

2 . Carapace granular through- 
out, only a little shorter than the 
1st and 2nd caudal segments and 
quite as long as the 5th. Terga 
granular, "like the carapace. Last 
sternum with the median pair of 
keels obsolete, the laterals complete. Tail Bhort, only a little more 
than .four times as long as the carapace; 1st segmentaboul as long 
as wide, 4th less than 5th, a little more than twice as long as w ide ; 

E 




Fig. 14. — Isometrus basilicus, tf . 

A. Vesicle and aculeus. 

B. Extremity of chela. 



-}(J BITHID.E. 

intercarinal spaces scarcely granular ; keels evenly granular ; 
vesicle with spine not acute, wide at the base, its free edge serui- 
oircularly rounded, armed in front with four small denticles, close 
to aculeus, the intervening distance less than half the thickness of 
the base of the aculeus ; aculeus very short, barely half the length of 
the vesicle. Chelce weakly granular ; brachium armed in front 
with some half-dozen tooth-like tubercles ; hand keeled, distinctly 
wider than brachium, width more than half the underhand ; the 
latter nearly as long as the movable digit, which is about equal 
to the carapace and furnished with 6 rows of teeth. Tarsi 
furnished beneath with two rows of hairs. Pectinal teeth 13-14. 

<S . Tail very long, more than six times the length of the carapace, 
which is equal to its 2nd segment ; 1st segment about twice, 4th 
about three times as long as wide ; keels and intercarinal spaces 
smoother than in 5 , superior keels of 2nd and 3rd segments each 
ending in a triangular tooth ; chelae with hand smoother and a little 
thicker and longer than in $ , the length of the underhand being 
equal to that of the movable finger. 

Measurements in mm. — $ . Total length 40, carapace 4 - 5, tail 23. 
$ . Total length 56, carapace 5, tail 38. 

Loc. Ceylon : Peradeniya (Sarasin), Haldumullah (Green). 

37. Isometrus brachycentrus, Pocock, Jou?°. Bom. N. If. >Soc. xii, 

p. 263, 1899. 

5 • Nearly allied to the preceding, but much darker in colour. 
Upper side of trunk deep blackish brown, anteocular area of 
carapace black ; terga with a clear circular spot on each side of 
the middle line, also a paler lateral submarginal band ; tail reddish 
brown, the median inferior intercarinal space marked with a black 
stripe ; 5th segment, with exception of its antei'ior part, entirely 
black; chelae mostly a uniform reddish brown or clearer reddish 
yellow ; legs strongly infuscate externally, the femur and patella of 
the posterior legs being almost wholly black with only one or two 
yellow spots ; abdominal sterna, except the 5th, not infuscate. 
Structurally almost as in I. basilicas, but the tail thinner, about 
six times as long as the carapace, the 1st segment longer than wide, 
the 4th a little more than twice as long as wide. Chela' also as in 
/. basilicas, but hand a little smaller, scarcely exceeding brachium 
in width. Pectinal teeth 12. 

Measurements in mm.- — Total length 42, carapace 4, tail 24. 

Loc. Mangalore (Battle) and Kanara (Bell), on the Malabar coast. 

38. Isometrus vittatus, sp. n. 

5 . Colour: carapace varied with yellow and brown ; upper side 
of abdomen with two complete yellow bands, separated from each 
other by a complete median brown band about equal to them in 
width, and from the external margin by a similar brown band ; sterna 
pale; tail uniformly yellowish brown, a little darker posteriorly; 
chelae with humerus and band pale ; brachium, except for its pale 



ISOBtEIBUS. 51 

basal portion, and base or digits infuscate ; legs externally varie- 
gated. Upper side of body closely and entirely covered with 
larger and smaller granules ; a row of coarser granules along 
posterior border of terga ; last st< mum closely granular throughout, 
and furnished with four granular keel-:. Tail slender, about four 
times as long as carapace, closely granular, normally keeled; 
median lateral keel present only on 1st segment , merely represented 
on tlie 2nd posteriorly by about three granules; vesicle smooth, 
long, about twice as long as aculeus ; spine large, triangularly 
pointed, its inferior edge continuous with the corresponding edge 
of the vesicle, its upper edge furnished with a pair of tubercles; 
distance between spine and base of aculeus scarcely equal to diameter 
of base of aculeus; aculeus moderately long. CTielce with humerus 
and brachium granular and normally keeled : brachium wide, only 
twice as long as wide, and furnished in front with about half-a- 
dozen denticles; hand large, wider than brachium, smooth, not 
.crested; lingers short, in contact, movable only slightly longer 
than underhand, furnished with 7 rows of teeth. Pectinal teeth 
12-13. 'J'ar.si furnished below with a few setae, arranged in two 
rows. 

Mrirsii '.,•<■ 1 1 tents in mm. — Total length 23, tail 13, carapace '■'>. 

Lor. Madras (Henderson). 

A single female example. 

39. Isometrus acanthums, Pocock, Jour. Bum. N. 11. .Sue xii, p. 264, 
L899. 

d . Allied to the preceding species, and most nearly resembling 
J. basilicus in colour. Carapace lined with black ; anteocular 
region black, with a few small yellow spots ; terga with six rellow 
and live black longitudinal bands ; 4th and 5th sternal plaits lined 
with black ; tail delicately lined with black ; chelae and legs yellow 
spotted with black, black on brachium predominating and circum- 
scribing definite yellow spots ; hand almost entirely vellow, not 
black at base of lingers ; fingers not black, but yellow aud spotted 
with black. Upper side of trunk granular, and crested as in 
the preceding species; carapaa as long as the 2nd caudal segment ; 
5th abdominal sternum marked with tour complete and equal 
granular keels. Tail long and slender, about seven limes the 
length of the carapace; keels stronger than in /. Imsilicus, and the 
terminal granule on the superior keels on 2nd and 3rd segments 
long, erect, and spiniform; vesicle with coarsely granular crests 
below ; spine not so thick as in the preceding species, triangular, 
but with blunt, not rounded or sharp apex, armed with only two 
denticles ; aculeus short and curved. Ch<l<> much as in I . basilicus, 
but the front of the brachium normally crested and subdenticulate, 
not furnished with a few large teeth; baud smooth, wider (ban 
brachium, its width about half the Length of the underhand; m ivable 
digit as long a> underhand, not so long a< carapace, furnished w ith 
7 rows of teeth. P, iti„ at teeth 16. 

e2 



52 buthidjE. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 39, carapace 4, tail 27. 
Loc. Matheran (Phipson). 
Female unknown. 

40. Isometrus rigidulus, Pocock, Journ. Bom. N. H. Sue. xi, p. 113, 
1897 ; Kraep. Tien:, Scorp. etc. p. 60, 1899. 

Colour varied yellow and black ; anteocular area of carapace 
black, with two small yellow spots in front of the black tubercle ; 
terga yellowish round the margins, and with yellow >< -shaped 
marks ; sterna weakly infuscate at the margins, the 4th and 5th 
also infuscate mesially ; tail weakly lined with black below, black 
increasing in amount on the posterior segments, the 5th being 
almost entirely black : vesicle variegated ; chelae with humerus and 
brachium black, yellow-spotted ; hand and fingers yellow, black- 
spotted. Carapace and terga coarsely and evenly granular through- 
out ; carapace as long as 5th caudal segment, longer than 1st and 
half the 2nd. Sterna smooth, the last granular throughout, with 
four granular keels. Tail about five times as long as carapace, 1st 
segment about as long as wide, 4th about twice as long as wide : 
intercarinal spaces closely and rather coarsely granular throughout ; 
keels strong, coarsely granular, dorsal keel of 3rd ending in a long 
and strong upstanding spine ; 5th segment dorsally much elevated, 
so that the height of the segment is greater than the width and 
nearly half the length ; vesicle coarsely granular below, the spine 
triangular, pointed, armed with one tooth, and separated from the 
aculeus by a space which nearly equals the width of the latter ; 
aculeus more than half the length of the vesicle. Chela : brachium 
without crests on its posterior surface, which is rounded, upper 
crests granular ; hand smooth, about as wide as the brachium ; 
movable finger about as long as the carapace and one fourth longer 
than the underhand, furnished with 7 rows of teeth. Tarsi 
furnished beneath with 2 rows of long setae. Pectinal teeth 
13-15. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 29, carapace 3, tail 15. 

Loc. Central India : Bhopal (Dane). 

The following species belonging to the family Buthidae is of 
doubtful generic position, though probably referable to Li/clias or 
Fsomctrus, and very possibly specifically identical with Isometrus 
europceus : — 

Scorpio (Atreus) spinax, Gervais, Arch. Mas. Pari*, iv, p. 225, 
1844. 

Total length 53 mm., tail 30. A single dorsal keel. Pectinal 
teeth 19. 
Loc. India. 



i H.KRILIU.E. 



.).) 



Family CH.ERILID.E. 

Pedal spurs two, as in the Buthidce; but the anterior never 
•double. Sternum of eephalothorax pentagonal, parallel-sided, with 
a posterior rounded median pit : as long as wide or longer than 
wide. Pectines very short, scarcely segmented. Maxillary pro- 
cesses of 1st pair of legs (fig. 15, «)expanded at the anterior extremity, 
with broadly truncate anterior border. Stigmata (fig. 15, c) circular. 
Carapace narrowed in front, its anterior border transversely truncate; 

a 





Fig. 15. — Lower side of eephalothorax and 
of anterior abdominal somites of Charilus, 
showing(a) the expanded maxillary process 
of the 1st leg; (oj the unsegmented shaft 
of the pecten, and (c) the circular stigma. 



Fig. 16. 

Carapace of IhcerUus. 



two lateral eyes on each side, aud beneath them an amber-coloured 
spot. Movable and immovable fingers of mandible armed below 
with a series of small teeth. Fingers of chelce never lobate, 
furnished with many overlapping rows of small teeth, the terminal 
tooth of each series on the outer side enlarged. Tarsi (fig. 5 B, p. 8) 
furnished beneath with two series of stout bristles and a median 
series of very fine spicules. Males usually with longer narrower 
chelae than females, and slightly or considerably longer tail; vesicle 
<of tail sometimes much modified in male. 



Genus CH-ffiRILUS, Simon. 
Chaerilus, Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. France (5), vii. p. 238, 1877 j 



Karsch, .1/7'. Munch. Ent. J'cr. iii, p. 1<>I. l>7it; J'ococJ,-, in 
Weber's Heist Niederl.O.-Ind.iii t -p.91, 1890; Eraepelin, Jb. Hamb. 
Wise. And. xi, p. 141. L894; id. Tierr., Scorp, etc. p. 167, 1899. 

Chelomachus, Thorell,Ann. Mus. Genova, x.wii. p. •">>■:. L889. 

Qromachus, Pocock, A. M. .V. //. (6) v. p. 250, L890. 



54 CH^RILJD.E. 

Characters of the family. 

Distribution. Ceylon : Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam ;: 
Burma, Malacca, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes. 

The genus ChelomacJms was based upon a character occurring in 
an immature individual ; Uromachus upon the peculiar form of 
vesicle found in the male of the species described below as Chrrrilvs 
pictus. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Hand furnished with only five keels, three 

above and two bordering the underhand 
below ; last abdominal sternum with four 
granular crests ; crests on hand marked 
with a single row of shining granules, 
which are much more conspicuous than 
those covering the rest of the surface : 
length of fingers and granulation of cara- 
pace as under b' C. tricostatus, p. 59. 

b, Hand furnished with seven keels (in addition 

to a weak crest on its inner surface), five 

on its upper surface and two bordering 

the underhand below ; last abdominal 

sternum without crests ; granules on keels 

of hand small and close-set, not or hardly 

larger than those covering the rest of its 

surface. 

a'. Ocular tubercle and anteocular area of 

carapace closely covered with granules ; 

fingers very short, the movable strongly 

curved, shorter than width of hand and 

much shorter thau carapace; width of 

immovable at base about two-thirds of 

its length < '. ceylonensis, p. 02.- 

//. Ocular tubercle and at least the posterior 
half of the anteocular area of the carapace 
smooth ; fingers longer, the movable 
lightly curved, exceeding the width of 
the hand, and at most only a little less 
than the carapace : basal width of im- 
movable less than half its length. 
«-. Vesicle inflated, when viewed from the 
side not passing gradually and without 
constriction into the aculeus ; base of 
aculeus subcylindrical, much narrower 
than adjacent portion of the vesicle 
and much longer than wide. 
a 3 . Chela' lon<>' ; humerus, brachiuni, and 
underhand subequal to or longer 
than the carapace; pectines large, 
their length from base of shaft u> 
ti|i nf apical tooth about as long ;i- 
patella of 3rd leg. 
« 4 . Width nf Ls1 caudal segment >'\ 
ceeding length of 4th; 2nd caudal 
segment longer than wide; 



OEJERILVB. 55 

humerus, brachium, and under- 
hand all exceeding length of cara- 
pace ; humerus more than twice as 
long as wide : width of hand less 
than half the length of the under- 
hand ; terga smooth (.'. insignia J . p. 68, 

l>\ Width of 1st caudal segment equal 
to length of 4th, 2nd wider than 
long ; humerus shorter than bra- 
chium, and underhand equal to 
length of carapace; width of hand 
always more than half the length 
of underhand. 
<r. Terga smooth, only obsoletely 
granular ; frontal area of cara- 
pace weakly granular anteri- 
orly; inferior median keels of 
2nd caudal segment granular.. C. margaritabua d , 
!>'. Terga very distinctly and closely p. 58. 

granular throughout, frontal 
area of carapace coarsely gran- 
ular anteriorly : inferior median 
keel of 2nd caudal segment 

smooth C. cmthracinua 3 , 

» 3 . Chelae short ; humerus, brachium, p 57. 

and underhand considerably shorter 
than carapace ; pectinea small, 
length from base of shaft to tip of 
apical tootb much less than patella 
of 3rd leg. 
a . Abdominal terga so densely and 
uniformly covered throughout 
with granules that do visible inter- 
spaces are left; trunk and chelae 
blackish, legs yellowish brown . . <'. anthracimts 2, 
b'\ Abdominal terga studded with p. 57. 

pearl-like granules separated by 
very distinct interspaces; body 
and chelae dull brown.- 
a'. Frontal area of carapace weakly 
granular throughout, the gran- 
ules at most only a little 
coarser anteriorly ; hand wider, 
its width about equal to length 
of humerus; trunk and limbs 

uniformly coloured C. tnargaritattis 2, 

b". Frontal area of carapace smooth p. 58. 

behind, coarsely granular an- 
teriorly; hand narrower, its 
width noticeably less than 
Li ogtb of humerus ; trunk and 

limbs variegati d C. granosus, p. 56. 

Vesicle much less inflated, flatter 
beneath, as high a> ">th caudal seg- 
ment, and. when viewed from the Bide, 
passing gradually and without constric- 
tion into tlif aculeus ; aculeus less 



56 chjEHilidje. 



than half the length of the vesicle ; its 
basal portion, seen laterally, broad, 
triangular, about as wide as long. 
<7\ Upper side of body in § closely 
covered with large pearl-like gran- 
ules ; intercarinal spaces of tail very 
distinctly granular; much darker. . C. gemmifer, p. 60. 
//. Upper surface of body furnished with 
only a few coarse granules scattered 
here and there ; intercarinal spaces 
of tail and of hand almost smooth ; 
mnch paler and more distinctly 
variegated C. pictus, p. 61. 

41. Chaerilus granosus, sp. n. 

5 . Colour. Upper side of body blackish brown, mottled with 

yellowish red ; terga with median and lateral yellow patch and 

x-shaped yellow mark ; tail and chelae reddish brown with 

black keels, ringers black ; vesicle reddish yellow, usually mottled 

below with blackish grey ; legs mostly fuscous with yellowish-red 

markings, paler towai'ds the apex. Carapace for the most part 

covered with granules, especially at the sides, the ocular tubercle 

and the posterior half of the anteocular area, as well as the 

portion of the upper surface on the inner side of the two crests 

smooth ; a little longer than the 1st and 2nd caudal segments, to 

about the same extent shorter than the 3rd and 4th, aud about as 

long as the 5th. Terga coarsely granular throughout, the granules 

shining and separated from each other by very distinct, almost 

smooth interspaces, from the 3rd to the 6th furnished on each 

side with a larger marginal granule representing an incipient 

lateral keel : the last with four granular crests. Sterna smooth, 

the last granular at the sides, not crested. Tail about four times as 

long as the carapace ; the upper surface sparsely granular in the 

middle, the granules showing a tendency to run into a pair of 

converging longitudinal series ; sides of tail and keels coarsely 

granular except the inferior median crests of the 1st segment, 

which are smooth and obsolete ; median lateral crest present on 

1st segment and extending throughout half the length of the 5th, 

practically absent on the rest; width of 1st about equal to length 

of 4th, 2nd as wide as long ; upper edges of 5th square and 

coarsely granular ; lower keels of 5th denticulate, the median 

posteriorly bifid ; anal border denticulate, with lateral bifid lobe; 

vesicle (see fig. 18, A) granular at the sides, smooth above and in 

the middle line below ; piriform and subglobular, a little wider than 

high, width equal to that of 4th segment, height exceeding that of 

5th and more than half the length of the vesicle; basal half of 

aculeus slender, subcylindrical, much longer than thick, and marked 

off from vesicle by a distinct constriction, so that when viewed from 

the side the two do not pass continuously into each other. Chela' 

with humerus, brachium, and underhand all shorter than carapace; 

humerus coarsely granular and crested above and in front, less 



CHJEBILrS. 57 

strongly but distinctly granular below, mostly smooth behind 
except for a granular crest on its upper half ; brachium furnished 
with five granular crests above, behind, and below, with the inter- 
spaces also granular : hand granular throughout, furnished with 
eight strong granular keels in addition to a small crest on the 
middle of its inner surface, the keels more coarsely and closely 
granular than the interspaces ; width of hand less than length of 
underhand by about one fifth of its length ; underhand less than 
movable finger, which almost equals carapace ; inner edge of hand 
lightly convex, subparallel to the outer border, posterior lobe 
rounded, not surpassing posterior border of the outer side of the 
upper surface ; movable finger with 9 rows of teeth. Legs with pro- 
tarsi, except of 4th, spined posteriorly, and including that of the 
4th armed with a posterior distal spine ; femora of 3rd and 4th 
and also patella of 4th finely granular externally. Pectinal teeth 4. 

Measurements in mm. — $. Total length 52, carapace 7, tail 28, 
brachium 5*8, underhand 5, movable finger 6, width of hand 4. 

Loc. Western Himalayas : Mussooree {Rattray). 

42. Chaerilus anthracinus, sp. n. 

Closely allied .to the preceding, of which perhaps it will prove 
to be a subspecies. 

J . Colour of body much more uniformly black or deep brown, 
the yellowish-red mottling being scarcely traceable ; legs also much 
more uniformly coloured, but yellowish brown and contrasting 
with the dark tint of the body much more forcibly than in 
C. margaritatus. Upper side of trunl- granular as in that species, 
but much more closely, the terga being almost entirely covered, 
with scarcely any interspaces between the granules. Chelae, on the 
contrary, distinctly less coarsely granular than in G. margaritatus : 
the keels on the hand and the posterior side of the brachium 
being nearly smooth, the granulation presenting a scale-like 
appearance as if rubbed down: band distinctly wider, its width 
about equal to the length of the humerus and almost equal to the 
length of the underhand. Pectinal teeth 1. 

6 • Sexual characters as in C. margaritatus. Tergal plates more 
finely, and even a little inure closely granular than in the $, 
coarsely shagreened. Pectinal teeth <>. 

Measurements in mm. — $. Total length 51, carapace 7, tail 30, 
brachium o", underhand 6, movable linger 6'5, width of hand 5*2. 

J. Total length 44, carapace 6 - 5, tail 27, brachium 6'5, 
underhand <> - 5, movable linger 6, width of hand 4 - .">, 
Loc. Dalhousie in the Western Himalayas (To umsend). 

Subspecies rufescens, nov. 

J . Differing from the typical form in being more coarsely 
and less closely granular. Not bo dark in colour, the chelae 
reddish brown, with black crests and the legs lightly variegated 
as in 0. granosxis; terga dark, with a very indistinct >< -shaped 



58 CH.lIilLID.E. 

mark and with three distinct reddish spots — one on the posterior 
border, one in the middle line, and one on the lateral angle. 
Pectinal teeth 5. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 45, carapace 6 - 3, tail 25, 
brachium 6*2, underhand 6, movable finger 5-6, width of band 4. 

Loc. Dharmsiila in the Western Himalayas (Falton). 

43. Chaerilus margaritatus, Pocuek, A. M. N. H. (6) xiii, p. 79, 1894. 

Colour of c? and 5 tolerably uniform brown, the legs paler; 
not so dark as in C. anihracinus and not variegated as in C. granosus. 
.Male differing from that of C. anihracinus in having the upper side 
of the abdomen almost smooth, at most very finely granular, with 
a row of coarser granules along the posterior border whereon the 
two tubercles are very prominent ; the granules on the anterior 
half of the frontal area of the carapace not so coarse. Tail rather 
more than four times as long as carapace ; width of 1st segment 
about equal to length of 4th, 2nd a little wider than long : inferior 
median keels on 2nd granular. Chela' much like those of C. an- 
ihracinus, the hand a little narrower as compared with its length 
{cf. measurements). 

2 . Resembling § of C. granosus in granulation of terga, but 
with the granules not extending to the lateral borders as they do 
almost invariably in that species ; differing from the latter and 
from 5 0I C- anihracinus in having the frontal area of the cara- 
pace granular behind as well as in front, sometimes evenly but 
sparsely granular throughout, at others more coarsely granular 
in front. Band of very much the same shape and size as in 
C. anihracinus. Pectinal teeth 5 in J , 3-4 in § . 

Measurements in mm. — £ ■ Total length 50, carapace 6*5, tail 26, 
brachium 5*5, underhand 5*5, movable finger 0, width of hand 4-9. 

6 . Total length 53, carapace 7, tail 30, brachium 7*2, under- 
hand 7, movable finger 7, width of hand 4*5. 

Loc. India: Kasauli, near Simla {'Waller Barrow). 

44. Chserilus insignis, Pocock, A. 31. N. II. (0) xiii, p. 82, 1894. 

<5 . Colour (dry specimen) apparently as in ('. margaritatus. 
Carapace with the same distribution of granules as in the pre- 
ceding two species, but the granulation less distinct. Terga not 
coarsely or closely but only very finely granular under the lens, the 
lateral keels marked by a large tubercle. TYuilmucb. longer than in 
male of C. margaritatus and C. anthracinus, more than lour times 
the length of carapace; width of 1st segment considerably less than 
length of 4th, 2nd segment longer than wide: apper side practically 
smooth, lateral surface much less granular than in C. margaritatus; 
inferior median keels of 1st standing up as distinct, though only 
obsoletely granular crests. Chela granular and Keeled as in 
( '. margae'i tains, very long: humerus longer than carapace, more 
than twice as long as wide, but shorter than brachium and under- 



CH.ERILUS. 



59 



hand, both of which are thus much longer than carapace ; hand 
(fig. 17, C) long and narrow, the width considerably less than hall 
the length of the underhand, its inner edge straight and parallel 
with the outer edge ; movable finger a little longer than the 
carapace. Pectinal teeth (>. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 64, carapace 0, tail 39, 
brachium 10*5, underhand 1 1, movable finger 9-5, width of hand 4-">. 

fjoc. Ladakh. 



40. Chaerilus tricostatus. Pocock, Join-. Bo 
1899. 



/n. 



X. H. Soc. xii, p. 266 



Colour (dry specimen) a tolerably uniform reddish brown, with 
blacker markings. Carapace granular at the sides, mostly smooth 
above except for the auteocular triangle, which is granular at 



A. 



C. 






Fig. 17. 



-A. TTand of Charilus tricostatus J . B. Hand of C. / 
C. Hand of C. insignis J. 



least in front; longer than 1st and 2nd caudal segments, about 
equal to 3rd and 4th and a little longer than 5th. Sterna as in 
the other species, but the last furnished with four short crests, 
each consisting of a few large granules. Terga finely granular, 
with a few larger pearl-like granules scattered here and there, and 
a series of them along the posterior border ; with distinct lateral 
crests, those on tin; 3rd consisting of a single large pearl-like 
granule, those on the -1th, 5th, and 6th of three similar granules. 
Tail rather le-s than three times the length of the carapace, width 
of 1st segment about equal to length of 4th; 2nd about as wide 
as long; dorsal surface very sparsely granular, lateral and inferior 
surfaces weakly but not so sparsely granular as the upper surface; 
all the keels normal and denticulated ; the inferior median keels of 
the 1st segmenl distinct and consisting of coarse granules like those 
on the 2nd and on the last abdominal sternum ; i/< stele finely granular 
belowand laterally, of much the same form as in ( '. margaritatus and 
C. insignis. Chela long; humerus as long as carapace and a liit !i 



60 



CH.ERIL1D-E. 



more than twice as long as wide, weakly granular above and in front 
except for coarse granules along the keels, posterior surface 
smooth, inferior surface very weakly granular ; braehium a little 
louger than carapace, the normal keels marked by a single series of 
low shining granules, the anterior surface furnished with a few large 
granules on its upper and lower prominences, for the rest the seg- 
ment is almost entirely smooth ; hand (tig. 17, A) finely and closely 
granular above and externally, more finely granular internally and 
smooth on the underhand, furnished with only five keels, three 
above and two bordering the underhand, the keels defined by a 
single row of shining granules which are much larger than the 
granules covering the rest of the upper surface ; underhand a 
little longer than braehium and than movable linger ; hand parallel- 
sided, its width a little more than half the length of the under- 
hand ; movable finger slightly longer than carapace, furnished 
with 4 rows of teeth. Pectinal teeth 5-6. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 50, carapace 7*5, tail 30, 
braehium 8, underhand S'5, movable tinger 7*8, width of hand 5. 

Loc. Sadiya, Assam. 

Female unknown. 



40. Chaerilus gemmifer, IWoek, A. M. X. H. (<>) xiii, p. si, 1894: 
Kraep. Tien:, Scoip. etc. p. 159, 1899. 

Colour nearly black, varied with yellow ; rerga with median and 
lateral marginal yellow spot and yellow >< -shaped mark; tail 
and chela) deep reddish brown with black keels ; fingers black. 

Carapace with coarse shining 
granules on the sides, anteocular 
area weakly and sparsely granular 
throughout, the area behind the 
tubercle serially granular ; relative 
length of carapace and caudal seg- 
ments approximately as in C. marga- 
ritatus. Terga covered with coarse 
C. pearl-like granules, much larger and 
farther apart than in C.margaritatus', 
lateral crests represented by one or 
two still larger granules. Sterna 
as in C. vnargaritatus. Tall approxi- 
mately as in that species, but 
smoother below, the four inferior 
keels of the 1st segment smooth, and 
the inferior medians of the 2nd at 
most very weakly granular ; vesh-L 
(tig. 18, B) not so globular,much less 
convex below, height less than that 
of 5th segment, granular above as 
well as at the sides and below ; from 
the lateral aspect passing without constriction into the base of the 




Fig. 18. — A. Vesicle of < 'hcerttus 
margaritatus §. B. Vesi- 
cle "I' C. gemmifer §. C. 
Vesicle dl' ('. jihlus ,?, side 
view. 13. Do., upper view 
of extremity . 



(II EUILL'S. 



til 



aculeus, which is short, nearly as wide at its proximal as at its 
distal end, where it merges with the spiniform portion ; the whole 
aculeus much less than half the length of the vesicle. Chela' with 
humerus much less coarsely granular above and in front than in 
C. margaritatus, very finely granular below, smooth behind ; bra- 
chium with superior granular crest, posterior and inferior surface 
smooth, anterior surface smooth except for some coarse granules 
on the inferior crest and on the inferior prominence and two larger 
granules above ; keels of hand normal in number, very finely 
granular, the interspace covered with a wide-meshed network of 
granules ; width almost equal to length of underhand, the inner 
edge more strongly convex than in ft margaritatus, with much 
closer, less open concavity where it merges with the immovable 
finger ; fingers more strongly carved. Pectinal teeth 4. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 38, carapace 6, tail 24, 
brachium 4-5, underhand 4-5. movable finger 5*3, width of hand 4- 2. 

Loc. Sylhet (Bowring). 

47. Chserilus pictus, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) v, p. 250, pL xi, figs. 1 l< 
(1890) (Uromarhu-o : id. in Weber, Tteise Niederl, O.-Ind. iii. p. 91, 
1893 : Kraep. Jb. Hamb. Wiss. Anst. xi. p. 143, 1894 ; id. Tien-.. 
Scarp, etc. p.' 159. 1899 (Chserilus). 

2 . Colour somewhat as in G. gemmifer, but much paler; the 
yellow or red predominates so that the integument may be described 
as red varied with black ; chelae deep red with black keels. Cara- 
pace and terga with a few coarse pearl-like granules scattered here 
and there ; anteocular area practically smooth ; relative length of 
carapace and tail-segments as in G. gemmifer; intercarinal spaces of 
tail almost smooth, those of the 5th weakly granular ; vesicle as in 
C. gemmifer. Chelce with humerus weakly granular, except for the 
upper and anterior crests, which are coarsely so ; brachium almosl 
wholly smooth except for a few coarse granules on the upper crest 
and a few in front; intercarinal spaces of baud with a very tineh 
granular network, almost smooth ; keels very weakly granular ; 
shape of hand as in G. gemmifer. Pectinal teeth 5. 

d . With tail very long and slender; carapace as long as the 
1st and half the 2nd segments, much shorter than the 5th. Tail 
more than six and a half times as long as the carapace, the 1st 
segment longer than wide, 2nd nearly twice as long as wide, 5th 
more than four times as long as wide; vesicli | fiL. r . 18, ( '. 1>) very 
long, as long as the 5th segment of the tail, flat below, about a^ 
wide as the 4th segment, its height equal to that of the 5th, nearly 
parallel-sided, very coarsely granular, ending disrallyin a righl and 
left shoulder-like prominence; base <>f aculeus when seen from 
above resembling a Large cylindrical tubercle, upon the summit of 
which is situated the strongly bent spiniform distal extremity; 
when seen from the side the base of the aculeus merges without 
constriction with the adjacent end of the vesicle. Chela very much 
as in female ; humerus, brachium. and underhand all shorter than 



62 CH-EBILID^E. 

carapace ; hand (tig. 17, B) a little longer than in female, its width 
about four-fifths its length. 

Measurements in mm. — $ (young). Total length 32, carapace 5, 
tail 20, brachium 4, underhand 3'S, movable finger 4, width of 
hand 3-3. 

<5 (adult). Total length 61, carapace 6*5, tail 41, brachium 5-5, 
underhand 5-8, movable linger 5, width of hand 4'5. 

Loc. Sylhet (Stainsforth). 

The male of this species differs strikingly from that of all the 
others in the peculiar form of the vesicle and the great length of 
the tail. 

48. Chserilus ceylonensis, Powck. A.M. N.H. (6) xiii, p. 83 (1894)i 
Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. p. 159 (1899). 

S . Colour dull brown ; ocular tubercle, crests of hand, and digits 
infuscate. Carapace longer thau 1st and 2nd caudal segments, as 
long as 3rd and 4th, longer than 5th, granular throughout, with 
the exception of the grooves, which are smooth ; ocular tubercle 
granular. Terga granular throughout, not or hardly distinctly 
crested. Teiil about four times as long as carapace, finely granular ; 
2nd segment as long as wide, 5th more than twice as long as wide ; 
inferior median keel nearly obsolete on 1st segment ; median 
lateral keel distinct on 1st, represented by a few larger granules 
on the others, extending over half the lateral surface of the 5th : 
the rest of the keels distinct and granular ; vesicle of approximately 
the same form as in C. margdritatus, wider and higher than 5th seg- 
ment ; coriaceous below, but not visibly granular. Chelce : humerus 
aud brachium much shorter than carapace, humerus coarsely granular 
above and in front, brachium granular above, almost smooth behind 
and below ; band covered with reticulation of fine granules, keels 
and base of digits thickly aud very finely granular ; keels normal 
in number, but low and very weakly granular ; hand nearly 
parallel-sided ; length of underhand greater than width of hand 
and greater than length of movable digit, which is a little shorter 
than width of hand; immovable digit furnished with 11- 12 rows 
of teeth, its basal width equal to two-thirds its length. Pectinal 
teeth 5-6. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 44, carapace 5*5, tail 22, 
brachium 4, underhand 5*5, movable finger 4, width of hand 4 - 5. 

Lot: Trincomali, Ceylon (Barrett). 

The two following species have been omitted from the synoptical 
table, since I have had no opportunity of examining actual 
specimens. 

i ( .t. Chserilus birmanicus, ThoreU, Ann. 31w<. Genova, xw ii, p. 584. 
18s:i (Chelomachus). 

Colour subtestaceous, varied with black. Carapace tolerably 



chjBbili s. 63 

coarsely granular, a little shorter than caudal segments 1-3, longer 

than segment 5. Terga very finely coriaceous aud granular, with 
largei- granules forming lateral crests on terga 3-6, last tergum 
more coarsely granular at the sides. Sterna smooth, the last 
without crests. Tail about three times as long as the carapace ; 
2nd segment wider than long ; interior median keels of 1st segment 
obsolete; vesicle large, wider than segmenl •">, more than twice as 
long as wide, smooth. UJicln- with hand normally keeled, its width 
equal to the length of the underhand and less than the movable 
ringer, which is a little shorter than the carapace: keels on hand 
finely granular, interspaces smooth. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 16, carapace 2|, tail 7. 
underhand 1*5, movable finger 2, width of hand To. 

Loc. Burma: Rangoon (Fea). 

Unfortunately the only known representative of C. birmanicus, 
which will doubtless prove to be a valid species, is the example 
of which an abridged description is given above. Judging from 
its size this example is not half grown. Hence it is not possible 
to form a just estimate of the characters of the adult, and it is 
superfluous to attempt to locate the species in our synoptical 
table. 

50. Chserilus truncatus, Earsch, MT. Munch, ent. Ver. iii. p. L08, 
]s7i»; Kraep. Jl>. Hamb. Wis*. Anst.xi, p. 146, pi. ii, tig. 54, 1894; 
id. Ticrr.. Scorp. etc. p. 100, 1890 (excluding suggested synouvmy). 

So far as it goes, the description of this species, published bv 
lvraepelin, is not inapplicable to C. margaritatus, ('. <jranosus, and 
also perhaps to C. anihr acinus, except as regards the form of the 
hand. The width of this organ in the male is said to be less than 
half the length of the underhand, and in the female a little more 
than half; whereas in G. margaritatus, C. granosus, and 0. anihra- 
cinus (J, 2) the width of the hand is much more than half the 
length of the underhand. The hand of the male of C. truncatus, id 
fact, seems to resemble that of C. insignis ; but the upper side of 
the abdomen of the former appears to be much more granular. 
Presumably also the chela' and tail are shorter, since nothing is 
said in the description touching their length. 

Loc. Dehra Dun, in the "Western Himalayas. 



64 VEJOTIDT. 



Family VEJOVID.E. 

With two pedal spurs aud no tibial spurs, as in the Chaerilidae. 
Sternum of ceplialothorax pentagonal, nearly always wider than 




B. 




Fig. 19.— A. Coxse and maxillary lobes of 1st and 2nd legs of Scorpiops. 
B. Carapace of Scorpiops. 

long. Pectines segmented. Stigmata elongate. Three lateral eyes 
on each side of carapace. Maxillary lobes of 1st pair of legs 
narrowed, not truncate along the anterior border. 

Distribution. Eastern Mediterranean area : North India and 
Burma ; California, Texas, Central America, and along the chain 
of the Andes to Peru. 



Genus SCORPIOPS, Peters. 

Scorpiops, Peters, Mm. Akad. Berl. 1861, p. 510 ; Karsch, MT. Munch. 
ent. Ver. iii, p. 101, 1879 ; Kracpelin, Jb. llamb. Wiss. Anst. xi. 
p. 185, 1894 ; id. Tierr., Scarp, etc. p. 179, 1899. 

Anterior border of carapace deeply excised in the middle line. 
Movable finger of mandible with a row of 4-6 small teeth below. 
Movable finger of chela furnished along the middle line with 
numerous small teeth arranged in a double row; an outer series 
consisting of small teeth arranged in pairs, and an inner series 
consisting of a few larger teeth confined to the distal half of the 
finger. Hand generally large, flattish above, with usually strong 
finger-keel dividing the upper surface into an outer vertical and 
an inner horizontal portion. Tarsi with median inferior row of 
spinules and a row of setse <>n each side. 

Type, Scorpio hardwickii, Grervais. 

Distribution. The Deccan ; Himalayas from Punjab to Assam, 
thence through Burma to S. Tenasserim. 



scoupiops. 65 



Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Brachium of chela armed at base in front with 

a pair of small tubercles. 
a . Upper and posterior crests upon the hand 
and brachium very strong and smooth. 
a 2 . Upper surface of hand without a smooth 
crest lying longitudinally between the 
finger-keel and the inner border and 
ornamented with granules which fre- 
quently run together into ridges ; length 
of underhand exceeding width of hand, 
especially in J , in which the chelae are 

elongate S. hardwickii, p. 6( i 

ft 2 . Upper surface of hand with a smooth 
longitudinal crest between the iinger- 
keel and the inner border and ornamented 
with a coarse network of perfectly 
smooth ridges resulting from the anas- 
tomosis of low tubercles ; width of hand 
exceeding length of underhand, espe- 
cially in c?, in which the chela: are not 

elongate , S. imculptus, p. 68. 

b l . Upper and posterior crests upon hand and 

brachium distinctly, often coarsely granular. 

a 3 . Length of underhand in 2 about equal 

to width of hand ; keel forming inner 

edge of upper surface of hand projecting 

so as to conceal upper crest on inner 

surface of hand S. crassimanus, p. 68. 

b 3 . Length of underhand in both sexes much 
greater than width of hand ; crest 
forming inner edge of upper surface 
weak and not projecting so as to conceal 

upper crest on inner surface of hand . . S. leptochirm, p. 69. 

Brachium of chela armed in front at base with 

one or more, usually two, long sharp spini- 

form tubercles. 

a*. Tail almost four times ( 5 ) or morn than 

four times (J 1 ) as long as the carapace; 

superior keels of segments 2 1 posteriorly 

depressed, not spiniform ; brachial pores 7; 

vesicle, especially in 3 , large S. petersii, p. 70. 

b*. Tail shorter: superior keels of segments 
•_' t or 3-4 posteriorly spiniform and, ex- 
cept in S. astkenuru8, elevated: vesicle 
smaller; brachial pores not fewer than it. 
a s . Aculeus not defined at the base on each 
side by a semicircular groove ; tail short 
ami slender, with strongly spiniform 
superior keels; bands and carapace 
flatter: width of area on hand between 
finger-keel and inner edge not less in 
adult 2 t° an half the movable finger . . s. montanus, p. 70. 



66 TEJOVID.E. 

b'° Aculeus defined at base by a conspicuous 
semicircular groove ; lingers longer, 
length of movable more than twice as 
great as width of area of upper hand 
between finger-heel and inner edge. 
d r \ With only 3 large setal pores on under- 
hand in addition to the two set trans- 
versely close to the base of the movable 
finger. 
a 7 . Superior keels on caudal segments 
3-4 weakly spiniform and not ele- 
vated at their posterior ends ; tail 
very short in c?> segments 1-5 only 
twice as long as carapace, 1st seg- 
ment not wider than humerus .... S. asthenurus, p. 73. 
IP . Superior keels on caudal segments 
2-4 strongly spiniform and elevated 
posteriorly ; caudal segments 1-5 
in rf much more than twice the 
length of carapace ; 1st caudal 
segment wider than width of 
humerus. 
a H . Brachial pores 9-10 or very rarely 
11 ; fingers less strongly lobate 

in both sexes 8. longimanus, p. 72. 

b n . Brachial pores 14-15; fingers more 

strongly lobate S. binghamii, p. 74. 

i 6 . With 9-10 large setal pores on under- 
hand in adult in addition to the two 
near the base of the finger. 
a 9 . 1st caudal segment narrower than 
humerus; 15 setal pores on bra- 

chium ; pectinal teeth 8 S. lindstroemi, p. 74. 

I 9 . 1st caudal segment wider than hu- 
merus ; 19 setal pores on brachium ; 
pectinal teeth 10-11 S. antkr acinus, p. 7 4. 



51. Scorpiops hardwickii, Gervaisin Wahh. Ins. Apt. iii. p. 66, 1844 
(Scorpio); Pocock, A. M.N.H. (6) xii, p. 325, 1893; Kraepelin, 
Jb. Hamb. vu'ss. Anst. xi, p. 188, 1894 ; id. Tien:, Scorp.etc. p. 181, 
1899 (Scorpiops) : solidus, Karsch, MT. Munch, ent. Ver.m. p. 100, 
1879 (Scorpiops). 

$ . Colour generally a tolerably uniform black, the underside and 
tips of legs paler ; chelae sometimes deep reddish. Carapace finely 
granular, a few coarser granules here and there, especially on iln v 
frontal lobes; as long as the 1st, 2nd, and half the lh-d caudal 
segments, considerably longer than the 5th. Terr/a coarsely granu- 
lar, the granules often showing a tendency lo fuse together into 
scries; a median granular keel ; lasttergum more coarsely granular 
than i he ol hers, with median and two lateral crests. Sterna smooth, 
with a Few large punctures ; the last, granular, with four subequal 
granular keels. Tail about three and a half limes as long as 
carapace ; 1st segment nearly twice as wide as long, 3rd as wide as 



scorpiops. 67 

long, 5th twice as long as wide; intercarinal spaces granular; 
keels strong and subdenticulate, the upper keels of segments 2-4 nut 
posteriorly enlarged and spiniform ; vesicle finely granular, about 
as wide as the 5th caudal segment. Chela granular; humerus 
granular and granularly keeled above and below; upper side of 
brachiuin granular, bounded in front by a granular keel ami 
behind by a strong smooth or almost smooth keel; a similar 
smooth crest running along the posterior surface, which is studded 
with a few large granules ; anterior surface finely granular and 
armed with a pair of small widely-separated tubercles : lower side 
granular, bounded behind and in front by a granular crest, with 
a row of 7 setal pores along its hind border ; hand thick, width 
nearly as great as length of underhand, with very strong am', 
smooth finger-keel dividing its upper surface into an outer sub- 
vertical area and an inner horizontal area, both of them covered 
with granules showing a tendency to run into ridges and form an 
indistinct network ; the outer area furnished in addition with a 
median smooth irregular subdivided crest ; no distinct granwlai crest 
on the inner edge of the horizontal area ; inner surface granular ; 
underhand more finely granular and bounded externally by a 
smooth crest, furnished with a curved series of 3 large setal pores 
and 2 smaller, one" between the 1st and '2nd, the other close to the 
keel beyond the 2nd, also 2 large setal pores set transversely close 
to the base of the linger; movable linger not lobate, scarcely 
exceeding underhand. Pectinal teeth 5-6 ; much larger in male. 

J with tail, and especially chelae, much longer than in female. 
Tail about four times as long as carapace. Chela elongate; 
brachiuin longer than carapace ; width of hand distinctly less than 
length of underhand; the movable linger frequently without a 
lobe; when present, the lobe consists of a thick subtubercular 
prominence situated just behind the middle of the finger but well 
on the inner side of the median line of teeth; both movable and 
immovable digits are then lightly sinuate along the biting-edge. 
Pectinal teeth 5-6. 

Measurements in emu : — 





Total 








Movable 


Width 




length. 


Carapace. 


Tail. 


Underhand. 


tinker. 


of hnnd. 


2 ■■ 


. . 32 


4-b- 


18 


4 


15 


4 


c? . 


. . . 3:J 


5 


20 


5 


5 


4 


6 ■ 


... 43 


5-8 


23 


6 


5-5 


42 



Lnc. Western Himalayas: Kashmir (Leach); Jaunsar, 6000- 
9000 ft.; Dehra Dun, 2000 ft. (Gamble Sf Smythies); Kasauli 
( Waller-Barrow) ; Nepal ( Hardwicke). 

The measurements quoted above in the first and second lines 
are taken from the type ( $ ) specimen and another ( tf ) example, 
ticketed Nepal, from which Gervais drew up his description of the 
species. The measurements in the last line, showing the size 
to which the species inav attain, are taken from an example from 
Jaunsar. The locality Nepal needs confirmation. 



68 VEJOVID^. 

52. Scorpiops insculptus, n. sp. 

5 . In size, colour, and most structural features resembling 
S. JiardwicJcii. Upper side of trunk smoother, the granulation 
much less distinct, consisting of low, smooth, squamiform tubercles 
fusing and running into ridges to a much greater extent than in 
S. JiardwicJcii, especially on the anterior terga. Tail granular and 
carinate as in the latter. Cliela> with humerus and brachium more 
coarsely granular above ; the three posterior crests on the brachium 
quite smooth, as in S. JiardwicJcii ; 7 brachial pores and 3 normal 
pores on underhand ; band very wide, its width exceeding the 
length of the underhand and equal to the length of the movable 
finger; sculpturing on the upper side of the hand consisting of 
perfectly smooth, shilling tubercles, forming in places an irregular 
network of ridges, but showing no separate, tubercles and granules 
as in S. JiardwicJcii ; moreover, the inner horizontal area of the 
upper side of the band is divided throughout by a smooth crest, 
which rises from the tinger-keel near the base of the immovable" 
linger and runs to the notch of the posterior border, where the 
expanded portion of the hand arises ; underhand almost entirely 
smooth. 

$ . Resembling the 2 more than in the case of £. JiardwicJcii ; 
the hand of the cJtelee not elongate as in the latter, but very 
broad, the width being equal to the movable finger and exceeding 
the length of the underhand ; movable finger much more strongly 
curved than in S. JiardwicJcii, its basal half with a deep and long 
excavation behind a low long lobe, which is situated in the distal 
half of the finger; immovable finger with large basal lobe, the rest 
of its biting-edge nearly straight, only lightly convex. Peciinal 
teeth 5-6 ( J , $ ). 

Measurements in mm. — 3 . Total length 35, carapace 5, tail 10, 
underhand 4, movable finger 4-5, width of hand 4*2. 

2 . Total length 37, carapace 4-5, tail 20-5, underhand 3*6, 
movable finger 4, width of hand 4*3. 

Loc. Western Himalayas: Jaunsar, 6000-9000 ft. (Gamble & 
Smythies) ; Dehra Dun, 2000 ft. (Gleadow). 



53. Scorpiops crassimamis, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. II. Soc. xii, p. 267, 
1899. 

$. Allied to the preceding, but larger. Colour black, with 
reddish tinge on chelae ; median keel of terga yellowish anteriorly, 
and there is a transverse reddish stripe on each side in the middle 
of the terga. Upper side of trunk more finely granular than in 
S.JiardivicJcii, crest on last tergum and sternum also weaker. Tail 
more powerful, about three and a half times as long as carapace, 
which is only a little longer than the 5th segment ; intercarpal 
spaces of tail not so coarsely granular, and keels not so strongly 
denticulated, excepi the inferior laterals of the 5th, which are more 
sharply and coarsely denticulated ; superior keels of 3rd and 4th 



scoitPiops. 69 

segments subspiniform distally. Chelce{&g. 2 A, B, p. 7) with all the 
crusts on the brachium and hand, which are smooth in S. hardmckii, 
very distinctly and coarsely granular ; brachium and hand, more- 
over, much more closely granular, the granules more distinct and 
showing less tendency to run into ridges and networks ; the crest 
forming the inner edge of the upper surface of the hand strong, 
consisting of a single row of coarse bead-like granules, and pro- 
jecting as far inwards as the upper granular crest on the inner 
surface of the hand and practically concealing it from view when 
the hand is seen from above in the position of rest. Pectirtal 
teeth 5-(i. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 48, carapace 7*5, tail 28, 
width of hand (>, length of underhand 5*8, of movable finger 7. 

Loc. Probably India: exact locality unknown. 



54. Scorpiops leptochirus, Pocock,A. M. X. H. (0) xii, p. 325, pi. xiv. 
fig. 11 ; id. A. M. X. II. (G) xiii, p. 79, 1894 ; Kraepelin, Tierr., 
Scorp. etc. p. 181, 1899. 

Resembling the preceding two species in having the brachium 
armed in front at the base with small granuliform tubercles, and 
approaching most nearly to S. crassimanus in size, granulation, 
si rength of keels, &c. 

2 . Colour black, tarsi and pectines yellow, vesicle and sterna 
reddish brown. Carapace, terga, and tail granular and carinate, 
practically as in S. crassimanus ; last sternum with four distinctly 
granular keels; tail less than four times as long as the carapace, 
the superior keels of segments 2-4 subspiniform apically. Chela 
granular, practically as in S. crassimanus, but not quite so coarsely ; 
inferior row of brachial pores 7; all the crests granular, as in that 
species, but the crests on the inner edge of the upper surface of 
the hand consisting of irregularly arranged granules, ami not pro- 
jecting as in S. crassimanus, but forming an obtuse angle with the 
upper area of the inner surface of the hand, so that when viewed 
from above the superior granular crest on the inner surface is 
plainly visible ; hand much narrower than in S. crassimanus, its 
width much less than length of underhand and of movable finger, 
the two latter subequal but barely so long as the carapace; fingers 
without trace of lobation and sinuation ; row of three pores on 
underhand. 

d . Resembling 5 in general characters, but with the tail a 
little and the chela? much longer. Tail about four times as long 
as carapace; vesicle & little larger than in $. Humerus as long 
as carapace: brachium a little, underhand much longer than 
carapace: width of hand equal to halt the length of the underhand 
or a little more, the latter longer than the movable digit, which 
slightly exceeds the carapace and is without trace of lobe. Pectinal 
tueth 8-9. 

Measurements in mm. — $. Total length 58, carapace 7*5, tail 
20, brachium i>-$, underhand G'5, width of hand 4-8. 



70 yejovidj;:. 

c?. Total length 55, carapace 7'G, tail 31, brachium 8, under- 
hand 9, width of hand 4*8. 

Loc. Assam : Tura in the Graro Hills {Long) ; Sadiya. 

55. Scorpiops petersii, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) xii, p. 323, pi. xiv, 
fit*. 10, 1893 ; Kraepelin, Jb. Hmnb. iviss. Anst. xi, p. 190, 1894; id. 
Tien:, Scarp, etc. p. 181, 1899 : hartlwickii, Kartell, MT. Munch. 
ent. Ver. iii, p. 106, 1879 (not hardwickii, Gervais). 

2 . Colour of trunk and chelae blackish, legs yellowish or reddish, 
vesicle and mandible yellow. Upper side of trunk granular and 
carinate, almostas in the preceding species ; ocular tubercle smaller. 
Tail almost four times as long tis carapace, thinner, 2nd segment 
longer than wide, 4th twice, 5th rather more than three times as 
long as wide ; superior keels posteriorly depressed, not spiniform ; 
vesicle large, its height equal to its width, its width equal to that of 
the 2nd segment of the tail. Chelae granular ; brachium shorter than 
carapace, with granular crests, its anterior surface armed basally 
with two strong spiniform teeth : 7 setal pores on lower side 
of brachium : crests on hand granular, the crests much stronger 
than in S. leptocliirus, the granulation of the intercarpal spaces 
much weaker than in S. crassimanus ; outer finger-keel on hand 
very strong ; keel running along inner edge of upper side of hand 
also strong and beaded, but not projecting so far as the upper crest 
of the inner surface ; underhand with curved series of 3 normal 
large setal pores and three smaller ones, one between 1st and 2nd 
and two beyond 2nd along inner edge of keel : width of hand about 
two-thirds the length of the underhand, the latter about as long 
as the movable finger and a little shorter than carapace ; fingers 
strongly and mesially lobate and sinuate; 7 teeth on outer series 
as far back as lobe, 4 on inner series at distal end. Pcctinal 
teeth 5-7. 

6 . Not strikingly different from the $ , except that the caudal 
vesicle is more inflated, the height and width being almost equal to 
width of 1st caudal segment, and the tail itself a little longer. 
Humerus, brachium, and underhand about as long as carapace. 
Pectinal teeth 6-7. 

Measurements in mm. — $ . Total length 70, carapace 9*5, tail 36, 
underhand 9, width of hand 6. 

<5 . Total length 50, carapace 8, tail 36, underhand 8, width of 
band 5-5. 

Loc. Western Himalayas : Debra Dun, 2000 ft. ; Jaunsar, 
601 10-9000 ft. (Gamble $ Smythies); Mussooree (Rattray); 
Simla. 



56. Scorpiops montanus, Karsch, MT. Munch. <■»/. Ver. iii, p. 10", 
L879; Kraepelin, .11). Hamb. wiss. Anat. xi,p. 192, l8D4,and Tierr., 
Scorp. etc. p. L80, l^'.t'-) (in part and excluding synonymy). 

5 . Colour as in 8. /ictersii ; carapace flatter than in that species 



scoiipiops. 7 L 

the groove shallower, as long as the first three segments of the 
tail or as the 3rd and 4th, very much longer than the 5th. Last 
abdominal sternum with obsolete median keels. Tail very short 
and slender, width of 1st segment less than that of humerus, con- 
siderably less than three tin.es as long as the carapace, 2nd segment 
about as wide as long, 4th one-third longer than wide, 5th about 
three times as long as wide ; inferior keels of 1st and 2nd scarcely 
granular; superior keels of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th posteriorly elevated 
and strongly spiniform ; vesicle compressed, slightly higher than 
wide, as wide as the 5th segment, without an annular constriction 
at base of aculeus. Chelce and especially the hand lower, more 
depressed than in S. petersii and the foregoing species ; the crests 
strong and granular; brachials with two basal teeth, the inferior 
frequently much the larger of the two; brachium shorter, under- 
hand a little longer than carapace, the former furnished below with 
about 15 pores, the hand with four, one of which is smaller than 
the others ; hand narrow, its width barely two-thirds the length of 
the underhand ; movable finger shorter than underhand and only 
twice the length of the area between the upper keels of the hand, 
lobate in the basal half, but not so strongly as in S. petersii. 
Pectinal teeth 6-7.- 

cJ . With much longer chela; and a slightly longer tail than in 
female. Tail about three times as long as the carapace, winch is 
slightly shorter than the 4th and 5th segments, and barely as long 
as the 5th and half the vesicle. Humerus a little longer than 
carapace, brachium scarcely so long; underhand longer, sometimes 
much longer and twice as long as width of hand ; movable digit as 
long as carapace, more strongly lobate than in female. Pectinal 
teeth 8. 

Measurements in iiim. — J. Total length 50, carapace 8*5, tail 
23, underhand 9, width of hand 5. 

S . Total length 51, carapace !', tail 27, underhand II, width 
of hand 5-2. 

Lor. Western Himalayas: Jaunsar, 6000-9000 ft. (Gamble d 
Smythies); Dehra Dun, 2000 ft. (Gamble, SmytJiies, $ Gleadow); 
Kasauli ( Waller-Barrow) ; Dharms&la (Fulton). 

Subspecies satarensis, now 

$. Resembling the typical form in size and colour, hut very 
much smoother, the carapace and terga being at most finch 
granular, leaving the median keel and area of the posterior border 
immediately behind it smooth ; in some cases the terga are finely 
granulated only at the sides, smooth and punctured elsewhere. 
The chela?, too, are much less coarsely granular both on the keels 
and on the interearinal spaces; digits very slightly lobate. 

Sexual features of male much less developed than in typical 
form ; humerus about as long as carapace, underhand only a 
little longer and Less than twice the width of the hand. Brachial 
pores 13-14. 



72 



YEJOYIDJE. 



Measurements in mm. — 5 • Total length 60, carapace 8*3, tail 
23, underhand 9, width of hand 5*8. 

S . Total length 57, carapace 8, tail 24, underhand 8*5, width 
of hand 5*3. 

Loc. Mahableshwar, Satara district (Wrougliton). 



Subspecies tenuicauda, Pocoek, A. M. N. H. (6) xiii, p. 77, 1894; 
Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 181, 1899. 

Differing from the preceding subspecies as well as from the 
principal form in being very much smaller and in having the legs, 
with the exception of the tarsi, which are yellow, fuscous instead 
of yellowish red. Terga smooth mesially in $ , as in S. satarensis ; 
finely granular in d . Chelce in $ with fingers scarcely noticeably 
lobate ; chelse in <$ very long and slender, being even more 
modified than in the typical form of the species; fingers strongly 
lobate. Brachial pores 12-13. 

Measurements in mm. — § . Total length 36, carapace 6, tail 16, 
underhand 6-8, width of hand 4. 

<5 . Total length 38, carapace 5*8, tail 17*5, underhand 7"2, 
width of hand 3. 

Loc. The Deccan. 



A. 



B. 





Fig. 20. — A. 4th with parts of 3rd and 5th caudal segments of Scorpiops 
longimanus. 
B. Vesicle of tail of ditto, showing annular groove (a) at base of 
aouleuB. 



57. Scorpiops longimanus, Pocoek, A. M. N. H. (6) xii, p. 326, 
pi. xiv, fig. 12, 1893; Kraep. Jb. Hamfr. wiss. Anst. xi, p. 191, 
1894; id. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 180, 1899. 

9 . Colour entirely black on the dorsal surface and tail. Carapace 
not so depressed as in &. montanus and with deeper grooves, not so 
long as the first three caudal segments, considerably shorter than 
the 4th and 5th, and less than the 5th and half the vesicle. Tail 



scoitnops. 73 

thicker and longer than in S. montanus, about three times a 5 * long as 
the carapace, 1st segment at least as wide as the humerus ; keels 
and granulation as in S. montanus; vesicle as in that species, hut with 
a distinct semicircular sulcus at the base of the aculeus on each side. 
Chela more resembling those of S.leptochirus than those of S. m<m- 
tanus, except for two spiniform teeth on the brachium ; brachium 
shorter than carapace, with inferior rows of 9-10 (in one case 11) 
setal pores,!) commonly occurring in young; the crests weaker 
and the area at the base of the anterior spines not so prominent ; 
hand constantly with only three pores in a curved series below, all 
its crests much weaker than in S. montanvs, width of its dorsal area 
between the keels much less than half the movable finger; the 
underhand almost twice the width of the hand, but not quite so 
long as the movable finger, which is at least as long as the cara- 
pace, but is scarcely noticeably lobate, outer row of supernumerary 
teeth, as far back as lobe, 12, inner row 0. Granular crests on 
under side of femora of legs weaker than in S. montanus. Peed mi! 
teeth 6-8. 

d . Very like the female ; tail scarcely if at all longer : cheln a 
little longer, hand thicker, and fingers lobate; underhand a little 
longer than carapace and longer than movable finger, which is 
about equal to carapace. 

Measurements in mm. — £. Total length 51, carapace 7"5, tail 
25, underhand 7*5, movable finger 8, width of hand 4. 

<3 . Total length 47, carapace 7*5, tail 26*5, underhand 8*2, 
movable finger 7 - <>, width of hand 4-8. 

Loc. Assam. Sylhet ; Dhubri (Smart) ; North Cachar Hills ; 
Sadiya ; Naga Hills. 

This species was based upon a single female example from Sylhet. 
The measurements given above are taken from an adult male and 
female of the same species from Dhubri. These specimens are 
smaller than the type and than most of the adult examples that 
have come to hand. 

58. Scorpiops asthenurus, pp. n. 

6 • Belonging to the same category of species as 8. longimanus, 
which it resembles in colour, sculpturing, &c. The fail, however, 
is shorter and weaker, being only about twice as long as the cara- 
pace, which is almost as long as its first three segments or as the 
4th and 5th ; dorsal keels of the 3rd and 4th weakly spiniform, 
but not elevated, being lightly depressed at the posterior end ; 1st 
segment only as wide as the brachium ; a distinct annuliform 
sulcus at base of aculeus. Chela as in 8. longiman us ; brachial pores 
; hand much wider than in S. longimanus, its inner edge more 
strongly convex, its width more than half the length of the under- 
hand ; area between tin- keels of its dorsal surface less than half 
the length of the movable finger, which is not quite equal to the 
underhand or to the carapace ; outer edge of finger not evenly 
curved, but showing a slight bend just on a level with the lobe; 



74 VEJOVIDJE. 

lobe large ; notch on immovable finger correspondingly deep, but 
when closed a very distinct nearly sigmoidal space is left between 
the bases of the fingers ; 3 large setal pores on underside of hand, 
in addition to the invariable pair near base of finger. Pectinal 
teeth 6. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 35. carapace 5, tail 17, 
underhand 6, movable finger 5*5, width of hand 3 - 5. 

Loc. Kalimpong near Darjiliug (Stebbing). 

59. Scorpiops binghamii, Pocock, A. M. N. 11. (G) xii ; p. 327, pl.xiv, 
fig. 13, 1893. 

Very closely allied to the Assamese S. longimanus, but differing 
in having 14-15 setal pores on the underside of the brachium, and 
the hands moi'e distinctly lobate both in S and $ . 

Measurements in mm. — $ . Total length 60, carapace 9-8, tail 31, 
underhand 9 - 5, movable finger 9, width of hand 4*8. 

c? . Total length 55, carapace 8, tail 27, underhand 9, movable 
finger 7, width of band 5. 

Loc. Lower Burma: Pegu Hills and Central Tenasserim 
(Bingham). 

HO. Scorpiops anthracinus, Simon, J. A. S. B. hi, p. 112, 1887. 

2 • Allied to the two preceding species, but easily recognizable 
from both by the extreme slenderness of the hand and by the 
larger number of setal pores upon the lower side of the brachium 
and hand. Brachial pores 19 ; a curved row of 10 pores on under- 
hand. Hand very slender, its inner and outer edges nearly straight 
and parallel, its width less than half the length of the underhand, 
the width of its dorsal area between inner keel and the finger- 
keel less than one-third the length of the movable finger and less 
than width of humerus ; movable finger equal to the carapace aud 
slightly exceeding the underhand. Pectinal teeth 10-11. Upper 
crests of tail more elevated and spiniform than in the other 
species. 

Measurements in mm. — $ . Total length 57, carapace S - 5, tail 27, 
underhand 7*5, movable finger 8*5, width of hand 3*5. 

Loc. Tavoy in Tenasserim. 



01. Scorpiops lindstroemii, Thordl, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxvii, p. 573, 
1889 : lugubris, id. ibid. p. 579. 

$. Eesembling S. anthracinus in having a row of 9-10 setal 
pores on the underhand in the adult, but differing principally in 
having only 15 instead of 19 brachial pores, and the chelae loth 
longer and stouter, &c. Dorsal crests on tail with terminal spine 
not so strong as in 8. anthracinus ; 1st segment narrower than 



scorpiops. 75 

humerus, only as wide as the intercarinal area of its upper surface. 
Chela with humerus as long as carapace; width of hand almosl 
half the length of the underhand, which is as long as the movable 
finger and longer than the carapace ; width of dorsal area of hand 
between the keels about one-third the length of the movable 
finger ; finger more strongly lobate than in S. an tin- acinus. Pectinal 
teeth 8. 

Measurements in mm. of type. — Total length G^. carapace 12, tail 
37, humerus 12*3, underhand 13, movable ringer 13, width of hand 
6'o, of its dorsal intercarinal area 4 - 2. 

Loc. Mt. Mooleyit in Tenasserim (Fen), also the North Chin 
Hills in Upper Burma ( Watson). 

Scorpiops hu/ubris, Thorell (Ann. Mus. Genova, xxvii, p. 579), 
was based upon au immature specimen of the genus from the same 
locality as the type of S. lindstroemii. In all probability it is the 
young of that species. It has 7 pores on the lower side of the hand. 
An immature specimen from the North Chin Hills in Upper Burma 
closely resembles the type of S. lugubris. 

The following species, which I have not seen, has been omitted 
from the table : — - 

62. Scorpiops affinis, Kraep. Jb. Hamb. iciss. Anst. xv, p. 44, 1898 ; id. 
Tien:, Scorp. etc. p. 182, 1899. 

"Resembling Sc. hardwickii in size, colour, &c, but with the 
keels of the chela? granular. Hand with finger-keel and keel of 
underhand coarsely granular ; iuuer border not limited throughout 
by a smooth keel, but marked with a row of stronger granules ; 
inner horizontal portion of upper side of hand covered with 
numerous isolated rounded granules like those of the outer 
surface. Fourth abdominal sternum coarsely punctured, almost as 
iu a thimble. Pectinal teeth 5-7. 

'■'•Loc. Himalaya." 

This species is evidently nearly related to S. crasshnanus, and 
according to the characters cited should fall under heading a 3 of the 
synopsis. Nothing, however, is said respecting the prominence 
of the inner edge on the upper surface of the hand. Sc. crassi- 
manus, moreover, is a larger species than S. hardwickii, and the 4th 
abdominal sternum is not punctured in the way described as 
characteristic of S. affinis. Hence the two species must for the 
present be regarded as distinct. 



ischxurip/f:. 



Family ISCHNURIME. 



A. 




B. 




C. 



Fig. 21. — A. Chiromachetes fcrgusoni, 
tarsus of 4th leg, external view. 

B. Normurus australasite, ditto. 

C. lomachus keviceps, ditto. 



Leys furnished with a single 
pedal spur. Sternum broad and 
pentagonal. Genital operculum di- 
vided in male, undivided in 
female. Both movable and im- 
movable fingers of mandible un- 
toothed along the lower edge. IS T o 
spine beneath aculeus on vesicle 
of tail. Extremity of torsi squarely 
truncate, forming almost a right 
angle with the base of the claw- 
lobe, and not produced into a 
rounded lobe overlapping the claws 
at the side. Carapace, abdomen, 
and chela? flat and depressed ; hand 
with strong and complete finger- 
keel ; edges of finger of chela 
granularly dentate, not produced 
into sharp triangular teeth. Tad 
thin, strongly compressed. 

Distribution. Ethiopian Region ; 
Madagascar ; Oriental .Region from 
India to Papua; northern part of 
Neotropical Region. 



Synopsis of Indian Genera.. 



Hemiscobpius, p. 77 



A single median keel on the lower side of 
all the caudal segments, that on the 1st 
sometimes obsolete ; tarsi armed beneath 
and di^tally with many (-5 pairs of) 

spines 

No median keel on the underside of caudal 

segments 1-4 ; tarsi furnished below with 

paired setas or at most a few spines, *2 

distal and 1 proximal. 

a\ Median eyes well in front of the middle 

of the carapace ; tarsi spined beneath, 

protarsi spined at the distal end Chiromachetes, p. 77. 

b l . Median eyes only just in front of the 

middle of the carapace; protarsi not 

distally spined ; tarsi at most with 

ono posterior distal spine. 

>r. Tarsi with median row of spicule.- ; 

posterior lateral eye above edge of 

carapace Iomaciius, p. 81. 

b 2 . Tarsi without median row of spicules ; 
all three lateral eyes on edge of cara- 
pace " HoKMUnus, p. 78. 



HEM1SCOBPIUS.— C1IIKOMAC1IEXES. 77 

Genus HEMISCORPIUS, Peters. 

Hemiscorpius, Peters, MB. Akad, Berlin, 1861, p. 420 (April); 

Pocock, A. M. N. 11. (6) xii, p. 308, 1893. 
Hemiscorpion, Peters, MB. Akad. Berlin, 1801, p. 511 (May); 

Kartell, MT. Munch, eut. I'rr. iii, p. 15, 187'.); Krnep. Jl>. ILamb. 
wiss. Anst. xi, p. 110, 1894; id. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 142, 1899. 

Carapace with median eyes in advance of the middle of the plate. 
Tarsi (Kg. 5 A, p. 8) armed beneath and on each side of the distal 
extremity with many pairs of long and slender spines, and furnished 
with median row of spicules. Sternum elongate, parallel-sided, with 
deep median groove. Finger of chela with two parallel rows of 
teeth and externally with some larger teeth. 

Type, //. lepturus, Peters. 

Distribution. S.Arabia; Soeotra ; Baghdad and Baluchistan. 

63. Hemiscorpius lepturus, Peters, MB. Akad. Berlin, 1861, p. 426, 
6g8. 1-8; id. op. eit. p. oil (Heruiscorpiou) ; Kraep. Jb. llamb. 
Wiss. Anst. xi, p. Ill, t. ii, tigs. 39, 40, 1894 ; id. Tierr., Scorp. etc. 
p. 142, tig. 38, 1899. 

9 . Colour uniform yellowish red, with 
browner fingers. Carapace and abdomen 
smooth to finely punctured. Keels of tail 
smooth or finely granular. Vesicle of nor- 
mal form, not globular, with short and thick 
aculeus. Hand with nearly smooth finger- 
keel, its upper surface reticulated. Pectinal 
teeth 9. Total length 4.") mm. 
Fig. '22.— Hemiscorpius j . Differing from $ in having cara- 

/epfurus A Vesicle and ab(]omon tinelv granu l ar or ru „ u _ 

and aculrus of J. 13. { , ., , 'i°i i P, 

Do. of 2. lose; tail very long and slender; vesicle 

very long, with blunt tuberculiform pro- 
jection on each side at the base of the aculeus. Pectinal teeth 
15-16. Total length 06 mm. 

Distribution. Baghdad (Petermann) ; Northern Baluchistan 
{Maynard \ MacMahon). The example from Baluchistan has 
lost its tail, and is identified as 11. lepturus with some hesitation. 



Genus CHIROMACHETES, Pocock. 

Chiromachetes, Pocock, d,,ur. linn. S. If. Soc. xii, p. 711, L899. 

Carapan with anterior bonier deeply excised in middle line- 
median eyes well in advance of the centre, the distance between 
them and the posterior margin nearly t\\ ice as great as f he distance 
between them and the median excision; lateral eyes almost mar- 
ginal, the anterior two separated by a very narrow space from the 
subjacent edge, the posterior practically on the edge. Extremity 

of prolarsi spined ; tarsi (fig. 21, A ) armed below with a few spines, 
without median row of spicules except quite at base. Digit of 




78 ISCUNURID.E. 

chela armed with two rows of teetli ; braehium with large basal 
prominence. 

Type, C. fergusoni, Pocoek. 

Distribution. Malabar coast, S. India. 

Resembling the S. African and Neotropical genns Opislhacanfhus 
in the spine-armature of its legs, except that the spines on the 
tarsi are fewer than in any known species of that genus. Further 
and especially differing in the forward position of the median eyes 
and the closeness of the lateral eyes to the margin, these eyes in 
Opisihacanthus, especially the posterior, being distinctly above the 
edge. 

64. Chiromaclietes fergusoni, Pocoek, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, 

p. 744, 1899. 

Colour : upper side of body and tail blackish green, vesicle clear 
yellow ; legs and chelae blackish brown ; tarsi yellow. Carapace 
and terga densely and finely punctured, without granules and 
without crests, except for the normal median low elevation on the 
terga; carapace a little longer than the 1st and 2nd candid seg- 
ments, shorter than the 4th and 5th. Tail about four times as 
long as carapace, densely punctured, smooth, except for a few 
granules on the lower side of the 4th and 5th segments ; without 
keels; the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd segments posteriorly elevated on each 
side of the dorsal groove ; segments impressed with serially arranged 
setiferous pores; vesicle compressed, thickly covered with long 
bristles below. CJieke large, densely punctured, iinely granular 
above, smooth below ; both humerus and braehium longer than 
carapace ; humerus and braehium with posterior side somewhat 
compressed, coarsely denticulate, but scarcely carinate ; hand 
with finger-keel, underhand-keel, and area between them coarsely 
granular ; underhand much longer than carapace, not twice as 
long as the width of the hand, longer than movable finger, which 
is strongly lobate, the immovable correspondingly notched ; mov- 
able finger longer than carapace. Legs finely punctured ; femora 
finely granular externally ; protarsi with finely serrulate external 
edge, armed with 3 spines on the inner side at apex. Pectinal 
teeth 7-8. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 100, carapace 14, tail 44, 
underhand 18, movable finger 15, width of hand 10. 

Loc. Trivandrum in Travancore (Ferguson). 

Genus HORMURUS, Thorell. 

Hormurus, Thorell, A. M.N. II. (4) xvii, p. 14, 1870; IWock, 
A. M. N. Jr. (6) xii, p. 320, t. xiv, lip-. (1, L893 ; Kraep. Jb. Kami. 
wiss. Anst. xi, p. 131, 1894 ; id. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 153, L899. 

Carapace with median eyes near the centre, and (he three lateral 
eyes on the very edge. Tarsi (fig. 21, B) furnished beneath with 
lour pairs of moderately long stiff bristles, not with spines, and 
without a median line of spicules ; extremity of protarsi also bristly 



IIOBMUltUS. 79 

and not spined. Movable finder of chela with two parallel rows of 
teeth. Genital operculum of female not narrowed and pointed 
behind ; marked with median suture. 

Type, II. australasice (Fabr.). 

Distribution. India, Burma, and the whole of the Indo- and 
Austro-Malayan area as far as Fiji. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Upper and lower crests on posterior side of 

brachium granular; sterna thickly punc- 
tured ; tail laterally granular II. australasice, p. 79. 

b. Lower crest on posterior side of brachium 

quite smooth ; sterna not or scarcely punc- 
tured ; sides of tail not granular H. nigripes, p. 80. 

05. Hormnrus australasiae, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. .'500, 1775 (Scorpio); 
C. L. Koch, Antrim, iv, p. 71, fig. 204, 1838 (Ischnurus) ; Thorell, 
Atti Soc. It'll, xix, p. 251, 187(5; Simon, J. A. S. B. hi, p. 113, 
1887 (Liocheles) ; Kraep. Jb. Hamb. tviss. Anst. xi, p. 133, 1804; 
id. Tien:, Scorp. etc. p. 154, 1890. 
Ischnurus complanatus, C. Koch, Arachn. iv, p. 73, fig. 205, 1838 ; 
Thorell, Ann. Mm. Gmova, xxvi, p. 420, 1888. 

Colour of upper side of trunk, chela?, and of tail reddish or 
greenish brown ; under side of trunk paler ; vesicle clear yellow 
or yellowish red, paler than the dorsal surface of the abdomen. 
Carapace and terga densely and finely punctured in $ , sometimes 
granular laterally in J • Sterna finely punctured. Tail at most 
only about two and a half times as long as the carapace, weakly 
granular below, above, and at the sides ; dorsal keels practically 
absent, but the extremities of the upper sides of segments 2-4 
provided with a pointed upstanding tubercle; inferior crests of 
3rd and 4th weakly granular, of 1st bearing posteriorly a pair of 
sharp downwardly and backwardly directed tubercles, similar 
tubercles on inferior median and lateral keels of 2nd ; inferior 
lateral keels of the 5th denticulate ; vesicle finely punctured and 
pitted, like the lower side of the tail, with setiferous pores. 
Chela massive, granular and punctured above, punctured below ; 
anterior side finely granular; the keels strong and coarsely granular; 
base of the brachium in front elevated into a ridge bearing a pair 
of larger denticles; brachium shorter than carapace; underhand 
longer than carapace, not twice as long as the width of the hand ; 
area below finger-keel coarsely granular; basal half of fingers 
granular ; finger-keel and keel of underhand strong and coarsely 
granular ; fingers short, about two-thirds the length of the under- 
hand, shorter than carapace, not lobate in females and young 
males, but strongly lobate in large males. Legs externally finely 
granular, with under edge of femora and patella serrate. Pec- 
tinal teeth 5-8, mostly 0-7. 

Measurements in mm. of adult ,-_? . — Total length .*>7, carapace 7, 
tail IS, underhand 8, movable finger 6, width of baud 5. 



80 ISCIINUBIDiE. 

Loc. Burma : Akyab ; Myanyouug, Moulmein ; Kawkareik, 
Thagata-juva, aud Mount Mooleyit, in Tenasseriui ; Tavoy and 
Reef Island (Feci <j- Oates); Great Coeos Island, Andainans (Oates); 
Nicobar Islands, thence over the whole of the Iudo-Malayan 
and Austro-Malayan area. 

Adults of this species vary much in size, some males with fully- 
developed sexual features being only about 30 mm., the carapace 
measuring 5, and the adult females may reach 45 mm. or more. 

Subspecies suspectus, Thorett: Horniurus australasise, Fabr., var. y. 
suspectus, Thorell, Ann. Mies. Genova, xxvi, pp. 420 & 422, 1888. 

Differs from the Burmese representative of the typical form in 
having the upper side of the trunk and the tail, with exception of 
the yellowish-red vesicle, a deep greenish black, the chelae being 
of much the same colour, and the legs, although ferruginous towards 
the extremities, are piceous and not paler than the upper side of 
the trunk. Total length of adult S 42 mm. 

Loc. Lower Burma: Prome (Feci) and the Pegu Hills (Bingham). 

The granulation of the carapace and terga, which Thorell relied 
upon as a basis for this form, is not more strongly developed than 
iu many males of the typical form. 

66. Horniurus nigripes, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. II. Soc. xi, p. 117, 
1897; Kraepelin, Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 155, 1899. 

Colour a shining pitchy brown, only the vesicle yellow ; legs as 
dark as the body, with the exception of the tarsi which are yellow. 
Carapace smooth and punctured as in //. australasice, but with the 
frontal border more deeply excavated and the frontal lobes more 
square. Terga much less conspicuously punctulate than in 
//. australasice ; sterna also scarcely noticeably punctulate. Tail of 
about the same strength and with the same armature of dentiform 
tubercles as in //. australasice, but the segments are very noticeably 
shorter as compared to their length, and with the exception of the 
above-mentioned sharp tubercles are entirely without granules. 
Chelce as large as in 77. australasice ; humerus with granules and 
tubercles weaker; the upper surface of brachiuin smooth and 
punctured, crests of its posterior surface almost or quite smooth, 
the edge of the anterior basal prominence not produced into a 
crest bearing spiuiform tubercles; hand punctulate and granulate 
as in If. australasice, but with its posterior external angle pro- 
jecting much more strongly, and the area opposed to the brachiuin 
prolonged internally so that when closed it overlaps the basal 
prominence of the brachiuin ; in 11. australasice it falls short of the 
prominence, the teeth of which abut against the inner edge of the 
hand. Pectinal teeth 6 in $ . 

Measurements In mm. — Total length l)o, of tail 14, carapace 6*3, 
underhand 6, movable finger 4*2, width of hand 3*8. 

Loc India: Paneh Mahals in Guzerat (Wallinger) ; Satna in 
Central Provinces (Dane). 



lOM.H'iirs. 



81 



A. 





B. 



Fig. '23. — A. Iomachus 

l<; !■<<■• p.<, 4tli torpid plate 
of abdomen. B. Iomachus 
nitidus, ditto. 



Genus IOMACHUS. Pocock. 

Iomachus, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (ti) 
xii, p. 320, 1693; id. <>}>. >it. (6) xvii, 
p. Ml 7, 18!)(i; Kraepelin, Jh. Hamb. 
ioi8g. A list. \i, p. 139, L894; id. Tim-., 
Scorp. etc. p. L55, 1899. 

Nearly allied to Hormurus, but with the 
posterior lateral eye above the margin ol 
the carapace, the tarsi furnished beneath 
with a median row of spicules and with 
a few long slender bristles at the sides ; 
and the genital operculum of 1 lie female 
•pointed posteriorly and without trace of 
a median suture. 

Type, /. Icevieeps (Pocock). 

Distribution. Southern India; British 
and German East Africa. 



Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Abdominal terga not visibly punctured, marked 

with a pair of short pits scarcely surpassing 

the middle of the terga 1. nitidus, p. s -">. 

Ii. Abdominal terga visibly punctured, especially 

laterally, marked with a pair of strong sigmoid 

grooves which extend almost to the posterior 

margin. 

a 1 . Two setal pores on base of immovable linger 

above; tarsi with two pairs of bristles 

below I. Icevieeps, p. 81 . 

IA . Three setal pores on base of immovable 
finger above; a spine on posterior distal 
angle of tarsus below /. punctulatus, p. 83. 



<>7. Iomachus laeviceps, Pocock, A. M. N. II. (6) v, p. 242, t. xii, figs. 
1-1 a, 1890; id. Jour. Bom. A'. 11. Soc. vii, p. 303, L893 i Hormurus) ; 
Pocock, A. M. X. II. (i;i xii, p. 320, i. siv, f. 5, L893; Kraep. Jb. 
Rami,, wiss. And. xi, p. 139 (1894) ; Pocock, Jour. Bom. A'. //. Soc. 
xi,p. L16, 1897 ; Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. etc, p, 156, 1899 (Iomachus). 



Colour', body and tail yellowish or reddish to almost blackish 
brown above; chelae redder : legs reddish or yellowish brown, alwaj s 
paler than the body ; vesicle dear yellowish red. Carapad and 
t< njii closely and finely punctured throughout, sometimes vers 
finely granular laterally ; carapace a little longer than 1-1 and 2nd 
caudal segments; about as long as 4th and 5th in y. shorter 
in J • Sterna very faintly and closely punctured. Tail barely 

u 



82 



TSCHNURID.E. 



three times as long as carapace in $ , rather longer in J ; scarcely 
granular, and except the 5th segment, non-carinate. Chelae finely 
punctured throughout, scarcely granular above ; humerus and 
brachium subequal and about as long as carapace ; brachium armed 
in front at base with a low subbifid prominence ; hand at most 




Fig. -!4. — lomachus Iceviceps, ^ . Nat. size. 

subrugulose above, its external portion coarsely granular; tiuger-keel 
strong, almost smooth, keel of underhand more granular; underhand 
a little longer than carapace, longer than width of hand by one-fourth 
( $ ) or about one-third ( 3 ) of its length ; movable finger a little 
shorter than carapace, weakly lobate in $ and young 6 , strongly 
lobate in adult S . Two setal pores on upper side of immovable 
finger. Pectinal teeth 3-6, usually 5. 

Measurements in mm. of J . — Total length 55, carapace 8, tail 
25, underhand 9, movable finger 7, width of hand 5-5. 

Loc. S.India: Yercaud in Shevaroy Hills {Henderson); Jvota- 
giri, Nilgiri Hills (Henderson Sf Daly). 

Subspecies malabarensis, nov. 

A dark form, differing from the typical form of laviceps in having 
the chehe black and the legs a deep blackish brown, and the 
movable finger of the chela? both in male and female much more 
strongly lobate, and the immovable correspondingly deeply notched. 

Loc. Mangalore on the Malabar coast (Battle). 



IOMACHUS. 83 

68. Iomachus punctulatus. Pocock, Jour. Bom. X. II. Sue. xi, p. J 10, 

1897 ; Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 156, 1899. 

J. Closely allied to the preceding, '/'run/,-, limbs, and tail black 
or reddish black, legs not lighter than bodv. Tail three and a half 
times the length of the carapace, which is as long as its 1st and 2nd 
segments. Chelae longer t han in /. loeviceps, the movable finger quite 
as long as the carapace, and only slightly shorter than the under- 
hand ; process at base of brachium smaller than in I.lceuiceps. Base 
of finger on upper side with three setal pores, the first of small 
size, the others larger and situated farther along the finger. Distal 
bristle on the posterior side of tarsus replaced by a spine. 

$ • Chelae and tail shorter than in S; tail about three times as 
long as the carapace, which equals its first two segments and half 
the third. Pectinal teeth 5. 

Measurements in mm. ( <3 ). — Total length 62, carapace 8, tail 30, 
underhand 8-5, movable finger 8, width of hand 5'8. 

Loc. S.India: Coimbatore (Dauison) ; Nilgiri Hills (Daly). 

69. Iomachus nitidus, sp. n. 

Colour: legs, chela?, tail, with exception of the reddish-yellow 
vesicle, and upper side of body black. Carapace very finely 
punctured at the sides and in the depression surrounding the median 
eyes, the rest of its median area smooth and not or scarcely visibly 
puoctulate. Terga smooth, not visibly punctulate, marked in the 
anterior half with a pair of deep longitudinal pits, which, however, 
are not or scarcely prolonged posteriorly beyond the middle of the 
plate, and do not present the sigmoid shape and the median piriform 
area so noticeable in J. loeviceps and punctulatus. .Moreover, the 
anterior portion of the terga in front of the impression presents no 
strong transverse sinuous groove running from side to side as in 
I.lcpviceps and }>ain-talatus, this groove being moderately deep only 
in the middle between the anterior ends of the impressions and 
becoming obsolete at the sides. Sterna also smooth, not visibly 
punctured. Tail&s in /. loeviceps, but with the 4th and 5th segments 
finely granular dorsally. Chelae punctured and carinate as in 
/. Iceviceps : two setal pores on base of immovable linger above as in 
that species. Tarsi furnished below with seta 1 as in /. Iceviceps. 
Pectinal teeth 5. Total length 45 mm. 

Loc. Southern India : Nellore (Popert). 



q2 



8-J SCOBPIONIDJE. 



Family SCORPlQNIDiE. 

(=Scorpionidse, subfam. Scorpionini, Pocock, A.M.N. H. (6) xii T 
p. 306, 1893 ; Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. p. 106, 1899.) 

Differing from the Ischnuridce in having the tarsi produced 
distally on each side into a large lobe overlapping the base of the 
claw and forming a very acute angle with the base of the claw-lobe 
(tig. 4 B, p. 8). Body and chela? not flat and depressed; hand 
usually convex above, the Auger-keel absent, or not so strong and 
complete as in the Ischnuridce ; Angers armed with strong 
triangularly pointed teeth. Tail powerful, not compressed. 

Distribution. Ethiopian Region ; Oriental Region from India to 
Borneo. 

Genus PALAMN^EUS, Thorell. 

Palamnseus, Thorell, A. M. N. H. (4) xvii, p. 13, 1876 (in part) ; 

Pocock, A. M.N. H. (6) xviii, p. 77, 1896 (seusn stricto). 
Pandinus, Thorell, Atti Soc. It. xix, p. 199, 1877 (in part). 
Scorpio, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vii, p. 309, 1S93 ; Krarp. 

Jb. Hanih. mss. And. xi, p. 28j 1894 (in part). 
Heterometrus, Hemp. §Ehrenb. Symb. Phys., Scorp. p. 2, 1829(in part); 

Simon, Iter, et May. Zool. (2) xxiii, p. 56, 1872 (in part) ; Kraep. 

Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 107, 1899 (sensu stricto). 

Carapace deeply notched in the middle line ; median eyes close to 
the centre. Tarsal lobes of 3rd and 4th legs with 2, very rarely 3 
spines. Brachium of chela with its underside posteriorly rounded, 
not or scarcely keeled, and furnished with only a few setiferous 
pores. A stridulating organ situated between the chela and the 
tirst leg, consisting of a series of granules forming a rasp upon 
the coxa of the 1st leg, and a cluster of vibrating bristles upon 
the coxa (maxilla) of the chela. 

Type, P. petersii, Thor. (=silenus, Sim.). 

Distribution. Oriental Region from India and Ceylon to Borneo 
and the Philippines. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

n. Inner edge of hand scarcely compressed, rounder 

and thicker; large spiniform tubercle at base oi 

brachium in front. 

n\ Inner edge of hand besel with low moderately 

sharp or blunt tubercles ; chela of J much 

longer than of J, the hand very narrow and [p. 97. 

lorig P. longimanus, 

b 1 . Inner edge of hand beset with strong, spiniform 
tubercles; chelae in tf approximately like 

those of 5 , the hand short and thick P. oatesii, p. 98. 

b. Inner edge of hand compressed ; no large spini- 
form tubercle at base of l>racliiura in front. 



PAT, \MN 1 I 8, 



35 



-. Humerus of chela coarsely granular on the 

underside at base ; 5th caudal segment [p. 80. 

not shorter than carapace P. stcammerdami, 

: . Humerus smooth below, or with only a few 
granules ; 5th caudal segment much 
shorter than carapace. 
a 3 . Tarsal lobes armed eacli with 3 spines, 1 [p. 90, 

at the apex above and 2 below P. latimanus, 

b\ Tarsal lobes armed with 2 spines each, the 
apex not spined, tipped with bristles. 
a*. Lower side of vesicle perfectly smooth 

and polished, hairy and punctured . . P. finrus, p. 91. 
//. Vesicle furnished below with at least 
four rows of sharp tubercles. 
<i' . Inner edge of hand not beset with 
sharp tooth-like tubercles, crested 
at base of finger ; upper surface with [p. 90. 

four low longitudinal crests P- gravimawws, 

b\ Inner edge of hand studded with 

sharp denticles, not crested at base 

of finger ; tubercles of the dorsal 

side not running into four distinct 

longitudinal crests. 

if: Outer portion of upper surface of 

hand defined above by a distinct 

but irregular ridge or erest. 

a 1 . Legs reddish yellow P. fidvipes, p. 87. 

b 1 . Legs deep blackish brown .... P. wroughtoni, 
b*. Outer portion of upper side of hand [p. 89. 

not defined above by a longitudinal 
ridge. 
a . Length of adult only about 

75 mm. ; legs reddish yellow as [p. 92. 

mfulvipes P. x-anthopw, 

J*. Length of adult not less than 
100 mm. ; legs coloured like 
trunk, generally nearly black. 
a 9 . Hand exceedingly smooth 
above ; terga with three pos- 
terior tubercles P. tcaber, p. 98 

£\ Hand rugose or tubercular: 
teiga not tubercular. 
a 10 . Hands orange-yellow; rest 

of chela?, body and legs hhuk. ]' barieri, p. !'•">. 
i'°. Hands much the same colour 
a- rest of chela; 
a 11 . Hands narrow, smooth, 

covered above with sculp- [p. 94. 

turing of reticulated ridges. /'. bengalensis, 
b x l . Hands broad, ci >\ ered above 

with large tubercle- or 
Coarsely reticulated 
a 1 -. Last abdominal sternum 

without four low crests, 

densely punctured; basal 

portion of pecten broad, 

its angle lees obtuse .... P. phipsoni,^. 



80 SCOEPIONIDJE. 

b v -. Last abdominal sternum with 
four low crests; not visibly 

punctured ; basal portion 
of pec-ten very narrow. 
o 13 . Frontal lobes of carapace 
and underhand thickly 

granular '. P. ccesar, p. 97. 

/• . Frontal lobes of carapace 
and underhand not con- 
spicuously granular. 
«". Inner border of hand 
widely rounded from 
base of immovable 
finger ; upper keels of 
tail strongly denticulated. P. serratus,-p. '.'7. 
/>". Inner border of hand 
nearly straight between 
base of immovable finger 
and posterior lobe ; 
upper keels of tail smooth 
or nearly so P. ndus, p. 96. 

70. Palamnaeus swamiuerdarui, Simon, Fur. e t Mag. Zool. (2) xxiii, 
p. 56, f. 3, 1872 (Heterometrus) ; Pocock, A.M.N.M. (61 v. 
p. 237, 1890; id. Jour. Bom. X. H. Soc. vii. p. 804, 1 Sit:: ; 
Kraep. Jo. Hamb. ids*. Anst. xi, p. 42, 1894 (Scorpio); id. 
Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 112, 1899 (Heterometrus): asper, Thorett, 
Atti Soc. It. xix, p. 199, ls>77 (Pandinus) : kochii, Karsch, MT. 
Munch, tut. Ver. hi, p. 127, 1879 (PandiniW. 

Colour blackish, greenish, or reddish brown ; vesicle reddish 
yellow ; hand and legs deep reddish brown ; basal segment of 
mandibles yellowish red. Carapace more or less covered with 
coarse granules; area at the sides of and behind the tubercle on 
each side swollen and elevated ; lateral margins strongly converging 
in front ; in $ , carapace a little shorter than the 1st and 2nd 
caudal segments, and about as long as the 5th. Terga granular at 
the sides and posteriorly. Sterna smooth and polished ; the last 
scarcely crested. Tail long and powerful, about 4i times as long 
as the carapace ; all the segments coarsely granular above and to 
a less extent at the sides ; segments 1, 2. and generally 3, smooth 
below, rarely subdenticulate ; the rest of the keels denticulate ; in- 
feriorintercarinal spaces of It h and 5th segments sparsely granular; 
vesicle large, wider than high, as wide as 5th segment or wider, 
with 4 rows of granules below, and tolerably thickly granular also 
at the sides. Chelce with humerus and brachium much shorter 
1 han carapace ; humerus coarsely granular above and at base below ; 
brachium rugose though scarcely definitely granular behind ; hand 
covered above with large, smooth, oval or circular tubercles, the 
inner edge sharply tubercular and nearly straight, posterior lobe 
very long, projecting far back beyond the posterior end of the 
keel of the underhand ; fingers granular beneath, the immovable 
not crested; movable finger about as long as carapace, a little 



PALAM3 

■ ■--" - - width of hand; underhand aijjut two-thirds 

the length of the movable : ' . _ molar femora ; 

beneath with 6 posterior and 4 anterior spines, the 

distal 2 oi thes? situated on the termina - ; tips of the 1 - 

furnished with bristles. P ,■■■,( ■' 

With larger pectines anl a longer tail than in 2 : I 
tail sometimes nearly five times as long is 'he carapace, and the 
-r considerably shorter than the 1st and 2nd segments. 
Chelae in ; * as in 

Mi in mm. (specimen from Trichinopolyi. — J . Total 

length 14". carapace 18, tail 78, width of hand 17, underhand 12, 
movable finder 18. 

d 1 . Total length 138, carapace 17*2, tail 82, width of hand 17, 
underhand 12'5, movable ringer 18*5. 

Loc. India and the plain* of Ceylon ; absent from the Konkan, the 
ibar coast, and the hills ion : Dehra Dun 

Burdwan and Choti Nagpore (Dundas I in Benga ; Satna 

.id Kaipur [Martin) in the Central Provir. s; ^iiahabad 
t/joi in the Dekhan : Dowlaifhweram on the Godavari 
| W\ : Dharwari Woodr ; Madras . ' m): 

TanjoreiP Rarnnadi Hend&rsc . . Trincomali 

if Batsett-Smiik) and Chilan ; ; .in Ceylon. 

This is the lar_ - 9 rpion of India, and. with the exception or I - 
near ally the ^ est-African Pand - . the lar_- est s -cies 

in the world, sometini a bing a length ol 3 .in. | 7 inches . 

In addition to the typical form ab • .vith legs and 

chelae a deep brown colour and aim'- - jr-; as the upper - 
of the trunk, the following two subspecies may be r _ ed : — 

Subspecies hicidipee, SSmo*, BtJL Soe. ZooL Fr. x, ] - 385 -^orpio). 

Differs from the typical form in having I _- ' ir yell 

Loc. Bamnad : Trichinopolyi/'. 

Subspecies flavimanus, dot. 

Bes^mbl-- t in having the I g8 ir yellow, but dif: - 

from it and from the typical form in having the hands of the i-hela? 
clear red or yellow, and contrast g strongly with the dark tit," 
the body. 

Loc. Coonoor ; Coimbatore i Brady, typ 

71. Palamnaeus fulvipes. fc, Arachn. iv. p. 45 _ 278 338, 

(Buth - Kanck, Ahh. 7Vr. B r e m e n , ix. j - 387 N 

-- l'andin km. 

V II Set. vii. p. ::04. 1893; K ■ i>>p. Jh. Hamb. vie*. Am*t. xi. 
p. 44. 1804 Scorpio ; Kraep. Tien s ' V- ''-• i~ 

i Heteronu I 

much as in the pre . - 55 body a deep Uackish 

or reddish brown : hands redder : _- - mandtblea clear 

vellow. or more rarely reddis brown. C much diitt^r 

than in P. 1 not 9 rollen in the middh rs - 



ss 



SCORPIONID^. 



abruptly converging in front, finely granular at the sides and in 
front : longer than 1st and 2nd caudal segments, or than 5th. 
Tergites finely granular laterally, smooth in the middle ; the last 
crested as in P. swammerdami. Sterna smooth as in the latter. 
Tail shorter, about three and a half times as long as the carapace, 
the upper and lateral surfaces only weakly granular ; keels as in 
P. swammerdami, but not so strongly denticulate ; vesicle granular 
as in the last-named. Chelir with humerus not so granular, 
either above or below, as in P. swammerdami, smooth or with a few 
granules below ; brachium as in P. swammerdami ; hand granular 
below and on its inner side as in the latter, but the tubercles of 
the upper side more crowded and a little smaller ; the inner edge 
of the hand is convex, and the lobe only projects backwards a short 
distance beyond the posterior end of the keel of the underhand. 
Moreover the external portion of the upper surface rises vertically 
from the keel of the underhand and is bordered above by an irregular 
smooth ridge ; immovable finger at most obsoletely crested. Legs 
as in P. swammerdami. Pectinal teeth rarely as low as 12 in § , and 
as high as 18 in <S ; usually 14-Ki. Basal angle of pecten about 
110°. 

J. Carapace and terga a little more granular tail, a little or 
considerably longer, and the hand thinner or flatter than in § . 




B. 



Fig. 25. — A. Hand of Palamnesus fulvipes, <$ . 
B. Hand of P. fulvipes, subsp. madraspatensis, <j\ 



Measurements in mm. of $ (from Nasik). — Total length 110, 
carapace 17, tail 58, brachium 12, underhand 11, movable finger 
16, width of hand 15. 

Loc. Western and Southern India; absent from the Konkan 
and Malabar coast and Ceylon. Also recorded from Burma and 
Java (type), but probably erroneously. 

Two well-marked subspecies may be recognized, and diagnosed 
as follows : — 

Subspecies madraspatensis, nov. 

Chelse in J long; brachium as long as carapace ; hand not so 
flat, narrower, its width only equal to length of underhand, and 
less than median length of carapace. 



PAIiAMN BUS. 



89 



Measurements in mm. — Carapace L5, brachium 1">, underhand 
12, movable finger 16-5, width of hand 1 1. 

Loc. Madras (Henderson) ; Cuddapah (Popert); Secunderabad 
( Ricardo) *. 

Subspecies bombayensis, nov. 

Chelae in male shorter ; brachium much shorter than carapace ; 
hand much Hatter above and wider, its width equal to the median 
length of the carapace and much greater than length of under- 
hand. 

Measuri m His in mm. (of type from Nasik). — Length of carapace 
10, brachium 14, underhand 10-5, movable finger 15*5, width of 
hand 14. 

Loc. Ajmeer in Bajputana; Panch Mahals in Guzerat (Wal- 
linger) • Karaghora in Kattyawar (Bulkley); West Khandesh 
( Du Boulay); East Satpura Hills; Talgaon and Chalisgaon in 
Hast Khandesh (Madari) ; Niphad, Chandor, Sinnar, Yeola, 
Malegaon, Nandgaon, and Kalwau in Nasik (Duxbury). 



TO 



Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, 



Palamnaeus wroughtoni, 
p. 746, 1-899. 

2 . Colour nearly black, vesicle and mandibles redder ; legs very 

deep olive-brown, with slightly paler ex- 
tremities. Upper side of body as in 
P.fulvipes but smoother; carapace finely 
granular at the sides, its median area 
and frontal lobes cpuite smooth ; terga 
only very finely and sparsely granular 
al the sides. Tail practically smooth, 
at most very scantily granular throughout, 
except the keels, which are armed as in 
P. fulvipes ; vesicle not granular at the sides. 
Ghelos with humerus and brachium as 
in P. fulvipes ; hand with the outer portion 
of its upper surface vertical and crested 
as in /'. fulvipes; the underhand longer and 
not granular ; the whole hand narrower, 
the inner and outer edges more parallel, 
the inner edge more convex near the base 
of the immovable finger and much less 
convex in its posterior half. Pectinal 
teeth 17. 
Measurements in mm. — Total length 100, carapace L5, tail 51, 

brachium 12, underhand L1'5, movable finger 14, width of hand 

1 2-5. 

Loc. Belgaum (Talbot), and GadingaJ in the Kolhapur State 

( Wray ). 




Fig. 26.— Hand of 
PaliimiHtu* i"rin/t/fif<»ii. 



* Young specimens from I)harwar( Wbodrow), and Rayb&gand Kalkal ill the 
Kolhapur State (Wray), are doubtfully referred d> this Bubapecies. 



90 SCOEPI0NIDJK. 

73. Palamnaeus latimanus, Pocuck, A. M. N. H. (6) xiii, p. 74, 1894 
(Scorpio) ; Kraep. Tien:, Scorp. etc. p. 113, 1899 (Heteroinetrus). 

Colour (dry specimen) castaneous, with yellow legs ; chelae 
darker. Carapace finely granular at the sides, on the frontal lobes, 
and in the median anteocular groove ; longer than the 1st and 2nd 
and half the 3rd caudal segments or than segments 3 and 4, and as 
long as the 5th and % of the 4th. Tergites only weakly granular 
at the sides. Sterna smooth, the last with four strong crests. 
Tail short, not more than three times as long as the carapace, 
almost entirely smooth, lateral surface rugose, superior and supero- 
lateral crests on segments 1-3 practically smooth ; keels of 4th 
weakly denticulate, of 5th normally denticulate ; vesicle granular 





A. B. 

Fig. 27. — A, Hand, and B, tarsus of 4th leg of Palamncpus latimanus. 

below. Chelae with humerus very weakly granular above, strongly 
granular in front ; brachium practically smooth throughout ; hand 
very wide, its inner border strongly convex and rising at right 
angles to the base of the immovable finger, its inner edge denticu- 
late, covered above with a reticulation of smooth ridges, which 
become more tubercular towards the base of the fingers and 
externally, and entirely disappear posteriorly ; lower surface with 
a few granules ; width of hand almost equal to length of carapace 
and to movable digit ; immovable finger with a strong crest. Legs 
with posterior femora very weakly granular ; spine-armature of 
tarsi, 6 behind, 5 in front, but differing from all the other species 
in having a strong spine, not bristles, upon the upper angle of 
the tarsal lobe. Pectinal teeth 15. 

Measurements in mm.- — Total length 75 (about), carapace 12*8, 
tail (segments 1-5) 30*5, brachium 9, underhand 7 - . s , movable 
finger 12, width of hand 11-5. 

Loc. ? India. 

74. Palamnaeus gravimanus, Pocock, A. M. X. II. ((>) xiii, p. 7~>. 
1894 (Scorpio). 

J . Colour: body reddish black, legs dark reddish brown. 
Carapace smooth above, weakly granular at the sides, frontal lobes 



P\l,\MV.KrS. 



91 




obsoletelv rugose ; about as long as the 3rd and 4th caudal 
segments. Terga granular Laterally and posteriorly, smooth in 
the middle, the Lust very sparsely granular in the middle. Sterna 

smooth, the last with tour weak crests. Tail about 3| times as 
long as carapace, upper and lateral surface 
of segments sparsely granular; superior and 
inferior lateral crests of segments 1 ."> weakly 
denticulate, inferior crests of -Hh weakly 
subdenticulate posteriorly, upper surface of 
5th somewhat coarsely granular at the sides ; 
vesicle granular at the sides as well as below. 
CheloB with humerus coarsely but not closely 
granular above ; brachium almost entirely 
smooth, with only a few granules in front ; 
hand covered above with low round or elon- 
gate, often anastomosing tubercles, and fur- 
nished with four smooth longitudinal ridges ; 
external portion of upper surface not vertical, 
cutting the underhand at an acute angle ; 
the inner edge studded with small tubercles, 
smooth, compressed, and upturned at base of 
immovable finger, the edge of which in its 
posterior half is similarly compressed; lower surface very weakly 
granular; immovable finger with a low crest; width of hand 
about equal to movable finger and a little less than length of 
carapace. Tarsal spines 4-5. Pectinal U nth 12-14 ($ , <$ ). 

Measurements in mm. — Total length loo, carapace 10, tail 53"5, 
brachium 14-5, underhand 12'5, movable finger 15-5, width of 
hand 14-5. 

Distribution. 8. India, Tanjore (Popert) ; Ceylon (Tern j>h ton). 



Fig. 28.— Hand of 
Palamnceus gravi- 
manus. tf . 



75. Palamnaeus liurus, Pocock, Jour. Bom. X. II. Soc. \i. p. 1 1 1. 
1897; Kraep. Tterr., Scorp. etc. p. 115, 1899 (Heterometrus). 

2 . Colour of upper side and of tail a deep reddish brown, 
darker on the abdomen beneath ; legs and vesicle yellow ; chebe 
reddish brown. Carapace very finely granular at the sides, smooth 
above, with frontal lobes slightly rugulose ; almost as long as the 
first three caudal segments or as the 4th and 5th, considerablv 
longer than 3rd and 4th. Terga smooth and polished, the last 
subrugose at the sides, with a pair of piliferous tubercles on each 
side. Sterna smooth and polished, the last with four smooth 
crests. Tail short, scarcely three t imes as long as the carapace; 
smooth, the keels at most roughened with punctures, and inferior 
keels of 5th denticulate; vesicle small, smooth, merely punctured. 
Chela with humerus coarsely granular in front, sparse! v above ; 
brachium quite smooth, except for some coarse granules on the 
front below ; baud covered above with a network of smooth ridges, 
which pass into tubercles towards the inner edge and externally, 
inner edge denticulate, lightly convex ; immovable finger with 



92 SCORPTONIDJE. 

complete smooth keel ; underhand equal to width of hand, and 
about four-fifths the length of the immovable linger, which is almost 
as long as carapace. Spine-armature of tarsi 4-5. Pectinal teeth 
10-13. 

cf . Terga finely and closely granular laterally and pos- 
teriorly. Tail longer than in female, more than three times as 
long as cai-apace, which is considerably shorter than its 4th and 
5th segments; vesicle inflated, as wide as 3rd segment. Ohelce 
longer than in female ; brachium a little longer than carapace ; 
underhand a little shorter, bub much exceeding width of hand. 
Genital operculum not narrowed posteriorly. Pectinal teeth 14- 
16 : basal angle of pecten about 90°. 

Measurements in mm. — ■ $ . Total length 76, carapace 12, tail 35, 
brachium 10, underhand 9, movable finger 11*5, width of hand 9-2. 

<3 . Total length 80, carapace 12, tail 39, brachium 12-2, 
underhand 11, movable linger 13, width of hand 8. 

Log. Central India: Grwalior and Bhopal (Dane). 



76. Palamnaeus xanthopus, Pocuck, Jour. Bom, X. II. Soc. xi, p. 1 1(5, 
1897 ; Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 115, 1899 (Heterometrus). 

2 . In size, colour, &c. resembling small specimens of P. fulvipes. 
Carapace weakly granular laterally and on the frontal lobes, longer 
than 3rd and 4th caudal segments, and nearly as long as 4th and 
5th. Terga smooth, the last weakly granular at the sides. Sterna 
smooth, the last with four crests. Tail about three times the 
length of the carapace, smooth above, scarcely granular laterally, 
superior and supero-lateral keels weakly denticulate; inferior keels 
of 3rd weakly denticulate ; 5th segment carinate as in P. fulvipes, 
with no denticulate supero-lateral crests ; vesicle granular at 
the sides and below. Chela' : brachium with superior crest 
granular, posterior surface only lightly rugose : hand not crested 
above as in P. fulvipes ; upper side strongly convex, ornamented 
with a reticulation of ridges, inner edge subdenticulate, strongly 
rounded ; lower side nearly smooth ; width equal to length of 
movable finger, much greater than length of underhand. Spine- 
armature of tarsi 5-6. Pectinal teeth 13-15 ( <3 , $ ). 

<$ . Carapace almost covered with granules. Terga finely and 
closely granular in the posterior half. Chela? longer, brachium 
almost as long as carapace : width of hand a little exceeding under- 
hand and less than movable finger. 

Measurements in mm. — $. Total length 74, carapace 11, tail 
34, brachium 7, underhand 6-5, movable finger 9, width of hand 9. 
cT. Total length?, carapace 11, tail?, brachium 9'5, under- 
hand 8, movable finger 10'3, width of hand 8 - 7. 

Lot: Western India : Kadao Tal in the Satara District ( Wilkins). 



PALAMIM5US. 93 

77. Palamnaeus scaber. Thorell, Atti Soc. It. xix, p. 202, 1877 
(Pandinus), for Heterometrua afer, Sim. (nee Linn.) Rev. Mag. 
Zool. {'2) xxiii, p. 51, 187J : Pocock, Jour. Horn. N. II. Soc. vii, 
pp. 310^11, 1893; Kraep. JO. Hand,, wis*. Anst. xi, p. 58, 1894 
(Scorpio); Kraep. Tierr., Kemp. etc. p. 110, 1899 (Heterometrus). 

2 . Colour uniformly black or blackish green, with hands and 
vesicle tinged with red. Carapace covered with coarse granules or 
tubercles, smoother above as a rule; a little longer than 1st and 
2nd caudal segments, shorter than 3rd and 4th. Terga also coarsely 
granular or tubercular, with a larger central tubercle. Sterna 
smooth, the last obaoletelv crested. Tail more than three and a half 
times as long as carapace, superior and lateral intercarinal spaces 
coarsely granular, superior and in a less degree supero-lateral keels 
denticulate; inferior keels of 3rd segment scarcely denticulate; keels 
of 5th strongly dentate; vesicle coarsely granular at the sides as well 
as below. Chela with humerus dentate above and in front ; brachium 
almost smooth, a few granules in front ; upper surface of hand very 
smooth, finely reticulated, punctured, its inner edge denticulate, 
nearly straight ; immovable finger scarcely keeled ; width of hand 
exceeding length of underhand. Tarsal spines 4-5. Pectines small. 
teeth 10-12. " 

S like female, but more closely granular and with chela? longer 
(see measurements). Pectines quite small, not larger, and with 
teeth not more numerous than in female. 

Measurements in mm. — $• Total length 130, carapace 19, tail 
70, brachium 15, underhand 13, movable finger 20*5, width of 
hand 10. 

<S . Total length 113, carapace 17, tail 63, brachium 15, under- 
hand 12*5, movable finger 18, width of hand 13. 

hoc. S.YV. India: the Malabar coast from Trevandrum (Ferguson) 
northwards to Velgit and Jedkal in Mangalore and the Mangaloiv 
Ghats (Battle); also Dharwar (Woodrow), and Coorg above the 
Ghats.* 

Subspecies kanarensis, now 

Of the same size, colour, and sculpturing of hand as the typical 
form, but much smoother: the median area of the carapace smooth 
or weakly granular; terga also furnished in the middle with only 
a few granules or almosl smooth, sometimes only the three trans- 
versely set tubercles present ; intercarinal spaces of tail also more 
sparsely granular and the keel less strongly denticulate. 

Lot: Kanara (Bell). 



* In his original description of this species, which he erroneously identified 

with the Scnrja'o nfrr of Linn.. Simon >a_ys " appears in lie i-nmmoD m Bengal." 

This, however, is almost certainly an error, Bince the onlj species of the genus 

Palamnaus known i cur in Bengal are not md ngalensis, and 

possibly 1 1 io Burmese form oatesii. 



04 SCOBl'IONID.E. 

78. Palamnaeus bengalensis, C. Koch, Arachn. ix,p. 3, fig. 696, 1842 
(Buthus) ; Pucock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vii, pp. 310 & 312, 1893 ; 
id. A. M. N. H. (0) xiii,p. 72, 1894 ; Kraep. Jb. Hamb. wiss. Anst. 
xi, p. 51, 1894 (Scorpio) ; Kraep. Tierr., Scarp, etc. p. 114, 1899 
(Heterometrus). 

5 . Colour generally dark reddish brown, more rarely deep 
blackish green ; legs the same colour as the dorsal surface of the 
body ; vesicle yellowish red. Carapace granular laterally, mostly 
smooth above, scarcely so long as the 3rd and 4th caudal segments. 
Terga granular laterally. Sterna smooth, the last only obsoletely 
crested. Tail about three and a half times as long ns carapace, 
its dorsal surface nearly smooth, lateral surface finely granular ; 
superior and inferior lateral keels denticulate, inferior keels of 4th 
denticulate, of 3rd very weakly so ; vesicle granular below and at 
the sides. Chelan brachium with upper crest rugose; posterior 
surface not crested above, rugose ; hand narrow, its width not much 
exceeding underhand, inner edge denticulate, lightly convex, upper 
surface covered with a reticulation of ridges and low tubercles, the 
tubercles more distinct externally and internally ; outer portion of 
upper surface vertical, strongly convex ; immovable finger weakly 
crested ; movable finger about as long as carapace. Tarsal spine- 
armature 6-4. Pectinal teeth up to 16 in S , as low as 12 in 5 • 

S . With longer and more powerful tail and longer ehelse than $ . 
Tail nearly four times the length of the carapace. Brachium as long 
as carapace; underhand much longer than width of hand ; movable 
linger as long as carapace or longer. 

Measurements in mm. (specimen from Satna). — 2 • Total length 
103, carapace 14, tail 49, brachium 11, underhand 10, movable 
linger 14, width of hand 10. 

J. Total length 103, carapace 15, tail 57, brachium 15, under- 
hand 12-2, movable finger 16, width of hand 9. 

hoc. North India : Dehra Dun [Gamble, Smythies, (H'ctdoiv) ; 
Gwalior and Allahabad; Satna in the Central Provinces ( Gimlette) ; 
Bengal, Chota Nagpore {Dundas- Whiffin) ; Sibsagar in Assam 
(Cambridge). 



79. Palamnaeus phipsoni, Pot-oak, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vii, p. 370, 
1893 ; A. M. N. H. (6) xiii, p. 73, 1894 (Scorpio) ; Kraep. Tierr., 
Scorp. etc. p. 114, 1899 (Heteronietrus). 

5 . Colour a uniform blackish green or brown ; vesicle ferruginous. 
Upper side of body rather smoother than in P. bengalensis; sides and 
upper surface of tail also smoother. Carapace as long as 3rd and 
4th segments; vesicle smooth at the sides; inferior keels of 4th 
nearly smooth, not so distinctly denticulate as in /'. bengalensis. 
Integument finely punctulate under the lens; the punctulation 
especially distinct upon the last sternum of t he abdomen, which 
has no trace of crests. Chelae, with hand much broader than in 
P. bengalensis, the width exceeding the underhand, the inner border 
more strongly convex and more coarsely denticulate ; the sculp- 
turing of the upper surface consisting of distinct rounded, oval or 



PALAMN.UjS. 95 

irregularly shaped tubercles ; immovable linger with distinct keel. 
Tarsal spine-armature (5-5. Pectinal teeth up to 10 in <3 , as Low 
as 10 in $ . 

<5 . Differing from 2 i' 1 the same characters as P. benyalensis 
(see measurements). 

Measurements in mm. — 5 . Total length 113, carapace 1(5, tail 5-*>, 
brachium 14, underhand 12-2, movable finger 10, width of hand 
14-5. 

<$ . Total length 110, carapace 1 G*o, tail 60, brachium L8, under- 
hand 15, movable finger 17, width of hand 12. 

Loc. Bombay and Matheran (Phipson) ; Kolata (Green), Tanna 
in the North Ivonkan ( Wroughton), Katnagiri in the South Konkan 
( Drew); north, central, and south Peiut, Nasik Ghats, Dindori and 
Lena in Nasik (Duxbury) ; Bhudhargarh and Panhala in the 
Kolhapur State (Wray). 

Subspecies collinus, nov. 

Closely resembling the typical form in size, colouring, and other 
characters, but with the tail distinctly shorter in both male and 
female. In the female it is less than three times as long as the 
carapace, and the latter is longer than the 1st, 2nd, and half the 3rd, 
and as long or almost as long as the 3rd aud 4th caudal segments. 
( In the typical form the tail is about three and a half times as long 
as the carapace, and the latter is shorter than the 1st, 2nd, and half 
the 3rd, and only as long as the 4th and if of the 5th caudal seg- 
ments.) Moreover, the baud in carnaticus is lower and not so 
strongly convex above the keel of the underhand. 

Measurements in mm. (type from Nilgiri Hills). — Total length 95, 
carapace 16, tail 42*5. 

Loc. Nilgiri Hills (Daly) ; Tercaud in the Shevaroy Hills 
(Henderson). 

80. Palamngeus barberi, sp. a 

Colour a deep blackish green all over except the hands, which 
are orange-yellow, darker externally and blackish towards the base 
of the fingers. Carapace weakly granular laterally and on the 
frontal lobes ; longer than 3rd and 4th caudal segments. Terga 
scarcely granular laterally, except the last, which has some coarse 
granules. Sterna smooth, the last not crested. Tail short, about 
three times as long as the carapace; segments smooth between 
the keels or nearly so; superior keels normally but not strongly 
denticulate, inferior keels of :5rd smooth, of 4th denticulate 
posteriorly; reside smooth at the sides. Chela with humerus 
and brachium as iu /'. phipsoni, but upper crest of brachium not so 
pronounced ; hand ornamented with a reticulation of ridges much as 
in P. bengalensis, not so smooth as in /'. scaber but very nearly 
resembling that of the latter in shape ; coarsely granular on its inner 
side and having a pair of granular crests : immovable linger with 
complete crest . Tarsal spine-armature 6-4. Pectinal teeth 11-12; 
basal angle of pecten about the same as in /'. phipsoni. 



m 



S< 'OltPlONID.E. 



Measurements in mm. — 9 . Total length 124, carapace L9, tail 58, 
brachium 16, underhand 13, movable linger IS. width of hand 15. 
hoc. Tinnevelly in S. India (Barber). 

81. Palamnaeus indus, Be Geer. Mem. Hist. his. vii, p. 341, 1778 
(Scorpio); Thorell, Atti Soc. It. xix, p. 164, 1877 (Scorpio); 
Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 113, 1899 (Heterometrus) : ceylonicus, 
Herbst, Nat. unyefl. Ins. iv, p. 38, pi. i, fig. 1, 1800; Kraep. Jb. 
Hamb. Wiss. Ansf. xi, p. 40, 1894 (Scorpio) : megacephalus, C. Koch, 
Arachn. iii, p. 73, fig. 224, 1837 (Butnus) ; Thorell, Atti Soc. It. 
xix, p. 203, 1877 (Pandinus) ; Pocoek, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. vii, 
p. 311, 1893 (Scorpio). 

Related to P. phipsoni and flavimanus. 

$. Colour a uniform deep blackish green. Carapace smooth 
above and on the frontal lobes, granular at the sides, a little longer 
than 3rd aud 4th caudal segments. Terga almost entirely smooth, 
the last with a few granules at the sides. Sterna smooth, the last 
with four low crests. Tail short, about three times as long as the 
carapace ; almost entirely smooth ; the superior and supero-lateral 
keels at most weakly denticulate, sometimes quite smooth ; inferior 
crests of 4th denticulate posteriorly ; upper side of 5th not granu- 
lar except along the lateral keel ; vesicle scantily granular laterally 
or smooth. C helot with hand very large, its inner edge shaped much 
as in P. flavimanus and seaber, not so convex as in P. phipsoni; the 
dorsal surface flatter than in these species, the external portion of 
the upper surface not so vertical ; keel of underhand very strong, 
stronger than in the species just mentioned and more convex ; upper 
side studded with rounded, oval, or irregularly-shaped tubercles, 
much like those of P. phipsoni; lobe of hand large; width of hand 
almost as great as length of movable digit or of carapace ; immov- 
able finger with smooth 
crest. Tarsal armature mostly 
5-4. Pectinal teeth 11-12 ; 
base of pecten very narrow, 
the teeth starting some dis- 
tance from its point of attach- 
ment. 

d* . Scarcely differing from 
§ in form of chelae and length 
of tail, and thus easily re- 
cognizable from the male of 
P. phipsoni or bengalensis. Pec- 
tincs larger ( han in £ 
Measurements in mm. — $. Total length 1 17, carapace 20, tail 
02, brachium 10, underhand 15, movable linger 21, width of 
hand 18 # 5. 

cS . Total length 101, carapace 17, tail 55, brachium 11, under- 
hand 11, movable linger 17*5, width of hand 14. 

Loc. Ceylon (Templeton, Barnes, etc.), Peradeniya (Freeman). 





Fig. 29. — A. Pecten of Palamnteus indus. 
E. Base of pecten of P. fulvipes. 



PALAMX.Tls. 9/ 

82. Palamnaeus serratus, ap. n. : Scorpio csesar, Pocotk, A. M. N. //. 

(6) xiii, p. 73, 18!»4 (nee Buthus caesar, ('. Koch, Kraepelin). 

3 . Colour as in the preceding, to which it is nearly allied. 
Carapace and terqa more coarsely granular laterally. Superior and 
supero-lateral crests of tail strongly denticulate ; lateral surface of 
segments sparsely granular, upper side of 4th segment with some 
coarse granules, of 5th with many large granules on the anterior 
half on each side of the median sulcus. Chelce with hand orna- 
mented above as in P. Indus, the inner border more strongly eon vex, 
forming anteriorly with the base of the immovable finger an angle 
much less obtuse than in that species, the denticles of the inner 
border running right up to the base of the immovable finger, the 
edge of which is at least as thick as in P. Indus; the underhand 
reticulated and furnished with a few large granules ; keel on 
immovable finger complete as in P. Indus. Pectines practically as 
in P. Indus. tarsal spine-armature 6 or 5 behind, 4 in front. 

Measurements in mm. — 3 • Total length 125, carapace 18, tail 
04, brachium 15, underhand 12-5, movable finger 19, width of 
hand 17. 

Loc. Ceylon. 

83. Palamnaeus csesar, C. Koch, Arachn. ix. p. 6, fig. 697, L842 

(Buthus) ; Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 114, 1899 (Ileterometrus). 

According to Kraepelius description this species differs from 
P. serratus in having the frontal lobes of the carapace thickly 
granular or tubercular; the inner edge of the hand forms a well 
rounded arch where it passes into the immovable linger, which is 
very flat, wide, and has a sharp, smooth, not swollen border ; the 
keel on its upper side is weak and becomes obsolete in the middle ; 
the underhand is beset with conspicuous isolated tubercles ; 
the tarsi are armed beneath with 5 or 6 spines behind, 3 in front. 
Pectinal teeth 12 16. 

Loc. Cevlon. 

84. Palamnaeus longimanus, Herbst, Nat. ungeji. Ins. iv, p. 42, pi. ii, 

fig. 1, 1800 (Scorpio) ; Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. Ill, 1899, in 
part (Heterometrus) : bengalensis, Simon, Ann. Mvs. Genov. x.x. 
1 1. .".Hi). L884 (/"•(• Buthus bengalensis, ('. k'>r//, L842; : petersii, 
Thorell, Ann. Mus. (lenoniA-) \ii, p. "<>>\ 1->'.i [ ,i>r prter>ii, Thor. 
1876 & L877): thorelli, Pocock, A. M. X. 11. (6) ix, p. 40, 1892 
( Palamnaeus). 

$ . Colour* uniform black or deep blackish brown, reddish brow q 
below and on the hands and vesicle. Cnr<tj><ic,- granular at the 
sides and on the frontal lobes, smooth or <>hsol*tely granular above, 
differing from all the foregoing species in having the depression on 
each side of the median ocular tubercle continuous posteriorlv with 
the posterolateral sulcus of the carapace ; a little longer than the 
3rd and 4th caudal segments. Terga weakly granular at the sides ; 

it 



98 scokpionid^:. 

the last subgranular in the middle, more coarsely granular at the 
sides and furnished with a pair of short granular crests. Sterna 
smooth and polished ; the last not crested. Tail less than three 
and a half times as long as carapace, upper surface smooth, lateral 
surface only weakly granular ; superior and inferior lateral crests 
denticulate, inferior keels of 4th weakly denticulate, superior lateral 
crest of 5th rectangular but only subdenticulate ; vesicle smooth or 
almost smooth at the sides. Chelce with humerus weakly granular 
in its basal half above ; the upper and anterior surface bounded by 
strongly denticulate crests, the anterior surface with a few large 
tubercles ; lower surface lightly reticulated mesially, with long 
finely granular posterior crest ; brachium shorter than carapace, 
armed in front at base with siugle long spine, posterior surface 
smooth ; hand thick, strongly convex above, its inner edge not 
so compressed as in the Indian species, the width less than length 
of uuderhand, which is about three-fourths the length of the 
movable finger ; dorsal surface of hand smooth, punctured and 
obsoletely reticulated, weakly carinate, the reticulation becoming 
coarser toward the inner edge, which is itself somewhat thickly 
and coarsely granular; immovable finger with smooth keel. 
Penultimate fang of the movable ringer of the mandibles longer 
than in the foregoing species. Tarsal spine-armature 7 or 6 behind, 
4 in front. Pectinal teeth about 14-16 ( d , 2 )• 

d . Tail a little and chehe very much longer than in the female ; 
tail not quite four times as long as carapace, which is shorter 
than the 3rd and 4th caudal segments ; both humerus and 
brachium much longer than carapace ; hand very long and slender, 
nearly parallel-sided, the width half the length of the uuderhand, 
which is longer than carapace and almost as long as the movable 
finger. 

Measurements in mm. — $. Total length 117, carapace 17, tail 
56, humerus 13, brachium 14, underhand 13, movable finger 17, 
width of hand 11*5. 

d . Total length 103, carapace 16, tail 60, humerus 19, brachium 
19, underhand 17, movable finger 19, width of hand 9. 

Loc. Occurring in abundance throughout Burma (Comotlo, 
Oates, Feci) ; Andaman Islands, Port Blair (Pratt). Borneo. 

85. Palamnseus oatesii, nom. nov. : Palanmneus spinifer, Pocock, 
A. M. N. H. (6) ix, p. 40, 1892 : [? spinifer, Hempr. 6} Ehrmb. 
Sy?nb.Phys.,Scorp.p.3, t. i, tifj. 2, 1829(IIeterometrus)]: P. petersii, 
Thorell, Atti Soc. It. xix, p. 214, 1877 (nee petersii, Thorell, 
A. M. N. H. (4) xvii, p. 13, 1876) *. 

2 . Resembling the preceding in colour but more polished, and 
with the vesicle generally reddish yellow and much paler as a 

* The name petersii was originally applied by Thorell in 1876 to the 
Cochi" China form which Simon in L872 had erroneously described and 
figured as megacephalus, 0. Koch, and which he subsequently in 1882 renamed 
silt iius. 



l'\l.\M\.Ll .-<. 9 ( J 

rule than the segments of the tail. The upper elevated portion 
of the carapace quite smooth and polished, without a trace of 
granules ; the margins of the frontal lobes distinctly denticulated. 
Tail not granular, keels more strongly denticulated. Hand with 
upper surface smoother, more polished, less strongly crested; its 
inner edge studded with much larger denticles. Pectiaal teeth 
14-18 (6,2). 

6. Strikingly different from the male of P. longimanus, with 
secondary sexual characters poorly developed; brachium a In tie 
longer than humerus, but not or scarcely longer than carapace ; 
hand not narrowed, its width equal or nearly equal to underhand 
and considerably less than movable finger; inner edge of hand 
shaped as in female, lightly convex, with large rounded lobe, not 
straight and parallel to the outer surface as in P. longimanus. 

Measurements in mm. (specimens from Rangoon). — $. Total 
length 128, carapace 18, tail 67, humerus 14, brachium 16, under- 
hand 1."), movable finger 20, width of hand 14. 

6 . Total length 111, carapace 16*5, tail 62, humerus 14, 
brachium 15, underhand 14, movable finger 18, width of hand 
12-5. 

Large specimens of this species reach a length of 180 mm. 

Loc. * Burma : Rangoon (Oates) and Mergui (Anderson). Siam ; 
Singapore. 

The following species no doubt belongs to this genus ; but is 
not recognizable: — 

Scorpio leioderma, Dufour, Mini. pris. -(«'. Set. Paris, xiv, p. 571, 
1856. 

Colour subfuscous, with paler legs. Very smooth ; carapace 
with eight eyes, emarginate and bilobed ; hands very wide, rough ; 
caudal segments granular. Pectinal teeth 13. Length 4 inches 
(french)= 108 millim. 

Loc. Malabar. 



* There are a couple of specimens in the British Museum labelled " Bengal." 
This Locality, however, requires verification, 



u 



100 UROPYGI. 



Order UROPYGI. 

At once recognizable from the Scorpions, to which the larger 
species present considerable superficial resemblance, by the presence 
of a deep constriction between the cephalothorax and abdomen, 
by the absence of pectines or combs on the sternal area and of 
poison-glands in the postanal skeletal piece. 

Cephalothorax longer than wide, the carapace sometimes seg- 
mented posteriorly : the ventral surface narrow and furnished with 
two or three sternal plates (fig. 31, p. 103) — an anterior or pro- 
sternum, broad in front and narrowed behind, lying behind the coxa? 
of the chelae and separating the bases of the anterior legs ; a pos- 
terior or metasternum which lies between the coxae of the 4th pair of 
legs ; and sometimes a minute mesostei-num between the coxae of the 
3rd legs. Mandibles chelate, consisting of two segments. Chelce 
large and prehensile ; the segments named as follows from base 
to tip : coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia, hand, finger ; the coxae united 
in the middle line and furnished in front with a pointed maxillary 
process. Legs of 1st pair long, slender, and antenniform, consisting 
of six segments : coxa, trochanter, femur, patella, tibia, and tarsus ; 
the tarsus subdivided into 8 or 9 segments, the basal of which 
is very short. The rest of the legs ambulatory in function, and 
consisting of 7 segments named as above with the addition of a 
protarsus which precedes the three-jointed tarsus : the tarsus 
bearing three claws ; coxae of 2nd and 3rd legs not widely separated 
in the middle line of the sternal area. Abdomen consisting of 12 
somites, represented by tergal and sternal plates, but the sternum 
of the 1st wholly or partially obliterated, at most forming a 
strengthening skeletal piece on the underside of the waist, 
and in systematic descriptions not taken into account, the sternum 
of the 2nd somite being termed the 1st abdominal sternum. 
Generative organs opening in the middle line behind the sternum of 
the 2nd somite, which is often much modified. Last three somites 
annuliform or cylindrical, forming a movable stalk for the post- 
anal skeletal piece, which consists of a single segment or has the 
form of a many-jointed caudal flagellum or filament. The un- 
modified terga and sterna impressed with a pair of muscular scars 
or sigilla. 

The two suborders into which the genera of this Order are 
classified may be briefly diagnosed as follows : — 

a. Carapace unsegmented ; last segment of ab- 
domen bearing a long jointed flagellum .... Uhotricha. 

l>. Carapace segmented : last segment of abdomen 

bearing a short unjointed skeletal piece .... Taktaiudes, 



UR0TR1CHA. 



101 



Suborder UROTRICHA* 

Carapace unsegmented, furnished at its fore extremity with a pair 
of median eyes set close together and with a cluster of 3 lateral 
eyes on each side, some distance behind the medians. Chela 
folding in a horizontal plane; the coxa short, the tibia armed with 
a long inwardly directed spine or apophysis, against which the 
hand closes ; hand with a corresponding apophysis, the immovable 




Fig. 30. — TheJyphonus indicus, J. 

c, carapace; ", first tergum of abdomen ; m, ommatoid or last segment of 
abdomen; n, caudal flagellum; .-. trochanter; x, femur; ", tibia] apo- 
physis; <?, hand ; c, movable finger of chela; b, tarsal segments ef 1st 
[eg; J, coxa ; g, trochanter; I/, femur; i, patella : /, tibia; k, protarsus; 
/, tarsus of 4tli Leg. 

finger, which forms with the movable finger a complete pincer; 
claw fused with extremity of movable finger. 1st leg with 
tarsus consisting of 9 segments; 2nd leg with coxa unarmed; 
2nd, 3rd, and 4th legs with tibia long and protarsus verj 
short, the extremity of the tibia often armed on the underside with 
a slender spine, the tibial spine. Postanal skeletal piece consisting 



* 1 here restore for this group the very appropiate name which was given to 
it by C. Koch. Thorell applied to it the term Oxopoei, or " acid-makers," in 
allusion to the defensive pungent Beoretion the animals emit when handled. In 
ordinary phraseology these animals are known as " Whip-Scorpions." 



102 TIIELI'PHONIDJ:. 

of a long, hairy, many-jointed feeler or flagellum. Last abdominal 
segment in all the Indian species bearing at the base of the fla- 
gellum a pair of yellow spots, the ommatoids. Respiratory organs 
in the form of two pairs of pulmonary sacs, the first pair opening 
behind the 1st abdominal sternum in a line with the generative 
orifice, the second pair behind the 2nd sternum. 

Sexual characters. — Adult males differ from the females and 
young males in having the chelae longer and thicker, or otherwise 
modified, and the 1st abdominal sternum considerably inflated. 

Hahits. Whip-Scorpions are found in damp places beneath 
stones or pieces of wood, in the crannies of rocks or of termites' 
nests, or other crevices where shelter from light and protection 
from the rays of the sun are obtainable. Some of the spe.-ies 
excavate burrows for the protection of themselves and their young. 
The young are hatched from eggs, which the female previously 
carries about ensvvathed in a glutinous membrane and attached to 
Ihe lower side of the abdomen. 

Distribution. Oriental Region from India and Ceylon to the Fiji 
Islands and New Hebrides, and extending northwards into China 
and Southern Japan ; Neotropical Region from Brazil northwards 
into the Southern States of North America. Absent from Africa, 
Madagascar, Australia, and New Zealand. 

In the following descriptions the chela? are regarded as extending 
forwards in a direction parallel to the long axis of the body. The 
total measurement is taken from the front end of the head to 
the base of the caudal filament. 



Family THELYPHONID^E. 

Characters of the suborder. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

a. ( Jarapace with a sharp keel running forwards 

en each .side of the head in front of the 

lateral eyes; ocular tubercle high. 

a 1 . Maxillary process of coxa of chela armed 

on its inner edge with a strong sharp 

spiniform tooth Ukopbocttjs, p. 100. 

//. Maxillary process of coxa of chela, r.ot 

armed ■with a tooth on the inner .side . . TiiKi.vrnoM's, p. 10.'!. 
It. Carapace without a heel running forward 
from the lateral eye on each .side of the 
head ; ocular tubercle low. 
a 2 . Maxillary process of coxa of chela with 

;i strong sharp tooth on its inner margin. LAisocninus, p. 107. 
I)'. .Maxillary process of coxa of chela 

unarmed internally Hypoctonvs, p. 111. 



XHELYPHOXUS. 



103 



Genus THELYPHONUS, Latr. 

Thelyphonus, Latreille, Hist. Nat. Crust. Ins. iii, p. 47, 1802, ill 
part ; also of Lucas, Karl,, Butler, Stoliczka, etc. (in part). 

Thelyphonus (emend.), Pocock, A. M. N. II. (6) xiv,p. 121, 1894; 
Eraepelin, Abh. Ver. Hamb. xv, p. 19, 1897; id. Tien:, Scorn, 
etc. p. 212, 1899. 

A. 




D. 





E. 



Fig. 31. — Thelyphonus indicus. 

A. Lower side of cephalotborax and abdomen, $> . a, coxaof chela ; h, prosternal 

plate; e, coxa of 2nd leg; d, mesosternal plate; e, coxa of 3rd leg; 
f, metasternal plate; g, first sternum, h, second sternum, i, third 
sternum, /•, fourth sternum, showing muscular sigilla, of abdomen. 

B. Anterior extremity of carapace : /, median. », lateral eyes ; m, crest. 
0. Maxillary processes of chela?. 

D. Lower side of anterior end of abdomen of <$ : o, first sternum; p, tooth 

on second sternum. 

E. Lower side of anterior end of abdomen of $>. 

Carapace with granular crest, running forwards from the lateral 
eyes on each side ; median eyes situated one on each side of a 
high distinct ocular tubercle ; maxillary process of chela; not 
toothed internally. Chela in cJ thicker but not much longer than 
in $; the tibial apophysis of the same form in both sexes, with 
toothed edges and terminating in a sharp point. First abdominal 
sternal plate in J with deep median groove; 2nd with median 
tooth-like spine. 

Type, T. cauda tus (Linn.), Java. 

Distribution. Ceylon and 8. India ; Burma, thence eastwards to 
the Philippine Islands, and over tin- whole of the Indo- and 
Austro-Malayan area as far as the Solomon Islands. 



104 THELYPHONID.E. 

Synopsis of Indian Species and Subspecies. 

Females. 

a. First abdominal sternum with posterior border 

truncate ; maxillary process of chela not 

shouldered T. schnehagenii, 

b. First abdominal sternum with posterior border [p. 105. 

mesially produced and convexly rounded ; 
maxillary process shouldered. 
a 1 . Abdominal sterna with distinct raised median 

line T. cristatus, p. 105. 

ft 1 . Abdominal sterna without raised median line. 

a'. Legs dark, as dark as body, pale reddish T. sepiaris, typical 

only at extremities [form, p. 104. 

/r. Legs uniformly red, much paler than body. Subspecies indjcus 

[& muricola, p. 105. 

Males. 

a. Abdominal sterna smooth and polished, only 

minutely punctulate and obsoletely striate .... sepiaris, subspecies 

b. Abdominal sterna (except the anterior) coarsely [muricola, p. 105. 

rugose and subgrauular throughout. 
a'. Legs dark brown, pale at the extremities. . . . sepiaris, typical 

[form, p. 104. 

//. Legs uniformly red sepiaris, subspecies 

[iiidicus, p. 105. 

86. Thelyphonus sepiaris, Butler, Cist. Ent. i, p. 131, <$ (May 1. 
1873) ; Pocock, A. M. K II. (6) xiv, p. 1:22, 1894 ; Kraep. 
Abh. Yer. Hamb. xv, p. 35, 1897 ; id. Tierr., Scarp, etc. p. 223, 
1899 : nigrescens, Butler, Cist. Eat. i, p. 131, 1873 ( § ). 

Colour black or blackish brown above and on chela?, reddish 
brown below ; legs black, with the tibiae and tarsi deep red-brown. 
Carapace and terga coarsely rugose, with close-set punctures and 
granules, a smooth paler median line present on 2nd and 3rd and 
just traceable on posterior terga. First sternum shining, sparsely 
punctured and striate, granular marginally ; the rest coarsely rugose, 
without traceable median line. Chelce : maxillary process of coxa 
internally shouldered; femur and tibia granular below, polished 
and punctured above; trochanter granular above, armed below 
with 2 teeth (rarely 1), and with 5-6 above ; femur with 1-2 small 
tubercles above and 1 below ; tibial apophysis armed in front with 
6 or more teeth and behind with about 3; band thicker than 
tibia, its inner edge denticulate, granular internally ; movable 
linger with anguliform subapical tooth. Legs of 2nd, 3rd, and 
4th pairs with tibial spine. Caudal JiageUum hairy. 

$. Differing from S in having the sterna smooth, punctured, 
and scratched with transverse lines. Teeth on trochanter and 
femur of chela larger; hand narrower than tibia; movable finger 
without subapical tooth. Tarsal segments of Ls1 ^unmodified. 
first abdominal sternum with its posterior border strongly and 
convexly produced. 

Length of body up to about 4<» mm, 



THELTPHOHTTS. 105 

Loc. S. India: Madras (Safe, Jerdon, Boileau); Ceylon {Holds- 
vurth), Jaffna {Sarasin) ; Trincomali {Yerbury, Green, Barrett, 
Basset-Smith); Tenasserim. {Pad- man)*. 

Subspecies indicus, Stoliczka, J. A. S. />'. xlii, p. 138, t. 12, fig. 5, 
May 28, 1873 (tf); 0«/™, j; .4. & 5. lviii, pi. 2, p. 9, t. ii, 
tigs. 1-tJ, 1889: beddomei, UtoUczhu, J. A. S. B. xlii, p. 142, t. 12, 
og.6,1873($). 

Both sexes distinguished from the typical form by having the 
legs entirely red, and contrasting strongly with the black colour 
of the upper side of the trunk t. 

Loc. Southern India : Anaimalai Hills (Beddome) ; Nilgiri 
Hills {Daly) ; Yercaud in the Shevaroy Hills {Henderson); French 
liocks, Madras {Hamilton). 

Subspecies muricola, Pocock, Jour. Bomb. N. H. Hoc xii, p. 745, 1899. 

$ . Like that "of T. sepiaris subsp. indicus in colour of legs and 
structural characters. 

$ . At once recognizable from that of the typical T. sepiaris and 
of T. sepiaris subsp. indicus by the much greater smoothness of the 
abdominal sterna, these plates being polished, minutely punctulated, 
and irregularly transversely striated, the sides only being densely 
punctured as in the females of T. sepiaris. 

Loc. S. India : Trivandrum in Travancore ( Ft rguson ,\- Sullivan). 

87. Tlielyphonus cristatus, sp. n. 

O . Colour and general characters, such as spine-armature of 
tibia 1 , granulation of terga, etc., as in T. sepiaris; considerably 
smaller than that species; the 4th, 5th, and 6th sterna with 
distinct elevated median line, and all the sterna more distinctly 
punctured, the posterior more so than the anterior, the 7th 
especially being very distinctly punctured throughout. In the 
chelae the anterior edge of the upper side of the trochanter is 
armed with only one strong tooth, the second being quite small. 

Total length 26 mm. 

Loc. Bengal {Hardwicke). 

88. Tlielyphonus schnehagenii, Kraepelin, Abh. Ver. Hamb. xv, 

p. .".••J, 1897; id. Tim-., Scorp. etc. p. 222, L899. 

5. Co!",ir of trunk and limbs reddish In-own. Carapace and 
terga rugose, granular; median line Bhowing only on the anterior 
three terga. Posterior border of 1st abdominal sternum trans- 
versely truncate, finely and closely punctured, especially at the 
sides, and furnished also with scattered larger punctures; the 

* This locality for the type of I . nign ■ s 1- probably erroneous. 
t In the case of both subspecies, Bpedmens thai have recently moulted have 
the integument of both body and Legs reddish brown. 



106 THELTPIIONIB.t. 

rest of the sterna also finely and closely punctured, without trace 
of middle line. Chela with coxa smooth, very sparsely punctured ; 
maxillary process not shouldered on its inner edge ; trochanter 
armed as in T. sepiaris ; femur moderately thickly rugose, with 
conspicuous spine on the upper edge in front ; tibia very sparsely 
and coarsely punctured, the apophysis with two strong teeth 
on the outer border towards the tip ; hand tolerably thickly 
and coarsely punctured, with shortly toothed inner edge. Tibia 
of 4th leg with apical spine. Caudal filament nearly naked. 

Length 32 mm. 

Loc. Burma : Eangoon (Schnehagen). 

Genus UR0PR0CTUS, Pocock. 

Uroproctus, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) xiv, p. 129, 1894 ; Eraep. Abh. 
Ver. Kamb. xv, p. 40, 1897 ; id. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 225, 1899. 

A. B. Carapace with sharp ridge 

running forward on each side 
from the lateral eyes ; median 
ocular tubercle high. Maxillary 
process of coxa of chela armed 
internally with a strong tooth. 
1st abdominal sternum in rf 
without median groove ; 2nd 
scarcely toothed in the middle 
of its hinder border. Chela? in 

Fig. 32.— Uroproctus assamensis. niale lar g er tlian in female ; tibial 

A. Maxillary processes of chela. apophysis different in the two 

B. Chela of $ . sexes. 

Type, U. assamensis (Stoliczka). 
Distribution. Hilly region of Assam and North-eastern Bengal. 

89. Uroproctus assamensis, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, 
p. 205, t, 19, fig. 1, 1869 ; id. op. cit. xlii, pt. 2, p. 133, 1. 12. fig. 2, 
L873; Oates, op. cit. lviii, pt. 2, p. 8, pi. ii, fig. 13, 1889 (Thelv- 
phonus); Focock, A. M. N. H. (6) xiv, p. 129, 1894; Kracp. 
Abh. Ver. llamb. xv, p. 40, 1897 ; id. Tierr. , Scorp. etc. p. 226, 
1899 (Uroproctus) : scabrinus, Stoliczka, op. cit. xlii, pt. 2, p. 130, 
t. 12, fig. 1, 1873; august us, Stoliczka, op. cit. p. 134, t. 12. tig. 3 
(in part; not angustus, Lucas) : rufimanus, Butler, A. M. A. H. 
(1) x, p. 202. 1872 (uec ruj.vumus, Lucas), 5 : proscorpio, id. ibid. 
(nee proscorpio, Latreille), § : psittacinus, id. Cist. JEnt.i, p. 129, 
1873, J (Thelyphonus). 

cS . Colour black, especially on carapace and cliche, extremities 
of legs reddish brown, underside of cephalothorax and abdomen 
rich mahogany-brown; in recently moulted specimens the whole 
colour is much redder. Upper side of body roughened with 
sculpturing of close-set punctures and studded with granules. 
First abdominal sternum coarsely punctured and transversely 
grooved, with posterior border widely rounded in the middle. 




DABOCHTRTJS. 107 

depressed posterioi'ly, and bearing a pair of marginal impressions ; 
middle of 2nd sternum pale, transversely grooved, with small 
median tubercle ; the rest of the sterna polished, puuctured. 
Chela with coxa coarsely punctured ; trochanter granular, armed 
below with a bifid tooth and above with 4 internal and 1 
anterior tooth; femur and tibia coarsely granular above, below 
and externally, each armed below on the inner side with a tooth ; 
tibia considerably thicker than femur ; the apophysis long and 
slender, its hinder border straight, unarmed, its anterior border 
also nearly straight, depressed towards the extremity, which is 
acute and armed here and at the base with close-set teeth ; hand 
smoother than tibia, toothed below ; immovable linger short ; 
movable finger longer, curved. 

2 with chelce shorter and not distally incrassate, the hand 
narrower than the tibia and not wider than the femur; tibial 
apophysis of normal form, its anterior edge lightly convex and 
serrate throughout its length, posterior edge also armed with three 
teeth, the two edges tapering gradually to a sharp point. First 
abdominal sternum coarsely punctured in the middle and furnished 
with a pair of shallow impressions ; 2nd not inesially grooved and 
not furnished with a small tubercle 

Total length up to 55 mm. 

Loc. Xorth-eastern India: Assam, Sylhet (Stainsforth, Boiv- 
ring, Austen, Cambridge)^ Khasi Hills, Sadiya (Godwin- Austen) ; 
( !achar. 

Genus LABOCHIRUS, Pocock. 

Labochirus, Pocock, A. M. N. If. (6) xiv, p. 132, 1894; Kraep, 
Abh. Ver. Hamb. xv, p. 42, 1897; id. Tien:, Scorp. etc. p. 227, 
1899. 

Carapace with area between median and lateral eyes not crested, 
rounded and sloped to the inferior edge ; median ocular tubercle 
low. Maxillary j>rocess armed with a strong spiniform tooth on 
its inner edge. Female with carapace weakly beaked in front ; 
first abdominal sternum not inflated: chelae short, normal, the 
maxillary process short ; tibial apophysis short, subtriangular, and 
strongly denticulated on both edges. Male with carapace strongly 
beaked in front ; first abdominal sternum swollen ; chela- very 
long, maxillary process slender and lone;, but very variable in 
length; tibial apophysis modified, not subtriangular, and at most 

dent LCulated at t be I ip. 

Type, L. proboscideus, Butler. 

I);xtri l >tiii<n>. ( V\ luii and the Malabar coast of South India. 

Synopsis of Indian Sjwcies. 

/■'- nudes, 
a. first abdominal sternum with broad median 

longitudinal depiv.-.-ieii, mid a lew ridge en 

each Bide in front L. / robuseitiL us, p. 108. 



103 



THELYPHONID.T,. 



b. First abdominal sternum with a narrow 
median depression and without ridges. 
a 1 . Lateral pits on first abdominal sternum 

deep and nearer the border L. cvrvinus, p. 1 10. 

b 1 . Lateral pits on first abdominal sternum 

shallow and further from the border. ... L. tauricornis, p. 109. 

Males. 

a. Upper side of hand with wide depression ; 

tibia of chela with inferior anguliform 

prominence L. proboscideus, p. 108. 

b. Upper side of hand not depressed ; tibia 

of chela without inferior prominence. 

a 2 . Anterior edge of tibial apophysis con- 
cave at base; inner edge of hand with 
scarce a trace of prominence L. cervinus. p. 110. 

b~. Anterior edge of tibial apophysis 
straight at base ; inner edge of hand 
with distinct anguliform prominence . . L. tauricornis, p. 109. 



00. Labochirus proboscideus, Butler, A. M. K. II (4) x, p. 203, 

pi. xiii, tig. 3, 1872 (tf) ; Karseh, Berl. ent. Zeits. xxxvi, p. 305 
(Thelvphonus) ; Tarnani, Horce Soc. Ent. Boas, xxiv, p. 533, pi. iii, 
tig. 9*6, 1890 (Hvpoctonus) ; Pococl; A.M. N. H. (6), xiv, p. 13L>, 
1894; Kraep. Abh. Ver. Hamb. xv, p. 42, pi. ii, tig. 43, 1897 ; id. 
Tierr., Scarp, etc. p. 227, 1899 (Labochirus): parvimanus, Butler, 
Cist. Ent. i, p. 130. tig. 3, 1873, $ (Thelvphonus). 

cS . Colour black or deep brown above, sinning mahogany-red 

B A. 

3 




Fig. 33. — Labochirus proboscideus. rf • 

A. Anterior end of carapace and chela: a, rostrum; /', maxillary process ; 

e, trochanter ; /, femur ; g, tibia ; //, hand ; d, tibial apophysis; c, prom- 
inence on lower side of tibia. 

B. Extremity of tibia and hand : e, depression on upper side of band. 

C. Maxillary processes: /, spinifbrm tooth. 

below : legs with femora and at least patellar black or dark brown, 
distal segments paler, tarsi yellow. Carapace ami terga coarsely 
rugose, carapace smoother in front of tin 1 eyes. First abdominal 
sternum almost smooth, sparsely punctured in the middle and 



LABOCHIBUS. L09 

posteriorly, fchickly at the sides, lightly bii m pressed, its posterior 
border produced and widely convex in the middle; 2nd with 
spiniform tooth ; most of the sterna nearly .smooth in the middle, 
finely punctured ; punctures becoming more numerous and close- 
set at the sides. Chelce with coxa almost smooth, weakly punc- 
tured and striate anteriorly ; trochanter granular, armed below 
with two teeth in front, and above with four internal teeth, whereof 
the apical is the longest, and one long anterior tooth ; femur long, 
subcylindrical, more than twice as long as wide, granular below 
and internally, smooth and very faintly punctulate above, with a 
single inferior tooth; tibia thicker than femur, coarsely granular 
within, rugulose elsewhere, with a distinct anguliform prominence 
near the base of its lower edge in front ; the apophysis not 
smooth, posterior border lightly concave, apex rounded and armed 
above with a long spike; anterior edge sinuous, convex distally 
and proximally, concave in the middle, and armed distally with a 
row of about six small close-set teeth : hand smooth above, with 
the inner edge strongly angled at base, lightly concave and toothed 
distally ; upper side with wide subgranular depression ; movable 
finger strongly curved, with a long, nearly straight tip. 2nd and 
3rd legs without tibial spine. 

5 . First abdominal sternum with wide, central depression 
which is bordered on each side by a low tuberculiform prominence, 
coarsely punctured and black behind these prominences. Chelce 
with femur less grauular, not much longer than wide ; hand and 
tibia normal, smoother ; inner edge of hand with a single tooth; 
two teeth on the posterior edge of the tibial apophysis behind 
the tip; anterior edge lightly convex and toothed throughout; 
movable finger evenly curved from base to tip. 

Length up to about 32 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon {Templeton, Barnes, Layard, Jameson) ; Matale 
(Braine), Kandy {Green). 

91. Labochirus tauricorm's, Poeock, A. M. X. II. (7) v . p. 29-5, L900= 

L. cervinus (errore), Pooch, .Inn,-, limn. .\ . 11. Sue. xii, p. 7 T>. LS'.t!>. 

c?. Resembling the preceding species in colour aud most 
structural features, but with the abdominal sterna closely and 
finely, but very distinctly granular around the impressions and 
between them and the border. Easily recognizable also by the 
different form of the chela : tibia without any basal anguliform 
prominence below the apophysis; the latter much less Btrongly 
curved downwards, its posterior edge straight, smooth, aud con- 
tinued without curvature to the apex, which is acutely angular and 
furnished with one long tooth, and sometimes two" smaller ones 
as well, anterior edge straight and finely serrate at the base, 
then strongly convex and obliquely cut away down to the apex ; 
hand without impression al base of immovable finger, inner edge 
with basal constriction much shallower, and anguliform prominence 
much smaller than in L. proboscideus ; movable finger evenly 
curved throughout its length as in L. proboscideus J . not with 
the apex slightly bent forwards as in the ' of thai species. 



110 



THELYPHONID.E. 



2 . Differing from that of L. proboscideus in having the first 
abdominal sternum marked with a very shallow median impression 
in its hinder half and a pair of still shallower impressions, one on 
each side anteriorly, the two ridges or prominences being absent ; 
also much less black in the posterior half; the rest of the sterna 

A. B. 





Fig. 34. 

A. Labochirus tauricornis. Extremity of chela of $ . 

B. Labochirus cervinus. Extremity of chela of c?. 

C. „ „ First sternum of abdomen. 

punctulate as in the <$ , but the punctulation spreading more 
inwards, so that on the 4th, 5th, and 6th sterna there is only 
a very narrow median smooth area, while the 7th and 8th are 
entirely covered with very visible punctulation. 

Total length about 30 mm. 

Loc. Kanara, on the Malabar coast {Bell). 



92. Labochirus cervinus, Pocock,Jour. Bom.N. H. Soc, xii, p. 745, 1899. 

S . Allied to L tauricornis, but differing in the form of the 
chela. The tibial apophysis is strongly curved downwards in its 
distal half, much more strongly so than in L. proboscideus, being 
bent nearly at right angles ; viewed from above its posterior border 
appears to be straight, while its anterior border is concave at the 
base, strongly convex in the middle ; from the median convexity 
the border slopes straight away down to the apex, which is armed 
with three teeth and is in the same straight line as the posterior 
border ; inner edge of hand evenly concave but scarcely serrate, 
with shallower basal constriction than in L. tauricornis, armed with 
one or two small basal teeth, but with scarcely a trace of any 
anguliform prominences. First abdominal sternum more swollen 
than in L. tauricornis. In $ the 1st abdominal sternum is much 
larger than in either of the other species, being more tumid and 
marked with a pair of deeper impressions, one on each side, near 
its posterior border, but showing scarcely a trace of median 
impression. 

Length up to about 30 mm. 

Loc Mangalore on the Malabar coast (Battie). 



IIYPOCTOM s. 



Ill 



Genus HYPOCTONUS, Thorell. 



Hypoctonus, Thorell, Ann. Mm. Genova, xxvi, p. 360, 1888; id. 

i; 1> 

lamb, xv, p. 43, L897 ; 



L> |) iriiMiii."., iniui'ii. +IIIU. .»/ u\: \rrnurn, .\.v 

Ann. Mus. Genova, sxvii, p. 542, L889; Pocock,~A. M. N. H. '(G) 
xiv, p. 120, 1894 ; Kraepclin, Ahh. Ver. Ha 



id. Tien:, Scorp. etc. p. i'i'>, LSI) 1 .*. 



A. 



B. 



Resembling Labochirus 



m 




the 

absence of crests between the 
median and lateral eyes on the 
carapace, but differing in the absence 
of a spiniform tooth on the inner 
border of the maxillary processes 
and in the male sexual characters. 
/■'.male with first abdominal sternum 
not inflated ; chela? normal, short, 
not incrassate, the trochanter armed 
above on its inner side with 5 
strong spiniform teeth, the tibial 
apophysis subtriangular and strongly 
serrate along both edges. Male with 
first abdominal sternum inflated, 
without median groove; chehe long or 
incrassate ; trochanter less strongly, often obsoletely toothed ; tibial 
apophysis modified, variable in form, furnished with inferior 
apical lobe, its edges not evenly serrate. 
Type, //. formosug, Butler. 
Distribution. Assam, Burma, Yunnan, Borneo. 



Fie. 



6.\ 



A. Hypoctonus for- 
moms, anterior end of cara- 
pace. B. Ditto, -chela of J. 
C. //. oatesii, trochanter and 
femur of chela of J 1 . 



Synopsis of Indian Species. 
Females. 

a. First abdominal sternum with its posterior 

border widely rounded, nol mesially produced. //. binghami, p. 1 

b. First abdominal sternum with its posterior 

border mesially produced. 
<t\ First abdominal sternum with a single 

median pit or a pair of small adjacent pits. H. formosus, p. I 1 
&'. First abdominal sternum marked with a pair 
of large pits. 
a~. Pits on first abdominal sternum sub- 
circular; all the legs red II. woodniasoni, 

b'-. Pits on first abdominal sternum sub- p. 1 

crescentic : at least the firsl pair of legs 
dark. 
a'. Legs of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th pairs entirely 

red 11. saxatilis, p. 1 1 •' 

b\ Legs of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th pairs with 

femora and patellae deep brown //. rangunenais, 

[p.l 



6. 



13. 



16 



112 THELYPHONID^:. 



Males. 



• 



a. Inner edge of hand with deep semicircular 

excavation (also as under b l ) H. woodmasoni, 

b. Inner edge of hand without deep semicircular [p. 113. 

excavation. 
a 1 . Chelae long, but little incrassate ; trochanter 
armed with five strong teeth. 
a 2 . Hand with some granules above ; legs 

entirely red H. binghami, p. 113. 

b 2 . Hand quite smooth above ; legs not en- 
tirely red , , H. oatesli, p. 112. 

b l . Chelae shorter, strongly incrassate ; tro- 
chanter not or only weakly toothed above. 
a'. Tibial apophysis with an abrupt distal 
expansion which fits into an excavation 
behind the base of the immovable 
finger. 
« 4 . Apical fourth of apophysis suddenly 

and quadrately expauded II. andersoni, p. 117. 

/>'. Extremity of apophysis gradually 
expanded, the expansion with rounded 
anterior edge. 
a 5 . Legs of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th pairs 

with femora and patellae dark .... H. sylvaticus, p. 115. 
b\ Legs of 2nd, 3rd. and 4th pairs 

wholly red II. saxatilis, p. 1 1 5. 

b 3 . Tibial apophysis without or with onlv 
a small expansion ; inner edge of hand 
scarcely concave at base of finger. 
a r '. 1st leg and femora and patellae of 

2nd, 3rd, and 4th legs dark H. rangunensis, 

/A 2nd, 3rd, and 4th legs wholly red, [p. 116. 

1st leg only slightly darker H. formosus, p. 1 16. 



93. Hypoctonus oatesii, sp. n. 

S . Colour. Chelae and upper side of body black ; coxae, middle 
of lower side of abdomen, 1st leg, tibia?, tarsi, and lower side of 
trochanter of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th legs a rich mahogany-red ; femora, 
patellae, and upper side of trochanter of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th legs 
blackish brown. LTpper side of body densely rugose and granular, 
anterior end of the carapace smoother. First abdominal .sternum 
almost entirely smooth, weakly punctured and striolate in the 
middle, depressed posteriorly ; 1st, 2nd, and 3rd sterna coarsely 
sculptured at sides ; rest of the sterna nearly smooth. Chela with 
coxa nearly smooth ; trochanter weakly granular above and below, 
armed above with 5 strong teeth; femur longish, the middle of its 
upper surface exceeding the width of the anterior edge of the tro- 
chanter, coarsely pitted and granular above and below, and armed 
witli a strong anterior tooth below; tibia smool h and sparsely punc- 
tured externally, more coarsely pitted and sparsely granular below 
and above, with a few denticuliform granules on its inner edge ; 
apophysis much shorter than tibia, its posterior edge straight ami 



HYPOCTOM 8. 1 13 

smooth, its anterior edge also smooth, concave in its basal, convex 
in its distal half, forming an — --like curvature, the apex truncated 
and armed with one inferior and one median tooth ; hand Con- 
siderably longer than wide, smooth and sparsely punctured above 
and externally, granular internally, the inner edge with a sharp 
constriction in its basal half, the margin from the tip of the 
tinner down to the constriction lightly concave and denticulate 
throughout its length ; movable finger evenly curved. Legs of 3rd 
and 4th pairs with spine at apex of tibia. Ommatoids separated 
by a space which about equals their diameter. 

Total length 27 mm. 

Loc. Sylhet. 

94. Hypoctonus binghami, Oates, J. A. S. B. lviii, j>. 15, 1889 

(Thelyphonus) ; Jtraep. Abh. Ver. Hamb. xv, p. 47, fig. 50, 1*!>7 : 
id. Tien-., Scorp. etc p. 230, L899 (Hypoctonus): formosus, 
Simon, J. A. S. B. lvi, p. Ill, L887; Poaoek, Jburn. Linn. Soc, 
Zool. xxiv, p. 316, 1892 (nee for mosus, Butler). 

c? . Colour of. upper side of body black: chelae black or deep 
brown, redder at the extremity ; lower surface yellowish red or 
reddish brown ; legs entirely pale red ; caudal flagellum red. Sculp- 
t uringof upper side of body much as in II. oafc-sii. Abdominal sterna 
finely punctulate. Chela with trochanter armed as in //. oatesii, but 
the spines not so strong; femur granular, long, nearly twice us 
long above as the anterior edge of the trochanter ; tibia granular, 
its inner edge and basal half of apophysis granularly denticulate; 
apophysis much shorter than tibia, its posterior border practically 
straight, its anterior border shallowly and evenly concave, the, 
extremity a little thickened, convex anteriorly and bidentate ; hand 
dull, punctulate, with some, large granules at the base of the 
immovable finger, its inner edge denticulated, convex, base el' 
immovable finger shallowly concave. Ommatoids large, less than 
their diameter apart. 

$. First sternal plate of abdomen swollen in the middle, 
marked with three shadow impressions, its posterior border widely 
rounded and not mesially produced (fig. 36 F, p. 114). Chela short ; 
upper side of humerus more weakly granular than in male, of tibia 
and hand not granular, sparsely punctured: tibial apophysis tri- 
angularly spiniform, evenly narrowed to a point, its posterior side 
armed with two subapical spinules, and one spinule followed by 
shorter denticuliform granules at its base on the tibia; its anterior 
edge denticulate throughout ; inner edge of hand much straighter 
than in S • 

Total length about 30 mm. 

Loc. Tenasserim : Tavoy (Moti Earn); Keel Island, at the 
mouth of tin; Tavoy Kiver (Oates) ; Owen Island in the Morgui 
Archipelago (Anderson). 

95. Hypoctonus woodmasoni. Oates, J. A. 8. />'. lviii, pt. 2, p. 12, 

pi. ii. fig. I". 1889; Kraep. Abh. Verh. Hamb. \\. p. 46, fig. 15, 
L897 : id. Tierr., Scorp.etc. p. •-'•"■•», fig. < s <», 1899( Hypoctonus). 
cJ . Colour black above and on chelae ; legs and sterna red. 



114 



TIIELYPUONlDvE. 



Sculpturing of upper side practically as in H. oatesii. Sterna 
also as in that species, but with the punctures a little more 
numerous. Cheltp. with the spines on the lower side of the 
trochanter and femur much smaller : upper side of trochanter 
smooth, at most obsoletelyspinechits anterior border straight ; femur 
about as long above as anterior edge of trochanter, rather coarsely 
granular and punctured below, a few spines also on its upper 
inner edge, otherwise smooth, sparingly punctured ; tibia with a 
few granules below and internally, smooth and punctured else- 
where ; apophysis long and slender, almost as long as upper side 
of tibia, and reaching almost to tip of fingers, its posterior edge 



A. 



B. 



C. 





Fig. 36. 

A. Bypoctenus woodmasoni, extremity of chela of J. B. H. saxatilis, ditto. 
C. H. andersoni, tibial apophysis. D. If. ranguTiewsis, first abdominal 
sternum of 5- E. H. formosus, ditto. F. H. binghami, ditto. 

straight and unarmed, its apex truncate and hidentate, the 
anterior border lightly concave in its basal and distal portions, 
lightly convex submesially, and armed with four denticles : hand 
wide, as wide as long, strongly convex and smooth above ; a deep 
semicircular excision on its inner edge and on the base of the 
linger, the area behind the excision produced into a weakly 
denticulate rectangular prominence : immovable finger much 
narrower at base than in the middle. Ommatoids small, more than 
their diameter apart. 

2 . Very like the female of 11. binghami, but with the ommatoids 
small, more than a diameter apart ; the lower side of the femur of 
the chela more numerously granular and punctured as well, the 
upper side of the trochanter without. granules ; the 1st abdominal 
sternum not widely rounded behind, but with its posterior border 
strongly produced into a large subquadrate lobe; the anterior 
half of the plate marked with a pair of subcircular nils, separated 
from each other by a space which distinctly excels their diameter- 
Length up to about "21 mm. 
hoc. Tenasserim, near Mount Moolevit. 



HYPOCTONUS. 



115 



90. Hypoctonus saxatilis, Oates, J. A. S. H. lviii. p. 17. L889 
(Thelyphonus) ; Kraep. Abh. Ver. Hamb. xv, p. I-'. L897; .<■/. 
Tierr.f Scorp. etcp. 232, L899 (Hypoctonus). 

d • Kesembling H. woodmasoni in colour, except that the legs 
of the first pair are dark, the tarsi alone beini; yellowish red, and 
the last abdominal sternum and the underside of the three caudal 
segments arc also deep blackish brown in the adult. Granulation 
of upper side as in preceding species ; sterna much more dis- 
tinctly punctured: the 1st with the two shallow impressions deeper 
than in II. woodmasoni and transversely striate. Trochanter of 
chela weakly granular above as in //. binghami, obsoletely toothed 
as in//, woodmasoni • femur, tibia, and hand sculptured, and tibial 
apophysis as long as in the latter; posterior edge of apophysis 
quite smooth and straight until reaching the extremity, where it is 
Rlightly swollen and convex; anterior edge straight in the basal 
two-thirds of its length, and furnished with about seven small 
denticles, the distal third inflated but becoming narrower again at 
the extremity, which is truncate and scarcely toothed ; hand more 
strongly depressed at the base of the immovable finger than in 
//. woodmasoni, its inner edge evenlv convex from base of finger 
backwards and armed with small denticles in its distal half ; 
immovable finger straight or lightly concave basally, convex 
dist ally. 

$. Closely allied to that o\' II. woodmasoni, but with anterior 
legs black, trochanter and femur ol' chela more granular above, 
and the two impressions on the first abdominal sternum longer, 
not circular but half-moon shaped or subcrescentic. 

Total length up to about ;tt mm., 5 : 25, tf . 

Loc. Upper Burma : Thayetmyo (Macdonald). 

97. Hypoctonus sylvaticus, Oates, J. A. S. B. Iviii, p. 18, 1889 

(Thelyphonus): ranpunensis, var. silvaticus, Kraep. Abh. Ver. 

Hamb. xv, p. 49, 1897; id. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 232, 1899 

(Hypoctonus). 

6. Colouring as in U. saxatilis, with anterior legs dark, but 
with the upper and outer sides of the femora and trochanters of 
the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th legs brown as in ff. oatesii. Chela with 
upper and under side of femur scarcely granular, only punctured ; 
tibial apophysis shaped somewhat as in //. saxatilis, but with the 
anterior edge of the basal half with only about two small 
denticles, and the apical expansion much larger and involving 
more than the distal third of the apophysis, its thickness 
equal to twice the thickness of the portion immediately behind 
it; inner edge of hand with a much more strongly and Less 
widely-rounded prominence in the middle of its length, and a 
much stronger concavity at and behind the base of the immov- 
able finger, the external edge of which has a more strongly 
pronounced sigmoid curvature. In the form of the inner 
tt\^r, of the hand. //. sylvaticus lies nearly midway between 

[2 



116 TILELTPnOKIl)^:. 

//. saxatilis and H. woodmasoni ; but differs entirely from the 
latter in possessing the large expansion at the distal end of the 
tibial apophysis. Total length 23 mm. 

Loc. Burma: Zigon and Minhla in the Tharrawaddy district 
(Oates). 

98. Hypoctonus rangunensis, Oates, J. A. S. B. lviii, p. 18, 1889 
(Thelvphonus) ; Kraep. Abh. Ver. Hamb. xv, p. 46, 1897 ; id. 
Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 232, 1809 (Hypoctonus). 

<3 . Colour as in H. sylvaticus, but in other respects more nearly 
approaching H. saxatilis, the femur of the chela being granular 
above and below, practically as in that species. Tibial apophysis 
long as in the two species named, but different in shape, the posterior 
border almost entirely straight, only very slightly sinuous and 
unarmed ; anterior border also very nearly straight, only very 
slightly sinuous, but armed with about half a dozen small denticles, 
the apex obliquely truncate, tridentate, a slight swelling on the 
anterior edge of the apophysis just before the apex. Inner edge 
of hand widely but not strongly convex, forming almost a straight 
line with the outer side of the immovable finger, which is itself 
almost straight, with scarcely a trace of the sigmoid curvature 
observable in H. saxat'lis and H. sylvaticus. 

2 . Very like that of H. saxatilis, but differing in the colour of 
legs; first abdominal sternum with very nearly the same shaped 
semilunar impressions. 

Total length up to 28 mm. 

Loc. Burma : Kangoon and the neighbourhood (Oates). 

9. Hypoctonus formosus, Butler, A. M. N. H. (A) x, p. 203, 
' pi. xiii, fig. 4, 1872; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xlii, p. 137, pi. xii, 
fio-. 4, 1873 ; Oates, op. cit. lviii, p. 14, 1889 (Thelvplionus) ; Kraep. 
Abh. Ver. Hamb. xv, p. 48, 1897; id. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 231, 
1899 (Hypoctonus) : angustus, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xlii, pt. 2, 
p. 134, 1873 (in part) (Thelvphonus). 

<S . Colour of legs as in 11. saxatilis, except that those of the first 
pair, instead of having 1he femur, patella, and tibia black, have 
the patella and tibia a dark brownish red and only slightly darker 
than the rest of the segments. Chela' most resembling those of 
//. rangunensis, but the femur very much more thickly and coarsely 
granular below, even more so than in H. saxatilis; spine on lower 
side of femur noticeably stronger than in 11. rangunensis, very much 
stronger than in //. saxatilis. Tibial apophysis long and slender, 
straight and parallel-sided, without trace of apical enlargement, 
\\\\\\ three apical teeth. Inner edge of hand much more prom- 
inent than in //. ranr/unevsis, more like that of 11. saxatilis, hut the 
prominence more distinctly angular, and not so rounded ; im- 
movable finger much broader at the base, almost as broad as long. 

2 . First abdominal sternum very different from that of 11. wond- 
masoni, rangunensis, and saxatilis, without any large circular or 
crescentic pits, but furnished in its anterior half with a pair of 
small round holes, sometimes sunk in a common depression, 



HYPOCTONUS. 1 1 7 

occasionally separated by a very narrow partition which is less 
broad than the diameter of either hole (fig. 36 E, p. 114). 

Length up to about 30 ram., $ : 2n 27, cS . 

Loc. Moulmein (Oates) • also females of the same or of a closely 
allied form from Taoo, 4000 feet {Oates). 

Subspecies insularis, Oates ■. Thelyphonus insularis, Oates, J. A.s. 11. 
lviii, ]>t. -J, p. 13, pi. ii. figs. 7 8, 1889: Hypoctonus formoaus, var. 
insularis, Kraep. Abh. Ver. Hamb. xv, p. 48, 1897; id. Tierr., 
Scorp. etc. p. 2;31, 1899. 

Total length of adult 6 and $ , 33-36 mm. 

Loc. Double Island in the mouth of the Moulmein River 
(Oates). 

Eepresentatives of this form, which was regarded by Mr. Oates 
as a valid species, were collected in immense numbers in Double 
Island. Apart from its greater average size, however, there 
appears to be no constant structural character by which insularis 
may be distinguished from the mainland form for mosus. 

The following species is known to me only from the description 
given by Mr. Oates, which is here reproduced : — 

100. Hypoctonus andersoni, Oates, J. A. S. B. lviii, pt. 2, p. 11, pi. ii, 
fig. 12, L889 (Thelyphonus); Kraep. Abh. Ver. Hamb.xv, p. 49, 
1897; formoaus, var. anderaooi, id. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 231, 1899 
(Hypoctonus). 

3 . Colour dark red, legs paler red. Chela; smooth, with a ven 
few minute punctures; coxae normal, trochanter with a few obsolete 
teeth on the anterior and lateral vd^e, and two strong spines 
below; femur with a sharp tooth on its lower surface : tibia with 
an indistinct spine on the lower edge. Tibial apophysis (fig. 36 C, 
p. 114) about the same length as tibia, perfectly cylindrical for 
three-quarters of its length, suddenly widened out on its ter- 
minal quarter to half as wide again as the cylindrical portion and 
terminating in a single recurved spine. Hand feeble, narrower 
than tibia, interior edge toothed and hairy, exterior edge of the 
fixed finger serrated ; movable finger curved, sharply pointed. 
Carapace densely granular except on the portion between the 
lateral and central eyes, w hicb is smooth. Firsl abdominals mum 
in female longer than in male and pointed posteriorly. 

Total length about 25 nun. 

Loc. Upper Burma : i'udeepyoo Mountain, and the second 
defile of the Erawadi River (Anderson). 

Judging from the description and figure of the tibial apophysis, 
this undoubtedly \alid species is allied both to //. saxatilis and 
H. sylvatieus, bu1 caunol be confounded with either en accounl 
of the red colour <>i the firsl leg and the quadrate shape of the 
expansion of the tibial apophysis. It has been provisionally inserted 
under beading a 3 in the table on p. Ill' with //. sylvatieus and 
//. saxatilis. 



lis 



TAR.TARIDES. 



Suborder TARTARIDES* 

Tartarides, 0. P. Cambridge, A. M. N. H. (4) x, p. 410, 1872. 

Cephalothorax covered above by two plates — a posterior, smaller, 
wider than long, representing the dorsal elements of the 5th and 
6th somites, which bear the 3rd and 4th pairs of legs ; and an 
anterior, much longer than wide, representing the dorsal elements 
of the anterior four somites. Eyes sometimes absent, at most re- 
presented by a single pale spot or ocellus on each side. Chelae or 
palpi sub-prehensile, sub-pediform, not chelate, folding in a vertical 
plane ; 4th segment (tibia) without spiniform apophysis, 5th seg- 
ment long, cylindrical ; 6th segment (tarsus) shorter, conical, armed 



A. 



B. 




Fig. 37. — Schi-omns crassicaudatus. 

A. Lower side of cephalothorax and abdomen. «, coxa of chela ; h, of first 

leg; c, of second leg; d, of third leg; e, of fourth leg; /, presternum ; 
ff, metasternum ; //, first sternum, i, last sternum of abdomen; /.-, caudal 
sclerite. 

B. Carapace and anterior end of abdomen, m, anterior plate of carapace; 

n, posterior plate; /, rostrum; o, first, p, second terguru of abdomen. 

C. Posterior end of abdomen. 

witli a pair of spiniform processes ; claw long, not fused to tarsus. 
Legs-, 2nd with its tarsus 8-segmented, 2nd segment very long, 
more than half the length of the succeeding six; coxa of 2nd leg 
armed in front with a long spiniform process; femur of 1th leg 
very thick; 6th segment (protarsus) of 2ml, 3rd, and 1th legs 
subequal to the 5th (tibia) or at all events not much shorter. 
Abdomen with its postanal sclerite short and uusegniented. .No 
distinct pulmonary apertures behind the 1st and 2nd sterna. 

* Propofed us a family-name by Cambridge, and elevated to the rank of a 
• tribe by Tl orell I Ann. Mas. Genova. xwi, p. 358 ■ 



lll'Bli.UlMI hi 1 L9 

Sexual characters. Males, where known, differing from females 
in having the postanal sclerite expanded and spatulate in its distal 
half, this organ in the females being unexpanded and subcylind- 
rical ; chelae in male also frequently larger than in the female and 
armed with spines. 

Habits. Occur beneath stones, the debris of leaves, &c. 

Distribution. Tropical Wes1 Africa; C^vlou, Burma, and the 
Bismarck Archipelago (New Britain); California; Venezuela. 
Also introduced with exotic plants into conservatories in Europe. 

Further collecting will no doubt till up the apparent <^aps in the 
distribution, and greatly increase our knowledge of the range of 
this interesting little group. 



Family HUBBAKDIIDJE. 

Bubbardiidse, Cook, Proe. Ent. Soc. Wash. iv. p. 249, 1899. 

SchiEoiioticUc, Thorett, .Inn. Mas. Genova, x.vvi, p. 358, L888. 

Characters of the suborder. 

The Indian genera may be tabulated as follows : — 

a. Posterior plate of carapace undivided or at 

mo.-t with a narrow sutural line SoHIZOMUS, p. 1 L9. 

b. Posterior plate of carapace consisting of a dis- 

tinct right and left half, or divided by a 

narrow pellucid longitudinal area Tkithyrkis, p. 121. 

Genus SCHIZOMUS, Cook. 

Nyctalops, 0. P. Cambridge, A. M. X. 11. (4) x, p. 410, 1872 (nom. 

prseocc.). 
Schizonotus, Thorell) Ami. Mus. Gexova, xxvi, p. 858, L888; id. 

op. cit. wvii. p. 554, L889; Pocock, A. M. X. II. (6) xi. }>. ). 

18'.»-'i : Kraep. Abh. Ver. Hawk, xv, p 51, 1897: id. Tterr., 

Scarp, etc. p. l'.",:;. 1899 (nom. prseocc). 
Schizomus, Cook, Proc. Vint. Soc. Wash, iv, p. 24!-». I 1 -' 11 . 

Anterior dorsal plate of cephalothorox elongate, broad in front, 
narrowed behind, ite anterior border armed with a long sharp beak- 
like process the Length of which is greater than its basal width ; 
posterior plate not divided into a distinct righi and left half 
separated by a definite pale membranous area, but uniformly pig- 
mented throughout and at most only marked with a very tine 
median sutural line; no additional sclerites intercalated between 
this [date and the anterior portion of the carapace., No eyes. 
Chela of ' dentate beneath; caudal sclerite cylindrical at base, 
its distal half expanded into a heart-shaped plate: chela 
of $ unarmed beneath ; caudal sclerite irregularly cylindrical 
throughout. 

Type. S. crassicaiidatus, 0, P. Ca a 

Distribution. Ceyl 



1 20 



HUBBARDIIDA\ 



101. Schizomus crassicaudatus, O. P. Cambr. A. M. N. H. (4) x, 
p. 411, t. xxii, fig. 1, 1872 (Nyctalops) ; ThoreU, Ann. Mus. 
Genova, xxvi, p. 358, 1888 ; Knup. Abh. Ver. Humb. xv, p. 52, 
figs. U & 56a, 1897; id. Tien:, Scarp, etc. p. 234, figs. 82-83, 
1897 (Schizonotua), d • 
S. tenuicaudatns, 0. P. Cambr. A. M. N. H. (4) x, p. 412, t. xxii, 
fig. 2, 1872 (Nyctalops) ; ThoreU. Ann. Mus. Genova, xxvi, p. 358, 
1888; Kraep. Abh. Ver. Hamb. xv, p. 52, 1897 ; id. Tierr., Scorp. 
etc. p. 234, 1899 (Schizonotus) ; Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) xi, 
p. 4, 1893 (Tripeltis), 5 . 

<3 . Colour yellowish brown : carapace darker and duller in hue 
than the rest of the body. Carapace and tergal plates rugulose, 
covered with squamiform markings ; each tergutn furnished on its 
posterior edge with a pair of bristles, one on each side of the posterior 
margin, the bristles becoming more numerous on the posterior plates. 
Sterna also furnished with symmetrically disposed bristles. Chela 1 




Fig. 38. — Schizomus crassicaudatus. 

A. Chela of <$ . a. femur (3rd segment) ; b. 4th segment ; c, tibia (5th segment ) 

</, hand (0th segment) ; e, claw. 

B. Chela of $. 

C. First leg. f, femur ; r/, patella ; h, tibia ; i, tarsus. 

D. Fourth leg. K\ femur; I, patella ; m, tibia ; n, protarsus; o, tarsus; p, claws. 

E. Tarsus of 1st leg. 

massive, the trochanter long, armed on its inferior distal angle 
with a strong spiniform process ; femur very thick, strongly con- 
vex above^ armed below with two tubercles; tibia (4th segment) 
much less massive than the lemur, armed at the base below with a 
large long tooth -like tubercle; f>th segment (=hand of riiely , ph(inus) 
also elonpate, lightly convex above, its lower surface tinned with 
small setiferous tubercles ; nth segmenl (tarsus = movable linger of 
Thelyphonvs ) tinned with a pair of spinifonn processes. 1st leg ( not 
including coxa) not longer than bodv, its tibia reaching to end of 



TBITHYBEFS. ll'l 

chela when extended; 2nd tarsal segment long, longer than the 
three succeeding segments, 3rd segment wider than long. 4th about 
twice as long as y,rd ; cth, 6th, and 7th of approximately the same 
length as the 4th, and about as long as wide; >thlong, considerably 
longer than the preceding two, acuminate. Femur of 1st leg a 
little thickened; femur of 4th enormously thickened, especially at 
the base, of 3rd less thickened than 4th. of 2nd less thickened than 
3rd. Caudal sclerite with posterior heart-shaped expansion, the 
narrow portion of the expanded portion directed posteriorly. 

2 • Resembling c? in general features, but with the apex of the 
trochanter of the chela rectangular, not produced into a long spine, 
and no spines or tubercles on the underside of the femur, tibia, or 
protarsus; caudal process cylindrical, without cordate expansion. 

Total length up to about 6 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon : in the Botanical Garden atPeradeniya ( Thwaites). 

Genus TRITHYREUS. Kraepelin. 

Tripeltis, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxvii, p. 5o4, 1889; Kraep. 

Abh. Ver. Hamb. xv, p. 52, 189" (nom. praeocc.). 
TrithyTeus, Kraep. Tier/:, Seorp. etc. p. 234, 1899 (March). 
Triplomus, Cook, Proc. Ent. Soe. Wash, iv, pp. iMO & 255, 1899 

(April). 

Differs from Schizomus in that the posterior dorsal plate of the 
cephalothorax is not uniformly chitinized and pigmented through- 
out, but is either completely divided into a right and left quadrate 
portion (according to Thorell and Kraepelin), or is. at all events. 
marked with a narrow, pellucid, anpigmented submembranous 
median area, impressed with the sutural line observable in 
Schizomus. In all the known specimens, which are perhaps 
females, the cliche are unarmed, and the caudal sclerite is cylindrical 
as in the female of Schizomus crassicaudalus. 

Distribution. Ceylon ; Burma ; also Bismarck Archipelago. 

Synojisis of Indian Species. 

n. Posterior dorsal plate of cephalothorax 
marked with a narrow median suture ; 
apex of trochanter of chela rectangular, 

scarcely produced '/'. suboculatus, p. 1:21 . 

/>. Posterior dorsal plate of cephalothorax with 

a broad median divisional line; trochanter 

of chela apically produced and upturned 

(according to Kraepelin and Thorell). 

a. Without eyes; chelffi one and a half 

times the length of the cephalothorax . . T. grassii, y. 122. 
//-. With a pair of eye-spots; chelae a little 

longer than the cephalothorax T. cambridgii, p. 122. 

L02. Trithyreus suboculatus. >p. n. 

Resembling the female of Schizomus crassicaudatus in general 
features. Colour a yellowish olive-green on the carapace and 
abdomen, legs and cbehe paler, nearly flavous. Anterior end ol 



122 



HuiJBAnnim.K. 



carapace armed with a short rostrum, the basal width of which is 
greater than its length. On each side of its anterior portion there is 

a pale irregular-shaped patch representing 
an eye, but showing no traces of a distinct 
lens. Ten/a, like the carapace, coriaceous, 
each furnished with a pair of symmetrically 
disposed bristles, one on each side of the 
middle, the 8th and 9th also with a bristle 
on the posterior lateral angle, the median 
bristles on the 9th much farther apart than 
those of the 7th. Sternawith symmetrically 
disposed bristles ; bristles on the posterior 
abdominal somites very long. Chela' of the 
same general form as in the female of 
S. crassicaudatus, but weaker, being rela- 
tively both shorter and thinner, the femur 
especially being not nearly so thick ; 
trochanter not strongly produced distally, 
its distal angle rectangular. First leg 
much longer than in /$'. crassicaudatus, 
longer than body, when the appendage is 
extended the tip of its femur almost 
reaches the tip of the extended chela ; tarsal 
segments not very different from those 
Length of body about 4 or 4-5 mm. ; of 



i; 



c. 




Fig. 39. 
Trithyreus suboculatus. 

A. Chela. 

B. Posterior plate of 
carapace : a, sutural 
line. 

C. Caudal skeletal plate. 

of S. crassicaudatus. 
1st leg about 6'5 mm. 



Log. Ceylon: Punduloya (Green). 



103. Trithyreus grassii, Thorell, Ann. Mm. Genova, xxvii, p. 554, 
t. 5, lip-. 1, 1889 ; Kraep. Abh. Ver. Hamb. xv, p. 53, t. ii, fig. 58 b, 
1897 (Tripeltis); id. Tierr., Scorp. etc p. 235, 1899 (Trithyreus). 

Colour of body brown above : legs paler. No trace of eyes on 
carapace; chehe oue and a half times as long as carapace; tro- 
chanter with strongly convex inferior border, produced anteriorly 
into an acutely angular process, of which the inferior border is 
convex and the superior concave. First leg nearly twice as Long 
as body. Other characters apparently much as in the preceding 
species. Length of body about 7 mm., of 1st leg 13. 

Loc. Burma : Teinzo (Fed). 



104. Trithyreus cambridgii, Thorell, Ann. Mux. Genova, xxvii. 
p. 559, 1889; Kraep. Abh. Ver. Hamb. xv, p. 53, L897 (Tripeltis) ; 
id. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 234, 1899 (Trithyreus). 

Closely resembling T. grassix, of which this is perhaps the young. 
Colour paler, more yellowish green ; carapace furnished on each 
side with a round eye-spot ; chela only a little longer than 
carapace. First leg (according to figure) shorter than body. 
Length about 3 - 5 mm. 

Loc. Burma : Prorne (/'<«). 



\\l BLYPYGI. 



1 23 



Order AMBLYPYGI. 



Carapace much wider than long, transversely reniform, with 
convex anterior and lateral and concave posterior border; furn- 
ished in front with a pair of median eyes, and a cluster of lateral 
eyes on each side. Sia mil area broad, subcircular; membranous, 




Fig. 40. — Phrynichus phipsoni, tf. 

'/, inaudible ; /, trochanter; /. femur; c, tibia; d, band : C, claw of chela : 
j, femur ; k, patella ; h, tibia ; g, protarsus ; ,/', tarsus of leg. 



but strengthened with four median sclerites, the anterior 
(labium or prosternum) long and pointed, projecting between the 
bases of the chelae, the posterior (metasternum) lodged between the 
coxa' of the 4th pair of legs. Coxse of cIkLi and legs arranged 
radially round the Bternum, those of the 2nd and 3rd pairs widelj 
separated. ChelsB prehensile, subchelate, closing in ;i horizontal 
plane, their basal segments freely articulated to the membrane al 
the sides of the anterior sternal selerite (prosternum, labium); 
3rd (femur) and 4th (tihia) segments long and strong, Btrongbj 
spined; 5th segment (hand) small, spined above and below; 6th 
segment (finger) hairy, short, and ending in a long smooth daw. 



124 AMBLYPYGI. 

which is usually united to it without trace of suture. Legs of 
1st pair very long and antenniform ; the segments on the distal 
side of the femur forming a long, many-jointed flagellum. 
.Remaining legs long and slender ; 4th segment (patella) very 
short, 5th (tibia) long and slender, often segmented : tarsi con- 
sisting of four or five segments ; the apical segment armed with 
two claws, and often provided beneath with a membranous 
sucker (pulvillus'). Abdomen oval, segmented, covered above by 
12 terga, and below by 11 sterna as in the Uropygi, but much 
shorter than in that group, the posterior segments very small, the 
last tergum forming a movable flap over the anus ; no postanal 
sclerite. Generative organs opening behind the sternum of the 
2nd abdominal somite as in the Uropygi, that is to say, behind 
what is described as the 1st sternum. Two pairs of breathing- 
organs, consisting of pulmonary sacs, the anterior pair placed in 
the same transverse line as the generative aperture, the posterior 
pair opening behind the 2nd abdominal sternum. 

Habits. These Arachnida, which are in many respects inter- 
mediate between the Whip-Scorpions and the true Spiders, much 
resemble the former in habits, being found under stones, fallen 
tree-trunks, or in the crevices of rocks, of termites' nests, &c. 
They do not, however, dig burrows for themselves. Many of 
the species of Cliarontidce are to be met with in caves, on the 
walls and roofs of which the sucker-like pulvillus enables them 
to maintain a secure hold. The eggs are carried attached to the 
underside of the abdomen, as in the Whip-Scorpions. 

Distribution. Africa south of the Sahara, S. Arabia, and the 
Seychelles ; Oriental Eegion from India, Ceylon, and Siam easi - 
wards over the whole of the Indo- and Austro-Malayan area as far 
as Fiji ; South and Central America northwards into Texas and 
Lower California. 



The Indian genera are inferable to two families, which may be 
tabulated as follows : — 

a. Sternal plates larpe ; no pulvillus on tarsus Phrynichidae. 

b. Sternal plates small ; a distinct pulvillus on tarsus. Charontidae. 



I'NKYNCHID.-t:. 



I 25 



Family PHRYNICHIDJE. 

Sternal plates of larga size, much wider than long, the labial 
process of the anterior plate rising abruptly from the middle of 
its anterior border. Tibia of 4th leg composed of one or two 
segments; two in the African genus Damon, one in the Indian 




Fig. 41. — Lower side of ceplialothorax and of anterior end of abdomen of 

l'hry melius lima t us. 

a, coxa of chela; b, c, d, coxa? of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th legs; e, first abdominal 
sternum; /, apertures of pulmonary organs; g, semilunar lobes on 2nd 
abdominal sternum , h, metasternal, i. k, mesosttTiial,^, prosternal plates. 

genus Phrynichus. Distal spines on upper side of tibia of chela 
directed obliquely forwards, and overlapping the base of the 
hand. No pulvillus or sucker beneath claws. Tarsi consisting of 
three segments. 

f)istril>nti.oi). Africa south of the Sahara; South Arabia, India, 
Ceylon, and Siam. 



(.'runs PHRYNICHUS, Karscb. 

Phalangium, Linn. Syat. Nat. ed. w p. 618, L768 (in part). 
Tarantula, Fabr. Ent. Syst. ii, p. 432, L79S (in part); Rjraep. Abh. 

]'cr. Ilionh. xiii, p. !», L895. 
Phrynus, Lamarck, Syst. Anim. p. L76, 1801 (in part); Latreille, 

/'/is/. Nat. Crust. Lis. iii, p. 48, 181:.'; C. Koch, Antrim, x. p. 35, 

184:j (iu part). 



126 



PHRYNICIIID.E. 



Phrvnichus, Karsch, Arch. Nat. xlv, p. 195, 1879; Pocock, A. M- 
N. II. (6) xiv, p. 294, 1894; Kraep. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 236, 
] 899. 

Phrvnischus, Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. lxi, p. 50, 1892. 

Characters as undde the heading Phrynichidce. Kecognizable 
from the African genus Damon by the presence of only one long 
spiue on the upper side of the hand and by having the tibia of the 
4th leg undivided. 

Type, P. lunatus, Pallas. 

Distribution. East Africa, Arabia, Western India and Siam. 



Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Adult with three long spines at distal end of 
tibia of chela ; under side of hand smooth .... 

Adult with two long spines at distal end of chela 
above ; under side of hand with irregular rows 
of granules. 
a 1 . Of large size (25 to 35 mm. long) ; second 



P. phipsoni) p. 127, 



P. lunatus, p. 126. 



sternum of abdomen with pair of lobes 
Of small size (up to 15 mm.); second sternum 
without pair of lobes P. pusillus, p. 128. 



105. PhrynicllUS lunatus, Pallas, Spic. Zonl. ix, p. 35, t. hi, figs. 3 6, 
1772 (Phalangium) ; Fair. Ent. Syst. ii, p. 433, 1793 (Tarantula) : 
ceylonicus, C. Koch, Arachn. x, p. 35, fig. 776, 1843 (Phrynus) : 
reniformis, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. x, p. 619, 1758, in part (Phalan- 
gium); Karsch, Arch. Nat. xlv, p. 195, 1879; Kraep. Abh. Ver. 
Hamb. xiii, p. 10, 1895 (Tarantula) ; id. Tierr. , Scorp. etc. p. 237, 
1899 (Phrynichus). 

5 . Colour nearly black or red- 
dish brown, with three grey spots 
on the upper side of the femora of 
the legs ; much paler in recently- 
moulted specimens. Carapace 
and terga granular throughout ; 
q sterna smooth, obsoletely punc- 
tured ; 1st furnished with a pair 
of longitudinally subcrescentic 
depressions, the middle of its 
posterior border lightly concave 
and fringed with rod hairs; middle 
of posterior border of 2nd also 
lightly concave and furnished 
with a pair of chitinous lobes 
which meet in t lie middle line. 
Chelae with coxalsegmenl granular 
below, smooth in the middle : 
bordered behind with a crest of 




Fig. 42. — A. Extremity of tibia of 
chela of Phrynichus lunatus : 

a, .rudiment of first spine ; 

b, second, c, third spine. 
I>. Extremity of tibia, of chela of 

J', lunatus from below : e, distal 
spine. 
0. Ditto (if /'. phipsoni : d, distal 
spine. 

trochanter with upper surface 



PHETHICHU8. 1-7 

spines two or more rows deep, three of the spines of the front 
row much larger than the real ; femur long, cylindrical, ;i little 

more than three times the median length of the carapace, but less 
than twice its width, coarsely granular above, spined in front 
above and below ; tibia about as long as the femur, coarsely 
granular, armed at the distal end above with two long spines in 
the adult, three in the young, and on the underside at the apex 
with two smaller spines, t he distal the smaller of the two, denti- 
form and directed obliquely downwards and forwards : hand smooth 
externally and internally, granular above and below, the lower 
edge being furnished throughout its length with two irregular 
rows of coarse granules, armed above and below with a single long 
spine, and also with a tubercle on its upper side at the base of the 
spine. Second abdominal sternum furnished with a pair of semi- 
lunar lobes; first sternum transversely truncate in the middle of 
its posterior border and furnished with a fringe of red hairs. 

<3 . First abdominal sternum widely rounded posteriorly and not 
hairy. Chela much longer thau in 2 : the trochanter and femur 
generally much more bain' and much less strongly spined ; the 
femur nearly four times the median length of the carapace. 

Young much smoother than adult, more varied in colouring; 
the chela- considerably shorter, the tibia armed distally above with 
tlnve long spines, the first becoming gradually smaller with suc- 
cessive moults until it is ultimately reduced to a mere tubercle. 

Total length up to about 30-35 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon: Kandy (Yerbury Sf Green). 

106. Phrynichus phipsoni, Pocoek, A. M. N. H. (<;> xh . ].. 295, pi. viii, 
fig. 4, L894. 

2 . Size, colour, and general characters as in/'. In not us, from which 
this principally differs in the permanent retention of characters 
which appear in the young but are lost in the adult of that species. 
For example, the first of the three large spines on the upper side 
of the apex of the tibia of the chela is found in adult individuals 
of P. phipsoni, and is about half the length of the others; on the 
lower side of the tibia in the distal fourth of its length behind the 
two apical spines there is another spine, which is always longer and 
sometimes con>idrrably longer than the rest; the granulation of 
the chelae is coarser and less close-set: the underside of the hand 

is smooth or atmosl s >th, with at most the merest t rat I' a few 

granules ; and the distal interior tibial spine is differently shaped 
and less erect, its inferior edge being very decidedly convex from 
base to tip, not Btraight with a median sinuosity as in P. I una tug, 
and its upper edge lightly concave, without any basil convexity. 

Total length 28 nun 

Lor. Bombay {Moore § Phipsori)', Trivandrum in Travancore 
( Ferguson). 



128 chaeontidjE. 

107. Phrynichus pusillus, Pocock, A. M. N. 11. (6) xiv, p. 296, 
1894. 

Closely allied to P. lunatus, but much smaller and much more 
coarsely granular than the adults of that species, the carapace 
being beset with large granules and the terga sparsely covered with 
them, about twenty being scattered over the surface and twenty 
arranged along the posterior edge, the interstices being very visibly 
and finely granulated. The integumental folds of the 2nd abdo- 
minal sternum obsolete. 

Total length of d 1 and $ up to 15 mm. 

This species is assumed by Kraepelin to be based upon young 
examples of P. lunatus. Young specimens of the latter, however, 
resembling P. pusillus in size, may be at once recognized by the 
much finer granulation of the integument, the presence and large 
size of the third tibial spine of the chela, the much shorter chehe, 
and the presence of the semilunar lobes on the 2nd abdominal 
sternum. 

Loc. Ceylon: Punduloya {Green). 



Family CHARONTID^. 

Anterior sternal plate lanceolate, evenly narrow from base to 
point, without any basal plate-like expansion ; median and posterior 
sternal plates small, subcircular. Tibia of the 4th leg consisting 
of four or three segments. Distal spines on upper side of tibia of 
chela directed inwards and scarcely overlapping the base of the 
hand. Tarsi consisting of five segments; the distal with pulvillus 
beneath the two claws. 

Distribution. Seychelles ; Burma, Andaman Islands, Philippine 
Islands; and over the whole of the Indo- and Austro- Malayan area 
as far as the Solomon Islands. 



Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

Tibia of chela slender ; hand armed above 

and below with one long basal spine ; 

that on the upper side double and with 

a few small spines between it and the 

linger SxYGorintYNUs, p. 1 1".». 

Tibia of chela wide ; upper side of hand 

with two long spines, under side with 

one long distal spines ; no smaller 

spines. 
a 1 . Tibia of 4th leg consisting of three 



segments Catageus, p. L80. 

'iliia of 4th leg consisting of four 

segments Sarax, p. 13] . 



sryGOPHRyjrus. 



120 



A. 




B. 



C. 




Fig. 43. — Sarax mrawaken&is. 

A. Lower side of ceplialothorax and of anterior end of abdomen : a, prosternal, 

b, c, mesosternal, and d, metasternal plates ; e, 1st, and /, 2nd abdo- 
minal sternum ; g & h, apertures of pulmonary sacs ; i, coxa of 4th, 
k, coxa of 3rd, /, coxa of 2nd leg ; m, coxa of chela. 

B. Tarsus of 4th leg : o, claws ; n, pulvillus. 

C. Upper view of extremity of tarsus : q, claw ; p, pulvillus. 



Genus STYGOPHRYNUS, Kraepelin. 

Charon, Thorell, Ann. Mm. Genova, xxvii, p. 538, 1889 (not Charon 

of Karsch). 
Stygophrvnus, Kruep a lin, Abh. Vet. Hamb. xiii, p. 44, 1895; id. 

Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 248, 1889. 

Only one long spine on the upper and lower side of the hand, 
but the spine on the upper side with a slender supplementary spine 
rising from the base of its posterior surface ; distal to the long 
spine, both above and below, are a few, about three, small spines. 
Claw not fused with ringer, but separated by a distinct sutural 
joint. Tibia of chela moderately wide ; its upper edge furnished 
with seven spines, of which the 4th, 5th, and 6th from the distal 
end are subequal, very long and slender and longer than the width 
of the tibia (fig. 44 A, B). Tibia of 4th leg consisting of four 
segments. Second abdominal sternum with distinct semicircular 
lobes. 

Type (and only known species), 8. cavet-nicola. 

Distribution. Burma. 



130 



CHARONTIDJE. 



108. Stygophrynus cavernicola, Thorell, Ann. Mm. Genova, xxvii, 
p. 5:38, 1889 (Charon) ; Kraepelin, Abh. Ver. Hamb. xiii, p. 44, 
1895; id. Tien:, Scorp. etc. p. 248, 1899 (Stygophrynus). 

Colour yellowish. Carapace smooth, not granular ; frontal spine 
projecting forwards ; median ocular tubercle close to the anterior 
edge of the carapace. Femur of chela armed on its upper border 
with 6-7 spines, with granules between them ; underside also with 
6-7 spines, of which the basal two are the longest ; spines on 
upper side of tibia of chela very long, the sixth from the apex the 
longest ; the under surface of the tibia with about 7 spines and 
3 or 4 spinules between them. Length up to 24 mm. 

Loc. Moulmein. Specimens taken in the Farm Caves (Fea). 



Genus CATAGEUS, Thorell. 

Catageus. Thorell, Ann. Mm. Genova, xxvii, p. 530, 1889. 
Catagams, Kraepelin, Abh. Ver. Hamb. xiii. p. 47, 1895. 
Catagius, id. Tien:, Scorp. etc. p. 251, 1899. 



C. 




B. 



D. 



Fig. 44. — A. Tibia of chela of Stygo- 
phrynus cavernicola. 

B. Lower side of hand of same : 

a, articulated claw ; b, spine on 
upper side of hand. 

C. Tibia of chela of Cataycus pusillus. 

D. Lower side of hand of same: 

c, claw ; d, spines on upper side 
of hand. 



Upper side of Ivand with two 
separated spines, of which the 
distal is the shorter ; no spines 
distal to them ; lower side of 
hand with one spine at the distal 
end. Tibia of chela very wide, 
its upper edge with 5 long or 
moderately long spines, two short 
spines distal to the longest, which 
is thus the median spine of the 
series. Tibia of 4th leg con- 
sisting of only three segments. 
Second abdominal sternum with- 
out pair of semicircular marginal 
lobes. 

Type (and only known species), 
C. pusillus. 

Distribution. Burma. 



109. Catageus pusillus, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxvii, p. 531, 
1889 ; Kraepelin, Abh. Ver. Hamb. xiii, p. 47, 1895 (Catagaeus) ; 
id. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 251, 1899 (Catagius). 

Colour : carapace reddish brown ; abdomen brownish grey, with 
clearer spots. Carapace rounded, finely granular. Terga finely 
granular. Femur of chela armed above and below with 3 spines ; 
tibia with 5 spines above and 2 below, of which the distal is the 
longest. Legs smooth ; proximal tarsal segment much longer than 
the remaining four segments taken together. Total length up to 
about 8 mm. 

Loc. Burma : Moulmein (Fea). Specimen captured in the 
Farm Caves. 



SARAX. 131 



Genus SARAX, Simon. 

Charon, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxvi, p. 354, 1888 (nee Karsch). 
Saras, Simon, Ann. Soc. JSnt. Fr. l.xi, pp. 43 & 4-~. 1892 : Kraepelin, 

Abh. J'er. Hamb. xiii, p. 45, 1804; id. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 250, 

1899. 

Hand armed above with two separated long spines, of which 
the distal is the longest ; no small spines distal to them. Tibia 
of chela wide, armed above with 8 spines, of which the 2nd from 
the distal end is the longest. Tibia of 4th leg consisting of four 
segments. Second abdominal sternum with two subspherical lobes 
on its hinder border. 

Type, S. brachydactylus, Sim. Two species known. 

Distribution. Andaman Islands, Singapore, Borneo, Philippine 
and Solomon Islands. 

110. Sarax sarawakensis, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxvi, p. 354, 
1888 (Charon) ; Kraepelin, Abh. J'er. Hamb. xiii, p. 45, 1895 (in 
part) ; id. Tierr., Scorp. etc. p. 251, 1899 (Sarax). 

Colour a tolerably uniform reddish brown, sometimes marked 
with black ; legs and abdomen paler. Carapace rounded in front, 
the sulci deep, finely granular. Terga finely granular. Femur of 
chela armed with 3 or 4 spines above, the basal the longest, the distal 
the smallest, minute ; on the under side with 4 spines, the basal 
small and directed inwards, the 2nd the longest; tibia armed 
above with 5 spines, below with 4, of which the proximal and 
distal are minute. Length up to about 9 mm. 

hoc. Table Island, Andamans (Oates) ; also occurring in Singa- 
pore, Borneo, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. 

Specimens ( 6 $ ) from the Andaman Islands were captured by 
Mr. E. W. Oates beneath stones at low water on the coast of 
Table Island. 



.. .-• 



132 



SOLIFUGvE. 



Order SOLIFUGtE. 

Integument richly clothed with hairs which are mostly soft and 
silky on the abdomen, stiff and erect elsewhere, many of them 
taking the form of long tactile bristles or of longer or shorter 
spines. 

Carapace segmented, consisting of a large anterior head-shield 
(the head), behind which on each side are two narrow skeletal 
pieces representing the tergal elements of the somites bearing the 
1st and 2nd legs, and of two large subquadrate plates, which are 
the terga of the somites bearing the Srd and 4th pairs of legs. 




Fig. 45. — A. Anterior extremity of Galeodes ($) from above, a, mandible; 
b, ocular tubercle ; c, buttress to which mandible is articulated ; d, head ; 
e, remains of terga of 3rd and 4th somites, bearing 1st and 2nd pairs of 
legs ; /, ff, terga of somites bearing 3rd and 4th pairs of legs ; h, i, 1st and 



2nd abdominal terga. 



B. Abdominal stigma showing scrrulce. 

C. First abdominal sternum of J, showing k lateral and / median plates. 

D. Extremity of tarsus and claws of 4th leg. 



In the middle of 
tubercle bearine: 



the anterior border of the head is the ocular 
i. pair of large eyes ; lateral eyes obsolete * - 



On each side of the head there is a distinct buttress to which the 
mandible is articulated. Mandibles projecting forwards, very large, 
consisting of two segments ; the basal segment is swollen and bears 
in front a compressed but strong, toothed process, the upper jaw, 



* Traces of the lateral eyes have been found at the sides of the head. 
These organs, however, are neglected in systematic description. 



SOLIFUO.K. 



133 



which ends in an apically pointed fang. The distal segment or 
lower jaw, also toothed and terminating in a fang, is articulated 
to the under side of the basal segment and moves in a vertical 
plane, so as to constitute with the upper jaw a pair of powerful 
nippers. On the inner side of the basal segment there is fre- 
quently a series of hard ridges which, by being rubbed against the 
corresponding ridges of the other jaw, give rise to a harsh grating 
sound. These are the stridula ting- ridges. Projecting forwards 
from the lower half of the fore part of the head between the 
mandibles there is a horny, hair-tipped rostrum, which bears the 
mouth at its extremity. The sternal elements of the cephalo- 
thorax are practically absent, their place being taken by the basal 
segments or coxae of the appendages, which meet each other in the 
median ventral line and are immovably welded together. The 
palpi are long, pediform, and consist of six segments, named 
coxa, trochanter, femur, patella, tibia, and tarsus. The coxa is fur- 
nished with a maxillary process ; the trochanter is very short ; the 
tarsus, also short, is sometimes freely movable, but is generally 



B. 



C. 




Fig. 4G. — A, Palpus ; B, 1st leg ; and C, 3rd leg of Galeocle*. a, coxa ; b, tro- 
chanter ; b' , trochantella ; c, femur of palp and trochantin of 1st and 
3rd leg; c', distal end of femur of 1st and 3rd leg; d, patella; c, tibia; 
f, tarsus; g, claws. 

united to the tibia, with a mere sutural line between the two. 
The 1st leg much resembles the palpus, to which it is fused at the 
base, but is shorter and weaker and has an additional small seg 
ment, the trochantin, cut off from the base of the femur ; the tarsus 
may or may not be furnished with a claw. The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th 
legs are the organs of progression. They differ structurally from 
those of the 1st pair in having the trochanters divided into two 
distinct segments, so that between the coxa and the femur three 
segments are intercalated, namely the trochanter, the trocliantella, 
and troclia,<tin. This multiplication of basal segments confers ex- 
ceptional flexibility upon the legs, and more than compensates tor 
the rigidity of the COX8B. The patella and tibia are unsegmented : 
the tarsi are segmented or not, and to the apex is articulated a 
pair of long claws, which differ from those of all other Arachnids 
in being pediculated or borne upon long stalks. Attached to the 



134 



SOLLFUG.E. 



base of the 4th leg there are five sensory organs, the malleoli — two 
on the coxa, two on the 1 rochanter, and one on the trochantella. 
Each consists of a slender basal piece or stalk, and an expanded 
distal piece, the blade. There is no distinct waist between the 
cephalothorax and abdomen snch as exists in the Uropygi and 
Amblypygi. The abdomen consists of ten segments, each of which, 
with exception of the last, bears a tergal plate above and a sternal 
plate below ; the last or anal segment is represented by a single 
plate marked with a vertical slit, the anal aperture. 

Generative organs open upon or behind the sternum of the 1st 
abdominal segment, the plate showing modifications in structure 
according to sex and age. 




Fig. 47. — Lower side of trunk and of bases of appendages of Galcodes. a, man- 
dibles; h, c, d, e.g, coxaj of palp and of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th legs ; /, thoracic 
stigma; h, 1st abdominal sternum; i, k, abdominal stigmata; I, anal 
segment; m, trochanter, and 11, base of femur of palp; o, trochanter; 
p, trochantin of 1st leg ; q, trochanter and trochantella of 3rd leg ; r, tro- 
chanter and trochantella, s, trochantin, and t, base of femur of 4th leg ; 
u, external malleolus. 

The respiratory organs are in the form of tubular tracheae, the 
stigmata of which open upon or behind the sterna of the 2nd 
and 3rd, rareby also of the 4th, abdominal segment. There 
is, moreover, a pair of large stigmata situated upon the ventral 
side of the 4th segment of the cephalothorax, one on each side 
behind the coxa of the appendage. 

Sexual characters. Male with mandibles less strongly toothed and 

(except in one American genus) furnished above at the base of the 

upper jaw with an organ of unknown function, the flagellum. The 

first abdominal sternum in the adult female consists of a single 

plate marked with a median longitudinal groove. In the adult 



galeodid^e. 135 

males and the young females, on the contrary, the right and left 
halves of this plate remain distinct, and protruding between them, 
in the middle line, there is a pair of lip-like valves covering the 
generative aperture. 

Habits. These Arachnida are remarkable for their amazing agility. 
Though principally desert forms, they are also met with in 
forests, at least in India. They are nocturnal and strictly car- 
nivorous. Some of the species at all events dig holes in the 
ground, and the females at the breeding-season live in burrows for 
the protection of themselves and their young. The latter are born 
in the egg-stage. 

Distribution. Spain, Greece, and S. Russia in Europe ; over the 
whole of Africa and South-western Asia from Turkestan to Arabia 
and Baluchistan, thence throughout India and into Ceylon ; also 
in Siam and (?) the Moluccas ; America from the Southern States 
of the Union to the Andean chain in Chili and the Argentine 
Eepublic. 

The families and subfamilies represented in the fauna of British 
India may be diagnosed as follows : — 

a. Tarsus of palp narrow at base and freely articulated 

to tibia ; stalk of claws hairy Galeodidae. 

h. Tarsus of palp broad at base and immovably fused 

to tibia ; stalk of claws not hairy Solpugidae. 

«'. Anal segment small, the aperture extending al- 
most up to its superior edge Djesiin.^:. 

b l . Anal segment large, the aperture scarcely sur- 
passing its middle RHAGODiNiE. 



Family GALEODID.E. 

Stigmata upon the 2nd and 3rd abdominal segments opening 
beneath the posterior edge of the sterna and protected by a pair 
of transversely elongated fiuely toothed plates, the serruke. 

Tarsus of palp narrowed at the base and movably articulated to 
the tibia. 

Claivs of legs, in the adult, with several rows of hairs upon the 
stalk. 

Anal segment small, the aperture extending almost to its upper 
edge. 

Distribution. Africa north of the Sahara and southwards into 
Somaliland : South-eastern Europe, Greece and South Russia ; 
South-western Asia, Turkestan, Asia Minor, Arabia, Persia, 
Afghanistan and Baluchistan, thence over the whole of AVestern 
and Southern India. Absent from Ceylon and Burma. 



136 galeodidjE. 



Genus GALEODES, Oliv. 

Galeodes, Olivier, Encycl. Method, vi, p. 579, 1791 (in part) ; C. Koch, 
Arch. Nat. 1842, pt. i, p. 3-50 ; Simon, Ann. Hoc. Ent. Fr. 1879, 
p. 96 ; Karsch, Arch. Nat. 1880, p. 229 ; Pocock, A. M. N. H. 
(6) xx, p. 251, 1897 ; Kraepelin, Jb. Hamb, wiss. Anst. xvi, 
p. 201, 1899. 

Rhax, Hermann, Mem. Ins. Apt. pp. 13 & 15, 1804 (nee Rhax of 
C. Koch and subsequent authors). 

Zerbina, Karsch, Arch. Nat. 1880, p. 233. 

Zombis, Simon, Ann. Mus. Genova, xviii, p. 253, 1883. 

Ocular tubercle furnished in front with a pair of symmetrically 
disposed bristles, one on each side of the middle line. Mandible 
with very weak stridulating-ridges. Flagellum of male erectile ; 
consisting of a slender subcylindrical basal portion or stem and 
of a gradually expanded but apically pointed distal portion or 
blade, the edges of which are incurved to form a narrow hair-lined 
hollow. Tarsus of 1st leg armed with two small claws concealed 
amongst the hairs ; tarsi of 2nd and 3rd legs spined beneath, con- 
sisting of two segments, of 4th of three segments : tibia of 2nd 
and 3rd legs strongly spined above. 

Male with head narrower than in female ; mandibles weak, 
studded above with long erect spines for the protection of the 
flagellum ; distal teeth of upper jaw weak or almost obsolete. 
Palpi longer and stronger. Legs longer ; tarsus of 4th clothed be- 
low with a pad of variously modified bristles. A row of reddish 
bristles upon the posterior border of the 5th abdominal sternum. 

Type, Gf. araneoides, Pallas. 8. Russia and Transcaspia. 

Distribution. As above under family. 

JSyno2)sis of Indian Species. 

Males. 

a. Pad on 4th tarsus consisting of a few stout 

bacilliform bristles G. bacillifer, p. 144. 

b. Pad on 4th tarsus consisting of many not 

clavate bristles. 
a 1 . Lower side of tibia of palp without cy- 
lindrical bristles and with only a few 

small setiferous tubercles G. nigripalpis, p. 144. 

Tibia of palp studded below with seti- 
ferous tubercles bearing stiff cylindrical 
or fusiform bristles. 
a' 2 . Cylindrical bristles on tibia of palp 
very slender, sparsely set, rising from 
small tubercles which scarcely ex- 
tend to the apex of the segment. ... G. indicus, p. 142. 
b' 1 . Bristles on lower side of tibia of palp 
thick, numerous, rising from large 
tubercles which extend t^> the apex of 
the segment. 



GALKODES. 



137 



'. Proximal tarsal segment of 2nd and 
3rd legs with a posterior basal spine, 
3 minor teeth on lower jaw of man- 
dible G. afffhanw, p. 140. 

'. Proximal tarsal segmenf of 2nd and 

3rd legs without posterior basal 

spine ; 2 minor teeth on lower jaw. 

a*. Tibia and tarsus of palp entirely 

pale yellow ; bristles on lower 

side of tibia fusiform G. macmahoni, p. 141 . 

//'. Tibia of palp fuscous, as dark as 

patella or darker : bristles on its 

lower side subcylindrical. 

a s . Large (over 40 mm.); yellow; 

patella of palp twice width of 

head G. agilis, p. 140. 

b\ Smaller (about 30 mm.); brown- 
er ; patella of palp less than 
twice width of head G. orientalis, p. 138. 



Females. 

a. Tarsus of legs scantily clothed below with 

stout hairs ; 9 pairs of strong short spines 

on tibia of palp G. afghanus, p. 140. 

b. Tarsi thickly clothed below with thin hairs; 

tibia of palp without 9 pairs of short spines. 

a 1 . Tibia of palp armed beneath with 6 7 pairs 

of short spines, none of which exceed the 

height of the segment. 

a 1 . Lower jaw of mandible with 3 minor 

teeth G. sabulosus, p. 139. 

b' z . Lower jaw of mandible with 2 minor 
teeth. 
« 3 . Larger; legs and palpi llavous .... G.fatalis, p. 137. 
//'. Smaller : legs and palpi partially 

infuacate G. orientalis, p. 138. 

b\ Tibia of palp armed with long and slender 
spines, some or most of which exceed 
the height of the segment. 
a'. Patella of palp fuscous, tibia entirely 

pale; 2 minor teetli on lower jaw . . (•'. macmahoni, p. 141. 
b*. Patella and tibia of palp approximately 
of the same colour: •'! minor teeth on 
lower jaw. 
//'. A posterior basal spine on tarsusof 2nd 

and 3rd legs G. bacilltfer, p. 144. 

b' . No posterior basal spine on tarsus of 2nd 

and 3rd legs G. indicus, p. 1 12. 



lll.Galeodes fatalis, Lichtenstein \ Herbat, Nat. ungefi. Ins. pt. i, 
p. 32, t. i. fig. 1. L797 (2) (Solpuga) ; Pocock, Jour. Bom. 
X. H. So". i\. p. Ill, 1895 (in pari 2 i : G-aleodes vorax, Hutton, 

J. A. S. B. xi. pt. 2, ]>. 867, 1842 : Galeodes bemralensis, fhttler, 
Tr. Ent. Soc. 1873, p. 119. 



138 GALEODIDJE. 

Colour mostly pale yellow, head with black tubercle, and lightly 
infuscate at the sides ; dorsal plates of abdomen lightly infuscate. 
Head wide, in adult wider than length of tibia, nearly or quite 
equal to patella of palp ; exceeding tibia and nearly or quite equal 
to patella of 4th leg. Mandible with the 3rd and 5th teeth of 
the upper jaw large, there being normally only one minor tooth 
behind the third ; lower fang with two minor teeth. Palpi short ; 
patella armed externally beneath with from 3 to 4 short spines, 
which are shorter than the diameter of the segment, and internally 
with corresponding longer and thinner spines; stout bristles ar- 
ranged at regular intervals and symmetrically on the two sides ; 
tibia armed below with six pairs of short stout spines, the apical 
the longest, the basal the shortest, all of them shorter than the 
diameter of the segment. Legs with tarsi of 2nd and 3rd armed 
with 7 spines, there being no posterior basal spine; tarsus of 4th 
with 5 pairs of spines. Malleoli small ; blade of external a little 
exceeding width of ocular tubercle. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 46, width of head 13 - 5, of 
palp 41-5, 1st leg 29, 4th leg 54. 

Distribution. Central and North India (ffutton); Bengal ; Gwa- 
lior (Maries) ; Karaghora in Kathiawar (Bulkley). 

112. Galeodes orientalis, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxviii, p. 209, t. xviii, 
figs. 4-5, 1809; Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. II Soc. ix, p. 444, 1895 
(nee G. orientalis, Simon, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. x, pp. 1-2, 1885). 

$ . Structurally resembling G. fatalis, but smaller and darker, 
the ground-tint being reddish yellow, not sandy yellow ; mandibles 
ornamented with thin palely fuscous lines ; patella of palp infuscate, 



A. 








c. 



Fig. 48. —Galeodes orientalis. 

A. Extremity of palpus. 

B. Upper jaw and flagellum (a) of J. 

C. Upper and lower jaw of $ : ''< minor tooth of upper jaw; c, minor teeth 

of lower jaw. 

pale at the extremities ; tibia more strongly infuscate than patella, 
the base pale ; tarsus paler than tibia ; tibia and tarsi of legs clear 



GALEODES. 139 

yellow ; the femur and patella of the 4th pair, and to a lesser 
extent of the 3rd, infuscate. 

c? . Resembling the female in colour, size, and spine-armature 
of legs, but with longer, stronger legs and palpi, and narrower head 
and mandibles. Width of head equal to about half the length of the 
patella of the palp and nearly three-quarters its tibia, a little less 
than two-thirds the length of the patella and about three-quarters 
the tibia of the 4th leg. Mandible with flagellum short, the stalk not 
much shorter than the blade ; the blade lanceolate, much broader 
than the stalk, broadest across the basal half and evenly narrowed 
to the point; distal five teeth of the upper jaw small and forming 
a lobulate crest ; lower jaw with two minor teeth. Palp with 
patella armed below with about twelve spines arranged in three 
rows, the spines exceeding the height of the segment ; tibia 
armed with six pairs of spines, these spines much longer than in 
the female, but not exceeding the height of the segment; inferior 
area of segment between the spines studded from base to distal end 
with setiferous tubercles, the setae they bear are short, erect, cylin- 
drical, slightly narrower at the base, truncate at apex and not so 
long as the spines. Pad on tarsus of 4th leg consisting of whitish 
but opaque, basally narrowed and apically acuminate but not filiform 
bristles. A transverse row of about half a dozen reddish-coloured 
bristles on the posterior border of the 5th abdominal sternum. 
Large blade of the external malleolus at least as wide as half the 
width of the head-plate. 
Measurements in mm. — 















Length of 




Total 


Width of 


Length of 


Length of 


Length of 


patella 




length. 


head. 


palpus. 


1st leg. 


4th leg. 


of palp. 


?.. 


. . 30 


8 


28 


20 


39 




o* •• 


. . 27 


7*5 


41 


29 


51 


13-5 



hoc. Northern India ; Birbhum and Delhi (Stoliczka) ; Mussoorie 
(Roth)ii'ij) ; GwaYior (Maries); Gya (Ph ipson) ; and Karaghora in 
lvathiawar (Bull-ley). 

Subspecies rufulus, now 

2 • Closely allied to the typical form, but with the palpi darker ; 
the whole of the patella, tibia, and tarsus being uniformly infuscate, 
distal extremity of femur of palp, and femur and patella of legs, 
infuscate. Tarsus of 4th leg with normally only 4 pairs of spines, 
the apical segment rarely armed with 1 spine. Total length up to 
about 30 mm. 

Loc. E. Khandesh (Madari); Pimpalner in E. Khandesh and 
Shirpur in W. Khandesh (Pearson)-, Eastern Poona (Wrowjhton). 

113. Galeodes sabulosus, sp. n. 

Allied to both the preceding in structure, and approaching 
G. oriental is in size and 0. fa talis in colour, though the tibia 
of the palp is infuscate in the basal half; differing from both 



140 GALEODIDJE. 

in having three distinct minor teeth on the lower jaw of the 
mandible. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 32, width of. head 7, length 
of palp 27, of 1st leg 19, of 4th leg 37. 

Distribution. Kohat in the Punjab (Batten). 

114. Galeodes agilis, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. II. Soc. ix, p. 445, t. A, 

figs. 1-1 c. 

S . Nearly allied to G. orientalis, but much larger. Prevailing 
■colour paler yellow than in G. orientalis; head inf uscate anteriorly, 
mandibles pale above ; patella of palp deeply or slightly infuscate ; 
tibia and tarsus deeply and uniformly infuscate, sometimes almost 
black ; legs pale or with femur and patella of 4th infuscate. 
Palpi with patella twice as long as width of head, tibia longer than 
width of head by one-third of its length. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 44, width of head 11, length 
of palpus 65, of 1st leg 47, of 4th leg 76, tibia of palp 22. 

Log. North-western India : Bikanir in Rajputaua (Talbot) ; 
Jacobabad (Bombay JV. II. Soc.) ; Ivhost in Baluchistan (Smith). 

115. Galeodes afghanus, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) xvi, p. 82, 1S95. 

5» . Colour : head fuscous ; mandibles yellow, obscurely banded ; 
palpus with distal half of femur and greater part of patella fuscous 
with pale extremities, tibia and tarsus entirely flavous ; legs yellow, 
with femora of 3rd and 4th and to a less extent the patellae infuscate 
in the middle. Abdominal terga greyish black, sides of abdomen 
covered with silky grevish-yellow hairs. 

Width of head about two-thirds the length of the patella and as 
long as the tibia of the palp and of 4th leg. Mandibles with upper 
jaw armed with two large and widely separated minor teeth behind 
the 3rd tooth ; lower jaw armed with three minor teeth. Patella 
of palp armed beneath externally with about 4 shorter spines and 
internally with longer spines ; tibia armed below with 9 pairs of 
longer and shorter strong spines, the longest of which only exceed 
the height of the segment at its narrowest part. Legs longer than 
in G. fatalis, bnt with the same spine-armature, except that there 
is a posterior basal spine on tarsus of 2nd and 3rd legs ; tarsi 
much more scantily clothed beneath than in G. fatalis, the hairs 
being much fewer, short, and subspiniform. Malleoli long ; blade of 
external malleolus about twice the width of the ocular tubercle. 

3 . Resembling the female in colour. Mandibles and flagellum 
practically as in G. macmahoni, but with three minor teeth on the 
lower jaw. Palpi shorter than in G. macmahoni; the patella barely 
twice the width of the head-plate, which is distinctly less than half 
the length of tibia and tarsus taken together. Spine-armature of 
tarsi of 2nd and 3rd legs as in $ • Blade of external malleolus 
less than half the width of the head-plate. 







GALEODES. 






141 




Measurements in mm. : — 












Total Width Length of 


Length of 


Length of 


Length of 


Length of 




length, of head. palpu9. 


1st leg. 


4th leg. 


patella 
of palp. 


tibia and 
tarsus. 


$. 


. 46 14 58 


42 


71 


19 


18 


6 ■ 


. 34 9 54-6 


41 


? 


18-5 


16-5 



Loc. Between Quetta and Kandahar {Godwin- Austin) ; Omara 
on the Mekrau coast, 130 miles W. of Karachi (Townsend). 

116. Galeodes macmahoni, sp. n. 

2 . Closely resembling the female of G. a f (/Junius in colour, but 
much yellower, the head only lightly iufuscate in front ; mandibles 
scarcely visibly banded above ; femur of palp uniformly yellow - T 
legs also uniformly yellow, only the femur of the 4th lightly infus- 
cate distally. Mandibles with only two minor teeth on lower jaw as 
in G.fatalis, but with two behind the 3rd tooth of the upper jaw as 
in G. afghanus ; the posterior of the two, however, is much smaller 
than in that species and tuberculiform. Palpi longer than in 
G. afghanus ; the width of the head about two-thirds the length of 
the tibia, and much less than two-thirds that of the patella ; spines 
on patella of palp all long and slender, considerably exceeding the 
height of the segment and only a little thicker at the base than 
the bristles ; the six pairs of spines on the tibia much thinner 
than in G. fatalis and G. afghanus and a little longer than in the 
latter, the bristles that project between them long and slender 
at the base, much as in G.fatalis. Spine-armature of tarsi and 
hairy clothing on under side of these segments as in G.fatalis. 
External malleolus with blade a little exceeding the ocular 
tubercle. 

3 . Resembling the female in colour, and like the males of G. agilis 
and orientalis in spine-armature of legs and palpi and dentition of 
mandible. At once recognizable from the latter by the colour of the 
palpi. Plagellum with the blade narrower and longer in proportion 
to its width than in G. agilis. Legs and palpi longer than in the 
latter, the patella of the palp being a little more than twice the 
width of the head-plate, and the tibia and tarsus taken together 
are also a little more, whereas in G. orientalis and Q. a</i/is the width 
of the head is always more than half the length of these segments. 
Again, the patella of the 4th leg is twice and the tibia nearly twice 
the width of the head. Spines on under side of tibia of palp less 
cylindrical than in G. agilis and G. orientalis, raesially incrassate, 
then narrowed basally and apically. Spines composing pad on 4th 
tarsus shorter, thicker, and more abruptly acuminate than in 
G. orientalis and G. agilis. Blade of external malleolus as large as- 
in G. agilis. 



142 




GALEODIDvE. 








Measurements in mm. 

Total Width of 
length. head. 


Length of Length of 
palpus. 1st leg. 


Length of 
4th leg. 


Length of 
patella 
of palp. 


Length of 

tibia and 

tarsus. 


8 .. 38 
2 . . 33 


11 

85 


52 37 
60 ? 


65 

71 


17 
19-5 


10 

17 



Loc. Northern Baluchistan (Maynard Sf MacMahori). 

117. Galeodes indicus, sp.n. 

[ = Galeodes fatalis, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. ix, p. 441 . pi. A, fig. 2. 
& pi. B, tig. 1 a, in part ( J ), 1895 ; not fatalis, Ilerbst : G. orientals, 
Simon, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. x, p. ], 1885 ; not orientalis, Stol.] 

5 . Colour : head iufuscate, paler in the middle line ; mandibles 
yellower than the head and marked with fuscous lines; upper side 
of abdomen inf uscate, the dorsal plates darker ; legs and palpi a 
tolerably uniform yellowish brown, patella and basal half of tibia 
of palp and femur aud patella of 4th leg at most lightly iufuscate. 
Head about two-thirds the length of the patella of the palp and of 
4th leg, shorter than the tibia of palp by about one-fifth of its 
length, and not quite so long as tibia of 4th leg. Dentition of 
mandible as in G. afghanus. Patella of palp armed below with 
about eight pairs of long setiform spines, of subequal thickness and 
alternating in length, but considerably exceeding the height of the 
segment ; tibia similarly armed below with about ten or eleven 
pairs of longer and shorter spines, half of them on each side being 
very long and setiform, and slightly stouter than the others, which 
are short but for the most part exceed the height of the segment. 
Tarsi of legs armed as in G. fatalis, except that the distal tarsal 
segment of the 4th is spined. Blade of external malleolus slightly 
exceeding the ocular tubercle. 



A. 



B. 








Fig. 49.— Galeodes indicus. A. Extremity of palpus of ^. B. Upper jaw 
of $ with, d, flagelluni. O. Upper and lower jaws of 9_ '■ ''. minor teeth 
of upper jaw ; /, ditto of lower jaw. 

J . Like the female in colour, spiue-armature of tarsi, dentition 
of lower mandibular fang, &c. Flagellum long, not quite straight ; 
blade much longer than the handle. Palpi very long, as in G. mac- 
mahoni, the patella more than twice the width of the head, which 
is also less than half the length of patella and tarsus taken together; 
head scarcely half the length of the patella of the 4th leg and not 



OALEODES. 



143 





Total 


Width of 


Length of 


Length of 




length. 


head. 


palp. 


Is! leg. 


$ 


..30 


7-5 


38 


24 


8 


..28 


7 


54 


37 



quite two-thirds its tibia; tibia of palp differing from that of the 
previously described species in that the cylindrical seta? on the 
underside are very slender, few in number, and rarely extend to 
the distal end of the segment ; the tubercles that bear them, more- 
over, are much smaller than in other species. Tarsus of 4th leg 
covered below with a pad of black or brown seta;, which, however, 
do not spread on to the apical segment. Blade of external malleolus 
less than half the width of the head. 5th abdominal sternum with 
marginal row of reddish bristles. 
Measurements in mm. : — 

Length of Length of tibia 
Length of patella and tarsus 
4th leg. of palp. of palp. 

48 12 12 

62 18-5 16-5 

Loc. Ranging over the whole of India from Bengal in the north 
to Cape Comorin in the south. 

Three subspecies of this species seem to be recognizable: — 

a. The typical form (=6r. fatalis, Pocock, Jour. Bom.N". H. Soc. 
p. 441 , 1895, 6 ), as described above, is the Northern form, with legs 
and palpi paler and almost uniformly yellowish brown or at most 
only slightly infuseate. 

Loc. Gwalior (Maries) and Grya (Phipson) ; Bilaspur in the 
Central Provinces (type) ; Thana, north of Bombay. 

It is this northern form, then known only from a young female 
and an adult male from Grwalior, that I originally referred to 
G. fatalis, in conjunction with an adult 5 of the genuine fatalis 
from the same locality. The male of the latter is still unknown ; 
but seeing how closely the female resembles that of G. orientalis, 
there can be no doubt that the male will prove to be like the male of 
that species, and not like the male of G. indicus. 

b. Subspecies obscurior, nov. 

Resembling the typical form in spine-armature of tarsi and other 
structural points, but much darker in colour ; palpi infuseate, with 
the tarsus, base of femur, and a narrow area adjacent to the joints 
of tibia and patella pale ; in the 4th leg the femur, patella, and at 
all events the base of the tibia infuseate ; the 2nd and 3rd legs also 
infuseate, but less so than the 4th ; even the upper side of the tro- 
chanters are clouded with fuscous. Length up to 41 mm., width 
of head 11*5, length of palp 45. 

Loc. East Khandesh, Pimpalner &c. (Pearson, Modem) ; Nasik 
{MilleU). 

c. Subspecies australis, nov. (= orientalis, Simon). 

Southern form, with legs and palpi more infuseate than in the 
typical G. indicus, bat certainly less so than in G. indicus subsp. 
obscurior. Further differing from both the northern forms in the 
spine-armature of the tarsi of the 2nd and 3rd legs, which are armed 
posteriorly with only 1 or 2 spines. Male with pad on the 4th tarsus 



144 



GALEOMDJ?. 



composed of hairs which are paler in colour, more numerous, longer 
and sharper apically than in the male of the typical G. indicus. 

Loc, Madras (Jerdon) ; Secunderabad (Ricardo, type); Tinnevelly 
(Barber), and Kanara (Bell). 

118. Galeodes nigripalpis, sp. n. 

6 . Colour as in G. agilis, but with legs darker, the distal end of 
the femur, the patella, and tibia being infuscate; 1st leg with patella, 
tibia, and tarsus infuscate. Flagellum of mandible shorter than in 
the other species, its inferior (posterior) edge straight from base to 
tip, upper edge of blade evenly convex, rather abruptly narrowed 
to a point, the widest portion of the blade being about in the 
middle ; one minor tooth on lower jaw. Palpi armed with spines 
as in 67. agilis and other species, but the under surface of the tibia 
not thickly studded with tubercles bearing stiff short bristles, but 
nearly smooth with only a few tubercles bearing long setoe and 
covered with short slender silky hairs ; palpi a little longer than 
in G. agilis ; patella more than twice the width of the head, which is 
half the length of the tibia and tarsus taken together. Tarsi of 
2nd and 3rd legs armed with the normal 4 anterior spines, but with 
only 2 postei'ior spines on tarsus of 2nd, 1 on the apical segment, 
the others on the distal end of the basal segment ; tarsus of 4th 
with apical segment unspined. Length of patella of 4th leg twice 
the width of head; tibia longer than the width of the head by one- 
fourth of its length. Malleoli large ; blade of the external malleolus 
exceeding half the width of the head. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 29, width of head 7*5, length 
of palp 52, length of 1st leg 38, length of 4th leg 62, patella of palp 
17, tibia of palp 15-5. 

Loc. Omara on the Mekran coast, Baluchistan (Toivnsend). 

119. Galeodes bacillifer, sp. n. 

§ . Allied to G. indicus, but a uniform pale yellow, the ocular 
tubercle alone being black. Width of head a little more than half 
the length of the patella of the palp. Mandibles with two bluntly 
rounded minor teeth on the lower jaw, the posterior of them 
separated by a widish space from the posterior major tooth, and 
two behind the third tooth on the upper jaw. Palpi armed as in 
G. indicus, the spines on the patella all long and setiform ; also 
on the tibia long setiform spines alternate with shorter thinner 
spines. Legs spined as in G. indicus, but the first tarsal segment 
of 2nd and 3rd legs armed with a posterior basal spine ; tarsus of 
4th armed with 4 pairs of spines ; the apical segment unspined. 

<S . Like the female in colour, and allied to the male of G. indicus. 
Mandibles with flagellum and tooth-armature as in that species. 
Palpi very long, patella two and a half times as long as the width 
of the head, tibia and tarsus a little more than twice as long ; 
patella of 4th leg also about two and a half times as long, tibia 
nearly twice as long ; tibia of palp scantdy clothed beneath with 
long, slender, cylindrical bristles as in G. indicus. Tarsi of 2nd 



SOLPUGID.E. 145- 

and 3rd legs with posterior basal spine ; tarsus of 4th clothed 
beneath with short distally expanded clavate bristles *. Width 
of blade of external malleolus equal to half the width of the 
head. 

Measurements in mm. : — 

Total Width Length Length of Length of Length of tibia 

length, of head, of palpus. 4th leg. patella of palp, and tarsus of palp. 

$. 30 6 33 44 11 11 

6 ■ 22 6 46 59 l.-> 14 

Lot: Northern Baluchistan (Maynard § MacMahon). 



Family SOLPUGID^. 

Apertures of the abdominal respiratory organs not protected by 
a pair of serrulce. Tarsus of palp not narrowed at its base, 
immovably united to tibia, from which it is separated by a sutural 
line. Basal portion of claws smooth, hairless. Anal segment large 
or small. 

Distribution. As stated above under Order Solifugse. 



Subfamily DiESIIN/E. 

Kraepelin, Jb. JIamb. wiss. Arnt. xvi, p. 221, 1899. 

Anal segment, small, roundish, almost completely divided into 
a right and left half by the anal aperture, which extends nearly to 
its upper edge. Anterior border of head not transverse, light 1\ 
produced. Mandible with stridulating-ridges highly developed. 
Flagellum membranous, with incurved edge or edges, longish, 
subovate, rounded at one extremity, pointed at the other, movably 
articulated to the inner side of the upper jaw by a single point of 
attachment somewhat resembling a pin-head. Tarsus of 1st leg 
without claw, of remaining legs spined beneath. Tibia; of 2nd 
and 3rd legs spined above. 

Distribution. Mediterranean, Ethiopian, and Western Orient,! I 
Regions ; America from Texas to the Argentine Republic. 

One tudian genus. 

* Apical tarsal segment considerably longer than the second, spine-armature 
also very abnormal; the basal segment armed with 5 Bpines behind and Id 
spines in Front, 4 being Bituated close together, 2 above and 2 below at the 
base, and (> in a row ; second segmenl with a pair of Bpines, apical Beguient with 
a single posterior spine. The Itb leg is present only on one Bide of the bod3 
so it is not possible to judge of I he constancy of this peculiar Bpine-armatun 
nor of the value of the unusual inequality in length between the second and 
third tarsal segments. 



146 



SOLPUGIDtE. 



B. 



c. 




Genus GLUVIOPSIS, Kraepelin. 

Gluviopsis, Kraepelin, Jb. Hamb. iciss. Anst. xvi, p. 235, 1899. 

5 . Anterior border of head lightly convex. Ocular tubercle fur- 
nished with numerous short stout 
bristles ; similar bristles scattered 
over the head, being longest near 
the margins, and also on the 
thoracic and at least on the 
anterior abdominal terga. Upper 
jaw of mandible with 1st, 2nd, 
and 4th teeth large, 3rd small ; 
lower jaw with 1 minor tooth. 
Patella and tibia of palpus armed 
below with two rows of spines 
and studded with short, erect, 
cylindrical bristles above and 
below; only a few tactile hairs 
on the palpus. Legs with tarsi 
one-joiuted, tarsus of the 4th about 
five times as long as high ; femur 
of 4th about five times as long 
as high ; tibia of 2nd and 3rd with 
5 posterior and dorsal spines. 

cT . With dorsal surface of 
head, thorax, and abdomen much 
more strongly spined than in 
female ; upper jaiv weakly 
toothed ; fiageUum membranous, 
fusiform, rounded in front and 
pointed behind when lying at 
rest, its upper edge folded over, 

its anterior extremity not projecting so far as the 1st mandibular 

tooth, hinged to the jaw by a swivel joint, which is visible as a 

rounded chitinous button. 

Type, 6r. rufescens, Pocock ; N. Africa and Arabia. 
Distribution. Countries south and east of the Mediterranean 

(Algiers, Asia Minor), Arabia, Somaliland, Socotra, and Western 

India. 

120. Gluviopsis atratus, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (7) v, p. .303, 1900. 

$ . Colour blackish, body covered with yellowish bristles and 
spines ; 1st and 2nd legs mostly pale, base of palp and base 
;md apex of 3rd and 4th legs pale. Width of head about equal to 
length of patella or to tibia and tarsus of palp, shorter than 
patella and longer than tibia of 4th leg. Palpus about three times 
as long as width of head. 

<5 . Much more coarsely and closely spined than female ; terminal 
fangs of mandible long and slender, the upper nearly straight, 




D. 



Fig. 50. — Gluviopsis atratus. A. 
Jaws of $ . B. Jaws of $ . 

C. Upper jaw of $ from inner 
side, showing flagellum (a) and 
some of the stridulating-ridges (6). 

D. Tarsus of 4th leg;. 



BIIAGODES. 



147 



bent slightly downwards. Palpi longer, patella as long as tibia 
and tarsus and about one and a half times as long as width 
of head ; patella of 4th leg nearly twice as long as, and tibia 
about one-fifth longer than, width of head. Modified hairs of 2nd 
abdominal sternum long, slender, incrassate, with apex acuminate. 
Measurements in mm. : — 





Total 


Width of 


Length of 


Length of 




length. 


head. 


palpus. 


4th leg. 


2 •• 


. . 14 


3-5 


11-5 


17-8 


6 .. 


. . 13 


3 


13 


20 



Loc. Western India: Poona Ghats (Irani); Piinpalner in 
Western Khandesh (Pearson). 



Subfamily RHAGODIN.E. 

Pocock, A. M. N. II. (6) xx, p. 250, 1897 ; Kraepelin, Jb. Hamb. 
wiss. Anst. xvi, p. 207. 

Anal segment very large, the anal aperture situated in its lower 
half and scarcely extending to its centre. Anterior border of head 
straight and transverse. Mandibles with stridulating-ridges 
scarcely developed. Flagellum horny. Legs with tarsi spined 
beneath, and tibiae of 2nd aud 3rd legs strongly spined above. 

Distribution. North Africa from Senegambia to Masailand ; 
Syria, Arabia, Persia ; India and Ceylon ; Siam, Moluccas. 



Genus RHAGODES, Pocock. 

Ithax, C. Koch, Arch. Nat. 1842, p. 354, and of subsequent authors 

up to 1897 (nee Rhax, Hermann). 
Uhag-odes, Pocock, A. M. N. II. (6) xx. p. 252, 18.J7 ; Kraepelin, 

Jb. Hamb. wiss. Anst. xvi, p. 209, 1899. 

C. 




**** 




D. 



^3" 
> 



E. 



Fi 



g. 51. — Rhagodcs hrevipes. A. Anal segment, showing anal aperture (a). 
B. Second abdominal sternum with stigmata (b). 0. Tarsus of 1th leg. 
D. Jaws of female. E. Jaws of male with flagellum (<•). 

Ocular tubtrde with a pair of seta 1 . Mandibles large, the 3rd 

T. 2 



148 



SOLPT7GID7E. 



tooth of the upper jaw very large ; lower jaw armed with one 
large tooth and two small teeth. Flagellum consisting of* two- 
closely applied pieces forming an apparently single organ fixed to 
the inner side of the base of the upper jaw, the basal half broad 
and directed forwards, the apex narrow and upturned, projecting 
vertically above the edge of the jaw. Legs short, tarsus of 1st 
tipped with claws ; each tarsus consisting of a single segment. 
Male smaller than female and with legs longer ; teeth of mandible 
smaller, 3rd tooth of upper jaw not projecting so strongly. 

Type, R. melanus, Oliv. 

Distribution. As above under Rhagodince, but not occurring in 
Siam and the Moluccas. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Legs and palpi ornamented with black rings 

and spots. 
a 1 . An tero -lateral angles of head yellow ; 

femur of palp black beneath ; a black 

spot on the lower surface of the femur 

and patella of 1st leg and on posterior 

surface of patella of 4th leg R. nigrocinctus, p. 151.- 

b x . Antero-lateral angles of head not yellow; 

lower side of femur of palp, of legs of 

first pair, and tibia of 4th pair uniformly 

yellow (according to Simon) R. annulatus, p. 152. 

b. Legs and palpi uniformly yellowish or red- 

dish brown, with the tibia and tarsus of 
palpus and of 1st leg either partially or 
entirely deep brown. 

«'-. Mandibles yellow, head black R. nigriceps, p. 150. 

b 2 . Mandibles and head of the same colour, 

black or deep brown. 

a 3 . Abdomen entirely black above and 

at the sides ; tibia of 4th leg 

furnished in front beneath with only 

one spine on the proximal side of 

the inferior apical spine R. brevipes, p. 149. 

b 3 . Abdomen not entirely black ; tibia of 

4th leg with 2 spines on the proximal 

side of the inferior apical spine in 

front. 

ff 4 . Upper side of abdomen black in its 

anterior, yellow in its posterior 

half, the last somite quite black . . 7t'. semifiavus, p. 149. 
i 4 . Upper side of abdomen mesially 
fhivous ; anal somite uniformly 
flavous. 
a'. Sides (if abdomen ornamented with 
a broad black band ; only 1 stout 
spine at distal end of patella of 

'2nd and 3rd legs R. vittatus, p. 150. 

b\ No black baud on sides of abdo- 
men ; at least 2 spines on apex 
of patella of 2nd and 3rd legs . . R. phipsoni, p. 152. 



HI I VGODES. 149 

121. Rhagodes semiflavus, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) iv. p. 473, 1889; 
id. Jour. Horn. N II. Soc. ix, p. 450, t. B, fig. 2 (Rhax). 

Colour. Head and mandibles a uniform deep brown ; thoracic 
terga pale : anterior four terga of abdomen and anterior portion 
of the 5th blackish, posterior portion of 5th and the whole of the 
6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th pale yellow, the last or anal segment 
black ; sides of abdomen yellowish brown in front opposite the 
black terga, a deeper more chocolate brown behind opposite 
the pale terga; ventral surface of abdomen yellowish, covered with 
reddish-golden hairs ; palpi flavous," with tibia and tarsus deep 
brown ; first leg flavous, with tarsus and distal end of tibia deep 
brown and tibia clothed with reddish hairs ; remaining legs 
uniformly flavous, with deep brown spines ; malleoli uniformly 
flavous. Width of head about equal to patella and half the tibia 
of the palp, to tibia and two-thirds of the patella of the 4th leg, 
and to patella, tibia, and half the tarsus of the 3rd leg. Palp 
scarcely exceeding twice the width of the head, 2nd leg with 
patella armed above with one stout median apical spine, and below 
with one pair of setiform spines at the distal end and some stout 
seta? behind them; tibia armed with 6-7 stout spines above in an 
irregular row, also" with a pair of spines below at the distal end 
and two spiniform seta? in a row on the underside in front, the 
distal of these much the stouter of the two ; tarsus armed with 
three pairs of spines in addition to numerous stiff bristles : 3rd leg 
armed like the 2nd, the inferior pair of setiform spines on patella 
stouter, the proximal of the two spiniform seta? on the front of 
the underside of tibia thinner as compared with the distal ; patella 
of 4th with a pair of distal spiniform seta 1 , the anterior the 
stouter and shorter of the two ; tibia not spined above, but armed 
with a pair below at the distal end, one in front at the distal end 
and two on the under surface in front. 

Measurements in mm. — $. Total length 33, width of head 9, 
length of palp 21, of 4th leg 27, patella, tibia, and tarsus of 
palp 14. 

Loc. Kohat in the Punjab (Batten). 

122. Rhagodes brevipes, Gervais, L'Institut, x, 1842, p. 7<*>; id. Ins. 
Apt. hi, p. 87, 184 1 (Solpu^a) ; Pocock, Jour. Horn. A. II. Soc. ix, 
p. 450, t. A, tig. 4, and t. 15. fig. :;. L895 (Rhax). 

2 . Colour. Head black, mandibles deep blackish brown; thoracic 
segments yellow, lightly Lnfuscate; upper and lateral surface of 
abdomen coal-black, lower surface deep brown; legs and palpi 
uniform clear reddish yellow, the tibia, except Eor a narrow pale 
ringat the base, and the tarsus of the palp almost black, and the tarsus 
and distal half of tibia of 1st leg deep brown; malleoli with fuscous 
border. Legs and palpi rather shorter than in R. semiflavus ; width 
of head equal to patella and three-fourths of tibia of palpus, almost 
as long as patella and tibia of 4th leg, and as long us patella, tibia, 
and tarsus of 3rd ; palpus not so much as twice the width of the 



150 SOLPTTGIDJE. 

head. Spines and spiniform setae of legs and palpi thinner than 
in R. semiJJavus. 

c?. Resembling female in colour. Palpus twice and a half as 
long as the width of the head, the latter as long as its patella 
and one-third of the tibia of the palpus and of 4th leg, or as the 
patella and about three-quarters of the tibia of the 3rd leg. 
Measurements in mm. : — 

Total Width Length Length of Length of patella, tibia, 

length. of head. of palp. 4th leg. and tarsus of palp. 

$ .... 33 10 19-5 28 13-3 

<J .... 20 6 16 23 10 

Loc. N. W. India : "Umballah ; Dbarmsala (Fulton) ; Dera Ghazi 
Khan (Watts) : Nepal (Hardivicke, type)*. 

123. Rhagodes vittatus, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, p. 740, 
1899. 

<$ . Colour of head, mandibles, legs, palpi, thoracic terga, and 
under side as in R. semifavus, but differing from the latter in the 
colour of the upper and lateral surface of the abdomen ; the tergal 
plates, with exception of the 1st, which is black at the sides, are a 
uniform clear yellow, the last or anal segment being at most faintly 
clouded with fuscous below, the sides of the upper surface 
ornamented by a broad deep black band, which extends from the 
first tergite to the posterior end of the abdomen, narrowing 
posteriorly and stopping short before reaching the anal somite. 
Head thickly clothed, especially behind, with long reddish hairs ;. 
mandibles as in the male of R. brevipes, but with the third tooth 
of the upper jaw and the large tooth of the lower distinctly smaller. 
Width of head equal to patella and half the tibia of the palp, to 
patella and one-fourth the tibia of the 4th leg, and to patella and 
half the tibia of the 3rd. Legs and palpi spined as in the preceding 
species, but the coxae of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd legs furnished with 
long, slender, cylindrical, dark-coloured spines. 

Measurements in mm. — d. Total length 22, width of head 6-5, 
length of palp 16, length of 4th leg 26, patella, tibia, and tarsus of 
palp 9 - 5. 

Loc. Karaghora in Kathiawar (Bullleij). 

124. Rhagodes nigriceps, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. ix, p. 451,. 
18ho (Hhax) : persicus, Kraepelin, Jb. Hamb. tviss. Anst. xvi, 
p. 211, 1899 (Uhagodes). 

$ . Colour. Head and upper side of abdomen uniformly deep 
black, as in R. brevipes, with rarely a pale patch on the posterior ex- 
tremity of the upper side of the abdomen ; mandibles clear yellow : 
legs and palpi coloured as in R. hrevipes, but with only the tarsus of 
the palp and 1st leg deep brown, the tibia at most lightly browned. 



* Hardwicke's localities a»e not to be trusted. In the present instance, Nepal 
is probably erroneous. 





Total 
length. 


Width 
of head. 


Length of 
palpus. 


Length of 
4th leg. 


2- 


. 26 


6-3 


13 


16-5 


6 . 


. 21 


G 


16 


23 



RHAGODES. 151 

"Width of head equal to patella and three-fourths the tibia of the 
palpus, almost as long as these segments of the 4th leg, and as long 
as the patella, tibia, and tarsus of the 3rd leg. Spine-armature of 
legs and palpi as in E. brevipes, but the tibia of the 4tb leg armed 
in front beneath with two distinct spines in addition to tbe two at 
the apex of this segment as in E. semiflavus, but the two spines 
closer together. 

d" . With terminal fangs of mandible very long, slender, and 
curved, very noticeably more so than in the males of E. brevipes and 
E. vittatus: flagellwm larger, its terminal portion thicker than in 
the previously described males. Width of head about equal to 
patella and one-third of tibia of palpus and of 4th leg. Coxcr 
bearing numerous cylindrical spines. 

Length of patella, tibia, 
and tarsus of palp. 

9 

10-2 

Lor. East India (type): Xortbern Baluchistan (Maynard $ 
MacMahon); Persia (Kraepelin). 

125. Rhagodes nigrOCillCtus, Bernard. Join: Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, 
p. 861, pi. xxvi, tip-. 2, 1894; Pocock, Jour. Bum. N. H. Soc. ix. 
p. 451, 1895 (Rhax). 

$ . Colour of upper side of trunk as in E. vittatus, the head and 
mandibles being blackish brown, but there is a conspicuous yellow 
patch on each antero-lateral angle of the head ; terga of thorax 
yellow, lightly clouded with fuscous ; terga of abdomen yellow, the 
anterior portion of the 1-t and 9th black, and the antero-lateral 
angles of the Gth. 7th, and s th. and to a lesser degree of the others, 
blackish ; anal somite and sides of abdomen black, lower surface of 
abdomen deep blackish brown, the median area of the 1st sternum, 
and the area around the stigmata on the 2nd and 3rd, yellow ; mal- 
leoli flavous : coxa' of legs and palpi and first trochanter segment of 
3rd and 4th legs clouded with dull brown : palpi yellow, with the 
trochanter and inferior edge of femur black, a black ring round the 
middle of the patella occupying about one-third of its length, and 
the distal half of the tibia and the tarsus black ; 1st leg yellow. 
with a black spot on the under side of the femur and patella; tarsus 
deep brown ; 2nd leg with a complete black ring round the femur; 
3rd leg with complete femoral ring and a black ring round distal 
half of patella, but separated by about its own width from the apex 
of the segment ; 4th leg with a broad black femoral ring, incom- 
plete in the middle line above, and a black spot on the posterior 
side of tbe patella ; there is also a black patch on the upper side of 
the 3rd and 4th legs, marking their point of attachment to tin- 
thorax. Width of head as compared with length of legs and 
palpi, dentition of mandibles, and apine-armature of legs as in 
E. nigriceps. 



152 SOLPUGIDiE. 

Measurements in mm. — $ . Total length 23, width of head 6, 
length of palpus 13, length of 4th leg 10, patella, tibia, and tarsus 
of 4th S. 

Loc. Southern India : Vellore. 

126. Khagodes aimulatus, Simon, Bull. 8oc.Zool.Fr. x, p. 2, 1885; 

Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. ix, p. 452, 1895 (Rhax). 

This species is unknown to me, but, judging from the description, 
it is closely related to B. nigrocinctus. It may, however, be 
provisionally regarded as distinct on the grounds that Simon does 
not mention the presence of a yellow patch on each anterior lateral 
angle of the head, nor the blackness of the lower side of the femur 
of the palp, nor the black spot on the lower side of the femur and 
patella of the 1st leg, nor on the posterior side of the patella of the 
4th leg. 

Loc. Wagra-Korur, near Guntakal in the Bellary District. 

127. RhagOdes phipsoni, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. ix, p. 448, t. A, 

fig. 3, and t. B, fig. 4, 1895 (Rhax). 

2 . Colour much like that of B. vittatus ; head and mandibles 
deep reddish brown ; abdomen tolerably uniform whitish yellow, the 
terga a little darker than the lateral surface, but there is no black 
lateral band such as is present in B. vittatus; legs and palpi 
yellow, with tibia and tarsus of palp and 1st leg brown and 
becoming browner towards the distal extremity. Palpi and legs 
shorter than in any of the Indian species ; width of head equal to 
length of patella and tibia of palp, very slightly longer than these 
segments of the 4th leg, and longer than patella, tibia, and tarsus 
of the 3rd ; palpus much less than twice as long as the width of the 
bead. Spine-armature of legs as in the other species, but with 
-one additional stout brown spine (rarely two) at the apex of the 
pateiia of the 2nd and 3rd legs, behind and below the normal 
superior spine. Spines on tibia of 4th as in B. nigriceps, but with an 
additional spine on the posterior side of the segment on the proximal 
side of the normal posterior apical spine ; the two spiniform setse 
on the apex of the tibia beneath long, but the anterior much thicker 
than the posterior. 

J . Resembling the female in colour, except that the base of the 
tibia of the palpus and the whole of the segment of the 1st leg is 
yellow; spine-armature of legs as in female. Width of head equal 
to tibia and ?.bout one-third of patella of palpus, and to tibia and 
about one-sixth of patella of 4th leg, and to tibia and two-thirds 
of patella of 3rd leg. 
Measurements in mm. — 

Total Width Length of Length of Length of patella, tibia, 

length. of head. palpus. 4th leg. and tarsus of palp. 

$.. G4* 14-5 25-5 36 17 

S . . 32 8-5 21 32 12 

Loc. Ceylon : Trincomali {Bombay N. II. Soc). 
* Abdomen much distended. 



ARAM. I. 



153 



Order ARANE^. 

Integument usually covered with a protective layer of simple or 
feathery (plumose), rarely scale-like (squamiform) hairs, interspersed 
with long erect tactile bristles or setce. Short and thick bristles 
form sjriaes or spinules. A mat of close-set hairs of uniform length 
is termed a pad or scapula, and the bunch of hairs that frequently 
projects on each side of the claws is called the ungual tuft. On 
the protarsus of the 4th leg there is frequently a single or double 
row of short hairs, forming an organ called the calamistrum, which 
always accompanies the cribellum (p. 154). In some cases there is 
a cluster of spines (rastellum) overhanging the base of the fang on 
the mandible, and in connection with the jaws there are sometimes 
spines or bristles variously modified to form stridulating-organs. 

The carapace is marked with a groove or pit, the thoracic fovea, 
from which shallow grooves usually radiate to the margins, the 
anterior pair defining the head-region. The eyes, normally 8 in 
number, are typically arranged in an anterior and posterior row, 
and are termed anterior median, posterior median, anterior lateral, 
and posterior lateral on each side. The eye-line, or line passing 
through the centres of the four eyes of a row, may be straight, 
procurved (i. e., curved with the convexity backwards), or recurved 
(i. e., curved with the convexity forwards). The four median eyes 
are termed the ocidar quadrangle. The area, if any, between the 
anterior row of eyes and the edge of the carapace is called the 
clypeus. 

The mandibles consist of two segments, the basal containing a 
poison-gland ; the apical or fang is spiniform and closes against 
the lower side of the basal segment, fitting into a groove, the 
fang-groove, which is often toothed. The palpi resemble dwarfed 
limbs, and consist of six segments, Darned coxa, trochanter, femur, 
patella, tibia, tarsus. The coxa is usually furnished with a large 
process or maxilla, which projects forwards on each side of the 
labium. The tarsus is unmodified in the female. In the male it 
is modified to subserve copulation, and is furnished with an intro- 
mittent or 2 )C <lpal organ, which is often retractile and exceedingly 
complicated. At its simplest it is not retractile, and consists of a 
swollen basal portion or bulb, and of a terminal portion or spine. 
The legs resemble the palp of the female, but are longer, haye 
simple coxae, an extra segment, the protarsus, between the tibia 
and tarsus, and two or three claws at the end of the tarsus. 
The third or inferior claw is usually present when the ungual 
tufts are absent, absent when they arc present. The sternum is 
usually oval, and supports in front the lower lip or labium (=pro- 
sternum). Sometimes the sternum is marked with muscular scars 
or sigilla. 

The cephalothorax is connected with the abdomen by a narrow 
.stalk or pedicel. 



154 ARANEJE. 

Typically the abdomen is soft-skinned and oval in form. Not 
infrequently it is horny, and occasionally it is segmented. The 
(jenerative organs and anterior pair of breathing-organs open 
ventrally along a curved groove, the genital fold, which marks off 
the fore part of the abdomen as the epigastric area. These 
breathing-organs or pulmonary sacs are covered by plates or 
opercula, and the integument in front of the genital aperture 
is in many females horny and variously modified to form an organ, 
the vidva or epigyne. The breathing-organs of the posterior pair 
are either operculate pulmonary sacs or tracheal tubes with simple 
apertures, which rarely open separately behind the genital fold, 
but more commonly unite to form a single aperture situated just 
in front of the spinning-mamilla?. There are usually three 
pairs of spinning-mamillce attached to the hinder end of the 
lower surface of the abdomen — an anterior, a posterior, and an 
intermediate pair. Each of the latter consists of a single segment, 
the others of two or three segments. In one iustance (LipMstius) 
there is an additional intermediate pair. In other cases the rnamillae 
may be reduced to four or two pairs. In some species there is 
a spinning-plate, the cribellum, situated in front of the anterior 
mamillaB. This organ occurs only in those spiders which possess 
the calamistrum (p. 153). In other species there is a mamilliform 
process, the eohdus, lodged between the anterior mamilla?, and 
behind the posterior mamillae there is a small prominence, the 
anal papilla. 

Sexual characters, etc. Males are almost invariably smaller, 
sometimes very much smaller, than females, and may be always 
recognized by the modification of the tarsus of the palp to act as 
an intromittent organ. This organ appears only at maturity. 
Similarly in the female the genital aperture is opened and the 
vulva fully formed only at the last moult, when maturity is 
reached. 

All Spiders are oviparous. The eggs are enveloped in a silky 
cocoon, and are disposed of in various ways by the mother. 

Distribution. Spiders are cosmopolitan, occurring in all oceanic 
islands, and as far north as Greenland and Spitzbergen. 

Measurements, etc. In the following descriptions the total length 
is taken from the anterior end of the carapace to the posterior end 
of the abdomen ; that of the legs From the base of the femur to 
the tip of the claws. Normally the anterior two pairs of legs 
project forwards, and the posterior two pairs backwards. Hence 
the surface nearest the body is regarded as inner, and the opposite 
surface as outer. Sometimes, however, the legs are considered as 
extending at right angles to the long axis of the body. In this 
case they have an anterior and a posterior side. In many species 
the legs are normally depressed backwards in such a way that the 
posterior surface rests upon the ground. These spiders are capable 
of moving sideways, and are hence termed " laterigrade.'" 



AEANE.'K. 



155 



The Araneae are divisible into two groups, which may be tabu- 
lated as follows : — 



a. 



Abdomen furnished with distinct terga like 

those of the Amblypygi ; spinning-mamillsB 

8 in number, and situated in the middle 

of the lower surface of the abdomen .... 
Abdomen without terga ; spiuning-maniilhe 

never more than 6, and situated at the 

posterior end of the abdomen OPISTIIOTHEL/E. 



MESOTIIEL/E. 




B. 



C. 



Fig. 52. 

A. Cephalotboraxandabdoruenof Lipliistius, tosbow structure of theMesothehc. 

B. Ditto of one of the Mygalomorphae, to show structure of this group. 

C. Ditto of one of the Araclinomorpluv, to show structure of this group. 

a, thoracic foyea ; b, ocular area; c, basal segment of mandible; d, fang of 
mandible; e, coxa' of palpus and legs; /, pedicel; g, 1st tergal plate of 
abdomen ; h, anal papilla ; }', external, k, internal branch of posterior spinning- 
organ in A, and anterior and posterior spinner in B and C ; /, posterior, and 
7n, anterior breathing-organ. 



M E S O T H E L M. 

Abdomen segmented, its dorsal surface furnished with distinct 
terga, its ventral surface with two distinct sit ma in front, the 
anterior covering the generative aperture and the pulmonary 
organs of the 1st pair, the 2nd covering the pulmonary organs of 
the 2nd pair. Spmnvng-mamilla 8 in number, 1 external seg- 
mented and 4 internal unsegmented, forming a cluster in the 
middle of the lower surface of the abdomen immediately behind 
the second sternum. 

The Mesothelae are represented at the present day by a single 
family and genus. 



156 LIPRISTIIDJE. 



Family LIPHLSTIIMl. 

Mandible jointed to the cephalothorax in a vertical plane ; the 
fang, when closed, directed obliquely backwards and inwards. No 
maxillary process on coxa of palp. Sternum, very narrow, much 
longer than wide, without distinct sigilla. Legs with distal 
segments strongly spined, not scopulate, furnished with 3 claws. 
Carapace flat, lightly elevated in the cephalic region ; fovea 
transversely oval ; radiating grooves strongly denned. Eyes 
aggregated on a distinct tubercle ; anterior medians minute, 
posterior medians large and circular, anterior and posterior laterals 
long aud reniform. 

Distribution. Oriental Region, from Burma and the Malay 
Peninsula to Sumatra. 



Genus LIPHISTIUS, Schiodte. 

Liplustius, Schiodte, Nat. Tijdschr. (2) ii, p. 621, 1849 ; Simon, Hist. 
Nat. Araign. i, p. 64, 1892. 

Characters and distribution as above. 
Type. L. desultor, Schiodte ; Penang. 

128. Liphistius birmanicus, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxvii, 
p. 162, 1897. 

$ . Colour blackish, sometimes varied with greyish yellow. 
Carapace as long as patella and tibia of the 4th leg. Legs 4, 3, 
2, 1 in length ; 1st, 2nd, and 3rd subequal ; 4th about three times, 
1st a little more than twice, as long as the carapace. Claw of 
palp and inferior claw of legs armed with 2-3 small teeth ; 
superior claws of legs with 3-4 larger teeth. 

Measurements in mm.- — -Total length 24, carapace 11, palp 18, 
1st leg 23, 2nd 2325, 3rd 24, 4th 32-50. 

Loc. Burma: Yado, in the mountains of Karennee,3600-39U0 
feet ; Biapo, 3000-3200 feet (Fea). 



O P I S T H O T H E L M. 

Dorsal surface of abdomen without segmentary arranged tergal 
plates, and without distinct sternal plates beneath, the sterna of 
the Mesothelse being at most represented by the pulmonary 
opercula. Spinning -mamillce never more than six in number, 
and, at least in all the Indian species, forming a compact or 
tolerably compact group at the posterior end of the abdomen, close 
to the anal papilla. 



MVGALOMOBPEUE. 157 

The Opisthothelae :ire divisible into two Suborders, which may 
be diagnosed as follows : — 

a. Basal segment of mandible projecting 

forwards from the fore extremity of the 
cephalothorax, its articulation lying in 
a vertical plane ; tang closing back- 
wards MyGALOMOBPHjE. 

b. Basal segment of mandible projecting 

downwards beneath the extremity of 
the cephalothorax, its articulation lying 
in a horizontal plane ; fang closing 
more inwards AnAcnNOMORPn^;. 



Suborder MYGALOMORPHjE. 

Basal segment of mandible large, projecting forwards, articulated 
to the cephalothorax in a vertical plane ; fang closing obliquely 
backwards. Respiratory organs represented by four operculate 
pulmonary sacs. Spinning-mamillcB normally four in number — a 
posterior longer, three-jointed, and an anterior shorter one-jointed 
on each side ; rarely the latter is absent, and occasionally an 
additional small anterior mamilla is present, making a total of 6. 
Sternum marked with 4, rarely 3, pairs of sigilla. Palpal organ in 
male non-retractile, simple, usually without accessory process. 
Genital aperture of female without horny plate (vulva). 

Distribution. Temperate and tropical countries. 

Habits. Mostly ground -spiders, living in burrows, and fre- 
quently closing the aperture with a movable lid. 

The Indian Mygalomorphae are referable to the following 
families : — 

a. Coxa of palp with large maxillary process; spin- 

ning-mam ilia) (i Atypidae. 

b. Coxa of palp without large maxillary process; 

spinning- maruillae not more than 4. 
a 1 . Tarsi without ungual tufts; armed with 3 
claws, the superior of which are strongly 
toothed. 
«-. Posterior mamilla) short or moderately 
long; anterior mamillae close together at 
base; a rastellum present on mandible. . . . Ctenizidse. 
J-. Posterior mamilla' very long ; anterior 
mamillae widely separated at base ; no 

rastellum . . . . " Dipluridae. 

ft 1 . Tarsi with ungual tufts, inferior claw almost 
always absent ; superior claws at most 
weakly toothed. 
d A . Distal segment of posterior mamillse very 

short, rastellum almost always present . . Barychelidae. 
P. Distal segment of posterior mamillae 1 

and slender, rastellum never present .... Theraphosidae. 



158 atypidjE. 



Family ATYPID^. 

Coxa of palp furnished with large maxillary process. Spinning- 
mamillce 6 in number. Carapace very broad in front, with 
median conical ocular tubercle. Mandible very large, without 
rastellum. Sternum with anterior sigilla not forming a groove at 
the base of the labium. Legs weakly spined, furnished with 3 
claws. Spine of palpal organ in male protected by a secondary 
outgrowth from the bulb. 

Distribution. Palsearctic Region from Ireland to Japan ; 
Oriental Region from Burma to Java ; Sonoran Region of North 
America. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

Maxillae short, eyes close together Atypus, p. 158. 

Maxillse long, eyes scattered Calommata, p. 159. 



Genus ATYPUS, Latreille. 

Atypus, Latr. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxiv. p. 133, 1804 ; Simon, Hist. 
Nat. Araign. i, p. 198, 1892. 

Ocular area tolerably compact ; the tubercle low ; clypeus nar- 
row. Maxillce relatively short and stout, with inner edge straight. 
Labium not separated by a groove from the sternum, narrower at 
apex than at base. Posterior mamilla three- or four-joiuted. 

Type, A. piceus, Sulzer ; Central and Western Europe. 

Distribution. Central and Southern countries of the Palaearctic 
Region from Ireland to Japan ; North America ; Burma and 
Java. 

Habits. The spiders of this genus dig burrows, line them with 
silk, and continue the silk above the surface of the ground in the 
form of a long tube, with a small aperture at its extremity. 

129. Atypus dorsualis, Thordl, Ann. Mus. Genova. xxsvii, p. 186, 
1897. 

5. Colour yellowish black ; sides of abdomen darker. Carapace 
as long as patella, tibia, and protarsus of 1st and 4th legs ; eyes of 
anterior line subequal, posterior laterals almost as large as the 
anterior laterals ; anterior medians separated by a space, which is 
greater than their diameter, nearer to the anterior laterals ; lateral 
eyes in contact. Legs without spines. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 17*5, carapace 6*5, palpus 
5-5, 1st leg i:5, 2nd 11-5, 3rd 10-5, 4th 13-5. 

Loc. Burma : Yado, in the mountains of Karennee (Feci). 



CALOMMATA. 



159 



Genus CALOMMATA. 

Calomrnata, Lucas, Ann. Soe. Ent. Fr. vi, p. .'!7^, 1837. 

lVlecodon, Duleach. Vcrh. Nat. J "ereen Nederland Indie, v, no. 5, p. 5, 

1859. 
Camptotarsus, Thoreti, Ann. Mtts. Genova, (2) v, p. 23, 1887. 

Eyes much less compact tban in Atypus, the anterior medians 
situated on a high prominence, the rest forming a cluster on each 




Fig. 53.— A. Ventral view of ' cephalothoraxand 

abdomen of Calommata falvipes, J. 

a, basal segment of mandible ; 6, maxillary process ; c, coxa of palp ; d,eoxu. 

of 1st, c, of 4th leg;/, sternum with four pairs of muscular scars {sigiUa); 

g, posterior respiratory stigma ; /.genital aperture; A, posterior spinner with 

the two anterior pairs immediately in front of it. 

B. Lateral view of the same. 
a, median, b, lateral eyes ; c. basal segment of mandible ; d, fang ; c, coxa 
of palp; f, coxae of legs; g, anterior, i, posterior respiratory operculum; 
k, genital aperture ; Jc, posterior spinner. 

side, remote from the anterior medians. Clypeus long and nearly 
horizontal. Maxilla very long, slender, arched outwards from the 
base. Labium transverse!)' oblong, impressed at the base. 
Posterior spinners three-jointed. Posterior leys stouter than 
anterior ; tarsi in the male slender and flexible. 

Type, C.fulvipes, Lucas. 

Distribution. Japan, Burma, Sunda Islands. 

130. Calommata truculentum, ThoreS, Ann. Mus. Genova, (2) v, 

p. 24, 1887 (Camptotarsus) ; .Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign. i, p. 199, 
1892 (Calommata). 

S. Colour blacki.-h ; Legs, mandible, and ventral surface paler 
than body. Carapace but little longer than patella and tibia of 



100 ctenizidjB. 

4th leg. Anterior median eyes much larger than the rest, almost 
in contact. Palpi long; tibia much thicker than patella; tarsus 
elongate, apically truncate ; spines of palpal organ sinuous, broad 
at base, then abruptly bent backwards, one rising from the 
extremity of the bulb, the other near its middle. Legs of 
posterior pairs furnished distally with a few spinules ; superior 
claws armed with about 5 teeth. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 6, carapace 2*5, palp 4*25, 
1st, leg 9-5, 2nd 8-8, 3rd 8-2, 4th 10-75. 

Loc. Burma : Bhamo {Fen). 



Family CTENIZID^. 

Mandibles furnished with rastellum, sometimes supported on a 
strong prominence. Co.ra of palpus without large maxillary 
process. Sternum with anterior sigilla large and encircling base 
of labium ; posterior pair large and remote from margin ; rarely 
absent. Tarsi without ungual tufts ; with 3 claws. Spinning- 
mamilice 4 in number ; the anterior pair contiguous ; posterior 
pair short or of moderate length. 

Distribution. Temperate and tropical parts of the world, lying in 
general between 45° 1ST. lat. and 45° 8. lat. 

To this family belong a great majority of the species commonly 
spoken of as Trap-door Spiders. 

The characters of the Indian genera may be briefly tabulated as 
follows : — 

a. Anterior lateral eyes in middle of anterior edge 

of carapace well in advauce of remaining 

eyes. [p. 1G1 

a 1 . Tibia of 3rd leg not excavated above Acanthodon, 

b 1 . Tibia of 3rd leg excavated above at base . . Heligmomerus, 

b. Anterior lateral eyes widely separated, at most [p. 164. 

only a short distance in advance of anterior 
medians. 
ar. Thoracic fovea strongly procurved. 

a 3 . Tarsi and protarsi of legs scarcely or not 

scopulate, and strongly spined laterally ; 

apical segment of posterior mamilbe short. 

«'. Tibia of 3rd leg excavated above; 

spines of rastellum set on prominence. . Conothele, p. 165. 
b'. Tibia of 3rd leg not excavated above ; 
spines of rastellum not set on promi- 
nence ACATTYMA, p. 166. 

6 s . Tarsi and protarsi scopulate, weakly 
spined, apical segment of posterior spin- 
ners long. [p. 168. 

a 5 . Sternum with central depression Atmetociiilus, 

b\ Sternum without central depression . . Damarciius, p. 169. 
b" 1 . Thoracic fovea recurved. [p. 160. 

a n . Lateral eyes narrowly separated Scalidognatuus, 

b'\ Lateral eyes widely separated Nemesiellus, 

[p. 167. 



ACANTHOUON. 1G1 

Genus ACANTHODON, Gruerin. 

Acanthodou, GuSrin, Rev. Zoo/. 18.38, p. 10; Simon, Hist. Nat. 

Araiyn. i. p. 91, 1892 . 
Idiops of recent author* up to 1892 (not of Perty). 

Carapace polished, scantily hairy ; fovea large, strongly pro- 
curved ; head high ; anterior lateral eyes situated in the middle of 
the anterior border of the carapace : the remaining eyes forming a 
group far behind the anterior edge of the carapace. Mandible 
powerful ; rastellum consisting of stout spines borne upon a distinct 
prominence. Sternum with posterior sigilla obsolete. Legs in 
female short and stout, claws armed with 1 or 2 large basal teethj; 
distal segments of legs not scopulate, those of the anterior pairs 
and of palpi thickly spined laterally ; tibia of 3rd not depressed 
above at base. Apical segment of posterior spinning-mam illce 
short. 

d • Carapace lower, rugose ; legs long and slender. 

Type, A. petiti, Guerin. 

Distribution. S. America ; Tropical Africa ; Syria, Arabia , 
India and Burma. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 
Females. 

a. Coxa of 4th leg without band of spinulea ; tibia 

of 3 rd longer than wide. 

a 1 . Ocular tubercle elevated in front A. crassus, p. 161. 

b l . Ocular tubercle not elevated in front A. opife.c, p. 162. 

b. Coxa of 4th leg with baud of spinulea below ; 

tibia of 3rd as wide as long. 
a 2 . Eyes of posterior line subequally spaced . . A.fortis, p. 163. 
2 . Eyes of posterior line unequally spaced .... A. constructor, 



[p. 163. 



Males. 



a. Tibia of 1st leg armed with a stout, pointed, 

Bud bent spur, and a tubercle behind it .... A. constructor, 
b Tibia of 1st leg armed with a low prominence [p. 163. 

tipped with a long spine, and a small tubercle 
above it. 
a'. 4th leg only a little longer than the 1st ; 
pro tarsus of 1st strongly concave in its 

basal half on inner side A.fossor, p. 164. 

b'. 4th Leg considerably longer than 1st; pro- 
tarsus of 1st weakly concave in its basal 
half on inner side A. designatus, p. 164. 

131. Acanthodou. crassus, Simon, Ann. Mus. Oenova, xx, p. 357 
issi (Idiops): colletti, 0. /'. Cambr. P. Z. S. 188'.), p. 37, pi. ii' 
tig. 2 (Idiops). 

2. Colour: carapace, etc. mahogany-red, legs paler; abdomen 

M 



162 



CTENIZ1DJE. 



blackish. Carapace a little shorter than patella, tibia, and pro- 
tarsus of 1st leg ; ocular tubercle elevated in front ; eyes of 
posterior row very unequally spaced, their posterior edges in a 
straight line ; medians about tour diameters apart, and less than 




Fig. 54. — Acanthodon crassus, Sim., $ , X 1^. 

two from the laterals ; anterior medians about a diameter apart. 
Labium with three teeth. Legs : coxa of 4th not spinulose below ; 
tibia of 3rd longer than wide. 

Measurements in mm.' — Total length 26, carapace 13, palp 21 ; 
1st leg 24, 2nd 22, 3rd 23, 4th 30 ; patella and tibia of 1st 10, of 
4th 11-5. 

Loc. Burma: Minhla (Comotto) ; Tharrawaddy (Oates) ; Palon 
(Fea) ; Meiktila (Collett). 

Simon doubtfully refers to this species some immature specimens 
of Acanthodon procured at Wagra-Karur, near Guntakal, Bellary 
(Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. x, p. 23, 1885). 



132. Acanthodon opifex, Pocock, Journ. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, p 750 
1899. 

Allied to the preceding, but darker in colour. Postocular area 
more strongly elevated than in A. crassus; ocular tubercle Mat 
above ; posterior median eyes less than three diameters apart, and 
more than one diameter from the posterior laterals ; anterior 
medians more than a diameter apart, and nearly two diameters 



ACANTRODON. 1G3 

from the posterior laterals ; anterior laterals more prominent than 
in A. crassvs. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 20, length of carapace 10, 
of 1st leg 19, of 4th leg 23. 

Loc. Bombay (Phipson). 

133. Acanthodon constructor, sp. n. 

5 . Colour as in A. opifex. Carapace with ocular tubercle 
elevated in front as in A. crassus ; eyes of posterior line unequally 
spaced, the medians a little more than two diameters apart, and 
about one diameter from the laterals, about the same distance from 
the anterior medians to which they are subequal in size ; the anterior 
medians about a diameter apart, their posterior edges on a level 
with the anterior edges of the posterior laterals. Labium with a 
marginal row of 4-5 teeth, and some smaller ones behind them. 
Coxa of 4th leg furnished beneath with a median longitudinal band 
of short spinules ; tibia of 3rd leg short and thick, as wide as 
long. 

$ . Colour as in $ , but tarsi and protarsi of legs clear yellow. 
Eyes more compact ; posterior medians about two diameters apart. 
First leg with tibia incrassate, armed externally with 8-10 spines, 
internally in its basal half with 3 spines, and at the apex with 
2 spurs, the proximal conical, the distal stout, but with the apex 
pointed and directed forwards and upwards ; protarsus slender, 
concave in its basal half, armed with many spines below, and with 
a submedian conical spur. Tibia of palp inflated, furnished 
distally on the outer side with a cavity bordered above by a 
complete semicircle of short spines ; tarsus with a conical external 
process : spine of palpal organ broad at base, slender and bent 
distally with blunt tip. 

Measurements in mm. — $ . Total length 19, carapace 8, 1st leg 
14, 4th leg 17. d. Total length 12, carapace 6, 1st and 4tb 
legs 20. 

Loc. S. India : Chingleput (JamLunathan) ; Yercaud in Shevaro 
Hills {Henderson). 

134. Acanthodon fortis, sp. n. 

$. Eesembling A. constructor, but much larger; and with the 
eyes of the posterior line widely and subequally spaced, the 
medians nearly three diameters from each other and from the 
laterals; anterior medians large, less than a diameter apart; 
posterior medians about their own diameter from the anterior 
medians; posterior laterals large, elliptical, Bel tar forwards, so that 
their anterior rims are on a level with the centres of the anterior 
medians. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 32, carapace 14, 1st leg 20 
4th leg 32. 

Loc. India (Godfry, type ; Ilardiviclce). 

ii 2 



164 CTENIZIDJS. 

135. Acanthodon fossor, sp. n. 

3 . Carapace smoother than in A. constructor, with posterior 
median eyes more than three times their transverse diameter apart. 
Tibial apophysis of 1st leg consisting of a low process bearing a 
slender, distally pointed and bent spine, behind the process there 
is a small tubercle ; protarsus with very few spines, the process 
much shorter, tuberculiform. Palp with protarsus less inflated, 
hollow, shallower, and bordered above by a thick cluster of spines ; 
spine of palpal organ evenly arched, with an outward apical bend 
and a slight subapical thickening, when curled back at rest the 
concavity of the spine faces forward and the point forward and 
outward. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 12, carapace G, 1st leg 21, 
4th leg 21. 

Loc. India : the Deccan. 

13G. Acanthodon designatus, Cambridge, Araneidea, Second Yarl-and 
Exped. p. 3, pi. i, fig. 1, 1885 (Idiops). 

Judging from the description and figures, this species is most 
nearly allied to A. fossor, but has the anterior legs much 
shorter, the 1st pair being much shorter than the 4th and only 
two and a half times the length of the carapace. Moreover, the 
protarsus of the 1st leg is thicker and much less concave in 
its basal half ; the tibial apophysis is directed upwards from its 
base ; and the palpal organ rests with the convexity of the spine 
looking forwards. Length of carapace about 6 mm. 

Loc. Murree (Stoliczka). 

Genus HELIGMOMERUS, Simon. 
Heligmomerus, Simon, Hist. Nat. Araiyn. i, p. 90, 1892. 

Differs from the genus Acanthodon in having the upper side of 
the tibia of the 3rd leg excavated and smooth in its basal half. 
Type, II. taprobanicus, Simon. 
Distribution. India, Ceylon ; Tropical Africa. 

Si/noj)sis of Indian Species. 

a. Only the internal (anterior) claw of 1st and 2nd 

legs armed with a bifid tooth II. taprobanicus, p. 1G4. 

b. All the claws aimed witli a bifid tooth .... II. prostans, p. 165. 

137. Heligmomerns taprobanicus, Simon, Hist. Nat. Araiyn. i, p. 91, 
1892. 

Colour : carapace blackish ; abdomen violet-black, paler beneath ; 
sternum, mouth-parts, and appendages olive-yellow. Anterior 



CONOTU.ELE. 165 

median and posterior lateral eyes subequal, equidistant, and sepa- 
rated by spaces not or scarcely exceeding the diameter of an eye. 
Labium armed with a row of three larger and also with a few 
smaller teeth. Legs with claws of anterior pairs strong, the 
exterior armed with a simple basal tooth, the interior with a double 
tooth ; claws of posterior legs armed with a single tooth. 

Length 14 mm. (young female). 

Loc. Ceylon : Kandy {Simon). 

138. Heligmomerus prostans, Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign. i, p. 91, 

Differs from the foregoing in having the anterior median and 
posterior lateral eyes farther apart from each other, and the 
medians evidently smaller than the laterals. Tarsal claws thicker, 
all of them armed at the base with an unequally bifid tooth. 
Labium armed with only three teeth. 

Length 21 mm. (adult $ ). 

Loc. S. India : Kodaikanal, Palni Hills (Simon). 

- Genus CONOTHELE, Thorell. 

Conothele, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xiii, p. 303, 1878 ; Simon, 
Hist. Nat. Araign. i. p. 88, 1892. 

Resembling AcantJiodon, but with the eyes normally arranged 
near the anterior border of the carapace ; the anterior laterals 
.close to the posterior laterals ; eyes of anterior line procurved. 
Mandibles not so prominent, depressed. Sternum with posterior 
sigilla distinct and remote from the margin. Legs as in Heli- 
gmomerus. Carapace of male rugose; labium and maxillae less 
strongly toothed than in female ; legs longer, less strougly spined, 
with anterior tarsi scopulate; palpi long, the tarsus short and 
truncate. 

Type, 0. malayana, Doleschall. 

Distribution. Burma to the Solomon Islands. 

Habits. So far as is known, the species of this genus build their 
trap-door nests on the trunks of trees, spinning a silken tube in 
a depression of the bark and covering the white silk with bits of 
lichen and moss. 

139. Conothele birmanica, '/'/ton-It, Ann. Mus. Genov. (2) v, p. 19, 

L887. 

§ (young). Colour ; carapace and abdomen blackish, legs and 
sternum paler. Carapace, considerably longer than patella and 
tibia of 1st and of -1th legs; ocular area twice as wide as long; 
eyes of posterior line straight, diameter of anterior medians much 
less than long diameter of anterior laterals. Labium with 5 teeth. 
Tibia; of anterior legs without external apical area of spinules such 
.as occurs in other species of the genus. 



166 ctenizidjE. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 11, carapace 5*5, 1st leg 
11-25, 4th leg 12-75. 

Loc. Burma : Shwegoo-Myo (Fed). 



Genus ACATTYMA, L. Koch. 

Acattyma, L. Koch, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xxvii, 1877, p. 760 ; 
Simon, Hist. Nat. Araiyn. i. p. 96, 1892. 

Differing from Conothele in having the mandibles strong and 
prominent ; the rastellum consisting of many irregularly-arranged 
teeth not borne upon a conical process overhanging the base of 
the fang, and the tibia of the 3rd leg without superior basal 
depression. 

Type, A. roretzi, Koch. 

Distribution. Japan ; India. 

140. Acattyma cryptica, Simon, Mem. Soc. Zool. Fr. x, p. 253, 1897. 

cf . Colour blackish, lower side and extremity of legs paler. 
Carapace rugose ; eyes of anterior line nearly equidistant, medians 
half as large as laterals. Labium with 4-5 teeth. Mandibles 
armed with two rows of large granules ; rastellum composed of a 
single row of 7-8 teeth. Legs with femora coriaceous beneath, 
copiously spined, the anterior more so than the posterior ; claws 
with a few subbasal teeth; tibia of 1st without spurs. Palpi 
slender, long, unarmed ; the tibia inflated beneath at base, apically 
attenuate ; tarsus truncate ; palpal organ with spine arcuate, 
thick at base, Aliform at apex. 

Length 15 mm. 

Loc. India: Deccan* (Smythies). 

Genus SCALIDOGNATHUS, Karsch. 

Scalidognathus, Karsch, Berl. ent. Zeits. xxxvi, p. 269, 1892 ; Simon, 
Hist. Nat. Araiyn. \, p. 116, 1892. 

5 . Carapace with fovea large, recurved ; ocular area twice as 
wide as long ; eyes of anterior line slightly procurved, the laterals 
on each side narrowly separated. Mandibles armed below with a 
single row of teeth ; rastellum consisting of simple stout spines. 
Labium and maxillw unarmed ; posterior sternal sigilla small, 
remote from the margin. Legs short, spiny ; tarsi and protarsi of 
1st and 2nd scantily scopulate ; tarsi of all legs armed with spines ; 
claws armed with a single long tooth. 

cJ . Legs much longer ; claws armed with many teeth, forming 
a single series. 

Type, S. radialis, O. P. Camb. 

Distribution. 8. India and Ceylon. 



Probably an error for Dehra. 



NEMESIELLUS. 167 



Synojysis of Species (males). 

a. Superior claws of anterior two pairs of legs 

armed with 7 teeth S. radialis, p. 167. 

b. Superior claws of anterior two pairs of legs 

armed with 11 teeth S. oreophilus, p. 167. 

141. Scalidognathus radialis, O. P. Cambr. Jour. Linn. Soc.,Zool.x, 

p. 37;}, pi. xi, tig.,1, 1870, J (Mygale - ) : seticeps, Karsch, Berl. ent. 
Zeits. xxx vi, p. 269, t. x, tig. 1," ? (1892). 

3 . Colour reddish yellow ; abdomen blackish above. Carapace 
as long as patella and tibia of 2nd leg. Legs long and slender ; 
1st with protarsus lightly arched, weakly spined ; tibia without 
apophysis, with one of the apical spines beneath stronger than 
the rest. Palp with tibia long, inflated, furnished at the apex 
externally with a deep spine-bordered notch ; spine of palpal 
organ broad at base, filiform and strongly curved distally. 

5 . Carapace as long as tibia and protarsus of 4th leg. Legs 4, 
1, 2, 3 in length, slender : tarsi and protarsi of 1st and 2nd 
scopulate internally, spined externally. 

Measurements in mm. — J . Total length 10, carapace 5, 1st leg 16, 
2nd 15, 3rd 13, 4th 18-5. $ . Total length 16-22. 

Loc. Ceylon : Peradeniya (Sarasin), Punduloya ( Green). 

142. Scalidognathus oreophilus, Si7non, Hist. Nat. Araign. i. p. 116, 

1892 (in note). 

S . Described as differing from S. radialis in having the 
superior tarsal claws of the anterior legs furnished with 11 
instead of with 7 teeth. 

Loc. Ceylon (Simon). 



Genus NEMESIELLUS, nov 

Differing from Scalidognathus and approaching the Australian 
genus Arbanitis in having the eyes of the anterior line strongly 
procurved, the anterior edge of the medians on a level with the 
posterior edge of the laterals, the laterals on each side being widely 
separated by a space which exceeds the long diameter of the 
anterior lateral. Differing from Arbanitis and resembling Scalido- 
gnathus in having the tarsi of the anterior legs spined. 

Type, iV. montanu.s, sp. n. 

Distribution. S. India. 

143. Nemesiellus montanus. sp. n. 

2 . Colour : carapace, mandibles, and upper side of femora deep- 
brown, the remaining part of the appendages reddish yellow. 
Carapace as long as patella, tibia, and protarsus of 1st, longer than 
patella and tibia of 4th ; eves of anterior line subequal. /><</*• with 



168 CTENIZID-E. 

tarsus and protarsus of anterior pairs, as well as tarsus of palp, 
scopulate at sides ; patella of 3rd leg thickly hairy above, longer 
than the tibia. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 14, carapace 5, 1st leg 9'5, 
2nd 8-5, 3rd 7'5, 4th 13. 

Loc. S. India : Tercaud in Shevaroy Hills (Henderson). 



Genus ATMETOCHILUS, Simon. 

Atmetochilus, Simon, J. A. S. B. lvi, p. 109, 1887 ; id. Hist. Nat. 
Araign. i. p. 109, 1892. 

Carapace with deep lateral cephalic impressions and deep strongly 
procurved fovea ; ocular area three times as wide as long ; eyes of 
anterior Hue very slightly procurved. Mandibles with single row 
of teeth below ; rastellum consisting of simple slender spines. 
Legs and palpi weakly spiued ; tarsi and protarsi of anterior pairs 
spined : claws basally toothed. Labium scarcely as long as wide, 
unarmed, coxae of palp with a few basal teeth. Sternum with a 
transverse depression behind the labium ; the three pairs of sigilla 
remote from the margin, their inner ends continuous with a smooth 
central depression. Posterior mamillce long, apical segment as 
long as the 2nd, or longer. 

Type, A. fossor, Simon. 

Distribution. Southern Burma. 



Sj/nojisis of Species. 

■a. Protarsus of 1st leg scopulate to base, of 2ud 

scopulate in its distal half; length about 40 mm. A. fossor, p. 168. 
b. Protarsus of 1st leg not scopulate to hase, of 2nd 

without scopula ; length about 20 mm A. atriceps, p. 169. 



144. Atmetochilus fossor, Simon, J. A. S. B. lvi, p. 109, 1887. 

Colour •. carapace reddish brown : legs paler, with clear red naked 
dorsal bands ; abdomen blackish. Carapace narrowed in front, 
width of head less than length of area between eyes and fovea, as 
long as patella, tibia, and one third of protarsus of 1st and 4th legs ; 
anterior median eyes half a diameter apart and twice as far from 
the laterals. Sternum longer than wide. Palp with tarsus scopu- 
late distally. Legs of 1st and 2nd pairs with patella and tibia 
spined internally, protarsus of 1st scopulate to base, of 2nd not 
scopulate to base. Apical segment of posterior mantilla nearly 
twice as long as 2nd segment. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 43, carapace 20, 1st leg 46, 
2nd 42, 3rd 30, 4th 49. 

Loc. Tavoy in Tenasserim (Mod Earn). 



DAMABCHUS. 169 

145. Atmetochilus atriceps, $p. n. 

Damarchus oatesii, ThoreU, Spiders of Burma, p. 2, 1895, in part. 

Resembling A. fossor, but much smaller, the head higher and 
wider, its width equal to length of area between fovea and eyes. 
Sternum as broad as long. First leg without spines on inner side 
of patella and tibia; the interior tibial spines long, setiform, not 
stout as in A. fossor ; protarsus not scopulate to base ; tarsus and 
protarsus of 2nd leg not scopulate. Apical segment of posterior 
mamillce a little longer than 2nd segment. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 21, carapace 11*5, 1st leg 
24, 4th leg 29. 

Lot: Tenasserim (Oates). 

Genus DAMARCHUS, ThoreU. 

Damarchus, ThoreU, Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. xxiv, no. 2, p. 14, 1891 ; 
Simon, Hist. Xat. Araign. i, p. 107, 1892. 

Allied to Atmetochilus, but with the posterior sternal sigilla 
large and about equally distant from each other and from the 
lateral margin ; the remaining sigilla marginal ; no central de- 
pression in the anterior half of the sternum. Male with anterior 
tibia tipped with a single short spur armed with a long curved 
spine. Tarsus of palp short and truncal''. 

Type, D. workmanni, ThoreU. 

Distribution. Burma, Malacca, Sumatra. 

140. Damarchus oatesii, ThoreU. Spiders of Burma, p. 2, 1895. 

2 . Colour : carapace and legs reddish brown above, paler below ; 
abdomen blackish, ornamented above with oblique rows of pale 
spots. Carapace one-third longer than wide, scarcely longer than 
protarsus and tarsus of 4th leg, exceeding patella and tibia of 4th 
or of 1st; eyes of auterior line straight, medians large, less than 
half a diameter apart and less than a diameter from the laterals. 
Tibiae of leys armed with setiform spines ; protarsi with stouter 
spines. 

3 . Carapace wider and lower than in $; legs longer. Tibial 
apophysis of 1st leg consisting of a process tipped with a long 
curved spine. Palpal organ with bulb piriform ; spine short, 
slender, filiform, and lightly curved. 

Measurements in mm. — J. Total length 22, carapace 8, \-\ 
leg 18, 4th leg 21. J. Total length 15, carapace 7-5. Let leg 20, 
4th leg 26. 

Loc. Burma: Rangoon, and Double Island in the Bdoulmein 
River (Oatts). 



170 diplttridjE. 



Family DIPLURID^. 

Besembling the Ctenizidse in having 3 claws, of which the 
superior are strongly toothed, and in having no ungual tufts * 
on the tarsi ; but distinguished by the absence of the rastellum, 
by having the posterior spinners very long and the anterior widely 
separated, and by the small size and marginal position of the 
sternal sigilla. 

Distribution. Tropical and temperate parts of the world to the 
south of about the 45th parallel of N. lat. 

Habits. The species of Dipluridae live in tubes lined with silk, 
which is produced beyond the mouth of the tube in the form of 
an extended sheet of web constituting a snare. 

■Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

a. Terminal segment of posterior mamillse flexible 

and as long as the preceding two ; labium 

unarmed Ischnothele, p. 170. 

b. Terminal segment of posterior mamillse shorter 

than preceding two, straight, not flexible ; 

labium spinulose . , Macrotuele, p. 171. 



Genus ISCHNOTHELE, Ausserer. 

Ischnothele, Ausserer, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xxv, p. 162, 1875. 
Thelechoris, Karsch, Abli. Ver. Bremen, vii, p. 196, 188i. 
Entomothele, Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1888, p. 235. 

Carapace low ; fovea deep, procurved ; ocular tubercle large ; 
lateral eyes large, elliptical. Mandible armed below with two 
rows of teeth ; maxillm studded basally with spicules ; labium 
unarmed. Legs spined, not scopulate ; tarsi not spined. Abdo- 
men broad, posteriorly truncate : space between anterior mamillse 
exceeding their length, and about six times their diameter; 
posterior matnillse very long, their distal segment as long as the 
others, slender and flexible. 

cj 1 with single spur on the tibia of the 1st leg; tarsus of 
palp slender, as long as the tibia. 

Type, I. caudata, Auss. 

Distribution. Central and South America; Tropical Africa; 
Madagascar ; India. 



Except in the tropical African sjonus Hcterothelc. 



MACROTHELE. 



171 



147. Ischnothele dumicola, sp. n. 

2 . Colour : integument yellowish brown, clouded with black 
and covered with greyish hairs ; sternum dark ; abdomen orna- 
mented above on each side with a row of six pale, obliquely set 

spots or short stripes. Carapace 
as long as patella and tibia of 
4th leg, and as patella, tibia, and 
half the protarsus of 1st leg. 

c? . Smaller than £ ; s P ur on 
tibia of ] st leg external, stout, 
nearly straight, pointed ; protarsus 
arcuate in its basal half. Palp 
with tibia a little inflated ; spine of 
palpal organ stout, straight at base, 
filiform and curved apically. 

Measurements in mm. — § . Total 
length 9, carapace 4, 1st leg 8, 
4th leg 11. 6. Total length 6 r 
carapace 3*5, 1st leg 7*5, 4th 
leg 10-5. 
Lot: Western India : Poona ( Wroughtori). 




Fig. 55. 
Ischnothele dumicola, $ , X 2. 



Genus MACROTHELE, Ausserer. 

Macrothele, Ausserer, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xxi, p. 181, 1871 ; 
Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign. i, p. 184, 18! 12. 

Differs from the preceding genus in having the thoracic fovea 
straight or recurved, the labium studded with spicules, the tarsi 
of the legs armed with spines, and the terminal segment of the 
posterior spinners shorter than the 1st and 2nd taken together, 
straight, and not flexible and sinuous. 

Type, Macrothele calpetana (Walck.). 

Distribution. Mediterranean Region ; Eastern Oriental Kegion 
and New Zealand. 



148. Macrothele maculata, Thorell, Ann. Mm. Genova, xxviii, p. 409, 

1890 (Diplura) ; id. op. tit. xxxvii, p. 184, 1897 (Macrothele). 

5 . Colour blackish; abdomen spotted below and banded abm . 
as in the foregoing species. Carapace as long as patella and tibia 
of 4th or of 1st leg. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 15, carapace 7*25, 1st Leg 
21, 4th leg 23. 

hoc. Burma: Yado and Plapoo in Tenassei-im (^<")- 



172 BARYCIIELTDiE. 



Family BARYCHELID^E. 

Medium-sized Mygalomorphae which, except in the aberrant 
genus Sason, resemble the Ctenizidae iu being furnished with a 
rastellum, but differ from them and from the Dipluridae in having 
distinct ungual tufts and only two untoothed or weakly toothed 
•claws on the tarsi. As in the Dipluridae, the sternal sigilla are 
small and marginal. The spinning-mamillse resemble those of the 
typical Ctenizidae in forming a compact cluster, the apical segment 
of the posterior pair being small and shorter than the segments 
that precede it. 

Distribution. S. Europe ; Africa ; Mauritius ; India and Ceylon, 
thence eastwards as far as Australia and the Fiji Islands ; 
S. America. 

Habits. Mostly ground-living burrowing Spiders, which gene- 
rally, but by no means always, close the burrow with a trap-door. 



Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

a. Eyes scattered, not aggregated on a tu- 

bercle ; no rastellum Sason, p. 172. 

b. Eyes aggregated on a tubercle ; rastellum 

always present in the female. 

a 1 . A single pair of spinners Diplothele, p. 174. 

b 1 . Two pairs of spinners. 

a 2 . Thoracic fovea lightly recurved .... Sasonichus, p. 177. 
b~. Thoracic fovea lightly or strongly 
procurved. 
a 3 . Ocular area distinctly wider behind 
than in front; fovea strongly pro- 
curved Plagiobothrus, p. 175. 

b 3 . Ocular area as wide in front as 

behind ; fovea lightly procurved. Sipalolasma, p. 176. 



Genus SASON, Simon. 

Sarpedon, O. P. Cambr. P. Z. S. 188;}, p. 353 (nom. praeocc). 
Sason, Simon, Bull. Soc. ent. Fr. 1887, p. cxcv ; id. Hist. Nat. 

Araign. i, p. 130, 1892. 
Satzicus, Simon, J. A. S. B. lvi, pt. 2, p. 286, 1888. 
CEcophlceus, Pococh, A. M. N. II. (6) ix, p. 49, 1892. 

Carapace with fovea recurved or nearly straight ; no ocular 
tubercle ; ocular area nearly twice as wide as long ; eyes of 
anterior line strongly procurved ; anterior laterals not far from 
edge of carapace, widely separated from posterior laterals. 
Mandibles small, depressed, without rastellum. Labium in female 
quadrate, armed with row of teeth ; maxillae with a few teeth. 
Legs weakly spined, the anterior pairs scopulate. 



SASON. 173 

J. Tibia of 1st leg with a single spur on inner side ; tarsus of 
palp short. 

Type, S. robustum. 0. P. Carabr. 

Distribution,. S. India, Ceylon, Andaman Islands ; Celebes. 

Habits. These Spiders construct on walls and tree-trunks a 
shallow domicile furnished with two doors opening back to back, 
and consisting of small coherent particles of leaves or other 
material. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Males. 

a. Labium armed with a complete row of 

teeth 8. armatoris, p. 174. 

b. Labium unarmed. 

a 1 . Legs banded S. robustum, p. 173. 

b l . Legs not banded <S". andamanicum, p. 174. 

Females. 

a. Carapace high, as long as patella, tibia, 

and protarsus of 1st leg S. robustum, p. 173. 

b. Carapace low, as"long as patella, tibia, and 

half protarsus of 1st leg >S'. cinctipes, p. 173. 

14!). Sason robustum, O. P. Cambr. P. Z.S. 1883, p. 354, pi. 36, fig. 1 
t Sarpedon). 

2 . Colour yellowish red ; carapace varied with black ; legs and 
palpi strongly banded ; abdomen blackish above and ornamented 
with two posteriorly converging rows of pale spots. Carapace 
high, strongly elevated in front of the fovea, which is situated 
on its posterior slope ; lightly convex or sloped downwards 
anteriorly ; as long as patella, tibia, and protarsus of 1st leg, and 
as patella and tibia or tibia and protarsus of 4th. 

d . Differing from $ (according to Simon) in having the labium 
and maxilla; unarmed. Tibial spur of anterior leg curved and 
spiniform. 

Measurements in mm. — $ . Total length 10, carapace o, 1st, 
2nd, and 3rd legs 9, 4th 12-5. 

Loc. Ceylon: Pnnduloya (Green). 

150. Sason cinctipes, Pocock, A. M. X. II. (6) ix, p. 4!», pi. iii A, lig. 1, 
1892 ((Ecophloms). 

Like the preceding species, bul with the carapace much lower, 
being scarcely elevated posteriorly in Eronl of the fovea, so that 
the latter is situated almost on a level with the upper surface of 
tlie carapace, the area between the fovea ami the eve being almosl 
horizontal. Legs longer; carapace as long as patella, tibia, ami 
half the protarsus of the 1st, distinctly less than patella and tibia 
or than tibia and protarsus of 4th. 



174 BARYCHELID.E. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 15*5, carapace 6, 1st leg 14, 
4th 17-5. 




Fig. 56. — Sason cinotipes, 2 » X l£. 

Loc. Ceylon: Punduloya (Green); Kanthalai (Yerbury) ; also 
young specimens of this or of a nearly allied species from the 
Madras Presidency (Jambunathan). 

151. Sason armatoris, sp. n. 

Like the preceding in colour, aud differing from the male of 
JS. robustum in having a complete row of teeth on the labium. 
Carapace nearly flat above, shorter than patella and tibia of all 
the legs, about as long as tibia of 4th ; fovea scarcely recurved ; 
space between lateral eyes equalling diameter of anterior lateral. 
Tibial spur of 1st leg conical, tipped with a long curved spine. 
iSpine of palpal organ straight pointed, rising at the extremity 
of the bulb. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 10, carapace 5, 1st leg 16, 
4th leg 20. 

Loc. Travancore : Trivandrum and Ponmudi (Ferguson). 

152. Sason andamanicnm, Simon, J. A.S. B. lvi, pt. 2, p. 286, 1888 

(Satzicus) : id. Hist. Nat. Araign. i, p. 130, 1892 (Sason). 

S . Colour apparently as in the preceding species, but the legs 
darker towards the extremities, not annulate. Carapace with 
fovea strongly recurved ; ocular area about one-third wider than 
long. Labium and maxillie unarmed. 

Measurements in mm. — Carapace 5, 1st leg 15'7, 4th 17*3. 

Loc. Andaman Islands : Port Blair (Oldham). 

Genus DIPLOTHELE, O. P. Cambr. 

JHplotlielu, O. P. Cambr. P. Z. S. 1890, p. 621 ; Simon, Hist. Nat. 
Araign. i, p. 122,1892. 

5 . Carapace with head convex ; fovea procurved ; ocular area 
a little longer than wide, parallel-sided ; anterior lateral eyes on 



PLAGIOBOTHBUS. 1 75 

the frontal margin, oval, separated by a space which is a little 
less than their diameter ; median eyes close together. Mandibles 
with rastellum consisting of long, hooked, irregularly arranged 
teeth. Labium wider than long, unarmed ; maxillae with a few 
basal spinules. Leys strong and short, anterior pair unarmed, 
with scopulate tarsi and protarsi ; posterior pairs with subsetiform 
spines, scarcely scopulate. Anterior s/iinn, rs absent. 

c? . Ocular area wider behind; mandibles small, subvertical ; 
without rastellum ; all the legs with many spines ; tibia of anterior 
leg incrassate, furnished with a very short spine-tipped spur; 
tarsus of palp long, attenuate, apieally obtuse. 

Type, D. walslii, O. P. Cambr. 

Distribution. India and Ceylon. 

Synopsis of Species. 

a. Protarsi of anterior legs longer than tarsi J), walshi, p. 175. 

b. Protarsi of anterior legs not longer than tarsi .... D. haliji, p. 17-">. 

153. Diplothele walshi, 0. P. Cambr. P. Z. S. 2890, p. 621, pi. xliii, 

fig. 1. 

Colour: carapace pale yellow-brown, with darker radiating 
lines; legs, palpi, "sternum, and mouth-parts yellowish; abdomen 
of dull clay-yellow colour, marked on the upper side with broken 
transverse black bands of varied width and clearness of definition, 
those on the anterior half being the strongest and best defined. 
Lei /s with protarsi longer than tarsi ; tarsi of anterior pairs and 
of palpus furnished above with a few clavate bristles. 

Length 8'5 mm. 

hoc. Bengal: Orissa (Walsh.). 

154. Diplothele halyi, Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign. i, p. 123, 1892. 

9 . Differing (according to Simon) from the female of D. walshi 
in having the abdominal pattern less distinct, the fovea larger, and 
the protarsi of the anterior legs not longer than the tarsi. 

cS • More thickly hairy than the female. Carapace lower. Leys 
longer ; tibial spur of 1st tipped with a slender curved and slightly 
elevated spine ; protarsus with a single spine below ; protarsus of 
2nd with two spines. Palpi strong, unarmed ; spine of organ 
straight, but with apex twisted and acutely bifid. 

Total length of $ 10 mm. ; J ,9 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon : Nuwara Eliya (Simon). 



Genus PLAGIOBOTHRUS, Karsch. 
Plagiobothrus, Karsch, Berl. ent. Zeits. xxxvi, p. 272, 1892. 

Carapace with head high, fovea procurved ; ocular area about 
one-third wider than long, narrowed in front ; eyes of anterior 
line strongly procurved, posterior ends of laterals in advance of 
anterior edge of medians, space between the two anterior laterals 



176 BABYCHELIDJ3. 

almost twice the long diameter of the eye. JRastellum consisting 
of cluster of strong spines. Labium and maxilla? toothed ; legs 
and palpi scantily scopulate, spined ; claws toothed. Mamillce 
normal. 

Type, P. semilunaris, Karsch. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

155. Plagiobothms semilunaris, Karsch, Bed. ent. Zeits. xxxvi, 

p. -273, t. x, fig. 3, 1892. 

Colour : carapace and limbs deep brown, ocular tubercle yellow ; 
abdomen black above, brown beneath, with epigastric area and 
opercula pale. Carapace nearly one fourth longer than wide, as long 
as patella and tibia, and one third of the protarsus of 1st leg, a 
little longer than patella and tibia of 4th. Tibia of palpus armed 
with 1 basal inferior and about 4 apical spines ; 1st leg unarmed ; 
2nd with 2 spines on inner and 2 on underside of tibia and 
protarsus ; tibia and protarsus of 3rd and 4th with many spines. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 24, carapace 11, 1st leg 26, 
2nd leg 23, 3rd leg 21-5, 4th leg 30-5. 

Loc. Ceylon: Peradeniya (Sarasin) ; Kandy (Yerbury). 

Genus SIPALOLASMA, Simon. 
Sipalolasma, Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign. i. p. 123, 1892. 

Differs from Plar/iobothrus in having the thoracic fovea trans- 
verse, with only a slight procurvature, the ocular area not or 
scarcely wider behind than in front, and the protarsi and tarsi of 
the anterior two pairs of legs thickly scopulate to the base, that of 
the tarsus of the 2nd leg being at most narrowly divided. 

J with legs much longer and thinner ; tibia of 1st pair with a 
low spine-tipped spur ; tarsus of palp short, bifid. 

Type, S. ellioti, Simon. 

Distribution. Ceylon. 

Synopsis of Species (females). 

a. Length 11 mm. ; claws unarmed S. ellioti, p. 176. 

b. Length 22 mm. ; claws toothed S. greeni, p. 177. 

156. Sipalolasma greeni, sp. u. 

5 . Colour : carapace and legs deep brown, femora clearer red, 
coxae and sternum darker than femora ; abdomen blackish. 
Carapace a little longer than broad, its length equal to patella and 
tibia of 4th leg. Labium with 3 teeth ; tibia of palp and tibia and 
protarsus of 3rd and 4th le(/s armed with many spines, tibia of 
1st with about 8, of 2nd with about 5 spines ; scopulse of 1st and 
2nd legs forming a thick fringe; tarsal scopula of 2nd narrowly 
divided, of 3rd and 4th broadly divided; claws toothed. 

Measurements in. mm. — Total length 22, carapace 10, 1st leg 23, 
4th 27. 

Loc. Ceylon : Punduloya (Green). 



SASONK'UUS. 177 



157. Sipalolasma ellioti, Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign. i, p. 124, fig. 114, 

1892. 

5 . Smaller than the preceding ; the sternum, mouth-parts, palpi, 
and legs uniformly coloured. Labium with 6-7 teeth. Tarsi of 
both 1st and 2nd legs undivided ; claws of legs unarmed. 

J . Carapace and legs covered with long yellowish pubescence. 
Mandibles much smaller than in female. Tibia of 1st leg armed with 
spines, and at the apex on the inner side with a robust and curved 
tooth, and beneath with a medium-sized blunt spur tipped with 
four teeth (spines). Tibia of palp armed on the inner side and at 
apex with five spines ; tarsus small, deeply bifid at apex ; spine 
of palpal organ longer than bulb, with the apex slender and lightly 
curved. 

Length of $ 11 mm., of d 10. 

Loc. Ceylon : Cottawa (Simon). 

Genus SASONICHUS, gen. nov. 

Allied to Plagiobothrus and Sijmlolasma ; but with the thoracic 
fovea recurved. Tibia of 1 st leg in male without apical spur ; 
tarsus of palp much longer than wide, with a large rounded 
internal lobe. Tarsal scopulse scanty ; protarsal scopulse present 
only at apex of 1st and 2nd legs. 

Type, S. sullivani, sp. n. 

Distribution. Southern India. 

158. Sasonichus sullivani, sp. n. 

Colour a uniform ashy black, with tarsi reddish yellow. Cara- 
pace low, about as long as patella and tibia, and a little longer 
than protarsus and tarsus of 1st leg, as long as protarsus of 4th. 
Palp with tibia armed with 5 spines ; bulb of palpal organ sub- 
spherical, deeply grooved, spine slender, lightly sinuous. Legs 
bristly ; tibia of 1st cylindrical, armed with 8 spines, the one at 
the apex on the inner side long and curved ; the rest of the legs 
strongly spined. 

Measurements in mm.— Total length 12, carapace 6, 1st leg 15*5, 
4th leg 21. 

Loc. Travancore : Trivandrum (Sullivan). 



r 



178 thebaphosidte. 



Family THERAPHOSID^. 



T 



Medium-sized or very large Mygalomorpha;, differing from the 
Baryehelidae in having the apical segment of the posterior spinners 
cylindrical and at least as long as the 2nd segment, and in the 
absence of the rastellum. Eyes always aggregated on a distinct 
tubercle. 

Distribution. Temperate and tropical countries to the south of 
the 45th parallel of north latitude, but apparently absent from 
New Zealand. 

Habits. Most of the species are fossorial, but they never close 
the aperture of the burrow with a movable lid. Other species are 
met with under stones, in hollow trees, or sheltering in any 
natural crevice. 

The Indian genera of this family are referable to the following 
four subfamilies : — 

«. No stridulating organ between the outer 
surface of the mandible and the inner 

surface of the coxa of the palp Therapftosina>, 

b. A stridulating organ between the mandible [p. 178. 

and coxa of palp. 
a 1 . Outer surface of mandible covered with 

scopula or pad of feathery hairs Ornithoctonincp, 

b 1 . No scopula of feathery hairs on outer side [p. 203. 
of mandible. 
a' 2 . Inner surface of coxa of palp (maxilla) 
furnished with simple scattered needle- 
like bristles Thrigmopceince, 

b 2 . Inner surface of maxilla furnished with [p. 184. 
cluster or series of claviform or bacilli- 
form bristles Selenocosmiince. 

[p. 187. 

Subfamily THERAPHOSINiE. 

No stridulating-organ between the outer surface of the mandible 
and the adjacent surface of the coxa of the palp, these two surfaces 
being smooth and at most scantily hairy. There is also no 
stridulating-organ between the basal segments of the palp and 
1st leg, such as is found in the tropical African genera con- 
stituting the subfamily Ewmenophorince. 

Distribution. Mediterranean area of Palajaretic region ; tropical 
West Africa ; India and Burma ; America from the [Southern 
States of the Union to Patagonia. 

Syno2>sis of Indian Genera. 

a. Thoracic fovea straight, transverse, at most 

slightly procurved. [p. 181. 

«'. Anterior leg of male with strong tibial spur. Plesiophh ictus, 
/>'. Anterior leg of male without tibial spur .. IsCHNOCOLUS, 

[p. 183. 



P1IU)G10DES. 



179 



b. Thoracic fovea with distinct crescentic pro- 
curvature. 
a 2 . Fovea .shallow, sublinear ; posterior sigilla 

wide apart and small Hetekophrictus, 

b 2 . Fovea very strong and strongly curved ; [p. 180. 

posterior sigilla large, submedian Phi.ogiodes,p. 179. 

Genus PHL0GI0DES, Pocock. 

Phlogiodes, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. II. Soc. xii, p. 748, 1899. 

Thoracic fovea deep, strongly procurved. Eyes of anterior line 
slightly procurved. Legs strong, weakly spined, strongly scopulate, 
at least in male ; claws unarmed. Sternum with posterior sigilla 
very large and remote from the margin. First leg without tibial 
spur in male. 

Type, P. validus, Pocock. 

Distribution. Western India. 




Fig. 57. — Vhlocjiodcs robusfus, 2 ■ X £. 

Synoj .sis nf S/„ cies. 

a. Femora of legs reddish, the rest of the segments 

greyish white ( <3 ) /'. validus, p. 1 7;». 

b. Legs uniformly coloured ( $ ) p. robust us, p. I so. 

159. Phlogiodes validus. Pocock, Jour. Bom. \. If. S„c. xii, p. 7 is. I situ. 

J. Colour: carapace with coaling of silky yellow hair, femora 
of legs with golden brown hairs, the rest of tin.' segments with 

s2 



180 THEKAPHOSIDvE. 

greyish-white hairs ; abdomen covered above with long golden 
brown hairs. Carapace a little longer than broad, low and narrow 
in the head-region, shorter than patella and tibia of 1st and 4th 
legs. Legs long and strong ; protarsus of 1st scopulate to base, 
of 2nd almost to base, of 3rd only at apex ; tarsal scopula of 4th 
divided ; protarsus of 1st with one inferior apical spine, of 2nd, 3rd, 
and 4th with many apical spines ; two pairs of superior spines on 
3rd protarsus, one pair of anterior spines on 4th protarsus. Palpus 
unspined ; bulb of organ but little inflated ; spine triangular, broad 
and subspatulate at base, pointed distally. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 25, carapace 12*2, 1st leg 
41, 4th 46. 

Loc. Matheran (Phipson). 

1 60. Phlogiodes robustus, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, p. 748, 
1899. 

2 . Colour : carapace and limbs reddish brown ; abdomen 
blackish above ; hairy clothing greyish red. Carapace long ; head 
high, much longer than patella and tibia of 1st and of 4th leg. 
Legs short, very strong, spined as in P. validus, the anterior thicker 
than the posterior ; patella of 1st as long as tibia, tarsus almost as 
long as protarsus ; protarsus of 1st with entire scopula, of 2nd 
scopulate at sides, of :3rd and 4th not scopulate ; tarsal scopula 
of 1st entire, of 2nd basally divided, of 3rd and 4th present only 
at tip and sides of the segments. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 27, carapace 13, 1st leg 29, 
4th 33. 

Loc. Matheran (Phipson) ; Jauli in Satara (Master). 



Genus HETEROPHRICTUS, nov. 

Carapace with head narrow ; fovea small, procurved ; eyes of 
anterior line slightly procurved. Legs slender, spined ; protarsi 
of 1st and 2nd scopulate only in the distal half, of 3rd and 4th 
scopulate at apex : tarsal scopula? of all legs divided : claws un- 
armed. Sternum with posterior sigilla deep, separated from the 
margin by a space equal to their own length and from each other 
by about three times that distance. 

Type, H. milleti, sp. n. 

Distribution. Western India. 

161. Heterophrictus milleti, sp. n. 

Colour: integument reddish brown, covered with rusty-red 
hairs ; some white hairs at extremity of 1st leg. Carapace with 
head elevated, as long as patella and tibia of 4th leg, a little longer 
than those of 1st. Legs of 1st and 2nd pairs with a few spines 
on tibia) and protarsi, of 3rd and 4th pairs with many spines on 
these segments ; protarsus of 1st short, barely as long as patella. 
Abdomen long, parallel-sided, subtruncate posteriorly. 



PLESIOPIIRICTUS. 181 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 29, carapace 13, 1st leg 30, 
4th leg 36. 

Loc. j\asik {Millet) ; also immature specimens of a nearly allied 
form from Eastern Poona (Irani) and Jauli in Satara (Master). 

Genus PLESIOPHRICTUS, Pocock. 
Plesiopkrictus, 1'ocock, Journ. Bom. N. II. Soc. xii, p. 749, 1899. 

Thoracic fovea straight, transverse ; eyes of anterior line slightly 
procurved. Labium and maxilla- spinulose. Sternum with mar- 
ginal sigilla. Leys spined ; a few spines only on the anterior 
tibiae and protarsi, many more upon these segments of the 3rd 
and 4th legs ; tarsal scopuhe of 1st and 2nd entire or scarcely 
divided, of 3rd and 4th divided by band of seta?. 

Tibia of anterior leg in male with a strong spur. 

Type, P. millardi, Pocock. 

Distribution. (South and West India ; Ceylon. 

Synopsis of Species. 

a. Protarsus of lstdeg covered above with white 

hair; rest of the body and limbs brown .... P. millardi, p. 181. 

b. Protarsus of 1st leg brown or blackish like rest 

of limbs. 
a 1 . Anterior lateral eyes not larger than me- 
dians ; anterior leg shorter than posterior. 



a 2 . 3rd leg less than twice as long as cara- 



pace. 

a 6 . Posterior ends of anterior eyes in a 

straight line P. sericetis, p. 182. 

b 3 . Posterior ends of anterior lateral eyes 

on a level with centres of medians . . P. collinus, p. 182. 



b 2 . 3rd leg more than twice as long as cara- 
pace P. fabrei, p. 182. 

b l . Anterior lateral eyes much larger than 
medians ; anterior leg not shorter than 
posterior P. tenuipes, p. 182. 

162. Plesiophrictus millardi, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, 
p. 749, 1899. 

c? . Colour a uniform mouse-brown, except that the upper side 
of the protarsus of the 1st leg is white. Carapace as long as 
patella and tibia of 1st and 4th legs. Legs with protarsal scopula* 
scanty on anterior, absenl on posterior pairs; tibia of 1st slightly 
incrassate ; spur slightly curved, directed foru ards, a tuberculiform 
spur accompanied by a long black spine above it on the inner 
side; many spinules between the two. Palp, unspined; spine of 
palpal organ broad at base, filiform, and spirally twisted distal ly. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 12, carapace 6, 1st leg 1">, 
4th leg 16. 

Loc. Bombay : Matheran (Millard), Uran (Aitken). 



182 THERAPHOSID.E. 

163. Plesiophrictus sericeus, sp. n. 

5 . Colour : integument blackish brown : hairs yellowish brown, 
long on the lower side of the femora and patellae. Carapace as 
long as patella, tibia, and one-third of protarsus of 1st and 4th 
legs ; eyes of anterior line nearly straight, the posterior rim of 
the eyes almost on a level ; the laterals on each side scarcely 
separated. Mandible armed below with a row of 11-13 larger teeth 
and several smaller teeth posteriorly. Tibiae of 1st and 2nd legs un- 
spined ; protarsus with one inferior spine ; tibiae and protarsi of 
3rd and 4th legs with many spines. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 22, carapace 10, 1st leg 23, 
4th leg 26. 

Log. Eastern part of Poona district {Irani). 

164. Plesiophrictus COllinus, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, 

p. 749, 1S99. 

Allied to P. sericeus but smaller, and with the lateral eyes of the 
anterior row set more forwards, so that their posterior ends are in 
a line with the centres of the medians ; the two laterals separated 
by a space which is about equal to half the diameter of the anterior 
lateral. Mandible armed below with a single row of 8-9 teeth, 
without posterior supplementary teeth. Legs a little shorter as 
compared with carapace than in P. sericeus ; the carapace being 
equal to the tibia -f- protarsus of the 4th leg. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 18, carapace 8'5, 1st leg 19, 
4th 20. 

Loc. Yercaud in the Shevaroy Hills (Henderson) ; Madras 
Presidency (Jambunathan). 

165. Plesiophrictus tenuipes, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, 

p. 749, 1899. 

Differing from P. collinus and P. sericeus in having the anterior 
lateral eye much larger than the median, and distinctly elliptical 
instead of subspherical, its posterior edge almost on a level with 
that of the median, its anterior edge far in advance of that of the 
median. Mandible armed below as in P. collinus. Legs much 
longer ; carapace as long as patella and tibia of 1st or 4th ; 
anterior legs not stouter than posterior ; all the tarsal scopulae 
divided. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 16, carapace 7, 1st leg 16, 
4th leg 20. 

Loc. Ceylon : Kandy ( Yerbury). 

The following species is probably referable to Plesiophrictus 
rather than to Stichoplastus, a typically Neotropical genus. 

166. Plesiophrictus fabrei, Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. lxi, p. 278, 

1892 (Stichoplastua). 

$ . Colour much as in the preceding species. Carapace as long as 



ISCHNOCOLUS. 183 

patella and tibia of 4th leg, fovea Lightly procurved ; eyes of 
; anterior line subequal. Legs longer than in the preceding species 
(cf. measurements) ; tarsal scopulac of 3rd and 4th divided. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 10-2, 1st leg 26-2, 4th 29"5. 

Loc. S. India : Madura (Fabre). 

Genus ISCHN0C0LUS, Ausserer. 

Ischnocolus, Ausserer, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, xxi, p. 184, 1871 ; 
Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign. i, p. 135, 1892. 

Carapace low ; fovea straight, slightly curved ; eyes of anterior 
line subequal, slightly procurved. Legs, in the typical form, spiny, 
especially on the tibiae and protarsi of the 2nd and 3rd pairs ; 
tarsal scopulae of all the legs divided by a band of setae in the 
adult. No tibial spurs on anterior leg of male. In the typical 
form the tarsus of the palp is long and subcylindrical, and over- 
Japs the palpal organ. 

Type, /. hoi ose rice its, Auss. S. Europe. 

Distribution. Mediterranean district of Palaearctic fi-egion, and 
possibly the Oriental Eegion. 

The Indian species here referred to this genus may be 
diagnosed as follows * : — 

a. Legs without spines I. brevipes, p. 183. 

.b. Legs, especially on tibiae and protarsi of 3rd and 
4th pairs, with many spines. 
a 1 . Abdomen ornamented above with oblique pale 

spots /. ornatus, p. 184. 

b 1 . Abdomen not spotted above I. linteatus, p. 183. 

167. Ischnocolus linteatus, Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Ft. lx, p. 308 

1891. 

5 . Colour : integument blackish, hairy clothing yellowish. 
Carapace with fovea small and transverse ; eyes of anterior line 
subequal, the medians scarcely larger than the laterals. Labium 
not much wider than loug ; the spinules arranged in three trans- 
verse series. Anterior legs with protarsi scarcely longer than the 
tarsi, armed with a single apical spine below ; tibiae unarmed ; 
posterior legs strongly spined. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 13, carapace 0, width of 
carapace 4*5. 

Loc. S.India: Pondicherry. 

This species probably belongs to the genus Plesiophrictus. 

168. Ischnocolus brevipes, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xxxvii, 

p. 170, 1897. 

J. Colour of integument blackish, of hairy coating pale 
ferruginous. Carapace low ; fovea slightly procurved, scarcely 
longer than patella and tibia of 1st, distinctly longer than those of 

* It is doubtful if any of tli^se species really belong to Ischnocolus. 



184 



TIIEKAPIIOSIDjE. 



4th leg. Legs short, without spines, except two at the tip of each 
of the posterior protarsi below. 

<S . Carapace a little shorter than patella and tibia of 1st, a 
little longer than those of 4th leg. Palpal organ with spine very 
long and almost sernicircularly curved. 

Measurements in mm. — £. Total length 18*5, carapace 7, 1st 
leg and 4th leg 18. 6 • Total length 15, carapace 7, 1st leg 21-5, 
4th 19. 

Loc. Burma : Mooleyit in Tenasserim and Yado in Karennee 
(Fea). 

169. Ischnocolus omatus, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxvii 
p. 173, 1897. 

§ • Colour much as in the preceding species, but the abdomen 
ornamented above with small, sub-oblique pale spots, arranged in 
two longitudinal rows. Carapace with straight thoracic fovea, 
longer than patella and tibia of 1st and of 4th legs. Patella and 
tibia of 1st leg a little longer than those of 4th ; anterior legs with 
a single inferior apical protarsal spine ; tibiae and protarsi of 3rd 
aud 4th legs spined. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 12, carapace 6, 1st leg 14, 
4th 15-5. 

Loc. Burma : Prome (Fea). 

Subfamily THRIGMOPCEIN^, nov. 

A stridulating-organ present between the mandible and the 
basal segment of the palp (maxilla). On the mandible some of 
the hairs which form the posterior portion of the oral fringe are 




Fig. 58.— External surface of 
mandible of llirigmopoeus 
iitsiffnis. a. Cluster of 
bristles. 



■Mm 




Fig. 59. — Inner surface of 
maxilla of Tkrigmopceus 
insignis. a. Crest bearing 
spinules. 



modified to form a small cluster of vibratile bristles (fig. 58, a) y 
and on the adjacent surface of the maxilla there are regularly or 
irregularly arranged stiff aciculate bristles (fig. 59, a) which scrape 
against those on the mandible when the maxilla is moved up and 
down. 

Distribution. S. India. 



HAPLOCLASTUS. 185 

8yno2)sis of Indian Genera. 

a. Stridulating bristles on maxilla irregularly 

scattered Haploclastus, p. 186. 

b. Stridulating bristles on maxilla arranged in a 

delinite curved series Thbigmopceus, p. 180. 

Genus HAPLOCLASTUS, Simon. 

Haploclastus, Simon, Hist. Nat. Araiyn. i, p. 152, 1892 ; Pocock r 
A. M. N. II. ((i) xv, p. 169, 1895. * 

Carapace low ; fovea straight ; ocular tubercle wider than long j 
eyes of anterior line subeuual, a little procurved. Mandible 
furnished below externally with a few irregularly arranged, long, 
stout, but apically filiform bristles mixed up with the hairs of the 
oral fringe. Maxilla furnished on its inner side with scattered, 
irregularly arranged, longer and shorter spines and spiniform 
bristles. Legs without spines ; protarsus of 1st and 2nd scopulate 
to the base, of 3rd scopulate in its distal half, of 4th scopulate 
apically, the scopula divided ; tarsal scopulae entire, except that of 
4th leg which is divided in its basal half. 

Type, H. cervinus, Simon. 

Distribution. S.. India. 

iSyno2)sis of Species. 

a. 4th leg as long as 1st and longer than 2nd .... II. cervinus, p. 185. 

b. 4th leg shorter than 1st and 2nd II. nilyirinus, p. 186 

170. Haploclastus nilgirinus, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, 

p. 747, 18!)i>. 

Colour : carapace black, clothed like the limbs and abdomen with 
brownish-yellow hairs ; sternum, coxae, and lower side of femora 
at least of 1st and 2nd legs velvety black. Carapace about one- 
fourth longer than wide, moderately high and convex : fovea large, 
slightly procurved ; length of carapace almost equal to patella and 
tibia of 1st leg, slightly greater than those of 2nd and of 4th, 
longer also than protarsus and tarsus of 4th. Patella and tibia of 
2nd leg slightly longer than of 4th. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 52, carapace 24, length of 
1st leg 04, 2nd 60, 3rd 48, 4th 58. 

Loc. Nilgiri Hills {Daly). 

171. Haploclastus cervinus, Simon. Hid. Nat. Araign. i, p. 152,. 

1892. 

Colour: integument blackish, hairs ferruginous. Carapaa 
low. Legs moderately long, the 1st pair scarcely longer than 
the 4th. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length about 30, length of cara- 
pace 15, width 1 1 ; length of 1st leg 39, 2nd 27, 3rd 31'2, 
4th 38-8. 

Loc. Palni Hills in 8. India. 

This species is probably based upon a young specimen. 



186 THERAPHOSID.E. 

Genus THRIGMOPffiUS, Poeock. 
Thrigmopoeus, Poeock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, p. 747, 1899. 

Closelv allied to Haploclastus, but with the stridulating area on 
mandible consisting of a large semicircular cluster of many curved, 
thickened, but pointed bristles ; on the maxilla the aciculate 
bristles above the suture are arranged without definite order, but 
below the suture there is a definite curved vertical row of these 
bristles near the middle of the segmeut, the area behind this row 
being smooth and in front of it furnished with many bristles 
arranged without order. Protarsi of 3rd and 4th legs armed 
apieally with marginal spines both above and below. 

Type, T. insignis, Poeock. 

Distribution. Western India. 

Synopsis of Species. 

,a. Fovea as wide as ocular tubercle ; carapace 

longer than patella and tibia of 2nd leg, 

equal to those of 4th T. insignis, p. 186. 

b. Fovea less than width of tubercle ; carapace 

shorter than patella and tibia of 2nd leg 

and than those of 4th T. truculentus, p. 186. 

172. Thrigmopoeus insignis, Poeock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, p. 747, 

1899. 

2 . Colour : integument blackish, hairs on carapace yellowish 
brown, darker on upper side of legs ; velvety black on sternum, 
coxa?, and lower side of femora and abdomen. Carapace nearly 
one-third longer than broad, moderately high ; fovea as wide as 
ocular tubercle, lightly procurved ; length of carapace equal to that 
•of patella and tibia of 4th leg, slightly shorter than those of 1st, 
a little longer than patella and tibia of 2nd and than protarsus and 
tarsus of 4th. First leg less than three times the length of the 
carapace, 3rd a little more than twice the length ; patella and 
tibia of 3rd as long as width of carapace. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 55, length of carapace 27 ; 
length of 1st leg 76, of 2nd 68, of 3rd 56, of 4th 73. 

Loc. Kanara Ghats {Bell). 

173. Thrigmopoeus trucillentllS, Poeock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, 
p. 748, 1899. 

Smaller and paler in colour than the preceding species ; carapace 
lower ; fovea less than width of ocular tubercle ; length of carapace 
less than that of patella and tibia and than protarsus and tarsus of 
4th leg, less also than patella and tibia of 2nd and than protarsus 
and tarsus of 4th. Legs longer, 1st leg nearly three and a half 
times as long as carapace. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 40, length of carapace 19 ; 
length of 1st leg 65, 2nd 57, 3rd 44, 4th 62. 

Loc. India : Karwar (Bombay N. 11. Soc). 



SELENOCOSMIINJE. 



187 



Subfamily SELENOCOSMIINiE. 

A stridulating organ present between the mandible and maxilla, 
and consisting of a row or cluster of vibratile bacilliform bristles 
•on tbe maxilla (fig. 61) and of spines or spiniform bristles upon 



. ■ 




'yr* 



Fig. 00. — Outer surface of man- 
dible of Chilobrachys masoni. 
a, stridulating spikes. 




/' 



Fig. 61. — Inner surface of maxilla 
of Chilobrachys masoni, showing 
series of bacilliform spines. 



the lower portion of the outer surface of the mandible (fig. 60, a). 
Legs without spines or with a few only at the extremity of the 
protarsi. Tibia of anterior leg in male not spurred. Posterior 
sternal sigilla remote from the margin. 

Distribution. Hanging from India and Ceylon to Australia. 



Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

a. Legs of 4th pair much thicker than those 

of 1st, with the protarsal scopula entire 

and extending to base of segment Lyrognathus, p. 202. 

b. Legs of 4th pair weaker than those of 1st 

pair, with the protarsal scopula divided 
and apical. 
a 1 . Thoracic fovea transversely linear ; one 
or more tubercles intermixed with the 

bacilliform bristles on maxilla Pcecilotuekia, p. 188. 

b 1 . Thoracic fovea crescentically procurved ; 

no tubercles amongst bacilli on maxilla. 

«". Stridulating organ consisting of shorl 

spines on mandible and of a single or 

double row of bacilli overlapped by 

a fringe of hairs on maxilla Chilobrachys, p. 192. 

b 2 . Stridulating organ consisting of spini- 
form setae on mandible and of an 
oval (duster of bacilli without fringe 
of hairs on maxilla. 
a 3 . Tarsal scopula' of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 

legs undivided ; no inferior claw . Ski.knoi osmia, p. 200. 
b 3 . Tarsal scopuke of all legs divided ; 
inferior claw retained on posterior 
leg Puj.ogiellus, p. 202. 



188 THERAPHOSLD^. 

Genus PCECILOTHERIA, Simon. 

Pcecilotheria, Simon, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, x, p. 38, 1885 ; Pocock, 

A. M. N. H. (6) xv, p. 170, 1895. 
Scurria, C. Koch, Uebersicht Arachn. v, p. 74, 1850 (nom. praeocc). 

Very large, variegated Spiders with the carapace flatfish ; fovea 
small, straight ; ocular tubercle low ; ocular area more than twice 
as long as wide ; eyes of anterior line nearly equidistant, pro- 
curved, centres of the laterals slightly in front of the anterior 
edge of the medians. Mandible furnished externally in its lower 
half with many short spines. Maxilla with its bacilliform spines 
few in number, arranged in a single row, and accompanied by one 
or more black tooth-like tubercles ; between the row of bacilli and 
the suture there is a thick fringe of hairs. Legs without spines ; 
scopulse of the anterior pairs very thick. Palpal organ of <J piri- 
form, the spine thick, short, and strongly and spirally crested. 

Type, P. faseiata, Latr. 

Distribution. India and Ceylon. 

Habits. Live in trees or in the thatch of houses. 

Synopsis of Species. 

a. Femora of legs black below, or marked with 

a single basal or apical pale patch. 
a 1 . Femora of 1st and 2nd legs with a large 

yellow patch at base P. rujilata, p. 189. 

b 1 . No pale patch at base of femora. 

a 2 . Appendages not conspicuously banded 
above, dark below, with yellow basal 

patch on tibiae P. metallica, p. 189. 

b 2 . Appendages strongly banded above, 
femora and tibia? pale at apex above 
and tibia) pale at base below. 
a 3 . Palp black below ; patellae of legs 

white above and below P. miranda, p. 190. 

b 3 . Palp with yellow patch at apex of 
femur, base of patella, and base and 
apex of tibia beneath ; patellae of 
legs black in basal half P. subfusca, p. 190; 

b. Femora of legs whitish or sulphur-yellow 

below and inside, those of 1st and 2nd legs 
with black stripe in distal half. 
a 4 . Lower side of abdomen with large trans- 
verse reddish band behind epigastric fold. P. reyalis, p. 190. 
a 4 . No pale band on lower side of abdomen. 
a 5 . Tibia of palp blackish beneath ; 1st 
leg less than twice as long as cara- 
pace, which equals its patella and tibia. P. formosa, p. 191. 
b s . Tibia of palp pale beneath ; 1st leg 
more than three times as long as 
carapace, which is less than its patella 
and tibia. 
a 6 . Ground-colour of auterior legs 
whitish, femora of 3rd and 4th 
uniformly greyish brown, not 
banded P. vittata, p. 192. 



PCECILOTHERIA. 189 

b e . Ground-colour of anterior legs sul- 
phur-yellow ; femora of 3rd and 
4th bluish grey. 
a 7 . Anterior femora without distinct 
basal black patch beneath; the 
distal black stripe nearly as wide 

as the yellow basal area P. striata, p. 191. 

IP. Anterior femora with distinct 
basal black patch; distal black 
stripe much narrower than yel- 
low basal area. 
a". Black bands on femora very 
narrow, often absent on femur 

of 4th leg P. fasciata, p. 192. 

b H . Black bands on femora broad, 
very broad on femur of 3rd and 
4th legs P. ornata, p. 192. 

174. Pcecilotheria rufilata, Pococh, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, p. 746, 
1899. 

J. Colour a tolerably uniform greyish red above, only obscurely 
mottled ; lower side of abdomen, sternum, coxae, and trochanters 
velvety black ; femur of palp metallic black, with paler distal end ; 
patella and tibia yellowish grey, furnished with long red bristles 
beneath; 1st and 2nd legs with femora and tibia; black with 
metallic reflections below, but ornamented at the base in front 
with a large yellow patch, patellae yellowish brown; 3rd and 4th 
legs a tolerably uniform yellowish brown, clothed like the anterior 
legs with long greyish or reddish bristles. 1st and 4th legs sub- 
equal in length and about four times the length of the carapace. 
Spine of palpal organ very strongly carinate. 

5 . 1st leg much longer than 4th and a little more than three 
times as long as carapace, which slightly exceeds the patella and 
tibia of the 4th. 

Measurements in mm. — £. Total length 60, carapace 30, 1st 
leg 92, 4th leg 81. 

3. Total length 32, carapace 17, 1st leg 70, 4th 70. 

Loe. Trivandrum in Travancore (Ferguson). 

175. Pcecilotheria metallica, Pocock,A. M. N. H. (7) iii,p. 93, pi. %ii, 
fig. 3, 1899. 

5 . Colour of upper side of body much as in /'. subfusca (p. 190), 
but the central pale area on the carapace broader, pale band on 
abdomen less clearly defined ; upper side of legs and palpi not 
transversely banded ; under side of limbs entirely dark brown, with 
metallic blue reflections on the anterior pair, and an orange-yellow 
spot on the base of the tibiae of the legs. 1st and Itb legt about 
twice and a Fourth as long as carapace, which is a little longer 
than patella and tibia of 2nd and of 4th le^s. 

Measurements in mm. — Total Length 52, carapace 23*5, l-t leg 65, 
2nd 59, 3rd 52, 4th (54. 

hoc. S. India : Gooty (Carter). 



190 THERAPHOSID.E. 

170. Pcecilotheria miranda, sp. n. 

$ . Colour : carapace greyish, with a pair of ill-defined brownish 
bands on each side of the middle line ; the pale abdominal stripe 
broken up by a row of four large brown spots ; legs variegated 
above, patellae entirely white above and below except for a small 
dark spot on those of the 3rd and 4th legs : femora entirely velvety 
black below ; tibiae white with median black stripe ; protarsi dark 
below, with pale basal patch ; palpi uniformly dark below. First 
ley about three times, 4th about two and three quarter times as 
long as carapace, which is as long as patella aud tibia of 2nd or of 
4th leg. Femora of palp and anterior legs fringed. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 46, carapace 22, 1st leg 64, 
2nd 58, 3rd 51, 4th 62. 

Loc. Bengal : Chota Nagpur (Logsdail). 

177. Pcecilotheria subfusca, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) xv, p. 171, 1895 ; 

id. op. at. (7) hi, p. 88, 1899. 

5 . Colour : carapace brown, paler laterally, with narrow white 
lines radiating from the fovea ; pale abdominal band broken up par- 
tially or completely into two rows of spots ; legs coloured above 
much as in P. miranda, but patellae dark, each with broad pale basal 
band and apical pale spot and a much narrower pale area on base 
of protarsus ; palp with patella and base of tibia pale below; legs 
mostly black below, femora with narrow pale distal stripe, patellae 
with basal white patch, tibiae with small pale patch at base and at 
distal end, protarsus also with pale patch in front. Carapace about 
equal to the patella and tibia of 4th and a little less than those 
segments of 2nd leg. 

o* • Like female in colour ; 1st and 4th legs only slightly unequal 
and about four times as long as carapace. 

Measurements in mm. — 5 . Total length 50, carapace 23, 1st leg 
68, 2nd 63, 3rd 54, 4th 64. 

6 . Total length 31, carapace 15, 1st leg 62, 2nd 56, 3rd 48, 
4th 60. 

Loc. Ceylon : Punduloya and Kandy (Green) ; Peradeniya 
(Freeman). 

178. Pcecilotheria regalis, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (7) iii, p. 89, t. vii, 

figs. 1-1 b, 1899. 

5 . Colour : carapace greyish, marked in the middle with a pair of 
longitudinal dark stripes; abdomen with a broad whitish, marginally 
sinuous band, edged with black, whence black stripes pass laterally 
on to the sides of the abdomen ; coxae, sternum, and lower side of 
abdomen deep chocolate-brown, a broad transverse yellowish-red band 
behind the epigastric fold ; upper side of legs and palpi variegated 
with grey and black, femora black, patellae and tibiae whitish below ; 
lower and under sides of femora, patella 1 , and tibiae of 1st and 2nd 
legs bright sulphur-yellow, of 3rd and -1th bluish white; femora 
and tibia' each ornamented with a broad blackish stripe, which on 



PCKCILOTHEBIA. 191 

the femora is narrower than the pale hasal area, but much broader 
than the pale distal area ; a very narrow basal stripe on inner side 
of femora. Carapace almost equal to patella and tibia of 2nd leg. 
Femora of palp and of 1st and 2nd legs fringed externally and 
internally at apex. Male smaller than female and much morn 
uniformly coloured above. 

Measurements in mm. — 5 . Total length 53, carapace 25, 1st leg 
75, 2nd 65, 3rd 55, 4th 07. 

3 . Total length 32, carapace 17-5, 1st leg 73, 2nd 63, 3rd 52-5,. 
4th 65. 

Loo. Southern and Western India : Xilgiri Hills (Oates) ; Coorg ; 
Arkonam in the north Arcot District (Carter)- Matheran {Phvp- 
son) ; Dahanu in Thana District. (Edie). 

179. Pcecilotheria striata, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) xv, p. 172, 1895; 

id. op. cit. (7) iii, p. 89, 1899. 

§ . Closely resembling P. regalis in colours &c, but with no 
band on lower side of abdomen and the yellow o7i the femora more 
orange in tint. Legs longer than in P. regalis (cf. measurements) ; 
carapace much shorter than patella and tibia of 1st leg, shorter 
also than those of 4th. 

Measurements in mm.- — Total length 45, carapace 25 ; 1st leg 85, 
2nd 72, 3rd 59, 4th 74 ; patella and tibia of 1st leg 31, of 4th 
20, protarsus of 4th 19. 

Distribution. S. India: Mysore; Trivandrum in Travancore 
(Ferguson) *. 

180. Pcecilotheria lormosa, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (7) iii, p. 91, 

1899. 

2 . Colour of upper side much like that of P. regalis, but the 
brown bands on the carapace broader ; the pale band on the 
abdomen less lobate posteriorly ; pale band at extremity of tibiae 
and protarsi broader ; no distinct spots on upper side of tarsi ; 
lower side of the tibia of the palp brown, and the basal segments 
of the legs much more uniformly dirty white ; a large basal black 
patch on the anterior femora ; femora of the 3rd and 4th pairs not 
or hardly banded distally ; no pale band on lower side of abdomen. 
Legs shorter than in /'. regalis (cf. measurements). Carapace 
longer than patella and tibia of 2nd leg. Femora of palpi and of 
anterior legs scarcely fringed. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 54, carapace 26, 1st leg 69, 
2nd leg 61, 3rd leg 54, 4th leg 65. 

hoc. S. India: Kadiampatti and .Malhipuram in the Salem 
District {Carter &c West). 

*JTlie type of the species is ticketed " Penang (Hardvricke)." No doubt, how- 
ever, the locality ia erroi eons, Bincetbe speciee has of late years been discovered 

in S. India, but lias nut been obtained in Penang, 



192 THERAPHOSID7E. 

181. Pcecilotheria vittata, Pocock,A. M. N. II. (6) xv, p. 172, 1895 

id. op. cit. (7) iii, p. 89, 1899. 

cJ . Colour a tolerably uniform yellowish olive above ; femora of 
1st and 2nd legs dirty white below without basal black patch, the 
black band twice as broad as the pale distal area, patellae pale 
below, tibiae with pale extremities ; femora of 3rd and 4th legs uni- 
formly dark, with greyish-pink bristles, tibiae paler at base. Legs 
practically as in P. regdlis as regards length &c. 

Measurements in mm.—- Total length 31, carapace 17, ]st leg 72, 
2nd 63, 3rd 57, 4th 66. 

Loc. India or Ceylon (exact place unknown). 

182. Pcecilotheria fasciata, LatreiMe, Nouv. Diet. oVHist. Nat. xv, 

p. 304, 1803 ; C. Koch, Arachn. ix, p. 41, p. 717, 1842 (Mygale). 

2 . Colour as in P. regdlis and formosa, but with a black basal 
patch in front on anterior femora, the black stripe only one-third 
as wide as the pale basal area and not or scarcely wider than the 
pale distal area : stripe on femur of 3rd leg also narrow and on 4th 
very narrow or incomplete. Legs without or with weak femoral 
fringes, shorter than in P. striata (cf. measurements) ; carapace 
slightlv exceeding patella and tibia of 4th. 

cS . Like female in colour, but with pattern of upper side 
indistinct. 

Measurements in mm. — $ . Total length 46, carapace 24, 1st 
leg 77, 4th 67. 

S . Total length 35, carapace 16*5, 1st leg 66, 4th 60. 

Loc. Ceylon : Trincomali (Bassett-Smith) ; Kandy (Yerbury 4' 
Green); Punduloya (Green). 

Simon (Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 1885, p. 38) records P. fascia ta from 
Madura, S. India. The specimen so named is perhaps referable 
to P. regdlis or P. formosa. 

183. Pcecilotheria ornata, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (7) iii, p. 93, 1899. 

2 . Colour like that of P. fasciata, but the femoral stripes much 
broader, that on 4th leg complete and as broad as the pale basal area ; 
on 3rd broader than the pale basal area, on 1st and 2nd much 
broader than pale distal area and half as broad as pale basal area. 
Legs with thick femoral fringe. Carapace shorter than patella 
and tibia of 1st or of 4th leg. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 46, carapace 19, 1st leg 64, 
2nd 58, 3rd 49, 4th 61. 

Loc. S. Ceylon : Ratnapura (Burrows). 

Genus CHILOBRACHYS, Karsch. 

Chilobrachys, Karsch, Berl. cut. Zeits. xxxvi, p. 270, 1892; Pocock, 

A. M. N. II. (0) xv, p. 171, 1895. 
Musagatus, Pocock, A. M. N. II. (6) xv, p. 171, 1895. 



CHILOBItACHYS. 193 

Large or small, mostlv dull-coloured, Spiders, differing from 
Pcecil other ia in having the carapace less Hat, the fovea crescenticullv 
procurved, the eyes of the anterior line practically straight, the 
spines on the mandible and the bacilli on the maxilla more Dumer 
ou.3, and in the series of bacilli not being accompanied by tubercles. 
Legs with scopulae narrower and with spines at the tip of protarsi. 
Palpal organ of the male ending in a long and slender or in a shorter 
blade-like spine. 

Type, C. nitelinus, Karsch. 

Distribution. India, Ceylon, and Burma. 

Habits. Live on the ground in burrows or in natural crevices. 



Synopsis of Indian Sjyecies. 
Males. 

a. Carapace shorter than protarsus of 4th and not 

exceeding patella and tibia of 3rd leg C. andersoni, p. L97. 

b. Carapace longer than protarsus of 4th and 

than patella and tibia of 3rd leg. 
a\ Carapace as long as patella and tibia of 1st 

or of 4th leg C. femoralis, p. 195. 

b l . Carapace shorter than patella and tibia of 
1st or of 4th leg. 

a 2 . Palpus twice as long as carapace C. nitelinus, p. 197. 

b 2 . Palpus much less than twice as long as 

carapace. 

a 3 . Spine of palpal organ stout, blade-like, 

abruptly narrowed at the point. 

a 4 . Femora of palpi and of 1st and 2nd 

legs sooty black below and externally 

fringed C.fimbriatus, p. 195. 

b l . Femora of palpi and of 1st and 
2nd legs particoloured below ; not 
fringed. 
a'\ Width of carapace exceeding tibia 

of 1st or protarsus of 4th leg .... C. bicolor, p. 196. 
6\ "Width of carapace equal to tibia 

of 1st and less than protarsus of [p. L96. 

4th leg Cflavo-pih 

b 3 . Spine of palpal organ slender, attenuate. 

a 6 . Area of palpal bulb remote from base 

of spine, produced into an angulif orm 

prominence C. thorellii, p. 199. 

b R . Palpal bulb with scarcely a trace of 
prominence. 
a 1 . Fringe of hairs overlapping bacilli 
on maxilla olive; hairs of body 

and legs blackish C. pocockii, p. 1 

6 7 . Fringe on maxilla shining red ; 
hairs of body and legs brown 
a 8 . Femora of leffa scantily clothed 



with long hairs; carapace ju.-t 

exceeding protarsus vi' 4th leg. (_'. stridulans, p 198 



o 



194 THEItAPHOSID^:. 

b 8 . Femora of legs with many long 
hairs ; carapace considerably 
exceeding protarsus of 4th leg. 
«*. Carapace shorter than patella 

and tibia of 2nd leg C. hardwickii, p. 198. 

ft . Carapace a little longer than 

patella and tibia of 2nd leg. . C. sericeus, p. 199. 

Females. 

a. Underside of palpi and of 1st and 2nd legs 

black internally, yellow externally. 
a 1 . 4th leg a little longer than 1st; protarsus 

and tarsus of 4th longer than carapace . . C.Jlavo-pilosus,\>.\9Q>. 
ft 1 . 4tb leg much shorter than 1st; protarsus 

and tarsus of 4th shorter than carapace . . C. bicolor, p. 196. 

b. Palpi and anterior legs uniformly coloured 

beneath. 
a 2 . Spicules on outer side of mandible arranged 

in very definite parallel rows C.fumosus, p. 196. 

ft 2 . Spicules on outer side of mandible irregu- 
larly arranged. 
a 3 . Femora of palp and of anterior legs fringed 

externally; 1st leg much longer than 4th. C. fimbriatus, p. 195. 
ft 3 . Femora of palp and of anterior legs not 
fringed ; 1st leg not longer than 4th. 
ffi 4 . Carapace much shorter than patella and 
tibia of 1st leg. 
a 5 . Sternum and legs sooty blackbeneath; 

legs with pale bands above C. masoni, p. 197. 

ft'. Sternum and legs brown beneath ; 

legs not banded above C. andersoni, p. 197. 

ft 4 . Carapace not much or scarcely shorter 
than patella and tibia of 1st leg. 
a 6 . Hairy clothing of body and limbs 
blackish ; fringe overlapping bacilli 

on maxilla olive-green C. pocockii, p. 195. 

b 6 . Hairy clothing of body and limbs 

yellowish or greyish brown; fringe 

on maxilla shining red. 

a 7 . Width of head about equal to 

length of 4th protarsus. 

a 8 . Size large : carapace about 

17 mm. long C. hardwickii, p. 198. 

b 8 . Size small : carapace about 

12 mm. long C. nitelinus, p. 197. 

ft 7 . Width of head much less than 
length of 4th protarsus. 
a 9 . 4th leg long, almost three times 

as long as carapace ; paler .... C. sericeus, p. 199. 
ft 9 . 4th leg short, about two and 
a half times the length of the 
carapace ; darker C. brevipes, p. 199. 



CHILOB11AC11YS. 195 

184. Chilobrachys fimbriatus, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. II. Soc. xii, 
p. 740, 1899. 

5 . Colour : integument blackish, covered above with yellowish 
hairs, intermixed with reddish bristles on the limbs and abdomen ; 
abdomen marked with narrow dark stripes above, velvety black 
below, like under side of the limbs. Carapace as long as patella 
and tibia of 1st leg, much longer than those of the 4th, and a little 
longer than protarsus and tarsus of 4th. 1st leg longer than 4th ; 
femora of palpi and anterior legs thickly fringed externally. 

c? . Carapace shorter than patella and tibia of 2nd leg, as long 
as protarsus and half the tarsus of the 4th. Femur of 3rd leg thick. 
Spine of palpal organ thick, blade-like, abruptly narrowed at the 
point. 

Measurements in mm. — 2 . Total length 45, carapace 26, 1st leg 
67, 2nd 59, 3rd 51, 4th 63, patella and tibia of 4th 23. 

3 . Total length 30, carapace 16, 1st leg 54, 2nd 48, 3rd 39, 
4th 53, patella and tibia of 1st 21-5, of 4th 13-5. 

Loc. Western India : Khandabi (Phipson); Jaoli in Satara 
(Master). 

185. Chilobrachys femoralis, sp. n. 

J . Colour : integument jet-black ; hairs on carapace golden 
yellow, elsewhere duller yellow and intermixed with red bristles. 
Carapace as long as patella and tibia of 1st or of 4th legs, longer 
than those of 2nd, and almost as long as protarsus and tarsus of 
4th, very slightly longer than patella, tibia, and tarsus of palp. 
Legs short, 1st and 4th almost equal ; femur of 3rd very thick. 
Palpal organ with spine thickish and blade-like, abruptly narrowed 
and pointed apically. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 22, carapace 11, 1st leg 31, 
2nd 28, 3rd 25, 4th 32-5, patella and tibia of 1st 11-5, of 4th 
11-5. 

Loc. Western India : Nasik (Millet). 

186. Chilobrachys pocockii, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxvii, 

p. 180, 1897 (Musagetes). 

2 . Colour : integument blackish, hairy clothing deep olive- 
brown. Carapace as long as patella and tibia of 1st, longer than 
those of 4th, and almost as long as protarsus and tarsus of 4th leg. 
Fringe overhanging stridulating bacilli olive-green, not bright red 
as in the other species ; the bacilli set several rows deep, except at 
the two ends of the cluster. 

cS . Carapace shorter than patella and tibia of 2nd, less than 
protarsus and half the tarsus of 4th leg. Spine of palpal organ 
slender, very long, strongly curved, its distal half bent nearly at 
right angles, the point slightly expanded. 

*M,«surements in mm. — £ . Total length 46, carapace 20, 1st leg 
53, 2nd 45, 3rd 41, 4th 54, patella and tibia of 4th L8. 



o2 



196 THERAPHOSIDiE. 

6 . Total length 27, carapace 14, palp 23, 1st leg 48, 2nd 14, 
3rd 36, 4th 48-5, patella and tibia of 4th 16, of 1st 19. 
Loc. Upper Burma : Thao and Bia-po in Karennee (Fen). 

187. Chilobrachys bicolor, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) xv, p. 172, 1895 

(Musagetes). 

5 . Colour : carapace and abdomen covered with yellowish- 
brown hairs ; legs similarly coloured, with the femora much darker 
and the inner and anterior half of the under side of the 1st and 2nd 
pairs velvety black. Carapace as long as patella and tibia of 1st leg, 
longer than those of 4th, and much longer than protarsus and 
tarsus of 4th ; width of head equal to 4th protarsus. 1st leg longer 
than 4th. 

S . Carapace exceeding protarsus and half the tarsus of the 4th 
leg, scarcely shorter than patella and tibia of 2nd, a little shorter 
than those of 4th. Spine of p>alpal organ broad and flattened, with 
slight spiral twist and a sharp point (fig. 62, D, p. 198). 

Measurements in mm. — $ . Total length 49, carapace 22, 1st leg 
56, 2nd 48, 3rd 42, 4th 52, patella and" tibia of 1st 22. 

6. Total length 35, carapace 19, palp 30, 1st leg 60, 2nd 53, 
3rd 46, 4th 58, patella and tibia of 1st leg 24, of 4th 20. 

Loc. Upper Burma: Kyaukse (Oatcs) ; Myingya (Watson). 

188. Chilobrachys flavo-pilosus, Simon, Ann. Mm. Genova, xx, p. 358, 

1884 (Phrictus) : cervinus, Thorell, Spiders of Burma, p. 5, 1895, 
in part, £ : fuliffineus, id. op. cit. p. 8, in part (Phlogius) : deci- 
piens, id. Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxvii, p. 179, 1897 (Musagetes). 

Resembling C. bicolor in colour, but smaller and with longer 
legs. 

$ . Carapace at most slightly longer than patella and tibia ami 
a little shorter than protarsus and tarsus of 4th leg ; 4th leg a little 
longer than 1st. 

S . 4th and 1st legs subequal. Palpal organ with spine weaker 
than in C. bicolor. 

Measurements in mm. — £ • Total length 37, carapace 15*5, 1st leg 
42, 2nd 37, 3rd 33, 4th 43, patella and tibia of 4th 15, of 1st 16-5. 

8 . Total length 35, carapace 16-5, palp 27, 1st leg 54, 2nd 49, 
3rd 43-5, 4th 54, patella and tibia of 4th 18-5. 

Loc. Burma: Minhla (Comotto) ; Thavctmyo and Tharrawaddy 
(Oates). 



189. Chilobrachys fivmosns, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) xv, p. 174, pi. x. 
tig. 7, 1895 (Musagetes). 

2 . Colour of integument and hairs mostly blackish, the longer 
bristles reddish. Distinguishable from the rest of the species by 
having the spicules on the mandible arranged in four definite 
parallel rows. Carapace a little longer than patella and tibia of 1st 



CHILOBRACHYS. 197 

or 4th legs, only a little shorter than protarsus and tarsus of 4th. 
4th ley much lunger than 1st. 

Measurements in mm. — Total leugth 30, carapace 18, 1st leg 
44, 2nd 39, 3rd 37'5, 4th 50, patella and tibia of 1st 17, of 
4th 16. 

Loc. North India. 

L90. Chilobrachys niasoni, Pocock, A. M. N. II. (0) xv, p. 174, pi. x, 
fig. 6, 18 ( J5 (Musagetes). 

Colour: integumeut clothed with yellowish-brown hairs above, 
velvety black on lower surface of body and limbs ; upper side of 
limbs with narrow pale longitudinal lines, and on the apices of the 
segments with narrow transverse pale bands. Carapace shorter 
than patella and tibia of 1st, longer than those of 2nd, equal to 
those of the 4th leg, nearly as long as protarsus and tarsus of 4th ; 
width of head much less than protarsus of 4th. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 41, carapace 20, 1st leg 54, 
2nd 49, 3rd 44, 4th 57, patella and tibia of 1st leg 22, of 4th 20. 

Loc. Assam : Sylhet. 

191. Chilobrachys andersoni, Pocock, A. M. X. II. (6) xv, p. 172, 

1895, § (Musagetes) : cervinus, Thoreli, Spiders of Burma, p. 5, 
1895, iu part, 3 (Phlogius): ruib-fuscus, Thoreli, Ann. Mus. 
Genova, xxxvii, p. 177, 1897, $ (Musagetes). 

2 . Principally differing from C. masoni in being uniformly 
coloured with yellowish-brown hairs. 

$ . Distinguishable by the great length of the legs; carapace con- 
siderably shorter than protarsus of 4th, equal to patella and tibia of 
3rd leg. Leys of 4th pair more than four times as long as carapace. 
Palpal oryan with spine stout, bicarinate, attenuate, with a small 
blunt point. 

Measurements in mm. — § . Total length 54, carapace 25, 1st leg 
68, 4th 72, patella and tibia of 4th 24. 

3 . Total length 30, carapace 14, palp 28, 2nd leg 51, 3rd 44, 
4th 60, patella and tibia of 4th 19, protarsus 16. 

Loc. Tenasserim (Gates) ; Mergui (Anderson); Kawkareet (Fea). 

192. Chilobrachys nitelinus, Karsch, Berl. ent. Zeits. xxxvi, p. 270, 

t. x, tig. 2, 1892. 

2 . Colour : integument deep brown, hairy clothing yellowish 
brown. Carapace about as long as patella and tibia of 1st leg, 
longer than those of 4th and than protarsus and tarsus of 4th; 
width of head about equal to length of 4th protarsus. 

d . Carapace a little less than patella and tibia of 2nd leg, a little 
longer than protarsus of 4th. Palp long, about twice the length 
of the carapace; spine of organ curved, pointed; bulb without 
prominence. 

Measurements in nun. — $ . Total length 26, carapace 12, 1st leg 



198 THERAPHOSID^. 

30, 2nd 26, 3rd 23, 4th 31-5, patella and tibia of 1st 11-5, of 4th 
11-3. 

3. Total length 16, carapace 9, palp 18, 1st leg 32, 2nd 28, 
3rd 25, 4th 34, patella and tibia of 1st 11-5, of 4th 11. 

Loc. Ceylon (Sarasin) : Punduloya and Dikoya (Green). 

193. Chilobrachys hardwickii, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) xv, p. 174 r 
1895. 

5 . Resembling that of C. nitelinus, but much larger ; legs of 
1st and 4th pairs subequal, patella and tibia of 1st leg distinctly 
longer than of 4th. 

$ . Carapace shorter than patella and tibia of 2nd leg, equal to 
protarsus and half the tarsus of the 4th, more than half the length 
of the palpus. Legs with femora thickly clothed with bristles 
beneath. Bulb of palpal organ without -anterior prominence, the 
spine longish, attenuate, pointed at apex (fig. 62, C). 

Measurements in mm. — $ . Total length 34, carapace 18, 1st leg 
43, 3rd 34, 4th 43, patella and tibia of 1st leg 17-3, of 
4th 15. 

J . Total length 27, carapace 14, palpus 23, 1st leg 46, 2nd 40, 
3rd 34, 4th 44, patella and tibia of 1st leg 18-5, of 4th 16. 

Loc. Shahjahanpur in North-west Provinces ; Bilaspur in 
Central Provinces (Phipson) ; Chota Nagpur (Logsdail) ; Burdwan 
(Hardivicke). 



194. Chilobrachys stridulans, Wood-Mason, P. A. S. B. 1875, p. 197 

id. Tr. Ent. Soc. 1877, p. 281, pi. vii (Mygale). 

A B Allied to C. Jiardwiclai, but with the 

appendages less hairy and longer. Cara- 
p>ace shorter than the patella, tibia, and 
half the tarsus of the palp, and just 
exceeding the protarsus of the 4th leg. 
1st and 4th legs subequal. Palpal organ 
(fig. 62, A) shorter than half the 
length of the tibia ; the spine shorter 
and straighter than in C. liardivicl-ii. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 
28, carapace 14, palp 25, 1st leg 50, 
2nd 42-5, 3rd 37, 4th 49-5, patella and 
tibia of 1st leg 20, of 4th 16-5. 
Fig. 62.— A. Palpal organ of $ Loc. Assam : Sibsagar (Peal). 

of Chilobrachys stridulans ; 

B, of C. thorellii; C, of C. 

hardwickii ; D, of C. hicolor. 




CHILOBIIACHYS. 199 

195. Chilobrachys thorellii, sp. n. 

c? . Distinguishable from G. hardwickii and C. stridulans by 
having the portion of the bulb of the palpal organ remote from 
the spine produced into an anguliform prominence (fig. 62, B). 
Nearly resembling G. stridulans in length of legs, &c, but with the 
1st leg shorter. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 30, carapace 14, palpus 23, 
1st leg 48, 4th leg 49, patella and tibia of 1st 19, of 4th 16. 

Loc. Assam : Sadiya. 

196. Chilobrachys brevipes, Thorell,A>m. Mus. Genova,xxxvn,y. 179, 

1897 (Musagetes). 

$ . Colour : integument blackish, hairy clothing deep olive- 
yellow. Carapace scarcely louger than patella and tibia of 1st leg, 
slightly longer than those of 4th, a little shorter than protarsus 
and tarsus of 4th, width of head distinctly less than protarsus 
of 4th leg. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 27, carapace 12, 1st leg 29, 
2nd 25, 3rd 23, 4th 31, patella and tibia of 1st leg 11-5, of 4th 11. 

Loc. Burma : Tharrawaddy (Oates). 

197. Chilobrachys sericeus, Thorell, Spiders of Burma, p. 10, 1895 

(Phlogius). 

5 . Closely allied to female of C. nitelinus and hardwickii, but 
the width of the head much less than length of 4th protarsus. 

d . Smaller than male of C. hardwickii, with the carapace not 
shorter than the patella and tibia of 2nd leg, a little shorter thau 
those of 4th. Bulb of palpal orrjan rounded ; spine subfiliform, but 
ending in a small blunt point. 

Measurements in mm. — 2 . Total length 24, carapace 10 # 5, 1st leg 
27-5, 2nd 24, 3rd 21-5, 4th 30, patella and tibia of 1st leg 11, 
of 4th 10. 

cJ. Total length 22, carapace 10, palp 15, 1st leg 31, 2nd 26, 
3rd 24, 4th 32, patella and tibia of 1st leg 12-5, of 4th 11. 

Loc. Burma: liangoon (Oates). 

The following species, based upon females, are of doubtful 
validity : — 

Chilobraehvs soricinus, Thorell, Ann. Mus, Qenovu, xxv, p. 15, 
1888 (Phi-ictus). 

2 . A little larger than the type of C. sericeus, with the patella 
and tibia of 1st leg a little longer as compared with the cara- 
pace, and the anterior lateral eyes a little larger as compared with 
the median. 

Loc. Burma: Bhamo (Fea). 



200 THERAPHOSIDiE. 

The specimen identified and described by Thorell in 1897 as 
Musagetes soricinus appears from the leg-measurements to differ 
specifically from the original soricinus. 

Chilobrachys oculatus, Thorell, Spiders of Burma, p. 13, 1895 
(Phlogius). 

Based upon a mutilated and doubtfully adult specimen, re- 
sembling the type of C. soricinus in having the anterior lateral eyes 
of large size. 

hoc. Arrakan : Akyab (Oates). 

Genus SELENOCOSMIA, Auss. 

Selenocosmia, Ausserer, Verh. z.-b. Ges. Wien, 1871, p. 204; 

Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) xv, p. 170, 1895. 
Phrictus, L. Koch, Arach. Austral.^. 488, 1874 (nom. praeocc). 
Phlogius, Simon, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. (6) vii, p. cxcv, 1887 ; id. Hist. 

Nat. Araiyn. i, p. 146, 1892. 

Closely resembling Chilobrachys, but with the spines on the 
outer side of the mandible long, setiform, and but little differ- 
entiated from the oral fringe ; while on the maxilla the cluster of 
bacilli is large and oval, the bacilli lying several rows deep, and 
there is no fringe of hairs overhanging the bacilli. 

Type, S. javanensis, Walck. 

Distribution. Himalayas, Burma, thence eastwards and south- 
wards into Australia. 

Synojisis of Indian Species. 

a. Patellae paler than the rest of the segments 

of the legs S. himalayana, p. 200. 

b. Patella? the same colour as the rest of seg- 

ments of the legs and palpi. 
a 1 . Tarsal scopula of 4th leg divided ; cluster 

of bacilli on maxilla twice as long as 

broad S. fuliginea, p. 201. 

o 1 . Tarsal scopula of 4th leg undivided ; 

cluster of bacilli on maxilla only a little 

longer than broad S. javanensis, p. 201. 

198. Selenocosmia himalayana, PucocJc, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, 
p. 740, 1899. 

$. Colour: integument blackish ; carapace and patellae covered 
with greyish-yellow hairs, rest of the leg-segments and abdomen 
blackish brown. Carapace with head low, a little longer than 
patella and tibia of 1st and 4th legs ; eyes of anterior line straight. 
Stridulatiny-bristles on mandible spiniform. Tarsal scopula of 4th 
leg divided by band of setae ; patella and tibia of 1st and 4th 
legs about equal. 



SELENOCOSMIA. 201 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 32, carapace 15, 1st leg 37, 
2nd 33, 3rd 31, 4th 43. 

hoc. North India : Dehra Dun ( Gleadow). 



199. Selenocosmia fuliginea, Thorell, Spiders of Burma, p. 8, 1895 

(1'hlogius). 

5 . Uniformly coloured and darker than S. himalayana. Cara- 
pace not quite so long as patella and tibia of 4th leg; cephalic 
region higher; anterior line of eyes procurved, laterals distinctly 
smaller than medians. Cluster of bacilli on maxilla twice as long 
as wide, narrowed distally ; bristles on mandible slender, evenly 
attenuate. Patella and tibia of 1st and 4th legs about equal ; 
tarsal scopula of 4th divided. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 37, carapace 15, 1st leg 40, 
2nd 33, 3rd 29, 4th 42. 

Loc. Burma : Tharrawaddy (Oates). 

200. Selenocosmia javanensis, WaJck. Ins. Apt. i, p. 216, 1837. 

$ . Paler in colour than S. fuliginea. Carapace a little longer 
than patella and tibia of 4th leg : anterior lateral eyes as long as 
the medians. Cluster of bacilli on maxilla thick, with distal end 
broad and rounded ; bristles on mandible more abundant and 
attenuate than in 8. fuliginea. Leys with tarsal scopula of 4th 
not completely divided ; patella and tibia of 1st leg longer than 
of 4th. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 42, carapace 20, 1st leg 52, 
2nd 45, 3rd 41, 4th 55. 

Loc. Lesser Nicobar (according to Thorell) ; Java. 

The following species, based upon immature individuals, cannot 
be satisfactorily classified : — 

Selenocosmia orophila, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxvii, p. 175, 
1897 (Phlogius). 

$ . Carapace with thoracic fovea larger than in S. javanensis and 
S. fuliginea, about as long as patella and tibia of 1st or 4th leg ; 
size of eyes and shape of cluster of bacilli approaching those of 
S. javanensis; bristles on mandible more like those of iS. fuliginea. 
Tarsal scopula? of 3rd and 4th legs divided. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 14, carapace 6"5, 1st leg 16, 
4th 17. 

Loc. Burma : Bia-po in Karennee (Fea). 



202 THERAPHOSID^. 

Genus PHLOGIELLUS, Pocock *. 

Phlogiellus, Pocock, Abh. Senck. naturf. Ges. xxiii, pt. 4, p. 595, 1897 

Resembling Sclenocosmia in the structure of the stridulating- 
orgaii and in most structural features, but distinguishable by having 
the tarsal scopulae of all the legs divided by a band of setae and 
by the retention of the inferior tarsal claw on the posterior pair 
of legs. 

Type, P. inermis, Auss. 

Distribution. Java; Nicobar Islands. 

201. Phlogiellus subarmatus, ThoreU, Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl xxiv, 
no. 2, p. 13, 1891 (Ischnocolus). 

Colour : integument blackish, hairy clothing ashy red. Cara- 
pace low. Legs rather short ; scopula3 on anterior legs scanty, on 
posterior legs thick and divided by a band of setae. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 15*5, carapace 6, 1st leg 
15, 4th 17. 

Log. Nanchoury in the Nicobar Islands (according to Thorell). 

Genus LYROGNATHUS, Pocock. 
Lyrognathus, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) xv, p. 170, 1895. 

At once distinguishable from the rest of the genera of the sub- 
family by having the legs of the 4th pair much thicker than the 
rest, with the protarsal scopula extending almost up to the base of 
the segment ; 3rd leg thicker than 2nd, with the scopula also 
covering the protarsus beneath. 

IStridulating-organ and other characters as in Sclenocosmia. 

Type, L. crotalus, Poc. 

Distribution. North-east India. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Eyes of anterior line close to the edge of the 

carapace L. pugnax, p. 203. 

b. Eyes of anterior line about twice their own dia- 

meter from edge of clypeus. 
a 1 . Legs longer ; tibia of 4th about three times as 

long as high L. satiator, p. 203. 

b l . Legs shorter ; tibia of 4th only about twice as 

long as high L. crotalus, p. 203. 



' f Based upon a Javan species, P. atriceps, whieh Prof. Jvulczynski informs 
me (in litt.) is identical with Ischnocolus inermis of Ausserer. According to 
Thorell, I. subarmatus is abo identical with /. inermis — an opinion of which the 
correctness may be questioned. 



LYEOGNAXHUS. 203 

202. Lyrognathus crotalus, Focock, A. M. N. H. (6) xv, p. 175, 

1895. 

$ . Colour : integument blackish brown, covered with dusky 
brown hairs, intermixed with foxy-grey bristles on legs and 
abdomen. Carapace nearly one-third longer than wide, only very 
slightly shorter than protarsus and tarsus of 4th leg, or than tibia, 
protarsus, and tarsus of 3rd, distinctly longer than patella, tibia, 
and tarsus of palp. Eyes of anterior line separated from edge of 
clypeus by about twice their diameter, medians larger than laterals. 
Tibia and protarsus of 4th ley with a very thick clothing of short 
erect hairs, intermixed with long bristles ; tibia about as wide as 
high, its height almost equal to half its length. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 20, carapace 13*5, palp 19, 
1st leg 32, 2nd and 3rd legs 27, 4th leg 41, tibia of 4th 8, height 
of latter 3*5. 

Loc. North India. 

203. Lyrognathus saltator, sp. n. 

Allied to the foregoing, but with the legs longer (<■/. measure- 
ments) ; tibia arid protarsus of 4th leg less thickly hairy, the 
former about three times as long as high. Carapace about one- 
fourth longer than wide, as long as the protarsus and two-thirds 
of the tarsus of the 4th, scarcely longer than patella, tibia, and 
tarsus of palp, and noticeably shorter than tibia, protarsus, and 
tarsus of 3rd. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 32, carapace 15, palpus 22*5, 
1st leg 37, 2nd and 3rd legs 32, 4th leg 49, tibia of 4th 10-5, height 
of latter 3*5. 

Loc. Assam : North Khasi Hills. 

204. Lyrognathus pugnax, sp. n. 

Allied to the preceding, and especially to L. saltator, but at once 
distinguishable by having the anterior line of eyes close to the edge 
of the carapace, and separated therefrom by a space which is only 
about equal to the diameter of the eyes. Tibia of 4th ley higher than 
in L. saltator, but not so high as in L. crotalus (cf. measurements). 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 34, carapace 16, 1st leg l<». 
2nd and 3rd legs 34, 4th leg 52, tibia of 4th 11, height of latter 4-5. 

Loc. Assam : Shillong (Peal). 



Subfamily ORNITHOCTON1X . E. 

Mandible furnished externally with a dense pad (scopula) com- 
posed of short, close-set, plumose hairs ; between the scopula and 
the oral fringe there is a naked area, which, however, bears poste- 
riorly a small number (about four) of large, lightly carved, plumose 



204 THERAPHOSID.E. 

bristles springing from the scopula above (fig. 04, a). Inner surface 
of maxilla sparsely bairy, but furnished botb above and below the 
suture with a small number of black tooth -like tubercles (fig. 03). 





Fjff. 63. — Inner surface of Fig. 64.— Outer surface of 

maxilla of Ornithoctonus mandible of Ornithoctonus 

andersoni, showing the andersoni. a. Stridulating- 

spines. bristles. 

Posterior sternal sigilla remote from the margin. Legs with a 
few spines at apex of tibiae and protarsi * ; tarsal scopulae thick 
and undivided. 

Distribution. From Burma and Siam southwards and eastwards 
to the Moluccas. 

Synopsis of the Burmese Genera. 

a. Carapace low, ocular tubercle close to edge 

of clypeus Cyriopagopus, p. 204. 

b. Carapace elevated in the cephalic region ; 

ocular tubercle some distance behind 
edge of clypeus. 
a 1 . Legs strong and short; fovea large, 

scarcely procurved Ornithoctonus, p. 205. 

b 1 . Legs slender and long; fovea small and 

concentric Melopceus, p. 205. 



Genus CYRIOPAGOPUS, Simon. 

Cyriopagopus, Simon, J. A. S. B. lvi, p. 110, 1887; id. Hist. Nat. 

Araign. i, p. 152, 1892. 
Omothymus, Thorell, K. Si: Vet.-Akad. Handl. xxiv, no. 2, p. 10, 

1891; Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) xv, p. 179, 1895. 

Carapace low, flatfish, the cephalic region gradually and evenly 
inclined between the fovea and the ocular tubercle ; fovea sub- 
linear, transverse, at most slightly procurved ; ocular tubercle low 
and wide, close to the edge of the clypeus ; eyes of anterior line 
subequal, scarcely procurved. Male with very long legs ; tibia of 
1st with a single short blunt spur. 

Type, G. paganus, Simon. 

Distribution. Tenasserim and Penang. 

* Simon is mistaken in stating that the legs of the type specimen of Cyrio- 
paffopus -paganus, are without spines. 



MELOPffil'S. — OBKITHOOTOKUS. 205 

205. Cyriopagopus paganus, Simon, J. A. S. B. hi, p. Ill, 1S87. 

Colour : integument reddish brown, clothed with greyish-brown 
pubescence and reddish bristles ; ends of leg-segments narrowly- 
white ; abdomen obscurely banded. Carapace as long as patella 
and tibia of 1st leg, a little shorter than those of 4th and than 
protarsus and tarsus of this limb. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 35, length of carapace 14*5, 
width 12, length of 1st leg 39 (patella + tibia 14-5\ 2nd 35, 
3rd 32, 4th 43 (patella + tibia 15, protarsus 10). 

Loc. Tenasserim : Tavoy (Moti Bam), 

Genus MEL0P(EUS, Pocock. 
Melopoeus, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) xv, p. 179, 1895. 

Carapace with the cephalic region elevated, the area between 
the fovea and the ocular tubercle distinctly convex both longi- 
tudinally and transversely ; fovea narrow and crescentically pro- 
curved ; ocular tubercle high, subcircular, some distance behind 
the edge of the clypeus. Legs long and slender, the 4th thinner 
than the 1st, its tibia about four times as long as wide. Anterior 
tibia of male with a single blunt spur as in Cyriopagopus. 

Type, M. albostriatus (Simon). 

Distribution. Siara and Tenasserim. 

206. Melopoeus minax, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxvii, p. 182, 1897. 

2 . Colour : integument blackish, clothed with ruddy brown 
hairs ; ends of leg-segments whitish ; abdomen obscurely banded 
above. Carapace as long as patella and tibia and one-fourth of 
the protarsus of the 1st and 4th legs, very slightly exceeding 
protarsus and tarsus of 4th ; width equal to patella and tibia of 
2nd, greater than those of 3rd. Legs scantily clothed with bristles, 
patella and tibia of 4th leg a little shorter than of 1st. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 44, length of carapace 24, 
1st leg 59, 2nd 52, 3rd 47, 4th 61, patella + tibia of 4th leg 21, 
of 1st 22-5. 

Loc. Tenasserim : Kawkareet {Feci). 

Genus 0RNITH0CT0NUS, Pocock. 

Ornithoctonus, Pocock, Join-. Linn. Soc. f Zool. xxiv, p. 317, 1892 ; 
id. A. M. N, H. (6) xv, p. 179, 1895. 

Resembling Melopous in having the fore part of the carapact 
elevated, the ocular tubercle small and situated at some distance 
from the edge of the clypeus ; but differing in having the thoracic 
fovea deep, wide, and scarcely procurved, and the legs stout and 
'short, the 4th pair being as thick as the 1st, the width of the tibia 
of the 4th being more than one-third of the length. Malt- 
unknown. 

Type, 0. andersoni, Poc. 

Distribution. Burma. 



206 



AK.ACHNOMOBPH.E. 



207. Ornithoctonus andersoni, Pocock, Jour. Linn. Soc, Zool. xxiv, 
p. 317, pi. xxii, figs. 1-3, 1892. 
o Colour : a nearly uniform reddish brown, darker beneath 
and on femora, some white hairs at the extremities of the leg- 
segments. Carapace as long as the patella and tibia and one- 
fourth of the protarsus of the 1st or 4th legs, considerably 
exceeding protarsus and tarsus of 4th. Legs somewhat thickly 
hairy, 1st and 4th subequal and considerably less than two and a 
half times the length of the carapace; patella and tibia of 4th leg 

a little less than of 1st. . 

Measurements in ^m.-Total length 52, carapace 25 1st leg 
61 2nd and 3rd 54, 4th 62, patella + tibia of 4th 12, of 1st 23. 

Loc. Tenasserim : Mergui (Anderson). 

Suborder ARACHNOMORPHJE. 

Differing from the Mygalomorpha? in having the basal segment of 
the mandible articulated in a horizontal plane to the under side of 
the head and directed downwards, the fang closing obliquely 
inwards (tig 52, p. 155). The posterior respiratory organs are in 
the form of tracheal tubes, which in most cases open by a common 
anerture hist in front of the spinners. S^nmng-mamilla mormally 
six in number, often accompanied by the cribellum or the colulus. 
Coxa of palp furnished with a large maxillary process. Sternum 
without distinct sieilla (at least in the Indian genera). 
Distribution. Subarctic, temperate, and tropical countries 
With the exception of one or two forms of doubtlu systematic 
nosition or great scarcity, the Indian species of Arachnomorphaj 
maVbe refeLd to the following families (those that are printed 
in italics have been omitted from the present volume) :- 

Synopsis of tlie principal Indian Families. 

a. Cribellum and calamistrum present 

a\ Head-region large, rounded, high; posterior 

lateral eyes remote from the rest ••••••• ^resids. 

&i Head low, narrowed, not strongly rounded; pos- 
terior lateral eyes very rarely remote from the 

others 
a\ Tarsi furnished with ungual tufts and an in- psechridae 

ferior claw 

h 2 Tarsi without ungual tufts. _ 

a» Anal papilla long and conically acuminate . Uloboridce. 

b 3 '. Anal papilla short, semicircular Dictynidce. 

b Cribellum and calamistrum absent. 
' aK Sternum much wider than long ; the posterior 

coxa? widely separated .- riatonaae. 

b\ Sternum net wider than long ; posterior coxse 

not widely separated. 
o 5 Posterior spinners absent or much shorter than 

the anterior Zodarndce. 



ARACIINOMOItPHJE. 



207 



'. Posterior spinners present, not shorter than 

anterior. 
a 6 . 1st leg enormously thick, with tarsus pedun- 
culate and almost clawless Palpimanidce. 

¥. 1st leg typically subsimilar to the rest (larger 
in most Attidae) ; its tarsus normal and 
clawed. 
a 1 . Posterior spinners enormously long and 

apically slender Hersiliidae 

b~. Posterior spinners shorter and thick. 
« 8 . Anal papilla very large, fringed with 
long hairs; posterior spinners much 

larger than anterior Urocteidae. 

b 8 . Anal papilla small, not fringed; pos- 
terior spinners generally subequal to 
the anterior. 
« 9 . Claws 3 ; no ungual tufts. 

a 10 . Tarsus of 4th leg with comb of 

spines below Theridiidae. 

b 10 . Tarsus of 4th leg without comb of 
spines. 
a 11 . Maxilla} inclined on labium; 
mandibles scarcely toothed ; legs 

very long and slender . . Pholcidae. 

ft 11 . Maxillse not inclined on la- 
bium ; mandibles toothed ; legs 
shorter and thicker. 
« 12 . Tarsi armed apically with 
curved serrate spines. Seden- 

tiiiy web-weavers Argyopidae. 

/>'"'. Tarsi without serrate spines 
at apex. Hunting Spiders. 
a 13 . Mandibles powerful, 
toothed; labium and max- 
illa? short Lycosidae. 

6". Mandibles weak, weakly 
toothed; labium and max- 
illa? long Oxyopidae. 

6 n . Claws 2 ; ungual tufts present. 
a u . Anterior spinners wide apart at 

base Gnaphosidce. 

6". Anterior spinners close together 
at base. 
a 15 . Anterior median eyes enor- 
mously large ; eyes of posterior 
line forming a square on sides 

of head Attida. 

b is . Eyes more normal in size and 

position. 

a 10 . Mandibles prominent, strongly 

toothed; 3rd and 4th lega 

not much shorter than 1st 

mid 2nd Clubionidae. 

A 1 '. Mandibles weak, weakly 
toothed ; 3rd and 4th legs 
much shorter than 1st and 
2nd Thomisidte. 



208 ERESID^. 



Family ERESID.E. 

Small or medium-sized robust Spiders, with the cephalic region 
of the carapace wide and usually high ; the clypeus low ; the four 
median eyes forming a small quadrangle narrower in front than 
behind, the anterior lateral eye on the side of the head, the posterior 
lateral far removed from the rest of the eyes and situated high 
up on the posterior portion of the head ; the mandibles flattish 
in front, with fang-groove scarcely toothed ; maxilla; inclined 
obliquely inwards ; legs strong, weakly spined, with three claws ; 
abdomen oval ; spinners with large cribellum. 

Distribution. Central and Southern Europe; Western Asia, 
China; Africa; India, Ceylon, and Burma. 

One Indian genus. 

Genus STEGODYPHUS, Simon. 

Stegodyphus, Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (5) iii. p. 336, 1873 ; id. 
Hist. Nat. Araign. i, p. 253, 1892. 

Characters and distribution as above. 

Type, S. lineatus, Latr. 

The species of this genus live on bushes, where they spin either 
a large sheet-like web accompanied by a tubular retreat, or a large 
saccular nest in which many individuals live together. 

Syno2Jsis of Indian Species. 

Males. 

a. Anterior legs thick, their tibial nearly as high 

as long S. tibialis, p. 209. 

b. Anterior legs not thick, their tibiae more than 

twice as long as high. 
a 1 . 2nd, 3rd, and 4th legs entirely red ; 1st 

black in its basal, red in its distal half. . S. mirandus, p. 209. 
6 1 . All the legs alike, banded. 

a 1 . Total length about 12 mm S. pacificns, p. 209. 

b 2 . Total length about 6 mm S. sarasinorum, p. 209. 



Females. 

a. Upper side of abdomen a uniform golden 

yellow S. socialis, p. 209. 

b. Upper side of abdomen clouded or banded 

with black. 
a 1 . Carapace clothed with olive-black hairs; 

abdomen not banded S. mirandus, p. 209. 

b l . Carapace clothed with greyish-white 
hairs ; abdomen banded. 
a 2 . About 20 mm. in length ; mandibles 

whitish 8. 2Mcificits, p. 209. 

b~. About 10 mm. in length ; mandibles 

darker S. sarasinorum, p. 209. 



STEGODYPHUS. 2U9 

208. Stegodyphus mirandus, Pocock, Jour. Bom. X. H. Sue. xii, 

p. 750, 1899. 

5 . Colour : carapace and limbs blackish, clothed with olive- 
black hairs; hairs on sternum and coxa? paler; abdomen bronze- 
black above, a rich golden red at the sides and below, with the 
spinners black. 

<S . Uniformly black all over, with exception of the 2nd, 3rd, 
and 4th legs and tibia, protarsus, and tarsus of 1st leg, which are 
bright yellowish red. 

Measurements in mm. — 5 . Total length 20, carapace 8, 1st leg 
20. 6 • Total length V2, carapace 6, 1st leg 19. 

Loc. Western India : Bombay, Buildup (Phipson) ; Uran 
(Aitken) ; Poona Ghats ( Wroughton). 

209. Stegodyphus pacificus, sp. a. 

$ • As large as the preceding. Colour : integument yellowish 
red, clothed with greyish hairs ; legs banded with black ; abdomen 
with a pair of irregular longitudinal blackish bands above and at 
the sides, black below, with a yellow band on each side ; man- 
dibles black at tip. 

J . Legs less strongly banded ; abdomen pale below, ornamented 
laterally with short transverse reddish stripes. 

Measurements in mm. — $ . Total length 20, carapace 10, 1st leg 
23. d. Total length 12, carapace 6, 1st leg 21. 

Loc. Western India : Eastern Khandesh (Madan) ; Eastern 
district of Poona ( Wroughton). 

210. Stegodyphus sarasinorum, Karseh, Berl. ent. Zeits. xxxvi, 

p. 275, pi. x, fig. 4, 1892. 

2 . Much smaller than the preceding, which it closely resembles 
in colour but has the mandibles clothed with olive- 
black hairs, 6* • Much smaller than that of S. paci- 
Jirus, the mandibles covered with olive hairs ; palpal 
organ relatively larger. 

Measurements in mm. — $. Total length 10, cara- 
pace 4, 1st leg 95. J. Total length 6, carapace 3, 
Lsl leg 9. 

Loc. Ceylon: Peradeniya (Sarasin, Fnrman), Palode 

(Yerbury). India: Madatory, Ponmudi and Trivan- 

Stegod'/phus drum in Travancore^Vr/wsuMj; Bangalore (Staunton); 

earasinorum, Chingleput (Jambunathan) ; Bilaspur, E. Khandesh 

*' (Madan); Poona (Wroughton) ; Uran (Aitken). 

It is no doubt this species or the preceding that Simon 

by mistake records as Stegodyphus gregarius, O. P. Cambr., from 

Ghizerat. 

211. Stegodyphus socialis, sp. u. 

$. Colour: carapace black, with lateral border and cephalic 
region clothed with grey hairs ; mandibles black, with a transverse 

r 




210 PSECHRJD.E. 

band of yellowish-grey hairs in the upper half ; legs olive-brown, 
indistinctly banded with grey ; abdomen golden yellow above and 
at sides, thickly mottled with black below. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 13, carapace 7, 1st leg 13. 

Loc. S. India : Bangalore (Staunton). 

212. Stegodyphus tibialis, 0. P. Cambridge, A. M. N. H. (4) hi, 
p. 71, t. vi, figs. 70, 71, 1869 (Eresus). " 

J . Colour : carapace black, with broad yellow marginal band ; 
abdomen brownish black, the under side and anterior and posterior 
ends of upper side thickly covered with yellow hairs ; legs blackish, 
the three posterior pairs banded above, structurally differing 
from the previously described males in having the femur, patella, 
and especially tibia of the anterior legs thick and furnished with 
long black hairs, the height of the tibia being more than half its 
length. 

Total length about 8 mm. 

Loc. S.India: Mysore. Burma: Minhla (Comotto). 



Family PSECHRID^. 

Medium -sized, cribellate Spiders with long and slender legs, 
the anterior two pairs being much longer than the posterior two, 
and all of them furnished with uugual tufts and 3 claws ; 
the superior claws are strongly toothed. Head moderately elevated ; 
eyes in two transverse lines ; clypeus high. Mandibles strong and 
short, toothed below. Abdomen oval or cylindrical. Cribellum 
large. 

Distribution. Ranging from Ceylon and India over the Indo- and 
Austro-Malayan area. 

Sedentary Spiders spinning large sheet-like webs. 

The two Indian genera may be diagnosed as follows : — 

a. Head narrower, ocular quadrangle longer than 

wide Psechrus, p. 210 

b.. Head broader, ocular quadrangle square Fecenia, p. 212. 

Genus PSECHRUS, Thoivll. 

Psechrus, Thorell, Ann. Mux. Genova, xiii, p. 170, 1878; Si»i<>//, 
Hist. Nat. Araujn. i, p. 226, 1892. 

Carapace with cephalic region narrower, more prominent 
anteriorly; eyes of anterior line procurved, medians smaller than 
laterals, of posterior line recurved, considerably behind the anterior 
line, quadrangle longer than wide. 

Type, P. argentatus, Dol. 

Distribution. India and Ceylon to New Guinea. 



rSECHRL'3. 



211 



Synopsis of Indian Species 

a. Cephalic region of carapace elevated, with ocular 

region prominent P. alticeps, p. 211. 

b. Cephalic region not elevated ; ocular region not 

prominent. 
a 1 . 1st leg about six times as loug as carapace 
b l 



1st leg about rive times aa long as carapace 



P. torvus, p. 211. 
P. ffhecuanus, p. 211. 



213. 



Linn. Soc, Zonl. 



x, 



Psechrus torvus, 0. P. Cambridge, Join 
p. 376, pi. xi, 1869 (Tegenaria) ; Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign. i 
p. 224, figs. 173 & 175, 1892 (Psechrus). 

Colour: carapace and legs yellowish brown, the former with 
broad pale band on each side, the latter variegated with black ; 
abdomen silvery above, variegated with dark stripes and spots, 
rich brown below, with a narrow median white line. Carapace 
not strongly elevated in front ; ocular area not prominent ; eyes 
of posterior line a little recurved, of anterior strongly procurved, 
the laterals nearly twice the diameter of the medians, lower edge of 




Fig. 66.— Psechrus torvus, J,x 2. 

latter almost on a level with centres of former. Legs long and strong, 
1st about six times as long as carapace. Abdomen ovally elongate. 

3. Smaller and longer legged tlian female; tibia of palp armed 
with short hairy apophysis ; tarsus about twice as long as tibia. 

Measurements in mm. — $. Total length 20, carapace 0, 1st 
leg 54, 4th 4;5. 

Lor. Ceylon: Pusselawa, Matale (Sarasin) ; Punduloya (Green) ; 
Peradeniya (Freeman), &c. 

214. Psechrus ghecuanus, Thorell, Ann. Mux. Genova. xxxvii, p. 265, 

In'. 17. 

Allied to P. torvus, but apparently darker in colour, with the legs 
densely ringed with black. Eyes of anterior line nearly straight. 
Legs shorter, 1st only about five times as long as the carapace. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 20, carapace 7~5, 1st leg 40, 
4th 36. 

Loc. Upper Burma : ECarennee ( !■'■" I. 

215. Psechrus alticeps, Pocock, Jour. Pom. N. //. Soc, .\ii, p. To], 189P. 
2 . Differs from both the preceding species in having the head 

elevated and the ocular region prominent ; eves of anterior line more 

p2 



212 FSECHRIDJE. 

strongly procurved than in P. torvus. Legs much longer than in 
the latter, 1st leg only a little less than eight times as long as 
carapace. Abdomen long and subcylindrical. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 15, carapace 6-5, 1st leg 49, 
4th 38. 

Loc. Travancore : Ponmudi and Trivandrum {Ferguson). 

Genus FECENIA, Simon. 

Fecenia, Simon, Bull. Soc. Ent. Fr. (6) vii, p. cxciv, 1887 ; id. Hist. 
Nat. Araign. i, p. 226, 1892. 

Differs from Psechrus in having the head wider, more convex 
above, and more rounded in front ; the ocular area wider, the 
anterior medians larger than the laterals, the eyes of posterior line 
straight, and the ocular quadrangle about square. 

Type, F. angustata, Thorell. 

Distribution. S. India to the Solomon Islands. 

The two British Indian species may be diagnosed as follows : — 

a. 1st leg in female six times as long as cara- 

pace ; vulva divided F. travancoria, p. 212. 

b. 1st leg in female live times as long as cara- 

pace ; vulva undivided F. cylindrata, p. 212. 

216. Fecenia travancoria, Pocock, Joum. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, p. 750, 

1899. 

5 . Colour : carapace clothed with ashy-grey hairs ; legs with 
yellowish hairs, femora dark apically, patellar dark, tibia of 3rd and 
4th pairs biannulate ; abdomen greyish yellow above, black below 
with a triangular yellow patch ; yellow round vulva and in front of 
spinners. Carapace with eyes of posterior line slightly procurved, 
medians separated by a space exceeding twice their diameter. Legs 
long, first pair about six times as long as carapace. Abdomen not 
quite twice as long as wide. Vulva marked with two pits sepa- 
rated by a high longitudinal keel. 

Measurements in mm. — § . Total length 13, carapace 5'3, 1st 
leg 34. 

Loc. S. India : Madatory in Travancore (Ferguson). 

217. Fecenia cylindrata, Thorell, Spiders of Burma, p. 64, 1895; id. 

Ann. Mus. Genova, xxxvii, p. 263, 1897. 

$ . Distinguishable from the preceding by having the patelhe 
pale, the eyes of the posterior line lightly recurved, the medians less 
than twice their diameter apart, the 1st leg about five times as long 
as carapace, the abdomen more than twice as long as wide, the cri- 
bellum undivided, and the vulva impressed with a deep undivided pit. 

c?. Smaller than female, 1st leg about eight times as long as 
carapace. 

Length of $ from 10 to 15 mm. 

Loc. Burma : Tharrawaddy and Eeef Island in the Tavoy 
Kiver (Oales) ; Bhamo and Palon (Fea). 



ARGYOPID.E. 213 

Family ARGYOPID^E. 

( = Epeiridce of most recent authors.) 

Sedentary Spiders spinning webs composed of radiating and 
concentric threads. 

Carapace with clypeus low ; lateral eyes typically close together, 
remote from the median quadrangle and situated at the sides of 
the head. Mouth-parts manducatory ; mandibles powerful, freely 
movable, with strongly toothed fang-groove ; maxillae not inclined 
on the labium. Legs not scopulate, 3 claws ; tarsi furnished 
apically with " spurious claws " in the form of thickened serrate 
bristles. Abdomen large, but variable in form. Spinners sub- 
equal, short, forming a compact cluster ; colulus present. 

Distribution. Cosmopolitan. 

Synopsis of the principal Indian Genera. 

a. Head conical in- front, lateral eyes wide 

apart Poltys, p. 235. 

b. Head truncate in front, lateral eyes nearer 

together. 
a 1 . Abdomen hard, armed with G marginal 

spines Gasteracaxtha, p. 231. 

b l . Abdomen softer, not armed with mar- 
ginal spines. 
a'". Head very high, abruptly elevated 

and strongly tubercular C^erostris, p. 230. 

b 2 . Head lower, at most gradually 
elevated. 
a*. Mandibles long, armed with many 

teeth Tetragnatha, p. 214. 

b 3 . Mandibles short, armed with a few 
teeth. 
a*. Carapace with about 4 sym- 
metrically arranged tubercles ; 
abdomen very broad, multi- 
tubercular Orugarius, p. 230. 

b*. Carapace mostly smooth, rarely 

with 2 tubercles (Nephila) or 

irregularly tubercular. 

a : '. Abdomen wider than lonp;, 

leathery, with large .sigilla 

above Cyrtarachne, p. 228 

b\ Abdomen not wider than long, 
sigilla small. 
a 5 . Eyes of posterior line strongly 

procurved Argyope, p. 220. 

// . Lyes of posterior line not or 
scarcely procurved. 
a'. Abdomen flat, with sharply 

defined lateral edges .... IIkhexnia, p, 219. 



214 ARGyOPID-T. 



Abdomen convex, with 
rounded edges. 
a 8 . Maxillae long, very 
narrow at base, ex- 
panded and angular 

at apex Argyroepeira, p. 215. 

b s . Maxillae short and thick. 
a 9 . Legs long, protarsi 
and tarsi longer than 
patellae and tibiae. . . . Nephila, p. 217. 
b*. Legs shorter, pro- 
tarsi and tarsi shorter 
than patellae and tibiae. Araneus, p. 223. 



Genus TETRAGNATHA, Latreille. 

Tetragnatha, Latreille, Nouv. Diet. cfHist. Nat. xxiv, p. 135, 1804 ; 
Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign. i, p. 723, 1894. 

Mandibles and maxillce long or very long, projecting, the former 
armed with many teeth, fang long. Legs very long and slender. 
Abdomen long, subcylindrical, the genital aperture behind the 
stigmata. No vulva in 5 . 

Type, T. externa, Linn. 

Distribution. Tropical, temperate, and subarctic countries. 

These Spiders spin their webs on plants overhanging water, and 
when at rest remain with the legs extended forwards and back- 
wards in a line with the body. 

Many species, very similar in general appearance and habits, 
are represented in the Indian fauna. The following three wide- 
ranging forms may be regarded as representative types : — 

«. Ocular quadrangle much narrower in front than 

behind T. gracilis, p. 214. 

b. Ocular quadrangle not narrower in front than 
behind. 
a 1 . Fang (in 2) strongly sinuous, armed in its 

basal half with two very strong teeth .... T. geniculata, p. 215. 
b 1 . Fang (in 2) not strongly sinuous, armed 

with only two small teeth T. mandibulata , 

[p. 215. 

218. Tetragnatha gracilis, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxviii,pt. 2, p. 244, 
t. xix, fig. 2, 1869 (Meta) ceylonica, 0. P. Cambr. Jour. Linn. 
Soc., Zool. x, p. 394, t. xiii, fig. 83, 1870 : latifrons, Thorell, Ann. 
Mus. Genova, x, p. 434, 1877 (Tetragnatha). 

$ . Carajjace with lateral eyes prominent ; ocular quadrangle 
much wider behind than in front. Mandibles and fang relatively 
short ; fang uniformly curved, armed with a small tooth beneath 
at base. 

<S . Mandibles much longer and armed apically with two long 
spiniform teeth, one superior and one internal. 



ARGYROEPEIIU. 



215 



Total length 10 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon. India : Chingleput (Jambunathan), "Uran (Aitken), 
Dekkan (Simon). Calcutta (Stoliczka). Burma : Moulmein (Oates), 
Bhamo (Fea). Andamaus, Celebes, &c. 



219. Tetragnatha geniculata, Ranch, Berl. ent. Zeits. xxxvi, p. 286, 
1892. V 

Carapace with posterior lateral eyes not prominent ; ocular 
quadrangle only slightly narrower in front. Mandibles long ; fang 
strongly geniculate in its distal half, armed near the base with two 
strong teeth, one inferior, the other external, more basal and 
projecting forwards. 

Total length 15 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon (Saraain) : Trincomali (Yerbury). India : Uran 
(Aitken), Poona Ghats ( Wrouyhtou). 



220. Tetragnatha mandibulata, Walck. Ins. Apt. \\, p. 211j 
1837 : minatoria, Simon, Ann. Hoc. Ent. Fr. (5) vii, p. 83, 1877: 
leptogmitha, Thorett, Ami. Mus. Genova, x, p. 441, 1877. 

$ . Eyes more widely separated than in T. yenicu- 
lata. Mandible with fang not strongly geniculate, 
lightly sinuous, armed with two small teeth, one 
beneath at the base, the other on the inner side in 
the basal half. 

<3 . Fang evenly curved at base, straightish, 
unarmed ; mandible armed above with one shortish 
apical spiniform tooth. 

Total length about 13 mm. 

Loc. Burma : Bangoon (Oates), Shwegoo Myo 
(Fea). Nicobar Is.; Indo- and Austro-Malaysia. 




Fig. 67. 
Tetragnatha 
maridibulata. 
$?. (Legs ab- 
breviated.) 



Genus ARGYROEPEIRA, Emerton. 



Argyroepeira, Emerton. Tr. Conn. Acad, vi, p. 331, I880 ; Simon, 
Hist. Xat. A rai ;l , 1. i, p. 736, 1894. 

Distinguishable from the succeeding genera by having the maxiUa 
long, narrow at the base, dilated, and externally angled at the 
apex, and by the presence of one row or more of bristles on the 
outer side of the femur of the 4th leg. The abdomen is orna- 
mented with bauds or spots of silvery pigment. 

Type. A. Jiortorum, Hentz. 

Distribution. Tropical ami subtropical countries. 

The following four may be regarded as representative types of 
the many species of this genus that inhabit British India ; — 



216 AKGYOPIDJE. 

a. Anterior end of abdomen conically elevated . . A.fastigata, p. 216. 

b. Anterior end of abdomen not conically elevated. 
a 1 . Posterior end of abdomen conically pro- 
duced A. celebesiana, p. 216. 

b l . Posterior end of abdomen not conically pro- 
duced. 

a 2 . Tibia of 4th leg- plumose A. tessellata, p. 216. 

b 2 . Tibia of 4th leg not plumose A. ventralis, p. 216. 

221. Argyroepeira fastigata, Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (5) vii, 

July 1877, p. 79, t. hi, fig. 10 : elegans, ThoreU, Ann. Mm. Genova, 
x, p. 416, 1877, Oct.-Dec. (Meta). 

Carapace and legs pale, the latter banded with dark stripes ; 
tibia of 4th pair thickly hairy in its distal half. Lateral eyes 
widely separated from medians. Abdomen with its fore part 
elevated into a conical prominence ; posterior extremity forming 
an obtuse angle above the spinners. Male minute. 

Total length (?) 8 mm. 

Loe. Ceylon : Trincomali (Terbury). Burma : Tavoy (Moti 
Ram), Shwegoo Myo (Fea), Tharrawaddy and Eangoon (Oates). 
Also Philippine Islands, Celebes, &c. 

222. Argyroepeira tessellata, ThoreU, Ann. Mm. Genova, xxv, 

p. 135, 1887. 

§ . Nearly allied to the preceding, but with the anterior ex- 
tremity of the abdomen rouoded, not elevated ; the lateral eyes 
not so far from the medians ; and the ventral surface of the 
abdomen dark, with a pair of clearly defined silver bands. 

Total length 9 mm. 

Loc. Burma : Shwegoo Myo (Fea) ; Tenasserim (Oates). 

223. Argyroepeira celebesiana, Wakk. Ins. Apt. ii, p. 222, 1837 : 

decorata, Elackwall, A. M. N. H. (3) xiv, p. 44, 1864 (Tetra- 
gnatha) : angustata, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxviii, pt. 2, p 241, 
t. xx, fig. 7, 1869 (Nephila). 

Lateral eyes still nearer to the medians than in A. tessellata ; 
colouring of ventral surface of abdomen as in the latter. Anterior 
extremity of abdomen low as in A. tessellata, but furnished with 
two low shoulder-tubercles ; posterior end of abdomen produced 
into a conical caudal process. 

Total length 8-10 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon (Sarasin, Cambridge). India : Ootacamund (llamp- 
son); Poona Ghats (Wroughton) ; Calcutta (Stoliczka). Burma: 
Bhamo (Fea); Tharrawaddy, Eangoon (Oates). Eastwards as far 
as Celebes, &c. 

224. Argyroepeira ventralis, ThoreU, Ann. Mm. Genova, x, p. 423, 

1877 (Meta). 

Allied to A. tessellata, but with the eyes of the posterior line 



NEPHILA. 217 

closer together ; the abdomen less definitely banded, more irre- 
gularly clouded with blackish marks, and the tibiae of the 4th leg 
not plumose. 

Total length 7 mm. 

Loc. Burma : Shvvegoo Myo (Feci) ; Tharrawaddy, Rangoon, 
Double Island, and Tenasserim (Oates). Also Celebes. 



Genus NEPHILA, Leach. 

Nephila, Leach, Zool. Misc. ii, p. 183, 1815; Simon, Hist. Nat. 
Araiyn. i, p. 755, 1894. 

Carapace with cephalic region convex, generally armed poste- 
riorly with two tubercles ; ocular quadrangle nearly square or 
slightly narrower in front. Legs very long, spinulose, with 
protarsi longer than tibiae and patellae. Female with vulva not or 
weakly developed. Male relatively minute, with palpus simple. 

Type, N. metadata, Fabr. 

Distribution. Tropical countries of the world. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Legs short, 1st about four times as long as 

carapace N. malabarensis, p. 219. 

b. Legs long, 1st about six times as long as 

carapace. 
a\ A strong conical tubercle behind labium . N. imperialis, p. 218. 
&'. At most a low elevation behind labium. 
a 2 . Abdomen high at its posterior end above 

the spinners N. clavata, p. 218. 

b-. Abdomen low at its posterior end. 
« 3 . Legs black ; abdomen spotted with 

yellow A. maculata, p. 217. 

b'K Legs mostly red ; abdomen less 

varied . . . .' N. kuhlii, p. 218. 

225. Nephila maculata, Fabr. Ent. Syst. ii, p. 425, L793 (Aranea); 
Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genoca, xvii, p. 145, 1881 ; id. op. cit. xxv, 
p. 149, 1887, with synonymy (Nephila). 

2. Colour: cephalothorax and its appendages black, coxae of 
legs and proximal half of palpus yellow; carapace covered with 
silky yellow pubescence; abdomen olive-brown, ornamented below 
with yellow spots and above with a pair of longitudinal yellow 
lines and a transverse yellow band in front. Carapace smooth, 
with a pair of sharp tubercles. Sternum nearly Hat behind 
labium. Legs very long, femur of 1st nearly twice as long as 
carapace, 1st leg about six times as long. Abdmn, n long. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length '.'>7, carapace 12, 1st leg 72, 
4th 04. 

Loc. Ceylou : Peradeuiya (Sarasin, Freeman), Trincomali (Yer- 



218 ARGYOPIDiE. 

bury). India : Tinnevelly (Baiber), Trivandrum (Ferguson), Oota- 
camund (Hampson), Kanara (Millet), Debra Dun (Oldham), 
Darjiling (Bendy). Burma: Tbarravtaddy, Tounghoo, Eangoon, 
Tenasseriin, &v. (Oates 6r Fea) ; Mergui (Anderson). Nicobar 
Islands ; thence eastwards to China and Australia. 




Fig. 68. — Nephila metadata, J, nat. size. 

226. Nephila kuhlii, Boleschall, Verh. Nat. Vereen. Nederland. Indie, 
v. no. 5, p. 27, t. ix, fig. 7, 1859. 

$ . Distinguishable from N. maculata by having the legs red with 
the exception of the patellae, protarsi, tarsi, and the extremities of 
the femora and tibiae, which are black ; abdomen more uniformly 
coloured. 

Total length up to about 40 mm. 

Loc. N. India: Darjiling (Bendy). Burma: Bhamo (Fea). 
Thence eastwards to Celebes. 

227. Nephila imperialis, Boleschall, Nat. Tijdschr. Nederland. Indie, 
xiii, p. 413, 1857 (Epeiia); Thorell, Spiders of Burma, p. 159, 
1895, with synonymy (Nephila). 

$ . Resembling N. maculata in size and length of legs ; the legs 
and palpi, including the coxae, not so black, the sternum with 
lateral yellow spots, and the abdomen less boldly striped and 
spotted. Sternum with a large conical tubercle behind labium. 

Total length 26 to 42 mm. 

Boc. Burma : Eangoon and Tharrawaddy (Oates). Also occurs 
in the Indo- and Austro-Malayan areas. 

228. Nephila clavata, L. Koch, Verh. z.-h. Ges. Wien, xxvii, p. 741, 

1877 : limbata, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova,xxxix, p. 335, 1898. 

$ . Smaller than the preceding species. Colour : carapace w ith 
yellow patch behind head and yellow border ; sternum with median 
yellow band ; anterior legs with yellow band round femora and 
tibia?, rest of the femora yellowish brown, palpi black at tip; 
abdomen black below, varied with yellow lines and spots, with a 



ITEItEXXIA. 



219 



pink band behind which laterally spreads on to the sides of the 
abdomen; upper side yellow, with indistinct transverse fuscous 
stripes. Carapace and sternum without tubercles. Legs long and 
thin. Abdomen twice as long as broad, posteriorly much elevated 
above the spinners. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 17, carapace 5, 1st leg 34. 

Loc. North-eastern India : Darjiling ( Wromjhton), Shillong 
[Heaven). Burma (Fea). Also Japan, China, Formosa. 

229. Nephila malabarensis, Walck. Ins. Apt. ii, p. 103, 1887(Epeira) 
Tltorell, Ann. .)///.<. Genova, xxviii, p. 188, 1890 (Nephilengye). 

§ . Colour : carapace black, scantily clothed with yellow hairs ; 
legs yellowish, banded with black ; sternum yellow ; abdomen 
ornamented with two pairs of yellow spots below, greyish brown 
mottled with darker tints above. Carapace with head high, 
granular, without tubercles. No tubercle on sternum. Leys 
shorter, femur of 1st scarcely longer than carapace, the entire leg 
only about four times as long. Abdomen evenly oval, one-third 
longer than wide. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 22, carapace 10, 1st leg 38. 

Loc. Ceylon : Punduloya ( 67ran) ; Peradeniva, Jaffna (Sarasin) ; 
Trincomali (Yerbury). India : Madatory and Trivandrum (Fer- 
guson)', Ootacamund (Hampsori). Burma: Tharrawaddy, Teuas- 
serim, &c. {Oates $ Fea). Nicobar Islands. Thence eastwards 
to Australia. 

Genus HERENNIA, Thorell. 

rleremria, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, x, p. 70, 1877; Simon, Hint. 
Nat. Araign. i, p. 759, 1894. 

Carapace flat ; eyes not extending across 
the frontal area ; quadrangle scarcely 
longer than wide; eyes of posterior line 
nearly straight. Abdomen coriaceous, 
ftattish above, with sharply defined, often 
lobafe lateral margins, impressed with 
radially arranged lines of spots. Male 
with simple palpus. 

Type, 11. omatissima, Doleschall. 

230. Herennia omatissima, Doleschall, Verh. 
Nat. Vereen. Nederland, Lulu, v, qo. •">, 
p. 83, L859 : multipuncta, id. torn, n't. 

]i..'!i', t. xi, fig. 1 (Kpeira) ; Thorell, Ann. 
Mu8.Geinii(i. xxv. p.KHi, 1887(Ileieiuii:i) 
(for synoirj my I. 

£. Colour: carapace blackish, with 

broadly yellow border ami somewhat 
V-shaped median yellow patch, covered 

pj„ g9 Herennia with white hair ; legs yellowish, with apices 

omatissima, $?, x 2. of segments dark ; sternum orange-yellou ; 




220 argyopiDjE. 

abdomen greyish yellow, speckled with black above, yellow with 
large median black spot below. Carapace flattish. Legs slender. 
Abdomen flattish, subpentagonal, lobate on each side posteriorly ; 
impressed towards the margins with radially arranged rows of 
punctures. 

Length about 15 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon: Peradeniya (Sarasiyi), Kanthalai (Yerbury). India: 
Trivandrum {Ferguson), Ootacamund (Hampson). Burma : Thar- 
rawaddy, Rangoon, Tenasserim, &c. (Oates ^- Fed). Thence east- 
wards into Austro-Malaysia. 

Genus ARGYOPE, Sav. 

Argyope, Sariyny, in And. § Sav. Fyt/pte, Hist. Nat. i, pt. 4, 
p.' 121, 1809; Simon, Hist. Nat. Arakjn. i, p. 769, 1895. 

Carapace flat ; ocular quadrangle much longer than wide ; eyes 
of posterior line very strongly procurved, the medians lying far 
behind the laterals. Abdomen truncate in front, swollen and 
frequently tubercular at the sides posteriorly. 

Type, A. lobata, Pallas. 

Distribution. Tropical and temperate countries. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Abdomen with caudal process arid large lateral 

lobes ; carapace long. 
a 1 . Coxa? and trochanters of 3rd and 4th legs 

unspined A. lobata, p. 221. 

b 1 . Coxae and trochanters of 3rd and 4th legs 

spined A. arcnata, p. 220. 

b. Abdomen without caudal process and large 

lateral lobes. 
a 2 . Abdomen pentagonal, broadest behind the [p. 222, 

middle, then abruptly narrowed. A.pulchella, p. 221, A. undulata, 

A. anasuja, p. 222, A. taprobanica, p. 222. 
b 2 . Abdomen more evenly oval in outline. 
a 3 . Abdomen ornamented above with dark 

patches formed of narrow black lines .. A. cemula, p. 223. 
b 3 . Abdomen ornamented with bands of 

round spots A. catenulata, p. 223. 

231. Argyope arcuata, Simon, Ann. Mus. Genova, xx, p. 343, 1884; 
Thorell, op. cit. xxv, p. 160, 1887. 

£ . Colour : integument of carapace and legs blackish brown, 
legs indistinctly annulate ; sternum with median yellow stripe ; 
palpi yellow ; abdomen rich yellow above, ornamented with three 
broad black bands ; hairy covering silvery white. Carapace much 
longer than wide. Legs : coxse and trochanters of 3rd and 4th 
pairs spinulose ; femur of 3rd armed below with spines and 
spinules, of 4th with band of subequal spinules extending nearly 
to the base of the segment. Abdomen broad, furnished on each 



ARGYOPE. 221 

side with three large and often two smaller tubercles and a median 
caudal process. Vulva with septum narrow, when viewed from 
below covering only the middle third of the cavity. 
Total length 23 to 2S mm. 




Fig. 70. — Argyope arcuaia, J, nat. size. 

Loc. Western and Southern India : Poona ( Wroughton) ; E. 
Khandesh (Ma dun) ; Bangalore (Staunton). Burma: Minhla. 

232. Argyope lobata, Pallae, Spic. Zool. i, pt. 9, p. 46, t. iii, fig. 14, 

1772 (Aranea). 

2 • Allied to the preceding, but paler in colour ; legs very 
distinctly striped. Coxae and trochanters of 3rd and 4th leys not 
spinulose below ; band of spiuules on femur of 4th more scanty 
and not spreading on to the basal third of the segment. Septum 
of vulva broader and shorter. 

Total length about 2o mm. 

Loc. India : Bellary and Wagra Ivaroor (according to Simon). 

233. Argyope pulchella, Thordl, Ann.Mus. Genova, xvii. p. 74, 188] \ 

Simon, op. cit. w. p. .'!!•'>. 1884; Thorell, op. cit.xxv,^. L58, L887 ; 

ill. .Sju'i/rrs i,f I !,/ rum. y. L62, L896. 

2. Colour: cara])ace and legs deep reddish brown, the former 
thickly covered with silky white hair; palpi yellow; sternum 
yellow, black at sides ; abdomen yellow or whitish above, orna- 
mented with a large triangular olive-black patch behind, a trans- 
verse bar of the same colour in front, and two close-set narrow 
lines forming together a stripe in the anterior half, the dark 



222 ARGYOPIB.E. 

patches relieved by small white spots ; ventral surface blackish, 
spotted, with a pair of yellow stripes running on each side from 
the epigastric fold ; legs sometimes yellow and strongly banded 
with black, sometimes more uniformly dark. Carapace nearly as 
broad as long. Abdomen pentagonal, truncate in front, broadest 
behind the middle, then abruptly narrowed, scarcely lobed. Plate of 
vulva triangularly pointed, with thickened rim, each half of the 
cavity subcircular when seen from the side. 

Length about 15 to 20 mm. 

Loc. Burma: Rangoon, Tharrawaddy, Moulmein, &c. (Oates Sf 
Fea). Andaman Islands. 

234. Argyope undulata, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxv, p. 154, 

1887 ; id. Spiders of Burma, p. 161, 1895. 

Closely allied to A. pulcliella, but with the anterior pale, trape- 
zoidal area on the upper side of the abdomen completely divided by 
a single broad transverse olive-brown stripe. The inferior lamina 
of the vulva much more rounded posteriorly ; the septum vertical 
with straighter sides, and when viewed from the side forming a 
right angle, and not a continuous circular curve, with the posterior 
portion of the ventral sclerite. 

Total length 29 mm. 

Loc. Burma : Tharrawaddy (Oaies) ; Shwegoo (Fea). 

235. Argyope anasuja, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxv, p. 162, 1887 : 

orriata, Simon, op. cit. xx, p. 347, 1884 (not of Black-wall). 

Resembling the preceding, but with the ventral plate of the 
vulva scarcely produced in the middle posteriorly, the edge being 
more widely rounded, the thickened margin and the partition 
forming rather a T-shaped than a Y-shaped bar. 

Total length about 11 mm. 

Loc. India: Hamnad (Fabre), Chingleput (Jambunathan), Oota- 
camund (llampson), Bangalore (Staunton), Nasik (Millet), Karachi 
(Simon). 

The following species based upon an immature specimen is 
indeterminable, though closely allied to A. anasuja : — 

Argiope ornata, Blackwall, A. M. N. II. (3) xiv, p. 43, 1864 (Nephila). 
Loc. East Indies. 

236. Argyope tapi'Obanica, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova. xxv, p. 168, 
1887: versicolor, Karsch, Berl. mt. Zeits. xxxvi, p. 280, 1892 
( not of Doleschatt). 

Closely allied to A. pulcTtella, but with the smooth edges of the 
spaces of the vulva thicker, and the spaces themselves less circular 
when seen from the side, and often furnished with a crescent ic 
sclerite forming a secondary partition. 

Total length 17 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon : Randy, Peradeniya (Freeman). 




ARANEl'S. 223 

237. Argyope aemula, Walck. Ins. Apt ii, p. 118, 1837 (Epeira); 
ThoreU, Ann. Mies. Genova, xvii, p. ti.'i, L881 (Argiope) (for 
synonymy): trivittata, Karsch, Berl. ent. Zeis*, xxxvi, p. 280, 
t. x, liV r - B, 1892 (dark variety). 

Colour very much as in A. pulehella, but the black stripes and 
posterior black patch on the abdomen broken up 
into a series of transverse black lines by intervening 
broader pale bands. Abdomen about one-third 
longer than wide, oval, truncate in front, its sides 
evenly and lightly rounded ; ventral plate of vulva 
longer than wide, sulcate, and mesially produced 
posteriorly with rounded apex. 

Total length about 23 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon: Trincomali (Terbury), Punduloya 
(Green). India : Trivaudrutn (Ferguson), Nilgiri 
Hills (Dalif), Poona Ghats (Wroughton), E. Khan- 
desh (Madan), Balsar in S. Guzerat (Wroughton). 
Fig. 71. Burma: Rangoon, Tharrawaddy, Bhamo (Gates Sf 
Argyope wmula, Fm ^ Ni co bar Is. ; Indo- and Austro-Malaysia. 

JF- ' X 3. 

238. Argyope catenulata, Dokschati, Verh. Nat. Vereen. Xederland. 
Indie, v, no. 5, p. 80, t. ix, tig. ] , 1859 (Epeira ) ; ThoreU, Ann. Mus. 
Genova, xxviii, p. DO, 1890 (synonymy) : stellata, Stolickza, J. A. 
s. Ii. xxxviii, pt. 2, p. 234, t.' xvii'i. Bg. 6, 18(59. 

Allied to A. cemida, but differing considerably in colour, the 
posterior three-fourths of the upper side of the abdomen orna- 
mented with transverse yellow stripes, frequently interrupted in 
the middle, the spaces between the bands occupied by transverse 
rows, each consisting of four subspherical pale spots, of which the 
median fuse together at the posterior end of the abdomen ; the 
area occupied by the median spots covered with a continuous 
coating of silky hairs forming a band broad in front and narrowed 
behind. 

Loc. Ceylon: Peradeniya (Sarasin). India: Wagra Karoor 
(Simon); Sunderbans (StoliczJca), Burma: Tharrawaddy, Moulmein 
(Oates). Nicobar is. ; Indo- and Austro-Malaysia. 

Genus ARANEUS, Clerck. 

Araneus, Clerck, Svenska Spindlar, p. 22, 17.">7. 
Araneus+Cvrtophora, Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign, i. pp. ~~~>Sl 829, 

IS! I.-,. 

Carapace convex; eyes of posterior line lightly or strongly 
recurved ; quadrangle a little longer than wide ; lateral eyes 
separated or in contact. Legs Btrong; protarsi shorter than tibia' 
and patellae. Female with distinct vulva. .Male with complicated 
palpus. 

Type, .1. diadematus, Clerck. 

Distribution. Tropical and temperate countries. 



224 ARGTOPID.E. 

Synopsis of the principal Indian Species. 

a. Ocular "quadrangle parallel-sided or nearly 

so. 
a 1 . Quadrangle square ; abdomen higher be- 
hind than in front A. lar/laizei, p. 224. 

b\ Quadrangle much longer than wide ; ab- 
domen not higher behind. 
a 2 . Abdomen furnished with 4 tubercles 

above in front A. cicatrosus, p. 226. 

b 2 . Abdomen furnished with only 2 tuber- 
cles above in front. 
a 3 . Abdomen produced posteriorly into 

a conical prominence A. fees, p. 226. 

b 3 . Abdomen evenly rounded behind . . A. moluccensis, p. 226. 

b. Ocular quadrangle much narrower behind 

than in front. 
a\ Anterior half of abdomen furnished on 

each side with two large prominences . . A. citricola, p. 226. 
b*. Anterior half of abdomen at most furn- 
ished with a pair of shoulder prominences. [p. 227. 
a 5 . Posterior extremity of abdomen bilobate. A, exanthematicus, 
b r \ Posterior end of abdomen not bilobate. 
« H . Upper side of abdomen triangular; 
carapace granular. 
a 1 . A large tubercle overhanging 

lateral eyes A. rlehaanii, p. 225. 

b 7 . No tubercle over lateral eyes .... A. unicolor, p. 225. 
b*. Upper side of abdomen oval or heart- 
shaped ; carapace smooth. 
a 8 . Abdomen with a pair of large cir- 
cular yellow spots A. btlunifer, p. 227. 

b H . Abdomen without a pair of cir- 
cular pale spots. 
«°. Head narrower, flatter ; distance 
between anterior median eyes 
almost half that between me- 
dian and lateral A. nauticus, p. 228. 

b". Head broader, more convex ; 
distance between anterior me- 
dian eyes much less than half 
that between median and 
lateral A. rumpfi, p. 228. 



239. Araneus laglaizei, Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (5) vii, p. 77, 
1877; Thorell, Ann. Mas. Genova, xxviii, p. 167, 1800 (for 
synonymy) (Epeira). 

Colour variable, pale or dark brown ; legs distal I y banded ; 
abdomen yellowish white above, strongly or weakly banded, 
blackish or greyish below, with two pairs of whitish spots on each 
side. Carapace with weak ocular tubercles ; quadrangle almost 
square, slightly wider behind than in trout ; lateral eyes in 
contact. Leys scarcely spined. Abdomen heart-shaped, very 
broad in front, much elevated behind above the spinners, and often 



ARANEUS. 



225 



prolonged into a longish subcylinclrical tail. Vulva with scape 
stout at base, downcurled at apex. 

Total length up to 10 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon : Peradeniya {Freeman) ; Trincomali (Yerbamj). 
India: Ootacamund (Hampson) ; Jaunsar, Thadyar, 2500 ft. (Old- 
ham). Burma : Tounghoo, Tliarrawaddy, Bangoon, Tenasserim, &c. 
(Gates Sf Fea). Indo- and Austro-Malaysia. 

240. Araneus unicolor, Doleschatt, Nat. Tijdschr. Nederland. Indie, 

xiii, p. 4K), 1857; Thorell, Spider* of Burma, p. 171, 1895 (for 
synonymy) (Epeira). 

Prevailing colour reddish brown, lightly infuscate on the upper 
side of the abdomen, yellow below and laterally. Carapace broad, 
coarsely granular or tubercular ; eyes of posterior line very dis- 
tinctly recurved ; lateral eyes widely separated, quadrangle wider 
in front. Legs strong but short, at most weakly spined ; anterior 
femora tubercular. Abdomen somewhat heart-shaped, broadly 
truncate in front, with large prominent shoulder-points, pointed 
behind, high and prominent above spinners. Vulva small, without 
scape. 

Total length about 20 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon. N.E. India, Naga Hills. Burma: Tharrawaddy 
(Oates). 

A. acrobalia, Thorell (Spiders of Burma, p. 173, 1895 (Epeira)), 
based upon an immature female from Toungboo (Oates), is closely 
allied to this species. 

241. Araneus dehaanii, Doleschail, Verh. Nat. Vereen. Nederl. Indie, \, 

no. 5, p. 33, t. ii, fig. 7, L859 ; Thorell, Ann. 
Mus. Geneva, xxviii, p. 125, L890; id. Spiders of 
Burma, p. 170, I8i)5 (for synonymy) (Epeira). 

Colour: carapace reddish, blacker late- 
rally, clothed with white hairs ; legs 
and palpi blackish red, banded ; abdomen 
dull yellowish brown laterally and be- 
low, variable above, the area between the 
shoulder-points and the extremity often 
deep reddish chocolate, yellow at the sides, 
sometimes with a few yellow spots in 
front ; the yellow lateral portion some- 
times broken up into a series of large 
yellow spots. Carapace granular above, 
with a conical tubercle on each side above 
the lateral eye3. Abdomen triangular, 
broad, with large sharp shoulder-points in 
front, pointed behind, and ending in three 
prominences set in a verticil scries. Vulva 
small, w ith very stout -cape. 
Total length about 2 I nun. 
Loc. Ceylon: Trincomali (Yerbury). India: Kanara (Millet). 

Burma: Tliarrawaddy, Bhamo, Tenasserim, &c. (Oates if Fea). 

Indo- and Austro-Malaysia. 




Fig. 72.— Am in us 
dehaanii, £. X 3. 



226 AEGYOPIBA'. 

242. Araneus moluccensis, Doleschall, Nat. Tijdschr. Nederland. 

Indie, xiii, p. 418, 1857 ; Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xiii, p. 40, 
1878 (for synonymy) (Epeira). 

Colour : carapace and limbs blackish, the former, and to a less 
extent the latter, clothed with whitish hairs ; coxa) mostly yellow, 
sternum with yellow line ; abdomen yellow in front above, rest of 
the dorsal surface thickly spotted and lined with yellow on a black 
ground ; blackish below. Carapace flatfish ; ocular quadrangle 
parallel-sided, much longer than wide ; eyes of posterior line 
nearly straight, lateral eyes narrowly separated. Legs strong, 
long, scarcely spined, furnished with stiff bristles. Abdomen 
evenly oval, with two distinct shoulder-points in front. Vulva 
without scape. 

Total length 24 mm. 

Log. Ceylon : Kellar (Yerbury), &c. India : Trivandrum 
{Ferguson), Nilgiri Hills {Daly). Burma : Tharravvaddy, Eangoon, 
Moulmein (Oates fy Feci). Indo- and Austro-Malaysia. 

243. Araneus fese, Thorell, Ami. Mus. Genova, xxv, p. 173, 1887 ; id. 

Spiders of Burma, p. 170, 1895 (Euetria). 

Allied to A. moluccensis, but smaller and paler ; carapace and 
legs ochre, femora banded above longitudinally ; abdomen whitish 
above, with median longitudinal black band broken up by paler 
markings and bordered with white ; sides ornamented with white 
bands ; lower surface black, spotted and bordered with white. 
Carapace with eyes of posterior line distinctly procurved ; laterals 
in contact. Legs long and slender, armed with slender spines. 
Abdomen longer, narrower, more prominent posteriorly above 
spinners. 

Total leugth 13 mm. 

Loc. Burma: Tharrawaddy, Rangoon (Oates), Bhaino (Fea). 

244. Araneus cicatrosus, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxviii, p. 242, t. xx, 

fig. 5, 1869 : salebrosa, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xiii, p. 48, 1878 
(Epeira) : adspersata, Karsch, Berl. ent. Zeits.xxx.\i, p. 284, t. x, 
fig. 8, 1892 (Meta). 

Coloured much as in A. few, but with the carapace banded with 
black, the legs thickly spotted with black, and the median ab- 
dominal band restricted to the posterior third of the dorsal surface. 
Carapace less flat ; eyes of posterior line slightly recurved ; 
laterals very distinctly separated. Abdomen furnished above in its 
anterior half with two pairs of conical erect tubercles arranged in 
a square. 

Total length 6 mm. 

Loc. India : Chingleput (Jambunatlian), Kanara, N.-isik (Millet), 
Allahabad (Ityves) ; Calcutta (Stoliczka). Burma : Tharrawaddy, 
Moulmein (Oates). Indo- and Austro-Malaysia. 

245. Araneus citricola, Forsk&l, Descript. Anim. etc. p. 86, 1775 ; id. 

Icones rer. nat. t. xxiv, fig. D, 1776 (Aranea) ; Thorell, Spiders of 
Burma, p. 172, 1895 (for synonymy) (Epeira). 



ARAJS'EL'S. 



227 



Colour very v 




Fig. 73.- 
citricola, 



Arancu 

$,X2 



ariable, either uniformly navous or blackish, legs 
obscurely banded ; dorsal side of abdomen 
often black and bordered with a sinuous 
yellow band ami marked in front in the middle 
line with a pair of close-set narrow pale 
stripes. Carapace convex, smooth ; eyes of 
posterior line very strongly recurved; laterals 
widely separated. Legs short and strong. 
Abdomen oval, with large shoulder promi- 
nences, a deeply bifid posterior extremity, 
and a lateral prominence on each side just in 
front of the middle. Vulva without scape. 

Total length about 12 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon (Barnes, Cambridge). India : 
Bangalore (Staunton) ; Chingleput (Jambu- 
nathan); J\.ann,Ta,( Millet). Burma: Rangoon, 
Tharrawaddy (Oates). Also Australia, Mada- 
gascar &c, Africa, and S. Europe. 



246. Araneus exanthematicus, Dol*schaB, Verh. Nat. Vereen. Neder- 
land. Indie, v, no. 5, p. 38, t. iii, tig. 3, 1859 ; Thorell, Ann. Mua. 
Genova, xiii, p. 57, 1878 (Epeira). 

Nearly allied to A. citricola, but at once distinguishble by the 
absence of the submedian lateral prominence on the abdomen. 
Total length about 10 mm. 
Loc. Burma: Tounghoo (Oat ex). Indo- and Austro-Malaysia. 



247. Araneus bilunifer, sp, n. 




Fig. 74. 
Araneus bilunifer, £ , X 2. 



Total length 21 mm. 

Loc. S. India : Chingleput (Jambunaihan). 



2 . Prevailing colour yellowish, legs 
dist ally infuscate and banded, sternum 
nicsially blackish ; abdomen yellowish 
grey, indistinctly variegated with 
darker markings, marked in front 
with a pair of large circular black- 
ringed yellow patches and some smaller 
irregular spots in front of them ; median 
ventral area infuscate, with pale yellow 
band on each side. Carapace weakly 
granular ; eyes of posterior line lightly 
recurved, medians almost in contact, 
lateral eyes visibly separated. Legs 
stnmg, spiny; protarsi of anterior pairs 
armed with many close-set spines from 
base to apex : tarsi spined. Abdomen 
broadly oval, with a pair of low 
shoulder-points. Vulva with scape 
much narrower than basal portion and 
closely in contact with it. 



Q2 



>> 



228 AKGYOPIDJE. 

248. Araneus nauticus, L. Koch, Myypt. Abyssin. Arachn. p. 17, 
t. ii, fig. 2, 1875: pullata, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, x, p. 385, 
1877 ; id. op. cit. xxviii, p. 148, 1890 (for synonymy) (Epeira). 

Colour : carapace dark browii, with greyish hairs : legs strongly 
banded with black ; sternum black with median pale line ; abdomen 
black below with a pair of large pale spots, upper side varied with 
deep brown and grey, the latter typically forming a large median 
cross-shaped band. Head narrow, flattish, ocular tubercle promi- 
nent ; eyes of anterior line not widely spaced, distance between 
medians noticeably exceeding half that between them and the 
laterals. Abdomen evenly heart-shaped, without shoulder-points, 
only a little longer than broad. Vulva with scape, not bent at 
right angles, without any notch between it and the basal portion. 

Total length, £ (adult), from 7-15 mm. 

Loc. India : Karachi (Simon) • eastern district of Poonn (Irani) ; 
Eastern Khandesh (Madan); Darjiling (Bendy Sr Wrougliton). 
Burma : Rangoon, Tharrawaddy, Bhamo, &c. (Oates Sf Fea). 
All tropical countries. 

249. Araneus rumpfi, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xiii, p. 296, 1878: 

hispida, Doleschall, Verh. Nat. Vereen. Nederland. Indie, v, no. 5, 
p. 33, 1859 : decens, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, x, p. 379, 1877 (pre- 
occupied) : rufofemorata, Simon, Ann. Mus. Genova, xx, p. 348, 
1884 (Epeira). 

2 . Colour and shape much as in A. nauticus ; anterior femora 
reddish brown ; head redder, more convex, broader, distance 
between anterior median eyes about one-third of distance between 
medians and laterals ; lower side of abdomen more yellow, upper 
side variable, sometimes as in A. nauticus, sometimes yellowish 
with large anterior brown patch. Vulva w T ith scape much longer, 
bent at right angles, separated posteriorly from the basal portion 
by a wide but shallow tubercular notch. 

Total length from 10-15 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon: Punduloya (Green) ; Trincomali (Yerbwy). India: 
Chingleput (Jambunathan), Bangalore (Staunton), Ootacamund 
(Hampson), Poona (Wroiu/hton), Wagra Karoor (Fahre), Karachi 
(Simon). Burma : Rangoon, Tharrawaddy, Bhamo (Oates <$f Fea). 
Indo- and Austro-Malaysia. 



Genus CYRTARACHNE, Thorell. 

Cyrtarachne, Thorell, Euy. Rosa, Arachn. p. 10, L868; Simon, Hist. 
Nat. Araiyn. i, p. 880, 1895. 

Carapr ( °,e convex, unarmed; median eyes not prominent, the 
quadrangle generally slightly wider than long ; laterals contiguous. 
Abdomen wider than long, integument leathery, impressed in the 
middle and in front with large sigilla. 



CYETAEACnXE. 229 

Type, C. yrubei, Keys. 

Distribution. Mediterranean, Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian 
Regions. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Abdomen not pointed behind, black with yellow 

lateral ring C. cinyulata, p. 229. 

b. Abdomen pointed behind, mostly yellow. 

a 1 . Abdomen with black patch below ; vulva 

triangular C. inccqualis, p. 229. 

b\ Abdomen not black below ; vulva quadrate . C. raniceps, p. 229. 

250. Cyrtarachne raniceps, sp. n. 

? Cvrtarachne perspicillata, Karsch, Berl. ent. Zeits. xxxvi, p. 278, 
1892 (not of Doleschall). 

2 . Carapace and abdomen ochre-yellow, scantily clothed with 
pale hairs : abdomen a brighter more lemon-yellow above, testaceous 
beneath, the shoulder prominences amber at the tip, partially 
surrounded at the base by darker and paler lines. Abdomen one- 
fourth wider than long, triangular, broadest in its anterior half, 
where it runs out laterally into a large smooth conical prominence, 
the area between the prominences tolerably even. Vulva with 
scape in the form of a short, narrow, subquadrate tubercle. 

Length of abdomen 7 mm., width 9. 

Loc. Ceylon (Barnes). 



251. Cyrtarachne inaequalis, Thorell, Spiders of Burma, p. 201, 1896. 

$ . Nearly allied to the preceding, hut with the ventral surface 
of the abdomen black behind the epigastric fold, and the fore part 
of its lateral surface bulging out and furnished with a dark 
•coloured patch beneath the conical prominence. Scape of vulva 
triangular at base, apically pointed. 

Length of abdomen 8 mm., width 11. 

Loc. Burma: Tounghoo and Tharrawaddy (Oates). 

252. Cyrtarachne cingulata, Thorell, Spiders nf Burma,?. 202, 1895 

$ . Carapace and legs deep brown ; abdo- 
men black, with a broad yellow ring nar- 
rowly interrupted below round its lateral 
extremities. Abdonn n twice as broad as long, 
Fig 75 l — Cyrtarachne wide lv rounded posteriorly. Vulva with sub- 
cinyuiata, % , x 2. triangular scape. 

Length of abdomen 5, width 10 mm. 
Loc. Burma : Bangoon (Oates). 




230 AKGYOPID^. 

Genus ORDGARIUS, Keyserling. 

Ordgarius, Keyserling, in Koch, Arachn. Austral. 1886, p. 114 ; Simon, 
Hist. Nat. Araign. i, p. 885, 1895. 

Carapace convex, armed above with a few symmetrically placed 
tooth-like tubercles. Abdomen very large, wider than long, widely 
rounded laterally, tuberculate above. 

Type, 0. monstrosus, Keys. 

Distribution. From. India to Australia. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Posterior end of abdomen rounded and 

tubercular O. hobsoni, p. 230. 

b. Posterior end of abdomen conically produced 

and tubercular O. sexspinosus, p. 230. 

253. Ordgarius hobsoni, O. P. Cambridge, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 562 r 

t. hi, tig. 3 (Cyrtaraclme). 

2 . Colour a tolerably uniform dull brown, legs and palps 
yellow ringed with black, abdomen ornamented 
in front in the middle with a large yellow patch. 
Carapace armed behind with a pair of small 
tubercles and a large median conical tubercle, 
with a smaller one in front of it on the cephalic 
portion. Legs without spines. Abdomen broader 
than long, the anterior border emarginate ; 
posterior extremity bluntly rounded, raised in 
front into a pair of large rounded protuberances, 
-p. 76 studded with larger and smaller rounded tubercles . 

Ordgarius hobsoni, Total length of abdomen 9 mm., width 11-5. 
2. Loc. Ceylon : Puuduloya {Green). Bombay 

(Hobson). 

254. Ordgarius sexspinosus, Thorell, Bih. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Hand/. xx r 
pt. iv, p. 48, 1894 (Notocentria). 

$ . Differing from the preceding in having the tubercles on the 
carapace very long and spiniform, and the abdomen furnished with 
a few low tubercles on the anterior prominence, with its posterior 
extremity produced into two upper and two lower conical pro- 
cesses, considerably overlapping the spinners. 

Total length 6 mm. 

Loc. Burma : Tharrawaddy (Oates). 

Genus OER0STRIS, Thorell. 

Caerostris, Thorell, En//. Resa, Arach. p. 3, 18G8; Simon, Hist. Nat. 
Araign. i, p. 834, 1895. 

Carapace with thoracic portion low ; cephalic portion strongly 
elevated, armed with a transverse row of six large tubercles, two 




GASTERACANTHA. 



231 



$ . Colour 



on the summit and two on each side ; ocular quadrangle wider 
than long, narrowed in front. Legs strong, with tibiae and pro- 
tarsi flat and strongly sulcate. Abdomen large, high in front, 
irregularly tubercular. 

Type, C. mitralis, Vinson. 

Distribution. Ethiopian Eegion, Madagascar; Oriental Eegion. 

255. Caerostris paradoxa, Dolesc/iall, Verh. Nat. Vereen. Nederland. 
Indie, v, no. 5, p. 37, t. ix. fig. H, am i t , x . tig. 8, 1859 (Epeira) ; 
Butler, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 732, t. lviii, fig. 5 (Cserostris). 

integument of carapace and limbs black, carapace 
clothed laterally with yellow hairs, 
head and legs with greyish-brown 
hairs ; femora blackish or deep steel- 
blue ; tibia; with band of yellow- 
hairs in their basal half below; 
abdomen yellow - brown, clothed 
with silvery hairs in the middle in 
front, elsewhere with golden-brown 
hairs intermixed with stripes of 
velvety black ; lower surface olive- 
black, reddish in middle. 

Total length about 20 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon : Trincomali ( Yer- 
burg), Punduloya (Green). Burma: 
Tharrawaddy, Rangoon, Tounghoo 
(Oates). Indo-Malaysia. 




Fig. 77. 
Carostru pnradoxa 



Genus GASTERACANTHA, Sund. 

Gasteracantha, Sundevall, Consp. Arachn. p. 14, 1833 ; Simon, Hist. 
Nat. Araiyn. i, p. 845, 1895. 

Carapace with thoracic portion low, cephalic portion elevated ; 
ocular quadrangle narrower in front. Abdomen large, subquadrate, 
transversely oblong, or narrowed laterally ; integument horny T 
impressed with large sigilla, and armed on each side with an 
anterior, a median, and a posterior spine ; spinners encircled by a 
horny ring. 

Type, (r. cancriformis, Linn. 

Distribution. Tropical countries of the world. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. No ventral tubercle in front of spinners on 
abdomen. 
a 1 . Length of median spine only about equal 

to naif the width of the abdomen <;. haaseitii, p. 2:13. 

b l . Length of median spine at least as great 
as width of abdomen. 
a 1 . Median spines apically clavate G. remifera, p. 2'ili. 



232 aegtopidtE. 

b 2 . Median spines not clavate. 

a 3 . Median spines less than twice the 
width of the abdomen. 
a 4 . Median spine equalling width of 

abdomen G. sororna, p. 233. 

b*. Median spine nearly twice the 

width of the abdomen G. dalyi, p. 232. 

b 3 . Median spine slender, arcuate, more 
than twice as long as width of 

abdomen G. arcuata, p. 232. 

b. A ventral tubercle in front of spinners on 
abdomen. 
a 5 . Anterior and median spines subequal, in 

contact except .at the extremities G. yeminata, p. 233. 

b 5 . Anterior and median spines widely sepa- 
rated. 
a 6 . Summit of head elevated into a conical 

eminence ; spines short G. brevispina, p. 235. 

b n . Summit of head not elevated into a 
conical process. 
a 7 . Lateral and to a lesser extent posterior 
spines very broad at base, abruptly 

narrowed at apex G. unyuifera, p. 234. 

b 1 . Lateral and posterior spines mostly 
evenly acuminate. 
a 8 . Abdomen only about one-fourth 
wider than long, not laterally 

narrowed G. leucomelcena, p. 235. 

b s . Abdomen twice as wide as long, \ G.frontata and 

laterally narrowed | G. diadesmia, p. 234. 

256. Gasteracantha arcuata. Fabr. Bat. Syst. ii, p. 425, 1793 

(Aranea) ; Thorell,Ann. Mus. Genova, xxv, p. 223, 1887 (Plectaua) 
(synonymy). 

Colour : carapace, legs, &c. blackish, femora rather paler ; abdo- 
men yellow above, with marginal black antero-lateral band, black 
below and covered with yellow spots. Abdomen with anterior 
and posterior spines minute ; median spines very long, slender, 
and arcuate, exceeding twice the width of the abdomen in the 
adult. 

Measurements in mm. — Width of abdomen at base of anterior 
spines 8-8 mm., length 6*5, length of median spine 20. 

Loc. Burma: Tharrawaddy (Oates), Shwegoo {Fea). Indo- 
Malaysia. 

257. Gasteracantha dalyi, sp. n. 

Allied to the preceding, but with the abdomen not margined 
with black above, the anterior and posterior spines larger and the 
median spine much shorter, less arcuate, and considerably less than 
twice as long as the width of the abdomen. 

Width of abdomen 8*8 mm., length of median spine 15. 

Loc. 8. India : Yercaud in Shevaroy Hills {Daly). 



GASTERACANTHA. 233 

258. Gasteracantha sororna, Butler, Tr. Ent. Soc. 1873, p. 155, t. iv, 

fig. 15. 

§ . Closely allied to G. dalyi, but with the median spine 
slender, attenuate, and only equalling the width of the abdomen. 
Width of abdomen 0*5 mm., length of median spine 6*5. 
Loc. Madras (Jerdon). 

259. Gasteracantha remifera, Butler, Tr. But. Soc 1873, p. 154, t. iv, 

fi°f. 5 : clavatrix, Karsch, Bed. ent. Zeits. xxxvi, p. 277, 1892 
(Plectana) {not of Walck.). 

At once recognizable from all the preceding by having the 
median spines much thinner in the middle than at the base and 
extremity, the latter being lightly clavate and abruptly narrowed 




Fig. 78. — Gasteracantha remifera, J, X 2. 

to a point at the extreme tip ; anterior and posterior spines 
larger, the median spine a little exceeding the width of the 
abdomen. 

Loc. Ceylon (Thwaites) : Trincomali ( Yerbury). 

260. Gasteracantha hasseltii, C. Koch, Arach. iv, p. 29, t. cxvii, 

fig. 2G7, 1838 (Gasteracantha); Thorell, Ann. Mns. Genova, xxv, 
p. 224, 1887 (Plectana) (synonymy) : propinqua, O. P. Cambridge, 

P. Z. 8. 1879, p. 288, t. xxvii,'fig.' 10 (Gasteracantha). 

Recognizable from the foregoing by having the median spines, 
which are typically attenuate, very short, their length hardly 
exceeding half the width of the abdomen ; the remaining spines as 
long as in G. remifera. 

AVidth of abdomen 8 mm., length of median spine 3"5. 

Loc. X.E. India: Assam, Sikhim. Burma: Tharrawaddy, 
Rangoon, Shwegoo, Tenasserim, Sic. {Oaten cj- Fea). 

261. Gasteracantha geminata, Fabr. Suppl. Ent. Syst. p. 392, L798 

(Aranea) : rimata, O. P. Cambridge, P. Z. S. 1879, p. 282, t. xxvi, 
fig. 3 (Gasteracantha). 

Colour: carapace, mandibles, and legs black, t lie latter annulate 



234 



AEGYOPIDiE. 




with pale markings ; sternum yellow ; abdomen yellow above with 

two transverse black stripes, black below 
with yellow spots. Abdomen narrowed later- 
ally, about twice as wide as long ; the 
anterior and median spines longest, sub- 
equal, in contact at the base, diverging 
slightly at apex ; posterior spines strongish. 
Fig 79.- Gastera- Length of abdomen 5 mm., width 11 (not 

rant ha (lemmata, y. • i i- ■ \ 

•' + including spines). 

Loc. Ceylon: Peradeniya, Matale (Sarasin), Trincomali (Yer- 
bury). Southern India : Tinnevelly (Barber) ; Ootacamund 
(Barnpson); Rarnnad (Fabre); Madras (Jambutnahan). 

262. Gasteracantha frontata, Blaekicall, A. M. N. H. (3) xiv, p. 40, 

1864 ; Cambr. P. Z. 8. 1879, p. 283, t. xxvi, fig. 5 : Thorell, 
Spiders of Burma, p. 210, 1895. 

Colour and form much as in the preceding, but the anterior and 
median spines of the abdomen separated. Abdomen pale above or 
marked in front with a tolerably uneven black band, the yellow 
area in front of the stripe reaching to the base of the anterior 
spine. Sternum black with yellow spot ; median spines short, 
narrower than mandibles, and nearly evenly narrowed from base 
to point, about twice as long as the posterior, which a little exceed 
the anterior. 

Length of abdomen 6 mm., width 13. 

Loc. Burma : Tharrawaddy, Tounghoo, Eangoon, Tenasseritn 
(Oates). Siam. 

263. Gasteracantha diadesmia, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxv, 

p. 225, 1887. 

Closely allied to G. frontata, but with the anterior yellow band 
not reaching the base of the anterior spines, and with the posterior 
half of the abdomen marked with a second transverse black stripe ; 
median spine not thin and evenly attenuate, but thicker and with 
its anterior border distinctly swollen and convex in its distal half. 

Total length of abdomen 7 mm., width 16. 

Loc. Burma: Tharrawaddy (Oates); Bhamo, Shwegoo (Fea). 
Andaman and Nicobar Islands, &c. ; also Penang and Siam. 

264. Gasterr.canthaunguifera, Simon, J. A. S. B. lviii, p. 336, 1889. 

2 • Much smaller than the preceding. Abdomen granular and 
tolerably uniformly flavous above, about one-third wider than 
long ; anterior border rather strongly convex, anterior spines 
small, acuminate; median spines much larger, with the basal 
portion exceedingly stout, and distally expanded, then abruptly 
narrowed, the terminal portion normally slender and rising from 
the middle of the expanded end of the basal portion ; posterior 



POLTYS. 235 

spines also with basal portion stout, but not so abruptly narrowed 
as in the case of the median spines. 

Length of abdomen 3 mm., width 4-5. 

Loc. Himalayas: Jaunsar, Thadyar, 2600 ft. (Oldham). 

265. Gasteracantha leucomelsena, Doleschall, Verh. Nat. Vereen, 

Neclcrland. Indie, v, no. 5, p. 42, t. xi, tig. 8, 1859 (Plectana leuco- 
melas) ; Thorell, Ann. Mas. Genova, xxv, p. 232, 1887 : annamita, 
Simon, Act. Soc. L. Bord. xl, p. 148, 1886. 

Colour : carapace and mandibles black ; legs yellow, with black 
bands ; sternum yellow, with posterior black spot ; upper side of 
abdomen whitish or yellow, with median black Y-shaped mark and 
a large black patch at base of spines, the patches sometimes 
uniting with the ends of the arms and with the stem of the Y to 
form transverse bars of black. Abdomen about one-third wider 
than long, not laterally attenuate, parallel-sided ; the spines small, 
acuminate, the median and posterior subequal and much larger 
than the anterior. 

Length of abdomen 5 mm., width 7. 

Loc. Burma: Rangoon, Tbarrawaddy, Tenasserim, &c. (Oates, 
Fea). Andaman and Nice-bar Islands. Indo-Malaysia. 

266. Gasteracantha brevispina, Doleschall, Nat. Tijdschr. Nederland. 

Indie, xiii, p. 423, 1857 (Plectana) ; Thorell, Ann. Mas. Genova, 
xxviii, p. 63, 1890 : canningensis, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxviii, 
p. 248, t. xviii, fig. 1, 1869 (Gastracantha). 

About the same size and much the same form as G.leucomekma; 
head reddish laterally and rising in the middle into a conical 
prominence much more pronounced than in the preceding species. 
Abdomen a little wider than long, very variable in colour, some- 
times the black, sometimes the yellow predominating ; usually there 
is a large triangular black patch on each side and a pair of large 
yellow ocelliform spots near the middle ; spines shorter, conical, 
the lateral and median not evenly acuminate, being very stout at 
the base and abruptly narrowed at the apex, somewhat as in 
G. unguifera. 

Length of abdomen 5*5 mm., width 7. 

Loc. Ceylon. India : Madras (Jambunathan) ; Uran (Aiikeri), 
Karachi (Simon), Dehra Dun (Oldham), Calcutta (Stoliczka). 
Burma: Moulmein, Tenasserim (Oates, Fea). Andaman and 
Nicobar Islands. Indo- and Austro-Malaysia. 



Genus POLTYS, C. Koch. 

Poltvs, C. Koeh, Arachn. x, p. 97, 1843 ; Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign. i, 
p. 892, 1895. 

Carapace with cephalic region prominent, conical in front, 
ocular quadrangle square or a little wider in front ; lateral eyes 
widely separated, the posterior remote from the rest. Leys of 



236 theridiidjE. 

anterior two pairs long, with tibiae and protarsi curved, flat above. 
Abdomen large, high in front, usually irregularly tubercular at the 
margins. 

Type, P. illepidus, C. Koch. 

Distribution. Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian Regions. 

The two species described below may be diagnosed as follows : — 

■a. Ocular quadrangle wider in front than behind . . P. illepidus, p. 236. 
b. Ocular quadrangle narrower in front than behind. P. pannuceus, p. 236. 

267. Poltys illepidus, C. Koch, Arachn. x, p. 97, fig. 821, 1843. 

Colour : carapace and mandibles blackish ; upper side and front 
of head reddish, with greyish hairs ; naked parts of femora steel- 
blue, bands of the same colour on under side of tibia? and protarsi ; 
hairy clothing on legs and abdomen greyish or yellowish brown 
mottled with blackish or brown spots, epigastric area of abdomen 
blackish. Cephalic eminence constricted at base ; ocular quadrangle 
a little wider in front, as wide behind as long. Abdomen either 
tolerably evenly elliptical with scarcely a trace of tubercles, or 
tubercular and with large shoulder prominences. 

Total length about 15 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon: Punduloya (Green); also Indo- and Austro- 
Malaysia. 

268. Poltys pannuceus, Thorell, Spiders of Burma, p. 167, 1895. 

Colour : carapace uniformly brownish ; epigastric area brown ; 
femora without metallic-blue tints; cephalic eminence less constricted 
at base ; ocular quadrangle slightly narrowed in front, wider be- 
hind than long. Abdomen with long conical tubercles, furnished 
in front with a high median apically clavate column bearing six 
distinct tubercles. 

Total length 12-5 mm. 

Loc. Burma: Rangoon (Oates). 



Family THERIDIID^. 

Recognizable from the Argyopidse by the presence of a series 
of strong spines forming a comb on the tarsus of the 4th leg, and 
by the almost entire absence of teeth on the fang-groove of the 
mandibles, which have no smooth area at the base on the outerside ; 
the clypeus, moreover, is usually high. 

Sedentary Spiders, spinning webs formed of irregularly arranged 
threads. 

The species of ibis family are numerous and mostly of small 
size. The largest species belong to the genus Lathrodectus. 



LATHRODECTUS. 



237 



Genus LATHRODECTUS, Walck. 

Lathrodectus, Walck. Tabl. Aran. p. 81, 1805 ; Simon, Hist. Xat. 
Araign. i, p. 668, 1894. 

Carapace normal in form, with clypeus equal in height to the 
ocular area ; lateral eyes widely separated. Mandibles weak, 
unarmed. Legs long; superior claws toothed almost to apex. 
Abdomen large, globular. 

Type, L. 13-guttatus, Walck. 

Distribution. Tropical and subtropical countries. 



Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Prevailing colour black, with crimson dorsal 

stripe L. hasseltii, p. 237. 

b. Prevailing colour yellowish or silvery, no 

crimson stripe , L. geometricus, p. 238. 



269. Lathrodectus hasseltii, Thorell, 
QSfv. K. tin. Vet.-Akad. Fork, xxvii, 
p.*3G9, 1870. 

Subspecies indicus, Simon, Bull. Mus. 
Hist. Nat. 1897, p. 97. 

Colour black ; upper side of abdomen 
ornamented with a broad longitudinal 
red band with uneven edges extending 
throughout the posterior two-thirds of 
its length ; lower side with a small 
transverse red band in front of the 
spinners and sometimes one behind the 
genital fold. Eyes of anterior line 
subequal, median nearer to each other 
than to the laterals. Length 10 mm. 

Log. Western India : Karachi, 
Poona ( WroxKjhton) ; also Muscat. 

Subspecies elegans, Tin, nil. Ann. Mus, 
(inii, vii, xwi.x. p. 293, L898. 

Differs from the preceding in having 
the dorsal surface of the abdomen 
ornamented in front of the longitudinal 
band with a pair of transverse recurved stripes, the posterior of 
which is sometimes small and continuous with the median band 
Length 10 mm. 

Loc. Burma: Karennee (Fea). 




Fig. 80. — Lathrodectus 
hasseltii, subsp. indicia, 
X 2. 



238 FHOLCID.E. 

270. Lathrodectus geometricus, C. Each, Hie Arachn. viii, p. 117, 
fig. 684, 1841. 

Colour : cephalothorax and legs ochraceous, latter with patella 
and tip of tibia brown ; abdomen paler, varied with symmetrically 
disposed darker spots and brown lines arranged in loops and 
circles. Eyes of anterior line subequally spaced, the median a 
little larger than the laterals. Length 10 mm. 

Loc. Karachi (Toivnsend). Tropics of both hemispheres. 



Family PHOLCID^. 

Carapace flat, subcircular, w 7 ith deep fovea and cephalic grooves ; 
head small, sharply defined ; anterior median eyes small, the rest 
large and forming a group on each side ; clypeus very high. 
Mouth-parts suctorial. Legs exceedingly long and slender, furnished 
with 3 claws. Spinners short, subequal, forming a compact cluster; 
colulus present. 

Distribution. Cosmopolitan. 

Habits. Sedentary Spiders, spinning in hollow trees, beneath 
overhanging rocks or in the corners of houses, a tangled network 
of threads, amongst which the occupant hangs head downwards. 
The female carries her cocoon in her mandibles. 

The best known Indian species of the family are referable to 
the following three genera : — 

a. Sternum posteriorly acuminate ; mandible 

armed with 2 teeth on the fang-groove . . Artema, p. 238. 

b. Sternum broadly truncate posteriorly, man- 

dible with 1 tooth on fang-groove. 
a 1 . Abdomen short, oval,prominent posteriorly 

above the spinners Crossopriza, p. 240. 

6 1 . Abdomen long, cyclindrical, not strongly 

prominent above spinners Smeringopus, p. 239. 

Genus ARTEMA, Walck. 

Artema, Walck. Ins. Apt. i, p. 650, 1837 ; Simon, Hist. Nat, Araign. 
i, p. 465, 1893. 

Eyes subsimilar, anterior medians not much smaller than the rest, 
those of anterior line very lightly, of posterior line more strongly 
recurved ; area of medians not longer than wide. Mandibles 
armed below on fang-groove with two teeth. Sternum posteriorly 
acuminate, projecting between the posterior coxa?. Abdomen very 
high, globular, higher than wide. 

Type, A. atlanta, Walck. 

Distribution. Tropical and subtropical countries of the world. 

271. Artema atlanta, Walck. Ins. Apt. i, p. 656, 1837 : convexa, 
Blackw. A.M.N. II. (3) ii, p. 332, 1858 : sisyphoides, IMeschall, 
Nat. Tijdschr. Nederl. Indie, xiii, p. 408, 1857 (Pholcus). 




SMERINGOPUS. 239 

$. Colour: carapace yellow, with median brown patch and 

brown stripe on clypeus ; legs 

yellow, with brown patella? and 

a brown ring round extremity 

of femora and tibiae ; abdomen 

greyish yellow, ornamented with 

three rows of dusky grey spots. 

Mandible and palpus normal. 

Vulva consisting of a brown, 

thickly horny plate, with the 

posterior border concave. 

cf . Like $ , but with palp very 

thick and mandibles furnished 

externally, with large serrated 

crest 
Fig. SI.- -Arfema atlanta, J, X 2. ' .' ' , . ,, , _ 

Total length about 8 mm. 
hoc. Ceylon: Jaffna, Trincomali (Yerbury). India: Travan- 
core (Ferguson)- Guntakal ; Chingleput (Jamhunathan); Dekkan ; 
Tanna (Fdie); Meerut ; eastern district of Poona (J rani); 
E. Khandesh; Karachi (Toivnsend). Burma: Tharrawaddy(Oates). 
Tropical countries. 

Genus SMERINGOPUS, Simon. 

Smeringopus, Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 1890, p. 94 ; id. Hist. Nat. 
Araign. i, p. 476, 1893. 

Eyes of anterior and posterior line recurved, ocular quadrangle 
longer than wide, space between posterior medians about twice 
the diameter of an eye. Abdomen long, narrow, subcylindrical. 
Sternum broadly truncate behind. 

Type, S. elonijalus, Vinson. 

Distribution. Tropical countries of the world. 

272. Smeringopus elongatus, Vinson, Aran. Reunion, etc. p. 135, 
t. iii, fig. 5, 1863 : distinctus, O. P. Cambridge, Journ. Linn. Soc., 
Zool, x, p. 380, t. xi, iigs. 28, 29, 30, 18G9 (Pholcus). 

2 . Colour : carapace yellow, with radiating triangular dark 
patches ; legs yellow-brown, with pale white band round end of 
femora and tibia 1 ; abdomen greyish white, ornamented above with 
a double series of black spots and at the sides with large black 
patches, ventral surface with a broad reddish-brown median band, 
divided posteriorly by a pale stripe. 

J . Like 2 i but with palpus much inflated, and the mandible 
armed in front below with a small tooth. 
Total length 6 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon. India: Trevandrum (Ferguson), Pondichery, 
Dekkan. Burma: liangoon, Tharrawaddv, Tniasserim (Oata, 
Fea). Andaman Islands, lndo- and Austro-Malaysia, and tropical 
Africa, &c. 



240 HEKSIL1ID.E. 

Genus CROSSOPJtIZA, Simon. 
Crossopriza, Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign. i, p. 476, 1893. 

Differing from Srneringopus in having the ocular quadrangle as 
long as wide, and the posterior median eyes separated by a space 
not exceeding the diameter of an eye. The abdomen is short, ovate, 
posteriorly prominent and sloping abruptly away to the spinners. 

Type, C. pristina, Simon (Egypt). 

Distribution. Egypt, Arabia, and India. 

273. Crossopriza lyoni, Blackwall, A. M. N. H. (3), xix. p. 392, 1867 
(Pholcus). 

5 . Colour yellowish ; carapace marked with median brown stripe; 
legs spotted and streaked with black, extremities of femora and 
tibia? paler ; abdomen yellowish brown, clouded with darker 
patches and marked with minute close-set yellowish spots, some 
black spots upon its posterior portion and a black stripe running 
down to the spinners from the posterior prominence, ventral 
surface black, varied with pale markings. 

6 . Much like $ , but with legs longer, abdomeii lower, mandible 
armed distally with a tooth ; femur of anterior leg with a row of 
long spines ; palpi very thick. 

Total length 5-6 mm. 

Loc. India : Madras (Henderson) ; Chingleput (Jambunathan) ; 
E. Khaudesh (Madan), Allahabad (Ryves). Meerut. Burma : 
Tharrawaddy (Oates). 

Family HERSILIID^E. 

Carapace as wide as long, with cephalic region elevated, narrow 
and defined by a deep semicircular sulcus ; eyes of anterior and 
posterior lines strongly recurved, the anterior laterals standing 
high up halfway between the anterior and posterior medians. 
Mandibles weak, at most weakly toothed below ; maxilla? inclined 
obliquely on the labium. Legs, except of 3rd pair, very long and 
slender, armed with 3 claws. Abdomen short, subpentagonal ; 
posterior spmning-rnamilla? very long, usually longer than the 
abdomen ; colulus present. 

Distribution. Africa, Madagascar, S. Asia, Australia, S. America. 

The species of this family are extremely active hunting Spiders, 
living on tree-trunks, old walls, or under stones, and at most 
spinning a scanty web of irregular threads. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

a. Protarsi of legs undivided Tama, p. 242. 

b. Protarsi of 1st, 2nd, and 4th legs biseg merited. 

a\ Ocular quadrangle nearly parallel-sided IIkrsilia, p. 241. 

//. Ocular quadrangle much wider in front 

than behind MuiuueiA, p. 242. 



HEESILIA. 241 

Genus HERSILIA, Aud. 

Hersilia, Audouin in Sav. Descr. Eyypte, Arachn. p. 114, 1826; 
Simon, Hist. Nat. Araiyn. i. p. 44(3, 1802. 

Ocular quadrangle parallel-sided ; head flat, angular laterally ;. 
clypeus usually very high, prominent. Protarsi of 1st, 2nd, and 
4th legs bisegraented. 

Type, If. caudata, Aud. 

Distribution. Africa, Madagascar, Oriental Region. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Clypeus less than height of ocular quadrangle. //. elathrata, p. 242. 

b. Clypeus exceeding height of ocular quadrangle. 
a 1 . Vulva without median lobe ; patella of palp 

in tf with conical process H. saviynyi, p. 241. 

b l . Vulva with median lobe; patella of palp 

normal H. pectinata, p. 241 . 

274. Hersilia savignyi, Lucas, May. Zool. 6 C annee, cl. viii, p. 10 

t. xiii, fig. 1, 1836: ? calcuttensis, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxviii 
p. 216, t. xx, fig. 9, 1869. 

5 . Colour varying from quite pale to nearly black on the upper 
side, generally mottled or banded ; abdomen with a black rim, 
transverse stripe, and a median longitudinal black bar in front ; 
legs and palpi banded. Clypeus considerably 
exceeding ocular quadrangle ; width of carapace 
less than half the length of the femur of the 
1st leg. Vulva bilobate, the lobes separated 
by deep emargination. 

S . Smaller than 5 ; femur of 1st leg nearly 
four times as long as carapace ; patella and 
tibia of palp with a distinct sigmoid curvature, 
patella produced above on the inner side into a 
conical hairy prominence. 

Measurements in mm. — $ . Total length 
Fig. 82.— Hersilia about 10, carapace 3-5, 1st leg 35. tf . Total 
savignyi, x^ (after length 7, carapace 3, 1st leg 4(>. 
Simon). The spin- ^ Ceylon# India . Xilgiri Hills (ffampson); 

ners are repre- ,, , J , ., ,. P m v ' , 

sented as much too Sudatory and Ponmudi m lravancore (Fer- 

8 hort. yuson), Chingleput (Jambunathari) : Eercaud 

i Henderson); Bellary; Tanna(AVfo); Matberan; 
Poona ( Wroucjhton) ; Allahabad [Ryves) ; Calcutta. Burma: Man- 
dalay, Bhamo, Pegu, Tenasserim {Gates, Fea). 

275. Hersilia pectinata, Thorett, Spiders of Burma, p. 58, 189'), d : 

peguana, id. ibid. p. 80, $. 

Closely allied to 11. savignyi, but recognizable by the form of the 
generative organs. Vulva trilobate posteriorly, the median lobe 
projecting beyond the laterals. Palpi of tf with patella and tibia 

B 




242 HEKSILIIJXE. 

straight, the former unmodified, the tibia furnished externally 
above with an angular prominence tipped with 3 or 4 spines. 

Total length, $ 12-5 mm., <3 11 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon: Punduloya (Green). Burma: Pegu and Thar ra- 
waddy (Oates). 

276. Hersilia clathrata*, Thorell, Spiders of Burma, p. 56, 1895. 

5 . Colour much as in the preceding, but the black rim of the 
abdomen broader, and with four pairs of black spots on each side 
of the middle. Further recognizable by having the chjpeus low, 
less than the height of the ocular quadrangle. Femur of anterior 
leg just three times as long as the carapace. Vulva semicircularly 
excavated behind, the excavation filled by a pair of lobes separated 
by a deep but narrow notch. 

Total length 10 mm., carapace 3"6. 

Loc. Burma: Tenasserim (Oates). 

Genus MURRICIA, Simon. 

Murricia, Simon, Ann. Mns. Genova, xviii, p. 255, 1882 ; id. Hist. 
Nat. Arairjn. i, p. 446, 1892. 

Differs from Hersilia in having the ocular quadrangle much 
wider in front than behind, and the head elevated between the 
posterior median and lateral eyes. 

Type, M. indica, Lucas. 

Distribution. S. India. 

277. Murricia indica, Lucas, Mag. Zool. 6 e annee, cl. viii, p. 7, t. 13, 
fig. 2, 1836 (Hersilia) ; Simon, Ann. Mas. Genova, xviii, p. 255, 1892. 

2 . Colour ; carapace pale in the middle and behind, blackish 
elsewhere ; mandibles pale, darker at base ; palpi and legs banded : 
abdomen with a median and on each side a darker band. 

J . Slighter and more elongate than female, and with stronger 
legs ; patella of palp longer than tibia. 

Total length 8 mm. 

Loc. Western India : Bombay and Malabar (Lucas). 

Genus TAMA, Simon. 

Tama, Simon, Ann. Mus. Genova, xviii, p. 256, 1882 ; id. Hist. Nat. 
Araign. i, p. 446, 1892. 

Differs from Hersilia in having the protarsi of the 1st, 2nd, and 
4th legs undivided. 

Type, T. edwardsi, Lucas. 

Bistribution. North Africa, Oriental Region, Australia. 
S. America. 

278. Tama variata, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, p. 761, L89D. 

2 . Colour variable, as in Hersilia savignyi. Carapace with 

* The only known specimen of this species has imperfect legs, and hence 
may belong to the genus Tama. 



UJtoi'TKin.i:. 



243 



ocular quadrangle a little longer than broad and slightly wider 
in front than behind, much exceeding height of clypeus, which 
scarcely exceeds diameter of anterior median eye. First leg 
shorter than 4th, its femur about twice the length of the carapace 
Vulva with its posterior horder produced into a median convex 
lobe, with a transversely sulcate area on each side of it. 

c? . Much smaller than 2 > femur of 1st leg more than twice as 
long as carapace. Palp with patella and tibia unmodified, tibia 
twice as long as patella. 

Measurements in mm. — 2 . Total length 10, carapace 3*5, 1st 
leg 31. (S . Total length 6, carapace 3. 

Loc. Ceylon: KaYtdy (Gfreen). 



Family UROCTEID^E. 

Carapace transversely reniform, widely rounded in front and 
laterally, posteriorly emarginate ; ocular group compact. Mouth- 
parts weak and haustellate. Legs short and strong, spiny, 
subequal in length, armed with '-\ claws. Abdomen large, de- 
pressed, truncate in front, oval posteriorly; posterior spinners 
much longer than the anterior, with the long, thick, compressed 
apical segment directed upwards ; anterior spinners short, sub- 
cylindrical, separated by a colulus ; anal papilla very large, fur- 
nished laterally with fringe of long hair. 

Distribution. Mediterranean Kegion ; China, Japan ; S. Africa ; 
India. 

Genus UROCTEA, Duf. 

Uroctea, Dufour, Ann. Sci. Phys. v, p. 198, 1820 ; Simon, Hist. Nat. 
Araign. i, p. 451, L893. 

Characters and distribution as above. 

Type, U. durandi, Latr. 

Habits. These Spiders live under stones, &c, where they spin a 
small saccular tent-like web attached to the under side of the stone 
by about five subradially arranged bands of silk. 

279. Uroctea indica, sp. n. 

2- Colour: carapace and legs darker 
or paler yellowish brown, with blackish 
markings ; abdomen blackish above, 
sometimes marked with seven pale spots, 
six lateral and one posterior median. 
Vulva consisting of a transversely- 
elliptical plate, impressed behind with" a 

-mall circular pit and marked with 
nearly semicircular grooves in front. 

Total length L3 mm. 

Loc. Western India : Poona 
( Wroughton). 




Fig. 83. 

Uroctea indica, $ , x 3 '. 



K2 



244 LYCOSIDvE. 



Family LYCOSID^. 

Hunting Spiders with the carapace narrow in front, high ; the 
eyes of the posterior line strongly recurved, typically large, those 
of the anterior line being as a rule much smaller and close-set. 
Mandible powerful, not elongate, with fang-groove strongly toothed ; 
maxillae not inclined inwards, labium quite short. Legs spiny, 
usually shortish and strong ; tarsi with 3 claws and no ungual 
tufts. Abdomen oval, rarely elongate ; spinners forming a compact 
group, generally subequal in length. 

Distribution. Cosmopolitan. 

Synopsis of the principal Indian Genera. 

a. Tarsi of legs long, slender, and highly 

flexible. 
a 1 . Fang-groove armed behind with 4 teeth. Eucamptopus, p. 244. 
b l . Fang-groove armed behind with 3 teeth. IlYGROPonA, p. 245. 

b. Tarsi shorter and rigid. 

a 2 . Anterior lateral eyes stalked, on the edge 

of the clypeus Euprosthenops, p. 248, 

b 2 . Anterior lateral eyes above the edge of 
the clypeus. 
a 3 . Eyes of anterior line very strongly 

recurved Thalassius, p. 247. 

b z . Eyes of anterior line procurved, 
straight, or slightly recurved. 
« 4 . Ocular quadrangle a little longer 
than wide ; eyes of the quadrangle 
not very unequal. 
a 5 . Eyes of anterior line procurved. . Perenethis, p. 245. 
b 5 . Eyes of anterior line straight or 

slightly procurved Denbrolycosa, p. 246. 

ft 4 . Ocular quadrangle much 'wider than 
long; posterior medians much larger 
than anterior. 
a'\ Posterior spinners much longer 

than anterior Hippasa, p. 249. 

//. Posterior spinners subequal to 
anterior. 

a". 3rd leg longer than 1st Ocyale, p. 251. 

b 1 . 3rd leg shorter than 1st Lycosa, p. 252. 



Genus EUCAMPTOPUS, nov. 

Carapace (in cO about as wide as long, high behind, Hat above ; 
frontal area inclined; clypeus exceeding the ocular quadrangle, 
which is a little wider behind than it is long, and twice as wide 
behind as in front ; eyes of anterior line straight, a little wider 
than the posterior medians, which are twice the diameter of the 



HYGBOPODA. PEItENETHIS. 245 

anterior medians. Fang-groove of mandible armed behind with 4 
strong teeth. Legs long, spiny ; tarsi long, slender, and flexible. 

Type, E. coronatus, Poc. 

Distribution. S. India. 

280. Eucamptopus coronatus, sp. n. 

S . Colour a tolerably uniform dark chocolate-brown, paler 
beneath, clothed with olive-brown hairs ; clypeus and anterior half 
of sides of carapace covered with snow-white hairs. Carapace 
almost as wide as long; eyes of anterior line straight, subequally 
spaced, medians a little the larger. Legs long and slender, with 
long flexible tarsi. Palpi longer than the carapace by the length 
of the tarsus; tibia slightly exceeding patella, incrassate, the 
apophysis short, stout, subquadrate. 

Total length 17 mm., carapace 8*5, 1st leg 43, 4th 46. 

Loc. S. India : Tinnevelly (Barber). 



Genus HYGR0P0DA, Thorell. 

Hygropoda,- Thorell, Bull. Soc. Ent. Hal. xxvi, pt. iii, p. 4, 1894; 
Simon, Hist. Nat. Araiyn. ii, p. 315, 1898. 

Eesembling the preceding in having the tarsi of all the legs, 
with exception of the 3rd pair, long and flexible, but differing in 
that the clypeus is less in height than the ocular quadrangle; the 
eyes are more scattered, and there are only 3 teeth on the posterior 
border of the fang-groove of the mandible. 

Type, IF. prognatha, Thorell. 

Distribution. Tropical Africa ; Bourbon ; Oriental Region ; 
S. America. 

281. Hygropoda procera, Thorell, Spiders of Burma, ]>. 222, 1895. 

2 . Colour : carapace with two parallel dark bands above ; abdo- 
men yellowish above, with median dark anteriorly-bifurcating line 
and a lateral posteriorly sinuous line ; pale below ; legs and sternum 
pale, with whitish hairs. Carapace St little longer than broad; eyes 
of anterior line slightly procurved, the medians the largest. Legs 
very long and slender. Abdomen suhlanceolate ; vulra large, 
deeply excavated, and Burmounted in front by a pair of elevated 
tubercles and ending behind in a pair of smaller tubercles. 

Total length 1 2 mm., carapace 5*75, 1 si leg 46'5. 

Loc. Burma: Tharrawaddy (Oates). 



Genus PERENETHIS, L. Koch. 

Perenethis, /.. Koch } . track. Austral, p. 980, L878. 
Tetragonophthalma, Simon, Hist. Nat. Araiyn. ii, p 298, 1898 (not 
of Karsch). 

Differs from Dendrolycosa especially in having the ryes of the 



246 LYCOSID.E. 

anterior line very distinctly pro-curved, and the fang-groove armed 
behind with only 2 small teeth. 

Type, P. unifasciata, Dol. 

Distribution. Oriental and Australian Regions. 

282. Perenethis unifasciata, Doleschall, Verh. Nat. Vereen. Nederland- 

Indie, v, no. 5, p. 10, t. vi, fig. 6, 1859 (Dolomedes) ; Thorett, Spiders 
of Burma, p. 2.30, 1895. 

According to Simon, this species, which is unknown to me in its 
adult stage, differs from the following in having the eyes of the 
anterior line more strongly procurved, the quadrangle considerably 
longer than wide, and the clypeus narrower. 

Loc. Ceylon (according to Karsch). Burma: Akyab (Oates). 

283. Perenethis indica, Simon, Bull. Mus. Paris, 1897, p. 295 
(Tetragonophthalma). 

2 . Colour : carapace and abdomen with a broad median dark 
band, sparsely clothed with white at the sides, the dark band set 
off by a narrow stripe of silver ; sternum with pale median band ; 
coxae and sternum spotted with black ; anterior femora infuscate 
below ; abdomen darker posteriorly. Legs long and slender, 1st 
and 2nd about equal, and a little shorter than the 4th. Abdomen 
long and narrow, posteriorly acuminate. Vulva consisting of a 
transversely oval pit, divided by a median longitudinal partition. 

Total length 14 mm., carapace 5, 1st leg 20, 4th 26. 

Loc. Eastern district of Poona (Irani) ; Karachi. 

The following genus and species, based upon an immature speci- 
men, differs from the foregoing species of Perenethis in having the 
anterior lateral eyes considerably larger than the medians : — 

Polyboea vulpina, Thorett, Spiders of Burma, p. 229, 1895. 
Loc. Rangoon (Oates). 



Genus DENDR0LYC0SA. Doleschall. 

Dendrolycosa, Doleschall, Verh. Nat. Vereen. Nederland. Indie, v, 
no. 5, p. 51, 1859; Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign. ii, p. 294, 1898. 

Carapace much longer than wide; ocular area inclined at an. 
angle to clypeus, quadrangle longer than wide, exceeding clypeus; 
anterior and posterior median eyes not very unequal in size ; eyes 
of anterior line straight or lightly recurved, much wider than those 
of 2nd line. Fang-groove of mauditde with 3 teeth behind. Legs 
straight ; tarsi shorter and rigid. 

Type, D.fusca, Dol. 

Distribution, Oriental Region and Australia. 



THALASSIUS. 247 

284. Dendrolycosa stauntoni, sp. n. 

2 . Colour : integument yellowish brown, carapace with a broad 
white band extending almost to the margin on each side ; abdomen 
covered above and below with whitish hairs, its upper side with a 
median dark band, bordered with white in front ; legs covered with 
whitish hairs intermixed with black ; extremities of the segments 
darker; lower side of femora infuscato. Carapace much longer 
than broad, as long as tibia of 2nd leg; eyes of anterior line very 
slightly recurved, subequal, about a diameter apart, and half a 
diameter from the laterals. Abdomen oval ; vulva with a median 
excavation bordered in front by a «^\* -shaped crest. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 20, carapace 7 - 5, 1st leg 28, 
4th leg 31. 

Loc. S. India : Bangalore (Staunton). 

285. Dendrolycosa rohusta, Thorett, Spiders of Burma, p. 224, 1895 

(Therimachus). 

2 . Closely resembling the preceding in form and colour. Vulva 
with anterior transverse crest more ^-shaped. 

6 . Smaller.. Tibia of palp twice as long as patella, longer than 
tarsus, the apophysis consisting of a single anteriorly-directed 
pointed spur. 

Measurements In mm. — £. Total length 22, carapace 8*5, 1st 
leg 30, 4th 31-5. rf. Total length 26. 

Loc. Burma: Kyeikpadam and Tharrawaddy (Oates). 

The following species, based upon immature forms, are probably 
congeneric with the foregoing, but are specifically indeter- 
minable : — 

Sphedanus spadicarius, Simon, Mem. Soc. Zool. Fr. x, p. 2G2, 1897. 
Loc. North Guzerat. 

Sphedanus marginatus, Simon, J. A. S. B. lvi, p. 284,1887. 
Loc. Port Blair (Andamans). 



Genus THALASSIUS, Simon. 

Thalassius, Simon, Bull. Soc Zool. Fr. x, p. 13,1885; Hist. Nat. 
Araiyti. ii, p. ."(JO, 1898. 

Facial area evenly inclined as in Eucamptopus, and clypeus ex- 
ceeding ocular quadrangle, but quadrangle scarcely narrower in 
front, and slightly longer than wide; anterior and posterior median 
eyes subequal as in Dendrolycosa ; eyes of anterior line vers strongly 
recurved, the anterior laterals nearly equally distant from the re- 
maining three on each side. 

Type, T. marginellus, Sim. 

Distribution. Ethiopian Region; Madagascar; Oriental Region 
as far as Solomon Islands. 



248 



LYCOSID^. 




286. Thalassius phipsoni, F. Cambridge, 
P. Z. S. 1898, p. 31, t. iv, fig. 5. 

2 . Colour : integument covered with 
olive or greyish-brown pubescence; cara- 
pace and abdomen ornamented laterally 
with a white stripe extending from the 
sides of the head almost to the spinners, 
and separated from the middle of the 
lateral border of the carapace by a space 
equalling its own width. Carapace a 
little longer than tibia of 1st leg. Legs 
of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd pairs subequal and 
much shorter than 4th. Lateral lobes 
of vulva strongly clavate and in contact 
posteriorly. 

Measurements in nun. — Total length 
26, carapace 10, 1st leg 37, 4th 43. 

Loc. Bombay : Mahim and Dorun 
(Phipson). 

The characters of the following forms, 
known in Burma only from immature 
specimens, are doubtful : — 

Thalassius marginellus, Simon, Ami. Mus. 
Genova, xx, p. 329, 1884 (Titurius) ; 
id. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. x, p. 13, 1885. 

Thalassius albocinctus (Dol.), Thorell, 
Spiders of Burma, p. 227, 1895. 



Fig. 84. 
Thalamus phipsoni , <j> , x#. 



Genus EUPR0STHEN0PS, Pocock. 

Euprosthenops, Pocock, A. M. N. H. (6) xix, p. 116, 1897; Simon, 
Hist. Nat. Araign. u, p. 291, 1898. [Podqphthalma, Capello and 
recent authors, preoccupied.] 

Carapace low; facial area inclined; ocular quadrangle about 
equal to clypeus in height, longer than wide, narrowed in front, its 
posterior eves larger than the anterior ; anterior lateral eyes remote 
from the rest and elevated, situated on the edge of the clypeus. 
Tarsi normal. Tang-groove of mandible with 3 posterior teeth. 

Type, I'j. bayoniannus, Br. Capello. 

Distribution. Tropical Africa ; Madagascar; India. 



iiippasa. 249 

287. Euprosthenops ellioti, O. P. Cambridge, P. Z. S. 1877, p. 567, 
t. lvii, fig. 6 (Podophthalma). 

$ . Colour : carapace pale with a dark band on each side, clothed 
with silvery-white hairs ; legs clothed with olive-brown hairs 
varied with white, femora thickly spotted ; tibia? black at base and 
apex ; abdomen darkish above, with median lanceolate band in 
front, bordered at the sides with a broad pale band, sides and 
lower surface covered with golden-yellow hairs, the former speckled 
with brown. Carapace shorter than tibia of 3rd leg. Leys very 
long, 4, 1, 2, 3 in length. Abdomen narrowed posteriorly, more 
than twice as long as broad. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 21, carapace 7*5, 1st leg 41, 
4th 46. 

Loc. S. India : Chinglepnt (Jambunathan). 



Genus HIPPASA, Simon. 

Ilippasa, Simon, Bull. Soc. Zoo!. France, x, p. 31, 1885 ; Hist. Nat. 
Araiyn. ii, p. 326, 1898. 

Differing from Lycosa in having the posterior spinners consider- 
ably longer than the anterior, the posterior eyes more widely 
separated, and the eyes of the anterior line a little exceeding those 
of the second line in width. 

Type, H. ayelenoides, Simon. 

Distribution. Africa; Madagascar; Arabia; British India; 
Malayasia. 

These Spiders spin a silken thread which expands into a sheet- 
like snare. 

Synopsis of the principal Indian Species. 

a. Lower surface of abdomen with a thick fringe 

of hair on each side H. pantherina, p. 260. 

I). Lower surface of abdomen not laterally 

fringed. 
a\ Of large Bize; carapace 8-9 mm. long; pit 

iif vulva exposed. 

a . Pit of vulva semicircular II. lycosina, p. 260. 

b . Pit of vulva transversely elliptical .... H. olivacea, p. 260. 
b\ Smaller: carapace up to 5 mm.; pit of 
vulva roofed over. 
<•'. Plate of vulva produced into a l>>iiL r 

tnugut'-like process II. holmera } p. 251. 

If. Plate of vulva not produced into a long 
tongue-like process. 
a*. Process of vulva triangularly pointed 

behind //. pisaurina, p. 260. 

b l . Process of vulva Bquarely truncate 

behind II. agelenoides, p. 261. 



250 lycosid,e. 

288. Hippasa pantherina, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, p. 752, 

1899 (= greenalliaj, Simon, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. x, p. 31, 1885) 
(? of Blackivall). 

$ . Colour : integument ochraceous, clothed with silky greyish 
hairs ; carapace with median narrow pale stripe and broader pale 
border ; abdomen with a pair of longitudinal dark bands in front 
above and transverse dark bands behind, the darker markings em- 
phasized by pale lines ; legs obscurely banded above, sternum with 
median black stripe. Legs and upper side of abdomen beset with 
longish seta? ; under side of abdomen with two thick bands of 
long setae. Carapace as long as patella and tibia of 4th leg, slightly 
longer than those of 1st, and than protarsus of 4th. Vulva con- 
sisting of a large, yellow, thickly-hairy plate, produced posteriorly 
into a pair of blackish angular processes separated by a median 
angular notch. 

<$ . Like the $ , but with much longer legs. 

Measurements in mm. — $ . Total length 16, carapace 7"5, 1st leg 
21-5, 4th 27. 6 . Total length 15, carapace 7, 1st leg 26, 4th 33. 

Loc. Ceylon: Trincomali ( Yerbury). India: Trivandrum {Fer- 
guson); Ootacamund (Hampsori) ; Coimbatore ; Eamuad; Bangalore 
(Staunton) ; Poona district ( Wrouyhton) ; E. Khandesh {Mac/an). 

289. Hippasa lycosina, sp. n. 

$ . As large as the preceding, but rather differently coloured, 
the pale bands orT^the carapace more clearly defined, the legs not 
banded, and the pattern of the abdomen less distinct. Carapace 
lower ; legs and abdomen not thickly hirsute and without crest of 
setas on under side of abdomen. Vulva consisting of a small brown 
plate impressed posteriorly with a nearly semicircular, posteriorly- 
open pit. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 20, carapace 9*5, 1st leg 26, 
4th 34. 

Loc. India: Eastern district of Poona (Irani).; Kanara ; Nasik 
(Millet); Uran (AitJcen). 

290. Hippasa olivacea, Thorell, Ann. Mas. Genova,xx\, p. 297, 1887 : 

simonis, id. ibid. p. 301 (Diapontia). 

Nearly allied to //. lycosina, but with longer legs, the carapace 
shorter than the patella and tibia of the 1st and than the protarsus 
of the 4th leg. Vulva much as in //. lycosina, but with the pit 
transversely elliptical. 

Measurements in, nun. — Total length 17, carapace 8, 1st leg 24, 
4th 30-5. 

Ijoc. Burma: Kangoon, Tharrawaddy, Tenasserim, &c. (Outes, 
Fea). 

291. Hippasa pisaurina, sp. o. 

$ . Much smaller than the preceding species, but very similarly 



OCT ALE. 251 

coloured, with the legs banded and mottled a^ in H.pantherina; 

abdomen banded with white below. Carapaa as long a* patella 

and tibia of 1st leg, but distinctly shorter than patella and tibia and 
than protarsus ot 4th : eyes of anterior line very unequal in >iz •. 
medians nearly twice the diameter of the laterals, their inferior 
edges in a straight line. Vulva consisting of a plate triangularly 
pointed behind and forming an archway over the cavity. 

Measurement* in mm. — Total length II, carapace 45, 1st leg 14, 
4th 20. 

Loc. Western India: E. Khandesh (Madan) and E. Poona 
( Wroughton ) ; Bangalore ( Staunton). 

292. Hippasa agelenoides, Simon, Ann. Mus. Geneva, xx. p. -;34. 1884 
(Pirata) : ThoreU, Spider* of Burma, p. 218. 1895 | Hippasa). 

In size, length of limbs, &c. nearly resembling the preceding; 
darker in colour ; abdomen with a narrow black band on ea h side 
below. Eyes of anterior line more nearly equal, medians at most 
a little larger than the laterals, with their inferior edges standing 
much higher. Vulva forming a vertical archw ay a> in H.pisaurma, 
but the posterior border of the arch transversely truncate. 

Length up to about 10 mm., carapace 5, 1st leg 15, 4th 20. 

Loc. Burma: Bangoon, Tharrawaddy (Oa&es), Minhla (Comotto). 
Also recorded by Simon, but perhaps erroneously, from the Konkan 
and Dehra Dun. 



293. Hippasa holmerae. ThoreU, Spiders of Burma, p. 21*. 18 

A small paler-coloured species, with the legs not banded; recog- 
nizable from all the foregoing by having the plate of the vulva 
produced posteriorly into a long, backwardly-directed tongue-like 
process. Total length s mm. 

Loc. Burma: Tharrawaddy (Gate*). Also Singapore. 

The following species are unknown to me : — 

Hippasa greenaUia, Blackball. A. M.N. II. i-'iixix. p. 387, IS ~ 
( Lycosa ». from Meerut, Agra, or D?ihi. Recorded by Simon 
From Matheran and Karachi, and by Karsch from Pera- 
deniya &c., in Ceylon. 

Hippasa partita, 0. P. Cambridge, P.Z.S. L876, p. 599 (2Vo- 
chosa), From Alexandria. Recorded by Simon from Karachi. 



Genus OCYALE, And. 

Ocyale, Audoum, in Sav. Descr. JEgypte, Arach. p. 149, 1 32 Simon, 
Hist. Nat. Aratgn. ii. p. :'<\~>. 1898. 

Allied to Lycosa, hut with the -*>ril leg Blightly longer than the 
181 : quadrangle of posterior eves much wider behind, as in Hipp 



252 lycosidjE. 

eyes of anterior line slightly recurved, medians much larger than 
laterals, the four taken together about as wide as the two anterior 
medians. 

Type, 0. atalanta, Aud. 

Distribution. Africa ; Ceylon and Burma. 

294. Ocyale atalanta, Audouin, in Sav. Descr. Egypte, Arach. p. 150, 
182G. JJL ' F 

Prevailing colour yellow, sides of carapace densely mottled with 
olive-black ; legs strongly banded ; upper side of abdomen marbled 
with olive-black, and marked with white spots ; mandibles blackish, 
clothed with greyish-brown hairs in front. Legs covered with long, 
white, apical ly-hooked hairs. 

Length about 20 mm. 

Log. Ceylon (Sarasin) ; Punduloya (Green). 

Genus LYCOSA, Latreille. 

Lyeosa, Latreille, Nouv. Diet. a" Hist. Nat. xxiv, p. 135, 1804 ; Simon, 
Hist. Nat. Araign. ii, p. 345, 1898. 

Carapace long as in Dendrolycosa ; facial area vertical, four 
posterior eyes very large and arranged in a quadrangle, which is a 
little wider behind than in front ; eyes of anterior line small, 
straight or slightly curved, not or scarcely exceeding those of the 
second line in width ; clypeus very low, scarcely exceeding diameter 
of anterior median eyes. 

Type, L. tarantula, Bossi. 

Distribution. Temperate, Tropical, and Arctic countries. 

The species of this genus spin no web. The larger forms live in 
silk-lined burrows, and under stones, &c. The females carry the 
cocoon attached to the spinners, and the young, after hatching, 
swarm on the mother's back. 



Synopsis of the larger Indian Species. 

a. Sternum olive-yellow ; legs pale, not banded . L. chaperi, p. 254. 

b. Sternum black ; tibial at least of posterior legs 

banded below. 
«'. Black ventral area of abdomen serially 

spotted with white L. catula, p. 254. 

b 1 . Black ventral area of abdomen unspotted. 

a 2 . Tibiae of all the legs strongly banded . . L. indagatrix, p. 254. 
lr. Tibhe of anterior legs not banded. 

a 8 . Femora of anterior legs infuscate 

beneath L. wrouyhtoni, p. 253. 

I)\ femora of anterior legs pale beneath. 
a'. Femora with black apical spot 

below L. niyrotibialis, p. 253. 

l>'. Femora without black apical spot. . L. phipsoni, p. 253. 



LYCOS A. 



253 



295. Lycosa phipsoni, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, p. 751, 1899. 

2 • Carapace with broad yel- 
lowish band down middle, darker 
laterally with marginal band ; 
mandibles black, clothed above 
with yellow - red hairs ; legs 
greyish white below, with tarsi, 
protarsi of all, and tibiae of 
anterior two pairs infuscate : 
tibia of 4th fuscous at the end, 
white in middle ; coxa? and 
sternum reddish to blackish 
brown ; abdomen jet - black 
below, whitish laterally, yel- 
lowish above speckled with black, 
and with an anterior median 
black band. Carapace longer than 
patella and tibia of 1st or 4th 
legs ; eyes of anterior line very 
slightly procurved, medians larger 
than laterals. Vulva consisting 
of a nearly semicircularly rounded 
excavation and a _L-shaped bar, 
the upright of the J. mesially 
expanded. 

Length 20 mm. 

o* . Like female in colour &c, 
but with legs longer. 
Loc. India: Bombay (PMpson) ; Jaoli in Satara (Master) ; Uran 
( Aitlcen) ; Kanara aud Niisik ( Millet). 




Fig. 85. — Lycosa phipsoni, 2. X 



296. Lycosa wroughtoni, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, p. 751, 
1899. 

Much resembling the male of L. phipsoni in colour, but the 
carapace not so vividly banded, the abdomen without any anterior 
median black stripe, the hairs on the mandible and palpi bright 
orange-red, and the femora of the anterior legs infuscate below. 
Tarsus of palp also more globular at base. 

Length 25 mm. 

Loc. India : Bulsar in Guzerat ( Wrought on). 



297. Lycosa nigrotibialis, Simon, Ann. Mus. Gmova, xx, p. 330, 1884. 

2 . Closely resembling L. phipsoni in size, colour, &c., but with 
a dark band at the extremity of the femora beneath. 

Total length about 25 mm. 

Loc. Burma: Kangoon, Tharrawaddy, Minhla, Tenasserim. \c. 
(Oates, Fea). 



254 oxyopidjE. 

298. Lycosa indagatrix, Walck. Ins. Apt. i, p. 339, 1837 ; Simon, Ann. 

Mus. Genova, xx, p. 306. 1884. 

$ . Closely resembling L. phipsoni in colour &c. ; the inaudible 
clothed almost to the apex with red hairs, and the tibiae of all the 
legs banded below, being white in the middle and blackish at the 
ends. Vulva with fovea scarcely longer than wide ; the median 
keel rather narrow and distinctly swollen in the middle. 

S . Carapace more strongly banded than in female ; legs longer, 
with white tibial bands broader than the dark patches on the 
anterior legs. 

Total length ( $ ) about 25 mm., carapace 12-5. 

Loc. 8. India : Pondichery, Wagra-Karoor in Bellary, &c. 
(Simon) ; Chingleput (Jambunathan). 

299. Lycosa catula, Simon, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. x, p. 457, 1885. 

$ . At once recognizable from the preceding species by having 
the black of the lower side of the abdomen relieved by numerous 
white spots irregularly arranged laterally and forming more 
definite longitudinal lines mesially. Tibia? of all the legs white in 
the middle below as in L. indar/atnv, but the wbite not broader 
than the black at the extremities. Median bar of vulva very 
acute. 

Length up to about 20 mm. 

Loc. S. India : Coimbatore (Theobald)-, Tercaud in the Shevaroy 
Hills (Henderson). 

300. Lycosa chaperi, Simon, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. x, p. 8, 1885; id. 

op. cit. p. 458, t. x, fig. 3, 1885. 

2 . Differs from all the foregoing species in having the sternum 
and coxa? reddish or olive-yellow instead of black, and the legs 
entirely pale below, not even the tibia? of the 4th being banded. 
Fovea of vulva closed behind by a large, transversely trapeziform 
plate, without auy median keel. 

Length 14 mm. 

Lor,. Wagra-Karoor near Guntakal, Bellary district (Fabre). 



Family OXYOPID^l. 

Carapace oval, high ; head narrow, subacuminate ; eyes forming 
a compact subcircular group, those of the posterior line being 
typically strongly procurved and those of tbe anterior recurved, 
the anterior medians minute ; clypeus very high, vertical. Man- 
dibles long, not prominent, acuminate ; fang short; fang-groove 
unarmed or weakly armed ; maxillae and labium very long. Legs 
long, slender, armed with long black spines, not scopulate ; three 
claws. Abdomen generally oval, narrowed behind ; spinning-mamilla 
short, subequal ; a small colulus present. 

Distribution. Temperate and tropical countries. 



PBUCETIA. 255 

Hunting Spiders, spinning no web, living amongst grass ami 
other plants and fastening their cocoons to the leaves or stalks. 

The following genera are represented in India : — 

a. Eyes of the posterior line lightly procurved; fang- 

groove of mandible unarmed Peucetia, p. 255. 

b. Eyes of posterior line very strongly procurved; 

fang-groove of mandible weakly aimed .... Oxyopks*. 

Genus PEUCETIA, Thorell. 

Peucetia, Thorell, Nova Acta Soc. Upsal. (3) vii,p. 37, 1869 ; Simon. 
Hist. Nat. Araign. ii, p. 378, 1898. 

Characters as above. 

Type, /'. viridis, Blackwall. 

Distribution. Tropical and temperate countries. 

Synopsis of Indian Species f. 

a. Carapace and limbs not varied with black 

spots and lines P. prasina, p. 256. 

b. Carapace and limbs varied with black spots 

and lines. 
a 1 . Clypeus with obsolete lateral stripe ; 

mandibles spotted in front J', riridana, p. 255. 

ft 1 . Clypeue with distinct lateral stripe ; 
mandibles with distinct median stripe. 
a'-. Plates of vulva posteriorly produced 

and acuminate P. yraminea, p. 256. 

b 2 . Plates of vulva not acuminate pos- 
teriorly P. procera } p. 250. 

301. Peucetia viridana, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxviii, p. 220, t. xx, 
liir. 1, 18(59 (Spliasus) : nigropunctata, Simon, Ann. Mas. Genova 
xx, ]>. 3<>r>, 1884 (Peucetia). 




Fig. 80. — Peucetia viridana, x 2. 



* This genus, which is omitted Prom the present volume, ia represented bv 

many species, mostly of small size, and recognizable by then- varied colouring 
of silvery wbite and darker stripes. 

t Peucetia eUqam, Blackwall ( \. M. N. E.(3) riv, p.89, 1864 (Panthea)) from 
the " East Indies." differs from those here described i„ having a black band on 
the lower side of the abdomen. Probably it belongs to the genus Oxyopet 



256 OXYOPID.E. 

$. Colour: carapace green, sparsely spotted; clypeus with a 
pair of dark lines running from the anterior eyes ; mandibles 
with a few spots at the base of the setal pores towards the inner 
side in front and sometimes with one or two forming an imperfect 
line externally ; legs yellow, densely spotted with black ; femora 
often banded with red below ; abdomen a rich grass-green, 
indistinctly banded above and below. Vulva with its piriform 
sclerites transversely truncate behind. 

d . Palpi very long ; femur arched, tibia about twice as long as 
patella ; external appendix of organ abruptly clavate at tip and 
armed near the middle with a distinct conical tubercle. 

$ . Total length up to about 15 mm., carapace 5, 1st leg 30. 
c? . Carapace 4, 1st leg 36. 

Loc. Ceylon : Trincomali and Andankalai (Yerbury). India : 
Madras, Pondichery, Chingleput (Jambunatlian) ; Ponmudi and 
Madatory in Travancore (Ferguson) ; Ootacamund (Hampson) ; 
Calcutta (Stoliczka). 

302. Peucetia graminea, sp. n. 

? Peucetia viridana, Simon, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 1897, p. 290 (not of 
Stoliczka). 

5 . Nearly resembling the preceding in colour, but the clypeus 
with a very distinct lateral band and the mandibles with distinct 
anterior dark band ; sternum often with median black band. Vulva 
with its sclerites posteriorly narrowed and separated by an angular 
space. 

<S . Palpi a little shorter than in P. viridana, the external 
appendix longer, mesially geniculate, and apically less abruptly 
clavate. 

$. Total length 15 mm., carapace 4-5, 1st leg 24. J.Carapace3, 
1st leg 26. 

Loc. Western India : Pulsar in Guzerat (Wroughton) ; ? Karachi. 

303. Peucetia prasina, Thorett, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxv, pp. 10 & 325, 

1887 : viridana, Simon, Ann. Mus. Genova, xx, p. 326, 1884 (not of 
Stoliczka). 

Differs from all the preceding species in being tolerably uniform 
greenish, not lined or spotted with black ; the anterior femora 
reddish and varied with pale lines. Palp of male short, the 
patella not twice as long as broad, and nearly as long as the tibia, 
which is a little shorter than the tarsus. 

Total length ( 5 ) about 13 mm. 

Loc. Burma: Minhla (Comotto). 

304. Peucetia procera, Thorett, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxv, p. 321, 1887- 

$ . Pesembling P. graminea in colour, but differing in having 
the plates of the vulva less acuminate behind and separated 
posteriorly by a much shallower excision. 

Total length .14 mm., carapace 4, 1st leg 25. 

Loc. Burma: Kangoon (Oates) ; Me-tan-ja (Fea). 



< u bio>-td.i:. 257 



Family CLUBIONIDiE. 

Hunting Spiders in which the mandibles are powerful, with 
strongly-toothed fang-groove: the maxillae project forwards, and 
are not inclined on the labium and not impressed ; the legs are 
powerful, strongly spined, with tarsi and protarsi scopulate ; 
tarsi furnished with ungual tufts and only two claws; anterior 
spinners in contact ; colulus absent. 

The principal Indian species of this family belong to the sub- 
families Selenopince and f/rteropodincp, which resemble each other in 
being laterigrade and in having the maxilla? furnished apically 
with a very thick tuft of hairs. Their differences may be 
tabulated as follows : — 

a. Claws unarmed ; median eyes arranged 

in a recurved crescent Selenopina?, p. 257. 

h. Claws armed with teeth ; median eyes 

forming a normal quadrangle Heteropodina>, p. 259. 



Subfamily SELENOPIN^. 

Characters as above. 

Genus SELENOPS, Latreille. 

Selenops, Latreille, Nouv. Diet. tPHiet. Nat. xxx, p. .i~9, 1819; 
Si?n'>/i, Hint. Xat. Araiyn. ii, p. 2(5, 1897. 

Carapace flat, wider than long; eyes of posterior line recurved, 
laterals prominent, medians close to the anterior medians and 
forming with them a errscentically recurved line, anterior laterals 
far from the medians, small : clypeus almost absent. Fang-groove 
of mandible with two posterior teeth. 

Type, S. radiatus, Latr. 

Distrihvtion. Tropical and subtropical countries. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

n. Protarsi of anterior leg's with two pairs of 

spines S. radiatus, p. 257. 

h. Protarsi of anterior le<rs with three pairs of 

spines s. monUgena, p. ~2~)8. 

305. Selenops radiatus, Latreille, Nouv. Diet. tPHUt. Xat. m,p, 579, 
L819 (Thomisus) : Simon, Hist. .Xat. Araign. ii. pp. 26 & 27, L897 
(Selenops): malabariensis, Simon, Art. Sue. I. inn. Bord. \x\i\, 
p. 2. - U, 18s] ; id. Hull. s„e. Zool. Fr. \, p. 14, 1886 : birmanicus 
Thorell, Spiders of Burma, p. 261, L896. 

$ . Colour variable, integument yellowish or brown, legs usually 
banded, hairy clothing mostly yellowish or mouse-brown. L'ara . 

s 



258 



CLUBIONID.E. 



with anterior and posterior median eyes subequal. Legs of 1st 
and 2nd pairs with three pairs of spines on lower side of tibiae, 




Fig. 87. — Sehnops radiatus, $ 



two pairs on protarsi. Vulva with lobes meeting in middle line 
behind and circumscribing a broadly cordate pale area. 

3 . Smaller and longer-legged than female ; eyes larger. Palp 
with tibial apophysis consisting of two stout conical teeth, one 
above the other. 

Length up to 20 mm. ( 5 ). 

Loc. Ormaraon the Mekrau coast; Karachi (Townsend) ; Bareilly 
(Cambridge); N. Gruzerat (Wroughton) ; Tanna (Edie); Uran 
(Aitken) ; Poona ( Wroughton) ; Eastern Poona (Irani) ; Eastern 
Khandesh (Madan); Bangalore (Staunton) ; Guntakal and Malabar 
(Simon); Tharrawaddy in Burma (Oates). Also Spain, Sokotra, 
Mauritius, Madagascar, and the whole of Africa as far south 
as the Zambesi. 



306. Selenops montigena, Simon, J. A. S. B. lviii, p. 335, 1889. 

5 . Smaller than S. radiatus, with the posterior median eyes 
noticeably larger than anterior medians, and three pairs of spines 
on the protarsi of the anterior legs. Vulva with lobes defined in 
front by a transverse sinuous suture, in contact in front, diverging 
at an acute angle, separated posteriorly by an elongate heart- 
shaped space. 

Total length 11 mm. 

Loc. Jaunsar, 0000 feet (Oldham). 



HETEROPODA. 259 

Subfamily HETEROPODIN^. 

Characters as -pecified on p. 257. 
Distribution. Tropical countries. 

Synopsis of Indian Genera. 

a. Eyes of posterior line recurved, the laterals 

prominent. 
«'. Carapace with thoracic region low and 

flat ; head considerably elevated Panderoetes, p. 264. 

b l . Carapace higher and convex behind ; 
head not or hardly raised. 
a 2 . Maxilla? crested ; vulva with two cir- 
cular pita Spariolenus, p. 263. 

b 2 . Maxillae not crested ; vulva not marked 

with circular pits Heteropoda, p. 259. 

b. Eyes of posterior line straight or procurved, 

the laterals sessile. 
a 3 . Anterior median eyes smaller than an- 
terior laterals P ai.ystes, p. 265. 

6\ Anterior medians larger than or as large as 
anterior laterals. 

a 4 . 2nd leg longer than 1st Sparasstts, p. 266. 

b*. 2nd leg riot longer thau 1st Thelcticopis, p. 270. 

Genus HETEROPODA, Latreille. 

Heteropoda, Latreille, Nbuv. Diet. oVHist. Nat. xxiv, p. 135, 1804; 
Simon, Hist. Nat. Ara'ujn. ii, p. 54, 1897. 

Carapace nearly as wide as long, moderate or very high poste- 
riorly, its upper surface nearly flat ; head lightly depressed in 
front ; eyes of posterior line recurved, the laterals larger and pro- 
minent ; eyes of anterior line straight or procurved, laterals larger 
than medians ; quadrangle longer than wide, narrow in front. 
Ma.vilhi not crested. Vulva consisting of a pair of lobes, usually 
separated by a median skeletal piece, rarely in contact. 

Type, //. venatoria, Linn. 

Distribution. From India eastwards to Australia. (The typical 
species, //. venatoria, which lives in houses, has been introduced bv 
human agency into all tropical countries.) 

Si/nopsis of Indian Species. 

Males, 
a. Tibial apophysis of palp basal. 

a 1 . Abdomen with black yellow-bordered area 

below H. prompta, p. 261 . 

b\ Abdomen uniformly- pale below //. smythieei, p. 262. 

//. Tibial apophysis of palp apical 

a 2 . Apophysis widely bifurcate at tip II. leprosa, p. 262 

b 2 . Apophysis nut widely bifurcate. 
a 3 . Apophysis armed with two sharp teeth. IF. venatoria, p. 260. 
b\ Apoph\>is not tonthed at extremity, 
pointed, 
n 4 . Distal half of apophysis strongly 

hooked H. fabrei, p. 2H1 . 

6 4 . Distal half of apophysis sinuous, only 

the apex hooked II. sexpunctuta, p. 261 

s 2 



260 CLUBIONID.I. 



Females. 



a. Abdomen black, with yellow border below . . H. prompta, p. 261. 

b. Abdomen not darker beneath than at sides. 

a 1 . Carapace shorter than tibia of 3rd leg. ... 77. kandiana, p. 261. 
b l . Carapace not shorter than tibia of 3rd leg. 
a 2 . Anterior femora infuscate below. 

a 3 . 4th leg not longer than 1st H.fabrei, p. 261. 

6\ 4th leg longer than 1st. 

a 4 . Carapace strongly elevated behind. H. plebeia, p. 262. 
b*. Carapace not strongly elevated 

behind 77. leprosa, p. 262. 

b 2 . Anterior femora not infuscate below. 
a b . Anterior median eyes as large as 

anterior laterals 77. lutea, p. 263, 

b\ Anterior median eyes smaller than 
anterior laterals. 
a 6 . Median sclerite of vulva hammer- 
shaped 77. sexpunctata, p. 261. 

b % . Median sclerite of vulva not 
hammer-shaped. 
a 1 . Carapace very high behind .... 77. lantjnida, p. 262. 
b~ '. Carapace low behind. 

a*. Lobes of vulva separated by 

median tongue-shaped sclerite 77. phasma, p. 260. 
b*. Lobes of vulva posteriorly in 

contact 77. venatoria, p. 260. 

307. Heteropoda venatoria, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. 12, p. 1035, 1766 
(Aranea), and of recent authors: ferina, Simon, J. A. S. B. lvi, 
p. 102, 1887 (Heteropoda). 

2 • Prevailing colour of hair a greyish mouse-brown above and 
below ; clypeus yellow ; usually a yellow black-bordered stripe on 
the posterior slope of carapace. Carapace low, about as long as 
tibia of 3rd leg ; eyes of anterior line with their upper edges on a 
level, laterals one-third of their diameter larger than medians. 
Vulva with lateral lobes in contact. 

S . Smaller and yellower than female ; carapace with large 
black patch on each side ; legs spotted with black. Legs much 
longer than in female ; carapace shorter than tibia of 3rd leg. 
Tibial apophysis of 'palp short, armed with two teeth. 

Measurements in mm. — $. Total length 26, carapace 11, 1st 
leg 52, 4th 48. S . Total length 21, carapace 9-5, 1st leg 56, 
4th 48. 

hoc. Common in houses in India, Ceylon, and Burma. Arti- 
ficially introduced from the East into all tropical countries. 

308. Heteropoda phasma, Simon, Mem. Soc Zool. Fr. x. p. 258, LSi)7. 

$ . Hairy clothing very pale, silky yellowish grey ; mandibles 
shining black. Eyes of anterior line more procurved than in 
H. venatoria ; the medians about half the diameter of the laterals. 



HETPROPODA. 261 

Vulva large, with lobes widely separated by broad tongue-shaped 
sclerite. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 23, carapace 10, 1st leg 50, 
4th 49. 

hoc. Himalayas, 6000-7000 ft. (Smythies) ; Kasauli (Waller 
Barrow); Jaunsar and Mundali, 8000 ft. (Gleadow). 

309. Heteropoda sexpunctata, Simon, Butt, Soc. Zool. Fr. x, p. 14, 

t. x, tig. 11, I860. 

$ . Carapace, femora, and upper side of abdomen densely 
variegated with blackish patches. Carapace as wide as long, 
exceeding tibia of 4th leg. Leys short, 4th and 1st subequal. 
Lobes of vulva widely separated, the cleft divided by a narrow 
crest, the posterior end of which expands like a hammer-head. 

6 • Smaller. Tibial apophysis long, slender, acute, spiniform, 
curved downwards and outwards. 

Measurements in mm. — 5. Total length 20, carapace 9, 1st 
leg 32, 4th 32. tf . Total length 15, carapace 6-5, 1st leg 3], 
4th 27-5. 

Loc. India: Tanna ; Poona (Wroughtori) ; Khandesh : Bellary. 

310. Heteropoda fabrei, Simon, Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. x, p. 32, t. x, 

fig. 10, 1885: ? ambigua, Simon, Ann. Soc. Fnt. Fr. lxv, p. 489, 
1896. 

5 . Colour much as in the preceding, but femora infuscate 
below. Vulva with its lobes separated by a parallel-sided groove. 
Tibial apophysis of male slender, pointed, with the distal half bent 
sharply downwards. 

Measurements in mm. — 5. Total length 15, carapace 7*5, 1st 
leg 27-2, 4th 27'5. 6 . Carapace 6-4, 1st leg 30-5, 4th 29-2. 

Loc. S. India : Eamuad (Fabre) ; ? Trichinopoiy. 

311. Heteropoda kandiana, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. II. Soc. xii, p. 762, 

L899. 

5 . As large as II. venaforia, darker in colour ; clypeal band pale, 
crescentic. Carapace shorter than tibia of 3rd leg; eyes of 
anterior line strongly procurved, laterals nearly twice the diameter 
of the medians, centre of the latter on a level with upper edges 
of former; clypeus high. Leys very long. Vulva with lateral lobes 
separated by broad tongue-shaped sclerite. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length '24, carapace 11, 1st leg 58, 
4th 59. 

Loc. Ceylon : Kaudy {Yerbury), 

312. Heteropoda prompta, O. /'. Cambridge, Araneidea, Second Var- 

hand Exped. p. 71, 1886 (Sarotes) : ca.-aiia, si/non, Mem. Sue. 
Zool. Fr. x, p. L>r>!», 1897 (Heteropoda). 

$ . Ventral surface much darker than in the other specie. 



262 CLUBIONIDX 

sternum and coxae nearly black, lower side of abdomen black, 
bordered with yellow stripes. Carapace as long as tibia of 2nd 
leg ; eyes of anterior line straight, medians half the diameter of 
the laterals ; clypeus low. Leys short. Vulva with lobes large, 
diverging in front, almost in contact behind. 

<S ■ Tibial apophysis rising from base of segment, long, stout, 
curved, and ending in a thinner hooked portion. 

Measurements in mm. — 5 . Total length IS, carapace 7, 2nd leg 
26, 4th 22-5. d ■ Total length 12-5, carapace 6, 1st leg 34, 4th 27. 

Loc. Himalayas : Murree (Stoliczka) ; Jaunsar, Deota, and 
KoDain, 7000 ft. (Gleadow). 

313. Heteropoda smythiesi, Simon, Mem. Sac. Zool. Fr. p. 259, 1897. 

$ . Allied to H.prompta but smaller and paler, obscurely spotted 
and lined with black ; ventral surface pale ; apophysis of palp of 
the same shape and position as in H . prompta, but with the terminal 
portion straighter. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 10, carapace 4-5, 2nd leg 21, 
4th 19. 

Loc. Dekkan* (Smythies) ; Konain, 7800 ft. (Gleadow). 

314. Heteropoda languida, Simon, J. A. S. B. hi, p. 102, 1887. 

$. Hairy clothing yellowish, femora faintly mottled. Carapace 
as long as 4th tibia, very high behind, the posterior slope forming 
aright angle with the upper surface. Lobes of vulva separated by 
a narrow groove behind and by a narrow sclerite in front. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 17, carapace 7"5, 2nd leg 30, 
4th 29. 

Loc. Burma: Tavoy. 

315. Heteropoda leprosa, Simon, Ann. Mm. Genova, xx, p. 336, 1884 ; 

Thorell, Spiders of Burma, p. 264, 1895. 

$. Colour much as in H.fabrei apparently; anterior femora 
infuscate below, mottled with white. Carapace as long as tibia of 
2nd leg ; anterior lateral eyes nearly twice the diameter of the 
medians. Leys short. Vulva with lobes widely separated. 

d . Tibial apophysis apically bifurcated. 

$ . Total length 13 mm. 
Loc. Burma: Minhla (Comotto) ; Bangoon (Oates). 

316. Heteropoda plebeia, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxv, p. 237, 1887 ; 

Spiders of Burma, p. 264, 1895. 

$ . Differing apparently from II. leprosa in having all the femora 
darker, the sternum and coxae a brighter red, and the carapace 
strongly elevated behind as in H. languida. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 17, carapace 6-5, 2nd leg 23 - 5, 
4th 23. 

Loc. Burma: Bangoon and ECyeikpadam (Oates). 

* No doubt au error for Deliru. 



SPAHIOLENUS. 263 

317. Heteropoda lutea, Thorell, Spiders of Burma, p. 205, 1895. 

2 . Of a tolerably uniform yellowish colour; limbs mottled with 
small spots, with a large patch at the base of the tibiae. Eyes of 
anterior line straight, subequal, about twice their diameter above 
the edge of the clypeus. Carapace a little shorter than tibia of 
3rd leg. Vulva large, its lobes converging posteriorly, widely 
separated in front. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 105, carapace 5, 2nd leg 29, 
4th 24. 

Loc. Burma: Tharrawaddy (Oates). 

The following species of Heteropoda are too briefly described 
to be classified with accuracy, and have been omitted from the 
synopsis on pp. 259-200 : — 

318. Heteropoda umbrata, Karsch, Berl. ent. Zeits. xxxvi, p. 291, t. xi, 

fig. 11, 1892. 

Colour yellowish, mottled with black. Carapace as long as tibia 
of 4th leg. Vulva with lateral lobes posteriorly in contact. Tibial 
apophysis of palp longish, evenly narrowed from base to apex, 
concave above, "convex below. Length 10 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon : Peradeniya (Sarasin). 

319. Heteropoda eluta, Ranch, loc.cit. p. 291, 1892. 

$ • Differs from the preceding at least in having the lobes of 
the vulva widely separated by a median yellow plate. Tibial 
apophysis of palp of 3 consisting of a sharp pi'ocess, convex above, 
concave below, and armed with an inferior basal tubercle. Total 
length 9 mm. 

Loc. Ceylon (Sarasin). 

320. Heteropoda subtilis, Karsch, loc. cit. p. 292, t. xi, fig. 13. 

$ . Scarcely differing from H. eluta in colour and structural 
features, but with the tibial apophysis of palp consisting of a wide 
sublamelliform tooth. Total length 7 mm. 
Loc. Ceylon : Peradeniya (Sarasin). 

Genus SPARI0LENUS, Simon. 

Spariolenus, Simon, Act. Soc. Linn. B»rd. xxxiv, p. 280, 1881 ; 
id. Hist. Nat. Araign. ii, p. 50, 1897. 

Allied to Heteropoda, but with the eyes of the anterior line so 
strongly procurved that the inferior edges of the small medians 
stand almost on a level with the superior edges of the laterals ; tin- 
laterals, moreover, are only about two diameters apart and rather 
more than a diameter above the edge of the clypeus. The maxilke 
are furnished with a distinct median longitudinal crest, which is 
at most faintly indicated in Heteropoda . 

Type, S. tifjris, Simon. 

Distribution. India ; Xicobar Islands. 



264 



CLITBIONID.E. 



321. Spariolenus tigris, Simon, Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. xxxiv, p. 281, 
1881. 

5 . Carapace and abdomen covered with a mixture of rusty-red 
and white hairs, mottled with black ; legs and palpi yellowish, 
strongly banded with brown. Carapace as wide as long, shorter 
than tibia of 3rd leg. Legs very long. Abdomen pentagonal ; vulva 
consisting of a pair of round pits surrounded by subcircular rings 
which meet in the middle line. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 13, carapace 6, 2nd leg 37, 
4th 34. 

Loe. Matheran (Phipson) ; Poona ( Wroughton) ; Calcutta (Oates 
6f Simon). 

Spariolenus megalopis, Thorell (K. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl. 
xxiv, no. 2, p. 77, 1891), based upon an immature female from the 
Nicobar Islands, is not classifiable. 

Genus PANDERCETES, L. Koch. 

Pandercetes, L. Koch, Arachn. Austral, p. 739, 1875 ; Simon, Hist. 
Nat. Araign. ii, p. 56, 1897. 

Differs from Heteropoda in having the thoracic region of the 
carapace flat and low, and the head raised and sharply defined ; 
eyes much as in Heteropoda, those of anterior line straight, quad- 
rangle parallel-sided or nearly so. Legs generally plumose. 

Type, P. gracilis, L. Koch. 

Distribution. India to Australia. 

Sgnop>sis of Indian Species. 

a. Legs not plumose ; femora, coxae, and sternum 

uniformly pale below ( J ) P. macilentus, p. 265. 

b. Legs thickly plumose; sternum and coxa3 black, 

anterior femora coloured below ( § ). 
Anterior femora orange-yellow below P. decipiens, p : 264. 



b l . Anterior femora blackish bronze below 



P. celatus, p. 265. 




mesm 




Fig. 88. 
Pandercetes decipiens, 9 



322. Pandercetes decipiens, Pocock, Jour. 
Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, p. 753 : ? plumipes, 
Karsch, Berl. ent. Zeits. xxxvi, p. 290, 
1892 (Zatapina) {not of Doleschall). 

5 . Colour of upper side greyish and 
mottled with brown so as to match the 
lichen-covered bark of trees ; coxa?, 
labium, and sternum shining black, 
femora of 1st and 2nd legs orange-yellow 
below. Carapace slightly longer than 
wide; shorter than femur of 1st leg. 
Legs with their margins thickly tufted 
with hairs. Abdomen nearly twice as 
long as wide. 

Total length 16 mm., carapace 7. 

Loe. Ceylon: Punduloya (Green). 



PALYSTES. 265 

323. Pandercetes celatus, Pocock, Jmir. Bom. N. II. Soc. xii, p. 768, 

1899. 

$ . Distinguishable from the preceding by having the under 
side of the femora of the 1st and 2nd legs and of the tibia; of the 
3rd and 4th a rich blackish brown tinged with bronze. 

Total lengtb 22 mm., carapace 8. 

Loc. India: Trivandrum in Travancore {Ferguson). 

324. Pandercetes macilentus, Thorell, Spiders of Burma, p. 207, 

1895. 

J . Colour : body clothed above with yellowish-white hairs varied 
with brownish patches ; lower side of cephalothorax, abdomen, 
and legs clothed with whitish hairs. Carapace about as wide as 
loug, half the length of patella and tibia of 4th leg. Legs not 
plumose. Palp with tibial apophysis double, the upper branch 
slender and pointed, the lower broad and short. 

Total length 11 mm., carapace 5. 

Loc. S. Tenasserim {Gates). 

Genus PALYSTES, L. Koch. 

Palystes, L. Koch, Arachn. Austral, p. 701, 1875; Simon, Hist. Nat. 
Araitjn. ii, p. 05, 1897. 

Carapace louger than in Heteropoda, more narrowed in front ; 
eyes of posterior line straight, subequal, the laterals not promineut : 
eyes of anterior line straight or procurved, laterals much larger 
than medians; clypeus low; 1st leg in 5 longer than 2nd. 

Type, P. casta neus, Latreille. 

Distribution. Tropical Africa; India to Australia. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

a. Entirely pale above and below P.flavidus, p. 266. 

b. Variegated on under side of body and legs P. kochi, p. 265. 

325. Palystes kochi, Simon, Act. Soc Linn, fiord, xxxiv, p. 205, 1881 ; 

Thorell, Spiders of Burma, p. 268, 1895 : melanielinys, id. Ann. 
Mus. Genova, xxx, p. 53, 1890. 

2 . Colour: integument of upper side of body and limbs covered 
with yellowish-white hairs; mandibles blackish, sternum and coxa' 
black; femora of 1st and 2nd legs and in a lesser degree of 3rd 
covered with close-set, alternating zigzag stripes of white ami 
brown; tibiae white with basal and apical black band; lower Bide 
of abdomen patched and lined with brown. Carapace with sum- 
mits of eyes of anterior line on a level, laterals about one-fourth 
of their diameter above edge of clypeus. Lateral lobes of vulva 
meeting posteriorly in a long suture and circumscribing in front a 
transversely oval pit. 

$ . Smaller: femora and tibia- not variegated below ; tibial 
apophysis of palp short, pointed, ami directed downwards. 



266 OLUBIOXID.E. 

Measurements in mm. — §. Total length 29, carapace 15, 1st 
leg 58, 4th leg 50. J . Total length 21, carapace 10, 1st leg 49, 
4th 42. 

Loc. Sylhet. Burma : Kangoon, Tenasserirn (Oatcs § Fea). 
Also Sumatra. 

326. Palystes flavidus, Simon, Ann. Soc. Erit. Fr. lxv, p. 489, 1896. 

§ . Differing from P. Tcoehi in being smaller, and entirely pale 
above and below. Eyes of anterior line strongly procurved, laterals 
and medians subcontiguous, upper edge of former just above centres 
of medians, laterals more than half a diameter above edge of clypeus. 
Vulva with lateral lobes widely separated by an oblong space 
occupied by a black V-shaped skeletal piece. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 15, carapace 7, 1st leg 28, 
4th 23. 

Loc. India : Trichinopoli (Simon) • Allahabad (Ryves) ; Calcutta. 

Genus SPAEASSUS, Walck. 

Sparassus, Walckenaer, Tabl. Aran. p. 39, 1805; Simon, Hist. Nat. 
Araign. ii. p. 46, 1897. 

Of much the same form and size as Ileteropoda, but with the 
eyes of the posterior line straight or slightly procurved, the 
laterals sessile, those of the anterior line usually straight and 
subequal, the laterals not larger than the medians; clypeus very 
low ; tibiae of anterior legs with only two pairs of inferior spines. 

Type, S. argelasius, Walck. 

Distribution. Tropical countries. 

Synopsis of Indian Species. 

Males. 

a. Tibia of palp with basal and apical apophyses. 

a 1 . Basal apophysis strong and trifid S. tarandus, p. 269. 

ft 1 . Basal apophysis slender and undivided. ... S. tener, p. 269. 
ft. Tibia of palp with only apical apophysis. 

a 2 . A triangular process beneath apophysis . . S. irroughtoni, p. 268. 
ft 2 . No strong process beneath apophysis. 

a 3 . Abdomen black below in middle & lamarcki, p. 267. 

ft 3 . Abdomen uniformly pale below. 

«'. Mandibles brown; carapace as wide 

as long- S. impudicus, p. 268. 

ft 1 . Mandibles black ; carapace longer than 
wide. 
« 5 . Patella of palp uBspined, wider than 

tibia S. stimulator, p. 269. 

ft 6 . Patella of palp with external spine, 

not wider than tibia S. phipsoni, p. 2(38. 

Females. 

a. Lateral lobes of vulva almost meeting in the 

middle line throughout their length S. Iutesce?is, p. 269. 



SPABA8SU9. 267 

b. Lateral lobes of vulva widely separated at 
least posteriorly. 
a 1 . Carapace as long as patella and tibia of 

4tb leg S. hirtus, p. 267. 

b 1 . Carapace shorter than patella and tibia of 
4th leg. 

a 2 . Abdomen uniformly pale below S. impudicus, p. 268. 

b 2 . Abdomen black below in middle. 

a 3 . Cleft of vulva short, oval S. punctipes, p. 268. 

b 3 . Cleft of vulva long, acutely angular in 
front. 
a 4 . Tibiae of legs not spotted; coxae 

paler than sternum S. lamarcki, p. 267. 

b*. Tibiae of legs spotted ; coxae and legs 

uniformly black S. senilis, p. 267. 

327. Sparassus lamarcki, Zatreille, Gen. Crust, etc. i, p. 113,1806 

(Thomisus) ; Simon, Act. Sot: Linn. Bord. xxxiv, p. 301, 1881 
(Olios). 

2 . Colon?' : carapace deep brown, covered with yellowish-white 
hairs; mouth-parts and sternum black; legs with greyish-yellow 
hairy clothing ; femora white below, mottled with black, with 
black patch at-base and apex, tibiae with black basal spot ; abdomen 
black below, golden yellow varied with black above. Carapace a 
little longer than wide. Vulva with lateral lobes separated by a 
/V-shaped cleft occupied by a median black skeletal piece, narrow 
in front, expanded behind. 

cS . Smaller than § , paler ; sternum, mouth-parts, and lower side 
of femora reddish, with white hairs ; median ventral band of 
abdomen paler and narrower. Tibial apophysis of palp long, 
pointed, and straightened ; palpal organ armed with a great 
rorwardly-directed spike. 

Measurements in mm. — $. Total length 21, carapace 10, 2nd 
leg 42. rf . Total length 13, carapace 6, 2nd leg 33-5. 

Loc. Ceylon: Kandy and Trincomali (Ycrbury) ; Punduloya 
(Green) ; Peradenyia. India : Chingleput (Jambunathari) ; Coim- 
batore ; Pondichery. Madagascar. 

328. Sparassus senilis, Simon, Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. xxxiv, p. 303, 

1881. 

2 . Allied to the preceding, but apparently differing in having 
the coxae black like the sternum, ami the tibiae spotted below like 
the femora, the median skeletal piece of the vulva triangular, and 
the carapace as wide as long. 

Measurements in mm. — Length of carapace 8"4, 2nd leg 37'6. 

Loc. Ceylon (Simon ). 

329. Sparassus hirtus, Karsch, Zeits.yes. Naturw. Hi, \>. 560. 1879 

(I'elmopuda). 

2 . Colour much as in the preceding two species, but with the 



268 CLUBIONIDJE. 

femora and tibiae not spotted below. Carapace as long as patella 
and tibia of 4th leg. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 24, carapace 8*5, 2nd 
leg 35*5. 

Loc. Ceylon (Nietner). 

330. Sparassus wroughtoni, Simon, Mem. Soc. Zool. Fr. x, p. 257, 

1897. 

$ . Differing from <$ of S. lamarcki in having carapace, mouth- 
parts, legs, and sternum uniformly ochre-yellow, clothed with 
white hairs ; under side of abdomen uniformly pale, upper side 
with obscure pattern. Tibia of palp shorter, its apophysis double, 
the upper branch long, bent at right angles distally, lower branch 
short and triangular. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 15, carapace 7, 2nd leg 32. 

Loc. North Konkan, Bulsar in Guzerat ( Wroughton); Matheran 
{Phipson); Uran (Aitken). 

331. Sparassus phipsoni, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, p. 752, 

1899. 

6 . Resembling S. wroughtoni in colour, but with mandibles 
black and a small black patch on base of tibia?. Palp much like 
that of S. lamarcki, but with tibial apophysis lightly concave on 
inner side when viewed from above, and process on tarsus much 
shorter and less claw-like. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 19, carapace 9*5, 2nd leg 50. 

Loc. Bombay {Phipson). 

332. Sparassus impudicus, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxv, p. 241, 

1887. 

2 . Paler and more uniformly coloured than S. lamarcki ; 
integument yellowish, covered with white hairs ; femora indis- 
tinctly mottled below, tibiae with indistinct basal spot. Vulva 
with median cleft very short and filled with amber-yellow sclerite. 
d . Like 2 in colour, but with mandibles brown. Tibial apo- 
physis of palp stouter than in S. lamarcki, with much larger 
convexity on its inner margin ; palpal organ furnished with 
externally projecting tooth. 

Measurements in mm. — 2 • Total length 25, carapace 10, 2nd 
leg 40. J • Total length 17, carapace 8, 2nd leg 44-5. 

Loc. Burma: Tharrawaddy (Oates) ; Me-tan-ja (Fea) ; Anda- 
man Islands (Oatcs). Also Sumatra. 

333. Sparassus punctipes, Simon, Ann. Mus. Genova, xx, p. 339, 

1884 (Olios) ; Thorell, op. cit. xxv, p. 244 (1887) : venustua et 
callipygus, id. lot: cit. pp. 248 & 250, 1887 : puiiL-tipes, var. sordi- 
data, id. Spiders of Burma, p. 271, 1895 (Sarotes). 

§. Colour variable; typical form not so dark as S. lamarcki; 
sternum and coxae yellowish brown, extremities of femora, patelke, 



srAR.vssus. 269 

and tibiae with black rings, femora of anterior two pairs spotted 
below ; ventral area of abdomen not so black. In var. sordidatus 
tbe whole integument is blackish, and the upper side of the abdo- 
men is scarcely varied. Cleft of vulva consisting of a short oval 
space at posterior end of the plate. 

Total length 24 mm., carapace 10, 2nd leg 40. 

Loc. Burma: Minhla (Comotto) ; Tharrawaddy (Oates). 

334. Sparassus lutescens, Thorett, Bih. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl xx, 

pt. iv, no. 4, p. 12, 1894; id. Spiders of Burma, p. 272, 1895 
( Midamus). 

$ . Of small size, entirely pale, the protarsi sometimes spotted 
above at base and apex. Carapace as wide as long. Vulva with 
lateral lobes separated throughout their length by a narrow median 
cleft, each lobe divided by a transverse groove into an anterior 
larger, darker, and a posterior, smaller, paler portion. 

Total length 10 mm., carapace 3*5, 2nd leg 19. 

Loc. Burma: Tharrawaddy (Oates). 

335. Sparassus tener, Thorell, K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. xxiv, pt. 1, 

no. 2, p. 80, 1891. 

d . Colour much as in S. lutescens. Palp with two long, strong, 
forwardly-directed tibial apophyses, one external at base, the other 
inferior at apex. 

Total length 7*5 mm., carapace 3*25, 2nd leg 22. 

Loc. Assam. 

336. Sparassus tarandus, Simon, Bull. Sftts. d'Hist. Nat. 1897, p. 294. 

d . Colour pale, carapace with radiating dark stripes ; abdomen 
with median dorsal dark band ; mandible brown. Palp with two 
tibial apophyses as in S. tener: one at apex, long, slender, acute 
and sinuous ; the other basal, ending in a strong compressed trifid 
extremity. 

Length 12 mm. 

Loc. Karachi (Maiudron). 

337. Sparassus stimulator. Simon, Mem. Soc. Zool. Fr. x, p. 258, 

L897. 

cJ . Nearly allied to S. phipsoni, but, according to the description, 
differing in having the patella of the palp unspined, exceeding the 
tibia in breadth and equalling it in length. 

Total length 18 mm. 

Loc. Himalayas, 2000-2800 ft. (Smythies). 

The following species of Sparassus, based upon immature 
specimens, are not classifiable : — 

Sparassus fugax, O. I'. Cambridge^ Araneidea, Second Yarkand Exped. 

p. 7-">, L886.— Loc. Murree to Sind Valley (Stoliczka). 
Sparassus patatriatus, Simon, Mem. Soc. Zool. Fr. x. p, 266, 1897. — 

Dehra Dun (Smi/thies). 



270 CLUBIONID.E. 



Genus THELCTICOPIS, Karsch. 

Thelcticopis, Karsch, SB. Ges.. Nat. Marburg, 1884, p. 64. 
Thelcticopis 4- Sera niba, Simon, Hist. Nat. Araign. ii. p. 72, 1897. 

Carapace longer than in Sparassus, longitudinally convex ; eyes 
of posterior line procurved, laterals sessile, anterior medians 
larger than laterals ; clypeus low. Mandible with fang-groove 
armed behind with 5-6 small teeth. Legs short, less laterigrade, 1st 
longer than 2nd or equal to it; anterior tibiae with 5 to 7 pairs 
of inferior spines. Spinners supported on a membranous stalk- 
strengthened by a hairy chitinous ring. 

Type, T. severus, L. Koch. 

Distribution. Ceylon and Burma to the Solomon Islands. 



Si/nojJsis of Indian Species. 

Males. 

a. Tibial apophysis single, long, arcuate T. nalandicus, p 270. 

b. Tibial apophysis shorter, bifid. 

a>. Branches of apophysis equal T. canescens, p. 271. 

b'. Branches of apophysis unequal T. paripes, p. 271. 

females. 

a. Eyes of both lines suhequally spaced ; abdo- 

men variegated. 
a 1 . Abdomen tlavous, variegated with black . . T. nalandicus, p. 270. 
b' . Abdomen black, variegated with pale spots 

above T. pictus, p. 271. 

b. Lateral eyes further from medians than the 

latter are from each other. 

a'~. Cleft of vulva narrow, parallel-sided, in- 
tegument blackish T. canescens, p. 271 . 

b 2 . Cleft of vulva oval, narrower behind than 

in front; integument reddish brown .... T. birmanicus, p. 271. 

338. Thelcticopis nalandicus, Karsch, Berl. cnt. Zeits. xxxvi, p. 293, 
pi. xi, fig. 15, 1892 : nigropicta, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. 11. Soc. 
xii, p. 573, 1899 (Stasina). 

2 . Colour : carapace and legs reddish, clothed with whitish hairs 
intermixed with black; abdomen greyish, variegated above with 
black spots and stripes. Eyes of both lines subequally spaced. 
Tibiae of anterior legs with 7 pairs of inferior spines. 

cS . Smaller than female. Tibial apophysis stout at base, 
strongly arched, narrow and pointed at apex. 

$ . Total length 13'5 mm., carapace 6, 1st leg 18*5. 

c? . Total length 9'8 mm., carapace 4 5, 1st leg 18. 

Loc. Ceylon: Matale, Nalanda (Sarasin) ; Punduloya {Green). 



THF.UTICOPIS. 271 

339. Thelcticopis paripes, Kanch, Zeits. Naturw. lii, p. 5-59, t. vii, 

f. 7, 1879 (Themeropis) : id. Berl. ent. Zeits. xxxvi, p. 293, 1892 
(Stasina). 

<$ . Resembling the preceding, but with the anterior median 
eyes nearer to each other than to the laterals. Tibial apophysis 
double, consisting of an inner branch, long, crooked, and sharp, and 
an outer short, conical, diverging at a right angle. 

Total length 14 mm., carapace 6, 1st leg 22. 

Loc. Ceylon (Nletner). 

340. Thelcticopis canescens, Simon, J. A. S. B. hi, p. 103, 1887. 

2 . Colour : integument deep reddish brown, hairs on carapace 
white, on abdomen ashy yellow ; ventral area not black. Tibim 
of anterior two pairs of legs with 5 pairs of inferior spines. 
Vulva oblong, marked with a median wide reddish groove. 

<3 . Tibial apophysis of palp consisting of two long subequal 
smooth processes. 

$ . Total length 21 mm., carapace 9, 1st leg 24. 

<5 . Length of carapace 8 mm., 1st leg 27 - 7. 

Loc. Hills between Burma and Siam. 

341. Thelcticopis birmanicus, Thorell, Spiders of Burma, p. 274, 

1895. 

2 . Principally differs from T. canescens in being of a paler hue, 
the carapace being reddish and the legs yellowish brown. Cleft 
of vulva broad in front, narrowed behind, occupied by a piriform 
sclerite. 

Total length 14 mm., carapace 6-5, 1st leg 18. 

Loc. Tenasserim (Gates). 

342. Thelcticopis pictUS, Thorell, Ann. Mug. Genora, xxv, p. 254, 

1887 (Seramba). 

Apparently resembling T. nalandicus in most structural charac- 
tera and in coloration, but with the hairy clothing of the carapace 
and legs olive-yellow; the abdomen black, ornamented above with 
pale spots and stripes. Anterior tibia armed below with 5 pairs 
of spines. Cavity of vulva nearly circular, occupied by Y-shaped 
sclerite. 

Total length 21 mm. 

Loc. Burma: Shwegoo Myo (Fea). 

The following species of this family, based upon an immature 
female example, is of doubtful generic position : — 

Holconia armillata, Thorell, Ann. Mus. Genova, xxv. p. 2.".."., 1897. — 
Loc. Burma; Shwegoo Myo [Fea). 



272 



PLATOR1DM. 



Family PLATORIDjE. 

Body very flat, legs completely laterigrade ; carapace much 
wider than long, head narrow. Mandibles weakly armed, labium 
longer than wide, inaxillae directed obliquely inwards. Sternum 
much wider than long, not narrowed behind. Coxa? of legs long, 
the posterior widely separated, 1st leg shorter than the rest, 2nd 
longest ; no scopulae or ungual tufts ; anterior legs armed with 
erect spiniform bristles ; claws two in number and toothed. 
Spinners short, those of anterior pair widely separated, the inter- 
mediate pair occupying the space between them. 

Distribution. North India; China; S.America. 

Genus PLATOR, Simon. 

Plator, Simon, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. (5) x, p. 105, 1880 ; Hist. Nat. 
Araign. ii. p. 18, 1897. 

Characters as above. 
Type, P. insolcns, Sim. 
Distribution. N. India : China. 

343. Plator indicus, Simon, Mem. Soc. Zoo!. France, x, p. 256, 1897 
( J ) : ixodinus, Pocock, Jour. Bom. N. H. Soc. xii, p. 753, 1899 ( $ ). 

5 . Colour : carapace and legs reddish yellow ; carapace black 
about the eyes, and with narrow black marginal line ; posterior legs 
with black line running down the middle of patella, tibia, and 
protarsus ; abdomen olive-green, paler below, darker round edge. 




Fig. 89.— Plator indicus, £ , x2. 

Eyes of anterior line distinctly separated ; anterior legs furnished 
below with many spiniform setae, stronger on the protarsus than 
elsewhere. Vulva consisting of a large piriform horny plate, 
furnished posteriorly with a pair of crescentically-curved darker 
contiguous thickenings. 

3 . Much like $ , but with anterior eyes larger and almost in 
contact. 

Total length about 1 mm. 

hoc. Himalayas and Western India: Poonaand Konkan (Simon) j 
Konain, 7800 ft. ; Mundali, 8000 ft. (Olettdow) ; Dalhousie (Towns- 
end). 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Acantbodon, 161. 
acanthurus (Isometrus), 

51. 
Acari, 5. 
Acattyma, 166. 
acute-carinatus (Buthus), 

20. 
adspersata (Met a), 226. 
semula (Argyope), 223. 
afer (Heteroruetrus), 93. 
affinis (Scorpiops), 75. 
afghanus (Galeodes), 140. 
agelenoides (Hippasa), 

251. 
agilis (Galeodes), 140. 
albocinctus (Thalassius), 

248. 
albostriatus (Melopceus), 

205. 
alticeps (Psechrus), 212. 
alticola (Buthus), 21. 
ambigua (Heteropoda), 

261. 
Amblypygi, 123. 
anasuja (Argyope), 222. 
andamanicum (Sason), 

174. 
andersoni (Chilobracbys), 

197. 
andersoni (Hypoctonus), 

117. 
andersoni (Omithoeto- 

nus), 206. 
Androctonus, 13. 
angustata ( Kecenia), I'll'. 
angustata (Nephila), 216. 
anguetus (Thelyphonus), 

Hid. 116. 
annamitn (Gasteracan- 

tha), 235. 
annulatus (Rliagodes), 

152. 
anthracinua (Clumlus), 

57. 
anthracinus (Scorpiops), 

74. 
Arachnid a, 1. 



Arachnomorphae, 206. 
Aranese, 153. 
araneoidea (Galeodes), 

136. 
Araneus, 223. 
Archisometrus, 35. 
arcuata (Argyope), 220. 
arcuata (Gasteracantha), 

232. 
argelasius (Sparassus), 

266. 
argentatus (Psechrus), 

210. 
Argyope, 220. 
Argyopidae, 213. 
Argyroepeira, 215. 
armatoris (Sason), 174. 
armillata (Holconia), 

271. 
Artema, 238. 
asper (Pandinus), 86. 
aseamensis (Isometrus), 

48. 
assamensis (Uroproctn- . 

196. 
asthenurus (Scorpiops), 

73. 
atalanta (Ocyale), 252. 
atlanta (Artema), 238. 
Atmetochilus, 108. 
atomarius (Isometrus), 

36. 
atratua (Gluviopsis), 14fi. 
atriceps (Atmetochilus), 

169. 
atroatriatua (Buthus), 20. 
Atypidse, 158. 
Atypus, 168. 
auatralaaiae Honour 

79. 
australasia; (Scorpio . 7'.'. 
mist rail'.'* ( Buthus), 15. 

australia (Galeod 

143. 
auBtralia priamus (Prio- 

uurus), 16. 
auatralia | Scorpio), 16, 



bacilli^er (Galeodes), 

144. 
baluehicus (Buthus), 16. 
barberi (Palamnaeus), 

95. 
Barychelidae, 172. 
basilicus (Isometrus), 

19, 
bayoniannus (Eupro- 

sthenops), 248. 
beddomei (Thelvphonus), 

105. 
bengalensis (Galeodes), 

137. 
bengalensis (Palamnseus\ 

94. 
bicolor (Butheolus), 31. 
bicolor (Chilobrachvs\ 

196. 
bilunifer (Araneus), 227. 
binghami (Hypoctonus\ 

L13. 
binghami (Scorpiops), 

71. 
birmanica (Conothele), 

166. 
birmanicua (Cbserilus), 

62. 
birmanicus (Liphistius), 

156. 
birmanicus (Selenops), 

257. 

birmanicus (Thelcticopis }, 

271. 

bombavensis (ralarnna> 
us), 89, 

brachycentrus (Isome- 
trus', 50. 

brachydactylus (Sai 
131. 

brevipea (Chilobraohya . 
L99. 

\ rei ipea I [sohnocolua), 
183. 

brevipea (Bhagodea i, I 19. 

breTispina 1 1 taeteracan- 
thin, 235. 

T 



274 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



Butheolus, 28. 
Buthida;, 12. 
Buthinae, 12. 
Buthini, 12. 
Buthus, 13. 

Cserostris, 230. 
csesar (PalamnaBUs), 97. 
csesar (Scorpio). 97. 
ealcuttensis (Her.silia), 

241. 
callipygus (Sparassus), 

268. 
Oalommata, 159. 
calpetana (Macrothele), 

171. 
eambridgii (Trithyreus), 

122. 
CaraptotarsiiB, 159. 
cancriformis (Gastera- 

cantha), 231. 
canescens (Theloticopis) 

271. 
oanningensis (Gastera- 

cantha), 235. 
casaria (Heteropoda), 

261. 
castaneus (Palystes), 2(55. 
Catagseus, 130. 
Catageus, 130. 
Catagius, 130. 
catenulata (Argyope), 

223. 
catula (Lyeosa), 254. 
caucasius (Buthus), 19. 
caudata (Herailia), 241. 
caudata (Ischnothele), 

170. 
caudatus (Thelyphonus), 

103. 
cavernicola (Stygophry- 

nus), 130. 
celatus (Pandercetes), 

265. 
celebesiana (Argyro- 

epeira), 216. 
Oentrurinae, 42. 
Centrurini, 42. 
cervinus (Haploclastus), 

185. 
cervinus (Labochirus), 

109,110. 
cervinus (Phlogius), 196, 

197. 
ceylonenais (Chserilus), 

62. 
ceylonica (Tetragnatha), 

214. 
ceylonicus (Phrynus), 

'126. 
ceylonicus (Scorpio), 96. 



Chaerilidse, 53. 
Chserilus, 53. 
chaperi (Lyccsa), 254. 
Charmus, 31. 
Charon, 129, 131. 
Charontidie, 128. 
Chelomachus, 53. 
Chilobrachys, 192. 
Chiromachetes, 77. 
cicatrosus (Araneus), 

226. 
cinctipes (Heterochar- 

mus), 32. 
cinctipes (Sason), 173. 
cingulata (Cyrtarachne), 

229. 
citricola (Araneus), 226. 
clathrata (Hersilia), 242. 
clavata (Nephila), 215. 
clavatrix (Plectana), 233. 
Clubiouidae, 257. 
colletti (Idiops), 161. 
collinus (Palamnaus), 

95. 
collinus (Plesioph rictus), 

182. 
oomplanatus (Ischnurus), 

79. 
concanenais (Buthus), 

25. 
Conothele, 165. 
constructor (Acantho- 

don), 163. 
convexa (Arterua), 238. 
coronatus (Eucampto- 

pus), 245. 
crassicaudatus (Sohizo- 

mus), 120. 
crassimanus (Archiso- 

metrus), 34. 
crassimanus (Ilemibu- 

thus), 34. 
crassimanus (Scorpiops), 

68. 
crassus (Acanthodon), 

161. 
cristatus (Thelyphonus), 

105. 
Crossopriza, 240. 
crotalus (Lyrognathus), 

203. 
cryptica(Acattyma), 166. 
Ctenizidae, 160. 
cylindrata (Fecenia), 21 2. 
Cyriopagopus, 204. 
Cyrtarachne, 228. 
Cyrtophora, 223. 

Dtesiinse, 145. 
dalyi (Gasteracantha), 
232. 



Damarchus, 169. 

decens (Epeira), 228. 

decipiens (Musagetea), 
196. 

decipiens (Pandercetes), 
264. 

decora ta (Tetragnatha), 
216. 

dehaanii (Araneus), 225. 

Dendrolycnsa, 246. 

dentatus (Scorpio), 46. 

designatus (Acantho- 
don), 164. 

desultor (Liphistiua), 
156. 

diadematus (Araneus), 
223. 

diadesmia (Gastera- 

cantha), 234. 

Diplothele, 174. 

Dipluridsa, 170. 

distinctus (Pholcus), 239. 

dorise (Buthus), 16. 

dorsualis (Atypus), 158. 

dumicola (Ischnothele), 
171. 

durandi (Uroctea), 243. 

edwardsi (Tama), 242. 
elegana (Lathrodectus), 

237. 
elegans (Meta), 216. 
ellioti (Euproathenops), 

249. 
ellioti (Sipalolasma), 177. 
elongatus (Smeringopus), 

239. 
eluta (Heteropoda), 263. 
Entomothele, 170. 
Eresidae, 208. 
Eucamptopus, 244. 
eupeus (Androctonus), 

19. 
Euprosthenops, 245. 
europseus (Isometrus), 

46. 
exanthernaticus (Ara- 
neus), 222. 
extenaa (Tetragnatha), 

214. 

fabrei (Heteropoda), 261 . 
fabrei (Plesiophrictus) 

182. 
fasciata (Pcecilotheria), 

192. 
fastiga ta ( A rgy roepoi ra), 

216. 
fatalis (Galoodes), 137, 

143. 
fere (Araneus), 226. 



A I. I'H A BKTICA h I N DBS . 



275 



fese (Lychas), 42. 

Fecenia, 212. 

i'emoralis (Chilobracbvs), 

195. 
iergusoni (Cbiromache- 

tes), 78. 
ferina (Heteropoda), 2G0. 
iilum (Butbus), 46. 
flmbriat.ua (Chilobra- 
cbvs), 195. 
finitimus (Buthus), 16. 
flavescens (lJutbeolus), 

30. 
flavidus (Palystes), 266. 
flavimanus (Palamnseus), 

87. 
flavo-piloBUS (Cliilubra- 

chys), 196. 
formosa (Pcecilotheria), 

191. 
formosua (Hypoetonus), 

116. 
fortis (Acanthodon), 163. 
f'ossor (Acanthodon), 164. 
fossor (Atmetochilus), 

168. 
frontata (Gasteracantlia). 

234. 
fugax (SparasBus), 269. 
fuliginea (SelenocoBmia), 

201. 
fuligineua ( I'lilogius), 

196. 
fulvipes (Calonitnata), 

159. 
fulvipes (Palamnasus), 

87. 
fumosus (Chilobracbvs), 

196. 
fuBca ( Dendrolycoaa), 

246. 
fuBcipes (Butbeolus), 29. 

Galeodes, 136. 

Galeodidie, 135. 

gangeticus (Butbus), 25. 

Gasteracantlia, 231. 

getninata (Gastera- 
cantlia), 233. 

gemmifer (Cbserilus), 60. 

geuiculata (Tetragnatba I, 
215. 

geometricuB (Lathrodeo- 
tus). 2.".s. 

gbecuaiuiB (Psechrus), 

211. 

Gluviopsi-. 1 Hi. 
gracilis (Paiulerceles), 
5 264. 

gracilis (Tetragnatha I, 
214. 



graminea (Peucetia), 256. 
grammurus (Butbus), 

23. 
granosus (Chaerilus), 56. 
grassii (Trithyreus), 

122. 
gravimanuB(PalainnaeuB), 

90. 
green i Ilia- (llippasa), 

250, 251. 
greenallia' ( Lycosa). 251. 
green i (Sipalolasina), 176. 
grubei (Cyrtaraehne). 

229. 
gujaratensis ( Buthus), 

25. 

lialyi (Diplotbele), 175. 
ETaploclaetus, 185. 
hardwickii (Chilobra- 

chys), 198. 
hardwickii (Scorpio), 64. 

hardwickii (Scorpiops), 
(■>(■<. 70. 

basseltii (Gasteracantlia |, 
238. 

basseltii (Latbrodectus), 
237. 

hector (Androctonus), 15. 

Helignionierus. 164. 

Hemibutlius, 34. 

lleiniscorpion, 77. 

Qemiscorpius, 77. 

bendersoni (ButbUB), 26. 

licndersoni (Lychas), 40. 

llei -ennia, 219. 

Her.-ilia. 241. 

Hersiliidas, 210 

1 [eterocharmus, 31. 

Heterometrus, 84. 

Heterophi ictus. 180. 
Heteropoda, 259. 

Heteropodinss, 259, 

hinialavana (Selenocos- 
mia », 2oo. 

llippasa, 249. 

birtus (Sparaeaus i, 2ii7. 

his]iida I Kpeira i, 22>. 
liobsMiii (t)rdgarius). 2."><>. 
holmcia- | llippasa), 251. 
liolosericeus i Ischnoeu- 
lusl, 183. 

HonuuruB, 78. 
bortoruin ( Argyroepeira), 

216. 
Hubbardiidaa, 1 19. 

I [ygropoda, 2 15. 

I I j poctonuB, 111. 

Idiopa, 161. 

illepidus il'nltvs . 2:r, 



imperialis (Nephila), 218. 
iinpudicus (Sparassus), 

268. 
inajqualis (Cyrtarachne). 

229. 
indagatrix (Lycosa), 254. 
indica (Murricia), 242. 
indica (Perenethis), 246. 
indica (Uroctea), 243. 
indicus (Galeodes), 142. 
nidicus (Latbrodectus), 

237. 
indicus (Plator), 272. 
indicus (Tbelyphonus), 

105. 
indus (Palamnseus), 96. 
inermis (Pblogiellus), 

202. 
insculptus (Scorpiops), 

68. 
insignis (Chaerilus), 58. 
insignis (Thrigmopceus), 

I Hi. 

insolens (Plator), 272. 
iii?ularis (Hvpoctonus), 

117. 
insularis (Thclyjibonus), 

117. 
IomachuB, 81. 
Iscbnocolus, 1S3. 
Iscbnotbele, 170. 
Igcbnuridse, 76. 
Isometrus, 44. 
ixodinus (Plator), 272. 

javanensis (Selenocos- 
mia), 201. 

kanarensis (Palamnasus), 
93. 

kandiana ( Heteropoda I, 

261. 
kocbi (Palystes), 265. 
kocbii t Pandinus), 86. 
kuhlii (Nephila), 218 

Labochirus, l"7. 

hvviceps (loiiuiehus) 

81. 

la\i Irons (Lycbas) 41. 
laglaizei (Araneus), 224. 
lamaroki (Sparassus), 

267. 
laneus (Cbarnuis), 32. 
languid* (Heteropoda >. 

262. 
Lathrodectus, 237. 
latifrons (Tetracmathal 

214. " 
latim.um> i l'alamnffius), 

90. 



276 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



leioderina (Scorpio), 99. 
leprosa (Heteropocla), 

262. 
leptochirus (Scorjriops), 

69. 
leptognatha (Tetragna- 

tha), 215. 
lepturus (Hemiscorpius), 

77. 
leucomelana (Gastera- 

cantha), 235. 
leucomelas (Plectana), 

235. 
limbata (Nephila), 218. 
lindstroernii (Scorpiops), 

74. 
lineatus (St.egodyphus), 

208. 
linteatus (Iscbnocolus), 

183. 
Liphistiidae, 156. 
Liphistius, 156. 
Liurus, 13. 

liurus (Palamnasus), 91. 
lobata (Argyope), 221. 
longimanus (Palanmasus), 

97. 
longimanus (Scorpiops), 

72. 
lucidipes (Palainnaeus), 

87. 
lugubris (Scorpiops), 74. 
lunatus (Phrynichus), 

126. 
lutea (Heteropoda), 263. 
lutescens (Sparassus), 

269. 
Lychas, 35. 
Lycosa, 252. 
Lycosidas, 244. 
lycosina (Hippasa), 250. 
lyoni (Crossopriza), 240. 
Lyrognathus, 202. 



lnacilentus(Pandereetes), 

265. 
macmahoni (Butbus), 18. 
macmahoni (Galeodes), 

141. 
Macrotbele, 171. 
maculata (Macrotbele), 

171. 
maculata (Nepbila), 217. 
maculatus (Scorpio), 46. 
madraspatensis (Palam- 

naeus), 88. 
malabarensis (Iomacbus), 

82. 
malabarensis (Nepbila), 

219. 



malabariensis (Selenops), 

257. 
inalayana (Conothele), 

165. 
mandibulata (Tetragna- 

tba), 215. 
margaritatus (Cboerilus), 

58. 
marginatus (Sphedanus), 

247. 
marginellus (Tbalassius), 

247, 248. 
martensii (Buthus), 23. 
masoni (Cbilobrachys), 

197. 
megacepbalus (Butbus), 

96. 
megalopis (Spariolenus), 

264. 
melanicbnys (Palystes), 

265. 
melanurus (Butheolus), 

28. 
melanurus tvpicus (Bu- 
tbeolus), 29. 
melanus (Rhagodes), 148. 
Melopceus, 205. 
mesor (Isometrus), 37. 
Mesothelae, 155. 
metallica (Poecilotberia), 

189. 
millardi (Plesiopbrictus), 

181. 
milleti (Beterophrictus), 

180. 
minatoria (Tetragnatha), 

215. 
minax (Melopoeus), 205. 
miranda (Poecilotberia), 

190. 
mirandus (Stegodypbus), 

209. 
mitralis (Caerostris), 231. 
moluccensis (Araneus), 

226. 
monstrosus (Ordgarius), 

230. 
montanus (Nemesiellus), 

167. 
montanus (Scorpiops), 

70. 
moutigena (Selenops), 

258. 
mucronatus (Lychas), 36. 
mucronatus (Scorpio), 36. 
multipuncta (Epeira), 

219. 
muriccla (Tbelypbonus). 

105. 
Murricia, 242. 
Musagetes, 19-. 



Mygalomorpbai, 157. 

nalandicus (Tbelcticopis), 

270. 
nauticus (Araneus), 228. 
Nemesiellus, 167. 
Nephila, 217. 
nigrescens(Thelyphonus), 

104. 
nigricep9 (Rhagodes), 

150. 
nigrifrons (Buthus), 22. 
nigripalpis (Galeodes), 

144. 
uigripes (Hormurus), 80. 
nigristernis (Lycha9), 38. 
nigritus (Butbus), 27. 
nigrocinctus (Rhagodes), 

151. 
nigrolineatus (Scorpio), 

23. 
nigropicta (Stasina), 270. 
nigropunctala (Peucetia), 

255. 
nigrotibialis (Lycosa), 

253. 
nilgirinus (Haploclastus), 

185. 
nitelinus (Cbilobrachys), 

197. 
nitidus (Iomacbus), 83. 
Nyctalops, 119. 

oatesii (Damarchus), 169. 
oatesii (Hypoctonus), 

112. 
oatesii (Palamnams), 98. 
obscurior (Galeodes), 

143. 
oucitanus (Butbus), 13. 
oculatus (Chilobrachys), 

200. 
Ocyale, 251. 
odonturus (Butbus), 16. 
GEcophlceus, 172. 
olivacea (Hippasa), 250. 
Omothymus, 204. 
opifex (Acanthodon), 

162. 
Upiliones, 5. 
Opisthothelae, 156. 
Ordgarius, 230. 
oreophilus (Scalido- 

gnathus), 107. 
orientalis (Galeodes) 

138, 143. 
ornata (Argyope), 222. 
ornata (Poecilotberia I, 

192. 
ornatissima (llerennia) 

219. 



ALPHA UETICAL INDEX. 



277 



ornatus (Androctonus), 

19. 
ornatus (Ischnocolus), 

184. 
Ornithoctoninae, 203. 
Ornithoetonus, 205. 
orophila (Selenocosmia), 

201. 
Orthochirus, 28. 
Orthodactylus. 28. 
Oxyopes, 255. 
Oxyopidae, 254. 



paehyurus (Buthus), 27. 
pacificus (Stegodyphus), 

209. 
paganus (Cyriopagopus), 

205. 
Palamnaeus, 84. 
pallidus (Butheolus), 30. 
Palystes, 265. 
Pandercetes, 264. 
Pandinus, 84. 
pannuceus (Poltys), 286. 
pantherina (Hippasa), 

250. 
paradoxa (Casrostris), 

231. 
paradoxus (Plesiobuthus), 

344. 
paripes (Thelcticopis), 

271. 
partita (Hippasa), 257. 
paryimanus (Thehpho- 

nus), 108. 
patagiatus (Sparassus), 

269. 
pectinata (Hersilia), 

241. 
peguana (Hersilia), 241. 
Pelecodon, 159. 
penjabensis (Buthus), 

22. 
Perenethis. 24"). 
persicus (Buthus), 1'.). 
persicus (Rhagodes), 

150. 
perspicillata (Cyrt- 

arachne), 229. 
petersii (Palamnanis), 

84, 97, 98. 
petersii (Scorpiops), 70. 
petiti (Acanthodon), 

161. 
Peucetia, 255. 
Phalangium, 125. 
phasma (Heteropoda), 

260. 
phipsoni (lsometrus), 

37. 



phipsoni (Lycosa), 25.'5 
phipsoni (Palamnaeus), 

94. 
phipsoni (Phrynichus), 

127. 
phipsoni (Rhagodes), 

152. 
phipsoni (Sparassus), 

268. 
phipsoni (Thalassius), 

248. 
Phlogiellus, 202. 
Plilogiodes, 179. 
Phlogius, 200. 
PholcidiB, 238. 
Phrictus, 200. 
Phrynichidae, 125. 
Phrynichus, 125. 
Phrynischus. 126. 
Phrynus, 125. 
piceus (Atypus), 158. 
pictus (Chaerilus), 61. 
pictus (Thelcticopis), 

271. 
pisaurina (Hippasa), 

250. 
Phigiobothrus, 175. 
Plator. 272. 
Platoridre, 272. 
plebeia (Heteropoda), 

262. 
Plesiobuthus, 43. 
Plesiophrictus, 181. 
plumipes (Zatapina), 

2(54. 
pocockii (Chilobrachvs), 

195. 
Podophthahna, 248. 
Poeeilotheria, 188. 
politus (Stenochirus), 

33. 
Poltys, 235. 

pragma i Peucetia), 256. 
priamua (Aiulroctonus), 

15. 
I'rionurus. 13. 
pri>l ina (Crossopriza), 

240. 
proboscideus (Labo- 

chirus), 1(>7. 
procera (Hygropoda), 

245. 
procera (Peucetia), 256. 
prognatha (Hygropoda), 

245. 
prompta (Heteropoda), 

261. 
propinqua (Giutera- 

cantha), 233. 
proscorpio (Thelypho- 

nus), L06, 



prostans(Heligmonierus), 

165. 
Psechridae, 210. 
Psechrus, 210. 
Pseudoscorpiones, 5. 
psittacinus (Thelypho- 

nus), 106. 
pugnax (Lyrognathus), 

203. 
pulchella (Argvope), 

221. 
pullata (Araneus), 228. 
punctipes (Sparassus), 

268. 
punctipes, var. eordidata 

(Sarotes), 268. 
punctulatus (Iomachua), 

83. 
pusillus (Catageus), 130. 
pusillus (Phrynichus), 

128. 



radialis (Sealidognathus), 

167. 
radiatus (Selenops), 257. 
rangunensia (Hypocto- 

nus), 116. 
rangunensis, yar. silyati- 

cus (Hypoctonus), 115. 

116. 
raniceps (Cyrtarachiit- . 

229. 
regalis (Poeeilotheria), 

190. 
remifera(Gasteracantha), 

233. 
reniformis (Phalangiuin i. 

126. 
Rhagodes, 147. 
Rhagodinoe, 147. 
Rhax. 136, 147. 
rigidulua (Isometrus), 

52. 
rimata (Gasteracantha), 

233. 
robusta (Dendrohcosai, 

247. 
robustum (Sason). 173. 
robustus (Phlogiodes), 

180. 
roretzi (Acattyma), 166. 
rufescens (Chaerilus), 57. 
rufeuoens (Gluviopsis), 

146. 
rufilata (Poeeilotheria), 

IS'.). 
ruflmanuBl Thelyphonus), 

106. 
rufofemorata (Epeira), 

22& 



278 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



rufo-fuscus (Musagetes), 

197. 
rufulus (Galeodes), 139. 
rugiscutis (Buthus), 26. 
rugosulus (Buthus), 20. 
rugosus (Lycbas), 39. 
ruinpfi (Araueus), 228. 



sabulosus (Galeodes), 

139. 
salebrosa (Epeira), 226. 
saltator (Lyrognathus), 

203. 
sarasinorum (Stegody- 

phus), 209. 
sarasinorum (Stenochi- 

rus), 33. 
sarawakensis (Sarax), 131 . 
Sarax, 131. 
Sarpedon, 172. 
Sason, 172. 
Sasonielius, 177. 
satarensis ( Scorpiops), 

71. 
Satzicus, 172. 
savignyi (Hersilia), 241. 
saxatilis (Hypoctomis), 

115. 
seaber (Lychas), 38. 
scaber (Palanmseus), 93. 
scabrinus(Thelyphonus), 

106. 
Scalidognathus, 166. 
Schizomus, 119. 
Schizonotida?, 119. 
Sehizonotus, 119. 
schnehagenii (Thelypho- 

nus), 105. 
schneideri (Butbus), 28. 
Scorpio, 84. 
Scorpiones, 1, 5. 
Scorpionida, 84. 
Scorpionini, 84. 
Scorpiops, 54. 
Scurria, 188. 
scutatus (Lycbas), 37. 
scutilus (Lychas), 35, 37. 
Selenocosmia, 200. 
Selenocosmiina', 187. 
Selenopiua, 257. 
Selenops, 257. 
semiflavus (Rhagodes), 

149. 
semilunaris (l'lagio- 

bothrus), 176. 
senilis (Sparassus), 207. 
sepiaris (Tbeh])bonus), 

104. 
Seramba, 270. 
tericeus (Chilobraohys), 
199. 



sericeus (Plesiopbrictus), 

182. 
serratus (Palamnaeus), 

97. 
seticeps(Scalidognatbus), 

167. 
severus (Thelcticopis), 

270. 
sexpunctata (Hetero- 

poda), 261. 
sexspinosus (Ordgai'ius), 

230. 
shoplandi (Isometrus), 

41. 
shoplandi (Lychas), 41. 
simonis (Diapontia), 

250. 
sindicus (Buthus), 25. 
Sipalolasma, 176. 
sisyphoides (Pholcus), 

238. 
Smeringopus, 239. 
smythiesi (Heteropoda), 

262. 
socialis (Stegodyphus), 

209. 
solid us (Scorpiops), 66. 
Solifugse, 132. 
Solpugidae, 145. 
soricinus (Ohilobrachys), 

199. 
sororna (Gasteracantha), 

233. 
spadicarius (Sphedanus), 

247. 
Sparassus, 266. 
Spariolenus, 263. 
spinax, Scorpio (Atreus), 

52. 
spinifer (Hetei'onietrus), 

98. 
spinifer (Palainnanis), 

98. 
stauntoni (Dendroly- 

cosa), 247. 
Stegodyphus, 208. 
stellata (Epeira), 223. 
Stenochirus, 32. 
stimulator (Sparassus), 

269. 
striata (Poecilotberia), 

191. 
striclnlans(Chilobrachys), 

198. 
stridulans (Mygale), 198. 
Stygophrynus, 129. 
subarnmtus(Phlogiellus), 

202. 
subfusca (Pu'cilotheria), 

190. 
euboculatus (Trithyreus), 
121. 



subtilis (Heteropoda), 

263. 
sullivani (Sasonichus), 

177. 
suspectus (Hormurus). 

80. 
swammerdami (Palam- 

nseus), 86. 
sylvaticus (Ilvpoctonus), 

115. 

Tama, 242. 

tamulus (Buthus), 23. 

tamulus typicus(Buthus), 

24. 
taprobanica (Argyope), 

222. 
taprobanicus (Heligmo- 

merus), 164. 
tarandus (Sparassus), 

269. 
Tarantula, 125. 
tarantula (Lycosa), 252. 
Tartarides, 1 18. 
tauricornis (Labochirus), 

109. 
tener (Sparassus), 269. 
tenuicauda (Scorpiops), 

72. 
tenuicaudat.us (Schizo- 
mus), 120. 
tenuipes(Plesiophrictus), 

182. 
tessellata (Ai-gyroepeira), 

216. 
Tetragnatha, 214 
Tetragonopbthalma, 245. 
thalassinus (Butheolus), 

28. 
Thalassius, 247. 
Thelcticopis, 270. 
Thelechoris, 170. 
Thelyphonkla?, 102. 
Thelyphonus, 103. 
Theraphosida% 178. 
Theraphosinas, 178. 
Theridiidte, 236. 
thorelli (Palamnaus), 

97. 
thorellii (Chilobrachvs), 

199. 
Thrigmopieinas, 184. 
Thrigmopceus, 186. 
thurstoni (Isometrus), 

47. 
thwaitesi (Isometrus). 

48. 
tibialis (Stegodyphus), 

210. 
tigris (Spariolenus), 

264. 
torvus (Pseehrus), 211. 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 



279 



trarancoria (Fecenia), 
212. 

tredecira-guttatus (La- 
th rod ectus), 237. 

tricarinatus (Lychas), 
40. 

tricostatus (Chscrilus), 
59. 

Tripeltis, 121. 

Triplomus, 121. 

Trithyreus, 121. 

trivittata (Argyope), 223. 

truculentum (Calom- 
mata), 159. 

truculentus (Thrigmo- 
poeus), 168. 

truncat.us (Ohajriliis), 63. 

umbrata (Heteropoda), 

263. 
undulafca (Argyope), 

222. 
unguifera (Gastera- 

cantha), 234. 
unicolor (Araneus), 22.'). 



unifasciata (Perenethis), 

246. 
Uroctea, 243. 
Urocteidic, 243. 
Uromachus, 53. 
Iroproctus, 106. 
Uropygi, 100. 
Urotricha, 101. 

validus (Phlogiodes), 

179. 
variata (Tama), 242. 
varius (Tityus), 36. 
Vejovidae, 64. 
venatoria (Heteropoda), 

260. 
ventralis (Argyroepeira), 

21(5. 
vemi9tus (Sparassns), 

268. 
versicolor (Argvope), 

222. 
viridana (Peucetia), 255, 

256. 
viridis (Peucetia), 255. 



vittata (Pcecilotheria), 

192. 
vittatus (Isometrus), 50. 
vittatus (Rhagodes), 150. 
vorax (Galeodes), 137. 
vulpina (Polyboea), 246. 

walahi (Diplothele), 175. 
vveberi (Isometrus), 39. 
woodmasoni (Hypocto- 

nus), 113. 
workmanni (Damarchus), 

169. 
wroughtoni (Lycosa), 

253. 
wroughtoni(Palammeus), 

89. 
wroughtoni (Sparassns), 

268. 

xanthopus (Palanmasus), 
92. 

Zerbina, 136. 
Zombis, 136. 



Printed by Taylor and Francis, Red Liou Court, Fleet Street. 



THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA, 



INCLUDING 



CEYLON AND BURMA. 

Published under the authority of the Secretary of 

State for India in Council. 

EDITED BY W. T. BLANFORD. 



VERTEBRATES. 

MAMMALIA. By W. T. Blanford, F.R.S. 
P/>. i-xx, 1-017, and 199 woodcuts. Price £ 1 . 

BIRDS. By Eugene W. Oates, F.Z.S., and W. T. 
Blanford, F.R.S. 

Vol. I., pp. i— xx, L-556, and L ' » - > woodcuts. Price 61. 

Vol. 11., />/>. i-x, 1—407, and 107 woodcuts. Pria \~>s. 

Vol. III., pp. i-xiv, 1 450, and L02 woodcuts. Pria 15*. 

Vol. IV., />y>. L-xxi, 1 500, a nd 127 woodcuts. Pria los. 

FISHES. By Francis Day, CLE. 

Vol. L, pp. i-xxviii, 1-548, and 164 woodcuts. Pric 61. 
Vol. II../7/. i xiv, 1-510, and 177 woodcuts. Pria 61. 

REPTILIA AND BATRACHIA. By G. A. Boulenger. 
P/>. i-xviii, I 541, arwi 1 12 woodcuts. Price £1. 



UNIFORM WITH THE ABOVE. 
INVERTEBRATES. 

MOTHS. ByG. F. Hampson. 

Vol. L, pp. i— xxiii, L-527, and 333 woodcuts. Pria 63. 

Vol. 11.. y/'. i-xxii, 1-00S, ( ou/ ;325 woodcuts. Pria £1. 

Vol. 111.. pp. i-xxviii, 1-546, and 226 woodcuts. Pria 61. 

Vol. IV., pp. i-xxviii, 1-594, and 287 wooefcute. P«'c< 61. 

HYMENOPTERA. Vol. I. WASPS AND BEES. 
By Lieut.-Col. Bingham, F.Z.S. 

I'l>. i zxix, 1 579, 4 coloured plates and L89 woodcuts. 
Pria 61. 

ARACHNIDA. By R. I. Pocock. 

/y>. i-xii, 1-279, a?td 89 woodcuts. Pria 10s. 



LONDON: 

TAYLOB AND FRANCIS, RED LION COLLI', FLEET STREET 

I VLC l ITA: BOMBAY : 

I ll.V< Ivi.U, SPINS, & CO I HACKER & CO., LIMIT]: I > 

ELK L IX : 
R. FRIEDLANJJKIC ^ SUI1.V, 11 CARL8TRAB8E. 



Micro'r . >gcS by 

Preservation 

Services